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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A comparative study of two measures of adaptive behavior for mentally retarded adults Mongrain, Susann Louise 1975

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO MEASURES OF ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR FOR MENTALLY RETARDED ADULTS by SUSANN LOUISE MONGRAIN B.Sc, McGill University, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Departments of Educational Psychology and Special Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes is for f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i i A b s t r a c t S i n c e 1 9 5 9 , a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r h a s b e e n d e f i n e d b y t h e A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o n M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y ( A A M D ) a s o n e o f t h e t w o d i m e n s i o n s t o b e u s e d i n d i a g n o s t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n . T h i s u s e o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r h a s r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s f i e l d , b u t i t h a s n o t b e e n a d o p t e d i n c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c e . T h i s m a y b e t h e r e s u l t o f p r o b l e m s t h a t h a v e b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n a n d m e a s u r e m e n t o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r b y e a r l y s c a l e s . I n r e c e n t y e a r s t w o n e w m e a s u r e s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r h a v e b e e n p u b l i s h e d : t h e A A M D A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e ( A B S ) a n d t h e V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n a n d R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e ' s ( V R R I ) A d a p t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g I n d e x ( A F I ) . T h e A B S c o n s i s t s o f t w o p a r t s . P a r t I m e a s u r e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a n i n d i v i d u a l i s a b l e t o c o p e w i t h t h e p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l d e m a n d s o f h i s / h e r e n v i r o n m e n t . P a r t I I i s d e s i g n e d t o m e a s u r e m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r s . T h e A F I c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e p a r t s . T h e S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n T e s t ( S E T ) i s a n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t e s t o f p r a c t i c a l a c a d e m i c a n d r e l a t e d s k i l l s . T h e V o c a t i o n a l C h e c k L i s t ( V C L ) i s d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s b a s i c w o r k h a b i t s a n d s k i l l s . T h e R e s i d e n t i a l C h e c k L i s t i s u s e d f o r a s s e s s i n g s e l f - h e l p s k i l l s r e l a t e d t o i n d e p e n d e n t l i v i n g . V e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e s e s c a l e s i s a v a i l a b l e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y w e r e t o p r o v i d e e s t i m a t e s o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e s e s c a l e s ; t o e x a m i n e t h e i r a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g i n d i v i d u a l s a t a l l l e v e l s o f f u n c t i o n i n g ; t o a s s e s s t h e i r v a l i d i t y b y e x a m i n i n g t h e i r m u t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p a s w e l l a s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e a c h i i i s c a l e t o m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e ; a n d f i n a l l y , t o a s s e s s t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e s e s c a l e s f o r p r o g r a m m i n g p u r p o s e s . A s a m p l e o f f i f t y - o n e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d a d u l t s w e r e t e s t e d o n t h e R e v i s e d S t a n f o r d B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e ( R S B ) a n d o n t h e S E T . I n a d d i t i o n , e a c h s u b j e c t w a s r a t e d b y t w o s t a f f m e m b e r s f a m i l i a r w i t h h i s / h e r d a i l y b e h a v i o r o n t h e A B S P a r t s I a n d I I , t h e V C L , a n d t h e R C L . T h r e e m o n t h s a f t e r t h i s d a t a w a s c o l l e c t e d , t h i r t y s u b j e c t s w e r e r e t e s t e d o n t h e S E T . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s o f t h e A B S a n d t h e A F I s c a l e s w e r e s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h a n d c o m p a r a b l e t o t h o s e o f s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s s u c h a s t h e R S B . T h e s t a b i l i t y o f S E T s c o r e s a l s o a p p e a r e d t o b e a d e q u a t e . T h e i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e A B S P a r t s I a n d I I , t h e V C L , a n d t h e R C L w e r e a s s e s s e d u s i n g g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y a n a l y s e s . T h e s e a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d g r e a t v a r i a t i o n i n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h r a t e r p a i r s a g r e e i n t h e i r j u d g m e n t s . S o m e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s a p p e a r e d t o b e t h e r e s u l t o f a t e n d e n c y f o r d i f f e r e n t r a t e r s t o a s s i g n d i f f e r e n t s c o r e s t o t h e s a m e p e r s o n s . T h i s b i a s w a s a t t r i b u t e d t o a m b i g u i t i e s i n t h e s c a l e s a s w e l l a s t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n r a t e r s h a v e a n d / o r u s e . B o t h t h e A B S a n d t h e A F I c o n t a i n i t e m s t h a t w e r e n o t u s e f u l i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h i s s a m p l e . S o m e i t e m s w e r e a m b i g u o u s ; o t h e r s w e r e t o o e a s y o r t o o d i f f i c u l t . I n g e n e r a l , t h e A B S a p p e a r e d t o b e m o r e u s e f u l f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a m o n g m o r e s e v e r e l y h a n d i c a p p e d i n d i v i d u a l s , w h e r e a s , t h e A F I s e e m e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s f u n c t i o n i n g a t h i g h e r l e v e l s , i v T h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e s c a l e s w a s a s s e s s e d u s i n g a m u l t i t r a i t - m u l t i m e t h o d a p p r o a c h . E v i d e n c e w a s p r o v i d e d f o r t h e c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y o f s i x t e e n o f t h e n i n e t e e n t r a i t s t h a t w e r e e x a m i n e d . H o w e v e r , s u p p o r t f o r d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y e m e r g e d f o r o n l y s e v e n o f t h e s e t r a i t s . T h e p r a c t i c a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e f i v e d o m a i n s o f t h e A B S P a r t II t h a t w e r e e x a m i n e d w a s s u p p o r t e d . M a n y a s p e c t s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r w e r e f o u n d t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o R S B m e n t a l a g e . T h e S E T s h o w e d t h e m o s t s t r i k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p t o m e n t a l a g e . F i n a l l y , t h e A B S a p p e a r e d t o b e m o r e u s e f u l f o r p r o g r a m m i n g i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s , w h e r e a s t h e A F I s e e m e d m o r e u s e f u l f o r m o r e i n d e p e n d e n t s e t t i n g s . T h e A F I w a s j u d g e d t o h a v e c e r t a i n d e s i r a b l e p s y c h o m e t r i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s u c h a s e q u a l n u m b e r s o f i t e m s i n t h e s u b t e s t s o f a g i v e n t e s t , t h a t m a k e i t m o r e d e s i r a b l e f o r p r o g r a m m i n g . H o w e v e r , t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f b o t h t h e A B S a n d A F I w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e l i m i t e d b y t h e i r l o w i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s a n d h e n c e t h e i r l i m i t e d v a l i d i t y . T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t L i s t o f T a b l e s L i s t o f F i g u r e s A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t C h a p t e r I I n t r o d u c t i o n S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m I I R e v i e w o f R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e N a t u r e o f A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r M e a s u r e m e n t o f A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r : E a r l y S c a l e s M e a s u r e m e n t o f A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r : N e w S c a l e s A A M D A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e s V R R I A d a p t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g I n d e x I I I M e t h o d s D e s i g n o f S t u d y S u b j e c t s R a t e r s S u b j e c t A t t r i t i o n M a t e r i a l s P r o c e d u r e D a t a C o l l e c t i o n I : I n d i v i d u a l T e s t i n g . R a t i n g S c a l e s R e p o r t e d I n c i d e n t s o f M a l a d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r v i Data Collection II 31 Method of Analysis 32 Test Analysis and Item Analysis 32 Interrater Reliability 34 Generalizability of Each Rater Pair 36 Generalizability of All Rater Pairs 38 Stability 40 Validity 41 IV Results of Analysis 44 Results of Analysis: ABS Part I 45 Test Analysis 45 Item Analysis 45 Generalizability of Ratings 55 Results of Analysis: ABS Part II 58 Test Analysis 58 Item Analysis 62 Estimated Frequencies of Occurrence for Behavior Measured by the ABS Part II 72 Generalizability of Ratings 74 Results of Analysis: SET 79 Test Analysis 79 Item Analysis 85 Stability 96 v i i Results of Analysis: VCL 99 Test Analysis 99 Item Analysis 103 Generalizability of Ratings 113 Results of Analysis: Difficulty Section of the VCL 117 Test Analysis 1 1 7 Item Analysis 117 Generalizability of Ratings 125 Results of Analysis: RCL 128 Test Analysis 128 Item Analysis 132 Generalizability of Ratings 147 Results of Analysis: Validity 151 Practical Academics, Language Development and Motor Development 151 Self-Help Skills 154 Vocational Skills 157 ABS Part II 160 V Discussion 168 Reliability 169 Internal Consistency 169 Stability 170 Interrater Reliability 170 v i i i D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 1 7 4 R a t i n g S c a l e s 1 7 4 S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n T e s t 1 7 8 M e a s u r e o f M a l a d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r 1 7 9 V a l i d i t y 1 8 1 A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r a n d M e a s u r e d I n t e l l i g e n c e 1 8 2 P r o g r a m D e v e l o p m e n t 1 8 3 L i m i t a t i o n s 1 8 6 S u m m a r y 1 8 7 R e f e r e n c e s 1 9 0 A p p e n d i x A 1 9 2 A p p e n d i x B 2 0 3 A p p e n d i x C 2 2 4 A p p e n d i x D 2 3 6 A p p e n d i x E 2 4 2 A p p e n d i x F 2 6 0 ix L i s t o f T a b l e s T a b l e 1 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n a n d I Q s c o r e r a n g e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s 2 2 2 D e s c r i p t i o n o f s a m p l e 2 3 3 D e s c r i p t i o n o f r a t e r s R S B m e n t a l a g e e q u i v a l e n t s b y l e v e l o f m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e f o r c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e e i g h t e e n T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e A B S P a r t I ( 1 ) 9 T e s t a n a l y s i s s u m m a r y f o r t h e A B S P a r t I 1 1 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e A B S P a r t I ( 2 ) 1 2 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s b y r a t e r p a i r a n d a c r o s s r a t e r s f o r t h e s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e A B S P a r t I 1 4 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e A B S P a r t I I ( 1 ) 2 5 4 N u m b e r s o f s u b j e c t s t e s t e d , b y p r o g r a m g r o u p , t e s t a n d r a t e r 2 6 3 0 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u b j e c t s b y s e x a n d l e v e l o f m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e 3 3 4 6 8 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e A B S P a r t I ( 2 ) 4 7 4 8 1 0 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e A B S P a r t I ( 1 ) 4 9 5 0 5 6 1 3 V a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o u n i v e r s e s c o r e v a r i a n c e ( o 2 y p ) a n d e r r o r v a r i a n c e ( a 2 6 ) b y r a t e r p a i r a n d a c r o s s r a t e r s f o r s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e A B S P a r t I 5 7 5 9 1 5 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e A B S P a r t I I ( 2 ) 6 0 1 6 T e s t a n a l y s i s s u m m a r y f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e A B S P a r t I I 6 1 17 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I ( ! ) 6 3 18 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e A B S P a r t II ( 2 ) " 6 4 1 9 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I : V i o l e n t a n d D e s t r u c t i v e B e h a v i o r 6 5 2 0 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I : A n t i - s o c i a l B e h a v i o r 6 5 2 1 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I : R e b e l l i o u s B e h a v i o r 6 6 2 2 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I : U n t r u s t w o r t h y B e h a v i o r 6 6 2 3 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I : W i t h d r a w a l 6 7 2 4 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I : S t e r e o - t y p e d B e h a v i o r s a n d O d d M a n n e r i s m s 6 7 2 5 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I : U n -a c c e p t a b l e o r E c c e n t r i c H a b i t s 2 7 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I : P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i s t u r b a n c e s 6 8 2 6 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I : S e x u a l l y A b e r r a n t B e h a v i o r 6 8 6 9 2 8 R a n g e o f e s t i m a t e d f r e q u e n c i e s o f o c c u r r e n c e f o r i t e m s o f t h e A B S P a r t I I a n d p e r c e n t a g e o f i t e m s f o r w h i c h r a t e r s p r o v i d e d e s t i m a t e s 7 3 2 9 N u m b e r o f i t e m s o f t h e A B S P a r t I I s h o w i n g d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s o f o v e r l a p i n t h e r a n g e o f e s t i m a t e d f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e 7 5 3 0 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s b y r a t e r p a i r a n d a c r o s s r a t e r s f o r t h e s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e A B S P a r t I I 7 6 z i 3 1 V a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e u n i v e r s e s c o r e v a r i a n c e ( a 2 y p ) a n d e r r o r v a r i a n c e ( a 26 ) b y r a t e r p a i r a n d a c r o s s r a t e r s f o r t h e s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e A B S P a r t I I 7 7 3 2 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e S e t ( 1 ) 8 0 3 3 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e S e t ( 2 ) 8 1 3 4 T e s t a n a l y s i s s u m m a r y f o r t h e S e t 8 2 3 5 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e S e t ( 1 ) 8 3 3 6 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e S e t ( 2 ) 8 4 3 7 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e S e t 9 1 3 8 E s t i m a t e s o f v a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e e p 2 f o r t h e s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e S e t 9 8 3 9 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e V C L ( 1 ) 1 0 0 4 0 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e V C L ( 2 ) 1 0 1 4 1 T e s t a n a l y s i s s u m m a r y f o r t h e V C L 1 0 2 4 2 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e V C L ( 1 ) 1 0 4 4 3 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e V C L ( 2 ) 1 0 5 4 4 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s b y r a t e r p a i r a n d a c r o s s r a t e r s f o r t h e s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e V C L 1 1 4 4 5 V a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o u n i v e r s e s c o r e v a r i a n c e ( a 2 y p ) a n d e r r o r v a r i a n c e (a 26 ) b y r a t e r p a i r a n d a c r o s s r a t e r s f o r t h e s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e V C L H 5 x i i 4 6 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t s o f t h e V C L ( 1 ) 1 1 8 4 7 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t s o f t h e V C L ( 2 ) 1 1 9 4 8 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e V C L ( 1 ) 1 2 0 4 9 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e V C L ( 2 ) 1 2 1 5 0 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s b y r a t e r p a i r a n d a c r o s s r a t e r s f o r t h e D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e V C L 1 2 6 5 1 V a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e u n i v e r s e s c o r e v a r i a n c e ( a 2 y p ) a n d e r r o r v a r i a n c e ( o 2 6 ) b y r a t e r p a i r a n d a c r o s s r a t e r s f o r t h e D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e V C L 1 2 7 5 2 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e R C L ( 1 ) 1 2 9 5 3 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e R C L ( 2 ) 1 3 0 5 4 T e s t a n a l y s i s s u m m a r y f o r t h e R C L 1 3 1 5 5 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e R C L ( 1 ) 1 3 3 5 6 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e R C L ( 2 ) 1 3 4 5 7 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s b y r a t e r p a i r a n d a c r o s s r a t e r s f o r t h e s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e R C L 1 4 8 5 8 V a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o " t h e u n i v e r s e s c o r e v a r i a n c e ( a 2 y p ) a n d e r r o r v a r i a n c e ( a 2 6 ) b y r a t e r p a i r a n d a c r o s s r a t e r s f o r t h e s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e R C L 1 4 9 5 9 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t , P r a c t i c a l A c a d e m i c S k i l l s a n d M o t o r M o v e m e n t s a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e S E T a n d A B S P a r t I ( 1 ) a n d c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e s e t r a i t s w i t h m e n t a l a g e 1 5 2 x i i i 6 0 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t , P r a c t i c a l A c a d e m i c S k i l l s a n d M o t o r M o v e m e n t s a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e S E T a n d A B S P a r t ( 2 ) a n d c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e s e t r a i t s w i t h m e n t a l a g e 1 5 3 6 1 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f S e l f - H e l p S k i l l s a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e R C L ( 1 ) a n d A B S P a r t I ( 1 ) a n d c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e s e t r a i t s w i t h m e n t a l a g e 1 5 5 6 2 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f S e l f - H e l p S k i l l s a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e R C L ( 2 ) a n d A B S P a r t I ( 2 ) a n d c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e s e t r a i t s w i t h m e n t a l a g e 1 5 6 6 3 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f V o c a t i o n a l S k i l l s a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e V C L ( 1 ) a n d A B S P a r t I ( 1 ) a n d c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e s e t r a i t s w i t h m e n t a l a g e 1 5 8 6 4 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f V o c a t i o n a l S k i l l s a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e V C L ( 2 ) a n d t h e A B S P a r t I ( 2 ) a n d c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e s e t r a i t s w i t h m e n t a l a g e 1 5 9 6 5 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e S E T w i t h R S B m e n t a l a g e , c o r r e c t e d f o r a t t e n u a t i o n d u e t o e r r o r i n e s t i m a t e s o f t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s a n d s t a b i l i t i e s o f t h e s e t r a i t s 1 6 1 x i v List of Figures Figure 1 Item analysis information for the ABS Part I (1) 52 2 Item analysis information for the ABS Part I (2) 53 3 Item analysis information for the Reading subtest of the SET 86 4 Item analysis information for the Writing subtest of the SET 87 5 Item analysis information for the Numbers subtest of the SET 88 6 Item analysis information for the Time subtest of the SET 89 7 Item analysis information for the Money subtest of the SET 90 8 Item analysis information for the Community Awareness subtest of the SET 91 9 Item analysis information for the Communication subtest of the SET 92 10 Item analysis information for the Motor Movements subtest of the SET 93 11 Item analysis information for the Concept Attainment subtest of the SET 94 12 Item analysis information for the Basic Work Habits subtest of the VCL (1) 14 Item analysis information for the Work Skills subtest of the VCL (1) 15 Item analysis information for the Work Skills subtest of the VCL (2) 106 13 Item analysis information for the Basic Work Habits subtest of the VCL (2) 107 108 109 16 Item analysis information for the Acceptance Skills subtest of the VCL (1) 1 1 0 XV 1 7 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s s u b t e s t o f t h e V C L ( 2 ) 1 1 1 1 8 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t s o f t h e V C L ( 1 ) 1 2 2 1 9 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t s o f t h e V C L ( 2 ) 1 2 3 2 0 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e P e r s o n a l R o u t i n e s s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 ) 1 3 5 2 1 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e P e r s o n a l R o u t i n e s s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 2 ) 1 3 6 2 2 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e C o m m u n i t y A w a r e n e s s s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 ) 1 3 7 2 3 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e C o m m u n i t y A w a r e n e s s s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 2 ) 1 3 8 2 4 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e S o c i a l M a t u r i t y s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 ) 1 3 9 2 5 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e S o c i a l M a t u r i t y s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 2 ) 1 4 0 2 6 C o m p a r i s o n o f m e a n s c o r e s o n t h e A B S P a r t I I a n d o n r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r f o r t h e d o m a i n V i o l e n t a n d D e s t r u c t i v e B e h a v i o r 1 6 2 2 7 C o m p a r i s o n o f m e a n s c o r e s o n t h e A B S P a r t I I a n d o n r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r f o r t h e d o m a i n A n t i s o c i a l B e h a v i o r 1 6 3 2 8 C o m p a r i s o n o f m e a n i s c o r e s o n t h e A B S P a r t II a n d o n r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r f o r t h e d o m a i n R e b e l l i o u s B e h a v i o r 1 6 4 2 9 C o m p a r i s o n o f m e a n s c o r e s o n t h e A B S P a r t II a n d o n r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r f o r t h e d o m a i n U n t r u s t w o r t h y B e h a v i o r 1 6 5 3 0 C o m p a r i s o n o f m e a n s c o r e s o n t h e A B S P a r t II a n d o n r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r f o r t h e d o m a i n P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i s t u r b a n c e s 1 6 6 x v i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h e f o l l o w i n g p e r s o n s f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h i s s t u d y : D r . R o b e r t C o n r y , C h a i r m a n o f t h e T h e s i s C o m m i t t e e , f o r h i s s u p p o r t a n d g u i d a n c e d u r i n g m y g r a d u a t e p r o g r a m a s w e l l a s d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y . D r . J u l i a n n e C o n r y , m e m b e r o f t h e T h e s i s C o m m i t t e e , f o r t r a i n i n g I r e c e i v e d f r o m h e r a n d f o r h e r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h e f i n a l d r a f t . M r . B o b P o u t t , m e m b e r o f t h e T h e s i s C o m m i t t e e , f o r h i s s u p p o r t a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e d a t a a n d f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n o b t a i n i n g s u b j e c t s . M r . R o g e r B u s h n e l l a n d t h e s t a f f a n d r e s i d e n t s o f B e v a n L o d g e w i t h o u t w h o m t h i s s t u d y w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l e . T o N a n c y a n d C h r i s f o r t h e i r e n c o u r a g e m e n t . T o L a r r y f o r h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d p a t i e n c e . C h a p t e r I I n t r o d u c t i o n T h e c o n c e p t o f m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n t h a t h a s e v o l v e d f r o m p s y c h o -e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y a n d k n o w l e d g e h a s b e e n b a s e d o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t r e t a r d a t i o n r e f l e c t s l i m i t a t i o n s i n i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . D e s p i t e t h e p r o -l i f e r a t i o n o f t h e o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g , t h e p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n h a v e , t o a g r e a t e x t e n t i n f l u e n c e d t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f m o r e s p e c i f i c c a p a c i t i e s t h a t c o u l d b e u s e d i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e r e t a r d e d f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ( R o b i n s o n & R o b i n s o n , 1 9 6 5 ) . M o s t t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n h a v e e q u a t e d i t w i t h s o c i a l i n c o m p e t e n c y ( R o b i n s o n & R o b i n s o n , 1 9 6 5 ) . P r i o r t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s , m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n w a s d e f i n e d s o l e l y i n t e r m s o f t h e " a d e q u a c y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n m a n a g i n g h i m s e l f a n d h i s a f f a i r s " ( N i h i r a , F o s t e r , & S p e n c e r , 1 9 6 8 ) . A l t h o u g h t h i s d e f i n i t i o n e m p h a s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a s s e s s i n g i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t e r m s o f s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l s t a n d a r d s , ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 6 8 ) i t i m p l i e d a n a d u l t n o r m o f p e r f o r m a n c e ( R o b i n s o n & R o b i n s o n , 1 9 6 5 ) . T h e p r o b l e m s p o s e d b y t h e d i a g n o s t i c e v a l u a t i o n o f i n f a n t s a n d c h i l d r e n d i c t a t e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l o r i g i n o f m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n . D e f i n i t i o n s o f m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n i n t e r m s o f s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n h a v e , i m p l i c i t l y o r e x p l i c i t l y , c o n s i d e r e d t h i s c o n d i t i o n t o b e o f p a t h o l o g i c a l e t i o l o g y , a n d , t h e r e f o r e , i n c u r a b l e . A l t h o u g h t h e s e c o n c e p t s a p p e a r e d t o b e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s e v e r e l y h a n d i c a p p e d i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e y d i d n o t a p p l y t o t h o s e c a s e s w h e r e 1 2 p h y s i c a l a n o m a l i e s w e r e a b s e n t , a n d w h e r e r e t a r d a t i o n p r o v e d t o b e t e m p o r a r y a n d t h e p r o d u c t o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a u s e s ( R o b i n s o n & R o b i n s o n , 1 9 6 5 ) . A s a r e s u l t , m a n y t h e o r e t i c i a n s i n t h i s a r e a c a m e t o v i e w a d i a g n o s i s o f m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n a s i n d i c a t i v e o f c u r r e n t a b i l i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n p o t e n t i a l c a p a c i t y , r e g a r d l e s s o f e t i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . A l t h o u g h m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o b e e q u a t e d w i t h s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n i n t h e b o d y o f t h e o r e t i c a l w o r k , t h e a d v e n t o f m e n t a l t e s t i n g c h a n g e d i t s p r a c t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n . S i n c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e I Q s c a l e b y B i n e t a n d S i m o n , m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r e d t h e m o s t s a l i e n t f e a t u r e o f m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n ( B e n t o n , 1 9 6 4 ) , a n d , t h e I Q h a s b e e n u s e d a s t h e s o l e c r i t e r i o n i n d i a g n o s i s a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( A d a m s , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h i s w i d e s p r e a d u s e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s i n d i a g n o s i n g m e n t a l r e t a r d -a t i o n h a s o c c u r r e d f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . R o b i n s o n a n d R o b i n s o n h a v e c i t e d o b j e c t i v i t y o f a s s e s s m e n t , " . . . s i m p l i c i t y , e a s e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d w e l l d e f i n e d n o r m a t i v e g r o u p s f o r c o m p a r i s o n " a s t h e m a j o r a d v a n t a g e s o f t h i s s c h e m e . I t s c r i t i c s , h o w e v e r , h a v e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t n o n - i n t e l l e c t u a l f a c t o r s m a y s u b s t a n t i a l l y a f f e c t i n t e l l i g e n c e - t e s t r e s u l t s . C u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s r e f l e c t o n e c l a s s o f t h e s e w h i c h h a v e r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i n r e c e n t y e a r s ( B e e r m a n , B e l l a m y , D i R o c c o , F r i e d l a n d , F o s s a n d S t e i n b o c k , 1 9 7 3 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s a r e r e s t r i c t e d m e a s u r e s o f a b i l i t i e s a n d d i s a b i l i t i e s . T h e y d o n o t " a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e n o r p r e d i c t t h e w a y a n i n d i v i d u a l m a i n t a i n s h i s p e r s o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e n o r h o w h e m e e t s t h e s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f h i s e n v i r o n m e n t " ( N i h i r a , 1 9 6 9 a ) , t h e v e r y i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d b y w o r k e r s i n t h i s f i e l d . 3 I n r e s p o n s e t o t h i s c o n c e r n o v e r t h e e x c l u s i v e u s e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s i n d i a g n o s i s a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t h e A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o n M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y ( A A M D ) p r o p o s e d a d e f i n i t i o n o f m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n t h a t r e f l e c t e d p r a c t i c a l a s w e l l a s t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e r n s : M e n t a l R e t a r d a t i o n r e f e r s t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u b - a v e r a g e g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g e x i s t i n g c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h d e f i c i t s i n a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r , a n d m a n i f e s t e d d u r i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r i o d ( G r o s s m a n , 1 9 7 3 ) . D i a g n o s i s a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e b a s e d o n t w o g e n e r a l d i m e n s i o n s : i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g , w h i c h r e f e r s t o p e r f o r m a n c e o n o n e o r m o r e s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s d e v e l o p e d f o r t h a t p u r p o s e ( G r o s s m a n , 1 9 7 3 ; H e b e r , 1 9 6 1 ; H e b e r , 1 9 5 9 ) ; a n d a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r , w h i c h i s d e f i n e d a s " t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o r d e g r e e w i t h w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l m e e t s t h e s t a n d a r d s o f p e r s o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y e x p e c t e d o f h i s a g e a n d c u l t u r a l g r o u p " ( G r o s s m a n , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h i s r e n e w e d i n t e r e s t i n a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r h a s r e c e i v e d m u c h s u p p o r t f r o m c u r r e n t w r i t e r s i n t h e f i e l d o f m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n . I t h a s b e e n a r g u e d t h a t i t i s t h e a b s e n c e o r i m p a i r m e n t o f t h e s k i l l s a n d b e h a v i o r s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r t h a t m a r k s t h e p e r s o n a s d e v i a n t o r r e t a r d e d i n s o c i e t y ( W o l f e n s b e r g e r , 1 9 7 2 ; B e n t o n , 1 9 6 4 ) . A n d , " s i n c e t h e v a s t n u m b e r o f b e h a v i o r s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s p h e r e , c a n , t h r o u g h m o d e r n t r e a t m e n t a n d t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s , b e m o d i f i e d o r r e v e r s e d , t h i s a r e a b e c o m e s t h e s o u n d e s t a r e a f o r a t t e m p t i n g a d i a g n o s t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " ( L e l a n d , 1 9 6 9 ) . S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m D e s p i t e t h i s e m p h a s i s o n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , i t a p p e a r s t o h a v e f a i l e d t o g a i n s u p p o r t i n c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c e . I n 4 h i s s t u d y o f t h e k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n u s e d f o r d i a g n o s t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p u r p o s e s , A d a m s ( 1 9 7 3 ) f o u n d t h a t p s y c h o l o g i s t s r e l y a l m o s t t o t a l l y o n t h e I Q , a n d t h a t p h y s i c i a n s d o a l s o , w h e n p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e p o r t s a r e a v a i l a b l e . T h i s f a i l u r e t o u t i l i z e t h e a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r d i m e n s i o n m a y b e d u e t o p r o b l e m s t h a t h a v e b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e a r l y a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r s c a l e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s e s c a l e s h a v e b e e n i n a d e q u a t e . T h e i r r e l i a b i l i t i e s h a v e b e e n l o w e r t h a n t h o s e o f o t h e r s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s . E v i d e n c e f o r v a l i d i t y h a s b e e n l i m i t e d . T h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e s e s c a l e s i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a m o n g i n d i v i d u a l s a t a l l l e v e l s o f i m p a i r m e n t h a s b e e n q u e s t i o n e d . A n d , f i n a l l y , t h e a m o u n t o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y p r o v i d e f o r p r o g r a m m i n g p u r p o s e s h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d i n a d e q u a t e ( G r o s s m a n , 1 9 7 3 ; G a r d n e r & G i a m p a , 1 9 7 2 ) . T h e p r o b l e m o f t h i s s t u d y c o n c e r n s t h e u t i l i t y o f t w o n e w a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r i n d i c e s , t h e A A M D A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e s ( N i h i r a , F o s t e r , S h e l h a a s , & L e l a n d , 1 9 6 9 ) ; a n d t h e V o c a t i o n a l a n d R e h a b i l i t a t i o n R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e ' s A d a p t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g I n d e x ( M a r l e t t , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e t o p r o v i d e : 1 . e s t i m a t e s o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e s e s c a l e s 2 . i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e a b i l i t i e s o f t h e s e t e s t s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g i n d i v i d u a l s a t a l l l e v e l s o f f u n c t i o n i n g 3 . e v i d e n c e f o r t h e i r v a l i d i t y 4 . i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s f o r p r o g r a m m i n g a n d p r o g r e s s e v a l u a t i o n 5 . e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t o d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r . 5 C h a p t e r II R e v i e w o f R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e c o n s t r u c t o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r h a s e v o l v e d i n a t l e a s t t w o w a y s . F i r s t , v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r h a v e b e e n i d e n t i f i e d a n d i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a n i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p l e x d e f i n i t i o n o f t h i s c o n s t r u c t . S e c o n d l y , m e t h o d s o f a s s e s s i n g a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r h a v e c h a n g e d b o t h a s a r e s u l t o f t h e c h a n g i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f t h i s c o n s t r u c t a s w e l l a s i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c s h o r t c o m i n g s o f e a r l y a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r s c a l e s . I n t h i s s e c t i o n , b o t h t h e n a t u r e a n d m e a s u r e m e n t o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d . 6 N a t u r e o f A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r T h e a u t h o r s o f e a r l y m e a s u r e s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r d e f i n e d i t a s a u n i d i m e n s i o n a l c o n s t r u c t ( A d a m s , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h e m o s t o b v i o u s i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s i s t h e s i n g l e s c o r e S o c i a l A g e o r S o c i a l Q u o t i e n t d e r i v e d f r o m a s s e s s m e n t . M o r e r e c e n t e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r i s m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l ( B a l t h a z a r & E n g l i s h , 1 9 7 1 ; N i h i r a , 1 9 6 9 a ; N i h i r a , 1 9 6 9 b ) , a n d , a s s u c h i s a " c o m p o s i t e o f m a n y a s p e c t s o f b e h a v i o r , a n d a f u n c t i o n o f a w i d e r a n g e o f s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s a n d d i s a b i l i t i e s " ( G r o s s m a n , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h e s k i l l s a n d b e h a v i o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e . D u r i n g i n f a n c y a n d e a r l y c h i l d h o o d , s e n s o r y - m o t o r , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , s e l f - h e l p , a n d s o c i a l i z a t i o n s k i l l s a r e i m p o r t a n t . I n c h i l d h o o d a n d a d o l e s c e n c e , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n a n d a p p l i c a t i o n o f b a s i c a c a d e m i c s k i l l s , a p p r o p r i a t e r e a s o n i n g a n d j u d g e m e n t , a n d s o c i a l i z a t i o n s k i l l s b e c o m e t h e f o c a l p o i n t s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . I n t h e a d u l t y e a r s , v o c a t i o n a l p e r f o r m a n c e a n d s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c o n s t i t u t e t h e i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r ( G r o s s m a n , 1 9 7 3 ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e , c u l t u r a l a n d o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d i n d e f i n i n g t h e s p e c i f i c c o m p o n e n t s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n a n d u s e o f t h e s e c o m p o n e n t s d e p e n d s i n l a r g e p a r t o n o p p o r t u n i t y a n d o n o t h e r p e o p l e i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ( G r o s s m a n , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h e i n h e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t i n e x p l o r i n g t h e n a t u r e o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r . T h e m o s t w i d e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d o f t h e s e i s m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e . M a n y s t u d i e s h a v e r e v e a l e d s u b s t a n t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g ( G r o s s m a n 7 1 9 7 3 ) . H i m m e l s t e i n ( 1 9 6 8 ) , i n h i s r e v i e w o f t h e u s e o f t h e R e v i s e d S t a n f o r d B i n e t ( R S B ) , F o r m L M , w i t h r e t a r d a t e s , c i t e s c o r r e l a t i o n s o f . 7 2 b e t w e e n R S B M e n t a l A g e a n d t h e V i n e l a n d S o c i a l M a t u r i t y S c a l e S o c i a l A g e ; . 6 9 w i t h t h e C a i n - L e v i n S o c i a l C o m p e t e n c y S c a l e ( C L S C S ) ; . 7 3 w i t h t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s u b s c a l e o f t h e C L S C S ; a n d . 2 8 , . 5 2 , a n d . 7 1 w i t h t h e r e a d i n g , s p e l l i n g , a n d a r i t h m e t i c s u b t e s t s o f t h e W i d e R a n g e A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t . T h e p r o b l e m a p p e a r s t o b e o n e o f i d e n t i f y i n g t h o s e s p e c i f i c d i m e n s i o n s t h a t a r e m o s t c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d a p t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g , i n d e p e n d e n t o f m e a s u r e d i n -t e l l i g e n c e , a s w e l l a s t h o s e m o s t c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h I Q ( N i h i r a , F o s t e r , & S p e n c e r , 1 9 6 8 ) . A l t h o u g h i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r , a n a b s o l u t e s t a n d a r d o f p e r f o r m a n c e d o e s n o t e x i s t . S i n c e e a c h i n d i v i d u a l h a s a u n i q u e p a t t e r n o f c o p i n g b e h a v i o r s , a s s e s s m e n t i s l i m i t e d t o t h o s e a s p e c t s t h a t c a n b e c o m m o n l y o b s e r v e d a m o n g m o s t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 6 8 ) . M e a s u r e m e n t o f A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r : E a r l y S c a l e s T h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r p o s e s m a n y p r o b l e m s . E m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s o f e x i s t i n g s c a l e s h a v e r e v e a l e d s o m e o f t h e s e . F i r s t , t h e r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e s e s c a l e s a r e l o w , a f a c t o r a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e t y p e o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s t h a t a r e u s e d . S i n c e a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y o f r o u t i n e b e h a v i o r , i t c a n n o t b e m e a s u r e d i n a n o f f i c e s e t t i n g ( G r o s s m a n , 1 9 7 3 ) . B e c a u s e o f t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n , m a n y m e a s u r e s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r r e l y o n t h e i n f o r m a n t m e t h o d o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n i s o b t a i n e d b y a t r a i n e d r a t e r f r o m i n t e r v i e w s 8 w i t h p e r s o n s w h o a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s u b j e c t . T h e s e p e r s o n s , t h e i n f o r m a n t s , p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l w h i c h c a n b e c o m p a r e d w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s o f o t h e r s w i t h k n o w n l e v e l s o f c o m p e t e n c y t o o b t a i n a r a t i n g ( G a r d n e r & G i a m p a , 1 9 7 2 ) . D e s p i t e w i d e s p r e a d a p p l i c a t i o n , r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s m e t h o d s h o w s c o n s i s t e n t l y l o w e r r e l i a b i l i t y t h a n s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s ( G r o s s m a n , 1 9 7 3 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e V i n e l a n d S o c i a l M a t u r i t y S c a l e u s e s t h i s m e t h o d . A l t h o u g h t h e a u t h o r o f t h i s s c a l e r e p o r t s a s t a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f . 9 2 , o t h e r s t u d i e s h a v e r e p o r t e d c o e f f i c i e n t s d o w n w a r d t o . 8 0 a n d s o m e t i m e s l o w e r ( H u r s t , 1 9 6 2 ) . T h e c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r m e a s u r e s h a s a l s o b e e n c r i t i c i z e d . I n t h e i r r e v i e w o f e x i s t i n g s c a l e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d G r e a t B r i t a i n , L e l a n d , S h e l h a a s , N i h i r a a n d F o s t e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) f o u n d t h a t m o s t t e s t s s h a r e d a s t r o n g e m p h a s i s o n i n d e p e n d e n t f u n c t i o n i n g , w i t h o n l y a n o m i n a l s a m p l i n g o f i t e m s d e a l i n g w i t h p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A n a n a l y s i s o f r e a s o n s g i v e n b y p a r e n t s f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g t h e i r r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n , a n d a c r i t i c a l - i n c i d e n t s s t u d y o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , d a y c a r e c e n t r e s , a n d i n s t i t u t i o n w a r d s o r c o t t a g e s r e v e a l e d a s p e c t s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r t h a t e x i s t i n g s c a l e s ( N i h i r a , 1 9 6 9 a ) , d i d n o t m e a s u r e . S i n c e m a n y s c a l e s w e r e d e v e l o p e d p r i m a r i l y f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p o p u l a t i o n s t h e y d o n o t s a m p l e b e h a v i o r s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e r e t a r d e d p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s p o i n t s t e m s f r o m t h e a p p a r e n t m o v e t o w a r d i n t e g r a t i o n t h a t h a s o c c u r r e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s , a n d w h i c h r e q u i r e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s c a l e s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s u c h e n v i r o n m e n t s ( G r o s s m a n , 1 9 7 3 ) 9 A n o t h e r p r o b l e m , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n t e n t , i s t h e f a i l u r e o f s o m e s c a l e s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g i n d i v i d u a l s a t a l l l e v e l s o f r e t a r d a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e C a i n - L e v i n S o c i a l C o m p e t e n c y S c a l e h a s b e e n f o u n d t o b e u n s u i t a b l e f o r o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t l o w - l e v e l r e t a r d e d s u b j e c t s b e c a u s e o f i t s f a i l u r e t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h s e v e r e i m p a i r m e n t s ( G a r d n e r & G i a m p a 1 9 7 2 ) . A n o t h e r c r i t e r i o n f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e u t i l i t y o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r i n d i c e s i s t h e l e v e l o f s p e c i f i c i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y p r o v i d e , b o t h f o r p r o g r a m m i n g p u r p o s e s a n d p r o g r e s s e v a l u a t i o n . T h e V i n e l a n d S o c i a l M a t u r i t y S c a l e p r o v i d e s s i n g l e s c o r e r e s u l t s t h a t a r e u s e f u l o n l y f o r d e s c r i b i n g a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s a d a p t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g i n a g l o b a l w a y a n d i n e v a l u a t i n g o v e r a l l c h a n g e s i n b e h a v i o r ( G a r d n e r & G i a m p a , 1 9 7 2 ) . F i n a l l y , t h e a d e q u a c y o f t h e n o r m s o f e x i s t i n g s c a l e s h a s b e e n q u e s t i o n e d . M a n y s c a l e s w e r e s t a n d a r d i z e d o n i n s t i t u t i o n a l s a m p l e s , a n d a r e t h e r e f o r e n o t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e r e t a r d e d i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e n o r m s o f m a n y s c a l e s d o n o t r e f l e c t t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e " n o r m a l " p o p u l a t i o n , t o w h i c h t h e r e t a r d e d a r e u l t i m a t e l y c o m p a r e d . I t i s f r o m t h i s t y p e o f d a t a t h a t s t a n d a r d s o f p e r f o r m a n c e f o r i n d e p e n d e n t f u n c t i o n i n g c o u l d b e d e r i v e d e m p i r i c a l l y , r a t h e r t h a n d e t e r m i n e d o n a r a t i o n a l b a s i s , o n l y . M e a s u r e m e n t o f A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r : N e w S c a l e s T w o n e w m e a s u r e s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d w h i c h a t t e m p t t o o v e r c o m e s o m e o f t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a r l i e r s c a l e s . T h e s e a r e t h e A A M D A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e s ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 6 9 ) , a n d t h e V R R I A d a p t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g I n d e x ( M a r l e t t , 1 9 7 3 ) . