UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Ideological practice in labour news reporting Paulson, Marilee Reimer 1975

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I l f f i O L G G I C A L 1. R A O T I C S b y I'lAxlILZJE f l ia l l - l J l t xvlULSGl-; B . A ., U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , I o s A n g e l e s A T1LGS I3 S U H a G T G D I I I I-AR'-DIAI F JLF IU-iaiO? OF THE l iOT IHa^P .u ' S F O R THIS DEGfLuJS 0 ? K A S T 3 R OF A R T S i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a n d S o c i o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t i i e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e o u i r e d s t a n d a r d In presenting th i s thesis in par t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes i s fo r f inanc ia l gain shal l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date August 8, 1975 Abstract This study of ideology i n the news media attempts to describe the ways i n which a p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y such as labour r e p o r t i n g i s i m p l i c a t e d i n a l a r g e r process of constructing a view of the world from the p e r s p e c t i v e and i n terms of the enterprises of those who " r a l e " . Ideol-ogical p r a c t i c e i n t h i s study i n v o l v e s those o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s f o r c r e a t i n g " o b j e c t i v e " news accounts which introduce a fundamental source of bias from a management per s p e c t i v e . In Chapter I the s o c i a l context i n which labour news accounts are made i n advanced c a p i t a l i s t societies i s discussed. She traditional approach to communications theory i s c r i t i c i s e d as a means to describe how an ins t i tu t i onal i ze d or ""biased" p o i n t of view i s pro-duced. This approach i s rejected i n favour of working w i t h -i n the framework of the " s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of knowledge This i s concerned with the understanding of how " f a c t u a l n , documented accounts are constructed i n b u r e a u c r a d i c a l l y organised s e t t i n g s . In Chapter II and III we examine the practical work activities involved i n labour r e p o r t i n g at the "Star", a major Canadian d a i l y newspaper in "/estera Canada. '%e practices involved i n generating news accounts and e s t a b l i s h i n g their f a c t u a l status i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y warrantable manner at the "Star" are examined. In Chapter i I I , three aspects involved i n the generation of news accounts are viewed, i . e . , those r o u t i n e p r a c t i c e s for l o c a t i n g , d e f i n i n g and w r i t i n g ne' s accounts. The manner i n which, "events" and " f a c t s " are constructed i n these processes r e v e a l s that the presuppositions r e g a r d i n g "Labour" attain p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the procedures for p e r c e i v i n g what could be defined as newsworthy. Chapter H I contains a d i s c u s s i o n of the methods for docu-menting these accounts which express a management pers-p e c t i v e In the construction of "labour". In t h i s s e c t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g p r a c t i c e s are examined f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the f a c t u a l status of an account i n terras of t h i s relation to l a b o u r : a) the use of " r e l i a b l e " sources to a u t h o r i z e an i n t erpre t a t i on; b j .eference to "objective" standards of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to guard against "bias"; c) how the r e p o r t e r ' s o p i n i o n on "the s t o r y " are separated from "the f a c t s " , and d) the production of " f a c t s " through consensus. " e conclude that the o r d i n a r y , r o u t i n e procedures for r e p o r t i n g labour news construct a "managerial" conception of "labour" i n the media. The i d e o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e s for " o b j e c t i v e " r e p o r t i n g s t r u c t u r e the r e l a t i o n of peoples' everyday experiences to their modes of thought about the world. Tp_is symbolic mode of a c t i o n i s one aspect of the uneeual d i s t r i b u t i o n of knowledge In advanced capita l i s t s o c i e t i e s and i s a product of the r u l i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s which reproduce the extant relations of domination under ce.piia l i s m , i i TABLE OP CONTENTS Page Abstr a c t - " i Chapter 1: The S o c i a l Context of the News 1 Media 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n ^ 2. Gatekeeping Theory 9 3. B r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the news o r g a n i z a t i o n 15 Chapter II,: New Production at the "Star" ( A ) : Generating News S t o r i e s 22 1. The Scope of Labour News 26 2. D e f i n i n g the News 30 3. Locating News 33 4. W r i t i n g a Story • 41 Chapter I I I : News Production at the "S t a r " ( B ) : E s t a b l i s h i n g the E a c t i c i t y of an Account 54 1. The Use of R e l i a b l e Sources to Authorize an. Account 56 2. Appealing to an "Objective" Standard of I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 63 3. The Separation of the Reporter from the Story 68 4. The Production of Pacts Through Consensus 69 i i i Chapter IV: Concluding Remarks 79 Appendix.]'-' F i e l d Notes and sample 84 B i b l i o g r a p h y 87 iv Acknowledgement My s i n c e r e thanks to Professor Dorothy Smith f o r her patience and guidance on t h i s study. 1 CHAPTER 1 THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OP THE NEWS MEDIA The t o p i c o f t h i s paper i s the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of l a b o u r nev/s r e p o r t i n g as i t i s done a t the " S t a r " d a i l y paper i n a Western Canadian;provinee. In t h i s study we w i l l attempt t o demonstrate how the news o r g a n i z a t i o n mediates and hence s t r u c t u r e s the r e l a t i o n between what happens i n the world and what i s re p r e s e n t e d p u b l i c l y i n the news as having happened.* The process i n which i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y mediated knowledge i s produced i s of c e n t r a l importance to advanced c a p i t a l i s t society."'" This c e n t r a l i t y has t o do w i t h the changing forms of domination t h a t are e x e r c i s e d by r u l i n g groups i n the s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of advanced *The o r i g i n a l work f o r t h i s paper was done f o r a seminar on the S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Knowledge at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The con c e p t u a l framework was developed by P r o f e s s o r Dorothy E. Smith and many h e l p f u l i n s i g h t s were c o n t r i b u t e d by Kevin Busswoo.d, Nancy Jackson, T h i e r r y Lebrun and S y l v i a Webster. 2 c a p i t a l i s m . As g r e a t e r p o r t i o n s of our l i v e s come under the c o n t r o l o f c e n t r a l i z e d forms of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and management, d e c i s i o n making processes become l e s s and l e s s a v a i l a b l e to i n d i v i d u a l s c r u t i n y . S o c i a l awareness i s i n c r e a s i n g l y dependent on h i g h l y r a t i o n a l i z e d forms of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the s o c i a l processes which u n d e r l i e t h e i r c r e a t i o n , r e p r o d u c t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The i d e o l o g i c a l m y s t i f i c a t i o n which r e s u l t s h e l p s m a i n t a i n a system i n which knowledge necessary f o r s o c i a l a c t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d between r u l i n g and n o n - r u l i n g - 2 groups. Boyte and Ackerman c o n t r a s t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i d e o l o g i c a l m y s t i f i c a t i o n i n two v e r y d i f f e r e n t contexts -advanced c a p i t a l i s m and a u t o c r a t i c t h i r d world c o u n t r i e s . In p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y China, Russia, Cuba and i n many t h i r d w orld c o u n t r i e s today, the r u l i n g c l a s s e s were d r a m a t i c a l l y p o l a r i z e d from the masses. Under these circumstances, the l e g i t i m a c y of the r u l i n g c l a s s and the s t a t e was s i g n i f i c -a n t l y undermined. In such cases, they m a i n t a i n , s t a t e r e p r e s s i o n i s n e c e s s a r i l y the primary instrument o f r u l i n g c l a s s domination a g a i n s t indigenous r e v o l u t i o n a r y movements. This i s not the case, however", under advanced c a p i t a l i s m , i n which m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s are not as o p pressive nor are p o l i t i c s as t r a n s p a r e n t . Under these c o n d i t i o n s , s t a t e 3 r e p r e s s i o n i s not the primary means of c l a s s domination! r u l e i s achieved f i r s t through 'consent' and a c q u i e s -cence, through the c o n t r a d i c t o r y and confused ideas ... t h a t l e g i t i m a t e the c a p i t a l i s t s t a t u s quo and r e d i r e c t the h o s t i l i t y and f r u s t r a t i o n s t h a t c a p i t a l i s m causes away from the system, towards other oppressed groups.• Popular 'consent' and acquiescence may he understood as a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the masses and the r u l i n g c l a s s i n the complex a r t i c u l a t e d s o c i e t i e s of advanced c a p i t a l i s m . Gramsci used the n o t i o n of 'hegemony' to e x p l a i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p and i t s r o l e i n c l a s s domina-t i o n . Hegemony c o n s i s t s of an e q u i l i b r i u m between ' c i v i l ' s o c i e t y and ' p o l i t i c a l ' s o c i e t y , between ' l e a d e r s h i p ' or d i r e c t i o n based on consent and 'domination' based on c o e r c i o n i n the broadest sense. Through c i v i l s o c i e t y , the hegemony of one s o c i a l group over the whole n a t i o n ( i s ) e x e r c i s e d through s o c a l l e d p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , * as the church, trade unions or s c h o o l s . In the r u l i n g c l a s s we i n c l u d e those p o s i t i o n s which are p a r t of t h a t t o t a l complex of a c t i v i t i e s by which contemporary c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y i s r u l e d , managed and a d m i n i s t e r e d . 'Ihese a c t i v i t i e s are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o many spheres. Thus the r u l i n g c l a s s , as the term i s used here, subsumes t h a t whole s e c t i o n which i n the business world.lis c a l l e d -'management' and i n government 'bureaucracy', i t i n c l u d e s a l s o the p r o f e s s i o n s and the work of those v/ho train,' i n d o c t r i n a t e and s e l e c t those who w i l l be i t s governors", namely the educ a t o r s . I t i n c l u d e s those who provide and e l a b o r a t e i t s procedures and develop methods of ac c o u n t i n g f o r how i t i s done and happens, namely the sch o o l s of b u s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o h , the ' s c i e n c e s 1 o f economics and s o c i o l o g y . I t i n c l u d e s a l s o those who conceive, p l a y w i t h , and s p i n out the a r t i s t i c forms i n which i t i s expressed, formulated, j u s t i f i e d and made n a t u r a l - s e emihg. This i n c l u d e s those "dominant groups" who comprise the m i n o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s who c o n t r o l the d e c i s i o n making 6 p r o c e s s e s . The v a r i o u s segments of t h i s group, while d i v e r g i n g i n t h e i r s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s , have a u n i f y i n g i n t e r e s t i n p r e s e r v i n g the s t r u c t u r e s o f domination under 7 c a p i t a l i s m and an unchanged economic system. Accor d i n g t o Gramsci, the forms of c u l t u r a l domination are as c r u c i a l to c l a s s r u l e as t h a t o f s t a t e power. ' C i v i l ' s o c i e t y , or the e n t i r e complex of soc i a l " , c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y , must be analyzed i n order to under-stand the means to o b t a i n consensus.' and, support f o r the formal p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p o f the s t a t e . The g u i d i n g i d e a s and i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r r e n t s of c i v i l s o c i e t y are i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and the hegemonic p o s i t i o n of r u l i n g groups i n advanced c a p i t a l i s m . Ihe process o f governing modern s o c i e t y then i n v o l v e s a symbolic mode of a c t i o n which s t r u c t u r e s our 5 r e l a t i o n to s o c i a l r e a l i t y from w i t h i n what Gramsci r e f e r r e d to as ' c i v i l 1 s o c i e t y . T h i s symbolic mode i s c o n s t r u c t e d from w i t h i n b u r e a u c r a t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d settings", e.g. u n i v e r s i t i e s " , m i l i t a r y organizations', c e n t r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e agencies and newspaper o f f i c e s ' , and i s p r o v i d e d i n the form o f documented accounts, e.g. newspapers', t e l e v i s i o n " , books. These r e s u l t i n what Smith has c a l l e d a " s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d documentary r e a l i t y " : t h i s view o f the world i s c o n s t i t u t e d i n those s o c i a l l y organized p r a c t i c e s o f r e p o r t i n g and a c c o u n t i n g which mediate our r e l a t i o n to 'what a c t u a l l y happens' i n the world. In these processes, i n which i t i s decided what w i l l be s a i d about the world, two l e v e l s o f phenomena are a t p l a y : l ) the symbolic o r co n c e p t u a l l e v e l , which i s con-s t i t u t e d by o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y c o r r e c t and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y r e c o g n i z a b l e i n t e r p r e t i v e procedures; these t a k e - p l a c e w i t h i n h i s t o r i c a l l y s i t u a t e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and i m p l i c i t l y depend on and take i n the conceptual frame-work of a g i v e n p r o f e s s i o n ; and 2) the " r e a l w o r l d " o r p r a c t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l i f e i n t o o r d i n a r y day-to-day i n t e r a c t i o n s and s i t u a t i o n s . The process of governing s o c i e t y i n v o l v e s u s i n g the symbolic mode, which i s an a r t i c u l a t i o n o f r u l i n g i n t e r e s t s , as the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the " r e a l w o r l d " 6 9 m, i n t e r e s t s o f n o n - r u l i n g groups. This mode of know-ledge i s no r m a l l y presented as " o b j e c t i v e " p r o t r a y a l s o f the world. These are documented as such i n the s e t t i n g s i n which they are produced. The r e s u l t o f t h i s process i s a "documentary" form of knowledge, a form i n which the world i s known to those who r u l e i t . " * " 0 This i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y mediated knowledge i s a mode o f knowing which i s 'fundamental to the governing super-structures,',(whether o f b u s i n e s s , government, the p r o f e s s i o n s or o t h e r ) . The o r g a n i z e d processes o f a c t and d e c i s i o n which are the a c t s and d e c i s -ions by which governing, managing admin-i s t r a t i o n , e t c . , get done are b u i l t up out of and depend upon-, knowledge put toge t h e r I n t h i s way.' The use of the term i d e o l o g y i n t h i s context r e f e r s to a worl d view which r e p r e s e n t s r e a l i t y as i t i s f o r those who occupy r u l i n g p o s i t i o n s i n s o c i e t y . As such, i d e o l o g y i s a symbolic or conceptual mode generated from a r u l i n g r e l a t i o n to the o b j e c t s o f the world. I t may be p r o p e r l y conceived of as a conc e p t u a l framework which operates not independently from the contexts i n which i t i s generated but v/hich i s dependent upon the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f these contexts f o r i t s meaning and p r o d u c t i o n . The a n a l y s i s o f i d e o l o g y i s concerned w i t h t h i s r e l a t i o n between concept and r e a l i t y i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . 7 I t i s therefore useful to explain how that which passes as an "observable" of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y i s used by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , and to determine whether these coincide with • 12 the r e a l world character of people's a c t i v i t i e s . This problem i s e s p e c i a l l y relevant to the discussion of the power of the press. When conceptual representations no longer make the r e a l world available to consciousness, then i t becomes possible to operate s e l e c t i v e l y upon the world, to control i t , and to preserve i d e a l representations • 1^ of those who r u l e . The fundamental features of society remain a mystery, and i d e o l o g i c a l representations prevent us from viewing t h i s mystery - and the process from which i t has resulted - as problematic. Professional news reporters conceptualize the news produced i n various newspapers i n terms of i t s proximity to some c r i t e r i o n of "objective" reporting. In t h e i r own work, reporters at the Star are programatically committed to reporting what i n that setting can be recognized as "objective" news accounts. News as such i s viewed as being f a c t u a l , i.e.', i t i s claimed to report actual events i n the world and to make them available for public knowledge. Nevertheless, union o f f i c i a l s , rank and f i l e workers and reporters for union and underground papers view labour news i n the Star as consistently biased 8 i n the favour of business. S i m i l a r l y , the"Star reporters view the coverage of union and underground papers as consistently "biased" i n favour of labour and lacking the o b j e c t i v i t y embodied i n t h e i r own news. The problem of our study i s to understand how this contradiction i n views i s produced by examining how "bias" and " o b j e c t i v i t y " are established at the Star as routine organizational a f f a i r s . To do so, we w i l l view how the actual organization of newswork introduces an i d e o l o g i c a l structure into the reporting of labour news. This structure represents "labour" from a management pers-pective and therefore from that of the r u l i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s of society. Labour news as i t i s constituted i n the "Star" i s an instance of such knowledge which i s presented In " f a c t u a l " representations of the world. In order to analyze t h i s process, we w i l l f i r s t contrast two theor-e t i c a l perspectives on media "bias" and consider t h e i r usefulness i n conceptualizing knowledge and the news: 1) "gatekeeping" theory", which i s the predominant view espoused i n t r a d i t i o n a l communications l i t e r a t u r e a n d 2 ) the s o c i a l organization of knowledge, a framework which w i l l be followed i n the discussion of labour news pro-• 15 duction at the "Star". 