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The phonological, morphological and syntactical patterns of standard colloquial Bengali and the Noakhali… Morshed, Abul Kalam Manzur 1972

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THE  PHONOLOGICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL AND SYNTACTICAL  PATTERNS OF STANDARD COLLOQUIAL BENGALI AND THE  :  NOAKHALI DIALECT  by  ABUL KALAM MANZUR MORSHED MIA.., University o f Dacca, 1961  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  the Department o f L i n g u i s t i c s  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1972  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  shall  the U n i v e r s i t y  make i t  written  thesis  for  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and this  for  It  financial  i s understood that copying o r gain shall  Linguistics  December  Columbia  19,1972.  not  for  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  of B r i t i s h  the requirements  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  permission.  Department o f  fulfilment of  freely available  that permission  representatives.  this  in p a r t i a l  or  publication  be allowed without my  ABSTRACT  Standard Colloquial Bengali (SCB) i s the language used by the majority o f educated speakers at the present time i n Bangladesh and West Bengal. In contrast with this standard language there are d i a l e c t s o f Bengali s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t to be u n i n t e l l i g i b l e t o SCB speakers.  One of these i s the  Noakhali Dialect, spoken i n the southern part o f the country on the border o f the Bay o f Bengal.  I t i s a somewhat i s o l a t e d  region, which explains at least i n part the development o f t h i s divergent form o f the language. The Noakhali Dialect (ND) d i f f e r s from SCB at a l l l i n g u i s t i c levels;  phonological, morphological and s y n t a c t i c a l , as w e l l as  i n lexicon.  The aim o f this thesis i s t o make a comparative and  contrastive study o f the standard language and the d i a l e c t at a l l these levels i n order to establish the degree o f t h e i r divergence. It i s e s s e n t i a l l y a synchronic study, so that, i n general, no attempt i s made to l i n k the present-day forms with possible ancest r a l sources i n Sanscrit. For the phonological and morphological analyses, the generative approach o f Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle has been used, which involves a study o f d i s t i n c t i v e features. Special emphasis i s given to the phenomenon o f gemination, and v o c a l i c and consonantal a l t e r nation.  The phonological structure o f the morphemes o f each  has been reduced to r u l e s , and the sets o f i n f l e c t i o n a l and derivational morphemes are described i n some d e t a i l .  language  As an approach to syntax, noun-phrase rules and verbphrase rules have been elaborated f o r both languages. On the whole, however, SCB and ND d i f f e r l i t t l e i n t h e i r broader s y n t a c t i c a l patterning so that a detailed study of t h e i r syntax would contribute l i t t l e to a contrastive analysis. Thus the main emphasis o f the present study i s at the l e v e l of phonology and morphology, where s i g n i f i c a n t contrasts can be brought out, once the generative theories have been adapted to s u i t a language l i k e Bengali which i s more highly i n f l e c t e d than English.  R. J . Gregg  iv  Contents Abbreviations  viii  Acknowledgement  - i  Chapter one:  Introduction  1  1.1  Introductory remarks  1  1.2  Methodology  5  1.3....  6  1.4  Dialect situations  7  1.5  Classification of the dialects  8  1.6  9  1.7  Siob-groupings of the Noakhali dialects  10  1.75  Informants  17  1.76  Dialect atlas  19  Chapter two: Phonology 2.0  Introductory remarks  20  2.1  CIassificatory method  21  2.10  Classification of SCB segments  22  2.11  Classification of ND segments  25  2.12  Discussion of ND vocalic segments  29  2.13  Binary features of the vocalic segments  29  2.2  Diphthongs  31  2.20  Discussion  31  2.21  Description of SCB diphthongs  31  V  2.22  Description o f ND diphthongs  34  2.3  Consonant clusters  37  2.4  Gemination  44  2.5  Suprasegmental features  49  2.50  Introductory  49  2.54  Juncture  50  2.55  Length  52  2.6  Phonetic alterations of the vowels  54  2.60  Introductory  54  2.61  Epenthesis  54  2.62  Prosthesis  56  2.63  Anaptyxis  56  2.64  Vowel harmony  59  2.65  Nasalization  62  2.7  Phonetic alterations of the consonants  66  2.70  Introductory  66  2.71  Assimilation  66  2.8  Spirantization  69  2.9  Nonaspiration  70  2.10  Voicing  73  2.11  Nonpalatalization  75  2.12  Zero modification  79  2.13  Retroflexion  81  2.14  Glottalization  82  remarks  remarks  remarks  vi  Chapter three,: Morphology 3.  Morphology  84  3.0  Introductory remarks  84  3.1  Free and bound morphemes  84  3.2  Affixes  85  3.3  Examples of the prefixes used in ND  85  3.4  Suffixes i n SCB  86  3.5  Examples of the suffixes i n SCB  87  3.6  Suffixes used i n ND  89  3.7  90  3.8  Derivational morphemes  92  3.9  Noun-forming morphemes  92  3.10  94  3.100  Morphemic combinations  95  3.11  The morphemic structure (MS) rules  96  Chapter  four:  Syntax  4.0  Noun-phrase rules  104  4.1  Discussion  104  4.2  Nouns i n NP position  105  4.3  Pronouns i n NP position  107  4.4  Prenouns  108  4.41  Quantifiers  109  4.42  Noncount quantifiers  110  4.43  Comparative quantifiers  110  vii  4.5  Case  112  4.6  Number  115  4.7  Plural formations  116  4.70  Pronouns  116  4.71  Plural formations for personal pronouns  117  4.72  Other rules for p l u r a l formation  118  4.720  Plural formations for count nouns  119  4.73  Possessive formations of the personal and relative pronouns  4.730  119  Possessive formations for nouns and indefinite pronouns  121  4.8  Verb-phrase rules  125  4.80  Verbs  126  4.9  Tense  130  4.90  Tense formations  132  4.91  The auxiliary position  133  Chapter five: Concluding remarks 5.  136  Bibliography  152  Bibliography  y  Abbreviations  JOASA  =  ND  The Journal o f the Acoustic Society o f America no date (of publication)  Lg.  =  Language  DCRN  =  D i s t r i c t Census Report: Noakhali, 1961 (Population Census o f Pakistan, 1961) Census 61, P. No. 105 Special Symbols  [  =  phonetic  =  phonemic  £3  =  morphemic  ===  =  corresponds to  /  ] /  becomes or rewritten as  —» +  =  i n t e r n a l close juncture ( i n generative phonology + i s used to show the presence of some properties) minus (absence o f some feature)  #  =  sentence or word boundary (#-:occurring i n i t i a l l y ; -#:  ( )  =  optional Vocabulary symbols  Adj  =  adjective  Adv  =  adverb  NP  =  noun phrase  occurring f i n a l l y )  _  = noun  VP  = verb  V  = verb  *t Y  int  phrase  = t r a n s i t i v e verb. = intransitive  verb  V2ob  = v e r b with, two objects  Aux  = a u x i l i a r y verb  ca  = Case  Nom  = nominative  (Case)  Ac  = accusative  (Case)  Ins  = instrumental  D  = dative  Ab  = ablative  (Case)  locative  (Case)  L  (Case)  poss  = possessive  Det  = determiner  G-  = gender  Int  = intensifier •  N  ab  H  a  % a M  u  -  (Case)  (Case)  a b s t r a c t noun  = animate  noun  = inanimate noun = number  MV  = main v e r b  past  = past tense  per  = person  P]  -,-= - i : second third  person person  X  Sg  =  singular  PI  -  plural  PP  =  prepositional phrase  Pr  =  pronoun  Prep =  preposition  Pres .=  present (tense)  Pit  particle  =  sentence  S Hon  =  honorific  Non  =  honhonorific  Com  =  common  T  tense  V  vowel  C  consonant  ph  =  f u l l y aspirated b i l a b i a l stop  ph  =  p a r t i a l l y aspirated b i l a b i a l stop  si  Acknowledg ement  I t i s my p r i v i l e g e t o acknowledge my i n d e b t n e s s t o v a r i o u s people f o r t h e ways i n which, they a s s i s t e d me i n completing  the present  t h e s i s . f i r s t o f a l l , I wish, t o show  my g r a t i t u d e t o p r o f e s s o r B a r r i e M.Morrison who c o n s t a n t l y encouraged Morrison  .and h e l p e d me i n w r i t i n g t h e t h e s i s . p r o f e s s o r  appointed  me a R e s e a r c h A s s i s t a n t i n summer 1 9 7 0  d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t u r m o i l i n Bangladesh,when I d i d not have t h e means t o support  myself.He a l s o arranged  a fellowship  from, t h e A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A s i a n s t u d i e s , I n c . , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n and a l l o w e d  me t o use h i s o f f i c e and .hooks.Heedless  t o s a y , I c o u l d n o t have overcome my h a r d s h i p s  without h i s  h e l p and c o - o p e r a t i o n . I t w i l l he d i f f i c u l t f o r me t o repay the debt;;I. awe t o him.To Mr.Essop Mia,I express my g r a t i t u d e f o r c o r r e c t i n g my E n g l i s h and s p a r i n g h i s v a l u a b l e i n improving  t h e q u a l i t y of t h e t h e s i s . H e  spent  time  a large  amount o f time i n d i s c u s s i n g v a r i o u s problems w i t h me and came t o h e l p everytime he was c a l l e d . I would l i k e t o thank P r o f e s s o r (Mrs.)Bonnie McDougal f o r h e r a s s i s t a n c e i n p r e p a r i n g my comprehensive examination and h e r v a l u a b l e suggestions  r e g a r d i n g t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f data.To p r o f e s s o r  Robert J Gregg i express my thanks f o r h i s h e l p o f d r a f t i n g the t h e s i s and h i s v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s phonology.lt to generative  i n the f i e l d of  was p r o f e s s o r Gregg who f i r s t phonology and h e l p e d  introduced  me  to c o r r e c t the t h e s i s . I  would l i k e to thank professor Bernard Saint-Jacques f o r h i s comments and suggestions regarding the t h e s i s . I am g r a t e f u l to the Association of Asian studies,Inc.,at the u n i v e r s i t y of Michigan,for session,and  o f f e r i n g me the fellowship f o r the 1970—1971  summer grant i n 1971,without which I could not  have completed t h i s thesis.professor Richard L.Park,SecretaryTreasurer  of the Association and Mr.George zeidenstein of the  ford foundation  of New York,always showed t h e i r i n t e r e s t  and provided a l l the help necessary to me.Q?o Rev .D. Hay ward, Dean of Carey Hall,my thanks for. h i s assistance i n keeping body and soul t o g e t h e r . f i n a l l y , I am thankful to my  informants,  p a r t i c u l a r l y to Mr.M.A.Matin,for sparing t h e i r time f o r the questionnaire.  1  1  Chapter  1  . c  The  present  syntactic  study  Is based  patterns  Hoakhali Dialect  on  the  of Standard  (ND).It  has  phonological,morpholo.gical  Colloquial  Bengali  been e s s e n t i a l l y  The  t h e i r phonology and  study  with standard  o f p h o n o l o g y , m o r p h o l o g y and nature  as  b o t h SCB  and  ND  are  and  i s helpful  similarity  of. t h e  The in has  to d e s c r i b e the  first  sense t h a t the degrees  been c l a s s i f i e d  and  p h o n o l o g y and  later  consonantals  and  through  H a l l e has  morphology  the d i s t i n c t i v e  three main v o c a l i c  which i n c l u d e diphthongs  both  o f SCB three  variation  been and  and  features of  ND  the  second s u b - s e c t i o n i s a and  consonantal  for vocalics,consonant  features  clusters  for  suprasegmental features i n g e n e r a l . i n the  section,the phonetic alterations  ND.  sub-sections,  i n v e n t o r y o f phonemes o f SCB  language have been d e s c r i b e d . I n the " d i s c u s s i o n of the  of  f o r m s o f B e n g a l i becomes c l e a r ,  sub-section,the  in •  which correspond.The c o n t r a s t i v e  phonological section i s broadly divided into the  Bangladesh,was  i s synchronic  c o m p a r i s o n . T h e g e n e r a t i v e m o d e l o f Chomsky a n d applied  syntax..  spoken a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e and  i n the  two  degree  c o l l o q u i a l - B e n g a l i , i n terms  syntax.The study  t h e f o r m s a r e shown a t a l e v e l mode, o f s t u d y  i n great  m o r p h o l o g y , a n d i n some d e g r e e i n  H o a k h a l i d i a l e c t which i s spoken i n southern  compared i n t h i s  a n d the  contrastive in  n a t u r e . B e n g a l i hasAnumher o f d i a l e c t s , , w h i c h v a r y in  (SCB)  and  o f the v o c a l i c  segments a r e d e s c r i b e d w i t h f e a t u r e - r u l e s .  and  final  consonantal  2 In morphology,the morphological shown i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t of. morphemes,the and  way  patterns  t h e morphemic  together  p l a y f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s in, morphology .In s e c t i o n 1 , a  d e s c r i b e d in. d e t a i l  a d d i t i o n , t h e Morphemic applied the  on t h e f o r m a t i o n  e l e m e n t s combine  SCB a n d ND m o r p h e m e s . I n f l e c t i o n a l  are  a n d ND a r e  sections .stress i s placed  d i s c u s s i o n on morphemes i s f o l l o w e d of  o f SGB  MS  generai  by a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e  s h o w i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n SCB a n d HJD.In s t r u c t u r e (MS) r u l e s o f H a l l e h a v e  t o show t h e morphemic rules are p r e d i c t i b l e  composed  f o r t h e morphemic  t h e nouns a n d t h e v e r b s  (NP r u l e s ) and. t h e  o f SCB a n d ED  verb-phrase  categories,such  as tense,.person  they  and  f o r some  number.  the s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n of identical,  few e x c e p t i o n s .The most divergent•• > p a t t e r n s  phonology and morphology,where  discussed  are i n f l e c t e d  SCB. a n d ND,as b o t h SCB a n d ND h a v e a l m o s t  phonetic  morphemes  o f more t h a n one. CC a n d YV. sequence.;, i n t h e n e x t  No a t t e m p t h a s b e e n made to. d e s c r i b e  a  of  combinations, o f t h e  (VP r u l e s ) i n t r o d u c i n g i n f l e c t i o n a l m a r k e r s h a v e b e e n  grammatical  been  s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e language.Some  sections,.the Noun-phrase r u l e s  as  nature  a n d d e r i v a t i o n a i morphemes  s e g m e n t s . T h e s e a r e q u i t e r e g u l a r i n H J ) , , e s p e c i a l l y where are  and  are noticeable i n  have d i f f e r e n t  variations,non-identical affixes  patterns,with  a n d MS  Lexicons,  rules.  1.1.  T h e r e h a v e n o t b e e n any  extensive  studies i n the past  on  these  1  o r any  other  1 The m o s t  dialects  extensive  of Bengali  , e x c e p t some s c a t t e r e d  work h a s b e e n done  B e n g a l i Academy,Dacca,which  was  founded  essays,  i n B a n g l a d e s h under the f o r t h e p r o m o t i o n o f the  .,  3 whd.cn. c o u l d  he f o u n d  1 2 o n H o a k h a l i , a n d o t h e r d i v e r g e n t d i a l e c t s •.  Some o f them arse w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g  here.  a ; Go-pal H a i d e r * 1929 " A. i B r i e f p h o n e t i c s k e t c h o f t h e H o a k h a l i D i a l e c t  of South-Eastern  Bengali,," Calcutta University  journal  o f t h e Dept.of  Letters,  vol.xix,pp.1-40. b) G o p a l  Haider,1933  " A S k e l e t o n Grammar o f t h e H o a k h a l i D i a l e c t  o f Bengali,»  ibid.,, v o l . x x i i i , pp. 1 -3&. c} K r i s h n a p a d a ^Linguistic  Goswaml, 1 y40-194.1 Notes  on Chittagong B e n g a l i , "  Indian L i n g u i s t i c s , v o l.viii,.parts  B e n g a l i language  2-3,,pp. 111 - 1 6 2 .  and l i t e r a t u r e . U n d e r  their  auspices  several  volumes o f t h e B e n g a l i D i a l e c t D i c t i o n a r y have been p u b l i s h e d with linguistic to  that  o f t h e German d i a l e o t o l o g i s t  were c o l l e c t e d and  nates.The.method used  sorted  through l o c a l  later  has  i n nature  G.Wenker.Dialectal  wards  i n f o r m a n t s and s c h o o l t e a c h e r s  by t h e l a n g u a g e  It. was c o m p i l e d a n d e d i t e d  i s identical  experts i n regional  by M . s h a h i d u l l a h . H o w e v e r , n o  y e t b e e n made i n w e s t B e n g a l  t o c o m p i l e any s u c h  dialects. attempt dialect  dictionary. 1 E x c e p t G.opal H a i d e r ' s two a r t i c l e d . 2 worth m e n t i o n i n g here bhasatatter  i s t h e S y l h e t i B h a s a t a t t e r . Bhumika  bhumika)'An I n t r o d u c t i o n  to Sylheti  S h i b p r a s a n n a L a h i r i ^ B e n g a l i Academy,Dacca (ND).  (sileTi  Linguistics',by  4 d) Munier. chowdhury,1960 "The Language pro h i em. i n E a s t Pakistan.," IJAL,,vol. 26,J.o. 3,,pt. 3, pp. b4-78. e) M...-«A't>dul Hai,19b5 "A Study o f O h i t t a g o n g  Dialect,"  Studies i n P a k i s t a n i Linguistics,, v o l .v,.pp. 1 7-38-. f ) M.Abdul Hai,19b6 "A Study o f S y l h e t i D i a l e c t , " P a k i s t a n i L i n g u i s t i c s , v o l . v i i , pp. 2i>-33. g) Punya S l o k a Ray,lybb "Chittagong  Dialect,«"  B e n g a l i Language h)  Handbook,pp.89-97.  M.A.Hai,1966 "Dacca D i a l e c t , " "ibid,pp.80-88."  An a d d i t i o n t o these i s t h e monumental work done by George Abraham G r i e r s o n , t h e twenty volumes o f t h e " L i n g u i s t i c Survey of I n d i a " (1903-1928). G r i e r s o n made a t o t a l survey o f the p r e - p a r t i t i o r u . I n d i a n d i a l e c t s . H i s main i n t e n t i o n was  t o p r o v i d e specimens o f t h e  d i f f e r e n t I n d i a n d i a l e c t s w i t h s h o r t d e s c r i p t i v e notes,which a r e as u s e f u l as the specimens. The p r e v i o u s work may  be b r o a d l y d i v i d e d  i n t o t h r e e groups ;  a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n from a s t r u c t u r a l s t a n d p o i n t from a d e s c r i p t i v e s t a n d p o i n t  (Hai,fiay,Chaudhury),  (Shahidullah,G.oswami,Halder,Lahiri),  and those by n o n - l i n g u i s t s . T h e modern works a r e v e r y  sketchy  5 (Rai„19 65,19 66, Eay,1966,Chaudhury,19 69).  1.2.  Methodology  As tiie p r e v i o u s  works are- e i t h e r sketchy  or n o n - t r a n s forma t i o n a l ,  t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e scope f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g the N.oakhali using transformational-generative p h o n o l o g i c a l and m o r p h o l o g i c a l (ID) and which, has  models.TO' d e s c r i b e and  been i n t r o d u c e d  the  dialect  (SCB),the g e n e r a t i v e  modei  by Chomsky and R a l l e (1968) i s f o l l o w e d  i n the p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n . A s h o r t deseteipifton of the model i s g i v e n  analyse  components of the E b a k h a l i  the Standard C o l l o q u i a l B e n g a l i  dialect  generative  here.  In S y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s (1957),Chomsky i n t r o d u c e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l approach to d e s c r i b e s y n t a x . S i n c e l i n g u i s t s i n c l u d i n g Chomsky h i m s e l f , h a v e transformational theory.Later,the  the  then,other  e x p l a i n e d and  method has  ,  e l a b o r a t e d the  been a p p l i e d to  d e s c r i b e morphology and. phonology. A f t e r Syntac11c S t r u c t u r e s C h o m s k y expanded some p r e v i o u s l y g e n e r a t e d r u l e s i n the A s p e c t s of the Theory of Syntax L a t e r more p u b l i c a t i o n s f o l l o w e d i n support f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n s and  (1965).  of the theory  expiations.Among tne most  important  c o n t r i b u t o r s are,Lees (1952,iy63),Halle  (1959),Postai  K a t z (1964),Bach (1964),K.atz a n d ' p o s t a l  (1964j,Kiparsky  McCawley (1969) and  with  (1962,196b), (1968),  Harms (1968),  T h e o r e t i c a l l y , , f r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar i s based on m e n t a l i s t i c psycnology,where the mam  o b j e c t i s t h e study  of mental e n t i t i e s  (Katz, 1964,lg.4.0-1 db) .The  l i n g u i s t i c competence and  performance  6 of an I d e a l speaker-nearer,  i s p e r c e p t i b l e as an i n t e r n a l  grammar,  wJii.cn, i s d e s c r i b a b l e a s a system, o f r u l e s w h i c h p r o d u c e a n i n d e f i n i t e number o f g r a m m a t i c a l s e n t e n c e s phonologieal^marphological,syntactic The  transformational  on t h e b a s i s o f  and s e m a n t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  grammar d e s c r i b e s  them by a f i n i t e  s e t of  ruies. The  phonological  describes higher  theory  the phonological  forms  of the transformational  p r o p e r t i e s o f morphemes or. t h e i r  (words,sentences)-These are d i v i d e d i n t o  l e v e l s ; l e x i c a l , p h o n o l o g i c a l and p h o n e t i c . T h e representations applying  are obtainable  phonological  from t h e i r  redundancy and o t h e r  a  t h e phonetic, f e a t u r e s  surface  (+)  structure»A phonetic  o r minus  some s t a t e d  (-) s i g n , w h i c h  assigns  structures,by  readjustment  of the phonetic feature  three  phonological  surface  which d e r i v e from L e x i c a l representation.The specify  grammar  distinctive  rules, features  representation of  i s marked  the presence  e i t h e r by  plus  or absence of  feature.  1.3. A short situation  d e s c r i p t i o n of. t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f SOB*.and t h e d i a l e c t  i n Bangladesh i s given  Bengali  i s a member o f t h e i n d i e g r o u p o f t h e I n d o - A r y a n  language family,and .indirectly  here.  thus a d i r e c t  of Sanskrit  (Fig.1).  descendant, o f P r a k r i t , a n d  7 Sanskrit  prakrit Apabhramsa I Old  Bengali.  • I Middle  Bengali  Modern  Bengali Bengali  Standard Colloquial. Bengali. Dacca  Dialects Noakhali. D i a l e c t s  proper.  "^Mai^i^Hatia Area islands  pen! Area  Fig..1  1.4.  