UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Meaning, nature and communication Leinbaugh, Thomas Mark 1975

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1975_A8 L44.pdf [ 3.28MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0093432.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0093432-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0093432-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0093432-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0093432-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0093432-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0093432-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0093432-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0093432.ris

Full Text

MEANING,  NATURE, AND  COMMUNICATION  by THOMAS MARK LEINBAUGH B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of V i r g i n i a ,  1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  t h e Department of Philosophy  We  accept  required  THE  this  thesis  as conforming  to the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r , 1975  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  for scholarly by h i s of  this  written  in p a r t i a l  the U n i v e r s i t y of  make i t  British  freely available  that permission  for  the requirements  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  representatives. thesis  It  is understood that  for financial  gain s h a l l  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  ^ y M *  1°  >  Columbia  not  copying or  for  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  Depa rtment  Date  fulfilment of  or  publication  be allowed without my  Abstract One o f t h e c e n t r a l has  been t o a r r i v e  communication.  a t some c l e a r  This concern  t h e u s e made o f f a c t s traditional ultimate  endeavors i n contemporary understanding  philosophy  o f the nature o f  has been m o t i v a t e d ,  i n p a r t , by  about g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s o f language i n  philosophical  arguments, t o c o n c l u s i o n s about t h e  structures of r e a l i t y .  I n my t h e s i s  I have  attempted  t o advance a c e r t a i n p r e c i s e view o f communication. I b e g i n by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g munication ful  and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  strategy f o r orienting  ontological delineate,  concept.  oneself with  question concerning  F o r i t seems p l a u s i b l e  i t s t r u e nature;  as i n v o l v i n g  i s to sense  o r n o t communica-  h a s s o m e t h i n g t o do  i f only because the concept  we f o r m  must  that aspect of  which i t d i s c r i m i n a t e s . In essence,  communication  c o n s i s t s o f some  speaker's  m e a n i n g s o m e t h i n g b y some u t t e r a n c e , and h i s a u d i e n c e ' s sequent  use-  t o s u p p o s e t h a t how we i n t h i s  p r o v i d e a n a c c u r a t e means f o r d e a l i n g w i t h reality  o f the p r o c e s s ,  c o n d i t i o n s ( i n some  f u n d a m e n t a l way c o n c e p t u a l i z e some p r o c e s s with  I assume t h a t a  w h i c h e x p l a i n how we a r e a b i e t o i d e n t i f y and  upon a wide r a n g e o f c a s e s  tion.  o f com-  respect to the  the nature  i n a f o r m a l manner, t h o s e  internalized) agree  between t h e p r o c e s s  understanding.  Since t o understand  know what he meant, I s u g g e s t clarified  someone i s j u s t t o  that the c r u c i a l  i s t h a t of meaning--in p a r t i c u l a r ,  someone's m e a n i n g  sub-  something by h i s u t t e r a n c e .  concept  t o be  the concept of Following the  iii precedent of  o f H.  P.  Grice,  I call  this  the  "nonnatural"  meaning. Two  use  closely  of the verb  (where we  connected  c o n c e p t s , b o t h marked by  "mean", a r e t h o s e o f  "intentional  s p e a k o f someone's m e a n i n g t o  accomplish.something  something  he d o e s )  of  [the f a c t  o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f ] some e v e n t o r s t a t e  a f f a i r s meaning t h a t [was  or w i l l  be]  and  the c a s e ) .  f o r an a n a l y s i s  My  from  type of a n a l y s i s  until  procedure  intent  (where we  speak of  the c o n d i t i o n  on t h e p a r t  o f t h e s e more g e n e r a l literature  as  of the concept  involves u t i l i z i n g  some f a i r l y u n i f i e d  c a p t u r e d by  Both  f o r i n the  meaning. each  " n a t u r a l meaning"  some o t h e r e v e n t o r s t a t e o f a f f a i r s  c e p t s have been argued s u i t a b l e bases  the  meaning"  by  an  sense  nonnatural  successful features upon the  i s obtained.  speaker  w i t h knowledge of a v e r y s p e c i a l  to provide h i s  intention  other,  This result i s  t h a t n o n n a t u r a l meaning must  of the  con-  providing  of  i n o r d e r t o improve result  is  involve  audience  on h i s  (the  speaker's)  of the n a t u r a l i s t i c  over  the  part. One  apparent  intentionalist to  lend  support  communication. mentalistic inhabit  advantage  analysis  of n o n n a t u r a l meaning i s t h a t  to a s c i e n t i f i c  approach  However, I a r g u e  o u t l o o k on  a realm a p a r t from  is  a conceptual f a c t  be  satisfied  that  t o the process  t h a t e v e n on  the p r o c e s s — w h i c h  the  t a k e s man  the r e a c h of n a t u r a l certain  i t seems of  opposing, to  also  necessity—it  f a c t u a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s must  i n any w o r l d b e f o r e c e r t a i n h i g h e r - l e v e l  concepts  iv can have a p p l i c a t i o n communication, a certain  i t i s necessary  regularity  dispositional  states  n a t u r a l meaning applicability. cient  exist i n the  And  this  simplified,  language), In  certain  In the  (in this  special  a priori  speaker  regularity  intensional  sense)  approach  I have t r i e d  can have  is likely  t o be  as w e l l  as  t o communication adopts  t o show how  non-  any  of  suffi-  an (and  c o n c e p t s w h i c h a r e most i n t i m a t e l y (e.g., the concepts  n a t u r a l m e a n i n g and  intending),  are l o g i c a l l y  hence  of  dependent  that bound nonupon  more e x t e n s i o n a l c o n c e p t s w i t h w h i c h s c i e n c e i s m o s t  comfortable  (e.g., the concepts  of evidence  i s possible without r e q u i r i n g  analytic t h e s e two have  and  i t c a n be  of language  this  that  i n h i s work.  up w i t h t h e c o n c e p t  — - t h o s e  of  b e f o r e the n o t i o n of  a scientific,  as t h e f i e l d - l i n g u i s t  t h i s way  case  between c e r t a i n u t t e r a n c e s  (and h e n c e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n )  frequency to j u s t i f y  artificially to  i n that world.  and  behavior);  t h e p o s t u l a t i o n o f some  (or t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l ) c o n n e c t i o n e x i s t i n g levels  suggested.  and  between  o f c o n c e p t s , as m o s t r e c e n t m e a n i n g - t h e o r i s t s  V  Table  of Contents  Introduction I. II. III. IV. V. VI. List  The V a r i e t i e s  o f Meaning  2  The I n t e n t i o n a l A n a l y s i s  13  Communication N a t u r a l i z e d  28  A Final Analysis  41  A Speaker's Expectations  52  The L a s t Word  64  o f Works  Consulted  71  MEANING,  One l o s o p h y they  i s  a r e  t r u e ,  c e n t r a l t h a t  s i n c e  d i r e c t e d  a r e  t o o  uncovered  by  arguments  f i n d  e r a l i n g  and i s ,  means  r e f l e c t of  p r i s e . t h e o r y  A  from  t i o n s  of  t h e  p r i m a r i l y  f o r  To w i t h  i t s  a  t h i s  t h e  d e s c r i p t i o n s  f a c t s  t h e  o f  h a s  t o  an  s h a l l  o f  i s a r e  b e t h e s e  c e r t a i n  g e n -  The so  u l t i m a t e  t h i n k -  w e l l  w o r l d ,  what  w e i g h t n a t u r e  t h e  been  as  i t  a  must  s t r u c t u r e s  t o  e x t e n t ,  I n of  o f  a t  by  language  p h i l o s o p h i c c o n s t r u c t  t h i s a  i f  imposed  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  advancement I  than  i t  I n s t e a d  t h e  t o  t h e  importance  of  more  p h i l o s o p h e r .  however,  t h e o r y  t o  works  about  p h i -  arguments  language.  m e t a p h y s i c a l  communication,  a n a l y s i s .  of  language  communication.  end  w o r l d .  i n  i f  a p p l i c a t i o n  f e a t u r e s  s t r a t e g y  t h e  i m p o r t a n t  o b s c u r e l y — t h o s e  p e r s p e c t i v e  t o  of  s e e n ,  f a r  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  because  t h e  prime  f u n c t i o n :  c o n n e c t s  be  Thus  p r o m i s i n g  m u n i c a t i o n . i t  t o  a s s u m p t i o n  r e p r e s e n t i s  t h e i r  i n  c o n c e r n  c a n bear  becomes  i n  everyday  most  remains  T h i s  w h i c h  s o u r c e  t h a t  u n s t a t e d  language  u n d e r l y i n g  arguments.  p r i n c i p a l m y s e l f  t h e i r  t h a t  language  i t s e l f  t o  w e l l — h o w e v e r  I t  these  of  i n s p e c t i o n  e x p r e s s i n g  r e a l i t y  a l l ,  d i r e c t  COMMUNICATION  o f t e n  e x p r e s s .  f a c t s  p r e s u m a b l y ,  as  Leinbaugh  p e r v a s i v e  perhaps  f o r  Thomas  uses  t o  those  AND  though  o u r  i n t e n d e d  NATURE,  such  o f  paper  c e r t a i n  e n t e r a  l a n g u a g e ' s I  v i e w  examine  t h e  verb  p u r s u i n g  two  s u g g e s t e d  l i m i t of  "mean"  comas  d i r e c -  2  I.  To m u n i c a t e d to  h i s  A  t h a t  a b l e and t o  say by  of  h i s  p)  t h a t know  to  the  l o w i n g  i n  he  be  p r e c e d e n t ,  I  do  not  p o s s e s s  an  e x a c t  c a t i o n ;  t h a t  agree  we  do  i n t u i t i v e  l e v e l  wide  t h i s  h e r e  i s  by  f a m i l i a r  c o n c e p t ,  u s a g e .  g e n e r a l  66  H. (1957),  t h a t  Doing of  to so  has  l e a s t  to  the  range  of  make  t h a t  t h a t  of  the  the  by  w i l l  as  meaning;  a v a i l a b l e  the  " M e a n i n g , "  the  l o g i c a l the  j u s t  c r u c i a l p a r t i c u f o l -  t h a t  w o r t h we  a l r e a d y  of  to  o p e r a t e s l o g i c a l  i n n e r  i s  " n o n n a t u r a l  i n v o l v i n g  to  i t ,  w h i c h ,  of)  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  r e q u i r e and  i n ,  a b i l i t y  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  communii d e n t i f y n o n n a t u r a l a t  an  s c r u t i n y .  e x p l i c i t : l o g i c  of  to t h i s  grammar  of  "mean"  f r a m i n g ,  i n  some  s u f f i c i e n t  c o n d i t i o n s  P h i l o s o p h i c a l  to  by  r e a l l y  phenomenon  our  c a s e s  a n a l y s i s , "  r e v e a l  S  c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s  of  thought  d i s t i n g u i s h -  something  f a c t  com-  communicated  two  c o n c e p t  o b v i o u s  t h i s  some  u n d e r s t a n d  seem  a  e v i d e n c e d  n e c e s s a r y  P. G r i c e , 378.  x  meaning  (the  such  deny  " c o n c e p t u a l  t e r m s ,  c a l l  d i r e c t l y t o  s u c c e s s f u l l y  m e a n i n g - b y - x - t h a t - p  p r a g m a t i c  not  u n c o v e r ,  t h i s  i s  has  u t t e r a n c e ,  at  x  i s  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  a  But  -  he of  make  would  s h a l l  thereby  upon  p u r p o s e  S ' s  I  a c t  S i n c e  here  Meaning  u t t e r i n g  to  S. i t  s a y i n g  meaning.  My  of  or  by  of  t h a t  u t t e r e d  c l a r i f i e d  In  and  S  meant,  1  w h i l e  S  u n d e r s t o o d  c o n c e p t  m e a n i n g . "  speaker  e f f e c t ,  t h a t  what  c o n c e p t  some  ( t h a t  i s ,  A  V a r i e t i e s  u t t e r a n c e ,  a u d i e n c e  c l a i m s :  l a r ,  The  Review,  i n more  f o r  some  a c t i o n  of  S ' s  c o u n t i n g  as  a  case  of  n o n n a t u r a l  mean-  i n g . "Mean"  i s  v a r i o u s  s e n t e n c e s  to  p r i m a r y  f o u r  (1)  a  n o t o r i o u s l y  i n  w h i c h  s e n t e n t i a l  "x"  ( i n  i t e m  i n  a  i t  o c c u r s  L)  means  language  'p*  i s  are  v e r b ,  r e a d i l y  b u t  the  r e d u c i b l e  c o n t e x t s :  c o n v e n t i o n a l  and  m u l t i f a r i o u s  'p'  L  ,  (where  or  s i m p l y  s i g n i f i c a n c e  a  "x" a  f o r  i s  an  p a t t e r n  some  p r o p o s i t i o n - t y p e ,  w i t h  community  m e a n i n g ,  o r  s e n s e ) . S  (2)  ,  by  x  formance may  or  , of  may  t i o n a l  meant  u t t e r i n g not  be  S  meant  (by  d o i n g  (4)  E  means  t h a t  p  A l l  of  t h e s e  the  n o t i o n  demonstrate  of  a  they  c a n  a n d , be  seen  a s s o c i a t i o n  between  two  use  of  the  word  denote  g e s t i v e  of  a  terms t h a t  of  the  o t h e r ,  n o n n a t u r a l  x  i s  a  t h e r e o f ,  t h a t  has  per  w h i c h  a  c o n v e n -  a c c o m p l i s h E  to  a n a l y s i s  we  meaning  may  some as  d e p e n d e n c i e s .  p o s s i b l e  to  i n  such  same  type  (where  of  the  p r o d u c t  x)  network an  l o g i c a l  of  are  c o m m u n i c a t i o n ;  b e l o w ,  or  (where  i s  an  y  .  e v e n t  o r  a f f a i r s ) .  s e n t e n c e - f o r m s  of  p  meaning).  (3)  s t a t e  t h a t  h o l d  (context  I to  S i n c e  way  a s s o c i a t e d  s h a l l form the  c o n c e p t s — i n b o t h — i s  (or  r e d u c t i o n )  as  a  (2)  w o r k i n g above)  attempt an  w i t h  t o  i n t e r l o c k i n g  e x i s t e n c e  of  a d d i t i o n  to  a t  l e a s t of  one  s u g i n  a s s u m p t i o n c a n  be  shown  4 to  be  a  s p e c i a l  case  of  one  of  the  o t h e r  more  g e n e r a l  uses  2 of  "mean." I t  i n f e r ,  on  e x i s t are  s h o u l d  b a s i s  of  between  t h e s e  d i f f e r e n t  i n s t a n c e .  w i t h I t  forms-  forms: way  would  c o m p a t i b l e c a s e s .  p h i l o s o p h y , i n  t h o u g h t  we  w i t h  This  forms  d e t e r m i n a t i o n  of  how  r e l a t e d ;  i s  to  t h a t  i m p l i c a t i o n a l d e t a i l  i s  a  l i n g u i s t i c  need  would  by  w i t h  encumber  t h a t  i n  each  the a  are  t h a t  each  s y n t a c t i c a l  the  s u r f a c e  d i f f e r e n c e s  s i t u a t i o n  by  of  l o g i c a l  u n i v o c a l  At  s u r -  g r a m m a t i c a l l y  i n  meaning  e x i s t e n c e  one  p u r e l y  c a s e s ,  we  d e s p i t e  d i f f e r e n t  c o n c e a l e d  p e r m i t ,  forms  "mean"  from  some  p r o p o s i t i o n s say,  forms,  cannot  w h i c h  d e p i c t i o n  o p e r a t i o n s .  t h a t  meaning  c o r r e c t "  b e i n g  the  we  t h a t  f a m i l i a r  c o n n e c t i o n s g r e a t l y  f o r  t h e r e  i n  t h a t  example,  v a s t l y  been  accounts  e x p l a i n a b l e  our  f o r  l e a s t  had  s t a r t  of  i d e a l l y ,  at  t h a t  t h a t  sense  r e v e a l  i n  the  s e n t e n t i a l  " l o g i c a l l y  ( d e r i v a b l e ,  d a t a  d a t a  a l l  l a b o r  a  at  d i f f e r e n c e s  d i f f e r e n t  c o n t a i n i n g ,  s i g n i f i c a n t  the  p o s s i b l e ,  a p p e a r a n c e s ,  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s )  i n  a  i s  s e n t e n c e - f o r m  a  mentioned  the  d e a l i n g  f a c e  be  of the  f i n i t e  sense i n a  another.  communication;  "mean"  a n a l y t i c a l d i v i s i o n  l e v e l  of  of  means,  c o n c e p t u a l l y  d i r e c t l y  of  i n  the i n t e r -  m a n i f e s t  t h e i r  But  t h i s  much  f o r  a t  t h i s  2 G r i c e , i n f a c t , groups both l i n g u i s t i v e (2) m e a n i n g under the h e a d i n g of " n o n n a t And under " n a t u r a l meaning" he i n c l u d e s b o t h a n d e v e n t (4) m e a n i n g . However, h i s m o t i v e s advance of h i s a n a l y s i s are not c l e a r , and I f o l l o w s keep a l l these n o t i o n s d i s t i n c t , i n keep i n v i e w what i s b e i n g reduced t o what.  t i c (1) u r a l m i n t e n t f o r d o i s h a l l o r d e r t  and a g e n e a n i n g . " i o n a l (3) n g so i n i n what o b e t t e r  5 l e v e l , f o r  what  i s  a d e q u a t e l y  concerns  are  p r i m a r i l y  d e s i r e d  conveying  o n e ' s  r e c o n c i l e d  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s  to  made  f o r  the  c o n v e n i e n t same  the  by  of  most  of  t h o u g h t ;  of  s y s t e m a t i c i n  s p e a k e r s  as  method  d i s p a r a t e  r e s u l t i n g  between  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ,  e f f i c i e n t  These  a p p l i c a t i o n  communication  a l g o r i t h m s  the  thoughts.  the  forms  i s  w e l l  as  forms  s h a r i n g the  same  3 " t h o u g h t - f o r m s . " not  the  l e a s t  n i f i c a n c e the  account  has  which  i s  t h a t  s u p p l i e s  where  f o r  such have,  s o u r c e  of  our  The r e f e r e n c e  S y n t a x  a  to  l e n d  the  we  some  had  of  the  t h i s t h a t  as  t o  the  See, e . g . (Cambridge,  of  r e l y  attempt  r e s u l t of  a  Noam Chomsky, M a s s . , 1965).  f i n d w i l l  of  of  b e i n g  s i g s h o u l d  i t s the  a n a l y z e d — upon  r e a s o n  i n t u i -  f o r  s u p -  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  i m p l i c a t i o n .  above  t h i s  t h a t  v i r t u e  the  to  s p e a k e r s ) ,  to  seems  i s  i t ,  broadened  p r i m a r i l y  t h i s  l e a s t  of  a  recommend  d e t e r m i n a t i o n  form  scope  a c q u i r i n g  i n  l o g i c a l  a t  to  i t  d e s c r i b e d  to  (or  the  For  i t s e l f ,  s e n s e ,  community  much  s e n t e n c e - f o r m  s e n t e n t i a l  beyond  meaning  n e c e s s a r y  of  language  w i t h i n l i e s  a n a l y s i s .  m e c h a n i c a l  i n t u i t i o n s  a  s u p p o s i t i o n  n a t u r a l  i n  f i r s t  to  i t  d e t e r m i n a t i o n s — t h e n  we  r e a s o n  a  a n a l y s i s  p o s i n g  v e n t i o n  to  i m p l i c a t i o n s  b e f o r e  a t  f o r m u l a t i o n  s t r u c t u r e ,  l o g i c a l  a  an  attempts  r e s u l t i n g  o v e r t  t i o n  to  of  Such  makes some  m e a n i n g - c o n -  and  f o r  p a p e r . an  e s s e n t i a l  I t  i s ,  a n a l y s i s  p r o v e  to  be  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  A s p e c t s  t h a t  of  the  however,  of  n o n -  u l t i m a t e l y  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Theory  of  of  l i n g u i s t i c  s u p p o s i t i o n the  n o t i o n  upon  t h a t by  to  a  g i v e  some i f  i s of  of  s t r a t e d  meaning,  n o n n a t u r a l  the  c o h e r e n t  when  as  w i t h  u t t e r a n c e  has  to  the  the  no  have,  o r  be  u t t e r i n g  x  language  e x i s t s  i n  thought  ;  by  i n  i t  x  c o n v e n t i o n a l  meaning  (In  of  the  case  a  S  of  to f o r  t h a t  of  b e i n g  have  of  community commu-  i n  type  mean  p a r t , of  them:  That  f o l l o w s f o r  x  c o n v e n t i o n a l  as  some  meant a  S  p  c o r o l l a r y  to  has  be  s a i d  community  to  w h i c h o n l y  or  t h a t  can  t h i s  attempt  r e q u i r e d  S  language  demon-  community  t h a t  a  x  i s  any  even  have,  t h a t  i n  d i r e c t i o n  to  t h a t  dependent  some  n e v e r ,  not  f a c t  community's  is_ n e c e s s a r y ,  the  n a t u r a l  i s  t h i s  a t t r i b u t i o n by  t h a t  d e s i r e d  b e f o r e  i n  the  p r e d i c a t e d  above, ,  to  meaning  i t s  order  w h i l e  u t t e r i n g  of  by  t h o u g h t - e x p e r i m e n t  t h i n g  the  f a c t  i n v o l v e d  members  u t t e r a n c e  the  dependence  p o s s e s s e d  c o n v e n t i o n a l  the  meaning  T h i s  governs  what  from  T h a t  l o g i c a l l y  a b s u r d i t y  way  i f  c o n c e p t u a l  l i n g u i s t i c by  i n  i s  meaning.  language  some  the  dependency  from  i n  produce  c o n n e c t e d  the  the  language.  