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A lexical analysis of Nikolaj Leskov’s prose Huckriede, Wera Litwinzeff 1975

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A LEXICAL ANALYSIS OF NIKOLAJ LESKOV'S PROSE by WERA LITWINZEFF HUGKRIEDE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f L e i d e n ,  1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the Department of Slavonic  Studies  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  THE  t o the  i  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June,  1975  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  make i t  freely available  that permission  for  the requirements  Columbia,  I-agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  this  written  representatives. thesis  for financial  SLAVONIC  University of B r i t i s h  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  June,  1975  that  thesis or  i s understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n gain shall  permission.  Department of The  It  for  study.  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  by h i s of  in p a r t i a l  STUDIES Columbia  not be allowed without my  ii  ABSTRACT The language i n which Nikola;) S. Leskov wrote h i s prose i s extremely complex. The w r i t e r ' s l e x i c a l m a t e r i a l i n particular nal  i s p e r c e i v e d "by the r e a d e r as s t r i k i n g l y o r i g i -  and not e n t i r e l y  conforming to the l i t e r a r y standards  p r e v a l e n t i n Leskov's  time.  The aim o f the present study i s to i d e n t i f y  and c a t e -  g o r i z e l e x i c a l items i n Leskov's vocabulary t h a t have not been e s t a b l i s h e d i n the R u s s i a n language o t h e r than i n Leskov's usage. The d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e n t r a t e s p r i m a r i l y on l e x i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s excerpted from Leskov's works. In o r d e r to g i v e the r e a d e r a complete  view o f the i n t r i c a t e q u a l i t i e s  of  Leskov's language, some a t t e n t i o n i s devoted t o the w r i t e r ' s use o f s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e s . Included i n the i l l u s t r a t i v e mater i a l are l e x i c a l items t h a t , although not i n v e n t e d by are  nevertheless indicative  Leskov,  o f the w r i t e r ' s o r i g i n a l i t y i n  u t i l i z i n g the r e s o u r c e s o f the R u s s i a n l e x i c o n .  Chapter I serves to i n t r o d u c e Leskov to the r e a d e r . Linguistic  creativity  i s shown to be an o r g a n i c p a r t o f Les-  kov's l i f e . The d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t i e s viewed his  a g a i n s t the background  time.  o f h i s language  are  o f the l i t e r a r y atmosphere o f  iii In chapter I I the most important s t y l i s t i c o f Leskov's  levels  vocabulary are d i s c u s s e d . L e x i c a l items  different s t y l i s t i c  s t r a t a i l l u s t r a t e the b a s i c  u n d e r l y i n g Leskov's vocabulary  from  principle  selection.  Chapters I I I and IV are devoted to a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f neologisms  t h a t occur i n Leskov's works. The  cited  m a t e r i a l i s analyzed from the viewpoint o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e . The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the methods w i t h which Les-  kov formed new  words confirms the reader's i n t u i t i o n  the w r i t e r has adhered  that  c l o s e l y to the norms f o r d e r i v a t i o n  i n the Russian language. The neologisms  l i s t e d i n c h a p t e r IV  are d i s c u s s e d from the viewpoint o f meaning. I t i s demonstra ted t h a t Leskov i n t e n t i o n a l l y used s e m a s i o l o g i c a l d e v i c e s i n o r d e r t o produce  a comic e f f e c t upon the r e a d e r . The  l e x i c a l items t h a t belong to t h i s category are shown to be e s s e n t i a l means o f e x p r e s s i o n f o r Leskov's ve  intended n a r r a t i -  purposes.  Chapter V d e a l s w i t h f o r e i g n l e x i c a l elements i n Leskov's usage. I t i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t Leskov was  in principle  opposed to the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f words from f o r e i g n  languages  i n t o the Russian l e x i c o n . H i s d i s a p p r o v a l o f l e x i c a l borrowi n g s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the numerous d i s t o r t i o n s o f f o r e i g n words t h a t appear i n h i s v o c a b u l a r y . I t i s a l s o  illustrated  i n t h i s chapter t h a t Leskov made use o f morphemes from guages o t h e r than Russian to form i n v e n t e d words.  lan-  The  c i t e d examples p o i n t to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the  m a t e r i a l upon which Leskov drew to e n r i c h h i s v o c a b u l a r y comes from a v a r i e t y o f sources. i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the present  The neologisms t h a t a r e  study were c r e a t e d by Leskov  i n a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t t o make the speech o f the c h a r a c t e r s who appear i n h i s s t o r i e s as v i v i d as p o s s i b l e .  V  TABLE OP CONTENTS PREFACE  vi  ABBREVIATIONS  viii  CHAPTER I. II.  GENERAL OBSERVATIONS  1  STYLISTIC LEVELS  11  V e r n a c u l a r elements The use o f d i a l e c t s Church S l a v o n i c i s m s III.  IV.  V.  NEOLOGISMSi MORPHOLOGICAL CATEGORIES Prefixation Suffixation Compounding NEOLOGISMS*  SEMANTIC CATEGORIES  15 19 24 31 32 35 41 49  Word p l a y  53  Popular etymology  57  FOREIGN LEXICAL ELEMENTS F o r e i g n words H y b r i d words Lexical distortions  71 71 78 81  CONCLUSION  89  BIBLIOGRAPHY  92  vi  PREFACE L e x i c a l d e v i c e s are a remarkable f e a t u r e o f N i k o l a j Leskov's prose. From the b e g i n n i n g o f h i s l i t e r a r y  activity,  c r i t i c s and s c h o l a r s have commented on the s t r i k i n g r i c h n e s s and complexity o f h i s language. In matters o f Russian u l a r y Leskov was  vocab-  a most i n v e n t i v e l i n g u i s t i c i n n o v a t o r . By  making use o f l e x i c a l m a t e r i a l i n a m a s t e r f u l way,  he  achieved a maximum o f v i v i d n e s s o f e x p r e s s i o n . The  various  sources t h a t l e n d Leskov's vocabulary complexity m e r i t d e t a i l e d  i t s originality  and  investigation.  The purpose o f the present study i s to e s t a b l i s h and c l a s s i f y l e x i c a l items i n Leskov's vocabulary t h a t are p e r c e p t i b l e to the r e a d e r as not c u r r e n t i n the  standard  Russian language. The d i s c u s s i o n p r i m a r i l y c o n c e n t r a t e s  on  l e x i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s i n Leskov's works. In o r d e r to g i v e the r e a d e r a rounded p i c t u r e o f the r i c h n e s s o f Leskov's vocabulary, a discussion of several s t y l i s t i c categories i n Leskov's work i s i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s .  A l l examples i n the present study are c i t e d s t o r i e s found i n N.S. n a d c a t i tomax. Moskva,  Leskov, Sobranie  1956-58,  from  Soc'ineni.i v o d i n -  u n l e s s otherwise i n d i c a t e d .  vii T r a n s l i t e r a t i o n from C y r i l l i c f o l l o w s the c o n v e n t i o n s s p e c i f i e d i n the S l a v i c and E a s t European J o u r n a l  (University  o f Wisconsin, Madison).  Words c i t e d i n phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n a r e w r i t t e n between s l a n t l i n e s . Phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s w i t h i n square b r a c k e t s . Words c i t e d from languages t h a t use the L a t i n a l phabet, i n c l u d i n g French, German and L a t i n , a r e rendered i n the  respective orthographies.  i  ABBREVIATIONS adj.  adjective  adv.  adverb  f em.  feminine  lit.  literally  OR  Old  subst.  substantive  Russian  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am indebted t o P r o f e s s o r N i c h o l a s Poppe f o r h i s guidance and c o n t i n u a l encouragement throughout the course o f my r e s e a r c h .  1  CHAPTER I GENERAL OBSERVATIONS Generations o f c r i t i c s have debated m e r i t s o f Leskov's  prose. Opinions expressed about the some-  times e x c e e d i n g l y i n t r i c a t e language w r i t t e n range  the a r t i s t i c  i n which h i s works are  from the i n d i g n a t i o n o f E. Andreevic ("the  shame o f our l i t e r a t u r e and o f our language")* to the genuine d e l i g h t o f B. Ejxenbaum ("timbres s e l e c t e d by a m a s t e r f u l composer").  o f a speech o r c h e s t r a  The c o n f l i c t i n g nature  of such statements i n d i c a t e s t h a t Leskov's p o s i t i o n i n Russ i a n l i t e r a t u r e i s unusual. Most s c h o l a r s agree t h a t he i s a r a r e and exuberant w r i t e r among the p r o s a i s t s o f the l a t t e r h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  N i k o l a j S. Leskov  (1831-1895),  a n a t i v e o f the prov-  i n c e o f O r e l , s t a r t e d h i s l i t e r a r y c a r e e r as a j o u r n a l i s t . H i s a r t i c l e s , p u b l i s h e d i n p e r i o d i c a l s , a r e based on h i s exp e r i e n c e s d u r i n g the y e a r s p r e c e d i n g h i s appearance b e f o r e the p u b l i c ; In the course o f h i s c a r e e r as a j o u r n a l i s t and w r i t e r he had the o p p o r t u n i t y to become acquainted w i t h many a s p e c t s o f l i f e and p r a c t i c a l l y every c l a s s o f Russian  soci-  e t y . E x t e n s i v e t r a v e l through remote p a r t s o f European and A s i a t i c R u s s i a p r o v i d e d him with a s t o r e o f f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l upon which he has drawn f o r h i s l i t e r a r y works  throughout  2  h i s c a r e e r . Much of h i s work i s marked by documentary  traits.  He f r e q u e n t l y made up a s t o r y from r e a l i n c i d e n t s observed at f i r s t - or second-hand. A d i v e r s i t y o f experiences and f i r s t - h a n d knowledge of Russian r e a l i t y and i t s problems 3  turned him i n t o a l i t e r a r y nonconformist.  His unconventional  view o f l i f e makes i t s e l f r e a d i l y f e l t i n h i s works. From j o u r n a l i s m he passed to the w r i t i n g o f n o v e l s and s h o r t s t o r i e s . Leskov's e a r l i e r n o v e l s are g e n e r a l l y not c o n s i d e r e d among h i s m a s t e r p i e c e s . They are somewhat rambling and d i s c u r s i v e , and a t present are d e s e r v e d l y f o r g o t t e n . kov h i m s e l f was  d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s n o v e l s . A. Ansberg  Lesnotes  t h a t the c r e a t i o n o f a l o g i c a l and f l a w l e s s s t r u c t u r e necessary i n a n o v e l was not Leskov's f o r t e as a w r i t e r . ^ H i s spec i a l t a l e n t c o u l d best express i t s e l f i n genres and forms o t h e r than the n o v e l .  He subsequently c r e a t e d a s e r i e s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y Leskovian n a r r a t i v e forms t h a t made him seem an e c c e n t r i c f i g u r e among the w r i t e r s o f h i s time. The f i r s t person  story  became h i s f a v o u r i t e n a r r a t i v e form, i n which he c r e a t e d some o f h i s b e s t works. H i s most exuberant  and o r i g i n a l  stories  were w r i t t e n d u r i n g the e i g h t i e s . The technique a t which Leskov has shown h i m s e l f such a master t h a t i t became almost h i s p r i v a t e p r e s e r v e i n the Russian l i t e r a t u r e i s the skaz. T h i s i s a form o f n a r r a t i v e prose i n which the author t e l l s a s t o r y through a s t y l i z e d n a r r a t o r . Leskov has f u l l y  cultivated  3 t h i s n a r r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e . V e r s a t i l i t y o f s t y l e and content i s combined w i t h a s u p e r l a t i v e n a r r a t i v e  gift.  Leskov's success w i t h the r e a d i n g p u b l i c was e r a b l e . T h i s was  consid-  i n l a r g e measure due to the entertainment  value o f h i s work. The tone i n many o f h i s s t o r i e s i s genu i n e l y merry. One  o f the main t r a i t s o f Leskov's s t o r i e s i s  t h e i r r a p i d a c t i o n . The n a r r a t i v e s are f r e q u e n t l y  descrip-  t i o n s o f p i c a r e s q u e adventures. A r e c u r r e n t m o t i f i s t h a t o f the  simple-minded  person who  nary s i t u a t i o n s , o r who  i s confronted with extraordi-  t e l l s about people from a m i l i e u un-  known to him, e x p r e s s i n g f a n c i f u l i d e a s about the world t h a t l i e s beyond h i s l i m i t e d c i r c l e o f e x p e r i e n c e . Leskov's chara c t e r s come to l i f e through t h e i r speech. H i s f a v o u r i t e means of  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s through a s e r i e s o f anecdotes, u s u a l l y  t o l d i n a p i c t u r e s q u e language. Leskov makes h i s c h a r a c t e r s c o n v i n c i n g by making them appear  just a l i t t l e  ridiculous,  both i n t h e i r a c t i o n s and i n t h e i r speech. The p e c u l i a r speech they use i s above a l l a v e h i c l e o f parody and i r o n y . Although t h i s language was  a p p r e c i a t e d by o r d i n a r y Russian r e a d e r s ,  whose minds were u n i n f l u e n c e d by the p r e s c r i p t i v e standards 7  of  the c r i t i c s ,  the l a t t e r n e g l e c t e d him and many even con-  sidered h i s stories  ludicrous.  The o r i g i n a l and exuberant s t y l e o f Leskov's  stories  i s n o t i c e a b l y d i f f e r e n t from the u n o b t r u s i v e standard l i t e r ary  s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the main stream o f n i n e t e e n t h  4 c e n t u r y Russian r e a l i s m . D.S. kov's contemporaries ing  M i r s k y mentions t h a t w h i l e Les-  employed a l e v e l and even s t y l e , a v o i d -  a n y t h i n g too s t r i k i n g , Leskov a v i d l y absorbed  every  un-  8 expected and p i c t u r e s q u e i d i o m .  Numerous forms o f d i a l e c t a l  and p r o f e s s i o n a l speech and every k i n d o f c o l l o q u i a l were welcome to h i s pages. H i s l o v e o f anecdotes  language  and word  p l a y m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n comic d i s t o r t i o n s of Russian and  for-  e i g n words and i n puns c r e a t e d on the p a t t e r n o f popular e t y mology. T h i s was q u i t e c o n t r a r y to the t r a d i t i o n s o f Russian fiction  and consequently i t induced some c r i t i c s  of  Leskov's  o  time to regard him as a mere j e s t e r . I t has s i n c e been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t Leskov's  ingenious  h a n d l i n g o f d i v e r s e l e x i c a l r e s o u r c e s has a more e r u d i t e b a s i s than t h a t o f mere j e s t i n g . H i s language  c o n t a i n s a wealth of  f o l k e x p r e s s i o n s and proverbs and a l s o Church tic  forms. H i s c r e a t i v e use o f language  artistic  i s not o n l y thoroughly  but a l s o evidences knowledge o f p h i l o l o g i c a l matters.  Ansberg notes t h a t Leskov was ies  Slavonic l i n g u i s -  a voracious reader of d i c t i o n a r -  and e n c y c l o p a e d i a s and that he c o l l e c t e d o l d books and  m a n u s c r i p t s . Leskov's w r i t i n g s were to some extent i n f l u e n c e d 10  by the l e x i c o g r a p h e r V.I. D a l ' . "artistic  s  Ejxenbaum speaks o f  Leskov's  p h i l o l o g i s m " (xudozestvenny.i f i l o l o g i z m ) t h a t the  w r i t e r used as a m a s t e r l y d e v i c e f o r s t y l i z a t i o n . Few  e v a l u a t i v e statements by Leskov's  i n d i c a t e a proper understanding o f h i s a r t i s t i c  1 1  contemporaries use o f  language.  5 Many o f h i s works were c r i t i c i z e d i n h i s l i f e t i m e f o r excess i v e s t y l i s t i c mannerisms. The  l i t e r a r y c r i t i c M.  Protopopov  even devoted an a r t i c l e to Leskov which he e n t i t l e d B o l 'no.i talant  (*A  s i c k t a l e n t ' ) and  i n which Leskov was  accused o f  12  c a u s i n g harm to the Russian language.  Most c r i t i c s o f Les-  kov's time expressed an unfavourable o p i n i o n o f what one  of  the c r i t i c s c a l l e d h i s exaggerated, grotesque t o r t u r i n g o f 13  not o n l y f o r e i g n , but Russian words as w e l l . ^ Among Leskov's g r e a t contemporaries F. Dostoevski;) commented on the w r i t e r ' s l a c k of r e s t r a i n t which may tation of r e a l i t y ,  and  l e a d to an u n t r u t h f u l  L. T o l s t o j cautioned  represen-  Leskov a g a i n s t  an e x c e s s i v e use o f s t y l i s t i c o d d i t i e s . In T o l s t o j ' s words, t h e r e i s an exuberance o f images, c o l o u r s and expressions  characteristic  i n Leskov's prose which i n t o x i c a t e s and  leads  the  reader a s t r a y . ^ I t i s evident t h a t Leskov d u r i n g h i s  life-  time was  not  1  regarded by most c r i t i c s as a w r i t e r who  to keep h i s e x p r e s s i v e Not  able  t a l e n t s w i t h i n bounds. ^ 1  u n t i l the beginning  o f the t w e n t i e t h  Leskov's work begin to r e c e i v e due was  was  century  r e c o g n i t i o n . M.  did  Gor'kij  among the f i r s t to speak o f Leskov's great a r t i s t i c t a l e n t  as a w r i t e r , even naming him  s i d e by s i d e w i t h T o l s t o j and  D o s t o e v s k i j . I t i s from G o r ' k i j t h a t the well-known e p i t h e t volsebnik  s l o v a ('sorcerer  o f the word') i n r e f e r e n c e to  Les-  17 kov  o r i g i n a t e s . ' The  Russian F o r m a l i s t s , w i t h t h e i r a l e r t n e s s  to a l l d e v i c e s o f s t y l i z a t i o n , were a t t r a c t e d to the  narrati-  ve forms o f Leskov's prose and p r a i s e d the n o v e l t y o f h i s i n -  6 tricate literary  It device cated  style.  i s obvious t h a t speech f o r Leskov was  f o r a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y . The soberness of language and  important  Russian r e a l i s t s advo-  considered  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i d e a s , where language was for  an  l i t e r a r y a r t as a only a v e h i c l e  a r e n d i t i o n o f r e a l i t y . For Leskov the b a s i c a e s t h e t i c  requirement f o r a l i t e r a r y work was  a thorough knowledge o f  i t s medium combined w i t h v i v i d n e s s and a r t i s t i c premises and  e x p r e s s i v i t y . Leskov's  h i s c o n v i c t i o n s o f the r i g h t s and  o f a w r i t e r are c l e a r l y expounded by him  duties  i n the f o l l o w i n g  statementi In order to t h i n k p i c t u r e s q u e l y and w r i t e t h a t way, a w r i t e r must make each one o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s use the language a p p r o p r i a t e to h i s p o s i t i o n ... The s e t t i n g o f the v o i c e [bostanovka golosa"] c o n s i s t s i n the w r i t e r ' s a b i l i t y to master the v o i c e and the speech o f h i s chara c t e r ... For myself I have t r i e d to develop t h i s a b i l i t y ... A l l o f us, my c h a r a c t e r s and I myself, have our own v o i c e s . In each o f us they are p i t c h e d c o r r e c t l y o r at l e a s t c a r e f u l l y ... To accomplish t h i s i s not only a matter o f t a l e n t , but o f enormous l a b o u r . Man l i v e s by words, and one must know what words each o f us w i l l use a t what moments i n h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i f e ... T h i s c o l l o q u i a l , b a n a l , f l o r i d language i n which many pages o f my work are w r i t t e n was not invented by me, but overheard from the peasant, the s e m i - i n t e l l e c t u a l , the f i n e t a l k e r s ....19 ... For many y e a r s I have a t t e n t i v e l y l i s t e n e d to the accent and p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f Russians from v a r i o u s s o c i a l m i l i e u s . In my works they speak i n t h e i r own way and not i n the l i t e r a r y way. I t i s harder f o r a w r i t e r to a c q u i r e the language, the l i v i n g speech, o f the man i n the s t r e e t than to a c q u i r e bookish language. That i s why we have very few a r t i s t s o f the spoken word, i . e . a r t i s t s who have f u l l c o n t r o l o f the l i v i n g r a t h e r than the l i t e r a r y s p e e c h . 