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A critical old-spelling edition of Thomas Middleton’s Honorable entertainments (1621) and An invention… Hill, Brian H. W. 1974

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A CRITICAL OLD-SPELLING EDITION OF THOMAS MIDDLETON HONORABLE ENTERTAINMENTS ( l 6 2 l ) AND "AN INVENTION" (1622) by Brian Herbert William H i l l B.A., University of Victoria, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of English;. We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 19?^ In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make I t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date i i ABSTRACT The aim of this edition is to bring together the surviving examples of civic interludes in such a format and manner as to make them accessible to a reader familiar with Renaissance language and printing conventions. It is a conservative edition which preserves, as far as possible, the original spelling and punctuation which reflect the eccentricities of Middleton's MS habits. At the same time i t seeks to sort out problems such as the song in Entertainment Seven, and to present the material with some consistency of form. The f i r s t ten entertainments of this edition are from a unique printed volume in the Huntington Library and the final entertainment i s from a MS preserved amongst the Conway Papers at the Public Record Office. Together these provide the only surviving examples of civic interludes for this period. The introductory material attempts f i r s t to define civic pageantry and then to set the edited entertainments within an artistic and historical tradition, At the same time i t tries to explore the more topical themes represented in them. Primarily, the value of this edition lies in that i t presents material hitherto not available in > one edition* i i i CONTENTS GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1 THE ENTERTAINMENTS 12 Entertainment One ..........16 Entertainment Two ..19 Entertainment Three 23 Entertainment Four. . . . . . . 2 5 Entertainment Five ........28 Entertainment Six 29 Entertainment Seven. 3° Entertainment Eight 32 Entertainment Nine. 35 Entertainment Ten 39 Entertainment Eleven ^3 TEXTUAL INTRODUCTION 48 History and State of the Huntington Copy of Middleton's "Honorable Entertainments" h& History and State of the MS 55 This Edition... 58 FOOTNOTES 6l THE TEXT.... ...............69 TEXTUAL AND CRITICAL NOTES: Form and Abbreviations 121 TEXTUAL NOTES. .123 CRITICAL NOTES . . . . . 1 2 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY 14-2 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS During my research I have been fortunate in being allowed access to the resources of the Public Record Office, the Huntington Library, the British Library (formerly the British Museum Dept. of Printed Books) and the Guildhall Library. I am grateful for the co-operation they have shown me. I wish also to acknowledge the help of Mr. F.W. Torrington who gave me access to his extensive private collection of parliamentary and political material of the period. The opinions and inaccuracies expressed here are mine and I take f u l l and sole responsibility for them. Many of the ideas however, are based on discussions with my advisor, Dr. J.H. Kaplan, and I am much in his debt. His encouragement and help, especially with some textual problems, make the final work far better and more accurate than i t might otherwise have been. 1 The ephemeral drama of the Renaissance and seventeenth century has become Increasingly Important to scholars and critics in their attempts to arrive at an understanding of the popular stage of that period and the social and political concerns both of the people for whom such drama was produced and of those who witnessed i t . As an aspect of this drama, civic pageantry has always enjoyed the atten-tion of a few scholars. Generally, attention has focused on royal entries into London and Lord Mayor pageants. The existence of Thomas Middleton's Honorable Entertainments, however, would seem to indicate that civic pageantry did not cease after the Lord Mayor's inaugur-ation on the 29th of October and that not a l l such pageantry was presented outside in the streets. The meaning of pageant given in the OSD is "a tableau, repre-sentation, allegorical device ... erected on a fixed stage or carried in a moving car, as a public show ... device, or temporary structure, exhibited as a feature of a public triumph or celebration." David Bergeron in English Civic Pageantry supplies a similar definition: Civic pageantry refers to entertainments that, like the public theatre of Shakespeare's time, were generally accessible to the public, as contrasted with the private theatres or the court masques. The involvement of the trade guilds and the cities in the preparation and pro-duction of many of these entertainments also accounts for the *civic* nature of the shows. Such pageants always occurred outdoors and frequently took place in city sIi.gets. The designation, 'pageantry*, is moreover restricted, in this study, to planned entertainments with a clear craaatlc purpose. Like the masque, the civic pageant was designed for a specific occasionj when the occasion ended, so did the dramatic l i f e of the pageant.1 He sees civic pageantry made up of "outdoor dramatic shows presented for the sovereigns while on provincial tour or 'progresses'", the 2 royal entry to the city, and the Lord Mayor's pageant. Although; Bergeron's book i s the most recent study of the subject and very 2 detailed, his arbitrary limiting of civic pageantry as a term applying only to an outdoor show can be misleading. Of the eleven entertain-ments included in this edition, only three were written to be performed outdoors. The other eight pieces, although written and produced for the Lord "Mayor and Aldermen and even dedicated to them, do not f i t into Bergeron's definition. As these entertainments f u l f i l l a l l his other conditions except possibly the general access to them given the public, i t becomes necessary to deviate from his definition for the purposes of considering their political, social, and dramatic importance. T o understand fully "the relationship between the different forms of civic pageantry, however, the evolution of the form and the influences upon i t must be examined. The antecedents of civic pageantry are not clear but they seem to be secular rather than overtly religious, i f this dichotomy can be said to exist in the medieval period. Glynne Wickham sees the principal sources of civic processions as stemming from the Roman 'triumph' and the royal entry. He dismisses the traditional theory of the development of these processions from the Corpus Christi processions and sees both as parallel developments. Whether or not one sees their development from a religious or a secular source, the effect of civic pageants was secular. The possibilities for propaganda in civic pageantry are well analyzed in Sydney Anglo's book, Spectacle, Pageantry, and Early Tudor  Policy,^ The use of spectacle for political and propagandistic ends was not confined to the Tudor period, however, as might be gathered from this book. The propaganda which does exist post-1603 i s for the most part, though, an unconscious manifestation of a middle class developing some independence from external sovereignty as represented by the church and the King. This social group had arisen by aggressive commercialism and was, by the 1620's, a financial power which church and state had to recognize. More particularly, these pageants became vehicles for the rivalry between the twelve great livery companies of London, from one of which the Lord Mayor was elected, and whose res-ponsibility i t was for that year, to present and pay for the pageant. In royal entries, other instances of the uses to which pageantry was put are illustrated by the number of displays produced by various foreign groups interested in improving or sustaining good relations. In the entry made by James I on his coronation in l60^,^both the Italians and the Dutch presented pageants in hope of promoting better 7 trade and diplomatic relations. Ultimately however, the civic procession owes i t s beginnings to the relationship between ruler and subject and was a. representation of that relationship. The manifestation of %he 'ruler*, either sov-ereign or mayor, had the effect of reinforcing the ruler's authority over his subjects. The pomp and splendour befitted his station and the citizens were expected to turn out in their livery and observe the strictest discipline. A l l this ceremony and ritual re-affirmed understood strictures in society and gave the citizens a sense of pride in the worth of their city and nation. While these pageants were originally used as an example of the sovereignty of the ruler, they gradually came to represent the sovereignty ox- independence of the city from the King. This survives to this day in that the monarch must remain a visitor to the city of London and on ceremonial occasions he must wait to be invited to enter the city. The development of civic pageantry not only parallels the development of the Corpus Christ! processions and other pageantry in the pre-reformation church hut also courtly pageantry such as the g masque. The relationship between the masque and civic pageantry i s hard to determine with any certainty and few commentators have gone beyond the most superficial observations which may be made about technique. Both the masque and the civic pageant achieved artistic maturity in the early seventeenth century. Although the city occasionally presented a masque and the king s t i l l went on progresses, the two species of draaa had by this time become identifiable with the two social groups with whom they were most popular. The court was inter-ested mainly in its own entertainment and the masque provided for this. The city, however, s t i l l felt the need to manifest its wealth and authority in outward show. Unlike the earlier mystery cycles where the guilds spent effort and money to glorify religion and the church, the civic pageant was for the glory of the city and its representatives. The London middle class had not held power long and did not take i t for granted. Their use of pageantry is comparable to the royal pro-gress as i t was developed by the early Tudors to re-unite the various 9 sections of England after the c i v i l wars. If anything, the civic pageant was the city's answer to the masque, and there seems to have been a rivalry of sorts, both literary and financial, to produce the most sumptuous a f f a i r . ^ In such an atmosphere borrowing was inevit-able and a l l the more so since many of the dramatists of the age were writing for both the court and the city. The difference between the two forms lies in the 'ruler' concept mentioned earlier. The masque owed its longevity and existence, to rulers who enjoyed i t , James not only supplied the circumstances for the masque to flourish, but his taste directly influenced i t s develop-5 ment. This occurred gradually and is the result of a single author-itive personality. A new Lord Mayor of London was elected every year, however, and so one man's influence on the pageants was limited. The masque was a direct reflection of the sovereign whereas the civic pageant wa3 a reflection of the new middle class as represented by London and the Lord Mayor. It is significant thatjwhile constantly petitioning the crown for control and suppression of the theaters and acting companies, the city continued with ever Increasingly ex-pensive and spectacular pageants. These were not vain amusements but rather an assertion of wealth and pride both in the nation and In the city and what i t represented. Stylistically, the dramatic form which shows the closest re-semblance to both the masque and the pageant i s the dumb show. The dramatic element present in the dumb show is action and in this respect i t differs considerably from the other two more static forms. It is in their use of emblematic presentation that the three forms are similar. The relationship of the dumb show to both the masque and civic pageantry has been observed and described by both Wickham in Early English Stages 11 and Dieter Mehl in The Elizabethan Dumb Show. Generally, the dumb show presents a moral story in mime, often with an accompanying descrip-tion and exposition provided by a presenter. This was for the general edification of the audience and functions in a similar manner to commentaries given about objects such as tapestries in some moral interludes. While pageants often share the same method of presentation ^ -as the dumb show, they had their focus on the ruler or mayor, both flattering and instructing by idealizing him. The popularity of the masque, civic pageant, and dumb show, suggests that the medieval 'tableau vivant' s t i l l had immense appeal even in 6 this later period. The costs involved in producing these affairs were a considerable drain on the resources of both citizen and king alike. Love of spectacle and political motivations account for their popularity in part, but the emblematic structure of the pageants must have had great appeal apart from these other considerations. Emblem-/ atic presentation was a technique which had evolved from medieval concepts of art and pedagogy. In a largely illiterate society, com-plex concepts had been best conveyed visually and thi3 had ultimately led to the often rather esoteric emblems of seventeenth century pageantry. The adjective 'emblematic' is used frequently in describing civic pageantry and i t has even been said that "pageantry i s itsel f the 12 quintessence of emblematic art". Bergeron recognizes this and pro-vides an excellent commentary on the adaptation of the emblem to civic 13 pageantry. J He sees the emblem as having a tripartite composition, made up of the picture,the motto, and the verse commentary. This arrangement occurs in the civic pageant as well as the emblem books. In commenting on the fascination of the period for emblem books, Rosemary Freeman observes: Emblem books depended for their existence upon the validity of these allegorical ways of thinking j they depended also upon a close interrelation between the arts of poetry and p>i painting* While poetry was regarded as 'a speaking picture* and painting as *dumb poetry*, the emblem convention, in which poem and picture were complementary to each other, could flourish. 1** Civic pageantry i s not a development from emblem books, however, but rather both were strongly influenced by the earlier morality dramas. That their natures are closely akin is beyond dispute but this only accounts for the more literary and less dramatic side of pageantry. It i s to the moral interlude that much of the form of pageantry may be traced. The pageants in the Lord Mayor's progress, when taken 7 separately, show not only a resemblance to emblems but also to the short pieces presented during pauses in a banquet. Few of these have come down to us but there are descriptions from which we may determine how they were performed. In the interlude the relationship of actor to audience and setting i s thoroughly exploited. Members of the audience were often singled out or the audience was addressed directly as a group. This practice arose out of the close proximity in which actors and audience found themselves in the banquet ing area. If movement was called for the actors would just ask members of the audience to make way. Sets could not be easily used unless they were something which already existed in the room or hall, such as doorways and galleries. The room became a stage and the audience was situated on i t with the actors. The connection with the banquet served to limit the interlude in » terms of time and action. These restrictions meant that theme was concentrated upon instead of plot and argument instead of narrative. The same restrictions apply to pageantry and with the same results. A further temporal restriction is applied by the occasional nature of pageantry. Though there are instances of old pageants being refurbished and used again, this was rare and most were written and built for one 17 performance only. The banquet, besides determining and time and space in which the interlude had to be presented, also contributed atmosphere. The audience was in a festive mood and required a. lot of pleasure with the moral instruction which the interlude was supposed to provide. This may be partly the reason for the gradual secularizing of the earlier Tudor interlude and the popularity of the vice figure. Feasting also had 8 an important place in civic ceremony. It represented harmony and ' 18 plenty in a real sense as well as symbolically. In both outdoor and indoor entertainments, both the conviviality and the formal ceremony of the occasions being observed are reflected in the entertainments which were presented. An important element in any dramatic presentation is the audience. The importance of this element in pageantry has been largely underestimated in recent commentary. The 'crowd's' inter-est in these affairs is usually thought of as a concern for spectacle. Wickham goes as far as to suggest two audiences, the mayor and the 19 bystanders. y By the seventeenth century the pageantry of the Lord Mayor's procession usually consisted of a series of related tableaux stationed along the route he was to follow. As a result, only he and his companions were able to see the entire show. Originally there had been only one pageant and i t had preceded the mayor in the procession, thus allowing everyone a complete view. This change might be accounted for in the concentration of the. pageantry on the figure of the Lord Mayor and a general demand for more spectacle. That the city continued to bear the heavy burden of taxes for these affairs, albeit sometimes reluctantly, suggests however, that the lower and:•• middle echelons of the guilds must have felt they were receiving some benefit from pageantry beyond mere spectacle. This may be partially due to the competition between the guilds and between the -city and the court. A more literary interest i s shown, however, in : the printed pamphlets,.produced to describe the events in detail and as complete shows. That such pamphlets were regularly printed each year throughout the period, even when the finances of the guilds were strained, suggests that they were more than ephemeral momentos and 9 that there was a demand to read a f u l l account of the pageants which 20 were "being produced by some of the leading dramatists of the period. Another reason for the continued expenditure of vast sums on these events may be given in the idea of what the Lord Mayor repre-sented. Perhaps the most famous Lord Mayor of London, both now and in the seventeenth century, is Dick Whittington. Fori;our purposes, the most interesting aspects of the legend surrounding this figure are that he was of humble origin and rose to great wealth and influence. Having attained this, he showed himself as both wise and generous. He contributed great sums to charities and built houses and hospitals for the poor. Another example of this popular type of character i s Simon Eyre in Dekker's The Shoemaker's Holiday where i again a man of humble background achieves f i r s t financial success and then becomes Lord Mayor. The Lord Mayor .was an embodiment of the aspirations of his guild, the city, and the country. He represented a l l the civic virtues upon which the welfare of the common citizens depended. They shared his background and his success marked that of the city and the middle class. The Lord Mayors of the seventeenth century may not have a l l had backgrounds quite as poor as Whittington's or Eyre's, but they were elected from the ranks of the middle class and in this they were much closer to the average citizen than a king or any member of the aristocracy. In a sense, the audience of the pageants participated through the Lord Mayor. This is no less true of the entertainments collected in this edition. Although not a l l of them were generally accessible to the public, they seem to have been considered o f f i c i a l civic functions and there i s some evidence which suggests that Middleton was paid for 10 writing such entertainments out of civic funds.""" They were written for specific occasions and are similar in content and form to the more extravagantly spectacular Lord Mayor pageants. The spectacle which is usually considered so important to outdoor civic pageantry i s largely missing from this collection. The three outdoor entertainments are very simple speeches, not very much different from the indoor pieces. It may even be suggested that indoor productions, such as those represented by Entertainment Seven and Entertainment Eight, provided more interesting possibilities for presentation despite the limitations of their venues. JQ1 the entertainments, including the three given at outdoor functions where the public might have been able to gain at least limited access, are simple groups of speeches and songs which required l i t t l e , i f any, scenery or props. Some tangible object, such as a coat of arms hanging on a wall or even costuming, was often used in the same manner as such objects were used in the interlude. These were not spectacular props, however, but rather physical focuses or emblems to which the speeches could be related. Their use i s a result of the same circumstances which influenced the interlude. If the pieces in thi3 edition are considered as being closely related to the annual Lord Mayor"s pageant, some comaon qualities in them, apart from spectacle, must have accounted for the popularity of civic pageantry*in general. The proportion of interest assigned to the spectacular side of pageantry should be made with this in mind. Like the masque, civic pageantry often involved the work of two artists, one to produce the text and the other to provide the spectacle. Only Middleton appears to have been involved in the presentation of the entertainments in this edition and they were probably appreciated for more literary and less visual reasons. 11 The civic pageant does not rely on spectacle for either i t s tone or content, whether i t was presented indoors at a banquet, in the streets or fields, or on a river. Theme was derived from the figure of the Lord Mayor and what he represented, no matter where the pageant or entertainment was presented. The entertainments in this edition must, therefore, be considered part of Middleton's civic work along side and of equal interest with the pieces which he wrote for the more lavishly produced Lord Mayor shows and royal progressions. 