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Woodwind treatment in the early ballets of Jean-Baptiste Lully Semmens, Richard Templar 1975

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WOODWIND TREATMENT IN THE EARLY BALLETS OF J E A N - B A P T I S T E LULLY by R i c h a r d T e m p l a r Semmens B.Mus. University of.British Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC i n the Depar tment o f M u s i c We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d A d v i s o r THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1975 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of Mus ic The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l , 1975 / ABSTRACT The seventeenth century represents a c r u c i a l stage In the de-velopment and e v o l u t i o n of woodwind instruments. Older instruments, such as the crumhorn, r a u s c h p f e i f and, in France, the hautbois de P o i t o u and the musette became more or le s s o b s o l e t e In that century. On the other hand, such woodwinds as the bassoon, oboe, f l u t e and the recorder under-went s i g n i f i c a n t remodel l i n g s — both s t r u c t u r a l and tonal -- from c . l 6 A 0 to C .1660 . It i s g e n e r a l l y agreed that the changes were e f f e c t e d in France, where, under the auspices of the Grande Ecurie du R o i , woodwind Instruments t r a d i t i o n a l l y had enjoyed a great p o p u l a r i t y . T h e o r e t i c a l sources d e s c r i b i n g woodwinds are completely l a c k -ing during the c r i t i c a l period o f t r a n s i t i o n from the o l d e r instruments, such as those discussed In Marin Mersenne's Harmonle U n i v e r s e l l e (1636), to t h e i r more modern c o u n t e r p a r t s , such as the oboes and recorders o f Frei 1lon-Poncein's La V e r i t a b l e Maniere d'apprendre a jouer en p e r c e c t i o n  du Hautbois, de l a F l u t e et du F l a g e o l e t (1700). As a r e s u l t , the nature of the remodelled instruments, when they f i r s t appeared in P a r i s , has remained d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n . This t h e s i s attempts to come to terms w i t h four o f the r e -modelled woodwinds — the bassoon, the oboe, the f l u t e and the recorder --by observing the treatment they received in the e a r l y b a l l e t s (that I s , those o f 1657-1670) o f Jean-Baptiste L u l l y . The four chapters, each o f which i s devoted to a s i n g l e Instrument, d i v i d e themselves i n t o two s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t part o f each chapter puts the instrument under con-i i s i d e r a t l o n i n t o h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , and describes the nature of i t s remodelling. In the second s e c t i o n the musical sources are analyzed, and c o n c l u s i o n s concerning the use of the woodwind are made. In the absence o f encyclopedic d e s c r i p t i o n s of woodwinds at the time of t h e i r r e m odelling, the e a r l y b a l l e t s o f L u l l y assume e s p e c i a l importance. Through t h i s medium i t i s p o s s i b l e to observe how the i n -struments were f i r s t used. Knowing how they were employed provides i n -formation which would be otherwise l a c k i n g . Thesis Supervisor i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS v LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . v i i INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I . THE BASSOON 27 The Bassoon in L u l l y ' s E a r l y B a l l e t s 38 I I . THE OBOE 5h The Oboe i n L u l l y ' s E a r l y Bal le t s • 67 I I I . THE FLUTE 83 The F l u t e in L u l l y ' s E a r l y Bal l e t s 97 IV. THE RECORDER . . . UO The Recorder in L u l l y ' s E a r l y B a l l e t s 121 CONCLUSIONS 13^ MUSICAL SOURCES 1 *»2 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1^3 Iv \r -LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Fagot from Mersenne's Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e , Bk. V., Proposi t i o n XXXI I . 33 2. Back view of Chori s t - f a g o t t , Fagot, and remodelled baroque bassoon 36 V ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN THIS STUDY I To a v o i d i n n u m e r a b l e m u s i c a l e x a m p l e s , the f o l l o w i n g method o f o c t a v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n has been a d o p t e d : 4* •bo h to fe' c" to b" bo b' II The v a r i o u s c l e f s to be e n c o u n t e r e d in the m u s i c a l s o u r c e s w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d by the f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n s : F A = G2 = Gl = C I = C2 = C3 = III The p e r i o d i c a l s l i s t e d be low have been a b b r e v i a t e d as f o l l o w s : J . A . M . S . - J o u r n a l o f A m e r i c a n M u s i c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y G a l p . S o c . J . - G a l p i n S o c i e t y J o u r n a l Mus. Q. - M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y R . M . A . P r o c . - P r o c e e d i n g s o f the R o y a l M u s i c o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a -t i o n S . I . M . G , Sammelba'nde d e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l e r M u s i k - G e s s e l 1 s c h a f t v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o thank the f o l l o w i n g p e r s o n s , w i t h o u t whose h e l p the c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y would have been i m p o s s i b l e : Mr . Hans B u r n d o r f e r , M u s i c L i b r a r i a n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r h i s e f f o r t s in a c q u i r i n g m i c r o f i l m c o p i e s o f the C o l l e c t i o n P h i l i d o r ; D r . M. T e Y e y - S m i t h , Western W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e C o l l e g e , f o r her k i n d a d v i c e ^ and f o r making a v a i l a b l e m i c r o f i l m s f rom her p r i v a t e l i b r a r y ; and f i n a l l y to my mother who f r e e l y gave o f her t ime in t y p i n g and p r o o f - r e a d i n g t h i s t h e s i s . v i i INTRODUCTION "C'est done dans les b a l l e t s que g i t l e s e c r e t de son s t y l e instrumental et v o c a l . C'est en e"tudiant ses premieres oeuvres qu'on peut l e mieux se rendre compte des c o n d i t i o n s dans les quel les i l s'est forme* et des i n f l u e n c e s qui s'exercerent d'abord sur l u i . " ' J e a n - B a p t i s t e L u l l y (1632-1687) entered the s e r v i c e s of Anne Marie Louise d'0rl£ans, 'La Grande Mademoiselle', upon h i s a r r i v a l in P a r i s i n 16^6. Beginning w i t h t h i s p o s i t i o n , and c u l m i n a t i n g in h i s u l -timate appointment as Surintendant de Musique in 1661, L u l l y was to be-come i n c r e a s i n g l y involved in the d i v e r t i s s e m e n t s at c o u r t , e s p e c i a l l y the b a l l e t s de cour. By the m i d - f i f t i e s L u l l y was c o n t r i b u t i n g h i s own compositions to the court b a l l e t s , as w e l l as dancing i n them along s i d e 2 the nobt1Ity. In January, 1653, the court was preoccupied w i t h the f o r t h -coming production o f Le B a l l e t de l a N u i t . L u l l y was i n v i t e d to attend one of the rehearsals at the LoUvre. There the Compte de St Aignan introduced him to Louis XIV. L u l l y was subsequently asked to perform Henry Pruni&res: "Les premiers b a l l e t s de L u l l y " , La  Revue M u s i c a l e , June, 1931, No. 116, p. 1; a l s o quoted in Henry Prun-i e r e s , (edi t.) : Oeuvres Completes de Jean-Baptiste L u l l y , Tome 1, P a r i s E d i t i o n s de l a Revue M u s i c a l e , 1931, p. X I I I . 2 The b a l l e t s involved the co-operation of a great number of a r t i s t s , w r i t e r s , composers and musicians. Under L u l l y the genre was to gain u n i t y through the I n c l u s i o n of only one l i b r e t t i s t and a s i n g l e composer. 2 in a number of e n t r i e s . The young musician immediately took c o n t r o l of the s i t u a t i o n and rehearsed both dancers and o r c h e s t r a (Les v i n g t - q u a t r e  v i o l o n s du Ro?) w i t h uncanny z e a l . He even t a c t f u l l y coached Louis XIV in some of h i s e n t r i e s . The b a l l e t , the King and L u l l y were an impres-s i v e success at the court premiere, 23 February, 1653- R.H.F. Scott e f f e c t i v e l y summarizes the r e s u l t a n t s i t u a t i o n : "The King, g r a t e f u l f o r B a p t i s t e ' s a s s i s t a n c e , thenceforward held him in high esteem and even a f f e c t i o n . . . L o u i s consulted him on anything to do w i t h the t h e a t r e , whether i t was dancing, music or scenery, knowing that he would always re c e i v e an i n t e l l i g e n t answer, even though i t might be d e l i v e r e d brusquely. " 3 The f r u i t of t h i s new-found esteem f i r s t appeared s h o r t l y a f t e r the suc-cess o f Le B a l l e t de l a Nui t ; L a z a r i n , a v i o l i n i s t in the v? ngt-quatre and admired court composer, d i e d . L u l l y asked f o r h i s post, and on 16 it March, 1653 was made compositeur de l a Musique instrumentale. In t h i s p o s i t i o n L u l l y composed h i s f i r s t dances f o r the Royal B a l l e t , e l a b o r a -t i n g w i t h two c o l l e a g u e s , Mazuel and Verpre". By November, 165^ L u l l y completed and produced h i s B a l l e t du  Temps, the f i r s t work i n which the music was e n t i r e l y h i s . As compos i t - teur de musique instrumentale he was charged w i t h conducting the Grande  Bande (Les V i n g t - q u a t r e ) , but L u l l y found t h i s famous group beyond h i s c o n t r o l , f o r they were prone to o v e r - e m b e l l i s h i n g h i s compositions. In JR.H.F. S c o t t : Jean-Baptiste L u l l y , London, Peter Owen, 1973, p. 3 5 . Henry P r u n i e r e s : La v i e i l l u s t r e et l i b e r t i n e de Jean-Bapt?ste  L u l l y , P a r i s , 1925, p. 6 3 . 3 r e a c t i o n , he obtained permission to band together a group of twenty young musicians and to form what was l a t e r dubbed les P e t i t s V i o l o n s . Within a few months of h i s ardent t u i t i o n they had acquired a greater reputa-t i o n than the Grande Bande. During the l a s t years of the f i f t i e s , L u l l y s o l i d i f i e d h i s p o s i t i o n and s t a t u s w i t h Louis XIV, w h i l e h i s r e p u t a t i o n as dancer, v i o l i n i s t and composer continued to i n c r e a s e , much to the d i s d a i n of h i s French contemporaries. On 3 May, 1661, Cambefort, Surintendent de l a Musique de Cha- pe 11e, d i e d , l e a v i n g open h i s much-coveted p o s i t i o n . Scott d e s c r i b e s the ensuing events: "As soon as the o p p o r t u n i s t B a p t i s t e heard of t h i s , he hastened to C o l b e r t who spoke to the King, and L u l l y was granted L e t t e r s Patent a p p o i n t i n g him superintendent of Music and composer f o r the Musi-que de l a Chambre."5 L u l l y ' s compositions were, In other words, q u i c k l y becoming the only ones to which the King was exposed. Moreover, in h i s c a p a c i t y as Superinten-dent he had access to a l l the instrumental forces a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the court divert!ssements -- the Musique de C h a p e l l e , the Musique de Chambre and the Musique de l ' E c u r i e . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of the s t r i n g s and v a r i o u s wind instruments permitted L u l l y to experiment with them, and to employ them c o n s i s t e n t l y in h i s b a l l e t s of I 65A - I 67O. Le B a l l e t de Cour This study w i l l attempt to c l a r i f y L u l l y ' s use of woodwinds in R.H.F. S c o t t : Op.Cit. , p. * t 2 . I k h i s e a r l y b a l l e t s , from c . 1 653 when he was f i r s t introduced to Louis XIV, u n t i l 1670, a f t e r which time, tragedies l y r i q u e s became the dominant court entertainment in France.^ Not only were these years of paramount importance i n L u l l y ' s own career but, as w i l l be seen, they were a l s o of c r u c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the e v o l u t i o n o f the s o - c a l l e d modern woodwind. Although i t may be asserted that L u l l y both c o n s o l i d a t e d and created aspects o f the French o p e r a t i c t r a d i t i o n , the same i s not true of h i s b a l l e t compositions. The h i s t o r y , f u n c t i o n and form of the b a l - l e t s de cour (though f r e e l y e v o l v i n g ) was w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d by the time of L u l l y ' s a r r i v a l i n P a r i s . It i s t h e r e f o r e necessary to t r a c e b r i e f l y the h i s t o r y o f the genre, i n order to understand b e t t e r the forces and resources w i t h which L u l l y f i r s t composed at the French c o u r t . T h i s short survey attempts only to i n d i c a t e major developmental currents and d i r e c t i o n s taken by the genre u n t i l L u l l y ' s a r r i v a l on the scene. The h i s t o r y o f c o u r t l y entertainments i n v o l v i n g dance i s a very long one; the b a l l e t de cour, in i t s f i n a l development, however, was l e s s than one hundred years o l d by the middle of the seventeenth century. Marcel Paquot giv e s a very s u c c i n c t d e s c r i p t i o n o f the genre: "The b a l l e t de cour was born during the r e i g n o f Henri III from a f u s i o n of elements borrowed on the one hand from the momeries, entremets and j o u t e s o f medieval times, and on the other hand from the mascherate and intermedi of the I t a l i a n Renaissance."7 6 l n d e e d , Louis XV was not at a l l enamoured w i t h b a l l e t , and g r e a t l y p r e f e r r e d opera. See M. Paquot: Les Etrangers dans les Diver-tissements de l a cour. B r u x e l l e s , 1933. ~ 7 l b i d . p. 10. The most comprehensive researching o f the ba11et de cour i s to be found in P r u n i e r e s ' Le B a l l e t de cour en France avant Benserade et L u l l y , a work which s t u d i e s in depth the e v o l u t i o n of t h i s d?vert?ssement. Such ancient pastimes as les momeries which were merely a s e r i e s of e n t r i e s much l i k e a pageant, involved costumes and some dances; and les mores-ques were, according to P r u n i e r e s , expanded throughout the f i f t e e n t h c entury.^ He continues: "What i s s t i l l l a c k i n g i n these d i v e r t i s s e m e n t s i s coherence, dramatic u n i t y . . . It w i l l be, as we s h a l l see, the task of the humanists to give a r e l a t i v e u n i t y to these s p e c t a c l e s , and to form, w i t h these sparse elements, a dramatic genre."° It was, in f a c t , through the work of the Acade~mie de Poe"sie et de Musique, founded under Henri III in 1 5 7 0 by Jean-Antoine de BaTf ( 1 5 3 2 - 1 5 8 9 ) , that the f i r s t u n i f i e d b a l l e t s de cour a p p e a r e d . ^ Members o f t h i s academy included such well-known w r i t e r s as J o d e l l e and Ronsard, and composers such as Jacques Mauduit and Claude LeJeune. In 1 5 8 1 , the Queen's h a l f - s i s t e r , Mademoiselle de Voudemont, married the Due de Joyeuse. To c e l e b r a t e the o c c a s i o n , Henri III and the e n t i r e V a l o i s household presented a great s e r i e s of sp l e n d i d f e t e s . "Henry P r u n i e r e s : Le b a l l e t de cour avant Benserade e t L u l l y , P a r i s , H. Laurens, 1 9 1 3 , P- 8 . 9 l b ? d . p. 1 7 . 1 0 F u l l d e t a i l s of the patent f o r the Academic's foundation are found In Frances Yates: French Academies of the 16th Century, London, Warburg I n s t i t u t e , App. 1 , pp. 3 1 9 - 3 2 2 . Frances Yates^' suggests that the V a l o i s hoped to appease both i n t e r n a l s t r i f e and e x t e r n a l aggression by showing the world the magnificance of 12 which France was capable. One of the entertainments was a b a l l e t , CI rce*, which was c a l l e d by the impressario r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s c r e a t i o n , Le B a l l e t Comique de l a Royne. The idea f o r the production was by B a l t a s a r de Beaujoyeulx, an I t a l i a n who had come to France as a member 13 of the Marcheal de B r i s s a c ' s band of v i o l i n s . As was the custom of the time, h i s conception was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a b a l l e t through the c o l l a -b o r a t i o n of poets, w r i t e r s , p a i n t e r s , composers and musicians. The re-s u l t in t h i s case marked a c o n s i d e r a b l e change from the norm; as Carol MacCllntock says, " i t i s the f i r s t known work to i n t e n t i o n a l l y combine dance, poetry and music i n a coherent dramatic whole". The s t o r y per-mitted the i n c l u s i o n of a great v a r i e t y of e n t r i e s , s p e c i a l stage e f f e c t s , dancing and much music, but these otherwise d i s p a r a t e elements of the b a l l e t a l l r e l a t e d to the s t o r y . The new found dramatic u n i t y o f Le B a l l e t Comique de l a Royne was subsequently l o s t during the l a s t decade of the s i x t e e n t h century.'^ 1 1 I b i d . . p. 2 58 . 1 o Robert Isherwood, in h i s Music in the S e r v i c e of the King ( I t h i c a , N.Y., 1 9 7 3 ) , maintains that the e n t i r e phenomenon of l a v i s h court entertainments under Louis XIV was l a r g e l y owing to a s i m i l a r p o l i -t i c a l f u n c t i o n . 1 3 His I t a l i a n name was Baldassare de B e l g i o s o . 'V and L. MacClintock: Le B a l l e t Comique de l a Royne (1581), American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology, 1971, p. 9 . '^Henry P r u n i e r e s : Op.C11.: p. 110. According to P r u n i e r e s , ' ^ there were during that period two c o n t r a s t i n g v a r i e t i e s o f b a l l e t : the f i r s t , les mascarades, was dominant u n t i l the end of the century, i n v o l v i n g e n t r i e s and dances in costume, but w i t h no sung d i a l o g u e ; the second, les intermedes, used sung r e c i t s and choruses. The u l t i m a t e d i r e c t i o n , f i r s t h i n t e d at in C ? rce", was an amalgamation of these two approaches. Prunieres suggests: "Around 1620, however, the b a l l e t de cour c o n s t i t u t e d a w e l l - d e f i n e d dramatic genre. Intermediary between opera and ballet-mas-carade, i t catered to the love which the French had f o r e x p r e s s i v e idance and t h e a t r e . " ' 7 During the Regency and the reign of Louis X I I I there was a strong ten-dancy toward a uniform and u n i f i e d genre. There remained, nonethless, two b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s i n t o which the b a l l e t s f e l l : seVleuse and comique. The c o d i f i c a t i o n o f the b a l l e t i nvolved a s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of customs, and e s p e c i a l l y content: nearly always a mythological a l l e g o r y complimenting the royal f a m i l y , or r e v e a l i n g t o p i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e . To accommodate a need f o r v a r i e t y in an i n c r e a s i n g l y s t e r i l e medium, d i -v e r t i n g e n t r i e s were o f t e n introduced, p r o v i d i n g comic r e l i e f from a com-plex p l o t or theme. As t h i s tendency progressed, thematic u n i t y and 19 t h e a t r i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s once more became somewhat obscured. The instruments in common use by the time of L u l l y ' s f i r s t ex-periences w i t h b a l l e t de cour i n c l u d e d , of course, the instruments from 18 l 6 l b i d . , p. 3*». 1 71bTd., p. 121. 18 I b i d . , p. 123. The b a l l e t comique employed spoken d i a l o g u e , w h i l e the bal let-se'rieuse used sung r e c i t s . , 9 l b i d . , p. 128. 8 20 the three branches of the King's music. A l s o i n c l u d e d , i f the dramatic s i t u a t i o n so warranted, were such popular instruments as the musette or f l a g e o l e t . It was in t h i s s t a t e that b a l l e t was f i r s t introduced to the young L u l l y . As has been suggested, the young monarch of France was very much i n t e r e s t e d in B a l l e t de cour. In h i s memoires, f o r example, Louis f r e q u e n t l y wrote at great length about h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p e c i f i c pro-21 d u c t i o n s , and of the great joy which they a f f o r d e d him. His p r o - b a l l e t (or pro-d I v e r t ?ssement in general) p o l i c y d i c t a t e d to L u l l y the path to pursue. B a p t i s t e ' s shrewd s e l e c t i o n of c o l l a b o r a t o r s put h i s name beside the most famous w r i t e r s of h i s day — Benserade, C o r n e i l l e , M o l i e r e and e v e n t u a l l y Quinault. With such d i s t i n g u i s h e d w r i t e r s as p a r t n e r s , i t i s easy to see why the ' L u l l y v e r s i o n ' of b a l l e t s a t t a i n e d a thematic u n i t y 22 and dramatic purpose h i t h e r t o unapproached. The heavy emphasis on music in L u l l y ' s b a l l e t s , and the importance o f dance and b a l l e t - e n t r i e s i n h i s l a t e r operas, made the t r a n s i t i o n from ba 11 et de cour to trage'die-lyrique a very smooth one, indeed. The major a e s t h e t i c and e v o l u t i o n a r y aspects of the genre now e s t a b l i s h e d , we may turn to the b a s i c make-up of the b a l l e t s , t h e i r con-s t r u c t i o n and the personnel r e q u i r e d . Three elements c o n s t i t u t e the b a l l e t de cour: dance; music — both vocal and instrumental -- and See I n f r a . : p. 10 . 7 1 J . Lognon ( e d i t . ) : Memoires de Louis XIV, P a r i s , T a l l a n d i e r , 1 9 2 7 ; e s p e c i a l l y as quoted by M. Paquot: Op.Cit. 2 2 S e e Henry P r u n i e r e s : Op.Cit. , p. 1 2 9 . costumes. Since costumes have no d i r e c t bearing on the question at hand, 23 they w i l l not be di s c u s s e d . The dances, however, have a profound i n -fluence on many aspects of the music to be discussed: tempo, of course, was d i c t a t e d by the dance st e p s ; a l s o , s i n c e e n t r i e s were o f t e n of an extended l e n g t h , the music was repeated many times, r e s u l t i n g in the need f o r both w r i t t e n and improvised ornamentation, and r e q u i r i n g t e x t u r e 2k changes to vary the musical m a t e r i a l . The dance, w i t h reference to the b a l l e t s de cour, was n e i t h e r e x c l u s i v e l y f o l k - l i k e (that i s based e n t i r e l y on s o c i a l l y c u r r e n t dances, such as bourses, allemandes, e t c . ) , nor choreographed in the nineteenth-century sense o f the term (that Is mimed s t o r y - t e l l i n g ) . Rather the many entrees involved a few b a s i c steps through the use of which f i g u r e s both geometric and a l l e g o r i c , were designed on the f l o o r . The b a s i c s t e p s , of course, had countless v a r i a t i o n s . As Prunieres notes: "The dance p e c u l i a r to b a l l e t had nothing in common w i t h the dance of the b a l l ; the steps were not a l l subjugated to the t r a -d i t i o n a l r u l e s ; they were i n f i n i t e l y v a r i e d . " 2 5 23 P r u n i e r e s , in the i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s Oeuvres Completes de  Jean-Ba p t i s t e L u l l y , Tome 1, gives an adequate d e s c r i p t i o n of the use and design o f costumes In L u l l y ' s b a l l e t s . For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , see Isherwood: Op.C i t . 2k See H.M. E l l i s : The dances of Jean-Baptiste L u l l y , Doc. D i s s e r t . , Stanford U., 1967, f o r a somewhat cursory d i s c u s s i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f dance to music. Henry Pruni&res: Op.C i t . , p. 172. 10 P o p u l a r dances and even c h o r e o g r a p h e d ' c h o r u s e s ' were f r e q u e n t a d d i t i o n s t o the f o r m a t , f o r they c o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n the a c t i o n i f a s t o r y r e -q u i r e d t he r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a f e t e o r a b a l l . O r i g i n a l l y t he d a n c i n g o f the b a l l e t s was an e x c l u s i v e l y a r i s t o c r a t i c p r e r o g a t i v e ; t h e K i n g and ' h i g h ' n o b l e s were h a b i t u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s , a n d , i n d e e d , t h e young L o u i s 26 XIV was g r e a t l y a d m i r e d f o r h i s d a n c i n g a b i l i t i e s . P r u n i e r e s n o t i c e s t h a t t h e o n l y n o n - a r i s t o c r a t i c p e r s o n n e l , as l a t e as CI rce" ( 1 5 8 1 ) , were the c o u r t m u s i c i a n s . By t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , t h o u gh, p r o f e s s i o n a l s --b a l a d i n s , i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s and v o c a l i s t s -- took t h e i r p o s i t i o n s a l o n g 27 s i d e t he n o b i 1 i t y . D a t i n g from t h e e a r l i e r p r e c u r s o r s o f the b a l l e t s de c o u r i s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f s i g n i f i c a n t numbers o f i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s , who p l a y e d f a n f a r e s , e n t r ' a c t e s and a l s o accompanied d a n c e s , e n t r i e s and v o c a l numbers. By L u l l y ' s t i m e t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l f o r c e s were o f t e n c o n s i d e r a b l e . A f t e r 1661, as t h e new M a f t r e de M u s i q u e , L u l l y , by v i r t u e o f h i s p o s i t i o n , was a b l e t o draw on i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s from the t h r e e main d e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e K i n g ' s m u s i c : Musique de C h a p e l l e ; Musique de Chambre and Musique de 1 ' E c u r i e . The E c u r i e was t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e de p a r t m e n t s f o r w i n d p l a y e r s ; i t i n c l u d e d ( l ) t h e t r u m p e t s , (2) t h e f i f e s and drums, (3) t h e v i o l i n s , shawms and s a c k b u t s , (k) t h e krumhorns and tru m p e t s m a r i n e and (5) t h e oboes and M u s e t t e s de P o i t o u . P r u n i & r e s s t a t e s : 2 6 H e n r y P r u n i S r e s : O p . C i t . , p. 173; see a l s o R o b e r t Isherwood: O p . C i t . 2 7 l b i d . , pp. 173 -174 . 11 "I t was not at a l l rare that a royal ba l l e t required the united Intervention of musical forces from the Chamber, Chapel and Stab le . A l l these a r t i s t s , In taking part in the execution of a b a l l e t , separated themselves into several groups, each one having i t s pa r t i cu la r a t t r ibu tes and func t i on . "™ The exact number of pa r t i c ipa t ing musicians in a given performance, of course, cannot always be prec ise ly ascer ta ined; the resources, however, were subs tan t i a l , for as Demuth notes: " L u l l y had a hundred and f i f t y musicians to draw upon. . . He could transport them to Saint-Germain, V e r s a i l l e s , Par is or any of the royal chateaux at a moment's no t i ce , and he could use them as the orchestra in the Sa l le du Pa la is Royal whenever necessary. "29 Besides great ly contr ibut ing to the overa l l opulence of the spectac les , the large forces a lso catered to various musical ends and higher a r t i s t i c goals . Demuth cont inues: " L u l l y treated the instruments of the orchestra express ive ly , but only in a general sense; there are no sub t le t ies of orchest rat ion."30 Demuth g i ves , fu r ther , an e f fec t i ve summary of some of the roles played by cer ta in instruments. Z 0 Henry Prunieres: Op.C11. , p. 182. It w i l l be one of the goals of th is study to define these funct ions. 29 Norman Demuth: French Opera: i t s development to the  Revolut ion, Sussex, Artemis Press , 1963, p. 96. 30 Ib id . , p. 165. It Is d i f f i c u l t to know what Demuth means by ' s u b t l e t y 1 ; ce r ta in l y there are no orchestrationa1 subt le t ies in the Mozartian sense. L u l l y ' s Innovations in his use of woodwinds, however, have few, i f any, precedents, as w i l l become c lear la te r on. 12 " F l u t e s sounded the amorous moments of the gods and goddesses, and they created the atmosphere f o r the scenes de sommeil and nocturnes, during which magic r i t e s took p l a c e . Oboes were used f o r the peasant dances, trumpets s u p p l i e d the w a r l i k e and m a r t i a l music, w h i l e v i o l i n s under-l i n e d the slumbers of the heroes and added e x c i t -ment (tremolando) to the b a t t l e s , ' f u r i e s ' and There was a great v a r i e t y of instruments in use by L u l l y ' s time, then, and they played an important r o l e in the d i v e r t i s s e m e n t s de cour. Developments in Seventeenth-Century Woodwind Instruments The great i n f l u e n c e that seventeenth-century French b a l l e t s had on the development o f modern o r c h e s t r a l p r a c t i c e cannot be too s t r o n g l y emphasized. French t h e a t r e in g e n e r a l , e s p e c i a l l y under the lead e r s h i p of Jean-BaptIste L u l l y , was the b i r t h p l a c e of modern wood-winds, and It e s t a b l i s h e d a model f o r t h e i r use. Charles Cudworth continues: L u l l y ' s use of four woodwinds w i l l be discussed in t h i s study: the bassoon, the oboe, the f l u t e and the recorder. The great period of inno-v a t i o n f o r a l l these woodwinds as they q u i t e q u i c k l y evolved In P a r i s Charles Cudworth: " B a p t i s t e ' s Vein -- French O r c h e s t r a l Music and i t s i n f l u e n c e from 1 6 5 0 - 1 7 5 0 " , R.M.A. P r o c , 83 : 1 9 5 6 - 1 9 5 7 , p. 29 . storms. ..31 31 I b i d . , p. 1 6 5 . 13 c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e i r i n c l u s i o n in the e a r l y b a l l e t s o f J e a n - B a p t i s t e L u l l y . The f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e o f the newer woodwinds by the m i d d l e o f the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y was an a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y F r e n c h phenomenon. 33 A n t h o n y B a i n e s m a i n t a i n s t h a t I t a l y , s p e c i f i c a l l y the B o l o g n a s c h o o l , gave an o v e r - r i d i n g i m p o r t a n c e to the r e c e n t l y - p e r f e c t e d v i o l i n , a d -m i t t i n g a t t i m e s the t rumpet to add b r i l l i a n c e t o i t s s t r i n g e n s e m b l e s . He c o n t i n u e s : " . . . the boy L u l l y , who was t o become the f i r s t composer f o r the woodwind , no doubt s e t o u t f o r P a r i s w i t h no b e t t e r o p i n i o n than o t h e r I t a l i a n s . a s t o the p o s s i b i l i -t i e s o f wooden wind i n s t r u m e n t s . " - ^ In F r a n c e , h o w e v e r , t h e r e c o r d e r , m u s e t t e and h a u t b o i s de P o i t o u were e n j o y i n g a g r e a t c u r r e n c y not o n l y in a r i s t o c r a t i c c i r c l e s , but a l s o as s o l o and e n s e m b l e i n s t r u m e n t s , f o r w h i c h an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g r e p e r t o i r e was b e i n g made a v a i l a b l e t o p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a y e r s . I n c l u d e d In the ranks o f t h e s e v i r t u o s i was a g r o u p o f P a r i s i a n w o o d t u r n e r s and i n s t r u m e n t -m a k e r s , c e n t e r i n g a r o u n d J e a n H o t t e t e r r e ( 7 - C . 1 6 7 8 ) and M i c h e l P h i l i d o r ( 7 - 1 6 5 9 ) . The H o t t e t e r r e f a m i l y , who were t o p l a y a m a j o r r o l e as c o u r t i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s f o r o v e r a hundred y e a r s , came f r o m t h e Normandy v i l l a g e o f La C o u t u r e - B o u s s e y . The f i r s t member t o a p p e a r in P a r i s was J e a n , the e a r l i e s t r e c o r d o f h i s r e s i d e n c e b e i n g h i s i n c l u s i o n as an i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t A n t h o n y B a i n e s : Woodwind I n s t r u m e n t s and t h e i r h i s t o r y , L o n d o n , F a b e r and F a b e r , 3rd e d i t . , 1967, p . 275. 3 l*l bid. 14 35 In t he 1657 p r o d u c t i o n o f 1 'Amour M a l a d e . The P h i l i d o r s a l r e a d y e s t a -b l i s h e d as i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s i n P a r i s , had as a r e a ! s u r n a m e , D a n i c a n . Geo rge A l l e n d e s c r i b e s t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s l e a d i n g t o t h e change o f names: " I n the e a r l y p a r t o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , an I t a l i a n h a u t - b o y p l a y e r , f rom S i e n n a , by t he name o f F i l i d o r i , v i s i t e d F r a n c e , and p r o d u c e d a s t r o n g i m p r e s s i o n on t h e mind o f L o u i s I I I by h i s b r i l l -i a n t p e r f o r m a n c e . " 3 ° M i c h e l D a n i c a n e n t e r e d t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h e K i n g s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d , and t h e young F r e n c h v i r t u o s o so i m p r e s s e d t he K i n g t h a t he was c a l l e d a 37 F i l i d o r i , o r , i n i t s F r e n c h f o r m , P h i l i d o r . H o t t e t e r r e was a f i n e w o o d t u r n e r and had e a r n e d h i s fame as an i n s t r u m e n t maker t h r o u g h h i s w i d e l y - a d m i r e d m u s e t t e s ; w h i l e P h i l i d o r was an e x p e r t r e e d - m a k e r , b e i n g c a p a b l e o f r e f i n e m e n t s i n t h e t h i c k n e s s 38 o f t h e s e t o a d e g r e e p r e v i o u s l y unknown. T h e i r imminen t c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n t he d e v e l o p m e n t o f modern d o u b l e r e e d s was n o t , h o w e v e r , t h e f i r s t m a j o r r e m o d e l l i n g . H o t t e t e r r e , a t f i r s t , w o r k e d w i t h h i s s o n s i n a shop whe re he m a n u f a c t u r e d and r e p a i r e d i n s t r u m e n t s . A n t h o n y B a i n e s n o t e s : " H i s r e c o r d e r d e s i g n — p r o b a b l y t h e e a r l i e s t o f t h e i m p o r t a n t woodwind remodel 1 i n g s , and t he d e -s i g n we f o l l o w t o d a y — seems t o show t h e hand o f a b a g p i p e - m a k e r , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i t s c y l i n d r i c a l head j o i n t , w h i c h , w h a t e v e r i t s a c o u s t i c a l e f f e c t A . E . R o q u e t : Les H o t t e t e r r e e t l e s C h S d e v l l l e , P a r i s , 1894 , p . 1 5 . A l s o a p p e a r i n g on t he p rog ram were h i s two s o n s , J e a n II and N i c o l a s l e r . 36 George A l l e n : The L ? f e o f Ph i 1 i d o r , Da Capo P r e s s r e p r i n t o f 1 8 6 3 , P h i l a d e l p h i a e d i t . , N . Y . , 1 9 7 1 , p . 1. 3 7 1 b ? d . , p . 2. See J o s e p h M a r x : " T h e tone o f t he Ba roque o b o e " , G a l p i n S o c . J o u r n a l , I V , J u n e , 1 9 5 1 , p . 