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The theme of money in three novels of D. N. Mamin-Sibiriak Godoroja, Olga 1975

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THE  THEME OF MONEY IN THREE NOVELS OF  D. N. MAMIN-SIBIRIAK by OLGA GODOROJA  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF . MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Slavonic Studies  We accept t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming t o the  required  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1975  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  make i t  freely available  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department o r by h i s of  this  representatives. thesis  It  is understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  written permission.  Department of  Slavonic  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  April  1975  Studies  Columbia  not be allowed without my  ABSTRACT  Dmitrii small  village  wrote  under  Urals,  he  N a r k i s o v i c h Mamin i n the  the  used  and  Russian  writers  wrote  about  chose  was  During skii, talent fully  the  education,  novels, English,  are  the  interactions  a  the  of  of  English  he  with  A.  minor w r i t e r  the  as  early  with  these  milliony,  is relatively Hare,  mentions  has  A.  the  Skabichev-  were  Soviet  his  moral  one  of  problems, and  one  with of  translated  novels,  the  his  into  the western  his  of  later  considers Mamin-Sibiriak only  • When  critics  problems  f a r , only  to  appreciate  they  people,  been  to  ignore  with  unknown  others  implications.  They  So  among  fellow-countrymen.  because  professional  short  Mamin-Sibiriak  s t r e s s o o n l y the  elements.  R.  While  failed  a writer,  concerned  his  Mamin-Sibiriak's  they  works.  of  unique  critics  ideological  Gruzdev  arts,  and  a native of  f o r many  acknowledged  primarily  critic,  the  to his  his writings,  a  As  that  contemporary  h i s works, but  Privalovskie and  even  in He  century. area  born  Ekaterinburg.  setting  nineteenth  contribution and  a  unknown,  struggle in his  works, which  as  others  primarily his  Sibiriak.  Russia, the  importance  Bogoliubov  The  and  analyzed  evaluating  class  the  lifetime,  and  f a r from  T h i s made M a m i n - S i b i r i a k  European  Al'bov  concerned  E.  novels. of  of  region  relatively  his V.  pseudonym this  stories  Urals not  ( 1 8 5 2 - 1 9 1 2 ) was  world. to  be  Privalovskie  milliony  as  collection  well  as  a  nevertheless, This  study  Privalovskie gnezdo In  (The  these  will  Mountain  (The  Mamin-Sibiriak i n the  The  human n a t u r e reaching  universal is a  beyond  dominant  the  uniqueness  lies  local  setting  Ural  characters  from  His  writing  and  never  gives  although  at  and  Urals  an the  took  of  of  h i s moral  impression  of  best  link  the and  concern  1883),  Gornoe  (Gold,  1892).  of  in this  social  part  of on  novels, His  choosing, the number  Russian i n the  nineteenth objective  of  colourful  society.  development century. at  i s obvious,  didacticism.  the  i t s effects  society.  large  Chekhov."  novels:  i n these  of  of  are  subsequent  theme by  strata  i s imaginative  and  Russian  this  of  the  Fortune),  which  phase  place  money  important end  the  Zoloto  and  introducing a  different  are  novel  the  and  the  technique  time,  confines  to  Fortune,  leitmotif  i n developing  works  Russian  theme  stories  depicts a  that  Privalov  following  Privalov  Nest'V 1 8 8 4 ) ,  revolution  The  children's  include the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l changes  Russia.  the  of  title:  opinion, "equal  milliony  novels  industrial and  in his  (English  the his  of His  same writing  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  PAGE ABSTRACT  .  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  i  i v  INTRODUCTION  . . . . . . . . . . .  1  CHAPTER I.  PRIVALOVSKIE MILLIONY Wealthy  i n d u s t r i a l i s t s and t h e i r  towards II.  GORNOE  attitude  money  12  GNEZDO  Money  a s a means  of attaining  position  power III.  and 39  ZOLOTO The  gold-rush: "easy  The d e s t r u c t i v e  money"  power o f 66  CONCLUSION  84  FOOTNOTES  93  BIBLIOGRAPHY  100  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S  To  Professor  tolerant  guidance,  counsel,  assistance  V . D. R e v u t s k y , I extend  my  f o r h i s p a t i e n t and  sincerest  and encouragement  gratitude.  were  His  gratefully  received. I  take  M. F u t r e l l ,  this  who  opportunity  first  also  stimulated  Sibiriak.  v  my  t o thank  Professor  interest  i n Mamin-  INTRODUCTION  In gifted of  the  second  writers  t h e m was  half  appeared  Dmitrii  writer,  noted  fourteen  novels,  two  novelettes,  as  to  literature  a l l were  one  hundred  he  appeared  18 80s  as  a  short  put  of  his  otechestva  (Russian he  was by  his  Korolenko,  best  amassed  adeptly novels,  background. from  the  the  Vestnik the  a  known  Leskov, spent  great  Gorky most  deal  i n t o the  novelettes  and  The  traits  unique  of  historical  and of  of  words,  journalist, the  leading  (Herald  zapiski  reading  of  Russkaia (Notes  public  of  and  the was  Saltykov-Shchedrin, others.  his  life  i n the  distinctive fabric  stories  own  of  Fatherland),  the  a  approximately a  i n the  contemporaries,  incorporated  unusual  to  his  as  Evropy  stories  contribution  beginning  published  (Son.of  well  Mamin-Sibiriak  was  day:  at  career  a  wrote  and  constitute  T h o u g h t ) , 0 1 e c h e s t v e nny e  regarded  he  In  circles  Syn  where  volumes.  would  He  sketches  One  was  short  His  many  He  of  children.  in  Europe),  Chekhov,  for  they  mature w r i t e r .  Motherland);  number  Starting his  literary  He  creative ability. large  many  scene.  Mamin-Sibiriak.  volumes.""'"  journals  highly  fills  century  literary  ethnographic  stories  together  literary  mysi'  as  a  nineteenth  Russian  for his  well  of  "If  the  plays,  collection Russian  on  the  Narkisovich  prolific  and  of  are  life  development  of set  information h i s work. against  i n the of  Urals,  the  Urals  a  that  His Ural  resulted  region,  which  2 was  different  from  Mamin-Sibiriak "By  European  introduced  h i s w r i t i n g the  Russia..  the  author  Through  Russian  has  reader  opened  up  his to  work  the  a whole  Urals.  area  of  2 Russian  lxfe The  unusual, From  history  search  of  to  Russia  valuable  pelts  days  pushed  out  others  —  they  builiti In  the  of  land.  and  thus  of  other  former  of  the  Tsar  the  one  of  development Ural  i n time  these  of  r e g i o n was  into  them  the and  iron  ore,  precious  the  main  industrial  i n gold,  stones,  and  regions  of  of  those they and  peoples  cities. families  settled  acquired  r e g i o n was  rich  in  eastward  several  Chusovaia  this  i n search  native  grew  came  in  valued  m e r c h a n t s , who  the  the  Siberia.  moved  region  granted  attention.  Tartars, Bashkirs,  sixteenth century,  the  and  quite  settlers  eastward  they  is  attracted  Russian  Urals  of  Ural  special  had  highly  As  lands  which  properties along the  the  furs  Stroganov  the  1558  of  region  fur resources  move  inhabitants —  history  famous.  copper,  became  the  Ural  deserve  first  to  hunters.  settlements,  In  As tin,  on  the  depletion of  and  local  middle  extensive  fox  the  the  The  forests  Russian  became v e r y in  area.  The  i n the  of  natural resources  this  the  and  literature."  that  forced hunters  squirrel,  lured  the  furs.  European  Sable,  i n features  times  people  in  of/development  abounding  ancient  Russian in  h i t h e r t o unknown  vast  rights Kama  there tracts  to rivers,  begun. platinum, timber, Russia.  silver,  i t With  3 the  discovery of  flow  of  settlers,  entrepreneurs. complexes of  peasant  that  the  usual  mills  and  end  of  brought,  the  came  the  up,"requiring a  were  time  wealth  including  Towards  serfs  Urals'  Factories,  sprang  labour.  Until  the  and  peasants  s t r o n g and  huge  and  industrial  and  constant  seventeenth  attached to  living  steady  fortune-hunters  large  the  a  i n the  supply  century,  industrial U r a l s were  mills. free  men. At the of  the  end  rapid  place.  founder  of  i n the  U r a l s was  of  descendants  his  f o r Laptev,  novel  Gornoe The  constant  ment  of  family  to  century  industry One  the  presence source  built and  grew  reasons  f o r the  on  the  The (The  of  making  i n the  of  development  the  (16 5 6 -  characters i n his  timber  Urals.  and  region.  steel  the  Ural  prominently.  The  that  and  not  region. latter  develop-  Mamin-Sibiriak  these  c o n d i t i o n s were  provided  Demidov  works  Fortune) of  the  The  settlements  Privalov  of  branch  Demidov  possible  in this  iron  this  in  Mamin-Sibiriak's  virgin  recollections  economic  figured  as  growth  Nest).  stands  mills  i n one  his  served  Mountain  vast  Demidovich  principal  industry  up  The  Nikita  charcoal,  milliony  are based  also  of  family.  Favourable reason  (The  of  iron  of  fifty-five  Demidov  Privalovskie gnezdo  one  gnezde  a huge  born  took  seventeenth  industry  model  was  the  mining  1725).  a  of  belonged  setting  in  Gornoe  enterprises. the  only  Political arose  as  a  4 direct  result  deportations  of  two  and  free  reasons.  During  sixteenth  century  peasants  and  in  the  Urals  century source  of  and  the  and  Russia  and  become  a  of  population  At  the  flow  beginning  of  the  region  to  After  Believers  escaped  frontier lishing  religious  attracted  brief  strong,  enterprising escaping found  geneous,  to  territory,  This  all  the  from  freedom  at  hid  — The  seek  fortunes  their of  end  the  of  the  eighteenth  the  sixteenth  and  a  steady  region.  to  century  settle  guard of  the  the  the  i n the  This  in  was  Siberian  1667  at  an  peasants  cultivation.  split  the  in  seventeenth  to  of  Ural region.  p u n i t i v e measure,  grain  they  end  conditions  the  Ural  strategic  seventeenth  middle  U r a l s , which  where  the  forced  and  the  the  to  a movement  religious  Old  time  was  forests,  a  estab-  communes. history  of  determined  adventurers the  to  the  settlements  the  of  them  the  the  develop  Cossack  frontier.  to  —  living  By  permanent  initiated  by  escaped  t h a t began  decree  followed  beginning  forced  action:  for military  Trouble"  severe  imperial Ural  of  elsewhere.  deportations had  government  settlement "Time  hunger,  areas  century,  the  of  town d w e l l e r s  lawlessness, central  kinds  law,  individualistic  region  and  freedom-loving  i n search  and  here.  the  of wealth,  political  A l l these society,  shows  and  left  the  Urals  people.  The  criminals  religious  elements and  that  created their  dissenters a  mark  heteroon  the  5 social  history  marked  t h e growth  echoed  i n the writings of Mamin-Sibiriak.  author  demonstrates  and  unusual  talent  made  singularly attention the  of the region.  and development  nature these  a profound of l i f e ' i n  works  colourful. t o t h e most  vivid  epoch  in  Russian  literary  history.  The  vigorous  growth  of  of life  society  economic people  very  that  clearly  a great history  development from  of capitalism I t changed  of Mamin-Sibiriak,  deal of —  namely  f o rhim a place  the class  many structure  of the people.  spiritual  i n t h e new  V. A l ' b o v ,  and  and t h e  changed  described this  the changing  critic,  artistic  t h e 70s t o t h e 90s  has ensured  was m a n i f e s t  emerged w i t h Russian  paid  i t s i m p r i n t on t h e minds  change, which  The works  i n Russia.  and l e f t  Mamin-Sibiriak  and t h i s  His great  characteristic  stretching  the past  region are  of the turbulent  of Ural  industrial  of  aspects  —  very  that  I n h i s work t h e  the Urals.  Mamin-Sibiriak  of capitalism, century  of the Ural  knowledge  unique,  period of intensive  blossoming  Many o f t h e f e a t u r e s  and  types o f  times. i n an e s s a y  on t h e  states:  Page a f t e r page, t h e a u t h o r u n f o l d s b e f o r e t h e r e a d e r t h e b r i l l i a n t p i c t u r e s o f c h a r a c t e r s and scenes, d e t a i l i n g s t e p by s t e p t h e h i s t o r y o f c a p i t a l i n d i f f e r e n t b r a n c h e s o f i n d u s t r y , sometimes s p r e a d o v e r huge d i s t r i c t s and r e g i o n s . He t r a c e s i t s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t i c way o f l i f e , -lays b a r e t h e s t r a t a o f s o c i e t y w h i c h a r e h e l d t o g e t h e r by i t , and analyzes t h e i r relative p o s i t i o n s and t h e consequent social situations.  6 The a u t h o r d o e s n o t r e s t r i c t h i m s e l f t o t h e economic e v o l u t i o n o f the s o c i e t y . He f o l l o w s t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n o f c a p i t a l i n t o a l l s p h e r e s o f human l i f e , into the family, into legal relationships, i n t o morals, i n t o a l l n o t i o n s , and i n t o s c i e n c e and literature.^ Against that  many  He  presented  aspects, with  gave  he c r e a t e d e x c e l l e n t  novels  were  writes  i n an  of Ural  contradictions  an i n s i g h t  aim —  become r i c h  the inner world  i t s many  the reader  by. a s i n g l e to  background  d e s c r i b e d t h e c o n d i t i o n s and day-to-day  period.  He  this  into  people  Many  derived directly  of the  society  and  i n i t s  conflicts.  who w e r e  to create the potential  themselves.  life  novels  motivated  t o make money a n d  of the personalities  from  life.  i n the  Mamin-Sibiriak  article:  C h a r a c t e r s a r e i n abundance h e r e ; one has b u t t o take a b r u s h and p a i n t them. The U r a l s , as f a r as human t y p e s a r e c o n c e r n e d , a r e a n i n e x h a u s t i b l e source — something f a n t a s t i c and i n c r e d i b l e i s p r e s e n t a l l around.4 The  personalities  fascinated their how  found  t o reach  ambitions  h i s main  intrigued long  Mamin-Sibiriak.  striving  their  of people  their  industry  inheritance,  both  his  The p r o b l e m  novels.  those  their  around  motivation,  them,  the author  h i s heroes.  of the wealthy  i n the Urals.  financial  i n the Urals  g o a l s , and i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g  fordescribing  by t h e h i s t o r i e s  controlled  In showing  affected  vehicle  living  families  was  who h a d  The q u e s t i o n s o f  and g e n e t i c , a r e major  of strong  He  fathers  a n d weak  issues i n sons  7 figures  prominently.  between  h i s work  In  Critics  and t h a t  one o f h i s n o v e l s ,  elements case  of the French  The P r i v a l o v  are distinctly  i n h i s other  o f h i s time  present,  works:  they  noted  naturalist,  Fortune,  although  bear  only  similarities E. Zola.  naturalistic  this  i s notthe  faint  traces of  naturalism. His which is  novels  i s profoundly  presented  historical and  with  epoch.  thorough  segments are  have  formulated.  a many-sided  description  of society,  presented  millionaires,  managers  of plants  There  occupy  workers  groups,  engineers,  executive  Although public,  inconsistent, N. avoided  or hostile  finds  doctors,  and P o l e s  mining bankers,  people  such  and t e a c h e r s .  — w h o ,  a n d t h e common  i n most people  —  d i s s e n t e r s , and n a t i v e  and t h e T a r t a r s .  Mamin-Sibiriak  t h e contemporary  of the aristocracy,  professional  religious  detailed  Nearly a l l  owners, merchants,  positions;  the Bashkirs  the reader  by a v e r y  the reader  lawyers,  Germans  and peasants,  like  mine  and f a c t o r i e s ,  are foreigners —  cases, the  gold  Here  reality,  of the entire  life.  the exception  i n h i s novels.  economists,  perception  o f day-to-day  with  of  In h i s novels  ThUssisaabhieved; p r i m a r i l y  industry  as  a f a r - r e a c h i n g grasp  was w i d e l y  read  critics  were  towards  h i m as a w r i t e r s.  K. M i k h a i l o v s k i i ,  either  by t h e  a prominent  discussing Mamin-Sibiriak s 1  indifferent,  critic  works.  o f t h e time,  As t h e l e a d e r o f  8 the in the  Populist writings  literary produced  Populist  placed G.  above  Mamin-Sibiriak Korolenko  the  without  other  customs  as  a sociologist. historical region,  Russian intimate  Sibiriak  said  that  originality  was  extremely  1896, however, as A.  P.  he  Chekhov, and  misunderstood h i s novels  and l a c k i n g  pre-revolutionary  even  by  another  were " d r y  consistency  of Ural  the Urals;  society,  deny  I t i s true  and economic  problems  considers  this  that  i n  however,  before  V. A l ' b o v  dealing  the Soviet view  taking  these  at that  and with  critics  and c l a s s i f y  him  outlined  place  changes  i nh i s  were  time.  t h e 70s o f t e n  analyzed  of individual characters.  similar issues  solely  Mamin-Sibiriak  processes  f o r a l l of Russia writers  critics,  as a w r i t e r  and A. Gruzdev  characteristic  and  works  level  works were  who  and m o r a l s  Bogoliubov  native  of  Skabichevskii,  I. Nemirovich-Danchenko,  saw M a m i n - S i b i r i a k  E.  the  follower  conception."  While  the  merit  Zola.^  artistic  P. B y k o v ,  A . M.  dated  o n t h e same  a n d V.  E. Anichkov,  narratives  critic,  article,  Mamin-Sibiriak's critic,  not a true  of the earlier  In h i s later  £mile  was  any  i n h i s criticisms of Mamin-Sibiriak's  His criticism  caustic.  V.  distinguished  not consistent  works.  b y o n e who  not find  ideology.  Another was  movement, he c o u l d  o n a much w i d e r  personal  Maminscope.  9 Here his  he  is a  f o l l o w e r o f M.  contemporaries  to  E.  leave  Saltykov-Shchedrin,  the  who  " c o n f i n i n g framework  urged  of  the  7  family-type rate, has  as  novel."  before,  become  are  revolutionary The  political his  on  the  love  unthinkable."  There  works.  Saltykov-Shchedrin  group.  creative  He  activity  with  the,concepts  time. any  of  As  a  result  preconceived  thought  they  because  they  ing  class  novels the  set  the  the  are  able  narrow  period. of  this,  life he  struggle.  i n the  Soviet critic,  Urals. E.  A.  pre-  not  and  scope Nor  elabogentry,  and  a member  d i d not of  the  imposed  posed  the  to  present  on  at  This  i s especially  writes  reader as  he  talent  i n h i s work m a t e r i a l  Bogoliubov,  work  that  his  find  i t should  his  truthfully.  Mamin-Sibiriak*s  However,  any  political-  problems  them  of  confine  link  prevailed  He  post-  Mamin-Sibiriak*s  d i d he  which  never  recognize to  was  relativist  solutions.  critics  landed  towards  t h a t he  existed, trying  Soviet  the  of  a  to  trends  any  of  was  was  ideological  the  f o r the  indifference  reason  of  "To  g  s e v e r a l reasons  critics*  main  affairs  wrote:  true of be  illustratthe  noted  that  that  . . . although the p r i n c i p a l works of M a m i n - S i b i r i a k stand c l o s e r to the Marxist concept of the world, a t t h e same t i m e M a m i n - S i b i r i a k f a i l e d t o m a s t e r the Matrxist t r u t h completely.9 The  novels  discuss  the  w r i t t e n by problems  Mamin-Sibiriak of  the  life  of  i n St. the  Petersburg,  intelligentsia,  which  10 problems of a r t , the e d u c a t i o n and u p b r i n g i n g of the younger g e n e r a t i o n , the emancipation  of women, the problems of  j o u r n a l i s m and the p r e s s , and so o n Soviet c r i t i c s .  a r  ^e  never considered  by  Indeed, they are not even p u b l i s h e d , so  t h a t S o v i e t readers  cannot judge f o r themselves the  literary  s t a t u r e of the w r i t e r . Outside  the S o v i e t Union the name of  Mamin-Sibiriak  i s mentioned only i n p a s s i n g i n a number of s o u r c e s . 1916  to 1946  From  some c r i t i c i s m s of h i s work were p u b l i s h e d , but  these were g e n e r a l l y one-sided  and not always a c c u r a t e .  Sometimes he i s c o n s i d e r e d to be a p o p u l i s t , ^ or an 1  ethnographer,  11  to the e x c l u s i o n of e v e r y t h i n g e l s e .  In  other i n s t a n c e s , he has been i d e n t i f i e d as a f o l l o w e r of P. O. M e l h i k o v - P e c h e r s k i i , because he d e p i c t e d the l i v e s r e l i g i o u s d i s s e n t e r s on v a r i o u s o c c a s i o n s . c o r r e c t d e s c r i p t i o n of Mamin-Sibiriak E n g l i s h c r i t i c , R i c h a r d Hare, who  of  Perhaps the most  has been g i v e n by  speaks of him  the  as a r e a l i s t ,  p r e s e n t i n g the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n and the development of c a p i t a l i s m i n R u s s i a a g a i n s t the t r a d i t i o n s and l i f e of the U r a l s and S i b e r i a , and d e s c r i b e s him as a s k i l f u l w r i t e r , 12 comparable t o Chekhov. The  theme of money runs as a l e i t m o t i f through many  of Mamin-Sibiriak*s sees the quest selfishness:  works.  There can be no doubt t h a t he  f o r m a t e r i a l wealth  as the cause of greed  and  Our t i m e i s t h e t i m e o f complex and extensive combinations of i n t e r r e l a t e d f o r c e s . Certain phenomena e x i s t i n g i n t h e i n t e r n a l l i f e o f a s t a t e , indeed of a l l s t a t e s , are bound t o g e t h e r o r g a n i c a l l y and a r e c o n t r o l l e d by i n e x o r a b l e l a w s . T h i s may be s e e n by l o o k i n g a t a l l economic phenomena, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the combination of f a t e f u l i n t e r n a t i o n a l f o r c e s ; d e f i n e d and computed o n l y r e c e n t l y , w h i c h governs everything everywhere. We are talking, dear reader, about the flywheel t h a t d r i v e s a l l the w h e e l s , g e a r s and s h a f t s o f E u r o p e , t h e flywheel c a l l e d C a p i t a l , t h e i n f l u e n c e Of w h i c h i s f e l t e v e r y w h e r e and f r o m w h i c h one c a n n o t e s c a p e . ^ 1  In for-ms.  Mamin-Sibiriak's  It  milliony,  takes of  fortuitous in  a  gold  chosen which has  on  earned  wealth field  form  of  wealth  obtained  in  the  the  proximity  various to  as  novel  i t i s the  success,  power,  fulfilment.  