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Northwest coast kerfed containers : a formal study Patterson, Margaret Jean 1975

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NORTHWEST COAST KERFED CONTAINERS: A Formal Study by Margaret Jean P a t t e r s o n B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f The Requirements f o r the Degree of Master of A r t s i n the Department of Anthropology & So c i o l o g y We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia October, 1975 In presenting th i s thesis in par t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of th is thes is fo r f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date ABSTRACT This study examines a large collection of artifacts, Northwest Coast kerfed containers. A terminology is developed with which to describe the physical traits of these artifacts. These data are analysed using numerical taxonomy, and clustered according to their a f f i n i t i e s . The typology thereby produced strongly reflects pre-existing intuitive typologies. As well, the newly discovered a b i l i t y formally to describe construction traits opens new poss i b i l i t i e s for determining the provenance of these containers. TABLE OF CONTENTS > CHAPTER 1 Presenting the Problem CHAPTER 2 The Method CHAPTER 3 Application CHAPTER 4 Conclusions and Bonus BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX 1 APPENDIX 2 APPENDIX 3 APPENDIX 4 i i i PAGE 1 14 27 51 64 •71 77 88 127 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This thesis owes its completion to the support and stimulation of many people. The f i r s t debt is to the National Museum of Man, Canadian Ethnology Services, and it s staff and collections. The containers were a challenge and stimulation, and I am grateful to have had the opportunity to work with them. The tolerance shown to the presence of -large chests in crowded aisles and dishes in odd corners is appreciated. The granting of three months' study-leave allowed me to return to this university i n early 1975 to proceed with the analysis, for which I thank Denis Alsford, Dr. Barrie Reynolds, and Dr. B i l l Taylor,Jr. Of a less o f f i c i a l nature, the support of Annette McFadyen Clark and David Keenleyside, and their generous teashing and criticism, gave me much-needed perspectives on how to deal with the collection I had chosen. The members of my committee, in different ways, have each contributed. Dr. Harry Hawthorn and Dr. Marjorie Halpin have' provided advice and encouragement and the assistance needed by students who li v e , work and do research 3,000 miles from their university; R.G. Matson instructed me in the use of the programs which ordered the data, and Wilson Duff provided lessons i n looking a$ designs. On May 7, 1975, B i l l Holm pointed out a distinctive box motif which he claimed was Bella Bella, leading me to the interesting analysis and results discussed in Chapter 4. Many friends have helped with different stages of the thesis, but the greatest debts are owed to Andrea Laforet for her assistance i n the f i n a l editing, and to B i l l Simpson for his photographic, analytic, and literary observations and labours. Chapter 1 In t r o d u c i n g the Problem and the A r t i f a c t s M a t e r i a l : c u l t u r e has long been ignored as a source of hard data i n anthropology. S u r p r i s i n g l y , t h i s n e g l e c t e x i s t s e q u a l l y among e t h n o l o g i s t s and t h e i r museum c o l l e a g u e s , the people whose work t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n v o l v e s constant h a n d l i n g o f m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , or d e s c r i p t i v e study of ev e r y t h i n g r e g a r d i n g i t s manufacture and use. In the case of c u r a t o r s , t h i s n e g l e c t may l a r g e l y be due to the pressures of keeping c o l l e c t i o n s i n t a c t and i n reasonably good con-d i t i o n , and of m a i n t a i n i n g whatever documentation i s a v a i l a b l e . The reasons f o r the n e g l e c t are l e s s obvious i n the case o f other a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , but may be e x p l a i n e d h i s t o r i c a l l y . In e a r l y North American anthropology, the museum was a centre of te a c h i n g , and a re s e a r c h t o o l or funding body f o r the new d i s c i p l i n e . I t was a l s o a popular i n s t i t u t i o n f o r education and d i s p l a y . Many a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s r e c e i v e d funding or d i r e c t employment at some time or another i n t h e i r c a r e e r s , and c o n t r i b u t e d to the formation of the great museum and u n i v e r s i t y museum c o l l e c t i o n s of ethno-l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l (e.g., Barbeau at the N a t i o n a l Museum at - 2 -the end of t h i s e r a ) . Native North Americans were b e l i e v e d to be on the verge of e x t i n c t i o n , or at l e a s t t h e i r l i f e -s t y l e was, and the work of the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s was supple-mented by such p r o f e s s i o n a l c o l l e c t o r s as the Newcombes from V i c t o r i a . The Boasian emphasis on f i e l d w o r k which c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h i s p e r i o d meant, however, that non-material data was gathered, and was of more i n t e r e s t to the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t r e t u r n i n g from the f i e l d . Notes were kept and analysed, monographs p u b l i s h e d , o f t e n based p r i m a r i l y on informants (Boas 1921). The very e a r l y t r a d i t i o n of Boas, i n which there were lengthy although o f t e n g e n e r a l i z e d d i s c u s s i o n s of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , s h i f t e d . The short d e s c r i p t i v e ethno-l o g i c a l papers (Emmons 1908) began to disappear from the j o u r n a l s (Reynolds 1973:2). Few g i a n t s of contemporary anthropology concern themselves with a r t i f a c t s t u d i e s (Mori and Mori, 1972:189). Exceptions to t h i s n e g l e c t may be found, p r i m a r i l y i n the museum f i e l d , where St u r t e v a n t has r e s t a t e d the need f o r and v a l u e of d e s c r i p t i v e a r t i -f a c t a n a l y s i s . Holm's study of Northwest Coast a r t (Holm 1965) e s t a b l i s h e s a high standard f o r c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h . A r c h a e o l o g i s t s ( B i n f o r d , Watson et a l . ) have been examining ethnology i n search of techniques of i n t e r p r e -t a t i v e a n a l y s i s to apply to t h e i r a r t i f a c t assemblages. - 3 -The syntheses they are making of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n with e t h n o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n ( B i n f o r d 1962:217) holds great promise f o r complete des-c r i p t i v e analyses of e t h n o l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i o n s . I t i s t h i s recent trend i n archaeology which presents the t o o l s with which a museum e t h n o l o g i s t may transcend both the o l d s i n g l e o b j e c t or small sample d e s c r i p t i o n s and vague s o c i o -l o g i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . Data d e r i v e d by t r a i t a n a l y s i s (Deetz 1965) may be used to d e f i n e types and forms, to borrow T a y l o r ' s e a r l i e r terminology ( T a y l o r 1948:116), as w e l l as to organize temporal and s p a t i a l data. U l t i m a t e l y , more complex problems of p o p u l a t i o n movement, c o n t a c t s , trade p a t t e r n s , e t c . , may be examined, based on these data. A r c h a e o l o g i s t s , more than a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , are accustomed to o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c framework, although i t has been s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d i n terms of p o t e n t i a l d e r i v a t i o n of c u l t u r a l data. The o l d re s e a r c h p a t t e r n , at i t s b e s t , can provide the beginnings of the a n a l y t i c framework whose absence has been noted by H a l p i n (1973:ix). At i t s worst, of course, i t i s only another u b i q u i t o u s catalogue d i s g u i s e d as a s i t e r e p o r t . This study proposes, t h e r e f o r e , to examine i n d e t a i l the c o n s t r u c t i o n and design of a p a r t i c u l a r and unusual set of a r t i f a c t s , Northwest Coast k e r f e d c o n t a i n e r s , and - 4 -to develop a terminology with which to d e s c r i b e the p a r t s of each c o n t a i n e r . This w i l l then enable s t a t i s t i c a l comparison of these a r t i f a c t s and d e f i n i t i o n of sub-types w i t h i n the c o l l e c t i o n . The t e s t i n g of t h i s method i s as va l u a b l e as the a c t u a l development of the typology, s i n c e i t s success opens a new area o f a r t i f a c t a n a l y s i s to the museologist and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t . D e f i n i n g the sample The f i r s t problem faced i n a study of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e i s the d e f i n i t i o n of a p r a c t i c a l and u s e f u l sample. The specimens must form a d i s c r e t e s e t , must each c o n t a i n s e v e r a l t r a i t s which may be d e f i n e d and s t u d i e d , and must be a v a i l a b l e i n l a r g e enough numbers to e x h i b i t a reason-able v a r i a t i o n over time, space and type. T r a i t i s used throughout t h i s study to mean a d i s c r e t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which v a r i e s from a r t i f a c t to a r t i f a c t . The set of Northwest Coast I n d i a n c o n t a i n e r s from the c o l l e c t i o n s of the N a t i o n a l Museum of Man, Canadian Ethnology S e r v i c e , i s the broad sample chosen. These c o n t a i n e r s , however, c o n s t i t u t e an enormous and unwieldy s e t , i n c l u d i n g boxes, bowls, bags, and stone bowls and mortars. F u r t h e r , the concept " c o n t a i n e r " i s d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e and t h e r e f o r e does not u s e f u l l y and c l e a r l y - 5 -d e l i n e a t e a sample f o r a n a l y s i s . When i s a t r a y a c o n t a i n e r , and must spoons be included? M a t e r i a l as a l i m i t i n g t r a i t i s somewhat more u s e f u l , though s t i l l l i m i t e d . I f a l l non-wooden c o n t a i n e r s are e l i m i n a t e d , 450 c o n t a i n e r s remain. This s t i l l leaves many v a r i a t i o n s of s i z e and shape and use, and too l a r g e a sample. Documentation i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y r e l i a b l e to allow f u n c t i o n a l d e t a i l s to be a p p l i e d to the sample. Even i n those i n s t a n c e s where a c o n t a i n e r i s of a s t y l e or type g e n e r a l l y accepted to have been a storage box or a grease bowl, a l t e r n a t e uses are o f t e n documented. There are, however, c o n s t r u c t i o n a l t r a i t s which provide a means of w h i t t l i n g the sample to a q u a l i t a t i v e l y and q u a n t i t a t i v e l y workable s i z e . These are t r a i t s which are e a s i l y v i s i b l e , may be d e f i n e d (see Chapter 3 ) , and which are not dependent on the whims of c o l l e c t o r s f o r t h e i r presence. K e r f i n g i s such a t r a i t . A k e r f i s a notch which permits or a s s i s t s the bending of a m a t e r i a l , i n t h i s case a plank, and thereby the c r e a t i o n of a corner. By r e q u i r i n g the presence of t h i s t r a i t , two types of wooden c o n t a i n e r s are e l i m i n a t e d from the sample: those whose corners are a l l j o i n e d , and those carved from a s i n g l e b l o c k o f wood. Of the former, c e r t a i n chests and grease dishes are s i m i l a r to those c o n s t r u c t e d - 6 -by k e r f i n g , but most of these were more recent i n o r i g i n . Of the l a t t e r , there i s s t i l l a great v a r i a t i o n of s i z e , shape, and d e c o r a t i o n , and these carved c o n t a i n e r s would themselves c o n s t i t u t e the sample f o r another study. Both the type of c o l l e c t i o n and the nature of i t s component a r t i f a c t s argue f o r i t s use as a sample f o r t h i s study. The most obvious reason i s that the N a t i o n a l Museum of Man, Canadian Ethnology S e r v i c e , r e t a i n s one of the l a r g e s t and most important c o l l e c t i o n s of Northwest Coast c o n t a i n e r s , a c o l l e c t i o n which has not been s t u d i e d and i s p o o r l y known. Thus, there i s a need f o r an important c o l l e c t i o n to be s t u d i e d . In terms of the methodology proposed, that i s , a formal, s t a t i s t i c a l survey of t r a i t s , s e v e r a l requirements are more than adequately met. The f i r s t of these i s s i z e . A c o l l e c t i o n o f 258 a r t i f a c t s , each s h a r i n g at l e a s t one t r a i t , that i s , the presence of at l e a s t one k e r f e d corner, i s l a r g e enough to produce s t a t i s t i c a l l y u s e f u l r e s u l t s . I t i s i n f a c t , l a r g e r than necessary, and the f i n a l a n a l y s i s used only 99 of these. The other p r e r e q u i s i t e i n terms of the t r a i t a n a l y s i s i s that the c o n t a i n e r s may be t r e a t e d as items each of which possesses t r a i t s which may be de-f i n e d and compared. A k e r f e d c o n t a i n e r , as any a r t i f a c t , c o n tains c e r t a i n obvious t r a i t s , n o t a b l y of both c o n s t r u c t i o n - 7 -and d e c o r a t i o n . This allows comparison of c o n s t r u c t i o n even i n those cases where d e c o r a t i o n i s absent or o b l i t e r -ated. It a l s o means that there i s a wealth of t r a i t s from which s e v e r a l may be s e l e c t e d at some time f o r a l i m i t e d a n a l y s i s . H i s t o r y of the c o l l e c t i o n The N a t i o n a l Museum of Man, Canadian Ethnology S e r v i c e , c o l l e c t i o n of k e r f e d c o n t a i n e r s , while i t has w i d e l y v a r y i n g q u a l i t y of documentation, r e p r e s e n t s , i n the h i s t o r y of i t s own formation, most of the types of c o l l e c t i n g p r a c t i c e d by North American museologists and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . While t h i s does not mean there i s no b i a s i n terms of i t s content, i t does i n d i c a t e that i t s u f f e r s from no worse f a u l t s than most museum c o l l e c t i o n s . A l s o , the sheer s i z e and number of the d i f f e r e n t c o l l e c t i o n s which together comprise the t o t a l c o l l e c t i o n i n some ways compensate. The specimens were gathered mainly between 1879 and 1930, the p e r i o d when anthropology was beginning to become e s t a b l i s h e d i n North America and museums were being b u i l t . Native peoples were b e l i e v e d to be on the verge of ex-t i n c t i o n , as the Northwest Coast was e x p e r i e n c i n g the s e v e r e s t blows of the European immigrations. - 8 -The l o c a l e and an approximate date of c o l l e c t i o n , known w i t h i n f i v e y e a r s , are a v a i l a b l e f o r many items. The p e c u l i a r r o l e of these c o n t a i n e r s , as d e s c r i b e d below, makes t h i s data l e s s u s e f u l than might otherwise be the case (Ch. 4) . The c o l l e c t o r s , while a v a r i e d l o t , were, f o r the most p a r t , i n d i v i d u a l s p o s s e s s i n g some f a m i l i a r i t y with the Northwest Coast. The vast bulk of the c o l l e c t i n g was done by p r o f e s s i o n a l e t h n o l o g i s t s such as Boas, Barbeau, S a p i r , H. I. Smith, and by p r o f e s s i o n a l c o l l e c t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Newcombes, f a t h e r and son. The c o l l e c t i o n s are a l s o mainly from the northern coast, but a l l areas are represented. Perhaps the g r e a t e s t b i a s o f the c o l l e c t i o n s i s that most items were chosen, i n p a r t , f o r t h e i r a e s t h e t i c i n -t e r e s t (see P l a t e s ) . There i s l i k e l y an under-representa-t i o n of p u r e l y u t i l i t a r i a n items ( P l a t e 2 ) . A l s o , there i s v i r t u a l l y nothing which i s documented as B e l l a B e l l a - only a c o f f i n f r o n t and a small box. Northwest Coast c o n t a i n e r s , because of t h e i r beauty and of t h e i r prevalence i n the c o l l e c t i o n s of l a r g e r museums, have been widely p u b l i s h e d , but never examined i n terms of t h e i r general c o n s t r u c t i o n and i t s v a r i a t i o n s . - 9 -Holm (1965) has begun the a n a l y s i s o f design by breaking the n o r t h e r n designs i n t o t h e i r component elements and e x t r a c t i n g c e r t a i n r u l e s concerning the use of these elements. He d i d not compare the s t r u c t u r e s o f d i f f e r e n t boxes i n terms of t h e i r o v e r a l l designs, and no d i s c u s s i o n of c o n s t r u c t i o n of the c o n t a i n e r s was made. As the s u b j e c t f o r a n a l y s i s , these are very s a t i s f y i n g a r t i f a c t s . T h e i r complexity allows the r e s e a r c h e r s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s from which to work, and t h e i r beauty and e x c e l l e n c e of c r a f t s -manship are an added bonus throughout the process. Containers of the Northwest Coast Wooden c o n t a i n e r s are h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t a r t i f a c t s i n Northwest Coast l i f e , as i s e l a b o r a t e d below. B r i e f l y , however, i t must be noted that p a r t of the argument f o r t h e i r l e g i t i m a c y as a s u b j e c t f o r study i s t h e i r widespread and changing use, extensive t r a d e , and v a r i e d type. T h e i r importance i n the economic l i f e of the no r t h e r n c u l t u r e s , both as items of trade and as packaging f o r other important products f o r exchange cannot be o v e r s t a t e d . Containers were l i t e r a l l y and s y m b o l i c a l l y fundamental,., a r t i f a c t s , e s p e c i a l l y among the no r t h e r n t r i b e s . They were used i n a l l ceremonial g a t h e r i n g s , r e p r e s e n t i n g wealth as w e l l as being c o n t a i n e r s of food, wealth goods, e t c . They - 10 -appear i n many d i f f e r e n t r o l e s with many meanings i n myth. T h e i r designs have depths of meanings which are l o s t to us. These are i s s u e s which c o u l d themselves c o n s t i t u t e the su b j e c t of another t h e s i s or two. I w i l l b r i e f l y o u t l i n e some examples of the above, u s i n g data from s e v e r a l sources, to i l l u s t r a t e some of the depths of meaning and the l e v e l of importance. Among the T l i n g i t , the concept of c o n t a i n e r i s b a s i c and p e r v a s i v e . There i s a T l i n g i t word "that expresses the meanings of box, c o f f i n , b i v a l v e s h e l l , womb, o u t s i d e , opposite moiety" (Sturtevant 1974:12). That i s , the concept " c o n t a i n e r " u n i t e s symbols of l i n e a g e membership ( b i r t h ) , death ( c o f f i n ) , the o r i g i n o f humans ( f o r the Haida, at any r a t e , from a co c k l e s h e l l ) , the s e p a r a t i o n of i n s i d e from o u t s i d e p a r t s of the world, and the group of humans whose r e p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s to pro v i d e mates, boxes, and even the c o f f i n s i n which the body r e s t s a f t e r the end of l i f e . Some of these meanings are r e f l e c t e d i n myths. For example, among the Tsimsian (Boas 1902:7-13), c o n t a i n e r s p l a y a number of important r o l e s as tra n s f o r m e r s • TxamsEm's genealogy e x h i b i t s t h i s very c l e a r l y . His grandmother, a c h i e f ' s w i f e , had a l o v e r , and pretended death. She was p l a c e d i n a l a r g e box i n a t r e e , as she had requested. While t h e r e , her l o v e r v i s i t e d her, and - 11 -she became pregnant. L a t e r named S u c k i n g - i n t e s t i n e s , he turned h i m s e l f i n t o a cedar l e a f i n a basket f u l l of water, and was swallowed by the daughter of the c h i e f i n the sky. She t h e r e f o r e became pregnant, and gave b i r t h to TxamsEm, though he was c a l l e d Giant. A box, then, was the home of h i s grandparents i n t h e i r i l l i c i t marriage. It was h i s grandmother's f a l s e and l a t e r r e a l c o f f i n . I t became h i s f a t h e r ' s womb, c r a d l e , and home as he was born i n i t a f t e r the k i l l i n g of the c h i e f ' s w i f e . The box became h i s l i f e , and her death, and h i s human home and the symbol of h i s parent's r e j e c t i o n of and by the accepted r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the v i l l a g e , s i n c e i t was t h e i r o n l y home. La t e r i n h i s adventures ( i b i d . : 1 3 - 1 6 ) , the young Giant c r i e s f o r the max, the box which co n t a i n s the d a y l i g h t and i s hanging i n a corner o f h i s mother's f a t h e r ' s house. He i s given i t , p l a y s with i t and runs away with i t . D a y l i g h t i s coming to the Nass. When the ghosts r e f u s e to give him anything that they were c a t c h i n g (leaves i n n e t s ) , he breaks the max. The ghosts f l e e , and he sees boxes f l o a t i n g on the water. These were the canoes of the ghosts. Boxes contained the l i g h t which i s of great value to human l i f e , and which a l s o f r i g h t e n s away ghosts. They a l s o , ( q u i x o t i c a l l y , ) contained the ghosts, or perhaps were - 12 -the remains when the ghosts l e f t and t h e i r canoes became transformed. I t i s not c l e a r whether the canoes were *. a c t u a l l y boxes, transformed only by being seen i n t h e i r true form, or whether the canoes were a c t u a l l y changed when they were i n d a y l i g h t and were seen. The adventures of TsEgu'ksk u (Boas 1902:231) explore another s i t u a t i o n i n which c o n t a i n e r s act as transformers i n the r e l a t i o n s between a n t a g o n i s t s . The shaman, TsEgu'ksk u, seeking revenge, goes to the c h i e f at the bottom of the sea. The c h i e f gives him "a club i n shape of a land o t t e r and a small box, the l i d of which was carved i n the shape of a f i n of a whale ( i b i d . ) . " Back i n h i s canoe, TsEgu'ksk u threw the club i n t o the r i v e r . I t swam ahead and broke the i c e , but became t i r e d . He then put the box on the i c e . It became shaped l i k e a k i l l e r whale and moved over the i c e , br e a k i n g i t ( i b i d . : 2 32). The whale a l s o s t o l e the daughter of the shaman who had k i l l e d h i s f r i e n d s and on whom the revenge was sought. This box-whale allows revenge to be accomplished by c l e a r i n g a path and then f u l f i l l s the revenge by s t e a l i n g a woman. L a t e r , TsEgu'ksk U i s k i l l e d by smallpox ( i b i d . : 2 3 3 ) . Once i n f e c t e d , he goes i n t o a box and dies t h e r e . On the f o u r t h n i g h t a f t e r he was b u r i e d , he appeared on top of the c o f f i n box as a white owl. Before the owl f e l l back - 13 -i n t o the box, i t warned the people: "Nobody w i l l be l e f t . " T h i s was the f i r s t smallpox. The power of the box to transform remained, but the shaman d i d not l i v e . