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Woodwind treatment in the early ballets of Jean-Baptiste Lully Semmens, Richard Templar 1975

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WOODWIND  TREATMENT IN  THE EARLY  BALLETS  OF J E A N - B A P T I S T E L U L L Y  by  Richard  B.Mus.  Templar  Semmens  University of.British Columbia, 1973  A THESIS  SUBMITTED  IN  PARTIAL  F U L F I L M E N T OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF MUSIC  in  We a c c e p t  this  thesis  as  the  Department o f  Music  conforming  the  to  required  standard  Advi sor  THE U N I V E R S I T Y  OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  April,  1975  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y the L i b r a r y  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  f u l f i l m e n t of  the  requirements f o r  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  available  f o r r e f e r e n c e and  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . of  be g r a n t e d by  g a i n s h a l l not  permission.  Department o f  Music  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  April,  1975  study.  this  thesis  Department o r  I t i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r  this thesis for financial  written  the Head o f my  that  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  /  ABSTRACT  The  seventeenth  century  represents a c r u c i a l  velopment and e v o l u t i o n o f woodwind i n s t r u m e n t s . as t h e crumhorn, r a u s c h p f e i f and,  i n France,  Older  stage  In t h e de-  i n s t r u m e n t s , such  t h e h a u t b o i s de P o i t o u and  the musette became more o r l e s s o b s o l e t e In t h a t c e n t u r y .  On t h e o t h e r  hand, such woodwinds as t h e b a s s o o n , oboe, f l u t e and t h e r e c o r d e r underwent s i g n i f i c a n t to  C.1660.  remodel l i n g s —  both s t r u c t u r a l  and t o n a l  -- from c . l 6 A 0  I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t t h e changes were e f f e c t e d i n  F r a n c e , where, under t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e Grande E c u r i e du R o i , woodwind Instruments  t r a d i t i o n a l l y had e n j o y e d  Theoretical ing  sources  during the c r i t i c a l  such as those d i s c u s s e d to  a great p o p u l a r i t y .  d e s c r i b i n g woodwinds a r e c o m p l e t e l y  p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n from t h e o l d e r  lack-  instruments,  In M a r i n Mersenne's Harmonle U n i v e r s e l l e (1636),  t h e i r more modern c o u n t e r p a r t s , such as t h e oboes and r e c o r d e r s o f  F r e i 1 l o n - P o n c e i n ' s La V e r i t a b l e M a n i e r e d'apprendre a j o u e r en p e r c e c t i o n du H a u t b o i s , de l a F l u t e e t du F l a g e o l e t (1700). o f the remodelled remained d i f f i c u l t  i n s t r u m e n t s , when they f i r s t appeared i n P a r i s , has to ascertain.  T h i s t h e s i s attempts modelled  woodwinds —  by o b s e r v i n g  t o come t o terms w i t h f o u r o f t h e r e -  t h e b a s s o o n , t h e oboe, t h e f l u t e and t h e r e c o r d e r --  the treatment  they r e c e i v e d i n t h e e a r l y b a l l e t s  those o f 1657-1670) o f J e a n - B a p t i s t e L u l l y . w h i c h i s devoted sections.  As a r e s u l t , t h e n a t u r e  to a single  Instrument,  The f o u r c h a p t e r s , each o f  d i v i d e themselves i n t o two  The f i r s t p a r t o f each c h a p t e r puts ii  (that I s ,  the instrument  under c o n -  sideratlon  into h i s t o r i c a l  remodelling.  p e r s p e c t i v e , and d e s c r i b e s the n a t u r e o f i t s  In the second s e c t i o n the m u s i c a l  and c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g  sources a r e  analyzed,  the use o f the woodwind a r e made.  In the absence o f e n c y c l o p e d i c d e s c r i p t i o n s o f woodwinds a t the time o f t h e i r r e m o d e l l i n g , the e a r l y b a l l e t s o f L u l l y assume e s p e c i a l importance.  Through t h i s medium i t i s p o s s i b l e to o b s e r v e how  struments were f i r s t used.  Knowing how  f o r m a t i o n which would be o t h e r w i s e  they were employed p r o v i d e s i n -  lacking.  Thesis  i ii  the i n -  Supervisor  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  v  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  . . vi i 1  INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I.  II.  THE OBOE The Oboe i n L u l l y ' s E a r l y  Ballets  III.  IV.  27  THE BASSOON The Bassoon i n L u l l y ' s E a r l y Ballets  38 5h  •  83  THE FLUTE The F l u t e i n L u l l y ' s E a r l y Bal l e t s THE RECORDER The Recorder i n L u l l y ' s E a r l y Ballets  67  97 . . .  UO 121  CONCLUSIONS  13^  MUSICAL SOURCES  1 *»2  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1^3  Iv  \r -  LIST OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  Figure 1.  2.  Fagot from Mersenne's Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e , Bk. P r o p o s i t i o n XXXI I  Page  V., .  Back view o f C h o r i s t - f a g o t t , Fagot, and r e m o d e l l e d baroque bassoon  V  33  36  ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED  I  IN  To a v o i d innumerable m u s i c a l e x a m p l e s , the o c t a v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n has b e e n a d o p t e d :  4*  The v a r i o u s c l e f s i d e n t i f i e d by t h e  FA  III  fe'  c"  t o be e n c o u n t e r e d i n following patterns:  the  musical  Gl  =  CI =  C2 =  C3 =  listed  below  have  -  Journal  Galp.  -  Galpin  -  Musical  -  Proceedings of  Mus.  Soc. J . Q.  R.M.A.  Proc.  of  been  J.A.M.S.  method  bo  to b"  sources w i l l  abbreviated  as  be  follows:  American M u s i c o l o g i c a l  Society  of  =  G2 =  The p e r i o d i c a l s  following  to  •bo h  II  T H I S STUDY  Society  Journal  Quarterly the  Royal  Musicological  Associa-  tion S.I.M.G,  Sammelba'nde schaft  vi  der  Internationaler  Musik-Gessel 1  b'  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The author whose h e l p  the  completion of  Mr.  Hans B u r n d o r f e r ,  for  his  Dr.  M.  advice^ and  wishes  efforts  in  finally  for to  proof-reading  this  the  Washington  available  my m o t h e r  who  following  study would  acquiring microfilm  making  this  thank  Music L i b r a r i a n ,  T e Y e y - S m i t h , Western and  to  thesis.  vi i  been  The U n i v e r s i t y copies of State  microfilms  freely  have  persons, without  gave o f  the  College,  of  impossible: B r i t i s h Columbia,  Collection for  her  from her  private  her  in  time  typing  Philidor;  kind library; and  INTRODUCTION  " C ' e s t done dans l e s b a l l e t s que g i t l e s e c r e t de son s t y l e i n s t r u m e n t a l e t v o c a l . C'est en e"tudiant ses p r e m i e r e s o e u v r e s qu'on peut l e mieux se rendre compte des c o n d i t i o n s dans l e s quel l e s i l s ' e s t forme* e t des i n f l u e n c e s q u i s ' e x e r c e r e n t d'abord s u r l u i . " '  Jean-Baptiste Lully Marie Louise d'0rl£ans, Paris  i n 16^6.  Beginning  (1632-1687)  entered  the s e r v i c e s o f Anne  'La Grande M a d e m o i s e l l e ' , upon h i s a r r i v a l w i t h t h i s p o s i t i o n , and  t i m a t e appointment as S u r i n t e n d a n t  culminating  in  in his u l -  de Musique i n 1 6 6 1 , L u l l y was  to  be-  come i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d i n the d i v e r t i s s e m e n t s a t c o u r t , e s p e c i a l l y the b a l l e t s de c o u r . compositions  By the m i d - f i f t i e s L u l l y was  contributing his  t o the c o u r t b a l l e t s , as w e l l as dancing  i n them a l o n g  own side  2 the  nobt1Ity. In J a n u a r y , 1 6 5 3 , the c o u r t was  coming p r o d u c t i o n o f Le B a l l e t de  la Nuit.  one o f the r e h e a r s a l s a t the LoUvre. i n t r o d u c e d him  to L o u i s XIV.  preoccupied L u l l y was  w i t h the  forth-  i n v i t e d to attend  There the Compte de St A i g n a n  L u l l y was  subsequently  asked t o p e r f o r m  Henry P r u n i & r e s : "Les p r e m i e r s b a l l e t s de L u l l y " , La Revue M u s i c a l e , J u n e , 1 9 3 1 , No. 116, p. 1; a l s o quoted i n Henry P r u n i e r e s , ( e d i t . ) : Oeuvres Completes de J e a n - B a p t i s t e L u l l y , Tome 1, P a r i s E d i t i o n s de l a Revue M u s i c a l e , 1931, p. X I I I . 2  The b a l l e t s i n v o l v e d the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f a g r e a t number o f a r t i s t s , w r i t e r s , composers and m u s i c i a n s . Under L u l l y the genre was to g a i n u n i t y through the I n c l u s i o n o f o n l y one l i b r e t t i s t and a s i n g l e composer.  2  i n a number o f e n t r i e s . the s i t u a t i o n  The young m u s i c i a n immediately took c o n t r o l o f  and r e h e a r s e d both dancers and o r c h e s t r a (Les v i n g t - q u a t r e  v i o l o n s du Ro?) w i t h uncanny z e a l . i n some o f h i s e n t r i e s .  He even t a c t f u l l y coached  L o u i s XIV  The b a l l e t , t h e K i n g and L u l l y were an impres-  s i v e s u c c e s s a t t h e c o u r t p r e m i e r e , 23 F e b r u a r y , 1653e f f e c t i v e l y summarizes t h e r e s u l t a n t  R.H.F. S c o t t  situation:  "The K i n g , g r a t e f u l f o r B a p t i s t e ' s a s s i s t a n c e , t h e n c e f o r w a r d h e l d him i n h i g h esteem and even a f f e c t i o n . . . L o u i s c o n s u l t e d him on a n y t h i n g to do w i t h t h e t h e a t r e , whether i t was d a n c i n g , music o r s c e n e r y , knowing t h a t he would always r e c e i v e an i n t e l l i g e n t answer, even though i t might be d e l i v e r e d b r u s q u e l y . " 3 The  f r u i t o f t h i s new-found esteem f i r s t appeared  cess o f Le B a l l e t de l a Nui t ; and admired  shortly  Lazarin, a v i o l i n i s t  c o u r t composer, d i e d .  after  the suc-  i n t h e v? n g t - q u a t r e  L u l l y asked f o r h i s p o s t , and on 16 it  March, 1653 was made c o m p o s i t e u r de l a Musique i n s t r u m e n t a l e . position  In t h i s  L u l l y composed h i s f i r s t dances f o r t h e Royal B a l l e t , e l a b o r a -  t i n g w i t h two c o l l e a g u e s , Mazuel  and Verpre".  By November, 165^ L u l l y completed Temps, t h e f i r s t work i n which  and produced  h i s B a l l e t du  t h e music was e n t i r e l y h i s .  As compos i t -  t e u r de musique i n s t r u m e n t a l e he was charged w i t h c o n d u c t i n g t h e Grande Bande (Les V i n g t - q u a t r e ) , but L u l l y found t h i s famous group beyond h i s control,  f o r they were prone t o o v e r - e m b e l l i s h i n g h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s .  J  R.H.F. S c o t t :  In  J e a n - B a p t i s t e L u l l y , London, P e t e r Owen, 1 9 7 3 ,  p. 3 5 . Henry P r u n i e r e s : L u l l y , P a r i s , 1 9 2 5 , p. 6 3 .  La v i e i l l u s t r e e t l i b e r t i n e de J e a n - B a p t ? s t e  3  r e a c t i o n , he o b t a i n e d musicians  and  permission  t o form what was  a few months o f h i s a r d e n t t i o n than  s o l i d i f i e d h i s p o s i t i o n and  d i s d a i n o f h i s French On pe 11e,  3 May,  l a t e r dubbed l e s P e t i t s V i o l o n s .  t u i t i o n they had  the Grande Bande.  as d a n c e r , v i o l i n i s t and  t o band t o g e t h e r a group o f twenty young  During  acquired a greater  reputa-  the l a s t y e a r s o f the f i f t i e s ,  Lully  s t a t u s w i t h L o u i s XIV, w h i l e h i s r e p u t a t i o n  composer c o n t i n u e d  t o i n c r e a s e , much t o the  contemporaries.  1661,  Cambefort, S u r i n t e n d e n t  de  l a Musique de Cha-  d i e d , l e a v i n g open h i s much-coveted p o s i t i o n .  the e n s u i n g  Within  Scott  describes  events:  "As soon as the o p p o r t u n i s t B a p t i s t e heard o f t h i s , he hastened t o C o l b e r t who spoke t o the K i n g , and L u l l y was g r a n t e d L e t t e r s P a t e n t a p p o i n t i n g him s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f M u s i c and composer f o r the M u s i que de l a Chambre."5 L u l l y ' s compositions  were, In o t h e r w o r d s , q u i c k l y becoming the o n l y ones  t o w h i c h the King was dent he had  access  the Musique de  wind instruments them c o n s i s t e n t l y  Moreover, i n h i s c a p a c i t y as  t o a l l the i n s t r u m e n t a l  court divert!ssements and  exposed.  Superinten-  forces a f f i l i a t e d with  the  -- the Musique de C h a p e l l e , the Musique de Chambre  l'Ecurie.  The  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the s t r i n g s and  p e r m i t t e d L u l l y t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h them, and in his b a l l e t s of  various  t o employ  I65A-I67O.  Le B a l l e t de Cour This study w i l l  R.H.F. S c o t t :  attempt t o c l a r i f y L u l l y ' s use o f woodwinds i n  O p . C i t . , p. * t 2 . I  k  his  e a r l y b a l l e t s , from c . 1 6 5 3 when he was  until  1670,  first  i n t r o d u c e d to L o u i s XIV,  a f t e r which t i m e , t r a g e d i e s l y r i q u e s became the dominant  court entertainment in France.^ importance i n L u l l y ' s own  Not o n l y were these y e a r s o f paramount  c a r e e r b u t , as w i l l  be seen, they were a l s o o f  c r u c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e s o - c a l l e d modern woodwind. A l t h o u g h i t may  be a s s e r t e d t h a t L u l l y both c o n s o l i d a t e d and  c r e a t e d a s p e c t s o f the French o p e r a t i c t r a d i t i o n , the same i s not t r u e of  h i s b a l l e t c o m p o s i t i o n s . The h i s t o r y , f u n c t i o n and form o f the b a l -  l e t s de cour (though f r e e l y e v o l v i n g ) was w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e time of  Lully's arrival  in Paris.  It i s t h e r e f o r e necessary to trace  briefly  the h i s t o r y o f t h e g e n r e , i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d b e t t e r the f o r c e s r e s o u r c e s w i t h which L u l l y f i r s t composed a t t h e French c o u r t . s h o r t s u r v e y a t t e m p t s o n l y t o i n d i c a t e major developmental  and  This  c u r r e n t s and  d i r e c t i o n s taken by the genre u n t i l L u l l y ' s a r r i v a l on the scene. The h i s t o r y o f c o u r t l y e n t e r t a i n m e n t s i n v o l v i n g dance i s a v e r y long one;  the b a l l e t de c o u r , i n i t s f i n a l  l e s s than one hundred  development,  however, was  y e a r s o l d by the m i d d l e o f the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  M a r c e l Paquot g i v e s a v e r y s u c c i n c t d e s c r i p t i o n o f the g e n r e : "The b a l l e t de c o u r was born d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f Henri I I I from a f u s i o n o f elements borrowed on the one hand from the momeries, entremets and j o u t e s o f medieval t i m e s , and on the o t h e r hand from the mascherate and i n t e r m e d i o f the I t a l i a n Renaissance."7  l n d e e d , L o u i s XV was not a t a l l enamoured w i t h b a l l e t , and g r e a t l y p r e f e r r e d o p e r a . See M. Paquot: Les E t r a n g e r s dans l e s D i v e r t i s s e m e n t s de l a c o u r . B r u x e l l e s , 1933. ~ 6  7  l b i d . p.  10.  The most comprehensive  r e s e a r c h i n g o f the b a 1 1 e t de cour i s t o be found  in P r u n i e r e s ' Le B a l l e t de cour en France avant Benserade e t L u l l y , a work w h i c h s t u d i e s i n depth t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h i s d ? v e r t ? s s e m e n t . Such a n c i e n t pastimes as l e s momeries which were merely a s e r i e s o f e n t r i e s much l i k e a pageant, i n v o l v e d costumes and some dances;  and l e s mores-  ques were, a c c o r d i n g t o P r u n i e r e s , expanded throughout t h e f i f t e e n t h century.^  He c o n t i n u e s : "What i s s t i l l l a c k i n g i n t h e s e d i v e r t i s s e m e n t s i s c o h e r e n c e , d r a m a t i c u n i t y . . . I t w i l l be, as we s h a l l s e e , t h e t a s k o f t h e humanists t o g i v e a r e l a t i v e u n i t y t o these s p e c t a c l e s , and to form, w i t h these s p a r s e e l e m e n t s , a d r a m a t i c genre."°  It was, i n f a c t , through the work o f t h e Acade~mie de Poe"sie e t de Musique, founded under Henri I I I i n 1 5 7 0 by J e a n - A n t o i n e de BaTf the  f i r s t u n i f i e d b a l l e t s de c o u r a p p e a r e d . ^  (1532-1589),  that  Members o f t h i s academy  i n c l u d e d such well-known w r i t e r s as J o d e l l e and Ronsard, and composers such as Jacques Mauduit and Claude In  1 5 8 1 , t h e Queen's h a l f - s i s t e r , M a d e m o i s e l l e de Voudemont,  m a r r i e d t h e Due de J o y e u s e . the  LeJeune.  To c e l e b r a t e t h e o c c a s i o n , Henri I I I and  e n t i r e V a l o i s household p r e s e n t e d a g r e a t s e r i e s o f s p l e n d i d  fetes.  "Henry P r u n i e r e s : Le b a l l e t de c o u r avant Benserade e t L u l l y , P a r i s , H. L a u r e n s , 1 9 1 3 , P- 8 . 9  l b ? d . p. 1 7 .  F u l l d e t a i l s o f the p a t e n t f o r the Academic's f o u n d a t i o n a r e found In Frances Y a t e s : French Academies o f t h e 16th C e n t u r y , London, Warburg I n s t i t u t e , App. 1 , pp. 3 1 9 - 3 2 2 . 1 0  Frances Y a t e s ^ ' s u g g e s t s  t h a t the V a l o i s hoped to appease both  internal  s t r i f e and e x t e r n a l a g g r e s s i o n by showing the w o r l d the m a g n i f i c a n c e  of  12  which  France was  capable.  CI rce*, which was  One  o f the e n t e r t a i n m e n t s was  a ballet,  c a l l e d by the i m p r e s s a r i o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s c r e a t i o n ,  Le B a l l e t Comique de l a Royne. B a l t a s a r de B e a u j o y e u l x , an  The  i d e a f o r the p r o d u c t i o n was  I t a l i a n who  by  had come t o France as a member 13  of  the Marcheal  de B r i s s a c ' s band o f v i o l i n s .  the t i m e , h i s c o n c e p t i o n was  translated  As was  the custom o f  i n t o a b a l l e t through the  b o r a t i o n o f p o e t s , w r i t e r s , p a i n t e r s , composers and m u s i c i a n s . sult  i n t h i s case marked a c o n s i d e r a b l e change from the norm;  M a c C l l n t o c k s a y s , " i t i s the f i r s t  colla-  The  re-  as C a r o l  known work t o i n t e n t i o n a l l y combine  dance, p o e t r y and music i n a c o h e r e n t d r a m a t i c w h o l e " .  The  m i t t e d the i n c l u s i o n o f a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f e n t r i e s , s p e c i a l  story  stage  d a n c i n g and much m u s i c , but t h e s e o t h e r w i s e d i s p a r a t e elements  of  per-  effects, the  b a l l e t a l l r e l a t e d t o the s t o r y . The new was  subsequently  1 1  found d r a m a t i c u n i t y o f Le B a l l e t Comique de  l o s t d u r i n g the l a s t decade o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . ' ^  I b i d . . p.  1o  l a Royne  258.  Robert Isherwood, i n h i s M u s i c i n the S e r v i c e o f the King ( I t h i c a , N.Y., 1 9 7 3 ) , m a i n t a i n s t h a t the e n t i r e phenomenon o f l a v i s h c o u r t e n t e r t a i n m e n t s under L o u i s XIV was l a r g e l y owing t o a s i m i l a r p o l i tical function. 13  His  I t a l i a n name was  B a l d a s s a r e de B e l g i o s o .  'V and L. M a c C l i n t o c k : Le B a l l e t Comique de American I n s t i t u t e o f M u s i c o l o g y , 1 9 7 1 , p. 9 . '^Henry P r u n i e r e s :  Op.C11.: p.  110.  l a Royne  (1581),  According  t o P r u n i e r e s , ' ^ t h e r e were d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d two c o n t r a s t i n g  v a r i e t i e s of b a l l e t : end o f the c e n t u r y , no sung d i a l o g u e ; choruses.  The  the f i r s t ,  l e s mascarades, was  involving entries  and  dances i n costume, but  the second, l e s i n t e r m e d e s ,  ultimate direction, f i r s t  amalgamation o f these  two a p p r o a c h e s .  dominant u n t i l  used sung r e c i t s  h i n t e d a t i n C ? rce",  Prunieres  the  with  and  was  an  suggests:  "Around 1620, however, the b a l l e t de c o u r c o n s t i t u t e d a w e l l - d e f i n e d dramatic genre. I n t e r m e d i a r y between o p e r a and b a l l e t - m a s c a r a d e , i t c a t e r e d to the l o v e w h i c h the French had f o r e x p r e s s i v e idance and t h e a t r e . " ' 7 During  the Regency and  the r e i g n o f L o u i s X I I I t h e r e was  dancy toward a u n i f o r m and  u n i f i e d genre.  There remained,  two b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s i n t o w h i c h the b a l l e t s f e l l : The  c o d i f i c a t i o n o f the b a l l e t  e s p e c i a l l y content:  a strong  seVleuse  ten-  nonethless, and  comique. 18  i n v o l v e d a s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f customs, and  n e a r l y always a m y t h o l o g i c a l  a l l e g o r y complimenting  the r o y a l f a m i l y , o r r e v e a l i n g t o p i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and To accommodate a need f o r v a r i e t y i n an  political  intrigue.  i n c r e a s i n g l y s t e r i l e medium, d i -  v e r t i n g e n t r i e s were o f t e n i n t r o d u c e d , p r o v i d i n g comic r e l i e f from a comp l e x p l o t o r theme.  As  t h i s tendency p r o g r e s s e d ,  thematic  unity  and  19 theatrical  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s once more became somewhat o b s c u r e d . The  instruments  i n common use by the time o f L u l l y ' s f i r s t  p e r i e n c e s w i t h b a l l e t de c o u r  l 6  l b i d . , p.  3*».  1 7  1 b T d . , p.  121.  included, of course,  the i n s t r u m e n t s  ex-  from  18 I b i d . , p. 123. The b a l l e t comique employed spoken d i a l o g u e , w h i l e the bal l e t - s e ' r i e u s e used sung r e c i t s . , 9  l b i d . , p.  128.  8 the t h r e e branches o f t h e K i n g ' s m u s i c .  20  Also  included,  i f the dramatic  s i t u a t i o n so w a r r a n t e d , were such p o p u l a r i n s t r u m e n t s as t h e musette o r flageolet. young  I t was i n t h i s s t a t e t h a t b a l l e t was f i r s t  introduced  to the  Lully. As  has been s u g g e s t e d , t h e young monarch o f F r a n c e was v e r y  much i n t e r e s t e d  i n B a l l e t de c o u r .  In h i s memoires, f o r example,  Louis  f r e q u e n t l y w r o t e a t g r e a t l e n g t h about h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p e c i f i c p r o 21  ductions,  and o f t h e g r e a t j o y w h i c h they a f f o r d e d  him.  His pro-ballet  (or pro-dI v e r t ?ssement i n g e n e r a l ) p o l i c y d i c t a t e d t o L u l l y t h e p a t h t o pursue.  Baptiste's  shrewd s e l e c t i o n o f c o l l a b o r a t o r s put h i s name b e s i d e  the most famous w r i t e r s o f h i s day — eventually  Quinault.  Benserade, C o r n e i l l e , M o l i e r e and  With such d i s t i n g u i s h e d w r i t e r s as p a r t n e r s ,  easy t o see why t h e ' L u l l y v e r s i o n ' o f b a l l e t s a t t a i n e d a t h e m a t i c  i t is unity  22  and  d r a m a t i c purpose h i t h e r t o unapproached.  The heavy emphasis on music  i n L u l l y ' s b a l l e t s , and t h e importance o f dance and b a l l e t - e n t r i e s i n h i s l a t e r o p e r a s , made t h e t r a n s i t i o n from ba 11 e t de c o u r t o t r a g e ' d i e - l y r i q u e a v e r y smooth o n e , indeed. The  major a e s t h e t i c and e v o l u t i o n a r y  a s p e c t s o f t h e genre now  e s t a b l i s h e d , we may t u r n t o t h e b a s i c make-up o f t h e b a l l e t s , t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e p e r s o n n e l b a l l e t de c o u r :  dance;  See  Infra.:  1927;  required.  music —  Three elements c o n s t i t u t e t h e  both v o c a l  and i n s t r u m e n t a l  -- and  p. 1 0 .  71 J . Lognon ( e d i t . ) : Memoires de L o u i s X I V , P a r i s , T a l l a n d i e r , e s p e c i a l l y as quoted by M. Paquot: Op.Cit. 2 2  S e e Henry P r u n i e r e s :  O p . C i t . , p. 1 2 9 .  costumes.  S i n c e costumes have no d i r e c t b e a r i n g on t h e q u e s t i o n a t hand, 23  they w i l l  n o t be d i s c u s s e d .  The dances, however, have a profound  f l u e n c e on many a s p e c t s o f t h e music t o be d i s c u s s e d : was  d i c t a t e d by t h e dance s t e p s ;  in-  tempo, o f c o u r s e ,  a l s o , s i n c e e n t r i e s were o f t e n o f an  extended l e n g t h , t h e music was repeated many t i m e s , r e s u l t i n g f o r both w r i t t e n and i m p r o v i s e d o r n a m e n t a t i o n ,  i n t h e need  and r e q u i r i n g t e x t u r e  2k  changes t o v a r y t h e m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l . The  dance, w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e b a l l e t s de c o u r , was n e i t h e r  exclusively folk-like  ( t h a t i s based e n t i r e l y on s o c i a l l y c u r r e n t d a n c e s ,  such as b o u r s e s , a l l e m a n d e s ,  e t c . ) , n o r choreographed i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h -  c e n t u r y sense o f t h e term ( t h a t Is mimed s t o r y - t e l l i n g ) . entrees  i n v o l v e d a few b a s i c s t e p s through  geometric  and a l l e g o r i c , were d e s i g n e d  Rather  t h e many  t h e use o f w h i c h f i g u r e s both  on t h e f l o o r .  The b a s i c s t e p s , o f  c o u r s e , had c o u n t l e s s v a r i a t i o n s . As P r u n i e r e s n o t e s : "The dance p e c u l i a r t o b a l l e t had n o t h i n g i n common w i t h t h e dance o f t h e b a l l ; t h e s t e p s were n o t a l l s u b j u g a t e d t o t h e t r a ditional rules; they were i n f i n i t e l y varied."25  23 P r u n i e r e s , i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s Oeuvres Completes de J e a n - B a p t i s t e L u l l y , Tome 1, g i v e s an adequate d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e use and d e s i g n o f costumes In L u l l y ' s b a l l e t s . For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , see Isherwood: Op.C i t . 2k  See H.M. E l l i s : The dances o f J e a n - B a p t i s t e L u l l y , Doc. D i s s e r t . , S t a n f o r d U., 1967, f o r a somewhat c u r s o r y d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f dance t o m u s i c . Henry P r u n i & r e s :  Op.C i t . , p. 172.  10 P o p u l a r dances and even c h o r e o g r a p h e d ' c h o r u s e s ' were f r e q u e n t to  the format, f o r they could  quired the  the representation  be i n c l u d e d  i n the action  of a fete or a b a l l .  b a l l e t s was a n e x c l u s i v e l y a r i s t o c r a t i c  'high'  n o b l e s were h a b i t u a l  additions  i f a story r e -  O r i g i n a l l y the dancing o f  prerogative;  t h e King and  p a r t i c i p a n t s , a n d , i n d e e d , t h e young  Louis  26 XIV  was g r e a t l y a d m i r e d f o r h i s d a n c i n g a b i l i t i e s .  that the  the only court  baladins, side  notices  a s l a t e a s CI rce" ( 1 5 8 1 ) ,  n o n - a r i s t o c r a t i c personnel,  musicians.  Prunieres  By t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y ,  though, p r o f e s s i o n a l s  i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s a n d v o c a l i s t s -- t o o k t h e i r p o s i t i o n s  the nobi1ity. Dating  Lully's as  from t h e e a r l i e r  precursors  time the instrumental  t o draw on i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s  The it  forces  E c u r i e was t h e m o s t  Henry  2 7  lbid.,  Op.Cit.  After  by v i r t u e o f h i s p o s i t i o n , was  By 1661, able  main departments o f t h e King's  M u s i q u e de C h a m b r e a n d M u s i q u e de 1 ' E c u r i e .  (2)  the fifes  f o r wind  and drums,  (3)  players;  the v i o l i n s ,  (k) t h e k r u m h o r n s a n d t r u m p e t s m a r i n e a n d ( 5 ) t h e  o b o e s a n d M u s e t t e s de P o i t o u .  2 6  i s the  fanfares,  numbers.  considerable.  important o f the departments  ( l ) the trumpets,  shawms a n d s a c k b u t s ,  were o f t e n  from t h e three  M u s i q u e de C h a p e l l e ;  included  along  o f t h e b a l l e t s de c o u r  and a l s o accompanied dances, e n t r i e s and v o c a l  t h e new M a f t r e de M u s i q u e , L u l l y ,  music:  --  27  i n c l u s i o n o f s i g n i f i c a n t n u m b e r s o f i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s , who p l a y e d entr'actes  were  PruniSres:  Pruni&res  states:  O p . C i t . , p. 173;  pp. 173-174.  see a l s o Robert  Isherwood:  11 "It was not at a l l rare that a royal b a l l e t required the united Intervention of musical forces from the Chamber, Chapel and S t a b l e . A l l these a r t i s t s , In taking part in the execution of a b a l l e t , separated themselves into several groups, each one having i t s p a r t i c u l a r a t t r i b u t e s and f u n c t i o n . " ™ The exact number of p a r t i c i p a t i n g musicians in a given performance, of course, cannot always be p r e c i s e l y a s c e r t a i n e d ;  the resources, however,  were s u b s t a n t i a l , f o r as Demuth notes: " L u l l y had a hundred and f i f t y musicians to draw u p o n . . . He could transport them to Saint-Germain, V e r s a i l l e s , Paris or any of the royal chateaux at a moment's n o t i c e , and he could use them as the orchestra in the S a l l e du P a l a i s Royal whenever necessary. "29 Besides g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t i n g to the o v e r a l l opulence of the s p e c t a c l e s , the large forces a l s o catered to various musical ends and higher a r t i s t i c goals.  Demuth continues: " L u l l y treated the instruments of the orchestra e x p r e s s i v e l y , but only in a general sense; there are no s u b t l e t i e s of o r c h e s t r a t i o n . " 3 0  Demuth g i v e s , f u r t h e r , an e f f e c t i v e summary of some of the roles played by c e r t a i n  instruments.  H e n r y P r u n i e r e s : Op.C11. , p. 182. goals of t h i s study to define these f u n c t i o n s . Z0  It w i l l  be one of the  29 Norman Demuth: French Opera: i t s development to the R e v o l u t i o n , Sussex, Artemis P r e s s , 1963, p. 96. 30 I b i d . , p. 165. It Is d i f f i c u l t to know what Demuth means by ' s u b t l e t y ; c e r t a i n l y there are no orchestrationa1 s u b t l e t i e s in the Mozartian sense. L u l l y ' s Innovations in his use of woodwinds, however, have few, i f any, precedents, as w i l l become c l e a r l a t e r o n . 1  12  " F l u t e s sounded the amorous moments o f the gods and goddesses, and they c r e a t e d the atmosphere f o r the scenes de sommeil and n o c t u r n e s , d u r i n g which magic r i t e s took p l a c e . Oboes were used f o r the peasant dances, trumpets s u p p l i e d t h e w a r l i k e and m a r t i a l m u s i c , w h i l e v i o l i n s underl i n e d the slumbers o f the heroes and added e x c i t ment (tremolando) t o the b a t t l e s , ' f u r i e s ' and s t o r m s . ..31 There was a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f i n s t r u m e n t s i n use by L u l l y ' s t i m e , t h e n , and they p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the d i v e r t i s s e m e n t s de c o u r . Developments i n S e v e n t e e n t h - C e n t u r y  Woodwind  Instruments  The g r e a t i n f l u e n c e t h a t s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y French had on the development o f modern o r c h e s t r a l s t r o n g l y emphasized.  ballets  p r a c t i c e cannot be t o o  French t h e a t r e i n g e n e r a l , e s p e c i a l l y under t h e  l e a d e r s h i p o f J e a n - B a p t I s t e L u l l y , was the b i r t h p l a c e o f modern woodw i n d s , and I t e s t a b l i s h e d a model f o r t h e i r use.  C h a r l e s Cudworth  continues:  L u l l y ' s use o f f o u r woodwinds w i l l bassoon,  be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y : t h e  the oboe, t h e f l u t e and t h e r e c o r d e r .  The g r e a t p e r i o d o f i n n o -  v a t i o n f o r a l l t h e s e woodwinds as they q u i t e q u i c k l y e v o l v e d In P a r i s  31  I b i d . , p. 1 6 5 .  C h a r l e s Cudworth: " B a p t i s t e ' s V e i n -- French O r c h e s t r a l M u s i c and i t s i n f l u e n c e from 1 6 5 0 - 1 7 5 0 " , R.M.A. P r o c , 8 3 : 1956-1957, p. 2 9 .  13 coincides  with  their  inclusion  in  the  early  ballets  of  appearance of  the  newer  woodwinds  Jean-Baptiste  Lully. The the  first  seventeenth  century  was an a l m o s t  exclusively  by  the  middle  of  F r e n c h phenomenon.  33 Anthony gave  Baines  maintains  an o v e r - r i d i n g  mitting  at  times  that  importance  the  trumpet  Italy, to  to  the  specifically  the  Bologna  recently-perfected  add b r i l l i a n c e  to  its  school,  violin,  string  ad-  ensembles.  He c o n t i n u e s : " . . . t h e b o y L u l l y , who was t o become t h e f i r s t c o m p o s e r f o r t h e w o o d w i n d , no d o u b t s e t o u t f o r P a r i s w i t h no b e t t e r o p i n i o n than o t h e r I t a l i a n s . a s to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f wooden w i n d i n s t r u m e n t s . " - ^ In  France,  enjoying solo was of  however,  a great  the  recorder,  c u r r e n c y not  and ensemble  instruments,  b e i n g made a v a i l a b l e these  makers,  virtuosi  was  centering  to  musette  only for  in  aristocratic  which  professional  a group o f  and h a u t b o i s  circles,  an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g players.  Included  P a r i s i a n woodturners  around Jean H o t t e t e r r e  de P o i t o u  and  but  were also  as  repertoire In  the  ranks  instrument-  ( 7 - C . 1 6 7 8 ) and M i c h e l  Philidor  (7-1659). The  Hotteterre  instrumentalists of  for  over  La C o u t u r e - B o u s s e y .  earliest  London,  record of  family,  his  who w e r e  to  a hundred y e a r s ,  The  first  member  residence being  to  his  play  a major  came f r o m appear  in  *l bid.  as  Normandy  Paris  i n c l u s i o n a s an  Anthony B a i n e s : Woodwind I n s t r u m e n t s and F a b e r and F a b e r , 3 r d e d i t . , 1 9 6 7 , p . 2 7 5 . 3l  the  role  their  was  court village  Jean,  the  instrumentalist  history,  14 In  the  1657  b l i s h e d as  production  of  1'Amour M a l a d e .  instrumentalists  George A l l e n d e s c r i b e s the  in P a r i s ,  35  The P h i l i d o r s a l r e a d y e s t a -  had as a r e a ! s u r n a m e , D a n i c a n .  circumstances leading  to  the  change o f  names:  " I n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , an I t a l i a n h a u t - b o y p l a y e r , f r o m S i e n n a , by t h e name o f F i l i d o r i , v i s i t e d F r a n c e , and p r o d u c e d a s t r o n g i m p r e s s i o n on t h e m i n d o f L o u i s I I I by h i s b r i l l iant performance."3° Michel  Danican entered  the  the young F r e n c h v i r t u o s o  services of  the  King s h o r t l y  so impressed the  King that  afterward,  and  he was c a l l e d a  37 Filidori,  or,  in  its  French form,  Hotteterre instrument  was a f i n e w o o d t u r n e r  maker t h r o u g h  was a n e x p e r t  Philidor.  reed-maker,  a n d had e a r n e d h i s  his widely-admired musettes; being capable of  refinements  while in  fame a s an Philidor  the  thickness  38 of  these to a degree p r e v i o u s l y  in  the development of  major  remodelling.  modern d o u b l e  Hotteterre,  w h e r e he m a n u f a c t u r e d  unknown.  at  and r e p a i r e d  Their  imminent  r e e d s was n o t , first,  however,  worked w i t h h i s  instruments.  collaboration  Anthony  the  first  sons in a shop Baines notes:  " H i s recorder design — probably the e a r l i e s t of t h e i m p o r t a n t w o o d w i n d r e m o d e l 1 i n g s , and t h e d e s i g n we f o l l o w t o d a y — seems t o show t h e h a n d o f a bagpipe-maker, e s p e c i a l l y with its c y l i n d r i c a l head j o i n t , w h i c h , w h a t e v e r i t s a c o u s t i c a l e f f e c t  A . E . Roquet: Les H o t t e t e r r e et l e s C h S d e v l l l e , P a r i s , 1894, p. 15. A l s o a p p e a r i n g o n t h e p r o g r a m w e r e h i s two s o n s , J e a n II a n d Nicolas ler.  36 of  George A l l e n : The L ? f e o f Ph i 1 i d o r , 1 8 6 3 , P h i l a d e l p h i a e d i t . , N . Y . , 1 9 7 1 , p . 1. 3 7  Journal,  1b?d.,  IV,  p.  Da C a p o P r e s s  reprint  2.  See J o s e p h M a r x : "The tone of J u n e , 1 9 5 1 , p . 13  the  Baroque o b o e " , Gal p i n S o c . i  15  might be, takes a f t e r the c h a n t e r s t o c k o f a musette as i f meant to match i t . " 3 9 S h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d , d u r i n g the e a r l y ' f i f t i e s ' , e x p e r i m e n t a l  instruments  in a t r a n s i t i o n phase s t a r t e d t o appear i n the H o t t e t e r r e workshop. o f these a t t e m p t s , e s p e c i a l l y  r e c o r d e r s and oboes, may  museum c o l l e c t i o n s o f the B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e and  be o b s e r v e d  Many i n the  the B i b l i o t h e q u e de  Conservatoi re. The  i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h w h i c h H o t t e t e r r e and  were o f an o l d e r v a r i e t y —  i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h had  P h i l i d o r worked  remained o s t e n s i b l y  unchanged s i n c e t h e i r p e r f e c t i o n f o r c o n s o r t use, e a r l y In the s i x t e e n t h century.  They f e l l  i n t o one o f two c a t e g o r i e s :  s o r t , i n c l u d i n g the shawms, crumhorns and and  the h a u t , o r l o u d c o n -  pommers (or l a t e r ,  the bas, o r s o f t c o n s o r t , a d m i t t i n g such Instruments  as  curtals); recorders,  k] f l u t e s and o c c a s i o n a l l y a c u r t a l .  The  i n s t u r m e n t s were s i m p l e  in their  outward a p p e a r a n c e , f r e q u e n t l y r e v e a l i n g key mechanisms on the l a r g e r instruments.  Each i n s t r u m e n t  belonged t o a f a m i l y o f f o u r b a s i c s i z e s  the soprano ( d e s s u s ) , the a l t o bass.  The  (hautecontre),  tenor, which i n every  the t e n o r  ( t a i 1 l e ) and  f a m i l y but the shawms  — the  represented  •5ft  Anthony B a i n e s :  O p . C i t . , p.  27k.  It was M i c h e l de l a B a r r e , a noted e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y f l u t i s t , who c i t e d H o t t e t e r r e and P h i l i d o r as c o i n v e n t o r s o f the oboe i n a - l e t t e r dated 17^0. See Joseph Marx: O p . C i t . , p. 12.  