12 THE ENTERTAINMENTS The year 1620 was significant in Middleton's civic career. On September 6 t h of that year he was appointed City Chronologer after petitioning the Court of Aldermen for the position. The Court appointed him "upon consideration thereof taken and upon sufficient testimony this Court hath received of his services performed to this City and occurences thereof, and for such other employments as this 22 Court shall have occasion to use him in." For this position Middleton obtained per year and on January 2 3 r d , 1620/1, this stipend was increased to j^lO. 2^ He held this post until at least 1623 and probably until his death in 1627, at which time his wife was given 20 nobles. Amongst the few entries in the records of the city which indicate payments to Middleton for "other employments as this Court shall have occasion to use him in" is one for September 2nd, I 6 2 3 , "for and towardes the charges of the service latelie performed by att the shuting of Bunhill before the Lord Maior and Alermen" the payment of M. 2 0 . The "service latelie performed" was likely an entertainment similar to Entertainment Two in this edition. It is probable from this that Middleton was requested to write the pieces Included in Honorable Ent ertainment s and paid for his trouble, most likely receiving something beyond his annual stipend. It i s significant that the functions Middleton was writing the entertainments of this edition for were considered important enough for his attention and that they were considered worthy of preservation in printed form. It was usual for the authors concerned to super-vise the printing of the civic works they had produced, the printing 25 costs being paid by the city. Whether these circumstances apply 13 to the printing of this hook is uncertain. The introductory verses, signed 'Tho. Middleton', are prima facie evidence that he sanctioned the edition. The usual printer of civic works such as Lord Mayor show pamphlets, including those written by Middleton, was Nicholas Okes. The printer of this book, however, was George Eld, who had printed many of Middleton's earlier plays, Middleton was appointed City Chronologer towards the end of Cockayne's term as Mayor and R.C. Bald has suggested that some of the pieces in Honorable Entertainments which were written for Cockayne 2 6 may have led to the appointment. The publication of Honorable Entertainments in 1621 may have either been a gesture of good faith on Middleton's part or an official act by him in his capacity as City Chronologer. Bald notes that "his duties included more than the mere recording of events is shown by a reference to him in the proceedings of the Court of Aldermen (Repertory, xxxv, f. 148b) a few months later as 'Chronologer and inventer of honorable 27 entertainments for this City'." To this may be added the wording of the t i t l e paget "Honorable Entertainments, Compos'de for the Seruice of this Noble Clttie." The word 'seruice* here may be taken as implying the entertainments were part of his duties as City Chronologer. This would mean that the various dignitaries listed on A2 would "be quite literally Middleton* s "Worthy and Ho[no"lrable Patrons." The ten entertainments preserved in Honorable Entertainments and the similar piece by Middleton which exists in manuscript and is dated 1622 are important because, as a group, they provide the only instance where so much material of this type is provided by a single author over a relatively short period of time. Whether the frequency of the entertainments Middleton wrote for the city from 1 6 2 0 to 1 6 2 2 i s typical 1J+ of his output for other years cannot "be known with any certainty. These eleven pieces do provide, however, a unique opportunity for the study of an important aspect of Middleton's civic work, a particular species of drama, and give some insight into the social and political concerns of: the period. The sequence of the pieces in Honorable Entertainments i s generally chronological, giving the entertainments produced for Sir William Cockayne, followed by those for Sir Francis Jones, who was Lord Mayor the year after Cockayne. There is a likely departure from this chronological sequence, however, within the pieces written for Cockayne. In his facsimile edition of Honorable Ent ertainment s. R.C. Bald dates Entertainment Four as having been planned for presentation on April 11th, 1 6 2 0 . He makes this assumption on the basis of entries in the Index to Remembrancia for subsequent 28 years. If this date is correct, both Entertainment Four and Entertainment Three, which we are told took place the week previous, occurred before Entertainment One, which was presented on the 17th, 18th, and 22nd of April. A possible explanation for this may l i e in the relative importance of the different entertainments. Honorable  Entertainments ends with three related pieces, a l l of which were performed at Easter 1621. The presence of the Privy Council at the Easter feasts of both 1620 and 1 6 2 1 suggests they were significant state as well as civic occasions. It may be that the Easter festivities were considered more Important in the magistrate's year than the occasions represented;by Entertainments Three and Four which are merely short speeches without songs and which were presented outdoors. In ending the collection with the Easter entertainments i t may have 15 been considered appropriate to balance the book by beginning with the similar important entertainment of the previous year. Something of the relative importance of the indoor and outdoor entertainments in Honorable Entertainments may be gathered from this. The three outdoor entertainments occur together in the collection and i f the above implications are correct, two of them were considered of less importance than the indoor pieces presented at Easter. The retro-spective ordering of the collection also suggests that the final entertainment may have prompted the printing of the book. The unique manuscript entertainment of 1 6 2 2 , which is Entertainment Eleven in this edition, is also an Easter production. Its existence again implies that the Easter festivities must have had considerable significance in the magistrates*year. Its inclusion in this edition seemed logical as i t is the only other similar work by Middleton which i s extant and was written the year following the publication of Honorable Entertainments. It is a much simpler piece than the Easter productions of 1 6 2 0 and 1 6 2 1 , but s t i l l remains an interesting and valuable piece of literature. Each of the entertainments included in this edition has been provided with ashort general introduction which attempts to date and locate the entertainment and to discuss i t in general terms. A l l important allusions, persons and locations have either been identified or conjectures have been provided in the criti c a l notes. The songs and proverbs Middleton uses have proven to be absent from the usual sources for identification and have therefore only been commented upon in a general manner or possible analogues suggested. Every effort has been made to provide notes to explain difficult or unusual passages. 16 Ent ertainment One The fi r s t entertainment of this edition was presented at Sir William Cockayne's house in Broad St., opposite St. Peter's church. Cockayne was an important and very wealthy individual of considerable influence. He had been knighted on June 8th, i 6 l 6 , when King James 29 had been present at his house for dinner. His status is clearly shown in the marriage of his daughter Mary to Charles Howard, Baron of Effingham, who was the son of an important peer (Charles Lord Howard of Effingham, Earl of Nottingham) and a member of an influential family. The entertainment had originally been written and performed as part of the Easter festivities on the 17th and 18th of April. On the 22nd i t was "fashioned into seruice" as an entertainment for the 30 Privy Council on the day of the marriage. This may mean that the version we are given in Honorable Entertainments is somewhat different to that performed for the more 'private' occasion of the marriage. It is interesting that a man of Cockayne's status did not have an enter-tainment specifically written for such an important occasion as this marriage must have been,,both to the city and the court. Of course, there i s no evidence to suggest that this entertainment was the only one presented that day. That the entertainment was used at a l l is surprising, however, unless i t i s recognized that the marriage was a 'civic* occasion of some importance by virtue of Cockayne's position, in the city, both as Lord Mayor and as a leading merchant. The successful match between his daughter and an important member of one of the leading aristocratic families must have been seen as a significant reconcil-iation between the upper and middle classes. The r i f t between James 17 and Parliament was particularly wide in 1620 and worsening. Any influence he could exert amongst the London merchants was of tremen-dous political and economic use in his struggle for independence from Parliament. For the city, i t meant influence at court and was a social leap of considerable proportions for one of them. Much of Cockayne's wealth had been made through his connections with James' court. Inflation had plagued James throughout hi3 reign and England's economy had begun to decline somewhat. To raise money being refused him by Parliament, James, at the urging of Buckingham, sold peerages, employed trade impositions or duties, and granted monopolies. Each of these revenue-gaining schemes later proved unwise politically and irritated peers and commoners alike in Parliament. The selling of monopolies, however, had perhaps the most serious effect on the stability of the economy of the nation. One such monopoly was granted to Cockayne and some other merchants to export dressed and dyed,cloth. Until then cloth had been exported undressed and undyed, to be finished in the Netherlands. It was argued by Cockayne that increasing exports and decreasing imports of finished cloth would create employment in England and increase James* income by about J^ "KX)» 000 per year. After some discussion and the payment of lavish bribes, the exportation of undyed and undressed cloth was prohibited in l6l4. The project was a failure from the start as the new company could not cope with the quantity of cloth to be dealt with in England and the work done was of a very poor quality. The Dutch in turn prohibited the importation of dressed and dyed cloth into the Netherlands and began to manufacture cloth themselves of a much better quality than the English product. By the time James 18 abolished the new company and allowed the old system once more, much of the market had been lost and the English textile industry had suffered an immense set-back. Meanwhile, Cockayne and a few others 31 had made a fortune.-' The f i r 3 t line of the opening song, "Roome, roome, make roome", and the opening remarks of the speaker describing a debate between the sun and Minerva are two occurrences which put this entertainment within the interlude genre. The concept upon which the piece i s built is the pun on Cockayne's name and the cock-cups being used at 32 the banquet.^ The entertainment consists of a speech set off by opening and closing songs, the latter accompanied by a small orchestra. It is likely that, professional actors and musicians were hired for the PtU-performance. It begins with an actor dressed ,as a servant or waiter entering singing the f i r s t song and carrying a cup fashioned to resemble a cock. After the song, he begins his speech which roughly falls into three parts. In the f i r s t , the debate between the sun and Minerva over the cock and their reconciliation through harmony is described. The aspects of the bird being claimed by the two are, i t i s suggested by the speaker, combined in the Lord Mayor. The qualities ayy* symbolic implications of the bird are then described and applied to Cockayne. The speaker finishes his description by noting the aspects of the cock which apply to a magistrate as a dis-penser of justice. This aspect of the Lord Mayor is often referred to, both in these entertainments and in the Lord Mayor shows, and was a very popular theme. Finally the speaker addresses the aldermen, asking them to follow the example of the cock and exhibit the qualities 19 i t represents. They should provide an example to the citizens of the city as the Lord Mayor provides an example for them. This address culminates in a description of the cock-cup's practical use as a drinking vessel and the health of everyone is drunk. This move from the symbolic implications of the cock to the practical use of i t as a cup is in keeping with the shift from the Lord Mayor to the aldermen. The mayor was the source and symbol of the city's power and as such the office was an idealization of certain values and beliefs. The aldermen, however, were the practical executors of policy and justice in the city. In this they may be associated with the Privy Council who served a similar function under the King, The drinking of the city's health is the culmination of the entertainment and its themes. To allow this to take place the actor gave his cup to the Lord Mayor and then began the final song. While he was singing, the cup was passed around the head table and presumably other similar cups were being passed around the other tables. The passing of the cup represented the equality and freedom of a l l the guests to share in the bounty symbolized by the feast where "at this time power is laid apart." Entertainment Two Shooting-day had been of considerable practical importance in earlier times and had been encouraged by both the city officials and the crown. The survival of the country had depended on the expertise of the archers of a citizen army and i t s long-bows. Annual com-petitions were held to encourage and keep the citizens trained in its use. 2 0 By the 1 6 2 0 's however, the English long-bow had ceased to be very m i l i t a r i l y effective. Despite i t s range and the accuracy of the English bowmen, i t was no match for cannon and musket. The shooting-day gradually degenerated somewhat though i t s t i l l symbolized a golden age when the long-bow had been decisive i n giving England victory at battles such as Agincourt i n 1 4 1 5 . Stow records the following about the eventj In the Moneth of August about the feast of S. Bartholomew the Apostle, before the Lord Maior, Aldermen, and S h i r i f f e s of London placed i n a large Tent neare vnto darken well, of olde time were diuerse dayes spent i n the pastime of wrestling, where the Officers of the C i t i e : namely the Shiri f f e s , Sergeants and Yeoman, the Porters of the kings beame, or weigh house, now no such men, and other of the c i t i e , were challengers of a l l men i n the suburbs, to wrestle for games appointed1 and on other dayes, before the sayd Maior, Aldermen and Shiriffes, i n Fensburie f i e l d , to shoote the Standard, broad Arrow, and fight Qsic], for games: but now of late yeares the wrestling i s onely prac-tised on Bartholomew day i n the after noone, and the shooting some three or foure dayes after, i n one after noone and no more. What should I speak of the auncient dayly exercises i n the long bow by Citizens of this Cit i e , now almost cleane l e f t off and forsaken? I ouerpass i t : for by the meane of closing the common grounds, our Archers for want of roorae to shoote abroade, creepe into bowling A l l i e s , and ordinarie dicing houses, nearer home, where they have roome enough to hazard their money at vnlawfull games: and there I leaue them to take their pleasures.3 ^ From this i t i s l i k e l y that the entertainment was presented either on August 2kth or "some three or foure dayes after." The entertainment sis a single speech given by one, "habited l i k e an Archer," mainly praising the qualities represented by the sport and defending i t as a pastime. The speaker begins by noting that "Old Time made much oh't, & i t thought no praise / Too deefe for' t , nor no honour i n those dayes," and observes that past kings had actively -515 encouraged i t . Significantly, the Lord Mayor and aldermen are acting as patrons of the activity, as the sovereign had i n the past. 21 The reference to past royal patronage and the general high esteem in which archery had once been held seems to imply that this i s perhaps no longer the situation. The speaker continues by saying that archery i s a craft, but unlike spinning and weaving, i t and music came to man as gifts from Apollo. The speaker links music, wisdom, and Apollo in a rather complicated metaphor: Huslcke and Archery from Apollo came: He cals himself great Maister of this Sport, In whose bright name faire Wisedome keepes her Court: Well may this Instrument be f i r s t in Fame, Aboue a l l others that haue got a Name, (11. 16-20) Referring to the bow as an "instrument" and the resemblance between a bow and a musical instrument such as the'lyre would have served to reinforce the idea of archery being an equal art with music. Even the name "bow" is proven significant: Well may this Instrument be fi r s t in Fame, Aboue a l l others that haue got a Name, In war or peace} when Heauen i t selfe doth show, "The Couenant of Mercy, by a Bow: (11. 19-22) This allusion to the rainbow's use as a sign of God's mercy after the flood and the purely nominal connection this has with the archery bow seems almost pedantic at f i r s t . That such an association could be seriously put forward merely because of the similarity in the names, emphasizes H1r>nlatcm.*s reliance on the pun as a stylistic device. This may have had i t s basis in the belief that things and people with similar names must be similar, i f only in an allegorical or symbolic sense. Cockayne never seems to have tired of having his name linked to the cock and similar associations are made with other Lord Mayors' names by other authors, with equal success. Such feats of association combined with long speeches observing flattering similarities must have been considered 22 clever, without being so absurd as to be thought ludicrous, for the device to have continued to be so popular for so long. After giving archery some respectability by virtue of previous authority and association, the speaker argues that "though this be a meere delight, a Game," It represents the administration of justice. He begins his comparisonj Since the greatst power is oft through weakenesse known. What are Reproofs? with them I first begin, But Arrowes shot against the Brest of Slnj ( 1 1 . 28 - 3 0 ) The whole speech to this point has been an example of the skilful use of rhetorical devices such as appealing to authority and elevation by association. If archery at this time had lost some or most of its previous respectability and was continuing mainly as a diversion, then the "reproofs" mentioned here may be a subtle reference to current attitudes towards archery and the shooting-day festivities. On the li t e r a l level, the bowman is being likened to a magistrate and the arrows are the reproofs and sentences which he delivers against sin. It is possible however, that Middleton is using a device, popular in formal debating, to rebuke those who might have objected to the civic sanctioning of a secular and pleasurable pastime. If reproofs were being directed at archery and the shooting-day, then Middleton i s turning them around by comparing those that deliver them to the bowmen,, shooting arrows. If this i s what is happening to some extent, then Middleton Is once again using nominal association with considerable effect. The speaker ends his argument by observing that the competition of the games teaches men to strive for perfection and that they are conducted in the open in daylight which implies that they are both honest and healthy recreations of social value. 2 3 Entertainment Three The venue of this entertainment is difficult to ascertain with any certainty. We are told that the custom of visiting the springs and conduit heads had been "long discontinued" and It is probable that this ceremony had ancient antecedents. It is known that conduit heads were amongst some of the earliest stages for the performing of pageants and they provided an Important influence on later theatrical presentations. The conduit head where this speech is given is said to be near the "Banquetting-Housei" but just which banqueting-house this refers to i s not clear. Most of the guilds had their own halls and the Guildhall itself, which was the seat of the Court of Aldermen, was also used for feasts. R.C. Bald felt that the Paris Garden may have been the location for the entertainment and cites: On 15 September 1612 a payment of 5 0 shillings was authorized by the Court of Aldermen to the masters of Paris Garden * for the sport and pastyme shewed w^ h their beare and Bull at the Conduit head<,when my lord Maior and Aldermen of this Citty were there to view the said Conduit headc according to auncient custome*, and similar payments were ordered on 5 -October 1613 and 10 October 1620 (Malone Society  Collections, i i . 319). From these records i t is clear that Middleton*s entertainment of 1620 had to _„ share the honours of the day with bull and bear baiting. ' Bald may be correct about the entertainment being only a small part of some longer ceremony or other festivities. The speech Is quite short and may have been merely a small piece of spectacle to acknowledge the arrival of the civic dignitaries and the off i c i a l beginning of the festivities. The date of this visitation is also uncertain. If Bald is correct in dating Entertainment Four on the 11th of April then this entertainment would have been presented sometime in the previous week. This would mean zh that the accounts were not settled for i t until five months later and that the entertainments in this collection are out of chronological 38 sequence. The reason for the seven year lapse in the visitations (see line 10) was probably due to the new system of supplying water to the city which had been developed by the New River Company under Hugh Middleton, a member of the Goldsmith Company. He and some others were partners with King James in a project which brought water from the Chadwell and Amwell springs and the River Lea in Hertfordshire to a resevoir in Islington, just north of London. For putting up half the money for the project, 39 James received a half interest in the property. Before this, water had been taken either from springs and conduits within the city or transported from wells and springs just outside its boundaries. Gradually, as the city grew, water-bearers had to travel further afield to find new supplies. One of these sources of water had been the conduit in the Pari3 Garden just south of the River Thames. Nearby stood the Paris Manor which was used for banquets. The exact reason for the revival of the custom of visiting the springs is not given in the entertainment. It may have arisen from a general need to . venew old traditions thus re-affirming the stability of society and i t s structure or i t may have occurred merely to satisfy desires for more recreational activities or another holiday. Although, having a water-nymph "seeming to rlze out of the Ground by the Conduit Head" is not an unusual device, i t is a rather spectacular opening to a rather short and simple speech. The entrance of the nymph and her rather insolent opening linesj Hah? let me cleare mine Eyes, me thinks I see Comforts approach, as i f They came to me; 2 5 I am not vsde to e'mj I ha beene without, How comes the Vertue of the Times about? (11. suggest that the audience would have been in good humour and needed something spectacular and amusing to capture its attention, despite the somewhat ironic reference to i t as a "Graue Assembly." The speech allows considerable scope for comedy while being careful not to rebuke the audience too severely. The strongest condemnation is reserved for the water-bearers who "like the dull wormes that haue no sence at a l l , / Lick vp the Dewes, ne're look from whence they f a l . " The speech is mainly a mild admonishment of the city for neg-lecting the visitations. The nymph cites her good service to the city in her quenching of fires and the beneficial effect her water has on the complexions of the women in London. Her reference to her contribution to "you'd faire Cities health" suggests that the conduit head may have been outside the city and lends further support to Bald's location of the entertainment at the Paris Garden. The speaker ends by reminding the audience that possibly more gratitude should be shown for the blessings of l i f e . Entertainment Four This entertainment was to have taken place on the Tuesday following the visitation to the springs but for some reason i t was deferred. Bald argues for the date i l t h of April, 1 6 2 0 , citing entries in the Index '- . . 24.1 ...... to Remembrancia for subsequent years. This date did f a l l on a Tuesday this year and i t i s the more likely of several possibilities. It seems, however, that there may have been more than one general 26 mustering of men in a year. This is suggested by two entries in the Acts of the Privy Council for 1621. In a letter to the Lord Mayor dated the 21s t of February, the Council requested a general mu3ter in Finsbury fields either "friday or Saturday next." Again, on the 3 0 t h of April, they point out that " i t hath ben usuall in former yeares to drawe some competent nomber of the trayned bands Into Finscuxie-fields upon Mayday, and there to exercise and trayne them" in order to suppress any disorders arising out of the Hay-day festivities. 2 4 , 3 A letter from the Privy Council to the Lord Mayor and aldermen for a muster on the i l t h of April 1622, the date favoured by Bald for the annual training, suggests that these "general trainings" may have been used to produce political effects. They [the Privy Council] had already signified their approval of the mustering and training of the Trained Bands on the 11th April, but as Finsbury Field was somewhat out of the way, they had thought good, in order that the Foreign Ambassadors then at His Majesty's Court might take notice of the troops, that a l l the companies should march through Fleet Street and the Strand ipto St. James* Fields, and be there mustered and trained.