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A lexical analysis of Nikolaj Leskov’s prose Huckriede, Wera Litwinzeff 1975

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A LEXICAL ANALYSIS OF NIKOLAJ LESKOV'S PROSE by WERA LITWINZEFF HUGKRIEDE B.A., University of Leiden, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Slavonic Studies We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard i THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1975 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I-agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of S L A V O N I C S T U D I E S The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date June, 1975 i i ABSTRACT The language i n which Nikola;) S. Leskov wrote h i s prose i s extremely complex. The writer's l e x i c a l material i n p a r t i c u l a r i s perceived "by the reader as s t r i k i n g l y o r i g i -nal and not e n t i r e l y conforming to the l i t e r a r y standards prevalent i n Leskov's time. The aim of the present study i s to i d e n t i f y and cate-gorize l e x i c a l items i n Leskov's vocabulary that have not been established i n the Russian language other than i n Les-kov's usage. The discussion concentrates primarily on l e x i c a l innovations excerpted from Leskov's works. In order to give the reader a complete view of the i n t r i c a t e q u a l i t i e s of Leskov's language, some attention i s devoted to the writer's use of s t y l i s t i c devices. Included i n the i l l u s t r a t i v e mate-r i a l are l e x i c a l items that, although not invented by Leskov, are nevertheless i n d i c a t i v e of the writer's o r i g i n a l i t y i n u t i l i z i n g the resources of the Russian lexicon. Chapter I serves to introduce Leskov to the reader. L i n g u i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y i s shown to be an organic part of Les-kov's l i f e . The d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t i e s of h i s language are viewed against the background of the l i t e r a r y atmosphere of h i s time. i i i In chapter II the most important s t y l i s t i c l e v e l s of Leskov's vocabulary are discussed. L e x i c a l items from d i f f e r e n t s t y l i s t i c s t r a t a i l l u s t r a t e the basic p r i n c i p l e underlying Leskov's vocabulary s e l e c t i o n . Chapters III and IV are devoted to a detailed analy-s i s of neologisms that occur i n Leskov's works. The c i t e d material i s analyzed from the viewpoint of morphological structure. The investigation of the methods with which Les-kov formed new words confirms the reader's i n t u i t i o n that the writer has adhered clo s e l y to the norms fo r derivation i n the Russian language. The neologisms l i s t e d i n chapter IV are discussed from the viewpoint of meaning. I t i s demonstra ted that Leskov i n t e n t i o n a l l y used semasiological devices i n order to produce a comic e f f e c t upon the reader. The l e x i c a l items that belong to t h i s category are shown to be essential means of expression for Leskov's intended n a r r a t i -ve purposes. Chapter V deals with foreign l e x i c a l elements i n Leskov's usage. It i s indicated that Leskov was i n p r i n c i p l e opposed to the introduction of words from foreign languages into the Russian lexicon. His disapproval of l e x i c a l borrow-ings i s r e f l e c t e d i n the numerous d i s t o r t i o n s of foreign words that appear i n his vocabulary. I t i s also i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s chapter that Leskov made use of morphemes from lan-guages other than Russian to form invented words. The c i t e d examples point to the conclusion that the material upon which Leskov drew to enrich h i s vocabulary comes from a variety of sources. The neologisms that are investigated i n the present study were created by Leskov i n a conscious e f f o r t to make the speech of the characters who appear i n his st o r i e s as v i v i d as possible. V TABLE OP CONTENTS PREFACE v i ABBREVIATIONS v i i i CHAPTER I. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS 1 I I . STYLISTIC LEVELS 11 Vernacular elements 15 The use of d i a l e c t s 19 Church Slavonicisms 24 I I I . NEOLOGISMSi MORPHOLOGICAL CATEGORIES 31 Prefixation 32 S u f f i x a t i o n 35 Compounding 41 IV. NEOLOGISMS* SEMANTIC CATEGORIES 49 Word play 53 Popular etymology 57 V. FOREIGN LEXICAL ELEMENTS 71 Foreign words 71 Hybrid words 78 L e x i c a l d i s t o r t i o n s 81 CONCLUSION 89 BIBLIOGRAPHY 92 v i PREFACE Lex i c a l devices are a remarkable feature of Nikolaj Leskov's prose. From the beginning of h i s l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y , c r i t i c s and scholars have commented on the s t r i k i n g richness and complexity of h i s language. In matters of Russian vocab-ulary Leskov was a most inventive l i n g u i s t i c innovator. By making use of l e x i c a l material i n a masterful way, he achieved a maximum of vividness of expression. The various sources that lend Leskov's vocabulary i t s o r i g i n a l i t y and complexity merit detailed i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The purpose of the present study i s to e s t a b l i s h and c l a s s i f y l e x i c a l items i n Leskov's vocabulary that are perceptible to the reader as not current i n the standard Russian language. The discussion primarily concentrates on l e x i c a l innovations i n Leskov's works. In order to give the reader a rounded picture of the richness of Leskov's vocab-ulary, a discussion of several s t y l i s t i c categories i n Leskov's work i s included i n the analysis. A l l examples i n the present study are c i t e d from s t o r i e s found i n N.S. Leskov, Sobranie Soc'ineni.i v odin- nadcati tomax. Moskva, 1956-58, unless otherwise indicated. v i i T r a n s l i t e r a t i o n from C y r i l l i c follows the conventions sp e c i f i e d i n the Slavic and East European Journal (University of Wisconsin, Madison). Words c i t e d i n phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n are written be-tween slant l i n e s . Phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s within square brackets. Words c i t e d from languages that use the L a t i n a l -phabet, including French, German and L a t i n , are rendered i n the respective orthographies. i ABBREVIATIONS adj. adv. f em. l i t . OR subst. adjective adverb feminine l i t e r a l l y Old Russian substantive ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am indebted to Professor Nicholas Poppe f o r h i s guidance and continual encouragement throughout the course of my research. 1 CHAPTER I GENERAL OBSERVATIONS Generations of c r i t i c s have debated the a r t i s t i c merits of Leskov's prose. Opinions expressed about the some-times exceedingly i n t r i c a t e language i n which h i s works are written range from the indignation of E. Andreevic ("the shame of our l i t e r a t u r e and of our language")* to the gen-uine delight of B. Ejxenbaum ("timbres of a speech orchestra selected by a masterful composer"). The c o n f l i c t i n g nature of such statements indicates that Leskov's p o s i t i o n i n Rus-sian l i t e r a t u r e i s unusual. Most scholars agree that he i s a rare and exuberant writer among the prosaists of the l a t t e r h a l f of the nineteenth century. Nikolaj S. Leskov (1831-1895), a native of the prov-ince of Orel, started h i s l i t e r a r y career as a j o u r n a l i s t . His a r t i c l e s , published i n p e r i o d i c a l s , are based on h i s ex-periences during the years preceding his appearance before the public; In the course of h i s career as a j o u r n a l i s t and writer he had the opportunity to become acquainted with many aspects of l i f e and p r a c t i c a l l y every class of Russian s o c i -ety. Extensive t r a v e l through remote parts of European and A s i a t i c Russia provided him with a store of fa c t u a l material upon which he has drawn for his l i t e r a r y works throughout 2 h i s career. Much of his work i s marked by documentary t r a i t s . He frequently made up a story from r e a l incidents observed at f i r s t - or second-hand. A d i v e r s i t y of experiences and first-hand knowledge of Russian r e a l i t y and i t s problems 3 turned him into a l i t e r a r y nonconformist. His unconventional view of l i f e makes i t s e l f r e a d i l y f e l t i n h i s works. From journalism he passed to the writing of novels and short s t o r i e s . Leskov's e a r l i e r novels are generally not considered among his masterpieces. They are somewhat rambling and discursive, and at present are deservedly forgotten. Les-kov himself was d i s s a t i s f i e d with h i s novels. A. Ansberg notes that the creation of a l o g i c a l and flawless structure neces-sary i n a novel was not Leskov's forte as a writer.^ His spe-c i a l talent could best express i t s e l f i n genres and forms other than the novel. He subsequently created a series of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l -l y Leskovian narrative forms that made him seem an eccentric figure among the writers of his time. The f i r s t person story became hi s favourite narrative form, i n which he created some of his best works. His most exuberant and o r i g i n a l s t o r i e s were written during the eighti e s . The technique at which Les-kov has shown himself such a master that i t became almost his private preserve i n the Russian l i t e r a t u r e i s the skaz. This i s a form of narrative prose i n which the author t e l l s a sto-ry through a s t y l i z e d narrator. Leskov has f u l l y c u l t i v a t e d 3 t h i s narrative technique. V e r s a t i l i t y of style and content i s combined with a superlative narrative g i f t . Leskov's success with the reading public was consid-erable. This was i n large measure due to the entertainment value of his work. The tone i n many of his s t o r i e s i s gen-uinely merry. One of the main t r a i t s of Leskov's s t o r i e s i s t h e i r rapid action. The narratives are frequently descrip-tions of picaresque adventures. A recurrent motif i s that of the simple-minded person who i s confronted with extraordi-nary situations, or who t e l l s about people from a mil i e u un-known to him, expressing f a n c i f u l ideas about the world that l i e s beyond h i s limited c i r c l e of experience. Leskov's char-acters come to l i f e through t h e i r speech. His favourite means of characterization i s through a series of anecdotes, usually t o l d i n a picturesque language. Leskov makes hi s characters convincing by making them appear just a l i t t l e r i d i c u l o u s , both i n t h e i r actions and i n t h e i r speech. The peculiar speech they use i s above a l l a vehicle of parody and irony. Although t h i s language was appreciated by ordinary Russian readers, whose minds were uninfluenced by the p r e s c r i p t i v e standards 7 of the c r i t i c s , the l a t t e r neglected him and many even con-sidered h i s stories ludicrous. The o r i g i n a l and exuberant st y l e of Leskov's s t o r i e s i s noticeably d i f f e r e n t from the unobtrusive standard l i t e r -ary s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the main stream of nineteenth 4 century Russian realism. D.S. Mirsky mentions that while Les-kov's contemporaries employed a l e v e l and even s t y l e , avoid-ing anything too s t r i k i n g , Leskov avidly absorbed every un-8 expected and picturesque idiom. Numerous forms of d i a l e c t a l and professional speech and every kind of c o l l o q u i a l language were welcome to h i s pages. His love of anecdotes and word play manifests i t s e l f i n comic d i s t o r t i o n s of Russian and f o r -eign words and i n puns created on the pattern of popular ety-mology. This was quite contrary to the t r a d i t i o n s of Russian f i c t i o n and consequently i t induced some c r i t i c s of Leskov's o time to regard him as a mere jester. I t has since been recognized that Leskov's ingenious handling of diverse l e x i c a l resources has a more erudite basis than that of mere je s t i n g . His language contains a wealth of folk expressions and proverbs and also Church Slavonic l i n g u i s -t i c forms. His creative use of language i s not only thoroughly a r t i s t i c but also evidences knowledge of p h i l o l o g i c a l matters. Ansberg notes that Leskov was a voracious reader of d i c t i o n a r -i e s and encyclopaedias and that he c o l l e c t e d old books and manuscripts. Leskov's writings were to some extent influenced 10 s by the lexicographer V.I. Dal'. Ejxenbaum speaks of Leskov's " a r t i s t i c philologism" (xudozestvenny.i filologizm) that the writer used as a masterly device for s t y l i z a t i o n . 1 1 Few evaluative statements by Leskov's contemporaries indicate a proper understanding of his a r t i s t i c use of language. 5 Many of h i s works were c r i t i c i z e d i n h i s l i f e t i m e for exces-sive s t y l i s t i c mannerisms. The l i t e r a r y c r i t i c M. Protopopov even devoted an a r t i c l e to Leskov which he e n t i t l e d Bol 'no.i t a l a n t (*A sick talent') and i n which Leskov was accused of 12 causing harm to the Russian language. Most c r i t i c s of Les-kov's time expressed an unfavourable opinion of what one of the c r i t i c s c a l l e d his exaggerated, grotesque t o r t u r i n g of 13 not only foreign, but Russian words as we l l . ^ Among Leskov's great contemporaries F. Dostoevski;) commented on the writer's lack of r e s t r a i n t which may lead to an untruthful represen-t a t i o n of r e a l i t y , and L. T o l s t o j cautioned Leskov against an excessive use of s t y l i s t i c o d d i t i e s . In T o l s t o j ' s words, there i s an exuberance of images, colours and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c expressions i n Leskov's prose which intoxicates and leads the reader a s t r a y . 1 ^ It i s evident that Leskov during h i s l i f e -time was regarded by most c r i t i c s as a writer who was not able to keep hi s expressive talents within bounds. 1^ Not u n t i l the beginning of the twentieth century did Leskov's work begin to receive due recognition. M. Gor'kij was among the f i r s t to speak of Leskov's great a r t i s t i c t alent as a writer, even naming him side by side with T o l s t o j and Dostoevskij. It i s from Gor'kij that the well-known epithet volsebnik slova ('sorcerer of the word') i n reference to Les-17 kov originates. ' The Russian Formalists, with t h e i r alertness to a l l devices of s t y l i z a t i o n , were attracted to the n a r r a t i -ve forms of Leskov's prose and praised the novelty of his i n -6 t r i c a t e l i t e r a r y s t y l e . It i s obvious that speech f o r Leskov was an important device for a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y . The Russian r e a l i s t s advo-cated soberness of language and considered l i t e r a r y a rt as a representation of ideas, where language was only a vehicle for a r e ndition of r e a l i t y . For Leskov the basic aesthetic requirement for a l i t e r a r y work was a thorough knowledge of i t s medium combined with vividness and expressivity. Leskov's a r t i s t i c premises and his convictions of the r i g h t s and duties of a writer are c l e a r l y expounded by him i n the following statementi In order to think picturesquely and write that way, a writer must make each one of h i s characters use the language appropriate to h i s p o s i t i o n ... The s e t t i n g of the voice [bostanovka golosa"] consists i n the writer's a b i l i t y to master the voice and the speech of his char-acter ... For myself I have t r i e d to develop t h i s a b i l -i t y ... A l l of us, my characters and I myself, have our own voices. In each of us they are pitched c o r r e c t l y or at l e a s t c a r e f u l l y ... To accomplish t h i s i s not only a matter of t a l e n t , but of enormous labour. Man l i v e s by words, and one must know what words each of us w i l l use at what moments i n h i s psychological l i f e ... This c o l l o q u i a l , banal, f l o r i d language i n which many pages of my work are written was not invented by me, but over-heard from the peasant, the s e m i - i n t e l l e c t u a l , the f i n e t a lkers . . . .19 ... For many years I have a t t e n t i v e l y l i s t e n e d to the accent and pronunciation of Russians from various s o c i a l milieus. In my works they speak i n t h e i r own way and not i n the l i t e r a r y way. I t i s harder f o r a writer to acquire the language, the l i v i n g speech, of the man i n the street than to acquire bookish language. That i s why we have very few a r t i s t s of the spoken word, i . e . a r t i s t s who have f u l l control of the l i v i n g rather than the l i t e r a r y speech. 2 0 This passage shows that Leskov himself was aware that i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of speech was one of h i s a r t i s t i c achieve ments. I t larg e l y accounts f o r the d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t i e s of h i s language. His subtle mastery of the medium of h i s art characterizes him as an author who had a unique perception of language as a creative device. 