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The phonological, morphological and syntactical patterns of standard colloquial Bengali and the Noakhali… Morshed, Abul Kalam Manzur 1972

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THE PHONOLOGICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL AND SYNTACTICAL PATTERNS OF STANDARD COLLOQUIAL BENGALI AND THE NOAKHALI DIALECT : by ABUL KALAM MANZUR MORSHED MIA.., University of Dacca, 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Linguistics We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1972 In present ing th i s thes i s in pa r t i a l f u l f i lment o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r ee l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I f u r ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes i s for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i c a t i on of th i s thes i s f o r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of L i n g u i s t i c s The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date December 1 9 , 1 9 7 2 . ABSTRACT Standard Colloquial Bengali (SCB) is the language used by the majority of educated speakers at the present time i n Bangladesh and West Bengal. In contrast with this standard language there are dialects of Bengali sufficiently different to be unintelligible to SCB speakers. One of these i s the Noakhali Dialect, spoken i n the southern part of the country on the border of the Bay of Bengal. It is a somewhat isolated region, which explains at least i n part the development of this divergent form of the language. The Noakhali Dialect (ND) differs from SCB at a l l linguistic levels; phonological, morphological and syntactical, as well as in lexicon. The aim of this thesis i s to make a comparative and contrastive study of the standard language and the dialect at a l l these levels i n order to establish the degree of their divergence. It is essentially a synchronic study, so that, i n general, no attempt i s made to link the present-day forms with possible ances-t r a l sources in Sanscrit. For the phonological and morphological analyses, the generative approach of Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle has been used, which involves a study of distinctive features. Special emphasis is given to the phenomenon of gemination, and vocalic and consonantal alter-nation. The phonological structure of the morphemes of each language has been reduced to rules, and the sets of inflectional and derivational morphemes are described in some detail. As an approach to syntax, noun-phrase rules and verb-phrase rules have been elaborated for both languages. On the whole, however, SCB and ND di f f e r l i t t l e i n their broader syntactical patterning so that a detailed study of their syntax would contribute l i t t l e to a contrastive analysis. Thus the main emphasis of the present study i s at the level of phonology and morphology, where significant contrasts can be brought out, once the generative theories have been adapted to suit a language like Bengali which is more highly inflected than English. R. J. Gregg i v Contents Abbreviations v i i i Acknowledgement - i Chapter one: Introduction 1 1.1 Introductory remarks 1 1.2 Methodology 5 1 . 3 . . . . 6 1.4 Dialect situations 7 1.5 Classification of the dialects 8 1.6 9 1.7 Siob-groupings of the Noakhali dialects 10 1.75 Informants 17 1.76 Dialect atlas 19 Chapter two: Phonology 2.0 Introductory remarks 20 2.1 CIassificatory method 21 2.10 Classification of SCB segments 22 2.11 Classification of ND segments 25 2.12 Discussion of ND vocalic segments 29 2.13 Binary features of the vocalic segments 29 2.2 Diphthongs 31 2.20 Discussion 31 2.21 Description of SCB diphthongs 31 V 2.22 Description of ND diphthongs 34 2.3 Consonant clusters 37 2.4 Gemination 44 2.5 Suprasegmental features 49 2.50 Introductory remarks 49 2.54 Juncture 50 2.55 Length 52 2.6 Phonetic alterations of the vowels 54 2.60 Introductory remarks 54 2.61 Epenthesis 54 2.62 Prosthesis 56 2.63 Anaptyxis 56 2.64 Vowel harmony 59 2.65 Nasalization 62 2.7 Phonetic alterations of the consonants 66 2.70 Introductory remarks 66 2.71 Assimilation 66 2.8 Spirantization 69 2.9 Nonaspiration 70 2.10 Voicing 73 2.11 Nonpalatalization 75 2.12 Zero modification 79 2.13 Retroflexion 81 2.14 Glottalization 82 v i Chapter three,: Morphology 3. Morphology 84 3.0 Introductory remarks 84 3.1 Free and bound morphemes 84 3.2 Affixes 85 3.3 Examples of the prefixes used in ND 85 3.4 Suffixes in SCB 86 3.5 Examples of the suffixes in SCB 87 3.6 Suffixes used in ND 89 3.7 90 3.8 Derivational morphemes 92 3.9 Noun-forming morphemes 92 3.10 94 3.100 Morphemic combinations 95 3.11 The morphemic structure (MS) rules 96 Chapter four: Syntax 4.0 Noun-phrase rules 104 4.1 Discussion 104 4.2 Nouns in NP position 105 4.3 Pronouns in NP position 107 4.4 Prenouns 108 4.41 Quantifiers 109 4.42 Noncount quantifiers 110 4.43 Comparative quantifiers 110 v i i 4.5 Case 112 4.6 Number 115 4.7 Plural formations 116 4.70 Pronouns 116 4.71 Plural formations for personal pronouns 117 4.72 Other rules for plural formation 118 4.720 Plural formations for count nouns 119 4.73 Possessive formations of the personal and relative pronouns 119 4.730 Possessive formations for nouns and indefinite pronouns 121 4.8 Verb-phrase rules 125 4.80 Verbs 126 4.9 Tense 130 4.90 Tense formations 132 4.91 The auxiliary position 133 Chapter five: Concluding remarks 5. 136 Bibliography Bibliography 152 y Abbreviations JOASA = The Journal of the Acoustic Society of America ND no date (of publication) Lg. = Language DCRN = Dis t r i c t Census Report: Noakhali, 1961 (Population Census of Pakistan, 1961) Census 61, P. No. 105 Special Symbols [ ] = phonetic / / = phonemic £ 3 = morphemic === = corresponds to becomes or rewritten as —» + = internal close juncture (in generative phonology + i s used to show the presence of some properties) minus (absence of some feature) # = sentence or word boundary (#-:occurring i n i t i a l l y ; -#: occurring finally) ( ) = optional Vocabulary symbols Adj = adjective Adv = adverb NP = noun phrase _ = noun VP = verb phrase V = verb * t = t r a n s i t i v e verb. Y i n t = i n t r a n s i t i v e verb V2ob = verb with, two objects Aux = a u x i l i a r y verb ca = Case Nom = nominative (Case) Ac = accusative (Case) Ins = instrumental (Case) D = dative (Case) Ab = a b l a t i v e (Case) L l o c a t i v e (Case) poss = possessive (Case) Det = determiner G- = gender Int = intensifier • N a b - abstract noun H a = animate noun % a = inanimate noun M u = number MV = main verb past = past tense per = person P] -,-= - i : second person t h i r d person X Sg = singular PI - plural PP = prepositional phrase Pr = pronoun Prep = preposition Pres .= present (tense) Pit = particle S sentence Hon = honorific Non = honhonorific Com = common T tense V vowel C consonant ph = f u l l y aspirated b i l a b i a l stop ph = p a r t i a l l y aspirated b i l a b i a l stop s i Acknowledg ement I t i s my p r i v i l e g e to acknowledge my indebtness to various people f o r the ways i n which, they a s s i s t e d me i n completing the present t h e s i s . f i r s t of a l l , I wish, to show my gratitude to professor B a r r i e M.Morrison who constantly encouraged .and helped me i n writing the thesis.professor Morrison appointed me a Research Assistant i n summer 1 9 7 0 during the period of turmoil i n Bangladesh,when I d i d not have the means to support myself.He also arranged a fellowship from, the Association for Asian studies,Inc.,University of Michigan and allowed me to use h i s o f f i c e and .hooks.Heedless to say,I could not have overcome my hardships without h i s help and co-operation.It w i l l he d i f f i c u l t f o r me to repay the debt;;I. awe to him.To Mr.Essop Mia,I express my gratitude f o r correcting my English and sparing h i s valuable time i n improving the quality of the thesis.He spent a large amount of time i n discussing various problems with me and came to help everytime he was c a l l e d . I would l i k e to thank Professor (Mrs.)Bonnie McDougal f o r her assistance i n preparing my comprehensive examination and her valuable suggestions regarding the c o l l e c t i o n of data.To professor Robert J Gregg i express my thanks f o r h i s help of d r a f t i n g the thesis and h i s valuable suggestions i n the f i e l d of phonology.lt was professor Gregg who f i r s t introduced me to generative phonology and helped to correct the t h e s i s . I would li k e to thank professor Bernard Saint-Jacques for his comments and suggestions regarding the thesis.I am grateful to the Association of Asian studies,Inc.,at the university of Michigan,for offering me the fellowship for the 1970—1971 session,and summer grant i n 1971,without which I could not have completed this thesis.professor Richard L.Park,Secretary-Treasurer of the Association and Mr.George zeidenstein of the ford foundation of New York,always showed their interest and provided a l l the help necessary to me.Q?o Rev .D. Hay ward, Dean of Carey Hall,my thanks for. his assistance in keeping body and soul together.finally,I am thankful to my informants, particularly to Mr.M.A.Matin,for sparing their time for the questionnaire. 1 Chapter 1 1 . c The p r e s e n t study I s based on the p h o n o l o g i c a l , m o r p h o l o . g i c a l and s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n s o f Standard C o l l o q u i a l B e n g a l i (SCB) and the H o a k h a l i D i a l e c t ( N D ) . I t has been e s s e n t i a l l y c o n t r a s t i v e i n n a t u r e . B e n g a l i hasAnumher of d i a l e c t s , , which v a r y i n g r e a t degree i n t h e i r phonology and morphology,and i n some degree i n syntax.. The H o a k h a l i d i a l e c t which i s spoken i n s o u t h e r n Bangladesh,was compared i n t h i s study w i t h s t a n d a r d c o l l o q u i a l - B e n g a l i , i n terms o f phonology,morphology and syntax.The study i s s y n c h r o n i c i n • n a t u r e as b o t h SCB and ND a r e spoken a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e and b o t h the forms a r e shown a t a l e v e l which correspond.The c o n t r a s t i v e mode, o f study i s h e l p f u l i n t h e sense t h a t the degrees of v a r i a t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y of. the two forms o f B e n g a l i becomes clear, t h r o u g h comparison.The g e n e r a t i v e model of Chomsky and H a l l e has been a p p l i e d t o d e s c r i b e the phonology and morphology o f SCB and ND. The p h o n o l o g i c a l s e c t i o n i s b r o a d l y d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s u b - s e c t i o n s , i n the f i r s t s u b - s e c t i o n , t h e i n v e n t o r y o f phonemes of SCB and ND has been c l a s s i f i e d and l a t e r the d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f the language have been d e s c r i b e d . I n the second s u b - s e c t i o n i s a " d i s c u s s i o n of the t h r e e main v o c a l i c and c o n s o n a n t a l f e a t u r e s which i n c l u d e diphthongs f o r v o c a l i c s , c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r s f o r c o n s o n a n t a l s and suprasegmental f e a t u r e s i n g e n e r a l . i n the f i n a l s e c t i o n , t h e p h o n e t i c a l t e r a t i o n s o f the v o c a l i c and c o n s o n a n t a l segments a r e d e s c r i b e d w i t h f e a t u r e - r u l e s . 2 I n morphology,the m o r p h o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s o f SGB and ND a r e shown i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s . s t r e s s i s p l a c e d on the f o r m a t i o n ., of. morphemes,the way the morphemic elements combine t o g e t h e r and and p l a y f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s in, morphology .In s e c t i o n 1 , a g e n e r a i d i s c u s s i o n on morphemes i s f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n of the n a t u r e of SCB and ND m o r p h e m e s . I n f l e c t i o n a l and d e r i v a t i o n a i morphemes are d e s c r i b e d in. d e t a i l showing t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n SCB and HJD.In a d d i t i o n , the Morphemic s t r u c t u r e (MS) r u l e s of H a l l e have been a p p l i e d t o show the morphemic s t r u c t u r e s of the language.Some o f the MS r u l e s are p r e d i c t i b l e f o r the morphemic combinations, of the segments. These a r e q u i t e r e g u l a r i n HJ),,especially where morphemes are composed o f more t h a n one. CC and YV. sequence.;, i n t h e n e x t sections,.the Noun-phrase r u l e s (NP r u l e s ) and. the verb-phrase (VP r u l e s ) i n t r o d u c i n g i n f l e c t i o n a l markers have been d i s c u s s e d as t h e nouns and the v e r b s of SCB and ED a r e i n f l e c t e d f o r some grammatical c a t e g o r i e s , s u c h as tense,.person and number. No attempt has been made to. d e s c r i b e the s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n of SCB. and ND,as b o t h SCB and ND have almost i d e n t i c a l , p a t t e r n s , w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s .The most divergent • > p a t t e r n s a r e n o t i c e a b l e i n phonology and morphology,where they have d i f f e r e n t L e x i c o n s , p h o n e t i c v a r i a t i o n s , n o n - i d e n t i c a l a f f i x e s and MS r u l e s . 1 . 1 . There have n o t been any e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s i n the pas t on these 1 or any ot h e r d i a l e c t s of B e n g a l i ,except some s c a t t e r e d essays, 1 The most e x t e n s i v e work has been done i n Bangladesh under the B e n g a l i Academy,Dacca,which was founded f o r the promotion of the 3 1 2 whd.cn. c o u l d he found on H o a k h a l i , and oth e r d i v e r g e n t d i a l e c t s •. Some of them arse worth mentioning h e r e . a; Go-pal Haider* 1929 " A. i B r i e f p h o n e t i c s k e t c h o f the H o a k h a l i D i a l e c t o f S o u t h - E a s t e r n Bengali,," C a l c u t t a U n i v e r s i t y j o u r n a l o f the Dept.of L e t t e r s , v o l . x i x , p p . 1 - 4 0 . b) Gopal Haider,1933 " A S k e l e t o n Grammar of the H o a k h a l i D i a l e c t o f Bengali,» ibid.,, v o l . x x i i i , pp. 1 -3&. c} Krishnapada Goswaml, 1 y40-194.1 ^ L i n g u i s t i c Notes on C h i t t a g o n g B e n g a l i , " I n d i a n L i n g u i s t i c s , v o l . v i i i , . p a r t s 2-3,,pp. 111 -162. B e n g a l i language and l i t e r a t u r e . U n d e r t h e i r a u s p i c e s s e v e r a l volumes of the B e n g a l i D i a l e c t D i c t i o n a r y have been p u b l i s h e d w i t h l i n g u i s t i c nates.The.method used i s i d e n t i c a l i n na t u r e t o t h a t o f the German d i a l e o t o l o g i s t G . W e n k e r . D i a l e c t a l wards were c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h l o c a l i n f o r m a n t s and s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and s o r t e d l a t e r by the language e x p e r t s i n r e g i o n a l d i a l e c t s . It. was compiled and e d i t e d by M.shahidullah.However,no attempt has y e t been made i n west Bengal t o compile any suc h d i a l e c t d i c t i o n a r y . 1 Except G.opal H a i d e r ' s two a r t i c l e d . 2 worth mentioning here i s the S y l h e t i Bhasatatter. Bhumika ( s i l e T i b h a s a t a t t e r bhumika)'An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S y l h e t i L i n g u i s t i c s ' , b y Shibprasanna L a h i r i ^ B e n g a l i Academy,Dacca (ND). 4 d) Munier. chowdhury,1960 "The Language pro h i em. i n East Pakistan.," IJAL,,vol. 26,J.o. 3,,pt. 3, pp. b4-78. e) M...-«A't>dul Hai,19b5 "A Study of Ohittagong D i a l e c t , " Studies i n P a k i s t a n i Linguistics,, v o l .v,.pp. 1 7-38-. f) M.Abdul Hai,19b6 "A Study of S y l h e t i D i a l e c t , " P a k i s t a n i L i n g u i s t i c s , v o l . v i i , pp. 2i>-33. g) Punya Sloka Ray,lybb "Chittagong Dialect,«" Bengali Language Handbook,pp.89-97. h) M.A.Hai,1966 "Dacca D i a l e c t , " "ibid,pp.80-88." An addit i o n to these i s the monumental work done by George Abraham Grierson,the twenty volumes of the " L i n g u i s t i c Survey of India" (1903-1928). Grierson made a t o t a l survey of the p r e - p a r t i t i o r u . Indian d i a l e c t s . H i s main i n t e n t i o n was to provide specimens of the d i f f e r e n t Indian d i a l e c t s with short d e s c r i p t i v e notes,which are as useful as the specimens. The previous work may be broadly divided i n t o three groups ; a r t i c l e s written from a s t r u c t u r a l standpoint (Hai,fiay,Chaudhury), from a d e s c r i p t i v e standpoint (Shahidullah,G.oswami,Halder,Lahiri), and those by non-linguists.The modern works are very sketchy (Rai„19 65,19 66, Eay,1966,Chaudhury,19 69). 5 1.2. Methodology As tiie previous works are- e i t h e r sketchy or non-trans forma t i o n a l , there i s considerable scope f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g the N.oakhali d i a l e c t using transformational-generative models.TO' describe and analyse the phonological and morphological components of the Ebakhali d i a l e c t (ID) and the Standard C o l l o q u i a l Bengali (SCB),the generative modei which, has been introduced by Chomsky and R a l l e (1968) i s followed i n the present d i s c u s s i o n . A short deseteipifton of the generative model i s given here. In Syntactic structures (1957),Chomsky introduced the , transformational approach to describe syntax.Since then,other l i n g u i s t s including Chomsky himself,have explained and elaborated the transformational theory.Later,the method has been applied to describe morphology and. phonology. Af t e r Syntac11c StructuresChomsky expanded some previously generated r u l e s i n the Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1965). Later more publications followed i n support of the theory with further modifications and expiations.Among tne most important contributors are,Lees (1952,iy63),Halle (1959),Postai (1962,196b), Katz (1964),Bach (1964),K.atz and'postal (1964 j,Kiparsky (1968), McCawley (1969) and Harms (1968), Theoretically,,fransformational grammar i s based on m e n t a l i s t i c psycnology,where the mam object i s the study of mental entities (Katz, 1964,lg.4.0-1 db) .The l i n g u i s t i c competence and performance 6 of an I d e a l speaker-nearer, i s p e r c e p t i b l e as an i n t e r n a l grammar, wJii.cn, i s d e s c r i b a b l e as a system, of r u l e s which produce an i n d e f i n i t e number o f grammatical sentences on the b a s i s o f p h o n o l o g i e a l ^ m a r p h o l o g i c a l , s y n t a c t i c and semantic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar d e s c r i b e s them by a f i n i t e s e t of r u i e s . The p h o n o l o g i c a l theory o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar d e s c r i b e s the p h o n o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f morphemes or. t h e i r h i g h e r forms (words,sentences)-These a r e d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e l e v e l s ; l e x i c a l , p h o n o l o g i c a l and ph o n e t i c . T h e p h o n o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a r e o b t a i n a b l e from t h e i r s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e s , b y a p p l y i n g p h o n o l o g i c a l redundancy and other r eadjustment r u l e s , which d e r i v e from L e x i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s s p e c i f y the phonetic, f e a t u r e s o f the p h o n e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s u r f a c e structure»A p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e i s marked e i t h e r by p l u s (+) o r minus (-) s i g n , w h i c h a s s i g n s the presence or absence of some s t a t e d f e a t u r e . 1.3. A s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n of. the development of SOB*.and t h e d i a l e c t s i t u a t i o n i n Bangladesh i s g i v e n h e r e . B e n g a l i i s a member o f the i n d i e group of the Indo-Aryan language f a m i l y , a n d thus a d i r e c t descendant, o f P r a k r i t , a n d . i n d i r e c t l y o f S a n s k r i t ( F i g . 1 ) . 7 S a n s k r i t prakrit Apabhramsa I Old Bengali. • I -M i d d l e B e n g a l i Modern B e n g a l i Standard C o l l o q u i a l . Bengali. Dacca proper. B e n g a l i D i a l e c t s p e n ! A r e a Noakhali. D i a l e c t s " ^ M a i ^ i ^ H a t i a A r e a i s l a n d s Fig..1 The development o f SCB and d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s and s u b - d i a l e c t s of B e n g a l l 1 . 