^ Military preparedness seems only to have been one of many benefits arising out of these trainings. The tone of the speech in the entertainment is quite different from that of Entertainment Three, although both entertainments serve similar functions. Both are given outdoors at the arrival of the Lord Mayor and aldermen and both are only preludes to further lengthy activities which are being revived after a lapse of some years. It i s the natures of these activities that account for the different tones of the speeches. As some humour may have befitted the visitation to the conduit head and the festivities which followed, the seriousness of 2 7 the general training is reflected in the speech given in Entertainment Four. Pallas is presented on horseback, wearing a helmet with a figure of a cock on i t , out of deference to the Lord Mayor, Sir William Cockayne, As observed in Entertainment One, Cockayne never seems to have tired of the comparison of himself with a cock. The speech relies in the main with the association of the city leaders with Pallas and the greatness of Rome, however. Along this theme is the implication of the neglect which brought about the f a l l of Rome. Pallas says that she feels she is being suitably honoured by the assembled army, but: I can complaine of nothing but Neglect, That such a noble Cities Arm'd Defence Should be so seldorae seenej I could dispence With great occasions, but alasse, whole yeares To put off exercise, giues cause of feares; "In getting wealth a l l care should not be set, "But some, in the defending what you get: (11, 2 6 - 3 2 ) This and other references to money suggest that the reason for such neglect has been the expense incurred by such affairs. This may have even been the reason why the muster for which this entertainment was written, was cancelled. Pallas argues that by such neglect, the wealth of the city i s put in jeopardy. She ends by pleading that the muster become an annual event once more. It would sees that although there may have been several musterings, of men for various reasons, there must have been one day for such activity which was of some special significance, perhaps involving larger numbers of men. Middleton's speech is a serious warning about the consequences of the neglect of such trainings, while complementing Cockayne on his revival of the event. The inclusion of this entertainment in Honorable Entertainments, after the cancellation of the training, might have offended Cockayne and others, considering the content of the speech. This may indicate Middleton's sincerity in the convictions which Pallas articulates, especially when i t is remembered that the Thirty Years War 28 was being fought in Europe at this time and feeling for involvement in i t was running high amongst some English Protestants. Entertainment Five In this period, the installation of the new Lord Mayor every year and the accompanying pageantry occurred on the day following St. Simon and St. Jude's day, the 29th of October. This entertainment appears to have been presented on the same day and the headings At the House of Sir William Cokalne. Vpon Simon and Iudes day following, being the last great Feast  of the Magistrates Yeare, and the expiration of his  Pretorship. suggests that the feast may have been an annual occurence. The lack of references or accounts in city or guild records for such an event may be due to i t being financed by the retiring Lord Mayor. The only time on the day of the new Lord Mayor's installation which could have been set aside for such a feast would have been the late morning as the other activities occupied the afternoon and evening. This would have accounted for such a short entertainment at what is described as a "great Feast." The speech is delivered by someone dressed as a mourner, who enters the hall following a prepared food of some sort which has been fashioned to resemble a hearse. The speech itself is divided into three parts. It begins by the mourner explaining the scene to the guests. The old year has died but left a will which is then read. The entertainment winds up with an epitaph summing up the year and i t s qualities. The main images used are the sun, the zodiac, and the magistrate's year, a l l of which are equated with the Lord Mayor, Sir William Cockayne.^ The speaker then finishes by observing that the year is ending with increased splendour, much as when the sun sets, and he wishes the city many more years of such Lord Mayors. 29 Entertainment Six Most likely this entertainment was given either in the evening after the installation of the Lord Mayor, Sir Francis Jones, on October 2 9 , 1620, or within a few days of that date. Like Entertainment Five the speech i3 quite short and use is made of food which has been fashioned or moulded, this time to resemble part of the Haberdashers* coat of arms. The function of the feast may have been to express Jones' gratitude to the Company of Haberdashers, of whom he was a member, for providing and paying for the pageantry of his progress on being installed 24.7 as Lord Mayor. The similarities between this entertainment and Entertainment Five may suggest that the latter might .: have been attended only by Cockayne's company, the Skinners', and served to show his gratitude to them for their work and support during his mayorality. The venue of Entertainment Six is Jones' house and i t i s likely that he paid for the feast. This is commented upon, along with the brevity of the entertainment, by the speaker* ... put Ioy into a l l the Guests, That they may truely taste in fewest words, Th* Abundant welcome yon'd Kind Lord affords, (11. 5 - 7 ) The speech is delivered by a "seruant t6 Comus" and is in part an in-vocation of that "great Sir of Feasts." The guests, who are a l l members of Jones* coapany, are welcomed and praised for the show which they have provided for the? Lord Mayor. Midway through the speech the food, shaped into two arms holding a laurel branch, i s presented and commented upon. The speaker notes that the coat of arms not only represents the Haberdashers company, but also the virtues of a good mayor and especially a good magistrate. This theme of law and justice being embodied in the Lord Mayor was quite common as 30 he was the chief magistrate over the Court of Aldermen. Entertainment Seven Feasts at Christmas were quite common,, and this rather long entertainment would suggest they were occasions which called for more than merely a flattering speech. Stow remarks as follows on such entertainments; Thus much for sportfull shewes in Triumphes may suffice: now for sportes and pastimes yearely vsed, f i r s t in the feaste of Christmas, there was in the kinges house, where-soeuer hee was lodged, a Lord of Misrule, or Maister of merry disports, and the like had yee in the house of euery noble man, of honor, or good worshippe, were he spirituall or temporall. Amongst the which the Mayor of London, and eyther of the shiriffes had their seuerall Lordes of Mis-rule euer contending without quarell or offence, who should make the rarest pastimes to delight the Beholders. These Lordes beginning their rule on Alhollon Eue, con-tinued the same t i l l the morrowafter the Feast of the Purification, commonlie called Candlemas day: In a l l which space there were fine and subtle dlsgulsinges, Maskes and Mummeries, with playing at Cardes for Counters, Nayles and ^ pointes in euery house, more for pastimes then for gaine. Christmas 1620 probably consisted of similar revels at Lord Mayor Jones' house. The entertainment would have called for at least four participants, possibly boys as the characters are a l l female. Along with these singers, a small orchestra was also present and is referred to on several occasions. Middleton sometimes used song in his plays and his knowledge of music may have been quite good. The "echo" song in this entertainment is a rather complicated piece which would have needed either close collaboration between a composer and Middleton or Middleton would have had to arrange the music himself. The opening of the entertainment calls for "Leulty, a person attired sutable to her condition^ from a Window, vnexpectedly thus 31 greets the Assembly in the midst of the Feast." This direction may be explained in the following description of a banqueting-hallt Most Tudor halls follow a standard pattern...There are commonly two doors (sometimes three) in the wall nearest the kitchen, when a passage divides the kitchen from the hall; or at other times, particularly when the hall directly adjoins the kitchen, these two doors are in a wooden par-tition near the kitchen end of the hall. In either case these doors are called the screen doors, and the wall or partition in which they are placed is called the screen. \ Q In some hall3, but not a l l , the screen supports a gallery. Although this is referring to Tudor halls, they had remained largely unchanged since the medieval period and Jones' hall probably had a 1 screen/partition of some sort at one end and this may have provided the two windows called for in the stage directions and a gallery for the musicians. Levity interrupts the meal from the musicians' gallery and comments favourably on the good cheer being exhibited by the guests. Severity then appears "from an opposite window" and reproves Levity. She calls for a porter to remove Levity and tells the musicians that she will spoil their harmony. Both characters have a short exchange of insults where Levity at f i r s t incorrectly identifies Severity as Nicety, but then, when she discovers who i t really^ is* the discussion rapidly degenerates into name calling. In some ways this opening functions similarly to that of Entertainment Three in that i t i s surprising and asnsing enough to capture the audience's attention. The traditional interlude device of having a debate between two characters or personifications of virtue and vice is reduced to Levity and Severity screaming abusive names at each other. Before this goes too far, Temperance enters from below and rebukes them for their behavior before such an assembly. She dismisses them by saying that they both are unwanted 3 2 extremes and they leave or "glue place." Temperance then greets the guests and asks for music to help invoke delight. The song that follows has "been difficult to arrange so that i t makes sense, but there seem to be four participants: Temperance, Delight and two Echoes. Much of the song would require the repeating of lines i f only one echo were used, as is suggested by the text as i t stands. Taking into consideration Middleton's use of dashes to separate speeches i t has been possible to break the song down into parts being sung by four different singers.^ 0 Much of this i s , o£ course, speculative, but i t does provide an understandable version of the song. The most efficient way for the song to have been managed would have been to have the actors who played Levity and Severity re-appear at their windows as the two echoes. This would perhaps account for their earlier dismissal. Delight enters by asking, "Who calls me from my Caue." This suggests that the actor playing this part has entered from one of the doors in the screen, most likely not the one which Temperance came through, and is standing on the banquet floor with Temperance. The entertainment closes with Temperance fi r s t thanking the musicians and then wishing the guests well. Entertairrfflent Eight This entertainment and Entertainment Eleven are similar in a number of ways. They both celebrate the same occasion, "the memory of Pious workes  in this Cittle, at Saint Mary Spittle." both are called "Inventions," and both consist of a main speech given between two songs. This entertainment is the better of the two and contains seven characters: the F"our Seasons, Flora, Hyacinth and Adonis, while Entertainment Eleven has only the figure of Honor and possibly some anonymous singers. 3 3 The date of the entertainment may have been the 5th of April 1621. Entertainments Eight, Nine and Ten a l l appear to have taken place in the Easter season of that year. The heading of Entertainment Nine reads: Here followes the worthy and Noble Entertainments of the Lords of his Majesties most Honourable Priuy Gouncell; at the Houses of the Lord Mayor, and Sheriffes. The fi r s t Entertainment vpon Thursday in Easter weeke beeing the f i f t of Aprill, 1621. And vpon the sixeteenth of the same Month those Persons of Honor receiued their second  Noble welcome, in a free and Generous Entertainment, at  the house of the Right Worshipfull, Mr. Sheriffe Allen; Flora the Person vsed before, thus prepared for them. Entertainments Nine and Ten represent the entertainments given at the sheriff^ 5 houses and i t is likely that Entertainment Eight represents the fi r s t entertainment which used the character of Flora and is mentioned in the heading as occurring at the Lord Mayor's house on the 5th of April. The f i r s t part of this heading and possibly the f i r s t sentence of the second part which refers to the f i r s t enter-tainment, may have been printed in the wrong place here and should have appeared before Entertainment Eight.^ Of the traditional civic observances at Easter, Stow makes the following comments: ... Saint Marie Spittle, founded by Walter Brune, and Rosla his wife, for Canons regular, Walter:Archdeacon of London laid the fi r s t stone, in the yeare 1197 ... And against the said Pulpet on the Southside ... remaineth also one faire builded house in two stories in height for the Malar, and other honourable persons, with the Aldermen and Shiriffes to sit in, there to heare the Sermons preached in the Easter holydayes. In the loft ' ouer them stood the Bishop of London, and other Prelates, now the ladies, and Aldermens wiues doe there stand at a fayre window, or sit at their pleasure. And here i s to be noted, that time out of minde, i t hath beene a laudable custom, that on good Friday in the after noone, some especiall learned man, by appoyntment of the Prelats, hath preached a Sermon at Paules crosse, treating of Chrlsts passion: and vpon the three next Easter Holydayes, 34 Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, the liko learned men, by the like appoyntment, haue vsed to preach on the forenoones at the sayde Spittle, to perswade the Article of Christs resurrectioni and then on low Sunday, one other learned man at Paules Crosse, to make rehearsall of those foure former Sermons, either commending or reprouing them, as to him by iudgement of the learned Diuines was thought conuenient. And that done, he was to make a sermon of his owne studia, which in a l l were fiue sermons in one. At these sermons so seuerally preached, the Maior, with his brethren the Aldermen were accustomed to bee present in their Violets at Paules on good Fryday, and in their Scar-lets at the Spittle in the Holydayes, except Wednesday in violet, and the Maior with his brethren, on low sonday in scarlet, at Paules Crosse, continued v n t i l l this day ... I find also that the afore said house, wherein the Maior and Aldermen do sit at the Spittle, was builded for that purpose of the goods, & by the Executors of Richard Rawson Alderman, 3c Isabell his wife, in the yeare 1488. " Lines 99-101 confirm that the mayor and aldermen were in scarlet for this particular day. Easter was April 1st this year, which would make the 5th a Thursday. If this was the date of the entertainment then the mayor and aldermen were not at church to hear one of the sermons mentioned by Stow, but probably attending a special service commemorating the charitable works of the city. The entertainment begins with the four seasons singing an invocation of Flora who then appears in a bower "deckt with A r t i f l c i a l l Flowers." Flora "rising in her Bower" calls forth her two servants, Hyacinth and Adonis, both of whom, i t is observed, represent flowers as well as classical figures. These two are sent by Flora to "the two Assisting Magistrates;" likely the two sherlffeSjDucy and Allen^Entertainments Nine and Ten). From Flora's comments i t is obvious that three banquets are taking place simultaneously, this one probably having the Lord Mayor and a t least some aldermen present (see line 144.1-144.2). Flora then turns to the guests of this banquet and welcomes them. She commends them on their charities and observes the advantages of such good works. They are reminded of the church service they have attended 3 5 and the orphans who were present. The whole speech is worked out in floral metaphors and similes praising the city's magnanimity. Flora next asks the four seasons to welcome her now that they have finally summoned her to them. This they do in a song cataloguing the flowers in her bower. The lyrics suggest that the seasons went over to the bower and picked or gestured towards the flowers as they were singing about them. This suggests that Middleton may have had some part in the bower's design or at least knew what flowers were to be represented on It. Most of the flowers mentioned have medicinal qualities as well as beauty and an anology between them and the charitable works of the city i s implied. The l i s t is ended with a plant called 'Live-long* that produces a purple flower^ an allusion to the violet livery worn by the orphans when they attended the church service earlier. This is meant to imply that the city's good works will endurei i bringing them fame and praise. The present charity shown towards the orphans will bring future honor when they are grown. The entertainment closes with Flora again addressing the Lord Mayor and aldermen wishing them good health, again using a flower motif. At the end of the entertainment the short address given by Hyacinth and Adonis at the other banquets is given. It i s a brief greeting from Flora offering her excuses for not attending and i t Vs followed by her two servants repeating her earlier speech, probably lines 60-108. Entertainment Nine On the 31st of October 1620, the Privy Council had written to the city officials asking them to look into a complaint that had been re-ceived from the French Ambassador about some incident which had occurred 3 6 i n the streets of London. J J Such incidents were not infrequent and were in the main caused "by the anti-Catholic feeling which was being aroused over the Spanish match. On Easter Monday, the 2 n d of A p r i l , I £,2.^ the Spanish Ambassador, Gondomar, was accosted by a crowd as he travelled through London. He was furious about the affront and com-plained to King James. The Privy Council took swift action and wrote to the cit y the next day detailing the punishment to be carried out on the culprits. One young apprentice, who had reportedly called the Ambassador several names, was apprehended and two more were caught soon after. In their l e t t e r to the City Recorder, Heneage Finch who i s mentioned i n the dedication to Honorable Entertainments, they demanded that the;three young men "to-morrow in the forenoon betweene the howers of 8 and 9 of the clock, shalbe publickly and very sharply 54 whipped through London. The extent to which this was carried out may be judged from the following extract from a letter by John Chamberlain: Upon some sleight abuse offered to the Spanish ambassador and his l i t t e r as he passed thorough the streets on Monday, three young fellowes (or prentises) were whipt at a carts t a i l e on Wensday, but the punishment was l i g h t l y lalde on (as yt were par acquit) and they yet so pitied that divers affronts and insolencies were don to those that were over-seers of the execution, wherwith the King was so much moved, that he came yesterday of purpose from Tiballs to the Guild-h a l l (which was trimmed up with hangings, a cloth of state and a throne at the upper end) meaning (as was thought) to make some sharpe speach against these disorders: but going by f i r s t into the maiors court, yt seemes he was mitigated by the relation of the recorder and others, who having examined the cause to the f u l l , found yt nothing so hainous nor fowle as yt was painted, nor worth his Majesties shewing himself i n yt. Wherupon after some privat admonition to the Aldermen to looke better to the government, and to see these younge fellowes with their abetters and rescuers thoroughly punished, he departed without comming to the place where he intended, and was expected to speake .55 This incident i s reflected i n Entertainment Nine i n l i n e s 2 6 - 5 0 . It i s l i k e l y therefore, that this entertainment was written after the incident and perhaps to some extent because of i t , The i n i t i a l 3 7 lines suggest that some of the Privy Council were present and the whole speech seems to be addressed to them rather than the aldermen. All through his reign, James did his best to steer a middle course, both politically and religiously. From the beginning he attempted to continue many of the policies pursued by Elizabeth, but he was not able to meet with the same successes as she did. In matters of religion both monarchs considered themselves unswervingly Protestant and the divinely appointed leaders of the true church. Both tried to avoid extreme persecution of Homan Catholics and other non-conformists how-ever, which would have had the effect of causing considerable blood-shed (as had been experienced during Mary's reign and would recur in the 1 6 ^ 0's), i f not c i v i l war, as well as inviting European involvement to defend the rights of the respective factions within the country. James employed enough restrictions to keep non-Anglicans, especially Catholics, politically and militarily impotent, especially after the Gunpowder Plot, while refusing to be too extreme in their persecution. Puritans were also controlled but he did not hinder them from emigrating to the jyjew U>rld(as did the French)and in 1620 the 'Mayflower' arrived in New England. In 1 6 1 3 James gave his daughter Elizabeth in marriage to Frederick, Count Palantine, a fervent Protestant. This would have allied Britain with the acknowledged leader of Protestantism in Germany but for James* moves to marry his son and heir, Charles, to the Spanish Infanta. This latter match was very unpopular in a Protestant country s t i l l remembering the Armada and the Gunpowder Plot, and aware of the impending Thirty Years War which was beginning in Germany. The question of religion was highly charged with emotion and the British populace made its displeasure felt by means as varied as demon-38 strations i n the London streets l i k e those described above, and formal parliamentary protestations to the King over the danger of Catholics to the realm (Dec. 8 , l 6 2 l ) . Much of this hysteria was p o l i t i c a l l y motivated at the highest levels and used as a lever by both Parliament and the Xing to influence and restrain each other. The Thirty Years War did l i t t l e to quiet fears of the Protestants and persuade them towards peaceful co-existence. The years 1619-23 were decisive i n the Protestant struggle against the counter reformation, and James* policies, in particular the Spanish marriage for his son, did l i t t l e to help the Protestant cause abroad. Entertainment Nine was held at the house of Sheriff Allen on Monday, the l 6 t h of Apr i l , 1621. As previously observed (Entertainment Eight), the f i r s t part of the heading to this entertainment may belong to Entertainment Eight. Flora greets the guests, praising them and commenting upon their importance i n the kingdom. As i n Entertainments Eight and Ten, Flora i s here presented i n her bower (see heading to Entertainment Ten). This bower was made with a r t i f i c i a l flowers, according to the heading to Entertainment Eight, and some thought i s therefore l i k e l y . to have been given to i t s re-use. Flora praises the King and very s k i l l f u l l y describes how the admonishment which had been given to the city had been taken seriously and acted upon without readily admitting to any serious crime. The whole a f f a i r i s described In terms of an i l l n e s s 4trwhich the King had now in i t i a t e d a cure. The cause of the admonition i s quickly passed over as •-an incident "where manners failde," and the speech moves on to praising the King, at one point comparing him to God, which would have pleased him and those amongst the Privy Council who believed i n the doctAne of divine /right, to which James was always laying claim. The short speech 3 9 i s closed with a remark which seems to be directed at the city, through those citizens present, suggesting that the King has reproved the city out of love. While James i s "King of Men," London i s the "Prince of C i t t i e s . " This not only expresses loyalty but also perhaps the status of the city in relation to James. The lines "Thou art his Chosen C i t t l e , and wilt prooue / (As thou hast euer beene) f a i t h f u l and free, / The Chamber of his sweete Security" are again subtle assertions of the city's independent position. There follows a song of welcome to the guests and then some closing remarks to the Privy Council. This entertainment i s in the tradition of the sophisticated and propagandistic early Tudor pageants. While not comparable to many of them in a r t i s t i c achievement, i t i s of similar quality as a p o l i t i c a l piece. To convince the Privy Council of the loyalty and repentance of the city was necessary considering the King's mood but i t was just as necessary that i t be done in such a manner as to preserve the dignity of the city and to placate those whose sympathies lay with the three young men who had been punished. Of a l l the pieces included i n this edition, this most clearly shows the subtlety of Middleton*s mind and his a b i l i t y to produce quickly a piece of f a i r l y complex p o l i t i c a l manoeuvring in a diplomatic and inoffensive manner, Middleton's own feelings i n t h i s controversy are perhaps better seen i n his play, A Game at Chess, than i n this carefully constructed comment on the relationship be-breen the city and the crown over the Spanish match. Entertainment Ten This entertainment was held at Sheriff Ducy's house on Saturday, 40 the 21st of April. Again, the.Privy Council seem to have been present and the speech of Flora is directed towards them. The reason for the presence of the Privy Council on this occasion i s not certain. There is reference here, and on the t i t l e page to Honorable Entertainments, to some task which the Privy Council had just finished. From this entertainment i t seems the city and the sheriffs must have been involved in some way. It may be that their presence at this banquet and the one a week earlier at Sheriff Allen's house (Entertainment Nine), were part of an inquiry into the Gondomar incident. Another possibility i s that the impeachment of Chancellor Bacon is being referred to, as the City Recorder, Heneage Finch, had been actively involved in his prosecution.