f o l l o w s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  exchanges:  they  one  of  meaning  c o n c e p t u a l  language  n i c a t i v e  hence  r e a s o n a b l e  l i n g u i s t i c  language  t h a t  a  and  meant  to  have S  somea  b e l o n g s .  a p p l i e s  to  u t t e r a n c e - p a r t s . ) Of i s i n g the  t h i r d  meant i s  as  the  to  the  two  a ' b a s i s  f o r  c o n t e x t do  sense  (or  r e m a i n i n g  a n a l y s i s  above,  meant  more  an  or  uses  to l e s s  where  we  of of  "mean,"  n o n n a t u r a l  speak  a c c o m p l i s h e q u i v a l e n t  the  by to  of  what  what  he  most  prom-  meaning  i s  someone d i d ) .  c o n t e x t s  T h i s  c o n t a i n i n g  7 the  verb  " i n t e n d . "  dependency s i b i l i t y a  (not  h e r e  of  too  t h e r e  i n  i n  x  u t t e r i n g  on  A ' s  p a r t .  not  take  someone  u n l e s s  we  "behind"  change  of  by  e x i s t s  n o n n a t u r a l  t h a t  s i n c e  i m p o s -  communi-  ( e x t e r n a l  a u d i e n c e - d i r e c t e d  f a c t ,  our  say  s o r t  t h a t  to  S  " t o get  we  S  i n t e n d s ,  or  i n t e r n a l )  c l e a r l y  h i s  do  b e h a v i o r  i n t e n t i o n  A t o  The  a c t i o n . from  more  the  t h a t  p  from p , "  a c c o u n t ,  n o n n a t u r a l  meaning.  (as  n o n n a t u r a l  ,  i s  t o  mean-  i t  seems  say  ( i n  c o n v e n i e n t  way)  to  thought  A x  can  apparent  T h i s  E n g l i s h  we  s u b j e c t  p a r t i c u l a r ,  where  And  4  t h a t  t h a t  x . ,  b e l i e v e "  b e l i e v e  O x f o r d 273.  ("get  u t t e r i n g  to  e x p r e s s i o n .  p.  x  the  In  a c r o s s " )  by  of  i n t e n d i n g . by  on i s  convey  g e t  a n a l y s i s  of  meant  r e s u l t s  A  d e f i n i t i o n s )  b u t  p  t h a t  i n t u i t i o n  p e r s p i c u o u s ,  s i g n i f i c a n t  v e n i e n c e  f i r s t  d i c t i o n a r y  t h a t  6,  case  some  i n t e n d e d  V o l .  some  the  r e c o g n i z e  l o g i c a l l y  an  e f f e c t  never  of  something  l e s s  of  i s  i n s t a n c e  meant  to  form  i t  s i n g l e  t h e r e  p r o c e d u r e  have  t h a t  to  to  a  w h i c h  t o  s p e c i a l  x  f o r  l o g i c a l  i t .  a  p h r a s e  community  of  (conceptual)  r i g h t ,  i n g  some  the  seems  i n  o r  by  r e l a t i o n  t h i s  embodied  b e l i e f  a  a  And  In  i s  e x i s t s  e v i d e n c e d  even  w h i c h ,  t h e r e  c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d )  perhaps  m e a n i n g — b u t  i s  b e i n g  n e c e s s a r i l y  c a t i o n — o r  S  That  can  be  meant  g i v i n g however, Even  a  a p p r e c i a t e d e l e t i o n  "S  D i c t i o n a r y  the  i f  (New  us  of  by the  t h a t o r  s e n t e n c e the  c o n -  the u t t e r i n g n o n n a t u r a l  i s  i n a d e q u a t e  i t  were  Y o r k ,  a  t r u e  1961),  as t h a t  8 whenever  S  meant  i n t e n d e d  A  to  p o s s i b l e  f o r  a c t i o n t h a t  when p  by  drawing T h i s i n  shows  the  i s  t h a t  The "mean"  t o  a f f a i r s )  of  some  c l o u d s  t h a t  mean f a c i e  a n a l y s i s  of  of  ^what l e a s t  anyone i t  meaning  e l s e  seems s h o u l d  has  e v i d e n c e  s p e c i f y  the  t h a t  (and  w h i c h  T h i s  used  e v i d e n c e  f o r  s t a t e  to  r e s t r i c t )  p  a s s e r t  (event  a f f a i r s  s o o n " ) .  Though  t h i s  not  t h e r e  i s  a p p a r e n t l y  where meant  a r i s e n  no  one  by t h a t i n  ever  h i s the such  has  a  b a s i s  i s f o r  of  of  from  communica-  e v i d e n c e A t  an  the  f o l l o w s  u t t e r a n c e . n o t i o n  some "Those  meaning,  p r o c e d u r e  of  ( e . g . ,  the  a  the  of  as  b e i n g  found  s t a t e  s e r v e  t h e r e  of  use  t r u t h  T h i s  of  t h a t  o r  h i s  .  uses  the  of  dependency.  .  r e l a t i o n  i s  the  p  t h a t  a  m e r e l y  e x p e c t s  d i s t i n g u i s h e d denotes  some meant  thus S  b e l i e f  phenomenon  i m p o s s i b l e have  i s  to  l o g i c a l  community  S  are  c a n d i d a t e  of  when  e v i d e n c e .  r a i n  p e r f o r m i n g  example,  meaning")  w i l l  n o n n a t u r a l  i m p o s s i b i l i t y a  i t  i n  has  i n  S  n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  S  A  o t h e r  t h a t  t h a t  n o r m a l l y  i s  some  l i k e l y  r e l a t i o n  i n  or  i s ,  c a s e  say  to  i n  n a t u r a l  s i g n i f i e s  to  manner  t h a t  the  i n t e n t i o n  need  or  c o n t e x t s  about  t i o n  the  i t  n a t u r a l  the  " n a t u r a l  p r o p o s i t i o n  the  of  a l s o  ,  f a l s e  i n d u c e  s i g n i f i c a t i o n  e x i s t e n c e  same  s h a l l  i s p  t h i s  to  i t s e l f ,  l a s t  s e n t e n t i a l  p r i m a  have  c l e a r l y  we  x  ( c a l l e d  n a t u r a l  t h a t  a t t e n t i o n  of  i t  b e h a v i o r — f o r  a n a l y s i s  u t t e r i n g  i n  t o  h i s  A ' s  p  b e l i e v e  S i t  t h a t  as  the  t o v e r y  n o n n a t u r a l  community.  a  9 The  l o g i c  n a t u r a l  meanings  E,  t h a t  i t s  i t  i s  t r u e  p a r a l l e l l a r  t i o n  i s  t h a t  i n  the  make  unknown)  T h i s  and  i n  of  t h a t  d i s c o u r s e  we  means  r e l a t e d  o r  do  "guarantee  i d i o m  of  f e a t u r e  i s  c a s e s  (basic)  z a t i o n  t h a t  e v e n t s  c o n t e x t  are  s o r t . of  The  c l o s e l y  f o l l o w e d  s i g n - r e l a t i o n  r e l a t i o n  of  n a t u r a l  i n f e r e n c e - p e r m i t t i n g t o  f e a t u r e s  wide  l a t i t u d e  n a t u r a l i n g , be  the  ;  the make  the i n  meaning  then  meant x)  of  when  p r o p o s i t i o n  f o r  i t  i s  p r o p o s i t i o n i t  s o ) .  s i g n i f i c a t i o n  f o r  i n  w h i c h  t h i s  where  i s  r i g h t  i s  E  i n  e n t a i l e d  we t h i s  p  i s  need E  w h i c h t h i s by t r u e t h e n to  assump-  ( l i k e l y the  a i n  g e n e r a l i such  t h i s  a  s p e c i a l  t o t a l l y  meaning  i t or  n a t u r a l l y  t h a t  p  s a y i n g  some  s t a n d a r d ,  have  when  and  o n l y  mean-  cannot  u t t e r i n g  i s  a of  n a t u r a l p  s i g n i f i e d  S ' s  f o r  r e l a t i o n  t h a t  S ' s  type  u n d e r l y i n g  about  i s  a  o t h e r  a l l o w i n g  c a s e  j o i n t  t h a t  a l m o s t  t h a t  (otherwise  s i m i -  T h i s  to  the  q u e s t i o n ,  t h a t  p  as  i t s  i t s  of  of  a p p l i e s  means  t h a t  What  If  f i n d s  some  s o r t  events  ( n o n n a t u r a l l y )  the not  by  environments  h o l d s .  u n l e s s  t a c i t  n a t u r e  r e g a r d e d  i n  the  r e s u l t  t h i s  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n  the  by  e v e n t ,  p  w i t h  e x i s t s  of  of  then  m e a n i n g ,  t h a t  s t a t e m e n t s :  upon  phenomenon  S  (assuming  i s  some  s u c c e s s "  n e t  laws  s i n g u l a r  e f f e c t  of  i m p l i c a t i o n s .  t h e r e  such  the  of  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n — t h e v a r i o u s  say  e x p l a i n e d  t h a t  i n v o l v i n g  c a u s a t i o n ,  i n s t a n c e — u n d e r l y i n g to  not  s i g n i f i e s  c o u n t e r f a c t u a l  such  l a w f u l  a p p l i c a t i o n  everyday  such  p.  g r a m m a t i c a l  we  our  o c c u r r e n c e  s u b j u n c t i v e  common  of  of t h a t  would weaker  when  S  10 means a l l y us  t h a t  p  d e l e t e d  w i t h  but  ,  assuming  i n  the  the  thought  t h e o r y h e l p  u s u a l l y of  i n  what  c a t i o n here the  (or  t o  d i r e c t  i t  might  to  the  who  so  f o l l o w s the  a c t  the  of  hoped  the  they  some  i t s  t r u e  about  n a t u r e .  w i s h e s  to  I  t a l k  t a l k  about  h o l d i n g  to  n a t u r a l i s t i c  events  i n  a the  e x c l u d i n g  human  e x p l a n a t i o n , p r e v i o u s  events  i n  a c c o r d a n c e  to  assume  events u n i t s  by  of  i s , be  he  laws  laws  of  c o n s i s t  i n ,  c e r t a i n  as  a  of  assumes  the  n a t u r e s o r t s  a p p l y of  i n v a r i a b i l i t y  guide  at  l i k e l y  a l l  to  He t o ,  the  l e a s t  t h a t  do  w i t h t h e o r i s t  to  be  as  " c o n -  a l s o to  a l l  e v e n t s ,  not  s c i e n t i f i c i n  terms  to i s  be  of e x p l a i n e d ,  a l s o  and  p r i m i t i v e f o r  have  r e s p e c t  events  n a t u r e .  d e s p i t e  o t h e r — t h o u g h  meaning  e x p l a n a t i o n  n e c e s s i t a t e  the  the  w i t h  amenable  taken  themselves  meaning  n a t u r a l  communi-  c o n c e p t ,  seems  n o n n a t u r a l  some  of  the  means  s u f f i c i e n t  i t  of  approaches  or  s e r v e  be  theory  i n  way  g e n e r a l  r e p r e s e n t  which  the  may  b o t h  methodology  t h a t  w i t h  one  a  t h e r e f o r e  to  w i t h  to  s i n c e  a c t i o n s ,  t h a t  l e a v i n g  c e r t a i n  to  That  he  g e n e r a l  of  a  something  r e l a t i o n s  w o r l d .  I t  of  has  of  c e a l e d "  a n a l y s i s  a n a l y s e s  p r o c e s s  s h a l l  show  a  c o u l d  t h i n k  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n -  e x p r e s s i o n ,  c o r r e s p o n d i n g  q u e s t i o n ,  we  be  framework  meaning)  o n t o l o g i c a l  how  an  the  b e a r i n g  t h a t  of  q u e s t i o n .  c o n c e p t u a l  m e t a p h y s i c a l be  i n  to  p.  a s s i g n  of  form  pursue  w i t h i n  to  a n a l y s i s  t h a t  no  t h a t  phenomenon  of  the  f a c t  t h a t  the  do  remainder  n o n n a t u r a l  P h i l o s o p h e r s c o n c e p t  the  a l l  l i k e l y f a m i l i a r  p a r t i c l e s ,  t a s k  a t  hand  or  11 ( e . g . ,  atoms,  s t a t e s ,  and  n o n n a t u r a l  n e u r o n s ,  so  on).  meaning  So i s  t h a t  j u s t  (natural)  f o r  a  ment  w i t h  a  c e r t a i n  e f f e c t ;  more  than  a  form  i n t e r p e r s o n a l  t h e r e f o r e  r e d u c e  t a l k  of  be  and  s t e p  what  f u r t h e r : (what  u t t e r i n g ) , t o  i n f e r  i s  to  i s  most be  of  i n  He  t a k e s  complex  and  f u n d a m e n t a l l y  the  w o r l d ,  i t s  consequent.  m o t i v a t e d i n g s ,  so  or  f i n d  through  h i s  the  t h a t  of  i t s  t a l k be  of  c a u s e ,  n a t u r a l i s t  to  to  i s  of  go  t h a t  a one  (the  p e r m i t t i n g  u t t e r a n c e  so  n o t h i n g  another  them  the  i s  r e l a t i o n s  e x p r e s s i n g  u n i t e  move-  attempt  of  of  a  The  i n c l i n e d  cause  f e a t u r e s  (at  the  i n t e n t i o n a l i s t  meaning.  i s  t h e n ,  the  of  t h a t  us  and  the  i t s  former  l a t t e r .  v i e w  t h a t  from  w o u l d  r e a l l y  laws  f e a t u r e s  the  The  the  c a u s a l  backwards  s i g n i f i e s  above  s i g n i f i e d )  the  environment  are  t o  to  a c t  p a r t i c l e s  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  f a v o r a b l y  he  an  b a s i c  c a u s a t i o n .  meaning  perhaps we  and  of  c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,  d i s p o s e d  n o n n a t u r a l  s i g n i f i c a t i o n ;  event  c a u s e ,  d i s p o s i t i o n a l  n a t u r a l i s t  movement  a  of  r e f l e x e s , the  w i t h  m i g h t  c e r t a i n  b e h a v i o r a l  l e a s t  m e n t a l i s t ,  a n a l y s i s human  c e n t r a l s e t  t h a t  no  law  Human  f r e e  s o u r c e and  of  to  o p p o s i t i o n  whom  the  I  i n  of  i s  a c t s from  of  by  t h a t o t h e r  nature  a c t i o n s the  r a t h e r  autonomous  on  has  t h i s  the  w i l l .  of  to  the  a s s i g n  n o n n a t u r a l  p a r t i c u l a r  t h a t  c o m m u n i c a t i o n — t o  events a  or  human  v i e w ,  v a g a r i e s i n  s h a l l  c o n c e p t  a c t i o n s — a n d  a p a r t  c o n d i t i o n e d  t h e i r  apparent)  of  agent Man  changes a c t i o n  i n as  though  l a r g e l y  w o r l d l y  happen-  h i m s e l f , i n  t h i s  a c t i n g  r o l e ,  as  12 the  u l t i m a t e  o r i g i n a t o r  and  d i s t i n c t  r e a l m  r e a c h of  of  n a t u r a l  those  t i o n  of  program  w o r l d would  t h a t  m u n i c a t i o n  a c t i o n s ,  m e n t a l ,  upon  (and w h i c h  even  we  our  base  t h o u g h t ) .  l i k e l y  f i n d  i t  a  l e v e l  r e l a t i o n  of of  In  thought n a t u r a l  we  the  s e p a r a t e the  r e a l  w o r k i n g  any  i n i m i c a b l e  a  beyond  perhaps  from  the  i n h a b i t s  o p e r a t i n g  a p a r t  a t  as  the  h i s  n e c e s s i t y  appearances a  t h e o r i s t  of  of  t o  c o n c e p -  e v e n t , h i s  s h o u l d  s o u r c e  t h i s  o v e r a l l r e g a r d  s i g n i f i c a t i o n  or  comc a u s a -  t i o n . Thus a t  l e a s t  as  f a r an  h a v i n g  been  But  showing  i n  a n o t h e r , a b l e two  i n  p o i n t s  we  do  terms  t h e s e  l i n k e d out  a  p r o c e s s ,  and  upon  thereby  guarantee  o t h e r .  however,  two  have f o r  s e c t i o n s  A a  t h a t  n e c e s s a r y and  so  argued  a n a l y s i s I  l o g i c a l l y  dependency  d i r e c t i o n  been an  be  s h a l l  i t s  to  of  i n  s o m e t h i n g ' s  b e i n g  e v i d e n c e d .  dependent the  one  f o r  d i s c o v e r y  at  the  In  f a c t ,  upon  i s  r e l a t i o n  a n a l y z between t h e i r  l e a s t both  l i t e r a t u r e  n o n n a t u r a l  c o n s i d e r  c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,  c o n d i t i o n  t a k e .  f o r  t h a t  upon  s o m e t h i n g ' s  not  the  show  depends  to  p o s s i b l e  the  to  concept  a n a l y t i c a l l y ;  bases  l i n e .  attempted  one  i s ,  s u i t a b l e  each  ongoing  of  c o n c e p t s  n e x t  have  i n t e n d e d  concepts  b e i n g  I  r e c e n t  meaning. attempts  as In a l o n g  13  I I .  The  The  s t a r t i n g  I n t e n t i o n a l  p o i n t  f o r  t h e  A n a l y s i s  a n a l y s i s  o f  n o n n a t u r a l  5 meaning  proposed  t h a t  mean  t o  o n e ' s  i n g S  of  t o  S ' s must  some  t h a t  u t t e r a n c e  attempts  t u r n  be  S ' s  a c t  of  must  be  t i o n  o f  p a r t  t h e r e f r o m  t i o n .  t h i s  make  S ' s  n o n n a t u r a l mechanisms F o r  5  be  t o  an  g e t  and  by  t h e  S  t o  p  example,  " M e a n i n g , "  i t  t o  t h a t  and  i s  t r u e .  i s  I t  a r e i n  achievement n o t  P h i l o s o p h i c a l  p  c l o s e  of  h i s  o f  count  . by  p  i f  Review,  by  between  A ' s  r e c o g n i -  i n f e r r i n g o u t ,  t o on  i n t e n -  e x p e c t e d  (1957),  i n  as  depends  p r i m a r y  66  t h a t  i n t e n t i o n  S  S  r e q u i r -  e x a m i n a t i o n  d i s i n c l i n e d  h i s  G r i c e  h i s  p o i n t e d  w h i c h  by  ( i . e . ,  t h a t  by  u t t e r i n g ,  we  i n t e n d  c o n n e c t i o n  m e d i a t e d  t o . c a s e s  one  a  achievement  t h a t  t o  a n a l y s i s  b e l i e v e  t h e  i n t u i t i o n  t h a t  i n s t r u m e n t a l  be  would  i s  an  i n  meaning the  f i r s t  b e l i e v e  i n t o  t h a t  f o r i t h i s ,  f o r  t o  c l a i m s  c l e a r  o u r  u t t e r a n c e  A  He  i n t e n t i o n  e v i d e n c e  s  i s  p l a t i t u d e  i t  t h a t  1  someone  t o  u t t e r i n g  G r i c e o n e  means).  expected**  n e g a t i v e  by  i n t e n d i n g  w i l l  P.  g e t  i n t e n t i o n  c a s e s  o t h e r  H. p  t o  p a r t i c u l a r  c r e d i t  by  h i s  377-388.  G r i c e , i n v a r i o u s p l a c e s , r e q u i r e s S t o i n t e n d r a t h e r t h a n j u s t e x p e c t A t o p r o c e e d a l o n g t h i s i n f e r e n c e r o u t e . I b e l i e v e t h i s s o r t o f i n t e n t i o n e n t a i l s (or i n p a r t c o n s i s t s i n ) , b e s i d e s t h e e x p e c t a t i o n , a d e s i r e (or p r e f e r ence) on S ' s p a r t t h a t A so i n f e r . B u t s i n c e i t i s d i f f i c u l t even t o imagine s i t u a t i o n s where t h e means t h e m s e l v e s are an o b j e c t of d e s i r e i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e outcome, i t w o u l d be a t l e a s t unwise t o i n c l u d e t h i s c o n d i t i o n as p a r t of t h e a n a l y s a n s . (See on t h i s : J o n a t h a n B e n n e t t , "The M e a n i n g N o m i n a l i s t S t r a t e g y , " 10 (1973), 143-4.) 6  14 u t t e r i n g  of  evidence  t h a t  t h a t  p . .  x  t o p  The  "S  or  as  a n a l y s i s  meant  (1)  p r o d u c e ,  S  t h a t  (2)  (3)  s i s  t h i s  t h e s e  a t t a c k s c r i t i c  t o  r e c o g n i z e  S  e x p e c t s  a n a l y s a n s  b u t  n o n n a t u r a l  t o the  be  an  s u c c e s s f u l , the  to  get  x  to  h i s  u t t e r i n g  t h a t A  b e l i e v e s  o n l y  i f  :  A  t o  ;  S  to  i t  i s  of  has  r e a s o n  t r u e  t h a t  e n a b l e  i n t e n t i o n as  As  tend  A  (1);  f o l l o w s :  to  a i s  p o s s i b l e n o t ,  w h i c h  on and  a of  shows  the  the  i n t u i t i v e a t t a c k s  n o n n a t u r a l The  on i s  and  been  brought  o t h e r i n t o  two  t h a t  the  i n  to the  be  but of  too  second  a n a l y -  w h i c h  s a t i s f i e s an  c o n s t r u c t e d  type  b e a r  c a t e g o r i e s : the the  i n s t a n c e  n e c e s s i t y  meaning  to  c o n c e p t u a l  judgment,  f i r s t  a n a l y s a n s  r e l a t i o n ;  .  a n a l y s i s ,  s i t u a t i o n  s i t u a t i o n  a n a l y s a n s .  any  d i v i d e  of  ;  p  have  w i t h  s u f f i c i e n c y  p  t h a t  counterexamples  b i c o n d i t i o n a l  s t r o n g .  x  p  n a t u r a l  i s :  u t t e r i n g  (c)  i n s t a n c e  proposed  S  and  b e l i e v e s  meaning; i n  t h a t  i f  S  a n a l y s i s .  i n v e n t s  a s ,  t r u e  (b)  the  e v i d e n c e  t a k e n  (1);  o b j e c t i o n s  on  a n a l y s i s ,  t h a t  i t s e l f  r e s u l t s  i s  by  i n t e n d s  V a r i o u s a g a i n s t  t h a t  S  (a)  be  n a t u r a l  p"  i n t e n d s  b e l i e v e  o r  of  the  w h i c h  does  i s  not  o b j e c t i o n , weak  to  shows  of  f e l t s a t i s f y i f  s u p p o r t them  too  15 F.  example  t o  the  s u f f i c i e n c y  example  i s  the  c a s e  f r i e n d  the  A  i s  does  l o o k i n g not  A  scene  the  i s  i s  deed)  the  a g a i n s t  B  b e l i e v e ,  on  r e a l l y  thought B  i s  .  i t  B  w h i c h  the  must  n a t u r a l  the  not to  be  s a t i s f i e d :  p a r t  from  p l a i n had  t h a t  meant  B  t h i s  t h i s t h i s  a  d i r e c t  p l a c e s  A  to as  f o r me  A  ,  h i s  the  murderer  m o t i v e s , way.  B ' s  S  I n s t e a d ,  h a t  at  the  r e a s o n  as  f o l l o w s :  n a t u r a l  or  r e l i a b l e  t h e r e  from  S  the  must  take  i s  such  i t  f o r  g u i l t y .  t h a t  expect as  me  time  b e l i e v e  S  i s  a  I  w i l l  e v i d e n c e  to  come  Of  c o u r s e  c o n c l u s i o n ;  to  of  t h i s  to t h i s  but  b e i n g  u n l e s s  r e l i a b l e  he  f e l l o w ,  so  m u r d e r e r . "  a r e  r e c o g n i z e  i s  S  B  t r u e .  c o n d i t i o n s  to  B  i n t e n d i n g  want  c l e a r l y  ( t h a t  t h a t  m u r d e r e r .  e v i d e n c e  can  p  g e t  i n  c o u n t e r -  One  s e l f - s e r v i n g  been  t h a t  of  t o  count  be  type  wants  c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  b a s i s ,  would  f o r t h i s  f a c t  We  t h a t  S  a  a n a l y s i s .  b e l i e v e  would  i s  c e r t a i n  s u r e l y  to  i n  he  t h i s  the  e x p e c t i n g  and,  So  S  of  l o o k o u t ,  what  h a t  i s n ' t  f r i e n d  the  had  t h a t  d e s c r i b e d  a c c o m p l i s h  on  i t  has  However,  murder,  ( i f  d i s c o v e r  my  t o  a r r a n g i n g  e v i d e n c e the  f o r .  