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The theme of money in three novels of D. N. Mamin-Sibiriak Godoroja, Olga 1975

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THE THEME OF MONEY IN THREE NOVELS OF D. N. MAMIN-SIBIRIAK by OLGA GODOROJA B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF . MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Slavonic Studies We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1975 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 1975 ABSTRACT D m i t r i i N a r k i s o v i c h Mamin (1852-1912) was b o r n i n a s m a l l v i l l a g e i n t h e U r a l s n o t f a r f r o m E k a t e r i n b u r g . He w r o t e u n d e r t h e pseudonym o f S i b i r i a k . As a n a t i v e o f t h e U r a l s , he u s e d t h i s r e g i o n as a s e t t i n g f o r many o f h i s s h o r t s t o r i e s and n o v e l s . T h i s made M a m i n - S i b i r i a k u n i q u e among R u s s i a n w r i t e r s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . W h i l e o t h e r s w r o t e a b o u t E u r o p e a n R u s s i a , t h e a r e a t h a t M a m i n - S i b i r i a k c h o s e was r e l a t i v e l y unknown, e v e n t o h i s f e l l o w - c o u n t r y m e n . D u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e , t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s A. S k a b i c h e v -s k i i , V. A l ' b o v and o t h e r s a c k n o w l e d g e d M a m i n - S i b i r i a k ' s t a l e n t and a n a l y z e d h i s w o r k s , b u t t h e y f a i l e d t o a p p r e c i a t e f u l l y t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h i s w r i t i n g s , b e c a u s e t h e y were c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e i d e o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . • When e v a l u a t i n g h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n as a w r i t e r , t h e S o v i e t c r i t i c s E . B o g o l i u b o v and A. G r u z d e v s t r e s s o o n l y t h e p r o b l e m s o f c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n h i s e a r l y w o r k s . They i g n o r e h i s l a t e r w o r k s , w h i c h a r e p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h m o r a l p r o b l e m s , e d u c a t i o n , t h e a r t s , w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e , and w i t h t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s . So f a r , o n l y one o f h i s n o v e l s , P r i v a l o v s k i e m i l l i o n y , has b e e n t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h , and he i s r e l a t i v e l y unknown t o t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d . The E n g l i s h c r i t i c , R. H a r e , c o n s i d e r s M a m i n - S i b i r i a k t o be a m i n o r w r i t e r and m e n t i o n s o n l y one o f h i s n o v e l s , P r i v a l o v s k i e m i l l i o n y ( E n g l i s h t i t l e : The P r i v a l o v F o r t u n e ) , as w e l l as a c o l l e c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r i e s w h i c h a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n h i s o p i n i o n , " e q u a l t o t h e b e s t o f Chekhov." T h i s s t u d y w i l l i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g n o v e l s : P r i v a l o v s k i e m i l l i o n y (The P r i v a l o v F o r t u n e , 1 8 8 3 ) , Gornoe  gnezdo (The M o u n t a i n Nest'V 1 8 8 4 ) , and Z o l o t o ( G o l d , 1 8 9 2 ) . In t h e s e n o v e l s M a m i n - S i b i r i a k d e p i c t s a p h a s e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e U r a l s and t h e s u b s e q u e n t s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s t h a t t o o k p l a c e i n t h i s p a r t o f R u s s i a . The u n i v e r s a l theme o f money and i t s e f f e c t s on human n a t u r e i s a d o m i n a n t l e i t m o t i f i n t h e s e n o v e l s , r e a c h i n g b e y o n d t h e c o n f i n e s o f R u s s i a n s o c i e t y . H i s u n i q u e n e s s l i e s i n d e v e l o p i n g t h i s theme by c h o o s i n g , t h e l o c a l U r a l s e t t i n g and i n t r o d u c i n g a l a r g e number o f c o l o u r f u l c h a r a c t e r s f r o m t h e d i f f e r e n t s t r a t a o f R u s s i a n s o c i e t y . H i s w orks a r e an i m p o r t a n t l i n k i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e R u s s i a n n o v e l a t t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . H i s w r i t i n g t e c h n i q u e i s i m a g i n a t i v e and o b j e c t i v e a t t h e same t i m e , and a l t h o u g h h i s m o r a l c o n c e r n i s o b v i o u s , h i s w r i t i n g n e v e r g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f d i d a c t i c i s m . TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT . i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHAPTER I . PRIVALOVSKIE MILLIONY W e a l t h y i n d u s t r i a l i s t s and t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s money 12 I I . GORNOE GNEZDO Money as a means o f a t t a i n i n g p o s i t i o n and power 39 I I I . ZOLOTO The g o l d - r u s h : The d e s t r u c t i v e power o f "e a s y money" 66 CONCLUSION 84 FOOTNOTES 9 3 BIBLIOGRAPHY 100 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S To P r o f e s s o r V. D. R e v u t s k y , f o r h i s p a t i e n t and t o l e r a n t g u i d a n c e , I e x t e n d my s i n c e r e s t g r a t i t u d e . H i s c o u n s e l , a s s i s t a n c e and e n c o u r a g e m e n t were g r a t e f u l l y r e c e i v e d . I t a k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y a l s o t o t h a n k P r o f e s s o r M. F u t r e l l , who f i r s t s t i m u l a t e d my i n t e r e s t i n Mamin-S i b i r i a k . v INTRODUCTION I n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y many g i f t e d w r i t e r s a p p e a r e d on t h e R u s s i a n l i t e r a r y s c e n e . One o f them was D m i t r i i N a r k i s o v i c h M a m i n - S i b i r i a k . He was a p r o l i f i c w r i t e r , n o t e d f o r h i s c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y . He w r o t e f o u r t e e n n o v e l s , two p l a y s , a l a r g e number o f s h o r t s t o r i e s and n o v e l e t t e s , as w e l l as e t h n o g r a p h i c s k e t c h e s and a c o l l e c t i o n o f s h o r t s t o r i e s f o r c h i l d r e n . H i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o R u s s i a n l i t e r a t u r e f i l l s many v o l u m e s . I n h i s own w o r d s , " I f a l l were p u t t o g e t h e r t h e y w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h u n d r e d volumes.""'" S t a r t i n g h i s c a r e e r as a j o u r n a l i s t , he a p p e a r e d i n l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 18 80s as a m a t u r e w r i t e r . He p u b l i s h e d i n t h e l e a d i n g l i t e r a r y j o u r n a l s o f h i s d a y : V e s t n i k E v r o p y ( H e r a l d o f E u r o p e ) , Syn o t e c h e s t v a ( S o n . o f t h e F a t h e r l a n d ) , R u s s k a i a  m y s i ' ( R u s s i a n Thought) , 01eche s t v e nny e z a p i s k i (Notes o f t h e M o t h e r l a n d ) ; he was w e l l known t o t h e r e a d i n g p u b l i c and was h i g h l y r e g a r d e d by h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , S a l t y k o v - S h c h e d r i n , Chekhov, K o r o l e n k o , L e s k o v , Gorky and o t h e r s . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k s p e n t most o f h i s l i f e i n t h e U r a l s , where he amassed a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s t i n c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was a d e p t l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e f a b r i c o f h i s work. H i s b e s t n o v e l s , n o v e l e t t e s and s t o r i e s a r e s e t a g a i n s t a U r a l b a c k g r o u n d . The u n i q u e t r a i t s o f l i f e i n t h e U r a l s r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e u n u s u a l h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r e g i o n , w h i c h 2 was d i f f e r e n t f r o m E u r o p e a n Russia.. T h r o u g h h i s work M a m i n - S i b i r i a k i n t r o d u c e d t h e R u s s i a n r e a d e r t o t h e U r a l s . "By h i s w r i t i n g t h e a u t h o r has opened up a w h o l e a r e a o f 2 R u s s i a n l x f e h i t h e r t o unknown i n l i t e r a t u r e . " The h i s t o r y o f / d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e U r a l r e g i o n i s q u i t e u n u s u a l , a b o u n d i n g i n f e a t u r e s t h a t d e s e r v e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . From a n c i e n t t i m e s t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s h a d a t t r a c t e d t h e R u s s i a n p e o p l e t o t h i s a r e a . The f i r s t R u s s i a n s e t t l e r s came i n s e a r c h o f f u r s . The d e p l e t i o n o f f u r r e s o u r c e s i n E u r o p e a n R u s s i a f o r c e d h u n t e r s t o move e a s t w a r d i n s e a r c h o f v a l u a b l e p e l t s i n t h e f o r e s t s o f t h e U r a l s and S i b e r i a . S a b l e , s q u i r r e l , f o x and o t h e r f u r s h i g h l y v a l u e d i n t h o s e d a y s l u r e d t h e R u s s i a n h u n t e r s . As t h e y moved e a s t w a r d t h e y p u s h e d o u t t h e l o c a l i n h a b i t a n t s — T a r t a r s , B a s h k i r s , and o t h e r s — and on t h e f o r m e r l a n d s o f t h e s e n a t i v e p e o p l e s t h e y b u i l i t i s e t t l e m e n t s , w h i c h i n t i m e grew i n t o c i t i e s . I n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e U r a l r e g i o n s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s became v e r y famous. S t r o g a n o v m e r c h a n t s , who s e t t l e d t h e r e i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a c q u i r e d v a s t t r a c t s o f l a n d . I n 1558 t h e T s a r g r a n t e d them t h e r i g h t s t o e x t e n s i v e p r o p e r t i e s a l o n g t h e C h u s o v a i a and Kama r i v e r s , and t h u s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s r e g i o n was b e g u n . As t h e U r a l r e g i o n was r i c h i n g o l d , p l a t i n u m , s i l v e r , t i n , c o p p e r , i r o n o r e , p r e c i o u s s t o n e s , and t i m b e r , i t became one o f t h e main i n d u s t r i a l r e g i o n s o f R u s s i a . W i t h 3 t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e U r a l s ' w e a l t h came a s t r o n g and s t e a d y f l o w o f s e t t l e r s , i n c l u d i n g t h e u s u a l f o r t u n e - h u n t e r s and e n t r e p r e n e u r s . F a c t o r i e s , m i l l s and huge i n d u s t r i a l c o m p l e x e s s p r a n g u p , " r e q u i r i n g a l a r g e and c o n s t a n t s u p p l y o f l a b o u r . Towards t h e end o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , p e a s a n t s e r f s were b r o u g h t , and a t t a c h e d t o i n d u s t r i a l m i l l s . U n t i l t h a t t i m e t h e p e a s a n t s l i v i n g i n t h e U r a l s were f r e e men. A t t h e end o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y r a p i d g r o w t h i n t h e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y t o o k p l a c e . The f o u n d e r o f t h i s b r a n c h o f i n d u s t r y i n t h e U r a l s was N i k i t a D e m i d o v i c h Demidov (16 56-1 7 2 5 ) . One o f h i s d e s c e n d a n t s s e r v e d as M a m i n - S i b i r i a k ' s model f o r L a p t e v , one o f t h e p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s i n h i s n o v e l Gornoe g n e z d e (The M o u n t a i n N e s t ) . The p r e s e n c e o f v a s t s t a n d s o f v i r g i n t i m b e r p r o v i d e d a c o n s t a n t s o u r c e o f c h a r c o a l , m aking p o s s i b l e t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f a huge i r o n i n d u s t r y i n t h e U r a l s . The Demidov f a m i l y b u i l t f i f t y - f i v e m i l l s i n t h i s r e g i o n . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k was b o r n and grew up i n one o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t s t h a t b e l o n g e d t o t h e Demidov f a m i l y . The i r o n and s t e e l works s e t t i n g i n P r i v a l o v s k i e m i l l i o n y (The P r i v a l o v F o r t u n e ) and Gornoe  gnezdo a r e b a s e d on h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e s e e n t e r p r i s e s . F a v o u r a b l e e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s were n o t t h e o n l y r e a s o n f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e U r a l r e g i o n . P o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s a l s o f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y . The l a t t e r a r o s e as a 4 d i r e c t r e s u l t o f two k i n d s o f government a c t i o n : f o r c e d d e p o r t a t i o n s and f r e e s e t t l e m e n t f o r m i l i t a r y and s t r a t e g i c r e a s o n s . D u r i n g t h e "Time o f T r o u b l e " — t h e end o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h — p e a s a n t s and town d w e l l e r s e s c a p e d t o t h e U r a l r e g i o n . The l a w l e s s n e s s , h u n g e r , and s e v e r e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e c e n t r a l a r e a s o f R u s s i a f o r c e d them t o s e e k t h e i r f o r t u n e s i n t h e U r a l s and e l s e w h e r e . By t h e m i d d l e o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , d e p o r t a t i o n s t h a t b e g a n a t t h e end o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y h a d become a permanent p u n i t i v e m e a s u r e , and a s t e a d y s o u r c e o f p o p u l a t i o n f l o w t o t h e U r a l r e g i o n . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y an i m p e r i a l d e c r e e i n i t i a t e d a movement t o s e t t l e p e a s a n t s i n t h e U r a l r e g i o n t o d e v e l o p g r a i n c u l t i v a t i o n . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by C o s s a c k s e t t l e m e n t s t o g u a r d t h e S i b e r i a n f r o n t i e r . A f t e r t h e r e l i g i o u s s p l i t o f 1667 t h e O l d B e l i e v e r s e s c a p e d t o t h e U r a l s , w h i c h a t t h e t i m e was a f r o n t i e r t e r r i t o r y , where t h e y h i d i n t h e f o r e s t s , e s t a b -l i s h i n g r e l i g i o u s communes. T h i s b r i e f h i s t o r y o f t h e r e g i o n shows t h a t t h e U r a l s a t t r a c t e d s t r o n g , d e t e r m i n e d and f r e e d o m - l o v i n g p e o p l e . The e n t e r p r i s i n g a d v e n t u r e r s i n s e a r c h o f w e a l t h , c r i m i n a l s e s c a p i n g f r o m t h e l a w , and p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s d i s s e n t e r s a l l f o u n d f r e e d o m h e r e . A l l t h e s e e l e m e n t s c r e a t e d a h e t e r o -g e n e o u s , i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c s o c i e t y , and l e f t t h e i r mark on t h e 5 s o c i a l h i s t o r y o f t h e r e g i o n . Many o f t h e f e a t u r e s t h a t marked t h e g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e U r a l r e g i o n a r e e c h o e d i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f M a m i n - S i b i r i a k . I n h i s work t h e a u t h o r d e m o n s t r a t e s a p r o f o u n d k nowledge o f t h e t u r b u l e n t and u n u s u a l n a t u r e o f l i f e ' i n t h e U r a l s . H i s g r e a t a r t i s t i c t a l e n t made t h e s e works u n i q u e , v e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and s i n g u l a r l y c o l o u r f u l . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k p a i d a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n t o t h e most v i v i d e p o c h o f U r a l h i s t o r y — namely t h e p e r i o d o f i n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e b l o s s o m i n g o f c a p i t a l i s m , s t r e t c h i n g f r o m t h e 70s t o t h e 90s o f t h e p a s t c e n t u r y — and t h i s has e n s u r e d f o r him a p l a c e i n R u s s i a n l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y . The v i g o r o u s g r o w th o f c a p i t a l i s m c h a n g e d many a s p e c t s o f l i f e i n R u s s i a . I t c h a n g e d t h e c l a s s s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y and l e f t i t s i m p r i n t on t h e minds o f t h e p e o p l e . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k v e r y c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e d t h i s s p i r i t u a l and e c o n o m i c change, w h i c h was m a n i f e s t i n t h e new t y p e s o f p e o p l e t h a t emerged w i t h t h e c h a n g i n g t i m e s . The R u s s i a n c r i t i c , V. A l ' b o v , i n an e s s a y on t h e works o f M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , s t a t e s : Page a f t e r page, t h e a u t h o r u n f o l d s b e f o r e t h e r e a d e r t h e b r i l l i a n t p i c t u r e s o f c h a r a c t e r s and s c e n e s , d e t a i l i n g s t e p by s t e p t h e h i s t o r y o f c a p i t a l i n d i f f e r e n t b r a n c h e s o f i n d u s t r y , some-t i m e s s p r e a d o v e r huge d i s t r i c t s and r e g i o n s . He t r a c e s i t s i n f l u e n c e on t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t i c way o f l i f e , -lays b a r e t h e s t r a t a o f s o c i e t y w h i c h a r e h e l d t o g e t h e r by i t , and a n a l y z e s t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s and t h e c o n s e q u e n t s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . 6 The a u t h o r does n o t r e s t r i c t h i m s e l f t o t h e e c o n o m i c e v o l u t i o n o f t h e s o c i e t y . He f o l l o w s t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n o f c a p i t a l i n t o a l l s p h e r e s o f human l i f e , i n t o t h e f a m i l y , i n t o l e g a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n t o m o r a l s , i n t o a l l n o t i o n s , and i n t o s c i e n c e and l i t e r a t u r e . ^ A g a i n s t t h i s b a c k g r o u n d he c r e a t e d e x c e l l e n t n o v e l s t h a t d e s c r i b e d t h e c o n d i t i o n s and d a y - t o - d a y l i f e o f t h e p e r i o d . He p r e s e n t e d t h e i n n e r w o r l d o f U r a l s o c i e t y i n i t s many a s p e c t s , w i t h i t s many c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and c o n f l i c t s . He gave t h e r e a d e r an i n s i g h t i n t o p e o p l e who were m o t i v a t e d by. a s i n g l e aim — t o c r e a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l t o make money and t o become r i c h t h e m s e l v e s . Many o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n t h e n o v e l s were d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y f r o m l i f e . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k w r i t e s i n an a r t i c l e : C h a r a c t e r s a r e i n abundance h e r e ; one has b u t t o t a k e a b r u s h and p a i n t them. The U r a l s , as f a r as human t y p e s a r e c o n c e r n e d , a r e an i n e x h a u s t i b l e s o u r c e — s o m e t h i n g f a n t a s t i c and i n c r e d i b l e i s p r e s e n t a l l around.4 The p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f p e o p l e l i v i n g i n t h e U r a l s f a s c i n a t e d M a m i n - S i b i r i a k . I n s h o w i n g t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n , t h e i r s t r i v i n g t o r e a c h t h e i r g o a l s , and i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g how t h e i r a m b i t i o n s a f f e c t e d t h o s e a r o u n d them, t h e a u t h o r f o u n d h i s main v e h i c l e f o r d e s c r i b i n g h i s h e r o e s . He was i n t r i g u e d by t h e h i s t o r i e s o f t h e w e a l t h y f a m i l i e s who h a d l o n g c o n t r o l l e d i n d u s t r y i n t h e U r a l s . The q u e s t i o n s o f i n h e r i t a n c e , b o t h f i n a n c i a l and g e n e t i c , a r e m a j o r i s s u e s i n h i s n o v e l s . The p r o b l e m o f s t r o n g f a t h e r s and weak s o n s 7 f i g u r e s p r o m i n e n t l y . C r i t i c s o f h i s t i m e n o t e d s i m i l a r i t i e s b etween h i s work and t h a t o f t h e F r e n c h n a t u r a l i s t , E . Z o l a . I n one o f h i s n o v e l s , The P r i v a l o v F o r t u n e , n a t u r a l i s t i c e l e m e n t s a r e d i s t i n c t l y p r e s e n t , a l t h o u g h t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e i n h i s o t h e r w o r k s : t h e y b e a r o n l y f a i n t t r a c e s o f n a t u r a l i s m . H i s n o v e l s h a v e a f a r - r e a c h i n g g r a s p o f r e a l i t y , w h i c h i s p r o f o u n d l y f o r m u l a t e d . I n h i s n o v e l s t h e r e a d e r i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a m a n y - s i d e d p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e h i s t o r i c a l e p o c h . ThUssisaabhieved; p r i m a r i l y by a v e r y d e t a i l e d and t h o r o u g h d e s c r i p t i o n o f d a y - t o - d a y l i f e . N e a r l y a l l segments o f s o c i e t y , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e a r i s t o c r a c y , a r e p r e s e n t e d i n h i s n o v e l s . H e r e t h e r e a d e r f i n d s m i n i n g i n d u s t r y m i l l i o n a i r e s , g o l d mine owners, m e r c h a n t s , b a n k e r s , managers o f p l a n t s and f a c t o r i e s , p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e s u c h as e c o n o m i s t s , e n g i n e e r s , l a w y e r s , d o c t o r s , and t e a c h e r s . T h e r e a r e f o r e i g n e r s — Germans and P o l e s — w h o , i n most c a s e s , o c c u p y e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s ; and t h e common p e o p l e — t h e w o r k e r s and p e a s a n t s , r e l i g i o u s d i s s e n t e r s , and n a t i v e g r o u p s , l i k e t h e B a s h k i r s and t h e T a r t a r s . A l t h o u g h M a m i n - S i b i r i a k was w i d e l y r e a d by t h e p u b l i c , t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s were e i t h e r i n d i f f e r e n t , i n c o n s i s t e n t , o r h o s t i l e t o w a r d s h i m as a w r i t e r s . N. K. M i k h a i l o v s k i i , a p r o m i n e n t c r i t i c o f t h e t i m e , a v o i d e d d i s c u s s i n g M a m i n - S i b i r i a k 1 s w o r k s . As t h e l e a d e r o f 8 t h e P o p u l i s t l i t e r a r y movement, he c o u l d n o t f i n d any m e r i t i n w r i t i n g s p r o d u c e d by one who was n o t a t r u e f o l l o w e r o f t h e P o p u l i s t i d e o l o g y . A n o t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d c r i t i c , A. M. S k a b i c h e v s k i i , was n o t c o n s i s t e n t i n h i s c r i t i c i s m s o f M a m i n - S i b i r i a k ' s w o r k s . H i s c r i t i c i s m o f t h e e a r l i e r works was e x t r e m e l y c a u s t i c . I n h i s l a t e r a r t i c l e , d a t e d 1896, however, he p l a c e d M a m i n - S i b i r i a k on t h e same l e v e l as A. P. Chekhov, V. G. K o r o l e n k o and V. I . N e m i r o v i c h - D a n c h e n k o , and e v e n above £ m i l e Z o l a . ^ M a m i n - S i b i r i a k ' s works were m i s u n d e r s t o o d by a n o t h e r c r i t i c , E . A n i c h k o v , who s a i d t h a t h i s n o v e l s were " d r y n a r r a t i v e s w i t h o u t o r i g i n a l i t y and l a c k i n g c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e a r t i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n . " W h i l e o t h e r p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y c r i t i c s , V. A l ' b o v and P. Byk o v , saw M a m i n - S i b i r i a k as a w r i t e r d e a l i n g s o l e l y w i t h t h e customs and m o r a l s o f U r a l s o c i e t y , t h e S o v i e t c r i t i c s E . B o g o l i u b o v and A. G r u z d e v deny t h i s v i e w and c l a s s i f y h i m as a s o c i o l o g i s t . I t i s t r u e t h a t M a m i n - S i b i r i a k o u t l i n e d t h e h i s t o r i c a l and e c o n o m i c p r o c e s s e s t a k i n g p l a c e i n h i s n a t i v e r e g i o n , t h e U r a l s ; however, t h e s e changes were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r a l l o f R u s s i a a t t h a t t i m e . R u s s i a n w r i t e r s b e f o r e t h e 70s o f t e n a n a l y z e d p e r s o n a l and i n t i m a t e p r o b l e m s o f i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s . Mamin-S i b i r i a k c o n s i d e r s s i m i l a r i s s u e s on a much w i d e r s c o p e . 9 H e r e he i s a f o l l o w e r o f M. E . S a l t y k o v - S h c h e d r i n , who u r g e d h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s t o l e a v e t h e " c o n f i n i n g framework o f t h e 7 f a m i l y - t y p e n o v e l . " S a l t y k o v - S h c h e d r i n w r o t e : "To e l a b o -r a t e , as b e f o r e , on t h e l o v e a f f a i r s o f t h e l a n d e d g e n t r y , g has become u n t h i n k a b l e . " T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l r e a s o n s f o r t h e p r e - and p o s t -r e v o l u t i o n a r y c r i t i c s * i n d i f f e r e n c e t o w a r d s M a m i n - S i b i r i a k * s w o r k s . The main r e a s o n was t h a t he was n o t a member o f any p o l i t i c a l g r o u p . He was a r e l a t i v i s t and d i d n o t c o n f i n e h i s c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y t o t h e n a r r o w s c o p e o f t h e p o l i t i c a l -i d e o l o g i c a l t r e n d s o f t h e p e r i o d . Nor d i d he l i n k h i s work w i t h any o f t h e , c o n c e p t s o f l i f e w h i c h p r e v a i l e d a t t h a t t i m e . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s , he n e v e r imposed on h i s r e a d e r any p r e c o n c e i v e d s o l u t i o n s . He p o s e d t h e p r o b l e m s as he t h o u g h t t h e y e x i s t e d , t r y i n g t o p r e s e n t them t r u t h f u l l y . S o v i e t c r i t i c s r e c o g n i z e M a m i n - S i b i r i a k * s t a l e n t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e a b l e t o f i n d i n h i s work m a t e r i a l i l l u s t r a t -i n g t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f t h e n o v e l s s e t i n t h e U r a l s . However, i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e S o v i e t c r i t i c , E . A. B o g o l i u b o v , w r i t e s t h a t . . . a l t h o u g h t h e p r i n c i p a l works o f M a m i n - S i b i r i a k s t a n d c l o s e r t o t h e M a r x i s t c o n c e p t o f t h e w o r l d , a t t h e same t i m e M a m i n - S i b i r i a k f a i l e d t o m a s t e r t h e M a t r x i s t t r u t h c o m p l e t e l y . 9 The n o v e l s w r i t t e n by M a m i n - S i b i r i a k i n S t . P e t e r s b u r g , w h i c h d i s c u s s t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e l i f e o f t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , 10 problems of a r t , the education and upbringing of the younger generation, the emancipation of women, the problems of journalism and the press, and so on r a^e never considered by Soviet c r i t i c s . Indeed, they are not even published, so that Soviet readers cannot judge for themselves the l i t e r a r y stature of the writer. Outside the Soviet Union the name of Mamin-Sibiriak i s mentioned only i n passing i n a number of sources. From 1916 to 1946 some c r i t i c i s m s of his work were published, but these were generally one-sided and not always accurate. Sometimes he i s considered to be a p o p u l i s t , 1 ^ or an ethnographer, 1 1 to the exclusion of everything else. In other instances, he has been i d e n t i f i e d as a follower of P. O. Melhikov-Pecherskii, because he depicted the l i v e s of r e l i g i o u s dissenters on various occasions. Perhaps the most correct description of Mamin-Sibiriak has been given by the English c r i t i c , Richard Hare, who speaks of him as a r e a l i s t , presenting the i n d u s t r i a l revolution and the development of capitalism i n Russia against the t r a d i t i o n s and l i f e of the Urals and S i b e r i a , and describes him as a s k i l f u l w riter, 12 comparable to Chekhov. The theme of money runs as a l e i t m o t i f through many of Mamin-Sibiriak*s works. There can be no doubt that he sees the quest for material wealth as the cause of greed and se l f i s h n e s s : Our t i m e i s t h e t i m e o f complex and e x t e n s i v e c o m b i n a t i o n s o f i n t e r r e l a t e d f o r c e s . C e r t a i n phenomena e x i s t i n g i n t h e i n t e r n a l l i f e o f a s t a t e , i n d e e d o f a l l s t a t e s , a r e bound t o g e t h e r o r g a n i c a l l y and a r e c o n t r o l l e d by i n e x o r a b l e l a w s . T h i s may be s e e n by l o o k i n g a t a l l e c o n o m i c phenomena, p a r t i c u -l a r l y a t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f f a t e f u l i n t e r n a t i o n a l f o r c e s ; d e f i n e d and computed o n l y r e c e n t l y , w h i c h g o v e r n s e v e r y t h i n g e v e r y w h e r e . We a r e t a l k i n g , d e a r r e a d e r , a b o u t t h e f l y w h e e l t h a t d r i v e s a l l t h e w h e e l s , g e a r s and s h a f t s o f E u r o p e , t h e f l y w h e e l c a l l e d C a p i t a l , t h e i n f l u e n c e Of w h i c h i s f e l t e v e r y w h e r e and f r o m w h i c h one c a n n o t e s c a p e . 