-^ This is the third time Flora is used with her bower scene. As she begins to speak she is interrupted by,Hyacinth and Adonis who claim she is getting to speak too often and, as they were sent originally to this and Sheriff Allen's house (Entertainment Eight), one of them should be allowed the honor of speaking. Flora rebukes them much as the King had done the city over the Gondomar incident. They both beg her pardon, which is granted. She then proceeds to point out that they have erred through too much love rather than malice. This may be a veiled reference to several events. The most obvious of these is the Gondomar incident outlined earlier. As London exerted considerable influence in national politics, however, the councilors may have been present to discuss more important affairs. The population of the city generally supported the House of Commons who were, in the opinion of many of the Privy Councilors, usurping the King's responsibility in several areas, especially foreign affairs where they refused to grant money for expeditions and projects over which they had no control and about which they were not given any information. 41 The closing remarks "by Flora may be an allusion to the t r i a l of Francis Bacon: For each Hearts Grieuance, (to i t s full,content) By this high Synode of the Parliament; Before whose fair, cleaxe, andVnbribed Eyes, (When i t appeares) Corruption sincks and dies, Secure Oppression once, comes trembling thither (Stead of her hard heart) knoks her knees together This Benefite is purchas'd, this Reward To which a l l Coyne is drosse to be compar'de: (lines 5 2 - 9 ) His t r i a l for accepting bribes while holding the office of Lord Chancellor took place in March, though he was n6t finally sentenced until May.^ The exact involvement of the Privy Council in this t r i a l is difficult to determine. Under the impeachment proceedings, Bacon was tried by the House of Lords with representatives of the House of Commons acting as the prosecution. While many of the Privy Councilors were members of the House of Lords o<" the House of Commons, this did not officially involve the Council itself. Sir Edward Coke led the Commons in their prosecution and was s t i l l , at this time, a member of the Privy Council. Significantly, Middleton refers to the Privy Councilors present at the entertainment as the "Synode of the Parliament" rather than associating them exclusively with the King. This may suggest they were being employed by Parliament, perhaps to investigate and gather evidence through the various avenues of the judiciary over which they maintained control. The power and influence of the Privy Council in this and earlier periods was considerable. Although the Commons had the all—important control of money to bring to bear in influencing James, he in turn, had a most effective means of influencing people and controlling situations through the Privy Council, From the first Parliament in his reign, he tried to f i l l the Commons with landed gentry and succeeded in getting C O a number of Privy Councilors elected in l 6 2 0 / l . Although this 42 included men l i k e Coke who would later join the opposition, i t i s a measure of his a b i l i t y to influence the middle class that they were elected. As a body, relatively independent of Parliament, the Council controlled a l l the prerogative courts such as the Star Chamber, the Chancery, the Ecclesiastical Court of High Commission, and the Councils 59 of Wales and of the North. Beyond this they were advisors to the King, helping to shape his policies and then aiding him in the execution of those policies. Much of the everyday business ofAgovernment and the judiciary was within their influence as they controlled the l o c a l magistrates. The retention of James' powers of prerogative and the strengthening of his p o l i t i c a l control was therefore i n their best interest as i t strengthened their own positions. Whether the Privy Council was present on some particular off i c i a l s business or as part of an annual or periodic v i s i t or perhaps both, i s not known. What i s clear however, i s that there were direct t i e s between the Council and the ci t y and that the city was considered important enough to demand their personal attention. The entertainment closes by Flora emphasizing the loyalty of the ci t y : But, the f a i r e Workes concluded, on a l l parts, Your Care, which I place f i r s t of a l l deserts, And i t becomes i t , t'as beene nobly lust, You haue discharg'd with Honor your hie Trust: The C i t i e s Lcue, I must remember next, And F a i t h f u l l Duty, both deuoutly mixtj And (as the State of Court sets last, the Best,) El s bcursilesse Goodnesse, not to be exprest, That i s your King and Master, Blessings f a l l Vpon His Actions; Honor, on you A l l . (lines 6 0 - 9 ) which i s also a suitable close to the collection of c i v i c pieces in Honorable Entertainments. 43 Entertainment Eleven This entertainment i s not part of the collection of entertainments printed i n 1621 under the t i t l e Honorable Entertainments, but i t i s very similar to some included i n that collection, especially Entertainment Eight. There i s only one extant contemporary MS copy of this piece. It i s preserved in the state papers of the Public Record Office i n London along with a nineteenth century transcript. The only printed edition i s in Middleton's collected works edited by A.H. Bullen i n 1885-6. The MS i s in the Conway collection and i t i s possible that S i r Edward Conway was present at the presentation of this entertainment. He had been knighted i n 1596 and on January 3 0 t h , 1622/3 he was made a principal Secretary of State i n the Privy C o u n c i l . ^ As such, when he died i n 1631, his papers would have been deposited i n the Public Record Office. Just how this particular entertainment came to be amongst his state or o f f i c i a l papers i s not certain. It may be that i f his attendance at the function was o f f i c i a l , he may have thought i t proper that a copy of the entertainment should be preserved. The MS i s in the hand of a professional scribe named Ralph Crane and i t i s l i k e l y that the copy was presented to Conway or that he asked for a presentation 61 copy to be made. While he was not to be appointed Secretary of State for some months, at the time of this entertainment, Conway was s t i l l l i k e l y to have held a position of some importance and a copy.ofthe piece may have been given to him as a souvenir. The entertainment, however, may have been mixed up with the state papers by accident. Often, the acquisition of the papers of a deceased or resigned 44 Secretary of State or other minister was d i f f i c u l t and a warrant would have to he issued for the papers to be seized. The collection of the papers, even when offered by relatives, may have been somewhat haphazard. It i s fortunate, though, that James and his c i v i l servants had some idea of the value of these papers to future generations and that they went 6 2 to every effort to obtain them. The date of performance of this entertainment has been a matter of some controversy, Bentley notes: There has been some confusion about the date. Bullen said 1 6 2 3 , but the Calendar of State Fapers,... gives the date as ' 1 6 2 2 ... April 2 2 ? Bullen himself gave a different transcription in hla f i r s t volume (p. l v i i i ) : 'Invention by Thomas Middleton, being a musical allegory performed for the service of Edward Barkham, Lord Mayor of London, when he entertained his brother aldermen at a feast i n the Easter holidays, Ap. 2 2 , 1 6 2 2 .' As Fleay noted (Biog. Chron. i i , 3 7 1 - 2 ) , Edward Barkham was i n -stalled as Lord Mayor in the autumn of 1621 and served 1 6 2 1 - 2 , and i n the autumn of 1 6 2 2 S i r Pe,ter Proby was elected. (Joseph Haydn, Book of Dignities [ I 8 9 O J , p. 491.) The correct date must be 1 6 2 2 . To the above statement may be added that Bullen dates The Svnne i n Aries which appears i n the same volume as this entertainment, as being performed in 1621 i n honor of Edward Barkham being installed as Lord Mayor. Bullen further dates The Triumphs of Honor and Virtue as being performed i n 1622 for the installment of Peter Proby as Lord Mayor, The modem transcription accompanying the MS had originally dated the entertainment 1 6 2 3 but this was later deleted with a lin e and 1 6 2 2 , A p r i l 22nd, written i n what appears to be another hand. The query registered i n the Calendar of State Papers may either refer to April 2 2 n d , which i s not clearly written and may possibly be April 2 8 t h , or i t may be querying the original I 6 2 3 . The l a t t e r date may have been an error i n transcription as the second ' 2 ' i s oddly written i n the MS and could be mistaken for a ' 3 ' . Another possible explanation may be that the transcriber was aware that Conway was not made Secretary of State u n t i l 45 1 6 2 3 and had assumed that the entertainment must have been of that year. What led the compiler of the Calendar of State Papers and the corrector of the transcript, i f they were not the same person, to date the per-formance as taking place on April 2 2 n d is another mystery. It may have been, however, that they were recalling the extract from Stow, quoted above in the introduction to Entertainment Eight. Easter 1622 f e l l on April 2 1 s t and a better case might be made for this entertainment having been performed on Thursday, April 2 5 t h , as Entertainment Eight was likely to have taken place on Thursday in Easter week, 1 6 2 2 . This "Invention" consists of a main speech flanked by two songs. As has been seen in previous entertainments, this was a fairly common pattern. The device, to which Middleton relates the central speech, is an emblem showing two hands holding a sheaf of arrows tied with a ribbon. It is likely that this was Lord Mayor, Barkham's personal coat 64 of arms or emblem. The fi r s t song is sung "In seuerall parts," and includes a base, a mean, and a chorus. It is difficult to determine how many singers were involved or whether there was any musical accompaniment; . The song announces the figure of Honor who approaches the high table. His appearance i s described, perhaps for those who might not have been afforded a clear view, and Barkham's latin motto is quoted as expressing the quality of "both the Lord Mayor and the guests. Honor begins hi3 speech by Immediately associating the way he is dressed with "yond Noble Crest." This i s probably a reference to a crest displayed somewhere in the room. As previously mentioned, this use of wall hangings or furnishings was a common convention of the interlude.^ The association of Honor and the crest is also an association of Barkham 46 and the ideal of honor and a l l the flattering comments made about the figure of the crest or Honor*s representation of i t are also references to Barkham, whose crest i t i s . Honor explains the significance of the emblem i n terms of a good magistrate and Christian. From this he moves to suggest implications of the crest i n "An other way: to make i t more generall" (line 55) i n order to refer l i s attributes to the aldermen present. This i s i n keeping with the manner i n which. Barkham's motto was used in the opening song to praise the whole assembly as well as the Lord Mayor. The aldermen are now the arrows while the Magistrate, Barkham, i s the ribbon holding them together. Broadening the implications once more, Honor says that the sheaf i s the good works of the aldermen such as the r e l i e f of "the poore fatherles." . He f i n a l l y ends by referring to "Th' Almighties Arrowes" thus moving to the divine implications of the prest. The general movement of the speech i s one of ever widening significance ending with i t s religious importance. The use of Barkham's crest and the general construction of Honor's speech were old conventions and Middleton was very adept at using them. He was conscious of the uses of spectacle and costume to amuse and gain the interest of an audience, but this was only the f i r s t step i n his entertainments. He explains this clearly i n the opening lines of Honor's speech: Though i n this Martiall habit I [[appearel, I bring nor cause of doubt, nor thought [_of feare]. *Tis onely a wale found to expres.best the worthie Figure of yond Noble Crest. Nor barely to be showne i s the Intent And scope of this Times Service: More i s ment. There's Vse and Application, whence arise Profit and Comfort to the Graue and Wise. ( 1 1 . 2 3 - 3 0 ) 47 The f i n a l song i s a wish for the guest's and the city's health and prosperity^which i t i s hoped w i l l "Spred as far as Morne shoote3 Dale." This refrain i s the most poetic line of the entertainment and i t i s well suited as a concluding variation on the central emblem.^ 48 TEXTUAL INTRODUCTION The aim of this edition i s to "bring together the surviving examples of c i v i c interludes i n such a format and manner as to make them accessible to a reader familiar with Renaissance language and printing conventions. It i s a conservative edition which preserves, as far as possible, the original spelling and punctuation which re-f l e c t the eccentricities of Middleton's MS habits. At the same time i t seeks to solve problems such as that presented by the song i n Entertainment Seven, and to present the material with some consistency of form. The f i r s t ten entertainments, of this edition are from a unique printed volume in the Huntington Library and the f i n a l entertain-ment i s from a MS preserved amongst the Conway Papers at the Public Record Office. Together these provide the only surviving examples of ci v i c interludes for this period. History and State of the Huntington Copy of Middleton's 'Honorable  Entertainments' The publication date for this book i s given on the t i t l e page as 1621. The volume would have been prepared for printing before October of that year as S i r Francis Jones i s designated as s t i l l being the Lord Mayor i n the dedication to the collection. The reference to a recent o f f i c i a l employment of the Privy Council which appears on the t i t l e page, along with a similar reference i n Entertainment'Ten, make i t l i k e l y that the book was prepared shortly after the performance of the f i n a l entertainment which took place on the 21st of A p r i l , 1621. 4 9 It may even be that the book was prepared to mark the completion of some task involving the Privy Council and the city. In view of the dedication, which l i s t s Middleton's c i v i c patrons only, i t i s l i k e l y that the volume was specifically designed to please c i v i c interests. In his 1953 Malone Society facsimile edition, R.C. Bald summarizes the volume's history and state as follows: Middleton's Honourable Entertainments has survived i n a unique copy now i n the Henry E. Huntington Library at San Marino, California. The existence of the book was f i r s t announced i n The Athen asum for 2 October 1886 (No. 3 0 ? 5 ) , i n a le t t e r from Frank A. Wheeler dated September 20 of that year, i n which he speaks of his discovery of the v o l -ume 'a few days since'. The book appeared i n the sale-room about eighteen months later; i t was sold at Sotheby's on Monday, 19 March 1888 (item 114), as the property of 'an American Amateur, a well-known Collector*. 3y this time i t . was (as i t s t i l l i s) 'elegantly bound i n red morocco super extra, by Lortic, and enclosed i n a brown morocco case'. It was purchased for 3&0 by B..F. Stevens, who-was evidently acting as agent for Robert Hoe, since the book was shortly afterwards i n his possession and bears his label. It next came on the market at the Anderson Galleries in New York on 8 January 1912 i n the second part of the Hoe sale (item 2 3 0 1 ) , where i t was acquired by the New York bookseller George D. Smith on behalf of Henry E. Huntington. The price was $ 9 2 5 . The book was printed, without entry i n the Stationers* Register, by George Eld in an ordinary roman and i t a l i c fount approximating i n size to modern pica (20 1 1 . = 8 3 mm.). The collation i s : 8vo, A2 B-D8 E4. The Huntington copy, in which the blank leaf E4 i s present, measures 4 by 5 3/4 inches. It seems probable, as Wheeler suggested, that the book was privately printed i n a relatively small edition intended for distribution among the City dignitaries such as those whpse names are so conscientiously set forth i n the dedication.9? The only other statement on the state of the book which Bald makes i s in his short note on irregular and doubtful readings. He notes that: Several irregularities occur i n the running-title and signatures, and should be recorded here. Entertainment instead of Ent ert ainment s i s found i n the running-title on B7, B8, and C8; and D, D2, D3, and 32 are erroneously signed C, C2, C3, and D2 respectively. 6 8 5 0 To this may he added that the copy i s particularly decorative. Each page has an ornate head-piece made up of printer's flowers, probably single units, and there are two printer's ornaments, one on the t i t l e page as might be expected and another i n Entertainment Ten (sig. E). Neither of these are in McKerrow"s Printers' and Publishers' Devices in England and Scotland, 1485-1640 (1913). and are therefore repro-duced below: Imprinted at London by G.E. 1621. ; Sig. E The irregularities mentioned by Bald and the position of the ornament i n Entertainment Ten are aspects of the book which c a l l for some comment. When combined with some observations on variants i n the format chosen by the printer for the presentation of each of the entertainments, these irregularities suggest how the book was printed and the nature of the printer's copy-text. The appearance of the same running-titles and head-pieces on each page suggest that the formes may have been re-used. Rather 5 1 than re-setting the whole page, the compositor may merely have re-placed the text leaving the head-piece, running-title and surrounding furniture i n the forme. A n examination of the head-pieces reveals a pattern of arrange-ment which i s reproduced through o0.t* the "book. The head-piece of sig. A2v i s the f u l l e s t example: xY^if X? Bx ^  *x 1 The head-piece of the page opposite (sig. 31) i s : 1 . This i s alternated with: As As zT-Aj zT-As> cT-As tf-As *J*-~s> tr-for the f i r s t four pages of each sheet. The pattern established i s as follows: 1: 1, 2, 3, 3v, K 4 v , 5 , 6, ?, 7v, 8 , 8v 2: l v , 2v , 5v , 6 v ; There are two variants of this head-piece: A-C^, 3h.>A i V ^ i . ^ n ^ - ^ i . -tj (J^ -ts cF-fj <?>JV5 -ts Sig. B2 JTJOP ^VT^1 'VVP TV-t^i T l , ^ TV i i>jts ^As ^ A s ^ A s ^ A ^ ^ A s & j i Sig. Elv The only other certain breaking of the pattern i s on sig. E2 where example 2 i s given rather than 1. 52 This sequence of head-pieces suggests the use of a single skeleton for both inner and outer formes. Generally, ornament 2 appears on lv and 5 V (inner forme) and 2v and 6v (outer forme). I f the ornaments were part of the furniture as i s suggested then the same skeleton was used to print:both inner and outer formes since the place occupied by 2v and 6v on outer are occupied respectively by l v and 5v on inner, i f reversed. This also means that only one press was used to p r i n t t h i s volume, and since Eld had at least two i n his shop i t i s un-l i k e l y that there was any haste i n the book's production.^ On B7, E8, and C8, a variant running head-title, "Honorable  Entertainment.", appears but not on G7. This suggests that the inner -forme was printed f i r s t . What probably happened was that inner B was printed with the wrong running t i t l e on B 8 , then outer B with the mistake on B7, then inner G with i t on C8. The error was caught and corrected before the next forme, outer C, was printed and so the correct running t i t l e appears on C7. I f the above hypothesis i s true then the volume may have either been set by formes or seriatim. The former p o s s i b i l i t y i s the more l i k e l y , however, because of the use of the printer's ornament on E l , apparently to f i l l up space o r i g i n a l l y set aside f o r the t i t l e to Entertainment "Ten. What seems to have happened here i s that the t i t l e was inadvertantly set at the foot of D8v. This i s the only t i t l e i n the book not to appear at the head of a page. Inner E was next set from cast o f f copy, and when i t was time to set outer E, the compos-i t o r of E l saw that he had an awkward gap on h i s page. This was remedied by the i n c l u s i o n of an irrelevant 'fyf>£ ornament of 53 approximately the same size as the displaced t i t l e . Such an occurrence does not necessarily suggest two compositors "but such a suggestion might be supported by the mis-signaturing of D, 32, D3 and 22, which appear as G, C2, G3 and D2 .respectively. Such mis-signaturing cannot be the result of leaving the signatures i n the forme, as the G2 on D2 has an i t a l i c 0, which the authentic C2 lacks. In any event, i f a single skeleton was used, this would be ruled out. Wrongly distributed type i s also an unlikely cause of a series of mis-signatures such as this. The most plausible hypothesis i s that a second compositor came to work on the book during work on 71 D, and that he believed he was working on C. I f this compositor (henceforth B) then went on to work on E inner, compositor A being responsible for the correctly signed D4, this would account for the mis-signaturing of E2 as D2 which i s the only signature to appear on inner E. If compositor B was a late-comer to the project, he may have been responsible for the setting on the foot of D8v of the t i t l e for Entertainment Ten, I f so, i t was up to compositor A, the one respon-sible for the correctly signed E l , to make up for this by adding the 72 woodcut to his page. This procedure may also account for the possible misplacing of part of the heading to Entertainment Eight (D2 mis-signed C2) in front of Entertainment Nine (D7). (see c r i t i c a l introduction to Entertainment Eight) It i s both d i f f i c u l t and unwise to build elaborate theories around Eld's compositors. Both Price "and I'lurray have* pointed out i n their '" work on Eld's shop that i t i s often impossible to distinguish between them by the usual tests of spelling and punctuation preferences.^ A l l seem to follow their copy with great f i d e l i t y . 5 4 This accounts f o r the appearance of many of Middleton's s p e l l i n g preferences and MS habits i n Honorable Entertainments. This suggests that the copy-text was i n Middleton's hand or that i t was a MS clo s e l y derived from h i s holograph. The punctuation i n the book i s somewhat uncharacteristic of Middleton however, as he hardly ever used f u l l 7k stops or colons. An examination of the use of i t a l i c s i n the book reveals that they are employed with some consistency and co-ordinated with such things as l i n e a t i o n i n the headings. As these are often i n prose i t may be assumed that both l i n e a t i o n and the use of i t a l i c s have been the r e s u l t of the compositors. That they d i d not s t r i c t l y adhere to copy-text i n the matter of i t a l i c s i s c l e a r l y shown i n the use of the catch-word "Flora" on s i g . D8v, and "Flora" on s i g . E l . The catch-word probably follows the MS while compositor A has amended t h i s to roman to stand out from the rest of the l i n e which he has set 75 i n i t a l i c s i n h i s arrangement of the heading. Although the compositor may have exercised some control over accidentals i n t h i s manner, there i s a preference f o r commas revealed and the texts are f u l l of Middleton's preferred s p e l l i n g s such as "you'le", "h'as", " l i e " , " i ' s t " , and "h'a". ? 6 These s p e l l i n g s are found i n the type-setting ascribed to both compositors and may therefore be taken as l i k e l y e x i s t i n g i n the copy-text. Examples of these and t h e i r frequency of use by Middleton i n comparison to h i s contemporaries 77 are given i n table form i n Peter B. Murray's A Study of C y r i l Tourneur. Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Middleton's hand i s the use of dashes 7ft to separate speeches. This may be seen i n the song i n Entertainment Seven where the compositor appears to have adhered very closely to h i s text, (see c r i t i c a l introduction to Entertainment Seven and t e x t u a l notes). 