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s seen i n Txa'msEm's s t o r y have weakened. Death and separateness are no longer changed to l i f e w i t h i n the c o f f i n ; i n s t e a d , there i s only a temproary r e b i r t h i n animal form. Boxes and dishes do not only appear i n the myths of the Tsimsian as important mediators or symbols. They are a l s o mentioned as dowry ( i b i d . : 1 2 5 ) , food c o n t a i n e r s ( i b i d . : 1 9 2 ) , weapons (when f u l l of b o i l i n g water) ( i b i d . : 131), f e a s t c o n t a i n e r s ( i b i d . : 6 0 ) , and so on. That i s , many of the non-mythical uses of c o n t a i n e r s appear e i t h e r as p a r t of the d e s c r i p t i o n of a scene, or as some p a r t of the events of the s t o r i e s . I t may t h e r e f o r e e a s i l y be understood t h a t , as a c o l l e c t i o n d e f i n e d by a s i n g l e c o n s t r u c t i o n a l t r a i t , k e r f e d c o n t a i n e r s are homogenous enough to analyse, and are im-p o r t a n t as a l a r g e and b e a u t i f u l c o l l e c t i o n . As w e l l , they are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a r t i f a c t s from the Northwest Coast, and of great importance i n the l i f e of t h e i r makers. - 14 -Chapter 2 The Method: Numerical Taxonomy Within Anthropology, there have been s e v e r a l methods of a n a l y z i n g a c o l l e c t i o n of a r t i f a c t s , but these have been dominated by two, as f o l l o w s . The method used i n the e a r l y p e r i o d of the d i s c i p l i n e and now being r e i n t r o d u c e d and redeveloped (Duff:1975, Gerbrands:1967) makes c a r e f u l statements about c u l t u r a l c ontext, where known (Gerbrands, of course, gathered much of h i s data i n the f i e l d ) . Drawing together t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , h i s t o r i c a l data, and data d e r i v e d from v i s u a l aspects of the a r t i f a c t s , explana-t i o n s and hypotheses are presented which c o n t r i b u t e to the realm of knowledge of symbolism and meaning f o r the t o t a l c u l t u r e as w e l l as f o r the p a r t i c u l a r a r t i f a c t or a r t i f a c t s being d i s c u s s e d . These statements u t i l i z e the ethnographic r e c o r d , from s o c i a l systems to mythology. Such s t u d i e s , well-founded, o f t e n embody e x c i t i n g and courageous leaps i n our understanding of v i s u a l symbolism and i t s context. This method w i l l be examined more c l o s e l y below i n the d i s c u s s i o n of iconography. - 15 -The other method of a n a l y s i s of a r t i f a c t s i s f o r m a l , drawing h e a v i l y from b i o l o g y and from archaeology. The d e s c r i p t i v e catalogue s t u d i e s mentioned i n Chapter 1 are not d i s c u s s e d here as they do not attempt a n a l y s i s beyond the most s u p e r f i c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , u s u a l l y f u n c t i o n a l l y based (C l a r k et a l . , 1974) and d e r i v i n g from assumed t y p o l o g i e s which are s t r i c t l y i n t u i t i v e l y based. By con-t r a s t , T i p p e t t ' s study of F i j i a n m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e (1968) i s a c a r e f u l attempt to formulate a f u n c t i o n a l typology which i s based p r i m a r i l y on f i e l d data, and which he sets i n c o n t r a s t to C h u r c h i l l ' s previous (1917) study of F i j i a n c l u b s . The l a t t e r , based s o l e l y on the morphology of the c l u b s , f a i l e d i n T i p p e t t ' s eyes because i t ignored f u n c t i o n f o r the sake of form (op. c i t . : 2 1 ) . I t a l s o sought to ex-p l a i n the d i f f e r e n c e s between clubs and types of clubs by making statements of t h e i r e v o l u t i o n , much as a p h y s i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t would have done. There are two main c r i t i c i s m s which can be d i r e c t e d at t h i s procedure and i t s c o n c l u s i o n s . The f i r s t , as e l u c i d a t e d by T i p p e t t ( i b i d . : 2 0 ) , i s that l o c a l i t y and f u n c t i o n were ignored. The clubs were t r e a t e d as a u n i t , n e g l e c t i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the trade and d i f f u s i o n which caused clubs from d i f f e r e n t regions to be i n c l u d e d i n C h u r c h i l l ' s study as F i j i a n c l u b s . The second, which - 16 -r e f l e c t s T i p p e t t ' s comments about using only formal aspects of the c l u b s , i s t h a t , on the c o n t r a r y , C h u r c h i l l d i d not go deeply enough i n t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n and ornamentation of the clubs before making what T i p p e t t r e f e r r e d to as a meticulous formal c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( i b i d . : 2 0 ) . Furthermore, he f o r c e d h i s data i n t o an e v o l u t i o n a r y scheme. A thorough enumeration and study of t r a i t s should have c l e a r l y separated those clubs which were not made i n the t r a d i t i o n a l F i j i a n s t y l e . The above d i s c u s s i o n of s t u d i e s u n r e l a t e d to the Northwest Coast serves to i l l u s t r a t e three major o r i e n t a -t i o n s found i n formal s t u d i e s of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e . The f i r s t i s the o l d formal arrangement based on the notions of b i o l o g y . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , naming, and r e l a t i n g by descent were attempted by an a n a l y s i s u s i n g a combination of obvious c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or t r a i t s , and with the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n that d i f f e r e n c e s were p a r t of an e v o l u t i o n a r y sequence (Sokal and Sneath:1963). The l a t t e r operates i n the a n a l y s i s even though the a c t u a l e v o l u t i o n of the a r t i f a c t form i s unknown, and i t s presence on F i j i i s assumed to be an i n d i -c a t i o n that i t was made on that i s l a n d and belonging there-f o r e to the t r a d i t i o n s of the F i j i a n c a r v e r or user of the cl u b . - 17 -The second o r i e n t a t i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , T i p p e t t ' s . The t y p o l o g y used by h i s i n f o r m a n t s , which was f u n c t i o n a l , p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r h i s a n a l y s i s . "To view an o b j e c t f u n c t i o n a l l y i s to p l a c e i t as a m e a n i n g f u l o b j e c t w i t h i n a c o n t e x t " ( T i p p e t t , i b i d . : 2 7 ) . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n or o r d e r i n g o f the a r t i f a c t s i s not s i m p l i f i e d , but has an added depth. O f t e n , however, t h i s o r d e r i n g i s not based on i n f o r m a n t s ' c a t e g o r i e s , but i s based on c a t e g o r i e s d e t e r m i n e d by the r e s e a r c h e r from i n s p e c t i o n o f the a r t i -f a c t s under study. Thus, f o r example, a c u r a t o r b u i l d i n g an e x h i b i t on " f u n c t i o n a l " c a t e g o r i e s would p l a c e hamatsa w h i s t l e s and drums used d u r i n g gambling w i t h a v a r i e t y of o t h e r o b j e c t s and c a l l them m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s . T i p p e t t ' s e x c e l l e n t use o f i n f o r m a n t s as w e l l as o f museum r e s o u r c e s a v o i d e d t h i s p i t f a l l , but i t has been a l l too common i n the p a s t . The t h i r d o r i e n t a t i o n f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e i s t h a t h i n t e d a t above w i t h the s t a t e -ment t h a t C h u r c h i l l d i d not go d e e p l y enough i n t o the t y p o l o g y o f the c l u b s . R e c e n t l y , w i t h the a i d o f computers, and w i t h the new c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y and the new p o s s i b i l i t i e s d e v e l o p i n g f o r n u m e r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f a r t i f a c t assemblages or c o l l e c t i o n s , t h e r e has been a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l means o f a n a l y s i s o f - 18 -m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e . To date, t h i s has been r e s t r i c t e d i n anthropology mainly to archaeology. Deetz (1965) d i v i d e d p o t t e r y i n t o component p a r t s , v a r y i n g over time, which he c a l l e d s t y l i s t i c a t t r i b u t e s . A l l a t t r i b u t e s which v a r i e d w i t h i n h i s sherds were coded, except those which were only a r e s u l t of the p u r e l y t e c h n o l o g i c a l aspects of pot-t e r y manufacture ( i b i d . : 4 6 ) , although these presumably co u l d be c o n s i d e r e d at some time. He d e f i n e d s t y l i s t i c a t t r i b u t e s as those r e s u l t i n g "from a c h o i c e on the p a r t of the manufacturer from a number of p o s s i b i l i t i e s , made to produce a c e r t a i n e f f e c t on the f i n i s h e d v e s s e l " (op. c i t . ) . Nineteen c l a s s e s of a t t r i b u t e s were d e r i v e d , each c o n t a i n i n g from two to eighteen t r a i t s or c h a r a c t e r s , as Sokal and Sneath r e f e r to them (Sokal and Sneath, 1963:34). The computer then c a l c u l a t e d the degree of a s s o c i a t i o n of the t r a i t s i n each s t y l i s t i c c l a s s , and the a n a l y s i s of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s proceded. Sokal and Sneath ( i b i d . ) o u t l i n e the b a s i c theory of numerical taxonomy from t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e i n the s c i e n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y botany and b i o l o g y . T h e i r work forms the b a s i s from which the technique of a n a l y s i s used w i t h i n the pre-sent study was d e r i v e d , and i s t h e r e f o r e o u t l i n e d below. At the same time, d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l be c l a r i f i e d . Numerical taxonomy i n v o l v e s a broad a n a l y s i s seeking to d e r i v e - 19 -taxonomies, as opposed to the o b j e c t of D e e t z s t u d y , which was concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y with the "manner i n which s t y l i s t i c a t t r i b u t e s combine and recombine through time" (Deetz, 1965:45). F i r s t , we need to understand the terminology of o r d e r i n g which i s being used. Anthropology, i n c l u d i n g archaeology, has h i s t o r i c a l l y produced many more or l e s s i m aginative s u c c e s s i v e t e r m i n o l o g i e s which, whether formal or f u n c t i o n a l , have claimed to be the b e s t , most l o g i c a l , most a l l - i n c l u s i v e , or whatever p o s s i b l e means o f r e f e r r i n g to a body of data and i t s o r d e r i n g ( i n c l u d i n g B i n f o r d 1962, Rouse 1960, e t c . ) . The simple Boolean terms, set and sub-set, seem to have been superseded by type, mode, t r a i t , and a p l e t h o r a of other terms, r e f l e c t i n g the b i a s of the s c h o l a r i n q u e s t i o n , more than the data which they osten-s i b l y are best able to deal with. In an attempt not to complicate t h i s f u r t h e r , t h i s study uses terminology d e r i v e d from two major sources. The f i r s t i s the a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , and those b i o l o g i s t s whose work serves as t h e i r model, who are proceeding with f o r m a l , s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of a r t i f a c t s (Sokal and Sneath 1963, Sokal 1974). The general terminology d e r i v e d by Rouse (1960, 1967), e s p e c i a l l y as used by Jones (1968) i n her study of Northwest coast basketry, i s a u s e f u l framework - 20 -on which to begin the d e r i v a t i o n of the t r a i t s which form the b a s i s of t h i s a n a l y s i s . I p r e f e r , however, to s u b s t i -t ute the more s p e c i f i c term, t r a i t , f o r Rouse' mode. The other primary source o f terminology f o r t h i s paper i s , of course, the work of those a n t h r o p o l o g i s t museologists who deal with ethnographic c o l l e c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y of the Northwest Coast. This i n c l u d e s s c h o l a r s having a strong sense of the v i s u a l impact of the a r t i f a c t s , as j u s t i f i e d i n h i s c a l l f o r co n n o i s s e u r s h i p by St u r t e v a n t (1973:46). Taxonomy i s the " t h e o r e t i c a l study of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g i t s bases, p r i n c i p l e s , procedures, and r u l e s " (Simpson 1961:11, i n Sokal and Sneath 1963:3), and c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n i s the " o r d e r i n g of organisms i n t o groups (or sets) on the b a s i s of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , that i s , of t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s by c o n t i g u i t y , s i m i l a r i t y , or both" (Sokal and Sneath 1963:3). Both terms have been and w i l l continue to be used to i n d i c a t e the r e s u l t s of the process which bears t h e i r name. This study seeks to order North-west Coast k e r f e d c o n t a i n e r s i n t o s e t s , or subsets of the t o t a l c o n t a i n e r c o l l e c t i o n (Ch. I ) , and thereby to t e s t the a ppropriateness of taxonomic a n a l y s i s on such a c o l l e c t i o n . That i s , the c o n t a i n e r s w i l l be d i v i d e d to creat e a taxonomy. - 21 -As Sokal and Sneath p o i n t out i n the case of b i o -l o g i c a l taxonomists, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of taxonomies has been made on the b a s i s of resemblance, s h a r i n g o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are a r e s u l t of a common o r i g i n , and s h a r i n g a l i n e o f descent. W i t h i n anthropology, t h i s i s a l s o a problem, as the d e f i n i t i o n of the l a t t e r two, though based i n p a r t on the v i s u a l evidence of the former, i s o f t e n c i r c u l a r i n nature and leads to the development of taxonomies i n which sets are designated by both formal and f u n c t i o n a l t r a i t s , without any c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n being made . Taxonomies should be b u i l t on a c a l c u l a t i o n of the a f f i n i t i e s of specimens (taxonomic u n i t s ) , c l u s t e r i n g them n u m e r i c a l l y w i t h an awareness that the d i v i s i o n s are a r b i -t r a r y at some l e v e l , and that w i t h i n a grouping or c l u s t e r of a r t i f a c t s which have a high a f f i n i t y i n terms of shared t r a i t s , there may be no one s i n g l e t r a i t which d e f i n e s the c l u s t e r and each of i t s members. Numerical taxonomy, then, i s "the numerical e v a l u a t i o n o f the a f f i n i t y or s i m i l a r i t y between taxonomic u n i t s and the o r d e r i n g of these u n i t s i n t o taxa on the b a s i s of t h e i r a f f i n i t i e s " (Sokal and Sneath 1963:48). The c h a r a c t e r s or t r a i t s on which these a f f i n i t i e s are c a l c u l a t e d are s e l e c t e d without weighting, and as many as p o s s i b l e should be used, at l e a s t s i x t y - 22 -( i b i d . : 5 1 ) being p r e f e r a b l e . I t i s t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e to form c l u s t e r s of a r t i f a c t s s t r i c t l y on the b a s i s of t h e i r t r a i t s , and then to apply the type of s e r i a t i o n used by Jones, and by Kaufmann (1969) once the types were d e f i n e d . Without c a r e f u l and l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n of s i m i l a r i t i e s , comparisons over time and space become weakened. C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s i s a "more or l e s s automatic method f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g and d e f i n i n g c l u s t e r s of mutually high s i m i l a r i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s " (Sokal and Sneath:52). They are best i l l u s t r a t e d by dendrograms. ( F i g s . 