2 0  T h i s passage shows t h a t Leskov h i m s e l f was  aware t h a t  i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n o f speech was one o f h i s a r t i s t i c a c h i e v e ments. I t l a r g e l y accounts f o r the d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t i e s o f h i s language. H i s s u b t l e mastery o f the medium o f h i s a r t c h a r a c t e r i z e s him as an author who o f language as a c r e a t i v e d e v i c e .  had a unique p e r c e p t i o n  8  REFERENCES TO CHAPTER I  A n d r e e v i c , E., O c e r k i i z i s t o r i i russko.i  1  XIX veka. S t . P e t e r s b u r g ,  1903.  452-453?  pp.  literatury  quoted by  H. McLean, "On the S t y l e o f a L e s k o v i a n 'skaz'," Harvard S l a v i c S t u d i e s 2,  2  N.S.  195^.  317.  p.  Ejxenbaum, B., "K 100-letiju  rozdenija  N. Leskova,"  Leskov. Izbrannve soc'ineni.ia. Moskva-Leningrad,  pp. x l i x - l j  quoted by McLean, OP. c i t . . p.  S e e Edgerton, W.B.,  3  Development  Nikola.i Leskov»  ^Mirsky, D.S., P.  A History  195^•  o f Russian L i t e r a t u r e .  I b i d . . p.  1957.  p.  53.  53  " ^ S a t i r i c a l S t o r i e s o f N i k o l a i Leskov. Edgerton, (Ed.), New  York, 1969,  p.  240.  o  Mirsky, OP. c i t . . p.  9  New  "Frame Story and F i r s t Person Story  Leskov," S c a n d o - S l a v i c a 3.  6  The I n t e l l e c t u a l  316.  ^Ansberg, A.B., i n N.S.  317»  o f a L i t e r a r y Nonconformist, u n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l  d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ,  York, 19^9.  1931.  I b i d . . p.  315  315«  W.B.  9 lu  Ansberg,  1:l  55*  OP. c i t . , p.  Ejxenbaum, B., " 'Crezmernyj p i s a t e l '  (K 100-letiju  r o z d e n i j a N. Leskova)," 1931.reprinted i n 0 p r o z e . Sbornik state.i. Leningrad, 1969.  p.  332.  12  Protopopov, No. 12, 1891, p.  M.A.,  265.  "Bol'noj t a l a n t , " Russka.ia mysl'.  "^Drugov, B.M., N.S. Leskov. Ocerk t v o r c e s t v a . Moskva,  1957.  151.  P. 14  ^  v  N  Grossman, L., N.S. Leskov. Z i z n ' - t v o r c e s t v o ka, Moskva, 19^5.  poeti-  P« 288.  •"-^Gifford, H., "Leskov and the Righteous Man," The Novel i n R u s s i a . New York, 1965.  p.  73.  ^ V o l y n s k i j , A.L., N.S. Leskov - K r i t i c e s k i . i 1898,  1964,  ocerk.  r e p r i n t e d by U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s Inc., Ann Arbor, p.  1 7  51.  G o r ' k i j , M., "N.S. Leskov,"  tomax. Moskva,  1953V  B., "N.S. Leskov  V o l . 24, p.  Sobranie Socineni.i v 30  235?  quoted by Ejxenbaum,  (K 5 0 - l e t i j u so d n j a s m e r t i ) , " 19^5.  p r i n t e d i n 0 p r o z e . Sbornik state.i. Leningrad, 1969.  rep.  3^8.  18 Ansberg  even mentions Leskov as a p r e c u r s o r o f the  f u t u r i s t poet V. Xlebnikov. See Ansberg,  OP. c i t . . p.  55.  """^Faresov, A . I . , P r o t i v t e c e n i . i . N.S. Leskov. Ego z i z n ' . socineni.ia. polemika i vospominani.ia 0 ne'm. S t . Petersburg,  1904, pp. 274-275.  10 2 0  p. 627.  L e s k o v , A., Z i z n ' Nikola.ia Leskova. Moskva, 195*-. 2  11  CHAPTER I I STYLISTIC  LEVELS  The language o f Leskov's prose i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by r i c h n e s s and v e r s a t i l i t y o f s t y l e . Elements from v a r i o u s s t y l i s t i c l e v e l s can be i d e n t i f i e d ! the range o f h i s language extends from substandard speech to h i g h l y e l e v a t e d  literary  e x p r e s s i o n s . Leskov's v o c a b u l a r y abounds i n words taken from the idiom o f d i v e r s e s o c i a l m i l i e u s and i n d i a l e c t i s m s . Rare l e x i c a l items and even words t h a t i n the n i n e t e e n t h  century  were a l r e a d y o b s o l e t e can be encountered i n Leskov's m a t e r i a l . By f u l l e x p l o i t a t i o n o f these heterogeneous  lexical lexical  r e s o u r c e s , Leskov has made the language o f h i s s t o r i e s abound in  stylistic  colourings.  In the m a j o r i t y o f cases Leskov's u t i l i z a t i o n o f l e x i cal  items t h a t b e l o n g to d i f f e r e n t s t y l i s t i c c a t e g o r i e s i s a  p u r p o s e f u l , a r t i s t i c a l l y e x p l o i t e d d e v i c e . T h i s device manif e s t s i t s e l f above a l l i n what R u s s i a n c r i t i c s r e f e r to as Leskov's skaz. Ejxenbaum has d e f i n e d skaz as a s t y l i s t i c a l l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n n e r n a r r a t i v e placed i n the mouth o f a  fic-  t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r and designed to produce the i l l u s i o n o f o r a l speech.  1  In s e l e c t i n g l e x i c a l and s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s  o f the spoken language, i n the- skaz,•„ the author aims a t r e p r o 2 d u c t i o n o f speech as i t i s a c t u a l l y spoken by the c h a r a c t e r .  12 Generally  speaking, the technique o f skaz a l l o w s  the  w r i t e r to employ i n the i n n e r n a r r a t i v e a s t y l e s h a r p l y t i n c t from h i s own  l i t e r a r y prose.  In h i s s t o r i e s Leskov  f r e q u e n t l y chose a n a r r a t o r with a simple i t e d understanding who  uses h i s own  dis-  background o r l i m -  p e c u l i a r spoken  idiom.  Thus the element o f i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n , i n d i s p e n s a b l e  in a  s u c c e s s f u l skaz, i s e s p e c i a l l y apparent i n the l e x i c a l mater i a l used by Leskov and  l a r g e l y accounts f o r the v a r i e t i e s i n  s t y l e encountered i n h i s s t o r i e s .  Most s t o r i e s i n which Leskov has made use o f the skaz 3  s t r u c t u r a l l y correspond to f r a m e - s t o r i e s .  The  inner narra-  t i v e , which i s the skaz proper, i s u s u a l l y t o l d i n the person by a n a r r a t o r who The  i s not  i d e n t i c a l w i t h the  author h i m s e l f appears only i n the story-frame  first  author. to  pre-  pare the reader to hear the n a r r a t i v e t h a t f o l l o w s . A f t e r the n a r r a t i v e has been concluded, the author reappears to comment on i t . The  author's s t y l e i n most i n s t a n c e s i s s t r i c t - :  l y l i t e r a r y , whereas the s t y l e i n which the n a r r a t o r  reports  the events has been adapted to the n a r r a t o r ' s speech.  The  s t y l e o f the skaz f i t s not only the n a r r a t o r but a l s o  the  c h a r a c t e r s who  appear i n the s t o r y . I f the n a r r a t o r i m i t a t e s  the speech o f the c h a r a c t e r s a c c u r a t e l y , the n a r r a t i v e c o n t a i n f e a t u r e s from d i v e r s e s t y l i s t i c the s o c i a l and  s t r a t a , depending on  c u l t u r a l m i l i e u o f the c h a r a c t e r s . I t i s e v i -  dent t h a t the skaz o f f e r s wide s t y l i s t i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s has  only few  may  l i m i t a t i o n s as regards  and  the w r i t e r ' s s e l e c t i o n  13 of l e x i c a l  material.  I t i s a g e n e r a l l y known f a c t t h a t Leskov the  surface g l i t t e r  considered  o f h i s language very important.  He took  g r e a t care t o b r i n g as much v a r i e t y and c o l o u r i n t o h i s vocabu l a r y as p o s s i b l e . In employing h i s l e x i c a l  material,  Leskov  was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e n t on c r e a t i n g e f f e c t s by c o n t r a s t . For instance,  v i v i d n e s s i s achieved by the j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f words  from d i f f e r e n t s t y l i s t i c kudrevaty vlasy  'curly hair*  s t r a t a . Thus, i n the phrase v l a s y p. 327)  (Zapecatlennyj a n g e l ,  the noun  ' h a i r ' i s a r c h a i c , whereas the a d j e c t i v e kudrevaty  ' c u r l y * belongs to the c o l l o q u i a l s t y l i s t i c  sphere.^  In a d i s c u s s i o n o f the s t y l e o f P o l u n o s c n i k i .  H. McLean  mentions t h a t the i n t e r a c t i o n o f c o n t r a s t i n g s t y l i s t i c i n Leskov's vocabulary f r e q u e n t l y The Vse.  strata 6  produces humorous e f f e c t s .  f o l l o w i n g sentence from P o l u n o s c n i k i  may i l l u s t r a t e  c t o j a p r e t e r p e l a . z n a c i t . x i n ' j u polslo 'Everything  had  endured, then, has been i n v a i n *  and  r h e t o r i c a l verb p r e t e r p e t '  i n incongruous proximity 7 'has been i n v a i n ' . '  (p. 165).  thiss I  The bookish  'to endure, s u f f e r ' i s placed  to the d i a l e c t a l phrase x i n ' j u poslo  A c o n t r a s t i n g e f f e c t can a l s o be observed i n the f q l lowing r e f e r e n c e cal  by the n a r r a t o r o f P o l u n o s c n i k i  t a l e o f Jacob and Esau« Jakov ... pervoe  blagoslovenie  sebe i s c a p a l  to the B i b l i -  vydajusceesja  'Jacob ... snatched the f i r s t  14 outstanding b l e s s i n g f o r h i m s e l f there i s a s t y l i s t i c q u i a l word scapat'  (p. 171). In t h i s  sentence  d i s c r e p a n c y between the markedly  collo-  'to s n a t c h ' and the context i n which i t i s  used by t h e speaker. Y e t the e x p r e s s i v e c o n n o t a t i o n o f t h i s c o l l o q u i a l e x p r e s s i o n accords w i t h the n a r r a t o r ' s u s u a l speech.  C o n t r a s t i n Leskov's vocabulary i s brought about not o n l y by the occurrence  o f c o l l o q u i a l l e x i c a l items i n j u x t a -  p o s i t i o n w i t h l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n s . A r c h a i c and bookish words can a l s o be encountered w i t h everyday  unexpectedly  i n passages t h a t d e a l  events. I n h i s a r t i c l e on t h e s t y l e o f P o l u -  nojgcniki, McLean has drawn a t t e n t i o n to the n a r r a t o r ' s use of  e l e v a t e d and r h e t o r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s to d e s c r i b e even a  f a r c i c a l s i t u a t i o n . He p o i n t s out, f o r example, t h a t the exp r e s s i o n s mv n i s p r o v e r g l i s '  'we tumbled down ( l i t . , were over-  thrown)' and my ... poverzeny  'we were ... thrown down  (lit.,  s m i t t e n ) ' ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 197) a r e s t r i k i n g l y misused by the n a r r a t o r . She r e l a t e s how t h r e e women, w h i l e eavesdropp i n g , tumbled o f f an i r o n i n g board on which they were standing.  The reader d i s t i n c t l y p e r c e i v e s a comic i n c o n g r u i t y beQ  tween the bookish words and the context i n which they  Stylistic perform  occur.  i n c o n g r u i t i e s o f t h i s type i n many cases  the f u n c t i o n o f parody i n Leskov's s t o r i e s . I n u s i n g  solemn language t o d e s c r i b e such f a r c i c a l events  Leskov's  purpose i s to r i d i c u l e n o t only the n a r r a t o r but a l s o the events t h a t are t o l d .  L e x i c a l items from c o n t r a s t i n g s t y l i s t i c u t i l i z e d by Leskov a l s o f o r the formation  s t r a t a are  o f new l e x i c a l u n i t s ,  although such i n s t a n c e s are few. To give an .example, the exp r e s s i o n vertoprax-c'uzezemec bornoe zerno. p. 292),  'featherbrained  f o r e i g n e r ' (Ot-  r e s u l t s from the j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f the  c o l l o q u i a l word vertoprax  ' f e a t h e r b r a i n ' and the bookish and  somewhat a r c h a i c word cuzezemec ' f o r e i g n e r ' , i n s t e a d o f i n o o stranec  id.  7  Such i n t e n t i o n a l s t y l i s t i c  contrasts  illustrate  once more Leskov's s t r i v i n g to make h i s vocabulary ful  colour-  by the s e l e c t i o n o f l e x i c a l m a t e r i a l from d i f f e r e n t s t y l -  istic strata.  Vernacular  An important s t y l i s t i c i s performed by the v e r n a c u l a r ,  elements  f u n c t i o n i n Leskov's prose the c u r r e n t d a i l y speech o f  the people, t h a t i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d by l i t e r a r y Generally,  standards.  a w r i t e r who s t r i v e s f o r the e f f e c t o f o r a l i t y  i n h i s language w i l l a v o i d words t h a t a r e bookish o r l i t e r a r y . I n h i s works Leskov i n t r o d u c e d  many c o l l o q u i a l words  (razgovornye slova) and words p e c u l i a r to substandard speech (prostorecnve vernacular  slova).  1 0  L e x i c a l items c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the  are u t i l i z e d by Leskov as a s t y l i s t i c  device to  c r e a t e t h e i l l u s i o n o f o r a l speech.  Verbs comprise by f a r t h e l a r g e s t category o f c o l -  l o q u i a l elements i n Leskov's v o c a b u l a r y . They o c c u r n o t o n l y i n t h e i n n e r n a r r a t i v e o f Leskov's s t o r i e s , but a l s o i n passages o t h e r than r e p o r t e d  speech, where the author r e l a t e s  the events. For example, W. Girke notes t h a t among the most frequent  c o l l o q u i a l i s m s i n Leskov's vocabulary a r e v i d a t '  'to see',  used i n s t e a d o f v i d e t ' i d . , and v r a t ' 'to l i e ' ,  instead o f l e a f i d .  1  1  Some f u r t h e r examples o f c o l l o q u i a l verbs encountered i n Leskov's s t o r i e s i n c l u d e b o l t a t ' 'to babble, twaddle' (Pol u n o s c n i k i . p. 172)i  l o p a t ' 'to e a t '  ( i b i d . . p. 140);  mykat'  'to l i v e i n m i s e r y ' ( i b i d . . p. 133) > namusorit' 'to l i t t e r ' ( i b i d . . p. 147)|  okonfuzit'  pomeret' 'to d i e ' , i n s t e a d o f umeret' i d . (occurs potrafit'  'to please*  calm' ( i b i d . ,  ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 140);  frequently);  u t i x o m o r i t ' 'to  p. l 6 l ) ; xapat' 'to s e i z e , snatch'  q u e n t l y ) , and zbelenit*s.1a  29);  'to embarrass' (Levsa. p.  *to become enraged*  (occurs  fre-  ( i b i d . . p. 180).  Nouns t h a t belong to the s t y l i s t i c category o f c o l l o quialisms ry.  also play a considerable  r o l e i n Leskov's vocabula-  Some a r e p e j o r a t i v e , f o r example k i s l j u k a 'gloomy,  humoured person*  (occurs f r e q u e n t l y ) and z l j u k a 'angry, m a l i -  c i o u s person' ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 146).  Some c o l l o q u i a l nouns  t h a t occur i n the s t o r i e s a r e argot e x p r e s s i o n s , naduvala  'swindler,  •trickster'  ill-  cheat' ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 125)  ( i b i d . . p. 119).  for  instance  o r zox  17 C o l l o q u i a l nouns f o r which other e q u i v a l e n t  or cogna-  t e words are used i n the l i t e r a r y language are used by Leskov to t y p i f y the speech o f c h a r a c t e r s  from lower s o c i a l m i l i e u s .  Such are exidna. used w i t h the meaning 'malicious ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 128),  person*  pl.iuxa 'slap i n the f a c e ' , i n s t e a d  opleuxa i d . ( i b i d . . p. 159),  and  sebarsa  'braggart'  of  (occurs  frequently).  A considerable  number o f c o l l o q u i a l i s m s t h a t are  found  i n Leskov's l e x i c a l m a t e r i a l are adverbs. For example, the adverb sibko  ' f a s t , r a p i d l y ' i s f r e q u e n t l y used by Leskov i n -  stead o f b y s t r o i d . Other adverbs t h a t occur i n c o l l o q u i a l speech i n c l u d e oposl.ja 'afterwards', ( J a z v i t e l 'ny.i. p. 25); p. 100)j  strast'  oxoc  i n s t e a d o f posle i d .  'willingly, gladly*  (Stopal'scik.  'very much, g r e a t l y ' ( P o l u n o s c n i k i , p.  S t o p a l ' s c i k . p. 95).  and  zdorovo  137;  ' w e l l , good' (Qvcebyk. p.  62).  Also the a d v e r b i a l phrase takim manerom ' i n t h i s manner', i n stead o f takim obrazom i d . , which f r e q u e n t l y occurs i n the t e x t s , has  a colloquial stylistic  colouring.  To the category o f l e x i c a l items t h a t are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the v e r n a c u l a r  belong c e r t a i n p a r t i c l e s and  t i o n s . They promote the expressiveness  o f speech, and  r a r y works give the t e x t a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l repeatedly  interjecin lite-  tone. They occur  i n Leskov's l e x i c a l m a t e r i a l . Some o f the most  f r e q u e n t l y encountered p a r t i c l e s are deskat' ' i t i s s a i d , they say', mol  i d . , i s ' 'see!', which expresses astonishment,  and  18 the i n t e n s i f y i n g p a r t i c l e nu 'now!, come!'. The l a t t e r two p a r t i c l e s a r e o f t e n used as i n t e r j e c t i o n s . I n t e r j e c t i o n s such as polnote xljas'  'say no more', t ' f u . which expresses s c o r n , and  ' s l a p , bang', d e r i v e d from x l j a s k a t ' 'to s l a p , h i t ' ,  also occur frequently.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c o l l o q u i a l speech, and e x t e n s i v e l y used by Leskov, i s t h e emphatic p a r t i c l e - t o and a l s o t h e p a r t i c l e -ka. which expresses i n t e n t . To g i v e an example, po.idu-ka .ia l u c s e (p. 169)•  noscniki  'I'd b e t t e r go' o c c u r s i n the s t o r y Both - t o and -ka a r e e n c l i t i c  Polu-  particles.  In a d d i t i o n t o l e x i c a l items t h a t a r e p e c u l i a r t o the v e r n a c u l a r ,  a w r i t e r may a l s o employ m o r p h o l o g i c a l f e a -  t u r e s t h a t l e n d speech a v e r n a c u l a r  tone. Leskov o f t e n made  use o f such m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e v i c e s . Among these d e v i c e s formation  i s the  o f s u p e r l a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s w i t h the p r e f i x pre-, i n -  stead o f the s u f f i x - e i s i j / - a j s i j . as f o r example prestrasny.l 'very f r i g h t f u l ' , used i n s t e a d o f strasne.isi.1 i d . p. 38).  (Levsa.  Although the p r e f i x pre- may as a r u l e be a p p l i e d  only  to a d j e c t i v e s and adverbs, Leskov o c c a s i o n a l l y a p p l i e d i t to substantives. This p e c u l i a r i t y o f vernacular i l l u s t r a t e d by such words as prepodlec ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 198) izvestnogo.  p.  or prestraska  speech c a n be  'very b i g s c o u n d r e l '  'great f e a r ' (Zametki ne-  395)-  In some i n s t a n c e s Leskov i n t e n t i o n a l l y . e m p l o y s  un  19 grammatical forms t o t y p i f y the speech o f some o f the chara c t e r s i n h i s s t o r i e s , f o r example the word dvu.iami o c c u r s i n s t e a d o f dvumja. the i n s t r u m e n t a l case o f dva 'two' (Leon, dvorecki.i s y n . p. ?4).  An example o f ungrammatical speech i s  a l s o the phrase ne pomoglos.ia ' i t was i n v a i n , d i d n o t h e l p ' , i n s t e a d o f ne pomoglo i d . ( S t o p a l ' s c i k . p. 105).  The speaker  has added to the l a t t e r word the p a r t i c l e -s.ia. even though i t s use w i t h pornoc?' 'to h e l p ' i s c o n t r a r y t o the r u l e s o f Russian grammar. A s i m i l a r example i s the p l u r a l form s v e k l o v ' .ia 'beets', from s v e k l a (Leon, dvorecki.i s y n . p.  68),  although t h i s noun as a r u l e may o c c u r only i n the s i n g u l a r . Such examples o f ungrammatical speech a r e i n t e n d e d by Leskov to demonstrate t h a t the speaker's command o f the l i t e r a r y language i s l i m i t e d .  