UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The socio-economic basis of support for the Buddhist Religious Institutions of Western India : circa… Preston, Laurence Wade 1975

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THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC BASIS OF SUPPORT FOR THE BUDDHIST RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS OF WESTERN INDIAt CIRCA 200 B.C. TO A.D. 200 by LAURENCE HADE PRESTON B.A., University of British Columbia, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Asian Studies We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1975 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of th i s thes i s fo r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of Asian Studies The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1WS Date ^ophiihtor 2t //W i i Abstract This thesis is an analysis of the inscriptions, dating before the third century B.C., from the Buddhist cave excavations of Western India, The first chapter defines the inscriptions in terms of a corpus chronologically closely related, the period examined in general being that of the SatavShana dynasty. The corpus is also defined as being related in terms of language and alpha-bet. The purpose of the inscriptions is similar in that they are al l donations to the Buddhist religious Institutions as represented by the cave excavations. These cave excavations, in their iconography, a l l belong to the Hinayana phase of Buddhism. The cave excavations and thus the corpus of inscriptions they contain are also related in terms of ther spatial dis-tribution. In the second chapter the spatial distribution of the cave excavations is examined in terms of the traditional interior to coast routes in Western India. The cave excavations are.located close to Important ancient towns located on these routes. The spatial distribution of the cave excavations is the basis on which the subsequent analysis of the types of donors and donations recorded in the Inscriptions is undertaken. The third chapter analyzes the types of donations recorded in the Inscriptions, gifts for the excavation of the caves and endowments for their maintenance. Four groups of donors are established: royal and administrative, commercial and landed, Sangha and 'others'. i i i The fourth chapter is an examination of donations of endowments. These endowments are of two types, those of land and those of money. The distribution of these endowments is analyzed in terms of the spatial distribution of the cave excavations and related to the contemporary economic and political history of Western India. The analysis of donations and donors describes the general socio-economic basis of donations to the Buddhist religious institutions in the period under consideration. Certain sites, however, have relatively large numbers of certain types of donations and donors. This is explained in terms of the established spatial distribution of the cave excavations. The distribution of endowments is particularly used to show the contemporary dynasties* efforts to control the upland centers and passes associated with the cave excavations. Royal donations were then made to the cave excavations, particularly for example at Nasik, as a factor of the Satavahana-Ksatrapa conflict of the first to second centuries A.D. The control of the upland centers and thus the traditional routes to the coast then created conditions favourable for trade, particularly the international seaborne trade with the Roman Empire. The numbers of commercial and landed donors and of endowments of money at coastal Kanheri are seen as a factor of the re-establishment of Satavahana rule in Western India. The thesis concludes with an examination of the inscriptions in terms of the historical development7 of the donative process in Buddhism. Particular emphasis is given to the specific iv local political and economic information such inscriptions can yield, as here summarized, when an analysis as presented in this thesis is undertaken. V TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE. INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER TWO. THE CAVE SITES AND THEIR INSCRIPTIONS....... ,2k CHAPTER THREE. DONATIONS AND DONORS 51 CHAPTER FOUR. DONATIONS OF ENDOWMENTS 86 CHAPTER FIVE. CONCLUSIONS 105 BIBLIOGRAPHY U 3 APPENDIX A. DONATIONS 118 APPENDIX B. DONORS. 