1 ^ I n M a m i n - S i b i r i a k ' s n o v e l s , money a p p e a r s i n many for-ms. I t t a k e s t h e f o r m o f an i n h e r i t a n c e i n P r i v a l o v s k i e  m i l l i o n y , o f e a r n e d w e a l t h i n Gornoe g n e z d o , and o f f o r t u i t o u s w e a l t h o b t a i n e d as t h e r e s u l t o f a l u c k y s t r i k e i n a g o l d f i e l d i n t h e n o v e l Z o l o t o . T h e s e t h r e e n o v e l s , c h o s e n f o r d i s c u s s i o n , w i l l show t h e v a r i e t y o f c o n f l i c t s w h i c h t h e p r o x i m i t y t o w e a l t h c r e a t e s , and t h e e f f e c t s i t has on v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s . F o r some, w e a l t h r e p r e s e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o do good d e e d s f o r one's f e l l o w man, f o r o t h e r s i t i s t h e m a g i c p a s s w o r d t o a w o r l d o f a d v e n t u r e , s u c c e s s , power, l u x u r y and many o t h e r forms o f s e l f -f u l f i l m e n t . CHAPTER I PRIVALOVSKIE MILLIONY W e a l t h y i n d u s t r i a l i s t s and t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s money R i c h e s a r e as n o t h i n g i n t h e wrong h a n d s . — R u s s i a n p r o v e r b . The n o v e l P r i v a l o v s k i e m i l 1 i o n y d e p i c t s t h e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , customs and m o r a l s o f a d i s t r i c t town l o c a t e d i n a r i c h m e t a l l u r g i c a l and g o l d - p r o d u c i n g r e g i o n o f t h e U r a l s i n t h e e i g h t e e n - s e v e n t i e s , a t t h e t i m e o f g r e a t i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The a u t h o r f o c u s e s h i s a t t e n t i o n upon t h e r i c h i n d u s t r i a l e l i t e o f t h e town, a s o c i e t y whose main i n t e r e s t i s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f money. The h e r o e s o f t h e n o v e l a r e m i l l and f a c t o r y o wners, g o l d m i n e r s , b a n k e r s , m e r c h a n t s , middlemen and f o r t u n e - s e e k e r s . The n o v e l c e n t r e s on t h e c o n f l i c t between S e r g e i P r i w a l o v , h e i r t o t h e r i c h S h a t r o v s k i i m i l l s , and h i s t h r e e t r u s t e e s , who l o o k e d a f t e r t h e b u s i n e s s u n t i l he r e a c h e d m a t u r i t y . The a u t h o r t r a c e s t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f t h e P r i v a l o v f o r t u n e o v e r 150 y e a r s . He t h e n d e s c r i b e s t h e s l o w d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e e s t a t e s , a t t h e hands o f c a r e l e s s h e i r s and t r u s t e e s , and f i n a l l y i t s f o r f e i t u r e t o t h e S t a t e t r e a s u r y as a r e s u l t o f t h e m a c h i n a t i o n s o f g r e e d y and u n s c r u p u l o u s t r u s t e e s . He c o n t r a s t s t h e c h a r a c t e r o f S e r g e i P r i v a l o v , t h e h e i r , who i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n money, w i t h t h o s e o f t h e t r u s t e e s , who were s c h e m i n g w i t h t h e i r r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s t o l a y t h e i r hands on t h e P r i v a l o v m i l l i o n s . The m o t i v e s o f t h e t r u s t e e s , and t h e methods t h e y 13 u s e t o a c h i e v e t h e i r g o a l o f s e l f - e n r i c h m e n t , a r e d e s c r i b e d i n g r e a t d e t a i l by t h e a u t h o r . The p l o t o f t h e n o v e l has i t s r o o t s i n t h e a c t u a l h i s t o r y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e famous K y s h t y m s k i i m e t a l -l u r g i c a l works l o c a t e d i n t h e U r a l s . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k was a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s c a n d a l o f t h e i n h e r i t a n c e o f t h e Z o t o v s ( p r o t o t y p e o f S e r g e i P r i v a l o v ) , and u s e d them as models f o r h i s own c h a r a c t e r s . E k a t e r i n b u r g s o c i e t y , i n w h i c h M a m i n - S i b i r i a k l i v e d f o r many y e a r s , gave h i m a r i c h b a c k g r o u n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o d e p i c t t h e c o l o u r f u l p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f t h e U r a l i n d u s t r i a l magnates i n h i s n o v e l . The c h a r a c t e r s a r e b a s e d on w e l l - k n o w n i n d u s t r i a l i s t s o f t h e t i m e , s u c h as K h a r l a m o v , R i a z a n o v , and o t h e r s . 1 The r i c h n e s s and abundance o f s u c h c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e U r a l s s t i m u l a t e d M a m i n - S i b i r i a k 1 s a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y . B. U d i n t s e v , i n h i s book P e v e t s U r a l a ( M i n s t r e l o f t h e U r a l s ) , w r i t e s t h a t t h e r e a d e r o f t h e t i m e c o u l d h a v e e a s i l y r e c o g -n i z e d t h e town o f U z e l , d e s c r i b e d i n t h e n o v e l , as E k a t e r i n b u r g . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e I r b i t f a i r , t h e l a r g e s t and most i m p o r t a n t o f i t s k i n d i n S i b e r i a , i s r e a l i s t i c and t r u e even t o t h e s m a l l e s t d e t a i l . The m i l l i o n a i r e s ' h o u s e s a r e r e p r e - ' 2 s e n t e d w i t h p h o t o g r a p h - l i k e a c c u r a c y . The d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e m i l l - s i t e , t h e v i l l a g e , and t h e B a s h k i r s t e p p e s c o n v e y t o t h e r e a d e r t h e d i v e r s i t y o f t h e U r a l panorama, and show t h e a r t i s t i c s k i l l o f t h e a u t h o r . The b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n o v e l f i n d s S e r g e i P r i v a l o v i n 14 U z e l , where he has j u s t a r r i v e d f r o m P e t e r s b u r g a f t e r an a b s e n c e o f f i f t e e n y e a r s . The h e i r i n t e n d s t o f r e e t h e f a c t o r i e s f r o m t h e d e b t s i n c u r r e d by h i s s t e p f a t h e r , t o s e l l some o f h i s m i l l s , and t o pay o f f some o f t h e " h i s t o r i c a l c r e d i t o r s " , t h e B a s h k i r s and p e a s a n t s , who were r e n d e r e d l a n d l e s s as a r e s u l t o f . t h e shady d e a l s p e r p e t r a t e d a g a i n s t them by h i s f o r e f a t h e r s , who a c q u i r e d B a s h k i r l a n d s and e s t a b l i s h e d m i l l s on them. P r i v a l o v f e e l s a p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o w a r d s t h e s e d i s p o s s e s s e d p e o p l e and wants t o r e c t i f y t h e i n j u s t i c e s b r o u g h t upon them by h i s f o r e f a t h e r s . M o r e o v e r , he p e r c e i v e s i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n as an e v i l and w i s h e s t o c o u n t e r a c t i t s e f f e c t s by r a i s i n g t h e l e v e l o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h i s U r a l a r e a . He dreams o f o r g a n i z i n g a g r a i n t r a d e and b u i l d i n g a f l o u r m i l l on a r a t i o n a l b a s i s , t h u s f r e e i n g t h e p e a s a n t s and s m a l l p r o d u c e r s f r o m d e p e n d e n c e on r i c h p r o p e r t y owners. Two o p p o s i t e f o r c e s a r e a t p l a y i n t h e n o v e l . On t h e one h a n d , we f i n d t h e s k i l l e d b u s i n e s s m e n , t h e s t a t e t r u s t e e s , i n t e r e s t e d i n p e r s o n a l g a i n , w h i c h t h e y c a n d e r i v e by managing t h e e s t a t e ; on t h e o t h e r h a n d , P r i v a l o v s t a n d s a l o n e among t h i s g r o u p ofc "sharKss" He i s a h u m a n i t a r i a n and p h i l a n t h r o p i s t who dreams o f u s i n g h i s money t o h e l p h i s f e l l o w men. He s t a n d s o u t i n s h a r p r e l i e f a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s and c o n s t i t u t e s an a n t i t h e s i s t o t h e mai n theme o f t h e n o v e l — w h i c h i s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f r i c h e s and s e l f - e n r i c h m e n t . 15 The s t r u g g l e between good and e v i l u n f o l d s i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e n o v e l , j u x t a p o s i n g t h e i d e a l i s t i c h e r o , S e r g e i P r i v a l o v , and a g r o u p o f e g o t i s t s who s t r i v e t o enhance t h e i r p e r s o n a l f o r t u n e s by any means. The b i t t e r s t r u g g l e f o r money waged by t h e t r u s t e e s , P o l o v o d o v and L i a k h o v s k i i , w i t h t h e h e l p o f c h e a t s and a d v e n t u r e r s , g r a d u a l l y i n t e n s i f i e s . The a u t h o r e x p o s e s t h e v e r y r o o t s o f t h e r e p u l s i v e and d e s p i c a b l e methods u s e d by t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e p u r s u i t o f money. To g e t r i c h i s t h e g o a l ; t o a t t a i n i t e v e r y t h i n g i s p e r m i s s i b l e : s e l l i n g one's own w i f e and d a u g h t e r , o r one's own h o n e s t y and h o n o u r . An a t m o s p h e r e o f c o m p l e t e m o r a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e u p p e r c l a s s p r e v a i l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l . However, t h e n o v e l goes b e y o n d t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f U z e l s o c i e t y and embraces a much w i d e r p i c t u r e o f human n a t u r e , i t s f o i b l e s and i t s g r e e d . A c u l m i n a t i n g p o i n t i s r e a c h e d i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e I r b i t 3 T r a d e F a i r . I r b i t . . . was a k i n d o f B a b y l o n , a t t r a c t i n g men o f t h e most d i v e r s e c o u n t r i e s , n a t i o n s , t o n g u e s and r e l i g i o n s . I t was a t u r b u l e n t s e a w h i c h s w a l l o w e d up anyone who v e n t u r e d n e a r i t . A t h i r s t f o r g a i n b r o u g h t p e o p l e t o g e t h e r f r o m a l l t h e f o u r w i n d s and t h i s mob o f many t o n g u e s and t r i b e s d i d e x c e l l e n t l y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g m u t u a l i n t e r e s t s , n e e d s and r e q u i r e m e n t s . 4 M a m i n - S i b i r i a k u s e s t h e f a i r as a d e v i c e t o show t h e w e a k n e s s e s o f h u m a n i t y i n g e n e r a l . However, one o f t h e e s s e n t i a l t r a i t s i n h e r e n t i n t h e p e o p l e i n t h e n o v e l i s d w e l t upon and e x a m i n e d i n m i n u t e d e t a i l : t h e i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h money, t h e d r i v e t o g e t r i c h . By c o n t r a s t i n g v a r i o u s 15a c h a r a c t e r s , t h e a u t h o r r e v e a l s t h e d e e p e r m o t i v e s f o r t h i s p u r s u i t o f r i c h e s : t o some r i c h e s g i v e power, t o o t h e r s i t i s a s o u r c e o f p l e a s u r e , l u x u r y , o r o f means t o buy t h e a f f e c t i o n o f t h e o p p o s i t e s e x . The c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e n o v e l p r e s e n t s a d e p l o y m e n t o f o p p o s i n g f o r c e s : t h e a l t r u i s t P r i v a l o v v e r s u s t h e s e l f i s h i n d u s t r i a l m a gnates. I n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t t h e many s i d e s o f t h e h e r o ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , M a m i n - S i b i r i a k p l a c e s h i m a t t h e v e r y c e n t r e o f t h e n o v e l : t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s , as w e l l as v a r i o u s e v e n t s , r e v o l v e a r o u n d t h e h e r o , who t h u s becomes t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f a l l a c t i o n i n t h e n o v e l . C o n c e n t r i c c o m p o s i t i o n i s u s e d by t h e a u t h o r , e s t a b l i s h i n g a l i n k between t h i s n o v e l and o t h e r R u s s i a n s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l n o v e l s o f t h e f i r s t -5 h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The h e r o , P r i v a l o v , i s p r e s e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f a few c h a p t e r s ; b u t e v e n t h e r e h i s p r e s e n c e i s f e l t f r o m t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s o f o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s . F l a s h b a c k and f o r e t e l l i n g a r e c o m p o s i t i o n t e c h n i q u e s u s e d by M a m i n - S i b i r i a k t o e n h a n c e t h e r e a d e r ' s i n t e r e s t i n t h e f a t e o f P r i v a l o v . An a t m o s p h e r e o f e x p e c t a t i o n , t e n s i o n and s u s p e n s e i s c r e a t e d a r o u n d P r i v a l o v f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n o v e l . E v e r y o n e e x p e c t s t h e h e i r t o a c t . S c e n e s f o l l o w one a n o t h e r s h o w i n g t h e i d e o l o g i c a l and b u s i n e s s c o n f l i c t s w h i c h a r i s e between P r i v a l o v and h i s f o r m e r t r u s t e e , B a k h a r e v . I n t h i s p a r t b e g i n s t h e l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e h e r o 16 and Nadezhda B a k h a r e v a — a r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h , however, r e m a i n s u n r e s o l v e d . The i n h e r i t a n c e b u s i n e s s i s p o s t p o n e d . The h e r o t a l k s , p r o c r a s t i n a t e s , . t a k e s no s t e p s t o c l e a r up b u s i n e s s m a t t e r s . I n t h e f i r s t two p a r t s , U z e l s o c i e t y i s p r e s e n t e d i n a s t a t e o f c h a o s : an amorphous mass o f p e o p l e u n i t e d o n l y by t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n P r i v a l o v and h i s w e a l t h . I n t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h p a r t s , t h i s s o c i e t y weaves an i n t r i c a t e web and e n s n a r e s t h e h e r o , a f t e r g a u g i n g t h e weak s i d e s o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . A t t h e o u t s e t , P r i v a l o v i s t h e c e n t r e o f t h e a c t i o n ; t h e t r u s t e e s move a r o u n d h i m i n a s t a t e o f e x p e c t a t i o n . L a t e r , t h e y b e g i n t o a c t . G r a d u a l l y P r i v a l o v l o s e s h i s c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n , i s p u s h e d t o t h e s i d e and becomes a s p e c t a t o r o f h i s own d o w n f a l l . The f i f t h and l a s t p a r t o f t h e n o v e l d e s c r i b e s t h e I r b i t F a i r , d u r i n g w h i c h t h e complex r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween P r i v a l o v and h i s o p p o n e n t s i s c l a r i f i e d . T h e r e , P r i v a l o v f i n d s o u t t h a t h i s w i f e , Z o s i a , i s u n f a i t h f u l t o h i m and t h a t h i s i n h e r i t a n c e has f a l l e n i n t o t h e hands o f P o l o v o d o v , one o f t h e t r u s t e e s . He f i n a l l y u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t h i s i d e a l s and good i n t e n t i o n s w i l l n o t a n d . n e v e r c o u l d h a v e b e e n r e a l i z e d . He i s l e f t a l o n e , empty-handed, m o r a l l y c r u s h e d , and t h i s i n i t i a t e s h i s s p i r i t u a l and p h y s i c a l d i s i n -t e g r a t i o n . The a u t h o r s k i l l f u l l y u s e s K h i o n a Z a p l a t i n a , a m atch-maker o f U z e l , who has a c c e s s t o a number o f h o u s e h o l d s i n v a r i o u s s o c i a l s t r a t a , t o i n t r o d u c e q u i c k l y a l l t h e m a j o r 17 c h a r a c t e r s who, i n one way o r a n o t h e r , w i l l h a v e some e f f e c t on t h e h e r o . The p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e h e r o i s r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h h i s c o n t a c t s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s . I t i s a f r a g m e n t e d a p p r o a c h , and t h e h e r o i s s e e n t h r o u g h t h e p r i s m o f i m p r e s s i o n s and o p i n i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e a r o u n d h i m . The v a r i o u s t r a i t s o f t h e h e r o ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , as w e l l as t h o s e o f o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e n o v e l , s l o w l y emerge i n t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e s e i n t e r a c t i o n s . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , l i k e most e d u c a t e d p e o p l e o f . h i s t i m e , was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , and was f a s c i n a t e d by t h e i d e a s p u t f o r w a r d by D a r w i n and o t h e r s . He b e l i e v e d t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y i s a p r o d u c t o f e n v i r o n m e n t and h e r e d i t y . Many c h a r a c t e r s shown i n t h e n o v e l a r e t r e a t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s b e l i e f . The h e r e d i t y f a c t o r i s s t r o n g l y s t r e s s e d . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k b u i l d s up h i s c h a r a c t e r s and t h e i r b e h a v i o u r i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r m i l i e u and t h a t o f t h e i r f a t h e r s and f o r e f a t h e r s . U s i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e o f f l a s h b a c k , he shows c l e a r l y how t r a i t s a r e i n h e r i t e d . Two g e n e r a t i o n s a r e s i m u l -t a n e o u s l y p r e s e n t e d i n t h e n o v e l : f a t h e r s and s o n s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f t h e f a m i l i e s d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e h e r o : t h e f a m i l y o f h i s f i r s t l o v e and s e c o n d w i f e , N adezhda B a k h a r e v a ; t h a t o f h i s m i s t r e s s , A n t o n i n a P o l o v o d o v a ; and o f h i s f i r s t w i f e , Z o s i a L i k h o v s k a i a . S i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h E m i l e Z o l a ' s framework c a n be p e r -c e i v e d i n M a m i n - S i b i r i a k ' s n o v e l . C r i t i c s h a v e o f t e n compared !8 h i m t o Z o l a . The w r i t e r h i m s e l f , i n an a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l n o v e l C h e r t y i z z h i z n i Pepko ( F e a t u r e s f r o m t h e L i f e o f P e p k o ) , e x p r e s s e d h i s i n t e n t i o n t o c r e a t e a s e r i e s o f n o v e l s , 6 " s i m i l a r l y as d i d Z o l a i n Rougon", i n w h i c h he i n t e n d e d t o show how t h e b i o l o g i c a l h e r e d i t a r y f o r c e c a n d i r e c t and s h a p e t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e h e r o e s . The p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e f o r c e s o f h e r e d i t y i s e x p r e s s e d most s t r o n g l y i n P r i v a l o v s k i e m i l l i o n y . I n "The D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n B a l z a c and m y s e l f , " Z o l a s t a t e s : I (choose, above a l l , a p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e n d e n c y , n o t i n o r d e r t o e x h i b i t i t , b u t s o t h a t i t may l i n k my b o o k s t o g e t h e r . The b e s t w o u l d p e r h a p s be m a t e r i a l i s m , t h a t i s t o s a y t h e b e l i e f i n f o r c e s a b o u t w h i c h I need n e v e r be e x p l i c i t . The w o r d f o r c e does n o t compromise me.^ The f o r c e c h o s e n by Z o l a was h e r e d i t y , m o d i f i e d by t h e i n f l u -e n c e o f e n v i r o n m e n t . I n h i s b o o k s , L e s * R o u g o n - M a r q u a r t , t h e r e were t o be . . . two e l e m e n t s : one, t h e p u r e l y h u m a n , . p h y s i o -l o g i c a l e l e m e n t , t h e s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y o f a f a m i l y . . . t h e s e c o n d , t h e e f f e c t o f t h e modern e r a on t h i s f a m i l y , i t s b reakdown t h r o u g h t h e r a v a g i n g p a s s i o n s o f t h e e p o c h , t h e s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l a c t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . 8 M a m i n - S i b i r i a k u s e s b o t h t h e h e r e d i t a r y and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h i s p r o t a g o n i s t , S e r g e i P r i v a l o v . What k i n d o f p e r s o n i s P r i v a l o v ? How does he f i g h t t o r e g a i n h i s i n h e r i t a n c e w h i c h w i l l g i v e h i m t h e means t o f u l f i l l 19 h i s dreams and i d e a l s ? What method o f a c t i o n does he t a k e i n r e s p e c t t o h i s o p p o n e n t s , t h e t r u s t e e s ? As i t has a l r e a d y b e e n p o i n t e d o u t , M a m i n - S i b i r i a k g i v e s h i s h e r o t h e c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n h i s n o v e l and d e v e l o p s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n f r o m f r a g m e n t s . T h i s cumu-l a t i v e p r o c e s s f o l l o w s two main p l a n e s : t h e e x t e r n a l , b a s e d on t h e h e r o ' s a c t i o n s i n h i s s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t ; and t h e i n t e r n a l , c e n t r e d on h i s i n n e r s p i r i t u a l l i f e . On t h e e x t e r -n a l p l a n e , M a m i n - S i b i r i a k s t u d i e s h i s h e r o f r o m s e v e r a l a n g l e s . T h i s e x t e r n a l s i d e w i d e n s and expands as t h e h e r o e n t e r s t h e h i g h s o c i e t y c i r c l e o f U z e l j h i s m u l t i - f a c e t e d r o l e s a p p e a r i n a c o n t r a s t i n g l i g h t as t h e n o v e l d e v e l o p s and as h i s i n v o l v e m e n t d e e p e n s . He i s , f i r s t o f a l l , t h e h e i r t o t h e P r i v a l o v f i r m , t h e l a s t o f a famous f a m i l y o f m e t a l l u r -g i c a l m a g n a t e s . H i s p o s i t i o n i mposes upon him t h e d u t y t o c o n t i n u e t h e f a m i l y b u s i n e s s . S e c o n d l y , P r i v a l o v i s a m i l l -i o n a i r e , a f a b u l o u s l y w e a l t h y p e r s o n , whose w i s h e s , power and r i c h e s - command t h e r e s p e c t and a d u l a t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e s o c i e t y . Members o f t h i s s o c i e t y s e e P r i v a l o v t h r o u g h t h e f i l t e r o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l g r e e d , as a d i s t o r t e d image o f w e a l t h . F i n a l l y , P r i v a l o v i s a b a c h e l o r , a d e s i r a b l e c a t c h f o r l o c a l y o u n g l a d i e s . T h e s e v a r i o u s r o l e s h i d e t h e r e a l p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e h e i r ; o n l y a f t e r he has l o s t h i s money does U z e l s o c i e t y s e e h i m as he r e a l l y i s : a modest, shy and o r d i n a r y p e r s o n . The a u r a w h i c h s u r r o u n d s w e a l t h has b e e n s t r i p p e d . The f a l s i t y 20 and h o l l o w n e s s o f U z e l h i g h s o c i e t y a r e e x p o s e d , t h e i r b a n k r u p t m o r a l v a l u e s b l o w n a p a r t . The p h y s i c a l p o r t r a i t o f S e r g e i P r i v a l o v i s g i v e n i n a d i s j o i n t e d d e s c r i p t i o n as s e e n t h r o u g h t h e e y e s o f V e r a B a k h a r e v a , y o u n g e s t d a u g h t e r o f V a s i l y B a k h a r e v , t h e f o s t e r -f a t h e r and f o r m e r g u a r d i a n o f P r i v a l o v . She has o b s e r v e d h i m s e c r e t l y when he f i r s t came t o t h e i r h o u s e : V e r a was p e r f e c t l y c o n t e n t w i t h what s h e had s e e n . . . . She a p p r o v e d o f h i s h e i g h t , h i s v o i c e , e v e n h i s g i n g e r i s h b e a r d . Y e t he had i r r e g u l a r f e a t u r e s and p r o m i n e n t c h e e k b o n e s , s m a l l brown e y e s and a l a r g e mouth, and was s c a r c e l y handsome.9 P r i v a l o v was a m i l l i o n a i r e ( V e r a was a p r a c t i c a l -m i n ded y o u n g t h i n g , c o n s c i o u s o f t h a t word's m a g i c q u a l i t i e s ) .-1-0 H e r e , a p a r t f r o m a p u r e l y p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s h e r o , t h e a u t h o r p o i n t s o u t t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t r a i t o f P r i v a l o v ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , namely h i s k i n d n e s s : " H i s e y e s were kind.""'" 1 T h i s i s e c h o e d i n t h e words o f M a r i a B a k h a r e v a , P r i v a l o v ' s f o s t e r - m o t h e r and a c l o s e f r i e n d o f h i s d e c e a s e d m o t h e r , on s e e i n g h i m f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e a f t e r a l o n g s e p a r a t i o n : "He's s o much l i k e h i s m o t h e r . . . a k i n d ..12 p e r s o n . P r i v a l o v was v e r y f o n d o f h i s m o t h e r , and he t r e a s u r e d e v e r y t h i n g c o n n e c t e d w i t h h e r . He i n h e r i t e d h e r p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s and some t r a i t s o f h e r c h a r a c t e r . " P r i v a l o v ' s h a i r 13 was much l i k e h i s m o t h e r ' s , and he l i k e d i t f o r t h a t . " T h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e q u a l i t i e s o f h i s m o t h e r e x p o s e s 21 h i s n a t u r e : he has i n h e r i t e d h e r weak b u t g e n t l e c h a r a c t e r . The c o n f l i c t b etween what P r i v a l o v wants t o do and what he i s e x p e c t e d t o do comes o u t i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h B a k h a r e v . B a k h a r e v s e e s P r i v a l o v as t h e heir., t o t h e famous f i r m , and t h e r e f o r e he must c o n t i n u e i n t h e m i n i n g b u s i n e s s and f u l f i l l h i s s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s . To P r i v a l o v , however, t h e i n h e r i t a n c e and t h e f a m i l y b u s i n e s s a r e a b u r d e n : " P r i v a l o v e x p l a i n e d t h a t he d i d n o t l i k e t h e i r o n and s t e e l b u s i n e s s and t h o u g h t i t was an a r t i f i c i a l l y d e v e l o p e d b r a n c h 14 o f i n d u s t r y . " I n f l u e n c e d by h i s u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n i n P e t e r s b u r g and t h e l i b e r a l i d e a s o f t h e t i m e , P r i v a l o v i n t e n d s t o 15 s e t t l e h i s d e b t s w i t h h i s " h i s t o r i c a l c r e d i t o r s " and wants t o compensate t h e p e a s a n t s and t h e B a s h k i r s f o r t h e l o s s o f t h e i r l a n d t o h i s f o r e f a t h e r s . M o r e o v e r , he i n t e n d s t o s t a r t i n a new b u s i n e s s , t h e wheat t r a d e . To t h e o l d B a k h a r e v , P r i v a l o v i s a t r a i t o r t o h i s . f a m i l y ' s i n t e r e s t s . The c o n f l i c t between t h e r o l e i m p o s e d on h i m by s o c i e t y , and h i s p e r s o n a l w i s h e s i s shown i n t h e n o v e l . T h e s e o p p o s i n g i d e a s a r e r e v e a l e d by t h e e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e h e r o ' s s o c i a l and h e r e d i t a r y p a s t . Who were S e r g e i P r i v a l o v ' s a n c e s t o r s and how d i d t h e y g a i n t h e i r f o r t u n e ? On h i s p a t e r n a l s i d e , t h e y were t h e f i r s t s e t t l e r s i n B a s h k i r t e r r i t o r y . T h e r e were o f t e n c o n -f l i c t s b e t w e e n t h e f i r s t s e t t l e r s and t h e l o c a l i n h a b i t a n t s . t h e f r e e n o m a d i c B a s h k i r s , whose l a n d s were b e i n g i n v a d e d and s t o l e n by t h e s e t t l e r s . I n t h e s e n e w l y - a c q u i r e d domains P r i v a l o v ' s f o r e f a t h e r s ; f o u g h t a g a i n s t men and n a t u r e . I n t h i s s t r u g g l e t h e y d e v e l o p e d q u a l i t i e s w h i c h made them r i c h and s u c c e s s f u l : t e n a c i t y , w i l l p o w e r and e n e r g y . Such a c q u i r e d t r a i t s , t e m pered i n t h e s t r u g g l e o f t h e f i r s t s e t t l e r s f o r s u r v i v a l , were l a c k i n g i n t h e i r d e s c e n d a n t s . The i d l e l i f e , t h e l a c k o f p u r p o s e made them p a r a s i t e s , l i v i n g o f f t h e d i v i d e n d s o f t h e i r f o r t u n e . They showed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e mines and m i l l s , and l e f t t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o managers. T h i s c o n t i n u e d f r o m one g e n e r a t i o n t o t h e n e x t , u n t i l t h e once s t r o n g and r i c h P r i v a l o v f a m i l y f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s on t h e v e r g e o