k\ By the l a t e r s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , o f c o u r s e , the two groups were f r e e l y mixed w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e d o u b l i n g s t o b a l a n c e the t e x t u r e . V i r d u n g ( 1 5 1 1 ) mentions these f o u r . In P r a e t o r i u s ( 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 8 ) , however, such f a m i l i e s as r e c o r d e r s were i l l u s t r a t e d as h a v i n g a t l e a s t t e n members.  1,3 The shawm band a l i g n e d i t s e l f i n a way t h a t saw a p r i m a r y member o f the f a m i l y , p l a y i n g the soprano l i n e .  the a l t o  as  16 the ' s t a n d a r d ' f o r t h e group, u s u a l l y produced i n i t s n a t u r a l f i n g e r i n g  44 a d i a t o n i c d-major s c a l e .  There were no t r a n s p o s i n g woodwinds.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e woodwinds was a wide c y l i n d r i c a l finger holes.  bore and l a r g e  The r e s u l t i n g s o n o r i t y r e s i s t e d most o v e r t o n e s  and t h e  45 sound was loud and pure i n t h e lower r e g i s t e r . F o r t h e most p a r t , t h e s i x t e e n t h - and e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y woodwind had a l i m i t e d range  46 which r a r e l y exceeded a t w e l f t h . c u r t a l , the e a r l y seventeenth  With  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e bassoon, o r  c e n t u r y saw no 'Free' double  reeds;  they  were e i t h e r c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n a reed c a p s u l e , as w i t h the crumhorn and r a u s c h p f e i f , o r p a r t i a l l y covered and p r o t e c t e d by a p i r o u e t t e , as was the case w i t h t h e shawm.  The p i r o u e t t e Is a m o u t h p i e c e - l i k e cup a g a i n s t  which t h e p l a y e r s l i p s a r e p r e s s e d .  Although  i t p r o v i d e s embouchure sup-  p o r t and f a c i l i t a t e s p l a y i n g w i t h v e r y l i t t l e wind p r e s s u r e , t h e l i p s have l i t t l e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e r e e d , and c o n s e q u e n t l y minimal  intonation alterations.  can e x e r c i s e o n l y  M o r e o v e r , a u n i f o r m wind p r e s s u r e i s  r e q u i r e d , a l l o w i n g p r a c t i c a l l y no dynamic i n f l e c t i o n s . The u l t i m a t e r e moval o f t h e p i r o u e t t e i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n from shawm t o oboe r e q u i r e d t h e a d o p t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d embouchure s u b t l e t y , b u t , o f c o u r s e , g r e a t l y enhanced t h e t o n a l and e x p r e s s i v e range o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t .  44 Because o f a f a u l t y f on t h e shawm, t h e bands as a r u l e t r a n s p o s e d t h e i r music up a whole t o n e , t o a v o i d a s e r i e s o f bad f i n g e r ings and i n t o n a t i o n problems.  45 See Adam C a r s e :  M u s i c a l Wind I n s t u r m e n t s , London, M a c M i l l a n  and Co., 1939.  46  The crumhorn had a u n i f o r m range o f o n l y a n i n t h . on t h e o t h e r hand, had a two-octave compass.  The shawms,  17 The Hotteterre each tions this  and  point.  will  individually  concerning  range,  these  Philidor  instrument  these  The goal  which would ed  specific alterations  of  the to  flexibility  developments.  Anthony  the  woodwinds  be d e a l t  with  in  later  this  study.  processes,  be w e l l - s u i t e d  dynamic  in  in  however,  many  may  innovations  s o l o and and  Baines  detail  with  Certain  was  to  to  generalizasummarized  produce  usage;  intonation  by  reference  be b r i e f l y  concerted  improved  undertaken  at  instruments  hence,  increas-  were major  aims  in  states:  " T h e f i r s t t h i n g we n o t i c e a b o u t t h e new d e s i g n s is t h a t in every c a s e the instrument is c o n s t r u c t e d in s e v e r a l s h o r t j o i n t s , i n s t e a d o f as f a r as p o s s i b l e a l l in one p i e c e as formerly."^7 This  particular  methods,  the  innovation  bores were  Understandably, drill  bit  wobbling,  was  with  fully  thus  the  is  drilled larger  extended,  producing  of  great in  one  sizes,  significance.  In  p i e c e w i t h one  long  the  ends o f  were s u b j e c t  inaccuracies,  to  faulty  the  using  the  older  drill  bit.  b o r e s , when  considerable sonorities  amounts  and bad  the of  intona-  48 tion. ings  The in  all  new a p p r o a c h , sizes  of  though,  employed  instruments.  This  short,  method  accurate  resulted  bore  i n what  drillBaines  49  calls a " . . . curious internal feature" the i n s t r u m e n t s , d r i l l e d in s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s , showed b o r e s w i t h b r o k e n p r o f i l e s . Baines c o n t i n u e s : "It  [the  e.g.  bore]  may c h a n g e  c o n e and c y l i n d e r  ^Anthony  Baines:  from j o i n t  to  joint  may meet end  to  end,  Op .C 11. ,  p.  — or  276.  48 This  '* 1 b t d . 9  method  resulted,  further,  in  chipping  inside  the  bore.  18 the bores o f two j o i n t s may make an a b r u p t s t e p where they meet. Such bore c o n s t r u c t i o n n a t u r a l l y has some a c o u s t i c e f f e c t , but t h i s i s not a v i t a l one."50 A n o t h e r t e c h n i q u e i n b o r i n g p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e e x t e n s i o n o f the range o f l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y woodwinds:  t h e bores were made i n -  versely conical  —  t h a t i s t a p e r i n g toward t h e b e l l  -- as opposed t o  cylindrically.  T h i s f e a t u r e tended t o e x c i t e t h e upper p a r t i a l s o f each  t o n e , thus enhancing a l a r g e r range i n t h e second o c t a v e . " ^  The range  was f u r t h e r extended by s l i g h t l y n a r r o w i n g t h e bore and making  the f i n g e r  52 h o l e s somewhat s m a l l e r . In outward appearance, t o o , t h e woodwinds underwent some r e m o d e l l i n g s . Baines s u g g e s t s : "We n o t i c e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y ornamental appearance o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s , l a r g e l y due t o f a s h i o n a b l e R e n a i s s a n c e t u r n e r y a p p l i e d t o the t h i c k e n i n g s l e f t i n the wood o r i v o r y t o g i v e s t r e n g t h t o t h e s o c k e t s where t h e v a r i o u s j o i n t s met."53 To f a c i l i t a t e f i n g e r i n g , two items were i n t r o d u c e d :  f i r s t , on the l a r g e r  i n s t r u m e n t s e s p e c i a l l y , t h e f i n g e r h o l e s were moved c l o s e r t o g e t h e r by d r i l l i n g them on a d i a g o n a l , w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e c o r r e c t s p a c i n g on t h e inner bore;  5 0  s e c o n d l y , keys were added t o (a) extend t h e range downward  lbid,  51 For an i n t e r e s t i n g and w e l 1 - p r e s e n t e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s and r e l a t e d a c o u s t i c a l phenomena, s e e : Lyndesay G. L a n g w i l l : The bassoon and c o n t r a b a s s o o n , London, E. Benn 1965, Chapter '9', " A c o u s t i c s " . 5 2  1 b Td-  5 3  lbid.  19  one  tone  54  , or  (b) p r o v i d e  chromatic  impossible c r o s s - f i n g e r i n g s . foot-joint;  1  key.  Two  was  Until  difficult  d r i l l e d on  r e c o r d e r , f o r example, the  keys were added t o the oboe: the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h  d u p l i c a t e d on both s i d e s o f the right-handed  otherwise  e x t r a note-hole  i n the case o f the t e n o r  note became c . an E - f l a t  The  notes w i t h  instrument  p l a y e r s , the s t o p o r h o l e not  century,  or  the lowest  the c - e x t e n s i o n ;  and  keys were u s u a l l y  t o c a t e r t o both l e f t i n use being  and  plugged w i t h  wax."'*' It can be seen even i n t h i s b r i e f summary, t h a t on  renovations  the woodwinds under c o n s i d e r a t i o n were c a r r i e d out e x t e n s i v e l y  w i t h g r e a t c a r e and  attention.  H o t t e t e r r e and  were t o have a profound i n f l u e n c e on wind.  As  Baines  his c i r c l e ,  and  therefore,  the development o f the modern wood-  concludes:  "... i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r us t o say d e f i n i t e l y w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l maker o r p l a y e r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r each o f the v i t a l woodwind i n v e n t i o n s t h a t o r i g i n a t e d d u r i n g t h a t t i m e , a l l o f them a p p a r e n t l y i n France and p r o b a b l y w i t h i n t h a t c i r c l e o f P a r i s makers among whom we can d i m l y d i s c e r n H o t t e t e r r e as the l e a d e r . The new p r o d u c t s i n c l u ded: the r e c o r d e r as we know i t t o d a y ; the c o n i c a l f l u t e ; the oboe; and the t r u e bassoon (as opposed t o the o l d c u r t a l ) . In o t h e r words, p r a c t i c a l l y the e n t i r e woodwind o f the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y o r c h e s t r a -- an a s t o n i s h i n g o u t -  54 eighteenth  55  The f l u t e ' s century.  lowest  note remained d' u n t i l w e l l  i n t o the  See Adam C a r s e : Op . C i t . ; Jacques H o t t e t e r r e : P r i n c i p e s de l a f l u t e t r a v e r s i e r e , ou f l u t e d'allemagne; de l a f l u t e a bee, ou f l u t e douce e t du h a u t b o i s , i s one o f the f i r s t s o u r c e s to s t a t e w i t h o u t h e s i t a t i o n t h a t the l e f t hand s h o u l d be above the r i g h t .  20  put f o r one  s m a l l group o f men."-^  S i n c e such v i r t u o s o p l a y e r s as H o t t e t e r r e , P h i l i d o r , Destouches and  Descoteaux appear r e g u l a r l y  from the mid  i n the programs o f the d i v e r t i s s e m e n t s  ' f i f t i e s ' , t h e r e can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t L u l l y w o u l d a v a i l  h i m s e l f o f the p o t e n t i a l s p r o v i d e d by t h e i r r e m o d e l l e d study w i l l  observe  Instruments.  the w r i t i n g f o r t h e s e woodwinds i n an attempt  developments i n range, f u n c t i o n , e t c . , through  the medium o f  This  to t r a c e  Lully's  early ballet scores.  The  Sources The  sources  e s s e n t i a l as f i n a l  proofs or disproofs of a theory.  i n s t a n c e , dangerously almost  r e q u i r e d f o r a s t u d y such as t h i s a r e a b s o l u t e l y  s m a l l i n number.  The  primary  They a r e , i n t h i s l i t e r a r y sources  n o n - e x i s t e n t w i t h regard t o e n c y c l o p e d i c d i s c u s s i o n s o f the v a r -  i o u s i n s t r u m e n t s a t the time o f t h e i r r e m o d e l l i n g . t i o n s and  Sources f o r d e s c r i p -  t e c h n i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s o f s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Instruments  are  (1511)  and  amply p r o v i d e d i n S e b a s t i a n V i r d u n g ' s M u s i c a M a r t i n A g r i c o l a ' s Musica  Getutsch...,  I n s t r u m e n t a l i s Deudsch..., (1528  Those o f the e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h  Mersenne's T r a i t e * de  and  century are thoroughly presented  M i c h a e l P r a e t o r i u s ' Syntagma Muslcum ( 1 6 1 6 - 1 6 1 9 ) , and 1'Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e ( I 6 3 6 ) .  later  15^5). in  in Marin  Unfortunately,  s i m i l a r e x h a u s t i v e s t u d i e s do not appear i n the c r u c i a l to 1680.  are  period of  M o r e o v e r , French p u b l i c a t i o n s such as t u t o r s , manuals and  Anthony B a i n e s :  O p . C i t . , p.  276.  1650 the  21 l i k e do n o t appear u n t i l Frei1lon-Poncein s 1  La v e r i t a b l e maniere d'apprendre... du h a u t b o i s , de l a  f l u t e s e t du f l a g e o l e t —  t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , and when they do — e.g.  (1700), o r Jacques H o t t e t e r r e ' s P r i n c i p e s . . . (1707)  they d e s c r i b e i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h have changed c o n s i d e r a b l y from t h e time  o f Mersenne.  As Eppelsheim  p o i n t s out,"''' Mersenne n e g l e c t e d t o p r o v i d e  such b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n as t h e fundamental tones o f f l u t e s and r e c o r d e r s , w h i l e p r o v i d i n g o n l y c u r s o r y d e t a i l s f o r the oboe.  Mersenne does promise  a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e h a u t b o i s de P o i t o u , but t h i s subsequent c h a p t e r o f Book V i s devoted e x c l u s i v e l y t o bassoons.  John B a n i s t e r , t h e supposed  a u t h o r o f t h e f i r s t oboe t u t o r , The S p r i g h t l y Companion o f 1695, must have had a c c e s s  t o the new French  f o r t y years e a r l i e r . for  i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h had appeared  F r e i 1 l o n - P o n c e i n ' s work, t h e f i r s t  the oboe, does n o t appear u n t i l  French  almost tutor  f i v e years a f t e r B a n i s t e r ' s .  Like-  w i s e w i t h t h e r e c o r d e r , t h e r e a r e no t r e a t i s e s o r manuals contemporaneous  58 w i t h the a r r i v a l o f t h e new model.  Eppelsheim  s o u r c e s , f o r Humphrey S a l t e r ' s The Genteel John C a r r ' s The D e l i g h t f u l  again turns t o E n g l i s h  Companion (London, 1683), and  Companion (London, 1684), a r e t h e f i r s t  manuals  59 to  d e s c r i b e t h e H o t t e t e r r e v e r s i o n o f the a l t o r e c o r d e r .  The a n n o y i n g  " ^ J u r g e n Eppelsheim: Das O r c h e s t e r i n den Werken J e a n - B a p t i s t e L u l l y s , T u t z i n g , Hans S c h n e i d e r , 1961, p. 70. 5 8  1 b T d . , p. 7 1 -  59 The a l t o b e f o r e t h i s time i s a f o u r t h above t h e d ' - t e n o r , i . e . , i n g'. P r a e t o r i u s g i v e s t h i s as the a l t o ' s fundamental. Mersenne n e g l e c t s t o g i v e ranges. With e x t e n s i o n down one t o n e , t h e n , t h e H o t t e t e r r e r e c o r d e r becomes one i n f , the one mentioned by C a r r and S a l t e r .  22 hiatus in l i t e r a r y  sources of French o r i g i n necessitates e i t h e r the  forward extension of Mersenne's d i s c u s s i o n s , or the backward e x t r a p o l a t i o n of the w r i t i n g s of H o t t e t e r r e ,  Frei1lon-Poncein and B r o s s a r d . ^  is hoped, t h e r e f o r e , that the analyses of the musical sources w i l l vide the missing documentation of the woodwind's  pro-  evolution.  The musical sources are as problematic as t h e o r e t i c a l In the introduction  It  ones.  to L u l l y ' s Oeuvres Completes, Prunieres informs u s :  " L u l l y himself only published eleven scores of operas and s i x grand motets. In the l i g h t of the great volume of music L u l l y composed, t h i s an impressive corpus of h i s work.  Unfortunately,  is hardly  as Eppelsheim c o n t i n -  ues : "Autograph sources by L u l l y , except for a few Isolated pages, are not preserved."62 In f a c t , E l l i s a s s e r t s , " . . . a l l works before 1672, except La Grotte de V e r s a i 1 l e s and Monsieur de Pourceaugnac, are a v a i l a b l e only in manuscript form."^3  Moreover, they are hand c o p i e s , not by L u l l y , of the f u l l  s c o r e s , e i t h e r authorized or unauthorized by the composer.  By f a r the  ^ T h a t 1650-1680 was a period of woodwind t r a n s i t i o n may account f o r the dearth of French l i t e r a r y sources. ^'Henry P r u n i e r e s :  Op .C i t . , p. V I I I .  62 JCJrgen Eppelsheim:  Op . C i t . , p. 15.  ^ ^ H . M. E l l i s : "The Sources of Jean-Baptiste L u l l y ' s secular music", Re"cherches sur la Musique francaise C l a s s i q u e , V I I I , 1968, p. 107-  23 l a r g e s t and most r e l i a b l e source o f these s c o r e s Phi 1 i d o r , f o u n d ,  i s the C o l l e c t ion  i n p a r t , i n the B i b l i o t h e q u e de C o n s e r v a t o i r e a t P a r i s .  As t o the q u a l i t y o f the C o l l e c t i o n P h i l i d o r , E l l i s a s s u r e s "These m a n u s c r i p t s m u s i c a l t e x t , and sources a v a i l a b l e Ge"nerale, o r F u l l The  collection,  us:  a r e a good s o u r c e o f the i n some cases a r e the o n l y i n P.G. [ I . e . , P a r t i t i o n Score],  i n i t i a t e d by a request by L o u i s XIV  f o r a compendium o f  the d i v e r t i s s e m e n t s w h i c h had e n t e r t a i n e d the French c o u r t , was 1683  begun i n  by the King's m u s i c l i b r a r i a n , Andre" P h i l i d o r l ' a i n e , ^ ^ and  colleague, Francois Fossard. the most p a r t , by 1697,  The  l a r g e u n d e r t a k i n g was  but as T e s s i e r n o t e s ^ ,  s c o r e s were c o p i e d between 1689  and  1690.  The  his  completed, f o r  the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f project divided  the  itself  into three categories: " ( l ) Les p i e c e s de t o u t e s s o r t e s ballets et a u t r e s - d a t a n t du XVIe s i e c l e e t des regnes de Henri IV e t L o u i s X I I I . . . (2)  Les b a l l e t s de  (3)  Les b a l l e t s e t c o m e d i e s - b a l l e t s de  l a jeunesse  de L o u i s XIV... Lully....'  Of the t h i r d s e c t i o n P h i l i d o r says i n the d e d i c a t i o n : " A f t e r h a v i n g p r e s e n t e d t o Your M a j e s t y the m u s i c a l c o l l e c t i o n t h a t . I made o f the o l d e s t b a l l e t s . . .  64 Meredith  Ellis:  O p . C i t . , p.  107.  ^Andre" P h i l i d o r was the nephew of. M i c h e l , ' c o - I n v e n t o r ' o f the oboe, and f a t h e r o f Anne P h i l i d o r , who i n i t i a t e d the C o n c e r t s S p i r i t u e l s i n 1725-  L o u i s XIV: p. 300.  ^Andre* T e s s i e r : "Un fonds m u s i c a l de l a B i b l i o t h e q u e de La C o l l e c t i o n P h i l i d o r " , La Revue M u s i c a l e , X I I , a v r i l , 1 9 3 1 , I b i d . , pp.  301-302.  2k I b e l i e v e d i t necessary, t o n e g l e c t n o t h i n g i n o r g a n i z i n g a l l t h a t Mr de L u l l y c r e a t e d f o r y o u r d i v e r t i s s e m e n t s b e f o r e t h e Operas. It i s only F o s s a r d and m y s e l f who c o u l d have undertaken such a p r o j e c t , because o f t h e g r e a t c a r e we took i n c o l l e c t i n g , w i t h much e f f o r t . a l 1 t h a t t h i s i n comparable g e n i u s p r o d u c e d . " One can o n l y hope t h a t P h i l i d o r was as c a r e f u l as he c l a i m s , f o r t h e r e a r e no o t h e r s o u r c e s  a g a i n s t w h i c h t o compare these examples o f t h e 69  early Lully ballet.  Since T e s s i e r  informs  us t h a t most o f t h e work o f  c o p y i n g was done between 1689 and 1 6 9 0 , f u r t h e r doubt as t o t h e a u t h e n t i city  i s c a s t on t h e e n t i r e c o l l e c t i o n , because many o f L u l l y ' s  t i o n s were c o p i e d , no d o u b t , a f t e r t h e composer's d e a t h .  composi-  Until,  i f ever,  a c t u a l a u t o g r a p h s a r e d i s c o v e r e d , however, t h e C o l l e c t i o n P h i l i d o r must remain o u r p r i m a r y  source  forLully's early b a l l e t s . ^ 7  T e s s i e r does  o f f e r us some r e a s s u r a n c e when he w r i t e s : "They [ P h i l i d o r and F o s s a r d ] were a b l e t o say i n t h e i r d e d i c a t i o n o f the ba1 l e t s de cour t o the K i n g , t h a t i n c o l l e c t i n g t h e t e x t s , they had taken g r e a t c a r e ; but i t ' s a good t h i n g t h a t i t was i n d i c a t e d t o us once a g a i n , t h r o u g h t h e i r temporary e d i t o r , t h a t they had i n t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n t h e a u t o g r a p h s by L u l l y . " 7 1  68  Quoted i n Andre" T e s s i e r :  Op.C ? t . , p. 3 0 1 - 3 0 2 .  ^ S e e note 66 above. ^ A i r s , d a n c e s , c h o r u s e s , e t c . from many o f t h e s e works a r e found i n v a r i o u s arrangements and a n t h o l o g i e s o f t h e t i m e . There a r e a t p r e s e n t , though, few o t h e r s o u r c e s f o r t h e complete b a l l e t s c o r e s . A n d r i T e s s i e r : O p . C i t . , pp. 2 9 8 - 2 9 9 In 1694 P h i l i d o r d e c i d e d t o p u b l i s h h i s L u l l y c o p i e s w i t h P i e r r e B a l l a r d ( t h e 'temporary e d i t o r ' mentioned by T e s s i e r ) . In a p r e f a c e B a l l a r d s t a t e s t h a t he had the L u l l y A u t o g r a p h s . The proposed e d i t i o n was d i s c o n t i n u e d because the P h i l i d o r C o l l e c t i o n belonged t o the King's l i b r a r y , and was, t h e r e f o r e u n a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . The p r e f a c e has been p r e s e r v e d . 7 1  2  72  A large portion  5  o f t h e C o l l e c t i o n P h i l i d o r made i t s way t o t h e l i b r a r y  o f S t . M i c h a e l ' s C o l l e g e , Tenbury, through t h e a u c t i o n o f t h e e s t a t e o f  73 the Comte de T o u l o u s e .  Among t h e m a n u s c r i p t s a r e s e v e r a l complete and  s e p a r a t e o r c h e s t r a l p a r t s o f t h e s e same L u l l y s c o r e s .  A careful cor-  r e l a t i o n o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t s d e r i v i n g from P a r i s w i t h those o f Tenbury i s both beyond t h e scope o f t h i s s t u d y and i m p o s s i b l e a t t h e p r e s e n t time.  N o n e t h e l e s s , F e l l o w e s notes t h a t most o f the'Tenbury  a r e i n Andre P h i l i d o r ' s hand:  manuscripts  t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r has no reason t o be-  l i e v e t h a t they s h o u l d d e v i a t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y from t h e s c o r e s i n t h e P a r i s  74 collection.  I t i s l i k e l y , f u r t h e r , t h a t t h e Tenbury m a n u s c r i p t s were  c o p i e s made from t h e ' o r i g i n a l s '  ( i . e . , t h e Col l e c t i o n Phi 1 i d o r ) i n t h e  King's L i b r a r y . * ' 7  N i n e t e e n s c o r e s from t h e C o l l e c t i o n P h i l i d o r i n t h e B i b l i o theque de C o n s e r v a t o i r e w i l l N u i t (1653);  be s t u d i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s .  L'Amour Ma lade (1657);  They a r e :  Les P l a i s l r s Trouble's  La  (1657);  T e s s i e r c o n c l u d e s t h a t we a t l e a s t have t h e c o n s o l a t i o n o f two a s s u r a n c e s t h a t P h i l i d o r ' s c o p i e s were made from L u l l y ' s a u t o g r a p h s : f i r s t in P h i l i d o r ' s own d e d i c a t i o n ; and second i n t h e p r e f a c e o f B a l l a r d ' s p r o posed s e r i e s . 72 N i n e t y - f i v e volumes o f m a n u s c r i p t . "Vor a h i s t o r y and c a r e f u l i n v e n t o r y o f t h i s s p u r i o u s c o l l e c t i o n s e e , F e l l o w e s : "The P h i l i d o r M a n u s c r i p t s " , M u s i c and L e t t e r s , 1931. 7  74 There can be no doubt t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e two s o u r c e s i n t h e f u t u r e would be i n v a l u a b l e and i l l u m i n a t i n g . 7  "*For a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s t h e o r y , see F e l l o w e s :  Op .C i t .  Alcidiane Saisons  (I658);  26 La R a i l l e r l e  (1659); 1'Impatience (1661); Les  (1661); L e s Nopces de V i 1 lage  La P r i n c e s s e d ' E l i d e (1664);  (1663);  Le M a r r i a g e  Les Amours Dgguisez (1664);  -  (1664);  La N a i s s a n c e  (1665) ; L'Amour Medecin (1665); Les Muses (1661); La G r o t t e V e r s a i 1 l e s (1668); F l o r e (1669) ; M o n s i e u r de Pourceaugnac (1669) ;  de Venus de  Force  Le B o u r g e o i s  Gentilhomme  (1670); Les Jeux P i t h l e n s (1670).  CHAPTER I THE BASSOON  The e a r l y bassoon -- d u l z i a n , C h o r i s t F a g o t t , c u r t a l o r basson -- was o n l y one o f a number o f i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t c o u l d p e r f o r m t h e bass p a r t In a woodwind c o n s o r t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . ' All  t h e bass woodwinds, o f c o u r s e , were p e r f e c t l y s u i t e d t o t h e music  they were r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m . commonly was employed  The bass crumborn, f o r example, most  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r crumhorns.  The bass  pommer was a member o f t h e shawm band and was t h e r e f o r e a member o f t h e loud c o n s o r t .  I t was t h e bassoon, however, which a t t r a c t e d t h e g r e a t e s t  a t t e n t i o n as e v i d e n c e d i n t h e e v e r - g r o w i n g r e p e r t o i r e t h e i n s t r u m e n t r e -  2 ceived  i n the e a r l y seventeenth century. Two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f t h e e a r l y bassoon g r e a t l y c o n -  t r i b u t e d to the instrument's p o p u l a r i t y .  First of a l l ,  o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t was doubled back on i t s e l f t i o n made t h e bassoon much more manageable  i n a U-tube.  bore  This construc-  than t h e contemporary bass  pommer, i n which t h e bore was o f one l e n g t h . c a p a b l e o f dynamic  the conical  S e c o n d l y , t h e bassoon was  i n f l e c t i o n owing t o t h e n a t u r e o f i t s reed a p p a r a t u s .  The bassoon p o s s e s s e d a f r e e d o u b l e r e e d ;  t h a t i s , i t was n e i t h e r p r o -  t e c t e d by a p i r o u e t t e , nor e n c l o s e d i n a reed c a p s u l e .  These two f e a t u r e s  Other bass woodwinds i n c l u d e d t h e bass crumhorn, the bass pommer, the c o u r t a u t and t h e c e r v e l a t . See Lyndesay L a n g w i l l : "The c u r t a l ( 1 5 5 0 - 1 7 5 0 ) " , M u s i c a l Times, 1 9 3 7 , p. 3 0 6 .  2 See Joseph Marx: "The tone o f t h e Baroque oboe", G a l p i n S o c i e t y J o u r n a l , IV, J u n e , 1 9 5 1 , pp. 8 - 9 .  28  made v e r y s o f t p l a y i n g p o s s i b l e on the The  e a r l y bassoons may  instrument.  have i n h e r i t e d t h e i r f r e e reeds  from  3  the contemporary pommers.  P i r o u e t t e s a r e not apparent  diagrams o f the s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y pommer.  i n any o f the  Joseph Marx h y p o t h e s i z e s  i f the bass pommer d i d have a p i r o u e t t e , i t seems t o have l o s t sixteenth century.  that  i t i n the  He e x p l a i n s :  "Such a development i s v e r y p l a u s i b l e i f we c o n s i d e r t h a t the reed o f a bass i n s t r u m e n t i s c u t from a s t a l k o f cane o f much g r e a t e r d i a m e t e r than t h a t o f a t r e b l e instrument. Such a reed does not e x e r t a g r e a t outward p r e s s u r e a t t h e t i p o f the reed (which i s the e f f o r t o f the n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l t o r e v e r t t o i t s o r i g i n a l shape) and p l a y e r s must have d i s c o v e r e d t h a t they c o u l d e a s i l y c o n t r o l such bass reeds d i r e c t ly w i t h t h e i r l i p s and thus improve the q u a l i t y o f the tone w h i l e g a i n i n g c o n t r o l o f p i t c h and volume."** It  Is l i k e l y , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the e a r l y bassoon's reed e v o l v e d f o r  similar  reasons. The  bassoon was  the s e v e n t e e n t h puts  century.  a r e l a t i v e l y new The  i n s t r u m e n t has o r i g i n s w h i c h , as Langwi11  I t , ' ' a r e shrouded i n m y s t e r y .  theoretical  It i s conspicuously l a c k i n g in  s o u r c e s o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y —  c o l a and L u s c i n i u s .  Its f i r s t  s o u r c e , however, does not o c c u r u n t i l  1 b f d . , p.  notably Virdung, A g r i -  Anthony Baines b e l i e v e s the bassoon f i r s t  i n w r i t t e n r e c o r d s around 1540.^  3  i n s t r u m e n t a t the t u r n o f  1596,  inclusion  appears  in a theoretical  when Z a c c o n i d e s c r i b e s an  8.  k Ibid. "\yndesay Langwi11:  1965,  p.  1967,  p.  7.  ^Woodwind Instruments 263.  The  and  Bassoon and Contrabassoon , London, t h e i r H i s t o r y , London, 3rd  edit.  29  i n s t r u m e n t which he c a l l s F a g o t t o C h o r i s t a i n h i s P r a t t i c a d i M u s i c a ( V e n i c e , 1 5 9 6 , Bk. IV, p. 2 1 8 ) . nated, t h e r e f o r e , i n e i t h e r  Adam Carse b e l i e v e s t h e bassoon o r i g i -  I t a l y o r Germany.  Between Z a c c o n l and  7  Mersenne, t h e bassoon i s f a i r l y we 11-documented i n European s o u r c e s . In h i s De Organographia Fagotten-Dolcians.  o f 1619, P r a e t o r i u s d e s c r i b e s the  He w r i t e s :  "...the d o l c i a n s , l i k e the fagotten a l s o , a r e q u i e t e r and s o f t e r i n tone than t h e pommers. Hence i t i s perhaps because o f t h e i r sweetness t h a t they a r e named d o l c i a n s , o r d o l c i s o n a n t e s . . . C i s t h e lowest note o f t h e c h o r i s t f a g o t t . . . . " 8 From Z a c c o n i we l e a r n e d t h a t t h e bassoon has a range o f two o c t a v e s a tone.  P r a e t o r i u s ' bassoons have two keys —  three s i z e s :  one i n C;  These then w i l l  a Quart bass  i n G';  f o r E and F —  less  and a r e i n  and a Q u i n t bass  i n F'.  represent the standards f o r the e a r l y seventeenth  cen-  tury. The senne.  f i r s t major French d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e bassoon i s by Mer-  P r o p o s i t i o n XXXIII  i n Book V o f Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e i s e n t i t l e d  "To e x p l a i n t h e shape, s i z e range and use o f t h e Basson, and C e r v e l a t s de Musique".  Fagot,  Courtaux,  He b e g i n s by s t a t i n g :  " I t r e a t t h e s e s p e c i e s o f basses because they can be j o i n e d i n t h e c o n c e r t o f o b o e s , and a r e d i f f e r e n t from t h e p r e c e d i n g bass [ t h a t i s , t h e pommer] o n l y i n t h a t they break i n t o two p a r t s t o be a b l e t o be managed and c a r r i e d more e a s i l y ; t h a t i s why they  Adam C a r s e :  M u s i c a l wind  i n s t r u m e n t s , London, 1939, p. 183-  8 M i c h a e l P r a e t o r i u s : De O r g a n o g r a p h i a , Ch. X I , t r a n s , by Langwl11: Op. C i t . , p. 2 0 .  Wol f f e n b ' u t t e l ,  1619,  30 a r e c a l l e d F a g o t s , because they resemble two p i e c e s o f wood which a r e bound and f a g o t t e d together."9 Mersenne c o n t i n u e s : " T h i s Fagot has t h r e e k e y s , o f w h i c h the f i r s t which c l o s e s the seventh h o l e i s u n c o v e r e d , and the second and t h i r d a r e covered w i t h t h e i r pockets." 1 0  These two statements l e a s t two p i e c e s , and  -- the f i r s t h i n t i n g t h a t the bassoon was  in at  the second d e s c r i b i n g t h r e e keys -- show t h a t  Mersenne's bassoons have d e v i a t e d from the s t a n d a r d e s t a b l i s h e d by c o n i and P r a e t o r i u s .  Indeed, Mersenne's f a g o t seems t o be an  in t r a n s i t i o n from the o l d e r d u l z i a n t o the r e m o d e l l e d  instrument  bassoon.'^  In a d d i t i o n t o the h i n t o f s e c t i o n a l I z a t l o n and o f t h r e e k e y s , Mersenne's f a g o t e x h i b i t s s t i l l  Zac-  t h e appearance  other abnormalities.  F i r s t o f a l l , t h e r e a r e t w e l v e h o l e s , as opposed to the s t a n d a r d ten on the e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  dulzian.  The  twelfth hole, according  to  12  Mersenne, i s "...  not stopped  d e s c r i b e d by P r a e t o r i u s was  at a l l " .  The  t e n t h h o l e on the bassoon  an open one which produced C.  f a g o t , however, the t e n t h h o l e i s o p e r a t e d  On  Mersenne's  by a t h i r d key, the e l e v e n t h  M a r i n Mersenne: Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e , t r a n s , by Roger E. Chapman, The Hague, 1957, p. 372. T h i s i s a most i n t e r e s t i n g statement in t h a t i t shows t h a t a t r a d i t i o n o f u s i n g the bassoon i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h oboes was e s t a b l i s h e d v e r y e a r l y . 1 0  l b i d . , p.  373.  See the p r e s e n t w r i t e r ' s u n p u b l i s h e d paper "Mersenne's Fagots and Bassons: i n s t r u m e n t s i n t r a n s i t i o n " , U n i v e r s i t y o f B. C. January, 1975.  12 Op.C i t . , p. 373.  It i s , i n o t h e r words, a sounding  vent.  31 b e i n g open.  Mersenne a l s o s t a t e s t h a t the range o f the bassoon i s o n l y 13  a t e n t h o r an e l e v e n t h .  T h i s range, o f c o u r s e ,  s m a l l e r than the two o c t a v e s I f one  l e s s a tone g i v e n by  is significantly Zacconi.  c o n s i d e r s Mersenne's bassoons as b e i n g  in a state of  t r a n s i t i o n , the d e v i a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d above a r e not so p r o b l e m a t i c . the m i d - s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y  the remodelled  bassoon had a range o f  By two  12} and a h a l f o c t a v e s , descending  to B ' - f l a t .  It i s p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e ,  t h a t Mersenne, t o o , i s making an e a r l y r e f e r e n c e t o a bassoon w i t h a fundamental o f B ' - f l a t .  Indeed, the f i r s t n i n e . h o l e s , i n c l u d i n g two  keyed o n e s , on Mersenne's f a g o t a r e i d e n t i c a l P r a e t o r i u s ' bassoon. C, and  The  The An  tenth hole consequently  the e l e v e n t h , B ' - f l a t . ' * '  c e s s i t a t e d an e x t r a key, limited  and  An a d d i t i o n a l  t h i s was  note h o l e , o f c o u r s e ,  made t o o p e r a t e  possesses  on  Is l i k e l y t o produce  explained.  a n a t u r a l range o f an  In the case o f the b a s s o o n , w h i c h has both a f r e e d o u b l e  and a c o n i c a l b o r e , o v e r - b l o w i n g ing the wind p r e s s u r e  produces the o c t a v e p a r t i a l .  p l a y e r ' s l i p s on the reed t i p , c o u l d t h e r e f o r e extend  reed  Increas-  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h more p r e s s u r e e x e r t e d by  Mersenne's bassoons by as much as an  ne-  the t e n t h h o l e .  range o f Mersenne's f a g o t i s e a s i l y  instrument w i t h eleven note-holes  eleventh.  i n format t o those  the  the range o f  octave.  There a r e h i n t s t h a t Mersenne's f a g o t Is a l r e a d y u n d e r g o i n g  1 3  lbid.  14 See Langwi11:  Op,C i t .  B a p t i s t e L u'*\jiirgen l l y s , T u tE zp ip en lg s, h e1961, same c o n c l uJeansion. i m i np.h i s108, Das a rO rr ci hv ee ss t eart the i n den Werken  32 the p r o c e s s o f s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n , a p r o c e s s w h i c h i n i t i a t e d the modern woodwind.  the e r a o f  Mersenne says o f the bassoons:  "... they break i n t o two p a r t s t o be a b l e to be managed and c a r r i e d more e a s i l y ; t h a t i s why they a r e c a l l e d F a g o t s . . . " Included i n Mersenne's d i s c u s s i o n i s a l a r g e r i n s t r u m e n t c a l l e d a basson. T h i s i n s t r u m e n t i s analogous t o P r a e t o r i u s ' Q u a r t - b a s s , f o r i t i s lower by a f o u r t h than the f a g o t . ^  7  I f we compare the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the f a g o t  to t h a t o f the b a s s o n , which Mersenne s p e c i f i c a l l y notes " i s a l l  o f one  18 p i e c e o f wood", 'two p i e c e s ' .  i t seems l i k e l y t h a t he was  More t e l l i n g , p e r h a p s , i s the d i s t i n c t b e l l - ' j o i n t ' which  appears on the diagram o f the f a g o t . the b e l l  impressed w i t h the f a g o t ' s  look d e c e p t i v e l y s m a l l ;  The  i n a c c u r a t e i l l u s t r a t i o n makes  but Mersenne i n f o r m s us:  " t h i s end i s  19  almost n i n e i n c h e s from I t o H". D e s c r i b i n g the d i s t a n c e between the l a s t two h o l e s o f the i n s t r u m e n t , he w r i t e s : "And from the e l e v e n t h t o the t w e l f t h seven and a h a l f i n c h e s , and from t h e r e t o the end o f the F a g o t , w h i c h i s hidden under the end HI, i s f i v e and a h a l f i n c h e s . " 2 0  How c o u l d the end o f the i n s t r u m e n t be " h i d d e n " under the b e l l o f the bassoon, u n l e s s the b e l l were a s e p a r a t e j o i n t t h a t was mounted o n t o i t ? I t seems q u i t e p r o b a b l e t h a t Mersenne's f a g o t r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t , t a t i v e experiment i n s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n .  l6  0 p . C J t . , p.  17  1 b i d . , p.  I 8  372,  37^.  lbid.  19 I b i d . , p. 373,  20..I b i d .  see F i g u r e  1.  ten-  33  F i g u r e 1.  Fagot^ from Mersenne's HarmonIe U n i v e r s e ] l e , Bk. P r o p o s i t i o n XXXII.  We may as f o l l o w s :  V,  summarize the i n n o v a t i v e f e a t u r e s o f Mersenne's f a g o t  i t descends  to B ' - f l a t ;  i t has t h r e e k e y s , a d o p t i n g  i m p o r t a n t p r i n c i p l e o f p u t t i n g the p l a y e r ' s two thumbs i n c o n t r o l f o u r note h o l e s on the back o f the i n s t r u m e n t ; p r e s e n t an e a r l y attempt a t s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n . we may  and  the of  i t seems to r e -  With t h e s e i n mind, t h e n ,  c o n s i d e r Mersenne's bassoons as i n s t r u m e n t s  in t r a n s i t i o n .  34 The occurred  u l t i m a t e a r r i v a l o f t h e remodelled  bassoon must have  s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e 1636 p u b l i c a t i o n o f Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e .  There a r e , o f c o u r s e , no subsequent t h e o r e t i c a l s o u r c e s instrument  until  the turn o f the eighteenth century.  21  d e a l i n g w i t h the  In 1713 Mattheson  wrItes: "The s t a t e l y Bassoon, Basse de Chromorne [ s i c ! ] , I t . Fagotto, vulgo D u l c i a n , i s the usual bass, the f o u n d a t i o n o r accompaniment o f t h e Hautbois...He who would d i s t i n g u i s h h i m s e l f on t h e bassoon w i l l f i n d t h a t e l e g a n c e and speed e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e h i g h r e g i s t e r t a x h i s powers t o t h e f u l l . . . The compass o f t h e bassoon extends o v e r t h r e e and a h a l f [ s i c ] o c t a v e s from C t o f o r g'. O c c a s i o n a l l y i t p r o duces c o n t r a B - f l a t and A i n a d d i t i o n . " 2 2 Mattheson shows t h a t he was f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e o l d e r two-keyed d u l z i a n which descended o n l y t o C, as w e l l as t h e newer bassoon w i t h a key e x tending  i t s compass t o B ' - f l a t .  