9 Z. Gatekeeping Theory Without questioning the process i n which s o c i a l "observables" are o r i g i n a l l y constituted, media theorists have dealt with what they see as the problem of "bias" i n the presentation of those observables. Previous studies on bias i n the press suggest that i t s existence i s common-place."^ Bagdikian's study of 87 news organizations established a very high c o r r e l a t i o n between e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y and news bias", with bias almost always following policy set down by the e d i t o r i a l s t a f f . On the basis of a survey of over 600 American d a i l i e s , Bowers found that the o r i e n t -ation of news i s most a c t i v e l y managed by publishers, and especially on l o c a l matters. Exactly how organizational bias i s i n s t i t u t e d remains problematic. Breed's study of over 120 newsmen-found that publishers do set news po l i c y which i s t y p i c a l l y observed by reporters. Such p o l i c y , however, i s never established formally, ' Rather, policy i s covert due to j o u r n a l i s t i c norms which prevent executives from openly d i c t a t i n g the slant of a news story. Learning of p o l i c y i s achieved, according to Breed, through a process of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n which the r e c r u i t "discovers and i n t e r n a l -izes the r i g h t s and obligations of hig status and i t s normss'and values ... so as to win rewards and avoid 10 18 punishments." Sigelman finds s i m i l a r organisational practices functioning as s t r u c t u r a l forms of control", e.g., recruitment, s o c i a l i z a t i o n and i n working arrange-ments. He sees these functioning so as to guarantee hias while at the same time promoting shared s a t i s f a c t i o n s -19 oetween newsmen and minimizing c o n f l i c t with management. Both of these approaches f a l l w ithin the rubric of "gatekeeping" theory of news production which has been the dominant s o c i o l o g i c a l perspective on the subject. Because of the inadequacies of t h i s conceptualization", gatekeeping theory i s unable to explain important aspects of the news production process. Pishman's c r i t i q u e of the theory of "channels and gatekeepers" i n i t s ap p l i c a t i o n to news organizations points out some of the deficiencies i n " 20 t h i s approach. Based on a comparison to the patterned movement of goods through " s o c i a l channels" gatekeeping theory views news i n i t s patterned movement through "news channels", the channels of communication. In t h i s schema, the es s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r a l elements of communication are the message and the news channel", v/hich i s comprised of a sender and a receiver, the communicator and the audience. Along the channel are a series of gatekeepers (reporters and editors) who have the r i g h t to open or close t h e i r gates to messages that are transmitted. * Bias in t h i s 11 context i s seen to be i n s t i t u t e d by the opening or c l o s i n g o f the newsmen's gate. T h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a r e c o n t r o l l e d by " d i r e c t e d f o r c e s " which, when a p p l i e d i n f o r m a l organ-i z a t i o n a l terms, c o n s i s t of the f o l l o w i n g : the o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l s e t t i n g i n which the newsmen work ( i n c l u d i n g sanctions', d e a d l i n e s and other c o n s t r a i n t s ) " , and the news** men's o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r o l e s ( f o r m a l and informal";" sincluding norms,*' g o a l s and v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n s ) m o t i v a t i n g t h e i r -22 a c t i o n s . Fishman's c r i t i q u e c e n t r e s on two problems i n gatekeeping theory: l ) the e x c l u s i v e focus on the s e l e c t i o n o f " f a c t s " and "events" i n the o u t s i d e world; and 2) the vagueness of the p o i n t of o r i g i n o f a news message i n the "news channel". The b a s i c problem i n f o c u s -i n g e x c l u s i v e l y on the s e l e c t i o n f u n c t i o n o f newsmen i s t h a t i t has as i t s s t a r t i n g assumption the e x i s t e n c e o f a world of raw data which i s immediately t r a n s l a t a b l e i n t o news upon d i s c o v e r y by the f i r s t communicator. Gatekeeping t h e o r y i s s i m i l a r i n t h i s r e s p e c t to newsmens-' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r own a c t i v i t y because i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s o c i o l o g i c a l e l a b o r a t i o n o f how newsmen view t h e i r own work. Both s t r e s s the f u n c t i o n o f s e l e c t i o n o r r e j e c t i o n o f f a c t s which e x i s t '.'out t h e r e " by the r e p o r t e r * Newsworthy events §re t r e a t e d as phenomena which a r e a l r e a d y worked up^ o n l y to be d i s c o v e r e d by the r e p o r t e r 12 and communicated to the p u b l i c . This i m p l i e s t h a t f a c t s and events are c o n s t i t u t e d p r i o r to the newsmens-1 a c t i v i t y of w r i t i n g a s t o r y and r e c o g n i z i n g an "event" or a " f a c t " as such. This "raw m a t e r i a l " consists*, however, of some domain of events - people's t a l k , a c t i v i t i e s and documents produced i n r e l a t i o n to these - which do not comprise a l r e a d y formulated news s t o r i e s . To say t h a t a convergence or divergence of va l u e o r i e n t a t i o n s w i l l r e s u l t i n the i g n o r i n g or r e c o r d i n g o f t a l k and events i m p l i e s t h a t r e p o r t e r s p l a y a very p a s s i v e r o l e i n w r i t i n g a s t o r y ; however," t h i s bears l i t t l e resemblance to t h e i r a c t u a l "23 work. What i s "passed on" i s c o n s i d e r a b l y a l t e r e d from i t s o r i g i n a l form i n the t a l k of source people and i s simply not e x p l a i n e d by the n o t i o n of a gate. The second problem w i t h gatekeeping theory i s not u n r e l a t e d to the f i r s t ^ i . e . what i s the p o i n t of o r i g i n of a news message? In gatekeeping theory, i t i s assumed to be obvious who the f i r s t gatekeeper i s , where the "raw news" i s f e d i n t o the news channel, and where the news source o r i g i n a t e s . However", the p o i n t of o r i g i n o f a news source (the sender) as opposed t o a gatekeeper i s not so e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e : what i s c o n s i d e r e d a f a c t or an event depends g r e a t l y on a d e t e r m i n a t i o n which must be made from w i t h i n the news o r g a n i z a t i o n . What may 13 become newsworthy, f o r example, may be a statement t h a t i s i s s u e d or the a c t of i s s u i n g i t ; which i s newsworthy i s decided by the newsman. Th i s leads to the q u e s t i o n of what h i s r o l e r e a l l y i s , the f i r s t communicator of an event or the f i r s t gatekeeper? A simple i l l u s t r a t i o n v / i l l make the e q u i v o c a l i t y of the two r o l e s more e x p l i c i t . A statement was made by a u n i o n o f f i c i a l t h a t was p r i n t e d i n the S t a r previous to the r a t i f i c a t i o n o f a h i g h l y con-t r o v e r s i a l c o n t r a c t by 32,000 woodworkers. The s t o r y was h e a d l i n e d as f o l l o w s : IWA l e a d e r s C o n s i d e r i n g " T e r r i f i c " 12% O f f e r . Merely by the a d d i t i o n of q u o t a t i o n marks, what becomes newsworthy i s not the statement i t s e l f , but t h a t there i s reason to q u e s t i o n how " t e r r i f i c " the con-t r a c t r e a l l y was, and perhaps even the motives of the l e a d e r f o r c h a r a c t e r i z i n g i t as s uch.* What i s to be t r e a t e d as a f a c t or event i s not s e l f evident and r e q u i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l work i n determining p r e c i s e l y how and which o b j e c t of knowledge w i l l be newsworthy or f a c t . The opening of ones gate i s not c o n c e p t u a l l y adequate to asses t h i s p r o c e s s . The u n i o n o f f i c i a l i n v o l v e d complained to the e d i t o r t h a t the paper was becoming a p a r t y to the i s s u e of c o n t r a c t r a t i f i c a t i o n b3r changing the intended mean-i n g of h i s statement. One r e p o r t e r commented t h a t p u t t i n g quotes around " t e r r i f i c " suggested t h a t the u n i o n l e a d e r s h i p was t r y i n g to cram a n o t - s o - t e r r i f i c c o n t r a c t down the workers' t h r o a t s . 14 Hence, we have maintained t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l communications theory simply adds t h e o r e t i c a l s o p h i s t i c -a t i o n to the newsmens' views of t h e i r work, and that t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s inadequate f o r c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of news accounts. To e l u c i d a t e t h i s p r o c e s s , i t i s necessary t o c o n s i d e r the s o c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d context i n which a documented account i s produced. The r o u t i n e i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s and procedures f o r 'knowing' must be examined as a s o c i a l m ediation i n the g e n e r a t i o n of such accounts. E s p e c i a l l y important are those p r a c t i c e s which e s t a b l i s h the o b j e c t i v i t y of an account and t h e r e f o r e warrant i t s s t a t u s as " f a c t " . In t h i s study, we have gathered such i n f o r m a t i o n from.:30 hours of o b s e r v a t i o n s , from i n t e r v i e w s and l a b o u r s t o r i e s which appeared i n the " S t a r " and u n i o n newspapers over a f o u r month p e r i o d . The o b s e r v a t i o n s were made i n the newsroom of the major B r i t i s h Columbia d a i l y newspaper and a n a l y s i s i s done on the b a s i s of f i e l d n o t e s . Interview m a t e r i a l was gathered from-two groups: l ) the two l a b o u r r e p o r t e r s , the c i t y e d i t o r and o t h e r newsmen a t the " S t a r " ; 2) s e v e r a l l a b o u r l e a d e r s , workers and e d i t o r s and r e p o r t e r s f o r worker o r i e n t e d (union and underground) papers. The second group w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as the "union" r e p o r t e r s to d i s t i n g u i s h them from the "l a b o u r " r e p o r t e r s a t the " S t a r " . 15 3. B r i e f D e s c r i p t i o n of* the "Star" The " S t a r " i s a l e a d i n g newspaper i n Western Canada. There i s one other major d a i l y paper i n the c i t y which i s owned by the same co r p o r a t i o n as the "Star". The two newspapers are housed i n the same b u i l d i n g and use many of the same operating f a c i l i t i e s , such as p r i n t -i n g production equipment and a l i b r a r y of past news s t o r i e s . The Board of D i r e c t o r s of the c o r p o r a t i o n which owns the "St a r " appoints the p u b l i s h e r . The p u b l i s h e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the operation of the paper and has the f o l l o w i n g people d i r e c t l y under h i s d i r e c t i o n : A s s i s t a n t to the p u b l i s h e r , advertisement d i r e c t o r , c i r c u l a t i o n d i r e c t o r , promotions manager, e d i t o r i a l d i r e c t o r and managing d i r e c t o r . The paper r e c e i v e s revenues l a r g e l y from the s e l l i n g of advertisement space to companies and i n d i v i d u a l s , as w e l l as from customer s u b s c r i p t i o n , which exceeded 250',000 i n May of 1975. Formal D e c i s i o n Making and the labour Story News s t o r i e s are w r i t t e n i n the newsroom, where the managing e d i t o r and h i s a s s i s t a n t a l s o have t h e i r o f f i c e s . The managing e d i t o r supervises the production of news, and has the f o l l o w i n g e d i t o r s under h i s d i r e c t i o n : Finance, Sports", Photography, Features, l i v i n g Today, C i t y Nev/s, and News E d i t i n g . The E d i t o r i a l D i r e c t o r works 16 w i t h the Managing E d i t o r and h i s a s s i s t a n t , however", he i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e d i t o r i a l m a t e r i a l which appears i n the paper. A l l o f these e d i t o r s have one or more a s s i s t a n t s , a copy e d i t o r and r e p o r t e r s under t h e i r d i r e c t i o n . l a b o u r news r e p o r t i n g i s s u p e r v i s e d by the C i t y E d i t o r and h i s a s s i s t a n t s , as i s genera.! news on the l o c a l scene', e.g. coverage of p o l i t i c a l happenings', m e d i c a l news, e t c . The t y p i c a l c a r e e r of a s t o r y w r i t t e n by the two l a b o u r r e p o r t e r s f o l l o w s the same course o f any oth e r news s t o r y handled by the c i t y e d i t o r s . A s t o r y w i l l be turned i n t o the c i t y e d i t o r ( o r a t n i g h t , to the n i g h t a s s i s t a n t c i t y e d i t o r ) f o r an i n i t i a l a p p r a i s a l . I f i t r e q u i r e s no r e w r i t i n g , i t w i l l be passed on to the news e d i t o r who reads the s t o r i e s , stamps the page and e d i t i o n o f the paper i t w i l l appear', e.g. morning, a f t e r n o o n , evening, and s e t s a t e n t a t i v e s i z e allowance f o r the head-l i n e and the s t o r y . The s t o r y i s then passed to the Copy E d i t o r who give s i t a h e a d l i n e , f i n a l e d i t i n g and p o s s i b l e c u t t i n g o f p a r t o f the s t o r y . The News E d i t o r o r h i s a s s i s t a n t g i v e the f i n a l a p p r o v a l of a s t o r y b e f o r e i t i s sent t o the composing room to be s e t i n type. The C i t y E d i t o r may o v e r r u l e d e c i s i o n s made by the News E d i t o r a t t h i s p o i n t i n the proc e s s . The Managing E d i t o r has the f i n a l word on whether a s t o r y goes t o press o r n o t . 17 In a d d i t i o n t o these channels of d e c i s i o n making, a morning conference i s h e l d every day i n which i t i s determined what s t o r i e s w i l l he pl a c e d on the f r o n t page of the f i r s t and second p a r t s of the paper and any other s p e c i a l items a re d i s c u s s e d . The f o l l o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s a t t e n d t h i s meetings: the A s s i s t a n t Manag-i n g E d i t o r , the Hews E d i t o r , the A s s i s t a n t News E d i t o r , the A s s i s t a n t C i t y Editor', the Photography E d i t o r , the Wire E d i t o r , and the f i r s t and second p a r t f r o n t page e d i t o r s . Although most s t o r i e s are t r e a t e d i n the formal processes o u t l i n e d above, there a re v a r i a t i o n s on t h i s model"," depending on the circumstances. Two s p e c i a l c i r -cumstances were suggested hy the r e p o r t e r . One would i n v o l v e l a b o u r s t o r i e s phoned i n a t the l a s t minute. Such a s t o r y c o u l d be s u p e r v i s e d or w r i t t e n by the c i t y desk (the c i t y e d i t o r and h i s a s s i s t a n t s ) " , placed immediately by the News Editor", f o r example, on page one, and appear i n the next e d i t i o n to be p r i n t e d . Another example o f f e r e d would be important business stories", e.g., busi n e s s r e a c t i o n to the f e d e r a l budget", which'appears on page one. In such case, the f i n a n c e e d i t o r s would w r i t e the s t o r y as soon as the i n f o r m a t i o n was made a v a i l a b l e , and i t would go immediately to the Hews E d i t o r f o r f i n a l e d i t i n g . 18 On the l a b o u r beat, s t o r i e s w i l l f o l l o w the standard e d i t i n g and placement process, u n l e s s they are commonly produced by both r e p o r t e r s . In such cases, the n i g h t r e p o r t e r ' s s t o r i e s may be completed, e d i t e d or r e w r i t t e n by the day r e p o r t e r . The day r e p o r t e r has worked on the l a b o u r beat f o r seven years and i n f o r m a l l y d i r e c t s the n i g h t r e p o r t e r , who i s f a i r l y new to the job (he has worked l e s s than a year a t t h i s paper). However, normally"", both r e p o r t e r s submit t h e i r s t o r i e s t o the c i t y desk d i r e c t l y upon completion. In Chapter I we have argued t h a t the socia.l c ontexts i n which " f a c t u a l " accounts are produced s t r u c -t u r e s our knowledge of the world i n d e f i n i t e ways. In Chapters I I and I I F , we d i s c u s s the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of newswork at the " S t a r " which i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the p r o d u c t i o n of l a b o u r s t o r i e s from the o r i g i n a l events. Chapter I I i s an examination of those p r a c t i c e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g e n e r a t i n g "events" and " i s s u e s " i n t o news. In Chapter I I I we explore how o b j e c t i v i t y i s warranted i n the processes f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the f a c t u a l s t a t u s of a news account. Chapter IV c o n t a i n s c o n c l u d i n g remarks and summary. A sample of the f i e l d n o t e s i s l o c a t e d i n the appendix. 19 FOOTNOTES 1 For a discussion of the fundamental rol e of ideology i n modern c a p i t a l i s t society, see Dorothy E . Smith's "The Social Construction of Documentary, R e a l i t y " i n S o c i o l o g i c a l Inquiry*") Vol. 44', no. 4", 1974', P. 257-268.""" 2 Smith,' p. 258. 3 Boyte', Harry and Ackermah, Frank', "Revolution and Democracy",* i n S o c i a l i s t Revolution, p. 60", 1974. 4 Gramsci", Antonio, Letters from Prison', lynne lawner", translator", Harx>er~and Row", Publishers, New York", 1973", p. 42. 5 Smith, Dorothy E., "Women, The Family and Corporate Capitalism" published i n M. Stephenson, editor,.. Women i n Canada', Newpress, Toronto, 1973', p. 50. 6 Mueller, Glaus',' The P o l i t i c . i s of, Communication", Oxford"!, University Press,' New York, 1973, p. 88, footnote. 7 Mueller'," Clause, The P o l i t i c s of Communication", p. 88. 8 Smith,' p. 257 9 Smith",' p. 262". 10 Smith, p. 257. 11 Smith'";' p. 257'. 12 Smith1," Dorothy E.',' "The, Ideological:.Practice of .. Sociology" i n Catalyst'. Winter 1974', no. 8", p. 42. 13 Smith'," p. 41. 14 Fishmah, Mark,' "The Production of Media News: How Newsmen Create Social Facts" chapter,,!, unpublished d i s s e r t a t i o n Department of. Sociology", University of California", Santa Barbara", p. 2. 15 Smith',' "The Social Construction of Documentary Re a l i t y " . 16 Bowers'^ David R., "A Report on A c t i v i t y by Publishers i n Directing Newsroom Decisions"... Journalism Quarterly, 4 4 : 43-52, and Bagdikian, Ben H.', ^We ""Poll t i c s "of" American Newspapers". Columbian Journalism Rgview 10: 20 17 Breed", Warren, " S o c i a l C o n t r o l i n the Newsroom" Mass Communi cat ions', Wilber Schramm', e d i t o r , Univ-e r s i t y of Illinois'""'-Press, Urbana, 178-197. 18 Breed',' p. 182. 19 Sigelman, "Reporting the News: An Organizational., A n a l y s i s " American Journal of Sociology, V o l . 79", J u l y 1973;' 132-57. 20 Pishman, p. 3 21 Schramm', Gordon", "The Gatekeeper: a memorandum on Gatekeepers, and the Transmission of Information" i n Schramm'- op. c i t . " , p. 175. 22 Pishman,' pi 4. 23 Pishman, p. 5. 