124 v i LIST OF TABLES 1. Inscriptions by Sites 39 2. Donations by Sites 78 3. Donors by Sites 78 k. Endowments by Sites 100 5. Donors of Endowments by Sites 100 v i i LIST OF MAPS Legend 0^ Map One. Peninsular India 41 Map Two. Nasik Region 42 Map Three. Junnar - Nanaghat Region 43 Map Four. Karle - Bor Ghat Region ...44 Map Five. Kuda - Mahad Region 45 Map Six. Western India. Road and Rail Routes 46 1 CHAPTER ONE. INTRODUCTION The understanding of the means of support by which institutions are established and maintained i s essential for an understanding of the religious institutions of ancient India and the society i n which they functioned. The means by which a particular religious institution, as represented by the remaining historical monuments of ancient India, was supported varied according to the local p o l i t i c a l , social and economic conditions and organizations present in i t s contemporary society. A study of the means by which a religious institution was supported w i l l then illuminate those conditions and organizations present in the society from which the religious institution came, in addition to the understanding of the religious institution i t s e l f . Inscriptions provide the source material for such a study of the means of support for religious institutions i n ancient India. Fortunately, there i s a large body of donative inscriptions found on the religious monuments of ancient India. In the absence of any form of extensive, written records from ancient India, inscriptions have provided one of the most important h i s t o r i c a l source materials. With certain exceptions, inscriptions were not designed to convey p o l i t i c a l information. Any particular p o l i t i c a l information these inscriptions provide i s incidental to the original purposes of the inscriptions. This i s not to discount the important hi s t o r i c a l information these inscriptions may provide, when lacking other sources. In this study, however, attention w i l l primarily be given to the original purpose of the inscriptions from the cave excavations of Western India, circa 200 B.C. to 2 A. D. 2001 the means of support by which these r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s were established and maintained. The use of caves a r e l i g i o u s retreats i s a very ancient one i n India. Indeed, the use of natural caverns by r e l i g i o u s ascetics i s common i n India even today. The f i r s t examples of caves which are not, as seen today, of natural formation are those caves found i n modern Bihar. These caves, In the Barabar h i l l s , a t Bajgir and a t Sita-Marhi, are i n the ancient Magadha kingdom and date from the l a t e Mauryan period, the t h i r d and second centuries B. C.,. F i r s t appearing In t h i s ancient center of imperial kingdoms, the t r a d i t i o n of cave excavation re-appears throughout India a t l a t e r dates.1 The most numerous of excavated caves, however, are to be found i n Western India. Cave excavation In Western India f i r s t appears i n the second century B.C., being excavated f o r Buddhist monks. The t r a d i t i o n of cave excavation continues through the end of the f i r s t millenium A.D., with many of the l a t e r caves being Hindu and Jain excavations. The caves of Western India are excavated i n , An immense accumulation of volcanic rocks, p r i n c i p a l l y b a s a l t i c lavas, known as the •Deccan trap». This i s the most important geological / formation i n the Bombay Presidency [^present day Maharashtra] , covering almost e n t i r e l y the region included between the 16th and 22nd p a r a l l e l s of l a t i t u d e , together with the greater part of the Kathiawar peninsula and a large portion of Cutch.2 Those cave s i t e s which w i l l be examined are p r i n c i p a l l y located i n the range of h i l l s , the Western Ghats, which form the western seaward edge of t h i s •Deccan trap' geological formation. These Western Ghats are described as running, ...southward, p a r a l l e l to the sea-coast f o r upwards of 1,000 miles, with a general elevation of about 1,800 feet above the sea, though Individual peaks rise to more than double that height. The western declivity is abrupt, and the low strip of land bordering the sea-shore is seldom more than 4-0 miles in width. The Ghats do not often descend in one sheer precipice, but, as is usually the case with a trap formation, the descent is broken by a succession of terraces. The landward slope is gentle, also falling in terraces, the crest of the range being In many cases but slightly raised above the level of the central plateau of the Deccan.3 The narrow coastal strip also contains outeroping3 of the basaltic 'Deccan trap*; thus some of the cave excavations to be considered are found here. This coastal strip, "...is a difficult country to travel In, for in addition to rivers, creeks, and harbours, there are many isolated peaks and detached ranges of h i l l s . The nature of the Western Ghats being of a "succession of terraces", ihe many faces of hard basaltic rock of even strata make ideal locations for the excavation of caves. Certainly, any natural caverns in these geological formations, In addition to the close availability of natural springs, must have provided an advantageous monsoon, varsa. retreat for the earliest wandering Buddhist monks in Western India. Over a period of time, natural caverns would have been excavated and enlarged and new caves would be excavated where there was a suitable geological terrain and water source and where, as shall be seen later, suitable population centers and transportation routes lay nearby. The initiation of the excavation of caves must have begun soon after the introduction of Buddhism into Western India. The f i r s t excavated caves date to the later second century B.C., perhaps a century after the expansion of Buddhism throughout India initiated in the Hauryan period, k particularly under the patronage of As"oka.5 That there would be century or more between the introduction of Buddhism Into Western India and the undertaking of the excavation of caves is not surprising.