Mattheson's r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  of f u r t h e r extending  t h e range downward t o A' was v e r y c u r r e n t In t h e  eighteenth century.  D i d e r o t and D'Alembert's Encyclope"die g i v e s a f u l l  three octave  range t o t h e b a s s o o n , from A' t o a', w h i l e  stating:  "Everyone who p l a y s t h e basson i s not a b l e t o p l a y t h i s range, e i t h e r b e i n g u n a b l e t o c o n t r o l p r o p e r l y t h e i r b r e a t h o r t h e i n s t r u m e n t not b e i n g i n good o r d e r . Thus they c o n t e n t themselves i n descending t o B - f l a t and B - n a t u r a l , notes w h i c h a r e produced w i t h o u t o p e n i n g a s i n g l e h o l e , by t h e s o l e method o f b l o w i n g the a i r through t h e i n s t r u ment. "23  See Adam C a r s e :  O p . C i t . , p. 186.  22 Johann M a t t h e s o n : Das n e u - e r f l f f n e t e O r c h e s t r e , Hamburg, 1712, P t . I l l , paragraph 9; t r a n s , by Langwi11: Op.C i t . , pp. 34-35. C t o P o r g', o f c o u r s e i s o n l y two and a h a l f o c t a v e s .  1767,  D i d e r o t and D'Alembert: V o l . 2, p. 127.  E n c y c l o p e d i c Ra i sone"e... , P a r i s ,  35 B r e a t h r e g u l a t i o n a l o n e , t h e r e f o r e , p e r m i t t e d the bassoon p l a y e r to changes i n p i t c h .  I t i s , no doubt, through  c e n t u r y w r i t e r s b e l i e v e d the tone A' The  changes w h i c h o c c u r r e d  'lip'  t h i s method t h a t e i g h t e e n t h -  to be p o s s i b l e on the bassoon. i n the bassoon's c o n s t r u c t i o n t o  produce the i n s t r u m e n t d e s c r i b e d by Mattheson p r o b a b l y were e f f e c t e d i n  2k France. and  They i n c l u d e d f u l l - f l e d g e d s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n :  t e n o r j o i n t s were connected  separate  through a U-shaped b u t t - j o i n t ;  long  and  a  25 b e l l - j o i n t prolonged  the bore t o e n a b l e  the p r o d u c t i o n o f B ' - f l a t .  o v e r l a p p i n g wing s e c t i o n on the t e n o r j o i n t covered  An  p a r t o f the long  j o i n t and c o n t a i n e d the top t h r e e note h o l e s o f the i n s t r u m e n t . a c c u r a t e d r i l l i n g o f the bore owing t o s e c t i o n a 1 i z a t l o n , and  More  modified  f i n g e r - h o l e s i z e s enhanced the upper r e g i s t e r o f the bassoon. Technique was both a d d i t i o n s t o and recall The  f a c i l i t a t e d on the r e m o d e l l e d  t h a t on the o l d e r d u l z i a n keys were p r o v i d e d f o r both E and  The  bassoon remained on the f r o n t o f the  E-key, however, was  B'-flat.  On  The  t h i r d key was  f o r m e r l y governed the E-key and  o n l y i n c o n t r o l o f an open E - h o l e .  forehand o n l y w o r k i n g  The  the open C - h o l e , was  Anthony B a i n e s :  Op.C i t . , p.  'Lyndesay Langwi11:  instru-  lower  the open D-hole,  was  p l a y e r ' s upper thumb, benow  27k.  Op.Ci t . , p.  the  made t o c o n t r o l  the back o f the bassoon, t h e r e f o r e , the p l a y e r ' s  thumb, w h i c h had  We F.  moved up t o c o n t r o l D on the back o f  i n s t r u m e n t , l e a v i n g E as an open h o l e .  now  through  rearrangements i n the e x i s t i n g key mechanism.  F-key on the r e m o d e l l e d  ment.  instrument  28.  c o n t r o l l i n g t h e new  D-key  36 the open C-hole and the new  B'-flat  Chorist-fagott F i g u r e 2.  key.  Fagot  Remodelled  bassoon  Back view o f C h o r i s t - f a g o t t , F a g o t , and remodelled bassoon. The p r e s e n t w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n  t h i s change i n key mechanism. tions:  (the U-tube);  On a bassoon o f t h i s d e s i g n  b u t t - j o i n t , w h i l e the D h o l e  necessitated  The newer bassoon had f o u r d i s t i n c t  a tenor-joint; a butt-joint  bell-joint.  baroque  sec-  a l o n g - j o i n t and a  the E h o l e i s s i t u a t e d on the  i s now on the long j o i n t .  I f the key  mechanism o f the f a g o t had been r e t a i n e d , the key w h i c h f o r m e r l y the E-hole would have had t o c r o s s o v e r the j o i n t between  operated  the b u t t and  long s e c t i o n s o f the bassoon, i n o r d e r t o be i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y o f the  T h i s arrangement i s e x a c t l y the o p p o s i t e t o t h a t on Mersenne's 3-keyed f a g o t ; on t h a t i n s t r u m e n t E was keyed, D was open, C was keyed, and B ' - f l a t was open.  37 D-hole.  Such an arrangement, o f c o u r s e , would be both i m p r a c t i c a l  s u s c e p t i b l e t o damage. of  and  W i t h the new s y s t e m , the two keys on the back  the bassoon were both c o n t a i n e d on the l o n g - j o i n t . When the f u l l y - r e m o d e l l e d bassoon f i r s t appeared i s a m a t t e r  for  some c o n j e c t u r e .  by 1636.  We have seen t h a t the p r o c e s s was a l r e a d y  There i s f a i r l y  good p r o o f t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t was  underway  standardized  27 in  form w e l l b e f o r e 1670.  i t s new  Langwill  s i n g l e s out a Dutch p a i n -  t i n g a t t r i b u t e d t o Harman H a l s w h i c h d e p i c t s a bassoon w i t h such f e a t u r e s as a b e l l j o i n t , a c r o o k , a reed and the upper p a r t s o f a long and  tenor  28  joint. The p a i n t i n g p r o v i d e s good p r o o f t h a t the newer i n s t r u m e n t was w e l 1 - d e v e l o p e d b e f o r e 1670, f o r Harman H a l s l i v e d from 1611 t o 1669There have been numerous e s t i m a t e s , o f c o u r s e , as t o the f i r s t appearance o f the new b a s s o o n , and as t o the f i r s t composer consistently.  t o employ i t  Some o f t h e e s t i m a t e s a r e l e s s a c c u r a t e than o t h e r s .  K a r l G e i r i n g e r , f o r example, s u g g e s t s : "Together w i t h t h e oboe, i n 1659 t h e bassoon found i t s way i n t o t h e o p e r a t i c o r c h e s t r a i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f Cambert's Pomone_."29 B e s i d e s the f a c t t h a t Pomone was not produced u n t i l  I67I,  modern s c h o l a r -  30 ship  has found e a r l i e r  sumably, the bassoon.  r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e use o f the oboe, and p r e -  As t o Cambert's use o f the b a s s o o n , L a n g w i l l  ^ ' O p . C i t . , p. 28. ^ T h e p a i n t i n g i s 'Der F a g g o t s p i e l e r ' from the s e r i e s I t i s housed a t the A r t Museum a t Aachen.  2  senses'.  2  p.  ^K.  Geiringer:  Musical  I n s t r u m e n t s , London, 2nd, e d i t . ,  172. N o t a b l y Joseph Marx:  'The  Op.C i t .  1945,  38  informs u s : " I t has been f r e q u e n t l y a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e bassoon f i r s t appeared i n t h e F r e n c h opera o r c h e s t r a i n Cambert's Pomone ( 1 6 7 1 ) . . . t h e f r a g m e n t a r y Ms. (from t h e P a r i s C o n s e r v a t o i r e ) music o f Pomone mentions ' h a u t b o i s ' but not 'bassons'."31 It w i l l  be r e c a l l e d , however, t h a t as e a r l y as I636 t h e bassoon was 32  e x p e c t e d t o p l a y bass t o t h e oboes.  Langwi11 f u r t h e r c o n c l u d e s t h a t  a l t h o u g h t h e bassoon was c e r t a i n l y used by L u l l y ,  i t was g i v e n  little  33  prominence.  Anthony B a i n e s ' assessment o f t h e s i t u a t i o n  c l o s e s t t o t h e mark.  i s , perhaps,  He s t a t e s :  " I t [ t h e bassoon] i s f i r s t named i n a L u l l y s c o r e in 1674 [ P s y c h e ] , but i t may w e l l have been i n use t e n o r more y e a r s e a r l i e r . . . " 3 4 The v a l i d i t y o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t w i l l  The Bassoon  in Lully's Early  Of a l l  be examined  Ballets:  the instruments w i t h which t h i s study i s concerned, the  bassoon i s , p e r h a p s , most p r o b l e m a t i c . countered  presently.  The v a r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s en-  i n a t t e m p t i n g t o d i s c o v e r t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s em-  ployment d e r i v e , f o r t h e most p a r t , from t h e bassoon's g r e a t We have seen t h a t t h e bassoon p o s s e s s e d an e x t e n s i v e range — and a h a l f o c t a v e s .  3 l  0 p . C i t . , p. 75.  See n o t e 9.  3  1 b i d . , p. 75.  \ ) . C 1 t . , p. 286. P  o v e r two  I t has been shown f u r t h e r t h a t , owing t o i t s f r e e  32  3 3  versatility.  39  double reed, the instrument was capable of great v a r i a t i o n s in dynamics. The bassoon, t h e r e f o r e , had the p o t e n t i a l  to perform in a v a r i e t y of  situations. The bassoon had as a complementary Instrument  the v i o l o n c e l l o .  D i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the two instruments s o l e l y on musical grounds in L u l l y scores Is not only dangerous, but very d i f f i c u l t .  The present  w r i t e r b e l i e v e s , however, that the range of a given bass p a r t ,  in con-  j u n c t i o n with other evidence, can often a i d in d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the two: e x c e s s i v e l y high bass parts seem to be intended f o r the bas35  soon.  In the scores observed by the present w r i t e r , only r a r e l y does  the bass part ascend beyond d  1  to e ' - f l a t .  On only three occasions d i d  36 i t ascend to e ' .  In these three s i t u a t i o n s  (two of them in T r i o s e t -  t i n g s ) , i t i s p o s s i b l e that L u l l y had bassoons in mind.  Only in con-  j u n c t i o n with stronger evidence, however, may the range of a bass part be considered as an i n d i c a t i o n o f the bassoon's use. Another problem faced in determining the employment bassoons received i s in the nature o f the sources c o n s u l t e d . C o l l e c t i o n P h i l i d o r are not performing e d i t i o n s .  The scores of the  As a r e s u l t , many  35  The note d ' , in both three- and f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g s , appears to be the normal upward l i m i t of L u l l y ' s bass p a r t s .  36  In B a l l e t de 1 Impatience (1661), l e r En t r i e of Part I I I ; Les Jeux P i t h i e n s (1670) ' R i t o u r n e 1 l e ' on p. 116V of Tome VI in P h i l i d o r ' s Recuei1 de B a l l e t s ; and A l c i d i a n e (I658) 2nd number o f Part I I I . 3  r  1  4o  i n d i c a t i o n s o f d e s i r e d i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n t h a t may have been w r i t t e n i n t h e autographs a r e p o s s i b l y o m i t t e d .  Moreover, t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o p i e s i n t h e  c o l l e c t i o n do not d i s p l a y a c o n s i s t e n t thoroughness:  many s c o r e s a r e 37  c a r e f u l l y copied;  but o t h e r s a r e v e r y  'sketchy'  i n appearance.  do, f o r t u n a t e l y , p r o v i d e enough i n f o r m a t i o n t o make c e r t a i n  They  tentative  conclus ions. The  most p e r p l e x i n g d i f f i c u l t y encountered  with respect to the  bassoon i n L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s i s t h a t i t Is never s p e c i f i e d  i n the  •JO  scores.  We a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y  which we may d e t e r m i n e  f o r c e d t o e s t a b l i s h a s e t o f c r i t e r i a by  t h e i m p l i e d use o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t .  The m u s i c a l  and/or d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t o f an e n t r e e can be most e n l i g h t e n i n g . pecial  importance  or entree occurs.  i s the dramatic context w i t h i n which a given  Of e s selection  Woodwinds a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r i d y l l i c 39  scenes -- scenes de champetres and scenes de b e r g e r s .  The bassoon i n  such cases performs t h e bass l i n e e i t h e r w i t h o r w i t h o u t o t h e r bass i n s t r u m e n t s , such as t h e c e l l o .  As e a r l y as  s i d e r e d t h e bass p a r t t o h i g h e r oboes. woodwinds can be determined  I636  t h e bassoon was con-  In g e n e r a l , wherever t h e use o f  f o r dessus p a r t s , i t i s p r o b a b l e  that bas-  37 One copy o f Les P l a i s i r s Trouble's (1657), f o r example, e x c l u d e s t h e 2nd and 4th p a r t s i n t h e 5-part s e t t i n g s t h r o u g h o u t . •jQ  It i s not u n t i l f i c a l l y w r i t e s 'bassons .  1674,  i n the opera  Psychd, that L u l l y  speci-  1  39 See P r u n i e r e s : c a l e , 1925, p. 41.  " L u l l y e t 1'Opera F r a n c a i s " , La Revue M u s i '  41 soons were employed as bass i n s t r u m e n t s  i n those s i t u a t i o n s .  F i n a l l y , the use o f bassoons may who  took p a r t i n a g i v e n b a l l e t .  v i n g t - q u a t r e v i o l o n s was  The  be suggested by the p e r f o r m e r s  b a s i c s t r i n g o r c h e s t r a of  the  f r e q u e n t l y augmented i n these p r o d u c t i o n s  by  wind p l a y e r s drawn from the l a r g e r e s e r v o i r o f t a l e n t i n the Grande Ecurie.  Two  d i v i s i o n s o f E c u r i e c a t e r e d e s p e c i a l l y to the new  o f the p e r i o d :  woodwinds  the J o u e u r s de v i o l o n s , h a u t - b o i s , s a c q u e b o u t t e s e t c o r 41  nets and  the H a u t b o i s e t M u z e t t e s de P o i t o u .  Included  i n the ranks o f  these two departments are the names o f the most famous e a r l y masters m a n u f a c t u r e r s o f the r e m o d e l l e d hautbois... Michel Rousselet  woodwinds.  In the J o u e u r s de v i o l o n s ,  i s l i s t e d as basse de h a u t b o i s ;  the H a u t b o i s de P o i t o u , one o f the t h r e e H o t t e t e r r e s — 42 Jean Brunet are d e s c r i b e d as b a s s e c o n t r e t o the b a l l e t s w h i c h o f t e n l i s t  and  players.  while in  N i c o l a s --  and  With extant 1 i v r e t s  the p e r f o r m e r s i n v o l v e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e  t o i n f e r the use o f the bassoon i n the event t h a t any o f the t h r e e names mentioned above appear. formation  The  p r e s e n t w r i t e r was  from two s o u r c e s o n l y :  Henry P r u n i e r e s ' e d i t i o n o f  Oeuvres Completes g i v e s f a c s i m l l l e s o f two Ma lade  a b l e t o deduce such i n -  1ivrets —  (1657) and A l c i d i a n e (1658); and C h a r l e s  Silin  one  Lully's  f o r L'Amour  i n h i s Benserade  40 See Adam C a r s e :  H i s t o r y o f O r c h e s t r a t i o n , London, 1925,  p.  80.  41 Of the two, the H a u t b o i s e t M u z e t t e s de P o i t o u seems t o have been more e x t e n s i v e l y employed i n b a l l e t p r o d u c t i o n s . 42 M a r c e l B e n o l t : Muslques de Cour, P a r i s , 1971, p. 4. These three m u s i c i a n s were a c t i v e i n the E c u r i e throughout the p e r i o d o f L u l l y ' s early ballets. Jean and M a r t i n H o t t e t e r r e were p r i m a r i l y p e r f o r m e r s on dessus I n s t r u m e n t s .  42 and  H i s B a l l e t s de Cour ( M a r y l a n d , 1940) draws h e a v i l y on t h e 1 i v r e t s ,  43 o f t e n naming t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s  i n v o l v e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r work.  With t h e s e c r i t e r i a as g u i d e s , we may now approach t h e b a l l e t  scores.  Nine b a l l e t s have been s e l e c t e d because they c l e a r l y show e v i d e n c e o f t h e bassoon's u s e , and d e m o n s t r a t e a number o f ways i n w h i c h i t was employed. La  Rai 1 l e r ? e  They a r e :  (1659);  Amour Ma l a d e (1657);  Impatience ( l 6 6 l ) ;  P r i n c e s s e d' El ide (1664);  (I658);  Amours De*gu?sez (1664);  La G r o t t e de V e r s a i l l e s  (1670) and Les Jeux P i t h i e n s  GentiIhomme  Alcidiane  (1668) ;  Le B o u r g e o i s  (1670).  The b a l l e t Amour Ma lade was produced i n 1657 r e s u l t i n g a c o l l a b o r a t i o n between Benserade and L u l l y . most s i g n i f i c a n t work i n L u l l y ' s o u t p u t .  Joseph Marx, the  Henry P r u n i e r e s ,  45  r e m o d e l l e d oboe's employment.  from  In many r e s p e c t s i t i s a  I t I s one o f t h e f i r s t  i n w h i c h t h e music i s e x c l u s i v e l y by L u l l y .  44  La  ballets  M o r e o v e r , i s i s c i t e d by  and o t h e r s as t h e f i r s t  instance o f  In t h e D e r n i e r e Entree o f the work,  a C o n c e r t Champestre de L'Espoux i s c i t e d as b e i n g p l a y e d by t h e oboes of  the Ecurle. It i s i n t h i s t w e n t y - f o u r bar work t h a t we w i l l  e a r l i e s t use o f t h e bassoon i n t h i s s t u d y . of  f i n d the  The music f u l f i l s a number  t h e c r i t e r i a w h i c h we have e s t a b l i s h e d as e v i d e n c e o f t h e bassoon's  43  A l a r g e corpus o f 1 i v r e t s from t h e b a l l e t s by L u l l y and Benserade i s housed i n t h e L i b r a r y o f Congress. I t was u n f o r t u n a t e l y una v a i l a b l e t o the present w r i t e r f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n .  44 O p . C i t . , p. 14.  45 3  0 p . C i t . , p. 99.  43  use:  I t i s a c o n c e r t champetre:  oboes;  the bass l i n e i s t o an ensemble o f  and i t s p e r f o r m e r s i n c l u d e two bassoon p l a y e r s from the E c u r i e .  The 1 i v r e t says o f the l a s t  entrie:  " C o n c e r t champestre de l ' E s p o u x : Les S i e u r s O b t e r r e l e p e r e , O b t e r r e f t l s a i s n i , O b t e r r e l e c a d e t , P i e c h e t , B r u n e t , Descouteaux, Destouches P e l e r i n , N i c o l a s , e t A l a i s . . . " ^ O b t e r r e , o f c o u r s e , i s one o f a number o f s p e l l i n g s o f t h e name H o t t e terre. The bassoon l i n e o f f e r s the  little  real  interest.  I t performs  bass o f L u l l y ' s normal f i v e - p a r t t e x t u r e , and has a range o f D - a.  The p i e c e i s i n G-majpr and p r o b a b l y r e q u i r e s o r c h e s t r a l d o u b l i n g s by 47  strings. to  The c o n c e r t champetre w i l l  reference  t h e oboe. In A l c i d i a n e  prominent.  (1658) t h e use o f the bassoon i s s l i g h t l y more  There a r e a t l e a s t two o c c a s i o n s where i t s employment seems  i m p l i e d by t h e m u s i c a l c o n t e n t ; the  be d i s c u s s e d a g a i n w i t h  ballet.  both t h e s e o c c u r i n the t h i r d p a r t o f  A f t e r the o v e r t u r e t o t h i s s e c t i o n , a R e c i t de l a F o r t u n e  i n t r o d u c e s h i g h l i g h t s o f t h e drama t o f o l l o w . r i c i t i s set f o r three instruments. tensive —  The r i t o u r n e l l e o f t h i s  The range o f the bass l i n e i s ex-  from E t o e' i n the key o f a-minor.  Since three Hotteterres  and Brunet appear i n the 1 ? v r e t , and a r e s p e c i f i e d as p e r f o r m e r s i n t h e e n s u i n g e n t r i e , i t would seem l i k e l y t h a t a bassoon was  Cited  47 cello.  in Prunieres:  Op .C i t . ,  f a c i n g p.  used i n t h i s  43.  I b i d . , P r u n i e r e s s c o r e s the bass l i n e f o r both bassoon and  Ritournelle. The second entre"e o f P a r t " S i x Bergers et S i x Bergeres".  I I I Is t i t l e d  in P h i l i d o r ' s  score,  The A i r pour P o l e x a n d r e i s i n g-minor  and i s s e t i n a normal f i v e - p a r t s t r u c t u r e .  1ivret of this  The  ballet  s t a t e s o f t h i s entre"e: " T r o i s B e r g e r s . . . t r o i s B e r g e r e s . . . f o n t avec p l u s i e u r s a u t r e s un C o n c e r t R u s t i q u e , auquel un choeur de F l u s t e s e t de p l u s i e u r s a u t r e s instrumens r e p o n d e n t . " ^ The bassoon, no d o u b t , i s one o f the 'other i n s t r u m e n t s ' , p e r f o r m i n g i t s t a s k as bass t o woodwind p a r t s .  The range o f the bass l i n e i s B ' - f l a t -  d'. In La R a i 1 l e r i e (1659) the bassoon once a g a i n appears i n L u l l y ' s five-part orchestral —  idiom;  a g a i n i t performs w i t h s p e c i f i e d woodwinds  i n t h i s c a s e , r e c o r d e r s -- i n the upper p a r t s .  devoted t o Les c o n t r e f a i s s e u r s . c o r d e r s a r e s c o r e d i n g-minor; extensive —  D - b-flat.  From pp. 39-^1  o f P h i l i d o r ' s copy, r e -  the bass p a r t o f t h i s s e c t i o n  From page kl  bande In g-minor i s p r o v i d e d .  The e i g h t h e n t r e e i s  i s not v e r y  t o kS o f the same E n t r e e a S a r a -  In both t h e s e i n s t a n c e s , s p e c i f i e d  ders d i v i d e the dessus l i n e i n two, r e s u l t i n g  in s i x real parts.  recorThe  bassoon which presumably p l a y s the bass i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s g i v e n a range o f D - c'. The B a l l e t de 1 ' I m p a t i e n c e o f 1661 where s p e c i f i e d bassoons may  p r o v i d e s us w i t h an  be i n f e r r e d from d i r e c t i o n s i n the s c o r e .  The t h i r d e n t r d e o f the t h i r d p a r t o f the b a l l e t  W  lbld.  example  (p. 57  in P h i l i d o r ' s  45 score)  "8  is subtitled:  c o n c l u d e t h a t L u l l y was the wind i n s t r u m e n t s ,  C h e v a l i e r s dansant sans v i o l Ions". g a i n i n g enough c o n f i d e n c e  and  One  can  only  i n b o t h the a b i l i t y  of  h i s a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e music f o r  49 them. alone,  A l t h o u g h the t i t l e o f t h i s number does not  r e f e r to woodwinds  i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the bass p a r t  use o f bassoons. l i n e extending  The  from D t o b - f l a t . comidie-ballet,  Amours De*gufsez,~^ foreshadows an o r c h e s t r a l t e c h n i q u e  century.  fruition  terms.  beforehand i n M o l i & r e ' s  The  spoken d i a l o g u e ;  hand, and  allegorical  dramatic  In the case o f Amours D i g u l s e z ,  i s experimental:  i n somewhat s i m p l i s t i c  to  eighteenth  Instruments a r e c o n s c i o u s l y s e l e c t e d t o p o r t r a y a  e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the t e c h n i q u e  one  which was  i n the o p e r a o r c h e s t r a o f Rameau i n the  exchange i n p u r e l y m u s i c a l  conflict  the  work i s i n g-minor, s e t f o r f i v e p a r t s , the bass  A Symphonie i n the P r o l o g u e t o the 1664  achieve  involved  the drama i s  Lully's  presented  then L u l l y ' s music d e p i c t s  the  terms.  c o n f r o n t a t i o n c e n t r e s around Les A r t s on  Les Graces e t Les P l a i s i r s on the o t h e r .  c e r t a t o p r i n c i p l e s , L u l l y g i v e s Les A r t s one  Employing  the con-  group o f i n s t r u m e n t s ,  Les Graces a v a r i e d arrangement o f the f i r s t ensemble.  For Les  and  Arts  "'"''Sans v i o l l o n s ' e x c l u d e s the e n t i r e s t r i n g s e c t i o n . The term ' v i o l l o n s ' i n L u l l y ' s s c o r e s i s g e n e r i c , r e f e r r i n g to the whole f a m i l y . The d r a m a t i c a c t i o n r e q u i r e s the e n t r i e to commence b e f o r e the v i o l i n s have f i n i s h e d t u n i n g . At bar 14, a marking i n a l l the p a r t s o f the s c o r e s u g g e s t s t h a t perhaps v i o l i n s are t o e n t e r the t e x t u r e a t t h a t p o i n t . Winds, n o n e t h e l e s s , a r e d e f i n i t e l y r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m the music a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the entre"e. 50 A l t h o u g h the come'd [e-ba 1 l e t i s d i s t i n c t as a genre from b a l l e t , i t has been i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study s i n c e i t employs s i m i l a r w r i t i n g s t y l e s and t e c h n i q u e s . The l i b r e t t o i s by M o l l e r e .  the  46 Lully  indicates:  "a P a r t i s  "Tous l e monde j o u e " ;  s i m p l e mesle" de f l u s t e s " . " ^  For Les Graces he Les Graces i s s c o r e d  specifies: f o r three  52 p a r t s -- two dessus and  a bass;  o n l y one  instrument  plus a f1uste  are  to p l a y the dessus p a r t s o f t h i s s e c t i o n . A g a i n we may woodwinds.  i n f e r employment o f the bassoon as bass to the  In the tous s e c t i o n -- a s e v e n - p a r t  range o f D - c'. D to b - f l a t .  s e t up -- the bass has  a  In the doux s e c t i o n the bassoon i s g i v e n a compass o f  I t seems l i k e l y t h a t s i n c e bassoons are r e q u i r e d i n t h i s  s e c t i o n , they would p e r f o r m i n the tous as w e l l as doux p o r t i o n s o f  the  entre*e. The  b a l l e t , La P r i n c e s s e d ' E l i d e a l s o o f 1664,  was  only  one  o f a number o f g r e a t d i v e r t i s s e m e n t s g i v e n to honour both the Queen and the Queen Mother.  I t formed the b a l l e t p o r t i o n o f the l a r g e r come'die-  bal l e t , Les P l a i s i r s de  l ' l l e Enchante"e by M o l i e r e and  b a l l e t , l i k e Amour Ma l a d e , r e p r e s e n t s instruments;  Lully.  a landmark i n use o f  This  double-reed  i t i s the f i r s t work t o a c t u a l l y s p e c i f y oboes i n the  53 score.  The  t h i r d number o f the b a l l e t  pour l e Dieu Pan, e t sa The fication  i s e n t i t l e d "Marche de  hautbois  suite".  P h i l i d o r copy o f t h i s b a l l e t w h i c h p r e s e n t s  i s housed i n the B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , CP.  this speci-  Re's. F 531-  Un-  f o r t u n a t e l y , the o n l y copy a v a i l a b l e t o the p r e s e n t w r i t e r i s CP  Re's.  F 655.  dieu  The  t i t l e o f the work i n t h i s s c o r e  ^On  Page 2 - 5 o f P h i l i d o r ' s  i s simply  copy,  52 Probably 5 3  a  recorder.  S e e Eppelsheim:  O p . C i t . , p p . 104-105.  'Marche du  Pan'.  Nonetheless,  we may  still  o b s e r v e how  the oboes were employed.  The bassoon must have been used as bass t o the f i v e - p a r t s t r u c t u r e i n which the oboes took p a r t .  In G-maJor, the bassoon i s g i v e n a range o f  D - c' . The subsequent number o f the same b a l l e t  i s a 'Rondeau Pour  l e s F l u t e s e t V i o l l o n s , a l l a n t S l a t a b l e du Roy'.  In t h i s s e l e c t i o n  the b a s s o o n , w i t h t h e c e l l o s , i s l i k e l y t o have performed t h e bass p a r t ; it  i s g i v e n a range o f C t o c' i n t h e key o f G-major.  the few i n d i c a t i o n s we have t h a t the bassoon was instrument  This  i s one o f  i n c l u d e d as a bass  w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f a s p e c i f i e d s t r i n g o r c h e s t r a . Of a l l the s c o r e s c o n s u l t e d , the P r i n c e s s e d ' E l l d e and the  G r o t t e de V e r s a i l l e s woodwinds. present  (1668) r e p r e s e n t  some o f the most e x t e n s i v e use o f  Twelve pages o f the l a t t e r work (pp. 19—31 o f CP Re's. F532)  q u i t e c l e a r l y a number o f ways i n w h i c h the bassoon was e x p e c t e d  to perform.  This  'woodwind s e c t i o n ' o f t h e b a l l e t i s i n i t i a t e d on page  5k 19 w i t h a R i t o u r n e l l e pour l e s f l u t t e s . p a r t s , i s i n g-minor.  The R l t o u r n e l l e , i n t h r e e  The bass p a r t a g a i n s u g g e s t s performance on t h e  bassoon, w h i c h i s g i v e n a r a t h e r e x t e n s i v e  range o f D t o d'.  The Ri t o u r n e l l e i n t r o d u c e s a re"ci t -- a v o c a l duo f o r A r i c e et C a l i s t e . re*ci t :  Of paramount  s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the m u s i c a l  i t borrows i t s m u s i c a l  content  s e t t i n g o f the  e x a c t l y from the  preceding  There i s good e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t the f l u t e s i n v o l v e d here a r e o f the t r a n s v e r s e t y p e . T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r t h r e e .  48 ritournelle.  The  i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e , o f c o u r s e , t h a t the  tinue to p l a y , doubling cellos,  is therefore  t i n g , the f i r s t The  the v o c a l  required  parts.  bassoon, perhaps w i t h added  to p l a y the c o n t i n u o  such i n s t a n c e we  bass o f a v o c a l  set-  have o b s e r v e d .  Ri t o u r n e l l e o f page 19  r e t u r n s s u b s e q u e n t l y , and  a second r e c i t de M i n a l q u e e t C o r i d o n . t e x t , but  The  i n s t r u m e n t s con-  New  music i s p r o v i d e d  leads  for this  the p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d p r e v i o u s l y would a l s o seem to be  e f f e c t here;  the  i n s t r u m e n t s o f the Ri t o u r n e l l e a r e  likely  to  in  t o have  doubled the v o c a l p a r t s once more. A new duo,  Ritournelle follows this reci t;  the next v o c a l  'Voypns tous deux en a i m a n t ' , uses the music o f i t s R i t o u r n e l l e .  Although  ' f l u t t e s ' a r e not s p e c i f i e d , t h i s s e c t i o n o f the b a l l e t appears  t o a c t as a u n i t — instrumentation The and  again  v a r i o u s scenes de b e r g e r s .  I t seems l i k e l y  o f the s e c t i o n would t h e r e f o r e  that  the  remain c o n s i s t e n t .  e n t r i e i s concluded with a large s e l e c t i o n f o r o r c h e s t r a  c h o r u s , and  i s i n ten p a r t s :  a Menuet.  The  chorus --  f o u r v o c a l and  'La meme choeur de B e r g e r s '  6 orchestral.  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , there  — are  55 two  bass l i n e s , a l t h o u g h the two  p a r t s are a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l .  bass l i n e s show a range o f D - b - n a t u r a l the bassoon must have been intended Here t h e n , we tous s e c t i o n s . for  (the chorus i s i n G-maJor), and  to p e r f o r m i n one  have e v i d e n c e o f the bassoon's use The  concluding  a tous o r c h e s t r a .  Both  Menuet, s t i l l  o f the bass p a r t s .  i n o r c h e s t r a l and  vocal  i n G-major, no doubt, i s  In l i g h t o f the prominent t r e a t m e n t the woodwinds  On two o c c a s i o n s the f i r s t bass i s g i v e n notes to the second bass' s i n g l e q u a r t e r n o t e .  two  repeated  eighth  49 r e c e i v e d throughout t h e e n t r i e , i t i s not u n r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t f l u t e s and bassoons a l s o took p a r t . in  i t s range;  The bass l i n e here i s not e x t e n s i v e  from o n l y D t o g.  F i n a l l y , two b a l l e t s from 1670 w i l l s t u d y o f t h e bassoon.  serve to conclude our  In Les Jeux P i t h i e n s L u l l y p r o v i d e s a n o t h e r e x -  ample o f t h e v a r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s between h i s o r c h e s t r a and c h o r u s . On pages 118V t o 119V i n Tome VI o f P h i l i d o r ' s Recuei1 de B a l l e t s , a t h r e e - p a r t v o c a l s e t t i n g w i t h t h e i n c i p i t ' J o u i s s o n s de P l a i s i r s ' , i s presented.  The work, i n g-minor,  "Les f l u t e s  l e s h a u t b o i s e t l e s v i o l o n s JouSnt l ' a i r q u i s u i t avant q u ' i l  se c h a n t e " . ^ 5  i s headed by the f o l l o w i n g  instructions:  The appearance o f woodwinds, and s p e c i f i c a l l y oboes, i n  the  dessus p a r t s l e a d s us t o i n f e r t h e use o f bassoons w i t h c e l l o s on  the  u n t e x t e d bass l i n e .  from D t o d'. the  The bass p a r t e x h i b i t s a c o n s i d e r a b l e  range,  I t i s not improbable t h a t t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s a r e t o d o u b l e  v o c a l p a r t s when the l a t t e r e n t e r t h e s t r u c t u r e . The come'die-bal l e t , Le B o u r g e o i s Gentilhomme,  p e r h a p s , t h e most famous p r o d u c t o f t h e M o l i e r e - L u l l y  of l670.is, collaboration.  Such a s p e c t a c l e a t t h i s p o i n t i n L u l l y ' s c a r e e r r e p r e s e n t s an a r t form v e r y c l o s e i n n a t u r e t o the- composer's t r a g e d i e s l y r i q u e s , t h e f i r s t o f which was t o appear s t y l e , then, appear ties.  in three y e a r s .  5 7  Many t e c h n i q u e s o f L u l l y ' s  mature  i n the b a l l e t s o f t h e l a t e s i x t i e s and e a r l y seven-  T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e o f h i s use o f woodwinds.  L o c a t e d a t the bottom o f page 118R. T h e t r a g i d i e s - l y r i q u e s , o f c o u r s e , d i d not c o n t a i n d i a l o g u e as d i d the come'dIes-ba 11 e t s . 5 7  spoken  50  The of  fifth  Entre'e  o f t h e Bal l e t de N a t i o n s  the p r o d u c t i o n ) c o n t a i n s two Menuets, t h e second  t r i o format.  J i i r g e n Eppelsheim  oboe t r i o by L u l l y .  (the b a l l e t o f which  is in a  c i t e s t h i s as t h e f i r s t appearance o f an  In P h i l i d o r ' s copy (CP Re's. F578, p. 175;  5 8  portion  a v a i l a b l e to the present w r i t e r ) the t r i o  not  i s c a l l e d "Menuet pour l e s  59 In t h e 11vret o f 1670, however, t h e t r i o i s  h a u t b o i s en p o i t e v i n ' . described as:  "accompagnez de h u i t F l u s t e e t H a u t - b o i s " . ^  event, the s i t u a t i o n  r e q u i r e s bassoons f o r t h e bass p a r t , a c c o r d i n g t o  our e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a . the bass l i n e .  In any  The second  It i s likely  menuet g i v e s a range o f E t o c' t o  that the t r i o  the f i v e - p a r t menuet drop o u t .  requires that the s t r i n g s o f  C o n v e r s e l y , t h e use o f oboes and bassoons  In t h e f i v e - p a r t menuet i s n o t p r o b a b l e . Through t h i s  l i m i t e d s a m p l i n g o f e a r l y L u l l y b a l l e t s , we may  make a number o f c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e bassoon.  F i r s t and f o r e m o s t ,  the bassoon has been shown t o r e c e i v e r e g u l a r employment i n L u l l y ' s b a l l e t o r c h e s t r a from as e a r l y as 1657the e a r l i e s t , premise  S i n c e t h e bassoon was one o f  i f not t h e f i r s t woodwind^' t o undergo r e m o d e l l i n g , t h i s  becomes e s p e c i a l l y t e n a b l e .  5 8  0 p . C i t . , p. 105.  5 9  1bid.  Although musical evidence  i s lack-  ^ T h e problem, o f c o u r s e , concerns (1) t h e use o f f l u t e s In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h oboes; and (2) whether oboes o r h a u t b o i s de P o i t o u are r e q u i r e d . Eppelsheim shows t h a t oboes a r e p r o b a b l y i n t e n d e d .  11 .  ^'see  the p r e s e n t w r i t e r ' s u n p u b l i s h e d paper c i t e d  in footnote  51 i n g , the present w r i t e r believes that the remodelled bassoon gained entrance to the French b a l l e t orchestra in the late f o r t i e s or e a r l y fi f t i e s . The bassoon seems to have been employed by L u l l y of key and mode contexts.  It w i l l  irrespective  be shown in subsequent chapters that  the recorders and f l u t e s e s p e c i a l l y performed best in c e r t a i n keys;  the  recorder as a r e s u l t of i t s fundamental of P was w e l l - s u i t e d to f l a t keys;  the transverse f l u t e in d ' , on the other hand, was often reserved  f o r sharp keys.  In the eighteen examples of the bassoon's employment  observed in t h i s sampling, ten were in a f l a t key (g-minor),  two were in  natural keys (C major and a minor) and s i x s e l e c t i o n s were in a sharp key 62  (G major).  With respect to key, then, the bassoon once again asserts  i ts v e r s a t i 1 i t y . The most important conclusions we may draw from t h i s study concern the use to which the bassoon was put w i t h i n the orchestra and various ensembles. the bass p a r t .  In every case but one, the bassoon played or doubled  In the 'Marche de hautbois pour le Dieu Pan of La P r i n 1  cesse d ' E l i d e , however, a case for the bassoon's use on the ta?1le part becomes evident.  The fourth l i n e of the f i v e - p a r t  structure has a range  of d - e ' .  T h i s , of course, is too low for the tenor oboe which descends  only to f.  Since the part ascends only as high as e' the l i n e could be  performed with l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y  on the bassoon.  This 'Marche' w i l l  These s t a t i s t i c s are somewhat misleading since g-minor appears to be L u l l y ' s f a v o u r i t e key in the early b a l l e t s .  52  be d i s c u s s e d a g a i n In the next c h a p t e r w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the oboe. The b a s s o o n , we have s e e n , performed i n a number o f ensemble situations.  I t was used i n L u l l y ' s normal f i v e - p a r t o r c h e s t r a l  ture in conjunction with s t r i n g s  i n Amour Malade  Amour D i g u t s e z ( 1 6 6 4 ) and e s p e c i a l l y t h i s b a l l e t , we  (1657), Alcidlane  i n La P r i n c e s s e d ' E l i d e ( 1 6 6 4 ) .  ( v i o l Ions) .  The b a l l e t , 1'Impatience  i . e . "Les 8 c h e v a l i e r s sans v i o l l o n s " .  a l s o saw e x t e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t i n t r i o t e x t u r e s . i s s p e c i f i e d w i t h s t r i n g s and woodwinds:  et les violons joiient".  A trio  The  structure bassoon  In Les Jeux P l t h i e n s a "Les f l u t e s  les hautbois  i n v o l v i n g the bassoon w i t h o u t s t r i n g s  i s i n e v i d e n c e i n La G r o t t e de V e r s a i l l e s les  In  (1661),  p r o v i d e s an example o f the bassoon's employment i n a f i v e - p a r t  trio  (I658),  r e c a l l , a Rondeau i s d e s i g n a t e d f o r both woodwinds  ( f 1 u t e s ) and s t r i n g s  without s t r i n g s :  struc-  (1668) —  t h e R i t o u r n e l l e pour  fluttes. I t i s i n La G r o t t e de V e r s a i l l e s t h a t we f i n d e v i d e n c e o f t h e  bassoon's use i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h v o i c e s . C a l i s t r e ' , 'Menalque e t C o n d o n ' , and  In t h r e e cases -- ' A r i c e e t  'Voyons  tous deux en a i m a n t ' —  bassoon has been c o n s i d e r e d as the p r o b a b l e c o n t i n u o bass In v o c a l  the  duos.  It has been shown, f u r t h e r , t h a t t h e bassoon d o u b l e s the bass l i n e i n the c h o r u s d e s i g n a t e d , 'La meme Choeur des B e r g e r s ' . I t can be seen t h a t the bassoon was c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e i n a g r e a t many s i t u a t i o n s .  Indeed, i t s a p p a r e n t v e r s a t i l i t y might s u g g e s t  t h a t the i n s t r u m e n t was a permanent and c o n t i n u o r o l e s .  f i x t u r e , " p e r f o r m i n g both o r c h e s t r a l  I t i s d o u b t f u l , however, t h a t t h i s  i s the c a s e .  The normal c o n t i n u o group i n L u l l y ' s o r c h e s t r a seems t o have been the p r o p e r t y o f the P e t i t Choeur, a s e l e c t ensemble t o w h i c h the bassoon d i d  53 not b e l o n g  i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  a document o f 1719, 2 basses  63  The P e t i t Choeur, a c c o r d i n g t o 1 clavecin,  c o n s i s t e d o f the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u m e n t s :  de v i o l e , 2 basses de v i o l o n s , 2 t h e o r b e s , 2 dessus  de  violons,  64 2 flutes.  