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e s e s c a l e s 1 0 r e f l e c t t h e m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r , a n d , t h e y r e l y o n o b s e r v a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s f o r a s s e s s m e n t . A A M D A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e s . " T h e A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e i s a b e h a v i o r r a t i n g s c a l e f o r m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d a n d e m o t i o n a l l y m a l a d j u s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s " . I t i s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e o b j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n a n d a s s e s s m e n t o f " . . . t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n c o p i n g w i t h t h e n a t u r a l a n d s o c i a l d e m a n d s o f h i s e n v i r o n m e n t " ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 6 9 ) . T h e s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f t w o p a r t s . P a r t I i s t h e p r o d u c t o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e v i e w o f b e h a v i o r a l r a t i n g s c a l e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d G r e a t B r i t a i n . It i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s k i l l s a n d h a b i t s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f p e r s o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e i n d a i l y l i v i n g ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 6 9 ) . T h e t e n b e h a v i o r d o m a i n s a r e : I . I n d e p e n d e n t F u n c t i o n i n g ( I n d . F u n c t . ) I I . P h y s i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t ( P h y s . D e v . ) I I I . E c o n o m i c A c t i v i t y ( E c o n . A c t . ) I V . L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t ( L a n g . D e v . ) V . N u m b e r a n d T i m e C o n c e p t ( N T C ) V I . O c c u p a t i o n - D o m e s t i c ( O c c . - D o m . ) V I I . O c c u p a t i o n - G e n e r a l ( O c c . - G e n . ) V I I I . S e l f - D i r e c t i o n ( S e l f - D i r . ) I X . R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ( R e s . ) X . S o c i a l i z a t i o n ( S o c . ) ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 6 9 ) P a r t I I o f t h e A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e i s b a s e d o n a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e a s o n s w h y p a r e n t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e t h e i r r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n , a n d o n a c r i t i c a l -i n c i d e n t s s t u d y o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , d a y c a r e c e n t r e s , a n d i n s t i t u t i o n w a r d s o r c o t t a g e s ( F o s t e r & N i h i r a , 1 9 6 9 ) . I t p u r p o r t s t o m e a s u r e m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r r e l a t e d t o p e r s o n a l i t y a n d b e h a v i o r d i s o r d e r s ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 6 9 ) . It c o n s i s t s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g d o m a i n s : 1 1 I . V i o l e n t a n d D e s t r u c t i v e B e h a v i o r ( V i o l . D e s . B e h . ) I I . A n t i s o c i a l B e h a v i o r ( A n t i . S o c . B e h . ) I I I . R e b e l l i o u s B e h a v i o r ( R e b . B e h . ) I V . U n t r u s t w o r t h y B e h a v i o r ( U n . B e h . ) V . W i t h d r a w a l ( W i t h d . ) V I . S t e r e o t y p e d B e h a v i o r a n d O d d M a n n e r i s m s ( S t . B e h . 0 . M a n . ) V I I . I n a p p r o p r i a t e I n t e r p e r s o n a l M a n n e r s ( I n a p p . I n t e r . M a n . ) V I I I . I n a p p r o p r i a t e V o c a l H a b i t s ( I n a p p . V o c . . H a b . ) I X . U n a c c e p t a b l e o r E c c e n t r i c H a b i t s ( U n a c c . E c c . H a b . ) X . S e l f - A b u s i v e B e h a v i o r ( S e l f - A b . B e h . ) X I . H y p e r a c t i v e T e n d e n c i e s ( H y p e r . T e n d . ) X I I . S e x u a l l y A b e r r a n t B e h a v i o r ( S e x . A b . B e h . ) X I I I . P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i s t u r b a n c e s ( P s y c h . D i s t . ) X I V . U s e o f M e d i c a t i o n s ( U s e M e d . ) ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 6 9 ) T h e s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e t y p e s o f i t e m s . T h e f i r s t t y p e r e q u i r e s t h e r a t e r - o b s e r v e r t o s e l e c t o n e s t a t e m e n t f r o m a s e r i e s o f h i e r a r c h i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s t h a t b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h e s u b j e c t . F o r e x a m p l e : E A T I N G I N P U B L I C : C h e c k t h e o n e s t a t e m e n t t h a t b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h e p a t i e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o u s e p u b l i c e a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . 3 O r d e r s c o m p l e t e d i n n e r i n r e s t a u r a n t . 2 O r d e r s s i m p l e m e a l s ; e . g . h a m b u r g e r s , h o t d o g s . 1 O r d e r s s o f t d r i n k s a t s o d a f o u n t a i n o r c a n t e e n . 0 D o e s n o t u s e p u b l i c f a c i l i t y a t a l l . T h e s e c o n d t y p e r e q u i r e s t h e r a t e r - o b s e r v e r t o i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r o r n o t a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f b e h a v i o r o c c u r s , a s w e l l a s s e l e c t i n g a l l e x a m p l e s o f t h a t b e h a v i o r t h a t h a v e b e e n o b s e r v e d . F o r e x a m p l e : D A M A G E S O T H E R S ' P R O P E R T Y : C h e c k " N o " o r " Y e s " . I f " Y e s " , s e l e c t a l l s t a t e m e n t s t h a t a r e t r u e o f t h e p e r s o n . Y e s N o a . R i p s , t e a r s , o r c h e w s o t h e r s ' c l o t h i n g . b . S o i l s o t h e r s ' p r o p e r t y . 12 c . D e l i b e r a t e l y t e a r s u p o t h e r s ' m a g a z i n e s , b o o k s , o r p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n s . O t h e r : T h e t h i r d t y p e i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e s e c o n d , b u t i t a l s o p e r m i t s a n e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o r s o c c u r . F o r e x a m p l e : R U N S A W A Y O R A T T E M P T S T O R U N A W A Y : C i r c l e " Y e s " o r " N o " . I f " Y e s " c h e c k e a c h s t a t e m e n t t h a t i s t r u e o f t h e p e r s o n b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . Y e s N o O c c a s i o n a l l y F r e q u e n t l y ( ) ( ) a . R u n s a w a y f r o m h o s p i t a l g r o u n d s . ( ) ( ) b . A t t e m p t s t o r u n a w a y f r o m h o s p i t a l g r o u n d s . ( ) ( ) c . S l i p s o u t o f h o s p i t a l w a r d . ( ) ( ) d . O t h e r : T w o f o r m s o f t h e s c a l e e x i s t : o n e f o r c h i l d r e n t w e l v e y e a r s a n d y o u n g e r , a n d o n e f o r a d o l e s c e n t s a n d a d u l t s t h i r t e e n y e a r s a n d o l d e r . I n f o r m a t i o n i s o b t a i n e d b y o b s e r v a t i o n . T h e a u t h o r s c l a i m t h a t t h e s c a l e c a n b e a d m i n i s t e r e d b y a n y p e r s o n n e l w h o a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e d a i l y b e h a v i o r o f t h e s u b j e c t s ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 6 9 ) . V e r y l i t t l e r e l i a b i l i t y d a t a i s p r o v i d e d f o r t h e s c a l e . E s t i m a t e s o f i n t e r -r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y f o r s a m p l e s o f a d u l t s a r e g i v e n . T h e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g e f r o m . 8 6 f o r I n d e p e n d e n t F u n c t i o n i n g t o . 4 0 f o r W i t h d r a w a l , S t e r e o t y p e d B e h a v i o r a n d O d d M a n n e r i s m s , a n d I n a p p r o p r i a t e I n t e r p e r s o n a l M a n n e r s . M e a n i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r P a r t s I a n d I I a r e . 7 4 a n d . 6 1 r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e m e a n r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e e n t i r e s c a l e i s . 6 7 ( N i h i r a e t a l • , 1 9 6 9 ) . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l f a c t o r s t h a t m a y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s e r a t h e r l o w e s t i m a t e s o f i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s . O n e i s t h e l a c k o f s t a n d a r d i z e d p r o c e d u r e s 1 3 f o r a s s e s s i n g b a s i c a c a d e m i c s k i l l s . A s e c o n d p r o b l e m i s t h e l a c k o f o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e a s s e s s e d i n P a r t I I . T h e t h i r d i s t h e a m b i g u i t y o f c r i t e r i a f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f b e h a v i o r s i n P a r t I I . B e h a v i o r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o o c c u r e i t h e r o c c a s i o n a l l y , d e f i n e d a s " . . . o n c e i n a w h i l e o r n o w a n d t h e n , " o r f r e q u e n t l y , d e f i n e d a s " . . . q u i t e o f t e n o r h a b i t u a l l y " ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 6 9 ) . E v i d e n c e f o r v a l i d i t y c o m e s f r o m a s e r i e s o f e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . T w o f a c t o r a n a l y t i c s t u d i e s w e r e c o n d u c t e d , o n e w i t h c h i l d r e n a n d a d o l e s c e n t s , a n d o n e w i t h a d u l t s . T h r e e f a c t o r s e m e r g e d f r o m t h e s e s t u d i e s . T w o o f t h e s e P e r s o n a l I n d e p e n d e n c e a n d S o c i a l M a l a d a p t a t i o n , a p p e a r t o b e s t a b l e a c r o s s a g e s . T h e t h i r d f a c t o r , P e r s o n a l M a l a d a p t a t i o n , f a i l e d t o a p p e a r i n t h e e a r l y a d o l e s c e n t g r o u p . T h e d o m a i n s t h a t d e f i n e t h i s f a c t o r i n o t h e r a g e g r o u p s l o a d e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n S o c i a l M a l a d a p t a t i o n ( N i h i r a , 1 9 6 9 a ; N i h i r a , 1 9 6 9 b ) . A t l e a s t t w o o t h e r s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t p a r t s o f t h e s c a l e c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h p r e v i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r , b a s e d o n c l i n i c a l j u d g e m e n t s ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 6 9 ) . I n o n e o f t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , t h e e x p e r i -m e n t a l v e r s i o n o f P a r t I o f t h e s c a l e w a s u s e d . A l a r g e n u m b e r o f i t e m s w e r e f o u n d t o d i s c r i m i n a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t w e e n a t l e a s t t w o l e v e l s o f a d a p t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , a t l e a s t 6 8 . 7 % o f t h e o r i g i n a l 3 2 5 i t e m s s h o w e d a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n ( a l p h a . = . 0 5 ) w i t h ' a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r , i n d e p e n d e n t o f m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e , o n a t l e a s t o n e a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r l e v e l ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 6 8 ) . T h e n o r m a t i v e d a t a p r o v i d e d f o r t h e A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e c o n s i s t s o f m e a n s c o r e s f o r e a c h d o m a i n b y a g e , s e x , a n d l e v e l o f m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e . T h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r e t a r d a t e s . 1 4 V R R I A d a p t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g I n d e x . " T h e A d a p t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g I n d e x ( A F I ) i s a t r a i n i n g a n d a s s e s s m e n t t o o l t o b e u s e d b y t h o s e w o r k i n g w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d a d o l e s c e n t a n d a d u l t " ( M a r l e t t , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h e s c a l e i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s . T h e S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n T e s t ( S E T ) i s a n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d o b j e c t i v e t e s t , w i t h c r i t e r i a f o r m a r k i n g c o r r e c t a n d i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s ( M a r l e t t , 1 9 7 3 ) . It c o n s i s t s o f i t e m s f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g d o m a i n s o f c o n t e n t : I . R e a d i n g ( R e a d . ) I I . W r i t i n g ( W r i t . ) I I I . N u m b e r s ( N u m . ) I V - . T i m e ( T i m e ) V . M o n e y ( M o n . ) V I . C o m m u n i t y ( C o m m u n . ) V I I . C o m m u n i c a t i o n ( C o m n . ) V I I I . M o t o r M o v e m e n t s ( M o t . M o v . ) I X . C o n c e p t A t t a i n m e n t ( C o n . A t t . ) ( M a r l e t t , 1 9 7 3 ) M o s t i t e m s a r e s c o r e d 0 , 1 . H o w e v e r , s e v e r a l i t e m s i n t h e s u b t e s t , C o n c e p t A t t a i n m e n t , c o n s i s t o f t w o o r m o r e s e c t i o n s . I f o n e i s a n s w e r e d i n c o r r e c t l y , h a l f m a r k s a r e a s s i g n e d . A t e s t k i t a c c o m p a n i e s t h i s s c a l e . A t l e a s t t w o u n p u b l i s h e d s t u d i e s h a v e a s s e s s e d t h e s t a b i l i t y o f S E T s c o r e s . C o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g e f r o m . 7 5 f o r C o n c e p t A t t a i n m e n t t o . 9 9 f o r t h e R e a d i n g a n d T i m e s u b t e s t s . T h e m a j o r i t y o f c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e g r e a t e r t h a n . 9 0 a n d t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t o t a l s c o r e s w a s a s s e s s e d a t . 9 7 a n d . 9 9 . T h e s t a b i l i t y o f s c o r e s f o r t h e s u b t e s t , M o t o r M o v e m e n t s , w a s n o t e v a l u a t e d i n t h e s e s t u d i e s . A t l e a s t o n e u n p u b l i s h e d s t u d y h a s e x a m i n e d i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y o f S E T s c o r e s . T h e v a l u e s r a n g e f r o m . 8 3 f o r t h e s u b t e s t , C o m m u n i t y A w a r e -n e s s , t o . 9 7 f o r t h e s u b t e s t s , W r i t i n g a n d M o n e y . T h e c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t o t a l 15 s c o r e s w a s . 9 9 . S c o r e s o n t h e s u b t e s t , M o t o r M o v e m e n t s , w e r e n o t e v a l u a t e d . A n o t h e r s t u d y e x a m i n e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n S E T s c o r e s a n d W A I S F u l l S c a l e S c o r e s . O n l y s c o r e s o n t h e f i r s t s i x s u b t e s t s w e r e i n c l u d e d . A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t ( p . 0 5 ) a n d t h e t o t a l s c o r e s f o r t h e s e s u b t e s t s c o r r e l a t e d . 7 1 w i t h W A I S s c o r e s . T h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e s c a l e i s a V o c a t i o n a l C h e c k L i s t ( V C L ) . I t c o n s i s t s o f t e n e q u a l t r a i n i n g s e q u e n c e s , e a c h w i t h f i v e g o a l s a n d t h r e e d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t s d o m a i n s a r e : I . B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s ( B W H ) A I n d e p e n d e n c e . ( h i d . ) B M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s ( M a k . D e c . ) C U s e a n d C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t ( U . C . E q u i p . ) D T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n ( T a k . D i r . ) I I . W o r k S k i l l s ( W k . S k . ) A S p e e d ( S p . ) B F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s ( F o l . I n s . ) C T a s k A n a l y s i s ( T a . A n . ) I I I . A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s ( A c c . S k . ) A A p p e a r a n c e ( A p p . ) B P u n c t u a l i t y ( P u n c . ) C S e l f - E x p r e s s i o n - T a l k i n g ( S e l f . E x . ) D R e l a t i o n s w i t h C o - w o r k e r s ( R e l . C o w . ) ( M a r l e t t , 1 9 7 3 ) T h e V C L u s e s a t h r e e p o i n t s c a l e ( 0 , 1 , 2 ) t o a s s e s s p e r f o r m a n c e : 0 - i f t h e t r a i n e e d o e s n o t s h o w o r h a v e a c h a n c e t o s h o w t h e b e h a v i o r 1 - i f t h e t r a i n e e i s m a k i n g a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t b u t h a s n o t q u i t e m a s t e r e d t h e s k i l l , o r r e q u i r e s a s s i s t a n c e o r p r o m p t i n g 2 - i f t h e t r a i n e e h a s m a s t e r e d t h e s k i l l o r b e h a v i o r a n d d o e s i t o n h i s o w n ( M a r l e t t , 1 9 7 3 ) 1 6 I n a d d i t i o n t h e V C L i n c l u d e s a T a s k A n a l y s i s S h e e t . T h i s p e r m i t s t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f p e r f o r m a n c e o n s p e c i f i c w o r k t a s k s . T h e s e t a s k s a r e c l a s s i f i e d , b y t h e r a t e r , a c c o r d i n g t o s k i l l l e v e l . T h e f i v e s k i l l l e v e l s a r e : 1 . O n e s t e p t a s k s w i t h f e w d e c i s i o n s a n d / o r g r o s s d e x t e r i t y , e . g . o n e p a r t o f a c a r w a s h , o n e t a s k o n a s s e m b l y l i n e , w i p i n g t a b l e s , p e e l i n g p o t a t o e s , s a n d i n g , e t c . 2 . S i m p l e r o u t i n e s , w i t h f e w d e c i s i o n s a n d / o r g r o s s d e x t e r i t y , e . g . t w o o r m o r e s t e p p a c k a g i n g , b a s i c j a n i t o r i a l r o u t i n e s , t a b l e c l e a r i n g , e t c . 3 . T a s k s r e q u i r i n g j u d g m e n t o r e x a c t i n g p r e c i s i o n , e . g . s p o t w e l d i n g , s e t - u p w o r k , p r e c i s i o n a s s e m b l y , e t c . 4 . . C o m p l e x r o u t i n e s r e q u i r i n g j u d g m e n t a n d h i g h s k i l l , w i t h i n a n e s t a b l i s h e d w o r k r o u t i n e , e . g . q u a l i t y c o n t r o l , s t o c k c o n t r o l , l e a d h a n d , e t c . 5 . C o m p l e x r o u t i n e s r e q u i r i n g j u d g m e n t , h i g h s k i l l , f l e x i b i l i t y , a n d a n a b i l i t y t o m a k e d e c i s i o n s o n h i s / h e r o w n , e . g . p a y c l e r k , w o r k f o r e m a n , l i b r a r i a n , e t c . ( M a r l e t t , 1 9 7 3 ) C o m p e t e n c y o f p e r f o r m a n c e i s a s s e s s e d u s i n g a f o u r p o i n t s c a l e ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ) . 1 . W o r k n e e d s t o b e c h e c k e d s e v e r a l t i m e s e a c h d a y . 2 . W o r k O . K . i f c h e c k e d o n c e a d a y . 3 . G o o d b u t n e e d s c h e c k i n g 1 - 2 t i m e s p e r w e e k . 4 . Q u a l i t y g o o d a n d s t a y s g o o d . ( M a r l e t t , 1 9 7 3 ) T h e R e s i d e n t i a l C h e c k L i s t ( R C L ) i s a n i n d e x o f 1 5 0 s k i l l s c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y f o r i n d e p e n d e n t f u n c t i o n i n g i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . I t c o n s i s t s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g d o m a i n s : 17 I P e r s o n a l R o u t i n e s ( P e r . R o u . ) A C l e a n l i n e s s ( C l e a n . ) B A p p e a r a n c e a n d E a t i n g ( A p p . & E a t . ) C R o o m M a n a g e m e n t ( R m . M a n . ) D T i m e M a n a g e m e n t ( T m . M a n . ) E H e a l t h ( H e a l . ) I I C o m m u n i t y A w a r e n e s s ( C o m . A w . ) A T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( T r a n s . ) B S h o p p i n g ( S h o p . ) C L e i s u r e ( L e i . ) D B u d g e t i n g ( B u d . ) E C o o k i n g a n d H o m e M a n a g e m e n t ( C k . H m . M a n . ) I I I S o c i a l M a t u r i t y ( S o c . M a t . ) A C o m m u n i c a t i o n ( C o m m u n . ) B C o n s i d e r a t i o n ( C o n s i d . ) C G e t t i n g F r i e n d s ( G e t . F r . ) D K e e p i n g F r i e n d s ( K p . F r . ) E H a n d l i n g P r o b l e m s ( H a n d . P r o b . ) ( M a r l e t t , 1 9 7 3 ) T h e R C L u s e s t h e s a m e t h r e e p o i n t s c a l e a s t h e V C L t o a s s e s s p e r f o r m a n c e . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e r e i s n o i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e c u r r e n t f o r m s o f t h e s e t w o s c a l e s . S o m e e v i d e n c e o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e A F I i s a v a i l a b l e . F r o m a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e A F I , t h r e e f a c t o r s e m e r g e d : h o m e - l i v i n g , w o r k , a n d e d u c a t i o n ( M a r l e t t , 1 9 7 4 ) . S E T s u b t e s t s s h o w e d t h e s t r o n g e s t l o a d i n g f o r t h e t h i r d f a c t o r , e d u c a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e R C L a n d V C L s u b t e s t s d i d e m e r g e a s s e p a r a t e f a c t o r s , a f e w s u b t e s t s c o r e s d i d l o a d o n f a c t o r 3 . T h i s o v e r l a p r e p r e s e n t s v o c a t i o n a l a n d r e s i d e n t i a l b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f S E T i t e m s ( M a r l e t t , 1 9 7 4 ) . F o r e x a m p l e t h e s u b t e s t , S h o p p i n g , o f t h e R C L , l o a d e d o n f a c t o r 1 , h o m e - l i v i n g , a n d f a c t o r 3 , e d u c a t i o n . N o r m a t i v e d a t a i s n o t a v a i l a b l e , a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , f o r t h e A F I . 1 8 A l t h o u g h t h e s e s c a l e s ( t h e A B S a n d t h e A F I ) a p p e a r t o h a v e o v e r c o m e s o m e o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f e a r l y m e a s u r e s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r b y r e f l e c t i n g a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r a n d b y r e l y i n g o n o b s e r v a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s f o r a s s e s s m e n t , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o d a t e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e A B S a n d A F I h a v e o t h e r p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m . F i r s t t h e i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e A B S a r e l o w , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a g r e a t d e a l o f m e a s u r e m e n t e r r o r c o n t r i b u t e s t o s c o r e s o n t h i s t e s t . H o w e v e r , t h e m e t h o d o f a n a l y s i s u s e d b y t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e A B S d o e s n o t p e r m i t t h e i s o l a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r s o u r c e s o f e r r o r . S e c o n d l y , t h e v a l i d i t y o f b o t h t h e A B S a n d t h e A F I h a s b e e n a s s e s s e d u s i n g s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n i q u e s s u c h a s f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . N e i t h e r s c a l e , h o w e v e r , h a s b e e n c o r r e l a t e d ( a t l e a s t i n t h e p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e ) w i t h o t h e r m e a s u r e s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r . T h i s t y p e o f a n a l y s i s w o u l d i n d i c a t e h o w m u c h o f w h a t i s m e a s u r e d b y t h e s e s c a l e s i s g e n e r a l i z a b l e f r o m o n e t e s t t o a n o t h e r a n d h o w m u c h i s a n a r t i f a c t o f p a r t i c u l a r t e s t . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e r e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e A B S a n d t h e A F I . T h i s s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e s o m e o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n b y 1 . p r o v i d i n g e s t i m a t e s o f t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s o f t h e A B S P a r t s I a n d I I , t h e S E T , t h e V C L , a n d t h e R C L 2 . a s s e s s i n g t h e i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e A B S P a r t s I a n d I I , t h e V C L , a n d t h e R C L u s i n g g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s ; t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l h e l p t o i s o l a t e s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f e r r o r t h a t a p p e a r t o b e i n f l u e n c i n g s c o r e s , a t l e a s t o n t h e A B S 3 . e s t i m a t i n g t h e s t a b i l i t y o f S E T s c o r e s ' ' " 4 . a s s e s s i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e s c a l e s b y e x a m i n i n g t h e i r m u t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a m u l t i t r a i t , m u l t i m e t h o d f r a m e w o r k a s w e l l a s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e a c h s c a l e t o m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e 19 5 . d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e s e s c a l e s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g i n d i v i d u a l s a t a l l l e v e l s o f a d a p t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g 6 . e v a l u a t i n g t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e s e t e s t s f o r p r o g r a m m i n g p u r p o s e s It w a s n o t p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e A B S P a r t s I a n d I I , t h e V C L a n d R C L ( s e e p a g e 3 2 ) 20 C h a p t e r I I I M e t h o d s D e s i g n o f S t u d y I n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e t h e t w o m e a s u r e s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s w e r e u s e d . A s a m p l e o f m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d a d u l t s w e r e s e l e c t e d . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t p h a s e o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n e a c h s u b j e c t w a s a s s e s s e d i n d i v i d u a l l y o n t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e a n d o n t h e S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n T e s t o f t h e A F I . I n a d d i t i o n , e a c h s u b j e c t w a s r a t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y b y t w o s t a f f m e m b e r s w h o w e r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e d a i l y b e h a v i o r o f t h e s u b j e c t s o n t h e A B S P a r t s I a n d II a n d o n t h e V C L a n d R C L o f t h e A F I . T h r e e m o n t h s a f t e r t h i s d a t a w a s c o l l e c t e d , a r a n d o m s a m p l e f r o m t h e i n i t i a l g r o u p o f s u b j e c t s w a s r e t e s t e d o n t h e S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n T e s t . 2 1 S u b j e c t s T h e s u b j e c t s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y w e r e s e l e c t e d f r o m B e v a n L o d g e , a f a c i l i t y f o r m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d a d u l t s l o c a t e d n e a r C o u r t e n a y , B . C . A t t h e t i m e o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e w e r e f i f t y - n i n e a d u l t s i n r e s i d e n c e a n d a n a d d i t i o n a l t h i r t y - s i x w h o a t t e n d e d o n a d a y b a s i s . O n l y t h o s e a d u l t s w h o l i v e d a t B e v a n L o d g e w e r e c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . F r o m t h i s i n i t i a l p o o l o f f i f t y - n i n e ( t h i r t y - f i v e m a l e s a n d t w e n t y - f o u r f e m a l e s ) , f o u r i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e e x c l u d e d b e c a u s e o f p r o f o u n d s e n s o r y h a n d i c a p s . T h e s e i n c l u d e d t w o d e a f m a l e s , o n e d e a f f e m a l e , a n d o n e b l i n d m a l e . A n a d d i t i o n a l f o u r s u b j e c t s , t h r e e m a l e s a n d o n e f e m a l e w e r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i n a l s a m p l e b e c a u s e t h e i r l e v e l s o f m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e e x c e e d e d t h e u p p e r l i m i t o f t h e m i l d l y r e t a r d e d r a n g e , a s d e f i n e d b y t h e A A M D c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m . T a b l e 1 s u m m a r i z e s t h i s s y s t e m . A l l f o u r s u b j e c t s h a d b e e n a s s e s s e d w i t h i n t h e t w o y e a r s p r i o r t o t h i s s t u d y b y t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f M e n t a l H e a l t h , C o u r t e n a y , B . C . T h e i r f u l l s c a l e W A I S I Q ' s r a n g e d f r o m 76 t o 1 1 5 . T h e f i n a l s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f f i f t y - o n e s u b j e c t s , t w e n t y - n i n e m a l e s a n d t w e n t y - t w o f e m a l e s . A l l s u b j e c t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n o n e o f e i g h t p r o g r a m s o f f e r e d b y B e v a n L o d g e , f r o m w h i c h r a t e r s w e r e s e l e c t e d . T a b l e 2 p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e g r o u p s o f s u b j e c t s a n d t h e t o t a l s a m p l e b y a g e , s e x , a n d o t h e r b i o d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s . R a t e r s T w o s t a f f m e m b e r s f r o m e a c h o f t h e e i g h t p r o g r a m g r o u p s w e r e s e l e c t e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e a d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e s a n d t h e V o c a t i o n a l a n d 22 TABLE 1 Standard deviation and IQ score ranges corresponding to AAMD measured intelligence levels* Range in Revised Stanford Wechsler Level 50 units Binet scores scores Mild -2.01 to -3. 00 67-52 69-55 Moderate -3.01 to -4, ,00 51-36 54-40 Severe -4.01 to -5. .00 35-20 39-25 Profound < -5. ,00 < 19 ^24 Taken from Grossman (1973) T A B L E 2 D e s c r i p t i o n o f s a m p l e P r o g r a m G r o u p N M e a n C a . M e a n T i m e M e a n T i m e M e a n T o t a l a t B e v a n i n o t h e r T i m e i n M F T ( Y r s . ) ( Y r s . ) I n s t i t u t i o n ( Y r s . ) I n s t i t u t i o n s ( Y r s . ) M a i n t e n a n c e 9 0 9 3 2 . 0 3 3 . 6 3 7 . 5 8 1 1 . 2 1 H o u s e k e e p i n g 4 6 1 0 3 3 . 5 7 3 . 5 5 6 . 2 9 9 . 8 4 W o o d w o r k i n g 2 0 2 2 6 . 9 6 2 . 9 6 0 . 0 0 2 . 9 6 C o m m u n i t y W o r k 2 2 4 3 9 . 5 0 4 . 5 8 9 . 5 4 1 4 . 1 2 A r t s a n d C r a f t s 1 4 5 2 7 . 4 2 4 . 8 8 7 . 5 5 1 2 . 4 3 A c t i v i t y I 4 2 6 2 8 . 4 3 2 . 5 6 4 . 5 8 7 . 1 4 A c t i v i t y I I 4 2 6 2 6 . 8 5 3 . 4 3 4 . 9 7 8 . 4 0 C a f e t e r i a 3 6 9 2 8 . 1 6 2 . 3 1 4 . 0 3 6 . 3 4 T o t a l 2 9 2 2 5 1 3 0 . 5 5 3 . 4 0 5 . 9 0 9 . 3 0 24 R e s i d e n t i a l C h e c k L i s t s o f t h e A d a p t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g I n d e x . S i n c e a n u m b e r o f s t a f f m e m b e r s w e r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e C a f e t e r i a p r o g r a m , r a t e r s e l e c t i o n w a s b a s e d o n t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f e x p o s u r e a n d t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e p r o g r a m d i r e c t o r . T h u s , c a s u a l , p a r t - t i m e , a n d r o t a t i n g s t a f f w e r e e x -c l u d e d . F o r p r o g r a m s t h a t u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d o n l y o n e f u l l - t i m e s t a f f p e r s o n , t h a t i s , L a u n d r y a n d H o u s e k e e p i n g , W o o d w o r k i n g , a n d A r t s a n d C r a f t s , a s e c o n d r a t e r w a s c h o s e n o n t h e b a s i s o f p a s t a n d a n t i c i p a t e d e x p o s u r e t o t h i s g r o u p . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d , t h r e e s t a f f m e m b e r s l e f t B e v a n L o d g e , a n d a f o u r t h c h a n g e d f r o m f u l l - t i m e t o c a s u a l p a r t - t i m e s t a t u s a n d a s s u m e d n e w r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h r e e o t h e r s t a f f m e m b e r s l e f t f o r a n n u a l s u m m e r v a c a t i o n s . A s a r e s u l t o f t h e s e c h a n g e s , f i v e a d d i t i o n a l r a t e r s w e r e s e l e c t e d t o c o m p l e t e b o t h A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e s a n d A d a p t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g I n d e x c h e c k l i s t s , f o r t h e C a f e t e r i a , A r t s a n d C r a f t s , H o u s e k e e p i n g a n d L a u n d r y , a n d C o m m u n i t y W o r k P r o g r a m s . T w o o t h e r s t a f f m e m b e r s w e r e a s k e d t o f i n i s h r a t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s . O n e c o m p l e t e d A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e s f o r t h e A c t i v i t y G r o u p I ; t h e s e c o n d w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r A F I c h e c k l i s t s f o r t h e C a f e t e r i a P r o g r a m . O f t h e s e s e v e n a d d i t i o n a l r a t e r s , t w o h a d o t h e r r a t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s a s w e l l . T a b l e 3 p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r a t e r s w h o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . S u b j e c t A t t r i t i o n D e s p i t e a t t e m p t s t o e n s u r e t h a t e a c h s u b j e c t w a s t e s t e d o n b o t h t h e R S B a n d t h e S E T , a s w e l l a s r a t e d t w i c e o n t h e A B S , t h e V C L a n d t h e R C L , n o t a l l t h i s d a t a w a s o b t a i n e d . T a b l e 4 s u m m a r i z e s t h e d a t a t h a t w a s o b t a i n e d , T A B L E 3 D e s c r i p t i o n o f R a t e r s A g e N S e x N E d u c a t i o n N L e n g t h o f E m p l o y m e n t Y r s . J o b C l a s s i f i c a t i o n N 2 1 - 3 0 5 M 7 G r a d u a t e S c h o o l 0 0 - 1 3 A i d e 2 3 1 - 4 0 3 F 1 1 . F o u r Y e a r s C o l l e g e 0 1 - 2 2 A s s t . P r o g r a m W o r k e r 3 4 1 - 5 0 3 T w o Y e a r s C o l l e g e 4 2 - 3 2 P r o g r a m W o r k e r 4 5 1 - 6 0 4 H i g h S c h o o l 1 2 3 - 4 0 S e n i o r P r o g r a m W o r k e r 1 6 1 - 6 5 2 E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l 1 4 - 5 2 C o o k 3 U n k n o w n 1 U n k n o w n 1 5 - 6 8 M a i n t e n a n c e 2 U n k . 1 H o u s e k e e p i n g 1 O t h e r 2 T A B L E 4 N u m b e r s o f s u b j e c t s t e s t e d b y p r o g r a m g r o u p , t e s t a n d r a t e r S a m p l e R S B S E T A B S V C L R C L P r o g r a m N R l R 2 R l R 2 R l R 2 M a i n t e n a n c e ( 9 ) 9 9 9 9 8 * 8 * 8 * 8 * H o u s e k e e p i n g ( 1 0 ) 1 0 9 * 10 1 0 1 0 0 * 1 0 0 * W o o d w o r k i n g ( 2 ) 2 2 2 2 2 0 * 2 2 C o m m u n i t y ( 4 ) 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 A r t s & C r a f t s ( 5 ) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 A c t i v i t y I ( 6 ) 6 6 5 * 5 * 6 6 6 6 A c t i v i t y I I ( 6 ) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 C a f e t e r i a ( 9 ) 9 9 9 5 * 9 5 * 9 0 * i n d i c a t e s t h a t o n e o r m o r e s u b j e c t s w e r e n o t a s s e s s e d 27 by test and program group. It indicates the numbers of subjects included in the initial sample, by program group, and the numbers of subjects who were assessed on each test and by each rater. In the Maintenance Program, one subject was not included in the sample to be rated on the VCL and RCL because he had left Bevan Lodge. One subject in the Laundry and Housekeeping Program was away on summer holidays when the SET was administered. In addition, one rater for this program did not complete the practice RCL and VCL before leaving on vacation. Because this rater's check lists were returned after the first data collection period had ended and were completed incorrectly, they were excluded from this study. Only one staff member was responsible for the Woodworking program. As a result, a second rater was not available who considered himself/herself able to do an adequate assessment of these subjects' vocational performance in the detail demanded by the VCL. Additional changes in the composition of program groups, subsequent to the developments that occurred just prior to Data Collection I resulted in two subjects (one by each rater) being excluded from the rating lists for Activity Group I. With regard to the Cafeteria program, one rater had worked with only five of the nine subjects, because of the organization of the shifts. In addition, only one rater felt able to complete the RCL for this sample. 28 Materials The standard protocols and test kits for the Revised Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Form LM, (Terman & Merrill, 1960) and the Social Education Test (Marlett, 1973) were used. Two packages were prepared for each staff rater. The first, the ABS package contained a brief des-cription of the present study, a copy of the adult version of the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scales, answer forms, a list of scoring instructions for this scale, and, a list of subjects that a given staff member would be re-quired to rate. The scoring instructions included those contained in the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scales Manual (Nihira et a l . , 1969), as well as additional ones required for this study. The second, the AFI package, contained copies of the Vocational and/or Residential Check Lists, as well as instructions for completing these scales. These instructions included those which were part of the scale, those suggested by the Administration Manual, and those required for this study. The hand scoring sheets for the Adaptive Behavior Scales and the Vocational and Residential Check Lists were also used. A questionnaire, based on the Description of Raters contained in the Manual of the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scales (Nihira et al. , 1969) was developed in order to obtain biodemographic information from raters. Procedure Data was collected in two sessions separated by an interval of three months. The first session was of nine weeks' duration, the second required two weeks. 29 Data Collection I: Individual Testing. During this first phase, the Revised Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale (RSB) was administered to all subjects by the experimenter. A modification of standard procedures occurred at the end of each individual testing session, when each subject was asked to define the terms handicapped and mentally retarded. This information was requested by the Bevan Lodge staff. Individuals, whose current level of intellectual functioning was suspected to be in the mildly retarded range on the basis of information from their files, were assessed first to ensure that no subject exceeded the upper limit of this range. Mental age scores for Chronological Age eighteen were used to define the IQ ranges for the AAMD levels of retardation of intellectual functioning. These are presented in Table 5. The Social Education Test was administered to each subject after the IQ testing was completed. Because of ambiguities in certain admini-stration and scoring instructions, a supplementary list of guidelines was prepared. This is presented in Appendix A . Rating Scales. The raters selected for this study did not begin their training and testing sessions until three weeks after the beginning of the first data collection period. This delay was the result of recent program developments that involved changes in the composition of the groups. Each staff member participated in two individual training sessions. During the first, the rater received the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale package. After these materials were reviewed, each person completed a practice scale for a subject from their program area who was not 30 TABLE 5 RSB mental age equivalents by level of measured intelligence for chronological age eighteen Level IQ Range M . A . Range Mild 67 to 52 11-0 to 8-6 Moderate 51 to 36 8-5 to 6-1 to Severe 35 to 20 6-0 5-3 Low Severe <19 <5-2 and Profound 3 1 p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s s t u d y . T h i s w a s s c o r e d b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a n d d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e r a t e r , w h o w a s t h e n a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e r e m a i n d e r o f h i s / h e r a s s e s s m e n t s . T h e s e w e r e a l s o s c o r e d b y t h e E x p e r i m e n t e r ; a n d , a n y o m i s s i o n s o r q u e s t i o n s w e r e d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e r a t e r . T h i s w a s n o t p o s s i b l e i n t w o c a s e s . O n e r a t e r l e f t B e v a n L o d g e ; a s e c o n d d i d n o t r e t u r n f r o m h e r a n n u a l s u m m e r l e a v e b e f o r e t h e e n d o f t h e f i r s t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d . A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g t h e A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e s , r a t e r s r e c e i v e d t h e A d a p t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g I n d e x p a c k a g e s a n d b e g a n t h e s e c o n d t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n . T h e p r o c e d u r e s w e r e t h e s a m e a s t h o s e f o r t h e A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e s , w i t h o n e a d d i t i o n . I t e m s f o r t h e T a s k A n a l y s i s S h e e t o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l C h e c k L i s t w e r e s e l e c t e d f o r e a c h p r o g r a m g r o u p b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a n d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r a t e r s . I t w a s d e c i d e d t h a t r a t e r s w o u l d c o m p l e t e t h e A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r s S c a l e s f i r s t s i n c e t h e m o r e s p e c i f i c i t e m s o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l a n d R e s i d e n t i a l C h e c k L i s t s m i g h t b i a s t h e A B S r a t i n g s . C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t s . D u r i n g t h e l a s t p a r t o f D a t a C o l l e c t i o n I , t h e d a i l y r e p o r t s f o r t h e y e a r J u n e 1 , 1 9 7 3 t o J u n e 1 , 1 9 7 4 w e r e r e v i e w e d . A l l r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r o n t h e p a r t o f m e m b e r s o f t h e s a m p l e w e r e r e t r i e v e d . T h e s e w e r e t o b e u s e d i n a p r a c t i c a l v a l i d a t i o n o f P a r t I I o f t h e A B S . D a t a C o l l e c t i o n I I . D u r i n g t h e s e c o n d d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d , a s t r a t i -f i e d r a n d o m s a m p l e o f t h i r t y s u b j e c t s w e r e r e t e s t e d o n t h e S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n t e s t . F o u r s u b j e c t s o f e a c h s e x a n d o f e a c h m o d i f i e d l e v e l o f r e t a r d a t i o n 32 o f m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e w e r e s e l e c t e d . 1 T a b l e 6 s u m m a r i z e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e o f s u b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . R e t e s t i n g o n t h e A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e s a n d V o c a t i o n a l a n d R e s i d e n t i a l C h e c k L i s t s w a s n o t f e a s i b l e . A t o t a l o f s e v e n s t a f f m e m b e r s h a d e i t h e r l e f t B e v a n L o d g e o r a s s u m e d n e w r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h e r e s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i r s t p h a s e o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e o p e n i n g o f a n e w d a y p r o g r a m f a c i l i t y , a n d t h e h i r i n g o f n e w s t a f f m e m b e r s l e f t o n l y n i n e t e e n s u b j e c t s w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l r a t e r s a n d p r o g r a m g r o u p s . M e t h o d o f A n a l y s i s B e c a u s e t w o r a t i n g s w e r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s o n t h e A B S , R C L , a n d V C L , t w o " a n a l y s i s s a m p l e s " w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d f o r t h e s e t e s t s . S u b j e c t s , w i t h i n e a c h p r o g r a m g r o u p , w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e t w o a n a l y s i s s a m p l e s s o t h a t o n e - h a l f o f a g i v e n r a t e r ' s t e s t s w e r e i n e a c h s a m p l e a n d s o ' t h a t n o s u b j e c t w a s i n c l u d e d m o r e t h a n o n c e i n e a c h s a m p l e . T h e s e a n a l y s i s s a m p l e s w e r e u s e d f o r t e s t a n d i t e m a n a l y s e s , a s w e l l a s f o r t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s t h a t w a s u s e d t o a s s e s s t h e v a l i d i t i e s o f t h e s e t e s t s . T e s t A n a l y s i s a n d I t e m A n a l y s i s . T h e s e a n a l y s e s w e r e p e r f o r m e d o n a l l t e s t s , e x c e p t t h e R S B , u s i n g t h e L E R T A P t e s t a n a l y s i s p a c k a g e ( N e l s o n , 1 9 7 4 ) , a v a i l a b l e i n t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ^ T h e t o t a l s a m p l e i n c l u d e d o n l y t h r e e m i l d l y r e t a r d e d m a l e s a n d t h r e e s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d m a l e s . 3 3 T A B L E 6 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u b j e c t s b y s e x a n d l e v e l o f m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e . L e v e l M a l e F e m a l e T o t a l M i l d 3 5 8 M o d e r a t e 14 6 2 0 S e v e r e 3 6 9 L o w S e v e r e 9 5 1 4 a n d P r o f o u n d 3 4 C r o n b a c h ' s a l p h a f o r s t r a t i f i e d t e s t s ( C r o n b a c h , S c h o n e m a n n , & M c K i e , 1 9 6 5 ) w a s u s e d t o a s s e s s t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . T h e f o r m u l a f o r t h i s c o e f f i c i e n t i s p r o v i d e d i n R a j a r a t n a m , C r o n b a c h , & G l e s e r , 1 9 6 5 ) a ^ h a s t r a t = 1 - n k h M S r ( h ) ~ ~ ^ t ~ w h e r e k = t h e n u m b e r o f i t e m s i n a g i v e n s u b t e s t o r s t r a t u m , h . ^ r ( h ) = t h e ^ s ^ u a l m e a n s q u a r e f r o m t h e p e r s o n s - b y - i t e m s m a t r i x f o r a g i v e n s u b t e s t o r s t r a t u m , h . s ^ = v a r i a n c e f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t . A c r i t e r i o n o f . 4 0 f o r i t e m - t o t a l t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w a s s e l e c t e d i n o r d e r t o e x a m i n e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a n d n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s ( N u n n a l l y , 1 9 6 7 ) . T h e s t r i n g e n c y o f t h i s c r i t e r i o n i s j u s t i f i a b l e s i n c e t h e s e s c a l e s a r e b e h a v i o r -a l l y r a t h e r t h a n c o g n i t i v e l y o r i e n t e d . I n t e r r a t e r R e l i a b i l i t y . T r a d i t i o n a l m e t h o d s o f a s s e s s i n g t h e i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y o f r a t i n g s c a l e s h a v e b e e n b a s e d o n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l m o d e l o f t e s t t h e o r y . O r d i n a r i l y , t w o o r m o r e r a t e r s j u d g e s u b j e c t s o n a l i s t o f i t e m s . A c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s c o m p u t e d f o r t h e s e s e t s o f s c o r e s . T h i s c o e f f i c i e n t i s t a k e n a s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h r a t e r s a g r e e i n t h e i r j u d g m e n t s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s m o d e l , r a t e r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e p a r a l l e l f o r m s o f t h e m e a s u r i n g o p e r a t i o n , a n d , t h e e r r o r o f m e a s u r e m e n t , o r , m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , d i s a g r e e m e n t a m o n g r a t e r s , i s a s s u m e d t o b e r a n d o m a n d u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . T h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s m a y b e a p p r o p r i a t e w h e r e c a r e f u l l y e q u a t e d p a r a l l e l f o r m s o f a t e s t a r e u s e d . H o w e v e r t h e y a r e l e s s d e s c r i p t i v e 3 5 o f r a t i n g s c a l e s , w h e r e 1 . r a t e r s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e q u i v a l e n t 2 . e r r o r m a y b e d u e t o a . d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c e n t r a l t e n d e n c y o f v a l u e s t h a t r a t e r s a s s i g n ; b . d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g r a t e r s i n o v e r a l l j u d g m e n t s o f s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t s ; a n d c . d i f f e r e n c e s d u e t o t h e q u a l i t i e s ( e . g . i t e m s ) t o w h i c h d i f f e r e n t r a t e r s a t t e n d . ( C r o n b a c h , G l e s e r , N a n d a , & R a j a r a t n a m , 1 9 7 2 ) C r o n b a c h , R a j a r a t n a m , a n d G l e s e r ( 1 9 6 3 ) h a v e p r o p o s e d a t h e o r y o f g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y w h i c h u t i l i z e s a n a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e a p p r o a c h t o t e s t t h e o r y . W i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h i s t h e o r y , a n o b s e r v a t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s o f c o n d i t i o n s . T h e g e n e r a l t e r m r e f e r r i n g t o c o n d i t i o n s o f a c e r t a i n k i n d i s f a c e t . ^ F a c e t s a l o n e o r i n c o m b i n a t i o n d e f i n e u n i v e r s e s ( C r o n b a c h e t a l . , 1 9 7 2 ) . P r a c t i c a l a n d t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e r n s d e t e r m i n e t h e u n i v e r s e t o w h i c h a n o b s e r v a t i o n i s t o b e g e n e r a l i z e d , a n d , h e n c e , t h e p l a n o r d e s i g n f o r c o l l e c t i n g t h i s d a t a . G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y t h e o r y a s s u m e s t h a t 1 . c o n d i t i o n s o f o b s e r v a t i o n a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p a r a l l e l ; 2 . c o n d i t i o n s ( e s p e c i a l l y i t e m s ) m a y b e r a n d o m l y s a m p l e d f r o m a u n i v e r s e , o r i n a c c o r d w i t h a s t r a t i f i e d p l a n ; a n d 3 . t w o o r m o r e f a c e t s m a y b e a n a l y z e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . ( C r o n b a c h e t a l . , 1 9 7 2 ) S i m i l a r t o l e v e l s i n t r a d i t i o n a l A N O V A t e r m i n o l o g y . S i m i l a r t o f a c t o r s i n t r a d i t i o n a l A N O V A t e r m i n o l o g y . 3 6 F r o m t h e a n a l y s i s o f d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n a g i v e n g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y s t u d y , e s t i m a t e s a r e o b t a i n e d f o r t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f v a r i a n c e , e a c h o f w h i c h i s a t t r i b u t e d t o o n e f a c e t o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f f a c e t s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e e x p e r i -m e n t a l d e s i g n . T h e s e v a r i a n c e e s t i m a t e s , " t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l c o m p o n e n t s o f a n o b s e r v e d s c o r e " ( C r o n b a c h e t a l . , 1 9 7 2 ) , a r e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e e q u a t i o n s f o r E x p e c t e d M e a n S q u a r e s ( E M S ) ( C o r n f i e l d & T u k e y , 1 9 5 6 ) . F r o m t h e s e c o m p o n e n t s , a c o e f f i c i e n t o f g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c a n b e c a l c u l a t e d . T h i s i s d e f i n e d a s t h e r a t i o o f u n i v e r s e s c o r e v a r i a n c e o r " w a n t e d v a r i a n c e " ( G l e s e r , C r o n b a c h , & R a j a r a t n a m , 1 9 6 5 ) t o e x p e c t e d o b s e r v e d s c o r e v a r i a n c e . " I t e x p r e s s e s o n a 0 t o 1 s c a l e h o w w e l l t h e o b s e r v a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o l o c a t e i n d i v i d u a l s r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r m e m b e r s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . . . . F o r e a c h o f s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e u n i v e r s e s o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , t h e r e i s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g v a r i a n c e r a t i o " ( C r o n b a c h e t a l . , 1 9 7 2 ) . T h i s s t u d y w a s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a c c u r a c y o f g e n e r a l i z i n g f r o m 1 . t h e j u d g m e n t s o f e a c h r a t e r p a i r ; a n d 2 . t h e j u d g m e n t s o f a l l r a t e r p a i r s o v e r t h e u n i v e r s e o f j u d g e s f o r e a c h s u b t e s t o f t h e A B S , t h e V C L , t h e R C L , a n d f o r t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f t h e s e s c a l e s . T o a s s e s s t h i s , t w o t y p e s o f a n a l y s e s w e r e c a r r i e d o u t . G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f e a c h r a t e r p a i r . T o e s t i m a t e t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e j u d g m e n t s o f e a c h r a t e r p a i r , a t h r e e w a y A N O V A w a s c a r r i e d o u t f o r e a c h p r o g r a m g r o u p f o r e a c h s u b t e s t a n d t h e t o t a l t e s t s . T h e t h r e e f a c e t s w e r e p e r s o n s ( p ) , j u d g e s ( j ) , a n d i t e m s ( i ) . T h e d e s i g n w a s c o m p l e t e l y c r o s s e d , p x j x i . T h e a n a l y s i s w a s f o r a m i x e d m o d e l , w i t h 37 persons and judges treated as random, and items as fixed. The equations for the Expected Mean Squares for the mixed model are: EMSp = n.a2(pj,e/I*) + n-njo^Cp/I*)1 EMSj = n ia 2(pj,e/I*) + n^c^a/I*) EMSi = a 2(pij,e/I*) + n pa 2(ijVI*) + nja 2(pi/I*) + n pnja 2(i/I*) EMSpj = nia 2(pj,e/I*) EMSpi =' a 2(pij,e/I*) + nja 2(pi/I*) EMSji = a 2(pij,e/I*) + n pa 2(ij/I*) EMSpij = a2 (pij, e/I*) The variance components obtained for each of the eight facets and combinations of facets were used in the following calculations: 2 1. Universe Score Variance (ea p p) or wanted variance 2 2 2 EO pp = ff p + ('i/n'.)a :(pi/I*) where, a (p) = variance component for persons 2 a (pi/I*) = variance component for the persons-by-items interaction for a fixed set of items n| = number of conditions for facet i (items) 2 2. The error (ea a): eo2a = (l/n'jOa^pj/I*) + (i/n'^'j) a 2(pij, e/I*) where a 2pj = variance component for the persons-by-judges interaction for a fixed set of items 2 a pij.e = variance component for the persons-by-judges-by-ritems interaction for a fixed set of items n'j = number of conditions for facet i (items) n'j = number of conditions for facet j (judges) •'The notation "I*" is used to indicate that the number of conditions of facet i , that is, the number of items, is fixed. 