13 i 15 might be, takes a f t e r the chanter stock of a musette as i f meant to match i t . " 3 9 S h o r t l y afterward, during the e a r l y ' f i f t i e s ' , experimental instruments in a t r a n s i t i o n phase s t a r t e d to appear in the H o t t e t e r r e workshop. Many of these attempts, e s p e c i a l l y recorders and oboes, may be observed in the museum c o l l e c t i o n s of the B i b l i o t h e q u e Nationale and the B i b l i o t h e q u e de Conservatoi re. The instruments w i t h which H o t t e t e r r e and P h i l i d o r worked were of an o l d e r v a r i e t y — instruments which had remained o s t e n s i b l y unchanged s i n c e t h e i r p e r f e c t i o n f o r consort use, e a r l y In the s i x t e e n t h century. They f e l l i n t o one of two c a t e g o r i e s : the haut, or loud con-s o r t , i n c l u d i n g the shawms, crumhorns and pommers (or l a t e r , c u r t a l s ) ; and the bas, or s o f t c o n s o r t , a d m i t t i n g such Instruments as r e c o r d e r s , k] f l u t e s and o c c a s i o n a l l y a c u r t a l . The insturments were simple i n t h e i r outward appearance, f r e q u e n t l y r e v e a l i n g key mechanisms on the l a r g e r instruments. Each instrument belonged to a f a m i l y of four b a s i c s i z e s — the soprano (dessus), the a l t o (hautecontre), the tenor ( t a i 1 l e ) and the bass. The tenor, which i n every f a m i l y but the shawms represented •5ft Anthony Baines: Op.Cit., p. 27k. It was Michel de l a Barre, a noted eighteenth-century f l u t i s t , who c i t e d H o t t e t e r r e and P h i l i d o r as coinventors of the oboe in a - l e t t e r dated 17^0. See Joseph Marx: Op.Cit., p. 12. k\ By the l a t e r s i x t e e n t h century, of course, the two groups were f r e e l y mixed w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e doublings to balance the t e x t u r e . Virdung (1511) mentions these four. In P r a e t o r i u s ( 1 6 1 6 -1618 ) , however, such f a m i l i e s as recorders were i l l u s t r a t e d as having at l e a s t ten members. 1,3 The shawm band a l i g n e d i t s e l f in a way that saw the a l t o as a primary member of the f a m i l y , p l a y i n g the soprano l i n e . 16 the 'standard' f o r the group, u s u a l l y produced in i t s n a t u r a l f i n g e r i n g 44 a d i a t o n i c d-major s c a l e . There were no transposing woodwinds. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the woodwinds was a wide c y l i n d r i c a l bore and large f i n g e r h oles. The r e s u l t i n g s o n o r i t y r e s i s t e d most overtones and the 45 sound was loud and pure in the lower r e g i s t e r . For the most p a r t , the s i x t e e n t h - and e a r l y seventeenth-century woodwind had a l i m i t e d range 46 which r a r e l y exceeded a t w e l f t h . With the exception of the bassoon, or c u r t a l , the e a r l y seventeenth century saw no 'Free' double reeds; they were e i t h e r contained w i t h i n a reed capsule, as w i t h the crumhorn and rauschpfei f , o r p a r t i a l l y covered and protected by a pi r o u e t t e , as was the case w i t h the shawm. The pi rouette Is a mouthpiece-like cup aga i n s t which the playe r s l i p s are pressed. Although i t provides embouchure sup-port and f a c i l i t a t e s p l a y i n g w i t h very l i t t l e wind pressure, the l i p s have l i t t l e c o n t r o l over the reed, and consequently can e x e r c i s e only minimal i n t o n a t i o n a l t e r a t i o n s . Moreover, a uniform wind pressure i s r e q u i r e d , a l l o w i n g p r a c t i c a l l y no dynamic i n f l e c t i o n s . The u l t i m a t e r e -moval o f the pi rouette i n the t r a n s i t i o n from shawm to oboe required the adoption o f increased embouchure s u b t l e t y , but, of course, g r e a t l y en-hanced the tonal and expre s s i v e range o f the instrument. 44 Because of a f a u l t y f on the shawm, the bands as a r u l e transposed t h e i r music up a whole tone, to avoid a s e r i e s of bad f i n g e r -ings and i n t o n a t i o n problems. 45 See Adam Carse: Musical Wind Insturments, London, MacMillan and Co., 1939. 46 The crumhorn had a uniform range of only a n i n t h . The shawms, on the other hand, had a two-octave compass. 17 The s p e c i f i c a l t e r a t i o n s in the woodwinds u n d e r t a k e n by H o t t e t e r r e and P h i l i d o r w i l l be d e a l t w i t h in d e t a i l w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o each i n s t r u m e n t i n d i v i d u a l l y l a t e r in t h i s s t u d y . C e r t a i n g e n e r a l i z a -t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e p r o c e s s e s , h o w e v e r , may be b r i e f l y summar ized a t t h i s p o i n t . The g o a l o f the many i n n o v a t i o n s was t o p r o d u c e i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h wou ld be w e l l - s u i t e d t o s o l o and c o n c e r t e d u s a g e ; h e n c e , i n c r e a s -ed r a n g e , dynamic f l e x i b i l i t y and improved i n t o n a t i o n were m a j o r a ims i n t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s . A n t h o n y B a i n e s s t a t e s : "The f i r s t t h i n g we n o t i c e a b o u t the new d e s i g n s i s t h a t i n e v e r y c a s e the i n s t r u m e n t i s c o n -s t r u c t e d in s e v e r a l s h o r t j o i n t s , i n s t e a d o f as f a r as p o s s i b l e a l l in one p i e c e as f o r m e r l y . " ^ 7 T h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n i s o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e . In u s i n g the o l d e r m e t h o d s , the b o r e s were d r i l l e d in one p i e c e w i t h one l o n g d r i l l b i t . U n d e r s t a n d a b l y , w i t h the l a r g e r s i z e s , t h e ends o f the b o r e s , when the d r i l l b i t was f u l l y e x t e n d e d , were s u b j e c t t o c o n s i d e r a b l e amounts o f w o b b l i n g , thus p r o d u c i n g i n a c c u r a c i e s , f a u l t y s o n o r i t i e s and bad i n t o n a -48 t i o n . The new a p p r o a c h , t h o u g h , employed s h o r t , a c c u r a t e b o r e d r i l l -i ngs i n a l l s i z e s o f i n s t r u m e n t s . T h i s method r e s u l t e d in what B a i n e s 49 c a l l s a " . . . c u r i o u s i n t e r n a l f e a t u r e " the i n s t r u m e n t s , d r i l l e d i n s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s , showed b o r e s w i t h b r o k e n p r o f i l e s . B a i n e s c o n t i n u e s : "I t [ t h e b o r e ] may change f rom j o i n t t o j o i n t — e . g . cone and c y l i n d e r may meet end to e n d , o r ^ A n t h o n y B a i n e s : Op .C 11. , p . 276. 48 T h i s method r e s u l t e d , f u r t h e r , in c h i p p i n g i n s i d e the b o r e . '*91 b t d . 18 the bores of two j o i n t s may make an abrupt step where they meet. Such bore c o n s t r u c t i o n n a t u r a l -l y has some a c o u s t i c e f f e c t , but t h i s i s not a v i t a l one."50 Another technique in boring played an important r o l e in the extension of the range o f l a t e seventeenth-century woodwinds: the bores were made i n -v e r s e l y c o n i c a l — that i s taper i n g toward the b e l l -- as opposed to c y l i n d r i c a l l y . This fe a t u r e tended to e x c i t e the upper p a r t i a l s of each tone, thus enhancing a l a r g e r range in the second octave."^ The range was f u r t h e r extended by s l i g h t l y narrowing the bore and making the f i n g e r 52 holes somewhat s m a l l e r . In outward appearance, too, the woodwinds underwent some r e -modellings. Baines suggests: "We n o t i c e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y ornamental ap-pearance of the instruments, l a r g e l y due to fashi o n a b l e Renaissance turnery a p p l i e d to the th i c k e n i n g s l e f t i n the wood or i v o r y to g i v e s t r e n g t h to the sockets where the various j o i n t s met."53 To f a c i l i t a t e f i n g e r i n g , two items were introduced: f i r s t , on the l a r g e r instruments e s p e c i a l l y , the f i n g e r holes were moved c l o s e r together by d r i l l i n g them on a d i a g o n a l , w h i l e maintaining the c o r r e c t spacing on the inner bore; secondly, keys were added to (a) extend the range downward 5 0 l b i d , 51 For an i n t e r e s t i n g and wel1-presented d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s and r e l a t e d a c o u s t i c a l phenomena, see: Lyndesay G. L a n g w i l l : The bassoon and contrabassoon, London, E. Benn 1965, Chapter '9', " A c o u s t i c s " . 5 2 1 b Td-5 3 l b i d . 19 54 one tone , or (b) provide chromatic notes w i t h otherwise d i f f i c u l t or impossible c r o s s - f i n g e r i n g s . The e x t r a note-hole was d r i l l e d on the f o o t - j o i n t ; in the case of the tenor recorder, f o r example, the lowest note became c 1 . Two keys were added to the oboe: the c-extension; and an E - f l a t key. U n t i l the e a r l y eighteenth century, keys were u s u a l l y d u p l i c a t e d on both sides of the instrument to c a t e r to both l e f t - and right-handed p l a y e r s , the stop or hole not in use being plugged w i t h wax."'*' It can be seen even in t h i s b r i e f summary, that renovations on the woodwinds under c o n s i d e r a t i o n were c a r r i e d out e x t e n s i v e l y and w i t h great care and a t t e n t i o n . H o t t e t e r r e and h i s c i r c l e , t h e r e f o r e , were to have a profound i n f l u e n c e on the development of the modern wood-wind. As Baines concludes: "... i t i s impossible f o r us to say d e f i n i t e l y which i n d i v i d u a l maker or p l a y e r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r each o f the v i t a l woodwind inventions that o r i g i n a t e d during that time, a l l of them apparent-ly in France and probably w i t h i n that c i r c l e of P a r i s makers among whom we can dimly d i s c e r n H o t t e t e r r e as the leader. The new products i n c l u -ded: the recorder as we know i t today; the c o n i -cal f l u t e ; the oboe; and the true bassoon (as opposed to the o l d c u r t a l ) . In other words, p r a c t i c a l l y the e n t i r e woodwind of the e i g h t -eenth-century o r c h e s t r a -- an a s t o n i s h i n g out-54 The f l u t e ' s lowest note remained d' u n t i l w e l l i n t o the eighteenth century. 55 See Adam Carse: Op . C i t . ; Jacques H o t t e t e r r e : P r i n c i p e s de  l a f l u t e t r a v e r s i e r e , ou f l u t e d'allemagne; de l a f l u t e a bee, ou f l u t e  douce et du h a u t b o i s , i s one of the f i r s t sources to s t a t e without h e s i -t a t i o n that the l e f t hand should be above the r i g h t . 20 put f o r one small group of men."-^ Since such v i r t u o s o p l a y e r s as H o t t e t e r r e , P h i l i d o r , Destouches and Descoteaux appear r e g u l a r l y in the programs of the d i v e r t i s s e m e n t s from the mid ' f i f t i e s ' , there can be l i t t l e doubt that L u l l y would a v a i l h i m s e l f of the p o t e n t i a l s provided by t h e i r remodelled Instruments. This study w i l l observe the w r i t i n g f o r these woodwinds in an attempt to t r a c e developments in range, f u n c t i o n , e t c . , through the medium of L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s cores. The Sources The sources required f o r a study such as t h i s are a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l as f i n a l proofs or d i s p r o o f s of a theory. They a r e , in t h i s i n s t a n c e , dangerously small in number. The primary l i t e r a r y sources are almost non-existent w i t h regard to encyclopedic d i s c u s s i o n s of the var-ious instruments at the time of t h e i r r emodelling. Sources f o r d e s c r i p -t i o n s and t e c h n i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s of s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Instruments are amply provided in Sebastian Virdung's Musica Getutsch..., (1511) and M a r t i n A g r i c o l a ' s Musica Instrumental i s Deudsch..., (1528 and 15 ^ 5 ) . Those o f the e a r l y seventeenth century are thoroughly presented in Michael P r a e t o r i u s ' Syntagma Muslcum ( 1 6 16 - 1619 ), and l a t e r in Marin Mersenne's Traite* de 1'Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e ( I 6 3 6 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s i m i l a r exhaustive s t u d i e s do not appear in the c r u c i a l p e riod of 1650 to 1680. Moreover, French p u b l i c a t i o n s such as t u t o r s , manuals and the Anthony Baines: Op.Cit., p. 276 . 21 l i k e do not appear u n t i l the turn o f the century, and when they do — e.g. Fr e i 1 l o n - P o n c e i n 1 s La v e r i t a b l e maniere d'apprendre... du hautbois, de l a f l u t e s et du f l a g e o l e t (1700), or Jacques H o t t e t e r r e ' s P r i n c i p e s . . . (1707) — they d e s c r i b e instruments which have changed c o n s i d e r a b l y from the time of Mersenne. As Eppelsheim p o i n t s out,"''' Mersenne neglected to provide such b a s i c information as the fundamental tones of f l u t e s and r e c o r d e r s , w h i l e p r o v i d i n g only cursory d e t a i l s f o r the oboe. Mersenne does promise a d i s c u s s i o n of the hautbois de P o i t o u , but t h i s subsequent chapter of Book V i s devoted e x c l u s i v e l y to bassoons. John B a n i s t e r , the supposed author of the f i r s t oboe t u t o r , The S p r i g h t l y Companion of 1695, must have had access to the new French instrument which had appeared almost f o r t y years e a r l i e r . Frei 1lon-Poncein's work, the f i r s t French t u t o r f o r the oboe, does not appear u n t i l f i v e years a f t e r B a n i s t e r ' s . L i k e -wise w i t h the recorder, there are no t r e a t i s e s or manuals contemporaneous 58 w i t h the a r r i v a l of the new model. Eppelsheim again turns to E n g l i s h sources, f o r Humphrey S a l t e r ' s The Genteel Companion (London, 1683), and John Carr's The D e l i g h t f u l Companion (London, 1684), are the f i r s t manuals 59 to d e s c r i b e the H o t t e t e r r e v e r s i o n o f the a l t o recorder. The annoying "^Jurgen Eppelsheim: Das Orchester in den Werken Jean- B a p t i s t e  L u l l y s , T u t z i n g , Hans Schneider, 1961, p. 70. 5 8 1 b T d . , p. 7 1 -59 The a l t o before t h i s time i s a fo u r t h above the d'-tenor, i . e . , i n g'. P r a e t o r i u s gives t h i s as the a l t o ' s fundamental. Mersenne neglects to give ranges. With extension down one tone, then, the Hotte-t e r r e recorder becomes one in f , the one mentioned by Carr and S a l t e r . 22 hiatus in l i t e ra r y sources of French o r i g i n necessi tates e i ther the forward extension of Mersenne's d iscuss ions , or the backward ext rapo la-t ion of the wr i t ings of Hot teterre, Frei1lon-Poncein and B r o s s a r d . ^ It is hoped, therefore, that the analyses of the musical sources w i l l pro-vide the missing documentation of the woodwind's evo lu t ion . The musical sources are as problematic as theoret ica l ones. In the introduct ion to L u l l y ' s Oeuvres Completes, Prunieres informs us: " L u l l y himself only published eleven scores of operas and s i x grand motets. In the l igh t of the great volume of music Lu l l y composed, th is is hardly an impressive corpus of h is work. Unfortunately, as Eppelsheim con t in -ues : "Autograph sources by L u l l y , except for a few Isolated pages, are not preserved."62 In fac t , E l l i s asse r t s , " . . . a l l works before 1672, except La Grotte de Versai1 les and Monsieur de Pourceaugnac, are ava i lab le only in manuscript form."^3 Moreover, they are hand copies, not by L u l l y , of the f u l l scores, e i ther authorized or unauthorized by the composer. By far the ^ T h a t 1650-1680 was a period of woodwind t rans i t i on may account for the dearth of French l i t e r a r y sources. ^'Henry Prunieres: Op .C i t . , p. V I I I . 62 JCJrgen Eppelsheim: Op . C i t . , p. 15. ^^H. M. E l l i s : "The Sources of Jean-Bapt iste L u l l y ' s secular music", Re"cherches sur la Musique f rancaise Class ique, V I I I , 1968, p. 107-23 l a r g e s t and most r e l i a b l e source of these scores i s the C o l l e c t ion Phi 1idor, found, i n p a r t , in the B i b l i o t h e q u e de Conservatoire at P a r i s . As to the q u a l i t y of the C o l l e c t i o n P h i l i d o r , E l l i s assures us: "These manuscripts are a good source o f the musical t e x t , and in some cases are the o n l y sources a v a i l a b l e in P.G. [ I . e . , P a r t i t i o n Ge"nerale, or F u l l S c o r e ] , The c o l l e c t i o n , i n i t i a t e d by a request by Louis XIV f o r a compendium of the d i v e r t i s s e m e n t s which had e n t e r t a i n e d the French c o u r t , was begun in 1683 by the King's music l i b r a r i a n , Andre" P h i l i d o r l ' a i n e , ^ ^ and h i s c o l l e a g u e , Francois Fossard. The large undertaking was completed, f o r the most p a r t , by 1697, but as T e s s i e r n o t e s ^ , the vast m a j o r i t y of the scores were copied between 1689 and 1690. The p r o j e c t d i v i d e d i t s e l f i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s : " ( l ) Les pieces de toutes s o r t e s b a l l e t s e t autres - datant du XVIe s i e c l e e t des regnes de Henri IV et Louis X I I I . . . (2) Les b a l l e t s de l a jeunesse de Louis XIV... (3) Les b a l l e t s et comedies-ballets de L u l l y . . . . ' Of the t h i r d s e c t i o n P h i l i d o r says i n the d e d i c a t i o n : " A f t e r having presented to Your Majesty the musical c o l l e c t i o n t h a t . I made of the o l d e s t b a l l e t s . . . 64 Meredith E l l i s : Op.Cit., p. 107. ^Andre" P h i l i d o r was the nephew of. M i c h e l , 'co-Inventor' of the oboe, and f a t h e r of Anne P h i l i d o r , who i n i t i a t e d the Concerts S p i r i - t u e l s in 1725-^Andre* T e s s i e r : "Un fonds musical de l a B i b l i o t h e q u e de Louis XIV: La C o l l e c t i o n P h i l i d o r " , La Revue M u s i c a l e , X I I , a v r i l , 1 9 3 1 , p. 300. I b i d . , pp. 301-302. 2k I b e l i e v e d i t necessary, to neglect nothing in o r g a n i z i n g a l l that Mr de L u l l y created f o r your d i v e r t i s s e m e n t s before the Operas. It i s only Fossard and myself who could have undertaken such a p r o j e c t , because o f the great care we took in c o l l e c t i n g , w i t h much e f f o r t . a l 1 that t h i s i n -comparable genius produced." One can only hope that P h i l i d o r was as c a r e f u l as he c l a i m s , f o r there are no other sources against which to compare these examples of the 69 e a r l y L u l l y b a l l e t . Since T e s s i e r informs us that most o f the work of copying was done between 1689 and 1690, f u r t h e r doubt as to the a u t h e n t i -c i t y i s cast on the e n t i r e c o l l e c t i o n , because many of L u l l y ' s composi-t i o n s were copi e d , no doubt, a f t e r the composer's death. U n t i l , i f ever, a c t u a l autographs are di s c o v e r e d , however, the C o l l e c t i o n P h i l i d o r must remain our primary source f o r L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s . 7 ^ T e s s i e r does o f f e r us some reassurance when he w r i t e s : "They [ P h i l i d o r and Fossard] were able to say in t h e i r d e d i c a t i o n of the ba1 l e t s de cour to the King, that in c o l l e c t i n g the t e x t s , they had taken great c a r e ; but i t ' s a good t h i n g that i t was i n d i c a t e d to us once again, through t h e i r temporary e d i t o r , that they had in t h e i r possession the autographs by L u l l y . " 7 1 68 Quoted in Andre" T e s s i e r : Op.C ? t . , p. 301 - 302 . ^ S e e note 66 above. ^ A i r s , dances, choruses, e t c . from many of these works are found in various arrangements and anthologies of the time. There are at present, though, few other sources f o r the complete b a l l e t s cores. 7 1 A n d r i T e s s i e r : Op.Cit., pp. 2 98 - 299 - In 1694 P h i l i d o r decided to p u b l i s h h i s L u l l y copies w i t h P i e r r e B a l l a r d (the 'temporary e d i t o r ' mentioned by T e s s i e r ) . In a preface B a l l a r d s t a t e s that he had the L u l l y Autographs. The proposed e d i t i o n was d i s c o n t i n u e d because the P h i l i d o r C o l l e c t i o n belonged to the King's l i b r a r y , and was, there-fore u n a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . The preface has been preserved. 2 5 72 A large p o r t i o n of the C o l l e c t i o n P h i l i d o r made i t s way to the l i b r a r y of St. Michael's C o l l e g e , Tenbury, through the au c t i o n of the e s t a t e of 73 the Comte de Toulouse. Among the manuscripts are several complete and separate o r c h e s t r a l p a r ts o f these same L u l l y scores. A c a r e f u l c o r -r e l a t i o n o f the manuscripts d e r i v i n g from P a r i s w i t h those of Tenbury i s both beyond the scope o f t h i s study and impossible at the present time. Nonetheless, Fellowes notes that most of the'Tenbury manuscripts are i n Andre P h i l i d o r ' s hand: the present w r i t e r has no reason to be-l i e v e that they should d e v i a t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y from the scores in the P a r i s 74 c o l l e c t i o n . It i s l i k e l y , f u r t h e r , that the Tenbury manuscripts were copies made from the ' o r i g i n a l s ' ( i . e . , the Col l e c t i o n Phi 1idor) in the King's L i b r a r y . 7 * ' Nineteen scores from the Col l e c t i o n P h i l i d o r i n the B i b l i o - theque de Conservatoire w i l l be s t u d i e d in t h i s t h e s i s . They are: La  Nuit (1653); L'Amour Ma lade (1657); Les P l a i s l r s Trouble's (1657); T e s s i e r concludes that we at l e a s t have the c o n s o l a t i o n o f two assurances that P h i l i d o r ' s copies were made from L u l l y ' s autographs: f i r s t in P h i l i d o r ' s own d e d i c a t i o n ; and second in the preface of B a l l a r d ' s pro-posed s e r i e s . 72 N i n e t y - f i v e volumes o f manuscript. 7"Vor a h i s t o r y and c a r e f u l inventory of t h i s spurious c o l l e c -t i o n see, Fellowes: "The P h i l i d o r Manuscripts", Music and L e t t e r s , 1931. 74 There can be no doubt that a c o r r e l a t i o n of the two sources in the fu t u r e would be i n v a l u a b l e and i l l u m i n a t i n g . 7"*For a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s theory, see Fellowes: Op .C i t . 26 A l c i d i a n e (I658); La R a i l l e r l e (1659); 1'Impatience (1661); Les  Saisons (1661); Les Nopces de Vi 1 lage (1663); Le Marriage Force - (1664); La P r i n c e s s e d ' E l i d e (1664); Les Amours Dgguisez (1664); La Naissance  de Venus (1665) ; L'Amour Medecin (1665); Les Muses (1661); La Grotte  de Versai1les (1668); F l o r e (1669) ; Monsieur de Pourceaugnac (1669) ; Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (1670); Les Jeux P i t h l e n s (1670). CHAPTER I THE BASSOON The e a r l y bassoon -- d u l z i a n , C h o r i s t F a g o t t , c u r t a l o r basson -- was only one o f a number of instruments that could perform the bass part In a woodwind consort at the beginning o f the seventeenth century.' A l l the bass woodwinds, o f course, were p e r f e c t l y s u i t e d to the music they were re q u i r e d to perform. The bass crumborn, f o r example, most commonly was employed in conjunction w i t h other crumhorns. The bass pommer was a member of the shawm band and was t h e r e f o r e a member of the loud consort. It was the bassoon, however, which a t t r a c t e d the g r e a t e s t a t t e n t i o n as evidenced in the ever-growing r e p e r t o i r e the instrument r e -2 ceived i n the e a r l y seventeenth century. Two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features o f the e a r l y bassoon g r e a t l y con-t r i b u t e d to the instrument's p o p u l a r i t y . F i r s t of a l l , the c o n i c a l bore of the instrument was doubled back on i t s e l f i n a U-tube. This c o n s t r u c -t i o n made the bassoon much more manageable than the contemporary bass pommer, i n which the bore was o f one length. Secondly, the bassoon was capable o f dynamic i n f l e c t i o n owing to the nature of i t s reed apparatus. The bassoon possessed a free double reed; that i s , i t was n e i t h e r pro-te c t e d by a pi r o u e t t e , nor enclosed in a reed capsule. These two features Other bass woodwinds included the bass crumhorn, the bass pommer, the courtaut and the c e r v e l a t . See Lyndesay L a n g w i l l : "The c u r t a l ( 1 5 5 0 - 1 7 5 0 ) " , Musical Times, 1937, p. 306 . 2 See Joseph Marx: "The tone of the Baroque oboe", G a l p i n  S o c i e t y Journal , IV, June, 1951, pp. 8 - 9 . 28 made very s o f t p l a y i n g p o s s i b l e on the instrument. The e a r l y bassoons may have i n h e r i t e d t h e i r f r e e reeds from 3 the contemporary pommers. P i r o u e t t e s are not apparent in any of the diagrams of the s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y pommer. Joseph Marx hypothesizes that i f the bass pommer d i d have a p i r o u e t t e , i t seems to have l o s t i t i n the s i x t e e n t h century. He e x p l a i n s : "Such a development i s very p l a u s i b l e i f we consider that the reed of a bass instrument i s cut from a s t a l k o f cane of much grea t e r diameter than that of a t r e b l e instrument. Such a reed does not exert a great outward pressure at the t i p of the reed (which i s the e f f o r t of the n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l to r e v e r t to i t s o r i g i n a l shape) and players must have discovered that they could e a s i l y c o n t r o l such bass reeds d i r e c t -ly w i t h t h e i r l i p s and thus improve the q u a l i t y o f the tone w h i l e g a i n i n g c o n t r o l of p i t c h and volume."** It Is l i k e l y , t h e r e f o r e , that the e a r l y bassoon's reed evolved f o r s i m i l a r reasons. The bassoon was a r e l a t i v e l y new instrument at the turn of the seventeenth century. The instrument has o r i g i n s which, as Langwi11 puts I t , ' ' are shrouded in mystery. It i s conspicuously l a c k i n g i n t h e o r e t i c a l sources of the s i x t e e n t h century — notably Virdung, A g r i -c o l a and L u s c i n i u s . Anthony Baines b e l i e v e s the bassoon f i r s t appears in w r i t t e n records around 1540.^ I t s f i r s t i n c l u s i o n i n a t h e o r e t i c a l source, however, does not occur u n t i l 1596, when Zacconi describes an 3 1 b f d . , p. 8. k I b i d . "\yndesay Langwi11: The Bassoon and Contrabassoon , London, 1965, p. 7. ^Woodwind Instruments and t h e i r H i s t o r y , London, 3rd e d i t . 1967, p. 263. 29 instrument which he c a l l s Fagotto C h o r i s t a in h i s P r a t t i c a di Musica (Venice, 1596, Bk. IV, p. 2 1 8 ) . Adam Carse b e l i e v e s the bassoon o r i g i -nated, t h e r e f o r e , in e i t h e r I t a l y or Germany. 7 Between Zacconl and Mersenne, the bassoon i s f a i r l y we 11-documented in European sources. In h i s De Organographia of 1619, P r a e t o r i u s d e s c r i b e s the Fagotten-Dolcians. He w r i t e s : "...the d o l c i a n s , l i k e the fagotten a l s o , are q u i e t e r and s o f t e r in tone than the pommers. Hence i t i s perhaps because of t h e i r sweetness that they are named d o l c i a n s , or d o l c i s o n a n t e s . . . C i s the lowest note o f the c h o r i s t f a g o t t . . . . " 8 From Zacconi we learned that the bassoon has a range o f two octaves l e s s a tone. P r a e t o r i u s ' bassoons have two keys — f o r E and F — and are in three s i z e s : one i n C; a Quart bass in G'; and a Quint bass in F'. These then w i l l represent the standards f o r the e a r l y seventeenth cen-t u r y . The f i r s t major French d e s c r i p t i o n o f the bassoon i s by Mer-senne. P r o p o s i t i o n XXXIII in Book V of Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e i s e n t i t l e d "To e x p l a i n the shape, s i z e range and use of the Basson, Fagot, Courtaux, and C e r v e l a t s de Musique". He begins by s t a t i n g : "I t r e a t these species of basses because they can be j o i n e d in the concert of oboes, and are d i f f e r e n t from the preceding bass [that i s , the pommer] o n l y in that they break i n t o two parts to be able to be managed and c a r r i e d more e a s i l y ; that i s why they Adam Carse: Musical wind instruments, London, 1939, p. 183-8 Michael P r a e t o r i u s : De Organographia, Wol f fenb'uttel, 1619, Ch. X I , t r a n s , by Langwl11: Op. C i t . , p. 2 0 . 30 are c a l l e d Fagots, because they resemble two pieces of wood which are bound and fagotted together. " 9 Mersenne continues: "This Fagot has three keys, of which the f i r s t which c l o s e s the seventh hole i s uncovered, and the second and t h i r d are covered w i t h t h e i r p o c k e t s . " 1 0 These two statements -- the f i r s t h i n t i n g that the bassoon was in at l e a s t two p i e c e s , and the second d e s c r i b i n g three keys -- show that Mersenne's bassoons have deviated from the standard e s t a b l i s h e d by Zac-coni and P r a e t o r i u s . Indeed, Mersenne's fagot seems to be an instrument in t r a n s i t i o n from the o l d e r d u l z i a n to the remodelled bassoon.'^ In a d d i t i o n t o the h i n t o f s e c t i o n a l I z a t l o n and the appearance of three keys, Mersenne's fagot e x h i b i t s s t i l l o ther a b n o r m a l i t i e s . F i r s t o f a l l , there are twelve h o l e s , as opposed to the standard ten on the e a r l y seventeenth-century d u l z i a n . The t w e l f t h h o l e , according to 12 Mersenne, i s "... not stopped at a l l " . The tenth hole on the bassoon described by P r a e t o r i u s was an open one which produced C. On Mersenne's fagot, however, the tenth hole i s operated by a t h i r d key, the eleventh Marin Mersenne: Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e , t r a n s , by Roger E. Chapman, The Hague, 1957, p. 372. This i s a most i n t e r e s t i n g statement in that i t shows that a t r a d i t i o n of using the bassoon in c o n j u n c t i o n wi t h oboes was e s t a b l i s h e d very e a r l y . 1 0 l b i d . , p. 373. See the present w r i t e r ' s unpublished paper "Mersenne's Fagots and Bassons: instruments in t r a n s i t i o n " , U n i v e r s i t y of B. C. January, 1975. 12 Op.C i t . , p. 373. It i s , in other words, a sounding vent. 31 being open. Mersenne a l s o s t a t e s that the range of the bassoon i s only 1 3 a tenth or an e l e v e n t h . This range, of course, i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a ller than the two octaves less a tone given by Zacconi. If one considers Mersenne's bassoons as being in a s t a t e of t r a n s i t i o n , the d e v i a t i o n s described above are not so problematic. By the mid-seventeenth century the remodelled bassoon had a range of two 12} and a h a l f octaves, descending to B ' - f l a t . It i s p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , that Mersenne, too, i s making an e a r l y reference to a bassoon w i t h a fundamental of B ' - f l a t . Indeed, the f i r s t n i n e . h o l e s , i n c l u d i n g two keyed ones, on Mersenne's fagot are i d e n t i c a l in format to those on P r a e t o r i u s ' bassoon. The tenth hole consequently Is l i k e l y to produce C, and the e l e v e n t h , B ' - f l a t . ' * ' An a d d i t i o n a l note h o l e , of course, ne-c e s s i t a t e d an e x t r a key, and t h i s was made to operate the tenth h o l e . The l i m i t e d range of Mersenne's fagot i s e a s i l y e x p l a i n e d . An instrument w i t h eleven note-holes possesses a n a t u r a l range of an e l e v e n t h . In the case of the bassoon, which has both a f r e e double reed and a c o n i c a l bore, over-blowing produces the octave p a r t i a l . Increas-ing the wind pressure i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h more pressure exerted by the p l a y e r ' s l i p s on the reed t i p , could t h e r e f o r e extend the range of Mersenne's bassoons by as much as an octave. There are h i n t s that Mersenne's fagot Is already undergoing 1 3 l b i d . 14 See Langwi11: Op,C i t . '*\jiirgen Eppelsheim in h i s Das Orchester in den Werken Jean-B a p t i s t e L u l l y s , T u t z i n g , 1961, p. 108, a r r i v e s at the same c o n c l u s i o n . 32 the process of s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n , a process which i n i t i a t e d the era of the modern woodwind. Mersenne says of the bassoons: "... they break i n t o two parts to be able to be managed and c a r r i e d more e a s i l y ; that i s why they are c a l l e d Fagots..." Included in Mersenne's d i s c u s s i o n i s a l a r g e r instrument c a l l e d a basson. This instrument i s analogous to P r a e t o r i u s ' Quart-bass, f o r i t i s lower by a f o u r t h than the f a g o t . ^ 7 I f we compare the d e s c r i p t i o n of the fagot to that o f the basson, which Mersenne s p e c i f i c a l l y notes " i s a l l of one 18 piece of wood", i t seems l i k e l y that he was impressed w i t h the fagot's 'two p i e c e s ' . More t e l l i n g , perhaps, i s the d i s t i n c t b e l l - ' j o i n t ' which appears on the diagram of the fagot. The inaccurate i l l u s t r a t i o n makes the b e l l look d e c e p t i v e l y s m a l l ; but Mersenne informs us: " t h i s end i s 19 almost nine inches from I to H". D e s c r i b i n g the d i s t a n c e between the l a s t two holes of the instrument, he w r i t e s : "And from the eleventh to the t w e l f t h seven and a h a l f inches, and from there to the end of the Fagot, which i s hidden under the end HI, i s f i v e and a h a l f i n c h e s . " 2 0 How could the end of the instrument be "hidden" under the b e l l of the bassoon, unless the b e l l were a separate j o i n t that was mounted onto i t ? It seems q u i t e probable that Mersenne's fagot represents the f i r s t , ten-t a t i v e experiment in s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n . l 6 0 p.CJt., p. 372, 1 7 1 b i d . , p. 37^. I 8 l b i d . 19 I b i d . , p. 373, see Figure 1. 20.. I b i d . 33 Figure 1. Fagot^ from Mersenne's HarmonIe U n i v e r s e ] l e , Bk. V, P r o p o s i t i o n XXXII. We may summarize the i n n o v a t i v e features of Mersenne's fagot as f o l l o w s : i t descends to B ' - f l a t ; i t has three keys, adopting the important p r i n c i p l e o f p u t t i n g the p l a y e r ' s two thumbs in c o n t r o l of four note holes on the back of the instrument; and i t seems to re-present an e a r l y attempt at s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n . With these i n mind, then, we may consider Mersenne's bassoons as instruments in t r a n s i t i o n . 