want  of  i n  d e t e c t i v e ,  knowing  "S  Strawson  7  P.  i s  see  S  the  i n t e n t i o n ;  i s  not  a  a l l  of  i n t e n d s  m u r d e r e r ) ;  r e c o g n i t i o n  t h a t  t h a t  S  t h a t  case  i n  the to  get  S  i n t e n d s  expects p  i s  which  p r e v i o u s l y  A  t r u e . we  A  to  to to  would  b e l i e v e get  i n f e r  But  i t  say  adduced  A i n  i s t h a t  a l s o S  p.  7 " I n t e n t i o n p h i c a l  Review,  73  and  C o n v e n t i o n  (1964),  439-460.  i n  Speech  A c t s , "  P h i l o s o -  16 The  q u i c k  ( i n  the  r e q u i r e n i z e  h i s  to  g e t  i n  our  have up  to  i n  A  A ' s  away,  .  S  then  " e v i d e n c e " f o l l o w i n g g e n u i n e , me  to  take  s i n c e  he  t o  take  B  i s  h i s  way,  as  of he  i t .  f o r  t r u e .  And,  s a f e l y  i n f e r  as  t h i s  though He  i s  we  he j u s t  He  i s  e v i d e n c e  murderer.  He  w a t c h i n g t h a t  d o i n g  not  the  s i n c e a f t e r  he  w i s h  b e l i e v e  i t  s o ,  thus  and  t h i s he  i s  a l l  to to  t r u e to  a l l o w  s o r t  t h a t  i n t e n d to  d e c e i v e  me  he as  and,  f u r t h e r ,  u n l e s s  t h e r e  b e l i e v e  i n f e r ,  i n  u n l e s s  he  r e a l l y  d i d  B  i s  the  such  me,  i t f o r  r a t h e r , t h a t  must  have  to  the  to  judge  were  t o  about  were  b e l i e v e  me  r e l i a b l e  the  p o s s i b i l i t y  t h a t  t o  h i s  i n t e n d i n g  judge  come  g i v e  i n  w o u l d , be  must  to  s u s p i c i o n  r e a s o n  t h a t  me  sneaks  arrange  t h a t  i n t e n d s me  f i r s t  enough  to to  f o r  not  s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y  cannot  He  murderer,  w o u l d n ' t of  h i m .  e x p e c t i n g  would  not  e v i d e n c e  do  c r e a t i n g  A  f a k i n g  n a t u r a l  am  e x p e c t s  r e c o g -  m o d i f i c a t i o n  S  l o u d  of  to  i n t e n t i o n  s t i l l  were  i s  to  h i s  c a s e ,  m u r d e r - s i t e  as  S  t h a t  the  b e i n g  something  In  A  s l i g h t  to  the  and  B u t  show  a  goes  e v i d e n c e  would  w i l l  h a t ) .  I  B ' s  But  e x t e n t  murderer,  r e a s o n s ,  r e a s o n s d i d  i t  .  the  B  knows  r e c o g n i z e  to  "S  t h i s  the  t r u t h t h a t  way: show  to p  i n t e n d  not  (B's  S t r a w s o n ,  A  p r e s e n c e .  but  by  S  t h a t  p l a c e  o f f e r e d  t h a t  c o n d i t i o n s .  h i d i n g  c o n f i r m i n g  as  get  example  s u f f i c i e n t  h i m s e l f  to  b e l i e v e  p r e v i o u s  A ' s  out,  analysans)  i n t e n t i o n A  to  way  good  t h a t  B  whatever b e l i e v e  t h i n g s ,  m u r d e r e r . "  I  can  i t  17 T h i s b u t  i t  i s  i n t e n d s p  ,  a A  and  to  t o o  i s  c l e a r l y  case  i n  which  to  i n f e r  c o n t i n u e  t h i s  i n  to  o r d e r  seems  to  example ever S  p r o t e c t  produce  i n t e n d s S  sound  l i k e  A  mean  something  i n  p r i n c i p l e  examples  of  w i t h  t o  i n t e n t i o n s a  r e q u i r e  f o r  t h a t  i t .  s o r t  end  must  what  A  ;  by  i s  t h e r e  b e i n g  ever  (whether of  S  more  o r ,  A n o t h e r  s t r a t e g y — o n e have  a  A  to  and an  l a s t  b e l i e v e  whent h a t  b e l i e v e  t h i s  does  u t t e r a n c e  more  not when  n o t h i n g  complex  e i t h e r  l i k e l y ,  a n a l y s i s  to  manageable  r e q u i r i n g  s i m p l y  t h a t  a p p a r e n t l y  humanly  t h a t  To  The  l e a s t , A  p  S  counterexamples  i n t e n d s  i n t e n d  way.  o r i g i n a l  the  t h a t  t h a t  b e l i e v e  r e s u l t s .  i n t e n d  meaning,  b e l i e v e to  of  t h e r e  r e s u l t  t o  to  And  i m p o s s i b l e  "not  a t  S  we  l o g i c a l l y  S  A  the  s o r t s  r e q u i r e ,  b e l i e v e  p r e v e n t  t h i s the  of  n o n n a t u r a l  p r e s c r i b e d  such  he  to  by  the  c o u n t e r i n t u i t i v e to  of  i n t e n d s  S  from  p . ,  p a r t  c a s e  s t r e n g t h e n i n g  us  A  a  i n t e n d s  i n  b e l i e v e  i n t e n d s  we  f a c t  o n l y  to  any  t h i s of  t h a t  S  t h a t  i t  f o r c e  means  t h a t  of  from  method  would  S  n o t ) ,  b e l i e v e  not  ones  an  r e q u i r i n g  c o u n t e r or  i n f i n i t y what  i s  i n  i n t e n t i o n . recommended  c e r t a i n  s o r t  by  of  G r i c e - - i s  i n t e n t i o n  to or  8 complex i n g  an  of  i n t e n t i o n s . "  a d d i t i o n a l  seems  more  f i l l )  a  H.  complex  r e a s o n a b l e  c o n d i t i o n  P.  P h i l o s o p h i c a l  T h i s  t h a t  G r i c e , Review,  t o  has  c o n d i t i o n append  r e q u i r e s  " U t t e r e r ' s 78  to  (1969),  f o r  (and S  i t s  c r e d i t S  e a s i e r to  l a c k  Meaning 159.  and  to  not  c r e a t -  f u l f i l l ;  f o r  S  r a t h e r  i t  t o  f u l -  than  to  I n t e n t i o n s , "  18 have The  c e r t a i n most  s o r t  i s  s i m p l y  does  S  i n t e n d s  not  not  the  he  i n t e n d  him  he him i t  S  not  would  h a v i n g  example, doubt  r e c o g n i z e to  not  c o n s i d e r  t o .  The  second  the  above w i t h  a l o n g  l i n e s  the  p r e c e d i n g  the  o r i g i n a l of  t h i n k  w h i c h  i s  attempted  were  t o l d  i n  a  the  i n t e n t i o n ; o u t .  And  him  are  always  " p o s i t i v e " a n a l y s i s  more  n o n n a t u r a l t h a t  S  meaning,  does  c o n s t i t u t i v e r e v i s i o n s i s  e v i d e n c e  the  l o c a t i o n  of  i n  not to  do  t h a t , the  have  h i s  not  c a s e s as  him  t h a t  to  the  how of  does  i s more  n o t  b e l i e v e  p o i n t  not  i t  i t s  the  p  not  but  d i d  at  t h a t  i s  ;  but  expect  s i n c e  i n  f u l f i l l e d a  case  of  c o n d i t i o n s  b e i n g  outmaneuvered  Anyway,  t h i s  way  o u t ,  assumes  t h a t  the  d e f e c t  f a i l u r e  t o  i n  end  p r e c l u d e ,  w h i c h  one  meaning  of  the  as  f o r m u l a t e d ,  S  h i s  t h a t  i n  p r o b l e m .  n o t i c e d  t h a t  S  need  S  t h a t  c o n s i d e r  c o n d i t i o n  c a p a b l e  i t s  be  so  b e l i e f  to  shows  attempt,  l i e s  the and  o n e s ,  t h i s  t h a t  way  t h a t  i n t e n d s  S  m a t t e r ,  o r i g i n a l  t o  (wrongly)  i s  t h i n k  A d m i t t e d l y ,  were  c o u n t e r e x a m p l e s .  examples t r u e  w i l l  A  i n  example  meaning.  h i g h e r - o r d e r  cases  i t  n e g a t i v e - e x i s t e n t i a l  G r i c e ' s  t h e s e  But  p  b l o c k  .  t h i s  b e l i e v e  A  p  of  to  get .  t h i n k  produce  c o n d i t i o n  to p  i f  t h a t  to  way  t h a t  a  means  A  t h i s  a  f o r  he  i n t e n d i n g  t h a t  p r o v i d e  no  i n t e n d s  n o n n a t u r a l  to  S ' s  m i g h t  a l o n g  by  i n t e n t i o n  b e l i e v e  f i r s t  to  be  counterexamples  upon  the  whenever  c a n d i d a t e not  S  the  to  does  m a t t e r  t h a t  have  above  debarment i n  t h a t  A  depend  l e a s t  i n t e n t i o n s  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d  S  t h a t  e x o t i c  l i k e  as  i n t e n d s i n t e n t i o n s  . the  they  That  of  A one  these  c o u n t e r have  m i s s e d  19 I t  m i g h t  be  e x p e c t e d  t h a t  more  s o p h i s t i c a t e d  t y p e s  9  of  n e g a t i v e - e x i s t e n t i a l  h a n d l e  the  c o u n t e r e x a m p l e s  even  i f  they  open  to  a  must  i n  t h i s  know,  i n  c o n c e p t  were  t h e  e x p l a i n pose  t o  g e n e r a l  c r i t i c i s m t a k e  a  p r i o r i  some under  s t u d y  c o n c e p t  c o n c e p t t h e s e  do  may  on  a p p l y i n  not  c o n d i t i o n  One  f u n c t i o n  demand  f o r  c o n d i t i o n s t h a t  would  i s  such  b a s i s  i n s t a n c e  terms  of  t h i s  i s  such  a  s o r t  c o u n t e r e x a m p l e , our  c o n c e p t s  a n a l y s i s  For  must  i n s t a n c e ,  t h a t  a  c o v e r  c o n d i t i o n and  were  s u r e l y  was  t a k e s . t o  t h e r e  p u r t o  i s  i n s t a n c e  a  t o  t y p i f y  then  m e r e l y  d e s c r i p t i o n i s  to  be  i s c l a s -  The  j u s t i f i e d  f o r  i g n o r a n c e ;  the  t o  a  c e r t a i n  a  purpose  i s  t h i s  o r i g i n a l l y  b l o c k i s  not  (1969),  p.  a s s u m p t i o n  f o r m e d — a  c a p t u r e .  G r i c e  i n  s p e c i a l  t h a t  t h i s  the  i t  coming  s e r v e s  I t  t h a t  c o n c e p t .  h e r e  s e r v e d  i f  any  to  by  o f f e r e d  In  n o t i c e d  l i k e  s e r v e d  been  u s e r s .  a p p a r e n t l y  a l o n e ,  an  by  was  t h a t  c o m p l e x i t y  denote  c o u n t e r e x a m p l e s .  t h i s  "not"  t o  i t s  i t  t o  the  w h i c h  s e r v e  have  purpose  c o r r e c t  form.  159.  .  are  have  s t i p u l a t e d ,  f o r  any  t o  But  they  t h a t  p e r p l e x i n g  of  t o  attempt.  n e g a t i v e - e x i s t e n t i a l s  c e r t a i n  t h a t  r e s p e c t ,  what  would  r e v e a l e d  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n  i s  t h i s  n e g a t i v e  t h a t  c e r t a i n  s i f i e d  s i m p l e  s u i t e d  c o u n t e r e x a m p l e s  t h i s  t o  t h i s  a p p l y i n g  way,  b e t t e r  what  f o r m u l a t e  not  i n  be  i n  the  as  the  c o u l d  t h a n  s u c c e e d  way  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n But  c l a u s e s  o n l y  purpose  a  20 The examples b e i n g  (the  f o c u s  i t  i n t e n t i o n f a l s e .  i s  In  f o r  A  and  to to  to  S ' s  i n f e r  p  ,  whereas  S  i n t e n t i o n .  t h a t  he  second  f a c t  f a k i n g  i s  f a k i n g  g e n e r a l  g e t t i n g  t h a t  p  or  o t h e r ,  to  be  e v i d e n c e  i n f e r  t h a t A  f i r s t  of  S  i s  p  i s  f a k i n g  t h a t  he  A  to  i s  S  e v i d e n c e  t o  i n f e r  t h a t  t h a t  e v i d e n c e p  w i t h  e v i d e n c e  t h i n k  f a k i n g  j u s t  i n t e n d s  c e r t a i n  e v i d e n c e ,  has  s i t u a t i o n  f a k i n g a  be  was  f r a d u l e n t  w i t h  i n t e n d s  p l a n  i s  to  he  example  e v i d e n c e  r e a l l y  t h a t  " o v e r t n e s s "  the  he  has  r e c o g n i z e ;  f r a d u l e n t  w h i c h  S  knows  S ' s  i m p r e s s i o n  of  t h a t  b e l i e v e s  t r u t h  the  u n c o n -  h i s  S  t h e i r  i n t e n t .  S  i s  whereas  he  e v i d e n c e  t h a t  i s he  e v i d e n c e .  In i n  S he  t o  f r a d u l e n t  e v i d e n c e  t h a t  A  m a n u f a c t u r i n g  i s ,  example  e v i d e n c e  i n  i f  i n t e n d to  c o u n t e r -  c o n s t i t u t e s  not  m a n u f a c t u r i n g  f a c t  such  i s  examples,  In  a l l  them)  A  r e a l i z a t i o n i n  t h a t  p r e m i s e  (false)  i s  That  f a k i n g  not  when  m a n u f a c t u r i n g  i s  i n  S  i s  t h i s  f a k i n g  t h i s  the  he  the  above  i n  i n t u i t i v e l y ,  i n t e n d s  p l a n ,  t h a t  t h a t  In  does  a c c o r d i n g l y .  from  i s  he  we  j u d g i n g  i n i t i a l  the  t h i n k ,  i n g r e d i e n t  so  S  some  have  t h i n k  t h a t  t h a t  I  what  i n  w h i c h  both  through  ;  upon  from  seen  p  e s s e n t i a l  i n t e n t i o n  r a t h e r ,  A  d i f f i c u l t y ,  c o u n t e r e x a m p l e s :  s c o u s l y , some  r e a l  A (as on  f a l s e .  to he  i s  A ' s I  terms, b e l i e v e  the t h a t  r e q u i r e d  to  i n f e r r i n g  a l s o  t h i n k  p r o b l e m S  (though  to  be  A  to  r e l i e s ,  a t  some  premise  t h a t  i n t e n d s  d o ) ,  from  seems  a I  d o n ' t  know  t h a t  S  ,  b e l i e v e  S how  stage b e l i e v e s to  defend  t h i s  i n t u i t i o n  examples)  t h a t  T h a t ,  i n  upon  A ' s a  a  of  i n g I t o  A  to  be  t r u e  i n f e r  n e c e s s i t y  t h a t  b e l i e f ,  from  known A  b e l i e v e s  v i d i n g ,  not  he  i s  to must  w i l l  the  by  l a w f u l  serve  t h a t i n  r e q u i r e d i n  A  the  (or  does  not  i n  i n  w h i c h  to  by  a  b e l i e f  a  the  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n  must  or  as  c o n c l u s i v e  to  or  s e r i e s  E  of ,  h i s  e v i d e n c e  as  a  be  We  A  of  t o  the  of  such  t h i s  i n f e r r e d t h a t  p  l o n g  as  In  some  f o r  even S o r d e r  p r o p o s i i n  t h a t  t h a t  p r o p r o p o -  A ' s  r e q u i r e s  b e l i e f  be  backed  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s .  c o n d i t i o n ,  u t t e r a n c e t h a t  l a w -  have  i n s t r u m e n t a l  ensure  .  a s s u r e d  n o t ) . f o r  i n t e n d -  by  and  as  e v i d e n c e  have  b e i n g  matter  mean  i s  be  S ' s  i s  s t a t e  s t a t e ,  i n t e n t i o n — p e r h a p s  a n a l y s i s .  i t  k n o w l e d g e — w h i c h  e v i d e n c e  i n t e n d  i f  may  he  t o  known  S  knowledge  f o r m u l a t i o n  S  A  c l a i m :  r e l y i n g  upon  not  c o u n t e r -  from  l o g i c a l l y  c o n c l u s i v e  of  i s  be  b e l i e v e  s u f f i c i e n t  from  are  normal  normal  of  b e l i e v e s  depends  t h a t  i n  S  p r e c l u d e d  i t  p r o v i d e ,  w i t h  p o s i t i v e  S  a  probable)  someone  i n s t a n c e  o r i g i n a l  s t r o n g e r  c o u r s e , i n  i n s t r u m e n t a l  G r i c e ' s  be  f a c t  i n f e r e n c e  The s i m p l y  A  i n  an  f o r  known  degree  e v i d e n c e  be  be  Of  i n t e n d  w i t h  t h a t a  to  s h o u l d  p e r s o n  made  i f  p r e m i s e s  some  i n d u c e  number  p r e m i s e s  meaning  p r e m i s e s .  t h a t  s i t i o n : b e l i e f  or  be  r e a s o n a b l e  ( i n t u i t i v e l y )  s h o u l d  i s  i n t e n d one  i s  from  to  any  c o u l d  from  p r o p o s i t i o n (or  of  s i t u a t i o n s  n o n n a t u r a l  a  t i o n  t o  s i t u a t i o n  l i k e  to  c a s e  i n f e r r i n g  take  when  a  means  a d d i t i o n  f a l s e , case  by  of  then,' x  ,  to  S  has  the  the  one  mentioned  a l r e a d y  seen  how  i s  t h i s  22 a v o i d s  the  cannot  ( c o n c e p t u a l l y  to  S ' s  b e l i e v e s (or  one  depend  counterexamples  be  t h a t  b e l i e f  A ' s  i t s e l f  upon  A ' s  b e i n g  based  upon  s i d e ,  t h i s  i n v o l v e s ,  i f not  1  we  i s i n  (we  0  s p o t  seems  an  a  say  our  as  a  be  "S  the  meant  i n t e n d s A  E  to  S  we  i s  s e r v e  i n t e n d s  t h a t (2)  On  as  the  " l e t  an  have  so  i f  way  p o s i t i v e  t h a t  com-  e s s e n t i a l l y of  him  or  we  and  t h i s  c o n s i d e r e d :  o n l y  c o n c l u s i v e  do  even  c o u n t s ,  f a r  know-  know");  exchange  s e v e r a l  t r u e  c e r t a i n  i f  evidence  S i n  S  See  ( d e s i r e s )  to  g e t  A  to  b e l i e v e  p;  e x p e c t s  (a)  58.  a  p r o d u c t i o n  we  f o r  on  p r e m i s e  i n t u i t i o n  the  S  counterexamples  c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,  T h u s ,  p"  f a l s e  i n  w h i c h  t h a t  b a s i s  a n a l y s i s  t h a t  such  our  s e n s e ,  of  a  i f  as  t h a t :  (1)  p.  case  b e s t  to  a c t i v i t y ,  the  upon  S  b e l i e f  knowledge  r e a s o n  audience  as  A ' s  d e c e p t i o n .  answers  i m p o r t a n t  of  of  a l l  to  i n t r o d u c e d :  t h a t  based  And  communication.  to  i s  u n d e r l y i n g  d e c e p t i o n i t  i n s t a n c e  come  r a t i o n a l  Strawson  i n t e n d  known). h a v i n g  some  c l a s s i f y  attempted  an  f o r m u l a t i o n  m u n i c a t i o n  l e d g e  cannot)  i n t e n t i o n s  not  t h a t  A  to  r e a s o n  as  f o l l o w s :  (1);  (b)  S  b e l i e v e s  (c)  i t  i s  Stephen  F.  t h a t  ( l i k e l y )  p  t r u e  S c h i f f e r ,  ; t h a t  Meaning  p  .  (London,  1972),  23 I t i f  the  m i g h t  p r e s e n t  S t r a w s o n i a n the o r  e x p e c t s ,  t o  S ' s  n i z e d of p  t h a t A  A.  they  t h a t But  t h i s s i n c e  whatever T h i s s i b l e  i s  l o g i c a l l y o t h e r  s e t we  must  always  l i s t  we  to  c o h e r e n t i f  f o r m u l a t i o n . r e c o g n i z e t h a t i s  the  i t s e l f ,  t h a t  add  a  i t  not  a  c e r t a i n  j u s t  not  r e q u i r e d  a l l e g e d  i n t u i t i o n •, a s  s u b j e c t  phrase  to  i n  not no  d e b a r r e d  do  to  problems  g i v e  f o r m u l a t e d  I  terms  ("Every  i n t e n t i o n  i n c l u d i n g  example,  S c h i f f e r ,  p.  41.  s e t t h a t  c o n d i t i o n by  A.  s o r t  to s e t .  l o g i c a l l y i t  was  to  i m p o s -  not  p l a c e .  a  On  a f f e c t  f o r  of  the  p r e s e n t  A  to e v i d e n c e  t h a t a  t h i s  the  the  i n t e n t i o n :  c o n j e c t u r e i n  the  c o n c l u s i v e  i n s t r u m e n t a l  s o .  any  e x p e c t i n g  him  r e c o g -  complete  f i r s t  from  be  t h i s  a  say  t a k e n  T h i s  meaning  of  a  .  c o n s t i t u t i v e  f o r  add  be  i s  the  p  r e c o g n i z e d  never  j u s t  i s  complex  we  c o n d i t i o n  i s  to  t h a t  the  i n t e n d s ,  to  S ' s  be  demand  makes  i n t e n d s  has  t o  can  t h i s  f o r  u n t i l  S  i n t u i t i o n  he  For  by  r e q u i r e m e n t  i s S  s e t  i t  S  i s  S  even  c a p t u r e  t h a t  t h a t by  t h a t  1  t o  then  meant  have  d e r i v e d  w h i c h  then  S  would  t h e r e  t h a t  f u l f i l l ,  S  1  b l o c k e d  f a i l s p  i n t e n d e d  complete  say  t h a t  t h a t  be  have  have,  i t  p  i n t e n d e d  to  e f f e c t i v e l y  i n t e n t i o n  demand  a  t h e o r i s t s  every  be  hand,  a n a l y s i s  t h a t  may  not  j u s t  one  r e c o g n i z e  T h i s  are  has  some  meant  s  t h a t  we  by  c o u n t e r e x a m p l e , i f  to  demands  c o n d i t i o n s ,  of  meaning  by  o b j e c t e d  f o r m u l a t i o n  s o r t  i n t u i t i o n  i n t u i t i o n  be  .he  the  s e l f - r e f e r a n t one  i s  to  be  i n t e n d e d  by  u l t e r i o r  motive  l i s t s  i n t e n t i o n s  a  of  method  w h i c h  I  S  f o r  have  of  t o  have  does the  by  A ' s  might  any  to  f a l s e .  i n  some  be  m i s t a k e n  i n t e n d s  t o  c a s e s  t h i n k  t h a t  A  ( i f ).  c o n c e r n e d o n l y  S  a l r e a d y  Or  anyway—perhaps h i s  s u b j e c t s  to i t  m i g h t  b e l i e v e i n  of  A  to  be  the  t h a t  of  i n  p  such  to  b u t A  t h i n g s ,  of  the  t e l l s  as  so  him  he  t h a t  p  might  l i k e l y  to  p r o p o s i t i o n A  t h i s b e l i e v e s  b e l i e v e d  him ,  i n  even  (S) i s  or  w h i c h  a l l o w  t e l l  he  p  i n  S  t h a t  t h a t  not  are  i s  A  non-  s p e c i f i e d  S  t h a t  g e t  which  c a s e ,  t h a t  i s  does  i n  to  the  to  b e l i e v e  t h a t  S  I t  not  way  wants  case  ,  t h e r e  t o  s o r t  as  c o n d i t i o n s  c a s e s  or  the  b e l i e v e  ,  x  does  common  S  s e c u r i n g  c a s e s  and  i t ,  A  the  b u t  c o n f e s s i n g  knowledge  are  g o a l ;  more  h a v e ,  i n t e n d  u t t e r i n g  t h i n k s  w i t h ,  g e t  S  there  get  t o  means.  f o r  a p p a r e n t l y ,  the  p  s t r a t e  And,  w i t h  i s  t h a t  not  i n f i n i t e  n e c e s s i t y .  s i t u a t i o n  b u t  s t a r t  t h a t to  i t ,  not  o r i g i n a l  a c h i e v i n g  To  about  way  a  to  the  c o u n t e r e x a m p l e s ,  some  t h e i r  as  o r  of  the  s e r v e d  made  o t h e r  i n  the  of  a n a l y s i s .  ,  p  but  a c h i e v e  S  S  has  by  a n a l y s i s  the  t h i s ,  a v o i d  upon  w h i c h  have  s o r t  however,  e x p e c t a t i o n  w h i c h  i s  anyway  i n  ;  A " ) ,  a p p e a l  t o  a n a l y s i s ,  o r i g i n a l p  i s  p r o v i d e d  a t t a c k s  t h a t  d e s i r e  i n  p  to  by  the  above  t o  have  b e l i e v i n g  o r i g i n a l  that  I  S  the  G r i c e ' s  the  expect  cases  t h a t  i f  meaning  he  j u s t i f y i n g  Even  b e l i e v e  n a t u r a l  of  a v o i d i n g  v u l n e r a b l e  t o  r e c o g n i z e d  endeavored  r e q u i r e d A  be  have  s u f f i c i e n c y are  to  t h a t  or  to  not  to  by p  demonl e t  A  25 know  t h a t  Or  A  S  S  a l r e a d y  might  to  an  e x t r e m e l y  an  i n v e t e r a t e  t h i n g s ) ,  so  t h a t  S  o r d e r  get  him  t o  b e l i e v e  where  we  say  a l s o S  be  be  b e l i e v e s  to  cases  d i d  f i e d  not  i n  e x p e c t  the  e x p e c t i n g and  t o  t h i s  t o  i n f e r  f u r t h e r  or  S ' s  or  i n  t h a t  to  use  of  out  as  to  the  (or  t h a t  such  t h a t  f a l s e . p  p . .  