There i s no e v i d e n c e t o s t a t e c a t e g o r i c a l l y t h a t the  c i p l e s and components o f the P e t i t Choeur were I n t a c t d u r i n g the teenth century.  bassoons from the s t a n d a r d P e t i t Choeur, and does not imply t h a t the two  be c o n c l u d e d  L u l l y ' s o r c h e s t r a , and was It may  The  exclusion of  the f l u t e ' s i n c l u s i o n  in i t ,  i n s t r u m e n t s were never employed t o g e t h e r ;  nor does i t imply t h a t the use o f f l u t e s was I t may  seven-  I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f  L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s s i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e s were i n f o r c e .  alone.  prin-  r e s t r i c t e d t o t h a t group  t h a t the bassoon was  not a normal member o f  p r o b a b l y not a s t a n d a r d c o n t i n u o  instrument.  have f u l f i l l e d both t h e s e f u n c t i o n s , however, when s p e c i a l  effects  o r s o n o r i t i e s were r e q u i r e d . The  b a s s o o n , we may  c o n c l u d e , was  t r e a t e d as a s p e c i a l i n -  s t r u m e n t , as were a l l the woodwinds o f L u l l y ' s o r c h e s t r a .  The  very  n a t u r e o f the b a l l e t s u b j e c t s , o f c o u r s e , a d m i t t e d such e f f e c t s w i t h great r e g u l a r i t y ; quite frequent.  e v i d e n c e o f the bassoon's employment, t h e r e f o r e , i s Although  the i n s t r u m e n t ' s p o t e n t i a l was  not approached  i n L u l l y ' s s c o r e s , a model f o r i t s f u t u r e use can e a s i l y be  See Eppelsheim: Ibid.  Op.C ? t . , p.  150.  seen.  CHAPTER I I THE OBOE  By way o f c o n t r a s t t o t h e e a r l y bassoon, i t s p r e c u r s o r s d i d n o t demonstrate  t h e e a r l y oboe and  a h i g h degree o f v e r s a t i l i t y ;  they  were c o n s i s t e n t l y a s s i g n e d r a t h e r s e t f u n c t i o n s , b e i n g employed i n o n l y a l i m i t e d number o f s i t u a t i o n s . the documentation  I t i s f o r t h i s reason, perhaps, that  o f t h e oboe's e v o l u t i o n  t h a t t h a t o f t h e bassoon.  i s more c o n t r a d i c t i o n - f r e e  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the period o f t r a n s i t i o n  from  the o l d e r shawm t o t h e more modern oboe i s no l e s s p r o b l e m a t i c , t h e o r e t i c a l s o u r c e s , as w i t h o t h e r woodwinds o f t h a t t i m e , b e i n g c o m p l e t e l y  lack-  ing. The know i t .  t r e b l e shawm i s t h e d i r e c t p r e d e c e s s o r o f t h e oboe as we  The h i s t o r y o f shawm-like,  double-reed  long o n e , and need riot occupy o u r time h e r e . '  instruments i s a very  The e a r l i e s t w r i t t e n  t h e o r e t i c a l account o f t h e shawm i s g i v e n by T i n c t o r i s  i n i486.  As  Phi 1 l i p Bate s a y s , " T h e r e a f t e r more p a r t i c u l a r i n f o r m a t i o n i s f u r n i s h e d by s u c c e s s i v e s p e c i a l i s t w r i t e r s up t o P r a e t o r i u s , by whose time a complete f a m i l y o f d i f f e r e n t s i z e s . . . had d e v e l o p e d " . ^ The  u l t i m a t e a r r i v a l o f t h e a u t h e n t i c oboe, sometime around  the middle  o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n F r a n c e , i s c o m p l i c a t e d by two problems.  For i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s h i s t o r y , see Adam C a r s e : M u s i c a l Wind I n s t r u m e n t s , London, M a c m i l l a n and Co., 1939; and P h i l l i p Bate: The Oboe, London, E. Benn, 1956. 2  0 p . C i t . , p. 2 8 .  55 First of a l l ,  the French name o f t h e oboe -- h a u t b o i s -- i s t h e same as  t h a t f o r t h e o l d e r shawm.  T h i s a m b i g u i t y , o f c o u r s e , l e a d s t o much con-  f u s i o n i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s e v e n t e e n t h - c n e t u r y French s o u r c e s . second  problem  The  i s t h e n a t u r e o f the s t r u c t u r a l changes which o c c u r r e d i n  the i n s t r u m e n t ;  they a r e not n e a r l y so s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d as were those  o f t h e bassoon. The  s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y shawm had a number  o f q u i t e unique  features.  I t c o u l d be made o f any o f a number o f h a r d -  woods, and was u s u a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d i n one p i e c e . expanding  from t h e reed-end  I t had a c o n i c a l  to a trumpet-like b e l l .  the l a r g e r shawms a d m i t t e d key-mechanisms v e r y e a r l y One o f t h e more unusual  bore,  L i k e t h e bassoon, in their  evolution.  f e a t u r e s o f t h e t h e shawm which was a l s o  retianed  by t h e e a r l y oboe was t h e appearance o f two t o s i x t u n i n g h o l e s on t h e instrument.  These were l o c a t e d below t h e n o t e - h o l e s , w e l l beyond t h e 3  reach o f t h e f i n g e r s , and had no keys t o c o n t r o l was  them.  The i n s t r u m e n t  a p p a r e n t l y much t o o long f o r t h e a c t u a l p i t c h o f i t s f u n d a m e n t a l ;  up t o a l m o s t h a l f t h e l e n g t h o f t h e bore on some o f t h e l a r g e r shawms seems t o be redundant. superfluous;  The e x t r a l e n g t h o f b o r e , however, was f a r from  i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e tone o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t as a r e -  s o n a t i n g chamber was p r o b a b l y most i m p o r t a n t .  Of a l l t h e p h y s i c a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e shawm, t h e one most i n d i g e n o u s t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t i s w i t h o u t doubt i t s reed mechanism.  Adam C a r s e : P h i l l i p  Bate:  Op .C 11. , p . 23. Op.Cit. ,  p.  30.  56 The staple;  reed a p p a r a t u s o f t h e shawm c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e p a r t s :  a p i r o u e t t e and a reed.  a  The long broad reeds were i n s e r t e d  a metal s t a p l e , which was s i t u a t e d on t h e 'top' o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t .  into The  p i r o u e t t e , as p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , was a c u p - l i k e d i s k a g a i n s t w h i c h the p l a y e r ' s l i p s were p r e s s e d ; p a r t o f the reed's l e n g t h . family.*'  i t c o v e r e d and/or p r o t e c t e d  T h i s arrangement was e x c l u s i v e t o the shawm  The advantage o f such a reed mechanism e v i d e n t l y was t h e sup-  p o r t i t o f f e r e d t h e p l a y e r i n loud and s u s t a i n e d p l a y i n g . ^ son  the g r e a t e r  t o the c o n t r o l made p o s s i b l e through t h e e v e n t u a l  removal o f t h e  p i r o u e t t e , t h e shawm's mouthpiece arrangement was somewhat P h i l l i p Bate c a u t i o n s ,  In c o m p a r i -  restrictive.  nonetheless:  "From t h e mere p r e s e n c e o f t h e p i r o u e t t e i t has been argued t h a t t h e shawm-player had no c o n t r o l o v e r t h e reed. I t i s h e r e , however, t h a t t h e s u b t l e t y o f t h e a p p a r a t u s a p p e a r s . The h o l l o w e d f a c e [ o f t h e p i r o u e t t e ] p e r m i t t e d t h e base o f t h e reed t o be s e t i n q u i te d e e p l y so t h a t i n use t h e b l a d e s l a y between the p l a y e r ' s l i p s . Thus, w h i l e s t i l l s u p p o r t e d , t h e l i p s c o u l d t o some e x t e n d e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l . I t was on a c c o u n t o f t h i s f a c i l i t y t h a t t h e compass o f t h e shawms c o u l d be c a r r i e d upwards beyond t h e f i r s t o c t a v e and was n o t l i m i t e d , i n P r a e t o r i u s ' own w o r d s , 'to as many tones as t h e r e were h o l e s ' . " ' In e s s e n c e , t h e p i r o u e t t e mechanism i s n o t h i n g more than an e x t e n s i o n o f the r e e d - c a p s u l e  system o f t h e crumhorns and h a u t b o i s  5  de P o i t o u ; i n t h e  We have a l r e a d y seen t h a t the bass poramer l o s t i t s p i r o u e t t e sometime i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Shi 1 l i p B a t e : 7  lbid.  O p . C i t . , p. 32.  57  case o f t h e shawm, however, t h e p l a y e r ' s mouth i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e  g pi r o u e t t e forms a wind chamber w i t h i n which t h e reed i s c o n t a i n e d . both t h e crumhorn's  In  and shawm's s y s t e m , a c o n s i s t e n t wind p r e s s u r e  i s r e q u i r e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e reed  will  t h a t t h e shawm's tone i s n e c e s s a r i l y  ' l o u d ' and ' s u s t a i n e d ' .  In h i s Syntagma Musi cum,  speak, and even Bate a d m i t s  P r a e t o r i u s , i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e shawm  family, states: "Only t h e h i g h e s t d i s c a n t o f t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s i s c a l l e d shawm ( I t a l i a n , p ? f f a r o ; Latin, g i n g r i n a , because i t sounds l i k e t h e c a c k l i n g o f a goose — from g i n g i e r , t o c a c k l e ) . The [ d e s c a n t ] shawm has no k e y s . " 9 P r a e t o r i u s i s n o t a t a l l s p e c i f i c w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e fundamental of  t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s , m e n t i o n i n g s i m p l y t h a t t h e shawm's a l i g n  a tone h i g h e r than t h e c o r n e t s and s a c k b u t s .  tones  themselves  From t h i s we may c o n c l u d e  t h a t t h e t r e b l e shawm, t h e s t a n d a r d s i z e o f t h e f a m i l y , had a l o w e s t tone of cur  d'.  Mersenne a l s o o m i t s m e n t i o n i n g fundamental  w i t h P r a e t o r i u s on t h e shawm's range.  t o n e s , but does con-  Mersenne w r i t e s :  "As t o t h e range o f t h e h a u t b o i s , each p a r t f o r example, t h e t r e b l e , produces t h e f i f t e e n t h . For a f t e r as many n a t u r a l tones a r e made as t h e r e a r e h o l e s , s t i l l o t h e r s a r e begun w h i c h are more f o r c e d and s h r i l l , by i n c r e a s i n g t h e wind "10  Bate d i s a g r e e s w i t h t h i s , s t a t i n g t h a t t h e c o n t r o l ( a l b e i t minimal) that the l i p s e x e r c i s e i s f o r e i g n to the reed-capsule p r i n c i p l e : Op.C i t . , p. 32. Q  Michael P r a e t o r i u s : Syntagma Musi cum, B l u m e n f e l d , N.Y., B a r e n r e i t e r , 1962, p. 37.  I I , t r a n s , by H a r o l d  '^Marin Mersenne: Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e , t r a n s , by R.E. Chapman, The Hague, 1957, PP- 371-372.  58 Mersenne's e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e tone o f t h e shawm i s , perhaps, more l e n i e n t than P r a e t o r i u s ' v e r d i c t .  Mersenne admires  these instruments f o r  "... t h e g r e a t n o i s e t h a t they make and t h e g r e a t harmony t h a t they r e n d e r , f o r they have t h e s t r o n g e s t and most v i o l e n t tone o f a l l t h e i n s t r u m e n t s , except f o r t h e trumpet."'' As a r e s u l t o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s ' p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e and t o n e , the shawms were n o t t r e a t e d as o t h e r wind i n s t r u m e n t s were i n t h e c o n s o r t s of  t h e s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s .  In a number o f ways  the shawms r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n : t h e f a m i l y a l i g n e d i t s e l f i n a way t h a t gave t h e t r e b l e member d i s c a n t p i t c h ;  diapason  keys were  added l i b e r a l l y t o i n c r e a s e t h e downward range o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s the. f o u r - k e y e d t e n o r ) ;  (e.g.  and t h e shawm band, owing t o t h e u n a v a i l a b i l i t y 12  of a s a t i s f a c t o r y f , t r a n s p o s e d t h e i r m u s i c up one t o n e . 1  The unusual  n a t u r e o f t h e shawm's employment p r o v i d e s a p o i n t o f c o n t e n t i o n between Anthony Baines and P h i l l i p Bate.  Baines s t a t e s e m p h a t i c a l l y t h a t t h e  i n s t r u m e n t was "not a d m i t t e d t o t h e a r t o f c o n s o r t s " , and t h a t t h e " s i x 13 t e e n t h c e n t u r y shawm was e x c l u s i v e l y a band i n s t r u m e n t " .  B a t e , on t h e  o t h e r hand, w r i t e s : "From t h e f i r s t , shawms belonged t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f t h e ' l o u d m u s i c ' , whether employed i n d o o r s  1 1  I b i d . , p. 378.  12 See Anthony Baines: Woodwind Instruments and t h e i r H i s t o r y , London, Faber and Faber, 3rd e d i t . , 1967, pp. 269-70. 13 I b i d . , p. 268. Baines appears to c o n t r a d i c t h i m s e l f , for he l a t e r c i t e s shawms, cornets and sackbuts as a t y p i c a l ensemble (p. 271). He apparently d i s t i n g u i s h e s between 'band' and ' c o n s o r t ' in a way other modern scholars have not done.  o r i n the open a i r , and a l t h o u g h c a p a b l e o f forming an harmonic group o r 'whole c o n s o r t ' by t h e m s e l v e s , they were e a r l y combined w i t h winds of other s o r t s . I t would seem t h a t Bate's  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the shawm's use  a b l e , f o r Mersenne informs  i s more t e n -  us:  "As t o t h e i r m u s i c , i t i s s u i t a b l e f o r the l a r g e ensemble, such as the B a l l e t s ( a l t h o u g h the v i o l i n s a r e now used i n t h e i r p l a c e ) 5 Baines  i s nonetheless  c o r r e c t i n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i n s o f a r as  shawm d i d not possess a complete c h r o m a t i c  range, r e n d e r i n g i t s u s e f u l -  ness i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s somewhat A f t e r Mersenne, the h a u t b o i s d i s a p p e a r s s o u r c e s f o r more than s i x t y y e a r s .  The  the  restrictive.  i n French  shawm by c.1640 had  theoretical acquired  specific functions, especially  i n the b a l l e t s , f o r w h i c h i t was  suited.  S p r i g h t l y Companion, presuambaly by John  The appearance o f The  B a n i s t e r , i n 1695, Maniere...  f o l l o w e d i n 1700  i n d i c a t e s t h a t a new  admirably  by F r e i 1 l a n - P o n c e i n ' s La V e r i t a b l e  hautbois, with greatly modified features,  had superseded the o l d e r shawm i n the i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s . The  reasons  f o r the development o f a newer oboe, i n l i g h t o f  the g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y o f i t s a n c e s t o r s , a r e a t f i r s t b a f f l i n g .  Joseph  Marx, however, has a r r i v e d a t some i n t e r e s t i n g and most p l a u s i b l e suggestions.  In h i s a r t i c l e "The  tone o f the baroque oboe", Marx proposes t h a t  the g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y o f the C h o r i s t - F a g o t t accounts  1 i f  0p.Cit.,  p.  28.  15 Mersenne:  Op . C i t . , p.  378.  f o r the d e s i r e on  60 the p a r t o f French p l a y e r s and makers " t o make so u s e f u l and g r a t e f u l a medium as t h e [ f r e e ] double We r e c a l l  reed a v a i l a b l e on a t r e b l e  instrument".'^  t h a t as a r e s u l t o f the f r e e r e e d , t h e f a g o t was a f f o r d e d  great f l e x i b i l i t y . '  7  A p p l y i n g these f e a t u r e s t o the shawm meant t h a t  the former p i r o u e t t e mechanism had t o be removed. the i n i t i a l  Marx c o n c l u d e s  that  s t a g e s o f the oboe's r e m o d e l l i n g were d i r e c t e d toward t h e  advancement o f reed-making t e c h n i q u e s , and t h a t o n l y a f t e r t h e p e r f e c -  18 t i o n o f t h i s reed was work begun t o improve t h e shawm  itself.  It was p r o b a b l y M i c h e l P h i l i d o r who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e  19 development o f t h e new oboe's reed.  20  is a l e t t e r w r i t t e n  i n about 1735  The a u t h o r i t y f o r t h i s by M i c h e l de l a B a r r e .  De l a B a r r e  claims that the information contained i n t h i s correspondence, a h i s t o r y o f t h e musette, was found Comptes. He w r i t e s :  statement  concerning  i n t h e a r c h i v e s o f the Chambre de  "But h i s [ L u l l y ' s ] r i s e brought about t h e f i n a l d o w n f a l l o f a l l these o l d e r i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e oboe, thanks t o F i l i d o r [ s i c ] and Hauteterre [ s i c ] ; these men s p o i l e d g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s o f wood and p l a y e d g r e a t q u a n t i e s o f music u n t i l they  '^Joseph Marx: "The tone o f t h e baroque oboe", G a l p i n S o c i e t y J o u r n a l , IV, June, 1951, pp. 9-10. ' lnfra. 7  Chapter one, f o o t n o t e s 5 and 6.  1 8  1 b i d . , p. 10.  1 9  1 b I d . , p. 1 3 .  20 The e s t i m a t e s f o r the date o f t h i s l e t t e r go as l a t e as 17^0. Marcel B e n o i t ' s Musiques de Cour, shows c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t 1735 i s a more 1ikely date.  61  f i n a l l y succeeded i n r e n d e r i n g i t s u i t a b l e f o r concerts. S i n c e t h a t t i m e , the musettes were l e f t t o the s h e p h e r d s , v i o l i n s , r e c o r d e r s , the oboes and v i o l s t a k i n g t h e i r p l a c e f o r the t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e d i d not come u n t i l l a t e r . " 1 2  S i n c e both the H o t t e t e r r e ' s and d y n a s t i e s which l a s t e d almost is of l i t t l e help  P h i l i d o r ' s were members o f French  a hundred y e a r s , de l a B a r r e ' s  i n p i n p o i n t i n g the time o f t h i s  An e a r l i e r document, the s p e c i f y i n g such d e t a i l s .  important  'James T a l b o t M a n u s c r i p t ' , In and  around 1690,  musical  statement undertaking.  i s most h e l p f u l  T a l b o t was  in  compiling  data  on a g r e a t number o f i n s t r u m e n t s , a p p a r e n t l y w i t h the i d e a o f p u b l i s h i n g a book o r t r e a t i s e  i n mind.  In h i s notes  f o r t h e French  hautbois  he  writes: "The p r e s e n t H a u t b o i s [ i s ] not kO y e a r s o l d and [ i s ] an improvement o f the G r e a t French h a u t b o i s w h i c h i s l i k e our Weights [ i . e . s h a w m s ] . "  22  According  t o T a l b o t , t h e r e f o r e , the oboe d i d not appear u n t i l  With t h i s  i n f o r m a t i o n Marx c o n v i n c i n g l y argues t h a t the two men  by de  after  l a B a r r e were Jean H o t t e t e r r e (d.1678) and M i c h e l P h i l i d o r  1650.  mentioned (d.1659). 23  Of t h e s e two,  H o t t e t e r r e i s known t o have been a famous i n s t r u m e n t - m a k e r .  Marx f u r t h e r c o n c l u d e s :  2  ^Cited  in Benoit:  Op.C i t . , p.  455-  22  Quoted by A. B a i n e s : "James T a l b o t ' s M a n u s c r i p t " , Gal p i n S o c i e t y J o u r n a l , I , March, 19^8, p. 14. l n h i s T r a i t d de l a M u s e t t e (1672), C h a r l e s B o r j o n c i t e s Jean H o t t e t e r r e as b e i n g "... a man o f unique t a l e n t f o r making a l l k i n d s o f i n s t r u m e n t s o f wood , i v o r y and ebony... b a g p i p e s , r e c o r d e r s , f l a g e o l e t s , oboes...", (p. 38). 2 3  N  "... M i c h e l P h i l i d o r d i d the a c t u a l work on the r e f i n e m e n t o f the reed and then sought t h e h e l p o f [Jean] H o t t e t e r r e , the b e s t woodturner i n the King's s e r v i c e , t o c o n s t r u c t an i n s t r u m e n t to match i t . " ^ 2  It was  i n the e a r l y f i f t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the new oboe p r o b a b l y was  g i v e n i t s f i r s t t e n t a t i v e t r i a l s under the d i r e c t i o n o f M i c h e l P h i l i d o r and Jean H o t t e t e r r e . The  i d e a behind r e m o d e l l i n g the shawm cannot have been t o i n -  c r e a s e i t s range s u b s t a n t i a l l y . the of  As e a r l y as 1619,  P r a e t o r i u s had noted  shawm's a b i l i t y t o p l a y more notes than t h e r e were h o l e s ; two o c t a v e s i s g i v e n by Mersenne.  a range  The e a r l y t u t o r s o f the new oboe  do not i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t increment o v e r t h i s range:  t h e James  25 Frei 1 lon-Poncein gives  T a l b o t m a n u s c r i p t l i s t s a range o f c' to c " ; 1  a complete c h r o m a t i c range o f c' - d ' ' ; 1  26  and H o t t e t e r r e  27  refers his  r e a d e r s t o the d i s c u s s i o n o f the f l u t e t o l e a r n the range o f the oboe. H o t t e t e r r e ' s f l u t e i s g i v e n a range o f d' t o g  1 1  c' as an a d d i t i o n a l  He f u r t h e r l i m i t s  oboe's upper  lower tone f o r the oboe.  ' , but the a u t h o r I n c l u d e s the  range:  "Note t h a t tones above h i g h D [ i . e . a l m o s t never used."28  O p . C i t . , p.  d  1 1 1  ]  are  14.  25 26  Baines:  O p . C i t . , p.  14  La V e r i t a b l e Maniere d'apprendre h a u t - b o i s , P a r i s , 1700, p. 11.  a j o u e r en p e r f e c t i o n du  27 P r i n c i p e s de l a f l u t e t r a v e r s i e r e . . . e t du h a u t b o i s , P a r i s ,  ~  1707. 2 8  lbid.  p.  72.  ~  63  The  o l d e r shawm d i d not possess a u n i f o r m l y  already  seen t h a t a good f  s e r v i c e a b l e range.  We have  was not a v a i l a b l e t o t h e t r e b l e shawm p l a y e r .  At best t h e shawm was u s e f u l  i n a l i m i t e d number o f t o n a l i t i e s .  Indeed,  in t h e case o f t r e b l e shawms, P r a e t o r i u s s u g g e s t s t h a t music i n t h e customary keys o f C and F should  be t r a n s p o s e d t o G, the b e s t s c a l e on  29 the  instrument.  We know, f u r t h e r , t h a t t h e upper range o f t h e shawm  30 was,  according The  t o Mersenne, "more f o r c e d and s h r i l l " . new oboe's i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would t h e r e f o r e be i n  the realm o f dynamics, tone and i n t o n a t i o n ;  i t would have a more f l e x i b l e  31 dynamic range, and a much more s e r v i c e a b l e upper r e g i s t e r . required  i n both oboe and reed c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , were geared t o  these I d e a l s .  In t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e oboe i t s e l f , t h e bore was made  a l i t t l e narrower than as f o r m e r l y w i t h the t r e b l e shawm. was  The changes  constructed  two j o i n t s . register.  The new oboe  i n three s e c t i o n s , having c h a r a c t e r i s t i c bulges a t the  The f i n g e r h o l e s were made s m a l l e r t o e n l i v e n t h e upper A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t change was t h e l o w e r i n g o f the o v e r a l l p i t c h  o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t t o c ' , making t h e keys  o f C and F p r a c t i c a b l e .  new oboe had a c'-key a t t h e b e l l - e n d o f t h e b o r e . whose fundamental tone was d', t h e note f 2Q  The  S i n c e on t h e shawm,  was not u s e a b l e ,  i t follows  - T i t e d by B a t e : O p . C i t . , p. 2 9 . I t i s c u r i o u s t h a t the m u s i c a l example f o r e x p l a i n i n g the p r o p e r use o f shawm p r o v i d e d by Mersenne i s i n F. (see p. 3 7 8 ) . 3  ^See footnote 1 2 . Baines:  Op.C i t . , pp.  277-278.  64 t h a t on t h e oboe i n c , the tone e ' - f l a t would not be a v a i l a b l e .  To  1  alleviate  the problem  an e ' - f l a t key was added, d u p l i c a t e d on both s i d e s 32  o f the bore t o accommodate both r i g h t - and l e f t - h a n d e d p l a y e r s .  The  oboe, t h e n , was g i v e n a f u l l y c h r o m a t i c range, a l t h o u g h c'-sharp was problematic.  F r e i 1 l o n - P o n c e i n and o t h e r e a r l y w r i t e r s s t a t e w i t h o u t  h e s i t a t i o n t h a t t h i s note  i s p o s s i b l e , through  cedure o f h a l f - c l o s i n g t h e c'-key.  the rather t r i c k y  pro-  In t h i s way t h e 3 k e y e d oboe o f t h e _  e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y was b o r n . The modification  r e e d , as e x p l a i n e d e a r l i e r , n e c e s s a r i l y underwent some in the t r a n s i t i o n  from shawm t o oboe.  Although  few s p e c i -  mens o f shawm and e a r l y oboe reeds have s u r v i v e d , t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o make c e r t a i n g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s about t h e changes w h i c h occurred.  The reeds o f t h e e a r l i e r  the t i p . Anthony Baines s u g g e s t s  i n s t r u m e n t were somewhat w i d e r a t  t h a t t h e newer i n s t r u m e n t had a reed  which was a good ha 1 f - c e n t i m e t e r narrower The  first  than t h e reed o f t h e shawm.  r e c o r d e d measurement o f t h e w i d t h o f t h e new oboe's reed i s  p r o v i d e d by James T a l b o t who c i t e s t h i s as b e i n g  ( i n i t s modern  eqUi-  ao  v a l e n t ) 9.5 m i l l i m e t e r s . proposal  Phillip  Bate appears t o d i s a g r e e w i t h B a i n e s '  t h a t t h e shawm's reed was 5 m i l l i m e t e r s w i d e r , f o r he w r i t e s : "... t h e measurements noted by Dr. T a l b o t (c.1700) show t h a t i n t h e i r dimensions they d i f f e r e d l i t t l e from  The l a t e r 18th c e n t u r y d i s c o n t i n u e d the p r a c t i c e o f d u p l i c a t i n g the e ' - f l a t k e y , s i n c e ' l e f t hand above r i g h t ' became s t a n d a r d i z e d . Thus the t h r e e - k e y e d oboe p r e d a t e s t h e two-keyed one; 33  C i t e d by B a i n e s :  O p . C i t . , p. 278.  65  those used w i t h the contemporary shawms. The o p e r a t i v e word i n Bate's  statement  i s 'contemporary'.  The change  from shawm t o oboe was n o t a t a i l sudden, and i n d e e d , the oboe, from i t s debut i n t h e 1650's, underwent c o n t i n u a l r e f i n e m e n t . t h e r e f o r e , e x i s t e d s i d e by s i d e f o r a p e r i o d . i t would be n a u t r a l f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g  Shawm and oboe,  The p r e s e n t w r i t e r b e l i e v e s  shawm p l a y e r s t o e a g e r l y  accept  the improvements made i n t h e oboe's reed. In g e n e r a l reed o f t o d a y .  t h e reeds were more V-shaped, n o t u n l i k e t h e bassoon  The w i d t h o f t h e reed  i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e narrower 35  bore would produce a b r o a d e r ,  l e s s i n c i s i v e tone.  Another  in t h e new reed was i t s p o s i t i o n i n g on t h e i n s t r u m e n t .  refinement  Whereas t h e  shawm reed was p l a c e d o n t o a s t a p l e a t t h e t o p o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t , t h e reed o f t h e new oboe was assembled w i t h a s t a p l e w h i c h , as a u n i t , was 36  i n s e r t e d d i r e c t l y i n t o the instrument i t s e l f . With these a l t e r a t i o n s to both i n s t r u m e n t and r e e d , t h e new oboe made i t s debut i n t h e b a l l e t 37  orchestra of Jean-Baptiste L u l l y .  Both Henry P r u n i e r e s  and J o s e p h  38  Marx b e l i e v e t h a t i t was p r o b a b l y i n t h e 1657 p r o d u c t i o n o f L'Amour Ha l a d e t h a t t h e new oboe had i t s f i r s t p u b l i c performance 39  34 J  35  O p . C i t . , p. 11.  1 b T d . , p. 15.  36  As e v i d e n c e d i n diagrams i n D i d e r o t ' s E n c y c l o p e d i c , t h e s t a p l e i n the l a t e r e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y was sometimes removed a l t o g e t h e r . 37  Oeurvies 3 8  Completes de J e a n - B a p t i s t e L u l l y ,  I, I n t r o d u c t i o n .  0p.Cit.  39  Jean H o t t e t e r r e and two o f h i s s o n s , N i c o l a s and M a r t i n , a r e l i s t e d as i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s i n t h e l i v r e t o f t h i s b a l l e t .  66 From t h i s i n i t i a l , t e n t a t i v e experiment the oboe knew immediate popularity.  By the end o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h  p r e m i e r e wind instrument  century  i t was one o f t h e  w i t h an e v e r - g r o w i n g r e p e r t o i r e .  t u o s o s , such as L o e i l l e t and La R i c h e  French  vii—  (the e x p e r t p l a y e r w i t h whom James  T a l b o t c o l l a b o r a t e d ) took t h e new French i n v e n t i o n a b r o a d .  Thus, i n t h e  p r e f a c e t o The S p r i g h t l y Companion (1695) J [ o h n ] B f a n i s t e r ] s t a t e s : "One would wonder t h e French Hautboy s h o u l d o b t a i n so g r e a t an Esteem i n a l l t h e C o u r t s o f C h r i s t e n dome, as t o have t h e P r e f e r e n c e t o any o t h e r s i n g l e I n s t r u m e n t . Indeed i t l o o k s s t r a n g e a t f i r s t s i g h t : But on the o t h e r hand, i f a Man c o n s i d e r s t h e E x c e l l e n c y and Use o f i t , t h i s Wonder w i l l soon v a n i s h . . . . " No doubt, the g r e a t a d m i r a t i o n w h i c h the oboe r e c e i v e d was p r i m a r i l y owing t o i t s g r e a t e x p r e s s i v e  range.  Banister  continues:  "For b e s i d e s i t s I n i m i t a b l e charming Sweetness o f Sound (when p l a y ' s [ s i c ] upon) i t i s a l s o M a j e s t i c a l and S t a t e l y , and n o t much I n f e r i o r to the Trumpet...."^1 The  new oboe was a l s o c a p a b l e o f q u i e t p l a y i n g : "... a l l t h a t p l a y upon t h i s I n s t r u m e n t , t o a r e a s o n a b l e p e r f e c t i o n , know, That w i t h a good Reed i t goes as e a s i e and s o f t as t h e F l u t e [i.e. recorder]."^ 2  We may c o n c l u d e t h a t the oboe had become a v e r y  versatile  by c . 1 6 7 0 , f o r a f t e r t h i s t i m e , l i k e t h e v i o l i n ,  instrument unsparingly  t o d e p i c t a l m o s t any mood o r e f f e c t .  Before  i t was used  this  date,  40 Quoted by K. G. Evans: I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s f o r the Oboe, 1695-1800, Unpub. Doc. D i s s e r t . , S t a t e U. o f Iowa, 1963, pp. 120-121.  41 42 z  I b i d . , p. 121 . lbid.  67  however, i t i s l i k e l y  t h a t the oboe r e t a i n e d  i t s ancestor's tasks;  along  w i t h the musettes and shawms, the e a r l y oboe was a s s i g n e d symphonies champetres and scenes de b e r g e r s . will  I t i s i n t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s t h a t we  observe the instrument's i n i t i a l  Lully s 1  de  t r e a t m e n t i n the o r c h e s t r a o f  ballets.  The Oboe i n L u l l y ' s E a r l y  Ballets  The oboe was o n l y one o f t h r e e r e m o d e l l e d woodwinds w h i c h were regularly exploited It  i n the dessus p a r t s o f L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t  i s n o t u n l i k e l y , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t , a l o n g w i t h oboes, r e c o r d e r s and  f l u t e s s h o u l d appear  i n t h e same p r o d u c t i o n s a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s .  o v e r , a l l t h r e e i n s t r u m e n t s were most o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i d y l l i c and r u s t i c d r a m a t i c a c t i o n .  mentation i s s p e c i f i e d .  d').  instru-  The range o f t h e dessus p a r t , however, i s o f t e n  help i n these s i t u a t i o n s .  had f  as a fundamental  tone.  see i n C h a p t e r  Any p a r t d e s c e n d i n g below t h i s note i n  a work r e q u i r i n g woodwinds f o r t h e dessus l i n e for  similar  i n the event t h a t no  The r e c o r d e r s most o f t e n employed, as we s h a l l 4,  More-  D i s t i n g u i s h i n g between t h e t h r e e  instruments i s consequently q u i t e d i f f i c u l t  of  music.  i s i n t e n d e d , no d o u b t ,  e i t h e r oboe (fundamental tone o f c') o r f l u t e  (fundamental tone o f  I f t h i s b a l l e t were produced b e f o r e c.1665 ( b e f o r e w h i c h the r e -  m o d e l l e d f l u t e was u n a v a i l a b l e ) ,  i t i s most l i k e l y  the dessus  instru-  43  of  The t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e , however, does not f i g u r e i n the b a l l e t s the l a t e f i f t i e s and e a r l y s i x t i e s ; see C h a p t e r 3. 44  See C h a p t e r  3.  68 ment r e q u i r e d was  the oboe.  A f u r t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d i n g  the  three  p r i m a r y dessus woodwinds o f L u l l y ' s o r c h e s t r a i s the names o f the p l a y e r s who  performed on these  modelled  instruments.  The  f i r s t v i r t u o s o s o f the r e -  oboe were a l s o , almost w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , c e l e b r a t e d m a s t e r s o f 45  the r e c o r d e r .  The  Hautbois  e t Musettes de P o i t o u o f the Grande E c u r i e  s u p p l i e d the e a r l y b a l l e t s w i t h most o f these p e r f o r m e r s . ^ in t h i s group were: de P o i t o u ;  F r a n c o i s Pignon d l t Descouteaux, dessus de  Jean D e s t o u c h e s , t a i l l e de h a u t b o i s de P o i t o u ;  P i e s c h e , t a ? 1 l e de h a u t b o i s ; remodelled  .  1670.  Pierre  2i7  appear i n a t l e a s t n i n e b a l l e t s o f the p e r i o d  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , they do not appear i n these p r o d u c t i o n s  t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s as oboe p l a y e r s . 1664  hautbois  and Jean H o t t e t e r r e ( c o - i n v e n t o r o f  o b o e ) , dessus de h a u t b o i s de P o i t o u . These men  Included  Indeed, P i e r r e P i e s c h e  the  1657  -  solely in  is listed  in  as a " j o u e u r de f l u s t e o r d i n a i r e de l a Chambre", w h i l e Descouteaux  48 is l i s t e d as a p l a y e r o f the " h a u t b o i s e t f l u s t e o r d i n a i r e " .  In the  b a l l e t s o f the l a t e f i f t i e s and e a r l y s i x t i e s the two most prominent  45 Indeed F r a n c o i s Descouteaux was famous f o r h i s a b i l i t y on the t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e , as w e l l as the oboe and r e c o r d e r . See M. B e n o i t : Op.Cit.  46 It i s odd t h a t the J o u e u r s de v i o l o n s , h a u t b o i s , s a c q u e b o u t t e s et c o r n e t s , the group t h a t became the Douze Grands H a u t b o i s du Roi under L o u i s X I I I , do not f i g u r e as i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s i n the c o u r t b a l l e t s . They were no doubt r e s e r v e d f o r t h e i r m i l i t a r y and c e r e m o n i a l f u n c t i o n s . ^ I b i d . , p.  4.  48 I b i d . , p.  11.  69  dessus oboe p l a y e r s appear t o be Jean H o t t e t e r r e -- a l o n g w i t h h i s sons -When these names appear i n t h e 1 i v r e t s o f the  and Descouteaux.  ballets,  t h e n , we might e x p e c t oboes t o appear i n the o r c h e s t r a . A final  problem  instruments themselves. was  c o n c e r n i n g L u l l y ' s use o f oboes i n v o l v e s t h e A r r i v i n g a t the same time as the s t a n d a r d oboe  a tenor instrument, c a l l e d  h a u t b o i s, o r s i m p l y t a ? 1 l e .  i n most French s o u r c e s the t a ? 11 e de  T h i s i n s t r u m e n t was p i t c h e d a f i f t h  lower  50 than the normal oboe, h a v i n g f as i t s lowest n o t e . t h a t the t a i 1 l e was most commonly used  Baines  suggests  in a m i l i t a r y capacity;"''  t h e l e s s , i t does n o t appear t o have been e x c l u d e d e n t i r e l y from usage.  JUrgen E p p e l s h e i m ,  t a i l i e ' s use i n A t y s  none-  orchestral  f o r example, has d i s c o v e r e d e v i d e n c e f o r t h e 52  (I676).  In t h i s o p e r a , two p a r t s d e s i g n a t e d f o r  oboes descend t o g and a , both tones b e i n g too low f o r performance on t h e standard  Instrument  i n c'.  In the e a r l y b a l l e t s , t o o , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t the ta?1 l e 53 i n s t r u m e n t was i n use.  In a t l e a s t t h r e e p r o d u c t i o n s  fied within a five-part orchestral  set-up.  oboes a r e  speci-  In these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , two  A f t e r the m i d - s i x t i e s , Descouteaux seems t o have devoted most o f h i s time t o the t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e ; see C h a p t e r 3. "^See 5  Anthony B a i n e s :  'lbid.  I t was used  Op .C i t . , p. 283. i n the Douze Grands H a u t b o i s du R o i .  52 In h i s Das O r c h e s t e r T u t z i n g , 1961, p. 105. 53  (I663),  i n den Werken J e a n - B a p t i s t e L u l l y s ,  L' Impat i e n c e (1661), t h i r d entre*e; Les Nopces de V i l l a g e first entrie; La P r i n c e s s e d ' E l i d e (1664), 3rd number.  70 p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s present themselves:  oboes are Intended only for the  dessus p a r t , the other l i n e s being performed by other instruments; o r , oboes are responsible f o r three or more parts in the t e x t u r e , doubled by v i o l i n s throughout.  The l a t t e r s o l u t i o n i s suggested by the fact that  in many cases both the dessus and hautecontre parts are w i t h i n the compass of the oboe in c ' , while the t a i 1 l e part l i e s comfortably on the tenor oboe in f. Ecurie  In a d d i t i o n , the oboe and recorder players of the  are used in large numbers (usually f i v e or s i x names).  Since It  Is u n l i k e l y that the o r c h e s t r a t i o n would require s i x oboes on one p a r t , it  is probable that they arranged themselves in approximately even num-  bers throughout the o r c h e s t r a .  Two s i z e s of remodelled oboe, t h e r e f o r e ,  appear to have been e x p l o i t e d by L u l l y in h i s b a l l e t o r c h e s t r a . Unlike the bassoon, the oboe i s o c c a s i o n a l l y s p e c i f i e d in the productions.  These s p e c i f i c a t i o n s appear in two ways:  indicated in the score i t s e l f ;  they are e i t h e r  or the 1ivret al1udes to the  instrument  54  in i t s presentation of the drama.  For the purposes of t h i s study,  s i t u a t i o n s where oboes are s p e c i f i e d by e i t h e r o f these methods have been almost e x c l u s i v e l y used.  In four b a l l e t s , however, musical evidence  strongly suggests the use of oboes.  These have been included to provide  a broader basis for conclusions concerning the oboe's use. The f o l l o w i n g scores have been consulted for t h i s chapter: Amour Malade (1657); de V i l l a g e (1663);  A l c i d i a n e (1658);  Impatience (1661);  Amours Dgguisez (1664);  Les Nopces  La Princesse d ' E l ide (1664)  \ s mentioned in the previous chapter, i t has been necessary to r e l y heavily on secondary l i t e r a t u r e for references to the 1.vrets. 