34 The u l t i m a t e a r r i v a l of the remodelled bassoon must have 21 occurred s h o r t l y a f t e r the 1636 p u b l i c a t i o n of Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e . There a r e , o f course, no subsequent t h e o r e t i c a l sources d e a l i n g w i t h the instrument u n t i l the turn o f the eighteenth century. In 1713 Mattheson w r I t e s : "The s t a t e l y Bassoon, Basse de Chromorne [ s i c ! ] , I t . Fagotto, vulgo D u l c i a n , i s the usual bass, the foundation or accompaniment of the Hautbois...He who would d i s t i n g u i s h h i m s e l f on the bassoon w i l l f i n d that elegance and speed e s p e c i a l l y in the high r e g i s t e r tax h i s powers to the f u l l . . . The compass of the bassoon extends over three and a h a l f [ s i c ] octaves from C to f or g'. O c c a s i o n a l l y i t pro-duces contra B - f l a t and A in a d d i t i o n . " 2 2 Mattheson shows that he was f a m i l i a r w i t h the o l d e r two-keyed d u l z i a n which descended only to C, as w e l l as the newer bassoon w i t h a key ex-tending i t s compass to B ' - f l a t . Mattheson's reference to the p o s s i b i l i t y of f u r t h e r extending the range downward to A' was very c u r r e n t In the eighteenth century. Diderot and D'Alembert's Encyclope"die g i v e s a f u l l three octave range to the bassoon, from A' to a', w h i l e s t a t i n g : "Everyone who plays the basson i s not able to play t h i s range, e i t h e r being unable t o c o n t r o l proper-l y t h e i r breath or the instrument not being i n good order. Thus they content themselves in des-cending to B - f l a t and B - n a t u r a l , notes which are produced without opening a s i n g l e h o l e , by the s o l e method of blowing the a i r through the i n s t r u -ment. "23 See Adam Carse: Op.Cit. , p. 186. 22 Johann Mattheson: Das neu-erflffnete Orchestre, Hamburg, 1712, P t . I l l , paragraph 9; t r a n s , by Langwi11: Op.C i t . , pp. 34-35. C to P or g', of course i s only two and a h a l f octaves. Diderot and D'Alembert: Encyclopedic Ra i sone"e... , P a r i s , 1767, V o l . 2, p. 127. 35 Breath r e g u l a t i o n alone, t h e r e f o r e , permitted the bassoon p l a y e r to ' l i p ' changes i n p i t c h . It i s , no doubt, through t h i s method that e i g h t e e n t h -century w r i t e r s b e l i e v e d the tone A' to be p o s s i b l e on the bassoon. The changes which occurred in the bassoon's c o n s t r u c t i o n to produce the instrument described by Mattheson probably were e f f e c t e d in 2k France. They included f u l l - f l e d g e d s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n : separate long and tenor j o i n t s were connected through a U-shaped b u t t - j o i n t ; and a 25 b e l l - j o i n t prolonged the bore to enable the production of B ' - f l a t . An overlapping wing s e c t i o n on the tenor j o i n t covered part of the long j o i n t and contained the top three note holes of the instrument. More accurate d r i l l i n g o f the bore owing to s e c t i o n a 1 i z a t l o n , and modified f i n g e r - h o l e s i z e s enhanced the upper r e g i s t e r of the bassoon. Technique was f a c i l i t a t e d on the remodelled instrument through both a d d i t i o n s to and rearrangements i n the e x i s t i n g key mechanism. We r e c a l l that on the o l d e r d u l z i a n keys were provided f o r both E and F. The F-key on the remodelled bassoon remained on the f r o n t o f the i n s t r u -ment. The E-key, however, was moved up to c o n t r o l D on the back of the instrument, l e a v i n g E as an open hole. The t h i r d key was made to c o n t r o l B ' - f l a t . On the back of the bassoon, t h e r e f o r e , the p l a y e r ' s lower thumb, which had formerly governed the E-key and the open D-hole, was now only i n c o n t r o l of an open E-hole. The p l a y e r ' s upper thumb, be-forehand only working the open C-hole, was now c o n t r o l l i n g the new D-key Anthony Baines: Op.C i t . , p. 27k. 'Lyndesay Langwi11: Op.Ci t . , p. 28. 36 the open C-hole and the new B ' - f l a t key. C h o r i s t - f a g o t t Fagot Remodelled bassoon Figure 2. Back view of C h o r i s t - f a g o t t , Fagot, and remodelled baroque bassoon. The present w r i t e r b e l i e v e s that s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e d t h i s change i n key mechanism. The newer bassoon had four d i s t i n c t sec-t i o n s : a t e n o r - j o i n t ; a b u t t - j o i n t (the U-tube); a l o n g - j o i n t and a b e l l - j o i n t . On a bassoon of t h i s design the E hole i s s i t u a t e d on the b u t t - j o i n t , w h i l e the D hole i s now on the long j o i n t . I f the key mechanism of the fagot had been r e t a i n e d , the key which formerly operated the E-hole would have had to cross over the j o i n t between the butt and long s e c t i o n s o f the bassoon, i n order to be in c l o s e p r o x i m i t y of the This arrangement i s e x a c t l y the opposite to that on Mersenne's 3-keyed fagot; on that instrument E was keyed, D was open, C was keyed, and B ' - f l a t was open. 37 D-hole. Such an arrangement, of course, would be both i m p r a c t i c a l and s u s c e p t i b l e to damage. With the new system, the two keys on the back of the bassoon were both contained on the l o n g - j o i n t . When the f u l l y - r e m o d e l l e d bassoon f i r s t appeared i s a matter fo r some c o n j e c t u r e . We have seen that the process was a l r e a d y underway by 1636. There i s f a i r l y good proof that the instrument was standardized 27 in i t s new form w e l l before 1670. L a n g w i l l s i n g l e s out a Dutch p a i n -t i n g a t t r i b u t e d to Harman Hals which d e p i c t s a bassoon w i t h such features as a b e l l j o i n t , a crook, a reed and the upper parts of a long and tenor 28 j o i n t . The p a i n t i n g provides good proof that the newer instrument was wel1-developed before 1670, f o r Harman Hals l i v e d from 1611 to 1669-There have been numerous es t i m a t e s , o f course, as to the f i r s t appearance of the new bassoon, and as to the f i r s t composer to employ i t c o n s i s t e n t l y . Some o f the estimates are l e s s accurate than o t h e r s . Karl G e i r i n g e r , f o r example, suggests: "Together w i t h the oboe, in 1659 the bassoon found i t s way i n t o the o p e r a t i c o r c h e s t r a i n the production o f Cambert's Pomone_."29 Besides the f a c t that Pomone was not produced u n t i l I 6 7 I , modern s c h o l a r -30 ship has found e a r l i e r references to the use of the oboe, and pre-sumably, the bassoon. As to Cambert's use of the bassoon, L a n g w i l l ^'Op.Cit., p. 28. 2^The p a i n t i n g i s 'Der F a g g o t s p i e l e r ' from the s e r i e s 'The senses'. I t i s housed at the A r t Museum at Aachen. 2^K. G e i r i n g e r : Musical Instruments, London, 2nd, e d i t . , 1945, p. 172. Notably Joseph Marx: Op.C i t . 38 informs us: " I t has been f r e q u e n t l y asserted that the bassoon f i r s t appeared in the French opera o r c h e s t r a i n Cambert's Pomone (1671) . . . the fragmentary Ms. (from the P a r i s Conservatoire) music of Pomone mentions 'hautbois' but not 'bassons' ."31 It w i l l be r e c a l l e d , however, that as e a r l y as I636 the bassoon was 32 expected to play bass to the oboes. Langwi11 f u r t h e r concludes that although the bassoon was c e r t a i n l y used by L u l l y , i t was given l i t t l e 33 prominence. Anthony Baines' assessment of the s i t u a t i o n i s , perhaps, c l o s e s t to the mark. He s t a t e s : " I t [the bassoon] i s f i r s t named in a L u l l y score in 1674 [Psyche] , but i t may w e l l have been i n use ten or more years e a r l i e r . . . " 3 4 The v a l i d i t y of t h i s statement w i l l be examined p r e s e n t l y . The Bassoon in L u l l y ' s E a r l y B a l l e t s : Of a l l the instruments w i t h which t h i s study i s concerned, the bassoon i s , perhaps, most problematic. The various d i f f i c u l t i e s en-countered in attempting to d i s c o v e r the nature of the instrument's em-ployment d e r i v e , f o r the most p a r t , from the bassoon's great v e r s a t i l i t y . We have seen that the bassoon possessed an exte n s i v e range — over two and a h a l f octaves. It has been shown f u r t h e r t h a t , owing to i t s f r e e 3 l 0 p . C i t . , p. 75. 32 See note 9. 3 3 1 b i d . , p. 75. 3 \ ) P . C 1 t . , p. 286. 39 double reed, the instrument was capable of great var ia t ions in dynamics. The bassoon, therefore, had the potent ia l to perform in a var ie ty of s i t ua t i ons . The bassoon had as a complementary Instrument the v i o l o n c e l l o . Dis t inguish ing between the two instruments so le ly on musical grounds in Lu l l y scores Is not only dangerous, but very d i f f i c u l t . The present wr i te r be l ieves , however, that the range of a given bass par t , in con-junct ion with other evidence, can often aid in d is t ingu ish ing between the two: excessively high bass parts seem to be intended for the bas-35 soon. In the scores observed by the present w r i t e r , only rare ly does the bass part ascend beyond d 1 to e ' - f l a t . On only three occasions did 36 i t ascend to e ' . In these three s i tua t ions (two of them in Tr io se t -t i n g s ) , i t is poss ib le that Lu l l y had bassoons in mind. Only in con-junct ion with stronger evidence, however, may the range of a bass part be considered as an ind icat ion of the bassoon's use. Another problem faced in determining the employment bassoons received is in the nature of the sources consul ted. The scores of the Co l lec t ion Ph i l i do r are not performing ed i t i ons . As a resu l t , many 35 The note d ' , in both three- and f i ve -par t se t t i ngs , appears to be the normal upward l im i t of L u l l y ' s bass par ts . 36 3 In Ba l le t de 1 1 Impatience (1661), le r En t r i e of Part I I I ; Les Jeux Pi th iens (1670) 'R i tourne1 le ' on p. 116V of Tome VI in P h i l i -dor 's Recuei1 de B a l l e t s ; and A lc id iane (I658) 2nd number of Part I I I . r 4o i n d i c a t i o n s of d e s i r e d instrumentation that may have been w r i t t e n in the autographs are p o s s i b l y omitted. Moreover, the i n d i v i d u a l copies in the c o l l e c t i o n do not d i s p l a y a c o n s i s t e n t thoroughness: many scores are 3 7 c a r e f u l l y copied; but others are very 'sketchy' in appearance. They do, f o r t u n a t e l y , provide enough information to make c e r t a i n t e n t a t i v e conclus ions. The most pe r p l e x i n g d i f f i c u l t y encountered w i t h respect to the bassoon in L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s i s that i t Is never s p e c i f i e d in the •JO scores. We are consequently forced to e s t a b l i s h a set of c r i t e r i a by which we may determine the implied use of the instrument. The musical and/or dramatic context o f an entree can be most e n l i g h t e n i n g . Of es-p e c i a l importance i s the dramatic context w i t h i n which a given s e l e c t i o n or entree occurs. Woodwinds are t r a d i t i o n a l l y reserved f o r i d y l l i c 3 9 scenes -- scenes de champetres and scenes de bergers. The bassoon in such cases performs the bass l i n e e i t h e r w i t h or without other bass instruments, such as the c e l l o . As e a r l y as I 6 3 6 the bassoon was con-s i d e r e d the bass part to higher oboes. In g e n e r a l , wherever the use of woodwinds can be determined f o r dessus p a r t s , i t i s probable that bas-37 One copy o f Les P l a i s i r s Trouble's (1657), f o r example, ex-cludes the 2nd and 4th parts in the 5-part s e t t i n g s throughout. •jQ It i s not u n t i l 1674, in the opera Psychd, that L u l l y speci-f i c a l l y w r i t e s 'bassons 1. 39 See P r u n i e r e s : " L u l l y et 1'Opera F r a n c a i s " , La Revue Musi- c a l e , 1925, p. 41. ' 41 soons were employed as bass instruments in those s i t u a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , the use of bassoons may be suggested by the performers who took p a r t i n a given b a l l e t . The b a s i c s t r i n g o r c h e s t r a of the v i n g t - q u a t r e v i o l o n s was f r e q u e n t l y augmented in these productions by wind pla y e r s drawn from the large r e s e r v o i r of t a l e n t in the Grande E c u r i e . Two d i v i s i o n s o f E c u r i e catered e s p e c i a l l y to the new woodwinds of the p e r i o d : the Joueurs de v i o l o n s , haut-bois, sacquebouttes et c o r -41 nets and the Hautbois et Muzettes de P o i t o u . Included in the ranks of these two departments are the names o f the most famous e a r l y masters and manufacturers of the remodelled woodwinds. In the Joueurs de v i o l o n s , hautbois... Michel Rousselet i s l i s t e d as basse de h a u t b o i s ; w h i l e in the Hautbois de P o i t o u , one of the three H o t t e t e r r e s — N i c o l a s -- and 42 Jean Brunet are described as bassecontre p l a y e r s . With extant 1 i v r e t s to the b a l l e t s which o f t e n l i s t the performers i n v o l v e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e to i n f e r the use of the bassoon i n the event that any o f the three names mentioned above appear. The present w r i t e r was able to deduce such i n -formation from two sources o n l y : Henry P r u n i e r e s ' e d i t i o n of L u l l y ' s Oeuvres Completes gives f a c s i m l l l e s of two 1 i v r e t s — one f o r L'Amour  Ma lade (1657) and A l c i d i a n e (1658); and Charles S i l i n in h i s Benserade 40 See Adam Carse: H i s t o r y of O r c h e s t r a t i o n , London, 1925, p. 80. 41 Of the two, the Hautbois et Muzettes de Poitou seems to have been more e x t e n s i v e l y employed in b a l l e t p r oductions. 42 Marcel Benolt: Muslques de Cour, P a r i s , 1971, p. 4. These three musicians were a c t i v e in the Ecurie throughout the period of L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s . Jean and M a r t i n H o t t e t e r r e were p r i m a r i l y performers on dessus Instruments. 42 and His B a l l e t s de Cour (Maryland, 1940) draws h e a v i l y on the 1 i v r e t s , 43 o f t e n naming the i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s involved in a p a r t i c u l a r work. With these c r i t e r i a as guides, we may now approach the b a l l e t s cores. Nine b a l l e t s have been s e l e c t e d because they c l e a r l y show evidence o f the bassoon's use, and demonstrate a number o f ways in which i t was employed. They are: Amour Ma lade (1657); A l c i d i a n e ( I 6 5 8 ) ; La Rai 1 l e r ? e (1659); Impatience ( l 6 6 l ) ; Amours De*gu?sez (1664); La  Pri n c e s s e d' El ide (1664); La Grotte de V e r s a i l l e s (1668) ; Le Bourgeois  GentiIhomme (1670) and Les Jeux P i t h i e n s (1670). The b a l l e t Amour Ma lade was produced in 1657 r e s u l t i n g from a c o l l a b o r a t i o n between Benserade and L u l l y . In many respects i t i s a most s i g n i f i c a n t work in L u l l y ' s output. It Is one of the f i r s t b a l l e t s in which the music i s e x c l u s i v e l y by L u l l y . Moreover, i s i s c i t e d by 44 45 Joseph Marx, Henry P r u n i e r e s , and others as the f i r s t instance of the remodelled oboe's employment. In the Derniere Entree of the work, a Concert Champestre de L'Espoux i s c i t e d as being played by the oboes of the E c u r l e . It i s in t h i s twenty-four bar work that we w i l l f i n d the e a r l i e s t use of the bassoon in t h i s study. The music f u l f i l s a number of the c r i t e r i a which we have e s t a b l i s h e d as evidence of the bassoon's 4 3 A large corpus of 1 i v r e t s from the b a l l e t s by L u l l y and Ben-serade i s housed in the L i b r a r y of Congress. It was un f o r t u n a t e l y un-a v a i l a b l e to the present w r i t e r f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n . 44 Op.Cit., p. 14. 45 3 0 p . C i t . , p. 99. 43 use: I t i s a concert champetre: the bass l i n e i s to an ensemble of oboes; and i t s performers include two bassoon players from the E c u r i e . The 1 i v r e t says of the l a s t e n t r i e : "Concert champestre de l'Espoux: Les Sieurs Obterre le pere, Obterre f t l s a i s n i , Obterre l e cadet, P i e c h e t , Brunet, Descouteaux, Destouches P e l e r i n , N i c o l a s , et A l a i s . . . " ^ Obterre, of course, i s one of a number of s p e l l i n g s of the name Hotte-t e r r e . The bassoon l i n e o f f e r s l i t t l e r e a l i n t e r e s t . It performs the bass of L u l l y ' s normal f i v e - p a r t t e x t u r e , and has a range of D - a. The piece i s in G-majpr and probably requires o r c h e s t r a l doublings by 47 s t r i n g s . The concert champetre w i l l be discussed again w i t h reference to the oboe. In A l c i d i a n e (1658) the use of the bassoon i s s l i g h t l y more prominent. There are at l e a s t two occasions where i t s employment seems implied by the musical content; both these occur in the t h i r d part of the b a l l e t . A f t e r the overture to t h i s s e c t i o n , a R e c i t de l a Fortune introduces h i g h l i g h t s o f the drama to f o l l o w . The r i t o u r n e l l e of t h i s r i c i t i s set f o r three instruments. The range of the bass l i n e i s ex-t e n s i v e — from E to e' in the key of a-minor. Since three H o t t e t e r r e s and Brunet appear in the 1?vret, and are s p e c i f i e d as performers in the ensuing e n t r i e , i t would seem l i k e l y that a bassoon was used i n t h i s C i t e d in P r u n i e r e s : Op .C i t . , f a c i n g p. 43. 47 I b i d . , Prunieres scores the bass l i n e f o r both bassoon and c e l l o . R i t o u r n e l l e . The second entre"e of Part III Is t i t l e d in P h i l i d o r ' s s c o r e , " S i x Bergers et S i x Bergeres". The A i r pour Polexandre i s in g-minor and i s set in a normal f i v e - p a r t s t r u c t u r e . The 1 i v r e t o f t h i s b a l l e t s t a t e s o f t h i s entre"e: " T r o i s Bergers... t r o i s Bergeres... font avec p l u s i e u r s autres un Concert Rustique, auquel un choeur de F l u s t e s et de p l u s i e u r s autres instrumens repondent."^ The bassoon, no doubt, i s one of the 'other instruments', performing i t s task as bass to woodwind p a r t s . The range of the bass l i n e i s B ' - f l a t -d'. In La R a i 1 l e r ie (1659) the bassoon once again appears in L u l l y ' s f i v e - p a r t o r c h e s t r a l idiom; again i t performs w i t h s p e c i f i e d woodwinds — in t h i s case, recorders -- in the upper p a r t s . The e i g h t h entree i s devoted to Les c o n t r e f a i s s e u r s . From pp. 39-^1 of P h i l i d o r ' s copy, r e -corders are scored in g-minor; the bass part o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s not very ext e n s i v e — D - b - f l a t . From page kl to kS of the same Entree a Sara- bande In g-minor i s provided. In both these i n s t a n c e s , s p e c i f i e d r e c o r -ders d i v i d e the dessus l i n e in two, r e s u l t i n g in s i x real p a r t s . The bassoon which presumably plays the bass in t h i s s e c t i o n i s given a range of D - c'. The B a l l e t de 1 'Impatience of 1661 provides us w i t h an example where s p e c i f i e d bassoons may be i n f e r r e d from d i r e c t i o n s in the score. The t h i r d entrde of the t h i r d part o f the b a l l e t (p. 57 in P h i l i d o r ' s W l b l d . 45 score) i s s u b t i t l e d : "8 C h e v a l i e r s dansant sans v i o l Ions". One can only conclude that L u l l y was g a i n i n g enough confidence in both the a b i l i t y of the wind instruments, and h i s a b i l i t y to provide a p p r o p r i a t e music f o r 49 them. Although the t i t l e of t h i s number does not r e f e r to woodwinds alone, i t i s probable that the r e a l i z a t i o n of the bass part involved the use o f bassoons. The work i s in g-minor, set f o r f i v e p a r t s , the bass l i n e extending from D to b - f l a t . A Symphonie in the Prologue to the 1664 c o m i d i e - b a l l e t , Amours De*gufsez,~^ foreshadows an o r c h e s t r a l technique which was to achieve f r u i t i o n in the opera o r c h e s t r a of Rameau in the eighteenth century. Instruments are c o n s c i o u s l y s e l e c t e d to p o r t r a y a dramatic exchange in purely musical terms. In the case of Amours D i g u l s e z , L u l l y ' s e x p l o i t a t i o n of the technique i s experimental: the drama i s presented beforehand in Moli&re's spoken d i a l o g u e ; then L u l l y ' s music d e p i c t s the c o n f l i c t in somewhat s i m p l i s t i c terms. The a l l e g o r i c a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n centres around Les A r t s on the one hand, and Les Graces et Les P l a i s i r s on the o t h e r . Employing con-c e r t a t o p r i n c i p l e s , L u l l y gives Les A r t s one group of instruments, and Les Graces a v a r i e d arrangement of the f i r s t ensemble. For Les A r t s "'"''Sans v i o l l o n s ' excludes the e n t i r e s t r i n g s e c t i o n . The term ' v i o l l o n s ' in L u l l y ' s scores i s g e n e r i c , r e f e r r i n g to the whole f a m i l y . The dramatic a c t i o n requires the e n t r i e to commence before the v i o l i n s have f i n i s h e d tuning. At bar 14, a marking in a l l the parts of the score suggests that perhaps v i o l i n s are to enter the t e x t u r e at that p o i n t . Winds, nonetheless, are d e f i n i t e l y r e q uired to perform the music at the beginning of the entre"e. 50 Although the come'd [e-ba 1 l e t i s d i s t i n c t as a genre from the b a l l e t , i t has been included in t h i s study s i n c e i t employs s i m i l a r w r i t i n g s t y l e s and techniques. The l i b r e t t o i s by M o l l e r e . 46 L u l l y i n d i c a t e s : "Tous le monde joue"; For Les Graces he s p e c i f i e s : "a P a r t i s simple mesle" de f l u s t e s " . " ^ Les Graces i s scored f o r three 52 parts -- two dessus and a bass; only one instrument plus a f1uste are to play the dessus parts o f t h i s s e c t i o n . Again we may i n f e r employment of the bassoon as bass to the woodwinds. In the tous s e c t i o n -- a seven-part set up -- the bass has a range of D - c'. In the doux s e c t i o n the bassoon i s given a compass of D to b - f l a t . It seems l i k e l y that s i n c e bassoons are required in t h i s s e c t i o n , they would perform in the tous as w e l l as doux p o r t i o n s of the entre*e. The b a l l e t , La P r i n c e s s e d ' E l i d e a l s o of 1664, was only one of a number of great d i v e r t i s s e m e n t s given to honour both the Queen and the Queen Mother. It formed the b a l l e t p o r t i o n of the l a r g e r come'die-bal l e t , Les P l a i s i r s de l ' l l e Enchante"e by M o l i e r e and L u l l y . This b a l l e t , l i k e Amour Ma lade, represents a landmark i n use of double-reed instruments; i t i s the f i r s t work to a c t u a l l y s p e c i f y oboes in the 53 score. The t h i r d number of the b a l l e t i s e n t i t l e d "Marche de hautbois pour l e Dieu Pan, et sa s u i t e " . The P h i l i d o r copy of t h i s b a l l e t which presents t h i s s p e c i -f i c a t i o n i s housed in the B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , CP. Re's. F 531- Un-f o r t u n a t e l y , the only copy a v a i l a b l e to the present w r i t e r i s CP Re's. F 655. The t i t l e o f the work in t h i s score i s simply 'Marche du dieu ^On Page 2 - 5 of P h i l i d o r ' s copy, 52 Probably a recorder. 5 3 S e e Eppelsheim: Op.Cit.,pp. 104-105. Pan'. Nonetheless, we may s t i l l observe how the oboes were employed. The bassoon must have been used as bass to the f i v e - p a r t s t r u c t u r e in which the oboes took p a r t . In G-maJor, the bassoon i s given a range of D - c' . The subsequent number of the same b a l l e t i s a 'Rondeau Pour les F l u t e s et V i o l l o n s , a l l a n t S l a t a b l e du Roy'. In t h i s s e l e c t i o n the bassoon, w i t h the c e l l o s , i s l i k e l y to have performed the bass p a r t ; i t i s given a range o f C to c' i n the key of G-major. This i s one o f the few i n d i c a t i o n s we have that the bassoon was included as a bass instrument w i t h i n the context o f a s p e c i f i e d s t r i n g o r c h e s t r a . Of a l l the scores c o n s u l t e d , the P r i n c e s s e d ' E l l d e and the Grotte de V e r s a i l l e s (1668) represent some of the most ext e n s i v e use of woodwinds. Twelve pages of the l a t t e r work (pp. 19—31 of CP Re's. F532) present q u i t e c l e a r l y a number of ways i n which the bassoon was expected to perform. T h i s 'woodwind s e c t i o n ' of the b a l l e t i s i n i t i a t e d on page 5k 19 with a R i t o u r n e l l e pour les f l u t t e s . The R l t o u r n e l l e , i n three p a r t s , i s in g-minor. The bass part again suggests performance on the bassoon, which i s given a rather e x t e n s i v e range of D to d'. The Ri tournel l e introduces a re"ci t -- a vocal duo f o r A r i c e  et C a l i s t e . Of paramount s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the musical s e t t i n g o f the re*ci t : i t borrows i t s musical content e x a c t l y from the preceding There i s good evidence to show that the f l u t e s involved here are o f the transverse type. This w i l l be discussed in chapter three. 48 r i t o u r n e l l e . The i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e , of course, that the instruments con-tinue to p l a y , doubling the vocal p a r t s . The bassoon, perhaps w i t h added c e l l o s , i s t h e r e f o r e required to play the continuo bass of a vocal s e t -t i n g , the f i r s t such instance we have observed. The Ri t o u r n e l l e of page 19 returns subsequently, and leads to a second r e c i t de Minalque et Coridon. New music i s provided f o r t h i s t e x t , but the p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d p r e v i o u s l y would a l s o seem to be in e f f e c t here; the instruments of the Ri t o u r n e l l e are l i k e l y to have doubled the vocal parts once more. A new R i t o u r n e l l e f o l l o w s t h i s r e c i t ; again the next vocal duo, 'Voypns tous deux en aimant', uses the music of i t s R i t o u r n e l l e . Although ' f l u t t e s ' are not s p e c i f i e d , t h i s s e c t i o n of the b a l l e t appears to act as a u n i t — various scenes de bergers. It seems l i k e l y that the instrumentation of the s e c t i o n would t h e r e f o r e remain c o n s i s t e n t . The e n t r i e i s concluded w i t h a large s e l e c t i o n f o r o r c h e s t r a and chorus, and a Menuet. The chorus -- 'La meme choeur de Bergers' — i s in ten p a r t s : four vocal and 6 o r c h e s t r a l . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , there are 55 two bass l i n e s , although the two parts are almost i d e n t i c a l . Both bass l i n e s show a range of D - b-natural (the chorus i s in G-maJor), and the bassoon must have been intended to perform in one of the bass p a r t s . Here then, we have evidence of the bassoon's use in o r c h e s t r a l and vocal tous s e c t i o n s . The concluding Menuet, s t i l l in G-major, no doubt, i s f o r a tous o r c h e s t r a . In l i g h t of the prominent treatment the woodwinds On two occasions the f i r s t bass i s given two repeated e i g h t h notes to the second bass' s i n g l e quarter note. 4 9 received throughout the e n t r i e , i t i s not unreasonable to assume that f l u t e s and bassoons a l s o took p a r t . The bass l i n e here i s not e x t e n s i v e in i t s range; from only D to g. F i n a l l y , two b a l l e t s from 1670 w i l l serve to conclude our study o f the bassoon. In Les Jeux P i t h i e n s L u l l y provides another ex-ample of the various r e l a t i o n s h i p s between h i s o r c h e s t r a and chorus. On pages 118V to 119V in Tome VI of P h i l i d o r ' s Recuei1 de B a l l e t s , a three-part vocal s e t t i n g w i t h the i n c i p i t ' J o u i s s o n s de P l a i s i r s ' , i s presented. The work, in g-minor, i s headed by the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s : "Les f l u t e s les hautbois et les v i o l o n s JouSnt l ' a i r qui s u i t avant q u ' i l se c h a n t e " . 5 ^ The appearance o f woodwinds, and s p e c i f i c a l l y oboes, in the dessus parts leads us to i n f e r the use of bassoons w i t h c e l l o s on the untexted bass l i n e . The bass part e x h i b i t s a co n s i d e r a b l e range, from D to d'. It i s not improbable that these instruments are to double the vocal parts when the l a t t e r enter the s t r u c t u r e . The come'die-bal l e t , Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme, of l 6 7 0 . i s , perhaps, the most famous product of the M o l i e r e - L u l l y c o l l a b o r a t i o n . Such a s p e c t a c l e at t h i s point in L u l l y ' s career represents an a r t form very c l o s e in nature to the- composer's tragedies l y r i q u e s , the f i r s t of which was to appear in three y e a r s . 5 7 Many techniques o f L u l l y ' s mature s t y l e , then, appear in the b a l l e t s of the l a t e s i x t i e s and e a r l y seven-t i e s . This is c e r t a i n l y true of h i s use o f woodwinds. Located at the bottom of page 118R. 5 7The t r a g i d i e s - l y r i q u e s , of course, d i d not co n t a i n spoken dialogue as d i d the come'dIes-ba 11 e t s . 50 The f i f t h Entre'e of the Bal l e t de Nations (the b a l l e t p o r t i o n of the production) contains two Menuets, the second of which i s in a t r i o format. Jiirgen Eppelsheim c i t e s t h i s as the f i r s t appearance of an oboe t r i o by L u l l y . 5 8 In P h i l i d o r ' s copy (CP Re's. F578, p. 175; not a v a i l a b l e to the present w r i t e r ) the t r i o i s c a l l e d "Menuet pour les 59 hautbois en p o i t e v i n ' . In the 11vret of 1670, however, the t r i o i s described as: "accompagnez de h u i t F l u s t e et H a u t - b o i s " . ^ In any event, the s i t u a t i o n r equires bassoons f o r the bass p a r t , according to our e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a . The second menuet gives a range of E to c' to the bass l i n e . I t i s l i k e l y that the t r i o r e q u i r e s that the s t r i n g s o f the f i v e - p a r t menuet drop out. Conversely, the use of oboes and bassoons In the f i v e - p a r t menuet i s not probable. Through t h i s l i m i t e d sampling of e a r l y L u l l y b a l l e t s , we may make a number of conclusions concerning the bassoon. F i r s t and foremost, the bassoon has been shown to rec e i v e r e g u l a r employment in L u l l y ' s b a l l e t o r c h e s t r a from as e a r l y as 1657- Since the bassoon was one of the e a r l i e s t , i f not the f i r s t woodwind^' to undergo re m o d e l l i n g , t h i s premise becomes e s p e c i a l l y tenable. Although musical evidence i s l a c k -5 8 0 p . C i t . , p. 105. 5 9 1 b i d . ^ T h e problem, o f course, concerns (1) the use of f l u t e s In conjunction w i t h oboes; and (2) whether oboes or hautbois de Poitou are r e q u i r e d . Eppelsheim shows that oboes are probably intended. ^'see the present w r i t e r ' s unpublished paper c i t e d in footnote 11 . 51 ing, the present wr i te r bel ieves that the remodelled bassoon gained entrance to the French ba l le t orchestra in the late fo r t i es or ear ly f i f t i e s . The bassoon seems to have been employed by Lu l l y i r respect ive of key and mode contexts. It w i l l be shown in subsequent chapters that the recorders and f lu tes espec ia l l y performed best in cer ta in keys; the recorder as a resul t of i t s fundamental of P was we l l - su i ted to f l a t keys; the transverse f l u te in d ' , on the other hand, was often reserved for sharp keys. In the eighteen examples of the bassoon's employment observed in th is sampling, ten were in a f l a t key (g-minor), two were in natural keys (C major and a minor) and s i x se lect ions were in a sharp key 62 (G major). With respect to key, then, the bassoon once again asserts i ts ve rsa t i1 i ty . The most important conclusions we may draw from th is study concern the use to which the bassoon was put wi th in the orchestra and various ensembles. In every case but one, the bassoon played or doubled the bass par t . In the 'Marche de hautbois pour le Dieu Pan 1 of La P r i n -cesse d ' E l i d e , however, a case for the bassoon's use on the ta?1le part becomes evident. The fourth l ine of the f i ve -par t st ructure has a range of d - e ' . Th i s , of course, is too low for the tenor oboe which descends only to f. Since the part ascends only as high as e' the l ine could be performed with l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y on the bassoon. This 'Marche' w i l l These s t a t i s t i c s are somewhat misleading since g-minor appears to be L u l l y ' s favour i te key in the ear ly b a l l e t s . 