good magic  luxury  the  and a  and  to  and  other  of  three  the  some, w e a l t h  password  forms  strike  novels,  conflicts effects  i t  represents  f e l l o w man,  a world  many  lucky  v a r i e t y of  f o r one's  many  of  These  creates,  For  deeds  result  in  in Privalovskie  gnezdo,  Zoloto.  to wealth  appears  inheritance  the  show  characters. do  an  money  i n Gornoe  for discussion, will  opportunity others  the  novels,  of of  for  adventure, self-  an  CHAPTER PRIVALOVSKIE Wealthy  industrialists  and  I MILLIONY  their attitude  towards  money  R i c h e s a r e as n o t h i n g i n the wrong hands. — Russian proverb. The  novel  conditions, a  rich  in  the  customs  mill  and  elite  and  heir  trustees,  who  maturity.  careless  and  treasury  unscrupulous Privalov,  millions.  of and The  time  great  the  of  upon  the  bankers,  in  Urals  industrial  whose main  heroes  miners,  located  of  attention  society  living  town  region of  the  the  the  traces over  the  rich  interest  novel  are  merchants,  a  the  motives  to  150  years.  He  then  and  finally  of  the  the  were  at  the  his  accumulation describes  hands  the  of  in  with  on  the  and  the  to  greedy  character  scheming  trustees,  of  its forfeiture  interested  t h e i r hands  three  reached  machinations  contrasts i s not  who  lay  he  the  h e i r , who  friends  until of  estates,  Sergei  and  history  He  trustees,  mills,  business  r e s u l t of  trustees.  between  the  the  trustees, as  conflict  Shatrovskii  after  fortune  and  relatives  on  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of  those  district  his  The  gold  rich  author  State  with  a  money.  the  looked  the  Sergei  the  town,  centres  to  The  heirs  a  the  fortune-seekers.  Privalov  slow  at  focuses  owners,  novel  Priwalov,  the  the  of  depicts  gold-producing  author of  factory  The  the  and  a c q u i s i t i o n of  middlemen  of  The  mil1iony  morals  eighteen-seventies,  industrial the  and  metallurgical  development.  is  Privalovskie  of  money, their  Privalov methods  they  13 use in  to  achieve  great  detail  The history  their  plot  of  lurgical  the  goal  by  the  of  the  of  novel  located  in  with  scandal  of  the  inheritance  Privalov),  and  used  years, the in  colourful  the B.  nized  that the  to  of  in the  his  of  time,  of  of  the are  such  Uzel, the  the  Ural  as  time  of  the  many  depict magnates  characters  have  the  easily as  in  recog-  most  and  houses  Urals),  Ekaterinburg.  l a r g e s t and  is realistic  and  creativity.  novel,  millionaires'  for  to  (Minstrel of  the  Sergei  Riazanov,  artistic  in  the  well-known  such  could  fair,  The  on  in of  lived  Kharlamov,  Urala  in Siberia,  detail.  was  characters.  industrial  based  described Irbit  own  information  abundance  Pevets  of  metal-  (prototype  Mamin-Sibiriak  1  book  actual  Kyshtymskii  for his  Mamin-Sibiriak s  i t s kind  smallest  and  reader  d e s c r i p t i o n of  the  the  i n the  Mamin-Sibiriak  Zotovs  background  richness  town  important  the  models  characters  stimulated  Udintsev,  writes  The  The  Urals  rich  The  industrialists 1  a  described  personalities involved  of  as  famous  Urals.  principal  them  i t s roots  the  p e r s o n a l i t i e s of  novel.  others.  of  s o c i e t y , i n which  gave him  his  has  the  acquainted  Ekaterinburg  the  are  author.  development  works  self-enrichment,  true are  even  repre-  2 sented  with  photograph-like  the  mill-site,  the  the  reader  diversity  artistic  the  skill  The  of  village,  the  beginning  of  accuracy. and  the  the  Ural  The  Bashkir  descriptions steppes  panorama,  and  of  convey show  the  author. of  the  novel  finds Sergei  Privalov  in  to  '  14 Uzel,  where he has j u s t  absence  of fifteen  factories some  from  years.  the debts  of h i s mills,  creditors", landless  arrived  The h e i r  of.the  on  shady  acquired  a personal  brought  them by h i s f o r e f a t h e r s .  He d r e a m s mill  of organizing  from  Two one  estate;  this who  i n personal  stands  constitutes which  hand,  He  relief  an a n t i t h e s i s  i s the acquisition  he  perceives  to counteract i t s Ural  and b u i l d i n g a  property  businessmen,  against  the state  can derive  the other  and  theme  small  by  alone  On t h e trustees, managing among  and p h i l a n t h r o p i s t  h i s f e l l o w men.  t o t h e main of riches  and  owners.  P r i v a l o v stands  t o help  area.  flour  i n the novel.  they  these  the injustices  i s a humanitarian  h i s money  towards  f r e e i n g the peasants  gain, which  on t h e o t h e r  out i n sharp  trade  are at play  the skilled  of using  and  of agriculture i n this  on r i c h  forces  g r o u p ofc "sharKss" dreams  against  lands  Moreover,  and w i s h e s  a grain  dependence  find  to rectify  b a s i s , thus  opposite  h a n d , we  interested the  the level  on a r a t i o n a l  producers  and wants  as an e v i l  by r a i s i n g  perpetrated  Bashkir  sell  rendered  responsibility  people  effects  to  them.  feels  industrialization  an  "historical  who w e r e  deals  dispossessed upon  after  to free the  of the  and p e a s a n t s ,  t h e m b y h i s f o r e f a t h e r s , who  Privalov  intends  a n d t o p a y o f f some  as a r e s u l t  mills  Petersburg  i n c u r r e d by h i s s t e p f a t h e r ,  the Bashkirs  established  from  He  characters of the novel  self-enrichment.  and —  15 The of  the  and  a  novel, group  fortunes the  struggle  juxtaposing  of  by  between  and  any  means.  adventurers,  exposes  the  very  used  the  characters  is  by  the  one's An  goal; own  to  wife  atmosphere  class  roots  and of  wider  the  culminating  point  idealistic  unfolds hero,  The  bitter  struggle  and  Liakhovskii, with  gradually the  pursuit  complete  or  human n a t u r e , i s reached  personal  f o r money w a g e d the  help  The  own  of  author  despicable  money.  by  To  methods  get  rich  selling  honesty  and  honour.  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of  the  upper  novel.  Uzel  their  course  Privalov,  is permissible:  one's  moral the  of  i n the  Sergei  intensifies.  i t everything  daughter,  enhance  r e p u l s i v e and  i n the  d e s c r i p t i o n of  p i c t u r e of  evil  to  of  attain  and  strive  p r e v a i l s throughout  beyond  the  e g o t i s t s who  t r u s t e e s , Polovodov  cheats  good  However,  society  and  i t s foibles  i n the  the  novel  embraces and  a  goes  much  i t s greed.  d e s c r i p t i o n of  the  A  Irbit  3 Trade  Fair.  I r b i t . . . was a kind of Babylon, a t t r a c t i n g men o f the most d i v e r s e c o u n t r i e s , n a t i o n s , tongues and religions. I t was a t u r b u l e n t sea which swallowed up a n y o n e who ventured near i t . A t h i r s t f o r gain brought people together from a l l the four winds and t h i s mob o f many t o n g u e s a n d t r i b e s d i d e x c e l l e n t l y i n understanding mutual i n t e r e s t s , needs and requirements.4 Mamin-Sibiriak weaknesses essential upon  and  money,  of  humanity  traits examined  the  uses  drive  the  in general.  inherent  in  i n minute to  get  fair  the  By  a  device  However,  people  detail:  rich.  as  the  in  to  one  the  show  of  contrasting  the  novel  infatuation  the  is with  various  dwelt  15a characters, pursuit a  of riches:  source  of  the author  reveals the deeper  t o some  of pleasure,  riches  give  motives  power,  l u x u r y , o r o f means  f o r this  to others  i t i s  t o buy t h e a f f e c t i o n  the opposite sex. The  opposing  composition  forces:  of the novel  the altruist  industrial  magnates.  the  personality,  hero's  centre events, point used and  revolve  other  Russian  to present  the  t h e many  places  the hero,  who  establishing  thus  social-psychological  sides of  him a t the very  becomes  Concentric a link  of  selfish  c h a r a c t e r s , as w e l l  i n the novel.  by t h e author,  a deployment  versus  Mamin-Sibiriak  the other  around  of a l l action  Privalov  In order  of the novel:  presents  as v a r i o u s the focal  composition  between novels  this  i s  novel  of the f i r s t -  5 half  of the nineteenth  present  throughout  chapters;  b u t even  conversations  used  The hero,  the novel, with there  of other  Flashback  century.  i s felt  t o enhance  suspense  the  novel.  Everyone  one  another  showing  the ideological  between  Privalov  and h i s former  part begins  the love  relationship  In  this  An  the reader's  and  arise  from  are composition  fate  i s created  o f a few the  characters.  the  which  of Privalov.  the exception  h i s presence  and f o r e t e l l i n g  by M a m i n - S i b i r i a k  Privalov, i s  atmosphere  around  expects  techniques  interest i n  of expectation,  Privalov  the heir  from  tension  the beginning  to act.  Scenes  and b u s i n e s s  follow  conflicts  trustee,  between  of  the  Bakharev. hero  16 and  Nadezhda  remains The  unresolved.  hero  in  only In  intricate of  centre of  a  their  interest in  web  and  and  chaos:  business  the  Later,  At  of  his  own  between  hero, the  Privalov  finds  to  and  his  that  Polovodov,  one  of  his  and  good  realized. and  He  this  Irbit  out  The  and  has  trustees.  left  He will  alone,  initiates  his  of  his  the  wealth.  the is  him  side and  in  Zosia,  fallen  into  finally  weak  a  becomes part  the  clarified.  is unfaithful the  and.never  and  of  complex  hands  understands  empty-handed,  state  Privalov  last  is  an  the  and  which  opponents  spiritual  people  Gradually  fifth  not  is  Privalov  act.  wife,  society  mass  around  to  up  gauging  during  his  his  intentions is  to  Fair,  inheritance  the  move  clear  s o c i e t y weaves  after  pushed  that  this  postponed.  to  Uzel  and  outset,  begin  Privalov  There,  Privalov  downfall.  the  parts,  however,  is  steps  amorphous  trustees  they  no  parts,  the  personality. action;  an  fourth  ensnares  describes  ideals  two  by  third  relationship  crushed,  first  central position, is  novel  been  the of  the  his  him  inheritance  state  his  of  In  the  spectator  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p which,  a  expectation.  loses  The  matters.  presented  sides  a  talks, procrastinates,.takes  business  united  Bakhareva —  could  of  that have  morally  physical  disin-  tegration. The maker  of  various  author  Uzel, social  who  skillfully has  access  s t r a t a , to  uses to  Khiona a  introduce  number  Zaplatina, of  quickly  a  match-  households a l l the  in  major  17 characters on  the  his a  who,  hero.  The  contacts  and  fragmented  of  other  by  of  characters  and  ideas  the in  put  personality  Many  characters  with  this  the  reference  how  taneously  and  some  hero  i s revealed  these  characters.  i s seen people  slowly  through  around  in  effect through It  the  him.  well  emerge  are  the  of  family  Bakhareva;  his  first  Darwin  his  milieu  the  in  of  as  is  prism The  those  the  novel  of  process  of  and  are  and  that of  and  of  first  of  his  Zosia  with  i n Mamin-Sibiriak's  Emile  and  believed  heredity.  in  their  their  accordance  Two  behaviour  he  and  mistress,  and  are  sons.  simul-  This  connected second  and  shows  generations  fathers  love  stressed.  fathers  flashback,  families directly  that  He  treated  time,  fascinated  others.  characters  novel:  his  was  of.his  factor is strongly  inherited. the  and  people  environment  technique  the  wife,  educated  sciences,  heredity up  their  true  by  i n the  builds  traits  most  product  The  Similarities ceived  have  p e r s o n a l i t y , as  natural  a  presented  hero:  of  is  Using  particularly  Nadezhda  the  novel,  like  shown  to  forefathers.  the  hero  of  hero's  forward  belief.  Mamin-Sibiriak  clearly  the  will  interactions.  that  in  the  opinions  i n t e r e s t e d i n the the  another,  relationships with  Mamin-Sibiriak, was  or  personality of  and  traits  these  way  approach,  impressions  various  of  i n one  is  with  wife,  Antonina  Polovodova;  Likhovskaia. Zola's  novel.  framework  Critics  have  can  be  often  percompared  !8 him  to  novel  Zola.  The  Cherty  Pepko),  iz  writer  zhizni  expressed  his  himself,  Pepko  in  an  (Features  intention  to  autobiographical from  create  the  a  Life  series  of  of  novels,  6 "similarly s h o w how the  as  the  did  of  milliony. In  in  biological  characters  forces  Zola  of  the  heredity  "The  is  Rougon",  i n which  hereditary  heroes.  The  expressed  Differences  force  he  can  intended  direct  preoccupation  most  between  strongly  Balzac  and  and  with  in  to shape  the  Privalovskie  myself,"  Zola  states: I (choose, above a l l , a p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e n d e n c y , n o t i n o r d e r t o e x h i b i t i t , b u t s o t h a t i t may l i n k my b o o k s t o g e t h e r . The b e s t w o u l d p e r h a p s be m a t e r i a l i s m , t h a t i s t o say the b e l i e f i n f o r c e s a b o u t w h i c h I n e e d n e v e r be explicit. The w o r d f o r c e d o e s n o t c o m p r o m i s e me.^ The  force  ence  of  there  chosen  by  Zola  environment.  were  to  In  was  heredity,  his  books,  modified  by  the  influ-  Les*Rougon-Marquart,  be  . . . two e l e m e n t s : o n e , the p u r e l y human,.physiol o g i c a l element, the s c i e n t i f i c study of a family . . . the s e c o n d , the e f f e c t o f the modern e r a on t h i s f a m i l y , i t s breakdown through the ravaging passions o f t h e e p o c h , t h e s o c i a l and physical a c t i o n of the environment.8 Mamin-Sibiriak factors Sergei  which  both  influence  the the  hereditary development  and of  the his  environmental protagonist,  Privalov. What  regain  uses  his  kind  of  person  inheritance  is Privalov?  which  will  give  How him  does the  he  means  fight to  to  f u l f i l l  19 his  dreams  in  respect As  gives a  and to  ideals? his  i t has  his  hero  lative  process  on  hero's  the  internal, nal  enters roles as the  appear  the  ionaire,  a  ladies.  These  as  he  aura which  side  the  the  last  as  various  a f t e r he  see  has  a a  desirable  his  wealth  has  of  the  of  of  and  the  for  heir  duty is  a  entire  mill-  society. of Finally,  of  society person. The  and  young  personality  stripped.  to  filter  local  ordinary  to  power  wealth.  Uzel  and  metallur-  the  the  of  does  exter-  hero  a l l , the  him  real  money  been  the  develops  Privalov  catch  the  several as  family  image  cumubased  and  whose w i s h e s ,  the  shy  This  novel  upon  develops  multi-faceted  through  distorted  lost  the  adulation  hide  and  On  from  his  famous  person,  i s : a modest,  surrounds  as  Privalov  roles  life.  Secondly,  and  take  external,  expands  Uzelj  imposes  wealthy  respect  the  i s , first a  novel  hero  and  light  business.  a bachelor,  really  of  of  he  Mamin-Sibiriak  environment;  his  widens  position  greed,  planes:  He  does  fragments.  spiritual  circle  society  from  studies  deepens.  His  this  personal  only  inner  out,  i n his  social  contrasting  family  is  him  a  firm,  Privalov  heir;  his  fabulously  of  pointed  main  in his  society  in  r i c h e s - command Members  two  external  magnates.  continue  their  on  involvement  Privalov  gical  follows  action  trustees?  characterization  high  of  central position  actions  This  the  been  Mamin-Sibiriak  the  his  already  centred  plane,  angles.  opponents,  the  psychological  What method  the see The  falsity  20 and  hollowness  bankrupt  moral  The a  Bakhareva,  him  values  physical  disjointed  father  of Uzel  high  society  blown  apart.  p o r t r a i t of Sergei  description  youngest  and former  are exposed,  as seen  daughter  guardian  s e c r e t l y when h e f i r s t  Privalov  through  of Vasily  their  i s given  t h e eyes  Bakharev,  of Privalov.  She has  came  house:  to their  i n  of Vera the fosterobserved  V e r a was p e r f e c t l y c o n t e n t w i t h w h a t s h e h a d seen. . . . She approved o f h i s h e i g h t , h i s v o i c e , even h i s g i n g e r i s h beard. Y e t he had i r r e g u l a r f e a t u r e s and p r o m i n e n t cheekbones, s m a l l brown eyes a n d a l a r g e m o u t h , a n d was s c a r c e l y h a n d s o m e . 9 P r i v a l o v was a m i l l i o n a i r e ( V e r a was a p r a c t i c a l minded young t h i n g , c o n s c i o u s o f t h a t word's magic q u a l i t i e s ) .- 1  Here, hero,  0  apart  the author  Privalov's kind.""'"  Privalov's mother,  points  personality, This  1  from  physical  description  out the distinguishing namely  i s echoed  foster-mother  on s e e i n g  separation:  a purely  h i s kindness:  i n t h e words and a c l o s e  him f o r the f i r s t  " H e ' s s o much  like  trait  ofhis of  "His eyes  of Maria  were  Bakhareva,  f r i e n d of h i s deceased time  after  h i s mother  . . .  a  long a  kind  ..12 person. Privalov everything features  was  connected  a n d some  very with  traits  fond  o f h i s mother,  her.  He  and he  treasured  inherited her physical  of her character.  "Privalov's  13  hair  was much l i k e h i s m o t h e r ' s , a n d h e l i k e d i t f o r t h a t . " This i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the q u a l i t i e s o f h i s mother exposes  21 his  nature: The  what  he  inherited  conflict  i s expected  Bakharev. firm,  he has  Bakharev  and t h e r e f o r e  and  f u l f i l l  the  i n h e r i t a n c e and  "Privalov business  between what t o do sees  and  comes  t o do  i n the mining  obligations.  that  he  To  business  with famous  business  P r i v a l o v , however, are a  d i d not like  i t was  and  out i n a conversation  continue  the family  thought  P r i v a l o v wants  character.  P r i v a l o v a s t h e heir., t o t h e  he must  his social  explained  h e r weak b u t g e n t l e  burden:  the iron  an a r t i f i c i a l l y  and  steel  developed  branch  14 of  industry." Influenced  and  the l i b e r a l  by h i s u n i v e r s i t y  ideas  of the time,  education  in  Petersburg  P r i v a l o v intends  to  15 settle to  h i s debts  land  start  i n a new To  family's  to h i s forefathers.  interests.  These  Who their  first flicts  Moreover,  t h e wheat  The  opposing social  were  between  fortune?  settlers  he  between the f i r s t  territory. settlers  to  imposed  by  i n the  the exposition  past.  his paternal  i n Bashkir  of  to his .  i s shown  Privalov's ancestors  On  intends  the role  wishes  are revealed  and h e r e d i t a r y  Sergei  f o r the loss  Privalov i s a traitor  conflict  ideas  and wants  trade.  s o c i e t y , and h i s p e r s o n a l  the hero's  gain  business,  creditors"  and t h e B a s h k i r s  the o l d Bakharev,  him by  novel. of  his "historical  compensate t h e peasants  their  on  with  and  a n d how  s i d e , they There were the l o c a l  were  d i d they the  often  con-  inhabitants.  the  f r e e nomadic  and  s t o l e n by t h e s e t t l e r s .  Privalov's struggle  they  the  developed  lack  were  made  of their  the  and m i l l s ,  This  continued  once  strong  from  of total  place  over  Guliaeva,  owner.  Pavel  to  save  simple  themselves gold-miner  returned  thought  from  i n Siberia.  veins.  himself  Such  acquired  found  The i d l e  life,  o f f the interest i n  u n t i l the  themselves  of disintegration  on t h e  took  Privalov's  father,  i f he h a d n o t m a r r i e d  He w a s  ten years, having  was o f  t o the Urals  persecution.  But, "In spite  gold-mine  grandfather,  had escaped  a millionaire,  man  and  settlers for  t o the next,  Within  the unhappiest  this  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o managers.  maternal  religious  In  rich  of a millionaire  h i s ancestors  to the Urals  gold-bearing  Sergei's  domains  them  little  and S e r g e i  ruined  the daughter  Believer stock:  showed  Privalov family  Guliaev,  made  descendants.  The process  invaded  and nature.  of the f i r s t  one g e n e r a t i o n  have been  Varvara  men  and energy.  their  several generations, would  being  newly-acquired  which  They  and l e f t  ruin.  were  them p a r a s i t e s , l i v i n g  fortune.  and r i c h  verge  Old  qualities  lacking i n their  dividends  Aleksandr,  against  i n the struggle  of purpose  mines  lands  In these  tenacity, willpower  tempered  survival,  whose  forefathers;fought  successful: traits,  Bashkirs,  a  however,  discovered  of hismillions, i n the world  he  several  Guliaev  f o r having  16 no  sons,  only  The  one d a u g h t e r ,  marriage  between  Varvara." Aleksandr  and V a r v a r a  was  a  matter  23 of  convenience,  ruin, in  firstly  and, secondly,  the Urals.  liked  him.  He  t o save  to join  the Shatrovskii  two o f t h e b e s t - k n o w n  "As f o r h i s s o n - i n - l a w , only  mills  r e s p e c t e d h i s name,  families  Guliaev had a n d i t was  from  never to  that  17 name t h a t death, this the  Varvara  Aleksandr  event,  had been Privalov  Aleksandr  possession o f such  was  sacrificed." inherited  Upon  h i s huge  "weak-willed  enormous w e a l t h  Guliaev s 1  fortune.  