3 8 3 . T h e E x p e c t e d O b s e r v e d S c o r e V a r i a n c e ( e a " ( x ) ) : e a 2 ( x ) = a 2 ( y p ) + a 2 ( 6 ) 4 . T h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y ( e p 2 ) £ P 2 = o 2 ( y p ) G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f a l l r a t e r p a i r s . T o e s t i m a t e t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e j u d g m e n t s o f a l l r a t e r s , a f o u r f a c e t d e s i g n w i t h p e r s o n s ( p ) c r o s s e d w i t h j u d g e s ( j ) , b o t h n e s t e d i n p r o g r a m g r o u p ( c ) , a n d a l l c r o s s e d w i t h i t e m s ( i ) w a s u s e d . T h e a n a l y s e s w e r e p e r f o r m e d o n a s a m p l e o f o b s e r v -a t i o n s c o n s i s t i n g o f f o u r s u b j e c t s r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m e a c h p r o g r a m g r o u p . F o r t h e A B S , t h e W o o d w o r k i n g p r o g r a m w a s e x c l u d e d ( N < 4 ) . F o r t h e V C L , t h e W o o d w o r k i n g a n d L a u n d r y a n d H o u s e k e e p i n g p r o g r a m s w e r e e x c l u d e d b e c a u s e o n l y o n e r a t i n g w a s a v a i l a b l e f o r e a c h s u b j e c t . T h e W o o d w o r k i n g p r o g r a m w a s e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e R C L a n a l y s i s ( N < 4 ) . I n a d d i t i o n t h e C a f e t e r i a a n d L a u n d r y a n d H o u s e k e e p i n g p r o g r a m s w e r e e x c l u d e d b e c a u s e o n l y o n e r a t i n g w a s a v a i l a b l e f o r e a c h s u b j e c t . T h e a n a l y s i s w a s f o r a m i x e d m o d e l w i t h p e r s o n s , j u d g e s , a n d p r o g r a m t r e a t e d a s r a n d o m a n d i t e m s a s f i x e d . A n a n a l y s i s w a s p e r f o r m e d f o r e a c h s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t . T h e e q u a t i o n s f o r t h e E x p e c t e d M e a n S q u a r e s f o r t h i s d e s i g n a r e E M S c = ( n p n j n i ) a 2 ( c / I * ) + ( n - j n p a 2 ( p ( c ) / I * ) + ( n D n > 2 ( j ( c ) / l * ) + ( N I ) 0 2 ( p j ( c ) / I * ) 39 E M S i = ( n c n p n p a 2 ( i / l * ) + ( n p n j ) o 2 ( c i / I * ) + ( n j ) a 2 ( p i ( c ) / I * ) + ( n p ) a 2 0 ' i ( c ) / I * ) + 2 • a ( p j i ( c ) e / I * ) E M S p ( c ) = ( n j n i ) a 2 ( p ( c ) / I * ) + ( n i ) a 2 ( p j (c)/I*) E M S j ( c ) = ( n p n i ) a 2 ( j ( c)/I*) + ' , ( n i ) o 2 ( p j ( c)/I*) E M S c i = ( n p n j ) a 2 ( c i / I * ) + ( n j ) a 2 ( p i ( c ) / I * ) + ( n p ) a ( j i ( c ) / I * ) + a ( p i j ( c ) e / I * ) E M S p j ( c ) = ( n i ) a 2 ( p j ( c ) / I * ) E M S p i ( c ) = ( n j ) a 2 ( p i ( c ) / I * ) + a 2 ( p i j (c)S/I*) E M S j i ( c ) = ( n p ) a 2 ( j i ( c ) / I * ) + a 2 ( p i j ( c ) e/I*) E M S p i j ( c ) .= a 2 ( p i j ( c ) e / I * ) T h e v a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t s o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h o f t h e n i n e f a c e t s a n d c o m b i n a t i o n s o f f a c e t s w e r e u s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a l c u l a t i o n s : 1 . T h e U n i v e r s e S c o r e V a r i a n c e ( e a 2 y p ) o r w a n t e d v a r i a n c e : e a 2 ( y p ) = a 2 ( p ( c)/I*) + ( l / n , i ) a 2 ( p i ( c ) / I * ) w h e r e a 2 ( p ( c)/I*) = v a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t f o r p e r s o n s , n e s t e d i n p r o g r a m g r o u p , f o r a f i x e d s e t o f i t e m s . o 2 ( p i ( c ) / I * ) = v a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t f o r t h e p e r s o n s - b y - i t e m s i n t e r a c t i o n , n e s t e d i n p r o g r a m g r o u p f o r a f i x e d s e t o f i t e m s . n ' j = n u m b e r o f c o n d i t i o n s f o r f a c e t i ( i t e m s ) . 2 . T h e E r r o r (ea2(6 )): ea2'(<5) = ( l / n j ) a 2 ( p j ( c)/I*) + ( l / n ' i n ' j ) a 2 ( p i j ( c ) e/I*) w h e r e a 2 ( p j ( c)/I*) = v a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t f o r t h e . p e r s o n s - b y -j u d g e s i n t e r a c t i o n , n e s t e d i n p r o g r a m g r o u p , f o r a f i x e d s e t o f i t e m s . 40 a 2(pij(c)e/I*) = variance component for the persons-by-items-by-judges interaction, nested within program group for a fixed set of items. 3. The Expected Observed Score Variance ( e a 2(x)): e a 2 ( x ) = a 2 ( yp) + -a 2(6 ) 4. The Coefficient of Generalizability (ep 2): ep 2 = e a 2(y p) t e a 2(x) Stability. Generalizability theory was also used to assess the stability of the SET subtest and total test scores. Occasions were treated as conditions of a facet and were considered to be randomly sampled from a three month time span. Generalization was over the universe of occasions, for this time span. A three way ANOVA was performed for each subtest as well as the total test. The three facets were persons (p), occasions (o), and items (i) . The analysis was for a mixed model with persons and occasions treated as random, and items as fixed. The equations for the Expected Mean Squares for this design are: EMSp = n 0n i 0 2(p/I*) + n i 0 2(po/I*) EMSo = n pnia 2(o/I*) + nja^po/I*) EMSi EMSpo EMSpi EMSoi EMSpoi n pn 0a 2(i/I*) + n Qa 2(pi/I*) + n pa 2(oi/I*) + a 2(poie/I*) njc^Cpo/I*) n0CT2(pi/I*) + ct2(poi,e/I*) n pa 2(oi/I*) + a 2(poi,e/I*) a 2(poi,e/I*) 4 1 T h e v a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t s o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h o f t h e e i g h t f a c e t s a n d c o m b i n a t i o n s o f f a c e t s w e r e u s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a l c u l a t i o n s : 1 . U n i v e r s e s c o r e v a r i a n c e ( e a 2 ( y p ) ) o r w a n t e d v a r i a n c e . e o 2 ( y p ) = a 2 ( p / I * ) + ( 1 / n ' p o 2 ( p i / I * ) w h e r e o 2 ( p / I * ) = t h e v a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t f o r p e r s o n s , f o r a f i x e d s e t o f i t e m s . o 2 ( p i / I * ) = t h e v a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t f o r t h e p e r s o n s - b y - i t e m s i n t e r a c t i o n f o r a f i x e d s e t o f i t e m s . n ' j -= n u m b e r o f c o n d i t i o n s o f f a c e t i ( i t e m s ) . 2. T h e E r r o r ( e o 2 ( 6 )): e a 2 ( 6 ) = ( l / n ' o ) a 2 ( p o / I * ) + ( l / n ' o n ^ a V ' i e / I * ) w h e r e a 2 ( p o / . I * . ) ' = t h e v a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t f o r t h e p e r s o n s , - b y -o c c a s i o n s i n t e r a c t i o n , f o r a f i x e d s e t o f i t e m s . o 2 ( p o i e / l * ) = t h e v a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t f o r t h e p e r s o n s - b y -o c c a s i o n s - b y - i t e m s i n t e r a c t i o n , f o r a f i x e d s e t o f i t e m s . n ' D = n u m b e r o f c o n d i t i o n s o f f a c e t o ( o c c a s i o n s ) n ' j = n u m b e r o f c o n d i t i o n s o f f a c e t i ( i t e m s ) . 3 . T h e E x p e c t e d O b s e r v e d S c o r e V a r i a n c e ( e o 2 ( x ) ) : e a 2 ( x ) = a 2 ( y p ) ; + e a 2 ( 6 ) 4 . T h e C o e f f i c i e n t o f G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y ( e p 2 ) e p 2 = e o 2 ( y p ) e a 2 ( x ) V a l i d i t y • I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e s o m e e v i d e n c e o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e A B S a n d t h e A F I , t w o a p p r o a c h e s w e r e u s e d . T h e f i r s t i n v o l v e d t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f P a r t I o f t h e A B S t o t h e A F I i n m u l t i t r a i t - m u l t i m e t h o d m a t r i c e s ( C a m p b e l l & F i s k e , 1 9 5 9 ) . T r a i t s w e r e 4 2 d e f i n e d b y m a t c h i n g t h e d o m a i n s a n d / o r s u b d o m a i n s o f t h e A B S w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s u b t e s t s o f t h e S E T , V C L , a n d R C L . T h e s e t r a i t s f e l l i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : P r a c t i c a l A c a d e m i c S k i l l s a n d M o t o r D e v e l o p m e n t ( A B S w i t h S E T ) ; V o c a t i o n a l S k i l l s ( A B S w i t h V C L ) ; a n d , S e l f - H e l p S k i l l s ( A B S w i t h R C L ) . E a c h t e s t w a s t r e a t e d a s a s e p a r a t e m e t h o d o f m e a s u r i n g t h e s e t r a i t s . A c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x w a s o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h c a t e g o r y o f t r a i t s a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e t w o m e t h o d s . C o n v e r g e n t a n d d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y w e r e a s s e s s e d u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1 . T h e v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s , i . e . , c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e s a m e t r a i t a s m e a s u r e d b y t w o m e t h o d s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m z e r o ( a l p h a = . 0 5 ) . 2 . T h e v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e g r e a t e r t h a n c o r r e l a t i o n s w h e r e n e i t h e r t r a i t n o r m e t h o d i s t h e s a m e . 3 . T h e v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e g r e a t e r t h a n c o r r e l a t i o n s w h e r e t r a i t s a r e d i f f e r e n t b u t t h e m e t h o d i s t h e s a m e . 4 . T h e p a t t e r n o f c o r r e l a t i o n s i s t h e s a m e f o r d i f f e r e n t t r a i t s u s i n g t h e s a m e m e t h o d a s f o r d i f f e r e n t t r a i t s u s i n g d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d s . ( C a m p b e l l & F i s k e , 1 9 5 9 ) T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e S E T w e r e u s e d i n t h e m u l t i - t r a i t m u l t i - m e t h o d m a t r i c e s . I n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s w e r e u s e d f o r t h e A B S P a r t I , t h e V C L , a n d t h e R C L . T h e s e w e r e s e l e c t e d a s b e i n g c l o s e s t t o C a m p b e l l a n d F i s k e ' s ( 1 9 5 9 ) d e f i n i t i o n o f r e l i a b i l i t y a s a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t w o m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e s a m e t r a i t u s i n g t h e s a m e m e t h o d . T h e s e c o n d v a l i d a t i o n p r o c e d u r e u s e d t h e r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r a s a p r a c t i c a l c r i t e r i o n i n a s s e s s i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f P a r t II o f t h e A B S . T h e r e c o r d e d i n c i d e n t s w e r e s o r t e d , b y s u b j e c t , i n t o t h e t h i r t e e n b e h a v i o r a l 43 d o m a i n s d e f i n e d b y A B S P a r t I I . A l l i n c i d e n t s w e r e s o r t e d i n t h i s w a y . F o r e a c h d o m a i n o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r , t h r e e s u b g r o u p s w e r e d e f i n e d . T h e f i r s t , t h e " N o I n c i d e n t s " g r o u p ( N I N ) , i n c l u d e d t h o s e s u b j e c t s f o r w h o m n o i n s t a n c e s o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r h a d b e e n r e c o r d e d . T h e s e c o n d , t h e " L o w I n c i d e n t s " g r o u p ( L I N ) , c o n s i s t e d o f s u b j e c t s f o r w h o m t h e r e w e r e v e r y f e w r e c o r d e d i n c i d e n t s o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r . T h e l a s t , t h e " H i g h I n c i d e n t s " g r o u p i n c l u d e d s u b j e c t s f o r w h o m a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e n u m b e r o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r s h a d b e e n r e p o r t e d . T h e l a t t e r t w o g r o u p s w e r e d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f t h e m e a n n u m b e r o f i n c i d e n t s f o r s u b j e c t s f o r w h o m s u c h i n c i d e n t s w e r e r e c o r d e d . S u b j e c t s i n t h e L I N g r o u p f e l l b e l o w t h e m e a n ; w h e r e a s , s u b j e c t s i n t h e H I N g r o u p f e l l a b o v e t h e m e a n . T h e m e a n s f o r t h e s e t h r e e g r o u p s o f s u b j e c t s w e r e c o m p u t e d f o r e a c h d o m a i n o f t h e A B S P a r t I I , a n d c o m p a r e d t o t h o s e f o r t h e r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s d a t a . 44 C h a p t e r I V R e s u l t s o f A n a l y s i s I n t h i s s e c t i o n t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t a n a l y s e s , i t e m a n a l y s e s , a n d g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y a n a l y s e s w i l l b e p r e s e n t e d f o r e a c h t e s t : t h e A B S P a r t I , t h e A B S P a r t I I , t h e S E T , t h e V C L , a n d t h e R C L . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e m u l i t - t r a i t m u l t i - m e t h o d a n a l y s e s o f t h e A B S P a r t I , t h e S E T , t h e V C L , a n d t h e R C L w i l l b e p r e s e n t e d i n a s e c t i o n o n v a l i d i t y . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l a l s o i n c l u d e t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e p r a c t i c a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e A B S P a r t I I . 4 5 R e s u l t s o f A n a l y s i s - A B S P a r t I T e s t A n a l y s i s . T a b l e s 7 a n d 8 s h o w t h e m e a n , r a n g e , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f m e a s u r e m e n t , a n d , t h e H o y t e s t i m a t e o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r e a c h d o m a i n o f t h e A B S P a r t I , f o r e a c h a n a l y s i s s a m p l e . T a b l e 9 s u m m a r i z e s t h e s e r e s u l t s f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t . F o r a n a l y s i s s a m p l e o n e , t h e H o y t c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g e f r o m . 4 6 f o r R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o . 8 5 f o r I n d e p e n d e n t F u n c t i o n i n g . T h e s e v a l u e s r a n g e f r o m . 5 0 f o r R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o . 8 8 f o r E c o n o m i c A c t i v i t y f o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . T h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s o f t h e r a t i n g s f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t a r e . 9 5 a n d . 9 4 , f o r t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d s a m p l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . A r e s t r i c t i o n i n t h e r a n g e o f s c o r e s w a s o b s e r v e d f o r a t l e a s t f o u r d o m a i n s : I n d e p e n d e n t F u n c t i o n i n g , P h y s i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t , L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t , a n d S o c i a l i z a t i o n . T h i s s a m p l e d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o r e p r e s e n t a l l r a n g e s o f f u n c t i o n i n g f o r t h e s e d o m a i n s . S u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 1 0 a n d 1 1 . F o r b o t h a n a l y s i s s a m p l e s , r a t i n g s o f P h y s i c a l D e v e l o p -m e n t c o r r e l a t e l o w e s t w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s ; a n d , s c o r e s o n I n d e p e n d e n t F u n c t i o n i n g c o r r e l a t e h i g h e s t w i t h t o t a l t e s t r e s u l t s . I t e m A n a l y s i s . F i g u r e s 1 a n d 2 p r e s e n t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i t e m a n a l y s e s f o r t h e A B S P a r t I f o r a n a l y s i s s a m p l e s o n e a n d t w o r e s p e c t i v e l y . 1 F o r a n a l y s i s s a m p l e o n e , t h i r t y - n i n e o f t h e s i x t y - n i n e i t e m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . A t l e a s t o n e i t e m f r o m e a c h d o m a i n 1 I n t h e s e a n d s u b s e q u e n t s i m i l a r f i g u r e s , e a c h p o i n t r e p r e s e n t s a n i t e m a n d i n d i c a t e s t h e i t e m d i f f i c u l t y ( o r d i n a t e ) a n d i t e m - t o t a l s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n ( a b s c i s s a ) . T h e d i f f i c u l t y a n d c o r r e l a t i o n a l i n d i c e s f o r t h e i t e m s o f t h e A B S P a r t I a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t a b u l a r f o r m i n A p p e n d i x B . TABLE 7 Test analysis information for subtests of the ABS, Part 1(1) Subtest Mean Range St .Dev. Hoyt SEMI Ind. Funct. 112.60 82 - 125 10.21 .85 3.86 Phys. Dev. 24.02 19 - 26 1.82 .53 1.14 Econ. Act. 10.88 3 - 17 4.35 .80 1.70 Lang. Dev. 31.71 17 - 43 6.93 .81 2.84 NTC 10.56 0 - 14 3.74 .75 1.51 Occ. Dom. 12.52 ' 1 - 19 4.26 .74 1.99 Occ. Gen. 10.85 3 - 13 2.23 .57 1.20 Self-Dir. 26.85 9 - 33 5.86 .86 2.04 Res. 4.33 1 - 6 .97 .46 .50 Soc. 23.25 11 - 31 4.26 .64 2.37 T A B L E 8 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r s u b t e s t s o f t h e A B S , P a r t 1 ( 2 ) S u b t e s t M e a n R a n g e S t . D e v . H o y t S E M I n d . F u n c t . 1 1 1 . 8 3 8 9 - 1 2 6 9 . 4 2 . 8 0 4 . 1 5 P h y s . D e v . 2 3 . 7 9 1 9 - 2 6 2 . 0 5 . 5 2 1 . 2 9 E c o n . A c t . 1 0 . 5 6 1 - 1 8 4 . 6 9 . 8 8 1 . 4 2 L a n g . D e v . 3 1 . 0 8 1 8 - 4 3 6 . 5 2 . 7 5 3 . 0 9 N T C 1 0 . 6 5 1 - 1 4 3 . 4 1 . 6 3 1 . 7 0 O c c . D o m . 1 1 . 7 1 4 - 1 9 4 . 6 7 . 7 6 2 . 0 8 O c c . G e n . 1 0 . 8 5 3 - 1 3 2 . 3 5 . 6 2 1 . 1 8 S e l f - D i r . 2 5 . 9 8 1 1 - 3 3 5 . 6 2 . 8 3 2 . 1 6 R e s . 4 . 1 5 1 - 6 1 . 1 3 . 5 0 . 5 6 S o c . 2 3 . 4 8 1 5 - 3 2 4 . 3 7 . 7 1 2 . 1 8 TABLE 9 Test analysis summary for the ABS, Part I Mean Range St.Dev, aStrat SEM ABS (1) Pt. I 267.58 ABS (2) Pt. I 264.08 184 - 317 186 - 322 31.78 31.57 .95 .94 7.93 8.16 TABLE 10 Correlations among subtest and total test scores for the ABS, Part 1(1) Subtest 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 Ind. Funct. 1.00 2 Phys. Dev. .23 1.00 3 Econ. Act. .64 -.03 1.00 4 Lang. Dev. .51 .23 .70 1.00 5 NTC .64 .22 .74 .78 1.00 6 Occ. Dom. .34 .17 .30 .25 .24 1.00 7 Occ. Gen. .38 .09 .31 .17 .25 .38 1.00 8 Self-Dir. .54 .18 .36 .33 .32 .38 .79 1.00 9 Res. .46 -.12 .36 .19 .33 .26 .68 .60 1.00 10 Soc. .42 .18 .55 .48 .52 .20 .28 .47 .31 1.00 11 ABS 1 Part I .85 .29 .79 .76 .79 .51 .56 .71 .54 .66 1.00 XN = 48; r c r i t i c a l = .282 (P < .05) TABLE 11 Correlations among subtest and total test scores for the ABS, Part 1(2) Subtest 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 Ind. Funct. 1.00 2 Phys. Dev. .19 1.00 3 Econ. Act. .65 .25 1.00 4 Lang. Dev. .40 .19 .70 1.00 5 NTC .40 .10 .55 .72 1.00 6 Occ. Com. .44 .29 .49 .33 .15 1.00 7 Occ. Gen. .59 .14 .35 .27 .34 .40 1.00 8 Self-Dir. .66 .24 .55 .29 ,'22 .48 .72 1.00 9 Res. .59 .11 .44 .10 .31 .36 .47 .55 1.00 .0 Soc. .40 .30 .39 .55 .42 .32 .39 .43 .31 1.00 .1 ABS Pt. 1(2) .84 .35 .83 .72 .62 .63 .66 .76 .57 .66 1.00 = 48 r .+. . critical = .282 (P < .05) 51 a p p e a r s t o b e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h i s s a m p l e . F o r t h e s e c o n d a n a l y s i s s a m p l e , f o r t y - o n e i t e m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . S i m i l a r l y , e a c h d o m a i n c o n t a i n s s o m e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s . T h e n o n -d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s w i l l b e d e s c r i b e d f o r e a c h d o m a i n . F o r t h e d o m a i n I n d e p e n d e n t F u n c t i o n i n g e l e v e n i t e m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e f i r s t s a m p l e . O n l y e i g h t i t e m s r e a c h t h i s c r i t e r i o n f o r s a m p l e t w o . A n u m b e r o f i t e m s f r o m t h i s d o m a i n , d o n o t a p p e a r t o b e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e s a m p l e s . T h e s e a r e t h e i t e m s m e a s u r i n g t h e s k i l l s o f D r i n k i n g , T a b l e M a n n e r s , C l e a n l i n e s s , A p p e a r a n c e , C a r e o f C l o t h i n g , a n d D r e s s i n g a n d U n d r e s s i n g . T h e s e i t e m s a p p e a r t o b e e a s y f o r t h e s e s a m p l e s . F o r t h e s u b t e s t , P h y s i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t , o n l y t h o s e i t e m s m e a s u r i n g B o d y b a l a n c e a n d H e a r i n g a r e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a m o n g m e m b e r s o f s a m p l e o n e a n d t w o r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h u s f i v e i t e m s f a i l t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f e a c h s a m p l e . A l l i t e m s i n t h e d o m a i n , E c o n o m i c A c t i v i t y , c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . T h e i t e m s m e a s u r i n g A b i l i t y t o S p e a k , C l a r i t y o f S p e e c h a n d G e n e r a l L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t d o n o t d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n h i g h a n d l o w s c o r e s o n t h i s t e s t . T h e y a p p e a r t o b e e a s y f o r t h e s e s a m p l e s . T h e r e m a i n i n g s i x i t e m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r b o t h s a m p l e s . A l l i t e m s m e a s u r i n g N u m b e r a n d T i m e C o n c e p t s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . Item difficulty: proportion of people obtaining maximum score to o o o 00 o i r Item difficulty: proportion of people obtaining maximum score to o O OS o 00 o a • i P P CO CO 3 HH ° H 4 O 3 a P m O 13 to O rt) > to P 4 s £9 5 4 F o r t h e d o m a i n , O c c u p a t i o n D o m e s t i c , t h e i t e m s m e a s u r i n g c l e a n i n g , t a b l e c l e a r i n g , a n d g e n e r a l d o m e s t i c s k i l l s d o n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e s a m p l e s . T a b l e c l e a r i n g a p p e a r s t o b e a n e a s y i t e m . T h u s o n l y t h r e e i t e m s f r o m t h i s s u b t e s t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e s a m p l e s . T h e i t e m m e a s u r i n g W o r k F i t n e s s i n t h e s u b t e s t , O c c u p a t i o n G e n e r a l , d o e s n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f a n a l y s i s s a m p l e o n e . I t a p p e a r s t o b e d i f f i c u l t f o r t h i s g r o u p . A l l t h r e e i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . F o r t h e s u b t e s t , S e l f - D i r e c t i o n , t h e i t e m s p e r t a i n i n g t o S l u g g i s h n e s s i n M o v e m e n t s a n d P e r s e v e r a n c e d o n o t c o r r e l a t e w e l l w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s a l -t h o u g h P e r s e v e r a n c e a p p r o a c h e s . 4 0 . S i x i t e m s f r o m t h i s d o m a i n c l e a r l y d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e s a m p l e s . T h e i t e m m e a s u r i n g R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r B e l o n g i n g s , f r o m t h e d o m a i n R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , d o e s n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e w e l l a m o n g m e m b e r s o f a n a l y s i s s a m p l e o n e . B o t h t h i s i t e m a n d t h e i t e m m e a s u r i n g o t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . F i n a l l y , f o r t h e s u b t e s t , S o c i a l i z a t i o n , t h e i t e m s m e a s u r i n g I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h O t h e r s a n d S e l f i s h n e s s f a i l t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f e i t h e r s a m p l e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i t e m s C o o p e r a t i o n a n d O t h e r I m m a t u r i t i e s i n S o c i a l i z a t i o n c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r s a m p l e o n e . T h e i t e m K n o w l e d g e o f O t h e r s f a i l s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e . O n l y t h e i t e m s m e a s u r i n g C o n s i d e r a t i o n a n d P a r t i c i p a t i o n d i s t i n g u i s h a m o n g h i g h a n d l o w s c o r e r s f o r b o t h s a m p l e s . 5 5 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f R a t i n g s . E s t i m a t e s o f t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f r a t i n g s o v e r t h e u n i v e r s e o f r a t e r s f o r t h e A B S P a r t I a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1 2 . T a b l e 1 3 p r o v i d e s e s t i m a t e s f o r t h e v a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t s t h a t w e r e u s e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e s e r e s u l t s f o r t h e d o m a i n s , i t c a n b e s e e n t h a t n i n e c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e e q u a l t o z e r o . F o r t h e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s , t h e u n i v e r s e s c o r e v a r i a n c e e q u a l s z e r o . O f t h e t e n d o m a i n s , t h e r e a r e f i v e f o r w h i c h a t l e a s t o n e c o e f f i c i e n t e q u a l s z e r o . R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s h a s t h r e e c o e f f i c i e n t s e q u a l t o z e r o . F o r r a t e r p a i r s 3 , 5 , a n d 8 , * t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r a t l e a s t o n e d o m a i n e q u a l s z e r o . R a t e r p a i r t h r e e h a s f i v e c o e f f i c i e n t s e q u a l t o z e r o . O f t h e r e m a i n i n g s e v e n t y - o n e c o e f f i c i e n t s , s e v e n t e e n a r e g r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a l t o . 8 0 . F o r t h e s u b t e s t L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t , f o u r a r e g r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a l t o . 8 0 . T h e s u b t e s t s , O c c u p a t i o n D o m e s t i c a n d O c c u p a t i o n G e n e r a l h a v e n o c o e f f i c i e n t s g r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a l t o . 8 0 . T h e r e m a i n i n g s e v e n s u b t e s t s h a v e a t l e a s t o n e c o e f f i c i e n t g r e a t e r t h a n . 8 0 . F o r r a t e r p a i r 7 , s i x c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e g r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a l t o . 8 0 . R a t e r p a i r s 2 a n d 8 h a v e n o r a t i n g s w h e r e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s g r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a l t o . 8 0 . T h e r e m a i n i n g f i v e p a i r s o f r a t e r s h a v e a t l e a s t o n e c o e f f i c i e n t g r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a l t o . 8 0 . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e f i f t y - f o u r c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a t a r e g r e a t e r t h a n z e r o b u t l e s s t h a n . 8 0 , i t c a n b e s e e n t h a t t h e p e r s o n s - b y - j u d g e s ( p j ) v a r i a n c e c o m -p o n e n t i s t h e l a r g e s t o r e q u a l t o t h e l a r g e s t f o r t w e n t y - o n e c o e f f i c i e n t s . R a t e r p a i r s a r e n o t e q u i v a l e n t f r o m t e s t t o t e s t 56 T A B L E 12 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s b y r a t e r p a i r a n d a c r o s s r a t e r s f o r t h e s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e A B S P a r t I R a t e r P a i r D o m a i n A c r o s s 7 8 R a t e r s I n d e p e n d e n t .90 .66 .36 .04 .74 .81 .68 .12 .74 F u n c t i o n i n g P h y s i c a l .83 .62 0.0 .63 .39 .11 .87 .15 .74 D e v e l o p m e n t E c o n o m i c A c t i v i t y .52 .72 .76 .06 .95 .94 .85 0.0 .62 L a n g u a g e .79 .55 .95 .42 .91 .83 .83 .35 .76 D e v e l o p m e n t N u m b e r a n d T i m e .78 .70 0.0 .63 .76 .21 .87 .04 .69 C o n c e p t s O c c u p a t i o n : .11 . 4 9 o.O .42 .16 .67 .37 .78 . 5 3 D o m e s t i c O c c u p a t i o n : .58 .05 0.0 .14 .70 .54 .56 0.0 .33 G e n e r a l S e l f - D i r e c t i o n .88 .65 .38 .16 .04 .55 .86 .59 .54 R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .58 .54 0.0 .80 0.0 .67 .49 0.0 .26 S o c i a l i z a t i o n .35 .33 .55 .88 .76 .50 .81 .34 .50 A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r .85 .73 .13 .18 .79 .80 .94 .40 .74 S c a l e s P t . I 57 TARLI- 13 V a r i a n c e components contr ibut ing to u n i v e r s e score variance ( o 2 u p ) and e r r o r var iance (o 2 6 ) by rater pai r and across raters for subtest and total test scores of the A R S Part I Rater Pair Subtest 1 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 8 i A c r o s s Raters A B A B A B A B A B A B , A B A B A B Independent o 2 u pi .12+.02 Funct ioning a 2 i 5 I .01+.01 .10+.01 .04+.02 .004+.003 .002+.01 .004+0.0 .09 +.02 .04+.01 .01+.01 1 .40+.01 .05+.01 .09+.02 :.01+.01 .002+0.0 .01 +.01 .09+.01 .04+.01 P h y s i c a l o 2 u p i .06+.02 Development a26 j .01+.02 i .08+.02 .03+.04 0.0+0.0 .04 +.01 .01 +.03 .02+0.0 .02+.04 .01+0.0 :.03+.02 .03+.05 .01+.01 .001+0.0 .004+.009 .07+.003 .01+.04 i Economic o 2 u p ' .38+.03 Act ivi ty a26 j .23+. 15 .65+.03 .22+.04 .66 +.07 .12 +.13 .02 +.02 .59 +.09 1.21+.05 .03+.04 2.31+0.0 I.53+.01 .09+.06 J.05+.05 0.0 +0.0 .52+.004 .25+.01 Language o 2 u p ; .26+.06 Development o2S i .05+.03 .19+.01 .12+.04 1.20+.05 .01 +.06 .08 +0.0 .07 +.04 .83+.06 .06+.02 .57+.08 J.33+.05 .11+.02 i.06+.02 1 i j .09 +.01 i .37+.02 .12 +.06 ! .09+.02 i i N u m b e r , T i m e O 2 M p;1.40+. 11 Concepts a 2 S ; .30+.12 .90+.13 .25+.19 0.0 +0.0 .26 +.06 .06 +.13 1.30+.12 .16+.19 0.0+.14 '.73+.08 .41+.11 i.04+,08 | .03 +0.0 I .58+.01 .51 +.21 .17+.02 | Occupation o 2 u p ! 0.0+.02 Domestic o 2S ; .12+.03 : ! .12+.03 .10+.06 0.0 +0.0 .01 +.05 .14 +.02 .19 +.03 0.0+.03 .14+.03 .32+0.0 .07+.09 .07+0.0 .07+.05 .20 +.08 | .13+.02 .04 +.03 ! .08+.05 I Occupation a2v p General a2S .29+.02 .13+.09 0.0+.01 .10+.05 0.0 +0.0 1.38+.18 .09 +0.0 .38 +.17 .15+.06 .02+.07 .32+.11 .26+.10 .27+0.0 .07+.13 0.0 +0.0 .07 +.09 .13+0.0 .15+.11 Self- a 2 i i p Direct ion a2<5 .44+.04 .03+.04 .18+.02 .08+.04 .39 +.08 .74 +.02 .03 +.02 .18 +.03 .01+0.0 .15+.04 .38+0.0 .26+.05 .66+.04 .07+.03 .02 +.02 .01 +.01 .15+.04 .11+.08 Responsibi l i t ies o 2 u p .16+.08 .08+.09 .05+.06 .06+.03 0.0 +0.0 .78 +.03 .17 +.08 .06 +0.0 0.0+0.0 .11+.04 .17+0.0 . 04+.04 i .15+0.0 i 0.0 +0.0 .08+.06 ! .01 +.01 1 .04+0.0 .07+.04 Socialization o 2 y p .05+.01 o 2 6 .06+.05 .07+.01 .11+.05 .22 +.05 .21 +.02 .22 +.05 .02 +.02 .27+.03 .07+.02 .08+.03 .07+.03 .46+.03 .08+.03 L . .11 +0.0 .11 +.09 .13+.04 j .10+.12 1 1 iABS Part I o 2 y p j o 2 6 .11+.01 .02+.003 .08+.01 .02+.04 0.0 +.01 .04 +.01 .01 +.002 .05 +.04 .11+.01 .03+.03 .27+.01 !.15+.003 .06+.04 1.01+.003 .01 +.001 .01 +.004 J .09+.003 1 .03+.004 ! 1 For o 2 u p A=o 2 pI* and B = o 2 p i / I * / n i ; for o 2 6 , A = o 2 p j / I * / n j and B=o 2 pi je / I* /n inj . Equations are found on page 5 8 A l l s u b t e s t s h a v e a t l e a s t o n e c o e f f i c i e n t w h e r e t h e p j c o m p o n e n t i s t h e l a r g e s t . O c c u p a t i o n D o m e s t i c h a s t h r e e c o e f f i c i e n t s w h e r e t h e p j c o m p o n e n t c o n t r i b u t e s m o s t t o t h e o b s e r v e d s c o r e v a r i a n c e . A l l p a i r s o f r a t e r s h a v e a t l e a s t o n e c o e f f i c i e n t w h e r e t h e p j c o m p o n e n t i s t h e l a r g e s t . R a t e r p a i r s 2 a n d 4 h a v e f i v e c o e f f i c i e n t s e a c h t o w h i c h t h e p j c o m p o n e n t c o n t r i b u t e s m o s t t o t h e o b s e r v e d s c o r e v a r i a n c e . T h u s , r a t e r b i a s a p p e a r s t o b e i n f l u e n c i n g t h e r a t i n g s o n a l l s u b t e s t s a n d t h e j u d g m e n t s o f a l l r a t e r p a i r s . T h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s , f o r t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s , b y r a t e r p a i r r a n g e f r o m . 1 3 t o . 9 4 . F o r r a t e r p a i r s 3 , 4 , a n d 8 , t h e p j c o m p o n e n t c o n t r i b u t e s m o s t t o o b s e r v e d s c o r e v a r i a n c e . T h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a c r o s s a l l r a t e r s r a n g e f r o m . 2 6 f o r R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o . 7 6 f o r L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t . T h e p j c o m p o n e n t c o n t r i b u t e s m o s t t o t h e o b s e r v e d s c o r e v a r i a n c e f o r t h e s u b t e s t s O c c u p a t i o n G e n e r a l a n d R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s i s . 7 4 , a v a l u e c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t c i t e d b y t h e a u t h o r s o f t h i s s c a l e . R e s u l t s o f A n a l y s i s - A B S P a r t I I T e s t A n a l y s i s . T a b l e s 1 4 a n d 1 5 s h o w t h e m e a n , r a n g e , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f m e a s u r e m e n t , a n d t h e H o y t e s t i m a t e s o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r e a c h s u b t e s t o f t h e A B S P a r t II f o r e a c h a n a l y s i s s a m p l e . H o y t c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e n o t p r o v i d e d f o r t h e s u b t e s t s , I n a p p r o p r i a t e I n t e r p e r s o n a l M a n n e r s , U n a c c e p t a b l e V o c a l H a b i t s , S e l f - A b u s i v e B e h a v i o r , H y p e r a c t i v e T e n d e n c i e s , a n d U s e o f M e d i c a t i o n s i n c e t h e s e s u b t e s t s c o n s i s t o f o n l y o n e i t e m . T a b l e 1 6 s u m m a r i z e s t h e s e r e s u l t s f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t s . T h e H o y t c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g e f r o m 0 . 0 f o r S t e r e o t y p e d B e h a v i o r a n d O d d M a n n e r i s m s T A B L E 1 4 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r s u b t e s t s o f t h e A B S , P a r t I I ( 1 ) S u b t e s t M e a n R a n g e S t . D e v . H o y t S E M V i o l . D e s . B e h . 1 . 4 2 A n t i s o c . B e h . 3 . 3 3 R e b . B e h . 3 . 4 6 U n . B e h . . 9 2 W i t h d . . 7 9 S t . B e h . O . M a n . . 4 0 I n a p p . I n t e r . M a n . . 4 0 U n a c c . V o c . H a b i t s . 5 2 U n a c c . E c c . H a b i t s . 5 4 S e l f - A b . B e h . . 0 8 H y p e r . T e n d . . 3 8 S e x . A b . B e h . . 8 3 P s y c h . D i s t . 5 . 0 4 U s e o f M e d . . 8 3 0 - 2 2 0 - 2 8 0 - 2 6 0 - 1 6 0 0 0 7 3 3 0 - 4 0 - 4 0 - 2 0 - 8 0 - 1 4 0 - 4 6 0 - 4 3 . 6 4 6 . 1 8 5 . 5 8 2 . 9 7 1 . 7 3 . 7 6 . 7 9 1 . 0 7 1 . 1 5 . 3 5 1 . 3 3 2 . 5 0 8 . 8 4 1 . 1 0 . 6 7 . 7 7 . 6 5 . 7 1 . 5 3 0 .17 . 5 1 . 9 1 1 . 8 6 2 . 6 8 3 . 0 0 1 . 1 4 . 9 7 . 5 8 . 9 1 1 . 5 . 1 2 . 5 0 CO T A B L E 1 5 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e A B S P a r t I I , ( 2 ) S u b t e s t M e a n R a n g e S D H o y t S E M V i o l . D e s . B e h . 1 . 2 3 A n t i s o c . B e h . 3 . 6 5 R e b . B e h . 3 . 1 0 U n . B e h . . 6 9 W i t h d . 1 . 3 8 S t . B e h . O . M a n . 1 . 0 0 I n a p p . I n t e r . M a n . . 5 2 U n a c c . V o c . H a b . . 4 4 U n a c c . E c c . H a b . . 5 8 S e l f - A b . B e h . . 1 3 H y p e r . T e n d . . 6 7 S e x . A b . B e h . . 6 7 P s y c h o . D i s t . 6 . 3 3 U s e o f M e d . . 9 6 0 - 8 0 - 1 8 0 - 1 6 0 - 8 0 - 1 0 0 - 1 4 0 - 8 0 - 6 0 - 4 0 - 2 0 - 8 0 - 9 0 - 4 4 0 - 4 2 . 1 9 4 . 9 9 4 . 5 4 1 . 6 5 2 . 1 3 2 . 3 2 1 . 4 3 1 . 1 1 1 . 1 6 . 4 4 1 . 7 5 1 . 6 3 9 . 5 5 1 . 2 2 , 3 4 . 6 0 , 6 3 0 . 3 8 . 4 6 . 0 4 , 2 6 , 8 7 1 . 5 9 2 . 8 7 2 . 5 2 1 . 2 0 1 . 3 7 1 . 2 1 , 9 9 1 . 2 2 3 . 1 4 T A B L E 16 T e s t a n a l y s e s s u m m a r y f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I M e a n R a n g e S t . D e v . a S t r a t S E M A B S ( l ) P a r t II A B S ( 2 ) P a r t I I 1 8 . 9 4 2 1 . 3 3 0 - 1 4 2 0 - 1 0 0 2 7 . 0 0 2 3 . 9 0 . 9 5 . 9 2 6 . 9 0 7 . 0 6 6 2 t o . 9 1 f o r P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i s t u r b a n c e s , f o r a n a l y s i s s a m p l e o n e . F o r t h e s e c o n d a n a l y s i s s a m p l e , t h e s e v a l u e s r a n g e f r o m 0 . 0 f o r U n t r u s t w o r t h y B e h a v i o r t o . 8 7 f o r P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i s t u r b a n c e s . T h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y e s t i m a t e s f o r t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s a r e . 9 5 a n d . 9 2 f o r a n a l y s i s s a m p l e s o n e a n d t w o r e s p e c t i v e l y . S u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r A B S P a r t I I a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 17 a n d 1 8 . F o r a n a l y s i s s a m p l e o n e , t h e s u b t e s t s , S t e r e o t y p e d B e h a v i o r a n d O d d M a n n e r i s m s , S e l f - A b u s i v e B e h a v i o r , a n d U s e o f M e d i c a t i o n c o r r e l a t e l o w e s t w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s ( r = - . 0 5 , - . 0 1 , a n d - . 0 1 , r e s p e c t -i v e l y ) . V i o l e n t a n d D e s t r u c t i v e B e h a v i o r , A n t i s o c i a l B e h a v i o r , a n d P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i s t u r b a n c e s c o r r e l a t e h i g h e s t w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s ( r = . 9 0 ) . F o r t h e s e c o n d a n a l y s i s s a m p l e , t h i s p a t t e r n i s s o m e w h a t a l t e r e d w i t h S e l f - A b u s i v e B e h a v i o r , U n a c c e p t a b l e V o c a l H a b i t s , a n d U s e o f M e d i c a t i o n s h o w i n g t h e l o w e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s ( r = . 1 8 , . 2 7 , a n d . 2 8 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i s t u r b a n c e s , A n t i s o c i a l B e h a v i o r , a n d R e b e l l i o u s B e h a v i o r h a v e t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s ( r = . 8 8 , . 8 3 , a n d . 8 2 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . I t e m A n a l y s i s . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i t e m a n a l y s e s f o r e a c h d o m a i n o f t h e A B S P a r t I I a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 1 9 t o 2 7 . F o r a n a l y s i s s a m p l e o n e , t w e n t y - s i x o f t h e f o r t y - f o u r i t e m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . A l l d o m a i n s c o n t a i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s e x c e p t S t e r e o t y p e d B e h a v i o r a n d O d d M a n n e r i s m s U n a c c e p t a b l e o r E c c e n t r i c H a b i t s I n a p p r o p r i a t e I n t e r p e r s o n a l M a n n e r s S e l f - A b u s i v e B e h a v i o r U s e o f M e d i c a t i o n T A B L E 17 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e A B S P a r t 1 1 ( 1 ) S u b t e s t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 11 12 1 3 1 4 1 5 V i o l . D e s . B e h . 1 . 0 0 A n t i - S o c . B e h . . 7 0 1 . . 0 0 R e b . B e h . . 6 7 , . 8 2 1 . 0 0 U n . B e h . . 3 5 . 5 8 . 5 9 1 . 0 0 W i t h . . 1 5 . 2 3 . 2 6 . 1 3 1 . 0 0 S t . B e h . , O . M a n . - . 0 4 - . 0 6 - . 0 3 - . 1 3 . 0 3 1 . 0 0 I n a p p . I n t e r p e r . M a n . . 1 4 . 3 6 . 3 6 . 1 4 . 3 3 . 0 9 1 . 0 0 U n a c c . V o c . H a b . . 4 8 . 5 4 . 5 4 . 3 1 - . 0 2 . 0 8 . 3 3 1 . 0 0 U n a c c . E c c . H a b . . 1 7 . 2 2 . 3 3 . 1 8 . 1 9 - .14 . 2 3 - . 0 6 1 , . 0 0 S e l f - A b . B e h . . 0 6 - . 1 1 - . 0 2 - . 0 8 . 1 0 . 2 7 - . 1 2 - . 1 2 . 3 1 1 . 0 0 H y p e r . T e n d . . 2 2 . 4 0 . 4 0 . 1 5 - . 0 3 . 0 6 . 0 4 . 1 6 . 3 9 . 1 6 1 , . 0 0 S e x . A b . B e h . . 1 2 . 4 7 . 4 2 . 3 9 . 0 6 - . 0 4 . 0 0 2 - . 0 2 . 3 7 - . 0 8 . 6 2 1 , . 0 0 P s y c h o . D i s t . . 4 1 . 7 1 . 6 9 . 7 5 . 3 4 - . 1 8 . 2 1 . 9 . 4 5 - . 0 4 . 4 3 . 6 4 1 . . 0 0 U s e o f M e d . - . 1 1 - . 1 5 . 0 5 - . 1 0 . 0 9 . 1 8 . 1 0 - . 0 7 . 3 1 - . 1 5 . 1 0 - . 0 6 - . . 0 8 1 . 0 0 A B S P t . I I ( l ) . 6 6 . 9 0 . 9 0 . 7 3 . 3 5 - . 0 5 . 3 4 . 4 5 . 4 4 - . 0 1 . 5 0 . 6 0 . 9 0 - { 0 1 1 . 0 0 1 N = 4 8 ; r c r i t i c a i = - 2 8 2 ( p < . 0 5 ) T A B L E 1 8 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e A B S P a r t 1 1 ( 2 ) S u b t e s t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 2 13 1 4 1 5 1 V i o . D e s . B e h . 1 . 0 0 2 A n t i s o c . B e h . . 4 3 1 . 0 0 3 R e b . B e h . . 2 3 . 5 3 1 . 0 0 4 U n . B e h . . 1 7 . 5 4 . 5 4 1 . 0 0 5 W i t h . - . 0 2 . 2 0 . 5 7 . 0 3 1 . 0 0 6 S t . B e h . , O . M a n . . 1 2 . 1 1 . 2 9 - . 0 9 . 4 0 1 . 0 0 7 I n a p p . I n t e r . M a n . . 0 1 . 1 7 . 4 7 . 0 3 . 2 9 . 2 2 1 . 0 0 8 U n a c c . V o c . H a b . . 1 2 . 1 2 . 2 3 - . 0 1 . 4 2 . 8 3 . 1 6 1 . 0 0 9 U n a c c . E c c . H a b . . 2 2 . 4 2 . 5 8 . 2 3 . 4 3 . 3 6 . 2 0 . 5 2 1 . 0 0 1 0 S e l f - A b . B e h . . 3 4 . 1 1 . 1 8 - . 1 2 . 2 0 . 2 7 - . 0 7 . 2 3 . 3 5 1 . 0 0 1 1 H y p e r . T e n d . . . 0 2 . 2 3 . 2 6 - . 0 4 . 2 3 . 5 5 . 3 3 . 3 7 - . 2 2 - . 1 1 1 . 0 0 1 2 S e x . A b . B e h . . 3 4 . 5 1 . 7 0 . 5 9 . 1 8 . 0 4 . 2 5 . 1 3 . 4 1 . 0 6 - . 0 4 1 . 0 0 1 3 P s y c h . D i s t u r . . 3 5 . 7 7 . 6 1 . 6 4 . 2 7 . 0 7 . 1 8 . 0 2 . 3 6 . 0 3 . 3 1 . 5 4 1 . 0 0 1 4 U s e o f M e d . . 0 4 . 3 5 . 0 6 - . 0 4 . 1 0 . 0 8 . 0 0 1 . 0 9 . 1 4 . 0 1 . 3 3 - . 0 9 . 2 4 1 . 0 0 1 5 A B S P t . I I ( 2 ) . 4 4 . 8 3 . 8 2 . 5 9 . 4 8 . 3 7 . 3 6 . 2 7 . 5 9 . 1 8 . 4 3 . 6 5 . 8 8 . 2 8 1 . 0 0 ^ = 4 8 ; r c r i t i c a l = . 2 8 2 ( p < . 0 5 ) T A B L E 1 9 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I : V i o l e n t & D e s t r u c t i v e B e h a v i o r I t e m M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n r s u b t e s t r t o t a l P 1 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 7 1 1 . 5 6 1 . 7 1 1 . 1 7 . 6 8 . 3 0 . 7 8 . 1 9 . 7 5 . 7 5 2 1 . 0 4 1 . 0 2 . 2 0 . 1 4 . 0 4 . 1 9 - . 0 4 . 0 1 . 9 6 . 9 8 3 1 . 1 0 1 . 0 2 . 3 7 . 1 4 . 8 5 . 1 9 . 4 8 . 0 1 . 9 2 . 9 8 . 4 1 . 1 3 1 . 0 2 . 4 4 14 . 6 2 . 4 0 . 2 1 . 1 8 . 9 2 . 9 8 5 1 . 3 3 1 . 6 0 . 9 8 1 . 4 4 . 8 1 . 2 7 . 5 9 . 5 0 . 8 1 . 7 7 T A B L E 2 0 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I : A n t i s o c i a l B e h a v i o r M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n S u b t e s t " t o t a l P S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 2 . 1 5 2 . 2 3 2 . 1 7 2 . 3 4 . 7 8 . 6 5 . 7 5 . 7 3 . 6 9 . 6 7 2 1 . 7 7 2 . 2 7 1 . 4 8 2 . 2 7 . 6 4 . 7 6 . 5 8 . 6 4 . 7 3 . 6 0 3 1 . 1 3 1 . 1 3 . 4 4 . 6 4 . 3 8 . 0 5 . 2 9 . 2 9 . 9 2 . 9 6 4 1 . 3 1 1 . 2 9 1 . 1 0 . 6 2 . 4 9 . 4 1 . 5 1 . 6 4 . 9 0 . 7 9 5 1 . 2 3 1 . 2 1 1 . 0 6 . 7 1 . 4 7 . 0 3 . 6 6 . 1 0 . 9 2 . 9 0 6 1 . 6 7 1 . 5 4 1 . 6 7 . 9 0 . 5 1 . 2 2 . 7 2 . 4 9 . 7 3 . 6 7 F o r t h i s a n d t a b l e s 2 0 t o 2 9 , p r e f e r s t o t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s u b j e c t s r e c e i v i n g a s c o r e o f z e r o . T A B L E 2 1 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I : R e b e l l i o u s B e h a v i o r M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n r , r +^+„ i p s u b t e s t t o t a l I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 3 1 1 , , 2 9 . 6 9 . 6 5 . 5 0 . 4 1 . 5 4 . 3 3 C . 7 9 . 8 1 2 2 . 1 5 1 . . 9 8 2 , . 0 8 1 . 8 6 . 7 7 . 4 7 . 8 4 . 6 0 . 6 7 . 6 5 3 1 . 2 9 1 . . 2 3 1 , . 0 7 . 7 5 . 2 8 . 0 8 . 4 8 . 4 1 . 9 0 . 9 0 4 2 . 1 0 2 . . 0 2 ' 2 , . 1 7 2 . 1 6 . 5 6 . 4 2 . 6 8 . 5 6 . 6 7 . 7 1 5 1 . 0 6 1 , . 1 5 . 3 2 . 5 8 . 2 0 . 3 7 . 0 9 . 2 8 . 9 6 . 9 4 6 1 . 4 6 1 . . 5 0 1 . . 4 1 1 . 1 3 . 2 2 . 5 9 . 3 2 . 7 5 . 7 9 . 7 9 T A B L E 2 2 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I : U n t r u s t w o r t h y B e h a v i o r Mean Standard Deviation Subtest ""total Item S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 8 9 1 . 1 9 . 9 2 . 8 9 . 7 7 - . 0 3 . 6 9 . 0 4 . 9 4 . 9 2 2 1 . 6 0 1 . 5 0 1 . 7 0 1 . 4 1 . 7 6 - . 0 3 . 6 9 . 6 7 . 8 5 . 8 3 T A B L E 2 3 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I : W i t h d r a w a l M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n r s u b t e s t r t o t a l I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 1 5 1 . 3 8 . 5 1 1 . 1 6 . 5 2 . 3 5 . 4 0 . 3 7 . 9 2 . 8 8 2 1 . 2 9 1 . 3 5 . 9 4 . 8 4 . 2 4 . 1 6 . 1 9 . 4 8 . 9 0 . 8 1 3 1 . 3 5 . 1 . 6 5 . 8 9 1 . 1 6 . 3 8 . 1 8 . 2 4 . 1 7 . 7 9 . 6 9 . — — • — CTJ -a T A B L E 2 4 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I : S t e r e o t y p e d B e h a v i o r a n d O d d M a n n e r i s m s M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n r s u b t e s t r t o t a l I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 . 4 4 1 . 5 6 1 . 0 9 1 . 1 8 - . 7 1 . 6 2 . 0 2 . 3 9 . 7 9 . 7 5 1 . 0 6 1 . 2 9 . 3 2 . 6 5 - . 0 9 . 4 9 - . 0 6 . 2 5 . 9 6 . 8 1 T A B L E 2 5 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I : U n a c c e p t a b l e o r E c c e n t r i c H a b i t s M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n r s u b t e s t r t o t a l ^ I t e m — — . S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . . 1 7 1 . , 2 3 . 5 6 . 7 5 . 2 1 . 0 0 3 . 3 5 . 4 9 . 9 2 . 9 0 2 1 . . 2 9 1 . , 2 7 . 8 2 . 7 9 . 1 7 . 0 7 . 3 7 . 2 9 . 8 9 . 8 8 3 1 . . 0 0 1 , . 0 2 . 0 0 1 . 1 4 0 . 0 . 1 9 0 . 0 . 2 1 1 . 0 0 . 1 8 4 1 . . 0 8 1 , . 0 6 . 4 0 . 3 2 - . 0 9 - . 0 9 . 0 2 . 1 9 . 9 6 . 9 6 T A B L E 2 6 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I I : S e x u a l l y A b e r r a n t B e h a v i o r M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n r r W o l P s u b t e s t t o t a l I t e m — S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 0 2 1 . , 0 4 . 1 4 . 2 9 . 1 3 - . 0 6 . 0 1 - . 0 6 . 9 8 . 9 8 2 1 . 1 3 1 , . 0 4 . 8 7 . 2 9 . 5 6 - . 0 6 . 4 2 . 2 1 . 9 8 . 9 8 3 1 . 4 4 1 , . 1 9 1 . 4 0 . 6 1 . 3 1 . 3 7 . 1 7 . 5 0 . 9 0 . 9 0 4 1 . 2 5 1 . , 4 0 1 . 0 6 1 . 2 7 . 3 4 . 3 1 . 8 5 . 5 6 . 9 4 . 9 0 TABLE 27 Item analysis information for the ABS Part.II: Psychological Disturbances Item Mean Standard Deviation rsubtest total p SI S2 SI S2 SI S2 SI S2 SI S2 1 1.77 2.02 1.63 1.77 .72 .68 .68 ,'62 :.73 .65 2 2.06 2.23 2.08 1.79 .81 .74 .87 ;.68 .60 .52 3 2.15 2.10 2.04 1.98 .75 .85 .75 .78 .65 .60 4 1.81 1.81 1.58 1.75 .65 .78 .58 .71 .73 .71 5 1.38 1.50 1.27 1.43 .85 .65 .79 .59 .88 .83 6 1.27 1.35 .96 1.06 .62 .44 .64 .51 .88 .81 7 1.69 2.17 1.60 1.99 .81 .66 .80 .81 .73 .58 O S C O 7 0 F o r t h e s e c o n d a n a l y s i s s a m p l e , t w e n t y - t w o i t e m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . A l l d o m a i n s c o n t a i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s e x c e p t S t e r e o t y p e d B e h a v i o r a n d O d d M a n n e r i s m s I n a p p r o p r i a t e I n t e r p e r s o n a l M a n n e r s U n a c c e p t a b l e V o c a l H a b i t s S e l f - A b u s i v e B e h a v i o r U s e o f M e d i c a t i o n F o r t h e s u b t e s t V i o l e n t a n d D e s t r u c t i v e B e h a v i o r , t h r e e i t e m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e f i r s t s a m p l e ; o n l y o n e i t e m d i s -c r i m i n a t e s a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . T h e i t e m s m e a s u r i n g w h e t h e r a n i n d i v i d u a l d a m a g e s p e r s o n a l a n d p u b l i c p r o p e r t y ( 2 a n d 4 ) d o n o t d i s -c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f b o t h s a m p l e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i t e m s m e a s u r i n g t e n d e n c i e s t o t h r e a t e n o r d o p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e ( 1 ) a n d t o d a m a g e o t h e r s * p r o p e r t y ( 3 ) c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e s e c o n d a n a l y s i s s a m p l e . T h e i t e m m e a s u r i n g a t e n d e n c y t o d i s r u p t o t h e r s ' a c t i v i t i e s , ( 3 ) i n A n t i s o c i a l B e h a v i o r d o e s n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t a n a l y s i s s a m p l e . T h e i t e m s m e a s u r i n g a t e n d e n c y t o d i s r u p t o t h e r s ' a c t i v i t i e s a n d d i s -r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r s ' p r o p e r t y ( 5 ) f r o m t h i s s u b t e s t c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l s c o r e s f o r t h e s e c o n d a n a l y s i s s a m p l e . T h u s , f i v e i t e m s d i s c r i m -i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e a n d f o u r i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . F o r t h e s u b t e s t R e b e l l i o u s B e h a v i o r f o u r i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f e a c h s a m p l e . T h e i t e m m e a s u r i n g t h e t e n d e n c y t o " r u n a w a y " ( 5 ) d o e s n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f e i t h e r s a m p l e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i t e m s 71 m e a s u r i n g t h e t e n d e n c i e s t o i g n o r e r e g u l a t i o n s a n d r o u t i n e s ( 1 ) a n d t o m i s -b e h a v e i n g r o u p s e t t i n g s ( 6 ) c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l s c o r e s f o r a n a l y s i s s a m p l e o n e a n d t w o r e s p e c t i v e l y . F o r t h e s u b t e s t , U n t r u s t w o r t h y B e h a v i o r , b o t h i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e . T h e i t e m m e a s u r i n g w h e t h e r a n i n d i v i d u a l t a k e s a n o t h e r ' s p r o p e r t y w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n ( 1 ) d o e s n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g s u b j e c t s i n t h e s e c o n d a n a l y s i s s a m p l e . F o r t h e s u b t e s t , W i t h d r a w a l , t h e i t e m s m e a s u r i n g a t e n d e n c y t o b e w i t h d r a w n b u t a c t i v e ( 2 ) a n d w i t h d r a w n o r s h y ( 3 ) f a i l t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e . T h e l a t t e r i t e m a l s o c o r r e l a t e s l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i t e m m e a s u r i n g a t e n d e n c y t o b e w i t h d r a w n a n d i n a c t i v e ( 1 ) d o e s n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . N o n e o f t h e i t e m s i n t h e s u b t e s t S t e r e o t y p e d B e h a v i o r a n d O d d M a n n e r i s m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r b o t h s a m p l e s . O n l y o n e i t e m i n t h e s u b t e s t , U n a c c e p t a b l e o r E c c e n t r i c H a b i t s c o r r e l a t e s g r e a t e r t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t h e t o t a l s c o r e s f o r a n a l y s i s s a m p l e o n e . T h i s i t e m m e a s u r e s t e n d e n c i e s t o d i s p l a y s t r a n g e a n d u n a c c e p t a b l e h a b i t s ( 1 ) . N o i t e m s i n t h i s s u b t e s t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o n d a n a l y s i s s a m p l e . F o r t h e s u b t e s t , S e x u a l l y A b e r r a n t B e h a v i o r , t h e i t e m i n d i c a t i n g a t e n d e n c y t o e n g a g e i n i n a p p r o p r i a t e m a s t u r b a t i o n ( 1 ) d o e s n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f e i t h e r s a m p l e . T h e i t e m s m e a s u r i n g t h e t e n d e n c i e s t o e x p o s e t h e b o d y i m p r o p e r l y ( 2 ) a n d t o d i s p l a y h o m o s e x u a l t e n d e n c i e s ( 3 ) 7 2 d o n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f a n a l y s i s s a m p l e s t w o a n d o n e r e s -p e c t i v e l y . T h u s t w o i t e m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r e a c h s a m p l e . A l l i t e m s i n t h e s u b t e s t , P s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r b o t h s a m p l e s . O f t h e f i v e o n e i t e m s u b t e s t s , o n l y U n a c c e p t a b l e V o c a l H a b i t s a n d H y p e r a c t i v e T e n d e n c i e s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f a n a l y s i s s a m p l e o n e . H y p e r a c t i v e T e n d e n c i e s a l s o c o r r e l a t e s g r e a t e r t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l s c o r e s f o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e ( s e e T a b l e s 17 a n d 1 8 ) . E s t i m a t e d F r e q u e n c i e s o f O c c u r r e n c e f o r B e h a v i o r s M e a s u r e d b y  A B S P a r t I I . F o r t h e i t e m s o f t h e A B S P a r t I I , r a t e r s a r e r e q u i r e d t o i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r o r n o t a b e h a v i o r o c c u r s , a n d i f s o , t o s t a t e w h e t h e r i t o c c u r s " o c c a s i o n a l l y " d e f i n e d a s " . . . o n c e i n a w h i l e o r n o w a n d t h e n " , a n d " f r e q u e n t l y " , d e f i n e d a s " . . . q u i t e o f t e n o r h a b i t u a l l y " ( N i h i r a e t a l , 1 9 6 9 ) . F o r t h i s s t u d y , r a t e r s w e r e a l s o a s k e d t o p r o v i d e n u m e r i c a l e s t i m a t e s , e . g . 