The use o f d i a l e c t s  Leskov drew f r e e l y upon the vocabulary o f d i a l e c t s . Many words t h a t are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f r e g i o n a l d i a l e c t s a r e found i n h i s prose. D i a l e c t i s m s predominate i n the speech o f peasants o r persons from the lower s t r a t a o f the populat i o n . Leskov pays c l o s e a t t e n t i o n n o t o n l y t o l e x i c a l , but a l s o m o r p h o l o g i c a l and even p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e s t h a t a r e p e c u l i a r t o c e r t a i n d i a l e c t s i n o r d e r to c r e a t e the e f f e c t o f o r a l speech.  20 Many o f Leskov's s t o r i e s a r e s e t i n the p r o v i n c e o f O r e l and the a d j a c e n t a r e a s . Leskov was born i n O r e l and v i s i t e d t h i s p r o v i n c e f r e q u e n t l y i n h i s l a t e r l i f e . Many l e x i c a l items from South Great R u s s i a n d i a l e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t spoken i n the d i s t r i c t o f O r e l , are p r e s e n t i n h i s s t o r i e s . The n a r r a t o r s o f s e v e r a l s t o r i e s come from t h a t a r e a , a f a c t which Leskov s p e c i f i c a l l y mentions i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to s e v e r a l of h i s n a r r a t i v e s .  12  For example,  v  the n a r r a t o r o f Ocarovannvj  s t r a n n i k s t a t e s a t the b e g i n n i n g o f h i s s t o r y t h a t he was born 13 in Orel.  v  In another passage Leskov emphasizes t h i s f a c t by  making t h e n a r r a t o r e x p l a i n t o h i s l i s t e n e r s : orlovski"  'as we say i n O r e l ' (p. 425).  po-nasemu. po-  In some o f the nar-  r a t i v e s Leskov s p e c i f i c a l l y mentions the d i s t r i c t i n which the  s t o r i e s take p l a c e , by such e x p r e s s i o n s as o r l o v s k i j ku-  pec  'a merchant  from O r e l ' , o r he b r i n g s the l o c a l e out i n  the t i t l e o r s u b t i t l e o f the s t o r y .  Ik  Some o f the d i a l e c t i s m s t h a t Leskov uses i n h i s . s t o r i e s correspond c l o s e l y t o cognate words i n the standard Russian language. Most o f these d i a l e c t i s m s can without d i f f i c u l t y be understood by the average R u s s i a n r e a d e r . For example, noneca  'to-day, nowadays' o r nonce i d . , which occur  f r e q u e n t l y i n Leskov's n a r r a t i v e s , are cognates o f the standa r d Russian nynce i d . Some examples o f t h i s c a t e g o r y o f d i a l e c t i s m s a r e bo.ilo ' b e a t i n g s ,  .it.l::  Russian poboi i d . (Levsa. p. 53; 382);  i n s t e a d o f the standard  Nesmertel'nyj Golovan. p.  the phrase z i t ' v dostace 'to l i v e c o m f o r t a b l y , be  21 w e l l - t o - d o ' , i n s t e a d o f z i t ' v dostatke i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 71);  okrom.ia  'except', i n s t e a d o f krome i d . (Sto-  p a l ' s c i k . p. 104); s u p r o t i v (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 73),  'against', instead o f p r o t i v i d . and promezdu 'among, between',  i n s t e a d o f mezdu i d . , which o c c u r s f r e q u e n t l y ,  However, many o f t h e d i a l e c t i s m s t h a t a r e used by Leskov a r e n o t i n t e l l i g i b l e t o the average Russian r e a d e r . Such d i a l e c t words have no c l o s e cognates i n the standard l i t e r a r y language. When employing these words, Leskov i n many i n s t a n c e s c i t e s them i n parentheses, f o r example i n t h e phrase p o s l u s n i k ( p o - k i e v s k i i  slimak) 'novice ( i n the d i a l e c t o f  Kiev; slimak) ' (Meloci arxiere.isko.i z i z n i . p. 462).  Occasion-  n a l l y Leskov even e x p l a i n s a d i a l e c t e x p r e s s i o n i n a f o o t n o t e to the t e x t . F o r i n s t a n c e , he adds a f o o t n o t e t o the d i a l e c t e x p r e s s i o n p e s n i igrat'» U nas ne govor.iat " p e t ' p e s n i " . a "igrat* pesni". a song"  'We don't say 'to s i n g a song', but 'to p l a y  ( Z i t i e odno.i baby, p.  336). 1 5  The use o f such d i a l e c t i s m s by Leskov i s designed to add a u t h e n t i c c o l o u r to h i s s t o r i e s . F u r t h e r examples o f d i a l e c t words o f t h i s k i n d a r e b a i t ' p. 88;  Smex i gore, p. 431);  mandrivat' nut'  kura  'to speak,  'snow-storm' (Pugalo. p.  'to wander, roam' (Za.iaci.i remiz. p.  'to s n o r t , s n i f f  ( S t o p a l ' s c i k . p. 102);  l e a t h e r whip' (Za.iaci.i remiz. p. 505). barn' ( Z i t i e odno.i baby, p.  331).  say' (Ovcebyk.  575)?  puga  and pun'ka  porsk-  'knout, 'shed,  17);  22 South Russian d i a l e c t s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by c e r t a i n  grammatical forms t h a t c o n t r a s t w i t h those found i n the standard l i t e r a r y language. Among the forms t h a t Leskov  consistent-  l y took i n t o account i n w r i t i n g h i s s t o r i e s , i n o r d e r to rende r d i a l e c t speech p r e c i s e l y , the f o l l o w i n g occur  the i n f i n i t i v e i n - t ' . i n s t e a d o f - t i :  frequently:  16 /  snest'  'to endure', i n s t e a d o f s n e s t i i d .  VV  (Polunoscni-  k i . p. 180); u v e z t ' 'to c a r r y away', i n s t e a d o f uvezti  i d . (Tupe.inyj  out',  xudoznik. p. 232)1  vyvest'  'to l e a d  i n s t e a d o f v y v e s t i i d . ( V o i t e l ' n i c a . p. 147);  the g e n i t i v e p l u r a l o f nouns i n -ev/-ov. i n s t e a d o f i n r e i / r i i / d i «  1 7  gul.ian'ev *merrym*ings',instead o f gul.iani.i i d . (Polun o s c n i k i . p. 132); id.  mestov 'places',  i n s t e a d o f mest  ( V o i t e l ' n i c a . p. 208); r o d i t e l e v 'parents', i n 293);  stead o f r o d i t e l e . i i d . ( Z i t i e odno.i babv. p. zelaniev  ' d e s i r e s , wishes', i n s t e a d o f z e l a n i i i d . r  ( S t o p a l ' s c i k . p. 104); the past a c t i v e p a r t i c i p l e i n -msi. bvmsi. from b y t '  instead of i n - v s i i ^  'to be' ( V o i t e l ' n i c a . p. 161);  n o v i m s i s ' . from o s t a n o v i t ' s . i a 'to stop* p. 99);  (Stopal'scik.  porugamsis'. from porugat 's.ia 'to q u a r r e l *  (Dama i f e f e l a . p. 466); zabymsi. from zabyt' get'  osta-  ( V o i t e l ' n i c a . p.  l63)j 9  'to f o r -  1  on the verbs i n -anut'/-onut'» blistanut' id.  'to shine,  sparkle',  (Leon, dvorecki.i svn. p.  In p r e s e n t i n g  instead of b l i s t a t '  63).  d i a l e c t speech i n h i s s t o r i e s Leskov  23 even aimed a t p r e c i s e r e n d i t i o n o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s '  pronuncia-  t i o n . He rendered some d i a l e c t a l phonetic divergences from the  standard language by means o f orthographic  d e v i c e s . One  p e c u l i a r i t y o f the d i a l e c t spoken i n the O r e l d i s t r i c t i s the 21  s u b s t i t u t i o n o f /x/ by / f / ,  f o r example i n the word b u f t a  'bay', i n s t e a d o f buxta i d . (Levsa. p. 5*0 • Other words,that render t h i s d i a l e c t a l p e c u l i a r i t y o f speech i n c l u d e 'chimera', i n s t e a d o f ximera i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i fimi.ia 474),  fimera  syn. p. 6 5 ) ;  'chemistry', i n s t e a d o f ximi.ia i d . (Dama i fefe'la. p. and k u f a r k a  'cook', i n s t e a d o f kuxarka i d .  (Polunoscni-  k i , p. 119). An orthographic  device t h a t Leskov r e p e a t e d l y  employs  i s the s p e l l i n g u, i n s t e a d o f o o r a, which renders the pron u n c i a t i o n o f /u/,  instead o f / a / i n pretonic p o s i t i o n . This  f e a t u r e occurs i n the western d i a l e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t o f 22 Smolensk, and, l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , i n the southern d i a l e c t s . Some o f the words t h a t o r t h o g r a p h i c a l l y render t h i s pronunciat i o n are bugrovy.i 'crimson, p u r p l e ' , (Levsa,  p. 42); sused  i n s t e a d o f bagrovy.i i d .  'neighbour', i n s t e a d o f sosed i d . (Raz-  b o j n i k , p. 3)4 and usumnit's.ia 'to doubt', i n s t e a d o f usomnit's.ia i d . (Levsa. p. 4 1 ) . Leskov's use o f d i a l e c t s demonstrates the p r e c i s i o n w i t h which he renders the speech o f the c h a r a c t e r s who appear i n h i s s t o r i e s . In some i n s t a n c e s , however, he has a s c r i b e d d i a l e c t words a l s o t o the speech o f c h a r a c t e r s without s p e c i -  24 f y i n g t h a t they are n a t i v e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r d i a l e c t a l area o r sometimes even t o educated people whose speech as a r u l e i s s t r i c t l y l i t e r a r y . G i r k e s p e c i a l l y c i t e s the word t a p e r i c a 'now', which i s used by an educated person i n the s t o r y Sin ex i  gore i n a d i a l o g u e w i t h a peasant (p. 4 9 7 ) . ^ 2  O c c a s i o n a l l y , d i a l e c t i s m s i n Leskov's skaz s t o r i e s can be encountered even i n the passages o f the t e x t s i n which the author i s the n a r r a t o r . An example i s the statement den' b y l xolodny.i s i v e r k i . i  ' I t was a c o l d day w i t h r a i n and wind  from the n o r t h * (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 6 4 ) . The d i a l e c t i s m s i v e r k i . i i s an a d j e c t i v e d e r i v e d from s i v e r  'cold, northern  wind w i t h r a i n o r snow', a word c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the d i a l e c t 24 speech o f the d i s t r i c t o f Arxangel'sk.  Such use o f dialec-;  tisms by Leskov i s intended t o add s t y l i s t i c v a r i e t y to the text.  Church S l a v o n i c i s m s  A s p e c i a l p l a c e i n Leskov's vocabulary i s occupied by Church S l a v o n i c i s m s . To t h i s category belong l e x i c a l items o f Church S l a v o n i c o r i g i n t h a t have become e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Russian language.  The vocabulary o f the Russian l i t e r a r y language, from the viewpoint o f i t s h i s t o r i c a l development  i s t o a l a r g e ex-  25 t e n t a r e s u l t o f f u s i o n o f Church S l a v o n i c and n a t i v e elements.  J  Russian  Beside n a t i v e Russian words, a l a r g e number o f  Church S l a v o n i c cognates e x i s t i n the vocabulary  o f the Rus-  s i a n l i t e r a r y language t h a t possess d i s t i n c t s t y l i s t i c  char-  a c t e r i s t i c s . The Church S l a v o n i c words i n many cases have a solemn s t y l i s t i c c o n n o t a t i o n . Many o f these Church S l a v o n i cisms are found only i n the language o f p o e t r y , f o r example, breg  'bank, shore', which corresponds to the Russian  i d . , or the Church S l a v o n i c l a n i t a  'cheek' and  bereg  Russian  i d . S t y l i s t i c doublets o f t h i s type provide a Russian with r i c h resources  for artistic  subtle s t y l i s t i c  the  nuances.  Leskov r e s o r t e d f r e e l y to Church S l a v o n i c m a t e r i a l . The m a j o r i t y o f Church S l a v o n i c i s m s , i n h i s vocabulary,  writer  e x p r e s s i o n . By s e l e c t i n g  Church S l a v o n i c l e x i c a l items i n a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t e x t s , w r i t e r can achieve  %ceka  lexical  encountered  are Church S l a v o n i c words t h a t i n the  l i t e r a t u r e o f the l a t t e r h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h century were used f o r s t y l i s t i c purposes o n l y . Such words i n c l u d e drevo 323);  ' t r e e ' , i n s t e a d o f derevo i d . ( Z a p e c a t l e n n y i a n g e l , p. glas  'voice', i n s t e a d o f g o l o s i d . ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p.  17*0;  vlasy  ' h a i r * , i n s t e a d o f v o l o s y i d . (Zapecatlenny.i a n g e l ,  324);  xlad  23),  and  occurs  ' c o l d ( s u b s t . ) ' , i n s t e a d o f x o l o d i d . (Levsa.  zlato.i  p.  'gold ( a d j . ) ' , i n s t e a d o f z o l o t o j i d . , which  f r e q u e n t l y i n the t e x t s . These Church  Slavonicisms  serve i n Leskov's usage the w r i t e r ' s purpose o f e l e v a t e d , solemn s t y l e .  p.  26 A s p e c i a l category o f Church S l a v o n i c i s m s i n v o c a b u l a r y i s r e p r e s e n t e d by borrowings t h a t had disappeared from  Leskov's  from Church S l a v o n i c  s e c u l a r l i t e r a t u r e but e x i s t i n the  language o f the Church. These words occur f o r the most p a r t i n Leskov's  s t o r i e s t h a t d e a l w i t h e c c l e s i a s t i c a l themes, and  are intended by the w r i t e r to t y p i f y the speech o f c h a r a c t e r s from the c l e r g y .  To t h i s category o f Church S l a v o n i c i s m s belong, f o r example, such words as asce l i ' i f (Zametki p. 376) 314;  and the r e l a t i v e pronoun i z e 'who'  Zametki n e i z v e s t n o g o . p. 370).  neizvestnogo.  (Certogon.  p.  F u r t h e r examples o f the-  se Church S l a v o n i c i s m s t h a t Leskov has a s c r i b e d to the  speech  of characters i n h i s stories include: bude ' i f (Zametki n e i z v e s t n o g o . p. 378);  dnes'  'now,  nowadays', occurs f r e q u e n t l y i n the t e x t s ; drazae  'mo-  re d e a r l y (adv.)', i n s t e a d o f Russian doroze i d . (Zametki n e i z v e s t n o g o . p. 3^9); quently; g l a g o l i t '  egda 'when*, occurs  fre-  'to speak, say', i n s t e a d o f Russian  g o v o r i t ' i d . , which a l s o occurs f r e q u e n t l y ; .iako a s ' (Zametki n e i z v e s t n o g o . p. 351); ( i b i d . , p. 378); id. id.  not'  nose' 'night', i n s t e a d o f Russian  (Levsa, p. 38);  P.. 326);  n i z e 'and  '(such)  paki  'again' (Zametki  neizvestnogo.  ramena 'shoulders', i n s t e a d of Russian  (Zapecatlenny.i a n g e l , p. 324);  noc'  pleci  tokmo 'only', i n -  stead o f Russian t o l ' k o i d . , occurs f r e q u e n t l y i n the texts; t o l i k  'such*, which a l s o occurs f r e q u e n t l y ; ubo  •thus, so' (Malen'ka.ia o s i b k a . p. 2 53) s z i v o t i n s t e a d o f Russian z i z n ' i d . (Zametki P.  393).  'life',  neizvestnogo.  27 The above d i s c u s s i o n o f s t y l i s t i c  l e v e l s i n Leskov's  v o c a b u l a r y l e a d s to the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s . The concurrence o f l e x i c a l items t h a t belong to d i f f e r e n t  stylistic  s t r a t a o f Russian makes the language o f Leskov's prose extremely c o l o u r f u l and r i c h . The speech o f the c h a r a c t e r s i n h i s s t o r i e s i s dominated by l e x i c a l items from the vernacul a r . H i s use o f v e r n a c u l a r and d i a l e c t a l l e x i c a l items cont r a s t s w i t h the Church S l a v o n i c i s m s t h a t are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r r e l i g i o u s c o n n o t a t i o n s . Leskov's vocabulary s e l e c t i o n d i s p l a y s a l s o the w r i t e r ' s thorough acquaintance w i t h the everyday speech o f the lower s o c i a l s t r a t a o f p o p u l a t i o n i n R u s s i a o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  I t should be noted t h a t Leskov never employs l e x i c a l items t h a t are excluded from l i t e r a r y usage  indiscriminate-  l y , but always keeps them subordinate to h i s n a r r a t i v e purpose and a r t i s t i c aims. H i s u t i l i z a t i o n o f l e x i c a l items o f d i v e r s e s t y l i s t i c c o l o u r i n g combines heterogeneous  lexical  r e s o u r c e s i n t o a dynamic u n i t y . A l i t e r a r y w r i t e r ' s o b j e c t is, after a l l ,  to t r a n s c e n d the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the standard  language and i n t h i s sense he uses language c r e a t i v e l y .  28  REFERENCES TO CHAPTER I I i \  Ejxenbaum, B.,  "Illjuzija  skaza," Skvoz'  Sbornik state.i. Leningrad, 1924,  ^Ejxenbaum, B.,  152.  p.  "Leskov i sovremennaja  der  Russischen F o r m a l i s t e n . Munchen, 1969,  For  a d i s c u s s i o n o f skaz see V.V.  skaza v s t i l i s t i k e , " 1966,  literaturu.  proza," Texte 218.  p.  Vinogradov,  "Problema  P o e t i k a . Sbornik s t a t e j . The Hague,  pp. 24-40.  ^For  a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f Leskov's use o f frame-  s t o r i e s see A.B. Ansberg, "Frame Story and F i r s t Person Story  i n N.S.  Leskov," S c a n d o - S l a v i c a  ^ G i r k e , W., 1969,  p. 103;  3. 1957.  S t u d i e n zur Sprache N.S.  McLean, H.,  pp.  49-73.  Leskovs. Mlinchen,  "On the S t y l e o f a L e s k o v i a n  •skaz'," Harvard S l a v i c S t u d i e s  2, 195*+.  P«  309.  ^ S l o v a r ' sovremennogo russkogo l i t e r a t u r n o g o Akademija Nauk, Moskva-Leningrad,  ^McLean, op. c i t . . pp.  7  1950,  V o l ; 5,  jazyka^  p.  1792.  316-317.  T h e e x p r e s s i o n x i n ' .iu p o s l o i s synonymous to p o s l o  praxom 'has been i n v a i n  ( l i t . , has gone up i n d u s t ) ' , used  i n standard speech. The d i a l e c t word x i n ' 'nonsense' i s der i v e d from axine.ia i d . See V. D a l ' , Tolkovy.i s l o v a r ' zivogo velikorusskogo  .iazyka. Moskva, 1955.  McLean.;>OP. c i t . . pp.  316-317.  V o l . IV, p.  548.  29 g  ^This example i s a l s o c i t e d by G i r k e , op. c i t . . p.  119i  who  1 0  c a l l s i t a "morphological  For  curiosity".  a d i s c u s s i o n o f the Russian terms see  s l o v a r ' russkogo .jazyka. Usakov, D.N. 1935-^0» V o l . I, I n t r o d u c t i o n , pp.  G i r k e , op.  Tolkow.i  (Ed.), Moskva,  xxv-xxvii.  65.  c i t . . p.  12 Schwencke, C.,  "Some Remarks on the Use  i n Leskov's Prose," The V o l . XLVI No.  10?,  S l a v o n i c and East European Review.  J u l y 1968,  13 ^Leskov, N.S., IV, p. 395.  of Dialects  333.  p. V  Sobranie Socineni.i. Moskva, 1957» V o l .  14  G i r k e , OP.  c i t . . p. 147  Mcenskogo uezda and  c i t e s the t i t l e s L e d i Makbet  Z i t i e odno.i baby. Iz Gostomel'skix  vos-  pominani.i. ^ L e s k o v r e f e r s here to the idiom o f the p r o v i n c e  of  Orel.  1  ^ T h i s f e a t u r e occurs a l s o i n the western Russian d i a -  l e c t s . See V. G.  (Eds.), Moskva, 1965.  1 7  OP.  Russka.ia d i a l e k t o l o g i . i a . Avanesov, R.I. P.  Orlov,  1^8.  S e e Russka.ia d i a l e k t o l o g i . i a . p. 114.  c i t . . p.  and  See  a l s o Schwencke,  3^7.  18  T h i s form i s widespread i n the p r o v i n c e s O r e l . See Russka.ia d i a l e k t o l o g i . i a . pp. Schwencke, op.  c i t . . p.  3^8.  172,  o f Kursk  277-278. See  and also  19 7  -msi  F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f Leskov's use o f p a r t i c i p l e s i n  from the viewpoint  o f syntax see G i r k e , op. c i t . . pp.  138-139.  20 T h i s f e a t u r e occurs a l s o i n the n o r t h e r n l e c t s . See Kuznecova, D.,  "Glagoly  s suffiksom  Russian d i a -  -anu-/-onu- v  govorax russkogo jazyka," L e k s i k a r u s s k i x narodnyx govorov.  1966,  35-61. See Moskva-Leningrad, 19^7,  Moskva-Leningrad, Russki.i  .iazvk.  pp.  a l s o Vinogradov, pp.  V.V.,  4-39-440.  21  S o b o l e v s k i j , A . I . , L e k c i i po i s t o r i i  1962,  128-129;  Hague,  78.  Schwencke, op. c i t . . p. 335,  notes t h a t /x/>  i n Moscow substandard speech. G i r k e , op.  notes t h a t t h i s f e a t u r e a l s o occurs Russka.ia d i a l e k t o l o g i . i a . op. a l s o Schwencke, op.  2  -^Girke, OP.  Moskva, 1964, 2  ^For  dialects.  256-257*  v/-  E t i m o l o g i c e s k i . i s l o v a r * russkogo  V o l . I I , p.  .jazyka.  6l6.  a d i s c u s s i o n of Church S l a v o n i c elements i n  s i a n vocabulary  See  156.  N  Fasmer, M.,  136,  c i t . . p.  i n Ukrainian c i t . . pp.  / f / also  3^2.  c i t . . p.  c i t . . p.  24  .jazyka,  Russka.ia d i a l e k t o l o g i . i a . p.  The  occurs  pp.  russkogo  see Saxmatov, A. and  Shevelov, G.Y.,  Rus-  Die  K i r c h e n s l a v i s c h e n Elemente i n der modernen Russischen L i t e r a t u r s p r a c h e . Wiesbaden,  i960.  See  a l s o Unbegaun, B.O.,  Russe l i t t e r a i r e e s t - i l d ' o r i g i n e Russe?," Revue des S l a v e s . XLIV, pp.  19-28.  "Le Etudes  31  CHAPTER I I I NEOLOGISMS! MORPHOLOGICAL CATEGORIES Leskov's c r e a t i v e use o f language m a n i f e s t s i n the numerous neologisms The term  encountered  itself  i n h i s vocabulary.  'neologism' g e n e r a l l y d e s i g n a t e s a newly formed word,  as w e l l as the use o f an o l d word i n a new sense. Neologisms appear to some degree  i n the vocabulary o f every c r e a t i v e  w r i t e r . The b a s i c reason behind a w r i t e r ' s search f o r new words i s h i s d e s i r e to express h i m s e l f i n a r i c h e r , more o r i g i n a l way. The overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f Leskov's produce  neologisms  a s t r i k i n g e f f e c t and impress the reader as h i g h l y  o r i g i n a l . In some cases, however, Leskov has adhered  so c l o s e -  l y to the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s governing new d e r i v a t i o n s i n Russ i a n , t h a t the r e a d e r i s n o t even q u i t e c e r t a i n whether he i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a new word o r n o t . The v a r i o u s types o f n e o l ogisms t h a t have appeared  i n Leskov's vocabulary m e r i t i n v e s -  t i g a t i o n as regards t h e i r sources and the method o f t h e i r  for-  mation.  Leskov has drawn h e a v i l y on formal processes t h a t o f f e r the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e n r i c h i n g v o c a b u l a r y . The Russian l a n guage c o n t a i n s i n e x h a u s t i b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r the a d d i t i o n o f new words t o i t s l e x i c o n . The elements  o f which Russian words  are composed can, however, be formed i n t o new l e x i c a l  items  32 o n l y a c c o r d i n g to c e r t a i n r u l e s and p a t t e r n s . The  study o f  the p a t t e r n s by which words are formed i s known as word-format i o n , a d i v i s i o n o f morphology. In h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f wordf o r m a t i o n , E. Stankiewicz has d e f i n e d i t as the b a s i c  source  o f l e x i c a l items o f a language, the a b s t r a c t p a t t e r n which governs r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l words and which d e t e r mines the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f new who  adds new  l e x i c a l formations.  words to the vocabulary by means o f  1  A writer,  morphologi-  c a l word-formation, u t i l i z e s d e r i v a t i o n a l or l e x i c a l morphemes t h a t e x i s t i n the language.  The most p r o d u c t i v e m o r p h o l o g i c a l process whereby  new  words can be formed i n Russian i s the a d d i t i o n o f a f f i x e s to l e x i c a l morphemes. The guished:  (1)  f o l l o w i n g procedures  p r e f i x a t i o n and  (2)  can be  distin-  suffixation.  Prefixation  Leskov had recourse to p r e f i x a t i o n to form new  words.  A c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t y o f these are v e r b s , i n c l u d i n g the  fol-  lowing examples: o b f o r m i r o v a t ' w i t h the meaning 'to remake completely, g i ve a new  appearance t o ' , formed w i t h the p r e f i x  ob-  'about' and f o r m i r o v a t ' 'to form, mould' (Levsa. p.  47);  o b x l o p o t a t ' w i t h the meaning 'to arrange, take care  of,  formed w i t h ob- and x l o p o t a t ' 'to take t r o u b l e , to take care o f  ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p.  167);  o t l y g a t ' s . i a w i t h the meaning 'to l i e one's way out*, formed w i t h o t - ' o f f , away' and l y g a t '  'to l i e ' , d e r i -  ved from l g a t ' i d . , which i s a l s o an i n v e n t e d word (Levsa,  p. 5*0 ?  predvozvysat's,ia with the meaning 'to exceed, formed w i t h the p r e f i x pred-  'before', which i s unpro-  d u c t i v e i n Russian, and vozvy sat's.ia (Levsa. p,  surpass',  'to r i s e above'  34);  voz".iarit's.ia i n the sentence vdrug u Nikola.ia I v a n o v i c a v o z " . i a r i l s . i a spor 'suddenly N i k o l a j I v a n o v i c got i n t o a f i e r c e argument' ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 164); t h i s word, used by Leskov  i n s t e a d o f r a z " . i a r i t ' s j a 'to become  enraged',  i s formed w i t h the p r e f i x voz- 'up' and .iarit's.ia 'to become enraged'  (.iarit's.ia does not occur without a pre-  fix); vzaxat's.ia 'to say ah! c o n t i n u a l l y ' , formed with the pref i x voz- which i n t h i s i n s t a n c e denotes i n t e n s i t y and a x a t ' s j a . from a x a t ' 'to say ah!, complain'  (Levsa. p. 28);  z a v o l o x a t e t ' w i t h the meaning 'to become h a i r y ' , formed w i t h the p r e f i x z a - denoting b e g i n n i n g o f an a c t i o n and voloxatet'  'to be shaggy, h a i r y ' , d e r i v e d from the d i a -  l e c t a l voloxaty.i  'shaggy, h a i r y '  (Tupe.iny.i xudoznik. p.  226).  Many o f Leskov's v e r b a l neologisms  formed by means o f  p r e f i x a t i o n are v a r i a t i o n s o f e x i s t i n g forms ( c f . voz" . i a r i t ' s.ia. i n s t e a d o f r a z " . i a r i t ' s . i a  *to become enraged'). T h i s can  be e x p l a i n e d by the h i g h degree o f p r o d u c t i v i t y and the exp r e s s i v e r o l e a s s i g n e d to v e r b a l p r e f i x e s i n the Russian l a n 2 guage.  The above examples may s u f f i c e to i l l u s t r a t e  that  3^ Leskov has taken f u l l advantage o f the r i c h v a r i e t y o f meani n g o f p r e f i x e s . In adding p r e f i x e s to e x i s t i n g verbs, or s u b s t i t u t i n g one p r e f i x f o r another, Leskov's  purpose i s to  strengthen v i v i d n e s s .  P r e f i x a t i o n i s used by Leskov a l s o to form new  nouns.  Nominal p r e f i x e s have g e n e r a l l y a low degree o f p r o d u c t i v i t y i n Russian.  A c c o r d i n g l y , p r e f i x a t i o n p l a y s a minor r o l e i n  Leskov's nominal  neologisms.  The f o l l o w i n g examples have been  found« v  bezbrak.  i n the phrase z i t ' v bezbrake 'to l i v e out o f  wedlock', formed w i t h the p r e f i x bez'marriage'  ' a s s i s t a n t w a i t e r ( i n a r e s t a u r a n t ) ' , formed  w i t h the p r e f i x pod-  'under' and b u f e t c i k 'waiter ( i n a  r e s t a u r a n t ) ' (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. pod"evropnik  99);  'a person o f European descent', formed w i t h  the p r e f i x pod-  'under' and evropnik  'European ( s u b s t . ) ' ,  the l a t t e r word i n v e n t e d by Leskov ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. predumysl  'premeditation', formed w i t h the p r e f i x  'before' and umysel prepodlec  'intention'  198);  prestraska  intensi-  'great f e a r ' , formed w i t h the p r e f i x pre-  i"t may  512);  'scoundrel' ( P o l u n o s c n i k i .  a d e r i v e d noun from s t r a x ' f e a r ' (Zametki p. 395);  209);  pred-  (Za.iaci.i remiz. p.  'very b i g s c o u n d r e l ' , formed w i t h the  f y i n g p r e f i x pre- and podlec p.  brak  153);  ( P o l u n o s c n i k i , p.  podbufetcik  'without' and  and  neizvestnogo.  be noted t h a t pre- does combine w i t h  35 a d j e c t i v e s , but i s not p r o d u c t i v e i n the f o r m a t i o n o f Russian nouns.  P r e f i x a t i o n p l a y s a minor r o l e a l s o i n the formation o f new  a d j e c t i v e s i n Russian. Consequently,  few a d j e c t i v e s  formed by means o f p r e f i x a t i o n occur i n Leskov's One  vocabulary.  example, found i n the s t o r y Leon, dvorecki.i syn. i s pod-  madernv.i (xeres) which i s meant by Leskov to d e s i g n a t e r y t h a t passes f o r madeira'  'sher-  (p. 66).  Suffixation  The method o f s u f f i x a t i o n f o r the formation o f  new  words i n Russian as a r u l e i s most p r o d u c t i v e f o r nouns and a d j e c t i v e s . Among the nominal  s u f f i x e s o f t e n used by Leskov  to form nouns are -ec and - i c a denoting male and female sons r e s p e c t i v e l y . The  per-  f o l l o w i n g examples are found i n Les-  kov's s t o r i e s t akusernica  'midwife',  n e i z v e s t n o g o . p. dobroxotec  i n s t e a d o f akuserka  i d . (Zametki  331);  'well-wisher';  t h i s i s a compound formed  w i t h the a d j e c t i v e dobry.i 'kind, good' and a d e r i v e d form o f the verb x o t e t ' 'to wish'; ezdovscTica 'horsewoman*, d e r i v e d from the verb 'to r i d e , d r i v e ' ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. I40)j  ezdit'  36 grubec  'rude person', i n s t e a d o f grubi.ian i d .  178);  k i . P.  knigoderzec  *a person who  (Za.iaci.i remiz. p. 531)? the noun k n i g a krestica  h o l d s the Book ( i . e . the B i b l e ) ' t h i s i s a compound formed w i t h  'book' and  the verb d e r z a t '  'to hold'}  'god-daughter', i n s t e a d o f k r e s t n i c a i d . (Leon,  dvorecki.i syn. p. l.iuteranec p.  (Polunoscni-  72);  'Lutheran', i n s t e a d o f l i u t e r a n i n i d .  (Levsa.  b9)t  naxalkikanec denotes a n a t i v e o f a f i c t i t i o u s c o u n t r y o r town ( P u t e s e s t v i e W.B.  s n i g i l i s t o m . p. 129);  Edgerton, i t i s a pun  originalec  141);  (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p.  shepherd'  i d . (Putimec. p.  45);  ' s e c r e t i v e person (fern.)', d e r i v e d from s k r y t '  Vto h i d e , c o n c e a l ' strelec  'pastor,  70);  ' t r a v e l e r ' , instead of putnik  skrytnica  ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p.  142);  'rifleman', instead of s t r e l o k 'rifleman, s o l d i e r '  ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. svirec  on n a x a l ' r a s c a l ' ; - '  'shepherd', i n s t e a d o f p a s t y r '  putimec  to  ' e c c e n t r i c person', i n s t e a d o f o r i g i n a l i d .  ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. pasec  according  163);^  'reed-pipe p l a y e r ' , d e r i v e d from the noun s v i r e l '  •reed-pipe,  quill  a n g e l . p.  324;  (musical  instrument)'  (Zapecatlenny.i  s i t y i c a „'seamstress', i n s t e a d o f sve.ia i d . (Zametki n e i z -  37 vestnogo. p. 3^*0 J i t i s d e r i v e d from the d i a l e c t a l noun s i t v o  'sewing,  needlework'.  I t may be noted t h a t the s u f f i x e s -ec and - i c a are unproductive f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f Russian nouns from  verbs  7  and a d j e c t i v e s . ' However, the s u f f i x -ec was s u c c e s s f u l l y used by many w r i t e r s o f the n i n e t e e n t h century t o form new compound nouns.® Nouns formed w i t h s u f f i x e s o t h e r than - e c / - i c a a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s f r e q u e n t i n Leskov's neologisms. The f o l lowing examples occur i n t h e t e x t s t nevestin'e  'marriage, m a r r i e d l i f e ' ,  noun n e v e s t a  d e r i v e d from the  'bride* by means o f the s u f f i x -'e t h a t ,  as a r u l e , occurs o n l y i n d e v e r b a t i v e nouns ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . P. 129); ozidatel'  *a person who w a i t s ' , from o z i d a t '  and the s u f f i x - t e l ' pal*tosnik  'tailor*  d e r i v e d from p a l ' t o  'to wait*  ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 118); ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 162)5 t h i s word i s 'coat* by means o f the s u f f i x  -nikt  p i l i k a n w i t h t h e meaning 'a person who scrapes (on a f i d d l e ) ' , from the c o l l o q u i a l verb p i l i k a t '  'to make a  s c r a p i n g n o i s e * and the s u f f i x -an. which i s u n p r o d u c t i ve i n Russian  (Za.iaci.i remiz. p. 5 7 1 ) ;  9  pomogatel' 'helper*, i n s t e a d o f pornoscnik i d . (Za.iaci.i r e miz . p. 559); i t i s d e r i v e d from pomogat' 'to h e l p * by means o f the s u f f i x  -tel';  postyzdenie  'shame, d i s g r a c e ' , from p o s t y d i t '  'to put to  shame' and the s u f f i x - e n i e (Levsa. pp. 36, 41); t h i s word f e a t u r e s the Old Church S l a v o n i c zd (from *d.i). i n stead o f the Russian z, which emphasizes  the i n t e n d e d  a r c h a i c tone; vn.iatie  ' a t t e n t i o n ' , i n s t e a d o f vnimanie i d . (Otbornoe  zerao. p. 281); i t i s d e r i v e d from vn.iat' 'to l i s t e n t o , heed' by means o f the s u f f i x - t i e .  I t may  be observed t h a t , i n some o f Leskov's nominal  neologisms formed by means o f suffixation/,; he has merely r e p l a c e d one s u f f i x by another, f o r example evrope.i i n s t e a d o f evropeec i d . ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 209). The  'European', unpro-  d u c t i v e s u f f i x -e.1. which i s found i n a small number o f nouns mostly found i n substandard s p e e c h , ^ has a l s o been used by 1  Leskov i n the word pare.i 'wager, b e t ' , which he d e r i v e d from p a r i i d . (Levsa. p. 55).  A s i m i l a r example i s katastrofi.ia.: 'catastrophe', i n stead o f k a t a s t r o f a i d . ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 20?). In t h i s i n vented word Leskov has s u b s t i t u t e d the s u f f i x ^ a by the unprod u c t i v e s u f f i x - i . i a . O c c a s i o n a l l y Leskov adds a s u f f i x to an e x i s t i n g word, such as p r o t e s t a n t i s t  ' P r o t e s t a n t ' , a word  t h a t i s formed w i t h the s u f f i x - i s t . added to p r o t e s t a n t i d . (Levsa. p. 47). The s u f f i x - i s t o c c u r s i n Russian only i n l e x i c a l borrowings.  Two  a d d i t i o n a l examples o f Leskov's neologisms t h a t  39 are d e v e r b a t i v e nouns formed w i t h the use o f s u f f i x a t i o n have been a t t e s t e d ! brykada ki.i syn. p. 7 0 ) ,  'stomping,  kicking*  (Leon, dvorec-  from b r y k a t ' 'to stomp, k i c k ' w i t h the un-  p r o d u c t i v e s u f f i x -ada t h a t denotes a prolonged a c t i o n , perestaca  'ceasing, stopping* (Levsa. p. 33)•  from  1 1  and  perestat'  'to cease, s t o p * .  A d j e c t i v e s formed by means o f s u f f i x a t i o n are among Leskov's neologisms. One t e x t s i s netova  few  example encountered i n the  (zeml.ia) 'barren e a r t h ' (Polunos'cniki. p.  148). I t i s d e r i v e d from n e t  'there i s n o t ' w i t h the a i d o f  the s u f f i x -ov t h a t b u i l d s p o s s e s s i v e a d j e c t i v e s i n Russian 12 and, as a r u l e , may  be added o n l y to proper names.  examples i n c l u d e o k a t i s t y . i  ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 133)»  Other derived  from the verb o k a t ' 'to r e t a i n an u n s t r e s s e d /o/ i n pronunc i a t i o n ' w i t h the s u f f i x - i s t - . and prosvirkovaty.i b l i n g Communion bread*  ( i b i d . . p. 137)•  'resem-  d e r i v e d from  •Communion bread' by means o f the s u f f i x -ovat- t h a t  prosvira forms  a d j e c t i v e s i n Russian. Much more numerous than a d j e c t i v e s are  denominative  verbs formed by means o f s u f f i x a t i o n . The s u f f i x e s most f r e q u e n t l y u t i l i z e d by Leskov i n verbs are - a t ' . - e t ' and The f o l l o w i n g v e r b a l neologisms, ,excerpted from  -it'.  Leskov's  s t o r i e s , are formed w i t h these s u f f i x e s 1 aminit'  *to say"amen" *, d e r i v e d from amin' 'amen* (Pe-  c e r s k i e a n t i k i . p.  169);  40 basnit'  'to r e l a t e f a b l e s ' , from basn.ia  cuzerecit'  'fable't ^ 1  'to speak i n a f o r e i g n language', from cuz o.j v  • f o r e i g n ' and r e c ' 'speech's delikatit's.ia  14  'to be f a s t i d i o u s ' , from delikatny.1  'deli-  c a t e , f a s t i d i o u s ' ( V o l t e l ' n i c a . p. 157)» fel'dserit' fel'dser  'to work as a d o c t o r ' s a s s i s t a n t ' , from  'doctor's a s s i s t a n t ' ( K a d e t s k i j  monastvr')»  mamakat'. t h a t has the meaning 'to say "mother"', from mama 'mother' (Leon, dvorecki.1 syn. p. 7 6 ) ;  i t i s formed  w i t h the d e r i v a t i o n a l morpheme -k- and the s u f f i x - a t ' ; -kat* o f t e n o c c u r s i n Russian onomatopoeic verbs; m l n u s i t ' w i t h the meaning 'to s u b s t r a c t ' , from minus •minus'  (Leon, dvorecki.1 syn. p. 741 P o l u n o s c n i k i . p.  133)s m e r z a v i t ' 'to behave i n a v i l l a i n o u s manner', from zavec  'scoundrel, v i l l a i n '  ( V o i t e l ' n i c a . p.  muzykat' w i t h the meaning 'to p l a y music  mer-  186);  (on the p i a n o ) ' ,  from muzyka 'music' (Bely.i o r e l . p. 18) t o r g a n i t ' w i t h the meaning 'to sound l i k e an organ' ( i t r e f e r s to s i n g i n g v o i c e s ) , from organ 'organ (music)' ( L e d i Makbet Mcenskogo uezda. p. papakat'  129);  'to say " f a t h e r " ' , from papa  r e c k i . i syn. p.  ' f a t h e r ' (Leon, dvo-  76)}  p l . i u s i t ' w i t h the meaning 'to add', from p i .jus 'plus* (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 7^5 P o l u n o s c n i k i . p.  133)?  41 popit'  'to be a p r i e s t ' , from pop  a n t i k i , p.  'priest'  (Pecerskie  169);  v c e r k o v i t ' s . i a w i t h the meaning 'to be i n i t i a t e d the Church' (Zapecatlennv.i a n g e l , p. 3^5)»  into  i t i s formed  w i t h the p r e f i x Vr. ' i n , i n t o ' and c e r k o v ' 'church*; v i n o v a t i t 's.ia 'to behave i n a g u i l t y manner', from v i n o vatv.i  'guilty';  1 7  18 zaaminet' 'to say "amen" c o n t i n u a l l y * , from amin'  'amen'j  the p r e f i x za- denotes i n t e n s i t y o f an a c t i o n . In d i s c u s s i n g the above examples  i t may  be noted t h a t  Leskov has used the s u f f i x - i t ' . which as a r u l e i s p r o d u c t i ve o n l y f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f d e a d j e c t i v a l v e r b s , to form denominative verbs ( c f . m e r z a v i t ' ) . Verbs formed from nouns and a d j e c t i v e s o c c u r f r e q u e n t l y i n Leskov's v o c a b u l a r y and  illus-  t r a t e w e l l the w r i t e r ' s i n v e n t i v e n e s s .  Compounding  Another method o f word-formation i n the R u s s i a n l a n guage i s compounding. T h i s method c o n s i s t s o f j o i n i n g  two  l e x i c a l morphemes i n t o a s i n g l e word, as a r u l e by means o f the b i n d i n g morphemes -o-/-e-. I t i s p r o d u c t i v e only f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f nouns and a d j e c t i v e s . Leskov u t i l i z e d the method o f compounding to form a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f nouns and a d j e c t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g the f o l l o w i n g *  42 bogotvomy.i  i n bogotvornye ikonv 'holy i c o n s  (lit.,  icons, c r e a t e d by God)*, formed w i t h bog 'God' and t v o r i t •to c r e a t e ' (Levsa. p. 50: P o l u n o s c n i k i . pp. 169, 1 ? 0 ) ; d r e v i e s t e p e n n y j 'respected-drevle  1  1 9  i n former times', formed w i t h  'long ago' and stepenny.i  'honourable, r e s p e c t e d '  ( S t o p a l ' s c i k . p. 96); gluporoadenny.1  'stupid from b i r t h ' , from glupyJ  and a p a r t i c i p l e o f r o d i t '  'stupid'  'to g i v e b i r t h t o ' (Zametki  n e i z v e s t n o g o . p. 378)} the noun gluporozden'e a l s o o c c u r s ( i b i d . . p. 3 8 0 )  }  kamnesecenny.i ' s c u l p t u r e d , c u t from stone', from kamen* •stone' and a p a r t i c i p l e o f s e c ' 'to c u t ' (Levsa. p. 33)} krivoputok  'winding a l l e y '  (Levsa. p. 56)} i t o c c u r s a l s o  i n the s t o r y Leon, dvorecki.i syn w i t h the meaning o f •detour' (p. 65)} i t i s formed w i t h k r i v o . i  'awry, c u r v i n g '  and a d e r i v e d noun from p u t ' 'way, path'; krugosvet w i t h the meaning 'the wide w o r l d ' , from krug ' c i r c l e ' and svet  'world' ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 20?)