4 . D i a l e c t s i t u a t i o n s Though. SCB. i s spoken by the b u l k of t h e educated c l a s s b o t h i n contemporary Bangladesh and West Bengal,.there e x i s t , s e v e r a l d i v e r g e n t d i a l e c t s of Bengali.Some o f them,due to p h o n o l o g i c a l and m o r p h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , a r e not i n t e l l i g i b l e t o SCB s p e a k e r s . The s u r v i v a l of these B e n g a l i d i a l e c t s i s • a t t r i b u t a b l e t o p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l causes.During the l a s t two c e n t u r i e s u n t i l the p a r t i t i o n of B e n g a l . i n 1947 i n t o West B e n g a l and the former. E a s t P a k i s t a n , C a l c u t t a was the f o c a l a r e a of SCB.Though B e n g a l i was spoken throughout the p r o v i n c e , 8 so c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and religious factors blocked, the widespread use of SCB» Dialects developed i n different parts of the province*among them the Ghittagong and Noakhali dialects i n the south, sylhet andEangpur i n the north and north-west, Midnapore and Bankura i n the west,and East Bengali dialects i n Dacca and Mymensingh. Moreover,educated Bengali elites in Calcutta formed typical linguistic, patterns,wnieh were largely unknown i n other parts of Bengal (special mention to be made for verb, ending suffix -urn.). 1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the dialects The maior dialect groups of Bengali, can be broadly divided into the following classes; a) Northern Bengali; The dialects of Dinajpur,Eajshahi,BQgra and pabna. h) Rajbangshi ; The dialects of Rangpur... c) Eastern Bengali. ; The dialects of 1. Dacca,Mymensingh, Tippera, Sylhet.; 2. Far idpur., jess ore., Khulna. d) southern Bengali : Ghittagong,N.oakhall,Chakma. The above c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s made by Grierson (1903-1928),, and. i s based more on geographical distribution than on structural c r i t e r i a .Use of the latter, would modify the cla s s i f i c a t i o n of the Sylhet dialect (Chowdhury,1960,Hai Hai, 1965 and 1966,K.ay, 1966), which i s structurally closer 9 ta the dialects of Hoakhali and cnit.tag.ong. than those of Dac.ca,,,Mymensingh,.: and Tippera. . A p a r t from the dialects of sylhet, Hoakhali,Chi.ttag.ong and Kangpur (partly), the rest of the dialects are mutually i n t e l l i g i b l e due to substantial s i m i l a r i t i e s i n phonology and grammar> 1 ..6. .' Due to the dialect situation i n Bangladesh,most educated Bengalis (including those i i n west Bengal) are f u l l y aware of the tnr.ee di s t i n c t varieties of the language (Chowdhury, 1960-75) •"These, are shown diagramatically. High Bengali (written only) Standard Colloquial. Bengali (both written and spoken) Local dialect (spoken only) High Bengali (HB) i s the Sanskritized written form of the language,and i s not spoken by anyone.Standard colloquial B-engali (SCB) i s commonly spoken and written by the educated class.local dialects are spoken mainly i n their respective communities by different groups.A person who comes from a non-standard speech area uses three different varieties of the language interchangeably ; local dialect at home,SOB. 1.0 f o r i n t e r - d i a l e c t encounters,and HB, f o r educational purposes, although, t h i s tendency i s changing rapidly,as most of the modern writers and authors of text-hooks are f o l l o w i n g SCB written patterns i n their, works .HB. and SCB are the only two d i s t i n c t v a r i e t i e s used by a SCB speaker. 1.7. Sub-groupings of. the Hoakhali D i a l e c t s Hoakhali i s situated i n the south, of Bangladesh and borders the Bay of Bengal.So the north o r i t l i e the d i s t r i c t s of Camilla and i x i p u r a (India) ;..ta the east are the Ghittagong dis'tridt'and Tripura State.Tne Eeni r i v e r marks i t s boundary with the Ghittagong, d i s t r i c t and the r i v e r Eeghna forms the western boundary of the district,.while the Bay of Bengal forma i t s -southern boundary (DCfiN, 19*61 -1 -3).The southern part of the d i s t r i c t i s lower i n a l t i t u d e than tne northern area, and i s heavily a f f e c t e d by t i d a l , boxes and other n a t u r a l calamities. According to the 1961 census,the t o t a l area of the d i s t r i c t i s 1955 square m i l e s . I t has a heavy r a i n f a l l , a n d humidity i s even throughout the year.Due to i t s proximity t a the Bay of Bengal i t does not have extremes of climate i n winter and summer.In summer the temperature varies from. 75*7 I to 87.9 F and i n winter. 61.6 P to SO .3 E (DCRN*1961-1-6) „ Tne t o t a l papulation of Noakhali,according to the 1961 census report, i s about 2,,3&3, H5> out of which 1,207,964 are 11 males and 1, 3:35,181 females .The. average density per square mile is. about 1,.285,the t h i r d highest i n Bangladesh. 1 .70. The d i s t r i c t of Noakhali i s an, i n t e r e s t i n g f i e l d f o r the study of d i a l e c t composition and v a r i a t i o n s .Differences which have developed, i n grammar have developed, as a r e s u l t of s o c i a l variation,.hut. differences i n vocabulary and pronunciation a£e r e l a t e d to s p a t i a l , i . e . sub-regional v a r i a t i o n . D i f f e r e n c e s i n pronunciation i n t h i s area take many forms and could be described as three d i s t i n c t types of v a r i a t i o n s , a s enumerated by Hans Kurath (1949-14). These are ; a) Differences i n the pronunciation of the i n d i v i d u a l phonemes; b) Differences i n the occurrence of the i n d i v i d u a l phonemes;and c) Differences i n the system of. phonemes. The pronunciation of a word i s the most important f a c t o r i n d i a l e c t geography,as i t i s related,;, to c u l t u r a l , h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s (Raven MCDavid,jr1964-25).These have been analysed i n sec.1.(2. 1 .71 . l o a k h a l i d i f f e r s considerably from, the c e n t r a l region of Bengal around Calcutta,,with respect to topography,plant and animal life,.and. economic conditions and a l s o i n i t s s o c i a l structure.The d i a l e c t s of t h i s area developed quite seperately from sCB,,mainly due t o e x i s t i n g differences i n c u l t u r a l and environmental back gro^ind.The phonological and morphological 12 d i f f e r e n c e s a r e e a s i l y n o t i c e a b l e i n the v o c a b u l a r i e s o f SCB and ID.Ikese d i f f e r e n c e s a r e p r e d i c t a b l e i n the way r e g i o n a l and l o c a l e x p r e s s i o n s nave been p r e s e r v e d i n ;tn.e word s t o c k s , and can e a s i l y be determined t h r o u g h c o n t r a s t i v e s t u d i e s . T h e speakers of t h i s a r e a make fundamental d i f f e r e n c e s both i n s y n t a x and i n f l e c t i o n a l forms.In p a r t i c u l a r the l o c a l terms and usages a r e always p r e s e r v e d by the e l d e r l y or l e s s educated' persons,who have had l e s s c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p r i v i l e g e d c l a s s and hav? been c o n f i n e d t o the same g e n e r a l a r e a throughout t h e i r , l i v e s . T h e u n c u l t i v a t e d p e o p l e have a tendency t o p r e s e r v e and use the same i n f l e c t i o n a l endings whenever the p a t t e r n o f speech permits .\ The ND speakers have a l s o p r e s e r v e d t h e i r r e g i o n a l sound p a t t e r n s , w h i c h a r e d i s t i n c t from those o f the s t a n d a r d language.This a t t i t u d e o f t h e ND speakers,has made the d i a l e c t u n i n t e l l i g i b l e t o the SCB s p e a k e r s . Except i n l*eni and Chaumohani i n t h e N o a k h a l i d i s t r i c t , most of t h e a r e a was h i s t o r i c a l l y composed of t i n y towns and v i l l a g e s . T h e r e was no d i r e c t communication w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n t v i l l a g e s due t o l a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s . i n t h e absence o f SCB,the b u l k o f the peo p l e used the s u b - r e g i o n a l forms of B e n g a l i , w h i c h even v a r i e d i n t h e d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the area.Only a few educated speakers o f ND used SCB, those who had d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n and c o n t a c t w i t h the educated c l a s s i n C a l c u t t a . 1 .12. The c u l t u r a l m i g r a t i o n a l h i s t o r y of. the l o a k h a l l i s not c l e a r l y known,but i t c o u l d be assumed t h a t , a p a r t from t h e l o c a l 13' Bengali inhabitants,they shared the culture^ of the Arabs and the Portuguese at large,as well as that of other neighbouring tribes.A d i s t r i c t bordering the Bay of Bengal,it maintained i t s regional socio-culturai pattern,which more or l e s s , i s responsible for i t s sharp dialect variations with SCB and other dialects of Bengali.The early inhabitants of Hoakhali,who came i n large numbers to this area,maintained their, speech, habits taking advantage of geographical, distance and administrative . looseness of earlier central. Governments of Bengal. Owing to the vastness of the district,the inhabitants of Hoakhali after i n i t i a l population movements,settied down and extended their, t err i t ory, d ev eloping the three dialect boundaries of the district. (Map 2 ) .physical conditions aided the regions in maintaining their own dialects.The Hatia Islands,especially, being separated from the mainland,had an extra advantage in developing their sub-regional dialect. 1.73. The close association which exists between HB,SCB and the Hoakhali dialect should be shown here.In diagram »X',a speaker from the dialect area (C) would be able to understand HB (A) and SCB (B)simultaneously,and knowledge and use of dialect C enjoys i t s own prestige i n i t s region.in diagram 'YSthe non-native speakers of dialect c woAild not be abie to understand dialect C, due to differences i n pronunciations,vocables and syntactic pattern (Allen,1964-215). 14 X- D i a l e c t speaker y_- D i a l e c t speaker K B SOB D i a l e c t A B Big* 2 These differences are shown i n c y c l i c order i n Figure 2 ,where the directions and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s of the three d i f f e r e n t forms of Bengali have "been represented. F i g . 5 A represents HBjB^SCB and C any d i a l e c t . F o r a C speaker,B i s i n t e l l i g i b l e as i t has higher s o c i a l prestige than C,but not v i c e versa*It c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s that c speakers always r e t a i n t h e i r d i a l e c t plus two other l i n g u i s t i c forms f o r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , i n the c area,though J t h e i r pronunciation lacks recognition or d i s t r i b u t i o n nationally,they enjoy l o c a l p r e s t i g e . 15 Examples; Group A: HB [ c i t t r o ] \_ahobi] [% obi] SCB D i a l e c t p i c t u r e 1 [sala] SCB [ hala] D i a l e c t •brother-in-law 1 Fig.4 showing the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the same ward i n three d i s c r e t e forms Group B: SCB a. [mee"} ' g i r l ' [ma 3 •mother.^ b. [ c h e l a ] 'boy1 [chobi] 'pictur e' D i a l e c t .•[meej [_maia]' . • [ma ] [mal [ ty aoal] [ir obi ] .. [tf ele] [tj- s abiJ F i g . 5 showing the form SCB words ..assume i n UD s Retention of. forms could occur i n two ways;(a) where the l o c a l phonetic pattern does not clash with S C B , t h e S C B pattern could after, i t i s transformed into the phonetic pattern of the l o c a l dialect. loakhali dialects,due to their phonological and morphological patterns,are quite unique and completely unintel l i g i b l e to S C B speakers.The main dialect area could he mapped into three sub-dialect areas,each of which i s different from the others i n i t s l i n g u i s t i c forms.These three areas are shown i n Map p. 148, as ( A ; , ( B ) and ( C ) . 1.74. loakhali Dialects (A) CB) (C) Eeni area Maijdi area Hatia Islands Pig.6. loakhali Dialects Dialect (A) is. predominately used in Feni and i t s adjacent area,, dialect ( B ) i s used in Maijdi or the central part of the d i s t r i c t , and dialect ( C ) i s used i n the Hatia islands. 17 1.75. Informants To obtain a corpus of the Hoakhali dialect,two informants as a b a s i s were chosen/lor. making generalizations .cn the above d i a l e c t structure.A contrastive study i s made with, the SCB,based on the speech of A speakers r e s i d i n g i n Vancouver 2.contrastive study i s h e l p f u l i n the sense that i t c l e a r l y i ndicates deviations of the d i a l e c t from sCB,both i n phonological and morphological patterns.At present due to n o n - a v a i l a b i l i t y of more, informants,the scope has been r e s t r i c t e d . T h e f i r s t type of informant mentioned by Kurath (Kurath, 1939-5) and others was not available, on a f u l l time basis for. the present study. This type includes the older persons i n the society,having l i m i t e d education,and having fewer contacts with SCB.However, three s a i l o r s from the dialect, area who conformed to some of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were a v a i l a b l e f o r a short time,and were used to check, and compare the c o l l e c t e d w o r d - l i s t s . i n most 1 F i r s t informant Mr.M.A.Matin,is a student at U.B.C. i n Food-Science.His parents and wife h a i l from the same area and he himself spent h i s f i r s t sixteen years i n the d i a l e c t area. Age:27 years. The second informant Mr.M.A.Quddus,an ex student of U.B.C. i n the Faculty of. Commerce and Business Administration.He speaks the same d i a l e c t as Mr.Matin and spent twenty years i n the d i a l e c t area.Most of h i s family members are s t i l l l i v i n g i n the dialect, area. Age:29 years. 18 cases,only the second type of informant,younger and educated and having more s o c i a l contacts with SCB speakers was consulted for. the present study.Both informants are from the same region ( c e n t r a l part of H.oaichali,Dialect B ) and both of them t r u l y represent the l i n g u i s t i c community.Though t h e i r speech i s occasionally influenced by SCB vocabulary or grammar,differences i n pronunciation exist.By sampling the speech of the two groups^ of informants the l o c a l expressions used i n the d i a l e c t area of itfoakhali were determined and c o l l e c t e d . -j :. Full, l i s t of informants names age D.Talapatra 29 C.Chaudhurani 29 B.Gupta ' 31 Z.Haq 26 A.Matin 27 S.Haq 26 SCB : sex occupation M student at U.B.C. F Post-Doc. a t U.B.C. M immigrant:came i n 196!? M student at U.B.C. M student at U.B.C. p house-wife 19 1 .76. Dialect. Atlas In. preparing, the dialect atlas common procedure was fallowed .Four different kinds of maps were used here to plot variations.. The f i r s t i s the l e x i c a l map which shows variations of the same word used by the native speakers of B.engali to indicate the same object, A l i s t , of items was made and taped with different informants who came from various regions. These are shown i n the map after, checking geographical points. The l i s t consists of twentyone'morphemes along with three short sentences. In making the word-list, three principles were followed (McDavid, j r . 1958-484.) which are hf tfami nfiar O S ' l o ^e ^ l n v e s^igated area^iasy to introduce into a conventional system , ancf csuspected of having regional or social, variations. The differences i n the pronunciation of the same l e x i c a l form are shown i n a phonetic map. A third map indicates geographical boundaries of usages. The main dialects of Bengali are shown i n the last, map. The dialect maps were prepared mainly to show tne dialect differences and t e r r i t o r i a l distribution which compose the unique f i e l d of the. study of the language i n general. The social and regional variations in the dialect atlas, are important as the different communities 'reflect the principal strains of settlement and. facets o2 cultural development i n the area as a whole4 (,Marckwardt, 1966-4.03) • 20: Chapter'! 11 2. phonology, 2.U. i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n on ,f /the phonology of SCB-and ED i s based on the model, i n t r o d u c e d by Chomsky and H a l l e (19& 8 ) i n The Sound P a t t e r n of E n g l i s h .Emphasis i s p l a c e d here on d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e o v e r a l l sound p a t t e r n s of SCB and ED- The d i s c u s s i o n w i l l cover two a s p e c t s of these p a t t e r n s : (a) a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e sound p a t t e r n s o f SCB. and. ID,and (h) an e x p l a n a t i o n o f sound changes using, f e a t u r e r u l e s . Two r u l e s , a s g i v e n by K i p a r s k y (1968), w i l l be used , i . e . a r u l e on the way new segments a r e added i n the morphemes and a r u l e on the way segments a r e o m i t t e d . These a r e commonly known as the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and a d d i t i o n o f new r u l e s . The sound p a t t e r n s of SCB and ED a r e d e s c r i b e d i n s i x s e c t i o n s under the f o l l o w i n g headings : a) c l a s s i f i c a t o r y method; b) sunrasegmental f e a t u r e s ; c) Diphthongs; d) Consonant c l u s t e r s ; and ej Gemination. The o v e r a l l sound-patterns of SCB and ED a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t o r y method s e c t i o n . The p h o n o l o g i c a l 21 f e a t u r e s o f SCB and, ND a r e d e s c r i b e d on the b a s i s of d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s of t h e languages.These sound p a t t e r n s , w h i c h a r e a f f e c t e d by adding v o c a l i c and c o n s o n a n t a l segments,are shown i n diphthongs f o r v o c a l i c segments as well, as consonant c l u s t e r s and g e mination f o r c o n s o n a n t a l segments. Sound change i n a language has a g r e a t impact on i t s p h o n o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n through, th e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and a d d i t i o n of r u l e s , i n t h e p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n , s o u n d change i s d e s c r i b e d i n two ways ; (a) t h e way the v o c a l i c segments are changed i n SCB and N D , e i t h e r by adding or d e l e t i n g t h i s c l a s s of segments,and (b) the way t h e c o n s o n a n t a l segments, a r e changed by a d d i t i o n or d e l e t i o n of c o n s o n a n t a l segments i n SCB and ND. 2.1* C l a s s i f i c a t o r y Method To i n v e s t i g a t e , the phonemes o f the Standard C o l l o q u i a l B e n g a l i ( h e n c e f o r t h r e f e r r e d t o as SCB= ) and N o a k h a l i D i a l e c t ( h e n c e f o r t h r e f e r r e d t o as ND) the f o l l o w i n g h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r i n g o f p a r a m e t r i c i n d i c e s has been f o l l o w e d ( P e t e r s o n and Harry,. 1961). T h i s method g i v e s a q u a n t i f i e d d i f f e r e n c e between any two phonemes. The parameters are. as f o l l o w s ; 1a. l a r y n g e a l a c t i o n ; .0 v o i c e l e s s , .1 v o i c e d 22 2a. Place of articulation; .0 b i l a b i a l .1 dental .2 retroflex .3 palatal. .4 velar .5 gl o t t a l 3a. Manner of articulation: .0 vowel .1 stop .2 nasal .3 flap .4 l a t e r a i .5 spirant .6 f r i c a t i v e 2.10,. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of SCB segments The SCB phonemes f a l l in- the following categories after applying rule 1a,2a and 3a. 1a. Laryngeal action ; .0 pph, t, th, T, Q)h, c, ch, k,kh. .1 b,bh,d,dh,l),Bh, 3, Jh,g,gh A l l stops of SCB occur i n symmetrical order-following the vibration of the vocal bands,the top., two sounds of each articulator^ group are voiceless and the bottom two are voiced. 2 3 These a r e shown i n the f o l l o w i n g figures : /p/ / W / V / b h /g/ /gh/ / t / / t h / /d/ / d h / III /Th/ / D / /Dh/ /ch/ / a / -/a*/ Eig.. 7 s t o p i n SCB: Rule 1a . needs r e v i s i o n f o r SCB,as i t has two f e a t u r e s due t o l a r y n g e a l a c t i o n , v o i c i n g , and a s p i r a t i o n . The f i r s t phoneme of each a r t i c u l a t o r y group i s v o i c e l e s s and u n a s p i r a t e d , t h e second, one i s v o i c e l e s s a s p i r a t e d , t h e t h i r d . Jam.em.ber la-ved ced. u n a s p i r a t e d * a n d t h e l a s t member i s v o i c e d a s p i r a t e d * These are. r e p r e s e n t e d by /p ph h. bh / and c o r r e s p o n d i n g symbols symbols f o r the o t h e r s t o p s . The a s p i r a t o r y f e a t u r e has added one e x t r a , r u l e f o r SCB sounds, which i s shown below. 