and k i n d " ; changed  Before  however,  him:  T h e o l d man's p r o p h e c y w a s s o o n t o come t r u e . . . . A l e x a n d e r P r i v a l o v l e t h i m s e l f go. He l a u g h e d when t o l d t h a t G u l i a e v h a d l e f t a l l h i s fortune t o h i s grandson. A s h i s own s o n ' s trustee he took c h a r g e o f a l l t h e G u l i a e v i n t e r e s t s . . . . A l l Bakharev's e f f o r t s , and t h o s e o f P r i v a l o v ' s w i f e , t o s a f e g u a r d S e r g e i ' s i n t e r e s t s , were o f no avail. Alexander P r i v a l o v had waited t o o long, h a d s w a l l o w e d t o o much f r o m h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , t o let a n y t h i n g s t a n d i n h i s way. . . . P r i v a l o v * s monstrous w e a l t h went t o f u r n i s h a l i f e unexampled i n t h e a n n a l s o f t h e U r a l s . The m u l t i - m i l l i o n a i r e , much l i k e some F r e n c h m o n a r c h , was p r e p a r e d t o p a y t e n s o f t h o u s a n d s o f r u b l e s for s o m e t h i n g new, s o m e t h i n g r e f r e s h i n g i n t h e w a y of entertainment, something t h a t , i f only f o r a moment, w o u l d b r i n g h i s o v e r - i n d u l g e d , d e a d e n e d nerves back t o l i f e . The G u l i a e v mansion i n U z e l was f u r n i s h e d w i t h p r i n c e l y s p l e n d o u r . What w e n t on w i t h i n i t s w a l l s d e f i e s t h e i m a g i n a t i o n i n t h i s , our c a l c u l a t i n g , penny-pinching age. Suffice i t to say t h a t t h e R u s s i a n c h a r a c t e r had i t s f u l l , unrestrained fling. From morning t o n i g h t t h e P r i v a l o v palace wallowed i n voluptuousness. Every w e l c o m e a n d u n w e l c o m e g u e s t was f e a s t e d t h e r e . A n d a t t h e s a m e t i m e , i n t h e same h o u s e , i n a s e c r e t c h a p e l , e n d l e s s s e c t a r i a n s e r v i c e s were h e l d round the c l o c k . . . . A l l sense o f r e s t r a i n t e v a p o r a t e d , t h e g o l d e n mean o f l i f e was f l u n g overboard. L i f e brimmed o v e r t h e t o p , e n g u l f i n g everything that l a y i n i t s path. Ordinary luxu r i e s , o r d i n a r y extravagance soon l o s t t h e i r appeal. They s u f f i c e d no l o n g e r . A k i n d o f savage debauch  24 s u c c e e d e d them. T h e r o a d was l a i d with red broadc l o t h f o r m i l e s a h e a d f o r t h e d r u n k e n company t o drive along i t i n hot-blooded t r o i k a s ; the horses w e r e g i v e n champagne t o d r i n k i n s t e a d o f w a t e r , and were e v e n b a t h e d i n champagne. Countless guests f o u n d a s e c o n d home i n t h e P r i v a l o v m a n s i o n , a n d a v e r i t a b l e h a r e m o f b e a u t i e s r e c r u i t e d f r o m among Privalov's serfs ministered to their lusts. A l e x a n d e r P r i v a l o v went b e r s e r k . W i n e a n d women no l o n g e r s t i m u l a t e d h i s d e a d e n e d s e n s i b i l i t i e s , benumbed by w a n t o n d e p r a v i t y . I t h a d come t o a s t a g e when he n e e d e d g r o a n s , w a i l s , t h e s i g h t and s m e l l of blood t o arouse him. Sashka Kholostov, a r e t i r e d Cossack o f f i c e r , r u l e d supreme i n h i s e n t o u r a g e . T h i s S a s h k a , an a t h l e t i c a l l y b u i l t g i a n t , c o u l d d r i n k a dozen b o t t l e s o f champagne w i t h o u t b a t t i n g an e y e l i d and t a k e on f u l l - g r o w n b e a r s s i n g l e - h a n d e d i n m o r t a l combat t o e n t e r t a i n h i s p a t r o n . T h e man was a v e r i t a b l e beastbboa?nsbyJariis.take i n human s h a p e . He h e l d s w a y i n t h e m a n s i o n , a n d P r i v a l o v w o u l d n o t l e t him o u t o f h i s s i g h t e v e n f o r an h o u r . They e v e n s l e p t i n one b e d r o o m . P r i v a l o v needed o n l y t o s a y t h a t h e was b o r e d , a n d S a s h k a i n s t a n t l y t h o u g h t up s o m e t h i n g t o d i v e r t h i m . But the round o f p l e a s u r e s g i v e n t o man i s extremely limited. Soon Sashka had t o r e s o r t t o downright outrages. P r i v a l o v ' s unhappy w i f e , n a t u r a l l y , had no sympathy for the ugly f a c t s of the l i f e that surrounded her. . . . L o n e l y , u t t e r l y l o s t i n t h i s v o r t e x , she c o u l d do l i t t l e m o r e t h a n d e t e s t S a s h k a w i t h a l l her s o u l , t h i n k i n g him the r o o t of a l l the i n i q u i t y . 1 8 Prompted viciously  by  Sashka,  jealous of  perverted. Aleksandr personality, into  a  sadist  mother's  in  his  his wife Privalov,  emotionally and  favourite and  companion,  he  mistreated  her.  deformed  unbalancing  a murderer.  and  him,  M o n e y was  became  warped finally  the  cause  Money his  unstable  turning of  Sergei's  death:  The w e a l t h y h e i r e s s . . . l o s t B a k h a r e v ' s h o m e , w h e r e s h e was  h e r mind and b r o u g h t more  him  died dead  t h a n a l i v e a f t e r one o f t h e c o r p o r a l a d m i n i s t e r e d by h e r husband.  "lessons"  1 9  Aleksandr Stiosha, both a  a  Gypsy, h i s  deadly  afraid  third-storey Sergei  his  father  expressed  Privalov  the  second wife,  of  him,  flung  victim  and  of  his  own  Sashka,  her  lover,  Privalov  to  his  money.  death  from  window. Privalov  and the  became  his  inherited  mother.  same  some o f  Friends  and  the  traits  enemies  of  of  both  Privalov  opinion:  "D'you know, d e a r , w h a t u n d i d t h e Privalovs? Lack of character. They were a l l e i t h e r a model of kindness or a model of b e a s t l i n e s s . No i d e a o f the g o l d e n mean."20 Bakharev  also  "hereditary Maria,  for  thought  Privalov example  —  that  in Privalov's  blood."  Spiegel,  manipulator  in  responsible  for  it.  Summing  up  a keen the  flowed  knew h i m  the  w e l l : —  said:  " I c a n ' t make h i m o u t . m i s s i n g i n him. It's lack He m a k e s up h i s m i n d t o g o somewhere e l s e . " 2 1 Oscar  P e o p l e who  veins  observer  case  of  Privalov's Sergei's  the  There i s something of character, I suppose. s o m e w h e r e , and e n d s up  of  people,  estate  losing his  character,  and  the  stewardship, estate,  Spiegel  was  main who aware  said:  "Privalov? Privalov. Hm. Privalov is a c o m p l e x c h a r a c t e r , t h o u g h h e may look simple. He's at odds w i t h h i m s e l f a l l the time. Besides'the S h a t r o v m i l l s h e a l s o i n h e r i t e d many o f the f a i l i n g s and w e a k n e s s e s o f h i s f o r e f a t h e r s . It is j u s t t h o s e weaknesses t h a t you must take note of —^- h e h a s i n h e r i t e d a m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l w e a k n e s s — l o v e o f women."22  was of  25 Sergei's for  the role  surrounded  by  upbringing  of millionaire riches,  bright  moments w e r e  tragic  death  father  made h i m h a t e  did  mills  those  him  education  and m i l l  spent  d i d not prepare  owner.  h i s c h i l d h o o d was  of h i s mother  not prepare  mining  and  lonely,  i n Bakharev's  and t h e c a l l o u s  the l i f e  shaped  f o r the task  or the firm.  Although  In fact,  attitude  knew  was  and t h e o n l y  by w e a l t h .  Sergei  he  house.  of taking over  him  The of his  His  education  either nothing  the about  mining: P r i v a l o v f e l t a t o t a l stranger i n t h i s realm of f i r e a n d i r o n , a n o u t s i d e r who s p e e c h l e s s l y i n s p e c t e d e v e r y t h i n g h e was s h o w n . He a v o i d e d a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s l e s t t h e workmen d i s c o v e r e d h i s i g n o r a n c e . 2 3 All thing  and, w h i l e  experience  with  U r a l s , he  found  the ruthless  became  spent  i n Petersburg.  u n f a m i l i a r t o him. Sergei  transactions.  himself  totally  businessmen  of the e n t i r e  He  had no  never  Whenllhe  unprepared  and t h e f a t e  town  of Uzel.  o f t h e s e l f - a p p o i n t e d matchmaker,  described  Every-  had  business  any  returned to  to  compete  of Uzel.  Privalov's arrival  the talk  feelings  was  i n Petersburg,  in financial  Sergei  are  life  i n t h e U r a l s was  insight  the  his adult  of h i s fortune F o r example,  Khiona  Zaplatina,  as f o l l o w s :  The v e r y p r o s p e c t o f e n t e r i n g i n t o a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a r e a l m i l l i o n a i r e went t o h e r head. S h e was t o u c h e d b y t h e i n s t i n c t t h a t m o v e s a l l true a r t i s t s , wishing to serve the corporal embodiment o f t h e g r e a t P r i v a l o v f o r t u n e l i k e a Brahman s e r v e s h i s B r a h m a . 2 4  the  26 In and  contrast with  contrary  wants  t o the 'expectations  a r e modest.  simple,  and mostly  His life dull.  ruble-a-day  room,  rooms w h i c h  he r e n t e d  Privalovis However, that  after  as a  o f t h e town,  arriving  Privalov's  h a d been  i n Uzel,  was c o n t e n t Khiona  millionaire,  with  the three  small  catch.  m a t u r e women  i s somewhat  of audacity  a  Zaplatina.  acquaintance,  Sergei  very  he took  m i l l i o n s make h i m a n a t t r a c t i v e  further  the kind  Upon  from  standing  i n the capital  and l a t e r  the unfortunate  audacity,  h i ssocial  women  dull,  like  realize  that  . . . a  "he l a c k s fortune  25 does  n o t make  Privalov, love,  a woman  love  Nadezhda Bakhareva,  i n contrast  h i smillions.  to  g e t t o know h i m w e l l . t o be t h e b r i d e  expresses him to  Sergei's  this  opinion:  as a piece him."  money  Nadezhda  he f a l l s i n  i n the novel,  i s n o t awed  i t difficult  i s very  i n an arranged "If I didn't  i n which  inner  life  proud,  have  She  t o appear  have  for her  and f e e l s  marriage.  I should  the hero  daydreams  h i ss e n s i t i v e nature  towards  other which  i s unfolded  by the author.  tality,  device  whom  makes  with  been  before  much  nicer  2 6  eavesdropping  asides  else  o f merchandise,  Privalov's ical  Unfortunately f o r  the g i r l  t o everyone  by  slighted  a man."  people  uses  In the novel o r muses.  and h i s sense  a r e shown  the author  through  i n these  to stress  psychologthere are  H i s sentimen-  of obligation  asides.  The a r t i s t i c  the feeling  o f compassion  for  the hungry  his  dreams,  and d e s t i t u t e  Privalov  want n o t h i n g  feels  o f yours  —  Bashkirs  oppressed  i s the nightmare. by h i s m i l l i o n s :  not a single  thing.  Your  In  "I  millions  27 wexgh  heavily In  upon  me."  contrast  to Privalov's  towards  money,  in  i s the acquisition  life  Mamin-Sibiriak  and  Liakhovskii,  and  Bakharev,  working  businessman,  shows  trustees,  guardian,  who  i s proud  attitude  the persons  of wealth.  Privalov's  h i s former  indifferent  They  whose  are  greedy  goal  Polovodov  and d i s h o n e s t ,  a straightforward,  hard-  of his acquisitions  and  achievements. Unlike appearance minds any  have  been  and a t t i t u d e s  whose  exposed  psychological  of people  material  possessions  In follows whose  h i s opponents  surrounding  Gogol's  tradition.  appearance  i s a  Liakhovskii's  "veritable  the  without  owned  three  their  environment.  character, Mamin-Sibiriak  Liakhovskii  and s u r r o u n d i n g s  him, and  through  their  and  through  (Privalov  are presented  and through  describing  make-up  by M a m i n - S i b i r i a k  reference to personal possessions  suitcases),  He  Privalov,  i s a typical  resemble  m o t h - e a t e n 'dummy", w h o s e  those  miser  of Plushkin^  "greed  and  28 oddities" l o v 's and  created  first  "thousands  encounter  i s d e s c r i b e d as .  with  of stories"  Liakhovskii  i n Uzel.  happens  Priva-  i n h i s study,  follows:  L i a k h o v s k i i was s e a t e d i n a n o l d l e a t h e r a r m c h a i r . . e v e r y t h i n g . . . s t r u c k t h e eye w i t h i t s  28 i n o r d i n a t e modesty, even a h i n t o f s q u a l o r . The w a l l - p a p e r was a f a d e d b l u e ; t h e c e i l i n g h a d l o n g t u r n e d a d i r t y g r a y , and t h e r e were cobwebs i n t h e c o r n e r ; t h e p a r q u e t f l o o r was b a d l y w o r n a n d c o v e r e d w i t h a shabby l a c k l u s t r e c a r p e t which . . . looked l i k e a large s o i l e d blotch. . . . L i a k h o v s k i i * s own a p p e a r a n c e w a s i n h a r m o n y w i t h that of h i s study. H i s s m a l l m e a g r e f r a m e , much a s the carpet under h i s f e e t , appeared from a f a r like a d i r t y b l o t c h , w i t h t h e one d i f f e r e n c e t h a t i t was p e r c h e d i n a s h a b b y a r m c h a i r . A l t h o u g h i t was summer, . . . t h e m a s t e r h i m s e l f was i n a n o l d quilted overcoat. A s c a r f was w r a p p e d r o u n d h i s gaunt neck. One c o u l d s c a r c e l y t e l l h i s a g e . He b e l o n g e d t o t h a t c a t e g o r y o f p e o p l e , p e t r i f i e d and w i t h e r e d l i k e o l d t o o t h p i c k s , w h o s e a g e was incalculable.^9 Liakhovskii's obsession  which  attitude  dimmed  towards  money  h a d become  an  h i s thinking:  To a c q u i r e f o r t h e m e r e s a k e o f a c q u i r i n g h a d l o n g s i n c e become a s h e l l t h a t h a d grown more and more s o l i d w i t h e v e r y y e a r and g r a d u a l l y o b l i t e r a t e d the l i v i n g b e i n g i n L i a k h o v s k i i . 3 0 However, M a m i n - S i b i r i a k in  h i s study  Gogolian a  human  of this  grotesque capable  person.  reaches  character.  mask  of greed;  of love  further  Liakhovskii inside  and f e e l i n g , even  For h i s daughter,  Zosia,  and  deeper  i s not just  the "shell" i f f o r only  he i s a k i n d  and  a  lives one  loving  father. A his  attitude  money  insight  t o money  Bakharev  Liakhovskii  into  comes  t o B a k h a r e v when  setback. but  further  to light  the latter  originally  refuses  Liakhovskii's when  miserliness  he  refuses  has s u f f e r e d  set Liakhovskii  t o acknowledge  a up  h i s moral  to  and lend  financial i n  business,  obligation  29 to  his  former Money  is  pathological envy  of  skii  dies  benefactor. the  meanness,  those  manager  also  of  richer  cause  his  than  Another  to  open  L i a k h o v s k i i * s death.  insatiable he,  a heart, a t t a c k  i s about  of  a  greed  l e a d him  on  to  hearing  f o r money,  his  that  end.  his  His and  Liakhov-  former  mill.  t r u s t e e , Polovodov,  i s a businessman  of  the  31 "newest  type"  emerging  in  type  of  his  abroad,  knows h i s  luxury.  A l l his  He  i s the  picnics  soul  and  disposition  he  life  vacillates  He  and  is  wine.  He  needs  continuously an  money  organizes  love with changes  has  p u r s u i t of  Polovodov  in  the  educated,  i n the  s o c i e t y : he  being  a banker,  is well  i s spent  always  between  A  He  functions.  is  and  day.  local  other  inconsistent  Urals.  food  of  and  the  has  Anglophile  travelled live  an  pleasure.  amorous He  is  attitudes: in and  in  excursions,  someone. his  to  newly  a  life  Slavophile:  k i n d o f i n a n i t y came o v e r h i m f r o m t i m e t o time, and on one o c c a s i o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , he w e n t o f f a b r o a d , k i c k e d h i s h e e l s a t v a r i o u s s p a s , s p e n t some t i m e i n P a r i s , made a t r i p t o E g y p t a n d t h e S i n a i Peninsula, and r e t u r n e d an E n g l i s h m a n f r o m h e a d t o f o o t , i n an I n d i a n p i t h h e l m e t and a d u s t y - g r e e n s h i r t a n d w i t h a d i s t i n c t A l b i o n drawl. He d e c o r a t e d h i s U z e l home i n t h e m a n n e r o f E n g l i s h m e n and f o r two y e a r s played t h e p a r t o f an U z e l s q u i r e . When t h e w i n d c h a n g e d , P o l o v o d o v g a v e up h i s h e l m e t , . . . and c h a n g e d t h e house to i t s present s t a t e . His marriage to Antonina was an u p s h o t o f h i s c u r r e n t p a s s i o n f o r t h e earthy t r e a s u r e s o f f o l k c u l t u r e ; he l i k e d h e r plump s h o u l d e r s , h e r w h i t e n e c k , and, b e s i d e s , she f i t t e d i n w o n d e r f u l l y as t h e m i s t r e s s o f t h e n e w l y decorated R u s s i a n i z e d home w i t h i t s p a i n t e d c e i l i n g s and cockerels. 2  30 Money, i s h i s the go  source to  any  pushes  of  wife  with  Zosia,  wife  come t o  As  an  money  the  by  his  and  commits money  greedy  Privalov novel.  He  gold means  himself, him:  is  between  He  is  Privalov  Zosia  Privalov's  the  He  these  then  Urals.  haunted  He  by  Polovodov s 1  estate,  to  to  he in  love  and  his  Privalov  steals  to  goes  to  is  sum  Paris  of  accompanied  agents,  thus  gains  cannot  a huge  government  death  Polovodov  benefits  Bakharev, is  the  a  at  one  time  p o s i t i v e type  solid,  honest,  he  finally  attributable  of  a  hard-working the  patriarchal tradition,  he  i s by  He  of  loves To  showing using  energy. the  His  the  that  whatever  his  own  fortune  uncertainty  him,  trustee  businessman  in  full  Brought  also  up  mining. of  i s prepared  Privalov.  marry  However,  prospector.  i n the  industry.  of  nature.  there,  estate,  and  i t he  life,  b r i l l i a n t scheme  with  to  in his  to  greed.  gold-mine  brave  a  affair  tries  force  obtain  through  the  he  leave  suicide.  Vasilii  and  seeing end,  To  affair  benefits.  and  and  an  manager  must  Zosia,  put  guiding  ends.  considerable satisfy  To  into  but,  his  the  a l l pleasures.  lengths.  his  achieve  ideal,  of  accumulation a man  intelligence.  Old  and  wants His  the  Believers'  is built  of  in  the  successful  nature  gold  of  decisive,  by  his  prospecting  wealth he  faith  is  can  daughter  own and  just  a  achieve says  of  by  31 . . . f o r F a t h e r g o l d - m i n i n g i s c l o t h e d i n an a u r a o f G u l i a e v and P r i v a l o v t r a d i t i o n s , and h e ' s a f a n a t i c who v i e w s g o l d - m i n i n g a s a r i t u a l r a t h e r t h a n a s o u r c e of wealth.33 He He  i s not  realizes  encourages study.  tecturally  the is  that  and  other  two  and  Polovodov,  contrasts he  eous  outward and  runs and  He  her  her  household  the  honest  Privalov  the  Liakhovskii  conduct  gives  a  detailed  of  the  two  the  and  clothing business  Though  to  archiyounger while  his  wife  accordingly,  and  two  main  a  contrast with Liakhovskii  source  of as  a  strongly  i n a moment  explains of  right-  men. techniques  meticulous furniture  people  so  Polovodov,  come i n t o  and  In  estate,  which  trustee  h i s n o v e l who  appearance,  opponents  uses  a  of  His  estate honestly  attitude,  as  both  mother,  man.  e s t a t e as  managed  his position  and  ways.  extremely  of  their  concern.  with  characters of  hero.  father's  consider the  the  parts,  with  His  at  two  thinking.  Konstantin,  remain  trustees of  that  and  Vera,  i s an  Mamin-Sibiriak the  into  obligation.  left  anger  Nadezhda  and  education  organization.  gain, Bakharev  of  values  social  and  who  attitudes  of  their  Believer  the  why  and  are  Bakharev  matter  he  is divided  respects her  personal  change,  i n terms  Victor  Old  Bakharev  times  household  o l d e r ones an  conservative in his  his older children,  His  children,  a  to  describe  contact with description of  the  in Privalov's  the of  the  associates circle.  32 Thus  the  reader  from  the  d e s c r i p t i o n of  tious  person  progressive the  comes  from  the  spirit  hero,  depict  them  activities.  the  Liakhovskii  office,  Polovodov  descriptionoof the  his  as  a  as  house,  d e s c r i p t i o n of  He  applies  Zosia  Liakhovskaia, Nadezhda  uninterested recognized work  father,  the  her she  and,  like  ways  of  his  miser  a  preten-  Bakharev's portion  first  of  Early  sees  the  she  showing  them  at  Privalov's  Antonina  Polovodova  Privalov,  in  life,  the  two  mother,  advantages  would  the  approach,  to  household.  conservative  with  various first and  to  wife.  like  between  and  technique  mistress,  father's  him,  like  to  utterly  Nadezhda  opposite On  the  but,  of  is  the  hand,  her  the  she  progressive  education  change  and  philosophies  one  like  observed  Old  she  is  given  Believer  life.  time.  life  l e d by  of  rich is  this  his  involved  a multi-dimensional  Bakhareva,  Moreover, her  his  clash  emotionally  environment  i n money.  i n her  respects  uses  their  Nadezhda,.to  a  people  in  love,  she  his  from  Mamin-Sibiriak  placing  of  recognize  house. To  at  to  She the  sees  by  the  by  the  is  the  women o f  debutante.  appalled  fortunes,  Nadezhda  age;  the  life  the  social  engendered  she  social  senseless  parasitic  of  discords  her  Like  aware  is  crusader  rich  by  unhappy  squandering of  injustices  and  in  of  of idle  the  idle  the  the  role times,  huge people  while True  there  i s so  daughter  of  ills  mined,  persistent  family,  ideas.  Loskutov.  action,  Her  although  was  one  of  herself  airs.  family.  Her  with  a  view  Polovodov,  to the  dances,  bored  her as  mistress. greed  a  She  moves to  exiled  is  deter-  away  from  implement  love  and  aware  ideas  card  player,  an  important  marriages  are  both  formal  play  her  role  in  social  monotonous please against i s the By  her  life  money  and  husband  Privalov, v i c t i m of becoming  and  his  mother, gave  Antonina's  as  i s her  own  and  social  position.  She  but is  she  to  help to  husband's  accomplice  with  is  well  interested She  relieve this  agrees  her  in  gossip.  to  she  her  twelve,  education,  and,  Nadezhda.  arranged e s s e n t i a l l y  society.  outings  and  factor  considerations, of  positive  opposite.  professional  of  society's  into  is his  family  her  mutual  of  d i f f e r e n t from  unpretentious  the  revolutionary,  on  his  about  very  much  f o r money.  She  activist,  had  She  them.  works  an  everywhere.  thinks  dreamer,  not  to  machinations  is  social  possessor  clothes,  and  transforming  monetary  to  only  changing  with  poverty  is  sisters'  prepared  well  life  M o n e y was  has  as  of the  an  Antonina  by  her  Polovodova a  not  strong-willed.  Privalov  Nadezhda,  father  at  and  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s based  incapable  Antonina  she  independently  Whereas  but  works  and  shares Their  respect. ills  she  lives  She  unhappiness  Bakharev,  social  the  but  much  him  is  in  often  boredom, in  become  his Privalov'  uncontrolled she  loses  her  34 social  p o s i t i o n and r u i n s The  beautiful Zosia  father's  love  wishes.  She i s s p o i l e d  alcoholic,  had never  and i m p a t i e n t .  h a d any p a r t  was w e l l  educated  She has l i v e d  h e r , money  i s a necessity  Zosia owns has  enjoys  a pure-bred an u n t a m e d  fascinated she  challenging  suspects  that  he  This  o f f e r s h e r a worthy  over  from  and  finally  first  time  will. and  Nadezhda.  she meets  On b e i n g  almost  and  brings "and  Nadezhda,  a sense  highly  rebuffed,  Nadezhda  She i s him but because Bakhareva.  and she t r i e s  t o win him  a l l h e r a t t e n t i o n upon him  does  she s u f f e r s  Zosia  o f purpose  strung.  With  on h y s t e r i c s .  there  r e c k l e s s l y , and  she loves  f o r him.  s o m e o n e who  sensations,  However,  f o rthe  not submit a nervous  to her breakdown  dies.  