8 REFERENCES TO CHAPTER I 1Andreevic, E., Ocerki i z i s t o r i i russko.i l i t e r a t u r y  XIX veka. St. Petersburg, 1903. pp. 452-453? quoted by H. McLean, "On the Style of a Leskovian 'skaz'," Harvard  Slavic Studies 2, 195 .^ p. 317. 2Ejxenbaum, B., "K 100-letiju rozdenija N. Leskova," N.S. Leskov. Izbrannve soc'ineni.ia. Moskva-Leningrad, 1931. pp. x l i x - l j quoted by McLean, OP. c i t . . p. 317» 3See Edgerton, W.B., Nikola.i Leskov» The I n t e l l e c t u a l  Development of a L i t e r a r y Nonconformist, unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia University, 195^ • ^Mirsky, D.S., A History of Russian L i t e r a t u r e . New York, 19^9. P. 316. ^Ansberg, A.B., "Frame Story and F i r s t Person Story i n N.S. Leskov," Scando-Slavica 3. 1957. p. 53. 6 I b i d . . p. 53 "^Satirical Stories of Nikolai Leskov. Edgerton, W.B. (Ed.), New York, 1969, p. 240. o Mirsky, OP. c i t . . p. 315« 9 I b i d . . p. 315 9 l uAnsberg, OP. c i t . , p. 55* 1 : lEjxenbaum, B., " 'Crezmernyj p i s a t e l ' (K 100-letiju rozdenija N. Leskova)," 1931.reprinted i n 0 proze. Sbornik  state.i. Leningrad, 1969. p. 332. 12 Protopopov, M.A., "Bol'noj t a l a n t , " Russka.ia mysl'. No. 12, 1891, p. 265. "^Drugov, B.M., N.S. Leskov. Ocerk tvorcestva. Moskva, 1957. P. 151. 14 ^ v N Grossman, L., N.S. Leskov. Zizn' - tvorcestvo poeti-ka, Moskva, 19^5. P« 288. •"-^Gifford, H., "Leskov and the Righteous Man," The  Novel i n Russia. New York, 1965. p. 73. ^ V o l y n s k i j , A.L., N.S. Leskov - Kr i t i c e s k i . i ocerk. 1898, reprinted by University Microfilms Inc., Ann Arbor, 1964, p. 51. 1 7 G o r ' k i j , M., "N.S. Leskov," Sobranie Socineni.i v 30  tomax. Moskva, 1953V Vol. 24, p. 235? quoted by Ejxenbaum, B., "N.S. Leskov (K 5 0-letiju so dnja smerti)," 19^5. re-printed i n 0 proze. Sbornik state.i. Leningrad, 1969. p. 3^8. 18 Ansberg even mentions Leskov as a precursor of the f u t u r i s t poet V. Xlebnikov. See Ansberg, OP. c i t . . p. 55. """^Faresov, A.I., Protiv teceni.i. N.S. Leskov. Ego z i z n ' .  socineni.ia. polemika i vospominani.ia 0 ne'm. St. Petersburg, 1904, pp. 274-275. 10 2 0Leskov, A., Zizn' Nikola.ia Leskova. Moskva, 1952*-. p. 627. 11 CHAPTER II STYLISTIC LEVELS The language of Leskov's prose i s distinguished by richness and v e r s a t i l i t y of s t y l e . Elements from various s t y l i s t i c l e v e l s can be i d e n t i f i e d ! the range of h i s language extends from substandard speech to highly elevated l i t e r a r y expressions. Leskov's vocabulary abounds i n words taken from the idiom of diverse s o c i a l milieus and i n dialectisms. Rare l e x i c a l items and even words that i n the nineteenth century were already obsolete can be encountered i n Leskov's l e x i c a l material. By f u l l e x p l o i t a t i o n of these heterogeneous l e x i c a l resources, Leskov has made the language of h i s s t o r i e s abound i n s t y l i s t i c colourings. In the majority of cases Leskov's u t i l i z a t i o n of l e x i -c a l items that belong to d i f f e r e n t s t y l i s t i c categories i s a purposeful, a r t i s t i c a l l y exploited device. This device mani-fe s t s i t s e l f above a l l i n what Russian c r i t i c s r e f e r to as Leskov's skaz. Ejxenbaum has defined skaz as a s t y l i s t i c a l l y  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d inner narrative placed i n the mouth of a f i c - t i o n a l character and designed to produce the i l l u s i o n of  o r a l speech. 1 In selecting l e x i c a l and syntactic features of the spoken language, i n the- skaz,•„ the author aims at repro-2 duction of speech as i t i s a c t u a l l y spoken by the character. 12 Generally speaking, the technique of skaz allows the writer to employ i n the inner narrative a style sharply d i s -t i n c t from h i s own l i t e r a r y prose. In h i s s t o r i e s Leskov frequently chose a narrator with a simple background or lim-i t e d understanding who uses his own peculiar spoken idiom. Thus the element of i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n , indispensable i n a successful skaz, i s e s p e c i a l l y apparent i n the l e x i c a l mate-r i a l used by Leskov and l a r g e l y accounts f o r the v a r i e t i e s i n style encountered i n his s t o r i e s . Most s t o r i e s i n which Leskov has made use of the skaz 3 s t r u c t u r a l l y correspond to frame-stories. The inner narra-t i v e , which i s the skaz proper, i s usually t o l d i n the f i r s t person by a narrator who i s not i d e n t i c a l with the author. The author himself appears only i n the story-frame to pre-pare the reader to hear the narrative that follows. After the narrative has been concluded, the author reappears to comment on i t . The author's st y l e i n most instances i s s t r i c t - : l y l i t e r a r y , whereas the s t y l e i n which the narrator reports the events has been adapted to the narrator's speech. The st y l e of the skaz f i t s not only the narrator but also the characters who appear i n the story. I f the narrator imitates the speech of the characters accurately, the narrative may contain features from diverse s t y l i s t i c s t r a t a , depending on the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l m i l i e u of the characters. It i s e v i -dent that the skaz o f f e r s wide s t y l i s t i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s and has only few l i m i t a t i o n s as regards the writer's s e l e c t i o n 13 of l e x i c a l material. I t i s a generally known fact that Leskov considered the surface g l i t t e r of h i s language very important. He took great care to bring as much variety and colour into h i s vocab-ulary as possible. In employing hi s l e x i c a l material, Leskov was p a r t i c u l a r l y intent on creating e f f e c t s by contrast. For instance, vividness i s achieved by the juxtaposition of words from d i f f e r e n t s t y l i s t i c s t r a t a . Thus, i n the phrase vlasy  kudrevaty 'curly hair* (Zapecatlennyj angel, p. 327) the noun vlasy 'hair' i s archaic, whereas the adjective kudrevaty 'curly* belongs to the c o l l o q u i a l s t y l i s t i c sphere.^ In a discussion of the style of Polunoscniki. H. McLean mentions that the in t e r a c t i o n of contrasting s t y l i s t i c s t r a t a 6 i n Leskov's vocabulary frequently produces humorous e f f e c t s . The following sentence from Polunoscniki may i l l u s t r a t e thiss Vse. cto ja preterpela. znacit. x i n ' j u polslo 'Everything I had endured, then, has been i n vain* (p. 165). The bookish and r h e t o r i c a l verb preterpet' 'to endure, s u f f e r ' i s placed i n incongruous proximity to the d i a l e c t a l phrase x i n ' j u poslo 7 'has been i n vain'.' A contrasting e f f e c t can also be observed i n the f q l -lowing reference by the narrator of Polunoscniki to the B i b l i -c a l t a l e of Jacob and Esau« Jakov ... pervoe vydajusceesja  blagoslovenie sebe i scapal 'Jacob ... snatched the f i r s t 14 outstanding blessing f o r h i m s e l f (p. 171). In t h i s sentence there i s a s t y l i s t i c discrepancy between the markedly c o l l o -q u i a l word scapat' 'to snatch' and the context i n which i t i s used by the speaker. Yet the expressive connotation of t h i s c o l l o q u i a l expression accords with the narrator's usual speech. Contrast i n Leskov's vocabulary i s brought about not only by the occurrence of c o l l o q u i a l l e x i c a l items i n juxta-po s i t i o n with l i t e r a r y expressions. Archaic and bookish words can also be encountered unexpectedly i n passages that deal with everyday events. In h i s a r t i c l e on the st y l e of Polu-nojgcniki, McLean has drawn attention to the narrator's use of elevated and r h e t o r i c a l expressions to describe even a f a r c i c a l s i t u a t i o n . He points out, for example, that the ex-pressions mv n i s p r o v e r g l i s ' 'we tumbled down ( l i t . , were over-thrown)' and my ... poverzeny 'we were ... thrown down ( l i t . , smitten)' (Polunoscniki. p. 197) are s t r i k i n g l y misused by the narrator. She rela t e s how three women, while eavesdrop-ping, tumbled o f f an ironing board on which they were stand-ing. The reader d i s t i n c t l y perceives a comic incongruity be-Q tween the bookish words and the context i n which they occur. S t y l i s t i c incongruities of t h i s type i n many cases perform the function of parody i n Leskov's s t o r i e s . In using solemn language to describe such f a r c i c a l events Leskov's purpose i s to r i d i c u l e not only the narrator but also the events that are t o l d . Lexical items from contrasting s t y l i s t i c s t r a t a are u t i l i z e d by Leskov also f o r the formation of new l e x i c a l u nits, although such instances are few. To give an .example, the ex-pression vertoprax-c'uzezemec 'featherbrained foreigner' (Ot- bornoe zerno. p. 292), r e s u l t s from the juxtaposition of the c o l l o q u i a l word vertoprax 'featherbrain' and the bookish and somewhat archaic word cuzezemec 'foreigner', instead of ino-o stranec i d . 7 Such inte n t i o n a l s t y l i s t i c contrasts i l l u s t r a t e once more Leskov's s t r i v i n g to make h i s vocabulary colour-f u l by the selection of l e x i c a l material from d i f f e r e n t s t y l -i s t i c s t r a t a . Vernacular elements An important s t y l i s t i c function i n Leskov's prose i s performed by the vernacular, the current d a i l y speech of the people, that i s not r e s t r i c t e d by l i t e r a r y standards. Generally, a writer who s t r i v e s f o r the e f f e c t of o r a l i t y i n his language w i l l avoid words that are bookish or l i t e r -ary. In his works Leskov introduced many c o l l o q u i a l words (razgovornye slova) and words peculiar to substandard speech (prostorecnve s l o v a ) . 1 0 Lexical items c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the vernacular are u t i l i z e d by Leskov as a s t y l i s t i c device to create the i l l u s i o n of o r a l speech. Verbs comprise by f a r the largest category of c o l -l o q u i a l elements i n Leskov's vocabulary. They occur not only i n the inner narrative of Leskov's s t o r i e s , but also i n pas-sages other than reported speech, where the author re l a t e s the events. For example, W. Girke notes that among the most frequent colloquialisms i n Leskov's vocabulary are vid a t ' 'to see', used instead of videt ' i d . , and vrat' 'to l i e ' , instead of l e a f i d . 1 1 Some further examples of c o l l o q u i a l verbs encountered i n Leskov's s t o r i e s include b o l t a t ' 'to babble, twaddle' (Po- lunoscniki . p. 172)i lopat' 'to eat' ( i b i d . . p. 140); mykat' 'to l i v e i n misery' ( i b i d . . p. 133) > namusorit' 'to l i t t e r ' ( i b i d . . p. 147)| okonfuzit' 'to embarrass' (Levsa. p. 29); pomeret' 'to die', instead of umeret' i d . (occurs frequently); p o t r a f i t ' 'to please* (Polunoscniki. p. 140); utixomorit' 'to calm' ( i b i d . , p. l 6 l ) ; xapat' 'to seize, snatch' (occurs f r e -quently), and zbelenit*s.1a *to become enraged* ( i b i d . . p. 180). Nouns that belong to the s t y l i s t i c category of c o l l o -quialisms also play a considerable role i n Leskov's vocabula-ry. Some are pejorative, f o r example k i s l j u k a 'gloomy, i l l -humoured person* (occurs frequently) and zljuka 'angry, mali-cious person' (Polunoscniki. p. 146). Some c o l l o q u i a l nouns that occur i n the st o r i e s are argot expressions, f o r instance naduvala 'swindler, cheat' (Polunoscniki. p. 125) or zox • t r i c k s t e r ' ( i b i d . . p. 119). 17 C o l l o q u i a l nouns fo r which other equivalent or cogna-te words are used i n the l i t e r a r y language are used by Leskov to t y p i f y the speech of characters from lower s o c i a l milieus. Such are exidna. used with the meaning 'malicious person* (Polunoscniki. p. 128), pl.iuxa 'slap i n the face', instead of opleuxa i d . ( i b i d . . p. 159), and sebarsa 'braggart' (occurs frequently). A considerable number of colloquialisms that are found i n Leskov's l e x i c a l material are adverbs. For example, the adverb sibko 'fast, r a p i d l y ' i s frequently used by Leskov i n -stead of bystro i d . Other adverbs that occur i n c o l l o q u i a l speech include oposl.ja 'afterwards', instead of posle i d . ( J a z v i t e l 'ny.i. p. 25); oxoc ' w i l l i n g l y , gladly* (Stopal'scik. p. 100) j s t r a s t ' 'very much, greatly' (Polunoscniki, p. 137; Stopal'scik. p. 95). and zdorovo 'well, good' (Qvcebyk. p. 62). Also the adverbial phrase takim manerom 'in t h i s manner', i n -stead of takim obrazom i d . , which frequently occurs i n the texts, has a c o l l o q u i a l s t y l i s t i c colouring. To the category of l e x i c a l items that are characteris-t i c of the vernacular belong c e r t a i n p a r t i c l e s and i n t e r j e c -t i o n s . They promote the expressiveness of speech, and i n l i t e -rary works give the text a conversational tone. They occur repeatedly i n Leskov's l e x i c a l material. Some of the most frequently encountered p a r t i c l e s are deskat' ' i t i s said, they say', mol i d . , i s ' 'see!', which expresses astonishment, and 18 the i n t e n s i f y i n g p a r t i c l e nu 'now!, come!'. The l a t t e r two p a r t i c l e s are often used as i n t e r j e c t i o n s . Interjections such as polnote 'say no more', t ' f u . which expresses scorn, and x l j a s ' 'slap, bang', derived from x l j a s k a t ' 'to slap, h i t ' , also occur frequently. Char a c t e r i s t i c of c o l l o q u i a l speech, and extensively used by Leskov, i s the emphatic p a r t i c l e -to and also the p a r t i c l e -ka. which expresses intent. To give an example, po.idu-ka .ia lucse 'I'd better go' occurs i n the story Polu- noscniki (p. 169)• Both -to and -ka are e n c l i t i c p a r t i c l e s . In addition to l e x i c a l items that are peculiar to the vernacular, a writer may also employ morphological fea-tures that lend speech a vernacular tone. Leskov often made use of such morphological devices. Among these devices i s the formation of superlative adjectives with the p r e f i x pre-, i n -stead of the s u f f i x - e i s i j / - a j s i j . as f o r example prestrasny.l 'very f r i g h t f u l ' , used instead of strasne.isi .1 i d . (Levsa. p. 38). Although the p r e f i x pre- may as a rule be applied only to adjectives and adverbs, Leskov occasionally applied i t to substantives. This p e c u l i a r i t y of vernacular speech can be i l l u s t r a t e d by such words as prepodlec 'very b i g scoundrel' (Polunoscniki. p. 198) or prestraska 'great f e a r ' (Zametki ne- izvestnogo. p. 395)-In some instances Leskov intentionally.employs un 19 grammatical forms to t y p i f y the speech of some of the char-acters i n h i s s t o r i e s , f o r example the word dvu.iami occurs instead of dvumja. the instrumental case of dva 'two' (Leon,  dvorecki.i syn. p. ?4). An example of ungrammatical speech i s also the phrase ne pomoglos.ia ' i t was i n vain, did not help', instead of ne pomoglo i d . (Stopal'scik. p. 105). The speaker has added to the l a t t e r word the p a r t i c l e -s.ia. even though i t s use with pornoc?' 'to help' i s contrary to the rules of Russian grammar. A s i m i l a r example i s the p l u r a l form sveklov' .ia 'beets', from svekla (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 68), although t h i s noun as a rule may occur only i n the singular. Such examples of ungrammatical speech are intended by Leskov to demonstrate that the speaker's command of the l i t e r a r y language i s li m i t e d . The use of d i a l e c t s Leskov drew f r e e l y upon the vocabulary of d i a l e c t s . Many words that are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of regional d i a l e c t s are found i n h i s prose. Dialectisms predominate i n the speech of peasants or persons from the lower st r a t a of the popula-t i o n . Leskov pays close attention not only to l e x i c a l , but also morphological and even phonetic features that are pecul-i a r to c e r t a i n d i a l e c t s i n order to create the e f f e c t of o r a l speech. 