^ It would have taken a considerable period of time for wandering monks of a heterodox religion to become established and accepted in the contemporary Brahmanical society. The initiation of the excavation of caves, as the inscriptions will elucidate, implies that the Buddhist religion as an institution was already well established in the contemporary society of Western India. Buddhism is a monastic religion and as such, one of its initial requirements is some place of residence for the monks, particularly during the rainy season retreat. One of the prominent features of any Buddhist monastic institution, be i t a freestanding structure or an excavated cave, is a vlhara or monastic residence. The vlhara is a quadrangular building with lndvidual residence cells lining its sides, usually the Interior three sides in the cave excavations. The vlhara does undergo some architectural modifications throughout its history In India and in the cave excavations. Most notably these modifications are in terms of architectural elaboration, as for example in the addition of interior pillars. Modification also occurs in the elaboration of the original purpose of the vlhara. as for example in the addition of an image shrine in the rear wall. However, throughout its history and particularly in the cave excavations considered here, the vlhara retains its primary function as a living quarter. The other fundamental structure in any Buddhist monastic institution, be i t freestanding or excavated, is an object of 5 worship for both monks and laymen. The earliest object of worship in Buddhism is the stupa. This tumulus-like structure, whose origin and significance are obscure, continuesto be a prominent object of worship throughout the history of Buddhism. In later developments within Buddhism, the anthropomorphic representation of the Buddha also becomes an object of worship. However, in the phase of cave excavations to be studied, only the stupa is conceived of as an object of worship. The stupa can be a large freestanding structure as seen at Bharut, Sanchi or numerous other places throughout the Buddhist world. An example of such a large, freestanding stupa has recently been found in Western India, at Pauni near present day Nagpur.? In the cave excavations, undoubtably because of the medium of excavation, the stupa is usually conceived of as being enclosed in an apsidal, pillared hall, with an elaborate horseshoe shaped window. This complete structure is known as a caltya. the word itself implies the presence of a stupa. It should be emphasized that the structures seen excavated from the living rock in Western India are the same, albeit adapted to their particular medium of construction, as contemporary free-standing structures in brick and stone, found throughout the Indian subcontinent. The cave excavations also undergo the same general architectural development as their contemporary freestanding counterparts. The common origin for both the vlhara and caltya is said to be In wooden prototypes. 8 No such wooden prototypes are extant today, although supporting evidence for their existence can be found represented in the reliefs on the Bharut and Sanchi gate-ways. The Buddhist monastic Institutions, whether constructed in 6 wood, brick or stone ore excavated from the living rock are the same institutions. The presence of well preserved excavated caves should not, in their essential nature, be considered unique. Such monastic institutions have been found throughout the Indian subcontinent where archaeological excavations have been conducted. The cave excavations are unique only in that, because of the imperishable medium of their excavation, they have survived mostly intact. The living rock has also preserved many of the inscriptions of the monuments. This unique preservation provides a record of the means of support and maintenance of a series of Buddhist religious institutions related in terms of geography/and functioning in the same society in the same period. It has been previously stated that the excavation of caves in Western India began In the second century B.C. and continued through the first millennium A.D. With such a long period of excavation, how then will those particular monuments to be here considered be isolated? The most fundamental division of the ex-cavations has already been mentioned. The cave excavations first divide themselves as to religious affiliation. Buddhist monuments will only be considered in this study. Furthermore, only those Buddhist cave excavations which date from the inception of cave excavation, that is the late second century B.C., to the third century A.D. will be considered. During this period, Buddhist monuments predominate. The Hindu and Jain excavations, together with some Buddhist excavations date to the period after the fourth century A.D.a This division of the cave excavations into two periods is in no sense