Like lacks  her love  and,  f o r granted.  f o r pets.  with  challenge,  She bestows  declares  she r i d e s  provided  i n luxury  she takes  not because  i s i n love  Never-  a t home b y t u t o r s  which  she  an  i n her upbringing.  and a b e a r - c u b  by L o s k u t o v ,  Her mother,  a l l her l i f e  which  of her  t o do w h a t e v e r  s i t u a t i o n s and s t r o n g  stallion  falcon  the object  i s permitted  her father.  for  life.  Liakhovskaia,  and a t t e n t i o n ,  theless , Zosia by  her  i s a strong  p e r s o n a l i t y , but she  and d i r e c t i o n .  She i s i n c o n s i s t e n t  her, the least  "Blood  means  i s s o much b a d b l o o d  disappointment  a l o t , " states  i n Zosia,  so very,  her father, very  34 much."  She i s i m p u l s i v e ,  acts  hastily,  a s , f o r example,  in  marrying Privalov.  with  her  husband  ultimately dis  leads  starts  to her  her an  marriage  affair  complete  she  with  physical  becomes  Polovodov and  bored which  mental  integration. In  conclusion,  Sibiriak" s  leading  environment  —  personality. character by  and  After  this  dominate An  say  His The  the  two  i n each  factors  fate  life  which  of  money  and  i s an  depends  influence  role  that  the behaviour  individual's  make-up. by  can  characters,  make-up.  expressed  we  Mamin-  heredity  development expression  upon  the  —  of  and  i n the  of  of his  i s determined  environment  plays  and  is  life  of  the  characters. The his  stay  i n the  university and  environment  given  Bakharev  an  aim  knowledge  the  business world  and  bringing  is  On  a  them  influenced  household  i n Petersburg — him  practical  which  have  in life. and  the  to  laid  fruition.  his studies positive  However,  lack  p r e v e n t him  and  of  from In  Privalov's  the  contact  Ural  at  —  the  foundations  absence with  implementing the  life  of  people his  of  ideals  environment,  he  misfit.  the  Privalov  has  one  he  side  kind-natured depicted  with  nevertheless  inherited has  mother. the at  "the P r i v a l o v  a degenerate Although  positive  the end,  father,  throughout  traits  i n a time  family  blood."  on  other  the  t h e n o v e l he  inherited  from  of personal  his  a  is  mother,  crisis,  when  his  wife  from  h i s father  turns his  i s u n f a i t h f u l t o him, t h e negative  to self-indulgence.  second  marriage,  Both observed four  come t o t h e f o r e  ideals  i n the case  and t h e i n f l u e n c e toward  Konstantin  and Nadezhda,  father  i s honest,  involved  with  traditions passed life:  and adapts  who,  common-law younger  a result, Victor  his  idle  age, to  life  Vera  leads  he  by  Loskutov  and they  —  are badly i s lazy,  who  spoiled a gambler  him u l t i m a t e l y  This  —  and Konstantin,  Vera  are  i n the  ones, of their  from  and n o t past  attitude i s  are successful i n  and Nadezhda  lives  and V e r a ,  important  the best  tragedy  there  hard-working  i t to the present.  engineer  can be  and o f t h e i r  the influence  keeps  children  Here  a  kind  the death  to help grew  of her  others.  up u n d e r  and l a c k i n g  The their  i n purpose.  and a w a s t r e l ,  t o murder.  i s m a t e r i a l i s t i c and money-oriented.  Nadezhda  state  The o l d e r  logical,  after her personal  influence,  a r e most  a r e under  clever,  children, Victor  mother's  that  influences  family.  characters.  i s a good  husband,  this  of the parents  money  Bakharev  on t o h i s o l d e r  person  As  money.  Konstantin  the result  from  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  of the children's  who  i s saved  of the Bakharev  and a t t i t u d e s  shaping  with  inherited  t o Nadezhda.  hereditary  children,  He  —  traits  and V i c t o r  From In  an  and early  contrast  are self-centred  individuals. The  same y a r d s t i c k  can be h e l d  up t o t h e L i a k h o v s k i i  37 family. good  education  life. ing, of  Zosia, although  As  a result  ideals.  money  wealth  drunkard,  elder Liakhovskii  interests  i s destroyed  revenge  and, consequently,  Polovodov,  character  and h i s g r e e d ,  nurtured  In several shows  Privalovskie  prototype  of a business  the  same t i m e  His  characters  there range  they man  with  ofhis  factors  the idea of  by  Zosia  i s left  his instability constant  son. of  contact  with  of h i s downfall.  Mamin-Sibiriak  describes  magnate  class  use t o accumulate wealth. i s c r e a t e d by t h e author,  can be seen from  leads  to h i s worthless  representatives of the i n d u s t r i a l  t h e v a r i o u s means  the back-  o f these  a r e the cause  milliony,  into  h i s beloved  f o r the banker  —  accumulation  and t h e worsening  and t h e i n h e r i t a n c e goes  h i s environment  The  manager, he has n e g l e c t e d  As  money —  devoid  In t h e end t h i s  Obsessed  a g a i n s t h i s former  a will  penniless,  i n life.  death.  and  by h i s greed f o r  pushing  the combination  i n h i s premature  upbring-  he i s c o m p l e t e l y  of others.  of h i s health,  circumstances;  i n her  and bad  selfish,  a  h i s mother.  h a s become h i s o b s e s s i o n ,  financial  write  like  of the riches  the deterioration  taking  undisciplined,  mind,  nothing  1  a l l other  results  achieves  f o r L i a k h o v s k i i s son David,  and h i s envy  ground  to  As  a brilliant  of her hereditary traits  a hopeless  The  to  and a s t r o n g w i l l ,  she i s i n c o n s i s t e n t ,  useless,  of  endowed w i t h  glaring  extremely  and A  but at  dissimilarities.  c o n s e r v a t i v e t o men o f  38 the  o l d pioneer  approach at  The uniqueness he  yet with  to business,  the time  when  days  a broad  t o t h e "new  imagination  type"  which  was  and emerging  of writing of the novel. Soviet  critic  T. D e r g a c h e v  of Mamin-Sibiriak  stressed  i n creating vital  this  artistic  characters,  wrote:  E a c h c h a r a c t e r i s r e t a i n e d i n t h e memory a s a n i n d i v i d u a l a n d a t t h e same t i m e a s a t y p e . MaminS i b i r i a k c o n s i d e r s t h e t y p i c a l as a t t e s t i n g t h e i n t e r n a l law o f e x i s t e n c e w h i c h i s more p e r c e p t i b l e i n something outstanding o r under t h e c r i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t c a u s e t h e human p e r s o n a l i t y t o f u l l y e x p o s e i t s e l f r a t h e r t h a n i n a v e r a g e , mass o r commonplace s i t u a t i o n s . Thus h i s t y p e s a r e always p o r t r a y e d v i v i d l y as i n d i v i d u a l s . - ^ In  this  novel,  Mamin-Sibiriak  attention  on t h r e e  wealthy  Privalov;  but i n t h e next  of  s o c i e t y i s expanded  of  diverse  families novel,  concentrated h i s who  Gornoe  by t h e i n c l u s i o n  personalities.  are connected gnezdo,  with  t h e panorama  o f a l a r g e r number  CHAPTER  GORNOE Money  as  a means  of  II  GNEZDO  a t t a i n i n g p o s i t i o n and  power  One i n s e c t s m o t h e r s a n o t h e r , a w o r m d e v o u r s a n o t h e r worm, t h e cheerfully chirping bird equally c h e e r f u l l y e a t s t h e i n s e c t and t h e worm and i t s e l f f a l l s v i c t i m t o a c a t o r a hawk. The mystery of l i f e i s c r e a t e d i n t h i s mel£e o f g o b b l i n g up one another. — In the he  same  the  novel  theme  introduces  extreme novel —  a  servility  portrays society  dominated Ural  of  a t t i t u d e to humans  a mining  that  region"  "the  of  the  wealth. in  the  The Urals  i t s master.  a l l - p o w e r f u l c l i q u e which  dominates  and  to  however,  depicts  society  subservient  "the  He  a l l the  mores  and  1  follows  Here,  worship  engineering  is totally  s t i l l  wealth.  in their  and  describes  and  Mamin-Sibiriak  i n Prjivalovskie milliony.  another  Mamin-Sibiriak  the  as  Gornoe gnezdo,  Mamin-Sibiriak  business  affairs  p e r s o n a l i t y types  has of  of  the  2 bxgwigs  — In  a  number  the  administrators  contrast of  plant  to  tors,  Gornoe  other  p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n the  They  are  employees  the of  owners."  manufacturers  portrays  only  novel  administrators, Laptev's  mill  P r i v a l o v s k i e m i l l i o n y , which  owners,  gnezdo  and  one are  empire  gold  mine  millionaire. subordinate  managers,  enormous  and  presents  engineers of  iron  and  opera-  A l l  to and  the  him. other  steel  mills.  40 Unlike cerned the he  firm, does  acies it  with  Privalov,  the origin  he f e e l s  f o r granted  mining  of h i s wealth.  no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  not understand  of mining.  the millionaire  He  i s indifferent  that  i s  Although  riot  he  to learn  toward  unconcerned  con-  t h e head o f  t o the people  a n d h a s no d e s i r e  and i s t o t a l l y  industry  Laptev  employs;  the intric-  h i s wealth, about  has provided him with  takes  t h e whole  h i s luxurious  life-style. The trial  driving  empire  structure internal  force  behind  i s an i n t r i c a t e  of the private h i e r a r c h y , which  the Laptev  mining  administrative  mill  ownership  the author  and i n d u s -  system.  there  i s a  In the complex  defines i n the following  way: Imagine a c o m p l e t e l y c o n i c a l mountain, a t t h e apex o f w h i c h i s L a p t e v h i m s e l f , t h e owner o f t h e m i l l s ; below, from a l l d i r e c t i o n s , hundreds o f p e o p l e r a c e up, c r a w l i n g , s c r a m b l i n g , j o s t l i n g one a n o t h e r and o v e r t a k i n g one a n o t h e r . The h i g h e r one g e t s , t h e g r e a t e r i s t h e p r e s s u r e ; a t t h e apex i m m e d i a t e l y below t h e owner, t h e r e i s room f o r o n l y a f e w p e o p l e , a n d t h o s e l u c k y o n e s who g e t h e r e f i n d i t t h e h a r d e s t t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r b a l a n c e and n o t t o t u m b l e down t h e m o u n t a i n . 3 The strive order of  who in  t o capture  a Machiavellian intrigue:  the attention  to gain h i s favour.  human  people  novel unravels  have  through  up i n t h e i n t r i g u e .  gained  v a r i o u s ways:  favour with  master,  Mamin-Sibiriak  subservience to wealth  caught  of their  Laptev, i n  exposes  many  h i s analysis  He d e m o n s t r a t e s  the wealthy  people  owner  f o r some i t i s a m a t e r i a l  gain,  of the  that  are  facets  those  rewarded  f o r others  41 the  winning  find  gnezdo,  novel  industrial five  i s very  one event  arrival  estates,  hundred  issue  concerning This  During  newly-liberated  defined  serfs  technical resolved  t o b e made operations  because  administrators and  a  group  wife is  Laptev, seven  this  iron  visit  from  and s t e e l populated  Charter"  In addition  of the mills.  Petersburg  f o r power  v  by  was  almost an  t o be  and o b l i g a t i o n s o f  to this,  some  and t h e U r a l  improve-  economic and  However, n o t h i n g  i s  between t h e  mill  managers,  o f t h e owner.  and i n f l u e n c e  administrators  Tetiuev:f f t h e chairman  mills,  to the estates  i n the administrative,  o f t h e c h i e f manager.  That i s  h i s Kukharski  o f t h e i n t r i g u e s and r i v a l r i e s  struggle of mill  centre.  t o view  the rights  t h e i n d i f f e r e n c e and i g n o r a n c e A  I n Gornoe  and t h e s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e  landowner-industrialists. ments were  constructed.  "the Land-ownership  charter  others  life.  desiatins of land,  people.  s t i l l  as t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a l  comprising  thousand  thousand  decided.  acts  simply  of the millionaire,  fifty  the  position, while  t h e key t o a gay and c a r e f r e e The  the  of a prestigious  and R a i s a  develops  between  Goremykina, the  The i n s t i g a t o r o f t h e s t r u g g l e o f t h e z e m s t v o , who  i s "tired  of  4 dancing few  t o t h e tune  changes As  members  o f a n o l d woman"  on b e h a l f  the struggle  of the mining  of t h e workers f o r power industry  and wants  t o make  a  and peasants.  unfolds,  a r e drawn  many in.  administrative Laptev's  42 arrival They  gives  them  an o p p o r t u n i t y  are a l l motivated  Mamin-Sibiriak roses."  calls  He d i v i d e s  large  court  dvor)  consists  Laptev,  by t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  this  struggle  and t h e s m a l l  court.  of the people  the Petersburg  including  The s m a l l  nest",  consists  sector  of the mining Goremykin,  advisor  Sakharov,  in-waiting" group;  favour  with The  people  cuisine, while  Laptev's  group  of friends  and d o m e s t i c  o r "the mountain  further  h i swife  i n t o two  Raisa, her  reputation,  o f t h e managers  specialists  themselves  form one of the  and a s s i s t a n t s . A l l  in-the  hope  of  gaining  Laptev. novel  presents  a series  the attention  Some t r y t o a t t r a c t others  s t i l l  accompany  R i c h e l i e u " , and h e r " l a d i e s -  of dubious  their  who  the top administrative  divided  consists  among  t r y t o capture  "nabob."  —  the "Russian  feud  from  (bol'shoi  Blinov, the  cooks  dvor),  t h e c h i e f manager,  s i xm i l l s ,  groups  (malyi  industry  group  court  Professor  and a large  people  a r e women  the other  remaining these  who  Prein;  an o r c h e s t r a ,  court  of local  camps.  The l a r g e  I t includes  h i smistress;  gain.  two g r o u p s , t h e  entourage.  Nina,  servants.  into  the capital,  economist;  positions.  of personal  from  the administrator  hangers-on,  their  " t h e war o f r e d and w h i t e  a l l the characters  favourite,  and  t o improve  organize  others  showing  how  of the all-powerful  h i s attention  hunting  prepare  of scenes  with.excellent  and s h o o t i n g  theatrical  expeditions,  presentations.  Raisa  43 Goremykina, ensnare  him with The  Here his  knowing  novel  the mastery  i s a portrait  literary  There  Laptev  i s portrayed  donna  kukla). crowd"  puppet  Laptev's —  aspiring They  are individual  people managers  by  is  from  concentric, together  personalities. through  and group  the charac-  portraits.  loves colourful  Nina  resembles  (zataskanaia  and  individuality.  a  grotesque  "faceless  T e t i u e v and t h e  are characterized  ( " a l l dressed  prima  zamshevaia  i s d e s c r i b e d as a  of the mills  i n tuxedos")  as a  group.  brought  interests.  t o Skabichevskii',  inasmuch  o f human  Prozorova.  i n portraying  portraits  Balagan  without  Mamin-Sibiriak's  Lusha  i s d e p i c t e d as a t h e a t r i c a l  entourage  t h e same  According  devices  koroleva).  are conspirators  together  f o r women, p l a n s t o  i s demonstrated  as a dandy: he  Raisa  (teatral'naia  theatrical  gallery  of Mamin-Sibiriak  ters.  clothes.  weakness  h e r protegee,. the b e a u t i f u l  use of various  stylish  of Laptev's  most  the novel  successful  Gornoe  i n structure.  as a l l t h e p a r t s o f t h e book  by one e v e n t ,  namely  the a r r i v a l  gnezdo I ti s  are  of Laptev,  tied  which 5  integrates  a l l the episodes  the  occurs  A  action  distinguishing  arrested nearly  unfolds  within  which  extends  of the novel. the biography  into  t h e bounds  feature of the novel  exposition  one-third  Sibiriak  strictly  of the novel  over  a whole.  A l l  of the v i s i t .  i s the device of ten chapters, or  In these  chapters  of the hero  Mamin-  and t h e o r i g i n s  44 of  h i s wealth.  Here,  also,  Pro.zorov,. t h e s c h o o l m a s t e r , shed  light  past  relationships  in  life.  There  settlement  line  scene,  Laptev  they  their  chapters,  show  i s worthless,  of Nina,  wealth,  the  serves  The  t o underman.  His  i n t h e community.  and  i n Raisa's  follow i n very  f o r Laptev,  dictatorial circle.  In  into  camps  two  i s unfamiliar with  succes-  by h i s  are revealed  —  subservience,  insatiable  i s weak,  rapid  presented  nature  servility,  and t h e i r  that Laptev  important  o f t h e power s t r u g g l e .  s i d e s o f human  overwhelming  His  of the settlement.  of the characters  a number o f s c e n e s  before  conditions.  follows.  of everyone  confusion  the division  their  arrival  i n the novel,  the appearance  t h e seamy  scenes  i n f o r m a t i o n on l o c a l  patterns  similar  mining  i s a fabulously wealthy  In the entertainment  grovelling  he  i n these  of the Ural  i n the l i f e  i t i s the beginning  employees,  same  time,  chapters  primarily  because  o f s e v e r a l thousands.shows  the l i f e  cause  Then sion.  and  c o n v i c t i o n s and r e g r e t s  scenes  as d e s c r i b e d  that  upsets  behaviour,  occurs:  Raisa  characters,  references  of Laptev's  t h a t he o c c u p i e s  t h e same  these  in-depth  a crowd  the fact  arrival At  The day-to-day  t h e scene  by  reception  important,  o f these  inner  are historical  provide  Then  position  and t h e i r  between  t h e e v o l u t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s and t h e developments  t h e epoch.  reception  are very  on t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s  describing of  the dialogues  that  greed.  a s a human  the environment  These being  i n which  45 he  finds  certain  himself, problems,  Developed theme The  culmination  behaving  concurrently with  a s a man.  There decisions  were  h i sfriends mill  for  h i s night  Lusha,  and i n s e n s i t i v e  accentuates  Laptev.  Laptev's  i s motivated  only  and which  where lead  are a l l bored  The a n e c d o t a l  twist  29),Laptev's  flight  rendezvous with  demonstrates  only  certain to nothing  by hopes o f p e r s o n a l  and attendants  (Chapter  total  child.  t o b e made,  employees.  of the novel  i s the love  I t r e v e a l s t h a t he i s c a p a b l e  supposed  Laptev,  after  theme  a r e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e meetings  everyone  end  theme  of his visit.  this  Proz.orova  a spoiled  because  aspiring  Lusha  of the love  like  uninterested i n solving  w h i c h was t h e p u r p o s e  between proud  incompetence of  and i s completely  by t h e  i n plot  a tt h e  t o Petersburg  a "madwoman", whom  t h e cowardly  gain.  he mistook  a n d weak n a t u r e  of h i s  character. In is  the course  of the novel  none  r e s o l v e d , n o r a r e a n y o f t h e human  The  theme  the  grovelling  which  of the novel  destroys  each  used  relationships as a v e h i c l e  b e f o r e 'aew.eatLthy m a g n a t e , the v i t a l  Mamin-Sibiriak The  i s simply  of the issues  energies  d e p i c t s women  a r e weak.  i n their  own w a y command  attention  people  t o show greed,  as the s t r o n g e r s e x .  few e x c e p t i o n s ,  over  concluded.  of personalities  men, w i t h  dominance  a n d human  raised  or situations.  Raisa,  Nina,  and r e v e a l  Raisa  Lusha  their  i s the omnipotent  ruler role  of the region's social i s similar,  Lusha,  a protegee  circles, uses  only  this  Laptev  quality  lacks  proud  functions  qualities  Nina's  circle.  independently of the  y o u n g woman,  t o manipulate  these  life.  she i s c o n f i n e d t o Laptev's  of Raisa,  i s a very  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  has s e l f - e s t e e m and  Laptev.  The  protagonist  and i s a s i m p l e ,  ineffectual  man  5 The is A  "nabob"  Laptev,  i n spite  o f h i s enormous  wealth,  "a s p o i l e d r,chiih~dewfto great disparity  position  h i s empire  the  mining  and  boring.  thirty, only  is  brazen  birch abuse, that  and does  the responsibility  He f i n d s  man w i t h  can j o l t  by a group  both  o f clowns  hisorigin  f o r crude  relating  t h e word  t o someone's  o f peasant  origin  the  peasants.  F o r them,  and  master  controls  who  and unusual and  peasant  i s also  becomes  destiny:  The  are vicious stories.  He  T h e name  footwear  used  Lappt'' made o f  as a term o f  I t i s paradoxical  a god, v e n e r a t e d by  he i s t h e epitome their  gaze.  personality.  ineptness.  At  liars.  of satire.  and.his  and shapeless  In Russian  sluggish  him out of h i s i n e r t i a  or fantastic  of  everything tedious  a tired,  c h a r a c t e r has an element  bark.  a man  and t h e  He i s n o t c a p a b l e o f  not like  industry.  remarks,  belies  t h e name  h i m as a p e r s o n  He i s s u p e r - s a t u r a t e d w i t h w o r l d l y t h i n g s .  surrounded  Laptev  between  i n society.  he M S S : a plump  His  is  and s t e e l  things that  jokes,  exists  he o c c u p i e s  governing  ' "~ "* >••  o f power,  "One w o r d  a  lord  from him  47 and  we  also  a r e a l l done  a paradox  that  decisive,  something  god,  idol  this  number a of  bright  trait  attentive hours his  first  second,  He v i s i t s  showing  that  has a He h a s  f o r various He  i s equally  taking  and so on.  i s an  Laptev  by t h e  occasions,  o f h i s appearance,  devoid  h i s upbringing t h a t he  i n h i s country  difficulty  i n dealing  respect, His  of ordinary  h i s estates  indicates also  was  —  dishes,  two epicure:  and  can  be bought w i t h  the  economist,  i n a Scottish to this  to understand which  to Privalov  He b u y s  people,  how  the conditions adds  toh i s  to deal  with  i s limited  people  In  novel. to Prein  i n h i s opinion,  the services  relegating a l l authority  n o t know  kilt,  environment.  i n the f i r s t  human b e i n g s  A l l other  money.  a n d common  t h e demands o f h i s e s t a t e s .  f o r other  h i s valet Charles.  alien  judgement  a failure  he i s s i m i l a r  respect  dressed  fails  with  and  does  alike,  be e x p l a i n e d  i s f o r t a s t y , unusual  prevailing  he  man-made  and he i s fond  i n h i s character.  his hair,  i s a man  sense.  this  could  I ti s  f o r b e a u t i f u l women. He  It  this  This  i s a dandy.  h i s clothes  of changing  aspects  preference  Laptev  7  him t o be  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  Although  i s exaggerated t o other  him expect  he i s incapable.  f o r changing  tradition  go t o t h e d o g s . "  around  of which  colours.  t o arrange  shall  shortcomings.  passion  West-European this  people  of peasants  of serious  feminine  f o r , we  t o him.  of Blinov, Consequently,  o n a non-money b a s i s .  