5, 6, 7), the l e n g t h of the h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s being the measure of the d i s t a n c e of the a f f i n i t y between u n i t s or groups of u n i t s . That i s , w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s l i n e a r r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n , the k e r f e d c o n t a i n e r s w i l l be p l a c e d i n c l u s t e r s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r l e v e l o f s i m i l a r i t y . The p h y s i c a l t r a i t s of the Northwest Coast c o n t a i n e r s were coded. As w e l l as the p r e d i c t i o n that they would c l u s t e r a ccording to t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s , i t was hoped that t h i s would allow some st r e n g t h e n i n g and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of present t y p o l o g i e s , which are l o o s e l y d e f i n e d and i n t u i t i v e l y d e r i v e d . One of the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t i e s with t h i s method of a n a l y s i s , shared, I suspect, e q u a l l y by the b o t a n i s t or z o o l o g i s t and by the e t h n o l o g i s t or a r c h a e o l o g i s t , i s the problem of d e f i n i n g the c h a r a c t e r s or t r a i t s . They - 23 -must be v a r i a b l e s which can be observed, and t h e i r i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n must be r e p e a t a b l e . Sokal and Sneath (1963:62) give two d e f i n i t i o n s : F i r s t , a " c h a r a c t e r i s a p r o p e r t y or 'feature which v a r i e s from one k i n d of organism to another' (Michener and Sok a l , 1957) or 'anything that can be co n s i d e r e d as a v a r i a b l e independent of any other t h i n g c o n s i d e r e d at the same time' (Cain and H a r r i s o n , 1958; we assume the independence r e f e r r e d to i s l o g i c a l r a t h e r than f u n c t i o n a l or mathematical)." The v a r i a t i o n s which a c h a r a c t e r may demonstrate are c a l l e d values or s t a t e s of the c h a r a c t e r . Furthermore, a u n i t c h a r a c t e r i s " d e f i n e d as. an a t t r i b u t e possessed by an organism about which one statement can be made, thus y i e l d i n g a s i n g l e p i e c e of i n f o r m a t i o n " ' ( S o k a l and Sneath:63). This i s a s t r i c t l y o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n . Each c h a r a c t e r , or each a l t e r n a t i v e represented by that c h a r a c t e r ( t r a i t ) w i l l be represented i n the data as a s i n g l e p i e c e of i n f o r m a t i o n . I t should not be a l o g i c a l consequence of any other c h a r a c t e r ( t r a i t ) as that would be redundant and p o s s i b l y weight the r e s u l t s i n the d i r e c t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r ( t r a i t ) i n q u e s t i o n . I t should not be i n v a r i a n t w i t h i n the sample, and i t can p o s s i b l y be i n -cluded i f i t i s p a r t i a l l y a l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e of another t r a i t , depending on the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the second ( i b i d . : - 24 -66, 67). I n c l u s i o n of the i n v a r i a n t c h a r a c t e r would reduce the d i f f e r e n c e s among the u n i t s , and the c a l c u -l a t e d c o e f f i c i e n t s . There i s another i s s u e w i t h i n the q u e s t i o n of how to choose t r a i t s . That i s the q u e s t i o n of envir o n m e n t a l l y determined t r a i t s . Sokal and Sneath ( i b i d . : 9 2 ) note that " I t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d that only g e n e t i c a l l y d e t e r -mined c h a r a c t e r s should be used i n orthodox taxonomy, and with t h i s we concur. However, a study to i n v e s t i g a t e the i n f l u e n c e of environment using numerical taxonomic methods co u l d l e g i t i m a t e l y i n c l u d e e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y determined c h a r a c t e r s . " That i s , r e g a r d i n g Northwest Coast c o n t a i n e r s , the o r i g i n a l (box) t r a i t s are analogous to g e n e t i c t r a i t s , which were c r e a t e d and are fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c o n t a i n e r . A d d i t i o n s , such as n a i l s to r e p l a c e pegs, more p a i n t , e t c . , although they do not r e f l e c t the o r i g i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and design o f the specimen, i n d i c a t e d e t a i l s of i t s h i s t o r y . They may r e f l e c t events i n i t s use and v a r i a t i o n s imposed by s u c c e s s i v e owners. I f one were i n -tending to create a pure a n a l y s i s of the o r i g i n a l manu-f a c t u r i n g , these t r a i t s should be omitted. Often, however, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine the p r e c i s e time at which a t r a i t was added or changed. - 25 -Once these questions are s e t t l e d and the t r a i t s are d e f i n e d and recorded, the computing proceeds on the b a s i s of s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s , e i t h e r among the o v e r - a l l o p e r a t i o n a l taxonomic u n i t s , or by a s s o c i -a t i n g the p a i r s of these u n i t s ( i n t h i s case, each c o n t a i n e r i s a u n i t ) over a l l the t r a i t s i n the matrix of u n i t s and t r a i t s . The c o e f f i c i e n t s thus c a l c u l a t e d may i n d i c a t e a s s o c i a t i o n , c o r r e l a t i o n , or d i s t a n c e , or c o e f f i c i e n t s o f resemblance or s i m i l a r i t y ( i b i d . : 125) . The c l u s t e r s d e r i v e d , and the taxonomic systems c o n s t r u c t e d from them, are r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the af-f i n i t i e s among the u n i t s i n the study. These systems are themselves shorthand • -- convenient means with which to r e f e r to c o l l e c t i o n s of u n i t s , and to c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among them. The c l u s t e r i n g I have used i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s -s i o n i s c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g f u r t h e s t neighbour or complete l i n k a g e ( i b i d ; Matson and True 1974:57), which was found to give the c l e a r e s t r e s u l t s . The h i e r a r c h i c a l c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s (HCLUS) program was designed by Wood (1974). Matson (pers. comm.) wrote the p o r t i o n of the program which c a l c u l a t e s the s i m i l a r i t y co-e f f i c i e n t s matrix. The m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g program - 26 -which p r o v i d e d such u s e f u l supplementary data was d e r i v e d from Torgerson (1958). - 27 -Chapter 3 A p p l i c a t i o n of the Method The o b j e c t i v e here i s to d e s c r i b e , u s i n g the t h e o r i e s of t r a i t a n a l y s i s and d e f i n i t i o n o u t l i n e d above (Ch. 2), and i n some d e t a i l , the process of d e a l i n g with the s p e c i f i c a r t i f a c t s (taxonomic u n i t s ) and t h e i r t r a i t s ( c h a r a c t e r s ) . Before attempting to d e s c r i b e a set of u a r t i f a c t s i n terms of l o g i c a l l y - d e r i v e d components or t r a i t s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l to be f a m i l i a r with the a r t i f a c t s . In t h i s study the boxes and dishes were a l l handled and examined, b e a r i n g i n mind the qu e s t i o n s : "What t r a i t s appear?" and "How can they be d e a l t with s y s t e m a t i c a l l y ? " A l i s t of a l l l o g i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t r a i t s drawn up by some-one having only a vague f a m i l i a r i t y with the c o n t a i n e r s would i n c l u d e both i n a p p r o p r i a t e and absent t r a i t s . Each c o n t a i n e r d i v i d e s i n t o t r a i t c a t e g o r i e s , such as k e r f , j o i n , f i n i s h , m o t i f , e t c . ( F i g . 3). The v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n these c a t e g o r i e s are the a c t u a l t r a i t s of the con-- t a i n e r s . Both the t r a i t c a t e g o r i e s and the t r a i t s w i t h i n each must be c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d . - 28 -To demonstrate the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d , c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b l y n e a r l y i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y of k e r f s and corner f i n i s h e s . A l l asymmetric k e r f shapes c o u l d appear i n m i r r o r image. In r e a l i t y , i n t h i s sample, there are l i m i t e d shapes of c u t s , each repeated ( F i g - 3, H) . S i m i a r l y , the undersurface of a l i d , i f co n s i d e r e d as a combination o f many t r a i t s , would have a l a r g e number of p o s s i b l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . The presence or absence of a notch, i t s nearness to the outer edge, whether i t was p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e , and the shapes of the c e n t r a l por-t i o n , when m u l t i p l i e d together, c r e a t e a long l i s t of l o g i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t r a i t s , based on the combinations. In r e a l i t y , c e r t a i n of these aspects never combine and i t i s p o s s i b l e to make a short l i s t of the a c t u a l t r a i t s of lower l i d c o n f i g u r a t i o n s ( F i g . 3, N). The p a r t s of a l i d , as p r e s e n t l y d e f i n e d (upper/lower/edge) may vary independently (see F i g . 3:M, N, 0). The problem o f o v e r l a p p i n g or r e l a t e d t r a i t s a r i s e s , w i t h i n the l a t t e r example above, where the t r a i t s ( F i g . 3, N) co u l d be s u b - d i v i d e d and those p a r t s c a l l e d t r a i t s . There must be a l i m i t a r b i t r a r i l y s e t . The t r a i t s which are used f o r a n a l y s i s must be n e i t h e r too a l l - i n c l u s i v e (such as "shape of box" would be) nor too d e t a i l e d and t h e r e f o r e dependent on t r a i t s from another - 29 -t r a i t category (see Ch. 2) . The assignment of these l i m i t s i s t e s t e d i n the a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the t r a i t c a t e g o r i e s and the t r a i t s to the c o n t a i n e r s . I t was found that c e r t a i n t r a i t s e i t h e r had to be expressed as new t r a i t s which were c l o s e v a r i a t i o n s of a l r e a d y d e f i n e d ones, or as combinations of these. For example, a l i p which i s s t r o n g l y d e f i n e d and s l i g h t l y rounded, yet s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g a r a t h e r rectangu-l a r c r o s s - s e c t i o n may be d e s c r i b e d as a combination of a squared l i p and a rounded one ( F i g . 3, E ) . However, i f i one l i p i s s p e c i f i e d which i s both curved and p r o t r u d i n g , there s t i l l e x i s t v a r i a t i o n s which are more curved or more squared. The anonymous statement of the combination i s an a r b i t r a r y yet s a t i s f a c t o r y compromise. While i t may be argued that t h i s , i n e f f e c t , i s combining t r a i t s , and p r e t e n d i n g that the new c o n f i g u r a t i o n so formed i s only one t r a i t , the system was found to make adequate d e f i n i t i o n of a l l p a r t s of the c o n t a i n e r s . Furthermore, i n an a r t i f a c t as complex as these c o n t a i n e r s , there i s a l a r g e number of t r a i t s , even when some seem to be combinations. To attempt to break down a l l the corners i n t o t h e i r t r a i t s i n t h i s way, which would be an i n c r e d i b l y complex task and not p a r t i c u l a r l y rewarding, would c r e a t e - 30 -a monster. There would be so many t r a i t s t h a t they would be impossible to de,al with. A l s o , even then there i s no l o g i c a l l i m i t . The angles of each sma l l l i n e on w a l l , base, rim, l i p , l i d , l i d edge, or whatever, c o u l d be i n c l u d e d . . . the l i s t i s e n d l e s s . I have t h e r e f o r e a r b i t r a r i l y e s t a b l i s h e d twenty-two t r a i t c a t e g o r i e s ( F i g . 3). Each of these can have from two to f i f t e e n p o s s i b l e t r a i t s , the number v a r y i n g with each t r a i t category. There i s an e n t r y f o r each t r a i t category, though i t sometimes may be "absent" or even a combination of the p o s s i b l e t r a i t s . When the survey was being e s t a b l i s h e d , because the work began i n Ottawa, i t was not known e x a c t l y what f o r -mat was used by the program. The coding r e q u i r e d i s a presence-absence-no comparison coding, which would allow the e l i m i n a t i o n of a l l the "absent" c a t e g o r i e s . They would be coded as any other absent t r a i t . And i f they were i n d e t e r m i n a b l e , they would be coded "no comparison." It was a l s o not known that more than one entry c o u l d be coded w i t h i n any t r a i t . T h e r e f o r e , the i n i t i a l attempt was to keep the t r a i t s as separate as p o s s i b l e . In the i n t e r e s t s of s h o r t e n i n g the coding p r o c e s s , there was some attempt made to combine v a r i a t i o n s . The number of e n t r i e s under k e r f (corner) was reduced by i n c l u d i n g only - 31 -those which were symmetric or cut to the r i g h t of the corner, and adding an e x t r a entry " r e v e r s a l of handed-ness" ( F i g - 3, H:8). L e f t as i t p r e s e n t l y i s e s t a b l i s h e d , the coding system c o u l d be analysed by a punch card-s o r t i n g method, although computer s o r t i n g would be more u s e f u l because of the l a r g e number of v a r i a b l e s . Another problem which c o u l d not be adequately d e a l t with u n t i l the survey had been completed and the exact requirements of the -program known r e l a t e s to frequency of occurrence of any one t r a i t . In numerical taxonomic a n a l y s i s , a c h a r a c t e r ( t r a i t ) which i s present only once, or a few times, need not be used. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , there are s e v e r a l such t r a i t s remaining i n the sample. C e r t a i n of the l i d undersurface c o n f i g u r a t i o n s appear only a few times, as do some k e r f types and some c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of the base upper s u r f a c e s ( F i g . 3, N:9, 10; H:9; J : l l ) . These c o n t r i b u t e l i t t l e to the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the data. Much of the l o g i c upon which the above-described d i v i s i o n of a c o n t a i n e r i n t o t r a i t s , i s d e r i v e d from Deetz' d e s c r i p t i o n s of p o t t e r y a n a l y s i s (1965) and the c u r r e n t work of D. Keenleys ide ,> A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada (pers. comm.), a l s o on p o t t e r y . The problems of d e a l i n g w i t h the p a r t s of a pot - 32 -are somewhat s i m i l a r to those of d e s c r i b i n g any c o n t a i n e r , and the attempt at e s t a b l i s h i n g t r a i t c a t e g o r i e s w i t h i n which there may be v a r i a t i o n i s i d e n t i c a l to mine. A pot l i p i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the s e c t i o n of the w a l l beneath i t , and the w a l l from the area at the base. S i m i l a r l y , the rim of a box w a l l i s coded s e p a r a t e l y from the c r o s s -s e c t i o n o f ' t h e w a l l , and from the c r o s s - s e c t i o n of the base of the w a l l . Indeed, the c u r r e n t study d i f f e r e n t i -ates between v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n s of w a l l rims. Perhaps the g r e a t e s t long term q u e s t i o n which a r i s e s when an a r t i f a c t i s d e s c r i b e d u s i n g a formal coding of t r a i t s i s that of terminology. There i s no adequate and e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y terminology a v a i l a b l e to d e s c r i b e the d i v i s i o n of the a r t i f a c t s i n t o t h e i r component p a r t s . These have been c a l l e d t r a i t s , modes, e t c . but here are p a r t s which themselves c o n t a i n v a r i a t i o n s which are the a c t u a l t r a i t s . My s o l u t i o n i s to c a l l them t r a i t c a t e g o r i e s , and the v a r i a t i o n s are c a l l e d t r a i t s . Thus, the t r a i t s correspond to Sokal and Sneath's c h a r a c t e r s (see Ch. 2). Each of the t r a i t s c o u l d r e q u i r e a name, although most are best d e s c r i b e d by a diagram. Each t r a i t category should be named. We have a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d to v e r t i c a l and - 33 -h o r i z o n t a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n s , and to upper and lower s u r f a c e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . Type of j o i n , k e r f , rim and l i p are common enough terms i n any m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e a n a l y s i s . Before t r a i t s on each w a l l c o u l d be coded, whether of c o n s t r u c t i o n or d e c o r a t i o n , some means of naming the w a l l s had to be e s t a b l i s h e d . A r b i t r a r i l y , the w a l l s were numbered one, two, three, and f o u r , clockwise from the j o i n e d corner. This n e u t r a l r e f e r e n c e proved convenient and quick, and i n v o l v e d no r e l a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of import-ance of d e c o r a t i o n . There was c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n d e s c r i b i n g the su r f a c e d e c o r a t i o n , both i n terms of d i v i d i n g i t i n t o t r a i t c a t e g o r i e s and of l i m i t i n g and d e f i n i n g the v a r i a -t i o n s w i t h i n each of those. Four t r a i t c a t e g o r i e s were s e t t l e d on: type of f i n i s h , type of d e c o r a t i o n , c o l o u r , and m o t i f . The f i r s t , type of f i n i s h ( F i g . 3, R) , d e s c r i b e s the s u r f a c e on which ornamentation i s to be p l a c e d . In some cases, the f i n i s h i s i t s e l f the d e c o r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y when there i s p a r t i c u l a r l y f i n e and even adzing. The v a r i a t i o n s are (1) rough, (2) adzed/knifed ( P l a t e 2 ) , (3) sanded/fine f i n i s h ( P l a t e 6 ) , (4) p i e r c e d ( P l a t e s , 5 , 7, 8 ) . The l a s t e n try a p p l i e s more perhaps to a c o n s t r u c -t i o n category, such as sewing/ties ( F i g . 3,^) but p l a c i n g - 34 -i t i n a t r a i t category which i s a p p l i e d s e p a r a t e l y to each w a l l and to the l i d , i f pre s e n t , allows the r e c o r d i n g of the l o c a t i o n of a hole or h o l e s . The other three t r a i t s r e f l e c t d e c i s i o n s about the degree and k i n d of care with which the c o n t a i n e r was f i n i s h e d . They are independent t r a i t s , although there i s a tendency f o r the roughly f i n i s h e d c o n t a i n e r s to be undecorated, and f o r the adzed ones to be s i m i l a r l y unadorned or decorated w i t h p a r a l l e l , s t r a i g h t i n c i s e d l i n e s . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s are not, however, i n v a r i a n t . The type of decoration'posed g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t i e s ( F i g . 3, S). I t r e q u i r e d r e v i s i o n which was made p o s s i b l e by the program's a b i l i t y to code more than one t r a i t pre-sent w i t h i n a t r a i t category. The e i g h t t r a i t s are: (1) none, (2) i n c i s e d , (3) p a i n t e d s o l i d l y , (4) p a i n t e d design, (5) beaded, (6) low r e l i e f , (7) s c u l p t e d , (8) i n -l a i d . As d i s c u s s e d above, the f i r s t i s made unnecessary by the type of coding the program r e q u i r e s , but does allow p o s s i b l e f u t u r e use of other s o r t i n g processes ( P l a t e 2, 6). The second d e s c r i b e s any l i n e made by a k n i f e or other sharp implement, and which has no shape other ;than that made by a cut ( P l a t e 3, 4; 5). Included are l i n e s which are p a r a l l e l and s t r a i g h t , those which form complex designs, and those which o u t l i n e a design or - 35 -the s u r f a c e being worked. C e r t a i n c o n t a i n e r s are s t a i n e d or p a i n t e d s o l i d l y b l ack or red or a combination of the two p a i n t s . These are coded as such. I f there i s any s o r t of design, e i t h e r of s o l i d l y p a i n t e d forms, or of f i n e form l i n e s c r e a t i n g a design, i t i s d e s c r i b e d as p a i n t e d design ( P l a t e s 10-38). The next three v a r i a t i o n s r e f e r to carved d e c o r a t i o n . Beaded s u r f a c e s appear e i t h e r on two or four w a l l s , and both as an o v e r a l l f i n i s h and as a " f i l l e r " , above another carved design ( P l a t e s 51-54). This motif s t r o n g l y resembles T l i n g i t s l a t armour, and i s adjacent semi-circles , evenly carved. A design i n low r e l i e f i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from one which i s merely i n c i s e d by the v a r i a t i o n i n the depth and, u s u a l l y , the width of the l i n e s which form i t ( P l a t e s 1, 27, 29, e t c . ) . S c u l p t e d designs are an attempt to b r i n g a f i g u r e out of the f l a t s u r f a c e of the wood ( P l a t e s 9, 49). They may s t i l l be f l a t r e l a t i v e to the model from nature, but are molded, wit h l i n e s not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n a formal manner. I n l a y r e f e r s both to o p e r c u l a and to abalone ( P l a t e s 1, 14, 16, 29, 63, 65). I n l a y on the rim i s coded i n t o the w a l l i t 0 i s above. I n l a y on the l i d i s coded merely as present or not. No d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , i s made among the types of i n l a y . I f the w a l l s and rims were coded s e p a r a t e l y , t h i s d i s t i n c -t i o n would be redundant s i n c e i n my sample, only o p e r c u l a - 36 -were used on rims, and abalone on w a l l s . I t seemed t h a t , although the presence or absence of p a i n t was i n d i c a t e d by the t h i r d and f o u r t h e n t r i e s under type of d e c o r a t i o n , more data would be u s e f u l f o r compara-t i v e purposes-. For example, many of the secondary m o t i f s on the boxes are i n only one c o l o u r , and should be d i s -t i n g u i s h e d from those i n two c o l o u r s . The t r a i t s were thus d e f i n e d : (1) none, (2) one, and (3) two or more c o l o u r s . The appearances of three c o l o u r s on one w a l l were l i m i t e d , and were e i t h e r on a chest ( P l a t e s 27, 29), on a drum with a c o n f i g u r a t i v e design (see below f o r d i s c u s s i o n of term), ( P l a t e s 10, 11) or on a box w i t h some f e a t u r e s which were aberrant i n terms of the f i n a l c l u s t e r s . The g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y of t r a i t d e f i n i t i o n was ex-p e r i e n c e d i n the M o t i f category ( F i g . 