52 be discussed again In the next chapter w i t h reference to the oboe. The bassoon, we have seen, performed in a number of ensemble s i t u a t i o n s . It was used in L u l l y ' s normal f i v e - p a r t o r c h e s t r a l s t r u c -ture in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s t r i n g s in Amour Malade ( 1 6 5 7 ) , A l c i d l a n e ( I 6 5 8 ) , Amour Digutsez (1664) and e s p e c i a l l y in La P r i n c e s s e d ' E l i d e ( 1 6 6 4 ) . In t h i s b a l l e t , we r e c a l l , a Rondeau i s designated f o r both woodwinds (f 1utes) and s t r i n g s ( v i o l Ions) . The b a l l e t , 1'Impatience ( 1 6 6 1 ) , provides an example of the bassoon's employment in a f i v e - p a r t s t r u c t u r e without s t r i n g s : i . e . "Les 8 c h e v a l i e r s sans v i o l l o n s " . The bassoon a l s o saw ex t e n s i v e treatment in t r i o t e x t u r e s . In Les Jeux P l t h i e n s a t r i o i s s p e c i f i e d w i t h s t r i n g s and woodwinds: "Les f l u t e s les hautbois et l e s v i o l o n s j o i i e n t " . A t r i o i n v o l v i n g the bassoon without s t r i n g s i s i n evidence i n La G r o t t e de V e r s a i l l e s (1668) — the R i t o u r n e l l e pour  les f l u t t e s . It i s i n La Grotte de V e r s a i l l e s that we f i n d evidence of the bassoon's use in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h v o i c e s . In three cases -- 'Arice et C a l i s t r e ' , 'Menalque et Condon', and 'Voyons tous deux en aimant' — the bassoon has been considered as the probable continuo bass In vocal duos. It has been shown, f u r t h e r , that the bassoon doubles the bass l i n e in the chorus designated, 'La meme Choeur des Bergers'. It can be seen that the bassoon was considered a p p r o p r i a t e i n a great many s i t u a t i o n s . Indeed, i t s apparent v e r s a t i l i t y might suggest that the instrument was a permanent f i x t u r e , " performing both o r c h e s t r a l and continuo r o l e s . It i s d o u b t f u l , however, that t h i s i s the case. The normal continuo group in L u l l y ' s o r c h e s t r a seems to have been the property o f the P e t i t Choeur, a s e l e c t ensemble to which the bassoon d i d 53 63 not belong in the eighteenth century. The P e t i t Choeur, according to a document of 1719, c o n s i s t e d of the f o l l o w i n g instruments: 1 c l a v e c i n , 2 basses de v i o l e , 2 basses de v i o l o n s , 2 theorbes, 2 dessus de v i o l o n s , 64 2 f l u t e s . There i s no evidence to s t a t e c a t e g o r i c a l l y that the p r i n -c i p l e s and components of the P e t i t Choeur were Int a c t during the seven-teenth century. It i s p o s s i b l e , however, that during the period of L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s s i m i l a r procedures were in f o r c e . The e x c l u s i o n of bassoons from the standard P e t i t Choeur, and the f l u t e ' s i n c l u s i o n in i t , does not imply that the two instruments were never employed together; nor does i t imply that the use of f l u t e s was r e s t r i c t e d to that group alone. It may be concluded that the bassoon was not a normal member of L u l l y ' s o r c h e s t r a , and was probably not a standard continuo instrument. It may have f u l f i l l e d both these f u n c t i o n s , however, when s p e c i a l e f f e c t s o r s o n o r i t i e s were r e q u i r e d . The bassoon, we may conclude, was t r e a t e d as a s p e c i a l i n -strument, as were a l l the woodwinds of L u l l y ' s o r c h e s t r a . The very nature of the b a l l e t s u b j e c t s , of course, admitted such e f f e c t s w i t h great r e g u l a r i t y ; evidence of the bassoon's employment, t h e r e f o r e , i s q u i t e frequent. Although the instrument's p o t e n t i a l was not approached in L u l l y ' s s c o r e s , a model f o r i t s f u t u r e use can e a s i l y be seen. See Eppelsheim: Op.C ? t . , p. 150. I b i d . CHAPTER I I THE OBOE By way of c o n t r a s t to the e a r l y bassoon, the e a r l y oboe and i t s precursors d i d not demonstrate a high degree of v e r s a t i l i t y ; they were c o n s i s t e n t l y assigned rather set f u n c t i o n s , being employed in only a l i m i t e d number of s i t u a t i o n s . It i s f o r t h i s reason, perhaps, that the documentation o f the oboe's e v o l u t i o n i s more c o n t r a d i c t i o n - f r e e that that of the bassoon. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the period of t r a n s i t i o n from the o l d e r shawm to the more modern oboe i s no le s s p r o b l e m a t i c , t h e o r e t i -c a l sources, as w i t h other woodwinds of that time, being completely l a c k -ing. The t r e b l e shawm i s the d i r e c t predecessor of the oboe as we know i t . The h i s t o r y o f shawm-like, double-reed instruments i s a very long one, and need riot occupy our time here.' The e a r l i e s t w r i t t e n t h e o r e t i c a l account o f the shawm i s given by T i n c t o r i s in i486. As Phi 1 l i p Bate says, "Thereafter more p a r t i c u l a r information i s f u r n i s h e d by successive s p e c i a l i s t w r i t e r s up to P r a e t o r i u s , by whose time a complete f a m i l y of d i f f e r e n t s i z e s . . . had developed".^ The u l t i m a t e a r r i v a l o f the a u t h e n t i c oboe, sometime around the middle of the seventeenth century in France, i s complicated by two problems. For information on t h i s h i s t o r y , see Adam Carse: Musical  Wind Instruments, London, Macmillan and Co., 1939; and P h i l l i p Bate: The Oboe, London, E. Benn, 1956. 2 0 p . C i t . , p. 2 8 . 55 F i r s t o f a l l , the French name of the oboe -- hautboi s -- i s the same as that f o r the o l d e r shawm. This ambiguity, o f course, leads to much con-f u s i o n i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of seventeenth-cnetury French sources. The second problem i s the nature of the s t r u c t u r a l changes which occurred i n the instrument; they are not ne a r l y so s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d as were those of the bassoon. The s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y seventeenth-century shawm had a number of q u i t e unique f e a t u r e s . It could be made of any of a number of hard-woods, and was u s u a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d in one p i e c e . It had a c o n i c a l bore, expanding from the reed-end to a t r u m p e t - l i k e b e l l . L i k e the bassoon, the l a r g e r shawms admitted key-mechanisms very e a r l y in t h e i r e v o l u t i o n . One o f the more unusual features o f the the shawm which was a l s o r e t i a n e d by the e a r l y oboe was the appearance o f two to s i x tuning holes on the instrument. These were located below the note-holes, w e l l beyond the 3 reach o f the f i n g e r s , and had no keys to c o n t r o l them. The instrument was apparently much too long f o r the a c t u a l p i t c h of i t s fundamental; up to almost h a l f the length o f the bore on some of the l a r g e r shawms seems to be redundant. The e x t r a length of bore, however, was f a r from s u p e r f l u o u s ; i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the tone o f the instrument as a r e -sonating chamber was probably most important. Of a l l the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the shawm, the one most indigenous to the instrument i s without doubt i t s reed mechanism. Adam Carse: Op .C 11. , p . 23. P h i l l i p Bate: Op.Cit. , p . 30. 56 The reed apparatus o f the shawm c o n s i s t e d of three p a r t s : a s t a p l e ; a pi rouette and a reed. The long broad reeds were i n s e r t e d i n t o a metal s t a p l e , which was s i t u a t e d on the 'top' o f the instrument. The pi r o u e t t e , as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, was a c u p - l i k e d i s k a g a i n s t which the p l a y e r ' s l i p s were pressed; i t covered and/or protected the gr e a t e r part o f the reed's length. This arrangement was e x c l u s i v e to the shawm family.*' The advantage o f such a reed mechanism e v i d e n t l y was the sup-port i t o f f e r e d the p l a y e r i n loud and sust a i n e d p l a y i n g . ^ In compari-son to the c o n t r o l made p o s s i b l e through the eventual removal o f the pi r o u e t t e , the shawm's mouthpiece arrangement was somewhat r e s t r i c t i v e . P h i l l i p Bate c a u t i o n s , nonetheless: "From the mere presence of the pi rouette i t has been argued that the shawm-player had no c o n t r o l over the reed. It i s here, however, that the s u b t l e t y o f the apparatus appears. The hollowed face [of the p i r o u -e t t e ] permitted the base o f the reed to be set i n qui te deeply so that in use the blades lay between the p l a y e r ' s l i p s . Thus, w h i l e s t i l l supported, the l i p s could to some extend e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l . I t was on account o f t h i s f a c i l i t y that the compass o f the shawms could be c a r r i e d upwards beyond the f i r s t octave and was not l i m i t e d , i n P r a e t o r i u s ' own words, 'to as many tones as there were h o l e s ' . " ' In essence, the p i r o u e t t e mechanism i s nothing more than an ext e n s i o n of the reed-capsule system o f the crumhorns and hautbois de P o i t o u ; in the 5 We have already seen that the bass poramer l o s t i t s p i rouette sometime in the s i x t e e n t h century. Shi 1 l i p Bate: Op.Cit., p. 32. 7 l b i d . 57 case of the shawm, however, the pl a y e r ' s mouth in co n j u n c t i o n w i t h the g pi rouette forms a wind chamber w i t h i n which the reed i s contained. In both the crumhorn's and shawm's system, a c o n s i s t e n t wind pressure is required to ensure that the reed w i l l speak, and even Bate admits that the shawm's tone i s n e c e s s a r i l y 'loud' and 'sustained'. In h i s Syntagma Musi cum, P r a e t o r i u s , in d e s c r i b i n g the shawm f a m i l y , s t a t e s : "Only the highest d i s c a n t of these instruments i s c a l l e d shawm ( I t a l i a n , p ? f f a r o ; L a t i n , g i n g r i n a , because i t sounds l i k e the c a c k l i n g of a goose — from g i n g i e r , to c a c k l e ) . The [descant] shawm has no keys. " 9 P r a e t o r i u s i s not at a l l s p e c i f i c w i t h respect to the fundamental tones of these instruments, mentioning simply that the shawm's a l i g n themselves a tone higher than the cornets and sackbuts. From t h i s we may conclude that the t r e b l e shawm, the standard s i z e o f the f a m i l y , had a lowest tone of d'. Mersenne a l s o omits mentioning fundamental tones, but does con-cur w i t h P r a e t o r i u s on the shawm's range. Mersenne w r i t e s : "As to the range of the hautbois , each part f o r example, the t r e b l e , produces the f i f t e e n t h . For a f t e r as many na t u r a l tones are made as there are h o l e s , s t i l l others are begun which are more forced and s h r i l l , by i n c r e a s i n g the wind "10 Bate disagrees w i t h t h i s , s t a t i n g that the c o n t r o l ( a l b e i t minimal) that the l i p s e x e r c i s e i s f o r e i g n to the reed-capsule p r i n c i p l e : Op.C i t . , p. 32. Q Michael P r a e t o r i u s : Syntagma Musi cum, I I , t r a n s , by Harold Blumenfeld, N.Y., B a r e n r e i t e r , 1962, p. 37. '^Marin Mersenne: Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e , t r a n s , by R.E. Chap-man, The Hague, 1957, PP- 371-372. 58 Mersenne's e v a l u a t i o n o f the tone o f the shawm i s , perhaps, more l e n i e n t than P r a e t o r i u s ' v e r d i c t . Mersenne admires these instruments f o r "... the great noise that they make and the great harmony that they render, f o r they have the strongest and most v i o l e n t tone o f a l l the instruments, except f o r the trumpet."'' As a r e s u l t o f the instruments' p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e and tone, the shawms were not t r e a t e d as other wind instruments were in the consorts of the s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y seventeenth c e n t u r i e s . In a number o f ways the shawms received s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n : the f a m i l y a l i g n e d i t s e l f in a way that gave the t r e b l e member d i s c a n t p i t c h ; diapason keys were added l i b e r a l l y to increase the downward range o f the instruments (e.g. the. four-keyed t e n o r ) ; and the shawm band, owing to the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y 12 of a s a t i s f a c t o r y f 1 , transposed t h e i r music up one tone. The unusual nature o f the shawm's employment provides a p o i n t o f contention between Anthony Baines and P h i l l i p Bate. Baines s t a t e s e m p h a t i c a l l y that the instrument was "not admitted to the a r t o f c o n s o r t s " , and that the " s i x -13 teenth century shawm was e x c l u s i v e l y a band instrument". Bate, on the other hand, w r i t e s : "From the f i r s t , shawms belonged to the category o f the 'loud music', whether employed indoors 1 1 I b i d . , p. 378. 12 See Anthony Baines: Woodwind Instruments and the i r H is tory , London, Faber and Faber, 3rd e d i t . , 1967, pp. 269-70. 13 I b i d . , p. 268. Baines appears to contradict h imsel f , for he la ter c i t es shawms, cornets and sackbuts as a typ ica l ensemble (p. 271). He apparently d is t inguishes between 'band' and 'consor t ' in a way other modern scholars have not done. or in the open a i r , and although capable of forming an harmonic group or 'whole consort' by themselves, they were e a r l y combined w i t h winds of other s o r t s . It would seem that Bate's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the shawm's use i s more ten-a b l e , f o r Mersenne informs us: "As to t h e i r music, i t i s s u i t a b l e f o r the large ensemble, such as the B a l l e t s (although the v i o l i n s are now used in t h e i r p l a c e ) 5 Baines i s nonetheless c o r r e c t i n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i n s o f a r as the shawm d i d not possess a complete chromatic range, rendering i t s u s e f u l -ness in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h other instruments somewhat r e s t r i c t i v e . A f t e r Mersenne, the hautbois disappears in French t h e o r e t i c a l sources f o r more than s i x t y y ears. The shawm by c.1640 had acquired s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the b a l l e t s , f o r which i t was admirably s u i t e d . The appearance of The S p r i g h t l y Companion, presuambaly by John B a n i s t e r , in 1695, followed in 1700 by Frei 1lan-Poncein's La V e r i t a b l e  Maniere... i n d i c a t e s that a new hautbois, w i t h g r e a t l y modified f e a t u r e s , had superseded the o l d e r shawm in the i n t e r v e n i n g years. The reasons f o r the development of a newer oboe, i n l i g h t of the great p o p u l a r i t y of i t s a n c e s t o r s , are at f i r s t b a f f l i n g . Joseph Marx, however, has a r r i v e d at some i n t e r e s t i n g and most p l a u s i b l e sugges-t i o n s . In h i s a r t i c l e "The tone of the baroque oboe", Marx proposes that the great p o p u l a r i t y of the C h o r i s t - F a g o t t accounts f o r the d e s i r e on 1 i f 0 p . C i t . , p. 28. 15 Mersenne: Op . C i t . , p. 378. 60 the part of French players and makers " t o make so useful and g r a t e f u l a medium as the [ f r e e ] double reed a v a i l a b l e on a t r e b l e instrument".'^ We r e c a l l that as a r e s u l t o f the f r e e reed, the fagot was af f o r d e d great f l e x i b i l i t y . ' 7 Applying these features to the shawm meant that the former p i r o u e t t e mechanism had to be removed. Marx concludes that the i n i t i a l stages of the oboe's remodelling were d i r e c t e d toward the advancement of reed-making techniques, and that only a f t e r the p e r f e c -18 t i o n of t h i s reed was work begun to improve the shawm i t s e l f . It was probably Michel P h i l i d o r who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the 19 development of the new oboe's reed. The a u t h o r i t y f o r t h i s statement 20 i s a l e t t e r w r i t t e n in about 1735 by Michel de l a Barre. De l a Barre claims that the information contained i n t h i s correspondence, concerning a h i s t o r y of the musette, was found in the ar c h i v e s of the Chambre de Comptes. He w r i t e s : "But h i s [ L u l l y ' s ] r i s e brought about the f i n a l downfall o f a l l these o l d e r instruments w i t h the exception o f the oboe, thanks to F i l i d o r [ s i c ] and Hauteterre [ s i c ] ; these men s p o i l e d great q u a n t i t i e s of wood and played great quanties o f music u n t i l they '^Joseph Marx: "The tone of the baroque oboe", Ga l p i n S o c i e t y  J o u r n a l , IV, June, 1951, pp. 9-10. ' 7 l n f r a . Chapter one, footnotes 5 and 6. 1 8 1 b i d . , p. 10. 1 9 1 b I d . , p. 13. 20 The estimates f o r the date of t h i s l e t t e r go as l a t e as 17^0. Marcel Benoit's Musiques de Cour, shows c o n v i n c i n g l y that 1735 i s a more 1ikely date. 61 f i n a l l y succeeded in rendering i t s u i t a b l e f o r con-c e r t s . Since that time, the musettes were l e f t to the shepherds, v i o l i n s , r e c o r d e r s , the oboes and v i o l s t a k i n g t h e i r place f o r the transverse f l u t e d i d not come u n t i l l a t e r . " 2 1 Since both the H o t t e t e r r e ' s and P h i l i d o r ' s were members of French musical dynasties which l a s t e d almost a hundred ye a r s , de l a Barre's statement is of l i t t l e help in p i n p o i n t i n g the time of t h i s important undertaking. An e a r l i e r document, the 'James Talbot Manuscript', i s most h e l p f u l in s p e c i f y i n g such d e t a i l s . In and around 1690, Talbot was compiling data on a great number of instruments, apparently w i t h the idea of p u b l i s h i n g a book or t r e a t i s e in mind. In h i s notes f o r the French hautbois he w r i t e s : "The present Hautbois [ i s ] not kO years o l d and [ i s ] an improvement of the Great French haut-bois which i s l i k e our Weights [ i . e . shawms]." 2 2 According to T a l b o t , t h e r e f o r e , the oboe d i d not appear u n t i l a f t e r 1650. With t h i s information Marx c o n v i n c i n g l y argues that the two men mentioned by de l a Barre were Jean H o t t e t e r r e (d.1678) and Michel P h i l i d o r (d . 1659) . 23 Of these two, H o t t e t e r r e i s known to have been a famous instrument-maker. Marx f u r t h e r concludes: 2 ^ C i t e d in Benoit: Op.C i t . , p. 455-22 Quoted by A. Baines: "James Talbot's Manuscript", Gal pin  S o c i e t y J o u r n a l , I, March, 19^8, p. 14. 2 3 l n h i s T r a i t d de l a Musette (1672), Charles Borjon c i t e s Jean H o t t e t e r r e as being "... a man of unique t a l e n t f o r making a l l kinds of instruments of woodN, iv o r y and ebony... bagpipes, r e c o r d e r s , f l a g e o l e t s , oboes...", (p. 38). "... Michel P h i l i d o r d i d the a c t u a l work on the refinement of the reed and then sought the help of [Jean] H o t t e t e r r e , the best woodturner in the King's s e r v i c e , to c o n s t r u c t an instrument to match i t . " 2 ^ It was in the e a r l y f i f t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , that the new oboe probably was given i t s f i r s t t e n t a t i v e t r i a l s under the d i r e c t i o n of Michel P h i l i d o r and Jean H o t t e t e r r e . The idea behind remodelling the shawm cannot have been t o i n -crease i t s range s u b s t a n t i a l l y . As e a r l y as 1619, P r a e t o r i u s had noted the shawm's a b i l i t y to play more notes than there were h o l e s ; a range of two octaves i s given by Mersenne. The e a r l y t u t o r s of the new oboe do not i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t increment over t h i s range: the James 25 Talbot manuscript l i s t s a range of c' to c 1 " ; F r e i 1 lon-Poncein gives 26 27 a complete chromatic range of c' - d'' 1; and H o t t e t e r r e r e f e r s h i s readers to the d i s c u s s i o n o f the f l u t e to learn the range of the oboe. H o t t e t e r r e ' s f l u t e i s given a range of d' to g 1 1 ' , but the author Includes c' as an a d d i t i o n a l lower tone f o r the oboe. He f u r t h e r l i m i t s the oboe's upper range: "Note that tones above high D [ i . e . d 1 1 1 ] are almost never used."28 Op.Cit., p. 14. 25 Baines: Op.Cit., p. 14 26 La V e r i t a b l e Maniere d'apprendre a jouer en p e r f e c t i o n du  h a u t - b o i s , P a r i s , 1700, p. 11. 27 P r i n c i p e s de l a f l u t e t r a v e r s i e r e . . . et du hautbois, P a r i s , 1707. ~ ~ 2 8 l b i d . p. 72. 6 3 The o l d e r shawm d i d not possess a uniformly s e r v i c e a b l e range. We have already seen that a good f was not a v a i l a b l e to the t r e b l e shawm p l a y e r . At best the shawm was useful in a l i m i t e d number of t o n a l i t i e s . Indeed, in the case of t r e b l e shawms, P r a e t o r i u s suggests that music in the customary keys of C and F should be transposed to G, the best s c a l e on 29 the instrument. We know, f u r t h e r , that the upper range of the shawm 30 was, according to Mersenne, "more forced and s h r i l l " . The new oboe's important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would t h e r e f o r e be in the realm o f dynamics, tone and i n t o n a t i o n ; i t would have a more f l e x i b l e 31 dynamic range, and a much more s e r v i c e a b l e upper r e g i s t e r . The changes required in both oboe and reed c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , were geared to these I d e a l s . In the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the oboe i t s e l f , the bore was made a l i t t l e narrower than as formerly w i t h the t r e b l e shawm. The new oboe was constructed i n three s e c t i o n s , having c h a r a c t e r i s t i c bulges at the two j o i n t s . The f i n g e r holes were made sma l l e r to e n l i v e n the upper r e g i s t e r . Another important change was the lowering of the o v e r a l l p i t c h of the instrument to c', making the keys o f C and F p r a c t i c a b l e . The new oboe had a c'-key at the b e l l - e n d of the bore. Since on the shawm, whose fundamental tone was d', the note f was not useable, i t f o l l o w s 2Q - T i t e d by Bate: Op.Cit., p. 2 9 . It i s curio u s that the musical example f o r e x p l a i n i n g the proper use of shawm provided by Mersenne i s in F. (see p. 3 7 8 ) . 3^See footnote 1 2 . Baines: Op.C i t . , pp. 2 7 7 - 2 7 8 . 64 that on the oboe in c 1 , the tone e ' - f l a t would not be a v a i l a b l e . To a l l e v i a t e the problem an e ' - f l a t key was added, d u p l i c a t e d on both sides 32 of the bore to accommodate both r i g h t - and left-handed p l a y e r s . The oboe, then, was given a f u l l y chromatic range, although c'-sharp was problematic. Frei1lon-Poncein and other e a r l y w r i t e r s s t a t e without h e s i t a t i o n that t h i s note i s p o s s i b l e , through the rather t r i c k y pro-cedure o f h a l f - c l o s i n g the c'-key. In t h i s way the 3 _keyed oboe of the e a r l y eighteenth century was born. The reed, as expl a i n e d e a r l i e r , n e c e s s a r i l y underwent some m o d i f i c a t i o n in the t r a n s i t i o n from shawm to oboe. Although few s p e c i -mens of shawm and e a r l y oboe reeds have s u r v i v e d , there i s s u f f i c i e n t evidence to make c e r t a i n general conclusions about the changes which occurred. The reeds o f the e a r l i e r instrument were somewhat wider at the t i p . Anthony Baines suggests that the newer instrument had a reed which was a good ha 1f-centimeter narrower than the reed of the shawm. The f i r s t recorded measurement o f the width of the new oboe's reed i s provided by James Talbot who c i t e s t h i s as being ( i n i t s modern e q U i -ao v a l e n t ) 9.5 m i l l i m e t e r s . P h i l l i p Bate appears to disagree w i t h Baines' proposal that the shawm's reed was 5 m i l l i m e t e r s w i d e r , f o r he w r i t e s : "... the measurements noted by Dr. Talbot (c.1700) show that in t h e i r dimensions they d i f f e r e d l i t t l e from The l a t e r 18th century d i s c o n t i n u e d the p r a c t i c e of d u p l i -c a t i n g the e ' - f l a t key, sin c e ' l e f t hand above r i g h t ' became standard-i z e d . Thus the three-keyed oboe predates the two-keyed one; 3 3 C i t e d by Baines: Op.Cit. , p. 278. 65 those used with the contemporary shawms. The o p e r a t i v e word in Bate's statement i s 'contemporary'. The change from shawm to oboe was not at a i l sudden, and indeed, the oboe, from i t s debut in the 1650's, underwent c o n t i n u a l refinement. Shawm and oboe, t h e r e f o r e , e x i s t e d s i d e by s i d e f o r a p e r i o d . The present w r i t e r b e l i e v e s i t would be nau t r a l f o r the remaining shawm playe r s to eagerly accept the improvements made in the oboe's reed. In general the reeds were more V-shaped, not u n l i k e the bassoon reed o f today. The width of the reed in r e l a t i o n s h i p to the narrower 35 bore would produce a broader, l e s s i n c i s i v e tone. Another refinement in the new reed was i t s p o s i t i o n i n g on the instrument. Whereas the shawm reed was placed onto a s t a p l e at the top of the instrument, the reed o f the new oboe was assembled w i t h a s t a p l e which, as a u n i t , was 36 i n s e r t e d d i r e c t l y i n t o the instrument i t s e l f . With these a l t e r a t i o n s to both instrument and reed, the new oboe made i t s debut in the b a l l e t 37 o r c h e s t r a o f Jea n - B a p t i s t e L u l l y . Both Henry Prunieres and Joseph 38 Marx b e l i e v e that i t was probably in the 1657 production o f L'Amour Ha lade that the new oboe had i t s f i r s t p u b l i c performance 39 34 J Op.Cit., p. 11. 3 5 1bTd., p. 15. 36 As evidenced in diagrams in Diderot's Encyclopedic, the s t a p l e in the l a t e r eighteenth century was sometimes removed a l t o g e t h e r . 37 Oeurvies Completes de Jean-Baptiste L u l l y , I, I n t r o d u c t i o n . 3 8 0 p . C i t . 39 Jean H o t t e t e r r e and two of h i s sons, N i c o l a s and M a r t i n , are l i s t e d as i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s in the l i v r e t of t h i s b a l l e t . 66 From t h i s i n i t i a l , t e n t a t i v e experiment the oboe knew immediate p o p u l a r i t y . By the end of the seventeenth century i t was one of the premiere wind instrument w i t h an ever-growing r e p e r t o i r e . French v i i — tuosos, such as L o e i l l e t and La Riche (the expert p l a y e r w i t h whom James Talbot c o l l a b o r a t e d ) took the new French i n v e n t i o n abroad. Thus, in the preface to The S p r i g h t l y Companion (1695) J[ohn] B f a n i s t e r ] s t a t e s : "One would wonder the French Hautboy should o b t a i n so great an Esteem in a l l the Courts of C h r i s t e n -dome, as to have the Preference to any other s i n g l e Instrument. Indeed i t looks strange at f i r s t s i g h t : But on the other hand, i f a Man considers the E x c e l -lency and Use of i t , t h i s Wonder w i l l soon v a n i s h . . . . " No doubt, the great admiration which the oboe received was p r i m a r i l y owing to i t s great e x p r e s s i v e range. B a n i s t e r continues: "For besides i t s I n i m i t a b l e charming Sweetness of Sound (when play's [ s i c ] upon) i t i s a l s o M a j e s t i c a l and S t a t e l y , and not much I n f e r i o r to the Trumpet... . "^1 The new oboe was a l s o capable o f q u i e t p l a y i n g : "... a l l that play upon t h i s Instrument, to a reasonable p e r f e c t i o n , know, That w i t h a good Reed i t goes as eas i e and s o f t as the F l u t e [ i . e . r e c o r d e r ] . " ^ 2 We may conclude that the oboe had become a very v e r s a t i l e instrument by c .1670, f o r a f t e r t h i s time, l i k e the v i o l i n , i t was used unsparingly to d e p i c t almost any mood or e f f e c t . Before t h i s date, 40 Quoted by K. G. Evans: I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s f o r the Oboe, 1695-1800, Unpub. Doc. D i s s e r t . , State U. of Iowa, 1963, pp. 120-121. 41 I b i d . , p. 121 . 42 z l b i d . 67 however, i t i s l i k e l y that the oboe retained i t s ancestor's t a s k s ; along with the musettes and shawms, the e a r l y oboe was assigned symphonies de  champetres and scenes de bergers. It i s in these s i t u a t i o n s that we w i l l observe the instrument's i n i t i a l treatment in the o r c h e s t r a of L u l l y 1 s b a l l e t s . The Oboe in L u l l y ' s E a r l y B a l l e t s The oboe was only one of three remodelled woodwinds which were r e g u l a r l y e x p l o i t e d in the dessus parts of L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t music. It i s not u n l i k e l y , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t , along w i t h oboes, recorders and f l u t e s should appear in the same productions at various p o i n t s . More-over, a l l three instruments were most o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i m i l a r i d y l l i c and r u s t i c dramatic a c t i o n . D i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the three instruments i s consequently q u i t e d i f f i c u l t in the event that no i n s t r u -mentation i s s p e c i f i e d . The range o f the dessus p a r t , however, i s o f t e n of help i n these s i t u a t i o n s . The recorders most o f t e n employed, as we s h a l l see in Chapter 4, had f as a fundamental tone. Any part descending below t h i s note in a work r e q u i r i n g woodwinds f o r the dessus l i n e i s intended, no doubt, f o r e i t h e r oboe (fundamental tone o f c') or f l u t e (fundamental tone o f d'). I f t h i s b a l l e t were produced before c .1665 (before which the re-modelled f l u t e was u n a v a i l a b l e ) , i t i s most l i k e l y the dessus i n s t r u -43 The transverse f l u t e , however, does not f i g u r e in the b a l l e t s of the l a t e f i f t i e s and e a r l y s i x t i e s ; see Chapter 3. 44 See Chapter 3. 68 ment required was the oboe. A f u r t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the confusion surrounding the three primary dessus woodwinds of L u l l y ' s o r c h e s t r a i s the names of the p l a y e r s who performed on these instruments. The f i r s t v i r t u o s o s of the r e -modelled oboe were a l s o , almost without e x c e p t i o n , c e l e b r a t e d masters of 45 the recorder. The Hautbois et Musettes de Poitou of the Grande E c u r i e s u p p l i e d the e a r l y b a l l e t s w i t h most of these p e r f o r m e r s . ^ Included in t h i s group were: Francois Pignon d l t Descouteaux, dessus de hautbois  de P o i t o u ; Jean Destouches, t a i l l e de hautbois de P o i t o u ; P i e r r e Piesche, t a ? 1 l e de h a u t b o i s ; and Jean H o t t e t e r r e (co-inventor of the . 2i7 remodelled oboe), dessus de hautbois de P o i t o u . These men appear in at l e a s t nine b a l l e t s o f the period 1657 -1670. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , they do not appear in these productions s o l e l y i n t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s as oboe p l a y e r s . Indeed, P i e r r e Piesche i s l i s t e d in 1664 as a "joueur de f l u s t e o r d i n a i r e de l a Chambre", w h i l e Descouteaux 48 is l i s t e d as a p l a y e r of the "hautbois et f l u s t e o r d i n a i r e " . In the b a l l e t s o f the l a t e f i f t i e s and e a r l y s i x t i e s the two most prominent 45 Indeed Francois Descouteaux was famous f o r h i s a b i l i t y on the t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e , as w e l l as the oboe and r e c o r d e r . See M. Benoit: Op.Cit. 46 It i s odd that the Joueurs de v i o l o n s , hautbois, sacquebouttes  et c o r n e t s , the group that became the Douze Grands Hautbois du Roi under Louis X I I I , do not f i g u r e as i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s in the court b a l l e t s . They were no doubt reserved f o r t h e i r m i l i t a r y and ceremonial f u n c t i o n s . ^ I b i d . , p. 4. 48 I b i d . , p. 11. 69 dessus oboe play e r s appear to be Jean H o t t e t e r r e -- along w i t h h i s sons --and Descouteaux. When these names appear in the 1 i v r e t s o f the b a l l e t s , then, we might expect oboes to appear in the o r c h e s t r a . A f i n a l problem concerning L u l l y ' s use of oboes involves the instruments themselves. A r r i v i n g at the same time as the standard oboe was a tenor instrument, c a l l e d in most French sources the ta ? 11 e de hautboi s, o r simply ta ?1le. This instrument was pitc h e d a f i f t h lower 50 than the normal oboe, having f as i t s lowest note. Baines suggests that the t a i 1 le was most commonly used in a m i l i t a r y capacity;"'' none-t h e l e s s , i t does not appear to have been excluded e n t i r e l y from o r c h e s t r a l usage. JUrgen Eppelsheim, f o r example, has discovered evidence f o r the 52 t a i l i e ' s use in Atys (I676). In t h i s opera, two pa r t s designated f o r oboes descend to g and a, both tones being too low f o r performance on the standard Instrument in c'. In the e a r l y b a l l e t s , too, there i s evidence that the ta?1 l e 53 instrument was in use. In at l e a s t three productions oboes are s p e c i -f i e d w i t h i n a f i v e - p a r t o r c h e s t r a l set-up. In these circumstances, two A f t e r the m i d - s i x t i e s , Descouteaux seems to have devoted most o f h i s time to the transverse f l u t e ; see Chapter 3. "^See Anthony Baines: Op .C i t . , p. 283. 5 ' l b i d . It was used in the Douze Grands Hautbois du R o i . 52 In h i s Das Orchester in den Werken Jean- B a p t i s t e L u l l y s , T u t z i n g , 1961, p. 105. 53 L' Impat ience (1661), t h i r d entre*e; Les Nopces de V i l l a g e (I663), f i r s t e n t r i e ; La Prin c e s s e d ' E l i d e (1664), 3rd number. 70 possib le solut ions present themselves: oboes are Intended only for the dessus par t , the other l ines being performed by other instruments; o r , oboes are responsible for three or more parts in the texture, doubled by v i o l i n s throughout. The la t te r so lu t ion is suggested by the fact that in many cases both the dessus and hautecontre parts are wi th in the com-pass of the oboe in c ' , whi le the t a i 1 l e part l i e s comfortably on the tenor oboe in f . In add i t i on , the oboe and recorder players of the Ecurie are used in large numbers (usual ly f i ve or s i x names). Since It Is un l i ke ly that the orchestrat ion would require s i x oboes on one par t , i t is probable that they arranged themselves in approximately even num-bers throughout the orchest ra . Two s izes of remodelled oboe, therefore, appear to have been explo i ted by Lu l l y in h is ba l l e t o rchest ra . Unl ike the bassoon, the oboe is occas iona l ly spec i f i ed in the product ions. These spec i f i ca t ions appear in two ways: they are e i ther indicated in the score i t s e l f ; or the 1ivret al1udes to the instrument 54 in i t s presentat ion of the drama. For the purposes of th is study, s i tua t ions where oboes are spec i f ied by e i ther of these methods have been almost exc lus ive ly used. In four b a l l e t s , however, musical evidence strongly suggests the use of oboes. These have been included to provide a broader basis for conclusions concerning the oboe's use. The fo l lowing scores have been consulted for th is chapter: Amour Malade (1657); A lc id iane (1658); Impatience (1661); Les Nopces de V i l l age (1663); Amours Dgguisez (1664); La Princesse d ' E l ide (1664) 5 \ s mentioned in the previous chapter, i t has been necessary to re ly heavi ly on secondary l i t e ra tu re for references to the 1.vrets. 71 Les Jeux Pi thiens (1670) and Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (1670). The f i r s t o r c h e s t r a l performance on the remodelled oboe occur-55 red in 1657 in the b a l l e t , L'Amour Malade. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , t h i s 56 occurs near the end o f the pr o d u c t i o n , at the s t a r t of the f i n a l entree. Although no i n d i c a t i o n s o f oboes i s s u p p l i e d i n the score, the 1 i v r e t informs us that i n the entree e n t i t l e d 'Concert champestre de l'Espoux', three H o t t e t e r r e s , Piesche, Descouteaux and Destouches took p a r t . Jean H o t t e t e r r e and Descouteaux, no doubt, performed the dessus part o f the f i v e - p a r t o r c h e s t r a . In G-major, t h i s l i n e i s given a range of g' to b' 1. The hautecontre p a r t , w i t h a range of f - s h a r p to d' 1 i s l i k e l y to have been played on e i t h e r oboes i n c' or tenors i n f. The t h i r d p a r t , how-ever, w i t h a range o f on l y c' - a' would l i e very low on the oboe i n c 1 . Since both Piesche and Destouches appear i n the 1 ? v r e t , both being l i s t e d as t a i 1 l e p i a y e r s i n the accounts o f the Grande E c u r i e , " ^ i t i s not un-reasonable to suppose tenor oboes performed t h i s l i n e . 58 In P r u n i e r e s ' e d i t i o n o f the b a l l e t , the f i r s t four parts are scored f o r ' f l u t e s ' and oboes. I t w i l l be shown in the next chapter that i t i s u n l i k e l y that transverse f l u t e s were a v a i l a b l e at t h i s e a r l y date. ''"'See Joseph Marx: Op.Cit. , p. 14; Henry P r u n i e r e s : Op.Cit., p. 9 9 / 56 Adam Carse: H i s t o r y of O r c h e s t r a t i o n , London, 1925, pp. 70-71. Carse maintains that woodwinds were h a b i t u a l l y employed in the f u l l -^ensembled f i n a l e s o f each Act or production. ^See note 47. eg Oeuvres Completes de L u l l y , Tome 1, p. 98. 72 Moreover the f o u r t h part descends to d (below middle c 1 ) . Since t h i s part o n l y goes as high as d' i t i s probable that i t i s intended f o r e i t h e r bassoons or continuo instruments. No v i o l i n i s t s are mentioned as per-formers i n t h i s number. It i s not impossible that recorders were expect-ed to double the f i r s t three l i n e s w i t h the oboes. However, the f o u r t h p a r t , c ontrary to P r u n i e r e s ' suggestion, i s not s u i t a b l e f o r e i t h e r re-59 corders or oboes. The b a l l e t , A l c i d i a n e of 1658, provides us w i t h no s p e c i f i c references to oboes in e i t h e r score or 1?vret. In the second entree of Part I I I , however, the 1 i v r e t , does i n d i c a t e : " T r o i s bergers, et autant de bergeres... font avec p l u s i e u r s autres un Concert Rustique, auquel un choeur de F l u s t e s et de p l u s i e u r s autres instrumens respondent.... "60 Included as i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s at t h i s p o i n t are three H o t t e t e r r e s , Des-couteaux, two Destouches and Piesche. It i s q u i t e obvious that r e c o r -ders are required here; but the range of the f i v e p a r ts suggests the p o s s i b l e i n c l u s i o n o f oboes. In g-minor, the f i r s t l i n e i s given a range of g' to b ' ' - f l a t , a compass s u i t a b l e to both recorders i n f and oboes i n c 1 . The second l i n e e x h i b i t s a range of e 1 to d " ; t h i s would r e q u i r e performance on a tenor recorder in c' or an oboe in c'. The tenor l i n e however descends It i s u n l i k e l y that a contrabass recorder in C i s expected to perform here. The part i s too low f o r the standard bass recorder in f. ^°Henry P r u n i e r e s : Op.Cit., Tome I I I , p. 28 in the f a c s i m i l e o f the l i v r e t o f A l c i d i a n e . 73 to g , too low f o r any r e c o r d e r o t h e r than the b a s s in f . T h i s l i n e , t h o u g h , l i e s n i c e l y on the t a i l l e de h a u t b o i s . It i s the range o f t h i s t h i r d l i n e w h i c h s u g g e s t s the i n c l u s i o n o f o b o e s , s i n c e p e r f o r m i n g m u s i c f o r a b a s s r e c o r d e r on the p a r t marked t a i 1 l e i s u n l i k e l y . T h i s entre"e i n c l u d e s two more p i e c e s marked " p o u r l e s mesmes": an A i r , and a G a v o t t e . Both s e l e c t i o n s m a i n t a i n the t o n a l i t y o f g - m i n o r and b o t h r e p r o d u c e the same p r o b l e m s o f range in the t h i r d p a r t o f the f i v e - p a r t o r c h e s t r a . It wou ld seem l i k e l y t h a t the o r c h e s t r a t i o n , and hence the use o f oboes i s i m p l i e d by m u s i c a l e v i d e n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e b a l l e t . A l c i d i a n e i s c o n c l u d e d by two c h a c o n n e s . The f i r s t , w h i c h a l s o s e r v e s as a r i t o u r n e l l e f o r the f i n a l r e c i t , i s a t h r e e - p a r t ' P e t i t e C h a c o n n e ' . The s e c o n d i s a l a r g e f i v e - p a r t ' C h a c o n n e des M a u r e s ' . In -asmuch as b o t h numbers a r e o f s u b s t a n t i a l l e n g t h , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t h a t some v a r i e t y in i n s t r u m e n t a l c o l o u r i s r e q u i r e d . It i s p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e t h r e e - p a r t c h a c o n n e i s i n t e n d e d f o r w o o d -. . 61 w i n d s . Both d e s s u s p a r t s in the ' P e t i t e C h a c o n n e ' a r e g i v e n e x t e n s i v e r a n g e s : the f i r s t , a compass o f e ' t o c " 1 ; and the s e c o n d , one o f g ' -s h a r p t o c ' ' ' . S i n c e the f i r s t d e s s u s l i n e o v e r - s t e p s the range o f the normal d e s s u s r e c o r d e r in f , t h e woodwinds r e q u i r e d must be o b o e s . It i s no t i m p o s s i b l e , o f c o u r s e , t h a t s t r i n g s , r a t h e r than w o o d w i n d s , a r e Henry P r u n i e r e s (Op.C ? t . , f o r n e i t h e r o f t h e s e c h a c o n n e s . Tome II) p r o v i d e s o r c h e s t r a t i o n 74 d e s i r e d in the ' P e t i t e Chaconne'. Since oboes have been shown to take part elsewhere in the b a l l e t , however, the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the i n s t r u -ment's s o n o r i t y at the end of the work, where large instrumental f o r c e s are t r a d i t i o n a l l y employed, would not be s u r p r i s i n g . The B a l l e t de 1'Impatience was produced in 1661 to replace the planned premiere of C a v a l l i ' s opera E r c o l e Amante which was not yet ready fo r s t a g i n g . The t h i r d en t r i e , on page 57 in P h i l i d o r ' s score i s sub-t i t l e d '8 c h e v a l i e r s dansant sans v i o l l o n s 1 . The e x c l u s i o n of s t r i n g s , of course, re q u i r e s a performance on wind instruments -- e i t h e r r e c o r -ders, oboes or both. The top four l i n e s of the f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g a l i g n themselves in the f o l l o w i n g way: Part C l e f Range dessus g l g' - b' ' - f l a t hautecontre c l e' - d' 1 t a i l l e c2 b - f l a t - a' q u i n t e c3 c - e ' - f l a t As was the case in the examples observed in A l c t d i a n e , the tenor r e c o r -der i n c' i s not capable of p l a y i n g the t a i 1 l e p a r t . Again a s s i g n i n g the top three l i n e s to two oboes in c' and in f solves the problem. It i s l i k e l y that the Quinte l i n e was played by a bassoon. The b a l l e t , Les Nopces de V i l l a g e of 1663, provides our f i r s t encounter w i t h 'oboes' being s p e c i f i e d in the 1?vret, but not the score. In the very f i r s t entre"e of the work (that i s , a f t e r the ouverture and i n t r o d u c t o r y re"ci t ) , the b r i d e and groom, around whose marriage the a c t i o n i s based, make t h e i r entrance. Charles S i l i n , a pparently con-s u l t i n g the 1 i v r e t r e l a t e s : "The Bride and Groom, conducted by v i o l i n s and oboes, 75 y ,62 are the f i r s t to a r r i v e at the place of assembly." Indeed, included as i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s f o r t h i s entree are: four Hotte-6'? t e r r e s [!], Descouteaux, Destouches and Piesche. The d i s t r i b u t i o n and ranges of t h i s f i v e - p a r t work presents us w i t h alignments which are somewhat d i f f e r e n t from those thus f a r observed: Part C l e f Range dessus gl d 1 - b 1' hautecontre c l b - e 1 1 t a i 1 l e c2 g - b' quinte c3 d - e' Of e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t here i s the hautecontre l i n e which descends below middle c' to b - n a t u r a l . H i t h e r t o , i t has been p o s s i b l e to a s c r i b e the hautecontre part to e i t h e r the oboe in c' or the t a ? 1 l e in f. This example makes i t c l e a r , however, that i n most cases the second l i n e i n a f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g f o r oboes i s intended f o r the t a ? 1 l e de hautbois. A large number — 70% — of the f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g s using oboes e x p l o i t e d a range of d' to e " on the hautecontre p a r t . The e x t e n s i v e range i n t h i s example i s somewhat unusual. The use of the same s i z e of i n s t r u -ment on both t a i 1 l e and hautecontre p a r t s , however, i s a t r a d i t i o n which goes back at l e a s t as f a r as Mersenne. Tenor oboes and f l u t e s , f o r ex-ample, were used on hautecontre and t a ? 1 l e parts in t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e whole consorts (see Chapters 3 and 4 ) . The tenor oboe would a l s o per-62 Charles S i l i n : Benserade and h i s B a l l e t s de Cour, Johns Hopkins P r e s s , Maryland, 1940, p. 324. 6 3 . b i d . 76 form the part marked taM_l_e_ wh I ch, i n t h i s i n stance, i s given a range of g - b'. The large number of woodwind i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s in t h i s e n t ree, of course, makes i t very u n l i k e l y that oboes would be used on only the dessus 1ine. Just before t h i s entre*e in Les Nopces de V i l l a g e , an i n t r o -ductory rec? t i s accompanied by a three-part r i t o u r n e l l e scored f o r two dessus and one bass instrument. This r i t o u r n e l l e i s described as a " r u s t i c harmony" and involves the wind players of the f i r s t errtr_ee_ des-c r i b e d a b o v e . ^ The f i r s t dessus i s given a rather e x t e n s i v e range of g' to c ' ' 1 , w h i l e the second i s given one of f - s h a r p to a " . This short number, l i k e the entree which f o l l o w s i t , i s in the key of G-major. In the s i x t h entrde of Amours Dgguisez (1664), a s i t u a t i o n where the range of the parts in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the performers involved once more suggests the use of oboes. The f i r s t four parts of the f i v e -part Concert de Bergers (p. 36 in P h i l i d o r ' s score) presents the f o l l o w -ing arrangement: Part C l e f Range dessus g l g' - g 1 ' hautecontre c l d' - d' 1 t a i 1 l e c2 a - a' q u i n t e c3 d - d ' A large number of performers took part in t h i s entre"e, i n c l u d i n g : Piesche; Descouteaux; three H o t t e t e r r e s ; Destouches; Besson; Le P e i n t r e ; Le Roux afne"; C h a r i o t ; Henge*; La R i v i e r e ; Roule"; Huguenet; I b i d . 77 Le G r a i s ; Marchand; Laquaisse and La F o n t a i n . ^ 5 The s p e c i f i c a t i o n of s i x woodwind play e r s suggests they were used on more than one p a r t . Owing to the ranges of the middle p a r t s , t h e r e f o r e , oboes appear to be l i k e l y p a r t i c i p a n t s in t h i s entre*e. According to Ju'rgen E p p e l s h e i m ^ , the 'Marche du Dieu Pan 1 from La P r i n c e s s e d ' E l i d e of 1664 represents the f i r s t time oboes are a c t u a l l y s p e c i f i e d in a work by L u l l y . We have already seen, however, that in 1663 Les Nopces de V i l l a g e s p e c i f i e d the instrument in the 1?v- r e t . As noted in the l a s t chapter, the t i t l e of t h i s entre"e in P h i l i -dor's score — CP Re's. F531 " i s 'March de Hautbois pour l e Dieu Pan'. The f i v e - p a r t o r c h e s t r a a l i g n s i t s e l f as f o l l o w s : Part C l e f Range dessus g l g' - b'' hautecontre c l d 1 - e'' t a i 1 l e c2 g - a' qu i n t e c3 d - e' basse f l D - c' By f o l l o w i n g the e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n , we may a s c r i b e oboes i n c' to the dessus p a r t , tenor oboes in f to the hautecontre and tai 1 1e p a r t s , and 67 bassoons w i t h continuo parts to the q u i n t e and basse. The present w r i t e r was unable to f i n d reference to the i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s l i s t e d i n the 1 i v r e t o f t h i s b a l l e t . Since oboes are s p e c i f i e d in the score, how-however, we may assume that H o t t e t e r r e , Descouteaux et a l p a r t i c i p a t e d . 65 Of these Besson, Le P e i n t r e , Le Roux, La R i v i e r e , Roule*, Huguenet, Le G r a i s , Marchand, Laquaisse and La Fontaine were v i o l i n i s t s . cc Op.Cit. , pp. 104-105. ^ 7See Chapter 1 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the bassoon's use i n t h i s b a l l e t . 78 Oboes are once more s p e c i f i e d in Les Jeux P i t h i e n s of 1670. A vocal number from t h i s b a l l e t 'Jouissons des P l a i s i r s 1 , i s to be found on pages 118V-119V of P h i l i d o r ' s score — CF Ris. F657. On the preceding page the f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s are w r i t t e n : "Les f l u t e s les hautbois et les v i o l o n s Jou'ent l ' a i r qui s u i t avant q u ' i l se chante." The a i r Is In three p a r t s , in the key of g-minor. It i s q u i t e c l e a r that i t i s intended f o r two dessus parts and a bass, but the arrangement of the three parts does not f o l l o w the normal t r i o p a t t e r n : the second part Is given a c - c l e f on the f i r s t l i n e . T h i s , of course, i s the nor-mal c l e f f o r a hautecontre p a r t . The ranges of the two upper p a r t s --g' to f ' and d - d 1 ' r e s p e c t i v e l y -- coupled w i t h the three-part s e t -t i n g , s t r o n g l y suggests that two groups of dessus instruments are nece-68 ssary. The abnormality of the c ' c l e f can be explained by the f a c t that the two upper parts are texted. It i s l i k e l y , moreover, that the i n s t r u -ments would double the voices when the l a t t e r entered the t e x t u r e . Immediately f o l l o w i n g 'Jouissons des P l a i s i r s ' i s a s i x - p a r t Pre"!ude i n g-minor. The 'e x t r a ' v o i c e i n t h i s instrumental work i s an a d d i t i o n a l dessus p a r t . Since oboes were s p e c i f i e d in the preceding number, i t i s most probable that they should be included in the Pre"!ude. This number provides an i n t e r e s t i n g example of L u l l y ' s use of c o n c e r t a t o technique; the music a l t e r n a t e s between s i x - and three-part t e x t u r e s , the t r i o s e c t i o n s being set f o r two dessus instruments and a bass. In Since the second part descends to d', the f l u t e s required here are probably of the transverse type. This w i l l be discussed in the next chapter. 79 the l a s t nine bars of the work — a t u t t i s e c t i o n — the two dessus voices merge i n t o one. The range of the f i r s t dessus_ i s g 1 to b M - f l a t ; that of the second i s g' to a 1 1 . The f i r s t part i s given much more prominence than the second, although both l i n e s are featured in the t r i o s e c t i o n s -- bars 3-6, 10, 13, 17-19, 26-28 and 34. Since the o r c h e s t r a t i o n o f t r i o s i s probably the same as that of the preceding number, we may assume that v i o l i n s and transverse f l u t e s performed the dessus l i n e along w i t h oboes. The f i n a l score to be consulted in t h i s chapter i s that f o r Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme of 1670. A f i v e - p a r t menuet i s followed by a menuet i n t r i o on pages 92r-93r of P h i l i d o r ' s score (CP Re's. F657). The 69 l a t t e r has been c i t e d as L u l l y ' s f i r s t use of the oboe t r i o . It i s in t h i s format — a c o n t r a s t i n g t r i o s e c t i o n w i t h i n a t u t t i o r c h e s t r a l context — that the oboe was to re c e i v e i t s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c use at the hands o f such composers as P u r c e l l , S c a r l a t t i and Handel. 7^ The f i r s t menuet proper of t h i s number most l i k e l y d i d not i n -clude the s o l o oboes o f the t r i o . The two dessus voices of the second menuet a l i g n themselves as f o l l o w s : Part C l e f Range dessus I g l a' - b " - f l a t dessus II g l g' - g 1 ' Another part of Bourgeois Gentilhomme, before the menuet, pre-sents an i n t e r e s t i n g approach to a l t e r n a t i o n of instrumental s o n o r i t i e s . ^ S e e Jurgen Eppelsheim: Op,Ci t . p. 105. 7^See Carse: Op.C? t . p. 76. 80 A s e r i e s of r£cits i s i n t e r r u p t e d by r i t o u r n e l l e s from pages 68v through 71r. The three-part r? t o u r n e l l e s , however, appear to a l t e r n a t e between s t r i n g s and winds. The f i r s t of four r i t o u r n e l l e s has no s p e c i f i e d Ins-trumentation; the second i s c a r e f u l l y marked v i o l Ions; the t h i r d again has no i n d i c a t i o n , w h i l e the f o u r t h i s once more intended f o r v i o l Ions. We may i n f e r from t h i s set-up that wind players are required f o r the f i r s t and t h i r d r e p e t i t i o n s . Oboes, s i n c e they are known to have been used in the b a l l e t , are l i k e l y to have p a r t i c i p a t e d . The f i r s t dessus part of the i n i t i a l r i t o u r n e l l e has a range of b' to a " ; the second dessus, one of a' to a " . The t h i r d r i t o u r - nel l e presents the same ranges. It i s obvious that by 1670 L u l l y was well-aware of the c o l o u r i s t i c p o t e n t i a l of the remodelled oboe. It has been shown t h a t , although i t was used q u i t e r e g u l a r l y , the oboe was reserved f o r a r a t h e r small number of s i t u a t i o n s : as a c o l o u r instrument i n some t r i o s and o r c h e s t r a l numbers; and more u s u a l -l y w i t h i n the context o f i t s t r a d i t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h bergers and scenes de champetre. I t s p o t e n t i a l does not seem to be explored to the same degree as was that of the bassoon's. Within the l i m i t s of i t s stereotyped t a s k s , however, the oboe was given parts of c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i e t y to perform. The instrument was expected to play w i t h i n the normal f i v e -part s t r i n g o r c h e s t r a , doubling the three upper p a r t s . The c l e a r e s t example of t h i s p r a c t i c e observed i n the scores occurred in Les Nopces  de V? 1 lage (1663): the f i r s t entre"e, we r e c a l l , was s p e c i f i e d f o r both v i o l i n s and oboes. The oboe's use w i t h i n a f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g was not r e s t r i c t e d to doubling s t r i n g s : in L' Impatience (1661) the t h i r d entre*e 81 was e n t i t l e d '8 C h e v a l i e r s d a n s a n t sans v i o l o n s ' . The oboes most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c u s e , h o w e v e r , seems t o be w i t h i n the f ramework o f the t r i o . The i n s t r u m e n t in t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t p e r f o r m e d in r i t o u r n e l l e s to re"c i t s , as in bo th Les Nopces du V i l l a g e ( a f t e r the O u v e r t u r e ) and Le B o u r g e o i s Gent i lhomme (1670 - p p . 68v and 7 0 v ) ; i t p l a y e d t r i o s e c t i o n s in p u r e l y i n s t r u m e n t a l numbers s u c h as the menuet w i t h t r i o i n Le B o u r g e o i s G e n t i l h o m m e . In L e s J e u x P i t h i e n s i t was o b -s e r v e d t h a t t h e oboe d o u b l e d t h e v o c a l l i n e s o f a sung r g c i t • The o b o e , f o r t h e most p a r t , was u s e d by L u l l y in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the s t r i n g o r c h e s t r a . In a d d i t i o n i t was c o n s i s t e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r w o o d w i n d s , e s p e c i a l l y the r e c o r d e r s . We have o b s e r v e d a number o f o c c a s i o n s , n o t a b l y t h e s e c o n d e n t r e e o f P a r t III i n A l c i d i a n e , where oboes and r e c o r d e r s were p r o b a b l y used t o g e t h e r . T h i s p r a c t i c e s t e m s , o f c o u r s e , f rom the f a c t t h a t the p e r f o r m e r s on t h e e a r l y o b o e s were i n i t i a l l y r e c o r d e r p l a y e r s . In L e s J e u x P i t h i e n s , we a l s o o b s e r v e d oboes and t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e s used i n t h e same number ( ' J o u i s s o n s des P l a i s i r s ' ) . The range o f the oboe was e x t e n s i v e l y e x p l o i t e d by L u l l y - -f rom d ' t o c " 1 ( e . g . L e s Nopces de V i l l a g e ) ; we r e c a l l t h a t , as l a t e as 1700, F r e i 1 l o n - P o n c e i n gave t h e u s u a l range o f the oboe as c ' t o d ' ' ' . Of the f i f t e e n i n s t a n c e s o f oboe t r e a t m e n t o b s e r v e d , s e v e n were i n f l a t k e y s , s i x were i n s h a r p keys ( i n c l u d i n g two s e l e c t i o n s f r o m Le B o u r g e o i s  Gent?Ihomme i n D - m a j o r ) , and two were i n n a t u r a l k e y s . From t h e s e s t a -t i s t i c s we may c o n c l u d e t h a t the i n t o n a t i o n and t u n i n g p r o b l e m s o f the e a r l i e r shawm had been a l l e v i a t e d in the r e m o d e l l e d o b o e . 82 It must f i n a l l y be re i tera ted that both the dessus oboe in c ' and the ta?1le in f were employed by L u l l y . The tenor has been shown to have performed both the hautecontre and t a i 1 l e parts of L u l l y ' s f i v e -part orchest ra . In three-part se t t i ngs , on the other hand, only the oboe in c ' was required. L u l l y ' s use of the oboe was rather methodical; i t s performance in stereotyped s i tua t ions no doubt determined th is fa te . Nonetheless, Lu l l y was the f i r s t to explore the p o s s i b i l i t y of i t s use in the orches-t ra l idiom, and his development of the oboe t r i o a f te r Its f i r s t use in Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme of 1670 establ ished a pattern which was to be explo i ted extensively throughout the next century. CHAPTER I I I THE FLUTE As was the case w i t h the oboe, by the e a r l y seventeenth cen-tury the f l u t e was a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d instrument w i t h a very long t r a -d i t i o n . Of a l l European woodwinds, the f l u t e has, perhaps, the longest h i s t o r y . That the f l u t e was one of the l a s t woodwinds to r e c e i v e r e -modelling at the hands of the French instrument-makers' may be a t t r i b u -ted to the f a c t t h a t , beforehand, t h i s instrument's s t r u c t u r e and func-t i o n s were wel1-standardized. Another reason f o r the l a t e r date of the f l u t e ' s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s the d i f f i c u l t y which Hotteterre:and h i s c i r c l e apparently encountered in t h i s undertaking. Baines notes that the new f l u t e was the l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l of a l l the woodwind remodel l i n g s because 2 i t "... was the hardest to play r e a l l y w e l l , and i n tune". The problems we have already observed surrounding the use of the term, hautbois, are s e v e r e l y magnified in the case of the name, f l Q t e . Not only does f1ute serve to i n d i c a t e both the o l d e r and newer forms o f the instrument in French sources, but i t i s a l s o the name of an instrument of an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t species -- the recorder. Knowing what instrument i s r e f e r r e d to by " f 1 u t e " , e s p e c i a l l y in seventeenth-century sources, i s f r e q u e n t l y very d i f f i c u l t . The d i f f i c u l t y i s com-We have seen i n the previous chapter that a l e t t e r by LaBarre r e f e r r i n g to various woodwinds, s t a t e s : "La f l u t e t r a v e r s i e r e n'est venue qu' apre*s..." This w i l l be t r e a t e d in more d e t a i l below. 2 Anthony Baines: Woodwind Instruments and t h e i r H i s t o r y . London, Faber and Faber, 3rd e d i t . , 1967, p. 291. 8k pounded by v i r t u e o f the f a c t that the twentieth-century musician recog-n i z e s " f l u t e " as the transverse type in common p r a c t i c e ; the seven-teenth-century musicians, on the other hand, most o f t e n i n t e r p r e t e d " f l u t e " as the instrument of the recorder v a r i e t y . Before attempting to decipher the c o m p l e x i t i e s o f the term f1ute, we w i l l t r a c e the deve-lopment of the instrument of the transverse type. The transverse f l u t e entered the e a r l y seventeenth century in 3 a f a m i l y of three b a s i c s i z e s : a d i s c a n t , an a l t o or tenor , and a bass. These instruments had uniformly c y l i n d r i c a l bores, s i x f i n g e r h o l e s , and a mouth hole across which the play e r ' s breath was d i r e c t e d to i n i t i a t e sound v i b r a t i o n s along the length of the bore. With the exception of the bass , the f l u t e s were made in one s e c t i o n , u s u a l l y o f boxwood. The i r sound was apparently loud and c l e a r , of ex t e n s i v e range, and, according to Baines"', s u i t a b l e f o r outdoors use. The instrument was, t h e r e f o r e , exceedingly s i m p l i s t i c Jn i t s s t r u c t u r e , a f a c t which, no doubt, accounts f o r the consistency o f the data on f l u t e s provided by w r i t e r s of the s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y seventeenth c e n t u r i e s . P r a e t o r i u s ' d i s c u s s i o n o f the f l u t e i n h i s De Organographia of 1619 i s so short that i t may be quoted in i t s e n t i r e t y here: "The Cross F l u t e ( I t a l i a n , t r a v e r s a or f i f f a r o ) has The middle s i z e o f the f l u t e f a m i l y played both a l t o and tenor parts in a fo u r - p a r t consort. Z, The bass f l u t e was o f t e n made in two s e c t i o n s . See Anthony Baines: Op.Cit., p. 2 50 . 5 I b i d . Baines mentions, in a d d i t i o n , that the sound in the upper r e g i s t e r was q u i t e "harsh". 85 s i x holes in f r o n t and none in back. It produces f i f t e e n n a t u r a l tones and four f a l s e t t o tones ^ besides, thus nineteen in a l l , j u s t as the c o r n e t . " Mersenne provides a much more s u b s t a n t i a l d i s c u s s i o n of the f l u t e in P r o p o s i t i o n IX of the F i f t h Book of h i s Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e . He makes s p e c i a l note of the f l u t e ' s c y l i n d r i c a l bore: " I t i s d r i l l e d w i t h equal th i c k n e s s a l l the way, which does not happen in a l l s o r t s of Chalumeaus, as I s h a l l say elsewhere, and t h i s thickness i s of e i g h t 1ines."7 Mersenne de s c r i b e s and diagrams one f l u t e in some d e t a i l ; from the dimensions he s u p p l i e s a length of 23i inches -- i t may be deduced that he i s r e f e r r i n g to a tenor f l u t e . Of t h i s instrument he w r i t e s : 8 " t h i s f l u t e serves as t r e b l e in the p a r t s . . . " Mersenne, a f t e r s t a t i n g that the range of the f l u t e i s two and a h a l f octaves, shows a rather confusing t a b l a t u r e which gives the f l u t e ' s lowest note as g (below mid-d l e c ' ) . The o r d i n a r y number o f the f a m i l y — the tenor f l u t e -- has d', and not g, as a fundamental. C u r i o u s l y , i t i s the bass f l u t e which has g f o r a lowest note; i t i s d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n why Mersenne should show the range o f a bass f l u t e when h i s d i s c u s s i o n concerns the tenor. A second t a b l a t u r e and f i n g e r i n g c h a r t , however, does show the tenor Michael P r a e t o r i u s : Syntagma Musicum, I I : De Organographia, t rans. by Ha ro1d B1umen fe1d, N.Y., B a r e n r e i t e r , 1962, p. 35. There i s a subsequent paragraph d e s c r i b i n g the Swiss, f i f e . 7 M a r i n Mersenne: Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e , t r a n s , by Roger E. Chapman, The Hague, 1957, Book 5, Prop. IX, p. 310. The modern e q u i -valent of the bore's diameter i s approximately 18mm. 86 f l u t e ' s range as d' - g' 1', one tone less than the 'nineteenth' Mer-9 senne suggests in h i s t e x t . Although mention i s made of the transverse f l u t e in subsequent years of the seventeenth century, no a d d i t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l data i s made a v a i l a b l e u n t i l c l o s e to 1700. Most modern s c h o l a r s concur t h a t , as was the case w i t h the oboe, a group of P a r i s i a n wood-turners and instrument-makers e f f e c t e d e x t e n s i v e remodel l i n g s of the tenor f l u t e sometime before 10 the end of the seventeenth century. It i s an Englishman -- James T a l -bot — however, who gives us our f i r s t look at the remodelled f l u t e . " ' 12 Sometime around 1690, Talbot describes an instrument in three s e c t i o n s , w i t h s i x f i n g e r h o l e s , and one keyed hole f o r the note, d'-sharp. In 1707 the f i r s t published t u t o r to d i s c u s s the remodelled f l u t e appears: Jacques-Martin H o t t e t e r r e ' s P r i n c i p e s de l a F l u t e T r a v e r s i e r e , ou F l u t e  D'Allemagne, de l a F l u t e a bee, ou f l u t e douce, et du haut-bois. The i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the f l u t e i n t h i s t r e a t i s e show an instrument w i t h a tape r i n g bore, and much more ela b o r a t e turnery in i t s outward appearance. We may conclude from sources of the l a t e seventeenth and e a r l y eighteenth c e n t u r i e s , together w i t h extant instruments from that p e r i o d , 9 Ibid p. 311. 10 See, f o r example Baines: Op .C ? t . ; P h i l l i p Bate: The F l u t e , London, Benn ; 1969. 11 See Baines: 'James Talbot's Manuscript", Gal p i n Soc. J . I, March, 1948. 12 According to Bate: Op .C i t . p. 84. 87 t h a t t he f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s a p p e a r e d on t h e f l u t e be tween I636 and C . I 6 9 O : an i n v e r s e l y c o n i c a l b o r e r e p l a c e d t h e o l d e r c y l i n d r i c a l o n e ; a c l o s e d d ' - s h a r p key a p p e a r e d ; t h e i n s t r u m e n t was c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h r e e o r f o u r s e c t i o n s i n s t e a d o f i n one p i e c e as f o r m e r l y ; and t he n a t u r a l s c a l e o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t was D, s h o w i n g t h a t t h e o l d e r a l t o / t e n o r f l u t e 13 was c o n s i d e r e d most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r r e m o d e l l i n g . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t no t t he e n t i r e l e n g t h o f t h e new f l u t e ' s b o r e was c o n i c a l . The head j o i n t , p r o b a b l y i n i m i t a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y r e c o r d e r s , r e -14 mained c y l i n d r i c a l . The c o n i c a l shape o f t h e r e s t o f t h e b o r e had a f l a t t e n i n g e f f e c t on t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s p i t c h ; as a r e s u l t , t h e f i n g e r -h o l e s c o u l d be d r i l l e d s l i g h t l y c l o s e r t o g e t h e r , r e d u c i n g t h e s t r e t c h f o r t he h a n d s . The t o n a l e f f e c t s o f t h e r e m o d e l l i n g a r e w e l l s u m m a r i -zed by B a i n e s , who w r i t e s : " W i t h t h i s b o r e t h e t o n e becomes p u r e r , f r e e f r om f i f e - l i k e s h r i l l n e s s . . . . " ' " ' The ' s w e e t e r ' s o n o r i t y ' * * o f t h e new f l u t e w a s , no d o u b t , most p r o n o u n c e d t o t h e g e n e r a t i o n f i r s t e n c o u n t e r i n g i t . The f l u t e r e c e i v e d s t e r e o t y p e d t r e a t m e n t - - u s u a l l y i n t h e s c S n e s de sommei l o f d r a m a t i c p r o d u c t i o n s . ' 7 B e s i d e s a s s u m i n g t h i s s t e r e o t y p e d u s a g e , t h e employment o f f l u t e s was f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d by c e r t a i n d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h a t i n s t r u -' J S e e B a t e : O p . C i t . , p . 7 7 ; and Adam C a r s e : M u s i c a l Wind  I n s t r u m e n t s , L o n d o n , M a c M i l l a n and C o . , 1939, P P - 8 4 - 8 5 . 14 See B a t e : O p . C 1 1 . , p . 7 7 . ' 5 0 p . C ? t . , p . 2 9 0 . ' S a t e : O p . C i t . , p . 8 0 . ' 7 S e e Henry P r u n i e r e s : " L u l l y e t 1 'Ope*ra F r a n c a i s " La Revue  M u s i c a l e , Num^ro S p e c i a l , 1 9 2 5 , p . kO. 88 ment. The c o n i c a l bore of the newer design — the f e a t u r e which r e s u l t -ed i n the f l u t e ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o n o r i t y — a l s o r e s u l t e d in q u i t e s e r -ious i n t o n a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g tones on the e a r l y remodel-led f l u t e were o f t e n so bad as to be unusable: b ' - f l a t -- too sharp; g'-sharp and g''-sharp — both sharp, e s p e c i a l l y the lower; f - s h a r p 18 and f ' - s h a r p — j u s t s l i g h t l y f l a t ; and f and f 1 -- q u i t e sharp. Indeed, the new f l u t e seems to have had not a s i n g l e good f - n a t u r a l throughout i t s range; H o t t e t e r r e , in the f i n g e r i n g - c h a r t of h i s Pr?n- c i pes... , omits high f ' 1 , although f M '-sharp and g 1 1 ' are given f i n g e r -ings. In s h o r t , the best keys f o r the new f l u t e were G and D major. Carse maintains: Despite the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by t h i s f a u l t y i n t o n a t i o n , the f l u t e s increased t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y w i t h a s t o n i s h i n g r a p i d i t y a f t e r t h e i r i n t r o -duction to the French instrumental ensembles. in France i s a matter of c o n s i d e r a b l e controversy. T h e o r e t i c a l sources l a c k i n g , we are forced to r e l y , f o r the most p a r t , on l e t t e r s and 'second-hand' i n f o r m a t i o n . We have already made reference to a l e t t e r of Michel de l a Barre in the previous chapter. We r e c a l l that de l a Barre, w r i t i n g in about 1730, was r e f e r r i n g to the d e c l i n e of the musette during the 11 Provided they were not c a l l e d upon to play i n keys very remote from the foundation key of D, they e v i d e n t l y s a t i s f i e d the p l a y e r s and composers of An accurate d a t i n g o f the remodelled f l u t e ' s f i r s t appearance 18 See Baines: Op.Cit. , pp. 291-292. 19 Carse: Op.Cit. p. 87. 