5  71  Les Jeux P i t h i e n s The  (1670) and Le B o u r g e o i s Gentilhomme  (1670).  f i r s t o r c h e s t r a l performance on t h e remodelled  red i n 1657 i n t h e b a l l e t , L'Amour Malade.  oboe o c c u r -  55 Characteristically,  this  56 occurs  near t h e end o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n , a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e f i n a l  entree.  A l t h o u g h no i n d i c a t i o n s o f oboes i s s u p p l i e d i n t h e s c o r e , t h e 1 i v r e t informs  us t h a t i n t h e e n t r e e e n t i t l e d  'Concert champestre de l ' E s p o u x ' ,  t h r e e H o t t e t e r r e s , P i e s c h e , Descouteaux and Destouches took p a r t .  Jean  H o t t e t e r r e and Descouteaux, no d o u b t , performed t h e dessus p a r t o f t h e five-part orchestra. The  hautecontre  In G-major, t h i s l i n e i s g i v e n a range o f g' t o b ' . 1  p a r t , w i t h a range o f f - s h a r p  been p l a y e d on e i t h e r oboes i n c' o r t e n o r s  to d'  1  i s l i k e l y t o have  i n f . The t h i r d p a r t , how-  e v e r , w i t h a range o f o n l y c' - a' would l i e v e r y  low on t h e oboe i n c . 1  S i n c e both P i e s c h e and Destouches appear i n t h e 1 ? v r e t , b o t h b e i n g as t a i 1 l e p i a y e r s reasonable  listed  i n t h e a c c o u n t s o f t h e Grande E c u r i e , " ^ i t i s n o t un-  t o suppose t e n o r oboes performed t h i s  line.  58 In P r u n i e r e s ' e d i t i o n o f t h e b a l l e t , scored  f o r ' f l u t e s ' and oboes.  it  i s u n l i k e l y that transverse  p.  99/  ''"'See Joseph Marx:  Itwill  the f i r s t  four parts are  be shown i n t h e next c h a p t e r  f l u t e s were a v a i l a b l e a t t h i s e a r l y O p . C i t . , p. 14;  Henry P r u n i e r e s :  56  that date.  Op.Cit.,  Adam C a r s e : H i s t o r y o f O r c h e s t r a t i o n , London, 1925, pp. 7071. C a r s e m a i n t a i n s t h a t woodwinds were h a b i t u a l l y employed i n t h e f u l l ^ensembled f i n a l e s o f each A c t o r p r o d u c t i o n . ^See eg  note 47.  Oeuvres Completes de L u l l y , Tome 1, p. 98.  72  Moreover the f o u r t h p a r t descends to d (below middle p a r t o n l y goes as h i g h as d' i t i s p r o b a b l e bassoons o r c o n t i n u o formers  instruments.  i n t h i s number.  I t i s not  c ). 1  Since  that i t i s intended  this for either  No v i o l i n i s t s are mentioned as  per-  i m p o s s i b l e t h a t r e c o r d e r s were  expect-  ed to d o u b l e the f i r s t t h r e e l i n e s w i t h the oboes.  However, the f o u r t h  p a r t , c o n t r a r y t o P r u n i e r e s ' s u g g e s t i o n , i s not s u i t a b l e f o r e i t h e r r e 59  c o r d e r s o r oboes. The  b a l l e t , A l c i d i a n e o f 1658,  p r o v i d e s us w i t h no  r e f e r e n c e s t o oboes i n e i t h e r s c o r e o r 1 ? v r e t . Part  I I I , however, the 1 i v r e t , does  specific  In the second e n t r e e  of  indicate:  " T r o i s b e r g e r s , e t a u t a n t de b e r g e r e s . . . f o n t avec p l u s i e u r s a u t r e s un C o n c e r t R u s t i q u e , auquel un choeur de F l u s t e s e t de p l u s i e u r s a u t r e s instrumens respondent.... "60 I n c l u d e d as i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s a t t h i s p o i n t a r e t h r e e H o t t e t e r r e s , Desc o u t e a u x , two Destouches and P i e s c h e . ders a r e r e q u i r e d h e r e ;  It i s q u i t e obvious  that recor-  but the range o f the f i v e p a r t s s u g g e s t s  the  p o s s i b l e i n c l u s i o n o f oboes. In g-minor, the f i r s t a compass s u i t a b l e t o both l i n e e x h i b i t s a range o f e  l i n e i s g i v e n a range o f g' t o b ' ' - f l a t ,  recorders in f 1  to d " ;  1  The  second  t h i s would r e q u i r e performance on  a t e n o r r e c o r d e r i n c' o r an oboe i n c'.  to p e r f o r m in f.  and oboes i n c .  The  t e n o r l i n e however descends  It i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a c o n t r a b a s s r e c o r d e r i n C i s e x p e c t e d here. The p a r t i s too low f o r the s t a n d a r d bass r e c o r d e r  ^°Henry P r u n i e r e s : o f the l i v r e t o f A l c i d i a n e .  O p . C i t . , Tome I I I , p. 28  i n the  facsimile  73 to  g,  too  though, third for  low  lies  line  for  nicely  which  a bass  and  entre"e  orchestra.  hence  use o f  section  of  the  as a  Chaconne'. asmuch a s  possible,  .  .  would  is  is  f.  This  It  is  the  range o f  oboes,  tai1le  marked  range  seem l i k e l y  implied  is  line, this  since performing  music  unlikely.  in  that  by m u s i c a l  c o n c l u d e d by for is  therefore,  that  the  a  numbers a r e  some v a r i e t y  "pour  l e s mesmes":  the  tonality  the  third  the  of  of  the  orchestration,  and  evidence  part  g-minor  throughout  this  final  large of  in  two  chaconnes.  reci t,  five-part  substantial  instrumental  the  three-part  is  The  first,  a three-part  which 'Petite  'Chaconne des M a u r e s ' .  length, colour  is  it  is  In-  reasonable  required.  chaconne is  also  intended  It  to  is  for  wood-  61  ranges:  the  sharp  c'' ' .  to  first,  S i n c e the  dessus  is  i m p o s s i b l e , of  recorder  Henry neither  of  parts  in  the  a compass o f  normal  for  in  ballet.  Both dessus  not  inclusion of  part  bass  de h a u t b o i s .  same p r o b l e m s o f It  The second  that  the  Both s e l e c t i o n s m a i n t a i n  ritournelle  both  than  i n c l u d e s two more p i e c e s m a r k e d  oboes  Alcidiane  winds.  the  reproduce the  the  taille  s u g g e s t s the  five-part  expect  on t h e  and a G a v o t t e .  both  serves  recorder other  r e c o r d e r on This  an A i r ,  any  in  first f ,  e'  to c "  dessus  the  course, that  Prunieres  'Petite 1  line  woodwinds strings,  ( O p . C ? t . , Tome  these chaconnes.  Chaconne' are ;  and  the  second,  over-steps required rather  II)  given  the  must  extensive one o f  range o f  the  be o b o e s .  It  than woodwinds,  provides  g'-  are  orchestration  74 desired  i n the  ' P e t i t e Chaconne'.  S i n c e oboes have been shown to take  p a r t e l s e w h e r e i n the b a l l e t , however, the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the ment's s o n o r i t y at the end  instru-  o f the work, where l a r g e i n s t r u m e n t a l  forces  are t r a d i t i o n a l l y employed, would not be s u r p r i s i n g . The  B a l l e t de  1'Impatience was  produced i n 1661  to replace  the  not y e t  ready  planned p r e m i e r e o f C a v a l l i ' s o p e r a E r c o l e Amante which was for  staging.  titled  '8  The  t h i r d en t r i e , on page 57  in P h i l i d o r ' s score  c h e v a l i e r s dansant sans v i o l l o n s .  The  1  i s sub-  exclusion of s t r i n g s ,  o f c o u r s e , r e q u i r e s a performance on wind i n s t r u m e n t s -- e i t h e r d e r s , oboes or b o t h .  The  top f o u r l i n e s o f the f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g a l i g n  themselves i n the f o l l o w i n g Part  der  Range  gl cl c2 c3  g' - b' ' - f l a t e' - d' b - f l a t - a' c -e'-flat 1  the case i n the examples o b s e r v e d i n A l c t d i a n e , the t e n o r  i n c'  i s not c a p a b l e o f p l a y i n g the t a i 1 l e p a r t .  the top t h r e e is  way: Clef  dessus hautecontre taille quinte As was  recor-  l i n e s t o two oboes i n c' and  l i k e l y t h a t the Q u i n t e l i n e was The  encounter w i t h In the very  played  1663, 1?vret,  provides  our  but not  first  the  f i r s t entre"e o f the work ( t h a t i s , a f t e r the o u v e r t u r e groom, around whose m a r r i a g e  a c t i o n i s based, make t h e i r e n t r a n c e .  Charles  Silin,  apparently  1ivret relates:  "The  B r i d e and  It  by a bassoon.  s p e c i f i e d i n the  i n t r o d u c t o r y re"ci t ) , the b r i d e and  s u l t i n g the  assigning  i n f s o l v e s the problem.  b a l l e t , Les Nopces de V i l l a g e o f 'oboes' being  Again  recor-  Groom, conducted by v i o l i n s and  oboes,  score. and  the con-  75 ,62  y  are  the f i r s t  t o a r r i v e a t the p l a c e o f a s s e m b l y . "  Indeed, i n c l u d e d as i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s f o r t h i s e n t r e e a r e :  four Hotte-  6'?  t e r r e s [ ! ] , Descouteaux, Destouches and  Piesche.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n and ranges o f t h i s f i v e - p a r t work p r e s e n t s us w i t h a l i g n m e n t s w h i c h a r e somewhat d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e thus f a r observed: Part  Clef  dessus hautecontre tai1le quinte Of e s p e c i a l  Range  gl cl c2 c3  d - b ' b - e g - b' d - e' 1  1  1 1  i n t e r e s t here i s t h e h a u t e c o n t r e l i n e which descends  m i d d l e c' t o b - n a t u r a l .  H i t h e r t o , i t has been p o s s i b l e t o a s c r i b e the  h a u t e c o n t r e p a r t t o e i t h e r the oboe i n c' o r t h e t a ? 1 l e i n f . example makes i t c l e a r , however, a f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g f o r oboes A l a r g e number —  70% —  a range o f d' t o e " t h i s example  This  t h a t i n most c a s e s t h e second l i n e i n  i s i n t e n d e d f o r the t a ? 1 l e de h a u t b o i s .  o f the f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g s u s i n g oboes  on the h a u t e c o n t r e p a r t .  i s somewhat u n u s u a l .  The use o f the same s i z e o f  goes back a t l e a s t as f a r as Mersenne.  instru-  i s a t r a d i t i o n which  Tenor oboes and f l u t e s , f o r ex-  ample, were used on h a u t e c o n t r e and t a ? 1 l e p a r t s (see C h a p t e r s 3 and 4).  exploited  The e x t e n s i v e range i n  ment on both t a i 1 l e and h a u t e c o n t r e p a r t s , however,  whole c o n s o r t s  below  in their  respective  The t e n o r oboe would a l s o p e r -  62  Charles S i l i n : Benserade and h i s B a l l e t s de Cour, Johns Hopkins P r e s s , M a r y l a n d , 1940, p. 324. 6 3  .bid.  76 form the p a r t marked taM_l_e_ wh I c h , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , i s g i v e n a range o f g - b'.  The  l a r g e number o f woodwind i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s i n t h i s e n t r e e ,  o f c o u r s e , makes i t v e r y u n l i k e l y t h a t oboes would be used on o n l y dessus  the  1ine. J u s t b e f o r e t h i s entre*e i n Les Nopces de V i l l a g e , an  intro-  d u c t o r y rec? t i s accompanied by a t h r e e - p a r t r i t o u r n e l l e s c o r e d f o r dessus and one  bass i n s t r u m e n t .  two  T h i s r i t o u r n e l l e i s d e s c r i b e d as a  " r u s t i c harmony" and  i n v o l v e s the wind p l a y e r s o f the f i r s t errtr_ee_ des-  cribed above.^  f i r s t dessus i s g i v e n a r a t h e r e x t e n s i v e range o f  The  g' t o c ' ' , w h i l e the second i s g i v e n one o f f - s h a r p  to a " .  1  This  s h o r t number, l i k e the e n t r e e w h i c h f o l l o w s i t , i s i n the key o f G-major. In  the s i x t h e n t r d e o f Amours Dgguisez (1664), a s i t u a t i o n  where the range o f the p a r t s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p e r f o r m e r s once more suggests part Concert ing  the use o f oboes.  de Bergers  (p. 36  The  first  involved  f o u r p a r t s o f the  i n P h i l i d o r ' s s c o r e ) p r e s e n t s the  fivefollow-  arrangement: Part  Clef  dessus hautecontre tai1le quinte A l a r g e number o f p e r f o r m e r s Piesche;  Descouteaux;  Peintre;  Le Roux afne";  Ibid.  Range  gl cl c2 c3  g' - g ' d' - d' a - a' d-d' 1  1  took p a r t i n t h i s entre"e, i n c l u d i n g :  three H o t t e t e r r e s ; Chariot;  Henge*;  Destouches; La R i v i e r e ;  Besson; Roule";  Le Huguenet;  77  Le G r a i s ;  Marchand;  L a q u a i s s e and La F o n t a i n . ^  5  The s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f  s i x woodwind p l a y e r s s u g g e s t s they were used on more than one  part.  Owing t o the ranges o f the m i d d l e p a r t s , t h e r e f o r e , oboes appear t o be likely  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s entre*e. A c c o r d i n g t o Ju'rgen E p p e l s h e i m ^ , the 'Marche du Dieu  from La P r i n c e s s e d ' E l i d e o f 1664  r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t  a c t u a l l y s p e c i f i e d i n a work by L u l l y . t h a t i n 1663 ret.  Pan  1  time oboes a r e  We have a l r e a d y s e e n , however,  Les Nopces de V i l l a g e s p e c i f i e d the i n s t r u m e n t i n the  1?v-  As noted i n the l a s t c h a p t e r , the t i t l e o f t h i s entre"e i n P h i l i -  dor's s c o r e —  CP Re's. F531  "  i s 'March de H a u t b o i s pour l e Dieu  The f i v e - p a r t o r c h e s t r a a l i g n s i t s e l f as Part dessus hautecontre tai1le quinte basse  Pan'.  follows:  Clef gl cl c2 c3 fl  By f o l l o w i n g the e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n , we may  Range g' - b'' d - e'' g - a' d - e' D - c' 1  a s c r i b e oboes i n c' t o t h e  dessus p a r t , t e n o r oboes i n f t o the h a u t e c o n t r e and t a i 1 1 e p a r t s , and  67 bassoons w i t h c o n t i n u o p a r t s t o the q u i n t e and b a s s e . w r i t e r was the  The p r e s e n t  unable t o f i n d r e f e r e n c e to the i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s  1ivret of this b a l l e t .  however, we may  S i n c e oboes a r e s p e c i f i e d  assume t h a t H o t t e t e r r e , Descouteaux  listed  in  i n the s c o r e , how-  et al p a r t i c i p a t e d .  65 Of t h e s e Besson, Le P e i n t r e , Le Roux, La R i v i e r e , Roule*, Huguenet, Le G r a i s , Marchand, L a q u a i s s e and La F o n t a i n e were v i o l i n i s t s . cc O p . C i t . , pp. 104-105. ^ S e e C h a p t e r 1 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the bassoon's 7  ballet.  use i n t h i s  78 Oboes a r e once more s p e c i f i e d A v o c a l number from t h i s b a l l e t  1670.  i n Les Jeux P i t h i e n s o f  ' J o u i s s o n s des P l a i s i r s ,  i s t o be  1  on pages 118V-119V o f P h i l i d o r ' s s c o r e — CF Ris.  F657.  On  the  found  preceding  page the f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s a r e w r i t t e n : "Les f l u t e s l e s h a u t b o i s e t l e s v i o l o n s Jou'ent l ' a i r qui s u i t avant q u ' i l se c h a n t e . " The it the  a i r Is In t h r e e p a r t s , i n the key o f g-minor.  i s i n t e n d e d f o r two dessus p a r t s and a b a s s , but the arrangement o f t h r e e p a r t s does not f o l l o w the normal t r i o p a t t e r n :  p a r t I s g i v e n a c - c l e f on the f i r s t mal  It i s q u i t e c l e a r that  c l e f f o r a hautecontre  g' t o f '  and d - d ' 1  part.  line.  The  the second  T h i s , o f c o u r s e , i s the  nor-  ranges o f the two upper p a r t s --  r e s p e c t i v e l y -- c o u p l e d w i t h the t h r e e - p a r t s e t -  t i n g , s t r o n g l y suggests  t h a t two groups o f dessus i n s t r u m e n t s a r e nece-  68 ssary.  The  a b n o r m a l i t y o f t h e c ' c l e f can be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t  the two upper p a r t s a r e t e x t e d . ments would double  the v o i c e s when the l a t t e r e n t e r e d  Immediately Pre"!ude i n g-minor.  I t i s l i k e l y , moreover, t h a t the  following The  a d d i t i o n a l dessus p a r t .  the t e x t u r e .  ' J o u i s s o n s des P l a i s i r s '  'extra' voice in this  instru-  is a six-part  i n s t r u m e n t a l work i s an  S i n c e oboes were s p e c i f i e d  i n the  preceding  number, i t i s most p r o b a b l e t h a t they s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n the Pre"!ude. T h i s number p r o v i d e s an technique;  i n t e r e s t i n g example o f L u l l y ' s use o f c o n c e r t a t o  the music a l t e r n a t e s between s i x - and  three-part textures,  the t r i o s e c t i o n s b e i n g s e t f o r two dessus i n s t r u m e n t s and a b a s s .  In  S i n c e the second p a r t descends t o d', the f l u t e s r e q u i r e d here a r e p r o b a b l y o f the t r a n s v e r s e t y p e . T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the next c h a p t e r .  79  the  l a s t n i n e bars o f the work —  v o i c e s merge i n t o The second the 3-6,  a t u t t i section —  1 1  .  The  13,  17-19,  to b - f l a t ;  1  26-28 and 34.  than  i n the t r i o s e c t i o n s -- b a r s  S i n c e the o r c h e s t r a t i o n o f t r i o s i s  p r o b a b l y the same as t h a t o f the p r e c e d i n g number, we may v i o l i n s and t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e s performed The f i n a l  t h a t o f the  M  f i r s t p a r t i s g i v e n much more prominence  second, a l t h o u g h both l i n e s a r e f e a t u r e d  10,  dessus  one.  range o f the f i r s t dessus_ i s g  i s g' to a  the two  the dessus  assume t h a t  l i n e a l o n g w i t h oboes.  s c o r e t o be c o n s u l t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s t h a t f o r  Le B o u r g e o i s Gentilhomme o f 1670.  A f i v e - p a r t menuet i s f o l l o w e d by a  menuet i n t r i o on pages 92r-93r o f P h i l i d o r ' s s c o r e (CP Re's. F657).  The  69 l a t t e r has been c i t e d as L u l l y ' s f i r s t use o f the oboe t r i o . i n t h i s format — context — the  a contrasting t r i o section within a t u t t i  t h a t the oboe was  It i s orchestral  t o r e c e i v e i t s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c use a t  hands o f such composers as P u r c e l l , S c a r l a t t i and  Handel. ^ 7  The f i r s t menuet p r o p e r o f t h i s number most l i k e l y d i d not i n c l u d e the s o l o oboes o f the t r i o . The two dessus v o i c e s o f the second menuet a l i g n themselves as f o l l o w s : Part dessus dessus  Clef I II  Range  gl gl  a' - b " - f l a t g' - g ' 1  A n o t h e r p a r t o f B o u r g e o i s Gentilhomme, b e f o r e the menuet, p r e s e n t s an i n t e r e s t i n g approach t o a l t e r n a t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t a l s o n o r i t i e s .  ^See 7  J u r g e n Eppelsheim:  ^See Carse:  Op.C? t . p.  Op,Ci t . p. 76.  105.  80 A s e r i e s o f r£cits i s i n t e r r u p t e d by r i t o u r n e l l e s from pages 68v 71r.  The  through  t h r e e - p a r t r? t o u r n e l l e s , however, appear t o a l t e r n a t e between  s t r i n g s and w i n d s . trumentation;  The  f i r s t o f f o u r r i t o u r n e l l e s has no s p e c i f i e d  the second i s c a r e f u l l y marked v i o l I o n s ;  the t h i r d  has no  i n d i c a t i o n , w h i l e the f o u r t h i s once more intended  We may  i n f e r from t h i s set-up  f i r s t and  third repetitions.  Insagain  f o r v i o l Ions.  t h a t wind p l a y e r s a r e r e q u i r e d f o r the Oboes, s i n c e they a r e known t o have been  used i n the b a l l e t , a r e l i k e l y t o have p a r t i c i p a t e d . The  f i r s t dessus p a r t o f the i n i t i a l  r i t o u r n e l l e has a range  o f b' t o a " ;  the second d e s s u s , one o f a' t o a " .  nel l e p r e s e n t s  the same ranges.  well-aware  It i s obvious  t h a t by  third  1670  o f the c o l o u r i s t i c p o t e n t i a l o f the r e m o d e l l e d It has been shown t h a t , a l t h o u g h  the oboe was  i t was  scenes de champetre. same degree as was  oboe.  as a  and more u s u a l -  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h bergers  and  I t s p o t e n t i a l does not seem t o be e x p l o r e d t o the  t h a t o f the bassoon's.  s t e r e o t y p e d t a s k s , however, the oboe was  W i t h i n the l i m i t s o f i t s given parts of considerable  perform. The  i n s t r u m e n t was  expected  t o p l a y w i t h i n the normal  p a r t s t r i n g o r c h e s t r a , d o u b l i n g the t h r e e upper p a r t s . example o f t h i s p r a c t i c e o b s e r v e d  i n the s c o r e s o c c u r r e d  i n Les Nopces  the f i r s t entre"e, we  v i o l i n s and oboes.  The oboe's use w i t h i n a f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g was  to d o u b l i n g s t r i n g s :  r e c a l l , was  five-  The c l e a r e s t  de V? 1 lage (1663):  restricted  was  used q u i t e r e g u l a r l y ,  i n some t r i o s and o r c h e s t r a l numbers;  l y w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f i t s t r a d i t i o n a l  ri tour-  Lully  r e s e r v e d f o r a r a t h e r s m a l l number o f s i t u a t i o n s :  c o l o u r instrument  v a r i e t y to  The  s p e c i f i e d f o r both  i n L' Impatience (1661) the t h i r d  not entre*e  81 was  entitled  '8 C h e v a l i e r s  The o b o e s most the in  framework  of  the  r i tournel les  Ouverture) played with  and  trio  trio  served  the  number  of  where  the  were  of  and  in  instrument  in  purely  oboe doubled for  the  orchestra.  occasions,  both  (1670  notably  from  recorder  transverse  most  part,  was  addition  the  players.  flutes  used  it  -  the  In in  the it  numbers  s u c h as  the  was  Pithiens  it  menuet was  ob-  a sung r g c i t •  u s e d by  Lully  in  conjunction  consistently We h a v e of  Part  performers  in  This  on  the  Pi t h i e n s ,  same number  associated  observed  III  used t o g e t h e r .  Les Jeux the  (after 70v);  of  within  performed  68v and  second entree  that  be  pp.  recorders.  probably  fact  to  arrangement  Les Jeux  lines  were  the  In  vocal  the  this  seems  L e s N o p c e s du V i l l a g e  the  In  however,  in  instrumental  especially  recorders  course,  initially  oboes  as  use,  Le B o u r g e o i s G e n t i l h o m m e  woodwinds,  o b o e s and  stems,  violons'.  Le B o u r g e o i s G e n t i l h o m m e .  string  with other  The  re"c i t s ,  The o b o e , with  sans  characteristic  trio.  sections  in  that  to  dansant  Alcidiane, practice  early  we  a  also  oboes observed  ('Jouissons  des  Plaisirs'). The from d '  the  keys,  c "  1  of  (e.g.  the  fifteen s i x were  Gent?Ihomme  gave  instances in  o b o e was  extensively  L e s N o p c e s de V i l l a g e ) ;  Frei1lon-Poncein  1700, Of  to  range  sharp  in D-major),  tistics  we may c o n c l u d e  earlier  shawm had  of keys and that  the oboe  usual  range  treatment  (including two w e r e the  been a l l e v i a t e d  in  two  the  we  of  recall  the  keys. tuning  remodelled  that, c'  as to  seven were  selections  and  by L u l l y  o b o e as  observed,  natural  intonation in  exploited  from  Le  late  oboe.  as  d ' ' ' . in  flat  Bourgeois  From t h e s e problems  --  of  stathe  82  It must f i n a l l y be r e i t e r a t e d that both the dessus oboe in c ' and the ta?1le in f were employed by L u l l y .  The tenor has been shown  to have performed both the hautecontre and t a i 1 l e parts of L u l l y ' s f i v e part o r c h e s t r a .  In three-part s e t t i n g s , on the other hand, only the oboe  in c ' was r e q u i r e d . L u l l y ' s use of the oboe was rather methodical; in stereotyped s i t u a t i o n s no doubt determined t h i s f a t e .  i t s performance Nonetheless,  L u l l y was the f i r s t to explore the p o s s i b i l i t y of i t s use in the orchest r a l idiom, and his development of the oboe t r i o a f t e r Its  f i r s t use in  Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme of 1670 e s t a b l i s h e d a pattern which was to be e x p l o i t e d e x t e n s i v e l y throughout the next century.  CHAPTER I I I THE  As was  the case w i t h the oboe, by the e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h  t u r y the f l u t e was dition.  FLUTE  a well-established  instrument w i t h a very long  Of a l l European woodwinds, the f l u t e has, p e r h a p s ,  history.  That the f l u t e was  t e d t o the f a c t t h a t , b e f o r e h a n d ,  instrument-makers'  this  f l u t e was  the l o n g e s t  Another  may  be  attribu-  i n s t r u m e n t ' s s t r u c t u r e and  func-  reason f o r the l a t e r date o f the  f l u t e ' s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s the d i f f i c u l t y which a p p a r e n t l y encountered  tra-  one o f the l a s t woodwinds t o r e c e i v e r e -  m o d e l l i n g a t the hands o f the French  t i o n s were w e l 1 - s t a n d a r d i z e d .  cen-  in this undertaking.  Hotteterre:and h i s c i r c l e  Baines notes t h a t the  new  the l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l o f a l l the woodwind remodel l i n g s because 2  i t "...  was  the h a r d e s t t o p l a y r e a l l y w e l l , and  The  problems we have a l r e a d y observed  the term, h a u t b o i s , a r e s e v e r e l y m a g n i f i e d flQte.  i n tune". s u r r o u n d i n g the use o f  i n the case o f the name,  Not o n l y does f 1 u t e s e r v e t o i n d i c a t e both the o l d e r and  forms o f the i n s t r u m e n t  i n French s o u r c e s , but  i t i s a l s o the name o f an  i n s t r u m e n t o f an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s -- the r e c o r d e r . what i n s t r u m e n t i s r e f e r r e d t o by " f 1 u t e " , e s p e c i a l l y century sources, i s f r e q u e n t l y very d i f f i c u l t .  newer  The  Knowing  in seventeenth-  difficulty  is  com-  We have seen i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r t h a t a l e t t e r by L a B a r r e r e f e r r i n g t o v a r i o u s woodwinds, s t a t e s : "La f l u t e t r a v e r s i e r e n'est venue qu' apre*s..." T h i s w i l l be t r e a t e d i n more d e t a i l below. 2 Anthony B a i n e s : Woodwind Instruments and London, Faber and Faber, 3rd e d i t . , 1967, p. 291.  their  History.  8k pounded by v i r t u e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y m u s i c i a n n i z e s " f l u t e " as t h e t r a n s v e r s e type i n common p r a c t i c e ; t e e n t h - c e n t u r y m u s i c i a n s , on t h e o t h e r hand, most o f t e n " f l u t e " as t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f t h e r e c o r d e r v a r i e t y .  t h e seveninterpreted  Before  t o d e c i p h e r t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e term f 1 u t e , we w i l l  recog-  attempting  t r a c e t h e deve-  lopment o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f t h e t r a n s v e r s e t y p e . The  t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e entered the e a r l y seventeenth  century i n  3  a family o f three b a s i c s i z e s :  a d i s c a n t , an a l t o o r t e n o r , and a b a s s .  These i n s t r u m e n t s had u n i f o r m l y c y l i n d r i c a l a mouth h o l e a c r o s s which  b o r e s , s i x f i n g e r h o l e s , and  t h e p l a y e r ' s b r e a t h was d i r e c t e d t o i n i t i a t e  sound v i b r a t i o n s a l o n g the l e n g t h o f t h e bore.  With t h e e x c e p t i o n o f  the bass , t h e f l u t e s were made i n one s e c t i o n , u s u a l l y o f boxwood. T h e i r sound was a p p a r e n t l y loud and c l e a r , o f e x t e n s i v e range, and, a c c o r d i n g t o Baines"', s u i t a b l e f o r o u t d o o r s  use. The i n s t r u m e n t was,  t h e r e f o r e , e x c e e d i n g l y s i m p l i s t i c Jn i t s s t r u c t u r e , a f a c t w h i c h , no doubt, accounts  f o r t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e data on f l u t e s p r o v i d e d by  w r i t e r s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . P r a e t o r i u s ' d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f l u t e i n h i s De o f 1619 i s so s h o r t t h a t i t may be quoted "The  Organographia  in i t s entirety  here:  C r o s s F l u t e ( I t a l i a n , t r a v e r s a o r f i f f a r o ) has  The m i d d l e s i z e o f t h e f l u t e f a m i l y p l a y e d both a l t o and tenor p a r t s i n a f o u r - p a r t consort.  Z, Baines:  The bass f l u t e was o f t e n made i n two s e c t i o n s . O p . C i t . , p. 2 5 0 .  See Anthony  5  Ibid. Baines mentions, upper r e g i s t e r was q u i t e " h a r s h " .  i n a d d i t i o n , t h a t t h e sound i n t h e  85  s i x h o l e s i n f r o n t and none i n back. I t produces f i f t e e n n a t u r a l tones and f o u r f a l s e t t o tones ^ b e s i d e s , thus n i n e t e e n i n a l l , j u s t as the c o r n e t . " Mersenne p r o v i d e s a much more s u b s t a n t i a l d i s c u s s i o n o f the f l u t e Proposition  IX o f the F i f t h Book o f h i s Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e .  s p e c i a l note o f the f l u t e ' s c y l i n d r i c a l  in  He makes  bore:  " I t i s d r i l l e d w i t h equal t h i c k n e s s a l l the way, which does not happen i n a l l s o r t s o f Chalumeaus, as I s h a l l say e l s e w h e r e , and t h i s t h i c k n e s s i s of eight 1ines."7 Mersenne d e s c r i b e s  and  d i m e n s i o n s he s u p p l i e s t h a t he  diagrams one  f l u t e i n some d e t a i l ;  a l e n g t h o f 23i  i s r e f e r r i n g to a tenor f l u t e .  i n c h e s -Of  i t may  from  the  be deduced  t h i s i n s t r u m e n t he  writes:  8  " t h i s f l u t e s e r v e s as t r e b l e i n the p a r t s . . . " t h a t the  range o f the f l u t e i s two  confusing  t a b l a t u r e which g i v e s  dle c').  The  and  ordinary  a h a l f o c t a v e s , shows a  the f l u t e ' s lowest note as g  number o f the f a m i l y —  not g, as a f u n d a m e n t a l .  g f o r a lowest n o t e ;  and  Mersenne, a f t e r s t a t i n g  Curiously,  i t is d i f f i c u l t  (below mid-  the t e n o r f l u t e -- has  i t i s the bass f l u t e w h i c h  t o e x p l a i n why  d', has  Mersenne s h o u l d  show the range o f a bass f l u t e when h i s d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n s the A second t a b l a t u r e and  rather  f i n g e r i n g c h a r t , however, does show the  tenor. tenor  Michael P r a e t o r i u s : Syntagma Musicum, I I : De O r g a n o g r a p h i a , t rans. by Ha ro1d B1umen f e 1 d , N.Y., B a r e n r e i t e r , 1962, p. 35. There i s a subsequent paragraph d e s c r i b i n g the Swiss, f i f e . M a r i n Mersenne: Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e , t r a n s , by Roger E. Chapman, The Hague, 1957, Book 5, Prop. IX, p. 310. The modern e q u i v a l e n t o f the bore's d i a m e t e r i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 18mm. 7  86 flute's  range as d' - g ' ' ,  one  1  tone l e s s than the ' n i n e t e e n t h '  Mer-  9 senne s u g g e s t s  in his text.  A l t h o u g h mention i s made o f the t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e i n subsequent y e a r s o f the s e v e n t e e n t h available until  c e n t u r y , no a d d i t i o n a l  c l o s e t o 1700.  t e c h n i c a l d a t a i s made  Most modern s c h o l a r s concur  t h a t , as  the case w i t h the oboe, a group o f P a r i s i a n w o o d - t u r n e r s and  was  instrument-  makers e f f e c t e d e x t e n s i v e remodel l i n g s o f the t e n o r f l u t e sometime b e f o r e  10 the end o f the s e v e n t e e n t h bot —  however, who  century.  g i v e s us our f i r s t  I t i s an Englishman  -- James T a l -  l o o k a t the r e m o d e l l e d  flute."'  12 Sometime around 1690, T a l b o t d e s c r i b e s an i n s t r u m e n t i n t h r e e s e c t i o n s , 1707 the f i r s t p u b l i s h e d t u t o r t o d i s c u s s the r e m o d e l l e d f l u t e a p p e a r s : w i t h s i x f i n g e r h o l e s , and one keyed h o l e f o r the n o t e , d'-sharp. In J a c q u e s - M a r t i n H o t t e t e r r e ' s P r i n c i p e s de l a F l u t e T r a v e r s i e r e , ou F l u t e D'Allemagne, de l a F l u t e a bee, ou f l u t e douce, e t du h a u t - b o i s . i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the f l u t e i n t h i s t r e a t i s e show an  The  instrument w i t h a  t a p e r i n g b o r e , and much more e l a b o r a t e t u r n e r y i n i t s outward a p p e a r a n c e . We may  conclude  from s o u r c e s o f the l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h and  early  e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h e x t a n t i n s t r u m e n t s from t h a t p e r i o d ,  9 Ibid  p.  311.  10  See, f o r example B a i n e s : London, Benn ; 1969.  11 March,  1948.  12  See  Baines:  Op .C ? t . ;  P h i l l i p Bate:  The  Flute,  'James T a l b o t ' s M a n u s c r i p t " , Gal p i n Soc. J . I ,  A c c o r d i n g t o Bate:  Op .C i t . p.  84.  87 that  the following  C.I69O:  an i n v e r s e l y  a closed d'-sharp or  four  features  sections  appeared on t h e f l u t e  conical  bore  key appeared;  between  replaced the older  the instrument  cylindrical one;  was c o n s t r u c t e d  i n s t e a d o f i n one p i e c e as f o r m e r l y ;  scale o f the instrument  was D , s h o w i n g  that  I636 a n d  in  three  and the n a t u r a l  the older  alto/tenor  flute  13 was c o n s i d e r e d m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e out  that  not the e n t i r e  head j o i n t ,  flattening  for  effect  the hands.  slightly  The tonal  fife-like  'sweeter'  of  flutes  o f the bore  as a r e s u l t , reducing  had a  the f i n g e r the stretch  are well  this  becomes p u r e r ,  sonority'**  pronounced t o the g e n e r a t i o n treatment  productions.'  recorders, r e -  o f the remodelling  "With  bore  t h e tone  The  summarifree  shrillness...."'"'  The  stereotyped  pitch;  closer together,  effects  z e d by B a i n e s , who w r i t e s : from  shape o f t h e r e s t  on t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s  s h o u l d be p o i n t e d  b o r e was c o n i c a l .  o f the contemporary  The c o n i c a l  c o u l d be d r i l l e d  It  o f t h e new f l u t e ' s  probably in imitation 14  mained c y l i n d r i c a l .  holes  length  for remodelling.  7  first  - - usually  o f t h e new f l u t e w a s , n o d o u b t , encountering  restricted  The f l u t e  i n t h e scSnes de sommeil o f  Besides assuming t h i s  was f u r t h e r  it.  stereotyped  by c e r t a i n  received  dramatic  u s a g e , t h e employment  deficiencies  in that  ' See Bate: O p . C i t . , p . 7 7 ; a n d Adam C a r s e : Musical I n s t r u m e n t s , L o n d o n , M a c M i l l a n a n d C o . , 1939, P P - 8 4 - 8 5 . J  most  instru-  Wind  14 See B a t e :  Op.C11.,  p. 7 7 .  ' 0 p . C ? t . , p. 2 9 0 . 5  'Sate: Musicale,  O p . C i t . , p. 8 0 .  ' S e e Henry P r u n i e r e s : "Lully Num^ro S p e c i a l , 1 9 2 5 , p . kO. 7  e t 1 'Ope*ra F r a n c a i s " L a R e v u e  88  ment.  The  conical  bore o f the newer d e s i g n —  ed i n the f l u t e ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o n o r i t y — ious i n t o n a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s .  The  the f e a t u r e w h i c h also resulted  g'-sharp and g''-sharp —  in quite ser-  f o l l o w i n g tones on the e a r l y  l e d f l u t e were o f t e n so bad as t o be u n u s a b l e :  result-  b ' - f l a t -- too  both s h a r p , e s p e c i a l l y the l o w e r ;  remodelsharp;  f-sharp 18  and  f'-sharp  —  Indeed, the new throughout  just slightly f l a t ;  i t s range;  and f  -- q u i t e s h a r p .  1  H o t t e t e r r e , i n the f i n g e r i n g - c h a r t o f h i s P r ? n 1  Carse  f  f l u t e seems t o have had not a s i n g l e good f - n a t u r a l  c i pes... , o m i t s h i g h f ' , a l t h o u g h f ings.  and  M  '-sharp and g ' 1 1  In s h o r t , the b e s t keys f o r the new  are given  finger-  f l u t e were G and D major.  maintains: 11 P r o v i d e d they were not c a l l e d upon to p l a y i n keys v e r y remote from the f o u n d a t i o n key o f D, they e v i d e n t l y s a t i s f i e d the p l a y e r s and composers o f  D e s p i t e the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by t h i s f a u l t y  i n t o n a t i o n , the  flutes  increased t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y with astonishing r a p i d i t y a f t e r t h e i r d u c t i o n t o the French  i n s t r u m e n t a l ensembles.  An a c c u r a t e d a t i n g o f the r e m o d e l l e d i n France  flute's f i r s t  i s a matter of c o n s i d e r a b l e controversy.  We  18  was  We  recall  'second-  t h a t de l a B a r r e , w r i t i n g  r e f e r r i n g to the d e c l i n e o f the musette d u r i n g  See B a i n e s :  19 C a r s e :  l e t t e r s and  have a l r e a d y made r e f e r e n c e t o a l e t t e r o f M i c h e l  de l a B a r r e i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . i n about 1730,  appearance  T h e o r e t i c a l sources  l a c k i n g , we a r e f o r c e d t o r e l y , f o r the most p a r t , on hand' i n f o r m a t i o n .  intro-  O p . C i t . , pp.  O p . C i t . p.  87.  291-292.  the  89  time o f L u l l y .  He s t a t e s i n p a r t :  " S i n c e t h a t time the musettes were l e f t t o the shepherds; v i o l i n s , r e c o r d e r s , theorboes and v i o l s taking t h e i r p l a c e , f o r the transverse f l u t e d i d n ' t come t i l l later." 2 0  21 Modern s c h o l a r s f l u t e ' s appearance  have drawn h e a v i l y on t h i s statement t o d a t e t h e a t c.1670.  P h i l l i p B a t e , adds t h a t even Quantz, i n  h i s Versuch e i n e r Anweisung d i e F l u t e T r a v e r s i e r e zu s p i e l e n o f 1752, was u n c e r t a i n as t o t h e time and p l a c e o f t h e r e m o d e l l e d f l u t e ' s appear ance.  Quantz w r i t e s : "The e x a c t time when t h i s improvement was made, and who i t s o r i g i n a t o r was, cannot be f i x e d w i t h c e r t a i n t y , a l t h o u g h I have spared no p a i n s t o d i s c o v e r r e l i a b l e answers. In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y the improvement was made l e s s than a c e n t u r y ago; i t was no doubt, undertaken i n France a t t h e same time t h a t t h e shawm was developed i n t o t h e oboe, and t h e bombard i n t o t h e b a s s o o n . " 2 2  Quantz' c.1670.  s t a t e m e n t c e r t a i n l y does not c o n t r a d i c t Bate's e s t i m a t e o f B a t e , however, seems t o i g n o r e i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n La  B a r r e ' s l e t t e r , i n f o r m a t i o n which when a n a l y z e d , s u g g e s t s h i s d a t e o f 1670 s h o u l d be advanced.  I f , i n d e e d , the f l u t e was r e m o d e l l e d a t t h e  same time as t h e oboe, then Bate's date may be pushed as t e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r s , and s t i l l suggested by Quantz.  back by as much  f a l l w i t h i n the hundred  L e t us r e t u r n t o La B a r r e ' s  year  limit  letter.  