b e l i e v e  about  him  a n a l y s i s ,  i n t e n t i o n  t h a t of  S ' s A  t h a t  p  i n  There  are  but  i n  i n f e r e n c e - s e q u e n c e  S ' s  c a s e s  d e s c r i b a b l e  i s  meant  the  t h e r e f r o m  wrong  t e l l s  p  S  v e r s i o n  t h o s e  p o i n t i n g  t h i s )  b e l i e v e s f e l l o w  always  t h a t  r e c o g n i z e  p a r t l y  mechanism  are  A  A  c o n t r a r y  (knowing  o r i g i n a l A  l i a r  t h a t  p  .  t h a t  i n  S  w h i c h  s p e c i i s ,  of  u t t e r i n g  seems  to  x  bypass  n o n n a t u r a l  meaning  t h a t  r e m i n d i n g  A  p  t h a t  p  ,  t h a t  ,  .  12 G r i c e ' s examples a  t o  weakening  a l l e g e s  remedy  the of  t h a t  to  n e c e s s i t y the  i n  of  a l l  the  of  e x p e c t s  A  b e l i e v e  t h a t  t h i s  the  can  t i a l  to  r e p l a c e h i s  s p e c i f i e d w i l l t r u e .  judge  t e l l i n g ,  meaning  as  one S  However,  G r i c e  i n  as  t h i s  w h i c h  i t  and  does  p.  a t  The i s  l e a s t  i s  from  to  w e l l  as  i n  t h a t  S  p  a v o i d  ,  case  t h a t a l l  He  so  t h a t  expected t h i s  f o r  have.  t h a t S ' s  c a l l  to  t r u e  s t a n d a r d  c l e a r l y  171.  of  f u r t h e r  i n f e r  not  as  b e l i e v e s  .  c o u n t e r -  r e q u i r e d  i n t e n t i o n p  (1969):,  i s  i s S  of  c o n d i t i o n s  S  i t  t h a t  r e l i a b l e  s o r t s  c o u n t e r e x a m p l e s ,  c a s e s  we  h i s  i n t e n t i o n  s t a n d a r d  to  s i m i l a r  i s  i s  the  t h a t e s s e n -  then  t h a t p the  A i s  26 d i f f i c u l t i e s t o  S ' s  e x p e c t a t i o n  a c h i e v e can i f  h i s  be  made  o n l y  t o  t h i n k s so  m e n t i o n e d ,  more go  e x p e c t e d  t h a t  p  m i g h t  f u r t h e r  i n t e n d s to  F o l l o w i n g  to  b e l i e v e t h a t  S  l y i n g .  i s  t e l l i n g not t o  A  f i c i e n c y  a  a  t h a t  p  t h a t  p  m i g h t  of  the  f o r m u l a t i o n  of  i n  meant  a l l  and  t h a t  a n a l y s i s , S  s t i l l .  t e l l  t o  come  i n t e n d e d  .  But  ,  t h i n k  i t  t h a t  i s S  S  might  an  i r o n i c  even  a t so  t h a t  i n t e n d way,  t h a t  be  i s  o u t , S  to  S  A m i g h t  t h i n k s A  to  we  m e r e l y  get  t h a t  f o r  and  b e l i e v e s  way  t h a t  A  S  S  e x p e c t i n g  S  m i g h t ,  l y i n g ,  a  i n t e n d s  t h i n k s  to  when  t h a t  c o n c e i v a b l e  S  o r  to  attempt  t h a t  i s  S  even  even  e f f e c t ,  d i r e c t e d  counterexamples  p  l i k e l y  f i r s t  b e l i e v e  i n  to  he  example,  t h a t i s  are  w h i c h  the  For  A S  to  p we  c o u l d  be  our  o n l y  .  In  need  t h a t  take A  h i s  w i l l  i n t e n d i n g  would  be  those  to  my  i n  f o r  him  by  see  e x p e c t  the  us  to  What  we  e x p e c t a t i o n  s u f a r r i v e  need  i s  t h a t  i s S  say  t h a t  amendment  to  the  o r i g i n a l  of  h i s  o n l y  h i s  u t t e r a n c e . i f  e n a b l e  on  we  and  what,  r e p a i r  w h i c h  s p e c i f i c a t i o n  when  w i l l  and  c a s e s of  l a s t  d i f f i c u l t i e s .  i n t e n t i o n  r e a s o n a b l y  s o m e t h i n g  the  a n a l y s i s  terms  a  he  t h a t  p r e s e n t  S ' s  s i g n i f y  meant  hoped  o r i g i n a l  r e l i a b l y  here  e v e n t ,  t h a t  F u r t h e r ,  to  h i s  any  the  t h i n k s  s o l u t i o n  t r u e  In  by  t h a t  b e l i e v e . I t  a t  p  A  b e l i e v e so  A  t h a t  t h i n k  means  G r i c e ' s  weaken  g e t  the  r e c o r d , t h i n k s  t h o s e  to  e l a b o r a t e  on A  be  .  as  i n t e n t i o n .  t h a t  cannot  e s p e c i a l l y  when  what  m e n t a l  u t t e r i n g i t  i s A  a n y t h i n g ,  of  t r u e  x to  p l a u s i b l e i s  s t a t e  of  to say  t h a t  s t r a t e g y  ( u s u a l l y )  27 s i g n i f i e d  by  E  o n l y  when  i t  i s  here  our  t h a t  s t a n d a r d t h e r e b y p r o p e r say of  whom  c o r r e l a t i o n  meant  t o  of  a n a l y s i s  making  i t  I  S ' s  have  u t t e r i n g  say  t h a t  those i n  of  t h i s (or  t h a t  p l a u s i b l e i n  h i s  of  p  to  the  as  w h i c h  which  we  say  we  — w i t h  t h i n k  of  s p e c i a l i z e d  of  r e a l l y the  we  to  .  and But  e s t a b l i s h  say  t h a t  t h a t  E  had  s a y i n g  communication of  t h a t  S some  hopes  statement  u l t i m a t e  sense  when p  n a t u r a l i s t  form  are  )  t h a t  t r y i n g  i n  The  x  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  c a s e s  l a t t e r  what  of  meant  r e p r e s e n t e d  those  t h a t  S  t h a t  s i g n i f i c a t i o n .  meant  p r o c e s s ,  by  approximates  and  show  S  to  between  p  s o r t  that)  n a t u r a l  t r u e  c o n c e r n  n a t u r a l i s t , a  ( i . e . ,  i s  when  the we  o b j e c t i v e as  a  p h r a s e .  28  III.  In tend  to  the  our  of  as  e v o l v i n g  t i e s ,  once  a  c o u r s e  c r e d i t  e x p e r i e n c e  our  s u i t a b l y  a  of  t h i n g s .  c o n d i t i o n a l , i n  s o r t  In and  s e r v e  some  w i t h  the  r e g u l a r i t i e s  s p e c i a l  a b s t r a c t e d  o r d e r s ,  N a t u r a l i z e d  e n c o u n t e r s  observed  p o s s e s s i n g p i c t u r e  t h a t  of  c e r t a i n  u n i v e r s a l  t h e o r y ,  Communication  of  i n  t h e s e  g e n e r a l i z e d d e f i n e  manageably  what  we  we  s i g n i f i c a n c e  e f f e c t ,  to  w o r l d  a  r e g u l a r i -  i n  the  form  system,  f i n i t e  i n  way,  or our  13 p a r t i c u l a r w o r l d ,  these  d e f i n i n g g i v e n  one  s e n s e ,  of to  c a l l  j u s t  are  an  t h i s  s o r t  law  an  viewed  as  i n s t a n c e s To  so  or  of  a f f a i r s )  s t a t e what  of  f a i t h  t h a t  a l l  have  here as  t h e i r  nomenon  l e a d s  a n o t h e r .  To  e x p l a i n  i s  to  M a s s . ,  1973),  Cf.  a f f a i r s  D a v i d p.  73.  some,  laws  i n  of  among  the a  under a t  l e a s t  e x i s t e n c e .  a r e  c o r r e l a t i o n s  s t a t e  i t s  i n  are  observed  or  means,  f o r  the  p o s i t i o n  phenomena  c e r t a i n  o b j e c t  i t  of  of  " l a w s . "  i s  c o n c e r n  l a w s " — t h a t  t o  theory  whom  I t we  amenable  e x p l a n a t i o n .  p a r t i c u l a r  " c a u s a l  t h i s  e x p l a n a t i o n  a r t i c l e  of  of  e v e n t  g o v e r n i n g p r o v i d e  terms  or  " n a t u r a l i s t s , "  Of the  a  (as  m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  s h a l l to  e x p e r i e n c e s  e x p e r i e n c e  a e g i s  a  In  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s :  the  i s  e x p e r i e n c e s .  K.  L e w i s ,  the  those  of  n a t u r e  e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l way a  one  s o r t  change  i d e n t i f y  some  C o u n t e r f a c t u a l s  i n  of  b a s i s phe-  some  event  t h a t  (Cambridge,  29 can  stand  as  an  i n  which  To  have  so  t o  have  e x p l a i n e d  t h a t  the  a n t e c e d e n t  has  event  to  p o s i t i o n e d  caused  e x i s t e n c e .  the  i t  For  the  i n t e r p r e t a b l e  e v e r y  event  o t h e r  e v e n t s  e x i s t s i n  i s  of  t h a t  what  we  i n v o l v i n g terms of  of  t i o n , more a r e  r a t e  atoms.  of  i s  i s  i n  a  a  c a p t u r e d  of  E v e r y d a y  everyday  laws  d e r i v a t i v e a  p r a c t i c a l  e v e n t s ,  b u t  w o r l d  the  event  f o r  f o r m s , i n  i t s  or  i s  a t  sense  r e l a t i o n  t h a t  w i t h  l a w s .  to  the  n a t u r a l i s t ,  i n  terms  happens u n i t s ,  or  a n d ,  some  everyday atoms, of  a  b a s i c to  are  atoms  be  i n  of most  terms  Of  f o r  n e v e r t h e l e s s  the  of  a  as  c o u r s e ,  the  the  a c c u -  i n d i v i d u a l  viewed  l a w s .  f o l l o w  b a s i c  i n v o l v i n g are  n o t h i n g events  of  s i m p l e s t ,  events  c o n c e p -  everyday  i n d i v i d u a l  to  such  o b j e c t s  i n  v a r i e t y  t h i s  m u l t i t u d e  would  changes  u l t i m a t e l y ,  On  and  the  of  l i m i t e d  " a t o m s . "  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  i s  the  a c c o r d i n g  happens  i t  o t h e r :  i s  s y s t e m a -  the  c o u r s e  another  our  s u c h  upon  to  r e s p o n s i b l e  between  a p p l y i n g  the  c a u s a l  T h e r e f o r e ,  l a w f u l  of  consequent.  i n  o c c u r r e n c e  what  a  component  o u r  between  as  r e s p e c t  o r d e r ;  by  what  extreme,  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n  dependency  i n v a r i a b l e  j o i n t  b a s i c  not  c a u s a l  e l e m e n t s ,  of  the  mutual  a r r a n g e m e n t s .  of  means  r e l a t i o n  r e l a t i o n  w i t h  t h e r e f o r e  a n a l y z e  i n  i t s  the  u l t i m a t e l y t h i s  by  e x p e r i e n c e ,  b a s i c  e x p l a n a t i o n  system  one  arrangements  m e r e l y  c h a n g i n g  i n  to  changes  than  changes  we  to  s e r v e s  event  a s ,  r e l a t i v e l y  t a k e n  e x p l a i n e d  i n d i s p e n s a b l e  tend  a b s o l u t e l y  l a w f u l  n a t u r a l i s t  ways  A n o t h e r  some  one  and  l e a s t  t i z i n g  be  i n  e x p l a i n i n g  most  30 fundamental  one.  e x p l a n a t i o n s , r e l a t i v e l y c e l l s ,  of  we  d e s i r e s — i s f i g u r e s  i n  m e r e l y  laws  i n f e r e n c e s a f f a i r s ) of  event as  from  w i t h  what  e t c . ) ,  much  t h a t ,  f i c i e n t  c o n d i t i o n s  of  f e a t u r e s , to  o t h e r by  f o r  as  the  one  i d e a l  form  no  the  makes f o r  event  and  way  w o r l d . i s  t h a t  r e l i a b l e (or  s t a t e  of  i n  a  e x i s t e n c e  of  some  other  the  cause  e i t h e r  event.  as  c e r t a i n  T h i s  s t a t e  n e c e s s a r y  event  g i v e n  the  by  s o r t  or  approach  laws  l o g i c a l l y ,  i n t u -  a c t s  i n  of  we  found  g i v e n  such  have  some  f e a t u r e s ,  the  i d e a l l y ,  r e p r e s e n t e d ,  we  atomic  t h a t  w h i c h  n a t u r a l i s t  w a r r a n t  the  t h e i r  d e s c r i p t i o n  e x i s t e n c e  s i t u a t i o n ,  caused  f i c t i o n ,  the  the  compounds,  but  as  p e r s p e c t i v e ,  the  between  c h e m i c a l  background  complete  c e r t a i n  assumes  b e s t  t h i s  what  the  c e r t a i n  was  r e f l e x e s ,  assumption  p r o v i d e  f a v o r a b l e  m o l e c u l e s ,  the  s c i e n t i f i c ,  r e g u l a r i t i e s  c o n v e n i e n t  t o t a l l y  w i t h  even  b a s i c — i n c l u d i n g p e r s o n s ,  A n o t h e r c a u s a l  i n  From  as  a  w i t h  ( e . g . ,  always  e x p l a n a t i o n . t a k e  do  o r d i n a r y ,  c o n d i t i o n e d  stands  i t i v e l y  more  make  i n v a r i a n t  o r g a n s ,  account  For  and  o t h e r ,  s u f -  and  something  l i k e  t h i s  assumes  are  b i c o n d i -  14 t i o n a l s . a  complete  knew A  In  the  more  have  laws  of  moderate  any  extreme  d e s c r i p t i o n  one  of  Cf. of  i t s  P h i l o s o p h y ,  of  n a t u r e , approach a  the i n f e r  of  D a v i d s o n ,  (1967),  one  view  event  the  assumes  p l u r a l i t y  Donald 64  form  o t h e r  o n l y  causes  " C a u s a l  6 9 8 - 9 .  we i n  t h a t and  c o u l d , a l l any  t h a t i f  i t s  we d e t a i l .  event  e f f e c t s ,  R e l a t i o n s , "  from  may  as  f a r  J o u r n a l  31 as  the  laws  approach  w i l l  (which  d i s c u s s i o n ) end  from  a l l o w  r e f l e c t s  need  the  n o t  and  even  i n f e r  o n l y  o t h e r  event  be  the  i n f e r  a  cause  of  a l l  i t s  ( f i n i t e )  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  r e a l l y can  t o  can  causes  of  the  a c t u a l  t h e s e  i t s  the  and  terms  i f  and  of  the  to  i n  i n  t h a t  i n  t h a t  are  b e i n g  the  the  a  o p e r a t e s ,  by  t o  y e t ,  we  can  of  of  the  p o s s i b l e  t h a t  we  can  t h a t  a r e  of  c e r t a i n t o  c e r t a i n  w i t h  And  i n  u n f a v o r a b l e ,  be f e a t u r e s  c e r t a i n  perhaps  c o n t e x t  we  s p e c i f i e d .  event  of  a r e  t h a t  c a u s e s  the  t h a t p r e s e n t  s e t s  absence  s p e c i f y i n g  c o n s t i t u t e  i s  and  so  p r e s e n c e  f a v o r a b l e  any  i t  d i f f e r e n t  of  c a u s e .  t h a t  s e t s  f u l l y  i n c o m p a t i b l e  the  i f  what  e f f e c t s ,  of  the  c a n  one,  i s  environment of  we  p o s s i b i l i t y  p o s s i b l e  v i r t u e  the  of  a l l  e v e n t ,  s u c h  down  i t  h a r d e r . the  worse  open  the  to  have  of  s i n g l e  a n c i l l a r y  work  environment  u n t i l  assume  v i r t u e  f e a t u r e s  a  i n  f e a t u r e s  o r ,  an  o r d i n a r y  r e s p e c t  some  must  narrow  perhaps  a s s u m p t i o n  what  we  cause  of  i n  our  w i t h  r e l e v a n t )  s t i l l  d e s c r i p t i o n  c a u s e s  exchange  i s  c a u s e s  environment  the  c a u s a l  as  e f f e c t s  p o s s i b l e  drop  i t  d i f f e r i n g  some  t h a t  l a t t e r  d i f f e r e n t  makes  event;  p r i n c i p l e ,  done  have  e x p l a i n e d , i n  i t s  be  e l i m i n a t e n o t  i n  p o s s i b l e  add  T h i s  c a n ,  much  j u s t  t h i s  " c a u s e "  d i s j u n c t i o n  by  we  t h a t  p r e s e n t  But  of  environment)  However,  e v e n t  use  ( c a u s a l l y  f e a t u r e s . f u r t h e r  the  d e s c r i p t i o n  the  some  i n f e r .  example,  f u l l  (and  to  o n e — i t  f o r  c e r t a i n  o n l y  be  extreme  Suppose, laws  us  i n  we  w h i c h  some  of can  t h i s  g e n e r a l  c o n t r a v e n i n g  32 s i t u a t i o n s , f a c t o r s i t  w h i c h  seems  and  t o  hence  w o r l d  i s  always  and  whether  a  p a r t  we  of  i n  a r e of  p r e d i c t i n g  some  i f  t h e r e  f o r  E  meant a  t h a t  t i o n  of  t h a t  t h i s  p  t h a t  such  be  i n  of  h e l p  shown  t o of  .  were  If  i t  what  was  thus  v i d e s  c o r r e c t  what  t i o n  of  we  have  of  the  i s E  a n a l y s i s  s i g n i f i e d ,  t h e n ,  p r o v i d e d phenomenon w i t h  i s  was  g i v i n g  r e s u l t  w i t h  c o m m u n i c a t i o n — f o r  some  s p e a k e r  t h a t  example,  p r o c e d u r e s .  i n  s c i e n c e ,  enough  or  c a u s a l i t ,  or  one. of  "mean"  when  S  a d d i t i o n ,  t o  from  a  go  by  i n  our  hence  meaning.  an  (natural)  p r o -  F u r t h e r ,  c a u s a l  c o n c e p t  d e r i v e  s u g g e s t s  and  or  has  s p e c i f i c a -  f a c t  c o n d i -  a n a l y s i s , e x p l a n a t i o n  attempted  communica-  a s s o c i a t e d  language  p r i n c i p l e  #  s i g n i f i c a t i o n  problems  what  the w i l l  a n a l y s i s  t h i s  cause  a  t h a t  f a r  o n l y  i n  (and  c e r t a i n  community—are  an  meant,  the of  e v e n t ,  p r e s e n t  n o n n a t u r a l  p l a u s i b l e  any  e x p l a i n  a c t u a l l y  communication  ,  or  a  to  meant  then  what  In  cause  and  was  p o s s i b i l i t y  tion)  s c i e n t i f i c  the  of  when  we  c a u s a l  e f f o r t s  s t a n d a r d  p o s s i b l e ,  of  b e s i d e s  the  )  the  of  p u r s u e d  some  some  what  of  i f  f i n d i n g  what  i s  d e t e r m i n a t i o n s  the  i n  of  n a t u r a l i s m ,  a c t u a l  s i g n i f i e d ,  s i g n i f i c a t i o n  of  from  x  s p e c i f i c a t i o n of  e v e n t .  a t t e m p t i n g  be  u t t e r i n g  one  i n v e s t i g a t i v e  the  event  i n t u i t i v e  i f  f o r  as  a s s u m p t i o n  r e s u l t s  event  be  caused  methodology  f u t u r e  w o u l d  ( S ' s  the  f a v o r a b l e  some  c o u l d  c o r r e c t  the  absence  w o r k i n g  s e a r c h i n g  c o n d i t i o n s  I t  c e n t r a l  o r d e r e d  i s s u e  t h e i r  n e c e s s i t a t e  be  so  l i s t i n g  i s  spoken  s o l v a b l e  by  by  33 I as  h a v i n g  t h e be  the  c o n c e p t t a k e n  meant s i s ) o r  s h a l l ,  "E  forms  a  s i t i o n  t a k e n  t h e r e  t h a t  . "  For some  d e s c r i p t i o n  of  the  the  as  )  i n t o  a  n a t u r a l i s t  h a v i n g i n  i s  so  such  r e l a t i o n  uses  i s  a  n a t u r a l i s t  c i o u s l i n e  might  a n a l y s i s w i t h  h i s  t i o n — w i l l  t h a t  of  the  i t  to  g i v e s  us  what  was  w h i c h  i n  t u r n  caused  s t o o d  by  A  d o c t r i n e  of  m o t i v a t i o n meaning. does  i n  ).  My  the  However, f a c t  l e n d  i s to  of  want  i s  to  argue  c o n c e p t — t h e of  the  i n v o l v e  meant  by  a  S  (which  c o n c e r n  here  t o  i f  a  such  s u p p o r t  to  one  g i v e s i s  not i n  reduce  a  meant he  be  "mean,"  as  r e l a t i o n  of  i n  U l t i m a t e l y ,  the  most  t h a t  p e r s p i c a -  b r i n g s of  i t  the  (which  u t t e r i n g ,  what  w i t h  was  does  work,  (or  a to  ,  u n d e r -  d e f e n d i n g  n o n n a t u r a l  n a t u r a l i s t  i n  communica-  sequence:  us  by  may  s u g g e s t i n g  r e d u c t i o n  p r o p o -  a s s e r t e d  phenomenon  m e r e l y  attempt  t h a t  the  a  t h a t  t r a n s -  was  m e a n i n g .  c a u s e d  E^  but  b e i n g  a n a l y -  s u i t a b l e  t h a t  verb  d e n o t e s  "S of  a  then  the  c a u s a l  )  as  what  t h i s ,  w i l l  e v i d e n c e  (here,  of  of  he  say  f u n c t i o n  r e a l l y  n a t u r a l  we  q u a l i f y  t h a t  c o n t e x t ,  a n a l y s i s  n a t u r a l  about  e v i d e n c e  n a t u r a l i s t  p u r p o s e s  s i g n i f i c a t i o n  what  n a t u r a l i s m , f o r  )  an  when  ( f o r  s t a n d a r d  r i g h t  e x p l a n a t i o n  show  mean  t h i s  n o n n a t u r a l  s i g n i f i c a t i o n ;  x  the  p a r t i c u l a r ,  s p e c i f i c a t i o n  p r o v i d e d  the  In  we  of  be  q  p r o v i d i n g  e x p r e s s e d  must  o c c u r s  the  what  u t t e r i n g q  of  r e p r e s e n t  meaning.  b e t t e r  t h a t  t h a t  If  S..  i s (his  s i g n i f i e s  a n a l y s i s  i t  p"  r e a s o n s ,  c o n c e r n  n o n n a t u r a l  c l a i m i n g  t h a t by  these  s p e c i a l  of  as  f o r  the  p o s s i b l e n a t u r a l and  i f  c a u s a l i s t )  i t  v i e w  of  would of  the  a c t s  of  meaning  have  the  t h e o r e t i c a l  showing  the  p r o b l e m  some was  speaker  on  some  of  be  a  p r o b l e m  n i f i c a t i o n  of  E  ,  and  At l e s s we  i n  one.  For,  seems  s t a t e  of  t h o s e  c a s e s ,  a  a  of  a l o n e of  l e a s t  f o r  purposes  what  S  meant  by  a n y t h i n g  meant.  i s )  q u e s t i o n a b l e be  u t t e r i n g  some  a  E  But  ( v i z . by  t h a t  p  g o e s ,  i t  t h a t i s  S p  we  t h a t  w e l l  w h i c h , I t  a n a l y s i s ,  mere  a l l  any  i s  s o r t  f a c t  of  be  E  e v e r  .  