55 The varying format for the headings of the entertainments suggests that the compositors may have been dealing with a collection of MSS. The amount of emendation present to give the headings consistency i s limited, which suggests their reticence to emend the texts as well. The result i s that despite the compositor emendations outlined above, the printed volume remains more representative of Middleton's holo-graph than the MS upon which this edition's Entertainment Eleven i s based. History and State of the MS Entertainment Eleven of this collection i s derived from a MS preserved amongst the Conway Papers i n the Public Record Office of Great Britain (State Papers, Domestic, 14, vol. 1 2 9 ) . The t i t l e page of the work reads: An Invention , e performed for the Service of y Right honorable Edward Barkeham, L. Majo r of the C i t t i e of London: At his LP S. Enterteinement of the Aldermen his Brethren, and the h b l e and worthie Guests: (At his House assembled & ffeasted) In the Easter Hollidajes: 1 6 2 2 . written by Tho. Middleton. The scribe responsible for this MS was f i r s t identified by 7 9 F.P. Wilson as Ralph Crane. Wilson, in his a r t i c l e on Crane, provides many examples and a clear commentary on the scribes manuscript habits, such as his i t a l i c "d" which i s made with two 80 strokes of the pen. The identification of the scribe along with 5 6 the current provenance of the MS suggest that i t was a presentation copy to someone of importance, probably Sir Edward Conway himself, OA within whose collection of papers i t i s now preserved. The hand of the MS i s a mixture.of secretary and i t a l i c styles. The greatest d i f f i c u l t y i n transcription has arisen from the condition of the MS and not the style of the hand. The MS measures approximately 8.5 cm x 15 cm, and the bottom l e f t of the verso and right of the recto corners ox the pages have been torn away leaving gaps i n the text. This has most l i k e l y been due to water damage at some time when the MS was separate from the volume of papers i t i s now bound with. The script i t s e l f i s legible but not consistent i n the forming of letters and contractions. It i s often d i f f i c u l t to distinguish the order of letters when minims are involved i n groups such as " i n " and "cr", etc. Fortunately this problem only occurs i n words where the spelling i s not variable and the word referred to i s quite ob-vious from the other letters. The scribe also freely uses both "y " and "the", "&" and "and", and "ytn and "that" quite interchangeably. Capital "F" i s used but also the " f f " convention of the secretary style. Another instance of the mixture of i t a l i c and secretary hands are the representations of capital and lower case "t". Often the upper case "T" i s made i n such a way as to make i t distinguishable from the lower case i t a l i c " t " only by size. Generally however, the script presents few problems. Accompanying the MS i n the Conway Papers and.bound into the same.,, volume, i s a more recent transcript. Bullen f i r s t notes i t s existence i n his edition of the entertainment i n 1886, though he does not seem to have known when or by whom i t was made. This transcript i s of some 5 7 authority for both accidentals and substantives as i t was made at a time when the MS may possibly have been in a better condition. The transcriber provided square brackets for his conjectures. If +.h5.s was done accurately and consistently, then the condition of the MS has since deteriorated as many current lacuna? are supplied i n the transcription and not bracketed. While retaining the old spelling of the MS, the transcript i s sometimes casual about accidentals such as capitalization and punctuation. The use of "your" i n the trans-cript and Bullen for what i s clearly "yond" i n the MS (this edition line 2 6 ) would suggest that Bullen based his text on the transcript. Other examples such as this may be seen in the textual notes, Bullen's version of the entertainment i s the f i r s t printed edition of the work known, as the earlier editor of Middleton's works, Alexander Dyce, was apparently unaware of the existence of the MS. Bullen provides few notes and mi^ reads or silently amends the text i n many instances. The most blatant example of mis reading occurs i n line kZ (this edition) where he reads "To see" where the MS and transcript give "For see". There are other instances which may be found as variant substantive readings in the textual notes to the present edition. Bullen seems to have altered punctuation and capitalization with minimal re f e r r a l to either the MS or transcript. His edition reads: Two armed arms—to what may they allude More properer than to truth and fortitude, The armour of a Christian, to be strong .... _ • - -In a just cause? Then to these arms belong The sheafs of arrows: what do they imply _ But shafts of justice 'gainst impiety? ^ where the MS and transcript read: 58 Two armed Armes: to what may they allude more properer then to Truth, and Fortitude? the Arm'or of a Christian? To be strong -i n a iust Cause then to theis Armes belong. The Sheafe of Arrowes, what doe they Implie but Shafts of Iustice 'gainst Impietie? (lines 35-40, this ed.) Sullen's perversion of the sense of the passage i s clear. As the copy-text for this edition has been the MS, supplemented by the transcript where necessary, Bullen's emendations of accidentals have not been included i n the textual notes. It should be observed that the quantity and frequency of his emendations make his text quite unreliable. This Edition The lin e numbering and format of this edition generally follow that of the Revels Series of English Drama. Only lines of speech have been given whole numbers, while lines of headings and descriptive commentary, including square-bracketed e d i t o r i a l insertions, are decim-alized. Where a speaker metrically completes a half l i n e begun by another speaker, the second's speech has been Indented s i l e n t l y and the whole counted as one l i n e . The signatures of the Huntington copy and the leaf numbers of the MS have been supplied i n square brackets i n the l e f t margin. In the case of the mis-signaturing which occurs such errors have been sile n t l y emended. The main emendations which have.been undertaken have been the normalization of the headings for the entertainments,, stage directions and the altering of spacing and format i n some speeches. E d i t o r i a l insertions and conjectures have been square-bracketed. The copy-texts for this edition have been the printed copy of 59 Middleton's Honorable Entertainments ( l 6 2 l ) and the MS for Entertainment Eleven, supplemented by the transcript. Two other texts which have been collated with the copy-texts are Bald's carefully reproduced type facsimile of Honorable Entertainments and Bullen* s edition of "An Invention, etc.," which appears as Entertainment Eleven in this edition. Of the two, Bald's work has proven the most useful and many of his suggested emendations have been either noted or interpolated into the text of this edition. Generally, the copy-texts have been followed for accidentals. This has led to the preservation of some peculiarities such as the setting off of proverbs which occur throughout the entertainments. These are given within quotation marks, but while opening the quotation for each new line, there are no closing quotation marks. All italicization also has been allowed to stand, though often, especially in the headings, i t had been co-ordinated with the lineation in the copy-text. As the headings are in prose, their lineation often has been altered in this edition. For consistency, however, a l l speech prefaces have been silently italicized and abbreviated where required. These are followed by a f u l l stop and the songs and speeches indented, MS conventions such as the use of tildes and superscript contractions such as "w have been silently expanded and normalized. Contracted forms of address such as "Sr" and "L.M." have been allowed to stand or in the case of "Sr", the superscript lowered. Where they have been partially superscript and lowering would produce an unconventional ble contraction, such as in the case of "H ", they have been expanded. Long's* and ligatures are not reproduced whereas the convention of 'u' for *v* and vice versa has been retained. The use of the latter is not consistent and may reflect the copy-text which the compositor was using, rather than being a typographical convention. The rationale 6 0 behind the above decisions i s based on typograpM^" 1- modernization with retention of old spelling and purrtv^ion. Lines where the type has been crowded because of the lack of space or where the f i n a l work has been placed on the previous or following line with an opening parenthesis, have been sile n t l y normalized as this probably reflects printing rather than manuscript practice. The descriptive headings for the entertainments are i n prose and have been put against the l e f t margin. Following the style of the copy-text, the descriptive comments and headings within each entertainment have been allowed to remain centered. The song i n Entertainment Seven has been supplied with missing singers' names i n square brackets. Lineation has been changed and a dash used to denote breaks i n the song for echoes and interrupted lines. Each new speech and li n e i s given an i n i t i a l capital, including the echoed lines. A l l this has been noted i n the' textual notes and these emendations are based on usage established in the copy-text version of the song (see introduction to Entertainment Seven). In Entertainment .Eleven square brackets denote conjectures by the transcript. These have been noted only when the MS provides some clue to support or refute the conjecture. Un-bracketed words i n the transcript which appear as lacunae; in the MS have been l e f t un-bracketed i n this edition, but noted-. It i s quite l i k e l y that the original MS was i n much better condition when the transcript was made and i t s emendations have some e t authority. A i l the contractions of the MS, including "y ", "y ", "&", "L p s.", "H""-"""8.", etc., have been silently expanded. Paleographic con- . ventions, such as ' f f for *F', have also been silently normalized, though the old spelling has been preserved along with the use of '!' for ' j ' and 'u' or *v* as they appear, as was done i n those entertainments based on the printed volume. 61 FOOTNOTES * David Bergeron, English Civic Pageantry, 1558-1642 (London: Edward Arnold, 1971). pp. 2 - 3 . 2 Ibid., p. 3. 3 Glynne Wickham, Early English Stages; 1300 to 1660 (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1959), I, 5 2 . Ibid.,•122ff. ^ Sydney Anglo, Spectacle, Pageantry, and Early Tudor Policy (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969). ^ This had been delayed a year because of the plague i n 1 6 0 3 . n Alice V. G r i f f i n , Pageantry on the Shakespearean Stage (New York: College and University Press, 1951), pp. 9 2 , 98. 8 Wickham, I, chapter 6 . He sees the masque, not as an impor-tation from Italy, but as developing directly out of mummings and disgulsings. This gives the masque much earlier beginnings than previously recognized and i t may thus be seen as having a p a r a l l e l development to c i v i c pageantry, at least i n terms of chronology. 9 Anglo, p. 3 . 1 0 Wickham, I, 58; II part 1, 2 3 9 . ^ Wickham, I, chapter 6 ; Dieter Mehl, The Elizabethan Dumb Show (London: Fethuen, 1965), pp. 3 f f . 1 2 Wickham, U part 1, 209. 13 J Bergeron, chapter 11. ~- L- -:-••- ' ^ Rosemary Freeman, English Emblem Books (London, 1948), pp. 4-5; cited in Bergeron, p. 275. 6 2 T.W. Craik, The Tudor Interlude: Stage, Costume, and Acting (London: Leicester University Press, 1967), p. 24-6. 1 6 Wickham, I, 2 3 4 - 6 . 17 The circumstances surrounding Middleton's C l v l t a t i s Amor are an example of this; see Bergeron, p. 1 0 1 , and Entertainments Eight, Nine and Ten where Flora's bower i s re-used. 18 Examples of the use of the banquet symbolically may be seen i n the many comedies and romances which end with a feast and recon-c i l i a t i o n , for instance, Dekker's The Shoemaker's Holiday and Shakespeare's As You Like I t . 1 9 Wickham, I, 5 9 - 6 1 . 2 0 Miss Jean Robertson and D.J. Gordon, eds., Malone Society  Collections III: A Calendar of Dramatic Records i n the Books of the  Livery Companies of London, 1485-1640 (London': Malone Society, 1954), p. xxxii. 21 See p. 1 2 ; In 1623 Middleton was paid for producing an entertainment which may have been quite similar to Entertainment Two in this edition. 22 Repertory of the City of London, vol. xxxiv, f o l . 5 4 0 v , printed i n the Analytical Index to the 'Remembrancia' of the City of London, p. 3 0 5 n j cited i a R.C. Bald, "Middleton's Civic Employments" Modem Philology xxxl (1933), 6 7 . 2 3 Bald, "Middleton's Civic Employments," 6 7 . 24 Ibid. 2 ^ G r i f f i n , p. 46; Robertson, p. xxxii. 26 R.C. Bald, ed., Honorable Entertainments by Thomas Middleton (1621; facs. rpt. London: Malone Society, 1953), P. v i . 6 3 2 7 Ibid. 28 Bald, Honorable Entertainments, p. v i i , notes "The muster of the trained.bands, arranged for Tuesday, 11 April 1620 but cancelled (Ent. i v ) , was nevertheless held on the same day i n subsequent years (Index to Remembrancia, pp. 533-^0 J" i n a l e t t e r dated 31 March 1621 sent to the Privy Council and printed i n the Analytical Index to the  Series of Records known as the Remembrancia, 1579-1664 (London: Francis, 1578), p. 5 3 3 . the following i s recorded: "Letter from the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen to the Lords of the Council, intimating that, having taken into consideration the long disuse of arms in the City of London, and being desirous that both men and furniture should be always in readiness for His Majesty's service, they proposed, subject to the approval of the Council, to appoint the 11th of Apr i l for a general training of the City's Bands." 2 9 M S 30 J See introduction to Entertainment Eight for comments on annual Easter f e s t i v i t i e s . Godfrey Davies, The Early Stuarts: 1 6 0 3 - 1 6 6 0 , 2nd ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959), PP. 3 3 2 - 3 1 DNB. 32 J Middleton was fond of the association of Cockayne's name with • this b i r d as i s shewn by his use of i t again i n Entertainment Four: see c r i t i c a l note to Entertainment One, line .15. - ? J a i l l i a a Herbert, The History of the Twelve Great Livery  Companies of London (1834-7: rpt. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1968) II, 319, makes the following observations on contemporary election ceremonies i n the Skinners' Company: "The principals of the company being assembled, on the day of annual election, ten Christ-church scholars, or 'Blue-coat boys,' with the companies' almsmen, and trumpeters, enter the h a l l i n procession to the flourish of trumpets. Three large si l v e r cocks or fowls so named, are then brought i n and r l f l U v p r p H +.n 64 the master and wardens. On unscrewing these pieces of plate, they are found to form drinking cups, f i l l e d with wine, and from which they drink." 34 John Stow, A Survey of London, ed. Charles Lethbridge Kingsford (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1 9 0 8 ) , I, 104. •75 J Middleton may possibly have had Edward III i n mind here as Edward VI died i n his late teens and was not particularly athletic; see Wickham, I, 2 0 ; the support of these kings "By Act and Favour" may mean that Middleton had some piece of legislation promulgated by Edward VI i n mind, perhaps a royal proclamation, 3 6 Wickham, I, 5 1 f f . 37 J Bald, Honorable Entertainments, p. v i l . op J See pp. 14-5 and introduction to Entertainment Four, pp. 2 5 - 6 . 39 y E.H. Sugden, "New Biver," Topographical Dictionary to the Works of Shakespeare and his Fellow Dramatists (Manchester:.Manchester University Press, 1 9 2 5 ) . 40 For a possible explanation of how t h i s was accomplished see Wickham, II part 1 , 2 2 6 . 41 See footnote 28 above. 42 Acts of the Privy Council of England, I 6 l 9 - l 6 2 1 (London: HMSO, 1 9 3 0 ) , P. 3 5 0 . ^ 3 Ibid., p. 3 7 7 . 4 4 1 Index to Remembrancia, p. 5 3 4 . 45 This combination was revived a year later when Middleton wrote The Sun i n Aries for Edward Barkham's Installation as Lord Mayor. 46 The Haberdashers' coat of arms, notice particularly the two arms at the top center: 65 47 Wickham, II paxt 1, 2 6 3 f f , see especially pp. 238-40 for remarks on the increasing costs of pageants i n this period. 48 49 50 51 52 Stow, II, 97 . Graik, Tudor Interlude, p. 9 . See the textual notes to Entertainment Seven, 11. 71-115. See the textual introduction, p. 53* Stow, I, 166-8. ^ Acts of the Privy Council, 1619-1621, p. 5 2 , l e t t e r to the city dated 31 Oct. 1620. 54 55 Ibid., p. 373. McClure, ed., Letters of John Chamberlain, II, 36 l{ cited in Bald, Honorable Entertainments, p. v i i i . ^ — Collection of the Proceedings in the House of Commons against  the Lord ?err?"*am, Viscount St. Albans, Lord Chancellor of England, for Corruption and Briberyt with the several Debates and Speeches i n the House thereupon, by S i r Edward Coke, Mr. Recorder Finch, S i r Robert Philips &c. Together"with the Judgement given by the Lords against  the said Lord Chancellor, A.D. 1620 (London: Printed for A. More, near St. Paul's, 1621). 6 6 5 7 Ibid., this selection reveals that the actual t r i a l took place mainly between the 1 5 t h and 2 1 s t of March, while Bacon was not f i n a l l y sentenced u n t i l the 3 r d of May. ^ J, P. Kenyon, ed.. The Stuart Constitution, 1603-1688: Documents  and Commentary (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 2 8 - 9 . G.M. Trevelyan, English Social History (New York: Longmans, Green, 1942), p. 184. 6 0 DNB ^ See textual introduction, pp. 5 5 - 6 . 6 2 "Whenever a Secretary of State or other Minister resigned o f f i c e or died i t was usual to issue a warrant for the delivery of his papers to the Keeper of the Papers, but such papers were frequently detained and only recovered by the indefatigable exertions on the part of suc-cessive Keepers. S i r Thomas Wilson, i n the reign of James I, spared no pains to increase the importance of his office and to recover any papers which he judged ought rightly to be i n his custody, and the King gave him every encouragement to do so. In a memorial of about 1613, he says that there were then two sorts of papers in the State Paper Office, 'those that have been long kept at Whitehall and those brought from Salisbury House by himself since the Lord Treasurer's decease, which were far the greater i n number'." Guide to the Contents of the Public  Record Office, Vol. II, "State Papers and Departmental Records," rev. and extended (to I960) from the guide by the late M.S. Giuseppi (London: HMSO, 1963), pp. 1 - 2 . , . . . j . ^ G.E. Bentley, The Jacobean and Caroline Stage (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1 9 5 6 ) , IV, 882. 64 See c r i t i c a l notes to Entertainment Eleven, lines 1 7 - 8 and 2 6 . 6 5 Wickham, I, 2 1 0 f f . 6 7 6 6 See Introduction to Entertainment Two for further comments on archery and i t s symbolic associations, also Ascham's Toxophilus provides a good example of the popularity of the symbolic implications of archery. 67 Bald, Honorable Entertainments, p. v. 68 Ibid., p. ix; see l i s t of irregular and doubtful readings, p. ix. 6 9 The second ornament on Sig. E also appears i n Middleton*s The Ghost of Lucrece (London: Simmes, 1 6 0 0 ) , Sig. A4. The printer's flowers used as; head-pieces i n Honorable Entertainments also appear i n this volume. 70 George H. Price, "The Authorship and the Bibliography of The Revenger's Tragedy," The Library, 5th Series XV (l96o),pp. 2 7 2 - 3 . 71 See also the catchword on Sig. Dl which i s "Ecch-", while the f i r s t word on Sig. Dlv i s "Ecch-". 72 See also the catchword on Sig. D8v which i s "Flora", while the f i r s t word on Sig. E l i s "Flora". / ^ Peter B. Murray, A Study of Cy r i l Tourneur (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1964), p. 1 6 2 . Murray remarks that Eld's compositors usually followed their texts and that neither George Price nor Fredson Bowers had been able to identify them i n their studies of works printed by Eld. 74 Ibid., p. 158, "Price's study of the punctuation and spelling in.the RT indicates that the play i s Middleton's. As i n the holograph Middleton manuscript of A Game at Chess, there i s frequent use of the comma, sometimes even to end speeches, and infrequent use of the colon and period." _-• / - ' '-•" 7 5 There i s a f a i r amount of variation between the headings of the various entertainments. These are described i n the textual notes and suggest that the book i s a compilation of several MSS which were written at different times. 68 76 Other examples may be found i n the c r i t i c a l notes. 7 7 Hurray, pp. 174-89. R.G. Bald, ed., A Game at Ghesse by Thomas Middleton (Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1929), p. 35. 79 1 7 F.P. Wilson, "Ralph Crane, Scrivener to the King's Players," The Library, 4th Series VIl(1926/7), 197-8. 80 Ibid., 202; for a discussion of the differences between Middleton's and Crane's hands, see Bald, A Game at Chesse, pp. 34-7. 81 See c r i t i c a l introduction to Entertainment Eleven. 8 2 A.H. Bullen, ed., The Works of Thomas Middleton (1885-6; rpt. New York: AMS Press, 1964), VII, 371. 8 3 Ibid., 375. 84 Wickham, II part 1, 241, contains a l i s t of pageants i n which professional actors appeared; also see Craik, p. 46ff. 6 9 A Critical Old-Spelling Edition of Thomas Middleton' Honorable Entertainments ( l 6 2 l ) and "An Invention" ( 1 6 2 2 ) 70 H O N O R A B L E ENTERTAINMENTS, Compos'de for the Seruice of this Noble C i t t i e . S O M E O F W H I C H W E R E fashion'd for the Entertainment of the Lords of his Maiesties most Honorable Priuie Councell, vpon the Occasion of their late Royall Employment. Inuented by Thomas Middleton. [ornament] Imprinted at London by G.E. 1621. 71 [A2] TO THE RIGHT HONORABLE S i r Francis Ihones, Knight, L. Maior of the Citty of London; the Right Worship-f u l l , S i r Iohn Garrard, S i r Thomas Bennet, S i r Thomas Lowe, S i r Thomas Middleton, S i r Iohn Iolles, S i r Iohn Leman, S i r George Bolles, S i r William  Gokayne, Fn1ghts and Aldermen; The truely Generous  and Noble, Heneage Finch Esquire, Master Recorder; Master Edward Barkham, Master Alexander Prescot, Master Peter Probye, Master Martin Lumley, Master William Goare, Master Iohn Goare, Master Allen Cotton, Master Cuthbert Hacket, Master William Halliday, Master Robert Iohnson, Master Richard Heme, Master Hugh Hamersley, Master Richard Deane, Master lames Cambell, Aldermen. Master Edward Allen. f j Sheriffes and Aldermen. Master RobertDucye. L A l l Brethren-Senators, Presidents of religious and  worthy Actions, Carefull Assistants i n the State of so  -rnraatch'd a Gouernment; And a l l of them being his  Worthy 3TT? Honorable Patrons. T. M. Wisheth the Fulnes of that Honor, whose Obiect i s Vertue, and Gbodnesse. Those Things that haue tooke Ioy (at seuerall Feasts) To glue you Entertainment, as the Guests 72 [A2V[] They held most truely Worthy. become now  Poore Suiters to be entertaynde by you, So were they from the f i r s t : their Suite is then, Once seruing you, to be receiude agen, And You, to equall Iustice are so true, Yon alwaies cherish that, which honors You. Euer obedient in his Studies, to the Seruice of so compleate a Goodnes. Tho. Middleton. 73 [Bi] H O N O U R A B L E ENTERTAINMENTS. [The f i r s t Entertainment.] On Monday and Tuesday i n Easter weeke, 1 6 2 0 . the f i r s t Entertainment, at the house of the right worthy, Sr. William Gokaine then L. Mayor: Which on the Saturday following was fashioned into seruice for the Lords of his Majesties most Honourable Priuy Councell; vpon which day, that noble Marriage was celebrated betwixt the Right Honourable Charles L. Howard Baron of Effing- ham, and Mary, eldest Daughter of the said Sr. William Cockaine, then L. Mayor of London, and L. Generall of the Military forces. One habited l i k e a Gentleman Sewer, bearing i n his hand an A r t i f i c i a l l Cocke, conducted by the City Musicke, toward the high Table, a Song giuing notice of his Entrance. [Biv] Song. Rooae, roome, make roome, You Friends to Fame, Officers of worth and Name, Make roome, make roome, Behold the Bird of State doth come, 5 7k Make roome, Cleere the place, £ It a l l the grace; It is the King of Birds, whose chauntlng, And early-morning Crowing, So qulcke and strongly flowing, Doe's make the King of Beasts lye panting} How worthy then to he "brought in with Honour, That daunts the proudest in that humble manner. The Speech. Two powers at strife about conceiued wrong. To whom this Bird should properly belong, Were reconcil'd by Harmony: First, the Sunne Cald i t his Bird, cause s t i l l when day begun To ope her modest Eye, this Creature then, Proclalmes his glory to the world agen} Mlnerua next, Goddesse of Armes and Art, Claymd i t for hers (not without iust desert) He, like the Morning being the Muses friend, And then for courage, 'tis his l i f e , his end; Without wrong then those properties related, To both, hee may be iustly consecrated: But, Worthy Lord, how properly to you, Whose place pertakes of both} i t i s so true An Emblem of your worth, charge, power, & state, 75 None, Noblier can expresse a Magistrate; 30 For a l l that is in this Bird, Quality, Is in you Vertue, Iustice, Industry, What do's his early morning note imply? But in you, early care and vigilanciej [B2T] A Duty that begets Duty to you, 35 So Vertue s t i l l payes, and receiues her dues What do's the striking of his wings import, Ere to hi3 Neighbour hee his sounds retort? But the deere labours and incessant paines Of a iust Magistrate, that e'en constralnes 40 His Nerues, to giue^nore Vertue to his word, And beate in sense into the most absurds The Sharpest is the easiest to apply, ' For his quicke Spurre, Lawes sword doth signifies The execution of your Charge and Place, 45 To cut off a l l crimes that are bold and bases "Vertues should be with kind embraces, heap'd, "But with a Sword, Sins haruest must be reap'd. To the Aldermen, My reuerence next to you, to you, that are The Fathers of this Citty: by whose care, 50 Wisedome & watchfulnes, the good cause thriues, You that are Lights and Presidents in Liues, Noble Examples, Honours t'Age and Time, ? 