f t o t a l r u i n . The p r o c e s s o f d i s i n t e g r a t i o n t o o k p l a c e o v e r s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s , and S e r g e i P r i v a l o v ' s f a t h e r , A l e k s a n d r , w o u l d have b e e n r u i n e d i f he h a d n o t m a r r i e d V a r v a r a G u l i a e v a , t h e d a u g h t e r o f a m i l l i o n a i r e g o l d - m i n e owner. P a v e l G u l i a e v , S e r g e i ' s m a t e r n a l g r a n d f a t h e r , was o f O l d B e l i e v e r s t o c k : h i s a n c e s t o r s h a d e s c a p e d t o t h e U r a l s t o s a v e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m r e l i g i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n . He was a s i m p l e g o l d - m i n e r i n S i b e r i a . W i t h i n t e n y e a r s , however, he r e t u r n e d t o t h e U r a l s a m i l l i o n a i r e , h a v i n g d i s c o v e r e d s e v e r a l g o l d - b e a r i n g v e i n s . B u t , " I n s p i t e o f h i s m i l l i o n s , G u l i a e v t h o u g h t h i m s e l f t h e u n h a p p i e s t man i n t h e w o r l d f o r h a v i n g 16 no s o n s , o n l y one d a u g h t e r , V a r v a r a . " The m a r r i a g e b e t w e e n A l e k s a n d r and V a r v a r a was a m a t t e r 23 o f c o n v e n i e n c e , f i r s t l y t o s a v e t h e S h a t r o v s k i i m i l l s f r o m r u i n , and, s e c o n d l y , t o j o i n two o f t h e b e s t - k n o w n f a m i l i e s i n t h e U r a l s . "As f o r h i s s o n - i n - l a w , G u l i a e v h a d n e v e r l i k e d h i m . He o n l y r e s p e c t e d h i s name, and i t was t o t h a t 17 name t h a t V a r v a r a h a d b e e n s a c r i f i c e d . " Upon G u l i a e v 1 s d e a t h , A l e k s a n d r P r i v a l o v i n h e r i t e d h i s huge f o r t u n e . B e f o r e t h i s e v e n t , A l e k s a n d r was " w e a k - w i l l e d and k i n d " ; however, t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f s u c h enormous w e a l t h changed h i m : The o l d man's p r o p h e c y was s o o n t o come t r u e . . . . A l e x a n d e r P r i v a l o v l e t h i m s e l f go. He l a u g h e d when t o l d t h a t G u l i a e v h a d l e f t a l l h i s f o r t u n e t o h i s g r a n d s o n . As h i s own s o n ' s t r u s t e e he t o o k c h a r g e o f a l l t h e G u l i a e v i n t e r e s t s . . . . A l l B a k h a r e v ' s e f f o r t s , and t h o s e o f P r i v a l o v ' s w i f e , t o s a f e g u a r d S e r g e i ' s i n t e r e s t s , were o f no a v a i l . A l e x a n d e r P r i v a l o v h a d w a i t e d t o o l o n g , h a d s w a l l o w e d t o o much f r o m h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , t o l e t a n y t h i n g s t a n d i n h i s way. . . . P r i v a l o v * s m o n s t r o u s w e a l t h went t o f u r n i s h a l i f e unexampled i n t h e a n n a l s o f t h e U r a l s . The m u l t i - m i l l i o n a i r e , much l i k e some F r e n c h monarch, was p r e p a r e d t o pay t e n s o f t h o u s a n d s o f r u b l e s f o r s o m e t h i n g new, s o m e t h i n g r e f r e s h i n g i n t h e way o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t , s o m e t h i n g t h a t , i f o n l y f o r a moment, w o u l d b r i n g h i s o v e r - i n d u l g e d , d e a d e n e d n e r v e s b a c k t o l i f e . The G u l i a e v m a n s i o n i n U z e l was f u r n i s h e d w i t h p r i n c e l y s p l e n d o u r . What went on w i t h i n i t s w a l l s d e f i e s t h e i m a g i n a t i o n i n t h i s , o u r c a l c u l a t i n g , p e n n y - p i n c h i n g a ge. S u f f i c e i t t o s a y t h a t t h e R u s s i a n c h a r a c t e r h a d i t s f u l l , u n r e s t r a i n e d f l i n g . From m o r n i n g t o n i g h t t h e P r i v a l o v p a l a c e w a l l o w e d i n v o l u p t u o u s n e s s . E v e r y welcome and unwelcome g u e s t was f e a s t e d t h e r e . And a t t h e same t i m e , i n t h e same h o u s e , i n a s e c r e t c h a p e l , e n d l e s s s e c t a r i a n s e r v i c e s were h e l d r o u n d t h e c l o c k . . . . A l l s e n s e o f r e s t r a i n t e v a p o r a t e d , t h e g o l d e n mean o f l i f e was f l u n g o v e r b o a r d . L i f e brimmed o v e r t h e t o p , e n g u l f i n g e v e r y t h i n g t h a t l a y i n i t s p a t h . O r d i n a r y l u x -u r i e s , o r d i n a r y e x t r a v a g a n c e s o o n l o s t t h e i r a p p e a l . They s u f f i c e d no l o n g e r . A k i n d o f s a v a g e d e b a u c h 24 s u c c e e d e d them. The r o a d was l a i d w i t h r e d b r o a d -c l o t h f o r m i l e s ahead f o r t h e d r u n k e n company t o d r i v e a l o n g i t i n h o t - b l o o d e d t r o i k a s ; t h e h o r s e s w ere g i v e n champagne t o d r i n k i n s t e a d o f w a t e r , and were e v e n b a t h e d i n champagne. C o u n t l e s s g u e s t s f o u n d a s e c o n d home i n t h e P r i v a l o v m a n s i o n , and a v e r i t a b l e harem o f b e a u t i e s r e c r u i t e d f r o m among P r i v a l o v ' s s e r f s m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e i r l u s t s . A l e x a n d e r P r i v a l o v went b e r s e r k . Wine and women no l o n g e r s t i m u l a t e d h i s d e a d e n e d s e n s i b i l i t i e s , benumbed by wanton d e p r a v i t y . I t h a d come t o a s t a g e when he n e e d e d g r o a n s , w a i l s , t h e s i g h t and s m e l l o f b l o o d t o a r o u s e h i m . S a s h k a K h o l o s t o v , a r e t i r e d C o s s a c k o f f i c e r , r u l e d supreme i n h i s e n t o u r a g e . T h i s S a s h k a , an a t h l e t i c a l l y b u i l t g i a n t , c o u l d d r i n k a d o z e n b o t t l e s o f champagne w i t h o u t b a t t i n g an e y e l i d and t a k e on f u l l - g r o w n b e a r s s i n g l e - h a n d e d i n m o r t a l combat t o e n t e r t a i n h i s p a t r o n . The man was a v e r i t a b l e beastbboa?nsbyJariis.take i n human s h a p e . He h e l d sway i n t h e m a n s i o n , and P r i v a l o v w o u l d n o t l e t him o u t o f h i s s i g h t e v e n f o r an h o u r . They e v e n s l e p t i n one bedroom. P r i v a l o v n e e d e d o n l y t o s a y t h a t he was b o r e d , and S a s h k a i n s t a n t l y t h o u g h t up s o m e t h i n g t o d i v e r t h i m . B u t t h e r o u n d o f p l e a s u r e s g i v e n t o man i s e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d . Soon S a s h k a h a d t o r e s o r t t o d o w n r i g h t o u t r a g e s . P r i v a l o v ' s unhappy w i f e , n a t u r a l l y , h a d no sympathy f o r t h e u g l y f a c t s o f t h e l i f e t h a t s u r r o u n d e d h e r . . . . L o n e l y , u t t e r l y l o s t i n t h i s v o r t e x , s h e c o u l d do l i t t l e more t h a n d e t e s t S a s h k a w i t h a l l h e r s o u l , t h i n k i n g h i m t h e r o o t o f a l l t h e i n i q u i t y . 1 8 Prompted by S a s h k a , h i s f a v o u r i t e c o m panion, he became v i c i o u s l y j e a l o u s o f h i s w i f e and m i s t r e a t e d h e r . Money p e r v e r t e d . A l e k s a n d r P r i v a l o v , d e f o r m e d and w a r p e d h i s u n s t a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y , e m o t i o n a l l y u n b a l a n c i n g h i m , f i n a l l y t u r n i n g h i m i n t o a s a d i s t and a m u r d e r e r . Money was t h e c a u s e o f S e r g e i ' s m o t h e r ' s d e a t h : The w e a l t h y h e i r e s s . . . l o s t h e r mind and d i e d i n B a k h a r e v ' s home, where she was b r o u g h t more d e a d t h a n a l i v e a f t e r one o f t h e c o r p o r a l " l e s s o n s " a d m i n i s t e r e d by h e r h u s b a n d . 1 9 A l e k s a n d r P r i v a l o v became t h e v i c t i m o f h i s own money. S t i o s h a , a Gypsy, h i s s e c o n d w i f e , and S a s h k a , h e r l o v e r , b o t h d e a d l y a f r a i d o f h i m , f l u n g P r i v a l o v t o h i s d e a t h f r o m a t h i r d - s t o r e y window. S e r g e i P r i v a l o v i n h e r i t e d some o f t h e t r a i t s o f b o t h h i s f a t h e r and h i s m o t h e r . F r i e n d s and enemies o f P r i v a l o v e x p r e s s e d t h e same o p i n i o n : "D'you know, d e a r , what u n d i d t h e P r i v a l o v s ? L a c k o f c h a r a c t e r . They were a l l e i t h e r a m odel o f k i n d n e s s o r a m o d e l o f b e a s t l i n e s s . No i d e a o f t h e g o l d e n mean . " 20 B a k h a r e v a l s o t h o u g h t t h a t i n P r i v a l o v ' s v e i n s f l o w e d t h e " h e r e d i t a r y P r i v a l o v b l o o d . " P e o p l e who knew h i m w e l l : — M a r i a , f o r example — s a i d : " I c a n ' t make h i m o u t . T h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g m i s s i n g i n him. I t ' s l a c k o f c h a r a c t e r , I s u p p o s e . He makes up h i s mind t o go somewhere, and ends up somewhere e l s e . " 2 1 O s c a r S p i e g e l , a k e e n o b s e r v e r o f p e o p l e , and t h e m a i n m a n i p u l a t o r i n t h e c a s e o f t h e e s t a t e s t e w a r d s h i p , who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r P r i v a l o v ' s l o s i n g h i s e s t a t e , was aware o f i t . Summing up S e r g e i ' s c h a r a c t e r , S p i e g e l s a i d : " P r i v a l o v ? P r i v a l o v . Hm. P r i v a l o v i s a complex c h a r a c t e r , t h o u g h he may l o o k s i m p l e . He's a t odds w i t h h i m s e l f a l l t h e t i m e . B e s i d e s ' t h e S h a t r o v m i l l s he a l s o i n h e r i t e d many o f t h e f a i l i n g s and w e a k n e s s e s o f h i s f o r e f a t h e r s . I t i s j u s t t h o s e w e a k n e s s e s t h a t y o u must t a k e n o t e o f —^- he has i n h e r i t e d a most f u n d a m e n t a l weakness — l o v e o f women."22 25 S e r g e i ' s u p b r i n g i n g and e d u c a t i o n d i d n o t p r e p a r e h i m f o r t h e r o l e o f m i l l i o n a i r e and m i l l owner. A l t h o u g h he was s u r r o u n d e d by r i c h e s , h i s c h i l d h o o d was l o n e l y , and t h e o n l y b r i g h t moments were t h o s e s p e n t i n B a k h a r e v ' s h o u s e . The t r a g i c d e a t h o f h i s m o t h e r and t h e c a l l o u s a t t i t u d e o f h i s f a t h e r made h i m h a t e t h e l i f e s h a p e d by w e a l t h . H i s e d u c a t i o n d i d n o t p r e p a r e h i m f o r t h e t a s k o f t a k i n g o v e r e i t h e r t h e m i n i n g m i l l s o r t h e f i r m . I n f a c t , S e r g e i knew n o t h i n g a b o u t m i n i n g : P r i v a l o v f e l t a t o t a l s t r a n g e r i n t h i s r e a l m o f f i r e and i r o n , an o u t s i d e r who s p e e c h l e s s l y i n s p e c t e d e v e r y t h i n g he was shown. He a v o i d e d a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s l e s t t h e workmen d i s c o v e r e d h i s i g n o r a n c e . 2 3 A l l h i s a d u l t l i f e was s p e n t i n P e t e r s b u r g . E v e r y -t h i n g i n t h e U r a l s was u n f a m i l i a r t o h i m . He h a d no b u s i n e s s i n s i g h t and, w h i l e i n P e t e r s b u r g , S e r g e i n e v e r had any e x p e r i e n c e i n f i n a n c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s . Whenllhe r e t u r n e d t o t h e U r a l s , he f o u n d h i m s e l f t o t a l l y u n p r e p a r e d t o compete w i t h t h e r u t h l e s s b u s i n e s s m e n o f U z e l . S e r g e i P r i v a l o v ' s a r r i v a l and t h e f a t e o f h i s f o r t u n e became t h e t a l k o f t h e e n t i r e town o f U z e l . F o r example, t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e s e l f - a p p o i n t e d matchmaker, K h i o n a Z a p l a t i n a , a r e d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : The v e r y p r o s p e c t o f e n t e r i n g i n t o a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a r e a l m i l l i o n a i r e went t o h e r h e a d . She was t o u c h e d by t h e i n s t i n c t t h a t moves a l l t r u e a r t i s t s , w i s h i n g t o s e r v e t h e c o r p o r a l embodiment o f t h e g r e a t P r i v a l o v f o r t u n e l i k e a Brahman s e r v e s h i s B r a h m a . 2 4 26 I n c o n t r a s t w i t h h i s s o c i a l s t a n d i n g as a m i l l i o n a i r e , and c o n t r a r y t o t h e ' e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e town, P r i v a l o v ' s w ants a r e modest. H i s l i f e i n t h e c a p i t a l h a d been v e r y s i m p l e , and m o s t l y d u l l . Upon a r r i v i n g i n U z e l , he t o o k a r u b l e - a - d a y room, and l a t e r was c o n t e n t w i t h t h e t h r e e s m a l l rooms w h i c h he r e n t e d f r o m K h i o n a Z a p l a t i n a . P r i v a l o v i s m i l l i o n s make h i m an a t t r a c t i v e c a t c h . However, a f t e r f u r t h e r a c q u a i n t a n c e , m a t u r e women r e a l i z e t h a t t h e u n f o r t u n a t e S e r g e i i s somewhat d u l l , t h a t "he l a c k s a u d a c i t y , t h e k i n d o f a u d a c i t y women l i k e . . . a f o r t u n e 25 does n o t make a woman l o v e a man." U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r P r i v a l o v , Nadezhda B a k h a r e v a , t h e g i r l w i t h whom he f a l l s i n l o v e , i n c o n t r a s t t o e v e r y o n e e l s e i n t h e n o v e l , i s n o t awed by h i s m i l l i o n s . S e r g e i ' s money makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r h e r t o g e t t o know h i m w e l l . Nadezhda i s v e r y p r o u d , and f e e l s s l i g h t e d t o be t h e b r i d e i n an a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e . She e x p r e s s e s t h i s o p i n i o n : " I f I d i d n ' t h a v e t o a p p e a r b e f o r e him a s a p i e c e o f m e r c h a n d i s e , I s h o u l d h a v e b e e n much n i c e r t o h i m . " 2 6 P r i v a l o v ' s i n n e r l i f e i s u n f o l d e d t h r o u g h p s y c h o l o g -i c a l e a v e s d r o p p i n g by t h e a u t h o r . I n t h e n o v e l t h e r e a r e a s i d e s i n w h i c h t h e h e r o daydreams o r muses. H i s s e n t i m e n -t a l i t y , h i s s e n s i t i v e n a t u r e and h i s s e n s e o f o b l i g a t i o n t o w a r d s o t h e r p e o p l e a r e shown i n t h e s e a s i d e s . The a r t i s t i c d e v i c e w h i c h t h e a u t h o r u s e s t o s t r e s s t h e f e e l i n g o f c o m p a s s i o n f o r t h e h u n g r y and d e s t i t u t e B a s h k i r s i s t h e n i g h t m a r e . I n h i s dreams, P r i v a l o v f e e l s o p p r e s s e d by h i s m i l l i o n s : " I want n o t h i n g o f y o u r s — n o t a s i n g l e t h i n g . Y o u r m i l l i o n s 27 wexgh h e a v i l y upon me." In c o n t r a s t t o P r i v a l o v ' s i n d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s money, M a m i n - S i b i r i a k shows t h e p e r s o n s whose g o a l i n l i f e i s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f w e a l t h . They a r e P o l o v o d o v and L i a k h o v s k i i , P r i v a l o v ' s t r u s t e e s , g r e e d y and d i s h o n e s t , and B a k h a r e v , h i s f o r m e r g u a r d i a n , a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , h a r d -w o r k i n g b u s i n e s s m a n , who i s p r o u d o f h i s a c q u i s i t i o n s and a c h i e v e m e n t s . U n l i k e P r i v a l o v , whose p s y c h o l o g i c a l make-up and a p p e a r a n c e h a v e b e e n e x p o s e d by M a m i n - S i b i r i a k t h r o u g h t h e minds and a t t i t u d e s o f p e o p l e s u r r o u n d i n g him, and w i t h o u t any r e f e r e n c e t o p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n s ( P r i v a l o v owned t h r e e s u i t c a s e s ) , h i s o p p o n e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h t h e i r m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s and t h r o u g h t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . I n d e s c r i b i n g L i a k h o v s k i i ' s c h a r a c t e r , M a m i n - S i b i r i a k f o l l o w s G o g o l ' s t r a d i t i o n . L i a k h o v s k i i i s a t y p i c a l m i s e r whose a p p e a r a n c e and s u r r o u n d i n g s r e s e m b l e t h o s e o f P l u s h k i n ^ He i s a " v e r i t a b l e m o t h - e a t e n 'dummy", whose " g r e e d and 2 8 o d d i t i e s " c r e a t e d " t h o u s a n d s o f s t o r i e s " i n U z e l . P r i v a -l o v 's f i r s t e n c o u n t e r w i t h L i a k h o v s k i i happens i n h i s s t u d y , and i s d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : L i a k h o v s k i i was s e a t e d i n an o l d l e a t h e r a r m c h a i r . . . e v e r y t h i n g . . . s t r u c k t h e eye w i t h i t s 28 i n o r d i n a t e m o d e s t y , e v e n a h i n t o f s q u a l o r . The w a l l - p a p e r was a f a d e d b l u e ; t h e c e i l i n g h a d l o n g t u r n e d a d i r t y g r a y , and t h e r e were cobwebs i n t h e c o r n e r ; t h e p a r q u e t f l o o r was b a d l y worn and c o v e r e d w i t h a shabby l a c k l u s t r e c a r p e t w h i c h . . . l o o k e d l i k e a l a r g e s o i l e d b l o t c h . . . . L i a k h o v s k i i * s own a p p e a r a n c e was i n harmony w i t h t h a t o f h i s s t u d y . H i s s m a l l meagre f r a m e , much as t h e c a r p e t u n d e r h i s f e e t , a p p e a r e d f r o m a f a r l i k e a d i r t y b l o t c h , w i t h t h e one d i f f e r e n c e t h a t i t was p e r c h e d i n a shabby a r m c h a i r . A l t h o u g h i t was summer, . . . t h e m a s t e r h i m s e l f was i n an o l d q u i l t e d o v e r c o a t . A s c a r f was wrapped r o u n d h i s g a u n t n e c k . One c o u l d s c a r c e l y t e l l h i s age. He b e l o n g e d t o t h a t c a t e g o r y o f p e o p l e , p e t r i f i e d and w i t h e r e d l i k e o l d t o o t h p i c k s , whose age was i n c a l c u l a b l e . ^ 9 L i a k h o v s k i i ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s money had become an o b s e s s i o n w h i c h dimmed h i s t h i n k i n g : To a c q u i r e f o r t h e mere s a k e o f a c q u i r i n g had l o n g s i n c e become a s h e l l t h a t h a d grown more and more s o l i d w i t h e v e r y y e a r and g r a d u a l l y o b l i t e r a t e d t h e l i v i n g b e i n g i n L i a k h o v s k i i . 3 0 However, M a m i n - S i b i r i a k r e a c h e s f u r t h e r and d e e p e r i n h i s s t u d y o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r . L i a k h o v s k i i i s n o t j u s t a G o g o l i a n g r o t e s q u e mask o f g r e e d ; i n s i d e t h e " s h e l l " l i v e s a human c a p a b l e o f l o v e and f e e l i n g , even i f f o r o n l y one p e r s o n . F o r h i s d a u g h t e r , Z o s i a , he i s a k i n d and l o v i n g f a t h e r . A f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o L i a k h o v s k i i ' s m i s e r l i n e s s and h i s a t t i t u d e t o money comes t o l i g h t when he r e f u s e s t o l e n d money t o B a k h a r e v when t h e l a t t e r h as s u f f e r e d a f i n a n c i a l s e t b a c k . B a k h a r e v o r i g i n a l l y s e t L i a k h o v s k i i up i n b u s i n e s s , b u t L i a k h o v s k i i r e f u s e s t o a c k n o w l e d g e h i s m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n 29 t o h i s f o r m e r b e n e f a c t o r . Money i s a l s o t h e c a u s e o f L i a k h o v s k i i * s d e a t h . H i s p a t h o l o g i c a l meanness, h i s i n s a t i a b l e g r e e d f o r money, and envy o f t h o s e r i c h e r t h a n h e , l e a d h i m t o h i s end. L i a k h o v -s k i i d i e s o f a h e a r t , a t t a c k on h e a r i n g t h a t h i s f o r m e r manager i s a b o u t t o open a m i l l . A n o t h e r t r u s t e e , P o l o v o d o v , i s a b u s i n e s s m a n o f t h e 31 "newest t y p e " i n t h e U r a l s . He i s a b a n k e r , t h e n e w l y e m e r g i n g t y p e o f h i s day. He i s w e l l e d u c a t e d , has t r a v e l l e d a b r o a d , knows h i s f o o d and w i n e . He needs money t o l i v e i n l u x u r y . A l l h i s l i f e i s s p e n t i n t h e p u r s u i t o f p l e a s u r e . He i s t h e s o u l o f l o c a l s o c i e t y : he o r g a n i z e s e x c u r s i o n s , p i c n i c s and o t h e r f u n c t i o n s . P o l o v o d o v has an amorous d i s p o s i t i o n and i s a l w a y s i n l o v e w i t h someone. He i s i n c o n s i s t e n t and c o n t i n u o u s l y changes h i s a t t i t u d e s : i n l i f e he v a c i l l a t e s b etween b e i n g an A n g l o p h i l e and a S l a v o p h i l e : A k i n d o f i n a n i t y came o v e r him f r o m t i m e t o t i m e , and on one o c c a s i o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , he went o f f a b r o a d , k i c k e d h i s h e e l s a t v a r i o u s s p a s , s p e n t some t i m e i n P a r i s , made a t r i p t o E g y p t and t h e S i n a i P e n i n s u l a , and r e t u r n e d an E n g l i s h m a n f r o m h e a d t o f o o t , i n an I n d i a n p i t h h e l m e t and a d u s t y - g r e e n s h i r t a n d w i t h a d i s t i n c t A l b i o n d r a w l . He d e c o r a t e d h i s U z e l home i n t h e manner o f E n g l i s h m e n and f o r two y e a r s p l a y e d t h e p a r t o f an U z e l s q u i r e . When t h e w i n d c h a n g e d , P o l o v o d o v gave up h i s h e l m e t , . . . and c h a n g e d t h e h o u s e t o i t s p r e s e n t s t a t e . H i s m a r r i a g e t o A n t o n i n a was an u p s h o t o f h i s c u r r e n t p a s s i o n f o r t h e e a r t h y t r e a s u r e s o f f o l k c u l t u r e ; he l i k e d h e r plump s h o u l -d e r s , h e r w h i t e n e c k , and, b e s i d e s , s h e f i t t e d i n w o n d e r f u l l y as t h e m i s t r e s s o f t h e n ewly d e c o r a t e d R u s s i a n i z e d home w i t h i t s p a i n t e d c e i l i n g s and c o c k e r e l s . 2-30 Money, i s h i s i d e a l , t h e g u i d i n g f o r c e i n h i s l i f e , t h e s o u r c e o f a l l p l e a s u r e s . To o b t a i n i t he i s p r e p a r e d t o go t o any l e n g t h s . To p u t t h r o u g h a b r i l l i a n t scheme he p u s h e s h i s w i f e i n t o an a f f a i r w i t h P r i v a l o v . He i s i n l o v e w i t h Z o s i a , b u t , s e e i n g t h e a f f a i r between P r i v a l o v and h i s w i f e come t o an e n d , he t r i e s t o m a r r y Z o s i a t o P r i v a l o v t o a c h i e v e h i s e n d s . As t h e manager o f P r i v a l o v ' s e s t a t e , P o l o v o d o v g a i n s c o n s i d e r a b l e b e n e f i t s . However, t h e s e b e n e f i t s c a n n o t s a t i s f y h i s g r e e d y n a t u r e . He t h e n s t e a l s a huge sum o f money and must l e a v e t h e U r a l s . He goes t o P a r i s a c c o m p a n i e d by Z o s i a , and t h e r e , h a u n t e d by government a g e n t s , he f i n a l l y commits s u i c i d e . P o l o v o d o v 1 s d e a t h i s t h u s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o money and g r e e d . V a s i l i i B a k h a r e v , a t one t i m e a l s o a t r u s t e e o f t h e P r i v a l o v e s t a t e , i s a p o s i t i v e t y p e o f b u s i n e s s m a n i n t h e n o v e l . He i s t h e s o l i d , h o n e s t , h a r d - w o r k i n g and s u c c e s s f u l g o l d - m i n e p r o s p e c t o r . B r o u g h t up i n t h e O l d B e l i e v e r s ' f a i t h and i n t h e p a t r i a r c h a l t r a d i t i o n , he i s by n a t u r e d e c i s i v e , b r a v e and f u l l o f e n e r g y . H i s f o r t u n e i s b u i l t by h i s own i n d u s t r y . He l o v e s t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f g o l d p r o s p e c t i n g and g o l d m i n i n g . To him , t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f w e a l t h i s j u s t a means o f s h o w i n g t h a t w h a t e v e r a man wants he c a n a c h i e v e by h i m s e l f , u s i n g h i s own i n t e l l i g e n c e . H i s d a u g h t e r s a y s o f h i m : 31 . . . f o r F a t h e r g o l d - m i n i n g i s c l o t h e d i n an a u r a o f G u l i a e v and P r i v a l o v t r a d i t i o n s , and h e ' s a f a n a t i c who v i e w s g o l d - m i n i n g as a r i t u a l r a t h e r t h a n a s o u r c e o f w e a l t h . 3 3 He i s n o t a c o n s e r v a t i v e i n h i s a t t i t u d e s and t h i n k i n g . He r e a l i z e s t h a t t i m e s c h a n g e , he v a l u e s e d u c a t i o n and e n c o u r a g e s h i s o l d e r c h i l d r e n , N a d e z h d a and K o n s t a n t i n , t o s t u d y . H i s h o u s e h o l d i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s , b o t h a r c h i -t e c t u r a l l y and i n t e r m s o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . H i s y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n , V i c t o r and V e r a , r e m a i n w i t h t h e i r m o t h e r , w h i l e t h e o l d e r ones a r e t h e i r f a t h e r ' s c o n c e r n . Though h i s w i f e i s an O l d B e l i e v e r and r u n s h e r h o u s e h o l d a c c o r d i n g l y , B a k h a r e v r e s p e c t s h e r and h e r ways. B a k h a r e v i s an e x t r e m e l y h o n e s t man. I n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e o t h e r two t r u s t e e s o f t h e P r i v a l o v e s t a t e , L i a k h o v s k i i and P o l o v o d o v , who c o n s i d e r t h e e s t a t e as a s o u r c e o f p e r s o n a l g a i n , B a k h a r e v managed t h e e s t a t e h o n e s t l y as a m a t t e r o f o b l i g a t i o n . H i s a t t i t u d e , w h i c h s o s t r o n g l y c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h a t o f L i a k h o v s k i i and P o l o v o d o v , e x p l a i n s why he l e f t h i s p o s i t i o n as a t r u s t e e i n a moment o f r i g h t -eous a n g e r a t t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e two men. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k u s e s two main t e c h n i q u e s t o d e s c r i b e t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f h i s n o v e l who come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e h e r o . He g i v e s a d e t a i l e d and m e t i c u l o u s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e o u t w a r d a p p e a r a n c e , c l o t h i n g and f u r n i t u r e o f t h e a s s o c i a t e s and o p p o n e n t s o f t h e b u s i n e s s p e o p l e i n P r i v a l o v ' s c i r c l e . 