The  development  o f SCB  and  s u b - d i a l e c t s of  dialects  Bengall  the  c o n t e m p o r a r y B a n g l a d e s h and  divergent and  different  Dialect situations  Though. SCB. i s s p o k e n by in  and  dialects  morphological  bulk  of the  educated  West B e n g a l , . t h e r e  exist, s e v e r a l  o f B e n g a l i . S o m e o f them,due t o d i f f e r e n c e s , a r e not  class both  phonological  intelligible  to  SCB  speakers. The to  political  until the  survival  the  and  of these cultural  partition  former. E a s t  Bengali  dialects  causes.During  of B e n g a l . i n  1947  P a k i s t a n , C a l c u t t a was  S C B . T h o u g h B e n g a l i was  the  is•attributable last  two  centuries  i n t o West B e n g a l the  focal  spoken throughout the  area  of  province,  and  8 s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s factors blocked, the widespread use of SCB» D i a l e c t s developed i n d i f f e r e n t parts of the province*among them the Ghittagong and Noakhali d i a l e c t s i n the south, sylhet andEangpur i n the north and north-west, Midnapore and Bankura i n the west,and East Bengali d i a l e c t s i n Dacca and Mymensingh. Moreover,educated Bengali e l i t e s i n Calcutta  formed t y p i c a l l i n g u i s t i c , patterns,wnieh were  l a r g e l y unknown i n other parts of Bengal ( s p e c i a l mention to be made f o r verb, ending s u f f i x -urn.). 1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the d i a l e c t s The maior d i a l e c t groups of Bengali, can be broadly into the following  divided  classes;  a) Northern Bengali; The d i a l e c t s of Dinajpur,Eajshahi,BQgra and pabna. h) Rajbangshi ; The d i a l e c t s of Rangpur... c) Eastern Bengali. ; The d i a l e c t s of 1. Dacca,Mymensingh, Tippera, Sylhet.; 2. Far idpur., jess ore., Khulna. d) southern Bengali : Ghittagong,N.oakhall,Chakma. The above c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s made by Grierson (1903-1928),, and. i s based more on geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n than on s t r u c t u r a l c r i t e r i a .Use of the latter, would modify the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the Sylhet d i a l e c t  (Chowdhury,1960,Hai  Hai, 1965 and 1966,K.ay, 1966), which i s s t r u c t u r a l l y  closer  9 t a the d i a l e c t s of Hoakhali and cnit.tag.ong. than those of Dac.ca,,,Mymensingh,. and Tippera. :  . A p a r t from the  d i a l e c t s of sylhet, Hoakhali,Chi.ttag.ong and Kangpur ( p a r t l y ) , the r e s t of the d i a l e c t s are mutually i n t e l l i g i b l e due to substantial  s i m i l a r i t i e s i n phonology and grammar>  1 ..6.  .' Due to the d i a l e c t s i t u a t i o n i n Bangladesh,most  educated  Bengalis ( i n c l u d i n g those i i n west Bengal) are f u l l y aware of the tnr.ee d i s t i n c t v a r i e t i e s of the language (Chowdhury, 1960-75) •"These, are shown diagramatically.  High Bengali (written only)  Standard Colloquial. Bengali (both written and spoken)  Local d i a l e c t (spoken only)  High Bengali (HB) i s the S a n s k r i t i z e d written form of the language,and i s not spoken by anyone.Standard c o l l o q u i a l B-engali (SCB) i s commonly spoken and written by the educated c l a s s . l o c a l d i a l e c t s are spoken mainly i n t h e i r respective communities by d i f f e r e n t groups.A person who comes from a non-standard speech area uses three d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s of the language interchangeably ; l o c a l d i a l e c t at home,SOB.  1.0 f o r i n t e r - d i a l e c t encounters,and HB, f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes, although, t h i s tendency i s changing r a p i d l y , a s most o f the modern w r i t e r s and a u t h o r s o f text-hooks a r e f o l l o w i n g  SCB  w r i t t e n p a t t e r n s i n their, works .HB. and SCB a r e the only d i s t i n c t v a r i e t i e s used by a SCB 1.7. Sub-groupings  two  speaker.  of. the H o a k h a l i D i a l e c t s  H o a k h a l i i s s i t u a t e d i n the south, o f Bangladesh and borders t h e Bay  o f Bengal.So  the n o r t h o r i t l i e the d i s t r i c t s  o f C a m i l l a and i x i p u r a ( I n d i a ) ;..ta t h e e a s t a r e t h e G h i t t a g o n g d i s ' t r i d t ' a n d T r i p u r a S t a t e . T n e E e n i r i v e r marks i t s boundary w i t h the Ghittagong, d i s t r i c t and t h e r i v e r Eeghna forms t h e western boundary  o f the d i s t r i c t , . w h i l e t h e Bay  forma i t s -southern boundary  of Bengal  (DCfiN, 19*61 -1 -3).The s o u t h e r n p a r t  of t h e d i s t r i c t i s lower i n a l t i t u d e t h a n tne n o r t h e r n a r e a , and i s h e a v i l y a f f e c t e d by t i d a l , boxes and o t h e r n a t u r a l calamities. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1961 is  1955  c e n s u s , t h e t o t a l a r e a o f the d i s t r i c t  square m i l e s . I t has a heavy r a i n f a l l , a n d h u m i d i t y i s  even throughout the year.Due  t o i t s p r o x i m i t y t a the Bay of  B e n g a l i t does n o t have extremes  of c l i m a t e i n w i n t e r and  summer.In summer t h e temperature v a r i e s from. 75*7 I  t o 87.9  and i n winter. 61.6 P t o S O .3 E (DCRN*1961-1-6) „ Tne t o t a l p a p u l a t i o n of N o a k h a l i , a c c o r d i n g t o the  1961  census r e p o r t , i s about 2,,3&3, H5> out of which 1,207,964 a r e  F  11  males and  1, 3:35,181 females .The. average d e n s i t y per square m i l e  is. about 1,.285,the t h i r d h i g h e s t i n Bangladesh.  1 .70. The d i s t r i c t study  o f N o a k h a l i i s an, i n t e r e s t i n g f i e l d f o r t h e  of d i a l e c t composition  and v a r i a t i o n s . D i f f e r e n c e s which  have developed, i n grammar have developed, as a r e s u l t o f variation,.hut. d i f f e r e n c e s i n v o c a b u l a r y  social  and p r o n u n c i a t i o n  a£e  related to spatial, i . e . sub-regional variation.Differences i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n i n t h i s a r e a take many forms and as t h r e e d i s t i n c t types Kurath  c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d  of v a r i a t i o n s , a s enumerated by Hans  (1949-14). These a r e ;  a) D i f f e r e n c e s i n the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of t h e i n d i v i d u a l phonemes; b) D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o c c u r r e n c e  o f the i n d i v i d u a l phonemes;and  c) D i f f e r e n c e s i n the system of. phonemes. The p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f a word i s the most important  factor i n dialect  geography,as i t i s related,;, t o c u l t u r a l , h i s t o r i c a l and  political  f a c t o r s (Raven M C D a v i d , j r 1 9 6 4 - 2 5 ) . T h e s e have been a n a l y s e d i n sec.1.(2.  1 .71 . l o a k h a l i d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y from, the c e n t r a l r e g i o n of B e n g a l around Calcutta,,with r e s p e c t t o t o p o g r a p h y , p l a n t animal  and  life,.and. economic c o n d i t i o n s and a l s o i n i t s s o c i a l  s t r u c t u r e . T h e d i a l e c t s o f t h i s a r e a developed from sCB,,mainly due environmental  quite seperately  t o e x i s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l and  back gro^ind.The p h o n o l o g i c a l and  morphological  12 differences  are easily  and I D . I k e s e  noticeable  i n t h e v o c a b u l a r i e s o f SCB  d i f f e r e n c e s a r e p r e d i c t a b l e i n t h e way  regional  a n d l o c a l e x p r e s s i o n s n a v e b e e n p r e s e r v e d i n ;tn.e word s t o c k s , and  can easily  speakers  be d e t e r m i n e d  of this  through  a r e a make f u n d a m e n t a l  s y n t a x and i n f l e c t i o n a l forms.In usages  contrastive  a r e always  differences  particular  p r e s e r v e d by t h e e l d e r l y  persons,who have had l e s s  studies.The both i n  t h e l o c a l terms and or less  educated'  contact with the privileged  hav? b e e n c o n f i n e d t o t h e same g e n e r a l a r e a t h r o u g h o u t l i v e s . T h e u n c u l t i v a t e d people have a tendency u s e t h e same i n f l e c t i o n a l p e r m i t s .\  endings  language.This unintelligible Except  attitude  those  of the standard made t h e d i a l e c t  i n l*eni and Chaumohani i n t h e N o a k h a l i d i s t r i c t , most  due t o l a c k  of  tiny  towns a n d  communication w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n t t h e absence  o f SCB,the  t h e s u b - r e g i o n a l forms o f B e n g a l i , w h i c h  i n the different  o f ND u s e d  composed  of f a c i l i t i e s . i n  bulk o f t h e people used even v a r i e d  from  regional  t o t h e SCB s p e a k e r s .  v i l l a g e s . T h e r e was n o d i r e c t  speakers  t o preserve and  whenever t h e p a t t e r n o f s p e e c h  o f t h e ND s p e a k e r s , h a s  t h e a r e a was h i s t o r i c a l l y  villages  their,  T h e ND s p e a k e r s h a v e a l s o p r e s e r v e d t h e i r  sound p a t t e r n s , w h i c h a r e d i s t i n c t  of  c l a s s and  parts of the area.Only  a few e d u c a t e d  SCB, t h o s e who h a d d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n a n d  c o n t a c t w i t h t h e educated  class  i n Calcutta.  1 .12. The clearly  cultural migrational history  of. t h e l o a k h a l l i s n o t  known,but i t c o u l d b e a s s u m e d t h a t , a p a r t f r o m  the local  13'  Bengali inhabitants,they shared the culture^ of the Arabs and the Portuguese at large,as well as that of other  neighbouring  tribes.A d i s t r i c t bordering the Bay of Bengal,it maintained i t s regional s o c i o - c u l t u r a i pattern,which more or l e s s , i s responsible for i t s sharp d i a l e c t v a r i a t i o n s with SCB and other d i a l e c t s of Bengali.The  early inhabitants of Hoakhali,who came i n large  numbers to t h i s area,maintained  their, speech, habits taking advantage  of geographical, distance and administrative . looseness of e a r l i e r central. Governments of Bengal. Owing to the vastness of the d i s t r i c t , t h e inhabitants of Hoakhali a f t e r i n i t i a l population movements,settied down and extended their, t err i t ory, d ev eloping the three d i a l e c t  boundaries  of the d i s t r i c t . (Map 2 ) .physical conditions aided the regions i n maintaining t h e i r own dialects.The Hatia I s l a n d s , e s p e c i a l l y , being separated from the mainland,had an extra advantage i n developing t h e i r sub-regional d i a l e c t . 1.73. The close a s s o c i a t i o n which e x i s t s between HB,SCB and the Hoakhali d i a l e c t should be shown here.In diagram »X',a speaker from the d i a l e c t area (C) would be able to understand  HB (A)  and SCB (B)simultaneously,and knowledge and use of d i a l e c t C enjoys i t s own prestige i n i t s r e g i o n . i n diagram 'YSthe speakers  of d i a l e c t  c woAild  not be abie to understand  non-native  d i a l e c t C,  due t o differences i n pronunciations,vocables and s y n t a c t i c pattern  (Allen,1964-215).  14  X- D i a l e c t speaker  KB  SOB  A  B  Dialect  y_- D i a l e c t speaker  Big* 2 These d i f f e r e n c e s a r e shown i n c y c l i c order i n F i g u r e the  directions and  2 ,where  the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s of the t h r e e d i f f e r e n t  forms o f B e n g a l i have "been r e p r e s e n t e d .  5  Fig. A represents  HBjB^SCB and  i n t e l l i g i b l e as i t has v i c e versa*It  c  d i a l e c t . F o r a C speaker,B i s  h i g h e r s o c i a l p r e s t i g e t h a n C,but  not  c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t c speakers always r e t a i n  t h e i r d i a l e c t p l u s two i n the  C any  area,though  o t h e r l i n g u i s t i c forms f o r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n ,  J t h e i r  pronunciation  distribution nationally,they  enjoy l o c a l  lacks recognition prestige.  or  15  Examples; Group A: HB [cittro]  picture  \_ahobi]  1  [% obi]  SCB  Dialect  •brother-in-law [sala]  [ hala]  SCB Fig.4  Dialect  showing t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the same ward i n three discrete  forms  Group B: SCB a. [mee"} [ma 3  'girl' •mother.^  b. [ c h e l a ] 'boy [chobi]  Fig. 5  1  ' p i c t u r e'  Dialect .•[meej [_maia]' . • [ma ] [mal .. [tf e l e ] [ ty a o a l ] [tj- s a b i J [ir obi ]  showing the form SCB words ..assume i n UD s  1  Retention of. forms could occur i n two ways;(a) where the l o c a l phonetic pattern does not c l a s h with S C B , t h e S C B pattern could  after, i t i s transformed  i n t o the phonetic pattern of the l o c a l  dialect.  1.74. l o a k h a l i dialects,due to t h e i r phonological and patterns,are quite unique and completely  morphological  u n i n t e l l i g i b l e to S C B  speakers.The main d i a l e c t area could he mapped i n t o three sub-dialect areas,each of which i s d i f f e r e n t from the others i n i t s l i n g u i s t i c forms.These three areas are shown i n Map as  ( A ; , ( B ) and  p. 148,  (C).  l o a k h a l i Dialects  CB)  (A)  E e n i area  (C)  M a i j d i area Pig.6.  Hatia Islands  loakhali Dialects  D i a l e c t (A) is. predominately  used i n Feni and i t s adjacent area,,  d i a l e c t ( B ) i s used i n M a i j d i or the c e n t r a l part of the d i s t r i c t , and d i a l e c t ( C )  i s used i n the Hatia i s l a n d s .  17  1.75.  Informants To o b t a i n a corpus as  of the H o a k h a l i d i a l e c t , t w o i n f o r m a n t s  a basis  were chosen/lor. making g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s .cn t h e above d i a l e c t s t r u c t u r e . A c o n t r a s t i v e study i s made with, t h e SCB,based on t h e speech o f  A  speakers r e s i d i n g i n V a n c o u v e r . c o n t r a s t i v e 2  study i s h e l p f u l i n the sense t h a t i t c l e a r l y  indicates  d e v i a t i o n s of the d i a l e c t from sCB,both i n p h o n o l o g i c a l and m o r p h o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s . A t p r e s e n t due t o n o n - a v a i l a b i l i t y more, i n f o r m a n t s , t h e scope has been r e s t r i c t e d . T h e f i r s t of  informant mentioned by K u r a t h (Kurath, 1939-5) and  was  limited  education,and  type  others  not a v a i l a b l e , on a f u l l time b a s i s for. the p r e s e n t  T h i s type i n c l u d e s the o l d e r persons  of  study.  i n the society,having  h a v i n g fewer c o n t a c t s w i t h SCB.However,  t h r e e s a i l o r s from the d i a l e c t , a r e a who  conformed t o some of  these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were a v a i l a b l e f o r a s h o r t time,and were used to check, and compare the c o l l e c t e d w o r d - l i s t s . i n most  1 F i r s t i n f o r m a n t Mr.M.A.Matin,is a student a t U.B.C. i n Food-Science.His  p a r e n t s and w i f e h a i l from the same a r e a  and he h i m s e l f spent h i s f i r s t  s i x t e e n years i n the d i a l e c t  a r e a . Age:27 y e a r s . The  second  i n f o r m a n t Mr.M.A.Quddus,an ex s t u d e n t of U.B.C.  i n the F a c u l t y of. Commerce and B u s i n e s s  Administration.He  speaks the same d i a l e c t as Mr.Matin and spent twenty y e a r s i n the d i a l e c t area.Most of h i s f a m i l y members a r e l i v i n g i n the d i a l e c t , a r e a . Age:29 y e a r s .  still  18  c a s e s , o n l y the second type o f informant,younger and educated and h a v i n g more s o c i a l c o n t a c t s w i t h SCB speakers was c o n s u l t e d for. t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . B o t h i n f o r m a n t s a r e from t h e same r e g i o n (central  p a r t o f H.oaichali,Dialect B ) and both o f them t r u l y  r e p r e s e n t t h e l i n g u i s t i c community.Though t h e i r  speech  is  o c c a s i o n a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by SCB v o c a b u l a r y or grammar,differences i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n e x i s t . B y sampling t h e speech o f t h e two groups^ o f i n f o r m a n t s t h e l o c a l e x p r e s s i o n s used i n t h e d i a l e c t of itfoakhali were determined and  collected.  -j .  SCB  :  Full, l i s t  of informants  names  age  sex  area  : occupation  D.Talapatra  29  M  s t u d e n t a t U.B.C.  C.Chaudhurani  29  F  Post-Doc. a t U.B.C.  B.Gupta  31  M  immigrant:came i n  '  196!? Z.Haq  26  M  s t u d e n t a t U.B.C.  A.Matin  27  M  s t u d e n t a t U.B.C.  S.Haq  26  p  house-wife  19 1 .76. Dialect. A t l a s In. preparing, the d i a l e c t a t l a s common procedure was fallowed .Four d i f f e r e n t kinds of maps were used here to p l o t variations.. The f i r s t i s the l e x i c a l map which shows v a r i a t i o n s of the same word used by the n a t i v e speakers of B.engali to i n d i c a t e the same object, A l i s t , of items was made and taped with d i f f e r e n t informants who came from various regions. These are shown i n the map after, checking geographical p o i n t s . The l i s t consists of twentyone'morphemes along with three short sentences. I n making the word-list, three p r i n c i p l e s were followed (McDavid, j r . 1958-484.) which are f fami fiar 'lo ^ e ^ l n v e s ^ i g a t e d h  t  n  OS  a r e a ^ i a s y to introduce  into a conventional system , ancf suspected c  of having r e g i o n a l  or social, v a r i a t i o n s . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the pronunciation of  the same l e x i c a l form are shown i n a phonetic map. A t h i r d  map i n d i c a t e s geographical boundaries  of usages. The main  d i a l e c t s of B e n g a l i are shown i n the last, map. The d i a l e c t maps were prepared mainly to show tne d i a l e c t differences and t e r r i t o r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n which compose the unique f i e l d of the. study of the language i n general. The s o c i a l and regional v a r i a t i o n s i n the d i a l e c t atlas, are important as the d i f f e r e n t communities ' r e f l e c t the p r i n c i p a l s t r a i n s of  settlement and. facets o2 c u l t u r a l development i n the  area as a whole  4  (,Marckwardt, 1966-4.03) •  20:  Chapter'! 11  2.  phonology,  2.U.  introductory  f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o n ,f / t h e p h o n o l o g y  The a n d ED  i s based  H a l l e (19&8) is  placed  o f SCB  remarks  o n t h e model, i n t r o d u c e d  i n The Sound  a n d ED-  The  discussion w i l l  (h) an  using, f e a t u r e r u l e s . be u s e d  ,i.e.  six  Two  These  cover  two  sound  aspects  o f sound  o n t h e way  new  on t h e way  changes (1968),  are  segments  are  simplification  rules.  sound p a t t e r n s  a) c l a s s i f i c a t o r y  of  patterns  segments  a r e commonly known a s t h e  s e c t i o n s under  patterns  r u l e s , a s g i v e n by K i p a r s k y  a rule  a n d a d d i t i o n o f new The  and  o f E n g l i s h .Emphasis  explanation  i n t h e morphemes a n d a r u l e  omitted.  b y Chomsky  : (a) a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e sound  o f SCB. and. I D , a n d  added  SCB-  h e r e on d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e o v e r a l l  these patterns  will  Pattern  of  o f SCB  and ED  are described i n  the f o l l o w i n g headings : method;  b) s u n r a s e g m e n t a l f e a t u r e s ; c) Diphthongs; d) C o n s o n a n t ej  and  Gemination. The  in  clusters;  overall  s o u n d - p a t t e r n s o f SCB  the classificatory  method  a n d ED  s e c t i o n . The  are  described  phonological  21 features  o f SCB  and, ND  features  of  the  languages.These  affected  by  a d d i n g v o c a l i c and  in  diphthongs  clusters  and  are described  for vocalic gemination  on  pattern  of r u l e s , i n the in  two  ways  in  SCB  and  ; (a)  segments as  addition  the  the  the of  are  or  shown  consonant  segments.  a great  impact  s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and  vocalic  adding  way  or d e l e t i o n  well, as  discussion,sound  way  N D , e i t h e r by  segments,and (b) by  through, t h e  the  of d i s t i n c t i v e  consonantal segments,are  for consonantal  present  basis  sound p a t t e r n s , w h i c h  Sound change i n a l a n g u a g e has phonological  the  its  addition  change i s  segments a r e  deleting  on  described changed  this class  c o n s o n a n t a l segments, a r e  c o n s o n a n t a l s e g m e n t s i n SCB  of changed and  ND.  2.1*  C l a s s i f i c a t o r y Method To  i n v e s t i g a t e , the  Bengali  (henceforth  (henceforth ordering and  1a.  referred  referred  to  of parametric  Harry,. 1 9 6 1 ) . T h i s  b e t w e e n any  two  laryngeal  phonemes o f  as  ND)  indices  .0  voiceless,  .1  voiced  Standard  Colloquial  as  SCB= ) a n d  Noakhali  the  following  hierarchical  has  been f o l l o w e d  method g i v e s  phonemes. T h e action;  to  the  a  quantified  p a r a m e t e r s are. a s  Dialect  (Peterson difference follows;  22 2a. Place of a r t i c u l a t i o n ; .0 b i l a b i a l .1 dental .2 r e t r o f l e x .3 palatal. .4 velar .5 g l o t t a l 3a. Manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n : .0 vowel .1 stop .2 n a s a l .3 f l a p .4 l a t e r a i .5 spirant .6 f r i c a t i v e  2.10,.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of SCB segments  The SCB phonemes f a l l in- the following categories a f t e r applying r u l e 1a,2a and 3a. 1a. Laryngeal a c t i o n ;  .0  p p h , t, th, T, Q)h, c, ch, k,kh.  .1  b,bh,d,dh,l),Bh, 3, Jh,g,gh  A l l stops of SCB occur i n symmetrical order-following the vibration  of the v o c a l bands,the top.,  two sounds of each  a r t i c u l a t o r ^ group are v o i c e l e s s and the bottom two are voiced.  23  T h e s e a r e shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  /W  /p/ / V  /bh  /g/  /t/  III  /th/ /dh/  /d/  /D/  figures  :  /ch/  /Th/  /a/  /Dh/  -/a*/  /gh/  Eig.. 7 1a. needs  Rule  stop  i n SCB:  r e v i s i o n f o r S C B , a s i t h a s two f e a t u r e s  to  l a r y n g e a l a c t i o n , v o i c i n g , a n d a s p i r a t i o n . The f i r s t  of  each a r t i c u l a t o r y group i s v o i c e l e s s  second, one i s v o i c e l e s s v e d ced. u n a s p i r a t e d * a n d  aspirated,the  due phoneme  and unaspirated,the  t h i r d . Jam.em.ber l a -  t h e l a s t member i s v o i c e d  aspirated*  T h e s e are. r e p r e s e n t e d b y /p p h h. b h / a n d c o r r e s p o n d i n g symbols  f o r the other  stops.  The a s p i r a t o r y  o n e e x t r a , r u l e f o r SCB s o u n d s , w h i c h i s shown 1a.  laryngeal action  feature below.  :  .0, n o n a s p i r a t i o n .1  aspiration.  The f o l l o w i n g  SCB. s o u n d s  illustrate  this  1a. .0  p,b,t,d,T,D,c„J,l5-,g  . 