1a. l a r y n g e a l a c t i o n : .0, n o n a s p i r a t i o n .1 a s p i r a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g SCB. sounds i l l u s t r a t e t h i s f e a t u r e ; 1a. .0 p,b,t,d,T,D,c„J,l5-,g . 1 ph, bh., th.,,, dh, Th, Dh, ch, ^ h, kh, g h 24 2a. place, of articulation. ; .0 p,ph,.b,blx,m . 1 t, th, d,dh,n,r, i , s .2 T.,IE,D,"Dh., ( E ; .3 c,cii, J, Jh, .4 k.,kh,g,.gh,n .5 h 3a. Manner, of. articulation: .0 i , e, se ,a, , o,u .1 p,ph,b,bh, tth.,d,dn , , ,T , Ih,!D,.Dh,c,eh, %„ ;jh,k,kh,g,gh .2 m^n,^ *3 r, (R) .4, 1 *5 s,(s) *6 h 'oVOWELS front central back high i u high-mid e 0 low-mid- D low a 2 5 Consonants b i l a b i a l d e n t a l r e t r o f l e x p a l a t a l velar glottal stops vs:ua/a v :ua/a p ph b bh t t h d dh. T Th D Dh c c h Z Z& k kh g gh n a s a l s m> n f l a p s r. (IL) l a t e r a l 1 s p i r a n t s 0 0 s h F i g . 8 i n v e n t o r y of phonemes i n SCB £ . 1 1 . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f ID segments The i n v e n t o r y o f phonemes i n ID,however,varies from t h a t c f SCB. To i n v e s t i g a t e ID,the h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r i n g o f p a r a m e t r i c i n d i c e s which have been f o l l o w e d f o r SCB needs m o d i f i c a t i o n as t h e d i a l e c t has a r t i c u l a t o r y f e a t u r e s n ot found i n SCB. The new parameters f o r ID,then,are as f o l l o w s : 1a- l a r y n g e a l a c t i o n ; .0 v o i c e l e s s .1 v o i c e d 1a. •0: nonasplration . 1 a s p i r a t i o n i 26 2a. place of. a r t i c u l a t i o n . : .0 b i l a b i a l .1 dental .2 alveolar. • 3 r e t r o f l e x ,.4 p a l a t a l .5 v e l a r . *6> g l o t t a l 3a* Manner, of a r t i c u l a t i o n ; •0 vowel • 1 stop •2 a f f r i c a t e •3 n a s a l .4. f l a p *5 l a t e r a l .6 s p i r a n t •'(' ..fricative The following segments nave been obtained from, the speech of the informants* 1a. l a r y n g e a l a c t i o n ; *0 p t T T$ it x f • 1 b v d. dh D J)h 63 g. gh 1a\ . O p b t d T D k g *1 d< Dc g5 27 2a. place of a r t i c u l a t i o n ; •0 p b m. f v .1 t d d c •2 % 03 a l r s(z) • 3 v 1 D Dc .4 s •5 k. g g.1 n x •6 k •0 i e £ ( a ? y ) d o u .1 p b i f d dc I. D tfk g g c •2 % % •3 m. n n .4 r .5 1 »6 s(z) s .7 f " V x h One point that should he mentioned here i s that ED /d c if/ are not s i m i l a r to the SCB /oh dh. .../» These sounds are produced i n the d i a l e c t with g l o t t a l closure and nave a d i f f e r e n t acoustic and a r t i c u l a t o r ^ nature from the SCB aspirated stops. Z8 Consonants b i l a b i a l dental alveolar retro pal. vel. g l o t t a l stops k b d d c j) D f affricate nasal m n 9-flap r l a t e r a l 1 spirant s(z) s fric a t i v e f V x h. vowels fr o n t c e n t r a l back nign. :; i u. nigh-mM e ,o low-mid ^ a?, D low a Iig»9 inventory of phonemes i n ND 29 2*12. Discussion of ND vocalic, segments: Minimal- a r t i c u l a t o r ^ differences e x i s t i n tne SCB. and tne ID v o c a l i c systems. Tne i n v e s t i g a t i o n indicated a seven-vowel, system f o r SCB: and ND,wnich appear as i n tne following representation. f r o n t rounded c e n t r a l unrounded back: rounded hign i u mid e o low a o Among tne seven vowels o£ ND, only /e-ae. / are i n free v a r i a t i o n , /ae, / i s a recent innovation i n tne d i a l e c t , mostly i n "cultured" speech, due to influence of SCB at t n i s s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l e v e l , However, /se. / has less, frequency tnan /£/- Examples f o r a l t e r a t i o n are /l&ngoT/—-> /las ngoT/ • l o i n - c l o t h * ; /hae n/ /htn/ »hot water of cooked r i e e ' . A l l the above vowels are also found i n SCB but not tne /t~ae,/ a l t e r a t i o n . SCB contains only /se. /. 2.13. Binary Features of the v o c a l i c segments: The following four binary features are used nere to categorize SCB and ND vowels as, "nigh","low", »«frSnt» or "round". "Hign" vowels are defined as [ + h i g n , - l o w 3 ,."low" vowels as [-fhigh,.+low] , "mid" vowels as [-high,-low, 1 3Q " f r o n t " vowels as [ + f r e n t ] ..The. c e n t r a l vowel i s [ - f r o n t , -round!!. The f o l l o w i n g c h a r t shows the f e a t u r e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r SGI- and MD vowels. £ e ae(~£,) a o o u h i g n + - -. -low - !- + + + f r o n t + + + -round - + 31 2.2. Diphthongs 2.20. Discussion Diphthongs are quite common i n both SCB and lie .As. the f i r s t vowel becomes longer, than the second i n forming diphthongs,an. added feature of lengtg may be shown f o r SCB and ND vowels.. Rule 1 Vi * L+l°ng] / V2C, Rule 1 c l e a r l y indicates that Yi i s always longer than Y2» both- of which together form, a diphthong. Diphthongs may r e s u l t from phonologic s i m p l i f i c a t i o n f o r SCB and ND. The second consonantal segment of HB words, i s dropped when these are adopted in t o SCB. This r u l e generates diphthongal words i n SCB as the HB words egment pattern of CVCV becomes C V - ^ i n SCB. Examples, HB SCB Glosses [sokhi] [ s o i l g i r l ' s g i r l f r i e n d [dodhil [doi3 curd'' i n most cases,aspirated consonantal segments are dropped i n SCB. This kind of change i s modified further i n ND, where L-kh -1 o £ [sokhl] did not bring, any diphthongal change but had. the stop part of-the segment dropped and the aspirated retained i n utterance. Examples, HB SCB ND Gloss [sokhl] \BQk~} C s o l l iJ g i r l ' s g i r l f r i e n d 32 Rule 2 HB SCB HB ND [CVC11?] » [Cfl] [CVCkVj * [CV h Y] Rule 2 i s applicable for the HB aspirated segment [ kk], which., becomes [^ ] i n SCB and. [ h] i n KD. 2.21. Description of SCB diphthongs: The following description of SCB diphthongs is based on the speech, of the native Bengali speakers,as collected during the course of this study. Examples Glosses — I i i ] [nil] (I) take [di i ] (1) give [ie] [gie] of. going [bie] wedding [ia] [ l i a ] parrot [diasalal] box of matches [nionta] controller [ i o l [dio] (you.) give [niom3 rule,law [iu3 [ s l u l i ] a kind of flower. [ex] [eil this [kheil end of a thread [ee] [kheel of eating. [ mee ]. g i r l 33 Lea] [nea] of taking [kheal f e r r y [eo] [Ice©] some one [3eo] (you) go [eul [l)heu] wave' [keuajel cobra /« /-- [ a e] [bae. el expenditure [na° e l (he/she) takes; j u s t i c e [se, o] [dae. orl husband's younger brother. [nas oTal extr emely submis s i v e /a/ — - [ a i l [bair.el outside [ c h a i l , ashes [ a e l [khae^ (he/she) eats [Thae] s t e a d i l y [aa] [maal i l l u s i o n ; a f f e c t i o n [chaa] shadow [aol [paonal due ; <• [nao] (you) take; [au] [jhau] tamarisk tree j [ eauni] looking. / V — [oel [no el nine; not [toes] age [oal [doal kindness [bhoanokl dangerous [ D O ! [ c a oral broad [ t o o l (you) carry 34 [ o i l [ moil ladder £3oi3 signature; female f r i e n d [oe3 [so e l (he/she) l i e s down [dhoel (he/she) washes [ oal I moal h a l l of sweet-meat [ p o a t i l pregnaat [ou] [haul wife [coumatha] junction of four roads [ u i ] [ t h u i l (1) keep [ s u i ] (I) l i e down l u e l • [nu-el of bending [dhue] of washing [uaT] tdhua] r e f r a i n [gerua] coloured with red .ochre [uo] gambling [kuo] w e l l (n.) 2.22. Description of ND diphthongs: In ND,;the diphthong may be o r a l or nasal. Formation of diphthongs i s common i n ND due to i t s phonetic habits, where medial or f i n a l consonantal segments are dropped and a v o c a l i c segment i s added i n compensation (Haider.,, 1929-23). The nasal diphthongs are i d e n t i c a l i n number to their, o r a l counterparts, A S n a s a l i z a t i o n i s quite a common phonetic feature of the d i a l e c t , n a s a l diphthongs are widespread i n ND. I 35 The t o t a l number of o r a l diphthongs of ID is d e s c r i b e d here,as obtained from b o t h the speech, of informants and previous s t u d i e s . . Examples Glosses / i / — t i a i [ial [13] [ioj Liu] /£/ U i l W a i /a / " [ e u ] — [ a i ] [ae] [;ao] [au.] titn.3 [d in] [hiall [hia ] [ b i D d l [ h i o l ] [nariol] [ hi.uk. 1 [b£il] [b£ina] Ck £a] Ldtal [ D \ U . ] [bail [tj ail] l"k ae 3 [gadae] [d? ao] [tkao] [bau.3 [dj au.l here t h a t one j a c k a l t h a t d i f f i c u l t y c h a i n coconut l e t (him) l e a r n time i n the morning f e r r y of seeing wave brother r i c e (he/she) eats (on) ass (you) go (you.) s t a y S i r ; Mr. cypress 36 M — / a / — M — Examples Glosses [Del [ k o e l (he/she) speaks Tloe] (he/she) takes [Laon! now T_ko o] (you) speak [ o i l [ d o l l curds [boi] books [_oel [d hoe] (he/she) washes [tf oel (he/she) sucks toal [noa] new [roa 3 that which has been sown [ou] [bou] wife [if ouk ] eye [u i ] [dj u i t 1 advantage [dVL] (1) wash-t u e l [mne 1 i n the mouth [uaj .[tf ua] sour [gua: b e t e l nuts [U3] [huorl swine As i n the I D , a l l SCB diphthongs may be nasalized. 3 7 2*3. Consonant Clusters 2*30. boundary between the The /vocalic n u c l e i of two neighbouring s y l l a b l e s within the same s e c t i o n may be composed of one or more consonants i n SCB and ID. i n this environment, fhere 1' a r e y three p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the consonants; they might form an i n i t i a l (onset) CC sequence followed by a vowel [ d r - i l ,. a f i n a l (coda) CC sequence followed by a vowel L - t r - i J or may be split between the two syllables I-S-T-3 (Pulgram, 1 9 7 0 - 7 9 ) . a) CYC-Cv" [ P D S T O D 'clear* b) CCYC-CV [ d r i S - T i ] ^ s i g h t ^ c) CCCY [ s t r i 3 •'wife'" d) CCYC-CV [srad-dhol ?obsequial r i t e s ' e) CYC-CCY [ m i s - t r i l 'carpenter.' Among the given p o s s i b i l i t i e s of combination of consonants, (a) the [S-T 3 combination, part of (b);, .- . the [ d-dhl part of (d) and the [ s - t ] part of (e) cannot q u a l i f y as. consonant c l u s t e r s as they .are separated by a pause.; juncture. Therefore,the .grouping with the-yocalic segment r e s t r i c t s the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the adjacent consonants q u a l i f y i n g as c l u s t e r s to only three ways. They are,CCY,CCCY and CCYC. 2*31 . The SCB phonemes /s/,/p/ and /r/,occuring i n i t i a l l y and followed by a vowel,may combine with each other as 38 /#pry-/ and /#sp«/ and are capable of securing i n strings^ su.cn. as i n tne following words [pran"] ' l i f e 1 , [ p r i t i l » affection*, and [sp^STa] 'clear*1 This rule,however,has limited application in KD,primarily due to the restricted distribution of i t s consonantal segments. The SCB ini t i a l - c l u s t e r s break down' into two syllabically separate components, an i n i t i a l consonant being preceded by a vowel. •This feature.prevents the formation of/.consonant clusters in ND. Examples;' ' ' - . '. . ' ' , . , , . . . :-SCB [SlesbxO /#spv/ /#sTV/ WD [poST. 3 3 [iSTisonl /#PV./ _ 7#VS-TV/' Glosses clear station may also in N D tne i n i t i a l consonant/become.: zero. The new rule for ui) may be mapped as follows* S C B WD /#CiC2V-/ /#S)C2V-/ This rule i s applic able to most S C B / N D :pairs. . 1 The above discussion i s based on the following a r t i c l e s ; a) Jones,Lawrence Gaylord;"English Consonantal Distribution i n For. Roman Jakobson,The Hague, 195-6. b) 0'Connor, J.D. and J.L.M.Trim ; "Vowel*, consonant and s,yiiable-a phonolog.icai definition", word,9.2 (1953) 39 2.32. In SCB,,inedial c l u s t e r s are very common, i n i t i a l c l u s t e r s are l e s s frequent and f i n a l c l u s t e r s are nonexistent except i n some foreign, loan words (Ferguson and chowdhury,1960-47). The following, two feature rules are ap p l i c a b l e f o r the formation of consonant, c l u s t e r s i n SCB> Rule 5 C1C2 • — [ a n y stop] + [ r ] or [1"] Rule 3 handles such sequences as,any member of the class stop plus /r./ or / l / . Examples; " . " Glosses [ d r i S T i 3 sight [briS!Ii3 r a i n [klanto ] t i r e d Rule 4 c i G 2 , ^ C s ] + [any stop] or [r~] Rule 4 i s applicable f o r sequences such, as / s / + either. any stop or. /r./. Examples; Glosses [ s r i s i i ] creation [srant i ] exhaus t i o n [ s r i - t l ] memory [sroSTa ] creator 40 I n i t i a l consonant clusters are preceded by one of the suprasegmental features,/+/,/!/ or./#/. 2.33. Medial clusters Medial consonant clusters are frequent i n SCB.The most common occurrence happens to be with, stops,where a particular artlculatory class of segments i s always preceded by same class of segments. The stops in SCB occur in systematic, articulatory or.der,unaspirated sound i s followed by an aspirated, sound (i.e.,/p-fph/ r/t*th/,/i+Th/, /etch/,, and /K+Kh./).and the voiceless sounds are followed by their voiced counterparts (i.e*, /b-tbh/, /d-*-dh/,/D+Dh/> / j-i-jh/ and /gt-gh/) .This establishes that a voiced stop i s always followed by another of. the voiced class and an . unvoiced stop is always followed by an unvoiced stop. However, the /p+ph/ occurrence i s nonexistent^ in the language. A l l consonant clusters.- occurring medially i n a word occur, at word juncture (Ferguson, 1962-31). 2.34. Most of the consonant clusters which, occur in ND are medial. -M^a^i^StMPQiof i n i t i a l consonant clusters i s - to be' found either, i n the informants speech or any other available specimens. One tendency i s strong in ND where most of the clusters occur, with i n i t i a l non-stop members,, and the 4.1 second segment i s either, a stop or a non-stop. . .. Another feature i s that the l a s t segment is a vowel or a diphthong* Occasionally a consonant preceded, hy a vowel. Therefore, there are three p o s s i b i l i t i e s a t the end of consonant clusters i n ND, which are shown here. Rule 5 C 1 C 2 ^ [ + c l u s t e r ] / (C ... C - | f 2?in the env. of Iv ... G-jG2> This r u l e indicates the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a consonant c l u s t e r occuring i n ND* where the onset of a s y l l a b l e may be either. a vowel or a consonant,and the c l u s t e r occurs a f t e r the pause juncture,which, i s preceded e i t h e r (1) by a vowel, (2)diphthong or (2) hy a vowel and a consonant. A few examples of the consonant c l u s t e r s which occur meant i n ND are given here. The l i s t i s not/to be exhaustive,but rather representive of the kinds of combinations one may meet.. Examples of the consonant c l u s t e r s i n ND : 1 [ k+t} [thaikte"] Glosses of staying 42 Glosses t tekto] annoying 2 [k+13 [ t h a i k l e l i f (he/she) could [deikla 3 what did you see 13 [s+t] [ODD s ta 3 condition 4 [t+r] [sotro] seventeen [d.3 atra 1 opera 5 [ J + s 3 [por.it; s od 3 chapter 6. [f+ r 3 [uf re 1 on 7 [r+tiia [ pirthibir] of earth 8 [n+S3 [honge3 with [ango 3 of us 9 [r+t] [sortal (he/she) throws 10[S+2 3 [biSTi-3 rain 11 [ M 3 [DOID3 moment [koKBai 3 where 12 [m.+k 3 [dhomkael (he/she) abuses 13[n+433 [haindg e r l at evening [i&ond^ ar."] of fun 14[m+n3 [amae3 you (hon.) [so mne 3 in front 15[T+k] [suilka~3 the young one 16 [If +if3 [aitf £ a] a l l right [hugoitf /t; e3 making sound 17[r+g] [buirga ] old person 43 18 [n+k ] h [r+d] Glosses fan t f a r d a j c u r t a i n 20 [n+d] 21 [ t f + l j 22 |g.+% 1 [nondi] river' [nait^ l o j [laigdj l o ] [laigdi; i l ~) (she) danced (I) appreciated (I) l i k e d i t 2.35. Consonant c l u s t e r s never occur "before or after, any nasalized vowels, as i n SCB nasalized vowels always precede or follow a s i n g l e segment with a stress.. Nasalized vowels followedz or^'preceded hy another n a s a l consonant do not occur i n SCB or ND either. 44 2.4. (Semination Gemination i s q u i t e common i n SCB and ,ND- l o n g consonants nave p h o n e t i c o ccurrence under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , in SCB and ID,the preceding, c o n s o n a n t a l segment i s always l o n g e r than the f o l l o w i n g , one. This- c o n t r a s t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n geminated consonants (L.ehiste, 1970-20;» A l l t h e c o n s o n a n t a l segments except /r./ and /h/ can, be geminated i n SCB. and ND* 2.-40-A p a r t from c o l l o q u i a l words,two r u l e s a r e a p p l i c a b l e for. the g e m i n a t i o n of the S a n s k r i t i z e d l e x i c a l , items used i n SCB and ND. I f t h e t h i r d segment i n a word i s / j , / , i t i s d e l e t e d and t h e preceding, segment i s geminated,e.g., padja ' l o t u s ' poddo ; madja *wine' m?ddo; kabj.a •poetry' kabbo . I f the/segment i s a n a s a l c o n s o n a n t ^ i t i s d e l e t e d and t h e preceding, segment i s geminated,e.g., padma 'name o f a river-padma' podda ; padmo ' l o t u s ' p^ddo ; sadma ''now* soddo . The s t r u c t u r a l "change o f t h e s a n s k r i t i z e d words i s shown i n the f o l i o swing diagram -f i r s t consonant /p m k s ..../ second consonant /.d/ t h i r d consonant f\. i ] 45 Rule for. s t r u c t u r a l change: C 1 C 2 G 3 * 0^202 (Che feature, r u l e may he applied'-to the p r i o r changes,where simple segments hecome geminated. Rule 6 + consonantal + anterior. + voice + nasal [ + geminated]/b i+ consonantal coronal a n t e r i o r 2his r u l e can e a s i l y handle the. geminated feature of the sequences such as [ -dm] —} [^1 * Rule 7 - v o c a l i c - consonantal + h i g h - hack - low - ante r i o r - coronal - round -> ["+ geminated] / + a n t e r i o r + coronal + consonantal Rule 7 i s applicable to sequences such as [ - d j - ^ J — • 2.41. 5Qhe following l i s t i s prepared to show minimal pairs of the geminated and non-geminated word c l a s s e s . A l l 46A examples are chosen from SCB as the contrast i s more frequent than the M ) . Examples Glosses Examples Glosses [kanna] weep [ kana ] h i ind [panna] jewel- £pana] wat er-hy ac i n t h [bonna^J f l o o d [bona] to weave ^ s o t t i ] true [ s o t i ] ehaste(f em.) [honno] u n c i v i l i z e d [bono"] (you; weave [ookkor] round Ijcokor] kind of partridge [pollgp v i l l a g e [ p o l i l s i l t Ihe following examples are given here to show the possible types of gemination of. the consonant segments i n SCB. 1 /P+P/ [khoppor] clutches [thappor] slap 2 /b+b/ [matchDOr] c h i e f [ d i h h i ] swearing oath 3 /t+t/ [p o t t o r ] l e t t e r [ s o t t i ] t r u e 4 /d+d/ [ ko ddur"] how f a r ? [roddi] r o t t e n ' 46B 5 /T+l/ [gaTTa] [TnaiTa] 6 / D + D / [aDDa] 7 /c+c/ |fgue.cer] [gacca] [rajjo] |> 33a] 9 /k+k/ [b l k k r i ] [aakkcor] 10 /g+g/ [3lgges"] [bigganl 11 /m+m/ [sommoti"] [sommanl 1 2 /n+n/ [ginni] [onno] 13 /s+s/ [dossul fjassin] Glosses f i s t joke temporary lodging neap of compensation kingdom shame sale round to ask science permission honour house-wife other robber sixth, month of the Bengali year 47 Gloss 14 / l + l / [ho11a] uproar [ p o l l i ] v i l l a g e 2.4.2. Gemination i n ID Gemination i s a common phonetic feature i n ID,as i t occasionally causes one segment to be replaced by another f o r phonetic c o r r e l a t i o n i n a word. The d i a l e c t has a common tendency to assimilate the t r i l l e d segment / r / of SCB to the following segment. The following examples w i l l c l a r i f y t h i s tendency i n ID. SCB ID Changes Glosses [muhurto] [muhutto] [-rt-3 ==E'tt-"] moment [parte -] [ f a i t t a ] [-rt^\ :=[-tt-3 (you) could. [Icorlol [ k o i l l o l [-rl^] = r [ - l l ^ (he/she) did The phonetic tendency of ID, where [-rt-Tj or [ - r l - ] sequences change int o [-tt-] and [-11-] , may also be explained through the c l u s t e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n r u l e . Occasionally, consonant c l u s t e r s either, become a simple consonantal segment or a geminated one for- ease of; articulation as happened i n the above sequences of [-rt-] . -—r £-tt-] , [-rl-^ - — [ - i l - ] » The following, r u l e i s applicable to the the [-rt-^ , t r l - ^ ] sequences,which either become simple consonant or geminated. 4.8 Rule 8 0 1 * C2 //-- G2 Condition: C-j becomes 02>i£ Q2 follows Ci . A few examples are given here to snow the geminated features i n ND. Group A SCB [kotna barta] [par tarn] [parte ~] [korlo^ [kota. batta] [faittarn] [ f a i t t a ] [ k o i l l o l Glosses chit-chat U ) could (you) could (he/they) did Group B ^uponnas] [kicnu] [uf oinnas] novel a few [ee kbar ] [b&ka] [juddhol [sedin] [manuse"] [fckkana] [beikkal [d5 udd o ] [heidinna] [mainne} once curved f i g h t ; war that day the people -49 2,5 Suprasegmental features 2.50. Introductory remarks Three aspects of SCB and ND are covered i n suprasegmental features. These are the stress,pitch, and junctural patterns which play an important r o l e i n the two languages. These features do not play the same r o l e i n SCB and ND.but the var i a t i o n s do not bring about any fundamental differences between them. The three suprasegmental features are described in. the following sections,showing s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences i n SCB and ND. 2.i>1. Stress i s not phonemic i n eith e r SCB. and ND as i t does not e x i s t with contrasts on the p o s i t i o n of i n t e n s i t y . l t may be sai d that i t s p o s i t i o n i s automatic, and does not have any semantic role.Due to i t s non-phonemicity,there are no contrasting l e v e l s of s t r e s s . I t i s so non-significant that the presence or absence or p o s i t i o n does not a l t e r the sense of any morphemes (Chatterjee,1921-19). SCB and ND have emphatic., stress wni6h i s used to give emphasis and"contrast (Ferguson and chowdhury,I96O-25).Tbis i s characterized by tenser a r t i c u l a t i o n of consonantal segments and by lengthening of vocalic segments,which spreads over a s y l l a b l e * 50 2.