32 Thus t h e r e a d e r comes t o r e c o g n i z e L i a k h o v s k i i as a m i s e r f r o m t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s o f f i c e , P o l o v o d o v as a p r e t e n -t i o u s p e r s o n f r o m t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o o f h i s h o u s e , B a k h a r e v ' s p r o g r e s s i v e s p i r i t f r o m t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e h o u s e . To d e p i c t t h e p e o p l e e m o t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e h e r o , M a m i n - S i b i r i a k u s e s a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l a p p r o a c h , p l a c i n g them i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t and s h o w i n g them a t v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . He a p p l i e s t h i s t e c h n i q u e t o P r i v a l o v ' s f i r s t l o v e , N a d e z h d a , . t o h i s m i s t r e s s , A n t o n i n a P o l o v o d o v a and t o Z o s i a L i a k h o v s k a i a , h i s f i r s t w i f e . N adezhda B a k h a r e v a , l i k e P r i v a l o v , i s u t t e r l y u n i n t e r e s t e d i n money. E a r l y i n l i f e , N adezhda o b s e r v e d and r e c o g n i z e d t h e c l a s h between t h e two o p p o s i t e p h i l o s o p h i e s a t work i n h e r f a t h e r ' s h o u s e h o l d . On t h e one h a n d , she r e s p e c t s h e r c o n s e r v a t i v e m o t h e r , b u t , l i k e h e r p r o g r e s s i v e f a t h e r , she s e e s t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n s h e i s g i v e n and, l i k e h i m , s h e w o u l d l i k e t o change t h e O l d B e l i e v e r ways o f l i f e . M o r e o v e r , Nadezhda i s aware o f t h e s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e s o f h e r t i m e . She s e e s t h e d i s c o r d s e n g e n d e r e d by t h e i d l e l i f e l e d by t h e women o f h e r age; she i s unhappy i n t h e r o l e o f a r i c h d e b u t a n t e . L i k e t h e s o c i a l c r u s a d e r o f t h e t i m e s , she i s a p p a l l e d by t h e s e n s e l e s s s q u a n d e r i n g o f huge f o r t u n e s , by t h e p a r a s i t i c l i f e o f r i c h and i d l e p e o p l e w h i l e t h e r e i s s o much u n h a p p i n e s s and p o v e r t y e v e r y w h e r e . T r u e d a u g h t e r o f B a k h a r e v , she n o t o n l y t h i n k s a b o u t t h e s o c i a l i l l s b u t s h e works a t c h a n g i n g them. She i s d e t e r -m i n e d , p e r s i s t e n t and s t r o n g - w i l l e d . She moves away f r o m t h e f a m i l y , l i v e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y and works t o i m p l e m e n t h e r i d e a s . She s h a r e s h e r l i f e w i t h an e x i l e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y , L o s k u t o v . T h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s b a s e d on l o v e and m u t u a l r e s p e c t . Whereas P r i v a l o v i s a d r e a m e r , aware o f s o c i e t y ' s i l l s b u t i n c a p a b l e o f t r a n s f o r m i n g h i s i d e a s i n t o p o s i t i v e a c t i o n , N adezhda, t h e s o c i a l a c t i v i s t , i s h i s o p p o s i t e . A n t o n i n a P o l o v o d o v a i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m N a d e z h d a . Her f a t h e r was a p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r d p l a y e r , and h e r m o t h e r , a l t h o u g h one o f an u n p r e t e n t i o u s f a m i l y o f t w e l v e , gave h e r s e l f a i r s . Money was an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n A n t o n i n a ' s f a m i l y . Her s i s t e r s ' m a r r i a g e s a r e a r r a n g e d e s s e n t i a l l y w i t h a v i e w t o m o n e t a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , as i s h e r own w i t h P o l o v o d o v , t h e p o s s e s s o r o f b o t h money and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . A n t o n i n a has n o t h a d much f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , b u t s h e i s w e l l p r e p a r e d t o p l a y h e r r o l e i n s o c i e t y . She i s i n t e r e s t e d i n c l o t h e s , d a n c e s , s o c i a l o u t i n g s and g o s s i p . She i s o f t e n b o r e d by h e r monotonous l i f e and, t o r e l i e v e t h i s boredom, as w e l l as t o p l e a s e h e r h u s b a n d and t o h e l p him i n h i s m a c h i n a t i o n s a g a i n s t P r i v a l o v , she a g r e e s t o become P r i v a l o v ' m i s t r e s s . She i s t h e v i c t i m o f h e r h u s b a n d ' s u n c o n t r o l l e d g r e e d f o r money. By b e c o m i n g h i s a c c o m p l i c e she l o s e s h e r 34 s o c i a l p o s i t i o n and r u i n s h e r l i f e . The b e a u t i f u l Z o s i a L i a k h o v s k a i a , t h e o b j e c t o f h e r f a t h e r ' s l o v e and a t t e n t i o n , i s p e r m i t t e d t o do w h a t e v e r she w i s h e s . She i s s p o i l e d and i m p a t i e n t . Her m o t h e r , an a l c o h o l i c , h a d n e v e r h a d any p a r t i n h e r u p b r i n g i n g . N e v e r -t h e l e s s , Z o s i a was w e l l e d u c a t e d a t home by t u t o r s p r o v i d e d by h e r f a t h e r . She has l i v e d a l l h e r l i f e i n l u x u r y and, f o r h e r , money i s a n e c e s s i t y w h i c h s h e t a k e s f o r g r a n t e d . Z o s i a e n j o y s c h a l l e n g i n g s i t u a t i o n s and s t r o n g s e n s a t i o n s , owns a p u r e - b r e d s t a l l i o n w h i c h s h e r i d e s r e c k l e s s l y , and has an untamed f a l c o n and a b e a r - c u b f o r p e t s . She i s f a s c i n a t e d by L o s k u t o v , n o t b e c a u s e s h e l o v e s h i m b u t b e c a u s e she s u s p e c t s t h a t he i s i n l o v e w i t h Nadezhda B a k h a r e v a . T h i s o f f e r s h e r a w o r t h y c h a l l e n g e , and she t r i e s t o w i n him o v e r f r o m Nadezhda. She b e s t o w s a l l h e r a t t e n t i o n upon h i m and f i n a l l y d e c l a r e s h e r l o v e f o r h i m . However, f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e s h e meets someone who does n o t s u b m i t t o h e r w i l l . On b e i n g r e b u f f e d , she s u f f e r s a n e r v o u s breakdown and a l m o s t d i e s . L i k e N adezhda, Z o s i a i s a s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y , b u t s h e l a c k s a s e n s e o f p u r p o s e and d i r e c t i o n . She i s i n c o n s i s t e n t and h i g h l y s t r u n g . W i t h h e r , t h e l e a s t d i s a p p o i n t m e n t b r i n g s on h y s t e r i c s . " B l o o d means a l o t , " s t a t e s h e r f a t h e r , "and t h e r e i s s o much b a d b l o o d i n Z o s i a , s o v e r y , v e r y 3 4 much." She i s i m p u l s i v e , a c t s h a s t i l y , a s , f o r example, i n m a r r y i n g P r i v a l o v . A f t e r h e r m a r r i a g e she becomes b o r e d w i t h h e r h u s b a n d and s t a r t s an a f f a i r w i t h P o l o v o d o v w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y l e a d s t o h e r c o m p l e t e p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . I n c o n c l u s i o n , we c a n s a y t h a t i n e a c h o f Mamin-S i b i r i a k " s l e a d i n g c h a r a c t e r s , two f a c t o r s — h e r e d i t y and e n v i r o n m e n t — d o m i n a t e t h e b e h a v i o u r and d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e r s o n a l i t y . An i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s c h a r a c t e r make-up. H i s f a t e depends upon and i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h i s make-up. The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i s e x p r e s s e d by t h e r o l e w h i c h money p l a y s i n t h e l i f e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . The e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d P r i v a l o v ' s l i f e — h i s s t a y i n t h e B a k h a r e v h o u s e h o l d and h i s s t u d i e s a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y i n P e t e r s b u r g — h a v e l a i d p o s i t i v e f o u n d a t i o n s and g i v e n h i m an aim i n l i f e . However, t h e a b s e n c e o f p r a c t i c a l k n owledge and t h e l a c k o f c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e o f t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d p r e v e n t h i m f r o m i m p l e m e n t i n g h i s i d e a l s and b r i n g i n g them t o f r u i t i o n . I n t h e U r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , he i s a m i s f i t . P r i v a l o v has i n h e r i t e d " t h e P r i v a l o v f a m i l y b l o o d . " On t h e one s i d e he has a d e g e n e r a t e f a t h e r , on t h e o t h e r a k i n d - n a t u r e d m o t h e r . A l t h o u g h t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l he i s d e p i c t e d w i t h t h e p o s i t i v e t r a i t s i n h e r i t e d f r o m h i s m o t h e r , n e v e r t h e l e s s a t t h e e n d , i n a t i m e o f p e r s o n a l c r i s i s , when h i s w i f e i s u n f a i t h f u l t o him, t h e n e g a t i v e t r a i t s i n h e r i t e d f r o m h i s f a t h e r come t o t h e f o r e — w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t he t u r n s t o s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e . He i s s a v e d f r o m t h i s s t a t e by h i s s e c o n d m a r r i a g e , t o Nadezhda. B o t h h e r e d i t a r y and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s c a n be o b s e r v e d i n t h e c a s e o f t h e B a k h a r e v f a m i l y . H e r e t h e r e a r e f o u r c h i l d r e n , and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p a r e n t s and o f t h e i r i d e a l s and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d money a r e most i m p o r t a n t i n t h e s h a p i n g o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s c h a r a c t e r s . The o l d e r o n e s , K o n s t a n t i n and Nadezhda, a r e u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e i r f a t h e r who i s h o n e s t , c l e v e r , l o g i c a l , h a r d - w o r k i n g and n o t i n v o l v e d w i t h money. B a k h a r e v k e e p s t h e b e s t f r o m p a s t t r a d i t i o n s and a d a p t s i t t o t h e p r e s e n t . T h i s a t t i t u d e i s p a s s e d on t o h i s o l d e r c h i l d r e n and t h e y a r e s u c c e s s f u l i n l i f e : K o n s t a n t i n i s a good e n g i n e e r and Nadezhda a k i n d p e r s o n who, a f t e r h e r p e r s o n a l t r a g e d y — t h e d e a t h o f h e r common-law h u s b a n d , L o s k u t o v — l i v e s t o h e l p o t h e r s . The y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n , V i c t o r and V e r a , who grew up u n d e r t h e i r m o t h e r ' s i n f l u e n c e , a r e b a d l y s p o i l e d and l a c k i n g i n p u r p o s e . As a r e s u l t , V i c t o r i s l a z y , a g a m b l e r and a w a s t r e l , and h i s i d l e l i f e l e a d s h i m u l t i m a t e l y t o m u r d e r . From an e a r l y age, V e r a i s m a t e r i a l i s t i c and m o n e y - o r i e n t e d . I n c o n t r a s t t o Nadezhda and K o n s t a n t i n , V e r a and V i c t o r a r e s e l f - c e n t r e d i n d i v i d u a l s . The same y a r d s t i c k c a n be h e l d up t o t h e L i a k h o v s k i i 37 f a m i l y . Z o s i a , a l t h o u g h endowed w i t h a b r i l l i a n t m ind, a good e d u c a t i o n and a s t r o n g w i l l , a c h i e v e s n o t h i n g i n h e r l i f e . As a r e s u l t o f h e r h e r e d i t a r y t r a i t s and b a d u p b r i n g -i n g , s h e i s i n c o n s i s t e n t , u n d i s c i p l i n e d , s e l f i s h , and d e v o i d o f i d e a l s . As f o r L i a k h o v s k i i 1 s s o n D a v i d , he i s c o m p l e t e l y u s e l e s s , a h o p e l e s s d r u n k a r d , l i k e h i s m o t h e r . The e l d e r L i a k h o v s k i i i s d e s t r o y e d by h i s g r e e d f o r money and h i s envy o f t h e r i c h e s o f o t h e r s . The a c c u m u l a t i o n o f w e a l t h h a s become h i s o b s e s s i o n , p u s h i n g i n t o t h e b a c k -g r o u n d a l l o t h e r i n t e r e s t s i n l i f e . I n t h e end t h i s l e a d s t o t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f h i s h e a l t h , and t h e w o r s e n i n g o f h i s f i n a n c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s ; t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e f a c t o r s r e s u l t s i n h i s p r e m a t u r e d e a t h . O b s e s s e d w i t h t h e i d e a o f t a k i n g r e v e n g e a g a i n s t h i s f o r m e r manager, he has n e g l e c t e d t o w r i t e a w i l l a nd, c o n s e q u e n t l y , h i s b e l o v e d Z o s i a i s l e f t p e n n i l e s s , and t h e i n h e r i t a n c e goes t o h i s w o r t h l e s s s o n . As f o r t h e b a n k e r P o l o v o d o v , h i s i n s t a b i l i t y o f c h a r a c t e r and h i s g r e e d , n u r t u r e d by c o n s t a n t c o n t a c t w i t h money — h i s e n v i r o n m e n t — a r e t h e c a u s e o f h i s d o w n f a l l . I n P r i v a l o v s k i e m i l l i o n y , M a m i n - S i b i r i a k d e s c r i b e s s e v e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l magnate c l a s s and shows t h e v a r i o u s means t h e y u s e t o a c c u m u l a t e w e a l t h . A p r o t o t y p e o f a b u s i n e s s man i s c r e a t e d by t h e a u t h o r , b u t a t t h e same t i m e t h e r e c a n be s e e n g l a r i n g d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s . H i s c h a r a c t e r s r a n g e f r o m e x t r e m e l y c o n s e r v a t i v e t o men o f 38 t h e o l d p i o n e e r days y e t w i t h a b r o a d i m a g i n a t i o n and a p p r o a c h t o b u s i n e s s , t o t h e "new t y p e " w h i c h was e m e r g i n g a t t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g o f t h e n o v e l . The S o v i e t c r i t i c T. D e r g a c h e v s t r e s s e d t h i s a r t i s t i c u n i q u e n e s s o f M a m i n - S i b i r i a k i n c r e a t i n g v i t a l c h a r a c t e r s , when he w r o t e : E a c h c h a r a c t e r i s r e t a i n e d i n t h e memory as an i n d i v i d u a l and a t t h e same t i m e as a t y p e . Mamin-S i b i r i a k c o n s i d e r s t h e t y p i c a l as a t t e s t i n g t h e i n t e r n a l law o f e x i s t e n c e w h i c h i s more p e r c e p t i b l e i n s o m e t h i n g o u t s t a n d i n g o r u n d e r t h e c r i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t c a u s e t h e human p e r s o n a l i t y t o f u l l y e x p o s e i t s e l f r a t h e r t h a n i n a v e r a g e , mass o r commonplace s i t u a t i o n s . Thus h i s t y p e s a r e a l w a y s p o r t r a y e d v i v i d l y as i n d i v i d u a l s . - ^ I n t h i s n o v e l , M a m i n - S i b i r i a k c o n c e n t r a t e d h i s a t t e n t i o n on t h r e e w e a l t h y f a m i l i e s who a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h P r i v a l o v ; b u t i n t h e n e x t n o v e l , G o rnoe g n e z d o , t h e panorama o f s o c i e t y i s expanded by t h e i n c l u s i o n o f a l a r g e r number o f d i v e r s e p e r s o n a l i t i e s . CHAPTER I I GORNOE GNEZDO Money as a means o f a t t a i n i n g p o s i t i o n and power One i n s e c t s m o t h e r s a n o t h e r , a worm d e v o u r s a n o t h e r worm, t h e c h e e r f u l l y c h i r p i n g b i r d e q u a l l y c h e e r f u l l y e a t s t h e i n s e c t and t h e worm and i t s e l f f a l l s v i c t i m t o a c a t o r a hawk. The m y s t e r y o f l i f e i s c r e a t e d i n t h i s m e l £ e o f g o b b l i n g up one a n o t h e r . — M a m i n - S i b i r i a k 1 I n t h e n o v e l Gornoe g n e z d o , M a m i n - S i b i r i a k f o l l o w s t h e same theme as i n P r j i v a l o v s k i e m i l l i o n y . H e r e , however, he i n t r o d u c e s a n o t h e r a t t i t u d e t o w e a l t h . He d e p i c t s t h e e x t r e m e s e r v i l i t y o f humans i n t h e i r w o r s h i p o f w e a l t h . The n o v e l p o r t r a y s a m i n i n g and e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i e t y i n t h e U r a l s — a s o c i e t y t h a t i s t o t a l l y s u b s e r v i e n t t o i t s m a s t e r . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k d e s c r i b e s " t h e a l l - p o w e r f u l c l i q u e w h i c h has d o m i n a t e d and s t i l l d o m i n a t e s a l l t h e b u s i n e s s a f f a i r s o f t h e U r a l r e g i o n " and " t h e mores and p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s o f t h e 2 b x g w i g s — t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and m i l l owners." I n c o n t r a s t t o P r i v a l o v s k i e m i l l i o n y , w h i c h p r e s e n t s a number o f p l a n t owners, m a n u f a c t u r e r s and g o l d mine o p e r a -t o r s , Gornoe gnezdo p o r t r a y s o n l y one m i l l i o n a i r e . A l l t h e o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n t h e n o v e l a r e s u b o r d i n a t e t o him. They a r e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , managers, e n g i n e e r s and o t h e r e m ployees o f L a p t e v ' s enormous e m p i r e o f i r o n and s t e e l m i l l s . 40 U n l i k e P r i v a l o v , t h e m i l l i o n a i r e L a p t e v i s riot c o n -c e r n e d w i t h t h e o r i g i n o f h i s w e a l t h . A l t h o u g h t h e he a d o f t h e f i r m , he f e e l s no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e p e o p l e he e m p l o y s ; he does n o t u n d e r s t a n d and has no d e s i r e t o l e a r n t h e i n t r i c -a c i e s o f m i n i n g . He i s i n d i f f e r e n t t o w a r d h i s w e a l t h , t a k e s i t f o r g r a n t e d and i s t o t a l l y u n c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e w h o l e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y t h a t h a s p r o v i d e d h i m w i t h h i s l u x u r i o u s l i f e - s t y l e . The d r i v i n g f o r c e b e h i n d t h e L a p t e v m i n i n g and i n d u s -t r i a l e m p i r e i s an i n t r i c a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m . I n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p r i v a t e m i l l o w n e r s h i p t h e r e i s a complex i n t e r n a l h i e r a r c h y , w h i c h t h e a u t h o r d e f i n e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: Imagine a c o m p l e t e l y c o n i c a l m o u n t a i n , a t t h e apex o f w h i c h i s L a p t e v h i m s e l f , t h e owner o f t h e m i l l s ; b e l o w , f r o m a l l d i r e c t i o n s , h u n d r e d s o f p e o p l e r a c e up, c r a w l i n g , s c r a m b l i n g , j o s t l i n g one a n o t h e r and o v e r t a k i n g one a n o t h e r . The h i g h e r one g e t s , t h e g r e a t e r i s t h e p r e s s u r e ; a t t h e apex i m m e d i a t e l y b e l o w t h e owner, t h e r e i s room f o r o n l y a few p e o p l e , and t h o s e l u c k y ones who g e t h e r e f i n d i t t h e h a r d e s t t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r b a l a n c e and n o t t o tumble down t h e m o u n t a i n . 3 The n o v e l u n r a v e l s a M a c h i a v e l l i a n i n t r i g u e : p e o p l e s t r i v e t o c a p t u r e t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e i r m a s t e r , L a p t e v , i n o r d e r t o g a i n h i s f a v o u r . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k e x p o s e s many f a c e t s o f human s u b s e r v i e n c e t o w e a l t h t h r o u g h h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e p e o p l e c a u g h t up i n t h e i n t r i g u e . He d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h o s e who have g a i n e d f a v o u r w i t h t h e w e a l t h y owner a r e r e w a r d e d i n v a r i o u s ways: f o r some i t i s a m a t e r i a l g a i n , f o r o t h e r s 41 t h e w i n n i n g o f a p r e s t i g i o u s p o s i t i o n , w h i l e s t i l l o t h e r s f i n d t h e key t o a gay and c a r e f r e e l i f e . The n o v e l i s v e r y s i m p l y c o n s t r u c t e d . I n Gornoe  g n e z d o , one e v e n t a c t s as t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a l c e n t r e . T h a t i s t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e m i l l i o n a i r e , L a p t e v , t o v i e w h i s K u k h a r s k i i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s , c o m p r i s i n g s e v e n i r o n and s t e e l m i l l s , f i v e h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d d e s i a t i n s o f l a n d , p o p u l a t e d by a l m o s t f i f t y t h o u s a n d p e o p l e . D u r i n g t h i s v i s i t t o t h e e s t a t e s an i s s u e c o n c e r n i n g " t h e L a n d - o w n e r s h i p C h a r t e r " was t o be d e c i d e d . T h i s c h a r t e r d e f i n e d t h e r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s o f t h e n e w l y - l i b e r a t e d s e r f s and t h e s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e l a n d o w n e r - i n d u s t r i a l i s t s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , some i m p r o v e -ments were t o be made i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e c o n o m i c and t e c h n i c a l o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e m i l l s . However, n o t h i n g i s r e s o l v e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i n t r i g u e s and r i v a l r i e s between t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f r o m P e t e r s b u r g and t h e U r a l m i l l m a n a g ers, and t h e i n d i f f e r e n c e and i g n o r a n c e o f t h e owner. A s t r u g g l e f o r power and i n f l u e n c e d e v e l o p s between a g r o u p o f m i l l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and R a i s a G o r e m y k i n a , t h e w i f e o f t h e c h i e f manager. The i n s t i g a t o r o f t h e s t r u g g l e i s T e t i u e v : f vf t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e z e m s t v o , who i s " t i r e d o f 4 d a n c i n g t o t h e t u n e o f an o l d woman" and wants t o make a few c h a n g es on b e h a l f o f t h e w o r k e r s and p e a s a n t s . As t h e s t r u g g l e f o r power u n f o l d s , many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e members o f t h e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y a r e drawn i n . L a p t e v ' s 42 a r r i v a l g i v e s them an o p p o r t u n i t y t o i m p r o v e t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . They a r e a l l m o t i v a t e d by t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p e r s o n a l g a i n . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k c a l l s t h i s s t r u g g l e " t h e war o f r e d and w h i t e r o s e s . " He d i v i d e s a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t o two g r o u p s , t h e l a r g e c o u r t and t h e s m a l l c o u r t . The l a r g e c o u r t ( b o l ' s h o i  d v o r ) c o n s i s t s o f t h e p e o p l e f r o m t h e c a p i t a l , who accompany L a p t e v , t h e P e t e r s b u r g e n t o u r a g e . I t i n c l u d e s L a p t e v ' s f a v o u r i t e , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r P r e i n ; P r o f e s s o r B l i n o v , t h e e c o n o m i s t ; N i n a , h i s m i s t r e s s ; and a l a r g e g r o u p o f f r i e n d s and h a n g e r s - o n , i n c l u d i n g an o r c h e s t r a , c o o k s and d o m e s t i c s e r v a n t s . The s m a l l c o u r t ( m a l y i d v o r ) , o r " t h e m o u n t a i n n e s t " , c o n s i s t s o f l o c a l p e o p l e f r o m t h e t o p a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e c t o r o f t h e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y — d i v i d e d f u r t h e r i n t o two camps. G o r e m y k i n , t h e c h i e f manager, h i s w i f e R a i s a , h e r a d v i s o r S a k h a r o v , t h e " R u s s i a n R i c h e l i e u " , and h e r " l a d i e s -i n - w a i t i n g " who a r e women o f d u b i o u s r e p u t a t i o n , f o r m one g r o u p ; t h e o t h e r g r o u p c o n s i s t s o f t h e managers o f t h e r e m a i n i n g s i x m i l l s , t h e i r s p e c i a l i s t s and a s s i s t a n t s . A l l t h e s e g r o u p s f e u d among t h e m s e l v e s i n - t h e hope o f g a i n i n g f a v o u r w i t h L a p t e v . The n o v e l p r e s e n t s a s e r i e s o f s c e n e s s h o w i n g how p e o p l e t r y t o c a p t u r e t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e a l l - p o w e r f u l "nabob." Some t r y t o a t t r a c t h i s a t t e n t i o n w i t h . e x c e l l e n t c u i s i n e , o t h e r s o r g a n i z e h u n t i n g and s h o o t i n g e x p e d i t i o n s , w h i l e s t i l l o t h e r s p r e p a r e t h e a t r i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s . R a i s a 43 G o r e m y k i n a , knowing o f L a p t e v ' s weakness f o r women, p l a n s t o e n s n a r e h i m w i t h h e r p r o t e g e e , . t h e b e a u t i f u l L u s h a P r o z o r o v a . The n o v e l i s a p o r t r a i t g a l l e r y o f human p e r s o n a l i t i e s . H e r e t h e m a s t e r y o f M a m i n - S i b i r i a k i s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h r o u g h h i s u s e o f v a r i o u s l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s i n p o r t r a y i n g t h e c h a r a c -t e r s . T h e r e a r e i n d i v i d u a l p o r t r a i t s and g r o u p p o r t r a i t s . L a p t e v i s p o r t r a y e d as a dandy: he l o v e s c o l o u r f u l and s t y l i s h c l o t h e s . R a i s a i s d e p i c t e d as a t h e a t r i c a l p r i m a  donna ( t e a t r a l ' n a i a k o r o l e v a ) . N i n a r e s e m b l e s a g r o t e s q u e t h e a t r i c a l p u p p e t f r o m B a l a g a n ( z a t a s k a n a i a z a m s h e v a i a k u k l a ) . L a p t e v ' s e n t o u r a g e i s d e s c r i b e d as a " f a c e l e s s crowd" — p e o p l e w i t h o u t i n d i v i d u a l i t y . T e t i u e v and t h e a s p i r i n g managers o f t h e m i l l s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a g r o u p . They a r e c o n s p i r a t o r s ( " a l l d r e s s e d i n t u x e d o s " ) b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r by t h e same i n t e r e s t s . A c c o r d i n g t o S k a b i c h e v s k i i ' , t h e n o v e l Gornoe g n e z d o i s M a m i n - S i b i r i a k ' s most s u c c e s s f u l i n s t r u c t u r e . I t i s c o n c e n t r i c , i n a s m u c h as a l l t h e p a r t s o f t h e book a r e t i e d t o g e t h e r by one e v e n t , namely t h e a r r i v a l o f L a p t e v , w h i c h 5 i n t e g r a t e s a l l t h e e p i s o d e s o f t h e n o v e l i n t o a w h o l e . A l l t h e a c t i o n o c c u r s s t r i c t l y w i t h i n t h e bounds o f t h e v i s i t . A d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e n o v e l i s t h e d e v i c e o f a r r e s t e d e x p o s i t i o n w h i c h e x t e n d s o v e r t e n c h a p t e r s , o r n e a r l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e n o v e l . I n t h e s e c h a p t e r s Mamin-S i b i r i a k u n f o l d s t h e b i o g r a p h y o f t h e h e r o and t h e o r i g i n s 44 o f h i s w e a l t h . H e r e , a l s o , t h e d i a l o g u e s b e t w e e n R a i s a and Pro.zorov,. t h e s c h o o l m a s t e r , a r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t , b e c a u s e t h e y s h e d l i g h t on t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s , t h e i r p a s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e i r i n n e r c o n v i c t i o n s and r e g r e t s i n l i f e . T h e r e a r e h i s t o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e s e c h a p t e r s , d e s c r i b i n g t h e e v o l u t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s o f t h e e p o c h . The d a y - t o - d a y s c e n e s o f t h e U r a l m i n i n g s e t t l e m e n t p r o v i d e i n - d e p t h i n f o r m a t i o n on l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . Then t h e s c e n e o f L a p t e v ' s a r r i v a l f o l l o w s . H i s r e c e p t i o n by a crowd o f s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d s . s h o w s t h e i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n t h a t he o c c u p i e s i n t h e l i f e o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t . The r e c e p t i o n s c e n e , as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e n o v e l , s e r v e s t o u n d e r -l i n e t h e f a c t t h a t L a p t e v i s a f a b u l o u s l y w e a l t h y man. H i s a r r i v a l u p s e t s t h e l i f e p a t t e r n s o f e v e r y o n e i n t h e community. A t t h e same t i m e , t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f N i n a , and d i c t a t o r i a l b e h a v i o u r , c a u s e s i m i l a r c o n f u s i o n i n R a i s a ' s c i r c l e . I n t h e s e c h a p t e r s t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t o two camps o c c u r s : i t i s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e power s t r u g g l e . Then a number o f s c e n e s f o l l o w i n v e r y r a p i d s u c c e s -s i o n . I n t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t f o r L a p t e v , p r e s e n t e d by h i s e m p l o y e e s , t h e seamy s i d e s o f human n a t u r e a r e r e v e a l e d — p r i m a r i l y t h e i r o v e r w h e l m i n g s e r v i l i t y , s u b s e r v i e n c e , g r o v e l l i n g b e f o r e w e a l t h , and t h e i r i n s a t i a b l e g r e e d . T h e s e same s c e n e s show t h a t L a p t e v i s weak, t h a t as a human b e i n g he i s w o r t h l e s s , i s u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h 45 he f i n d s h i m s e l f , and i s c o m p l e t e l y u n i n t e r e s t e d i n s o l v i n g c e r t a i n p r o b l e m s , w h i c h was t h e p u r p o s e o f h i s v i s i t . D e v e l o p e d c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h t h i s theme i s t h e l o v e theme between p r o u d L u s h a Proz.orova and i n s e n s i t i v e L a p t e v . The c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e l o v e theme a c c e n t u a t e s L a p t e v ' s t o t a l i n c o m p e t e n c e as a man. I t r e v e a l s t h a t he i s c a p a b l e o n l y o f b e h a v i n g l i k e a s p o i l e d c h i l d . T h e r e a r e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e m e e t i n g s where c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s were s u p p o s e d t o be made, and w h i c h l e a d t o n o t h i n g b e c a u s e e v e r y o n e i s m o t i v a t e d o n l y by hopes o f p e r s o n a l g a i n . L a p t e v , h i s f r i e n d s and a t t e n d a n t s a r e a l l b o r e d by t h e a s p i r i n g m i l l e m p l o y e e s . The a n e c d o t a l t w i s t i n p l o t a t t h e end o f t h e n o v e l ( C h a p t e r 2 9 ) , L a p t e v ' s f l i g h t t o P e t e r s b u r g a f t e r h i s n i g h t r e n d e z v o u s w i t h a "madwoman", whom he m i s t o o k f o r L u s h a , d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e c o w a r d l y and weak n a t u r e o f h i s c h a r a c t e r . I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e n o v e l none o f t h e i s s u e s r a i s e d i s r e s o l v e d , n o r a r e any o f t h e human r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o n c l u d e d . The theme o f t