21 CHAPTER I I NEWS PRODUCTION AT THE "STAR" (A): GENERATING NEWS ACCOUNTS The " S t a r " r e p o r t e r s and e d i t o r s view t h e i r own work as t h a t o f "reporting"*, o f g a t h e r i n g the news o f the worl d and communicating i t i n as a c c u r a t e and unbiased manner as p o s s i b l e . T h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l commit-ment to r e p o r t i n g the f a c t s o b j e c t i v e l y assumes t h a t there e x i s t s an o b j e c t i v e l y present world"," which we a l l -1 experience i n more or l e s s the same ways. T h e i r p r o -cedures f o r r e p o r t i n g aim a t a communication which d i s -t o r t s as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e what e x i s t s p r i o r to t h e i r work o f l o c a t i n g and w r i t i n g up "the news". In do i n g so", newsmen adopt the " a t t i t u d e o f everyday l i f e " ' , The o b j e c t s of the everyday world axe taken to e x i s t independently o f the mode of i n q u i r y addressed to them. The approach to nev/s p r o d u c t i o n i n t h i s paper begins by suspending t h i s assumption.* News i s viewed * 'Notef -fr'or the purpose o f t h i s study, we do assume/the e x i s t e n c e o f an o b j e c t i v e l y present world," however", we are suspending the b e l i e f t h a t the ob j e c t s o f knowledge e x i s t as they are c o n s t r u c t e d i n the nev/s room. 22 i n s t e a d as a s o c i a l production", which depends on and i s a product o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l context i n which i t o r i g i n a t e s . This study attempts to show how the organ-i z a t i o n a l l y warranted mode of i n q u i r y a t the " S t a r " s e r v e s to mediate and hence s t r u c t u r e the r e l a t i o n between "what happens" i n the world and what i s r e p r e s e n t e d p u b l i c l y ( f o r anyone to read) as having happened i n the form o f "news". T h e r e f o r e , i n t h i s chapter we focus on those o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r news s t o r i e s from the o r i g i n a l events. P a r t i c u l a r l y , we are concerned w i t h those p r a c t i c e s which e s t a b l i s h the " o b j e c t i v i t y " of the news account and t h e r e f o r e warrant i t s s t a t u s as " f a c t " . In s t u d y i n g the methods used to c o n s t r u c t accounts i n the newsroom, i we a r e not attempting to p r o v i d e an a u t h o r i t a t i v e v e r s i o n of "what r e a l l y happened". Rather, t h i s i s an examination of the r o u t i n e o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s which c r e a t e one v e r s i o n o f r e a l i t y and not o t h e r s . NewsworthineBS i s not viewed as an event's o b j e c t i v e f e a t u r e s . Rather, news i s viewed as a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . I t i s t h e r e f o r e dependent on the proper o r g a n i z a t i o n a l methods f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the world i n t h a t s e t t i n g . That is", the o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v i d e s a s o c i a l context i n which events can be p e r c e i v e d and d e f i n e d as 2 3 having happened. This context i s pro v i d e d f o r i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s f o r c r e a t i n g " o b j e c t i v e " accounts. These r e c o n s t r u c t the v/orld i n t o " p u b l i c e v e n t s " which are d e f i n e d as meaningful and as s i g n e d s i g n i f i c a n c e i n 3 t h a t context. This d e f i n i t i o n o f news, however, i s determined i n d e f i n i t e ways by the goals f o r which the news o r g a n i z -a t i o n was o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d . ^ This i s t r u e because the methods used t o c o n s t r u c t news accounts are a pa r t o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s e f f o r t s t o a t t a i n i t s own i n s t i t u t i o n a l -i z e d p r i o r i t i e s . Thus, " p u b l i c events", i n the news, e x i s t due to the p r a c t i c a l purposes they serve f o r the 5 o r g a n i z a t i o n i t s e l f . The methods used t o c o n s t r u c t events are p a r t o f t h i s e n t e r p r i s e and so i s the f i n a l v e r s i o n o f the f a c t s . In the business press', the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f a c t s i n t o news i s pa r t o f a l a r g e r o p e r a t i o n , the go a l of v/hich i s to present the p u b l i c v/ith the nev/s f o r the purpose o f making a p r o f i t . The frame of r e f e r e n c e i n which "labour " as a categor y i s c o n s t r u c t e d a t the "Star" i s one v/hich p r e -serves t h i s l a t t e r purpose", i . e . , the ongoing f u n c t i o n i n g o f c a p i t a l i s t e n t e r p r i s e s . " O b j e c t i v e l y " r e p o r t i n g the news expresses t h i s s t r u c t u r e o f r e l e v a n c e i n the context o f l a b o u r r e p o r t i n g . 24 The p r a c t i c e of " o b j e c t i v e l y " r e p o r t i n g l a b o u r news c o n f r o n t s two problems which must be addressed i n the course of r e p o r t i n g and which are con-s e q u e n t i a l f o r the manner i n which news i s d e f i n e d . On the one hand, the processes which are r e p o r t e d are not m a t e r i a l events l e a v i n g m a t e r i a l "graces , r, l i k e o i l s p i l l s or t r a f f i c a c c i d e n t s . They are mostly o r g a n i z a t i o n a l processes i n v o l v i n g t a l k , t a l k about t a l k , and a c t i v i t i e s r e s u l t i n g from these, e.g. s t r i k e s . Hence, r e p o r t e r s 1 " m a t e r i a l " i s l a r g e l y t a l k about t a l k , or a c t i o n which has taken p l a c e i n t a l k . The r e s u l t of t h i s i s t h a t they f i n d themselves c o n f r o n t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s of r e a l i t y which must be worked up i n t o an a u t h o r i t a t i v e v e r s i o n o f "what must be a c t u a l l y happening". Furthermore, i t i s c o n f l i c t which i s t h e i r main s u b j e c t matter. Union and management are r e p r e s e n t e d as opposing s i d e s i n c o n t e n t i o n . Since r e p o r t e r s are committed to " o b j e c t i v e " r e p o r t i n g , they are presented w i t h the problem o f not " t a k i n g s i d e s " . They must a v o i d b i a s and becoming p a r t i e s to the c o n f l i c t . T o do so, you need a v e r s i o n of what i s a t i s s u e and what the " f a c t s " are on * The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ethos concerning the l a b o u r r e p o r t e r s 1 ' r e l a t i o n to the e d i t o r s as w e l l as to t h e i r own work i n v o l v e s two main t e n e t s : l ) the r e p o r t e r enjoys a s t a t u s of autonomy v i s - a - v i s the e d i t o r s i n terms o f e d i t o r i a l control", censorship', e t c . , 2) the r e p o r t e r i s committed to. n e u t r a l i t y , or " o b j e c t i v i t y " i n h i s r e p o r t i n g , i . e . , keeping ones o p i n i o n s out o f the s t o r y p r o v i d i n g both s i d e s of a c o n f l i c t , w i t h documented facts', i m p a r t i a l l y . 2 5 which both s i d e s w i l l be i n agreement (more or l e s s ) . The o v e r a l l problem becomes one of a r r i v i n g a t a consensual v e r s i o n o f "what a c t u a l l y happened" i n an i m p a r t i a l and warrantable manner. The r e p o r t e r s are a b l e to produce such a con-sensual v e r s i o n o f events by u s i n g the c o r r e c t o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s f o r c r e a t i n g " o b j e c t i v e " accounts. I n t h i s chapter, we w i l l examine these p r a c t i c e s i n the con-t e x t of the work of r e p o r t i n g . Ihe f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s w i l l d e a l w i t h t h i s p r o c e s s : (a) The scope of l a b o u r news; (b) D e f i n i n g the nev/s; (c) l o c a t i n g news; (d) W r i t i n g a s t o r y . By examining the scope of l a b o u r nev/s", we. w i l l see t h a t the p r a c t i c e s f o r c r e a t i n g " o b j e c t i v i t y " s y s t e m a t i c a l l y produce b i a s a t another l e v e l * , i . e . , the d e f i n i t i o n of v/hat i s l a b o u r news i s made from t h e y p e r s p e c t i v e of management. The p r a c t i c e s f o r d e f i n i n g and w r i t i n g news are s t r u c t u r e d by t h i s frame of r e f e r e n c e , "Further, s i n c e r e p o r t e r s do not have a normal "beat" to do i n v e s t i g a t i v e work", nev/s must be l o c a t e d from w i t h i n the nev/sroom and i s t h e r e f o r e c o n f i n e d t o v / r i t t e n or spoken i n f o r m a t i o n made a v a i l a b l e by those groups managing and a d m i n i s t e r i n g l a b o u r . This treatment o f labour c o n s t r u c t s a boundary on which can be known about " i t " by g e n e r a t i n g l a b o u r r e l a t e d "events" t h a t are meaning-f u l from a management p e r s p e c t i v e . The p r a c t i c e s which 2 6 p r o v i d e f o r t h i s s t r u c t u r i n g i n the d e f i n i t i o n of "news" are examined i n t h i s chapter. 1. The Scope of Labour News Both i n i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n and the way i t i s defined', l a b o u r i s t r e a t e d as i t becomes s i g n i f i c a n t to those groups managing and a d m i n i s t e r i n g i t i n t h i s context, i . e . b usiness owners and management groups', the courts", government agencies', o f f i c i a l s , e t c . The scope of the news i s p r i m a r i l y c o n f i n e d to the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s o f events as these p r e s e n t p r a c t i c a l problems to management: a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n stoppages or t h r e a t s t o . t h a t e f f e c t , the c o s t s of such occurrences to business and the consumer", n e g o t i a -t i o n s which settle'.'these problems and l e g a l d i s p u t e s between management and la b o u r i n v o l v i n g government agencies and f i g u r e s . Thus, we see l a b o u r as management must confront i t " , i n o f f i c i a l contexts and o f f i c i a l a c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h immediate c o n f l i c t s demanding p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n s f o r an i n d i v i d u a l or group of business e n t e r p r i s e s . Labour news", then, i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h c o n f l i c t " , and c o n f l i c t as i t can be seen from a management p e r s p e c t i v e , w i t h l a b o u r as the agent o f c o n f l i c t . l a b o u r i s d e f i n e d as d i s r u p t i v e i n the otherwise normal flow of "business as u s u a l ".^ This s t r u c t u r i n g o f the news r e s u l t s i n the 27 e x c l u s i o n o f c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s o f events and coverage of a l a r g e segment o f the work f o r c e not i n c l u d e d i n the d e f i n i t i o n o f la b o u r as u n i o n i z e d l a b o u r , i . e . , non-union n a t i v e and immigrant workers, p e n i t e n t i a r y workers, e t c . One uni o n l e a d e r suggested some of the c a t e g o r i e s o f events excluded from d i s c u s s i o n , e.g., the m a j o r i t y of s e t t l e -ments v/hich never go to s t r i k e , day-to-day p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s o f orga n i z e d l a b o u r such as working f o r the establishment o f s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , u n i o n involvement on p u b l i c boards, committees and m u n i c i p a l o f f i c e . Business does r e c e i v e such coverage i n i t s own s e c t i o n o f the paper from the p o i n t of view of i t s own representatives', i . e . , they are allowed t o speak as experts on b u s i n e s s concerns without the comment of l a b o u r . For example, Duncan-based Doman I n d u s t r i e s l t d . stock i s recommended as "an e x c e l l e n t v e h i c l e f o r c a p i t a l a p p r e c i a t i o n over the longer term" i n a review of the company by Pemberton S e c u r i t i e s l t d . Por 19,600, Madison Avenue o f f e r s a two-day course for. e i g h t i n how to de a l v/ith the nev/s media, and plans to be g i n o f f e r i n g a s i m i l a r program on how to a c t before a c o n g r e s s i o n a l committee. Space becomes a c o n s i d e r a t i o n when the s t o r y i s w r i t t e n up because of the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t lengthy, i n depth, s t o r i e s v / i l l be shortened. In p a r t t h i s i s due to 28 the f a c t t h a t l a b o u r has no s e c t i o n of i t s own i n the paper as do other areas o f i n t e r e s t , e.g., s p o r t s , suburbs, gardens, b u s i n e s s . For t h i s reason, l a b o u r s t o r i e s must be f i t t e d i n w i t h g e n e r a l news as i t appears throughout the paper. Because advertisements a r e l a i d out f i r s t , s t o r i e s on l a b o u r are o f t e n cut i n the l a y o u t room i n order to f i t where there i s room on a page. I n d i r e c t l y , t h i s i n f l u e n c e s a r e p o r t e r to keep i t b r i e f , as i n depth p o r t r a y a l s can r e s u l t i n unused work. T h i s s p a t i a l l i m i t a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t when one c o n s i d e r s the n e c e s s i t y of r e c o r d i n g the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s , the i n c l u s i o n of which l i m i t s the space l e f t over f o r "background" i n f o r m -ation", e.g., c o s t of l i v i n g i n c r e a s e s , company p r o f i t s , or the events which l e a d up to a happening t h a t i s t r e a t e d as news. , Examples o f the coverage l a b o u r would r e c e i v e i f i t were t r e a t e d i n a s i m i l a r manner to business can be found i n u n i o n papers. This might i n c l u d e d i s c u s s i o n s of working and l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , the e f f e c t s of i n f l a t i o n , p r o f i t s , unemployment, e t c . Such t o p i c s of d i s c u s s i o n do r e c e i v e r e g u l a r coverage i n u n i o n papers as the f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e : The Canadian labour Congress convention i s over and the. l a b o u r p o l i t i c i a n s have had t h e i r day ... What t h i s w i l l do i n terms of b u i l d i n g a s t r o n g e r , more m i l i t a n t and e f f e c t i v e l a b o u r movement i s v e r y d o u b t f u l to say the l e a s t . 29 I t ' s simple: w i l l the people of B.C. and the p r o v i n c e get a share o f the huge w i n d f a l l p r o f i t s from i n f l a t e d metal p r i c e s and the mining i n d u s t r y out o f t h e i r i r r e p l a c e a b l e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ? Such coverage is- a r o u t i n e matter i n u n i o n papers where events are d i s c u s s e d i n the context of the ongoing s t r u g g l e s and problems o f working people, e.g.", to o r g a n i z e , t o f i g h t f o r a decent standard o f l i v i n g , h e a l t h and s a f e t y on the job," a job producing economy, an end to harassment by management, speed ups', e t c . As well", the cost of l i v i n g and worker p r o d u c t i v i t y are c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s which r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n i n t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s of the u n d e r l y i n g r a t i o n a l e s f o r l a b o u r ' s a c t i o n s . C o n f l i c t s w i t h management are not viewed as " d i s r u p t i v e " but are t r e a t e d i n the context of the ongoing s t r u g g l e s Sf the l a b o u r movement f o r b e t t e r l i f e c o n d i t i o n s r a t h e r than by emphasizing t h e i r e f f e c t s on the ongoing p r o f i t a b i l i t y of b u s i n e s s or consumers. Vftien q uestioned on how newsworthy events are I d e n t i f i e d " , the two r e p o r t e r s do not c l a i m to r e p r e s e n t l a b o u r from the p e r s p e c t i v e of i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s . They provide two categories", r e s p e c t i v e l y , of events which can be i d e n t i f i e d as newsworthy: l ) those which a f f e c t i n d u s t r y and the public", e.g., s t r i k e s i n the major i n d u s t r i e s , p u b l i c s e r v i c e s ; 2) the unusual, the e x t r a -30 ordinary", e.g., s e t t l e m e n t s and s t r i k e s i n government i n d u s t r i e s , and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n p o l i c y and i d e a l i z e d people, e.g., o f f i c i a l s i n the p u b l i c eye. l a b o u r nev/s a t the " S t a r " predominantly focuses on the f i r s t c ategory of events, i . e . , coverage of l a b o u r ' s a c t i o n s v i s - a - v i s i n d u s t r y and the consumer. These s t o r i e s are t r e a t e d as unusual, extraordinary", u n i t a r y events. They are not seen as episodes i n a c o n t i n u i n g movement as they are i n u n i o n and "underground" papers. The way i n v/hich these events become t o p i c a l depends on the o r g a n i z a t i o n of work and i t s consequences f o r the c h a r a c t e r of what i s r e p o r t e d . 2. D e f i n i n g the Hews The d e f i n i t i o n of what i s "nev/s" i t s e l f i s not a matter of haA^ing things happen "out t h e r e " w i t h the r e p o r t e r s then d e s c r i b i n g them. Reporters and e d i t o r s work w i t h an understanding of what a news s t o r y i s l i k e and scan the w o r l d to l o c a t e what i s happening that can be worked up i n t o "news". Since r e p o r t e r s v/orking f o r the " S t a r " must have had previous experience v/orking f o r other b u s i n e s s nev/s papers, t h i s stock of knowledge, as w e l l as t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h what c o n s t i t u t e s a nev/sworthy s t o r y a t the " S t a r " , p r o v i d e s them wi t h the t y p i c a l i t y of those s t o r i e s to be covered, i . e . , d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g major i n d u s t r i e s , an inconvenience to the average c i t i z e n due to 31 a s t r i k e , f o r example. Some examples of a c t u a l s t o r y leads i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : More than 9,900 B.C. Telephone Company employees r e f u s e d to report f o r work today", f o r c i n g s u p e r v i s o r s to man the switchboards and s e v e r e l y . . c u r t a i l i n g r e p a i r s and i n s t a l l a t i o n s . M a cMillan Bl o e d e l ' s P a c i f i c sawmill i s s t i l l shut down. B i l l King a g a i n appeared as the f r i e n d and s u p p o r t e r of the trade unions Tuesday, but he warned them a g a i n s t s t a g i n g too many s t r i k e s . One way then i n which news i s d e f i n e d i s as g i v e n types of s t o r i e s t h a t appear i n the S t a r . How t o r e c o g n i z e what i s news i s by r e a d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e news s t o r i e s i n o r d e r to get the i d e a of what would be a p p r o p r i a t e i n the f u t u r e . As one r e p o r t e r commented", i t i s not newsworthy t h a t workers i n a p a r t i c u l a r company are underpaid", work under unsafe working c o n d i t i o n s , s u f f e r from i n f l a t i o n , e t c . , as such: t h e r e i s n o t h i n g '"new" and thus newsworthy about such a s t a t e of a f f a i r s . I t must f i t the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l n o t i o n of a "story 1* w i t h a proper context that can be seen t o be meaningful to those d e f i n i n g "News", e.g. a c t i o n taken and made a v a i l a b l e through the proper channels as r e c o g n i z e d by the news team. Not being a b l e or w i l l i n g t o cover a l l the news i n t h i s f a s h i o n r a i s e s questions about the competence of a 32 r e p o r t e r and h i s own commitment to r e p o r t i n g " o h j e c t i v e l y " on the l a b o u r scene. This was the case, a c c o r d i n g t o one of the r e p o r t e r s , o f a p r e v i o u s newsman who wrote on l a b o u r . He d i d not cover a l l of the t y p i c a l s t o r i e s expected of him and h i s work v/as c o n s i d e r e d inadequate by the e d i t o r s . Not o n l y was he c o n s i d e r e d to be " b i a s e d " (which w i l l be t r e a t e d below) by r e p o r t e r s and e d i t o r s a l i k e , but he v/as not " g e t t i n g the job done" because he v/rote about what he c o n s i d e r e d to be important s t r u g g l e s of the l a b o u r movement r a t h e r than c o v e r i n g those s t o r i e s deemed of immediate r e l e v a n c e by the e d i t o r s . How t h i s i s determined depends on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l procedures f o r l o c a t i n g news, g e t t i n g the " s i g n i f i c a n t " facts', and documenting these f a c t s so as to warrant the o b j e c t i v i t y of a nevm account. These p r a c t i c e s are s u b j e c t to g i v e n l i m i t a t i o n s v/hich the e d i t o r s p a r t i c i p a t e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g . In t h i s c o n nection, e d i t o r s may be viewed as "gatekeepers", but only i n the narrow sense. For the t y p i c a l ways of doing t h i n g s a t the " S t a r " a c c o r d w i t h what r e p o r t e r s r e c o g n i z e s as p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l i s t i c standards, e.g., " g e t t i n g i t f i r s t " , " o b j e c t i v e l y " r e p o r t -i n g , and are addressed by r e p o r t e r s and e d i t o r s a l i k e i n t h e i r attempts to p o r t r a y the news g i v e n the circumstances o f r e p o r t i n g a t the " S t a r " . 