20 Many of Leskov's s t o r i e s are set i n the province of Orel and the adjacent areas. Leskov was born i n Orel and v i s -i t e d t h i s province frequently i n hi s l a t e r l i f e . Many l e x i c a l items from South Great Russian d i a l e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y that spo-ken i n the d i s t r i c t of Orel, are present i n h i s s t o r i e s . The narrators of several stories come from that area, a fac t which Leskov s p e c i f i c a l l y mentions i n the introduction to several 12 v of h i s narratives. For example, the narrator of Ocarovannvj strannik states at the beginning of his story that he was born 13 i n Orel. v In another passage Leskov emphasizes t h i s fact by making the narrator explain to h i s l i s t e n e r s : po-nasemu. po- or l o v s k i " 'as we say i n Orel' (p. 425). In some of the nar-ra t i v e s Leskov s p e c i f i c a l l y mentions the d i s t r i c t i n which the s t o r i e s take place, by such expressions as o r l o v s k i j ku- pec 'a merchant from Orel', or he brings the locale out i n I k the t i t l e or s u b t i t l e of the story. Some of the dialectisms that Leskov uses i n his.sto-r i e s correspond c l o s e l y to cognate words i n the standard Russian language. Most of these dialectisms can without d i f -f i c u l t y be understood by the average Russian reader. For ex-ample, noneca 'to-day, nowadays' or nonce i d . , which occur frequently i n Leskov's narratives, are cognates of the stand-ard Russian nynce i d . Some examples of t h i s category of d i a -lectisms are bo.ilo 'beatings, .it.l:: instead of the standard Russian poboi i d . (Levsa. p. 53; Nesmertel'nyj Golovan. p. 382); the phrase z i t ' v dostace 'to l i v e comfortably, be 21 well-to-do', instead of z i t ' v dostatke i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i  syn. p. 71); okrom.ia 'except', instead of krome i d . (Sto- pal 'scik. p. 104); suprotiv 'against', instead of pr o t i v i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 73), and promezdu 'among, between', instead of mezdu i d . , which occurs frequently, However, many of the dialectisms that are used by Leskov are not i n t e l l i g i b l e to the average Russian reader. Such d i a l e c t words have no close cognates i n the standard l i t e r a r y language. When employing these words, Leskov i n many instances c i t e s them i n parentheses, f o r example i n the phra-se poslusnik (po-kievskii slimak) 'novice (in the d i a l e c t of Kiev; slimak) ' (Meloci arxiere.isko.i z i z n i . p. 462). Occasion-n a l l y Leskov even explains a d i a l e c t expression i n a footnote to the text. For instance, he adds a footnote to the d i a l e c t expression pesni igrat'» U nas ne govor.iat "pet' pesni". a  " i g r a t * pesni". 'We don't say 'to sing a song', but 'to play a s o n g " ( Z i t i e odno.i baby, p. 336).1 5 The use of such dialectisms by Leskov i s designed to add authentic colour to h i s s t o r i e s . Further examples of di a l e c t words of t h i s kind are b a i t ' 'to speak, say' (Ovcebyk. p. 88; Smex i gore, p. 431); kura 'snow-storm' (Pugalo. p. 17); mandrivat' 'to wander, roam' (Za.iaci.i remiz. p. 575)? porsk- nut' 'to snort, s n i f f (Stopal'scik. p. 102); puga 'knout, leather whip' (Za.iaci.i remiz. p. 505). and pun'ka 'shed, barn' ( Z i t i e odno.i baby, p. 331). 22 South Russian d i a l e c t s are characterized by c e r t a i n grammatical forms that contrast with those found i n the stand-ard l i t e r a r y language. Among the forms that Leskov consistent-l y took into account i n writing h i s s t o r i e s , i n order to rend-er d i a l e c t speech precisely, the following occur frequently: 16 the i n f i n i t i v e i n - t ' . instead of - t i : / VV snest' 'to endure', instead of snesti i d . (Polunoscni- k i . p. 180); uvezt' 'to carry away', instead of uvez-t i i d . (Tupe.inyj xudoznik. p. 232)1 vyvest' 'to lead out', instead of vyvesti i d . ( V o i t e l ' n i c a . p. 147); the genitive p l u r a l of nouns i n -ev/-ov. instead of i n gul.ian'ev *merrym*ings',instead of gul.iani.i i d . (Polu- noscniki . p. 132); mestov 'places', instead of mest i d . ( V o i t e l ' n i c a . p. 208); r o d i t e l e v 'parents', i n -stead of roditele.i i d . ( Z i t i e odno.i babv. p. 293); zelaniev 'desires, wishes', instead of zelani ri i d . (Stopal'scik. p. 104); the past active p a r t i c i p l e i n -msi. instead of i n - v s i i ^ bvmsi. from byt' 'to be' (V o i t e l ' n i c a . p. 161); osta- novimsis'. from ostanovit's.ia 'to stop* (Stopal'scik. p. 99); porugamsis'. from porugat 's.ia 'to quarrel* (Dama i f e f e l a . p. 466); zabymsi. from zabyt' 'to f o r -get' ( V o i t e l ' n i c a . p. l63)j 1 9 on the verbs i n -anut'/-onut'» b l i s t a n u t ' 'to shine, sparkle', instead of b l i s t a t ' i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i svn. p. 63). r e i / r i i / d i « 1 7 In presenting d i a l e c t speech i n his s t o r i e s Leskov 23 even aimed at precise rendition of his characters' pronuncia-t i o n . He rendered some d i a l e c t a l phonetic divergences from the standard language by means of orthographic devices. One p e c u l i a r i t y of the d i a l e c t spoken i n the Orel d i s t r i c t i s the 21 substitution of /x/ by / f / , f o r example i n the word bufta 'bay', instead of buxta i d . (Levsa. p. 5*0 • Other words,that render t h i s d i a l e c t a l p e c u l i a r i t y of speech include fimera 'chimera', instead of ximera i d . (Leon, dvorecki. i syn. p. 65); fimi . i a 'chemistry', instead of ximi. ia i d . (Dama i fefe'la. p. 474), and kufarka 'cook', instead of kuxarka i d . (Polunoscni-k i , p. 119). An orthographic device that Leskov repeatedly employs i s the s p e l l i n g u, instead of o or a, which renders the pro-nunciation of /u/, instead of /a/ i n pretonic p o s i t i o n . This feature occurs i n the western d i a l e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y that of 22 Smolensk, and, less frequently, i n the southern d i a l e c t s . Some of the words that orthographically render t h i s pronuncia-t i o n are bugrovy.i 'crimson, purple', instead of bagrovy.i i d . (Levsa, p. 42); sused 'neighbour', instead of sosed i d . (Raz-bojnik, p. 3)4 and usumnit's.ia 'to doubt', instead of usomnit'- s.ia i d . (Levsa. p. 41). Leskov's use of d i a l e c t s demonstrates the precision with which he renders the speech of the characters who appear i n h is s t o r i e s . In some instances, however, he has ascribed d i a l e c t words also to the speech of characters without speci-24 f y i n g that they are natives of a p a r t i c u l a r d i a l e c t a l area or sometimes even to educated people whose speech as a rule i s s t r i c t l y l i t e r a r y . Girke s p e c i a l l y c i t e s the word taperica 'now', which i s used by an educated person i n the story Sin ex i gore i n a dialogue with a peasant (p. 4 9 7 ) . 2 ^ Occasionally, dialectisms i n Leskov's skaz s t o r i e s can be encountered even i n the passages of the texts i n which the author i s the narrator. An example i s the statement den' byl xolodny.i siverki . i 'It was a cold day with r a i n and wind from the north* (Leon, dvorecki. i syn. p. 64) . The dialectism siverki . i i s an adjective derived from siver 'cold, northern wind with r a i n or snow', a word c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the d i a l e c t 24 speech of the d i s t r i c t of Arxangel'sk. Such use of dialec-; tisms by Leskov i s intended to add s t y l i s t i c variety to the text. Church Slavonicisms A special place i n Leskov's vocabulary i s occupied by Church Slavonicisms. To t h i s category belong l e x i c a l items of Church Slavonic o r i g i n that have become established i n the Russian language. The vocabulary of the Russian l i t e r a r y language, from the viewpoint of i t s h i s t o r i c a l development i s to a large ex-25 tent a r e s u l t of fusion of Church Slavonic and native Russian elements. J Beside native Russian words, a large number of Church Slavonic cognates exi s t i n the vocabulary of the Rus-sian l i t e r a r y language that possess d i s t i n c t s t y l i s t i c char-a c t e r i s t i c s . The Church Slavonic words i n many cases have a solemn s t y l i s t i c connotation. Many of these Church Slavoni-cisms are found only i n the language of poetry, f o r example, breg 'bank, shore', which corresponds to the Russian bereg i d . , or the Church Slavonic l a n i t a 'cheek' and Russian %ceka i d . S t y l i s t i c doublets of t h i s type provide a Russian writer with r i c h resources f o r a r t i s t i c expression. By s e l e c t i n g Church Slavonic l e x i c a l items i n appropriate contexts, the writer can achieve subtle s t y l i s t i c nuances. Leskov resorted f r e e l y to Church Slavonic l e x i c a l material. The majority of Church Slavonicisms, encountered i n h i s vocabulary, are Church Slavonic words that i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the l a t t e r h a l f of the nineteenth century were used for s t y l i s t i c purposes only. Such words include drevo 'tree', instead of derevo i d . (Zapecatlennyi angel, p. 323); glas 'voice', instead of golos i d . (Polunoscniki. p. 17*0; vlasy 'hair*, instead of volosy i d . (Zapecatlenny.i angel, p. 324); xlad 'cold (subst.)', instead of xolod i d . (Levsa. p. 23), and zlato.i 'gold (adj.)', instead of zolotoj i d . , which occurs frequently i n the texts. These Church Slavonicisms serve i n Leskov's usage the writer's purpose of elevated, solemn s t y l e . 26 A s p e c i a l category of Church Slavonicisms i n Leskov's vocabulary i s represented by borrowings from Church Slavonic that had disappeared from secular l i t e r a t u r e but exist i n the language of the Church. These words occur f o r the most part i n Leskov's s t o r i e s that deal with e c c l e s i a s t i c a l themes, and are intended by the writer to t y p i f y the speech of characters from the clergy. To t h i s category of Church Slavonicisms belong, f o r example, such words as asce l i ' i f (Zametki neizvestnogo. p. 376) and the r e l a t i v e pronoun ize 'who' (Certogon. p. 314; Zametki neizvestnogo. p. 370). Further examples of the-se Church Slavonicisms that Leskov has ascribed to the speech of characters i n his s t o r i e s include: bude ' i f (Zametki neizvestnogo. p. 378); dnes' 'now, nowadays', occurs frequently i n the texts; drazae 'mo-re dearly (adv.)', instead of Russian doroze i d . (Za- metki neizvestnogo. p. 3^9); egda 'when*, occurs f r e -quently; g l a g o l i t ' 'to speak, say', instead of Russian govorit' i d . , which also occurs frequently; .iako '(such) as' (Zametki neizvestnogo. p. 351); nize 'and not' ( i b i d . , p. 378); nose' 'night', instead of Russian noc' i d . (Levsa, p. 38); paki 'again' (Zametki neizvestnogo. P.. 326); ramena 'shoulders', instead of Russian p l e c i i d . (Zapecatlenny.i angel, p. 324); tokmo 'only', i n -stead of Russian tol'ko i d . , occurs frequently i n the texts; t o l i k 'such*, which also occurs frequently; ubo •thus, so' (Malen'ka.ia osibka. p. 2 53) szivot ' l i f e ' , instead of Russian z i z n ' i d . (Zametki neizvestnogo. P. 393). 27 The above discussion of s t y l i s t i c l e v e l s i n Leskov's vocabulary leads to the following observations. The concur-rence of l e x i c a l items that belong to d i f f e r e n t s t y l i s t i c s t r a t a of Russian makes the language of Leskov's prose ex-tremely c o l o u r f u l and r i c h . The speech of the characters i n his stories i s dominated by l e x i c a l items from the vernacu-l a r . His use of vernacular and d i a l e c t a l l e x i c a l items con-t r a s t s with the Church Slavonicisms that are characterized by t h e i r r e l i g i o u s connotations. Leskov's vocabulary selec-t i o n displays also the writer's thorough acquaintance with the everyday speech of the lower s o c i a l s t r a t a of population i n Russia of the nineteenth century. It should be noted that Leskov never employs l e x i c a l items that are excluded from l i t e r a r y usage indiscriminate-l y , but always keeps them subordinate to h i s narrative pur-pose and a r t i s t i c aims. His u t i l i z a t i o n of l e x i c a l items of diverse s t y l i s t i c colouring combines heterogeneous l e x i c a l resources into a dynamic unity. A l i t e r a r y writer's object i s , a f t e r a l l , to transcend the l i m i t a t i o n s of the standard language and i n t h i s sense he uses language c r e a t i v e l y . 28 REFERENCES TO CHAPTER II i \ Ejxenbaum, B., " I l l j u z i j a skaza," Skvoz' l i t e r a t u r u .  Sbornik state.i. Leningrad, 1924, p. 152. ^Ejxenbaum, B., "Leskov i sovremennaja proza," Texte  der Russischen Formalisten. Munchen, 1969, p. 218. For a discussion of skaz see V.V. Vinogradov, "Problema skaza v s t i l i s t i k e , " Poetika. Sbornik s t a t e j . The Hague, 1966, pp. 24-40. ^For a detailed discussion of Leskov's use of frame-st o r i e s see A.B. Ansberg, "Frame Story and F i r s t Person Sto-ry i n N.S. Leskov," Scando-Slavica 3. 1957. pp. 49-73. ^Girke, W., Studien zur Sprache N.S. Leskovs. Mlinchen, 1969, p. 103; McLean, H., "On the Style of a Leskovian •skaz'," Harvard Slavic Studies 2, 195*+. P« 309. ^Slovar' sovremennogo russkogo literaturnogo jazyka^ Akademija Nauk, Moskva-Leningrad, 1950, Vol; 5, p. 1792. ^McLean, op. c i t . . pp. 316-317. 7The expression xin' .iu poslo i s synonymous to poslo  praxom 'has been i n vain ( l i t . , has gone up i n dust)', used i n standard speech. The d i a l e c t word x i n ' 'nonsense' i s de-rived from axine.ia i d . See V. Dal', Tolkovy.i slovar' zivogo  velikorusskogo .iazyka. Moskva, 1955. Vol. IV, p. 548. McLean.;>OP. c i t . . pp. 316-317. 29 g ^This example i s also c i t e d by Girke, op. c i t . . p. 119i who c a l l s i t a "morphological c u r i o s i t y " . 1 0 F o r a discussion of the Russian terms see Tolkow.i  slovar' russkogo .jazyka. Usakov, D.N. (Ed.), Moskva, 1935-^0» Vol. I, Introduction, pp. xxv-xxvii. Girke, op. c i t . . p. 65. 12 Schwencke, C., "Some Remarks on the Use of D i a l e c t s i n Leskov's Prose," The Slavonic and East European Review. Vol. XLVI No. 10?, July 1968, p. 333. 13 V ^Leskov, N.S., Sobranie Socineni.i. Moskva, 1957» Vol. IV, p. 395. 1 4 Girke, OP. c i t . . p. 147 c i t e s the t i t l e s Ledi Makbet  Mcenskogo uezda and Z i t i e odno.i baby. Iz Gostomel'skix vos- pominani.i. ^Leskov r e f e r s here to the idiom of the province of Orel. 1 ^ T h i s feature occurs also i n the western Russian dia-l e c t s . See Russka.ia dialektologi.ia. Avanesov, R.I. and Orlov, V. G. (Eds.), Moskva, 1965. P. 1^8. 1 7See Russka.ia dialektologi.ia. p. 114. See also Schwencke, OP. c i t . . p. 3^7. 18 This form i s widespread i n the provinces of Kursk and Orel. See Russka.ia dialektologi.ia. pp. 172, 277-278. See also Schwencke, op. c i t . . p. 3^8. 19 7For a discussion of Leskov's use of p a r t i c i p l e s i n -msi from the viewpoint of syntax see Girke, op. c i t . . pp. 138-139. 20 This feature occurs also i n the northern Russian dia-l e c t s . See Kuznecova, D., "Glagoly s suffiksom -anu-/-onu- v govorax russkogo jazyka," Leksika russkix narodnyx govorov. Moskva-Leningrad, 1966, pp. 35-61. See also Vinogradov, V.V., Russki.i .iazvk. Moskva-Leningrad, 19 7^, pp. 4-39-440. 21 Sobolevskij, A.I., L e k c i i po i s t o r i i russkogo .jazyka, The Hague, 1962, pp. 128-129; Russka.ia d i a l e k t o l o g i . i a . p. 78. Schwencke, op. c i t . . p. 335, notes that /x/> / f / also occurs i n Moscow substandard speech. Girke, op. c i t . . p. 136, notes that t h i s feature also occurs i n Ukrainian d i a l e c t s . Russka.ia dialektologi . i a . op. c i t . . pp. 256-257* See also Schwencke, op. c i t . . p. 3^2. 2-^Girke, OP. c i t . . p. 156. 24 N v/-Fasmer, M., Etimologiceski . i slovar* russkogo .jazyka. Moskva, 1964, Vol. I I , p. 6l6. 2 ^ F o r a discussion of Church Slavonic elements i n Rus-sian vocabulary see Saxmatov, A. and Shevelov, G.Y., Die  Kirchenslavischen Elemente i n der modernen Russischen L i t e r a - tursprache. Wiesbaden, i960. See also Unbegaun, B.O., "Le Russe l i t t e r a i r e e s t - i l d'origine Russe?," Revue des Etudes  Slaves. XLIV, pp. 19-28. 31 CHAPTER III NEOLOGISMS! MORPHOLOGICAL CATEGORIES Leskov's creative use of language manifests i t s e l f i n the numerous neologisms encountered i n his vocabulary. The term 'neologism' generally designates a newly formed word, as well as the use of an old word i n a new sense. Neologisms appear to some degree i n the vocabulary of every creative writer. The basic reason behind a writer's search f o r new words i s h i s desire to express himself i n a r i c h e r , more o r i g -i n a l way. The overwhelming majority of Leskov's neologisms produce a s t r i k i n g effect and impress the reader as highly o r i g i n a l . In some cases, however, Leskov has adhered so close-l y to the general p r i n c i p l e s governing new derivations i n Rus-sian, that the reader i s not even quite c e r t a i n whether he i s confronted with a new word or not. The various types of neol-ogisms that have appeared i n Leskov's vocabulary merit inves-t i g a t i o n as regards t h e i r sources and the method of t h e i r f o r -mation. Leskov has drawn heavily on formal processes that of-fer the p o s s i b i l i t y of enriching vocabulary. The Russian lan-guage contains inexhaustible resources f o r the addition of new words to i t s lexicon. The elements of which Russian words are composed can, however, be formed into new l e x i c a l items 32 only according to c e r t a i n rules and patterns. The study of the patterns by which words are formed i s known as word-forma-t i o n , a d i v i s i o n of morphology. In his discussion of word-formation, E. Stankiewicz has defined i t as the basic source of l e x i c a l items of a language, the abstract pattern which governs r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l words and which deter-mines the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of new l e x i c a l formations. 