C i t e d i n E c o r c h e v I 1 l e : "Quelques documents s u r l a musique de La Grande E c u r i e du R o i " , S.I-M.G., V o l . I I , 1900-1901, p. 633-  ?1 N o t a b l y Adam C a r s e :  O p . C i t . and P h i l l i p Bate:  Op.Cit.  22 J . J . Quantz: On P l a y i n g t h e F l u t e , t r a n s , by E. R. R e i l l y , London, Faber and F a b e r , 1966, p. 3 0 , paragraph 5.  90 In r e f e r e n c e  t o the o l d e r musette's d i s a p p e a r a n c e from t h e  normal ensemble, La Barre r e l a t e s : "... t h e v i o l i n s , r e c o r d e r s , theorboes and v i o l s took t h e i r p l a c e , f o r t h e t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e d i d not come t i l l l a t e r . I t was P h i l b e r t [ s i c ] who f i r s t p l a y e d i t [ t h e f l u t e ] i n F r a n c e and then a l m o s t a t t h a t same time Descoteaux [ s i c ] ; t h e k i n g f o r whom, a l o n g w i t h h i s e n t i r e c o u r t , t h i s i n s t r u m e n t was i n f i n i t e l y p l e a s i n g , added two more p o s i t i o n s t o t h e 4 e x i s t i n g musettes de Po i t o u , and p r e s e n t e d them t o P h i l b e r t and Descoteaux; t h e s e two have t o l d me many times t h a t t h e k i n g , . I n g i v i n g them t h e p o s i t i o n s , informed them t h a t he s t r o n g l y w i s h e d t h a t a l l the s i x musettes s h o u l d be changed o v e r t o t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e s , f o r they [ t h e f l u t e s ] would at l e a s t be u s e f u l , i n t h a t t h e musettes were o n l y s u i t e d t o having p e a s a n t - l a d i e s dance."23 La B a r r e ' s  understanding  o f the s i t u a t i o n  i s q u i t e t e n a b l e when one con-  s i d e r s t h a t he s t u d i e d under b o t h Descouteaux and P h i l i b e r t  Rebilli  24 (i.e.  Philbert).  Moreover, t h i s  information  i s substantiated, i n part  25  by Quantz, who a l s o c i t e s P h i l i b e r t as t h e f i r s t m a s t e r o f t h e new f l u t e .  23  *  T h i s l e t t e r i s c i t e d f u l l y i n M. B e n o i t : Musiques de Cour, P a r i s , J . P i c a r d , 1971, p. 455; l e s v i o l o n s , l e s f l u t e s douces, les t h e o r b e s e t l e s v i o l e s p r i r e n t l e u r p l a c e , c a r l a f l u t e t r a v e r s s i e r e n'est venue qu'apre"s. C'est P h i l i b e r t q u i en a j o u e r l e p r e m i e r en F r a n c e , et p u i s presque dans l e meme temps, D e s c o t e a u x ; l e r o y a u s i b i e n que t o u t e sa c o u r , a q u i c e t i s t r u m e n t [ s i c ] p l u t i n f i n i m e n t , a d i o u t a deus charges aux q u a t r e s musettes de P o i t o u , e t l e s donna a P h i l b e r t e t Desc o t e a u x , e t i l s m'ont d i t p l u s i e u r s f o i s que l e r o y l e u r s a v o i t d i t en l e s l e u r donnant q u ' i l s o u h a i t o i t f o r t que l e s s i x musettes f u e s s e n t metamorphoses en f l u t e s t r a v e r s i e r e s , qu'amoins e l l e s s e r o i e n t u t i l l e s , au l i e u que l e s musettes n ' e s t o i e n t p r o p r e qu'a f a i r e d a n s s e r l e s p a i sanes".  24  See M. B e n o i t : V e r s a i l l e s e t l e s m u s i c i e n s du Ro?, P a r i s , A. e t J . P i c a r d , 1971, p. 224E-  25  Op.C i t . ,  paragraph 6, p. 30.  91 In e s s e n c e ,  La B a r r e t e l l s us t h a t as a r e s u l t o f the b r i l l i a n t  p l a y i n g o f both Descouteaux and  P h i l i b e r t , two  flute  p o s i t i o n s i n the Hautbo?s  et M u s e t t e s de P o i t o u were c r e a t e d , so t h a t the two i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s c o u l d q u i c k l y e n t e r the c o u r t ' s s e r v i c e . The  Hautbois  et M u s e t t e s de P o i t o u , a l o n g w i t h the o t h e r  four  26  departments o f La Grande E c u r i e du Ro?, a finely structured institution.  I t was  was,  more than a n y t h i n g  else,  c r e a t e d i n the s i x t e e n t h cen27  t u r y t o accommodate f o u r p l a y e r s o f the i n s t r u m e n t s t h e r e was  c a l l e d , de Po? t o u :  a ta?11e de h a u t b o i s e t b a s s - c o n t r e de m u s e t t e ;  h a u t b o i s e t j o u e u r de cornemuses;  a tai1le  a dessus de h a u t b o i s and a  de  basse-  28  c o n t r e e t dessus de m u s e t t e .  The  p o s i t i o n s were g r a n t e d  for l i f e ,  u s u a l l y were c o n t r o l l e d by a few f a m i l i e s , g e n e r a t i o n a f t e r By the m i d - s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , o f c o u r s e , the de Pb?tou were o s t e n s i b l y o b s o l e t e .  and  generation.  instruments  By the s e v e n t i e s , the p l a y e r s o f t h i s  insti-  t u t i o n were most f r e q u e n t l y p l a y i n g r e c o r d e r s , f l u t e s o r oboes, and 29 usually a l l three. ment and  The  traditional  n o m e n c l a t u r e o f both the  the p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n i t , n o n e t h e l e s s  revolution. 26  I t was  was  maintained  depart-  until  the  w i t h i n t h i s group t h a t two p o s i t i o n s were c r e a t e d  Les T r o m p e t t e s ; Les Tambours e t F i f r e s ; Les V i o l o n s , hautbo? s, sacquebouttes et c o r n e t s ; and Les cromornes e t t r o m p e t t e s mari nes. 27 These i n s t r u m e n t s , l i k e crumhorns, had t h e i r d o u b l e reeds enclosed in capsules. ^ Ecorchevi1le: 8  Op.C i t . , p.  633.  29 A l a r g e r r e s e r v o i r f o r c o u r t o b o i s t s , o f c o u r s e , was Douze Grands Hautbois du R o i .  the  92 for to  t h e two v i r t u o s o s , P h i l i b e r t and Descouteaux, q u i t e a t e s t i m o n i a l their flute-playing  capabilities.  T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f La B a r r e ' s l e t t e r e s t a b l i s h e d , i t i s o n l y n e c e s s a r y t o attempt t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d a t e o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e two new p o s i t i o n s .  La B a r r e ' s l e t t e r i s m i s l e a d i n g i n two r e s p e c t s :  f i r s t o f a l l , one i n f e r s t h a t P h i l i b e r t mastered t h e f l u t e a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same t i m e Descouteaux d i d ;  secondly, i t i s implied  that  P h i l i b e r t g a i n e d e n t r a n c e t o t h e h a u t b o i s e t musettes de P o i t o u b e f o r e Descouteaux. E c o r c h e v i l l e surmizes that a f i f t h p o s i t i o n  i n t h e h a u t b o i s de  30 P o i t o u was c r e a t e d between 1647 and 1662; the  we may be more p r e c i s e .  In  E t a t des o f f i c i e r s de l a maison du Roi o f 1661, s i x names appear  under H a u t b o i s e t M u z e t t e s de P o i t o u : dessus de h a u l b o i s de P o i c t o u ;  " F r a n c o i s P i g n o n d i t Descouteaux,  Jean Brunet e t Jean L o u i s son f i l s ,  b a s s e c o n t e e t dessus de muzette de P o i c t o u ; h a u l b o i s e t b a s s e c o n t e de muzette de P o i c t o u ;  Jean D e s t o u c h e s , t a i l i e de P i e r r e Puche [ i . e .  P i e s c h e ] , t a i l i e de h a u l b o i s e t j o u e u r de cornemuze;  Jean H a u t e t e r r e ,  31 dessus de h a u b o i s [ s i c ] de P o i c t o u " .  We n o t i c e t h a t , a l t h o u g h s i x  names a p p e a r , o n l y f i v e p o s i t i o n s a r e l i s t e d .  The e x t r a name i s o b v i o u s -  l y Jean B r u n e t ' s s o n , Jean L o u i s , f o r o n l y one p o s i t i o n f o l l o w s names:  dessus e t b a s s e c o n t e de muzette de P o i c t o u .  one o f t h e f o u r o r i g i n a l ones.  T h i s p o s i t i o n was  The a d d i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n , s u p p o s e d l y  O p . C i t . , p. 63'K Benoit:  their  O p . C i t . , p. 4.  93 c r e a t e d by t h e k i n g , i s a new dessus de h a u t b o i s h e l d by F r a n c o i s Pignon Descouteaux.  de P o i t o u , and i t i s  In s i m i l a r documents o f 1664, t h e 32  number l i s t e d b e s i d e p o s i t i o n s i n t h e H a u t b o i s de P o i t o u i s f i v e ; names l i s t e d a r e the same as those o f 1661, e x c e p t t h a t Jean Brunet has been removed. teaux was g r a n t e d sometime b e f o r e The  We may c o n c l u d e ,  a newly-created  Louis  then, that Francois  p o s i t i o n i n the h a u t b o i s  the  Descou-  de P o i t o u  1661.  present  w r i t e r has found t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t C o u r t  t o Descouteaux i s 1657,  In t h e p r o d u c t i o n  o f L'Amour Ma l a d e .  reference Taking  p a r t w i t h Descouteaux i n t h i s s p e c t a c l e were Jean H o t t e t e r r e w i t h h i s two  s o n s , and D e s t o u c h e s , among o t h e r woodwind p l a y e r s .  t h i s b a l l e t was t h e f i r s t  t o i n c l u d e t h e r e m o d e l l e d oboes.  p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t Descouteaux was g r a n t e d oboe-playing,  We r e c a l l  and n o t , as La B a r r e  I t seems  a new p o s i t i o n f o r h i s  relates, forhis flute-playing ability.  It Is l i k e l y t h a t o n l y a f t e r P h i l i b e r t ' s m a s t e r i n g  o f the new f l u t e d i d  Descouteaux d e v o t e h i s s k i l l s t o i t , becoming a g r e a t master and himself. first  T h i s would c o n f i r m La B a r r e ' s  teacher  i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t P h i l i b e r t was  t o p l a y t h e new f l u t e , and t h a t Descouteaux f o l l o w e d h i s lead  shortly thereafter.  The f i f t h p o s i t i o n i n t h e H a u t b o i s e t M u s e t t e s de  P o ? t o u , t h e r e f o r e , was p r o b a b l y The  situation  P h i l i b e r t Rebille". again  that  lists  created  i s not n e a r l y so s t r a i g h t forward  In 1666,  i n t h e case o f  t h e E t a t des O f f i c i e r s de l a Maison du R o i  t h e s i x names o f the h a u t b o i s  ' I b i d . , p. 9.  i n 1657.  e t muzettes de P o i t o u  that  94 appeared i n 1661; In 1667  a g a i n the s u p e r f l u o u s member i s Jean L o u i s  seven names appear:  his father, Pierre; h i s f a t h e r , Jean;  Jean B r u n e t ;  Michel Destouches;  The  Piesche, replacing  and Jean L o u i s  Brunet  l a s t two named r e c e i v e s p e c i a l men-  " ( l e d . [ i t ] Jean L o u i s e s t f i l z de Jean B r u n e t , e t i l n'a  certificat)  33  Martin Hotteterre, replacing  F r a n c o i s Pignon Descouteaux;  w i t h Phi 1 e b e r t . [s i c] R e b i l l e " . tion:  Anthoine  Brunet.  [ P h i l e b e r t R e b i l l e e s t recu a sa p l a c e .  Nota:  p o i n t de  point  34 d'employ]". entrance  This information i n d i c a t e s t h a t P h i l i b e r t Rebille" gained  t o the group o f h a u t b o i s de P o i t o u i n 1667  young Jean L o u i s B r u n e t . created s i x t h position  by r e p l a c i n g a v e r y  P h i l i b e r t appears t o have been g i v e n a newly-  i n the group;  t h a t y e a r show t h a t t h e r e were now  i n d e e d , a d d i t i o n a l expenses f o r  s i x p o s i t i o n s i n the group:  "Pour  un h a b l l l e m e n t complet de s i x j o u e u r s de h a u t b o i s , cornemuses e t musettes  35 de Poitou--Ne"ant".  I t i s not u n t i l  1670  c e r n i n g the c r e a t i o n o f the s i x t h p o s i t i o n  t h a t an o f f i c i a l  document con-  in favour of P h i l i b e r t  appears  The document, however, i s most i l l u m i n a t i n g . It states: "Retenue de H a u t b o i s , m u s e t t e e t f l u t e de P o i t o u o r d i n a i r e de l a Grande E c u r i e , en f a v e u r de P h i l l i p e s R e b e l l i [ s i c ] , s u c c e s s e u r de Jean  33 Jean L o u i s appears In t h e s e . l i s t i n g s , no d o u b t , as an eventual successor to h i s f a t h e r ' s p o s i t i o n . In 1666 Jean L o u i s must have been much too young t o take an a c t i v e r o l e i n t h i s group, f o r as l a t e as 1677 he i s r e f e r r e d to as b e i n g not y e t e i g h t e e n y e a r s o f age. (See B e n o i t : Op.C ? t . , p. 54.) A l t h o u g h no d e f i n i t e b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e t o the p r e s e n t w r i t e r , documents from the E c u r i e o f 1678 suggest t h a t J e a n - L o u i s turned e i g h t e e n t h a t y e a r . In 1666, t h e r e f o r e , he was l i k e l y o n l y s i x y e a r s o f age.  34  I b i d . , p. 18. 3 5  I b i d -, p.  18.  Editorial  b r a c k e t s a r e i n the o r i g i n a l .  95 Louis Brunet, d e m i s s i o n a i r e . To t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r ' s knowledge t h i s  36 i s the f i r s t  t i t l e o f a member o f t h e H a u t b o i s e t Musettes to  i n d i c a t e the a c t u a l  time t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  de P o i t o u was a d j u s t e d  i n s t r u m e n t t h e p e r f o r m e r used.  I t i s good p r o o f ,  moreover, t h a t P h i l i b e r t e n t e r e d t h e Court as a f l u t e - p l a y e r . We may c o n c l u d e t h a t La B a r r e ' s l e t t e r the c r e a t i o n o f t h e f i f t h p o s i t i o n  incorrectly ascribes  i n t h e Hautbois e t M u s e t t e s  to Descouteaux' f l u t e - p l a y i n g a b i l i t y .  de P o i t o u  In t h e c a s e o f P h i l i b e r t and t h e  s i x t h p o s i t i o n , however, t h i s would indeed seem t o be t h e c a s e .  It i s  l i k e l y t h a t , s h o r t l y a f t e r P h i l i b e r t ' s a r r i v a l , Descouteaux took up t h e transverse  flute. The  f l u t e s p l a y e d by Descouteaux and P h i l i b e r t  i n the l a t e  s i x t i e s and e a r l y s e v e n t i e s were most p r o b a b l y o f t h e r e m o d e l l e d verse type.  trans-  The o l d e r t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e o f Mersenne's time had n o t been  a popular concert instrument i n France.  M o r e o v e r , t h e r e was no d e p a r t -  ment o f t h e Grande E c u r i e i n t h e e a r l i e r s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t c o u l d 37  i n c l u d e such an i n s t r u m e n t . (In  In a d d i t i o n , C h a r l e s de  h i s O e u v r e s, 1740, I I I , p. 294)  Saint-Evremond  s u g g e s t s t h a t f l u t e c o n c e r t s were  38 unknown i n France b e f o r e 1659.  When t h e t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e d i d f i n a l l y  36 I b i d . , p. 18.  Y e t a n o t h e r document i s l i s t e d on p. 37.  37 The f ? f r e s e t t a b o u r s c o u l d i n c l u d e f i f e s , which i n Mersenne's time were s i m i l a r t o t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e s , but o f a s m a l l e r range. They were, however, r e s e r v e d f o r m i l i t a r y use.  38  C i t e d i n A l b e r t Cohen: "A s t u d y o f i n s t r u m e n t a l ensemble p r a c t i c e i n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y F r a n c e " , G a l p i n S o c i e t y J o u r n a l , n15, 1962, p. 5. (  96 f i n d a p l a c e i n E c u r i e , t h e n , i t was most l i k e l y a f t e r the r e m o d e l l ing  p r o c e s s had o c c u r r e d . There Is documentation  which suggests t h a t P h i l i b e r t was  g a i n i n g renown as a f l u t e - p l a y e r w e l l b e f o r e 1670. in  Records o f a t r i a l  1679, i n which Jean Brunet's (a member o f t h e E c u r i e ) w i f e was found  g u i l t y o f p o i s o n i n g her husband i n 1672, g i v e an account o f t h e m u s i c making a c t i v i t y  i n which P h i l i b e r t  participated:  "Madame Brunet was m a r r i e d t o a f i n e b o u r g e o i s of P o r t S t - L a n d r y i n t h e c i t y . M and Mme Brunet used t o r e c e i v e many g u e s t s , f o r t h e r e was always good music-making a t t h e i r house. The f a s h i o n a b l e f l u t e - p l a y e r , P h i l b e r t [ s i c ] R e b i l l e , c a l l e d P h i l b e r t [ s i c ] , now a m u s i c i a n of the K i n g , made h i m s e l f heard t h e r e h a b i t u a l l y . Brunet adored t h e f l u t e p l a y e r f o r the a g r e e a b i l i t y of his talent "39 -  A l t h o u g h t h i s document f a i l s t o s p e c i f y the type o f f l u t e upon w h i c h P h i l i b e r t p e r f o r m e d , we may assume, from o t h e r s o u r c e s c i t e d above, t h a t i t was a t r a n s v e r s e one. P h i l i b e r t was f i r s t  I t was through these c o n c e r t s , no d o u b t ,  i n t r o d u c e d t o B r u n e t , and s u b s e q u e n t l y g a i n e d  that spon-  40 s o r s h l p i n t o t h e h a u t b o i s e t musettes de P o i t o u .  Since the f l u t e -  • ^ C i t e d i n Ecorchevi11e: O p . C i t . , p. 634. T h i s t r i a l i s a most famous one. Much o f P h i l i b e r t ' s fame may be owing t o h i s a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the scandalous a f f a i r . Jean B r u n e t , who was so p l e a s e d w i t h the c o n c e r t s P h i l i b e r t gave a t h i s home, o f f e r e d t h e f l u t e - p l a y e r t h e hand o f h i s d a u g h t e r . Mme B r u n e t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , f e l l i n l o v e w i t h P h i l i b e r t . A f t e r she had d i s p o s e d o f her husband, she m a r r i e d P h i l i b e r t . When she was d i s c o v e r e d and l a t e r hanged, t h e f l u t e - p l a y e r was i m p r i s o n e d f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d , d u r i n g which he d i s a p p e a r s from a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e Ecurie.  40 We r e c a l l t h a t i n 1667 Jean Brunet's s o n , Jean L o u i s , was removed from the group i n f a v o u r o f P h i l i b e r t . This i s probably another m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f Brunet's a d m i r a t i o n f o r him.  97 p l a y e r e n t e r e d the E c u r i e as e a r l y as 1667, which he was  some o f the c o n c e r t s i n  heard a t the Brunet's must have o c c u r r e d sometime b e f o r e  that date. We may l e a s t 1667.  c o n c l u d e t h a t a r e m o d e l l e d f l u t e was  a v a i l a b l e by a t  It i s u n l i k e l y , as a l r e a d y o b s e r v e d , t h a t Descouteaux,  when he e n t e r e d the E c u r i e i n 1657,  was  a flute player.  Nonetheless,  i t can be seen t h a t the a c t u a l p r o c e s s o f r e m o d e l l i n g must have been initiated  i n the v e r y l a t e f i f t i e s o r e a r l y s i x t i e s .  w i t h Quantz' statement tury o l d in  t h a t the r e m o d e l l e d f l u t e was  T h i s date  agrees  l e s s than a c e n -  1752.  There i s m u s i c a l e v i d e n c e which bears out our h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the f l u t e was As w i l l  1657-1670.  a v a i l a b l e f o r use In the e a r l y b a l l e t s o f L u l l y ,  be shown p r e s e n t l y , however, i t i s o n l y a t the v e r y end o f  p e r i o d t h a t they make t h e i r i n i t i a l  this  appearance i n L u l l y ' s b a l l e t o r c h e s -  tras.  The  Flute in L u l l y ' s Early The  to  Ballets  s a m p l i n g taken from L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s w i t h r e f e r e n c e  the f l u t e w i l l  be n e c e s s a r i l y s m a l l ;  not o n l y was  the f l u t e  l a s t o f the s t a n d a r d woodwinds t o be r e m o d e l l e d , but i t a l s o had  the little  t r a d i t i o n f o r employment w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the b a l l e t s de c o u r . When the i n s t r u m e n t f i n a l l y does appear, t h e n , i t i s g i v e n v e r y s p e c i a l i z e d t r e a t m e n t , b e i n g used  i n o n l y a s m a l l number o f s i t u a t i o n s .  Before proceeding to L u l l y ' s b a l l e t s c o r e s , i t w i l l  be  s a r y t o b r i e f l y expose the problems s u r r o u n d i n g the term f 1 u t e . p r e v i o u s l y mentioned,  the term by i t s e l f  indicated  necesAs  ' r e c o r d e r ' t o most  98 seventeenth-century  musicians.  Many modern  show t h a t a t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e was  scholars b e l i e v e that to  desired, special  i n d i c a t i o n s i n the  41 s c o r e , such as d'allemagne o r t r a v e r s i e r e , were r e q u i r e d . o t h e r hand, L u l l y o c c a s i o n a l l y used the term f l u t e a bee  On  the  to s p e c i f i c a l l y  42 desiginate recorders. help in determining In  C l e a r l y , the term f l u t e by i t s e l f o f f e r s  the i n s t r u m e n t demanded i n the s c o r e .  the e a r l y s c o r e s , t o a t l e a s t 1665,  i s n o n - e x i s t e n t , f o r the t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e was the l a t e r o n e s , however, the d i f f i c u l t y quires  o f c o u r s e , the problem  not then a v a i l a b l e .  In  i s a v e r y r e a l one, w h i c h r e -  solution. How  t h e f l u t e s o r r e c o r d e r s a r e used i n L u l l y ' s b a l l e t s i s  a p p a r e n t l y the o n l y m u s i c a l c l u e t o d e t e r m i n i n g ment i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n .  To t h i s end,  music can be most e n l i g h t e n i n g .  The  i n s t r u m e n t s above c both the r e m o d e l l e d  ,  M  ;  the a p p r o p r i a t e  the range and  instru-  t o n a l i t y of  r a r e l y s c o r e s h i s dessus  t h i s tone o f c o u r s e , i s w i t h i n easy reach  f l u t e and  the r e c o r d e r s  in f  There  are examples i n L u l l y s c o r e s where a dessus p a r t s c o r e d f o r f l u t e s  r e c o r d e r , and  t o e' o r d'.  This  of  ( t r e b l e ) and c' ( t e n o r ) .  downward range o f t h i s p a r t , however, i s q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t .  scends below f ,  the  upward range o f the dessus p a r t s  are o f l i t t l e help in t h i s matter, since L u l l y  The  little  de-  i s o b v i o u s l y our o f reach on the f ; -  s i n c e the t e n o r r e c o r d e r p r o b a b l y would not be g i v e n a  See f o r example, Jurgen E p p e l s h e i m : Das Werken J e a n - B a p t i s t e L u l l y s , T u t z i n g , 1961, p. 66"!  Orchester  i n den  :  42  E p p e l s h e i m ( i b i d . ) b e l i e v e s t h a t f l u t e a bee s i n c e by c o n v e n t i o n f l u t e a l o n e meant r e c o r d e r .  i s redundant,  99  z»3  dessus c l e f , In a l i m i t e d  the s i t u a t i o n  The t o n a l i t y  flute  is  flute.  then,  in  number o f c a s e s ,  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between  certain  demands performance on a t r a n s v e r s e  flutes  the  range o f a p a r t  and r e c o r d e r s .  o f a work,  along w i t h the  t o n e s , p r o v i d e s a n o t h e r method f o r required.  the p r e v i o u s o n e . sharp keys - -  T h i s method, however, We have seen that  limitations  in f l a t  may h e l p  keys.  to s o r t out  repeated appearance  determining i s not  nearly  as dependable as suited  R e c o r d e r s , on the o t h e r  Anthony Baines s u g g e s t s that the a p p r o p r i a t e  of  which s p e c i e s o f  the new f l u t e was b e s t  e s p e c i a l l y G - and D-maJor.  were most e f f e c t i v e  is useful  instrument  to hand,  these  In a s c o r e  kk s i m p l y marked  f1utes.  In a d d i t i o n , we have seen t h a t  notes a r e b a d l y out o f Music which f e a t u r e s  tune on the  these  tones  would c o n s e q u e n t l y be b e t t e r Finally,  than w i t h any o f  identify  the d e s i r e d  Philibert  that t r a n s v e r s e of  s u i t e d t o the  flutes  in the  on the e a r l y  the next  if 4  Op.Cit.,  took'part.  the v a r i o u s  p. 2 9 1 .  in t h i s  and  By 1 6 6 9 - 1 6 7 0 , Musettes  perhaps more s t u d y , may  f .  ex-  clearly  The appearance  11vret of a b a l l e t  Thus in the come*dle-bal l e t ,  The use o f chapter.  flute,  in a g i v e n s c o r e .  the Grande E c u r l e ' s Hautbois et  new i n s t r u m e n t .  g'-sharp;  recorder.  the o t h e r woodwinds  instrument  and Descouteaux  b'-flat;  following  In an exposed o r c o n s i s t e n t manner  the performers  plicitly  flute:  the  of  almost a s s u r e s us  however, o t h e r  de P o i t o u had taken  members up  the  Monsieur de Pourceaugnac o f  recorder sizes w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d  In  100 1669,  Moligre's l i v r e t  l i s t s f o u r f l u t i s t s : "Les S i e u r s D e s c o t t e a u x [ s i c ]  Philbert  [ s i c ] , Piesche f i l s e t Fossard".  couteaux  and P i e s c h e —  Two o f these p l a y e r s -- Des-  c o u l d e a s i l y p e r f o r m on e i t h e r r e c o r d e r s o r oboes;  t h e i r appearance i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h P h i l i b e r t , however, makes  their  p l a y i n g t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e s most p r o b a b l e . S i n c e t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e s a r e new i n s t r u m e n t s a t t h e time o f Lully's early ballets, their  I n c l u s i o n i n the o r c h e s t r a i s u s u a l l y i n -  d i c a t e d by e i t h e r t h e s c o r e o r accompanying 1 i v r e t . i n which  the instrument  a l t h o u g h some e n t r i e s  Only those s c o r e s  i s s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n a t e d have been c o n s u l t e d , not s p e c i f i e d  f o r f l u t e s have been i n c l u d e d i f  they appear i n b a l l e t s where f l u t e s a r e known t o have p a r t i c i p a t e d . both s i t u a t i o n s , o f c o u r s e , t h e c r i t e r i a  In  established for distinguishing  between f l u t e s and r e c o r d e r s must be a p p l i e d . Only f o u r o f a l l t h e s c o r e s s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y demons t r a t e d employment o f t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e s . La G r o t t e de V e r s a i l l e s Jeux P i t h i e n s (1670).  (1668);  Monsieur  They a r e :  Les Muses  (1666);  de Pourceaugnac (1669) and Les  P r u n i e r e s ' e d i t i o n o f a l i m i t e d number o f L u l l y ' s  c o m g d i e - b a l l e t s has a l s o been c o n s u l t e d , because P r u n i e r e s i n c l u d e s t h e original  comedies w i t h 1 i v r e t s i n h i s e d i t i o n s .  These o f c o u r s e , p r o -  v i d e the names o f p e r f o r m e r s as w e l l as t h e type o f i n s t r u m e n t s r e q u i r e d in a g i v e n s e c t i o n o f t h e drama. which of  The e d i t i o n s sometimes i n c l u d e e n t r i e s .  t h e P h M i d o r c o p i e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r have o m i t t e d ;  t h e s e , e n t r i e s which  poses o f t h i s The  i n c l u d e t h e f l u t e have been s t u d i e d f o r t h e p u r -  chapter. B a l l e t des Muses, which p r e m i e r e d on 2 December 1666,  i s t h e f i r s t b a l l e t t o have c o n t a i n e d music f o r t h e r e c e n t l y  remodelled  101  transverse  flute.  transverse  flutes;  until  1667.  This date i s apparently we r e c a l l  that P h i l i b e r t  Certain p e c u l i a r i t i e s  however, account f o r t h i s The  too e a r l y f o r the use o f Is not mentioned a t c o u r t  i n the r e p e t i t i o n s o f t h i s  ballet,  discrepancy.  B a l l e t des Muses was a p p a r e n t l y  a very  popular d l v e r -  46 tlssement given  o f considerable  several  s p l e n d o u r and b r i l l i a n c e ;  repetitions.  its final  Among t h e I n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s l i s t e d  p e r f o r m a n c e , 19 F e b r u a r y ,  In t h e 11vret a r e :  P h i l i b e r t , Jean and N i c o l a s H o t t e t e r r e , P i e s c h e  that transverse  I667.  Descouteaux,  and L u l l y .  Of e s p e c i a l  i s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f P h i l i b e r t , f o r we may assume  f l u t e s , as a r e s u l t , were employed i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n .  P h i l i b e r t ' s e x c l u s i o n from r e c o r d s a t C o u r t u n t i l explained  therefore,  C u r i o u s l y , t h e c o n t e n t o f the b a l l e t was  a l t e r e d a number o f times u n t i l  i n t e r e s t , o f course,  i t was,  i n two ways:  f i r s t o f a l l , i t i s possible that  s e r v i c e s were n o t r e q u i r e d f o r the o r i g i n a l  1667 may be Philibert's  December 2nd v e r s i o n , b u t  t h a t he was used i n one o f t h e subsequent a l t e r a t i o n s o r a d d i t i o n s i n J a n u a r y o f 1667; not e n t e r e d in  I667.  secondly,  and more p r o b a b l y ,  i n t o the C o u r t ' s a c c o u n t s u n t i l  the expenses i n c u r r e d were  the termination o f the b a l l e t ,  The l a t t e r s o l u t i o n i s a l l the more t e n a b l e when one c o n s i d e r s  "°Adam C a r s e (Op.C i t . , p. 178) m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e r e m o d e l l e d f l u t e d i d n o t have i t s o r c h e s t r a l debut u n t i l 1677- P h i l l i p Bate ( O p . C i t . , p. 82) does n o t attempt t o d e s c r i b e t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e o f the new f l u t e ' s employment. Inasmuch as Bate b e l i e v e s t h e t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e was n o t r e moddeled u n t i l c . 1 6 7 0 , however, i t i s c l e a r he would n o t agree w i t h t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r ' s p r e m i s e . The i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d below w i l l s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s theory.  46 See C h a r l e s S i l i n : M a r y l a n d , 1940, p. 365-  Benserade and His B a l l e t s de C o u r ,  102 t h a t the d r a m a t i c the o r i g i n a l  situation  i n which the f l u t e was  v e r s i o n o f the b a l l e t  first  i n December 1666.  —  f o r e , c o n c l u d e t h a t the t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e was  first  used o c c u r s We  may,  in  there-  used o r c h e s t r a l l y i n  1666. The  P a r i s Gazette describes  des Muses as f o l l o w s :  the f i f t h e n t r e e o f the  "Dans l a cinqui£me, pour C l i o , se v o i t  Ballet la bataille  Ixi  donne"e e n t r e A l e x a n d r e e t P o r u s . . . . "  S i l i n , who  the 1 ? v r e t , s t a t e s t h a t the entre"e was  must be r e f e r r i n g  to  danced t o the accompaniment o f  48  f l u t e s and we  may  drums.  Since P h i l i b e r t  only conclude that t h i s  i s i n c l u d e d as an i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t ,  i s a reference  to transverse  flutes.  M u s i c a l l y , the f i f t h entre"e c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e numbers: (1) 'Marche des Combat'. six  The  parts.  first  The  arrangement:  Grecs';  (2)  two c o n t a i n p a r t s f o r drums and  upper p a r t s Part  'Marche des  48.1. • Ibid.  'Le Grand  a r e , as a r e s u l t , i n  Range f - b"-flat f' - d " b - f l a t - a'  cl c2  I n d i e n s ' are as f o l l o w s :  dessus hautecontre tai 1 le  Cited  (3)  'Marche de G r e c s ' show the f o l l o w i n g  gi  Part  H /  of the Clef  dessus hautecontre tai 1 le Those f o r the  'Marchedes I n d i e n s ' and  i n S11 i n :  Clef  Range g' - b " - f l a t d' - d " b-flat - b'-flat  gi  cl c2  O p . C i t . , p.  360  103 The  upper p a r t s i n 'Le Grand Combat' ( s c o r e d w i t h o u t Pa r t  Clef  Range  dessus hautecontre  gl cl  g' - b ' ' - f l a t d' - d '  taMle  c2  b-flat - b'-flat  1  It can be seen t h a t both the dessus and h a u t e c o n t r e the compass o f the f l u t e all  drums) a r e :  (lowest note, d').  The  l i n e s are w i t h i n  t a ? l i e , however, i s i n  t h r e e examples too low f o r performance on t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e s .  l i k e l y t h a t i t , a l o n g w i t h the q u i n t e and strings.  From the names l i s t e d  t i v e s e t t i n g as:  basse p a r t s , was  i n the 1 ? v r e t we may  P h i l i b e r t and Descouteaux on  and H o t t e t e r r e on the  executed  on  establish a tenta-  the dessus 1?ne;  Piesche  hautecontre.  F l u t e s a r e g i v e n a much more prominent p o s i t i o n de V e r s a l 11 es  It i s  (1668).  The  i n La  Grotte  f i r s t entre"e, concerned w i t h b e r g e r s , cornea  mences w i t h a ' R i t o u r n e l l e pour l e s f l u t t e s ' . r i t o u r n e l l e i s intended  That t h i s  f o r t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e s , as opposed t o r e c o r d e r s ,  i s i n d i c a t e d by the ranges o f the two dessus p a r t s ; compass o f g' to f " ;  w h i l e the second has one  second dessus p a r t , o f c o u r s e ,  the f i r s t has  o f d' 'to d".  and  rgcits.  interest  I t i s the  range.  r i t o u r n e l l e commences a s e r i e s o f a l t e r n a t i n g Of g r e a t  a  w h i c h i n d i c a t e s the need f o r t r a n s v e r s e  f l u t e s , s i n c e i t descends below the dessus r e c o r d e r ' s The  three-part  ri tournelles  i s the music f o r the r i c i t s w h i c h , i n each  o f the f o u r a l t e r n a t i o n s , borrows i t s c o n t e n t  from the  instrumental  S p e c i f i e d on p. 18 i n the s c o r e . At the b e g i n n i n g o f the r i t o u r n e l l e on p. 19 the f o l l o w i n g i s w r i t t e n ?n p e n c i l , c o p i e d o v e r w i t h i n k ; " f l u s t e s e t v i o l o n s " . From t h i s we might c o n c l u d e t h a t v i o l i n s doubled the f l u t e s .  104 r i t o u r n e l l e preceding i t .  T h i s type o f s e t - u p s u g g e s t s  t h a t perhaps the  i n s t r u m e n t s o f t h e r i t o u r n e l l e double t h e v o i c e s when each re"cit i s begun. The g-minor.  second  r i t o u r n e l l e o f the s e r i e s , l i k e t h e f i r s t ,  A l t h o u g h no i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e  e n t r e e would use the same i n s t r u m e n t s t h r o u g h o u t . dessus  Is i n  I s g' t o b - f 1 a t ;  t h a t o f t h e second  M  The range o f t h e f i r s t  i s d' t o d " .  We may a s -  sume, t h e n , t h a t t h i s t o o r e q u i r e s performance by t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e s . re"c?t which  follows,  'Voyons tous deux en a i m a n t ' ,  The  uses the same m u s i c a l  m a t e r i a l , a g a i n , s u g g e s t i n g t h e p o s s i b l e d o u b l i n g by f l u t e s and v i o l i n s . The  th? rd r i t o u r n e l l e , p r e c e d i n g t h e re"c? t , "Les oyseaux v i -  vent', would, according to the e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n , a l s o Include t r a n s verse f l u t e s . e ; M  second  The ranges o f t h e two dessus —  e' t o c " .  parts are:  first  —  g' t o  The t o n a l i t y has changed t o G-major, and w i t h  r e f e r e n c e s t o b i r d s i n t h e accompanying t e x t , f l u t e s a r e , i n d e e d , s t r o n g ly  suggested. The  g-minor.  f o u r t h and f i n a l  r i t o u r n e l l e o f the s e r i e s returns to  I t d i f f e r s from t h e p r e c e d i n g numbers i n t h r e e r e s p e c t s .  the ranges o f t h e dessus  lines —  f - s h a r p to a'  1  and g  not e x c l u d e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e c o r d e r s t a k i n g p a r t . for  the e n s u i n g  re"ci t ,  1  to a'  1  —  First, does  Second, t h e music  'Dans ces d e s e r t s ' , does not borrow e x a c t l y t h e  music o f t h e r i t o u r n e l l e .  T h i r d , th i s re"ci t i s f o r o n l y one v o i c e .  From t h e s e p o i n t s we may c o n c l u d e  t h a t the r i t o u r n e l l e i n s t r u m e n t s p r o -  bably d i d not double the vocal l i n e s o f the f i n a l  r£c]_t_.  Although the  r i t o u r n e l l e l i e s w i t h i n t h e reach o f r e c o r d e r s , i t i s most u n l i k e l y t h a t they s h o u l d suddenly e n t e r t h e t e x t u r e o f an entre"e h i g h l i g h t i n g t h e  105 transverse  flute. A l i v r e t f o r La G r o t t e de V e r s a i l l e s was  present w r i t e r .  I t i s s u b s e q u e n t l y u n c e r t a i n whether or not  took p a r t i n the p r o d u c t i o n . parts  not a v a i l a b l e to  i n the f i r s t  the  Philibert  N o n e t h e l e s s , the ranges o f the dessus  r i t o u r n e l l e o f the e n t r i e , marked f 1 u t t e s , as  des-  c r i b e d above, i s good p r o o f t h a t t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e s were used i n t h i s ballet. The in 1669.  On  c o m i d f e - b a l l e t , M o n s i e u r de P o u r c e a u g n a c , ^ was  produced  5  p. 54 o f the P h i l i d o r copy (Tome VI o f the R e c u e i l  B a l l e t s ) an e n t r i e , 'Les M a f t r e s d e s c r i b e s the p e r s o n n e l  a d a n s e r ' , i s commenced.  required for i t s execution  The  des 1i v r e t  as f o l l o w s :  "Les deux m a f t r e s a d a n s e r : MM. La P i e r r e e t F a v i e r . Les deux pages: MM. Beauchamp e t C h i c a n e a u . Quatre c u r i e u x de s p e c t a c l e s : Les s i e u r s N o b l e t , J o u b e r t , L'Estang e t Mayeu. Les q u a t r e f l u t e s : Les s i e u r s D e s c o t t e a u x , P h i l i b e r t , P i e s c h e f i l s e t Fossard."51 Clearly transverse l i s t e d , and  f l u t e s are  required.  Since only four performers  the e n t r i e i s i n f i v e p a r t s , we  c i a n s a l s o took p a r t .  The  Part  s e t t i n g has Clef  dessus hautecontre tailie quinte basse  gl cl c2 c3 fk  may  assume t h a t o t h e r  the f o l l o w i n g arrangement: Range  l i n e s are a v a i l a b l e to  ^ T h i s was o n l y one o f a number o f d i v e r t i s s e m e n t s g e t h e r formed Le D i v e r t i s s e m e n t Royal de Chambort. 5  'cited  in Prunieres:  musi-  g' - c''' d' - e ' ' - f l a t b - f l a t - a' g - g' D-d'  It i s o b v i o u s t h a t o n l y the top two  5  are  Op.C i t . , V o l . I l l , p.  11.  transverse  which to-  106 flutes.  As a r e s u l t , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t Descouteaux and P h i l i b e r t p e r 52  formed t h e dessus p a r t w h i l e P i e s c h e In t h e 1670 p r o d u c t i o n more i n c l u d e d Philidor's On f o l i o  i n the o r c h e s t r a .  collection  and F o s s a r d  played  o f Les Jeux P i t h i e n s f l u t e s a r e once On f o l i o s 118v t o 119v o f Tome VI i n  i s a v o c a l number c a l l e d  118R appears t h e i n s t r u c t i o n :  'Jouissons des P l a i s i r s ' .  'Les f l u t e s  les hautbois 53  v i o l o n s Jouent l ' a i r q u i s u i t avant q u ' i l se c h a n t e ' . part s e t t i n g  the hautcontre,  et les  The t h r e e -  i n g-minor shows a somewhat unusual arrangement: Part dessus dessus basse  Clef gl cl fk  Range g' - f ' ' d - d'' D-d' 1  C u r i o u s l y , t h e second dessus i s g i v e n a c - c l e f on t h e f i r s t  l i n e , as i f  i t were a h a u t e c o n t r e p a r t .  