33 3 . L o c a t i n g ^ews How news i s d e f i n e d i s determined i n p a r t by the procedures f o r l o c a t i n g i t and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s on how these may be c a r r i e d out. Although r e p o r t e r s "scan the wo r l d " to l o c a t e what can be worked up i n t o news, most of t h i s scanning takes p l a c e i n the newsroom. This i s because o f the many l i m i t a t i o n s p l a c e d on the job of l a b o u r r e p o r t i n g a t the S t a r , i . e . , e x i g e n -c i e s o f time, space, requii-ed s t o r i e s and s t o r y content", which inean t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r work i s not done on the "beat", i . e . r e p o r t e r s don't go out and l o o k f o r news. For t h i s reason^ they a r e extremely dependent on w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s and what they can l e a r n from t a l k , both w i t h i n the newsroom and on the telephone. These r e s t r a i n t s are c o n s e q u e n t i a l f o r the ways i n which news i s l o c a t e d and f o r what gets d e f i n e d as news. In the broadest terms, the news o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s t r a i n s the r e p o r t e r s by the f a c t t h a t there a re l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s , i . e . , two l a b o u r r e p o r t e r s , f o r c o v e r i n g a l l the news deemed important. This may be compared, f o r example to the r e p o r t e r s who w r i t e f o r the business s e c t i o n where there a re f i v e . Covering " a l l the news" pla c e s such a demand on the two r e p o r t e r s that they are r a r e l y a b l e t o l e a v e the newsroom to i n v e s t i g a t e a p o s s i b l e " l e a d " . 34 L o c a t i n g nev/s then i s a process v/hich takes p l a c e i n the newsroom and depends on i n f o r m a t i o n v/hich i s made a v a i l a b l e i n t h a t context. A great p o r t i o n of t h e i r s t o r i e s are p r e -s e l e c t e d i n the sense t h a t the r e p o r t e r s are a b l e to r e c o g n i z e what i s t y p i c a l l y required", e.g., coverage of s t r i k e s i n the l a r g e s t l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s , d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g the government. Because the r e p o r t e r ' s time i s a t a. p r e -mium", these p r e - s e l e c t e d s t o r i e s must be covered b e f o r e a n y t h i n g e l s e . Under t h i s category would be i n c l u d e d any l o c a l s t o r i e s which are r e p o r t e d by the w i r e s e r v i c e s before the r e p o r t e r h i m s e l f had w r i t t e n the s t o r y . The e d i t o r s a l s o l i s t e n to a l o c a l r a d i o nev/s s t a t i o n t h a t broadcasts l a b o u r nev/s and many assignments o r i g i n a t e from t h i s source. The b u l k of t h e i r work c o n s i s t s of s t o r i e s of these kinds", and t h e r e i s pressure on the r e p o r t e r to a n t i c i p a t e v/hich these w i l l be as a "don't have f i l e " i s kept t o show him any s t o r i e s t h a t are missed. E d i t o r s and r e p o r t e r s a l s o l o c a t e nev/s i n v a r i o u s w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s on the l a b o u r scene d i s t r i b u t e d by u n i o n and management groups. These i n c l u d e employer summaries o f l a b o u r r e l a t e d news", u n i o n papers, press r e l e a s e s , government labour p u b l i c a t i o n s , inquest r e p o r t s , u n i o n and management communiques to o f f i c i a l a gencies 35 such as the Workmen's Compensation Board', e t c . The i n f o r m a t i o n made a v a i l a b l e from these sources do not c o n s t i t u t e a " s t o r y " i n the raw form. I t must f i r s t he s e l e c t e d by the e d i t o r s or r e p o r t e r s , "checked out", and w r i t t e n up i n t o a s t o r y . l o c a t i n g news may a l s o take p l a c e i n the course o f checking out a p o s s i b l e s t o r y . Thus", a source person may be a b l e t o provide the r e p o r t e r w i t h a " t i p " on a c u r r e n t happening or s o o n - t o - m a t e r i a l i z e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s which may q u a l i f y as a s t o r y . Whether a s t o r y t h a t has been l o c a t e d i s r e a l l y a s t o r y may be determined by the r e p o r t e r , through con-f e r r a l between the e d i t o r and r e p o r t e r , or through d i s -c u s s i o n w i t h a source person on the phone. In the case of an ongoing event which has r e c e i v e d day-to-day coverage', f o r example, a slowdown by the o p e r a t i n g engineers i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system, a l l t h a t may be r e q u i r e d t o know* the s t o r y i s one p i e c e of i n f o r m a t i o n , e.g., t h a t they d i d not vote to s t r i k e . In such a case", no c o n f e r r a l i s necessary w i t h the e d i t o r and the r e p o r t e r simply types up the s t o r y and submits i t to the e d i t o r . Other p o s s i b l e s t o r i e s may r e q u i r e d i s c u s s i o n t o decide i f a s t a t e of a f f a i r s i s newsworthy or not. In one such example", the r e p o r t e r s t a t e d that i f they don't st r i k e " , the " S t a r ' s " not i n t e r e s t e d ; however, t h i s s t o r y d i d become news because 36 the e d i t o r f e l t i t was important enough to r e p o r t on. Both of these types of s t o r i e s c e n t r e around the i s s u e of a s t r i k e and were e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d as news-worthy s t o r i e s by e i t h e r the r e p o r t e r or e d i t o r . In some cases, however, v/hat B. p o s s i b l e s t o r y i s a l l about may be more d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h and may r e q u i r e s e v e r a l phone c a l l s to determine what i s r e a l l y "happening". Por example, i n a case, i n v o l v i n g mine s a f e t y , the r e p o r t e r c o n s u l t e d the Workmen's Compensation Board, the company p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r , a u n i o n l e t t e r to the Workmen's Compensation Board*, a coroner's i n q u e s t r e p o r t and a union o f f i c i a l to determine what the s t o r y v/as a l l about. S e v e r a l judgements had to be made about matters of c o n t e n t i o n between the u n i o n and the company and these were a l l made over the phone and i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e - e d i t o r . T h i s example i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the process whereby the union's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f events i s "checked out" by the proper a u t h o r i t i e s and v a l i d a t e d before i t becomes news. When such v a l i d a t i o n i s not forthcoming, the r e p o r t e r l o o k s f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e s t o r y base to " e x p l a i n " l a b o u r ' s account', e.g.', one v/hich d i s c r e d i t s the a c t i o n s o f l a b o u r . The i s s u e of mines s a f e t y was f i r s t r e c o g n i z e d 3 7 as one from a u n i o n paper c a r r y i n g the h e a d l i n e "Murders" and a l e t t e r to the Workmen's Compensation Board c h a r g i n g the company w i t h i l l e g a l l y e x c l u d i n g the u n i o n from an a c c i d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the deaths of s e v e r a l miners. A c c o r d i n g t o the reporter", the u n i o n f e l t the company was i n t i m i d a t i n g miners i n t o working under dangerous c o n d i t i o n s i n o r d e r to i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n , i.e", to resume work on the t h r e a t o f l a y o f f when b l a s t i n g gas fumes were s t i l l i n the a i r (which the u n i o n claimed a r e d i f f i c u l t to d e t e c t ) . It. had been a l l e g e d t h a t s e y e r a l miners had been k i l l e d under these circumstances. The uni o n f e l t t h a t a "cover up" had been p e r p e t r a t e d by the company by d i s t o r t i n g the f a c t s t o the Workmen's Compensation Board. The union was a l s o com-p l a i n i n g about the subsequent d e n i a l o f pensions to the widows on the grounds t h a t f a c t o r s u n r e l a t e d to work were judged (on the b a s i s o f the company i n v e s t i g a t i o n ) to be p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the deaths. The union ha.d a l s o appealed to the mines m i n i s t e r to i n t e r v e n e but had been r e f u s e d any a i d by him. The company denied i n t i m i d a t i n g the workers", c l a i m i n g t h a t b l a s t i n g gas i s e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e and no one was pre s s u r e d to work when i t was prese n t . F u r t h e r , the company claimed they were w i t h i n t h e i r l e g a l r i g h t s i n c a r r y i n g out the a c c i d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n without the 38 a i d of the union", and that no "cover up" had o c c u r r e d . "Their i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f v/hat was r e a l l y going on v/as th a t the u n i o n v/as "muckraking" to b u i l d up i t s image and stave o f f j u r i s d i c t i o n a l fights', and v/as t r y i n g to drum up a campaign to unseat the c u r r e n t mines m i n i s t e r . The l o c a t i o n o f the a c t u a l s t o r y v/as the r e s u l t of t a l k i n g to s e v e r a l sources on the phone and d e c i d i n g v/hat v/as the i s s u e i n l i g h t o f the i n f o r m a t i o n gathered. This case demonstrates how the r e p o r t e r i s l i m i t e d i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i v e a b i l i t i e s . He c o n s u l t e d the Workmen's Compensation Board and was g i v e n the o p i n i o n t h a t the u n i o n was not l e g a l l y g i v e n the '"right to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c c i d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The coroner's inquest r e p o r t v/as a l s o c o n s u l t e d and i t i n d i c a t e d t h a t v/ork r e l a t e d f a c t o r s were not p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the deaths of the miners. The r e p o r t e r s t a t e d that v/hat v/as r e a l l y a t i s s u e v/as a case of " o v e r k i l l " by the u n i o n and t h a t he d i d n ' t know why they o v e r r e a c t e d as they d i d . His s t o r y i n a " n u t s h e l l " was th a t the Workmen's Compensation Board turne d down the request ( f o r p r o s e c u t i o n o f the company)', as the r e g u l a -t i o n s d i d n ' t c l e a r l y a l l o w u n i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c c i d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . The f i n a l s t o r y s t a t e d that the union was t r y i n g to unseat the c u r r e n t mines m i n i s t e r over t h i s a f f a i r 39 and d i s c u s s e d the d e t a i l s o f the i n q u e s t v e r d i c t s . These 'were d i s c u s s e d i n the course of the s t o r y i n terras o f whether or not the deaths were c l e a r cut e n o u g h - l e g a l l y to warrant compensation should these cases by brought to c o u r t . The i s s u e of mine s a f e t y and company i n t i m i d a t i o n to i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n and "cover up" were not r e p r e s e n t e d i n the f i n a l v e r s i o n o f the nev/s. Rather, these concerns were i n t e r p r e t e d i n l i g h t o f what the r e p o r t e r r e p r e s e n t e d as the l a r g e r i s s u e i n v o l v i n g the union's " r e a l " m o t i v a t i o n f o r making a l o t out of the mine s a f e t y problem, or as the r e p o r t e r put i t , a case of " o v e r k i l l " by the Steelworkers. This i l l u s t r a t e s the process by v/hich an a c t u a l s t o r y i s l o c a t e d i n the process of i n v e s t i g a t i n g i t . The r e p o r t e r does not go out and i n v e s t i g a t e v/hat was happening, e.g., whether or not b l a s t i n g gas i s e a s i l y d i s c e r n a b l e , or whether the miners f e l t so.or n o t . Rather, he works from w i t h i n the nev/s paper o f f i c e and r e l i e s on v/hat c o u l d be l e a r n e d from t a l k . F u r t h e r , due to the paper's concern v/ith v/hat can be s a i d to be so l e g a l l y , and to t h e i r f a i t h i n the l e g i t i m a c y of the a p p r o p r i a t e agencies concerned, e.g., the c o u r t s , the inq u e s t jury", the Workmen's Compen-s a t i o n Board", the s t o r y v/as d e f i n e d on the b a s i s o f docu-mented evidence to determine "what a c t u a l l y happened" i n l i g h t of (what came to be seen as) the union's p o l i t i c a l 40 purposes. In l o c a t i n g and d e f i n i n g news, r e p o r t e r s a r e dependent on w r i t t e n and v e r b a l communication w i t h the coimnurtitjr of r e l i a b l e sources to d e f i n e what i s news and what i s not. They do not n o r m a l l y go i n t o the f i e l d to do an on the spot i n v e s t i g a t i o n of, say, working c o n d i t i o n s i n the mines. The union makes a c l a i m "Murder!" The means used to t e s t t h i s c l a i m do not i n v o l v e f u r t h e r i n q u i r y i n t o the background s i t u a t i o n . They i n v o l v e r e f e r e n c e to v a r i o u s " a u t h o r i t i e s " who warrant the f a c t u a l s t a t u s of a v e r s i o n o f "what happened". The union's c l a i m to p a r t i c i p a t e i n 7 i t s d e f i n i t i o n was s p e c i f i c a l l y r u l e d out. News about l a b o u r i s then d e f i n e d as i t becomes meaningful t o those groups managing and a d m i n i s t e r i n g i t , e.g., company p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and o f f i c i a l s , the Workmen's Compensation Board, the coroner's o f f i c e . These channels are used to determine i f a s t o r y can be w r i t t e n and what can be s a i d to be t r u e . An ongoing con-d i t i o n , e.g., hazardous mine c o n d i t i o n s , company i n t i m i d -ation', o n l y becomes t o p i c a l as management and government must c o n f r o n t i t , i.e', i n o f f i c i a l contexts r e l a t i n g t o o f f i c i a l a c t i o n s . By t r e a t i n g the o r i g i n a l change o f "Murders'!" i n t h i s way, the i n v e s t i g a t o r y procedures which are intended to e s t a b l i s h "what r e a l l y happened" produce 41 an account which d i s c r e d i t s ' the union v e r s i o n because i t l a c k s o f f i c i a l documentation. These i n v e s t i g a t o r y and i n t e r p r e t i v e procedures a l l o w f o r the concerns of l a b o u r t o be separated from t h e i r ongoing s t r u g g l e f o r g r e a t e r c o n t r o l i n the workplace, b e t t e r l i v i n g and working conditions', e t c . , and p l a c e d i n the context of "labour" as management c o n f r o n t s i t , i.e', i n the c o u r t s , i n n e g o t i a t i o n s , e t c . 4. W r i t i n g a S t o r y Nev/s i s a l s o d e f i n e d i n the process of w r i t i n g a s t o r y and i n c l u d i n g a l l o f the " s i g n i f i c a n t " f a c t s . As p o i n t e d out above', the emphasis on documentating the f a c t s o f the matter a t hand s u b s t i t u t e s f o r a c t u a l l y g o ing out on the beat to i n v e s t i g a t e v/hat c o u l d p o s s i b l e be c o n s i d -ered a s t o r y . Gathering the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d to w r i t e up a nev/s s t o r y i n cases of c o n f l i c t between union and management a l s o i n v o l v e s v e r b a l r e p o r t s , comments, e t c . , r a t h e r than going out on the "beat" to i n v e s t i g a t e . Once a r e p o r t e r has decided to r e p o r t on a given s i t u a t i o n ' , much of h i s time w i l l be spent t e l e p h o n i n g sources t o c o l l e c t the " s i g n i f i c a n t " f a c t s surrounding the immediate c o n f l i c t . One o f the r e p o r t e r s e x p l a i n e d the type of 42 i n f o r m a t i o n v/hich c o n s t i t u t e s the " f a c t s " v/hich anyone can agree on and v/hich should he i n c l u d e d i n the normal s t o r y : l ) who walked o f f the job and where; 2.) whether . a s t r i k e vote was taken and v/hat was the v o t e ; 3 ) how i s the p u b l i c a f f e c t e d , e.g., i f c i v i c workers are i n v o l v e d , v/hat v/as the e f f e c t on the c i t y , and i f i n d u s t -r i a l workers a r e i n v o l v e d , the e f f e c t s on i n d u s t r y ; 4) the number of workers i n v o l v e d ; 5 ) the s t a t u s of nego-t i a t i o n s ; 6) the wage demands and o f f e r s ; 7 ) the base wage and the e x p i r a t i o n ' d a t e of the l a s t c o n t r a c t . "Following a l l of these d e t a i l s i f space a l l o w s , a b r i e f comment from u n i o n and management o f f i c i a l s w i l l then be i n c l u d e d . In approaching an event i n t h i s way, the r e p o r t e r h i m s e l f performs the f u n c t i o n of "gatekeeper" by s o l i c i t i n g o n l y c e r t a i n kinds of i n f o r m a t i o n from h i s sources, The i n f o r m a t i o n gathered i s o r i e n t e d to producing a news s t o r y which conforms to a t y p i c a l format d i s c u s s e d a,bove. This format imposes a s t r u c t u r i n g procedure on the work of i n v e s t i g a t i n g what a c o n f l i c t i s a l l about. This i s e v i d e n t i n the questions a r e p o r t e r asks over the t e l e -phone. Here i s a r e p o r t of the r e p o r t e r ' s end of a t e l e -phone c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a u n i o n o f f i c i a l about a d i s p u t e between the u n i o n and the h o s p i t a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n : 43 H e l l o . This i n v o l v e s the o p e r a t i n g engineers? Any movement hy the h o s p i t a l toward your demand? The h o s p i t a l has n o t h i n g to l o s e hy goi n g t o a r b i t r a t i o n . Was the h o s p i t a l f u l l when you s t a r t e d ? 