}  mnogoobo^aemy.i w i t h the meaning 'much worshipped*,  from  mnogo 'much' and a p a r t i c i p l e o f obozat' 'to worship' (Za.iaci.i remiz. p. 541)} myl'nopJTny.i  i n the phrase myl'nopil'ny.i zavod  m i l l ' , from my 1* ny.i  'soap ( a d j ; ) ' and p i l i t '  •soap-  *to saw'  (Levsa. p. 26)} novonacatie t h a t has the meaning 'new commencement', from novy;) 'new* and n a c a t ' 'to b e g i n ' (Zametki n e i z v e s t n o g o . p. 324)}  *3 ognepal jasci.i ' f i e r y ' , from ogon' ' f i r e ' and p a l i t ' 'to burn' (Zapeoatlennv.1 angel, p. 324); pjscepitanie 'nourishment', from pisca 'food' and pitanie 'nourishment' (Za.iaci.i remiz. p. 515) J pi see p r i emna ,i a i n piscepriemnaja zala ' d i n i n g - h a l l ' , from pisca 'food* and p r i emna .i a 'reception' (Levsa. p. 48); pustomyslie 'simplemindedness', from pusto .i 'empty' and a derived form o f mvsl' 'thought* (Polunoscniki. p. 192); -myslie occurs i n Russian compounds; srebropozlascennv.i ' g i l t with s i l v e r (adj)* (Levsa. p. 3 3 ) ; t h i s word i s formed from the Church Slavonic srebro ' s i l v e r (subst.)' and the past passive p a r t i c i p l e of p o z l a t i t ' *to g i l d * ; srebrouzden 'with a s i l v e r b r i d l e ' , also from the Church Slavonic srebro ' s i l v e r (subst.)* and from the short form of the past passive p a r t i c i p l e of uzdat' 'to b r i d l e , curb' (Zapecatlenny.i angel, p. 3^*0» svetlobozestvenny.i with the meaning 'godly*, from s v e t l y j ' l i g h t ' and bozestvenny.i 'godly, divine* (Zapecatlenny.i angel, p. 324); svetlo- ' l i g h t * occurs i n Russian compounds; vezdeprisutstvie 'omnipresence', instead o f vezdesuscie id.  (Polunoscniki. p. 190); i t i s formed with vezde 'eve-  rywhere* and p r i s u t s t v i e 'presence'; vse'gubitel'stvo. which denotes 'complete destruction* (Ocarovanny.i strannik);  i t i s formed with ves' ' a l l *  and a derived noun from gubit' 'to r u i n , destroy'; xramozdatel' 'builder of churches', from xram 'temple  44 (church)' and z d a t e l '  ' b u i l d e r ' , a noun t h a t , r e g u l a r l y ,  does not occur i n Russian (Belv.i ore'l. p. 6)» the l a t ter  noun has been d e r i v e d by Leskov from the r o o t  ZD-/ZID- ' b u i l d , e d i f y ' ( d f . zdanie ' b u i l d i n g ' and sozidat'  'to c o n s t r u c t , b u i l d * ) i  zlatokuznec  'goldsmith*, from the Church S l a v o n i c  'gold' and kuznec  zlato  'smith* (0 p o v e s t i "Zenon-zlatokuznec".  p. 240); zlopomnenie w i t h the meaning 'the remembering  of e v i l '  (Zaja'ci 1 r e m i z . p. 537)I t h i s word i s formed by Leskov 1  from z l o ' e v i l ' and a d e v e r b a t i v e noun from pomnit' 'to  remember', e v i d e n t l y , by analogy w i t h other com-  pound words w i t h z l o - ' e v i l ' , such as zlode.ianie  'evil  deed'j zivotol.lubivy.i t h a t has the meaning 'who ( a d j . ) ' , from the Church S l a v o n i c z i v o t -l.iubivy.i ' l i t . . the  loves 'life'  life and  l o v i n g ' (Zapecatlennv.i a n g e l , p.  3^8):  l a t t e f word-forming element appears f r e q u e n t l y i n  Russian compound a d j e c t i v e s , such as x r i s t o l . i u b i v y . i  'who  loves C h r i s t ' .  Most o f the above compound words d i s p l a y p r e c i s i o n o f e x p r e s s i o n . In g e n e r a l , the method o f compounding has been e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e d by Leskov. Many o f h i s compounded a d j e c t i v e s serve as e p i t h e t s and belong t o an e l e v a t e d , style for  solemn  (Gf. Qgnepal.iasci.i ' f i e r y ' , which i s used as an e p i t h e t  a sword). From the p o i n t o f view o f t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  these formations do not always e x h i b i t n o v e l t y , as compound words have a time-honoured t r a d i t i o n i n the R u s s i a n language and l i t e r a t u r e . Leskov made f r e q u e n t use o f l e x i c a l morphemes  *5 t h a t o c c u r i n many R u s s i a n compounds. However, Leskov's compounds, from the viewpoint o f t h e i r semantic i n most i n s t a n c e s are s t r i k i n g l y  peculiarities,  original.  The f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s o f the main s t r u c t u r a l d e v i c e s employed  by Leskov shows that the m a j o r i t y o f h i s neologisms  have been c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h the use o f common p r o c e s s e s o f a f f i x a t i o n and compounding. Leskov's s e l e c t i o n o f a f f i x e s  il-  l u s t r a t e s h i s s t r i v i n g to r e i n f o r c e e x p r e s s i v i t y . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e i n the i n s t a n c e s where he has m o d i f i e d e x i s t i n g l e x i c a l items by s u b s t i t u t i n g one a f f i x f o r another.  The neologisms d i s c u s s e d above i n most c a s e s a r e e i t h e r markedly c o l l o q u i a l o r , i n some c a s e s , a r c h a i c .  The  s t y l i s t i c tone o f the new words i s g e n e r a l l y i n p e r f e c t acc o r d w i t h the c o n t e x t i n which they o c c u r .  Although Leskov has o c c a s i o n a l l y employed  non-pro-  d u c t i v e morphemes to form new words, he has never n e g l e c t e d the laws o f grammar. A l l o f the neologisms d i s c u s s e d above are formed i n compliance w i t h the e x i s t i n g r u l e s o f d e r i v a t i o n i n the Russian language.  46  REFERENCES TO CHAPTER I I I  1  S t a n k i e w i c z , E., "The Interdependence o f Paradigmatic  and D e r i v a t i o n a l P a t t e r n s , " Word 18, 1962, p. 3 . 2  V.V. Vinogradov s t a t e s t h a t the verb i s the most complex grammatical c a t e g o r y o f the Russian language. He a s c r i b e s t h i s t o the v a r i e t y o f a c t i v e meaning o f v e r b a l p r e f i x e s . See Vinogradov, V.V., Russki.i .iazyk.  Moskva-Lenin-  grad, 19^7. pp. »-22 and 427. /  -^Townsend, C.E., R u s s i a n Word-formation.New York. 1968. p. 149. ^ C i t e d by B.M.  Drugov, N.S. Leskov. Ocerk  tvorcestva.  Moskva, 1957. p. 168. ^ S a t i r i c a l S t o r i e s o f N i k o l a i Leskov. Edgerton, (Ed.), New York, 1969,  p. 1°3.  ^ T h i s word o c c u r s i n the t i t l e t i t l e o f K.M.  W.B.  volsebny.i s t r e l e c (the  von Weber's opera Der F r e i s c h u t z ) . whereas the  normal R u s s i a n t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s t i t l e  i s volsebny.i  strelok.  The word s t r e l e c a c t u a l l y means ' s o l d i e r i n the Russian army of  the seventeenth c e n t u r y ' .  ^Vinogradov, OP. c i t . . the  p. 100. A d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f  s u f f i x -ec i s g i v e n on pp. 99-101.  Humesky, A., Ma.iakovski.i and h i s Neologisms. New  York,  ^7 1964, p. 28. See a l s o Efimov, A . I . , Jazyk s a t i r y  Saltykova-  S c e d r i n a . Moskva, 1953, p. 356. g  Vinogradov notes t h a t the s u f f i x -an o c c u r s predominantly i n c o l l o q u i a l  nouns w i t h a p e j o r a t i v e meaning. See  Vinogradov, op. c i t . . p. 103. 10  V i n o g r a d o v , op. c i t . . p. 96, c i t e s a l s o  • l i t e r a t e person' and bogate.i  'rich  gramotej  man'.  ^ V i n o g r a d o v , OP. c i t . . p. 142. 12  Townsend, OP. c i t . . pp. 225-226.  -'Cited by L. Grossman, N.S. Leskov. Z i z n ' - t v o r c e s t v o - p o e t i k a . Moskva, 19^5. P« 287.  1  ^ I b i d . . p. 28?.  • ^ C i t e d by A.S. O r l o v , p j s a t e l e j . Moskva-Leningrad,  "Jazyk Leskova," Jazyk r u s s k i x 19^8, p. 165.  Vinogradov, OP. c i t . . p. 434. 1 7  C i t e d by M.V.  Kankava, "0 v l i j a n i i V . I . D a l j a na  stil'  p i s a t e l e j e t n o g r a f i c e s k o j s k o l y , " P o e t i k a i s t i l i s t i k a russko.i l i t e r a t u r y . Akademija Nauk, Leningrad, 1971*  P»  179.  18 C i t e d by Grossman, op. c i t . . p. 287. * T h i s word i s a c o r r u p t i o n o f cudotvorny.i working'. See Leskov, N.S., Vol.  V I I , p. 507.  'wonder-  Sobranie socineni.1. Moskva, 1958,  48 C i t e d by A.B. Ansberg, "Frame Story and F i r s t Person S t o r y i n N.S.  Leskov," S c a n d o - S l a v i c a 3 .  1957.  P. 66.  k9  CHAPTER IV NEOLOGISMSi SEMANTIC CATEGORIES Among the v a r i o u s sources f o r Leskov's neologisms an important r o l e i s p l a y e d by semantic f a c t o r s . Neologisms i n a l i t e r a r y work are not always the r e s u l t o f the w r i t e r ' s u t i l i z a t i o n o f the d e r i v a t o r y procedures e x i s t i n g i n the l a n guage. New  words can a l s o appear i n a w r i t e r ' s v o c a b u l a r y as  a r e s u l t o f h i s r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g words o r word elements. Many o f Leskov's neologisms e x h i b i t o r i g i n a l  traits  t h a t are r e l a t e d t o the meanings o f l e x i c a l s i g n s . Words o f t h i s k i n d , Leskov's s l o v e c k i as they are sometimes c a l l e d , are c l e a r l y designed by the w r i t e r f o r semantic e f f e c t . A c e r t a i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n the way  these words are made up can  be observed. They occur r e p e a t e d l y i n Leskov's s t o r i e s and are an o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e o f h i s v o c a b u l a r y . One may them t o g e t h e r a c c o r d i n g to semantic c a t e g o r i e s and t h e i r semantic  discuss  characteristics.  The r e a d e r may way  group  a t times be p u z z l e d by the p e r p l e x i n g  i n which the characterswho f i g u r e i n Leskov's s t o r i e s ex-  press themselves and by the odd words they use. In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the n a r r a t i v e o f Leon, dvorecki.i svn. Leskov has e x p l a i n e d t h a t the language o f the s t o r y to f o l l o w i s m o t t l e d w i t h misused words. T h i s d i s t o r t e d language, a c c o r d i n g to Les-  50 kov,  i s caused by the n a r r a t o r s ' e f f o r t to i m i t a t e the con-  v e r s a t i o n a l s t y l e o f the s o c i a l m i l i e u to which the  charac-  t e r s belong. Being unable to reproduce the genuine speech h a b i t s o f the c h a r a c t e r s ,  the n a r r a t o r s a s c r i b e the most f a n -  c i f u l words to them i n order t h a t t h e i r language may semble simple s p e e c h .  1  Accordingly,  a considerable  words t h a t occur i n an unexpected context  can be  not  re-  number o f  encountered  i n Leskov's s t o r i e s . These words i n many cases b e l o n g to a more e l e v a t e d and speech. The  l i t e r a r y sphere than the speaker's normal  f o l l o w i n g examples may  illustrate  thisi  bekren' 'migraine', i n s t e a d o f migren' i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i  syn. p. 72);  bekren' o r d i n a r i l y occurs only i n the  adverb nabekren' ' s l a n t i n g , askew*; d a l 'novidny.i i n d a l 'novidny.i v e n o k l '  t h a t has  the meaning  -  • f a r - s e e i n g b i n o c u l a r s ' (Leon, dvorecki.i d a l 'novidny.i  syn. p.  ' f a r - s e e i n g , f a r - s i g h t e d * does not  c o l l o c a t e with b i n o k l '  o  64); normally  'binoculars';  dozdlivy.i i n dozdlivy.i zontik  'umbrella', i n s t e a d  dozdevo.i z o n t i k i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i  of  syn. p. 7*0;  the  l i t e r a l meaning o f d o z d l i v y . i i s ' r a i n y ' v e r s u s dozdevo.i •rain (adj.)'; iskusstvenny.i  i n iskusstvennye k l a s s y  'art c l a s s e s ' , i n -  stead o f k l a s s y i s k u s s t v a i d . ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. iskusstvenny.i  means  'artificial*;  mezdometie, used i n the sense o f  'place*, i n s t e a d  mesto i d . ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 144); means ' i n t e r j e c t i o n  147);  ( i n grammar)';  of  mezdometie a c t u a l l y  51 mezdousobny.i i n mezdousobnve razgovory. meant t o designate  'intimate c o n v e r s a t i o n s ' (Levsa. p. 26) j mezdousobny.i  o r d i n a r i l y occurs only i n the e x p r e s s i o n mezdousobnve raspri  'internecine s t r i f e ' ;  monumental 'ny.i i n monumental'na,1a f o t o g r a f i . i a w i t h the meaning 'instantaneous photograph', i n s t e a d o f momental'na.ia f o t o g r a f i . i a i d . ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 169); monumental'ny.i means 'monumental' •  Some words t h a t a r e misused by Leskov's n a r r a t o r s and c h a r a c t e r s occur i n e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t may seem a l t o g e t h e r incomprehensible, 'lit.,  f o r example koncert desevyx  studentov.  c o n c e r t o f inexpensive s t u d e n t s ' (Leon, dvorecki.i syn.  p. 6 9 ) . I t i s meant to denote ' c h a r i t y c o n c e r t f o r poor s t u dents' and i s , e v i d e n t l y , a c o r r u p t i o n o f koncert v p o l ' z u bednvx studentov 'lit.,  i d . A f u r t h e r example i s besscetny.i l e k a r '  innumerable d o c t o r ' , which i n the context r e f e r s t o  a d o c t o r who does not care whether he i s p a i d by h i s p a t i e n t s or not ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 141).  Many l e x i c a l items t h a t are used i n an unexpected c o n t e x t , a c c o r d i n g t o Leskov h i m s e l f , are intended to d i s p l a y the remarkable o r i g i n a l i t y o f the simple minds o f h i s n a r r a t o r s and c h a r a c t e r s .  3  For example, the e x p r e s s i o n  52 dvuspal'noe k o l ' c o w i t h the meaning 'wedding r i n g ' , of venial'noe  kol'co  i d . , produces a comic e f f e c t  recki.i syn. p. 70). The  a d j e c t i v e dvuspal'ny.i  curs o n l y i n the e x p r e s s i o n  instead  (Leon,  dvo-  generally  dvuspal 'na.ia k r o v a t '  oc-  'double  bed'.  In some i n s t a n c e s ,  the r e a d e r can p e r c e i v e  c o m i c a l l y d i s t o r t e d speech o f Leskov's c h a r a c t e r s t e r ' s commentary on Russian s o c i a l and example, Leskov's e x p r e s s i o n  through the  wri-  political life.  Poverxnost na.ia Komissi.ia  Verxovna.ia Raspor.iaditel'na.ia Komissi.ia Committee' ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 148).  'Supreme  In u s i n g the  the  For distorts  Executive adjective  poverxnostna.ia ' s u p e r f i c i a l ' , i n s t e a d o f verxovna.ia 'supreme' i n t h i s expression,  Leskov a l l u d e s w i t h i r o n y to the.  dently  q u a l i t y o f t h a t committee.  perfunctory  Other examples i n c l u d e popul.iarny.i s o v e t n i k  evi-  'lit.,  p u l a r c o u n s e l l o r ' which i s used i n s t e a d o f titul.iarny.i nik  ' t i t u l a r counsellor  Russia)' ny.i  sovet-  (the lowest c i v i l rank i n t s a r i s t  ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 162).  'popular' f o r t i t u l . i a r n y . i  In s u b s t i t u t i n g popul.iar-  'titular' in this  expression,  Leskov's purpose i s , e v i d e n t l y , to emphasize the lowly o f t h i s government o f f i c i a l . Pravoslavnoe obozrenie  po-  F i n a l l y , Leskov has  rank  changed  'Orthodox Review*, the t i t l e  of a  popular magazine, i n t o Pravoslavnoe voobrazenie. s u b s t i t u t i n g voobrazenie  'imagination,  fancy*  f o r obozrenie  p a r e n t l y a l s o f o r the purpose o f s a t i r e  'review',  (Putesestv^e  ap-  s ni-  53 g i l i s t o m , p. 128).  Word p l a y  The  language o f Leskov's s t o r i e s abounds i n puns and  other v a r i e t i e s o f word p l a y . The device o f punning i s gener a l l y understood to mean the humorous use o f l e x i c a l  items  t h a t sound a l i k e but a r e d i f f e r e n t i n meaning. I n the m a j o r i t y o f h i s puns Leskov has m o d i f i e d  a word, thereby endowing  i t w i t h a double meaning. I n one i n s t a n c e he e x p l i c i t l y comments on the word p l a y i n v o l v e d . Thus, the f o l l o w i n g sentence i s found i n Polunoscniki» Ee im.ia bvlo K l o t i l ' d a . no my K r u t i l ' d o . i ee n a z v v a l i mo. a k r u t i t  f  potomu ctoeona. v s e . b y v a l o . ne pr.ia-  ... 'Her name was K l o t i l d a , but we used t o c a l l  her K r u t i l d a , because she never s a i d anything kept t w i s t i n g around ...' (p. 138). been m o d i f i e d  s t r a i g h t , but  The name K l o t i l ' d a has  by Leskov on the b a s i s o f k r u t i t '  'to t w i s t ' .  In d i s c u s s i n g t h i s name, McLean mentions t h a t i t i s i n f a c t a t r i p l e pun, s i n c e a secondary meaning o f the verb k r u t i t ' is  'to have an amorous r e l a t i o n s h i p ' .  McLean's  observation  is  j u s t i f i e d by the f a c t t h a t the person on whom the n i c k -  name i s bestowed i s the m i s t r e s s o f one o f the main charact e r s i n the s t o r y .  Among Leskov's s l o v e c k i t h a t are w e l l known and o f t e n c i t e d i n s t u d i e s i n which the w r i t e r ' s use o f puns i s men-  5* t i o n e d i s the f o l l o w i n g example. The name o f the i n n where the n a r r a t i o n o f P o l u n o s c n i k i takes p l a c e i s A z i d a c i . i a (p.  117).^  I t i s a l e x i c a l blend o f o z i d a n i e  t i o n ' and a z i t a c i . i a  'waiting, expecta-  ' a g i t a t i o n ' . T h i s pun i s j u s t i f i e d i n  the c o n t e x t , because o f the tumult t h a t u s u a l l y o c c u r s i n the i n n , where the people a r e w a i t i n g to meet a famous Church o f f i c i a l . I t may be added, t h a t t h e word a z i d a c i . i a i s a l s o elsewhere i n the s t o r y used by Leskov i n the sense o f 'audience, formal interview'.'  In many o f Leskov's puns the reader may observe that the w r i t e r ' s p l a y on two meanings i s j u s t i f i e d by the cont e x t i n which the pun o c c u r s . An example i s propuganda •propaganda',  used by Leskov i n s t e a d o f propaganda i d . i n  the sentence propugandu s d e l a t *  ... ,1a nicego ne bo .jus' 'to  make propaganda ... I am n o t a f r a i d o f a n y t h i n g ' (Leon, dvor e c k i . i syn. p. 7 0 ) . pugat'  I t e v i n c e s an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the verb  'to f r i g h t e n ' .  In g e n e r a l , the most e f f e c t i v e puns t h a t a r e encount e r e d i n Leskov's vocabulary a r e those words t h a t f i t the rhythm and the sound-pattern o f the o r i g i n a l , uncorrupted l e x i c a l items ( c f . K r u t i l ' d a  ' K r u t i l d a ' ) . F u r t h e r examples  o f Leskov's puns are* dvuxsestny.i  'two-seater', i n s t e a d o f dvuxmestny.i i d .  (Levs'a, p. 27) j t h i s e x p r e s s i o n i s used i n r e f e r e n c e to a coach: the l a t t e r word i s m o d i f i e d on the b a s i s o f the verb s e s t '  'to s i t down':  55 Gubinoty. used by Leskov's n a r r a t o r s i n s t e a d o f Gugenoty  'The  Huguenots', the t i t l e o f the opera by G.  beer (Leon, dvorecki.i svn. p. 68; it  Meyer-  P o l u n o s c n i k i . p.  i s , e v i d e n t l y , meant to evoke a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  'to s p o i l , r u i n ' and noty  'notes (music)'  147); gubit'  f o r the  effect  o f parody; K i s e l ' v r o d e . i n s t e a d o f Nessel'rode (Count N e s s e l r o d e , Alexander I's S e c r e t a r y (Levsa. p. 47); from k i s e l '  o f State f o r F o r e i g n  i t i s evident  ' k i s s e l , starchy  the purpose o f t h i s pun  Affairs)  t h a t t h i s word i s formed j e l l y * and  i s obscure and  vrode  'like';  i t appears to  be  a jocular distortion; kleveton  ' f e u i l l e t o n ' , i n s t e a d o f f e l ' e t o n i d . , where  Leskov somewhat m a l i c i o u s l y a l l u d e s to k l e v e t a der'  (Levsa,  p.  'slan-  48);  kl.iuko. a word t h a t i s meant to denote the French champagne Veuve C l i o u o t  ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 160);  i t i s used  by an i n t o x i c a t e d c h a r a c t e r a t t e n d i n g a p a r t y and a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the c o l l o q u i a l verb k l j u k n u t '  evokes  'to  be-  come i n t o x i c a t e d ' ;  Kvazimorda. used by Leskov's n a r r a t o r i n s t e a d o f  Kvazi-  modo (Quasimodo, the c h a r a c t e r i n V. Hugo's famous n o v e l Notre Dame de P a r i s )  (Leon, d v o r e c k i j syn. p. 67);  this  c o r r u p t i o n , induced by morda 'snout, ugly f a c e ' , m a l i c i o u s l y h i n t s a t the appearance o f t h a t lygenda. meant to denote  character;  'legend', i s used i n s t e a d  legenda i d . (Nesmertel'nv.i Golovan. p. 392);  of  i t occurs  56 i n the sentence Golovan ne lygenda. a pravda not a legend hut the t r u t h ' ( i b i d . . p. 392) a s s o c i a t i o n with the verb l g a t ' polskiper  'Golovan i s and  evokes  'to l i e ' ;  ' a s s i s t a n t s k i p p e r , s k i p p e r ' s deputy', i n s t e a d  o f podskiper i d . (Levsa. p. 5*0? the p r e f i x podhas been s u b s t i t u t e d by p o l - ' h a l f ;  'under*  Leskov's purpose i s  to endow the word w i t h a d e p r e c i a t o r y c o n n o t a t i o n ; pravotcy id.  ' f o r e f a t h e r s , a n c e s t o r s ' , i n s t e a d o f praotcy  (Levsa. p. 50);  t h i s word occurs i n the  sentence  ... kak v e r i l i na¥i p r a v o t c y . tak ze ... dolzny i  potomcy 'the way  t h e i r descendants  our f o r e f a t h e r s b e l i e v e d i s the  kom  way  have to b e l i e v e ' ; the d i s t o r t e d word  evokes a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h prav vospital'  verit'  'right';  ' h o s p i t a l * , i n s t e a d o f g o s p i t a l ' i d . ("0 r u s s -  r a s s e l e n i i , " Vrem.ia. 1861,  No.  which evokes a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h vos'  12,  p. 77);  'louse' and  this  pun,  pitat'  'to f e e d ' , expresses Leskov's low o p i n i o n o f the h y g i enic c o n d i t i o n s o f some o f the h o s p i t a l s ; o x a p - f r a u . i n s t e a d o f the German H o f f r a u a court t i t l e  7  which d e s i g n a t e s  (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 66);  t i o n w i t h the verb xapat'  the a s s o c i a -  'to p i l f e r ' causes the d i s t o r t e d  word to a c q u i r e a p e j o r a t i v e meaning. Not a l l o f Leskov's puns are neologisms  i n the  strict  sense. In a number o f i n s t a n c e s Leskov's use o f e x i s t i n g words i n a new  context can be observed. Thus, throughout  the n a r r a -  t i v e o f P o l u n o s c n i k i there i s a r e c u r r e n t m o t i f o f punning on grammatical dom  terms.  1 0  An example i s the e x p r e s s i o n r o d i t e l ' n y . i  'maternity home' . i n s t e a d o f r o d i l ' n y . i dom  i d . (p.  160).  57 The  a d j e c t i v e r o d i t e l ' n v j i s r e g u l a r l y used as a term i n  v grammar, as i n r o d i t e l ' n y j padez ' g e n i t i v e case'. Many s i m i l a r puns on grammatical terms occur i n P o l u n o s c n i k i .  designed  by Leskov f o r comic e f f e c t . Also humorous i s Leskov's use o f the word burgonskoe •Burgundy ( a d j . ) ' i n the e x p r e s s i o n r o z a burgonskaja 'a f a c e o f the c o l o u r o f Burgundy' ( P o l u n o s d n i k i . p. 159). used i n r e f e r e n c e to a c h a r a c t e r who bout. The  has been on a d r i n k i n g  a d j e c t i v e burgonskoe. however, occurs  i n burgonskoe vino  It i s  ordinarily  'Burgundy wine'.  I t can be observed from the examples c i t e d above, t h a t Leskov i n most i n s t a n c e s o f word p l a y has l e f t the b a s i c meaning o f a word i n t a c t , but has endowed i t with humorous or s a t i r i c a l  connotations.  Popular  etymology  I t i s a well-known f a c t t h a t most o f Leskov's famous s l o v e c k i are c o n s t r u c t e d on the p r i n c i p l e o f popular gy. The  process o f popular  etymolo-  etymology can be d e f i n e d as a  change i n the s p e l l i n g or p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f words, to make them look o r sound more s i m i l a r to o t h e r words, w i t h l i t t l e to s i m i l a r i t y i n meaning o r d e r i v a t i o n .  1 1  regard  I t u s u a l l y takes  p l a c e because the speaker i s not f a m i l i a r w i t h the o b j e c t o r  58 i d e a t h a t a word denotes. E s s e n t i a l l y , a r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a concept, unknown t o the speaker, i n more f a m i l i a r  terms  takes p l a c e . L e x i c a l items t h a t appear as a r e s u l t o f popul a r etymology  are based on s y n c h r o n i c a s s o c i a t i o n s and have 12  n o t h i n g to do w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l antecedents o f words. Leskov has d e l i b e r a t e l y used the s e m a s i o l o g i c a l d e v i c e o f popular etymology  i n o r d e r to make the speech o f the person-  ages i n h i s s t o r i e s as e x p r e s s i v e as p o s s i b l e . When Leskov's n a r r a t o r s and c h a r a c t e r s use  learned  words o r r e f e r to phenomena t h a t are o u t s i d e the scope o f t h e i r knowledge they i n t e r p r e t them i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l f o l l o w i n g t h e i r own  l o g i c and i n t u i t i o n . The semantic  way,  logic  i s o f t e n supplanted by a s e a r c h f o r hidden c o n n o t a t i o n s . In many cases the i n v e n t e d words are the r e s u l t o f f a n c i f u l semantic c o n n e c t i o n s made by the n a r r a t o r s .  The process by which an e x i s t i n g word i s e x p l a i n e d i n a d i f f e r e n t way may  be t r a c e d i n the f o l l o w i n g d i a l o g u e from s  Nesmertel'ny.i Golovan. A personage  i n the s t o r y asks* "Eto  Golovan. v y x o d i t . b y l u vas c t o - t o vrode n o t a r i u s a ? " seems t h a t t h i s Golovan was narrator replies*  a s o r t o f n o t a r y ? ' , to which the  " I z - z a cego ze m o t a r i u s ! - Golovan b y l s p r a -  vedlivy.i c e l o v e k ! " eous man!'  'So i t  (p. 392).  'Why  a squanderer! - Golovan was  The word n o t a r i u s  a right-  'notary', unknown to  the n a r r a t o r , i s misunderstood by him and taken to mean •squanderer', through i t s apparent s i m i l a r i t y to the c o l l o -  59 q u i a l verb motat' milated  'to squander'. 13^ The  speaker, having  the u n f a m i l i a r word, reproduces i t w i t h o n l y  phonetic  m o d i f i c a t i o n , but  assi-  slight  endows i t w i t h a completely  diffe-  r e n t meaning.  In the  speech o f Leskov's n a r r a t o r s the semantic con-  n e c t i o n between a word and ses may  appear remote and  i t s p o p u l a r c o r r u p t i o n i n many c a incongruous to the reader.  In some  i n s t a n c e s , however, the a s s o c i a t i v e l i n k s e s t a b l i s h e d by them display s t r i k i n g inventiveness.  According  to Leskov  the d i s t o r t e d words are o f t e n i n d i c a t i v e o f the  himself,  subtle perspi-  c a c i t y o f the simple mind.  The  f o l l o w i n g p o p u l a r etymologies, o c c u r r i n g i n the  examined t e x t s , may  serve  to i l l u s t r a t e the i n v e n t i v e n e s s  o f t e n s t r i k i n g w i t w i t h which Leskov has o f the n a r r a t o r s or c h a r a c t e r s  endowed the  and  speech  i n his storiest  bugometri,1a 'book-keeping', i n s t e a d o f b u x g a l t e r i . i a i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 74) j the l a t t e r word has  been  r e i n t e r p r e t e d by Leskov's n a r r a t o r by analogy w i t h words t h a t c o n t a i n the sequence -metri.ja, such as  geometri.ia  •geometry', e t c . ; Bul'dygomus i g i t u r me  , i n s t e a d o f Gaudeamus i g i t u r . the  o f the well-known L a t i n student  syn, p. 69);  na-  song (Leon, dvorecki.i  t h i s word i s e v i d e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d by  kov's n a r r a t o r with the d i a l e c t a l buldyga  Les-  'inveterate  drunkard'; d o l b i c a umnozeni.ia ' m u l t i p l i c a t i o n t a b l e ' , i n s t e a d o f t a -  6o b l i c a umnozeni.ia i d . , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the verb 'to l e a r n w i t h d i f f i c u l t y * (Levsa. p. 53;  dolbit'  Polunoscniki.  p. 133); glazurnye ocjL 'azure eyes', i n s t e a d o f lazur'nye (Polunoscniki.p. glazur'  'glaze,  129); t h i s word i s a s s o c i a t e d  oci id. with  icing';  inpuzori ja 'infusorian', instead of i n f u z o r i j a  i d . (Polu-  n o s c n i k i . p. 140); the l a t t e r l e a r n e d word i s unknown to the n a r r a t o r and i s e r r o n e o u s l y ed w i t h puzo  'belly';  Kandelabri.ia. i n s t e a d o f K a l a b r i j a 28); and  b e l i e v e d t o be connect-  the l a t t e r i s o b v i o u s l y  'Calabria*  (Levsa. p.  u n f a m i l i a r t o the speaker  a s s o c i a t e d by him w i t h the noun kandel.iabr  'cande-  labrum '; k i s l . i a r k a . i n s t e a d o f k i z l . i a r k a . a vodka o f i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y , made i n the Caucasian r e g i o n K i z l . i a r a p. 4 7 ) ; the invented  (Levsa.  word i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h k i s l y j  'sour *; mi g a l *'e*ny 'medallions',  i n s t e a d o f medal 'ony i d . (Leon.  dvorecki.1 svn. p. 4 7 ) ; i t i s a s s o c i a t e d by Leskov's narr a t o r w i t h mjgat' 'to t w i n k l e , nimfozorija  sparkle';  'infusorian', instead of infuzori.ia i d .  (Levsa, p. 3 0 ) ; the l a t t e r word i s e v i d e n t l y unknown to Leskov's n a r r a t o r who m i s t a k e n l y a s s o c i a t e s i t w i t h nimfa  'nymph';  61 Paganistan. i n s t e a d o f A f g a n i s t a n  'Afghanistan'  (Polu-  n o s c n i k i . p. 159);  t h i s c o u n t r y , e v i d e n t l y , i s unknown  to the speaker and  a s s o c i a t e d by him w i t h pogany.i  gan,  'pa-  profane'j  prominaza 'promenade', i n s t e a d o f promenada i d . ( S t o p a l ' s c i k . p. 9*0;  the l a t t e r word i s a s s o c i a t e d by Leskov's  n a r r a t o r w i t h the verb prominat's.ia  'to take a walk,  stroll'; puncovka i n visneva.ia puncovka 'cherry vodka', i n s t e a d visneva.ia punsevka i d . ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 179);  of  this in-  vented word, e v i d e n t l y , i s a s s o c i a t e d by the speaker w i t h puncovy.i 'deep-red, crimson'; revol'ver-barbos.  instead of revol'ver-bul'dog,  r e v o l v e r with a short b a r r e l p. 126);  (Putesestvle  a type o f  s nigilistom.  the word bul'dog ' b u l l d o g ' i s c o r r e c t l y under-  stood by the speaker as denoting a canine breed, but i s r e i n t e r p r e t e d by him svetll'  as barbos 'watch-dog*;  'fuse, wick o f a candle',  (PuteJ-Testvie s n i g i l i s t o m . p.  instead of f i t i l ' i d .  129);the  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the verb s v e t i t '  'to  l a t t e r word i s  light';  Tverdizemnoe more, i n s t e a d o f Sredizemnoe more ranean sea'  (Levsa. p. 53);  the n a r r a t o r , who  m i l i a r with t h i s geographical w i t h t v e r d ' zemna.ia 'dry vifliemci.ia  name, has  'Mediteri s not f a -  associated i t  land';  ' i n f l u e n z a ' , i n s t e a d o f i n f l . i u e n c a i d . (Polu-  n o s c n i k i . p. 151);  the l a t t e r word i s a s s o c i a t e d by  speaker w i t h V i f l e e m  the  'Bethlehem'; the speaker i n the  sto-  r y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a speech t h a t abounds i n B i b l i c a l r e f e r e n c e s , which he employs, as i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , rectly.  incor-  62 S e v e r a l l i n g u i s t s have p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e term "popular etymology" i s somewhat m i s l e a d i n g . - * I t seems to 1  assume t h a t the phenomenon i s c o n f i n e d t o the speech o f the uneducated people and t h a t i t i s n o t found above a c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l l e v e l . T h i s i s n o t always the case. E t y m o l o g i c a l e r r o r s can be p e r p e t r a t e d a l s o by s e m i - l i t e r a t e and even  edu-  c a t e d people. T h i s i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n the way i n which the n a r r a t o r s i n Leskov's s t o r i e s express themselves. I n d i s c u s s i n g p o p u l a r etymology, a d i s t i n c t i o n should be made between mistaken i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , where a s s o c i a t i v e l i n k s have been made by the speaker o n l y on t h e b a s i s o f p h o n e t i c s i m i l a r i t y , and pseudo-learned s u b s t i t u t i o n s f o r e x i s t i n g words. The l a t t e r cases o f t e n i n d i c a t e t h a t the speaker i s f a m i l i a r w i t h the words i n v o l v e d . Consequently, the a s s o c i a t i v e l i n k s t h a t the speaker may make i n these cases a r e based on semantic similarity.  A c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f such words t h a t have taken on a d i f f e r e n t form on the b a s i s o f semantic c o n n e c t i o n w i t h o t h e r words o r morphemes i s encountered i n the speech o f the n a r r a t o r s o f Leskov's s t o r i e s . A few examples a r e g i v e n below t buremetr  'barometer*, i n s t e a d o f barometr i d . . o c c u r s i n  the sentence my na buremetr  ... s m o t r e l i t  bur.ia budet ...  'We have looked a t the barometer  . . . t a storm i s coming..*  (Levsa, p. 53)> the word-forming  element baro- i s r e i n t e r -  p r e t e d by the speaker through a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the noun bur.ia 'storm*, whereas the word-forming  element -metr i s  63 c o r r e c t l y understood by him as e x p r e s s i n g a measure} the word buremetr  'barometr' i n the g i v e n c o n t e x t d e s i g n a t e s  p r e c i s e l y t h e purpose f o r which t h i s o b j e c t i s used} melkoskop 'microscope', i n s t e a d o f mikroskop i d . (Ley¥a, p. 31)} t h e speaker has simply t r a n s l a t e d the f o r e i g n word-forming  element mikro-  'micro-' i n t o i t s Russian  e q u i v a l e n t melko-. from the a d j e c t i v e m e l k i j  'small'}  however, melko- i s n o t r e g u l a r l y used i n the above exp r e s s i o n , but e x i s t s i n o t h e r R u s s i a n words, f o r example i n the a d j e c t i v e melkovodnyj miliatjurnvj  'shallow'}  'miniature', i n s t e a d o f m i n i a t j u r n y j i d .  (Polunolc'hiki. p. 133) ? t h i s i n v e n t e d word has been assoc i a t e d by the speaker w i t h words t h a t are formed w i t h the metr  word-forming  element m i l l i -  'thousand-', as i n m i l l i -  'millimetre'.  A trait  t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s the above slovec'ki i s t h a t  they are l e x i c a l s u b s t i t u t i o n s c o n s c i o u s l y made by the speaker.  Leskov's n a r r a t o r s ' and c h a r a c t e r s ' a s s o c i a t i v e  inferences  o f t e n e x h i b i t a remarkable i n g e n u i t y , intended as they a r e by Leskov t o produce a comic e f f e c t upon the r e a d e r .  The course taken by the e t y m o l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g o f Leskov's n a r r a t o r s and c h a r a c t e r s can indeed be extremely whims i c a l . In t h e i r attempts to make concepts o r words t h a t a r e u n f a m i l i a r to them appear o r sound more l i k e words t h a t they are  f a m i l i a r w i t h , the speakers may e s t a b l i s h b i z a r r e  associ-  a t i v e l i n k s . The s l o v e c k i o f t h i s type may have no semantic c o n n e c t i o n whatsoever w i t h a c t u a l words t h a t the speakers  64 intended  to u t t e r . The a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t the s l o v e c k i are  based on i n some i n s t a n c e s context.  cannot even be i n f e r r e d from the  The f o l l o w i n g examples may serve to i l l u s t r a t e some  absurd a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t Leskov's n a r r a t o r s and c h a r a c t e r s have e s t a b l i s h e d i ble.jard  ' b i l l i a r d s ' , instead of bil'.iard i d .  k i . p. 157);  i t appears t h a t t h i s d i s t o r t e d word i s asso-  c i a t e d by the speaker w i t h ble.iat' kutin.ia  (Polunoscni-  'to b l e a t ' ;  ' b u s t l e , commotion', i n s t e a d o f kuter'ma i d .  ( P o l u n o s c n i k i , p. 164);  the l a t t e r word, e v i d e n t l y , i s  a s s o c i a t e d by the speaker, w i t h ekten' .ia  ' l i t a n y i n the  orthodox l i t u r g y ' ; puplekci.ia p. 57)J  'apoplexy', i n s t e a d o f apopleksi.ja i d .  (Levsa.  t h i s word i s made up by the speaker o f pup 'na-  v e l ' and l e k c i . l a ' l e c t u r e ' ; rubkopasn.ia 'hand-to-hand f i g h t ' , i n s t e a d o f rukopasna.ia id.  ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 1?6);  t h i s invented  word appears t o  have been a s s o c i a t e d by the speaker with rubka  'chopping,  c u t t i n g * and pasn.ia ' f i e l d ' ; trepetir  'mechanism i n a watch, t h a t counts the time*, i n  stead o f r e p e t i r i d . (Levsa. p. 5*0;  the l a t t e r word i s  a s s o c i a t e d by Leskov's n a r r a t o r w i t h t r e p e t a t ' 'to p a l p i t a t e '; tugament 'document', i n s t e a d o f dokument i d . , e v i d e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d by the speaker w i t h OR tuga ' g r i e f  (Levsa.  p. 42); venokl'  ' b i n o c u l a r s ' , i n s t e a d o f b i n o k l ' i d . (Leon, dvo-  65 recki.i s y n . p. 64): i t appears to have been a s s o c i a t e d with venok  'wreath'.  The p o p u l a r etymologies, d i s c u s s e d above, a r e i n t e n d ed by Leskov  e i t h e r t o d e p i c t the r e s o u r c e f u l i m a g i n a t i o n o f  the n a r r a t o r s and c h a r a c t e r s i n h i s s t o r i e s o r to r i d i c u l e them. I n o f f e r i n g t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f words, the l a t t e r wished t o e x p l a i n a t a l l c o s t the concepts had remained  that  incomprehensible t o them. Leskov's use o f these  p o p u l a r etymologies i n d i c a t e s beyond doubt the w r i t e r ' s awareness o f the a s s o c i a t i v e f o r c e s t h a t may g i v e popular speech i t s e x p r e s s i v e n e s s .  S t i l l another way i n which Leskov made use o f semas i o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s o f e x i s t i n g words and thereby e n r i c h e d h i s vocabulary i s by l e x i c a l b l e n d i n g . T h i s means, g e n e r a l l y , the combination  i n t o a s i n g l e word o f elements  from  dif-  f e r e n t words. I n most o f the l e x i c a l blends t h a t o c c u r i n Leskov's  vocabulary we can observe the impact o f a s s o c i a t i v e  p r o c e s s e s . Although these l e x i c a l blends e s s e n t i a l l y a r e pop u l a r etymologies, u n l i k e the l a t t e r t h e i r purpose e x p l a i n the etymologies o f the words concerned, to blend two words i n t o one. Most o f Leskov's  i s n o t to  but r a t h e r  l e x i c a l blends,  l i k e h i s popular etymologies, a r e m a n i f e s t l y examples o f verbal  jests.  Among the numerous examples t h a t are i l l u s t r a t i v e o f  66 the way i n which Leskov has e n r i c h e d h i s vocabulary by comb i n i n g two l e x i c a l items i n t o one aret b a r t a z i n the e x p r e s s i o n na b a r t a z 'on board', from na bort  'on board' and na abordaz i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i syn.  p. 67)5 the l a t t e r e x p r e s s i o n i s a m i l i t a r y  term;  bezrassudok. a l e x i c a l blend t h a t combines predrassudok • p r e j u d i c e ' w i t h bezrassudstvo ' r e c k l e s s n e s s ,  foolhardi-  n e s s ' (Levsa. p. 28); bjustry  'busts', e v i d e n t l y , from b j u s t y i d . and 1justry  ' c h a n d e l i e r s ' (Levsa. p. 27s cernorod'e  65);  'the common people', from ce'rny j 'black' and  prostonarod'e pp.  