i n the pre-  vious chapter, are t e x t e d . verse  The unusual c l e f , as e x p l a i n e d  r e s u l t s , no doubt, from t h e f a c t t h a t t h e two upper p a r t s  We may be sure t h a t t h e s p e c i f i e d  f l u t e s a r e o f the t r a n s -  t y p e , f o r t h e second l i n e descends t o d', beyond t h e range o f t h e 5Z1  recorder  i n f . The  next number i n t h i s e n t r e e  g-minor e n t i t l e d  'Prelude'.  i s an o r c h e s t r a l  setting in  It i s quite p o s s i b l e that f l u t e s a l s o p a r t i -  52 scores, This  i s t h e Fossard who a s s i s t e d  Philidor  i n copying  Lully's  edi t i o n , Prunieres  ( i b i d . ) scores  t h i s for only  'Flutes'  In h i s  54 are i n t e n d e d .It The t h r eand e dai ftfeenroern tc' i s p ou sn ls ii kbelley t hs ai tt u aat itorne b loef ar e ct or ri do e rw i tihn f i n s t r u m e n t s , however, s t r o n g l y m i l i t a t e s a g a i n s t t h i s s o l u t i o n .  107 clpated  i n t h i s work, a premise which i s s u p p o r t e d by the f a c t t h a t t h e  ' P r e l u d e ' i s i n s i x p a r t s , i n c l u d i n g two dessus l i n e s .  The f i r s t  dessus  i s g i v e n a range o f g' t o b ' ' - f l a t , w h i l e t h e second has a compass o f g' to a " . A final not  i n s t a n c e o f the f l u t e ' s use i n Les Jeux P i t h i e n s i s  i n c l u d e d i n P h i l i d o r ' s copy o f t h e b a l l e t .  In t h e t h i r d scene (pp.  179-181 i n P r u n i e r e s ' e d i t i o n ) a ' R i t o u r n e l l e pour l e s F l u t e s ' a p p e a r s . The s e t t i n g first  i s f o r two dessus i n s t r u m e n t s p l u s b a s s .  l i n e i s d'  a' t o a ' .  1  The range o f t h e  t o b ' ' - f l a t , w h i l e t h e second p a r t i s g i v e n one o f  A g a i n t h e ranges do n o t e x c l u d e performance on r e c o r d e r s ;  1  but s i n c e f l u t e s p r o b a b l y were used e l s e w h e r e i n t h e b a l l e t , t h e f l u t e s  55 i n d i c a t e d by P r u n i & r e s a r e , no doubt, o f t h e t r a n s v e r s e v a r i e t y . The use o f f l u t e s be somewhat e x p e r i m e n t a l .  i n L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s has been shown t o The g r e a t v i r t u o s i t y through w h i c h both  P h i l i b e r t and Descouteaux g a i n e d renown i s a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y a v o i d e d . It would a p p e a r , n o n e t h e l e s s , t h a t L u l l y was w e l l aware o f the g r e a t c o l o u r i s t i c p o t e n t i a l o f the new i n s t r u m e n t , f o r he employed  the f l u t e  i n q u i t e a v a r i e t y o f ensembles. It  i s most i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e f i r s t use o f t h e f l u t e , i n  Les Muses (1666) , was i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h drums, The t r a d i t i o n a l  in a 'military'  entrie.  f I f r e s e t tambours o f t h e Grande E c u r i e , no d o u b t , s u g -  ested t h i s kind o f treatment t o L u l l y .  Thus, the o n l y a p p r e c i a t i o n the  French C o u r t had f o r f l u t e s o f t r a n s v e r s e type was e x p l o i t e d when  P r u n l & r e s , throughout h i s e d i t i o n makes no d i s t i n c t i o n between r e c o r d e r and f l u t e .  108 the new ceived  i n s t r u m e n t was  first  introduced.  Lully's  string orchestra.  re-  demonstrates t h a t the  f l u t e s were observed  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s the i n s t r u m e n t  afforded.  L u l l y most f r e q u e n t l y s c o r e d  settings.  In La G r o t t e de V e r s a i l l e s  upper p a r t s o f the t r i o .  Les Jeux P i t h i e n s ,  we  t h a t the r i t o u r and  In Les Jeux P i t h i e n s , flute  Finally,  violins  a trio for  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h oboes.  f l u t e s were g i v e n a t r i o r i t o u r n e l l e ,  of other instruments.  o f v o c a l p a r t s by  recall  r e q u i r e d both f l u t e s  ' J o u i s s o n s des P l a i s i r s ' p l a c e d the new  without  i n both La G r o t t e de  found s t r o n g e v i d e n c e  the  Versailles  t o suggest the  doubling  flutes.  B e s i d e s b e i n g aware o f the g r e a t p o t e n t i a l  o f the new  flute,  L u l l y seems t o have been f a m i l i a r w i t h i t s i n t o n a t i o n p r o b l e m s . though he w r o t e f o r the f l u t e  -- f  1  t r u e f o r the lower  and g'-sharp —  whenever p o s s i b l e .  range b e i n g , p e r h a p s , most p r o b l e m a t i c .  second f l u t e p a r t .  This  f o r example, the tone f  two  especially  instrument's studied  never appears i n the  In t h a t the f ' appears 1  q u i t e o f t e n i n the f i r s t dessus p a r t s o f the entre"e. an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the i n s t r u m e n t ' s  is  In the f o u r r i t o u r n e l l e s  T h i s i s most c o n s p i c u o u s  In  the i n s t r u m e n t ' s  f l u t e p a r t s , the lower o c t a v e o f the  i n La G r o t t e de V e r s a i l l e s ,  Al-  i n a major key on o n l y one o c c a s i o n  t h i s s m a l l s a m p l i n g , L u l l y appears to have a v o i d e d w o r s t tones  was  f l u t e s , however, i n t h r e e - p a r t  (1668), we  nel l e f o r 'Goutons b l e n des P l a i s i r s '  In the same b a l l e t  within  That two dessus p a r t s appeared i n t h i s s e t -  t i n g , Is good.evidence o f the s p e c i a l  on the two  the f l u t e  q u i c k l y accepted.  In Les Jeux P i t h i e n s o f 1670,  and  treatment  i n subsequent b a l l e t s , however, c l e a r l y  i n s t r u m e n t was  support  The  capabilities  L u l l y , t h e n , shows  v e r y e a r l y on.  109  I t s h o u l d be mentioned L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s was  t h a t the r e m o d e l l e d t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e o f  not the i n s t r u m e n t used i n the f i r s t h a l f o f  the  eighteenth century.  the  d i f f i c u l t i e s o f i n t o n a t i o n which e x i s t e d a f t e r the i n i t i a l  ling.  P e r f o r m e r s and makers were e v i d e n t l y aware o f remodel-  There can be l i t t l e doubt, n o n e t h e l e s s , t h a t p l a y e r s such as  P h i l i b e r t and Descouteaux were a b l e t o overcome t h e s e problems b r i l l i a n t performances.  Bate"' c i t e s 1697 7  as the date when Jacques  H o t t e t e r r e i n t r o d u c e d y e t a n o t h e r model o f the f l u t e . c o u r s e , was  in their  Its design, of  g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d t o the v e r s i o n f i r s t e x p l o i t e d by L u l l y i n  l a t e l660's.  the  More than w i t h any o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t o f t h i s s t u d y , the f l u t e demonstrates t h e importance o f o b s e r v i n g L u l l y ' s use o f woodwinds i n h i s early ballets.  Through the medium o f t h i s g e n r e , we have been a b l e t o  study the e a r l i e s t known examples o f the Instrument's use. cal  The  histori-  documents o f the Grande E c u r i e which suggested the use o f a r e -  m o d e l l e d t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e as e a r l y as 1667, musical evidence i n L u l l y ' s b a l l e t s .  have been s u b s t a n t i a t e d by  We must put back t h e time o f the  f l u t e ' s remodel 1ing by almost ten y e a r s from Bate's t e n t a t i v e d a t i n g o f 1670. of  Moreover, we may  the new  push Carse's date o f 1677,  f l u t e ' s employment, back to  O p . C i t . , p.  81.  1666.  as the f i r s t i n s t a n c e  CHAPTER IV THE  RECORDER  By the m i d d l e o f the s e v e n t e e n t h  c e n t u r y two v a r i e t i e s o f  f l u t e were a v a i l a b l e t o the i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t -- the t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e the r e c o r d e r .  A l t h o u g h , as we have seen, the t r a n s v e r s e type was  the ascendance, e v e n t u a l l y s u p e r s e d i n g century,  in  i t s c o m p e t i t o r i n the e i g h t e e n t h  the r e c o r d e r d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s i n  France was  more g e n e r a l l y p o p u l a r .  a t t r a c t e d much a t t e n t i o n and  N e i t h e r i n s t r u m e n t appears t o have  i n France u n t i l  the m i d - s e v e n t e e n t h  century,'  i t i s owing, no d o u b t , to t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l r e m o d e l l i n g i n the  t i e s and  and  fifties  country.  for-  t h a t the i n s t r u m e n t s q u i c k l y g a i n e d h i g h f a v o u r i n t h a t  In o t h e r European c e n t r e s d u r i n g the s i x t e e n t h and  c e n t u r i e s , however, the r e c o r d e r s and  seventeenth  f l u t e s enjoyed a g r e a t c u r r e n c y .  A c o n s i d e r a b l e r i v a l r y between the r e m o d e l l e d v e r s i o n s o f both instruments i s i n evidence  i n the l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h  and e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h  2  centuries;  both i n s t r u m e n t s a t t h a t time were c a l l e d upon to p e r f o r m  similar functions.  B e f o r e r e m o d e l l i n g , however, such c o m p e t i t i o n  not n e a r l y so n o t i c e a b l e . The  f l u t e was  a loud, v e r s a t i l e  was  instrument,  3  e v i d e n t l y s u i t a b l e f o r outdoors  use.  In a d d i t i o n , i t possessed  e x t e n s i v e range o f two and a h a l f o c t a v e s .  The  a rather  r e c o r d e r , on the o t h e r  See A l b e r t Cohen: "A study o f i n s t r u m e n t a l ensemble p r a c t i c e in s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y F r a n c e " , G a l p i n S o c i e t y J . , 15, 1962, p. 5. 2  Jenkins,  See Edgar Hunt: 1962.  The  Recorder  and  i t s M u s i c , London, H.  3  See Anthony B a i n e s : Woodwind Instruments and London, Faber and Faber, 3rd e d i t . , 1967, p. 250.  their  History,  Ill hand, was q u i e t , i d e a l  f o r c o n s o r t use w i t h o t h e r r e c o r d e r s , o r mixed  w i t h many i n s t r u m e n t s .  I t s range was r a r e l y g i v e n as more than two  octaves.  N e i t h e r i n s t r u m e n t was e x p e c t e d  t o assume t h e o t h e r s t a s k s  in t h e v a r i o u s ensembles o f t h e t i m e . We have c o n s i d e r e d  i n some d e t a i l  of f1ute i n the previous chapter.  Yet another  difficulty  i n t h e case o f the r e c o r d e r .  remodelled  s i z e was n o r m a l l y a v a i l a b l e —  at  dimension  i s added t o t h e  Whereas w i t h t h e f l u t e o n l y one h a v i n g d' as a fundamental  l e a s t f i v e s i z e s o f r e c o r d e r s appear t o have been p o p u l a r  c.1650 and c . 1 7 5 0 . sizes: f'  t h e t e r m i n o l o g i c a l problems  1  (dessus).  5  between  As l a t e as 1767 D i d e r o t and D'Alembert d e s c r i b e  i n f (basse), c  1  (quinte), f  —  five  (ta ?11e), c ' (haute c o n t r e ) and 1  In a d d i t i o n , a t r e b l e r e c o r d e r i n d', t h e s o - c a l l e d  v o i c e f l u t e , was q u i t e c u r r e n t i n England i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h  century.  These i n s t r u m e n t s were known by v a r i o u s names, i n c l u d i n g f 1 u t e s .  Having  d e c i d e d a work r e q u i r e s t h e use o f a r e c o r d e r , t h e n , one must f u r t h e r d e c i d e w h i c h r e c o r d e r i s most a p p r o p r i a t e . The  r e c o r d e r In f  ( t h e modern a l t o and t h e t a i l 1 e  Encyclope'die) was t h e overwhelming f a v o u r i t e throughout  i n the  t h e Baroque  period.  S o l o and t r i o s o n a t a s , most chamber works and the m a j o r i t y o f  concert?  f o r r e c o r d e r s were w r i t t e n w i t h t h i s  instrument  i n mind.^  It  S y l v e s t r o G a n a s s i , a u t h o r o f F o n t e g a r a . . . , ( V e n i c e , 1535) must have been a v i r t u o s o r e c o r d e r p l a y e r : he g i v e s t h e i n s t r u m e n t a range o f two o c t a v e s and a s i x t h . C i t e d i n Hunt: O p . C i t . , p. 37. ^Encyclope'die, P a r i s ^See  E. Hunt:  1767,  i n V o l . 5 o f "Planches  Op.C i t . , C h a p t e r 3-  de L u t h e r i e " .  112 was,  i n s h o r t , the standard  i n s t r u m e n t o f the r e c o r d e r f a m i l y .  The  7  f - r e c o r d e r s p o p u l a r i t y u n f o r t u n a t e l y does not r u l e o u t performance on 1  other recorder s i z e s in L u l l y ' s b a l l e t s .  T h i s problem w i l l  be approached  l a t e r i n the chapter. g In 1619 M i c h a e l P r a e t o r i u s l i s t s e i g h t s i z e s o f r e c o r d e r , substantial  increase over the standard f a m i l y o f t h i s  sixteenth century.  Sebastian Virdung's  Musica  example, l i s t e d a d i s c a n t , a t e n o r and a b a s s . to t h e a l t o , t e n o r and b a s s e t  instruments  instrument  Getutscht  a  i n the  (1511), f o r  These t h r e e a r e analogous  respectively in Praetorius  1  De  9 Organographia. Discant Flot i n c';  P r a e t o r i u s ' recorders are: in d '; 1  Klein F l o t t l i n  in g' ;  D i s c a n t F l o t i n c ' ; A l t F l o t i n g';  Basset F l o t i n f ;  1  Bas F l o t  P r a e t o r i u s mentions t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s  1  Tenor F l o t  i n B - f l a t and Grossbas F l o t i n F. i n i n t o n a t i o n encountered  i n working  w i t h t h i s l a r g e ensemble. In a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h i n g s t o come he w r i t e s : "But i t o c c u r r e d t o me t o ' p i e c e ' a p a r t t h e f l u t e s h a l f way between the mouthpiece and t h e h i g h e s t f i n g e r h o l e , thus l e n g t h e n i n g t h e upper s e c t i o n o f the p i p e by [as much a s ] t h e b r e a d t h o f two f i n g e r s . T h i s makes t h e l e n g t h o f the tube v a r i a b l e and thus i t s p i t c h may be a c c o r d i n g l y a d j u s t e d h i g h e r o r lower."10 T h i s e a r l y r e f e r e n c e t o the p r o c e s s o f s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n was t o be r e a lized within thirty  years.  'See Jurgen Eppelsheim: Das O r c h e s t e r i n den Werken J e a n B a p t i s t e L u l l y s , T u t z i n g , 1967, p. 78. o Syntagma Musicum, I I : De O r g a n o g r a p h i a , t r a n s , by H. Blumenf e l d , New Y o r k , B a r e n r e i t e r , 1962. •^Cited by Hunt: 1 0  O p . C i t . , p. 41.  0 p . C ? t . , p. 3 5 .  113 In h i s Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e Mersenne c a l l s flutes'  ( F l u s t e s d ' A n g l e t e r r e ) . He makes r e f e r e n c e t o f i v e s i z e s o f  r e c o r d e r s which torius:  recorders, 'English  correspond  to the f o l l o w i n g  i n s t r u m e n t s l i s t e d by  a g r e a t b a s s , a b a s s , a b a s s e t , a t e n o r and an a l t o .  v i d e s no fundamental  tones f o r these i n s t r u m e n t s ;  however, t h a t a l l o w us t o determine  He  Praepro-  he does g i v e h i n t s ,  these fundamentals.  Mersenne des-  c r i b e s a p e t i t j e u and a grand j e u , s t a t i n g t h a t , a l t h o u g h they may  be  j o i n e d t o g e t h e r t o form a l a r g e ensemble, they a r e n o r m a l l y used as  sep-  a r a t e groups.  The  p e t i t j e u c o n s i s t e d of a dessus, a haut-contre  and  t a ? 1 l e (both p a r t s b e i n g p l a y e d on the same s i z e o f r e c o r d e r ) and a b a s s . In the grand j e u the bass o f the p r e v i o u s group became the dessus o f the new  one.  Two  grand j e u .  l a r g e r s i z e s o f r e c o r d e r p r o v i d e d the o t h e r p a r t s i n the  The  fundamental  tones o f these f i v e i n s t r u m e n t s have been  d e r i v e d by modern s c h o l a r s i n a number o f ways, o f t e n r e s u l t i n g flicting  i n con-  solutions. Mersenne w r i t e s o f the p e t i t j e u : "But t o understand the t u n i n g o f a l l the p a r t s , i t must be o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e i r e i g h t h h o l e b e i n g open, the dessus i s a t the n i n t h , and the t a i 1 l e w i t h the h a u t e - c o n t r e i s a t the f i f t h from the bass." 1 1  T h i s p r o b l e m a t i c sentence has two  interpretations:  one may  infer  that,  on the bass i n s t r u m e n t d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s passage, the e i g h t h h o l e i s e i t h e r open o r c l o s e d .  I f the l a t t e r were s o , t h e n , w i t h a l l e i g h t  h o l e s c l o s e d on the o t h e r r e c o r d e r s , the dessus would have a  Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e , Bk. V, Prop. V I M ,  p. I  307.  fundamental  114 which was  an o c t a v e h i g h e r than the b a s s , w h i l e the t a i 1 l e would  a f o u r t h above the b a s s .  stand  I f the bass r e c o r d e r ' s e i g h t h h o l e i s i n t e r -  p r e t e d as b e i n g open, however, then the fundamental tones o f the i n s t r u m e n t s would be: dessus —  ta?1le —  a n i n t h h i g h e r than the In h i s Das O r c h e s t e r  Jurgen  a f i f t h h i g h e r than the b a s s ;  Eppelsheim  three and  bass.  i n den Werken J e a n - B a p t i s t e  Lullys,  espouses the second s o l u t i o n , c o n c l u d i n g t h a t Mersenne's  12 r e f o r d e r s were: Eppelsheim  a bass i n f ;  a tailie  i n c' and a dessus In  a r r i v e s a t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n through  t e c h n i q u e o f d e t e r m i n i n g the sounding  g . 1  the somewhat dangerous  l e n g t h o f the bass p r o v i d e d ?n the  13 diagrams and s t a t i s t i c s o f Mersenne's d i s c u s s i o n .  The  present  writer  agrees w i t h Eppelshelm's c o n c l u s i o n , but b e l i e v e s a l e s s dubious approach  i s p r o v i d e d by Mersenne. Mersenne s u p p l i e s a f i n g e r i n g c h a r t w h i c h i s q u i t e o b v i o u s l y  based on a r e c o r d e r i n C —  i . e . i t shows t h a t w i t h a l l e i g h t f i n g e r -  h o l e s c l o s e d the tone c' i s produced. c' as a f u n d a m e n t a l , t a b l a t u r e was  i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t the c ' - r e c o r d e r o f Mersenne's  the t a i 1 l e .  the bass r e c o r d e r was  S i n c e P r a e t o r i u s ' T e n o r f l o t had  U s i n g Mersenne's f o r m u l a we may  i n f (a f i f t h below the t e n o r ) , and,  t h a t the dessus i n s t r u m e n t was  i n g'  conclude  that  consequently,  ( t h a t i s , a n i n t h h i g h e r than  the  O p . C i t . , pp. 69-70. Edgar Hunt .(Op.Ci t . p. 45) erroneously c o n c l u d e s t h a t Mersenne's r e c o r d e r s i n c l u d e d a bass i n f , a t a i 1 l e i n c' and a dessus i n f ' . ' T h e danger o f u s i n g such s t a t i s t i c s i s v i v i d l y shown i n the case o f the dessus r e c o r d e r ; t h i s , Mersenne s a y s , i s e l e v e n ' l i n e s ' long. In modern terms, i t becomes a dessus o f s l i g h t l y o v e r 7/8 o f an inch in l e n g t h . 3  115  the b a s s ) . material  T h i s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e subsequent  in Proposition VIII. Mersenne's f i n g e r i n g c h a r t , geared  t o a r e c o r d e r i n c ' , must  be made t o s e r v e i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t fundamentals. confused  In a r a t h e r  f a s h i o n Mersenne o f f e r s t h e key t o t h e c h a r t ' s s o l u t i o n : "I s h a l l g i v e o n l y one o r two examples t o make t h i s p r a c t i c e understood; the f i r s t serves f o r the UT, o r f o r t h e RE o f G re s o l u t , which i s made by c l o s i n g the f i r s t f o u r h o l e s and t h e s e v e n t h , and opening t h e o t h e r s . And t o make . the FA w h i c h i s a f o u r t h h i g h e r , one s i m p l y c l o s e s t h e f i r s t , t h e t h i r d and t h e s e v e n t h . To make t h e SOL which f o l l o w s , one s i m p l y c l o s e s t h e t h i r d and seventh holes."''*  Before i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s passage, t h r e e items must be n o t e d :  f i r s t of 1  a l l , Mersenne's f i n g e r i n g s use t h e s e v e n t h h o l e as a t u n i n g one lower o c t a v e ;  5 i n the  s e c o n d l y , s i n c e t h e r e c o r d e r i n c' i s g i v e n a complete  f i n g e r i n g c h a r t , only the instruments  i n f and g' need be accommodated  in h i s d i r e c t i o n s f o r t h e c h a r t ' s employment;  f i n a l l y the f i n g e r holes  a r e numbered t o p t o bottom, the f i r s t h o l e b e i n g the thumb-hole on t h e back o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . The  f i r s t f i n g e r i n g g i v e n i n t h e above p a s s a g e ,  produces g' on a r e c o r d e r i n c . 1  o r t h e RE o f G r e s o l u t ' • C, o r f o r D on an i n s t r u m e n t  Mersenne:  ing  Mersenne says  Indeed,  t  >  * o  ,  i t 'serves f o r t h e UT,  We might t r a n s l i t e r a t e t h i s t o : i n G'.  e  'serves f o r  t h i s f i n g e r i n g does produce  O p . C i t . , p. 307-  '"*ln a d d i t i o n , the c l o s e d 7th h o l e p r o v i d e s support the instrument i n p l a c e .  in hold-  116 the  tone C on an f - r e c o r d e r , and D on a g - r e c o r d e r .  quent examples corder i n f : sol  o r g.  Mersenne's subse-  i n t h i s passage a r e , c u r i o u s l y , geared o n l y t o t h e r e f o r example,  ©»o o © • o  f  o  r  FA o r f , and  o«o©oo©  Nonetheless, a pattern f o r applying the f i n g e r i n g chart to  i n s t r u m e n t s i n both f and g i s q u i t e e v i d e n t .  This, of course, gives  c r e d i b i l i t y t o o u r premise t h a t Mersenne's p e t i t j e u was o r g a n i z e d as follows:  basse i n f ; t a i 1 l e and/or h a u t e - c o n t r e i n c' and dessus i n  9'. The fundamental are  tones o f t h e r e c o r d e r s i n Mersenne's grand j e u  a s c e r t a i n e d , p e r h a p s , a l i t t l e more e a s i l y .  Mersenne w r i t e s o f them:  " I t i s unnecessary t o speak o f t h e i r t a b l a t u r e , because they t a k e t h e i r p a t t e r n from t h e p r e ceding."'*^ The statement i m p l i e s , o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e l a r g e r i n s t r u m e n t s , o f which Mersenne diagrams two, were e i t h e r i n F, C o r G. i n s t r u m e n t s , we r e c a l l , were i n B - f l a t and F.  Praetorius'  bass  Since a B - f l a t instrument  cannot d e r i v e a t a b l a t u r e from Mersenne's f i n g e r i n g c h a r t , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t Mersenne's two Bass r e c o r d e r s were i n c and F. o r g a n i z e Mersenne's r e c o r d e r s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g PRAETORIUS Alt Tenor Basset Bass Gross-Basse  MERSENNE: g' c' f B-flat F  PETIT JEU  We may now  pattern: GRANDE JEU  Dessus g' T a i 1 l e / H a u t e - c o n t r e c' Basse f Dessus Tai11e/Haute-contre Basse  B e f o r e l e a v i n g Mersenne, two items c o n c e r n i n g h i s grand j e u  16  I b i d . , p. 309•  f c F  f  o  r  117  must be c o n s i d e r e d .  Mersenne p r o v i d e s a diagram o f the members o f t h e  grand j e u i n which f o u r sizes' o f r e c o r d e r a r e p i c t u r e d . mal c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h i s ensemble apparently a recorder seems l i k e l y  in c  1  have been augmented by a f o u r t h -- a  ( i . e . t h e t a i 1 l e o f the p e t i t j e u ) . I t  t h a t t h i s f o u r t h i n s t r u m e n t was added  a more f l e x i b l e dessus l i n e .  The t h r e e n o r -  t o g i v e the  ensemble  In some c a s e s , t h e r e f o r e , the grand j e u  used f o u r d i f f e r e n t r e c o r d e r s , one s i z e t o each p a r t i n a f o u r p a r t setting.  T h i s b r i n g s us t o t h e second  item.  Mersenne g i v e s a m u s i c a l example t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s use. c - c l e f s and one f ' c l e f . haute-contre  - d -a ; 1  1  -- a G a v o t t e f o r r e c o r d e r s --  I t i s i n f o u r p a r t s , showing  The ranges o f t h e f o u r p a r t s — t a i 11 e - g ' f ;  and basse - A-a —  three  dessus - f ' - f ' ; 1  s t r o n g l y sug-  g e s t s t h a t t h i s example was w r i t t e n w i t h t h e four-member grand j e u i n mind.  Indeed t h e dessus p a r t descends  range.'  7  lower than the g' r e c o r d e r ' s  T h i s G a v o t t e would most c o m f o r t a b l y  following distribution:  l i e on r e c o r d e r s o f t h e  dessus - on t h e r e c o r d e r i n c';  hautecontre  on t h e r e c o r d e r i n f ; t a ? l i e - on the bass i n c ; and basse on t h e G r e a t Bass i n F. Sometime between  I636 and 1683 t h e r e c o r d e r s were  and the dessus o f Mersenne's underwent g' t o f ' .  p e t i t j e u became dominant.  remodelled,  The i n s t r u m e n t  s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n , w h i l e i t s fundamental tone was lowered from Humphrey S a l t e r ' s G e n t e e l  Companion (London, I683),  followed  The f a c t t h a t the normal G - c l e f on t h e f i r s t l i n e i s n o t used f o r t h e dessus p a r t , moreover, demands the use o f a l a r g e r r e c o r d e r .  118 by John Cam's The  D e l i g h t f u l Companion (London, 1684), a r e the  first  18 sources which d e s c r i b e the remodelled Manuscripts'  instrument.  o f c.1690 d e s c r i b e a r e c o r d e r  in f  The'James T a l b o t by Bressan t h a t i s i n  19 three s e c t i o n s . recorder  The  first  French source  i s Frei11on-Poncein's  t o d i s c u s s the  La V e r i t a b l e M a n i e r e . . . o f 1700.  i s f o l l o w e d by Jacques H o t t e t e r r e ' s P r i n c i p e s . . . o f Frei1lon-Poncein c a l l s his recorder, f1ute. o f the i n s t r u m e n t ,  although  remodelled 20 This  1707. The  illustrations  somewhat d i s t o r t e d , c l e a r l y show t h a t  the 21  instrument  was  i n t h r e e s e c t i o n s and  h e a v i l y ornamented a t the  joints.  F r e i 1 l o n - P o n c e i n e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e s t h a t the r i g h t hand s h o u l d be  placed  22 below the l e f t ,  an e a r l y i n d i c a t i o n o f t h a t p r a c t i c e b e i n g  Frei1lon-Poncein's octaves  r e c o r d e r , an  p l u s a tone; "One c a n , range t o [a'"] , but t h i s treat i t  instrument  standardized.  i n f ' , i s g i v e n a range o f  two  but the a u t h o r adds: i f he w i s h e d to f o r c e i t , e x t e n d the a n i n e t e e n t h , to the t h i r d A mi l a B f a s i [ b ' " ] and C s o l ut [ c " " ] , i s not o f t e n used; thus I do not as a r u l e w h i c h must be f o l l o w e d . " ^ 2  18 Eppelsheim:  '"'see  Hunt:  Op.C ? t . , p. Op.C i t . ,  p.  71.  65.  20 Both Eppelsheim ( O p , C i t . , p. 70) and Hunt (Op.CIt., p. 51) e r r o n e o u s l y g i v e Jacques H o t t e t e r r e ' s P r i n c i p e s . . . (1707) as the f i r s t French r e f e r e n c e t o the remodelled r e c o r d e r . 21 S e c t i o n a 1 i z a t l o n i s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d by the appearance o f o n l y one e i g h t h h o l e , i n s t e a d o f two as f o r m e r l y . I f the i n s t r u m e n t were i n s e c t i o n s , o f c o u r s e , the f o o t j o i n t c o u l d be t u r n e d to s u i t both l e f t and r i g h t - h a n d e d p l a y e r s . 2 2  2 3  0 p . C i t . , p. 1b  T d-  12.  119 B e f o r e g i v i n g a f i n g e r i n g c h a r t , the a u t h o r p r o v i d e s an s i g h t i n t o the r e c o r d e r ' s normal employment.  interesting i n -  He w r i t e s :  "The f 1 u t e r e q u i r e s much s u b t l e t y w i t h r e g a r d t o the amount and e q u a l i t y o f the b r e a t h one g i v e s i t , [the f 1 u t e ] being the i n s t r u m e n t which goes b e s t i n the accompaniments o f v o i c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the h i g h s o p r a n o s . " ^ 2  T h i s statement  i s o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e , f o r i t demonstrates t h a t the  i n s t r u m e n t was  c u s t o m a r i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the h i g h dessus p a r t s i n i n -  s t r u m e n t a l accompaniments. recorder in f  I t shows, f u r t h e r , t h a t by a t l e a s t 1700  f  the  had become a s o l o i n s t r u m e n t , as opposed to an ensemble  i n s t r u m e n t as i t had been i n the e a r l i e r s e v e n t e e n t h  century.  t e r r e ' s P r i r i c i p e s . . . adds l i t t l e t o the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d  Hottein Frei1lon-  P o n c e i n ' s work. As we have seen, by 1767, by D i d e r o t and D'Alembert. Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e was der i n c' and  the one  We  the r e c o r d e r i n f  recall  c a l l e d t a i 1 Ie  t h a t the t a i 1 l e i n Mersenne's  a r e c o r d e r i n c'.  in f  was  Choosing  i n the mid-seventeenth  q u e n t l y , not always e a s i l y a c c o m p l i s h e d .  between the r e c o r -  century  i s , conse-  I t seems l i k e l y , however, t h a t  i n cases where a dessus p a r t r e q u i r e d performance on a r e c o r d e r , the instrument  in f  i s appropriate.  termed the t a i 1 l e ?  Why,  t h e n , d i d t h i s i n s t r u m e n t become  By the second h a l f o f the s e v e n t e e n t h  f i v e b a s i c s i z e s o f r e c o r d e r appear t o have been r e t a i n e d :  century only one  in f ' ;  2k I b i d . , p. 25  13.  F r e i 1 l o n - P o n c e i n , as a l r e a d y mentioned, d e f i n i t e l y a s s o c i a t e s t h i s i n s t r u m e n t w i t h dessus p a r t s .  120  one  in c' ;  the s t a n d a r d  1  instrument  i n f' ;  one  in c ;  t h a t the r e c o r d e r i n P  was  c a l l e d t a i 1 l e because  1  and a bass i n  26  f. i t was  It i s probable the t h i r d  l a r g e s t s i z e o f the f a m i l y .  In Mersenne's t i m e , on  the  o t h e r hand, the r e c o r d e r s were a p p a r e n t l y named f o r the p a r t s i n the ensemble which they n o r m a l l y The  r e c o r d e r was  performed.  remodelled  sometime i n the l a t e f o r t i e s  or  27  early f i f t i e s .  One  would expect  t h e r e f o r e t h a t the i n s t r u m e n t ' s  f u n c t i o n as a s o l o dessus i n s t r u m e n t appeared s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . L u l l y ' s b a l l e t s , t h e n , i t may  new In  be assumed t h a t a dessus p a r t f o r r e c o r d e r 28  r e q u i r e s performance on an i n s t r u m e n t t h a t the r e c o r d e r  in P.  may  conclude,  i n c' would be used p r i m a r i l y as a m i d d l e  l a r g e ensembles, and not as a dessus i n s t r u m e n t . than t h e one  We  in f  further,  voice in  When r e c o r d e r s  a r e r e q u i r e d as d e s s u s i n s t r u m e n t s , s p e c i a l  other  indlca-  2Q  t i o n s are r e q u i r e d . as we  have a l r e a d y s e e n , i t p r o b a b l y  v e r s e f l u t e , and be 1ow.  I f a dessus l i n e marked f l u t e descends below  f ,  r e q u i r e s r e a l i z a t i o n on a t r a n s -  not a r e c o r d e r i n c'.  These c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l  be t e s t e d  26  T h i s i s the same arrangement s e t f o r t h i n the E n c y c l o p g d i e (see f o o t n o t e 5)In a d d i t i o n a Grand Basse i n C seems t o have been used o c c a s i o n a l l y . See Eppelsheim: Op.C i t . , p. 81. 27  Anthony Baines (Op.C i t . , p. 277) m a i n t a i n s t h a t the r e c o r d e r r e p r e s e n t s Jean H o t t e t e r r e ' s e a r l i e s t s u c c e s s a t woodwind r e m o d e l l i n g . 28  Eppelsheim agrees w i t h t h i s ; 29  see O p , C i t . , p.  78.  Eppelsheim (Op.C i t . , pp. 75~76) has found an i n t e r e s t i n g p r a c t i c e o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , where, i f r e c o r d e r s o t h e r than t h o s e in f a r e r e q u i r e d , s p e c i a l dessus c l e f s a r e used. It i s u n c e r t a i n , o f c o u r s e , whether t h i s p r a c t i c e would be i n e f f e c t d u r i n g the second h a l f o f the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  121 The  Recorder i n the e a r l y b a l l e t s o f L u l l y The  use o f t h e r e c o r d e r i n L u l l y ' s b a l l e t o r c h e s t r a s i s much  more w i d e - s p r e a d than t h a t o f any o t h e r woodwind. ment's good i n t o n a t i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y a c c o u n t s  No doubt, t h e i n s t r u forthis  versatility.  Being a woodwind i n s t r u m e n t , t h e r e c o r d e r , n o n e t h e l e s s , was not c o n s i dered  a standard o r c h e s t r a l p a r t i c i p a n t ;  r a t h e r i t was employed, a l o n g  w i t h oboes and bassoons, i n t h e scenes de champetre o r scenes de sommeil. I t becomes c l e a r through treatment  studying instances o f the recorder's  t h a t o n l y v e r y r a r e l y i s an ensemble o f r e c o r d e r s o f d i f f e r e n t  s i z e s used.  Only t h e t r e b l e i n f , w i t h t h e t e n o r  i n c', received  regu-  l a r employment. A major problem i n d e t e r m i n i n g  t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n i n a sc&ne  de champetre i s t h e r e c o r d e r ' s c l o s e a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e oboe. a l r e a d y seen t h a t t h e l a t t e r i n s t r u m e n t ' s w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f such scenes.  We have  use was a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y  The l i v r e t s accompanying t h e b a l l e t s  more o f t e n than n o t o f f e r l i t t l e h e l p i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between t h e two instruments, f o r the standard performers  on t h e oboe —  the H o t t e t e r r e s ,  Descouteaux, Destouches and P i e s c h e -- were a l s o r e c o r d e r p l a y e r s . I n deed, t h e r e c o r d e r seems t o have been t h e i n s t r u m e n t which was common t o every member o f t h e Hautbois  e t M u s e t t e s de P o i t o u .  There i s e v i d e n c e ,  however, t h a t P i e r r e P i e s c h e and F r a n c o i s Descouteaux were t h e two p r i mary r e c o r d e r p l a y e r s o f t h e E c u r i e . ^  P i e r r e P i e s c h e i s g i v e n s p e c i a l mention i n t h e King's accounts o f 1664, where he i s l i s t e d as t h e r e c o r d e r p l a y e r i n t h e Chambre du Ro?. (See M. B e n o i t : Muslques de Cour, P a r i s , 1971, p. 11). Descouteaux i s c i t e d by B e n o i t as b e i n g a g r e a t v i r t u o s o on t h e r e c o r d e r . (Ibid.)  122 The  range o f t h e dessus p a r t i n f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g s o f a scene  de Champetre,  o f course,  oboes and r e c o r d e r s ;  i s sometimes h e l p f u l  i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between  I f i t descends below f , oboes a r e p r o b a b l y r e -  quired.  The i n n e r p a r t s o f such s e t t i n g s , however, a r e more p r o b l e m a t i c .  Although  the hautecontre  p a r t s r a r e l y descend below c  1  (the lower  limit  o f t h e t e n o r r e c o r d e r ' s compass), t h e ta111e p a r t s a l m o s t I n e v i t a b l y descend below t h i s tone.  In t h e case o f oboes, as we o b s e r v e d i n Chap-  t e r Two, t h e t e n o r i n s t r u m e n t s  performed both h a u t e c o n t r e  and t a ? 1 l e  31 parts. may  T h i s , however, i s n o t p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e t e n o r r e c o r d e r .  conclude,  therefore, that the recorders i n f  on t h e dessus and h a u t e c o n t r e  and c' were used o n l y  1 i n e s , and t h a t i n f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g s , t h e  t h r e e lower v o i c e s were n e c e s s a r i l y performed on o t h e r The  abnormal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e c o r d e r s  s e t t i n g s makes t h e i n f e r e n c e o f t h e i r use, i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , v e r y dangerous. which d e f i n i t e l y s p e c i f y r e c o r d e r s for t h i s study.  instruments.  inLully's  five-part  i n t h e absence o f s p e c i f i e d  F o r t h i s r e a s o n , o n l y those e n t r i e s ( i . e . ' f l u s t e s ' ) have been  considered  I t i s most l i k e l y t h a t t h e employment o f r e c o r d e r s i n  L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s i s more e x t e n s i v e than t h i s l i m i t e d sampling suggest.  We  will  No s c o r e s a f t e r 1664 have been i n c l u d e d , t o a v o i d t h e p o s s i b l e  c o n f u s i o n between t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e s and r e c o r d e r s . Five b a l l e t s contain s p e c i f i c references to recorders. are:  A l c i d l a n e (1658);  La R a ? 1 l e r i e (1659);  Impatience  They  (1661);  We r e c a l l t h a t s i n c e Mersenne's t i m e , t h e t e n o r instrument in a woodwind f a m i l y was c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r both h a u t e c o n t r e and tai1le parts.  123 Amours Dgguisez (1664) and La P r i n c e s s e d ' E l i d e  (1664).  The B a l l e t d ' A l c i d i a n e o f I658 has been c i t e d a number o f times f o r t h e prominence i t a f f o r d s a v a r i e t y o f woodwinds. entre"e o f P a r t  In the second  I I I , r e c o r d e r s a r e t o p l a y a number e n t i t l e d  et 6 B e r g e r e s .  The 1 i v r e t , p u b l i s h e d  1  '6 B e r g e r s  i n f a c s i m i l e by P r u n i e r e s , r e l a t e s :  " T r o i s Bergers e t a u t a n t de Bergeres de c e t t e heureuse C o n t r d e . . . f o n t avec p l u s i e u r s a u t r e s un C o n c e r t R u s t i q u e , auquel un choeur de F l u s t e s _~ e t de p l u s i e u r s a u t r e s instrumens r e s p o n d e n t . . . . " T h i s , o f course,  definitely  indicates that recorders p a r t i c i p a t e d .  L i s t e d as t h e C o n c e r t a n s a r e : A l a i s , H o t t e t e r r e p e r e , 2 H o t t e t e r r e Descouteaux, B r u n e t , H e r b i n s , Piesche.  N i c o l a s , Jacques e t M i c h e l  fils,  Destouches and  3 3  The upper p a r t s o f t h e f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g a r e g i v e n  the f o l l o w -  ing ranges: Part dessus hautecontre tai1le quinte  Clef  Range  gl cl c2 c3  9 ~ b -flat e -c' g - g' f - g' 1  1  M  1  T h i s arrangement c l e a r l y s u b s t a n t i a t e s o u r h y p o t h e s i s P  normally  recorders  that recorders i n  p l a y t h e dessus l i n e i n L u l l y ' s f i v e - p a r t w o r k s , w h i l e c ' -  perform the hautecontre p a r t .  The 1 i v r e t , however, s t a t e d  that  a 'Choeur de f l u s t e s e t de p l u s i e u r s a u t r e s  instrumens' played  entree.  i s r e q u i r e d , then t h e r a t h e r  I f an e n t i r e ensemble o f r e c o r d e r s  Henry P r u n i e r e s ( e d i t . ) : L u l l y , Tome I , p. 28 o f f a c s i m i l e . 