1 ph, bh., th.,,, dh, T h , Dh, c h , ^ h , k h , g h  feature  ;  symbols  has added  24 2a. place, of a r t i c u l a t i o n . ; .0 p,ph,.b,blx,m .1  t, th, d,dh,n,r, i , s  .2 T.,IE,D,"Dh., ( E ;  .3 c,cii, J, Jh, .4 k.,kh,g,.gh,n .5 h 3a. Manner, of. a r t i c u l a t i o n : .0 i , e, se ,a, , o,u .1 p,ph,b,bh, tth.,d,dn,,,T, Ih,!D,.Dh,c,eh, %„ ;jh,k,kh,g,gh .2 m^n,^ *3 r, (R) .4, 1  *5 s,(s) *6 h 'oVOWELS  front  central  back  high  i  u  high-mid  e  0  D  low-mid-  low  a  25 Consonants bilabial  stops  palatal  vs:ua/a  p  ph  t th  T Th  c  v :ua/a  b bh  d dh.  D  Z Z&  nasals  r.  lateral  1  spirants  inventory  Classification  inventory  k kh g  gh  (IL)  s  00  Fig. 8  The  Dh  ch  velar glottal  n  m>  flaps  £.11.  retroflex  dental  h  o f phonemes i n SCB  o f I D segments  o f phonemes i n I D , h o w e v e r , v a r i e s  from  that  c f S C B . To i n v e s t i g a t e I D , t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r i n g o f p a r a m e t r i c i n d i c e s which have been  followed  f o r SCB  needs  m o d i f i c a t i o n as t h e d i a l e c t has a r t i c u l a t o r y f e a t u r e s n o t f o u n d i n SCB. T h e new  parameters  f o r ID,then,are as  follows:  1a- l a r y n g e a l a c t i o n ; .0  voiceless  .1  voiced  1a. •0:  nonasplration  . 1 aspiration i  26 2a.  p l a c e of. a r t i c u l a t i o n . : .0 b i l a b i a l .1 d e n t a l .2  alveolar.  •3  retroflex  ,.4 .5  palatal velar  . *6> g l o t t a l 3a*  Manner, o f a r t i c u l a t i o n ; •0 v o w e l • 1 stop •2 a f f r i c a t e •3 n a s a l .4. f l a p *5 l a t e r a l .6  spirant  •'(' . . f r i c a t i v e The f o l l o w i n g  segments  nave been o b t a i n e d from, the s p e e c h  o f the i n f o r m a n t s * 1a.  laryngeal  action;  *0 p t T T$ it x f • 1b  v d. d h D J)h 63  1a\ . O p b t d T D k g *1 d< D  c  g5  g. g h  27  2a.  place of  articulation;  •0 p b m. f v .1 t d d •2 %  c  a l  03  •3 v 1 D  D  r  s(z)  d  ou  c  .4 s •5 k. g g.  1  •6  •0  n x  k  i  e£(a?y)  .1 p b i f d d  c  I. D tfk g  g  c  •2 % % •3 m. n n .4 r .5  1  »6 s ( z ) s .7 f " V x One  h  p o i n t t h a t should  he mentioned here i s t h a t ED  a r e n o t s i m i l a r t o the SCB  /oh  aspirated  a c o u s t i c and stops.  c  if/  dh. .../» These sounds a r e  produced i n t h e d i a l e c t w i t h g l o t t a l c l o s u r e and different  /d  nave a  a r t i c u l a t o r ^ n a t u r e from t h e  SCB  Z8  Consonants  b i l a b i a l dental a l v e o l a r r e t r o p a l . v e l .  stops  glottal  k  b  d d  m  n  j) D  c  f  affricate  nasal flap  r  lateral  1  spirant  s(z)  fricative  9-  s  f V  x  vowels front nign.  : i ;  nigh-mM  e  low-mid  ^ a?,  low  central  back u. ,o D  a  I i g » 9 i n v e n t o r y o f phonemes i n ND  h.  29 2*12. D i s c u s s i o n o f ND  v o c a l i c , segments:  Minimal- a r t i c u l a t o r ^ d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n t n e SCB. and t n e ID v o c a l i c systems. Tne i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e d a seven-vowel, system f o r SCB: and ND,wnich appear as i n tne following representation. f r o n t rounded c e n t r a l unrounded back: rounded hign  i  u  mid  e  o  low  a  o  Among tne seven vowels o£ ND, only /e-ae. / a r e i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n , /ae, / i s a r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n i n t n e d i a l e c t , m o s t l y i n " c u l t u r e d " speech, due t o i n f l u e n c e of SCB a t t n i s s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l e v e l , However, /se. / has less,  frequency t n a n  / £ / - Examples f o r  a l t e r a t i o n a r e /l&ngoT/—-> /las ngoT/  • l o i n - c l o t h * ; /hae n/  / h t n / »hot water o f cooked r i e e ' .  A l l the above vowels a r e a l s o found i n SCB but n o t t n e /t~ae,/  a l t e r a t i o n . SCB c o n t a i n s  2.13. B i n a r y F e a t u r e s  only /se. /.  o f the v o c a l i c segments:  The f o l l o w i n g f o u r b i n a r y f e a t u r e s a r e used n e r e t o c a t e g o r i z e SCB and ND vowels a s , "nigh","low", »«frSnt» o r "round". "Hign" vowels a r e d e f i n e d as [ + h i g n , - l o w 3 vowels  ,."low"  as [-fhigh,.+low] , "mid" vowels as [-high,-low, 1  3Q " f r o n t " v o w e l s a s [ + f r e n t ] ..The. c e n t r a l -round!!. The f o l l o w i n g c h a r t f o r SGI- a n d MD  shows t h e f e a t u r e  vowels.  £  e  ae(~£,) a  hign  +  -  -.  -  low  -  !-  +  +  front  +  +  +  -  round  vowel  -  o  +  +  o  u  i s [-front, specifications  31 2.2.  Diphthongs  2.20.  Discussion Diphthongs  and lie .As.  a r e q u i t e common i n b o t h SCB  the  f i r s t vowel becomes longer, than the second i n forming diphthongs,an. added f e a t u r e of l e n g t g may and ND  be shown f o r SCB  vowels..  Rule 1 *  Vi  L+l°ng] /  V2C,  R u l e 1 c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t Y i i s always l o n g e r t h a n Y2» both- of which t o g e t h e r form, a Diphthongs for  SCB  may  and ND.  i s dropped  diphthong.  r e s u l t from p h o n o l o g i c  simplification  The second c o n s o n a n t a l segment of HB  when these a r e adopted i n t o SCB.  This r u l e  generates d i p h t h o n g a l words i n SCB as the HB p a t t e r n o f CVCV becomes C V - ^ i n SCB. HB  words egment  Examples,  SCB  Glosses  [sokhi]  [soil  girl's girl  [dodhil  [doi3  curd''  friend  i n most c a s e s , a s p i r a t e d c o n s o n a n t a l segments a r e i n SCB. where  dropped  T h i s k i n d of change i s m o d i f i e d f u r t h e r i n L-kh-1 o  £  words,  ND,  [ s o k h l ] d i d not bring, any d i p h t h o n g a l  change but had. the stop part of-the segment dropped and the aspirated r e t a i n e d i n u t t e r a n c e . Examples, HB [sokhl]  SCB \BQk~}  ND  C  solli  Gloss  J  girl's girl  friend  32  Rule 2 HB  SCB  [CVC ?]  »  11  HB  [Cfl]  ND  [CVC Vj k  *  [CV  h  Y]  Rule 2 i s applicable f o r the HB aspirated segment [ kk], which., becomes [^] 2.21.  i n SCB and. [ h] i n KD.  D e s c r i p t i o n of SCB  diphthongs:  The following d e s c r i p t i o n of SCB diphthongs on the speech, of the native Bengali speakers,as during the course of t h i s study. Examples — I i i ]  [nil] [dii]  [ i e ] [gie] [bie] [ia] [lia]  [iol  [iu3  Glosses (I) take (1) give of. going wedding parrot  [diasalal]  box of matches  [nionta]  controller  [dio]  (you.) give  [niom3  rule,law  [sluli]  a kind of flower.  [ex] [ e i l [kheil [ee] [kheel [ mee ].  this end of a thread of eating. girl  is  based  collected  33 Lea]  [eo]  [eul  /« / -- [ a  —- [ a i l  [ael  [aa]  [aol <•  [au]  / V —  [oel  [oal  [DO!  of t a k i n g  [kheal  ferry  [Ice©]  some one  [3eo]  (you) go  [l)heu]  wave'  [keuajel  cobra  e] [bae. el  [se, o]  /a/  [nea]  expenditure  [na° e l  (he/she) t a k e s ;  justice  [dae. o r l  husband's younger brother.  [nas oTal  e x t r emely submis s i v e  [bair.el  outside  [chail ,  ashes  [khae^  (he/she) eats  [Thae]  steadily  [maal  illusion;  [chaa]  shadow  [paonal  due  [nao]  (you)  [jhau]  tamarisk t r e e  [ eauni]  looking.  [no e l  nine; not  [toes]  age  [doal  kindness  [bhoanokl  dangerous  [ c a oral  broad  [tool  (you) c a r r y  affection  ; take;  j  34  [oil  [oe3  [ oal  [ou]  [ moil  ladder  £3oi3  s i g n a t u r e ; female  [so e l  (he/she) l i e s down  [dhoel  (he/she) washes  I moal  h a l l o f sweet-meat  [poatil  pregnaat  [haul  wife  friend  [coumatha] j u n c t i o n o f f o u r roads [ui]  luel  [uaT]  [thuil  (1) keep  [sui]  (I)  • [nu-el  of  bending  [dhue]  of  washing  tdhua]  refrain  [gerua]  c o l o u r e d w i t h r e d .ochre gambling  [uo] [kuo]  2.22.  l i e down  w e l l (n.)  D e s c r i p t i o n o f ND d i p h t h o n g s : In ND,;the diphthong may be o r a l or n a s a l . Formation  of diphthongs i s common i n ND due t o i t s p h o n e t i c h a b i t s , where m e d i a l o r f i n a l c o n s o n a n t a l segments a r e dropped and a v o c a l i c segment i s added i n compensation (Haider.,, 1929-23). The n a s a l diphthongs a r e i d e n t i c a l i n number to  their, o r a l c o u n t e r p a r t s , A S n a s a l i z a t i o n i s q u i t e a  common p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e o f t h e d i a l e c t , n a s a l diphthongs are  widespread i n ND.  35  I  The t o t a l number o f o r a l d i p h t h o n g s o f ID is d e s c r i b e d h e r e , a s o b t a i n e d from b o t h t h e speech, o f i n f o r m a n t s and previous studies. .  /i/  — t i a i  [ial [13]  [ioj Liu] /£/  Uil  Wai  [eu] /a/  "  —[ai]  [ae]  [;ao]  [au.]  Examples  Glosses  titn.3  here  [d in] [hiall [hia ]  t h a t one jackal that  [biDdl  difficulty  [hiol]  chain  [nariol] [ hi.uk. 1 [b£il] [b£ina] Ck £a] Ldtal  coconut l e t (him) l e a r n time i n t h e morning ferry of s e e i n g  [D\U.]  wave  [bail [tj ail] l"k ae 3 [gadae] [d? ao] [tao]  brother  k  rice (he/she) e a t s (on) a s s (you) go (you.) s t a y  [bau.3  S i r ; Mr.  [dj au.l  cypress  36 Examples M  /a/  —  —  [koel  (he/she) speaks  Tloe]  (he/she) t a k e s  [Laon!  now  T_ko o]  (you) speak  [doll  curds  [boi]  books  [d oe]  (he/she) washes  [tf o e l  (he/she) sucks  [noa]  new  [roa 3  that  [bou]  wife  [if ouk ]  eye  [dj u i t 1  advantage  [dVL]  (1) wash-  tuel  [mne 1  i n t h e mouth  [uaj  .[tf u a ]  sour  [gua:  b e t e l nuts  [huorl  swine  [Del  [oil  [_oel  toal  [ou]  M  —  Glosses  [ui]  [U3]  As i n the I D , a l l  h  SCB diphthongs may be  which has been sown  nasalized.  3 7  2*3.  Consonant C l u s t e r s  2*30. boundary between the The / v o c a l i c n u c l e i o f two n e i g h b o u r i n g w i t h i n the same s e c t i o n may consonants  i n SCB  be composed of one  1  f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e  they might f o r m an i n i t i a l  or may  (Pulgram,  a) CYC-Cv"  be  s p l i t between the two syllables  'clear*  [driS-Ti]  ^sight^  c) CCCY  [stri3  •'wife'"  d) CCYC-CV  [srad-dhol ? o b s e q u i a l r i t e s '  e) CYC-CCY  [mis-tril  'carpenter.'  Among the g i v e n p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of combination  [ S - T 3 combination, p a r t of (b);, .-  consonant  a  1 9 7 0 - 7 9 ) .  [ P D S T O D  p a r t of (d) and  consonants;  sequence f o l l o w e d by  b) CCYC-CV  (a) the  y  ( o n s e t ) CC sequence f o l l o w e d by  a v o w e l [ d r - i l ,. a f i n a l (coda) CC  I-S-T-3  or more  and ID. i n this environment, fhere ' a r e  three p o s s i b i l i t i e s  vowel L - t r - i J  syllables  t h e [ s - t ] p a r t of (e) cannot  of .  consonants,  the [ d - d h l q u a l i f y as.  c l u s t e r s as they .are separated by a pause.;  j u n c t u r e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e .grouping with the-yocalic segment restricts  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of t h e a d j a c e n t  consonants  q u a l i f y i n g as c l u s t e r s t o o n l y t h r e e ways. They are,CCY,CCCY and CCYC. 2*31 . The SCB  phonemes /s/,/p/ and / r / , o c c u r i n g i n i t i a l l y  and f o l l o w e d by a vowel,may combine w i t h each o t h e r  as  38 /#pry-/ and /#sp«/ and are capable of securing i n strings^ su.cn. as i n tne following words [pran"] ' l i f e , [ p r i t i l » 1  a f f e c t i o n * , and  [sp^STa] 'clear*1 This  rule,however,has  l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n i n KD,primarily due to the r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of i t s consonantal segments. The SCB i n i t i a l - c l u s t e r s break down' into two s y l l a b i c a l l y separate components, an i n i t i a l consonant being preceded by a vowel. •This feature.prevents the formation of/.consonant clusters i n ND. Examples;' '  '  SCB  - .  '.  .'',.,,.  /#spv/  :  Glosses  WD  [SlesbxO  .. -  [poST. 3 3  clear  [iSTisonl  station  /#PV./  /#sTV/  _ 7#VS-TV/'  may also i n N D tne i n i t i a l consonant/become.: zero. The new f o r ui) may be mapped as SCB  /#CiC2V-/  rule  follows* WD /#S)C2V-/  This r u l e i s a p p l i c b l e to most S C B / N D :pairs. . a  1 The above discussion  i s based on the following a r t i c l e s ;  a) Jones,Lawrence Gaylord;"English Consonantal  Distribution  i n For. Roman Jakobson,The Hague, 195-6. b) 0'Connor, J.D. and J.L.M.Trim ; "Vowel*, consonant and s,yiiable-a phonolog.icai d e f i n i t i o n " , word,9.2 (1953)  39 2.32. In SCB,,inedial c l u s t e r s a r e v e r y common, i n i t i a l a r e l e s s f r e q u e n t and f i n a l c l u s t e r s a r e n o n e x i s t e n t in  clusters except  some f o r e i g n , l o a n words (Ferguson and chowdhury,1960-47).  The f o l l o w i n g , two f e a t u r e  rules are applicable f o r the  f o r m a t i o n o f consonant, c l u s t e r s i n SCB> Rule 5  Rule  3  C1C2  • — [ a n y  handles  s u c h sequences as,any member o f t h e c l a s s  s t o p p l u s /r./ o r / l / . " . "  + [r]  or [ 1 " ]  Examples; Glosses  [driSTi 3  sight  [briS!Ii3  rain  [klanto ]  tired  Rule  stop]  4  c  i 2, G  ^  Cs]  + [any s t o p ]  or [r~]  Rule 4 i s a p p l i c a b l e f o r sequences such, as / s / + e i t h e r . any  s t o p or. / r . / .  Examples; Glosses  [srisii]  creation  [srant i ]  exhaus t i o n  [sri-tl ]  memory  [sroSTa ]  creator  40  I n i t i a l consonant c l u s t e r s are preceded  by one of the  suprasegmental features,/+/,/!/ or./#/. 2.33. Medial c l u s t e r s Medial consonant c l u s t e r s are frequent i n SCB.The most common occurrence happens to be with, stops,where a p a r t i c u l a r a r t l c u l a t o r y class of segments i s always preceded  by same class of segments. The stops i n SCB occur  i n systematic, a r t i c u l a t o r y or.der,unaspirated sound i s followed by an aspirated, sound (i.e.,/p-fph/ /t*th/,/i+Th/, r  /etch/,, and /K+Kh./).and the v o i c e l e s s sounds a r e followed by t h e i r voiced counterparts ( i . e * , /b-tbh/, /d-*-dh/,/D+Dh/> / j-i-jh/ and /gt-gh/) .This establishes that a voiced stop i s always followed by another of. the voiced class and an . unvoiced stop i s always followed by an unvoiced  stop.  However, the /p+ph/ occurrence i s nonexistent^ i n the language. A l l consonant clusters.- occurring medially i n a word occur, a t word juncture (Ferguson, 1962-31). 2.34. Most of the consonant c l u s t e r s which, occur i n ND are medial. -M^a^i^StMPQiof  i n i t i a l consonant c l u s t e r s i s to be' -  found either, i n the informants speech or any other a v a i l a b l e specimens. One tendency i s strong i n ND where most of the c l u s t e r s occur, with i n i t i a l non-stop members,, and the  4.1 second segment i s either, a stop or a non-stop. . ... Another f e a t u r e i s t h a t the l a s t segment Occasionally  is  a vowel or a diphthong*  a consonant preceded, hy a vowel. T h e r e f o r e ,  t h e r e are t h r e e p o s s i b i l i t i e s a t the end of consonant c l u s t e r s i n ND, which a r e shown h e r e . Rule 5 C  1 C 2  ^  [  +  cluster]  /  (C ... C - | f 2 ? i n t h e env. o f Iv  ... G-jG2>  T h i s r u l e i n d i c a t e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a consonant c l u s t e r o c c u r i n g i n ND* where t h e onset o f a s y l l a b l e may be either. a vowel o r a consonant,and t h e c l u s t e r occurs a f t e r the pause juncture,which, i s preceded e i t h e r ( 1 ) by a vowel, ( 2 ) d i p h t h o n g or ( 2 ) hy a vowel and a consonant. A few examples  of t h e consonant c l u s t e r s which occur meant  i n ND are g i v e n h e r e . The l i s t i s n o t / t o be e x h a u s t i v e , b u t r a t h e r r e p r e s e n t i v e o f the k i n d s o f combinations one may meet.. Examples  of t h e consonant c l u s t e r s i n ND : Glosses  1 [ k+t}  [thaikte"]  of  staying  42 Glosses  2 [k+13  t tekto]  annoying  [thaiklel  if  [deikla 3  what d i d you see  (he/she) could 1  3 [s+t]  [ODD  s ta 3  condition  4 [t+r]  [sotro]  seventeen  [d.3 a t r a 1  opera  [por.it; s od 3  chapter  6. [ f + r 3  [uf re 1  on  7 [r+tiia  [pirthibir]  of earth  8 [n+S3  [honge3  with  [ango 3  of us  9 [r+t]  [sortal  (he/she) throws  10[S+2 3  [biSTi-3  rain  11 [ M 3  [DOID3  moment  [koKBai 3  where  12 [m.+k 3  [dhomkael  (he/she) abuses  13[n+433  [haindg e r l  at evening  [i&ond^ ar."]  of fun  [amae3  you (hon.)  [so mne 3  in front  15[T+k]  [suilka~3  the young one  16 [If +if3  [aitf £ a ]  a l l right  [hugoitf /t; e3  making sound  [buirga ]  old person  5  [J+s3  14[m+n3  17[r+g]  43 Glosses fan  18 [n+k ] h  [r+d]  tfardaj  curtain  20  [n+d]  [nondi]  river'  21  [tf+lj  [nait^ l o j  (she) danced  22  |g.+% 1  [laigdj l o ]  (I) appreciated  [laigdi; i l ~)  (I) l i k e d i t  2.35. Consonant c l u s t e r s never n a s a l i z e d vowels, as i n SCB  occur "before or after, any  n a s a l i z e d vowels always  precede  or f o l l o w a s i n g l e segment w i t h a s t r e s s . . N a s a l i z e d vowels followedz or^'preceded hy a n o t h e r n a s a l consonant do not in  SCB  or ND  either.  occur  44  2.4.  (Semination  Gemination i s quite consonants nave phonetic  common i n SCB and ,ND-  long  occurrence under c e r t a i n  conditions,  i n SCB a n d ID,the p r e c e d i n g , c o n s o n a n t a l s e g m e n t i s a l w a y s l o n g e r t h a n t h e f o l l o w i n g , o n e . This- c o n t r a s t i s a significant  i n geminated consonants  t h e c o n s o n a n t a l segments geminated  i n SCB. a n d  (L.ehiste, 1 9 7 0 - 2 0 ; » A l l  e x c e p t /r./  and /h/  c a n , be  ND*  2.-40Apart from c o l l o q u i a l  words,two  rules  for. t h e g e m i n a t i o n o f t h e S a n s k r i t i z e d i n SCB and ND. is  I f the t h i r d  segment  are applicable  l e x i c a l , items  i n a word i s / j , / , i t  d e l e t e d and t h e p r e c e d i n g , segment i s g e m i n a t e d , e . g . ,  padja  'lotus'  kabj.a  •poetry'  poddo  geminated,e.g., padmo  ;  padma  'lotus'  madja  *wine'  and t h e p r e c e d i n g , segment i s  'name o f a r i v e r - p a d m a ' p^ddo  ;  sadma  ''now*  T h e s t r u c t u r a l " c h a n g e o f t h e s a n s k r i t i z e d words t h e f o l i o swing d i a g r a m -  first second third  consonant  /p m k s  consonant consonant  /.d/ \. i ]  f  m?ddo;  . I f the/segment i s a  kabbo  nasal consonant^it i s deleted  in  used  ..../  podda ; soddo i s shown  .  45 R u l e for. s t r u c t u r a l change: C  1 2 3 C  G  *  0^202  (Che feature, r u l e may he applied'-to s i m p l e segments hecome  t h e p r i o r changes,where  geminated.  Rule 6 + + + +  consonantal anterior. voice nasal  [+  i+ c o n s o n a n t a l coronal geminated]/b a n t e r i o r  2 h i s r u l e c a n e a s i l y h a n d l e the. geminated sequences  s u c h as [ -dm] — }  [^1  feature  of the  *  Rule 7 + -  vocalic consonantal high hack low anterior coronal  -  round  -> ["+ geminated] /  Rule 7 i s a p p l i c a b l e  t o sequences  s u c h as  + anterior + coronal + consonantal  [ - d j - ^ J — •  2.41. 5Qhe f o l l o w i n g l i s t of t h e geminated  i s p r e p a r e d t o show m i n i m a l  and non-geminated word c l a s s e s . A l l  pairs  46A examples a r e chosen from SCB as t h e c o n t r a s t i s more frequent than the M ) . Examples  Glosses  Examples  Glosses  [kanna]  weep  [ kana ]  h i ind  [panna]  jewel-  £pana]  wat er-hy ac i n t h  [bonna^J  flood  [bona]  t o weave  ^sotti]  true  [soti]  e h a s t e ( f em.)  [honno]  uncivilized  [bono"]  (you;  [ookkor]  round  Ijcokor]  weave  kind of partridge  [pollgp  Ihe  village  [polil  silt  f o l l o w i n g examples a r e g i v e n here t o show t h e p o s s i b l e  types o f g e m i n a t i o n of. t h e consonant segments i n SCB.  1 /P+P/  2  [khoppor]  clutches  [thappor]  slap  /b+b/ [matchDOr]  chief  [dihhi]  swearing oath  3 /t+t/  4  [pottor]  letter  [sotti]  true  /d+d/ [ ko ddur"]  how f a r ?  [roddi]  rotten  '  46B  Glosses 5 /T+l/ [gaTTa]  fist  [TnaiTa]  joke  6/D+D/ [aDDa] 7  9  temporary lodging  /c+c/ |fgue.cer]  neap of  [gacca]  compensation  [rajjo]  kingdom  |> 33a]  shame  /k+k/ [blkkri]  sale  [aakkcor]  round  10 /g+g/  11  12  [3lgges"]  to ask  [bigganl  science  /m+m/ [sommoti"]  permission  [sommanl  honour  /n+n/ [ginni]  house-wife  [onno]  other  13 /s+s/ [dossul fjassin]  robber sixth, month of the Bengali year  47 Gloss 14 / l + l / [ho11a]  uproar  [polli]  village ID  2.4.2. Gemination i n  Gemination i s a common p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e occasionally  ID,as  in  causes one segment t o be r e p l a c e d  by another  f o r p h o n e t i c c o r r e l a t i o n i n a word. The d i a l e c t has common tendency t o a s s i m i l a t e of SCB  to  the f o l l o w i n g  t h e t r i l l e d segment  segment. The f o l l o w i n g  w i l l c l a r i f y t h i s tendency i n ID  SCB  a  /r/ examples  ID.  Changes  Glosses  [muhurto]  [muhutto]  [-rt-3 E'tt-"]  [parte ]  [faitta]  [-rt^\ :=[-tt-3 (you)  [Icorlol  [koillol  [-rl^] = r [ - l l ^ (he/she) d i d  -  The p h o n e t i c tendency o f ID, sequences change i n t o  i t  ==  where [-rt-Tj  [ - t t - ] and  moment  or  [-11-] , may  could.  [-rl-] also  be  e x p l a i n e d t h r o u g h the c l u s t e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n r u l e . O c c a s i o n a l l y , consonant c l u s t e r s either, become a simple c o n s o n a n t a l segment o r a geminated one for- ease of; a r t i c u l a t i o n  as happened i n the above sequences of [-rl-^ the  -—  [-rt-^  [-il-]  [-rt-]  . -—r  » The f o l l o w i n g , r u l e i s a p p l i c a b l e  , trl-^]  sequences,which  consonant or geminated.  £-tt-] , to the  e i t h e r become s i m p l e  4.8 Rule 8  *  01  C2  //-- G2  C o n d i t i o n : C-j becomes 02>i£ A  Q2 f o l l o w s C i .  few examples a r e g i v e n here t o snow t h e geminated  f e a t u r e s i n ND.  Group A Glosses  SCB [kota. b a t t a ]  chit-chat  [par tarn]  [faittarn]  U)  [ p a r t e ~]  [faitta]  (you)  [korlo^  [koillol  (he/they) d i d  [uf oinnas]  novel  [kotna  barta]  could could  Group B  ^uponnas]  a few  [kicnu]  [ee kbar ]  [fckkana]  once  [b&ka]  [beikkal  curved  [juddhol  [d5 udd o ]  fight;  [sedin]  [heidinna]  t h a t day  [manuse"]  [mainne}  the  war  people  -49  2,5  2.50.  