8 9 time o f L u l l y . He s t a t e s in p a r t : "Since that time the musettes were l e f t to the shepherds; v i o l i n s , r e c o r d e r s , theorboes and v i o l s t a k i n g t h e i r p l a c e , f o r the transverse f l u t e d i d n ' t come t i l l l a t e r . " 2 0 21 Modern s c h o l a r s have drawn h e a v i l y on t h i s statement to date the f l u t e ' s appearance at c.1670. P h i l l i p Bate, adds that even Quantz, i n h i s Versuch e i n e r Anweisung d ie F l u t e T r a v e r s i e r e zu s p i e l e n of 1752, was un c e r t a i n as to the time and place of the remodelled f l u t e ' s appear ance. Quantz w r i t e s : "The exact time when t h i s improvement was made, and who i t s o r i g i n a t o r was, cannot be f i x e d w i t h c e r t a i n t y , although I have spared no pains to di s c o v e r r e l i a b l e answers. In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y the improvement was made le s s than a century ago; i t was no doubt, undertaken i n France at the same time that the shawm was developed i n t o the oboe, and the bombard i n t o the bas s o o n . " 2 2 Quantz' statement c e r t a i n l y does not c o n t r a d i c t Bate's estimate of c.1670. Bate, however, seems to ignore important information i n La Barre's l e t t e r , i nformation which when analyzed, suggests h i s date o f 1670 should be advanced. I f , indeed, the f l u t e was remodelled at the same time as the oboe, then Bate's date may be pushed back by as much as ten to f i f t e e n y e a r s , and s t i l l f a l l w i t h i n the hundred year l i m i t suggested by Quantz. Let us return to La Barre's l e t t e r . C i t e d in EcorchevI1le: "Quelques documents sur l a musique de La Grande E c u r i e du R o i " , S.I-M.G., V o l . I I , 1900-1901, p. 633-? 1 Notably Adam Carse: Op.Cit. and P h i l l i p Bate: Op.Cit. 22 J . J . Quantz: On P l a y i n g the F l u t e , t r a n s , by E. R. R e i l l y , London, Faber and Faber, 1966, p. 3 0 , paragraph 5. 90 In reference to the o l d e r musette's disappearance from the normal ensemble, La Barre r e l a t e s : "... the v i o l i n s , r e c o r d e r s , theorboes and v i o l s took t h e i r p l a c e , f o r the tra n s v e r s e f l u t e d i d not come t i l l l a t e r . It was P h i l b e r t [ s i c ] who f i r s t played i t [the f l u t e ] i n France and then almost at that same time Descoteaux [ s i c ] ; the king f o r whom, along w i t h h i s e n t i r e c o u r t , t h i s instrument was i n f i n i t e l y p l e a s i n g , added two more p o s i t i o n s to the 4 e x i s t i n g musettes de  Po i tou, and presented them to P h i l b e r t and Descoteaux; these two have t o l d me many times that the king,.In g i v i n g them the p o s i t i o n s , informed them that he s t r o n g l y wished that a l l the s i x musettes should be changed over to trans v e r s e f l u t e s , f o r they [the f l u t e s ] would at l e a s t be u s e f u l , in that the musettes were only s u i t e d to having p e a s a n t - l a d i e s dance."23 La Barre's understanding o f the s i t u a t i o n i s q u i t e tenable when one con-s i d e r s that he st u d i e d under both Descouteaux and P h i l i b e r t R e b i l l i 24 ( i . e . P h i l b e r t ) . Moreover, t h i s information i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d , i n part by Quantz, who a l s o c i t e s P h i l i b e r t as the f i r s t master of the new f l u t e . 25 23 * This l e t t e r i s c i t e d f u l l y in M. Benoit: Musiques de Cour, P a r i s , J . P i c a r d , 1971, p. 455; les v i o l o n s , les f l u t e s douces, les theorbes et les v i o l e s p r i r e n t l e u r p l a c e , car l a f l u t e t r a v e r s s i e r e n'est venue qu'apre"s. C'est P h i l i b e r t qui en a jou e r l e premier en France, et puis presque dans l e meme temps, Descoteaux; l e roy ausi bien que toute sa cour, a qui cet istrument [ s i c ] p l u t i n f i n i m e n t , adiouta deus charges aux quatres musettes de P o i t o u , et les donna a P h i l b e r t et Des-coteaux, et i l s m'ont d i t p l u s i e u r s f o i s que l e roy leur s a v o i t d i t en les l e u r donnant q u ' i l s o u h a i t o i t f o r t que les s i x musettes fuessent metamorphoses en f l u t e s t r a v e r s i e r e s , qu'amoins e l l e s s e r o i e n t u t i l l e s , au l i e u que les musettes n' e s t o i e n t propre qu'a f a i r e dansser les p a i -sanes". 24 See M. Benoit: V e r s a i l l e s et les musiciens du Ro?, P a r i s , A. et J . P i c a r d , 1971, p. 224E-25 Op.C i t . , paragraph 6, p. 30. 91 In essence, La Barre t e l l s us that as a r e s u l t of the b r i l l i a n t f l u t e p l a y i n g of both Descouteaux and P h i l i b e r t , two p o s i t i o n s in the Hautbo?s et Musettes de Poitou were c r e a t e d , so that the two i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s could q u i c k l y enter the court's s e r v i c e . The Hautbois et Musettes de P o i t o u , along w i t h the other four 26 departments of La Grande Ec u r i e du Ro?, was, more than anything e l s e , a f i n e l y s t r u c t u r e d i n s t i t u t i o n . It was created in the s i x t e e n t h cen-27 tury to accommodate four p l a y e r s of the instruments c a l l e d , de Po? tou: there was a ta?11e de hautbois et bass-contre de musette; a t a i 1 l e de hautbois et joueur de cornemuses; a dessus de hautbois and a basse-28 contre et dessus de musette. The p o s i t i o n s were granted f o r l i f e , and u s u a l l y were c o n t r o l l e d by a few f a m i l i e s , generation a f t e r g e n e r a t i o n . By the mid-seventeenth century, of course, the de Pb?tou instruments were o s t e n s i b l y o b s o l e t e . By the s e v e n t i e s , the p l a y e r s of t h i s i n s t i -t u t i o n were most f r e q u e n t l y p l a y i n g r e c o r d e r s , f l u t e s or oboes, and 29 u s u a l l y a l l t h r e e . The t r a d i t i o n a l nomenclature of both the depart-ment and the p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n i t , nonetheless was maintained u n t i l the r e v o l u t i o n . It was w i t h i n t h i s group that two p o s i t i o n s were created 26 Les Trompettes; Les Tambours et F i f r e s ; Les V i o l o n s , hautbo? s, sacquebouttes et c o r n e t s ; and Les cromornes et trompettes  mari nes. 27 These instruments, l i k e crumhorns, had t h e i r double reeds enclosed i n capsules. ^ 8 E c o r c h e v i 1 l e : Op.C i t . , p. 633. 29 A l a r g e r r e s e r v o i r f o r court o b o i s t s , of course, was the Douze Grands Hautbois du R o i . 92 f o r the two v i r t u o s o s , P h i l i b e r t and Descouteaux, q u i t e a t e s t i m o n i a l to t h e i r f l u t e - p l a y i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s . This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of La Barre's l e t t e r e s t a b l i s h e d , i t i s only necessary to attempt to determine the date of the c r e a t i o n of the two new p o s i t i o n s . La Barre's l e t t e r i s mis l e a d i n g i n two r e s p e c t s : f i r s t of a l l , one i n f e r s that P h i l i b e r t mastered the f l u t e at a p p r o x i -mately the same time Descouteaux d i d ; secondly, i t i s implied that P h i l i b e r t gained entrance to the hautbois et musettes de Poitou before Descouteaux. E c o r c h e v i l l e surmizes that a f i f t h p o s i t i o n i n the hautbois de 30 Poitou was created between 1647 and 1662; we may be more p r e c i s e . In the Etat des o f f i c i e r s de l a maison du Roi of 1661, s i x names appear under Hautbois et Muzettes de P o i t o u : " F r a n c o i s Pignon d i t Descouteaux, dessus de haulbois de P o i c t o u ; Jean Brunet et Jean Louis son f i l s , basseconte et dessus de muzette de P o i c t o u ; Jean Destouches, t a i l i e de haulbois et basseconte de muzette de P o i c t o u ; P i e r r e Puche [ i . e . P i e s c h e ] , t a i l i e de haulbois et joueur de cornemuze; Jean H a u t e t e r r e , 31 dessus de haubois [ s i c ] de P o i c t o u " . We n o t i c e t h a t , although s i x names appear, only f i v e p o s i t i o n s are l i s t e d . The e x t r a name i s obvious-l y Jean Brunet's son, Jean L o u i s , f o r only one p o s i t i o n f o l l o w s t h e i r names: dessus et basseconte de muzette de P o i c t o u . This p o s i t i o n was one o f the four o r i g i n a l ones. The a d d i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n , supposedly Op.Cit. , p. 63'K Benoit: Op.Cit. , p. 4. 93 created by the k i n g , i s a new dessus de hautbois de P o i t o u , and i t i s held by Francois Pignon Descouteaux. In s i m i l a r documents of 1664, the 32 number l i s t e d beside p o s i t i o n s i n the Hautbois de P o i t o u i s f i v e ; the names l i s t e d are the same as those of 1661, except that Jean Louis Brunet has been removed. We may conclude, then, that Francois Descou-teaux was granted a newly-created p o s i t i o n in the hautbois de Poitou sometime before 1661. The present w r i t e r has found that the e a r l i e s t Court reference to Descouteaux i s 1657, In the production o f L'Amour Ma lade. Taking part w i t h Descouteaux in t h i s s p e c t a c l e were Jean H o t t e t e r r e w i t h h i s two sons, and Destouches, among other woodwind p l a y e r s . We r e c a l l that t h i s b a l l e t was the f i r s t to include the remodelled oboes. It seems p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , that Descouteaux was granted a new p o s i t i o n f o r h i s oboe-playing, and not, as La Barre r e l a t e s , f o r h i s f l u t e - p l a y i n g a b i l i t y . It Is l i k e l y that only a f t e r P h i l i b e r t ' s mastering of the new f l u t e d i d Descouteaux devote h i s s k i l l s to i t , becoming a great master and teacher h i m s e l f . This would confirm La Barre's i m p l i c a t i o n that P h i l i b e r t was f i r s t to play the new f l u t e , and that Descouteaux followed h i s lead s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . The f i f t h p o s i t i o n i n the Hautbois et Musettes de  Po?tou, t h e r e f o r e , was probably created in 1657. The s i t u a t i o n i s not ne a r l y so s t r a i g h t forward i n the case of P h i l i b e r t Rebille". In 1666, the Etat des O f f i c i e r s de l a Maison du Roi again l i s t s the s i x names of the hautbois et muzettes de Poitou that ' I b i d . , p. 9. 94 33 appeared in 1661; again the superfluous member i s Jean Louis Brunet. In 1667 seven names appear: Jean Brunet; Anthoine P i e s c h e , r e p l a c i n g h i s f a t h e r , P i e r r e ; Michel Destouches; M a r t i n H o t t e t e r r e , r e p l a c i n g h i s f a t h e r , Jean; Francois Pignon Descouteaux; and Jean Louis Brunet w i t h Phi 1 ebert . [s i c] Rebille". The l a s t two named rec e i v e s p e c i a l men-t i o n : " ( l e d . [ i t ] Jean Louis est f i l z de Jean Brunet, et i l n'a p o i n t de c e r t i f i c a t ) [ P h i l e b e r t R e b i l l e est recu a sa p l a c e . Nota: p o i n t 34 d'employ]". This information i n d i c a t e s that P h i l i b e r t R e b i l l e " gained entrance to the group of hautbois de Poitou in 1667 by r e p l a c i n g a very young Jean Louis Brunet. P h i l i b e r t appears to have been given a newly-created s i x t h p o s i t i o n in the group; indeed, a d d i t i o n a l expenses f o r that year show that there were now s i x p o s i t i o n s in the group: "Pour un hablllement complet de s i x joueurs de hautbois, cornemuses et musettes 35 de Poitou--Ne"ant". It i s not u n t i l 1670 that an o f f i c i a l document con-cerning the c r e a t i o n of the s i x t h p o s i t i o n in favour of P h i l i b e r t appears The document, however, i s most i l l u m i n a t i n g . It s t a t e s : "Retenue de Hautbois, musette et f l u t e de P o i t o u o r d i n a i r e de l a Grande E c u r i e , en faveur de P h i l l i p e s R e b e l l i [ s i c ] , successeur de Jean 33 Jean Louis appears In these. l i s t i n g s , no doubt, as an even-tu a l successor to h i s f a t h e r ' s p o s i t i o n . In 1666 Jean Louis must have been much too young to take an a c t i v e r o l e in t h i s group, f o r as l a t e as 1677 he i s r e f e r r e d to as being not yet eighteen years of age. (See Benoit: Op.C ? t . , p. 54.) Although no d e f i n i t e b i o g r a p h i c a l information i s a v a i l a b l e to the present w r i t e r , documents from the E c u r i e of 1678 suggest that Jean-Louis turned eighteen that year. In 1666, t h e r e f o r e , he was l i k e l y only s i x years of age. 34 I b i d . , p. 18. E d i t o r i a l brackets are in the o r i g i n a l . 3 5 Ibid -, p. 18. 95 36 Louis Brunet, d e m i s s i o n a i r e . To the present w r i t e r ' s knowledge t h i s i s the f i r s t time the t r a d i t i o n a l t i t l e o f a member of the Hautbois et Musettes de Poitou was adjusted to i n d i c a t e the ac t u a l instrument the performer used. It i s good proof, moreover, that P h i l i b e r t entered the Court as a f l u t e - p l a y e r . We may conclude that La Barre's l e t t e r i n c o r r e c t l y a s c r i b e s the c r e a t i o n of the f i f t h p o s i t i o n in the Hautbois et Musettes de Poitou to Descouteaux' f l u t e - p l a y i n g a b i l i t y . In the case of P h i l i b e r t and the s i x t h p o s i t i o n , however, t h i s would indeed seem to be the case. It i s l i k e l y t h a t , s h o r t l y a f t e r P h i l i b e r t ' s a r r i v a l , Descouteaux took up the transverse f l u t e . The f l u t e s played by Descouteaux and P h i l i b e r t i n the l a t e s i x t i e s and e a r l y s eventies were most probably of the remodelled t r a n s -verse type. The o l d e r t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e o f Mersenne's time had not been a popular concert instrument i n France. Moreover, there was no depart-ment o f the Grande E c u r i e in the e a r l i e r seventeenth century that could 37 include such an instrument. In a d d i t i o n , Charles de Saint-Evremond (In h i s Oeuvres, 1740, I I I , p. 294) suggests that f l u t e concerts were 38 unknown in France before 1659. When the transverse f l u t e d i d f i n a l l y 36 I b i d . , p. 18. Yet another document i s l i s t e d on p. 37. 37 The f ? f r e s et tabours could include f i f e s , which in Mer-senne's time were s i m i l a r to transverse f l u t e s , but of a sm a l l e r range. They were, however, reserved f o r m i l i t a r y use. 38 ( C i t e d in A l b e r t Cohen: "A study o f instrumental ensemble p r a c t i c e in seventeenth-century France", Galpin S o c i e t y J o u r n a l , n15, 1962, p. 5. 96 f i n d a place in E c u r i e , then, i t was most l i k e l y a f t e r the remodell-ing process had occurred. There Is documentation which suggests that P h i l i b e r t was gain i n g renown as a f l u t e - p l a y e r w e l l before 1670. Records of a t r i a l in 1679, in which Jean Brunet's (a member of the Ecurie) w i f e was found g u i l t y o f poisoning her husband in 1672, give an account of the music-making a c t i v i t y in which P h i l i b e r t p a r t i c i p a t e d : "Madame Brunet was married to a f i n e bourgeois of Port St-Landry in the c i t y . M and Mme Brunet used to rece i v e many guests, f o r there was always good music-making at t h e i r house. The f a s h i o n a b l e f l u t e - p l a y e r , P h i l b e r t [ s i c ] R e b i l l e - , c a l l e d P h i l b e r t [ s i c ] , now a musician of the King, made hi m s e l f heard there h a b i t u a l l y . Brunet adored the f l u t e p l a y e r f o r the agree-a b i l i t y o f h i s t a l e n t "39 Although t h i s document f a i l s to s p e c i f y the type of f l u t e upon which P h i l i b e r t performed, we may assume, from other sources c i t e d above, that i t was a transverse one. It was through these c o n c e r t s , no doubt, that P h i l i b e r t was f i r s t introduced to Brunet, and subsequently gained spon-40 s o r s h l p i n t o the hautbois et musettes de P o i t o u . Since the f l u t e -• ^ C i t e d in Ecorchevi11e: Op.Cit. , p. 634. This t r i a l i s a most famous one. Much of P h i l i b e r t ' s fame may be owing to h i s a f f i l i a -t i o n w i t h the scandalous a f f a i r . Jean Brunet, who was so pleased w i t h the concerts P h i l i b e r t gave at h i s home, o f f e r e d the f l u t e - p l a y e r the hand of h i s daughter. Mme Brunet, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , f e l l in love w i t h P h i l i b e r t . A f t e r she had disposed of her husband, she married P h i l i b e r t . When she was discovered and l a t e r hanged, the f l u t e - p l a y e r was imprisoned fo r a short p e r i o d , during which he disappears from a c t i v i t i e s in the E c u r i e . 40 We r e c a l l that in 1667 Jean Brunet's son, Jean L o u i s , was removed from the group in favour o f P h i l i b e r t . This i s probably another m a n i f e s t a t i o n of Brunet's admiration f o r him. 97 p l a y e r entered the E c u r i e as e a r l y as 1667, some of the concerts in which he was heard at the Brunet's must have occurred sometime before that date. We may conclude that a remodelled f l u t e was a v a i l a b l e by at l e a s t 1667. It i s u n l i k e l y , as already observed, that Descouteaux, when he entered the E c u r i e in 1657, was a f l u t e p l a y e r . Nonetheless, i t can be seen that the a c t u a l process of remodelling must have been i n i t i a t e d in the very l a t e f i f t i e s o r e a r l y s i x t i e s . This date agrees with Quantz' statement that the remodelled f l u t e was less than a cen-tur y o l d in 1752. There i s musical evidence which bears out our hypothesis that the f l u t e was a v a i l a b l e f o r use In the e a r l y b a l l e t s of L u l l y , 1657-1670. As w i l l be shown p r e s e n t l y , however, i t i s only at the very end of t h i s p e r i o d that they make t h e i r i n i t i a l appearance in L u l l y ' s b a l l e t orches-t r a s . The F l u t e in L u l l y ' s E a r l y B a l l e t s The sampling taken from L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s w i t h reference to the f l u t e w i l l be n e c e s s a r i l y s m a l l ; not only was the f l u t e the l a s t o f the standard woodwinds to be remodelled, but i t a l s o had l i t t l e t r a d i t i o n f o r employment w i t h i n the context of the b a l l e t s de cour. When the instrument f i n a l l y does appear, then, i t i s given very s p e c i a l -ized treatment, being used in only a small number of s i t u a t i o n s . Before proceeding to L u l l y ' s b a l l e t s c o r e s , i t w i l l be neces-sary to b r i e f l y expose the problems surrounding the term f1ute. As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the term by i t s e l f i n d i c a t e d 'recorder' to most 98 seventeenth-century musicians. Many modern sc h o l a r s b e l i e v e that to show that a transverse f l u t e was d e s i r e d , s p e c i a l i n d i c a t i o n s i n the 41 score, such as d'allemagne or t r a v e r s i e r e , were r e q u i r e d . On the other hand, L u l l y o c c a s i o n a l l y used the term f l u t e a bee to s p e c i f i c a l l y 42 d e s i g i n a t e r e c o r d e r s . C l e a r l y , the term f l u t e by i t s e l f o f f e r s l i t t l e help i n determining the instrument demanded i n the score. In the e a r l y s c o r e s , to at l e a s t 1665, of course, the problem i s n o n - e x i s t e n t , f o r the t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e was not then a v a i l a b l e . In the l a t e r ones, however, the d i f f i c u l t y i s a very r e a l one, which r e -q u i r e s s o l u t i o n . How the f l u t e s or recorders are used i n L u l l y ' s b a l l e t s i s apparently the only musical c l u e to determining the a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u -ment i n a given s i t u a t i o n . To t h i s end, the range and t o n a l i t y of the music can be most e n l i g h t e n i n g . The upward range of the dessus parts are o f l i t t l e help i n t h i s matter, s i n c e L u l l y r a r e l y scores h i s dessus instruments above c , M ; t h i s tone of course, i s w i t h i n easy reach of both the remodelled f l u t e and the recorders in f ( t r e b l e ) and c' ( t e n o r ) . The downward range of t h i s p a r t , however, i s q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t . There are examples i n L u l l y scores where a dessus part scored f o r f l u t e s de-scends below f , to e' or d'. This i s o b v i o u s l y our of reach on the f ; -recorder, and s i n c e the tenor recorder probably would not be given a See f o r example, Jurgen Eppelsheim: Das Orchester in den  Werken Jean- B a p t i s t e L u l l y s , T u t z i n g , 1961, p. 66"! : 42 Eppelsheim ( i b i d . ) b e l i e v e s that f l u t e a bee i s redundant, si n c e by convention f l u t e alone meant recorder. 9 9 z»3 dessus c l e f , the s i t u a t i o n demands performance on a t ransverse f l u t e . In a l im i ted number o f c a s e s , then, the range of a part is useful in d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between f l u t e s and recorders . The t o n a l i t y o f a work, along with the repeated appearance of c e r t a i n tones , provides another method for determining which species o f f l u t e is requ i red . Th is method, however, is not near ly as dependable as the previous one. We have seen that the new f l u t e was best su i ted to sharp keys - - e s p e c i a l l y G - and D-maJor. Recorders , on the other hand, were most e f f e c t i v e in f l a t keys. Anthony Baines suggests that these l i m i t a t i o n s may help to sor t out the appropr ia te instrument In a score kk simply marked f 1 u t e s . In a d d i t i o n , we have seen that the fo l lowing notes are badly out o f tune on the f l u t e : b ' - f l a t ; g ' - s h a r p ; and f . Music which features these tones In an exposed or cons is ten t manner would consequently be bet ter s u i t e d to the recorder . F i n a l l y , the performers on the e a r l y f l u t e , perhaps more ex-p l i c i t l y than with any o f the other woodwinds in th is s tudy , may c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y the des i red instrument in a given s c o r e . The appearance o f P h i l i b e r t and Descouteaux in the 11vre t o f a b a l l e t almost assures us that t ransverse f l u t e s t o o k ' p a r t . By 1 6 6 9 - 1 6 7 0 , however, other members o f the Grande E c u r l e ' s Hautbois et Musettes de Poi tou had taken up the new instrument. Thus in the come*dle-bal l e t , Monsieur de Pourceaugnac of The use of the var ious recorder s i z e s w i l l be d iscussed In the next chapter . if 4 O p . C i t . , p. 2 9 1 . 100 1669, Moligre's l i v r e t l i s t s four f l u t i s t s : "Les Sieurs Descotteaux [ s i c ] P h i l b e r t [ s i c ] , Piesche f i l s et Fossard". Two of these p l a y e r s -- Des-couteaux and Piesche — could e a s i l y perform on e i t h e r recorders o r oboes; t h e i r appearance in conjunction w i t h P h i l i b e r t , however, makes t h e i r p l a y i n g t ransverse f l u t e s most probable. Since transverse f l u t e s are new instruments at the time o f L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s , t h e i r I n c l u s i o n in the o r c h e s t r a i s u s u a l l y i n -d i c a t e d by e i t h e r the score or accompanying 1 i v r e t . Only those scores in which the instrument i s s p e c i f i c a l l y designated have been c o n s u l t e d , although some e n t r i e s not s p e c i f i e d f o r f l u t e s have been included i f they appear in b a l l e t s where f l u t e s are known to have p a r t i c i p a t e d . In both s i t u a t i o n s , o f course, the c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between f l u t e s and recorders must be a p p l i e d . Only four o f a l l the scores s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study demon-s t r a t e d employment o f transverse f l u t e s . They are: Les Muses (1666); La Grotte de V e r s a i l l e s (1668); Monsieur de Pourceaugnac (1669) and Les  Jeux Pi thiens (1670). P r u n i e r e s ' e d i t i o n o f a l i m i t e d number of L u l l y ' s comgdie-ballets has a l s o been c o n s u l t e d , because Prunieres includes the o r i g i n a l comedies w i t h 1 i v r e t s in h i s e d i t i o n s . These of course, pro-vide the names o f performers as w e l l as the type o f instruments required in a given s e c t i o n o f the drama. The e d i t i o n s sometimes include e n t r i e s . which the P h M i d o r copies a v a i l a b l e to the present w r i t e r have omitted; of these, e n t r i e s which include the f l u t e have been s t u d i e d f o r the pur-poses o f t h i s chapter. The B a l l e t des Muses, which premiered on 2 December 1666, i s the f i r s t b a l l e t to have contained music f o r the r e c e n t l y remodelled 101 transverse f l u t e . This date i s apparently too e a r l y f o r the use of transverse f l u t e s ; we r e c a l l that P h i l i b e r t Is not mentioned at court u n t i l 1667. C e r t a i n p e c u l i a r i t i e s in the r e p e t i t i o n s of t h i s b a l l e t , however, account f o r t h i s discrepancy. The B a l l e t des Muses was apparently a very popular d l v e r -46 tlssement o f con s i d e r a b l e splendour and b r i l l i a n c e ; i t was, t h e r e f o r e , given several r e p e t i t i o n s . C u r i o u s l y , the content of the b a l l e t was a l t e r e d a number o f times u n t i l i t s f i n a l performance, 19 February, I667. Among the I n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s l i s t e d In the 11vret are: Descouteaux, P h i l i b e r t , Jean and N i c o l a s H o t t e t e r r e , Piesche and L u l l y . Of e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t , o f course, i s the i n c l u s i o n of P h i l i b e r t , f o r we may assume that transverse f l u t e s , as a r e s u l t , were employed in the production. P h i l i b e r t ' s e x c l u s i o n from records a t Court u n t i l 1667 may be explai n e d in two ways: f i r s t of a l l , i t i s p o s s i b l e that P h i l i b e r t ' s s e r v i c e s were not required f o r the o r i g i n a l December 2nd v e r s i o n , but that he was used i n one of the subsequent a l t e r a t i o n s or a d d i t i o n s i n January o f 1667; secondly, and more probably, the expenses incu r r e d were not entered i n t o the Court's accounts u n t i l the ter m i n a t i o n o f the b a l l e t , in I667. The l a t t e r s o l u t i o n i s a l l the more tenable when one considers "°Adam Carse (Op.C i t . , p. 178) maintains that the remodelled f l u t e d i d not have i t s o r c h e s t r a l debut u n t i l 1677- P h i l l i p Bate (Op.Cit. , p. 82) does not attempt to describe the f i r s t instance o f the new f l u t e ' s employment. Inasmuch as Bate b e l i e v e s the transverse f l u t e was not re-moddeled u n t i l c .1670, however, i t i s c l e a r he would not agree w i t h the present w r i t e r ' s premise. The information provided below w i l l substan-t i a t e t h i s theory. 46 See Charles S i l i n : Benserade and His B a l l e t s de Cour, Maryland, 1940, p. 365-102 that the dramatic s i t u a t i o n in which the f l u t e was f i r s t used occurs in the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of the b a l l e t — in December 1666. We may, there-f o r e , conclude that the transverse f l u t e was f i r s t used o r c h e s t r a l l y in 1666. The P a r i s Gazette describes the f i f t h entree of the B a l l e t des Muses as f o l l o w s : "Dans l a cinqui£me, pour C l i o , se v o i t l a b a t a i l l e Ixi donne"e entre Alexandre et Porus...." S i l i n , who must be r e f e r r i n g to the 1?vret, s t a t e s that the entre"e was danced to the accompaniment of 48 f l u t e s and drums. Since P h i l i b e r t i s included as an i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t , we may only conclude that t h i s i s a reference to transverse f l u t e s . M u s i c a l l y , the f i f t h entre"e c o n s i s t s of three numbers: (1) 'Marche des Grecs'; (2) 'Marchedes Indiens' and (3) 'Le Grand Combat'. The f i r s t two c o n t a i n parts f o r drums and are, as a r e s u l t , in s i x p a r t s . The upper parts of the 'Marche de Grecs' show the f o l l o w i n g arrangement: Part C l e f Range dessus hautecontre t a i 1 l e g i c l c2 f - b " - f l a t f' - d " b - f l a t - a' Those f o r the 'Marche des Indiens' are as f o l l o w s : Part C l e f Range dessus hautecontre t a i 1 l e g i c l c2 g' - b " - f l a t d' - d " b - f l a t - b ' - f l a t H / C i t e d in S11 i n : Op.Cit. , p. 360 48.1. • I b i d . 103 The upper parts in 'Le Grand Combat' (scored without drums) are: Pa r t C l e f Range dessus g l g' - b ' ' - f l a t hautecontre c l d' - d 1 ' t a M l e c2 b - f l a t - b ' - f l a t It can be seen that both the dessus and hautecontre l i n e s are w i t h i n the compass of the f l u t e (lowest note, d'). The t a ? l i e , however, i s in a l l three examples too low f o r performance on transverse f l u t e s . It i s l i k e l y that i t , along w i t h the quinte and basse p a r t s , was executed on s t r i n g s . From the names l i s t e d in the 1?vret we may e s t a b l i s h a t e n t a -t i v e s e t t i n g as: P h i l i b e r t and Descouteaux on the dessus 1?ne; Piesche and H o t t e t e r r e on the hautecontre. F l u t e s are given a much more prominent p o s i t i o n in La Grotte de V e r s a l 11 es (1668). The f i r s t entre"e, concerned w i t h bergers, corn-e a mences w i t h a ' R i t o u r n e l l e pour les f l u t t e s ' . That t h i s t h r e e - p a r t r i t o u r n e l l e i s intended f o r transverse f l u t e s , as opposed to r e c o r d e r s , i s i n d i c a t e d by the ranges of the two dessus p a r t s ; the f i r s t has a compass of g' to f " ; w h i l e the second has one of d' 'to d". It i s the second dessus p a r t , of course, which i n d i c a t e s the need f o r t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e s , s i n c e i t descends below the dessus recorder's range. The r i t o u r n e l l e commences a s e r i e s of a l t e r n a t i n g r i t o u r n e l l e s and r g c i t s . Of great i n t e r e s t i s the music f o r the r i c i t s which, in each of the four a l t e r n a t i o n s , borrows i t s content from the instrumental S p e c i f i e d on p. 18 in the score. At the beginning of the r i t o u r n e l l e on p. 19 the f o l l o w i n g i s w r i t t e n ?n p e n c i l , copied over w i t h ink; " f l u s t e s et v i o l o n s " . From t h i s we might conclude that v i o l i n s doubled the f l u t e s . 104 r i t o u r n e l l e preceding i t . This type of set-up suggests that perhaps the instruments of the r i t o u r n e l l e double the voices when each re"cit i s be-gun. The second r i t o u r n e l l e of the s e r i e s , l i k e the f i r s t , Is in g-minor. Although no instrumentation i s i n d i c a t e d , i t i s l i k e l y that the entree would use the same instruments throughout. The range of the f i r s t dessus Is g' to b M - f 1 a t ; that of the second i s d' to d " . We may as-sume, then, that t h i s too requires performance by transverse f l u t e s . The re"c?t which f o l l o w s , 'Voyons tous deux en aimant', uses the same musical m a t e r i a l , again,suggesting the p o s s i b l e doubling by f l u t e s and v i o l i n s . The th? rd r i tournel l e , preceding the re"c? t , "Les oyseaux v i -vent', would, according to the e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n , a l s o Include t r a n s -verse f l u t e s . The ranges o f the two dessus p a r t s a r e : f i r s t — g' to e M ; second — e' to c". The t o n a l i t y has changed to G-major, and w i t h references to b i r d s i n the accompanying t e x t , f l u t e s a r e , indeed, s t r o n g -ly suggested. The f o u r t h and f i n a l r i t o u r n e l l e of the s e r i e s returns to g-minor. It d i f f e r s from the preceding numbers in three r e s p e c t s . F i r s t , the ranges o f the dessus l i n e s — f - s h a r p to a' 1 and g 1 to a' 1 — does not exclude the p o s s i b i l i t y of recorders t a k i n g p a r t . Second, the music f o r the ensuing re"ci t , 'Dans ces d e s e r t s ' , does not borrow e x a c t l y the music of the r i tournel l e . T h i r d , th i s re"ci t i s f o r only one v o i c e . From these p o i n t s we may conclude that the r i t o u r n e l l e instruments pro-bably d i d not double the vocal l i n e s o f the f i n a l r£c]_t_. Although the r i t o u r n e l l e l i e s w i t h i n the reach o f re c o r d e r s , i t i s most u n l i k e l y that they should suddenly enter the texture of an entre"e h i g h l i g h t i n g the 105 transverse f l u t e . A l i v r e t f o r La Grotte de V e r s a i l l e s was not a v a i l a b l e to the present w r i t e r . It i s subsequently un c e r t a i n whether or not P h i l i b e r t took part in the production. Nonetheless, the ranges of the dessus parts in the f i r s t r i t o u r n e l l e of the e n t r i e , marked f 1 u t t e s , as des-c r i b e d above, i s good proof that transverse f l u t e s were used in t h i s b a l l e t . The c o m i d f e - b a l l e t , Monsieur de Pourceaugnac, 5^ was produced in 1669. On p. 54 of the P h i l i d o r copy (Tome VI of the Recueil des B a l l e t s ) an e n t r i e , 'Les Maftres a danser', i s commenced. The 1i v r e t describes the personnel r e q u i r e d f o r i t s execution as f o l l o w s : "Les deux maftres a danser: MM. La P i e r r e et F a v i e r . Les deux pages: MM. Beauchamp et Chicaneau. Quatre cu r i e u x de s p e c t a c l e s : Les s i e u r s Noblet, J o u b e r t , L'Estang et Mayeu. Les quatre f l u t e s : Les s i e u r s Descotteaux, P h i l i b e r t , Piesche f i l s et Fossard. "51 C l e a r l y t r a n s v e r s e f l u t e s are required. Since only four performers are l i s t e d , and the e n t r i e i s in f i v e p a r t s , we may assume that other musi-cians a l s o took p a r t . The s e t t i n g has the f o l l o w i n g arrangement: Part C l e f Range dessus gl g' - c''' hautecontre c l d' - e ' ' - f l a t t a i l i e c2 b - f l a t - a' q u i n t e c3 g - g' basse fk D - d ' It i s obvious that only the top two l i n e s are a v a i l a b l e to transverse 5 ^ T h i s was only one of a number of d i v e r t i s s e m e n t s which to-gether formed Le Divertissement Royal de Chambort. 5 ' c i t e d in P r u n i e r e s : Op.C i t . , V o l . I l l , p. 11. 