-52. Both i n SCB and ED stress i s predictable mostly f o r the i n f l e c t e d morphemes where i t i s always placed on the i n i t i a l s yllable.The following examples w i l l show the i n i t i a l stress system of the language. SCB Gloss ED Gloss ['kal esol Come to-morrow ['djgr oise] I. got fever ['jodi cao eso] I f you f e e l to ['ad^ki kirum] what s h a l l I do come,please do so. to-day? ['tar s o r i r ] He i s not ^'he b a l a i kam He got a good *bhalo n e i ] f e e l i n g w e l l . k o r e l 3 0 b . 2.5.5. Though word stress i s always subsidiary to sentence-stress, there are few exceptions to t h i s rule.Chatterjee (1921-19) shows that c o n j u n c t i o n s , p a r t i c l e s , a u x i l i a r i e s i n compound verbs do not receive any s t r e s s . I f any noun follows an adjec t i v e i t loses the stress,which f a l l s on the ad j e c t i v e . The i n i t i a l s t r e s s i n g system of the language has caused umlaut and vowel harmony.. 2.54. Juncture Juncture i s important as a feature for. SOB and HD.Due to i t s important r o l e i n the language, i t i s capable of a l t e r i n g the meaning of utterances. Two d i f f e r e n t kinds of t r a n s i t i o n s between successive 51 vowels and. consonants may exist In a macrosegment in SCB and ID.Examples such, as [ pagol asche] 'the mad man i s coming',and [tar pa g o l ] 'his leg i s round*, clearly indicate that the transition between /a/ and /g/ of pagol i s muddy (Hock.ett, 1967-55; hut a sharp transition exists in the /a/ and /g/ of [pa] and [gol] .The f i r s t type of transition which exists in SCB and ID may he called close juncture,where each segment follows the- other. closely and the transition i s not marked hy any feature (e..g., [ pagol 1 ;. A second type of transition exists/ in the languages where"it"Is marked hy a pause between two contiguous segments of an utterance which may he referred, to as Internal open juncture,(e.g., [pa] + [gol] ; (Bloch and Trager,1942-47)• This i s shown i n the following, examples. Examples from SCB: Gloss. 1) [pagol"} mad [pa+gol ] 'leg i s round} 2-) [nilamO °I took [ni+lam.] auction 3) [mana] prohihited [ma+na'] Is not mother? 4.) [kehal t of buying. [ke+na] who i s not ? 5) [bagane] i n the garden [ba+gane] or i n music 52 i s i t a flower? 6) [ p h u l k i ~ ] flame [phul+ki 3 7) [ k o b i t a l p o e t r y ' [ k o b i + t a ] poet, on.i Due t a a s s i m i i a t o r y f a c t o r s and. tn.e i n f l e c t i o n a l n a t u r e o f the language,tne j u n c t u r a l system, has importance i n SCB* Examples from ND: 1) [daoQ [da+a"3 2) \.f D l e r l [f'3l+er] 3) [mondj aru [mon+d^ ar3 4) [buer] [b.u+er3 5; [ k a g i l [ k a g + U G l o s s g i v e me •bill-hook. of the h a l l o f the f r u i t o f g r e a t p l e a s u r e whose mind? of underarm of s i s t e r . a u n t i e o f the crow 2*55. l e n g t h l e n g t h or. q u a n t i t y of sounds,depends on the d u r a t i o n of sounds i n connected s p e e c h . & e n e r a l l y , l e n g t h Is not marked i n SCB,but i t has a s i m p l e r o l e i n the d i a l e c t . T h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s "based on i n d i v i d u a l treatment of SCB and ND. 2 . 5 5 0 * I t Is quite evident that most of the. vowels of tire one-s y l l a b i e words (without, any juncture;, consisting of a s i n g l e v o c a l i c segment, followed and. preceded by consonantal segments, are long. Examples from SCB: Glosses [ko:r ] [ghi>:r] [ k i : ] [co :1 (you) do ( i n f . ) [ k o r t a l room" [ghoramil what? t (you-) walk work. [kintu] [eolal [kajer.] Glosses senior person hut b u i l d e r but of walking of work Examples from UB: [go [ h i : t . ] [mE:g.3 [deisl hous e c o l d cloud. country water \_ go re] [hite 1 [msgerl [d£,ser3 i n the nouse in. winter of cloud of tne country of water The examples on l e f t hand side f u l f i l ; the r u l e f o r length and are uninflected morphemes,"but the examples are on the r i g h t -hand s i d e do not f u l f i l ; the condition f o r length as those are i n f l e c t e d morphemes with, a juncture.The r u l e f o r length i s shown here. Rule 9 54 [any segment 1 [+ long] #CVC# [any segment"] [- long] #-/GVC/-# Rule ( 9 ) i s a p p l i c a b l e t o botn. SCB and Ni). 2*6. Phonetic A l t e r a t i o n s of the vowels, 2*6u* Introductory remarks Botn vowels and consonants undergo c e r t a i n changes i n d i f f e r e n t phonetic environments. Some modifications are very regular i n the language, phonetic v a r i a t i o n s of SCB and MD are described i n the following sections under, two headings. The phonetic v a r i a t i o n s which are observed i n the v o c a l i c segments are treated separately from a l t e r a t i o n s found inthe ease of the consonantal segments. 2.61* Ep entiles i s Epentnesis falls., in_., the category of Rule Addition ' (King,. 1y 69-106) ,wnere one v o c a l i c segment i s added to tne morpheme.lt i s the opposite of reduction where segments are dropped,generally serving to f a c i l i t a t e tne t r a n s i t i o n between sound groups. This: kind of phonetic change Is found, to occur only i n I D .Epenthetic vowels are not preserved i n SCB- as they l e d to some other phonetic features such, as diphthongs (chatterjee, 19,26-379) .Epenthetic change may be regarded as a non-gradual ehange,as the epentnetic vowels do not show any gradual 55 development i n tue d i a l e c t . E o r example.; SCB. ED. Gloss.es [ a 3 ] = r Laidj"] to - d a y [kal] [ k a i l ] to-morrow, [mondo] ~ [moindo] bad [sund] = - [suino] Clou) near [holte^ ~ [hoiltg,^ of saying In the examples given above,tne epenthetic vowels / I / does not e x i s t i n SCB, though i t s occurrence i s very regular i n ND. Epenthetic / i / i s also • added, i n the onset of words i n the d i a l e c t . i n adding a d d i t i o n a l segments,Rule 10 i s a p p l i c a b l e to ND. Rule 10 [epentnesis] } [ + epentnesis] / The r u l e applies to ND where an. a d d i t i o n of a new v o c a l i c segment occurs i n two> contexts; (a) i f the onset of a word begins with a consonantal and a v o c a l i c segment, or. (h) within a v o c a l i c segment.The additional, v o c a l i c segment i s f o l l o w e d e i t h e r hy a v o c a l i c segment or a consonantal and a vocali® segment.;' ' .. " •_ . 2.62. prosthesis Phonetic change due t a a p r o s t h e t i c vowel i s extremely r a r e i n SCB;however, t h i s kind of change can be found i n HD. The i n t r u s i o n of a new vowel i s used mainly to break down i n i t i a l consonant c l u s t e r s i n t o two parts f o r ease of articulation.When learned or f o r e i g n words are pronounced by the d i a l e c t speakers,tne i n c l u s i o n of a pro s t h e t i c vowel becomes evident.Bxamples: SCB gSTesDaQ [ s t r i 3 [spondon] [spoSTol [ISxisonJ [ I s t i r i 3 [ispandanl [ispoST3 1 ©losses s t a t i o n wife v i b r a t i o n clear prosthesis may be taken as an addition of a segment,as new v o c a l i c segments are added to break through consonant cl u s t e r s . I n another way,it could, also be analysed as a cl u s t e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n rule.The following r u l e may be applicable f o r the addition of any prosthetic vowel. Rule i i J I [ CC-] •> 2.64. Anaptyxis Anaptyxis i s a common feature in SCB which appears l e s s frequently i n ND.The r o l e of anaptyxis i n the language may be regarded as a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n feature,anaptyxis being tne i n s e r t i o n of a v o c a l i c segment or segments between n a s a l , l a t e r a l or other consonants to break up consonant clusters, Sometimes,-" consonant clusters are broken down i n SCB . . f o r metaphoric use i n poetry.Anaptyxis i s caused i n two ways, either by the i n s e r t i o n of a v o c a l i c segment or by rep l a c i n g the v o c a l i c segment i n the o r i g i n a l form of a word.Bloomfield defines it,"when a r e l a t i v e l y sonorous phoneme i s non-syllabic, i t often acquires s y l l a b i c function ... t h i s i s often followed by another change...the r i s e of a vowel beside the sonant,which becomes non-syllabic."The inserted v o c a l i c segments can be found between two consonantal segments but more frequently they are used with a nasal (except /n/) or a liquid.Four d i f f e r e n t feature rul e s are shown here f o r handling anaptyxis i n SCB and ID. Rule 1 2 [anaptyxis] [+ anaptyxis"] /C [stop]: l i q u i d 1 l i q u i d 2 Rule (12-) i s capable of handling such sequences as [d-r] , [ g - E 3 » [k-r] > ["t-r-3 , or [g -1] .AH the f i r s t members are stops,whereas tne second members are the two l i q u i d s [ r ] and. [13 • The d i s t r i b u t i o n of. these kinds of sequences are quite common i n SCB. Examples; 58 Examples; HB SCB ED Glosses [ candra] [condor] [1p ndor] moon [gram! [geranO [gsram ] v i l l a g e [cokkro] [cokkor] [t;;> kkor3 round [bikkrae] [ b i k k i r i ] sale [mittra 3 [raittor] ' f r i e n d [ s o ttru] [sotturl enemy [glas] [ g e l a s ] [gil a s ~] glass [plus] [ p i i U S ] [ p i l a s ] plus Rule -j 3 [a] # [o] / - [ C l c 2 l Rule 13 explains tne anaptycal change which occurs i n the phonetic environment established when the t h i r d and f o u r t h segments of a word constitute,.. a G±Q^ sequence and where O^is always a nasal r_mland the sequence i s preceded and followed by to] and Co] For phonetic s i m p l i f i c a t i o n the the f i n a l \_o~\ a l t e r s i t s p o s i t i o n and occurs before the nasal r_m] . Examples: HB SCB Glosses [Janmo] [^onoml b i r t h -[dharmo] [dhorom^ r e l i g i o n [kormo] [korom ~} work 1 2 3 There i s no equivalent word i n MB. 2.64.. Vowel Harmony Tlta modifications of vowels due to a s s i m i l a t o r y processes i n a word are common i n sCBvThese types ox* modifications are more frqquant among the speakers of West Bengal than those of Bangladesh.lt i s found that c e r t a i n vowels have a r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n , a n d they allow only c e r t a i n kinds of vowels i n the successive s y l l a b i of a word (Bloomfield,, 1966-181).. Rule ( 14) V _ -//cc - - -> c [i] c This r u l e explains the intrusion of the vowel [ i l when a C.j G£ sequence occurs i n i t i a l l y i n any morpheme.Examples: HB SCB G-loss [sneho] [sineho] affection. M e ( 1 5) V uCCo '•*> uCuC Rule ( 15 ) converts [_o] to [u] i n the phonetic environment where \_o] occurs f i n a l l y and i s preceded hy a CC sequence. This r u l e has l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n as few sequences of t h i s type are found i n the language.Example; HB SCB G-loss [ s u r j o l [ s u r u j l sun 60 When HB words a r e used i n SOB,some of the me d i a l o r f i n a l vowels a r e m o d i f i e d f o r s i m i l a r i t y , w h i c h may he c a l l e d vowel harmony.Four d i f f e r e n t m o d i f i c a t i o n s of the vowels a r e n o t i c e d i n SOB.These a r e shown below w i t h r u l e s and examples. 2.640. HB [ d e i i ] [ e ] — > L i ] SCB [ d i s i l G l o s s homogeneous i n the example g i v e n above,the m o d i f i c a t i o n i s n o t i c e a b l e where the high-mid [ e ] vowel becomes h i g h [ i ] f o r vowel harmony i n a word.The f o l l o w i n g r u l e i s capable of h a n d l i n g the change of [ e ] i n t o [ 1] . Rule 16 V / — [ - s i ] # V - h i g h - low + f r o n t + h i g h - low + f r o n t 2.641. HB SCB G l o s s e s [ t u l a ] [ t u l o ] c o t t o n [mula] [mulo] a k i n d of v e g e t a b l e [ a ] > [o] The c e n t r a l vowel [a] changes i n t o back vowel [o"J , i f . i t 61 i s preceded by the l a t e r a l sound [ l j . [1"] i s always preceded by the vowel <[u~] . Rule 17 - high. - high + low - low 1 - front > - front /•••• \ u l ] - - -- round + round / 2.642. HB SCB Glosses [ b i l a t i ] [ b i l i t i ] f o reign goods [ J i l a p i ] [ J i l i p i ] a kind of sweet. [ a ] — > [ i l The modification of [ a ] into [ i l occurs i f [ a*] i s preceded by l a t e r a l [ 1 ] and the second and s i x t h v o c a l i c segments are [ i l . Rule 18. - high. + h i g h " -+ low -—> - low - front + front _ j - round__ - round_ [ i l —ct] # 2.643. •HB' [cuma] [ghumano] SCB [cumu"] [ghumuno] Glosses k i s s of sleeping 62 [a] * [u] In the examples cited above the central vowel [ a"] changes into the back, vowel [_u] , in the phonetic environment where [a] i s preceded by nasal r_m] . Rule 19 - high + high + low - low - front — front - round_ + round # 2.65. Nasalization Both in SCB and KB,the number, of nasalized vowels i s equal to that of their oral counterparts,though the frequency of occurrence of nasalized vowels i s far less than that of oral vowels .Ferguson (1968-59) quoites an oral-nasal vowel frequency ratio of about 50:1. Nasalization Is a common feature both ..in SCB and ND. A l l the oral vowels may be nasalized,and this feature has a strong impact in the language system.lherefore,the previous rule (Sec.2.1) for vowels may be rewritten in the following way. 3 a . Manner of articulation (p.22) )0 .vowel v "owel — $ oral or nasal oral —} i e ae, a o o u. nasal --> i e" se. a^ o u 6 3 A vowel becomes nasalized [ + nasal"] when i t i s followed by a nasal consonant,dropping the f u l l y nasal consonant, a f t e r i t i n the utterence.This feature i s so widespread i n ND that i t may be taken as a normal rule.A nasalized vowel, i s never, preceded or followed by any nasal consonants, There i s a r u l e f o r vowel n a s a l i z a t i o n i n SCB and ND. Nasalized vowels may be derived from an o r a l vowel which follows a nasal consonant. i n SCB,nasalization became common due to the de l e t i o n of nasal consonants a f t e r the vowel of the HB words. Examples: HB SCB Glosses [bindhi] .... [ b l d h i ] (I) pierce [bogso] [has] bamboo [bauG [ba] l e f t The same r u l e i s also applicable to ND,where the nasal consonants of SCB are '.. O dropped a f t e r the vowel. Examples: SCB ND Glosses [amar"] [ar"] of mine [tomar] fcto:r] of yours In other words,/a/ and /o/ are nasalized before a nasal segment,and when followed by a vowel + liquid ,/r/. The preceding consonantal segments do not change t h e i r values and are not affected.The feature r u l e i s shown i n the following:^ 64 R u l e 20 V V [- n a s a l ] > [+ n a s a l ] / - - - [m] . T h i s r u l e i n c l u d e s only the d e n t a l n a s a l /n/ and excludes /n/,as t h e r e i s no evidence t h a t the l a t t e r changes the q u a l i t y of a vowel. 2.650. HB SCB G l o s s e s [ panka ~) [ pak 3 mud [banka] [baka] curved [ c a n d r a l [cad] moon The examples show t h a t t h e n a s a l i z a t i o n r u l e f o r ED (Rule 20) i s a l s o a p p l i c a b l e t o SCB as [a] becomes n a s a l i z e d under the i n f l u e n c e of the f o l l o w i n g n a s a l consonant which i s then d e l e t e d . Rule 20 (a) [- n a s a l ] > .[+ n a s a l ] / - -. [ n j Rule 20 (a) shows the c o n v e r s i o n of the o r a l vowel r_a] t o a n a s a l vowel when i t i s f o l l o w e d by a f u l l y n a s a l consonant [ n ] .In case of any vowels other, than [ a ] ,only the f e a t u r e s f o r the vowels need be r e w r i t t e n . 65 2.651. l i s t of nasal vowels from SCB: oral vowels Glosses nasal vowels I) /!/ vs / i / [ e i r e l clubs [ bidlii] fate II) /e/ vs /e/ [keu keu] some [cire 1 [bidhi] [keu keul [keco] (you) washfkeco] 111) I at I vs /at / [DHa&ra] reel [Dkai ra"] iv) /a/ vs /a/ [basl dwell [has] [ba] or [bal v) /o/ vs /&/ [ d h o a 3 [ c h o r a 3 vi.) /u/ vs /u/ [k u r i l [churi3 wash [ dhoa] throw [choral twenty [ k u r l l knife [churl3 Glosses r i c e , f l a 1 1 ened and f r i e d (I) pierce whinnying or ' yelping of a dog earthwb,rm beating of a drum bamboo l e f t smoke hoy bud pert g i r l 2 . 6 5 2 . i n ED,as in SCB,all oral vowels have their, nasal counterparts.However,the informants could not provide examples showing the distinction of oral and nasal vowels, 66 as shown i n the p r e v i o u s l i s t f o r SCB.A few examples of the n a s a l vowels of ED are shown here without t h e i r o r a l c o u n t e r p a r t s . examples n a s a l vowels G l o s s e s [ h i r a l t i l low wooden s e a t [ i l a ] money [ k e e t j a ] [ea.] earthworm [ ? a B u l [ a ] knee [ k o ; l a ] [ 3 ] banana [koor"1 go ] w a i s t [.Thuic.] [ u l c h i n 2 . 7 . P h o n e t i c a l t e r a t i o n s of the consonants 2 . 7 0 . I n t r o d u c t o r y remarks L i k e v o c a l i c segments,consonantal segments a l s o undergo c e r t a i n changes i n d i f f e r e n t p h o n e t i c environments. R u l e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and r u l e a d d i t i o n a r e e q u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s of the co n s o n a n t a l segments i n the language.Some of these changes,such as a s s i m i l a t i o n , r e t r o f l e x i o n and n o n a s p i r a t i o n , a r e q u i t e common i n SCB and MD.The most common and f r e q u e n t changes,which occur i n the two languages a r e shown In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . 2 . 7 1 . A s s i m i l a t i o n A s s i m i l a t i o n i s a p h o n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s , i n which the m o d i f i c a t i o n of a segment,brings about s i m i l a r i t y w i t h 67 a n o t h e r , n e i g h b o u r i n g segment i n a word.Two segments which tend t o change a r e 'made t o agree i n t h e v a l u e a s s i g n e d t o one o r more f e a t u r e s ' (Chomsky and Ralle,, 1968-350) .Thus the v a l u e of agreement i s o f t e n found i n a s s i m i l a t i o n where unvoiced segments become v o i c e d . The most f a m i l i a r a s s i m i l a t o r y process i n SCB i s found i n the gemination of consonants.This p r o c e s s shows b o t h p r o g r e s s i v e and r e g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n . ' Though a s s i m i l a t i o n i s a common p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e i n SCB and ED, p r o g r e s s i v e and r e g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n a r e more common than mutual a s s i m i l a t i o n . One common f e a t u r e i s found both i n p r o g r e s s i v e and r e g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n , t h e segment of^second s y l l a b l e (e.g.LsOd-ma], ^dhar-ma] )always being a n a s a l segment. Examples of p r o g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n a r e ; HB SCB G l o s s e s [sadma"3 [ s D d d o l r e c e n t l y [padma] [poddol l o t u s [padma] t p o d d a ] padma-name of a r i v e r [ a t m a l [atta] s o u l Examples of r e g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n a r e : [dharmo] [ . d h D m m o ] r e l i g i o n [karmo] [ko mmo 3 work;de ed Two f e a t u r e r u l e s a r e shown here t o hand l e p r o g r e s s i v e and r e g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n i n SCB. 6 8 . Rule 2 1 L-m] * [ ci] / .