3, U). T h i s i s one of the most complex, the most d i f f i c u l t to d e s c r i b e and the l e a s t ' s a t i s f a c t o r y t r a i t c a t e g o r i e s . A f t e r an i n i t i a l attempt to break the i n t e r n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of the more complex designs and m o t i f s by examining the elements of which they were c o n s t r u c t e d , a r a t h e r general d i v i s i o n was formulated. This allowed comparison of l e v e l s of complexity w i t h i n c e r t a i n gross d i v i s i o n s , and has proven i t s e l f u s e f u l , i f somewhat l i m i t e d by the d i f f i c u l t y I 1 - 37 -had i n d e f i n i n g the e n t r i e s f o r c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and ambiguous designs. This p e c u l i a r problem w i l l be o u t l i n e d below. F i f t e e n t r a i t s w i t h i n t h i s t r a i t category were e s t a b l i s h e d : (1) none, (2) symmetric, (3) c o r n e r - c e n t r e d , (4) e d g e - p a r a l l e l l i n e s , (5) other p a r a l l e l l i n e s ( o v e r a l l ) , (6) simple sfrorms, (7) complex forms, (8) c o n f i g u r a t i v e / r e a l i s t i c being, (9) expansive being, (note: a l l f o l l o w i n g are d i s t r i b u t i v e designs) (10) double-eyed f i g u r e , (11) s i n g l e - e y e d f i g u r e , (12) h e a d / t a i l , (13) body p r o f i l e , (14) o r i e n t a t i o n to l e f t , (15) o r i e n t a t i o n to r i g h t . - Numbers 2, 14 ( P l a t e s 14, 16) and 15 ( P l a t e s 15, 17) are general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c o u l d be a p p l i e d to any design. T h e i r i n c l u s i o n , however, g r e a t l y reduces the number of separate t r a i t s l i s t e d , and adds some data which d e s c r i b e s the r e l a t i o n of the s i d e s to each other. The f i r s t t r a i t i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y ( P l a t e s 2, 6). Symmetry i s u s u a l l y b i l a t e r a l and on a v e r t i c a l a x i s , and only r e f e r s to the s i d e being observed ( P l a t e s 8, 9, 12, 13, e t c . ) . A c o r n e r - c e n t e r e d design i s one which i s symmetric about a corner ( P l a t e s 14-17, 63-66) v T h i s t r a i t accomplishes a number of i n t e r e s t i n g o b j e c t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g g i v i n g depth to the design (one can almost imagine a beak or nose on the c o r n e r ) , and s t r e n g t h e n i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n of two c r e a t u r e s , s i n c e these - 38 -are always found i n p a i r s , back-to-back, encompassing the box without a break. The next two t r a i t s are g e n e r a l l y i n c i s e d , and the f i r s t may be i n a s s o c i a t i o n with a more complex d e s i g n . The o v e r a l l or other p a r a l l e l l i n e s are any which make use of more of the f i e l d than the border ( P l a t e s 3, 7). They may change d i r e c t i o n or be broken asymmetrically by an undecorated area ( P l a t e 7). Although both types of design based on p a r a l l e l l i n e s are g e n e r a l l y o n l y found on Kwakiutl and Nootka c o n t a i n e r s , t h i s i s not a d e f i n i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of boxes from t h i s area, nor i s i t l i m i t e d to them. I t appears, at l e a s t i n the e d g e - p a r a l l e l v a r i a t i o n , on boxes and p a i l s and bowls from the Haida and the Tsimsian ( P l a t e s .51-54). Indeed, i t i s a r e c u r r i n g m o t i f on bowls of the T l i n g i t and n o r t h e r n Haida which have been carved from a s o l i d b l o c k of wood. The simple and complex forms may be r e a d i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from each other, but again the d i v i s i o n i s somewhat a r b i -t r a r y , and the judgement s u b j e c t i v e . The simple forms are g e n e r a l l y composed of one s i n g l e or a combination of the elements of Northwest Coast design, as o u t l i n e d by Holm (1965), which are the "alphabet" of the n o r t h e r n s t y l e . They are most o f t e n found on two s i d e s of storage boxes c - 39 -which have d i s t r i b u t i v e designs on the other two s i d e s ( P l a t e s 21, 23, 25). They may be, f o r example, a p a i r of ovoids, or a s i n g l e one. The ovoids may be supple-mented by a curved l i n e , l i k e a f l a t t e n e d " s " , or by a "u-form." Simple s t a r s , c i r c l e s with c r o s s e s , or other l i n e s a l s o are p l a c e d i n t h i s t r a i t . The more complex forms are those i n which the elements combine to form a motif which may be r e c o g n i z a b l e and which i s composed of s e v e r a l elements. ' The salmon head i s one of these, and the s o - c a l l e d whale t a i l o f t e n found on the ends of a chest, such as VII-C-128 ( P l a t e s 28, 30), i n which there i s an o v o i d supplemented at op p o s i t e corners by a u, and c o n t a i n i n g a salmon head. Holm's c a t e g o r i e s of design d e f i n e the next two t r a i t s ( i b i d . : 1 1 ) . A c o n f i g u r a t i v e or r e a l i s t i c being i s one which i s r e c o g n i z a b l e as some s p e c i f i c c r e a t u r e . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a c o n f i g u r a t i v e being i s i n t r a d i -t i o n a l Northwest Coast elements, but the p a r t s of the body are not rearranged to f i t the space on which the design r e s t s , nor are they p l a c e d out of order. They may appear p r o p o r t i o n a l l y a l t e r e d ( P l a t e 11). The r e a l i s t i c being i s j u s t t h a t , such as the f r o g and raven on VII-C-1132, the drum ( P l a t e 10). - 40 -Expansive beings are i n a recognizable form, but their parts have been expanded to cover the surface on which the design is placed. This is a little-used t r a i t , except on certain of the sculpted dishes and drums (Plate 9). Within the motifs, the greatest complexities, obscurities and problems were found among the distributive designs. It was hoped that, with a careful analysis of the composition of the various designs, rules could be developed which would go beyond Holm's basic work, and which could be elucidated to explain the composition of any distributive design. Some rules may be appearing, but none which i s absolute. Perhaps this fojrmal analysis w i l l add a tool to be used i n the future to continue that particular search. For example, the location and direction of corner ovoids seem to be indicators of the over-all type of design on a side, and it s ve r t i c a l orientation (up or down). Attempting such a break-down of designs contributes to our understanding of what they mean and how they work, but continues to be limited by our present lack of understanding of just what precisely the designs are about and what they are doing. I f most dishes, for example, were a visual representation of two creatures in peirpetual back-to-back transformation or giving birth to each other, or emerging from each other's mouth, that fact would explain many of the apparent anomalies i n dish designs (Plates 40, 42). - 41 -We do not knowr.very much about Northwest Coast distributive designs, although they have received much study, beginning with Boas (1955). The f i r s t two motifs, the double and single-eyed figures, are usually found on carved or painted boxes and chests (Plates 14-20, 22,24,27,29,31,33,63,68). They are invariably'symmetric, whether on a side or about a corner, and include a large head plus elements which represent bodies,' limbs; ears, etc. The head/tail design is most often found on the ends of dishes (Plates 40,42,44,46,47,51-58) and often cannot be clearly defined as one or the other. A body profile is a portrayal of elements which usually represent the body, minus the head, and may point in one direction or the other, or be ambiguous, i n which case i t should be coded as both directions.(Plates 39, 41,43,45,48,50). This design is usually found on dishes. Even with an outline of the traits possible, there were problems with the coding. One particular motif on dishes posed great d i f f i c u l t i e s , as the dishes bearing this motif were coded at different periods over two months, and some variation was found within my decision-making as the work,progressed and I became more sensitive to the ambiguities i n the designs. This design (Plate 35-38) is very regular, a l l four sides seemingly dominated by a single large ovoid which is right side up and raised to the right. At f i r s t i t was recorded as head/tail, - 42 -oriented to right (Figs. 14, 15). As time passed, and more bowls were surveyed in detail, i t seemed that this statement about direc-tion was unnecessarily bold, and the leftward orientation was added. With further exposure to these incredibly varied and ambiguous dishes I became less bold, and, I l i k e to believe, wiser, and began adding body profile as well, creating the notation':' 12, 13, 14, 15 to describe this distinctive design. Unfortunately, i n the coding process the earlier error was forgotten until the computer analysis. The results were surprising':' very similar designs did cluster together very strongly, but they did so i n several identical groups, instead of a l l joining as identical. Further error was discovered. One dish had its ends coded as head/tail (Plates 35, 37) and its sides as body profile ( Plates 36, 38), in an amazingly presumptuous statement. Unfortunately these errors have not been corrected and the sample re-run with the correct data, but i t is not necessary to do so at present, because the dishes clustered together (Cluster X), i f less strongly than otherwise, and the reasons for this are known. Oiicetthe containers had been examined and their traits determined and recorded, the traits were translated into the presence/absence/no comparison coding outlined above, and analysed, {see Chapter 2). The program, among other operations, produced dendograms ordering the containers according to their a f f i n i t i e s . These visual representations of - 43 -the relationships of the containers also record the "level" at which they join. That i s , on a scale from 0.0 (identity) to 1.0 (absolute difference), a vertical line is drawn between adjacent containers or clusters of containers (figures 5-7). Separate runs were made of 10, 45, 26 and 99 containers, each of which contributed to the understanding of the process and of the results. In each case, the tra i t s for design were run separately from those describing construction, and then a third run combined them. One of the runs, discussed at greater length below (ch. 4), was of boxes chosen for their external homogeneity. None of these 25 storage boxes were included in the f i n a l runs. An attempt was made to have a somewhat random sample of 99 con-tainers chosen for this run, but without complete success. There are several skews in the f i n a l selection of 99 con-tainers . The collection from which they were chosen is heavily biased, as stated earlier, i n the direction of the aesthetically pleasing,and also very strongly toward the north. Of the total collection, over 1#3 (104) are documented as Haida. When the undesignated containers are eliminated, this rises nearly to \ of the total. There are about 23% Tshimsian (56), and about 8% each Bella Coola (21) and Kwakiutl (20), with miscellaneous Nootka (10), Tlingit (4), Coast Salish (7), and undesignated (32). Clearly,then, to chose a proportion of the containers as represented herein would be to analyse many Haida and Tsimsian containers and few from the more southern coasts. I therefore have rather arbi t r a r i l y selected many of the Bella Coola (21), Kwakiutl (16), - 44 -and Nootka (7), as well as the Salish (6) and Tl i n g i t (4) containers. There were only 2 items from the Bella Bella,at least which were documented as such,and one was included. None of the undesignated containers were included, except in the special run described i n Chapter 4. An attempt.was made to include reasonable proportions of each intuitively defined type, so that the resulting typology would not lack representation. Because of my interest in the • complex designs and constructionsoof dishes, I attempted to include many of these, though not a l l . Most are Haida. Through anroversight, none of the few Tsimsian dishes were included. A l l of the chests are included, that i s , a l l containers with rectangular walls whose width exceeds their height and which are usually large, carved and painted. When the 99 containers were run, with a l l t r a i t s , the dendrograms divided into approximately 10 clusters (figure- 5). This is not to say that there are 10 definitive types of NWC containers, though i t would be delightfully simple i f that were so. Some of the clusters are of distinct types of containers, and some appear to be residual categories, holding several containers which do not join with any pre-existing cluster. This could have been somewhat avoided, i f fewer traits had been included, especially within certain of the con^ -structional t r a i t categories. Furthermore, some adjacent clusters which are clearly separate from each other overlap, which is not well expressed un t i l the mapping provided by the multi-dimensional - 4'5 -scaling is examined (figure 4). The clusters are useful to a f a i r degree, as is shown below, for, even with the anomalies and in-consistencies produced by the coding errors and by the linear nature of the results, strong clusters have appeared. Sometimes they confirm pre-existing intuitive judgements, and sometimes they expand on i t . Clusters:' Clusters I to VII are composed of boxes, with rectangular or square walls, straight sides, and 90° angles. I ab This cluster is comprised of 2 smaller clusters, of 5 and 6 boxes. They are rectangular storage boxes, with painted designs. The f i r s t 5 have corner-centred designs (plates 14-18), and the 6 are a mixture which includes a cup and 2 drums (plate 11), which are documented Kwakiutl and Bella Coola. These have unusual designs. Three boxes documented Haida and Tsimsian have the '.'standard" single and double-eyed figures on opposite walls (similar to plate 18). II A l l 8 entries are chests, with greater width than height, and designs which are both carved and painted (for example, plates 27-30). One has only the single-eyed figure on opposite sides, but the others a l l show the double-eyed motif. Four are documented"as Tsimsian, 3 as Haida, and 1 chest was collected at West Saanich in 1929 by Harlan I. Smith. One of the striking aspects of these f i n a l clusters is the manner in which the designs ovef-ride the constructional variations which, for example, had placed chests in several different clusters. - 46 -III ab These are residual clusters of boxes, chests and 2 dishes which have some of the straight-sided traits of the boxes. The f i r s t joins at a high level to the preceding , cluster but is also a chest, although only painted, as are the next 2. The 2 Tl i n g i t telescopic chests are in this "cluster" (plates 31-34, 1, 67-70). The nearest pair joins at 0.1157, as compared to the above clusters in which most of the pairs joined at values around when mapped as their high level of-joining would suggest (figure'4), IV There are 6 containers which join f a i r l y closely, plus 2 extras. They seem to share certain t r a i t s . None has a painted design except the last, which is a chest, but which was painted black overall after some use. XSeveral are undecorated, and most are of f a i r l y simple construction, used as canoe boxes, etc. One total anomaly is a Nootka telescopic box, which maps in the direction of the rest of the telescopic boxes, but closer to several canoe boxes (figure 4, item 90). This w i l l have therefore a different construction from the others. V A tight cluster, this contains only one box documented as Haida which is a canoe box. The rest are Bella Coola (5), plus one each of Nootka, Kwakiutl (both at the end) and Tsimsian. A l l are boxes and pails with simple parallel lines incised either around the edges or overall (e.g. plates 4,5). VI ab The next pair of clusters contains boxes collected almost exclusively in the southern, central, and north-central regions. None are documented as Haida or T l i n g i t . A l l but the f i r s t - 47 -2 are covered with parallel incised lines (plates 3,7), and have lipped l i d s , which latter is the diagnostic t r a i t , , insofar as one can tentatively name a diagnostic t r a i t within the context of numerical taxonomic analysis (see chapter 2). This cluster exhibits considerable homogeneity of construction traits as well as of design t r a i t s , as w i l l be discussed below. VII The last cluster of boxes are undecorated, usually simply constructed, at least in the early part of the cluster (VII-C-1276, VII-D-353, VII-G-221). The remainder are an assortment of pails, a canoe box, rectangular boxes, and a box whose upper base is concave (VII-C-1833). None are documented as Haida; most are Tsimsian (4) and Kwakiutl (3), with 2 from Bella Coola and one Coast Salish. A l l of the above clusters join with the clusters below at a level of 0.3007, which indicates a high degree of dissimilarity, the highest within this run, effectively dividing the sample into 2 very distinct large clusters. One of these is the boxes, as outlined above (clusters I to VII), and the other is of dishes, below (clusters VIII to X). There are a few containers which appear to be misplaced, as mentioned. These are pails with curved rims, etc. They appear in border regions between the boxes and dishes on the MDS mapping (figure 4, numbers 19,28,86,31), and i n the boxes i n the clusters. Again, this indicates some of the problems inherent i n (linear) dendrogram clustering as a way of - 48 -expressing relationships. VIII ab The f i r s t part of this cluster is composed of 3 dishes, a l l having b i l a t e r a l l y symmetric designs on each side (plates 55-58). The designs are carved and incised, but not painted. There is l i t t l e obvious similarity among these according to construction, except the general traits shared by a l l dishes, such as curved walls and rims. Of interest in the designs is that there are at least 2 inverted faces' on each dish, and the latter 2, both Haida, have a wide border (plates 51-54). The f i r s t is Tlin g i t . The designs on the rest of the containers i n this cluster follow a definite pattern, and are rather ambiguous. Each has back-to-back symmetric designs, on sides 1 and 3, and asymmetric sides between, which are mirror images of each other (plates 47-50). In an attempt to formulate rules about the layout of designs on boxes and dishes, i t was postulated that the most important or frontal design would not be on a side adjacent to the joined corner (see chapter 4). In half of these, the face is on side one, such as VII-E-318. We are again reminded that we must regard both,ends as potentially of equal im-portance in the interpretation of the design. The last 2 are anomalies. VIII-B-343 has symmetric faces on sides 2 and 4, but has profiles on 1 and 3. VII-B-728 has asymmetric forms on sides 1,2, and 4. Side 3 is a symmetric representation of the head and t a i l of a whale. With these dishes, as with the boxes described above, the general construction divided the clusters or groups of clusters, but i t is the layout and organisation of the designs which - 49 -dictates the location within the clusters or groups of clusters. A l l but 3 of the total 11 are documented as Haida. IX There is only one obvious t r a i t which separates this cluster ...from the above. The 2 b i l a t e r a l l y symmetric sides are 2 and 4. The f i r s t 5 are rather more angular in. construction (plates 39-46), and the last one is both carved and painted. Six are documented as Haida and one as Kwakiutl. The next 2 containers are by.themselves a residual