1 A writer, who adds new words to the vocabulary by means of morphologi-c a l word-formation, u t i l i z e s d e r i v a t i o n a l or l e x i c a l morphemes that exist i n the language. The most productive morphological process whereby new words can be formed i n Russian i s the addition of a f f i x e s to l e x i c a l morphemes. The following procedures can be d i s t i n -guished: (1) p r e f i x a t i o n and (2) s u f f i x a t i o n . P r e f i x a t i o n Leskov had recourse to p r e f i x a t i o n to form new words. A considerable quantity of these are verbs, including the f o l -lowing examples: obformirovat' with the meaning 'to remake completely, g i -ve a new appearance to', formed with the p r e f i x ob-'about' and formirovat' 'to form, mould' (Levsa. p. 47 ) ; obxlopotat' with the meaning 'to arrange, take care o f , formed with ob- and xlopotat' 'to take trouble, to take care o f (Polunoscniki. p. 167); otlygat's.ia with the meaning 'to l i e one's way out*, formed with ot- 'off, away' and lygat' 'to l i e ' , d e r i -ved from l g a t ' i d . , which i s also an invented word (Lev-sa, p. 5*0 ? predvozvysat's,ia with the meaning 'to exceed, surpass', formed with the p r e f i x pred- 'before', which i s unpro-ductive i n Russian, and vozvy sat's.ia 'to r i s e above' (Levsa. p, 34); voz".iarit's.ia i n the sentence vdrug u Nikola.ia Ivanovica  voz".iarils.ia spor 'suddenly Nikolaj Ivanovic got into a f i e r c e argument' (Polunoscniki. p. 164); t h i s word, used by Leskov instead of raz" . i a r i t ' s j a 'to become enraged', i s formed with the p r e f i x voz- 'up' and .iarit's.ia 'to become enraged' (.iarit's.ia does not occur without a pre-f i x ) ; vzaxat's.ia 'to say ah! continually', formed with the pre-f i x voz- which i n t h i s instance denotes i n t e n s i t y and axat'sja. from axat' 'to say ah!, complain' (Levsa. p. 28); zavoloxatet' with the meaning 'to become hairy', formed with the pr e f i x za- denoting beginning of an action and voloxatet' 'to be shaggy, hairy', derived from the dia-l e c t a l voloxaty.i 'shaggy, hairy' (Tupe.iny.i xudoznik. p. 226). Many of Leskov's verbal neologisms formed by means of pr e f i x a t i o n are variations of e x i s t i n g forms ( c f . voz" . i a r i t ' - s.ia. instead of raz".iarit's.ia *to become enraged'). This can be explained by the high degree of productivity and the ex-pressive r o l e assigned to verbal prefixes i n the Russian lan-2 guage. The above examples may s u f f i c e to i l l u s t r a t e that 3^  Leskov has taken f u l l advantage of the r i c h variety of mean-ing of prefixes. In adding prefixes to e x i s t i n g verbs, or sub s t i t u t i n g one p r e f i x f o r another, Leskov's purpose i s to strengthen vividness. Prefixation i s used by Leskov also to form new nouns. Nominal prefixes have generally a low degree of productivity i n Russian. Accordingly, p r e f i x a t i o n plays a minor r o l e i n Leskov's nominal neologisms. The following examples have been found« v bezbrak. i n the phrase z i t ' v bezbrake 'to l i v e out of wedlock', formed with the p r e f i x bez- 'without' and brak 'marriage' (Polunoscniki, p. 153); podbufetcik 'assistant waiter ( i n a restaurant)', formed with the p r e f i x pod- 'under' and bufetcik 'waiter (in a restaurant)' (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 99); pod"evropnik 'a person of European descent', formed with the p r e f i x pod- 'under' and evropnik 'European (subst.)', the l a t t e r word invented by Leskov (Polunoscniki. p. 209); predumysl 'premeditation', formed with the p r e f i x pred-'before' and umysel 'intention' (Za.iaci.i remiz. p. 512); prepodlec 'very big scoundrel', formed with the i n t e n s i -f y i n g p r e f i x pre- and podlec 'scoundrel' (Polunoscniki. p. 198); prestraska 'great fear', formed with the p r e f i x pre- and a derived noun from strax 'fear' (Zametki neizvestnogo. p. 395); i"t may be noted that pre- does combine with 35 adjectives, but i s not productive i n the formation of Russian nouns. Prefixation plays a minor role also i n the formation of new adjectives i n Russian. Consequently, few adjectives formed by means of p r e f i x a t i o n occur i n Leskov's vocabulary. One example, found i n the story Leon, dvorecki.i syn. i s pod- madernv.i (xeres) which i s meant by Leskov to designate 'sher-ry that passes f o r madeira' (p. 66). Suf f i x a t i o n The method of s u f f i x a t i o n f o r the formation of new words i n Russian as a rule i s most productive f o r nouns and adjectives. Among the nominal suffixes often used by Leskov to form nouns are -ec and - i c a denoting male and female per-sons respectively. The following examples are found i n Les-kov's storiest akusernica 'midwife', instead of akuserka i d . (Zametki  neizvestnogo. p. 331); dobroxotec 'well-wisher'; t h i s i s a compound formed with the adjective dobry.i 'kind, good' and a derived form of the verb xotet' 'to wish'; ezdovscTica 'horsewoman*, derived from the verb e z d i t ' 'to r i d e , drive' (Polunoscniki. p. I40)j 36 grubec 'rude person', instead of grubi.ian i d . (Polunoscni-k i . P. 178); knigoderzec *a person who holds the Book ( i . e . the B i b l e ) ' (Za.iaci.i remiz. p. 531)? t h i s i s a compound formed with the noun kniga 'book' and the verb derzat' 'to hold'} k r e s t i c a 'god-daughter', instead of krestnica i d . (Leon,  dvorecki.i syn. p. 72); l.iuteranec 'Lutheran', instead of l i u t e r a n i n i d . (Levsa. p. b9)t naxalkikanec denotes a native of a f i c t i t i o u s country or town (Putesestvie s n i g i l i s t o m . p. 129); according to W.B. Edgerton, i t i s a pun on naxal 'rascal';-' originalec 'eccentric person', instead of o r i g i n a l i d . (Polunoscniki. p. 141); pasec 'shepherd', instead of pastyr' 'pastor, shepherd' (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 70); putimec 'traveler', instead of putnik i d . (Putimec. p. 45); skrytnica 'secretive person (fern.)', derived from skryt' Vto hide, conceal' (Polunoscniki. p. 142); stre l e c 'rifleman', instead of strelok 'rifleman, s o l d i e r ' (Polunoscniki. p. 163);^  svirec 'reed-pipe player', derived from the noun s v i r e l ' •reed-pipe, q u i l l (musical instrument)' (Zapecatlenny.i  angel. p. 324; s i t y i c a „'seamstress', instead of sve.ia i d . (Zametki neiz-37 vestnogo. p. 3^*0 J i t i s derived from the d i a l e c t a l noun sitvo 'sewing, needlework'. It may be noted that the suffixes -ec and - i c a are unproductive f o r the formation of Russian nouns from verbs 7 and adjectives.' However, the s u f f i x -ec was successfully used by many writers of the nineteenth century to form new compound nouns.® Nouns formed with suffixes other than -ec/-ica are considerably less frequent i n Leskov's neologisms. The f o l -lowing examples occur i n the textst nevestin'e 'marriage, married l i f e ' , derived from the noun nevesta 'bride* by means of the s u f f i x -'e that, as a ru l e , occurs only i n deverbative nouns (Polunoscni-k i . P. 129); o z i d a t e l ' *a person who waits', from ozidat' 'to wait* and the s u f f i x - t e l ' (Polunoscniki. p. 118); pal*tosnik ' t a i l o r * (Polunoscniki. p. 162)5 t h i s word i s derived from pal'to 'coat* by means of the s u f f i x -nikt p i l i k a n with the meaning 'a person who scrapes (on a f i d -d l e ) ' , from the c o l l o q u i a l verb p i l i k a t ' 'to make a scraping noise* and the s u f f i x -an. which i s unproducti-ve i n Russian (Za.iaci.i remiz. p. 5 7 1 ) ; 9 pomogatel' 'helper*, instead of pornoscnik i d . (Za.iaci.i re- miz . p. 559); i t i s derived from pomogat' 'to help* by means of the s u f f i x - t e l ' ; postyzdenie 'shame, disgrace', from postydit' 'to put to shame' and the s u f f i x -enie (Levsa. pp. 36, 41); t h i s word features the Old Church Slavonic zd (from *d.i). i n -stead of the Russian z, which emphasizes the intended archaic tone; vn.iatie 'attention', instead of vnimanie i d . (Otbornoe  zerao. p. 281); i t i s derived from vn.iat' 'to l i s t e n to, heed' by means of the s u f f i x - t i e . I t may be observed that, i n some of Leskov's nominal neologisms formed by means of suffixation/,; he has merely re-placed one s u f f i x by another, f o r example evrope.i 'European', instead of evropeec i d . (Polunoscniki. p. 209). The unpro-ductive s u f f i x -e.1. which i s found i n a small number of nouns mostly found i n substandard speech, 1^ has also been used by Leskov i n the word pare.i 'wager, bet', which he derived from p a r i i d . (Levsa. p. 55). A s i m i l a r example i s katastrofi.ia.: 'catastrophe', i n -stead of katastrofa i d . (Polunoscniki. p. 20?). In t h i s i n -vented word Leskov has substituted the s u f f i x ^a by the unpro-ductive s u f f i x - i . i a . Occasionally Leskov adds a s u f f i x to an e x i s t i n g word, such as protestantist 'Protestant', a word that i s formed with the s u f f i x - i s t . added to protestant i d . (Levsa. p. 47). The s u f f i x - i s t occurs i n Russian only i n l e x i c a l borrowings. Two addi t i o n a l examples of Leskov's neologisms that 39 are deverbative nouns formed with the use of s u f f i x a t i o n ha-ve been attested! brykada 'stomping, kicking* (Leon, dvorec- ki.i syn. p. 70), from brykat' 'to stomp, kick' with the un-productive s u f f i x -ada that denotes a prolonged a c t i o n , 1 1 and perestaca 'ceasing, stopping* (Levsa. p. 33)• from perestat' 'to cease, stop*. Adjectives formed by means of s u f f i x a t i o n are few among Leskov's neologisms. One example encountered i n the texts i s netova (zeml.ia) 'barren earth' (Polunos'cniki. p. 148). I t i s derived from net 'there i s not' with the aid of the s u f f i x -ov that builds possessive adjectives i n Russian 12 and, as a r u l e , may be added only to proper names. Other examples include okatisty.i (Polunoscniki. p. 133)» derived from the verb okat' 'to r e t a i n an unstressed /o/ i n pronun-c i a t i o n ' with the s u f f i x - i s t - . and prosvirkovaty.i 'resem-b l i n g Communion bread* ( i b i d . . p. 137)• derived from prosvira •Communion bread' by means of the s u f f i x -ovat- that forms adjectives i n Russian. Much more numerous than adjectives are denominative verbs formed by means of s u f f i x a t i o n . The s u f f i x e s most f r e -quently u t i l i z e d by Leskov i n verbs are -at'. -et' and - i t ' . The following verbal neologisms, ,excerpted from Leskov's s t o r i e s , are formed with these suffixes1 aminit' *to say"amen" *, derived from amin' 'amen* (Pe- cerskie a n t i k i . p. 169); 40 basnit' 'to r e l a t e fables', from basn.ia ' f a b l e ' t 1 ^ cuzerecit' 'to speak i n a foreign language', from cuz o.j v 14 •foreign' and rec' 'speech's d e l i k a t i t ' s . i a 'to be f a s t i d i o u s ' , from delikatny.1 ' d e l i -cate, f a s t i d i o u s ' ( V o l t e l ' n i c a . p. 157)» f e l ' d s e r i t ' 'to work as a doctor's ass i s t a n t ' , from fel ' d s e r 'doctor's as s i s t a n t ' (Kadetskij monastvr')» mamakat'. that has the meaning 'to say "mother"', from mama 'mother' (Leon, dvorecki.1 syn. p. 76); i t i s formed with the de r i v a t i o n a l morpheme -k- and the s u f f i x -at'; -kat* often occurs i n Russian onomatopoeic verbs; mlnusit' with the meaning 'to substract', from minus •minus' (Leon, dvorecki.1 syn. p. 741 Polunoscniki. p. 133)s merzavit' 'to behave i n a v i l l a i n o u s manner', from mer- zavec 'scoundrel, v i l l a i n ' ( V o i t e l ' n i c a . p. 186); muzykat' with the meaning 'to play music (on the piano)', from muzyka 'music' (Bely.i o r e l . p. 18) t organit' with the meaning 'to sound l i k e an organ' ( i t r e f e r s to singing voices), from organ 'organ (music)' (Ledi Makbet Mcenskogo uezda. p. 129); papakat' 'to say "father"', from papa 'father' (Leon, dvo- recki . i syn. p. 76)} p l . i u s i t ' with the meaning 'to add', from p i .jus 'plus* (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 7^5 Polunoscniki. p. 133)? 41 popit' 'to be a p r i e s t ' , from pop ' p r i e s t ' (Pecerskie a n t i k i , p. 169); vcerkovit's.ia with the meaning 'to be i n i t i a t e d into the Church' (Zapecatlennv.i angel, p. 3^5)» i t i s formed with the p r e f i x Vr. ' i n , i n t o ' and cerkov' 'church*; vin o v a t i t 's.ia 'to behave i n a g u i l t y manner', from vino- vatv.i ' g u i l t y ' ; 1 7 18 zaaminet' 'to say "amen" continually*, from amin' 'amen'j the p r e f i x za- denotes i n t e n s i t y of an action. In discussing the above examples i t may be noted that Leskov has used the s u f f i x - i t ' . which as a rule i s producti-ve only f o r the formation of deadjectival verbs, to form de-nominative verbs (cf. merzavit'). Verbs formed from nouns and adjectives occur frequently i n Leskov's vocabulary and i l l u s -t r a t e well the writer's inventiveness. Compounding Another method of word-formation i n the Russian lan-guage i s compounding. This method consists of jo i n i n g two l e x i c a l morphemes into a single word, as a r u l e by means of the binding morphemes -o-/-e-. I t i s productive only for the formation of nouns and adjectives. Leskov u t i l i z e d the method of compounding to form a considerable number of nouns and adjectives, including the following* 42 bogotvomy.i i n bogotvornye ikonv 'holy icons ( l i t . , icons, created by God)*, formed with bog 'God' and t v o r i t 1 •to create' (Levsa. p. 50: Polunoscniki. pp. 169, 1 ? 0 ) ; 1 9 dreviestepennyj 'respected-- i n former times', formed with drevle 'long ago' and stepenny.i 'honourable, respected' (Stopal'scik. p. 96); gluporoadenny.1 'stupid from b i r t h ' , from glupyJ 'stupid' and a p a r t i c i p l e of r o d i t ' 'to give b i r t h t o ' (Zametki  neizvestnogo. p. 378)} the noun gluporozden'e also occurs ( i b i d . . p. 380) } kamnesecenny.i 'sculptured, cut from stone', from kamen* •stone' and a p a r t i c i p l e of sec' 'to cut' (Levsa. p. 33)} krivoputok 'winding a l l e y ' (Levsa. p. 56)} i t occurs also i n the story Leon, dvorecki. i syn with the meaning of •detour' (p. 65)} i t i s formed with krivo . i 'awry, curving' and a derived noun from put' 'way, path'; krugosvet with the meaning 'the wide world', from krug ' c i r c l e ' and svet 'world' (Polunoscniki. p. 20?)} mnogoobo^aemy.i with the meaning 'much worshipped*, from mnogo 'much' and a p a r t i c i p l e of obozat' 'to worship' (Za.iaci.i remiz. p. 541)} myl'nopJTny.i i n the phrase myl'nopil'ny. i zavod •soap-m i l l ' , from my 1* ny.i 'soap (adj;)' and p i l i t ' *to saw' (Levsa. p. 26)} novonacatie that has the meaning 'new commencement', from novy;) 'new* and nacat' 'to begin' (Zametki neizvestnogo. p. 324)} *3 ognepal jasci . i 'fiery', from ogon' ' f i r e ' and p a l i t ' 'to burn' (Zapeoatlennv.1 angel, p. 324); pjscepitanie 'nourishment', from pisca 'food' and pitanie 'nourishment' (Za.iaci.i remiz. p. 515) J pi see pri emna ,i a in piscepriemnaja zala ' dining-hall', from pisca 'food* and pri emna .i a 'reception' (Levsa. p. 48); pustomyslie 'simplemindedness', from pusto .i 'empty' and a derived form of mvsl' 'thought* (Polunoscniki. p. 192); -myslie occurs in Russian compounds; srebropozlascennv.i ' g i l t with silver (adj)* (Levsa. p. 33) ; this word i s formed from the Church Slavonic srebro 'silver (subst.)' and the past passive participle of pozlatit' *to gild*; srebrouzden 'with a silver bridle', also from the Church Slavonic srebro 'silver (subst.)