[d] R u l e ( 2 1 ) i s capable of h a n d l i n g a p h o n e t i c environment in'.progressive assimilation, • ; ' . • • ., where the p h o n e t i c v a l u e of a segment i n a word i s changed by the segment immediately p r e c e d i n g i t , e . g . the n a s a l consonant [m"] i s changed t o the d e n t a l consonant [ d ] which immediately.precedes i t i n a word su c h as [padma^ •/> L p o d d o l .The p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g vowels of the . [-dm-] segment a r e always L e l a n d \_a~\ . Rule 2 2 [r: ] > [m. ~] / - - - M The above f e a t u r e r u l e i s a p p l i c a b l e where r e g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g p h o n e t i c environment jr-rm"] — } "[mm] ,as i n ^ karj^a} ^ jjommo^] . T h i s c l e a r l y shows t h a t the f i r s t member i s . a non-nasal consonant, w h i l e the second segment i s a n a s a l consonant.The non-nasal segment becomes a n a s a l segment i n t h e p r o c e s s of; r e g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t o r y change.The p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g vowels of [rut -] segments a r e always [;>"] and \_Q^} .Examples; HB SCB G l o s s e s [dharmo] [dhommo-] r e l i g i o n [karmo-3 [kommo'3 workjdeed 69 2.8. S p i r a n t i z a t i o n S p i r a n t i z a t i o n (-i.e.,where the SCB b i l a b i a l ( f p.] and p a l a t a l s ( t c 1 >l£k~D change t h e i r quality i n ID and are replaced by three spirants ( [ f ] ,. [z] and [s] ) i s not generally a common feature f o r SCB though i t occurs in. til>.sometimes,for s t y l i s t i c reasons and as a free phonetic v a r i a t i o n , s p i r a n t i z a t i o n may occur.Spirants; are .marked,, in. production, kj&an. unstopped breath stream,. but the f r i c t i o n i s not audible. The following, examples are given to show s p i r a n t i z a t i o n s p i r a n t i z a t i o n i n KD. SCB KB Glosses a) [mo Ja"] [muza^ [sojjo] ; [sozzo"] [gach] [gas] [chana] [sana~] [phpl] I f 01-1 [pani] :- [fani~] [pujo] [fuza] work stockings to endure tree young b i r d f r u i t water worship 70 Rule 23 (a) IT] ~ Z L z ] / - a o # (b) [ch."] = = = = [s] / — # [ a l (<0 #0" #a (a) Rule ( 2 3 a ) explains the changing of the SCB P i ph to the ND [ f ] when It occurs i n i t i a l l y i n a morpheme, and i s followed by [0] , [a] or [u~| . (b) Rule (23h) i s applicable to the change [ch] --- [ s 3 , when t h i s change occurs i n two environments.in the f i r s t environment,the change occurs when [ch] i s d i s t r i b u t e d i n i t i a l l y and i s followed by [ a ] r and i n the second when [ch3 occurs f i n a l l y and i s preceded by [a 3 . (c) Rule ( 25O handles phonetic changes such as the change [J] r \_z~\ » I t indicates that when L z 3 occurs f i n a l l y i t i s always preceded by [a ~] ,and i f i t occurs elsewhere, i t may be preceded by either [a] or [o] . 2 . 9 • Nonaspiration A s p i r a t i o n i s a common feature f o r stops i n SCB, and an"infrequent phenomenon i n the ND.In sCB,unaspirated stops are followed hy t h e i r aspirated counterparts,which 71 a r e f o l l o w e d immediately "by the i m p u l s i v e r e l e a s e of the a s p i r a t e d stops "before a r t i c u l a t o r y organs move t o t h e i r r e s t p o s i t i o n s . R o w e v e r , t h i s f e a t u r e of a s p i r a t i o n i s not pre s e n t f o r the ND stops,which tend t o he n o n - a s p i r a t e d as the o c c l u s i o n i s not sudden hut ratJaer slow, the immediate r e s u l t b e i n g the r e l e a s e of the breath-stream through a c o n s t r i c t i o n by the same organs.This causes the l o s s of a s p i r a t i o n f o r ND stops.The f e a t u r e r u l e s f o r - n o n - a s p i r a t i o n i s shown w i t h examples h e r e . Rule 24 A l l a s p i r a t e d s t o p s become n o n a s p i r a t e d i n ND except [ p h ] , which changes i n t o [ f ] — ) [ h ] .The r e w r i t t e n r u l e f o r ND c o u l d be shown i n the f o l l o w i n g way. [Asp] -) [\~] The f o l l o w i n g segments tend t o l o s e t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n i n ND. SCB ND G l o s s e s eyebrow e l d e r b r o t h e r o f husband i i ) [eh] = = If] [bicha] [machi -] f l y s c o r p i o n 72 i i i ) z z z z 1%-) [ J h o l ] [05 o l ] [Jhinuk] [03 i n u k ] iv) [Til] ---- r_«j}] [main] \_maTl [ka'ih] [ k a l ] v) . t * * l ZZZZ p i [ t i i a m ] [tam] [pathol*"] [ p a t o r ] v.i) £ d h ] z z z z Ld"] [dudh ] [ dud ] [gadha] [ g a d a ] v i ) [ k h ] z z z z f_k] [ d o k k h i n ] [ d o k k i n ] [pakhi ] [ p a k i ] v i i ) [ g a ] z z z z ^ g ] [inegh] [meg] [ g h o r a ] [ g o r a ] [bagh"] 2.90. [ b a g ] gravy o y s t e r f i e l d wood p i l l a r -stone m i l k donkey south, b i r d c l o u d h o r s e t i g e r In S C B , t h e tendency towards n o n - a s p i r a t i o n i s not completely absent,though i t i s l e s s f r e q u e n t than i n M B . O c c a s i o n a l l y , s o m e a s p i r a t e d segments l o s e a s p i r a t i o n as c i t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g examples. 73 [dh] — } [d] [dudh] --> [dud] m i l k [ T h ] — } [ T ] [kaTh] — } [ k a l 1 ] wood [gh] — ^ [g] [megh] — } [meg^ c l o u d Except f o r the above examples,the n o n - a s p i r a t i o n i s l e s s f r e q u e n t among SCB speakers,as i t may change the meaning o f a morpheme.The f o l l o w i n g examples from. SCB show the t r a n s f e r o f meaning of a word by the l o s s of a s p i r a t i o n . [ k a T h ] wood [ k a T ] t o cut [b a g h ] t i g e r [ b a g ! "to under c o n t r o l [ k h a n ] (you) eat [ k a n ^ ear [thaka] of s t a y i n g [ t a k a ] (you) look-2*10'. V o i c i n g There a r e two v o i c i n g r u l e s f o r ED,where the unvoiced r e t r o f l e x e s [ T ] and [ Th] become [ D ] and the u n t o i d e d v e l a r [ k ] changes t o [ g"] .One reason i s t h a t both the v o i c e d and v o i c e l e s s sounds i n SCB have e x p l i c i t meaning,which, ceases a f t e r the permutation of. any unv o i c e d sounds f o r v o i c e d sounds.For: example,[T] of [Taka] 'money',is n o t permutable f o r [D] of [Daka] «to c a l l ' , a s i t ^ c h a n g e s the meaning of an i n d i v i d u a l morpheme. Ru l e 25 Th T l * [ D i / f o - i l # ' a-e . # 74 R u l e ( 0 5 ) c l e a r l y s t a t e s t h a t [ T 1 changes into. [ if] i n two L 0!hj environments: i f i t occurs f i n a l l y , ^ i s preceded hy \^o~] and elsewhere i s preceded by [ a ] and f o l l o w e d by e i t h e r [ i ] o r [ e ] . Examples; SCB [ I h o l ] : [bo'li -] [ b a l i ] [ k a l h i ] [oThe] R u l e 1W [ l ^ o D l [ b o D i l [baDi] [kaBi] [oBe] G l o s s e s l i p s f i s h - k n i f e bowl s t i c k (he/she) r i s e s [k] = M / -# # R u l e (26) a p p l i e s t o the change [ k ] --- [ g ] ,a type of change which i s v e r y common i n I B , i n the f o l l o w i n g two environments: (a) i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n [ g ] i s preceded by e i t h e r [ e ] or [ i ] ; and (b) i t i s preceded elsewhere by [3] . Examples: SCB IB G l o s s e s [ f o k o l l [ s o k a l ] [ h o g a l l [hogal 1 a l l morning 75 G l o s s e s many jewel 2 . 1 1 . l o n p a l a t a l i z a t i o n Whereas the p a l a t a l sounds of SCB tend t o "be u t t e r e d as t r u e p a l a t a l sounds,most of the o r i g i n a l p a l a t a l s i n HB have a l t e r e d t h e i r q u a l i t y and become n o n - p a l a t a l i z e d . Three d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e r u l e s a r e p o s s i b l e f o r the p a l a t a l sounds of ND,where [e] , [ c h ] and [ 3 ] change i n t o [_1^ ] , [&U and r_<%] .These change are s y s t e m a t i c i n IB and occur i n any p o s i t i o n of the u t t e r e n c e s . T h e three, f e a t u r e r u l e s which are a p p l i c a b l e t o the IB p a l a t a l sounds a r e shown here • Rule 27 c ° 3 z = m R u l e ( 2 7 ) i s a p p l i c a b l e t o the SCB [03 ,which corresponds t o the IB [/t/] . I f [a"] occurs f i n a l l y , i t i s preceded by a n a s a l vowel Q a ] .In i n i t i a l and m e d i a l p o s i t i o n s [c ] may be f o l l o w e d and preceded by [a^ ,.[3], [o -] or. . SCB IB [anek] [ j n e g ] [manik] [manig1 0 i 76 Examples: SCB ND Gl o s s e s [ c a l ] - = Z I ft a l l r i c e [maca] [matf a "3 wooden, p l a t f o r m [pacj zzzz [Pa^ 1 f i v e [CQl] = = = = l e t us go [cokh.] ---- t^ r o k ] eye L o i l 3 [ft i l l hawk Rule. ,28 Ichl 1*3 # — f a" 7) R u l e ) a p p l i e s t o the SCB L ° h ] ,which correaponds the ND [ s ] ,-when i t occurs i n i t i a l l y and i s f o l l o w e d fcy La ] » CO] > o r L°] •: F e a t u r e r u l e (2a) i s common i n the ND,where the SCB [ch] i s r e p l a c e d by [ S ] * which, i s a l s o a p a l a t a l sound.Examples: G l o s s e s SCB ND [chana] [sana] [chobi] ==== [s o b i ] [ehoddo] z - = [soddo] [ehoe] ---- [sDe] [chobol] =-=.-- [sob o i l young b i r d p i c t u r e h i d d e n ; i n d i s g u i s e s i x sudden b i t e ( o f a snake) 77 Rule 29 I 3 ] = / # ~ a o Rule ( 29) explains that the SCB p a l a t a l [ J ] corresponds to the ND a l v e o l a r [dj"] ,;as i n the l a t t e r d i a l e c t the former sound does not e x i s t . [_31 always occurs i n i t i a l l y and i s followed "by either [a] or : o~] . Examples• ND t % an] £<% o d i l [dj ontu] [dj a t t r a ] Glosses (you) go i f animal opera [Jan] ==== [3.odi] z = = z [Jontu] ----[^attra] ----2.110. Rule 30 Rule (30) 1 3 applicable to [h] i n SCB,which corresponds to [?] i n the ND.The feature r u l e i s shown "below. I>] zzzz & ] ' / # - 1 a 0 Rule (30) c l e a r l y states that the [h] --- [?] conversion i s predictable as i t always occurs i n i t i a l l y and i s followed by [ i l , ]_er\ ,[31 or. \_6] . 7 8 Examples: HB [ h o i b e ] [hasta] [ k i t ] [ kins a"] [kae ] S C B [ho be"] ==== [ h a t ] %TTT • • » ~— [ h i n g e ] ----[hoe] ZZZZ ND [?oibo] [?a:tg [ ? i : t ] [ ? i ^ a ] [?oel G l o s s e s w i l l be hand good m a l i c e becomes 2 . 1 1 1 . R u l e ( 3 1 ) i s a p p l i c a b l e t o the two velar- segments [k,,1c1] of ND, which change i n t o [ x ] and [x^J [ x ^ i s n o t as f u l l y a s p i r a t e d as the SCB [kh] or the- o t h e r a s p i r a t e d h h s t o p s . [ k ]and [x ] a r e p a r t i a l l y a s p i r a t e d . The f o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s i o n r u l e w i l l h andle the p h o n e t i c ;e 0 Rule 3 1 change of. [ k , ^ ] t o [x^x 1 1] [ k ] = r = [ x ] j # - "j R u l e ( 3 1 ) a p p l i e s t o t h e SCB [k~l ,whick corresponds; t o the,,yND [ x i , i n two phonetic environments; (a) i f [ k ] occurs I n i t i a l l y i t i s f o l l o w e d by [.o],,and\~by, [a|: Examples; SCB [ k o t t a ] [ k a l ] z : ND [xotta"] [ x a ; l ] G l o s s e s master;head of t h e f a m i l y to-morrow 79 R u l e (31 D) [kh] a o. R u l e (3111) e x p l a i n s t h a t the. SCB [.kh") corresponds t o t h e h ND [x ] i n t h r e e environments. When [Ich] occurs, i n i t i a l l y i t i s f o l l o w e d by e i t h e r [ a 3 ,133,. or [cT\ .In a m e d i a l p o s i t i o n i t i s o n l y followed, by [a] . Examples: SCB ND G l o s s e s [khabo3 ZZZZ [daskhae] [khoti} ----[khoma"3 ----[xaium] [ d e x ^ e ] j x ^ o t i ] [ x ^ m a ] ( I ) s h a l l e a t (he/she) shows l o s s pardon 2.12. Zero m o d i f i c a t i o n In t h e ID,some c o n s o n a n t a l sounds of HB and SCB, both i n i n i t i a l and ot h e r p o s i t i o n s , a r e g i v e n z e r o v a l u e Among, these consonants a r e the two a s p i r a t e d sounds (t h e b i l a b i a l [ph.") and the v e l a r r_kh]) and the g l o t t a l [h] .This f e a t u r e i s a l s o a p p l i c a b l e t o SCB,where the g l o t t a l [_h~) found, i n HB words i s deleted.One common ph o n e t i c environment t h a t I s n o t i c e a b l e f o r z e r o m o d i f i c a t i o n i s t h a t [ph) , Ikh] and IhQ always occur i n t e r v o c a l l y . 80 F e a t u r e r u l e s f o r the above z e r o m o d i f i c a t i o n a r e shown below. Rule (32) Rule (32) s t a t e s t h a t the [ ph."] of rsCB becomes zero; in. ND, • i f i t i s preceded by and f o l l o w e d by [_u] and . Example: SCB ND G l o s s [tuphan] ---- ttuan] storm R u l e 03 ) 3 -e~ a -6 o - i _ R u l e (33) i n d i c a t e s t h r e e p h o n e t i c environments where [h] becomes zero.E x c e p t i n t h e [a-o"] environment,i.e.,in case of both [o-e]and [o-i] environments, i t c l e a r l y shows t h a t i t i s preceded by back, vowels and Co] and i s f o l l o w e d by f r o n t vowels Ci] and [e] . Examples: G l o s s e s (he) speaks courage charmed HB SOLV • E [kohe] Lkoe/bole] ---- L^ e] [sahas] l&a&ojti ZZZZ l**0** Cmohit] t r a ° h i t ] - ~ tm0±%1 81 Rule (34) Ru l e (34) e x p l a i n s the ze r o m o d i f i c a t i o n of the SCB LkhTJ t o the p L^j] i n the p h o n e t i c environment when [khQ occurs i i n t e r v o c a l l y , p r e c e d e d by [o] and f o l l o w e d by [o~J . Examples: HB SCB II) G l o s s e s [Ekhon] [aakhon] --- Loonl now [tokhon] [tokhon] === ItoonTJ then 2.-13>. • R e t r o f l e x i o n I n I D ,the d e n t a l [ d ] sometimes becomes the r e t r o f l e x [ D l . I h i s change i s q u i t e simple from a p h o n e t i c p o i n t of view,,as i n ID (and SCB ) the a r t i c u l a t o r y p o i n t s f o r the d e n t a l s a r e c l o s e t o t h o s e of the r e t r o f l e x sounds.she r e s u l t , i s t h a t d u r i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n of these sounds the tongue r e t r a c t s to the back o f the mouth c a v i t y which e a s i l y changes the q u a l i t y of a sound. Rule (35) "+ consonantal + a n t e r i o r + c o r o n a l + c o n s o n a n t a l - a n t e r i o r - c o r o n a l '+ v o c a l i c - high. + back + low + round Examples: HB SCB* I D G l o s s e s [ n o r e n d r a l [nqrendro] [norolDO] N.arendra-a proper name 82 HB SCB ND Glosses [ t p ND3] moon [candra] [condro] ~~z~ [cad] [gajendra] [g^Jendro] ---- [gD°3 ein)31 Gajendra-a proper name 'The above change i s r e s t r i c t e d to learned words derived from Sanskrit. 2.14. G l o t t a l i z a t i o n lite g l o t t a l i z a t i o n feature i s quite common i n ND, andaat l e a s t three d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s of sounds change to g l o t t a l sounds.The following sounds i n the d i a l e c t , a l l of which are non-glottal stops,always become g l o t t a l f r i c a t i v e s ,the b i l a b i a l [ph] — ^ \£~] — } [h] and the s i b i l a n t [js] - — "T_hQ .Two separate feature r u l e s are indicated f o r the modification of these sounds* Rule (36) [s] I h] / # e a \s~\ changes i n t o [h] when i t occurs i n i t i a l l y and i s followed by e i t h e r f_e] ,[>] or [ o ] . Examples: SCB ED Glosses sorse] [sala] ----[sagor ] ----[horsa] [hala] [haor] mustard seed brother-in-law ocean a3 SCB [sagor] ZZl [sosur] zz: [s ekhae) zz: Rule (37) ID [haor] [hour] [hikae~J Glosses ocean father-in-law. teaches [pk] I I I Z [f] » [h] / # x o Rule (37) i s applicable to the SCB [ph^ which corresponds to the ID [ £ 3 >'fclle l a t t e r changing to [ h] .There i s a common tendency i n ID to change i t s h i l a h i a l s i n t o f r i c a t i v e s (e.g., [ p a n i j 'water' $ [ f a n i ] ;[pata"] ' l e a f > [fata")) .The above r u l e shows three phonetic environments f o r the change [ph] [ f ] [ h~) , i . e . , i t always occur i n i t i a l l y and i s - followed by [ i ] , ,or Examples; SCB [phire] ----[phorixj] ----[pha?, n] z i z z ID Glosses [ f i r a ] [hira] low wooden seat [ f o r i n ] — * [horin]grasshopper [f&h] ~» [hthj hot water of cooked r i c e 84 Chapter. 111 3. Morphology 3.0. I n t r o d u c t o r y remarks Ike study of morphology i n c l u d e s both phonology and syntax,.which a r e d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o m p o s i t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n , o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s i n a language. I n t r a n s f o m i a t i o n a l syntax,a t e r m i n a l s t r i n g ( t h e l a s t s t r i n g o f the d e r i v a t i o n a l t r e e diagram) i s important f o r the study o f such morphemes as base w o r d s , ^ i n f l e c t i o n a l a f f i x e s and d e r i v a t i o n a l a f f i x e s .Most sentences which kave an-HP + VP s t r u c t u r e , c o n t a i n s t k e s e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s o f morphemes.The f o l l o w i n g i s a s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n on the d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s and the n a t u r e s of SCB and HB morphemes. 3.1. Free and Bound, morphemes The morphemes of SCB and HB f a l l i n t o two c l a s s e s : f r e e morphemes and bound moEphemes.Bound morphemes do not have independent meaning,but rather, o b t a i n t h e i r meaning t h r o u g h attachment t o other morphemes which have independent meaning .Examples ,.r_gulo3 -s_,as used i n [ meegulo] ' g i r l s ' ; [-ra"] -s_ i n [ c h o l e r a ] 'boys'.pr.ee morphemes,on t h e other hand,can be used without combination as they have independent meaning.Examples a r e &maia] ' g i r l ' , [ d o k k i n ] 'south',[bador] 'monkey'. 85 3.2. A f f i x e s The usage of the term a f f i x , a common term i n l i n g u i s t i c s , i n c l u d e s both p r e f i x e s and s u f f i x e s . T h e y may he c l a s s i f i e d i n t o i n f l e c t i o n a l a f f i x e s and d e r i v a t i o n a l a f f i x e s on t h e b a s i s of t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s when a t t a c h e d t o morphemes. I n f l e c t i o n a l a f f i x e s a r e used as a marker of p l u r a l s , c ases,tenses,and d e g r e e s . A f f i x e s have l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n a l r o l e f o r degrees i n SCB and ND,as few i n f l e c t i o n a l a f f i x e s occur, i n both, d i a l e c t s . i n f l e c t i o n s of nouns i n b o t h . d i a l e c t s a r e f o r case and number, w h i l e verbs a r e i n f l e c t e d for. tense and a d j e c t i v e s f o r degree. D e r i v a t i o n a l a f f i x e s change one c l a s s of morphemes i n t o another.They a l s o occur as s u f f i x e s with, the morphemes, whereas i n f l e c t i o n a l a f f i x e s a r e used e i t h e r as p r e f i x e s or s u f f i x e s i n SCB and ND. 3.3. Examples of the p r e f i x e s used i n SCB In t r a d i t i o n a l grammars of B e n g a l i , t h i r t e e n p r e f i x e s a r e l i s t e d shahidullah,1967-117).Not a l l of them a r e used i n SCB*Among the t h i r t e e n s u f f i x e s [ l a - ] and [ p h i - ] a r e of f o r e i g n o r i g i n , and [bo-] and [on-"] a r e not used w i t h a l a r g e number of morphemes.The re m a i n i n g p r e f i x e s a r e l i s t e d here w i t h examples. i ) . ^be-^ . used t o show o p p o s i t i o n £behaa^ £hesamal^ i i ; '[g.ar-^ absence of something ^gormil] [gorhajir.] 86 i i i ) ^na-^ absence of something |anador$ ^ n a b r i s i i ] i v ) / [a-^ « [akal? {apod^ v) ~ [ha-] " {habhate] vi. ) £na-^ " [nabalok^ v i i . ) £&i--^ " £nikhut^ i n i r l o b h ] v i i i ) £pati-] Small ^patilebu^ i x ) [ram-] b i g [ramda} \ ramchagol. \ 3.4. Suffixes i n SCB Suffixes i n SCB and ND are used as markers for. grammatical categories,such as number,tense,,person,case, and degree.They may be represented i n the fallowing way to cover, a l l aspects f o r which they are used (Chomsky and Halle, 1968-101). 1) ^ P 1 # Ls€# chele #Jsg. + gulo § J p i number — ^ 2) [ f [#pt# [pr#hol+i# 3 pr+echilam § pt f+boj tense — 3) [3p #~2p~# (_1p +e]#^2p # 3p] ~ ~ person ^ 4) [ #poss#Abl i Inst # A C C # [ n o m . # pagol + e] Nom # + K E A C C # + d i e # I n s t # +"theke # Abl # +er # ] E o s s case — } 5) [sup #[comp #"sundor +toro #] comp + tamo # g U p " j degree —-T-D i f f e r e n t s u f f i x e s which are used f o r number,tense, person and case i n SCB*are represented i n the above examples.Fully i l l u s t r a t e d examples are given here 87 to show the s u f f i x e s used i n SCB. 3,»5*Examples of the su f f i x e s i n SCB su f f i x e s £-ra$ {-chilam] M £-en^ markers exam.pl ea ( 1 ) plural, ^eheleguloj [boigulo^ {hurira^ (2.) tenses present [ b o l i ^ [bale} past [bolechilam^ f u t u r e [holho] (3) person f i r s t ( k o r l ^ second £karoj (common) Second r £korls^ (non-honorific) second £koren^ (ho n o r i f i c ) t h i r d '[ko re] (non-honorific) t h i r d (koren] (ho n o r i f i c ) (4) case "nominative £pagole^ Glosses hoys hooks women. (I) apeak (he) speaks (I) s a i d (I) w i l l , say (I) do (you) do (he) does of mad 88 s u f f i x e s markers Examples Glosses h k e ] accusatives [ pagelke] of the mad [die] ins trumental [pagol die] with, the mad [thekej a b l a t i v e [pagol. theke] from the mad i-ex] possessive ^pagolerj of mad'a (5) degree [-toro] comparative [^undorto r.o] prettier-[-tomo] sup e r l a t i v e [sunderto mo] p r e t t i e s t In the grammatical.use of person, there-are three forms i n the second person and two forms i n the t h i r d person.Both i n second and t h i r d per sons, h o n o r i f i c marking s u f f i x e s are i d e n t i c a l . In grammatical degree,the s u f f i x e s shown i n sec t i o n (5), are not c o l l o q u i a l i n the true sense,as,in most cases, comparative and s u p e r l a t i v e degrees are indicated by. simple adjectives rather than suffixes,e.g., i n the following ; ^ se besi sundor] 'she l a prettier',, [se sobcee b e s i sunder] 'she i s the p r e t t i e s t ' , i n SCB both I b e s i j 'excess' and f&shcee b e s i ] are simple adjectiv.es,which, are used f o r the comparative ([besi] - one adjective) and the superlative degrees ( [sabcee besi] -two adjectives [sph^ ' a l l ' , ^eee] 'among',, [besi] 'excess').This construction,rather. than°the use of the s u f f i x e s £-tor.o] and ^taono] which are c l o s e r to Sanskrit forms and used pr i m a r i l y i n HB,is common i n SCB. ia9 3 . 