f a r  As  (almost)  as  always  (overt) by)  to  the  j u s t  f u r n i s h  such  t h a t , by  S  c o n v e n i e n t ,  whether  i n t e n d  t o  f o r  of  s i g n i f i e d  what  e n v i r o n -  have  meant  i s  u t t e r a n c e ,  c o u l d  the  as  and  hope-  must  e x i s t s ,  was  w o u l d  ever  of  such  what  a  c r i t e r i o n  s i g n i f i e d  q u e s t i o n a b l e )  i s  n o r m a l l y  as  i f  i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  meaning  t h e r e  s i g -  w i t h  p r o j e c t  u t t e r i n g ) ,  way.  i s  whether  meaning  of  n a t u r a l  whatever  s i g n i f i c a t i o n  i t  the  (as  (S's  f i x e d of  i s  by  something  l e v e l  f e a t u r e s  meaning,  to  d e s c r i p t i o n  i n  t h a t  meant not  the  n o n n a t u r a l  u n l i k e l y  common  l e t  S  t h i s  or  a  i t  m e n t i o n e d —  s c i e n t i f i c  o b s e r v a b l e  ( s i n c e  d e r i v a b l e  s t i l l  upon  of  n o n n a t u r a l  cause  t r u e  c a s e s  q u i t e  a f f a i r s  s u i t a b l e  from  way  u t t e r a n c e  i n s t a n c e  to  f a c t  some  each  open  on  the  i n  i t  m a t t e r  d e s p i t e  depend  o n ) ,  a  n a t u r a l i s t ' s  i d e n t i f y i n g  go  d e t e r m i n i n g  then  was  whether  the  i n  of  what  s i g h t ,  use  ment  (and  of  hence  p r i n c i p l e  f i r s t  b e n e f i t — a l r e a d y  o c c a s i o n  to  t o p i c s  c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,  d e t e r m i n i n g  meant)  o t h e r  and  i s at  e x a c t l y what  i s  s i g n i f i e d or  i t mere  p o s s i b l e  at to  l e a s t b e ,  and  a c t  of  when  S  ( i f  35 means  something  he  s a y s ,  i n  s a y i n g  t h a t to  or  S  s o .  he  And  more  i n d i r e c t  w i t h  h i s  y e t ,  him  to  i t  p r i n c i p l e s  p h y s i c a l i n  r e q u i r e d  to  b e h a v i o r  u s u a l l y  what  p o s i t  f o r c e s  are  d e f l e c t  u s e f u l  to  the  c a s e ,  S  d e f l e c t i o n r e s u l t as  w i l l  opposed  whatever to  make  s i t i o n s i n g  and be to  are  between  For view  a c t s  such  and  i s  as  i n  seems  upon  h i m .  a l s o them.  the  any  I t  one  he  w h i c h  ,  s i n c e  be  cause e x t e r n a l  a  the  p e r s o n ' s  i n  organism  ( i n  the  i s on Of  d i s p o s i t i o n  the  thought  what  t h a t  the  S ' s  p a r t ,  c o u r s e ,  i s  l i k e l y  o t h e r  our  t h i s of  c o n n e c t i o n s  t h a t  ways  e x t e n t  i t  to  t h e n ,  e n e r g i e s  a c t i o n  upon  i s  r e l a t i o n  undergoes.  and  of  n a t u r a l i s t  l i k e l y  depends  a  S ' s  d i s p o s i t i o n ,  an  such  adopt  c e r t a i n  the  g r e a t e r  more  a c t i v a t e d might  of  b e i n g  m o t i o n  t r i g g e r e d b e i n g  the  as  to  i m p i n g i n g  s u r v i v a l  .  " d i s p o s i t i o n s "  S  The  him  p r o d u c t  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d  r e d i r e c t  mere  i n  by  on  unknown),  t h a t  way  c o n s i s t e n t  the  or  some  p  to  b e h a v i o r  response  no  r e d i r e c t i o n  thus  y e t  mechanisms i n  i s  what  e x p e c t s  t h a t  n a t u r a l i s t i t  i n  one  meant  example,  presumably,  some  he  i n  b e l i e v e d  u t t e r a n c e — a s  i t  c l a s s i f i e d  l e a s t  mechanisms  ways  f a c t ,  at  the  m i s t a k e n  c a s e s  a s s o r t e d  of  c a u s a l  or  to  i s  such  open  c o n t r i b u t i o n when  a l l  i s  c o n t i n u i n g  ) — a n d ,  p l a y - a c t i n g  i s  h y p o t h e s i ,  a c t i v e  to  or  ex  stands  s e r v e s  S  f a l s e ,  c e r t a i n In  t h a t  i s  s t r u c t u r e  c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  ,  In  to  h i s  u n d e r l y i n g  a c t  A  a p p r o a c h .  p a r t — i n c l u d i n g  (whole  t o  s a y s .  meant  However,  c e r t a i n  something  l y i n g  what  what  be  i s  by  d i s p o e x i s t -  f a m i l i a r  36 system  f o r  b e l i e f s ,  d e s c r i b i n g  or  i n t e n t i o n s )  d i s p o s i t i o n a l r e s u l t s ,  and On  E  ,  i n  t h i s  s t a n d a r d  says  t h a t  And i n  i s  i t  i s  t h i s  i t s e l f .  In  s i g n i f i e d  not  t h a t  i t  to  i s  take  b e s i d e s  c i r c u m s t a n c e s b e i n g  more  been  out  ( e . g . , the  And  s i g n i f i c a t i o n  a l l o w s  j u s t  b e l i e v e d .  b e i n g  T h i s program, For S  i t  i s  b e l i e v i n g E  i t  i s  s i m p l y  S  not  p  S  t h a t  a  not  t h a t  t h a t  whenever  S  appears  b u t  b e l i e v e s  p o s s i b l e  what  b e l i e v e  .  i s  to  l y i n g  p  i s  not  i s  meaning  whenever a l r e a d y  i t S  s u i t a b l e t h a t  i n  of  p  as  of  i t s  m i g h t ,  i n  t h i s  t o  .  the  u t t e r a n c e  what  what  what  the  to  he  r a i n .  S  meant  n a t u r a l i s t ' s  p r e s e n t l y t h a t i t  was  caused  about  means  a  b e h a v i o r  event  was  what  S  b e h a v i o r .  such  m e n t i o n e d ,  i n ' s a y i n g  i f  i s  t h a t  d e r i v e  as  ,  b u t  t e r m s ,  s a l v a g e  p  r a i n  the  i t  by  as  perhaps  a c c e p t a b l e  As  t h a t  u s .  t a k e n  o p e n ) ,  t h a t  us  c r e d i b l e  t r u e  i n  m e n t a l i s t i c  S ' s  as  to  to  f o r  be  r e l e v a n t  u t t e r a n c e — a n d  coming  v a l u e  example,  r e s u l t i n g  i n  ( l i k e l y )  r a i n - a v o i d i n g  c a u s a l l y  f a m i l i a r ,  S ' s  g o i n g  such  s i g n i f i e d  meant  might  t h i s  i t — w a s t h i s  be  r a i n ,  have  by  has  towards  some  to  S ' s  c i r c u m s t a n c e ,  S  to  d e s i r e s ,  t h e i r  h o l d  needs  where  of  g o i n g  d i s p o s i t i o n ,  and  terms  t h a t  what  as  d i r e c t e d  For  d i s p o s e d  a p p r o p r i a t e  r a i n i n g  of  i n  ( e . g . ,  d i s p o s i t i o n .  e v i d e n c e  a c t i v e l y  r e a l l y  t h o s e  c a s e s  k i n d  s t a t e s  though  a c c o u n t ,  those  some  S  s t a t e s ,  i s  e s p e c i a l l y  j u s t  n a t u r a l  m e n t a l  i s  s a y s .  s t a n d s . p  t h a t  always So  s i g n i f i c a t i o n  S ' s of  D. s p e c t i v e has  M. "to  d i s p e l  surrounded  t a k e s " i n  h i s  cue  e x a c t l y  c l o u d s  are  has  an  as  b e l i e v e s ) an  A r m s t r o n g ,  a  i s  to  some  G r i c e  same  s i g n  of  n o t i o n  from  the  of  and of  r a i n "  ( 4 2 9 ) — i s  suggests  of  n o n n a t u r a l  analyzed  t h i s  i n  a n a l y s i s a  i t  was  E  s i g n i f i e d  those  c a s e s  meaning  ( i n  which  p"  "X  as  or  are  of  s i g n i f i c a t i o n  elements  i n  each  the>purpose  t i o n  of  a  which  i s  cance  and  t r u e by  of  a  of  these  of  ease  the  c e r t a i n  the  " c o m p l e t e l y  t h e r e f o r e  80  (1971),  of  and  say  as  e i t h e r  t h a t  l e v e l s o r t ,  of  changeable  the  most  the  element  b e l i e v e  of  n o n n a t u r a l meant  meant  t h a t t h a t  r e l a t i o n s  r e c u r r i n g  w i l l by  what  suppose  as  be  the  p r e s e r v i n g  i n t e r e s t "  g i v e n  to  "S  thought  then  Communication,"  427-447.  to  o c c a s i o n  communication, d e v i c e ,  (436).  A  c a s e s  as  mean-  meaning  r e a s o n a b l e  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  i n  s u i t a b l e  ( 4 4 0 ) — i s  i n t e n d s  (or  S  n o n n a t u r a l  o c c a s i o n "  i d e n t i f y  on  i s  m e a n t — " t h e  S  to  i n t e n d s  s i g n i f i c a n c e  seems  S  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  "Meaning Review,  i s  a t  i s  b l a c k  (that  t h i s  t h a t  s i g n i f i e s  t h a t  S  t h a t  (444),  E  ' s i g n '  b e l i e v e  p e r -  d a r k n e s s  what  t h a t  t h a t  of  an  i t we  i t  to  t h a t  t h a t  r e p r e s e n t e d  )  on  And  u t t e r e d  p"  f o r  speaker  b e l i e v e s ) .  word  meaning:  what  by  t h a t  A  terms  u t t e r a n c e  i f  the  He  .  n a t u r a l i s t  and  t h a t  sense  an  t h a t  argues  t h a t  p  a  l i n g u i s t i c meaning"  get  be  S  of  from  mystery  to  On  (that  the  o b j e c t i v e )  a n a l y s i s  i n g  the  w o r k i n g  1 5  i n  d e l e t e d ,  a p p l i c a -  o n l y the  (436).  t h a t s i g n i f i However,  P h i l o s o p h i c a l  38 as  i t  s t a n d s ,  of  n o n n a t u r a l  t h i s  f o r m u l a t i o n  meaning.  f o r  i s  i n  sense  e v i d e n c e  t h a t  S  to  b e l i e v e  t h a t  p  as  have  i s  not  r e g a r d e d  by  t h i n g  by  h i s  t h a t  may  c a s e ,  be  assumed  t h a t  i n f e r e n c e If  we  A i n  amend  we  "S  us  h i s  a l s o to  i n t o of  s h o u l d  o r i g i n a l  be  we  an  a n a l y s i s  m a n u f a c t u r i n g  S  b e l i e v e s  i n t e n d s  f o r  a l r e a d y  i n s t a n c e  s u g g e s t s  have go  S  as  a  of  t h a t  p  to  come  A  mentioned,  S ' s  he so  t h a t  then  see  t h a t  a  meaning  the  where  i s  t o  get  i n  a t  )  i t any-  as  b e l i e f of  another  t r u e  of  t h a t  S ' s (but  p  .  i s connected)  o b j e c t i o n  g e t s  t h a t  n o n n a t u r a l p r o c e s s  p l a n  p r e v i o u s  (433),  the  h i s  t h i s  t h i s  p"  p o i n t  c e r t a i n  d o e s ,  E  ,  one  p l a n ,  through  i f  i s  r u l e d  u s :  i f  and  o n l y  i f  E  t h a t :  i n t e n d s  b e l i e v e s )  t h a t  S  h i s  has  as  r e a s o n  as  A  p  to  b e l i e v e  ( t h a t  S  ;  p l a n  for"  A  (expects  A  )  to  f o l l o w s :  (1) ;  (b)  S  b e l i e v e s  (c)  i t  i s  n o t i c e d  a n a l y s i s ;  a t  a n a l y s a n s ,  s h o u l d  (a)  I t  t h a t  the  s i g n i f i e s  (2)  (or  an  a n a l y s i s  meant  (1)  as  s h o u l d  s i g n i f i c a t i o n So  b u t ,  a r r i v i n g ,  i n c o r p o r a t e d  out.  p  i n  as  b e h a v i o r .  Armstrong S  ;  serve  b e h a v i o r  " e v i d e n c e " some  A  S ' s  cannot  t r u e  t h a t  s i n c e ,  t h a t t h a t  t h i s i n  p p  ; .  f o r m u l a t i o n  o r d e r  f o r  i t  e n t a i l s to  be  t r u e  G r i c e ' s t h a t  39 E  had  a  be  the  case  w i l l )  c e r t a i n t h a t  e x i s t :  " s i g n i f y " )  t a c i t  a p p e a l  f a l s i t y  seen i s  t h a t  i n  i t  But  n e c e s s a r y  w e l l the  A  as  b u t  to  b e l i e v e  l i n e s ,  t h a t  b e l i e v e he  cases i n  no  i t  b e s t  of or  i s  doubt  them.  are  w h i c h  t r u e  t h a t  would  t e l l i n g  i s  S  Armstrong  e l v e s  e x p e c t a t i o n  t h a t  there  (or  l i v e d  t r u e ; e x p e c t  Armstrong r e g a r d e d  speaker  and  t h a t i n  the  h i s he  f a c t  them  not  c a s e s  a u d i e n c e  a l r e a d y  of  i n t e n d i n g  "are  E  s u p p l y  i n an  ,  a l o n g  case  even  to  to  b e l i e v e t h i s  of  a  t h a t though  he  b e l i e v e get  them  c o n s i d e r what and  as through  means)  t r y i n g  S  o b j e c t i v e )  go  i s  a  w h i c h  to  the  to  r e q u i r e s  p  to  of  a n a l y s i s  not  l i s t e n e r s  t h a t  s  t h a t  f o r e s t s ,  to  1  example  i s  he  e n t a i l s  have  as  A  One  were  suggests as  have  expect  i s  i t s  t h i s  c a s e s  a p p a r e n t l y ,  i n  g e t t i n g even  does  c o n s i d e r s ,  t h u s ,  of  a n a l y s i s  b e l i e v e s )  not  (or  meaning  i n t e n d  are  must  s t r o n g .  S  t h i s  i n t e n d  (that  (and  too  A r m s t r o n g ' s  s i n c e not  we  terms  t h a t  i n f e r e n c e .  time  no  of  But  i t  d i d  v i r t u e  i n t e n t i o n a l i s t  of  once  a  the  sequence  says  i n  o t h e r s  may  who  has  of  i n  he  s t o r y t e l l e r  n a t u r a l  i n  w h i c h  w h i c h  a f f a i r s  s i n c e  m e n t i o n e d ,  does  of  a n a l y s i s  r e q u i r i n g  then  of  s u c c e s s , "  and  r e v i s i o n  i n  s t a t e  a n a l y s i s ,  v e r s i o n  was  s i g n i f i c a t i o n ,  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n .  weak  of  or  c o n t e x t  of  o r i g i n a l  p  c a s e s  upon  the  above  too  the  s p e c i f i e d  these  i n  s i g n i f i c a t i o n ,  t h a t  g e t t i n g  s i g n i f i e d  l a w f u l  r e s u l t  as  meaning  "verb  the  l a s t  the what  means  a  ways  s i g n i f y t o .  to of  The be  a  G r i c e ' s  some  would  the  "mean"  ( l i k e  the  n a t u r a l  he  to  t h i s , i s  s i m i l a r  " m o c k - c o m m u n i c a t i n g , " merely  g o i n g  through  40 the  motions  of  communicating"  s i m i l a r  a c c o u n t  s i t y  the  of  d e r i v a t i v e v i r t u e we  of  of  o r i g i n a l upon  t h i s  c l a s s i f y  we  f a c t ,  r a t h e r  as  p a r a s i t i c  upon  t e l l s  t h a t  i t  A  i s  b e s t  to  some p seek  than  seems  d i s p o s i n g  of  a  of  "more  and  s u g g e s t s  a l l  i t  i s  shared  when  case  to  g e n e r a l l y  the  i n  some  n e c e s way i n  f u n c t i o n ,  t h a t  meaning. c a u t i o n s  examples  (the  A  he  to  a  s o l e l y  n o n n a t u r a l  c e r t a i n  e x p e c t s  are  some  r i g h t  paradigm and  they  c a s e ,  i n s t a n c e s  G r i c e  T h i s  counterexamples  a n a l y s i s : s t a n d a r d  them  s t a r t  o t h e r  the  However, b e f o r e  the  (443).  case  as  i n  b e l i e v e  t h a t  m e r e l y  w h i c h t h a t  a p p l i c a b l e  S p  ) ,  f u n c t i o n  16 f o r  [the  i n d i c a t i v e ]  f u n c t i o n  s h a r e d  meaning,  of  by  f o r m . " and  whatever  G r i c e  H o p e f u l l y  p e c u l i a r  g r a m m a t i c a l  (1969),  p.  169.  to  a l l  we  c a s e s  f o r m — o r  of  can of  d i s c o v e r  a  n o n n a t u r a l  none.  41  IV.  On a n a l y s i s i t  i s  b o t h  of  r e q u i r e d as  has  c e r t a i n  as  I  t h a t  r e l i a b l e  have  even  t h i n k )  t h a t  n a t u r a l i s t f a c t  r e l i a b l e  observer) t o  f o r  a r r i v i n g  s i g n i f y t h a t  i t  a t  determine  as  a  f a l s e  q  e i t h e r  E  E  (or  a  e v i d e n c e  t h a t  was  t h i s  what  (be  ,  f o r i t q  .  p  way)  i n  S  approach, S  to  e v i d e n c e  (or  the  to  be  i n  approximation)  to  h i s  t h a t i n  i n s t r u m e n -  S  c o u l d  most  r e a s o n a b l e  c a s e s  cases  s t r a t e g y  i n t e n t i o n  expected  those  t h a t  by  to  f i r s t  S  where  f o r  to) we  say  .  some  can  cannot t h a t  c o u l d  as  not  of  to  knowledgeable  u n l i k e l y  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  p  A  E  c l o s e  a  t h a t  x  though  r e q u i r e  s u i t a b l y  seems  E  f o r  i n t e n t i o n ; to  forms,  of  r e l i a b l e  be  t h a t  remarked,  have  need a  has  to  o r d e r  t h a t  f a r ,  t h i s  i n t e n t i o n  r e l e v a n t  meant  e v i d e n c e  to  (for  appear  u t t e r i n g  r e q u i r e d  r e l i a b l e  would  an  ( i n  S  mean)  an  r e v i s e d  so  has  i t  t h e i r  n a t u r a l i s t  N e i t h e r  i n t e n d s  S i n c e  j u s t  In  n i f y  A  have  f u l f i l l e d ,  but  S  the  i n t e n t i o n .  A  S  e v i d e n c e  i n t e n t i o n .  r e g u l a r l y  expect  u l t i m a t e l y  t h a t  s e r v e  t a l  w i l l  them  and  h i s  c o n c l u s i v e  r e p r e s e n t e d or  i n  i n t e n d  i n s t r u m e n t a l  i n t e n d  A n a l y s i s  meaning  S  or  f u r t h e r to  F i n a l  i n t e n t i o n a l i s t  n o n n a t u r a l  s e r v e a  the  A  E  never  For  t h i s  i n  c a s e s  i s  t r u e  to be  s i g n i f y the  case  r e a s o n , of or  as  (or t h a t I  n o n n a t u r a l t h a t  S  n a t u r a l l y E  have  e x i s t s a l r e a d y  meaning  b e l i e v e s  s i g -  t h a t  i t  42 i s .  U n l e s s  p o s s i b l e , m i s t a k e n  S  i n s o f a r i n  what  s a y s .  In  both  former  i t  i s  l e a s t  f a l s e  u t t e r i n g as  he  f a l s e  by  the  i s t  a n a l y s i s ,  i n  my  where  i t  h i s  u t t e r a n c e ,  A  to  b e l i e v e  I t  i s  p o s s i b l e ,  mance  (to  s o r t ,  be  where  he  s a y s .  t o  the  i s  done  T h i s  t e l l i n g i n  to  t h i s  i n g  A  to  b e l i e v e i n t e n d s s e r i e s ) . the  one  t o A  i n  f o r  and  ,  S  a  t h a t  a  a  i t  t h a t S  b e l i e v e  n e g a t i v e S  w e l l  as  e a c h , p  .  s i t u a t i o n , t h i n k s  the  i s  at  ,  i s  S  not A  and  n a t u r a l S  a r e ,  meant  to  get  t h a t  h i s  m a k e - b e l i e v e  however, something  b e l i e v e  i n  the  the  i n t e n d i n g to  i s  s i g n i f i -  t h a t  i n t e n d s  S  the  p  of  some  s a y i n g  what  s i m i l a r  perhaps  Whatever  p r e c i s e  l o c a t i o n  c l e a r even  t h a t  p  or  any  w i t h  a  t h a t  A  i s  i n t e n d i n g  t h a t  ,  S  or  to  not  f o r  to  of  r e s u l t ,  t h a t  we  S  c o n t i n u a t i o n  t h i n k s  what  i n t e n d -  A  t h a t  s i m i l a r  .  p e r f o r -  not  (or  p  i n  perhaps  b e l i e v e s t h a t  he  (though  seems p  what  i t  There  t h a t  o c c u r r e n c e  p l a y ) .  i s  .  p l a y - a c t i n g  f a i r y - s t o r y  i n  l a t t e r  as  i s  he  but  A  t h a t  i s  ,  f o r  d e l i b e r a t e he  p  have  say he  s a y i n g  as  of  always  t h a t  c a n d i d a t e  i n t e n d s  example,  t h a t  w h i c h  to  i n  p  t h a t  w h i c h  commonplace of  to  i s  g o e s ,  the  t h a t  E  i t  t h a t  i n  l i k e l y  are  i n  as  b e l i e v e  A  we  a c t i v i t y ,  e i t h e r  p  r e v i s i o n  t h a t  say  meant  b e l i e v e  but  a c t i n g  g i v e  l a s t  taken) we  has  f o r  to  even  i t  i n t e n t i o n a l i s t  seems  by  of  d i s h o n e s t  most  S  A  t a u t o l o g y ,  b e l i e v e s  s p e c i f i e d  cases  S  S  by  g e t  or  t h a t  one  t o  a  s a y i n g  says  i n i t i a l l y  i n t e n d e d  i n t e n d s  h i s  cases  t h a t  The c a t i o n  i s  S  t h i s i s t h i n k s  t h a t  A  t h i n k s  l a c k i n g  any  b e l i e v e  e i t h e r  even he  t h a t  might  t h a t  S  i s  e x p e c t a t i o n  S  t h a t  p  ,  i n t e n d s  have  of  some  l i k e l y s u c c e s s ,  or  A  motive  to  t h a t  be  l y i n g .  cannot  S  i n t e n d  b e l i e v e s  to  b e l i e v e  i n  t e l l i n g  t h a t A  Here A  t h a t  p  ,  p  ,  to p  e t c .  t h a t  S  ,  or  (though  ,  i n  any  r e s u l t  i s  the  c a s e ) . A n o t h e r one  i n  w h i c h  type  S  says  i r o n i c a l l y — t h o u g h a c t i n g  i n  A  w i l l  come  to  b e l i e v e  b e l i e v e s  t h a t  n o t - p ;  t h a t  does  not  a c h i e v e  t h a t  h i s  by  S  do  d i d  want  c a s e  he the  p r e s e n t t o  the  t h a t  p  t o  a l l o w  to)  p u r p o s e .  j u s t A  i n t o  S  case  a  r e l i a b l e  may  e v i d e n c e  S  assume  of  t h a t p  i n .  k i n d  of  p l a y -  t h i s  c a s e ,  as p  t h a t  i n t e n d  S  w h i c h  t h a t  had i s or  S  ,  i n  must  t h a t  o r d e r (be  S  would  though  or  he.  r e c o g n i z i n g p  f o r  a l l o w e d  t h a t  t h a t  what ,  S  t h a t  A ' s  c o u r s e ,  e v i d e n c e  i n  taken  t h a t  d i s h o n e s t ,  s i t u a t i o n  t h a t  upon  t h a t  have  be  b e l i e v e  c i r c u m s t a n c e s  b e i n g  say  t o  must  would  or  or  to  e x p e c t a t i o n  shows  r e l i a b l e  the  i n f e r  i n  b e l i e v e  i s ,  w h i c h  the  ,  i t  i n  u t t e r a n c e  u t t e r a n c e  t h a t  A  t h i s  of  as  e v e n t ,  b e l i e v e A  to  b e l i e f .  we  to  A  or  f u l f i l l e d  him  t h i s  another  depends  p u r p o s e .  ( e t c . ) ,  a r e  w i t h  and  p l a y - a c t i n g So  any  n o t - p ,  see  A of  but  i s  t h a t  That  f o r  t r u t h  ,  w i t h  i n t e n d i n g  t h i s In  i n t e n d  s i t u a t i o n  f u n c t i o n  t i o n  p  f i n a l  i n t e n d e d i f  something  communicating.  