category. Although they have most of the general con-structional patterns of dishes, one is undecorated (Bella Bella p a i l , plate 6), and the other has. only- the edge-parallel lines usually found on boxes. The p a i l has straight outer walls, and the dishts walls are nearly straight. These clearly f i t closer to the boxes' in many ways, which again i s corrected on the mapping of the multi-dimensional sealing wherein they appear between the dishes and the boxes. X This cluster is clearly distinguished i n terms of its designs (see discussion above, this chapter; plates 35-38), and also i n terms of i t s constructions. Many of the dishes appeared together i n the dendrogram of constructions, and the result is a f a i r l y tight cluster, with one anomaly. In the middle of these painted dishes, there is one which is also carved, and which has 2 symmetric sides. I have at present no explanation for this. At the end of this dendrogram, describing in a linear arrangement the relationships among 99 containers, are 2 dishes. The f i r s t , VII-B-727,has 4 asymmetric carved walls, with profiles a l l facing to the - 50 -right. Its construction is somewhat similar to that of the f i r s t 5 dishes in cluster IX. The last is a magnificant feast dish. Its side 3 is sculpted and painted, representing an animal head. The other 3 sides are only painted. The rim i s i n l a i d and there are very clearly articulated rim lips and other construction t r a i t s . In summary, i t is d i f f i c u l t to assign names to.mostof these clusters, and the linearity of the visual representation limits the accuracy of the placement of those containers which do not.fit any obvious clusters. It was found that the results were dominated by the design t r a i t s , though i n many instances the constructions caused rearrangments. The results of the analysis using a l l traits closely approximated the intuitive divisions previously used. The division into traits in this manner did increase my understanding of the con-struction of the containers and their designs. It is now possible to make statements about the relative complexity of construction in terms of the types of kerfs, configurations of inner walls, rims, and inner faces of base and l i d . It is also obvious from the mixture of t r i b a l designations that documentation accompanying these con-tainers is highly, suspect at best. - 51 -Chapter 4 Further Conclusions One of the fundamental assumptions u n d e r l y i n g t h i s study i s that the a r t i s t s and craftsmen who made these c o n t a i n e r s were not making arrangements of randomly s e l e c t e d t r a i t s . That i s , a c e r t a i n bowl would be made ac c o r d i n g to an idea which would r e f l e c t some c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n i n the ca r v e r ' s mind. Such a p a t t e r n could be i n d i v i d u a l and i d i o s y n c r a t i c , used only by the one c a r v e r , but i t would demonstrate s i m i l a r t r a i t s to those employed by c a r v e r s of s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g and experience. That i s not to deny the p o s s i b i l i t y of independent i n v e n t i o n and the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of p r e v i o u s l y unused t r a i t s . On the c o n t r a r y , anyone who has worked with the a r t s of the Northwest Coast w i l l acknow-ledge the k i n d o f r u l e - b r e a k i n g i n n o v a t i o n which produced the raven box de s i g n , ( D u f f et a l , 1967, P l a t e 293). Furthermore, borrowing of ideas s u r e l y was p a r t of the trade and movement of c o n t a i n e r s . I mai n t a i n , however, t h a t , when the designs and c o n s t r u c t i o n s are c o n s i d e r e d , although some c o n t a i n e r s w i l l stand but as experiments or as poor examples, there w i l l s t i l l be c l e a r l y v i s i b l e i n d i v i d u a l or group trends. - 52 -O v e r a l l , i n t u i t i v e l y , there seemed to be c e r t a i n c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d trends and p a t t e r n s . The c l u s t e r s , as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 3, confirm t h i s . Although the northern s t y l e c o n t a i n e r s were separated by t h e i r decora-t i o n , and a l s o t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n , the c l u s t e r s so formed bore l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to the t r i b a l d e s i g n a t i o n . Haida, T l i n g i t , T s i m s i a n , and some Kwakiutl and B e l l a Coola boxes and dishes mixed throughout. There i s , however, a s t r i k i n g s e p a r a t i o n w i t h i n c l u s t e r s V-VII. C l u s t e r V i s mainly composed of a r t i f a c t s from B e l l a Coola, and VII i s a mix-t u r e , with s e v e r a l Tsimsian area c o n t a i n e r s mixing with those c o l l e c t e d f a r t h e r south. C l u s t e r VI, however, i s dominated by boxes c o l l e c t e d from the Nootka and K w a k i u t l . When mapped ( F i g . 4) , t h i s c l u s t e r i n t e r l o c k s with a p o r t i o n of c l u s t e r V, near c l u s t e r V II, but i s q u i t e separate. This was the c l u s t e r which most n e a r l y r e f l e c t e d any t r i b a l d e s i g n a t i o n . I t must t h e r e f o r e be concluded that the documentation found with most such c o l l e c t i o n s , which p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e s to the l o c a t i o n at which the a r t i f a c t was c o l l e c t e d , t e l l s us nothing about the a c t u a l time and place of i t s manufacture. There may be an exception to t h i s sad c o n c l u s i o n , which w i l l be o u t l i n e d below, but f i r s t , there are two p o i n t s which need to be c l e a r e d up. At the outset of t h i s - 53 -p r o j e c t , Duff (pers. comm.:10/6/74) p o s t u l a t e d c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c o n s t r u c t i o n and the d e c o r a t i o n of boxes and of di s h e s . F i r s t , he designates the four-eyed d e s i g n found on many boxes as the Gonaqadet (P l a t e s 1, 18, 19, 22, 24, 29, 32, 33, 63-66), and suggests that the two-eyed d e s i g n u s u a l l y found on the opposite s i d e i s i t s back ( P l a t e s 26, 27, 31, 67, 68, 70). This i s a s p e c u l a t i o n which i t i s not i n the realm of t h i s study to prove, but I w i l l note the e x i s t e n c e of boxes with two of the two-eyed f i g u r e s ( V l l - B - 1 2 1 , not i l l u s t r a t e d ) , and a l s o the c o r n e r - c e n t r e d designs ( P l a t e s 14-17). Often these are two four-eyed c r e a t u r e s back-to-back ( P l a t e s 63-66). E i t h e r the two-eyed f i g u r e i s not the back of the Gonaqadet or there i s a very complex r e l a t i o n s h i p being r e p r e s e n t e d between the two on the c o r n e r - c e n t r e d design. I can, however, d e a l with Duff's statement that the four-eyed d e s i g n , where present, w i l l not be found adjacent to a j o i n e d corner. That i s , i n f a c t , an i n v a r i a n t r u l e , a c c o r d i n g to the sample which has been s t u d i e d . The comments on dishes are not so e a s i l y d e a l t w i t h , f o r reasons which are r e f l e c t e d i n the d i f f i c u l t y I found i n coding the designs on the dishes (see f o r example Chapter 3). He s t a t e s that the " f r o n t " and "back" are - 54 -the w a l l s whose rims, viewed d i r e c t l y , are convex, and the " s i d e s " are those which are concave. The " p r i n c i p a l face of the c r e a t u r e d e p i c t e d i s opposite the j o i n e d c o r n e r " ( i b i d . ) . There i s a general trend f o r the convex-rimmed w a l l s to be those w i t h b i l a t e r a l l y symmetric d e s i g n s , u s u a l l y with a f a c e - or t a i l - l i k e design. However, with the present l i m i t a t i o n s i n our understanding of the symbolism of these d e s i g n s , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to make any c o n s i s t e n t statements about which end i s the f r o n t and which the back. I t i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e t h a t , i n many i n s t a n c e s , n e i t h e r was i n -tended as " f r o n t " or "back" s i n c e they o f t e n both c o n t a i n ovoids which could mean head or t a i l ( P l a t e s 40, 42, 51-58) . With the clue suggested by Duff, that i s , that the most important or " f a c e " end would not be adjacent to a j o i n , I attempted to order these dishes with symmetric ends and asymmetric s i d e s . There i s a tendency f o r the "head" to be carved i n 3-dimensions on c e r t a i n bowls, forming an animal's head ( P l a t e 49). T h i s i s e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d . However, r u l e s c r e a t e d on the b a s i s of s e v e r a l dishes f a l l apart when s e v e r a l more are examined. E i t h e r the dishes are i n c r e d i b l y ambiguous, or the c a r v e r d i d not concern h i m s e l f so g r e a t l y with the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n - 55 -of j o i n s and " f a c e s " i n dishes as i n boxes ( P l a t e s 35-62). One tendency, although not a f i r m r u l e , i s demon-s t r a t e d by sid e four i n VII-B-334 ( P l a t e 42). On the " t a i l " w a l l , the ovoids may be i n v e r t e d . The whole ques-t i o n of the arrangement of the p a r t s of a c r e a t u r e or cr e a t u r e s on the w a l l s of a d i s h i s f u r t h e r complicated by VII-A-126, and VII-B-736, a l l of which have four w a l l s of two-eyed " f a c e s " , opposite w a l l s being somewhat, a l -though not n e c e s s a r i l y e x a c t l y , s i m i l a r ( P l a t e s 51-58). VII-B-739 ( P l a t e s 59-62) i s a masterpiece, and a l s o poses the g r e a t e s t problems of a n a l y s i s . Sides two. and four are the u s u a l more or l e s s ambiguous " f r o n t " and "back". Sides one and three, however, are a l s o symmetric, and s i d e one, adjacent to a j o i n as i t i s , and i n u t t e r d i s r e g a r d f o r a l l the r u l e s of good design management, e i t h e r d e p i c t s two separate heads, or the four-eyed Gonaqadet. Side t h r e e , to compound the i r o n y of these unusual concave-rimmed w a l l s , has at i t s c e n t r e a s m a l l , u p r i g h t g r i n n i n g face s i m i l a r to those found on the Gonaqadet s i d e of s e v e r a l chests (e.g., v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i -c a l to VII-C-128, s i d e three; P l a t e 29). Duff's hypothesis on the arrangement of w a l l s and j o i n s on d i s h e s , I must t h e r e f o r e conclude, i s unprovable, and l i k e l y should be withdrawn u n t i l the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the designs i s - 5 6 -f u r t h e r advanced. A l l t h i s d i s c u s s i o n a r i s e s more from a f a m i l i a r i t y with the c o n t a i n e r s than with any r e s u l t s of the numerical taxonomic a n a l y s i s . The attempt at r i g o r o u s coding and the s e p a r a t i o n of t r a i t s d i d , however, i n c r e a s e my per-c e p t i o n of the designs, and, l i k e l y , allowed them to be d e a l t with i n a general way. The s o l u t i o n to the coding problem, c a l l i n g those symmetric ends of dishes "head/ t a i l " unless there i s a very c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n , such as a carved beaver face ( P l a t e 4 9 ) , that they are one or the other, stands as a s a t i s f a c t o r y means of d e a l i n g with d i s h m o t i f s . The Bonus A l l the work with design was not so f r u s t r a t i n g , however, as i s proven by the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n of a n a l y s i s c a r r i e d out s e p a r a t e l y on a small group of boxes d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r s p e c i a l d e c o r a t i o n . Although the i n i t i a l o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s p r o j e c t only i n c l u d e d the t e s t i n g of a methodology and the o u t l i n i n g of a typology, or the attempt t h e r e o f , i t became i n c r e a s i n g obvious that there was another r e s u l t . T h i s i s p o s s i b l y the most important aspect of the a n a l y s i s , and i s most e x c i t i n g i n terms of f u t u r e r e s e a r c h and the g l e a n i n g of - 57 -i n f o r m a t i o n from a r t i f a c t s . To date, much has been s a i d and w r i t t e n (Duff e t . a l . 1967, Glatthaar1970) about the i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e s of c e r t a i n c a r v e r s or schools of c a r v e r s . S i z e s , shapes, and o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the formal elements of northern Northwest Coast design have been compared and d i s s e c t e d as our r e c o g n i t i o n of s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n s be-came sharper. At no time, however, has there been an attempt to deal with the non-decorative aspects of the a r t i f a c t s b e a r i n g these designs. I t i s now p o s s i b l e to compare c o n t a i n e r s , a c c o r d i n g to these c o n s t r u c t i o n a l t r a i t s , and with reasonable accuracy. I n s o f a r as each a r t i s t was a l s o the craftsman who c o n s t r u c t e d the box or d i s h which he then carved or p a i n t e d , those c o n t a i n e r s would each bear the i n d i v i d u a l stamp of the maker whether or not the d e c o r a t i o n was pre-sent. A craftsman has, over time and with v a r i a t i o n s and i n n o v a t i o n s , h i s own way of t u r n i n g a co r n e r , f i t t i n g a l i d , or sewing a j o i n t . I f these are compared, they may prov i d e a s t r e n g t h e n i n g of the d e c o r a t i v e evidence f o r the o r i g i n of the a r t i f a c t , or a new i n s i g h t i n t o p r e v i o u s l y h e l d assumptions about i t . B i l l Holm (pers. comm.) has i s o l a t e d a v a r i a t i o n on the d e c o r a t i o n found p a i n t e d on northern storage boxes, f o r which he p o s t u l a t e s a B e l l a B e l l a o r i g i n . There are - 58 -twent y - f i v e boxes b e a r i n g t h i s design or a v a r i a t i o n of i t i n the Northwest Coast k e r f e d c o n t a i n e r c o l l e c t i o n of the N a t i o n a l Museum of Man, Canadian Ethnology S e r v i c e . These were analysed s e p a r a t e l y , i d e n t i c a l o p e r a t i o n s being made on them as on the l a r g e r . r u n of n i n e t y - n i n e a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d . Because of the la r g e number of redundant char-a c t e r s i n t h i s sample, a l l o f which would be e l i m i n a t e d by the computers, a dummy was added. This was a d i s h with c u r v i n g s i d e s and rims, and a carved design, thereby being very d i f f e r e n t from r e c t a n g u l a r , p a i n t e d , uncarved boxes. The s o - c a l l e d B e l l a B e l l a motif i s the usual s i n g l e or double-eyed c r e a t u r e , b i l a t e r a l l y symmetric, but l a c k i n g any black ovoids i n the lower corners ( P l a t e s 20, 22, 24, 26). This c r e a t e s an impression of a simpler design, and the r e s t i s a c c o r d i n g l y m o d i f i e d . The head and mouth are o f t e n of g r e a t e r h e i g h t than normal, l e a v i n g a s h o r t e r lower p o r t i o n of the s u r f a c e . The l i n e s c r e a t i n g the trunk of the body, which i n other i n s t a n c e s may meet above the base of the box s i d e , forming a c l o s e d space ( P l a t e 18), here drop to the bottom of the s i d e . The lower p o r t i o n of the design i s thus d i v i d e d i n t o three n e a r l y equal areas. There may be motifs i n red i n t h i s lower p o r t i o n , or a black dot i n a red c i r c l e , but there w i l l be no primary b l a c k forms. The ex c e p t i o n I have i n c l u d e d i n t h i s sample - 59 -i s the presence of a simply-drawn hand or paw i n the outer two areas of t h i s lower space ( P l a t e 19). I t must be noted that none of these boxes i n t h i s study are documented as B e l l a B e l l a . Twelve are s a i d to be Haida ( i n c l u d i n g s i x with hands), e i g h t Tsimsian ( i n -c l u d i n g two with hands), three B e l l a Coola (one with hands), and two are without documentation. There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the motifs on the other two s i d e s , and i n the p a i n t i n g , although a l l are f i n e l y made. When the dendrogram f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n s of these was examined ( F i g . 7), i t was noted that s e v e r a l small c l u s t e r s appeared, and the boxes d i v i d e d roughly i n t o three c l u s t e r s plus s e v e r a l r e s i d u a l a r t i f a c t s . The d i s h , of course, was j o i n e d to the r e s t at a very high l e v e l (0.6757). The r e -s u l t s of the design a n a l y s i s were more s t a r t l i n g ( F i g . 6). Two very s t r o n g l y separated dendrograms appeared, plus the d i s h and a box (VII-B-121) which d i f f e r e d from the others i n having no double-eyed f i g u r e and more complex mot i f s on the other two s i d e s . The f i r s t c l u s t e r was that i n which the double-eyed f i g u r e was on s i d e three and the s i n g l e - e y e d on s i d e one (plate 2 0 ) , and the other c l u s t e r p l a c e d them on s i d e s two and f o u r , r e s p e c t i v e l y (plate 2 4 ) . - 60 -C l o s e r examination of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the c o n s t r u c t i o n s y i e l d e d i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . I t was found that s e v e r a l of the boxes with s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n had very s i m i l a r designs, n o t a b l y on the simple m o t i f s on two s i d e s . F u r t h e r , i t was noted that another p a i r with s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r designs had c o n s t r u c t i o n s which v a r i e d only i n that the k e r f s were re v e r s e d . Such evidence of c o n s t r u c t i o n a l s i m i l a r i t y supplements the design evidence and c o r r o b o r a t e s i t . For example, VII-B-1274 ( F i g : 20-22) and VII-B-1283, both c o l l e c t e d i n good c o n d i t i o n i n Masset i n 1919 by Harlan L. Smith, were i d e n t i c a l except f o r the r e v e r s a l of k e r f d i r e c t i o n . That i s , the maker formed the w a l l s , and i n one case, turned them upside down before they were decorated. Furthermore, the designs are moved 90 degrees clockwise i n VII-B-1283. They share the same ovoid m o t i f s on the simply p a i n t e d s i d e s , p o s s i b l y made with the same template ( F i g . 21). VII-B-1283, however, i s i n the same small c l u s t e r as VII-C-1852 ( F i g . 24-26). The l a t t e r has i d e n t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n except that i t s j o i n t s are n a i l e d together as w e l l as pegged. Again, s i m i l a r ovoid':motifs are p r e s e n t , though there i s some v a r i a t i o n i n the supplementary l i n e s . The Tsimsian box, VII-C-1852, was c o l l e c t e d i n K i t s e g u k l a between 1950 and 1971 by W. H. Birmingham. I t i s very worn, and the n a i l s were added as pegs f e l l out or loosened. C l e a r l y then, i t - 61 -was used c o n s i d e r a b l y more than those c o l l e c t e d at Masset i n 1919. Other s i m i l a r boxes, e i t h e r i n the ovoid m o t i f s , i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , or i n s t y l e of design ( i n t u i t i v e l y judged), are from Masset and Port Simpson. These could be shown to be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to each other, but w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s which are more s i g n i f i c a n t than those of the above t r i o . In t h i s way, supplementing the d e c o r a t i o n a n a l y s i s with the c o n s t r u c t i o n a n a l y s i s , s t r o n g e r statements may be made about the o r i g i n of the boxes. I t does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that i d e n t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l imply an i d e n t i c a l maker, but the p o s s i b i l i t y i s i n c r e a s e d . Conversely, the l a c k of a complete i d e n t i t y of c o n s t r u c t i o n does not imply a d i f f e r e n t maker. The c a r v e r w i l l change the t r a i t s used over time, through experimentation, i n c r e a s e d s k i l l , borrowing, or even boredom. This a n a l y s i s does, however, make more data a v a i l a b l e w i t h which to examine the o r i g i n s and movements of these boxes. In the case c i t e d , the age and obvious use of the box from K i t s e g u k l a compared to the r e l a t i v e l y unused appearance of the Haida box s t r o n g l y i m p l i e s a Haida, Masset, source f o r these. On the other hand, i f another of n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and design were c o l l e c t e d new i n Port Simpson i n 1910, one would have to temper the - 62 -c e r t a i n t y of the a t t r i b u t i o n . There s t i l l c o u l d be the p o s s i b i l i t y that they were manufactured i n B e l l a B e l l a , as Holm suggested (pers. comm.). A t e s t such as the above i s t a n t a l i z i n g , but incon-c l u s i v e . The c o n c l u s i o n s , based on a n a l y s i s o f boxes with a s i n g l e design, are t e n t a t i v e at b e s t . The t e s t of a p o s s i b l e Masset o r i g i n f o r these boxes would have to be a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f a l l the boxes with the Gonaqadet/creature and simple m o t i f s i d e s . Those with lower ovoids must be i n c l u d e d , and a comparison to Holm's l a r g e B e l l a B e l l a c o l l e c t i o n must be made. I f there are s t i l l e a r l y , documented boxes c o l l e c t e d at Masset, i t would be p o s s i b l e to p o s t u l a t e a Masset o r i g i n f o r many of them. Such a c o n c l u s i o n would continue to be t e n t a t i v e because of the inadequacy of most documentation. - 63 -Conclus i o n T r a i t s have been e s t a b l i s h e d which allow d e t a i l e d and formal d e s c r i p t i o n and s t a t i s t i c a l comparison of Northwest Coast k e r f e d c o n t a i n e r s . A t e n t a t i v e typology was o u t l i n e d , which r e f l e c t e d and confirmed most of the p r e v i o u s l y - h e l d i n t u i t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . Furthermore, as shown i n the mapping of the l a r g e sample ( F i g . 