3 3  1bld -  this  Oeuvres Completes de J e a n - B a p t i s t e  124 u n l i k e l y s i t u a t i o n o f a bass r e c o r d e r i n f on both parts i s necessary. other  instruments'  t a i 1 1 e and q u i n t e  I f on t h e o t h e r hand, a ' c h o i r o f r e c o r d e r s w i t h i s i n t e n d e d , then  r e c o r d e r s can s i m p l y be a s s i g n e d  the two upper p a r t s , the o t h e r l i n e s being performed by o t h e r ments.  The l a t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  instru-  i s p r o b a b l e , f o r , as we saw i n Chap-  t e r Two, oboes a r e l i k e l y t o have been employed i n t h i s  entrie.  The subsequent number i n t h e second e n t r i e i s c a l l e d l e s mesmes'.  ' A i r pour  We may t h e r e f o r e assume t h a t r e c o r d e r s a g a i n took p a r t .  The f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g has t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r t h e upper volces: Part  Clef  dessus hautecontre tai1le quinte Again  Range  gl cl c2 c3  g' - b ' ' - f l a t e' - e' f - g' f - g' 1  t h e o n l y l i n e s a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c o r d e r s a r e t h e dessus and  c o n t r e , p l a y e d on r e c o r d e r s i n f  and c' r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The second e n t r i e i s c o n c l u d e d pour l e s mesmes'.  haute-  w i t h a 'Troisieme  Air-Gavotte  I t r e t a i n s t h e f i v e - p a r t s t r u c t u r e and g-m?nor  i t y o f t h e two p r e v i o u s numbers.  Once more, r e c o r d e r s i n f  to be employed on the two upper l i n e s .  tonal-  and c' a r e  The f o l l o w i n g ranges a r e p r e s e n -  ted: Part dessus hautecontre tai1le quinte  Clef gl cl c2 c3  Range g' - b ' ' - f l a t d' - d ' g - g' g - e'-flat 1  The use o f the r e c o r d e r i n La R a l l l e r i e in the c o n t e x t o f somewhat unusual  (1659), a l t h o u g h w i t h -  s e t t i n g s , i s more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  than  125 was  t h a t In A l c i d i a n e .  copy),  recorders  In the e i g h t h entre"e  (pp. kO-k]  are employed w i t h v i o l i n s and  voices.  in P h i l i d o r ' s The  entree,  which i s devoted t o 'Les C o n t r e f a i s e u r s ' , c o n t a i n s a f i v e - p a r t r? t o u r nel l e i n g-minor.  The  dessus p a r t o f the r i t o u r n e l l e i s g i v e n a range  o f g' t o b ' ' - f l a t , the h a u t e c o n t r e ,  one  of b-natural  t o d '.. 1  I t i s ob-  v i o u s t h a t r e c o r d e r s are not employed on the h a u t e c o n t r e p a r t , f o r i t descends below the range o f the t e n o r re"c? t , f o r two  given  f o r the second.  identical At  The  subsequent  the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s : 'Premier dessus de V i o l -  Ions e t de f l u s t e s ' f o r the f i r s t ; 1  i n c'..  bass v o i c e s , however, i s accompanied by two dessus p a r t s  which a r e g i v e n  de f l u s t e s  recorder  and  'Deuxiesme dessus de V i o l Ions e t  In t h i s s e c t i o n , the two  dessus p a r t s  are  ranges o f g' t o b ' ' - f l a t .  l e a s t two  recorders  in f  are required f o r t h i s re*cit.  Moreover, i t seems l i k e l y t h a t the f i v e - p a r t r i t o u r n e l l e would a l s o p l o i t the r e c o r d e r ' s  sonority.  S i n c e the h a u t e c o n t r e l i n e o f the r i t o u r -  nel l e descends t o b - n a t u r a l , however, t e n o r quired  in t h i s entree.  We may  recorders  c o n c l u d e t h a t two  p l o y e d on the dessus p a r t o f the r i t o u r n e l l e , and divisi  a t the commencement o f the ric'\t,  corder  t o each dessus p a r t . This pattern  although  i s repeated  i n c' a r e not  f - r e c o r d e r s were  em-  t h a t t h i s v o i c e became  g i v i n g a s i n g l e v i o l i n and  re-  In the f i v e - p a r t r i t o u r n e l l e ,  the h a u t e c o n t r e p a r t t h i s time does l i e w i t h i n the compass o f the a range o f c' t o a'.  the I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n  re-  f o r the second v e r s e o f the r£ci t ,  the music i s s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d .  r e c o r d e r , having  ex-  tenor  I t i s most u n l i k e l y , however, t h a t  e s t a b l i s h e d i n the f i r s t v e r s e o f the r g c i t would  changed i n the second.  A g a i n the re"cl t Is accompanied by s p e c i f i e d  be  126 'premier  e t deuxiesme d e s s u s ' o f both v i o l i n s and r e c o r d e r s , and a g a i n  the ranges o f t h e two dessus v o i c e s i s g' t o b ' " - f l a t . The  s o n o r i t y o f the recorder  number o f the e i g h t h entre*e e n t i t l e d : The  i s employed once more i n t h e l a s t ' C o n t r e f a i s e u r s , pour l e s mesme'.  f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g f e a t u r e s t h e dessus l i n e i n a very prominent  fashion.  In bars  only the dessus.  1 , 17-20, and 30-31 t h e o r c h e s t r a drops o u t , l e a v i n g S i n c e t h e dessus p a r t s o f t h e p r e v i o u s number were  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e use o f v i o l i n s and r e c o r d e r s , i t i s p r o b a b l e s i m i l a r treatment  i s required here.  range o f f ' - s h a r p t o b ' ' - f l a t .  In g-minor, t h e dessus l i n e has a  The use o f t h e r e c o r d e r i n t h e e i g h t h  entre"e o f La Ra? 1 l e r i e c l e a r l y shows t h a t t h e t r e b l e i n f dered  was c o n s i -  t h e dominant member o f t h e f a m i l y . The  v e r y f i r s t e n t r i e o f Impat ience  Grand q u i donne une Serenade a sa M a i t r e s s e ' . Silin,  that  (l66l)  i s e n t i t l e d 'Un  According  to Charles  t h e 1 i v r e t spec? f i e s t h a t t h e e n t r i e was accompanied by l u t e s ,  f l u t e s and v i o l i n s .  Among t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s a r e l i s t e d P i e s c h e , two  35 Descouteaux, t h r e e H o t t e t e r r e , P a i s i b l e , A l a i s and D e s t o u c h e s . e a r l y date o f the b a l l e t , o f course, assures  The  us t h a t t h e f l u t e s mentioned  36 by S i l i n a r e o f t h e r e c o r d e r t y p e .  The serenade i s composed o f a f i v e -  p a r t o r c h e s t r a l r i t o u r n e l l e and re"cit -- 'Sommes nous pas t r o p heureux'.  ^ B e n s e r a d e and h i s B a l l e t s de Cour, M a r y l a n d , 1940, p. 279. 3 5  lbid.  S i l i n ' s study i s e s s e n t i a l l y a l i t e r a r y one, r a t h e r than m u s i c o l o g i c a l . He t r a n s l a t e s ' f l u s t e ' as f l u t e t h r o u g h o u t , a t t e m p t i n g no d i s t i n c t i o n between r e c o r d e r s and t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e s .  127  The  upper v o i c e s o f t h e r? t o u r n e l l e a r e s e t up as f o l l o w s : Part  Clef  dessus hautecontre tai1le quinte  Range  gl cl c2 c3  g -c d - d' g - a' 9 - 9* 1  1  1  1  Recorders i n P would p e r f o r m t h e dessus p a r t , w h i l e as was t h e case i n A l c i d i a n e , t h a t t e n o r s c o n t r e . The r e m a i n i n g v o i c e s  1  1  i t seems  probable,  i n c' would p l a y t h e h a u t e -  r e q u i r e r e a l i z a t i o n by e i t h e r v i o l i n s ,  lutes o r both. The  t h i r d entree o f Part  C h e v a l i e r s dansant sans V i o l Ions'.  I I I o f t h e same b a l l e t i s f o r '8 As we have seen e a r l i e r , t h e drama-  t i c a c t i o n here r e q u i r e s t h a t the e n t r d e begin  before  t h e v i o l i n s have  tuned.  T h i s , o f c o u r s e , n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e use o f woodwinds;  corders  appear e l s e w h e r e i n Impatience , i t i s most l i k e l y t h a t they would  be used a t t h i s p o i n t .  L u l l y arranges the f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g  since re-  i n g-minor  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: Part  Clef  dessus hautecontre tai1le quinte  gl cl c2 c3  Range g' - b ' ' - f l a t e - d' b - f l a t - a' e-flat - e'-flat 1  1  Once more, t h e dessus p a r t would i n c l u d e r e c o r d e r s h a u t e c o n t r e i s l i k e l y t o have used t e n o r s C h a p t e r Two, t h e r e  inc ' .  i n f , w h i l e the 3 7  As mentioned i n  i s s t r o n g e v i d e n c e t h a t oboes a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n  The f a c t that the quinte part here descends to e - f l a t lends support to our premise that i t is u n l i k e l y that bass recorders performed the t a i 1 1 e and quinte l i n e s , for here the quinte descends beyond the bass r e c o r d e r s range (low note: f ) . 1  128  t h 1 s entre"e. In Les Amours De"gulsez o f 1664, the r e c o r d e r i s employed i n a way  most r e m i n i s c e n t o f the i n s t r u m e n t ' s  i n t r o d u c t o r y m a t e r i a l o f the b a l l e t des Graces e t des  Plaisirs'.  music c o n c e r n s an a l l e g o r i c a l hand, and  As  p l u s bass —  tous — doux.  a l dessus and  i n La R a i 1 l e r i e .  i n d i c a t e d i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r ,  on the o t h e r .  The  Arts  the  c o n f r o n t a t i o n between ' l e s A r t s ' on setting  a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h a t r i o o f two dessus  The  The  i n c l u d e s a 'Simphonie [ s i c ] des  ' l e s Graces e t l e s P l a i s i r s '  seven p a r t s —  treatment  one i s in  instruments  ' e x t r a ' v o i c e s o f the tous s e c t i o n a r e a d d i t i o n -  bass p a r t s ;  n o n e t h e l e s s , o n l y f i v e r e a l p a r t s appear i n  this section. The  score contains e x p l i c i t  o f the number.  'Les A r t s ' a r e r e p r e s e n t e d  l e monde Joue". setting: corders  Representing  in f  —  'Les Graces e t Les P l a i s i r s '  t h r e e - p a r t s e c t i o n s o f the work.  t r i o , and both section.  i s the doux  I t i s clear that re-  t h a t i s dessus r e c o r d e r s -- a r e r e q u i r e d i n both  t h a t p r o b a b l y o n l y two  1  by the tous s e c t i o n : " t o u s  " I p a r t i s s i m p l e mesle* de f l u s t e s " .  seven- and  to b ' ;  I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the performance  I t can be seen moreover,  r e c o r d e r s were used, one  instruments j o i n i n g  the  f o r each p a r t i n the  the o t h e r dessus p l a y e r s i n the  tous  In g-major, the r e c o r d e r s o f the tous a r e g i v e n a range o f g' i n the doux s e c t i o n s , the r e c o r d e r s have a compass o f a n i n t h ,  f rom g' t o  a' . 1  L a t e r i n the same b a l l e t ,  See page  i n the e i g h t h e n t r e e , r e c o r d e r s  205 i n P h i l i d o r ' s copy o f the  ballet.  are  129  used i n a most i n t e r e s t i n g f a s h i o n . designated  second a i r o f t h i s e n t r i e i s  'Concert de f l u s t e s pour l e s amours'.  t i n g shows a somewhat unusual  Clef  dessus hautecontre tai1le basse fact that t h i s  In g-minor, the s e t -  arrangement:  Part  The  The  Range  gl cl c2 fk  'Concert'  f'-sharp - b ' ' - f l a t c' - d ' g - g' D - b-flat 1  i s i n only four parts s t r o n g l y suggests 39  t h a t some s p e c i a l use o f r e c o r d e r s  is desired.  t h a t through t h i s arrangement L u l l y tional  recorders.  treble recorders  According in P  i s i n d i c a t i n g the  i n c l u s i o n of addi-  t o the e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n , o f  I t i s l i k e l y t h a t a bass r e c o r d e r  f o r the t a ? 1 l e p a r t .  below the range o f any  The  recorder.  Even i f we  o f the two a v a i l a b l e bass r e c o r d e r s : and  the  the h i g h b ' - f l a t .  consider  t h a t the p a r t  in f , c' and 1  part  the s t a n d a r d  one  out o f the i n f cannot  than w r i t t e n , would have g r e a t  is reach de-  The  difficulty  We must c o n c l u d e t h a t the bass p a r t was  formed on e i t h e r ' c e l l o s , v i o l p e r h a p s , most l i k e l y .  in f i s  'great b a s s ' i n c, w h i c h would a l s o have t o p e r f o r m  the p a r t an o c t a v e h i g h e r reaching  i n c'  bass v o i c e , however, descends f a r  w r i t t e n an o c t a v e lower than i t i s to sound, i t i s s t i l l  scend t o d;  course,  would p e r f o r m the dessus l i n e , w h i l e t e n o r s  would p l a y the h a u t e c o n t r e . intended  It i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e  da gambas o r b a s s o o n s , the  upper p a r t s were p r o b a b l y  latter  p l a y e d by  per-  being, recorders  f, respectively.  In no o t h e r b a l l e t s o b s e r v e d by the p r e s e n t instrumental pieces in evidence.  a u t h o r were f o u r -  130 Immediately f o l l o w i n g t h i s f o u r - p a r t s e t t i n g f o r r e c o r d e r s i s a 'Sarabande pour l e s mesme . 1  the s t a n d a r d  The  'sarabande', however, i s once more i n  f i v e - p a r t arrangement.  From t h i s we may  conclude  that  the  bass r e c o r d e r i n f , employed on the t a ? 1 l e p a r t i n the p r e v i o u s number, i s no  longer r e q u i r e d .  following  The  'Sarabande' a r e g i v e n  the  ranges: Part  Clef  dessus hautecontre tai 1 le quinte Treble recorders in f tenors  upper p a r t s o f the  Range -  gl cl c2 c3  g' - b ' ' - f l a t d' - d' c' - g e - e' 1  1  a r e t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d on the dessus l i n e , w h i l e  i n c' a r e l i k e l y to have performed the Two  final  La P r i n c e s s e d ' E l I d e  hautecontre.  i n s t a n c e s o f the use o f r e c o r d e r s a r e t o be found i n (1664).  The  f i r s t e n t r i e of t h i s b a l l e t  a 'Rondeau pour l e s F l u s t e s a l l a n t & l a t a b l e du R o i ' .  contains  According  t o the  40 1ivret, violins also participated  i n the rondeau.  The  dessus and  c o n t r e l i n e s o f t h i s f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g a r e g i v e n ranges o f g' t o b " d' t o e ' ;  these would be performed by r e c o r d e r s  1  hauteand  i n f' and c'  respec-  s i x t h entre*e o f La P r i n c e s s e d ' E l i d e i s f o r 'Les  Bergers  tively. The et  l e s Faunes' , and a l s o i n v o l v e s the use o f r e c o r d e r s .  Prunieres  quotes the 1 i v r e t f o r t h i s e n t r i e i n h i s e d i t i o n o f the work: "Pendant que ces aimables personnes d a n s o e i n t , i l s o r t i t de dessous l e t h e a t r e l a machine d'un grand  40  See Henry P r u n i e r e s :  Op.C i t . , I I I , p.  11  131 a r b r e charge* de s e i z e Faunes, dont l e s h u i t j o u e r e n t de l a f l u t e e t l e s a u t r e s du v i o l o n avec un c o n c e r t l e p l u s a g r e a b l e du monde. T r e n t e v i o l o n s l e u r r e p o n d o i e n t de l ' o r c h e s t r e , avec s i x a u t r e s c o n c e r t a n t s de c l a v e c i n s de the"orbes q u i e*toient l e s s i e u r s d ' A n g l e b e r t , R i c h a r d , I t i e r , La B a r r e l e c a d e t , T i s s u e t l e Moine."'* 1  The  f o u r upper v o i c e s i n t h i s f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g i n b - f l a t major have t h e  following  ranges: Part  Clef  dessus hautecontre tai1le quinte The  gl cl c2 c3  s t a n d a r d arrangement w i t h r e c o r d e r i n P  c' on t h e h a u t e c o n t r e  is clearly  in effect  Through even t h i s l i m i t e d s a m p l i n g Lully's early ballets,  Range f' - b - f l a t d' - d ' b - f l a t - a' e - f l a t - d' 1 1  1  on t h e d e s s u s , and t e n o r i n here. o f t h e r e c o r d e r ' s use i n  i t can be seen t h a t t h i s i n s t r u m e n t was, p e r h a p s ,  the most f r e q u e n t l y employed o f the woodwinds.  The r e c o r d e r , o f c o u r s e ,  was t o r e t a i n i t s p o p u l a r i t y w e l l i n t o t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y ,  although  t h e r e can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t t h e t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e was becoming dominant as e a r l y as c.1700. The  reason  f o r t h e r e c o r d e r ' s e x t e n s i v e use i n L u l l y ' s  ballets  i s b e s t e x p l a i n e d by i t s c o n s i s t e n t l y good i n t o n a t i o n . As l a t e as 1713 Mattheson d e s c r i b e d t h e r e c o r d e r as t h e o n l y woodwind t h a t c o u l d be kl  played  i n tune i n any key.  k]  As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , however, t h e r e -  . . ' ' - » P- 3. Large instrumental forces are obviously employed m t h i s entree. The eight p a r t i c i p a t i n g recorder players probably arranged themselves with four performers on both the dessus and hautecontre l i n e s . b  d  6  C i t e d by Edgar Hunt:  O p . C i t . , p. 82.  132  c o r d e r i n P , e s p e c i a l l y , was b e s t - s u i t e d t o f l a t keys. is c e r t a i n l y evidenced  i n L u l l y ' s use o f the i n s t r u m e n t :  This  preference  o f the  thir-  teen examples s t u d i e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , e l e v e n were i n f l a t keys — t e n in g-minor and one i n b - f l a t major; sharp k e y s , both The  w h i l e o n l y two examples were i n  i n g-major.  r e c o r d e r , b e s i d e s e x h i b i t i n g the b e s t i n t o n a t i o n o f t h e  e a r l y woodwinds, had a range t h a t was comparable t o both f l u t e s and oboes.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the upper e x t e n t o f the r e c o r d e r ' s com-  pass was c o m p l e t e l y  i g n o r e d by L u l l y .  On o n l y one o c c a s i o n , i n t h e  B a l l e t de 1'Impatience (1661), d i d t h e f - i n s t r u m e n t ' s p a r t ascend t o c' '. 1  C u r i o u s l y , i n seven out o f the t h i r t e e n  range employed was g' t o b ' ' - f l a t .  instances analyzed the  The lower and m i d d l e  range o f t h e  r e c o r d e r , we may c o n c l u d e , was thought most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the r e corder's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o n o r i t y . The  r e c o r d e r was employed i n a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f ensembles.  It was employed w i t h s t r i n g s the s i x t h e n t r e e  i n l a r g e , f i v e - p a r t ensembles, such as i n  o f La P r i n c e s s e d ' E l i d e (1664).  the r e c o r d e r was observed  In La R a ? 1 l e r i e  as a s o l o dessus i n s t r u m e n t w i t h s i n g l e  (1659) vio-  l i n s . . I t was a l s o i n La R a i l l e r i e t h a t the r e c o r d e r was used t o accompany v o c a l re"ci t s .  We r e c a l l  t h a t F r e i 1 l o n - P o n c e i n , i n 1700, s t a t e d  t h a t t h e r e c o r d e r was " 1 ' i n s t r u m e n t  qui c o n v i e n t l e mieux aux Accom-  43  pagnements des v o i x " .  The woodwind most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e -  c o r d e r has been shown t o be the oboe;  Op.C ? t . , p. 13  on two o c c a s i o n s -- i n A l c i d i a n e  133  ( I 6 5 8 ) and  Impatience (1661) The  p a r t s e t t i n g f o r r e c o r d e r s was  p a r t was  bass r e c o r d e r s probably  observed.  ruled out. being  I t has  I t i s not  o n l y two  impossible  and  the t e n o r  that only recorders  part s e t t i n g s .  Although t h i s  seems t o be u n l i k e l y .  i n f on  players  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would A second p o s s i b i -  the t a ? 1 l e l i n e i n f i v e -  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may  not be d i s c a r d e d , i t  F i r s t o f a l l , a bass i n s t r u m e n t  marked t a i 1 l e would be somewhat u n u s u a l .  be  were u s e d ,  S i n c e from f o u r to e i g h t  i n the 1 ? v r e t s , however, t h i s  i s the i n c l u s i o n o f bass r e c o r d e r s  in f  appear  i n c'.  use, however, cannot  r e s u l t i n a t e x t u r e which would be r a t h e r top-heavy. lity  fourth  s i z e s of recorder  the t r e b l e i n P ,  the dessus l i n e a l o n e .  are u s u a l l y l i s t e d  treble,  p l a y e d by bassoons.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the r e c o r d e r ' s  s c o r e d on  been shown t h a t  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s number, w h i l e the  to have been used by L u l l y — other  in  In the e i g h t h entre"e o f t h i s b a l l e t a f o u r -  Under normal c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  Two  together.  most unusual use o f the r e c o r d e r s o c c u r r e d , o f c o u r s e ,  Les Amours De"gu?sez (1664).  t e n o r and  -- the two woodwinds were used  playing a part  S e c o n d l y , as we  noticed  i n Les  Amours De"guisez when L u l l y does want a bass r e c o r d e r , s p e c i a l i n d i c a t i o n s appear, suggesting  that, normally,  the bass i n s t r u m e n t  I r r e s p e c t i v e o f the number o f r e c o r d e r s o b v i o u s t h a t the t r e b l e i n f  was  instrument  which r e c e i v e d s o l o and  recorder's  t r e a t m e n t has  special consideration.  in the o r c h e s t r a .  required.  used by L u l l y ,  the dominant i n s t r u m e n t ;  Its frequent  was  i t is  t t was  t r i o s e t t i n g s i n the b a l l e t s .  shown t h a t the i n s t r u m e n t  ample o f L u l l y ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  i s not  this The  only r a r e l y given  employment, however, i s a good  ex-  o f the p o t e n t i a l o f woodwind c o l o u r w i t h -  CONCLUSIONS  To f u l l y understand  the nature o f  woodwinds, a study o f t h e i r use i n t h e e a r l y Lully  is essential.  valuable insights  mid-seventeenth-century ballets of Jean-Baptiste  Through the medium o f t h e b a l l e t s one may g a i n  into certain  the s e r v i c e a b l e ranges —  physical  characteristics  o f the woodwinds.  -- f o r example,  More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e  employment o f bassoons, oboes, f l u t e s and r e c o r d e r s f r e q u e n t l y demonstrates  how t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s were regarded by t h e composers and m u s i -  cians o f the time. It has been shown t h a t the woodwinds w i t h w h i c h t h i s study i s concerned  underwent r e m o d e l l i n g i n France d u r i n g the m i d d l e decades o f  the s e v e n t e e n t h  century.  Since t h e o r e t i c a l  instruments a r e completely lacking  sources d e a l i n g w i t h  from c.1640 t o c . 1 6 8 0 , m u s i c a l  dence o f t h e i r use i n t h e b a l l e t s assumes paramount Lully's early  these evi-  importance.  b a l l e t s have p r o v i d e d examples o f t h e e a r l i e s t  use o f two r e m o d e l l e d woodwinds —  the oboe' and t h e f l u t e .  With r e -  s p e c t t o t h e l a t t e r , t h i s study has made i t p o s s i b l e t o p u t back t h e date  2 o f t h e remodel l e d f l u t e ' s f i r s t appearance by from t e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r s . The  remodelled  r e c o r d e r and b a s s o o n , moreover, a r e l i k e l y t o have r e -  c e i v e d t h e i r f i r s t s t a n d a r d i z e d treatment  "The  i n t h e ensembles o f L u l l y ' s  In t h e B a l l e t de 1'Amour Malade (1657); see Joseph Marx: tone o f t h e Baroque Oboe", G a l p i n S o c i e t y J o u r n a l , IV, p. 14. In t h e B a l l e t des Muses (1666);  see Chapter  3, f o o t n o t e 45.  135 ballet  orchestra. Of  number  have  the  nineteen  emerged  nence  they  afford  Muses  (1666),  their  introduction  of  (1658),  however,  numbers  from  The  ballet,  ment  of  in  the  these  (1657)  and  doubt,  les  les  trois  later,  (and  great  pains  promi-  any  A spectator  other  its  special more  The  owing  to  Alcidiane  extensive  nine bassoons.  employ-  mention.  As one  a n d more  frequently.  in  patrons  detail  premiere  would  instruments)  knowledgeable  the  Les  ballet:  woodwind  describe at  and  r e c o r d e r s , oboes or  therefore  to  (1657)  of  the  of  pro-  L'Amour  des  Harmonies,  douceurs presque des  acors  de s o i x a n t e voix  rares  males the  et  infinies,  charmans Instrumans et  trois  belles,  _  fdmelles...."  same g e n t l e m a n  says of  the  music of  L e s Amours  (1664) :  by C h a r l e s  1 9 4 0 , p.  grande an  took  than  woodwinds  be o v e r - e m p h a s i z e d .  s'entendent  Cited the  music,  to  the  small  respectively.  1668, with  deserves  exploited  a  milestones,  flutes,  woodwinds  of  study,  writes:  De p l u s  Maryland,  bassoons,  of  as  involved either  had w i t n e s s e d .  Avec  Ddguisez  use o f  this  L'Amour Malade  s i n g l e d out  new o b o e s a n d  ballets  Proce*dent  Seven y e a r s  be  de V e r s a i l l e s  cannot  Dont  De  instruments.  production  importance  "La,  of  the  spectacles often they  s i g n i f i c a n c e , owing  made more  later  ballets  ductions Malade  of  flutes  The  primary  c o u r s e , must  La G r o t t e  the  considered for  woodwind  this  both  expect,  as o f  ballets  262.  siecle.  exaggeration.  Silin:  The The  B e n s e r a d e and  affected  reference  language to  sixty  of  his this  Ballets  de  Cour,  letter  is  typical  instrumentalists  is,  no  136  "11 s'y f i t des C o n c e r t s s i r a r e s Q u ' i l s e u s s e n t touche" des B a r b a r e s , On chanta q u a t r e ou c i n q R e c i t s Qui t e n o i e n t tous nos sens s u r c i s Ces t r o i s a i m a b l e s D e m o i s e l l e s , Qui sont s i bonnes C h a n t e r e l l e s , Dont t u v o i s l e s noms 3 cofe", ^ N ' a v o i e n t j a m a i s s i b i e n chante*." Although  i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s a r e r a r e l y s i n g l e d out  l a v i s h p r a i s e a f f o r d e d the music i n g e n e r a l mances were o f a h i g h  i n these  l e t t e r s , the  i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p e r f o r -  standard.  With the e x c e p t i o n o f o n l y one o r two i n s t a n c e s , " ' woodwinds c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y entered  the o r c h e s t r a s near the c o n c l u s i o n s o f drama-  tic  In t h e s e  u n i t s i n the b a l l e t s .  l a r g e ensemble f i n a l e s , woodwind  s o n o r i t i e s are both j o i n e d t o , and c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h a t o f the normal string orchestra.  The p r i n c i p l e o f a l t e r n a t i o n  feature o f L u l l y ' s orchestral  i s , i n d e e d , a prominent  technique.*^  " I b i d . , p. 329"'Notably Les Nopces de V i 1 l a g e (1663) and 1 ' Impatience (1661), where oboes and r e c o r d e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e used i n the i n i t i a l e n t r i e s . ^There i s s t r o n g e v i d e n c e t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s o f 'grand'vs. ' p e t i t choeur' a r e i n f o r c e . d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s . T h i s t e c h n i q u e , e x p l o i t e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n French o r c h e s t r a l music o f t h e l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h and e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , employed a s t a n d a r d group o f s o l o p e r f o r m e r s w h i c h was c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the t o u s , o r f u l l o r c h e s t r a . The normal p e t i t choeur o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n c l u d e d c o n t i n u o i n s t r u m e n t s , a l o n g w i t h two v i o l i n s and two f l u t e s . Since t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e s do not f i g u r e i n L u l l y ' s e a r l i e r b a l l e t s , the e a r l i e r p r a c t i c e c l e a r l y e x i s t s i n a somewhat v a r i e d .format. In La R a ? 1 l e r ? e (1659) and La G r o t t e de V e r s a ? 1 l e s (1668), the markings f [ o r t ] , d [ o u x ] w i t h * $ . and X o c c u r r e g u l a r l y . In a d d i t i o n , a number o f e n t r i e s s c o r e d f o r f i v e p a r t s i n La R a ? 1 l e r ? e a r e headed w i t h ' t a c e t ' . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e o r c h e s t r a l t e x t u r e was f r e q u e n t l y a l t e r e d i n L u l l y ' s b a l l e t s . Woodwinds must have p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n these v a r i a t i o n s .  137 Woodwind i n s t r u m e n t s are used i n r u s t i c and with predictable r e g u l a r i t y . they p a r t i c i p a t e i n a g r e a t  Within  such s t e r o t y p e d  v a r i e t y o f ensembles.  o f c o u r s e , a r e most common;  but  in three-part  s i t u a t i o n s , however,  ensembles the  Instruments  Four-part, s i x -  even s e v e n - p a r t s e t t i n g s a r e a l s o a p p a r e n t , when the  f o r c e s a r e augmented by v o i c e s , o r s p e c i a l i n s t r u m e n t s , and  scenes  Five-part s e t t i n g s ,  seem t o r e c e i v e t h e i r most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t r e a t m e n t . and  idyllic  instrumental such as  trumpets  drums. L u l l y ' s use o f woodwinds, however, i s more than an e s s a y i n  orchestral colour. ments, the  B e s i d e s p r o v i d i n g the n e c e s s a r y m u s i c a l  i n s t r u m e n t s and  t i c a c t i o n o f the  accompani-  t h e i r p l a y e r s a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the drama-  ballets.  In an e f f o r t t o lend u n i t y t o the d i s p a r a t e elements o f productions t h i s end,  m u s i c i a n s were c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d a n c e r s .  these To  i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s , d i s g u i s e d and masked, were u s u a l l y f i r s t  march on s t a g e , w h i l e p l a y i n g the  i n i t i a l musical  numbers o f the  to  ballet.  7  They then assumed t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , o f t e n moving t o a l o c a t i o n where they c o u l d be employed as a p a r t o f the u n f o l d i n g drama.  An example o f m u s i -  c i a n s p l a y i n g e s s e n t i a l r o l e s i n the a c t i o n o f the b a l l e t o c c u r s i n Les Nopces de Vi 1 lage b r i d e and  (1663).  A f t e r the o p e n i n g o u v e r t u r e and  groom make t h e i r f i r s t appearance.  l e a d them on t o the s t a g e , j u s t as the l l v r e t The  V i o l i n s and  re"cit, oboes  the  literally  explains.  involvement o f m u s i c i a n s i n the a c t i o n i s a t times even  Silin:  O p . G i t . , p.  191.  138 more e x p l i c i t .  Silin  relates:  "Sometimes the m u s i c i a n s impersonate d e f i n i t e r o l e s and a r e g i v e n costumes r e p r e s e n t i n g T r i t o n s , S i r e n s , Fauns, F u r i e s , Nymphs, o r whatever the s u b j e c t o f the b a l l e t c a l l s f o r . In such cases they a r e o f t e n p a r t o f the mise en s c e n e , a p p e a r i n g i n n i c h e s , i n g r o t t o e s , on p a l a c e b a l c o n i e s , o r perched on c h a r i o t s , clouds, s h i p s , or animals. Their participation dience's  i n the drama, t h e n , g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e d to the  a p p r e c i a t i o n and  understanding  J u s t as the s t o r i e s and and  o f the  au-  plot.  themes o f the b a l l e t s were c r e a t e d  u n d e r s t o o d on a number o f l e v e l s , L u l l y ' s use o f woodwinds i n v a r i o u s  entrees  had many s y m b o l i c c o n n o t a t i o n s .  myth and  In a genre t h a t t h r i v e s on  a l l e g o r y , i t i s o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t a number o f s e t symbols  p a t t e r n s s h o u l d emerge.  Instruments,  t o o , were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  and  these  patterns. In s i m p l e represented  terms, v i o l i n s , v i o l s , l u t e s , theorboes and  intangibles —  the gods, emotions o r s p i r i t s , f o r example  w h i l e i n s t r u m e n t s , such as bassoons, oboes, f l u t e s and a s s o c i a t e d with n a t u r a l or c o u r s e , t h a t we and  instruments  ' r e a l ' events.  —  r e c o r d e r s , were  It i s f o r t h i s reason,  c o n s i s t e n t l y e n c o u n t e r e d woodwinds i n i d y l l i c  scenes de champetre.  clavecins  Not o n l y were double reeds and  of  scenes  flutes  the  o f the c o u n t r y d w e l l e r s , but they were a l s o i l l u s t r a t i v e  of  human a c t i v i t y . A c l e a r example o f i n s t r u m e n t a l symbolism o c c u r s De"guisez o f 1664.  The  I b i d . , pp.  opening argument, we  191-192.  recall,  i n Les Amours  involves a  confron-  139  t a t i o n between Les A r t s and  Les Graces e t l e s P l a i s i r s .  Les A r t s a r e accompanied by the f u l l et les P l a i s i r s are scored seventeenth-century  Predictably,  s t r i n g o r c h e s t r a , w h i l e Les  f o r ' p a r t i s s i m p l e mesle' de f l u s t e s ' .  Frenchmen, o b v i o u s l y , a r t was  Graces To  the  a mystical link with  9 the s p i r i t u a l w o r l d .  Graces and  man-imposed phenomena.  p l e a s u r e s , on the o t h e r hand, were  Seen i n t h i s l i g h t , L u l l y ' s o r c h e s t r a t i o n i s  h i g h l y r e f i n e d and most s u b t l e i n n a t u r e . L u l l y was,  above a l l , a p r a c t i c a l m u s i c i a n .  grasp o f the remodelled capability;  nonetheless,  firsts and  Although  immediate  woodwind's p o t e n t i a l i s a c r e d i t t o h i s c r e a t i v e i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t he would not j e o p a r d i z e h i s  r e p u t a t i o n a t c o u r t by i n t r o d u c i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l unfamiliar.  His  L'Amour Malade and  Les Muses r e p r e s e n t  i n the o r c h e s t r a l use o f woodwinds, we  f l u t e s were heard s o c i a l l y ,  f o r c e s w i t h w h i c h he  was  important  can be sure t h a t both oboes  i f not p u b l i c l y , b e f o r e t h e i r  inclusion  in L u l l y ' s o r c h e s t r a . Documentation c o n c e r n i n g  the i n i t i a l  m o d e l l e d oboe i s almost n o n - e x i s t e n t . we have seen t h a t P h i l i b e r t a l r e a d y had his  In the case o f the f l u t e , however, gained  considerable  renown t h r o u g h  c o n c e r t s at Jean Brunet.'s s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s when he e n t e r e d  r e c o r d s o f the Grande E c u r i e i n 1667. led  appearances o f the r e -  I t i s l i k e l y t h a t a l l the  the remodel-  woodwinds underwent s i m i l a r s t a g e s o f ' i n d o c t r i n a t i o n ' . L u l l y ' s employment o f the new  i n s t r u m e n t s , moreover, depended  on the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f competent p e r f o r m e r s .  I t seems t o be more than  See Robert Isherwood: M u s i c i n the S e r v i c e o f the K i n g , I t h i c a , New Y o r k , 1973, C h a p t e r 1, f o r an e n l i g h t e n e d d i s c u s s i o n o f French m u s i c a l a e s t h e t i c s under the Roi S o l e l l .  140 c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t the f i r s t mention  i n C o u r t r e c o r d s o f such p l a y e r s as  Jean H o t t e t e r r e w i t h h i s s o n s , and Descouteaux  i s 1657  —  t h a t i s , the  y e a r t h a t Amour Ma l a d e was p r o d u c e d , and the y e a r o f the e a r l i e s t known p u b l i c performance on the new oboe.  Similarly, Philibert's first  ap-  pearance a t c o u r t o c c u r s w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n o f Les Muses i n 1 6 6 6 . ' ^ C l e a r l y , L u l l y chose h i s i n s t r u m e n t s and p e r f o r m e r s w i t h  characteristic  shrewdness. T h i s s t u d y o f woodwind t r e a t m e n t i n L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s n e c e s s a r i l y employed  a l i m i t e d amount o f s o u r c e m a t e r i a l .  A more com-  p r e h e n s i v e documentation o f t h i s t r e a t m e n t i s c e r t a i n l y p o s s i b l e . r e l a t i n g P h i l i d o r ' s c o p i e s o f the f u l l  has  Cor-  s c o r e s w i t h the numerous e x t a n t  o r c h e s t r a l p a r t s , and the P h i l i d o r c o l l e c t i o n a t S t . M i c h a e l ' s C o l l e g e i n Tenbury, would p r o v i d e the a d d i t i o n a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n . c o m p l e t e c o r p u s o f t h e b a l l e t 1 i v r e t s , moreover,  Access to a  is essential  for a  thorough u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f L u l l y ' s use o f woodwinds. It has been p o s s i b l e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t o come t o a number o f c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g L u l l y ' s employment o f f o u r woodwinds.  Although  we have seen t h a t the composer's use o f b a s s o o n s , oboes, f l u t e s and r e c o r d e r s Is more e x t e n s i v e than h i t h e r t o b e l i e v e d , and a l t h o u g h we  have  found c o n s i d e r a b l e s u b t l e t y and nuance i n the i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n o f the b a l l e t s , Adam C a r s e ' s assessment o f L u l l y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s t a n d a r d o r c h e s t r a l p r a c t i c e , shows much i n s i g h t .  Carse  ]ctc l $ ? P Muses, which p r e m i e r e d i n n l Derpmhpr December o f 1666, but which was performed u n t i l F e b r u a r y , 1667 have been d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 3. / » / , < = 0  C h  O n o ]  l  a ]  r o b , e m s  o f  141 concludes: " I n v i e w o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s e n j o y e d by L u l l ? h i s o r c h e s t r a t i o n seems u n e n t e r p r i z i n g a n d more a m a t t e r o f r o u t i n e t h a n o f a r t i s t i c impulse; b u t a s an e x a m p l e t o o t h e r s t h a t v e r y q u a l i t y no d o u b t had i t s v a l u e i n h e l p i n g t o s t a b i l i z e a n d c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e some p r i n c i p l e s which were n e c e s s a r y f o r the f u r t h e r development o f o r c h e s t r a t i o n . " 1 1  Adam C a r s e :  History of  Orchestration,  1925,  p.  88.  142  MUSICAL SOURCES  The f o l l o w i n g s c o r e s from the Col l e c t i o n Phi 1Idor, B l b l l o t h e q u e N a t l o n a l e de P a r i s have been c o n s u l t e d : A l c l d i a n e (1658): RSs. F. 507Amour Malade, 1' (1657): Re's. F. 519Amour M d d e c l n , 1 (1665): Re's. F. 523. Amours De"sguisez, l e s (1664): Re's. F. 511. A r t s , l e s (1663): Re's. F. 654. B o u r g e o i s Gentilhomme, l e (1670): Rds. F. 657 ( f o l i o 6 3 ) . F l o r e (1669): R£s. F. 515. G r o t t e de V e r s a i l l e s , l a (1668): Re's. F. 532. I m p a t i e n c e , 1' (1661): Re's. F. 509. Jeux P i t h i e n s , l e s (1670): Re's. F. 657 ( f o l i o 101). M a r r i a g e Force , l e (1664): R6s. F. 512. M o n s i e u r de Pourceaugnac (1669): Re's. F. 657 ( f o l i o 5 1 ) . Muses, l e s (1666): Re's. F. 521. N a i s s a n c e de Venus, l a (1665): Re's. F. 513. Nopces de V i l l a g e , l e s (I663): Re's. 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