Suprasegmental  features  I n t r o d u c t o r y remarks  Three a s p e c t s o f SCB and ND a r e covered i n suprasegmental f e a t u r e s . These a r e the s t r e s s , p i t c h , and j u n c t u r a l p a t t e r n s which p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the two l a n g u a g e s . f e a t u r e s do not p l a y the same r o l e i n SCB  These  and ND.but the  v a r i a t i o n s do not b r i n g about any fundamental  differences  between them. The t h r e e suprasegmental f e a t u r e s a r e d e s c r i b e d in. the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s , s h o w i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s and i n SCB and  differences  ND.  2.i>1. S t r e s s i s not phonemic i n e i t h e r SCB. and ND as i t does n o t e x i s t w i t h c o n t r a s t s on the p o s i t i o n o f i n t e n s i t y . l t  may  be s a i d t h a t i t s p o s i t i o n i s automatic, and does not have any semantic r o l e . D u e t o i t s non-phonemicity,there  are no c o n t r a s t i n g  l e v e l s of s t r e s s . I t i s so n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the presence or absence  o r p o s i t i o n does not a l t e r the sense of any  morphemes ( C h a t t e r j e e , 1 9 2 1 - 1 9 ) . SCB and ND have  emphatic.,  s t r e s s wni6h i s used t o g i v e emphasis a n d " c o n t r a s t (Ferguson and chowdhury,I96O-25).Tbis i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t e n s e r a r t i c u l a t i o n of c o n s o n a n t a l segments and by lengthening of v o c a l i c segments,which spreads over a s y l l a b l e *  50 2.-52. B o t h i n SCB and ED s t r e s s i s p r e d i c t a b l e m o s t l y f o r t h e i n f l e c t e d morphemes where i t i s always p l a c e d syllable.The following  on t h e i n i t i a l  examples w i l l show t h e i n i t i a l  stress  system o f t h e language. SCB  Gloss  ED  ['kal e s o l  Come to-morrow  ['djgr o i s e ]  ['jodi cao eso]  I f y o u f e e l t o ['ad^ki kirum]  what s h a l l I do  come,please do s o .  to-day?  ['tar s o r i r ]  He i s n o t  *bhalo n e i ]  feeling well.  Gloss I. g o t f e v e r  ^'he b a l a i kam He g o t a good korel  30b.  2.5.5. Though word s t r e s s i s always s u b s i d i a r y t o t h e r e a r e few e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s r u l e . C h a t t e r j e e  sentence-stress, (1921-19)  shows t h a t c o n j u n c t i o n s , p a r t i c l e s , a u x i l i a r i e s i n compound v e r b s do not r e c e i v e any s t r e s s . I f any noun f o l l o w s an a d j e c t i v e i t loses the stress,which The  initial  and  vowel harmony..  2.54.  falls  on t h e a d j e c t i v e .  s t r e s s i n g system o f t h e language has caused umlaut  Juncture J u n c t u r e i s important as a f e a t u r e  for. SOB and HD.Due  t o i t s important r o l e i n t h e language, i t i s c a p a b l e o f a l t e r i n g t h e meaning o f u t t e r a n c e s . Two d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f t r a n s i t i o n s between  successive  51 vowels and. consonants may  exist In a macrosegment i n SCB and  ID.Examples such, as [ pagol asche] [ t a r pa g o l ]  /a/ and /g/ of  'his l e g  pagol  i s round*,  'the mad man i s coming',and c l e a r l y indicate that the t r a n s i t i o n between  i s muddy (Hock.ett, 1967-55; hut a sharp  t r a n s i t i o n exists i n the /a/ and /g/ of [pa] and [gol] .The f i r s t type of t r a n s i t i o n which exists i n SCB and ID may  he  c a l l e d close juncture,where each segment follows the- other. c l o s e l y and the t r a n s i t i o n i s not marked hy any feature (e..g., [ pagol 1 ;. A second type of t r a n s i t i o n exists/ i n the languages where"it"Is marked hy a pause between two contiguous segments of an utterance which may he referred, to as Internal open juncture,(e.g., [pa] + [ g o l ] ; (Bloch and Trager,1942-47)• This i s shown i n the following, examples. Examples from  SCB: Gloss.  1)  2-)  3)  4.)  5)  [pagol"}  mad  [pa+gol ]  'leg i s round}  [nilamO  °I took  [ni+lam.]  auction  [mana]  prohihited  [ma+na']  Is  [kehal  of buying.  [ke+na]  who i s not ?  [bagane]  i n the garden  [ba+gane]  or i n music  not mother? t  52  6)  [phulki~]  flame is  [phul+ki 3 7)  [kobital  i t a flower?  poetry  [kobi+ta]  '  p o e t , on.i  Due t a a s s i m i i a t o r y f a c t o r s and. tn.e i n f l e c t i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e language,tne  j u n c t u r a l system, h a s i m p o r t a n c e  Examples from  i n SCB*  ND: Gloss  1) [ d a o Q  [da+a"3 2) \.f D l e r l  3)  4)  5;  give  me  •bill-hook. of the h a l l  [f'3l+er]  of the  [mondj a r u  of great  [mon+d^ ar3  whose mind?  [buer]  of underarm  [b.u+er3  of  [kagil  auntie  [kag+U  o f t h e crow  2*55.  fruit pleasure  sister.  length l e n g t h or. q u a n t i t y  o f s o u n d s , d e p e n d s on t h e d u r a t i o n  sounds i n c o n n e c t e d s p e e c h . & e n e r a l l y , l e n g t h SCB,but i t has a s i m p l e  of  I s n o t marked i n  r o l e i n the dialect.The  following  d i s c u s s i o n i s "based o n i n d i v i d u a l t r e a t m e n t o f SCB a n d  ND.  2.550*  It  Is quite evident  t h a t most o f the. vowels o f tire one-  s y l l a b i e words (without, any j u n c t u r e ; , c o n s i s t i n g o f a s i n g l e v o c a l i c segment, f o l l o w e d  and. preceded by consonantal  segments, are long. Examples f r o m SCB: Glosses  Glosses  senior  ( y o u ) do ( i n f . )  [ghi>:r]  room"  [ghoramil  hut  [ki ]  what?  [kintu]  but  [eolal  of w a l k i n g  [kajer.]  of work  :  [co :1  t  (you-) walk work.  [ kortal  person  [ko:r ]  builder  Examples f r o m UB: hous e  [go  \_ go r e ]  in  the nouse  [hi t.]  cold  [hite 1  in. w i n t e r  [mE:g.3  cloud.  [msgerl  of  [deisl  country  [d£,ser3  o f tne country  :  water  cloud  of water  The examples on l e f t hand s i d e f u l f i l ;  the r u l e f o r l e n g t h and  are u n i n f l e c t e d morphemes,"but t h e examples a r e on t h e r i g h t hand s i d e do n o t f u l f i l ; are  t h e c o n d i t i o n f o r l e n g t h as t h o s e  i n f l e c t e d morphemes with, a j u n c t u r e . T h e r u l e f o r l e n g t h i s  shown h e r e .  54  Rule 9  [any  segment 1  [+ long]  [any segment"]  #CVC#  [- l o n g ] #-/GVC/-#  R u l e ( 9 ) i s a p p l i c a b l e t o botn. SCB and Ni).  2*6.  P h o n e t i c A l t e r a t i o n s o f t h e vowels,  2*6u* I n t r o d u c t o r y remarks  B o t n vowels and consonants d i f f e r e n t p h o n e t i c environments. r e g u l a r i n t h e language,  undergo c e r t a i n changes i n Some m o d i f i c a t i o n s a r e v e r y  p h o n e t i c v a r i a t i o n s o f SCB and M D  a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s under, two h e a d i n g s . The p h o n e t i c v a r i a t i o n s which a r e observed i n t h e v o c a l i c segments a r e t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y from a l t e r a t i o n s found i n t h e ease o f t h e c o n s o n a n t a l 2.61*  segments.  Ep entiles i s E p e n t n e s i s falls., in_., the c a t e g o r y o f R u l e A d d i t i o n '  (King,. 1y 69-106) ,wnere one v o c a l i c segment i s added t o t n e morpheme.lt i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f r e d u c t i o n where segments a r e dropped,generally s e r v i n g t o f a c i l i t a t e tne t r a n s i t i o n between sound  groups.  This: k i n d o f p h o n e t i c change I s found, t o o c c u r o n l y i n I D . E p e n t h e t i c vowels a r e n o t p r e s e r v e d i n SCB- a s they l e d t o some o t h e r p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e s such, as diphthongs  (chatterjee,  19,26-379) . E p e n t h e t i c change may be r e g a r d e d as a  non-gradual  ehange,as t h e e p e n t n e t i c vowels do n o t show any g r a d u a l  55 development i n t u e d i a l e c t . E o r SCB.  ED.  example.;  Gloss.es  [a3]=r  Laidj"]  to-day  [kal]  [kail]  to-morrow,  [mondo] ~  [moindo]  bad  [sund]  =-  [suino]  Clou) n e a r  [holte^  ~  [hoiltg,^  of saying  I n t h e examples g i v e n above,tne e p e n t h e t i c vowels / I / does n o t e x i s t i n SCB, though i t s occurrence i s v e r y r e g u l a r i n ND. Epenthetic / i /  i s also • added, i n the onset o f words i n t h e  d i a l e c t . i n a d d i n g a d d i t i o n a l segments,Rule 10 i s a p p l i c a b l e to  ND.  Rule 10  [epentnesis]  The r u l e a p p l i e s  }  [  +  epentnesis] /  t o ND where an. a d d i t i o n o f a new  vocalic  segment occurs i n two> c o n t e x t s ; (a) i f the onset o f a word begins w i t h a c o n s o n a n t a l and a v o c a l i c segment, or. (h) within a v o c a l i c segment.The a d d i t i o n a l , v o c a l i c segment  isfollowed  e i t h e r hy a v o c a l i c segment o r a c o n s o n a n t a l and a vocali® segment.;'  '  .. " •_ .  2.62.  prosthesis P h o n e t i c change due t a a p r o s t h e t i c vowel i s extremely  r a r e i n SCB;however, t h i s k i n d o f change c a n be found i n HD. The i n t r u s i o n o f a new vowel i s used mainly t o break down initial  consonant c l u s t e r s i n t o two p a r t s f o r ease o f  a r t i c u l a t i o n . W h e n l e a r n e d or f o r e i g n words a r e pronounced by t h e d i a l e c t s p e a k e r s , t n e i n c l u s i o n o f a p r o s t h e t i c vowel becomes evident.Bxamples: SCB  ©losses  gSTesDaQ  [ISxisonJ  station  [stri3  [Istiri3  wife  [spondon]  [ispandanl  vibration  [spoSTol  [ispoST3 1  clear  p r o s t h e s i s may be taken as an a d d i t i o n o f a segment,as new v o c a l i c segments a r e added t o break through consonant c l u s t e r s . I n another way,it could, a l s o be a n a l y s e d as a c l u s t e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n r u l e . T h e f o l l o w i n g r u l e may be a p p l i c a b l e f o r t h e a d d i t i o n o f any p r o s t h e t i c  vowel.  Rule iiJI [ CC-]  •>  2.64. A n a p t y x i s A n a p t y x i s i s a common feature i n SCB which  appears l e s s f r e q u e n t l y i n ND.The r o l e of a n a p t y x i s i n t h e  language may  be r e g a r d e d as a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n f e a t u r e , a n a p t y x i s  b e i n g tne i n s e r t i o n o f a v o c a l i c segment or segments between n a s a l , l a t e r a l or o t h e r consonants t o break up consonant  clusters,  Sometimes,-" consonant clusters are broken down i n SCB . .  f o r metaphoric use i n p o e t r y . A n a p t y x i s i s caused i n two ways, e i t h e r by the i n s e r t i o n o f a v o c a l i c segment o r by r e p l a c i n g the v o c a l i c segment i n the o r i g i n a l form of a word.Bloomfield d e f i n e s it,"when a r e l a t i v e l y it  sonorous phoneme i s n o n - s y l l a b i c ,  often acquires s y l l a b i c function  f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r change...the  ... t h i s i s o f t e n  r i s e o f a vowel b e s i d e the  sonant,which becomes n o n - s y l l a b i c . " T h e i n s e r t e d segments can be found between two  vocalic  c o n s o n a n t a l segments but  more f r e q u e n t l y they a r e used w i t h a n a s a l (except /n/)  or  a l i q u i d . F o u r d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e r u l e s a r e shown h e r e f o r h a n d l i n g a n a p t y x i s i n SCB and  ID.  Rule 1 2 [anaptyxis]  [+ anaptyxis"]  /C [ s t o p ] :  liquid 1 liquid  R u l e (12-) [g- 3 E  i s c a p a b l e of h a n d l i n g s u c h sequences  » [ k - r ] > ["t-r-3 , or [g-1]  stops,whereas and. [13  .AH  the f i r s t  2  as [ d - r ] , members are  t n e second members a r e the two l i q u i d s [ r ]  • The d i s t r i b u t i o n of. these k i n d s of sequences  q u i t e common i n SCB.  Examples;  are  58 Examples; Glosses  ED  SCB  HB  ndor]  moon  [ candra]  [condor]  [1p  [gram!  [geranO  [gsram ]  village  [cokkro]  [cokkor]  [t;;>  round  [bikkrae]  [bikkiri]  sale  [mittra 3  [raittor] '  friend  [sottru]  [sotturl  enemy  [glas]  [gelas]  [ g i l a s ~]  glass  [plus]  [piiUS]  [pilas]  plus  kkor3  Rule -j 3  [a]  #  [o]  Rule 13  /  -  [  C l  c l 2  e x p l a i n s t n e a n a p t y c a l change w h i c h occurs i n the  p h o n e t i c environment e s t a b l i s h e d when the t h i r d and f o u r t h segments o f a word constitute,.. a G Q^ ±  O^is  sequence and where  always a n a s a l r_mland t h e sequence i s preceded and  f o l l o w e d by t o ] and  Co]  the  i t s p o s i t i o n and occurs b e f o r e the  f i n a l \_o~\ a l t e r s  For phonetic s i m p l i f i c a t i o n  n a s a l r_m] . Examples: HB  SCB  Glosses  [Janmo]  [^onoml  birth -  [dharmo]  [dhorom^  religion  [kormo]  [korom ~}  work  1 2 3 There i s no e q u i v a l e n t word i n MB.  the  2.64.. Vowel Harmony Tlta m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f vowels due  to assimilatory  p r o c e s s e s i n a word a r e common i n sCBvThese t y p e s ox* m o d i f i c a t i o n s a r e more f r q q u a n t among the speakers  of  West Bengal than those of B a n g l a d e s h . l t i s f o u n d t h a t c e r t a i n vowels have a r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n , a n d  they  a l l o w only c e r t a i n kinds of vowels i n t h e s u c c e s s i v e s y l l a b i o f a word (Bloomfield,, 1966-181).. Rule  (  14)  V  _ -//cc - - ->  c [i] c  T h i s r u l e e x p l a i n s the intrusion  of the vowel [ i l  when a  C.j G£ sequence occurs i n i t i a l l y i n any morpheme.Examples: HB  SCB  [sneho]  Me  G-loss  [sineho]  affection.  ( ) 15  V  uCCo  '•*>  uCuC  R u l e ( 15 ) c o n v e r t s [_o] t o [ u ] i n the p h o n e t i c where \_o] o c c u r s f i n a l l y and i s preceded  environment  hy a CC  sequence.  T h i s r u l e has l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n as few sequences o f t h i s t y p e a r e found i n the language.Example; HB [surjol  SCB [surujl  G-loss sun  60  When HB words a r e u s e d i n SOB,some o f t h e m e d i a l final  vowels a r e m o d i f i e d  c a l l e d vowel harmony.Four  f o r s i m i l a r i t y , w h i c h may different  he  modifications of the  v o w e l s a r e n o t i c e d i n SOB.These a r e shown b e l o w w i t h and  or  rules  examples.  2.640. Gloss  SCB  HB [deii]  [disil  [e] — > in  homogeneous  Li]  t h e example  given  above,the m o d i f i c a t i o n i s n o t i c e a b l e  where t h e h i g h - m i d [ e ] v o w e l becomes h i g h [ i ] f o r v o w e l harmony handling Rule  i n a word.The f o l l o w i n g r u l e t h e change  of  o f [ e ] i n t o [ 1] .  16 V  V -  i s capable  +  high  high  - low  - low  +  +  front  / —  [-si]  #  front  2.641. Glosses  SCB  HB [tula]  [tulo]  cotton  [mula]  [mulo]  a kind  [a] The  >  of  vegetable  [o]  c e n t r a l vowel  [a] changes  into  back vowel  [o"J , i f . i t  61  i s preceded by t h e l a t e r a l  sound [ l j . [1"] i s always  preceded  by t h e vowel <[u~] . Rule  17  - high.  - high  + low  - low  -  front  >  - round  -  1 /••••  front  \ u l ] - - -  /  + round  2.642. HB  Glosses  SCB  [bilati]  [ biliti]  foreign  [Jilapi]  [ Jilipi]  a k i n d o f sweet.  [ ]  — >  a  goods  [ i l  The m o d i f i c a t i o n o f [ a ] i n t o [ i l occurs i f [ a*] i s preceded by l a t e r a l [ 1 ] and t h e second and s i x t h v o c a l i c  segments  are [ i l . Rule  18.  + high"  - high. + low -  front  _ j - round__  -—>  -  -  [il  low  —ct]  + front  -  round_  2.643. •HB'  SCB  Glosses  [cuma]  [cumu"]  kiss  [ghumano]  [ghumuno]  of  sleeping  #  62 [a]  *  [u]  In the examples c i t e d above the central vowel [ a"] changes into the back, vowel [_u] , i n the phonetic environment where [a] i s preceded by nasal r_m] . Rule  19  - high + low  + high low  -  front + round  front  - round_  -  #  —  2.65. N a s a l i z a t i o n Both i n SCB and KB,the number, of nasalized vowels i s equal to that of t h e i r o r a l counterparts,though the frequency of occurrence of nasalized vowels i s f a r l e s s than that of o r a l vowels .Ferguson (1968-59) quoites an oral-nasal vowel frequency r a t i o of about 50:1. N a s a l i z a t i o n Is a common feature both ..in SCB and  ND.  A l l the o r a l vowels may be nasalized,and t h i s feature has a strong impact i n the language system.lherefore,the previous r u l e (Sec.2.1) f o r vowels may be rewritten i n the following way. 3 a . Manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n (p.22) )0 .vowel v "owel — $ oral —} nasal -->  o r a l or nasal i e ae, a o o u. i e" se. a ^ o u  63  A vowel becomes n a s a l i z e d [ + nasal"] when i t i s f o l l o w e d by a n a s a l consonant,dropping t h e f u l l y a f t e r i t i n the utterence.This i n ND t h a t i t may be taken as a  n a s a l consonant,  f e a t u r e i s so widespread normal r u l e . A n a s a l i z e d  vowel, i s never, preceded o r f o l l o w e d by any n a s a l consonants, There i s a r u l e f o r vowel n a s a l i z a t i o n i n SCB and ND. N a s a l i z e d vowels may be d e r i v e d from an o r a l vowel follows a nasal in  which  consonant.  SCB,nasalization  became common due t o t h e d e l e t i o n  o f n a s a l consonants a f t e r t h e vowel o f t h e HB words. Examples: HB  SCB  Glosses  [bindhi] ....  [bldhi]  (I) pierce  [bogso]  [has]  bamboo  [bauG  [ba]  left  The same r u l e i s a l s o a p p l i c a b l e t o ND,where t h e n a s a l consonants of SCB a r e '.. O  dropped a f t e r t h e vowel.  Examples: SCB  ND  Glosses  [amar"]  [ar"]  of mine  [tomar]  fcto:r]  of yours  I n o t h e r words,/a/  and /o/ a r e n a s a l i z e d before a n a s a l  segment,and when f o l l o w e d by a vowel + l i q u i d ,/r/. consonantal  The preceding  segments do n o t change t h e i r v a l u e s and a r e  not a f f e c t e d . T h e  f e a t u r e r u l e i s shown i n t h e following:^  64  Rule  20  V [- n a s a l ]  >  V [+ n a s a l ]  This rule includes /n/,as  there  quality  only  /  - - - [m] .  t h e d e n t a l n a s a l /n/ and  i s no e v i d e n c e  that the l a t t e r  excludes  changes t h e  of a vowel.  2.650. HB  SCB  Glosses  [ p a n k a ~)  [ pak 3  mud  [banka]  [baka]  curved  [candral  [cad]  The  examples  (Rule  moon  show t h a t t h e n a s a l i z a t i o n r u l e f o r ED  20) i s a l s o a p p l i c a b l e t o SCB a s  [a] becomes n a s a l i z e d  under the i n f l u e n c e o f the f o l l o w i n g n a s a l is  then  Rule  consonant  which  deleted.  20 ( a )  [- n a s a l ]  >  .[+ n a s a l ]  / -  R u l e 20 ( a ) shows t h e c o n v e r s i o n a n a s a l v o w e l when i t i s f o l l o w e d [n]  .In case o f any vowels  for  t h e vowels need  -. [ j n  o f t h e o r a l v o w e l r_a] t o by a f u l l y  nasal  other, t h a n [ a ] , o n l y  be r e w r i t t e n .  consonant  the features  65 2.651. l i s t of nasal vowels from SCB: Glosses  o r a l vowels  nasal vowels  Glosses  I) /!/ vs / i / [eirel  clubs  [cire1  r i c e , f l a 1 1 ened and f r i e d  [ bidlii]  fate  [bidhi]  (I) pierce  [keu keul  whinnying or '  II) /e/ vs /e/ [keu keu]  some  yelping of a dog [keco]  (you) washfkeco]  earthwb,rm  111) I at I vs /at / [DHa&ra]  reel  [Dkai ra"]  beating of a drum  i v ) /a/ vs /a/ [basl  dwell  [has]  bamboo  [ba]  or  [bal  left  v) /o/ vs /&/ [dhoa3  wash  [ dhoa]  smoke  [chora3  throw  [choral  hoy  [kuril  twenty  [kurll  bud  [churi3  knife  [churl3  pert  vi.) /u/ vs /u/  girl  2.65 2.  i n ED,as i n SCB,all o r a l vowels have their, nasal counterparts.However,the informants  could not provide  examples showing the d i s t i n c t i o n of o r a l and nasal vowels,  66  as  shown i n t h e p r e v i o u s  the  n a s a l vowels  list  f o r SCB.A f e w e x a m p l e s o f  o f ED a r e shown h e r e w i t h o u t  their  oral  counterparts. examples  n a s a l vowels  [hiral  t  i  Glosses  l  l o w wooden  [ila]  money  [keetja]  [ea.]  earthworm  [?aBul  [a]  knee  [ko;la]  [ ]  banana  3  [koor"1  go ]  waist  [.Thuic.]  [ u l  chin  2.7.  Phonetic  2.70.  a l t e r a t i o n s o f the consonants  Introductory  remarks  Like v o c a l i c segments,consonantal undergo c e r t a i n changes i n d i f f e r e n t Rule s i m p l i f i c a t i o n for modifications  of the consonantal  phonetic  M D . T h e m o s t common a n d f r e q u e n t  environments. responsible  segments i n t h e  q u i t e common i n SCB changes,which  t h e two l a n g u a g e s a r e shown I n t h e f o l l o w i n g  2.71.  also  changes,such as a s s i m i l a t i o n ,  r e t r o f l e x i o n and n o n a s p i r a t i o n , a r e  in  segments  and r u l e a d d i t i o n a r e e q u a l l y  language.Some o f t h e s e  and  seat  occur  sections.  Assimilation Assimilation  modification  i s a phonological  process,in  o f a segment,brings about  which the  similarity  with  67  another,neighbouring  s e g m e n t i n a word.Two s e g m e n t s  which  t e n d t o c h a n g e a r e 'made t o a g r e e i n t h e v a l u e a s s i g n e d t o one o r more f e a t u r e s ' the  value  (Chomsky  of agreement i s o f t e n  where u n v o i c e d  s e g m e n t s become  The most  both progressive  progressive  found  i n assimilation  voiced.  familiar assimilatory  found i n t h e gemination  assimilation  a n d R a l l e , , 1 9 6 8 - 3 5 0 ) .Thus  process  i n SCB i s  of consonants.This process  and r e g r e s s i v e  assimilation.'  i s a common p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e and r e g r e s s i v e  shows  Though  i n SCB a n d ED,  a s s i m i l a t i o n a r e more  common  than mutual a s s i m i l a t i o n . One common f e a t u r e regressive  i s found both i n progressive  assimilation,the  ( e . g . L s O d - m a ] , ^dhar-ma] Examples o f p r o g r e s s i v e HB  segment  of^second  syllable  )always being a n a s a l  segment.  assimilation are;  SCB  Glosses  [sadma"3  [sDddol  recently  [padma]  [poddol  lotus  [padma]  tpodda]  padma-name o f a  [atmal  [atta]  Examples o f r e g r e s s i v e  s o u l  assimilation are :  [dharmo]  [.dhDmmo]  religion  [karmo]  [ k o mmo 3  work;de ed  Two f e a t u r e and  rules  regressive  and  a r e shown h e r e t o h a n d l e  assimilation  i n SCB.  progressive  river  68.  21  Rule  L-m]  *  [ ci]  / .[d]  ( 2 1 ) i s capable of handling a phonetic  Rule  in'.progressive assimilation,  •  ;'  environment  .  • • .,  where t h e p h o n e t i c v a l u e o f a segment i n a word i s c h a n g e d by t h e segment i m m e d i a t e l y consonant which  preceding i t , e . g .  [m"] i s c h a n g e d t o t h e d e n t a l  immediately.precedes  the nasal  consonant [ d ]  i t i n a word s u c h a s [ p a d m a ^  •/> L p o d d o l .The p r e c e d i n g a n d f o l l o w i n g [-dm-] segment a r e a l w a y s L e l a n d \_a~\  vowels  of the .  .  Rule 2 2 [r: ] The  [m. ~]  >  /  - - - M  above f e a t u r e r u l e  assimilation jr-rm"]  —}  i s applicable  occurs i n the following  "[mm] , a s i n ^karj^a}  shows t h a t  the f i r s t  w h i l e t h e second  assimilatory of  [rut ] -  HB  phonetic  environment This  a non-nasal  segment i s a n a s a l segment  regressive  ^ jjommo^] .  