6 [B3] This i s the Top which your good cares must climbe, "A ceaslesse labour Vertue hath impos'd, 55 "Vpon a l l those, whom Honour hath enclos'd; And such are you, selected from.the rest, Works then that are most choice become you best; Place before a l l your Actions and Intents, The rare gifts of that Bird, this but presents; 6 0 Behold the very shape and Figure, now, Serues for a Noble Welcome, turnd into A Cup of Bounty, and t'adorne the Feast, Loaden with loue comes to each worthy Guest; And but obserue the manner, there's in that, Freenesse exprest, humility, yet State; First you take off his head, to tast his heart, Which showes at this time power is laid apart, And bounty f i l s the place; then he goes round; To shew a Welcome of an equall Sound, 7 0 . To euery one a free one, through the Boord, So plaine hee speakes the goodnesse of his Lord, Take then respectfull Notice through the Hall, That heere the noble Health begins to A l l . [B>] The Cock-cup then deliuered by this Gentle man Sewer to the L. Mayor, hee beginning the Health, a second Song thus honouring i t . 77 2. Song. The Health's begun, 75 In the Bird of the Sun, Pledge i t round, pledge i t round, With hearty welcome i t comes crownd, 0 pledge i t round; The Ceremonies due 80 Forget not as they were begun to you, When you are dranke to, y'are by duty led, First to kisse your hand, then take off the head, You cannot mlsse i t then, To put i t on and kisse i t agen; 85 [B4] The next to whom the Health doth flow. It taught to honour your Pledge so. So round, round, round, round, let i t goe, As aboue, so below; For Bounty did Intend i t alwayes so. 90 7 8 [r&vj The second Entertainment. At Bun-hill, on the Shooting day; Another habited like  an Archer did thus greet the L. Mayor and Aldermen after  they were placed in their Tent. Why this is nobly done, to come to grace A Sport, so wel becomes the Time & Place, Old Time made much on't, & i t thought no praise Too deere for't, nor no honour in those dayes, Not only Kings ordalnd Lawes to defend i t , 5 But shinde the f i r s t Examples to commend i t , In their owne Persons honord i t so farre, A Land of Peace show'd like a field of Warre; But chiefly Henry, (Memories Fame) the Eight, And the Slxt Edward; gaue i t worth and weight, 10 By Act and fauour, (not without desert) It being the comliest and the Manliest Art, And wereas meaner Crafts took their f i r s t forme From humble Things, as Twisting from a worme. And Weauisg from the Spiders limber frame; 15 [j$5~] Musieke and Archery from Apollo came: He cals himself great Maister of this Sport, In whose bright name faire Wisedorae keepes her Court: Well may this Instrument be f i r s t in Fame, Aboue a l l others that haue got a Name, 20 79 In war or peace; when Heauen i t selfe doth show, "The Gouenant of Mercy, by a Bow, And as each Creature, nay, each sencelesse Thing, Is made a Glasse to see Heauens goodnesse in; So though this be a meere delight, a Game, 2 5 Iustice may see heere somthing she may claime, (Without wrong done to State) and cal't her own, Since the greatst power i s oft through weakenesse known. What are Reproofs? with them I f i r s t begin, But Arrowes shot against the Brest of Sin; 30 Who hits Vice home, & cleaues a wrong in twaine, So that i t neuer comes to close againe, Shewes not he noble Archery? l i e pray euer, He may be followed, mended he can neuers And as a cunning Bowman markes his ground, 35 And from light things (which being tost vp) i s found Where the winde sits (for his aduantage best ) (jB5v] Before he let his Arrow passe his Brest; So the grsne Magistrate, discreetly wise, Makes vse of light occasions that arise, kO To lead "rrta on to weightier, windes a Cause, From thisgs but weakly told, much substance draws And will the state of Truth exactly trye, :: Before he let the Shaft of Iudgement f i l e : Then in this Art, there's Vertue s t i l l exprest, 4-5 For euery man desires heere to be Best, 80 Their Ayme is s t i l l Perfection, to outreach, And goe beyond each other} which do's teach A Noble Strife in our more serious Deeds, Assuring Glory to him best exceeds: And where some sports seek corners for their shame Day-light and open Place, commends this Gamer Much like an Honest Cause, i t appeares Bold In publicke Court, for a l l Eyes to behold; To the Archers. On then, Apolloes Scholers, You ne're found Nobler Spectators compast in this Ground; To whom I wish (worthy their Vertuous Wayes) Peace tortheir Hearts, long Health, & Blessed daies. 81 [The third Entertainment.] Vpon the renewing of that worthy and laudable Custome  of Visiting the Springs and Conduite Heads, for the  Sweetnesse and Health of the City. A Visitation long  discontinued. A Water-Nlmph, seeming to rize out of the Ground by  the Conduit Head, neare the Banquetting-House, thus  greets the Honourable Assembly. Hah? let me cleare mine Eyes, me thinks I see Comforts approach, as i f They came to me; I am not vsde to e'm; I ha beene long without, How comes the Vertue of the Times about? Ha's Ancient Custome yet a Friend? of Weight? 5 So many? rareI Goodnesse i s wak't alate Out of her long Sleepe sure; that ha's laine s t i l l Many a deere Day, charm'd with Neglect and Will, I thought I'de beene forsaken, quite forsooke, For none these 7 . yeares, ha's bestow'd a Booke 10 Vpon my watry Habitation here; I meane, of Power, that ought to see Me cleere, " - - •: [ B6V] For yon'd faire Cities health, which Sweetnes blesse And Vertue in f u l l Strength, euer possesse; Well fare thy Visitation, Noble Lord. 15 And this most Graue Assembly; that accord 82 In waves of Charity and Care with Thee; Ioyes visi t You, as your Loues visit Me: The Water stands so f u l l now in mine Eyes I cannot chuse hut weepe; "but the Teares rise From Gladnesse, not from Sorrow, for that's lost Now I see you, Vnkindnesse yet ha's cost Many a deere Drop, since I beheld the Face Of the last Magistrate, in Power and Placet I h'a done good Seruice; t'is no boasting part In one forgot, to speake her owne desert: I grant my kind and louing Sisters both Chadwell and Amwell, haue exprest no Sloth In their Pipe-Pilgrimage, but fairely proou'd Most excellent Seruants, hous'de, and welbelou'd And haue, when hard Necessity requires, Giuen happy Quench to many merciless Fires; Therefore am I neglected? An old Friend? The Head? that to the Heart a'th City send My best and cleerest Seruice, take Delight To be at hand, make your Dames Pure and White; Who for their c i u i l l Neatnesse, are proclalm'd Mi—-ours of women, through a l l Kingdoms fam'd: Can I be so forgot? and daily heare The noise of Water-bearers din your eare? Those are my Almes-folkes, trotting in a Ring, And Hue vpon the bounty of my Spring, Yet like dull wormes that haue no sence at a l l , 83 Lick vp the Dewes, ne're look from whence they f a l , The head's not minded, whence the goodnes flows: So with the worlds condition right i t goes; "Blessings are swallowed with a greedy loue, "3ut Thanks fly e slowly to yon'd place Abouey From whence the Euerliuing Waters spring, Which to your soules eternall comforts bring: The Dewes of Keauen f a l on youy prosperous Fates Like f r u i t f u l l Riuers, flow into your States. 8k [B7v] [The fourth Entertainment.] A Speech intended for the general! Training, being  appointed for the Tuesday next ensuing the Visitation  of the Springs, but vpon some occasion, the Day de- ferred. Vpon discontinuance, and to excite them to practise. Pallas on Horsebacke, on her Helmet the figure of a Cocke, her proper Crest, thus should haue greeted the L. Generall the L. Mayor S i r William Cokaine, at his  entrance into the Field, the, worthy Colonels, the right  Generous Mr: Alderman Hamersley, President of the Noble  Councell of Warre, for the Martlall Garden; the Captaines, &c. Why here's my wish, the Ioy I Hue vpon, Wisedome and Valour when both meet i n one, Now t i s a Fie l d of Honor, Fames true Sphere, Me thinks I could eternally dwell here; Why here's perfection, t i s a place for me, 5 PaTTas delights i n such community; This Bird of Courage, (Enemy to Feare) ....... -[ B 8 ] Whose Figure on my Helmet now I weare, And haue done euer from my Birth i n Heauen Is consecrate to Me, as to Thee giuen, 10 8 5 Our Crestha alike, and f i t s both warre and peace, The Vertues are, Valour and Watchfulnesse, And both shine cleare now i n thy present State, Field-Generall, and City-Magistrate: As I from Arts and Armes deriue my name} 15 So thou suppliest two Offices, with Fame: • Why here the Ancient Romane Honor dwels, A Pretor, Generall} Senators, Colonels; Captaines, graue Citizens; so ric h l y inspir'd, They can assist i n Councell, i f requir'd, 20 And set Court-Causes i n as fayre a Forme, As they doe Men, here, without Rage or Storme: Lieuetenants, Ensigners, Seriants of Bands, Of worthy Citizens the Army stands, Each i n his place deseruing faire respect; 25. I can complaine of nothing but Neglect, That such a noble Cities Armid Defence Should be so seldome seen; I could dispence With great occasions, but alasse, whole yeares [ B & V J T O put o f f exercise, giues cause of feares; 30 "In getting wealth a l l care should not be set, "But some, i n the defending what you get: There's fewe but haue their prouidence so pure, (Blest with a fa i r e estate) to make i t sure, By strength of writings, and i n good mens hands 35 Putting their Coyne, secur'd by Lifes and Lands, 8 6 Thi3 is the common Fort to which a l l flye, Euery man labours for Securityj But what's a l l this? (isspeafce in Truths hehalfe) If neither Men, City, nor Deeds he safe; Where's now Security of State? that day, When l i f e stands doubtfull of her house of clay; A mine, which neglect of glorious Armes H'as brought on many a Kingdome, rockt with charmes Of lazy dalnesse, by vnpractis'd men i Fit for no seruice; I resolue you then; This i s Security, i f you'le rightly know, And do's Secure that Word which you call so: Let not a small pecuniary Expence (Which is but drossie dotage) keeps you hence, You lose a l l that you saue, after that manner What i'st to rise in riches, f a l l in honour? Nay to your Safeties to commit selfe-treason, Which euery thing prouides for, blest with reason, Let this graue Lord's Example, (in i t s Prime) Who perfects a l l his Actions with his Time, Makes euen with the Yeare, to his faire Fame, Giaes His Accounts vp with a Glorious Name In Field and Court, moue a l l men to discharge Their manly Offices and paines at large; Let euery Yeare (at least) once in his Round, See you like Sonnes of Honour tread this Ground; 87 And Keauen that "both glues, & secures iust welth, The City blesse with Safety, You with Health. / 88 [Civ] [The f i f t h Entertainment.] At the House of Sir William Cokaine^ Vpon Simon and Iudes day following, "being the last great Feast  of the Magistrates Yeare, and the expiration of his Pretorship. One attlr'd like a Mourner, enters after a made  dish like a Herse, stuck with sable Bannerets, Drums  and Trumpets expressing a mournfull Seruice. [C2] The Speech. Imagine now, each apprehenslue Guest The Yeare departed} this his Funerall Feast, I, a chiefe Mourner, this a sad Pageant, here, Set with the Orphans Sigh, the Widowes Teare, A l l seeae to mourne, as lockt from their reliefes, 5 T i l l the New Sun of lustice dry their griefes? And as there is no Glorious thing that ends, But leaaes a Fame behind i t , that commends Or disapxrcues the Progresse of his Actst So in this Epitaph, sad Truth contracts 10 A spacious Story, which spread forth at large, Might instruct A l l , built vp for Power & Charge. 8 9 [C2v] The Last Will and Testament of 1620. finishing for the City. Inprimis, I Annus 1 6 2 0 . do bequeath to my Successor 2 1 . a l l my good wishes, paines, labours and reform-ations, to bee nobly perfected by'his endeuours and diligence. Item, I make Iustice my Executor, and Wisedome my Ouerseer, which is, that Honorable Court which neuer failed yet to see Iustice performed. Item, I giue and bequeath to a l l the Officers, for Legacies} Truth, Temperance, Example of Humility and Gentlenesse. Lastly, I Bequeath to the whole Body of the beloued Commonalty, three inestimable Iewels, Loue, Meeknesse and Loyaltie} which are alwaies the forerunners of a blessed prosperity} which heauen grant they may euer-lasting en$oy, [C3] The Epitaph. Here ends a Yeare that neuer mispent day, Throgh Fames- celestial Signes made his own way, By discrete iudgement a l l his time s t i l l led, Which is the onely Signe gouemes the Head, Mercy to wants, and Bounty to Desert, 90 The speciall Slgne that rules the noble Heart, A Yeare of goodnesse, and a Yeare of right, In which the honest cause sued with delight. A Yeare wherein nothing that's good, was d u l l , Began at Moones Encrease, and ends at F u l l ; F u l l cup. f u l l welcomes adding the Suns g i f t , Who nearer his declining, the more swift In his i l l u s t r i o u s course, more bright, more cleere, Such i s the glorious setting of this Yeare, His beamy substance shines e'ne through his "shroud As the faire Sun shoots splendor through his cloud; May euery Yeare succeeding this, s t i l l haue No worse an Epitaph to decke his Graue, And so my last farewell (this Teare for me) Wishing that many may conclude l i k e Thee. 91 [C3v] [The sixth Entertainment.Q At the House of the Right Honorable S i r Francis Ihones. The F i r s t Entertainement, at his f i r s t Great Feast  preparde to giue Welcome to his Owne Noble Fraternltie, the Company of Haberdashers. The property, to which this Speech especially hath Respect, was a deuice l i k e a made Dish, expressing Two naked Armes breaking through a Cloud, supporting a wreath of Lawrell, being part of the Haberdashers Armes. [cV] The Speech presented by a seruant to Comus, the great S i r of Feasts. Free Loue, f u l l welcome, bounty fayre, & cleere, E'en as i t flowes from Heauen, inhabit here, And with your L i b e r a l l Vertues blesse the yeare, Make th i s thy Pallace thou smooth youth of Feasts, Comus1 and put Ioy into a l l the Guests, 5 That they may truely taste i n fewest words, Th'Abundant welcome yon'd Kind Lord affords, Especially to You, aboue the rest, Of a l l most worthy to be F i r s t and Best} You challenge two Respects, i n Brotherhood, one, 10 9 2 Which had desert enough came i t alone, Without a second Vertue, but to adde Vnto Your Worthinesse, Your Loue was clad With Honor, Cost, and Care, and how applide, The late triumphant Day best t e s t i f i e d , Stands i n no need of my applause and praise, Your Worth can of i t selfe, i t selfe best raisej So much for Noble Action i n your Right, [cW] Which I presume his goodnesse w i l l requite" Now for Himselfe, (not far to wade or swim) I borrow of your Honours to f i t him, Which both preserues me i n my f i r s t bounds s t i l l , And may agree best with his Loue and Will: Here the Property i s presented. Behold i n this rare Symbole of Renowne, The Erableme of a l l lustice, and the Crowne The faire reward for' t , euer fresh and greene; Which imitates those Ioyes Eye hath not seenej These Armes, that for their nakednesse resemble E'en Truth i t selfe, no couering, to dissemble, Nor shift for Bribe, but open, plaine, and bare, Shows, Hen of Power should keep their conscience f a i r e And were their Acts transparent, without vaile Disguize of Vizard, and such neuer f a i l e ; 9 3 Obserue this more, t i s not one Arme alone That beares this Laurell t but two ioyn'd in one, Mercy and Iustice, the two Props of State, They must be both fixt in the Magistrate; If wanting either, subiect to much harme, For he that ha's but one, ha's but one Arme; Iudge then the Imperfection; marke agen, They breake both through a Cloud; which instructs Men How they should place their Reuerence and their Loue, Seeing a l l lawfull power, comes from Aboue; And as the Laurell (which is now your due) Being due to Honour, therefore most to you, Feares no iniurious Weather the Yeare brings, But spite of Storms looks euer greene and springs, Apolloes Tree, which Lightenings neuer blast, So (Honor'd Lord) should burning Malice cast, Her pitchy Fires at your Triumphant State; You are Apolloes Tree, (a Magistrate), Which no foule Gust of Enuy can offend, Nor may i t euer to your Lordships End, Health and a Noble Courage blesse your Dayes; To this your worthy Brotherhood, fame and praise. 94 [The seventh Entertainment.] At the house of the Right Honorable Sir Francis Ihon L. Mayor, For the Celebration of the Ioyfull Feast of Christmas last. Leuity, a person attired sutable to her condition, from a window, vnexpectedly thus greets the Assembly in the midst of the Feast. Leu. Why well said, thus should Christmas be Lightsome, Iocond, blithe and free, Now i t lookes like Bounties Pallace, Where euery Cup ha's his f u l l Ballace, Drowne Cares with Iuice that Grapes haue bled, And make Times cheeke looke fresh and red, Let nothing now but Healths goe round, And no sooner off, but crown*d With sparkling Liquors, bounding vp, Quicke in Pallet, as in Cupj To "be beany, to be dull, Is a fault so p i t t i f u l l , ¥e "bar i t from the course of Reason, Care must not peep abroad this Season, Nor a sad looke dare appeare Within ten Mile of Christmas cheere: 95 Slghes are banisht ten leagues farder, Either Cellar, Hall or Larderf To he Iouiall then and blithe Is truely to pay (Christmas) Tithe, 20 And where free Mirth is and impartiall, Christmas there h'as made me Marshiall. [c6v] Seuerity, from an opposite window, as vnexpectedly reproues her. Seu. Why how now? know you where you are? rude thing; Bold and vnmanner'd Licence, dare you bring Your free Speech hither, before me begin? 25 Who let this Skittish thing of Lightnesse in? Some call the Porter hither, yet stay, stay. I'ue power in words to chase this toy away; I wonder that the Musique suffers thee To come into their roome? Leu. Why Nicety? 30 Seu. Beleeue me honest Men (what e're you be) She's able to spoyle a l l your Harmony, Corrupt you ayres with Lightnesse. Leu. Oh fie, fie, How i l l you blaze my Coate, Seuerity?  Seu. Is this a place for you? can Lightnesse here 35 Vnder the Hazard of her Shame appeare? [C?] Leu. Why thou dull lumpish Thing, void of a l l fashion, Mirths poyson, Enemy to Recreation, Thou Melancholly wretch, so f i l ' d with spite Thou eat'st thy heart, when others take delight, 40 I must "be merry, t i s my nature— Seu. Foole. Leu. Bull dogbolt. Seu. Skit. Enter below, Temperance. Temp. What? this a Scolding Schoole, How now? so hie got? and so lowd withall? Whose doing wa'st plac'st you two there to braule? Pray marke the Assembly, looke vppon e*m well, 4 5 Thinke where you are, and let that rude thought quell Your vnbeseeming difference, t i s not heere As at a Pit, here's Reuerence, Worth, and Feare. Leu. She sayes this place and season suites not me, Temp. She sayes but right in that, Seu. 0 Leuity. 5 0 Tear). No,r nor you neither, [C7v] Leu. You may be gon too, Temp. Y'are Both Extreames, therefore no place for you, Lightnes becomes not, nor Seuerity, It must be betweene both, and I am Shee, Too Light, is bad, and too Seuere as Vilde, But both well temperd, raades the mixture milde, As I stand now betweene you, so i t makes A perfect Vertue vp, when i t pertakes Of each, and comes no neerer then I doo, And Vartue made, We haue no neede of you, Vanish, be gon. Seu. I giue place willingly To You, but not to Her. Leu. Nor I to thee. They giue place. Temp. So, Thus things should haue their becomming grace For Temperance f i t s the Reuerence of this place: Graue Senators, in goodnes s t i l l encreast! Long may you Liue to celebrate this Feast, This blessed Season of true Ioy compilde In which faire Heauen and Man were reconcilde: Musigue? thou modest Seruant to this place, Raise chast Delight, to doe this Season grace. A Song Answered at seuerall places. 98 Eccho} Eccho1 by thy loue once to Narcissus, I now coniure thee not to misse vs, But make thy Sound Vppon the Woods rebound And Mountains— Ecch, And mountaines, [Temp.] And to thy neighbouring Sisters c a l , — [Ecch.] Sisters cal, [Temp.] Lodg'd i n Caue or hollow Wall And those resounding neere faire Fountaines--Ecch. Neere fa i r e Fountaines, [Temp.] Let e'm c a l l to one another— [Ecch. "| To one another— [Ecch.2] One another [Temp.] And one Sister rayse vp t o t h e r — Ecch. Vp tother [Temp."j Let i t goe from me to you— [Ecch.] From me to you— [Ecch. 2] Mee— [Ecch.] To you, Drear?.] From you to them, be iust and t r u e — [Ecch.J lust and True fTeara. I Neuer cease your Voyces Fight, T i l l you raise vp chast D e l i g h t — [Ecch.] Vp chast Delight. 9 9 Delight. Who calls me from my Gaue— [Temp.] Twas I — 95 [Ecch.] Twas I , — [Scch.2] Twas I; [Tearo.] This is no Time in silence now to l y e — Delight Who I? [Ecch.] 0 1} 100 [Temp.] This is a Season of a l l Ioy compilde, In which faire Heauen and Man were reconcilde— [Scch.] Heauen and Man were reconcilde,~ [Ecch.2] Reconcilde} [Temp.] Behold how many a worthy Guest 105 Are met to celebrate this Feast. Delight. I see i t plaine, 0 blame me ihen, I nelTe will showe such Sloth agen} For whose delight am I now raisde?— [Temp_.] Oh for the Citties I — Delight. How? for the Citties?-- 110 Ecch. For the Citties: Delight. To faile a Mistris so renown'd i t were a thousand p i t t i e s , — [Diir] Ecch. Thousand pitties. pTem-p. j Those are her Honor'd Sonnes you now behold, Delight. Heauen blesse them a l l , with Graces manifold. 115 100 . So! Tis thankfully accepted, y'haue exprest, Your seruice well and f u l l y to this Feast: Adorn'd and honor*d i n each happy part, With those most reuerend Patrons to Desert: The Close} Ioy neuer f a i l e your meetings, good successe A l l your Sndeuours, and your Fortunes blesse, Gladnes of heart dwell euer i n your Brests, And Peace of faire Workes 'bring you glorious Rests. 101 [The eighth Entertainment.j At the House of the Right Honorable S i r Francis Ihones, L. Maior. For the Solemne feast of Easter last, vpon the Times of that blessed  and laudable Custome of Celebrating the memory of Pious workes i n t h i s C l t t l e , at Saint Mary Spittle. The Inuention. The foure Seasons of the Yeare, Spring, Summer, Autumne and Winter, In a Song into foure parts diuided, Call vp Flora, the Goddesse of the Spring, who i n a Bower, deckt with  A r t i f l c i a l l Flowers, appeares vpon the Musicall Inuocation. [D2vj The Songi at seuerall Windowes. Spr. Flora, FloraJ We c a l l thee heere, Sua. We c a l l thee heere, From forth thy fragrant Bower, Spr. Thou Queene of euery laughing Flower, 5 Appearel Atraeare to vs, Sum, To vs appeare; Thou Banquet of the Yeare, Spr. Or i f a Name may be more sweet, more deere, Harke, Summer harke, ±q 102 Marke, Auturane, marke How coughing Winter mournes to see This smiling Houre, Would i t were nipt for me, But soft I_ feele no such decay  But I_ may Hue to kisse faire May, 4~nd i n the Morne and Euening howers, Leaue my cold sweats vpon the Flowers. Alas5e poore Mumps, at thy weake power We laugh, The Sun w i l l r i s e and take thy cold Kisse off.  