* and from the short form of the past passive participle of uzdat' 'to bridle, curb' (Zapecatlenny.i angel, p. 3^*0» svetlobozestvenny.i with the meaning 'godly*, from svetlyj 'light' and bozestvenny.i 'godly, divine* (Zapecatlenny.i  angel, p. 324); svetlo- 'light* occurs in Russian compounds; vezdeprisutstvie 'omnipresence', instead of vezdesuscie id. (Polunoscniki. p. 190); i t i s formed with vezde 'eve-rywhere* and prisutstvie 'presence'; vse'gubitel'stvo. which denotes 'complete destruction* (Ocarovanny.i strannik); i t i s formed with ves' ' a l l * and a derived noun from gubit' 'to ruin, destroy'; xramozdatel' 'builder of churches', from xram 'temple 44 (church)' and zda t e l ' 'builder', a noun that, regularly, does not occur i n Russian (Belv.i ore'l. p. 6)» the l a t -t e r noun has been derived by Leskov from the root ZD-/ZID- 'build, e d i f y ' (df. zdanie 'building' and so-zi d a t ' 'to construct, b u i l d * ) i zlatokuznec 'goldsmith*, from the Church Slavonic zlato 'gold' and kuznec 'smith* (0 povesti "Zenon-zlatokuznec". p. 240); zlopomnenie with the meaning 'the remembering of e v i l ' (Zaja'ci11 remiz. p. 537)I t h i s word i s formed by Leskov from zlo ' e v i l ' and a deverbative noun from pomnit' 'to remember', evidently, by analogy with other com-pound words with z l o - ' e v i l ' , such as zlode.ianie ' e v i l deed'j zivotol.lubivy.i that has the meaning 'who loves l i f e (adj.)', from the Church Slavonic zivot ' l i f e ' and -l.iubivy.i ' l i t . . l o ving' (Zapecatlennv.i angel, p. 3^8): the l a t t e f word-forming element appears frequently i n Russian compound adjectives, such as xristol.iubivy.i 'who loves C h r i s t ' . Most of the above compound words display p r e c i s i o n of expression. In general, the method of compounding has been e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e d by Leskov. Many of h i s compounded adjec-t i v e s serve as epithets and belong to an elevated, solemn st y l e (Gf. Qgnepal.iasci.i ' f i e r y ' , which i s used as an epithet for a sword). From the point of view of t h e i r construction, these formations do not always exhibit novelty, as compound words have a time-honoured t r a d i t i o n i n the Russian language and l i t e r a t u r e . Leskov made frequent use of l e x i c a l morphemes *5 that occur i n many Russian compounds. However, Leskov's compounds, from the viewpoint of t h e i r semantic p e c u l i a r i t i e s , i n most instances are s t r i k i n g l y o r i g i n a l . The foregoing analysis of the main s t r u c t u r a l devices employed by Leskov shows that the majority of h i s neologisms have been constructed with the use of common processes of af-f i x a t i o n and compounding. Leskov's se l e c t i o n of a f f i x e s i l -l u s t r a t e s h i s s t r i v i n g to reinforce expressivity. This i s e s p e c i a l l y noticeable i n the instances where he has modified e x i s t i n g l e x i c a l items by substituting one a f f i x f o r another. The neologisms discussed above i n most cases are e i -ther markedly c o l l o q u i a l or, i n some cases, archaic. The s t y l i s t i c tone of the new words i s generally i n perfect ac-cord with the context i n which they occur. Although Leskov has occasionally employed non-pro-ductive morphemes to form new words, he has never neglected the laws of grammar. A l l of the neologisms discussed above are formed i n compliance with the e x i s t i n g r u l e s of deriva-t i o n i n the Russian language. 46 REFERENCES TO CHAPTER III 1Stankiewicz, E., "The Interdependence of Paradigmatic and Derivational Patterns," Word 18, 1962, p. 3. 2 V.V. Vinogradov states that the verb i s the most complex grammatical category of the Russian language. He ascribes t h i s to the variety of active meaning of verbal prefixes. See Vinogradov, V.V., Russki.i .iazyk. Moskva-Lenin-grad, 19^7. pp. /»-22 and 427. -^Townsend, C.E., Russian Word-formation.New York. 1968. p. 149. ^Cited by B.M. Drugov, N.S. Leskov. Ocerk tvorcestva. Moskva, 1957. p. 168. ^ S a t i r i c a l Stories of N i k o l a i Leskov. Edgerton, W.B. (Ed.), New York, 1969, p. 1°3. ^This word occurs i n the t i t l e volsebny.i stre l e c (the t i t l e of K.M. von Weber's opera Der Freischutz). whereas the normal Russian t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s t i t l e i s volsebny.i strelok. The word strele c a c t u a l l y means 'soldier i n the Russian army of the seventeenth century'. ^Vinogradov, OP. c i t . . p. 100. A detailed discussion of the s u f f i x -ec i s given on pp. 99-101. Humesky, A., Ma.iakovski.i and h i s Neologisms. New York, ^7 1964, p. 28. See also Efimov, A.I., Jazyk s a t i r y Saltykova- Scedrina. Moskva, 1953, p. 356. g Vinogradov notes that the s u f f i x -an occurs predomi-nantly i n c o l l o q u i a l nouns with a pejorative meaning. See Vinogradov, op. c i t . . p. 103. 1 0Vinogradov, op. c i t . . p. 96, c i t e s also gramotej • l i t e r a t e person' and bogate.i 'r i c h man'. ^Vinogradov, OP. c i t . . p. 142. 12 Townsend, OP. c i t . . pp. 225-226. -'Cited by L. Grossman, N.S. Leskov. Zizn' - tvorcestvo - poetika. Moskva, 19^5. P« 287. 1 ^ I b i d . . p. 28?. •^Cited by A.S. Orlov, "Jazyk Leskova," Jazyk russkix  p j s a t e l e j . Moskva-Leningrad, 19^8, p. 165. Vinogradov, OP. c i t . . p. 434. 1 7 C i t e d by M.V. Kankava, "0 v l i j a n i i V.I. Dalja na s t i l ' p i s a t e l e j etnograficeskoj skoly," Poetika i s t i l i s t i k a russko.i  l i t e r a t u r y . Akademija Nauk, Leningrad, 1971* P» 179. 18 Cited by Grossman, op. c i t . . p. 287. *This word i s a corruption of cudotvorny.i 'wonder-working'. See Leskov, N.S., Sobranie socineni.1. Moskva, 1958, Vol. VII, p. 507. 48 Cited by A.B. Ansberg, "Frame Story and F i r s t Person Story i n N.S. Leskov," Scando-Slavica 3. 1957. P. 66. k9 CHAPTER IV NEOLOGISMSi SEMANTIC CATEGORIES Among the various sources f o r Leskov's neologisms an important role i s played by semantic factors. Neologisms i n a l i t e r a r y work are not always the r e s u l t of the writer's u t i l i z a t i o n of the derivatory procedures e x i s t i n g i n the lan-guage. New words can also appear i n a writer's vocabulary as a r e s u l t of h i s re i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e x i s t i n g words or word elements. Many of Leskov's neologisms exhibit o r i g i n a l t r a i t s that are related to the meanings of l e x i c a l signs. Words of t h i s kind, Leskov's slovecki as they are sometimes c a l l e d , are c l e a r l y designed by the writer f o r semantic e f f e c t . A ce r t a i n consistency i n the way these words are made up can be observed. They occur repeatedly i n Leskov's s t o r i e s and are an outstanding feature of h i s vocabulary. One may group them together according to semantic categories and discuss t h e i r semantic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The reader may at times be puzzled by the perplexing way i n which the characterswho figure i n Leskov's s t o r i e s ex-press themselves and by the odd words they use. In the i n t r o -duction to the narrative of Leon, dvorecki.i svn. Leskov has explained that the language of the story to follow i s mottled with misused words. This distorted language, according to Les-50 kov, i s caused by the narrators' e f f o r t to imitate the con-versational style of the s o c i a l m i l i e u to which the charac-te r s belong. Being unable to reproduce the genuine speech habits of the characters, the narrators ascribe the most fan-c i f u l words to them i n order that t h e i r language may not re-semble simple speech. 1 Accordingly, a considerable number of words that occur i n an unexpected context can be encountered i n Leskov's s t o r i e s . These words i n many cases belong to a more elevated and l i t e r a r y sphere than the speaker's normal speech. The following examples may i l l u s t r a t e t h i s i bekren' 'migraine', instead of migren' i d . (Leon, dvorec- ki . i syn. p. 72); bekren' o r d i n a r i l y occurs only i n the adverb nabekren' 'slanting, askew*; dal 'novidny.i i n dal 'novidny.i venokl' that has the meaning - o •far-seeing binoculars' (Leon, dvorecki. i syn. p. 64); dal 'novidny.i 'far-seeing, far-sighted* does not normally collocate with binokl' 'binoculars'; dozdlivy . i i n dozdlivy . i zontik 'umbrella', instead of dozdevo.i zontik i d . (Leon, dvorecki. i syn. p. 7*0; the l i t e r a l meaning of dozdlivy . i i s 'rainy' versus dozdevo.i •rain (adj.)'; iskusstvenny. i i n iskusstvennye klassy 'art classes', i n -stead of klassy iskusstva i d . (Polunoscniki. p. 147); iskusstvenny. i means ' a r t i f i c i a l * ; mezdometie, used i n the sense of 'place*, instead of mesto i d . (Polunoscniki. p. 144); mezdometie a c t u a l l y means ' i n t e r j e c t i o n ( i n grammar)'; 51 mezdousobny.i i n mezdousobnve razgovory. meant to designa-te 'intimate conversations' (Levsa. p. 26) j mezdousobny.i o r d i n a r i l y occurs only i n the expression mezdousobnve  r a s p r i 'internecine s t r i f e ' ; monumental 'ny.i i n monumental'na,1a fotografi . i a with the meaning 'instantaneous photograph', instead of momental'-na.ia fotografi . i a i d . (Polunoscniki. p. 169); monumental'- ny.i means 'monumental' • Some words that are misused by Leskov's narrators and characters occur i n expressions that may seem altogether incomprehensible, f o r example koncert desevyx studentov. ' l i t . , concert of inexpensive students' (Leon, dvorecki. i syn. p. 69). I t i s meant to denote 'charity concert f o r poor stu-dents' and i s , evidently, a corruption of koncert v pol'zu  bednvx studentov i d . A further example i s besscetny.i lekar' ' l i t . , innumerable doctor', which i n the context r e f e r s to a doctor who does not care whether he i s paid by his patients or not (Polunoscniki. p. 141). Many l e x i c a l items that are used i n an unexpected context, according to Leskov himself, are intended to d i s -play the remarkable o r i g i n a l i t y of the simple minds of h i s 3 narrators and characters. For example, the expression 52 dvuspal'noe kol'co with the meaning 'wedding r i n g ' , instead of venial'noe kol'co i d . , produces a comic e f f e c t (Leon, dvo- recki.i syn. p. 70). The adjective dvuspal'ny.i generally oc-curs only i n the expression dvuspal 'na.ia krovat' 'double bed'. In some instances, the reader can perceive through the comically distorted speech of Leskov's characters the wri-ter's commentary on Russian s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e . For example, Leskov's expression Poverxnost na.ia Komissi.ia d i s t o r t s Verxovna.ia Raspor.iaditel'na.ia Komissi.ia 'Supreme Executive Committee' (Polunoscniki. p. 148). In using the adjective poverxnostna.ia ' s u p e r f i c i a l ' , instead of verxovna.ia 'supreme' i n t h i s expression, Leskov alludes with irony to the. e v i -dently perfunctory q u a l i t y of that committee. Other examples include popul.iarny.i sovetnik ' l i t . , po-pular counsellor' which i s used instead of titul.iarny.i sovet- nik ' t i t u l a r counsellor (the lowest c i v i l rank i n t s a r i s t Russia)' (Polunoscniki. p. 162). In s u b s t i t u t i n g popul.iar- ny.i 'popular' for titul.iarny.i ' t i t u l a r ' i n t h i s expression, Leskov's purpose i s , evidently, to emphasize the lowly rank of t h i s government o f f i c i a l . F i n a l l y , Leskov has changed Pravoslavnoe obozrenie 'Orthodox Review*, the t i t l e of a popular magazine, into Pravoslavnoe voobrazenie. substituting voobrazenie 'imagination, fancy* f o r obozrenie 'review', ap-parently also f o r the purpose of s a t i r e (Putesestv^e s n i -53 g i l i s t o m , p. 128). Word play The language of Leskov's s t o r i e s abounds i n puns and other v a r i e t i e s of word play. The device of punning i s gene-r a l l y understood to mean the humorous use of l e x i c a l items that sound a l i k e but are d i f f e r e n t i n meaning. In the majori-ty of his puns Leskov has modified a word, thereby endowing i t with a double meaning. In one instance he e x p l i c i t l y com-ments on the word play involved. Thus, the following senten-ce i s found i n Polunoscniki» Ee im.ia bvlo K l o t i l ' d a . no my  Krutil'do.i ee n a z v v a l i f potomu ctoeona. vse. byvalo. ne pr.ia- mo. a k r u t i t ... 'Her name was K l o t i l d a , but we used to c a l l her K r u t i l d a , because she never said anything s t r a i g h t , but kept twisting around ...' (p. 138). The name K l o t i l ' d a has been modified by Leskov on the basis of k r u t i t ' 'to twist'. In discussing t h i s name, McLean mentions that i t i s i n fac t a t r i p l e pun, since a secondary meaning of the verb k r u t i t ' i s 'to have an amorous r e l a t i o n s h i p ' . McLean's observation i s j u s t i f i e d by the fac t that the person on whom the nick-name i s bestowed i s the mistress of one of the main charac-te r s i n the story. Among Leskov's slovecki that are well known and often c i t e d i n studies i n which the writer's use of puns i s men-5* tioned i s the following example. The name of the inn where the narration of Polunoscniki takes place i s Azidaci . i a (p. 117).^  I t i s a l e x i c a l blend of ozidanie 'waiting, expecta-t i o n ' and az i t a c i . i a 'agitation'. This pun i s j u s t i f i e d i n the context, because of the tumult that usually occurs i n the inn, where the people are waiting to meet a famous Church o f f i c i a l . I t may be added, that the word azidaci . i a i s also elsewhere i n the story used by Leskov i n the sense of 'au-dience, formal interview'.' In many of Leskov's puns the reader may observe that the writer's play on two meanings i s j u s t i f i e d by the con-text i n which the pun occurs. An example i s propuganda •propaganda', used by Leskov instead of propaganda i d . i n the sentence propugandu sdelat* ... ,1a nicego ne bo .jus' 'to make propaganda ... I am not a f r a i d of anything' (Leon, dvo- recki . i syn. p. 7 0 ) . I t evinces an association with the verb pugat' 'to frighten'. In general, the most e f f e c t i v e puns that are encoun-tered i n Leskov's vocabulary are those words that f i t the rhythm and the sound-pattern of the o r i g i n a l , uncorrupted l e x i c a l items (cf. K r u t i l ' d a 'Krutilda'). Further examples of Leskov's puns are* dvuxsestny.i 'two-seater', instead of dvuxmestny.i i d . (Levs'a, p. 27) j t h i s expression i s used i n reference to a coach: the l a t t e r word i s modified on the basis of the verb sest' 'to s i t down': 55 Gubinoty. used by Leskov's narrators instead of Gugeno- ty 'The Huguenots', the t i t l e of the opera by G. Meyer-beer (Leon, dvorecki.i svn. p. 68; Polunoscniki. p. 147); i t i s , evidently, meant to evoke association with gubit' 'to s p o i l , r u i n ' and noty 'notes (music)' for the e f f e c t of parody; Kisel'vrode. instead of Nessel'rode (Count Nesselrode, Alexander I's Secretary of State f o r Foreign A f f a i r s ) (Levsa. p. 47); i t i s evident that t h i s word i s formed from k i s e l ' ' k i s s e l , starchy j e l l y * and vrode ' l i k e ' ; the purpose of t h i s pun i s obscure and i t appears to be a jocular d i s t o r t i o n ; kleveton ' f e u i l l e t o n ' , instead of fel'eton i d . , where Leskov somewhat maliciously alludes to kleveta 'slan-der' (Levsa, p. 48); kl.iuko. a word that i s meant to denote the French cham-pagne Veuve Cliouot (Polunoscniki. p. 160); i t i s used by an intoxicated character attending a party and evokes association with the c o l l o q u i a l verb kljuknut' 'to be-come intoxicated'; Kvazimorda. used by Leskov's narrator instead of Kvazi- modo (Quasimodo, the character i n V. Hugo's famous novel Notre Dame de Paris) (Leon, dvoreckij syn. p. 67); t h i s corruption, induced by morda 'snout, ugly face', mali-ciously hints at the appearance of that character; lygenda. meant to denote 'legend', i s used instead of legenda i d . (Nesmertel'nv.i Golovan. p. 392); i t occurs 56 i n the sentence Golovan ne lygenda. a pravda 'Golovan i s not a legend hut the t r u t h ' ( i b i d . . p. 392) and evokes association with the verb l g a t ' 'to l i e ' ; polskiper 'assistant skipper, skipper's deputy', instead of podskiper i d . (Levsa. p. 5*0? the p r e f i x pod- 'under* has been substituted by pol- ' h a l f ; Leskov's purpose i s to endow the word with a depreciatory connotation; pravotcy 'forefathers, ancestors', instead of praotcy i d . (Levsa. p. 50); t h i s word occurs i n the sentence ... kak v e r i l i na¥i pravotcy. tak ze ... dolzny v e r i t '  i potomcy 'the way our forefathers believed i s the way t h e i r descendants have to believe'; the distorted word evokes association with prav 'right'; v o s p i t a l ' 'hospital*, instead of g o s p i t a l ' i d . ("0 russ-kom r a s s e l e n i i , " Vrem.ia. 1861, No. 12, p. 77); t h i s pun, which evokes association with vos' 'louse' and p i t a t ' 'to feed', expresses Leskov's low opinion of the hygi-enic conditions of some of the hospitals; o xap-frau. instead of the German Hoffrau 7 which designates a court t i t l e (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 66); the associa-t i o n with the verb xapat' 'to p i l f e r ' causes the distorted word to acquire a pejorative meaning. Not a l l of Leskov's puns are neologisms i n the s t r i c t sense. In a number of instances Leskov's use of e x i s t i n g words i n a new context can be observed. Thus, throughout the narra-t i v e of Polunoscniki there i s a recurrent motif of punning on grammatical terms. 1 0 An example i s the expression roditel'ny.i  dom 'maternity home' .instead of rodil'ny.i dom i d . (p. 160). 57 The adjective r o d i t e l ' n v j i s regularly used as a term i n v grammar, as i n r o d i t e l ' n y j padez 'genitive case'. Many simi-l a r puns on grammatical terms occur i n Polunoscniki. designed by Leskov f o r comic e f f e c t . Also humorous i s Leskov's use of the word burgonskoe •Burgundy (adj.)' i n the expression roza burgonskaja 'a face of the colour of Burgundy' (Polunosdniki. p. 159). I t i s used i n reference to a character who has been on a drinking bout. The adjective burgonskoe. however, occurs o r d i n a r i l y i n burgonskoe vino 'Burgundy wine'. I t can be observed from the examples c i t e d above, that Leskov i n most instances of word play has l e f t the basic meaning of a word i n t a c t , but has endowed i t with humorous or s a t i r i c a l connotations. Popular etymology It i s a well-known fact that most of Leskov's famous slovecki are constructed on the p r i n c i p l e of popular etymolo-gy. The process of popular etymology can be defined as a change i n the s p e l l i n g or pronunciation of words, to make them look or sound more s i m i l a r to other words, with l i t t l e regard to s i m i l a r i t y i n meaning or d e r i v a t i o n . 