h e n o v e l i s s i m p l y u s e d as a v e h i c l e t o show t h e g r o v e l l i n g b e f o r e 'aew.eatLthy magnate, and human g r e e d , w h i c h d e s t r o y s t h e v i t a l e n e r g i e s o f p e r s o n a l i t i e s M a m i n - S i b i r i a k d e p i c t s women as t h e s t r o n g e r s e x . The men, w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , a r e weak. R a i s a , N i n a , L u s h a e a c h i n t h e i r own way command a t t e n t i o n and r e v e a l t h e i r d ominance o v e r p e o p l e o r s i t u a t i o n s . R a i s a i s t h e o m n i p o t e n t r u l e r o f t h e r e g i o n ' s s o c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l i f e . N i n a ' s r o l e i s s i m i l a r , o n l y she i s c o n f i n e d t o L a p t e v ' s c i r c l e . L u s h a , a p r o t e g e e o f R a i s a , f u n c t i o n s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e c i r c l e s , i s a v e r y p r o u d y o u n g woman, has s e l f - e s t e e m and u s e s t h i s q u a l i t y t o m a n i p u l a t e L a p t e v . The p r o t a g o n i s t L a p t e v l a c k s t h e s e q u a l i t i e s and i s a s i m p l e , i n e f f e c t u a l man 5 The "nabob" L a p t e v , i n s p i t e o f h i s enormous w e a l t h , i s "a s p o i l e d r,chiih~dewfto ' "~ "* >•• A g r e a t d i s p a r i t y e x i s t s b etween h i m as a p e r s o n and t h e p o s i t i o n he o c c u p i e s i n s o c i e t y . He i s n o t c a p a b l e o f g o v e r n i n g h i s e m p i r e and does n o t l i k e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e m i n i n g and s t e e l i n d u s t r y . He f i n d s e v e r y t h i n g t e d i o u s and b o r i n g . He i s s u p e r - s a t u r a t e d w i t h w o r l d l y t h i n g s . A t t h i r t y , he M S S : a plump man w i t h a t i r e d , s l u g g i s h g a z e . The o n l y t h i n g s t h a t c a n j o l t h i m o u t o f h i s i n e r t i a a r e v i c i o u s j o k e s , b r a z e n r e m a r k s , o r f a n t a s t i c and u n u s u a l s t o r i e s . He i s s u r r o u n d e d by a g r o u p o f cl o w n s and l i a r s . H i s c h a r a c t e r has an e l e m e n t o f s a t i r e . The name L a p t e v b e l i e s b o t h h i s o r i g i n a n d . h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . L a p p t ' ' i s t h e name f o r c r u d e and s h a p e l e s s p e a s a n t f o o t w e a r made o f b i r c h b a r k . I n R u s s i a n t h e word i s a l s o u s e d as a t e r m o f a b u s e , r e l a t i n g t o someone's i n e p t n e s s . I t i s p a r a d o x i c a l t h a t a man o f p e a s a n t o r i g i n becomes a god, v e n e r a t e d by t h e p e a s a n t s . F o r them, he i s t h e e p i t o m e o f power, a l o r d and m a s t e r who c o n t r o l s t h e i r d e s t i n y : "One word f r o m h i m 47 7 and we a r e a l l done f o r , we s h a l l go t o t h e d o g s . " I t i s a l s o a p a r a d o x t h a t p e o p l e a r o u n d h i m e x p e c t h i m t o be d e c i s i v e , s o m e t h i n g o f w h i c h he i s i n c a p a b l e . T h i s man-made god, t h i s i d o l o f p e a s a n t s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a l i k e , h a s a number o f s e r i o u s s h o r t c o m i n g s . L a p t e v i s a dandy. He has a f e m i n i n e p a s s i o n f o r c h a n g i n g h i s c l o t h e s and he i s f o n d o f b r i g h t c o l o u r s . A l t h o u g h t h i s c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by t h e W e s t - E u r o p e a n t r a d i t i o n o f c h a n g i n g f o r v a r i o u s o c c a s i o n s , t h i s t r a i t i s e x a g g e r a t e d i n h i s c h a r a c t e r . He i s e q u a l l y a t t e n t i v e t o o t h e r a s p e c t s o f h i s a p p e a r a n c e , t a k i n g two h o u r s t o a r r a n g e h i s h a i r , and so o n . L a p t e v i s an e p i c u r e : h i s f i r s t p r e f e r e n c e i s f o r t a s t y , u n u s u a l d i s h e s , and s e c o n d , f o r b e a u t i f u l women. He i s a man d e v o i d o f o r d i n a r y judgement and common s e n s e . He v i s i t s h i s e s t a t e s d r e s s e d i n a S c o t t i s h k i l t , s h o w i n g t h a t h i s u p b r i n g i n g was a l i e n t o t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . I t i n d i c a t e s a l s o t h a t he f a i l s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n h i s c o u n t r y — a f a i l u r e w h i c h adds t o h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e demands o f h i s e s t a t e s . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , he i s s i m i l a r t o P r i v a l o v i n t h e f i r s t n o v e l . H i s r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r human b e i n g s i s l i m i t e d t o P r e i n and h i s v a l e t C h a r l e s . A l l o t h e r p e o p l e , i n h i s o p i n i o n , c a n be b o u g h t w i t h money. He buys t h e s e r v i c e s o f B l i n o v , t h e e c o n o m i s t , r e l e g a t i n g a l l a u t h o r i t y t o him. C o n s e q u e n t l y , he does n o t know how t o d e a l w i t h p e o p l e on a non-money b a s i s . 48 He c a n n o t f i n d a common l a n g u a g e w i t h L u s h a , who q u i c k l y l o s e s i n t e r e s t i n h i s r i c h e s . I n t h e R u s s i a n e n v i r o n m e n t he i s b o t h a m i s f i t and an i n c o m p e t e n t p e r s o n . A l l L a p t e v ' s a f f a i r s , p e r s o n a l b u s i n e s s , a r e l o o k e d a f t e r by t h e " a l l -p o w e r f u l " P r e i n — t h e o n l y s t r o n g male c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s n o v e l . By o r i g i n P r e i n i s a German, by u p b r i n g i n g a cosmo-p o l i t a n . He h a d b e e n L a p t e v ' s g u a r d i a n f r o m t h e t i m e L a p t e v became an o r p h a n a t t h e age o f t e n . He knew w e l l t h e c h a r a c t e r o f h i s c h a r g e . A good u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f L a p t e v ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , h i s e v e r - c h a n g i n g moods, h a s e n a b l e d h i m t o h a v e a g r e a t d e a l o f i n f l u e n c e o v e r him. A l l t h i s c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e f a c t t h a t o v e r t h e l a s t t w e n t y y e a r s P r e i n has g a t h e r e d i n t o h i s hands " a l l t h e m a i n s p r i n g s and t h r e a d s o f t h e P complex economy o f t h e m i l l s , " f r o m w h i c h he d e r i v e d a good p r o f i t . By n a t u r e , P r e i n i s v e r y e a s y t o g e t a l o n g w i t h and e a s y - g o i n g . H i s enemies c o n s i d e r h i m s t u p i d , b u t h i s f r i e n d s t h i n k he i s c l e v e r . T hose who a r e c l o s e r t o h i m w o u l d s a y o f h i m t h a t "he d i d n o t l i k e t o b e b o r e d . . . and t o e v e r y -9 t h i n g e l s e i n t h e w o r l d he p r e f e r r e d f e m i n i n e company." P r e i n i s p o p u l a r w i t h women. I n t h e b e g i n n i n g i t i s R a i s a who has h e r eye on h i m , and i n t h e e n d , L u s h a . The l a t t e r he w i n s o v e r w i t h h i s k e e n mind and s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y : I t ' w a s p k e c i s e f l y h " i s t s : t r e h g t h a . t h a l t i a a t i t r a c t e d h e r t o P r e i n : he was an a l l - p o w e r f u l man who had 49 r i s e n t o h i s p o s i t i o n by i n t e l l i g e n c e a l o n e . 1 0 P r e i n i s one o f t h e few p e o p l e who does n o t d e b a s e h i m s e l f b e f o r e L a p t e v . A l t h o u g h he s t a n d s a p a r t f r o m t h e s t r u g g l e s f o r power and w e a l t h , he n e v e r t h e l e s s h o l d s t h e s t r i n g s t o a l l i n t r i g u e s , and h a s t h e f i n a l w o r d i n a l l m a t t e r s . N i n a and R a i s a a r e t h e s t r o n g e s t p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n t h e n o v e l , and i t i s t h e y who g e n e r a t e t h e i n t r i g u e s ; N i n a L e o n t e v n a i s t h e m i s t r e s s o f €he e c o n o m i s t B l i n o v , and R a i s a G o r e m y k i n a , t h e w i f e o f t h e manager o f t h e l a r g e s t m i l l . T h e r e i s an a n a l o g y i n t h e i n t r i g u e s w h i c h a r e compared t o t h e a c t i v i t y i n a b e e h i v e t h a t has two queen b e e s . B u t no b e e h i v e , r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s s i z e , c a n s u p p o r t t h e p r e s e n c e o f two queen b e e s , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e y a r e b o t h f i g h t i n g f o r t h e same t h i n g : power. N i n a i s more o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s money as a means t o s a t i s f y h e r g r e e d , w h i l e R a i s a s e e k s power f o r i t s own s a k e . T h e s e two women a r e d i f f e r e n t i n many r e s p e c t s . E a c h i s t h e o t h e r ' s a n t i t h e s i s i n o r i g i n , e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l c o n d u c t . N i n a s t a r t e d as an o r d i n a r y c o o k . R a i s a was an o r p h a n f r o m an a r i s t o c r a t i c f a m i l y , b r o u g h t up i n t h e h i g h e r s o c i a l c i r c l e s o f t h e c a p i t a l . T h e s e two women do n o t want t o s h a r e t h e i r power and n o t on c e i n t h e e n t i r e c o u r s e o f t h e n o v e l do t h e y meet f a c e t o f a c e . The two s t r o n g f e m i n i n e p e r s o n a l i t i e s a r e d e s c r i b e d by d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t i c a p p r o a c h e s . N i n a i s p i c t u r e d as a 50 g r o t e s q u e t h e a t r i c a l p u p p e t . She i s d e s c r i b e d p h y s i c a l l y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: In t h e m i d s t o f t h i s d u b i o u s s o c i e t y o f d u b i o u s p e o p l e N i n a L e o n t ' e v n a was a v e r i t a b l e p e a r l . S m a l l i n s t a t u r e , w i t h a h e a v y bosom, s h o r t f a t arms and a f l e s h y r o u n d f a c e , she was u g l y as a w i t c h , b u t she h a d a p a i r o f t i n y b l u e e y e s w i t h a p e n e t r a t i n g , c l e v e r , and gay l o o k and a s a r c a s t i c s m i l e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c o f h e r , e x p o s i n g two rows o f f a l s e t e e t h . D r e s s e d i n an i n c r e d i b l e b l u e d r e s s w i t h f l a m e - r e d and o r a n g e r i b b o n s , s h e r e s e m b l e d a c h i l d ' s c r u d e t o y w i t h n e e d l e h o l e s t o r e s e m b l e t h e e y e s and t h e mouth and whose arms and t h e r e s t were s t u f f e d w i t h o a k u m . H When she i s shown i n h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e e c o n o m i s t B l i n o v , she a p p e a r s i n much t h e same l i g h t : I n h e r n i g h t s h i r t t h i s p i g - i r o n i n g o t b e a r s a murderous r e s e m b l a n c e t o a s o i l e d s u e d e . d o l l , b u t t h e G e n e r a l i s a f r a i d o f t h i s d o l l and i s a f r a i d t o sa y what he i s t h i n k i n g a t t h e moment. And he i s t h i n k i n g o f h i s p e r i s h i n g . f r i e n d P r o z o r o v , who has b e e n d e a r t o h i m f r o m s t u d e n t days.12 The same image i s e v o k e d when N i n a ' s b u s i n e s s acumen i s d e s c r i b e d : A t t h i s moment t h e r e was t h e r u s t l e o f a h e a v y s i l k d r e s s a g a i n s t t h e f l o o r i n t h e n e x t r.oom and t h e s q u a t f i g u r e o f N i n a L e o n t ' e v n a , h e a v y and o v e r l a i d w i t h f a t , a p p e a r e d i n t h e doorway. As u s u a l she was d e c k e d o u t i n m u l t i - c o l o u r e d bows, r i n g s and f e a t h e r s ; on h e r he a d t h e l a c e and r i b b o n s l o o k e d l i k e an i r i d e s c e n t comb. T e t i u e v ' s f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n o f N i n a L e o n t ' e v n a ' s a p p e a r a n c e was t h a t , i t c o u l d o n l y be compared t o t h e a p p e a r a n c e a t t h e d o o r o f a h a y s t a c k w i t h f l o w e r s on t o p . The d e a l e r s c a s t p e n e t r a t i n g g l a n c e s a t e a c h o t h e r as p e r s o n s who a r e m e e t i n g f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e and do n o t t r u s t e a c h o t h e r . I n h e r h a n d N i n a L e o n t ' e v n a h e l d by a s i l v e r c h a i n h e r p e t monkey Koko j u m p i n g a r o u n d . "You a r e h a l f an h o u r l a t e , " f i n a l l y u t t e r e d N i n a i n a r a s p i n g v o i c e , g l a n c i n g a t h e r g o l d w a t c h d a n g l i n g f r o m a diamond c l a s p on h e r bosom. " I am s o r r y , I was d e t a i n e d , " T e t i u e y - mumbled i n c o n f u s i o n , n e v e r e x p e c t i n g s u c h a r e c e p t i o n , " I came d i r e c t l y f r o m M a i z e l p ' s . " " I know." " T h e r e was a s m a l l m e e t i n g r e g a r d i n g o u r b u s i n e s s . " " I know." "She i s n o t a woman, she i s t h e D e v i l h i m s e l f , " t h o u g h t T e t i u e y , a g a i n l o o k i n g a t h i s h o s t e s s . "The G e n e r a l w i l l be a t E v g e n i i K o n s t a n t i n o v i c h 1 s f o r t h e w h o l e e v e n i n g , s o y o u and I c a n h a v e a l e i s u r e l y d i s c u s s i o n , " c o n t i n u e d N i n a L e o n t ' e v n a , l i g h t i n g a c i g a r , " I hope we won't k e e p o u r c a r d s i n t h e d a r k , s h a l l we? I , a t l e a s t , l o o k a t t h i s d e a l i n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d manner. F o r y o u I ' l l do e v e r y t h i n g t h a t I p r o m i s e d , and y o u must l e t me ha v e s o m e t h i n g i n a d v a n c e . . . s o m e t h i n g q u i t e i n s i g -n i f i c a n t , l i k e t w e n t y t h o u s a n d a t t h i s t i m e . " T e t i u e v ^ s h r a n k on l e a r n i n g o f s u c h an amount and mumbled some i n c o h e r e n t p h r a s e . Now i t f i n a l l y became c l e a r t o h i m t h a t he was a c t u a l l y d e a l i n g w i t h t h e d e v i l h i m s e l f . . . He r e a l i z e d t h a t he was l o o k i n g a t t h e t r u e e e n t r e p r e n e u r , an e n t r e p r e n e u r o f t h e h i g h e s t c a l i b r e , a h e e n t r e p r e n e u r o f t h a t f a s c i n a t i n g c i r c l e where t h e . d e a l s a r e i n h u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d s and i n m i l l i o n s . - ^ The p o r t r a i t o f R a i s a i s drawn by s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t i c methods. The p a r t i c u l a r s o f h e r p o r t r a i t a r e drawn t o d e p i c t t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t t h e h e r o i n e ' s d i f f e r e n t moods, h e r i n t e r n a l e s s e n c e and t h e m o t i v e s w h i c h d r i v e h e r . The e n v i r o n m e n t a g a i n s t w h i c h she i s d e p i c t e d i s o f g r e a t i m p o r -t a n c e . The c o l o u r s and o t h e r d e t a i l s o f h e r c l o t h i n g and h e r s p e e c h mannerisms a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o h e r c o m p o s i t e image. R a i s a i s a v e r y s t r o n g and w i l f u l woman. When Mamin-52 S i b i r i a k i n t r o d u c e s h e r f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n t h e n o v e l , she i s i n h e r h u s b a n d ' s s t u d y . He i s t h e c h i e f manager o f t h e K u k h a r s k i i M i l l s . By d o i n g t h i s t h e a u t h o r s t r e s s e s t h a t a l l t h e power i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n h e r h a n d s , n o t i n t h o s e o f h e r h u s b a n d . I n t h i s s t u d y s h e r e c e i v e s S a k h a r o v , who i s h e r p r i v a t e a d v i s e r . W i t h h i m s h e t r i e s t o work o u t a p l a n t h a t w o u l d e n a b l e h e r t o r e t a i n h e r l o f t y p o s i t i o n , on w h i c h h e r m a t e r i a l and s o c i a l advancement d e p e n d s : R a i s a P a v l o v n a was C a e s a r ' s w i f e i n t h e s m a l l w o r l d o f an i n d u s t r i a l community, where e v e r y b o d y and e v e r y t h i n g bowed t o h e r w i l l i n o r d e r t o s a y e v i l t h i n g s b e h i n d h e r b a c k l a t e r . 1 ^ To p r o t e c t h e r p o s i t i o n s h e does n o t p r o c e e d d i r e c t l y , b u t u s e s a l l h e r f e m i n i n e charms and w i l e s . To o b t a i n i n f o r m a -t i o n f r o m P r o z o r o v , h e r f o r m e r l o v e r and an o l d f r i e n d o f B l i n o v , she goes t o a g r e a t d e a l o f t r o u b l e i n g r o o m i n g t o i m p r e s s h i m w i t h h e r a p p e a r a n c e : She wore a b l u e a l p a c a d r e s s t rimmed w i t h e x p e n -s i v e l a c e ; t h e b e a u t i f u l l y a r r a n g e d r u f f l e s were c a u g h t w i t h a t u r q u o i s e b r o o c h a t h e r t h r o a t . Her h a i r , g a t h e r e d i n a m o r n i n g c o i f f u r e , c l e v e r l y c o n c e a l e d a f a l s e p l a i t w h i c h R a i s a P a v l o v n a h a d b e en w e a r i n g f o r a l o n g t i m e . 1 5 The f u r n i s h i n g s o f h e r p r i v a t e chambers, h e r bedroom and h e r s i t t i n g - r o o m , show h e r e x q u i s i t e t a s t e and h e r l o v e o f l u x u r y . H e r d r e s s i n g - r o o m i s d e s c r i b e d t h u s : . . . e x q u i s i t e b l u e room w i t h s a t i n w a l l c o v e r i n g s , damask d r a p e r i e s and w a l n u t f u r n i t u r e i n t h e s t y l e o f a L o u i s . A m a r b l e wash s t a n d , a low c a r v e d b e d s t e a d w i t h a c a n o p y o v e r t h e h e a d b o a r d , s e v e r a l ' ~ = ! i d e i i c a t e l y v e a r v e d l ^ -.the 53 c o r n e r s — t h e w h o l e f u r n i s h i n g s o f t h e d r e s s i n g - r o o m gave i t t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f b o t h a bedroom and a b o u d o i r . T housands o f t r i n k e t s were s c a t t e r e d a r o u n d w i t h o u t p u r p o s e o r o r d e r , b e c a u s e t h e y h a d be e n l e f t t h e r e and f o r g o t t e n : J a p a n e s e b o x e s and s m a l l l a c q u e r e d c h e s t s , s e v e r a l C h i n e s e p o r c e l a i n v a s e s , empty c a n d y - j a r s , t h e s e s p e c i a l f e m i n i n e t r i n k e t s w i t h w h i c h P a r i s i s f l o o d i n g t h e s t o r e s , c a s e s o f e v e r y s i z e , s h a p e and p u r p o s e , p e r f u m e b o t t l e s , w h o l e s t o r e s o f c o s m e t i c a i d s . . . x 6 The t h i r d i m p o r t a n t f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r , L u s h a P r o z o r o v a , f i g u r e s p r o m i n e n t l y i n t h e schemes o f R a i s a G o r e m y k i n a . E a r l y i n t h e n o v e l she i s f a s c i n a t e d and s t r o n g l y a t t r a c t e d by w e a l t h , and R a i s a a t t e m p t s t o e n c o u r a g e h e r d e s i r e s . She r e c e i v e s t h e n a i v e and modest L u s h a i n h e r l u x u r i o u s chambers and s o f a n s t h e f l a m e o f d e s i r e f o r m a t e r i a l w e a l t h t h a t t h e o l d e r woman s o q u i c k l y p e r c e i v e s i n t h e y o u n g g i r l ' s e y e s . She l e t s L u s h a t r y on and wear h e r b e a u t i f u l j e w e l s : . . . b r a c e l e t s , e a r r i n g s , b r o o c h e s and n e c k l a c e s . A l l o f t h e s e t h i n g s were t r i e d on b e f o r e a m i r r o r and p r a i s e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r w o r t h . The g i r l was p a r t i c u l a r l y t a k e n w i t h a b r o o c h w i t h a s e t - i n e a s t e r n r u b y o f a r i c h b l o o d c o l o u r . The e x p e n s i v e s t o n e s h o n e l i k e a c l o t o f f r e s h l y c o n g e a l e d b l o o d . ^ I t o c c u r s t o R a i s a t o u s e L u s h a as b a i t f o r L a p t e v . I n t h e end, however, L u s h a shows t h a t she c a n n o t be b o u g h t . She i s d i s c e r n i n g , as h e r name i m p l i e s . She p e r c e i v e s t h a t t h e t r u e v a l u e o f a p e r s o n i s c o m p l e t e l y u n r e l a t e d t o h i s w e a l t h and f o r t h i s r e a s o n she c h o o s e s P r e i n above L a p t e v as t h e one w o r t h y o f h e r a f f e c t i o n . L u s h a a l o n e r e a l i z e s t h i s t r u t h . A l l t h e o t h e r p e o p l e i n t h e n o v e l a r e s o b l i n d e d by L a p t e v ' s w e a l t h t h a t t h e y c a n n o t s e e be y o n d i t . I n h e r l u x u r i o u s q u a r t e r s and s e d u c t i v e gown, R a i s a e n t e r t a i n s t h e a l m i g h t y P r e i n , an i n t i m a t e f r i e n d o f h e r s , t r y i n g t o f i n d o u t a b o u t t h e l i k e l y f u t u r e p r o m o t i o n s and d e m o t i o n s i n o r d e r t o p r e p a r e h e r s e l f f o r t h e s t r u g g l e . The c o l o u r s o f h e r a t t i r e r e f l e c t h e r c h a n g i n g moods. F o r an o f f i c i a l v i s i t upon L a p t e v ' s a r r i v a l , w i t h t h e a i m o f s h o w i n g h i m r e s p e c t and g a i n i n g h i s t r u s t , she p u t s on a d r e s s o f a s u b d u e d c o f f e e c o l o u r , a l t h o u g h s h e i s f o n d o f b r i g h t c o l o u r s . A t a b a l l s he d r e s s e s t a s t e f u l l y i n a gown o f a f a s h i o n a b l e c o l o u r , i n w h i c h s h e i s " s t r i k i n g and 18 r e s p e c t a b l e and e v e n a l i t t l e more." She becomes i l l when N i n a u s u r p s h e r p o s i t i o n and t h r e a t e n s h e r by g i v i n g o r d e r s i n h e r h o u s e i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f L a p t e v ; s h e wea r s a w h i t e 19 p e i g n o i r t o show i l l n e s s . On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n , when she l e a r n s o f t h e d e c i s i o n o f P r e i n and t h e g r o u p t o d i s m i s s h e r h u s b a n d , s h e a p p e a r s i n L u s h a ' s home d r e s s e d " i n a d a r k 2 0 s h a w l , . . . c l o t h s l i p p e r s s o a k e d t h r o u g h . " W i t h s i n g l e words o r p h r a s e s , M a m i n - S i b i r i a k c o n s t a n t l y t h rows h i n t s t h a t t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g v e r y f a l s e a b o u t R a i s a , s o m e t h i n g a r t i f i c i a l . Sometimes she a p p e a r s l i k e a s t a g e q u e e n , coming o u t w i t h a s p e e c h " l e a r n e d o f f by h e a r t . " O n l y w i t h S a k h a r o v i s s h e r u d e and d i r e c t , u s i n g s t r o n g l a n g u a g e s u c h as c a l l i n g h i m a " s c o u n d r e l " and t e l l i n g h i m t o "go t o h e l l . " W i t h L u s h a s h e i s warm and f r a n k , t r e a t i n g h e r l i k e h e r own d a u g h t e r , and y e t s c h e m i n g t o u s e 55 h e r f o r h e r own e n d s . G e n e r a l l y , i n s o c i e t y she i s a p o l i s h e d g r a n d e dame, d i s p l a y i n g a s o u n d knowledge o f F r e n c h , w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s h e r f r o m o t h e r l o c a l f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s . T h u s , t h o u g h N i n a and R a i s a a r e o p p o s i t e s i n many r e s p e c t s , t h e i r m u t u a l o v e r w h e l m i n g d e s i r e f o r power and r i c h e s c a u s e s them b o t h t o s t r u g g l e . The s t r u g g l e i s r u t h l e s s and t h e y b o t h u s e d i f f e r e n t methods. N i n a p r o c e e d s d i r e c t l y t o h e r g o a l w h i l e R a i s a i s more d i p l o m a t i c and s u b t l e . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s i s made m a n i f e s t a t t h e i r moments o f d e f e a t , s u f f e r e d f i r s t by R a i s a and t h e n by N i n a . I n t h e f a c e o f d e f e a t R a i s a t h r o w s o f f h e r p r o u d , l o f t y mask and s p e a k s i n a s i n c e r e and s i m p l e way. On t h e o t h e r h a n d , N i n a has t o t a k e o u t h e r a n g e r on someone e l s e . She t a k e s r e v e n g e on h a r m l e s s P r o z o r o v , who a t one t i m e , by h i s w i t , had p l a c e d h e r i n an awkward p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s L a p t e v . The two p o w e r f u l women h o l d t h e l i v e s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e h u s b a n d s i n t h e i r hands.. They h a ve c r e a t e d t h e i r b u s i n e s s c a r e e r s f o r them, and r u l e t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i v e s . B l i n o v ' s c a r e e r was c r e a t e d by N i n a , who was e a g e r t o " f e a s t 21 on t h e ' p i e ' o f t h e works and t o g e t r i d o f R a i s a . " B l i n o v i s a famous t h e o r e t i c a l e c o n o m i s t , h i r e d by L a p t e v t o i n v e s t i g a t e c o n d i t i o n s between t h e owner o f t h e m i l l s and h i s e m p l o y e e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , he i s a m e d i a t o r i n t h e c o n f l i c t i n v o l v i n g t h e l a n d o w n e r s h i p c h a r t e r , t h a t i s , t h e c h a r t e r 56 t h a t i s t o r e s o l v e t h e c o n f l i c t between t h e owner o f t h e m i l l and h i s p e a s a n t s . I n e c o n o m i c t h e o r y B l i n o v i s "an a d m i r e r 2 2 o f C a r e y and p a r t l y o f M a l t h u s . " However, t h e t h e o r y i s t o o g e n e r a l and c a n n o t be a p p l i e d t o t h e l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e U r a l s . The i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f h i s t h e o r y i s shown i n a d i s c u s s i o n b etween B l i n o v and P r o z o r o v . P r o z o r o v comes t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t B l i n o v r e a s o n s l i k e a " c a n n i b a l " : " I t ' s v e r y s i m p l e : y o u s o l d y o u r s o u l t o t h e D e v i l , t h a t i s , t o t h e c a p i t a l i s t s , and a r e now f i n d i n g c o n s o l a t i o n i n s o p h i s t r y . You f e e l y o u r -s e l f t h a t t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g wrong i n what y o u a r e s a y i n g . . . " "No, I d o n ' t f e e l t h a t . " "So much t h e w o r s e f o r y o u ! I f I p e r i s h I do s o as an i n d i v i d u a l and nobody i s t h e b e t t e r o r t h e w o r s e f o r i t , b u t y o u , i n t h e name o f y o u r e c o n o m i c f a n t a s i e s , want t o t i g h t e n a d e a d l y n o o s e a r o u n d t e n s o f t h o u s a n d s o f p e o p l e . I c a n n o t c a l l y o u r s y s t e m o t h e r w i s e . . . what i s a l l t h i s . l e a r n e d n o n s e n s e i f y o u examine i t c a r e f u l l y ? The most uns e e m l y j u g g l i n g o f s c i e n t i f i c c o n c l u s i o n s t o p l a c a t e t h e g o l d e n c a l f . " 2 3 B l i n o v i s a d r y t h e o r e t i c i a n , n o t u s e d t o d e a l i n g w i t h r e a l p e o p l e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , he knows n o t h i n g o f t h e i n d u s t r y . W h i l e e x a m i n i n g t h e m i l l s w i t h L a p t e v , he l o o k s a t e v e r y t h i n g a r o u n d h i m " w i t h t h a t p e r p l e x i t y w i t h 24 w h i c h an i l l i t e r a t e p e r s o n l o o k s upon an open book." H i s e x t e r n a l a p p e a r a n c e i s i m p o s i n g . H i s t a l l , s t a t e l y f i g u r e and g r e y m o u s t a c h e make a v e r y good i m p r e s s i o n on e v e r y o n e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e p e a s a n t s . However, h i s o u t w a r d a p p e a r a n c e o f s t r e n g t h and i n t e l l i g e n c e i s c o n t r a r y t o h i s 57 p e r s o n a l i t y . He i s u t t e r l y d e v o i d o f s t r e n g t h o f c h a r a c t e r , e x t r e m e l y n a i v e , and o b e d i e n t t o N i n a i n e v e r y m a t t e r . H i s weakness i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by h i s a b s o l u t e c o w a r d i c e . T h i s weakness makes h i m commit an a c t o f d i s l o y a l t y t o h i s f o r m e r f e l l o w - s t u d e n t . A t N i n a ' s i n s i s t e n c e , he adds a few r e m a r k s t o P r o z o r o v ' s f i l e , dampening any hope t h a t P r o z o r o v m i g h t h a ve f o r a f u t u r e c a r e e r . G o r e m y k i n ' s p o s i t i o n i s c r e a t e d by h i s w i f e R a i s a w i t h t h e h e l p o f P r e i n . T h i s a m b i t i o u s woman i s n o t s a t i s -f i e d w i t h b e i n g t h e w i f e o f an o r d i n a r y p l a n t e n g i n e e r . G o r e m y k i n i s an h o n e s t p e r s o n and a v e r y good s p e c i a l i s t . I n e v e r y d a y m a t t e r s , however, he i s " t h e s i m p l e s t c h i l d . " He does n o t s e e w e l l and he i s n o t a r t i c u l a t e . T h e s e p h y s i c a l s h o r t c o m i n g s a r e symbols o f h i s n a t u r e . H e • i s n o t aware o f t h e i n t r i g u e s i n t h e s o c i a l and f a c t o r y l i f e a r o u n d him;. He does n o t e v e n s u s p e c t t h a t he i s u n d e r t h e t h r e a t o f l o s i n g h i s c o m f o r t a b l e p o s i t i o n . H i s p r i m e i n t e r e s t i n l i f e i s t o p e r f e c t t h e m a c h i n e r y and t e c h n