106 f l u t e s . As a r e s u l t , i t i s l i k e l y that Descouteaux and P h i l i b e r t per-52 formed the dessus part w h i l e Piesche and Fossard played the hautcontre, In the 1670 production of Les Jeux P i t h i e n s f l u t e s are once more included in the o r c h e s t r a . On f o l i o s 118v to 119v of Tome VI in P h i l i d o r ' s c o l l e c t i o n i s a vocal number c a l l e d 'Jouissons des P l a i s i r s ' . On f o l i o 118R appears the i n s t r u c t i o n : 'Les f l u t e s les hautbois et l e s 53 v i o l o n s Jouent l ' a i r qui s u i t avant q u ' i l se chante'. The three-part s e t t i n g i n g-minor shows a somewhat unusual arrangement: Part C l e f Range dessus g l g' - f'' dessus c l d 1 - d'' basse fk D - d ' C u r i o u s l y , the second dessus i s given a c - c l e f on the f i r s t l i n e , as i f i t were a hautecontre p a r t . The unusual c l e f , as expla i n e d in the pre-vious chapter, r e s u l t s , no doubt, from the f a c t that the two upper parts are t e x t e d . We may be sure that the s p e c i f i e d f l u t e s are of the t r a n s -verse type, f o r the second l i n e descends to d', beyond the range of the 5Z1 recorder i n f . The next number in t h i s entree i s an o r c h e s t r a l s e t t i n g i n g-minor e n t i t l e d 'Prelude'. It i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e that f l u t e s a l s o p a r t i -scores, edi t i o n , 52 This i s the Fossard who a s s i s t e d P h i l i d o r in copying L u l l y ' s Prunieres ( i b i d . ) scores t h i s f o r only ' F l u t e s ' In h i s 54 It i s p o s s i b l e that a t r e b l e recorder in f and a tenor c' are intended. The u n l i k e l y s i t u a t i o n of a t r i o w i t h three d i f f e r e n t instruments, however, s t r o n g l y m i l i t a t e s a gainst t h i s s o l u t i o n . 107 c l p a t e d in t h i s work, a premise which i s supported by the f a c t that the 'Prelude' i s in s i x p a r t s , i n c l u d i n g two dessus l i n e s . The f i r s t dessus i s given a range o f g' to b ' ' - f l a t , w h i l e the second has a compass of g' to a " . A f i n a l instance o f the f l u t e ' s use in Les Jeux P i t h i e n s i s not included in P h i l i d o r ' s copy o f the b a l l e t . In the t h i r d scene (pp. 179-181 in Pr u n i e r e s ' e d i t i o n ) a ' R i t o u r n e l l e pour les F l u t e s ' appears. The s e t t i n g i s f o r two dessus instruments plus bass. The range of the f i r s t l i n e i s d' 1 to b ' ' - f l a t , w h i l e the second part i s given one of a' to a 1 ' . Again the ranges do not exclude performance on recorders; but s i n c e f l u t e s probably were used elsewhere in the b a l l e t , the f l u t e s 55 i n d i c a t e d by Pruni&res are, no doubt, o f the transverse v a r i e t y . The use of f l u t e s in L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s has been shown to be somewhat experimental. The great v i r t u o s i t y through which both P h i l i b e r t and Descouteaux gained renown i s almost completely avoided. It would appear, nonetheless, that L u l l y was w e l l aware o f the great c o l o u r i s t i c p o t e n t i a l o f the new instrument, f o r he employed the f l u t e in q u i t e a v a r i e t y o f ensembles. It i s most i n t e r e s t i n g that the f i r s t use of the f l u t e , i n Les Muses (1666) , was i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h drums, i n a ' m i l i t a r y ' e n t r i e . The t r a d i t i o n a l f I f r e s et tambours o f the Grande E c u r i e , no doubt, sug-ested t h i s kind o f treatment to L u l l y . Thus, the only a p p r e c i a t i o n the French Court had f o r f l u t e s of transverse type was e x p l o i t e d when Prunl&res, throughout h i s e d i t i o n makes no d i s t i n c t i o n be-tween recorder and f l u t e . 108 the new instrument was f i r s t introduced. The treatment the f l u t e r e-ceived in subsequent b a l l e t s , however, c l e a r l y demonstrates that the instrument was q u i c k l y accepted. In Les Jeux P i t h i e n s of 1670, f l u t e s were observed w i t h i n L u l l y ' s s t r i n g o r c h e s t r a . That two dessus parts appeared in t h i s s e t -t i n g , Is good.evidence of the s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s the instrument was a f f o r d e d . L u l l y most f r e q u e n t l y scored f l u t e s , however, i n three-part s e t t i n g s . In La Grotte de V e r s a i l l e s (1668), we r e c a l l that the r i t o u r - nel l e f o r 'Goutons blen des P l a i s i r s ' r e q u ired both f l u t e s and v i o l i n s on the two upper parts of the t r i o . In Les Jeux P i t h i e n s , a t r i o f o r 'Jouissons des P l a i s i r s ' placed the new f l u t e in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h oboes. In the same b a l l e t f l u t e s were given a t r i o r i t o u r n e l l e , without the support of other instruments. F i n a l l y , in both La Grotte de V e r s a i l l e s and Les Jeux P i t h i e n s , we found strong evidence to suggest the doubling of vocal parts by f l u t e s . Besides being aware of the great p o t e n t i a l o f the new f l u t e , L u l l y seems to have been f a m i l i a r w i t h i t s i n t o n a t i o n problems. A l -though he wrote f o r the f l u t e i n a major key on only one occasion In t h i s small sampling, L u l l y appears to have avoided the instrument's two worst tones -- f 1 and g'-sharp — whenever p o s s i b l e . This i s e s p e c i a l l y true f o r the lower f l u t e p a r t s , the lower octave of the instrument's range being, perhaps, most problematic. In the four r i t o u r n e l l e s s t u d i e d in La Grotte de V e r s a i l l e s , f o r example, the tone f never appears i n the second f l u t e p a r t . This i s most conspicuous In that the f 1 ' appears q u i t e o f t e n in the f i r s t dessus parts of the entre"e. L u l l y , then, shows an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the instrument's c a p a b i l i t i e s very e a r l y on. 109 I t should be mentioned that the remodelled transverse f l u t e o f L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s was not the instrument used i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the eighteenth century. Performers and makers were e v i d e n t l y aware o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s of i n t o n a t i o n which e x i s t e d a f t e r the i n i t i a l remodel-l i n g . There can be l i t t l e doubt, nonetheless, that players such as P h i l i b e r t and Descouteaux were able to overcome these problems i n t h e i r b r i l l i a n t performances. Bate"' 7 c i t e s 1697 as the date when Jacques H o t t e t e r r e introduced yet another model o f the f l u t e . Its d e s i g n , of course, was g r e a t l y indebted to the v e r s i o n f i r s t e x p l o i t e d by L u l l y i n the l a t e l660's. More than w i t h any other instrument of t h i s study, the f l u t e demonstrates the importance of observing L u l l y ' s use of woodwinds in h i s e a r l y b a l l e t s . Through the medium of t h i s genre, we have been a b l e to study the e a r l i e s t known examples of the Instrument's use. The h i s t o r i -c a l documents of the Grande Ecurie which suggested the use of a r e -modelled transverse f l u t e as e a r l y as 1667, have been s u b s t a n t i a t e d by musical evidence i n L u l l y ' s b a l l e t s . We must put back the time of the f l u t e ' s remodel 1ing by almost ten years from Bate's t e n t a t i v e d a t i n g o f 1670. Moreover, we may push Carse's date of 1677, as the f i r s t instance of the new f l u t e ' s employment, back to 1666. Op.Cit. , p. 81. CHAPTER IV THE RECORDER By the middle of the seventeenth century two v a r i e t i e s of f l u t e were a v a i l a b l e to the i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t -- the transverse f l u t e and the recorder. Although, as we have seen, the transverse type was i n the ascendance, e v e n t u a l l y superseding i t s competitor i n the eighteenth century, the recorder during the period of L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s in France was more g e n e r a l l y popular. Neither instrument appears to have a t t r a c t e d much a t t e n t i o n in France u n t i l the mid-seventeenth century,' and i t i s owing, no doubt, to t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l remodelling i n the f o r -t i e s and f i f t i e s that the instruments q u i c k l y gained high favour i n that country. In other European centres during the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth c e n t u r i e s , however, the recorders and f l u t e s enjoyed a great currency. A c o n s i d e r a b l e r i v a l r y between the remodelled v e r s i o n s of both instruments i s i n evidence i n the l a t e seventeenth and e a r l y eighteenth 2 c e n t u r i e s ; both instruments at that time were c a l l e d upon to perform s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n s . Before remodelling, however, such competition was not n e a r l y so n o t i c e a b l e . The f l u t e was a loud, v e r s a t i l e instrument, 3 e v i d e n t l y s u i t a b l e f o r outdoors use. In a d d i t i o n , i t possessed a rather extensive range of two and a h a l f octaves. The recorder, on the other See A l b e r t Cohen: "A study of instrumental ensemble p r a c t i c e in seventeenth-century France", Galpin S o c i e t y J . , 15, 1962, p. 5. 2 See Edgar Hunt: The Recorder and i t s Music, London, H. J e n k i n s , 1962. 3 See Anthony Baines: Woodwind Instruments and t h e i r H i s t o r y , London, Faber and Faber, 3rd edi t . , 1967, p. 250. I l l hand, was q u i e t , i d e a l f o r consort use wi t h other r e c o r d e r s , or mixed with many instruments. Its range was r a r e l y given as more than two octaves. Neither instrument was expected to assume the other s tasks in the various ensembles o f the time. We have considered i n some d e t a i l the t e r m i n o l o g i c a l problems of f1ute in the previous chapter. Yet another dimension i s added to the d i f f i c u l t y in the case o f the recorder. Whereas w i t h the f l u t e o n l y one remodelled s i z e was normally a v a i l a b l e — having d' as a fundamental — at l e a s t f i v e s i z e s o f recorders appear to have been popular between c .1650 and c .1750. As l a t e as 1767 Diderot and D'Alembert d e s c r i b e f i v e s i z e s : in f (basse), c 1 ( q u i n t e ) , f (ta ?11e), c 1 ' (haute contre) and f ' 1 ( d e s s u s ) . 5 In a d d i t i o n , a t r e b l e recorder i n d', the s o - c a l l e d voice f l u t e , was q u i t e c u r r e n t i n England in the eighteenth century. These instruments were known by various names, i n c l u d i n g f 1utes. Having decided a work r e q u i r e s the use of a reco r d e r , then, one must f u r t h e r decide which recorder i s most a p p r o p r i a t e . The recorder In f (the modern a l t o and the ta i l 1 e i n the Encyclope'die) was the overwhelming f a v o u r i t e throughout the Baroque p e r i o d . Solo and t r i o sonatas, most chamber works and the m a j o r i t y of concert? f o r recorders were w r i t t e n w i t h t h i s instrument in mind.^ It S y l v e s t r o Ganassi, author o f Fontegara... , (Venice, 1535) must have been a v i r t u o s o recorder p l a y e r : he gives the instrument a range o f two octaves and a s i x t h . C i t e d in Hunt: Op.Cit. , p. 37. ^Encyclope'die, P a r i s 1767, in V o l . 5 of "Planches de L u t h e r i e " . ^See E. Hunt: Op.C i t . , Chapter 3-112 was, in s h o r t , the standard instrument of the recorder f a m i l y . 7 The f - r e c o r d e r 1 s p o p u l a r i t y u n f o r t u n a t e l y does not r u l e out performance on other recorder s i z e s in L u l l y ' s b a l l e t s . This problem w i l l be approached l a t e r in the chapter. g In 1619 Michael P r a e t o r i u s l i s t s e i g h t s i z e s of rec o r d e r , a s u b s t a n t i a l increase over the standard f a m i l y o f t h i s instrument i n the s i x t e e n t h century. Sebastian Virdung's Musica Getutscht (1511), f o r example, l i s t e d a d i s c a n t , a tenor and a bass. These three are analogous to the a l t o , tenor and basset instruments r e s p e c t i v e l y in P r a e t o r i u s 1 De 9 Organographia. P r a e t o r i u s ' recorders are: K l e i n F l o t t l i n in g' 1; Discant F l o t in d 1 ' ; Discant F l o t i n c 1 ' ; A l t F l o t in g'; Tenor F l o t in c'; Basset F l o t i n f ; Bas F l o t in B - f l a t and Grossbas F l o t in F. P r a e t o r i u s mentions the d i f f i c u l t i e s in i n t o n a t i o n encountered in working wit h t h i s large ensemble. In a n t i c i p a t i o n of things to come he w r i t e s : "But i t occurred to me to 'piece' apart the f l u t e s h a l f way between the mouthpiece and the highest f i n g e r h o l e , thus lengthening the upper s e c t i o n o f the pipe by [as much as] the breadth of two f i n g e r s . This makes the length of the tube v a r i a b l e and thus i t s p i t c h may be a c c o r d i n g l y adjusted higher or lower. "10 This e a r l y reference to the process of s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n was to be rea-l i z e d w i t h i n t h i r t y years. 'See Jurgen Eppelsheim: Das Orchester in den Werken Jean- B a p t i s t e L u l l y s , T u t z i n g , 1967, p. 78. o Syntagma Musicum, I I : De Organographia, t r a n s , by H. Blumen-f e l d , New York, B a r e n r e i t e r , 1962. •^Cited by Hunt: Op.Cit., p. 41. 1 0 0 p . C ? t . , p. 3 5 . 113 In h i s Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e Mersenne c a l l s r e c o r d e r s , ' E n g l i s h f l u t e s ' ( F l u s t e s d ' A n g l e t e r r e ) . He makes reference to f i v e s i z e s of recorders which correspond to the f o l l o w i n g instruments l i s t e d by Prae-t o r i u s : a great bass, a bass, a basset, a tenor and an a l t o . He pro-vides no fundamental tones f o r these instruments; he does g i v e h i n t s , however, that a l l o w us to determine these fundamentals. Mersenne des-c r i b e s a p e t i t j e u and a grand j e u , s t a t i n g t h a t , although they may be j o i n e d together to form a large ensemble, they are normally used as sep-arate groups. The p e t i t j e u c o n s i s t e d of a dessus, a haut-contre and ta? 1le (both parts being played on the same s i z e of recorder) and a bass. In the grand j e u the bass of the previous group became the dessus of the new one. Two l a r g e r s i z e s o f recorder provided the other parts in the grand j e u . The fundamental tones of these f i v e instruments have been derived by modern s c h o l a r s in a number of ways, o f t e n r e s u l t i n g in con-f l i c t i n g s o l u t i o n s . Mersenne w r i t e s of the p e t i t j e u : "But to understand the tuning of a l l the p a r t s , i t must be observed that t h e i r e i g h t h hole being open, the dessus i s at the n i n t h , and the t a i 1 l e w i t h the haute-contre i s at the f i f t h from the b a s s . " 1 1 This problematic sentence has two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s : one may i n f e r t h a t , on the bass instrument described i n t h i s passage, the e i g h t h hole i s e i t h e r open or c l o s e d . If the l a t t e r were so, then, w i t h a l l e i g h t holes c l o s e d on the other r e c o r d e r s , the dessus would have a fundamental Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e , Bk. V, Prop. V I M , p. 307. I 114 which was an octave higher than the bass, w h i l e the t a i 1 l e would stand a f o u r t h above the bass. I f the bass recorder's e i g h t h hole i s i n t e r -preted as being open, however, then the fundamental tones o f the three instruments would be: ta? 1le — a f i f t h higher than the bass; and dessus — a n i n t h higher than the bass. In h i s Das Orchester in den Werken Je a n - B a p t i s t e L u l l y s , Jurgen Eppelsheim espouses the second s o l u t i o n , concluding that Mersenne's 12 r e f o r d e r s were: a bass i n f ; a t a i l i e in c' and a dessus In g 1 . Eppelsheim a r r i v e s at t h i s c o n c l u s i o n through the somewhat dangerous technique of determining the sounding length o f the bass provided ?n the 13 diagrams and s t a t i s t i c s of Mersenne's d i s c u s s i o n . The present w r i t e r agrees w i t h Eppelshelm's c o n c l u s i o n , but b e l i e v e s a less dubious app-roach i s provided by Mersenne. Mersenne s u p p l i e s a f i n g e r i n g chart which i s q u i t e o b v i o u s l y based on a recorder in C — i . e . i t shows that w i t h a l l e i g h t f i n g e r -holes c l o s e d the tone c' i s produced. Since P r a e t o r i u s ' T e n o r f l o t had c' as a fundamental, i t i s c e r t a i n that the c'-recorder of Mersenne's t a b l a t u r e was the t a i 1 l e . Using Mersenne's formula we may conclude that the bass recorder was i n f (a f i f t h below the t e n o r ) , and, consequently, that the dessus instrument was i n g' (that i s , a n i n t h higher than the Op.Cit., pp. 69-70. Edgar Hunt .(Op.Ci t . p. 45) erroneously concludes that Mersenne's recorders included a bass in f, a t a i 1 l e in c' and a dessus i n f ' . ' 3The danger of using such s t a t i s t i c s i s v i v i d l y shown in the case of the dessus r e c o r d e r ; t h i s , Mersenne says, i s eleven ' l i n e s ' long. In modern terms, i t becomes a dessus of s l i g h t l y over 7/8 of an inch in length. 115 the bass). This I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the subsequent ma t e r i a l in P r o p o s i t i o n V I I I . Mersenne's f i n g e r i n g c h a r t , geared to a recorder in c', must be made to serve instruments w i t h d i f f e r e n t fundamentals. In a rat h e r confused fashion Mersenne o f f e r s the key to the ch a r t ' s s o l u t i o n : "I s h a l l give only one or two examples to make t h i s p r a c t i c e understood; the f i r s t serves f o r the UT, or f o r the RE of G re s o l u t , which i s made by c l o s i n g the f i r s t four holes and the seventh, and opening the o t h e r s . And to make . the FA which i s a f o u r t h h i g h e r , one simply c l o s e s the f i r s t , the t h i r d and the seventh. To make the SOL which f o l l o w s , one simply c l o s e s the t h i r d and seventh holes."''* Before i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s passage, three items must be noted: f i r s t of 1 5 a l l , Mersenne's f i n g e r i n g s use the seventh hole as a tuning one in the lower octave; secondly, s i n c e the recorder i n c' i s given a complete f i n g e r i n g c h a r t , only the instruments in f and g' need be accommodated in h i s d i r e c t i o n s f o r the chart's employment; f i n a l l y the f i n g e r holes are numbered top to bottom, the f i r s t hole being the thumb-hole on the back o f the instrument. The f i r s t f i n g e r i n g given in the above p a s s a g e , e t > * o , produces g' on a recorder i n c 1 . Mersenne says i t 'serves f o r the UT, or the RE of G re s o l ut'• We might t r a n s l i t e r a t e t h i s t o : 'serves f o r C, or f o r D on an instrument in G'. Indeed, t h i s f i n g e r i n g does produce Mersenne: Op.Cit., p. 307-'"*ln a d d i t i o n , the cl o s e d 7th hole provides support in ho l d -ing the instrument in pl a c e . 116 the tone C on an f - r e c o r d e r , and D on a g-recorder. Mersenne's subse-quent examples in t h i s passage are, c u r i o u s l y , geared only to the re-corder i n f: f o r example, ©»o o © • o f o r FA or f, and o«o©oo© f o r sol or g. Nonetheless, a patter n f o r applying the f i n g e r i n g chart to instruments in both f and g i s q u i t e evident. T h i s , of course, gives c r e d i b i l i t y to our premise that Mersenne's p e t i t j e u was organized as f o l l o w s : basse in f ; t a i 1 l e and/or haute-contre in c' and dessus in 9'. The fundamental tones of the recorders in Mersenne's grand j e u are a s c e r t a i n e d , perhaps, a l i t t l e more e a s i l y . Mersenne w r i t e s of them: " I t i s unnecessary to speak of t h e i r t a b l a t u r e , because they take t h e i r p a t t e r n from the pre-ceding."'*^ The statement i m p l i e s , of course, that the l a r g e r instruments, of which Mersenne diagrams two, were e i t h e r in F, C or G. P r a e t o r i u s ' bass instruments, we r e c a l l , were i n B - f l a t and F. Since a B - f l a t instrument cannot d e r i v e a t a b l a t u r e from Mersenne's f i n g e r i n g c h a r t , i t seems l i k e l y that Mersenne's two Bass recorders were in c and F. We may now organize Mersenne's recorders in the f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n : PRAETORIUS MERSENNE: PETIT JEU GRANDE JEU A l t g' Dessus g' Tenor c' Tai1le/Haute-contre c' Basset f Basse f Dessus f Bass B - f l a t Tai11e/Haute-contre c Gross-Basse F Basse F Before le a v i n g Mersenne, two items concerning h i s grand j e u 16 I b i d . , p. 309• 117 must be considered. Mersenne provides a diagram o f the members o f the grand j e u in which four sizes' of recorder are p i c t u r e d . The three nor-mal c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h i s ensemble have been augmented by a f o u r t h -- a apparently a recorder in c 1 ( i . e . the t a i 1 l e o f the p e t i t j e u ) . It seems l i k e l y that t h i s f o u r t h instrument was added to gi v e the ensemble a more f l e x i b l e dessus l i n e . In some cases, t h e r e f o r e , the grand j e u used four d i f f e r e n t r e c o r d e r s , one s i z e to each part in a four p a r t s e t t i n g . This brings us to the second item. Mersenne gives a musical example -- a Gavotte f o r recorders --to demonstrate the instrument's use. I t i s i n four p a r t s , showing three c - c l e f s and one f ' c l e f . The ranges of the f o u r p a r t s — dessus - f ' - f 1 ' ; haute-contre - d 1 - a 1 ; t a i 11 e - g ' f ; and basse - A-a — s t r o n g l y sug-gests that t h i s example was w r i t t e n w i t h the four-member grand j e u in mind. Indeed the dessus part descends lower than the g' recorder's range.' 7 This Gavotte would most comfortably l i e on recorders of the f o l l o w i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n : dessus - on the recorder in c'; hautecontre on the recorder in f ; t a ? l i e - on the bass in c; and basse on the Great Bass i n F. Sometime between I636 and 1683 the recorders were remodelled, and the dessus of Mersenne's p e t i t j e u became dominant. The instrument underwent s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n , w h i l e i t s fundamental tone was lowered from g' to f ' . Humphrey S a l t e r ' s Genteel Companion (London, I683), f o l l o w e d The f a c t that the normal G-clef on the f i r s t l i n e i s not used f o r the dessus p a r t , moreover, demands the use of a l a r g e r recorder. 118 by John Cam's The D e l i g h t f u l Companion (London, 1684), are the f i r s t 18 sources which d e s c r i b e the remodelled instrument. The'James Talbot Manuscripts' of c.1690 de s c r i b e a recorder in f by Bressan that i s in 19 three s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t French source to d i s c u s s the remodelled 20 recorder i s Frei11on-Poncein's La V e r i t a b l e Maniere... of 1700. This is followed by Jacques H o t t e t e r r e ' s P r i n c i p e s . . . of 1707. F r e i 1 l o n - P o n c e i n c a l l s h i s r e c o r d e r , f 1 u t e . The i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the instrument, although somewhat d i s t o r t e d , c l e a r l y show that the 21 instrument was in three s e c t i o n s and h e a v i l y ornamented at the j o i n t s . F r e i 1 l o n - P o n c e i n e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e s that the r i g h t hand should be placed 22 below the l e f t , an e a r l y i n d i c a t i o n o f that p r a c t i c e being standardized. Frei1lon-Poncein's recorder, an instrument i n f ' , i s given a range of two octaves plus a tone; but the author adds: "One can, i f he wished to f o r c e i t , extend the range to a n i n e t e e n t h , to the t h i r d A mi l a [ a ' " ] , B fa s i [ b ' " ] and C s o l ut [ c " " ] , but t h i s i s not o f t e n used; thus I do not t r e a t i t as a r u l e which must be f o l l o w e d . " 2 ^ 18 Eppelsheim: Op.C ? t . , p. 71. '"'see Hunt: Op.C i t . , p. 65. 20 Both Eppelsheim (Op,Cit. , p. 70) and Hunt (Op.CIt., p. 51) erroneously give Jacques H o t t e t e r r e ' s P r i n c i p e s . . . (1707) as the f i r s t French reference to the remodelled recorder. 21 S e c t i o n a 1 i z a t l o n i s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d by the appearance of only one e i g h t h h o l e , instead of two as formerly. If the instrument were in s e c t i o n s , of course, the foot j o i n t could be turned to s u i t both l e f t and right-handed p l a y e r s . 2 2 0 p . C i t . , p. 12. 2 3 1 b T d-119 Before g i v i n g a f i n g e r i n g c h a r t , the author provides an i n t e r e s t i n g i n -s i g h t i n t o the recorder's normal employment. He w r i t e s : "The f1ute requires much s u b t l e t y w i t h regard to the amount and e q u a l i t y of the breath one gives i t , [the f1ute] being the instrument which goes best i n the accompaniments of v o i c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the high sopranos." 2^ This statement i s of great s i g n i f i c a n c e , f o r i t demonstrates that the f instrument was customarily a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the high dessus p a r t s i n i n -strumental accompaniments. It shows, f u r t h e r , that by at l e a s t 1700 the recorder in f had become a s o l o instrument, as opposed to an ensemble instrument as i t had been in the e a r l i e r seventeenth century. Hotte-t e r r e ' s P r i r i c i p e s . . . adds l i t t l e to the information contained i n F r e i 1 l o n -Poncein' s work. As we have seen, by 1767, the recorder in f was c a l l e d t a i 1 Ie by Diderot and D'Alembert. We r e c a l l that the t a i 1 l e in Mersenne's Harmonie U n i v e r s e l l e was a recorder i n c'. Choosing between the r e c o r -der i n c' and the one in f in the mid-seventeenth century i s , conse-q u e n t l y , not always e a s i l y accomplished. It seems l i k e l y , however, that in cases where a dessus part required performance on a r e c o r d e r , the instrument i n f i s a p p r o p r i a t e . Why, then, d i d t h i s instrument become termed the t a i 1 l e ? By the second h a l f o f the seventeenth century only f i v e b a s i c s i z e s of recorder appear to have been r e t a i n e d : one i n f ' ; 2k I b i d . , p. 13. 25 F r e i 1 l o n - P o n c e i n , as already mentioned, d e f i n i t e l y a s s o c i a t e s t h i s instrument w i t h dessus p a r t s . 120 one in c ' 1 ; the standard instrument i n f' ; one in c 1 ; and a bass i n 26 f. It i s probable that the recorder in P was c a l l e d t a i 1 l e because i t was the t h i r d l a r g e s t s i z e o f the f a m i l y . In Mersenne's time, on the other hand, the recorders were apparently named f o r the parts in the ensemble which they normally performed. The recorder was remodelled sometime i n the l a t e f o r t i e s or 27 e a r l y f i f t i e s . One would expect t h e r e f o r e that the instrument's new f u n c t i o n as a s o l o dessus instrument appeared s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . In L u l l y ' s b a l l e t s , then, i t may be assumed that a dessus part f o r recorder 28 r e q u i r e s performance on an instrument i n P . We may conclude, f u r t h e r , that the recorder in c' would be used p r i m a r i l y as a middle v o i c e in large ensembles, and not as a dessus instrument. When recorders other than the one i n f are required as dessus instruments, s p e c i a l i n d l c a -2Q t i o n s are r e q u i r e d . I f a dessus l i n e marked f l u t e descends below f , as we have already seen, i t probably requires r e a l i z a t i o n on a t r a n s -verse f l u t e , and not a recorder i n c'. These con c l u s i o n s w i l l be t e s t e d be 1ow. 26 This i s the same arrangement set f o r t h i n the Encyclopgdie (see footnote 5)- In a d d i t i o n a Grand Basse in C seems to have been used o c c a s i o n a l l y . See Eppelsheim: Op.C i t . , p. 81. 27 Anthony Baines (Op.C i t . , p. 277) maintains that the recorder represents Jean H o t t e t e r r e ' s e a r l i e s t success at woodwind remodelling. 28 Eppelsheim agrees with t h i s ; see Op,Cit., p. 78. 29 Eppelsheim (Op.C i t . , pp. 75~76) has found an i n t e r e s t i n g p r a c t i c e o f the eighteenth century, where, i f recorders other than those in f are r e q u i r e d , s p e c i a l dessus c l e f s are used. It i s u n c e r t a i n , of course, whether t h i s p r a c t i c e would be in e f f e c t during the second h a l f of the seventeenth century. 121 The Recorder in the e a r l y b a l l e t s of L u l l y The use of the recorder in L u l l y ' s b a l l e t o r c h e s t r a s i s much more wide-spread than that o f any other woodwind. No doubt, the i n s t r u -ment's good i n t o n a t i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y accounts f o r t h i s v e r s a t i l i t y . Being a woodwind instrument, the recorder, nonetheless, was not c o n s i -dered a standard o r c h e s t r a l p a r t i c i p a n t ; rather i t was employed, along w i t h oboes and bassoons, in the scenes de champetre or scenes de sommeil. It becomes c l e a r through studying instances of the recorder's treatment that only very r a r e l y i s an ensemble of recorders of d i f f e r e n t s i z e s used. Only the t r e b l e in f , w i t h the tenor in c', received regu-l a r employment. A major problem in determining the instrumentation in a sc&ne  de champetre i s the recorder's c l o s e a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the oboe. We have already seen that the l a t t e r instrument's use was almost e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h i n the context o f such scenes. The l i v r e t s accompanying the b a l l e t s more o f t e n than not o f f e r l i t t l e help in d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the two instruments, f o r the standard performers on the oboe — the H o t t e t e r r e s , Descouteaux, Destouches and Piesche -- were a l s o recorder p l a y e r s . In-deed, the recorder seems to have been the instrument which was common to every member of the Hautbois et Musettes de P o i t o u . There i s evidence, however, that P i e r r e Piesche and Francois Descouteaux were the two p r i -mary recorder players o f the E c u r i e . ^ P i e r r e Piesche i s given s p e c i a l mention in the King's accounts o f 1664, where he i s l i s t e d as the recorder p l a y e r in the Chambre du Ro?. (See M. Benoit: Muslques de Cour, P a r i s , 1971, p. 11). Descouteaux i s c i t e d by Benoit as being a great v i r t u o s o on the recorder. ( I b i d . ) 122 The range o f the dessus part in f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g s of a scene  de Champetre, o f course, i s sometimes h e l p f u l in d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between oboes and recorders; I f i t descends below f , oboes are probably r e -qu i r e d . The inner parts of such s e t t i n g s , however, are more problematic. Although the hautecontre parts r a r e l y descend below c 1 (the lower l i m i t of the tenor recorder's compass), the ta111e parts almost I n e v i t a b l y descend below t h i s tone. In the case of oboes, as we observed in Chap-t e r Two, the tenor instruments performed both hautecontre and ta? 1 l e 31 p a r t s . T h i s , however, i s not p o s s i b l e w i t h the tenor recorder. We may conclude, t h e r e f o r e , that the recorders i n f and c' were used only on the dessus and hautecontre 1ines, and that in f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g s , the three lower voices were n e c e s s a r i l y performed on other instruments. The abnormal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f recorders in L u l l y ' s f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g s makes the inference o f t h e i r use, i n the absence of s p e c i f i e d i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , very dangerous. For t h i s reason, only those e n t r i e s which d e f i n i t e l y s p e c i f y recorders ( i . e . ' f l u s t e s ' ) have been considered f o r t h i s study. It i s most l i k e l y that the employment of recorders i n L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s i s more ext e n s i v e than t h i s l i m i t e d sampling w i l l suggest. No scores a f t e r 1664 have been i n c l u d e d , to avoid the p o s s i b l e confusion between transverse f l u t e s and recorders. Five b a l l e t s contain s p e c i f i c references to recorders. They are: A l c i d l a n e (1658); La Ra ? 1 l e r i e (1659); Impatience (1661); We r e c a l l that s i n c e Mersenne's time, the tenor instrument in a woodwind f a m i l y was considered a p p r o p r i a t e f o r both hautecontre and t a i 1 l e p a r t s . 123 Amours Dgguisez (1664) and La Prin c e s s e d ' E l i d e (1664). The B a l l e t d ' A l c i d i a n e of I658 has been c i t e d a number of times fo r the prominence i t a f f o r d s a v a r i e t y of woodwinds. In the second entre"e o f Part I I I , recorders are to play a number e n t i t l e d '6 Bergers et 6 B e r g e r e s 1 . The 1 i v r e t , published in f a c s i m i l e by P r u n i e r e s , r e l a t e s : " T r o i s Bergers et autant de Bergeres de c e t t e heureuse Contrde... font avec p l u s i e u r s autres un Concert Rustique, auquel un choeur de F l u s t e s _~ et de p l u s i e u r s autres instrumens respondent...." T h i s , o f course, d e f i n i t e l y i n d i c a t e s that recorders p a r t i c i p a t e d . L i s t e d as the Concertans are: A l a i s , H o t t e t e r r e pere, 2 H o t t e t e r r e f i l s , Descouteaux, Brunet, Herbins, N i c o l a s , Jacques et Michel Destouches and P i e s c h e . 3 3 The upper parts of the f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g are given the f o l l o w -ing ranges: Part C l e f Range dessus g l 91 ~ b M - f l a t hautecontre c l e 1 - c' 1 t a i 1 l e c2 g - g' quint e c3 f - g' This arrangement c l e a r l y s u b s t a n t i a t e s our hypothesis that recorders in P normally play the dessus l i n e in L u l l y ' s f i v e - p a r t works, w h i l e c'-recorders perform the hautecontre p a r t . The 1 i v r e t , however, s t a t e d that a 'Choeur de f l u s t e s et de p l u s i e u r s autres instrumens' played t h i s entree. I f an e n t i r e ensemble o f recorders i s r e q u i r e d , then the rather Henry Prunieres ( e d i t . ) : Oeuvres Completes de Jean-Baptiste L u l l y , Tome I, p. 28 of f a c s i m i l e . 