1 1 I t usually takes place because the speaker i s not f a m i l i a r with the object or 58 idea that a word denotes. E s s e n t i a l l y , a r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a concept, unknown to the speaker, i n more f a m i l i a r terms takes place. L e x i c a l items that appear as a r e s u l t of popu-l a r etymology are based on synchronic associations and have 12 nothing to do with the h i s t o r i c a l antecedents of words. Leskov has de l i b e r a t e l y used the semasiological device of popular etymology i n order to make the speech of the person-ages i n h i s s t o r i e s as expressive as possible. When Leskov's narrators and characters use learned words or r e f e r to phenomena that are outside the scope of t h e i r knowledge they interpret them i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l way, following t h e i r own logic and i n t u i t i o n . The semantic logic i s often supplanted by a search f o r hidden connotations. In many cases the invented words are the r e s u l t of f a n c i f u l semantic connections made by the narrators. The process by which an e x i s t i n g word i s explained i n a d i f f e r e n t way may be traced i n the following dialogue from s Nesmertel'ny.i Golovan. A personage i n the story asks* "Eto  Golovan. vyxodit. byl u vas cto-to vrode notariusa?" 'So i t seems that t h i s Golovan was a sort of notary?', to which the narrator r e p l i e s * "Iz-za cego ze motarius! - Golovan byl spra- vedlivy.i celovek!" 'Why a squanderer! - Golovan was a r i g h t -eous man!' (p. 392). The word notarius 'notary', unknown to the narrator, i s misunderstood by him and taken to mean •squanderer', through i t s apparent s i m i l a r i t y to the c o l l o -59 13 q u i a l verb motat' 'to squander'. ^ The speaker, having a s s i -milated the unfamiliar word, reproduces i t with only s l i g h t phonetic modification, but endows i t with a completely d i f f e -rent meaning. In the speech of Leskov's narrators the semantic con-nection between a word and i t s popular corruption i n many ca-ses may appear remote and incongruous to the reader. In some instances, however, the associative l i n k s established by them display s t r i k i n g inventiveness. According to Leskov himself, the distorted words are often i n d i c a t i v e of the subtle perspi-c a c i t y of the simple mind. The following popular etymologies, occurring i n the examined texts, may serve to i l l u s t r a t e the inventiveness and often s t r i k i n g wit with which Leskov has endowed the speech of the narrators or characters i n his stories t bugometri,1a 'book-keeping', instead of buxgalteri.ia i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 74) j the l a t t e r word has been reinterpreted by Leskov's narrator by analogy with words that contain the sequence -metri.ja, such as geometri.ia •geometry', etc.; Bul'dygomus i g i t u r , instead of Gaudeamus i g i t u r . the na-me of the well-known L a t i n student song (Leon, dvorecki.i  syn, p. 69); t h i s word i s evidently associated by Les-kov's narrator with the d i a l e c t a l buldyga 'inveterate drunkard'; dolbica umnozeni.ia 'multiplication table', instead of t a -6o b l i c a umnozeni.ia i d . , associated with the verb d o l b i t ' 'to learn with d i f f i c u l t y * (Levsa. p. 53; Polunoscniki. p. 133); glazurnye ocjL 'azure eyes', instead of lazur'nye o c i i d . (Polunoscniki.p. 129); t h i s word i s associated with glazur' 'glaze, i c i n g ' ; inpuzori ja 'infusorian', instead of i n f u z o r i j a i d . (Polu- noscniki . p. 140); the l a t t e r learned word i s unknown to the narrator and i s erroneously believed to be connect-ed with puzo 'belly'; Kandelabri.ia. instead of K a l a b r i j a 'Calabria* (Levsa. p. 28); the l a t t e r i s obviously unfamiliar to the speaker and associated by him with the noun kandel.iabr 'cande-labrum '; kisl.iarka. instead of kizl.iarka. a vodka of i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y , made i n the Caucasian region Kizl.iara (Levsa. p. 47 ) ; the invented word i s associated with k i s l y j 'sour *; mi gal *'e*ny 'medallions', instead of medal 'ony i d . (Leon.  dvorecki.1 svn. p. 47) ; i t i s associated by Leskov's nar-rator with mjgat' 'to twinkle, sparkle'; nimfozorija 'infusorian', instead of infuzori.ia i d . (Levsa, p. 30); the l a t t e r word i s evidently unknown to Leskov's narrator who mistakenly associates i t with nimfa 'nymph'; 61 Paganistan. instead of Afganistan 'Afghanistan' (Polu- noscniki . p. 159); t h i s country, evidently, i s unknown to the speaker and associated by him with pogany.i 'pa-gan, profane'j prominaza 'promenade', instead of promenada i d . (Stopal'- s c i k . p. 9*0; the l a t t e r word i s associated by Leskov's narrator with the verb prominat's.ia 'to take a walk, s t r o l l ' ; puncovka i n visneva.ia puncovka 'cherry vodka', instead of visneva.ia punsevka i d . (Polunoscniki. p. 179); t h i s i n -vented word, evidently, i s associated by the speaker with puncovy.i 'deep-red, crimson'; revol'ver-barbos. instead of revol'ver-bul'dog, a type of revolver with a short b a r r e l (Putesestvle s n i g i l i s t o m . p. 126); the word bul'dog 'bulldog' i s c o r r e c t l y under-stood by the speaker as denoting a canine breed, but i s reinterpreted by him as barbos 'watch-dog*; s v e t l l ' 'fuse, wick of a candle', instead of f i t i l ' i d . (PuteJ-Testvie s n i g i l i s t o m . p. 129);the l a t t e r word i s associated with the verb s v e t i t ' 'to l i g h t ' ; Tverdizemnoe more, instead of Sredizemnoe more 'Mediter-ranean sea' (Levsa. p. 53); the narrator, who i s not f a -m i l i a r with t h i s geographical name, has associated i t with tverd' zemna.ia 'dry land'; vifliemci.ia 'influenza', instead of infl.iuenca i d . (Polu- noscniki. p. 151); the l a t t e r word i s associated by the speaker with Vifleem 'Bethlehem'; the speaker i n the sto-ry i s characterized by a speech that abounds i n B i b l i c a l references, which he employs, as i n t h i s instance, incor-r e c t l y . 62 Several l i n g u i s t s have pointed out that the term "popular etymology" i s somewhat misleading. 1-* I t seems to assume that the phenomenon i s confined to the speech of the uneducated people and that i t i s not found above a ce r t a i n c u l t u r a l l e v e l . This i s not always the case. Etymological errors can be perpetrated also by semi-literate and even edu-cated people. This i s also evident i n the way i n which the narrators i n Leskov's s t o r i e s express themselves. In discus-sing popular etymology, a d i s t i n c t i o n should be made between mistaken interpretations, where associative l i n k s have been made by the speaker only on the basis of phonetic s i m i l a r i t y , and pseudo-learned substitutions f o r e x i s t i n g words. The l a t -t e r cases often indicate that the speaker i s f a m i l i a r with the words involved. Consequently, the associative l i n k s that the speaker may make i n these cases are based on semantic s i m i l a r i t y . A considerable number of such words that have taken on a d i f f e r e n t form on the basis of semantic connection with other words or morphemes i s encountered i n the speech of the narrators of Leskov's s t o r i e s . A few examples are given be-low t buremetr 'barometer*, instead of barometr i d . . occurs i n the sentence my na buremetr ... smotrelit bur.ia budet ... 'We have looked at the barometer . . . t a storm i s coming..* (Levsa, p. 53)> the word-forming element baro- i s r e i n t e r -preted by the speaker through association with the noun bur.ia 'storm*, whereas the word-forming element -metr i s 63 c o r r e c t l y understood by him as expressing a measure} the word buremetr 'barometr' i n the given context designates precisely the purpose f o r which t h i s object i s used} melkoskop 'microscope', instead of mikroskop i d . (Ley¥a, p. 31)} the speaker has simply translated the foreign word-forming element mikro- 'micro-' into i t s Russian equivalent melko-. from the adjective melkij 'small'} however, melko- i s not regularly used i n the above ex-pression, but exists i n other Russian words, f o r example i n the adjective melkovodnyj 'shallow'} m i l i a t j u r n v j 'miniature', instead of miniatjurnyj i d . (Polunolc'hiki. p. 133) ? t h i s invented word has been asso-ciated by the speaker with words that are formed with the word-forming element m i l l i - 'thousand-', as i n m i l l i - metr 'millimetre'. A t r a i t that characterizes the above slovec'ki i s that they are l e x i c a l substitutions consciously made by the speak-er. Leskov's narrators' and characters' associative inferences often exhibit a remarkable ingenuity, intended as they are by Leskov to produce a comic e f f e c t upon the reader. The course taken by the etymological thinking of Les-kov's narrators and characters can indeed be extremely whim-s i c a l . In t h e i r attempts to make concepts or words that are unfamiliar to them appear or sound more l i k e words that they are f a m i l i a r with, the speakers may esta b l i s h bizarre associ-ative l i n k s . The slovecki of t h i s type may have no semantic connection whatsoever with actual words that the speakers 64 intended to utter. The associations that the slovecki are based on i n some instances cannot even be infer r e d from the context. The following examples may serve to i l l u s t r a t e some absurd associations that Leskov's narrators and characters have establishedi ble.jard ' b i l l i a r d s ' , instead of bil'.iard i d . (Polunoscni- k i . p. 157); i t appears that t h i s distorted word i s asso-ciated by the speaker with ble.iat' 'to bleat'; kutin . ia 'bustle, commotion', instead of kuter'ma i d . (Polunoscniki, p. 164); the l a t t e r word, evidently, i s associated by the speaker, with ekten' .ia 'litany i n the orthodox l i t u r g y ' ; puplekci . ia 'apoplexy', instead of apopleksi.ja i d . (Levsa. p. 57)J t h i s word i s made up by the speaker of pup 'na-v e l ' and lekci . l a 'lecture'; rubkopasn.ia 'hand-to-hand f i g h t ' , instead of rukopasna.ia i d . (Polunoscniki. p. 1?6); t h i s invented word appears to have been associated by the speaker with rubka 'chopping, cuttin g * and pasn.ia ' f i e l d ' ; t r e p e t i r 'mechanism i n a watch, that counts the time*, i n stead of r e p e t i r i d . (Levsa. p. 5*0; the l a t t e r word i s associated by Leskov's narrator with trepetat' 'to p a l p i -tate '; tugament 'document', instead of dokument i d . , evidently associated by the speaker with OR tuga ' g r i e f (Levsa. p. 42); venokl' 'binoculars', instead of binokl' i d . (Leon, dvo-65 recki.i syn. p. 64): i t appears to have been associated with venok 'wreath'. The popular etymologies, discussed above, are intend-ed by Leskov either to depict the resourceful imagination of the narrators and characters i n hi s s t o r i e s or to r i d i c u l e them. In o f f e r i n g t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l explanation of words, the l a t t e r wished to explain at a l l cost the concepts that had remained incomprehensible to them. Leskov's use of these popular etymologies indicates beyond doubt the writer's awareness of the associative forces that may give popular speech i t s expressiveness. S t i l l another way i n which Leskov made use of sema-s i o l o g i c a l similarities of e x i s t i n g words and thereby enriched hi s vocabulary i s by l e x i c a l blending. This means, general-l y , the combination into a single word of elements from d i f -ferent words. In most of the l e x i c a l blends that occur i n Leskov's vocabulary we can observe the impact of associative processes. Although these l e x i c a l blends e s s e n t i a l l y are po-pular etymologies, unlike the l a t t e r t h e i r purpose i s not to explain the etymologies of the words concerned, but rather to blend two words into one. Most of Leskov's l e x i c a l blends, l i k e h is popular etymologies, are manifestly examples of verbal j e s t s . Among the numerous examples that are i l l u s t r a t i v e of 66 the way i n which Leskov has enriched h i s vocabulary by com-bining two l e x i c a l items into one aret bartaz i n the expression na bartaz 'on board', from na  bort 'on board' and na abordaz i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 67)5 the l a t t e r expression i s a m i l i t a r y term; bezrassudok. a l e x i c a l blend that combines predrassudok •prejudice' with bezrassudstvo 'recklessness, fool h a r d i -ness' (Levsa. p. 28); bjustry 'busts', evidently, from bjusty i d . and 1justry 'chandeliers' (Levsa. p. 27s Leon, dvoreckij syn. p. 65); cernorod'e 'the common people', from ce'rny j 'black' and prostonarod'e 'the common people' (Leon, dvoreckij syn. pp. 61, 77)» fimiazma. evidently, a l e x i c a l blend that combines fimiam 'incense' with miazma 'miasma' (Polunoscniki. pp. l 6 l , 165)5 the meaning of the word i s obscured, since i t i s used by an intoxicated character who speaks incoherently; kucma i n kucma narodu 'an unruly crowd of people' (Polu- noscniki. p. 138); t h i s l e x i c a l blend combines kuca •heap' with ujma 'great quantity'; laferma. instead of firma 'firm' (Stopal'scik. p. 95); the l a t t e r word i s blended with Laferm. the name of a tobacco firm i n Leskov's time that sold a popular brand 17 of tobacco; ' naz i d a c i j a . a l e x i c a l blend from nazidanie 'exhortation, e d i f i c a t i o n ' and not a c i j a 'reprimand' (Leon, dvoreckij  syn. p. 68; Polunoscniki. p. 159); 67 n e o t s t o j c i v y j . evidently a l e x i c a l blend that combines nasto.1ciw,i ' i n s i s t e n t ' and neotstupny.i 'unyielding' (Polunoscniki. p. 160)5 plakon. instead of flakon 'flask' (Tupe.iny.j xudoznik. p. 236)5 the l a t t e r word i s combined with plakat' 'to c r y ' i t h i s combination i s j u s t i f i e d i n the context by the fact that the fl a s k contains vodka that the personage i n the story drinks i n order to forget her sorrow; podzemel'nvj 'underground', instead of podzemnvj i d . (Polunoscniki. p. 13?)? the l a t t e r word, evidently, i s combined with podzemel'e 'cave, dungeon'; portez i n ported v bumagax v banke 'confusion i n the bank accounts' (Polunoscniki. p. 138); t h i s word i s a l e x i c a l blend of p o r t i t ' 'to damage, s p o i l * and padez 'murrain, f a l l i n g disease of c a t t l e ' ; i t may be added that the l a t t e r word occurs repeatedly i n Polunoscniki i n the ex-pression pad'ez bumag ' f a l l of the stock market', instead of padenie bumag i d . ; proscada 'mercy, pardon', instead of poscada i d . (Leon,  dvoreckij syn. p. 70; Polunoscniki. p. 157)? the l a t t e r word i s blended with proscat' 'to forgive*; p u b l i c e j s k i j i n publicejskie vedomosti with the meaning ' p u b l i c i s t i c gazette' (Levsa. p. 48); t h i s l e x i c a l blend combines publicny.i 'public' with p o l i c e j s k i j 'police (adj.)'; rukomeslo 'handicraft', instead of remeslo i d . (Stopal'- scik. p. 103); the l a t t e r word i s blended, with ruka 'hand, arm'; studing. a l e x i c a l blend from studen' ' j e l l y ' and puding 'pudding' (Levsa. p. 48); 68 tis n o t a . a l e x i c a l blend that combines t i s i n a 'silence' with tesnota 'narrowness, closeness' (Zajaelj remiz, p; 502), tolpucka. a l e x i c a l blend that combines tolpa 'crowd' with tolkucka 'throng, j o s t l i n g ' (Polunoscniki. pp. 118, 138), umen'cvtozit'. a l e x i c a l blend that combines umen'¥it' to diminish, decrease' with u n i c t o z i t ' 'to annihilate, o b l i t e r a t e ' (Za.iaci.i remiz. p. 502). In summary, the slovecki discussed above are the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of the language of Leskov's sto-r i e s . They perform a s t y l i s t i c function unequalled by any other group of l e x i c a l items i n h i s vocabulary. Although Leskov obviously enjoyed jocular d i s t o r t i o n of language for i t s own sake, i n the majority of cases he has kept i t subordinate to his narrative purposes. The seman-t i c neologisms that have been discussed above simultaneously o r a l i z e , i n d i v i d u a l i z e and give s o c i a l colour to h i s narra-t o r s ' and characters' speech. At the same time they l a b e l i t 1 ft unmistakably "Made by Leskov". His slovecki i l l u s t r a t e his a b i l i t y to make the reader perceive the incongruous by expres-sing i t i n a humorous way. 69 REFERENCES TO CHAPTER IV Leskov, N.S, Sobranie Socinenii. Moskva, 1958, Vol. VII, pp. 60-61. 2 venokl 1 'binoculars' i s used here instead of b i n o k l 1 i d . -^Leskov, op. c i t . . p. 60. Russko-angli.iski.i slovar'. S m i r n i t s k i j , A.I. (Ed.), Moskva, 1969. p. 632. -'McLean, H., "On the Style of a Leskovian 'skaz'," Harvard Slavic Studies 2, 195 .^ p. 318. ^Leskov gives the reader the following explanation of the use and meaning of Azidaci.ia. I t serves f i r s t l y as nazvanie ucrezdeni.ia. gde "ozida.iut" 'the name of the esta-blishment where one "waits" ', and secondly i t denotes samoe  de.istvie ozidani.ia 'the actual action of waiting'. See Les-kov, N.S., Sobranie Socinenii. Vol. IX, p. 118. 