t e l l  t o  s i t u a t i o n  perhaps  does  S  of  i n  i s  t h i s  not  e x p e c t some  A  not  i n f e r such  s i t u a t i o n  as  merely  m i s t a k e n  these  E  p r o p o s i -  to  been  S ' s  i n  h i s  c o n d i t i o n s E  i s  f o r  44 One  way  cases  of  g o i n g  through  t h a t  p  (or  .that  l e a s t  b e l i e v e to  f i t  and  s i n c e  s a y i n g way, E  t h i s i s  t h i s  t r u t h  E  events  to  A  to  S  i s  be  the  p  of  t h i s  i t s  be  of  our  the  w i l l  f o r  are  too  the  p u r e l y  verb  so  i n  S  i s  o n l y  c o u l d be  i r o n i c  by  )  to  S w h i c h at to  so  h i s  p l a y f u l  f o r  what  to  com-  show  how  f a r , as  or  t h a t  expect  evidence  showing A  to  r e a s o n a b l y  r e l i a b l e  as  enough  attempts  remains  w e l l  i n s o f a r  c a n d i d a t e S  so  A  c o n s i d e r e d  some  l i k e l y  f o r  S  f u n c t i o n  or the  might i n  A  p r o p o s i t i o n .  t h a t  t h e s e  i n f r e q u e n t  i n  one  p o s s i b l e ,  But  our  c o n c e p t u a l  "mean"  the  t h a t  meaning  r e q u i r e  consequence.  i s  to  t h a t  weak  t h i s  o b j e c t e d  meaning be  to  as  i s  S  p e r c e p t i o n  e v i d e n c e may  x  A  d e s c r i p t i o n  whenever  t h a t  get  c a s e s ,  ,  b e l i e v e  get  most  I t  to  of merely  to  to  d o i n g  .  A  t r y i n g  always  f o r  p  of  i s  r e c o g n i z e  r e c o g n i z e  t h i s  be  to  t h a t  n o n n a t u r a l  t h a t  (or  to  A  motions  e v i d e n c e  do  of  of  t o  A  u n c o v e r i n g use  of  t h a t  r e l i a b l e  n o n n a t u r a l  b e l i e v e  S i n c e  appears  To  e x p e c t  the  u t t e r i n g  of.  I t  to  p r o p o s i t i o n  h i s  e x p e c t  A  .  seems  a  does  c a s e s  to  i s  i n t e n d  as  p  r e l i a b l e  municate  S  such  s o r t s  S  get  f i t s  through  g o e s ,  to  t h a t  i n t e n d s  i t  t r y i n g  t h a t  d e s c r i p t i o n  t h a t a l l  say  above  p r e t e n d i n g  S  g o i n g  of  t o  the  o n l y  get  S  i s  of  i s  w h i c h to  each  meaning  the.motions t h a t  A  i n  i n t e n d s says  d e s c r i b e  n o n n a t u r a l  b e l i e v e ) . cases  t o  i t s  a l l e g e d i n  the  t a s k  examples c o u r s e  here  r e l a t i o n s  n o n n a t u r a l  i s  of  of the  c o n s t r a i n i n g c o n t e x t .  45 U n l e s s h o l d  the  r e s u l t s  reasonable)  l y i n g  a l l  c l a i m i n g  we  these t h a t  i f  n o n n a t u r a l  meaning  use  f o r  s p e a k e r .  But  say  t h a t  S  the  c o n c e p t  c o n s t i t u t e  h i s  S I  s t a n d a r d  i t  to  do  say  i n v o l v e d :  p  h a v i n g  a  of  x  ;  t h a t  the  would  i s  I  am  S mean  s t a t e s  of  t y p i c a l  when  whose  not  s u s t a i n  the  concept i n  a  have  we  i s o l a t e s  p . ,  component  to  to  i s  t h a t  f u n c t i o n i n g  not  c o n t i n u e  we  u n d e r -  i n t e n d e d  f o r m u l a t i o n  m e n t a l  to  concept  w h i c h a l l  (or  concept  t h a t ever  then  i n  t h i s  meant  s i n g l e  S  ,  t h i s  those  c o n d i t i o n s as  t h a t  community  t h a t  manage  m e n t i o n  a l l  t h a t  to  some  communication  t h a t  meant  e v o l v e  s h o u l d  u t t e r i n g or  u n w i e l d y  assume  were  or  o n e ' s  or  I  t h i s  by  too  s h o u l d  c a s e s .  a c c o m p l i s h  any  prove  p r e s e n c e  those  paradigm  or  our  a l l o w  c o n c e p t u a l  schemes. T h i s n i f i c a n c e . p a r a l l e l as  when  o b j e c t i o n These  the a  way  i n  w h i c h  l o c u s t - s w a r m of  r a i n  e l i m i n a t e d  by  f u r t h e r  s i g n ,  w h i c h And,  but  need i n  a  the  not  f a s h i o n ,  t h a t  p  u n l e s s  he  (S)  A  see  t h a t  a c t i n g )  ;  c a n  though  t a k e n  he  n a t u r a l  T h i s  s o r t  can  as  S  l i e ,  of  of a  cannot  i n  S as  as  as go  i s  wrong: the  p o t e n t i a l l y  environment  f a l s e  s i g n - r e l a t i o n . to  A  example, a s s e r t  of  appearance,  t h a t  get  s i g -  to  resembles  s p e c i a l  f o r  w e l l  deeper  can  i n t e n d  t o  v e r y  i s ,  a  case  the  d e f i n i n g  i n t e n d i n g i s  s i g n  d i s t a n c e  i n v o l v e s i n  g i v e n  nonstandard  a  s t i l l  not  t h a t  so  s p e c i f i c a t i o n  but  (so  be  from  c o n s i d e r e d  s i m i l a r  be  some  c l o u d s .  t h i n g  ,  may  seen  case  be  be  however,  examples  appearance  the  may,  say to  some-  b e l i e v e  c i r c u m s t a n c e s o n l y what  p l a y he  has  46 no  c o n f i d e n c e  i n g  t o  a  d e g r e e ,  e x c l u d e s t o  l a y  r e a l  i n ,  i s  .a  as  n a t u r a l  i m p u n i t y .  to  be  the  c o n c e p t u a l  b o u n d a r i e s  d i d a t e  b u t  c e r t a i n l y  bare  In  w i t h  any the  i n  the  e v e n t ,  the  p r e f e r r e d a r e a — i f  i f  we  g r a n t of  c o n v e r s e  e v i d e n c e  n o r m a l l y  be  to  meant  l e a s t  g e t  t o  b e l i e v e  he  A has  a b l y  "caught  i n t e n d  t h e r e o f , motions  b e l i e f  must  r e s t r i c t  i n  what  manner  he  i s  at  i n t u i t i v e l y c l o s e have  S  i n  p r o c e e d  mind  a  through  i n  he  the  of  the  d e c e p t i o n ,  of  to  s o r t  d e r i v e  n o n n a t u r a l  a n a l y s i s  by  to  l e a s t  of  h i s  to  h a v e ) .  (and  one  paradigm  a t  the  i s  n e v e r -  t r y i n g  to  to  t h i n k  .may  r e a s o n -  or  p r o d u c t  through p  d i f f i c u l t y  i t  i t  from  h o l d s  cases)  i s  w h i c h  the  seems  to  A g a i n ,  d e s i r e d  the  .  t h a t  s p e c i f y  i n t e n t i o n  t h a t  For  cannot  a n a l y s i s  r e q u i r i n g  non-  p  g o i n g t h a t  c a n -  h o l d .  A S  i n f e r e n c e - s e q u e n c e  a r r i v i n g  of  meaning,  a c h i e v e  p r e t e n d i n g way  an  of  he  b e h a v i o r , l e a s t  same  l i k e l y  not  e x p e c t s  b e l i e v e  c e r t a i n  endeavor  b e t t e r  a  but  motions  to  a t  any  t h a t  ,  him  get  s a t i s f a c t o r y of  p  a t  e x p e c t s  l e a s t  i n s p e c t i o n  h i s  attempt  the  i f  A  i s  d e f i n i t i o n  t e l l -  one  cases  does  S  case  we  a l l  f o r  the  And i n  i n  t h a t  i n  d i c t i o n a r y  be  h i s  As  our  to  by  to  i n  t h i s  A  t r y i n g the  see  i n  of  encountered  one  S  i n d u c e  i n  to  t h a t  through  t h i s .  out"  to  the  have  g o i n g  t a c t i c  r e l a t i o n  l e a v i n g  at  what  o n l y  E  someone  t h e l e s s  i n  i s  end.  example,  s a i d  o b j e c t i o n  o v e r c a u t i o u s  s i g n i f i c a t i o n  meaning,  T h i s  the up f o r A  b e l i e f .  (the most under S i s  .  to to  However,  47 as  we  of  n o n n a t u r a l  A ' s  have  not  t h a t  even  t h i s  i n  some  way i s  I  t i o n s  not t h a t  S  p a r t  the  way  of must  be  l e a d  i n as  i s  f a l l  w i t h i n  the  the  the  to  now  need  s h o u l d t h a t t o  to  e x p e c t  m e r e l y  w a r r a n t : S  i s  g e t  A  expect  a c c o m p l i s h e d i n  of  on  t o  whether  or  even  w h i c h o t h e r i s  the i n  A  i s  than  t r y i n g  to  not to  e v i d e n c e  e v i d e n c e  m o t i o n s such  of  not  t o ) . get  t h i s i n  r a i n ,  i s  t h a t  t r y i n g  to  get  i f  we  b a s i s i s  to  make  use  No  doubt,  to the S A  l e a r n  h i m ,  i s to t h a t  f o r  at  i n  of  t r y i n g  the  s p e c i f i e d p o s -  i n d i f f e r e n t  as  of  t h a t  many t h a t  sequence,  c a s e s  i n  p  means  by  S ' s w h i c h  l e a s t  b e l i e v e t h i s  S  p r i n c i p l e  what  sense  way,  (knowledge)  i n  b e l i e v e  than  c i r c u m s t a n c e s  i n i s  to  f o r m u l a -  r a t h e r  motions  S  A  f o r ,  c a s e s ,  t h a t  what  p r e v i o u s  _if  the  i t  p e r m i t t i n g .  a l l o w i n g  b e l i e f  a  t h a t  o c c a s i o n , or  as  way,  f i r s t  p r e s c r i b e d  i n f e r  through  some  h i s  t h a t  the  h i s  seem  " a t - l e a s t - g o i n g -  So  so  p  the  some  does  i n  be  by  the  i n  see  ( a l l o w i n g  communicating  r e l i a b l e  most  him  to  t h a t  happens  e x p e c t s S  c l o u d s  g i v e n  A  g o i n g  b e l i e v e  any  i n f e r  A  l e a s t  i n f e r e n c e - s e q u e n c e s i b l e ,  to  f o r  a t t o  A  w h i c h  i n  i t  background  t h r o u g h - t h e - m o t i o n s - o f " - o p e r a t o r . n e e d i n g  i n s t a n c e s  Though  c i r c u m s t a n c e s  scope  i n  e x p e c t a t i o n . o f  a l o n g .  " m e c h a n i s m - e x p e c t a t i o n "  to  case  s e q u e n c e — a n d  t h a t  s h o u l d  t h i s  the  has  e n t i r e  m e n t i o n e d ,  to  always  the  b e l i e v e  S ' s  i s  through  sequence  i n f e r e n c e  was  i t  meaning  p r o c e e d i n g  cases  or  s e e n ,  i s  b e h a v i o r b l a c k  g o i n g  t h a t not  p a  through ;  but  p r e t e n s e  48 on  S ' s  p a r t ,  us  i s  not  i n  p a i n ) .  f e i g n e d ,  i n  p a i n ,  a l l  we  can  b e i n g  i n f e r  t h a t  In of  b e l i e f  , i n  does i s  t h a t  seems  he  t h a t  S  S  i s  no  r e a s o n  any  of  v a r i o u s  some  r e a s o n  From  here  r e l y i n g  ( i f  t h e r e  on  some  i s  no  t h i n k  t h a t  S  i s  i n f e r  t h a t  S  b e l i e v e s  no  r e a s o n  he  i s  I t  m i g h t  to  i n t e n d s  to  i n f e r  t h a t  mentioned  A  t o  t h r o u g h  t h a t  S  have the  wants  e v i d e n c e  p  y t h a t  A  )  good  i s  i s  (at  t h a t  i n  do i n  of) y  to  that  g e t  or  a s ,  e v i d e n c e t r y i n g t h a t  of  to  to  S  g e t S  e x p e c t s h i s  example, i s  A  to i s  case or  A  g o a l  ( i f  S  (at  t o  to  sees  t r u e .  i s  t h i n k s  to  m i s t a k e n ,  be)  A  E  f o r  him  i m p e r a t i v e s  t h a t  i s  i n t e n t i o n s .  m i s i n f o r m e d  case  a c h i e v e  of  i n  l i k e l y  case  S  l e a d s  F i n a l l y ,  b e l i e v e  f o r  where  t h a t  l e a d -  to  the  h i s the  as A  suppose  i n  r e g a r d  i n s i n c e r e )  l e a s t  a d d i t i o n ,  e x p e c t s  or  here  (or  to  i t e r a t i o n  .  the  suppose  ways,  r e a s o n  p  S  to  t o  to  way,  h i g h e r  t h a t  m o t i o n s  and, S  some  r e l i a b l e  to  i n t e n d  d i s h o n e s t  t h a t  be  g o i n g  do  b e i n g  t h i n k  i n  i s  p  be  p l a y - a c t i n g  he  t h a t  t h e r e  i s  t h a t  through  S  S  to  p a i n .  b e l i e v e  does  us  g o i n g  t h a t  i n  to  get  l e a s t  b e l i e f  one  A  p r e t e n s e ,  A  at  i s  he  e x p e c t s  the  s h o u l d  i n  to  he  t h a t  a  p o s s i b l e  to  ,  get  i s  meant  t o  r e a s o n a b l e  meaning,  (that  b e i n g  i n t e n d  d i s p l a y s  p  had  not  s t i l l  he  t h a t  he  a c t ' s  he i t  a c t  t r y i n g  e x c e p t i o n a l  s h o u l d  some  s a y i n g i t  i n f e r  of  p  where  t h a t  g e n e r a l ,  p a i n - b e h a v i o r  t h i s  s i n c e  (knowledge)  t o  t h a t an  p  by  from  i s  the  d i r e c t l y  i f  n o n n a t u r a l  motions i n g  we  t h e n ,  d i s h o n e s t  cases  t h a t  However,  was  b e l i e v e  e . g .  b e l i e v e  t h a t be  l e a s t  A  r e l i a b l e  49 c i r c u m s t a n c e s t i o n  by  wants f o r  A A  ;  An  (his  t h a t  A  as  a  and  t h a t  S  means  T h a t  i s , A  or  to  he  must  to  i t )  of  as  to  an  some by  S ' s  i s  as  on S  r e c o g n i t h a t  do  he  y  — o r ,  p r e v i o u s l y  A  to  S ' s  both  of  t h a t  i t  i s  i n t e n -  b e l i e v e  i n t e n t i o n  E f o r  at  l e a s t  t h a t  (primary)  the  The  the i n t e n d  (or  f u r n i s h i n g  the  e v i d e n c e  i n s t r u m e n t a l  of  of  must  i n t e n t i o n  of  o t h e r  I  r e l i a b l e  i n s t r u m e n t a l  i s  i s  w h i c h  p o s i t i o n .  i n t e n t i o n .  c o n d i t i o n  S  s h o u l d  r e q u i r e d  g e t t i n g  means  i t s  counterexamples  p o s s e s s i o n  i n s t r u m e n t a l  A  one  serve  of  by  of  y.  b l o c k i n g  )  b a s i s  t h a t  c o n d i t i o n ,  have  e v i d e n c e  added  meant  r e c o g n i t i o n  t h e r e o f ) ,  t h i s  i s  i n s t r u m e n t a l  have A ' s  the  do  S t r a w s o n ,  the  of  to  of  x  on  t h i n k s  i s  of  has  t h a t  n a t u r a l i s t  p r e t e n s e  f o r  ,  by  knowledge  tended)  a l l  way  the  u t t e r a n c e  p r e t e n d i n g  i n  y  i n t r o d u c e d  t i o n a l i s t  by  do  p a r t l y  a d d i t i o n a l  i n t r o d u c e d  A  though  to  s h o r t ,  s o r t  permit)  p  i n t e n t i o n . t o  i n d u c e  i n t e n t i o n A  w i t h  second  p o s i t i v e  r  (at  (or  r e l i a b l e l e a s t  p r e -  j u s t i f i c a t i o n  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  accounts  17 f o r  our  i n t u i t i o n  r a t i o n a l to  deny  n a t u r e , the  communicate a u d i e n c e ; i n t u i t i v e ,  f a c t , w i t h  b u t to  i t say  as of  to  the  " e s s e n t i a l  the  a c t  of  of  w h i c h  the i s  we  a v o w a b i l i t y , "  communication. have  i n t e n t i o n  of  made  thereby  a  d i f f e r e n t  m a t t e r ,  the  c o n v e r s e :  t h a t  S t r a w s o n ,  p.  454.  much,  we  or  T h i s t h a t  i s  not  one  can  d e c e i v i n g  and can  s u r e l y d e c e i v e  some c o u n t e r w i t h  50 the  i n t e n t i o n  thereby  m u n i c a t i n g  we  means  d e c e p t i o n .  the  of  a  can  p r e s e n c e ,  m u n i c a t e ,  of  For have  the  a t an  d e c e i v e ,  the  what  (S)  i s  of  e x p l a n a t i o n )  the  l e a s t  r o l e  as  those  we  have  t h a t  has  i n t e n t i o n a  one,  which  E  much  to  what  S  s a d d l e d  him  c l a i m  a n a l y s t  has  makes, i t  to  On  the  n o t h i n g  need  c o n c e p t  i t s e l f  t h a t  .  p  a n a l y s i s ,  I f o r  be  want  to  of  a c c o u n t i n g ,  t i e s  we  have  the  adduced  n a t u r a l i s t ' s  o r d e r  m a i n t a i n  r e a s o n s  tage  i n  a l r e a d y  i n to  a  g i v e n ,  manageable a l l  a d d i t i o n a l  p r e v i o u s  at  R a t h e r ,  on  has way,  t h a t  S  e v i d e n c e . i m p l a u s i b l e s i g n i f y  f o r  the i n t e n t i o n  as  f a r  to  have  as  howthe  meant  v e r s i o n ,  the  d i s t i n c t  f o r  the  f o r m u l a t i o n s  requirement  but  a n a l y s i s ,  e i t h e r  i s  i n  (or  h i s  h e r e ,  o v e r a l l  S  l e v e l The  d e f i n i n g  must  l e a s t  some  as  p r i n c i p l e s  a d m i t t e d l y E  S  e v i d e n c e  r e l i a b l e  f o r  t h a t ,  com-  t h a t  e v i d e n c e  S ' s  (at  by  meaning.  stop  i n t e n t i o n a l i s t  s i g n i f i e d  r e q u i r e s )  not  t o .  s i g n i f i e s  e v e r ,  i n  t h a t  E  e v i d e n c e .  w i t h  the  m e a n i n g - n a t u r a l i s t , i n d u c e  h i s  w i t h  than  i n t e n d e d  l e a s t  (natural) A  to  r e l i a b l e  to  does  com-  o v e r t n e s s .  (at  t r u e  p r o v i d e  weaker  attempt  n o n n a t u r a l  remain  i n  guarantees  r e q u i r e m e n t  completes  r e l i a b l e  t h e n ,  and  w i t h  of  i s ,  communicate  any  the  a n a l y s t ) ,  be  n e i t h e r  to  to  c o n c e p t u a l  i s  openness  a n a l y s i s  i s  r e q u i r e s  e x a c t l y  up  of  A  T h a t  cannot  c o n d i t i o n ,  s u p p l y  he  T h i s  we  f o u n d a t i o n s  i f  a  t h i s  T h i s  to  t o  a t  but  i n t e n t i o n a l i s t ,  i n t e n t i o n  n a t u r a l i s t ,  communicating.  e s s e n t i a l  the  he  of  t h i s advan-  d i f f i c u l (here  p a r e n t h e s e s ) :  "S  meant  t h a t  p"  i s  t r u e  r e l i a b l e  e v i d e n c e  that)  r e l i a b l e  e v i d e n c e  f o r  g o i n g  through  the  S A  i n t e n d i n g  to  g e t  (2)  e x p e c t i n g  A  to  t h a t  A  to  S  E i s  b e l i e v e  i n f e r  as  b e l i e v e  S  i n t e n d s  A  (b)  S  b e l i e v e s  t h a t  (c)  t h a t  i s  o n l y  i f  (E  to a t  be l e a s t  of:  (a)  p  and  i n t e n d s  motions  (1)  i f  t o  t r u e .  p  t h a t  p  ;  f o l l o w s :  ;  t h a t  p  ;  52  V.  In upon  the  of  x  f o r  a  f o r  had  more  t r u t h  of.  I t  d e l i n e a t e  a  A  an  demand:  we  of  f i c a t i o n  to a  For m o t i v e s  S  of  c o n v e y i n g  A  to  he  means  (or  how  e v i d e n c e  A  expects i t  have  w i l l  i n  t h a t p  ),  n a t u r a l the  f a r  p why  i s  e v i d e n c e weaker  one  S  e v i d e n c e purpose  T h i s w i t h  now  i s  n a t u r a l  a  S ' s  I  the can  c o u l d  t h i s  to  f o r  i f  t h a t  be b e l i e f ,  b e l i e f  was  enough  i n s t r u m e n t a l  e v i d e n c e  as  to  are  s e e k i n g  a c h i e v e  h i s  i n t e n d e d  r e s u l t .  t o  c o n s i d e r  what  an  i n d i r e c t  method  u s e f u l such  example,  i f  h e ,  t h a t  the  r a t h e r p  ,  p r o p o s i t i o n  S  wants case  than  choose t h a t  a  the  we  s t a n d a r d l y  s h o u l d  i n  d e s i r e d  c h o o s i n g  (as  show  a c q u i r e  be  For  am  i s  the  t r u e  I  to  r e l i a b l e  to  If  to  A  were  A  guarantee  w i t h  i t  i n  i n f e r e n c e s  p r o p o s i t i o n ;  S  t h i s  u t t e r i n g  of  concerned  i n f o r m a t i o n .  t h a t  f o r  been  c o u l d  to  i f  r e l i a b l e  knowledge.  s t a r t e r s ,  b e l i e v e  faking)  coming  even  u t t e r a n c e .  f o r  r e l i e d  e v i d e n c e  p r o p o s i t i o n  be  have  h i s  n e c e s s a r y  s u f f i c i e n t  of  c e r t a i n  of  to  sequence  s u p p l y  be  t h i s  E  s u f f i c i e n t  have  r e l i a b l e  h i s  I  i n t e n d  f a l s e  w i l l  t h a t  i n  i n s t a n c e  i n t e n t i o n t r u t h  be  be  a n a l y s i s  n o t  as  by  i t  be  employ,  would  p  e x p e c t  p o s s i b l e  to  c o u l d  way  w i l l  c o u l d  s e r v e  t h a t  p o s i t i v e  r e a s o n a b l y  i n  t h a t  E x p e c t a t i o n s  p r e v i o u s  S  to  r e s u l t  c o u l d  e x p e c t e d  )  meant  t h i s  the  t h a t E  p r o p o s i t i o n  s t r e n g t h e n  w h i c h  at  p r i n c i p l e  S  S p e a k e r ' s  a r r i v i n g  ( i . e .  t h a t  some  A  s p e c i -  to  get  whenever  r e v e a l i n g to  my  g i v e  A  a n a l y s i s  53 s p e c i f i e s ?  C l e a r l y  d i f f i c u l t , or  not  manufacture  the  w o r l d  G i v e n to  i f  a  e v i d e n c e  r e s p e c t  tude  i n v o l v e d ,  my  b a s i s . l a s t  A  t i o n  to  f o r  dence,  at  from  the  more  s p e c i f i c i t y  he  depending  i s  support t o  the  t h i s  shows  been  here  i e n t  method  he  i s  upon  c o n c e r n e d , f o r  of  m e n t a l  s t a t e  the  g e n e r a l ,  b e l i e f ,  the  i t s  f e a t u r e s what  more  under  h i s  to  be  a  a  most the  a t t i t u d e  the  a t t i -  s u p p l y i n g  s p e c i f i e d  by  weakest  one the  r e l i a n c e  upon  A n o t h e r  weaker  the  p r o p o s i -  own  i s  s i g n  u s e d ) ,  the  w i t h  he  s t a t e  of  as  a  to g i v e  I  w e l l  to  s i n c e  can  w h i c h  as  (with  c o n t e x t  c o n t r o l .  s u b t l e  m e n t a l  e v i -  s p e c i f i c a t i o n  of  i n  t h i n k we  as  have conven-  another: s p e c i a l  s o r t  own.  o r d e r  normal  e a s i e r  p o i n t i n g  f e a t u r e s  sense  r e l i a b l e  o n e ' s i n  the  as  language  hence  i n  i s  i n  the  ,  about  ( s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g )  i n a  i s  p  the  and  w i t h  of  be  when  i n f l u e n c i n g  h i m  t h a t  s u p p l y  mental  u t t e r a n c e .  s u p p l y  c a n  c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,  f u r n i s h i n g  t i c u l a r  to  p o s s i b l e  b e l i e f ,  by  In  of  seeks  l e s s  u t t e r a n c e  t h i s  c o n t e x t  to  weaker  i s  w e l l  the  be  the  meaning (as  i t  a t t i t u d e  t h a t  e x a c t  t o t a l  m e n t a l  S  communicated).  