4 ) , many of the d i s t i n c t c l u s t e r s o v e r l a p and i n t e r l o c k , again, as i n the case of the boxes, r e f l e c t i n g i n t u i t i v e . c o n c l u s i o n s . The a b i l i t y to deal i n a syst e m a t i c and c o n s i s t e n t way with the t r a i t s found i n c o n t a i n e r c o n s t r u c -t i o n w i l l not le a d to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the designs represented on t h e i r e x t e r i o r s , but i t w i l l i n c r e a s e our a b i l i t y to order c o l l e c t i o n s , and opens a p o s s i b l e new route f o r examination of o r i g i n s I I t i s to be hoped t h a t , with some f u t u r e c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the meanings of the designs, e s p e c i a l l y on d i s h e s , a more p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n ' of m o t i f s and t h e i r components w i l l be p o s s i b l e . T h i s w i l l allow designs to be analysed with the same accuracy of d e t a i l as i s now p o s s i b l e f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n s . The formal a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n p r o v i d e d the means of d e a l i n g with a l a r g e , important ethnographic c o l l e c t i o n . S i m i l a r t r a i t d e f i n i t i o n a p p l i e d to other c o l l e c t i o n s should be attempted, and the r e s u l t s compared to those f o r which good documentation was a v a i l a b l e . - 64 -BIBLIOGRAPHY• Binford, L.R. 1962 Archaeology as Anthropology. American Antiquity 28:217-225. 1964 A Consideration of Archaeological Research Design. . American Antiquity 29:425-441. Boas, Franz 1902 Tsimshian Texts. Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin 27. Washington, D.C.:Smithsonian Institution. 1921 Ethnology of the Kwakiutl, Volumes I and II. 35th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1913-1914. 1955 Primitive Art. New York: Dover Publications Inc. 1966 Helen Codere, ed. Kwakiutl Ethnography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cain, A.J. and G.A. Harrison 1967 An Analysis of the Taxonomistjs Judgement of Af f i n i t y . Proceedings of the Zoological Society, London 131:85-98. Chang, K.C. 1967 Major Aspects of the Interrelationship of Archaeology and Ethnology. Current Anthropology 8:227-243. Churchill:., W. 1917 Club Types of Nuclear Polynesia. Washington, D.C: Carnegie Institute Publication 255. Clark, A. et al 1974 Athapaskans: Strangers of the Far North. Ottawa: National Museum of Man. Cole, G.H. 1954 A Study of the Tli n g i t Boxes of the Rasmussen Collection. B.A. Thesis. Reed College, Portland, Oregon. Collier, D. and H. Tschopik J. 1954 The Role of Museums in American Anthropology. American Anthropologist 56:768-779. Cuisenier, J. 1971 The Processing of Ethnographic Data. International Social Science Journal 23:175-187. - 65 -Dawson, G.M. 1878-9 On the Haida Indians of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Ottawa: Geological Survey of Canada Progress • Report. Appendix A. Deetz, J. 1965 The Dynamics, of S t y l i s t i c Change in Arikara Ceramics. I l l i n o i s Studies i n Anthropology 4. Urbana: The University of I l l i n o i s Press. Deetz, J. and E., Dethlefsen 1965 The Doppler Effect and Archaeology. A Consideration of the Spatial Aspects of Seriation. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 21:196-206. 1966 . Death's Heads, Cherubs, and Willow Trees: Experimental Archaeology i n Colonial Cemeteries. American Antiquity 31:502-510. Driver,H. 1965 Survey of Numerical Classification in Anthropology. In the Use of Computers i n Anthropology. Hymes, ed. The Hague: Mouton & Co. pp. 301-344. Drucker, P. 1950 Culture Element Distributions XXVI, Northwest Coast. Anthropological Records 9:3. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1951 The Northern and Central Nootkan Tribes. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin' 144 Wahington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution. Duff, W. • 1967 Arts of the Raven; Masterworks by the Northwest Coast Indian. Vancouver, B.C. Art Gallery. 1975 Images Stone, B.C.: Thirty Centuries of Northwest Coast Indian Sculpture: an exhibition originating at the Art Gallery of Greater Victoria. Saanichton, B.C.: Hancock House. Dunnell, R.G. 1970 Sabloff and Smith's "The Importance of Both Analytic And Taxonomic Classification In The Type-Variety System." American Antiquity 35:305-319. - 66 -Emmons, G.J. 1908 Copper Neck Rings of Southern Alaska. American Anthropologist 10:644-649. Ericson, J.E. and E.G. Stickel 1973 A Proposed Classification System for Ceramics World Archaeology 4:357-367. Friedrich, M.H. 1970 Design Structure and Social Interaction: Archaeological Implications of an Ethnographic Analysis. American Antiquity 35:332-343. Ford, J.A. 1954 The Type Concept Revisited. American Anthropology 9:452-453. Gardin, J.C. 1971 Archaeology and Computers: New Perspectives. International Social Science Journal 23:189-203. Garfield, V. 1955 Making a Box Design. Davidson Journal of Anthropology 1: Gerbrands, A. 1957 Art as an Element of Culture, Especially i n Negro-Africa. Medelingen Van Het Rijksmuseum Voor Volkenkunde, 12. Leiden: E . J . B r i l l . 1967 Wow-Ipits. Eight Asmat Woodcarvers of New Guinea. The Hague: Mouton & Co. Glatthaar, T.C 1970 Tom Price (c. 1860-1927): The Art and Style of a Haida A r t i s t . M.A. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. Goldman, I. 1975 The Mouth of Heaven. An Introduction to Kwakiutl Religious Thought. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Gunther, E. 1972 Halpin, M. 1973 Indian Life on the Northwest Coast of North America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The Tsimshian Crest System: A Study Based on Museum Specimens and the Marius Barbeau and William Beynon Field Notes. Ph.D. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. - 67 -Hawthorn, A.E. 1967 The Art of the Kwakiutl Indians and Other Northwest Coast Tribes. Seattle: University of Washington Press Heider, K. 1969 Attributes and Categories i n the Study of Material Culture: New Guinea Dani Attire. Man n.s. 4:379-391. Holm, B. 1965 1972 Northwest Coast Indian Art, Ah Analysis of Form. Thorn Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum Monograph no. 1. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Crooked Beak of Heaven. Washington Press. Seattle: University of Hodson, F.R. 1970 Cluster Analysis and Archaeology: Some New Developments and Applications. World Archaeology 1: 299-320. Jones, J.M. 1968 Northwest Coast Basketry and Culture Change. Burke Museum Research Report no. 1. Seattle. Kaufmann, C. 1969 Changes in Haida Indian A r g i l l i t e Carvings, 1820 to 1910. Ann Arbor; University Microfilms Xerox. King, J.L. and R.S. Moll 1972 Set Theory Models: An Approach to Taxonomic and Locational Relationships. In Models in Archaeology. Clarke, ed. London: Methuen & Co. Klejn, L.S. 1973 On Major Aspects of the Interrelationship of Archaeology and Ethnology. Current Anthropology 14: 311-320. Krieger, A.D. 1944 The Typological Concept. American Antiquity 9:271-288 Matson, R.G. 1974 Clustering and Scaling of Gulf of Georgia Sites. Syesis 7: 101-114. Matson, R.G. and D.L. True 1974 Site Relationships at Quebrada Tarapace, ChileT a comparison of clustering and scaling techniques. American Antiquity 39:51-75. Michener, CD.and R.R. Sokal 1957 A Quantitative Approach to a Problem i n Classification Evolution 11: 130-162. - 68 -J-MacDonald • G. F. 1973 Haida Burial Practices: Three Archaeological Examples. National Museum of Canada, Mercury Series. Archaeological Survey of Canada 9. Ottawa. McFeat, Tom 1965 The Object of Research i n Museums. National Museum of Canada. Bulletin 204:91-99. Ottawa. Mori, J . and J. 1971 Modern Hopi Coiled Basketry. The Masterkey 46:4-17. 1972 Revising our Conceptions of Museum Research. Curator XV:189S199. Munn, N.D. 1962 Walbiri Graphic Signs': An Analysis. American Anthropologists64:972-984. 1966 Visual Categories: An Approach to the Study of Representational Systems. American Anthropologist 68:936-950. Oswalt, W. 1972 Habitat and Technology: The evolution of hunting. New York': Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reynolds, B. 1973 Curatorial Research. Notes for Sessional Paper delivered at the meeting of the American Association of Museums. Milwaukee. Rouse, I. 1960 The Classification of Artifacts i n Archaeology. American Antiquity 25:313-323. 1967 Seriation i n Archaeology. In American Historical Anthropology: essays in Honor of Leslie Spier. Carroll L. Riley and Walter W. Taylor,' eds. pp. 153-195. Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s University Press. Scott, S.D. and P.K. Segmen 1970 On Museums and Anthropological Research. In A Handbook of Methodology i n Cultural Anthropology pp. 1004-1007. Garden City, New Jersey: Natural History Press. - 69 -Simpson, G.G. 1961 Principles of Animal Taxonomy. New York: Columbia University Press. Sokal, R.R. and P.H.A. Sneath 1963 Principles of Numerical Taxonomy. San Francisco: S.H. Freeman & Co. 1974 Classification: Purposes, Principles, Progress, Prospects. Science 185: Spier, R.F.G. 1973 Material Culture and Technology. Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Co. Steward, J.H. 1954 Types of Types. American Anthropologist 56:54-57. Sturtevant, W.C. 1973 Museums as Anthropological Data Banks. In Anthropology Beyond the University. Alden Redfield, ed. Athens, Ga. Southern Anthropological Society Proceedings no. 7. 1974 Boxes and Bowls, decorated containers by nineteenth century Haida, Tlingit, Bella Bella and Tsimshian -Indian artists. Washington: Published for the Redwick Gallery by Smithsonian Institution Press. Swanton, R. 1905 Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida American Museum of National History Memoirs 5: Part 1. Jesajp-r North Pacific Expedition. 1908 Social Conditions, Beliefs and Linguistic Relationships of the Tlingit Indians. 26th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1904-5:391-486. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. Taylor, J.G. 1974 Netsilik Eskimo Material Culture. The Roald Amundsen Collection from King William Island. The Norwegian Research Council for Science and Humanities. Taylor, W. 1948 A Study of Archaeology. American Anthropologist, Memoir no. 9. Tippett, A.R. 1968 F i j i a n Material Culture, A Study of Cultural Context, Function and Change. B.P. Bishop Museum, Bulletin - 70 -232. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press Torgerson, W.S. 1958 Theory and Methods of Scaling. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Wardwell, A. and L.. Lebov 1970 Annotated Bibliography of Northwest Coast Indian Art. Primitive Art Bibliographies no.VIII. New York: The Library, The Museum of Primitive Art. S.A. LeBlanc, and C.L. Redman Explanation in Archaeology. An E x p l i c i t l y Scientific Approach. New York: Columbia University Press. Watson, P.J., 1971 Wood, J.R. 1974 A Computer Program for Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. Newsletter of Computer Archaeology 9: 1-11. - 71 -APPENDIX 1 Figure 1: Box F i g u r e 2: Dish F i g u r e 3: T r a i t s B O X A N D L I D *See Figure 3 for coding of traits as labelled. LID S E C T I O N - 7 4 -Figure 3 : Traits < — outside of container TRAIT CLUSTER oL: Type inside of container — > TRAITS 1 . rectangular 2 . double 3 . other p : Sewing/ties 1 . none 2 . withes 3 . sinew/gut 4 . babiche 5 . cedar bark rope 6 . other (including mat cover) A: Outer prof i l e (side view) B: Vertical profile 1 (side view) C: Rim - . V (side view) D: Rim 1 . V/ 2, I 3.. other 3S 4 f (cross-section) 6 . ^ 7 7 - 7 . ^  8 . # 1 . none 2.; 3 . 4 . 1^1 5 . E: Rim (inner lip) F: Base of side (cross-section) G: Method of join 1 . kerfed 2 . sewed 3 . sew/peg 4 . sewed 5 . sew/peg 6 . pegged 7 . nailed 8. sewed 9 . paired stitch 1 0 . other - 75 -H: Kerf type I: Outer corner J: Upper surface base K: Lower surface base L: Edge base M: Upper surface N: Lower surface 1 . 2. 2+8 8. reversed direction J - 3. 3+8 7 J - 4. / - 4+8. j _ s. Lb 5 t 8 . U _ 6 - [ J h 7- Lb 6+8.U_ 7+8 ^  2, 9 . 1 . 5 . ^ . 6 .0// , , . 7. other 4 (as cut) 2. 0: Edge l i d Q: Profile (from top) 9 , ^ ^ 1 0 ^ o t h e r X- /////////// 2 ' 5' /&&/////lU// l.ffi 2. 3. ^ 4. ^ , 5. flush with wall 6. projecting l i d 1.////////// l.tf77777fr 3. ^ ^ 4 . other l i d 1 . ///////// 2. 3 . i r ^ ^ 4 . ^ Z Z / Z ^ 5 . € ^ 6 . # ^ 7 . ^ % 8 . ^ % ' 9 . ^ 2 Z M ^ 1 0 . ^ % 1 1 . other 1 . | 2. \ 3. 0 4. ^ 5. 1 . 2. ^ - 76 -R: Type of f i n i s h S: Type of decor-ation T: Colour U: Motif 1. rough 2. adzed/knifed 3. sanded/fine fi n i s h 4. pierced (other than at join) 1. none 2. incised 3. painted overall 4. painted design 5. beading f. Icvr 6. low r e l i e f 7. sculpted 8. i n l a i d 1. none 2. one 3. two or more I. none 2. symmetric 3. corner-centred 4. edge-parallel lines 5. other par a l l e l lines: overall 6. simple forms 7. complex forms (eg. salmon head motif) 8. configurative/realistic being 9. expansive being {Distributive) 10. ' "Gonaqadet"((double-eyes) II. "creature" (single-eyes) 12. head/tail 13. body profile 14. *orient to l e f t 15. *orient to right (*indicate both i f ambiguous) - 77 -APPENDIX 2 L i s t of 99 c o n t a i n e r s ( r e f . Figures 4 & 5) T r i b a l a t t r i b u t i o n s F igure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g of 99 c o n t a i n e r s Dendrogram of 99 c o n t a i n e r s , a l l t r a i t s Dendrogram of 26 boxes, designs Dendrogram of 26 boxes, c o n s t r u c t i o n s - 78 -Catalog lue numbers f o r c o n t a i n e r s analysed, f i g u r e s 4 & 5: Code # NMC # Code # NMC # 1 VII-A-125 41 V I I - B r 736 2 VII-A-126 42 VII-B-737 3 VII-A-127 43 VII-B-738 4 VII-A-289 44 VII-B-741 5 VII-B-97 45 VII-B-1158 . 6 VII-B-105 46 VII-C-106 7 VII-B-118 47 VII-C-107 8 VII-B-119 48 VII-C-109 9 VII-B-120 49 VII-C-128 10 VII-B-129 50 VII-C-667 11 VII-B-140 51 VII-C-1276 12 VII-B-142 52 VII-C-1311 13 VII-B-316 53 VII-C-1480 14 VII-B-318 54 VII-C-1744 15 VII-B-319 55 VII-C-1833 16 VII-B-320 56 VII-C-1851 17 VII-B-321 57 VII-D-35 18 VII-B-326 58 VII-D-37 19 VII-B-328 59 VII-D-39 20 VII-B-329 60 VII-D-113 21 VII-B-330 61 VII-D-136 22 VII-B-331 62 VII-D-138 23 VII-B-333 63 VII-D-161 24 VII-B-334 64 v i i ^ D - m 25 VII-B-338 65 VII-D-228 . 26 VII-B-340 66 VII-D-308 27 VII-B-341 67 VII-D-339 28 VII-B-342 68 VII-D-353 29 VII-B-343 69 VII-D-359 30 VII-B-346 70 VII-E-21 31 VII-B-348 71 VII-E-46 32 VII-B-440 72 VII-E-50 33 VII-B-459 73 VII-E-90 34 VII-B-656 74 VII-E-113 35 VII-B-681 75 VII-E-293 36 VII-B-701 76 VII-E-295 37 VII-B-707 77 VII-E-317 38 VII-B-727 78 VII-E-318 39 VII-B-728 79 VII-E-320 40 VII-B-732 80 VII-E-359 Code # NMC # 81 VII-E-360 82 VII-E-368 83 VII-E-375 84 VII-E-388 85 VII-E-769 86 VII-EE-28 87 VII-F-9 88 VII-F-193 89 VII-F-221 90 VII-F-222 91 VII-F-234 92 VII-F-363 93 VII-F-387 94 VII-G-1 95 VII-G-221 96 VII-G-297 97 VII-G-342 98 VII-G-343 99 VII-G-349 - 80 -TRIBAL ATTRIBUTIONS As i n d i c a t e d by catalogue numbers, N a t i o n a l Museum of Man, Canadian Ethnology S e r v i c e s VII -A: T l i n g i t VII -B: Haida VII -C: Ts ims i a n VII -D: B e l l a Coola VII -E: Kwakiutl VII -EE: B e l l a B e l l a VII -F: Nootka VII -G: Coast S a l i s h VII -X: Unknown Figure 4: Multi-dimensional Scaling 70% trace 99 KERFED CONTAINERS, MINUS "83" BOX SS» ALL TRAITS. 24/6/75 ETHOD 4 0o2866 Oo2359 0.1851 0„1344 0.0836 0.0328 0.3120 0.2613 0.2105 0.1597 0.L090 0.0582 0.0075 4 o I I1 I •* T T 1 o " I I T T l 7 15 17 13 3 80 64 14 53 72 10 54 36 97 46 35 48 49 f 6 94 99 71 16 11 4 i i . i i i i o I e I I I • I . — 1 I I 31 19 9 18 59 90 5 8 70 40 47 34 63 66 50 61 65 69 92 75 57 93 88 98 91 96 73 87 76 33 89 - 77 4 I e I I II © 11 I 51 68 95 74 52 55 56 60 79 S2 2 23 41 5 3 0 3 2 73 4 3 6 7 29 39 12 44 42 25 24 84 ~ 0 til St) — xsr-I 86 21 37 26 62 2 7 22 45 33 81 (MISC.) I o — — — + + 0 o 3 1 2 0 3 8 Q 5 -_+ * + + + + + . „ _ + + + + 0 . 2 6 1 3 C o 2 1 0 5 0 . 1 5 S 7 0 o 1 0 9 0 0 . 0 5 8 2 0 . ' 0 0 7 5 -0 „ 2 8 6 6 0 . 2 3 5 9 0 . 1 8 5 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 0 . 0 8 3 6 0 . 0 3 2 8 DENDROGRAM: VALUES ALONG X - A X I S ARE SCALED C O E F F I C I E N T S VALUES ALONG Y - A X I S ARE MERGE L E V E L S - 86 -o.(>o osr oso o.fs- 0.1-0 o.ir 0.20 o.is 0.10 air 0.10 o.or O.00 FIGURE b : 2,5- BOXES PLUS PISH, DES IG N TRAITS Jilll-B-Ill Jfll-B-jlZ, _W-D-I¥l -VII-3-W -V//-C-/003 j/ii-B-im -V/l-B-329 ju-B-no J///-D- 38 J//I- 3-3/7 -V/I-C-JESI _Vf/-C-/SS3 _vn-c- HI Jffl-B-IFOS -VII-B-71 I _VII-X'QI? -WI- C -tool -Vll-C-l% .j/11-c-im -.VII-D- tl - 87 -O.tr o.bo ars oso o.tr o.to o.ijj.*o_j.i*_o.ujjr_Mo_o.K_o.» FIGURE 7-2,5" 30X£S PLUS D/SU, CONSTRUCTION TRAITS • VII- B- izl . W/-X-6/3 •VU-5-/5-03 .VII-V - 47 yil-8-SZ1 *vn-c- /rs? ^vu-c -1002. _vn-8- 3 2 ? - vu-B- nvt ^V/l-8- /l*3 _v/i-x- 6n -VII-C- (,7b _vu-c- IBSZ _VII-B- */6 _VII- C-/PSS _VU- C-/003 _///-£- 711 ^VII-3- ¥zo _V//-C-~?°? -V//-B-4ZI _yll-i>- i? ^V/l-B- ill -^Vtl-B- 3/7 _VH-> / ft _^vii-c- -HI - 88 -APPENDIX 3 L i s t of p l a t e s P l a t e s 2-70, with i n t e r f a c e d documentation - 89 -PLATES P l a t e Catalogue Number Side 1.. (Frontispiece) VII-A-289 3 2,3 VII-E-375 1 4,5 VII-D-136 1,2 6' VII-EE-28 7 VII-F-193 1 8. VII-C-103 2 9. VII-B-547 10 VII-C-1132 1 11 VII-E-50 1 12 ,13 VII-C-1872 1,3 14,15,16,17 VII-B-321 1-4 18 VII-C-657 3 19 VII-B-324 3 20,21,22 VII-B-1274 1-3 23,24,25,26 VII-C-1852 1-4 27,28,29,30 VII-C-128 1-4 31,32,33,34 VII-A-127 1,2,4, inn e r 35,36,37,38 VII-B-1158 1-4 39 ,40 ,41,42 VII-B-334 1-4 43,44,45,46 VII-B-737 1-4 47 ,48 ,49 ,50 VII-B-97 4-1 - 90 -P l a t e Catalogue Number Side  51,52,53,54 VII-B-736 1-4 55,56,57,58 VII-A-126 1-4 59,60,61,62 VII-B-739 1-4 63,64,65,66 VII-C-99 1-4 67,68,69,70 VII-A-289 1,2,3,inner - 91 -P l a t e s 2,3. VII-E-375 Kwakiutl. C o l l e c t e d at Koskimo V i l l a g e by M. Dawson, summer, 1885. P l a t e s , 4,5. VII-D-136 B e l l a Coola. C o l l e c t e d at B e l l a Coola by Harlan I. Smith from Captain Schooner, August 17 , 1920'. - 93 -P l a t e 6 VII-EE-28 P l a t e 7 VII-F-183 P l a t e 8 VII-C-103 P l a t e 9 VII-B-547 B e l l a B e l l a . C o l l e c t e d at Port Simpson, by CM,. Barbeau i n March, 1915. (Barbeau) "Water bucket (,u-mt) made by a wudstE ( B e l l a B e l l a ) man long ago; over 70 years ago; of red cedar. Purchased from same woman 'ma's. Nootka. C o l l e c t e d from Clayoquot by C. F. Newcombe, 1895-1901. Tsimsian. C o l l e c t e d at F o r t Simpson by I. W. Powell. Sent to Ottawa December, 1897. Haida. C o l l e c t e d at Cha- a t l by C. F. Newcombe, 1895-1901. (Newcombe) "Represents the Raven C r e s t . C o f f i n board." - 95 -P l a t e 10 VII-C-1132 P l a t e 11 VII-E-50 P l a t e 12,13 VII-C-1872 Tsimsian. C o l l e c t e d at Kitwanga by C. M. Barbeau i n 1924. (Barbeau) "Raven Drum - qaqum'anut; of wood made i n connection with the qaqum'anut song of the c r e s t of k'winu. On the one s i d e i s p a i n t e d gEdemgana': person of f r o g s ; and tkuwElksagamqaq: The P r i n c e of Ravens. The drum was s a i d to have been made at the same time the p o l e , s h o r t with f r o g s , was made at kitwunkul. The p a i n t i n g s were done by Johnny L a g a x n i t z . From Mrs. Johnny Lagaxnitz (gwinu) of gitwunkul, now l i v i n g at gitwsngE." Kwakiutl. C o l l e c t e d by C. F. Newcombe i n 1900. Drum. Tsimsian, G i t k s a n . C o l l e c t e d i n 1972. Made by E a r l Muldoe, 'Ksan. Drum. - 96 -13 - 97 -P l a t e s 14-17 -VII-B-321 Haida. C o l l e c t e d at Massett by C. F. Newcombe i n 1895-1901. - 98 -'7 - 99 -P l a t e 18 VII-C-657 Tsimsian. C o l l e c t e d at Port Simpson by C. M. Barbeau, February-March, 1915. (Barbeau) "The mtfditfk ( g r i z z l y b e a r ) , on one.side s p l i t , and on the other whole. On the opposite s i d e s b i y E l s ( s t a r s ) . T h i s box belonged to n t s i " * t s l E ' mjfn (gispuwud. g i t x a t a ) , being of the f a m i l y of ce"ks ( g i t x a l a , gispuwud-), her c r e s t s were those of the ftfmlax'^m gispuwud. Made by ni'^swa'mak ( l a x a k k i k , g i s p a x i o ' t s ) ; being of the f a m i l y of ce'ks ( g i t x a l a , gispuwud), her c r e s t s were those of the ( s i c ) . Used f o r gen-e r a l storage purposes. Pegs were sometimes of yew or ye l l o w cedar. Purchased from M a t h i l d a K e l l e y , w h o " i n h e r i t e d i t from her maternal grandmother. P l a t e 19 VII-B-324 Haida. C o l l e c t e d at Masset by C. F. Newcombe, 1895-1901. 