3 3 1 b l d -124 u n l i k e l y s i t u a t i o n of a bass recorder in f on both tai11e and quinte parts i s necessary. If on the other hand, a 'choir of recorders w i t h other instruments' i s intended, then recorders can simply be assigned the two upper p a r t s , the other l i n e s being performed by other i n s t r u -ments. The l a t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s probable, f o r , as we saw in Chap-t e r Two, oboes are l i k e l y to have been employed in t h i s e n t r i e . The subsequent number in the second e n t r i e i s c a l l e d ' A i r pour les mesmes'. We may th e r e f o r e assume that recorders again took p a r t . The f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g has the f o l l o w i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r the upper v o l c e s : Part C l e f Range dessus g l g' - b ' ' - f l a t hautecontre c l e' - e' 1 t a i 1 l e c2 f - g' quin t e c3 f - g' Again the only l i n e s a v a i l a b l e f o r recorders are the dessus and haute- contre , played on recorders i n f and c' r e s p e c t i v e l y . The second e n t r i e i s concluded w i t h a 'Troisieme A i r - G a v o t t e pour l e s mesmes'. It r e t a i n s the f i v e - p a r t s t r u c t u r e and g-m?nor t o n a l -i t y o f the two previous numbers. Once more, recorders in f and c' are to be employed on the two upper l i n e s . The f o l l o w i n g ranges are presen-ted: Part C l e f Range dessus g l g' - b ' ' - f l a t hautecontre c l d' - d 1 ' t a i 1 l e c2 g - g ' quinte c3 g - e ' - f l a t The use of the recorder in La R a l l l e r i e (1659), although w i t h -in the context of somewhat unusual s e t t i n g s , i s more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c than 125 was that In A l c i d i a n e . In the e i g h t h entre"e (pp. kO-k] in P h i l i d o r ' s copy), recorders are employed w i t h v i o l i n s and v o i c e s . The e n t r e e , which i s devoted to 'Les C o n t r e f a i s e u r s ' , contains a f i v e - p a r t r? t o u r - nel l e in g-minor. The dessus part of the r i t o u r n e l l e i s given a range of g' to b ' ' - f l a t , the hautecontre, one of b-natural to d1'.. It i s ob-vious that recorders are not employed on the hautecontre p a r t , f o r i t descends below the range of the tenor recorder in c'.. The subsequent re"c? t , f o r two bass v o i c e s , however, i s accompanied by two dessus parts which are given the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s : 'Premier dessus de V i o l -Ions et de f l u s t e s ' f o r the f i r s t ; and 'Deuxiesme dessus de V i o l Ions et de f l u s t e s 1 f o r the second. In t h i s s e c t i o n , the two dessus parts are given i d e n t i c a l ranges of g' to b ' ' - f l a t . At l e a s t two recorders in f are required f o r t h i s re*cit. Moreover, i t seems l i k e l y that the f i v e - p a r t r i t o u r n e l l e would a l s o ex-p l o i t the recorder's s o n o r i t y . Since the hautecontre l i n e o f the r i t o u r - nel l e descends to b - n a t u r a l , however, tenor recorders i n c' are not re-quired in t h i s entree. We may conclude that two f - r e c o r d e r s were em-ployed on the dessus part of the r i t o u r n e l l e , and that t h i s voice became d i v i s i at the commencement of the ric'\t, g i v i n g a s i n g l e v i o l i n and re-corder to each dessus p a r t . This p a t t e r n i s repeated f o r the second verse of the r£ci t , although the music i s s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d . In the f i v e - p a r t r i t o u r n e l l e , the hautecontre part t h i s time does l i e w i t h i n the compass of the tenor recorder, having a range of c' to a'. It i s most u n l i k e l y , however, that the Instrumentation e s t a b l i s h e d in the f i r s t verse of the r g c i t would be changed i n the second. Again the re"cl t Is accompanied by s p e c i f i e d 126 'premier et deuxiesme dessus' o f both v i o l i n s and rec o r d e r s , and again the ranges of the two dessus voices i s g' to b ' " - f l a t . The s o n o r i t y of the recorder i s employed once more in the l a s t number of the e i g h t h entre*e e n t i t l e d : 'Contrefa i seurs, pour les mesme'. The f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g features the dessus l i n e in a very prominent f a s h i o n . In bars 1 , 17-20, and 30-31 the o r c h e s t r a drops out, l e a v i n g only the dessus. Since the dessus parts of the previous number were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the use of v i o l i n s and rec o r d e r s , i t i s probable that s i m i l a r treatment i s required here. In g-minor, the dessus l i n e has a range o f f'-sharp to b ' ' - f l a t . The use of the recorder i n the e i g h t h entre"e of La Ra? 1 l e r i e c l e a r l y shows that the t r e b l e in f was c o n s i -dered the dominant member of the f a m i l y . The very f i r s t e n t r i e of Impat ience ( l66 l ) i s e n t i t l e d 'Un Grand qui donne une Serenade a sa M a i t r e s s e ' . According to Charles S i l i n , the 1 i v r e t spec? f i e s that the e n t r i e was accompanied by l u t e s , f l u t e s and v i o l i n s . Among the i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s are l i s t e d P i e s c h e , two 35 Descouteaux, three H o t t e t e r r e , P a i s i b l e , A l a i s and Destouches. The e a r l y date of the b a l l e t , o f course, assures us that the f l u t e s mentioned 36 by S i l i n are of the recorder type. The serenade i s composed of a f i v e -part o r c h e s t r a l r i t o u r n e l l e and re"cit -- 'Sommes nous pas trop heureux'. ^Benserade and h i s B a l l e t s de Cour, Maryland, 1940, p. 279. 3 5 l b i d . S i l i n ' s study i s e s s e n t i a l l y a l i t e r a r y one, rather than m u s i c o l o g i c a l . He t r a n s l a t e s ' f l u s t e ' as f l u t e throughout, attempting no d i s t i n c t i o n between recorders and transverse f l u t e s . 127 The upper voices o f the r? t o u r n e l l e are set up as f o l l o w s : Part C l e f Range dessus gl g 1 - c 1 1 1 hautecontre c l d 1 - d' 1 t a i 1 l e c2 g - a' quint e c3 9 - 9* Recorders in P would perform the dessus p a r t , w h i l e i t seems probable, as was the case i n A l c i d i a n e , that tenors i n c' would play the haute- contre . The remaining voices r e q u i r e r e a l i z a t i o n by e i t h e r v i o l i n s , l u t e s or both. The t h i r d entree of Part I I I o f the same b a l l e t i s f o r '8 Ch e v a l i e r s dansant sans V i o l Ions'. As we have seen e a r l i e r , the drama-t i c a c t i o n here re q u i r e s that the entrde begin before the v i o l i n s have tuned. T h i s , of course, n e c e s s i t a t e s the use of woodwinds; s i n c e r e -corders appear elsewhere in Impatience, i t i s most l i k e l y that they would be used at t h i s p o i n t . L u l l y arranges the f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g in g-minor in the f o l l o w i n g way: Part C l e f Range dessus g l g' - b ' ' - f l a t hautecontre c l e 1 - d' 1 t a i 1 l e c2 b - f l a t - a' quint e c3 e - f l a t - e ' - f l a t Once more, the dessus part would include recorders in f , w h i l e the hautecontre i s l i k e l y to have used tenors i n c ' . 3 7 As mentioned i n Chapter Two, there i s strong evidence that oboes a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d in The fact that the quinte part here descends to e - f l a t lends support to our premise that i t is un l ike ly that bass recorders performed the tai11e and quinte l i n e s , for here the quinte descends beyond the bass recorder 1 s range (low note: f ) . 128 t h 1 s entre"e. In Les Amours De"gulsez of 1664, the recorder i s employed i n a way most reminiscent of the instrument's treatment in La R a i 1 l e r i e . The i n t r o d u c t o r y m a t e r i a l of the b a l l e t includes a 'Simphonie [ s i c ] des A r t s des Graces et des P l a i s i r s ' . As i n d i c a t e d in the f i r s t chapter, the music concerns an a l l e g o r i c a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n between ' l e s A r t s ' on one hand, and 'les Graces et les P l a i s i r s ' on the o t h e r . The s e t t i n g i s in seven parts — tous — a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h a t r i o of two dessus instruments plus bass — doux. The 'extra' voices of the tous s e c t i o n are a d d i t i o n -al dessus and bass p a r t s ; nonetheless, only f i v e r e a l parts appear in t h i s s e c t i o n . The score contains e x p l i c i t I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the performance of the number. 'Les A r t s ' are represented by the tous s e c t i o n : "tous l e monde Joue". Representing 'Les Graces et Les P l a i s i r s ' i s the doux s e t t i n g : " I p a r t i s simple mesle* de f l u s t e s " . I t i s c l e a r that r e -corders in f — that i s dessus recorders -- are required i n both the seven- and three-part s e c t i o n s of the work. It can be seen moreover, that probably only two recorders were used, one f o r each part in the t r i o , and both instruments j o i n i n g the other dessus players i n the tous s e c t i o n . In g-major, the recorders of the tous are given a range of g' to b' 1; in the doux s e c t i o n s , the recorders have a compass of a n i n t h , f rom g' to a ' 1 . L a t e r in the same b a l l e t , in the e i g h t h e n t r e e , recorders are See page 205 in P h i l i d o r ' s copy of the b a l l e t . 129 used in a most i n t e r e s t i n g f a s h i o n . The second a i r of t h i s e n t r i e i s designated 'Concert de f l u s t e s pour les amours'. In g-minor, the s e t -t i n g shows a somewhat unusual arrangement: Part C l e f Range dessus g l f'-sharp - b ' ' - f l a t hautecontre c l c' - d 1 ' t a i 1 l e c2 g - g' basse fk D - b - f l a t The f a c t that t h i s 'Concert' i s i n only four parts s t r o n g l y suggests 3 9 that some s p e c i a l use of recorders i s d e s i r e d . It i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e that through t h i s arrangement L u l l y i s i n d i c a t i n g the i n c l u s i o n of a d d i -t i o n a l r e c o r d e r s . According to the e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n , of course, t r e b l e recorders in P would perform the dessus l i n e , w h i l e tenors i n c' would play the hautecontre. It i s l i k e l y t hat a bass recorder in f i s intended f o r the t a ? 1 l e p a r t . The bass v o i c e , however, descends f a r below the range of any recorder. Even i f we consider that the part i s w r i t t e n an octave lower than i t i s to sound, i t i s s t i l l out of the reach of the two a v a i l a b l e bass rec o r d e r s : the standard one i n f cannot de-scend to d; and the 'great bass' i n c, which would a l s o have to perform the part an octave higher than w r i t t e n , would have great d i f f i c u l t y reaching the high b ' - f l a t . We must conclude that the bass part was per-formed on e i t h e r ' c e l l o s , v i o l da gambas or bassoons, the l a t t e r being, perhaps, most l i k e l y . The upper p a r t s were probably played by recorders in f 1 , c' and f, r e s p e c t i v e l y . In no other b a l l e t s observed by the present author were f o u r -part instrumental pieces in evidence. 130 Immediately f o l l o w i n g t h i s f o u r - p a r t s e t t i n g f o r recorders i s a 'Sarabande pour les mesme1. The 'sarabande', however, i s once more i n the standard f i v e - p a r t arrangement. From t h i s we may conclude that the bass recorder in f, employed on the t a ? 1 l e part in the previous number, i s no longer r e q u i r e d . The upper parts of the 'Sarabande' are given the f o l l o w i n g ranges: Part C l e f Range -dessus gl g' - b ' ' - f l a t hautecontre c l d' - d' 1 t a i 1 l e c2 c' - g 1 q u i n t e c3 e - e' Treble recorders i n f are t h e r e f o r e required on the dessus l i n e , w h i l e tenors i n c' are l i k e l y to have performed the hautecontre. Two f i n a l instances of the use of recorders are to be found in La P r i n c e s s e d'ElIde (1664). The f i r s t e n t r i e of t h i s b a l l e t contains a 'Rondeau pour les F l u s t e s a l l a n t & l a t a b l e du R o i ' . According to the 40 1 i v r e t , v i o l i n s a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d in the rondeau. The dessus and haute- contre l i n e s of t h i s f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g are given ranges of g' to b " and d' to e' 1; these would be performed by recorders in f' and c' respec-t i v e l y . The s i x t h entre*e of La P r i n c e s s e d ' E l i d e i s f o r 'Les Bergers et l e s Faunes' , and a l s o involves the use of recorders. Prunieres quotes the 1 i v r e t f o r t h i s e n t r i e in h i s e d i t i o n of the work: "Pendant que ces aimables personnes dansoeint, i l s o r t i t de dessous le theatre l a machine d'un grand 40 See Henry Pr u n i e r e s : Op.C i t . , I I I , p. 11 131 arbre charge* de s e i z e Faunes, dont les h u i t jouerent de l a f l u t e et l e s autres du v i o l o n avec un concert le plus agreable du monde. Trente v i o l o n s l e u r r e -pondoient de l ' o r c h e s t r e , avec s i x autres concertants de c l a v e c i n s de the"orbes qui e*toient les s i e u r s d'Anglebert, R i c h a r d , I t i e r , La Barre l e cadet, T i s s u et l e Moine."'*1 The four upper v o i c e s i n t h i s f i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g i n b - f l a t major have the f o l l o w i n g ranges: Part C l e f Range dessus g l f' - b 1 1 - f l a t hautecontre c l d' - d' 1 t a i 1 l e c2 b - f l a t - a' qu i n t e c3 e - f l a t - d' The standard arrangement with recorder i n P on the dessus, and tenor in c' on the hautecontre i s c l e a r l y in e f f e c t here. Through even t h i s l i m i t e d sampling of the recorder's use i n L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s , i t can be seen t h a t t h i s instrument was, perhaps, the most f r e q u e n t l y employed o f the woodwinds. The re c o r d e r , of course, was to r e t a i n i t s p o p u l a r i t y w e l l i n t o the eighteenth century, although there can be l i t t l e doubt that the tra n s v e r s e f l u t e was becoming domi-nant as e a r l y as c.1700. The reason f o r the recorder's e x t e n s i v e use in L u l l y ' s b a l l e t s i s best e x p l a i n e d by i t s c o n s i s t e n t l y good i n t o n a t i o n . As l a t e as 1713 Mattheson described the recorder as the only woodwind that could be kl played i n tune in any key. As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , however, the r e -k] . . ' b ' d - » P- 63. Large instrumental forces are obviously em-ployed m th is entree. The eight pa r t i c ipa t ing recorder players probab-ly arranged themselves with four performers on both the dessus and haute-contre l i n e s . C i t e d by Edgar Hunt: Op.Cit., p. 82. 132 corder in P , e s p e c i a l l y , was b e s t - s u i t e d to f l a t keys. This preference i s c e r t a i n l y evidenced in L u l l y ' s use of the instrument: of the t h i r -teen examples stu d i e d in t h i s chapter, eleven were in f l a t keys — ten in g-minor and one in b - f l a t major; w h i l e only two examples were i n sharp keys, both in g-major. The recorder, besides e x h i b i t i n g the best i n t o n a t i o n of the e a r l y woodwinds, had a range that was comparable to both f l u t e s and oboes. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g that the upper extent o f the recorder's com-pass was completely ignored by L u l l y . On only one o c c a s i o n , i n the B a l l e t de 1'Impatience (1661), d i d the f - i n s t r u m e n t ' s p a r t ascend to c' 1'. C u r i o u s l y , in seven out of the t h i r t e e n instances analyzed the range employed was g' to b ' ' - f l a t . The lower and middle range of the recorder, we may conclude, was thought most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the r e -corder's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o n o r i t y . The recorder was employed in a great v a r i e t y of ensembles. It was employed w i t h s t r i n g s in l a r g e , f i v e - p a r t ensembles, such as in the s i x t h entree of La Prin c e s s e d ' E l i d e (1664). In La R a ? 1 l e r i e (1659) the recorder was observed as a s o l o dessus instrument w i t h s i n g l e v i o -l i n s . . It was a l s o in La R a i l l e r i e that the recorder was used to accom-pany vocal re"ci t s . We r e c a l l that F r e i 1 lon-Poncein, in 1700, s t a t e d that the recorder was " 1'instrument qui convient le mieux aux Accom-43 pagnements des v o i x " . The woodwind most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e -corder has been shown to be the oboe; on two occasions -- in A l c i d i a n e Op.C ? t . , p. 13 133 ( I 658 ) and Impatience (1661) -- the two woodwinds were used together. The most unusual use of the recorders occurred, of course, in Les Amours De"gu?sez (1664). In the e i g h t h entre"e of t h i s b a l l e t a f o u r -part s e t t i n g f o r recorders was observed. It has been shown that t r e b l e , tenor and bass recorders p a r t i c i p a t e d in t h i s number, w h i l e the f o u r t h part was probably played by bassoons. Under normal circumstances, only two s i z e s of recorder appear to have been used by L u l l y — the t r e b l e in P , and the tenor i n c'. Two other i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the recorder's use, however, cannot be ruled out. It i s not impossible that only recorders i n f were used, being scored on the dessus l i n e alone. Since from four to e i g h t players are u s u a l l y l i s t e d in the 1?vrets, however, t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would r e s u l t i n a t e x t u r e which would be rather top-heavy. A second p o s s i b i -l i t y i s the i n c l u s i o n o f bass recorders i n f on the t a ? 1 l e l i n e in f i v e -part s e t t i n g s . Although t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may not be d i s c a r d e d , i t seems to be u n l i k e l y . F i r s t of a l l , a bass instrument p l a y i n g a part marked t a i 1 l e would be somewhat unusual. Secondly, as we n o t i c e d in Les  Amours De"guisez when L u l l y does want a bass recorder, s p e c i a l i n d i c a t i o n s appear, suggesting t h a t , normally, the bass instrument i s not r e q u i r e d . I r r e s p e c t i v e of the number of recorders used by L u l l y , i t i s obvious that the t r e b l e in f was the dominant instrument; t t was t h i s instrument which received s o l o and t r i o s e t t i n g s in the b a l l e t s . The recorder's treatment has shown that the instrument was only r a r e l y given s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Its frequent employment, however, i s a good ex-ample of L u l l y ' s understanding of the p o t e n t i a l of woodwind colour w i t h -in the o r c h e s t r a . CONCLUSIONS To f u l l y understand the nature of mid-seventeenth-century woodwinds, a study of t h e i r use in the e a r l y b a l l e t s of Jean-B a p t i s t e L u l l y i s e s s e n t i a l . Through the medium of the b a l l e t s one may gain va l u a b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s -- f o r example, the s e r v i c e a b l e ranges — of the woodwinds. More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the employment of bassoons, oboes, f l u t e s and recorders f r e q u e n t l y demon-s t r a t e s how these instruments were regarded by the composers and musi-cians of the time. It has been shown that the woodwinds w i t h which t h i s study i s concerned underwent remodelling in France during the middle decades of the seventeenth century. Since t h e o r e t i c a l sources d e a l i n g w i t h these instruments are completely l a c k i n g from c.1640 to c .1680, musical e v i -dence of t h e i r use i n the b a l l e t s assumes paramount importance. L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s have provided examples of the e a r l i e s t use of two remodelled woodwinds — the oboe' and the f l u t e . With r e -spect to the l a t t e r , t h i s study has made i t p o s s i b l e to put back the date 2 of the remodel led f l u t e ' s f i r s t appearance by from ten to f i f t e e n y ears. The remodelled recorder and bassoon, moreover, are l i k e l y to have r e -ceived t h e i r f i r s t s tandardized treatment in the ensembles o f L u l l y ' s In the B a l l e t de 1'Amour Malade (1657); see Joseph Marx: "The tone o f the Baroque Oboe", Galpin S o c i e t y J o u r n a l , IV, p. 14. In the B a l l e t des Muses (1666); see Chapter 3, footnote 45. 135 b a l l e t o r c h e s t r a . Of the n i n e t e e n b a l l e t s c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h i s s t u d y , a s m a l l number have emerged as o f p r i m a r y s i g n i f i c a n c e , owing t o the p r o m i -nence they a f f o r d woodwind i n s t r u m e n t s . L 'Amour Ma lade ( 1 6 5 7 ) and Les  Muses ( 1 6 6 6 ) , o f c o u r s e , must be s i n g l e d o u t as m i l e s t o n e s , owing to t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the new oboes and f l u t e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l c i d i a n e ( 1 6 5 8 ) , h o w e v e r , made more use o f woodwinds than any o t h e r b a l l e t : n i n e numbers f rom t h i s p r o d u c t i o n i n v o l v e d e i t h e r r e c o r d e r s , oboes o r b a s s o o n s . The b a l l e t , La G r o t t e de V e r s a i l l e s o f 1 6 6 8 , w i t h i t s e x t e n s i v e e m p l o y -ment o f b o t h f l u t e s and b a s s o o n s , d e s e r v e s s p e c i a l m e n t i o n . As one would e x p e c t , the l a t e r b a l l e t s e x p l o i t e d woodwinds more and more f r e q u e n t l y . The i m p o r t a n c e o f m u s i c , (and t h e r e f o r e woodwind i n s t r u m e n t s ) in the b a l l e t s c a n n o t be o v e r - e m p h a s i z e d . The k n o w l e d g e a b l e p a t r o n s o f t h e s e s p e c t a c l e s o f t e n took g r e a t p a i n s t o d e s c r i b e in d e t a i l the p r o -d u c t i o n s they had w i t n e s s e d . A s p e c t a t o r a t the p r e m i e r e o f L ' A m o u r  Ma lade (1657) w r i t e s : " L a , s ' e n t e n d e n t des H a r m o n i e s , Dont l e s d o u c e u r s p r e s q u e i n f i n i e s , Proce*dent des a c o r s charmans De p l u s de s o i x a n t e Ins t rumans A v e c l e s v o i x r a r e s e t b e l l e s , _ De t r o i s males e t t r o i s f d m e l l e s . . . . " Seven y e a r s l a t e r , the same g e n t l e m a n s a y s o f the m u s i c o f L e s Amours D d g u i s e z (1664) : C i t e d by C h a r l e s S i l i n : B e n s e r a d e and h i s B a l l e t s de C o u r , M a r y l a n d , 1 9 4 0 , p . 2 6 2 . The a f f e c t e d l a n g u a g e o f t h i s l e t t e r i s t y p i c a l o f the g rande s i e c l e . The r e f e r e n c e t o s i x t y i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s i s , no d o u b t , an e x a g g e r a t i o n . 136 "11 s'y f i t des Concerts s i rares Q u ' i l s eussent touche" des Barbares, On chanta quatre ou cinq R e c i t s Qui tenoient tous nos sens s u r c i s Ces t r o i s aimables Demoiselles, Qui sont s i bonnes C h a n t e r e l l e s , Dont tu vo i s les noms 3 cofe", ^ N'avoient jamais s i bien chante*." Although i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s are r a r e l y s i n g l e d out in these l e t t e r s , the l a v i s h p r a i s e a f f o r d e d the music in general i n d i c a t e s that the p e r f o r -mances were of a high standard. With the exception o f only one or two instances,"' woodwinds c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y entered the o r c h e s t r a s near the c o n c l u s i o n s o f drama-t i c u n i t s in the b a l l e t s . In these large ensemble f i n a l e s , woodwind s o n o r i t i e s are both j o i n e d t o , and contras t e d w i t h that o f the normal s t r i n g o r c h e s t r a . The p r i n c i p l e o f a l t e r n a t i o n i s , indeed, a prominent feat u r e o f L u l l y ' s o r c h e s t r a l technique.*^ " I b i d . , p. 329-"'Notably Les Nopces de Vi 1 lage (1663) and 1 ' Impatience (1661), where oboes and record e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , are used in the i n i t i a l e n t r i e s . ^There i s strong evidence that the p r i n c i p l e s of 'grand'vs. ' p e t i t choeur' are i n fo r c e . d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s . This technique, e x p l o i t e d e x t e n s i v e l y in French o r c h e s t r a l music of the la t e seventeenth and e a r l y eighteenth c e n t u r i e s , employed a standard group of s o l o performers which was contrasted w i t h the tous, or f u l l o r c h e s t r a . The normal p e t i t choeur o f the eighteenth century included continuo instruments, along w i t h two v i o l i n s and two f l u t e s . Since transverse f l u t e s do not f i g u r e in L u l l y ' s e a r l i e r b a l l e t s , the e a r l i e r p r a c t i c e c l e a r l y e x i s t s in a somewhat v a r i e d .format. In La Ra?1ler?e (1659) and La Grotte de Versa? 1les (1668), the markings f [ o r t ] , d[oux] with*$. and X occur r e g u l a r l y . In a d d i t i o n , a number of e n t r i e s scored f o r f i v e parts in La Ra?1ler?e are headed w i t h ' t a c e t ' . It i s obvious that the o r c h e s t r a l t e x t u r e was f r e q u e n t l y a l t e r e d i n L u l l y ' s b a l l e t s . Woodwinds must have played an important r o l e in these v a r i a t i o n s . 137 Woodwind instruments are used i n r u s t i c and i d y l l i c scenes with p r e d i c t a b l e r e g u l a r i t y . Within such sterotyped s i t u a t i o n s , however, they p a r t i c i p a t e in a great v a r i e t y of ensembles. F i v e - p a r t s e t t i n g s , of course, are most common; but i n three-part ensembles the Instruments seem to r e c e i v e t h e i r most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c treatment. Four-part, s i x -and even seven-part s e t t i n g s are a l s o apparent, when the instrumental forces are augmented by v o i c e s , or s p e c i a l instruments, such as trumpets and drums. L u l l y ' s use of woodwinds, however, i s more than an essay in o r c h e s t r a l c o l o u r . Besides p r o v i d i n g the necessary musical accompani-ments, the instruments and t h e i r p l a y e r s a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d in the drama-t i c a c t i o n of the b a l l e t s . In an e f f o r t to lend u n i t y to the d i s p a r a t e elements o f these productions musicians were c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the dancers. To t h i s end, i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s , d i s g u i s e d and masked, were u s u a l l y f i r s t to march on stage, w h i l e p l a y i n g the i n i t i a l musical numbers of the b a l l e t . 7 They then assumed t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , o f t e n moving to a l o c a t i o n where they could be employed as a part of the u n f o l d i n g drama. An example o f musi-cians p l a y i n g e s s e n t i a l r o l e s in the a c t i o n of the b a l l e t occurs i n Les  Nopces de Vi 1 lage (1663). A f t e r the opening ouverture and r e " c i t , the b r i d e and groom make t h e i r f i r s t appearance. V i o l i n s and oboes l i t e r a l l y lead them on to the stage, j u s t as the l l v r e t e x p l a i n s . The involvement of musicians i n the a c t i o n i s at times even S i l i n : Op.Git., p. 191. 138 more e x p l i c i t . S i l i n r e l a t e s : "Sometimes the musicians impersonate d e f i n i t e r o l e s and are given costumes representing T r i t o n s , S i r e n s , Fauns, F u r i e s , Nymphs, or whatever the subject of the b a l l e t c a l l s f o r . In such cases they are o f t e n part of the mise  en scene, appearing in n i c h e s , in g r o t t o e s , on palace b a l c o n i e s , or perched on c h a r i o t s , c l o u d s , s h i p s , or animals. T h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the drama, then, g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e d to the au-dience's a p p r e c i a t i o n and understanding o f the p l o t . J u s t as the s t o r i e s and themes of the b a l l e t s were created and understood on a number of l e v e l s , L u l l y ' s use of woodwinds in various entrees had many symbolic connotations. In a genre that t h r i v e s on myth and a l l e g o r y , i t i s only n a t u r a l that a number o f set symbols and patterns should emerge. Instruments, too, were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these p a t t e r n s . In simple terms, v i o l i n s , v i o l s , l u t e s , theorboes and c l a v e c i n s represented i n t a n g i b l e s — the gods, emotions or s p i r i t s , f o r example — w h i l e instruments, such as bassoons, oboes, f l u t e s and r e c o r d e r s , were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n a t u r a l or ' r e a l ' events. It i s f o r t h i s reason, of course, that we c o n s i s t e n t l y encountered woodwinds in i d y l l i c scenes and scenes de champetre. Not only were double reeds and f l u t e s the instruments of the country d w e l l e r s , but they were a l s o i l l u s t r a t i v e o f human a c t i v i t y . A c l e a r example of instrumental symbolism occurs in Les Amours  De"guisez of 1664. The opening argument, we r e c a l l , i n v o l v e s a confron-I b i d . , pp. 191-192. 139 t a t i o n between Les A r t s and Les Graces et les P l a i s i r s . P r e d i c t a b l y , Les A r t s are accompanied by the f u l l s t r i n g o r c h e s t r a , w h i l e Les Graces et les P l a i s i r s are scored f o r ' p a r t i s simple mesle' de f l u s t e s ' . To the seventeenth-century Frenchmen, o b v i o u s l y , a r t was a m y s t i c a l l i n k w i t h 9 the s p i r i t u a l world. Graces and p l e a s u r e s , on the other hand, were man-imposed phenomena. Seen in t h i s l i g h t , L u l l y ' s o r c h e s t r a t i o n i s h i g h l y r e f i n e d and most s u b t l e in nature. L u l l y was, above a l l , a p r a c t i c a l musician. His immediate grasp of the remodelled woodwind's p o t e n t i a l i s a c r e d i t to h i s c r e a t i v e c a p a b i l i t y ; nonetheless, i t i s c e r t a i n that he would not j e o p a r d i z e h i s r e p u t a t i o n at court by i n t r o d u c i n g instrumental f o r c e s w i t h which he was u n f a m i l i a r . Although L'Amour Malade and Les Muses represent important f i r s t s in the o r c h e s t r a l use of woodwinds, we can be sure that both oboes and f l u t e s were heard s o c i a l l y , i f not p u b l i c l y , before t h e i r i n c l u s i o n in L u l l y ' s o r c h e s t r a . Documentation concerning the i n i t i a l appearances of the r e -modelled oboe i s almost non - e x i s t e n t . In the case of the f l u t e , however, we have seen that P h i l i b e r t already had gained c o n s i d e r a b l e renown through his concerts at Jean Brunet.'s s o c i a l gatherings when he entered the records of the Grande Ec u r i e in 1667. It i s l i k e l y that a l l the remodel-led woodwinds underwent s i m i l a r stages o f ' i n d o c t r i n a t i o n ' . L u l l y ' s employment of the new instruments, moreover, depended on the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f competent performers. I t seems to be more than See Robert Isherwood: Music in the S e r v i c e of the King, I t h i c a , New York, 1973, Chapter 1, f o r an enlightened d i s c u s s i o n of French musical a e s t h e t i c s under the Roi S o l e l l . 140 coincidence that the f i r s t mention i n Court records of such players as Jean H o t t e t e r r e w i t h h i s sons, and Descouteaux i s 1657 — that i s , the year that Amour Ma lade was produced, and the year of the e a r l i e s t known p u b l i c performance on the new oboe. S i m i l a r l y , P h i l i b e r t ' s f i r s t ap-pearance at court occurs w i t h the production of Les Muses in 1666. '^ C l e a r l y , L u l l y chose h i s instruments and performers w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shrewdness. This study of woodwind treatment i n L u l l y ' s e a r l y b a l l e t s has n e c e s s a r i l y employed a l i m i t e d amount of source m a t e r i a l . A more com-prehensive documentation o f t h i s treatment i s c e r t a i n l y p o s s i b l e . Cor-r e l a t i n g P h i l i d o r ' s copies of the f u l l scores w i t h the numerous extant o r c h e s t r a l p a r t s , and the P h i l i d o r c o l l e c t i o n at St. Michael's C o l l e g e in Tenbury, would provide the a d d i t i o n a l documentation. Access to a complete corpus o f the b a l l e t 1 i v r e t s , moreover, i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a thorough understanding o f L u l l y ' s use o f woodwinds. It has been p o s s i b l e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , to come to a number o f conclusions concerning L u l l y ' s employment of four woodwinds. Although we have seen that the composer's use of bassoons, oboes, f l u t e s and r e -corders Is more extensive than h i t h e r t o b e l i e v e d , and although we have found c o n s i d e r a b l e s u b t l e t y and nuance in the instrumentation o f the b a l l e t s , Adam Carse's assessment of L u l l y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the e s t a -blishment o f standard o r c h e s t r a l p r a c t i c e , shows much i n s i g h t . Carse Derpmhpr n l0 ] c t c C h l O n o ] $ l ? a ] P r o b , e m s o f Muses, which premiered in December of 1666, but which was performed u n t i l February, 1667 have been discussed in Chapter 3. / » / , < = 141 c o n c l u d e s : " I n v i e w o f t he o p p o r t u n i t i e s e n j o y e d by L u l l ? h i s o r c h e s t r a t i o n seems u n e n t e r p r i z i n g and more a m a t t e r o f r o u t i n e t h a n o f a r t i s t i c i m p u l s e ; bu t as an examp le t o o t h e r s t h a t v e r y q u a l i t y no doub t had i t s v a l u e i n h e l p i n g t o s t a b i l i z e and c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e some p r i n -c i p l e s w h i c h we re n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f o r c h e s t r a t i o n . " 1 1 Adam C a r s e : H i s t o r y o f O r c h e s t r a t i o n , 1925, p . 88. 142 MUSICAL SOURCES The f o l l o w i n g scores from the Col l e c t i o n Phi 1Idor, B l b l l o t h e q u e  Natlonale de P a r i s have been consulted: A l c l d i a n e (1658): RSs. F. 507-Amour Malade, 1' (1657): Re's. F. 519-Amour Mddecln, 1 1 (1665): Re's. F. 523. Amours De"sguisez, les (1664): Re's. F. 511. A r t s , les (1663): Re's. F. 654. Bourgeois Gentilhomme, l e (1670): Rds. F. 657 ( f o l i o 63). F l o r e (1669): R£s. F. 515. Grotte de V e r s a i l l e s , l a (1668): Re's. F. 532. Impatience, 1' (1661): Re's. F. 509. Jeux P i t h i e n s , les (1670): Re's. F. 657 ( f o l i o 101). Marriage Force -, l e (1664): R6s. F. 512. Monsieur de Pourceaugnac (1669): Re's. F. 657 ( f o l i o 51). Muses, les (1666): Re's. F. 521. Naissance de Venus, l a (1665): Re's. F. 513. Nopces de V i l l a g e , les (I663): Re's. F. 653. P l a i s i n s Trouble's, les (1657): Re's. F. 530. 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