24 hour round the c l o c k study s e s s i o n s ? How many p a t i e n t s now? Bat they're s t i l l t r y i n g t o keep t h i n g s going w i t h the s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f ? : What k i n d o f p u b l i c r e a c t i o n has there been? : Is t h i s the f i r s t time t h e r e ' s been a withdrawal of s e r v i c e s ? : No con t a c t w i t h the government? : Has the h o s p i t a l a p p l i e d f o r a labour a r b i t r a t o r ? : The h o s p i t a l i s s o r t of a hotbed', no? : You don't t h i n k the h o s p i t a l can con-t i n u e to operate much l o n g e r ? : How are the t r u s t e e ' s t a k i n g t h i s whole t h i n g ? : Who i s p r e p a r i n g the meals? These questions f o l l o w the g e n e r a l schema d e s c r i b e d above. They have the e f f e c t o f s t r u c t u r i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n i n i t s terms. What i s e l i c i t e d i s programmed by the r e p o r t e r and what becomes the "facts'' have been shaped up-.in t h i s 44 p r o c e s s . The above i n t e r v i e w procedure i n v o l v e d the j u d i c i o u s s t r u c t u r i n g of the kin d s of information-s o l i c i t e d from the uni o n l e a d e r , i.e.", who walked o f f the job", the s t a t u s of n e g o t i a t i o n s , how was the p u b l i c a f f e c t e d , the number of v/orkers i n v o l v e d , the s t a t u s o f the c o n t r a c t , e t c . The i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d was then " f i t " i n t o an account of events i n the ways t h a t " l a b o u r ' s " a c t i o n s presented p r a c t i c a l problems t o management, i . e . v i a a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n stoppages or ( f u r t h e r ) t h r e a t s t h e r e o f , c o s t s to busi n e s s and consumers, n e g o t i a t i o n s t o s e t t l e these problems, and l e g a l d i s p u t e s between manage-ment and la b o u r i n v o l v i n g government f i g u r e s . Interview procedures then c o n s t r u c t the "event" i n the i n f o r m a t i o n s o l i c i t e d from l a b o u r . C o n f l i c t i s made s i g n i f i c a n t as i t r e l a t e s t o the c a t e g o r i e s o f events which present p r a c t i c a l problems to management, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and government o f f i c i a l s . The s t o r y t h a t was w r i t t e n from t h i s i n t e r v i e w shared one of the most common s t r u c t u r i n g f e a t u r e s of "S t a r " s t o r i e s . C o n f l i c t i s rep r e s e n t e d as the outcome of workers-' a c t i o n s . The l e a d sentence reas as f o l l o w s : •Another 20 p a t i e n t s w i l l be sent home today as Kelowna General H o s p i t a l cuts down i t s s e r v i c e s because of a h o s p i t a l workers' walkout.. ' 45 The s t o r y then went on to d e t a i l the e f f e c t s o f the "walkout" on p a t i e n t care, i . e . , what s e r v i c e s had been cut, who was t a k i n g over f o r the workers, who was sent home, which job c a t e g o r i e s were a f f e c t e d , e t c . A f t e r a l l of these d e t a i l s had been l a i d out, the u n i o n spokesperson's r e p l y was presented. His view of what was "happening" was t h a t the h o s p i t a l had f a i l e d to l i v e up to the terms of a p r e v i s o u l y n e g o t i a t e d agreement. The d e t a i l s o f t h i s a l l e g e d f a i l u r e , why i t was so viev/ed, the consequences viewed to have o c c u r r e d from i t , i . e . , l a b o u r ' s view o f management's a c t i o n s and the r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e i r own were not e x p l a i n e d . What w'as s o l i c i t e d from the union o f f i c i a l was h i s view t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was r e s p o n s i b l e both f o r sending people home and f o r r e f u s i n g the union's o f f e r to ensure t h a t minimum d i e t a r y requirements be pr o v i d e d to the p a t i e n t s . This a l s o was a r e p l y t o who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what had "happened", however, t h i s r e p l y was i n r e l a t i o n to "what a c t u a l l y happened" as i t was c o n s t r u c t e d i n the s t o r y , i . e . , p a t i e n t s w i l l be sent home ... because the workers walked out. His r e p l y was j u s t t h a t , a r e p l y to t h i s problem and one which never addressed the c o n f l i c t as i t was o r i g i n a l l y d e f i n e d by the o f f i c i a l h i m s e l f . The l e a d sentence o f the next day's s t o r y on t h i s s i t u a t i o n 46 reproduced the i n i t i a l s t r u c t u r i n g o f the event o n l y i n t h i s case, i t r e t a i n e d the i d e n t i f i e r of whose p o i n t of view the s t o r y was being t o l d from: The walkout by h o s p i t a l employees co u l d l e a d to some deaths among a.cute care p a t i e n t s who a,re now being discharged e a r l y from Kelowna General, a h o s p i t a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r charges. T y p i c a l l y , however, no r e f e r e n c e i s made to whose p o i n t o f view i s b e i n g expressed i n statements of f a c t v/hich a t t r i b u t e the assumed s i g n i f i c a n c e of a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s t o workers' a c t i o n s (see examples, p, -31). The l i m i t s on i n v e s t i g a t i o n o u t s i d e the news-room a f f e c t the r e p o r t e r ' s a b i l i t y to organize a s t o r y from a p e r s p e c t i v e which would not c o i n c i d e w i t h the s t a n d a r d approach to c o n f l i c t . This i s t r u e both because of the time r e q u i r e d to gather "background" i n f o r m a t i o n and the l a c k of access to i n f o r m a t i o n which the e d i t o r does not have to s u b s t a n t i a t e an a l t e r n a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . • The time c o n s t r a i n t v/hich keeps the r e p o r t e r s busy i n the newsroom a l s o decreases the a b i l i t y , to do independent r e s e a r c h and development of a s t o r y , The r e p o r t e r i s t h e r e f o r e l e s s a b l e to do i n v e s t i g a t i v e work on the h i s t o r y o f an i s s u e or on the a c t u a l work c o n d i t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n a.ny i s s u e i n v o l v i n g l a b o u r and management. This c o n s t r a i n t was evidenced, a c c o r d i n g to the r e p o r t e r , 4 7 i n a s t o r y c o v e r i n g the f i r i n g o f s e v e r a l female o f f i c e workers', which would not have o c c u r r e d had they been or g a n i z e d i n t o a u n i o n . Because t h i s was one of the few s t o r i e s which he was a b l e to spend more time on, i . e . , i t d i d not need t o be handed i n immediately, he was a b l e t o " a n g l e " the s t o r y around the need f o r o r g a n i z -a t i o n i n c l e r i c a l work, This story", he p o i n t e d out, was covered by the c i t y ' s other major d a i l y paper, which has on l y one l a b o u r r e p o r t e r , and was t r e a t e d i n the more standard way t h a t s t o r i e s i n the "S t a r " u s u a l l y are", i . e . , who, what, when, where and how the event o c c u r r e d , The r e s u l t i n g " f a c t s " e x h i b i t two d i s t i n c t i v e o r g a n i z i n g f e a t u r e s . One of these s t r u c t u r e s the focus o f d i s c u s s i o n , i . e . , whose motives, a c t i o n s , etc.", are under s c r u t i n y . Here a g a i n , not o n l y are workers' a c t i o n s a s s i g n e d c a u s a l e f f i c a c y f o r the event, but t h e i r a c t i o n s are the t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n v i s - a - v i s the costs to i n d u s t r y and the consumer. A t t r i b u t i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of an event to l a b o u r ' s a c t i o n s as the focus o f d i s c u s s i o n i s the normal manner of p r e s e n t i n g l a b o u r i n the news and shares a common f e a t u r e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y prepared c l i n i c a l r e p o r t s and case records t. In both, events are c o n s t r u c t e d so that a l l major items of i n f o r m a t i o n appear as p r e d i c a t e s o'f the i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t of the r e p o r t . This provides f o r "what 48 i s happening" as the problem of the s u b j e c t and i s a s s i g n e d to i t as h i s or her problem. This may be compared t o the way i n v/hich a u n i o n paper c o n s t r u c t s a s t o r y when d i s c u s s i n g the c o n f l i c t . For example, i n the f o l l o w i n g l e a d sentence, the c o n f l i c t a t hand i s one t h a t Is a t t r i b u t e d to management's unaccept-able o f f e r , a t t i t u d e s , e t c . : The l a t e s t i n d u s t r y o f f e r r e v i s i n g t r a d e s -mens' r a t e s i s unacceptable ... ™he arr o g a n t manner of the employers, throwing dov/n the g a u n t l e t , s t a t i n g that t h e i r o f f e r i s f i n a l and t h a t there w i l l be no f u r t h e r n e g o t i a t i o n s i s even more unaccept-a b l e t o the Union than the wage o f f e r i t s e l f ; or the l e a d of an underground paper's s t o r y : Behind c l o s e d doors: how B i l l K i n g b l a c k -mailed the woodworkers. In both of these i n s t a n c e s , the same s t r u c t u r i n g device t h a t a p p l i e s to l a b o u r i n the business press i s a p p l i e d to management and government o f f i c i a l s . The i s s u e to be addressed r e v o l v e s around the consequences of t h e i r actions', t h e i r " r e a l " m o t i v a t i o n s , e t c . Secondly, when la b o u r ' s a c t i o n s are d e s c r i b e d i n the " S t a r " , the temporal sequence o f t h e i r s i t u a t i o n i s broken up and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r a c t i o n s to business i s i s o l a t e d as an event. Such a p r a c t i c e can be seen as a " c u t t i n g down" procedure v/hich removes an event 49 from the context i n which i t beomces meaningful to the a c t o r s b e i n g d e s c r i b e d , e.g., t h e i r p r eceding a c t i o n s , the socio-economic c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e i r l i v e s , etc.~*"<~) By merely s t a t i n g the event as a f a c t , the s t o r y i s g i v e n an e p i s o d i c structure." 1"' 1' I t s apparent c o n t e x t l e s s n e s s i s a s t r u c t u r e which suggests t h a t the event has been made a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l to see and agree upon', t h a t is', • 12 i t i s worked up so as t o i n t e n d i t s own d e s c r i p t i o n . As w e l l , the c o n t r o v e r s i a l c h a r a c t e r of a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i s n e u t r a l i z e d i n these matter o f f a c t p o r t r a y a l s . What an event i s a l l about from the p o i n t of view of the p a r t -i c i p a n t s can then be s t a t e d i n a manner o f i m p a r t i a l i t y which conceals what i s problematic about t h a t event. For example, "the arro g a n t manner o f the employers" i n p r e s e n t i n g an "unacceptable o f f e r " becomes p a r t o f a supposedly n e u t r a l e x p l a n a t i o n that " n e g o t i a t i o n s broke down". The s t r u c t u r i n g procedures i n v o l v e d i n f a c t u a l news accounts °£ l a b o u r are c o n s e q u e n t i a l i n the sense t h a t the account becomes an i n s t r u c t i o n on how the p u b l i c i s to view an event. I t i s B. t e a c h i n g on the assumed s i g n i f -icance', and consequences to a l l concerned o f the event a t hand. When the " f a c t s of the matter" are s t a t e d as so much p r o d u c t i o n i s lost", so many s e r v i c e s are u n a v a i l a b l e 50 to the p u b l i c , the i m p l i c a t i o n s i s t h e r e t h a t the reader i s to be i n t e r e s t e d i n a g i v e n event as would a consumer, or someone concerned w i t h the ongoing p r o f i t a b i l i t y of p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e , i.e", t h a t he or she i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the problem as i t has been d e f i n e d , The temporal organ-i z ^ t i o n of a s t o r y and the s e l e c t i o n of f a c t s to be i n c l u d e d p r o v i d e s a coherence to v/hat i s being t a l k e d about. The standard format of these s t o r i e s , e.g, the d e t a i l s o f the immediate a c t i o n s o f workers, costs to b u s i n e s s , comments from both s i d e s , s i g n a l the e p i s o d i c c h a r a c t e r of v/hat i s being d i s c u s s e d and r e f e r back to t h i s same i s s u e of "what a c t u a l l y happened". The manner i n v/hich l a b o u r nev/s i s d e f i n e d a t the " S t a r " depends on the t y p i c a l i t y of s t o r i e s that are news, the proper manner of l o c a t i n g a s t o r y and the s t r u c t u r i n g procedures i m p l i c i t i n g a t h e r i n g the " f a c t s " and o r g a n i z i n g them i n t o a s t o r y format. These s o c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d p r a c t i c e s s t r u c t u r e "what r e a l l y happens" i n the world from w i t h i n an i n t e r p r e t i v e framework v/hich takes the p e r s p e c t i v e of ma-nagement. The scope of "events" i s l i m i t e d by these procedures to a category of events v/hich focus on c o n f l i c t 51 between l a b o u r and management, and express a management p e r s p e c t i v e of t h i s c o n f l i c t , w i t h l a b o u r as the c a s u a l agent. The l i m i t a t i o n s on r e p o r t e r s i n terms of time to cover the necessary s t o r i e s , space i n the paper to accommodate e x p l a n a t i o n s o f events, and i n v e s t i g a t i v e freedom t o go out on the "beat" m i l i t a t e s a g a i n s t the treatment of l a b o u r from a p e r s p e c t i v e which would more c l e a r l y approximate i t s own. Once an event as news i s so de f i n e d , i t s s t a t u s as an " o b j e c t i v e " account i s ac h i e v e d i n the p r a c t i c e s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s f a c t i c i t y . In the next chapter, we w i l l examine how the f a c t u a l s t a t u s of an account i s warranted a t the "S t a r " . 52 FOOTNOTES 1 This explanation of mundane reasoning i s found i n "Mundane Reasoning" by Polner, Melvin, an tinpublished paper, Jan. 1973, University of California', L 0s Angeles. « 2 Heap, James L. and Roth", P h i l l i p A., "On Phenomen-ol o g i c a l Sociology" American Sociological Review, 1973, v o l . 38, J u n e , p. 354-367. ~~" 3 Molotch, Harvey and Lester, Marilyn, "News as Purpose-', f u l Behaviour: On the Strategic Use of Routine Events", Accidents and Scandals" American Soc i o l o g i c a l Review", v o l . 39, p. 101-112, Feb. 1974. 4 Smith, p. 266'. 5 Molotch, and l e s t e r , p. 112. 6 For a discussion of 'disruptive access' to media coverage afforded dissenting groups as a means of restoring order see Molotch and Lester "Nev/s as Purposeful Behaviour: On the Strategic Use of Accidents, Scandals and Routines". 7 Zimmerman describes the same procedure as i t i s applied to the prospective welfare recipient's claim of e l i g i b i l i t y : while the subject's account of h i s own-circumstances i s met with a thoroughgoing skepticism, an equally assured attidue i s taken by the intake workers towards the assumed f a c t u a l i t y of documented accounts or i g i n a t i n g from various public and private a u t h o r i t i e s . See Zimmerman, Don, "Fact as a P r a c t i c a l Accomplishment" i n Ethnomethodology, Roy Turner, ;, editor, Penguin Books Canada -^td., ^arkham, Ontario', 1974, p. 128-143. 8 Breed, Warren, "Socia.1 Control i n the Newsroom: A Functional Analysis", Social ^orces, 33, May 1955, p. 326-335. 9 Smith,' p. 262. 10 S m i t h ? D.E., "K i s Mentally 111: The A n a t o m y of a Factual Account" i n J. Atkinson and J. Coulter, ed., Ethnographies". Martin Robertson, London, 1975', p. 23. 11 Smith.',' p. 259. 12 Smith, p. 259. 54 CHAPTER I I I NEWS PRODUCTION AT THE STAR ( B ) : ESTABLISHING THE FACTICITY OF AN ACCOUNT In the p r e v i o u s . c h a p t e r , we have attempted t o i l l u s t r a t e the process i n which the phantasmagoria of events surrounding "labour" are worked up i n t o a d e f i n -i t i v e statement of the news. Reporting news " o b j e c t i v e l y " begins w i t h the r o u t i n e p r a c t i c e s f o r g e t t i n g the " f a c t s " and o r g a n i z i n g them i n t o events which are d e f i n a b l e as news. For a s t o r y to a c t u a l l y achieve f a c t u a l s t a t u s , f u r t h e r procedures must be f o l l o w e d i n order to warrant the o b j e c t i v i t y of the account. The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f newswork f o r documenting the " f a c t s " p l a c e s the r e p o r t e r i n a determinate r e l a t i o n to the o b j e c t of h i s \rork, and imposes a s t r u c t u r e of re l e v a n c e on the ways i n which " o b j e c t i v i t y " can be ac h i e v e d i n the news. This i s the product of the o r d i n a r y p r a c t i c e s which s t r u c t u r e the conceptions and means of 55 d e s c r i p t i o n a v a i l a b l e to the r e p o r t e r i n c o n s t r u c t i n g news accounts. These p r a c t i c e s are determining" f o r what can be --conceived as news, f a c t s , events, and i s s u e s . Tuchman provides the n o t i o n o f " t r a n s p e r s o n a l r e p l i c a b i l i t y " to d e s c r i b e o p e r a t i o n a l l y the - processes whereby " o b j e c t i v i t y " i s a c h i e v e d i n newswork. In these terms, o b j e c t i v i t y i s seen as a t e c h n i c a l f o u t i n i z a t i o n which depends on a c o d i f i c a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h procedures 1 which a r e employed by newsmen. These procedures provide a determinate framework f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the world and are observed as t e c h n i c a l matters i n the p r o d u c t i o n of f a c t u a l accounts. As we have attempted to show, such pro-cedures a t the " S t a r " i m p l i c i t l y serve to a r t i c u l a t e the purposes f o r which an o r g a n i z a t i o n e x i s t s from the p e r s -p e c t i v e of those groups r u l i n g , managing and a d m i n i s t e r i n g i t . Because of these s i t u a t i o n a l e x i g e n c i e s , e s t a b l i s h i n g " f a c t i c i t y " (the f a c t u a l s t a t u s of a s t o r y ) i s a l s o a procedure by which "what a c t u a l l y happened" i s c o n s t i t u t e d i n the process of c o n s t r u c t i n g an account of " i t " . The f a c t u a l s t a t u s of a l a b o u r s t o r y i s achieved i n the same procedures of d e f i n i n g , l o c a t i n g , and develop-i n g an account. There are f o u r primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n the c r e a t i o n of an " o b j e c t i v e " account which guarantee i t s f a c t u a l s t a t u s : l ) the use of proper sources 56 to a u t h o r i z e an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as "fact"'; 2) the appeal to an " o b j e c t i v e " standard of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; 3) the s e p a r a t i o n of the r e p o r t e r from a s t o r y by e x c l u d i n g h i s o p i n i o n s ; and 4) the p r o d u c t i o n of " f a c t s " through consensus. 