member i s .  s e g m e n t becomes a n a s a l  where  consonant.The  SCB  non-nasal  vowels  [;>"] a n d \_Q^} . E x a m p l e s ; Glosses  [dharmo]  [dhommo ]  religion  [karmo-3  [kommo'3  workjdeed  -  consonant,  i n t h e p r o c e s s of; r e g r e s s i v e  change.The p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g  segments a r e always  clearly  69  2.8.  Spirantization Spirantization  and  palatals (t 1  i s not  SCB  t h r e e s p i r a n t s ( [ f ] ,. [ z ]  generally  b i l a b i a l ( f p.]  >l£k~D change t h e i r q u a l i t y i n ID  c  a r e r e p l a c e d by  (-i.e.,where the  a common f e a t u r e  f o r SCB  and  [s]  )  though i t  o c c u r s i n . til>.sometimes,for s t y l i s t i c reasons and f r e e p h o n e t i c v a r i a t i o n , s p i r a n t i z a t i o n may  and  as  a  occur.Spirants;  a r e .marked,, i n . production, kj&an. unstopped b r e a t h stream,. but  the  f r i c t i o n i s not The  f o l l o w i n g , examples a r e g i v e n to show s p i r a n t i z a t i o n  spirantization in SCB  audible.  KD.  KB  Glosses  a) work [mo Ja"] [sojjo]  ;  [gach]  [muza^  stockings  [sozzo"]  to  [gas]  endure  tree  [chana]  [sana~]  young b i r d  [phpl]  I f 01-1  fruit  [fani~]  water  [pani] [pujo]  :  -  [fuza]  worship  70  R u l e 23  (a)  IT]  ~  Z  Lz]  / -  a  #  o (b) [ch."]  =  =  =  =  [s] / — #  [al  #0"  (<0  #a  (a) R u l e ( 2 3 a ) e x p l a i n s t h e changing o f the SCB to  the ND [ f ] when I t o c c u r s i n i t i a l l y  and i s f o l l o w e d by [ 0 ] , [ a ] o r  Pi ph  i n a morpheme,  [u~| .  (b) Rule ( 2 3 h ) i s a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e change [ c h ] --- [ s 3 , when t h i s change occurs i n two e n v i r o n m e n t s . i n t h e f i r s t environment,the initially  change occurs when [ c h ] i s d i s t r i b u t e d  and i s f o l l o w e d by [ a ]  r  and i n t h e second  when [ch3 o c c u r s f i n a l l y and i s preceded by [ a 3 . (c)  R u l e ( 25O handles p h o n e t i c changes such as t h e change r \_z~\ » I t i n d i c a t e s t h a t when L z 3 o c c u r s  [J] it  i s always preceded by [ a ~] ,and i f i t o c c u r s  finally  elsewhere,  i t may be preceded by e i t h e r [ a ] o r [ o ] .  2.9 •  Nonaspiration A s p i r a t i o n i s a common f e a t u r e f o r s t o p s i n SCB,  and a n " i n f r e q u e n t phenomenon i n t h e ND.In sCB,unaspirated stops a r e f o l l o w e d hy t h e i r a s p i r a t e d c o u n t e r p a r t s , w h i c h  71  are followed immediately aspirated rest  "by t h e i m p u l s i v e r e l e a s e o f t h e  s t o p s "before a r t i c u l a t o r y  o r g a n s move t o t h e i r  positions.Rowever,this feature of a s p i r a t i o n  present  f o r t h e ND  stops,which  tend  i s not  t o he n o n - a s p i r a t e d  as t h e o c c l u s i o n i s n o t sudden h u t ratJaer slow, t h e immediate r e s u l t through loss  a constriction  of a s p i r a t i o n  -non-aspiration  Rule All  being  f o r ND s t o p s . T h e  causes t h e  feature rules f o r here.  24 aspirated stops  become n o n a s p i r a t e d [ f ]— )  i n ND  except [ p h ] ,  [ h ] .The r e w r i t t e n r u l e f o r  c o u l d be shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way.  [Asp] The  breath-stream  by t h e same o r g a n s . T h i s  i s shown w i t h e x a m p l e s  w h i c h changes i n t o ND  the r e l e a s e of the  -)  [\~]  f o l l o w i n g segments t e n d t o l o s e  their  aspiration i n  ND.  SCB  ND  Glosses  eyebrow elder  brother of  husband ii)  [eh] = =  If]  [bicha]  scorpion  [machi ]  fly  -  72  iii)  z  z  z  1%-)  z  [Jhol]  [05 o l ]  gravy  [Jhinuk]  [03 i n u k ]  oyster  iv)  [Til] ---- r_«j}]  [main]  \_maTl  field  [ka'ih]  [kal ]  wood  [tiiam]  [tam]  pillar-  [pathol*"]  [pat o r ]  stone  v) . t * * l ZZZZ p i  v.i)  £dh]  z  z  z  z  L  [dudh ]  [ dud ]  [gadha] vi)  milk donkey  [gada]  [kh]  z  z  z  z  f_k]  [dokkhin]  south,  [dokkin]  [pakhi ] vii)  d"]  bird  [paki ]  [ga]  z  z  z  z  ^g]  [inegh]  [meg]  cloud  [ghora]  [gora]  horse  [bagh"]  [bag  tiger  ]  2.90. In  SCB,the  completely  tendency towards n o n - a s p i r a t i o n  absent,though i t i s l e s s frequent  MB.Occasionally,some aspirated as  cited  i n the following  segments l o s e  examples.  i s not  than i n aspiration  73  [dh] — }  [d]  [ d u d h ] -->  [dud]  milk  [Th] — }  [T]  [kaTh] — }  [kal ]  wood  [gh] — ^  [g]  [megh] — }  [meg^  cloud  Except  1  f o r t h e above examples,the n o n - a s p i r a t i o n  frequent  among SCB s p e a k e r s , a s i t may  o f a morpheme.The f o l l o w i n g transfer  o f meaning  change t h e meaning  e x a m p l e s from. SCB show t h e  o f a word  by t h e l o s s  of aspiration.  [kaTh]  wood  [kaT]  t o cut  [bagh]  tiger  [bag!  "to  [khan]  (you) eat  [kan^  ear  [thaka]  of staying  [taka]  ( y o u ) look-  2*10'.  i s less  under  control  Voicing  T h e r e a r e two v o i c i n g  rules  f o r ED,where  the unvoiced  r e t r o f l e x e s [ T ] a n d [ T h ] become [ D ] a n d t h e u n t o i d e d [ k ] c h a n g e s t o [ g"] .One r e a s o n voiceless after  s o u n d s i n SCB h a v e  the permutation  i s that explicit  of. a n y u n v o i c e d  velar  both t h e v o i c e d and meaning,which, c e a s e s sounds f o r v o i c e d  s o u n d s . F o r : e x a m p l e , [ T ] o f [ T a k a ] 'money',is n o t p e r m u t a b l e for  [D] of [Daka]  individual Rule  «to c a l l ' , a s  morpheme.  25  Tl  * [Di/ f o - i l  #  Th  '  #  a-e .  it^changes  t h e meaning  o f an  74  ( 0 5 ) clearly  Rule  states  t h a t [ T 1 changes L  i n t o . [ if] i n  0!hj  environments: i f i t occurs f i n a l l y , ^  i s p r e c e d e d hy  and  followed  elsewhere  i s preceded  two  by [ a ] and  by  \^o~]  either  [ i ] or [e] . Examples; Glosses  1W  SCB  [l^oDl  lips  [bo'li ]  [boDil  fish-knife  [bali]  [baDi]  bowl  [kalhi]  [kaBi]  stick  [oThe]  [oBe]  (he/she)  [Ihol]  :  -  rises  Rule [k]  =  / -  M  # # Rule  (26)  applies  change which  i s v e r y common i n I B , i n  environments: either [3] .  t o t h e c h a n g e [ k ] - - - [ g ] ,a t y p e  (a) i n f i n a l  [ e ] o r [ i ] ; and  the f o l l o w i n g  IB  two  p o s i t i o n [ g ] i s preceded  (b) i t i s preceded  Examples:  SCB  of  Glosses  [fokoll  [hogall  all  [sokal]  [hogal 1  morning  elsewhere  by by  75  SCB  IB  Glosses  [anek]  [jneg]  many  [manik]  [manig1  jewel  2.11.  lonpalatalization Whereas t h e p a l a t a l  as  true  palatal  s o u n d s o f SCB  sounds,most o f t h e o r i g i n a l  HB h a v e a l t e r e d  their  Three  feature rules  different  s o u n d s o f ND,where and  r_<%]  any  position  which  .These  t e n d t o "be u t t e r e d  quality  a n d become  palatals i n  non-palatalized.  are possible  f o r the p a l a t a l  [ e ] , [ c h ] and [ 3 ] change i n t o  [_1^] , [&U  c h a n g e a r e s y s t e m a t i c i n IB a n d o c c u r i n  of t h e utterences.The three, f e a t u r e  are applicable  t o t h e IB p a l a t a l  rules  s o u n d s a r e shown  here • Rule  27  c°3  z  =  m 0 i  Rule  (27)  i s applicable  t o t h e SCB  [03 ,which  t o t h e IB [/t/] . I f [a"] o c c u r s f i n a l l y , i t a n a s a l vowel Q a ] .In i n i t i a l may  be f o l l o w e d a n d p r e c e d e d  corresponds  i s preceded  and m e d i a l p o s i t i o n s by  [ a ^ ,.[3], [o ] or. -  by  [c ] .  76  Examples:  [cal]  -  =  Z  I  [maca]  zzzz  [pacj [CQl]  =  =  =  rice  [matf a "3  wooden, p l a t f o r m  [Pa^ 1  five let  oil3  Rule.  ft a l l  =  [cokh.] - - - L  Glosses  ND  SCB  t^r o k ]  eye  [ft  hawk  i l l  us go  ,28  Ichl  # — f a"  1*3  7)  Rule the  t o t h e SCB L ° h ] , w h i c h c o r r e a p o n d s  ) applies  ND [ s ] ,-when i t o c c u r s  fcy L  a  o r  ] » CO] >  Feature r u l e SCB  initially  and i s f o l l o w e d  L°] •:  (2a)  [ch] i s replaced  i  s  common i n t h e ND,where t h e  by [ S ] * which, i s a l s o a p a l a t a l  sound.Examples: ND  SCB  Glosses  [chana]  [sana]  young  [ c h o b i ] ====  [sobi]  picture  [ehoddo] -  [soddo]  hidden;in  [ehoe] - - - -  [sDe]  six  [ c h o b o l ] =-=.--  [sob o i l  sudden b i t e  z  =  bird  disguise  ( o f a snake)  77  Rule I 3]  29 =  /  #~  a o  R u l e ( 29) e x p l a i n s t h a t the SCB p a l a t a l [ J ] corresponds t o the ND a l v e o l a r [dj"] , as i n the l a t t e r d i a l e c t t h e ;  former sound does not e x i s t . [_31 always and i s f o l l o w e d  occurs  initially  "by e i t h e r [a] or : o~] .  Examples• Glosses  ND [Jan]  ====  t%  (you) go  an]  £<% o d i l  if  [Jontu] ----  [dj ontu]  animal  [^attra]  [dj a t t r a ]  opera  [3.odi]  z  =  =  z  ----  2.110. Rule  30  R u l e (30)  1 3  applicable to  [ h ] i n SCB,which corresponds  t o [ ? ] i n the ND.The f e a t u r e r u l e i s shown "below.  I>]  zzzz  & ] ' / # -  1  a 0  R u l e (30) c l e a r l y s t a t e s t h a t the [h] --- [?] c o n v e r s i o n i s p r e d i c t a b l e as i t always followed  by  [ i l , ]_er\ ,[31  occurs i n i t i a l l y or. \_6] .  and i s  78  Examples: Glosses  ND  SCB  HB [hoibe]  [ h o be"] ====  [?oibo]  will  [hasta]  [hat]  %TTT  [?a:tg  hand  ~—  [?i:t]  good  ••»  [kit]  be  [ k i n s a"]  [ h i n g e ] ----  [?i^a]  malice  [kae ]  [hoe]  [?oel  becomes  ZZZZ  2.111.  ( 31)  Rule  [k,,1c ] o f  ND, w h i c h c h a n g e i n t o [ x ] and  1  as  i s a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e two  fully  stops.[k  a s p i r a t e d a s t h e SCB h  The  ]and  h [x ] a r e  partially  [k]  =r=  Rule  ( 3 1 ) a p p l i e s t o t h e SCB  # -  Initially  will  handle  the  phonetic  1 1  31  the,,yND [ x i , i n two  o r the- o t h e r a s p i r a t e d  [x^x ]  Rule  [x] j  [x^J [ x ^ i s not  aspirated.  following conversion rule  change [ k , ^ ] to ;e of. 0  occurs  [kh]  v e l a r - segments  "j  [k~l , w h i c k c o r r e s p o n d s ;  phonetic environments;  to  (a) i f [ k ]  i t i s f o l l o w e d by [.o],,and\~by, [a|:  Examples; ND  SCB [kotta] [kal]  z :  Glosses  [xotta"]  master;head  [xa;l]  to-morrow  of t h e f a m i l y  79  Rule  (31 D)  [kh]  a o.  (3111) e x p l a i n s t h a t the. SCB [.kh") c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e  Rule  h ND [ x ] i n t h r e e it  i s followed  position  e n v i r o n m e n t s . When [Ich] occurs, by e i t h e r  i t i s only  initially  [ a 3 ,133,. o r [cT\ . I n a m e d i a l  f o l l o w e d , by [ a ] .  Examples: SCB  [khabo3 ZZZZ [daskhae] [khoti} ---[khoma"3 ---2.12.  Zero In  ND [xaium]  Glosses (I) s h a l l e a t  [dex^e]  (he/she)  jx^oti]  loss  [x^ma]  pardon  modification  t h e ID,some  both i n i n i t i a l  c o n s o n a n t a l s o u n d s o f HB a n d SCB,  and other  positions,are given  Among, t h e s e c o n s o n a n t s a r e t h e two a s p i r a t e d (the [h]  bilabial  .This  shows  [ph.") a n d t h e v e l a r  feature  r_kh])  zero  value  sounds  and the g l o t t a l  i s a l s o a p p l i c a b l e t o SCB,where t h e  g l o t t a l [_h~) f o u n d , i n HB words i s d e l e t e d . O n e common phonetic  environment t h a t  modification intervocally.  i s that  Is noticeable  [ p h ) , Ikh]  a n d IhQ  f o r zero always  occur  80  Feature rules  f o r t h e a b o v e z e r o m o d i f i c a t i o n a r e shown  below. Rule  (32)  Rule  (32) s t a t e s  it  that  t h e [ ph."] o f rsCB becomes zero; in. ND, • i f  i s p r e c e d e d by and f o l l o w e d by [_u] a n d  .  Example: SCB  ND  [tuphan] Rule  ----  Gloss  ttuan]  storm  03 ) 3  -e~  a -6  -i_  o Rule  (33) i n d i c a t e s  three p h o n e t i c environments  where  [ h ] becomes z e r o . E x c e p t i n t h e [a-o"] environment,i.e.,in  shows t h a t and  [o-i]  [o-e]and  case o f both  i ti s preceded  environments, i t  by back, v o w e l s  i s f o l l o w e d by f r o n t v o w e l s  Ci]  clearly and  Co]  and [ e ] .  Examples: HB  SOLV  E  •  [kohe]  Lkoe/bole] ---- L^e]  [sahas]  l&a&ojti  Cmohit]  tra°  h i t  ZZZ l** ** 0  Z  ]  -  ~  t  m0±%1  Glosses (he)  speaks  courage charmed  81  Rule  (34)  Rule  (34) e x p l a i n s  the p  the zero modification  L^j] i n t h e p h o n e t i c environment by [o]  intervocally,preceded  of  t h e SCB LkhTJ t o  when [khQ o c c u r s i [o~J  a n d f o l l o w e d by  .  Examples: HB  II)  SCB  [Ekhon]  [aakhon] ---  [tokhon]  [tokhon]  2.-13>. •  Loonl  ItoonTJ  ===  now then  Retroflexion In ID,the  retroflex point  Glosses  dental  [Dl.Ihis  o f view,,as  [ d ] s o m e t i m e s becomes t h e  change i s q u i t e s i m p l e from a p h o n e t i c  i n ID  ( a n d SCB ) t h e a r t i c u l a t o r y  points  f o r the dentals are close to those of the r e t r o f l e x sounds.she r e s u l t , i s t h a t d u r i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s e sounds t h e tongue cavity Rule  which  retracts  easily  changes t h e q u a l i t y  of a  sound.  (35)  "+ c o n s o n a n t a l +  t o t h e back o f t h e mouth  anterior  + consonantal  '+ v o c a l i c  -  - high.  anterior  - coronal  + coronal  + back + low + round  Examples: HB [norendral  SCB* [nqrendro]  I D  [norolDO]  Glosses N.arendra-a name  proper  82 HB [candra]  Glosses  ND  SCB ~~z~  [condro]  [ t p ND3]  moon  [gD°3 ein)31  Gajendra-a  [cad] [gajendra]  [g^Jendro]  ----  proper  name 'The above change i s r e s t r i c t e d t o  l e a r n e d words d e r i v e d  from S a n s k r i t .  2.14.  Glottalization l i t e g l o t t a l i z a t i o n f e a t u r e i s q u i t e common i n ND,  andaat l e a s t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s  o f sounds change  to g l o t t a l sounds.The f o l l o w i n g sounds i n t h e d i a l e c t , all  o f which a r e n o n - g l o t t a l stops,always  fricatives  become g l o t t a l  ,the b i l a b i a l [ p h ] — ^ \£~] — }  [ h ] and t h e  s i b i l a n t [js] - — "T_hQ .Two s e p a r a t e f e a t u r e r u l e s a r e i n d i c a t e d f o r t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f these sounds* Rule (36)  I h] / #  [s]  e a  \s~\ changes i n t o [h] when i t occurs i n i t i a l l y and i s f o l l o w e d by e i t h e r f_e] ,[>] o r [ o ] . Examples: SCB  ED  Glosses  [horsa]  mustard seed  ----  [hala]  brother-in-law  [sagor ] ----  [haor]  ocean  sorse] [sala]  a3 Glosses  ID  SCB [sagor]  ZZl  [haor]  ocean  [sosur]  zz:  [hour]  father-in-law.  [hikae~J  teaches  [s ekhae) zz: Rule  [pk]  (37) I  I  I  Z  [f]  »  [h] /  #  x  o Rule (37)  i s a p p l i c a b l e t o the SCB [ph^ which  t o the ID [ 3 >' £  fclle  common tendency (e.g., [ p a n i j  l a t t e r changing  corresponds  t o [ h ] .There i s a  i n ID t o change i t s h i l a h i a l s i n t o  'water'  $ [ f a n i ] ;[pata"] ' l e a f  fricatives >  [fata")) .The above r u l e shows t h r e e p h o n e t i c environments f o r the change [ p h ]  [f]  always occur i n i t i a l l y  [ h~) , i . e . ,  and i s - f o l l o w e d by [ i ] ,  i t ,or  Examples; Glosses  ID  SCB  [fira]  [ h i r a ] low wooden s e a t  [phorixj] ----  [forin]—*  [horin]grasshopper  [pha?, n ]  [f&h]  [phire]  ----  zizz  ~» [ h t h j  h o t water of cooked r i c e  84 Chapter.  111  3. M o r p h o l o g y 3.0. I n t r o d u c t o r y r e m a r k s Ike  study  o f morphology i n c l u d e s  syntax,.which a r e d i r e c t l y and  associated  both phonology  with the composition  distribution, of morphological features i n a  In transfomiational string  syntax,a terminal s t r i n g  of the derivational  the study affixes  language.  (the last  t r e e diagram) i s important f o r  o f s u c h morphemes a s b a s e  words,^inflectional  a n d d e r i v a t i o n a l a f f i x e s .Most s e n t e n c e s  which kave  an-HP + VP s t r u c t u r e , c o n t a i n s t k e s e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t o f morphemes.The f o l l o w i n g different 3.1.  and  i s a short discussion  c l a s s e s and t h e n a t u r e s  classes  on t h e  o f SCB a n d HB morphemes.  F r e e a n d Bound, morphemes The  morphemes o f SCB a n d HB f a l l  into  two  classes:  f r e e morphemes a n d bound moEphemes.Bound morphemes do n o t have independent  meaning,but rather, o b t a i n t h e i r  through attachment  meaning  t o o t h e r morphemes w h i c h h a v e  independent  m e a n i n g .Examples ,.r_gulo3 -s_,as u s e d  i n [ meegulo]  [-ra"] -s_  morphemes,on t h e o t h e r  i n [ c h o l e r a ] 'boys'.pr.ee  h a n d , c a n be u s e d independent  without  combination  meaning.Examples a r e  'south',[bador]  'monkey'.  as they  'girls';  have  &maia] ' g i r l ' , [ d o k k i n ]  85 3.2.  Affixes The  usage  o f t h e t e r m a f f i x , a common t e r m  includes both prefixes  a n d s u f f i x e s . T h e y may he c l a s s i f i e d  into  inflectional affixes  basis  of t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l  Inflectional affixes  and d e r i v a t i o n a l roles  affixes  a r e used as a marker  of p l u r a l s ,  i n SCB a n d ND,as  distributional  few i n f l e c t i o n a l a f f i x e s  occur, i n both, d i a l e c t s . i n f l e c t i o n s o f nouns i n are  f o r degree.  Derivational into  affixes  another.They a l s o  c h a n g e one c l a s s  occur as s u f f i x e s  whereas i n f l e c t i o n a l a f f i x e s a r e u s e d suffixes  3.3.  i n SCB a n d  Examples In  are  listed  foreign  a large  o f morphemes  with, t h e morphemes,  either  as  prefixes  ND.  of the prefixes  used  i n SCB  t r a d i t i o n a l grammars o f B e n g a l i , t h i r t e e n  prefixes  s h a h i d u l l a h , 1 9 6 7 - 1 1 7 ) . N o t a l l o f them a r e u s e d  i n SCB*Among of  both.dialects  f o r c a s e a n d number, w h i l e v e r b s a r e i n f l e c t e d f o r . t e n s e  and a d j e c t i v e s  or  on t h e  when a t t a c h e d t o morphemes.  cases,tenses,and d e g r e e s . A f f i x e s have l i m i t e d r o l e f o r degrees  inlinguistics,  the thirteen  suffixes  [ l a - ] and [ p h i - ] a r e  o r i g i n , a n d [ b o - ] and [on-"] a r e n o t u s e d  number o f morphemes.The r e m a i n i n g p r e f i x e s  l i s t e d here with i ) . ^be-^ i i ; '[g.ar-^  .  with are  examples.  u s e d t o show o p p o s i t i o n  £behaa^  £hesamal^  absence  ^gormil]  [gorhajir.]  o f something  86  iii)  ^na-^  absence o f something |anador$ ^ n a b r i s i i ]  iv)/  [a-^  «  [akal?  v) ~  [ha-]  "  {habhate]  v i .)  £na-^  "  [nabalok^  v i i .) £&i--^  "  £nikhut^ i n i r l o b h ]  {apod^  v i i i ) £pati-] S m a l l  ^patilebu^  ix)  [ramda}  [ram-]  3.4.  big  \ ramchagol. \  S u f f i x e s i n SCB S u f f i x e s i n SCB and ND a r e used as markers for.  grammatical c a t e g o r i e s , s u c h as number,tense,,person,case, and degree.They may  be r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f a l l o w i n g  way  t o cover, a l l a s p e c t s f o r which they a r e used (Chomsky and H a l l e , 1968-101). 1) ^ P 2)  # Ls€# c h e l e #Jsg. + g u l o § J p i  number  [ f [#pt# [pr#hol+i# 3 p r + e c h i l a m § p t  f+boj t e n s e  1  3) [3p #~2p~# (_1p +e]#^2p # 3p] 4)  ~  ~  person  — ^  [ #poss#Abl i I n s t # A C C # [ n o m . # p a g o l + e] Nom  #  +  K  E  ACC #  +  d  i  e  #  I  n  s  t  # +"theke # A b l # +er  #]  case 5)  — ^  [ s u p #[comp #"sundor +toro #] comp + tamo #  g U  E o s s  —}  p"j  degree — - T D i f f e r e n t s u f f i x e s which a r e used f o r number,tense, person and case i n SCB*are r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e above examples.Fully i l l u s t r a t e d examples a r e g i v e n h e r e  87  to show the s u f f i x e s used i n SCB. 3,»5*Examples o f t h e s u f f i x e s i n SCB suffixes  markers (1)  exam.pl ea  plural, ^eheleguloj  Glosses hoys  [boigulo^  hooks  {hurira^  women.  [boli^  (I)  [bale}  (he) speaks  past  [bolechilam^  (I)  future  [holho]  ( I ) w i l l , say  first  (korl^  ( I ) do  second  £karoj  (you) do  £-ra$ (2.) t e n s e s present  {-chilam]  apeak  said  (3) p e r s o n  (common) Second  r  £korls^  (non-honorific) second  £koren^  (honorific) M  third  '[ko r e ]  (he) does  (non-honorific) £-en^  third  (koren]  (honorific) (4) case " n o m i n a t i v e £pagole^  of mad  88 suffixes  markers  Glosses  Examples  hke]  accusatives  [ pagelke]  of t h e mad  [die]  ins trumental  [pagol die]  with, t h e mad  [thekej  ablative  [pagol. theke]  from t h e  i-ex]  possessive  ^pagolerj  of mad'a  mad  (5) degree [-toro]  comparative  [^undorto r.o]  prettier-  [-tomo]  superlative  [sunderto mo]  prettiest  In the grammatical.use of person, there-are three forms i n the second  person and two forms i n the t h i r d person.Both i n second and t h i r d per sons, h o n o r i f i c marking s u f f i x e s a r e i d e n t i c a l . I n grammatical degree,the s u f f i x e s shown i n s e c t i o n (5), a r e not c o l l o q u i a l i n t h e t r u e s e n s e , a s , i n most c a s e s , comparative and s u p e r l a t i v e degrees a r e i n d i c a t e d by. simple a d j e c t i v e s r a t h e r than s u f f i x e s , e . g . , i n the following  ; ^se b e s i sundor] 'she l a p r e t t i e r ' , , [ s e sobcee  b e s i s u n d e r ] 'she i s t h e p r e t t i e s t ' , i n SCB b o t h I b e s i j 'excess' and f&shcee b e s i ] a r e s i m p l e adjectiv.es,which, a r e used f o r the comparative ( [ b e s i ] - one a d j e c t i v e ) and t h e s u p e r l a t i v e degrees ( [sabcee b e s i ] -two adjectives [sph^ ' a l l ' ,  ^eee] 'among',, [ b e s i ]  'excess').This  c o n s t r u c t i o n , r a t h e r . than°the use of the s u f f i x e s and  £-tor.o]  ^taono] which a r e c l o s e r t o S a n s k r i t forms and used  p r i m a r i l y i n HB,is common i n SCB.  ia9 3.6.  s u f f i x e s used i n ID As  i n SCB, s u f f i x e s n a v e f u n c t i o n a l , r o l e i n I D a n d  they a r e widely used A total  survey  purpose  o f comparison The  grammatical  t o mark d i f f e r e n t grammatical, c a t e g o r i e s ,  o f t h e ID s u f f i x e s with those  i s made h e r e  for. t h e  o f SCB..  s u f f i x e s which, a r e u s e d  f o r marking d i f f e r e n t  c a t e g o r i e s i n t h e ID a r e d e s c r i b e d here  with  examples . suffixes  {-™\ [-gula^  markers (1)  examples  Glosses  plural.  II  (manusra^  men  II  (gorugula]  cows  (£)  tens e  [-M  pr.es e n t  [hari]  (I) can  [-am]  past  (hartam]  (I)  could  [-urn]  future  [harum]  (I)  w i l l be able  (3)  [-0]  p e r s o n i(+ number ( s i n g u l a r ) + t e n s e  first  £hari]  second  [haro]  r-.  (I) can (you) c a n  (common) {-os}  (non-honori f i e ) [hares]  It r\ II  (-en}  (honorific)  [haren]  t-e}  third  [hare]  (he) c a n  [haren]  n  ( common) {-en}  (honorific)  (present) r-  n  suffixes  (4)  {dia]  examples  markers  Glosses  case  lorn  {"bane irate]  f a t h e r and. s o n  Acc  h i [ k a l e d r e Dak) c a l l K h a l e d  Inst  [tj- u r l d i a  c u t i t with, a k n i f e  kaDo j  k^arat  dao]  [gatf e t t o r e  Abl  (tore.]  G i v e alms, t o t h e  [hoirere  Dat  {-re]  h o i ho r e ] [ h u i r e matf  Loc-  ase (5)  Degree  heggar The f r u i t  falls  from, t h e t r e e There a r e f i s h i n the  pond  1  3*7. The s u f f i x e s a r e n o t abundant i n number i n comparison t o SCB>where they p l a y an i m p o r t a n t l i n g u i s t i c r o l e i n b u i l d i n g new morphemes . A b r i e f s u r v e y o f t h e s u f f i x e s which a r e commonly u s e d i n I D , i s made, h e r e w i t h examples.  1 One p o i n t which c o u l d be mentioned here i s t h a t i n ID no&o. s u f f i x e s a r e u s e d t o mark degree.To compensate f o r t h e vacuum l e f t , t w o s i m p l e adverbs ( [hes], [ k ^ h ] ) a r e used b e f o r e a d j e c t i v e s - t o d i s t i n g u i s h between comparative and s u p e r l a t i v e degrees.Examples;\he bes hundor] *she i s p r e t t i e r » [ke Aih 1  hundor"] 'she i s p r e t t i e s t ' . ~  91 suffixes i ) j-ami ]  examples jtj agal} -—  i i ) {-anij  aij  iii)£-i] iv)  £-la]  vi)  [-ua]  Glosses stupid-atupidity  -— [ d j a l a n i ] - {%  [team]  aglamij  flame-fuel.  UEl]  thlef-steal  •-(kamla}  work-worker  - jbaua ]  left-1eft-handed  B e s i d e s the r e g u l a r s u f f i x e s , s o m e f o r e i g n s u f f i x e s a r e a l s o used i n KB•These a r e predominantly Muslim speakers to  i n t h e d i a l e c t area,and  used, by  t h e r e f o r e seem  be i n f l u e n c e s from. A r a b i c and Persian.Some o f them  are l i s t e d  here-  F o r e i g n s u f f i x e s used i n KB suffixes  examples  i ) £-san]  [dar-] / {darvan}  i i ) {-ari^  £bau-} / {buarij  Glosses gate-gate-keeper Babu-the ways, of a Babu  r-  (Hindu gentleman) i i i ) {-k ana} [boiB?k-^ / {boiBDkk^anaj il  s i t t i n g - s i t t i n g room i v ) [-gor^ v)  (d$ a d u j / {d.3adugor j  [ - g i r l ] {daroga-} / {darogagirl}  magie-magician police sub-inspectort h e work of a p o l i c e sub-inspector  92  3.8.  D e r i v a t i o n a l , morphemes I n a d d i t i o n t o i n f l e c t i o n a l a f f i x e s , a l a r g e number  of d e r i v a t i o n a l a f f i x e s a r e used i n SCB • D e r i v a t i o n a l a f f i x e s a r e one o f t h e main sources o f b u i l d i n g new l e x i c a l items i n SCB.They a r e important f o r t h e i r i n f l e c t i o n a l r o l e as they change one word c l a s s t o a n o t h e r .For example, [bondhu] ' f r i e n d * i n SCB i s a common noun, which ehang.es I t s c l a s s w i t h t h e d e r i v a t i o n a l s u f f i x £-tto^ i n t o £hondhaitto] ' friendship?',an  abstract  noun .However, they have a v e r y minor r o l e i n ND and a r e n o t a t t a c h e d t o t h e l e x i c o n t o cnange t h e i r  grammatical  categories.Sometimes,instead of adding a d e r i v a t i o n a l a f f i x e s i n t h e l e x i c o n i n HD,possessive markers a r e used t o change meaning, i n a sentence.For example,.an SCB, sentence s u c h as [akas s o n a l i ^ 'the sky I s g o l d e n ' , appears . i n HD a s {akasDa honar moto^ 'the sky l o o k s l i k e gold''.This tendency  o f t h e speakers of t h e d i a l e c t  has r e s t r i c t e d t h e u s e o f d e r i v a t i o n a l a f f i x e s i n ND. D e r i v a t i o n a l affixes \ a r e d i s c u s s e d here t o show t h e i r r o l e i n t h e d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f word classes 3.9.  i n SCB»  Noun-forming, morphemes Noun-forming morphemes a r e abundant i n SGB>The  most common types o f s u c h morphemes,which a r e w i d e l y used i n t h e language,are shown here w i t h base forms.  33  3•9Q* L i s t - o f t h e N o u n - f o r m i n g morphemes i n SCB suffixes  Glosses  examples  i ) {-dan ]  { p i k j — > £ pikdan}  i i ) {-pona}  { duronto] — * [dur  spit j spittoon ontopgnaj naughty j naughtiness  \ gholokj  i i i  —^{gkoikali} matchmaker j.matchmaking  iv)£-ana}  {saheb}  —»£sahebana} European;European of  style  living  £mo/c]—» {mule }  luggage; p o r t e r  vijfi 5  {cor} — ( c u r l ]  thief;, s t e a l  v i i ) £-a }  {hat} — > {hata}  hand;, s l e e v e s  v i i i ) £>oala]  (cae,nacur} —  f r i e d gram s a l t e d and  {cag n a c u r o a l a ]  spiced;,seller of f r i e d gram  iXJ  {dokan} —•> {dokandar}  shop; s h o p k e e p e r  x ) | - g i r 1}  {mule} — ^ { m u i ' e g i r i }  porter; job of a porter:  x i ) £-al]  { l a i h i } — > {laOJhialJ  stick; stick-carrier,  x i i ) £-mi]  { e h e l e } — > ^chelemij  child.; childishness,  x i i i ) ;£acij  {has n} — $ (bat  frog;tgdpole  xiv)  {sap'Jj — - ^ ^ s a p u r e }  snake;snake-charmer  {cak.^  wheel; s m a l l  xv) "  {-line]  {-ti]  nacij  —^{cakti.^  wheel.  94 3.91* A^-jective-f arming morpliem.es I t has already been mentioned that by adding d e r i v a t i o n a l morphemes,.one word class may be changed into another...In the following sectlons, nouns are shown,where the nouns change into a d j e c t i v e s . suffixes  examples  EGlosses  i ) (-4  (des]j—>( des 1^5  home; homemad e  ii.) i-el  jpathor] — ^ { p a t h u r e j  stone;stony  iil)^o}  |malhj — > (melho^  fieldsgrowing a f i e l d  iv) {-alx}  {sona"] --^{sonali]  goldj.golden  v)>u]  {Dhal] —^{Dhalu-}  slope;sloping  v i ) {-a$  {nun] —>{nonta]  salt) saltish.  vi£)£-alo]  (Jo mole] — > {Jamkalo^  pomp;pompous  viii.)£-uk]  £pel]—> {peT.uk]  belly;greedy  ix) [-la]  {megh} —>{meghla]  cloud;cloudy  x.) {-ce}  ( l a i ] ~ » [lalce]  red;reddish  x i ) j~-toj  (mama] —>{mamato]  maternal uncle;descending  r  from a maternal uncle 3.10. i n the following sections,the ED morphology i s described and i s mapped t o show the d i s t i n c t i o n of the mbrpholggieal pattern of SCB.Several problems are shown with d i f f e r e n t morphological rules.Morphemes take various i n f l e c t i o n a l r o l e s such as case,number and person when some other suffixes are added to them.  95 3 * 1 0 0 .  Morphemic combinations SCB and HD morphemes may combine w i t h one or more  stretches  of. morphemes.However,combinations do n o t exceed  t h r e e morphemes.when two or. t h r e e s t r e t c h e s combine,the  second and t h e t h i r d s t r e t c h e s  o f morphemes o f morphemes  a r e used as morphemic s u f f i x e s .There i s no e v i d e n c e i n SCB- o r HD o f morphemes which combine w i t h more than t h r e e stretches  o f morphemes.If t h e r e a r e any,they a r e e i t h e r  S a n s k r l t i c or HB l e x i c a l , items,used due t o the absence o f any s u c h morphemes i n t h e l a n g u a g e . The f o l l o w i n g  examples from SCB and HD show t h e t h r e e  p o s s i b l e f o r m a t i o n s o f morphemic c o m b i n a t i o n s . Examples from SCB: examples  number o f morphemes  Glosses to-morrow  to-morrow ( t o )  2  boys  2  pretty  11  pretty  girl  pretty  girls  3  a t Dacca (Dacca+at+emphatic at  Dacca  suffix) 2  96. Examples from  MB:  examples  Glosses  number of morphemes  (he)  slept  2  [koit.t-am.-e}  ( I ) want t o do  3  (n3j  not  1  ^ huit-lo]  i  1  [he-ten-er }  of him, (hon.)  3  [bait-ton ]  from home  2  3*11.  She Morphemic s t r u c t u r e (MS) Halle  (1959) p o i n t s  out t h a t the  component of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l of r u l e s  ; phonological  Rules phonological  grammar, c o n s i s t s o f two  r u l e s and morphemic  sets  structure  rules. She  morphemic s t r u c t u r e  combination of f e a t u r e s  (MS)  rules explain  the  i n i n d i v i d u a l morphemes.They  are  a p p l i e d here t o c l a s s i f y morphemes a l o n g w i t h the morpheme clasa. H a l l e has o f the MS  a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d a system f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n  r u l e s .Any  utterence. which i s composed  of vowel segments i s c a l l e d a chain.Any u t t e r a n c e i s composed of consonants o n l y . i s c a l l e d a stands f o r any vowel,0 f o r any l i q u i d and  j for  any '.glide.  only which  cluster.Y  consonant, R f o r  any  97  3.11.0-  Morphemic p a t t e r n s of SCB and I B structure  The s m a l l e s t morpheme/in SCB and I B c o n s i s t s o f two sounds and t h e l a r g e s t of e i g h t sounds.in  b o t h SCB and IB,the  t h e i n i t i a l sound o f a morpheme may be a vowel, or a consonant, and i t i s f o l l o w e d either, by a consonant or a vowel. (VC ... o r CV . . . ) . ( I f t h e morpheme i s composed o f a vowel and a c o n s o n a n t ^ i t may be c a l l e d a v o c a l i c . I f t h e first  segment of a morpheme i s a consonant and i t i s f o l l o w e d  by a v o w e l , i t may b e c a l l e d a consonantal.)The  only  exceptions  a r e consonant c l u s t e r s and diphthongs,where t h e pattern, becomes either. CC o r VV.As diphthongs always combine two vowels,they may b e regarded as a chain.For. example; {[b]-oi} 'book' {[k3 - o i } 'where' <5  {T_m]-oi}  'ladder.'  £[b] -ou]>  'wife*'  {[rfj-ei]  " i s not?  £[b~) - o u ^ n i f ^  ' f i r s t customer of t h e day*  {[s^-Iu- 111]}  1:&  k i n d o f y e l l o w flower.  ,;  The most common p a t t e r n s i n SCB a r e ;VC,CV,CVC o r VCV» Examples a r e g i v e n h e r e t o show t h e e i g h t segmental p a t t e r n s o f t h e SCB, morpheme structures. MS  Examples  Glosses  VC  [a-Z]  to-day '  CV  [ki\  what  CVE.  {kal^  to-morrow  98.  examples  MS.  G-loss es  cmv  [allele }  ooy  CYCY  [kana]  blind  CYCYK.  £ kanar^  of  CYRCY  {holdi]  turmeric.  CYRYC  •[morlcj  red  GYGCYE.  ^khoceor.}  mule  CYCYGY  [bichana]  bed  CYYCYRY  {dieehiloj  (he)  C.YCYCCYB.  (cpmotkar j  beautiful  CYCCYCCY  {bondhutto}  friendship  the blind  pepper  gave  3*111 * i n HD, morphemic, p a t t e r n s a r e q u i t e c o m p l i c a t e d a n d t h e y may h e b u i l t  i nnine  of  morphemic f o r m a t i o n s  of  SCB.,are CYCY a n d CYY* The  rules  w a y s . T h e m o s t common p a t t e r n s  i n HD,which a r e s i m i l a r ,  t c those  f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s a r e g i v e n t o show t h e MS  f o r t h e s e g m e n t a l p a t t e r n s o f HD morpheme; structures.  MS  examples  Glosses four  C.YR GYcmvv  [boij- o r i a ]  of  CYY  (moij  ladder  CVYCRV.  [haisla}  (you)  GYCGY  {hsnge}  years  with  laughed  99  Glosses  examples  MS  Gmqvcvc  [pirt imlrj  of  earth  CYCVYCm  (hud^ aoner }  to  make him, understand  CVVCYC  [ft a i t a m j  (.1) c o u l d a s k  YCCY  {amne j  of  n  you (hon.)  The f o l l o w i n g , r u l e s e v a l u a t e the, i n d i v i d u a l , segments of- SCB. and ID morphemes. 5.1120. Rules f o r SCB, R u l e 1 . I f t h e i n i t i a l segment i s c o n s o n a n t a l , t h e segment  next  segment i s v o c a l i c .  R u l e 2 . I f t h e i n i t i a l segment i s v o c a l i c , t h e next segment i s c o n s o n a n t a l . R u l e 3 - I f t h e f i r s t two segments a r e c o n s o n a n t a l and vocalic,,the n e x t segmental. I s c o n s o n a n t a l . R u l e 4 . I f t h e f i r s t two segments a r e v o c a l i c and consonantal,. the t h i r d segment i s v o c a l i c . R u l e 5 • l£ "the f i r s t  and t h e t h i r d segments a r e c o n s o n a n t a l  t h e n the second and f o u r t h segments a r e v o c a l i c . R u l e 6 . I f the f i r s t  and t h i r d segments a r e v o c a l i c ,  then t h e second and f o u r t h segments a r e c o n s o n a n t a l . R u l e 7 . I f t h e r e i s any j u n c t u r e a f t e r t h e c o n s o n a n t a l segment,.then t h e next segment is. c o n s o n a n t a l . Rule  • I f t h e r e i s any j u n c t u r e a f t e r t h e v o c a l i c segment,  100  then the n e x t segment i s a l s o a v o c a l i c . R u l e 9 . I f t h e r e a r e two j u n c t u r e s i n a word, a f t e r the consonants,the  n e x t segments a r e c o n s o n a n t a l .  R u l e 10. I f t h e r e I s any j u n c t u r e a f t e r a c o n s o n a n t a l segment,the p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g  segments  are v o c a l i c . R u l e 11. I f t h e r e a r e any consonant  c l u s t e r s i n a word  they a r e preceded and f o l l o w e d hy v o c a l i c segments. Rule  12. I f t h e r e a r e two consonant  c l u s t e r s i n a word,  they a r e preceded and f o l l o w e d hy v o c a l i c segments. R u l e 13. I f t h e r e a r e any Y\f sequences,the  p r e c e d i n g and  f o l l o w i n g ; segments a r e c o n s o n a n t a l .  I n examples s u c h as [bondhutto]  ' friendship',  ^diechile}  •you gave', ^ a j j 'to-day',, [ b i c b a n a ^ bed \ t h e c o n s o n a n t a l 1  vs noneonsonantal^and  v o c a l i c v s n o n v o c a l i c f e a t u r e s may  be used t o show t h e MS r u l e s  of. the i n d i v i d u a l segments  w h i c h compose morphemes.  vocalic  h o na.dh u t t o  d i e ch i 1 e  - + - - + - - +  - + + - + + +  - + - + - +  + - - + - + -  + - + - + -  consonantal + - + + - + +  -\  b. 1 c h a n a  101  3.113. The f o l l o w i n g r u l e s e v a l u a t e tne i n d i v i d u a l segments o f tne ND morph ernes .Ike same system i s "being f o l l o w e d here w h i c h was R u l e 1.  a p p l i e d i n the e v a l u a t i o n I f the i n i t i a l  of the SCB  morphemes.  segment i s c o n s o n a n t a l , t h e next  segment i s v o c a l i c . R u l e 2. I f the i n i t i a l is  segment i s v o c a l i c , t h e next segment  consonantal.  R u l e 3. I f two segments a r e v o c a l i c , t h e p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g segments are c o n s o n a n t a l . R u l e 4. I f two  segments a r e c o n s o n a n t a l , t h e p r e c e d i n g and  following are v o c a l i c . Rule 4a.In the case of two c o n s o n a n t a l segments o c c u r i n g sequentially,there they may may  i s another p o s s i b i l i t y where  be preceded by two v o c a l i c segments,but  a l s o be f o l l o w e d by two v o c a l i c segments.  R u l e 5. I f an i n i t i a l  segment i s / i / , t h e n the n e x t  two  segments a r e always c o n s o n a n t a l . R u l e 6. I f the morpheme i s composed, of s i x i s a t l e a s t one GO  segments,there  or VV. o c c u r r e n c e .  R u l e 6 a . I f the l a s t segment i s v o c a l i c , t h e n  i t i s preceded  by a c o n s o n a n t a l segment. R u l e 6 b . I f the l a s t segment i s v o c a l i c , t h e n by a CC  i t i s preceded  sequence.  R u l e 6 c . I f the l a s t segment i s a v o c a l i c , a n d  i f i t is  102  pr  preceded by a CC s e q u e n c e , t l i e i n i t i a l segment i s f o l l o w e d , by a YY sequence.  R u l e b d . l f t h e l a s t segment i s n o t p r e c e d e d by a CC sequence, t h e t h i r d segment from, t h e end i s v o c a l i c and t h e p a t t e r n becomes CYCVCY. R u l e 6 e . I f t h e l a s t segment i s c o n s o n a n t a l , i t i s preceded by c o n s o n a n t a l segment. R u l e 7.  I f t h e morpheme i s composed o f seven segments, t h e f i r s t segment i s always  c o n s o n a n t a l and t h e  l a s t segment i s always vocalic... R u l e 7 a . I f t h e l a s t segment i s a v o c a l i c , , t h e n t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h segments from t h e beginning and v o c a l i c  a r e consonantal  respectively.  R u l e 7 b - . I f t h e l a s t v o c a l i c segment i s preceded then, t h e t h i r d  by a v o c a l i c ,  segment from t h e end i s a c o n s o n a n t a l .  I f i t i s preceded  by a consonantal,,the t h i r d  segment  from, t h e end I s a l s o a v o c a l i c . R u l e 7 c I f t h e f i r s t and l a s t segments a r e c o n s o n a n t a l , t h e y a r e f o l l o w e d and p r e c e d e d  by v o c a l i c s .  R u l e 7 d . I f t h e t h i r d segment f r o m t h e beginning.  0  f the  seven-segment morpheme i s v o c a l i c , t h e t h i r d  segment  from, t h e end i s c o n s o n a n t a l and i s f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r c o n s o n a n t a l segment .Therefore,, t h e  second  segment i s a l s o v o c a l i c a n d , i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e t h i r d segment,makes up a YV sequence,and t h e  103  f o u r t h a n d f i f t h , c o n s o n a n t a l s e g m e n t s make up a CC Rule  sequence.  8. I f t h e morpheme i s c o m p o s e d first  i s always  by a v o w e l , t h e n Rule 8a.If the l a s t  o f e i g h t segments t h e  a consonantal,which i s followed by a  consonant.  segment i s c o n s o n a n t a l , i t  a vocalic,and  i s preceded  a consonantal,,and t h e n by a v o c a l i c  segment. R u l e 8h.The f o u r t h segment may be a v o c a l i c segment.  or a consonantal  104  Chapter.-  4.  iv  Syntax  4.. 0. H o u n - p h r a s e  Rules  4.1. D i s c u s s i o n Tne  present discussion i s included  of. p a r s i n g t h e I P following rule  for  (Houn  IP  o f SCB  »4 HP  and. b) are  ]  _  c a n he r e w r i t t e n  „  _  0 ) 8  ,.  .  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g two  pronoun.The a d j e c t i v e and  optional.Sentences l i k e  c h e l e j *he  'Shamsun l i e s  i s a good b o y , 1  (4)  down',, o r  pore]  (tara kharap  1 and  lok}  { pa r e  phrase  ,,  2;  soe j  structure, rules >  pronoun +  f o r sentences  (Adj; +  noun  (Houn)  3 and  reads  bhalo 'they  (38).p£rase  £ ¥erb.  Verb  'Matin  (3) £ § e  bad'^people', c a n be a n a l y s e d u s i n g , r u l e  VP  ways,, a)  ,  the. n o u n i n p a r e n t h e s i s  (1) { m o t i n  S t r u c t u r e r u l e s f o r sentences IP $ Houn Houn ^ {motln,,samsun}  HP  a n d I D have the  V + (Adj) + (loun)  (2) (samsun s o e ]  are  SCB  purpose  HP.  (pronoun) The  and I D .  f o r tne  4;  1Q5 Pron.  \se  Adj.  tara]  P  •> {bhalo,  kharap}  p  Houn.  » [chele  4*2.*  louns i n IP  t  SCB  „lok] position  Kouhs may b e g r o u p e d  into  different  botn i n  and I B . A l l - nouns c a n o c c u r i n t n e I P p o s i t i o n , a n d  ( 3 8 ) t h e r e f o r e n e e d s t o be e x t e n d e d The  classes  extended r u l e  to include this  rule  feature.  i s g i v e n below f o r t h e nouns w h i c h a r e  used i n t h e IP p o s i t i o n . Rule  (39  ) loun  (.Pre) + f c o u n t "  -l  noncount proper  P o l l owing r u l e  ) V  noun;  (39 ) , t h e n o u n c a n be r e w r i t t e n w i t h a  noun,a non-count  noun,a p r o p e r noun o r w i t h an  optional  p r e - n o u n . ' P r o n o u n ' i s u s e d h e r e f o r t h o s e morphemes #  precede phrase  which  a noun, structure  for. r u l e ( 3 9 ) :  {t£l.^ * o i l % Count  count  nouns  $  { b u i } 'eJe-brow« (lB) r  animate inanimate  animate  nouns  ^ s e a l } » j a c k a l * , i m a n u s } 'man' (SCB) {basur}° ' c a l f [ h o l a ]  •'boy' ( I D ) 0  106  inanimate nouns  } [pata^ ' l e a f , 1  {if u r i j " ' k n i f e '  {sondorjo]  'beauty'  (SCB)  (ND)  0-he d i v i s i o n o f count nouns i n t o animate and inanimate nouns i s i m p o r t a n t as they nave a d i f f e r e n t i n f l e c t i o n a l n a t u r e . F o r example,sentence  such as £bulu bhablo] 'Bulu thought' i s  p o s s i b l e , p r o d u c i n g .strings f o r animate noun i n YP's,  hut  not senteneesuch as *£cear b h a b l o ] 'the c h a i r thought• .  R u l e 09 a) Noun  £  r  Rule (39a)  animate  (prenoun) + count  + prt  C inanimate j  _  i s c a p a b l e o f producing, s t r i n g s s u c h as the  following.. Glosses  ND  SCB[ s a l badoria]  {2k band or Da]  t h a t monkey  [oi chele^a\  [ a i holaDa}  that  boy  \oL  [ol. f a t a D a ]  that  leaf  patalaj  [ k i sondorjoj  I  1  What a b e a t y j  P a r t i c l e s are always added t o nouns i n SCB and ND  where  t h e s u b j e c t r e q u i r e s s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n . F o r example,-, e x p r e s s i o n s s u c h as {ol e h e l e - l a ] 'that b o y ' , d i f f e r , from t h o s e s u c h as ^ o i c h e l e ] 'tha? boy', i n " t h a t the prenoun  1 ND  io-ij ' t h a t ' does not mark a d i s t i n c t i o n i n t h e  l a c k s the e x p r e s s i o n as shown for. SCB..  107 subject-,'but the p a r t i c l e {-Ta} d o e s , d e f i n i n g  the subject  sp eelf i c a l l y * R u l e (39 b) loun  >  (prenoun) + count  T h i s i s a simple r u l e f o r p r o d u c i n g s t r i n g s i n SOB and KB, where prenouns precede* SGR;  count nouns.Examples;  KB  Glosses  [ o i c e a r l a sundor]  [ o i tj earBa hundorj That c n a i r i s b e a u t i f u l  [ o l b a l i s T a dao \  [oi balisDa  dto.}  Give me t h a t  pillow  R u l e 0 9 c) Noun  ^  (prenoun) + proper noun  T h i s i s i d e n t i c a l t o R u l e 39b„ where prenouns proper nouns.  Examples;  SCB  KB  { Bnaka b a n l a d e S e r rajUhani}  4t'5»  pronouns  Glosses  £Dee ha baaladee s e r rajdani ]  [somuddro p a r i d i t e bhalo lage.j  precede t h e  {haor par o i t e balobasij  Dacca i s t h e c a p i t a l o f Bangladesh I. l i k e t o c r o s s t h e ocean  i n IP p o s i t i o n  I t was shown e a r l i e r t h a t b o t h t h e nouns and t h e pronouns  i n SCB and KB a r e used, as a KP i n a s e n t e n c e .  The pronouns a r e e a s i l y s u b s t i t u t a b l e f o r t h e nouns and they c a n q u a l i f y as NPs .However,although  pronouns  may  108  occur i n place Rule  o f n o u n s , t h e y a r e n e v e r p r e c e d e d by a p r e n o u n .  ( 40; C loun  ^  ^  7  |_pronoun]  pronoun —  f personal  ^  + (number) + ( p e r s o n )  indefinite relative demonstrative^ Humber and. p e r s o n a r e shown a s o p t i o n a l pronouns  are inflected  f o r . tnem.i'he p e r s o n a l p r o n o u n s  v a r y i n second and t h i r d and n o n h o n o r i f i c indicate  i n R u l e (40 ),.as t h e  persons,as they d i f f e r  forms.A p a r t i a l l i s t . i s  the four different  forms  also  i n honorific  given here to  o f pronouns  found i n  SCB. a n d I D . p e r s o n a l pronouns  > £ami}  'l',{tumi]  'you', { s e ]  ''he/she*,.  [ a i ] »£e7she* (ID) indefinite relative  pronouns  » { k e u j 'someone', £ J e k e u } >  pronouns  l^e}  d e m o n s t r a t i v e pronouns  • w £ o •,, { k a r a } >  'whom',{karj  e  (SCB)  (eDa ] * t h i s •, { o i g u l i j {lane} 'here' prenouns  prenouns  >  *  fQuan \ P r t + Q com (.IP + P o s s  'whose'  { 3Ea] ' t h i s ' , , { e i g u l o } ' t h e s e ' ( o i g u l o ] 'those'  4*4.  