48 He  cannot  loses is  find  interest  both  Prein  By  politan. became  —  the only Prein  had been  an orphan  person.  Laptev's  h i s ever-changing  great deal of influence fact  guardian  good  that  over  h i s hands  the last  He  environment  by  him.  twenty  from  the  "all-  knew w e l l of  has enabled  years  cosmo-  the time  A l lthis  " a l lthe mainsprings  he  character i n this  understanding  moods,  over  quickly  by u p b r i n g i n g a  a t t h e age o f t e n . A  who  A l l Laptev's  after  s t r o n g male  i s a German,  of h i s charge.  personality,  into  Lusha,  In the Russian  and an i n c o m p e t e n t  origin He  character  the  with  personal business, are looked  powerful" novel.  language  i n his riches.  a misfit  affairs,  a  a common  Laptev  the Laptev's him t o have  contributes to  Prein  has  and t h r e a d s  gathered  of the  P complex  economy  of the m i l l s , "  from  which  he d e r i v e d a  easy  to get along with  good  profit. By  nature,  easy-going. think of  he  Prein  H i s enemies  i s clever.  him that  i s very  consider him s t u p i d ,  T h o s e who  "he d i d n o t l i k e  are closer  t o be bored  and  but h i s friends  t o him would . . . and t o  say every9  thing  else  Prein  i s p o p u l a r w i t h women.  who he  i n the world  he p r e f e r r e d  feminine  In the beginning  has h e r eye on him, and i n t h e end, Lusha. wins her  over  with  h i s keen  mind  and s t r o n g  company." i t i s Raisa The  latter  personality:  It'was p k e c i s e f l y h"ists:trehgtha.thaltiaatitracted t o P r e i n : h e was a n a l l - p o w e r f u l man who h a d  49 risen Prein  to his position  i s one o f t h e few p e o p l e  before  Laptev.  for  power  all  intrigues,  novel,  the wife  activity  queen  the  same t h i n g :  own  bees,  especially power.  when  Nina  Nina  Blinov,  and R a i s a mill.  a r e compared t o  h a s two q u e e n b e e s .  of i t s size,  can support  B u t no  t h e presence of  they  are both  fighting f o r  i s more  oriented  towards  her greed, while  t w o women  the other's Nina  orphan  from  social  circles  share novel  are different  antithesis  R a i s a seeks  started  money  power f o r  family,  do t h e y  meet  face  cook.  brought  These  and n o t once  artistic  Each  R a i s a was a n up i n t h e h i g h e r  t w o women  i n the entire  do n o t want course of  t o face.  two s t r o n g f e m i n i n e p e r s o n a l i t i e s  different  respects.  e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l  as an o r d i n a r y  of the capital. power  i n many  i n origin,  an a r i s t o c r a t i c  their  The by  that  which  i n the  sake.  conduct.  the  the strings to  of the largest  i n the intrigues  to satisfy  These  to  the struggles  the intrigues;  o f t h e manager  i n a beehive  regardless  a means  himself  i n a l l matters.  i s t h e m i s t r e s s o f €he e c o n o m i s t  two  is  apart from  word  1 0  n o t debase  he n e v e r t h e l e s s h o l d s  and has t h e f i n a l  i s an a n a l o g y  beehive,  its  he stands  alone.  and R a i s a a r e t h e s t r o n g e s t p e r s o n a l i t i e s  Goremykina,  as  who d o e s  a n d i t i s t h e y who g e n e r a t e  Leontevna  the  Although  and w e a l t h ,  Nina  There  by i n t e l l i g e n c e  approaches.  Nina  are described  i s pictured  as a  50 grotesque the  theatrical  following  puppet.  She i s d e s c r i b e d  physically  way:  In t h e m i d s t o f t h i s d u b i o u s s o c i e t y o f d u b i o u s p e o p l e N i n a L e o n t ' e v n a was a v e r i t a b l e p e a r l . Small i n s t a t u r e , w i t h a h e a v y bosom, s h o r t f a t arms a n d a f l e s h y r o u n d f a c e , s h e was u g l y a s a w i t c h , b u t she h a d a p a i r o f t i n y b l u e eyes w i t h a p e n e t r a t i n g , c l e v e r , and gay l o o k and a s a r c a s t i c s m i l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f h e r , e x p o s i n g two rows o f f a l s e t e e t h . D r e s s e d i n an i n c r e d i b l e b l u e d r e s s w i t h f l a m e - r e d and orange r i b b o n s , she r e s e m b l e d a c h i l d ' s crude toy w i t h n e e d l e h o l e s t o r e s e m b l e t h e eyes and t h e mouth and whose arms and t h e r e s t w e r e s t u f f e d w i t h oakum.H When  s h e i s shown  Blinov,  i n her relationship  she appears  i n much  t h e same  with  the economist  light:  In h e r n i g h t s h i r t t h i s p i g - i r o n i n g o t b e a r s a murderous resemblance t o a s o i l e d s u e d e . d o l l , b u t the G e n e r a l i s a f r a i d o f t h i s d o l l and i s a f r a i d t o say w h a t he i s t h i n k i n g a t t h e moment. And he i s t h i n k i n g o f h i s p e r i s h i n g . f r i e n d P r o z o r o v , who h a s b e e n d e a r t o h i m f r o m s t u d e n t days.12 The  same  image  i s evoked  when  Nina's  b u s i n e s s acumen i s  described: A t t h i s moment t h e r e was t h e r u s t l e o f a h e a v y s i l k d r e s s a g a i n s t t h e f l o o r i n t h e n e x t r.oom a n d the s q u a t f i g u r e o f N i n a Leont'evna, heavy and o v e r l a i d w i t h f a t , appeared i n the doorway. As u s u a l s h e was d e c k e d o u t i n m u l t i - c o l o u r e d b o w s , r i n g s and f e a t h e r s ; on h e r head t h e l a c e and r i b b o n s l o o k e d l i k e a n i r i d e s c e n t comb. Tetiuev's first i m p r e s s i o n o f N i n a L e o n t ' e v n a ' s a p p e a r a n c e was t h a t , i t c o u l d o n l y be compared t o t h e appearance a t t h e d o o r o f a h a y s t a c k w i t h f l o w e r s on t o p . The d e a l e r s c a s t p e n e t r a t i n g g l a n c e s a t e a c h o t h e r a s p e r s o n s who a r e m e e t i n g f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e and do n o t t r u s t each o t h e r . In h e r hand Nina L e o n t ' e v n a h e l d b y a s i l v e r c h a i n h e r p e t monkey Koko jumping around. "You  are half  an h o u r  late,"  finally  uttered  Nina  i n  i n a r a s p i n g v o i c e , g l a n c i n g a t h e r gold watch d a n g l i n g f r o m a diamond c l a s p on h e r bosom. " I am s o r r y , I w a s d e t a i n e d , " T e t i u e y - m u m b l e d i n c o n f u s i o n , n e v e r e x p e c t i n g s u c h a r e c e p t i o n , " I came d i r e c t l y from Maizelp's." "I  know."  " T h e r e was a s m a l l "I  meeting  regarding  our business."  know."  "She thought  i s n o t a woman, s h e i s t h e D e v i l h i m s e l f , " Tetiuey, again looking a t his hostess.  "The G e n e r a l w i l l b e a t E v g e n i i Konstantinovich s f o r t h e whole evening, so y o u and I can have a l e i s u r e l y d i s c u s s i o n , " continued Nina Leont'evna, l i g h t i n g a c i g a r , " I h o p e we w o n ' t k e e p o u r c a r d s i n t h e d a r k , s h a l l we? I , a t l e a s t , look a t t h i s d e a l i n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d manner. F o r y o u I ' l l do e v e r y t h i n g t h a t I p r o m i s e d , a n d y o u m u s t l e t me have something i n advance... something q u i t e i n s i g n i f i c a n t , l i k e twenty thousand a t t h i s time." 1  Tetiuev^shrank on l e a r n i n g o f s u c h an amount a n d mumbled some i n c o h e r e n t p h r a s e . Now i t f i n a l l y became c l e a r t o h i m t h a t h e was a c t u a l l y d e a l i n g with the d e v i l himself... He r e a l i z e d t h a t h e w a s looking a t the trueeentrepreneur, an e n t r e p r e n e u r of the highest c a l i b r e , aheentrepreneur o f that f a s c i n a t i n g c i r c l e where t h e . d e a l s a r e i n hundreds of thousands and i n m i l l i o n s . - ^ The artistic to her  portrait  methods.  depict  environment  her  essence against  The c o l o u r s  speech  which  the heroine's  i s a very  which  she i s depicted  and o t h e r  details  a l l contribute strong  different  of her portrait  and t h e motives  mannerisms  Raisa  i s drawn by s e v e r a l  The p a r t i c u l a r s  t o a c e r t a i n extent  internal  tance.  of Raisa  a r e drawn  different drive  her.  i s of great  moods, The impor-  o f h e r c l o t h i n g and t o h e r composite  and w i l f u l  woman.  When  image. Mamin-  52 Sibiriak is  introduces her  i n her  husband's  Kukharskii  Mills.  all  the  her  husband.  her  private  that her  power  would  f o r the  study. By  He  doing  this  study  adviser. enable  m a t e r i a l and  With  her  to  social  time  i s the  this  i s concentrated In  first  i n the  chief  novel,  manager  of  she  the  the  author  stresses that  i n her  hands,  not  she him  i n those  r e c e i v e s S a k h a r o v , who she  retain  tries  her  advancement  t o work  lofty  out  position,  a on  of  is plan which  depends:  R a i s a P a v l o v n a was C a e s a r ' s w i f e i n t h e s m a l l w o r l d o f an i n d u s t r i a l community, where e v e r y b o d y and e v e r y t h i n g bowed t o h e r w i l l i n o r d e r t o s a y e v i l things behind her back l a t e r . 1 ^ To  protect her  uses  a l l her  tion  from  position  feminine  Prozorov,  she  goes  to  impress  him  with  her  does  charms  her  Blinov,  she  a  and  former  great  not  wiles.  lover  deal  proceed  of  and  directly,  To  obtain  an  old  but  informa-  friend  of  t r o u b l e i n grooming  to  appearance:  She w o r e a b l u e a l p a c a d r e s s t r i m m e d w i t h e x p e n s i v e l a c e ; the b e a u t i f u l l y arranged r u f f l e s were caught with a t u r q u o i s e brooch at her t h r o a t . Her h a i r , gathered i n a morning c o i f f u r e , cleverly concealed a f a l s e p l a i t which Raisa Pavlovna had been wearing f o r a l o n g time.15 The  f u r n i s h i n g s of  sitting-room, luxury.  Her  her  show h e r  private  chambers,  exquisite  dressing-room  taste  i s described  her  and  bedroom  her  love  and of  thus:  . . . e x q u i s i t e b l u e room w i t h s a t i n w a l l c o v e r i n g s , damask d r a p e r i e s and w a l n u t f u r n i t u r e i n t h e s t y l e of a Louis. A m a r b l e wash s t a n d , a low carved bedstead w i t h a canopy over the headboard, s e v e r a l ' ~=!ideiicatelyvearvedl^ -.the  her  53 corners — t h e whole f u r n i s h i n g s o f t h e dressing-room gave i tt h e appearance o f b o t h a bedroom and a boudoir. Thousands o f t r i n k e t s were s c a t t e r e d around without purpose o r o r d e r , because they had been l e f t t h e r e and f o r g o t t e n : Japanese boxes and small lacquered chests, several Chinese porcelain v a s e s , empty c a n d y - j a r s , t h e s e s p e c i a l f e m i n i n e t r i n k e t s with which Paris i s flooding the stores, cases o f every s i z e , shape and purpose, perfume b o t t l e s , whole s t o r e s o f cosmetic aids... 6 x  The figures Early by  third  prominently  i n the novel  wealth,  receives and  the naive  lets  attempts  of Raisa  Lusha  of desire  attracted  her desires.  i n her luxurious  f o rmaterial wealth  p e r c e i v e s i n t h e young  t r y on and wear  Prozorova,  Goremykina.  and s t r o n g l y  t o encourage  and modest  so quickly  Lusha  character, Lusha  she i s f a s c i n a t e d  the flame  o l d e r woman  female  i n t h e schemes  and R a i s a  so fans  She  important  her beautiful  She  chambers that the  girl's  eyes.  jewels:  . . . b r a c e l e t s , e a r r i n g s , brooches and n e c k l a c e s . A l l o f t h e s e t h i n g s were t r i e d on b e f o r e a m i r r o r and p r a i s e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r w o r t h . T h e g i r l was p a r t i c u l a r l y taken with a brooch with a s e t - i n e a s t e r n ruby o f a r i c h b l o o d c o l o u r . The e x p e n s i v e stone shone l i k e a c l o t o f f r e s h l y congealed b l o o d . ^ It  occurs  end,  to Raisa  however,  discerning, true  value  shows  o f a person  f o rthis  one  worthy  Laptev's  Lusha  a s h e r name  and  truth.  t o use Lusha  reason  that  that  people they  above  alone  i n the novel  cannot  She i s  that the  unrelated t o h i s wealth  Prein  Lusha  In t h e  be bought.  She p e r c e i v e s  i s completely  she chooses  A l l the other  f o rLaptev.  she cannot  implies.  of her affection.  wealth  as b a i t  Laptev  realizes  as t h e this  a r e so b l i n d e d by  see beyond i t .  In  her luxurious  entertains trying  the almighty  to find  demotions  dress  of  visit  him respect  colours.  upon  herself  and g a i n i n g coffee  colour,  future  of  hers,  promotions  arrival,  although  she dresses  i n which  friend  Raisa  and  her changing  his trust,  colour,  gown,  f o r the struggle.  reflect  Laptev's  At a ball  a fashionable  an i n t i m a t e  of her attire  o f a subdued  bright  and s e d u c t i v e  the likely  to prepare  colours  an o f f i c i a l  showing  Prein,  o u t about  i n order  The For  quarters  with  moods.  the aim of  she puts  on a  she i s fond  tastefully  of  i n a  she i s " s t r i k i n g  gown  and  18 respectable  and even  Nina  h e r p o s i t i o n and t h r e a t e n s  in  usurps  h e r house  a little  i n the presence  more."  She becomes  i l l when  h e r by g i v i n g  orders  of Laptev;  she wears  a  white  On  occasion,  when s h e  19 peignoir learns  t o show i l l n e s s .  of the decision of Prein  husband,  she appears  i n Lusha's  another  and t h e group home d r e s s e d  t o dismiss " i na  her  dark  20 shawl,  . . . With  constantly about like  him  throws  a stage  strong  s l i p p e r s soaked  s i n g l e words  Raisa,  heart."  cloth  hints  something queen,  Only with language  her like  that  there  artificial. out with  Sakharov  t o "go t o h e l l . "  treating  or phrases,  coming  such  through."  h e r own  i s something Sometimes a speech  i s she rude  as c a l l i n g With  Mamin-Sibiriak  Lusha  him a  she  false  appears  "learned  and d i r e c t ,  "scoundrel"  s h e i s warm  daughter,  very  and  o f f by  using  and  telling  frank,  and y e t scheming  t o use  55 her  f o r her  polished which  own  ends.  grande  dame, d i s p l a y i n g  distinguishes Thus,  respects, riches  though  their  causes  directly  to her  subtle.  The  manifest  at their  her  proud,  On  the  else. time,  they  use  Raisa  takes  and  N i n a has  revenge  her  i n many  struggle  and  is  Nina  personalities suffered  proceeds  i s made  Raisa  out her  by  throws and  anger  awkward  Raisa off  simple on  P r o z o r o v , who  i n an  and  first  i n a sincere  French,  characters.  f o r power  methods.  harmless  placed  of  i s more d i p l o m a t i c  to take  on  female  The  of defeat  speaks  i s a  knowledge  desire  of defeat, face  she  are opposites  different  in their  In the  h i s w i t , had  vis-a-vis  and  moments  mask  sound  to struggle.  difference  Nina.  a  overwhelming  both  o t h e r hand,  by  Nina  i n society  other local  goal while Raisa  lofty  She  from  them b o t h  and  t h e n by  her  mutual  ruthless  and  Generally,  way.  someone  at  one  position  Laptev.  The  two  respective  p o w e r f u l women h o l d  husbands  business  careers  Blinov's  career  in their  f o r them, was  hands..  and  created  the  They  rule  by  lives  have  their  N i n a , who  of  their created  personal was  eager  their  lives. to  "feast  21 on  the  Blinov  'pie' of is a  investigate his  famous  the  and  between  Furthermore, land  to get  theoretical  conditions  employees.  involving  the works  ownership  he  r i d of  economist, the  owner  Raisa."  hired of  that  Laptev  the m i l l s  i s a mediator  charter,  by  i n the  i s , the  to  and conflict  charter  56 that and  is  to  his  resolve  peasants.  the In  conflict  between  economic  theory  the  owner  Blinov  is  of  "an  the  mill  admirer  22 of  Carey  and  partly  of  Malthus."  too  general  and  cannot  the  Urals.  The  inappropriateness  a  discussion  the  between  conclusion  that  be  However,  applied  Blinov Blinov  and  to  the  local  of  his  theory  Prozorov.  reasons  the  like  theory  conditions is  shown  Prozorov  a  is in in  comes  to  "cannibal":  " I t ' s very simple: you s o l d your s o u l t o the D e v i l , t h a t i s , t o t h e c a p i t a l i s t s , and a r e now finding consolation in sophistry. You f e e l y o u r s e l f t h a t t h e r e i s something wrong i n what you are saying..." "No,  I  don't  feel  that."  "So m u c h t h e w o r s e f o r y o u ! I f I p e r i s h I do so as an i n d i v i d u a l and n o b o d y i s t h e b e t t e r o r the worse f o r i t , but you, i n t h e name o f y o u r e c o n o m i c f a n t a s i e s , want to t i g h t e n a d e a d l y noose around tens of thousands of people. I cannot c a l l your system o t h e r w i s e . . . what i s a l l t h i s . l e a r n e d nonsense i f you examine i t c a r e f u l l y ? The m o s t unseemly j u g g l i n g of s c i e n t i f i c c o n c l u s i o n s to p l a c a t e the golden calf." 2  Blinov with the  real  is  people.  industry.  looks  at  a  dry In  While  everything  3  t h e o r e t i c i a n , not addition  examining around  him  to  this,  the  used he  knows  m i l l s with  "with  that  to  dealing nothing  Laptev,  perplexity  of  he with  24 which  an  illiterate  His stately on  external  figure  everyone,  appearance  of  and  person  looks  appearance grey  moustache  e s p e c i a l l y the strength  is  and  upon  an  open  imposing. make  peasants.  a  book." His  very  tall,  good  However, h i s  intelligence is  contrary  impression outward to  his  57 personality. extremely  He  is utterly  naive,  and  obedient  weakness  i s demonstrated  weakness  makes h i m  fellow-student. to  Prozorov's  have  for a  fied  with  being  the  Goremykin  i s an  honest  does  not  well  shortcomings the  his  not  even  the  comfortable managers  and  and  along  cowardice.  he  hope  character,  matter.  disloyalty  to  adds  a  His  This  his few  former remarks  that Prozorov  only  of  social  might  and  his  his love  at  a g a i n s t heavy  his  he  very  good  is  "the  simplest  articulate.  prime  the He  and  mill,  odds,  where  stands  out  i s another  she  mind has  he  from  technical to  his  his  engaged  aware him;.  feels the  He  losing  in life i n the  of  is  to  mill. more  other  education,  his  work.  result  and  not  threat of  processes  He  physical  around  interest  devotion  cunning  the  child."  These  life  satis-  specialist.  He•is  factory  i s under  Raisa  engineer.  a  specialized  position  Noting  and  technical  a t home. of  ordinary plant  and  His  his wife  woman i s n o t  his nature.  t h a t he  when  ambitious  i s not  position.  Sakharov's foresight.  he  suspect  than  of  any  an  person  symbols  because  competence  of  however,  machinery  i s content  absolute  i s c r e a t e d by  This  wife  i n the  comfortable  perfect He  are  intrigues  does  Prein.  matters,  see  i n every  insistence,  position  the  everyday  strength of  Nina  act  dampening  with  In  of  of  career.  Goremykin's help  to  his  an  Nina's  file,  future  by  commit  At  devoid  of  Raisa's  ability  him  as  to  get  a secretary  58 and  a personal adviser.  Richelieu"  to  product  serfdom  the  of  vestiges  The  underline his  of  and  the  serfdom.  special,  and  trait  his personality  of  sistent  with  business  presented  as  prominent  a  of  not  author He  worships  is his  him  i n "his  Laptev  Russian He  motivated  for  a brief hope  often  as  someone  which  makes  a  personality very  Another  i s incon-  concerning  and by  mills  from  in his  taking  the  this  tone. and  assistants  they  d e s c r i b e s the  same d e s i r e They  their  face:  anyone  ridicule the  and  aggregate  When h e  moment. of  the  are  the  group  in  group,  f o r Laptev's  position  the  chief  the  manager,  characters arise  only  briefly  at  of  and  fade  into  Laptev,  then  rapidly  stage  attention  Individual  feet  can  characters  a l l hold  a l l compete of  a  one  A l l these  they  are  "nest."  Goremykin. the  is  i n h i s presence.  cowardice, he  "a  perspicacity.  shows  inadequate  place  position.  satire  the  unusual  decisions  single,  does  are  in  bold  managers  author  detect  the  very  calls  transactions.  The  The  feels  author  to  the  fawn  group  again. Vershinin is the  an  expert  expense  Laptev.  i s the  at making of  While  "nabob"  the  another  member  first a  good  others, but Vershinin  others of  envy the  one  to please h i s master.  speech  i t is his  i s the him  group,  and  focus  and fish of  telling soup the  t r y to outdo  prepares  jokes  that  a hunter's  at  impresses  attention him.  He  of  Maizel, dish  from  the  59 the he  l i p o f an e l k . enjoys  This  h i s triumph,  pleases  which  h i s master  "had caused  a n d f o r a moment  severe  suffering  to  25 the  spirits  attention  of a l l the others."  f o r a moment  by showing  game, a n d o n c e  again  another  member  o f t h e group,  gathers  together  their  best  responds  be  attributes  burst with  Sarmatov,  i n a stage  flowers  shoulders,  expected, A  "the rest  unifying  envy."  to please  performance.  to the g i r l  o f envy  with  flash  o f g l o r y , as  inappropriateness  f o rtheir  posts.  Sarmatov  retired  officer;  military  background;  stupid.  They  fit  to their  them In  They  this  have  respect  They w i s h  resources  and e x p l o i t  material  a l s o has a  nor the education  to  they  resemble  their  the traditions  only  their  Laptev.  of the region,  and o f t e n  t o make  master,  ridicule  do n o t  local  use of the a v a i l a b l e  employees  t o advance  their  own  status.  All "nest"  i s a  i n the Urals.  i t s n a t u r a l environment,  customs.  i s their  a r e c o l o u r l e s s and  neither the a f f i n i t y  do n o t u n d e r s t a n d  value  a German,  and two o t h e r s  posts  could  of a l l the rest. group  Maizel,  the master  t h e most  of this  artillery  Yet  Laptev  characteristic Ural  Laptev's  and makes them d i s p l a y  and Sarmatov's  i s the object  captures  him a T a r t a r w r e s t l i n g  s o m e o f t h e women  by sending  beautiful  Sakharov  the outings  should  have  and meetings  resolved  between  important  issues  Laptev  and t h e  concerning  the  60 mining  business;  ity  and  out  of  each  a  tone  these  of  indifference  to  of  men.  of  wealthy  owner  i s one  industrial  family  that  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  amusement. a  to  of  own  a  only  of  whole  keen  and  to  come  interest  the  of  pronounced  affair. contrast  very  few  he  comes  r e c e n t l y been  inactiv-  things  the  career,  i n sharp  managers; has  The  display  the  i s presented He  are  further his  the  Prozorov  circle  light  they  gatherings - i s  individual  business  however,  to  a l l the  c u l t u r e d men from  an  ruined.  