Leon, d v o r e c k i j syn. p.  61, 77)»  'the common p e o p l e ' (Leon, d v o r e c k i j syn.  fimiazma. e v i d e n t l y , a l e x i c a l blend t h a t combines fimiam 'incense' w i t h miazma 'miasma' ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . pp. l 6 l , 165)5  the meaning o f t h e word i s obscured, s i n c e i t i s  used by an i n t o x i c a t e d c h a r a c t e r who speaks kucma i n kucma narodu n o s c n i k i . p. 138);  incoherently;  'an u n r u l y crowd o f people' (Polu-  t h i s l e x i c a l blend combines kuca  •heap' w i t h ujma 'great q u a n t i t y ' ; laferma. instead o f firma  ' f i r m ' ( S t o p a l ' s c i k . p.  95);  the l a t t e r word i s blended w i t h Laferm. the name o f a tobacco f i r m i n Leskov's time t h a t s o l d a p o p u l a r brand 17 o f tobacco; ' n a z i d a c i j a . a l e x i c a l blend from n a z i d a n i e ' e x h o r t a t i o n , e d i f i c a t i o n ' and n o t a c i j a syn. p. 68;  'reprimand' (Leon, d v o r e c k i j  P o l u n o s c n i k i . p.  159);  67 n e o t s t o j c i v y j . e v i d e n t l y a l e x i c a l blend  t h a t combines  nasto.1ciw,i  'unyielding'  ' i n s i s t e n t ' and neotstupny.i  ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 160)5 plakon. i n s t e a d o f f l a k o n  236)5  ' f l a s k ' (Tupe.iny.j xudoznik. p.  the l a t t e r word i s combined w i t h p l a k a t '  t h i s combination i s j u s t i f i e d i n the context t h a t the f l a s k c o n t a i n s  'to c r y ' i  by the f a c t  vodka t h a t the personage i n the  s t o r y d r i n k s i n order t o f o r g e t her sorrow; podzemel'nvj 'underground', i n s t e a d o f podzemnvj i d . ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 13?)?  the l a t t e r word, e v i d e n t l y , i s  combined w i t h podzemel'e 'cave, dungeon'; portez  i n p o r t e d v bumagax v banke 'confusion  accounts' ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 138); blend o f p o r t i t ' f a l l i n g disease  i n the bank  t h i s word i s a l e x i c a l  'to damage, s p o i l * and padez  'murrain,  o f c a t t l e ' ; i t may be added t h a t the  l a t t e r word occurs r e p e a t e d l y  i n Polunoscniki  i n the ex-  p r e s s i o n pad'ez bumag ' f a l l o f the stock market', i n s t e a d o f padenie bumag i d . ; proscada  'mercy, pardon', i n s t e a d o f poscada i d . (Leon,  d v o r e c k i j syn. p. 70;  P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 157)?  word i s blended w i t h p r o s c a t '  the l a t t e r  'to f o r g i v e * ;  p u b l i c e j s k i j i n p u b l i c e j s k i e vedomosti w i t h the meaning ' p u b l i c i s t i c gazette'  (Levsa. p. 48); t h i s l e x i c a l  combines publicny.i ' p u b l i c ' w i t h p o l i c e j s k i j  blend  'police  (adj.)'; rukomeslo  ' h a n d i c r a f t ' , i n s t e a d o f remeslo i d . ( S t o p a l ' -  s c i k . p. 103);  the l a t t e r word i s blended, w i t h ruka  'hand, arm'; s t u d i n g . a l e x i c a l blend  from studen' ' j e l l y ' and puding  68 'pudding'  (Levsa. p. 48);  t i s n o t a . a l e x i c a l blend t h a t combines t i s i n a  'silence'  w i t h t e s n o t a 'narrowness, c l o s e n e s s ' ( Z a j a e l j remiz, p; 502), t o l p u c k a . a l e x i c a l blend t h a t combines t o l p a with t o l k u c k a 'throng, j o s t l i n g '  'crowd'  ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . pp. 118,  138), umen'cvtozit'.  a l e x i c a l blend t h a t combines umen'¥it'  to d i m i n i s h , decrease' w i t h u n i c t o z i t ' obliterate'  'to a n n i h i l a t e ,  (Za.iaci.i remiz. p. 5 0 2 ) .  In summary, t h e s l o v e c k i  d i s c u s s e d above  a r e the  most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e o f the language o f Leskov's r i e s . They perform a s t y l i s t i c  sto-  f u n c t i o n unequalled by any  o t h e r group o f l e x i c a l items i n h i s v o c a b u l a r y .  Although Leskov o b v i o u s l y enjoyed  jocular distortion  o f language f o r i t s own sake, i n the m a j o r i t y o f cases he has kept i t subordinate t o h i s n a r r a t i v e purposes. t i c neologisms  The seman-  t h a t have been d i s c u s s e d above simultaneously  o r a l i z e , i n d i v i d u a l i z e and g i v e s o c i a l c o l o u r t o h i s n a r r a t o r s ' and c h a r a c t e r s ' speech. At the same time they l a b e l i t 1 ft unmistakably  "Made by Leskov".  His slovecki i l l u s t r a t e h i s  a b i l i t y t o make the reader p e r c e i v e the incongruous s i n g i t i n a humorous way.  by expres-  69  REFERENCES TO  Sobranie S o c i n e n i i . Moskva, 1958,  Leskov, N.S,  VII, pp. 60-61. 2  venokl  CHAPTER IV  'binoculars'  1  i s used here i n s t e a d  Vol.  of  binokl  s l o v a r ' . S m i r n i t s k i j , A.I.  (Ed.),  1  id. -^Leskov, op.  c i t . . p.  Russko-angli.iski.i Moskva, 1969.  60.  632.  p.  -'McLean, H.,  "On  Harvard S l a v i c S t u d i e s 2,  the  S t y l e o f a Leskovian  195^.  318.  p.  ^Leskov g i v e s the r e a d e r the o f the use  and  blishment where one de.istvie ozidani.ia N.S.,  following  gde  "ozida.iut"  "waits"  ', and  'the name o f the  'the a c t u a l a c t i o n o f w a i t i n g ' .  'McLean, op.  C i t e d by  c i t . . p.  J-C.  dans l a prose de N.S.  p.  21-27  See  Les-  318.  Marcade, "Les  Barbarismes etymologiques  Leskov ou l a r e e t y m o l o g i s a t i o n c r e a t r i c e  'conte o r a l ' aout  esta-  118.  (SKAZ)," Communications de l a  l e g a t i o n F r a n c h i s e ( V i l e Congres I n t e r n a t i o n a l Varsovie,  as  secondly i t denotes samoe  Sobranie S o c i n e n i i . V o l . IX,  comme f i g u r e du  explanation  meaning o f A z i d a c i . i a . I t serves f i r s t l y  nazvanie ucrezdeni.ia.  kov,  'skaz',"  1973).  Paris,  1973.  P.  des  267.  de-  Slavistes,  70 Ejxenbaum, B., "Leskov i sovremennaja  proza,"  Texte d e r Russischen F o r m a l i s t e n . Munchen, 19&9* p. 233»  1 0  In  the b e g i n n i n g o f the s t o r y the n a r r a t o r announces  t h a t she w i l l kov, op. c i t . .  "tell  a grammatic s t o r y o f h e r l i f e " .  See Les-  V o l . IX, p. 1 3 2 .  11 Pei,  M., G l o s s a r y o f L i n g u i s t i c Terminology. New  York, 1 9 6 6 , p. 9 3 . 12 For Orr,  a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f p o p u l a r etymology see  J . , "L'Etymologie p o p u l a i r e , " Revue de L i n g u i s t i q u e  Romane 18, pp. 129-142. 13 /' • ' -'This example i s c i t e d by Marcade. op. c i t . . p. 2 6 l . 14 Leskov, op. c i t . .  V o l . V I I , p. 6 0 .  *^The term " a s s o c i a t i v e etymology" has been proposed by J . O r r . T h i s term i s a c t u a l l y more p r e c i s e , although i t has n o t gained g e n e r a l acceptance. See O r r , J . , Words and Sounds i n E n g l i s h and French. Oxford, 1 9 5 3 , p. 9 6 .  1  ^Ullmann,  3 4 - 3 5 ; Wartburg,  S., Language and S t y l e . Oxford, 1 9 6 4 , pp.  W. von, Problems  and Methods i n L i n g u i s t i c s .  Oxford, 1 9 6 9 , P. 1 2 5 . 17 See Leskov, op. c i t . .  18  M c L e a n , OP. c i t . .  V o l . V I I , p. 5 1 7 *  p. 319-  71  CHAPTER V FOREIGN LEXICAL ELEMENTS In e n r i c h i n g h i s v o c a b u l a r y Leskov u t i l i z e d n o t o n l y l e x i c a l material  a v a i l a b l e i n the R u s s i a n language, but a l s o  drew on the l e x i c a l r e s o u r c e s o f languages o t h e r than Russ i a n . A considerable  quantity  o f the s l o v e c k i i n h i s s t o r i e s  are words t h a t c o n s i s t e n t i r e l y o r p a r t l y o f word elements from f o r e i g n languages.  The s l o v e c k i i n which Leskov's u t i l i z a t i o n o f f o r e i g n l e x i c a l elements i s r e f l e c t e d can be c l a s s i f i e d lowing t h r e e major c a t e g o r i e s !  (1)  i n t o the  l e x i c a l items from  languages t h a t i n Leskov's time were n o t a s s i m i l a t e d  fol-  foreign i n Rus-  s i a n , (2) l e x i c a l items t h a t have been newly formed by Leskov by means o f l e x i c a l o r d e r i v a t i o n a l morphemes from f o r e i g n languages, and (3) f o r e i g n l e x i c a l items t h a t have been i n t e n t i o n a l l y d i s t o r t e d by Leskov.  Foreign  words  Leskov wrote h i s works i n an epoch i n which the i n f l u x o f l o a n words i n t o the R u s s i a n v o c a b u l a r y was  consider-  a b l e . Numerous f o r e i g n words, e s p e c i a l l y from French and  72 German, were b e i n g a s s i m i l a t e d by the Russian language. These words, i n many i n s t a n c e s , were e x p r e s s i o n s used i n s c i e n c e o r p h i l o s o p h y . They m a n i f e s t the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t s between R u s s i a and the West European c o u n t r i e s .  Many f o r e i g n words t h a t had become p a r t o f the Russ i a n l e x i c o n e x i s t e d a l o n g s i d e Russian e q u i v a l e n t s . An examp l e i s absol.iutnv.1 'absolute', from the German a b s o l u t i d . T h i s word was  f r e q u e n t l y used i n s t e a d o f the n a t i v e Russian  word beauslovnyj 'complete'.  1  'undoubted, i n d i s p u t a b l e ' , o r soversenny.i  The use o f such l e x i c a l borrowings was  fashion-  a b l e among people from the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a i n Leskov's time. Ju. S o r o k i n c i t e s p r e s s a i d . , a word t h a t was  'the p r e s s ' , from the French  presse  e x t e n s i v e l y used i n the  mid-nineteenth v 2 century i n s t e a d o f the n a t i v e Russian pecat' i d .  I t i s known t h a t Leskov was  i n p r i n c i p l e opposed to  the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f f o r e i g n words i n t o the Russian  language.  On s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s he expressed h i s d i s c o n t e n t w i t h the m u l t i t u d e o f l e x i c a l borrowings t h a t had appeared i n Russian i n h i s time.^ He c o n s i d e r e d f o r e i g n words i n g e n e r a l unnece s s a r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y when they were used to denote o b j e c t s o r concepts  f o r which the Russian vocabulary a l r e a d y pos--  sessed adequate e x p r e s s i o n s  ( c f . pressa  'the p r e s s ' ) . The  e x t e n s i v e use o f f o r e i g n words t h a t are o f t e n u n i n t e l l i g i b l e to the average Russian, a c c o r d i n g to Leskov, does i n j u s t i c e to the i n h e r e n t r i c h n e s s o f the Russian  language  73 L,  and, i n f a c t , has a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on the language.  Leskov's d i s a p p r o v a l o f what he regarded as an i n d i s c r i m i n a t e use o f l o a n words, p r e v a l e n t i n h i s time, i s sometimes r e f l e c t e d i n h i s s t o r i e s . When he i n t r o d u c e s a l e x i c a l borrowing i n t o the speech o f persons i n h i s s t o r i e s , he makes them use i t w i t h i r o n y o r r i d i c u l e . B. Drugov c i t e s the f o l l o w i n g sentence from M e l o c i arxiere.isko.i z i z n i may  that  i l l u s t r a t e Leskov's s c o r n f u l r e f e r e n c e to a f o r e i g n  word* u men.ia ostae'ts.ia esce mnogo k l o c k o v i obrezkov. kak nvnce govor.iat p o - r u s s k i . kup.iurov 'I s t i l l have  ili  f  left  many s c r a p s and c u t s , o r , as they nowadays say i n R u s s i a n , c l i p p i n g s ' . - ' The word kup.iur ' c l i p p i n g ' r e n d e r s the French coupure i d . The statement kak nvnce govor.iat p o - r u s s k i  'as  they nowadays say i n R u s s i a n ' , by means o f which Leskov i n t r o d u c e s t h i s French word, i s o b v i o u s l y  mocking.  D e s p i t e Leskov's r e l u c t a n c e t o accept l e x i c a l items from f o r e i g n languages i n t o the R u s s i a n l e x i c o n ,  lexical  borrowings t h a t had been a s s i m i l a t e d i n R u s s i a n do indeed occur i n h i s s t o r i e s . However, they are few and t h e i r cont r i b u t i o n to the o r i g i n a l t r a i t s o f Leskov's v o c a b u l a r y i s insignificant.  The f o r e i g n words, however, t h a t may  be counted  among Leskov's s l o v e c k i are l e x i c a l items from f o r e i g n l a n guages t h a t had not become a s s i m i l a t e d i n Russian o r were  74 n o t even c u r r e n t l y used i n R u s s i a n . Some o f these f o r e i g n words were i n t e n d e d by Leskov to r e f l e c t a f f e c t a t i o n i n the speech o f the n a r r a t o r s and c h a r a c t e r s i n h i s s t o r i e s . Among such words i s r e t k n e x t •groom', from the German  Reit-  knecht i d . , o c c u r r i n g i n the s t o r y Leon, dvorecki.i syn (p. 66).  T h i s l o a n word i s used by the speaker i n s t e a d o f the  Russian word kon.iux i d . , e v i d e n t l y because the German word appeared more solemn to the speaker than the Russian e q u i v a l e n t . A s i m i l a r example o f a f o r e i g n word t h a t i s i n t e n ded by Leskov to p o r t r a y p r e t e n t i o u s n e s s o f speech i s a b i t.iuda ' h a b i t , custom', from the French habitude i d . (Dux gospozi Z a n l i s . p.  81).  Many f o r e i g n words t h a t Leskov a t t r i b u t e s to the speech o f h i s n a r r a t o r s and c h a r a c t e r s serve the purpose o f s t y l i z a t i o n . Some o f the c h a r a c t e r s i n h i s s t o r i e s a r e f o r e i g n e r s . Furthermore, a number o f h i s s t o r i e s d e a l w i t h events t h a t take p l a c e o u t s i d e R u s s i a . Consequently, f o r e i g n words a r e a l s o u t i l i z e d by Leskov t o b r i n g l o c a l c o l o u r i n to h i s s t o r i e s .  A c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t y o f the f o r e i g n words a r e French, i n c l u d i n g the f o l l o w i n g examples*. anfan  ' i n f a n t ' , from t h e French enfant i d . (Ocarovannvj  s t r a n n i k . p. betiz,  461):  i n the phrase muze.i b e t i z o v  'museum w i t h t r i v i a l  75 o b j e c t s o f l i t t l e v a l u e ' , from the French b e t i s e (Zagon. p. 3 6 7 ) ;  fle'  'tri-  i t may be noted t h a t i n Leskov's  usage b e t i z denotes o b j e c t s , whereas the French b e t i s e r e g u l a r l y r e f e r s to a b s t r a c t phenomena  onlyi  etablisman w i t h the meaning ' p r i v a t e d w e l l i n g , r e s i d e n c e ' , from the French e t a b l i s s e m e n t ' i n s t i t u t i o n , ment*  (Dux g o s p o z i Z a n l i s . p, 89)»  establish-  i n t h i s i n s t a n c e Les-  kov has endowed the f o r e i g n word w i t h a d i f f e r e n t meaning; kompatriot  'compatriot', from the French compatriote i d .  ( Z i m n i j den', p. 400); kondoleans  'condolence*, from the French condoleance i d .  (Dux g o s p o z i Z a n l i s . p. 9 1 ) ; konsomater 'consumer', from the French consommateur i d . (Seramur. p. 249)» militer  ' s o l d i e r ' , from the French m i l i t a i r e i d . (Pecer--  s k i e a n t i k i . p. 184); prifiks  ' f i x e d p r i c e * , from the French p r i x - f i x e i d . (Me-  l o c i a r x i e r e j s k o j z i z n i . p. 4 8 5 ) ; siljans  ' s i l e n c e ' , from the French s i l e n c e i d . (Ocarovan-  n v j s t r a n n i k . p. 4 6 1 ) .  I t may be noted t h a t these l e x i c a l items, i n Leskov's usage, a r e o f the same grammatical  c l a s s as i n the source  language. S p e c i f i c a l l y , these words are nouns both i n Leskov's usage and i n the source  language.  76 Such p r e c i s e correspondence, however, i s n o t always apparent i n the f o r e i g n words t h a t a r e found i n Leskov's voc a b u l a r y . I n some i n s t a n c e s Leskov has employed  foreign  lexi-  c a l items f o r example as nouns, although the words concerned b e l o n g t o some o t h e r grammatical c l a s s i n the source language. T h i s t r a n s f e r o f a l e x i c a l borrowing from one c a t e g o r y o f grammar t o another may be i l l u s t r a t e d by the word danse* i n the  phrase danse t a n c e v a t ' 'to dance a s t e p ' (Levsa. p. 3 0 ) .  T h i s word, from the French verb danser 'to dance', has been used by Leskov as a noun i n s t e a d o f as a v e r b . A s i m i l a r example, found i n P o l u n o s c n i k i . i s ankor  'again', from the  French encore i d . (p. 126). T h i s word i s an adverb i n French, whereas i t i s used by the speaker i n Leskov's s t o r y as a noun.  Leskov a l s o employs f o r e i g n phrases, f o r example, f o r t ange.il' w i t h the meaning 'uproar' ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 172).  T h i s l e x i c a l item r e p r e s e n t s the French e x p r e s s i o n  e t r e f o r t en gueule the  'to y e l l ,  shout ( l i t . ,  t o be s t r o n g i n  mouth)', and i s used by Leskov as a noun. A s i m i l a r  example i s b o r e s t y . i n the sentence o t p r e z n i x k r a s o t lis'  osta-  t o l ' k o " b o r e s t y " 'from h e r former beauty remained on-  l y the beaux r e s t e s ' (Zimni.i den', p. 3 9 7 ) . Leskov's word boresty  ' b e a u t i f u l t r a c e s ' i s from the French phrase beaux  restes i d .  In d i s c u s s i n g the above l e x i c a l items from the p o i n t  77 o f view o f morphology, i t may he noted t h a t Leskov  trans-  f e r r e d these f o r e i g n words i n t o h i s v o c a b u l a r y i n the form i n which they e x i s t i n the source language. In o t h e r words, he has n o t s u b s t i t u t e d Russian morphemes f o r f o r e i g n word elements. Only the Russian i n f l e c t i o n a l endings have been added t o the f o r e i g n words i n o r d e r t o conform  t o the r u l e s  o f Russian grammar.  However, some f o r e i g n words i n Leskov's s t o r i e s have been subjected  by Leskov to Russian word-formative  patterns.  In these cases Leskov has e i t h e r s u b s t i t u t e d Russian d e r i v a t i o n a l morphemes f o r f o r e i g n morphemes, o r added Russian d e r i v a t i o n a l morphemes to the l e x i c a l items i n v o l v e d . F o r example, i n d i s c u s s i n g French l o a n words i n Leskov's  voca-  b u l a r y , L. Grossman c i t e s s e r z a n t d e v i l ' s k i j 'policeman ( a d j . ) ' i n the phrase s s e r z a n t d e v i l ' s k o . i borodko.i 'with the s m a l l beard o f a policeman', a word t h a t i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s w e l l . ^ It i s derived  from the French term sergent de v i l l e  'police-  man', t o which the speaker i n Leskov's s t o r y has added the s u f f i x -sk- t h a t i s used i n Russian to form  adjectives.  Some f u r t h e r examples o f f o r e i g n words t h a t have been adapted by Leskov to Russian word-formative koketeri.ia  patterns  include:  'coquetry', from the French c o q u e t e r i e i d .  (Zametki n e i z v e s t n o g o . p. 3 8 * 0 ; the French s u f f i x - e r i e has been r e p l a c e d  by Leskov by the Russian s u f f i x 7 which o f t e n appears i n l e x i c a l borrowings;  -eri.ia.  78 komil'fotny.i  'as i t should be, p r o p e r ( a d j . ) ' , adapted  from the French i d i o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n comme i l it  faut  'as  should be, p r o p e r ' (Ostrovit.iane. p. 3 3 ) ; the l a t t e r  a d v e r b i a l phrase has been a d j e c t i v i z e d  by means  o f the R u s s i a n a d j e c t i v a l s u f f i x -n-; kontrirovat'  'to contend w i t h ' , adapted from-the French  c o n t r e r i d . (Meloci a r x i e r e j s k o j z i z n i . p. 46?)$  i n the  l a t t e r word Leskov has used the s u f f i x - i r o v a - . which i s used i n Russian t o form verbs from f o r e i g n stems, f o r the French v e r b a l s u f f i x - e r t min'onnvi  'dear, sweet', from French mignon i d . (Ostro-  v i t j a n e , p. 17);  to the l a t t e r word Leskov has added the  Russian a d j e c t i v a l s u f f i x -n-: sociabel'nyj  ' s o c i a b l e ' , from the French s o c i a b l e i d .  (Otbornoe zerno. p. 282); i n t h i s word Leskov has  em-  ployed the a d j e c t i v a l s u f f i x - a b e l ' n y j f o r the French s u f f i x -ablet  the s u f f i x - a b e l ' n y j r e g u l a r l y appears i n  Russian i n l o a n words from French and German r e n d e r i n g the s u f f i x e s -able and - a b e l r e s p e c t i v e l y ; zardin'erka id.  Q  * f l o w e r - s t a n d ' , from the French j a r d i n i e r e  ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p.. 122);  to the l a t t e r word Leskov  has added the s u f f i x -ka which, as a r u l e , i s used i n Russian to form feminine nouns and d i m i n u t i v e s .  H y b r i d words Leskov a l s o makes use o f non-Russian  word-forming  elements to form i n v e n t e d words. Many o f the s l o v e c k i w i t h which he has endowed the speech o f the n a r r a t o r s o r c h a r a c -  79 t e r s i n h i s s t o r i e s are l e x i c a l items t h a t a r e composed o f both Russian word elements and elements from f o r e i g n words.  