1 / d a , 2 / w k , e t c . , f o r b e h a v i o r s t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r r a t e e s t o d i s p l a y . T a b l e 2 8 p r e s e n t s t h e r a n g e o f e s t i m a t e d f r e q u e n c i e s p r o v i d e d b y r a t e r s f o r e a c h i t e m f o r e a c h c a t e g o r y : o c c a s i o n a l l y o c c u r r i n g o r f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g b e h a v i o r s . F o r m a n y i t e m s , t h e s e r a n g e s o v e r l a p f o r o c c a s i o n a l a n d f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g b e h a v i o r s . F o r s o m e i t e m s t h i s o v e r l a p i s c o m p l e t e . F o r e x a m p l e , f o r i t e m e l e v e n , U s e s P r o f a n e o r H o s t i l e L a n g u a g e r a t e r s w h o j u d g e t h i s b e h a v i o r a s o c c u r r i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y p r o v i d e f r e q u e n c y e s t i m a t e s r a n g i n g f r o m o n c e a d a y t o f o u r t i m e s a y e a r . R a t e r s w h o j u d g e 73 TABLE 28 Range of estimated frequencies of occurrence for items of the ABS Part II and percentage of items for which raters provided estimates Estimated Frequency Item Occasional Frequent Range % Range 1 1/da - l/4yr 72 1/da - 1/wk 100 2 3/yr - l/yr 100 — — 3 3/mo - l/yr 100 4/mo 100 4 1/wk- l/2yr 100 1/wk- 1/mo 100 5 1/wk - 2/yr 48 3/wk - 1/wk 42 6 1/da - 1/mo 82 1/da - 2/wk 39 7 1/da - 1/mo 70 2/da - 1/wk 60 8 3/mo - 1/mo 100 1/da - 5/wk 60 9 1/da - 1/mo 100 5/da - 3/wk 64 10 2/wk- 4/yr 100 1/da - 5/wk 75 11 1/da - 4/yr 66 1/da - 2/mo 62 12 1/da - 2/yr 71 1/da - 3/wk 50 13 1/da - 1/mo 75 1/da - 3/mo 66 14 2/mo - l/2mo 33 1/da - 1/wk 75 15 1/da - 1/mo 45 1/da - 1/wk 75 16 1/mo 100 2/wk- 1/wk 100 17 2/mo - 4/yr 38 1/da - 2/wk 76 18 1/mo - 2/yr 80 5/wk- 1/wk 57 19 4/wk- 2/yr 89 1/da - 2/wk 71 20 1/da - 6/yr 89 1/da - 3/wk 88 21 1/wk- 6/yr 66 1/da - 2/wk 64 22 1/da - 1/mo 61 3/da - 4/wk 83 23 2/wk- 1/mo 63 8/da - 3/wk 82 24 1/da - 1/mo . 100 2/da - 1/da 66 25 1/da - 2/mo 69 1/da - 2/mo 66 26 1/da - 1/mo 78 4/da - 1/da 69 27 3/mo 100 1/da - 5/wk 33 28 - - 4/da - 1/wk 71 29 4/mo 100 — 30 — 1/da 100 31 1/da - 1/mo 66 1/da 100 32 1/da - 1/wk 75 4/da - 5/wk 43 33 - - 4/da 100 34 - - 3/wk 33 35 1/mo - 1/yr^ 50 1/da 30 36 1/wk- 1/mo 100 5/wk- 1/wk 83 37 1/da - 4/yr 64 1/da - 1/wk 45 38 1/da - 4/yr 61 1/da - 2/wk 19 39 1/da - l/2mo 64 5/wk- 1/wk 13 40 2/da - 1/mo 100 1/da - 1/wk 38 41 1/da - 1/mo 90 1/da - 2/wk 50 42 1/da - 3/yr 66 1/da - 1/mo 100 43 2/wk- 1/mo 62 1/da - 1/wk 63 44 1/da 33 4/da - 1/da 79 74 that subjects display this behavior frequently, provide estimates ranging from once a day to twice a month. For other items, the ranges of estimated frequencies of occurrence for occasional and frequently occurring behaviors showed partial overlap. For example, for item one Threatens or does Physical Violence, raters who judge this behavior as occurring occasionally provide frequency estimates ranging from once a day to once every four years. Raters who judge that subjects display this behaviour frequently, provide estimates ranging from once a day to once a week. Table 29 provides a summary of items showing different degrees of overlap in the range of estimated frequencies of occurrence. It would appear from these results, that raters use different criteria in assigning behaviors to the occasional and frequent categories. Generalizability of Ratings. Estimates of the generalizability of ratings over the universe of raters for the ABS Part II are presented in Table 30. Estimates of the variance components used in calculating these coefficients are presented in Table 31. In examining these results for the subtests or domains, it can be seen that fifty-six coefficients are equal to zero. For thirty of these, the universe score variance is equal to zero. For the remaining twenty-six coefficients all components are equal to zero. A l l domains have from one to seven coefficients equal to zero. A l l rater pairs have from four coefficients (rater pairs 2 and 7) to eleven coefficients (rater pair 3) that are equal to zero. 75 T A B L E 2 9 N u m b e r o f i t e m s o f t h e A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e s , P a r t II s h o w i n g d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s o f o v e r l a p i n t h e r a n g e o f e s t i m a t e d f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e . D e g r e e o f o v e r l a p i n f r e q u e n c y e s t i m a t e s N o O v e r l a p S o m e O v e r l a p C o m p l e t e O v e r l a p U n d e t e r m i n e d 8 2 6 1 9 7 6 T A B L E 3 0 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s b y r a t e r p a i r a n d a c r o s s r a t e r s f o r t h e s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e A B S P a r t II D o m a i n R a t e r P a i r A c r o s s R a t e r s V i o l . D e s . B e h . A n t i s o c . B e h . R e b . B e h . U n . B e h . W i t h . . 8 7 . 6 8 0 . 0 . 9 0 . 1 8 0 . 0 . 7 7 . 2 2 0 . 0 . 0 6 . 8 0 . 9 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 5 4 . 3 6 . 4 8 . 7 8 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 1 5 0 . 0 . 7 3 . 4 0 . 0 3 . 7 0 . 4 2 , 7 2 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 5 8 0 . 0 . 6 1 , 1 3 . 3 2 0 . . 0 " .74 . 1 1 6 . 6 8 . 4 0 S t . B e h . , O . M a n . 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 6 2 , 1 7 , 5 8 . 1 3 . 2 9 . 8 9 I n a p p . I n t e r . M a n . 0 . 0 . 3 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 U n a c c . V o c . H a b . 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 4 9 : 0 . * 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 U n a c c . E c c . H a b . 0 . 0 . 5 3 0 . 0 . 4 4 . 9 8 0 . 0 . 7 5 0 . 0 S e l f - A b . B e h . 0 . 0 9 . 0 0 . 0 f. 0 . 0 . 8 9 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 H y p e r . T e n d . S e x . A b . B e h , P s y c h . D i s t . U s e o f M e d . A B S P a r t I I 0 . 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 , 6 2 . 4 8 0 . 0 , 3 7 . 8 9 0 . 0 . 7 8 . 4 5 . 6 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 4 7 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 5 3 . 5 3 . . . 2 1 . 1 8 . 7 0 0 . 0 1 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 . 9 3 . 5 4 . 1 7 . 4 9 . 6 2 . 4 5 . 5 3 . 3 0 . 5 5 . 5 7 . 4 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 7 0 . 5 7 . 4 8 . 1 2 . 5 2 . 8 7 . 5 8 77 T A B L E 31 Variance components contributing to universe score variance ( a 2 u p ) and error variance (o 2 6 ) by rater pair and across raters for subtest and total test scores of the A B S Part II Rater Pair Subtest 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Across Raters A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B Violent and De-structive Behavior o 2 p P 02 6 .11+.0002 .01+.01 .07+.01 .01+.04 0 + 0 .05+.02 .05+.05 .01+.02 .03+.01 .12+.04 0 + 0 .003+.01 0+.02 .15+.13 1.39+.42 .38+.06 .04+.01 .04+.02 Rebellious Behavior a 2v p c26 .01+.003 .01+.01 .45+.10 .02+.08 0 + 0 .05+.11 .09+.08 .01+.05 002+.02 .03+.01 0 +.02 .41+.11 .62+.13 .08+.25 .16+.16 .33+.10 .04+.04 i .11+.08 Antisocial Behavior a 2v p o 2 6 .13+.06 .02+.004 .08+.02 .25+.19 0 + 0 .06+.04 .31+.01 .01+.02 0 + 0 .12+.06 0 + 0 .06 +.04 .24+.23 .25+.14 .20+.03 .38+.02 .11+.03 .07+.06 Untrustworthy Behavior o 2 u p o 2 6 0 + 0 0 + 0 0 +.09 .27+.27 0 + 0 .50+.50 3.00+1.00 1.00+ .56 0 + 0 0 + 0 0 + 0 0 + 0 3.45+ 0 1.19+1.36 0 + 0 .07+.08 .40+.12 .24+.18 Withdrawal o2V p a 2S .03+.05 .03+.02 .03+ 0 .13+.10 0 +.17 .35+.01 0 + 0 0 + 0 .28+.16 .12+.04 .09+.05 .59+.17 .42+ 0 .02+.18 .06+.10 .13+.10 .22+.07 .14+.08 Stereotyped Behavior and O d d Mannerisms o 2 u p a 2S 0 + 0 .03+.04 0 + 0 .10+.10 0 +.50 .03+.28 .08+ 0 .27+.10 .48+.13 .23+.11 .04+ 0 .14+.14 0 +.13 .16+.16 .10+.10 .01+.01 .10+.06 .13+.09 Inappropriate Inter-personal Manners o2w p a 2 6 0 .01 .62 1.40 0 0 0 1.23 0 .08 0 1.00 0 .18 0 .13 0 .36 Unacceptable Vocal Habits °2V P a 2 5 0 0 0 0 3.00 3.08 0 1.06 0 .25 0 .33 0 .40 0 .85 0 .38 Unacceptable or Eccentric Habits O 2 U P o 2 « 0 + 0 0 + 0 .03+.07 .06+.04 0 + 0 0 + 0 0+.06 .04+.03 .10+.03 .01+.01 0 + 0 .07+.03 .06+.08 .02+.03 0 + 0 .003+.003 .05+.06 .03+.02 S e l f - A b u s i v e Behavior a 2 p p a 2 5 0 .03 0 0 0 .50 0 0 .40 .05 0 .25 0 0 0 0 .07 .05 Hyperactive Tendencies a 2 V p a 2 S 0 .03 .20 2.25 0 4.50 0 1.00 0 0 0 .06 2.67 0 0 0 .62 .67 Sexually Aberrant Behavior 0 2 W p 0 2 « 0 + 0 0 + 0 0 + 0 .31+.10 0 + 0 0 + 0 0 + 0 .02+.02 .06+.09 .08+.10 0 + 0 .04+.06 0 + 0 .16+.10 0 + 0 0 + 0 .01+.01 .12+.05 Psychological Disturbances a 2v P o 2 5 .09+.003 .04+.02 .45+.05 .43+.11 0 + 0 .02+.02 .26+.05 .25+.03 .25+.002 .16+.06 .10+ 0 .18+.19 . 3 » + . 0 3 1.87+.06 .30+.01 .09+.07 .33+.01 .25+.08 Use of Medication a 2 u p a2i .14 .24 1.42 .18 0 0 0 .25 1.20 0 1.00 0 1.07 0 0 0 .64 .09 A B S Part II o2V P o 2 « .01+.002 .003+.001 .06+. 00' .07+. 01 .03+.00 .01+.01 I .15+.01 .004+.01 .04+.004 .03+.01 .02+ 0 .09+.01 .15+.02 .15+.02 .13+.01 .08+.01 .06+.04 .04+.01 7 8 O f t h e r e m a i n i n g f i f t y - s i x c o e f f i c i e n t s , t w e l v e a r e g r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a l t o . 8 0 . B e s i d e s t h e s u b t e s t U s e o f M e d i c a t i o n , f o r w h i c h f o u r c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e g r e a t e r t h a n . 8 0 , t h e d o m a i n s V i o l e n t a n d D e s t r u c t i v e B e h a v i o r a n d A n t i s o c i a l B e h a v i o r e a c h h a v e t w o c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a t a r e g r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a l t o . 8 0 . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e f o r t y - f o u r c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a t a r e g r e a t e r t h a n z e r o b u t l e s s t h a n . 8 0 , i t c a n b e s e e n t h a t t h e p e r s o n s - b y - j u d g e s v a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t i s t h e l a r g e s t o r e q u a l t o t h e l a r g e s t c o m p o n e n t f o r t w e n t y - t h r e e o f t h e s e . T h e s u b t e s t s U n a c c e p t a b l e o r E c c e n t r i c H a b i t s , S e l f - A b u s i v e B e h a v i o r , a n d S e x u a l l y A b e r r a n t B e h a v i o r h a v e n o c o e f f i c i e n t s w h e r e t h e p j c o m p o n e n t i s t h e l a r g e s t , a l t h o u g h t h e s e s u b t e s t s h a v e f o u r t o s e v e n c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a t a r e e q u a l t o z e r o . T h e r e m a i n i n g s u b t e s t s h a v e f r o m o n e t o f o u r c o e f f i c i e n t s w h e r e t h e p j c o m p o n e n t c o n t r i b u t e s m o s t t o t h e o b s e r v e d s c o r e v a r i a n c e . T h u s r a t e r b i a s i n f l u e n c e s r a t i n g s o n m o s t d o m a i n s . A l l r a t e r p a i r s h a v e f r o m o n e ( r a t e r p a i r 4 ) t o f i v e ( r a t e r p a i r 3 ) c o e f f i c i e n t s w h e r e t h e p j c o m p o n e n t i s t h e l a r g e s t o r e q u a l t o t h e l a r g e s t c o m p o n e n t o f v a r i a n c e . T h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s , b y r a t e r p a i r , r a n g e f r o m . 1 7 t o . 9 3 . F o r r a t e r p a i r s 2 , 6 , a n d 7 t h e p j c o m p o n e n t c o n t r i b u t e s t h e m o s t t o t h e o b s e r v e d s c o r e v a r i a n c e . T h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a c r o s s a l l r a t e r s r a n g e f r o m 0 . 0 , f o r I n a p p r o p r i a t e I n t e r p e r s o n a l M a n n e r s a n d U n a c c e p t a b l e V o c a l H a b i t s t o . 7 0 f o r U n a c c e p t a b l e o r E c c e n t r i c H a b i t s , ( j 2 f o r U s e o f M e d i c a t i o n i s e q u a l t o . 8 7 . T h e p j c o m p o n e n t c o n t r i b u t e s t h e m o s t t o t h e o b s e r v e d s c o r e 7 9 v a r i a n c e f o r t h e d o m a i n s , V i o l e n t a n d D e s t r u c t i v e B e h a v i o r , R e b e l l i o u s B e h a v i o r , S t e r e o t y p e d B e h a v i o r a n d O d d M a n n e r i s m s , H y p e r a c t i v e T e n d e n c i e s a n d S e x u a l l y A b e r r r a n t B e h a v i o r . T h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s i s . 5 8 . R e s u l t s o f A n a l y s i s - S E T T e s t A n a l y s i s . T h e m e a n , r a n g e , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f m e a s u r e m e n t , a n d H o y t c o e f f i c i e n t o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r e a c h s u b t e s t o f t h e S E T f o r b o t h t e s t a n d r e t e s t s a m p l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 3 2 a n d 3 3 . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 3 4 . F o r b o t h t e s t a n d r e t e s t s a m p l e s , a f l o o r e f f e c t w a s o b t a i n e d f o r t h e f i r s t s i x s u b t e s t s . A c e i l i n g e f f e c t w a s o b s e r v e d f o r t h e s u b t e s t s W r i t i n g , T i m e , a n d C o m m u n i c a t i o n f o r b o t h s a m p l e s , a n d f o r M o n e y a n d C o n c e p t A t t a i n m e n t f o r t h e r e t e s t s a m p l e . T h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e s u b t e s t s d o n o t i n c l u d e s u f f i c i e n t l y e a s y a n d / o r d i f f i c u l t i t e m s f o r t h e m e m b e r s o f t h i s s a m p l e . F o r t h e t e s t s a m p l e , t h e H o y t c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g e f r o m . 6 5 f o r M o t o r M o v e m e n t s t o . 9 7 f o r W r i t i n g . F o r t h e r e t e s t s a m p l e , t h e s e v a l u e s r a n g e f r o m . 6 7 f o r M o t o r M o v e m e n t s t o . 9 8 f o r W r i t i n g . O n l y t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r M o t o r M o v e m e n t s a r e l e s s t h a n . 8 5 . T h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e t o t a l t e s t i s . 9 9 f o r b o t h s a m p l e s . C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s , f o r b o t h t e s t a n d r e t e s t s a m p l e s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e s 3 5 a n d 3 6 . M o t o r M o v e m e n t s c o r r e l a t e s l o w e s t w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r b o t h s a m p l e s . T A B L E 3 2 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n T e s t 1 S u b t e s t M e a n R a n g e S t . D e v . H o y t S E M R e a d i n g 6 . 5 2 0 - 1 6 5 . 9 3 . 9 4 1 . 3 8 W r i t i n g 7 . 5 4 0 - 2 0 7 . 6 1 . 9 7 1 . 2 2 N u m b e r s 6 . 9 0 0 - 18 5 . 7 4 . 9 3 1 . 4 9 T i m e 8 . 5 2 0 - 2 0 6 . 0 5 . 9 4 1 . 4 6 M o n e y 7 . 0 4 0 - 1 9 7 . 0 0 . 9 6 1 . 3 2 C o m m u n i t y 6 . 3 0 0 - 1 7 4 . 6 3 . 8 7 1 . 6 2 C o m m u n i c a t i o n 1 4 . 3 6 5 - 2 0 4 . 3 2 . 8 8 1 . 4 5 M o t o r M o v e m e n t s 1 1 . 3 8 5 - 1 6 2/. 7 5 . 6 5 1 . 5 9 C o n c e p t A t t a i n m e n t 9 . 5 6 1 - 1 9 4 . 7 4 . 8 5 1 . 7 7 T A B L E 3 3 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n T e s t ( 2 ) S u b t e s t M e a n R a n g e S t . D e v . H o y t S E M R e a d i n g 6 . 9 7 0 - 17 6 . 5 5 . 9 6 1 . 3 1 W r i t i n g 7 . 4 3 0 - 2 0 7 . 9 9 . 9 8 1 . 1 1 N u m b e r s 7 . 0 0 0 - 17 5 . 7 8 . 9 3 1 . 5 0 T i m e 8 . 5 7 0 - 2 0 6 . 5 2 . 9 5 1 . 4 5 M o n e y 8 . 0 3 0 - 2 0 7 . 0 4 . 9 6 1 . 3 3 C o m m u n i t y 6 . 1 3 0 - 1 5 4 . 1 7 . 8 5 1 . 6 0 C o m m u n i c a t i o n 1 4 . 2 3 5 - 2 0 4 . 2 6 . 8 9 1 . 4 1 M o t o r M o v e m e n t s 1 1 . 1 3 5 - 1 5 2 . 8 4 . 6 7 1 . 6 0 C o n c e p t A t t a i n m e n t 1 0 . 8 3 3 - 2 0 5 . 2 6 . 8 8 1 . 7 6 T A B L E 3 4 T e s t a n a l y s i s s u m m a r y f o r t h e S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n T e s t , i a n d 2 T e s t M e a n R a n g e S t . D e v . a S t r a t S e t I 7 8 . 1 2 1 1 - 1 5 1 4 3 . 5 8 S e t II 8 0 . 3 3 1 5 - 1 4 9 4 5 . 7 8 , 9 9 , 9 9 4 . 8 4 4 . 7 7 T A B L E 3 5 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t s t h e S e t a n d t o t a l l 1 t e s t s c o r e f o r S u b t e s t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 R e a d i n g 1 . 0 0 W r i t i n g . 9 5 1 . 0 0 N u m b e r s . 8 9 . 9 0 1 . 0 0 T i m e . 9 1 . 8 8 . 9 0 1 . 0 0 M o n e y . 8 8 . 8 8 . 9 2 . 9 0 1 . 0 0 C o m m u n i t y . 8 0 . 8 1 . 8 0 . 8 2 . 8 2 1 . 0 0 C o m m u n i c a t i o n . 7 0 . 7 0 . 6 5 . 7 1 . 6 5 . 7 3 1 . 0 0 M o t o r M o v e m e n t s . 4 7 . 4 1 . 4 3 . 4 4 . 4 2 . 3 1 . 4 5 1 . 0 0 C o n c e p t A t t a i n m e n t . 7 7 . 7 2 . 7 9 . 7 9 . 7 7 . 6 7 . 7 1 . 6 0 1 . 0 0 T o t a l T e s t . 9 5 . 9 5 . 9 5 . 9 5 . 9 4 . 8 7 . 7 9 . 5 3 . 8 6 1 . 0 0 N = 5 0 ; 'critical = - 2 7 6 ( P * ' 0 5 ) T A B L E 3 6 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t s a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e S e t 2 S u b t e s t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 R e a d i n g 1 . 0 0 W r i t i n g . 9 5 1 . 0 0 N u m b e r s . 9 5 . 9 4 1 . 0 0 T i m e . 8 7 . 8 6 . 9 0 1 . 0 0 M o n e y . 9 4 . 9 1 . 9 5 . 9 3 1 . 0 0 C o m m u n i t y . 8 6 . 8 6 . 8 8 . 8 3 . 8 9 1 . 0 0 C o m m u n i c a t i o n . 7 6 . 7 5 . 7 4 . 7 0 . 7 1 . 8 0 1 . 0 0 M o t o r M o v e m e n t s . 4 5 . 3 7 . 4 2 . 3 6 . 4 4 . 3 3 . 3 7 1 . 0 0 C o n c e p t A t t a i n m e n t . 8 4 . 7 6 . 8 2 . 8 2 . 8 4 . 7 5 . 7 1 . 6 8 1 . 0 0 T o t a l T e s t . 9 7 . 9 5 . 9 7 . 9 3 . 9 7 . 9 1 . 8 1 . 5 1 . 8 9 1 . 0 0 ' N = 3 0 ; 'critical = - 3 5 5 ( P £ ' 0 5 ) 85 I t e m A n a l y s i s . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i t e m a n a l y s i s f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e S E T a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e s 3 t o 1 1 . O f t h e o n e h u n d r e d a n d e i g h t y i t e m s i n t h i s t e s t , o n e h u n d r e d a n d t h i r t y - t w o w e r e f o u n d t o c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . F o r t h e R e a d i n g s u b t e s t s e v e n t e e n o f t h e t w e n t y i t e m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . T h e t h r e e i t e m s t h a t d o n o t a p p e a r t o b e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a r e d i f f i c u l t t o t h i s s a m p l e . O n l y f o u r s u b j e c t s w e r e a b l e t o c o r r e c t l y l a b e l a l l S o c i a l S i g h t V o c a b u l a r y w o r d s a n d s y m b o l s . N o s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d p e r f e c t s c o r e s o n t h e R e c a l l t a s k . A n d , o n l y s i x s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d p e r f e c t s c o r e s o n t h e f i r s t C o m p r e h e n s i o n t a s k . A l l i t e m s i n t h e W r i t i n g s u b t e s t c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . F o r t h e s u b t e s t , N u m b e r C o n c e p t s , t h e i t e m m e a s u r i n g p r o p o r t i o n s a n d w e i g h t s a n d a p r o b l e m i n l o n g d i v i s i o n d o n o t a p p e a r t o b e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h i s s a m p l e . T h e l a t t e r i s t h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t i t e m i n t h i s s u b t e s t ( p = . 0 6 ) . T h e r e m a i n i n g e i g h t e e n i t e m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . O f t h e t w e n t y i t e m s i n t h e T i m e s u b t e s t , o n l y t w o c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . T h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n , " W h a t t i m e d o y o u g e t u p i n t h e m o r n i n g ? " , i s t h e e a s i e s t f o r t h i s s a m p l e ( p = . 9 2 ) . T h e s e c o n d , " H o w m a n y w o r k i n g d a y s a r e t h e r e i n F e b r u a r y ? " , i s t h e h a r d e s t i t e m ( p = . 0 6 ) . 8 6 1 . 0 0 , 8 0 C M CU O r H o S CJ o CO •I-H H-> u S o 3 Cu a o pr ax: 6 CO bo CO C • r H • i - i H-» r H c no • r H <s H-» is r Q H - H • r H o Xi CU i - H B OH cu O CU 1-1 OH 6 0 . 4 0 , 2 0 L 0 . 0 X . 2 0 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 8 0 I t e m - t o t a l s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s 1 . 0 0 F I G U R E 3 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e R e a d i n g s u b t e s t o f t h e S E T 8 7 1 . 0 0 . 8 0 O U O O CO 6 s •rH S to ho o •rH H-> rH O Q< O rH a 3 *H 6 s •rH CTJ H-» r Q O CU r H OH O CD ft . 6 0 . 4 0 . 2 0 0 . 0 _L _L . 2 0 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 8 0 I t e m - t o t a l s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s 1 . 0 0 F I G U R E 4 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e W r i t i n g s u b t e s t o f t h e S E T 8 8 1 . 0 0 . 8 0 cu u o CJ CO ft 6 o .5 6 lo bo cu c S '3 g cS ^ r Q Si o •a cu _ i — i £ a 0) o + J CU ~ OH . 6 0 L . 4 0 L . 2 0 0 . 0 j ; i i i _ . 2 0 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 8 0 I t e m - t o t a l s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s 1 . 0 0 F I G U R E 5 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e N u m b e r s s u b t e s t o f t h e S E T 89 CD ft O CD ft <*-t o CD o O •rH o -l-> rH COod S o u c ft c •rH X! w S CD •rH •4-* I-H fad c •rHo £ • rH •rH <S H-> •rH qo £ CD H-» 1.00 .80 .60 .40 .20 o • _L ± J_ 0.0 ,20 .40 .60 .80 Item-total score correlations 1.00 FIGURE 6 Item analysis information for the Time subtest of the SET 90 1.00 .80 ,60 .40 20 _L 0.0 .20 .40 ,;60 I t e m - t o t a l s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s .80 1.00 F I G U R E 7 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e M o n e y s u b t e s t o f t h e S E T 91 1.00 .80 .60 .40 .20 0.0 - L _L ,20 .40 .60 Item-total score correlations .80 1.00 FIGURE 8 Item analysis information for the Community Awareness subtest of the SET 9 2 1.00 .80 ,60 ,40 20 0.0 J 1 1 .20 .40 .60 I t e m - t o t a l s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s .80 1.00 F I G U R E 9 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s u b t e s t o f t h e S E T Item difficulties: proportion of people obtaining maximum score to o o OS O 0 0 o o o £6 94 1.00 ,80 4-1 o C Q CD U O CJ CO ft c o -5 E CO t)C £ r Q W ° 6 ft o CP ft ,60 .40 .20 0.0 _L ,20 .40 .60 Item-total score correlations ,80 1.00 FIGURE 11 Item analysis information for the Concept Attainment subtest of the SET 9 5 O n l y o n e i t e m i n t h e s u b t e s t , M o n e y H a n d l i n g c o r r e l a t e s l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . N o s u b j e c t s w e r e a b l e t o c o m p l e t e a c h e q u e w i t h o u t e r r o r . T h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e s u b t e s t , C o m m u n i t y A w a r e n e s s i n d i c a t e t h a t s i x i t e m s d o n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h i s s a m p l e . O n e i s a G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n q u e s t i o n , " W h a t p l a c e o f i n t e r e s t w o u l d y o u t a k e a n e w f r i e n d t o s e e ? " T w o a r e C o m m u n i t y C o s t q u e s t i o n s , " H o w m u c h d o e s i t c o s t t o r i d e a c i t y b u s ? " a n d " H o w m u c h d o e s a l o a f o f b r e a d c o s t ? " T h r e e a r e W o r k R e l a t e d I n f o r m a t i o n q u e s t i o n s , " W h a t i s t h e m i n i m u m w a g e p e r h o u r ? " ; " W h a t i s a l a b o u r u n i o n ? " ; a n d , " W h a t i s i n s u r a n c e ? " . T h e s e l a t t e r t h r e e a r e t h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t i t e m s f o r t h i s s a m p l e ( p = . 0 4 , . 0 2 , a n d . 0 6 r e s -p e c t i v e l y ) . O n e - h a l f o f t h e i t e m s i n t h e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s u b t e s t c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . O f t h e s i x i t e m s i n t h e C o n v e r s a t i o n s e c t i o n , t h e f i r s t t h r e e a r e v e r y e a s y f o r t h i s s a m p l e ( p = 1 . 0 0 , 1 . 0 0 , . 8 4 ) ; t h e t w o l a s t i t e m s o f t h i s s e c t i o n , t h a t d o n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h i s s a m p l e w e r e o f m o d e r a t e d i f f i c u l t y ( p = . 4 6 , . 6 0 ) . F o r t h e S p e e c h s e c t i o n t h e f i r s t t w o i t e m s a r e v e r y e a s y f o r t h i s s a m p l e ( p = 1 . 0 0 , . 9 2 ) . T h e l a s t i t e m , w h i c h d o e s n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e , i s o f m o d e r a t e d i f f i c u l t y ( p = . 4 8 ) . T h e f i r s t i t e m i n t h e S e n t e n c e D e v e l o p m e n t s e c t i o n a n d t h e f i r s t i t e m i n t h e G r a m m a t i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t s e c t i o n a r e v e r y e a s y f o r t h i s s a m p l e ( p = 1 . 0 0 , 1 . 0 0 ) . O n l y t h r e e i t e m s f r o m t h e s u b t e s t M o t o r M o v e m e n t s , c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . T h e f i r s t m e a s u r e s t h e s e c o n d p o s s i b l e 96 level of performance in the Gross Manual Dexterity task. The next, measures the lowest level of performance of the Fine Dexterity task. And, the last measures the second highest level of performance of the Manipulative Dexterity task. A l l the items measuring Gross Hand/Eye Coordination, two items measuring balance, and the item reflecting the lowest performance on the Manipulative Dexterity task are very easy for this sample (p > .80). The items reflecting the highest levels of performance on the Gross Manual Dexterity and Manipulative tasks are very difficult (p = 0.0). For the Concept Attainment subtest, seven items do not appear to be discriminating among members of this sample. These items measure color discrimination, composition of objects, the first two levels of performance on the discrimination task, the first amount concept item, position concepts, and the last conservation item. The first task is very easy (p = .92) and the second is difficult (p = .10) for this sample. Stability. Estimates of the generalizability of SET subtest and total test scores, over the universe of occasions, within a three month interval, are presented in Table 37. A l l coefficients are greater than or equal to .92 except for the subtest Motor Movements where p = .82. As can be seen 2 o from Table 38 the universe score variance (a (p) + (a (pi)) is small, relative to those for the first six subtests, whereas the estimates for the persons-by-occasions and the persons-by-occasions-by-items components are of the same magnitude as those for these subtests. 9 7 T A B L E 3 7 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e o f t h e s e t 2 S u b t e s t P R e a d i n g , 9 6 W r i t i n g . 9 8 N u m b e r s . 9 7 T i m e . 9 8 M o n e y . 9 7 C o m m u n i t y . 9 2 C o m m u n i c a t i o n . 9 4 M o t o r M o v e m e n t s . 8 2 C o n c e p t A t t a i n m e n t . 9 4 S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n T e s t . 9 9 9 8 T A B L E 3 8 E s t i m a t e s o f v a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t s 1 c o n t r i b u t i n g t o eP f o r t h e s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e s e t S u b t e s t o 2 p ( l / n p c ^ p i ( l / n * ) c r 2 p o ( l / n j l / n 1 ) a 2 p o i R e a d i n g . 1 0 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 1 W r i t i n g . 1 5 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 1 N u m b e r s . 0 9 . 0 0 4 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 2 T i m e . 1 0 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 1 M o n e y . 1 2 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 1 C o m m u n i t y . 0 4 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 2 C o m m u n i c a t i o n . 0 4 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 1 M o t o r M o v e m e n t s . 0 2 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 2 C o n c e p t A t t a i n m e n t . 1 3 . 0 0 6 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 4 T o t a l T e s t . 1 5 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 1 9 9 R e s u l t s o f A n a l y s i s - V C L T e s t A n a l y s i s . T a b l e s 3 9 a n d 4 0 s h o w t h e m e a n , r a n g e , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f m e a s u r e m e n t , a n d t h e H o y t e s t i m a t e s o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r e a c h s u b t e s t o f t h e V C L , f o r e a c h a n a l y s i s s a m p l e . T a b l e 4 1 s u m m a r i z e s t h e s e r e s u l t s f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t . W i t h i n t h e d o m a i n , B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s , a f l o o r e f f e c t w a s o b s e r v e d f o r t h e s u b t e s t , M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s , f o r b o t h a n a l y s i s s a m p l e s , a n d f o r t h e s u b t e s t s , I n d e p e n d e n c e a n d T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n f o r t h e f i r s t a n a l y s i s s a m p l e . W i t h i n t h e d o m a i n W o r k S k i l l s , a f l o o r e f f e c t w a s o b s e r v e d f o r a l l t h r e e s u b t e s t s f o r b o t h s a m p l e s . I n a d d i t i o n , a f l o o r e f f e c t w a s o b t a i n e d f o r t h i s d o m a i n f o r t h e f i r s t a n a l y s i s s a m p l e . A c e i l i n g e f f e c t w a s o b t a i n e d f o r t h e s u b t e s t s , I n d e p e n d e n c e a n d U s e a n d C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t , w i t h i n B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s , f o r b o t h s a m p l e s . T h i s e f f e c t w a s a l s o o b s e r v e d f o r t h e s u b t e s t , T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n , f o r t h e f i r s t a n a l y s i s s a m p l e . F o r t h e d o m a i n W o r k S k i l l s , a c e i l i n g e f f e c t w a s o b t a i n e d f o r t h e s u b t e s t , F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r b o t h s a m p l e s . A c e i l i n g e f f e c t w a s o b s e r v e d f o r t h e d o m a i n A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s , a n d f o r a l l f o u r s u b t e s t s , f o r b o t h s a m p l e s . T h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t m o r e d i f f i c u l t i t e m s a r e n e e d e d i n t h e s e s u b t e s t s i n o r d e r t o a d e q u a t e l y d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g h i g h s c o r e r s . T h e e s t i m a t e s o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s , W o r k S k i l l s , a n d A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s a r e . 9 1 , . 9 1 , a n d . 9 2 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r a n a l y s i s s a m p l e t w o . T h e s u b t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g e f r o m . 6 5 f o r M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s t o . 9 0 f o r T a s k A n a l y s i s f o r t h e f i r s t s a m p l e ; a n d , . 6 3 f o r T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n T A B L E 39 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e V C L 1 S u b t e s t M e a n R a n g e S t . , D e v . H o y t S E M B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s 19. 92 5 - 35 8. 24 .91 2.42 I n d e p e n d e n c e 5. 43 0 - 10 2. 76 .83 1.01 M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s 4. 29 0 - 9 2. 29 .65 1.21 U s e , C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t 5. 76 1 - 10 2. .46 .80 .98 T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n 4. 50 0 - 10 2. 11 .67 1.08 W o r k S k i l l s 19. 98 0 - 72 14. 94 .91 4.52 S p e e d 2. ,83 0 - .'9 2. 30 .79 .95 F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s 5, ,69 0 - 10 2, .55 .83 .93 T a s k A n a l y s i s 11. .45 0 - 61 12 .86 .90 3.94 A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s 22 .40 0 - 40 8 .61 .92 2.31 A p p e a r a n c e 6 .29 0 - 10 2 .56 .85 .90 P u n c t u a l i t y 5 .45 o - 10 2 .48 .79 1.02 T a l k i n g 5 .19 o - 10 2 .78 .87 .90 R e l a t i o n s h i p s 5 .48 0 - 10 2 .53 .81 1.00 T A B L E 4 0 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e V C L 2 S u b t e s t M e a n R a n g e S t . D e v . H o y t S E M B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s 1 8 . 6 2 7 - 3 4 7 . 6 0 . 8 9 2 . 5 1 I n d e p e n d e n c e 5 . 1 2 1 - 1 0 2 . 6 8 . 8 2 1 . 0 2 M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s 3 . 5 7 0 - 8 2 . 1 1 . 6 4 1 . 1 3 U s e , C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t 5 . 5 0 1 - 1 0 2 . 8 6 . 8 5 . 9 9 T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n 4 . 4 3 1 - 9 1 . 9 8 . 6 3 1 . 0 7 W o r k S k i l l s 1 8 . 2 4 4 - 5 1 1 2 . 6 9 . 8 7 4 . 4 6 S p e e d 2 . 4 5 0 - 6 1 . 6 0 . 4 9 1 . 0 2 F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s 5 . 6 0 0 - 1 0 2 . 5 7 . 8 1 . 9 9 T a s k A n a l y s i s 1 0 . 1 9 0 - 3 9 1 1 . 4 0 . 8 8 3 . 8 6 A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s 2 1 . 6 9 0 - 4 0 8 . 2 8 . 9 1 2 . 4 0 A p p e a r a n c e 5 . 9 5 0 - 1 0 2 . 4 0 . 8 1 . 9 5 P u n c t u a l i t y 4 . 8 8 0 - 1 0 2 . 5 1 . 8 0 1 . 0 1 T a l k i n g 5 . 2 4 0 - 1 0 2 . 9 5 . 8 7 . 9 5 R e l a t i o n s h i p s 5 . 6 2 0 - 1 0 2 . 5 4 . 8 2 . 9 8 T A B L E 4 1 T e s t a n a l y s i s s u m m a r y f o r t h e V o c a t i o n a l C h e c k l i s t S a m p l e M e a n R a n g e S t . D e v . a s t r a t S J i M V C L 1 6 2 . 3 6 2 0 - 1 1 9 2 6 . 8 1 . 9 6 5 . 9 9 V C L 2 5 8 . 5 5 2 3 - 1 0 9 2 4 . 0 1 . 9 5 5 . 9 5 1 0 3 t o . 8 8 f o r T a s k A n a l y s i s f o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . T h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e t o t a l t e s t i s . 9 6 a n d . 9 5 f o r s a m p l e s o n e a n d t w o r e s p e c t i v e l y . C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r b o t h s a m p l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 4 2 a n d 4 3 . B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s , W o r k S k i l l s , a n d A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s c o r r e l a t e . 8 5 , . 7 6 , a n d . 7 8 r e s p e c t i v e l y , w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r s a m p l e o n e , a n d , . 8 0 , . 6 9 , a n d . 8 0 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r s a m p l e t w o . F o r b o t h s a m p l e s t h e s u b t e s t , T a s k A n a l y s i s , c o r r e l a t e s l o w e s t w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . I t e m A n a l y s i s . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i t e m a n a l y s i s f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e V C L a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e s 1 2 t o 1 7 . T h e s u b t e s t , T a s k A n a l y s i s , w a s n o t i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e s u b j e c t s p e r f o r m e d d i f f e r e n t t a s k s a n d d i f f e r e n t n u m b e r s o f t a s k s w i t h i n e a c h p r o g r a m a s w e l l a s a c r o s s p r o g r a m s . F o r t h e f i r s t a n a l y s i s s a m p l e f o r t y - o n e o f t h e f i f t y i t e m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . F o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e t h i r t y - s i x i t e m s r e a c h t h i s c r i t e r i o n . F o r t h e d o m a i n , B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s , a l l i t e m s o f t h e s u b t e s t s , I n d e p e n d e n c e a n d U s e a n d C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t , c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r b o t h a n a l y s i s s a m p l e s . T h e i t e m , " K n o w s w h e n h e h a s a p r o b l e m a n d s e e k s a d v i c e " , f r o m t h e s u b t e s t , M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s , d o e s n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f e i t h e r s a m p l e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i t e m " C a n t e l l t h e q u a l i t y o f h i s o w n w o r k " c o r r e l a t e d l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l s c o r e s f o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . T h i s i t e m i s d i f f i c u l t ( p = . 0 7 ) . F o r t h e s u b t e s t T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n s , t h e i t e m s , " T r e a t s s u p e r v i s o r a s a b o s s . . . " , a n d " S e e k s a d v i c e a p p r o p r i a t e l y " d o n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e TABLE 42 Correlations among subtest and total test scores for the VCL 1 Subtest 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1'2 13 14 15 Basic Work Habits 1. 00 Independence .93 1.00 Making Decisions .84 .69 1.00 Use, Care of Equipment .86 .69 .72 1.00 Taking Direction .78 .74 .45 .48 1.00 Work Skills .73 .68 .70 .62 .47 1.00 g Speed .69 .61 .71 .63 .39 .60 1.00 Following Instructions .79 .72 .80 .63 .54 .74 .81 1.00 ' Task Analysis .37 .36 .38 .28 .21 .65 .19 .26 1.00 Acceptance Skills .68 .60 .67 .54 .50 .53 .63 .75 .001 1.00 Appearance .59 .58 .57 .49 .36 .53 .65 .65 .06 .83 1.00 Punctuality .63 .58 .59 .52 .43 .59 .51 .69 .23 .83 .76 1.00 Talking .50 .38 .55 .36 .41 .33 .41 .58 -.09 .80 .45 .45 1.00 Relations .54 .45 .52 .43 .47 .33 .53 .59 -.19 .87 .59 .57 .73 1.00 Total Test .85 .76 .80 .78 .55 .76 .74 .77 .33 .78 .71 .66 .57 .64 1.00 W r c r i t i c a l=.307 (p<.05) T A B L E 4 3 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e V C L 2 1 S u b t e s t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 12 1 3 1 4 1 5 B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s 1 . 0 0 I n d e p e n d e n c e . 8 7 1 . 0 0 M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s . 7 3 . 4 5 1 . 0 0 U s e , C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t . 8 6 . 7 0 . 5 4 1 . 0 0 T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n . 6 5 . 4 9 . 3 3 . 3 4 1 . 0 0 W o r k S k i l l s . 7 0 . 7 3 . 4 3 . 6 1 . 3 5 1 . 0 0 S p e e d . 4 6 . 4 7 . 2 9 . 3 2 . 3 5 . 5 9 1 . 0 0 F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s . 7 4 . 7 4 . 4 7 . 6 7 . 3 7 . 7 9 . 5 8 1 . 0 0 T a s k A n a l y s i s . 2 4 . 2 8 . 1 4 . 2 3 . 0 6 . 6 2 - . 1 0 . 1 0 1 . 0 0 A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s . 5 5 . 4 4 . 4 4 . 4 5 . 4 0 . 4 3 . 3 2 . 5 2 . 0 8 1 . 0 0 A p p e a r a n c e . 4 6 . 4 3 . 4 0 . 4 5 . 1 2 . 3 7 . 3 8 . 4 1 . 0 5 . 7 3 1 . 0 0 P u n c t u a l i t y . 5 2 . 4 6 . 3 2 . 4 6 . 3 9 . 4 3 . 2 4 . 4 5 . 1 8 . 8 0 . 6 2 1 . 0 0 T a l k i n g . 3 4 . 1 7 . 4 3 . 2 0 . 3 5 . 1 8 . 0 7 . 2 5 . 0 6 . 7 9 . 3 4 . 4 7 1 . 0 0 R e l a t i o n s . 4 6 . 4 1 . 3 1 . 3 2 . 4 3 . 4 3 . 2 2 . 6 2 - . 0 3 . 8 3 . 4 5 . 5 3 . 6 6 1 . 0 0 T o t a l T e s t . 8 0 . 7 3 . 5 7 . 7 1 . 4 6 . 6 9 . 4 6 . 6 9 . 2 7 . 8 0 . 7 5 . 6 4 . 5 1 . 6 9 1 . 0 0 % = 4 2 ; r c r i t i c a l = . 3 0 7 ( p < . 0 5 ) 106 1.00 _ ,80 t4H CD a 8 O CO o .5 & « » crj E co bo CJ C • r H . r H c • r H CO jC rO o 3 «fH •rH T3 6 CJ CJ i-H a o CJ 60 L .40 ,20 L 0.0 ± _L _L .20 .40 .60 .80 Item-total score correlations 1.00 FIGURE 12 Item analysis information for the subtest Basic Work Habits of the VCL (1) 6 107 1.00 .80 ,60 ,40 ,20 • • 0.0 .20 _L .40 .60 .80 Item-total score correlations 1.00 FIGURE 13 Item analysis information for the subtest Basic Work Habits of the VCL (2) 1 0 8 1 . 0 0 . 8 0 CD u o o CO . 6 0 co bo •iH .rH c -rH cd 3 o • r H « M 6 CD o o CD .<40 , 2 0 l 0 . 0 "20 -" 740 760 I t e m - t o t a l s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s F I G U R E 1 4 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t W o r k S k i l l s o f t h e V C L ( 1 ) 1 0 9 1 . 0 0 . 8 0 , 6 0 , 4 0 2 0 0 . 0 _U I I , 2 0 . 4 0 . 6 0 I t e m - t o t a l s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s . 8 0 1 . 0 0 F I G U R E 1 5 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t W o r k S k i l l s o f t h e V C L ( 2 ) 1 1 0 1 . 0 0 . 8 0 . 6 0 . 4 0 . 2 0 - L _L ± 0 . 0 , 2 0 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 8 0 I t e m - t o t a l s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s 1 . 0 0 F I G U R E 16 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s o f t h e V C L ( 1 ) I l l 1 . 0 0 . 8 0 , 6 0 . 4 0 . 2 0 X X X o.o , 2 0 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 8 0 I t e m - t o t a l s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s 1 . 0 0 F I G U R E 17 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s o f t h e V C L ( 2 ) 112 f i r s t s a m p l e . F o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e , o n l y o n e i t e m o f t h i s s u b t e s t c o r r e l a t e s . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r , " T r e a t s s u p e r v i s o r a s a b o s s . . . " . T h e r e m a i n i n g f o u r i t e m s , a r e m o r e d i f f i c u l t f o r t h i s s a m p l e . F o r t h e d o m a i n W o r k S k i l l s , a n u m b e r o f i t e m s c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . T h e i t e m , " W o r k s a b o v e 8 0 % i n d u s t r i a l s t a n d a r d " f r o m t h e S p e e d s u b t e s t , d o e s n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f e i t h e r s a m p l e . I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t ( p = 0 . 0 f o r b o t h s a m p l e s ) . O n l y o n e i t e m , " W o r k s a t 4 0 - 6 0 % i n d u s t r i a l s t a n d a r d " , d i s c r i m i n a t e s a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e . F o r t h e s u b t e s t , F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s , t h e i t e m , " L e a r n s w h e n h e i s s h o w n t h e t a s k i n s m a l l s i m p l e u n i t s " c o r r e l a t e s l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r a n a l y s i s s a m p l e o n e . T h e r e m a i n i n g i t e m s i n t h i s s u b t e s t a p p e a r t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f b o t h s a m p l e s . F o r t h e d o m a i n , A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s , a l l i t e m s o f t h e s u b t e s t , A p p e a r a n c e , d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f b o t h s a m p l e s . T h e i t e m , " O n t i m e a f t e r c o f f e e / l u n c h " , f r o m t h e s u b t e s t , P u n c t u a l i t y , c o r r e l a t e s l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r b o t h s a m p l e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i t e m s " O n t i m e t o s t a r t w o r k " a n d " L o o k s a f t e r h i s o w n a p p o i n t m e n t s " d o n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d s a m p l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e l a t t e r i t e m i s d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e ( p = . 0 7 ) . T h e r e m a i n i n g i t e m s i n t h i s s u b t e s t c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . F o r t h e s u b t e s t , S e l f - E x p r e s s i o n T a l k i n g , t h e i t e m , " H a s s h o r t t a l k s a b o u t t h i n g s h e k n o w s a b o u t " d o e s n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e . T h e i t e m s m e a s u r i n g b a s i c s o c i a l c o n v e r s a t i o n a n d " W h o l e c o n v e r s a t i o n s a b o u t a n u m b e r o f t h i n g s " c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e 1 1 3 f i r s t s a m p l e . T h e f o r m e r i s t h e e a s i e s t i t e m f o r t h i s s a m p l e ( p = . 5 7 ) . T h e i t e m s m e a s u r i n g o t h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n s k i l l s a r e / u s e f u l i n d i s - -c r i m i n a t i n g a m o n g m e m b e r s o f b o t h s a m p l e s . F o r t h e l a s t s u b t e s t , R e l a t i o n s w i t h C o - W o r k e r s , t h e i t e m " R e s p o n d s t o f r i e n d l y a d v a n c e s . . . " , d o e s n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e . T h i s i s t h e e a s i e s t i t e m f o r t h i s s a m p l e ( p = . 5 7 ) . T h e r e m a i n i n g i t e m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f R a t i n g s . E s t i m a t e s o f t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f r a t i n g s o v e r t h e u n i v e r s e o f r a t e r s f o r t h e V C L a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4 4 . T a b l e 4 5 p r o v i d e s e s t i m a t e s f o r e a c h c o m p o n e n t t h a t w a s u s e d i n c a l c u l a t i n g t h e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e r e s u l t s f o r e a c h s u b t e s t b y r a t e r p a i r s , i t c a n b e s e e n t h a t e l e v e n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e e q u a l t o z e r o : t h e u n i v e r s e s c o r e v a r i a n c e e q u a l s z e r o . S i x o f t h e e l e v e n s u b t e s t s ( e x c l u d i n g B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s , W o r k S k i l l s , a n d A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s ) h a v e a t l e a s t o n e c o e f f i c i e n t e q u a l t o z e r o . T h e s u b t e s t , S p e e d , h a s t h e l a r g e s t n u m b e r o f c o e f f i c i e n t s ( t h r e e ) t h a t a r e z e r o . T h e f i r s t a n d f o u r t h r a t e r p a i r s h a v e n o r a t i n g s w h e r e g e n e r a l i z -a b i l i t y i s z e r o . R a t e r p a i r 3 h a s f o u r c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a t a r e z e r o . T h u s r a t e r b i a s a p p e a r s t o a f f e c t a b o u t o n e h a l f o f t h e s u b t e s t s . A l l r a t e r p a i r s r e v e a l t h i s b i a s . O f t h e r e m a i n i n g s e v e n t y - t h r e e c o e f f i c i e n t s , n i n e a r e g r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a l t o . 8 0 . F o r t h e d o m a i n B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s , o n e c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t o t a l d o m a i n s c o r e s i s e q u a l t o . 8 0 . N o s u b t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t s r e a c h t h i s c r i t e r i o n . F o r t h e d o m a i n , W o r k S k i l l s , t w o c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e g r e a t e r t h a n . 8 0 f o r t h e 1 1 4 T A B L E 4 4 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s b y r a t e r p a i r a n d a c r o s s r a t e r s f o r t h e s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e V C L S u b t e s t R a t e r P a i r A R B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s . 8 0 I n d e p e n d e n c e M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s U s e , C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t . 6 9 . 1 5 0 . 0 T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n W o r k S k i l l s S p e e d F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s T a s k A n a l y s i s A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s A p p e a r a n c e P u n c t u a l i t y T a l k i n g R e l a t i o n s T o t a l T e s t . 9 3 . 0 7 . 2 9 0 2 . 3 7 . 6 7 . 0 6 . 0 5 . 1 8 . 7 4 0 . 0 . 5 3 . 5 5 0 . 0 . 2 7 . 3 8 . 7 0 . 3 7 . 8 8 . 6 4 . 3 9 . 4 5 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 6 6 0 . 0 . 3 5 . 7 0 . 8 7 0 . 0 . 6 7 . 5 8 . 3 2 . 4 8 . 1 9 . 1 0 . 4 8 . 0 9 0 . 0 . 6 5 . 3 0 . 9 6 . 6 2 . 5 6 . 0 2 . 6 0 . 8 0 . 9 6 0 . 0 . 6 3 . 5 7 , 6 8 . 1 7 . 7 0 . 5 5 . 1 4 . 6 9 . 2 1 . 7 5 . 0 7 . 6 0 . 3 6 . 5 4 . 8 9 . 1 1 . 8 9 . 3 9 . 3 7 . 4 4 . 1 2 . 3 9 . 0 1 . 7 5 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 7 8 . 6 1 . 4 8 . 5 3 . 0 8 . 5 6 . 2 1 . 1 6 . 2 5 . 3 8 . 8 3 0 . 0 . 2 7 . 8 5 . 7 7 , 6 4 . 5 7 . 3 9 . 8 4 . 3 4 . 8 0 . 7 5 . 6 1 . 5 4 . 6 4 . 7 4 115 T A B L E 45 ^ T C h e v ^ 7 0 n e n ' S CC\ntributine to u n i v e r s e variance ( c 2 u p) and error variance (o « ) by rater pair and across raters for subtest and total test scores of the V C L Subtest Rater Pair 1 2 3 4 5 6 A c r o s s Raters A B A B A B A B A B A B A B Basic Work Habits a 2 v f > o2<5 .05+.002 .01+.004 0 +.001 .06+.01 .01+.01 .02+.002 .09 +.03 .003+.01 .05+.001 .08+.01 0 +.003 .04+.01 .01+.002 .05+.01 Independence o2v p o26 .07+.01 .01+.02 0 + 0 .10+.02 .07+.01 .06+.01 .11 + 0 .10 +.02 .02+.01 .15+.01 0 +.03 .02+.01 I .02+.01 .09+.01 Making Decisions o 2 u p o 26 .05+ 0 .02+.02 0 + 0 .17+.03 .01+0 .02+.01 0 +.01 •10 +.03 .07+ 0 .05+.02 0 +.02 .14+.04 .03+.02 .08+.02 Use , Care of Equipment 0 2 u p c2S .09+.01 .03+.02 0 + .03 .12+.02 0 + 0 .07+.01 .01 +.01 •13 +.02 0 + 0 .18+.03 .02+.02 .05+.02 0 +.01 .10+.02 T a k i n g Directions a2v p a 2 6 .01+.004 .01+.01 .03+.09 .02+.005 .01+.003 .01+.01 •06 +.01 •02 +.02 .04+.01 .11+.02 .002+0 •11 +.07 .04+.01 .05+.02 Work Ski l ls 0 2 Y P .05+.002 .003+.003 .02+.005 .01+.002 .001+0 .001+.001 •11 +.01 .004+.002 .01+.001 .005+.001 .04+.001 .01+.01 .04+.01 .01+.003 Speed o 2 u p o 2S .03+ 0 .01+.01 0 + 0 .04+.01 0 + 0 .01+.01 .06 +.004 .04 +.02 0 +.001 •08 +.02 0 + 0 .08+.01 0 + 0 .05+.02 Following Instructions a2v p o 2 6 .05+ 0 .01+.01 0 + 0 .12+.01 .01+.003 .01+.01 •05 +.01 .03 +.01 .02+.01 .04+.02 0 + 0 .06+.01 .02+.001 .05+.01 Task A n a l y s i s a 2v p a 2 6 .04+.01 .02+. 01 .04+.01 .01+.003 0 + 0 0 +.001 .18 +.03 .01 +.003 0 + 0 0 + 0 .11+.02 .02+.02 .06+.01 .01+.01 Acceptance Skil ls 0 2 P P o 2 6 .02+.002 .01+.003 .12+.002 .01+.05 .005+.002 .01+.003 .22 +.002 .13 +.004 .02+.003 .01+.005 .03+.08 .01+.005 .07+.002 .02+.004 Appearance o 2 u p o 2 6 .04+.01 .02+.01 .07+ 0 .03+.02 .02+ 0 .03+.01 .38 + 0 .06 +.01 .004+.02 .02+.02 .04+.01 .05+.01 .12+.01 .03+.01 Punctuality o2v p o26 .03+.01 .02+.01 0 +.02 .06+.01 .02+.01 .01+.01 19 +.01 13 +.01 0 +.01 .06+.02 .02+ 0 .01+.02 .06+.01 .03+.01 T a l k i n g o 2 u p 0 2 « .04+ 0 02+.01 0 +.01 .06+.004 .09+ 0 .03+.01 11 +.01 17 +.03 .15+.01 .01+.01 .19+.01 16+.02 .09+.002 .06+.02 Relations 2 O^U p o 2 6 002+.01 03+.01 15+.001 03+.02 0 +.003 . 