6 . s u f f i x e s used i n ID As i n SCB, s u f f i x e s nave f u n c t i o n a l , r o l e i n ID and they a r e w i d e l y used t o mark d i f f e r e n t grammatical, c a t e g o r i e s , A t o t a l survey of t h e ID s u f f i x e s i s made here for. the purpose of comparison w i t h those o f SCB.. The s u f f i x e s which, are used f o r marking d i f f e r e n t grammatical c a t e g o r i e s i n t h e ID a r e d e s c r i b e d h e r e w i t h examples . s u f f i x e s markers examples G l o s s e s {-™\ ( 1 ) p l u r a l . II (manusra^ men [-gula^ II (gorugula] cows (£) tens e [-M pr.es ent [ h a r i ] ( I ) can [-am] p a s t (hartam] ( I ) c o u l d [-urn] f u t u r e [harum] ( I ) w i l l be able (3) p e r s o n i (+ number (singular)+tense ( p r e s e n t ) f i r s t £hari] r-. r- n ( I ) can [ - 0 ] second [haro] (you) can (common) {-os} ( n o n - h o n o r i f i e ) [ h a r e s ] It (-en} ( h o n o r i f i c ) [haren] r\ II t-e} t h i r d [hare] (he) can ( common) {-en} ( h o n o r i f i c ) [haren] n s u f f i x e s markers examples Glosses {dia] {-re] (tore.] ( 4 ) case lorn Acc Inst Dat Abl Loc-(5 ) Degree 1 {"bane irate] father and. son h i [k aledre Dak) c a l l Khaled [tj- u r l d i a cut i t with, a k n i f e kaDo j [hoirere k^arat dao] [gatf et tore h o i ho r e ] [huire matf ase Give alms, t o the heggar The f r u i t f a l l s from, the tree There are f i s h i n the pond 3*7. The s u f f i x e s are not abundant i n number i n comparison to SCB>where they play an important l i n g u i s t i c r o l e i n bu i l d i n g new morphemes . A b r i e f survey of the s u f f i x e s which are commonly used i n ID,is made, here with examples. 1 One point which could be mentioned here i s that i n ID no&o. s u f f i x e s are used to mark degree.To compensate f o r the vacuum left,two simple adverbs ( [hes], [ k ^ h ] ) are used before adjectives- t o d i s t i n g u i s h between comparative and sup e r l a t i v e degrees.Examples;\he bes hundor] *she i s prettier 1» [ke Aih hundor"] 'she i s p r e t t i e s t ' . ~ 91 s u f f i x e s examples Glosses i ) j-ami ] jtj agal} -— aglamij stup i d - a t u p i d i t y i i ) {-anij a i j -—[dj a l a n i ] flame-fuel. iii)£-i] - {% UEl] t h l e f - s t e a l i v ) £-la] [team] •-(kamla} work-worker v i ) [-ua] - jbaua ] left-1eft-handed Besides the regular suffixes,some f o r e i g n s u f f i x e s are also used i n KB•These are predominantly used, by Muslim speakers i n the d i a l e c t area,and therefore seem to be influences from. Arabic and Persian.Some of them are l i s t e d here-Foreign s u f f i x e s used i n KB s u f f i x e s examples Glosses i ) £-san] [dar-] / {darvan} gate-gate-keeper i i ) {-ari^ £bau-} / {buarij Babu-the ways, of a Babu r-(Hindu gentleman) i i i ) {-kilana} [boiB?k-^ / {boiBDkk^anaj s i t t i n g - s i t t i n g room iv) [-gor^ (d$ aduj/ {d.3adugor j magie-magician v) [-girl] {daroga-} / {darogagirl} p o l i c e sub-inspector-the work of a p o l i c e sub-inspector 92 3.8. Derivational, morphemes In a d d i t i o n to i n f l e c t i o n a l a f f i x e s , a l a r g e number of d e r i v a t i o n a l a f f i x e s are used i n SCB •Derivational a f f i x e s are one of the main sources of b u i l d i n g new l e x i c a l items i n SCB.They are important f o r t h e i r i n f l e c t i o n a l r o l e as they change one word class to another .For example, [bondhu] 'fr i e n d * i n SCB i s a common noun, which ehang.es I t s class with the d e r i v a t i o n a l s u f f i x £-tto^ i n t o £hondhaitto] ' friendship?',an abstract noun .However, they have a very minor r o l e i n ND and are not attached to the l e x i c o n to cnange t h e i r grammatical categories.Sometimes,instead of adding a d e r i v a t i o n a l a f f i x e s i n the l e x i c o n i n HD,possessive markers are used to change meaning, i n a sentence.For example,.an SCB, sentence such as [akas s o n a l i ^ 'the sky Is golden', appears . i n HD as {akasDa honar moto^ 'the sky looks l i k e gold''.This tendency of the speakers of the d i a l e c t has r e s t r i c t e d the use of d e r i v a t i o n a l a f f i x e s i n ND. Der i v a t i o n a l affixes \ are discussed here to show t h e i r r o l e i n the d i f f e r e n t categories of word classes i n SCB» 3.9. Noun-forming, morphemes Noun-forming morphemes are abundant i n SGB>The most common types of such morphemes,which are widely used i n the language,are shown here with base forms. 33 3•9Q* L i s t - o f the Noun-forming morphemes i n SCB s u f f i x e s i ) {-dan ] i i ) {-pona} examples Glosses i i i iv)£-ana} v i j f i 5 v i i ) £-a } v i i i ) £>oala] i X J x) | - g i r 1} x i ) £-al] x i i ) £-mi] x i i i ) ;£acij x i v ) {-line] xv) " {-ti] { p i k j — > £ pikdan} s p i t j s p i t t o o n { duronto] — * [dur ontopgnaj naughty j naughtiness \ g h o l o k j — ^ { g k o i k a l i } matchmaker j.matchmaking {saheb} —»£sahebana} European;European style of l i v i n g luggage; p o r t e r t h i e f ; , s t e a l hand;, s l e e v e s f r i e d gram s a l t e d and s p i c e d ; , s e l l e r of f r i e d gram {dokan} —•> {dokandar} shop; shopkeeper {mule} —^{mui'egiri} p o r t e r ; j o b of a porter: s t i c k ; s t i c k - c a r r i e r , child.; c h i l d i s h n e s s , f r o g ; t g d p o l e snake;snake-charmer wheel; s m a l l wheel. £mo/c]—» {mule } {cor} — ( c u r l ] {hat} — > {hata} (cae,nacur} — {cag n a c u r o a l a ] { l a i h i } — > {laOJhialJ { e h e l e } — > ^chelemij {has n} — $ (bat n a c i j {sap'Jj —-^^sapure} {cak.^ — ^ { c a k t i . ^ 94 3.91* A^-jective-f arming morpliem.es It has already been mentioned that by adding derivational morphemes,.one word class may be changed into another...In the following sectlons, nouns are shown,where the nouns change into adjectives. suffixes examples EGlosses i) (-4 (des]j—>( des 1^5 home; homemad e ii.) i-el jpathor] —^{pathurej stone;stony iil)^o} |malhj —> (melho^ fieldsgrowing a f i e l d iv) {-alx} {sona"] --^{sonali] goldj.golden v ) > u ] {Dhal] —^{Dhalu-} slope;sloping vi) {-a$ {nun] —>{nonta] salt) saltish. vi£)£-alo] (Jo mole] —> {Jamkalo^ pomp;pompous viii.)£-uk] £pel]—> {peT.uk] belly;greedy ix) [-la] {megh} —>{meghla] cloud;cloudy x.)r {-ce} (lai] ~ » [lalce] red;reddish xi) j~-toj (mama] —>{mamato] maternal uncle;descending from a maternal uncle 3.10. in the following sections,the ED morphology i s described and is mapped to show the distinction of the mbrpholggieal pattern of SCB.Several problems are shown with different morphological rules.Morphemes take various inflectional roles such as case,number and person when some other suffixes are added to them. 95 3 * 1 0 0 . Morphemic combinations SCB and HD morphemes may combine with one or more stretches of. morphemes.However,combinations do not exceed three morphemes.when two or. three stretches of morphemes combine,the second and the t h i r d stretches of morphemes are used as morphemic s u f f i x e s .There i s no evidence i n SCB- or HD of morphemes which combine with more than three stretches of morphemes.If there are any,they are either S a n s k r l t i c or HB l e x i c a l , items,used due to the absence of any such morphemes i n the language. The following examples from SCB and HD show the three possible formations of morphemic combinations. Examples from SCB: examples Glosses number of morphemes boys pretty g i r l to-morrow to-morrow (to) pretty a t Dacca pretty g i r l s 11 2 2 3 (Dacca+at+emphatic s u f f i x ) at Dacca 2 96. Examples from MB: examples Glosses number of morphemes ^ h u i t - l o ] (he) s l e p t 2 [koit.t-am.-e} (I) want to do 3 (n3j not 1 i 1 [he-ten-er } of him, (hon.) 3 [ b a i t - t o n ] from home 2 3*11. She Morphemic structure (MS) Rules Halle (1959) points out that the phonological component of transformational grammar, consists of two sets of r u l e s ; phonological r u l e s and morphemic structure r u l e s . She morphemic structure (MS) r u l e s explain the combination of features i n i n d i v i d u a l morphemes.They are applied here to c l a s s i f y morphemes along with the morpheme c l a s a . H a l l e has also established a system f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of the MS r u l e s .Any utterence. which i s composed only of vowel segments i s c a l l e d a chain.Any utterance which i s composed of consonants o n l y . i s c a l l e d a cluster.Y stands f o r any vowel,0 f o r any consonant, R f o r any l i q u i d and j f o r any '.glide. 9 7 3.11.0- Morphemic patterns of SCB and IB structure The smallest morpheme/in SCB and IB consists of two sounds and the l a r g e s t of eight sounds.in both SCB and IB,the the i n i t i a l sound of a morpheme may be a vowel, or a consonant, and i t i s followed either, by a consonant or a vowel. (VC ... or CV . . . ) . ( I f the morpheme i s composed of a vowel and a consonant^it may be c a l l e d a v o c a l i c . I f the f i r s t segment of a morpheme i s a consonant and i t i s followed by a vowel,it may be c a l l e d a consonantal.)The only exceptions are consonant c l u s t e r s and diphthongs,where the pattern, becomes either. CC or VV.As diphthongs always combine two vowels,they may be regarded as a chain.For. example; <5 {[b]-oi} 'book' {[k3 -oi} 'where' {T_m]-oi} 'ladder.' £[b] -ou]> 'wife*' {[rfj-ei] " i s not? £[b~) -ou^nif^ ' f i r s t customer of the day* {[s^-Iu- 111]} 1:& kind of yellow flower.,; The most common patterns i n SCB are ;VC,CV,CVC or VCV» Examples are given here to show the eight segmental patterns of the SCB, morpheme structures. MS Examples Glosses VC [a-Z] to-day ' CV [ k i \ what CVE. {kal^ to-morrow 98. MS. examples G-loss es cmv [ a l l e l e } ooy CYCY [kana] b l i n d CYCYK. £ kanar^ of the b l i n d CYRCY { h o l d i ] turmeric. CYRYC •[morlcj r e d pepper GYGCYE. ^khoceor.} mule CYCYGY [bichana] bed CYYCYRY { d i e e h i l o j (he) gave C.YCYCCYB. (cpmotkar j b e a u t i f u l CYCCYCCY {bondhutto} f r i e n d s h i p 3*111 * i n HD, morphemic, p a t t e r n s a r e q u i t e c o m p l i c a t e d and they may he b u i l t i n n i n e ways.The most common p a t t e r n s o f morphemic f o r m a t i o n s i n HD,which a r e si m i l a r , t c th o s e o f SCB.,are CYCY and CYY* The f o l l o w i n g examples a r e g i v e n t o show t h e MS r u l e s f o r the segmental p a t t e r n s o f HD morpheme; structures. MS C.YR GYcmvv CYY CVYCRV. GYCGY examples [boij- o r i a ] (moij [haisla} {hsnge} G l o s s e s f o u r of y e a r s l a d d e r (you) laughed w i t h 99 MS Gmqvcvc CYCVYCm CVVCYC YCCY examples [ p i r t n i m l r j (hud^ aoner } [ft aitamj {amne j Glosses of earth to make him, understand (.1) could ask of you (hon.) The following, r u l e s evaluate the, individual, segments of- SCB. and ID morphemes. 5.1120. Rules f o r SCB, Rule 1 . I f the i n i t i a l segment i s consonantal,the next segment segment i s v o c a l i c . Rule 2 . I f the i n i t i a l segment i s voc a l i c , t h e next segment i s consonantal. Rule 3 - I f the f i r s t two segments are consonantal and vocalic,,the next segmental. Is consonantal. Rule 4 . I f the f i r s t two segments are v o c a l i c and consonantal,. the t h i r d segment i s v o c a l i c . Rule 5 • l£ "the f i r s t and the t h i r d segments are consonantal then the second and f o u r t h segments are v o c a l i c . Rule 6 . I f the f i r s t and t h i r d segments are v o c a l i c , then the second and f o u r t h segments are consonantal. Rule 7 . I f there i s any juncture a f t e r the consonantal segment,.then the next segment is. consonantal. Rule • I f there i s any juncture a f t e r the v o c a l i c segment, 100 then the next segment i s also a v o c a l i c . Rule 9 . I f there are two junctures i n a word, a f t e r the consonants,the next segments are consonantal. Rule 10. I f there Is any juncture a f t e r a consonantal segment,the preceding and following segments are v o c a l i c . Rule 11. I f there are any consonant c l u s t e r s i n a word they are preceded and followed hy v o c a l i c segments. Rule 12. I f there are two consonant c l u s t e r s i n a word, they are preceded and followed hy v o c a l i c segments. Rule 13. I f there are any Y\f sequences,the preceding and following; segments are consonantal. In examples such as [bondhutto] ' friendship', ^diechile} •you gave', ^ a j j 'to-day',, [bicbana^ 1 bed \ the consonantal vs noneonsonantal^and v o c a l i c vs nonvocalic features may be used to show the MS rules of. the i n d i v i d u a l segments which compose morphemes. h o na.dh u t t o d i e ch i 1 e b. 1 ch a n a v o c a l i c - + - - + - - + - + + - + + + - + - + - + consonantal + - + + - + + -\ + - - + - + - + - + - + -101 3.113. The following rules evaluate tne i n d i v i d u a l segments of tne ND morph ernes .Ike same system i s "being followed here which was ap p l i e d i n the evaluation of the SCB morphemes. Rule 1. I f the i n i t i a l segment i s consonantal,the next segment i s v o c a l i c . Rule 2. I f the i n i t i a l segment i s voca l i c , t h e next segment i s consonantal. Rule 3. I f two segments are voca l i c , t h e preceding and following segments are consonantal. Rule 4. I f two segments are consonantal,the preceding and following are v o c a l i c . Rule 4a.In the case of two consonantal segments occuring sequentially,there i s another p o s s i b i l i t y where they may be preceded by two v o c a l i c segments,but may also be followed by two v o c a l i c segments. Rule 5. I f an i n i t i a l segment i s /i/,then the next two segments are always consonantal. Rule 6. I f the morpheme i s composed, of s i x segments,there i s at l e a s t one GO or VV. occurrence. Rule 6a.If the l a s t segment i s vocalic,then i t i s preceded by a consonantal segment. Rule 6b.If the l a s t segment i s vocalic,then i t i s preceded by a CC sequence. Rule 6c.If the l a s t segment i s a vocalic,and i f i t i s 1 0 2 pr preceded by a CC sequence,tlie i n i t i a l segment i s followed, by a YY sequence. Rule b d . l f the l a s t segment i s not preceded by a CC sequence, the t h i r d segment from, the end i s v o c a l i c and the p a t t e r n becomes CYCVCY. Rule 6e.If the l a s t segment i s c o n s o n a n t a l , i t i s preceded by consonantal segment. Rule 7 . I f the morpheme i s composed of seven segments, the f i r s t segment i s always consonantal and the l a s t segment i s always vocalic... R u l e 7 a . I f the l a s t segment i s a vocalic,,then the t h i r d and f o u r t h segments from the beginning are consonantal and v o c a l i c r e s p e c t i v e l y . Rule 7 b - .If the l a s t v o c a l i c segment i s preceded by a v o c a l i c , then, the t h i r d segment from the end i s a consonantal. I f i t i s preceded by a consonantal,,the t h i r d segment from, the end Is a l s o a v o c a l i c . Rule 7 c I f the f i r s t and l a s t segments are consonantal, they are f o l l o w e d and preceded by v o c a l i c s . R u l e 7 d.If the t h i r d segment from the beginning. 0 f the seven-segment morpheme i s v o c a l i c , t h e t h i r d segment from, the end i s consonantal and i s f o l l o w e d by another consonantal segment .Therefore,, the second segment i s a l s o v o c a l i c a nd,in combination w i t h the t h i r d segment,makes up a YV sequence,and the 103 f o u r t h and f i f t h , c o n s o n a n t a l segments make up a CC sequence. R u l e 8. I f the morpheme i s composed of e i g h t segments the f i r s t i s always a consonantal,which i s f o l l o w e d by a vowel,then by a consonant. R u l e 8 a . I f the l a s t segment i s c o n s o n a n t a l , i t i s preceded a v o c a l i c , a n d a consonantal,,and t h e n by a v o c a l i c segment. R u l e 8h.The f o u r t h segment may be a v o c a l i c or a con s o n a n t a l segment. 104 Chapter.- i v 4. Syntax 4.. 0. Houn-phrase Rules 4.1. D i s c u s s i o n Tne p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n i s i n c l u d e d f o r tne purpose of. p a r s i n g t h e IP o f SCB and I D . SCB and ID have the f o l l o w i n g r u l e f o r HP. (Houn ] IP » 4 V + (Adj) + (loun) 08 ) (pronoun) _ „ _ ,. . , The HP can he r e w r i t t e n i n the f o l l o w i n g two ways,, a) noun and. b) pronoun.The a d j e c t i v e and the. noun i n p a r e n t h e s i s a r e o p t i o n a l . S e n t e n c e s l i k e (1) {motin pore] 'Matin reads (2) (samsun soe] 'Shamsun l i e s down',, or (3) £ §e bhalo c h e l e j *he i s a good boy 1, (4) ( t a r a kharap l o k } 'they a r e bad'^people', can be a n a l y s e d using, r u l e (38).p£rase S t r u c t u r e r u l e s f o r sentences 1 and 2; IP $ Houn Houn ^ {motln,,samsun} VP £ ¥erb. Verb { pa r e ,, soe j phrase s t r u c t u r e , r u l e s f o r sentences 3 and 4; HP > pronoun + ( A d j ; + (Houn) 1Q5 Pron. \se P t a r a ] Adj. •> {bhalo, p kharap} Houn. » [ c h e l e „ l o k ] 4*2.* l o u n s i n IP p o s i t i o n t Kouhs may be grouped i n t o d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s b o t n i n SCB and I B . A l l - nouns can occur i n t n e IP p o s i t i o n , a n d r u l e (38) t h e r e f o r e needs t o be extended t o i n c l u d e t h i s f e a t u r e . The extended r u l e i s g i v e n below f o r the nouns which a r e l o u n (.Pre) + f count ) " - l noncount V proper noun; P o l l owing r u l e (39 ),the noun can be r e w r i t t e n w i t h a count pre-noun #. 'Pronoun' i s used h e r e f o r those morphemes which precede a noun, phrase s t r u c t u r e for. r u l e ( 3 9 ) : used i n t h e IP p o s i t i o n . R u l e (39 ) noun,a non-count noun,a proper noun or w i t h an o p t i o n a l {t£l.^  * o i l % {bui} 'eJe-brow« r(lB) Count nouns $ animate inanimate animate nouns ^ s e a l } » jackal*,imanus } 'man' (SCB) {basur}° ' c a l f [ h o l a ] •'boy'0 (ID) 106 inanimate nouns } [pata^ ' l e a f 1 , {sondorjo] 'beauty' (SCB) {if u r i j " ' k n i f e ' (ND) 0-he d i v i s i o n of count nouns into animate and inanimate nouns i s important as they nave a d i f f e r e n t i n f l e c t i o n a l nature. For example,sentence such as £bulu bhablo] 'Bulu thought' i s possible,producing .strings f o r animate noun i n YP's, hut not senteneesuch as *£cear bhablo] 'the c h a i r thought• . animate + prt SCB-Rule 09 a) Noun £ (prenoun) + count r _ C inanimate j Rule ( 3 9 a ) i s capable of producing, s t r i n g s such as the following.. ND {2k band or Da] [ a i holaDa} [ol. fataDa] I 1 P a r t i c l e s are always added to nouns i n SCB and ND where the subject requires s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n . F o r example,-, expressions such as {ol ehele-la] 'that boy',differ, from those such as ^ o i chele] 'tha? boy', i n "that the prenoun io-ij 'that' does not mark a d i s t i n c t i o n i n the [ s a l badoria] [ o i chele^a\ \oL patalaj [ k i sondorjoj Glosses that monkey that boy that l e a f What a beatyj 1 ND lacks the expression as shown for. SCB.. 107 subject-,'but the p a r t i c l e {-Ta} does,defining the subject s p e e l f i c a l l y * Rule (39 b) loun > (prenoun) + count This i s a simple r u l e f o r producing strings i n SOB and KB, where prenouns precede* count nouns.Examples; SGR; KB Glosses [ o i cearla sundor] [ o i tj earBa hundorj That c n a i r i s b e a u t i f u l [ o l b a l i s T a dao \ [oi balisDa dto.