in  the  originally He  inherits  27 "the He  generous  has  fore  received  great  weakness words  of  and  finally  has  of  personal  extremely Sibiriak actions  says,  his  that  results  in  Russian  in  situation to  and such  a  of  to  conscious a  and  of  him.  a man  drink, he  disparity  the  there-  However, and  of  because finds  his  tendency  high  Nevertheless, of  and  undistinguished  i n which  ruins.  pitiful  nature  an  character."  i n Moscow,  consistency,  Initially  influence of  speaking  "Ha, h a . the Zemstvo  of  result  life  shows  man's m e r c e n a r y He  the  the  the  expected  lack  life.  perceptive  Under  of  i n desperation  and  reduced  are  action  turns  ways  excellent education  character,  shortcomings He  an  and  achievements  instead  career he  manners  for  business  ideals, of  his  own  himself. he  times.  remains  Mamin-  between words  and  character. a l c o h o l , Prozorov  h i s world  of  material  condemns achievements.  Tetiuev:  T e t i u e v has s o l d h i s b i r t h r i g h t i n f o r a b o w l o f p o r r i d g e and f o r t h i s  61 r e a s o n he w i l l go a l o n g way: f o r a l l the scound r e l s today the door i s wide open . . . Rod'ka! [Sakharov] S p i t i n T e t i u e v ' s f a c e f o r me."28 Like  Prozorov,  hoped  to  help  •and a c c e p t e d in  Tetiuev the  was  peasants,  but  an  idealist,  instead  a p o s i t i o n o f f e r e d by  has  Prein  who  turned  t o work  had  to  wealth  for  Laptev  away w i t h  Prein,  Petersburg. When P r o z o r o v ' s  he  initially  bitterly  comments  daughter on  the  Lusha  world  in  goes  general:  " R a i s a , my q u e e n , d o y o u t h i n k t h a t I am c r y i n g b e c a u s e L u c r e t s i a w i l l be one more v i c t i m o f t h e Russian mining industry? No! The a i r t h a t we breathe i s f i l l e d with i t . . . with prostitution. We s e e i t i n t h e a r t s , i n t h e s c i e n c e s , i n d r e s s , i n t h o u g h t and w h a t c a n one s a y e x c e p t t h a t i t i s one i n s i g n i f i c a n t component o f t h e o v e r a l l progress. R a i s a , my q u e e n , t h i s i s n o t w h a t I am c r y i n g a b o u t , but the f a c t t h a t V i t a l i Prozorov, a d r u n k a r d and a l o s t man i n every r e s p e c t , i s the only honest man, t h e l a s t o f t h e Romans, h a , h a . R a i s a , my queen, t h i s i s the r e a l ancient tragedy. Oh G o d , w h a t a time, what people, what s t u p i d i t y ! What b o u n d l e s s perfidy! T e t i u e v a n d R o d ' k a w i l l now squeeze the paasp.easants t o t h e end, w h i l e t h e G e n e r a l [Blinov] w i l l c o v e r up t h e i r p e r f i d y w i t h h i s p r o s t i t u t e d erudition. . . . L e a r n i n g , s a c r e d l e a r n i n g , she t o o has gone i n t o bondage t o t h e g o l d e n c a l f ! And t h e r e w i l l b e , my d e a r q u e e n R a i s a , n o e n d t o y o u r reign." 9 2  Prozorov being  remains  able  to  a  find  pathetic a place  and  ineffectual  for himself  in  figure,  not  society:  " I am, q u e e n R a i s a , n o t a p a r t o f a b o d y b u t o n l y o n e o f i t s e s s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e s , I am j u s t a sore tooth. Not even a t o o t h b u t a r o t t e n r o o t which aches, but o f which t h e r e i s not enough t o be p u l l e d out." 3 0  Mamin-Sibiriak panorama o f  has  great  human movement when  ability i t suits  to  depict  his  a  vast  purpose.  He  62 describes who  very  gather  region.  colourfully  to see their  There  t h e crowd  overlord  on h i s f i r s t  a r e two d i s t i n c t l y  descriptions  o f masses  of people:  individuals,  and t h e i r  aggregate  area  and c o n t r i b u t i n g  welcoming  crowd,  different their force  to i t s wealth.  Mamin-Sibiriak  o f peasants  and workers  visit  facets  diversity  t o the to his  as  i n developing the In describing, the  writes:  T h e s k i l l e d w o r k e r s i n new a r m i a k s [peasant's c l o t h c o a t ] a n d h o m e s p u n c o a t s , t h e o l d men w i t h s t a f f s ; t h e p e a s a n t women i n k e r c h i e f s . . . t h e m i l l workers e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e others by t h e i r s c o r c h e d , u n n a t u r a l l y r e d f a c e s . . . d a y l a b o u r e r s , moulders and t h e working aristocracy. A l l t h e s e p e o p l e . . . w e r e now u n i t e d w i t h o n e common w i s h t o c a s t a g l a n c e a t t h e i r b a r i n [ o v e r l o r d ] f o r whom t h e y b u r n e d t h e m s e l v e s a t . t h e f u r n a c e s , f o r whom t h e y h e a v e d t h e h u g e r e d - h o t i n g o t s w i t h tongs. . . . The m i l l s had produced o v e r arinumber o f g e n e r a t i o n s a p e r f e c t l y unique t y p e o f m i l l w o r k e r , o n e t h a t was c a p a b l e o f s u p e r human t o i l . The sinewy p o w e r f u l arms, t h e r e d n e c k s , hunched backs and s t r o n g and c o n f i d e n t step.3 seemed t o b e s p e c i a l l y e v o l v e d f o r work i n t h e mills. E a c h b o d y was p u t t o g e t h e r o f b o n e s a n d muscles and emanated a unique i n d u s t r i a l power.31 It the  i s the effort wealth  children's mills."  3  as  of their hands  labour  overlord,  participated  force  that  Laptev.  helps  "And e v e n  i n the gigantic  to multiply weak  efforts  i n the  2  In the  of this  author  sharp  contrast  presents  parasitic  t o t h e p r o d u c t i v e crowd  Laptev's  entourage.  o f workers,  He d e s c r i b e s  hangers-on:  T h e s e c o l o u r l e s s y o u n g p e o p l e l a u g h e d when L a p t e v laughed, l o o k e d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n he d i d ,  them  d r a n k when h e d r a n k m i r r o r i n w h i c h was of t h e i r p a t r o n .  and g e n e r a l l y a c t e d as a huge r e f l e c t e d e v e r y s l i g h t movement  3 3  . . . d a r k shadowy f i g u r e s . i n w e l l - c u t t r a v e l l i n g c l o t h e s . o . . ol o o k e d on everyone from above . . . 1 angui'd'iyeexcharigedesterepfeyp 1 d.?French phrases . . . t h a t human c h a f f w h i c h e n v e l o p s a n y w e l l k n o w n name, e s p e c i a l l y a r i c h , R u s s i a n , lordly name. 3 4  The in  description  Russian  different Sibiriak During great  literature purposes.  employs  Laptev's deal  the f u l l  the  wealth." uses  mining rich  i n forests,  water, case  To e m p h a s i z e  o f Mount  Kurzhak,  itself  which  particular the "lush"  Lugovoi  t h e image  scenery.  resources Balamutskii  Zaozernyi  i s even  flowers  i n the fields  the  author,  t o remind  shine  the reader  like that  first  r e g i o n s , and the  i s the source  has coal  a  In  The  of  of  the author to  individual  district i s  abounds  i n good  deposits.  In the  stronger:  . . . a t r i g h t . . . t o w e r s . t h e famous Mount Kurzhak, c o n s i s t i n g almost e n t i r e l y o f i r o n o r e , l i k e a h a t w i t h a g r e e n t o p s i t t i n g askew o n i t . The  pays  of the natural resources  the picturesque  and t h e b e a u t i f u l  ability.  the author  the richness of resources  Thus  Mamin-  of his descriptive  of the northern  of linking  communities.  i n the novel  he s t r e s s e s two a s p e c t s .  beauty  place  b y many w r i t e r s f o r  to describing the Ural  " I ti s the land  the device  passages  power  i s the great potential  area:  used  an i m p o r t a n t  to inspect his mills,  the landscape  the magnificent  second  I n many  trip  occupies  and has been  of attention  describing is  of nature  precious  stones,  3  ^ writes  the U r a l Mountains are  rich  in  these Thus,  as  well.  Gornoe  machinations  where  gnezdo the  Mamin-Sibiriak,  community  in  community  struggle  As  most  of  them  hope  to  they  resort  achieve their  their  wives  taking  gain  the  as  how  better  to  who  take  The the  men  of  realize charge  of  that  of  trying  to  jockey  author  s h o w s how  a  are  mining head  of  positions  and  more  power.  field  and  cannot  in  the  the  technical plain  weak  and  subservient  mills. gain  of  The  partners  to to  female  their  men  carry  into  the  abilities,  grovelling  s i t u a t i o n and  their  character  the  and  the  the  human  and  at  their  are  owner  of  intrigues  a model  specialists merits  of  people  intrigues, bribery  and  gain,  intrigues,  on  novel  traits  shows  not  ends.  protagonists, their  are  advance to  Urals, to  a  basest  exposed.  the  is  is  als  out  better  positions. The character  surface  The  in  struggle  overshadows  positions  that  pay  workers,  on  for  a l l other  istrative they  the  no  whose  the  course  seamy of  traits  this  power becomes  problems.  The  absorbed  attention  to  the  they  intense  persons  so  and  in their  whom  that  i n high  conditions  depend  human  struggle.  so  become  toil  of  of  i t admin-  own  dealing  the  mill  they  keep  in  poverty. In a  mass:  this  they  novel  are  the  workers  presented  as  a  and  peasants  collective  are  shown  portrait  as  rather  t h a n as a g r o u p of  of i n d i v i d u a l s .  the t h r e e n o v e l s chosen  Sibiriak workers miners  and  on  the problems of  the  the s m a l l - s c a l e p r o s p e c t o r s , the g o l d -  t h o s e p e a s a n t s who  communities.  last  f o r d i s c u s s i o n h e r e , t h a t Mamin  focuses h i s attention themselves:  I t i s i n Z o l o t o , the  live  i n the  gold-mining  CHAPTER I I I  ZOLOTO The  g o l d - r u s h : The  In attitude  the novel towards by  completely  powerless  the novel  course and  of which  search  greed,  from  people  their  family  society  and  and  of finding  commit gold,  crimes. balanced  destroys In Some  this  novel  o t h e r s become  illegally  These  gold  they  there  to that  surface,  embark  until  we  power  Possessed  seems by  ventures  of  as  towards  which  upon r i s k y  i s a possibility  such  hidden  their  the world.  with  traits  remain  i n the  thinking,  Preoccupied  traits  they  succumb  are  fever,  of rational  negative  change s i m i l a r  rules  are  the and  acquiring  t o temptation, which  usually  them.  acquire wealth  work,  —  gain.  develop  gold, people  people  who  c a l l o u s n e s s and c r u e l t y  anarchy  When  epidemic  the sense  i n Z o l o t o , b u t when  all-pervasive idea  some  mankind's  The m a j o r i t y o f c h a r a c t e r s  f o r easy  friends.  undergoes  discover  of gold, which  lose  money"  analyzes  force  this  selfishness,  "easy  i n i t people  f o r g o l d , they  envy,  of  depicts  to resist.  acquire the passion  their  the  He  the elemental  suffer  power  Zoloto, Mamin-Sibiriak  gold.  influenced  in  destructive  mined  regular  gold  price.  people  become  by h a r d  work,  rich  paying  by  and then  rich  some s t e a l low p r i c e s  selling  In the course  in different from  ways.  those  for stolen  who or  i t to the treasury at  of the novel,  a l l who  come  67 into  contact with  gold  and  their  dehumanized, which  they  and  when  conditions  of  a  light  The  the  gold-mining Mining  and  settlements  sent  who  who  vicinity  sect  of  their  Old  minds The  mining  Nizy  a  their  pursuit  people  of  become  terrible  sickness  done  from  to  at  the who  with  Gold  of  describes'life  of  Russia.  sheds of  the  Gold  villages Centre  populated  mines  and  touch  formed  by and  addition,  loss  i n the  of  gold,  since  The  E n t e r p r i s e , which  in a  in  freedom.  Balchugovskii author  uses  he  had  had  by  were  emancipation, In  the  convicts The  were  the  gives  T a i b o l a , i n h a b i t e d by  U r a l Mountains.  Mining  labour  there.  not the  also  Balchugovskii Gold  settled  i t was  new  Balchugovskii  p o p u l a t i o n was  time  would  i n the  the  and  formation  s e r v i t u d e i n the  B e l i e v e r s who  novel  the  central  a village,  linked  The  the  technique,  serfdom  f o r the  on  the  eighteen-  established in  Fotianka, which  of  i s the  flashback  region.  around  Part  soldiers  slowly  background  penal  free  a  depended  novel  co-existed with  period of  and  t h e r e was  centre  Berezovskii  the  founded  became  i n the  using  mainly  freed.  demobilized  the  of  there  had  subsequently  by  author,  Balchugovka,  serfs  becomes  t h a t were b e i n g  initially  were  In  quickly  serfdom  i n d u s t r y i n the  Centre  convicts  rich  gold  of  historical  who  were  relics  description  on  of  change.  victim.  life  region.  short  love  get  period represented  seventies,  Ural  undergo  desire to  fall  The  gold  gold the an  68 opportunity  to  unit  novel.  in  the  September a  long  life  1891,  novel  and  located  see  In  entitled  far  of  novel  and  from  economic  constitutes  conditions Urals  at  The  to  his  i n which  presents  accurate the  This that and  Gold  gold-mining  shows,  as  do  Mamin-Sibiriak  that  his  worksoofMMaminSS'ibiriak  novels  were  Sverdlovsk).  picture point  of  the  the  in  the  h i s work  close as  view  novels  based  praised  1  of  of  record  two  are  the  Centre,  community  the  started  describing  called  thorough  15  had  Mining  this  industrial  dated he  was  a broad  From  and  that  he  (now  here  f o r the  mother,  mentioned  conditions.  time.  experience  a model  Berezovskii  prevailing in  the  as  Ekaterinburg  an  discussed.earlier, actual  letter  Zoloto,  the  Mamin-Sibiriak social  a  Mamin-Sibiriak  customs not  for himself,  to  on  real  life.  "colourful  2 illustrations The  to  the  action  bleak  in  the  book  government  treasury  for  claim-staking,  public  spread  over  decision,  a huge  the  the  last  At  the  beginning  in  and  began  their  the  man,  end to  arable  area.  population  to  but  had  were the  they  dig  up  land,  pages  ready Old  too  up  namely  of  a  a  the  first embark  of  a new the  gardens, for  the  area  which  government  villages,  shunned  search  Dacha,  the  two on  that  gold-bearing  infected with  frenzied  fact  Kedrovskaia  Believers became  on  vast  result  the to  a  even backyards, in  history."  i s based  opened  As  of  almost  adventure. whole  this and gold.  scheme,  gold  fever  finally  69 Mamin-Sibiriak old  and  the  occurred way  of  life  to  a  i n and  doing  so.  people life  to  the  of  greed.  life,  under which i f at  the  an  the  long-drawn  while  i t with  from  of  had  one  on  this  hand  the  the  balance  had  i t aroused of  old established The  the  old  the  to in  opportunity  to  order  of  two-fold the a  existing  passionate  existing  a v a r i c i o u s adventurism  which  law  existing  act  the  have  elbow-room  i t disrupted  other  that  violated  presenting  and  epochs,  adjustments had  they  changed  the  the  people  times  by  villages,  On  shift  changes  result  even  three  violent  two  claim-staking.  I t destroyed  replaced  the  novel  of  claims,  repercussions. order  the  government,  stake  i n the  age  system  The  of  new  the  live,  i n the  shows  course  were  created  work  and  i n the  conditions had  new,  presents  and  order  an  and  acquisitive  spirit. Lured villages desert  by  leave  their  finding  lable  desire to Village gather  listening  and  gold. try  life  men  of  permanent  families  of  and  the  their  hopes  People  gold  head  They  their  the work  Nizy at  Fotianka  gold  claims  seized with  an  mines, with  high  uncontrol-  luck.  i s soon  drawn  to  the  around  t a b l e s , exchanging  to  "love  the  the  for their  are  and  talk"  local  tavern.  incredible  stories  ( l i u b o v n y e peregovo'ry)  3 gold. drinks  The while  few  f o r t u n a t e ones  others  spend  their  treat last  thexr  companions  pennies  on  to  drowning  of  70 their  sorrows. The  this  women, w i t h  passionate  as  a symbol  it  i s a sudden  few e x c e p t i o n s ,  impulse  t o " g e tr i c h  remain  quick."  They  o f i n s t a b i l i t y and u n c e r t a i n t y . and s h o r t - l i v e d  wealth  u n a f f e c t e d by  They  and d e f i n e  see gold feel  i t as  that "wild  4  money." their  Although  men, t h e y  novels) their of  a r e shown  as shrewder,  husbands;  village  life  full  of hardships.  lives, In  Sibiriak class. whose one  their  own r i g h t .  many  although  only class  I . Ignatov  when  although the  by  their  t o lead  two n o v e l s ,  their  character  Throughout  t h e book Individual  as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  are individual this  working  i s t h e manager,  o f t h e masses.  noted  Mamin-  of the ordinary  are perceived  they  —  o f t h e U r a l s was  and l e f t  i s secondary.  here  the continuity  abandoned  the preceding novel  than  hardships.  o f the presence  presented  crowds,  Mamin-Sibiriak  who m a i n t a i n  villages  other  practical  i t sequilibrium  non-working  i n the novel  i s conscious  and more  o f time,  with  i n this  The o n l y  these  periods  coping  speaks  role  stable  They were o f t e n  contrast with  personalities of  more  i n the industrial  f o rlong  are subordinate to  (as i n M a m i n - S i b i r i a k * s  and ensure  o f women  menfolk  i n the novel  and i ti s they  life  lonely  t h e women  characters i n  artistic  ability of  he w r o t e :  H a r d l y a n y R u s s i a n w r i t e r e x c e e d s Mamin i n t h e a r t i s t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f mass movements. Not that Mamin makes i t h i s t a s k t o d e p i c t movements o f  71 crowds, c o n f l i c t s of masses. On t h e c o n t r a r y , h i s a t t e n t i o n i s c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e e x p e r i e n c e s and actions of i n d i v i d u a l persons. Yet those persons e n t e r as p a r t s i n t o t h e scheme o f g e n e r a l m a s s - l i f e . Out o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s a r i s e s the l i f e of a great c o l l e c t i v e e n t i t y . This g i f t of p r e s e n t i n g m a s s -mo vem e h i t a m a k e < s a M a m i n n © n e f o f - o u r s t r o n g e s t and most o r i g i n a l artists.  people  The  language  and  serves  existing culture  legends of  the  area's  folklore.^  His  the  dry  as  is that  prevailing  produce  depicted.  main  uncontrived  novel the  together  r e g i o n a l speech  spontaneous,  i n the  represent  community  of  of  to that  master  devoid  used  well  an  as  an  colourful  abstract qualities.  customs  image  lies  language. He  often  giving  i t anunique  However, he  employs  device  s p a r i n g l y , never  also  treats  mines.with  the  specialized M. writes  his  references  same  to  c a u t i o n : he  technical  terms  Nevedomski'i,, i n a n  and  specific never  and  the is  in his  i n dialogue,  He  of  a u t h o r i t y on  expressions  this  common  Mamin-Sibiriak  distinction  and  of  a the  use  of  It is uses  local  individuality.  tasks  abusing i t . i n the  overindulges  gold  in  expressions.  article  on  Mamin-Sibiriak,  that:  From a p u r e l y a r t i s t i c s t a n d p o i n t , Mamin's a s s e t s a r e . . . an u n u s u a l l y r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of the p l a i n people's language, f u l l of s t r i k i n g s a y i n g s and s i m i l e s , s h o t t h r o u g h w i t h a w e a l t h of embellishments and b y - w o r d s , and a m a r v e l o u s l y fluent natural dialogue. I n t h e l a t t e r he sometimes reaches p e r f e c t i o n . ^ The event.  But  plot  of  here,  the as  novel  i n the  Zoloto other  i s based  novels,  on  a  single  the r e t r o s p e c t i v e  72 biographies flashbacks  of individual  to the historical  epoch which precedes Through the  perceives  historical  o f Zykov,  the  author  the  harsh  rules,  immorality the  reminiscences  the  author  among the  making  where  f o r example,  women  an o l d t a l e location  f o rt h e i r  through the  conditions  mine,  o f work,  Grandmother  f a t e o f women  men t o o k  penal ones into  and s u p e r s t i t i o n s  region.  could  Lukeria,  Introduced  sayings  about a golden  i n a  the prettier  own u s e .  o f o l dt a l e s ,  and w h i c h  i n the novel,  o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n and  o f an o l d e x - c o n v i c t ,  influential  novel.  and t h e p r e v a i l i n g  By means  the harsh  entire  foreman o f t h e gold  deportations,  the lawlessness,  a r e a number  unknown  presented  with  of the society i n i t s  up t h e f o l k l o r e , o f t h e U r a l  example, an  penal  describes  the exiled  plot  Thus,  o f t h e mores.  community,  o f people  an e i g h t y - y e a r - o l d  describes  the reader  of action i n this  the nature  perspective.  provide  b a c k g r o u n d , d e s c r i b i n g an  the period  the life-histories  reader  story  characters  He g i v e s  us,  f o r  sow w h i c h was b u r i e d i n be found  only  by a  g virgin. upper and  He r e p o r t s  class  woman  saw t h e g o l d , Different  for  gold  gold of  i n their  as a s e r v a n t  Mansvetov  the superstition  (barynia)  i n particular,  i t would  disappear.  characters  appearing  own w a y s .  that  Foreman  o f t h e government,  i f a woman, a n visited  i n t h e book Zykov  a  mine  a l l search  i s searching f o r  and l a t e r  as an  employee  a n d <2.bmplny^an#©id'Gtp.dh±mi' i s -"not „.a s o u r c e , o f  73 employment, for It  he  assumes  i s proud  is his  leads  but  to  be  consuming  him  to  a  in  who,  is  success,  also  in his  the  gold  social  but  order,  income by  by a  the  permitting allowing  are  Lukeria.  ends  cheating  Yastrebov  throughout  as  as  well  steal  i n the  i t from  old  their  and  cheats  to  authorities.  employers.  his  partner He  an  of  abuse  gold  In who,  and their  who  .belong  K i s h k i n , Y.astrebov search  and  for  gold  i n t u r n , murder  in illegal He up his  of  bullion.  characters  life-long  buys  man  established  of  are  him.  business  i s a middleman: gold old  now,  from workers age  i n revenge,  i s consequently  him.  