1. The Use of R e l i a b l e Sources to A u t h o r i z e an Account Since much of a r e p o r t e r ' s work i n v o l v e s coor-d i n a t i n g c o n f l i c t i n g v e r s i o n s of r e a l i t y , he attempts to p o r t r a y both s i d e s of a c o n f l i c t as o b j e c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to what can be seen as the " f a c t s o f the matter". The use of " r e l i a b l e " sources i s an o p e r a t i o n a l procedure used by the r e p o r t e r f o r determining t h a t domain of events which have a s t a t u s i n the w o r l d independent from h i s own judgments, d e s i r e d outcomes, e t c . In addition, to o f f i c i a l u nion and management l e a d e r s , people who q u a l i f y as " r e l i a b l e " sources i n c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from l e g i t i m a t e government bod i e s , e.'g., the c o u r t s , the Workmen's Compensation Board, the l a b o u r M i n i s t e r , and o f f i c i a l n e g o t i a t o r s . These people a i d the r e p o r t e r i n d e c i d i n g what can be s a i d about a case where u n i o n and management di s a g r e e on the f a c t s and i n t h i s way a u t h o r i z e the f i n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n used to organize a news s t o r y . 57 In the ( e a r l i e r mentioned) case o f the s t r i k i n g h o s p i t a l workers, the "'facts" were determined by d i s c o v e r i n g those events which both s i d e s c o u l d agree upon, i . e . , the workers' a c t i o n s , the immediate conse-quences of a c o n f l i c t , e t c . However, w h i l e these admin-i s t r a t i v e p a r t i c u l a r s speak to the i s s u e o f "what a c t u a l l y happened" as i t i s orga n i z e d around the strike', the case may not always be so simple. For example, i n l e g a l d i s p u t e s such as the one between the miners and the Workmen's Compensation Board", competing and c o n t r a d i c t o r y claims may r e q u i r e some k i n d o f r e s o l u t i o n on the r e p o r t e r ' s p a r t . What can be s a i d t o be tr u e l e g a l l y a c q u i r e s primary importance i n such cases, both because of the l e g i t i m a c y a s s i g n e d t o government agencies, and because of the r e p o r t e r ' s d e s i r e not to s t a t e anything i n a s t o r y t h a t cannot be proven i n c o u r t . In these cases, the word of l e g i t i m a t e government agencies c a r r i e s s p e c i a l weight even i f o n l y o f f e r e d as an o p i n i o n . Whether a con-f l i c t i s i n a c c o r d w i t h the l e g a l i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s p r o v i d e d i n t h i s manner", and t h e r e f o r e v/hat can be w r i t t e n on an. i s s u e , may have to be judged by the r e p o r t e r . These opini o n s serve as expert a d v i s e v/hich the r e p o r t e r then uses to a u t h o r i z e the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s used i n the nev/s s t o r y . 58 For example", i n the case i n v o l v i n g h e a l t h and s a f e t y i n the mines', the chairman of the u n i o n H e a l t h and S a f e t y Committee had charged i n a l e t t e r t o the Workmens' Compensation Board t h a t a "cover up" was t a k i n g p l a c e by the company i n denying the u n i o n p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n the a c c i d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The i s s u e from the union's p o i n t of view a l s o i n v o l v e d an a t t a c k on the h e a l t h and s a f e t y c o n d i t i o n s allowed to e x i s t i n t h a t p l a n t and c r i m i n a l n e g l i g e n c e on the p a r t of the company. By con-s u l t i n g the Board, an o p i n i o n was o b t a i n e d as t o ' t h e l e g a l s t a t u s of the union's charge based on a "reading" of the a c c i d e n t p r e v e n t i o n r e g u l a t i o n . The Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t a t e d t h a t the r e g u l a t i o n p r e s c r i b e s a duty of the A c c i d e n t P r e v e n t i o n Committee "to a s s i s t i n the prompt i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a c c i d e n t s " . " A s s i s t " was i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e f e r e n c e back to "assist'^management" e a r l i e r s t a t e d i n the r e g u l a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the r e g u l a t i o n s do not c l e a r l y p l a c e any duty on management to seek the a s s i s t a n c e of the committee i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the a c c i d e n t . The r e p o r t e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t mandatory uni o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n probably was intended by the committee th a t d r a f t e d the l e g i s l a t i o n , however, i n cases of c r i m i n a l p r o s e c u t i o n , the c o u r t goes by what the r e g u l a t i o n s say and not what was i n t e n d e d . 59 Because of the j o i n t d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the Board o f f i c e r , and the r e p o r t e r , and both o f t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the way i n v/hich the l e g a l system works,, t h i s i s s u e v/as rendered a non-issue on the b a s i s of both the assumed l e g a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d and the l i a b i l i t y to s l a n d e r f o r w r i t i n g what the r e p o r t e r p r e -sumed c o u l d not be proven i n c o u r t . This p r a c t i c e o f a c c e p t i n g the judgments of such sources depends on a commitment and f a i t h i n those kinds o f formal channels which decide what i s true l e g a l l y and on the f i n a l i t y o f those k i n d s of d e c i s i o n s . Thus', i n t h i s case, the c h a i r -man o f t h e union's H e a l t h and S a f e t y A c c i d e n t Committee v/as not t r e a t e d as having the same l e g i t i m a c y as the court", the Board and v/hat the r e g u l a t i o n c o u l d be seen to be s a y i n g . That is", he v/as not giv e n the same c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a r e l i a b l e source who c o u l d a u t h o r i z e one o f the con-f l i c t i n g s i d e s o f a c o n f l i c t , the union's s i d e . The assumed l e g i t i m a c y and n e u t r a l i t y of the government a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a p p a r a t i superseded the p o s s i b -i l i t y t h a t l a b o u r c o u l d speak f o r i t s e l f on the i s s u e . This i s a common p r a c t i c e i n the treatment of l a b o u r . T h i s v/as a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d i n the more common s t o r y on a s t r i k e v/hen the l a b o u r m i n i s t e r ordered 11,000 woodworkers to go back to work and obey the law; the workers e n g i n e e r i n g 60 the s t r i k e , the Woodworkers Rank and F i l e Committee, were not a l l o w e d to speak on the i s s u e as d i d the r e l i a b l e sources on b e h a l f of b u s i n e s s , the government and the m i n o r i t y u n i o n l e a d e r s h i p . That i s , a f t e r the statements of a l l of these sources were recox-ded, e.g., the l a b o u r m i n i s t e r c a l l e d f o r workers to obey the law", the r e g i o n a l v i c e p r e s i d e n t of the woodworkers' c a l l e d the c o n t r a c t o f f e r the best to be expected, and the employers' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s started the extent of p r o d u c t i o n stoppages, a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Workers' Rank and F i l e Committee was quoted as s a y i n g he assumed the b u l k of the workers would cease p i c k e t i n g and go back to work. While t h i s statement may have appeared as an endorsement of the c o n t r a c t o f f e r , h i s comments were not r e c o r d e d i n t h e . " S t a r " as to why the workers c o u l d resume work; however, the same person was quoted i n an underground paper as s a y i n g t h a t the workers had been betrayed by a r e a c t i o n a r y u n i o n l e a d e r -s h i p and t h a t i t would be necessary t o b u i l d a more m i l i t a n t rank and f i l e o r g a n i z a t i o n before t h e i r demands would be met. In t h i s treatment of l a b o u r , l a b o u r i s d e l e g -i t i m i z e d as a group which i s p r i v i l e g e d enough to e x p l a i n the meaning o f i t s own a c t i o n s . In the news,labour i s p o r t r a y e d by others as i r r e s p o n s i b l e d i s s i d e n t s who 61 t h r e a t e n other's l i v e s and w e l f a r e , ^or example*, The walkout by h o s p i t a l employees could l e a d to deaths ... Labour m i n i s t e r King orders workers to obey the law. Labour l e a d e r s are not allowed, however, to speak on the r a t i o n a l e s f o r d i s o b e y i n g the lav;, the c h a r a c t e r o f t h a t law, e t c . Responses to t h e i r a c t i o n s are those of r e s -p o n s i b l e or otherwise l e g i t i m a t e p a r t i e s , e.g., the l a b o u r m i n i s t e r who warns a g a i n s t too many s t r i k e s , the Workmens' Compensation Board v/hich d e f i n e s the l e g a l s t a t u s of a grievance i n c o u r t , the government mediator who i s o p t i m i s t i c a settlement w i l l be reached. Union o f f i c i a l s do r e c e i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n as " r e l i a b l e " s ources, although t h e i r statements do not n e c e s s a r i l y address the o r i g i n a l i s s u e as they d e f i n e d i t . However, not a l l of them may be t r e a t e d as r e l i a b l e , and a judgement may be made by the e d i t o r or r e p o r t e r t h a t t h i s i s not the case. Reporters are u s u a l l y expected to be s u s p i c i o u s of "somebody w i t h an axe to g r i n d " , or w i t h u l t e r i o r motives f o r doing or s a y i n g v/hat they do. Because the motives of l a b o u r are the o b j e c t of the most s u s p i c i o n , versus those of management, government l e a d e r s , the c o u r t s , s p e c i a l procedures may be i n d i c a t e d to circumvent the q u e s t i o n a b l e c h a r a c t e r of an " u n r e l i a b l e " source's i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n . Por example, a l e a d e r of the s t r i k i n g 62 immigrant workers was not c o n s i d e r e d r e l i a b l e by the e d i t o r due to h i s u n i o n a f f i l i a t i o n , e.g.', "he i s an autoworker, and i s t h e r e f o r e an enemy of the s t e e l -workers who are enemies of independent unions", i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t the workers were b a t t l i n g the company", the p o l i c e and the c o u r t s f o r b a s i c immigrant r i g h t s to organize was recommended by the e d i t o r as a q u e s t i o n a b l e one and the r e p o r t e r v/as r e d i r e c t e d t o a more r e l i a b l e source, i . e . , the nev/s paper's c l i p p i n g f i l e which had a more "reasonable" i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of events. U s i n g r e l i a b l e sotirces imposes a boundary on what can be known about an event and what can be s a i d about l a b o u r . By o n l y a l l o w i n g those persons w i t h p r i v -i l i g e d s t a t u s to i n t e r p r e t i s s u e s , those w i t h the most d i r e c t knowledge of an i s s u e a r e o f t e n or r e g u l a r l y excluded", i.e.", rank and f i l e workers', committee and u n i o n l e a d e r s . T h i s use of r e l i a b l e sources s t r u c t u r e s an account by t r e a t i n g l a b o u r as an e n t i t y to be managed*,' ad m i n i s t e r e d and governed such t h a t l a b o u r s ' a c t i o n s and concerns become r e l e v a n t i n r e l a t i o n to the concerns of management and government a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Just as the p a r t i c u l a r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l s of a p r o d u c t i o n stoppage o r i e n t the d i s c u s s i o n o f a strike", the statements of 6 3 other s t a t u s i n d i v i d u a l s s e r v i n g governmental c a p a c i t i e s are used to i n t e r p r e t events and render them i n t e l l i g i b l e i n a news s t o r y , l a b o u r appears as the s u b j e c t around which an account i s c o n s t r u c t e d and whose a c t i o n s are t r e a t e d from p e r s p e c t i v e s other than i t s own. This i n f o r m a t i o n provided by the proper sources i s then used to a u t h o r i z e the account i n " f a c t " , i . e . , that which the r e p o r t e r cannot be accused of f a b r i c a t i n g h i m s e l f and which a c c u r a t e l y records the news " o b j e c t i v e l y " . 2* A p p e a l i n g to an " O b j e c t i v e " Standard of I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Another c o n s i d e r a t i o n necessary f o r an account to be viewed as f a c t u a l i s the appeal to an " o b j e c t i v e " s t a n d a r d o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . This i n v o l v e s not o n l y g e t t i n g both s i d e s of the s t o r y , but r e q u i r e s t h a t these be i n t e r -p r e t e d i n a "reasonable"', "unbiased" f a s h i o n . A c c o r d i n g to the r e p o r t e r s , however, i n c l u d i n g ones own " p e r s p e c t i v e s " i n the development o f a s t o r y i s unavoidable a t times", and t h i s i s a c c e p t a b l e so l o n g these are not " b i a s e d " , i.e.", " a n t i - b u s i n e s s " or " a n t i - l a b o u r " . S e v e r a l examples were suggested o f " b i a s e d " r e p o r t i n g a g a i n s t b u s i n e s s , e.g., coverage t h a t c o n t i n u a l l y p l a y e d up the a c t i v i t i e s o f " m i l i t a n t " workers, such as grievances over unsafe working c o n d i t i o n s , speed ups, r e p r e s s i o n of u n i o n o r g a n i z i n g attempts, and the dramatic r e a c t i o n s of labour", e.g.', 64 "Angry workers d e f y Parliament", or " V i c t o r y to the Paperworkers". Although i t was. not mentioned by r e p o r t e r s as a category of " b i a s " a g a i n s t b u s i n e s s , one s u b j e c t which d i d not r e c e i v e coverage i n the " S t a r " , but which r e c e i v e s c o n t i n u a l coverage i n u n i o n papers, i s the " r e a l " m o t i v a t i o n s behind a company's a c t i o n s , s t a t e -ments, e t c ' , such as the concern f o r p r o f i t s over human welfare", e.g.", the need f o r a job producing economy, a decent standard of l i v i n g , p r o t e c t i o n from death and maiming on the job, democratic c o n t r o l over working conditions". An example given o f " a n t i - l a b o u r " b i a s would be s t o r i e s about "union bureaucrats e x p l o i t i n g the workers", i . e . , c o n f l i c t s of i n t e r e s t between v/orkers and u n i o n l e a d e r s . This type of coverage i s l a r g e l y not a v a i l a b l e to r e p o r t f o r two reasons: l ) Rank and f i l e " a c t i v i s t s " or other i n t e r n a l forms of opposition", e.g.", the l o g g e r s ' Rank and P i l e S t r i k e Committee, do not r e c e i v e day to day coverage, T h e i r concerns f a l l i n t o the category of the e d i t o r and r e p o r t e r s of " i n t e r n a l " u n i o n a c t i v i t i e s which are not c o n s i d e r e d to be " p o l i t i c a l " i n the same sense as l a b o u r ( o r o t h e r ) news i n v o l v i n g o f f i c i a l l e a d e r s ; and 2) the paper attempts to a v o i d becoming a p a r t y to the c o n f l i c t . An example of t h i s o c c u r r i n g would be i f the 65 news encouraged workers t o be c r i t i c a l o f the a c t i o n s of t h e i r own l e a d e r s f o r f a i l i n g to adequately r e p r e s e n t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a g a i n s t management. This s i t u a t i o n arose i n the e a r l i e r c i t e d case of the " t e r r i f i c " settlement up f o r r a t i f i c a t i o n i n which the u n i o n o f f i c i a l claimed t h a t he v/as not being t r e a t e d f a i r l y by the paper, due to the su g g e s t i o n t h a t the o f f e r p o o r l y r e p r e s e n t e d workers- 1 i n t e r e s t s (and indeed the r e p o r t e r agreed t h a t the quot-a t i o n marks should not have been t h e r e but had been a c c i d e n t l y i n c l u d e d i n the composing room when the s t o r y was l a i d i n t y p e ) . • What " a n t i - l a b o u r " and " a n t i - b u s i n e s s " b i a s e s both have i n common i s the p i t t i n g o f "militant"', rank and f i l e workers a g a i n s t u n i o n or management l e a d e r s , govern-ment agencies', e t c . The focus of c o n f l i c t seems to be a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n determining whether an "unreasonable" i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has been made. Hence, when c o n f l i c t i s a s s i g n e d to the a c t i o n s o f no r m a l l y " r e l i a b l e " parties", e.g.', management, the p o l i c e , the c o u r t s , (or when union l e a d e r s are a s s o c i a t e d with these groups i n o p p o s i t i o n to rank and f i l e a c t i o n s ) the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s suspected of b e i n g o p i n i o n a t e d , " b i a s e d " and unreasonable J-' T h i s w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by the e d i t o r e i t h e r v e r b a l l y or by way of an i n t e r - o f f i c e memoranda. For example, i n one case, 66 where c o n f l i c t was a s s i g n e d to the a c t i o n s of management", the p o l i c e and the c o u r t s , one e d i t o r suggested t h a t the r e a l c o n f l i c t was over "some of the b i t t e r e s t i n t e r -u n i o n p o l i t i c s " . Another e d i t o r suggested t h a t t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was o n l y one s i d e o f the s t o r y - the union's', and f o r t h i s reason i t warranted comment. Another example of an unreasonable i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was the union's charge of "Murders" and company i n t i m i d a t i o n of mine workers. This a l s o was c o n s i d e r e d " b i a s e d " by the r e p o r t e r and a more reasonable i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was one which a t t r i b u t e d the cause of c o n f l i c t to the u n i o n i t s e l f , i . e . , t h a t i t was muckraking to stave o f f j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e s . Reasonable i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s l o c a t e c o n f l i c t as was i l l u s t r a t e d i n the standard s t o r y format f o r a s t r i k e , i . e . , l a b o u r ' s a c t i o n s are d e f i n e d as a p r e c i p i t a t i n g a " c r i s i s " o r other, and a l l the attempts to a l l e v i a t e i t are explained", e.g., n e g o t i a t i o n s , u n i o n l e a d e r s ' a p p r o v a l of a contract", p u b l i c d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h a l t e d s e r v i c e s adding urgency to the s i t u a t i o n , e t c . An example of "reasonable" t h i n k i n g was i l l u s t r a t e d i n the case of the 32,000 s t r i k i n g woodworkers who had r e c e i v e d , i n the r e p o r t e r ' s estimate, a "reasonable" c o n t r a c t o f f e r w i t h good b e n e f i t s and wage i n c r e a s e s . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s which l o c a t e otherwise c o n f l i c t are c o n s i d e r e d "biased", as i n 67 the case where the a r t i s t i c woodworkers' a c t i v i t i e s were i n t e r p r e t e d as a s t r u g g l e of workers a g a i n s t the p o l i c e , the c o u r t s , the company f o r v i o l e n t l y r e p r e s s i n g u n i o n o r g a n i z i n g attempts. The more reasonable i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n put forth", i . e . , one t h a t t r e a t e d the i s s u e as an i n t e r - j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e , r e l o c a t e d c o n f l i c t i n the arena of la b o u r (between labour l e a d e r s ) and conform w i t h the e d i t o r ' s d e f i n i t i o n of ( p o l i t i c a l ) news", as t h a t which i n v o l v e s e l e c t e d or o f f i c i a l l e a d e r s . Unreasonable i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s then i n c l u d e those which d e l e g i t i m i z e the a c t i o n s of what would otherv/ise be understood as r e s p o n s i b l e p a r t i e s , i . e . , government agencies, c o u r t s , p o l i c e , and management', by a t t r i b u t i n g the causes of c o n f l i c t to t h e i r a c t i o n s . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s v/hich q u e s t i o n the adequacy of these groups t o a d m i n i s t e r f a i r l y and manage the a f f a i r s of l a b o u r are suspect of b i a s . As w e l l , so are those v/hich s t r e s s the need f o r worker s o l i d a r i t y as a s o l u t i o n to the problem crea/ted by such a s i t u a t i o n . Thxxs"9 c o n f l i c t which i s e x p l a i n e d i n terms of i n f i g h t i n g among p e r s o n a l i t i e s l e g i t i m a t e l y r e c o g n i z e d as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of l a b o u r , i . e . , i n t e r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e s , q u a l i f i e s as a more reasonable i n t e r p r e t a t i o n than one v/hich d e f i n e s workers i n t e r e s t s i n o p p o s i t i o n to the g i v e n i n s t i t u t i o n a l structures', i . e . , p r i v a t e 68 p r o p e r t y , c a p i t a l i s t enterprise', the p a r t y i n govern-ment, e t c . S t o r i e s which are i d e n t i f i a b l e i n these terms are viewed as b i a s e d . In order to i n t e r p r e t rea.sona.bly", a c o n f l i c t must be t r e a t e d i n terms of i t s immediate r a m i f i c a t i o n s as these r e l a t e to the ongoing a c t i v i t i e s of b u s i n e s s , and government to end i t and r e t u r n to normalcy. 3. She S e p a r a t i o n o f the Reporter from the S t o r y A t h i r d p r a c t i c e which warrants the f a c t i c i t y o f an account i s the s e p a r a t i o n of the r e p o r t e r from the s t o r y by the e x c l u s i o n of h i s o p i n i o n s . T h i s i s accomp-l i s h e d by c a r e f u l l y checking out the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an event', and by u s i n g r e l i a b l e sources to back up what i s quoted or s t a t e d as f a c t i n the s t o r y . These must a c c o r d w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l procedures f o r making "reasonable" i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or e l s e the r e p o r t e r w i l l be suspected of i n s e r t i n g h i s opinion's i n the s t o r y . In o r g a n i z i n g and s t a t i n g the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s , the o b j e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r of an account i s determined. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y o r g a n i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by govern-ment agencies, b u s i n e s s , unions, e t c . , i s thus presented i n the body of a news s t o r y i n such a way as to separate the r e p o r t e r ' s work i n o r g a n i z i n g these p a r t i c u l a r s i n 69 the f i n a l v e r s i o n o f the account, i . e . , they are s t a t e d as f a c t s . The f a c t u a l appearance of a s t o r y d i s -a s s o c i a t e s i t from the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y s i t u a t e d a c t o r s who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g r e a l i t y as i t i s i n the nev/s. The apparent c o n t e x t l e s s c h a r a c t e r of f a c t s o r i g i n a t i n g i n these processes s e t s them i n a r e M t i o n of equivalence to the s u b j e c t i v i t i e s of those who read the accounts (anybody) and t h e r e f o r e a s s i g n s to them the q u a l i t i e s of n e u t r a l i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y t h a t i s c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c of f a c t u a l a c c o u n t s . In the context of the newsroom, accounts then are r e c o g n i z a b l e as f a c t u a l ones due to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r f a c t i c i t y . 4. The P r o d u c t i o n of Pacts Through Consensus The l a s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the f a c t u a l s t a t u s o f a s t o r y i s v/hat v / i l l be r e f e r r e d to as the consensus p r a c t i c e s of the nev/stream. These p r a c t i c e s are c r u c i a l because a r r i v i n g at an a u t h o r i t a t i v e v e r s i o n on the b a s i s of c o n f l i c t i n g ones demands t h a t somehow the " f a c t s " are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from mere opinion", misinformation*", e t c . The p r a c t i c e s f o r r e a c h i n g such "agreement" pro v i d e the r e p o r t e r w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a t i o n procedure, i . e . , one v/hich a u t h o r i z e s h i s work w i t h the e d i t o r or 70 s e n i o r r e p o r t e r , as the case may be. This method of s u b s t a n t i a t i o n i s determined by the h i e r a r c h i a l sub-s t r u c t u r e of the newspaper and i n t r o d u c e s an o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l dimension i n t o the s t r u c t u r e of l a b o u r s t o r i e s . The r e p o r t e r works up h i s s t o r y u n t i l the e d i t o r i s s a t i s f i e d and i n t h i s way "agreement" i s reached and f a c t s a r e produced through "consensus". Reaching;,a consensus occurs as a r e s u l t of i n f o r m a t i o n and o p i n i o n exchange throughout the e n t i r e c a r e e r o f a s t o r y . For the day r e p o r t e r , t h i s begins with, the i n i t i a l v e r b a l and w r i t t e n exchanges between h i m s e l f and the e d i t o r . The r e p o r t e r s a l s o r e c e i v e "assignments" from the e d i t o r s , u s u a l l y to cover wire s e r v i c e s t o r i e s or to see i f there i s a news s t o r y i n an as-yet-incomplete " l e a d " . He a l s o r e c e i v e s v a r i o u s w r i t t e n ' m a t e r i a l s (des-c r i b e d e a r l i e r ) which are passed from the e d i t o r ' s desk to h i s own. The c i t y e d i t o r w i l l i n c l u d e w r i t t e n or v e r b a l comments on p o s s i b l e s t o r i e s to be "checked o u t " on the phone by the r e p o r t e r to determine i f a s t o r y can be w r i t t e n . The r e p o r t e r w i l l then phone h i s c o n t a c t s to d i s c o v e r what i s "happening". As he gathers more i n f o r m -ation", he w i l l o f t e n i n f o r m the e d i t o r o f what he has found out and exchange o p i n i o n s on the p o s s i b l e i n t e r -71 p r e t a t i o n o f a s t a t e of a f f a i r s , whether a s t o r y i s "news" or on a l e a d paragraph he has w r i t t e n . D i s c u s s i o n w i t h the e d i t o r and the r e p o r t e r i s c o l l e g i a l i n nature', w i t h an attempt to d i s c o v e r what a reasonable i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of events may be or whether i t i s time to '"break" a s t o r y or not. T h i s d i s c u s s i o n i n some cases i s p r e p a r a t o r y f o r more i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a s t o r y . Since the r e p o r t e r may get e n t h u s i a s t i c about a s t o r y t h a t the e d i t o r does not', t h i s w r i t t e n and v e r b a l exchange serves as a sounding board f o r determining what s t o r i e s and the best chance of b e i n g p l a c e d i n the paper. A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t a l l o w s the r e p o r t e r to compare h i s "news'-sense" w i t h the e d i t o r so t h a t he can share any knowledge on the " f a c t s of the matter", the best angle on a s t o r y , or what might be reasonably be expected from the a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n an event t o be r e p o r t e d . Working c l o s e l y w i t h the e d i t o r i n t h i s way appeared to be a matter of checking out ones views w i t h an experienced newsman', one who i s a b l e to r e c o g n i z e what makes a s t o r y a s t o r y , and someone t o v e r i f y the "sense" of the r e p o r t e r ' s own o p i n i o n s . The f l o w o f communication between the c i t y e d i t o r and the day r e p o r t e r had i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the day and n i g h t r e p o r t e r . The r e p o r t e r s view themselves as a team', and they d i v i d e t h e i r 72 work between themselves as w e l l as share i n the p r e p a r -a t i o n of s t o r i e s . Communication u s u a l l y occurred by w r i t t e n word or by phone, as they work on d i f f e r e n t s h i f t s . The day r e p o r t e r a l s o l e a v e s assignments w i t h the n i g h t r e p o r t e r , as w e l l as contacts to check on, or comments on a p r e v i o u s l y w r i t t e n s t o r y . Over the phone they exchange i n f o r m a t i o n on the s t a t u s of events, q u e s t i o n each other on t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the l a b o u r scene or comment on the success of a r e c e n t l y w r i t t e n s t o r y i n b e i n g p r i n t e d . The n i g h t r e p o r t e r a l s o works w i t h the n i g h t a s s i s t a n t e d i t o r and r e c e i v e s a s s i g n -ments, and e d i t e d work from him and the day e d i t o r . The r e p o r t e r s and e d i t o r s do not always agree on the matters they d i s c u s s , and r e a c h i n g a consensus may i n v o l v e accommodating one or the other's views. Por example", the r e p o r t e r may decide that i t i s too e a r l y f o r a g i v e n s t o r y to be "news", e.g., by s t a t i n g "I don't want to break i t u n t i l i t ' s news" or " i f they don't s t r i k e , the S t a r ' s not i n t e r e s t e d " . However, the e d i t o r may f e e l a s t o r y i s news a l r e a d y and the r e p o r t e r may then type i t up anyway. The "angle" of a s t o r y may a l s o be determined through c o n f e r r a l on v/hat i s r e a l l y important about a c o n f l i c t and worthy of coverage. This occurred i n the case of the mining a c c i d e n t i n c i d e n t , where the r e p o r t e r was 73 i n i t i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n and sympathetic to the p l i g h t of a widow denied a pension. He sent an i n t e r - o f f i c e memo-random to the e d i t o r s o l i c i t i n g h i s o p i n i o n on t h i s angle o f the s t o r y and r e c e i v e d a n e g a t i v e r e p l y ; he then responded", '-you hard h e a r t e d hannah!" and continued hy i n v e s t i g a t i n g the i n t e r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l aspects of the s i t u a t i o n . In more d i f f i c u l t cases of c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n the e d i t o r may suggest s e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l procedures f o r o b j e c t i v e r e p o r t i n g , e.g',~, g e t t i n g "both s i d e s " of the story*; a r r i v i n g a t a more "reasonable" i n t e r p r e t a t i o n * , or checking the l i b r a r y f i l e s or. other " r e l i a b l e " sources. The g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n which takes p l a c e between the r e p o r t e r s e d i t o r s a l s o occurs between the r e p o r t e r and the telephone c o n t a c t s . Reporters may attempt to g a i n i n s i g h t s , f o r example i n t o what the contact f e e l s the next move of t h e i r a d versary w i l l be (whether u n i o n or manage-ment l e a d e r s ) and what a c t i o n w i l l be taken i n such an event. F u r t h e r , the r e p o r t e r may add h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of what should happen", e.g., on a s t r i k e v o t e , n e g o t i a t i o n s e t c . , and a t times engage i n a d i s c u s s i o n of what c o u l d be r e a s o n a b l y expected (from the workers, the company", e t c . ) . This dialogue c o n t r i b u t e s two t h i n g s d i r e c t l y to a s t o r y : l ) what are c o n s i d e r e d the " f a c t s " of a matter, 74 I.e., those t h i n g s v/hich u n i o n and management l e a d e r s agree on, such a-s "x" number of workers walked out, the l a b out " c r i s i s " i n the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y i n t e n s i f i e d " , so much p r o d u c t i o n was halted", e t c . ; and 2) a statement of t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of events, which d i f f e r s from t h a t o f the other r e l i a b l e sources', e.g.", who i s j u s t i f i e d i n a c o n f l i c t " , e t c . I n d i r e c t l y , the process of r e a c h i n g a consensus may c o n t r i b u t e to. the angle used on a story", or whose i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s to be c o n s i d e r e d c l o s e s t to the f a c t s . For example", i n the case of a worker r e p o r t e d as dying from b r e a t h i n g b l a s t i n g gas i n a mine while s u f f e r i n g from a h e a r t a i l m e n t , the r e p o r t e r may t e s t out h i s own views a g a i n s t the c o n t a c t s f o r v/hat seems to have been a reasonable course of a u c t i o n i n the s i t u a t i o n " , e.g., "what i s a guy w i t h a h e a r t a i l m e n t doing v/orking i n a mine f o r anyway?" In a d d i t i o n to h e l p i n g the r e p o r t e r decide how to angle h i s story", r e a c h i n g agreement through these channels provides a r e p o r t e r w i t h grounds f o r v/arranting a p a r t i c u l a r v e r s i o n to the e d i t o r . In cases of doubt, t h i s group can be r e l i e d on as a u t h o r i t a t i v e sources of f a c t u a l statements. For example, i n the case of d e t e r -mining v/ho was a t f a u l t f o r the deaths o f the miners, he may s t a t e t h a t t h e r e v/as some doubt i n two of the f o u r 75 cases under review", and s t a t e i t as a f a c t i n the s t o r y . He may do so ey,en though the union spokesman a s s e r t e d that i t was a c l e a r case of n e g l i g e n c e on the p a r t o f the company ( i . e . , "Murder")* and the company r e p r e s -e n t a t i v e has no doubt of i t s innocence. However, a f t e r r e a d i n g the in q u e s t j u r y ' s r e p o r t which c i t e d "work r e l a t e d f a c t o r s " as c o n t r i b u t i n g to death and by t a l k i n g to the Workmen's Compensation Board representatives", the r e p o r t e r made an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a u t h o r i z e d by these sources and s t a t e d i t as a " f a c t " i n the s t o r y . ^ence, i n e s t a b l i h s i n g the f a c t i c i t y o f an account, the r e p o r t e r s use each other, the e d i t o r s , and the community of r e l i a b l e sources t o v e r i f s ^ the r e a s o n a b l e -ness of an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f events that w i l l be s t a t e d as f a c t . From w i t h i n the newsroom", the f a c t u a l s t a t u s o f a s t o r y i s c o n s t i t u t e d i n those processes of locating", checking out", i n t e r p r e t i n g and w r i t i n g a s t o r y . News judgments r e l y h e a v i l y on what can be l e a r n e d from the community of r e l i a b l e sources and the mutual fact" d e t e r -minations made i n d i s o u s s i o n between the r e p o r t e r s and e d i t o r s . The assumption t h a t there i s an o b j e c t i v e view of events which i s i n t e r - s i i b j e c t i v e l y a v a i l a b l e to newsmen guides the process o f news " g a t h e r i n g " and the c o o r d i n a t e s to which they address themselves i n r e a c h i n g a consensus 76 on the .-"facts". Agreement or l a c k of disagreement on the p a r t of r e p o r t e r s and e d i t o r s i s c r u c i a l i n t h i s process because i t i s the b a s i s f o r a r r i v i n g a t an a u t h o r i t a t i v e v e r s i o n i n the nev/s. T h i s a l s o p r o v i d e s the sense t h a t a world e x i s t s "out t h e r e " independent o f ones means f o r a d d r e s s i n g i t and v/hich i s more or l e s s e q u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e to everyone. The n e u t r a l i t y of the r e p o r t e r and the " o b j e c t i v e " s t a t u s o f labour s t o r i e s are c o n s t i t u t e d i n these p r a c t i c e s . They are the accomplishment throiigh and through o f organ-i z a t i o n a l l y s i t u a t e d a c t o r s but are a t t r i b u t e d a q u a l i t y of independence from t h e i r own p r a c t i c e s and methods f o r a c h i e v i n g them. The p r a c t i c e o f u s i n g proper sources t o a u t h o r i z e an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d e f i n e s l a b o u r " o b j e c t i v e l y " from a management p e r s p e c t i v e . Appealing to an " o b j e c t i v e " standard of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n e x t e r n a l i z e s t h i s view as i f i t s use i m p l i e d no p o l i t i c a l stance on the world. S e p a r a t i n g the r e p o r t e r from the s t o r y by e x c l u d i n g h i s o p i n i o n s means t h a t accounts w i l l be c o n s t r u c t e d i n a warrantable f a s h i o n from an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o i n t of view. This i s guaranteed i n the s u b s t a n t i a t i o n methods f o r producing "consensus" i n such a way as to preserve the 77 managerial frame of r e f e r e n c e i n news. Producing " o b j e c t i v e " accounts which are warranted i n f a c t i s a c h i e v e d i n these o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s and i n c o r -porates t h i s s t r u c t u r e of r e l e v a n c e i n t o the news. What "union" newsmen view as a pro-business s l a n t on the news i s the r e s u l t of an e f f o r t to c a r e f u l l y document the w o r l d i n such a way as to preserve i t s " o b j e c t i v e " f e a t u r e s and q u a l i t i e s so that anyone who attempted t o do l i k e w i s e , g i v e n the circumstances of r e p o r t i n g a t the "Star"', would f i n d the same world there for--the l o o k i n g . 78 FOOTNOTES 1 Tucliman, Gaye, " O b j e c t i v i t y as a S t r a t e g i c R i t u a l ; An Examination o f Newsmen's Notions of. O b j e c t i v i t y " American J o u r n a l of Sociology.' v o l . 77,' Jan. 1972', p. 660-79. 79 CHAPTER IV CONCLUDING REMARKS Tlie study o f i d e o l o g y i n t h i s paper has attempted to d e l i n e a t e the ways i n which a p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y such as l a b o u r r e p o r t i n g i s i m p l i c a t e d i n a l a r g e r process of c o n s t r u c t i n g a view of the world from the p e r s p e c t i v e and i n terms of the e n t e r p r i s e s of those who " r u l e " . In t h i s context, i d e o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e i s portra3?