arbitrary. Firstly, few, if any, of the cave excavations 7 can be attributed to the fourth century A.D. Little cave excavation occured also during the third century A.D., although inscriptional evidence indicate! some activity during this century.9 This general division of the cave excavations and particularly those of Buddhist affiliation, into two phases is generally attributed to the internal theological division of Buddhism into the Hinayana and MahSySna persuasions.1° This division is maintained primarily on iconographic evidence found in the caves. The earlier caves contain little use of the Buddha image nor do they contain any representations of Bodhisattvas which are peculiar to the Hahayana persuasion. This strict chronological divison of the caves, the earlier being HInayana,, the later being Mahayana, is probably not absolutely accurate. No study has been attempted, for example, which analyzes the iconography of the later caves for evidence of the continuation of the Hinayana persuasion. The Buddha image in the later phase need not be solely attributed to the Hahayana persuasion, i t was certainly common to many forms of Buddhism at this time. The Chinese pilgrim, Hsian Tsang (early seventh century A.D.), also reported the continuation of the Hinayana persuasion in Western India.The analysis of the iconographical use of Bodhisattvas is the only way to determine the extent of the division of the later caves into the Hinayana and Mahayana persuasions. The earlier caves, to be studies here, do a l l appear to belong to the Hinayana persuasion. It should, however, be remembered that the Hahayana persuasion did originate in the first to second centuries A.D. either in North West India or the Andhra region, that is during the period the earlier caves were being excavated. There does not appear any odiously Mahayana iconography, be i t of 8 Bodhisattvas or even the extensive use of Buddha images in the early caves in Western India. The caves excavated in Western India that axe to be studied here, then are defined as being excavated before the fourth century A.D. and judging from their iconography, prior to the introduction of the Mahayana persuasion to Western India. In architectural terms, a l l the caves display remarkable similarities. The basic vihara and caltya forms predominate. The vlhara has not undergone any elaboration such as the addition of image shrines or interior pillars. Within the period under consideration individual variations, often in the nature of "experimentation", are found in particular caves. An example of such experimentations would be the use of a "blank" caltya window on the facade of caltya six In the Lenyadrl site at Junnar. Such individual variations do not alter the basic common architectural forms found in the caves. They do not appear to have any particular developmental or chronological significance.|2 There are however definite trends of architectural development in the caves here under consideration. These architectural developments are beyond the scope of this study. There exists one division of significance among the caves excavated before the fourth century A.D. Here also an earlier and a later phase of cave excavation is apparent. The earlier phase ends in the early decades of the first century B.C. and the later phase begins in the second half of the first century A.D. This interval is not large and does not appear to me significant in the study of the inscriptions. I will, however, note this division of the caves under consideration into earlier and later phases, when considering the inscriptions, i f i t appears that any meaningful 9 chronological developments or variation can be ascertained. This interval between phasis of cave excavation would appear to coincide with a period of political upheaval in Western India.13 There does appear to exist a definite relationship between the political history of Western India and the excavation of the caves. The analysis of the inscriptions will elucidate the intimate relationship between the ruling dynasties and the Buddhist religious institutions. In general terms, the caves were excavated during the SStavShana-Ksatrapa period. However, this study is not in the nature of a chronological study. The inscriptions from the cave excavations will be considered as a whole and not in terms of any chronological development within the period under consideration. Therefore, for the purposes of this study, relative chronologies are considered adequate. The problem of S&tavahana-Ksatrapa chronology is a vexed one and is closely related to the inscriptions to be considered.^ Most of the evidence for a precise dating of the SStavShanas and Ksatrapas is to be found in the inscriptions. The problem is essentially one of the synchronism of regnal years contained in the inscriptions with the known dates of other contemporary rulers, particularly, for example, of the Mahaksatrapa Rudradaman. 