And now behold. — Oh —0h~0--He's strucke cold  At Floraes f i r s t appearing, Looke, i n a Sound,  Will drop to'th ground. Heine, helpe, helpe, he wants your cheering. Oh I_ confesse Feild Emperesse, The Beauty of thy power amazes, I am content to ioyne With those three Friends of thine, And helpe to chant thy prayses; Now a l l the Seasons of the Yeare agree To giue, (Faire Flora) the prime place to Thee. 103 [D3v] Flora r i s i n g i n her Bower, c a l l s forth two of her Seruants. Flo, here's Hyacinth! the Boy Appollo loude, 3 5 And Turnde into a Flower? Hy. Here Queene of sweetnes. Flo. Adonis! thou that for thy beauteous chastity, Wert turnde into the chastest of a l l Flowers, (The closse-infolded Rose) blowen Into Blushes 40 It Is so mayden-modest, Ad.. What's thy pleasure Faire Empresse of sweete Odours, Flo. Willing:Seruants! I haue Employment for you both, and speedy, 45 Both. We waite with much Ioy to receiue the charge on't; Flo. Hast, to the two Assisting Magistrates, Those worthy Gitty Gonsulls, Beare our sweete wishes to e'm, and speade Ioy From vs, to both their Feasts, 50 And to that part of their Graue-worthy Guesse [D4] Which here we misse to day, though here be those Whom we ought more especially to Honor, Say though we cannot there our selfe appere, Because we owe our greater seruice here, 55 Yet that they shal not f a i l e of a l l their due, We send the wishes of our Heart by you. Hy_. Which shall be f a i t h f u l l y tendred, Flo. Tis presum'd 104 But to this faire Assembly present now I, and these yeelding Sweets a l l their heads bow In honour of this Feast, of the Day, chiefe, Made solemne by the workes of your Reliefe, Your Cares, your Charities, the holy Vse Of pious exercise; a l l which infuse Blessings into your Fortunes, you abound In temporall things, 'cause blessed f r u i t s are found Vpon the Stocks you graft on, raarke the Encrease; You plant poore Orphans i n a ground of Peace, And carefully prouide, when f r u i t time comes, You gather Heauens Ioyes for't, i n i n f i n i t e Summes; This day you view'd the Garden of these Deeds, That blesse the Founders; and a l l those succeeds In Zeale and Imitation; you saw there, Vertues true Paradise, drest with your Care; (Your most religious Care) and those Blew Sets, They are the Cities Bancke of Violets That sraels most sweet to Heauen; neuer cease then You worthy Presidents for Times and Men, T i l l Charltie spring, (by your Examples giuen) As thick on Earth, as Rewards stand i n Heauen; I f there were sloth or faintnes tow'ard good works; (As blest be Heauen there i s not) Time instructs, The Season of the Yeare, for as the Ground, The heauiest and dul'st Creature can be found, Yet now begins both i n her Meades and Bower3 105 To offer vp her Sacrifice, i n Flowers, How much more ought that Earth with a Soule "blest, Which i s of euery of you here possest, To spring forth Workes of Piety and Loue, To g r a t i f i e those Dewes f a l l from Aboue And as the humblest Flower that euer grew, Ha's not his Sent alone, but Vertue too, Good for Mans griefesj so t i s not Mans f u l l Fame To haue a Christian Sauour, or a Name An empty voice of Charity and Reliefe, He must apply Ease to his Brothers griefe; "Faith i s the Sent and Odour of the Flower, "But Work's the Vertue, that makes good the power; Tis l i k e the Tincture of those Roabes you weare, In which cleare Vesture you to me appeare Like Borders of faire Roses; and worne hie Vpon the Cities forehead; that r i c h Dye As i t i s reuerend, honourable, graue, So i t i s pretious, wholesome; which doth craue A double Vertue at the Wearers hands, Justice and Mercy; by which goodnesse stands: Thus Honour s t i l l claimes Vertue for his Due, And may both euer lay lust claime to you: What? the foure Seasons of the Yeare stuck durabe? I lookt for a kind Welcome, now Im'e come. 106 2. Song, "by the foure Seasons! called  the Song of Flowers. Welcome, 0 welcome, Queene of sweetnes welcome, i n the noblest manner, With a l l thy Flowers, thy sweete breath 1t Maides of Honour} Flower gentle! 1 begin with Thee Fayre Flower of Chrystall! that's for me, Apples of Loue! there sweetnesse dwelsjj Puh, giue me Canterbury Bels} Faire double-Gold cups, grlefes expelling, Agnus Gastus, a l l excelling, Venus Bath! the loueliest pride of Iune, Glue me that Flower, cald, Go to bed at noone, Blessed Thistle, fam'd for good, Shepheards Pouch, for stanching blood,  Faire yallow Knight-wort, for a foule relapse,  AndLadies-Mantle, good for Maydens Paps, Tuft. Hyacinth! that crownes the Bower, Cal'd of some, the Virgins Flower^ Take that for me, more good I feele In Ruffling Robin, and Larkes Heels. There i s a Sweete, Vnnamed yet,  The root i s white, the Marke of pure Delight, 107 Bearing his "Flowers faire and hie, The colour l i k e a purple Dye; What i s the name t i s blest withall? Liue-longl i t so the Shepheards c a l l ; Liue-long? t i s Vertues promis'd Due  And may i t Long remalne with You Honor*d Patrons, Vertuous Natrons, Whose Llfes and Acts this City graces, Daily striuing, And reuluing  Workes worthy your renowne and places. So ya're confirm'd; from your harmonious Closes May Sweetnesse drop, as Hony-Dew from Roses, Then turning, to the Lord Mayor  and Aldermen. A blessed Health possesse you, and a long, That i n this l a t t e r Spring of your graue yeares, You may be greene i n Vertues, and grow strong In works of Grace, which soules to Heauen endeers; Your good Cares, here, Iustice, and well spent houres Crowne you hereafter with eternall Flowers. 108 Hyacinth, and Adonis, sent forth by Flora, to the 2. other Feasts, thus sets off their Employments. The goddesse Flora, Empresse of the Spring, Chusing (this Feast) her Flowry Soiourning, Vnder the Roofe of the chiefe Magistrate, Whose power layes iust claime to the greatest state, Hath sent me forth, not meanest i n her Grace, 155 To breath forth her sweet wishes to this place; F i r s t to the Master of this bounteous Feast, To speake her ioyj next, to each worthy Guest; And though she cannot now her Selfe appeare, Because she woes her greater Seruice there, 160 Yet her Hearts Loue to euery one I bring, To whom sh'as sent a Present of the Spring. Then fa l s into the former speech of Flora, making Vse of her diuine instructions. 109 [The ninth Entertainment,] Here followes the worthy and Nohle Entertainemnts of the Lords of his Majesties most Honourable Priny Councell; at the Houses of the Lord Mayor, and Sheriffes, The f i r s t Entertainment vpon Thursday i n Easter weeke beeing the f i f t of A p r i l l , 1621, And vpon the sixeteenth of the same Month those Persons of Honor receiued their second Noble welcome, i n a free and Generous Entertainment, at the house of the Right Worshipfull, Mr, Sheriffe Allen; Flora the Person vsed before, thus prepared for them, Flo, Am I so happy to be blest agen? With These! the choice of many thousand men, For Royall Trust selected, and a Care That makes you Sacred; may the world compare [D7v] A Confidence with yours? from so compleate 5 And excellent a Master? Or so great And free a Loue can any Nation showe In Subiect to the Soueraigne, then doth flow From th i s most thankfull Citty? Waues of Loue Ee'n ouerwhelme each other, as they moue, 10 A l l striuing to be f i r s t , they runne i n one :r.r To'th Oceans Brest! (The Kings Affection.) And you of Honor! that doe oft appeare In presence of a Maiesty so cleere, 110 So mighty i n Heauens blessings, be so kind To grace with Words what He shall euer find, And t i s a glorious Truth, and well beseems Places and Persons of your fa i r e Bsteemes, Not a l l the Kingdomes of the Earth, containe A Citty freer to her Soueraigne, More f a i t h f u l l , and more carefullj obserue here His Highnes excellent Tryall} Loue and Feare Make vp a Subiects duty, to his King, As Iustice and sweete Mercy makes vp Him} So two fold Vertue two-fold Dutie, cheeres, He knew their loues, now came & toucht their fears To try their Temper, (0 blest Heauen) he found It was the Feare he lookt for, had i t ' s ground Vpon Religion, Reuerence, sweete Respect, Loue lookt not Louelier, nor Diuinelier deckt, Each Reprehensiue word He did impart Flewe, and cleaude fast to their obedient Heart, Twas f i r e within their bosome, 'could not rest, T i l l l a some serious manner, the'de exprest Their duteous Care, with a l l speede put i n Act Their Soueraignes sacred pleasure, to cqact Where manners failde, and force, as with a P i l l From Humours rude, the Venom of the,111; "A Kings owne Admonition, against Grimes, "Is Phisicke to the Body of the Times. I l l And herein did He Imitate the Highest. (To whom i t test becomes Him to be nighest To chasten, where he loues, i t i s the Seale Of the Almighties fauour, He doth deale So with his Ghosen, doe not languish then, Thou Prince of Cltties, cause the King of Hen Diuinely did reprooue thee, Know, t i s Loue, Thou art his Ghosen C i t t i e , and wilt prooue (As thou hast euer beene) f a i t h f u l l and free, The Chamber of his sweete Security: Then i n a Health of Ioy your Hearts expresse, Whilst I breath welcome to those Noble Guesse. The Song of welcome, after which Flora, thus  Closes the Entertainment. A Trust of Honor, and a Noble Care S t i l l to discharge that Trust, Keepe your Fames f a i r e , You haue proceeded carefully t goe on, And a f u l l Praise Crowne your Progression. 112 [Th e tenth Entertainment.] The last Entertainment f u l l as Noble and worthy as the former, vpon the Saturday ensuing, being the 21. of the same Moneth, at the House of the equally Generous and Bounteous, the Right  Worshipfuil, Master Sheriffe Ducy. [ornament] [El ] Flora, this the third time, i n her Bower, beginning to speake, interrupted, by her two Seruants, Hyacinth and Adonis. Flo. Good Heauen— Hy. Fye, th i s i s vsurpation meerely, Speake thrice together? there's no right i n t h i s : Flo. What's that? Ad. I haue the luster cause to take exceptions, 5 This i s the place I seru'd i n . lately seru'd i n , [Eiv] And by her own appointment, my wrong's greatest. Flo. Here's a strange sudden boldnesse a r both sides a' me Hy. Wa'st not sufficient grace for you to speake At the chiefe Magistrates house, there, where that Bower 10 Was f i r s t erected, but to shift your feate From place to place, pu l l downe, and then set yp, I wonder how she scapes Informers, trust me. Ad. Beleeue me so doe I, sh'as fauour showne her. Flo. So, this becomes you well, 15 Hy.. There's right i n a l l things, We might haue kept our places as we held e'm, There's l i t t l e Conscience i n your dealing, thus, You might haue l e f t the Lower Eookes for vs, For our poore seruice, Flo, Thus I answere you, Taking ray President from the iust came Of those cleere Lights of Honour, shining faire To their Workes Endi you see before your Eyes The Trust that was committed to their wise And discreet Powers (for his Highnesse Vse) They put not off to others, with excuse Of wearinesse, or painesj as they begun, In their owne Noble Persons see a l l done: So by their sweet Example. I that am Your Queene and Mistris, and may rightly blame, And taxe the boldnesse of your ruder blood, I doe not thinke, or hold my selfe too good In mine owne Person, to commend their Cares That haue som iustly seru'd their King, i n Theirs, Now you p u l l i n your Heads. Both. Pardon sweet Queene. Flo. Yet why should Anger i n my brow be seene They came but to shew duty to the Time, Contention to doe Seruice was their Crime, That no i l l looking fault: but ' t i s s t i l l knowne, Ilk "They that giue Honour, loue to doe't alone, It brookes no Partnership:—To giue this last Duty her Due, as others before past, Though i t came now from men of meaner Rancke, Where welth was ne're known to oreflow the bank Like Spring-Tides of the Rich, that swell more hie, Yet tak't for Truth, i t comes as cheerefully, A l l smiling Giuers; and well may i t come With smooth and louing Faces, the small Summe That they returae, i s thousand times repaide In Peace and Safety, besides Soueraigne Ayde For each Hearts Grieuance, (to i t s f u l l content) By this high Synode of the Parliament; Before whose faire, cleare, and Vnbribed Eyes, (When i t appeares) Corruption sincks and dies, Secure Oppression once, comes trembling thither (Stead of her hard heart) knoks her knees togther This Benefite i s purchas!d, this Reward To which a l l Coyne i s drosse to be compar'de But,the faire Workes concluded, on a l l parts, lour Care, which I place f i r s t of a l l deserts, And i t becomes i t , t'as beene nobly lust, You haue discharg'd with Honor your hie Trust: The Cities Loue, I must remember next, And f a i t h f u l l Duty, both deuoutly mixt; 115 And (as the State of Court sets las t , .the Best,) His houndlesse Goodnesse, not to be exprest, That i s your King and Master, Blessings f a l l Vpon His Actions; Honor, on you A l l . FINIS. 116 [The eleventh Entertainment.] [ l ] An Invention performed for the Service of the Right honorable Edward Barkeham, Lord Maior of the C i t t i e of London: At his Lordships Enterteiisment of the Aldermen his Brethren, and the honorable and worthie Guests: (At his House assembled and Feasted) In the Easter Hollidaies: 1 6 2 2 . written by Tho. Middleton. [ l v blank] £ 2 ] A Song i n seuerall parts: vshering toward the high Table, a Personage i n Armor, representing Honor, holding i n his Hands a Sheaffe of Arrowes. Meane. A h a l l : a h a l l : below: stand cleere What? are you readie? Base. [•••] Enter! Meane. [•••] Then [ 2 v ] Present your Duties to those Men Of worth, and Honor. Chorus. We reioice When so we spend Art, howre, and Voice. Meane. T e l l met oh t e l l me: what i s he appeeres So l i k e a Son of Fame, and beares A sheafe of Arrowes, bound with silken Bands? Base. 'Tis Honor with two armed Hands Shewing the figure of his [worth] Who giues i t , and deserues i t both. Meane. A brauer Embleme for the Place I nere beheld. Base. Nor for his Race A f i t t e r Symbole (without Pride, or Spight) Being armd at a l l points, to doe Merit right. Meane. What word's that? Base. Diligentia Fortunae Mater. Meane. [This honourd] Daie Makes good that Motto: ' t i s exprest Not i n Him onely but i n euerie Guest I ioy to see. Chorus. Wee ioy "to see Your Places, and your Works agree. Finis. 1. Song. Then Honor deliuers this speech. Though i n this. Martiall habit I [appeare], I bring nor cause of doubt, nor thought [of feare]. 'Tis onely a wale found to expres best The worthie Figure of yond Noble Crest. Nor barely to be showne i s the Intent And scope of this Times Service: More i s ment. 118 There's Vse and Application, whence arise Profit and Comfort to the Graue and Wise. A nobeler Emblerae of Charge, Powre, and Place, Iustice and Valour, neuer yet did grace [A station] more. A Crest becoms the State [A christian] Champion (a good Magistrate ). Two armed Armes: to what may they allude More properer then to Truth, and Fortitude? The Armor of a Christian? To be strong In a iust Cause then to theis Armes belong. The Sheafe of Arrowes, what doe they Implie But shafts of Iustice'gainst Impietie? Yet they must passe through a Iuditious hand For see,they'r tyde with Mercies silken Band. They must not inconsideratly be spent But vsd l i k e weapons of iust Punishment, And as i t i s i n course of Combat knowne •Tis not the propertie of one hand alone Both to defend, and offend at one time, So l e t not one hand pass vpon a Crime The waight may f a l l too heavy: but take both Mercie with Iustice, twyns of equall growth Those carry a Cause l e v e l l through a Land, For no man shootes an Arrow with one hand. [Beleeue we] this: doe Envie what i t can [Religious] Conscience i s an armed Man. 119 An other way: to make It generall For ' t i s an Embleme that concernes you a l l , You of the honorable Brotherhood Knitt altogeather for the Gitties good, In whose grave Wisedomes, her faire Strength doth stand. You are the Sheafe: the Magistrate the Band Whose Loue i s woond about yous Witnes be His Bountie and his Welcora, both most free. And as this Dale you saw the golden Sheafe Of this blessed Gitties works i n the r e l i e f e Of the poore fatherless May you behold That Sheafe of Glorie, that makes drosse of Gold. Th'Almighties Arrowes, on your Enemies f a l l , And heauens armed Armes, protect you a l l . 2. Song. Meane. Ioie be euer at your Feastes 3ase. Bountie welcom a l l your Guests Chorus. That this Citties honor male Spred as f a r as Morne shootes Dale. Meane. Faire your Fortunes euer be Base. Plentie bles the Land that's free Chorus. That this C i t t i e s honor male Spred as f a r as Morne shootes Dale. Meane. Health your Powres with gladnes f i l l 120 Base, Iustice "be your Armor, s t i l l . Meane. Pious Works the golden Sheafe Base. Those Arrowes strike the [wicked deafe] [?] Meane. And dombe Base. And Lame Chorus. So Vertue male Spred forth as far as Morne shootes Dale. Fin i s [7v blank] [8 blank] [8v blank] 121 TEXTUAL AND CRITICAL NOTES: Form and Abbreviations In the notes which follow, the line number and word or punctuation to the l e f t of the square bracket refer to the text of this edition. To the right of the bracket appears the source of the emendation followed by a semi-colon and variants. I f the emendation i s originated i n this edition, then only the variants are given to the right of the bracket. Emendations denoted as "cited i n Bald" are l i s t e d as irregular and doubtful readings on p. ix of his introduction to the 1953 facsimile reprint of Honorable Entertainments. This does not mean that the emendation i s his but rather that he questions the original reading which i s also included i n the notes. Abbreviations Bald Honourable Entertainments (16215 rpt. Malone Society, 1953). Bullen Eld The Works of Thomas Middleton (1885-6; rpt. New York: AMS Press, 1964). Honorable Entertainments (London: George Eld, 1621). MS "An Invention, etc." Conway Papers, Domestic, SP 14, vol. 129, Public Record Office. trans modern transcript accompanying the above MS. Cheney Handbook of Dates for Students of English  History (London: RHS, 196l). 122 Ellacombe .The Plant-Lore & Garden-Graft of Shakespeare, 2nd ed. (London: Satchell, 1884). DNB...................Dictionary of National Biography. Herbert, The History of the Twelve Great Livery Companies of London (London: Guildhall Library, 1834, 1837), 2 vols. OED .Oxford English Dictionary. Rohde. Shakespeare's Wild Flowers (London: Medici Society, 1935). Sugden...............»Topographical Dictionary to the Works of Shakespeare and his Fellow Dramatists (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1925). Wickham... ...Early English Stages, 1 3 0 0 - 1 6 6 0 (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1959, 1963), 2 vols. Woodcock WoodcockSs Lives of Illustrious Lords Mayors and Aldermen of London (London: Woodcock, 1846). 123 TEXTUAL NOTES  T i t l e Page 1 0 . Middleton.] cited i n Bald; Middlevon. Eld and Bald. 1 0 . 1 ornament] see textual introduction, p. 5 0 . Dedication 1 5 * } ] £ 3 1 1 ( 1 Bald. 2 1 . Honorable] cited by Bald; Ho-/rable Eld and Bald. Ent ertainment One .18 Song.] SONG. Eld and Bald. 3 2 . Industry] cited i n Bald; Iudustry Eld and Bald. 7 4 . 4 2 . Song,] 2 . SONG. Eld and Bald. 7 7 . Pledge] cited i n Bald; pledge Eld and Bald. Entertainment Three . 2 laudable] lan-/dable Eld and Bald. . 4 - , 5 A Visitation long discontinued.] centered as a heading over A Water-Nlmph ,,. Assembly. Eld and Bald. Entertainment Four . 5 - . 6 Vpon discontinuance, and to excite them to practise.] 124 printed to the l e f t and paral l e l to A Speech ... the Day deferred, and separated from i t hy a bracket Eld and Bald. .8 the] Bald; cited as possibly t he Bald; t he Eld. 3. true] cited i n Bald; ttue Eld and Bald. 23. Snsigners] Eld and Bald; cited as s i c . Bald. Entertainment Five .5 Pretorship.l Fretorship. Eld and Bald. .2-.5 At the House of S i r William Cokainej] printed to the l e f t and and parallel to Vpon Simon ... Pretorshlp, and separated from i t by a bracket Eld and Bald. .6-.7 made dish] Eld and Bald; conj. dish made, but see Entertainment Six, l i n e .7. J 12. Charge.] Charge Eld and Bald; cited as possibly Charge. Bald; punctuation, i f present i n Eld, i s obscured by a small ink blot. 12.1 1620.] 162 . Eld and Bald; i t looks as i f the missing figure has been erased Bald. 13. 1620.] cited in Bald; 620. Eld and Bald. Entertainment Six .2-.10 At the House of ... Ihones.] centered as a heading Eld and Bald. The property ... Haberdashers Armes.] printed to the l e f t and parallel to The F i r s t Entertainement ... Haberdashers., and separated from i t by a bracket Eld and Bald. 35. two] cited in Bald; rwo Eld and Bald. 125 45. Being] cited in Bald: Bring Eld and Bald. 5 1 . (a Magistrate),] a (Magistrate,) Eld and Bald. 55* praise.] cited i n Bald; praise Eld and Bald. Entertainment Seven .2-.4 At the house ... Mayor,] printed to the l e f t and parallel to For the Celebration ... last., and separated from i t by a bracket Eld and Bald. 3 1 . Men] cited i n Bald; Me Eld and Bald. 54. be] cited i n Bald; me Eld and Bald. 6 0 . Vertue] cited in Bald; Vertue Eld and Bald. 6 1 . place] cited i n Bald; glace Eld and Bald. 6 2 . thee.] thee, Eld and Bald. 6 2 . 1 They giue place.] this i s placed between Severity's and Levity's speeches in lin e 6 2 Eld and Bald. 70.1 A Song] A Song? Eld and Bald. 70.2 places.] places, Eld and Bald. 71ff. see c r i t i c a l introduction, p. 3 2 . 75-6. And Mountains—/ Ecch. And mountaines,] And mountains—Ecch: And moun-/taines, Eld and Bald. 77-8. Sisters c a l , — / [Ecch.] Sisters cal,] Sisters c a l , — S i s t e r s c a l , Eld and Bald. 79. Lodg'd] cited i n Bald; Log'd EM and Bald. • •_. 82-4. to one another—/ [Ecch.] To one another—/ [Ecch.2] One another] to one another—To one another/—one another— Eld and Bald. 85. tother--] tother Eld and Bald. 86. Vp tother] — v p t o t h e r — Eld and Bald. 126 8 7 - 9 . to you—/ [Ecch.3 From me to you—/ [Ecch.Z~\ Hee—/ [Ecch.] To you,] to you—From me to you/—Hee—To you, Eld and Bald. 9 0 . True—] true Eld and Bald. 91. Iust and True] — l u s t and True Eld and Bald. 9 3 . D e l i g h t — ] Delight Eld and Bald. 9 4 . Vp chast Delight.] —Vp chast Delight. Eld and Bald. 9 5 - 7 . Caue—/ [Temp.] Twas I — / [Ecch.] Twas I , — / [Ecch.z} Twas I;] Caue/ Twas I~Twas I, Twas I; Eld and Bald. 9 8 . to l y e — ] to lye Eld and Bald. 9 9 - 1 0 1 . Who I?/ [Ecch.] 0 I;/ [Temp.] This i s a Season of a l l Ioy compilde,] Who I?/ 0 1',/ This i s a Season of a l l Ioy compilde, Eld and Bald. 1 0 2 . reconcilde—] reconcilde Eld and Bald. 1 0 3 - 4 . Reconcilde,—/ [Ecch.2 ] Reconcilde;] reconcilde,/ Ecch—Reconcilde; Eld and Bald. 1 0 9 . raisde?--] raisde? Eld and Bald. C i t t i e s i — ] C i t t i e s ! Eld and Bald. 1 1 0 . C i t t i e s ? — ] Citties? Eld and Bald. 1 1 2 . thousand p i t t i e s , — ] thou-/sand p i t t i e s , Eld and Bald. Entertainment Sight . 2 - . 5 At the House of ... Maior.] printed to the l e f t and parallel to For the Solemne ... Spittle., and separated from i t hy a bracket Eld and Bald. , 6 - . 1 0 The Inuention.] centered as a heading over The foure Seasons ... In-uocatlon. Eld and Bald. 9 . deere,] Eld and Bald; cited i n Bald as possibly deere. 12? 40. closse-infolded] Eld and Bald; cited in Bald as possibly close-infolded; see c r i t i c a l note, HOff. after lines 116., 120,, 124. and 128. the text i s double spaced Eld and Bald; see c r i t i c a l notes. 149. Your] cited in Bald; your Eld and Bald. 161. Yet] cited i n Bald; Yer Eld and Bald. Entertainment Ten .6 ornament] see textual introduction, p. 50. 1. Good Heauen—] Good Heauen Eld and Bald. 57. knoks] Eld and Bald; cited i n Bald. Entertainment Eleven , • .6^ In the Easter Hollidaies: 1622.] MS and Bullen; In the Easter Hollidayess ieS^.1622 / A p r i l 22 trans; see c r i t i c a l introduction, p.44. .9 Table] trans; Table, MS. 2. readie?] trans; readie MS. [...] Enter!] [Come] Enter conj. trans; lines 2. and 3. are badly damaged i n MS and I am partly relying on trans here as i t may have been done when nS was In better condition; the rhyming of the lines suggests that 'Enter' should be rhymed with 'cleere' which would make i t metrically part of the preceeding l i n e and eliminate . the need for trans conj. '[Come]'. 3. [•••] Then] then trans; again I am relying on trans as MS i s damaged; in order for 'Then' to rhyme with 'men* of li n e 4., i t would have to have been preceeded by a phrase to metrically f i l l out the li n e ; trans gives no indication of anything having preceeded 'then*. 128 12. i t "both.] Bullen; i t both conj. trans; lacuna i n MS. 1 3 . A] I ffi and trans; Ay, conj. Bullen who suggests "that *I* was caught from the line below, and that we should read 'A'." (Vol. VII, p. 374). 18. FortunasJ conj. trans; F[. . .~|n[.. .1 MS. Mater] Bullen; Matre MS and trans. This honourdl conj. trans; [,..]rd MS. 2 3 . appeare,J Bullen; appeare conj. trans. ; lacuna i n MS. 24. thought [of feare].] thought [of feare] conj. trans; t h [ . . . j MS. 2 6 . yond] MS; your trans and Bullen. Crest.] trans; Crest. MS. 31. Place,] Place MS and trans. 33. A station] conj. trans; [,..]onMS. 34. [A christian] Champion] conj. trans; [...lampion MS. Magistrate).] Magistrate) MS; Magistrate.) trans. 42. For see,] MS; To see Bullen. 4 4 . Punishment.] conj. trans; Pun[...] MS. 5 6 . a l l , ] a l l MS and trans. 58. good,] Bullen; good MS and trans. 64. r e l e i f e ] conj. trans; lacuna i n MS. 6 9 . Feastes] Feastes. MS and trans. 70. welcomj conj. trans; [. ,.]comMS. 71. That t h l s j conj. trans; lacuna i n MS. 72. Spred as far] conj. trans; lacuna i n MS. 74. free] trans; free. MS. - ' 81. dombe] trans; dombe. MS. 82. Daie.] Dale, MS; Dale trans. 1 2 9 CRITICAL NOTES CRITICAL NOTES 130 T i t l e Page 9. Employment.] see c r i t i c a l introduction to Entertainment Ten. 1 0 . 