02+.01 13 +.01 10 +.02 .05+ 0 .06+.02 0 +.001 04+ .02 .09+.003 .03+.02 Total Test 0 2 U o 2 i 04+.001 OOl+.OOl 0 +.001 .( 02^001 102+.0002 . OOl+.OOl . 12 +.002 01 +.002 .12+.007 02f.007 01+.002 08<-.003 03+.001 01+.003 116 domain scores; and three subtest coefficients (two for Task Analysis and one for Following Instructions) are greater than or equal to .80. For the last domain, Acceptance Skills, no coefficients for domain scores are greater than or equal to .80; two coefficients for the subtest Appearance, and one coefficient for Self-Expression, are greater than or equal to .80. Only rater pair 3 has no coefficients greater than or equal to .80. Rater pair 4 has four, the largest number for all raters. In examining the sixty-four coefficients that are greater than zero but less than .80, the persons-by-judges variance component contributes most to the observed score variance of twenty-eight coefficients. A l l domains and subtests, except Task Analysis, have at least one coefficient where the pj component is the largest or equal to the largest variance component contributing to the ratio. For the subtests, Independence, Taking Directions, and Relations with Co-Workers, four of the six coefficients have the pj component contributing the most to the observed score variance. In addition, all rater pairs have at least two coefficients where the pj com-ponent is the largest. For rater pair 3, the pj component in eight of the fourteen coefficients contributes most to observed score variance. The generalizability coefficients across all raters for Basic Work Habits, Work Skills, and Acceptance Skills are .18, .83, and .77, respectively. The subtest coefficients range from 0.0 for the subtest, Speed, to .85 for Task Analysis. The generalizability of total scores is .74. The pj component contributes most to the observed score variance for the domain, Basic Work Habits, and its four subtests. Within the Work Skills domain, the subtests, 117 S p e e d a n d F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s a l s o r e v e a l t h i s b i a s . N o s u b t e s t s w i t h i n A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s , n o r t h e t o t a l t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t r e v e a l t h i s b i a s . R e s u l t s o f A n a l y s i s - D i f f i c u l t y S e c t i o n o f t h e V C L T e s t a n a l y s i s . T a b l e s 4 6 a n d 4 7 s h o w t h e m e a n , r a n g e , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f m e a s u r e m e n t , a n d t h e H o y t e s t i m a t e o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r t h e s u b t e s t s a n d t o t a l t e s t s , f o r b o t h a n a l y s i s s a m p l e s . F o r b o t h a n a l y s i s s a m p l e s , a f l o o r e f f e c t w a s o b t a i n e d f o r a l l s u b t e s t s e x c e p t B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t n o t a l l s u b j e c t s d i s p l a y e d t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , a c e i l i n g e f f e c t w a s o b s e r v e d f o r t h e s u b t e s t s , I n d e p e n d e n c e , U s e a n d C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t , F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s , a n d P u n c t u a l i t y f o r a n a l y s i s s a m p l e o n e . T h i s e f f e c t w a s o b s e r v e d f o r t h e s u b t e s t s I n d e p e n d e n c e a n d F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s , f o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . T h e H o y t c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s , W o r k S k i l l s , a n d A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s a r e . 6 2 , . 7 2 , a n d . 3 5 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r t h e f i r s t s a m p l e ; a n d . 7 7 , . 8 3 , a n d . 6 0 , r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . T h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t i s . 9 0 f o r s a m p l e o n e a n d . 9 5 f o r s a m p l e t w o . C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 4 8 a n d 4 9 . F o r t h e f i r s t a n a l y s i s s a m p l e , d i f f i c u l t y s c o r e s f o r B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s c o r r e l a t e h i g h e s t w i t h t o t a l d i f f i c u l t y s c o r e s . F o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e , d i f f i c u l t i e s i n B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s a n d W o r k S k i l l s c o r r e l a t e h i g h e s t w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . I t e m A n a l y s i s . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i t e m a n a l y s e s f o r t h e D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e s 1 8 a n d 1 9 . F o r t h e f i r s t s a m p l e f o u r t e e n o f t h e t h i r t y - o n e i t e m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . F o r T A B L E 4 6 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t s o f t h e V C L 1 S u b t e s t M e a n R a n g e S t . D e v . H o y t S E M B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s 6 . 2 9 I n d e p e n d e n c e 1 . 8 3 M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s 1 . 8 3 U s e , C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t 1 . 1 0 T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n 1 . 5 2 W o r k S k i l l s 2 . 9 8 S p e e d 1 . 5 5 F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s 1 . 4 3 A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s 4 . 3 1 A p p e a r a n c e 1 . 3 8 P u n c t u a l i t y . 9 0 T a l k i n g 1 . 1 0 R e l a t i o n s . 9 3 T o t a l T e s t 2 7 . 1 4 0 - 1 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 6 5 6 4 0 - 1 0 0 - 6 0 - 6 0 - 1 1 5 6 3 3 6 8 3 . 8 5 1 . 5 6 1 . 0 8 1 . 3 4 1 . 1 3 2 . 8 5 1 . 6 3 1 . 5 8 3 . 0 1 1 . 3 6 1 . 1 9 . 9 8 1 . 0 0 1 7 . 5 8 . 7 7 . 7 7 . 1 2 . 6 1 . 3 3 . 8 3 . 7 5 . 8 1 . 6 0 . 4 2 . 6 0 . 0 7 . 0 9 . 9 5 1 . 7 6 . 6 2 . 8 3 . 6 8 . 7 5 1 . 0 7 . 7 1 . 5 6 1 . 8 1 . 8 4 . 6 2 . 7 8 . 7 8 4 . 0 4 T A B L E 4 7 T e s t a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t s o f t h e V C L 2 S u b t e s t M e a n R a n g e S t . D e v . H o y t S E M B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s 5 . 9 8 I n d e p e n d e n c e 1 . 5 0 M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s 2 . 1 2 U s e , C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t . 9 8 T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n 1 . 3 8 W o r k S k i l l s 2 . 0 7 S p e e d . 8 8 F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s 1 . 1 9 A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s 4 . 2 6 A p p e a r a n c e 1 . 1 9 P u n c t u a l i t y . 9 0 T a l k i n g 1 . 2 1 R e l a t i o n s . 9 5 T o t a l T e s t 2 4 . 6 2 0 0 0 0 4 1 6 6 5 5 5 0 - 1 0 0 - 5 0 - 6 0 - 1 0 5 4 3 3 6 6 3 . 0 6 1 . 1 1 1 . 2 3 1 . 3 2 1 . 1 7 2 . 0 5 1 . 2 1 1 . 1 9 2 . 4 7 1 . 3 5 1 . 1 2 . 9 2 . 9 6 1 3 . 1 1 . 6 2 . 4 6 . 4 4 . 5 9 . 3 2 . 7 2 . 6 6 . 6 0 . 3 5 . 4 2 . 4 5 0 . 0 4 . 9 0 1 . 8 1 . 6 7 . 7 5 . 6 9 . 7 8 1 . 0 0 . 6 2 . 6 2 1 . 9 1 . 8 3 . 6 8 . 8 8 . 7 7 4 . 1 0 T A B L E 4 8 1 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r V C L 1 S u b t e s t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 12 1 3 1 4 B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s 1 . 0 0 I n d e p e n d e n c e . 6 0 1 . 0 0 M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s . 5 3 . 3 3 1 . 0 0 U s e , C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t . 6 7 - . 0 1 . 0 3 1 . 0 0 T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n . 7 4 . 2 8 - . 0 2 . 6 1 1 . 0 0 W o r k S k i l l s . 7 3 . 5 1 . 4 7 . 4 5 . 4 3 1 . 0 0 S p e e d . 6 3 . 5 3 . 4 0 . 2 7 . 4 1 . 8 6 1 . 0 0 F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s . 6 1 . 3 3 . 4 0 . 5 0 . 3 1 . 8 5 . 4 5 1 . 0 0 A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s . 6 4 . 3 5 . 1 4 . 4 4 . 7 1 . 4 3 . 3 9 . 3 5 1 . 0 0 A p p e a r a n c e . 5 6 . 1 1 . 1 3 . 5 3 . 6 2 . 4 0 . 3 9 . 3 0 . 6 2 1 . 0 0 P u n c t u a l i t y . 5 0 . 3 5 . 1 1 . 3 1 . 4 9 . 3 4 . 3 3 . 2 5 . 6 3 . 2 2 1 . 0 0 T a l k i n g . 1 1 . 1 5 - . 0 2 - . 0 4 . 1 9 . 1 7 . 0 9 . 2 1 . 4 0 - . 0 7 - . 1 0 1 . 0 0 R e l a t i o n s . 1 9 . 1 8 . 0 7 . 0 6 . 1 9 - . 0 1 - . 0 1 - . 0 1 . 5 9 - . 0 1 . 2 2 . 2 9 1 . 0 0 T o t a l T e s t . 9 4 . 5 7 . 4 5 . 6 2 . 7 5 . 8 2 . 7 1 . 6 8 . 8 1 . 6 2 . 5 7 . 2 5 . 3 1 1 . 0 0 to o 1 n = 4 2 ' 'critical = - 3 0 7 ( p l - ° 5 ) T A B L E 4 9 C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r V C L 2 S u b t e s t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s 1 . 0 0 I n d e p e n d e n c e . 7 9 1 . 0 0 M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s . 7 4 . 5 6 1 . 0 0 U s e , C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t . 6 9 . 2 8 . 2 8 1 . 0 0 T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n . 7 9 . 4 5 . 4 5 . 5 3 1 . 0 0 W o r k S k i l l s . 7 5 . 6 1 . 4 7 . 5 4 . 6 2 1 . 0 0 S p e e d . 6 5 . 5 9 . 4 3 . 3 3 . 6 0 . 8 9 1 . 0 0 F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s . 6 8 . 5 0 . 4 2 . 6 3 . 5 0 . 8 9 . 5 8 1 . 0 0 A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s . 6 7 . 5 4 . 4 3 . 4 4 . 6 2 . 7 7 . 7 1 . 6 6 1 . 0 0 A p p e a r a n c e . 5 7 . 4 9 . 3 4 . 3 4 . 5 2 . 5 2 . 5 0 . 4 2 . 7 6 1 . 0 0 P u n c t u a l i t y . 7 0 . 4 8 . 4 4 . 6 1 . 5 8 . 6 1 . 5 1 . 5 8 . 6 7 . 4 2 1 . 0 0 T a l k i n g . 2 0 . 2 3 . 2 5 - . 0 4 . 1 7 . 5 4 . 5 3 . 4 3 . 6 4 . 2 3 . 2 4 1 . 0 0 R e l a t i o n s . 2 3 . 1 5 . 0 6 . 1 9 . 2 9 . 3 5 . 3 4 . 3 0 . 5 5 . 2 0 . 0 4 . 3 6 1 . 0 0 T o t a l T e s t . 9 1 . 7 3 . 6 2 . 7 6 . 7 6 . 9 2 . 8 2 . 8 1 . 8 7 . 6 8 . 7 4 . 4 8 . 4 0 1 . 0 0 1 n = 4 2 ; ' c r i t i c a l = - 3 0 7 ( P * " " ' - 0 5 ) Item difficulties: proportion of people obtaining maximum score to as oo • o o o o , 1 1 r a e o a o • a e ZZl Item difficulties: proportion of people obtaining maximum score O O 0 0 o o o . s Ml 1 2 4 t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e , t w e n t y - o n e i t e m s r e a c h o r e x c e e d t h i s c r i t e r i o n . F o r t h e s u b t e s t , B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s , f i v e i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e a n d e i g h t i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . T h e i t e m s t h a t c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f b o t h s a m p l e s a r e : 1 . c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t r y i n g n e w t h i n g s 2 . b o r r o w s t h i n g s w i t h o u t a s k i n g 3 . s e e s s u p e r v i s o r a s f a m i l y o r f r i e n d T h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s d o n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e : 1 . s t o p s w o r k w h e n t i r e d o f t h e j o b 2 . f o o l s a r o u n d w h e n h e h a s t h e c h a n c e 3 . w a i t s f o r s u p e r v i s o r t o t e l l h i m w h a t t o d o 4 . w o u l d r a t h e r n o t w o r k a r o u n d m a c h i n e r y T h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m d o e s n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e : 1 . " a l w a y s " a s k i n g w h a t t o d o n e x t o r i f h e ' s d o n e w e l l F o r t h e s e c o n d s u b t e s t , W o r k S k i l l s , o n l y o n e i t e m , " C a n ' t a p p l y t h e w o r d s u s e d i n w o r k " d o e s n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e . F o r t h e s u b t e s t , A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s , t h r e e i t e m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e f i r s t s a m p l e , a n d s i x c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . T h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s d o n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f b o t h s a m p l e s : 1 . d o e s n ' t c a r e a b o u t h o w h e l o o k s 2 . h a r d t o u n d e r s t a n d w h a t h e s a y s 3 . d o e s n ' t s p e a k v e r y m u c h 4 ; t a l k s " a l l t h e t i m e " 5 . o r d e r c o - w o r k e r s a r o u n d , b u l l i e s t h e m , o r m a k e s f u n o f t h e m 6 . " a l w a y s " t o u c h i n g p e o p l e o r t e l l i n g t h e m h o w m u c h h e l i k e s t h e m T h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s d o n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e : 1 , e i t h e r c o m e s t o o e a r l y o r s t a y s l o n g a f t e r h e s h o u l d b e g o i n g h o m e 1 2 5 2 . s t a y s a w a y o r c o m e l a t e o n p u r p o s e 3 . i s s h y G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f r a t i n g s . E s t i m a t e s o f t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f r a t i n g s o v e r t h e u n i v e r s e o f r a t e r s f o r t h e D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5 0 . T a b l e 5 1 p r o v i d e s e s t i m a t e s f o r e a c h v a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t u s e d i n o b t a i n i n g t h e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s . O f t h e s e v e n t y - e i g h t c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r s u b t e s t s b y r a t e r p a i r s , e l e v e n a r e e q u a l t o z e r o . F o r t h e d o m a i n , B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s , o n e c o e f f i c i e n t i s z e r o f o r d o m a i n s c o r e s ; o n e c o e f f i c i e n t i s z e r o f o r t h e s u b t e s t , M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s ; t h r e e c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e z e r o f o r t h e s u b t e s t U s e a n d C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t ; a n d o n e c o e f f i c i e n t i s z e r o f o r T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n . F o r t h e d o m a i n , W o r k S k i l l s , o n e c o e f f i c i e n t f o r d o m a i n s c o r e s , a n d o n e f o r e a c h o f t h e s u b t e s t s e q u a l s z e r o . F o r t h e d o m a i n , A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s , t h e s u b t e s t s P u n c t u a l i t y a n d R e l a t i o n s w i t h C o - W o r k e r s h a v e t w o a n d o n e c o e f f i c i e n t s e q u a l t o z e r o , r e s p e c t i v e l y . R a t e r p a i r s 1 a n d 2 h a v e n o c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a t a r e e q u a l t o z e r o . R a t e r p a i r 6 h a s s i x s u b t e s t r a t i n g s w h e r e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s z e r o . F o u r o f t h e r e m a i n i n g s i x t y - s e v e n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e g r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a l t o . 8 0 . T h e s e a r e f o r r a t i n g s o n t h e s u b t e s t s , U s e a n d C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t , T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n , W o r k S k i l l s , a n d R e l a t i o n s w i t h C o - W o r k e r s . R a t e r p a i r s 2 , 3 a n d 5 h a v e 2 , 1 a n d 1 s u b t e s t r a t i n g s t h a t a r e g r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a l t o . 8 0 . O f t h e r e m a i n i n g s i x t y - t h r e e c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a t a r e g r e a t e r t h a n z e r o b u t l e s s t h a n . 8 0 , t w e n t y - f o u r r e v e a l p e r s o n s - b y - j u d g e s b i a s . R a t i n g s 1 2 6 T A B L E 5 0 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s b y r a t e r p a i r a n d a c r o s s r a t e r s f o r D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e V C L R a t e r P a i r S u b t e s t A R B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s . 7 0 . 2 1 . 4 8 0 . 0 . 2 2 . 1 5 . 4 5 I n d e p e n d e n c e . 7 8 . 2 7 . 7 8 . 0 8 . 2 4 . 4 6 . 4 5 M a k i n g D e c i s i o n . 3 3 . 3 1 . 6 8 0 . 0 . 0 4 . 4 4 . 0 7 U s e , C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t . 6 9 . 7 5 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 9 0 0 . 0 . 4 8 T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n . 6 3 . 1 0 . 8 5 0 . 0 . 4 4 . 1 3 . 2 8 W o r k S k i l l s . 7 6 . 8 0 . 6 4 . 5 2 . 0 2 0 . 0 . 6 6 S p e e d . 5 9 . 6 7 . 4 3 . 1 8 . 3 6 0 . 0 . 5 4 F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s . 6 8 . 6 8 . 6 6 . 4 9 . 0 6 0 . 0 . 6 5 A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s . 4 7 . 7 7 . 6 5 . 2 4 . 4 7 . 3 9 . 6 7 A p p e a r a n c e . 3 4 . 7 8 . 5 4 . 0 8 . 5 8 . 3 7 . 6 0 P u n c t u a l i t y . 6 1 . 2 7 0 . 0 . 2 8 . 4 9 0 . 0 . 4 7 T a l k i n g . 4 7 . 5 2 . 7 3 . 6 5 . 7 8 . 4 7 . 6 8 R e l a t i o n s . 5 0 . 8 9 0 . 0 . 2 5 . 1 8 . 5 0 . 4 2 T o t a l T e s t . 8 6 . 6 3 . 8 0 . 0 2 . 0 9 . 2 2 . 7 2 127 T A B L K 51 Variance components contributing to the universe score variance ( o 2 u p ) and error variance (o 2S ) for the Difficulty subtest and total test scores of the V C L 1 Rater Pair Subtest 1 2 3 4 5 6 A c r o s s Raters A B A B A B A B A B A B A B Basic Work Habits o 2 u p o 2 « .02+.01 .01+.01 .003+.01 .04 +.01 .04+.003 .004+.004 0 + 0 .04+.03 .01+.01 .06+.01 0 +.003 .01+.01 .02+.003 .02+.01 Independence o 2 y p o 2 6 .09+.02 .03+.02 .04 +.04 .16 +.04 .08+.02 .01+.02 .01+ 0 .11+.02 .04+ 0 .15+.05 .03+.02 .04+.02 .06+.02 .08+.02 Making Decisions o 2 y p o 2 6 .01+.03 .03+.04 .04 + 0 .04 +.04 .11+ 0 .02+.03 0 + 0 .22+.10 0 +.01 .12+.04 0 +.06 .05+.02 .01+ 0 .07+.05 U s e , Care of Equipment o 2 u p a 2 6 .05+.06 .02+.03 .11 +.13 .01 +.07 0 + 0 .02+.01 0 + 0 .13+.05 .43+.02 .03+.62 0 + 0 .02+.02 .03+.03 .03+.03 T a k i n g Direction o 2 u p a 2 6 .08+ 0 .01+.04 0 +.01 .06 +.02 .02+.04 .01+.01 0 + 0 .05+.03 .09+ 0 .06+.05 0 +.01 .05+.04 .02+ 0 .03+.03 Work Skills 2 O U p o 2 6 .06+.001 .04+.01 .10 + 0 .09 +.02 .05+.01 .02+.01 .04+.001 .03+.01 0 +.003 .13+.02 0 + 0 .03+.002 .05+.002 .02+.01 Speed o 2U p a 2 6 .06+.003 .02+.02 .14 + 0 .02 +.04 .01+ 0 .003+.01 .01+.001 .06+.01 .07+ 0 .08+.04 0 + 0 .03+.01 .06+ C .03+.02 Following Instructions 2 a V p a 2 6 .09+ 0 .02+.03 .07 + 0 .01 +.03 .19+.01 .08+.03 .07+.01 .05+.03 0 +.02 .24+.03 0 + 0 .05+.01 .08+.01 .02+.02 Acceptance Ski l ls 2 o 2 « .03+.004 .003+.01 .03 +.01 .01 +.004 .01+.01 .003+.01 .01+.001 .02+.01 .01+.01 .02+.02 0 +.01 .01+.01 .02+.01 .01+.01 Appearance o 2 u p 0 2 « .03+.01 .04+.03 .11 +.11 .06 +.01 .03+.05 .04+.04 .02+ 0 .20+.05 .07+.05 .05+.04 .06+.02 .02+.03 .08+.03 .04+.03 Punctuality a 2 u p o 2 5 .07+.01 .02+.03 0 +.01 .03 +.01 0 + 0 .01+.01 0 +.02 .03+.02 .16+ 0 .12+.04 0 + 0 .01+.01 .04+.01 .03+.02 T a l k i n g 021I p 02 S .03+.02 .02+.03 .02 +.02 .01 +.03 .06+.05 .01+.03 .06+.004 .01+.03 .10+.12 .02+.04 0 +.10 .08+.03 .03+.07 .02+.02 Relations o 2 u p o 2 « .02+.02 .01+.04 .10 +.07 0 +.02 0 + 0 .01+.03 .02+ 0 .02+.03 0 +.02 .08+.02 0 +.15 .11+.04 .01+.04 .03+.03 Total Test o 2 y p o 2 6 .03+.002 .002+.002 .03 +.003 .02 +.003 .03+.002 .01+.002 .001+0 .02+.004 .001*.004 .04+.004 0 +.002 .01+.002 .03+.002 .01+.003 1 2 8 f o r a l l s u b t e s t s , e x c e p t U s e a n d C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t a n d S e l f - E x p r e s s i o n -T a l k i n g , h a v e a t l e a s t o n e c o e f f i c i e n t t o w h i c h t h e p j c o m p o n e n t c o n t r i b u t e s m o s t t o t h e o b s e r v e d s c o r e v a r i a n c e . T h e s u b t e s t I n d e p e n d e n c e , h a s f o u r , t h e l a r g e s t n u m b e r f o r a n y s u b t e s t . T h e t h i r d p a i r o f r a t e r s h a s n o s u b t e s t r a t i n g s w h e r e t h e p j c o m p o n e n t i s t h e l a r g e s t o r e q u a l t o t h e l a r g e s t v a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t . T h e o t h e r r a t e r p a i r s h a v e f r o m t h r e e ( f o r r a t e r p a i r s 2 a n d 6 ) t o e i g h t ( f o r r a t e r 5 ) c o e f f i c i e n t s t o w h i c h t h e p j c o m p o n e n t c o n t r i b u t e s m o s t t o o b s e r v e d s c o r e v a r i a n c e . T h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s b y r a t e r p a i r r a n g e f r o m . 0 2 f o r r a t e r p a i r 4 t o . 8 6 f o r r a t e r p a i r 1 . F o r r a t e r p a i r s 4 , 5 a n d 6 , t h e p j c o m p o n e n t c o n t r i b u t e s m o s t t o o b s e r v e d s c o r e v a r i a n c e . T h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y f o r t h e s u b t e s t s a c r o s s a l l r a t e r s r a n g e f r o m . 0 7 f o r M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s t o . 6 8 f o r R e l a t i o n s w i t h C o - W o r k e r s . F o r a l l s u b t e s t s w i t h i n t h e d o m a i n , B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s , t h e p j c o m p o n e n t c o n t r i b u t e s m o s t t o o b s e r v e d s c o r e v a r i a n c e . T h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s i s . 7 2 . R e s u l t s o f A n a l y s i s - R C L T e s t A n a l y s i s . T h e m e a n , r a n g e , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , s t a n d a r d , s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f m e a s u r e m e n t , a n d H o y t c o e f f i c i e n t o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r e a c h s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L f o r b o t h a n a l y s i s s a m p l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 5 2 a n d 5 3 . T a b l e 5 4 s u m m a r i z e s t h e s e r e s u l t s f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t . F o r t h e f i r s t a n a l y s i s s a m p l e , a f l o o r e f f e c t w a s o b t a i n e d f o r t h e s u b t e s t , C o o k i n g a n d H o m e M a n a g e m e n t . F o r t h i s s a m p l e a c e i l i n g e f f e c t w a s o b s e r v e d f o r s e v e n s u b t e s t s : C l e a n l i n e s s , A p p e a r a n c e a n d E a t i n g , 129 TABLE 52 Test analysis information for the subtests of the RCL 1 Subtest Mean Range St. Dev. Hoyt SEM Personal Routines 61.98 27 - 87 14.38 .93 3.74 Cleanliness 14.46 6 - 20 4.52 .92 1.22 Appearance, Eating 15.83 8 - 20 3.41 .84 1.28 Room Management 11.73 6 - 20 4.08 .86 1.45 Time Management 11.83 3 - 20 4.19 .84 1.60 Health 8.12 3 - 18 3.57 .79 1.55 Community Awareness 39.49 12 - 69 14.64 .93 3.91 Transportation 9.17 1 - 20 4.82 .90 1.45 Shopping 10.56 1 - 20 4.92 .92 1.34 Leisure 8.39 3-15 3.29 .66 1.81 Budgeting 5.59 2 - 15 3.12 .75 1.47 Cooking, Home Management 5.78 0 - 12 3.19. .74 1.56 Social Maturity 59.32 26 - 80 13.13 .91 3.99 Communication 10.44 2 - 18 4.27 .85 1.59 Consideration 13.59 4 - 19 3.43 .71 1.75 Getting Friends 14.61 7 - 20 3.39 .78 1.50 Keeping Friends 10.07 4 - 15 3.01 .63 1.73 Handling Problems 10.61 3 - 19 3.58 .81 1.48 130 TABLE 53 Test analysis information for the subtests of the RCL 2 Subtest Mean Range St. Dev. Hoyt SEM Personal Routines 59.42 25 - 90 15.12 .93 3.85 Cleanliness 14.32 6 - 20 4.60 .92 1.21 Appearance, Eating 15.10 8 - 20 3.69 .84 1.39 Room Management 11.57 3 - 20 5.07 .91 1.45 Time Management 11.27 4 - 18 3.84 .81 1.59 Health 7.15 2 - 18 3.70 .80 1.58 Community Awareness 37.72 13 - 80 17.41 .95 3.81 Transportation 8.63 2 - 20 4.68 .86 1.63 Shopping 9.95 0 - 19 4.79 .88 1.55 Leisure 8.52 2-20 4.19 .81 1.75 Budgeting 5.22 0 - 13 3.37 .80 1.42 Cooking, Home Management 5.40 1 - 14 3.48 .77 1.58 Social Maturity 58.97 23 - 92 14.54 .92 4.01 Communication 9.95 0 - 18 4.77 .87 1.61 Consideration 14.45 5 - 20 4.14 .85 1.54 Getting Friends 13.95 7 - 20 3.23 .73 1.60 Keeping Friends 10.25 5 - 18 3.39 .73 1.68 Handling Problems 10.38 2 - 17 3.57 .78 1.60 T A B L E 5 4 T e s t a n a l y s i s s u m m a r y f o r R e s i d e n t i a l C h e c k l i s t S a m p l e M e a n R a n g e S t . D e v . a s t r a t S E M R C L 1 R C L 2 1 6 0 . 7 8 1 5 6 . 1 3 7 2 - 2 2 4 6 1 - 2 6 2 3 6 . 7 5 4 1 . 4 2 , 9 6 . 9 7 6 . 9 3 7 . 0 4 1 3 2 R o o m M a n a g e m e n t , T i m e M a n a g e m e n t , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , S h o p p i n g , a n d G e t t i n g F r i e n d s . F o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e , a floor e f f e c t w a s o b t a i n e d f o r t h r e e s u b t e s t s : S h o p p i n g , B u d g e t i n g , a n d C o m m u n i c a t i o n . A c e i l i n g e f f e c t w a s o b s e r v e d f o r s i x s u b t e s t s : C l e a n l i n e s s , A p p e a r a n c e a n d E a t i n g , R o o m M a n a g e m e n t , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , L e i s u r e , C o n s i d e r a t i o n , a n d G e t t i n g F r i e n d s . T h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e s u b t e s t s d o n o t c o n t a i n s u f f i c i e n t e a s y a n d / o r h a r d i t e m s f o r t h e s e s a m p l e s . T h e H o y t c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r P e r s o n a l R o u t i n e s , C o m m u n i t y A w a r e n e s s , a n d S o c i a l M a t u r i t y a r e . 9 3 , . 9 3 , a n d . 9 1 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r s a m p l e o n e ; a n d , . 9 3 , . 9 5 , a n d . 9 2 , r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r s a m p l e t w o . F o r s a m p l e o n e , t h e s u b t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g e f r o m . 6 3 f o r K e e p i n g F r i e n d s t o . 9 2 f o r C l e a n l i n e s s a n d S h o p p i n g . F o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e t h e s e v a l u e s r a n g e f r o m . 7 3 f o r G e t t i n g F r i e n d s a n d K e e p i n g F r i e n d s t o . 9 2 f o r C l e a n l i n e s s . T h e e s t i m a t e s o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t a r e . 9 6 a n d . 9 7 f o r s a m p l e s o n e a n d t w o , r e s p e c t i v e l y . C o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r b o t h s a m p l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 5 5 a n d 5 6 . F o r t h e f i r s t a n a l y s i s s a m p l e , P e r s o n a l R o u t i n e s , C o m m u n i t y A w a r e n e s s , a n d S o c i a l M a t u r i t y c o r r e l a t e . 8 8 , . 8 8 , a n d . 8 6 w i t h t o t a l s c o r e s . T h e s e v a l u e s a r e . 8 4 , . 8 9 , a n d . 9 1 f o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . I t e m A n a l y s i s . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i t e m a n a l y s e s f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e R C L a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e s 2 0 t o 2 5 . E i g h t y - f o u r o f t h e o n e h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y i t e m s o f t h e R C L c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e f i r s t s a m p l e . N i n e t y - f i v e i t e m s r e a c h o r e x c e e d t h i s c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . 1 3 3 T A H L E 55 Correlations among subtest and total test scores of the R C L l 1 Subtest 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Personal Routines 1.00 Clean. -82 1.00 A p p . / E a t . .77 .70 1.00 R m . Man. -70 .60 .38 1.00 T m . M a n . -75 .34 .54 .36 1.00 Heal. -58 .31 .23 .13 .49 1.00 Community Awareness .65 .36 .40 .28 .73 .59 1.00 T r a n s . -51 .20 .33 .11 .57 .71 .80 1.00 Shop. -69 .47 .51 .34 .68 .51 .91 .71 1.00 L e i . -14 .04 .16 - .09 .41 -.01 .46 .12 .32 1.00 B u d . -49 -22 .18 .26 .56 .55 .75 .51 .65 .11 1.00 C k . Hm. Man. -52 .37 .22 .43 .45 .40 .76 .46 .62 .29 - .57 1.00 Social Maturity -64 .35 .56 .33 .79 .31 .64 .37 .64 .44 .49 .46 1.00 Commun. -58 .30 .31 .14 .73 .62 .74 .52 .68 .47 .59 .51 .73 1.00 Cons . -35 .27 .33 .34 .35 -.08 .12 -.07 .16 .17 .17 .08 .65 .19 1.00 Get. F r . -56 .36 .49 .31 .53 .32 .66 .45 .62 .41 .26 .62 .72 .56 .23 1.00 K p . F r . -37 .13 .36 .27 .58 -.03 .29 .09 .28 .24 .30 .22 .81 .37 .66 .37 1.00 Hand. Prob. -49 .22 .59 .17 .68 .13 .48 .29 .55 .28 .41 .23 .82 .46 .42 .49 .71 1.00 Total Test -88 .59 .66 .50 .86 .57 .88 .65 .86 .39 .66 .67 .86 .78 .41 .73 .55 .67 1.00 N=41; r . . , = -304 (p<.05) critical 134 T A B L E 5fi Correlations among subtest and total test scores for RCL 2 1 Subtest 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Personal Routines 1.00 C l e a n . .76 1.00 A p p . / Eat. .82 .76 1.00 Rm. Man. .84 .69 .69 1.00 T m . Man. .72 .25 .34 .42 1.00 Heal . .43 -.12 .12 .08 .66 1.00 Community Awareness .58 .03 .24 .29 .80 .85 1.00 T r a n s . .37 -.12 -.02 .11 .72 .73 .89 1.00 Shop. .52 .01 .23 .19 .75 .81 .90 .84 1.00 L e i . .45 .11 .24 .32 .48 .50 .76 .56 .50 1.00 B u d . .49 -.02 .19 .17 .75 .80 .86 .72 .74 .54 1.00 C k . Hm. M a n . .66 .18 .31 .47 .70 .78 .82 .56 .68 .64 .68 1.00 Social Maturity .67 .22 .50 .37 .70 .73 .75 .66 .76 .48 .67 .59 1.00 Commun. .38 -.07 .10 .03 .64 .81 .79 .74 .83 .45 .71 .62 .73 1.00 Cons . .60 .30 .50 .43 .57 .40 .41 .33 .44 .22 .42 .32 .83 .38 1.00 Get . F r . .55 .19 .49 .38 .39 .58 .59 .48 .58 .54 .34 .54 .73 .64 .49 1.00 K p . F r . .44 .20 .44 .28 .29 .41 .38 .30 .37 .30 .38 .27 .76 .24 .69 .41 1.00 Hand. Prob. .60 .25 .40 .36 .71 .49 .62 .60 .64 .33 .62 .45 .76 .40 .62 .25 .65 1.00 Total Test .84 .37 .57 .56 .84 .77 .89 .74 .84 .65 .77 .79 .91 .73 .68 .70 .59 .75 1.00 1 N = .40; r . . = .308 (p< .05) critical 135 1.00 .80 CH CD O U c 8 O W •r-t 2 3 a c o .5 » eS 6 co bD 2 '£ £ 0. O CD E CD o CD .60 .40 .20 0.0 .20 _ L ! I L _ .40 .60 .80 Item-total score correlations 1.00 FIGURE 20 Item analysis information for the subtest Personal Routines of the RCL (1) 1 3 6 1 . 0 0 . 8 0 . 6 0 . 4 0 , 2 0 JL _L 0 . 0 , 2 0 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 8 0 I t e m - t o t a l s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s 1 . 0 0 F I G U R E 2 1 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t P e r s o n a l R o u t i n e s o f t h e R C L ( 2 ) 1 3 7 1 . 0 0 8 0 . 6 0 . 4 0 . 2 0 • aa • • * * I' , 0 . 0 . 2 0 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 8 0 I t e m - t o t a l s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s 1 . 0 0 F I G U R E 2 2 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t C o m m u n i t y A w a r e n e s s o f t h e R C L ( 1 ) 138 1.00 .80 .60 .40 • • mm .20 0.0 _L ± ,20 .40 .60 .80 Item-total score correlations 1.00 FIGURE 23 Item analysis information for the subtest Community Awareness of the RCL (2) 139 <+4 CD o r H C o o CO • i H + J t-t s o a c o c pr axi 6 16 be CD • r H a H-» i - H "3 no tai r Q SH o CD i - H 6 a CD o H-» CDh—< a 1 . 0 0 • 80L .60 .40L ,20L_ _LL 0 . 0 ,20 .40 .60 .80 Item-total score correlations 1 . 0 0 FIGURE 24 Item analysis information for the subtest Social Maturity of the RCL (1) 140 1.00 .80 CD !H O O CQ ft 6 O 3 & 1 ° .5 ft. * a cd 6 CD bD 2 C s -a r-j .rH O .60 L .40 6 CP o CD a ,20 0.0 ,20 .40 .60 .80 Item-total score correlations 1.00 FIGURE 25 Item analysis information for the subtest Social Maturity of the RCL (2) 1 4 1 F o r t h e s u b t e s t C l e a n l i n e s s s e v e n i t e m s a p p e a r t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e . T h r e e i t e m s c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t h e t o t a l s c o r e s . T h e s e a r e : 1 . w a s h e s a l l o v e r w h e n b a t h i n g o r s h o w e r i n g 2 . b a t h e s o r s h o w e r s w h e n n e e d e d 3 . b r u s h e s t e e t h p r o p e r l y a n d r e g u l a r l y F o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e , o n l y t w o i t e m s o f t h i s s u b t e s t a p p e a r t o b e d i s c r i m i n -a t i n g . T h e s e a r e : 1 . c l e a n s a n d c l i p s n a i l s ; k e e p s e a r s c l e a n 2 . c o v e r s m o u t h w h e n c o u g h i n g o r s n e e z i n g a n d u s e s a h a n d k e r c h i e f T h e r e m a i n i n g e i g h t i t e m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . F o r b o t h s a m p l e s , s i x i t e m s f r o m t h e s u b t e s t A p p e a r a n c e a n d E a t i n g a p p e a r t o b e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g . T h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r b o t h s a m p l e s : 1 . d r e s s e s h i m s e l f n e a t l y 2 . c h a n g e s u n d e r w e a r a n d c l o t h i n g r e g u l a r l y 3 . c l o t h e s " g o t o g e t h e r " I n a d d i t i o n t h e i t e m s 1 . w e a r s t h e r i g h t k i n d o f c l o t h e s f o r t h e o c c a s i o n a n d t h e w e a t h e r 2 . c h e w s f o o d w i t h m o u t h c l o s e d , a n d d o e s n o t s p e a k w i t h m o u t h f u l l o r m a k e l o u d n o i s e s d o n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d s a m p l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . F o r t h e s u b t e s t R o o m M a n a g e m e n t , o n l y f o u r i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e a n d f i v e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . T h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r b o t h s a m p l e s : 1 , w h e n u n d r e s s i n g s e p a r a t e s d i r t y f r o m c l e a n c l o t h e s 2 , k e e p s r o o m t i d y / o r a c c e p t s s h a r i n g o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f r o o m c l e a n i n g 1 4 2 3 . c l e a n s w a s h b a s i n a n d b a t h t u b a f t e r u s e 4 . c l e a n r e g u l a r l y I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i t e m s 1 . m a k e s h i s b e d n e a t l y 2 . c a n f i n d h i s c l o t h e s i n h i s d r a w e r s d o n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d s a m p l e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . F o r t h e s u b t e s t , T i m e M a n a g e m e n t t h e i t e m 1 . h a s a n d s e t s o w n a l a r m c o r r e l a t e s l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r s a m p l e o n e . T h e r e m a i n i n g n i n e i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h i s s a m p l e . T h e i t e m s 1 . g e t s u p o n h i s o w n 2 . m e e t s r o u t i n e t i m e d e a d l i n e s o n h i s o w n d o n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o n d a n a l y s i s s a m p l e . T h e r e m a i n i n g e i g h t i t e m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . F o r t h e s u b t e s t , H e a l t h , t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s d o n o t a p p e a r t o b e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a m o n g m e m b e r s o f e i t h e r s a m p l e : 1 . e a t s a b a l a n c e d d i e t 2 . a w a r e o f d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n m e n a n d w o m e n T h e s e a r e t h e e a s i e s t i t e m s f o r b o t h s a m p l e s . I n a d d i t i o n , f i v e o t h e r i t e m s d o n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t a n a l y s i s s a m p l e 1 . a w a r e o f m e d i c a l p r o b l e m s a n d n e e d e d p r e c a u t i o n s 2 . h a n d l e s m e d i c a t i o n s r e l i a b l y o n h i s o w n 3 . u n d e r s t a n d s h i s o w n s e x u a l d e v e l o p m e n t 4 . k n o w s h o w b a b i e s a r e c o n c e i v e d a n d b o r n 5 . a w a r e o f b i r t h c o n t r o l p r o c e s s , v e n e r a l d i s e a s e s y m p t o m s , p r e v e n t i o n a n d c u r e T h u s , e i g h t i t e m s f r o m t h i s s u b t e s t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e , w h e r e a s o n l y t h r e e c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . 1 4 3 F o r t h e s u b t e s t , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t w o i t e m s c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l s c o r e s f o r s a m p l e o n e . T h e s e a r e 1 . t r a v e l s w i t h s o m e o n e o n t h e b u s 2 . b e h a v e s a p p r o p r i a t e l y w h e n r i d i n g o n t h e b u s T h e r e m a i n i n g e i g h t i t e m s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . T w o a d d i t i o n a l i t e m s d o n o t a p p e a r t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e : 1 . u s e s b u s f o r s h o r t t r i p s 2 . t r a n s f e r s t o a n o t h e r b u s l i n e w h e n n e c e s s a r y E i g h t i t e m s a r e u s e f u l i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h i s s a m p l e . A l l t h e i t e m s i n t h i s s u b t e s t a r e d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e s e s a m p l e s . T h e p v a l u e s r a n g e f r o m 0 . 0 t o . 3 4 f o r s a m p l e o n e a n d 0 . 0 t o . 3 0 f o r s a m p l e t w o . A l l f o u r i t e m s h o w e v e r , a p p r o a c h t h e c r i t e r i o n o f . 4 0 ( r = . 3 8 , . 3 3 , . 3 8 , a n d . 3 9 ) . A l l i t e m s o f t h e s u b t e s t , S h o p p i n g , c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r b o t h s a m p l e s . A n u m b e r o f i t e m s f r o m t h e s u b t e s t , L e i s u r e , d o n o t a p p e a r t o b e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a m o n g m e m b e r s o f e i t h e r s a m p l e . T h e s e a r e 1 . d o e s c a s u a l t h i n g s t h a t d o n ' t r e q u i r e m u c h p l a n n i n g w i t h a f r i e n d 2 . d o e s t h i n g s b y h i m s e l f 3 . s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s u s e o f l e i s u r e , n o t c o n t i n u o u s l y a s k i n g w h a t t o d o o r c o m p l a i n i n g a b o u t l a c k o f s o m e t h i n g t o d o 4 . h a s a n a c t i v e s p o r t t h a t h e d o e s 5 . h a s a c r e a t i v e h o b b y t h a t h e d o e s 6 . f o l l o w s s o m e t h i n g ( s p e c t a t o r ) w h i c h r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t o r k n o w l e d g e I n a d d i t i o n , t h r e e m o r e i t e m s c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f s a m p l e o n e . T h e s e a r e 1, t a k e s p a r t i n p l a n n e d / s u p e r v i s e d l e i s u r e 1 4 4 2 . p l a n s o u t i n g s o c c a s i o n a l l y w i t h f r i e n d s 3 . b e l o n g s t o a g r o u p w h e r e h e c a n m e e t p e o p l e T h u s , o n l y o n e i t e m d i s c r i m i n a t e s a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e w h e r e a s f o u r i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . F o r t h e s u b t e s t , B u d g e t i n g , t w o i t e m s d o n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f e i t h e r s a m p l e : 1 . h a s b a n k a c c o u n t o f h i s o w n 2 . u n d e r s t a n d s d a n g e r s o f c r e d i t b u y i n g N o s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d t h e h i g h e s t s c a l e v a l u e f o r t h e f i r s t i t e m . A n a d d i t i o n a l i t e m c o r r e l a t e s l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f s a m p l e t w o : 1 . r e a d s a n d u n d e r s t a n d s b i l l i n g s t a t e m e n t s T h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m c o r r e l a t e s l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f s a m p l e o n e 1 . d o e s n o t u s u a l l y r u n o u t o f m o n e y b e f o r e n e x t a l l o w a n c e / c h e q u e F o r b o t h s a m p l e s s e v e n i t e m s m e a s u r i n g b u d g e t i n g s k i l l s c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . F o r b o t h s a m p l e s , t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s f r o m t h e s u b t e s t , C o o k i n g a n d H o m e M a n a g e m e n t , c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l s c o r e s 1 . d o e s m a j o r c l e a n i n g 2 . e n t e r t a i n s f o r a n e v e n i n g 3 . t a k e s c h a r g e o f h o m e / a p a r t m e n t w h e n n e c e s s a r y f o r e x t e n d e d p e r i o d s o f t i m e I n a d d i t i o n , f o u r o t h e r i t e m s d o n o t a p p e a r t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f s a m p l e o n e : 1 . p r e p a r e s h i s o w n b r e a k f a s t o r l u n c h 2 . h e l p s w i t h f o o d p r e p a r a t i o n 3 . p r e p a r e s a v a r i e t y o f s i m p l e n u t r i t i o u s m e a l s 4 . t a k e s a n i n t e r e s t i n h o w t h e h o u s e / r o o m l o o k s 1 4 5 T w o a d d i t i o n a l i t e m s c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f s a m p l e t w o 1 . u s e s a s i m p l e c o o k b o o k 2 . k n o w s t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o n h o u s e h o l d l a b e l s T h e i t e m s f r o m t h i s s u b t e s t a r e d i f f i c u l t f o r b o t h s a m p l e s . T h e p v a l u e s r a n g e f r o m 0 . 0 t o . 2 4 f o r s a m p l e o n e a n d 0 . 0 t o . 3 0 f o r s a m p l e t w o . O n l y t h r e e i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f s a m p l e o n e a n d f i v e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f s a m p l e t w o . A l l i t e m s f r o m t h e s u b t e s t , C o m m u n i c a t i o n , c o r r e l a t e . 4 0 o r g r e a t e r w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r b o t h s a m p l e s , e x c e p t f o r t h e i t e m : 1 . k n o w s h o w a n d w h o m t o c o n t a c t i n e m e r g e n c y w h i c h d o e s n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o n d a n a l y s i s s a m p l e . F o r t h e s u b t e s t , C o n s i d e r a t i o n , o n l y o n e i t e m d i s c r i m i n a t e s a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e : 1. i s p o l i t e - u s e s p l e a s e , t h a n k y o u , e t c . N i n e i t e m s c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . F o r t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e , o n l y t w o i t e m s f a i l t o d i s c r i m i n a t e : 1 . l o o k s a t p e o p l e w h e n t a l k i n g t o t h e m 2 . d o e s n ' t b u l l y o t h e r s F o r t h e s u b t e s t , G e t t i n g F r i e n d s , t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s f a i l t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g t h e m e m b e r s o f e i t h e r s a m p l e : 1 . t a k e s h i s t u r n i n g r o u p d u t i e s ( t h i s i t e m a p p r o a c h e s t h e c r i t e r i o n o f . 4 0 ) 2 . m a k e s h i s o w n f r i e n d s , d o e s n ' t r e l y o n s t a f f , v o l u n t e e r s , f a m i l y , e t c , 3 . f i n d s a w a y t o i n t r o d u c e h i m s e l f t o s o m e o n e h e w a n t s t o k n o w 1 4 6 I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i t e m : 1 . o f f e r s h e l p w h e n s o m e o n e i s s i c k , u p s e t o r h a v i n g t r o u b l e d o i n g s o m e t h i n g c o r r e l a t e s l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f s a m p l e o n e ; a n d , t h e i t e m s 1 . s m i l e s a t a n d g r e e t s p e o p l e h e r e c o g n i z e s 2 . s i t s w i t h s o m e o n e a t c o f f e e / m e a l s , o r o n t h e b u s 3 . f r i e n d l y w i t h p e o p l e o f b o t h s e x e s c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f s a m p l e t w o . T h u s s i x i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e a n d f o u r a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e . F o r t h e s u b t e s t , K e e p i n g F r i e n d s , f i v e i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e ; o n l y t w o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e . T h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r b o t h s a m p l e s : 1 . d o e s n ' t t a k e t h i n g s t o o s e r i o u s l y o r o v e r r e a c t 2 . w o r k s o u t a c o m p r o m i s e w i t h a f r i e n d ; d o e s n ' t a l w a y s e x p e c t t o h a v e h i s o w n w a y 3 . c a n t a k e a h i n t w h e n s o m e o n e w a n t s t o l e a v e o r w a n t s h i m t o l e a v e 4 . s h o w s a f f e c t i o n w i t h o u t e m b a r r a s s i n g o t h e r s 5 . d o e s n ' t e x p e c t m o r e o r f r i e n d s t h a n t h e y c a n g i v e I n a d d i t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s d o n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e : 1 . d o e s t h i n g s f o r h i m s e l f 2 . w h e n h e h a s o f f e n d e d s o m e o n e , a p o l o g i z e s a n d t r i e s n o t t o d o i t a g a i n 3 . i f n e c e s s a r y b r e a k s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o u t b e c o m i n g e n e m i e s F o r t h e l a s t s u b t e s t , H a n d l i n g P r o b l e m s , s e v e n i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t s a m p l e ; s i x d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e , T h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s c o r r e l a t e l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r 1 4 7 b o t h s a m p l e s . 1 . d o e s n ' t g i v e u p e a s i l y 2 . a c c e p t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r h i s d e c i s i o n s I n a d d i t i o n t h e i t e m 1 . l e a r n s f r o m h i s e r r o r s ; d o e s n ' t k e e p m a k i n g t h e s a m e m i s t a k e c o r r e l a t e s l e s s t h a n . 4 0 w i t h t o t a l s c o r e s f o r t h e f i r s t s a m p l e ; a n d , t h e i t e m s 1 . t r i e s h a r d t o d o w e l l 2 . w o r k s o u t h i s o w n s o l u t i o n s t o p r o b l e m s d o n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o n d a n a l y s i s s a m p l e . G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f R a t i n g s . E s t i m a t e s o f t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f r a t i n g s o v e r t h e u n i v e r s e o f r a t e r s f o r t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e R C L a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5 7 . T a b l e 5 8 p r o v i d e s e s t i m a t e s f o r e a c h c o m p o n e n t u s e d i n c a l c u l a t i n g t h e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e r e s u l t s f o r s u b t e s t s b y r a t e r p a i r , i t c a n b e s e e n t h a t e l e v e n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e e s t i m a t e d t o b e z e r o . F o r t h e d o m a i n P e r s o n a l R o u t i n e s , o n e c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e d o m a i n s c o r e s i s z e r o ; t w o c o e f f i c i e n t s , e a c h , f o r t h e s u b t e s t s , C l e a n l i n e s s , A p p e a r a n c e a n d E a t i n g , a n d H e a l t h a r e z e r o ; a n d , o n e c o e f f i c i e n t f o r T i m e M a n a g e m e n t i s z e r o . F o r t h e d o m a i n , C o m m u n i t y A w a r e n e s s , t w o c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e s u b t e s t B u d g e t i n g a r e z e r o ; a n d , o n e c o e f f i c i e n t f o r C o o k i n g a n d H o m e M a n a g e m e n t i s z e r o . T h e r e a r e n o c o e f f i c i e n t s e q u a l t o z e r o f o r t h e d o m a i n s c o r e s o f S c o i a l M a t u r i t y , n o r f o r t h e s u b t e s t s c o r e s . R a t e r p a i r s 1 a n d 5 h a v e n o s u b t e s t r a t i n g s w h e r e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s z e r o , R a t e r p a i r 2 h a s f i v e c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a t a r e e q u a l t o z e r o , 148 TABLE 57 Generalizability coefficients by rater pair and across raters for subtests and total test scores of the RCL Subtest Rater Pair AR Personal Routines .89 .01 .54 0.0 .94 .31 .22 Cleanliness .73 0.0 .32 0.0 .69 .60 .12 Appearance, Eating .86 0.0 0.0 .02 .70 .16 .12 Room Management .56 .95 .85 .37 .76 .47 .27 Time Management .81 .01 0.0 .26 .73 .82 .50 Health .68 0.0 .02 0.0 .56 .04 .43 Community Awareness .82 .04 .02 .49 .70 .67 .62 Transportation. .81 .69 .58 .80 .78 .78 .81 Shopping .81 .82 .54 .89 .60 .05 .68 Leisure .47 .30 .11 .42 .54 .75 .27 Budgeting .80 0.0 .20 .48 .51 0.0 .48 Cooking, Home .12 0.0 .03 .10 .84 .13 .05 Management Social Maturity .72 .03 .47 .61 .76 .70 .71 Communication .84 .88 .06 .88 .92 .86 .81 Consideration .52 .03 .77 .62 .13 .69 .62 Getting Friends .59 .47 .21 .64 .65 .70 .17 Keeping Friends .36 .28 .82 .31 .42 .45 .68 Handling Problems .77 .04 .20 .87 .08 .57 .71 Total Test .68 .24 .36 .43 .62 .48 .45 149 TAIILK 58 Variance components contributing to universe score variance <o»,p> and error variance ( 0 26 ) by rater pair and across raters tor subtest and total score of the RCL Rater Pair Subtest 1 1 2 _— i— 3 4 5 6 Across Raters Personal Routines o 2u P p 2 6 .03 +.002 .002+.002 0 +.0001 .01*.004 .05+ 0 .03+.002 0 + 0 .10+.002 .05+.002 .001+.002 .01+.001 .01+. 001 .01+.001 .04+.002 Cleanliness o 2 M p o26 .09 +.01 .03 +.01 0 + 0 .08+.01 .04+.001 .09+.01 0 + 0 .03+.01 .07 +.001 .02 +.01 .04+.003 .02+.004 .01+.002 .09+.01 Appearance, Eating o 2 y p o26 .05 +.01 .005+.005 0 + 0 .01*.02 0 + 0 .06+.01 0 +.003 .17+.003 .07++ 0 .02 +.01 6 +.oi .04+.01 .01+.004 .06+.01 Room Management 02U P p26 .03 +.01 .02 +.01 .18+.02 .01+.01 .17+.01 .02+.01 .03+ 0 .03+.01 .10 +.002 .02 +.01 .03+.01 .03+.01 .02+.004 .08+.01 Time Management 0 2 p P o 26 .09 +.0003 .01 +.01 0 +.003 .18+.02 0 + 0 .08+.01 .02+ 0 .05+.01 .07 + 0 .02 +.01 .11+.003 .02+.01 .05+ 0 .04+.01 Health a2v P o 26 .06 + 0 .01 +.01 0 + 0 .10+.01 0 +.001 .05+.01 0 + 0 .03+.01 .02 +.002 .01 +.01 0 +.002 .03+.01 .03+ 0 .03+.01 Community Awareness 02V P o 2 « .04 +.001 .01 +.002 0 +.001 .02+.003 0 +.001 .05+.001 .02+.001 .02+.002 .03 +.001 .01 +.002 .02+.001 .01+.002 .03+.001 .02+.003 Transportation 02p p 0 2 S .12 + 0 .02 +.01 .02+.03 .02+.01 .06+.01 .04+.01 .05+.01 .01+.01 .09 +.01 .02 +.01 .18+ 0 .02+.01 .13+.004 .02+.01 Shopping o 2y p o 2 « .09 +.002 .01 +.01 .09+.001 .01+.01 .06+ 0 .04+.01 .09+.004 .04+.01 .08 +.003 .04 +.01 0 +.004 .08+.004 .09+.004 .04+.01 Leisure o 2 y p o 26 .03 +.002 .02 +.02 .03+ 0 .01+.03 0 +.01 .08+.01 .02+.01 .03+.01 .07 +.004 .05 +.01 .01+,01 .01+.01 .01+.01 .04+.01 Budgeting a2v p o 2S .08 + 0 .01 +.01 0 + 0 .06+.02 .01+.01 .05+.01 .01+ 0 .002+.01 .02 +.002 .01 +.01 0 + 0 .02+.01 .03+ 0 .02+.01 Cooking, Home Manage o 2u p o26 0 +.003 .01 +.01 0 + 0 .03+.01 0 +.002 .07+.01 0 +.004 .03+.01 .05 +.01 .003+.01 .01+.0002 .02+.01 0 +.002 .03+.01 Social Maturity 02V P o 2 « .04 +.001 .01 +.002 .0 +.001 .03+.004 .01+.001 .01+.001 .05+ 0 .03+.003 .02 +.002 .004+.002 .03+.001 .01+.001 .04+.001 .01+.002 Communication o2v P o 2S .07 +.01 .01 +.01 .21+ 0 .001+.03 0 +.003 .04+.01 .16+.0004 .01+.01 .21 +.01 .01 +.01 .08+.01 .01+.01 .14+.01 .02+.01 Consideration 02li p c 2 « .05 +.01 .04 +.01 0 +.01 .32+.01 .13+.002 .03+.01 .06+.001 .03+.01 0 +.003 .01 +.01 .04+.01 .02+.01 .06+.003 .03+.01 Getting Friends 0 2 U P o26 .04 +.01 .02 +.01 .03*.003 .02*.01 0 +.01 .01+.01 .04+.002 .01+.01 .02 +.01 .02 +.01 .02+.003 .02+.01 .004+.01 .04+.01 Keeping Friends 0 2 U p 0 2 « .02 +.001 .02 +.01 0 +.01 .01+.01 .11+.01 .02+.01 .01+.004 .03+.01 .01 +.01 .02 +.01 .03+.001 .03+.01 .05+.001 .01+.01 Handling Problems 0 2 p p 0 2 J .10 +.003 .02 +.01 0 +.004 .10+.01 .002+.002 .02+.01 .10+.01 .01*.01 0 +.002 .01 +.01 .08+ .004 .06+.01 .07+.002 .02+.01 Total Test 02u p o 2S .07 +.001 .02 +.01 .02+.001 .05*.01 .02+.001 .02+.01 .02+.01 .03*.01 .06 +.003 .03 +.01 .03+.003 .02+.02 .03+.001 .03+.01 1 5 0 O f t h e r e m a i n i n g n i n e t y - s e v e n c o e f f i c i e n t s , t w e n t y - t w o a r e g r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a l t o . 8 0 . T h e d o m a i n , P e r s o n a l R o u t i n e s , a c c o u n t s f o r s e v e n o f t h e s e . T w o c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e g r e a t e r t h a n . 8 0 f o r e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : P e r s o n a l R o u t i n e s ( d o m a i n s c o r e s ) , R o o m M a n a g e m e n t , a n d T i m e M a n a g e m e n t . T h e s u b t e s t , A p p e a r a n c e a n d E a t i n g h a s o n e c o e f f i c i e n t g r e a t e r t h a n . 8 0 . F o r t h e d o m a i n C o m m u n i t y A w a r e n e s s , t h e s u b t e s t s B u d g e t i n g , a n d C o o k i n g a n d H o m e M a n a g e m e n t , a n d t h e d o m a i n s c o r e s e a c h h a v e o n e c o e f f i c i e n t g r e a t e r t h a n . 8 0 . T h e s u b t e s t s , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d S h o p p i n g h a v e t w o a n d t h r e e c o e f f i c i e n t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h a t a r e g r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a l t o . 