15 The first phase of Satavahana rule covers the first half of the first century B.C. Three rulers are known from this period. The first and third, Simuka and Satakarni I, are known from the royal inscription from Nanaghat.16 The second ruler, Kanha (Krsna), is known from an early inscription from the Nasik caves.17 The provenance of these inscriptions must surely indicate that the Satavahana dynasty is of Western Indian origin. It has sometimes 10 been maintained that their original homeland i s to be found i n the Andhra delta r e g i o n . ^ This view i s based on the ascription of the Satavahanas as Andhrabhrtya in the Puranas.19 This later Puranic lore most l i k e l y refers to the later phases of Satavahana rule i n the Andhra delta region. For over a hundred years, that i s the latter half of the f i r s t century B.C. and the f i r s t half of the f i r s t century A.D., h i s t o r i c a l knowledge of Western India i s very obscure and must be based on Puranic accounts. This i s the period of the incursion of nomadic Saka peoples throughout Western and North Western India. Indeed the f i r s t personality that emerges again i n Western India i s that of Nahapana, the Ksaharata Ksatrapa. Nahapana belonged to one line of such Ksatrapa rulers, the other line being of Castana and BudradSman, the Kardamakas, who belong to the second century A.D. The word ksatrapa i t s e l f implies the position of a subject prince. The overlord power in these examples probably being that of the Kusanas, the contemporary foreign dynasty which had recently been established i n North Western India. Nahapana•s rule, perhaps centered more to the north of the region under consideration, did extend over the area of the caves. The inscriptions of Nahapana's son-in-law Usavadata (Sanskrit, Rsabhadatta), perhaps Nahapana's local lord, are to be found at the caves at Nasik20t at Karfce2* i n addition to an inscription of the minister of Nahapana found at the caves a t Junnar.22 The Satavahana dynasty was restored in the area of the caves under consideration by Gautamiputra Satakarni, an event which must have occurred not long after A.D. 100. An inscription from Nasik in the time of Pulumavi, the successor to Gautamiputra, by Balasri, 11 the mother of Gautamlputra, refers to him as one who, ...humbled the pride and arrogance of the Ksatriyas... who destroyed the Sakas, Yavanas and Pahlavas... who entirely destroyed the Khakharata (Ksaharata) race...him who restored the fame of the Satavahana race...23 The later Satavahanas, starting with Gautamlputra, are well known by their inscriptions from the caves, particularly from the Karle, Nasik and Kanheri caves. The two dost important Satavahana rulers of the second century A.D. following Gautamlputra are Pulumavi and Yajnasrl Satakarni. 2 i* Following Pulumavi, the Satavahanas again came into conflict with the satrapal rulers to the north of their domains. In this case, these satraps were the Kardamaka line of Rudradaman.2-5 Following Yajnasrl Satakarni (ie, after the third quarter of the second century A.D.), the Satavahana dynasty entered a period of decline. The names of the later Satavahana rulers are known from l i t t l e else than Furanic sources and the occasional inscriptions and coins. The third century A.D. appears to be a period of p o l i t i c a l confusion, similar to the period between the two phases of Satavahana rule ( f i r s t century B.C. to f i r s t century A.D). Two rulers of foreign Saka origin, from the period after Yajnasrl Satakarni, are known from the inscriptions under consideration. These rulers are the AbhTra Isvarasena known from an inscription from Nasik 2^ and one Sakasena known from two inscriptions from Kanheri.27 Vidya Dehejia places these two rulers In the reign of Yajnasrl Satakarni on the basis of palaeographlc evidence. 2^ I t hardly seems l i k e l y that two other kings could be ruling at the same time and same places as Yajnasrl Satakarni. These two kings appear to l i k e l y belong to the period after Yajnasrl Satakarni and 12 probably to the third century A.D. when the language of these inscriptions is considered. Both these two kings, Isvarasena and Sakasena, appear to be of Saka origin, similar to that of the Ksatrapa rulers.29 The name Sakasena would in itself indicate this. It is also not beyond belief that these two rulers were related or were of the same Xbhlra dynasty, as both are styled •MadharIputra|, The language and palaeography of the inscriptions thus also aid in defining the period under consideration. The inscriptions from the caves excavated in the third century A.D. and before share important similarities in their language and palaeography. This is not to say that no important changes occurred in alphabet and language over a period of over four centuries. Vidya Dehejia maintains that the palaeographic evidence of the inscriptions is essential in determining the chronology of the caves.3° This is certainly true when lacking other evidence or any specific internal evidence from the inscriptions themselves. It has also been maintained that the language of the inscriptions can be analyzed historically.31 It is not the purpose of this study, however, to present a detailed account of the development of the alphabet and linguistic characteristics of the inscriptions under consideration. It