100 -- 101 -P l a t e s 20-22 VII-B-1274 Haida. C o l l e c t e d at Masset by Harlan I. Smith i n 1919. (Note: s i d e 4 i s s i m i l a r to s i d e 2.) - 102 -2.2, - 103 -P l a t e s 23-26 VII-C-1852 Tsimsian. C o l l e c t e d at K i t s e g u k l a by W. H. Birmingham between 1950 and 1971. 104 -- 105 -P l a t e s 27-30 VII-C-128 Tsimsian. C o l l e c t e d at Angidah V i l l a g e by W. A. Newcombe i n 1905. - 106 -- 107 -P l a t e s 30-34 VII-A-127 T l i n g i t . C o l l e c t e d i n Southern A l a s k a by F. M. Chapman i n A p r i l , 1914. (Note: s i d e 3 i s i d e n t i c a l to s i d e 1.) - 108 -- 109 -P l a t e s 35-38 VII-B-1158 Haida. C o l l e c t e d from the Masset Band by Thomas Deasy, before J u l y 1914. (Deasy) "a l a r g e box, p a i n t e d with Indian p a i n t , was used f o r cooking seaweed and other food.... I t was made by C h i e f R i c h a r d Russ, who i s now dead." (Note: T h i s d i s h i s not a p e r f e c t example of t h i s type o f motif. As d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 3, pages 41-42, there i s not u s u a l l y an e x p l i c i t f a c i a l p r o f i l e on the ends of these d i s h e s . T h i s i s the onl y one o f the C l u s t e r X c o n t a i n e r s which shows t h i s v a r i a t i o n . ) - 110 -- I l l -P l a t e s 39-42 VII-B-334 Haida. C o l l e c t e d at Masset by C. F. Newcombe i n 1902. 112 \ni-twst 31 \I1I<VV,1 -3 ) / 1 I r 1 - 113 -P l a t e s 43-46 VII-B-737 Haida. C o l l e c t e d on the Queen C h a r l o t t e Islands by C. F. Newcombe i n 1897. - 114 -- 115 -P l a t e s 47-50 VII-B-97 Haida. C o l l e c t e d by Rev. Crosby i n Skidegate, 1886. 116 -- 117 -P l a t e s 51-54 VII-B-736 Haida. C o l l e c t e d by A. Aaronson before 1899. - 118 - 119 -P l a t e s 55-58 VII-A-126 T l i n g i t . C o l l e c t e d i n Southern A l a s k a by K. M. Chapman, 1914. - OZT -- 121 -P l a t e s 59-62 VII-B-739 Haida. C o l l e c t e d by Newcombe i n 1897. - 122 -VII-15-717 k - 123 -P l a t e s 63-66 VII-C-99 Tsimsian. C o l l e c t e d at F o r t Simpson by I. W. Powell i n 1897. - 124 -- 125 -P l a t e s 1, 67-70 VII-A-289 T l i n g i t . C o l l e c t e d by or f o r Lord Bossom before 1900. (Bossom) "Reportedly pro-cured from Tehl c o c k ( s i c ) (Raven F r a g r a n c e ) , c h i e f of the 'Con-nuh-ta-kee' f a m i l y of Southeastern A l a s k a . O r i g i n a l l y from the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . " (Note: s i d e 4 i s i d e n t i c a l to s i d e 2.) - 126 -- 127 -APPENDIX 4 Data matrix, 99 c o n t a i n e r s , a l l t r a i t s , i n f i n a l dendrogram order (as F i g u r e 5) - 128 -Ordering of characters in data matrix (refer to figure 3): - General data <*(3xl); 0(6x1) - Construction G(10xl); H(llx4); 1(8x2: sides 1§2, 3q4); A(3xl) - Wall A(3xl); B(5xl); C(3x2: sides 1§3, 2§4);.D(8x2: sides 1§3, 2§4) ; E(3x2:sides 1§3, 2§4); F(6xl); Q(2xl) - Lid M(4xl); N ( l l x l ) ; 0(5x1); Q(2xl) - Base G(10xl); J(12xl); K(4xl); L(6xl); Q(2xl) - Finish and Decoration (including Lid) R(4x5); S(8x5); T(3x2: sides L§3, 2§4); U(15x4) The total is 308 characters, with the following meanings: 0 = no comparison 1 = absence 2 = presence ORDER ON DIMENSION 1 129 1 11111 11112 22222 22223 33333 33334 44444 44445 55555 55556 66666 66667 77777 77778 88888 88889 12345 67890 12345 67890 12345 67890 12345 67890 12345 67890 12345 67890 12345 67890 12345 67890 12345 67890 1 001 21112 11112 21111 11111 21111 12111 11111 21211 11111 12121 11111 11212 11112 11111 11211 11112 11211 .21111 2 187 21121 11112 11112 11110 00000 00000 11111 21111 H i l l 12121 11000 00000 00011 11111 21111 11122 11211 21111 3 030 11212 11112 11211 11111; 21111 12111 11211 11211 11121 11121 11112 11111 11112 11111 11211 11112 11121 11211 4 031 11212 11112 12111 H i l l 11111 22111 11111 12211 11111 11221 11111 11122 11112 11111 11211 11112 11211 111.12 5 190 21112 11112 H i l l 21111 21111 12111 11111 21111 11 111 12111 11111 11211 11112 11111 11211 11112 11211 21111 6 026 11221 11112 11112 11111 11111 21111 11211 11211 11121 11121 11112 11112 11112 1.1111 11211 11112 11121 11211 7 002 11210 00112 11121 11111 21111 12111 12111 11211 11211 11121 11121 11112 11112 11111 11211 .111.12 11.121 112H 8 006 21111 12112 11112 11111 21111 11111 12111 11111 11211 11111, .11121 11111 11112 .11111 11211 11112 11211 21111 9 038 11212 11112 12111 11111 211.11 11111 21111 11111 12111 1111.1 11211 11111 11112 11111 11211 .11112 11121 11211 10 014 11212 11112 12112 11.110 00000 00000 00000 00000 00000 00000 00000 00000 00012 H i l l 11211 11112 11121 1121.1 11 033 11212 11112 11112 11111 21111 12111 11211 11111 11111 21121 11112 11111 11112 11111 11211 11112 11121 11211 12 199 21121 11112 11112 11111 21111 12111 11112 11211 11111 2112.1 .11111 12112 11122 11111 11211 .11112 11211 21111 13 005 11221 11112 11112 11112 H i l l 11111 21111 11111 12111 11111 11211 11111 11112 H i l l 11211 11112 11121 1.1211 14 009 21111 11122 11112 11111 .21111 11111 11211 11211 11121 11111 11112 11112 11111 11111 21111 11122 11211 21111 15 003 12112 11112 12111 .11111 21111 11111 11112 11111 11111 22111 11 i l l 12211 11112 11111 11211 11112 11211 21111 16 032 11221 11112 11112 11111 21111 12111 11211 l i l l i 11121 11121 11112 11111 11112 11111 11211 11112 11121 11211 17 004 12112 12112 12111 11111 21111 12111 11111 21211 11111 12111 11111 11212 11112 11111 11211 11112 11221 21211 18 039 21221 11112 11111 21111 21111 12111 11211 11211 11121 11121 11112 11112 11112 11111 112.11 11112 112.11 21111 19 035 11221 11112 11111 21111 21111 12111 21111 11111 12111 11111 11211 11111 11112 11121 11111 12112 11121 11211 20 208 11221 11112 11112 11111 21111 11111 11211 11211 11121 21111 11112 12112 11112 11111 11211 11112 11121 11211. 21 212 12121 11112 11112 11111 21111 12111 21111 -iL *L JL 12111 11111 11211 11111 11111 22111 11112 11112 11211 21111 22 220 21112 11112 11111 12111 21111 12111 11112 i n n 11111 12111 11111 12111 11121 12111 11112 11112 11211. 21111 23 188 21111 11122 11112 11111 21111 11111 11211 11211 11121 11111' 11112 11112 11111 11111 21111 11122 11211 21111 24 203 11221 11112 11111 21111 21111 121.11 12111 11111 11211 11121 11121 11111 11112 11111 11211 11112 11121 11211 25 202 21111 11222 11112 11111 21111 12111 21111 11111 12111 H i l l 11211 H i l l 11111 22111 11112 11112 11211 21111 26 214 21121 11112 11112 11.111 21111 12111 21111 .11111 12111 11111 11121 11112 11111 21111 11121 11112 11211 21111 27 216 12121 11112 11112 11111 21111 12111 21111 11111 12111 11111 11211 11111 11111 21111 11121 11112 1121.1 21111 .28 210 12121 11112 11112 29 197 11212 11112 12111 30 191 21111 11212 11111 31 034 11221 11112 11112 32 193 11212 11112 11112 3 3 223 1 2 1 1 1 11122 11112 34 062 11221 11112 11112 35 020 21111 11212 11112 36 017 21121 11112 11112 37 213 12121 11112 11111 38 225 21112 11122 11121 39 198 21111 11122 11112 40 055 21121 11112 11112 41 189 21111 11122 11112 42 201 21111 11122 11112 43 195 21111 11122 11112 44 200 21121 11112 11112 45 222 21112 11112 l l l l l 46 019 21112 21112 12111 47 058 11221 11112 11112 48 024 21121 11112 11112. 49 025 11221 11112 l l l l l 50 066 11200 11112 12111 51 171 21121 11112 11112 52 181 21121 11112 l l l l l 53 012 21121 11112 11112 54 015 21111 11212 11112 55 182 21111 11122 11112 56 183 21121 11112 l l l l l 57 114 21112 12122 21111 11110 00000 00000 21111 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l l l l l l 21111 l l l l l 21111 21111 12111 21111 l l l l i l l l l l 21111 12111 l l l l l 21111 l l l l l 21111 12111 11112 l l l l l l l l l l 21111 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 21111 l l l l l 12111 11211 l l l l l 21111 l l l l l l l l l l 21211 l l l l l 21111 12111 l l l l l 21111 21111 21111 10111 i l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 21111 l l l l l l l l l l i l l l l 21110 00000 00000 00000 00000 l l l l l 21111 l l l l l l l l l l 21211 l l l l l 21111 12111 l l l l l 21111 l l l l l 11121 11112 12111 l l l l l l l l l l 21111 111.11 21111 l l l l i l l l l l 21111 l l l l l 12111 11211 21111 21111 12111 21111 l l l l l l l l l l 21111 12111 11112 1.1211 l l l l l 21111 12111 12111 l l l l l l l l l l 21111 12111 11.112 11211 21111 21111 l l l l l 11211 l l l l l 21111 21111 l l l l l 11212 11211 l l l l l 21111 l l l l i 11112 11211 21111 21111 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 21111 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 21111 21111 l l l l l 11112 21211 21111 21111 l l l l l l l l l l 21211 21111 21111 12111 11212 l l l l l l l l l l 21111 l l l l l l l l l l 21111 12111 l l l l l 11211 l l l l l 11121 12111 l l l l l 11211 l l l l l 11112 12111 l l l l l 11211 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l 12121 l l l l l 12111 11112 i l l l l 21121 l l l l l 12211 11122 21111 1.1111 21111 l l l l l 12212 11211 l l l l l 11121 11112 l l l l l l l l l l 22111 • l l l l l 11212 11121 l l l l l 12121 l l l l l 11211 11112 21111 12121 12111 11211 11222 21111 l l l l l 12111 l l l l l 11221 00000 00000 00000 00000 00012 l l l l l 12111 1.1111 11212 l l l l l 11121 21121 i i i i i 11211 11112 l l l l l l l l l l 12111 12112 l l l l l 12111 l i n i 11211 l l l l l l l l l l 11211 l l l l l 11121 11112 l l l l i 12111 i l l l l 11211 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l 21121 11111 12112 11112 11211 11121. 11121 l l l l l 11112 i l l l l 21121 l l l l l 12112 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l 11112 12111 11112 111.21 21111 11112 12112 11112 21111 12111 l l l l l 11211 11121 l l l l l 21111• l l l l l 12112 11122 l l l l l 21111 l l l l l 12111 l l l l l l l l l l 12121 l l l l l 11211 11121 11121 12111 11112 11112 11122 l l l l l 12121 l l l l l 11211 l l l l l l l l l l 12111 l l l l l 11211 11112. 12111 11112 11112 11211 21111 l l l l l 11211 11112 11121 11211 12111 21112 11112 11211 21.111 11211 l l l l l 21112 11121 11211 11211 11211 21112 11211 21111 21111 11121 11112 11211 21111 i l l l l 21111 11122 11121 11211 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 i l l l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 12111 11112 11112 11211 .21111 12111 21112 11122 11211 00000 l l l l l 21111 11122 11211 21111 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 l l l l l 21111 11121 12112 21111 21111 11112 11112 11211 21111 11121 l l l l l 12112 11121 11211 l l l l i 12111 11112 11211 21111 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 l l l l l 11211 11112 11121 11211 l l l l l 21111 11.122 11211 21111 i l l l l 11211 11112 11121 11212 l l l l l 11211 11112 11121 .11-211 12111 21112 11112 11211 21111 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 .21111 l l l l l 21111 11122 11.211 21111 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 l l l l l 21111 11122 11211 21111 1.1111 11211 11112 11211 21111 58 052 21111 11122 11111 21111 21111 12111 11112 21211 11121 21121 11111 12112 11112 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 59 044 11212 11112 12111 11111 21111 11111 21111 11111 12111 11111 11211 11111 11112 l l l l l . 11211 11112 11121 11211 60 184 21121 11112 11112 21111 21111 12111 11111 2 1 1 1 1 11111 12121 m i l 12111 11122 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 61 067 11211 00112 12111 11112 11111 11111 21111 11111 12111 11111 11211 m i l 11112 l l l l l 11211 11112 21121 11211 62 215 21111 11122 11112 11111 21111 12111 00000 00000 00000 00000 00000 00000 00011 l l l l l 21111 11122 11211 21111 63 063 1 1 2 1 2 11122 12111 11111 21111 12111 21111 11111 12111 11111 11211 i n n 11111 11121 l l l l l 12112 21122 11211 64 008 21111 11212 11112 11111 21111 11111 11211 11211 11111 21111 11112 11112 11121 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 65 068 11211 12112 12111 11112 11111 11111 21111 11111 12111 11111 11211 11111 11112 11121 11211 12112 11121 11.211 66 065 21111 21112 11112 11111 21111 11111 11111 21211 11111 12111 11111 11211 11112 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 67 196 21111 11212 11112 H i l l 21111 12111 21111 11111 1 2 1 1 1 11111 11211 11111 l l l l l 21111 11112 11112 11211 21111 68 176 21121 11112 11111 21111 21111 11111 11111 21211 11111 12111 11111 11212 11112 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 OHIO 69 071 11211 21122 12111 11112 11111 11111 21111 11111 12111 11111 11211 11111 11112 l l l l l 11211 11112 11121 11211 70 053 21121 11112 11112 11111 21111 12111 11111 11111 12121 11111 11212 l l l l l l l l l l 21111 11122 11211 21111 71 029 21110 01112 12111 11111 21111 11111 12111 11211 11111 21121 11111 12111 l l l l l 11211 l l l l l 21112 11121 11211 72 013 21121 11112 11111 21111 21111 12111 11211 21111 11121 12121 -11112 11211 11112 H i l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 73 157 21121 11112 11112 11111 21111 12111 11111 21211 11111 12121 11111 11212 11112 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 74 178 11221 11112 11112 21111 21111 12111 11121 11111 11112 11121 i l l 11 21111 11112 l l l l l 11211 11112 11121 11211 75 113 21112 12112 11112 11111 21111 11111 11111 21211 11111 12111 .11111 11212 l l l l l l l l l l 21111 11122 11211 21111 76 159 21121 11112 11112 21111 21111 1.1111 11112 21211 11111 12111 11111 11211 11112 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 77 169 21111 12122 11112 21111 21111 12111 i n n 21111 11111 21121 11112 11211 11122 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 78 194 11221 11112 11112 11111 21111 11111 11211 11211 11121 11111 11112 11111 l l l l l l l l l l 21111 .11122 112.11 21111 79 185 11212 11112 12111 11.111 21111 11111 i n n 11112 11211 H i l l 11121 11111 l l l l l 11211 l l l l l 21112 11121 11211 80 007 21121 11112 11112 11111 21111 11111 11112 11111 11111 21111 11111 12111 11112 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 81 224 21112 11112 11112 11111 21111 11111 11112 11211 11111 21121 11111 12112 l l l l l l l l l l 2111.1 11122 11211 21111 82 186 21121 11112 11111 21111 21111 12111 11112 11111 11121 2 1 1 2 1 H i l l 12111 11122 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 83 160 21121 11112 11112 21111 21111 11111 11111 21211 11111 12111 11111 11212 11121 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 21111 84 207 11221 11112 11111 21111 11111 21111 11111 12111 11111 11221 11111 11121 l l l l l 11221 l l l l l 22112 11121 11211 85 226 21112 11122 11211 11111 21111 12111 11112 11111 11.111 21121 11111 12112 11121 l l l l l 21111 11122 11211 21111 86 211 21111 11122 11112 11111 21111 11111 21111 11111 12111 11111 11211 11111 11121 l l l l l 11112 11112 11211 2.1111 87 158 21121 11112 11112 11111 21111 11111 11112 1 1 1 1 1 H i l l 21111 :1H11 12111 l l l l l l l l l l 21111 11122 11211 21111 131 88 119 21121 11112 11112 l l l l l 21111 89 167 21112 11112 11112 21111 21111 90 048 .11211 11222 11112 l l l l l 21111 91 142 21121 11112 l l l l l 21111 21111 92 078 11221 11112 l l l l l 21111 21111 93 115 21121 11112 11112 l l l l l 21111 94 027 11221 11112 11112 l l l l l 21111 95 177 21121 11112 l l l l l 21111 21111 96 143 21121 11112 11112 l l l l l 21111 97 018 21121 11112 111.12 l l l l l 21111 98 127 21121 11112 11121 11112 l l l l l 99 028 11221 11112 11112 l l l l l 21111 12111 11112 11211 l l l l l 21121 l l l l l 12111 21111 l l l l l 12111 l l l l l 12211 l l l l l 12111 11211 11211 l l l l l 11121 12111 11112 11211 l l l l l 21111 l l l l l l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l i 21111 11112 12111 l l l l l 21211 l l l l l 21111 l l l l l 12111 12111 l l l l l 11211 11121 11121 12111 l l l l l 21111 l l l l l 22121 l l l l l l l l l l 11112 21211 l l l l l 12111 l l l l l l l l l l 11211 11211 11121 12111 11112 11110 00000 00000 00000 00000 00000 11111 11112 11211 l l l l l 21111 H i l l 12112 l l l l l l l l l l 21111 11122 11211 21111 l l l l l l l l l l 21111 21121 11112 11211 21111 11112 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l 12112 11121 11211 12112 11122 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 .21111 12112 11112 l l l l l 11211 l l l l l 21121 .1.1211 12112 l l l l l l l l l l 21111 11122 11211 21111 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 11211 11112 11121 11211 11211 l l l l l l l l l l 21111 11122 11211 21.111 12112 11122 l l l l l 11211 11112 11211 2111.1 11112 11112 l l l l i 11211 11112 11211 .21111 00000 00111 01111 21111 11122 11211 21.111 12112 11112 l l l l l 11211 11112 11121 11211 ORDER ON DIMENSION 1 99999 12345 1 99990 67890 l l l l l 00000 12345 l l l l l 00001 67890 l l l l l l l l l l 12 345 l l l l l 11112 67890 l l l l l 22222 12345 l l l l l 22223 67890 l l l l l 33333 12345 l l l l l 33334 67890 l l l l l 44444 12345 l l l l l 44445 67890 l l l l l 55555 12345 l l l l l 55556 67890 l l l l l 66666 12345 l l l l l 66667 67890 l l l l l 77777 12345 l l l l l 77778 66890 I 001 21121 12111 11112 l l l l l 112.11 21112 l l l l l 20000 00000 00000 00000 00011 12111 l l l l l 21111 l l l l l 11212 11112 2 187 21121 12111 11112 l l l l l 11211 21121 11112 10000 00000 00000 00000 00011 11121 11100 00000 00000 00000 00000 3 030 12111 21121 11112 l l l l l 11122 12211 21111 20000 00000 00000 00000 00011 12121 l l l l l 11211 .11-111 21112 11121. 4 031- 12111 21121 l l l l l 21111 11122 12221 l l l l l 20000 00000 00000 00000 00011 12111 l l l l l 21111 l l l l l 21112 11121 5 190 21121 12111 11112 l l l l l 11211 21121 11112 10000 00000 00000 00000 00011 11112 11112 .11111 l l l l l 21112 11121 6 026 12111 21121 l l l l l 12111 11121 12111 21111 20000 00000 00000 00000 00011 12111 l l l l l l l l l l 11211 21112 .11112.. 7 002 12111 21121 l l l l l 12111 11121 12111 21111 20000 00000 00000 00000 00011 11211 l l l l l 00111 l l l l l 10001 11212 8 006 21121 12111 11112 l l l l l 11211 21121 11112 11.112 l l l l l 11121 11121 11211 11121 11112 l l l l l l l l l l 21111 12112 9 038 11212 12111 11112 l l l l l 11122 12211 11122 10000 00000 00000 00000 00011 12111 l l l l l 21111 11.111 11212 11121 10 014 12111 21121 11112 12111 11121 12111 21111 20000 00000 00000 00000 00011 12111 l l l l l 21.111 •11 H i - 21112 11112, 11 033 12111 21121 l l l l l 12111 11122 12211 11121 20000 00000 00000 00000 00011 11112 21111 21211 l l 1-11 21112 11112 12 199 21121 12111 11112 l l l l l 11211 21121 11112 10000 00000 00000 00000 00011 11121 11112 l l l l l l l l l l 21112 11121 13 005 12111 21111 21111 11112 11121 12111 21111 20000 00000 00000 00000 00011 11121 111 l l - l l l l l 11211 21112 11112 14 009 21121 12111 11112 l l l l l 11211 2.1121 11112 11121 H i l l 11211 11112 12111 11121 l l l 12 l l l l l l l l l l 21112 11121 15 003 21121 12111 11112 l l l l l 11211 21121 11112 12111 11112 l l l l l 11211 11221 l l l l l l l l l l 11121 l l l l l 2111.2, 11112 16 032 12111 21121 11112 12111 11122 12211 21111 20000 00000 00000 00000 00011 11121 11100 00000 00000 00001 .11212. 17 004 21121 12111 11112 l l l l l 11211 21121 11112 22111 11121 21111 11211 12112 l l l l l l l l l l 11211 l l l l l 21112 11112 18 039 21121 12111 11112 l l l l l 11121 12111 11121 20000 00000 00000 00000 00011 11.112 l l l l l 21111 l l l l l 21112 .11.121. 19. 035 21121 12111 11112 l l l l l 11121 .12111 2 1 1 1 1 20000 00000 00000 00000 00011 11112 l l l l l 21111. • H i l l 21111 11212 20 208 12111 22111 11112 l l l l l 11112 11211 21111 20000 00000 00000 00000 00011 11121. 1111.1 21111 l l l l l 21112. 