8 0 . T h u s , t h i s d o m a i n a c c o u n t s f o r a n a d d i t i o n a l e i g h t c o e f f i c i e n t s . F i n a l l y , t h e d o m a i n , S o c i a l M a t u r i t y , a c c o u n t s f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g s e v e n c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a t a r e g r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a l t o . 8 0 . F i v e o f t h e s e a r e f o r t h e s u b t e s t C o m m u n i -c a t i o n , t h e l a r g e s t n u m b e r f o r a n y s u b t e s t ; K e e p i n g F r i e n d s a n d H a n d l i n g P r o b l e m s a c c o u n t f o r t h e r e m a i n n g t w o . A l l r a t e r p a i r s h a v e a t l e a s t t w o c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a t a r e g r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a l t o . 8 0 . F o r r a t e r p a i r 1 , e i g h t r a t i n g s h a v e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t i e s t h a t e x c e e d t h i s c r i t e r i o n . T h e r e a r e s e v e n t y - f i v e c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a t a r e g r e a t e r t h a n z e r o , b u t l e s s t h a n . 8 0 . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e v a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s , i t c a n b e s e e n t h a t f o r t h i r t y - e i g h t , t h e p e r s o n s - b y -j u d g e s c o m p o n e n t c o n t r i b u t e s m o s t t o o b s e r v e d s c o r e v a r i a n c e . A l l d o m a i n s a n d s u b t e s t s , e x c e p t T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , h a v e a t l e a s t o n e c o e f f i c i e n t w h e r e t h e p j c o m p o n e n t i s t h e l a r g e s t o r e q u a l t o t h e l a r g e s t v a r i a n c e c o m p o n e n t . F o r t h e s u b t e s t , K e e p i n g F r i e n d s , t h e p j c o m p o n e n t c o n t r i b u t e s m o s t t o o b s e r v e d s c o r e v a r i a n c e f o r t e n c o e f f i c i e n t s . 151 The generalizability of total scores by rater pair ranges from ,04 for rater pair 2 to .87 for rater pair 4. The pj component contributes most to the coefficients for rater pairs 2, 3, and 5. The generalizability coefficients for subtests, across all raters, range from .05 for Cooking and Home Management to .81 for Communication and Transportation. For eight subtests, the pj component contributes most to the observed score variance. Five of these occur for the domain Personal Routines and four of its five subtests; two are for the subtests Leisure, and Cooking and Home Management, in the second domain; and the last is for the subtest, Getting Friends. Results of Analysis - Validity Practical Academics, Language Development, and Motor Development. The correlation matrices for these traits are presented in Tables 59 and 60. The results suggest evidence for the convergent validity of at least three of these traits. The values in the validity diagonals are all significant except for the trait, Motor Movements for the first analysis sample. Evidence for the discriminant validity of Language Development is indicated. The validity coefficient for this trait is greater than the correlations among traits where neither trait nor method is common (e.g. rA2Bj; rC2A^> etc.) . However, this value is not greater than all correlations among traits, measured by the same test (e.g. rA-^B^; rB_jCj_; r A 2 B 2 , etc.). The pattern of correlations for different traits measured by different tests, and different traits measured by the same test is the same for the first analysis sample, except for those correlations among traits as measured by T A B L E 5 9 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t , P r a c t i c a l A c a d e m i c S k i l l s , a n d M o t o r M o v e m e n t s a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e A B S P a r t I ( 1 ) a n d t h e s e t a n d c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e s e t r a i t s w i t h M A A F I A B S ( 1 ) M A T r a i t A x B1 C x D ] L A 2 B 2 C 2 D 2 A F I L a n g . D e v . ( S p . + W r . ) A l ( . 9 9 ) . 8 9 N u m b e r , T i m e C o n . B l . 9 2 ( . 9 9 ) . 9 0 M o n e y H a n d l i n g C l . 8 9 . 9 5 ( . 9 7 ) . 8 3 M o t o r M o v e m e n t s D l . 4 6 . 4 4 . 4 3 ( . 8 2 ) . 5 2 B S L a n g . D e v . ( S p . + W r . ) A 2 [ . 7 0 ] . 5 7 . 5 6 . 2 8 ( . 7 6 ) . 5 8 N u m b e r , T i m e C o n . B 2 . 4 9 [ - 4 9 ] . 4 8 . 1 9 . 7 6 ( . 6 9 ) . 5 3 M o n e y H a n d l i n g C 2 . 5 4 . 4 7 [ . 4 9 ] . 2 0 . 6 2 . 7 0 ( . 4 7 ) . 5 3 M o t o r M o v e m e n t s D 2 - . 1 1 - . 1 5 - . 1 8 [ - 3 1 ] . 2 4 . 1 7 - . 0 8 ( . 7 0 ) - . 1 5 N = 4 8 ; r c r i t i c a l = . 2 8 2 <p<_.05) T A B L E 6 0 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t , P r a c t i c a l A c a d e m i c S k i l l s , a n d M o t o r M o v e m e n t s m e a s u r e d b y t h e A B S P a r t I ( 2 ) a n d t h e s e t a n d t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e s e t r a i t s w i t h M A T r a i t A F I B1 Cj Di A2 A B S ( 2 ) B 2 C 2 D 2 M A A F I L a n g u a g e D e v . A l ( . 9 9 ) N u m b e r , T i m e C o n . B l . 9 2 ( . 9 9 ) M o n e y H a n d l i n g C l . 8 8 . 9 2 M o t o r M o v e m e n t s D l . 5 0 . 4 9  . 4 7 ( . 8 2 ) . 8 9 . 9 0 . 8 3 . 5 2 A B S L a n g u a g e D e v . A 2 [ . 6 8 ] . 6 2 . 5 7 . 4 2 ( . 7 6 ) . 5 7 N u m b e r , T i m e C o n . B 2 . 6 2 [ . 5 3 ] . 4 8 . 4 3 . 7 4 ( . 6 9 ) . 5 0 M o n e y H a n d l i n g C 2 . 5 4 . 4 4 [ - 4 6 ] . 5 2 . 6 6 . 5 6 ( . 4 7 ) . 3 1 M o t o r M o v e m e n t s D 2 - . 1 3 - . 1 4 - . 0 9 [ - 2 6 ] . 2 4 . 1 2 . 1 8 ( . 7 0 ) . 2 5 N = 4 8 ; r c r i t i c a l = - 2 8 2 ( p < . 0 5 ) 154 the AFI. For the second sample, the same pattern occurs among correlations for traits measured by the two tests. Except for the same pattern of correlations, there is no additional evidence for the discriminant validity of the remaining three traits. The validity coefficients are not greater than correlations among traits measured by the different tests, nor among traits measured by the same test. Despite the evidence for convergent validity, and support for the discriminant validity of Language Development, an examination of the correlations of these traits with Mental Age (MA) reveals that all correlations are significant except for Motor Movements, as measured by the ABS; and, these coefficients are greater than those in the validity diagonals for all traits measured by the AFI. For the ABS, the correlations between Number and Time Concepts and MA and Money Handling and MA are greater than the validities of these traits, for analysis sample one. Self-Help Skills. The correlation matrices for these traits are presented in Tables 61 and 62. The results indicate convergent validity of all traits except Cleanliness for the first analysis sample and Leisure for both analysis samples. There is some evidence for the discriminant validity of the traits, Appearance and Eating, Room Management, Transportation, and Budgeting. The validity coefficients for the first two traits are greater than the correlations among traits where neither trait nor method is common. For the latter two traits, the diagonal values are greater than all but one coefficient, each. However, no validity coefficient is greater than all 155 Intercorrelations of Self-Ilelp Skills as measured by the RCL (1) and the ABS Part I (1) and correlations of these traits with Mental Age AFI (1) ABS (1) Trait AFI Cleanliness A, (.12) - 2 4 Appearance, Fat. Bj -65 (.12) ' -.22 Room Management -61 .40 (.27) -.31 Transportation Dj .15 .33 .09 (.81) -44 Shopping Ej 40 .46 .32 .71 (.68) .50 Leisure F x -06 .11 -.07 .19 .32 (.27) .05 Budgeting Gj .22 .16 .28 .53 .65 .10 (.48) .43 Cooking, Home Man. H x .30 .15 .41 .46 .60 .28 .57 (.05) .15 Social Maturity Ij -28 .49 .32 .42 .64 .33 .46 .45 (.71) .30 ABS Cleanliness A 2 [-07] .54 .02 .19 .17 .01 .01 -.05 .37 (.56) .39 Appearance, Eat. B 2 .07 [.55]-.04 .11 .03 - .03 - . 12 - . 19 .24 .90 (.45) .14 Room Management C 2 -01 .23 [.37] .13 .25 -.04 .25 .30 .27 .46 .37 (.44) -.002 Transportation D 2 -23 .48 -.01 [.49] .55 . 01 .32 .10 .45 .47 .48 .28 (.68) .53 Shopping E 2 "-19 - H --19 -31 1-37] .08 .08 .09 .27 .27 .27 .16 .58 (.68) .51 Leisure F 2 .24 .51 .07 .25 .25 [.22] .16 .07 .28 .59 .63 .37 .51 .15 (.66) -.11 Budgeting G 2 .11 -32 .01 .30 .50 .05 [.39] .14 .43 .43 .36 .39 .68 .53 .41 (.47) .53 Cooking, Home Man. H ? .003 .15 .36 .28 .48 .16 .18 [.50] .52 .30 .18 .68 .28 .43 .20 .35 (.33) .18 Social Maturity I 2 -.11 .23 -.13 .19 .19 .22 .05 -.01 [.37] .40 .42 .16 .36 .36 .49 .51 .35 (.50) .25 ^=41; r . . . , = -304 (p<.05) critical 150 TABLE 62 Intercorrelations of Sclf-llelp ns measured l.y tin' l t d . (2) and the ABS Part I (2) and correlations of these trait:; with Mental Age AFI AHS (2) MA A l Bi C] D] K i F i fl| Hi II A2 B 2 Co D 2 E2 F 2 G 2 l l 2 l 2 AFI Cleanliness Aj (.12) .25 Appearance. Eating Bj .77 (.12) .25 Room Management Cj .68 .67 (.27) .10 Transportation Dj -.10 .12 .09 (.81) .65 Shopping Ej .76 .83 .83 .45 (.08) .86 Leisure Fj - 0 9 .08 .13 .75 .41 (.27) .39 Budgeting Gt .09 .31 .23 .77 .58 .82 (.48) .66 Cooking, Home Man. Hj .15 .27 .33 .49 .47 .56 .53 (.05) .67 Social Maturity I j .24 .51 .38 .38 .68 .67 .75 .48 (.71) .21 ABS Cleanliness A 2 (.32) .41 .22 .12 .35 .11 .28 .19 .18 (.56) -.007 Appearance, Eating B 2 .44 [.47] .23 - . 02 .35 - . 03 . 14 .04 .15 .91 (.45) .02 Room Management C 2 .41 .23 [.64] .11 .49 .07 .18 .06 .20 .30 .29 (.44) .02' Transportation D 2 .10 .19 .04 [.32] .28 .52 .52 .16 .34 .36 .41 .08 (.68) .38 Shopping E 2 .22 .13 .28 .30 [.37] .46 .40 .31 .31 .10 .14 .23 .60 (.68) .31 Leisure F 2 .09 .08 .05 -.13 .01 (.02] .04 -.09 .03 .34 .47 .28 .52' .27 (.66) .32 Budgeting G 2 .11 .13 .09 .32 .30 .58 [.55] .21 .33 .24 .24 .07 .75 .74 .35 (.47) .31 Cooking, Home Man. H 2 .30 .15 .45 .05 .36 .22 .22 (.24) .12 .22 .23 .53 .28 .62 .16 .41 (.33) .02 Social Maturity I 2 -02 .'11 .05 .19 .20 .39 .50 .33 [.35] .34 .25 -.02 .35 .26 -.02 .36 .34 (.50) .17 r . . , = .308 (pi.05) critical 1 5 7 correlations among traits as measured by the same tests. In addition, there is no consistent pattern of correlations for different traits measured by different tests, and different traits measured by the same test. In examining the relationship of these traits to MA, it can be seen that, for both analysis samples, and, as measured by both the AFI and the ABS, the traits, Transportation, Shopping, and Budgeting correlate significantly with MA. In addition, for sample one, Social Maturity as measured by the AFI, and Cleanliness, as measured by the ABS, also correlate significantly with MA. For the second sample, the traits Leisure, as measured by both tests, and Cooking and Home Management as measured by the AFI, correlate significiantly with MA. The correlations between Shopping and MA, and Budgeting and MA exceed the validities of these traits as measured by the AFI for both samples and the ABS for sample one. This also occurs for the traits, Transportation as measured by the AFI for sample two, and, the ABS for both samples; Leisure as measured by both tests for sample two; Cooking and Home Management, (AFI) for sample two; and, Cleanliness (ABS) for sample one. Vocational Skills. The correlation matrices for these traits are presented in Tables 63 and 64. There is evidence for the convergent validity of Independence, for both samples; Self-Expression, for sample one, and, Basic Work Habits and Appearance for the second sample. Some support is evident for the discriminant validity of the traits, Independence and Self ^ Expression for the first analysis sample. The validity coefficients for these traits are greater than correlations where neither trait 1.18 TABLE 63 Intercorrelations of Vocational Skills as measured by the VCL (1) and the ABS Part I (1) and correlations of these traits with Mental Age AFI 1 u l c l r l ABS (1) D , E, MA AFI Basic Work Habits A Speed B Independence C Self-Expression D Relations e Co. W. E Appearance F (.82) .56 (.54) .75 .71 (.14) .26 .41 .51 (.68) .31 .54 .53 .73 (.42) .50 .65 .62 .46 .61 (.60) .31 .03 .27 .40 .20 .19 ABS Basic Work Habits Speed Independence Self-Expression Relations S Co. W. Appearance A 2 [.23] .11 .32 ;03 .00 .22 B 2 .01 [.12] .09 .08 .15 .06 C 2 .27 .31 [.40] ' .18 .21 .36 D 2 -.27 -.19 -.06 [.39] .12 .07 E 2 .12 .24 .24 .11 [.26] .33 F 2 .23 .36 .37 .06 -.04 [.22] (.33) .004 .17 (0.0) -.06 .83 .27 (.56) .02 .22 .19 .26 (.57) .42 .66 .23 .88 .25 (.50) .25 .52 .11 .57 .22 .47 (.45) .11 n=42; r . . , = .307 (p<.05) critical 159 T A B L E 64 Intercorrelations of Vocational Skil ls as measured by the V C L (2) and the ABS Part I (2) and correlations of these traits with Mental Age AFI (2) A B S (2) MA A l B i C i Di E i Fj A 2 B 2 C 2 D 2 E 2 AFI Basic Work Habits A Speed B Independence C Self-Expression D Relations with Coworkers E Appearance F (.82) .21 (.54) .67 .46 (.14) .33 .06 .33 (.68) .37 .33 .43 .66 (.42) .51 .38 .49 .34 .46 (.60) .45 .21 .14 .55 .22 .19 A B S Basic Work Habits A 2 [.49] .06 .43 .10 Speed B 2 .37 [•11] .32 .20 Independence C 2 .69 .23 [•53] .04 Self-Expression D 2 .37 .28 .29 [.28 Relations with Coworkers E 2 .58 .29 .39 -.08 Appearance F 2 .33 .19 .33 - .09 .17 .28 (.33) .01 .08 .32 .49 (0.0) .28 .27 .20 .67 .40 (.56) .13 .29 .24 .46 .21 .41 (.57) .05 [.05] .17 .59 .37 .83 .44 (.50) .17 .12 [.33] .54 .38 .55 .15 .36) (.45) - .06 1 N = 42; r = -307 (p < .05) critical 1 6 0 n o r m e t h o d i s c o m m o n . H o w e v e r , n e i t h e r c o e f f i c i e n t i s g r e a t e r t h a n a l l t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g t r a i t s m e a s u r e d b y t h e s a m e t e s t . I n a d d i t i o n n o c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n o f c o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g d i f f e r e n t t r a i t s m e a s u r e d b y t h e s a m e t e s t a n d d i f f e r e n t t r a i t s m e a s u r e d b y d i f f e r e n t t e s t s i s a p p a r e n t . A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e t r a i t s w i t h M A r e v e a l s t h a t B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s a n d S e l f - E x p r e s s i o n , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e A F I , f o r b o t h s a m p l e s , a n d S e l f - E x p r e s s i o n , a s m e a s u r e d b y A B S f o r s a m p l e o n e , c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h M A . I n a d d i t i o n t h e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r S e l f - E x p r e s s i o n a r e o f t h e s a m e o r d e r o r g r e a t e r t h a n t h e v a l i d i t i e s o f t h i s t r a i t . F o r t h e f i r s t a n a l y s i s s a m p l e , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n M A a n d B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e A F I , i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s t r a i t . B e c a u s e t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e S E T s h o w v e r y h i g h p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h M A , a c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h i s t e s t t o m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e w a s m a d e . I n T a b l e 6 5 t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e s u b t e s t s a n d t o t a l s c o r e s o f t h e S E T w i t h M A a r e c o r r e c t e d f o r a t t e n u a t i o n . E s t i m a t e s o f t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ( . 9 3 ) a n d t h e s t a b i l i t y ( . 8 6 ) o f t h e S t a n f o r d B i n e t w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m S i l v e r s t e i n ( 1 9 6 9 ) a n d H i m m e l s t e i n ( 1 9 6 8 ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y . A B S P a r t I I . A n a t t e m p t w a s m a d e t o a s s e s s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e A B S P a r t I I , u s i n g , a s a c r i t e r i o n , r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r s . A l m o s t a l l r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s f e l l i n t o o n l y f i v e o f t h e t h i r t e e n c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e A B S P a r t I I . T h e m e a n s c o r e s f o r t h e t h r e e g r o u p s ( N I N , L I N , a n d H I N ) o n r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s a r e c o m p a r e d w i t h m e a n s c o r e s o n t h e f i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e A B S P a r t I I i n F i g u r e s 2 6 t o 3 0 . T h e A B S m e a n s , f o r f o u r o f t h e f i v e b e h a v i o r d o m a i n s , f o l l o w t h e p a t t e r n x H > x L > % [ • F o r t h e d o m a i n , T A B L E 6 5 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e s e t w i t h R S B M e n t a l A g e c o r r e c t e d f o r a t t e n u a t i o n d u e t o e r r o r i n e s t i m a t e s o f t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s a n d s t a b i l i t i e s o f t h e s e t e s t s C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h M e n t a l A g e U n c o r r e c t e d C o r r e c t e d f o r I n t e r n a l C o r r e c t e d f o r C o n s i s t e n c y E r r o r S t a b i l i t y E r r o r R e a d i n g . 8 7 . 9 3 . 9 5 W r i t i n g . 8 3 . 8 7 . 9 0 N u m b e r s . 8 7 . 9 4 . 9 6 T i m e . 9 5 1 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 M o n e y . 8 3 . 8 8 . 9 2 C o m m u n i t y . 8 3 . 9 2 . 9 4 C o m m u n i c a t i o n . 7 5 . 8 3 . 8 4 M o t o r M o v e m e n t s . 5 2 . 6 7 . 6 3 C o n c e p t A t t a i n m e n t . 8 7 . 9 8 . 9 7 T o t a l T e s t . 9 2 . 9 6 1 . 0 0 1 6 2 Comparison of mean scores on the ABS Part II and on reported incidents of maladaptive behavior for the domain Violent and Destructive Behavior 1 6 3 cu N o n e L o w H i g h S u b j e c t g r o u p s o n b a s i s o f r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s F I G U R E 27 C o m p a r i s o n o f m e a n s c o r e s o n t h e A B S P a r t II a n d o n r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r f o r t h e d o m a i n A n t i s o c i a l B e h a v i o r 1 6 4 N o n e L o w H i g h S u b j e c t g r o u p s b y f r e q u e n c y o f r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s F I G U R E 2 8 C o m p a r i s o n o f m e a n s c o r e s o n A B S P a r t II a n d o n r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s o f ' m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r f o r ^ t h e d o m a i n R e b e l l i o u s B e h a v i o r 1 6 5 F I G U R E 2 9 C o m p a r i s o n o f m e a n s c o r e s o n t h e A B S P a r t I I a n d o n r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r f o r t h e d o m a i n U n t r u s t w o r t h y B e h a v i o r 166 F I G U R E 3 0 C o m p a r i s o n o f m e a n s c o r e s o n t h e A B S P a r t I I a n d o n r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r f o r t h e d o m a i n P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i s t u r b a n c e s 1 6 7 Violent and Destructive Behavior, the mean scores for the low and high incidents groups are approximately equal. 1 6 8 C h a p t e r V D i s c u s s i o n T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y , p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n t e r m s o f f i v e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y : t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s c a l e s ; t h e i r a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s a m p l e ; t h e i r v a l i d i t y ; t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r t o m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e ; a n d t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e s c a l e s f o r p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t . \ 1 6 9 R e l i a b i l i t y I n t e r n a l C o n s i s t e n c y . F o r b o t h P a r t s I a n d II o f t h e A B S a n d f o r t h e t e s t s o f t h e A F I , t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y e s t i m a t e s t h a t w e r e o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h a n d c o m p a r a b l e t o t h o s e f o r s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s s u c h a s t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e . H o w e v e r , f o r t h e r a t i n g s c a l e s i n p a r t i c u l a r ( A B S , V C L , a n d R C L ) , t h e H o y t c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r s o m e s u b t e s t s a r e l o w ( r x x < - 8 5 ) . T h i s i s , i n p a r t , d u e t o t h e l e n g t h o f t h e s e s u b t e s t s . F o r t h e A B S P a r t I t h e n u m b e r o f i t e m s r a n g e s f r o m t w o f o r R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o t w e n t y - t w o f o r I n d e p e n d e n t F u n c t i o n i n g . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e s u b t e s t s E c o n o m i c A c t i v i t y f o r b o t h s a m p l e s a n d L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t f o r t h e f i r s t s a m p l e , t h e s u b t e s t s w i t h r e l i a b i l i t i e s l e s s t h a n . 8 0 c o n t a i n s e v e n o r f e w e r i t e m s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e A B S P a r t I I c o n t a i n f r o m o n e t o s e v e n i t e m s . T h e h i g h e s t c o e f f i c i e n t o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r b o t h a n a l y s i s s a m p l e s i s f o r t h e l o n g e s t s u b t e s t , P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i s t u r b a n c e s . F o r t h e V C L t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r m o s t o f t h e f i v e i t e m s u b t e s t s a r e l e s s t h a n . 8 5 . H o w e v e r , t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s o f d o m a i n s c o r e s ( B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s , W o r k S k i l l s , a n d A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s ) a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h ( r > . 8 7 ) . S i m i l a r l y , t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e d o m a i n s c o r e s o f t h e R C L ( P e r s o n a l R o u t i n e s , C o m m u n i t y A w a r e n e s s , a n d S o c i a l M a t u r i t y ) a r e g r e a t e r t h a n . 9 0 f o r b o t h s a m p l e s , a l t h o u g h t h o s e f o r s o m e o f t h e t e n i t e m s u b t e s t s a r e l e s s t h a n . 8 5 . T h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g t h e t w o s a m p l e s a r e p r o b a b l y d u e t o t w o f a c t o r s 1 . a l t h o u g h t h e m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s i n b o t h s a m p l e s w e r e t h e s a m e t h e r e w e r e s o m e d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t m i g h t a c c o u n t f o r t h e o b t a i n e d 170 r e s u l t s . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r o s e w h e n o n l y o n e s e t o f r a t i n g s w a s a v a i l a b l e f o r a g i v e n g r o u p o f s u b j e c t s . T h u s e a c h s a m p l e i n c l u d e d o n l y o n e h a l f o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e s e g r o u p s . 2. D i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g t h e o b t a i n e d r e s u l t s f o r b o t h s a m p l e s m a y b e d u e t o r a t e r b i a s . T h a t i s , r a t e r s m a y h a v e t e n d e d t o a s s i g n d i f f e r e n t s c o r e s t o t h e s a m e s u b j e c t s . S t a b i l i t y . T h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f S E T s c o r e s o v e r o c c a s i o n s ( w i t h i n a t h r e e m o n t h i n t e r v a l ) i s h i g h f o r a l l s u b t e s t s e x c e p t M o t o r M o v e m e n t s . T h e t r a i t s m e a s u r e d b y t h i s s u b t e s t a p p e a r t o b e l e s s s t a b l e t h a n t h o s e m e a s u r e d b y o t h e r s u b t e s t s . C h a n g e s i n p e r s o n s ' o v e r a l l s c o r e s o v e r o c c a s i o n s ( p o c o m p o n e n t ) a n d c h a n g e s i n p e r s o n s ' s c o r e s o n s p e c i f i c i t e m s o v e r o c c a s i o n s ( p o i c o m p o n e n t ) s e e m t o c o n t r i b u t e e q u a l l y t o t h e o b s e r v e d s c o r e v a r i a n c e . I n t e r r a t e r R e l i a b i l i t y . E s t i m a t e s o f t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f r a t i n g s i n d i c a t e g r e a t v a r i a t i o n i n t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f j u d g m e n t s f o r d i f f e r e n t r a t e r p a i r s a s w e l l a s f o r d i f f e r e n t s u b t e s t s . S o m e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s w e r e f o u n d t o b e t h e r e s u l t o f a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f r a t e r b i a s : t h e r e w a s a t e n d e n c y f o r d i f f e r e n t r a t e r s t o a s s i g n d i f f e r e n t s c o r e s t o t h e s a m e p e o p l e . A s a r e s u l t , t h e p e r s o n s - b y - j u d g e s i n t e r a c t i o n (p_^ c o m p o n e n t ) c o n t r i b u t e d m o s t t o o b s e r v e d s c o r e v a r i a n c e . T h e p r e s e n c e o f t h i s b i a s i s p r o b a b l y d u e t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s c a l e s a s w e l l a s a r e s u l t o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o r a t e r s f o r o b s e r v i n g p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o r s . A t l e a s t t h r e e s o u r c e s o f a m b i g u i t y a p p e a r i n t h e i t e m s o f t h e A B S , t h e V C L , a n d t h e R C L . F i r s t , s o m e i t e m s d o n o t s p e c i f y t h e c o n t e x t i n 171 w h i c h b e h a v i o r s a r e t o b e o b s e r v e d . T h e i t e m s f r o m t h e s u b t e s t R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f r o m t h e A B S P a r t I s u f f e r f r o m t h i s d e f i c i e n c y . S e c o n d l y , s o m e i t e m s d o n o t i n d i c a t e t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r m e a s u r i n g l e v e l s o f a c h i e v e -m e n t . T h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e d o m a i n s B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s a n d W o r k S k i l l s f r o m t h e V C L , P e r s o n a l R o u t i n e s f r o m t h e R C L , a n d t h e s u b t e s t N u m b e r a n d T i m e C o n c e p t s f r o m t h e A B S P a r t I r e v e a l t h i s s h o r t c o m i n g . F i n a l l y , s t a n d a r d s f o r e v a l u a t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e a r e n o t p r o v i d e d f o r a l l i t e m s . I t e m s f r o m t h e s u b t e s t s O c c u p a t i o n D o m e s t i c a n d O c c u p a t i o n G e n e r a l o f t h e A B S P a r t I d o n o t p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c s t a n d a r d s o f p e r f o r m a n c e t o b e u s e d i n a s s i g n i n g s c o r e s . T h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r a t e r s t o o b s e r v e t h e b e h a v i o r s m e a s u r e d b y t h e s e s c a l e s m a y h a v e d i f f e r e d . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e m a y b e d u e t o t h e n a t u r e o f c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s u b t e s t s f r o m t h e d o m a i n s S o c i a l M a t u r i t y o f t h e R C L a n d A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s o f t h e V C L , a n d t h e s u b t e s t S o c i a l M a t u r i t y f r o m t h e A B S P a r t I m e a s u r e b e h a v i o r s t h a t s u b j e c t s m a y d i s p l a y i n s o m e s i t u a t i o n s b u t n o t o t h e r s a n d i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f s o m e r a t e r s b u t n o t o t h e r s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n m a y a l s o b e d u e t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f a c i l i t y . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y l i k e l y f o r p r o g r a m s w h e r e o n l y o n e s t a f f m e m b e r n o r m a l l y w o r k e d w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s . I t m a y a l s o a c c o u n t f o r t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n t h e r a t i n g s o n t h e V C L a n d t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s u b t e s t s o f t h e A B S P a r t I f o r t h e A c t i v i t y g r o u p s . A t t h e t i m e o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e s e g r o u p s w e r e i n v o l v e d i n w o r k a c t i v i t i e s o n l y o n a w e e k l y b a s i s . T h e s t a f f m e m b e r s w h o w o r k e d w i t h t h e m w e r e n o t e q u a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e w o r k p r o g r a m s . 172 F i n a l l y , r a t e r s a p p e a r t o h a v e d i f f e r e d i n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y u s e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e m . T h e i n c o n s i s t -e n c i e s i n r a t i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t m a n y r a t e r s r e l i e d o n w h a t t h e y r e m e m b e r e d a b o u t a g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o r . O b j e c t i v e e v i d e n c e o f t h i s i s f o u n d i n t h e r a t i n g s f o r t h e W o r k S k i l l s d o m a i n o f t h e V C L . T h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r a t e r j u d g m e n t s s u g g e s t t h a t s t a n d a r d s f o r a s s e s s i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s u c h a s t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s r a t e o f t a s k c o m p l e t i o n , w a s n o t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d a n d t h e n a p p l i e d . T h e r a t e r b i a s ( t h e p e r s o n s - b y - j u d g e s i n t e r a c t i o n o r p_^ c o m p o n e n t ) t h a t r e s u l t e d f r o m a m b i g u i t i e s i n t h e t e s t i t e m s a n d f r o m d i f f e r e n c e s i n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n a f f e c t e d a l l s c a l e s . T h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e A B S P a r t I i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e g j c o m p o n e n t c o n t r i b u t e d m o s t t o t h e o b s e r v e d s c o r e v a r i a n c e f o r a t l e a s t o n e s u b t e s t f o r e a c h p a i r o f r a t e r s . T h e r e s u l t s o v e r r a t e r p a i r s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s b i a s o c c u r r e d i n a l l s u b t e s t s f o r a t l e a s t o n e p a i r o f r a t e r s . F o r t h e A B S P a r t II t h i s e f f e c t w a s o b s e r v e d f o r a l l r a t e r p a i r s a n d f o r e l e v e n o f t h e f o u r t e e n s u b t e s t s . F o r t h e V C L , t h i s o c c u r r e d f o r t w e l v e o f t h e f o u r t e e n s u b t e s t s a n d f o r f i v e o f t h e s i x r a t e r p a i r s . A n d , f o r t h e R C L , t h i s o c c u r r e d f o r s i x t e e n o f t h e e i g h t e e n s u b t e s t s a n d f o r a l l r a t e r p a i r s . I n t e r m s o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f c o e f f i c i e n t s r e f l e c t i n g t h i s b i a s , t h e p_j c o m p o n e n t a c c o u n t s f o r t h e l a r g e s t p o r t i o n o f o b s e r v e d s c o r e v a r i a n c e i n o n e t h i r d o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e V C L a n d t h e R C L ; w h e r e a s , f o r t h e A B S P a r t s I a n d I I , t h i s e f f e c t w a s o b s e r v e d i n o n l y o n e q u a r t e r o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s . T h e g r e a t e r s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e V C L a n d t h e R C L i t e m s m a y a c c o u n t f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , 1 7 3 A l t h o u g h o n l y o n e t y p e o f r a t e r b i a s c a n b e d e m o n s t r a t e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y i n t h i s s t u d y , i n c i d e n t a l e v i d e n c e o f o t h e r t y p e s o f b i a s i s a v a i l a b l e . T h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s r e v i e w o f r a t i n g s s u g g e s t s t h a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e r s p r o b a b l y d o a t t e n d t o d i f f e r e n t b e h a v i o r s . T h i s s e l e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n c a n b e d e m o n s t r a t e d b y t h e c a s e o f o n e m a l e s u b j e c t w h o w a s s e e n e n g a g e d i n s e l f - s t i m u l a t i n g b e h a v i o r ( h a n d w a v i n g , r o c k i n g ) o n s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s . O n e r a t e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s m a n n e v e r d i s p l a y e d t h e s e b e h a v i o r s . T h e s e c o n d r a t e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e b e h a v i o r s o c c u r r e d f r e q u e n t l y ( o n A B S P a r t I I ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o c o e f f i c i e n t s o f g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y t h a t w e r e f o u n d t o b e l o w a s a r e s u l t o f r a t e r b i a s , t h e r e w e r e a l s o c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r s o m e r a t i n g s t h a t w e r e e q u a l t o z e r o . T h e l a c k o f u n i v e r s e s c o r e v a r i a n c e i n t h e s e r a t i n g s m a y r e f l e c t v a l i d h o m o g e n e i t y i n t h e s a m p l e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e p r o g r a m s a m p l e s a r e p r o b a b l y b a s e d o n a b i l i t y a n d d i s a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g s . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n a p p e a r s f e a s i b l e f o r s u b t e s t s m e a s u r i n g s k i l l s t h a t a r e e a s y f o r a l l s u b j e c t s , f o r t h o s e t h a t a r e d i f f i c u l t f o r a l l s u b j e c t s , a n d f o r t h o s e m e a s u r i n g m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r s ( A B S P a r t II a n d t h e V C L D i f f i c u l t y s u b -t e s t s ) , w h e r e t h e m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s w e r e r a t e d a s n o t d i s p l a y i n g t h o s e b e h a v i o r s . H o w e v e r , f o r o t h e r s u b t e s t s s u c h a s R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f r o m t h e A B S P a r t I , t h e z e r o c o e f f i c i e n t s m a y b e t h e r e s u l t o f a t e n d e n c y f o r a g i v e n r a t e r t o a s s i g n s i m i l a r s c o r e s t o a l l s u b j e c t s , h e n c e r e s t r i c t i n g u n i v e r s e s c o r e v a r i a n c e . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s a r e n o t u n i q u e t o t h i s s t u d y s i n c e t h e c o n d i t i o n s d e s c r i b e d t h a t p r o d u c e d l o w c o e f f i c i e n t s o f i n t e r -r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y a r e t y p i c a l o f m a n y s e t t i n g s w h e r e t h e s e s c a l e s m i g h t b e 174 u s e d . I n f a c t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e c o m p a r a b l e t o t h o s e c i t e d b y t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e A B S . T h e i r a n a l y s i s , h o w e v e r , d i d n o t i s o l a t e t h e p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s o f e r r o r t h a t a f f e c t t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r . T h e p r o b l e m o f i m p r o v i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f r a t i n g s f o r f u t u r e u s e r s o f t h e s e s c a l e s a p p e a r s t o d e p e n d o n t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f a m b i g u i t i e s f r o m t h e s c a l e s t h e m s e l v e s a n d o n s y s t e m a t i c t r a i n i n g a n d m o n i t o r i n g o f r a t e r s . D i s c r i m i n a t i o n R a t i n g S c a l e s . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i t e m a n a l y s e s p r o v i d e s o m e e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e s e t e s t s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h i s s a m p l e . F o r t h e A B S P a r t I , f i f t y - s e v e n a n d f i f t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f t h e i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d a n a l y s i s s a m p l e s r e s -p e c t i v e l y . E i g h t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f t h e V C L i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f s a m p l e o n e ; s e v e n t y - t w o p e r c e n t , a m o n g m e m b e r s o f s a m p l e t w o . F o r t h e R C L , f i f t y - s i x a n d s i x t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d s a m p l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . A t l e a s t t h r e e t y p e s o f i n e f f i c i e n t i t e m s a p p e a r t o b e p r e s e n t i n t h e A B S P a r t I , t h e V C L , a n d t h e R C L : 1. t h o s e r e p r e s e n t i n g m i n i m a l s k i l l s o r c a p a c i t i e s d i s p l a y e d b y t h e m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s ; 2. t h o s e r e p r e s e n t i n g s k i l l s o r c a p a c i t i e s t h a t a r e i n f l u e n c e d b y i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e g u l a t i o n s a n d / o r o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s t r i c t i o n s ; 3 . a m b i g u o u s i t e m s w h i c h a r e e i t h e r n o n - s p e c i f i c w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o n t e x t , o r w h i c h m e a s u r e b e h a v i o r s t h a t a r e d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s , a n d w h i c h t h e r e f o r e m a y s o l i c i t r a t e r s ' o p i n i o n s . I n c l u d e d i n t h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y f r o m t h e A B S P a r t I a r e t h o s e n o n -d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s f r o m t h e s u b t e s t s I n d e p e n d e n t F u n c t i o n i n g , P h y s i c a l 1 7 5 Development, Language Development, and the item Table Clearing from the subtest Occupation Domestic. These items are judged by raters to be very easy for this sample. The items from the first subtest represent basic self-care skills that may be viewed as minimal criteria for admission to a facility such as Bevan Lodge, which is not equipped to provide intensive personal care. Although the non-discriminating items in the subtests Physical Development and Language Development also seem to represent basic capacities displayed by all subjects, this is in part due to the restriction of range in sampling. Subjects with profound physical or sensory handicaps were excluded from this study. Finally the item Table Clearing seems to represent a skill that all subjects have acquired and displayed. No items from the VCL appear to belong in this category. Only two items from the RCL appear to be very easy for this sample. These are: a. smiles and greets people he knows b. aware of the differences between men and women. The second category of non-discriminating items, those measuring ' behaviors that are affected by institutional regulations and/or other environ-mental restrictions, includes those from the subtests Occupation Domestic and Occupation General from the ABS Part I. Since the tasks measured by the former are carried out by members of the Laundry and Housekeeping program, the majority of subjects have no opportunity to display these skills. Similarly, the item Work Fitness from the latter subtest measures skills that few subjects have the opportunity to display in the types of 1 7 6 w o r k p r o g r a m s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e e n g a g e d . A l t h o u g h t h e i t e m s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y t e n d t o b e d i f f i c u l t f o r t h i s s a m p l e , s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s a p p e a r t o h a v e r e c e i v e d p a r t i a l m a r k s f o r t h e s e i t e m s . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e r a t e r s w e r e i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e d i r e c t i o n : I f y o u h a v e n e v e r a c t u a l l y s e e n t h e p e r s o n p e r f o r m t h e a c t . . . b u t a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t h e c o u l d p e r f o r m i t i f g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y a n s w e r t h a t h e c a n p e r f o r m t h e a c t . ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 6 9 ) S e v e r a l i t e m s f r o m t h e V C L a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e s e c o n d c a t e g o r y o f n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s . T h e i t e m m e a s u r i n g Q u a l i t y C o n t r o l S k i l l s f r o m t h e s u b t e s t M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s i s j u d g e d t o b e v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r t h i s s a m p l e . I n f a c t v e r y f e w s u b j e c t s h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d o q u a l i t y c o n t r o l w o r k s i n c e i t i s d o n e o n a r e g u l a r a n d s y s t e m a t i c b a s i s b y t h e s t a f f i n m o s t w o r k p r o g r a m s . T h e n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s f r o m t h e s u b t e s t S p e e d a r e a l s o j u d g e d t o b e d i f f i c u l t f o r t h i s s a m p l e . H o w e v e r , t h e s e i t e m s m a y b e i n e f f i c i e n t b e c a u s e r a t e r s d o n o t a p p e a r t o h a v e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d a n d t h e n a p p l i e d t h e s u g g e s t e d s t a n d a r d o f p e r f o r m a n c e ( t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s r a t e o f t a s k c o m p l e t i o n ) . T h e n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s f r o m t h e s u b t e s t P u n c t u a l i t y c l e a r l y b e l o n g i n t h i s s e c o n d c a t e g o r y o f i n e f f i c i e n t i t e m s . A l l s u b j e c t s t o o k c o f f e e a n d l u n c h b r e a k s i n t h e i r w o r k a r e a s a n d t h u s h a d l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s p l a y i n d e p e n d e n c e i n t h i s a r e a . I n a d d i t i o n , m a n y s u b j e c t s w e r e n o t i n f o r m e d o f a p p o i n t m e n t s u n t i l t h e y w e r e r e q u i r e d f o r o n e . F r o m t h e R C L t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s a p p e a r t o b e a f f e c t e d b y i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e g u l a t i o n s o r o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s t r i c t i o n s : t h o s e f r o m t h e s u b t e s t s R o o m M a n a g e m e n t , T i m e M a n a g e m e n t , H e a l t h ( i t e m s r e g a r d i n g t h e h a n d l i n g 1 7 7 o f m e d i c a t i o n s ) , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , B u d g e t i n g , a n d C o o k i n g a n d H o m e M a n a g e -m e n t . T h e s e s u b t e s t s m e a s u r e t h e a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m t a s k s t h a t a r e c a r r i e d o u t b y t h e s t a f f ( H e a l t h a n d B u d g e t i n g ) o r a p r o g r a m g r o u p ( R o o m M a n a g e m e n t a n d C o o k i n g a n d H o m e M a n a g e m e n t ) , o r w h i c h r e s i d e n t s h a v e n o o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c q u i r e o r d i s p l a y i n t h e r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t o f B e v a n L o d g e ( T r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d T i m e M a n a g e m e n t ) . S e v e r a l i t e m s f r o m t h e A B S P a r t I a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e t h i r d c a t e g o r y o f i n e f f i c i e n t i t e m s . A t l e a s t o n e i t e m P e r s e v e r a n c e f r o m t h e s u b t e s t S e l f -D i r e c t i o n i s a m b i g u o u s b e c a u s e i t d o e s n o t s p e c i f y t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e b e h a v i o r s a r e t o b e o b s e r v e d . T h e i t e m I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h O t h e r s f r o m t h e s u b t e s t S o c i a l i z a t i o n s e e m s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n s i n c e i t i s c o u c h e d i n t e r m s o f c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r . T h e r e m a i n i n g n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s f r o m t h e s e s u b t e s t s a n d f r o m t h e s u b t e s t R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a p p e a r a m -b i g u o u s b e c a u s e t h e y s e e m t o b e m e a s u r i n g b e h a v i o r s t h a t a r e m o r e d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s i n a n o b j e c t i v e w a y t h a n t h e s k i l l - o r i e n t e d i t e m s o f o t h e r s u b t e s t s . T h e y a l s o m e a s u r e b e h a v i o r s t h a t s u b j e c t s m a y d i s p l a y i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f o n e r a t e r b u t n o t a n o t h e r , a n d i n s o m e s i t u a t i o n s b u t n o t o t h e r s . F r o m t h e V C L , t h e n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s f r o m t h e s u b t e s t s T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n , F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s , S e l f - E x p r e s s i o n , a n d R e l a t i o n s w i t h C o -w o r k e r s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e t h i r d c a t e g o r y o f i n e f f i c i e n t i t e m s . T h e a m b i g u i t i e s i n t h e s e i t e m s m a y r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n b e h a v i o r s t h a t r a t e r s a t t e n d t o a s w e l l a s d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e b e h a v i o r s d i s p l a y e d i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f d i f f e r e n t r a t e r s . F i n a l l y , t h e n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s f r o m t h e s u b t e s t s C l e a n l i n e s s , A p p e a r a n c e a n d E a t i n g , H e a l t h ( t h o s e m e a s u r i n g t h e e x t e n t o f s e x e d u c a t i o n ) , 1 7 8 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( t h o s e r e f e r r i n g t o b e h a v i o r r a t h e r t h a n a b i l i t y t o u s e p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t ) , L e i s u r e , C o m m u n i c a t i o n , C o n s i d e r a t i o n , G e t t i n g F r i e n d s , K e e p i n g F r i e n d s , a n d H a n d l i n g P r o b l e m s f r o m t h e R C L a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e t h i r d c a t e g o r y . A l t h o u g h m a n y o f t h e s e i t e m s a r e s k i l l - o r i e n t e d , t h e y d o n o t l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o e a s y a s s e s s m e n t . T h i s i s p a r t l y d u e t o t h e h i g h o r d e r o f s p e c i f i c i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d a s w e l l a s v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e g u l a r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n . I n s u m m a r y , t h e A B S P a r t I c o n t a i n s a n u m b e r o f b e h a v i o r a l d o m a i n s t h a t m e a s u r e m i n i m a l s k i l l s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e a r e n o t u s e f u l i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h i s s a m p l e , t h e y h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o b e i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n s i n t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e m o r e s e v e r e l y h a n d i c a p p e d ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 6 9 ) . T h e A F I , h o w e v e r , c o n t a i n s m a n y d o m a i n s t h a t a r e u s e f u l f o r d i s -c r i m i n a t i n g a m o n g i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h h i g h e r l e v e l s o f f u n c t i o n i n g . S u b t e s t s s u c h a s B u d g e t i n g a n d T i m e M a n a g e m e n t a r e d i f f i c u l t f o r t h i s s a m p l e , b u t t h e y a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s i n m o r e i n d e p e n d e n t s i t u a t i o n s ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 6 9 ) S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n T e s t . S e v e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e i t e m s i n t h i s t e s t d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h i s s a m p l e . T h e m a j o r i t y o f n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s f r o m t h i s t e s t a p p e a r t o b e t o o e a s y o r t o o d i f f i c u l t f o r t h i s s a m p l e . T h e s e i n c l u d e t h e i t e m s f r o m t h e s u b t e s t s R e a d i n g , N u m b e r s , T i m e , M o n e y , a n d C o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h e n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s f r o m t h e s u b t e s t C o m m u n i t y A w a r e n e s s a p p e a r t o m e a s u r e k n o w l e d g e t h a t s u b j e c t s i n a r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n -m e n t w o u l d h a v e l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c q u i r e . 1 7 9 V e r y f e w i t e m s f r o m t h e s u b t e s t M o t o r M o v e m e n t s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h i s s a m p l e . S o m e a r e v e r y e a s y w h e r e a s o t h e r s a r e v e r y d i f f i -c u l t f o r t h i s s a m p l e . T h i s i s p a r t l y d u e t o t h e r e s t r i c t i o n i n r a n g e o f a b i l i t i e s d i s p l a y e d b y t h e s u b j e c t s a s w e l l a s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a b i l i t i e s m e a s u r e d . A l t h o u g h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d b y t h i s s u b t e s t i s i m p o r t a n t i t m a y b e b e s t r e g a r d e d a s s u p p l e m e n t a r y . T h e s u b t e s t C o n c e p t A t t a i n m e n t a p p e a r s t o b e v e r y u s e f u l f o r a s s e s s i n g b a s i c c o n c e p t s e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h o s e s u b j e c t s w h o a r e u n a b l e t o c o m p l e t e a n y i t e m s f r o m t h e a c a d e m i c s u b t e s t s . T h e D i s c r i m i n a t i o n a n d D i r e c t i o n a l C o n c e p t s e c t i o n s a p p e a r t o b e v e r y u s e f u l . H o w e v e r , p e r f o r m a n c e o n t h e t a s k o f s o r t i n g s c r e w s i s d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t . T h e d i m e n s i o n s o f c o l o r , l e n g t h , a n d s h a p e a r e c o n f o u n d e d i n t h e t e s t m a t e r i a l s . I n a d d i t i o n , m a n y s u b j e c t s a p p e a r e d t o h a v e d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n " P u t t h e s c r e w s t h a t a r e t h e s a m e t o g e t h e r " . T h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e u n a b l e t o s o r t a n y o f t h e s c r e w s c o r r e c t l y . H o w e v e r , a f t e r t h e f i r s t d e m o n s t r a t i o n i n t h e t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n , t h e y w e r e a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e t a s k w i t h o u t e r r o r . S i m i l a r l y , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e f i r s t A m o u n t C o n c e p t i t e m a p p e a r e d t o c o n f u s e m a n y e x a m i n e e s . T h i s m a y a c c o u n t f o r t h e a m b i g u i t y i n t h i s i t e m . F i n a l l y , t h e l a s t C o n s e r v a t i o n i t e m m a y b e n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g b e c a u s e o f t h e t e n d e n c y t o s e l e c t t h e l a s t o p t i o n a s t h e c o r r e c t o n e . I n t h i s c a s e t h e l a s t o n e i s c o r r e c t . M e a s u r e s o f M a l a d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r . F o r t h e A B S P a r t I I , f i f t y - n i n e a n d f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f a n a l y s i s s a m p l e s o n e a n d t w o r e s p e c t i v e l y . F o r m o s t o f t h e n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s w e r e r a t e d a s n o t d i s p l a y i n g t h e s e b e h a v i o r s . F o r 1 8 0 t h e f e w s u b j e c t s r a t e d a s d i s p l a y i n g t h e s e p r o b l e m s , l o w s c o r e s w e r e a s s i g n e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f o c c a s i o n a l l y a n d f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g b e h a v i o r s m a y n o t b e m e a n i n g f u l . T h e n u m e r i c a l e s t i m a t e s p r o v i d e d f o r t h e s e t w o c l a s s e s o f b e h a v i o r o v e r l a p p e d f o r m o r e t h a n o n e h a l f o f t h e i t e m s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e r s u s e d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a i n a s s i g n i n g b e h a v i o r s t o t h e o c c a s i o n a l a n d f r e q u e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f o c c u r r e n c e . F o r t h e D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t s o f t h e V C L , f o r t y - f i v e a n d s i x t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e i t e m s a p p e a r t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d a n a l y s i s s a m p l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p ( d i f f i c u l t y ) v a l u e s f o r t h e n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s i n d i c a t e s t h a t v e r y f e w s u b j e c t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o d i s p l a y t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s t o a s e v e r e e x t e n t . T h i s d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y m e a n t h a t s u b j e c t s h a v e m a s t e r e d t h e s k i l l b e h a v i o r s i n t h e s e d o m a i n s . It i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y d i s p l a y o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s n o t a s s e s s e d b y t h e s e t e s t s . F o r e x a m p l e , a n i n d i v i d u a l m a y n o t b e a b l e t o w o r k a b o v e 8 0 % i n d u s t r i a l s t a n d a r d ( S p e e d s u b t e s t ) b u t h i s c o o r d i n a t i o n m a y b e a d e q u a t e , h e m a y b e s t r o n g e n o u g h , h e m a y b e q u i t e a b l e t o w o r k w i t h s m a l l o b j e c t s a n d h e m a y h a v e w o r k r h y t h m , i n t e r m s o f a g o o d s e q u e n c e f o r c o m p l e t i n g a t a s k ( D i f f i c u l t i e s ) . H i s d i f f i c u l t y m a y b e a t e n d e n c y t o r e p e a t a q u a l i t y c o n t r o l s t e p a t t h e e n d o f a t a s k . I t i s a l s o c o n c e i v a b l e f o r a p e r s o n t o h a v e m a s t e r e d t h e s k i l l b e h a v i o r s a n d y e t d i s p l a y d i f f i c u l t i e s . F o r e x a m p l e , h e m a y h a v e m a s t e r e d t h e g o a l s c i t e d i n t h e s u b t e s t I n d e p e n d e n c e , a n d s t i l l t e n d t o s t o p w o r k e v e r y h o u r w h e n h e i s t i r e d . 