Gold  production  pilfering  life.  he  i t ruins  augment  involved  days,  for  finally  a powerful  measure  important  entire  is  of  f r i e n d s who,  been  that  to  These  his  his  greedy the  other  gold  business.  Balchugovskii  He  head  system,  important  pays  the  value  elements  Kishkin's  has  affairs  the  of  an  c o n t r o l s the  limited  amount  Grandmother in his  at a  same g e n e r a t i o n .  of  he  employee.  certain  three  such  price  capacity,  in his  locating  manager  stands  limited  There to  and  place  of  for  the  Company  official  mines  dishonesty  a  charge  passion  Karachunskil, the centre,  central  sent  he  who  becomes  reports  off to  him  penal  servitude. Grandmother hard in  work  the  she  L u k e r i a was  gained  community,  was  initially  for herself a highly sought  after  as  an  a  convict.  Through  respected  position  arbiter  in  domestic  74 disputes,  a n d was w e l l  narrated  i n t h e book.  opportunity and  arose  I n t h e new w o r l d  and  disintegration.  perishes  containing between  Petr,  leads  an  rooms  to her  h e r s o n o v e r ..money  guarding  the source  her trunk of  discord  young  generation  i n the novel  son; Matiushka,  i s represented  a worker,  by  and M y l ' n i k o v ,  the  cobbler. In  t h e days  a l l these  lives.  before  people  Matiushka  astray  had been  rush  by r e n t i n g  wealth  house w h i l e  events  them.  village  was  the opening  would a good  by h i s c o n t a c t w i t h the comfortable  Myl'nikov, some  i n a burning  Lukeria's  Dacha  with  She q u a r r e l s w i t h  t h e money w h i c h  The  lived  Contact  of the  of the gold  f o r h e r t o become r i c h  taking i n lodgers.  moral  being  life  of the  have -probably and w i l l i n g  gold.  novel.  His  misfortune this  Gold  Petr would  initial  i s t h a t he f i n d s success,  h i s o l d house  new  gate  f o r h i s f u t u r e home.  his  family  grandfather  peasant;  thus  h i s luck  away  from  and acted i n  family. Influenced  t o continue  builds  an  i s soon  a n d f o r c e d t o move  likely  as he does i n  of gold.  But the gold  breaking  have  h i s own  and o s t e n t a t i o u s l y  destitute  Zykov,  a pocket  he expects  destroys  left  destroy  was l e d  have most  c h a r a c t e r , would  makes M y l ' n i k o v  different  w o r k e r , who  of a prosperous  an unsteady  Kedrovskaia  lived  u n p r e d i c t a b l e , b u t n o t d e s t r u c t i v e way,  the  by  o f f a t the beginning  and  ornate exhausted,  i n with  Myl'nikov.  their  75 In  the novel,  gold  are considered:  gold  f o rpersonal  interest. gold a  passionate  o f people  who  reasons,  and those  who h a v e  i n the f i r s t  to personal devotion  enrichment,  t o duty.  are different  these  men p o s s e s s  they  attitude  challenge  t o them, b u t t h e s i m i l a r i t y  their  attitudes  towards  both  as  social  individuals.  towards  ends  i t means  their  a r e engaged,  people  with  the latter  may b e c o m p a r e d  Rublikha,  to  such  f o rthe others  Although  new m i n e ,  of  i n which  no  working  Representing  a serious  attitudes  are interested i n  category,  a r e ;ZyJc©vhandkKar.aehtanskii.  positions Both  two d i s t i n c t  those  F o r people  i s a way  category  essentially  duty.  presents  at this.  and l i f e ,  they  The a  In terms  are very  unlike. Zykov's  years  on  h i s character.  in  h i s work.  into  of working  i n t h e mines  He i s p r e s e n t e d  The mine becomes  the background  h i s family  as a " f a n a t i c " ,  h i s idee  fixe,  t o duty  and i n h i s search  b e h a l f , i s ",'aiiriadmah, lagafehea? nature  and h i s developed  working He  i s extended  treats  juvenile himself  delinquent.  "maniac" pushes  interests. i n his  o n t h e company's  o f ordering people  to h i s family.  about  A t home h e i s a  s o n Yakov  When Y a k o v  to h i s father's w i l l  a mark  armaniaciaco''HisHoverbearing  habit  h i s sixty-year-old  Zykov,  f o rgold  a  which  and a l l h i s o t h e r  K a r a c h u n s k i i '©ome's? t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t devotion  has l e f t  and wishes  tyrant.  as i f he were  refuses  while  a  t o subordinate to start  work  as an  independent turns  to  gold  the  prospector  village  at  Kedrovskaia  elders with  a  Dacha,  request  to  Zykov  have  his  son  flogged.  financial  Zykov* s tuous of  of  his  others  four  —  an  position  attitude  daughters  by  a  that  second  makes h i m  compounds  marriage.  contemp-  the The  unhappiness eldest,  o  Tatiana, and  marries  Zykov The  elopes  without  refuses  to  same h a p p e n s  Fenia.  His  succinctly  a  recognize to  his  features  pointed  for his  fellow  parental  strictness,  distinguishing  him  with  out  attitude  from  a  neighbouring  consent.  her  or  For  her  twenty  of by  pride his  and  character.  three  the  beautiful  inflexibility  Grandmother  towards  years  children's existence.  f a v o u r i t e daughter, his  village  This  Lukeria,  of  his  are  the  i s noted as  she  and  berates  daughters:  " I t ' s y o u r own f a u l t , you s h o u l d have m a r r i e d Fenia off earlier. Here you a r e , through your p r i d e you have kept Maria a s p i n s t e r . . . . You should help Tatiana. T h e woman i s w o r k i n g h e r s e l f t o d e a t h and y o u , y o u a r e n o u r i s h i n g y o u r p r i d e . " ^ x  Zykov name o f  the  reluctant because  he  judicial to  the  Within  to  i s very  his  superiors;  f o r which  he  works  expose  pilfering  by  some o f  cannot  company.  companyis  to  company  bear  proceedings  the  loyal  interests  about  which would  Thus,  f a m i l y he  to bring  there  be  appear  is inflexible, he  i s capable  of  To  him  i s sacred.  a  the  t o be but  He  and  start  to bring i n him  his  discredit  two  i n respect  bending  is  employees,  scandal  likely  the  to  standard the  conscience  77 for  the sake As  his  such  has  warm  unloved  with  mud  s h e came  seeing  Thus,  even  capable  from  to his office commanded  her passion  o f work  and more  discover and  h i s greed  "There  took  Zykov  He  provided  moves  he  traced  had  been she  was  and h i s  from  the mine,  l e ther  people  stay.  he i s  against  personal  the  context.  h i s family  and becomes  and i n the p a s s i o n  t o n o t i c e what  he  i s happening  to a t home,  b l i n d s him t o the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of h i s f a m i l y .  place  the complete.destruction  which  brought  about,  as t h e a u t h o r  the passion  but  h i s passion  his  own  had taken  years  puts  of a  to b u i l d . "  i t , by  a  strong 1  This  1  was  "natural disaster"  f o r gold.  Zykov  sake.  time,  h e r away  from  i n h i s work  can be  d i d n o t k n o w who  there  him  f o r whom  her clothes  i t happens  away  save  by h i s e l d e s t  emotion  relations with  family  Thus  He  f o r working  fails  person  f o r the f i r s t  ancient  —  when  and n o t i n a s o l e l y  involved  gold.  this  h'imtto c h a s e  i n h i s personal  Gradually more  enough,  occupies  may  h i s granddaughter  the mine.  of f l e x i b i l i t y ,  backdrop  i n him that The o n l y  sight of the g i r l ,  superstitions yet  i s left  and l o n e l y .  Significantly  his first  when  nothing  a t t i t u d e towards work  feelings i s Oksia,  daughter.  covered  necessity.  a fanatical  l i f e wholly,  from being  to  of practical  i s caught  up  i n the sticky  i s not expressed His wish  web  i n his desire  i s to find  gold  of  gold,  f o r gold f o r  f o r t h e company  and  78 he  finds  i t i n t h e form  discovery about  coincides with  by g o l d , which  Matiushka's Zykov's with  of  that  f o r gold  and P e t r  i n h i s understanding  In  drives  him  vein.  But  clear  Krivoi  brought  t o him  through Kishkin,  (One-eyed).  Armed  o f p r o p r i e t o r s h i p (and had always  been  i t and f o r e v e r bury  The i n n e r  this  he had k i l l e d  t h e mine  to flood  he has d i s c o v e r e d .  loyalties  made  c o n v i c t i o n and t h e f e e l i n g  h i m ) , he d e c i d e s  which  are suddenly  confession  gold  h i s perceiving the evils  two g r a n d c h i l d r e n  this  indeed  of a large  conflict  a  part  the gold  o f t h e two  insane.  day-to-day  affairs  Karachunskii  i s the opposite  of  Zykov: In o u t e r appearance, i n h i s a t t i t u d e s and h a b i t s he was a m o s t o r d i n a r y b o n v i v a n t , . . . a n d n o o n e i n t h e m i n i n g community w o u l d have b e l i e v e d t h a t K a r a c h u n s k i i had ever worked o r understood anything i n the mining business. . . . K a r a c h u n s k i i knew b u s i n e s s v e r y w e l l and p o s s e s s e d the greatest secret of working unobtrusively. There are such u n u s u a l p e o p l e , who t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r l i v e s m o v e mountains, and y e t a r e c o n s i d e r e d a l m o s t idlers. ±  Karachunskii  g o t on w e l l w i t h  people  2  a n d was  . . . a n enemy o f a n y f o r m o f r e p r e s s i o n . Best of a l l he p r e f e r r e d those half-measures, concessions and p r i v a t e d e a l s t h r o u g h w h i c h s u c h a c o m p l i c a t e d e n t e r p r i s e c o u l d be r u n . x 3  Under  t h e mask  o f an i d l e r  Zykov,  a feeling  cannot  allow  the  courts  of pride  the Gold  Karachunskii and honour.  Company's a f f a i r s  ( i n consequence  conceals, Again t o be  of a denunciation  like  as  does  Zykov,  he  considered  i n  by K i s h k i n )  and  see  his  name d r a g g e d  out  in suicide.  destroyed  by  As are in  It  other  achieved  as by  He  he  sees  too  and  participants  i s one  is their  are  presented  mud.  indirectly,  is  the  only  way  physically  how  by  individuals.  in this  use  of  finding  greed  as  a  he  are  gold.  general  characters  human  appearing  in  nevertheless is  Mamin-Sibiriak  is a  describes  gold  feature  individualization  language.  respect —  for  predominant by  they  This  race  rich  a l l the  greed,  i n the  and  get  identifies  shows  tainted  the  uniting  desire to  Mamin-Sibiriak  novel  artist  the  there  characteristic the  the  gold.  concerned,  Although  Thus,  f a r as  them.  through  every  great  personality  as  14 colourful, As he  a  him  Zykov's  interest  in  i t i s not  personal  never  of  the  hard-working co-worker  i s to  a matter  use  unique.  former  life  gamble.  make  and  contrast to  presents  only  a  different  He his  of  find  a  riches.  gold  and  fortune As  he  devoted  Kishkin.  responsibility  makes  and  Kishkin's  become to  rich.  anyone  To  else,  s e v e r a l times  puts  Zykov  but  but  i t himself,  can  "I've 15  drunk  Madeira  and  lost  inconsistency  and  adventurism  led  him  to  dishonesty.  suspicious. is  said  of  He him  has that  about  In  five  his  i n the old  a nickname — he  is  thousand gold  age  he  "Bump"  "something  at  cards."  His  mine b u s i n e s s becomes  greedy  (Shishka)  small,  have  and  and i t  insignificant  16 and  vile."  At  the  outset.of  the  s t o r y he  i s poor,  old  and  80 lonely,  unnoticed  Dacha  gives  fate,  to  for  by  in  and  tries  This  to  of  steal  son  of  the  novel,  contact  with  wake  the  one  of  profit  gradual  gold  sees  his  i n which  general.  The  he  in  t o gp>  he  latter  He  denounces  one  who  the  the  greed to  entire  mine  wealth.  end  he  His  k i l l is  part had  as  novel  of  a  the  him  the  one  the  the  village  another  middleman,  is  disFor  three  crimes,  and  the  of  middleman, the  in  two  witnessed  p r i c e s , g i v i n g people  with  This  humanity  murder  the  Petr  gold  commits  unwittingly  a  of  his  others.  against  i n the  of  eye.  Petr,  In  endows  attitude to  He  of  clarity.  author  than  is  action  result  i n one  against and  the  profession  The  his  Yastrebov,  better  the  finally  vivid  toXexta?emes.  is his  crime.  paid  with  acutely  lives,  grandchildren,  his  refuses  great  course  is blind  that  more  Zykov's  who  the  chooses  mother,  community  partner,  In  profession.  gold  of  actions.  i s described  i s ready  against  in  demoralization  he  He  c o m p a n i o n s , who  Lukeria.  i s symbolic  he  him  Thus,  Kedrovskaia  However, h i s  c o n t r o l of  bring  the  better  partners.  take to  of  the  repulsive personality in  illegal  He  get  respect.  money.  physical deformity:  torted.  opening  to  his  to  and  goldrush  i s an  deformity  one  his  Grandmother his  cheat  in his  his wealth most  gain  promises  greed  The  chance  and  find  The  which  rich to  awaken  victim  last  him  himself.  order  anyone.  leads  his  riches  his  become  gold  share  him  by  of his  and  his  opportunity  81 to  live  their  decently.  livelihood.  village  Having  Among  "tempting  participate  because  hypnotizes  Zykov,  extremely taught  and murder  about  the gold  i n getting himself  -forces h i s d a u g h t e r t h e mine drinking.  through  Oksia  twice  i s an  o f h i s time  life.  various  Fenia^  He  at the  i s infected  with  legal  a  and  Kishkin, illegal  Karachunskii s 1  an a l l o t m e n t .  As he i s l a z y ,  t o do a l l t h e h e a v y and t h e r e s t  not s e l l  He h a s  enjoys  a bad experience  weekly,  He d o e s  b u t takes  son-in-law  He  a n d now  deal  community  he was, and t h r o u g h  mistress,  price,  a great  and a f t e r  he succeeds,  higher  personality.  h i s trade,  of the mining  ventures,  spends  h i s own e n d .  and i n c o n s i s t e n t person.  He s p e n d s  fever,  the riches with h i s  an unacknowledged  drawn  and daughter  with  t o share  Mylnikov,  flippant  the centre  he  o f K i s h k i n , whom h e .  Thus, h i s  inn,  supervises  him t o  by him.  of idleness.  he  this  and i n t h e end i s murdered  life  whose p a r t n e r  mother.  the gold  brings  He  of the  i s h i s own  and leads  by the  t o share  i s a humorously  h i s wife  to part  of  refuses  shoemaker  lazy,  fire  characteristics,  Matiushka  of h i s wealth.  Matiushka, The  he s e t s  h i s human  people  he i s f l o g g e d  of the fire  and h i s d i s i n c l i n a t i o n  parter,  of  lost  i n the robbing  Matiushka  greed  the victims  snake"  deprives  For h i s denunciation  completely  envies  denunciation  e l d e r s , and i n revenge  village.  with  Petr's  gold  work.  o f the time  t o Yastrebov  i tto the Balchugovskii  He  office,  at a where  82 the  price  is  gold  content  soon  run  lower in his  out.  an  adventurer  of  h i s weak In  Sibiriak benefit  gold  with  her  gold  tragic  the  outset  fate  the  greedy,  shoemaker's  of  of  the  and  in a  having  Matiushka,  her  and  The  reserves  Myl'nikov  i n his personal  illusion  underground  takes  not  life  is  because  out of  of  the  daughter, power  story,  conditions, being  father,  of  Oksia  exploited  one-man m i n e , accumulated  gold  is by  she  a  Mamin-  found her  steals  sufficient  with  whom s h e  is in  own  hopeless  situation,  her  Matiushka  her  to  happiness,  love.  too,  but  is  short-lived. Oksia's  with  physical  start  of  the  husband  novel  Contact  wealth.  His  which  he  Matiushka confessing  he  with  i s endowed  and  gold  i n him  causes  falls  into  to  conscience  real  Zykov, and  love  as  end  i s the  a  i s presented awakens  successive failures  i n the  weakness  Matiushka  s t r e n g t h , beauty  worker.  own  the  i t to  great  legal.  0  fleeting  At  i s not  defeat  ©ksiah  intterrible  takes  the  very  the  Working  amount,  of  completely  essentially  suffers  case  business  allotment  characters  people.  from  Here,  who  gives  father.  the  Although  the  labouring  but  his  own  only  he  of  the  i s unable  commits  and  to  suicide.  the  author  f o r work. excellent a  passion  increase his  downfall.  temptation victim  an  by  In  commits  At and  willing  for desire,  a moment a  gold  fever.  be  a t peace  the  of  murder. After with  his  83 The in  this  this the  novel.  bo?ief  factor plays I t s span  period  such  hatred, tragic  the action  morals  events  finds  glance,  the four  t o be unnecessary.  serve  picture greed,  t o emphasize  of this nurtured  ties,  growth o f  and t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n  murders  and  life. by  witnesses  the influence of  i t sr e s o l u t i o n i n the a c t i o n  of sensationalism  events  under  role  During  and t h e r e a d e r  of family  and crime,  important  two y e a r s .  character  impression appear  over  unfolds  as t h e d e s t r u c t i o n  loose  first  a particularly  extends  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f human  gold;  At  time  of  of the novel.  and two s u i c i d e s g i v e t h e  (especially B u t upon  i n the deeper  epilogue)  analysis, the  and i l l u m i n a t e t h e h o r r i f y i n g  The i n f l a m e d  a passion  and m a l i g n a n t  f o r gold,  leads  human  to the  total  17 destruction  of the characters  Mamin-Sibiriak world  h a s i t s own  inhabiting traits  and by  through  S i b i r i a k *s perceived a  outside  i n a microcosmic  perennial.  both  local  both  o f greed  by  i t .  context.  individual  that  between  Mamin-  then,  universals  Thus,  and timebound  Iti s  the world  In a sense,  of analyzing  This  a n d women  f o r gold.  universal value  i s that  community.  a n d t h e men  a correspondence  and t h e w o r l d technique  trait  of this  mine  a s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g world.  are identified  t h e common  significance,  and  world  establishes  novel  creates  characteristics,  an a n a l y s i s  Sibiriak the  this  i n the gold  h i s work  as w e l l  of Mamin-  as assumes  as u n i v e r s a l  CONCLUSION  The  three  thematically developed region  of Russia, when  knowledge  novels, in  and h i s t o r i c a l l y .  here  background  The author  of local  the action  history.  of these  the Irbit  Trade  T.agil  industrial  in  Zoloto.  as he took  contemporary  some  Russian  P r i n c e San Donato,  scandalous  episode  participants  the  forms  linked  with  the basis  Kyshtymskli  i n the novel  (Balchugovskii)  Laptev  i n Gornoe  ofhis  the Nizhnii  of h i s fictional  society.  utilizes  f o r example,  Some o f h i s p r o t a g o n i s t s h a d t h e i r  just  Demidov,  Fair,  milliony;  Mine  i n t h e hands  o f each  place:  (Kukharskii Mill)  and t h e B e r e z o v s k i i G o l d  life,  from  region  industrial  novels  In the plot  (Shatrovskii) i n Privalovskie  novel  of rapid  concentrated  Mills  gnezdo;  of the industrial  i s located i n a real  (Uzel),  both  T h e theme o f money i s  l a r g e f o r t u n e s were  Ekaterinburg  are connected  t h e U r a l s , a t a time  a few i n d i v i d u a l s .  his  analyzed  against the social  progress, of  novels  Gornoe i n the  prototypes  situations  i s modeled  on  gnezdo; w h i l e t h e  t h e Zotov  of the plot  i n h e r i t a n c e and i t s of  Privalovskie  milliony. Mamin-Sibiriak Urals  very  described of  well. with  motives.  terized  knew  the l i f e  His novels  of the people  are f u l l  of colourful  v i v i d n e s s and a comprehensive  Each  individual  by a s p e c i a l  i n his artistic  individual  of the characters  understanding world  manner o f s p e a k i n g  i s characa n d mode  85 of  expression.  satire  Some  (Laptev  climber), miser,  characters are outlined  t h e dandy,  some b y e l e m e n t s  and Nina  industrial went  riches  plants,  hand-in-hand with  so f a i t h f u l l y  shortcomings traits the  such  as g r e e d ,  society the  alone.  entire  this  aspect  envy,  human  race.  o f t h e human that  environment  of the Ural  background  the  two i s a n a l y z e d .  artist  they  dignity  with  animal,  i t s weaknesses,  f o r power, and of material  to the Russian  traits,  characteristic  succeeded  by p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g h i s describing  region.  Thus,  man  the l i f e i s seen  The uniqueness i n his ability  character  of Mamin-Sibiriak  to create  sketches.  a wide  and t h e against  between  i s manifest  of the presentation of the conflicts  i s shown  of  i n capturing  of h i s milieu/aaiidttheiinteraction  pass.  unforgettable  f o r money o r  o u t i n h i s heroes  f o r the sake  The a u t h o r  meanness  h i m t h e power t o  p s y c h o l o g i c a l make-up o f t h e h e r o e s  the course  which  gave  jealousy, lust  i s , by v i v i d l y  the  in  f o r gold,  He b r i n g s  of the  and cowardly  nature  are universal  characters:  The  the business  features are not unique They  the social  (Liakhovskii the  greed  the lust  t h e human  o f human  But these  thoroughly  knowledge  and f a i l u r e s .  debasement  gain.  This  of  businesswoman).  the intrigues,  i n general.  describe  knew  Zaplatina  of grotesque  the ruthless  Mamin-Sibiriak  that  and Khiona  by elements  through as an  gallery  of  86 All get  rich.  life,  c h a r a c t e r s have  B u t money  although  example, it  these  t o improve  plays a different  i t s role  Privalov  i s never  the l i f e  of others.  t h e money  f o r i t s own  means  to obtain  pleasure.  as  of battle  different  kinds  value  o f money  their  wealth  than  as s u c h .  Liakhovskaia  sees  as s o m e t h i n g  of  needs;  status his  symbol.  own,  Lusha,  ness who  disillusioned  i s initially  other  presented  acquire simple  more power. society  serfdom.  money  On  the  do n o t u s e  fortunate.  Zosia  as a  money  part i s a  of  t h e medium o f money.  she p e r c e i v e s the empti-  t h e o t h e r hand, T e t i u e v ,  Laptev  gnezdo  loses  h i s idealism  and h i s r i c h e s .  s e e money  there are s t i l l  present  i s an i g n o r a n t , u n e d u c a t e d  Many  as a means t o  I n Z o l o t o i s shown a p r i m i t i v e  i n which  This  who  Polovodova  as an i d e a l i s t ,  i n Gornoe  i n  by h i s w e a l t h , becomes  h i m when  contact with  personalities  through  fascinated  with  i s a  Bakhareva  t h e magnate, h a s no p e r s o n a l i t y  personality.  h e comes i n t o  wants  money  indispensable,  f o rAhtonina  entirely  i s initially  o f Laptev's  when  of  but functions  who  quickly  Laptev,  He  Liakhovskii  F o r Nadezhda  the l o tof the less  while  For  F o r women, t o o , m o n e y h a s  t o improve  her daily  person's  of gaining  s h e condemns t h e r i c h  money  to  i t i s meaningless  i n the process  of significance. i s nil;  vital.  