11121 21 212 21121 12111 11112 l l l l l 11211 21121 11112 11112 21111 l l l l l 12111 12111 11121 11121. l l l l l l l l l l 11122 .11121 22 220 21121 12111 11112 l l l l l 11211 21121 11112 12111 l l l l l 11121. l l l l l 22111 l l l l l 12111 11112 .11111 21111. 12112 23 188 21121 12111 11112 l l l l l 11211 21121 11112 12111 l l l l l l l l l l 22121 12111 11121 .11121 l l l l l l l l l l 21112 -in 21 24 203 12111 21121 11112 l l l l l 11122 12211 21111 20000 00000 00000 00000 00011 11121 l l l l l 11211 l l l l l 21112 11212 25 202 21121 12111 11112 l l l l l 11211 21121 11112 11112 l l l l l 11112 12211 12111 11121 11121 l l l l l .11111 11122 11121 26 214 21121 12111 1111.2 l l l l l 11211 21121 11112 11112 l l l l l l l l l l 22211 12100 00000 00000 00000 00000 11121 .11212 27 216 21121 12111 11112 l l l l l 11211 21121 11112 11112 21111 l l l l l 12111 12111 11121 11121 l l l l l •1.11.11 21112 11112 28 210 21121 12111 29 197 11212 12111 30 191 21121 12111 31 034 12111 21121 32 193 11212 12111 33 223 21121 12111 34 062 11212 12111 35 020 21121 12111 36 017 21121 12111 37 213 21121 12111 38 225 21121 12111 39 198 21121 12111 40 055 21121 12111 41 189 11212 12111 42 201 21121 12111 43 195 21121 12111 44 200 11212 11112 45 222 21121 12111 46 019 21121 12111 47 058 12111 21121 48 024 21121 12111 49 025 11212 12111 50 066 11212 12111 51 171 21121 12111 52 181 21121 12111 53 012 21121 12111 54 015 21121 12111 55 182 21121 12111 56 183 21121 12111 57 114 21121 12111 11112 l l l l l 11211 21121 11112 l l l l l 11121 12111 11112 l l l l i 11211 21121 11112 l l l l l 11112 11211 11112 l l l l l 11211 21121 11112 l l l l l 11211 21121 l l l 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21111 l l l l l 11211 11112 l l l l l 11121. 12121 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 11211 ...13s 11121 11211 12110 00000 00211 21112 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 11211 11112 l l l l l 11211 21121 • l l l l l l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 11211 11110 00000 00211 21112 1.2111 l l l l l 11112 12111 l l l l l 12111 11110 00000 00211 21121 l l l l l l l l l l 11121 l l l l l . 21111 11221 l l l l l 221.11 11121 12112.11211 l l l l l 11112 11211 11121 21211 12120 00000 00112 11211 l l l l l 11112 22211 l l l l l 12111 11112 11112 12111 12112 11211 21111 11121 12111 21111 .12111 11112 l l l l l 12111 12112 12112.1111.1. 11121 l l l l l 12121 21111 11021 l l l l l 12111 11121 12112 12111 l l l l l 11112 12111 21111 12121 11112 12111 12121 12112 11211 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 12111 11112 l l l l l 11211 21121 l l l l l l l l l l 11121 .11.111... 12111 11112 12111 12111 11112 11211 11112 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 12111 111.12 11110 00000 00112 11212 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 12111 11112 11111.11211 21121 l l l l l .11.111 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 11211.11112 l l l l l 11211 21112 11211 l l l l l 11112 11211 12111 11112 11110 00000 00112 11211 l l l l l 11112 22211 l l l l l l l l l l 12111 11110 00000 00211 21121 H i l l l l l l l 11121.11111 11121 11211 12112 H i l l 11211 21111 21111 11121 12111 21111 12111 11112-11110 00000 00112.11211 l l l l l .11111 22211 l l l l l l l l l l 11121 l l l l l 12111 .11121 12112 12111 l l l l l 11112 12111 12111 11112 11110 00000 00112 11212 l l l l l 11112 11112 l l l l l 11221 1121.1 22110 00000 00211 21112 l l l l l 11112 11112 l l l l l 21111 11221 11110 00000 00121 12111 .11211 .1.1111 l l l l l 11211 l l l l l 11211 11110 00000 00211 21111 11211 l l l l l 11112 11211 22111 11122.12111 12111 11112 .11211 11112 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 12111 11112 l l l l l 12111 11112 11211 21111 .11121 12111 .21.111 l l l l l 11112 11110 00000 00211 .11221 l l l l l l l l l l 11112 l l l l l l l l l l 11211 11110 00000 00211 21112 11211 H i l l 11112 11211 21111 11211 12111 1 2 1 1 1 11121 12100 00000 00000 00012 l l l l l 58 0 5 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 11211 12111 21111 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 12111 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 21112 11211 l l l l l 1 1 1 1 2 .11211 59 0 4 4 1 2 1 1 2 11.121 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 12111 2 1 1 1 2 11121 11211 1 2 1 1 0 OOOOO 0 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l . l l l l l 6 0 1 8 4 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 11211 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 l l l l l 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 l l l l l 11211 11110 OOOOO 0 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 l l l l l 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 61 0 6 7 1 2 1 1 2 11121 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 11211 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 OOOOO 0 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 l l l l l : l l l l i 2 2 2 1 2 l l l l l 6 2 2 1 5 2 1 1 2 1 11211 12111 21111 2 2 1 2 1 l l l l l 12111 1 1 1 1 2 l l l l l 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 l l l l l 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 11211 l l l l l 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 6 3 0 6 3 1 2 1 1 2 11122 11211 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 11211 12111 2 1 1 1 2 11122 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 l l l l l 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 l l l l l 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 l l l l l 64 0 0 8 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 12112 21111 21111 11121 l l l l l 1 2 1 1 1 11112. l l l l l 121.11 11112 11.211. l l l l l 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 l l l l l 65. • 068 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 11211 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 11211 12111 2 1 1 1 2 11121 1121.1 1 2 1 1 0 OOOOO 0 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l l l l l l 6 6 0 6 5 12112 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1111.1 111.12 2 1 1 2 1 l l l l l l l l l l 22111 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 11 Hi- l l l l l 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 6 7 1 9 6 . 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 l l l l l 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 l l l l l 1 1 2 1 1 l l l l l 12111 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 l l 111 l l l l l 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 6 8 1 7 6 0 0 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1110.0 0 0 2 1 1 l l l l l 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 l l l l l 12111. 1 1 1 1 0 OOOOO 0 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 l l l l l l l l l l 11121 l l l l l 6 9 071 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 11211 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 l l l l l 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 l l l l l 1 2 1 1 0 OOOOO 0 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 l l l l l l l l l l 2 2 2 1 2 l l l l l 7 0 0 5 3 21112 21121 1 1 2 2 1 12111 21111 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 12111 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 l l l l l 1 1 1 2 1 11.111 1 1 1 1 2 71 0 2 9 1 2 1 1 2 11121 11211 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 11211 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 11121 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 OOOOO 0 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 l l l l l 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 l l l l l 72 0 1 3 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 11221 .12211 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 11121 l l l l l 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 l l l l l 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 l l l l l 1 1 1 2 1 11112 11.12.1 7 3 1 5 7 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 11211 12111 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 l l l l l 12111 11112 l l l l l 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 l l l l l 1.1121 H i l l 1 1 1 2 1 74 178 1 2 1 1 2 11121 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 00111 21111 11121 X X X XX 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 OOOOO 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 l l l l l 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 .11111. 75 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 21111 21111 11121 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 11112 1 2 1 2 2 12111 1 2 1 1 2 11212 l l l l l 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 l l l l l . 76 159 211.12 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 l l l l l 2 1 1 1 1 11121 l l l l l 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 OOOOO 0 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 l l l l l l l l l l 1 1 1 2 1 l l l l l 7 7 1 6 9 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 11112 l l l l l 11211 l l l l l 21111 1 1 1 2 1 l l l l l 12.111 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 l l l l l l l l l l 1 1 1 2 1 l l l l l 78 1 9 4 21121 11211 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 l l l l l 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 l l l l l 11211 1 1 1 1 0 OOOOO 0 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 11211 l l l l l 11112 .11211 79 1 8 5 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 11211 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 11211 12111 2 1 1 1 2 11121 11211 1 2 1 1 0 OOOOO OOOOO 0 0 0 1 2 1.1111 11112 l l l l l 1111.1 8 0 0 0 7 21112 11121 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 21111 11121 l l l l l 12111 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 OOOOO 0 0 1 1 2 11211 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 8 1 2 2 4 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 21111 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1111.2- •11211 1 1 1 1 2 l l l l l 1 2 1 1 2 111 l l -82 : 1 8 6 21121 1 1 2 1 1 12111 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 l l l l l 21111 11121 l l l l l 12111 1.1110 ooooo 0 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 l l l l l l l l l l 11121 l l l 1-1 8 3 1 6 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 12111 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 l l l l l 21111 1 1 1 2 1 l l l l l 1 2 1 1 1 11110 ooooo 0 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 l l l l l l l l l l 1 1 1 2 1 111 l l -84 2 0 7 vlL »^ X JL *2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 00111 2 1 1 1 2 11121 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 0 ooooo 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 l l l l l 1 1 1 1 2 l l l l l l l l ! 1 85 2 2 6 21112 2 1 1 2 1 11221 1 2 1 1 2 11112 21111 1 1 2 2 1 l l l l l 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 l l l l l 1 2 1 1 1 11112. 1 1 2 1 2 l l l l l 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 OOOOO 86 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 l l l l l 12211 11112 2 1 1 1 1 11121 l l l l l 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 .121.11 1 1 2 1 1 l l l l l 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 87 1 5 8 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 11211 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 11121 l l l l l 1 2 1 1 1 111.12 11110 ooooo 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 l l l l l 1111.2 .111.11 139 88 119 21112 11121 11211 89 167 21121 11211 12111 90 048 12112 11121 11211 91 142 21121 11211 12111 92 078 12112 11112 11211 93 115 21112 21121 11221 94. . 027 12112 11121 11211 95 177 21121 11211 12111 96 143 21112 11121 11211 97 018 21112 11121 11211 98 12 7 21112 11121 11211 99 0 28 12112 11121 11211 12112 21121 21211 11121 11112 21112 21112 l l l l l 11211 l l l l l 12100 00111 21111 11121 l l l l l 21100 00211 l l l l l 21111 11121 12100 00111 21111 11121 l l l l l 12112 21121 21211 11121 11112 12100 00111 21111 11121 l l l l l 21100 00121 l l l l i 12111 11112 12100 00211 l l l l l 21111 11121 12111 21111 21111 11121 l l l l l 12112 12121 l l l l l 12111 11112 12100 00111 21111 11121 l l l l l 12121 21112 11112 12111 11112 21111 11121 l l l l l 12111 11121 12111 11112 11110 OOOOO 00112 l l l l l 12111 11110 OOOOO 00211 12111 11112 11110 OOOOO 00112 12121 11112 11112 12111 11112 12111 11112 11110 OOOOO 00112 l l l l l 11211 11110 OOOOO 00121 l l l l l 12111 11110 OOOOO 00211 12111 11112 11112 12111 11112 l l l l l 12111 11121 l l l l l 12112 12111 11112-,11110 OOOOO 00112 11212 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l 11112 12121 l l l l l .11111 11121 l l l l l 11211 l l l l l l l l l l 22211 l l l l l 21121 ' l l l l l l l l l l 11121 l l l l l 11211 l l l l l l l l l l 22211 l l l l l 11212 m i l 11121 l l l l l 11112 11211 H i l l l l l l l 22211 l l l l l 12111 11211 l l l l l l l l l l 11211 2 JL «L 2 JL -l l l l l . l l l l l 11121 l l l l l 11211 21111 11121 12111 21111 11012 11211 l l l l l 11112 .1121.1 11211 l l l l i 11112 12211 l l l l l ORDER ON DIMENSION 1 22222 77777 12345 22222 77778 67890 22222 88888 12345 22222 88889 67890 22222 99999 12345 22223 99990 67890 33333 OOOOO 12345 333 000 678 1 . 001 11121 11 211 21111 11121 12111 21111 11121 112 2 187 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 11100 OOOOO OOOOO 000 3 030 11112 l l l l i l l l l l l l l l l 22212 l l l l l 11112 111 4 031 11112 l l l l l i l l l l l l l l l 22212 i l l l l 11112 111 .5 190 21111 i l l l l l l l l l 21111 12111 l l l l l 21111 i l l 6 026 11112 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 22212 l l l l l 11112 111 7 002 11112 11112 l l l l l 11112 11112 l l l l l 11112 i l l 8 006 11121 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 11121 111 9 038 l l l l l 22212 12111 11112 i l l l l 12111 l l l l l 222 10 014 11112 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l i 22212 1111.1 11112 111 11 033 11112 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 22212 l l l l l 11112 H i 12 199 11112 l l l l l l l l l i 11112 12112 l l l l l 11112 i l l 13 005 l l l l l 22212 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 222 14 009 l l l l l 11112 12111 l l l l l 11112 12111 l l l l l 111 15 003 11211 11112 l l l l l 1.1121 11112 l l l l l 11211 111 16 032 11112 12211 l l l l l l l l l i 22211 l l l l l 11112 122 17 004 11121 11112 l l l l l 11211 X X X X 2 l l l l l 11121 111 18 039 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 21111 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 19 035 11112 l l l l l l l l l l 11112 12112 H i l l 11112 111 20 208 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 21 212 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 111 22 220 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 111 23 188 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l i 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 24 203 11112 l l l l l l l l l l 11112 22212 l l l l l 11112 111 25 202 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l i 111 26 214 .11111 11112 11211 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 27 216 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 141 28 210 1.1111 l l l l l 11211 l l l l l l l l l l 11211 l l l l l 111 29 197 l l l l l 22212 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 222 30 191 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 11112 11211 ]L 1<L.1JL 111 31 034 l l l l l 11112 12111 l l l l l 11112 12111 i i n i 111 32 193 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 11121 l l l l l i n n 111 33 223 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 11112 11211 i n n 111 34 062 11112 22211 l l l l l 11112 22211 l l l l l 11112 222 35 020 11121 11211 21111 11121 12111 21111 11121 112 36 017 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l 12121 l l l l l 111 3 7 213 l l l l l 11112 12111 l l l l l 11112 12111 l l l l l 111 38 225 l l l l l 11112 11211 111.11 •11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 39 198 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 40 055 11211 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 11121 111 41 189 l l l l l 22212 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 222 42 201 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 43 195 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 44 200 11112 22211 l l l l l 11112 22211 l l l l l 11112 222 45 222 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 46 019 11121 11211 21111 11121 12111 21111 11121 112 47 058 11112 12211 l l l l l l l l l l 22211 l l l l l 11112 122 48 024 l l l l l 11112 12111 l l l l l 11112 12111 l l l l l 111 49 025 11112 11112 l l l l l 11112 11112 l l l l l 11112 111 50 066 11112 11112 l l l l l 11112 11112 l l l l l l l l l l 111 51 171 l l l l l l l l l l 11211 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 52 181 l l l l l l l l l l 11211 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 111 53 012 11211 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 11121 111 54 015 11121 11211 21111 11121 12111 21111 l l l l l 112 55 182 21111 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 21111 111 56 183 111.11 11112 11211 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 111 57 114 11211 .11100 00000 00000 00012 l l l l l 11211 111 142 58 052 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 111 59 044 H i l l 22212 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l l l l l l • l l l l l 222 60 184 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 11112 11211 .11111 111 61 067 11112 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 22212 l l l l l 11112 111 62 215 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 111 63 063 11112 22212 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l l l l l l 11112 222 64 008 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 21111 11112 l l l l l 11211 111 65 068 l l l l l 22212 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 222 66 065 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 11112 11121 l l l l l 111 67 196 l l l l l 11112 11211. l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 111 68 176 1.111.1 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 69 071 11112 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 22212 l l l l l 11112 111 70 053 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 11121 11.111 11112 l l l l l 111 71 029 11112 11112 l l l l l 11112 11112 l l l l l 11112 111 72 013 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 11121 11112 11121 l l l l l 111 73 157 l l l l l 11112 1111.1 11121 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l 111 74 178 11112 22211 l l l l l .11112 22211 l l l l l 11112 222 75 113 11211 11112 l l l l l 11121 11112 l l l l l 11121 111 76 159 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 77 169 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 78 194 11.111 11112 11211 l l l l l 11112 11211 l l l l l 111 79 185 l l l l l 22212 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l l l l l l 111.11 222 80 007 11121 11211 21111 11121 12111 21111 11121 112 81 224 11211 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 11212 l l l l l 11121 i l l 82 186 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 83 160 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 84 207 l l l l l 22212 l l l l l 11112 11.111 l l l l l l l l l l 222 85 226 00000 00000 00000 00000 00000 00000 00000 000 86 211 l l l l l l l l l l 11211 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 87 158 11211 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 11121 111 143 88 119 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 89 167 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l 90 048 l l l l l 22211 l l l l i 91 142 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l 92 078 l l l l l 22211 l l l l l 93 115 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 94 027 11112 12211 l l l l l 95 177 l l l l l l l l l l 11211. 96 143 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l 97 018 11121 11211 21111 98 127 l l l l l 11112 11211 99 028 l l l l l 22211 l l l l l EXECUTION TERMINATED 11211 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 111 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 l l l l l 22211 l l l l l l l l l l 222 l l l l l 11121 l l l l l l l l l l 111 l l l l l 22211 l l l l l l l l l l 222 1.1211 l l l l l 11112 l l l l l 111 l l l l l 22211 l l l l l 11112 122 l l l l l l l l l l 11211 .1.1111 111 11111 11121 i n u i l l l l i i i 11121 12111 21111 11121 112 11111 1.1.112 11211 l l l l l 111 11112 12211 l l l l l l l l l i 222 $SI6N0FF 

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