For i n s t a n c e , i n some o f these s l o v e c k i i t i s a d e r i v a t i o n a l morpheme t h a t belongs to a language o t h e r than Russ i a n . An example i s nepromokabl'. w i t h the meaning  'rain-  c o a t ' (Levsa. p. 2 7 ) . T h i s word, used by Leskov as a noun, c o n s i s t s o f the Russian p r e f i x ne- 'not* and the verb promokat'  'to become wet', t o which the French a d j e c t i v a l  suffix  - a b l e has been added. I t i s , e v i d e n t l y , a l e x i c a l b l e n d o f the Russian word ne promo kaemy.i  ' w a t e r p r o o f and French im-  permeable i d . The l a t t e r word i s used i n French w i t h the meaning ' r a i n - c o a t *.  Another example may i l l u s t r a t e the way i n which Leskov has combined  a Russian l e x i c a l morpheme and a d e r i -  v a t i o n a l morpheme taken from a f o r e i g n language i n t o a s i n g l e word. The word xaptus 'a person who p i l f e r s ' has been  formed  by Leskov from the Russian c o l l o q u i a l verb xapat' 'to p i l f e r ' , by means o f the s u f f i x - t u s which o c c u r s i n L a t i n nouns ( B e s s t y d n i k . p. 150).  More frequent among Leskov's s l o v e c k i . however, a r e h y b r i d words i n which i t i s a l e x i c a l morpheme t h a t i s t a ken from a f o r e i g n language. T h i s category i n c l u d e s the f o l lowing words, excerpted from Leskov's s t o r i e s i  80 V  bebeizm  ' c h i l d i s h n e s s ' (Seramur. p. 278)}  t h i s word i s  composed o f the French noun bebe ' i n f a n t ' to which Leskov has added the s u f f i x -izm; i n R u s s i a n t h i s s u f f i x i s used w i t h words o f f o r e i g n o r i g i n and, as a r u l e , forms a b s t r a c t nouns; c u f u s k i i n na cufuskax t h a t has the meaning o f 'on f o o t ' (Ovcebvk. p. 78); phrase zu Fuss  t h i s word i s d e r i v e d from the German  'on f o o t ' by means o f the s u f f i x -ka  which i n Russian i s r e g u l a r l y used t o form both feminine nouns and d i m i n u t i v e s ; the word, e v i d e n t l y , has beenformed by Leskov by analogy w i t h the Russian i d i o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n na s v o i x d v o i x 'on f o o t . ( l i t . , t  on one's two  f e e t ) 'j pere-pase. w i t h the meaning o f 'to hand over, pass on' ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 163)5  t h i s word i s formed  by Leskov  from the French verb p a s s e r 'to pass', t o which he has added the Russian p r e f i x pere-  'over, a c r o s s ' ;  / in pomersikat' t h a t has the meaning o f 'to thank'; this word i s formed  from French merci  'thank you' by means o f  the Russian s u f f i x - k a t ' t h a t i s used t o form verbs; pr.iuderist  'prudish person', a word t h a t i s d e r i v e d by  Leskov from the French noun p r u d e r i e 'prudishness' by means o f the s u f f i x - i s t . in  lexical In  borrowings.  still  which i n R u s s i a n o c c u r s o n l y  11  another s m a l l group o f h y b r i d words Leskov  has combined a f o r e i g n and a Russian l e x i c a l morpheme i n t o a s i n g l e word. Invented words o f t h i s type may be i l l u s t r a ted  witht  move-materi.ia ' c l o t h o f i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y ' ( S t o p a l ' s c i k . p. 100);  t h i s word i s formed by the a p p o s i t i o n o f  French a d j e c t i v e mauvais 'bad' materija  and  the  the Russian noun  'material, c l o t h ' ;  p r o s t v e j n t h a t has the meaning o f  'ordinary wine*  (Spra-  v e d l i w j c e l o v e k . p. 3 0 7 ) I t h i s word i s d e r i v e d from the Russian a d j e c t i v e p r o s t o j  ' o r d i n a r y , simple*  to which  the German noun Wein 'wine' has been added by Leskov; it  appears to be a pun  rvba-fis  'fish*  on Russian portve in f  ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 164);  'port';  t h i s word  been formed by Leskov by the a p p o s i t i o n o f the word ryba  ' f i s h ' and  Russian  German F i s c h i d . ;  zoli-mordocka. with the meaning o f ( S o v m e s t i t e l i . p. 401);  'small p r e t t y f a c e *  t h i s word i s formed, a l s o  means o f a p p o s i t i o n , from the French a d j e c t i v e • p r e t t y ' and  has  by  joli  the Russian noun mordocka 'small f a c e ' .  Lexical distortions A c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f l o a n words t h a t Leskov a t t r i b u t e s to the speech o f h i s n a r r a t o r s and  characters  have been d i s t o r t e d . These d i s t o r t i o n s o f f o r e i g n words are intended  by Leskov to produce a comic e f f e c t upon the  read-  er.  L e x i c a l borrowings may and  be d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t u r e  sound-pattern from n a t i v e Russian words. The way  in  which a Russian speaker reproduces a f o r e i g n word i n h i s  82 speech depends l a r g e l y on h i s degree o f knowledge o f t h a t f o r e i g n language. S i n c e Leskov's n a r r a t o r s and c h a r a c t e r s f o r the most p a r t d i d n o t possess a good command o f languages o t h e r than Russian, y e t d i d o c c a s i o n a l l y use f o r e i g n words i n t h e i r speech, they f r e q u e n t l y rendered these f o r e i g n words i n a d i s t o r t e d  way.  In some i n s t a n c e s a f o r e i g n word has been made simi l a r t o Russian words by the speaker. The f o l l o w i n g s l o v e c k i o c c u r i n Leskov's bratarnite  storiest  ' f r a t e r n i t y ' , i n s t e a d o f the French  t e i d . (Za.iaci.i remiz. p. 564);  fraterni-  i t i s c l e a r , t h a t the  l a t t e r word has been a s s o c i a t e d by the speaker w i t h Russian b r a t 'brother'; n i k s a . w i t h the meaning o f ' c u r t s e y ' , i n s t e a d o f k n i k s e n i d . , from the German Knicksen ki.i syn. p. ?6);  ' c u r t s e y ' (Leon, dvorec-  the German word has e v i d e n t l y been  a s s o c i a t e d by the speaker w i t h the Russian verb n i k n u t ' 'to droop';  i t appears from the c o n t e x t , t h a t  Leskov's  purpose i n t h i s l e x i c a l d i s t o r t i o n i s to r i d i c u l e  this  salutation; sciglety  'boots'. i n s t e a d o f s t i b l e t y i d . , from the  German S t i e f e l e t t e n i d . (Levsa. p. 5 ) J t h i s word has, 2  e v i d e n t l y , been a s s o c i a t e d by the speaker w i t h the Russ i a n verb 'Scegol.iat' 'to f l a u n t ' ; v e k s e l ' b a n t , w i t h the meaning o f 'shoulder s t r a p o f a m i l i t a r y uniform', i n s t e a d o f a k s e l ' b a n t i d . , from the German word Achselband i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p.  66){ the l a t t e r word has been a s s o c i a t e d by the speaker w i t h the noun v e k s e l '  'promissory note', a l s o a l e x i c a l  borrowing from German and commonly used i n Leskov's .. 12 time.  Some f o r e i g n words t h a t have been d i s t o r t e d i n the speech o f Leskov's c h a r a c t e r s i n d i c a t e t h a t a speaker i s acquainted w i t h a f o r e i g n language, such as French o r German. Yet he does not know t h a t language s u f f i c i e n t l y , and  fails  to employ c o r r e c t l y f o r e i g n words o r phrases i n h i s speech. T h i s may  be i l l u s t r a t e d by such examples as t r o boku t h a t  has the meaning ' f a r too much* (Tupe.iny.i xudoznik. p. 2 3 0 ) . T h i s phrase i s intended by Leskov's c h a r a c t e r to reproduce the French phrase beaucoup t r o p i d . The word o r d e r o f t h i s French phrase, however, has been r e v e r s e d by the speaker. In d i s c u s s i n g d i s t o r t e d f o r e i g n words i n Leskov's vocabular y , J-C. Marcade c i t e s p u r s e p a l e t a n 'to spend the time' ("Torgovaja k a b a l a , " U k a z a t e l ' ekonomiceski.i. 1 8 6 1 , No. 2 2 1 , p. 1 4 ? ) . ^ T h i s phrase, e v i d e n t l y , i s meant by Leskov to 1  render the French phrase pour passer l e temps i d . However, the French verb se passer w i t h which t h i s e x p r e s s i o n has been confused, means 'to happen, to take p l a c e ' .  A f u r t h e r example o f d i s t o r t e d words i s grandevu t h a t has the meaning 'engagement, appointment'  (Levsa. p.  51s P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 1 5 5 ) . T h i s word i s used by a speaker i n s t e a d o f the French phrase rendez-vous  i d . , and i s con-  fused by him w i t h the French a d j e c t i v e grand  'grand, g r e a t ' .  84 A l s o encountered i n P o l u n o s c n i k i i s the e x p r e s s i o n mete vu pl.ias t h a t means ' s i t down* (p. 1 6 2 ) . I t i s mentioned  by the  speaker i n the s t o r y t h a t he intended to say s a d i t e s ' na mesto  'take a s e a t , s i t down', t r a n s l a t i n g the Russian ex14  p r e s s i o n i n t o French.  However, he has confused the French  e x p r e s s i o n s mettez-vous  a l'aise  and mettre en p l a c e  'make y o u r s e l f c o m f o r t a b l e '  'to put i n order'. A.'di started foreign word that v  i n d i c a t e s a speaker's f a i l u r e to i d e n t i f y an etymon word c o r r e c t l y i s b u t e r s a f t t h a t has the meaning o f  'fraternity'  ( P u t e s e s t v i e s n i g i l i s t o m . p. 129). T h i s word i s used by Leskov's n a r r a t o r i n s t e a d o f b r u d e r s a f t  'fraternity',  from  the German B r u d e r s c h a f t i d . , which has, e v i d e n t l y , been confused by him w i t h buterbrod 'sandwich', a R u s s i a n word t h a t i s a l s o a borrowing from German. A c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f d i s t o r t e d f o r e i g n words o r phrases t h a t appear i n Leskov's s t o r i e s have been dersigned by him to i l l u s t r a t e and r i d i c u l e the p r e t e n t i o u s ness and a f f e c t a t i o n o f the speech o f some o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s . L e x i c a l items o f t h i s type i n c l u d e f o r e i g n words to which Leskov has a t t r i b u t e d sound sequences t h a t e x i s t i n t h a t language, but i n f a c t are not p r e s e n t i n the l e x i c a l items concerned. To g i v e an example, the sentence nam budet xoroso  vsem a n t r u i  ' f o r a l l t h r e e o f us i t w i l l be good* o c c u r s  i n Leon, dvorecki.i svn (p. 6 9 ) . The d i s t o r t e d word a n t r u i 'the t h r e e o f us* i s meant by the speaker to render the French phrase a. t r o i s i d .  The speaker emphasizes  the f o -  85 r e i g n o r i g i n o f t h i s l e x i c a l item by i n t r o d u c i n g the sound sequence £anj i n t o i t s p r o n u n c i a t i o n . T h i s i s the u s u a l Russ i a n s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r the French n a s a l i z e d vowel  jVj , which  o c c u r s , f o r example, i n the Russian word a n t r e s o l i  'mezza-  n i n e ' , from French e n t r e s o l i d . However, the etymon word o f a n t r u i does not have a n a s a l i z e d  vowel.  A s i m i l a r example, found i n P o l u n o s c n i k i . i s ankognitu  ' i n c o g n i t o ' , which i s meant by the speaker to reproduce  French (from I t a l i an) i n c o g n i t o i d . (p. 1 6 2 ) . To t h i s word a l s o the speaker a s c r i b e s the vowel [aj , although i t i s not present i n t h i s French word.  The French n a s a l i z e d vowel^aj  appears too i n some  words t h a t are not even French, f o r i n s t a n c e i n lanpe'ska • f l a t cake', i n s t e a d o f Russian l e p e s k a i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 6 8 ) . Other examples t h a t a l s o i n d i c a t e such a f f e c t e d speech i n c l u d e vanfl.ia 'wafer', i n s t e a d o f v a f l . i a i d . , from the German Waff e l i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 68) and mangral 'nv.i 'mineral', i n s t e a d o f Russian m i n e r a l 'ny.i id.  ( i b i d . . p. 7 0 ) .  F i n a l l y , a s m a l l number o f s l o v e c k i found i n Leskov's s t o r i e s are Russian words t h a t have been d i s t o r t e d by  Leskov  to make them appear f o r e i g n . To t h i s category o f d i s t o r t e d l e x i c a l items belongs, f o r example, fongorski.i t h a t has the meaning o f 'Angora ( a d j . ) ' ( P o l u n o s c n i k i . p. 142). T h i s i s a  86 d i s t o r t i o n o f Russian angorski.i i d . , made by Leskov to appear to be a German word by the s u b s t i t u t i o n o f f o n . from the German von 'from', f o r the f i r s t s y l l a b l e o f the word concerned. S i m i l a r l y , the Russian word p r e l e s t n o  'delightful'  has been changed i n the speech o f a c h a r a c t e r i n Leskov's s t o r y i n t o p r s e l e s n o i d . (Leon, dvorecki.i syn. p. 6 9 ) . e v i dently  i n o r d e r t o make i t appear t o be a P o l i s h word.  In summation, i t can be s a i d t h a t Leskov's u t i l i z a t i o n o f f o r e i g n l e x i c a l elements has r e s u l t e d i n the appearance o f some o f the s t r i k i n g s l o v e c k i i n h i s s t o r i e s . H i s use o f d i s t o r t e d f o r e i g n words may w e l l i n d i c a t e t h a t he was opposed to the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f f o r e i g n words i n t o the Russian language. The way i n which Leskov has combined l e x i c a l e l e ments from f o r e i g n languages w i t h R u s s i a n words and wordforming elements i s i l l u s t r a t i v e o f the w r i t e r ' s  consistent  s t r i v i n g to a c h i e v e s t y l i z a t i o n o f speech i n h i s s t o r i e s .  87  REFERENCES TO CHAPTER V  ^ S o r o k i n , Ju.S., R a z v i t i e slovarnogo literaturnogo  s o s t a v a russkogo  .jazyka 30-90vx godov XIX veka. Moskva-Lenin-  grad, 1 9 6 5 , PP. 7 0 - 7 2 .  2  I b i d . . pp. 9 8 - 9 9 .  -^Drugov, B.M., N.S. Leskov. Ocerk t v o r c e s t v a . Moskva, 1 9 5 7 , PP. 158-161} G o r j a c k i n a , M.S.,  S a t i r a Leskova. Moskva,  1 9 6 3 , PP. 1 9 8 - 1 9 9 . ^Drugov, op. c i t . . p. l 6 l ;  G o r j a c k i n a , op. c i t . . p.  199. ^Drugov, op. c i t . . pp. 1 5 9 - 1 6 0 .  Grossman, L., N.S. Leskov. Z i z n ' - t v o r c e s t v o - p o e t i ka, Moskva, 1 9 ^ 5 . P. 282.  ^Vinogradov, V.V., Russki.i .jazyk. Moskva-Leningrad, 1 9 ^ 7 . P. 1 3 2 . o  T h i s word i s a l s o a t t e s t e d i n L. T o l s t o j ' s See  vocabulary.  S l o v a r ' sovremennogo russkogo l i t e r a t u r n o g o .jazyka. Aka-  demija Nauk, Moskva-Leningrad, 1 9 5 0 , V o l . 5. P« 123*+. ^Vinogradov, OP. c i t . . p. 2 1 5 c i t e s 'comfortable', fortable i d . ) .  from German komfortabel  komfortabel'ny.j  i d . ( c f . French con-  88 C i t e d by Grossman, op. c i t . . p.  1 1  Cited  by Grossman, op. c i t . . p.  282.  282.  12  These d i s t o r t e d  f o r e i g n words, e s s e n t i a l l y , are po-  p u l a r etymologies. See above, Chapter I I I , pp. 57-68. ^Marcade, J - C , l a prose de N.S. comme f i g u r e du  "Les Barbarismes etymologiques dans  Leskov ou l a r e e t y m o l o g i s a t i o n c r e a t r i c e 'conte o r a l '  (SKAZ)," Communications de l a  d e l e g a t i o n F r a n c a i s e . P a r i s , 1973. p. 273.;  ^ L e s k o v , N.S., IX, p.  162.  Sobranie S o c i n e n i i . Moskva, 1958, V o l .  89  CONCLUSION The l e x i c a l m a t e r i a l t h a t Leskov so r e s o u r c e f u l l y and a r t i s t i c a l l y u t i l i z e d i n h i s works d i s p l a y s above a l l the  w r i t e r ' s r e f i n e d mastery o f the Russian language. How-  ever, the r e a d e r may the  a t times be somewhat overpowered  by  medley o f p i c t u r e s q u e e x p r e s s i o n s and f a n c i f u l words  w i t h which the speech o f Leskov's c h a r a c t e r s i s s a t u r a t e d .  The u n i f y i n g element t h a t runs through the v a r i e g a t e d mosaic o f Leskov's vocabulary i s the w r i t e r ' s profound knowledge o f people from a l l s o c i a l m i l i e u s , and h i s unique a b i l i t y to t y p i f y h i s c h a r a c t e r s e f f e c t i v e l y  through t h e i r  With sometimes grotesque humour and a r t f u l f i n e s s e  speech.  Leskov  g i v e s f r e e p l a y t o h i s powers o f o b s e r v a t i o n and h i s l i n g u i s tic  i n v e n t i v e n e s s , thereby conveying to h i s r e a d e r s the im-  p r e s s i o n o f a u t h e n t i c i t y and a t the same time r i d i c u l i n g the persons who  appear i n h i s s t o r i e s .  Few o f Leskov's works are w r i t t e n i n a homogeneous s t y l e . Even i n passages where he r e l a t e s events without  ma-  k i n g use o f a n a r r a t o r , h i s language i s o f t e n as d i s t i n c t from standard l i t e r a r y Russian as t h a t o f h i s n a r r a t o r s and characters.  90 The exuberance o f Leskov's l i t e r a r y s t y l e evolved g r a d u a l l y i n h i s works. H i s e a r l i e r s t o r i e s , w r i t t e n i n the s i x t i e s , are marked by c o l l o q u i a l s t y l e with an admixture o f d i a l e c t a l elements. The d i a l e c t o f O r e l , the w r i t e r ' s t i v e , province,  na-  emerges most prominently i n these s t o r i e s .  The predominance o f t h i s d i a l e c t i n d i c a t e s w e l l Leskov's emotional attachment to the people from t h i s a r e a .  In gious l i f e  the s t o r i e s o f the s e v e n t i e s t h a t d e p i c t the r e l i o f the Russian people Leskov makes most f r e q u e n t -  l y use o f Church S l a v o n i c l i n g u i s t i c of  forms. At t h i s p e r i o d  h i s l i t e r a r y c a r e e r Leskov i n t e n t i o n a l l y r e i n f o r c e s  vivid-  ness o f s t y l e by i n t e r s p e r s i n g h i s v o c a b u l a r y w i t h Church S l a v o n i c words, o f t e n i n s t r i k i n g j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i t h vernac u l a r and d i a l e c t a l  In  expressions.  Leskov's l a t e r works, w r i t t e n i n the e i g h t i e s  and e a r l y n i n e t i e s , neologisms and d i s t o r t e d f o r e i g n words predominate. H i s p o p u l a r etymologies form the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c type o f neologisms i n the v o c a b u l a r y o f h i s s t o r i e s of his  t h a t p e r i o d . T h e i r frequent occurrence i n the speech o f n a r r a t o r s and c h a r a c t e r s i s i n d i c a t i v e o f Leskov's  c o n s c i o u s s t r i v i n g to produce a comic e f f e c t upon the r e a d e r .  Beside Leskov's obvious enjoyment o f j o c u l a r d i s t o r t i o n o f words f o r i t s own his  sake, an important motive o f  i n t r i c a t e use o f language i s h i s purpose o f s a t i r e and  91 parody. H i s sometimes s a r c a s t i c  commentary on v a r i o u s a s p e c t s  o f R u s s i a n r e a l i t y o f h i s time has an e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t because he a t t r i b u t e s  powerful  i t to the speech o f simple-  minded persons i n h i s s t o r i e s . Leskov's s u b t l e method o f e x p r e s s i n g h i s comments on s o c i a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c the  life  through  s t y l i z e d idiom o f a n a r r a t o r has no equal i n Russian l i t -  erature .  92  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Andreevic,  E., O c e r k i i z i s t o r i i r u s s k o j l i t e r a t u r y XIX  ka. S t . Petersburg, Ansberg, A.B., N.S.  19°3.  "Frame Story and F i r s t Person Story i n  Leskov," Scando-Slavica  Baer, J.T.,  ve-  3. 1 9 5 7 , pp.  ^9-73.  " D a l ' und Leskov a l s V e r t r e t e r des ' K u n s t l e r i s c h -  en P h i l o l o g i s m u s ' , " Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r S l a v i s c h e P h i l o l o gie.  V o l . XXXVII No.  B i e l f e l d t , H.H.,  1, 1 9 7 3 . pp.  R u c k l a u f i g e s Worterbuch der Russisehen  che der Gegenwart. B e r l i n , Drugov, B.M., Edgerton, of  179-190.  N.S.  Spra-  1965*  Leskov. Ocerk t v o r c e s t v a . Moskva. 1 9 5 7 .  W.B... 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