'McLean, op. c i t . . p. 318. Cited by J-C. Marcade, "Les Barbarismes etymologiques dans l a prose de N.S. Leskov ou l a reetymologisation c r e a t r i c e comme figure du 'conte o r a l ' (SKAZ)," Communications de l a de- legation Franchise (Vile Congres International des S l a v i s t e s , Varsovie, 21-27 aout 1973). Paris, 1973. P. 267. 70 Ejxenbaum, B., "Leskov i sovremennaja proza," Texte der Russischen Formalisten. Munchen, 19&9* p. 233» 1 0 I n the beginning of the story the narrator announces that she w i l l " t e l l a grammatic story of her l i f e " . See Les-kov, op. c i t . . Vol. IX, p. 132. 11 Pei, M., Glossary of L i n g u i s t i c Terminology. New York, 1966, p. 93. 12 For a detailed discussion of popular etymology see Orr, J., "L'Etymologie populaire," Revue de Linguistique  Romane 18, pp. 129-142. 13 /' • ' -'This example i s c i t e d by Marcade. op. c i t . . p. 2 6 l . 14 Leskov, op. c i t . . Vol. VII, p. 60. *^The term "associative etymology" has been proposed by J. Orr. This term i s actually more precise, although i t has not gained general acceptance. See Orr, J., Words and  Sounds i n English and French. Oxford, 1953, p. 96. 1^Ullmann, S., Language and Style. Oxford, 1964, pp. 34-35; Wartburg, W. von, Problems and Methods i n L i n g u i s t i c s . Oxford, 1969, P. 125. 17 See Leskov, op. c i t . . Vol. VII, p. 517* 1 8McLean, OP. c i t . . p. 319-71 CHAPTER V FOREIGN LEXICAL ELEMENTS In enriching h i s vocabulary Leskov u t i l i z e d not only l e x i c a l material available i n the Russian language, but also drew on the l e x i c a l resources of languages other than Rus-sian. A considerable quantity of the slovecki i n h i s s t o r i e s are words that consist e n t i r e l y or p a r t l y of word elements from foreign languages. The slovecki i n which Leskov's u t i l i z a t i o n of foreign l e x i c a l elements i s r e f l e c t e d can be c l a s s i f i e d into the f o l -lowing three major categories! (1) l e x i c a l items from foreign languages that i n Leskov's time were not assimilated i n Rus-sian, (2) l e x i c a l items that have been newly formed by Les-kov by means of l e x i c a l or d e r i v a t i o n a l morphemes from foreign languages, and (3) foreign l e x i c a l items that have been i n -t e n t i o n a l l y distorted by Leskov. Foreign words Leskov wrote h i s works i n an epoch i n which the i n -f l u x of loan words into the Russian vocabulary was consider-able. Numerous foreign words, es p e c i a l l y from French and 72 German, were being assimilated by the Russian language. The-se words, i n many instances, were expressions used i n science or philosophy. They manifest the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l contacts between Russia and the West European countries. Many foreign words that had become part of the Rus-sian lexicon existed alongside Russian equivalents. An exam-ple i s absol.iutnv.1 'absolute', from the German absolut i d . This word was frequently used instead of the native Russian word beauslovnyj 'undoubted, indisputable', or soversenny.i 'complete'. 1 The use of such l e x i c a l borrowings was fashion-able among people from the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a i n Leskov's time. Ju. Sorokin c i t e s pressa 'the press', from the French presse i d . , a word that was extensively used i n the mid-nineteenth v 2 century instead of the native Russian pecat' i d . It i s known that Leskov was i n p r i n c i p l e opposed to the introduction of foreign words into the Russian language. On several occasions he expressed h i s discontent with the multitude of l e x i c a l borrowings that had appeared i n Russian i n h i s time.^ He considered foreign words i n general unnec-essary, p a r t i c u l a r l y when they were used to denote objects or concepts f o r which the Russian vocabulary already pos--sessed adequate expressions ( c f . pressa 'the press'). The extensive use of foreign words that are often u n i n t e l l i -gible to the average Russian, according to Leskov, does i n -ju s t i c e to the inherent richness of the Russian language 73 L, and, i n f a c t , has a detrimental e f f e c t on the language. Leskov's disapproval of what he regarded as an i n -discriminate use of loan words, prevalent i n h i s time, i s sometimes r e f l e c t e d i n h i s s t o r i e s . When he introduces a l e x i c a l borrowing into the speech of persons i n h i s s t o r i e s , he makes them use i t with irony or r i d i c u l e . B. Drugov c i t e s the following sentence from Meloci arxiere.isko.i z i z n i that may i l l u s t r a t e Leskov's scornful reference to a foreign word* u men.ia ostae'ts.ia esce mnogo klockov i obrezkov. i l i f  kak nvnce govor.iat po-russki. kup.iurov 'I s t i l l have l e f t many scraps and cuts, or, as they nowadays say i n Russian, clippings'.-' The word kup.iur 'clipping' renders the French coupure i d . The statement kak nvnce govor.iat po-russki 'as they nowadays say i n Russian', by means of which Leskov i n -troduces t h i s French word, i s obviously mocking. Despite Leskov's reluctance to accept l e x i c a l items from foreign languages into the Russian lexicon, l e x i c a l borrowings that had been assimilated i n Russian do indeed occur i n h i s s t o r i e s . However, they are few and t h e i r con-t r i b u t i o n to the o r i g i n a l t r a i t s of Leskov's vocabulary i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t . The foreign words, however, that may be counted among Leskov's slovecki are l e x i c a l items from foreign lan-guages that had not become assimilated i n Russian or were 74 not even currently used i n Russian. Some of these foreign words were intended by Leskov to r e f l e c t a f f e c t a t i o n i n the speech of the narrators and characters i n h i s s t o r i e s . A-mong such words i s retknext •groom', from the German Reit- knecht i d . , occurring i n the story Leon, dvorecki.i syn (p. 66). This loan word i s used by the speaker instead of the Russian word kon.iux i d . , evidently because the German word appeared more solemn to the speaker than the Russian equi-valent. A si m i l a r example of a foreign word that i s inten-ded by Leskov to portray pretentiousness of speech i s a b i - t.iuda 'habit, custom', from the French habitude i d . (Dux gospozi Z a n l i s . p. 81). Many foreign words that Leskov a t t r i b u t e s to the speech of h i s narrators and characters serve the purpose of s t y l i z a t i o n . Some of the characters i n h i s s t o r i e s are foreigners. Furthermore, a number of h i s s t o r i e s deal with events that take place outside Russia. Consequently, foreign words are also u t i l i z e d by Leskov to bring l o c a l colour i n -to h i s s t o r i e s . A considerable quantity of the foreign words are French, including the following examples*. anfan 'infant', from the French enfant i d . (Ocarovannvj  strannik. p. 461): betiz, i n the phrase muze.i betizov 'museum with t r i v i a l 75 objects of l i t t l e value', from the French betise ' t r i -f l e ' (Zagon. p. 367); i t may be noted that i n Leskov's usage betiz denotes objects, whereas the French betise regularly r e f e r s to abstract phenomena onlyi etablisman with the meaning 'private dwelling, residence', from the French etablissement ' i n s t i t u t i o n , e s t a b l i s h -ment* (Dux gospozi Z a n l i s . p, 89)» i n t h i s instance Les-kov has endowed the foreign word with a d i f f e r e n t mean-ing; kompatriot 'compatriot', from the French compatriote i d . (Zimnij den', p. 400); kondoleans 'condolence*, from the French condoleance i d . (Dux gospozi Z a n l i s . p. 91); konsomater 'consumer', from the French consommateur i d . (Seramur. p. 249)» m i l i t e r 'soldier', from the French m i l i t a i r e i d . (Pecer-- skie a n t i k i . p. 184); p r i f i k s 'fixed p r i c e * , from the French p r i x - f i x e i d . (Me- l o c i arxierejskoj z i z n i . p. 485); s i l j a n s 'silence', from the French silence i d . (Ocarovan- nvj strannik. p. 461). I t may be noted that these l e x i c a l items, i n Leskov's usage, are of the same grammatical class as i n the source language. S p e c i f i c a l l y , these words are nouns both i n Leskov's usage and i n the source language. 76 Such precise correspondence, however, i s not always apparent i n the foreign words that are found i n Leskov's vo-cabulary. In some instances Leskov has employed foreign l e x i -c a l items for example as nouns, although the words concerned belong to some other grammatical class i n the source language. This transfer of a l e x i c a l borrowing from one category of grammar to another may be i l l u s t r a t e d by the word danse* i n the phrase danse tancevat' 'to dance a step' (Levsa. p. 30). This word, from the French verb danser 'to dance', has been used by Leskov as a noun instead of as a verb. A s i m i l a r example, found i n Polunoscniki. i s ankor 'again', from the French encore i d . (p. 126). This word i s an adverb i n French, whereas i t i s used by the speaker i n Leskov's story as a noun. Leskov also employs foreign phrases, for example, f o r t ange.il' with the meaning 'uproar' (Polunoscniki. p. 172). This l e x i c a l item represents the French expression etre f o r t en gueule 'to y e l l , shout ( l i t . , to be strong i n the mouth)', and i s used by Leskov as a noun. A s i m i l a r example i s boresty. i n the sentence ot preznix krasot osta- l i s ' tol'ko "boresty" 'from her former beauty remained on-l y the beaux restes' (Zimni.i den', p. 397). Leskov's word boresty 'beautiful traces' i s from the French phrase beaux  restes i d . In discussing the above l e x i c a l items from the point 77 of view of morphology, i t may he noted that Leskov trans-ferred these foreign words into h i s vocabulary i n the form i n which they exist i n the source language. In other words, he has not substituted Russian morphemes for foreign word elements. Only the Russian i n f l e c t i o n a l endings have been added to the foreign words i n order to conform to the rules of Russian grammar. However, some foreign words i n Leskov's s t o r i e s have been subjected by Leskov to Russian word-formative patterns. In these cases Leskov has either substituted Russian deriva-t i o n a l morphemes f o r foreign morphemes, or added Russian de r i v a t i o n a l morphemes to the l e x i c a l items involved. For example, i n discussing French loan words i n Leskov's voca-bulary, L. Grossman c i t e s s e r z a n t d e v i l ' s k i j 'policeman (adj.)' i n the phrase s serzantdevil'sko.i borodko.i 'with the small beard of a policeman', a word that i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s w e l l . ^ I t i s derived from the French term sergent de v i l l e 'police-man', to which the speaker i n Leskov's story has added the s u f f i x -sk- that i s used i n Russian to form adjectives. Some further examples of foreign words that have been adapted by Leskov to Russian word-formative patterns include: koketeri.ia 'coquetry', from the French coqueterie i d . (Zametki neizvestnogo. p. 38*0; the French s u f f i x - e r i e has been replaced by Leskov by the Russian s u f f i x -eri.ia. 7 which often appears i n l e x i c a l borrowings; 78 komil'fotny.i 'as i t should be, proper (adj.)', adapted from the French idiomatic expression comme i l faut 'as i t should be, proper' (Ostrovit.iane. p. 3 3 ) ; the l a t t e r adverbial phrase has been adjectivized by means of the Russian a d j e c t i v a l s u f f i x -n-; kontrirovat' 'to contend with', adapted from-the French contrer i d . (Meloci arxierejskoj z i z n i . p. 46?)$ i n the l a t t e r word Leskov has used the s u f f i x - i r o v a - . which i s used i n Russian to form verbs from foreign stems, for the French verbal s u f f i x -ert min'onnvi 'dear, sweet', from French mignon i d . (Ostro- v i t j a n e , p. 17); to the l a t t e r word Leskov has added the Russian a d j e c t i v a l s u f f i x -n-: sociabel'nyj 'sociable', from the French sociable i d . (Otbornoe zerno. p. 282); i n t h i s word Leskov has em-ployed the a d j e c t i v a l s u f f i x -abel'nyj f o r the French s u f f i x -ablet the s u f f i x -abel'nyj regularly appears i n Russian i n loan words from French and German rendering Q the suffixes -able and -abel respectively; zardin'erka * flower-stand', from the French jardiniere i d . (Polunoscniki. p.. 122); to the l a t t e r word Leskov has added the s u f f i x -ka which, as a r u l e , i s used i n Russian to form feminine nouns and diminutives. Hybrid words Leskov also makes use of non-Russian word-forming elements to form invented words. Many of the slovecki with which he has endowed the speech of the narrators or charac-79 ters i n his s t o r i e s are l e x i c a l items that are composed of both Russian word elements and elements from foreign words. For instance, i n some of these slovecki i t i s a d e r i -vational morpheme that belongs to a language other than Rus-sian. An example i s nepromokabl'. with the meaning 'rain-coat' (Levsa. p. 2 7 ) . This word, used by Leskov as a noun, consists of the Russian p r e f i x ne- 'not* and the verb promo- kat' 'to become wet', to which the French a d j e c t i v a l s u f f i x -able has been added. I t i s , evidently, a l e x i c a l blend of the Russian word ne promo kaemy.i 'waterproof and French im- permeable i d . The l a t t e r word i s used i n French with the meaning 'rain-coat *. Another example may i l l u s t r a t e the way i n which Leskov has combined a Russian l e x i c a l morpheme and a d e r i -vational morpheme taken from a foreign language into a single word. The word xaptus 'a person who p i l f e r s ' has been formed by Leskov from the Russian c o l l o q u i a l verb xapat' 'to p i l -f e r ' , by means of the s u f f i x -tus which occurs i n La t i n nouns (Besstydnik. p. 150). More frequent among Leskov's slovecki. however, are hybrid words i n which i t i s a l e x i c a l morpheme that i s t a -ken from a foreign language. This category includes the f o l -lowing words, excerpted from Leskov's s t o r i e s i 80 V bebeizm 'childishness' (Seramur. p. 278)} t h i s word i s composed of the French noun bebe 'infant' to which Les-kov has added the s u f f i x -izm; i n Russian t h i s s u f f i x i s used with words of foreign o r i g i n and, as a r u l e , forms abstract nouns; cufuski i n na cufuskax that has the meaning of 'on foot' (Ovcebvk. p. 78); t h i s word i s derived from the German phrase zu Fuss 'on foot' by means of the s u f f i x -ka which i n Russian i s regularly used to form both feminine nouns and diminutives; the word, evidently, has been-formed by Leskov by analogy with the Russian idiomatic expression na svoix dvoix 'on foot t. ( l i t . , on one's two feet) 'j pere-pase. with the meaning of 'to hand over, pass on' (Polunoscniki. p. 163)5 t h i s word i s formed by Leskov from the French verb passer 'to pass', to which he has added the Russian p r e f i x pere- 'over, across'; / i n pomersikat' that has the meaning of 'to thank'; t h i s word i s formed from French merci 'thank you' by means of the Russian s u f f i x -kat' that i s used to form verbs; pr.iuderist 'prudish person', a word that i s derived by Leskov from the French noun pruderie 'prudishness' by means of the s u f f i x - i s t . which i n Russian occurs only 11 i n l e x i c a l borrowings. In s t i l l another small group of hybrid words Leskov has combined a foreign and a Russian l e x i c a l morpheme into a single word. Invented words of t h i s type may be i l l u s t r a -ted witht move-materi.ia 'cloth of i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y ' (Stopal'scik. p. 100); t h i s word i s formed by the apposition of the French adjective mauvais 'bad' and the Russian noun materija 'material, c l o t h ' ; prostvejn that has the meaning of 'ordinary wine* (Spra- v e d l i w j celovek. p. 307) I t h i s word i s derived from the Russian adjective prostoj 'ordinary, simple* to which the German noun Wein 'wine' has been added by Leskov; i t appears to be a pun on Russian portve fin 'port'; r v b a - f i s ' f i s h * (Polunoscniki. p. 164); t h i s word has been formed by Leskov by the apposition of the Russian word ryba ' f i s h ' and German Fisch i d . ; zoli-mordocka. with the meaning of 'small pretty face* (Sovmestiteli. p. 401); t h i s word i s formed, also by means of apposition, from the French adjective j o l i •pretty' and the Russian noun mordocka 'small face'. L e x i c a l d i s t o r t i o n s A considerable number of loan words that Leskov at t r i b u t e s to the speech of h i s narrators and characters have been dis t o r t e d . These d i s t o r t i o n s of foreign words are intended by Leskov to produce a comic e f f e c t upon the read-er. L e x i c a l borrowings may be d i f f e r e n t i n structure and sound-pattern from native Russian words. The way i n which a Russian speaker reproduces a foreign word i n h i s 82 speech depends larg e l y on his degree of knowledge of that foreign language. Since Leskov's narrators and characters for the most part did not possess a good command of langua-ges other than Russian, yet did occasionally use foreign words i n t h e i r speech, they frequently rendered these fo-reign words i n a distorted way. In some instances a foreign word has been made sim-i l a r to Russian words by the speaker. The following slovec- k i occur i n Leskov's storiest bratarnite ' f r a t e r n i t y ' , instead of the French f r a t e r n i - te i d . (Za.iaci.i remiz. p. 564); i t i s c l e a r , that the l a t t e r word has been associated by the speaker with Russian brat 'brother'; niksa.with the meaning of 'curtsey', instead of kniksen i d . , from the German Knicksen 'curtsey' (Leon, dvorec- ki.i syn. p. ?6); the German word has evidently been associated by the speaker with the Russian verb niknut' 'to droop'; i t appears from the context, that Leskov's purpose i n t h i s l e x i c a l d i s t o r t i o n i s to r i d i c u l e t h i s salutation; s c i g l e t y 'boots'. instead of s t i b l e t y i d . , from the German S t i e f e l e t t e n i d . (Levsa. p. 5 2 ) J t h i s word has, evidently, been associated by the speaker with the Rus-sian verb 'Scegol.iat' 'to flaunt'; veksel'bant, with the meaning of 'shoulder strap of a m i l i t a r y uniform', instead of aksel'bant i d . , from the German word Achselband i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 66){ the l a t t e r word has been associated by the speaker with the noun veksel' 'promissory note', also a l e x i c a l borrowing from German and commonly used i n Leskov's . . 