F o r Polovodov,  F>or B a k h a r e v  of wits.  i n each  The m i s e r  sake.  and he i s i n t e r e s t e d  a kind  less  role  h a s no?:.need f o r m o n e y  wants  itself,  t h e o n e common d e s i r e  and  the vestiges  society.  Given  87 an  opportunity to  g a i n money, t h e  society  are  incapable of  wealth,  and  a c t i n an  Although for  they  money, An  use  are  important  significant  characters. the  ters.  verb  and  the  f o r example,  destiny  Privalov"s  which  means  the  a  unexpectedness  and  quite  for his  all,  of  never  name c o m e s  from  by  He  money.  tively she  which of  polovod'e,  came by  symbol  she  humble  of  personality. from  The the  capable  evaluate  of  hope The  of  events.  the  show  drowned  by  of  comes  dishonestly  in i t .  comes  express  the  charac-  from  the  prozorlivyi,  from and  character  was,  after  was  inundated  and,  figura-  implies  a  in  kind  the  spineless  Prozorov's  and  hope:  society  lapot',  his  meaning  people  the  Polovodov's  f o r the  character, stressing drunkard  the  N a d e z h d a means  and  to  to  Privalov  He  is  unexpectedly.  with  flood.  peasants,  economist  help  inheritance.  name L a p t e v used  acquire i t .  explain  arrive  that  for Privalov  seeing through The  to  greed  technique  o f many name  their  they  and  associate  meaning  ineffectual word  to  i t quickly,  was  footwear  origin  derived  he  lives.  shapeless  indeed  prepared  speaking,  is a  wishes  to  symbols  Evidently, sense  author  as  help  manner.  by  of Mamin-Sibiriak*s  serve  privalit',  actions  this  acquired  stupid  them when  names w h i c h  names  function  Thus,  Russian  part  to  women o f  newly  and  in their  benefit  proper  The  nature,  irresponsible  no  and  handling their  motivated  i t i s of  men  name  sagacious. i s able  B l i n o v ' s name s t e m s  is He  is  to from  the  88 word  blin,  with  the well-known  pancake  with  means  physically  scruples. wealth soap  crooked  man  H i s name  when  Petr  Krivoi's  implies that  and i s d e v o i d  t h e name may  of  he  moral  signify  that  h i s f o r t u n e i s as e p h e m e r a l  as a  i s firmly  of nature  seen.  h i s works,  Urals  placed  at the centre of the  given  vours  and h i s response itself  existing  a great  of writers pointed  between isons  by-side  deal  through  some  i n Russian  an i n t e g r a l scenery  o f t h e most  of attention  o f Repin  made  though  between beyond  —  fiction.  part of the  Critics  the interaction,  Chekhov  endea-  scope  descriptions  the u n f o r g e t t a b l e canvases  They  almost  and s i m i l a r  and L e v i t a n .  t h e immediate  sight  sensitive  to the parallel  and Turgenev,  to place Mamin-Sibiriak's with  form  prose  loses  and h i s a c t i v i t i e s  to the natural  out the similarity  have been  study,  man  never  and p a i n t e r s i n r e p r e s e n t i n g , n a t u r e .  t h e works  fruitful,  against which  Descriptions of nature  expresses  word-painting  be  or that  soapy:  o u t t o be  of l i f e .  deformed  first  B l i n o v ' s name  he t u r n s  o r one-eyed.  means  —  reality  familiar  komom" — ' t h e  created i n the novels, Mamin-Sibiriak  must be  have  indeed  and s p i r i t u a l l y  i s slippery  blin  o u t i n a lump'  which  Myl'nikov  the world  have  "pervyi  reader,  bubble.  world  of  To a R u s s i a n  the practical  Although  of  saying  a failure,  confronted  is  pancake.  i s a p t t o come  suggests  surname  meaning  —  compar-  I t would  of the present of nature  depicting  side-  natural  89 scenes,  usually  minstrel among  of  the  Russian  finest  outstanding naia  trees  the  his  fulfilling seen  value role  stack  recognition  human n e e d s .  has  a beauty  i t assumes of  nature  evocative  objective world the  a  of  in  in  The  world  in  as  to  the  sense of well  of  as  the  is  be  of  thus  beauty  of  the  resources  To  the  be too,  utilitarian  man  medium  may  him,  duality  by  function  grove  dichotomy  This  personal  of  as  to  (Karabel'-  It  nature.  man.  creates  terms  value  perceived  that  a  natural  "the  Especially  Masts"  masts.  through  and  Mamin-Sibiriak  natural  same  of  ship  their  universe  descriptions  considered  sees  of of  i t s own  novels  called  artist  treatment  representation  that  of  relation  the  been  work  Forest  the  perception  Mamin-Sibiriak's  yet  as  his  "The  i n which  i n Mamin-Sibiriak's  nature  in  1898),  and  has  landscape-painting.  painting  artist's  with  Shishkin  Russian  straight trees  unites  I.  forests"  of  is his  roshcha,  tall,  forest.  is of  of  the  expressed  precise  equally  well  as  value-judgement. thus  one  man's p h y s i c a l  that and  and  The  replicates  emotional  needs. Throughout the  thought  which  of  possessing  i t confers  attitude Gold  (the  with  the  has  recorded  upon  become  most powers  gold,  deeply  good  of  evil,  has  the Over  ingrained  symbol and  man  and  i t s owners.  powerful of  history  in  power  obsessed  and  millennia,  the  human  has  been  consciously  by  prestige  the  wealth) for,  been  this  psyche. associated and  90 subconsciously,  man  its  attributes  powers w i t h  divine. of  man  may  But gold  by i t s e l f  do depends w h o l l y  for  that  can i tw i e l d power,  Ideally,  gold  the precious metal  a r e a t once  h a s no power. and t h e good  upon  others,  specifically  himself. Through  The a u t h o r conflicts  undergoes ideals  a test  a man  the burden Laptev,  f o r t h e good  good,  the  people who  change, greedy  turn  less  who  closer i n most  o f awakening This  trustees,  a l l the worst  i n mankind,  These  novels  role. Privalov one's  i s n o t , as he The o t h e r  bears nabob,  of h i s wealth  h i s wealth. h i s money  The  to  charac-  undergo  a  s u b s e r v i e n t t o him and  their  power  intrinsic  of  than  of h i s responsibility  h i s wealth  i n people  destructive  by i n s t i n c t s  h i s works.  Thus  i s a man o f  To implement  contact with cases,  mankind.  fortunate  of the potentiality  h e l p him i n producing into  with  gold  f o r the benefit  and environment.  and has n o t u n d e r s t a n d i n g  that  a challenging  h i s unscrupulous  aware  i n t h e hands  o f t h e many, n o t  are less  of h i s capabilities.  f o r h i s money.  released  who  gives h i s hero  with  becoming,  impulses.  f o r those  of h i s heredity  come  function  t o u s e h i s money  and  demonic and  Privalov  must be s t r o n g , and P r i v a l o v  i s even  for  ters  He w i s h e s  Only  i t s relationship  should be used  ideals.  both  or evil  t h e p l e a s u r e o f t h e f o r t u n a t e few.  such  in  has a s s o c i a t e d  has the negative baser  of gold  destructive  i s one t h a t i s  t o humanity,  and r e l e a s e s i n  as M a m i n - S i b i r i a k  chart  t h e human m i n d  demonstrates along  sociological proves  as  himself  existence, universe, values  but  these  theme  of  also  man's  takes  Since  Sibiriak  in  intimately  from  from  of  placing  his  shows  how  visible  the  significance,  conditions i n the  the  most  overtakes  person  a man  we  darker How  These  are  in  a  than  people, can  —  when he  so  hardly  for  be  of  the  of  into contact  with  a  and heart.  are By  framework  the  This  to  riches.  qualities behind  document.  desires  that  i t is irrevocable —  comes  apart  human  loves,  social  seen.  assumes  confined  questions  that  knew  work  intense  their  intrinsic  Mamin-  a historic  his  acquisitive  in  by he  his  i s not  to  already  for gold  of  secrets are  have  importance,  almost  i s shown by  him  perennial  setting  the  human  allows the  all-enveloping presence  rather  terrifying  of  experience, —  physical  localized a  interest  function?  a t t r i b u t e s of real  Urals,  awareness  characters  wealth  the  the  social  his  that  as  is  of  i n which  frenzied search  of  f r u s t r a t i o n s formed? against  device  which,  actual personal  people  sounded  gold  a  impulses  u n i v e r s a l theme  setting  interest  What makes and  of  Mamin-Sibiriak  observer  presentation  Mamin-Sibiriak's  social  sustained  the  for wealth,  form  i t s fictional  study  a keen  literary  i s the  its sociological  That  co-ordinates.  relationship with  bare  The  this  the  only  man's  lays  lust  the  ethical  not  purposes  Zoloto.  in  t o be  l i e rooted.  noted,  as  analyzing  unite  —  well  is  he  become  the  screen  of  perhaps  change  that  gold.  But  the n o v e l i s t ' s exercise of  in  art  lies  abstract  recognizably  less  ethics,  in  arriving  at  this  than i n p e n e t r a t i n g  individualized  characters.  view the  as  an  souls  NOTES TO INTRODUCTION 1.  S t a t e d i n Mamin-Sibiriak's l e t t e r to A. I . A n n e n s k i i dated March 2, 1912, S t . P e t e r s b u r g . D. N. MaminS i b i r i a k , Sobranie s o c h i n e n i i , torn 1-8 (henceforth a b b r e v i a t e d t o D.N.M-S, Sobr. s o c h . ) , torn 8,(Moskva: Gosudarstvennoe i z d a t e l ' s t v o khudozhestvennoi literat u r y , 1954), p. 678.  2.  V. V. Kuskov, " V y d a i u s h c h i i s i a r u s s k i i demokrat MaminS i b i r i a k " , D m i t r i i Narkisovich Mamin-Sibiriak, Sto l e t so d n i a r o z h d e n i a , 1852-1952 (henceforth a b b r e v i a t e d t o Sto l e t ) (Sverdlovsk: Knizhnoe i z d a t e l ' s t v o , 1953), p. 8.  3.  V. Al'bov, " K a p i t a l i s t i c h e s k i i p r o t s e s s v i z o b r a z h e n i i Mamina-Sibiriaka", M i r B o z h i i , No. 1 (St. P e t e r s b u r g : 1900), p. 116.  4.  D. N. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , "S U r a l a " , N o v o s t i 1 b i r z h e v a i a gazeta, No. 107 (St. P e t e r s b u r g : 1884),pp. 10. Quoted by M. A. G o r l o v s k i i , Sto l e t .  5.  A. M. S k a b i c h e v s k i i , " D m i t r i i N a r k i s o v i c h Mamin", S o c h i n e n i i a A. M. Skabichevskogo v dvukh tomakh, torn 2 (St. P e t e r s b u r g : 1903), p. 599.  6.  E. Anichkov, "Mamin-Sibiriak", M i r B o z h i i , No. 10 ( S t . P e t e r s b u r g : 1905), p. 230.  7.  T h i s comment was made by M. E. S a l t y k o v - S h c h e d r i n w i t h regard t o the novels by Turgenev, Goncharov and P i s e m s k i i , whose methods c o u l d no longer be employed t o p o r t r a y the contemporary complex problems o f s o c i e t y . M. E. S a l t y k o v - S h c h e d r i n , Sobranie s o c h i n e n i i , torn 8 (Moskva: I z d a t e l ' s t v o Khudozhestvennoi l i t e r a t u r y , 1965) , p. 456.  8.  I b i d . , p. 46 4.  9.  E. A. Bogoliubov, Novyi M i r , No. 10 (Moskva: 1952), p. 237.  10.  iTahkoLfiavrin, An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Russian Novel York-London: 1949), p. 236.  11.  E. Lo Gatto, S t o r i a d e l l a l i t e r a t u r a Russa 1950), p. 355.  (New  (Firenze:  94 12.  R. Hare, Russian: L i t e r a t u r e from Pushkin t o the Present Days (London: 1947), p. 158. '  13.  D. N. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , " K r i z i s u r a l ' s k o i g o r n o i promyshl e n n o s t i " , Polnoe s o b r a n i e s o c h i n e n i i , torn 1-12 (Petrograd: I z d a n i e A. F. Marksa, 1915), p. 235.  NOTES TO CHAPTER I 1.  B. U d i n t s e v , Pevets U r a l a —— D. N. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k (Sverdlovsk: S r e d n e - U r a l s k o e Knizhnoe I z d a t e l * s t v o , 1969) , p. 50. 1  2.  I b i d . , p.  52.  3.  I r b i t : town i n the Sverdlovsk O b l a s t ' (Urals) s i t u a t e d 125 m i l e s n o r t h e a s t of Sverdlovsk (formerly E k a t e r i n burg) . I r b i t was founded i n 1633 and ten years l a t e r became the s i t e of the famour annual f a i r , the second l a r g e s t i n R u s s i a , which f o r a long time was the .focus f o r Russian t r a d e w i t h S i b e r i a , C e n t r a l A s i a and C h i n a . The f a i r continued u n t i l 1930. This i n f o r m a t i o n i s from S. V. Ute.shin, AoConcise E n c y c l o p a e d i a of R u s s i a (New York: E. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964), p. 239.  4.  D. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , The P r i v a l o v Fortune, t r a n s l a t e d by V. Shneerson (henceforth a b b r e v i a t e d t o D. MaminS i b i r i a k , The P r i v a l o v Fortune) (Moscow: F o r e i g n Languages P u b l i s h i n g House, ? ), p. 400.  5/  The c o n c e n t r i c composition i n The P r i v a l o v Fortune c o u l d be compared t o I u . Lermontov's A Hero of Our Time (1840), where f o u r of the f i v e s t o r i e s of the n o v e l c e n t r e around P e c h o r i n ; or N. Gogol's Dead Souls. (1842), where the hero C h i c h i k o v ' s adventures u n i t e a l l the chapters of the n o v e l .  6.  D i s c u s s i o n of t h i s commentary on the n a t u r a l i s t i c n o v e l can be found i n B. A. B i a l i k , Russkaia l i t e r a t u r a kontsa XIX nachala XX veka, Devianostye gody (Moskva: I z d a t e l ' s t v o Nauka, 1968), p. 180.  7.  E l l i o t t M. Grant, Emile Z o l a (New P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1966), p. 45.  8.  I b i d . , p.  45.  York: Twayne  95  9  D.  Mamin-Sibiriak,  The  Privalov  Fortune,  p. 2 3 .  10,  Vera i s the youngest c h a r a c t e r i n the n o v e l , but she a l r e a d y u n d e r s t a n d s t h e power g i v e n by w e a l t h . By s i n g l i n g out t h i s f e a t u r e i n Vera's p e r s o n a l i t y , the author s t r e s s e s the i n f l u e n c e of the environment upon t h e views o f t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n and upon t h e formation of their interests.  11.  D.  12.  Ibid.  /  P-  30.  13.  Ibid.  ,  P.  68.  14.  Ibid.  f  P.  93.  15.  Ibid.  r  P-  94..  16.  Ibid.  r  P-  46.  17.  Ibid.  t  P.  50.  18.  Ibid.  r  P.  51.  19.  Ibid.  r  P-  54.  20.  Ibid.  r  P-  45.  21.  Ibid.  r  P.  150.  22.  Ibid.  r  P-  137.  23.  Ibid.  r  P.  246.  24.  Ibid.  r  P.  67.  25.  I b i d . ,r  26.  I b i d . ,,  27.  Ibid.,  P-  28.  Ibid.,  PP .  29.  Ibid.,  Pi  161.  30.  Ibid.,  P.  180.  M a m i n -S i b i r i  99. P.  43. 249. 172,  96 31.  I b i d . , p. 128.  32.  Ibid.  33.  I b i d . , p. 152.  34.  I b i d . , p. 181.  35.  I . Dergachev, K r i i g i i sud'by (Sverdlovsk: SredneUral'skoe knizhnoe i z d a t e l s t v o , 1973), p. 87. 1  NOTES TO CHAPTER I I 1.  D. N. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , "V khudykh dushakh", Sobranie s o c h i n e n i i , torn 1, p. 13 8. (In t h i s c h a p t e r , the t r a n s l a t i o n of q u o t a t i o n s i s mine.)  2.  I b i d . , torn 3, P r i l o z h e n i e , p. 617.  3.  I b i d . , p. 10.  4.  I b i d . , p. 154.  5.  A. M. S k a b i c h e v s k i i , S o c h i n e n i a v dvukh tomakh ( S t . P e t e r s b u r g : Z. N. E r l i c h , 1903), p. 216.  6.  D. N. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , Sobranie s o c h i n e n i i , torn 3, p. 141 •  7.  I b i d . , P- 106.  8.  I b i d . , P- 142.  9.  I b i d . , P- 143.  10.  I b i d . , P. 296.  11.  I b i d . , P- 120.  12.  I b i d . , P- 127.  13.  I b i d . , pp.  14.  I b i d . , P- 15.  15.  Ibid..  159-162.  97 16.  I b i d . /  P-  29.  17.  I b i d . /  P.  31.  18.  I b i d . t  P-  183.  19.  I b i d .  p.  126 .  20.  I b i d .  r  P.  297.  21.  I b i d .  r  P-  143.  22.  I b i d .  r  P-  145.  23.  I b i d .  r  P.  148.  24.  I b i d .  t  P-  139.  25.  I b i d .  r  P-  240.  26.  I b i d .  r  P-  250.  27.  I b i d .  r  P.  44.  28.  I b i d .  f  P.  330.  29.  I b i d .  r  PP.  30.  I b i d . ,r  P-  331.  31.  I b i d . ,r  P.  103.  32.  I b i d . ,  P.  105.  33.  I b i d . ,  P.  126.  34.}  I b i d . ,  P-  115.  35.  I b i d . ,  P.  229.  f  332  NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I 1.  L e t t e r t o h i s mother dated June 23, 1 8 9 1 . D.H.M-S., Sobr. soch., torn 8 , p. 736.  2.  P. V. Bykov, "D. N. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , K r i t i c h e s k o -  98 b i o g r a f i c h e s k i i ocherk", D. N. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , Polnoe sobranie s o c h i n e n i i , torn 1 (Petrograd: F. A. Marks, 1915), p. 31. 3.  D. N. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , Z o l o t o , Sobr. soch., torn 6, p. 147. (In Chapter I I I a l l t r a n s l a t i o n s of the q u o t a t i o n s are mine.)  4.  I b i d . , p.  5.  I. Ignatov (quoted by M. Z. O l ' g i n ) , A Guide t o Russian L i t e r a t u r e 1820-1917 (London: Jonathan Cape, 19 21), p. 138.  6.  Mamin-Sibiriak wrote s e v e r a l legends based on U r a l f o l k l o r e . D i s c u s s i o n of t h i s genre i n h i s works can be found i n the a r t i c l e by I . Dergachev, "Zhanr legendy v t v o r c h e s t v e D. N. M a m i n a - S i b i r i a k a " , Russkaia l i t e r a t u r a 1810-1890 godov, Sbornik 5 (Sverdlovsk! Gos. i n s t i t u t im. A. M. Gor'kogo, 1973), pp. 99-122.  7.  M. Nevedomskii (quoted by M. Z. O l ' g i n ) , A„Guide t o Russian L i t e r a t u r e 1820-1917 (London: Jonathan Cape, 1921), p. 137.  8.  D. N. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , Z o l o t o , Sob,  9.  I b i d . , P. 190.  144.  soch. , torn 6., p.  92.  10.  I b i d . , P-  11.  I b i d . , P. 191.  12.  I b i d . , P- 56.  13.  Ibid.  14.  C h a r a c t e r s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d by l e x i c a l and l i n g u i s t i c peculiarity. In c o n t r a s t t o the l a c o n i c and d i r e c t Zykov, Myl'nikov i s presented as one who i s verbose i n speech. He exaggerates, t e l l s l i e s , t a l l s t o r i e s , but t h i s i s done i n an amusing way. Two-faced P e t r r e v e a l s h i m s e l f i n the d i a l o g u e s e i t h e r through long i n t r i c a t e sentences or through s h o r t , abrupt, crude phrases, i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h swearing. T h i s s u r f a c e s i n the c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h h i s mother, w i t h K i s h k i n , Myl'nikov and Matiushka.  15.  D. N. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , Z o l o t o , Sobr. soch., torn 6, p.  64.  14.  99 16.  I b i d . , p.  57.  17.  The s u r f a c i n g of these human v i c e s o f t e n becomes apparent i n s o c i e t i e s undergoing s i m i l a r sudden changes in l i f e style. D e s c r i p t i o n s of such mad t h i r s t f o r g o l d may a l s o be found i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . Bret Harte wrote of the C a l i f o r n i a g o l d rush, and Jack London about the Yukon K l o n d i k e .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A l ' b o v , V. "Kapitalisticheskii protsess v izobrazhenii M a m i n a - S i b i r i a k a " , M i r B o z h i i , N o . 1-2. St. Petersb u r g : 1905. P p . 112-135, 62-94. A n d r i a n o v a , F. A. T l n t e l l i g e n t s i i a M a m i n a - S i b i r i a k a 80-90 godov*^ Anichkov,  E.  "Mamin-Sibiriak",  P e t e r s b u r g : " 1905.  v t v o r c h e s t v e D. N . M i n s k : 1962.  Mir Bozhii,  A s h t o n , T . S. The I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. Bogoliubov, Moskva:  N o . 10.  St.  1760-1830.  New  P p . 216-237.  F. A. Tvorchestvo Z n a n i e , 19 53.  D. N .  Mamina-Sibiriaka.  . "D. N . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k k a k o c h e r k i s t " , D. N . M a m i n S i b i r i a k , s t o l e t s o d n i a r o z h d e n i a 1852-1952. S v e r d l o v s k : S v e r d l o v s k o e k n i z h n o e i z d a t e l ' s t v o , 19 53.  Pp.  88-100.  B y k o v , P. V . "D. N. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , K r i t i c h e s k o - b i o g r a f i c h e s k i i o c h e r k " , D. N . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , P o l n o e s o b , s o c h . , Tom I . P e t r o g r a d : A . F . M a r k s , 1915. P p . 3-32. B i a l i k , B. A. XX v e k o v .  (ed.) . Russkaia 1-iteratura D e v i a n o s t y e godyT Moskva:  B y c h k o v , P. S. ( e d . ) . Ekonomicheskaia I z d a t e l ' s t v o E k o n o m i k a , 1967.  k o n t s a XIX n a c h a l a I z d a t e l ' s t v o Nauka,  istoria.  Moskva:  C h u r i n a , L . P. "K v o p r o s y o b e s t e t i c h e s k i k h v z g l i a d a k h Mamina-Sibiriaka", Sto l e t . . . Sverdlovsk: Sverdlovs k o e i z d a t . , 1953. P p . 35-45. Dergachev, knizh.  I . K n i g i i sud'by. izdat., 1973.  Sverdlovsk:  Sredne-Ural'skoe  _________ " Z h a n r l e g e n d y v t v o r c h e s t v e D. N . M a m i n a S i b i r i a k a " , R u s s k a i a l i t e r a t u r a 1810-1890 g o d o v , S b o r n i k 5. S v e r d l o v s k : G o s . i z d a t . i m e n i A . M. G o r ' k o g o , 1973.  Pp.  99-123.  Elpat'evskii,  bogatstvo.  S. I .  "D. N . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k " ,  S t .Petersburg:  1912.  Russkoe  P p . 365-377.  101 G o r e l o v , A. " L e t o p i s e t s U r a l a " , I z b r a n n y e p r o i z v e d e n i i a D. N. M a m i n a - S i b i r i a k a . Leningrad: Izdatel'stvo khudozhestv e n n o i l i t e r a t u r y , 1969. Pp. 5-18. G o r l o v s k i i , M. A . "K k h a r a k t e r i s t i k e v z g l i a d o v M a m i n a S i b i r i a k a n a i s t o r i i u U r a l a " , D. N. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , let . . . S v e r d l o v s k : 1953. P p . 17-34. Grant.,  E.  M.  G r u z d e v , A. ocherk.  1958.  'Entile  Zola.  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E r l i c h , 1903.  Shneerson.  dvukh  XIX  1820-1917.  r u s s e d e s 18e e t L U n i v e r s i t y de 1  tomakh.  St.  Peters-  U d i n t s e v , B. D. " P i s ' m a D. N. M a m i n a - S i b i r i a k a k a k m a t e r i a l d l i a b i o g r a f i i " , D. N. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , S t o l e t s o d n i a r o z h d e n i a 1852-1952. S v e r d l o v s k : 1953. Pp. 178-195. :  (ed.). D. sovremennikov. .  N. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k v Vospominaniiakh Sverdlovsk: Knizhnoe i z d a t . , 1962.  , a n d K. B o g o l i u b o v . Sredne-Ural'skoe Knizh.  Utechin, S.V. A E . P. D u t t o n ,  Concise 1964.  Pevets izdat.,  Urala. 1969.  Encyclopaedia  of  Sverdlovsk:  Russia.  New  York:  103 Wellek, Rene, and A u s t i n Warren. Theory of L i t e r a t u r e . York: Harcourt Brace and World I n c . , 1942. W i l l i a m s , Raymond. C u l t u r e and S o c i e t y 1780-1950. Books i n Ass. w i t h Chatto and Wmdus, 1958.  New  Penguin  

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