1 8 1 V a l i d i t y T h e r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e m u l t i - t r a i t m u l t i - m e t h o d f r a m e w o r k i n d i c a t e s u p p o r t f o r t h e c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y o f s i x t e e n t r a i t s . H o w e v e r , e v i d e n c e f o r d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y e m e r g e d f o r o n l y s e v e n o f t h e s e . A l t h o u g h t h e s e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t a p r e d o m i n a n c e o f m e t h o d v a r i a n c e , t h i s c o n c l u s i o n m u s t b e v i e w e d c a u t i o u s l y a n d a s s e s s e d w i t h i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r a i n t s . F i r s t , t h e t r a i t s w i t h i n e a c h m a t r i x a r e c o r r e l a t e d . A s a r e s u l t s , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g d i f f e r e n t t r a i t s m e a s u r e d b y d i f f e r e n t t e s t s a r e e l e v a t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e a t t e n u a t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e l o w i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e r a t i n g s c a l e s . T h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e t w o f a c t o r s e x a g g e r a t e s t h e e f f e c t o f m e t h o d v a r i a n c e . A t h i r d c o n -s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e a p p a r e n t r e s t r i c t i o n i n r a n g e f o r m i n i m a l s k i l l s . S i n c e t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n d o e s n o t o c c u r f o r a l l t r a i t s , n o r f o r m i n i m a l s k i l l s a s m e a s u r e d b y a l l t e s t s , t h e r e s u l t s c a n n o t b e i n t e r p r e t e d c o n f i d e n t l y . T h e f o u r t h c o n s t r a i n t i s t h a t t h e t w o m e t h o d s o f a s s e s s i n g t h e S e l f - H e l p s k i l l s a n d V o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s a r e c o r r e l a t e d s i n c e t h e s a m e r a t e r s w e r e i n v o l v e d . T h u s t h e r e s u l t s r e f l e c t t h i s d e p e n d e n c e i n m e t h o d . F i n a l l y , t h e r e m a y b e i n c o m p l e t e m a t c h i n g o f t r a i t s a s m e a s u r e d b y b o t h t e s t s . T h i s i s o f p a r t i -c u l a r c o n c e r n f o r t h e V o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s m a t r i x s i n c e m a n y i t e m s f r o m t h e A B S w e r e n o t s p e c i f i c w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e w o r k c o n t e x t a l t h o u g h t h e y m e a s u r e d r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r s . S o m e e v i d e n c e w a s p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e p r a c t i c a l v a l i d i t y o f f i v e d o m a i n s o f t h e A B S P a r t I I ; V i o l e n t a n d D e s t r u c t i v e B e h a v i o r , A n t i s o c i a l B e h a v i o r , R e b e l l i o u s B e h a v i o r , U n t r u s t w o r t h y B e h a v i o r , a n d P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i s t u r b a n c e s . 182 T h e s e d o m a i n s w e r e t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t l y u s e d b y r a t e r s i n t h e i r a s s e s s m e n t s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s . I n a d d i t i o n , a p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f a l l r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r w e r e c a t e g o r i z e d i n t h e s e d o m a i n s . T h e s e t y p e s o f b e h a v i o r m a y o c c u r i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e y w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y o c c u r i n a m o r e n o r m a l s i t u a t i o n . T h u s t h i s d i m e n s i o n o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r m a y n o t b e a n a p p r o p r i a t e o n e f o r d i a g n o s i s a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . T h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r s d o o c c u r i s e v i d e n t . H o w e v e r , a m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e a p p r o a c h t o t h e i r a s s e s s m e n t m i g h t b e o n e b a s e d o n o p e r a n t t e c h n i q u e s w h e r e a n t e c e d e n t e v e n t s a s w e l l a s c o n t i n g e n c i e s o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t a r e i d e n t i f i e d . A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r a n d M e a s u r e d I n t e l l i g e n c e T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r a n d m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e w a s a l s o e x a m i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f S E T s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s w i t h R S B M e n t a l A g e a r e t h e m o s t s t r i k i n g . T h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e o n e s r e p o r t e d b y o t h e r s t u d i e s . T h i s m a y b e d u e t o a r e s t r i c t i o n i n t h e r a n g e o f a b i l i t i e s d i s p l a y e d b y s u b j e c t s i n t h o s e s t u d i e s . O t h e r a s p e c t s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r a s m e a s u r e d b y b o t h s c a l e s a l s o s h o w s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h M e n t a l A g e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s m a y b e a t t e n u a t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e l o w ( i n t e r r a t e r ) r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e s c a l e s a s w e l l a s b y t h e r e s t r i c t i o n i n r a n g e t h a t o c c u r r e d f o r s o m e d o m a i n s . I n g e n e r a l , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t b o t h t h e m e a s u r e s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r e x a m i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s m e a s u r e t h e s a m e a b i l i t i e s . 1 8 3 A l t h o u g h a s s e s s m e n t i s p r e s u m a b l y m o r e r e l i a b l e f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d b y t h e m i s n o t u s e f u l f o r p r o g r a m m i n g p u r p o s e s . F r o m t h e p r a c t i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e n , i m p r o v e d m e a s u r e s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r a r e n e c e s s a r y . F r o m t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w , h o w e v e r , a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e a s m e a s u r e d b y I Q t e s t s d o n o t a p p e a r t o b e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e c o n s t r u c t s i n t h i s s a m p l e o f r e t a r d e d a d u l t s . P r o g r a m D e v e l o p m e n t I n t e r m s o f f o r m a t a n d c o n t e n t , t h e A B S a p p e a r s t o b e a m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e m e a s u r e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s ; w h e r e a s , t h e A F I i s m o r e s u i t a b l e f o r c o m m u n i t y b a s e d f a c i l i t i e s . F i r s t , t h e A B S i n -c l u d e s a l l s k i l l a r e a s i n o n e t e s t , m a k i n g a s s e s s m e n t b y o n e r a t e r p o s s i b l e . T h e A F I , h o w e v e r , i s d i v i d e d i n t o V o c a t i o n a l , R e s i d e n t i a l , a n d A c a d e m i c t e s t s , f o r s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e t h e s e p r o g r a m s a r e s e p a r a t e . S e c o n d l y , t h e A B S c o n t a i n s a n u m b e r o f s u b t e s t s m e a s u r i n g m i n i m a l s e l f - c a r e s k i l l s t h a t h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o b e i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n s i n t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f p r o f o u n d l y h a n d i c a p p e d i n d i v i d u a l s , w h o a r e u s u a l l y f o u n d i n l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . T h e A F I , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , h a s l a r g e s e c t i o n s d e v o t e d t o t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f b e h a v i o r s s u c h a s v o c a t i o n a l a b i l i t i e s a n d s k i l l s d e m o n s t r a t i n g c o m m u n i t y a w a r e n e s s t h a t a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h m i l d h a n d i -c a p s l i v i n g i n m o r e i n d e p e n d e n t s i t u a t i o n s . T h e A F I p r o v i d e s a m o r e r e l i a b l e a s s e s s m e n t o f p r a c t i c a l a c a d e m i c s k i l l s . T h e S E T c o n t a i n s m o r e i t e m s t h a n t h e e q u i v a l e n t d o m a i n s o f t h e A B S , A s s e s s m e n t u s i n g t h e S E T i s m o r e o b j e c t i v e w i t h s t a n d a r d s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d c r i t e r i a f o r s c o r i n g c o r r e c t a n d i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . 184 A l t h o u g h t h e a c a d e m i c s u b t e s t s o f t h e A B S ( e . g . E c o n o m i c A c t i v i t y , N u m b e r a n d T i m e C o n c e p t s ) a p p e a r t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s a m p l e , t h i s m a y b e t h e r e s u l t o f r a t e r b i a s r a t h e r t h a n v a l i d i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . T h e p r o f i l e o f S E T s c o r e s a l s o r e v e a l s a g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l ' s w e a k a n d s t r o n g a r e a s , a n d t h e r e f o r e s u g g e s t a p p r o p r i a t e a r e a s f o r p r o g r a m m i n g . H o w e v e r , i t d o e s n o t p r e c l u d e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a m o r e d e t a i l e d t a s k s e q u e n c e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a c a d e m i c a r e a ( e . g . R e a d i n g ) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r e s e n t l e v e l o f s u c c e s s i n t h a t a r e a . T h e A B S P a r t I p o s e s s e v e r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t f o r s e l f - h e l p , v o c a t i o n a l , a n d a c a d e m i c s k i l l s . F i r s t , t h e s u b t e s t s a r e o f d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s . A s a r e s u l t , t h e p r o f i l e r e v e a l s v e r y l i t t l e a b o u t t h e r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s o f a g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l . E v e n o n a n i t e m b a s i s d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e a p p a r e n t . A g i v e n i t e m m a y c o n t a i n s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s . A s c o r e , u n l e s s i t i s t h e h i g h e s t o r l o w e s t p o s s i b l e m a y r e p r e s e n t m a n y d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f a b i l i t i e s a n d / o r d i s a b i l i t i e s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o t h a t i t e m . I n a d d i t i o n i t e m s a r e o n d i f f e r e n t s c a l e s . T h u s p e r f o r m a n c e o n o n e i t e m c a n n o t a l w a y s b e d i r e c t l y c o m p a r e d t o p e r f o r m a n c e o n a n o t h e r . I n c o n t r a s t , a l l s u b t e s t s o f t h e S E T , t h e V C L , a n d t h e R C L c o n t a i n e q u a l n u m b e r s o f i t e m s . T h u s w i t h i n a g i v e n a r e a , a c a d e m i c , v o c a t i o n a l o r r e s i d e n t i a l , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e r e l a t i v e w e a k n e s s a n d s t r e n g t h o n t h e b a s i s o f s u b t e s t s c o r e s . W i t h i n a g i v e n t e s t , a l l i t e m s u s e t h e s a m e s c a l e . F o r t h e V C L a n d t h e R C L , o n e c a t e g o r y o f r e s p o n s e i s a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s w h o a r e l e a r n i n g a s k i l l o r b e h a v i o r b u t w h o h a v e n o t y e t m a s t e r e d i t , a c a t e g o r y n o t p r o v i d e d b y t h e A B S . 1 8 5 P r o g r a m m i n g f o r m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r s o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e A B S P a r t I I p o s e s s e v e r a l p r o b l e m s . T h e s u b t e s t s o f t h i s s c a l e a r e o f u n e q u a l l e n g t h ; a n d i t e m s u s e d i f f e r e n t s c a l e s . F o r e x a m p l e , i n d i v i d u a l s c a n o b t a i n s c o r e s o f 0 - 1 0 f o r t h e i t e m " i s w i t h d r a w n o r s h y " . F o r t h e i t e m " s e e m s t o f e e l p e r s e c u t e d " , s c o r e s r a n g e f r o m 0 - 1 4 . T h u s t h i s p i n p o i n t i n g o f t a r g e t b e h a v i o r s i s d i f f i c u l t . A l l b u t o n e o f t h e V C L D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t s a r e o f e q u a l l e n g t h . I n a d d i t i o n , a l l i t e m s u s e t h e s a m e s c a l e . H o w e v e r , t h e d o m a i n s c o n s i s t o f d i f f e r e n t n u m b e r s o f s u b t e s t s s o t h a t p r o f i l e s o f d o m a i n s c o r e s a r e n o t u s e f u l f o r d e t e r m i n i n g r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s . T h e s h o r t n e s s o f t h e s e t e s t s a l s o p r o h i b i t s a s s e s s m e n t o f a l l b u t t h e m o s t c o m m o n b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s d i s p l a y e d i n a v o c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . B o t h s c a l e s m e a s u r i n g m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r s , w h i l e p r o v i d i n g u s e f u l g u i d e l i n e s i n a s s e s s i n g t h e s e b e h a v i o r s , m a y b e m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y r e -p l a c e d b y o p e r a n t t e c h n i q u e s t h a t p e r m i t d e f i n i t i o n o f s p e c i f i c t a r g e t b e h a v i o r s a s w e l l a s t h e i r a n t e c e d e n t a n d r e i n f o r c i n g e v e n t s . I n s u m m a r y , t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d f o r m a t o f t h e s e s c a l e s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e A B S i s m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s , w h e r e a s t h e A F I i s u s e f u l f o r c o m m u n i t y b a s e d f a c i l i t i e s . S e v e r a l s h o r t -c o m i n g s o f t h e A B S w e r e d e s c r i b e d w h i c h d o n o t o c c u r i n t h e A F I r a t i n g s c a l e s . H o w e v e r , t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e A B S a n d t h e V C L a n d R C L i s l i m i t e d b y t h e i r l o w ( i n t e r r a t e r ) r e l i a b i l i t i e s . S t a n d a r d i z e d p r o c e d u r e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n a n d s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a f o r a s s e s s m e n t m a y i m p r o v e t h e q u a l i t y o f r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r t h e s e s c a l e s . 1 8 6 L i m i t a t i o n s T h e m a j o r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e s a m p l i n g . S i n c e s u b j e c t s a n d r a t e r s c o u l d n o t b e s a m p l e d r a n d o m l y , t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i s l i m i t e d . T h e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e n u m b e r o f r a t e r s t h a t w e r e r e q u i r e d b e c a u s e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f B e v a n L o d g e m e a n t t h a t t h e s a m p l e s f o r t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y a n a l y s e s w e r e v e r y s m a l l . C o m p a r i s o n o f i n d i v i d u a l r a t e r p a i r s a c r o s s t e s t s a n d o f r a t e r s f o r o n e t e s t w e r e n o t p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e o f c h a n g e s i n r a t e r s a n d t h e l a c k o f c o n t r o l f o r r a t e r v a r i a b l e s . I t w a s n o t p o s s i b l e , w i t h i n t h e s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y , t o a s s e s s t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e r a t i n g s c a l e s , n o r m s f o r d i f f e r e n t t r a i t s , o r t h e p r e -d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e t e s t s . 1 8 7 S u m m a r y I n t e r m s o f t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s w e r e o b t a i n e d . 1 . R e l i a b i l i t y A . I n t e r n a l C o n s i s t e n c y . E s t i m a t e s o f t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f o f t h e A B S a n d t h e A F I w e r e s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h a n d c o m p a r a b l e t o t h o s e o f s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s s u c h a s t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t . B . S t a b i l i t y . T h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e S E T w a s a l s o a d e q u a t e a l t h o u g h t h e s u b t e s t M o t o r M o v e m e n t s a p p e a r s t o m e a s u r e l e s s s t a b l e t r a i t s t h a n t h e o t h e r s u b t e s t s . C . I n t e r r a t e r R e l i a b i l i t y . T h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e g r e a t v a r i a t i o n a m o n g r a t e r p a i r s a n d a c r o s s r a t e r s i n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y a g r e e i n t h e i r j u d g m e n t s . S o m e o f t h e s e o b s e r v e d i n -c o n s i s t e n c i e s a p p e a r t o b e t h e r e s u l t o f r a t e r b i a s ( p e r s o n s -b y - j u d g e s i n t e r a c t i o n ) . T h e p r e s e n c e o f t h i s b i a s i s p r o b a b l y d u e t o a m b i g u i t i e s i n t h e s c a l e s a s w e l l a s d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o r a t e r s f o r o b s e r v i n g p a r t i c u l a r b e -h a v i o r s . T h e p r o b l e m o f i m p r o v i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f r a t i n g s a p p e a r s t o d e p e n d o n t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f a m b i g u i t i e s f r o m t h e s c a l e s t h e m s e l v e s a n d o n s y s t e m a t i c t r a i n i n g a n d m o n i t o r i n g o f r a t e r s . 2 . D i s c r i m i n a t i o n A l t h o u g h m a n y i t e m s f r o m t h e A B S a n d t h e A F I w e r e f o u n d t o b e u s e f u l i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h i s s a m p l e , 1 8 8 b o t h t e s t s c o n t a i n e d a m b i g u o u s i t e m s t h a t r e q u i r e i m p r o v e m e n t a s w e l l a s i t e m s t h a t a r e t o o e a s y o r t o o d i f f i c u l t f o r t h i s s a m p l e . A f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e A B S w o u l d b e m o r e u s e f u l w i t h s e v e r e l y h a n d i c a p p e d i n d i v i d u a l s , w h e r e a s t h e A F I s e e m s m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i n -d i v i d u a l s f u n c t i o n i n g a t a h i g h e r l e v e l a n d i n m o r e i n d e p e n d e n t s i t u a t i o n s . V a l i d i t y E v i d e n c e f o r t h e c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y o f s i x t e e n o f t h e n i n e t e e n t r a i t s w a s p r o v i d e d . H o w e v e r , e v i d e n c e o f d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y e m e r g e d f o r o n l y s e v e n o f t h e s e . T h e p r a c t i c a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e A B S P a r t I I w a s a l s o a s s e s s e d . T h e e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t s t h e v a l i d i t y o f e a c h o f f i v e d o m a i n s e x a m i n e d . A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r a n d M e a s u r e d I n t e l l i g e n c e M a n y a s p e c t s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e A B S a n d t h e A F I w e r e f o u n d t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h R S B M e n t a l A g e , T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e S E T a n d m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e w a s m o s t s t r i k i n g . A d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r s c a l e s a r e n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y p r o v i d e f o r p r o g r a m m i n g . H o w e v e r t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r i s d i s t i n c t f r o m i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g w a s n o t s u p p o r t e d b y t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y . 1 8 9 5. Usefulness for Program Development The ABS appears to be appropriate for program development in institutional settings, whereas the AFI is useful for community based facilities. Several shortcomings of the ABS were des-cribed which do not occur in the AFI rating scales. However, the usefulness of the ABS, the VCL, and the RCL is limited by their low interrater reliabilities. 190 R e f e r e n c e s A d a m s , J . A d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r a n d m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y , 1973, 78 (1), 77-81. B a l t h a z a r , E . E . a n d G . E . E n g l i s h . A s y s t e m f o r t h e s o c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e m o r e s e v e r e l y m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y , 1969, 74 (3), 361-366. B e e r m a n , L . , B e l l a m y , T . , D i R o c c o , P . , F r i e d l a n d , M . , F o s s , G . , a n d E . S t e i n b o c k . C i v i l r i g h t s o f t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . W o r k i n g p a p e r N o . 69, E u g e n e : U n i v e r s i t y o f O r e g o n , R e h a b i l i t a t i o n R e s e a r c h a n d T r a i n i n g C e n t r e i n M e n t a l R e t a r d a t i o n , M a y 1973. B e n t o n , A . P s y c h o l o g i c a l e v a l u a t i o n a n d d i f f e r e n t i a l d i a g n o s i s i n m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n . I n M e n t a l R e t a r d a t i o n , S t e v e n s , H . a n d R . H e b e r ( e d . ) . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1964. C a m p b e l l , D . T . a n d D . W . F i s k e . C o n v e r g e n t a n d d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d a t i o n b y m u l t i t r a i t - m u l t i m e t h o d m a t r i x . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1959, 5j6 (2), 81-105. C o r n f i e l d , J . a n d J . T u k e y . A v e r a g e v a l u e s o f m e a n s q u a r e s i n f a c t o r i a l s . A n n a l s o f M a t h e m a t i c a l S t a t i s t i c s , 1956, 27, 907-949. C r o n b a c h , L . J . , R a j a r a t n a m , N . a n d G . C . G l e s e r . T h e o r y o f g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y : A l i b e r a l i z a t i o n o f r e l i a b i l i t y t h e o r y . T h e B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f S t a t i s t i c a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1963, 16 (2), 137-162. C r o n b a c h , L . J . , S c h b n e m a n n , P . a n d D . M c K i e . A l p h a c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r s t r a t i f i e d p a r a l l e l t e s t s . E d u c a t i o n a l a n d P s y c h o l o g i c a l M e a s u r e m e n t , 1965, 25 (2), 291-312. C r o n b a c h , L . J . , G l e s e r , G . C , N a n d a , H . , a n d N . R a j a r a t n a m . T h e D e p e n d - a b i l i t y o f B e h a v i o r a l M e a s u r e m e n t s : T h e o r y o f G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y f o r S c o r e s  a n d P r o f i l e s . N e w Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , I n c . , 1972. G a r d n e r , J . M . a n d F . L . G i a m p a . U t i l i t y o f t h r e e b e h a v i o r a l i n d i c e s f o r s t u d y i n g s e v e r e l y a n d p r o f o u n d l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l  o f M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y , 1971, 76 (3), 352-356. G l e s e r , G . C . , C r o n b a c h , L . J . a n d N . R a j a r a t n a m . G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f s c o r e s i n f l u e n c e d b y m u l t i p l e s o u r c e s o f v a r i a n c e . P s y c h o m e t r i k a , 1965, 30 (4), 395-418. 1 9 1 G r o s s m a n , H . J . M a n u a l o n T e r m i n o l o g y a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n M e n t a l R e t a r d a t i o n . A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o n M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y , S p e c i a l P u b l i c a t i o n S e r i e s # 2 , 1 9 7 3 ( r e v i s e d ) . H e b e r , R . A M a n u a l o n T e r m i n o l o g y a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n M e n t a l R e t a r d a t i o n . ( M o n o g r a p h S u p p l e m e n t ) , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y , 1 9 5 9 . H e b e r , R . A M a n u a l o n T e r m i n o l o g y a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n M e n t a l R e t a r d a t i o n . ( M o n o g r a p h S u p p l e m e n t ) , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y , 1 9 6 1 ( 2 n d e d i t i o n ) . H i m m e l s t e i n , P . U s e o f t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t , f o r m L M , w i t h r e t a r d a t e s : A r e v i e w o f r e c e n t r e s e a r c h . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y , 1 9 6 8 , 7 2 ( 2 ) , 6 9 - 7 6 . H u r s t , J . G . T h e m e a n i n g a n d u s e o f d i f f e r e n t s c o r e s o b t a i n e d b e t w e e n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o n t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e a n d t h e V i n e l a n d S o c i a l M a t u r i t y S c a l e . J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 2 , 1 8 , 1 5 3 - 1 6 0 . L e l a n d , H . , S h e l h a a s , M . , N e h e r a , K . , a n d R . F o s t e r . A d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r : A n e w d i m e n s i o n i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . M e n t a l  R e t a r d a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 1 9 6 7 , 4 ( 3 ) , 3 5 9 - 3 8 7 . L e l a n d , H . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d " m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y , 1 9 6 9 , 7 3 ( 1 ) , 5 3 3 - 5 3 6 . M a r l e t t , N . J . A d a p t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g I n d e x . C a l g a r y : V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n a n d R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 7 3 . M a r l e t t , N . J . A d a p t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g I n d e x : M a n u a l # 2 , T r a i n i n g . C a l g a r y : V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n a n d R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 7 4 . N u n n a l l y , J . C . P s y c h o m e t r i c T h e o r y . N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w H i l l B o o k C o . , 1 9 6 7 . R a j a r a t n a m , N . , C r o n b a c h , L . J . a n d G . C . G l e s e r . G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f s t r a t i f i e d p a r a l l e l t e s t s . P s y c h o m e t r i k a , 1 9 6 5 , 3 0 ( 1 ) , 3 9 - 5 6 . R o b i n s o n , H . M . a n d N . M . R o b i n s o n . T h e M e n t a l l y R e t a r d e d C h i l d . N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w H i l l B o o k C o . , 1 9 6 5 . T e r m a n , L . M . a n d M . A . M e r r e l l . S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e . B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C o . , 1 9 6 0 . W o l f e n s b e r g e r , W . T h e P r i n c i p l e o f N o r m a l i z a t i o n i n H u m a n S e r v i c e s . T o r o n t o : N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o n M e n t a l R e t a r d a t i o n t h r o u g h L e o n a r d C r a i n f o r d , 1 9 7 2 . 192 A p p e n d i x A 1 9 3 A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r i s a t e r m t h a t r e f e r s t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n c o p i n g w i t h t h e n a t u r a l a n d s o c i a l d e m a n d s o f h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . S i n c e 1 9 5 9 , t h e A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o n M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y h a s r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t A d a p t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g b e i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e a s a m a j o r d i m e n s i o n i n i d e n t i f y i n g a n d c l a s s i f y i n g t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . T h e p u r p o s e o f m y s t u d y i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t w o n e w m e a s u r e s o f A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r : T h e A A M D A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e s a n d t h e V R R I A d a p t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g I n d e x . T h e A A M D A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e c o n s i s t s o f t w o p a r t s . T h e f i r s t i s d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s k i l l s a n d h a b i t s i n t e n b e h a v i o r d o m a i n s c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f p e r s o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e i n d a i l y l i v i n g . T h e s e c o n d p a r t i s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e m e a s u r e s o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r r e l a t e d t o p e r s o n a l i t y a n d b e h a v i o r d i s o r d e r s . T h e V R R I A d a p t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g I n d e x c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e p a r t s . T h e f i r s t , T h e S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n T e s t i s a t e s t o f p r a c t i c a l a c a d e m i c s k i l l s a n d r e l a t e d c o n c e p t d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d p a r t s a r e b e h a v i o r c h e c k l i s t s d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s v o c a t i o n a l p e r f o r m a n c e a n d r e s i d e n t i a l l i v i n g s k i l l s . I w i l l n e e d y o u r a s s i s t a n c e t o c o m p l e t e t h i s s t u d y . Y o u w i l l b e a s k e d t o r a t e s e l e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m y o u r g r o u p o n t h e A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e a n d o n t h e t w o b e h a v i o r c h e c k l i s t s o f t h e A d a p t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g I n d e x . I h o p e t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l n o t o n l y p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s c a l e s , b u t w i l l a l s o h e l p y o u f o c u s o n t h e n e e d s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n y o u r g r o u p . 1 9 4 T O : F R O M : S . M o n g r a i n R e : A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e s P r a c t i c e :  R e s i d e n t s t o b e a s s e s s e d : I n s t r u c t i o n s 1. P l e a s e c o m p l e t e t h e p r a c t i c e a s s e s s m e n t a n d r e t u r n i t t o m e b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g t h e o t h e r a s s e s s m e n t s . * 2. O n t h e a n s w e r s h e e t c o v e r , p l e a s e c o m p l e t e t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s : a ) N a m e o f t h e P e r s o n b e i n g r a t e d b ) S e x o f t h e P e r s o n b e i n g r a t e d c ) R a t e r ' s n a m e d ) D a t e o f A . B . A s s e s s m e n t e ) H o w l o n g h a v e y o u k n o w n t h i s p e r s o n ? 3 . T h e r e a r e t h r e e t y p e s o f i t e m s : a ) F o r t h e f i r s t t y p e , s e l e c t t h e o n e s t a t e m e n t t h a t a p p l i e s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l y o u a r e r a t i n g . T h e n u m b e r o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t i s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s c o r e o n t h a t i t e m . b ) F o r t h i s s e c o n d t y p e o f i t e m , i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r o r n o t a b e h a v i o r o c c u r s . S e l e c t a l l s t a t e m e n t s t h a t a p p l y t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . S p a c e i s p r o v i d e d f o r a d d i t i o n a l e x a m p l e s i n t h e " O t h e r " c a t e g o r y . T h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s c o r e i s e q u a l t o t h e n u m b e r o f s t a t e m e n t s s e l e c t e d , e . g . , I f a , c , a n d f , a r e s e l e c t e d , t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s c o r e o n t h a t i t e m i s 3 . E n t e r t h i s o n t h e l i n e i n t h e u p p e r r i g h t c o r n e r o f e a c h i t e m . c ) T h i s t y p e o f i t e m i s s i m i l a r t o t h e s e c o n d t y p e , e x c e p t t h a t y o u m u s t a l s o e s t i m a t e t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e b e h a v i o r . C h e c k " O c c a s i o n a l l y " f o r b e h a v i o r s t h a t o c c u r o n c e i n a w h i l e o r n o w 1 9 5 a n d t h e n . C h e c k " F r e q u e n t l y " f o r b e h a v i o r s t h a t o c c u r q u i t e o f t e n o r h a b i t u a l l y . G i v e 1 p o i n t f o r e a c h " o c c a s i o n a l l y " . G i v e 2 p o i n t s f o r e a c h " f r e q u e n t l y " . * I n a d d i t i o n , p l e a s e e s t i m a t e t h e f r e q u e n c y o f e a c h s t a t e m e n t y o u s e l e c t n u m e r i c a l l y , e . g . 1 / w k ; 2 / d a ; 5 / m o e t c . e n t e r t h e s e e s t i m a t e s i n t h e m a r g i n n e x t t o e a c h s t a t e m e n t y o u s e l e c t . 4 . I f y o u a r e n o t s u r e h o w t o r a t e a n i n d i v i d u a l o n a p a r t i c u l a r i t e m , t r y t o o b s e r v e t h a t p e r s o n i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s i t u a t i o n . 5 . I f y o u a r e n o t s u r e h o w t o r a t e a n i n d i v i d u a l o n a p a r t i c u l a r i t e m a n d i f y o u d o n o t h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e t h a t b e h a v i o r , b u t a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t i f g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y h e / s h e c o u l d p e r f o r m i f a n s w e r t h a t h e / s h e c a n p e r f o r m t h e a c t . * 6 . D O N O T L E A V E B L A N K S * 7 . D o n o t c o n s u l t w i t h a n y o t h e r s t a f f m e m b e r w h e n y o u a r e c o m p l e t i n g y o u r a s s e s s m e n t s . T h e s e m u s t b e d o n e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o r t h e r e s u l t s w i l l n o t b e v a l i d . S p e c i a l I n s t r u c t i o n s P a r t I I t e m 8 I f ( f ) i s c i r c l e s , g i v e 7 p o i n t s f o r I t e m 8 . I t e m 1 1 C i r c l e ( 5 ) i n c a s e o f m a l e . I t e m 3 0 I f z e r o i s c i r c l e s i n I t e m 2 9 , g i v e 5 p o i n t s f o r I t e m 3 0 I t e m 3 4 I f " Y E S " i s c h e c k e d , g i v e 6 p o i n t s f o r t h i s i t e m . I t e m 3 5 I f I t e m 3 4 i s " N O " c i r c l e z e r o i n I t e m 3 5 . I t e m 3 6 I f I t e m 3 4 i s " N O " c i r c l e z e r o f o r I t e m 3 6 I t e m 37 I f I t e m 3 4 i s " N O " c i r c l e z e r o f o r I t e m 3 7 . I t e m 5 2 I f z e r o i s c i r c l e d i n I t e m 5 1 g i v e 5 p o i n t s f o r I t e m 5 2 . I t e m 5 3 I f z e r o i s c i r c l e d i n I t e m 5 1 g i v e 6 p o i n t s f o r I t e m 5 3 . T H A N K Y O U V E R Y M U C H F O R Y O U R C O O P E R A T I O N ! I n s t r u c t i o n s m a r k e d w i t h * a r e s p e c i f i c t o t h i s s t u d y . 1 9 6 T O : F R O M : S . M o n g r a i n R e : A d a p t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g I n d e x V o c a t i o n a l R e s i d e n t i a l R e s i d e n t s t o b e a s s e s s e d : I n s t r u c t i o n s 1 . P l e a s e c o m p l e t e t h e p r a c t i c e a s s e s s m e n t a n d r e t u r n i t t o m e b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g t h e o t h e r a s s e s s m e n t s . 2 . P l e a s e d o n o t c o n s u l t w i t h a n y o t h e r s t a f f m e m b e r w h e n y o u a r e c o m -p l e t i n g y o u r a s s e s s m e n t s . T h e s e m u s t b e d o n e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o r t h e r e s u l t s w i l l n o t b e v a l i d . V o c a t i o n a l C h e c k L i s t 1 . O n t h e c o v e r p a g e o f t h i s c h e c k l i s t , p l e a s e w r i t e t h e r e s i d e n t ' s n a m e , y o u r n a m e ( s u p e r v i s o r ) , a n d o n t h e l i n e m a r k e d " F I L E " w r i t e t h e d a t e o f t h e a s s e s s m e n t . 2 . F o r t h e i t e m s o n p a g e s 2 , 3 , 4 , 6 , 7 , : a ) R e c o r d y o u r a s s e s s m e n t i n C o l u m n 1 . b ) D i f f i c u l t i e s : ( i n t h e b o x ) C h e c k ( • ) e a c h i t e m w h i c h d e s c r i b e s a p r o b l e m b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . I f t h e p r o b l e m i s s e v e r e , u s e t w o c h e c k s ( • > ) . T o t a l t h e n u m b e r o f c h e c k s f o r e a c h d i f f i c u l t y s e c t i o n a n d r e c o r d o n t h e l i n e m a r k e d d i f f i c u l t y . c ) G o a l B e h a v i o r s : ( i n o r d e r o f i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y ) R e a d e a c h s t a t e m e n t a n d a s s i g n a m a r k a s f o l l o w s : 0 - i f t h e r e s i d e n t d o e s n o t s h o w o r h a s n o t h a d t h e c h a n c e t o s h o w t h e b e h a v i o r . 1 i f t h e r e s i d e n t ' i s m a k i n g a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t b u t h a s n o t q u i t e m a s t e r e d t h e b e h a v i o r . 1 9 7 2 - i f t h e r e s i d e n t h a s m a s t e r e d t h e s k i l l o r b e h a v i o r a n d d o e s i t o n h i s o w n . d ) R e c o r d t h e t o t a l s f o r e a c h s e c t i o n i n t h e b o x a t t h e e n d o f c o l u m n 1 . 3 . F o r t h e T a s k A n a l y s i s S h e e t , p a g e 5 , t h e r e g u l a r t a s k s t h e r e s i d e n t p e r f o r m s a r e l i s t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s k i l l l e v e l . R a t e t h e r e s i d e n t ' s c o m p e t e n c e i n e a c h o f t h e s e t a s k s u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g n u m b e r r a t i n g s : 1 - W o r k n e e d s t o b e c h e c k e d s e v e r a l t i m e s a d a y . 2 - W o r k o . k . i f c h e c k e d o n c e a d a y . 3 - G o o d b u t n e e d s c h e c k i n g 1 - 2 t i m e s p e r w e e k . 4 - Q u a l i t y g o o d a n d s t a y s g o o d . * D O N O T C O M P U T E t h e C X S t o t a l a s t h i s i s u n n e c e s s a r y . * 4 . D o n o t c o m p l e t e t h e s c o r i n g s h e e t o n t h e c o v e r p a g e . R e s i d e n t i a l C h e c k L i s t 1 . O n t h e c o v e r p a g e o f t h i s c h e c k l i s t , p l e a s e w r i t e t h e r e s i d e n t ' s n a m e , y o u r n a m e ( s u p e r v i s o r ) , a n d o n t h e l i n e m a r k e d l o c a t i o n w r i t e t h e d a t e o f t h e a s s e s s m e n t . 2 . R e a d e a c h s t a t e m e n t ( m a n y s t a t e m e n t s a r e f o l l o w e d b y e x a m p l e s ) a n d a s s i g n m a r k s a s f o l l o w s i n C o l u m n 1 : 0 - i f t h e r e s i d e n t d o e s n o t s h o w o r d o e s n o t h a v e t h e c h a n c e t o s h o w t h e b e h a v i o r . 1 - i f t h e r e s i d e n t i s m a k i n g a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t b u t h a s n o t q u i t e m a s t e r e d t h e b e h a v i o r , o r r e q u i r e s a s s i s t a n c e o r p r o m p t i n g . 2 - i f t h e t r a i n e e h a s m a s t e r e d t h e s k i l l a n d d o e s i t o n h i s o w n . 3 . R e c o r d t h e t o t a l s f o r e a c h s e c t i o n i n t h e b o x a t t h e e n d o f c o l u m n 1 . * 4 . D o n o t c o m p l e t e t h e c o v e r p a g e s c o r i n g s h e e t . T H A N K Y O U ' * I n s t r u c t i o n s m a r k e d w i t h * a r e s p e c i f i c t o t h i s s t u d y . 1 9 8 I N F O R M A T I O N A B O U T R A T E R N A M E A G E S E X E D U C A T I O N ( c h e c k a p p r o p r i a t e c a t e g o r y ) G R A D U A T E S C H O O L F O U R Y E A R S C O L L E G E T W O Y E A R S C O L L E G E H I G H S C H O O L E L E M E N T A R Y L E V E L J O B C L A S S I F I C A T I O N L E N G T H O F T I M E W O R K I N G A T B E V A N L O D G E ( t o J u n e 1 , 1 9 7 4 ) O T H E R S P E C I A L T R A I N I N G ( p l e a s e s t i p u l a t e a b o v e : ) 1 9 9 S u p p l e m e n t a r y I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e S E T  S u b t e s t : W r i t i n g  A p p l i c a t i o n F o r m R e a d q u e s t i o n s i f n e c e s s a r y ; d o n o t e x p l a i n q u e s t i o n s . S u b t e s t : N u m b e r s , I t e m 8 D o n o t i n d i c a t e w i t h m o t i o n o f t h e h a n d c u t t i n g t h e l o n e i n h a l f . S u b t e s t : M o t o r M o v e m e n t s  I t e m s 7 - 9 D e m o n s t r a t e e x e r c i s e i f n e c e s s a r y . S u b t e s t : C o n c e p t A t t a i n m e n t  C o n s e r v a t i o n D o n o t c h a n g e w o r d i n g o f i t e m s t o " . . . A r e t h e r e m o r e , l e s s , o r t h e s a m e . . . " s i n c e t h i s c h a n g e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t a s k . I n g e n e r a l , r e a d a l l q u e s t i o n s a s t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r o t o c o l . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r M o n e y H a n d l i n g : I t e m 2 0 . 200 Supplementary Scoring Criteria for the SET Subtest: Reading  Oral Reading If the subject makes the same error more than once (e.g. Upton, Peru, floods), count as one error. Subtest: Writing Item 1: Please print the letters 's', 'b', 'd'. Upper or lower case letters are correct. Item 2: Please write your name here. Appropriate capitalization and spelling defines 'good form'. Application Form Date of Birth: day, month, and year . Marital Status: a) S or M b) single or married crossed out on form c) single or married written or printed in space Present Address a) Bevan Lodge b) 'Home' address c) must include 1. apartment number if applicable 2. street number 3 . street name 4 . city name 5 . province; if city is in B.C., province optional since mail would arrive without this specified. Whom to Notify: name, not position nor relationship to client Employer: a) name of person and/or company When did you leave your last job: correct within one year In general, for Application Form, if a score is an odd number of points round it up to the nearest even number. 2 0 1 S u b t e s t : N u m b e r s I t e m 3 : H o w m a n y b l o c k s a r e t h e r e ? a ) I f i n c o r r e c t o n b o t h t r i a l s s c o r e z e r o b ) I f i n c o r r e c t o n f i r s t t r i a l b u t c o r r e c t o n s e c o n d t r i a l , s c o r e o n e . c ) I f c o r r e c t o n f i r s t t r i a l s c o r e t w o . S u b t e s t : C o m m u n i t y A w a r e n e s s I t e m 5 : " T h e G r e e n S h e e t " , " T h e F r e e P r e s s " , " T h e V a n c o u v e r S u n " , " T h e P r o v i n c e " , o t h e r n e w s p a p e r s t h a t a r e c o n f i r m e d b y s t a f f . I t e m 9 : L i m i t e d t o p l a c e s o f i n t e r e s t o n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d o r L o w e r M a i n l a n d . I t e m 1 0 : 8<fc I t e m 1 1 : $ 1 . 5 0 - $ 3 . 2 5 I t e m 1 2 : 1 5 0 - 40<t I t e m 1 3 : 3 3 0 - 6 5 $ I t e m 1 4 : $ 2 . 5 0 / h r . S u b t e s t : C o n c e p t A t t a i n m e n t I t e m s 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 8 , 9 , 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 4 , 1 5 , 1 6 a ) S c o r e z e r o i f s u b j e c t r e s p o n d s i n c o r r e c t l y t o 1 . a l l s e c t i o n s o f t h e s e i t e m s 2 . t w o s e c t i o n s o f t h r e e p a r t i t e m s . b ) S c o r e o n e i f s u b j e c t r e s p o n d s c o r r e c t l y t o 1 . o n e s e c t i o n o f a t w o p a r t i t e m 2 . t w o s e c t i o n s o f a t h r e e p a r t i t e m . c ) S c o r e t w o i f s u b j e c t r e s p o n d s c o r r e c t l y t o a l l y p a r t s o f t h e i t e m . D i s c r i m i n a t i o n ( S o r t i n g ) T a s k a ) I f s u b j e c t c o r r e c t l y s o r t s 9 - 1 2 t r i p l e t s o n f i r s t t r i a l , s c o r e o n e p o i n t e a c h f o r 5 , 6 , a n d 7 . b ) I f s u b j e c t i m p r o v e s o n s e c o n d t r i a l t o c r i t e r i o n o f 9 - 1 2 t r i p l e t s , s c o r e o n e p o i n t f o r 5 a n d 6 . c ) I f s u b j e c t i m p r o v e s b y t h r e e t r i p l e t s o n s e c o n d t r i a l b u t d o e s n o t r e a c h c r i t e r i o n o f 9 - 12 t r i p l e t s , s c o r e o n e p o i n t f o r 5 . 2 0 2 d ) I f s u b j e c t a c h i e v e s c r i t e r i o n o f 9 - 12 t r i p l e t s o n s e c o n d t r i a l b u t h a s n o t i n c r e a s e d h i s s c o r e b y 3 t r i p l e t s , s c o r e o n e p o i n t f o r 6 . C o n s e r v a t i o n a ) I f s u b j e c t r e s p o n d s c o r r e c t l y t o b o t h i t e m s 1 8 a n d 1 9 o n t h e f i r s t t r i a l , s c o r e o n e f o r e a c h i t e m . b ) I f s u b j e c t r e q u i r e s t w o t r i a l s f o r i t e m 1 8 , b u t o n l y o n e t r i a l f o r i t e m 1 9 , s c o r e o n e f o r i t e m 1 8 . c ) I f s u b j e c t r e q u i r e s t w o t r i a l s f o r b o t h i t e m s s c o r e o n e f o r , i t e m 1 8 . d ) I f s u b j e c t d o e s n o t r e s p o n d c o r r e c t l y t o : o n e i t e m b u t d o e s f o r t h e o t h e r a f t e r t w o t r i a l s , s c o r e o n e p o i n t f o r 1 8 . e ) I f s u b j e c t d o e s n o t r e s p o n d c o r r e c t l y t o e i t h e r i t e m a f t e r t w o t r i a l s e a c h s c o r e z e r o f o r 1 8 a n d 1 9 . 203 Appendix B T A B L E B l C o r r e l a t i o n s o f s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e A B S P a r t I ( 1 ) w i t h b i o d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s a n d m e n t a l a g e - ' -S u b t e s t A g e S e x L e n g t h a t B e v a n L o d g e L e n g t h o f P r e v i o u s P l a c e m e n t T o t a l T i m e i n I n s t i t u t i o n s R S B M e n t a l A g e I n d . F u n c . . 0 0 2 - . 2 7 - . 1 3 . 0 6 . 0 4 . 4 3 P h y s . D e v . - . 2 1 - . 0 8 . 0 8 . 0 6 . 0 4 - . 1 4 E c o n . A c t . . 2 1 - . 1 7 - . 0 2 . 1 0 . 1 1 . 5 9 L a n g . D e v . . 0 4 - . 1 1 - . 1 3 - . 0 5 - . 0 5 . 5 8 N u m . & T . C o n . . 0 5 - . 1 4 - . 0 7 . 1 2 . 0 9 . 5 3 O c c . D o m . . 0 1 . 3 7 . 0 3 . 0 0 4 . 0 0 1 . 0 9 O c c . G e n . . 0 9 . 1 5 . 0 6 . 2 3 . 2 2 . 0 0 4 S e l f - D i r . . 0 2 . 0 1 . 0 4 . 1 6 . 1 7 . 0 5 R e s p o n . . 2 0 . 1 0 . 0 6 . 1 7 . 1 4 . 0 2 S o c i a l i z . - . 0 2 - . 1 4 . 0 6 - . 0 6 - . 0 1 . 2 5 A B S P t . I . 0 5 - . 1 1 - . 0 5 . 0 8 . 0 8 . 4 5 1 n = 4 8 ' ' c r i t i c a l ^ 2 8 2 ( P - - 0 5 ) T A B L E B 2 C o r r e l a t i o n s o f s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e A B S P a r t I ( 2 ) w i t h b i o d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s a n d m e n t a l a g e * S u b t e s t A g e S e x . L e n g t h o f L e n g t h a t _ . „ , Previous B e v a n L o d g e & P l a c e m e n t T o t a l T i m e i n I n s t i t u t i o n s R S B M e n A g e I n d . F u n c t . . 1 1 . 0 1 - . 0 7 . 0 6 . 0 3 . 3 5 P h y s . D e v . - . 1 5 - . 0 4 - . 0 6 - . 1 8 - . 2 0 - . 2 3 E c o n . A c t . . 0 3 - . 1 5 - . 1 8 - . 0 5 - . 0 8 . 5 1 L a n g . D e v . - . 0 3 - . 0 5 - . 2 2 - . 0 8 - . 1 0 . 5 7 ' N T C - . 1 0 - . 0 9 - . 3 5 - . 2 1 - . 2 6 . 5 0 O c c . D o m . . 0 5 . 3 7 . 0 1 . 0 5 . 0 1 - . 0 2 O c c . G e n . . 1 4 . 0 7 . 0 3 . 0 2 . 0 0 4 . 0 1 S e l f - D i r . . 1 3 - . 0 1 . 0 1 . 0 8 . 0 5 . 1 2 R e s p o n . . 1 9 - . 0 7 - . 1 7 - . 0 5 - . 0 9 . 1 3 S o c i a l i z . . 0 5 . 0 8 - . 2 5 - . 2 1 - . 2 4 . 1 7 A B S P a r t I ( 2 ) . 0 7 . 0 2 - . 1 7 - . 0 5 - . 0 9 . 3 9 l N = 4 8 ; ' c r i t i c a l ^ 2 8 2 < P ' 0 5 ) T A B L E B 3 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I ( 1 a n d 2 ) : I n d e p e n d e n t F u n c t i o n i n g M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n r , A A s u b t e s t r t o t a l D i f f i c u l t y I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 6 . 7 9 6 . 6 9 . 5 4 . 5 9 . 5 7 . 4 8 . 5 2 . 4 1 . 8 5 . 7 3 2 3 . 1 5 3 . 0 4 . 8 8 . 9 2 . 6 4 . 4 7 . 7 0 . 6 0 . 4 0 . 3 5 3 3 . 8 5 3 . 9 6 . 3 6 . 2 0 - . 0 5 . 2 9 - . 2 3 . 3 3 . 8 5 . 9 6 4 9 . 4 6 9 . 1 9 1 . 0 7 1 . 6 1 . 5 3 . 3 1 . 4 8 . 2 6 . 7 7 . 7 5 5 4 . 9 4 4 . 8 5 . 2 5 . 4 6 . 1 0 . 1 7 . 2 0 . 3 2 . 9 4 . 9 0 6 7 . 9 6 7 . 9 6 . 2 9 . 2 0 . 3 9 - . 1 4 • 12 — 1 9 • 9 8 . 9 6 7 5 . 8 1 5 . 8 8 . 4 9 . 3 9 . 5 5 . 3 6 . 3 3 . 2 3 . 8 5 . 9 0 8 7 . 9 0 7 . 9 2 . 5 9 . 4 0 . 4 3 . 4 1 . 3 6 . 2 7 . 9 8 . 9 1 9 5 . 5 0 5 . 4 0 1 . 0 5 1 . 1 1 ; . . 3 1 . 5 0 . 2 4 . 3 7 . 6 5 . 7 1 1 0 5 . 1 5 5 . 0 2 . 9 7 1 . 3 0 . 4 5 . 5 3 . 5 4 . 5 8 . 3 5 . 3 8 1 1 5 . 8 5 5 . 9 0 . 3 6 . 3 1 . 5 6 . 2 1 . 3 1 . 1 5 . 8 5 . 9 0 1 2 9 . 2 3 9 . 2 5 1 . 1 0 . 9 8 . 4 1 . 4 5 . 3 5 . 4 2 . 5 8 . 5 2 1 3 8 . 1 3 8 . 2 3 1 . 5 3 1 . 3 3 . 6 3 . 4 2 . 5 2 . 3 2 . 6 3 . 6 5 1 4 5 . 6 3 5 . 6 7 . 8 2 . 5 6 . 7 1 . 5 4 . 6 2 . 3 8 . 7 7 . 7 1 1 5 6 . 4 8 6 . 0 8 1 . 0 7 1 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 5 0 . 5 7 . 3 5 . 7 5 . 6 3 1 6 6 . 9 6 6 . 9 8 . 