-ed as o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s which s t r u c t u r e news so as to r e p r e s e n t a p a r t i c u l a r view o f r e a l i t y w h i l e p r o v i d i n g the appearance that no such p a r t i c u l a r i t y i s present i n these accounts. This mediation s t r u c t u r e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p u b l i c knowledge of the world and the way i t i s organized f o r those who' l i v e i n i t . At the "Star"', l a b o u r Is c o n s t i t u t e d as a news-worthy s u b j e c t i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l procedures f o r f a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t i n g the w o r l d . The s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s work i s an i n t r i n s i c p a r t of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e 80 procedures f o r producing v/hat can he seen as r e l i a b l e ' , f a c t u a l r e c o r d i n g s of events of the world i n t h i s s e t t i n g . The methods employed i n t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n preserve a managerial r e l a t i o n s h i p to l a b o u r i n the p r a c t i c e s of c o n s t i t u t i n g accounts of i t . These depend on and reproduce the h i s t o r i c a l l y s i t u a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s embodied i n the means of apprehend-i n g l a b o u r nev/s. In the f a c t u a l appearance f i n a l l y a chieved i n the nev/s story", the p r a c t i c e s v/hich s t r u c t u r e our r e l a t i o n -s h i p to the v/orld v i s - a - v i s the f a c t s are not a v a i l a b l e f o r s c r u t i n y . The use o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y o r g a n i z e d knowledge t o a u t h o r i z e an account obscures the h i s t o r i c a l l y s i t u a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s and the s t r u c t u r e s o f re l e v a n c e which mediate our knowledge of the v/orld. S t r u c t u r i n g procedures which are a p a r t of the news e n t e r p r i s e a re then o b l i t e r a t e d once the f a c t i c i t y o f an account i s e s t a b l i s h e d . The p r a c t i c e s which generate these kinds o f f a c t u a l accounts and which warrant t h e i r " o b j e c t i v i t y " , however', i n t r o d u c e a fundamental source of b i a s so t h a t a managerial p e r s p e c t i v e i s r e p r e s e n t e d . Routine p r a c t i c e s f o r l o c a t i n g , d e f i n i n g and w r i t i n g news on l a b o u r a s s i g n to i t an eposodic c h a r a c t e r v/hich a l l o w s i t to appear as a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s v/hich i s merely 81 r e p o r t e d . Questions r e p o r t e r s ask i n s o l i c i t i n g c e r t a i n k i n d s of i n f o r m a t i o n about "what a c t u a l l y happened" s t r u c t u r e v/hat can be known; however", they a r e not v i s i b l e as h i s p r a c t i c e s i n the f i n a l account, o n l y the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y o r g a n i z e d p a r t i c u l a r s from business", l a b o u r and government groups remain to c o n s t i t u t e the a c t u a l i t y as we can know i t . Labour then becomes known from w i t h i n a r u l i n g view of the world", i . e . , as i t i s to those groups i n v o l v e d i n managing, a d m i n i s t e r i n g and governing the world. In order to e s t a b l i s h the f a c t i c i t y of these accounts", the use of r e l i a b l e sources a u t h o r i z e s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of events r e l a t e d to l a b o u r . The use of t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y assembled i n f o r m a t i o n provides a c o n t e x t l e s s d e s c r i p t i o n of labour", i.e.", one v/hich i s t e m p o r a l l y and s p a c i a l l y independent of the surrounding circumstances, a c t i o n s and rationaJ.es f o r a c t i o n of l a b o u r . The assumed l e g i t i m a c y of these r e l i a b l e sources i n s t i t -u t i o n a l i z e s a view o f l a b o u r v/hich i s produced from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the "other""", i . e . , those r u l i n g groups i n p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y i n business and government. The use of these r u l i n g groups to make a u t h o r i t a t i v e s t a t e -ments on the l a b o u r "scene" then i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e s a r u l i n g r e l a t i o n to our knowledge of l a b o u r i n t h e media. 82 The s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h i s form of '•knowing" however disappears i n the f i n a l s t o r y . The problematic c h a r a c t e r of events i n the world i s n e u t r a l -i z e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y r e c o g n i z a b l e ways of t a l k i n g about l a b o u r , e.g., n e g o t i a t i o n s broke down, p a t i e n t care i s t hreatened due to the walkout of the h o s p i t a l workers. Although r e l e v a n t to those groups amassing such adminis-t r a t i v e l y o r g a n i z e d forms of knowledge, the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f an "episode" and i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n to r u l i n g e n t e r p r i s e s i s no l o n g e r v i s i b l e i n the news as i t i s f o r you or me", even though t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p determines what w i l l be there to be read as news. From w i t h i n t h i s r u l i n g r e l a t i o n , l a b o u r becomes a category which o n l y p r i v i l e g e d groups may i n t e r p r e t , from w i t h i n a p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t preclxides l a b o u r ' s own d e f i n i t i o n of what a c t u a l l y happened. The frame of r e f e r e n c e from which l a b o u r i s c o n s t r u c t e d i s one which a t t r i b u t e s c o n f l i c t s with l a b o u r to l a b o u r and excludes s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m of business and the government by l a b o u r i n these c o n t e x t s . These i n d i v i d u a l i n c i d e n t s o u t l i n e business and management i n t e r e s t s as these c o n f r o n t those of l a b o u r , i . e . , i n those events surrounding the d i s r u p -t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n or t h r e a t of reduced p r o f i t a b i l i t y and c o n t r o l of p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . The i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y of • 83 the p e r s p e c t i v e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y assembled knowledge on l a b o u r i s used t o c o n s t r u c t t h a t assumedly " o b j e c t i v e " r e a l i t y to which newsmen and readers have common access i n the " f a c t s " . A l l o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y c o r r e c t procedures f o r c o n s t i t u t i n g the news c o n s t r u c t t h i s r e a l i t y i n the process of making an account of i t . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l methods of apprehending " l a b o u r " r u p t u r e the forms of thought a v a i l a b l e i n the news on labour from the circumstances and meanings which would make the s u b j e c t i v i t i e s o f i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e l l i g i b l e . These i d e o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e s s t r u c t u r e our r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h a t w o r l d o f events and a r t i c u l a t e a view as i t i s to those who r u l e , r a t h e r than those who are r u l e d . Hence, an i d e o l o g i c a l view of the workd i s "then guaranteed i n the r o u t i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s which s t r u c t u r e talk", o p i n i o n s and judgments i n t o the " o b j e c t i v e " accounts of the news", 84 Appendix - F i e l d Notes Sample This i s the f i r s t day of o b s e r v a t i o n of the l a b o u r r e p o r t e r . I met him i n the newsroom and i n t r o d u c e d myself. He informed me t h a t i t v/as not p o s s i b l e to i n t e r v i e w him. a t the moment as he had a "hot one". I sat and observed him at the desk next to h i s . '^ he following.'notes are made on the b a s i s of h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f what he was doing and my o b s e r v a t i o n s of h i s work a c t i v i t i e s . He i s doing a s t o r y on the U n i t e d Steelworkers", who are p r e s s i n g the government on the deaths of f o u r miners. H e must c a l l the Workmen's Compensation Board and Cominco to get answers to the l a t t e r ' s r e f u s a l t o a l l o w independent observers i n s p e c t work s i t e s . "There i s a l s o the i s s u e of a widow r e c e i v i n g a pension. He. i s checking out " i n p u t " . He l e f t the desk to see Jack, an e d i t o r . He r e t u r n e d and phoned Mr. White ~ to f i n d out why no pension v/as g i v e n to Mrs. Hummel. (No answer) George: The tough p a r t o f the business i s g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , e.g., from p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s people', who go i n t o the business and see I f they want i n f o r m a t i o n to go out. I f not, he says, f i n a l l y , "no comment". C a l l s Cominco p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r , Herb. A c c o r d i n g to r e p o r t s (from l a b o u r ) , Cominco threatened workers w i t h l a y o f f s i f they complained about b e i n g gassed. Is t h i s t r u e ? (end c o n v e r s a t i o n ) Note: This i s a r e p o r t on f o u r mining deaths George: _You may get e n t h u s i a s t i c over an a r t i c l e you are v/orking on, but the e d i t o r s may f i n d " h o l e s " i n the s t o r y and b l i p i t , or may j u s t not be e n t h u s i a s t i c and not use i t . tHe types f o r a w h i l e ) . Incoming c a l l : . Cominco d i d not reprimand people i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . Note: almost a n e g o t i a t i o n occurs over the wording of t h e i r r e p l y : . George says -so i t ' s t h e i r job to do such and such? ... 85 George ( c o n t ' d ) : A few more s p e c i f i c q uestions Why d i d n ' t Cominco l e t Kwalsky go i n and take a l o o k a t t h i s t h i n g ? ( t h e u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ) . (He laughs) He i s not an expert. But Kwalsky i s a member of the Steele, workers ... t h a t ' s h i s job. Why d i d Cominco oppose Mrs. Hummel's pension and why were the f a c t s d i s t o r t e d ? F i n d out. George e x p l a i n s that t h i s i s a l a b o u r s t p r y ^ i n which the miners are complaining about mine s a f e t y , i t i s an i s s u e of the workers b r e a t h i n g i n fumes ( b l a s t i n g gasses) or g e t t i n g the job done. George says he must c a l l on the f i r s t i n q u e s t ... (he c a l l s ) : c o u l d someone r e a d the v e r d i c t ? (George appears anxious f o r a minute as a lawyer i s around who he t h i n k s wants him to t e s t i f y ... but he. wants to a v o i d him). The v e r d i c t ... no other circumstances. On the n i g h t s h i f t . . . n e g l i g e n t i n h i s own death. The v e r d i c t i s from a j u r y of l a y people. He r e c e i v e s a c a l l back: Jim - George t e l l s him t h a t from l o o k i n g a t h i s stock p i l e on the s t e e l w o r k e r s ' press r e l e a s e s , he i s j u s t t r y i n g to put t h i s t h i n g t o g e t h e r and f i n d i f i t ' s a s t o r y or not. Kwalsky, check the vent-i l a t i o n system. (They t a l k f o r a w h i l e ) , ^ h i s i s e a s i l y d i s c e r n a b l e (fumes), eh? They're s a y i n g the o p p o s i t e . The coroner's j u r y says i t wa.s ... B i a s t s m e l l i s something you can d i s c e r n i b l e , eh? ( b l a s t i n g fumes). They're s a y i n g the opposite - the coroner's j u r y says i t was ... B l a s t s m e l l i s something you can e a s i l y d e t e c t . Government r e g u l a t i o n i s t h a t an employee cannot r e t u r n to work u n l e s s fumes are gone. What have you t o l d the employees? What you are t r y i n g to do i s make them l i v e up to the r e g u l a t i o n s . Is t h e r e are change i n the r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t Cominco would ... You're s e r i o u s l y convinced: muckraking to b u i M up t h e i r image and stage o f f j u r i s d i c t i o n a l f i g h t s ? (Cominco gave Kwalsky the r u n of the complex when he f i r s t a r r i v e d one year ago", but i n view of h i s past performance (a barage of a l l e g a t i o n s to newspapers without t e l l i n g the company, f i r s t ) Cominco does not f e e l t h a t he wants t o a s s i s t i n t h i s . ) Why d i d Cominco oppose the pension on a l l e g e d d i s t o r t i o n o f the f a c t s ? George reads the i n q u e s t r e p o r t , and says t h a t i f you have any more i n f o r m a t i o n on Hummel i t w i l l be a p p r e c i a t e d . On the p e t i t i o n : the Workmen's Compensation Board's r e p o r t i s claimed to be d i s t o r i n g the f a c t s by the miners, (^hey t a l k about the weather, s k i i n g , e t c , ) Would you? ... because I t h i n k I t ' s i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ? 1 ask q u e s t i o n : Is t h i s a " s t r a i g h t " news s t o r y ? Georg.e: Yes, and I t i s documented to keep the law o f f our backs. 86 George: Cominco does not t r u s t Kwalsky ... There i s some j u s t i f i c a t i o n on two out of four of the deaths only. Note: In the Steelworkers' paper the headline on t h i s story reads "Murder!" George c a l l s (union): On Mr. Hummel; tran-q u i l l i z e r case - jury did not make- recpmmendations on gas, etc. I ' l l put i t .in on your statement. Doctors should inform the company. On second case: locking device on truck (which crushed worker) - there was none. On t h i r d case: guy walking over c l i f f ... Developed i n t o a r e l a t i o n s h i p with steelworkers; write 'Barrett*, Leo Nimsick won't do anything; How do the workers f e e l ? Pressing charges against Cominco for v i o l a t i o n of workmen's Comp-ensation ... f a u l t y equipment . Zinc plant room, -^ine you and then withdraw i t ? . , Do you think a reporter should go into T r a i l ? I f I went", Id go with a camera without announcing. It would he February/March? I plan to go up there i n February", anyway, when the representative vote i s held. A year long b a t t l e . . . New phone c a l l : chatter ... those are the hard cold facts of the corporate structure ... more t a l k (jokes, sports) George consults an editor f i r s t before w r i t i n g story to see i f i t ' s O.K. Also works on lead (sentence) ... while waiting for editor's opinion. His lead: Mines minister Leo Nimsick - bid to have his sacked or shuffled; c o n f l i c t between United Steelworkers.,..and New Democratic Party; fourth case i s not j u s t i f i e d . Note: Ongoing e f f o r t to determine whose interpretation v/as r e a l i s t i c . New phone c a l l : -^id you know that i n the inquest verdict a contributing factor was b l a s t i n g gas? ... Then the guy shouldn't be i n there ... i t s l i k e the guy on t r a n q u i l l i z e r s ... shouldn't be d r i v i n g . Do you know why no pension on Hummel? Because i t v/asn't a work related factor ... but jury did say ..... coronary thrombosis. I f . you have that kind of ailment, what are you doing i n the mine? Other workers i n area unaffected. Complained of being i l l f o r some time but did not do so when put on t h i s job. George typing ... 11:45 I leave: 2-|- hours observation. BIBLIOGRAPHY 87 Bagdikian, Ben H.', "The P o l i t i c s of American. 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Positivism and Sociology", Heinemann Publications, London, 1974, Giddens, Anthony, "Epistemology and Method i n the S 0 c i a l Sciences" lecture presented at the Centre for S o c i a l Organization, University of Wisdonsin, Madison, August 1, 1975. Gramsci, Antonio. Letters/from PrisonV %nne Pawner, tra n s l a t o r , Harper and Kow, Publishers, New York, 1974. Heap", James 1., "Towards a Phenomenological Sociology of Ideological Practice", working paper presented at the meetings of the Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association, May 1973, Kingston, Ontario. Heap, James 1, and Roth, P h i l l i p A,, "On Phenomenological S.ociology" American Sociological Review, 1973, v o l . 38", p. 354-367. Horton", Jphrij "The F e t i s h i s m of S o c i o l o g y " , i n Radical;, Sociology", C o l f a x , J , David, and Roach", Jack i i . e d i t o r s , B a s i c Books', Inc., New York, 1971. Mannheim, K a r l . Ideology and Utopia', Hare our t , Brace and V/orld, Inc. New York,1936 . Marx', K a r l and Engles, F r e d e r i c k . The German Ideology,;. C.J. Arthur", editor', I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , New York", 1970. Molotch, Harvey and Lester", M a r i l y n . "News as P u r p o s e f u l Behaviour: On the S t r a t e g i c Use of Routine Events', A c c i d e n t s and Sgandals", American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review", v o l . 39? p. 101-112;' 1974. M u e l l e r , ^ l a u s . The P o l i t i c s of Communication, Oxford U n i f e r s i t y P ress, flew York, 1973. ~ " P o l n e r , M e l v i n . "Mundane.'Reasoning", un p u b l i s h e d paper", U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles', 1973. Schramm, Wil b e r . "The Gatekeeper: a memorandum on Gate-keepers and the Transmission of Information" i n Mass Communications., Wilber. Schramm*, editor", U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r ess, Urbana", 1957. Sigelman",; Lee, "Reporting the Nev/s: An O r g a n i z a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s " , American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y , v o l . 79, J u l y , 1973", P. 132-1577" Smith, Dorothy E., "The S o c i a l . C o n s t r u c t i o n of. a Documentary R e a l i t y " , S o c i o l o g i c a l I n q u i r y , v o l . 44, no. 4, 1974. .;"The I d e o l o g i c a l P r a c t i c e of S o c i o l o g y " i n Catalyst".' Winter, 1974, no. 8. ;"K i s M e n t a l l y 111: The Anatomy of a F a c t u a l Account"', i n J . A t k i n s o n and J.. Coulter", e d i t o r s , Ethnographics, M a r t i n Robertson", london, 1975. . "Women'.j, the Family and Corporate C a p i t a l i s m " , i n ' Mj,. Stephenson", e d i t o r , Women i n Canada", Newpress, Toronto, Tuchmann", Gaye. " O b j e c t i v i t y as a S t r a t e g i c R i t u a l : ; An Examination of Nev/smen's Notions of, Objectivity"*,' American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y , v o l . 77', January 1972. Tuchmann, Gaye. "The Technology of Objectivity: Doing Objective Television News" Urban l i f e and Culture, v o l . 2, A p r i l 1 9 7 3 . . "Making News by Doing Work: Routinizing the Unexpected". American Journal of Sociology, voir, 78. July 1973. — — — AL» Turner, Roy, Ethnomethpdology, Penguin Books, Canada l t d . Markham, Ontario, 1974. Volosinov, V.N. Marxism and the K Philosophy of language", Seminar Press, New l o r k , and London,-1973. Winch, Peter, The Idea of A Social Science and i t s  Relation to Philosophy, Humanities Press, London. 1958. Zimmerman, Don. "Pact as a P r a c t i c a l Accomplishment" i n Ethnomethodology, Roy Turner, editor. 

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