'anyone'  (ID)  ' those •  Following r u l e (41),prenouns nave three options i n replacing the nouns i n the i n i t i a l string.The three options  are  exemplified here. PS Rule f o r (41) prenoun  Quan  She prenoun may  he replaced hy a q u a n t i f i e r i n the HP when  the noun follows it.There i s one exception to t h i s r u l e , i . e . , when a pronoun may the following {hoe]  a l s o follow q u a n t i f i e r s  • either',[noe}  'neither'  such as c  f  v  §g i n the  expression (hoe tumi ..]'either you', £nae se] 'neither he  n  o  o  (she)'  4.40". Rule ( 42 -) shows that a quantifier,when HP,has two re-write (Qnc)  i S  i t i s used in, an  r u l e s ; (a) the noncount q u a n t i f i e r  followed hy a noun and a possessive,such  as i n the  phrase {kichu. loker bhirv 'a crowd of some people' (some people's crowd); or. (h) the p l u r a l q u a n t i f i e r ($|^) i s followed hy anoun and a verb,such as i n the example {kotokgul lok 'Joe] 'several people go'.  o 4.41.  o  Quantifiers Quantifiers play a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n SCB and  They occur i n two forms,as shown i n Rule ( 42 o).  HD.  110  Quan  KQnc  Rule  ( 42;)  (a) the  +E+Poss)  ...  a s s i g n s the f u n c t i o n  quantifiers  verb.When t h e  are  SCB  q u a n t i f i e r , n o u n s always  {kitj- u j  some  [onek]  [oneg]  much  [s^b]  {hagol}  4.420. c o m p a r a t i v e  Rule  (42  a l l  Quantifiers  of comparative  as t h r e e o p t i o n a l  p  ) may  also  be  re-written  ")  1 ordinal  o c c u r i n one  When t h e  quantifiers  either In  J  +  [E + V  o f t h e t h r e e forms  by  quantifiers  where  shown i n t h e  rule.  p r e c e d e a n o u n , t h e next, word  SOB,comparatives  adjectives,or  j  comparative  a p o s s e s s i v e and  inflectional  (poss) + E 1  (Ii +  ( 4 2 si) i s a b l e t o h a n d l e  t h e y may  the  m  a)  ^comp  be  o  quantifiers  \ cardinal(.  may  (9  rules.  r comp  Rule  the  Glosses  ^kichu^  use  the noun,neither  )  IB  The  precede  changed. (Q n G  loncount Quantifiers  where  n o u n and, a p o s s e s s i v e , o r  quantifier, precedes  noun n o r t h e v e r b forms 4.42.  of the q u a n t i f i e r s  of a non-count  (b) i n t h e case o f a p l u r a l the  a  endings  a noun o r a s i n g l e  a r e formed {-toro}  sequence  i n two  '-er«  w a y s , e i t h e r by  o r {tsmo}  t h e q u a n t a t i v e morphemes  verb.  {besii  '-est and  1  on  111  { s o b c e e b e s i ] p r e c e d i n g the a d j e c t i v e s . T h e endings  {-toro] and  inflectional  {-tomoj a r e not t r u e c o l l o q u i a l  i n t h e sense t h a t they have a r e s t r i c t e d  forms  distribution,  always a t t a c h e d t o words commonly used i n High B e n g a l i , which a r e more or l e s s s a n s k r i t i z e d SCB { S u n d o r mee]  forms.Examples:  ND  Glosses  [hundor maiaj  (She i s a ) p r e t t y girl  {sobeee sundor mee]  {k^b  hundor maia] (She i s ) p r e t t i e r  [§Db cee sundor mee} [prothom c h e l e r d o l ]  (She i s ) p r e t t i e s t [hoila holagulir  p i r s t group o f boys  dol} [askTa b o i ]  [a&kDa h o i ]  One book  {car]  {% a r ]  four  {aT}  {aS2D}  eight  [prothom]  [portam}  first  {ditioj  {ditioj  second  C a r d i n a l numbers;  o r d i n a l numbers;  comparatives; {-toro} [beSi]  -er -er  ^-tomo]  -est  [sobcee b e s i ]  -est  112  4.3. Case Case p l a y s an important r o l e i n the morphemic s t r u c t u r e and syntax of SCB and ND.The r e l a t i o n of the v e r b s t o o b j e c t s i s i n d i c a t e d by d i f f e r e n t cases markers i n the language.The UP of SCB and ND i s l a r g e l y dependent on case f o r s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n and p a r s i n g . S i x d i f f e r e n t cases a r e d e s c r i b e d i n B e n g a l i grammar. They are,Nominative [ k o r t a ^ , A c c u s a t i v e [kormoTJ, I n s t r u m e n t a l [ k ^ r o n ] , D a t i v e ^ s o m p r o d a n ] , A b l a t i v e rjpadanl and L o c a t i v e [ o d h i k a r o n ] . s u f f i x e s a r e added t o nouns and pronouns t o denote case.Case morphemes a r e d i f f e r e n t f o r s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l numbers i n SCB and ID.These a r e shown h e r e w i t h examples. Case  singular  pluial -  ->{Nom.,Acc,Inst.,Dat.,Abl.,Loc.,+  > {-e} , {-:)] ,, {-te] , {-ke}  number}  , ( - r e j , {-die}  '» I-* -} > [-era] , {-der} , [-guloj , {-sQbaij 9  Examples from SCB: suffix  case  t-tej  Nom  number  examples  Glosses  [ g o r u t e k h o l khae] The cow oilcake.  eats  113 suffix  case  number  1-ke]  Acc  sg  {jonke Dako}  Call  {-die}  Inst  II  £churi d i e k a l o j  {-?  Cut  Dat  it  {take kolom k i n e  Buy a pen f o r him  examples  Glosses Joan i t with a knife  dao] {theke} A b l  ii  £gach theke p a t a p or che }  l-J  Doc  it  {s'undorbone anek n o r i n ache]  {-gulo} Nom  pi  { c h e l e g u l o khas l a  The l e a v e s  fall  from t h e t r e e There a r e many deer i n sundarban  The boys a r e p l a y i n g  korche} {-der}  {-der}  ACC  inst  »  «»  f o n d e r na dekhe  I can not pass. a. single  ami aekdino  day without s e e i n g Joan  colte  and o t h e r s  parine]  {corder d i e <.'.'" kokhono bhalo  JA good t h i n g i s n e v e r done by t h i e v e s  k a j hote parena} {-der}  {bhaider Jonne  Dat  se  onek g h o r i  He has bought many watches f o r h i s b r o t h e r s  kineche] {-der}  Abl  »  {meeder moddhe l i n a sundori}  ^-guloj DOC  "  ^ p u k u r g u l o mache bhorti }  Bina i s the p r e t t i e s t among t h e g i r l s Those ponds a r e f u l l of  fish  114 Examples from ND  s u f f i x case  number examples  Glosses  {-Da}  Horn  sg  {goruDa gas k^ae]  Tne  {-re}  A C C  "  {keare  C a l l Keya  {dia}  Inst  »»  {tf aku d i a kaBo}  {-e}  Dat  "  { t a r e kolom k i n n a dao^Buy a pen f o r him  [tipne] A b l  »  {-e}  loc  "  bolaej  cow  Cut  eats g r a s s  ( i t ) with a k n i f e  p^olDa gaser tone  The f r u i t f a l l s  horse}  the  ^iiundorbone bag ase]  from  tree  There a r e t i g e r s i n Sundarban  {-gula} Nom {-der} A C C  -gore} I n s t  Pi II  II  { h o l a g u a l a k a ^ l t a s e } The boys a r e { d a n d e r na d e i k k a  I  ican not pass  a i aek d i n tf o l t e  days without  hari  Joan  na}  {tj- orgore d i a konodin A good t h i n g b a l a kadj oe  playing my  seeing  could  never be done by  na]  thieves {-er}  Dat  II  ^ he h e i e r dj onne  He has bought some  baier egguli  gori  brothers  kinse] {-gular} A b l  II  {maiagular  moidde  benu hundar] {-gula} Loc  II  ^ h u i r g u l a maif e hura j  watches f o r h i s  Benu i s p r e t t i e s t among the  girls  The pond i s f u l l of  fish  115 As the nouns o f SCB and ND a r e i n f l e c t e d f o r c a s e , t h e l a t t e r p l a y s an important r o l e i n noun-phrase.she i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and t h e f u n c t i o n s  of case s u f f i x e s a r e as such,necessary,  as nouns change t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s when i n f l e c t e d f o r cases.  4.4.  Number Number i s important f o r t h e nouns and t h e pronouns  of SGB and ND,as both a r e i n f l e c t e d f o r it.However,there i s a r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e a b s t r a c t  noun,which i s not i n f l e c t e d  f o r number.{sondorJo^ 'beauty' i s p o s s i b l e but not *{Sondorjogulo~], adding a p l u r a l marker . p l u r a l morphemes a r e added t o p r o p e r nouns,although p l u r a l i t y but r a t h e r  they do n o t i n d i c a t e  case.For example,{mithun]  •Mithun-  a p r o p e r name',is p o s s i b l e but not ^mithungulo} as i t does not mark p l u r a l i t y and does not i n d i c a t e more than one Mithun.On t h e o t h e r hand, {ra] may be added t o Mithun t o i n d i c a t e p l u r a l i t y , s u c h as i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n {mithunra bae.rate gaache] , which means 'Mithun has gone out w i t h o t h e r members o f t h e f a m i l y  or f r i e n d s • . T h e r e f o r e , i t  be s a i d t h a t proper and a b s t r a c t  may  nouns a r e not i n f l e c t e d  f o r number; P l u r a l morphemes a r e used i n SCB t o i n d i c a t e  plurality  of objects.They a r e { - r a ] , {-era} ,£-der] , and {-gulo}.  116 SCB and HB. The  f o l l o w i n g r u l e , with r e s t r i c t i o n s , is/intended  •, f o r  the a p p l i c a t i o n o f number i n d i f f e r e n t nouns and pronouns i n SCB and HB. Rule  43  lumber  $  singular  —  plural  singular / plural  ^  j  count (animate Cinanimate  +{r.a] j^guloj  (SCB and HB) (SCB), - g u l a - ( E D )  noncount all  pronouns  + t-der] (SCB) t-go]  The  (HB)"  [-ra]  (SCB and  [-te]  (HB)  HB)  ways i n which p l u r a l markers a r e used i n SCB and  HB a r e shown i n the f o l l o w i n g  sections.  4.5. P l u r a l Formations 4.50.pronouns SCB and t h e HB pronouns a r e d i v i d e d P e r s o n a l , R e l a t i v e , D e m o n s t r a t i v e and phrase-structure  into four  classes,  Interrogative.Separate  r u l e s a r e needed f o r them as t h e i n f l e c t i o n s ,  f o r each c l a s s d i f f e r from those f o r another s e t s of r u l e s f o r SCB and HD a r e shown h e r e . I t  class.Four s h o u l d be  noted t h a t the pronouns of SCB and ED a r e i n f l e c t e d f o r  117 person,and  c a s e . B - s i d e t h i s , p r o n o u n s have t h r e e forms f o r  t h e second person and two forms f o r the t h i r d person. - In the second person,pronouns a r e c a t e g o r i z e d as h o n o r i f i c (hon-), n o n h o n o r i f i c (nonhon*) and those f o r common use.The same r u l e i s a p p l i c a b l e t o the t h i r d person,which  has two forms,  f o r h o n o r i f i c and n o n h o n o r i f i c d i s t i n c t i o n s . A l l  these  v a r i a t i o n s a r e marked i n t h e phrase s t r u c t u r e r u l e s .  4.51.  P l u r a l f o r m a t i o n s f o r P e r s o n a l pronouns The p l u r a l f o r m a t i o n r u l e f o r the p e r s o n a l pronouns  i n SCB i s shown as R u l e Rule  44  pronoun  ^ [personal}+pl ^ ~  examples  r a  ^ G-loss es  [ami ]  [amra]  I - we  [tumi}  [tomraj  You- You  ^  11  it ti  itui^  + p i —^>  tora  3  ^apni}  [apnara]  ti  [se^  {tara}  he,she - they  {tini}  {tar a)  "  »  I n S C B , p h o n o l o g i c a l changes a r e a l s o n o t i c e a b l e b e f o r e adding p l u r a l markers t o t h e base.A t o t a l change o f the morpheme i s e v i d e n t from t h e t h i r d person n o n h o n o r i f i c s i n g u l a r t o t h e p l u r a l , where t o t h e E n g l i s h system  {se} — ^ {tara"^ , which i s comparable She | — { t h e y } . M o r e o v e r , i t i s q u i t e x  (she}  !  118  e v i d e n t i n the g i v e n examples,that variation  SCB  and MD ha¥e  i n morphology,except f o r t h i r d person  numbers,where UD has an e x t r a s u f f i x {-te}  little  plural  f o r marking  plurals.  pronoun  f {personal} + p i  <-ra  i-te examples  Glosses  {ai}  £amra}  I -  we  (tui}  {tomra}  you -  you  {amne}  {amnera^  »  »  {he}  {hetej  he, she - they  {hete^  {hetenraj  "  »  I n t h e above examples,IB shows p h o n e t i c changes b e f o r e adding s u f f i x e s  f o r p l u r a l markers.One more change i s  n o t i c e a b l e i n t h i r d person h o n o r i f i c an a d d i t i o n a l  {-n}  use f o r p l u r a l s , w h e r e  i n f i x i s added t o i t t o  n o n - h o n o r i f i c from h o n o r i f i c  usage.  4^52.  formations  Other r u l e s  for plural  B e s i d e p e r s o n a l pronouns,other c a t e g o r i e s may  also  distinguish  morphemes of d i f f e r e n t  q u a l i f y f o r p l u r a l markers.These a r e  d e s c r i b e d here w i t h d i f f e r e n t  phrase-structure r u l e s .  119 4.520. p l u r a l f o r m a t i o n s  f o r Count nouns  R u l e 45 count + p i  ^  count + ( - r a -gulo SCB  R u l e ( 45 ) a p p l i e s t o t h e count nouns o f SCB and HD, where two p l u r a l marking s u f f i x e s {-raj and £-gulo]  a r e used  i-guli] {-gula] i n the language. Examples:  [ c h e l e j p a — $ {chelera^ [ma] {cor]  Glosses  HD  SCB  — ^ [mara] —-^{corra]  {hola} ->{holara} hoy - hoys ....  ....  {tj or] — >  mother - mothers thief - thieves  {tj- or g u i i ] {mee}  meegulo  {maia} -^{maiara} g i r l - g i r l s [maiaguli]  {bacca}  haccagulo  {hatf y a] ->  child -  Children  {baft t f a g u l a j  4.53* P o s s e s s i v e f o r m a t i o n s  of t h e p e r s o n a l and R e l a t i v e  pronouns pronouns undergo f u r t h e r changes when p o s s e s s i v e markers a r e added t o denote t h e p o s s e s s i v e case.Three different formations  phrase-structure r u l e s are possible f o r possessive of the p e r s o n a l and r e l a t i v e pronouns as shown  120  i n the f o l l o w i n g . S e p a r a t e P S r u l e s a r e chosen f o r S C B and IB  as they v a r y i n t h e i r  forms.  Examples from S C B : A.  Glosses  \ ami]  [amEffi]  I - my  £tumi]  {tomar]  you - y o u r .  [tor]  n  II  [apnar]  M  11  [se } [tini]  [tar] [tar]  he/she  [ke]  {kar]  who  5  {tui £apni]  +  poss—£  his/her it  II  - whose  B.  {amra]  [amader]  we - our  £tomra]  [tomader.3  you;  [tora ]  [toder ]  it  ti  £apnara] + p o s s — ^  [apnader]  it  it  [tara]  (tader ]  they  [tara}  [tader3  • II  [kara]  {kader }  - your:  their II  who;  - whose  C. { amar}  ^ amari ]  my  - mine  [tomar\  {tomari]  your;  [ t a r T,  {tari }  {amader}  {amaderi}  our - ours  ^tomaderj  {tomaderij  y o u r - yours  [tader }  ^tader1 ]  their -  - yours  his - his  theirs  121 The f o l l o w i n g ps r u l e s a r e a p p l i c a b l e f o r ND; Examples  Glosses  AA.  \ tui] famne]  +  P  o s s  [ bet en]  ^  farj  I - my  (tor]  he - h i s  [amner]  it  ti  [hetenerj  he - h i s  iarj  {art]  my  {tor?  [tori]  your - y o u r s  { t a r j + poss -  [tari]  his - his  [amago]  (amagoi]  our - ours  {arj  [amgo }  mine - our  {tor J  [togo]  your - y o u r s  [amnerj + poss —y  {amnego]  ti  it  [he ten]  [hatengo]  it  ti  {kara}  {kago}  whose - whose  BB. -mine  CC.  SCB and ND v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y i n adding p o s s e s s i v e markers for. p e r s o n a l and r e l a t i v e pronouns,as i s shown i n s e c t i o n BB and C i n the examples above. 4.530. P o s s e s s i v e f o r m a t i o n f o r Nouns and I n d e f i n i t e pronouns As w i t h p e r s o n a l and r e l a t i v e pronouns,nouns and i n d e f i n i t e pronouns a l s o add^i. ^ p o s s e s s i v e morphemes t o t h e i r bases.Two p o s s e s s i v e morphemes a r e added t o the  122  SCB  bases f o r p o s s e s s i v e f o r m a t i o n s , ^ - r ] and. {-er} . {-erj  has r e s t r i c t e d use f o r proper names.If t n e p r o p e r name ends i n a v o c a l i c  segment, i - e r ^ i s n o t added t o i t . F o r  example, the p r o p e r name |bulu] .-will never be marked by {-ex] but by \ - r ] . R u l e r e s t r i c t i o n f o r p r o p e r names i n p o s s e s s i v e f o r m a t i o n s ; V]  *  {.  . V} + L - r j  The f o l l o w i n g r u l e  (a)  (Rule 46 ) i s a p p l i c a b l e t o p o s s e s s i v e  f o r m a t i o n s f o r nouns and i n d e f i n i t e  pronouns i n SCB.  R u l e 46  i  /proper noun  proper noun indefinite count  pronoun( + p o e s ] count  i n d e f i n i t e  Pronoun  (noncount  noncount  Glosses  Examples;  ^khokon]  {khokoner}  of Khokon  [bulu}  {bulur}  of  |prottek}  {protteker}  of each  £onek ]  [oneker]  of many (persons)  Bulu (person)  {lebil}  -> [ l e b i l e r }  of a t a b l e  £bon }  —  {boner]  of a s i s t e r  {mar}  of a mother-  £ma]  C-er  123 The p o s s e s s i v e morphemes which a r e added t o the bases f o r p o s s e s s i v e f o r m a t i o n s of nouns and  HD  indefinite  pronouns d i f f e r from those of SCB.Three d i f f e r e n t - p o s s e s s i v e morphemes a r e used i n HD,  {-go}  , { r i } and [ - g u l a r ] e  .The  f o l l o w i n g PS r u l e handles the possessive, f o r m a t i o n s of  i  nouns i n  HD. p r o p e r noun  p r o p e r noun i n d e f i n i t e pronoun^ +  poss—^  oount  i n d e f i n i t e pronoun^ +  ^-go  count  -en  noncount  ^ noncount  Examples;  Glosses —>  ^mita ]  Mita' s  [mitagoj  [hottek]  ——^  [hottekerl]  [Tebil}  —  [Tebilgular}  £tf e l e ]  — —•?> [ft e l e g u l a r }  4.6.  -gular  1  each  person's  ,.; t a b l e ' s /boy's  Yerb-pfcrase R u l e s The verb-phrase  i n SCB and HD has the f o l l o w i n g  construction. Rule 4 7 ' adv v/p  ^  verbal  adv-p HP  "\ ,/ f  (int.) + a d j j T h i s r u l e imposes a requirement r e g a r d i n g the of the verb-phrase  of SCB  occurrence  and HD.An o c c u r r e n c e becomes  124 v e r b a l i f i t i s f o l l o w e d by one (a) adverb,(b)  NP  of the f o l l o w i n g s t r i n g s ;  or ( c ) a d j e c t i v e . A n i n t e n s i f i e r i s  shown i n the o p t i o n a l p o s i t i o n f o r the a d j e c t i v e s , a s they may  or may  not be preceded  by an i n t e n s i f i e r . S o m e t i m e s  the a d j e c t i v e s a r e used without any  i n t e n s i f i e r s as i n  the f o l l o w i n g sequences; SOB  ND .  G-loss es  [se bhaTS'TSeS $ -  [he balo maiaj  she i s a good  girl  [se baje c h e l e ]  [ h e bad.3 e h o l a ]  He i s a bad  [tara> dusTu. l o k ]  [ t a r a badj e manus] They a r e naughty  boy people  O c c a s i o n a l l y i n t e n s i f i e r s a r e used b e f o r e a d j e c t i v e s t o emphasise q u a l i t y , a s i n the f o l l o w i n g sequences;. SCB  ND  [se khub bhalo c h e l e ] [he  Glosses  kNib  b a l a hola]He  i s a v e r y good  boy  [se o t t o n t o sundori] [iaaiDa b e s i hundori] she i s extremely beautiful  Rule YP  47 a v e r b a l [(int.) + a d j ]  Intensifiers Adjectives  ••$>  {ottonto] • v e r y , [ k h u b ] ' v e r y 1  1  (SCB)  > [ s o b u j ] 'green',£holde] ' y e l l o w ' , [ b h a l o j 'good'  125  The adverb a t t n e r i g h t as shown i n R u l e 47 , i s o p t i o n a l , as t h e p o s i t i o n can be f i l l e d by e i t h e r an a d v e r b i a l phrase or by an adverb.sequences  such as {gharer moddhe]  • i n s i d e t h e room',{baganer b h e t o r e j  . ' i n s i d e t h e garden'  a r e taken here as a d v e r b i a l p h r a s e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a d v e r b i a l phrases,adverbs a r e used i n SCB and. I B t o convey d i f f e r e n t meanings.They a r e n o r m a l l y used f o r s i x d i f f e r e n t purposes,as shown here w i t h  examples.  R u l e (47 ) i s capable o f p r o d u c i n g sentences such as those shown below,by a p p l y i n g followed  the kernel r u l e f o r verbals,  e i t h e r by an a d v e r b i a l phrase,adverbs ,NP,adjectives  preceded by i n t e n s i f i e r s or. s i m p l e a d j e c t i v e s . a) S  $ {kea o t t o n t o  sundor]  f k e a k^ub hundorj (ND)  (SCB) 'Keya i s t o o p r e t t y ' . NP  > £kea}  VP  »  int — >  'Keya'  int + adj |ottonto/  a d j — ± ^sundor b.) S  >  >  pron — $ VP  *  NP  ^  / hundor}  'too' 'pretty'  { s e mee manus ] (SCB) 'she  NP  ;  k*Vb }  {he maiamanusj (ND)  i s a woman'.  pron {se / h e j  'she'  NP £mee manus / maiamanus}  'woman'  126 c) S  > |rita  bJkialo meej (SCB)  |rita  b a l o maiaj  (ID)  ' R i t a i s a good, g i r l ' . I P —-7>  [rita]  'Rita'  YP  IP  I P -->  a d j + IP  a d j —>  {bhalo / balo]  IP — $  [mee  dV) s  'good'  / maia } ' girl»  £tara roeche g h a r e r bhetorej £hera g o r e r moidde horse]  IP — $  (SCB)  (ID)  inside  t h e room*.  pron + ( p e r s o n + number)  pron — ^ { t a r a j IP — »  'they'  adv-p  adv-p - ^ ( g h o r e r b h e t o r e / g o r e r moidde]  4*60-.  'They a r e  ' i n s i d e the room'  Yerbs SCB and ID verbs may  be grouped  into four classes  on the b a s i s o f t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n sentences, They a r e - t h e t r a n s i t i v e c l a s s , t h e i n t r a n s i t i v e , v e r b s double o b j e c t s and  with  compound v e r b s . A s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n i s  g i v e n here f o r each c l a s s of v e r b s , a) T r a n s i t i v e v e r b s (Y^ ) : Among the f o u r c l a s s e s of verbs t h e t r a n s i t i v e s the i n t r a n s i t i v e s a r e w i d e l y used i n SCB and verbs f i l l an o b j e c t ,  ID.Transitive  t h e v e r b a l p o s i t i o n and always occur s'" ' s .[ ;•  and  following  127  Examples; SCB  UB  Glosses  £miko Dhat khacche\  [mikobatkaitase]  Miko i s e a t i n g r i c e  [ l i n a b o i porche^  £lina b o i horse]  B i n a i s r e a d i n g a book  ^sabana hat dhoe }  { sabana ? a t doe] r  Sabana washes h e r hands  {he  b a l khaa l e ]  {he bDl k ^ a & l e ]  He p l a y s f o o t b a l l  b) I n t r a n s i t i v e verbs ( V ^ ) : An i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b may fills  be d e f i n e d as a u n i t which  the v e r b a l p o s i t i o n but i s not preceded  by an object,  Examples: SCB  UD  Glosses  { r u b i c o l e ga= che}  ^ r u b i tj- o i l l a gfc.se] Ruby has  {bulu h a i c h e }  [bulu aTtase]  Bulu. i s w a l k i n g .  \&e ghumucche }•  [he gumaitase]  He i s s l e e p i n g ,  c) verbs w i t h double o b j e c t s ( V 2  O D  gone,  ):  Where t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s a r e preceded by a s i n g l e o b j e c t , some v e r b s may  be preceded by two  o b j e c t s . V e r b a l forms  o f t h i s type a r e q u i t e common i n SCB SCB [baba cheleke a&kTa k a t h a Jigges k o r l e n ]  MD  and NB«  Examples:  Glosses  £baba h o l a r e se kBa Pather asked h i s kota J i g a i s e ]  son  something.  128  SCB.  HB  {kobita r i l u k e  Glosses  {kobita r i l u r e  k o t o k g u l o prosno  k o t g g u l i hosno  sudholo]  K a b i t a asked  fiilu  some q u e s t i o n s ,  Jigaisej  [ s e t a k e poe^a kothae [ h e t a r e j l g a i s e Jante c a i l o }  huisa konai]  He wanted t o a s k Him inherer-the money i s . -  I n t h e examples, the verbs { J i g g e s k o r l e n ] ,. {s udholo^ , and v  ^ante  c a i l o } a r e preceded  {riluke  by two objects,, { c h e l e k e  proSno} and {tak€i  d) Compound v e r b s (y  kotha],  poesa] .  );  I n both. SCB and HB.two v e r b s may sometimes combine together t o i n d i c a t e a s i n g l e action.These verbs immediately  occur  one a f t e r t h e other.They a r e known^compound  v e r b s i n Bengali.Examples; SCB  MB  £hena kede p h e l l o ]  Glosses  {hacna k a i d a d l s e ] Hena c o u l d not s t o p crying.  founuke  j e t e dao}  ^se hese p h e l l o ]  [ r u n u r e 63 a i t e da0} L e t Runu go. [he a i s s a d i s e }  He c o u l d n o t s t o p laughing.  {cheleTa kede uThlo]  {holaBa k a i n d a ^  The boy s t a r t e d  crying.  uTse 3 I n t t h e examples,[kede p h e l l o ] , {jete d a o ] ,{hese p h e l l o ] ,  129  and {kede u T h l o ] a r e compound v e r b s , b u t i f they a r e used i n d e p e n d e n t l y they express two d i f f e r e n t  meanings.For  example,{kede p h e l l o ] , i f used i n d e p e n d e n t l y , h a s two v e r b a l forms and two meanings,{kada] 'to c r y ' and [phaela} 'to drop'. The f o l l o w i n g r u l e s f o r t h e v e r b a l forms o f S C B and ND  i n c l u d e s use o f a l l f o u r v e r b forms i n t h e language.  Rule j object + Y  V.erbal  ^  t  *c (NP + a d j +  V  2 o b  + adv +Y. 2oh. (int) + adj  (NP  [adv ^(adv-p In  R.ule (48 ), s e v e r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s  f o r v e r b a l forms a r e  shown w i t h d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r a l c a t e g o r i e s which rules.There  generate  a r e two o p t i o n s f o r the v e r b s w i t h two o b j e c t s .  They can be preceded e i t h e r by an a d j e c t i v e or an adverb. The same o p t i o n a l r u l e s a r e shown f o r adverbs,where  an  adverb or an a d v e r b i a l phrase may precede a verb.The f o l l o w i n g examples a r e g i v e n t o i n d i c a t e t h e o c c u r r e n c e of t h e v e r b a l forms shown i n R u l e ( 4 8 ) • a  ) s  ^, £se bhat k h a c c h e ] ( S C B ) •He i s e a t i n g  rice'.  {he b a t k a i t a s e } ( N D )  130 verbal  $ JSP  +Y  t  IP  * {se / be]  Yt  >{khacche / kaitase] ' i s eating'  h) S  'lie',  {se gaS/Ciie}  verbal  ^  Y^ ^  /  'nas  gone'  { r u b i hese p h e l l o / r u b i h a i s a d i s e ^  verbal  > ^  e  d) S  laughing',  V~  {hese p h e l l o / h a i s a d i s e \ a s t e kotha ba l e } ( S C B ) ( h e a s t e k o t a koej (ED)  ->{se 'He  Yerbal  'rice'  'He has gone' .  'Ruby c o u l d not s t o p  Y  bat]  Y^  $ {gas ehe}  c) S  [bhat  speaks s l o w l y ' .  f C adv  ")  (adv-p 3  adv  4.7.  — { a s t e ^  'slowly',  Tense A tense may  be d e s c r i b e d as a u n i t which occurs i n  the a u x i l i a r y p o s i t i o n and  which i n c l u d e s morphemes,to  i n d i c a t e the p r e s e n t , p a s t and  f u t u r e time o f a c t i o n or  s t a t e of i t s argument (Langendoen,1969-156). There a r e t h r e e tenses i n S C B and and  ED,present,past  f u t u r e . i n f l e c t i o n a l s u f f i x e s a r e a t t a c h e d >to  verb  c l a s s e s to i n d i c a t e tense forms.Yerbs a r e i n f l e c t e d f o r  t e n s e and p e r s o n i n b o t h SCB and ID,and/are .thus d i f f e r e n t from nouns,, which a r e i n f l e c t e d f o r case and number ..(Che f o l l o w i n g examples a r e p r o v i d e d t a show t h e t e n s e forms i n SCB and. ID. ID  SCB ami k h e l i j  {al  glosses kell]  I  play  (tumi. k h a e l o j  ^ t u m i kee l o }  lou  {tui. k h e l i s ]  {turn kae l o s }  it  {apni khgelen^  £amne kae I e n ]  II  {se k h a s l e 3  [ h e kacle"}  £e plays  ( t i n ! kheelen}  {heten ke&le j  it  {ami. k h e l e e h i l a m }  {ai k e l l a s i ]  I played  {tumi k h e l e c h i l e ]  {tumi k e l l a s o ]  Xou p l a y e d  {tui  {tui  "  khelechili 3  kellasos]  play  {apni k h e l e c h i l e n ]  [amne k e l l a s o n ]  "  {se k h e l e e h i l o j  [he k e l l a s e }  B.e p l a y e d  {tini kheleehllen]  {hetene k e i l a s e n ] "  [ami khelho }  £ a i kelum ]  I will  £tumi k h e l b e }  [ t u i kelba3  lou  [tui khelbi }  [ tui. k e l b i 3  {apni. khelben}  {amne k e l b e n ]  it  [se  [he kelbo }  B.e w i l l  {hetene  ti  khelbe }  [ t i n i khelben }  kelben]  play  will  pl y a  play  132.  4.70* 'lense f o r m a t i o n s 2nr.ee g r a p h i c r u l e s a r e shown below t o i n d i c a t e the tenses w i t h some o t h e r i n f l e c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s o f SOB  and  ID;.»x>he r u l e s t u r n out t o he c o m p l i c a t e d due t o i n f l e c t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of d i f f e r e n t Rule  persons.  49 fpersonal  pronoun + p i  count + p i proper- noun MP  >/ i n d e f i n i t e  pronoun  + pres + v e r b + person -  i n t e r r o g a t i v e pronoun Q  IP  +YP  pl  Q  ^Qnc  Rule  50 p e r s o n a l pronoun + p l ^ count + p i p r o p e r noun  jjp  ys^ i n d e f i n i t e  pronoun  + p a s t + v e r b + person I P + VP  i n t e r r o g a t i v e pronoun Qpi Q  Qnc  J  133 Rule  51  ^ p e r s o n a l pronoun + p i " count + p i jap  proper' noun >J i n d e f i n i t e pronoun  V + future + verb, + person / .  *  interrogative V  y  jiip +  V:P  pronoun  «PI  /  In tense formations,SCB and ID d i f f e r l a r g e l y i n i n f l e c t i o n a l patterns .Both, d i a l e c t s employ two common present tense morphemes {-i] and {-ej . RowevBr, they vary considerably i n i n d i c a t i n g past tense,where they have no i d e n t i c a l tense morphemes.SCB and ID do also share three common tense morphemes denoting future tense {-bi}, {-be] , {-ben} . 4.71 * The A u x i l i a r y  position  i n SCB and ID the a u x i l i a r y p o s i t i o n i n the kernel rule, can be f i l l e d hy tense when i t follows a modal. Aux.  y  Tense + ( modal )  There are r e s t r i c t i o n s i n the occurrence of a u x i l i a r i e s i n SCB and ID . A u x i l i a r i e s are not used normally i n the YP,unless the possessive case i s added to the IP..Therefore, the a u x i l i a r i e s have an optional r u l e f o r SCB and ID,one which which, i s described here. Optional rule for. the a u x i l i a r i e s i n SCB and ID: Aux  y  + aux  / [ i p + poss]  ....  134  Examples; SCB  ND  [ s e sekjon chele}  Glosses  { he aekDa hula}  [tar. as. kTa l a l h o i  [ h e r askDa l a l  ache]  h o i ase}  ..1  A U X  — >  ..2  AUX  —-T> {ache"]  Ee ( i s X a boy. Re  ..1  ( h i s ) has a r e d  hook.  ^  I n sentence (.-2), pronoun [ t a r ]  t h i s ' i s used as a  p o s s e s s i v e , a n d the v e r b f o l l o w s t h e a d j e c t i v e . A u x i l i a r i e s used i n E n g l i s h , s u c h as {aux+be} , a r e absent i n SCB  and  ND. 4.72. Some verbs have r e s t r i c t i o n s o f o c c u r r e n c e and a r e n o t i n f l e c t e d f o r p r e s e n t tenses.Among them i s the e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e E n g l i s h ' i s ('are') which n e v e r occur 1  i n t h e s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e . E o r example,in sentence such as {se bhalo c h e l e } ,'he  ( i s ) a good boy',[eTa aekTa bonduk}  • t h i s ( i s ) a gun',, the v e r b ' i s ' i s n o t shown i n t h e s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e . T h i s r u l e i s not a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e p a s t tense,where  the p a s t form o f ' i s '  occurs r e g u l a r l y  f o l l o w i n g the s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n s of the language.In such as {se bhalo c h i l o ] , 'he was bonduk c h i l o ^ , ' t h e r e was  a gun , 1  occur r e g u l a r l y . T h e r e f o r e , i t the v e r b a l forms  «is« and  examples  w e l l ' , [ s e k h a n e ackTa the p a s t forms of 'to be'  can be s a i d t h a t a l t h o u g h  'are' do not occur i n the  135 p r e s e n t , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e forms always occur i n the c l e a r l y i n d i c a t i n g that  «is' and  past,  'are' occur, o n l y i n the  deep s t r u c t u r e of. the language.  4,73. Modals  a l s o have r e s t r i c t e d use i n SCB and KB.The equivalents of  E n g l i s h modals 'may  1  and  'can' a r e used w i t h the same  meaning and without any f u n c t i o n a l  difference.However,'must'  i s usednas a modal i n SCB and K B . I ^ ^ E n g l ^ l h m o d a l s 0  and  'shall'  ' w i l l ' a r e used t o i n d i c a t e f u t u r e tense.The p a s t tenses  'would' and language.The KB. Modal  'should' do not make any d i f f e r e n c e i n the f o l l o w i n g PS r u l e i s a p p l i c a b l e f o r SCB  > £pres + pare/ h a r e ^ past + parto/ h a r t o ]  Examples; Glosses  SCB { hare]  can;may  { harto}  could must  and  136  Chapter  v  5<. C o n c l u d i n g remarks 5*0. This i s the f i r s t  attempt  t o a p p l y tixe g e n e r a t i v e  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l model o f Chomsky t o the phonology morphology o f Bengali,more C o l l o q u i a l B e n g a l i and D i a l e c t . A S would he  s p e c i f i c a l l y of  o| one  and  Standard  other, d i a l e c t , t h e  loakhali  expected,some m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems  a r o s e i n f i n d i n g r u l e s f o r the language,as  the work done  t o d a t e u s i n g t h i s model has been l a r g e l y on  non-Indian  l a n g u a g e s . A S such,most o f the r u l e s p r o v i d e d by ChomskyHalle the  '(1968) needed m o d i f i c a t i o n , B e n g a l i d i f f e r i n g  "' language t h e i r  r u l e s were framed  in for/syntactic  from and  morphemic s t r u c t u r e , i n the r o l e s of a f f i x , c a s e , t e n s e and. i n o t h e r grammatical  categories.  5.1. The p r e s e n t study has been e s s e n t i a l l y  contrastive  i n n a t u r e . B e n g a l i has a number of d i a l e c t s , w h i c h v a r y i n g r e a t degree i n t h e i r phonology and morphology,and i n some degree i n syntax.The  H o a k h a l i d i a l e c t as spoken  i n a r e s t r i c t e d a r e a i n s o u t h e r n Bangladesh,was compared i n t h i s study w i t h Standard C o l l o q u i a l B e n g a l i , b o t h i n phonology and morphology.The c o n t r a s t i v e mode of study was  h e l p f u l i n the sense t h a t the degrees  of v a r i a t i o n  157  and s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e two forms of B e n g a l i became c l e a r through comparison.In phonology t h e r e was a tendency t o add some new r u l e s and a t the same time t o d e l e t e some o l d r u l e s . T h i s phenomenon was n o t i c e d i n t h e phonology of SGB and ND w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g t o a p p l y some r u l e s and p r o v i d i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r them.It was s u r p r i s i n g l y found t h a t MB has more r u l e s f o r p h o n e t i c a l t e r a t i o n s o f c o n s o n a n t a l segments, where o c c a s i o n a l l y [ k ] — [ g ] Ig3rt°3  .[gh.3 ~ £  — ^ l_"tf~3 than has SCB.SCB i n d i c a t e d more  c o n s e r v a t i v e n e s s i n the sense t h a t i t does not a l l o w f o r L k3 — * [ g ] >as SCB speakers appeared t o view t h i s k i n d of p h o n e t i c change as a d i a l e c t i c a l tendency,and thus •non-standard'.SCB  a l s o preserves the phonetic values of  the c o n s o n a n t a l segments s t r i c t l y i s l a r g e l y dependent segments  >as semantic meaning  on the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o n s o n a n t a l  i n a word.This means t h a t /k/ and /g/ have  c o n t r a s t i v e semantic v a l u e s , w h i c h a l t e r  strict  .with the,  permutation of one segment t o another.Examples;  [kan3  'ear'  [ t h o r ] • stem  [ g a n ] 'song' of a banana t r e e '  [cap] •pressure'  "[sap"3  [tor")  'yours'  'snake'  However,this does not mean t h a t p h o n e t i c a l t e r a t i o n s a r e t o t a l l y absent i n SCB.At present,though SCB i s spoken i n b o t h Bangladesh and west B e n g a l ( I n d i a ) , i t does n o t r e t a i n the same l i n g u i s t i c f o r m . A p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r  128  t h i s l i e s i n the massive m i g r a t i o n of l a s t t o West Bengal,and  p o p u l a t i o n from  v i c e - v e r s a , f o l l o w i n g the p a r t i t i o n  of Bengal i n 1947.The l i n g u i s t i c behaviour of t h e s e migrant p o p u l a t i o n s brought about r a p i d changes i n the forms of SCB  spoken i n both p a r t s of B e n g a l .  5.2. The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e s which were i n t r o d u c e d by Chomsky (1957) and l a t e r expanded,are not t o t a l l y  applicable  t o the B e n g a l i s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n , E v e n the r u l e s which were l a t e r i n t r o d u c e d by K i p a r s k y (1968) f o r languages  which  have case r e s t r i c t i o n s , a r e not c o m p l e t e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y a l t h o u g h they a r e of some use.The B e n g a l i grammatical p a t t e r n i s q u i t e complex and needs supplementary t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e s t o d e s c r i b e i t s phonology m o r p h o l o g y . l t was  ;  and  found t h a t m o r p h o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n s i n  B e n g a l i occur s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a t morphemic b o u n d a r i e s , a s w e l l as w i t h i n morphemes.Examples s u c h as £oi c h e l e g u l o t a d e r sobuj bagane douracche^ t h e i r green garden',need  'those boys a r e r u n n i n g i n  a complex e x p l a n a t i o n of. m o r p h o l o g i c a l  p a t t e r n s , a s a number of r u l e s a r e i n t e r c o n n e c t e d i n t h e i r formation.The MP and VP of the above sentence are o n l y i n the l i g h t  of the complex grammatical  of Bengali.The N of  .the NP may  'explainable  categories  be d i v i d e d i n four, ways,as  N + Number + p e r s o n + Case,the noun  -being e x p l a i n a b l e o n l y  i n the t h r e e which i t d s i n f l e c t e d f o r , o f number,person  139  and  case.The same r u l e may  be used t o e x p l a i n the VP,as  t h e v e r b i s a l s o i n f l e c t e d , f o r tense and  persons,thus  making the vp more c o m p l i c a t e d than i n many The a f f i x e s were found t o have two a s p e c t s i n B e n g a l i . I n the f i r s t new  languages. functional  p l a c e they h e l p e d b u i l d  morphemes,and they a l s o p l a y an important  r o l e a t morpheme b o u n d a r i e s , c o n n e c t i n g  inflectional  different  c a t e g o r i e s such as number,person,case and  up  grammatical  tense.  These examples i l l u s t r a t e a b a s i c f i n d i n g of t h i s study,,that Chomsky's o r i g i n a l r u l e s needed m o d i f i c a t i o n b e f o r e they c c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o the two  forms of B e n g a l i  i n v e s t i g a t e d , S C B and the UB.These m o d i f i e d r u l e s have been a p p l i e d t o t h e s e d i a l e c t s of B e n g a l i throughout  the t e x t ,  a n d , f o r emphasis,are summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g  sections.  5.3. The  common m o r p h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s of SCB  and  ID,-are  d e s c r i b e d here w i t h p o s s i b l e f e a t u r e r u l e s t h a t were generated  d u r i n g t h i s study.SCB and I B do not f o l l o w  i d e n t i c a l m o r p h o l o g i c a l r u l e s , a n d and v a r y i n a f f i x a t i o n , pronominal  and t e n s e f o r m a t i o n s . A few v a r i a t i o n s were a l s o  found i n s y n t a c t i c a l p a t t e r n s but these v a r i a t i o n s d i d not i n d i c a t e any fundamental d i f f e r e n c e s i n s y n t a x . The  s y n t a c t i c a l p a t t e r n of SCB  and I B was  o c c a s i o n a l l y t o show the morphemic p a t t e r n of SCB The  f i n a l PS r u l e s which were generated  f o r SCB  described and  IB.  and I B a r e  140 as i n the following". S  *  NP  NP + VP Det + Noun  Det — - H e i ] Noun — y  'this',  { o l ] ' t h a t ' ...  Noun + pronoun +  case  +  number  +  gender  Noun —•)(• proper noun count ,noncount proper — ^  [chobij  'Chobi' ...  count — $ ( animate ( inanimate animate  } [biral]  'eat', { c h e l e ^ 'boy' ...  inanimate — $  ( c h o r i ] ' s t i c k ' ...  noncount  [ghaSj  pronoun  ^  'grass' ...  /personal j indefinite ] relative demonstrative  personal  {ami] 'l», {se ] 'he/she'  indefinite relative  —->{keu] ' someone'... ^ {^e}  demonstrative case  'who' ...  —-7>{eTa} ' t h i s ' ,  ^> {Nominative, Ablative,  Number  [ p l a ] ' t h a t ' ...  Accusative, Dative, Instrumental,  Locative}  $ { s i n g u l a r (sg) ? / plural (pi) - j  141  gender  ^ f masculine ) [feminine  YP  ^  j  v e r b + tense + person + up  Yerb  (transitive  (y^ )  < intransitive  (V^ )  ( v e r b s w i t h double o b j e c t s ( V ^ ) 2 o  Tense  ^  ("past  ")  ) p r e s e n t f + person future J person  ^ (1 \ 2 > 2;  /honorific  \  + | nonhonorific) ^common  '  1  >  [ami]  2.  ^  ^ a p n i ] »you.«  (honorific)  [tumi]  "  (common)  [tul]  »  3.  ^  [tinl] {se]  1 f o r f i r s t person ( P ) 1  2 f o r second person ( P ) 2  3 f o r t h i r d person (p^)  «l'  'he/she' "  (nonhonorific) (honor4^ic) (common)  Some o f t h e p h r a s e - s t r u c t u r e r u l e s which, a r e e x p l a i n e d above may a l s o be shown as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  tree  diagrams. Sentence 1 { n i l i n a ghorer moddhe a c h e ] ' U i l i n a i s i n s i d e t h e r o o m . 1  142  MP  N. person  • c.  MM;  •  [nilinaj  1  (ghor-]  £-er] (moddh-}[--e]{ach-j  Figure: Sentences  3rd  £-e]  -j Q  such as the example g i v e n can he a n a l y s e d r e l a t i v e l y  e a s i l y t h r o u g h the PS r u l e s , b u t these PS r u l e s can not  be  a p p l i e d t o a l l s e n t e n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y those which c o n t a i n s a d j e c t i v e s , a s i n the f o l l o w i n g . Sentence  2  (se bhalo c h e l e j  sg  ( t a r a bhalo c h e l e j p i Sentence  •He  ( i s ) a good  'Ihey ( a r e ) good  boy'. boys'.  2,does not c o n t a i n a v e r b and i t i s d i f f i c u l t  p r e d i c t the tense of the verb,i.e.,whether  I t i s present  or past.As no v e r b f o l l o w s i n the above sequence i n B e n g a l i , t h e YJ? of the #S#  to  remains u n e x p l a i n a b l e . T h i s i s  145 shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t r e e diagram. S  pron L  {bhalo} [chelej  F i g u r e ; 11 I t may be mentioned here t h a t i t was determined t h a t t h e v e r b may occur only i n the f o l l o w i n g r e s t r i c t e d form i n a sentence, i . e . , i f t h e #S# does n o t c o n t a i n an o b j e c t which f o l l o w s t h e a d j e c t i v e . I n case o f non-occurrence of an o b j e c t i n a sentence,the meaning of t h e morpheme {bhalo} i s changed,as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ; •he  {se b h a l o  achej,  i s w e l l ' , i s p o s s i b l e as {bhalo] q u a l i f i e s as an  adverb as i t i s f o l l o w e d  by a verb. ( [ache]) .This  t h a t f o r p h y s i c a l content the v e r b i s r e t a i n e d sentence,and t o show i n n a t e  indicates  ina  q u a l i t y o f a person i t i s  deleted. Sentence 5 •The g i r l s l o o k v e r y  pretty'.  H4  NP  M  gender^~*YP  Adj  yifumber  {mee-} {-der}  person  Y  Pi  {boro}  I  {sundor}  {lag-} [-che]  F i g u r e : 12 In the VP  of sentence  ( 3 ) , f u r t h e r change may  occur f o r gender,  which has been i n d i c a t e d as o p t i o n a l . T h e a d j e c t i v e {sundor} may  a l s o change f u r t h e r , t o ( s u n d o r i ] ,to mark a  feminine  gender. I t i s q u i t e e v i d e n t from the above d i s c u s s i o n t h a t " the morphemic p a t t e r n s of B e n g a l i a r e q u i t e c o m p l i c a t e d  and  need a d d i t i o n a l ps r u l e s t o d e a l w i t h m o d i f i c a t i o n s . T h e i n f l e c t i o n a l n a t u r e of the language makes the morphology more c o m p l i c a t e d as each base morpheme occurs  either  i n f l e c t i o n a l l y or d e r i v a t i o n a l l y i n sentences.A  sentence  such as { t a r b h a i e r b a r i t e t a r a bas.ra.te gee che j  'they have  t o v i s i t h i s b r o t h e r ' s house',which i s composed o f s i x i n f l e c t e d morphemes ( o r s u f f i x e s ) , i l l u s t r a t e s the u s u a l  145 p a t t e r n of Bengali.The  morphemes i n the above sentence  may  be c l a s s i f i e d , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way. a•  [tar] (se}  -T*  {tar}  'he - h i s '  <^pron + possj)  b. (bhaier} {bhai+er}  'of b r o t h e r '  <^noun + poss)  ' i n t h e house'  <^noun-p )  'he —  <P1>  c. ( b a r i t e } £bari + t e ] d. {taraj (se}  > {tara}  they'  e. {bee r a t e } {baera + te}  'to v i s i t '  <v+suf f ix+pr.on+person )>  •have gone'  <^v+suf f ix+pron+person^>  f. gee c h e ] {gas + c h e ]  These a s p e c t s o f t h e B e n g a l i morphemes have been d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l s i n section (3).  B i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t a l maps a r e i n c l u d e d i n Appendix-A t o p r o v i d e a c l e a r c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f SCB and I B . V a r i a t i o n s of l e x i c a l items and v o c a l i c segments a r e i n d i c a t e d i n maps 3 and 4.In o t h e r m a p s , d i a l e c t a r e a s , d i f f e r e n t of B e n g a l i , A r y a n and i o n - A r y a n languages  dialects  i n the Indian ,  s u b - c o n t i n e n t have been p o i n t e d o u t .  5.5. The p r e s e n t study has focused p r i m a r i l y on t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l p n o r p h o l o g i c a l and s y n t a c t i c a l p a t t e r n s  146 of SCB and ED,although f o r the purpose  some o t h e r a s p e c t s were a l s o i n c l u d e d f o r  of d i s c u s s i o n . l t was  g e n e r a l l y found  SCB and ED v a r i e d more i n r u l e s i n phonology  that  and morphology  than i n any other a s p e c t . T h e r e f o r e , p r i m e importance was t o i n d i c a t i n g major v a r i a t i o n s i n phonology v a r i a t i o n s which may s t r u c t u r e of the  given  and morphology,  be observed both i n the s u r f a c e and deep  language.  Map  ; 1  Bengali Dialects i n Bangladesh  H I  (Northern  Bengali  |.v:| R a j b a n g s h i South-eastern B e n g a l i r m E a s t e r n B e n g a l i (a) F^?l E a s t e r n B e n g a l i (b)  148  Map : 2 D i a l e c t s of N o a k h a l i  149  Map 3  •a man 0 [« kjon lok} o IJak Jlr*tid3 9 [as-kjon mansil ©[ £ k o n mans el O [jak J on 1 • t^-k mansu] ©[£gua manse] 1  A[ck 630 n. -^.a-n-Se]  150  Map  4  i was» A [ ciaiol A \_achil03  •  [acMlTl  O [asil]  151  15.1  Map: 5'  BENGALI International Statu  DIALECTS  Boundary  o  District  //  o  Large  ....  District  . ^.  Hqrs. towns  Railways Rivers  RAJSHAHI  /73 X^-OAGAPTALA  OAUAL  Mi  1 BARIPADA  MAYURBHANJ KEONJHARGARH ' O  SAMBALPUR  ••: KEONJHAR / ..  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