12 time. Some foreign words that have been distorted i n the speech of Leskov's characters indicate that a speaker i s acquainted with a foreign language, such as French or German. Yet he does not know that language s u f f i c i e n t l y , and f a i l s to employ c o r r e c t l y foreign words or phrases i n his speech. This may be i l l u s t r a t e d by such examples as tro boku that has the meaning 'far too much* (Tupe.iny.i xudoznik. p. 230). This phrase i s intended by Leskov's character to reproduce the French phrase beaucoup trop i d . The word order of t h i s French phrase, however, has been reversed by the speaker. In discussing distorted foreign words i n Leskov's vocabula-ry, J-C. Marcade c i t e s pursepaletan 'to spend the time' ("Torgovaja kabala," Ukazatel' ekonomiceski.i. 1861, No. 221, p. 14?). 1^ This phrase, evidently, i s meant by Leskov to render the French phrase pour passer l e temps i d . However, the French verb se passer with which t h i s expression has been confused, means 'to happen, to take place'. A further example of distorted words i s grandevu that has the meaning 'engagement, appointment' (Levsa. p. 51s Polunoscniki. p. 155). This word i s used by a speaker instead of the French phrase rendez-vous i d . , and i s con-fused by him with the French adjective grand 'grand, great'. 84 Also encountered i n Polunoscniki i s the expression mete vu pl.ias that means ' s i t down* (p. 162). I t i s mentioned by the speaker i n the story that he intended to say sadites' na mesto 'take a seat, s i t down', t r a n s l a t i n g the Russian ex-14 pression into French. However, he has confused the French expressions mettez-vous a l ' a i s e 'make yourself comfortable' and mettre en place 'to put in order'. A.'di started foreign vword that indicates a speaker's f a i l u r e to i d e n t i f y an etymon word c o r r e c t l y i s butersaft that has the meaning of ' f r a t e r n i t y ' (Putesestvie s n i g i l i s t o m . p. 129). This word i s used by Leskov's narrator instead of brudersaft ' f r a t e r n i t y ' , from the German Bruderschaft i d . , which has, evidently, been confused by him with buterbrod 'sandwich', a Russian word that i s also a borrowing from German. A considerable number of distorted foreign words or phrases that appear i n Leskov's s t o r i e s have been der-signed by him to i l l u s t r a t e and r i d i c u l e the pretentious-ness and a f f e c t a t i o n of the speech of some of his characters. Lexical items of t h i s type include foreign words to which Leskov has attributed sound sequences that exist i n that language, but i n fact are not present i n the l e x i c a l items concerned. To give an example, the sentence nam vsem antrui  budet xoroso 'for a l l three of us i t w i l l be good* occurs i n Leon, dvorecki.i svn (p. 6 9 ) . The distorted word antrui 'the three of us* i s meant by the speaker to render the French phrase a. t r o i s i d . The speaker emphasizes the fo-85 reign o r i g i n of t h i s l e x i c a l item by introducing the sound sequence £anj into i t s pronunciation. This i s the usual Rus-sian substitution for the French nasalized vowel jVj , which occurs, for example, i n the Russian word a n t r e s o l i 'mezza-nine', from French entresol i d . However, the etymon word of antrui does not have a nasalized vowel. A s i m i l a r example, found i n Polunoscniki. i s ankogni-tu 'incognito', which i s meant by the speaker to reproduce French (from I tali an) incognito i d . (p. 162). To t h i s word also the speaker ascribes the vowel [aj , although i t i s not present i n t h i s French word. The French nasalized vowel^aj appears too i n some words that are not even French, f o r instance i n lanpe'ska • f l a t cake', instead of Russian lepeska i d . (Leon, dvorec- ki.i syn. p. 6 8 ) . Other examples that also indicate such af-fected speech include vanfl.ia 'wafer', instead of vafl.ia i d . , from the German Waff e l i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 68) and mangral 'nv.i 'mineral', instead of Russian mineral 'ny.i i d . ( i b i d . . p. 7 0 ) . F i n a l l y , a small number of slovecki found i n Leskov's s t o r i e s are Russian words that have been distorted by Leskov to make them appear foreign. To t h i s category of distorted l e x i c a l items belongs, for example, fongorski.i that has the meaning of 'Angora (adj.)' (Polunoscniki. p. 142). This i s a 86 d i s t o r t i o n of Russian angorski.i i d . , made by Leskov to appear to be a German word by the substitution of fon. from the German von 'from', for the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of the word con-cerned. S i m i l a r l y , the Russian word prelestno ' d e l i g h t f u l ' has been changed i n the speech of a character i n Leskov's story into prselesno i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 6 9 ) . e v i -dently i n order to make i t appear to be a Polish word. In summation, i t can be said that Leskov's u t i l i z a -t i o n of foreign l e x i c a l elements has resulted i n the appear-ance of some of the s t r i k i n g slovecki i n his s t o r i e s . His use of distorted foreign words may well indicate that he was op-posed to the introduction of foreign words into the Russian language. The way i n which Leskov has combined l e x i c a l ele-ments from foreign languages with Russian words and word-forming elements i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of the writer's consistent s t r i v i n g to achieve s t y l i z a t i o n of speech i n h i s s t o r i e s . 87 REFERENCES TO CHAPTER V ^Sorokin, Ju.S., Razvitie slovarnogo sostava russkogo  literaturnogo .jazyka 30-90vx godov XIX veka. Moskva-Lenin-grad, 1965, PP. 70-72. 2 I b i d . . pp. 98-99. -^Drugov, B.M., N.S. Leskov. Ocerk tvorcestva. Moskva, 1957, PP. 158-161} Gorjackina, M.S., S a t i r a Leskova. Moskva, 1963, PP. 198-199. ^Drugov, op. c i t . . p. l 6 l ; Gorjackina, op. c i t . . p. 199. ^Drugov, op. c i t . . pp. 159-160. Grossman, L., N.S. Leskov. Zizn' - tvorcestvo - poeti-ka, Moskva, 19^5. P. 282. ^Vinogradov, V.V., Russki.i .jazyk. Moskva-Leningrad, 19^7. P. 132. o This word i s also attested i n L. Tols t o j ' s vocabulary. See Slovar' sovremennogo russkogo literaturnogo .jazyka. Aka-demija Nauk, Moskva-Leningrad, 1950, Vol. 5. P« 123*+. ^Vinogradov, OP. c i t . . p. 215 c i t e s komfortabel'ny.j 'comfortable', from German komfortabel i d . (cf. French con- fortable i d . ) . 88 Cited by Grossman, op. c i t . . p. 282. 1 1 C i t e d by Grossman, op. c i t . . p. 282. 12 These distorted foreign words, e s s e n t i a l l y , are po-pular etymologies. See above, Chapter I I I , pp. 57-68. ^Marcade, J - C , "Les Barbarismes etymologiques dans l a prose de N.S. Leskov ou l a reetymologisation c r e a t r i c e comme figure du 'conte o r a l ' (SKAZ)," Communications de l a  delegation Francaise. Paris, 1973. p. 273.; ^Leskov, N.S., Sobranie Socinenii. Moskva, 1958, Vol. IX, p. 162. 89 CONCLUSION The l e x i c a l material that Leskov so resourcefully and a r t i s t i c a l l y u t i l i z e d i n his works displays above a l l the writer's refined mastery of the Russian language. How-ever, the reader may at times be somewhat overpowered by the medley of picturesque expressions and f a n c i f u l words with which the speech of Leskov's characters i s saturated. The unifying element that runs through the variegated mosaic of Leskov's vocabulary i s the writer's profound knowl-edge of people from a l l s o c i a l milieus, and his unique a b i l -i t y to t y p i f y his characters e f f e c t i v e l y through t h e i r speech. With sometimes grotesque humour and a r t f u l finesse Leskov gives free play to h i s powers of observation and his l i n g u i s -t i c inventiveness, thereby conveying to his readers the im-pression of authenticity and at the same time r i d i c u l i n g the persons who appear i n his s t o r i e s . Few of Leskov's works are written i n a homogeneous s t y l e . Even i n passages where he relates events without ma-king use of a narrator, his language i s often as d i s t i n c t from standard l i t e r a r y Russian as that of h i s narrators and characters. 90 The exuberance of Leskov's l i t e r a r y s t y l e evolved gradually i n his works. His e a r l i e r s t o r i e s , written i n the s i x t i e s , are marked by c o l l o q u i a l style with an admixture of d i a l e c t a l elements. The d i a l e c t of Orel, the writer's na-t i v e , province, emerges most prominently i n these s t o r i e s . The predominance of t h i s d i a l e c t indicates well Leskov's emotional attachment to the people from t h i s area. In the s t o r i e s of the seventies that depict the r e l i -gious l i f e of the Russian people Leskov makes most frequent-l y use of Church Slavonic l i n g u i s t i c forms. At t h i s period of h i s l i t e r a r y career Leskov i n t e n t i o n a l l y reinforces v i v i d -ness of style by interspersing h i s vocabulary with Church Slavonic words, often i n s t r i k i n g juxtaposition with verna-cular and d i a l e c t a l expressions. In Leskov's l a t e r works, written i n the eighties and early n i n e t i e s , neologisms and distorted foreign words predominate. His popular etymologies form the most charac-t e r i s t i c type of neologisms i n the vocabulary of his stories of that period. Their frequent occurrence i n the speech of his narrators and characters i s i n d i c a t i v e of Leskov's conscious s t r i v i n g to produce a comic e f f e c t upon the reader. Beside Leskov's obvious enjoyment of jocular d i s -t o r t i o n of words f o r i t s own sake, an important motive of his i n t r i c a t e use of language i s h i s purpose of s a t i r e and 91 parody. His sometimes sarcastic commentary on various aspects of Russian r e a l i t y of h i s time has an es p e c i a l l y powerful e f f e c t because he attributes i t to the speech of simple-minded persons i n h i s s t o r i e s . Leskov's subtle method of expressing h i s comments on s o c i a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c l i f e through the s t y l i z e d idiom of a narrator has no equal i n Russian l i t -erature . 92 BIBLIOGRAPHY Andreevic, E., Ocerki i z i s t o r i i russkoj l i t e r a t u r y XIX ve-ka. St. Petersburg, 19°3. Ansberg, A.B., "Frame Story and F i r s t Person Story i n N.S. Leskov," Scando-Slavica 3. 1957, pp. ^9-73. Baer, J.T., "Dal' und Leskov a l s Vertreter des 'Kunstlerisch-en Philologismus'," Z e i t s c h r i f t fur Slavische P h i l o l o - gie. Vol. XXXVII No. 1, 1973. pp. 179-190. B i e l f e l d t , H.H., Rucklaufiges Worterbuch der Russisehen Spra- che der Gegenwart. B e r l i n , 1965* Drugov, B.M., N.S. Leskov. Ocerk tvorcestva. Moskva. 1957. 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Faresov, A.I., P r o t i v teceni.i. N.S. Leskov. Ego ¥izn'. s o c i - neni.ia. polemika i vospominani.ia 0 ne'm. St. Peters-burg, 1904. Fasmer, M., Etimologiceski.i slovar' russkogo .jazyka. Moskva, 1964. Galkina-Fedoruk, E.M., Sovremenny.j rus s k i .j .jazyk. Leksika. Moskva, 195^. G i f f o r d , H., "Leskov and the Righteous Man," The Novel i n  Russia. New York, 1965, pp. 73-82. Girke, W., Studien zur Sprache N.S. Leskovs. Munchen, 1969. Gorjackina, M.S., Sa t i r a Leskova. Moskva, 1963» Gor'kij, M., "N.S. Leskov," Sobranie Socineni.i v 30 tomax. Moskva, 1953, Vol. 24, pp. 228-237. Gougenheim, G., "La fausse etyraologie savante," Romance Philo- logy 1, 1 9 ^ 7 A 8 , pp. 277-286. Greenough, J.B., and Kittredge, G.L., Words and t h e i r Ways  i n English Speech. London, 1902. 9* Grossman, L., N.S. Leskov. Zizn' - tvorcestvo - poetika. Moskva, 19^5. Gianther, E. and K., "Die Haupttypen der nominalen und verbalen Wortbildung im Russischen," Z e i t s c h r i f t fur Slawistik 5, i 9 6 0 , pp. 446-461. Gvozdev, A.N., Ocerki po s t i l i s t i k e russkogo .jazyka. Moskva, 1965. Haugen, E., "The Analysis of L i n g u i s t i c Borrowing," Language 26, 1950, pp. 210-236. Humesky, A.. Ma.jakovski.i and his Neologisms. New York, 1964. Isacenko, A.V., Die Russjsche Sprache der Gegenwart. Halle, 1962. Jakobson, R., "Novejs'aja russkaja poezija. Nabrosok pervyj. Viktor Xlebnikov," Texte der Russischen Formalisten. Vol. I I , Stempel, W. (Ed.), Munchen, 1972, pp. 18-135. Kankava, M.V., "0 v l i j a n i i V.I. Dalja na s t i l ' p i s a t e l e j etno-graficeskoj s'koly," Poetika i s t i l i s t i k a russko.j l i t e - ratury. Akademija Nauk, Leningrad, 1971# PP« 17^-180. Kononova, N.S., "Arxaiceskoe slovoobrazovanie kak sredstvo sozdanija komiceskogo v jazyke N.S. Leskova," Voprosy  t e o r i i i metodiki izuceni.ia russkogo .jazyka. Saratov, 1965, pp. 242-250. Krysin, L.P., Ino.iazycnye slova v sovremennom russkom .jazyke. Moskva, 1968. Kuznecova, D., "Glagoly s suffiksom -anu-/-onu- v goyorax russ-kogo jazyka," Leksika russkix narodnyx govorov. Moskva-95 Leningrad, 1966, pp. 35-61. Leskov, A., Zizn' Nikolaja Leskova. Moskva, 1954. Leskov, N.S., Izbrannye socineni.ia. Moskva-Leningrad, 1931. Sobranie s o c i n e n i i . 11 volumes, Moskva, 1956-58. Marcade, J - C , "Les Barbarismes etymologiques dans l a prose de N.S. Leskov ou l a reetymologisation c r e a t r i c e comme figure du 'eonte o r a l ' (SKAZ)," Communications de l a  delegation Francaise (Vile Congres International des Sla v i s t e s , Varsovie, 21-27 aout 1973), Paris, 1973, pp. 257-278. Matthews, W.K., The Structure and Development of Russian. Cambridge, 1963. McLean, H., "On the Style of a Leskovian 'Skaz'," Harvard  Slavic Studies 2, 195^. PP. 297-322. Mirsky, D.S., A History of Russian L i t e r a t u r e . New York, 19^9. Norbury, J.K.W., "Word Formation i n the Noun and Adjective," Studies i n the Modern Russian Language 3, Cambridge, 1967, pp. 1-129. Orlov, A.S., "Jazyk Leskova," Jazyk russkix p i s a t e l e j . Moskva-Leningrad, 19^8, pp. 144-175. Orr, J., "L'Etymologie populaire," Revue de Linguistique  Romane 18, 195^. PP. 129-1^2. Words and Sounds i n English and French. Oxford, 1953. Pel, M., Glossary of L i n g u i s t i c Terminology. New York, 1966. 96 Privalova, M.I., "Kalamburnaja antonimija i smeznye s nej j a v l e n i j a , " Poetika i s t i l i s t i k a russko.i l i t e r a t u r y . Akademija Nauk, Leningrad, 1971,. pp. 379-384. Protopopov, M.A., "Bol'noj t a l a n t , " Russka.ja my s i ' . No. 12, • 1891. Reisser, S., "Die Leskov-Forschung i n den l e t z t e n Jahren," Z e i t s c h r i f t fur Slavisohe P h i l o l o g i e 6, No. 3/4, 1930, PP. 495-513. Russka.ja Dialektologi.ia. Avanesov, R.I., and Orlov, V.G. (Eds.), Moskva, 1965-Russko-angliiiskii slovar';" Smirnitski.i. A.I. 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"Le Russe l i t t e r a i r e e s t - i l d'origine Russe?," Revue des Etudes Slaves XLIV, 1965, pp. 19-28. Vinogradov, V.V,, "Problema skaza v s t i l i s t i k e , " 1925, re-printed i n Poetika. Sbornik s t a t e j . The Hague, 1966, pp. 24-40. Russki.i .jazyk. Moskva-Leningrad, 19^7. Volynskij, A.L., N.S. Leskov - K r i t i c e s k i j ocerk. 1898, re-printed by University Microfilms Inc., Ann Arbor (Michi-gan), 1964. Wartburg, W. von, Problems and Methods i n L i n g u i s t i c s . Oxford, 1969. Weinreich, U., Languages i n Contact. New York, 1953. "Lexicology," Current Trends i n L i n g u i s t i c s I, The Hague, 1963, pp. 60-93. Wellek, R. and Warren, A., Theory of L i t e r a t u r e . London, 1963. Wolkonsky, C.A. and Poltoratzky, M.A., Handbook of Russian  Roots. New York, 1 9 6 l . Worth, G.H., "Church Slavonic Elements i n Russian," Oxford  Slavonic Papers 6. Vol. 1, 1968, pp. 1-11. 

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