some  t h e r e  b e l i e v e  t o  b e i n g  and  e x t r e m e l y  p r o p o s i t i o n  o n e s e l f  f o r  f o r  a u d i e n c e ,  to  seems  S  has  the  n o r m a l l y  some  n o r m a l l y  n o n n a t u r a l  come  w h i c h  f o r  d i f f i c u l t y  a l l o w s  i s  p r a c t i c e ,  p r o p o s i t i o n ;  seems  of  work  i s  one  l e s s  s t i l l  a v a i l a b l e  p r i n c i p l e  t h a t  i t  i n  i t  s o p h i s t i c a t e d  t h i s  And  because  e v i d e n c e  what  the  t h a t  for)  d a t a  t o  a n a l y s i s  p o s s i b l e way  i s  s u f f i c i e n t l y  w i t h  i s  i m p o s s i b l e  d i r e c t  (which  s u p p l y  i t s  i t  to  produce  method  i s  to  i n  someone  e f f e c t  some  a  p a r change  i n  h i s  coming S  sensory  s t a t e s  to  t h a t  h o l d  wants  must  A  i n t e n d  primary  each  t h a t be  has  w i t h  be  I  t i o n , t h a t  has  r e s u l t  of  a  of  by  based  A  the  More  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n  t h a t  e n t i t l e s  o t h e r s ,  c r i t e r i a l  on  f e a t u r e s  the  of  t h e i r  h i g h e r - o r d e r a  concept  immediate  we  as  of  a  p r o c e s s ,  a c t i v i t y ,  or  of  a  means  b e i n g  s y s t e m a t i c v i r t u e we  of  a p p l y  c e n t r a l way. c e r t a i n  the  same  a  For of  i n  an  us  i n  to  f o r  example,  a  i s  law  i n f e r  c e r t a i n t h e  s o r t I t  we  of  b e h a v i o r ,  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n to  as  i n  our i s  p r o j e c t )  b a s i s  of  of  of  mental  a  i n  someone  o u r s e l v e s  b e h a v i o r of  an  s t a t e ,  e x p e r i e n c e  i n  of  c e r t a i n  b a s i s  l a w f u l  a  c e r t a i n  t h a t  the  b e i n g  n a t u r e ,  thought  (or  c l a s s i f y  of  g e n e r a l i z a -  on  o r g a n i z i n g  i n v o l v e d "laws  c o n t e x t s ,  i s  to  e x p e r i e n c e d ,  of  s u b j e c t  o u r s e l v e s  c e r t a i n  law  axiom-schema  to  s e n s a t i o n .  h i s  what  e v i d e n t i a l )  of  c o n c l u s i o n  c o n t i n g e n t  r o u g h l y ,  t r u e  a p p l y  awareness  of  (not  b e h a v i o r  concept  w h i c h  i s  p r i n c i p l e  c a l l  a  some  b a s i s ,  p r i n c i p l e s s h a l l  he  l o g i c a l i t s  the  R o u g h l y ,  r e g u l a r i t i e s  w o r l d .  the  I  a  as  w h i c h  of  g e n e r a l  For  what  i t ,  s t a t u s  of  some  g e n e r a l  t h o u g h t . "  d e f i n e d  p a s t  on  s t a t u s .  s o r t s :  of  a l r e a d y  i s  l a w - l i k e  two  "laws  " p e r c e p t i o n - b e l i e f "  h i s  b e l i e f ,  the  s u c h  i n  i n  some  or  l o g i c a l  t h e o r y  f o r  p e r c e p t i o n ,  known  the  e v i d e n c e  case  r e s u l t  a  on  s p e c i a l  d i r e c t  A  based  r e s u l t  the  f o r  have  the  way  be  w h i c h  and  some  t o  of  e i t h e r  nature"  b e l i e f  i n  In  r e l i a b l e  s t e p  something  must  as  of  w i l l  b e l i e f .  have  A ' s  s o r t  i n f e r e n c e , and  t o  t h a t  the i n  a  e l s e ,  p a i n , i n  sense  and  v i r t u e ,  i n  55 n o r m a l l y , concept  of of  a  c e r t a i n  p a i n  a p p l i e s  to  the  e x p e r i e n c e  on  the  b a s i s  l e a s t i n  of  f o r  laws  r e c e i v e  they  of  t o  say  of  knowledge, the  g e n e r a l n a t u r e  f o l l o w , i n g  In  laws  i t  at  s e q u e n t i a l  i s  The  i n  t h a t  terms  the  r e q u i r e d A  manner, and  r e a s o n i n g  p r o c e s s  e x p r e s s e d  i n  a  The  has  sensory the  I  i n  f o r  any  such the  i n  the  s u c c e s s  i n  A  i s , as  an  u s i n g  of  end  i n scheme  t h e n ,  t h a t  a r t i c l e  l o g i c a l l y  s t a t e ,  a t  p a i n  was  laws  c l a i m  s t a t u s  i s  c o n c e p t u a l  been  s h o u l d  t h a t  a c t u a l l y  i n t u i t i v e A ' s  o v e r a l l  o t h e r s  i n f e r r e d  o n l y  e i t h e r  those  laws  of  t h o u g h t .  p r o c e e d i n g ,  not  t o  i f  the  r e s p e c t  t h a t  than  of  of  e x i s t s i t  have  s o r t  k i n d s  the  i t  do  same  w i t h  and  j u s t i f i c a t i o n  b o t h  of  some  s t a t e ,  i n d i r e c t  but  t h a t  o n e s e l f  o n e s e l f  s y n t h e s i z e .  t h a t  of  t h a t  l i m i t s  would  more  say of  i n n e r  i n f e r e n c e - s e q u e n c e  r e n d e r i n g  those  to  p r i n c i p l e s  p r o c e s s  o c c u r s  to  b e l i e f i s  the  a  to  The  b e h a v i o r — b e h a v i o r  one  value)  e x i s t e n c e  of  o v e r t  n a t u r e ;  s e r v e  B e f o r e speak  of  i n n e r - a w a r e n e s s .  own  j u s t i f i c a t i o n  some  or  o n e ' s  what  ( s u r v i v a l  j o i n t l y  from  i s of  t h e i r  p r a c t i c e  to  of  i m p a r t i a l l y  c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n case  of  t h e i r  analogous  s i m i l a r  s o r t  l e v e l  p o s s i b l e I  am  by  h i s  d e d u c t i v e  t h a t  S  t h i s  goes as  an  p l a c e d  schema  the  i n  o t h e r  r e a s o n n o r m a l l y  i n f e r e n c e .  to  and  we to  d i s c r e t e  h i s  b e l i e f s ( i n  a  b r i n g  upon  A  w h i c h  immediate  to  when  expects  r e f l e c t  i n f e r e n c e s  s t a n d i n g  t h a t  through:  a t t e m p t i n g  c o n d i t i o n s  mention  the  and s u r f a c e  (actual) d e s i r e s  w o r d s ,  the  as  56 i n f e r e n c e - s e q u e n c e l u t e l y  d e l i b e r a t e  s t e p ) . as  he  t i o n  In  t h i s  d i d .  And  we  w h i c h  have  he i n  would h i s  f a s h i o n  attempts  s i m i l a r l y  to  r e g a r d  to  h i s  u t t e r a n c e  c o n s c i o u s l y i n  making  exchange  b e l i e f s  f o r m u l a t e d  what i s  l a c k s  the  to  i n t e r p r e t  c o n c e p t what  and by  f o l l o w s  happening  A  the  an  e x p l i c i t  ,  .  of  the  i s  I t  need might  to  f i r s t  up  t o ,  i n  a b s o a  h i s  of  a c t i n g  the  i n t e n -  h y p o t h e t i c a l manner,  one,  the  S  has  w i t h  not  have  been  be  of  imagine t i m e ,  c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,  i s  a  d e s i r e s i t  p l a u s i b l e f o r  S  i t  A S  " e x p l a i n "  :  and  were  s k i p p i n g  e x p r e s s i o n  i n  complex  never  f o r  c a p t u r e ,  the  he  to  A  of  i f  attempt  to  e f f e c t  through  r e a s o n i n g , I  a t t r i b u t e d  go  t h a t  t o  and  some  t h i s  suppose  i s  f a m i l i a r ,  h e l p  t h a t  e n d e a v o r i n g more  g e n e r a l  terms. What  I  need  i n f e r e n c e - s e q u e n c e bute  to  A  of  show,  w h i c h  whenever  c o n c l u s i o n t o  to  which  we i s  say t h a t  be  r e l i a b l e  e v i d e n c e  stage  proceeds  on  the  i t  t h e n ,  i s  b a s i s  t h e r e  i s  would  be  r e a s o n a b l e  to  t h a t  A  u n d e r s t o o d  S  b e l i e f  f o r ,  t h a t  and of  w h i c h  w h i c h  g e n e r a l  S  i s  an a t t r i ,  the  i n t e n d s  such  E  t h a t  p r i n c i p l e s  each  of  the  18 r e q u i r e d i s  t o  be  s o r t .  G r i c e  (expected  p r e s e n c e  of  c e r t a i n  thereof)  to  the  G r i c e  has  by  S  s u g g e s t e d to  f e a t u r e s  t h a t  be)  a  i n  S ' s  b e h a v i o r  The  u n d e r l y i n g  d e s i r e d  b e l i e f .  (1969),  p.  163;  see  d i r e c t  A ' s  a l s o  one,  i n f e r e n c e from (or  the p r o d u c t  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n  S c h i f f e r ,  p.  53.  57 i s  then  viewed  of  t h a t  s o r t  v i r t u e  of  and  some  a s s o c i a t i v e , f e a t u r e s account  as  i n  mode  or  i n f e r e n c e , ,  i f  i t  one  a f f a i r s  a  d e s c r i b e d u s u a l l y i s  the  s o r t  the by  c o u l d  t i o n s  upon  n e c t i n g  of  such  t i o n s  do  of  which  i n v o l v e s  s o r t ,  but  to of  not  a  w h i c h  t h a t  the  up  to  s o r t  w i t h  l a w - l i k e  an  the  o v e r a l l  the i t  of s o r t  i s  t h a t  t h i s  of  t h i s  b e l i e v e d ) ; p a s t  s o r t to  -seek  i n t e r m e d i a r y of  of  so  c o r r e l a -  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n  a p p l i c a b i l i t y . we  s t a t e s  something  of  s t a t u s  as  s t a t u s — p r e s u m -  be  t h a t  any  have  something  to  t h i s on  must  However,  w h i c h  supposed  c o n n e c t i o n of  i t  a f f a i r s  means i n  If  between  .  i n t e n d e d  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n add  p  r e q u i r e d the  of  o r  p l a c e d  l a w - l i k e  s t a t e s  u t t e r a n c e  s e r i e s a  (and  l i m i t e d  t h a t  a  o c c a s i o n  award  have  knowledge,  someone  base  we  i n  i c o n i c ,  f e a t u r e  b e l i e f .  r e g u l a r i t i e s  and  the  example,  the  of  events  of  c o n -  b e l i e f .  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  These  c o n s i d e r a -  i s  i n f e r e n c e  an  i n f e r e n c e s , r e q u i r e d  c o n n e c t i o n  each  of  g e n e r a l of  the  s p e c i f i c i t y . I  a  e x i s t  s o r t  suggest  d e s i r e d  ,  l a s t )  r a d i c a l l y  c o n s i s t i n g  E  to  between  p r o p o s i t i o n ,  (for  type  w i t h  p a s t  whenever  which  we  l e a d  e x p r e s s e d  not  meant  l i n k i n g  t h a t  p r o p o s i t i o n  (and  t h a t  F u r t h e r ,  to  s o r t  case  been  the  r e s t r i c t i o n s  from  the  f i r s t  t h e r e  w i t h  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n  the  has  of  h o l d i n g  c o r r e l a t i o n  the i s  d e r i v e d of  of  q u e s t i o n f i t  a b l y  t r u t h  one,  c o n v e n t i o n a l )  to  p r e m i s e  s i n g u l a r  the  i s  a  a  complex  t h i n k  A ' s  sequence  of  f i r s t  r e a l i z a t i o n  a u t o m a t i c  e p i s o d e s  (no of  doubt  f o l l o w i n g  p e r c e p t u a l  58 s e l e c t i o n  and  o c c u r r i n g  a  g o i n g t o  phenomenal  through  i n f e r  H i s  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n )  c e r t a i n  t h a t  S  c o n c l u s i o n  whenever most  p e o p l e  of  c e r t a i n  a  at  f a c t  c o u l d  be  based  i n  most  b a s i c  t h i s  A  a  normal  a l l o w  s t a t e  him  t h i s  to  t i m e ) ,  A  sequent d e r  of  t o the  t h i s  r e s p e c t i n  a i f  to  normal S  i t .  A  s t a t e ,  not  e x i s t s  of  t e s t s  e t c . ,  b u t  A ' s  S  knowledge.  the  t h a t  at  he  must  (In  at of  ones  s u i t a b l y  i n f e r e n c e  w h i c h  s t a t e  p l a c e s  know  h y p o t h e t i c a l  there  s o r t s . )  might  A ' s  w i l l  not  (roughly,  anyone  t o  i n f e r e n c e s  t h a t  f o r  l e a d  a l l  i n  i s  the  to  s p e c i f y  t o  he  of  e x p e c t  t r y  In  e x i s t e n c e  t o  of  as  h i m s e l f  v a r i e t y  of  awareness  to  i s  s k e t c h  the  r e q u i r e d  appearance  t r u e  s o r t  and  not  suppose  t h i s  t h a t  a f f a i r s .  c e r t a i n  number  i n  one  taken  t h a t  s u b s t a n t i a l  t h i s  b e l i e v e  suppose  of  movements.  p r i n c i p l e  of  c i r c u m s t a n c e s  i n f e r e n c e s )  I  s t a t e  a p p l y i n g  n o r m a l i t y  be  normal  i s ,  s h a l l  a f t e r  to  i n  i s  I  i s  would  w i t h  t h a t  t h i s  S ' s  e x p e c t e d  p e r c e p t u a l  the  r e s u l t  he  a  i s  of  be  (roughly,  i n f e r s  a  t h a t  has  t h e r e  these  g e n e r a l  s t a t e  to  then  through  a c t u a l  r e a s o n  can  the  t h a t  (appearance)  he  t r u e  u a t e d  impute  then  be  so  t h a t  times)  no  on  and  some  (perhaps  and  a f f a i r s of  i n  He  g o i n g  normal  s o r t ,  grounded has  a  times)  v e r i d i c a l l y c a s e ,  movements. i n  i s  w e l l  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  i s  anyone  m i g h t  most s i t knows  expect (and  s u b -  the  r e m a i n -  r e a s o n i n g  p r o c e s s  p r i n c i p l e s  be  such  t h a t  i t  f o r  each  g e n e r a l  a t i s  work,  b u t  r e a s o n a b l e  p r i n c i p l e s  of  59 A to  can  perform  c o u l d  then  t h e s e  r e l y  normal  upon  s t a t e  these  product  p o s s e s s e s  to  c e r t a i n  of  of  b e i n g or  onto  power  even  i n  A  the A  b e h a v i o r :  t h a t  p r i n c i p l e S  ments  as  ,  such  t h e s e  i f  on  were  to  b e h i n d  case  of  such  v i r t u e to  as  S  i s  ,  of  he  h i s  e x p e c t e d  e q u a l l y  i n  own  to the of  e x p e r i -  the  o t h e r  p o t e n t i a l i t y  as  S  such  h i s  i s  g e n e r a l  something  by  h i s  movements. a l s o  p e r f o r m be  as  a c t i o n s .  might  to  t h a t  s o r t  to  another  not  i s  would t h a t  of  the  w e l l  b e h a v i o r  b e h i n d  do  as  own  a c c o m p l i s h  purpose  says  c e r t a i n  r e g u l a r i t i e s  n o t h i n g  as  h i s  are  a p p l i e s  h a v i n g  a  a  movements  a t t r i b u t e  process) be  a  p e o p l e  he  he  i n  they  e x p e r i e n c e s  as  i n  p a s t  t h a t  t h a t  i s  r e a l l y  such  to  i s  t h i s  i n t e n d s  of  c o n t r o l :  p r o j e c t i o n  i n t e n d s  there  sequence  T h i s  n a t u r a l  S  someone  p e r f o r m i n g  i f  t h a t  p r i n c i p l e  i n t e n t i o n )  p a r t i c u l a r  based  or  a l s o  knows  S  A l l  are  p r o j e c t s ,  t h a t  h i s  s u b j e c t i v e who  i s  some  p r i n c i p l e ,  that  (of  main  complex  under  e x p e r i e n c e .  p e r f o r m i n g ,  A  own  b e i n g s  t h a t  F u r t h e r ,  a  i n f e r  whenever  v o l i t i o n .  concept  another  (or  t h a t  are  to  The  c i r c u m s t a n c e s  ( s u b j e c t i v e ) ence  i s  performs  h i s  o t h e r  s o r t  here  own  a  e x p e c t e d  movements.  and  h i s  A  same  be  movements  of  c e r t a i n  n e x t  be  i n v o l v e d :  such  move-  a c c o m p l i s h e d  t h e r e f r o m . On some as  to  what  based what  the on  b a s i s  a  v a r i e t y  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  such  s t a n d i n g  of  a c t i v i t i e s  d e s i r e s  formed  are  p e o p l e  of  l i k e l y  tend  to  p o s s i b l e from t o  p a s t  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s — r e g u l a r i t i e s  a c c o m p l i s h  h a v e —  A  can  and be  on  60 e x p e c t e d d o i n g  what  t h a t  he  t h a t  the  be  to  he  c e r t a i n  ' p ' . i n  T h i s  d i f f e r e n t  s u g g e s t ,  to  a  i s  c a s e s .  example,  For  p r o p e r t y  an  b e i n g or  a  S ' s a  type  more  of  of or  t h a t  i s  e f f e c t  A  i t  making  him  get  him  adopt  t o  some  ' p ' .  i s  a  s t a t e s of  A  ,  t h a t  some  p a r t i c u l a r  of  the  A  i n  way i n f e r s  i n  A  of  cannot  i n  n o t  the the  of  t h o u g h t - f o r m  or  an  can  have to  i n  o n l y  be  S  of are  of  f o r  (or  a  or  t h a t  t y p e ,  e v i d e n c e  (the  l a t t e r  c o n t e x t ) , a f f a i r s ;  might  or  i n s t a n t i a t e A  expected h i g h l y  to  the  to  i n f e r  s p e c i a l i z e d  .  r e a s o n  S  c o u l d  p r o p o s i t i o n - t y p e  a f f a i r s  m i g h t  s t r u c t u r a l  t h i s  s t a t e  t h i s by  r e l a t i o n s  o b j e c t  q u e s t i o n  l i n k e d  p r o p o s i t i o n a l  s t a t e  thought  d i f f e r e n t  i n ,  to  the  t h a t  l e a s t  r e s u l t  A  e x p e c t e d the  a f f a i r s  a s s o c i a t e d they  be  performance  a f f a i r s  a t  i n t e n d e d  aware  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  a f f a i r s  And  w i l l  was  have  mind  m a t e r i a l  c o n v e n t i o n a l l y  r e a l i z e s  f o r  to  some  b e h a v i o r  u n l e s s  t o  what  p r o p o s i t i o n - t y p e S ' s  of  by  a s s o c i a t i o n ) ,  s t a t e s  i m p o r t a n t  some  t h a t of  s t a t e  movements,  t h a t  may to  mediated  of  p a s t  o b j e c t )  c o n s t i t u e n t  p a t t e r n  of  r e a l i z a t i o n  of  r o u g h l y ,  A  a f f a i r s :  s t a t e  some  the  p e r h a p s ,  of  c o n s t i t u e n t  c o u l d  p e r c e p t i o n  k i n d  c o n s t i t u e n t  S  r e a s o n s ,  b r i n g s  (or  f o r  v a r i o u s  performance  resemblance  a  i n ,  S ' s  s t r e n g t h  or  A  c e r t a i n  t h i s ,  the  prominent  purpose  b e h a v i o r .  on  of  f o r  S ' s of  o n l y  a f f e c t  of  of  l i g h t  t h a t  the  a g a i n  p r o d u c t i o n  In  a  i s  B u t ,  e n d - a l l  n o t i c e  t h a t  d i d  h a s .  the  of  i n f e r  'p'  a t t i t u d e  w i t h  (or  of  s o r t  have i s  to  r e s p e c t  s t a t e s  of  61 a f f a i r s )  t h a t  and,  from  w i t h  r e s p e c t  can  p a s t  be  d e s c r i b e d  e x p e r i e n c e ,  t o  t h a t  s t a t e  a t t i t u d e s  p r e s u p p o s i n g  b e l i e f ) .  G i v e n  the  s t a n d i n g  concerns  t h a t  o n l y  the  d e s c r i b a b l e i n t e r e s t or  f o r  p o s s i b l e )  of  t o  s t a t e  S  of  A  But, d i r e c t l y  i n f e r  t h a t  can  S  S  .knows  S  ,  t h a t  to  from  knows A  to  to  i n f e r  A  to  i n f e r  i n  as  t h i s  c a s e .  t h a t  w i l l  S  t h a t  I t  there  t h i n g s  so So  immediate  b e l i e v e  by  a p p r o p r i a t e  the  p  ;  and  the by  A  s o r t  be  i n  i s  the  ;  b e l i e f  i n f e r r e d  might  S ' s  the  ( a c t u a l  ( p r a g m a t i c a l l y  so  S  must  be  c o n c e r n i n g  b e l i e v e s  such  t h a t  be  the  no  the  be  he  way i f  i s  and  t h a t  S  t h a t  S  to  i n  (and  to  t h a t  t h o u g h t  reason  t h a t  him  r e a l i z e s  case  m i s t a k e n  t h a t a  p  i s  A  d i r e c t l y  r e a l i z e ) perhaps  i n  t r u e .  r e a l i z e s  i n f e r e n c e  p  e x p e c t i n g  might  or  A  be  i s  i n f e r  However,  he  h i s  cannot  t h i s .  such  t h a t  of  b e l i e f  what  about  honest  some  about  u n r e l i a b l e  know  some  be  'p'  such  u t t e r a n c e  i t  t h a t  p  i s  .  o t h e r  of  can  denoted  of  some  c o n c e r n i n g ,  t h a t  s h o u l d  p  h o l d  ( a l l  a f f a i r s  b e l i e f  S  t h i s  e x p e c t s  t h a t  i t  terms  .  m i s t a k e n A  to  the  w h i c h  h o l d  i n  h a v i n g  ,  (-token)  t h e n ,  have  ,  p  a  and  w i l l  p  of  'p'  be  of  s t a t e  i n f e r s ,  be  i n s t e a d ,  t h a t  come  A  the  a f f a i r s  i n t e n d i n g  t h a t  a f f a i r s  A  form  p r o p o s i t i o n  p r o p o s i t i o n  of  and  of  s p e c i f i e d )  to  must  environment  terms A  i t  f i r s t  p o s s i b l e  i n  (viewed)  b e l i e v e s  t h i n k  t h i s  S  i n s t a n c e ,  r e a l i z e s be  d i s -  e x p e c t i n g  A  t o  i n t e n d s  t o  get  S  might  S  t h a t  A  there  i s  w i l l no  go  r e a s o n  on  to to  62 suppose  S  a  i n  b e l i e f  But to  i t  i s  i s  have  b e i n g  d i s h o n e s t ,  S ' s  r e l i a b i l i t y ,  (perhaps)  p o s s i b l e  t h i s  d e c e i v i n g have  here  i n t e n t i o n  A  ) ,  and  A  can  h i s  immediate  through  the  motions  p  c e r t a i n  p a r t i c u l a r  I  the  a  t h i n k  e x p e c t a t i o n s S  means  t h a t A  the  t o  one;  t h a t  hence  known  might  i n t e n d  r e l i a b l e  t i o n . by  I t  a d d i n g  though s e r v e  I  by  a p p e a l  t h i n g  as  above  might p  to  r e s u l t s  by  A  h i s  ;  might  t h i n k  to  my  the  w i t h  r e s p e c t the  most  p  t r u e .  i s  p r e t e n d i n g  t h a t  i n v o l v e s  be  e x p e c t e d  to  S  i s  at  going  him  to  b e l i e v e  have  one  l e a s t  the  a l l o w s x  to  p r i m a r y to  t h a t  i s  does not  a  t h a t  b i z a r r e  of  I  b e l i e v e  not  a  come  i n to  r e q u i r e  r e l i a b l e as  w h i c h s e r v e  these  i n t e n d s f o r  s u f f i c i e n t l y  h i s  S A  i n t e n r e s u l t s  n o n n a t u r a l S  some-  f o r  i n s t r u m e n t a l  of  what  whenever  c o u n t i n g  way  e v i d e n c e  i s  A  F u r t h e r ,  summarize  a n a l y s i s  A  f o r  c o n c l u s i o n  of  h i s  a c c o u n t  which  t h a t  r e l i a b l e to  get  to  r e q u i r e m e n t as  way  p l a u s i b l e  i s  hence  l a s t  i n t e n t i o n  but  a  c o n v e n i e n t  way)  any  to  p l u s  o n l y  case  u t t e r a n c e .  