i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n t h e m i l l . He i s c o n t e n t o n l y when a t t h e m i l l , where he f e e l s more c o m f o r t a b l e t h a n a t home. He s t a n d s o u t f r o m t h e o t h e r managers b e c a u s e o f h i s s p e c i a l i z e d t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n , h i s competence and h i s l o v e and d e v o t i o n t o h i s work. S a k h a r o v ' s p o s i t i o n i s a n o t h e r r e s u l t o f R a i s a ' s f o r e s i g h t . N o t i n g h i s c u n n i n g mind and h i s a b i l i t y t o g e t a l o n g a g a i n s t h e a v y o d d s , she has engaged h i m as a s e c r e t a r y 58 and a p e r s o n a l a d v i s e r . The a u t h o r c a l l s h i m "a R u s s i a n R i c h e l i e u " t o u n d e r l i n e h i s u n u s u a l p e r s p i c a c i t y . He i s a p r o d u c t o f s e r f d o m and t h e a u t h o r shows i n "his p e r s o n a l i t y t h e v e s t i g e s o f s e r f d o m . He w o r s h i p s L a p t e v as someone v e r y s p e c i a l , and f e e l s v e r y i n a d e q u a t e i n h i s p r e s e n c e . A n o t h e r t r a i t o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y i s h i s c o w a r d i c e , w h i c h i s i n c o n -s i s t e n t w i t h t h e b o l d d e c i s i o n s he o f t e n makes c o n c e r n i n g b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s . The managers o f t h e m i l l s and t h e i r a s s i s t a n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d as a s i n g l e , a g g r e g a t e f a c e : t h e y a r e t h e " n e s t . " The a u t h o r does n o t p l a c e anyone f r o m t h i s g r o u p i n a p r o m i n e n t p o s i t i o n . When he d e s c r i b e s t h e g r o u p , one c a n d e t e c t s a t i r e and r i d i c u l e i n h i s t o n e . A l l t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s a r e m o t i v a t e d by t h e same d e s i r e and t h e y a l l h o l d t h e s t a g e f o r a b r i e f moment. They a l l compete f o r L a p t e v ' s a t t e n t i o n i n t h e hope o f t a k i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e c h i e f manager, G o r e m y k i n . I n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s a r i s e o n l y b r i e f l y t o fawn a t t h e f e e t o f L a p t e v , and t h e n r a p i d l y f a d e i n t o t h e g r o u p a g a i n . V e r s h i n i n i s t h e f i r s t one t o p l e a s e h i s m a s t e r . He i s an e x p e r t a t making a good s p e e c h and t e l l i n g j o k e s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f o t h e r s , b u t i t i s h i s f i s h soup t h a t i m p r e s s e s L a p t e v . W h i l e V e r s h i n i n i s t h e f o c u s o f t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e "nabob" t h e o t h e r s envy h i m and t r y t o o u t d o him. M a i z e l , a n o t h e r member o f t h e g r o u p , p r e p a r e s a h u n t e r ' s d i s h f r o m 59 t h e l i p o f an e l k . T h i s p l e a s e s h i s m a s t e r and f o r a moment he e n j o y s h i s t r i u m p h , w h i c h "had c a u s e d s e v e r e s u f f e r i n g t o 2 5 t h e s p i r i t s o f a l l t h e o t h e r s . " S a k h a r o v c a p t u r e s L a p t e v ' s a t t e n t i o n f o r a moment by s h o w i n g h i m a T a r t a r w r e s t l i n g game, and o n c e a g a i n " t h e r e s t b u r s t w i t h e n v y . " Y e t a n o t h e r member o f t h e g r o u p , S a r m a t o v , t o p l e a s e t h e m a s t e r g a t h e r s t o g e t h e r some o f t h e women and makes them d i s p l a y t h e i r b e s t a t t r i b u t e s i n a s t a g e p e r f o r m a n c e . L a p t e v r e s p o n d s by s e n d i n g f l o w e r s t o t h e g i r l w i t h t h e most b e a u t i f u l s h o u l d e r s , and S a r m a t o v ' s f l a s h o f g l o r y , as c o u l d be e x p e c t e d , i s t h e o b j e c t o f envy o f a l l t h e r e s t . A u n i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s g r o u p i s t h e i r i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s f o r t h e i r U r a l p o s t s . S armatov i s a r e t i r e d a r t i l l e r y o f f i c e r ; M a i z e l , a German, a l s o h as a m i l i t a r y b a c k g r o u n d ; and two o t h e r s a r e c o l o u r l e s s and s t u p i d . They have n e i t h e r t h e a f f i n i t y n o r t h e e d u c a t i o n t o f i t them t o t h e i r p o s t s i n t h e U r a l s . I n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e y r e s e m b l e t h e i r m a s t e r , L a p t e v . They do n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e r e g i o n , do n o t v a l u e i t s n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , and o f t e n r i d i c u l e l o c a l c u s t o m s . They w i s h o n l y t o make u s e o f t h e a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s and e x p l o i t t h e i r e m ployees t o a d v a n c e t h e i r own m a t e r i a l s t a t u s . A l l t h e o u t i n g s and m e e t i n g s between L a p t e v and t h e " n e s t " s h o u l d h a v e r e s o l v e d i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e 60 m i n i n g b u s i n e s s ; however, t h e y a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n a c t i v -i t y and a t o n e o f l i g h t amusement. The o n l y t h i n g s t o come o u t o f t h e s e g a t h e r i n g s - i s a d i s p l a y o f t h e k e e n i n t e r e s t o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l t o f u r t h e r h i s own c a r e e r , and t h e p r o n o u n c e d i n d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e owner t o t h e w h o l e a f f a i r . P r o z o r o v i s p r e s e n t e d i n s h a r p c o n t r a s t t o a l l t h e b u s i n e s s men. He i s one o f a v e r y few c u l t u r e d men i n t h e c i r c l e o f i n d u s t r i a l managers; he comes f r o m an o r i g i n a l l y w e a l t h y f a m i l y t h a t has r e c e n t l y b e en r u i n e d . He i n h e r i t s 27 " t h e g e n e r o u s manners and ways o f t h e R u s s i a n c h a r a c t e r . " He has r e c e i v e d an e x c e l l e n t e d u c a t i o n i n Moscow, and t h e r e -f o r e g r e a t a c h i e v e m e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d o f him. However, h i s weakness o f c h a r a c t e r , l a c k o f c o n s i s t e n c y , and t e n d e n c y f o r words i n s t e a d o f a c t i o n r e s u l t i n an u n d i s t i n g u i s h e d b u s i n e s s c a r e e r and p e r s o n a l l i f e . I n i t i a l l y a man o f h i g h i d e a l s , he f i n a l l y t u r n s i n d e s p e r a t i o n t o d r i n k , b e c a u s e o f h i s own s h o r t c o m i n g s and t h e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h he f i n d s h i m s e l f . He has r e d u c e d h i s l i f e t o r u i n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , he r e m a i n s e x t r e m e l y p e r c e p t i v e and c o n s c i o u s o f t h e t i m e s . Mamin-S i b i r i a k shows t h a t s u c h a d i s p a r i t y b etween words and a c t i o n s r e s u l t s i n a p i t i f u l c h a r a c t e r . Under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a l c o h o l , P r o z o r o v condemns man's m e r c e n a r y n a t u r e and h i s w o r l d o f m a t e r i a l a c h i e v e m e n t s . He s a y s , s p e a k i n g o f T e t i u e v : "Ha, h a . T e t i u e v has s o l d h i s b i r t h r i g h t i n t h e Zemstvo f o r a b o w l o f p o r r i d g e and f o r t h i s 61 r e a s o n he w i l l go a l o n g way: f o r a l l t h e s c o u n -d r e l s t o d a y t h e d o o r i s w i d e open . . . Rod'ka! [ S a k h a r o v ] S p i t i n T e t i u e v ' s f a c e f o r me."28 L i k e P r o z o r o v , T e t i u e v was i n i t i a l l y an i d e a l i s t , who h a d hoped t o h e l p t h e p e a s a n t s , b u t i n s t e a d has t u r n e d t o w e a l t h •and a c c e p t e d a p o s i t i o n o f f e r e d by P r e i n t o work f o r L a p t e v i n P e t e r s b u r g . When P r o z o r o v ' s d a u g h t e r L u s h a goes away w i t h P r e i n , he b i t t e r l y comments on t h e w o r l d i n g e n e r a l : " R a i s a , my q u e e n , do y o u t h i n k t h a t I am c r y i n g b e c a u s e L u c r e t s i a w i l l be one more v i c t i m o f t h e R u s s i a n m i n i n g i n d u s t r y ? No! The a i r t h a t we b r e a t h e i s f i l l e d w i t h i t . . . w i t h p r o s t i t u t i o n . We s e e i t i n t h e a r t s , i n t h e s c i e n c e s , i n d r e s s , i n t h o u g h t and what c a n one s a y e x c e p t t h a t i t i s one i n s i g n i f i c a n t component o f t h e o v e r a l l p r o g r e s s . R a i s a , my q u e e n , t h i s i s n o t what I am c r y i n g a b o u t , b u t t h e f a c t t h a t V i t a l i P r o z o r o v , a d r u n k a r d and a l o s t man i n e v e r y r e s p e c t , i s t h e o n l y h o n e s t man, t h e l a s t o f t h e Romans, h a , h a . R a i s a , my q u e e n , t h i s i s t h e r e a l a n c i e n t t r a g e d y . Oh God, what a t i m e , what p e o p l e , what s t u p i d i t y ! What b o u n d l e s s p e r f i d y ! T e t i u e v and Rod'ka w i l l now s q u e e z e t h e paasp.easants t o t h e e n d , w h i l e t h e G e n e r a l [ B l i n o v ] w i l l c o v e r up t h e i r p e r f i d y w i t h h i s p r o s t i t u t e d e r u d i t i o n . . . . L e a r n i n g , s a c r e d l e a r n i n g , s h e t o o has gone i n t o bondage t o t h e g o l d e n c a l f ! And t h e r e w i l l b e , my d e a r queen R a i s a , no end t o y o u r r e i g n . " 2 9 P r o z o r o v r e m a i n s a p a t h e t i c and i n e f f e c t u a l f i g u r e , n o t b e i n g a b l e t o f i n d a p l a c e f o r h i m s e l f i n s o c i e t y : " I am, queen R a i s a , n o t a p a r t o f a body b u t o n l y one o f i t s e s s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e s , I am j u s t a s o r e t o o t h . Not e v e n a t o o t h b u t a r o t t e n r o o t w h i c h a c h e s , b u t o f w h i c h t h e r e i s n o t enough t o be p u l l e d o u t . " 3 0 M a m i n - S i b i r i a k has g r e a t a b i l i t y t o d e p i c t a v a s t panorama o f human movement when i t s u i t s h i s p u r p o s e . He 62 d e s c r i b e s v e r y c o l o u r f u l l y t h e crowd o f p e a s a n t s and w o r k e r s who g a t h e r t o s e e t h e i r o v e r l o r d on h i s f i r s t v i s i t t o t h e r e g i o n . T h e r e a r e two d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t f a c e t s t o h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f masses o f p e o p l e : t h e i r d i v e r s i t y as i n d i v i d u a l s , and t h e i r a g g r e g a t e f o r c e i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e a r e a and c o n t r i b u t i n g t o i t s w e a l t h . I n d e s c r i b i n g , t h e w e l c o m i n g crowd, M a m i n - S i b i r i a k w r i t e s : The s k i l l e d w o r k e r s i n new a r m i a k s [ p e a s a n t ' s c l o t h c o a t ] and homespun c o a t s , t h e o l d men w i t h s t a f f s ; t h e p e a s a n t women i n k e r c h i e f s . . . t h e m i l l w o r k e r s e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e o t h e r s by t h e i r s c o r c h e d , u n n a t u r a l l y r e d f a c e s . . . day l a b o u r e r s , m o u l d e r s and t h e w o r k i n g a r i s t o c r a c y . A l l t h e s e p e o p l e . . . were now u n i t e d w i t h one common w i s h t o c a s t a g l a n c e a t t h e i r b a r i n [ o v e r l o r d ] f o r whom t h e y b u r n e d t h e m s e l v e s a t . t h e f u r n a c e s , f o r whom t h e y h e a v e d t h e huge r e d - h o t i n g o t s w i t h t o n g s . . . . The m i l l s h ad p r o d u c e d o v e r arinumber o f g e n e r a t i o n s a p e r f e c t l y u n i q u e t y p e o f m i l l w o r k e r , one t h a t was c a p a b l e o f s u p e r -human t o i l . The s i n e w y p o w e r f u l arms, t h e r e d n e c k s , h u n c h e d b a c k s and s t r o n g and c o n f i d e n t step . 3 seemed t o be s p e c i a l l y e v o l v e d f o r work i n t h e m i l l s . E a c h body was p u t t o g e t h e r o f bones and m u s c l e s and emanated a u n i q u e i n d u s t r i a l power.31 I t i s t h e e f f o r t o f t h i s l a b o u r f o r c e t h a t h e l p s t o m u l t i p l y t h e w e a l t h o f t h e i r o v e r l o r d , L a p t e v . "And e v e n weak c h i l d r e n ' s hands p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e g i g a n t i c e f f o r t s i n t h e m i l l s . " 3 2 I n s h a r p c o n t r a s t t o t h e p r o d u c t i v e crowd o f w o r k e r s , t h e a u t h o r p r e s e n t s L a p t e v ' s e n t o u r a g e . He d e s c r i b e s them as p a r a s i t i c h a n g e r s - o n : T h e s e c o l o u r l e s s y o u n g p e o p l e l a u g h e d when L a p t e v l a u g h e d , l o o k e d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n he d i d , d r a n k when he d r a n k and g e n e r a l l y a c t e d as a huge m i r r o r i n w h i c h was r e f l e c t e d e v e r y s l i g h t movement o f t h e i r p a t r o n . 3 3 . . . d a r k shadowy f i g u r e s . i n w e l l - c u t t r a v e l l i n g c l o t h e s . o . . o l o o k e d on e v e r y o n e f r o m above . . . 1 angui'd'iyeexcharigedesterepfeyp 1 d.?French p h r a s e s . . . t h a t human c h a f f w h i c h e n v e l o p s any w e l l -known name, e s p e c i a l l y a r i c h , R u s s i a n , l o r d l y n a m e . 3 4 The d e s c r i p t i o n o f n a t u r e o c c u p i e s an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n R u s s i a n l i t e r a t u r e and has b e e n u s e d by many w r i t e r s f o r d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e s . I n many p a s s a g e s i n t h e n o v e l Mamin-S i b i r i a k employs t h e f u l l power o f h i s d e s c r i p t i v e a b i l i t y . D u r i n g L a p t e v ' s t r i p t o i n s p e c t h i s m i l l s , t h e a u t h o r p a ys a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n t o d e s c r i b i n g t h e U r a l s c e n e r y . I n d e s c r i b i n g t h e l a n d s c a p e he s t r e s s e s two a s p e c t s . The f i r s t i s t h e m a g n i f i c e n t b e a u t y o f t h e n o r t h e r n r e g i o n s , and t h e s e c o n d i s t h e g r e a t p o t e n t i a l o f t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e a r e a : " I t i s t h e l a n d i t s e l f w h i c h i s t h e s o u r c e o f w e a l t h . " To e m p h a s i z e t h e r i c h n e s s o f r e s o u r c e s t h e a u t h o r u s e s t h e d e v i c e o f l i n k i n g p a r t i c u l a r r e s o u r c e s t o i n d i v i d u a l m i n i n g c o m m u n i t i e s . Thus t h e " l u s h " B a l a m u t s k i i d i s t r i c t i s r i c h i n f o r e s t s , t h e p i c t u r e s q u e Z a o z e r n y i abounds i n good w a t e r , and t h e b e a u t i f u l L u g o v o i h a s c o a l d e p o s i t s . I n t h e c a s e o f Mount K u r z h a k , t h e image i s e v e n s t r o n g e r : . . . a t r i g h t . . . t o w e r s . t h e famous Mount K u r z h a k , c o n s i s t i n g a l m o s t e n t i r e l y o f i r o n o r e , l i k e a h a t w i t h a g r e e n t o p s i t t i n g askew on i t . 3 ^ The f l o w e r s i n t h e f i e l d s s h i n e l i k e p r e c i o u s s t o n e s , w r i t e s t h e a u t h o r , t o r e m i n d t h e r e a d e r t h a t t h e U r a l M o u n t a i n s a r e r i c h i n t h e s e as w e l l . T h u s , Gornoe gnezdo i s a n o v e l o f i n t r i g u e s and m a c h i n a t i o n s where t h e b a s e s t t r a i t s o f human c h a r a c t e r a r e e x p o s e d . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , t a k i n g as a m odel a m i n i n g community i n t h e U r a l s , shows how p e o p l e a t t h e h e a d o f t h e community s t r u g g l e t o g a i n b e t t e r p o s i t i o n s and more power. As most o f them a r e n o t s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e f i e l d and c a n n o t hope t o a d v a n c e on t h e m e r i t s o f t h e i r t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t i e s , t h e y r e s o r t t o i n t r i g u e s , b r i b e r y and p l a i n g r o v e l l i n g t o a c h i e v e t h e i r e n d s . The men a r e weak and s u b s e r v i e n t t o t h e i r w i v e s and t o t h e owner o f t h e m i l l s . The f e m a l e p r o t a g o n i s t s , who r e a l i z e t h a t t h e g a i n o f t h e i r men i s a l s t h e i r g a i n , t a k e c h a r g e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n and c a r r y o u t i n t r i g u e s , t r y i n g t o j o c k e y t h e i r p a r t n e r s i n t o b e t t e r p o s i t i o n s . The a u t h o r shows how t h e seamy t r a i t s o f human c h a r a c t e r s u r f a c e i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s s t r u g g l e . The s t r u g g l e f o r power becomes s o i n t e n s e t h a t i t o v ershadows a l l o t h e r p r o b l e m s . The p e r s o n s i n h i g h admin-i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s become s o a b s o r b e d i n t h e i r own d e a l i n g t h a t t h e y pay no a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e m i l l w o r k e r s , on whose t o i l t h e y depend and whom t h e y k e e p i n p o v e r t y . I n t h i s n o v e l t h e w o r k e r s and p e a s a n t s a r e shown as a mass: t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d as a c o l l e c t i v e p o r t r a i t r a t h e r than as a group of i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s i n Z o l o t o , the l a s t of the t h r e e novels chosen f o r d i s c u s s i o n here, t h a t Mamin S i b i r i a k focuses h i s a t t e n t i o n on the problems of the workers themselves: the s m a l l - s c a l e p r o s p e c t o r s , the g o l d -miners and those peasants who l i v e i n the gold-mining communities. CHAPTER I I I ZOLOTO The g o l d - r u s h : The d e s t r u c t i v e power o f " e a s y money" I n t h e n o v e l Z o l o t o , M a m i n - S i b i r i a k a n a l y z e s mankind's a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s g o l d . He d e p i c t s i n i t p e o p l e who a r e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e e l e m e n t a l f o r c e o f g o l d , w h i c h t h e y a r e c o m p l e t e l y p o w e r l e s s t o r e s i s t . The m a j o r i t y o f c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e n o v e l s u f f e r f r o m t h i s e p i d e m i c — g o l d f e v e r , i n t h e c o u r s e o f w h i c h p e o p l e l o s e t h e s e n s e o f r a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g , and a c q u i r e t h e p a s s i o n f o r e a s y g a i n . P r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e i r s e a r c h f o r g o l d , t h e y d e v e l o p n e g a t i v e t r a i t s s u c h as g r e e d , e n v y , s e l f i s h n e s s , c a l l o u s n e s s and c r u e l t y t o w a r d s t h e i r f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . T h e s e t r a i t s r e m a i n h i d d e n u n t i l s o c i e t y u n d e r g o e s some change s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h we d i s c o v e r i n Z o l o t o , b u t when t h e y s u r f a c e , t h e i r power seems a l l - p e r v a s i v e and a n a r c h y r u l e s t h e w o r l d . P o s s e s s e d by t h e i d e a o f f i n d i n g g o l d , p e o p l e embark upon r i s k y v e n t u r e s and commit c r i m e s . When t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c q u i r i n g g o l d , b a l a n c e d p e o p l e succumb t o t e m p t a t i o n , w h i c h u s u a l l y d e s t r o y s them. I n t h i s n o v e l p e o p l e become r i c h i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Some a c q u i r e w e a l t h by h a r d work, some s t e a l f r o m t h o s e who work, o t h e r s become r i c h by p a y i n g low p r i c e s f o r s t o l e n o r i l l e g a l l y mined g o l d and t h e n s e l l i n g i t t o t h e t r e a s u r y a t t h e r e g u l a r p r i c e . I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e n o v e l , a l l who come 67 i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h g o l d u n d e r g o c h a n g e . I n t h e i r p u r s u i t o f g o l d and t h e i r d e s i r e t o g e t r i c h q u i c k l y p e o p l e become de h u m a n i z e d , and l o v e o f g o l d becomes a t e r r i b l e s i c k n e s s t o w h i c h t h e y f a l l v i c t i m . The p e r i o d r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e n o v e l i s t h e e i g h t e e n -s e v e n t i e s , when r e l i c s o f s e r f d o m c o - e x i s t e d w i t h t h e new c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e t h a t were b e i n g s l o w l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e U r a l r e g i o n . The a u t h o r , u s i n g a f l a s h b a c k t e c h n i q u e , g i v e s a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p e r i o d o f s e r f d o m and a l s o s h e d s l i g h t on t h e h i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e g o l d - m i n i n g i n d u s t r y i n t h e r e g i o n . The B a l c h u g o v s k i i G o l d M i n i n g C e n t r e i n i t i a l l y depended on t h e l a b o u r o f c o n v i c t s who were s e n t t h e r e m a i n l y f r o m c e n t r a l R u s s i a . The v i l l a g e s and s e t t l e m e n t s f o u n d e d a r o u n d t h e B a l c h u g o v s k i i G o l d C e n t r e were B a l c h u g o v k a , N i z y and F o t i a n k a , w h i c h were p o p u l a t e d b y c o n v i c t s who had done p e n a l s e r v i t u d e i n t h e mines and were s u b s e q u e n t l y f r e e d . P a r t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n was f o r m e d by s e r f s who became f r e e a t t h e t i m e o f t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n , and by d e m o b i l i z e d s o l d i e r s who s e t t l e d t h e r e . I n a d d i t i o n , i n t h e v i c i n i t y t h e r e was a v i l l a g e , T a i b o l a , i n h a b i t e d by a s e c t o f O l d B e l i e v e r s who w o u l d n o t t o u c h g o l d , s i n c e i n t h e i r minds i t was l i n k e d w i t h t h e l o s s o f f r e e d o m . The n o v e l d e s c r i b e s ' l i f e i n t h e B a l c h u g o v s k i i g o l d m i n i n g c e n t r e i n t h e U r a l M o u n t a i n s . The a u t h o r u s e s t h e B e r e z o v s k i i G o l d M i n i n g E n t e r p r i s e , w h i c h he h a d h a d an 68 o p p o r t u n i t y t o s e e f o r h i m s e l f , as a m o d e l f o r t h e i n d u s t r i a l u n i t i n t h e n o v e l . I n a l e t t e r t o h i s m o t h e r , d a t e d 15 September 1891, M a m i n - S i b i r i a k m e n t i o n e d t h a t he had s t a r t e d a l o n g n o v e l e n t i t l e d Z o l o t o , i n w h i c h he was d e s c r i b i n g t h e l i f e and customs o f t h e B e r e z o v s k i i G o l d M i n i n g C e n t r e , l o c a t e d n o t f a r f r o m E k a t e r i n b u r g (now c a l l e d S v e r d l o v s k ) . 1 M a m i n - S i b i r i a k p r e s e n t s h e r e a b r o a d p i c t u r e o f s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s . From t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w t h e n o v e l c o n s t i t u t e s an a c c u r a t e and t h o r o u g h r e c o r d o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n t h e g o l d - m i n i n g community i n t h e U r a l s a t t h e t i m e . T h i s shows, as do t h e two n o v e l s d i s c u s s e d . e a r l i e r , t h a t M a m i n - S i b i r i a k b a s e d h i s work on a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e and t h a t h i s n o v e l s a r e c l o s e t o r e a l l i f e . The w o r k s o o f M M a m i n S S ' i b i r i a k were p r a i s e d as " c o l o u r f u l 2 i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o t h e b l e a k pages o f h i s t o r y . " The a c t i o n i n t h e book i s b a s e d on t h e f a c t t h a t t h e g o v e rnment t r e a s u r y had opened up a v a s t g o l d - b e a r i n g a r e a f o r p u b l i c c l a i m - s t a k i n g , namely K e d r o v s k a i a Dacha, w h i c h s p r e a d o v e r a huge a r e a . As a r e s u l t o f t h e government d e c i s i o n , t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t two v i l l a g e s , a l m o s t t o t h e l a s t man, were r e a d y t o embark on a new a d v e n t u r e . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g t h e O l d B e l i e v e r s s h u n n e d t h e w h o l e scheme, b u t i n t h e end t h e y t o o became i n f e c t e d w i t h t h i s g o l d f e v e r and b e g a n t o d i g up e v e n b a c k y a r d s , g a r d e n s , and f i n a l l y t h e i r a r a b l e l a n d , i n a f r e n z i e d s e a r c h f o r g o l d . 69 M a m i n - S i b i r i a k p r e s e n t s i n t h e n o v e l two e p o c h s , t h e o l d and t h e new, and shows t h e v i o l e n t changes t h a t have o c c u r r e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s h i f t f r o m t h e o l d e s t a b l i s h e d way o f l i f e t o t h e new age o f c l a i m - s t a k i n g . The o l d c o n d i t i o n s were t h e r e s u l t o f l o n g - d r a w n a d j u s t m e n t s w h i c h ha d c r e a t e d a s y s t e m u n d e r w h i c h p e o p l e h a d elbow-room t o work i n and l i v e , e ven i f a t t i m e s t h e y v i o l a t e d t h e law i n d o i n g s o . The g o v e r n m e n t , by p r e s e n t i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p e o p l e t o s t a k e c l a i m s , h a d c h a n g e d t h e e x i s t i n g o r d e r o f l i f e i n t h e t h r e e v i l l a g e s , and t h i s a c t h a d t w o - f o l d r e p e r c u s s i o n s . On t h e one hand i t d i s r u p t e d t h e e x i s t i n g o r d e r o f l i f e , w h i l e on t h e o t h e r i t a r o u s e d a p a s s i o n a t e g r e e d . I t d e s t r o y e d t h e b a l a n c e o f t h e e x i s t i n g o r d e r and r e p l a c e d i t w i t h an a v a r i c i o u s a d v e n t u r i s m and an a c q u i s i t i v e s p i r i t . L u r e d by g o l d t h e men o f t h e N i z y and F o t i a n k a v i l l a g e s l e a v e t h e i r p ermanent work a t t h e g o l d m i n e s , d e s e r t t h e i r f a m i l i e s and h e a d f o r t h e i r c l a i m s w i t h h i g h hopes o f f i n d i n g g o l d . They a r e s e i z e d w i t h an u n c o n t r o l -l a b l e d e s i r e t o t r y t h e i r l u c k . V i l l a g e l i f e i s s o o n drawn t o t h e l o c a l t a v e r n . P e o p l e g a t h e r a r o u n d t a b l e s , e x c h a n g i n g i n c r e d i b l e s t o r i e s and l i s t e n i n g t o t h e " l o v e t a l k " ( l i u b o v n y e peregovo'ry) o f 3 g o l d . The few f o r t u n a t e ones t r e a t t h e x r companions t o d r i n k s w h i l e o t h e r s s p e n d t h e i r l a s t p e n n i e s on d r o w n i n g 70 t h e i r s o r r o w s . The women, w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , r e m a i n u n a f f e c t e d by t h i s p a s s i o n a t e i m p u l s e t o " g e t r i c h q u i c k . " They s e e g o l d as a symbol o f i n s t a b i l i t y and u n c e r t a i n t y . They f e e l t h a t i t i s a su d d e n and s h o r t - l i v e d w e a l t h and d e f i n e i t as " w i l d 4 money." A l t h o u g h t h e women i n t h e n o v e l a r e s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e i r men, t h e y a r e shown (as i n M a m i n - S i b i r i a k * s o t h e r n o v e l s ) as s h r e w d e r , more s t a b l e and more p r a c t i c a l t h a n t h e i r h u s b a n d s ; and i t i s t h e y who m a i n t a i n t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f v i l l a g e l i f e and e n s u r e i t s e q u i l i b r i u m — a l t h o u g h t h e l i f e o f women i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l v i l l a g e s o f t h e U r a l s was f u l l o f h a r d s h i p s . They were o f t e n abandoned by t h e i r m e n f o l k f o r l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e , and l e f t t o l e a d t h e i r l o n e l y l i v e s , c o p i n g w i t h many h a r d s h i p s . I n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e p r e c e d i n g two n o v e l s , Mamin-S i b i r i a k s p e a k s i n t h i s n o v e l o n l y o f t h e o r d i n a r y w o r k i n g c l a s s . The o n l y n o n - w o r k i n g c l a s s c h a r a c t e r i s t h e manager, whose r o l e i n t h e n o v e l i s s e c o n d a r y . T h r o u g h o u t t h e book one i s c o n s c i o u s o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e m a s s e s . I n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s p r e s e n t e d h e r e a r e p e r c e i v e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e s e c r o w d s , a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e i r own r i g h t . I . I g n a t o v n o t e d t h i s a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y o f M a m i n - S i b i r i a k when he w r o t e : H a r d l y any R u s s i a n w r i t e r e x c e e d s Mamin i n t h e a r t i s t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f mass movements. N o t t h a t Mamin makes i t h i s t a s k t o d e p i c t movements o f 71 c r o w d s , c o n f l i c t s o f m a s s e s . On t h e c o n t r a r y , h i s a t t e n t i o n i s c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e e x p e r i e n c e s and a c t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n s . Y e t t h o s e p e r s o n s e n t e r as p a r t s i n t o t h e scheme o f g e n e r a l m a s s - l i f e . Out o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s a r i s e s t h e l i f e o f a g r e a t c o l l e c t i v e e n t i t y . T h i s g i f t o f p r e s e n t i n g mass -mo vem ehitamake<saMaminn©nef o f - o u r s t r o n g e s t and most o r i g i n a l a r t i s t s . The l a n g u a g e u s e d i n t h e n o v e l i s t h a t o f common p e o p l e and s e r v e s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e p r e v a i l i n g c ustoms and e x i s t i n g l e g e n d s t h a t t o g e t h e r p r o d u c e an image o f t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e community d e p i c t e d . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k i s a m a s t e r o f r e g i o n a l s p e e c h as w e l l as an a u t h o r i t y on t h e a r e a ' s f o l k l o r e . ^ H i s main d i s t i n c t i o n l i e s i n h i s u s e o f s p o n t a n e o u s , u n c o n t r i v e d and c o l o u r f u l l a n g u a g e . I t i s d e v o i d o f t h e d r y a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s . He o f t e n u s e s l o c a l e x p r e s s i o n s i n d i a l o g u e , g i v i n g i t a n u n i q u e i n d i v i d u a l i t y . However, he employs t h i s d e v i c e s p a r i n g l y , n e v e r a b u s i n g i t . He a l s o t r e a t s h i s r e f e r e n c e s t o s p e c i f i c t a s k s i n t h e g o l d m i n e s . w i t h t h e same c a u t i o n : he n e v e r o v e r i n d u l g e s i n s p e c i a l i z e d t e c h n i c a l t e r m s and e x p r e s s i o n s . M. Nevedomski'i,, i n an a r t i c l e on M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , w r i t e s t h a t : From a p u r e l y a r t i s t i c s t a n d p o i n t , Mamin's a s s e t s a r e . . . an u n u s u a l l y r i c h v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e p l a i n p e o p l e ' s l a n g u a g e , f u l l o f s t r i k i n g s a y i n g s and s i m i l e s , s h o t t h r o u g h w i t h a w e a l t h o f e m b e l l i s h m e n t s and b y - w o r d s , and a m a r v e l o u s l y f l u e n t n a t u r a l d i a l o g u e . I n t h e l a t t e r he some-t i m e s r e a c h e s p e r f e c t i o n . ^ The p l o t o f t h e n o v e l Z o l o t o i s b a s e d on a s i n g l e e v e n t . B u t h e r e , as i n t h e o t h e r n o v e l s , t h e r e t r o s p e c t i v e 72 b i o g r a p h i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s p r o v i d e t h e r e a d e r w i t h f l a s h b a c k s t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d , d e s c r i b i n g an e n t i r e e p o c h w h i c h p r e c e d e s t h e p e r i o d o f a c t i o n i n t h i s n o v e l . T h r o u g h t h e l i f e - h i s t o r i e s o f p e o p l e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e n o v e l , t h e r e a d e r p e r c e i v e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i e t y i n i t s h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . T h u s , f o r example, t h r o u g h t h e s t o r y o f Zykov, an e i g h t y - y e a r - o l d f o r e m a n o f t h e g o l d m i n e , t h e a u t h o r d e s c r i b e s p e n a l d e p o r t a t i o n s , c o n d i t i o n s o f work, t h e h a r s h r u l e s , t h e l a w l e s s n e s s , and t h e p r e v a i l i n g i m m o r a l i t y o f t h e mores. By means o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n and t h e r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f an o l d e x - c o n v i c t , Grandmother L u k e r i a , t h e a u t h o r d e s c r i b e s t h e h a r s h f a t e o f women i n a p e n a l community, where i n f l u e n t i a l men t o o k t h e p r e t t i e r ones among t h e e x i l e d women f o r t h e i r own u s e . I n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e p l o t a r e a number o f o l d t a l e s , s a y i n g s and s u p e r s t i t i o n s m a king up t h e f o l k l o r e , o f t h e U r a l r e g i o n . He g i v e s u s , f o r example, an o l d t a l e a b o u t a g o l d e n sow w h i c h was b u r i e d i n an unknown l o c a t i o n and w h i c h c o u l d be f o u n d o n l y by a g v i r g i n . He r e p o r t s t h e s u p e r s t i t i o n t h a t i f a woman, an u p p e r c l a s s woman ( b a r y n i a ) i n p a r t i c u l a r , v i s i t e d a mine and saw t h e g o l d , i t w o u l d d i s a p p e a r . D i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r s a p p e a r i n g i n t h e book a l l s e a r c h f o r g o l d i n t h e i r own ways. Foreman Zykov i s s e a r c h i n g f o r g o l d as a s e r v a n t o f t h e gove r n m e n t , and l a t e r as an employee o f M a n s v e t o v and <2.bmplny^an#©id'Gtp.dh±mi' i s -"not „.a s o u r c e , o f 73 employment, b u t assumes a c e n t r a l p l a c e i n h i s v a l u e s y s t e m , f o r he i s p r o u d t o be i n c h a r g e o f s u c h an i m p o r t a n t b u s i n e s s . I t i s h i s c o n s u m i n g p a s s i o n f o r l o c a t i n g g o l d t h a t f i n a l l y l e a d s h i m t o s u c c e s s , b u t t h e p r i c e he p a y s f o r i t r u i n s h i m . K a r a c h u n s k i l , t h e manager o f t h e B a l c h u g o v s k i i G o l d c e n t r e , i s a l s o a Company em p l o y e e . He i s a p o w e r f u l man who, i n h i s o f f i c i a l c a p a c i t y , c o n t r o l s t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e g o l d m ines and s t a n d s a t t h e h e a d o f an e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l o r d e r , p e r m i t t i n g a l i m i t e d measure o f a b u s e and d i s h o n e s t y by a l l o w i n g c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s t o augment t h e i r i ncome by a l i m i t e d amount o f p i l f e r i n g o f g o l d b u l l i o n . T h e r e a r e t h r e e o t h e r i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r s who .belong t o t h e same g e n e r a t i o n . T h e s e a r e K i s h k i n , Y.astrebov and G randmother L u k e r i a . K i s h k i n ' s l i f e - l o n g s e a r c h f o r g o l d ends i n h i s c h e a t i n g h i s f r i e n d s who, i n t u r n , m urder hi m . Y a s t r e b o v has b e e n i n v o l v e d i n i l l e g a l b u s i n e s s a f f a i r s t h r o u g h o u t h i s e n t i r e l i f e . He i s a m i d d l e m a n : now, as w e l l as i n t h e o l d d a y s , he b uys up g o l d f r o m w o r k e r s who s t e a l i t f r o m t h e i r e m p l o y e r s . I n h i s o l d age he becomes g r e e d y and c h e a t s h i s p a r t n e r who, i n r e v e n g e , r e p o r t s h i m t o t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . He i s c o n s e q u e n t l y s e n t o f f t o p e n a l s e r v i t u d e . G randmother L u k e r i a was i n i t i a l l y a c o n v i c t . T h r o u g h h a r d work sh e g a i n e d f o r h e r s e l f a h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d p o s i t i o n i n t h e community, was s o u g h t a f t e r as an a r b i t e r i n d o m e s t i c 74 d i s p u t e s , and was w e l l o f f a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e v e n t s n a r r a t e d i n t h e book. I n t h e new w o r l d o f t h e g o l d r u s h an o p p o r t u n i t y a r o s e f o r h e r t o become r i c h by r e n t i n g rooms and t a k i n g i n l o d g e r s . C o n t a c t w i t h w e a l t h l e a d s t o h e r m o r a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . She q u a r r e l s w i t h h e r s o n o v e r ..money and p e r i s h e s i n a b u r n i n g h o u s e w h i l e g u a r d i n g h e r t r u n k c o n t a i n i n g t h e money w h i c h h a d been t h e s o u r c e o f d i s c o r d b e tween them. The y o u n g g e n e r a t i o n i n t h e n o v e l i s r e p r e s e n t e d by P e t r , L u k e r i a ' s s o n ; M a t i u s h k a , a w o r k e r , and M y l ' n i k o v , t h e v i l l a g e c o b b l e r . I n t h e d a y s b e f o r e t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e K e d r o v s k a i a Dacha a l l t h e s e p e o p l e w o u l d have - p r o b a b l y l i v e d d i f f e r e n t l i v e s . M a t i u s h k a was a g o o d and w i l l i n g w o r k e r , who was l e d a s t r a y by h i s c o n t a c t w i t h g o l d . P e t r w o u l d have most l i k e l y l i v e d t h e c o m f o r t a b l e l i f e o f a p r o s p e r o u s p e a s a n t ; and M y l ' n i k o v , b e i n g an u n s t e a d y c h a r a c t e r , w o u l d have a c t e d i n some u n p r e d i c t a b l e , b u t n o t d e s t r u c t i v e way, as he does i n t h e n o v e l . G o l d makes M y l ' n i k o v d e s t r o y h i s own f a m i l y . H i s m i s f o r t u n e i s t h a t he f i n d s a p o c k e t o f g o l d . I n f l u e n c e d by t h i s i n i t i a l s u c c e s s , he e x p e c t s h i s l u c k t o c o n t i n u e and d e s t r o y s h i s o l d h o u s e and o s t e n t a t i o u s l y b u i l d s an o r n a t e new g a t e f o r h i s f u t u r e home. B u t t h e g o l d i s s o o n e x h a u s t e d , h i s f a m i l y l e f t d e s t i t u t e and f o r c e d t o move i n w i t h t h e i r g r a n d f a t h e r Zykov, t h u s b r e a k i n g away f r o m M y l ' n i k o v . 75 I n t h e n o v e l , e s s e n t i a l l y two d i s t i n c t a t t i t u d e s t o g o l d a r e c o n s i d e r e d : t h o s e o f p e o p l e who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n g o l d f o r p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s , and t h o s e who have no s u c h i n t e r e s t . F o r p e o p l e i n t h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y , w o r k i n g w i t h g o l d i s a way t o p e r s o n a l e n r i c h m e n t , f o r t h e o t h e r s i t means a p a s s i o n a t e d e v o t i o n t o d u t y . R e p r e s e n t i n g t h e l a t t e r c a t e g o r y a r e ;ZyJc©vhandkKar.aehtanskii. A l t h o u g h t h e i r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s a r e d i f f e r e n t t h e y may be compared as i n d i v i d u a l s . B o t h t h e s e men p o s s e s s a s e r i o u s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s d u t y . The new mine, R u b l i k h a , i n w h i c h b o t h a r e e n g a g e d , p r e s e n t s a c h a l l e n g e t o them, b u t t h e s i m i l a r i t y ends a t t h i s . I n t e r m s o f t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s p e o p l e and l i f e , t h e y a r e v e r y u n l i k e . Z y k ov's y e a r s o f w o r k i n g i n t h e mines has l e f t a mark on h i s c h a r a c t e r . He i s p r e s e n t e d as a " f a n a t i c " , a "maniac" i n h i s work. The mine becomes h i s i d e e f i x e , w h i c h p u s h e s i n t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d h i s f a m i l y and a l l h i s o t h e r i n t e r e s t s . K a r a c h u n s k i i '©ome's? t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t Z ykov, i n h i s d e v o t i o n t o d u t y and i n h i s s e a r c h f o r g o l d on t h e company's behalf, i s ",'aiiriadmah, lagafehea? a r m a n i a c i a c o ' ' H i s H o v e r b e a r i n g n a t u r e and h i s d e v e l o p e d h a b i t o f o r d e r i n g p e o p l e a b o u t w h i l e w o r k i n g i s e x t e n d e d t o h i s f a m i l y . A t home he i s a t y r a n t . He t r e a t s h i s s i x t y - y e a r - o l d s o n Yakov as i f he were a j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t . When Yakov r e f u s e s t o s u b o r d i n a t e h i m s e l f t o h i s f a t h e r ' s w i l l and w i s h e s t o s t a r t work as an i n d e p e n d e n t g o l d p r o s p e c t o r a t K e d r o v s k a i a Dacha, Zykov t u r n s t o t h e v i l l a g e e l d e r s w i t h a r e q u e s t t o h a v e h i s s o n f l o g g e d . Zykov* s f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n makes h i m contemp-t u o u s o f o t h e r s — an a t t i t u d e t h a t compounds t h e u n h a p p i n e s s o f h i s f o u r d a u g h t e r s by a s e c o n d m a r r i a g e . The e l d e s t , o T a t i a n a , e l o p e s w i t h a f e l l o w f r o m a n e i g h b o u r i n g v i l l a g e and m a r r i e s w i t h o u t p a r e n t a l c o n s e n t . F o r t w e n t y y e a r s Zykov r e f u s e s t o r e c o g n i z e h e r o r h e r c h i l d r e n ' s e x i s t e n c e . The same happens t o h i s f a v o u r i t e d a u g h t e r , t h e b e a u t i f u l F e n i a . H i s s t r i c t n e s s , h i s p r i d e and i n f l e x i b i l i t y a r e t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r . T h i s i s n o t e d and s u c c i n c t l y p o i n t e d o u t by G r andmother L u k e r i a , as she b e r a t e s h i m f o r h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h r e e o f h i s d a u g h t e r s : " I t ' s y o u r own f a u l t , y o u s h o u l d have m a r r i e d F e n i a o f f e a r l i e r . H e r e y o u a r e , t h r o u g h y o u r p r i d e y o u h a v e k e p t M a r i a a s p i n s t e r . . . . You s h o u l d h e l p T a t i a n a . The woman i s w o r k i n g h e r s e l f t o d e a t h and y o u , y o u a r e n o u r i s h i n g y o u r p r i d e . " x ^ Z y k ov i s v e r y l o y a l t o h i s s u p e r i o r s ; To h i m t h e name o f t h e company f o r w h i c h he works i s s a c r e d . He i s r e l u c t a n t t o e x p o s e p i l f e r i n g by some o f t h e e m p l o y e e s , b e c a u s e he c a n n o t b e a r t o b r i n g a b o u t a s c a n d a l and s t a r t j u d i c i a l p r o c e e d i n g s w h i c h w o u l d be l i k e l y t o b r i n g d i s c r e d i t t o t h e company. T h u s , t h e r e a p p e a r t o be i n h i m two s t a n d a r d W i t h i n t h e f a m i l y he i s i n f l e x i b l e , b u t i n r e s p e c t t o t h e c o m p a n y i s i n t e r e s t s he i s c a p a b l e o f b e n d i n g h i s c o n s c i e n c e 77 f o r t h e s a k e o f p r a c t i c a l n e c e s s i t y . As s u c h a f a n a t i c a l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s work o c c u p i e s h i s l i f e w h o l l y , n o t h i n g i s l e f t i n h i m t h a t may s a v e h i m f r o m b e i n g u n l o v e d and l o n e l y . The o n l y p e r s o n f o r whom he has warm f e e l i n g s i s O k s i a , h i s g r a n d d a u g h t e r by h i s e l d e s t d a u g h t e r . S i g n i f i c a n t l y enough, t h i s e m o t i o n c a n be t r a c e d t o h i s f i r s t s i g h t o f t h e g i r l , when h e r c l o t h e s h a d b e e n c o v e r e d w i t h mud f r o m t h e m i n e . He d i d n o t know who s h e was when she came t o h i s o f f i c e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , and h i s s u p e r s t i t i o n s commanded h'imtto c h a s e h e r away f r o m t h e mine, y e t s e e i n g h e r p a s s i o n f o r w o r k i n g t h e r e he l e t h e r s t a y . T h u s , e v e n i n h i s p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h p e o p l e he i s c a p a b l e o f f l e x i b i l i t y , p r o v i d e d i t happens a g a i n s t t h e b a c k d r o p o f work and n o t i n a s o l e l y p e r s o n a l c o n t e x t . G r a d u a l l y Zykov moves away f r o m h i s f a m i l y and becomes more and more i n v o l v e d i n h i s work and i n t h e p a s s i o n t o d i s c o v e r g o l d . He f a i l s t o n o t i c e what i s h a p p e n i n g a t home, and h i s g r e e d b l i n d s h i m t o t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f h i s f a m i l y . " T h e r e t o o k p l a c e t h e c o m p l e t e . d e s t r u c t i o n o f a s t r o n g a n c i e n t f a m i l y w h i c h h a d t a k e n y e a r s t o b u i l d . " 1 1 T h i s was b r o u g h t a b o u t , as t h e a u t h o r p u t s i t , by a " n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r " — t h e p a s s i o n f o r g o l d . Thus Zykov i s c a u g h t up i n t h e s t i c k y web o f g o l d , b u t h i s p a s s i o n i s n o t e x p r e s s e d i n h i s d e s i r e f o r g o l d f o r h i s own s a k e . H i s w i s h i s t o f i n d g o l d f o r t h e company and 78 he f i n d s i t i n t h e f o r m o f a l a r g e g o l d v e i n . B u t t h i s d i s c o v e r y c o i n c i d e s w i t h h i s p e r c e i v i n g t h e e v i l s b r o u g h t a b o u t by g o l d , w h i c h a r e s u d d e n l y made c l e a r t o h i m t h r o u g h M a t i u s h k a ' s c o n f e s s i o n t h a t f o r g o l d he h a d k i l l e d K i s h k i n , Z y k ov's two g r a n d c h i l d r e n and P e t r K r i v o i ( O n e - e y e d ) . Armed w i t h t h i s c o n v i c t i o n and t h e f e e l i n g o f p r o p r i e t o r s h i p (and i n d e e d i n h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e mine had a l w a y s b e e n a p a r t o f h i m ) , he d e c i d e s t o f l o o d i t and f o r e v e r b u r y t h e g o l d w h i c h he has d i s c o v e r e d . The i n n e r c o n f l i c t o f t h e two l o y a l t i e s d r i v e s h i m i n s a n e . I n d a y - t o - d a y a f f a i r s K a r a c h u n s k i i i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f Zykov: I n o u t e r a p p e a r a n c e , i n h i s a t t i t u d e s and h a b i t s he was a most o r d i n a r y bon v i v a n t , . . . and no one i n t h e m i n i n g community w o u l d h a v e b e l i e v e d t h a t K a r a c h u n s k i i h a d e v e r worked o r u n d e r s t o o d a n y t h i n g i n t h e m i n i n g b u s i n e s s . . . . K a r a c h u n s k i i knew b u s i n e s s v e r y w e l l and p o s s e s s e d t h e g r e a t e s t s e c r e t o f w o r k i n g u n o b t r u s i v e l y . T h e r e a r e s u c h u n u s u a l p e o p l e , who t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r l i v e s move m o u n t a i n s , and y e t a r e c o n s i d e r e d a l m o s t i d l e r s . ± 2 K a r a c h u n s k i i g o t on w e l l w i t h p e o p l e and was . . . an enemy o f any f o r m o f r e p r e s s i o n . B e s t o f a l l he p r e f e r r e d t h o s e h a l f - m e a s u r e s , c o n c e s s i o n s and p r i v a t e d e a l s t h r o u g h w h i c h s u c h a c o m p l i c a t e d e n t e r p r i s e c o u l d be r u n . x 3 Under t h e mask o f an i d l e r K a r a c h u n s k i i c o n c e a l s , as does Zykov, a f e e l i n g o f p r i d e and h o n o u r . A g a i n l i k e Zykov, he c a n n o t a l l o w t h e G o l d Company's a f f a i r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e c o u r t s ( i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f a d e n u n c i a t i o n by K i s h k i n ) and s e e h i s name d r a g g e d t h r o u g h t h e mud. He s e e s t h e o n l y way o u t i n s u i c i d e . T h u s , i n d i r e c t l y , he t o o i s p h y s i c a l l y d e s t r o y e d by g o l d . As f a r as t h e o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e r a c e f o r g o l d a r e c o n c e r n e d , t h e r e i s one u n i t i n g and p r e d o m i n a n t f e a t u r e i n them. I t i s t h e i r d e s i r e t o g e t r i c h by f i n d i n g g o l d . A l t h o u g h M a m i n - S i b i r i a k i d e n t i f i e s g r e e d as a g e n e r a l human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and shows how a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s a p p e a r i n g i n t h e n o v e l a r e t a i n t e d by g r e e d , t h e y a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s p r e s e n t e d as i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d by t h e u s e o f l a n g u a g e . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k i s a g r e a t a r t i s t i n t h i s r e s p e c t — he d e s c r i b e s e v e r y p e r s o n a l i t y as 14 c o l o u r f u l , d i f f e r e n t and u n i q u e . As a c o n t r a s t t o t h e h a r d - w o r k i n g and d e v o t e d Zykov he p r e s e n t s Z y kov's f o r m e r c o - w o r k e r K i s h k i n . K i s h k i n ' s o n l y i n t e r e s t i n l i f e i s t o f i n d g o l d and become r i c h . To h i m i t i s n o t a m a t t e r o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o anyone e l s e , b u t a p e r s o n a l gamble. He makes a f o r t u n e s e v e r a l t i m e s b u t c a n n e v e r make use o f h i s r i c h e s . As he p u t s i t h i m s e l f , " I ' v e 15 d r u n k M a d e i r a and l o s t a b o u t f i v e t h o u s a n d a t c a r d s . " H i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and a d v e n t u r i s m i n t h e g o l d mine b u s i n e s s have l e d h i m t o d i s h o n e s t y . I n h i s o l d age he becomes g r e e d y and s u s p i c i o u s . He has a n i ckname — "Bump" ( S h i s h k a ) and i t i s s a i d o f h i m t h a t he i s " s o m e t h i n g s m a l l , i n s i g n i f i c a n t 16 and v i l e . " A t t h e o u t s e t . o f t h e s t o r y he i s p o o r , o l d and 80 l o n e l y , u n n o t i c e d by anyone. The o p e n i n g o f t h e K e d r o v s k a i a Dacha g i v e s h i m h i s l a s t c h a n c e t o g e t t h e b e t t e r o f h i s f a t e , t o become r i c h and g a i n r e s p e c t . However, h i s g r e e d f o r g o l d l e a d s h i m t o c h e a t h i s p a r t n e r s . He r e f u s e s t o s h a r e h i s f i n d and t r i e s t o t a k e c o n t r o l o f t h e e n t i r e mine by h i m s e l f . T h i s p r o m i s e s t o b r i n g h i m g r e a t w e a l t h . H i s r i c h e s awaken g r e e d i n h i s c o m p a n i o n s , who f i n a l l y k i l l h i m i n o r d e r t o s t e a l h i s money. T h u s , i n t h e end he i s t h e v i c t i m o f h i s w e a l t h and a c t i o n s . The most r e p u l s i v e p e r s o n a l i t y i n t h e n o v e l i s P e t r , s o n o f Grandmother L u k e r i a . I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e a c t i o n o f t h e n o v e l , h i s g r a d u a l d e m o r a l i z a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f h i s c o n t a c t w i t h g o l d i s d e s c r i b e d w i t h v i v i d c l a r i t y . I n t h e wake o f t h e g o l d r u s h he c h o o s e s t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f a m i d d l e m a n , w h i c h i s an i l l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n . The a u t h o r endows P e t r w i t h one p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t y : he i s b l i n d i n one e y e . T h i s d e f o r m i t y i s s y m b o l i c i n t h a t h i s a t t i t u d e t o g o l d i s d i s -t o r t e d . He s e e s g o l d more a c u t e l y t h a n t h e o t h e r s . F o r p r o f i t he i s r e a d y t o gp> toXexta?emes. He commits t h r e e c r i m e s , one a g a i n s t h i s m o t h e r , one a g a i n s t t h e v i l l a g e and t h e community i n w h i c h he l i v e s , and one a g a i n s t h u m a n i t y i n g e n e r a l . The l a t t e r i s h i s p a r t i n t h e murder o f two o f Z y k ov's g r a n d c h i l d r e n , who had u n w i t t i n g l y w i t n e s s e d h i s c r i m e . He d e n o u n c e s Y a s t r e b o v , a n o t h e r m i d d l e m a n , and h i s p a r t n e r , who p a i d b e t t e r p r i c e s , g i v i n g p e o p l e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y 81 t o l i v e d e c e n t l y . P e t r ' s d e n u n c i a t i o n d e p r i v e s p e o p l e o f t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d . F o r h i s d e n u n c i a t i o n he i s f l o g g e d by t h e v i l l a g e e l d e r s , and i n r e v e n g e he s e t s f i r e t o p a r t o f t h e v i l l a g e . Among t h e v i c t i m s o f t h e f i r e i s h i s own m o t h e r . H a v i n g c o m p l e t e l y l o s t h i s human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h i s " t e m p t i n g s n a k e " h y p n o t i z e s M a t i u s h k a and l e a d s h i m t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e r o b b i n g and murder o f K i s h k i n , whom he . e n v i e s b e c a u s e o f h i s w e a l t h . He r e f u s e s t o s h a r e t h e g o l d w i t h M a t i u s h k a and i n t h e end i s m u r d e r e d by h i m . T h u s , h i s g r e e d and h i s d i s i n c l i n a t i o n t o s h a r e t h e r i c h e s w i t h h i s p a r t e r , M a t i u s h k a , b r i n g s a b o u t h i s own end. The shoemaker M y l n i k o v , an u n a c k n o w l e d g e d s o n - i n - l a w o f Zykov, i s a h u m o r o u s l y drawn p e r s o n a l i t y . He i s an e x t r e m e l y l a z y , f l i p p a n t and i n c o n s i s t e n t p e r s o n . He has t a u g h t h i s w i f e and d a u g h t e r h i s t r a d e , and now e n j o y s a l i f e o f i d l e n e s s . He s p e n d s a g r e a t d e a l o f h i s t i m e a t t h e i n n , t h e c e n t r e o f t h e m i n i n g community l i f e . He i s i n f e c t e d w i t h t h e g o l d f e v e r , and a f t e r a b a d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h K i s h k i n , whose p a r t n e r he was, and t h r o u g h v a r i o u s l e g a l and i l l e g a l v e n t u r e s , he s u c c e e d s , t h r o u g h F e n i a ^ K a r a c h u n s k i i 1 s m i s t r e s s , i n g e t t i n g h i m s e l f an a l l o t m e n t . As he i s l a z y , he -forces h i s d a u g h t e r O k s i a t o do a l l t h e hea v y work. He s u p e r v i s e s t h e mine t w i c e w e e k l y , and t h e r e s t o f t h e t i m e he spends d r i n k i n g . He doe s n o t s e l l g o l d t o Y a s t r e b o v a t a h i g h e r p r i c e , b u t t a k e s i t t o t h e B a l c h u g o v s k i i o f f i c e , where 82 t h e p r i c e i s l o w e r b u t t h e b u s i n e s s c o m p l e t e l y l e g a l . The g o l d c o n t e n t i n h i s a l l o t m e n t i s n o t g r e a t and t h e r e s e r v e s s o o n r u n o u t . A l t h o u g h e s s e n t i a l l y n o t g r e e d y , M y l ' n i k o v i s an a d v e n t u r e r who s u f f e r s d e f e a t i n h i s p e r s o n a l l i f e b e c a u s e o f h i s weak c h a r a c t e r s 0 I n t h e c a s e o f © k s i a h t h e shoemaker's d a u g h t e r , Mamin-S i b i r i a k g i v e s t h e f l e e t i n g i l l u s i o n o f t h e power o f g o l d t o b e n e f i t p e o p l e . A t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e s t o r y , O k s i a i s f o u n d l a b o u r i n g i n t t e r r i b l e c o n d i t i o n s , b e i n g e x p l o i t e d by h e r f a t h e r . W o r k i n g u n d e r g r o u n d i n a one-man mine, she s t e a l s g o l d f r o m h e r f a t h e r , and h a v i n g a c c u m u l a t e d a s u f f i c i e n t amount, t a k e s i t t o M a t i u s h k a , w i t h whom she i s i n l o v e . H e r e , g o l d t a k e s h e r o u t o f h e r own h o p e l e s s s i t u a t i o n , b u t w i t h t h e t r a g i c f a t e o f M a t i u s h k a h e r h a p p i n e s s , t o o , i s v e r y s h o r t - l i v e d . O k s i a ' s h u s b a n d M a t i u s h k a i s endowed by t h e a u t h o r w i t h p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , b e a u t y and a l o v e f o r work. A t t h e s t a r t o f t h e n o v e l he i s p r e s e n t e d as an e x c e l l e n t and w i l l i n g w o r k e r . C o n t a c t w i t h g o l d awakens i n him a p a s s i o n f o r w e a l t h . H i s s u c c e s s i v e f a i l u r e s o n l y i n c r e a s e h i s d e s i r e , w h i c h i n t h e e n d c a u s e s h i s own d o w n f a l l . I n a moment o f weakness he f a l l s i n t o t e m p t a t i o n and commits a m u r d e r . M a t i u s h k a i s t h e r e a l v i c t i m o f t h e g o l d f e v e r . A f t e r c o n f e s s i n g t o Z ykov, he i s u n a b l e t o be a t p e a c e w i t h h i s own c o n s c i e n c e and commits s u i c i d e . 83 The t i m e f a c t o r p l a y s a p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h i s n o v e l . I t s s p a n e x t e n d s o v e r two y e a r s . D u r i n g t h i s bo?ief p e r i o d t h e a c t i o n u n f o l d s and t h e r e a d e r w i t n e s s e s t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f human c h a r a c t e r u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f g o l d ; s u c h as t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f f a m i l y t i e s , g r o w t h o f h a t r e d , l o o s e m o r a l s and c r i m e , and t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f t r a g i c e v e n t s f i n d s i t s r e s o l u t i o n i n t h e a c t i o n o f t h e n o v e l . A t f i r s t g l a n c e , t h e f o u r m urders and two s u i c i d e s g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f s e n s a t i o n a l i s m ( e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e e p i l o g u e ) and a p p e a r t o be u n n e c e s s a r y . B u t upon d e e p e r a n a l y s i s , t h e e v e n t s s e r v e t o e m p h a s i z e and i l l u m i n a t e t h e h o r r i f y i n g p i c t u r e o f t h i s l i f e . The i n f l a m e d and m a l i g n a n t human g r e e d , n u r t u r e d by a p a s s i o n f o r g o l d , l e a d s t o t h e t o t a l 17 d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e g o l d mine community. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k c r e a t e s a s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g w o r l d . T h i s w o r l d has i t s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and t h e men and women i n h a b i t i n g t h i s w o r l d a r e i d e n t i f i e d b o t h by i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t s and by t h e common t r a i t o f g r e e d f o r g o l d . I t i s t h r o u g h an a n a l y s i s o f t h i s u n i v e r s a l v a l u e t h a t Mamin-S i b i r i a k e s t a b l i s h e s a c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h e w o r l d o f t h e n o v e l and t h e w o r l d o u t s i d e i t . I n a s e n s e , t h e n , Mamin-S i b i r i a k *s t e c h n i q u e i s t h a t o f a n a l y z i n g u n i v e r s a l s as p e r c e i v e d i n a m i c r o c o s m i c c o n t e x t . T h u s , h i s work assumes a s i g n i f i c a n c e , b o t h l o c a l and t i m e b o u n d as w e l l as u n i v e r s a l and p e r e n n i a l . CONCLUSION The t h r e e n o v e l s a n a l y z e d h e r e a r e c o n n e c t e d b o t h t h e m a t i c a l l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y . The theme o f money i s d e v e l o p e d a g a i n s t t h e s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e g i o n o f R u s s i a , t h e U r a l s , a t a t i m e o f r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l p r o g r e s s , when l a r g e f o r t u n e s were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e hands o f a few i n d i v i d u a l s . The a u t h o r o f t h e s e n o v e l s u t i l i z e s h i s k n o w l e d g e o f l o c a l h i s t o r y . I n t h e p l o t o f e a c h o f h i s n o v e l s , t h e a c t i o n i s l o c a t e d i n a r e a l p l a c e : f o r example, i n E k a t e r i n b u r g ( U z e l ) , t h e I r b i t T r a d e F a i r , t h e K y s h t y m s k l i M i l l s ( S h a t r o v s k i i ) i n P r i v a l o v s k i e m i l l i o n y ; t h e N i z h n i i T . a g i l i n d u s t r i a l r e g i o n ( K u k h a r s k i i M i l l ) i n t h e n o v e l Gornoe  gnezdo; and t h e B e r e z o v s k i i G o l d Mine ( B a l c h u g o v s k i i ) i n t h e n o v e l Z o l o t o . Some o f h i s p r o t a g o n i s t s h a d t h e i r p r o t o t y p e s i n l i f e , j u s t as he t o o k some o f h i s f i c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s f r o m c o n t e m p o r a r y R u s s i a n s o c i e t y . L a p t e v i s m o d e l e d on Demidov, P r i n c e San D o n a t o , i n Gornoe g n e z d o ; w h i l e t h e s c a n d a l o u s e p i s o d e l i n k e d w i t h t h e Z o t o v i n h e r i t a n c e and i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s forms t h e b a s i s o f t h e p l o t o f P r i v a l o v s k i e  m i l l i o n y . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k knew t h e l i f e o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e U r a l s v e r y w e l l . H i s n o v e l s a r e f u l l o f c o l o u r f u l c h a r a c t e r s d e s c r i b e d w i t h v i v i d n e s s and a c o m p r e h e n s i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m o t i v e s . E a c h i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s a r t i s t i c w o r l d i s c h a r a c -t e r i z e d by a s p e c i a l i n d i v i d u a l manner o f s p e a k i n g and mode 85 o f e x p r e s s i o n . Some c h a r a c t e r s a r e o u t l i n e d by e l e m e n t s o f s a t i r e ( L a p t e v t h e dandy, and K h i o n a Z a p l a t i n a t h e s o c i a l c l i m b e r ) , some by e l e m e n t s o f g r o t e s q u e ( L i a k h o v s k i i t h e m i s e r , and N i n a t h e r u t h l e s s b u s i n e s s w o m a n ) . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k knew t h o r o u g h l y t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s , t h e i n t r i g u e s , g r e e d and c o w a r d l y meanness t h a t went h a n d - i n - h a n d w i t h t h e l u s t f o r g o l d , f o r money o r r i c h e s i n g e n e r a l . T h i s k nowledge gave h i m t h e power t o d e s c r i b e s o f a i t h f u l l y t h e human n a t u r e w i t h i t s w e a k n e s s e s , s h o r t c o m i n g s and f a i l u r e s . He b r i n g s o u t i n h i s h e r o e s t r a i t s s u c h as g r e e d , e n v y , j e a l o u s y , l u s t f o r power, and t h e debasement o f human d i g n i t y f o r t h e s a k e o f m a t e r i a l g a i n . B u t t h e s e f e a t u r e s a r e n o t u n i q u e t o t h e R u s s i a n s o c i e t y a l o n e . They a r e u n i v e r s a l t r a i t s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e e n t i r e human r a c e . The a u t h o r s u c c e e d e d i n c a p t u r i n g t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e human a n i m a l , by p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g h i s c h a r a c t e r s : t h a t i s , by v i v i d l y d e s c r i b i n g t h e l i f e and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e U r a l r e g i o n . T h u s , man i s s e e n a g a i n s t t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f h i s m i l i e u / a a i i d t t h e i i n t e r a c t i o n b etween t h e two i s a n a l y z e d . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l make-up o f t h e h e r o e s i s m a n i f e s t i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y p a s s . The u n i q u e n e s s o f M a m i n - S i b i r i a k as an a r t i s t i s shown i n h i s a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e a w i d e g a l l e r y o f u n f o r g e t t a b l e c h a r a c t e r s k e t c h e s . 86 A l l t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s h a v e t h e one common d e s i r e t o g e t r i c h . B u t money p l a y s a d i f f e r e n t r o l e i n e a c h p e r s o n ' s l i f e , a l t h o u g h i t s r o l e i s n e v e r l e s s t h a n v i t a l . F o r example, P r i v a l o v has no?:.need f o r money as s u c h . He wants i t t o i m p r o v e t h e l i f e o f o t h e r s . The m i s e r L i a k h o v s k i i w ants t h e money f o r i t s own s a k e . F o r P o l o v o d o v , money i s a means t o o b t a i n p l e a s u r e . F>or B a k h a r e v i t i s m e a n i n g l e s s i n i t s e l f , and he i s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f g a i n i n g money as a k i n d o f b a t t l e o f w i t s . F o r women, t o o , money has d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . F o r Nadezhda B a k h a r e v a t h e v a l u e o f money i s n i l ; she condemns t h e r i c h who do n o t u s e t h e i r w e a l t h t o i m p r o v e t h e l o t o f t h e l e s s f o r t u n a t e . Z o s i a L i a k h o v s k a i a s e e s money as s o m e t h i n g i n d i s p e n s a b l e , as a p a r t o f h e r d a i l y n e e d s ; w h i l e f o r A h t o n i n a P o l o v o d o v a money i s a s t a t u s s y m b o l . L a p t e v , t h e magnate, has no p e r s o n a l i t y o f h i s own, b u t f u n c t i o n s e n t i r e l y t h r o u g h t h e medium o f money. L u s h a , who i s i n i t i a l l y f a s c i n a t e d by h i s w e a l t h , becomes q u i c k l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h h i m when she p e r c e i v e s t h e e m p t i -n e s s o f L a p t e v ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , T e t i u e v , who i s i n i t i a l l y p r e s e n t e d as an i d e a l i s t , l o s e s h i s i d e a l i s m when he comes i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h L a p t e v and h i s r i c h e s . Many o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n Gornoe gnezdo s e e money as a means t o a c q u i r e more power. I n Z o l o t o i s shown a p r i m i t i v e and s i m p l e s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e r e a r e s t i l l p r e s e n t t h e v e s t i g e s o f s e r f d o m . T h i s i s an i g n o r a n t , u n e d u c a t e d s o c i e t y . G i v e n 87 an o p p o r t u n i t y t o g a i n money, t h e men and women o f t h i s s o c i e t y a r e i n c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g t h e i r n ewly a c q u i r e d w e a l t h , and a c t i n an i r r e s p o n s i b l e and s t u p i d manner. A l t h o u g h t h e y a r e m o t i v a t e d i n t h e i r a c t i o n s by t h e i r g r e e d f o r money, i t i s o f no b e n e f i t t o them when t h e y a c q u i r e i t . An i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f M a m i n - S i b i r i a k * s t e c h n i q u e i s t o u s e s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p e r names w h i c h h e l p t o e x p l a i n t h e c h a r a c t e r s . The names s e r v e as s y m b o l s and h e l p t o e x p r e s s t h e n a t u r e , f u n c t i o n and t h e d e s t i n y o f many o f t h e c h a r a c -t e r s . T h u s , f o r example, P r i v a l o v " s name comes f r o m t h e R u s s i a n v e r b p r i v a l i t ' , w h i c h means t o a r r i v e u n e x p e c t e d l y . E v i d e n t l y , t h e a u t h o r w i s h e s t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r a s e n s e o f u n e x p e c t e d n e s s and show t h a t P r i v a l o v was, a f t e r a l l , n e v e r q u i t e p r e p a r e d f o r h i s i n h e r i t a n c e . P o l o v o d o v ' s name comes f r o m p o l o v o d ' e , m eaning f l o o d . He was i n u n d a t e d by money. He came by i t q u i c k l y , d i s h o n e s t l y and, f i g u r a -t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , he was drowned i n i t . Nadezhda means hope: sh e i s a s y mbol o f hope f o r P r i v a l o v and f o r t h e s o c i e t y i n w h i c h s h e l i v e s . The name L a p t e v comes f r o m l a p o t ' , a k i n d o f s h a p e l e s s f o o t w e a r u s e d by p e a s a n t s , and i m p l i e s t h e humble o r i g i n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r , s t r e s s i n g h i s s p i n e l e s s p e r s o n a l i t y . The i n e f f e c t u a l d r u n k a r d P r o z o r o v ' s name i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e word p r o z o r l i v y i , m e a ning s a g a c i o u s . He i s i n d e e d c a p a b l e o f s e e i n g t h r o u g h p e o p l e and i s a b l e t o e v a l u a t e e v e n t s . The e c o n o m i s t B l i n o v ' s name stems f r o m t h e 88 word b l i n , meaning p a n c a k e . To a R u s s i a n r e a d e r , f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e w e l l - k n o w n s a y i n g " p e r v y i b l i n komom" — ' t h e f i r s t p a n c a k e i s a p t t o come o u t i n a lump' — B l i n o v ' s name s u g g e s t s a f a i l u r e , w h i c h i n d e e d he t u r n s o u t t o be when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t y o f l i f e . P e t r K r i v o i ' s surname means c r o o k e d o r o n e - e y e d . H i s name i m p l i e s t h a t he i s p h y s i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y d e f o r m e d and i s d e v o i d o f m o r a l s c r u p l e s . M y l ' n i k o v means s o a p y : t h e name may s i g n i f y t h a t w e a l t h i s s l i p p e r y o r t h a t h i s f o r t u n e i s as e p h e m e r a l as a s o a p b u b b l e . A l t h o u g h man i s f i r m l y p l a c e d a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e w o r l d c r e a t e d i n t h e n o v e l s , M a m i n - S i b i r i a k n e v e r l o s e s s i g h t o f t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e a g a i n s t w h i c h man and h i s a c t i v i t i e s must be s e e n . D e s c r i p t i o n s o f n a t u r e f o r m an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f h i s w o r k s , and h i s r e s p o n s e t o t h e n a t u r a l s c e n e r y o f t h e U r a l s e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f through some o f t h e most s e n s i t i v e w o r d - p a i n t i n g e x i s t i n g i n R u s s i a n p r o s e f i c t i o n . C r i t i c s h a v e g i v e n a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p a r a l l e l e n d e a -v o u r s o f w r i t e r s and p a i n t e r s i n r e p r e s e n t i n g , n a t u r e . They have p o i n t e d o u t t h e s i m i l a r i t y — t h e i n t e r a c t i o n , a l m o s t — between t h e works o f R e p i n and T u r g e n e v , and s i m i l a r compar-i s o n s h a v e b e e n made between Chekhov and L e v i t a n . I t w o u l d be f r u i t f u l , t h o u g h b e y o n d t h e i m m e d i a t e s c o p e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t o p l a c e M a m i n - S i b i r i a k ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f n a t u r e s i d e -b y - s i d e w i t h t h e u n f o r g e t t a b l e c a n v a s e s d e p i c t i n g n a t u r a l 89 s c e n e s , u s u a l l y f o r e s t . I . S h i s h k i n h a s b e e n c a l l e d " t h e m i n s t r e l o f R u s s i a n f o r e s t s " and h i s work c o n s i d e r e d t o be among t h e f i n e s t o f R u s s i a n l a n d s c a p e - p a i n t i n g . E s p e c i a l l y o u t s t a n d i n g i s h i s p a i n t i n g "The F o r e s t o f M a s t s " ( K a r a b e l ' -n a i a r o s h c h a , 1 8 9 8 ) , i n w h i c h t h e a r t i s t s e e s a g r o v e o f t a l l , s t r a i g h t t r e e s as a s t a c k o f s h i p m a s t s . I t t h u s u n i t e s t h e a r t i s t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l b e a u t y o f t h e t r e e s w i t h h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r v a l u e as r e s o u r c e s f u l f i l l i n g human n e e d s . The same s e n s e o f d i c h o t o m y may be s e e n i n M a m i n - S i b i r i a k ' s t r e a t m e n t o f n a t u r e . To hi m , t o o , n a t u r e h a s a b e a u t y o f i t s own as w e l l as t h e u t i l i t a r i a n v a l u e i t assumes i n r e l a t i o n t o man. T h i s d u a l i t y o f t h e r o l e o f n a t u r e i n t h e u n i v e r s e p e r c e i v e d by man i s e x p r e s s e d i n M a m i n - S i b i r i a k ' s n o v e l s t h r o u g h t h e medium o f p r e c i s e and y e t e v o c a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s t h a t f u n c t i o n e q u a l l y w e l l as o b j e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and p e r s o n a l v a l u e - j u d g e m e n t . The w o r l d t h a t M a m i n - S i b i r i a k c r e a t e s i s t h u s one t h a t r e p l i c a t e s t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d i n t e r m s o f man's p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l n e e d s . T h r o u g h o u t r e c o r d e d h i s t o r y man has b e e n o b s e s s e d by t h e t h o u g h t o f p o s s e s s i n g g o l d , and t h e power and p r e s t i g e w h i c h i t c o n f e r s upon i t s o w ners. Over t h e m i l l e n n i a , t h i s a t t i t u d e has become d e e p l y i n g r a i n e d i n t h e human p s y c h e . G o l d ( t h e most p o w e r f u l s y mbol o f w e a l t h ) h a s b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e powers o f good and e v i l , f o r , c o n s c i o u s l y and 90 s u b c o n s c i o u s l y , man has a s s o c i a t e d t h e p r e c i o u s m e t a l and i t s powers w i t h a t t r i b u t e s t h a t a r e a t once b o t h d emonic and d i v i n e . B u t g o l d by i t s e l f has no power. O n l y i n t h e hands o f man can i t w i e l d power, and t h e good o r e v i l t h a t g o l d may do depends w h o l l y upon i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h m a n k i n d . I d e a l l y , g o l d s h o u l d b e u s e d f o r t h e good o f t h e many, n o t f o r t h e p l e a s u r e o f t h e f o r t u n a t e few. P r i v a l o v i s a man o f s u c h i d e a l s . He w i s h e s t o u s e h i s money f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f o t h e r s , s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h o s e who a r e l e s s f o r t u n a t e t h a n h i m s e l f . The a u t h o r g i v e s h i s h e r o a c h a l l e n g i n g r o l e . T h r o u g h c o n f l i c t s w i t h h i s u n s c r u p u l o u s t r u s t e e s , P r i v a l o v u n d e r g o e s a t e s t o f h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s . To i m p l e m e n t one's i d e a l s a man must be s t r o n g , and P r i v a l o v i s n o t , as he b e a r s t h e b u r d e n o f h i s h e r e d i t y and e n v i r o n m e n t . The o t h e r nabob, L a p t e v , i s e v e n l e s s aware o f t h e p o t e n t i a l i t y o f h i s w e a l t h f o r good, and has n o t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e p e o p l e who h e l p h i m i n p r o d u c i n g h i s w e a l t h . The c h a r a c -t e r s who come i n t o c l o s e r c o n t a c t w i t h h i s money u n d e r g o a c h a n g e , b e c o m i n g , i n most c a s e s , s u b s e r v i e n t t o h i m and g r e e d y f o r h i s money. Thus h i s w e a l t h has t h e n e g a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f awa k e n i n g i n p e o p l e t h e i r b a s e r d e s t r u c t i v e i m p u l s e s . T h i s d e s t r u c t i v e power o f g o l d i s one t h a t i s r e l e a s e d by i n s t i n c t s i n t r i n s i c t o h u m a n i t y , and r e l e a s e s i n t u r n a l l t h e w o r s t i n m a n k i n d , as M a m i n - S i b i r i a k d e m o n s t r a t e s i n h i s w o r k s . T h e s e n o v e l s c h a r t t h e human mind a l o n g s o c i o l o g i c a l as w e l l as e t h i c a l c o - o r d i n a t e s . M a m i n - S i b i r i a k p r o v e s h i m s e l f t o b e n o t o n l y a k e e n o b s e r v e r o f s o c i a l e x i s t e n c e , a n a l y z i n g man's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s p h y s i c a l u n i v e r s e , b u t a l s o l a y s b a r e t h e i m p u l s e s i n w h i c h human v a l u e s l i e r o o t e d . The l i t e r a r y d e v i c e t h a t a l l o w s him t o u n i t e t h e s e p u r p o s e s i s t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p e r e n n i a l theme o f man's l u s t f o r w e a l t h , w h i c h , as we h a v e a l r e a d y n o t e d , t a k e s t h e f o r m o f a f r e n z i e d s e a r c h f o r g o l d i n Z o l o t o . S i n c e t h i s u n i v e r s a l theme i s l o c a l i z e d by Mamin-S i b i r i a k i n t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e U r a l s , a s e t t i n g he knew i n t i m a t e l y f r o m a c t u a l p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , h i s work assumes — i n i t s s o c i o l o g i c a l a w a reness — t h e i m p o r t a n c e , a p a r t f r o m i t s f i c t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , a l m o s t o f a h i s t o r i c document. T h a t M a m i n - S i b i r i a k ' s i n t e r e s t i s n o t c o n f i n e d t o a s t u d y o f s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s i s shown by h i s i n t e n s e and s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e d a r k e r s e c r e t s o f t h e human h e a r t . What makes p e o p l e f u n c t i o n ? How a r e t h e i r l o v e s , d e s i r e s and f r u s t r a t i o n s f o r m e d ? T h e s e a r e q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r e s o u n d e d a g a i n s t t h e a l l - e n v e l o p i n g p r e s e n c e o f r i c h e s . By p l a c i n g h i s c h a r a c t e r s i n a a c q u i s i t i v e s o c i a l framework he shows how w e a l t h r a t h e r t h a n i n t r i n s i c q u a l i t i e s become t h e v i s i b l e a t t r i b u t e s o f p e o p l e , s o t h a t b e h i n d t h e s c r e e n o f g o l d t h e r e a l p e r s o n c a n h a r d l y be s e e n . T h i s i s p e r h a p s t h e most t e r r i f y i n g — f o r i t i s i r r e v o c a b l e — c h a n g e t h a t o v e r t a k e s a man when he comes i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h g o l d . B u t the n o v e l i s t ' s a r t l i e s l e s s i n a r r i v i n g a t t h i s view as an e x e r c i s e i n a b s t r a c t e t h i c s , than i n p e n e t r a t i n g the s o u l s of r e c o g n i z a b l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r s . NOTES TO INTRODUCTION 1. Stated i n Mamin-Sibiriak's l e t t e r to A. I. Annenskii dated March 2, 1912, St. Petersburg. D. N. Mamin-S i b i r i a k , Sobranie sochinenii , torn 1-8 (henceforth abbreviated to D.N.M-S, Sobr. soch.), torn 8,(Moskva: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo khudozhestvennoi l i t e r a -tury, 1954), p. 678. 2. V. V. Kuskov, "Vydaiushchiisia r u s s k i i demokrat Mamin-S i b i r i a k " , D m i t r i i Narkisovich Mamin-Sibiriak, Sto l e t so dnia rozhdenia, 1852-1952 (henceforth abbreviated to Sto let) (Sverdlovsk: Knizhnoe i z d a t e l ' s t v o , 1953), p. 8. 3. V. Al'bov, " K a p i t a l i s t i c h e s k i i protsess v izobrazhenii Mamina-Sibiriaka", Mir B o z h i i , No. 1 (St. Petersburg: 1900), p. 116. 4. D. N. Mamin-Sibiriak, "S Urala", Novosti 1 birzhevaia gazeta, No. 107 (St. Petersburg: 1884),pp. 10. Quoted by M. A. Go r l o v s k i i , Sto l e t . 5. A. M. Skabichevskii, "Dmitrii Narkisovich Mamin", Sochineniia A. M. Skabichevskogo v dvukh tomakh, torn 2 (St. Petersburg: 1903), p. 599. 6. E. Anichkov, "Mamin-Sibiriak", Mir Bozhii, No. 10 (St. Petersburg: 1905), p. 230. 7. This comment was made by M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin with regard to the novels by Turgenev, Goncharov and Pisemskii, whose methods could no longer be employed to portray the contemporary complex problems of society. M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin, Sobranie sochinenii, torn 8 (Moskva: Izdatel'stvo Khudozhestvennoi l i t e r a t u r y , 1965) , p. 456. 8. Ibid., p. 46 4. 9. E. A. Bogoliubov, Novyi Mir, No. 10 (Moskva: 1952), p. 237. 10. iTahkoLfiavrin, An Introduction t o the Russian Novel (New York-London: 1949), p. 236. 11. E. Lo Gatto, S t o r i a d e l l a l i t e r a t u r a Russa (Firenze: 1950), p. 355. 94 12. R. Hare, Russian: Literature from Pushkin to the Present  Days (London: 1947), p. 158. ' 13. D. N. Mamin-Sibiriak, " K r i z i s u r a l ' s k o i gornoi promysh-lennosti", Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, torn 1-12 (Petrograd: Izdanie A. F. Marksa, 1915), p. 235. NOTES TO CHAPTER I 1. B. Udintsev, Pevets Urala —— D. N. Mamin-Sibiriak (Sverdlovsk: Sredne-Ural 1skoe Knizhnoe Izdatel*stvo, 1969) , p. 50. 2. Ibid., p. 52. 3. I r b i t : town i n the Sverdlovsk Oblast' (Urals) situated 125 miles northeast of Sverdlovsk (formerly Ekaterin-burg) . I r b i t was founded i n 1633 and ten years l a t e r became the s i t e of the famour annual f a i r , the second largest i n Russia, which for a long time was the .focus for Russian trade with S i b e r i a , Central A s i a and China. The f a i r continued u n t i l 1930. This information i s from S. V. Ute.shin, AoConcise Encyclopaedia of Russia (New York: E. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964), p. 239. 4. D. Mamin-Sibiriak, The Privalov Fortune, translated by V. Shneerson (henceforth abbreviated to D. Mamin-S i b i r i a k , The Privalov Fortune) (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, ? ), p. 400. 5/ The concentric composition i n The Privalov Fortune could be compared to Iu. Lermontov's A Hero of Our Time (1840), where four of the f i v e s t o r i e s of the novel centre around Pechorin; or N. Gogol's Dead Souls. (1842), where the hero Chichikov's adventures unite a l l the chapters of the novel. 6. Discussion of t h i s commentary on the n a t u r a l i s t i c novel can be found i n B. A. B i a l i k , Russkaia l i t e r a t u r a kontsa  XIX nachala XX veka, Devianostye gody (Moskva: Izdatel'stvo Nauka, 1968), p. 180. 7. E l l i o t t M. Grant, Emile Zola (New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1966), p. 45. 8. Ibid., p. 45. 9 5 9 1 0 , D. M a m i n - S i b i r i a k , The P r i v a l o v F o r t u n e , p . 2 3 . V e r a i s t h e y o u n g e s t c h a r a c t e r i n t h e n o v e l , b u t s h e a l r e a d y u n d e r s t a n d s t h e power g i v e n by w e a l t h . By s i n g l i n g o u t t h i s f e a t u r e i n V e r a ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , t h e a u t h o r s t r e s s e s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t upon t h e v i e w s o f t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n and upon t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . 1 1 . D. Mamin-S i b i r i 1 2 . I b i d . / P- 3 0 . 1 3 . I b i d . , P . 6 8 . 1 4 . I b i d . f P . 9 3 . 1 5 . I b i d . r P- 9 4 . . 1 6 . I b i d . r P- 4 6 . 1 7 . I b i d . t P . 5 0 . 1 8 . I b i d . r P . 5 1 . 1 9 . I b i d . r P- 5 4 . 2 0 . I b i d . r P- 4 5 . 2 1 . I b i d . r P . 1 5 0 . 2 2 . I b i d . r P- 1 3 7 . 2 3 . I b i d . r P . 2 4 6 . 2 4 . I b i d . r P . 6 7 . 2 5 . I b i d . , r 9 9 . 2 6 . I b i d . , , P . 4 3 . 2 7 . I b i d . , P- 2 4 9 . 2 8 . I b i d . , P P . 1 7 2 , 2 9 . I b i d . , P i 1 6 1 . 3 0 . I b i d . , P . 1 8 0 . 96 31. Ibid., p. 128. 32. Ibid. 33. Ibid., p. 152. 34. Ibid., p. 181. 35. I. Dergachev, Kriigi i sud'by (Sverdlovsk: Sredne-Ural'skoe knizhnoe i z d a t e l 1 s t v o , 1973), p. 87. NOTES TO CHAPTER II 1. D. N. Mamin-Sibiriak, "V khudykh dushakh", Sobranie  sochinenii, torn 1, p. 13 8. (In t h i s chapter, the tr a n s l a t i o n of quotations i s mine.) 2. Ibid., torn 3, Prilozhenie, p. 617. 3 . Ibid., p. 10. 4. Ibid., p. 154. 5. A. M. Skabichevskii, Sochinenia v dvukh tomakh (St. Petersburg: Z. N. E r l i c h , 1903), p. 216. 6. D. N. Mamin-Sibiriak, Sobranie sochinenii, torn 3, p. 141 • 7. Ibid., P- 106. 8. Ibid., P- 142. 9. Ibid., P- 143. 10. Ibid., P. 296. 11. Ibid., P- 120. 12. Ibid., P- 127. 13. Ibid., pp. 159-162. 14. Ibid., P- 15. 15. Ibid.. 97 1 6 . I b i d . / P- 2 9 . 1 7 . I b i d . / P . 3 1 . 1 8 . I b i d . t P- 1 8 3 . 1 9 . I b i d . f p . 1 2 6 . 2 0 . I b i d . r P . 2 9 7 . 2 1 . I b i d . r P- 1 4 3 . 2 2 . I b i d . r P - 1 4 5 . 2 3 . I b i d . r P . 1 4 8 . 2 4 . I b i d . t P- 1 3 9 . 2 5 . I b i d . r P- 2 4 0 . 2 6 . I b i d . r P- 2 5 0 . 2 7 . I b i d . r P . 4 4 . 2 8 . I b i d . f P . 3 3 0 . 2 9 . I b i d . r P P . 3 3 2 3 0 . I b i d . , r P- 3 3 1 . 3 1 . I b i d . , r P . 1 0 3 . 3 2 . I b i d . , P . 1 0 5 . 3 3 . I b i d . , P . 1 2 6 . 3 4 . } I b i d . , P - 1 1 5 . 3 5 . I b i d . , P . 2 2 9 . NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I 1 . Letter to his mother dated June 23, 1 8 9 1 . D.H.M-S., Sobr. soch., torn 8, p. 736. 2 . P. V. Bykov, "D. N. Mamin-Sibiriak, Kritichesko-98 b i o g r a f i c h e s k i i ocherk", D. N. Mamin-Sibiriak, Polnoe  sobranie sochinenii , torn 1 (Petrograd: F. A. Marks, 1915), p. 31. 3. D. N. Mamin-Sibiriak, Zoloto, Sobr. soch., torn 6, p. 147. (In Chapter III a l l translations of the quotations are mine.) 4. Ibid., p. 144. 5. I. Ignatov (quoted by M. Z. Ol'gin), A Guide to Russian  Literature 1820-1917 (London: Jonathan Cape, 19 21), p. 138. 6. Mamin-Sibiriak wrote several legends based on Ural f o l k l o r e . Discussion of t h i s genre i n his works can be found i n the a r t i c l e by I. Dergachev, "Zhanr legendy v tvorchestve D. N. Mamina-Sibiriaka", Russkaia l i t e r a t u r a 1810-1890 godov, Sbornik 5 (Sverdlovsk! Gos. i n s t i t u t im. A. M. Gor'kogo, 1973), pp. 99-122. 7. M. Nevedomskii (quoted by M. Z. Ol'gin), A„Guide to  Russian Literature 1820-1917 (London: Jonathan Cape, 1921), p. 137. 8. D. N. Mamin-Sibiriak, Zoloto, Sob, soch. , torn 6., p. 92. 9. Ibid., P. 190. 10. Ibid., P- 64. 11. Ibid., P. 191. 12. Ibid., P- 56. 13. Ibid. 14. Characters i n d i v i d u a l i z e d by l e x i c a l and l i n g u i s t i c p e c u l i a r i t y . In contrast to the laconic and d i r e c t Zykov, Myl'nikov i s presented as one who i s verbose i n speech. He exaggerates, t e l l s l i e s , t a l l s t o r i e s , but this i s done i n an amusing way. Two-faced Petr reveals himself i n the dialogues eith e r through long i n t r i c a t e sentences or through short, abrupt, crude phrases, interspersed with swearing. This surfaces i n the conversations with his mother, with Kishkin, Myl'nikov and Matiushka. 15. D. N. Mamin-Sibiriak, Zoloto, Sobr. soch., torn 6, p. 14. 99 16. Ibid., p. 57. 17. The surfacing of these human vices often becomes apparent i n s o c i e t i e s undergoing s i m i l a r sudden changes i n l i f e s t y l e . Descriptions of such mad t h i r s t for gold may also be found i n English l i t e r a t u r e . Bret Harte wrote of the C a l i f o r n i a gold rush, and Jack London about the Yukon Klondike. BIBLIOGRAPHY A l ' b o v , V. " K a p i t a l i s t i c h e s k i i p r o t s e s s v i z o b r a z h e n i i M a m i n a - S i b i r i a k a " , M i r B o z h i i , No. 1-2. S t . P e t e r s -b u r g : 1905. Pp. 112-135, 62-94. A n d r i a n o v a , F. A. 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