} Give me that p i l l o w Rule 0 9 c) Noun ^ (prenoun) + proper noun This i s i d e n t i c a l to Rule 39b„ where prenouns precede the proper nouns. Examples; SCB KB Glosses { Bnaka banladeSer £Dee ha baaladee ser Dacca i s the c a p i t a l rajUhani} r a j d a n i ] of Bangladesh [somuddro p a r i d i t e {haor par o i t e I. l i k e to cross bhalo lage.j balobasij the ocean 4t'5» pronouns i n IP p o s i t i o n I t was shown e a r l i e r that both the nouns and the pronouns i n SCB and KB are used, as a KP i n a sentence. The pronouns are e a s i l y substitutable f o r the nouns and they can q u a l i f y as NPs .However,although pronouns may 108 o c c u r i n p l a c e o f nouns,they a r e never preceded by a prenoun. Rul e ( 40; C l o u n 7 ^ ^ |_pronoun] pronoun — f p e r s o n a l ^ + (number) + (person) i n d e f i n i t e r e l a t i v e demonstrative^ Humber and. pe r s o n a r e shown as o p t i o n a l i n R u l e (40 ),.as the pronouns a r e i n f l e c t e d for. tnem.i'he p e r s o n a l pronouns a l s o v a r y i n second and t h i r d persons,as they d i f f e r i n h o n o r i f i c and n o n h o n o r i f i c forms.A p a r t i a l l i s t . i s g i v e n here t o i n d i c a t e the f o u r d i f f e r e n t forms of pronouns found i n SCB. and ID. p e r s o n a l pronouns > £ami} ' l ' , { t u m i ] 'you', {se] ''he/she*,. [ a i ] » £ e 7 s h e * (ID) i n d e f i n i t e pronouns » { k e u j 'someone', £ Je keu} 'anyone' r e l a t i v e pronouns > l^e} • w£o •,, {kara} 'whom',{karj 'whose' demonstrative pronouns > {e3Ea] 'th i s ' , , { e i g u l o } 'these' ( o i g u l o ] 'those' (SCB) (eDa ] * t h i s •, { o i g u l i j ' those • {lane} 'here' (ID) 4*4. prenouns * prenouns > fQuan \ P r t + Q com (.IP + Poss Following rule (41),prenouns nave three options i n replacing the nouns in the i n i t i a l string.The three options are exemplified here. PS Rule for (41) prenoun Quan She prenoun may he replaced hy a quantifier in the HP when the noun follows it.There i s one exception to this rule, i.e., when a pronoun may also follow quantifiers such as the following {hoe] • either',[noe} 'neither' f c v§g in the expression (hoe tumi ..]'either you', £nae se] 'neither he n o o (she)' 4.40". Rule ( 42 -) shows that a quantifier,when i t is used in, an HP,has two re-write rules ; (a) the noncount quantifier (Qnc) i S followed hy a noun and a possessive,such as i n the phrase {kichu. loker bhirv 'a crowd of some people' (some people's crowd); or. (h) the plural quantifier ($|^) i s followed hy anoun and a verb,such as in the example {kotokgul lok 'Joe] 'several people go'. o o 4.41. Quantifiers Quantifiers play a significant role in SCB and HD. They occur in two forms,as shown in Rule ( 42 o). 110 Quan K Q n c +E+Poss) ... a R u l e ( 42;) a s s i g n s the f u n c t i o n o f the q u a n t i f i e r s where (a) the q u a n t i f i e r s of a non-count noun and, a p o s s e s s i v e , or (b) i n the case of a p l u r a l q u a n t i f i e r , n o u n s always precede the verb.When the q u a n t i f i e r , precedes the n o u n , n e i t h e r t h e noun n o r the verb forms are changed. 4.42. l o n c o u n t Q u a n t i f i e r s ( Q n G ) SCB IB G l o s s e s ^ k i c h u ^ {kitj- u j some [onek] [oneg] much [s^b] {hagol} a l l 4.420. comparative Q u a n t i f i e r s ( 9 o m p ) The use of comparative q u a n t i f i e r s may a l s o be r e - w r i t t e n as t h r e e o p t i o n a l r u l e s . R u l e (42 a) r comp ") \ c a r d i n a l ( . ( I i + (poss) + E 1 ^comp 1 o r d i n a l J + [ E + V j Rule (42 si) i s a b l e t o handle comparative q u a n t i f i e r s where they may occur i n one of the t h r e e forms shown i n the r u l e . When the q u a n t i f i e r s precede a noun, the next, word sequence may be e i t h e r a p o s s e s s i v e and a noun or a s i n g l e v e r b . I n SOB,comparatives a r e formed i n two w a y s , e i t h e r by the i n f l e c t i o n a l endings {-toro} '-er« or {tsmo} ' - e s t 1 on a d j e c t i v e s , o r by the q u a n t a t i v e morphemes { b e s i i and 111 {sobcee besi] preceding the adjectives.The i n f l e c t i o n a l endings {-toro] and {-tomoj are not true c o l l o q u i a l forms i n the sense that they have a r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n , always attached to words commonly used i n High Bengali, which are more or l e s s s a n s k r i t i z e d forms.Examples: SCB ND Glosses { S u n d o r mee] [hundor maiaj (She i s a ) pretty g i r l {sobeee sundor mee] { k ^ b hundor maia] (She i s ) p r e t t i e r [§Db cee sundor mee} (She i s ) p r e t t i e s t [prothom cheler dol] [ h o i l a h o l a g u l i r p i r s t group of boys dol} [askTa boi] [a&kDa hoi] One book Cardinal numbers; {car] {% a r ] four {aT} {aS2D} eight or d i n a l numbers; [prothom] [portam} f i r s t { d i t i o j { d i t i o j second comparatives; {-toro} -er [ b e S i ] - e r ^-tomo] -est [sobcee besi] -est 1 1 2 4.3. Case Case plays an important r o l e i n the morphemic structure and syntax of SCB and ND.The r e l a t i o n of the verbs to language.The UP of SCB and ND i s l a r g e l y dependent on case f o r s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n and parsing. They are,Nominative [korta^, Accusative [kormoTJ, Instrumental [k^ron],Dative ^somprodan],Ablative rjpadanl and Locative [odhikaron].suffixes are added to nouns and pronouns to denote case.Case morphemes are d i f f e r e n t f o r singular and p l u r a l numbers i n SCB and ID.These are shown here with examples. Case ->{Nom.,Acc,Inst.,Dat.,Abl.,Loc.,+ number} singular > {-e} , {-:)] ,, {-te] , {-ke} , (-rej , {-die} objects i s indicated by d i f f e r e n t cases markers i n the Six d i f f e r e n t cases are described i n Bengali grammar. p l u i a l - '» I-*9-} > [-era] , {-der} , [-guloj , {-sQbaij Examples from SCB: s u f f i x case number examples Glosses t-tej Nom [gorute khol khae] The cow eats o i l c a k e . 113 s u f f i x case number examples Glosses 1-ke] Acc sg {jonke Dako} C a l l Joan {-die} Inst II £churi die k a l o j Cut i t with a k n i f e {-? Dat it {take kolom kine Buy a pen f o r him dao] {theke} Abl ii £gach theke pata The leaves f a l l p or che } from the tree l - J Doc it {s'undorbone anek There are many deer nor i n ache] i n sundarban {-gulo} Nom p i {-der} ACC » {-der} i n s t «» {-der} Dat {-der} Abl » ^-guloj DOC " {chelegulo khas l a korche} f o n d e r na dekhe ami aekdino co l t e p a r i n e ] {corder die <.'.'" kokhono bhalo k a j hote parena} {bhaider Jonne se onek ghori kineche] {meeder moddhe l i n a sundori} ^pukurgulo mache bh o r t i } The boys are playing I can not pass. a. single day without seeing Joan and others JA good thing i s never done by thieves He has bought many watches f o r h i s brothers Bina i s the p r e t t i e s t among the g i r l s Those ponds are f u l l of f i s h 114 Examples from ND s u f f i x case number examples Glosses {-Da} Horn sg {goruDa gas k^ae] Tne cow eats grass {-re} A C C " {keare bolaej C a l l Keya {dia} Inst »» {tf aku d i a kaBo} Cut ( i t ) with a k n i f e {-e} Dat " {tare kolom kinna dao^Buy a pen f o r him [tipne] Abl » p^olDa gaser tone The f r u i t f a l l s from horse} the tree {-e} l o c " ^iiundorbone bag ase] There are t i g e r s i n Sundarban {-gula} Nom P i {holaguala k a^ltase} The boys are playing {-der} A C C II {dander na deikka I ican not pass my a i aek din tf o l t e days without seeing h a r i na} Joan -gore} Inst II {tj- orgore d i a konodin A good thing could bala kadj oe na] never be done by thieves {-er} Dat II ^ he heier baier He has bought some dj onne egguli g o r i watches f o r h i s kinse] brothers {-gular} Abl II {maiagular moidde Benu i s p r e t t i e s t benu hundar] among the g i r l s {-gula} Loc II ^huirgula maif e The pond i s f u l l hura j of f i s h 115 As the nouns of SCB and ND are i n f l e c t e d f o r case,the l a t t e r plays an important r o l e i n noun-phrase.she i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and the functions of case s u f f i x e s are as such,necessary, as nouns change t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s when i n f l e c t e d f o r cases. 4.4. Number Number i s important f o r the nouns and the pronouns of SGB and ND,as both are i n f l e c t e d f o r it.However,there i s a r e s t r i c t i o n on the abstract noun,which i s not i n f l e c t e d f o r number.{sondorJo^ 'beauty' i s possible but not *{Sondorjogulo~], adding a p l u r a l marker . p l u r a l morphemes are added to proper nouns,although they do not in d i c a t e p l u r a l i t y but rather case.For example,{mithun] •Mithun-a proper name',is possible but not ^ mithungulo} as i t does not mark p l u r a l i t y and does not indicate more than one Mithun.On the other hand, {ra] may be added to Mithun to indi c a t e p l u r a l i t y , s u c h as i n the expression {mithunra bae.rate gaache] , which means 'Mithun has gone out with other members of the family or frien d s • . T h e r e f o r e , i t may be s a i d that proper and abstract nouns are not i n f l e c t e d f o r number; P l u r a l morphemes are used i n SCB to in d i c a t e p l u r a l i t y of objects.They are {-ra] , {-era} ,£-der] , and {-gulo}. 116 SCB and HB. The following r u l e , with r e s t r i c t i o n s , is/intended •, f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of number i n d i f f e r e n t nouns and pronouns i n SCB and HB. Rule 43 lumber $ singular / p l u r a l j singular — p l u r a l ^ count (animate Cinanimate noncount a l l pronouns +{r.a] (SCB and HB) j^guloj (SCB), -gula -(ED) + t-der] (SCB) t-go] (HB)" [-ra] (SCB and HB) [-te] (HB) The ways i n which p l u r a l markers are used i n SCB and HB are shown i n the following sections. 4.5. P l u r a l Formations 4.50.pronouns SCB and the HB pronouns are divided into four classes, Personal,Relative,Demonstrative and Interrogative.Separate phrase-structure r u l e s are needed f o r them as the i n f l e c t i o n s , f o r each class d i f f e r from those f o r another class.Four sets of rules f o r SCB and HD are shown here.It should be noted that the pronouns of SCB and ED are i n f l e c t e d f o r 117 person,and case.B-side this,pronouns have three forms f o r the second person and two forms f o r the t h i r d person. - In the second person,pronouns are categorized as h o n o r i f i c (hon-), nonhonorific (nonhon*) and those f o r common use.The same ru l e i s applicable to the t h i r d person,which has two forms, for h o n o r i f i c and nonhonorific d i s t i n c t i o n s . A l l these v a r i a t i o n s are marked i n the phrase structure r u l e s . 4.51. P l u r a l formations f o r Personal pronouns The p l u r a l formation r u l e f o r the personal pronouns i n SCB i s shown as Rule Rule 44 pronoun ^ [personal}+pl ^ ~ r a ^ examples G-loss es [ami ] [amra] I - we [tumi} [tomraj You- You i t u i ^ + p i —^> ^tora3 ^apni} [apnara] [se^ {tara} he,she - they {tini} {tar a) " » In SCB,phonological changes are also noticeable before adding p l u r a l markers to the base.A t o t a l change of the morpheme i s evident from the t h i r d person nonhonorific singular to the p l u r a l , where {se} — ^ {tara"^ , which i s comparable to the English system She | — { t h e y } . xMoreover,it i s quite (she} ! 11 it ti ti 118 evident i n the given examples,that SCB and MD ha¥e l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n morphology,except f o r t h i r d person p l u r a l numbers,where UD has an extra s u f f i x {-te} f o r marking p l u r a l s . pronoun f {personal} + p i <-ra i-te examples Glosses {ai} £amra} I - we (tui} {tomra} you - you {amne} {amnera^ » » {he} {hetej he, she - they {hete^ {hetenraj " » In the above examples,IB shows phonetic changes before adding suffixes f o r p l u r a l markers.One more change i s noticeable i n t h i r d person h o n o r i f i c use f o r plurals,where an a d d i t i o n a l {-n} i n f i x i s added to i t to d i s t i n g u i s h non-honorific from h o n o r i f i c usage. 4^52. Other rules f o r p l u r a l formations Beside personal pronouns,other morphemes of d i f f e r e n t categories may also q u a l i f y f o r p l u r a l markers.These are described here with d i f f e r e n t phrase-structure r u l e s . 119 4.520. p l u r a l formations f o r Count nouns Rule 45 count + p i ^ count + (-ra -gulo SCB Rule ( 45 ) applies to the count nouns of SCB and HD, where two p l u r a l marking s u f f i x e s {-raj and £-gulo] are used i - g u l i ] {-gula] i n the language. Examples: SCB HD Glosses [chelejpa—$ {chelera^ [ma] — ^ [mara] {cor] —-^{corra] {mee} meegulo {bacca} haccagulo {hola} ->{holara} hoy - hoys .... .... mother - mothers {tj or] — > t h i e f - thieves {tj- or gui i ] {maia} -^{maiara} g i r l - g i r l s [maiaguli] {hatf y a] -> c h i l d - Children {baft tf agulaj 4.53* Possessive formations of the personal and Rel a t i v e pronouns pronouns undergo further changes when possessive markers are added to denote the possessive case.Three d i f f e r e n t phrase-structure r u l e s are possible f o r possessive formations of the personal and r e l a t i v e pronouns as shown 120 i n the following.Separate P S rule s are chosen f o r S C B and I B as they vary i n t h e i r forms. Examples from S C B : A. Glosses \ ami] [amEffi] I - my £tumi] {tomar] you - your. {tui 5 [tor] n II £apni] + poss—£ [apnar] M 11 [se } [tar] he/she his/her [ t i n i ] [tar] II it [ke] {kar] who - whose B . {amra] [amader] we - our £tomra] [tomader.3 you; - your: [tora ] [toder ] it ti £apnara] +poss—^ [apnader] it it [tara] (tader ] they t h e i r [tara} [tader3 • II II [kara] {kader } who; - whose C. { amar} ^ amari ] my - mine [tomar\ {tomari] your; - yours [tar T, { t a r i } h i s - h i s {amader} {amaderi} our - ours ^tomaderj {tomaderij your- yours [tader } ^tader1 ] t h e i r - t h e i r s 121 The following ps rules are applicable f o r ND; Examples AA. \ t u i ] famne] + P o s s [ bet en] BB. i a r j {tor? {tarj + poss -[amago] CC. {arj {tor J [amnerj + poss [he ten] {kara} f a r j ( t o r ] ^ [amner] [hetenerj {art] [tori] [ t a r i ] (amagoi] [amgo } [togo] —y {amnego] [hatengo] {kago} Glosses I - my he - h i s it ti he - h i s my -mine your - yours h i s - h i s our - ours mine - our your - yours ti it it ti whose - whose SCB and ND vary considerably i n adding possessive markers for. personal and r e l a t i v e pronouns,as i s shown i n section BB and C i n the examples above. 4.530. Possessive formation f o r Nouns and I n d e f i n i t e pronouns As with personal and r e l a t i v e pronouns,nouns and i n d e f i n i t e pronouns a l s o add^i. ^ possessive morphemes to t h e i r bases.Two possessive morphemes are added to the 1 2 2 SCB bases f o r possessive formations,^-r] and. {-er} . {-erj has r e s t r i c t e d use f o r proper names.If tne proper name ends i n a v o c a l i c segment, i-er^ i s not added to i t . F o r example, the proper name |bulu] .-will never be marked by {-ex] but by \ - r ] . Rule r e s t r i c t i o n f o r proper names i n possessive formations; V] * {. . V} + L-rj (a) The following r u l e (Rule 46 ) i s applicable to possessive formations f o r nouns and i n d e f i n i t e pronouns i n SCB. Rule 46 iproper noun i n d e f i n i t e pronoun( count noncount /proper noun + p o e s ] i n d e f i n i t e Pronoun count (noncount C-er Examples; ^khokon] [bulu} |prottek} £onek ] {lebil} £bon } £ma] {khokoner} {bulur} {protteker} [oneker] -> [lebiler} — {boner] {mar} Glosses of Khokon of Bulu of each (person) of many (persons) of a table of a s i s t e r of a mother-123 The possessive morphemes which are added to the HD bases f o r possessive formations of nouns and i n d e f i n i t e pronouns d i f f e r from those of SCB.Three different-possessive morphemes are used i n HD, {-go} , { e r i } and [-gular] .The following PS r u l e handles the possessive, formations of nouns i n HD. iproper noun i n d e f i n i t e pronoun^ + p o s s — ^ oount noncount Examples; ^mita ] [hottek] — [Tebil} — £tf e l e ] — —> [mitagoj — ^ [hottekerl] [Tebilgular} —•?> [ft elegular} proper noun i n d e f i n i t e pronoun^ + ^-go count ^ noncount Glosses Mita' s 1 each person's ,.; table's /boy's - e n -gular 4.6. Yerb-pfcrase Rules The verb-phrase i n SCB and HD has the following construction. Rule 4 7 v/p ^ verbal ' adv "\ adv-p ,/ HP f (int.) + adjj This r u l e imposes a requirement regarding the occurrence of the verb-phrase of SCB and HD.An occurrence becomes 124 verbal i f i t i s followed by one of the following s t r i n g s ; (a) adverb,(b) NP or (c) adjective.An i n t e n s i f i e r i s shown i n the optional p o s i t i o n f o r the adjectives,as they may or may not be preceded by an intensifier.Sometimes the adjectives are used without any i n t e n s i f i e r s as i n the following sequences; SOB ND . G-loss es [se bhaTS'TSeS $ - [he balo maiaj she i s a good g i r l [se baje chele] [he bad.3 e hola] He i s a bad boy [tara> dusTu. l o k ] [ t a r a badj e manus] They are naughty people Occasionally i n t e n s i f i e r s are used before adjectives to emphasise quality,as i n the following sequences;. SCB ND Glosses [se khub bhalo chele] [he kNib bala hola]He i s a very good boy [se ottonto sundori] [iaaiDa besi hundori] she i s extremely b e a u t i f u l Rule 47 a YP verbal [(int.) + adj] Intensifiers ••$> {ottonto] •very 1, [khub] 'very 1 (SCB) Adjectives > [sobuj] 'green',£holde] 'yellow',[bhaloj 'good' 125 The adverb at tne r i g h t as shown i n Rule 47 , i s optional, as the p o s i t i o n can be f i l l e d by eithe r an adverbial phrase or by an adverb.sequences such as {gharer moddhe] •inside the room',{baganer bhetorej .'inside the garden' are taken here as adverbial phrases.In addit i o n to the adverbial phrases,adverbs are used i n SCB and. IB to convey d i f f e r e n t meanings.They are normally used f o r s i x d i f f e r e n t purposes,as shown here with examples. Rule (47 ) i s capable of producing sentences such as those shown below,by applying the kernel r u l e f o r verbals, followed either by an adverbial phrase,adverbs ,NP,adjectives preceded by i n t e n s i f i e r s or. simple a d j e c t i v e s . a) S $ {kea ottonto sundor] fkea k^ub hundorj (ND) (SCB) 'Keya i s too pre t t y ' . NP > £kea} 'Keya' VP » i n t + adj i n t — > |ottonto/ k*Vb } 'too' adj — ± ^sundor ; / hundor} 'pretty' b.) S > {se mee manus ] (SCB) {he maiamanusj (ND) 'she i s a woman'. NP > pron pron — $ {se / hej 'she' VP * NP NP ^ £mee manus / maiamanus} 'woman' 126 c) S > | r i t a bJkialo meej (SCB) | r i t a balo maiaj (ID) 'Rita i s a good, g i r l ' . IP —-7> [ r i t a ] 'Rita' YP IP IP --> adj + IP adj —> {bhalo / balo] 'good' IP — $ [mee / maia } ' girl» dV) s £tara roeche gharer bhetorej (SCB) 'They are i n s i d e £hera gorer moidde horse] (ID) the room*. IP — $ pron + (person + number) pron — ^ { t a r a j 'they' IP — » adv-p adv-p -^(ghorer bhetore / gorer moidde] 'inside the room' 4*60-. Yerbs SCB and ID verbs may be grouped into four classes on the basis of t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n sentences, They are-the t r a n s i t i v e class,the i n t r a n s i t i v e , v e r b s with double objects and compound verbs. A short d e s c r i p t i o n i s given here f o r each class of verbs, a) T r a n s i t i v e verbs (Y^ ): Among the four classes of verbs the t r a n s i t i v e s and the i n t r a n s i t i v e s are widely used i n SCB and ID.Transitive verbs f i l l the verbal p o s i t i o n and always occur following an object, s'" ' s .[ ;• 127 Examples; SCB UB Glosses £miko Dhat khacche\ [mikobatkaitase] Miko i s eating r i c e [ l i n a boi porche^ £lina boi horse] Bina i s reading a book ^sabana hat dhoe } { sabana ?at doe] Sabana washes her r hands {he bal khaa l e ] {he bDl k^a&le] He plays f o o t b a l l b) I n t r a n s i t i v e verbs (V^ ): An i n t r a n s i t i v e verb may be defined as a u n i t which f i l l s the verbal p o s i t i o n but i s not preceded by an object, Examples: SCB UD Glosses {rubi cole ga= che} ^ r u b i tj- o i l l a gfc.se] Ruby has gone, {bulu haiche } [bulu aTtase] Bulu. i s walking. \&e ghumucche }• [he gumaitase] He i s sleeping, c) verbs with double objects ( V 2 O D ) : Where t r a n s i t i v e verbs are preceded by a s i n g l e object, some verbs may be preceded by two objects.Verbal forms of t h i s type are quite common i n SCB and NB« Examples: SCB MD Glosses [baba cheleke a&kTa £baba holare se kBa Pather asked h i s katha Jigges korlen] kota J i g a i s e ] son something. 128 SCB. HB Glosses {kobita r i l u k e {kobita r i l u r e Kabita asked fiilu kotokgulo prosno kotgguli hosno some questions, sudholo] J i g a i s e j [se take poe^a kothae [he tare j l g a i s e He wanted to ask Him Jante cailo} huisa konai] inherer-the-money i s . In the examples, the verbs { Jigges korlen] ,. {svudholo^ , and ^ a n t e cailo} are preceded by two objects,, {cheleke kotha], {riluke proSno} and {tak€i poesa] . d) Compound verbs (y ); In both. SCB and HB.two verbs may sometimes combine together to in d i c a t e a singl e action.These verbs occur immediately one a f t e r the other.They are known^compound verbs i n Bengali.Examples; SCB MB Glosses £hena kede phello] {hacna kaida dlse] Hena could not stop crying. founuke jete dao} [runure 63 a i t e da0} Let Runu go. ^se hese phello] [he a i s s a dise} He could not stop laughing. {cheleTa kede uThlo] {holaBa kainda^ The boy started crying. uTse 3 Intthe examples,[kede phello] , {jete dao] ,{hese phello] , 129 and {kede uThlo] are compound verbs,but i f they are used independently they express two d i f f e r e n t meanings.For example,{kede phello] , i f used independently,has two verbal forms and two meanings,{kada] 'to cry' and [phaela} 'to drop'. The following rules f o r the verbal forms of S C B and N D includes use of a l l four verb forms i n the language. Rule j object + Y t V.erbal ^ *c (NP + adj + V 2 o b ( N P + adv +Y. 2oh. (i n t ) + adj [adv ^(adv-p In R.ule (48 ), several p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r verbal forms are shown with d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r a l categories which generate rules.There are two options f o r the verbs with two objects. They can be preceded either by an adjective or an adverb. The same optional r u l e s are shown f o r adverbs,where an adverb or an adverbial phrase may precede a verb.The following examples are given to in d i c a t e the occurrence of the verbal forms shown i n Rule ( 4 8 ) • a ) s ,^ £se bhat khacche] ( S C B ) {he bat kaitase} ( N D ) •He i s eating r i c e ' . 