u t t e r a n c e  be  a  t h a t  b e l i e f  f o r  i n  t h a t  s a i d  i n  and  e v i d e n c e  them  any  some  out  be  i s  h e r e ,  way. i s  some  ( i n  r u l e  t r y i n g  i n f e r e n c e - s e q u e n c e  make and  S  i n  from t h a t  S  not  i n f e r e n c e  of  i n f e r  t h a t  (though  as  i n  to  and  meaning; E  t o p r i m a r y  s t r o n g  c o u n t e r e x a m p l e s :  to  63 "S  meant  (E  s i g n i f i e s  (A)  t h a t  i s  t r u e  i f  i n t e n d s  E  to  be  A  t h a t  i s  at  l e a s t  to  get  S  t r y i n g  (2)  e x p e c t i n g  (1')  i f  e v i d e n c e  g o i n g  to  through  to  b e l i e v e  f o r the  as  b e l i e v e  S  i n t e n d s  A  (b)  S  b e l i e v e s  t h a t  (c)  i t  i s  e x p e c t s  A  t h e r e  i s  t r u e  to  i n  S a  S  i s  (3*)  S  i n t e n d s  to  (4')  S  i n t e n d s  A  aware  S  i s  at  of  t r y i n g  S  i s  of  e x p e c t i n g  a t  l e a s t t o  the  l e a s t  A  of  t o  (to  at  i n f e r  to  S  i n t e n d s  A  (b)  S  b e l i e v e s  t h a t  (c)  i t  i s  the  b e l i e v e  to  t h a t  a c t i o n s ;  through  (a)  true  those  through  g o i n g A  movements;  l e a s t  p r o p o s i t i o n - t y p e  g o i n g  g e t  c e r t a i n  s e t t i n g ;  t h i n k the  ;  p e r c e p t u a l  t h e s e  perform  of)  p  f o l l o w s :  c e r t a i n  to  t h a t  ;  u n d e r g o i n g  u n d e r g o i n g  ;  ;  p  as  p  f o l l o w s :  p  t h a t  o c c u r r i n g  (2')  become  to  i n f e r  of  t h a t  i n f e r  (a)  movements  (6')  r e l i a b l e  A  A  phenomenon  (51)  o n l y  of:  (1)  S  and  t h a t ) :  S  motions  (B)  p"  b e l i e v e p p  ; .  motions t h a t  the  as  ' p ' ;  p  ;  motions  f o l l o w s :  t h a t  p  ;  64  VI.  At  t h i s  p o i n t  d e c i d i n g  between  v e r s i o n s  of  make  a  as  a l i s t  p a  i s  tee from  of  h o l d i n g  between  the  I  argued  i t  S ' s i n i s  the  s i g n i f i c a t i o n  to  example,  c a t  i s  And  s i m i l a r l y ,  which  i t  the  may  c a s e when  S  meant t h a t  d i d .  S  i n t e n d e d A  i s  i s  the  t h a t a  the  i s  t r u e  t h a t  be  i n  s a i d  the h i s  u t t e r -  h i s  o n l y  l o g i c a l so  w h i l e  d i r e c t e d  c a t  had  p r o p o s i t i o n a l  t h i s  one  t h a t  .  w i t h i n  be  paper.  S  For  a t t i t u d e ,  t h a t  c o r r e c t l y  t h i s  he  f o r  can  a t t i t u d e  of  s i g n i f i e d  That  even  may  t h a t  r e q u i r e d .  the  a n a l y -  i n t e n t i o n -  b e g i n n i n g  l a c k s  the  are  n a t u r a l  what  i t  a n a l y s e s  and  embedded  t h a t  would  i n t e n t i o n a l ,  p r o p o s i t i o n a l  be  house, S  i s  i t  l o g i c a l  t h a t  and  of  the  so  f a c t  p a r t i c u l a r  For  i s  not  the  i n t e n t i o n a l i s t  i n t e n t i o n )  c o n c e p t u a l  i n  s t a t e  way  f o r  s t a t e  u t t e r i n g  a  n a t u r a l i s t  a c c o u n t  the t o  or  The  the  s i g n i f i c a t i o n  f o r  t h a t  t o  i s  i n t e n t i o n a l i s t  whether  b e h a v i o r  to  c e r t a i n  problem  p r o p o s i t i o n  at  n a t u r a l i s t ,  i n t e n t i o n  a  appear  t h e r e  e n t a i l s  n o n n a t u r a l ,  t h a t  evidence  a  or  l o g i c a l l y  a n a l y s e s  (S's  the  a n a l y s i s ,  mentioned,  w h i c h  of  a t t i t u d e  the  f a c t  have  mention  and  i n  s t a t e  A  n a t u r a l i s t  and  i n t e n t i o n a l i s t , i n g -to  i f  i n t e r r e l a t e d ,  to  c e r t a i n  see  adopted.  f o r  to  s h o u l d  we  Both  A c c o r d i n g  Word  one  dependencies meaning  L a s t  w h i c h  was  s .  1  we  f i n a l  d i f f e r e n c e  o b v i o u s l y s i s ,  the  the  The  i s  b e l i e v e s q u e s t i o n to  i n t e n d  guaranf o l l o w s  one  i s  the f a l s e . t h a t i s E  the out. to  65 be  e v i d e n c e  f a c t  f o r  b e .  We  o n l y  a  E * s  b e i n g  A  say  t h a t  i t  of  was  i s  the  meaning  s i g n i f i e d  i n  i n  q  ;  i n  q  a  ,  o r d e r  o n l y  be a  f o r  E  i s  a n a l y s i s  S ' s  not  b e l i e v e d  meaning  i t  would f o r  t h a t  and  what  had  l o g i c a l  c o n n e c t i o n . to  i n  p r o v i d e s  whereas  i n t e n t i o n a l i s t way  to  such  though  S  between  the  s i g n i f i c a t i o n  n a t u r a l  even  apparent  to  c o n n e c t i o n  ,  i n t e n t i o n a l  t h a t  an  open  q  t h a t  l i n k  e v i d e n c e f o r  p r i o r i  be  t h a t  g r a m m a t i c a l  b e l i e v e  c e p t  A  e v i d e n c e  may  accounted  a  f o r  p  to  be But  e x p l a i n  t h i s  t h a t  does  not  r e q u i r e  the  b u i l t  i n t o  the  concept  of  way  t h a t  something  something  to  be  would  I  c o n non-  have  to  n o n n a t u r a l l y  meant. I t those  of  world)  i n not  a  i n  between the  seems  c o m p o s i t e w h i c h  p r i v a t e  i n t o  however,  c o n c e p t s  would  s y n t h e t i c  a.  b e i n g  r u l e  the  such  these  a  not  c a s e  n o n n a t u r a l  at  and  l e a s t  c o n c e p t  have  i n  they  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s —  r e g u l a r i t i e s  i s  be  to  between  these  r e g u l a r i t i e s  c o n c e p t  of  the  v a r i o u s p o s i t  i n  mention  need  make  c o n c e p t s  they  i n v o l v e .  p l a u s i b l e  to  have  say had  t h a t a  a  concept  now  not  I t  seems  the  would  o b t a i n — e . g .  This  t h a t  meaning  to  (or  the  e x i s t e n c e  seems  c o n t e x t  norm,  the  i t  a  l e a s t  the  formed.  the  i n  a t  i n d i v i d u a l s .  these  are  (or  happen  most  t h a t  c o n n e c t i o n  or  formed  e x t e r n a l  and  r e g u l a r i t i e s  p r e s e n t  are  concepts  r e g u l a r i t i e s  u n l e s s  p r i o r i  way  or  the  most  nature)  e x p e r i e n c e s  i n d i v i d u a l ,  w r i t t e n  t h a t  c e r t a i n  p r e s e n t ;  i n  l i k e l y  use  no  the i n  q u e s t i o n ,  In  the  concept a  w o r l d  of  of or  66 amongst as  to  a  community  what  another  seem  t o  t i a l  number  o t h e r to  r e q u i r e of  c a s e s  do,  w h i c h  meant  t h a t  we  c a s e s  are  t h a t  i n  concept  by  would  ever  had  a c t i o n s ;  such  not  i n t o  one  h i s  have  ( i f  t a k e n  no  any  i n  e v i d e n c e  f a c t  i t  e v i d e n c e  i n  a  i n d i v i d u a l l y ,  at  l e a s t  c o n s i d e r a t i o n ) . have  no  would  s u b s t a n -  W i t h  a p p l i c a b i l i t y  when  no  work  and  would  19 thus  not  have  were  i n n a t e ,  presumably, t i o n a l i s t e x i s t i n g concept  e v o l v e d i n  w h i c h  from i s  a n a l y t i c  a  c o n c e p t u a l  case  d i s u s e ) .  a b l e  between of  i n  i t  would  In  t h i s  t o  a c c o u n t  f o r  the  concept  of  n a t u r a l  meaning,  c o n n e c t i o n  have way,  the  a  the  t h e n , p r i o r i  i n  to  the  i t  e x t i n g u i s h e d , the  i n t e n -  r e l a t i o n  meaning  h a v i n g  two,  (unless  been  n o n n a t u r a l  w i t h o u t  between  scheme  and  p o s i t  manner  the  an of  the  n a t u r a l i s t . T h i s a l s o  be  a  t i o n  between  v e n t i o n a l " ' x '  or the of  n a t u r a l  "Most type  of  to  n o n n a t u r a l  p"  are  the  form  speakers  of  dependency  account meaning  T h a t  i s ,  by  "S  though  by  u t t e r i n g  we  need  e x p r e s s i o n  i s  to  be  not  f o r  r e l a t i o n  might  a  c o n n e c -  s e n t e n c e s  u t t e r i n g x  x  meant  a  t h a t  the  or  of  or  the  dependent  mean  w i t h ,  p r i o r i  l i n g u i s t i c  l o g i c a l l y  suppose  equated  the  and  a p p a r e n t l y  p_,"  g a t i o n s  s o r t  way  meaning.  means  sentences  i n d i r e c t  form upon  t h a t  p r o p o s i t i o n l i n g u i s t i c  e l u c i d a t e d  See Ludwig W i t t g e n s t e i n , P h i l o s o p h i c a l (Oxford, 1953), S e c t i o n 142.  c o n -  i n  p , " of form terms  I n v e s t i -  67 of,  some  t i o n o r  enough  even  t h e r e  a  not  t h a t  to  s i m p l y to  the  w o r l d  o t h e r t i o n  had  a l l o w  not  t h a t  r e f e r e n c e t h a t  any  t h a t  out  of  the  would r o l e  a c c o u n t  h i s  i n  a r r i v e d  the at  has  a  a  a c t  u t t e r a n c e :  i n g , "  t h i s  the  w o r l d  u n l e s s  one:  i s  c o n n e c we  d e f i n a b l e i t  may  w i t h o u t  s t i l l  p o s s i b l e  c o r r e s p o n d i n g  e x p l a n a t i o n — w o u l d  the  to  the  c o n c e p t u a l  a n a l y t i c  the  And  a p p l i c a t i o n  one  c o u l d  have  f a r e  i n  n a t u r a l i s t  w i l l  p r o b a b l y  l i k e l y  meant  s u p p l y of  a  u n l e s s  c o n c e p t s  may  p r o c e s s  S  how  a n a l y s i s  c l a i m  case  of  way  had  c o m p l e t e l y  g e n e t i c  of  the  i n  But an  l a n g u a g e ,  m e a n i n g — w h i c h  the  a r i s e n )  N e v e r t h e l e s s ,  i n t e n t i o n a l i s t ' s ,  have  have  e x p l a n a -  meaning,  the  about  p l a y .  are  a  formed.  about  have  i s  need  d e v e l o p e d  o t h e r .  However  t h a t  not  I t  a r i s e n  b e i n g  not  s i g n a l  a  20  n o n n a t u r a l  f a c t  e x p l a n a t i o n  example,  have  f a c t a  to  o t h e r .  some  of  would  c o n c e p t s  adequate  the  i s  n e c e s s a r i l y  to  p r o v i d e  a  i t  form.  c o n v e n t i o n a l  c a s e s  one  hence  phenomena—for t o  of  e m p i r i c a l  the  b o t h  not  c o n v e n t i o n s  r a t h e r  a l r e a d y  does  c o u l d  p r i o r  some  (and  n o n n a t u r a l  i n s t a n c e  those  be;  t h e m s e l v e s ,  the  t h e r e  e x i s t e d  l e d  happens  of  s i n g l e  had  somehow i s  v e r s i o n  s u i t a b l e  a r r i v i n g  a t  s i g n i f i c a t i o n  t h a t  cause a  of  of  c a u s e ,  p (or  .  In  Cf. D e n n i s W. Stampe, P h i l o s o p h i c a l Review, 77  the  h i s  t h a t  a d d i t i o n ,  c a u s a l  from  c o n t r a s t  w i t h  want  to  a n a l y s i s E  has i t  c o n d i t i o n  we j u s t  seems for)  s p e c i f i c a t i o n  "Toward a Grammar (1968), 166-174.  the  to the  of  of  Mean-  68 w h i c h ,  what  Thus, t u r e p of  ,  even what  we  was i f  we  have  the  meant  the  a c t u a l l y now  the  phenomenon m e n t a l  u t t e r i n g  x  under  d i s p o s i t i o n a l  t i o n . t i o n  To i n  l e a s t f o r  and  a  i n  so  way h i s  m e n t a l i s t .  n o n n a t u r a l  shows  t h a t  the  i t  seems  On h i s  t h i s  even  a c t i o n s ;  an  i n s t a n c e  I t  i s  a  i n  and  of  human  as  a  a  d i s p o s i t i o n a l  event  of  of  c e n t r a l  c a u s a l  to  an  who  m e n t a l of  S ' s  n a t u r e ,  a  mere  as  i n  o r d e r  to  same  the  w i t h  i t s  of  a n t e c o n d i -  communica-  i n t e n t i o n a l i s t l o c a t e s or  the  (at  impetus  t r a n s e m p i r i c a l  communication  i s  a c c e s s i b l e  r e s u l t  agent an  consequent s u r e l y  c a u s a l l y  arrangement  of  c e r t a i n  i s  a  to  a v a i l a b l e c a p a c i t y  the  a c t i o n of  a  does  can  c a u s a l  to  view  e x t e r n a l l y i t  may  r e c u r r i n g  to  as  a  u l t i m a t e  v i o l e n c e  a c t i v e )  commonplace  i s o l a t e  i s  o n t o l o g i c a l  t h e r e f o r e  (and  mechanisms—however  way  t h a t  of  p r i n c i p l e  h i s  the  m i s t a k e  o u r s e l v e s  mind  the  a c c o u n t ,  of  t h i s  law  meant  e x p l a n a t i o n  phenomenon  p r o c e s s  t h a t  e x p e r i e n c e  c a u s a l  the  the  c a p -  element  or  open  i n  S  to  an  m e n t a l i s t ) ,  hence  t h a t  p l a c e  as  some  i n t e n t i o n a l i s t ,  n a t u r e .  not  f a i l e d  Assuming  c a u s a l  c a u s e ,  e x p l a i n  a  can  S  has  f u n c t i o n .  s c r u t i n y .  But  as  of  i t s  to  and  say  f i x e d  n a t u r a l i s t i c  i n  p r o c e s s ,  o c c u r  a  as  n a t u r a l  of  we  r o l e  I t  s o u r c e  he  c o v e r i n g  as  i s  r e a l m .  t h e  a  a p p a r e n t l y  u t t e r a n c e  s c i e n t i f i c  s t a t e s ,  some  a n a l y s i s  when f o r  by  communication.  s t a t e  hence  do  mean  b a s i s  of  of  c e d e n t ,  d e r i v a b l e  n a t u r a l i s t ' s  a n a l y s i s  the  i s  never law t o  of our  the  a c t i v a t e d be  to  speak  b e h a v i o r a l  p a t t e r n s t h a t  a  i n  some  man's  m e n t a l  g u a r a n t e e d , a  f u n c t i o n i n g  i s  e v i d e n c e  at  any  as  g i v e n  s c i e n c e  to  my  as  must  community  h o n e s t ,  o r  to  t h a t  i t  p o i n t  f o r  t i m a t e  (and t h a t  such  he  and  p e r c e i v i n g i n  i n  f o r  d o e s ,  a  A ' s  (or  t h e r e  meaning) f o r  the  a  i n  most  some  So  i t  f a c t — i n  t h a t  what  b e l i e v e d  i f  c a n  (as  they  c e a s e seem  S  s t a t e  b e s t  to  s i m p l i f y  (as of  d i s -  s a y ,  com-  have  a  a  l e g i -  be  cases) the  (as  e x p l o r i n g  u s u a l l y i s  mean something  r e s u l t  a f f a i r s ) ,  b e l i e v e  or  to  t o  of  f i e l d - l i n g u i s t )  members of  i s o l a t e d  members  l i n g u i s t i c a l l y  c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n t e r e s t  f i e l d - l i n g u i s t  we  what  would  number by  e v i d e n c e  c o m p l e t e l y now  would  most  prove  p l a y - a c t i n g ,  i n  s c i e n t i s t  extended.  performance  the  t h a t  p a r t  m i s t a k e n  some  as  But  language)  the  b e h a v i o r a l  a c t ,  w i t h  f u r t h e r  u n d o u b t e d l y  c o n s i d e r  s u b s t a n t i a l  something t h e  to  community.  community,  l e a s t  t h a t  e v i d e n c e  be  d e t e r m i n e  s p e a k e r s .  f o r  hence  would  l i n g u i s t i c  p e r h a p s ,  a s s u m p t i o n  make;—as  at  were  can  e s t a b l i s h  would  s u f f i c e s  even,  m u n i c a t i o n  t h i n g  meaning  ( p o s s i b l e ) i t  are  meaning  scheme, s t a t e  r e q u i r e  we  n o n n a t u r a l  enough  p r i n c i p l e  c o n f r o n t e d  of  of  not  A g a i n ,  m e n t a l  presumably  p r a c t i c e  f i r s t  any  t r u e ,  S ' s  do  m a t t e r :  (or  was  does  r e g a r d e d .  c o n c e p t u a l  or  when  s c i e n c e  concept  communicative  the  some  so  our  t h i s  of  c r i t e r i a )  community  t o  And  f o o t h o l d .  perhaps  i n  of  and  a  be  the  what  a n a l y s i s  even a  p a r t  to  g a i n  i m p o s s i b l e  as  t i m e ,  And Given  l i f e  i n s o f a r  i s  (or  i n d i v i d u a l .  he  of  and comes  h i s someto  do  as  the  m i s s  r e s u l t  what  of  was  of  we,  adequate,  shows  embedded  i f  m e a n i n g f u l  t i f i c a l l y t h i s  u t t e r a n c e ) .  e s s e n t i a l  c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t a k i n g  the  the  i n  way  the  and  as  of  Though i n t e r e s t  p h i l o s o p h e r s ,  u t t e r a n c e s e v i d e n c e  i n  v e r y  which  i t  as  i n  p  the  .  at  weak,  In  be  to  concept  stopped  m e r e l y  t h a t  would  any  of  the  or  s c i e n -  event,  even  i f  " i n t e n s i o n a l i t y  f o u n d a t i o n s  of  t h e  t h e o r y  of  i s  l a n -  21 g u a g e , " c e p t s  i t  may  i n v o l v e d  be  the  are  l o g i c a l l y  ( i n  some  dependent  upon  p r i m i t i v e  e x t e n s i o n a l  The o u t l i n e s to  when  w h i c h  of he  n a t u r a l  i s  prove  come  to  l a n g u a g e ,  (though  of  on  of  i n t e n s i o n a l not  c o n -  a n a l y t i c a l l y )  "depend")  e i t h e r  some  and  means  b a s i s  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  seen  v e r s i o n  1  communication  s u f f i c i e n t  some  the  more  c o n c e p t s .  something a  t h a t  s e n s e  t h a t  theory  u t t e r s  w i l l  t u a l l y  hope a  c a s e  as  a  as  s p e c i a l  (of  we  have  what  something  from to  w h i c h the  S by to  nature  i n s t r u m e n t  we  the i s  up  i t ) , e v e n of r e l y  22 upon  and  i n  communication.  H. P. G r i c e , " U t t e r e r ' s W o r d - M e a n i n g , " Foundations of  M e a n i n g , Language,  S e n t e n c e - M e a n i n g , 4 (1969), 18.  22 E.  P a t t o n  I am g r a t e f u l t o J o n a t h a n F. B e n n e t t f o r t h e i r many h e l p f u l comments.  and  Thomas  71  L i s t  A l s t o n ,  W i l l i a m  P.  D.  Works  C l i f f s ,  M.  of  New  "Meaning  s o p h i c a l  C o n s u l t e d  P h i l o s o p h y  Englewood A r m s t r o n g ,  of  Review,  J e r s e y ,  and  80  Language 1964).  C o m m u n i c a t i o n , "  (1971),  Jonathan.  "The  Foundations ^  .  " S t i m u l u s ,  Rescher  B e h a v i o r  Noam.  A s p e c t s  A r t h u r  C.  Donald. J o u r n a l  H.  of  the  Theory  i n  of  P a u l  No.  .  " U t t e r e r ' s  Syntax  23  H a r t ,  L e w i s ,  H.  L. 27  David  M e a n i n g ,  A. " S i g n s and (1952), 5 9 - 6 2 . K.  (Harvard  and  (1963),  U n i v e r s i t y  _. C o u n t e r f a c t u a l s Cambridge, M a s s . ,  (ed.) New  Language,  A  (Harvard 1973).  The  685-700. Review,  4  Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y  66  The  (  P h i l o -  and  (1968),  P h i l o s o p h i c a l  P h i l o s o p h i c a l  P r e s s ,  Y o r k ,  C a u s e s , "  S e n t e n c e - M e a n i n g , of  Words,"  C o n v e n t i o n ;  ( M . I . T .  Edwards  P h i l o s o p h i c a l  Foundations  1975).  .  . " U t t e r e r ' s Meaning and I n t e n t i o n s , " s o p h i c a l Review, 78 (1969), 147-77.  M e a n i n g , "  (American 9,  ( M a c m i l l a n ,  Reasons,  The  N i c h o l a s  1965).  P h i l o s o p h y ,  P h i l o s o p h y ,  P. " M e a n i n g , " (1957), 377-388.  i n  (forthcoming)  M a s s . ,  " A c t i o n s ,  of  141-168.  E p i s t e m o l o g y ,  Monograph  " N a t u r a l i s m , "  E n c y c l o p e d i a 1967) . D a v i d s o n ,  of  Cambridge,  U n i v e r -  S t r a t e g y , "  (1973),  M e a n i n g , " i n  _.  P r e s s ,  G r i c e ,  S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y  L i n g u i s t i c  10  Response,  ( e d . ) ,  P h i l o -  (Cambridge  M e a n i n g - N o m i n a l i s t  Language,  P h i l o s o p h i c a l  Chomsky,  D a n t o ,  of  The  427-447.  . B e l i e f , T r u t h and Knowledge s i t y P r e s s , London, 1973). B e n n e t t ,  ( P r e n t i c e - H a l l ,  Word225-42,  Q u a r t e r l y ,  Study M a s s . , P r e s s ,  1969).  72 M a c k i e ,  J . L. s i t y  M o r r i s ,  C h a r l e s . S i g n s , Language, wood C l i f f s , N . J . , 1946).  P a t t o n ,  Thomas of  The Cement of P r e s s , London,  E.  and  Meaning:  Language, R e s c h e r ,  Stampe, On  5  the U n i v e r s e 1974).  Z i f f  Dennis on  (1969),  W.  "Towards  P h i l o s o p h i c a l Strawson,  P.  F.  A c t s , " .  Z i f f ,  P a u l .  T r u t h  ( e d . ) , Ludwig. O x f o r d ,  "On  A n a l y s i s ,  of  H.  P. 28  "The  ( E n g l e -  Rudiments  Foundations  of  and  Review,  73  L a r g e ,  The  i n  Speech  (1964), i n  439-60 N o e l  (London,  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s  Account 1-8.  P r e s s ,  137-174.  Communication," a t  B l a c k -  M e a n i n g , "  C o n v e n t i o n  P h i l o s o p h i c a l 1953). G r i c e * s  of  (1968),  L i n g u i s t i c s  (1967),  ( B a s i l  U n i v e r s i t y  Grammar 77  and  P r a c t i c e  (Oxford  P h i l o s o p h i c a l  "Meaning,  Mannis W i t t g e n s t e i n , w e l l ,  a  Review,  " I n t e n t i o n The  W.  U n i v e r -  2-16.  S c h i f f e r , Stephen R. Meaning London, 1972). Dennis  B e h a v i o r  G r i c e , "  N i c h o l a s . The Primacy w e l l , O x f o r d , 1973).  Stampe,  and  (Oxford  of  M e a n i n g , "  1971) (Black  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0093432/manifest

Comment

Related Items