2 0 . 1 4 . 2 5 . 3 4 - . 0 1 . 2 1 . 9 6 . 9 8 17 7 . 0 0 7 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 2 . 0 1 . 0 1 1 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 1 8 6 . 0 2 6 . 0 0 . 1 4 . 0 0 3 . 0 6 . 0 0 2 . 0 6 . 0 1 1 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 1 9 3 . 5 8 3 . 5 8 . 7 4 . 6 5 . 5 5 . 5 4 . 6 1 . 5 8 , . 7 3 . 6 7 2 0 4 . 5 0 4 . 6 3 1 . 7 0 . 5 6 . 5 9 . 6 0 . 5 9 . 4 2 . 4 8 . 5 6 2 1 5 . 0 2 5 . 0 2 1 . 8 4 1 . 8 6 . 5 5 . 3 7 . 6 4 . 5 8 . 2 9 . 3 1 2 2 5 . 7 1 5 . 6 0 1 . 4 9 1 . 3 3 . 5 0 . 5 2 . 6 6 . 7 5 . 0 4 . 0 2 T A B L E B 4 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I ( 1 a n d 2 ) : P h y s i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 3 . 8 1 3 . 9 0 . 3 9 . 3 1 . 2 2 - . 0 2 - . 0 7 - . 2 9 . 8 1 . 9 0 2 3 . 9 2 3 . 9 8 . 2 8 . 1 4 - . 0 6 - . 0 9 . 4 2 . 3 7 . 9 2 . 9 8 3 5 . 7 9 5 . 4 4 . 9 9 1 . 2 9 . 3 9 . 5 0 . 2 0 . 4 1 . 2 7 . 2 7 4 6 . 8 8 6 . 7 9 . 3 9 . 5 0 . 4 3 . 6 5 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 9 0 . 8 3 5 5 . 7 9 5 . 8 9 . 4 6 . 3 9 . 2 6 . 2 4 . 3 3 . 2 2 . 8 1 . 9 0 6 3 . 8 3 3 . 8 1 . 5 2 . 4 5 . 5 4 . 5 6 . 0 7 . 1 1 . 9 0 . 8 3 T A B L E B 5 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I ( 1 a n d 2 ) : E c o n o m i c A c t i v i t y M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n r , A r D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t t o t a l I t e m " S i S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 3 . 7 3 3 . 5 2 1 . 4 3 1 . 3 5 . 6 5 . 6 6 . 6 9 . 7 4 . 0 6 . 3 3 2 3 . 8 1 3 . 7 3 1 . 5 8 1 . 5 5 . 5 4 . 8 2 . 5 7 . . 6 7 . 1 5 . 1 3 3 3 . 7 3 3 . 6 7 1 . 3 2 1 . 3 1 . 6 6 . 7 1 . 6 5 . 7 5 . 3 8 . 3 3 4 3 . 6 0 3 . 6 5 1 . 1 6 1 . 2 5 . 6 2 . 7 7 . 6 0 . 6 9 . 0 4 . 0 4 T A B L E B 6 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I ( 1 a n d 2 ) : L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n r , r x , D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t t o t a l I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 3 . 3 1 3 . 3 8 1 . 8 8 1 . 6 7 . 7 8 . 6 4 . 6 0 . 5 4 . 2 5 . 1 7 2 7 . 0 0 6 . 8 8 . 0 0 3 . 8 7 . 0 0 3 - . 1 3 . 0 1 - . 1 0 1 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 3 5 . 6 3 5 . 6 5 . 7 0 . 7 9 . 4 2 . 5 1 . 3 1 . 4 0 . 7 3 . 7 9 4 3 . 3 3 3 . 1 3 . 7 5 . 8 0 . 6 8 . 6 4 . 5 5 . 4 3 . 4 8 . 5 0 5 4 . 0 4 3 . 9 8 1 . 0 9 1 . 1 2 . 5 6 . 4 7 . . 5 8 . 4 8 . 4 6 . 4 4 6 3 . 5 0 3 . 1 9 1 . 9 4 1 . 9 7 . 7 7 . 6 9 . 6 8 . 5 8 . 2 9 . 2 5 7 4 . 4 6 4 . 3 5 . 8 7 1 . 0 4 . 4 3 . 4 4 . 5 4 . 4 9 . 6 7 . 6 5 8 4 . 8 1 4 . 7 1 . 5 7 . 7 1 . 3 1 . 0 2 . 3 5 . 1 7 . 8 8 . 8 3 9 4 . 6 3 4 . 6 5 1 . 6 7 1 . 6 6 . 6 4 . 5 7 . 5 1 . 5 5 . 0 4 . 0 6 T A B L E B 7 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I ( 1 a n d 2 ) : N u m b e r a n d T i m e C o n c e p t s M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n .< r , D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t t o t a l I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 4 . 7 5 4 . 6 5 1 . 5 0 1 . 4 8 . 6 5 . 4 8 . 7 4 . 5 7 . 4 4 . 3 8 2 5 . 4 0 5 . 5 2 1 . 9 9 1 . 9 7 . 7 3 . 3 9 . 7 4 . 4 4 . 4 8 . 5 4 3 3 . 4 2 3 . 4 8 . 8 7 . 8 5 . 5 7 . 6 2 . 4 5 . 4 7 . 6 3 . 6 9 T A B L E B 8 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I ( 1 a n d 2 ) : O c c u p a t i o n D o m e s t i c M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n r D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t t o t a l I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 2 . 4 4 2 . 3 3 . 5 8 . 6 6 . 5 0 . 4 7 . 1 3 . 2 4 . 4 8 . 4 4 2 3 . 9 6 3 . 8 8 1 . 8 8 1 . 8 4 . 5 5 . 5 7 . 2 6 . 3 8 . 3 5 . 3 8 3 3 . 2 5 2 . 9 6 . 9 3 . 9 9 . 5 7 . 6 0 . 5 3 . 4 7 . 4 8 . 3 3 4 2 . 0 2 2 . 0 6 . 9 1 1 . 0 2 . 5 5 . 6 8 . 5 4 . 6 1 . 0 8 . 1 3 5 2 . 8 3 2 . 7 1 . 5 6 . 7 1 . 4 4 , . 3 1 . 3 7 . 2 6 . 9 2 . 8 5 6 4 . 0 2 3 . 7 7 1 . 0 4 1 . 2 6 . 6 2 . 6 1 . 3 8 . 6 2 . 4 4 . 4 2 T A B L E B 9 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I ( 1 a n d 2 ) : O c c u p a t i o n G e n e r a l M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n r r A , D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t t o t a l I t e m . . -S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 2 . 3 3 2 . 3 8 . 6 0 . 4 9 . 0 1 . 2 5 . 3 0 . . 5 3 . 2 9 . 3 8 § 2 5 . 4 4 5 . 4 6 1 . 0 5 . 9 2 . 5 4 . 6 5 . 4 7 . 6 0 . 7 1 . 6 5 3 6 . 1 7 6 . 0 2 1 . 3 3 1 . 4 7 . 5 1 . 6 3 . 4 0 . 5 1 . 6 5 . 6 0 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I ( 1 a n d 2 ) : S e l f - D i r e c t i o n TABLE BIO I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S i S 2 1 4 . 6 9 4 . 4 8 . 6 6 . 9 0 . 3 6 . 4 6 ' . 1 9 . 5 2 . 7 9 . 6 9 2 3 . 2 7 3 . 2 5 . 8 4 . 7 6 . 7 7 . 6 5 . 6 7 . 5 3 . 5 0 . 4 4 3 6 . 4 2 6 . 3 1 1 . 1 6 1 . 0 6 . 7 4 . 7 7 . 5 0 . 5 8 . 6 9 . 5 8 4 4 . 4 6 4 . 5 2 . 9 2 . 8 3 . 8 1 . 5 3 . 5 9 . 3 9 . 6 7 . 6 9 5 6 . 2 1 6 . 0 0 1 . 3 0 1 . 3 7 . 7 6 . 7 6 . 5 1 . 5 8 . 6 5 . 5 2 6 4 . 5 4 4 . 5 4 . 8 5 . 9 6 . 4 6 . 4 4 . 5 3 . 4 9 . 7 5 . 7 5 7 4 . 2 7 3 . 9 8 1 . 8 2 1 . 9 7 . 6 9 . 6 8 . 6 9 . 6 8 . 1 3 . 1 0 TABLE B l l Item analysis information for the ABS Part I (1 and 2): Responsibilities Mean Standard Deviation r ^ A r Difficulty Item s u b t e s t _ _ _ SI S2 SI S2 SI S2 SI S2 SI S2 M ; . 1 3.44 3.35 .62 .76 .30 .34 .29 .52 .50 .50 2 4.90 2.79 .59 .62 .30 .34 .58 .41 .08 .06 T A B L E B 1 2 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A B S P a r t I ( 1 a n d 2 ) : S o c i a l i z a t i o n I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 3 . 2 1 3 . 5 8 1 : 5 8 1 . 4 9 . 2 4 . 6 2 . 1 7 . 4 9 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 2 . 9 2 2 . 8 8 1 . 3 5 1 . 3 0 . 4 7 . 6 9 . 4 9 . 4 8 0 . 0 0 . 0 3 5 . 0 4 5 . 1 3 1 . 0 3 . 9 4 . 3 4 . 3 4 . 6 7 . 3 8 . 4 2 . 4 4 4 3 . 2 5 3 . 1 0 . 8 6 . 8 8 . 4 4 . 4 4 . 2 9 . 2 5 . 4 8 . 3 8 5 2 . 4 8 2 . 5 0 . 6 8 . 6 5 . 6 0 . 4 8 . 5 6 . 5 2 . 0 4 . 0 8 6 6 . 2 1 6 . 1 5 . 9 4 . 9 5 . 4 4 . 2 7 . 3 7 . 2 3 . 4 4 . 3 8 7 7 . 1 5 7 . 1 5 . 8 5 . 8 0 . 1 4 . 1 4 . 2 7 . 5 0 . 4 2 . 3 8 2 1 6 T A B L E B 1 3 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s b y r a t e r p a i r f o r t h e s u b d o m a i n s o f I n d e p e n d e n t F u n c t i o n i n g R a t e r P a i r S u b d o m a i n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 E a t i n g S k i l l s . 7 8 . 5 4 . 4 6 . 1 0 . 3 4 . 4 9 0 . 0 . 2 5 T o i l e t U s e ' 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 C l e a n l i n e s s . 5 1 . 6 3 0 . 0 . 4 2 . 7 0 . 5 8 . 1 5 0 . 0 A p p e a r a n c e . 7 7 . 1 5 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 6 6 . 7 4 . 4 4 . 2 9 C a r e o f C l o t h . . 8 6 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 4 7 0 . 0 0 . 0 D r e s s i n g , U n o r . 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 L o c o m o t i o n . 8 2 . 4 4 . 8 0 . 5 0 . 2 3 . 9 7 . 3 3 0 . 0 G e n . I n d . F . . 7 5 . 4 7 0 . 0 . 0 4 . 7 5 . 8 2 . 1 8 . 0 3 2 1 7 T A B L E B 1 4 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s b y r a t e r p a i r f o r t h e s u b d o m a i n o f P h y s i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t R a t e r P a i r S u b d o m a i n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 S e n s o r y D e v . 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 6 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 M o t o r . . - D e v . - 8 2 . 5 1 0 . 0 . 4 4 0 . 0 . 1 5 . 9 3 0 . 0 T A B L E B 1 5 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s b y r a t e r p a i r f o r t h e s u b d o m a i n s o f E c o n o m i c A c t i v i t y R a t e r P a i r S u b d o m a i n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 M o n e y H a n d l i n g . 4 6 . 7 2 . 7 8 0 . 0 . 8 1 . 9 0 . 8 3 0 . 0 & B u d g e t i n g S h o p p i n g S k i l l s . 3 7 . 6 3 0 . 0 . 5 4 . 9 7 . 8 8 . 6 1 0 . 0 2 1 8 T A B L E B 1 6 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s b y r a t e r f o r t h e s u b d o m a i n s o f L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t S u b d o m a i n R a t e r P a i r 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 S p e a k i n g a n d W r i t i n g . 7 0 . 5 8 . 9 4 0 . 0 . 9 4 . 9 2 . 8 6 . 4 4 C o m p r e h e n s i o n . 8 2 . 4 2 . 9 6 . 3 7 . 7 9 . 8 2 . 9 1 0 . 0 G e n e r a l L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t . 6 5 . 1 3 . 4 8 . 3 9 . 8 0 . 6 3 . 2 9 . 7 0 T A B L E B 1 7 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s b y r a t e r p a i r f o r t h e s u b d o m a i n o f O c c u p a t i o n D o m e s t i c R a t e r P a i r S u b d o m a i n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C l e a n i n g . 3 1 . 5 9 0 . 0 . 5 1 . 2 2 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 9 1 K i t c h e n D u t i e s . 0 6 . 2 9 0 . 0 . 0 6 . 0 7 . 4 8 . 8 1 . 4 3 G e n e r a l O c c u p a t i o n D o m e s t i c . 3 7 . 3 3 0 . 0 . 3 7 . 7 4 0 . 0 . 3 6 0 . 0 2 1 9 T A B L E B 1 8 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s b y r a t e r p a i r f o r t h e s u b d o m a i n s o f S e l f - D i r e c t i o n R a t e r P a i r S u b d o m a i n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 S l u g g i s h n e s s . 5 9 . 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 I n i t i a t i v e . 8 0 . 4 4 . 5 4 . 3 1 . 3 3 . 2 3 . 8 7 0 . 0 P e r s i s t e n c e . 8 0 . 2 9 . 6 4 . 2 8 . 5 0 . 1 5 . 7 4 0 . 0 P l a n n i n g & O r g . . 7 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 8 3 0 . 0 . 7 3 0 . 0 0 . 0 S e l f - D i r e c t i o n . 7 7 . 5 6 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 0 0 . 6 8 . 6 0 G e n e r a l TABLE B19 Correlations of subtest and total test scores of the ABS Part II (1) with biodemographic variables and mental age-1-Subtest Age Sex Length at Bevan Lodge Length of Previous Placement Total Time in Institutions RSB Mental Age Viol. & Des. Beh. -.14 .15 -.08 -.09 -.10 -.13 Antisocial Beh. -.20 .20 -.09 -.23 -.25 -.03 Rebellious Beh. -.17 .27 -.04 -.17 -.19 -.08 Untrust. Beh. -.004 .10 -.08 -.04 -.08 .14 Withdrawal .13 .08 .13 .15 .17 -.28 Ster. Beh. & Odd. M. -.04 -.05 .29 .14 .19 .12 Inapp. Inter. Man. -.08 .22 .05 .03 .04 -.10 Unacc. Voc. Hab. -.15 .18 -.12 -.22 -.20 .24 Unacc./Ecc. Hab. -.06 .27 .27 .08 .05 -.001 Self-Abusive Beh. -.04 -.08 .06 -.03 -.01 -.22 Hyper. Tend. -.20 .08 .08 -.16 -.26 -.05 Sex. Aber. Beh. -.10 .26 .18 -.05 -.12 -.18 Psycho. Disturb. -.03 .28 -.01 -.09 -.16 -.06 Use of Med. .07 .21 .05 .20 .18 .03 ABS Part II (1) -.13 .29 -.003 -.12 -.18 -.07 V48; r c r i t i c a l=.282 (p ^ .05) T A B L E B 2 0 C o r r e l a t i o n s o f s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e A B S P a r t II ( 2 ) w i t h b i o d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s a n d m e n t a l a g e 1 L e n g t h a t L e n g t h o f T o t a l T i m e R S B S u b t e s t A g e S e x B e v a n P r e v i o u s i n M e n t a l L o d g e P l a c e m e n t I n s t i t u t i o n s A g e V i o l . & D e s . B e h . - . 1 5 . 2 7 . 1 3 . 0 6 . 0 9 - . 0 4 A n t i s o c i a l B e h . . 0 4 - . 0 2 . 0 7 . 1 8 . 1 9 . 0 1 R e b e l l i o u s B e h . : . 1 5 . 1 7 . 0 4 . 0 2 . 0 2 - . 1 7 U n t r u s t . B e h . - . 0 4 . 0 8 0 - . 0 1 - . 0 0 4 - . 0 6 W i t h d r a w a l - . 0 2 - . 0 0 3 - . 0 7 . 0 9 . 0 8 - . 0 8 S t . B e h . , O d d M a n ; . . - . 0 2 - . 1 1 . 1 1 - . 0 2 . 0 2 . 0 4 I n a p p . I n t e r . M a n . . 0 5 . 1 2 . 1 3 . 1 0 . 1 2 . 0 7 U n a c c . V o c . H a b . . 0 6 - . 0 5 . 1 1 - . 0 2 . 0 2 . 2 7 U n a c c . / E c c . H a b . - . 0 5 - . 0 4 . 0 6 . 0 1 . 0 2 . 0 2 S e l f - A b u s i v e B e h . - . 2 1 . 0 6 - . 0 7 - . 0 8 - . 0 7 . 0 4 H y p e r a c t i v e T e n d . . 0 0 1 . 0 3 . 1 6 - . 0 0 4 . 0 4 . 2 1 S e x . A b e r . B e h . - . 1 9 . 1 2 . 1 1 - . 0 1 . 0 3 - . 2 7 P s y c h . D i s t u r b . . 0 5 . 1 6 . 1 5 . 0.7 . 0 9 - . 1 0 U s e o f M e d . - . 0 3 . 3 1 . 0 8 . 0 4 . 0 3 . 0 6 A B S P t . I I ( 2 ) - . 0 4 . 1 4 . 1 4 . 0 9 . 1 1 - . 0 3 1 n = 4 * ' c r i t i c a l ^ 2 8 2 < P ^ 0 5 > T A B L E B 2 1 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f s u b t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e A B S P a r t s I a n d I I ( 1 ) V D B A B R B U B W S B O M I I M U V H U E H S A B H T S A B P D U M 1 I n d . F . - . 2 5 - . 3 3 - . 4 5 - . 2 7 - . 3 4 - . 1 0 - . 3 1 - . 0 8 - . 1 2 - . 0 3 - . 1 3 - . 3 5 - . 3 6 - . 0 9 2 P h y s . D . . 0 5 . 0 4 . 0 7 . 0 2 - . 1 5 . 1 2 . 0 2 . 1 8 . 0 8 - . 3 1 . 1 7 . 0 2 - . 0 1 - . 1 8 3 E c o n . A . - . 3 6 - . 2 3 - . 3 5 - . 1 6 - . 2 6 . 1 5 - . 2 0 . 0 4 - . 1 7 - . 0 6 - . 2 6 - . 3 0 - . 3 5 - . 0 3 4 L a n g . D . - . 3 3 - . 1 6 - . 2 7 - . 1 2 - . 3 8 . 2 9 - . 1 9 . 1 3 - . 1 1 . 0 4 - . 1 2 - . 2 3 - . 3 2 . 0 8 5 N T C - . 5 0 - . 2 9 - . 3 8 - . 0 9 - . 3 3 . 1 7 - . 1 3 - . 1 1 . 0 5 - . 0 5 - . 1 0 - . 1 5 - . 3 2 . 1 7 6 O c c . D . . 1 0 . 1 6 . 0 3 - . 0 4 - . 0 8 . 1 0 . 0 5 . 0 9 ^ 0 2 . - . 1 7 - . 0 4 . 0 7 . 0 7 - . 1 6 7 O c c . G . - . 2 2 - . 4 2 - . 4 8 - . 4 5 - . 3 5 . 1 2 - . 1 8 - . 1 2 - . 2 2 - . 1 2 - . 1 6 - . 1 8 - . 4 1 - . 0 3 8 S e l f - D . - . 1 6 - . 4 2 - . 5 6 - . 4 4 - . 2 8 . 0 9 - . 3 6 - . 0 7 - . 2 9 - . 0 5 - . 1 7 - . 2 6 - . 4 6 - . 1 4 9 R e s p o n . - . 3 3 - . 3 7 - . 4 6 - . 4 4 - . 2 2 - . 1 0 - . 2 3 - . 2 7 - . 0 9 - . 1 5 - . 0 5 . 0 0 6 - . 2 8 . 0 5 10 S o c . - . 5 0 - . 3 7 - . 4 7 - . 4 2 - . 2 4 . 1 6 - . 1 9 . 0 6 - . 4 4 - . 1 4 - . 1 6 - . 2 2 - . 5 7 - . 1 8 r c r i t i c a l = . 2 8 2 ( p £ . 0 5 ) T A B L E B 2 2 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f s u b t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e A B S P a r t s I a n d II ( 2 ) V D B A B R B U B W S B O M I I M U V H U E H S A B H T S B P D M 1 I n d . F u n c t . - . 1 7 - . 2 5 - . 4 9 - . 1 7 - . 3 7 - . 2 8 - . 1 6 - . 3 4 - . 5 5 - . 3 5 - . 0 7 - . 4 1 - . 2 4 - . 1 3 2 P h y s . D e v . - . 2 5 - . 5 2 - . 0 2 - . 0 5 - . 2 6 - . 3 4 - . 0 1 - . 3 7 - . 1 0 - . 2 0 - . 2 0 . 0 4 - . 4 1 - . 4 3 3 E c o n . A c t . . 0 7 - . 1 6 - . 2 4 - . 0 5 - . 1 8 - . 0 7 - . 0 8 - . 0 3 - , ; 1 6 - . 2 4 - . 0 7 - . 1 4 - . 2 2 - . 2 5 4 L a n g . D e v . . 0 1 - . 2 2 - . 1 7 - . 0 4 - . 2 4 . 0 8 - . 0 2 . 0 8 . 0 2 - . 1 7 - . 0 1 - . 1 2 - . 1 8 - . 1 4 5 N T C - . 0 3 - . 0 6 - . 1 5 . 0 0 3 - . 1 6 . 0 5 . 0 1 . 0 6 . 1 0 - . 1 8 . 0 3 . 0 5 - . 0 1 - . 1 6 6 O c c . D o m . . 1 5 - . 2 2 - . 0 8 . 1 7 - . 1 3 - . 3 8 - . 1 7 - . 2 2 - . 1 8 - . 1 9 - . 3 0 . 0 0 4 - . 1 2 - . 0 3 7 O c c . G e n . - . 0 8 - . 3 0 - . 5 0 - . 1 2 - . 3 7 - . 2 8 - . 2 8 - . 3 0 - . 4 9 - . 2 7 - . 2 7 - . 3 2 - . 0 6 - . 1 6 8 S e l f - D i r . - . 0 1 - . 2 8 - . 5 8 - . 2 5 - . 5 1 - . 4 2 - . 2 7 - . 3 8 - . 4 9 - . 3 2 - . 2 6 - . 3 9 - . 3 1 - . 1 2 9 R e s p o n . . 0 4 . 0 8 - . 1 4 - . 0 3 - . 1 2 - . 1 5 - . 1 1 - . 1 7 - . 1 8 - . 0 8 - . 0 6 - . 0 5 . 0 3 - . 0 7 1 0 S o c i a l i z . - . 1 4 - . 3 3 - . 3 3 - . 2 2 - . 4 0 - . 2 5 - . 1 0 - . 1 5 - . 2 4 - . 0 4 - . 3 0 - . 0 7 - . 3 2 - . 2 6 N = 4 8 r , . = . 2 8 2 ( p £ . 0 5 ) c r i t i c a l 224 Appendix C T A B L E C I C o r r e l a t i o n s o f s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e S E T ( 1 ) w i t h b i o d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s C h r o n o l o g i c a l L e n g t h a t L e n g t h o f T o t a l M e n t a l A g e S e x B e v a n P r e v . I n s t . I n s t . A g e A R e a d i n g 0 . 1 3 4 - . 0 6 9 - . 1 1 4 - . 0 1 4 - . 0 3 7 . 8 6 6 B W r i t i n g . 1 2 7 . 0 2 0 - . 0 9 2 - . 0 6 9 - . 0 8 0 . 8 2 5 C N u m b e r s . 0 6 5 - . 0 2 8 - . 1 1 6 . 0 8 6 . 0 4 9 . 8 7 3 D T i m e . 1 1 8 - . 1 0 8 - . 0 6 2 . 0 7 1 . 0 4 7 . 9 5 0 E M o n e y . 2 3 8 - . 1 1 0 - . 0 4 5 . 1 2 0 . 0 9 4 . 8 3 2 F C o m m u n i t y . 1 5 6 - . 0 7 3 - . 1 1 1 - . 0 2 4 - . 0 4 5 . 8 3 0 G C o m m u n i c a t i o n . 0 4 1 . 0 2 3 - . 1 5 1 - . 0 2 6 - . 0 5 6 . 7 4 8 H M o t o r M o v e m e n t s - . 2 9 5 - . 0 1 5 - . 2 3 2 - . 0 8 6 - . 1 2 6 . 5 2 2 I C o n c e p t A t t a i n m e n t s - . 0 5 9 - . 1 6 2 - . 2 4 7 - . 0 5 5 - . 1 0 3 . 8 6 7 J T o t a l S c o r e . 0 9 9 - . 0 6 6 - . 1 3 1 . 0 1 0 - . 0 2 0 . 9 2 0 V 5 0 r c r i t i c a l = . 2 7 6 ( p < . 0 5 ) T A B L E C 2 C o r r e l a t i o n s o f s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e S E T ( 2 ) w i t h b i o d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s C h r o n o l o g i c a l L e n g t h a t L e n g t h o f T o t a l M e n t a l A g e S e x B e v a n P r e v . I n s t . I n s t . A g e A R e a d i n g - . 1 6 0 . 0 6 7 - . 2 2 5 - . 0 2 7 - . 0 7 4 . 9 3 5 B W r i t i n g - . 1 1 9 . 0 0 8 - . 2 3 3 - . 0 9 2 - . 1 3 0 . 8 6 4 C N u m b e r s - . 0 8 8 . 0 1 2 - . 1 7 1 . 0 5 1 . 0 0 3 . 9 1 9 D T i m e - . 1 1 2 . 0 6 3 - . 1 4 8 . 1 3 5 . 0 7 9 . 8 5 6 E M o n e y - . 0 7 5 . 0 5 3 - . 1 9 5 . 0 9 0 . 0 3 0 . 9 1 2 F C o m m u n i t y - . 0 0 3 . 1 3 3 - . 2 6 6 . 0 4 9 - . 0 1 9 . 8 6 3 G C o m m u n i c a t i o n - . 2 8 5 . 0 1 2 - . 3 4 6 - . 0 7 4 - . 1 4 0 . 7 6 5 H M o t o r M o v e m e n t s - . 3 8 0 . 1 4 7 - . 3 2 8 - . 0 3 9 - . 1 0 7 . 4 7 3 I C o n c e p t A t t a i n m e n t - . 2 3 0 . 0 8 2 - . 3 4 0 - . 0 1 1 - . 0 8 7 . 8 8 7 J T o t a l S c o r e - . 1 5 9 . 0 5 8 . 0 1 3 . 0 1 3 - . 0 4 8 . 9 4 4 1 n = 3 0 ' c r i t i c a l ^ 3 5 5 < P - - 0 5 > 2 2 7 T A B L E C 3 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e R e a d i n g s u b t e s t o f t h e S E T I t e m r t o t a l D i f f i c u l t y _ _ _ 2 . 8 1 . 5 8 3 . 6 9 . 6 2 4 , 8 0 . 5 8 5 . 8 5 . 5 0 6 . 8 6 . 4 6 7 . 3 5 . 0 8 8 . 6 7 . 2 8 9 . 8 6 . 4 8 1 0 . 7 5 . 3 2 1 1 . 6 7 . 2 6 1 2 . 5 5 . 1 4 1 3 . 8 6 . 4 2 1 4 . 5 7 . 1 4 1 5 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 6 . 6 8 . 2 6 1 7 . 4 1 . 1 6 1 8 . 5 9 . 2 6 1 9 . 3 6 . 1 2 2 0 . 5 9 . 1 4 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e W r i t i n g s u b t e s t o f t h e S E T 2 2 8 T A B L E C 4 I t e m r t Q t a l D i f f i c u l t y ~i / 7 3 J 3 2 2 . 7 6 . 4 8 3 . 7 6 . 4 6 4 . 8 5 . 3 8 5 . 7 1 . 6 8 6 . 8 2 . 4 0 7 . 7 2 . 2 2 8 . 7 7 . 5 8 9 . 8 6 . 4 4 1 0 . 8 7 . 4 2 1 1 . 8 5 . 3 8 1 2 . 8 3 . 3 4 1 3 . 8 1 . 2 8 1 4 . 7 0 . 2 0 1 5 . 6 1 . 1 4 1 6 . 8 4 . 3 6 1 7 . 8 4 . 3 6 1 8 . 8 4 . 3 8 1 9 . 6 1 . 2 6 2 0 . 5 1 . 1 6 2 2 9 T A B L E C 5 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e N u m b e r s s u b t e s t o f t h e S E T I t e m r t o t a l D i f f i c u l t y T 4^6 784 2 . 4 4 . 4 0 3 . 6 3 . 5 6 4 . 6 2 . 7 4 5 . 7 5 . 3 0 6 . 7 1 . 3 0 7 . 4 7 . 4 0 8 . 6 7 . 3 4 9 . 0 9 . 1 8 1 0 . 7 2 . 4 4 11 . 8 4 . 4 2 1 2 . 8 4 . 3 6 1 3 . 7 7 . 3 6 1 4 . 7 5 . 2 8 1 5 . 6 6 . 1 8 1 6 . 7 7 . 2 8 17 . 6 4 . 1 8 1 8 . 4 9 . 1 0 1 9 . 6 7 . 1 8 2 0 . 3 7 . 0 6 2 3 0 T A B L E C 6 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e T i m e s u b t e s t o f t h e S E T ftem r t Q t a j D i f f i c u l t y ~1 738 1)2 2 . 4 2 . 8 6 3 . 5 7 . 6 2 4 . 5 1 . 4 2 5 . 7 0 . 5 8 6 . 7 1 . 4 2 7 . 5 5 . 0 2 8 . 7 7 . 5 6 9 . 8 1 . 4 2 1 0 . 7 6 . 4 0 1 1 . 6 3 . 4 6 1 2 . 6 1 . 2 8 1 3 . 7 5 . 3 0 1 4 . 7 0 . 2 6 1 5 . 8 6 . 3 8 1 6 . 7 4 . 3 0 17 . 7 4 . 2 6 1 8 . 5 2 . 1 2 1 9 . 6 8 . 1 8 2 0 . 2 8 . 0 6 2 3 1 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e M o n e y s u b t e s t o f t h e S E T T A B L E C 7 I t e m r t o t a l D i f f i c u l t y 1 . 6 9 . 6 0 2 . 8 2 . 4 6 3 . 7 3 . 5 6 4 . 7 8 . 5 0 5 . 7 1 . 5 4 6 . 7 8 . 4 0 7 . 7 8 . 3 2 8 . 7 8 . 3 0 9 . 8 6 . 4 0 1 0 . 7 9 . 3 4 1 1 . 7 9 . 3 6 1 2 . 8 1 . 5 0 1 3 . 8 6 . 3 6 1 4 . 8 6 . . 3 8 1 5 . 6 8 . 2 0 1 6 . 7 6 . 3 0 17 . 4 1 . 0 8 1 8 . 6 2 . 2 0 1 9 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 0 . 4 5 . 2 4 2 3 2 T A B L E C 8 I t e m / a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e C o m m u n i t y s u b t e s t o f t h e S E T I t e m r t Q t a l D i f f i c u l t y "I AO 736 2 . 5 4 . 6 6 3 . 4 8 . 2 2 4 . 4 9 . 3 8 5 . 6 6 . 7 4 6 . 6 0 . 4 4 7 . 4 6 . 5 0 8 . 5 7 . 2 6 9 . 3 7 . 3 4 1 0 . 5 9 . 4 0 11 . 5 2 . 4 0 12 . 3 9 . 3 2 1 3 . 3 6 . 2 2 1 4 . 5 5 . 2 8 1 5 . 1 6 . 0 4 1 6 . 5 6 . 3 2 1 7 . 5 6 . 2 6 1 8 . 1 5 . 0 2 1 9 . 3 3 . 0 6 2 0 . 4 3 . 0 8 2 3 3 T A B L E C 9 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s u b t e s t o f t h e S E T I t e m r t o t a l D i f f i c u l t y ~ i o Too 2 0 1 . 0 0 3 . 2 9 . 8 4 4 . 4 0 . 7 8 5 . 2 8 . 6 0 6 . 3 4 . 4 6 7 0 1 . 0 0 8 . 3 9 . 9 2 9 . 5 9 . 7 4 1 0 . 4 6 . 4 2 11 . 4 4 . 5 0 1 2 . 3 7 . 4 8 1 3 . 5 9 . 7 4 1 4 . 7 4 . 3 2 1 5 0 1 . 0 0 1 6 . 5 4 . 8 4 1 7 . 8 3 . 5 0 1 8 0 1 . 0 0 1 9 . 5 5 . 8 2 2 0 . 7 4 . 4 0 2 3 4 TABLE CIO Item analysis information for the Motor Movements subtest of the SET Item r t Q t a l Difficulty _ _ _ 2 . 0 3 . 4 2 3 - . 0 7 . 4 0 4 0 1 . 0 0 5 . 0 9 . 9 0 6 . 1 6 . 8 0 7 . 2 2 . 9 8 8 . 1 1 . 7 6 9 . 2 3 . 4 8 1 0 - . 2 3 . 9 8 1 1 . 1 5 . 8 8 1 2 . 3 3 . 7 0 1 3 . 4 3 . 1 6 1 4 0 0 1 5 . 4 6 . 6 8 1 6 . 2 8 . 3 0 1 7 0 0 1 8 . 3 1 . 8 0 1 9 . 4 3 . 4 8 2 0 . 3 2 . 1 4 235 TABLE C l l Item analysis information for the Concept Attainment subtest of the SET Kem r t Q t a l Difficulty __ __ _ 2 .43 .58 3 -.35 .10 4 .40 .24 5 -.19 .68 6 -.38 .48 7 .45 .18 8 .62 .64 9 .55 .50 10 .48 .50 11 .45 .32 12 -.22 .72 13 .53 .56 14 .68 .46 15 -.39 .38 16 .42 .60 17 .61 .26 18 .62 .66 19 .47 .24 20 -.19 .54 236 Appendix D T A B L E D I C o r r e l a t i o n s o f s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e V C L ( 1 ) a n d b i o d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s a n d m e n t a l a g e 1 L e n g t h a t L e n g t h o f T o t a l T i m e R S B A g e S e x B e v a n P r e v i o u s i n M e n t a l L o d g e P l a c e m e n t I n s t i t u t i o n s A g e B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s . 1 1 - . 0 4 - . 1 1 . 0 1 - . 0 3 . 2 2 I n d e p e n d e n c e . 1 1 - . 1 5 - . 1 7 . 0 2 - . 0 3 . 2 4 M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s . 0 9 . 0 3 . 0 6 . 0 7 . 0 4 . 2 5 U s e , C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t . 0 5 . 1 8 - . 0 4 - . 0 5 - . 0 9 . 0 5 T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n s . 1 4 - . 2 0 - . 2 3 . 0 1 - . 0 3 . 2 0 W o r k S k i l l s . 0 3 . 0 3 . 0 2 - ' . 1 3 - . 2 1 . 0 9 S p e e d . 1 3 - . 1 5 - . 0 3 - . 0 3 9 . 0 6 . 0 3 F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s . 1 1 - . 1 7 0 5 . 0 4 . 0 2 . 3 2 T a s k A n a l y s i s - . 0 2 . 0 9 . 0 3 - . 1 5 - . 2 3 . 0 4 A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s . 1 9 . 0 4 0 . 0 . 0 9 . 0 8 . 3 8 A p p e a r a n c e . 1 3 . 0 2 . 0 1 . 1 7 . 1 3 . 1 9 P u n c t u a l i t y . 2 4 . 0 7 . 0 5 . 2 2 . 2 1 . 4 7 T a l k i n g . 1 9 - . 0 8 0 . 0 - . 0 1 0 . 0 . 4 0 R e l a t i o n s h i p s . 0 6 . 1 3 - . 0 1 - . 0 8 - . 0 7 . 2 0 T o t a l T e s t . 1 1 . 0 2 - . 0 3 - . 0 4 - . 1 0 . 2 4 l N = 4 2 = ' c r i t i c a l ^ 3 0 7 < P £ - 0 5 > T A B L E D 2 C o r r e l a t i o n s o f s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e V C L ( 2 ) w i t h b i o d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s a n d m e n t a l a g e * L e n g t h a t L e n g t h o f T o t a l T i m e R S B A g e S e x B e v a n P r e v i o u s i n M e n t a l L o d g e P l a c e m e n t I n s t i t u t i o n s A g e B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s . 2 1 - . 0 7 - . 1 7 - . 0 1 - . 0 4 . 1 9 I n d e p e n d e n c e . 2 3 - . 1 5 - . 0 9 - . 0 7 - . 0 8 . 0 3 M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s . 1 4 . 0 3 - . 0 2 . 1 8 . 1 6 . 2 3 U s e , C a r e o f E q u i p m e n t . 1 7 . 0 3 - . 2 2 . 0 1 - . 0 4 . 1 7 T a k i n g D i r e c t i o n s . 1 2 - . 1 3 - . 2 1 - . 1 3 - . 1 5 . 2 0 W o r k S k i l l s . 2 8 0 . 0 - . 1 2 . 0 4 . 0 1 . 1 3 S p e e d - . 2 3 - . 2 7 - . 2 8 . 1 1 - . 1 6 . 2 1 F o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s - . 0 6 - . 0 2 - . 2 8 - . 2 1 - . 2 4 . 0 7 T a s k A n a l y s i s . 3 6 . 0 5 - . 0 3 . 1 1 . 0 9 . 1 0 A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s . 1 6 . 1 4 - . 1 4 . 0 4 0 . 0 . 4 5 A p p e a r a n c e . 0 9 . 1 0 - . 1 4 . 0 6 . 0 2 . 1 9 P u n c t u a l i t y . 1 3 0 . 0 - . 1 4 . 0 1 - . 0 2 . 4 4 T a l k i n g . 1 8 . 1 7 - . 0 6 . 1 3 . 1 0 . 5 5 R e l a t i o n s h i p s . 1 0 . 1 6 - . 1 1 C . 1 0 - . 1 1 . 2 3 T o t a l T e s t . 2 7 . 0 3 - . 1 7 . 0 3 - . 0 1 . 2 9 * N = . 4 2 r c r i t i c a l = . 3 0 7 ( p £ . 0 5 ) T A B L E D 3 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e B a s i c W o r k H a b i t s s u b t e s t o f t h e V C L ( 1 & 2 ) M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n r s u b t e s t r t o t a l D i f f i c u l t y I t e m _ _ _ _ _ _ _ — — — S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 4 5 1 . 3 6 . 7 1 . 6 9 . 6 4 . 6 2 . 5 2 . 4 5 . 5 7 . 4 8 2 1 . 2 6 1 . 1 4 . 6 7 . 6 1 . 7 0 . 6 3 . 5 9 . 5 4 . 3 8 . 2 6 3 . 8 3 1 . 0 0 . 7 0 . 6 6 . 6 2 . 5 9 . 6 7 . 5 5 . 1 7 . 2 1 4 i.;o2 . 8 3 . 7 5 . 7 6 . 7 1 . 6 9 . 6 3 . 7 0 . 2 9 . 2 1 5 . 8 6 . 7 9 . 7 5 . 7 8 . 5 0 . 5 5 . 5 2 . 5 2 . 2 1 . 2 1 6 1 . 0 2 . 9 3 . 7 2 . 7 5 . 5 2 . 4 5 . 5 9 . 5 2 . 2 6 . 2 4 7 1 . 2 1 . 9 1 . 6 8 . 6 2 - . 0 3 . 1 6 . 1 5 . 1 0 . 3 6 . 1 4 8 . 7 6 . 6 2 . 6 9 . 6 2 . 4 1 . 3 0 . 5 3 . 2 1 . 1 4 . 0 7 9 . 7 1 . 6 2 . 7 1 . 7 0 . 6 9 . 5 6 . 7 8 . 5 5 . 1 4 .12 1 0 . 5 7 . 5 0 . 7 4 . 6 0 . 5 3 . 5 3 . 5 1 . 4 1 . 1 4 . 0 5 1 1 1 . 4 3 1 . 3 8 . 5 9 . 6 2 . 4 5 . 6 3 . 5 2 . 6 4 . 4 8 . 4 5 1 2 1 . 2 4 1 . 1 2 . 6 6 . 7 1 . 7 0 . 6 3 . 5 5 . 4 1 . 3 6 : . 3 1 1 3 1 . 1 0 1 . 1 9 . 6 2 . 7 1 . 6 3 . 6 4 . 5 2 . 4 5 7 2 4 . 3 6 1 4 1 . 2 9 1 . 1 0 . 7 4 . 7 6 . 7 5 . 7 5 . 7 0 . 6 2 . 4 5 . 3 3 1 5 . 7 1 . 7 1 . 6 7 . 8 1 . 43/ . 6 6 . 6 3 . 6 9 . 1 2 . 2 1 1 6 1 . 1 0 1 . 2 6 . 5 8 . 6 3 . 4 3 . 5 5 . 2 2 . 5 4 . 2 1 . 3 6 1 7 1 . 2 9 1 . 2 1 . 6 4 . 6 1 . 6 1 . 4 5 . 4 1 . 2 9 . 3 8 . 3 1 1 8 . 7 4 . 8 3 . 6 7 . 7 0 . 3 6 . 3 3 . 1 8 . 1 5 . 1 2 . 1 7 1 9 . 9 1 . 8 3 . 6 2 . 6 6 . 5 7 . 4 2 . 4 8 . 2 5 . 1 4 . 1 4 2 0 . 4 8 . 2 9 . 7 1 . 5 1 . 2 2 . 1 9 . 5 1 . 2 5 . 1 2 . 0 2 T A B L E D 4 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t W o r k S k i l l s o f t h e V C L ( 1 ) M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s r , r x , D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t t o t a l I t e m . S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 . 9 3 . 8 3 . 7 1 . 7 0 . 6 5 . 3 6 . 6 9 . 1 5 . 2 1 . 1 7 2 . 9 5 . 7 6 . 7 0 . 6 6 . 6 6 . 5 1 . 6 6 . 2 7 . 2 1 . 1 2 3 . 6 4 . 6 7 . 8 2 . 6 9 . 6 3 . 1 6 . 5 6 . 4 6 . 2 1 . 1 2 4 . 2 6 . 1 7 . 5 0 . 3 8 . 6 5 . 2 2 . 5 1 . 2 1 . 0 2 0 . 0 5 . 0 5 . 0 2 . 2 2 . 1 5 . 4 3 . 1 6 . 2 4 . 0 3 0 . 0 0 . 0 6 1 . 3 6 1 . 3 6 . 6 2 . 5 3 . 4 7 . 5 4 . 2 2 . 4 5 . 4 3 . 3 8 7 1 . 4 1 1 . 3 6 . 6 3 . 6 6 . 7 2 . 6 3 . 5 3 . 4 7 . 4 8 . 4 5 8 1 . 1 2 1 . 0 5 . 5 9 . 7 3 . 7 8 . 7 2 . 5 7 . 6 4 . 2 4 . 2 9 9 1 . 1 4 1 . 2 1 . 7 2 . 7 2 . 6 1 . 5 2 . 8 0 . 4 9 . 3 3 . 3 8 1 0 . 6 7 . 6 2 . 7 2 . 7 3 . 6 4 . 6 3 . 8 0 . 5 6 . 1 4 . 1 4 T A B L E D 5 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s u b t e s t A c c e p t a n c e S k i l l s o f t h e V C L ( 1 ) M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n r s u b t e s t r t o t a l D i f f i c u l t y I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 4 5 1 . 3 3 . 5 9 . 5 3 . 6 2 . 5 7 . 5 8 . 7 1 . 5 0 . 3 6 2 1 . 2 6 1 . 2 4 . 6 3 . 5 8 . 7 8 . 6 6 . 5 0 . 5 3 . 3 6 . 3 1 3 1 . 2 9 1 . 3 1 . 6 4 . 5 6 . 6 8 . 6 7 . 4 4 . 4 1 . 3 8 . 3 6 4 1 . 2 1 1 . 1 4 . 6 5 . 7 8 . 6 8 . 6 3 . 6 8 . 5 2 . 3 3 . 3 8 5 1 . 0 7 . 9 3 . 7 5 . 7 1 . 5 4 . 4 9 . 6 0 . 6 6 . 3 1 . 2 1 6 1 . 2 4 1 . 1 7 . 6 2 . 7 3 . 6 1 . 6 6 . 6 3 . 6 2 . 3 3 . 3 6 7 1 . 3 3 1 . 1 0 . 6 1 . 6 6 . 6 3 . 5 7 . 3 7 . 4 9 . 4 1 . 2 6 8 1 . 2 1 1 . 0 7 . 5 7 . 5 1 . 5 2 . 4 8 . 2 9 . 2 1 . 2 9 . 1 7 9 1 . 1 9 1 . 1 4 . 8 3 . 8 1 . 6 2 . 6 2 . 6 4 . 5 8 . 4 5 . 4 1 1 0 1 . 4 8 . 4 1 . 7 1 . 6 3 . 5 0 . 6 0 . 4 6 . 3 8 . 1 2 . 0 7 1 1 1 . 5 5 1 . 5 0 . 6 3 . 6 3 . 5 6 . 5 2 . 4 4 . 3 7 . 6 2 . 5 7 1 2 1 . 4 1 1 . 2 6 . 7 0 . 7 . 4 . 6 4 . 8 4 . 3 4 . 4 0 . 5 2 . 4 3 1 3 . 8 6 : 9 1 . 6 8 . 7 9 . 7 7 . 7 3 . 4 4 . 3 6 .17. . 2 6 1 4 . 7 9 .81 . 6 8 . 7 1 . 7 7 . 7 3 . 4 9 . 4 8 . 1 4 . 1 7 1 5 . 6 0 . 7 6 . 7 3 . 7 6 . 7 3 . 6 9 . 6 0 . 4 7 . 1 4 . 1 9 1 6 1 . 5 0 1 . 4 1 . 6 3 . 5 9 . 4 3 . 5 9 . 2 2 . 4 2 . 5 7 . 4 5 17 1 . 4 8 1 . 6 4 . 5 9 . 5 3 . 6 4 . 5 5 . 4 0 . 4 4 . 5 2 . 6 7 1 8 . 9 1 1 . 1 9 . 7 3 . 7 4 . 6 4 . 7 2 . 4 2 . 6 0 . 2 1 . 3 8 1 9 . 9 1 . 7 6 . 7 3 . 7 6 . 6 6 . 5 6 . 7 5 , . 6 9 . 2 1 . 1 9 2 0 . 6 9 . 6 2 . 6 8 . 7 0 . 5 9 . 6 4 . 5 8 . 4 6 . 1 2 . 1 2 242 Appendix E T A B L E E l C o r r e l a t i o n s o f s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e R C L ( 1 ) w i t h B i o d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s a n d m e n t a l a g e * L e n g t h a t L e n g t h o f T o t a l T i m e R S B S u b t e s t A g e S e x B e v a n P r e v i o u s i n M e n t a l L o d g e P l a c e m e n t I n s t i t u t i o n s A g e P e r s o n a l R o u t i n e s . 2 3 - . 0 1 . 0 4 . 3 0 . 2 6 - . 0 4 C l e a n l i n e s s . 0 1 - . 0 2 0 . 0 . 1 9 . 1 7 - . 2 4 A p p e a r a n c e , E a t i n g . 0 9 - . 0 1 - . 0 4 . 2 0 . 1 7 - . 2 2 R o o m M a n a g e m e n t . 2 5 . 2 0 . 1 4 . 2 4 . 2 4 - . 3 1 T i m e M a n a g e m e n t . 3 0 - . 1 6 - . 0 2 . 2 3 . 1 9 . 3 7 H e a l t h . 1 7 - . 1 0 . 0 1 . 2 0 . 1 8 . 3 9 C o m m u n i t y A w a r e n e s s . 1 8 - . 1 7 - . 0 3 . 1 2 . 1 0 . 3 8 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . 1 8 - . 2 8 - . 1 6 . 0 2 - . 0 2 . 4 4 S h o p p i n g . 2 0 - . 2 0 - . 1 1 . 1 0 . 0 6 . 5 0 L e i s u r e . 0 3 - . 0 4 - . 0 1 - . 0 2 - . 0 2 . 0 5 B u d g e t i n g . 2 6 - . 2 6 . 1 1 ' , . 2 7 . 2 5 . 4 3 C o o k i n g , H o m e M a n a g e m e n t . 1 1 - . 1 2 - . 1 3 . 1 9 . 1 9 . 1 5 S o c i a l M a t u r i t y . 2 6 - . 2 8 - . 1 5 . 2 0 . 1 4 . 3 0 C o m m u n i c a t i o n . 1 1 . 2 4 - . 1 3 . 1 7 . 1 2 . 5 8 C o n s i d e r a t i o n . 3 5 - . 1 8 - . 1 4 . 1 7 . 1 2 . 1 5 G e t t i n g F r i e n d s - . 0 2 - . 0 3 - . 2 0 . 0 4 - . 0 1 . 0 2 K e e p i n g F r i e n d s . 2 9 - . 2 8 - . 0 8 . 1 2 . 0 8 - . 0 3 H a n d l i n g P r o b l e m s . 2 7 - . 3 4 - . 0 3 . 2 3 . 1 9 . 2 6 T o t a l T e s t . 1 0 - . 1 0 - . 0 2 - . 0 1 - . 0 3 . 3 9 X N = 4 1 ; r c r i t i c a l = . 3 0 4 ( p ^ . 0 5 ) T A B L E E 2 C o r r e l a t i o n s o f s u b t e s t a n d t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e R C L (2j> w i t h b i o d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s a n d m e n t a l a g e L e n g t h a t L e n g t h o f T o t a l T i m e R S B S u b t e s t A g e S e x B e v a n P r e v i o u s i n M e n t a l L o d g e P l a c e m e n t I n s t i t u t i o n s A g e P e r s o n a l R o u t i n e s - . 0 5 . 0 1 - . 0 4 . 0 3 - . 0 2 . 3 7 C l e a n l i n e s s - . 1 2 . 0 5 - . 0 5 . 0 8 . 0 3 . 2 5 A p p e a r a n c e , E a t i n g - . 0 5 - . 1 6 - . 1 5 - . 0 2 - . 0 8 . 2 5 R o o m M a n a g e m e n t - . 1 9 . 3 5 . 0 5 . 0 2 - . 0 3 . 1 0 T i m e M a n a g e m e n t . 1 1 - . 1 3 . 0 7 . 1 2 . 1 2 . 3 4 H e a l t h . 0 6 - . 1 4 - . 0 9 - . 1 4 - . 1 2 . 4 2 C o m m u n i t y A w a r e n e s s . 2 4 - . 1 6 - . 0 2 - . 0 4 - . 0 4 . 4 2 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . 2 3 - . 2 9 - . 0 3 - . 0 4 - . 0 1 . 4 1 S h o p p i n g . . 2 0 - . 1 3 - . 0 6 - . 0 2 - . 0 3 . 4 4 L e i s u r e - . 1 1 - . 1 4 - . 1 8 . 2 1 - . 2 1 . 1 1 B u d g e t i n g . 4 0 - . 1 0 . 1 2 - . 1 1 . 1 3 . 2 7 C o o k i n g , H o m e M a n a g e m e n t . 1 6 . 1 7 . 1 1 - . 0 6 - . 0 4 . 2 4 S o c i a l M a t u r i t y . 0 8 - . 1 1 - . 0 1 . 0 1 - . 0 2 . 2 1 C o m m u n i c a t i o n . 1 1 - . 1 2 . 0 2 -CO 8 - . 0 5 . 3 4 C o n s i d e r a t i o n . 0 4 . 0 1 . 0 1 . 0 9 . 0 4 - . 2 1 G e t t i n g F r i e n d s - . 1 0 . 0 4 - . 0 3 - . 2 4 - . 2 2 . 3 5 K e e p i n g F r i e n d s . 1 6 - . 1 0 . 1 1 . 1 9 . 1 7 - . 0 1 H a n d l i n g P r o b l e m s . 0 7 - . 2 2 - . 1 1 . 1 0 . 0 4 . 2 4 T o t a l T e s t . 2 5 - . 1 7 - . 0 5 . 2 3 . 1 8 . 2 5 1 n = 4 0 ' c r i t i c a l - 3 0 8 ( P - - 0 5 ) T A B L E E 3 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e C l e a n l i n e s s s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 a n d 2 ) I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 6 3 1 . 5 6 . 4 9 . 5 0 . 7 2 . 5 3 . 4 4 . 1 8 . 6 3 . 5 8 2 1 . 7 3 1 . 7 3 . 4 5 . 5 1 . 7 1 . 6 2 . 3 2 . 0 6 . 7 3 . 7 5 3 1 . 6 1 1 . 5 8 . 5 4 . 5 9 . 6 5 . 6 5 . 2 9 . 2 9 . 6 3 . 6 3 4 1 . 3 7 1 . 3 5 . 6 2 . 6 2 . 8 0 . 8 0 . 5 1 . 3 2 . 4 4 . 4 3 5 1 . 5 6 1 . 5 3 . 5 9 . 6 0 . 6 9 . 7 7 . 4 1 . 2 6 . 6 1 . 5 8 6 1 . 4 6 1 . 4 3 . 5 6 . 5 5 . 8 4 . 8 9 . 4 9 . 2 9 . 4 9 . 4 5 7 1 . 3 2 1 . 4 5 . 6 5 . 6 0 . 7 5 . 7 8 . 2 6 . 3 1 . 4 2 . 5 0 8 1 . 2 4 1 . 1 8 . 7 0 . 7 1 . 8 0 . 8 0 . 4 1 . 4 2 . 3 9 . 3 5 9 1 . 1 0 1 . 1 0 . 7 7 . 6 3 . 5 2 . 5 3 . 8 0 . 4 2 . 3 4 . 2 5 1 0 1 . 4 4 1 . 4 3 . 5 0 . 6 4 . 6 1 . 7 4 . 4 9 . 2 0 . 4 4 . 5 0 T A B L E E 4 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e A p p e a r a n c e a n d E a t i n g s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 a n d 2 ) I t e m M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s u b t e s t t o t a l D i f f i c u l t y S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 0 1 . 3 9 1 . 1 5 1 . 5 6 1 . 5 5 1 . 4 2 1 . 4 5 1 . 5 4 1 . 3 5 1 . 3 7 1 . 3 0 1 . 8 1 1 . 8 0 1 . 6 1 1 . 4 8 1 . 7 8 1 . 8 0 1 . 7 8 1 . 8 8 1 . 5 9 1 . 3 5 . 5 9 . 5 0 . 6 3 . 5 1 . 5 4 . 4 0 . 5 0 . 4 2 . 4 8 . 5 9 . 7 0 . 6 0 . 5 5 . 6 2 . 6 9 . 4 1 . 7 2 . 4 1 . 3 4 . 5 8 . 4 2 . 5 6 . 3 3 . 8 4 . 5 7 . 7 9 . 7 9 . 4 7 . 4 4 , 6 6 . 3 7 . 4 5 . 5 8 . 4 8 . 5 9 . 6 6 , 6 2 . 6 4 . 6 2 . 4 5 . 4 4 . 3 0 . 2 9 . 1 6 . 3 0 . 6 7 . 6 2 . 5 9 . 4 2 . 3 2 . 1 9 . 4 5 . 2 9 . 4 2 . 4 5 . 3 2 . 5 8 . 4 2 . 4 3 . 5 5 . 4 4 . 5 6 . 4 9 . 5 4 . 3 9 . 8 1 . 6 6 . 7 8 . 8 1 . 6 3 . 3 3 . 6 0 . 4 8 . 4 3 . 4 3 . 8 0 . 6 0 . 8 0 . 8 8 . 4 0 to OS T A B L E E 5 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e R o o m M a n a g e m e n t s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 a n d 2 ) M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n r s u b t e s t r t o t a l D i f f i c u l t y I t e m — _ _ _ _ _ S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 . 3 4 1 . 1 0 1 . 5 1 1 . 4 0 1 . 3 9 1 . 4 0 1 . 4 2 1 . 4 8 1 . 1 5 1 . 1 5 1 . 3 7 1 . 4 5 1 . 3 2 1 . 3 3 1 . 1 7 1 . 1 8 1 0 . 4 9 , 5 9 , 3 8 , 7 3 , 5 8 , 5 5 . 5 4 , 5 5 . 6 2 . 5 8 . 5 7 . 6 7 . 7 1 . 7 4 . 7 1 . 6 7 . 7 1 . 6 0 . 6 6 . 6 8 . 6 9 . 7 5 . 6 3 . 7 2 . 4 3 . 5 2 . 6 7 . 6 9 . 6 8 . 6 6 . 7 3 . 6 2 . 4 4 . 3 7 . 6 4 . 6 4 . 7 4 . 7 2 . 7 6 . 7 2 . 7 9 . 7 7 . 3 2 . 6 4 , 3 2 . 4 0 . 2 0 . 0 6 . 2 6 . 5 1 . 4 4 . 2 1 . 4 7 . 4 1 . 2 6 . 3 1 . 4 5 . 3 6 . 2 1 . 5 6 . 6 1 . 3 2 . 5 6 . 5 2 . 3 9 . 5 4 . 4 2 . 4 4 . 2 7 , 4 2 . 3 7 . 3 2 . 1 2 . 1 5 . 3 0 . 5 0 . 5 3 . 5 3 . 3 0 . 5 5 . 4 5 . 3 8 . 0 8 . 1 5 T A B L E E 6 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e T i m e M a n a g e m e n t s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 a n d 2 ) M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n ' s u b t e s t r t o t a l D i f f i c u l t y I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 6 8 1 . 5 5 . 5 2 . 6 0 . 6 5 . 5 3 . 6 5 . 5 9 . 7 1 . 6 0 2 . 6 6 . 4 8 . 8 6 . 6 8 . 3 2 . 5 3 . 3 3 . 6 2 . 2 4 . 1 0 3 1 . 0 0 1 . 1 5 . 7 4 . 6 6 . 4 8 . 3 6 . 5 1 . 3 7 . 2 7 . 3 0 4 1 . 4 9 1 . 6 3 . 6 4 . 5 4 . 4 7 . 4 8 . 4 4 . 4 1 . 5 6 . 6 5 5 1 . 4 4 1 . 4 0 . 6 7 . 5 9 . 6 8 . 2 8 . 6 7 . 2 1 . 5 4 . 4 5 6 1 . 4 6 1 . 5 0 . 5 5 . 6 0 . 6 8 . 3 7 . 6 9 . 4 9 . 4 9 . 5 5 7 1 . 4 6 1 . 3 8 . 6 0 . 6 7 . 5 5 . 5 7 . 5 8 . 5 7 . 5 1 . 4 8 8 . 9 8 . 9 0 . 7 2 . 6 7 . 5 6 . 5 5 . 5 8 . 5 7 . 2 4 . 1 8 9 . 7 1 . 5 5 . 6 0 . 6 4 . 7 0 . 5 9 . 6 9 . 6 1 . 0 7 . 0 8 1 0 . 9 5 . 7 5 . 5 9 . 6 7 . 3 9 . 6 1 . 5 7 . 6 3 . 1 5 . 1 3 T A B L E E 7 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e H e a l t h s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 a n d 2 ) M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n i * ^ r A A . D i f f i c u l t y s u b t e s t t o t a l ^ I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 2 9 1 . 1 3 . 6 0 . 5 2 . 4 7 . 3 8 . 5 3 . 6 0 . 3 7 . 2 0 2 . 9 0 . 6 8 . 7 0 . 6 9 . 5 2 . 4 7 . 6 2 . 4 9 . 2 0 . 1 3 3 . 4 6 . 3 8 . 6 7 . 5 4 . 5 7 . 6 9 . 2 4 . 5 1 . 1 0 . 0 3 4 . 3 2 . 4 0 . 6 1 . 7 4 . 5 9 . 5 9 . 1 3 . 4 5 . 0 7 . 1 5 5 . 1 2 . 1 0 . 4 0 . 3 0 " . 6 9 . 5 0 . 4 2 . 4 1 . 0 2 0 . 0 6 1 . 4 4 1 . 2 5 . 6 3 . 7 7 . 0 8 . 2 1 . 2 8 . 2 2 . 5 1 . 4 5 7 . 9 0 . 9 0 . 6 6 . 6 7 . 4 8 . 5 1 . 3 4 . 5 4 . 1 7 . 1 8 8 1 . 6 3 1 . 5 3 . 4 9 . 6 0 . 3 7 . 4 5 . 2 6 . 3 5 . 6 3 . 5 8 9 . 8 3 . 6 5 . 7 0 . 8 0 . 5 1 . 6 0 . 2 4 . 6 6 . 1 7 . 2 0 1 0 . 2 2 . 1 5 . 5 3 . 3 6 . 4 6 . 6 1 . 3 9 . 5 3 . 0 5 0 . 0 T A B L E E 8 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 a n d 2 ) S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 0 7 1 . 1 0 . 6 5 . 6 7 . 6 4 . 5 8 . 4 5 . 4 7 . 2 4 . 2 8 2 1 . 5 4 1 . 4 3 . 5 1 . 5 9 . 5 8 . 3 4 . 6 1 . 4 7 . 5 4 . 4 8 3 1 . 4 2 1 . 3 0 . 6 3 . 6 9 . 6 4 . 5 0 . 5 5 . 3 8 . 4 9 . 4 3 4 . 8 8 . 7 0 . 8 1 . 7 6 . 8 3 . 7 6 . 6 0 . 7 0 . 2 7 . 1 8 5 . 7 1 . 7 3 . 8 1 . 8 2 . 6 2 . 7 3 . 3 8 . 5 8 . 2 2 . 2 3 6 . 3 9 . 3 5 . 5 9 . 6 2 . 6 9 . 6 5 . 3 9 . 5 0 . 0 5 . 0 8 7 . 4 4 . 5 0 . 5 9 . 7 2 . 6 7 . 4 8 . 4 6 . 4 4 . 0 5 . 1 3 8 1 . 2 4 1 . 2 3 . 7 3 . 8 0 . 5 9 . 5 4 . 4 7 . 3 3 . 4 2 . 4 5 9 1 . 2 4 1 . 0 5 . 7 0 . 7 5 . 6 9 . 6 3 . 4 9 . 5 1 . 3 9 . 3 0 1 0 . 2 4 . 2 5 . 5 4 . 4 9 . 6 1 . 6 1 . 4 3 . 6 4 . 0 5 . 0 3 T A B L E E 9 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e S h o p p i n g s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 a n d 2 ) I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 2 9 1 . 1 8 . 7 2 . 7 1 . 7 2 . 6 6 . 7 7 . 7 2 . 4 4 . 3 5 2 1 . 2 7 1 . 2 3 . 7 1 . 6 6 . 6 7 . 4 7 . 5 9 . 5 4 . 4 2 . 3 5 3 1 . 0 2 1 . 1 3 . 6 1 . 7 6 . 7 7 . 7 7 . 6 3 . 5 1 . 2 0 . 3 5 4 . 8 8 . 7 8 . 6 4 . 7 3 . 7 4 . 7 6 . 6 0 . 5 4 . 1 5 . 1 8 5 1 . 2 0 1 . 1 5 . 7 2 . 8 0 . 8 0 . 6 6 . 7 6 . 5 7 . 3 7 . 4 0 6 . 9 5 1 . 0 3 . 6 7 . 7 3 . 7 8 . 7 2 . 6 8 . 7 2 . 2 0 . 2 8 7 1 . 5 4 1 . 6 0 . 5 1 . 5 5 . 3 4 . 2 9 . 3 8 . 5 7 . 5 4 . 6 3 8 1 . 0 7 . 9 0 , . 6 9 . 6 7 . 8 0 . 6 2 . 7 8 . 5 9 . 2 7 . 1 8 9 . 6 8 . 4 3 . 6 1 . 5 0 . 8 0 . 5 6 . 7 3 . 4 8 . 0 7 0 . 0 1 0 . 6 6 . 5 5 . 6 2 . 6 8 . 4 8 . 6 3 . 5 2 . 6 3 . 0 7 . 1 0 T A B L E E 1 0 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e L e i s u r e s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 a n d 2 ) Item S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 2 4 1 . 1 5 . 7 0 . 6 6 . 3 2 . 5 3 . 2 0 . 4 1 . 3 9 . 3 0 2 1 . 2 9 1 . 2 0 . 6 8 . 7 2 . 3 3 . 5 5 . 1 3 . 2 7 . 4 2 . 3 8 3 . 7 3 . 5 5 . 5 9 . 7 5 . 2 6 . 6 0 . 3 2 . 6 1 . 0 7 . 1 5 4 1 . 4 6 . 1 4 0 . 6 4 . 6 3 . 2 9 . 5 5 . 3 4 . 3 2 . 5 4 . 4 8 5 1 . 4 2 1 . 6 3 . 6 7 . 4 9 . 2 9 . 3 9 . 2 3 . 3 6 . 5 1 . 6 3 6 . 6 6 . 6 3 . 7 9 . 8 4 . 2 9 . 4 6 . 1 0 . 3 8 . 2 0 . 2 3 7 . 4 2 . 4 8 . 7 4 . 7 5 . 4 0 . 2 3 . 0 9 . 1 8 . 1 5 . 1 5 8 . 7 6 . 8 0 . 8 0 . 7 9 . 4 0 . 3 5 . 1 2 . 3 3 . 2 2 . 2 3 9 . 0 7 . 2 8 . 3 5 . 6 0 . 3 2 . 6 5 . 1 5 . 5 4 . 0 2 . 0 8 1 0 . 3 4 . 4 3 . 5 3 . 6 4 . 4 3 . 6 5 . 4 1 . 6 1 . 0 2 . 0 8 T A B L E E l l I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e B u d g e t i n g s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 a n d 2 ) I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 2 7 1 . 2 0 . 5 9 . 6 1 . 4 3 . 5 2 . 4 9 . 6 2 . 3 4 . 3 0 2 1 . 1 7 1 . 1 8 . 5 9 . 6 4 - . 0 3 . 4 5 . 0 3 . 4 3 . 2 7 . 3 0 3 . 1 5 . 1 8 . 3 6 . 3 9 . 5 9 . 5 4 . 4 7 . 5 8 0 . 0 0 . 0 4 . 3 2 . 3 0 . 4 7 . 4 6 . 0 3 . 1 2 . 0 9 . 1 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 . 4 9 . 3 3 . 7 1 . 6 2 . 6 5 . 7 6 . 5 2 . 6 6 . 1 2 . 0 8 6 . 9 5 , . 9 5 . 6 3 . 7 8 . 5 4 . 3 5 . 4 0 . 3 9 . 1 7 . 2 8 7 . 3 9 . 2 5 . 5 9 . 4 9 . 4 9 . 6 2 . 5 0 . 6 2 . 0 5 . 0 3 8 . 4 2 . 2 5 . 5 9 . 4 4 . 5 9 . 7 2 . 4 3 . 6 2 . 0 5 0 . 0 9 . 1 7 . 3 0 . 5 0 . 5 2 . 5 4 . 4 6 . 4 2 . 3 5 . 0 5 . 0 3 1 0 . 2 7 . 3 0 . 5 0 . 5 6 . 4 6 . 4 4 . 3 3 . 3 6 . 0 2 . 0 5 T A B L E E 1 2 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e C o o k i n g a n d H o m e M a n a g e m e n t s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 a n d 2 ) s u b t e s t t o t a l ' I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 . 6 6 . 6 8 . 6 6 . 8 0 . 6 2 . 6 5 . 3 9 . 6 9 . 1 0 . 2 0 2 1 . 0 0 . 9 8 . 7 1 . 8 0 . 5 0 . 4 4 . 3 4 . 4 8 . 2 4 . 3 0 3 . 2 7 . 2 5 . 4 5 . 4 9 . 4 0 . 7 5 . 3 1 . 5 6 0 . 0 . 0 3 4 . 7 8 . 6 8 . 6 9 . 6 9 . 6 1 . 4 6 . 5 0 . 5 8 . 1 5 . 1 3 5 . 2 0 . 1 3 . 4 6 . 3 4 . 3 1 . 5 0 . 4 1 . 3 6 . 0 2 0 . 0 6 . 6 1 . 5 5 . 6 3 . 6 8 . 4 6 . 2 0 . 6 4 . 3 7 . 0 7 . 1 0 7 . 9 5 . 9 5 . 7 1 . 6 4 . 0 2 . 3 6 . 1 4 . 4 4 . 2 2 . 1 8 8 . 9 8 . 8 5 . 6 5 . 6 2 . 5 0 . 4 6 . 3 3 . 3 9 . 2 0 . 1 3 9 . 2 9 . 2 0 . 5 1 . 4 6 . 4 2 . 5 0 . 3 7 . 3 9 . 0 2 . 0 3 1 0 . 0 5 . 1 5 . 2 2 . 3 6 . 1 7 . 2 4 . 3 3 . 1 8 0 . 0 0 . 0 T A B L E E 1 3 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 a n d 2 ) M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n r s u b t e s t r t o t a l D i f f i c u l t y I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 2 4 1 . 2 3 . 6 6 . 6 6 . 6 7 . 6 1 . 5 9 . 4 0 . 3 7 . 3 5 2 1 . 6 8 1 . 6 5 . 6 1 . 5 8 . 4 4 . 6 5 . 5 9 . 4 9 . 7 6 . 7 0 3 1 . 6 3 1 . 6 0 . 5 8 . 7 1 . 7 3 . 6 7 . 6 0 . 4 9 . 6 8 . 7 3 4 1 . 2 0 1 . 1 3 . 7 2 . 7 2 . 6 4 . 5 8 . 5 5 . 6 4 . 3 7 . 3 3 5 1 . 3 9 1 . 3 8 . 6 7 . 7 1 . 5 7 . 6 9 . 4 6 . 6 0 . 4 9 . 5 0 6 . 9 0 . 7 3 . 7 7 . 8 2 . 6 4 . 7 2 . 5 9 . 6 8 . 2 4 . 2 3 7 1 . 1 0 1 . 0 0 . 7 0 . 7 5 . 4 5 . 5 1 . 4 4 . 4 3 . 2 9 . 2 8 8 . 2 7 . 3 0 . 5 5 . 6 1 . 5 2 . 5 6 . 4 0 . 4 5 . 0 5 . 0 8 9 . 5 4 . 4 8 . 7 1 . 7 5 . 4 0 . 5 4 . 4 4 . 4 8 . 1 2 . 1 5 1 0 . 4 9 . 4 8 . 6 0 . 6 4 . 4 2 . 4 5 . 4 1 . 2 9 . 0 5 . 0 8 T A B L E E 1 4 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e C o n s i d e r a t i o n s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 a n d 2 ) s u b t e s t t o t a l " m " " u l ' I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 7 1 1 . 7 0 . 5 6 . 4 6 . 4 2 . 3 4 . 4 1 . 4 3 . 7 6 . 7 0 2 1 . 5 4 1 . 6 5 . 5 5 . 5 8 . 5 1 . 5 3 . 3 1 . 4 3 . 5 6 . 7 0 3 1 . 4 6 1 . 5 3 . 6 4 . 6 0 . 6 3 . 6 6 . 1 7 . 4 5 . 5 4 . 5 8 4 1 . 3 7 1 . 5 3 . 6 2 . 5 5 . 3 3 . 5 8 . 2 2 . 3 9 . 4 4 . 5 5 5 1 . 5 6 1 . 5 0 . 6 7 . 7 5 . 5 9 . 6 6 . 3 1 . 4 3 . 6 6 . 6 5 6 1 . 2 9 1 . 3 8 . 7 5 . 6 3 . 4 0 . 6 6 . 2 6 . 5 0 . 4 6 . 4 5 7 1 . 3 7 1 . 4 8 . 6 6 . 6 8 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 0 9 . 3 2 . 4 6 . 5 8 8 1 . 4 2 1 . 4 5 . 5 9 . 6 0 . 4 2 . 6 7 . 0 3 . 4 2 . 4 6 . 5 0 9 . 9 0 1 . 2 0 . 7 0 . 7 2 . 0 5 . 4 4 . 0 4 . 4 9 . 2 0 . 3 8 1 0 . 9 8 1 . 0 5 . 7 2 . 7 5 . 1 1 . 3 7 . 3 6 . 5 8 . 2 4 . 3 0 T A B L E E 1 5 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e G e t t i n g F r i e n d s s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 a n d 2 ) I t s u b t e s t t o t a l S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 8 3 1 . 8 3 . 3 8 . 3 9 . 6 4 . 3 4 . 4 7 . 1 0 . 8 3 . 8 3 2 1 . 8 8 1 . 9 0 . 3 3 . 3 0 . 4 1 . 3 6 . 4 8 . 5 1 . 8 8 . 9 0 3 1 . 8 1 1 . 7 5 . 4 0 . 4 9 . 5 2 . 5 1 . 5 3 . 3 8 . 8 1 . 7 8 4 1 . 2 0 1 . 2 3 . 7 8 . 7 7 . 3 9 . 5 1 . 4 7 . 5 1 . 4 2 . 4 3 5 1 . 3 2 1 . 2 3 . 6 1 . 5 8 . 4 9 . 2 6 . 3 8 . 3 9 . 3 9 . 3 0 6 1 . 3 9 1 . 2 0 . 6 7 . 6 9 . 5 1 . 6 4 . 6 5 . 6 1 . 4 9 . 3 5 7 1 . 1 2 . 7 8 . 6 8 . 7 0 . 5 0 . 5 2 . 3 4 . 5 4 . 2 9 . 1 5 8 1 . 2 7 1 . 3 3 . 6 3 . 6 2 . 3 9 . 4 4 . 2 9 . 3 2 . 3 7 . 4 0 9 1 . 6 6 1 . 7 0 . 5 3 . 5 2 . 4 4 . 2 6 . 4 5 . 2 3 . 6 8 . 7 3 1 0 1 . 1 5 1 . 0 3 . 6 5 . 7 7 . 4 4 . 1 6 . 3 5 . 2 2 . 2 9 . 3 0 T A B L E E 1 6 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e K e e p i n g F r i e n d s s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 a n d 2 ) S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 5 1 1 . 4 8 . 6 0 . 6 0 . 2 3 . 2 5 . 2 3 . 4 1 . 5 6 . 5 3 2 1 . 2 7 1 . 2 8 . 5 9 . 6 0 . 1 8 . 6 2 . 1 4 . 4 6 . 3 4 . 3 5 3 . 8 5 . 9 3 . 6 2 . 6 9 . 2 2 . 2 5 . 2 0 . 1 1 . 1 2 . 2 0 4 1 . 0 2 1 . 1 3 . 4 7 . 5 2 . 0 9 . 3 5 . 0 3 . 1 2 . 1 2 . 2 0 5 1 . 0 0 1 . 0 8 . 7 1 . 6 2 . 4 0 . 2 0 . 4 6 . 4 1 . 2 4 . 2 3 6 . 8 3 . 8 8 . 6 7 . 6 5 . 3 9 . 3 0 . 3 2 . 3 5 . 1 5 . 1 5 7 1 . 1 5 1 . 0 0 . 6 2 . 6 4 . 1 5 . 4 5 . 1 4 . 1 7 . 2 7 . 2 0 8 . 6 6 . 7 8 . 6 2 . 7 0 . 3 2 . 4 7 . 4 0 . 4 1 . 0 7 . 1 5 9 . 9 8 . 9 0 . 6 9 . 6 7 . 4 7 . 4 4 . 3 0 . 2 7 . 2 2 . 1 8 1 0 . 8 1 . 8 3 . 6 4 . 5 9 . 5 2 . 6 2 . 3 4 . 4 7 . 1 2 . 1 0 T A B L E E 1 7 I t e m a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e H a n l d i n g P r o b l e m s s u b t e s t o f t h e R C L ( 1 a n d 2 ) M e a n S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n Subtest r t o t a l D i f f i c u l t y I t e m S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 S I S 2 1 1 . 7 1 1 . 6 5 . 4 6 . 4 8 . 3 5 . 6 2 . 4 5 . 4 4 . 7 1 . 6 5 2 1 . 0 7 . 9 3 . 6 9 . 6 6 . 5 9 . 5 9 . 4 5 . 5 2 . 2 7 . 1 8 3 . 7 3 . 8 0 . 5 0 . 6 1 . 7 3 . 7 0 . 5 8 . 6 3 . 0 2 . 1 0 4 . 9 3 1 . 0 0 . 6 5 . 7 5 . 5 7 . 5 0 . 4 0 . 6 2 . 1 7 . 2 8 5 . 7 8 . 6 5 . 6 1 . 5 8 . 4 0 . 4 6 . 4 0 . 6 4 . 1 0 . 0 5 6 1 . 0 5 1 . 0 8 . 5 9 . 6 2 . 4 5 . 3 7 . 2 7 . 4 2 . 2 0 . 2 3 7 1 . 5 1 1 . 6 0 . 5 1 . 5 0 . 4 3 . 4 1 . 4 5 . 3 3 . 5 1 . 6 0 8 1 . 1 7 1 . 0 5 . 6 3 . 6 4 . 4 1 . 2 9 . 3 4 . 2 5 . 2 9 . 2 3 9 . 8 8 1 . 0 5 . 6 0 . 7 5 . 4 1 . 2 2 . 2 3 . 1 6 . 1 2 . 3 0 1 0 . 7 8 . 5 8 . 6 1 . 5 5 . 5 7 . 4 2 . 5 8 . 3 6 . 1 0 . 0 3 260 A p p e n d i x F 2 6 1 E x a m p l e s o f R e p o r t e d I n c i d e n t s o f M a l a d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r s  a n d t h e D o m a i n ( A B S P a r t I I ) i n w h i c h t h e y w e r e C l a s s e d V i o l e n t a n d D e s t r u c t i v e B e h a v i o r 1 . M . E . s l a p p e d P . S , a c r o s s t h e f a c e . 2 . J . C . b r o k e ' a n o t h e r ' a s h t r a y i n t h e d i n i n g r o o m . 3 . D . L . t o r e t h e b u t t o n s o f f t h e c h e s t e r f i e l d i n t h e l o u n g e . 4 . L . S . p u n c h e d a r e s i d e n t f o r u s i n g t h e b a t h r o o n ( L . S . ) h a d j u s t c l e a n e d . A n t i s o c i a l B e h a v i o r 1 . J . C . n o i s y u n t i l 1 a . m . 2 . J . C . p l a y i n g r a d i o l o u d l y a t b e d t i m e a n d d i s t u r b i n g e v e r y o n e . 3 . L . S . u p s e t , u s e d v e r y a b u s i v e l a n g u a g e . R e b e l l i o u s B e h a v i o r 1 . J . C . m a d e u n a u t h o r i z e d l o n g d i s t a n c e c a l l ' a g a i n ' . 2 . K . B . r e f u s e d t o e a t d i e t d e s e r t . U n t r u s t w o r t h y B e h a v i o r 1 . P . W . u s i n g o t h e r p e o p l e ' s r a d i o s w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n . 2 . J . L . t o o k C . E . ' s r i n g . 3 . A . L . c a u g h t g o i n g t h r o u g h K . L . ' s d r a w e r s . 4 . P . W . t o o k S . M . ' s r i n g s a n d s w e a t e r . S e l f - A b u s i v e B e h a v i o r 1 . J . S . s c r a t c h e d h a n d s t i l l b l e e d i n g . H y p e r a c t i v e T e n d e n c i e s 1 . J . C . h y p e r a c t i v e a l l e v e n i n g . 2 . J . C . w o u l d n o t s t o p t a l k i n g a l l e v e n i n g . 2 6 2 S e x u a l l y A b e r r r a n t B e h a v i o r 1 . J . L . c a u g h t i n l o u n g e w i t h h i s h a n d s w h e r e t h e y s h o u l d n ' t b e a f e m a l e r e s i d e n t . P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i s t u r b a n c e s 1 . M . M . w e n t t o R . C . M . P . i n C o u r t e n a y t o g e t h i m s e l f c o m m i t t e d ; a g i t a t e d . 2 . L . S . u p s e t , c r y i n g ; s a i d e v e r y o n e h a t e s h e r . 3 . S . F . f a k e d a s e i z u r e . 2 6 3 T A B L E F l R e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s o f M a l a d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r , c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d o m a i n s o f t h e A B S P a r t I I D o m a i n M e a n N o . o f I n c i d e n t s T o t a l N o . o f I n c i d e n t s N o . o f P e r s o n i n N I N N o . o f P e r s o n i n L I N N o . o f P e r s o n i n H I N V i o l e n t a n d D e s t r u c t i v e B e h . 2 . 3 7 4 5 3 2 12 7 A n t i s o c i a l B e h . 3 . 2 5 3 9 3 9 8 4 R e b e l l i o u s B e h . 3 . 0 0 3 3 4 0 7 4 U n t r u s t w o r t h y B e h . 2 . 1 7 1 3 4 5 5 1 W i t h d r a w a l 0 0 5 1 0 0 S t e r e o t y p e d B e h . & O d d M a n . 0 0 5 1 0 0 I n a p p r o p r i a t e I n t e r -P e r s o n a l M a n n e r s 0 0 5 1 0 - 0 U n a c c e p t a b l e V o c a l H a b i t s 0 0 • 5 1 0 0 U n a c c e p t a b l e o r E c c e n t r i c H a b i t s 0 0 5 1 0 0 S e l f - A b u s i v e B e h . 4 . 0 0 4 5 0 0 1 H y p e r a c t i v e T e n d . 3 . 5 0 7 4 9 1 1 S e x u a l l y A b e r . B e h . , 2 . 0 0 2 5 0 0 1 P s y c h o l . D i s t u r b . 2 . 2 3 2 9 3 8 1 0 3 2 6 4 T A B L E F 2 M e a n s c o r e s f o r n o , l o w a n d h i g h i n c i d e n t s g r o u p s o n s u b t e s t s o f t h e A B S P a r t I I a n d o n r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s o f M a l a d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S u b t e s t C r i t i c a l A B S ( 1 ) A B S ( 2 ) I n c i d e n t s NIN LIN HIN NIN LEST HIN NIN LIN HIN V i o l e n t a n d . 8 3 2 . 7 3 1 . 8 6 . 9 0 1 . 5 8 2 . 1 7 0 . 0 1 . 0 8 4 . 5 7 D e s t r u c t i v e B e h . A n t i s o c i a l B e h . 2 . 3 2 3 . 6 3 1 3 . 6 7 3 . 7 8 3 . 7 5 3 . 0 0 0 . 0 . 7 3 7 . 0 0 R e b e l l i o u s B e h . 2 . 8 9 3 . 0 0 1 1 . 6 7 2 . 4 5 5 . 8 6 4 . 6 7 0 . 0 1 . 2 9 6 . 0 0 U n t r u s t w o r t h y B e h . . 3 1 3 . 0 0 1 6 . 0 0 . 5 0 1 . 2 0 6 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 . 2 0 7 . 0 0 P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i s t . 3 . 9 4 5 . 2 2 1 6 . 6 7 6 . 2 2 7 . 3 0 4 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 . 2 0 5 . 6 7 2 6 5 T A B L E C o m b i n e d m e a n s c o r e s f o r n o , o n s u b t e s t s o f t h e A B S P a r t I I F 3 l o w a n d h i g h i n c i d e n t s g r o u p s f o r s a m p l e s o n e a n d t w o . A B S ( 1 ) a n d ( 2 ) C o m b i n e d S u b t e s t N I N L I N H I N V i o l e n t a n d D e s t r u c t i v e . 8 7 2 . 1 3 2 . 0 0 B e h a v i o r A n t i s o c i a l B e h a v i o r 3 . 0 5 3 . 6 9 8 . 3 4 R e b e l l i o u s B e h a v i o r 2 . 6 7 4 . 4 3 8 . 1 7 U n t r u s t w o r t h y B e h a v i o r . 4 1 2 . 1 0 1 1 . 0 0 P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i s t u r b a n c e 5 . 0 6 6 . 3 1 1 0 . 3 4 2 6 6 C o r r e l a t i o n s o f s u b t e s t s o f t h e A F I a n d A B S P a r t I t h a t w e r e c o m b i n e d i n t h e m u l t i t r a i t - m u l t i m e t h o d m a t r i c e s T A B L E F 4 A F I L a n g . D e v . A B S ( 1 ) L a n g . D e v . A B S ( 2 ) R e a d i n g W r i t i n g C o m m u n i c a t i o n . 6 4 . 6 6 . 5 9 . 6 4 . 6 5 . 6 6 T A B L E F 5 A F I N T C A B S ( 1 ) N T C A B S ( 2 ) N u m b e r s T i m e . 4 9 . 5 5 . 5 1 . 4 6 T A B L E F 6 A F I A p p . + E a t . A F I 3 . ( 1 ) A p p . + E a t . . A F I 3 ( 2 ) A p p e a r a n c e E a t i n g S k i l l s . 4 8 . 5 4 . 4 2 . 4 1 2 6 7 T A B L E F 7 A B S R M . M A N . A F I 3 ( 1 ) R M . M A N . A F I 3 ( 2 ) C l e a n i n g . 4 2 . 6 4 C a r e o f C l o t h i n g . 1 5 . 5 6 T A B L E F 8 A B S C K . H M . M A N . A F I 3 ( 1 ) C K . H M . M A N . A F I 3 ( 2 ) K i t c h e n D u t i e s . 4 7 . 2 7 O c c . D o m . G e n . . 3 8 . 2 6 T A B L E F 9 A B S I N D . A F I 1 M A K . D E C . A F I 1 I N D . A F I 2 M A K . D E C A F I 2 I n i t i a t i v e . 3 5 . 4 2 . 5 1 . 3 2 P e r s i s t e n c e . 4 2 . 4 0 . 6 3 . 3 9 G e n . S e l f . D i r . . . 2 5 . 1 8 . 4 8 . 1 6 2 6 8 T A B L E F 1 0 A F I S O C . A B S 1 S O C . A B S 2 C o m m u n i c a t i o n . 1 5 . 3 5 C o n s i d e r a t i o n . 0 9 . 3 1 G e t t i n g F r i e n d s . 4 2 . 4 5 K e e p i n g F r i e n d s . 3 2 . 2 0 H a n d l i n g P r o b . . 3 7 . 2 6 T A B L E F l l A F I O C C . G E N . 1 O C C . G E N . 2 U s e , C a r e E q u i p m e n t . 1 8 . 5 6 T a s k A n a l y s i s . 1 7 . 2 4 P u n c t u a l i t y . 2 2 . 2 7 

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