130 verbal $ JSP +Yt IP * {se / be] 'lie', [bhat / bat] ' r i c e ' Yt >{khacche / kaitase] ' i s eating' h) S {se gaS/Ciie} 'He has gone' . verbal ^ Y^ Y^ $ {gas ehe} 'nas gone' c) S ^ {rubi hese phello / r u b i haisa dise^ 'Ruby could not stop laughing', verbal > V~ Y e ^ {hese phello / haisa dise \ d) S ->{se aste kotha ba le} ( S C B ) (he aste kota koej (ED) 'He speaks slowly'. Yerbal f C adv ") (adv-p 3 adv — { a s t e ^ 'slowly', 4.7. Tense A tense may be described as a u n i t which occurs i n the a u x i l i a r y p o s i t i o n and which includes morphemes,to in d i c a t e the present,past and future time of a c t i o n or state of i t s argument (Langendoen,1969-156). There are three tenses i n S C B and ED,present,past and future . i n f l e c t i o n a l s u f f i x e s are attached >to verb classes to i n d i c a t e tense forms.Yerbs are i n f l e c t e d f o r tense and person i n both SCB and ID,and/are .thus d i f f e r e n t from nouns,, which are i n f l e c t e d f o r case and number ..(Che following examples are provided t a show the tense forms i n SCB and. ID. I D SCB ami k h e l i j (tumi. khaeloj {tui. k h e l i s ] {apni khgelen^ {se khasle 3 ( t i n ! kheelen} { a l k e l l ] ^tumi kee l o } {turn kae lo s } £amne kae Ien] [he kacle"} {heten ke&le j glosses I play l o u play it II £e plays it {ami. kheleehilam} {tumi khelechile ] { t u i k h e l e c h i l i 3 {apni k h e l e c h i l e n ] {se kheleehilo j { t i n i kheleehllen] { a i k e l l a s i ] I played {tumi k e l l a s o ] Xou played {tui k e l l a s o s ] " [amne ke l l a s o n ] " [he k e l l a s e } B.e played {hetene keilasen] " [ami khelho } £tumi khelbe} [ t u i k h e l b i } {apni. khelben} [se khelbe } [ t i n i khelben } £ a i kelum ] [ t u i kelba3 [ tui. k e l b i 3 {amne kelben] [he kelbo } {hetene kelben] I w i l l play l o u w i l l p l a y it B.e w i l l play ti 132. 4.70* 'lense formations 2nr.ee graphic r u l e s are shown below to i n d i c a t e the tenses with some other i n f l e c t i o n a l features of SOB and ID;.»x>he ru l e s turn out to he complicated due to i n f l e c t i o n a l patterns of d i f f e r e n t persons. Rule 4 9 fpersonal pronoun + p i count + p i proper- noun MP >/ i n d e f i n i t e pronoun in t e r r o g a t i v e pronoun Q p l Q ^Qnc + pres + verb + person -IP +YP Rule 50 personal pronoun + p l ^ count + p i proper noun jjp ys^ i n d e f i n i t e pronoun in t e r r o g a t i v e pronoun Qpi Q Qnc J + past + verb + person -IP + VP 133 Rule 51 ^personal pronoun + pi" count + pi proper' noun jap > J V + future + verb, + person indefinite pronoun / . * y j i i p + V:P interrogative pronoun V « P I / In tense formations,SCB and ID di f f e r largely i n inflectional patterns .Both, dialects employ two common present tense morphemes {-i] and {-ej . RowevBr, they vary considerably i n indicating past tense,where they have no identical tense morphemes.SCB and ID do also share three common tense morphemes denoting future tense {-bi}, {-be] , {-ben} . 4.71 * The Auxiliary position i n SCB and ID the auxiliary position i n the kernel rule, can be f i l l e d hy tense when i t follows a modal. Aux. y Tense + ( modal ) There are restrictions i n the occurrence of auxiliaries i n SCB and ID .Auxiliaries are not used normally i n the YP,unless the possessive case i s added to the IP..Therefore, the auxiliaries have an optional rule for SCB and ID,one which which, i s described here. Optional rule for. the auxiliaries i n SCB and ID: Aux y + aux / [ i p + poss] .... 134 Examples; SCB ND Glosses [se sekjon chele} { he aekDa hula} Ee ( i s X a boy. ..1 [tar. as. kTa l a l h o i [her askDa l a l Re (his) has a red ache] hoi ase} hook. ..1 A U X — > ^ ..2 A U X —-T> {ache"] In sentence (.-2), pronoun [ t a r ] this' i s used as a possessive,and the verb follows the a d j e c t i v e . A u x i l i a r i e s used i n English,such as {aux+be} , are absent i n SCB and ND. 4.72. Some verbs have r e s t r i c t i o n s of occurrence and are not i n f l e c t e d f o r present tenses.Among them i s the equivalent of the En g l i s h ' i s 1 ('are') which never occur i n the surface structure.Eor example,in sentence such as {se bhalo chele} ,'he ( i s ) a good boy',[eTa aekTa bonduk} •this ( i s ) a gun',, the verb ' i s ' i s not shown i n the surface structure.This r u l e i s not applicable to the past tense,where the past form of ' i s ' occurs r e g u l a r l y following the syn t a c t i c patterns of the language.In examples such as {se bhalo c h i l o ] , 'he was well',[sekhane ackTa bonduk c h i l o ^ ,'there was a gun 1, the past forms of 'to be' occur r e g u l a r l y . T h e r e f o r e , i t can be said that although the verbal forms «is« and 'are' do not occur i n the 135 present,the appropriate forms always occur i n the past, c l e a r l y i n d i c a t i n g that «is' and 'are' occur, only i n the deep structure of. the language. 4,73. Modals also have r e s t r i c t e d use i n SCB and KB.The equivalents of English modals 'may1 and 'can' are used with the same meaning and without any f u n c t i o n a l difference.However,'must' i s usednas a modal i n SCB and KB.I^^Engl^lh 0modals ' s h a l l ' and ' w i l l ' are used to i n d i c a t e future tense.The past tenses 'would' and 'should' do not make any diff e r e n c e i n the language.The following PS r u l e i s applicable f o r SCB and KB. Modal > £pres + pare/ hare^ past + parto/ harto] Examples; SCB Glosses { hare] { harto} can;may could must 136 Chapter v 5<. Concluding remarks 5*0. This i s the f i r s t attempt t o apply tixe generative transformational model of Chomsky to the phonology and morphology of Bengali,more s p e c i f i c a l l y of Standard C o l l o q u i a l Bengali and o| one other, d i a l e c t , t h e l o a k h a l i D i a l e c t . A S would he expected,some methodological problems arose i n f i n d i n g r u l e s f o r the language,as the work done to date using t h i s model has been l a r g e l y on non-Indian languages.A S such,most of the r u l e s provided by Chomsky-Halle '(1968) needed modification,Bengali d i f f e r i n g from "' - in the language t h e i r r u l e s were framed f o r / s y n t a c t i c and morphemic s t r u c t u r e , i n the r o l e s of affix,case,tense and. i n other grammatical categories. 5.1. The present study has been e s s e n t i a l l y contrastive i n nature.Bengali has a number of dialects,which vary i n great degree i n t h e i r phonology and morphology,and i n some degree i n syntax.The Hoakhali d i a l e c t as spoken i n a r e s t r i c t e d area i n southern Bangladesh,was compared i n t h i s study with Standard C o l l o q u i a l Bengali,both i n phonology and morphology.The contrastive mode of study was h e l p f u l i n the sense that the degrees of v a r i a t i o n 157 and s i m i l a r i t y of the two forms of Bengali became cl e a r through comparison.In phonology there was a tendency to add some new rules and at the same time to delete some old rules.This phenomenon was noticed i n the phonology of SGB and ND while attempting to apply some ru l e s and providing explanations f o r them.It was s u r p r i s i n g l y found that MB has more rules f o r phonetic a l t e r a t i o n s of consonantal segments, where occasionally [ k ] — [ g ] .[gh.3 ~ £ I g 3 r t ° 3 — ^ l_"tf~3 than has SCB.SCB indicated more conservativeness i n the sense that i t does not allow f o r L k3 — * [ g ] >as SCB speakers appeared to view t h i s kind of phonetic change as a d i a l e c t i c a l tendency,and thus •non-standard'.SCB also preserves the phonetic values of the consonantal segments s t r i c t l y >as semantic meaning i s l a r g e l y dependent on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of consonantal segments i n a word.This means that /k/ and /g/ have s t r i c t contrastive semantic values,which a l t e r .with the, permutation of one segment to another.Examples; [kan3 'ear' [gan] 'song' [thor] • stem of a banana tree' [tor") 'yours' [cap] •pressure' "[sap"3 'snake' However,this does not mean that phonetic a l t e r a t i o n s are t o t a l l y absent i n SCB.At present,though SCB i s spoken i n both Bangladesh and west Bengal ( I n d i a ) , i t does not r e t a i n the same l i n g u i s t i c form.A p l a u s i b l e explanation f o r 128 t h i s l i e s i n the massive migration of population from l a s t to West Bengal,and vice-versa,following the p a r t i t i o n of Bengal i n 1947.The l i n g u i s t i c behaviour of these migrant populations brought about r a p i d changes i n the forms of SCB spoken i n both parts of Bengal. 5.2. The transformational rul e s which were introduced by Chomsky (1957) and l a t e r expanded,are not t o t a l l y applicable to the Bengali syntactic pattern,Even the rules which were l a t e r introduced by Kiparsky (1968) f o r languages which have case r e s t r i c t i o n s , a r e not completely s a t i s f a c t o r y although they are of some use.The Bengali grammatical pattern i s quite complex and needs supplementary ;  transformational rul e s to describe i t s phonology and morphology.lt was found that morphological v a r i a t i o n s i n Bengali occur simultaneously at morphemic boundaries,as well as within morphemes.Examples such as £oi chelegulo tader sobuj bagane douracche^ 'those boys are running i n t h e i r green garden',need a complex explanation of. morphological patterns,as a number of r u l e s are interconnected i n t h e i r formation.The MP and VP of the above sentence are 'explainable only i n the l i g h t of the complex grammatical categories of Bengali.The N of .the NP may be divided i n four, ways,as N + Number + person + Case,the noun -being explainable only i n the three which i t ds i n f l e c t e d f o r , o f number,person 139 and case.The same r u l e may be used to explain the VP,as the verb i s also i n f l e c t e d , f o r tense and persons,thus making the vp more complicated than i n many languages. The a f f i x e s were found to have two f u n c t i o n a l aspects i n Bengali.In the f i r s t place they helped b u i l d up new morphemes,and they also play an important i n f l e c t i o n a l r o l e at morpheme boundaries,connecting d i f f e r e n t grammatical categories such as number,person,case and tense. These examples i l l u s t r a t e a basic f i n d i n g of t h i s study,,that Chomsky's o r i g i n a l r u l e s needed modification before they ccould be applied to the two forms of Bengali investigated,SCB and the UB.These modified rules have been applied to these d i a l e c t s of Bengali throughout the text, and,for emphasis,are summarized i n the following sections. 5.3. The common morphological features of SCB and ID,-are described here with possible feature rule s that were generated during t h i s study.SCB and IB do not follow i d e n t i c a l morphological rules,and and vary i n a f f i x a t i o n , pronominal and tense formations.A few v a r i a t i o n s were also found i n s y n t a c t i c a l patterns but these v a r i a t i o n s did not i n d i c a t e any fundamental differences i n syntax. The s y n t a c t i c a l pattern of SCB and IB was described occasionally to show the morphemic pattern of SCB and IB. The f i n a l PS r u l e s which were generated f o r SCB and IB are 140 as i n the following". S * NP + VP NP Det + Noun Det —-Hei] ' t h i s ' , {ol] 'that' ... Noun —y Noun + pronoun + case + number + gender Noun —•)(• proper noun count ,noncount proper — ^ [chobij 'Chobi' ... count — $ ( animate ( inanimate animate } [ b i r a l ] 'eat', {chele^ 'boy' ... inanimate — $ (chori] ' s t i c k ' ... noncount [ghaSj 'grass' ... pronoun ^ /personal j i n d e f i n i t e ] r e l a t i v e demonstrative personal {ami] 'l», {se ] 'he/she' i n d e f i n i t e —->{keu] ' someone'... r e l a t i v e ^ {^e} 'who' ... demonstrative —-7>{eTa} ' t h i s ' , [ p l a ] 'that' ... case >^ {Nominative, Accusative, Dative, Instrumental, Ablative, Locative} Number $ { s i n g u l a r (sg) ? / p l u r a l (pi) - j 141 gender ^ f masculine ) [feminine j YP ^ verb + tense + person + up Yerb ( t r a n s i t i v e (y^ ) < i n t r a n s i t i v e (V^ ) (verbs with double objects ( V 2 o ^ ) Tense ^ ("past ") )present f + person future J person ^ (1 \ / h o n o r i f i c \ 1 f o r f i r s t person (P 1) 2 > + | nonhonorific) 2 f o r second person (P 2) 2; ^common ' 3 f o r t h i r d person (p^) 1 > [ami] «l' 2. ^ ^apni] »you.« (h o n o r i f i c ) [tumi] " (common) [ t u l ] » (nonhonorific) 3. ^ [ t i n l ] 'he/she' (honor4^ic) {se] " (common) Some of the phrase-structure r u l e s which, are explained above may also be shown as i n the following tree diagrams. Sentence 1 { n i l i n a ghorer moddhe ache] ' U i l i n a i s in s i d e the room 1. 142 MP N. MM; • c. • 1 person 3rd [ n i l i n a j (ghor-] £-er] (moddh-}[--e]{ach-j £-e] Figure: -j Q Sentences such as the example given can he analysed r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y through the PS rules,but these PS r u l e s can not be applied to a l l sentences,especially those which contains adjectives,as i n the following. Sentence 2 s g •He ( i s ) a good boy'. (se bhalo chelej (tara bhalo c h e l e j p i 'Ihey (are) good boys'. Sentence 2,does not contain a verb and i t i s d i f f i c u l t to p r e d i c t the tense of the verb,i.e.,whether I t i s present or past.As no verb follows i n the above sequence i n Bengali,the YJ? of the #S# remains unexplainable.This i s 145 shown i n the following tree diagram. S pron L {bhalo} [chelej Figure; 11 I t may be mentioned here that i t was determined that the verb may occur only i n the following r e s t r i c t e d form i n a sentence, i . e . , i f the #S# does not contain an object which follows the adjective.In case of non-occurrence of an object i n a sentence,the meaning of the morpheme {bhalo} i s changed,as i n the following; {se bhalo achej, •he i s w e l l ' , i s possible as {bhalo] q u a l i f i e s as an adverb as i t i s followed by a verb. ( [ache]) .This indicates that f o r phy s i c a l content the verb i s retained i n a sentence,and to show innate quality of a person i t i s deleted. Sentence 5 •The g i r l s look very pretty'. H4 NP M yifumber P i Adj gender^~*YP Y person {mee-} {-der} {boro} {sundor} I {lag-} [-che] Figure: 12 In the VP of sentence ( 3 ) , f u r t h e r change may occur f o r gender, which has been indicated as optional.The adjective {sundor} may also change further,to (sundori] ,to mark a feminine gender. I t i s quite evident from the above discussion that " the morphemic patterns of Bengali are quite complicated and need a d d i t i o n a l ps r u l e s to deal with modifications.The i n f l e c t i o n a l nature of the language makes the morphology more complicated as each base morpheme occurs e i t h e r i n f l e c t i o n a l l y or d e r i v a t i o n a l l y i n sentences.A sentence such as {tar bhaier b a r i t e tara bas.ra.te gee che j 'they have to v i s i t h i s brother's house',which i s composed of s i x i n f l e c t e d morphemes (or s u f f i x e s ) , i l l u s t r a t e s the usual 145 pattern of Bengali.The morphemes i n the above sentence may be c l a s s i f i e d , i n the following way. a • [tar] 'of brother' 'i n the house' (se} -T* {tar} 'he - h i s ' b. (bhaier} {bhai+er} c. (barite} £bari + te] d. {taraj (se} > {tara} 'he — they' e. {bee rate} {baera + te} f. gee che] {gas + che] 'to v i s i t ' <^pron + possj) <^noun + poss) <^noun-p ) <P1> <v+suf f ix+pr.on+person )> <^v+suf f ix+pron+person^> •have gone' These aspects of the Bengali morphemes have been discussed i n d e t a i l s i n section (3). B i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t a l maps are included i n Appendix-A to provide a cle a r conception of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of SCB and IB. Variations of l e x i c a l items and v o c a l i c segments are indicated i n maps 3 and 4.In other maps,dialect areas,different d i a l e c t s of Bengali,Aryan and ion-Aryan languages i n the Indian , sub-continent have been pointed out. 5.5. The present study has focused p r i m a r i l y on the d e s c r i p t i o n of the phonologicalpnorphological and s y n t a c t i c a l patterns 146 of SCB and ED,although some other aspects were also included f o r f o r the purpose of d i s c u s s i o n . l t was generally found that SCB and ED varied more i n rule s i n phonology and morphology than i n any other aspect.Therefore,prime importance was given to i n d i c a t i n g major v a r i a t i o n s i n phonology and morphology, va r i a t i o n s which may be observed both i n the surface and deep structure of the language. Map ; 1 Bengali D i a l e c t s i n Bangladesh H I (Northern Bengali |.v:| Rajbangshi South-eastern Bengali r m Eastern Bengali (a) F^?l Eastern Bengali (b) 148 Map : 2 D i a l e c t s of Noakhali 149 Map 3 •a man1 0 [« kjon lok} o IJak Jlr*tid3 9 [as-kjon mansil © [£kon mans el O [jak Jon 1 • t^-k mansu] ©[£gua manse] A[ck 630 n. -^.a-n-Se] 150 Map 4 i was» A [ c i a i o l A \ _ a c h i l 0 3 • [acMlTl O [ a s i l ] 151 Map: 5' 15.1 BENGALI DIALECTS International Boundary S ta tu // District o District Hqrs . o La rge towns .... Ra i lways . ^. Rivers R A J S H A H I /73 X ^ - O A G A P T A L A O A U A L M i ZO KEONJHARGARH ' O SAMBALPUR ••: KEONJHAR / .. DHENKANAL 1 MIDNAP.QR. BARIPADA '">. OHlgg MAYURBHANJ Bibliography Abercrombie,David. : 1967 Elements of phonetics,Chicago Baeh,Emmon. ; 1964 An Introduction to Transformational Grammar, New York Blcornfield,Leonard. : 1966 Language, New York Bush, Clara N. . : 1964 phonetic variation and Acoustic Distinctive Features, The Hague Chatterjee,s.K. ;1916 The Origin and Development of the Bengali Language, Calcutta : 1921 Bengali phonetics, London : 1963 "The Growth of vernacular Literature", i n The History of Bengal, Vol.1, Baeca Chattergee,Suhas. ; 1962 A Study of the Relationship Between written and Colloquial Bengali, Unpublished ph.D. Bisst., Hartford Chomsky,Noam. : 1957 Syntactic structures, The Hague : 1965 Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, Cambridge,Mass. Chomsky.Noam and Morris Halle : 1967 The ;Sound pattern of English,, New York Chowdhury, Munier. :196Q "The Language problem i n East Pakistan?, 'lJAL,V.26,No.3,Pt.3, 64-78,. Denes,Peter. 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J.A. : 1967 Introductory L i n g u i s t i c s , P h i l a d e l p h i a Halle,Morris. : 1959 The sound Pattern of Russian, The Hague Harms,Robert I . s 1968 An Introduction to phonological Theory, New Jersey Reffner,R*M.S. : 1964 General phonetics, Madison Rock.ett,C.P. : 1955 A Manual of phonology, Baltimore : 1967 A Course i n Modern L i n g u i s t i c s , New York 156 Household.er,Fred w. : 1967 " D i s t i n c t i v e Features and phonetic Features", i n To Honor Soman Jakobson, vol.2, The Hague Jakobson,Roman. ; 1962 Selected writings of Roman Jakobson, vol.1.464- 504. The Hague : 1969 Jakobson,Roman. C.Gunar Pant and Morris H a l l e ; 1969 pre l i m i n a r i e s to Speech Analysis, Cambridge,.Mass. Jones,Daniel. :1969 An Outline of E n g l i s h phonetics, Cambridge,England Jones,Lawrence Gaylord. : 1956 Katz,Jerrold J . : 1964 "Mentalism i n L i n g u i s t i c s " , L.g. 40.124-137. K a t z , J e r r o l d J . and Paul M.Postal. : 1964 An Integral. 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'£: 1961 "Transitions,Glides,and Dipktkongs",, JOASA, 33.3 Marckwardt,Albert H. ; 1966 "Regional and S o c i a l v a r i a t i o n s " , i n Tke Introductory Readings on Language, ed.by Wallace L.Anderson and c.S.Stageberg, New York MeCawley,James D. : 1968 Tke pkonologleal Component of a Grammar of Japanese, Tke Hague McDavid,jr. Raven I. : 1958 "American E n g l i s k D i a l e c t " , i n Tke structure of American Englisk, by W.N.Francis, New York 158 McDavid,Jr..Raven I . ; 1964 "Some S o c i a l Differences i n pronunciati.on«,, i n Applied E n g l i s h L i n g u i s t i c s , ed.by Harold B.Allen, New York 0'Gonnor,J.D. and J.L.Trim : 1953 "Vowel,Consonant and S y l l a b l e - a phonological D e f i n i t i o n " , Word,9.2. 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