1 ornament] see textual Introduction, p. 5 0 . 1 1 . G.S.] George Eld. Dedication 1 . Sir Francis Ihones] Lord Mayor of London 1 6 2 0 - 1 and a member of the Haberdashers Co. John Squire wrote The Triumphs of Peace for Jones' Inauguration. In his introduction'to the facsimile edition of this collection, Bald remarks (p. v i i ) : The expense of the mayoralty proved too great for him and, to escape his creditors, he decamped on the night before his term of office expired, 'conveying a l l of worth out of his house and himself with his wife into some secret corner of the countrie' (Letters of John  Chamberlain, ed. McClure, i i . 4 0 5 ) . 3 . Sir Iohn Garrard] Lord Mayor of London l 6 0 0-l.(Herbert). Sir Thomas Sennet] or Benet; Mercer who was Lord Mayor i n 1 6 0 3 - 4 (Woodcock). 4. S i r Thomas Lowe] or Low; Lord Mayor of London i n l604-5 (Woodcock). Sir Thomas Middleton] Lord Mayor of London i n 1 6 1 3 - 4 and a member of the Grocers Co. He was knighted on the 2 1 s t of July, 1 6 0 3 , and the pageant for his inauguration as Lord Mayor was Middleton's Triumphs of Truth (DNB). Sir Iohn Iolles] Lord Mayor of London i n 1 6 1 5 - 6 and a member of the 131 Drapers Co. Anthony Munday wrote Metropolis Coronata for Jolles' inauguration, (Woodcock). Sir Iohn Leman"] Lord Mayor of London in l6l6 - 7 (Woodcock). S i r George Bolles] Lord Mayor of London in 1617-8 (Woodcock). Sir William Cokayne] Lord Mayor of London in 1 6 1 9 - 2 0 , and a member of the Skinners Co. He was elected sheriff i n 1 6 0 9 and was an alderman from then u n t i l his death in I 6 2 6 . The DNB entry includes the following information: On 8 June 1616 the king honoured him with his presence at dinner at his house in Broad Street (Cokayne House, exactly opposite St. Peter's Church), where he dubbed him a knight. During Cokayne's mayorality ( 1 6 1 9 - 2 0 ) James vis i t e d St. Paul's Cathedral with a view to raising money to complete the spire, and was received by Cokayne in great state. (Dugdale's The History, of St. Paul's Cathedral i n London, 2 n d ed., pp. 6 9 » 13?T He was a member of the Merchant Adventurers Co. and Cockin's Sound, a harbour i n Greenland, was named after Kim by William Baffin. His funeral sermon was preached by John Donne. See also the c r i t i c a l introduction to Entertainment One. Heneage Finch Esquire, Master Recorder] Finch was called to the bar in 1606 and sat i n Parliament for Rye i n 1 6 0 7 . In the 1 6 2 0 - 1 Parliament he sat for West Looe, Cornwall, In the debate on the Spanish Match ( 3 Dec, 1621) he took part supporting the proposal to petition the King against i t . In February l 6 2 0 / l he was elected Recorder of the City of London (index to Remembrancia, p. 2 9 5 ) and he represented the city i n Parliament between 1 6 2 3 and 1 6 2 6 . He was knighted on the 2 2 n d of June, 1 6 2 3 , and elected Speaker of Parliament on the 6 t h of Feb., 1 6 2 5 / 6 (DNB). The Recorder of London was appointed by the Lord Mayor and aldermen to 'record' or keep in mind the proceedings of their courts and the customs of the city, his oral statement of these being taken as the highest evidence of fact. In practice he was a magistrate or judge, having jurisdiction i n both criminal and c i v i l matters,(OED). Finch actively contributed to the t r i a l of S i r Francis Bacon (A Collection of the Proceedings i n the House of Commons ... England (London: Printed for A. More, near St. Paul's, 1 6 2 1 ) ) . 8, Master Edward Barkham] Lord Mayor of London i n 1621-2 and a member of the Drapers Co. Middleton wrote The Sun i n Aries for the pageant marking Barkham's inauguration as Lord Mayor. He was a Leatherseller by patrimony but was translated to the Drapers on July 10, 1621. This was done rather unwillingly by the Drapers as they did not wish to have to bear the expense of another Lord Mayor's pageant, having had two quite recently. It i s a tradition that the Lord Mayor must belong to one of the twelve Great Livery Companies (Johnson's History of the Drapers Company, i i i , pp. 9-10), On June 16, 1622, Barkham was knighted was during his term as Lord Mayor. He died in l6jk. His daughter Susanna was the great-grandmother of Sir Robert Walpole (Beaven's The Aldermen of the City of  London, i , p. 102; i i , pp. 52, 177). Master Alexander Prescot] no reference found. 9, Master Peter Probye] Lord Mayor of London i n 1622-3= and a member of the Grocers Co. Middleton wrote The Triumphs of Honour and Virtue for Proby's inauguration. Master Martin Lumley] Lord Mayor of London i n 1623-4, and a member of the Drapers Co. Middleton wrote The Triumphs of Integrity for Lumley's isauguratian. 10. Master William Goare] Elected sheriff for 1615-6 (Woodcock). Master Iohn Goare] Lord Mayor of London i n 1624-5:: and a member of the Merchant Tailors Co. John Webster wrote Monuments of Honour for Goare's inauguration (Herbert), 11. Master Allen Cotton] Lord Mayor of London 1625-6 and a member of the Drapers Co. There were no pageants for his inauguration. 133 Master Cuthbert Racket] Lord Mayor of London In l 6 2 6 " - 7 and a member of the Drapers Co. Middleton wrote The Triumphs of Health and Prosperity for Hacket's inauguration.(Herbert). 12. Master William Halliday] or Holydayj elected sheriff for i6i?-8 (Woodcock). Master Robert lohnson] Elected sheriff for 1617-8:(Woodcock). 1 3 . Master Richard Heme] or Hearne; elected sheriff for 1618-9 (Woodcock). Master Hugh Hamersley] or Hamraersleyj elected sheriff for 1 6 1 8 - 9 and Lord Mayor for 1627-8. He was a member of the Haberdashers and i n Entertainment Four he i s referred to as the "President of the Noble  Counceli of Warre, for the Martiall Garden"= '(Woodcock). Master Richard Deane] Elected sheriff for 1 6 1 9 - 2 0 and Lord Mayor of London for 1 6 2 8 - 9 . He was a member of the Skinners Co. and Thomas Dekker wrote Britannia's Honour for his inauguration (Woodcock). 14. Master lames Cambell] Lord Mayor of London i n 1 6 2 9 - 3 0 and a member of the Ironmongers Co. He was born i n 1570 and elected sheriff i n 1 6 1 9 . Thomas Dekker wrote London's Tempe for Cambell*s inauguration. During his mayoralty, Cambell was knighted on the 2 3 r d of May, I 6 3 0 , (DNB). 1 5 . Master Edward Allen] Elected sheriff for 1 6 2 0 - 1 and presented Entertainment Nine.(Woodcock). 17. Master Robert Ducye] Lord Mayor of London i n I 6 3 O - I and a member of the Merchant Tailors Co. Thomas Dekker wrote an unknown pageant for Ducy's inauguration. He served as sheriff for 1 6 2 0 - 1 and his home was the venue fo r Entertainment Ten. Entertainment One .4 Monday and Tuesday i n Easter weeke] . 17th and 18th of April (Cheney). 1 3 4 . 6 William Cokaine] see note i n Dedication, line 6 . Saturday] 22nd of April (Cheney). .8 Priuy Councell] a l i s t of members for Nov. 1, 1618 to Feb. 28, 1620, may be found i n The Acts of the Privy Council, 1 6 1 7 - 9 , iv, p. 2 8 7 - 9 . . 1 0 Charles L. Howard Baron of Effingham] later second Earl of Nottingham. He was the son of Charles Lord Howard of Effingham, Earl df Nottingham. See c r i t i c a l introduction to Entertainment One. .14 Gentleman Sewer] an attendant at a meal who superintended the arrangement of the table, the seating of the guests, and the tasting and serving of the dishes (OSD). . 1 5 A r t i f i c i a l l Cocke] Bald remarks (p. v i ) : .,. set of five s i l v e r cups in the form of cocks, bequeathed by Cockayne's father to the Skinner's Company and s t i l l in their possession. Pictures of them may be seen in J.J. Lambert's Records of  the Skinners of London, 193^, or the Victoria and Albert Museum catalogue of An Exhibition of Works  of Art belonging to the Livery Companies of the  City of London, 1927. On the use of these cups i n ceremonies, see footnote 3 3 to the introduction. .16 City Musicke] t n e City waits, who often played at such functions. 1. Roome, roome, make roome,] a common opening in early drama, especially the interlude, see Craik's Tudor Interlude, pp. 19-20, for a short discussion of this and similar opening phrases. 9-12. I t i s ... panting;] the allusion here has not been found, but see Haalet, I, i i , 149-56, for the effect of the early morning crowing of the cock. 2 7 . Worthy Lord] the Lord Mayor, S i r William Cockayne. 28. place] the office of Lord Mayor. 87. I t ] l l conj. Entertainment Two 135 .2 Bun-hill] "A street in London, on the west side of the A r t i l l e r y Ground, near Moorfields ... The name, originally Bone-hill, was derived from the depositing there of more than 1000 cartloads of bones brought from the charnel house of St. Paul's i n 154-9. The fi e l d s were used for archery practice, and were a common resort of the young Londoners. The neighbourhood had a somewhat unsavoury reputation. In Middleton*s The Roaring G i r l , iv, 2, Mrs. Openwork asks, "Didst never see an archer as thou'st walked by Bunhill look asquint when he drew his bow?"(Sugden). Shooting day] see c r i t i c a l introduction, p. 20. habited | dressed. .4 Tent] probably erected on the edge of the f i e l d , open on one side to afford the aldermen a view of the contests. 9. Henry ... the Eight] as a young man Henry showed considerable a b i l i t y at archery. 10. Sixt Edward] possibly Middleton had Edward III i n mind who was noted for his expertise i n arms (Wickham, I, p. 20). The phrase "By Act and Fauour" i n the next line suggests that Middleton may be referring to a royal proclamation i n Edward VI's reign although the piece of le g i s l a t i o n or royal edict that he had i n mind i s not clear. Henry VIII and Edward. VI had been the two male rulers of England preceeding James, and this may also led to their use by Middleton. 14. Twisting from a worme] the spinning of a s i l k worm i s used par a l l e l to the weaving of the spider as an image for the humbleness of certain crafts. 22. "The Couenant of Mercy, by a Bow] an allusion to God's promise to Noah (Genesis 9). 34. mendedJ possibly improved or bettered (OED), 136 Entertainment Three . 2 - . 8 ] see c r i t i c a l introduction, p. 2 3 . 3 . e*m] them. 5 . K'as] Has. 8. Neglect and Will] possible allusion to the New River project, see Intro-duction to Entertainment Three. 9. I'de] I had. 15. Noble Lord] Lord Mayor Cockayne. 1 6 . Assembly] the aldermen. 2 8 . Chadwell and Amwell] The New River rose at Chadwell springs i n Herts.,, between Hertford and Ware, and drew further supplies of water from the Amwell springs and the river Lea. ' The Amwell springs were a mile or two east of Ware. In Middleton's Triumphs of Truth, an entertainment written for performance at the le t t i n g i n of water to the New River Head at Clerkenwell, the t i t l e speaks of "the running stream from Amwell-Head into the cistern at Islington, being the sole cost of Mr. Hugh Middleton of London, l 6 i 3 " (Sugden). Jk. The Head? that to the Heart a' the City send / My best and cleerest Seruice, take Delight] the question mark after 'Head' may possibly be misplaced, A conjectural reading might be: "The Head that to the Heart a.' the City send / My best and cleerest Seruice? take Delight". Entertainment Four . 2 - . 6 ] see c r i t i c a l introduction, p. 2 5 f f . 10. Thee] Lord Mayor Cockayne. " giuen,] gluen conj. 2 3 . Lieuetenants, Ensigners, Seriants of Bands, / Of worthy Citizens the 137 Army stands,] Lieuetenants, Snsigners, Seriants of Bands / Of worthy Citizens, the Army stands conj. 36. Lands,] Lands. conj. 48. do's] does. 5 2 , i ' s t ] i s i t . Entertainment Five .2-.5] see c r i t i c a l introduction, p. 28. .6-.7 made / dish] dish / made conj., but the phrase i s used again i n Entertainment Six, lin e .7. On the use of such things i n interludes, see Wickham, I, p. 212. 3. a sad Pageant, here,] possibly a reference to the "made dish". 4. Set with the Orphans Sigh, the Widowes Teare,] possibly f l o r a l decoration on the dish. The la t t e r flower may be referring to Widow's Wail which i s a small shrub with linear-oblong leaves and yellow flowers, sometimes called the guinea-hen flower (PEP). 6. New Sun] new Lord Mayor. 7. Inprimis] Imprimis;'in the f i r s t place', a term usually used i n legal documents such as w i l l s . Enterta^^est Six .2-.5] see c r i t i c a l introduction, p. 29, and c r i t i c a l note for lin e 1. i n the Dedication for information on Lord Mayor Jones. .6-.10] see footnote 46 to introduction for a sketch of the Haberdashers' arms. 15. late triumphant Day] Lord Mayor's inauguration on Oct. 29th. 138 Entertainment Seven . 2 - . 7 ] see c r i t i c a l introduction, p. 3 0 . 17. farder] farther. 2 9 ^ 3 0 . I wonder that the Musique suffers thee / To come into their roome?] from this i t seems that Levity i s speaking from the musicians gallery. 42. dogbolt] "blunt headed arrow (OED); term of contempt and reproach. 48. P i t ] probably a reference to a bear or bull baiting arena. 5 5 . Vilde] wild or possibly v i l e (OED); see Middleton*s Women Beware Women III, i i , 320 (ed. Charles Barber). 6 9 . Musique?] Temperance seems to be able to hear the musicians from where she i s standing. 1 0 0 . 0 1 ; ] 0 Aye; conj. 1 Entertainment Eight . 2 - . 9 ] see c r i t i c a l introduction, p. 3 2 f f : also, on the use of bower scenes, see Wickham, II part 1 , pp. 2 1 0 - 1 3 . 18. poore Mumps] a term of contempt or mock endearment (OED). 24. Sound] possibly a flourish supplied by the orchestra for Flora's entrance. 28. Feild] F i e l d . 3S-40. Adonis, thou that for thy beauteous chastity, / Wert...Blushes] The flower usually associated with Adonis was the Anemone (Ellacombe, p. I 4 f f ; Hohde, p. 1 2 9 ) . The description "closse-infolded Rose" may just be referring to shape and colour, especially since i t appears within . parentheses. closse-infolded] cited by Bald as irregular; a common Middleton spelling for 'close' however, see Murray, A Study of C y r i l Tourneur, p. 1 6 5 . 4 7 . two Assisting Magistrates] probably Sheriffs Ducy and Allen, see c r i t i c a l introduction, p. 3 3 * 139 51. Guesse] Guests, see Middleton's Phoenix, I, i i i , "Sirrah, what guesse does t h i s inn hold now" (OED); see also Entertainment Nine, l i n e 52. 60. Sweets"] flowers. 68. Orphans] The governors and children of Christ's Hospital attended the earlier church service dressed i n violet livery (Bald, p. v l i i ) . 75. Blew sets] the orphans i n their violet livery. 94. Sauour] possibly NSaviour/ 99. the Tincture of those Roabes you weare] the aldermen are i n their scarlet livery. 104. pretious] possibly lprecious /(OED), 113. Flower gentle] this may be descriptive of a quality of the flowers or may possibly be a reference to yellow gentian, a t a l l flowering herb whose roots have tonic properties (OED). 114. Flower of Ghrystallj] the flowers used /to decorate the bower were a r t i f i c i a l (line .9) and this may be a reference to a glass representation of a flower. 115. Apples of Loue] tomatoes, at one time thought to be useful as a philtre. 116. 120, 124, 128.] the text i s double spaced after these lines i n Eld.' This divides the song up into verses of four lines each which are sung by the four seasons. The division i s rather arbitrary and occurs only in the middle of the song. I t may be the result of the compositor. 116. Canterbury Bel3] one of the various cultivated bellflowers such as the settle—leaved bellflower or throat-wort, Coventry b e l l s , or marian's vio l e t (OED). In Norfolk t h i s name was used to refer to lady-smocks or cardaraine pratensis (Ellacombe, p. 134). 117. double-Gold cups, griefes expelling] possibly a reference to the Marigold which was thought to 'strengthen and comfort the heart' (Ellacombe, p. 156-7) j may also be referring to something such as a king-cup which i s rather l i k e a large butter-cup. 140 118. Agnus Castus] a tree, species of vitex, once believed to be a preservative of chastity (OSD). 119. Venus Bath] probably the wild teasel (OED). 120. Go to bed at noone] this may be a species of violet or pansy.(Ellacombe, pp. 196, 309). 121. Blessed Thistle] probably the holy t h i s t l e which had a high reputation as a heal-all, being supposed to even cure the plague (Ellacombe, pp. 124-5). Usually identified with Scotland and therefore with James. 122. Shepheards Pouch] a common cruciferous weed, bearing pouch-like pods (OSD). This plant was evidently used to stop bleeding, 123. Knight-wort] the suffix 'wort' usually denotes an herb with medicinal qualities. 124. Ladies-Mantle, good for Maydens Paps] probably rosaceous herb, alchemilla vulgaris, used to relieve a breast ailment i n young women (OED). 125. Hyacinth] see Ovid, x, i 6 2 f f j see lines 35-6. 128. Ruffling Robin] probably a reference to ragged robin, also known as crowflowers and buttercups (Rohde, p. 13; Ellacombe, p. 67). Larkes Heele] probably larkspur, Indian cress or garden nasturtium. 134. Liue-long] Gerarde's Herbal (1597), II, cxxxviii, 417, records Orpine or Liblong as other names; Parkinson's Theatr. Bot. (1640), p. 726, "In English Orpine, and of some Liuelong, because a branch of the greene leaves hung up i s any place w i l l keepe the verdure a long time" (OED). Entertainment Nine .2-.10] see c r i t i c a l introduction, p. 35ff. .2] For a l i s t of the Privy Council members for 4 March 1620 to 30 May 1623, see Acts of the Privy Council, p. 356ff. 2. These] the Privy Council. 141 52. Guesse] Guests, see c r i t i c a l note to Entertainment Eight, line'51. Ent ertai nment Ten ,2-.S] see c r i t i c a l introduction, p. 39ff. . 6 ornament] see textual introduction, p. 5 0 . 8. a'me] of me. 11-13. Was f i r s t erected ... trust me.] This remark by Hyacinth i s of interest as i t shews that the statute against travelling players ( l James I c. ?) was being enforced with the aid of informers. This statute i s given i n Wickham, II part 1, Appendix E, pp. 335-6. For another reference to informers see Middleton's A Chaste Maid i n Cheapside, II, i i , 53ff (ed. Parker). 19. Lower Bookes] possibly lesser ranks, that i s those l i s t e d at the bottom of any l i s t of the cit y hierarchy. 4 3 . Duty] possible pun on the name of Sheriff Ducy. 69.1, FINIS.] end of Honorable Entertainments ( l 6 2 l ) . Entertainment Eleven .2-.6] see c r i t i c a l introduction, p. 43ff. 1. A h a l l : a h a l l : below: stand cleere] see c r i t i c a l note to Entertainment One, l i n e 1» 13. A brauer Sableme] Barkham's coat of arms. 17. word's] motto. 17-18, Diligentia Fortunae Mater] l i t e r a l l y , "diligence i s the mother of fortune". See The Svnne in Aries (Bullen, VII, p. 344) which also makes use of Barkham's motto, 26, yond Noble Crest] Barkham's coat of arms. BIBLIOGRAPHY 142 Acts of the Privy Council of England, I 6 l 9 - l 6 2 1 . London: HMSO, 1930. Analytical Index to the Series of Records known as the Remembrancia, 1579-1664. London: Francis, 18?8. Anglo, Sydney. "The Evolution of the Early Tudor Mask." Renaissance Drama, 1 (1968), 1-30. . Spectacle, Pageantry, and Early Tudor Policy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969. Bald, R.C., ed. A Game at Chesse by Thomas Middleton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1929. . Honourable Entertainments by Thomas Middleton. 1621; rpt. London: Malone Society, 1 9 5 3 . .. "Middleton's Civic Employments." Modern Philology. 31 (1933), N 6 5 - 7 8 . Barber, Charles. "A Rare Use of the Word 'Honour* as C r i t e r i a of Middleton's Authorship." English Studies, Aug. 1 9 5 7 , l 6 l - 8 . Barker, Richard Hindry. Thomas Middleton. New York: Columbia University Press, 1 9 5 8 . Beaven, Rev. Alfred B. The Aldermen of the City of London. 2 vols. London: Corp. of the City of London, 1 9 0 8 . Bentiey, G.E. The Jacobean and Caroline Stage. 7 vols, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 194-1-68. Bergeron, David M. English Civic Pageantry, 1558-1642. London: . Edward Arnold, 1 9 7 1 . ' . "The Emblematic Nature of English Civic Pageantry." Renaissance Drama, 1 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , 168-71. 143 Britton, Norman A. Thomas Middleton. New York: Twayne, 1972. Bullen, A.H., ed. The Works of Thomas Middleton. 8 vols. 1885-6} rpt. New York: AMS Press, 1964. Chambers, E.K. The English Folk-Play. New York: Russell & Russell, 1933. Cheney, C.R. Handbook of Dates for Students of English History. London: RHS, 1961. Craik, T.W. The Tudor Interlude: Stage, Costume, and Acting. London: Leicester University Press, 1967. Davies, Godfrey. The Early Stuarts, 1603-I66O. 2nd ed. London: Oxford University Press, 1959. * E l i o t , T.S. Elizabethan Dramatists. London: Faber and Faber, 1963. Ellacombe, Rev. Henry N. The Plant-lore and Garden-craft of Shakespeare. 2nd ed. London: Satchell, 1884. Ewbank, Inga-Stina. "The Eloquence of Masques: A Retrospective View of Masque Criticism." Renaissance Drama, 1 (1968), 307-2?. Gilbert, Allan H. The Symbolic Persons i n the Masques of Ben Jonson. Durham, N. Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1948. Goodall, John A. "Heraldry and Iconography: A Study of the arms granted , to the Draper's Company of London," The Coat of Arms, 4, No. 29 (Oct. 1957), 1-15. G r i f f i n , Alice Venesky. Pageantry on the Shakespearean Stage. New York: College and University Press, 1951. Harbage, A..,, ed. Annals of Engliah Drama: 975-1700. Rev. ed. S. Schoenbaum. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1964. Herbert, William. The History of the Twelve Great Livery Companies of London. 2 vols. London: Guildhall Library, I 8 3 4 , I 8 3 ? . Johnson, A.H. The History of the Worshipful Company of the Drapers of London. 5 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1941-2. 144, Kaplan, Joel H. "Virtue's Holiday: Thomas Dekker and Simon Eyre." Renaissance Drama, 3 (1969), 103-22. Kenyon, J.P., ed. The Stuart Constitution, 1603-1688: Documents and Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969. Kemodle, G.R. From Art to Theatre: Form and Convention i n the Renaissance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1944. Knights, L.C. Drama and Society i n the Age of Jonson. London: Chatto & Windus, 1937. Lavin, J.A. "Printers for Seven Jonson Quartos." The Library, 25, No. 4 (Dec. 1970), 331-8. Leggatt, Alexander. Citizen Comedy in the Age of Shakespeare. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1973. Mehl, Dieter. The Elizabethan Dumb Show. London: Methuen, 1965. Middleton, Thomas. "An Invention...1622" MS. Conway Papers, State Papers, Domestic, SP 14, vol. 129? Public Record Office, London. . A Chaste Maid i n Cheapside. Ed. R.B. Parker. London: Methuen, 1969. . Honorable Entertainments. London: George Eld, 1621. . Women Beware Women. Ed. Charles Barber. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1969. Murray, Peter B. A Study of C y r i l Toumeur. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania. 1964. Nichols, J. The Progresses, Processions and Magnificent F e s t i v i t i e s of King James the F i r s t . 4 vols.. London: 1828. Orgel, Stephen. The Jonsonian Masque. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1965. Panofsky, Erwin. Studies i n Iconology. New York: Harper & Rowe, 1962. 145 Pennell, Arthur E., ed. An Edition of Anthony Munday's 'John a Kent and John a Cumber'. Ph.D. thesis at University of I l l i n o i s , 1959. Price, George R. "The Authorship and the Bibliography of The Revenger's Tragedy." The Library, 5th Series XV (i960), 262-7?. Proceedings, A Collection of the Proceedings in the House of Commons...1620. London: A. More, 1621. Robertson, Miss Jean and D.J. Gordon, eds. A Calendar of Dramatic Records in the Books of the Livery Companies of London, 1485-1640. London: Malone Society, Collections III, 1954. Rohde, Eleanour Sinclair. Shakespeare's Wild Flowers: Fairy Lore, Gardens, Herbs, Gatherers of Simples and Bee Lore. London: Medici Society,1935. Stow, John. A Survey of London. Ed. Charles Lethbridge Kingsford. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1908. Sugden, E.H. Topographical Dictionary to the Works of Shakespeare and his Fellow Dramatists. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1925. Tannenbaum, Samuel A. Thomas Middleton (A Concise Bibliography). New York: Tannenbaum, 1940. Tiddy, R.J.E. The Mummer's Play. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923. T i l l e y , Morris P. A Dictionary of the Proverbs i n England i n the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1950. Trevelyan, G.M. English Social History. New York: Longmans, Green, 1942. Welsford, Enid. The Court Masque. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1927. Wickham, Glynne. Early English Stages, 1300-1660. 2 vols. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1959, 1963. Wilson, F.P. "Ralph Crane, Scrivener to the King's Players." The Library, 4th Series, VII (1926/7), 194-215. Wind, Edgar. Pagan Mysteries i n the Renaissance. London: Faber & Faber, 1958. 146 Withington, Robert. English Pageantry: An Historical Outline. 2 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1913, 1920. Woodcock, W. Woodcock's Lives of Illustrious Lords Mayors and Aldermen of London. London: Woodcock, 1846. 

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