is enough to know the general palaeographic and linguistic characteristics of the inscriptions here considered. This is particularly Important in the selection of inscriptions to be studied. It is possible, for example, that an inscription of a later period can be added to a continuously occupied site. Those palaeographic and linguistic characteristics which can generally identify an inscription as early or late within the 13 period under consideration, when lacking other evidence, are also of some Importance. The alphabet of the Inscriptions Is In a l l cases Brahml. Two phases of writing styles are apparent from the cave inscriptions. The former phase Is a continuation of Asokan Brahml In regional styles.32 The latter phase, according to Dani, dates in its fully developed state from after A.D. 50 when i t was introduced by the Sakas and spread from Mathura.33 This later phase of Brahml is characterized by two essential features. The first is the equalization of the verticals. The second is the use of serif-like heads on the letters. This was due to the reed pen, a, ...broad or edged pen, the use of which is notlcable clearly In the drawing of the verticals, which begin with a thick top and gradually thin downwards...3^  The change of the-one form of writing to another is gradual, with the examples of the earlier form of writing, in many ways, anticipating the new phase of writing. Such an inscription would therefore be placed immediately prior to the full acceptance of the new style of writing. 35 The division of the Brahml script used in the cave inscriptions is of great importance in the division of the caves and of the Satavahana dynasty into earlier and later phases. Lacking any internal evidence or outside synchronisms, palaeography has been particularly used to determine the dates of those caves whose inscriptions display use of the regional As'okan Brahml style. The dates of the early Satavahana rulers are also determined In like manner as these rulers are known only from inscriptions in this style. The dates which Danl would place on these inscriptions are 14 from f i f t y to a hundred years later than those that have been previously mentioned in this study. He would therefore place the early Satavahana phase in the f i r s t half of the f i r s t century A.D. 36 This chronology would considerably shorten the interval between the two phases of Satavahana rule and cave excavation, i f not make then contiguous. The chronology Dani deduces for the Satavahana from Gautamiputra agrees with the .chronology adopted i n this study.37 Here however, palaeographic dating i s limited by outside h i s t o r i c a l synchronisms. This i s not so obviously the case with the earlier inscriptions. Dani assigns the completion of the introduction of the reed pen to after the f i r s t half of the f i r s t century A.D. and therefore puts the early inscriptions i n the period immediately proceeding this, that i s , from 0 to A.D. 50. The arguments of Vidya Dehejia that the introduction of the reed pen can be considerably pushed back i n time appears to be l i k e l y . Other h i s t o r i c a l arguments would also indicate the earlier datings previously maintained. 38 The language of the inscriptions i s i n most cases Prakrit. This Prakrit i s that described as Maharastri by the later Prakrit grammarians.39 The Prakrit of the inscriptions, however, i s i n the formative stage when compared to later literary Prakrit, for, . . . i t i s only in SOME RESPECTS that the distinguishing characteristics of later l i t e r a r y Prakrits are based on the tendential innovations introduced i n the earli e r inscrlptional Prakrits...the l i t e r a r y Prakrits mark a definitely later stage over the one reached at the end of inscrlptional Prakrits i n the development of the Middle Indo-Aryan languages.^ The Prakrit of the inscriptions does undergo a definite l i n g u i s t i c development. I t i s , however, beyond the purpose of this study to enter Into a detailed account of the linguistic development of inscrlptional Prakrits. 15 There is one development, the Sanskritization of the inscriptional Prakrits, which is important when determining the inscriptions to be considered in this study. The inscriptions of the later phase of cave excavations, the so called 'Mahayana' phase, are in Sanskrit as are most inscriptions in India dating after the fifth century A.D, Inscriptions in pure Sanskrit have therefore been omitted from this study, except in certain exceptional cases where Internal evidence assigns them to an earlier date. Most of the Sanskrit inscriptions found in the caves can be assigned to the later period of cave excavation on internal evidence and by virtue of their locations. There is, however, a body of inscriptions which Luders has described as being of 'mixed dialect*. That is, whereas the inscriptions are Prakrit, considerable elements of Sanskrltic orthography and morphology can be seen. Most of the inscriptions are of a date late in the period under consideration, many appearing to date to the third century A.D. An example of these inscriptions of 'mixed dialect' is the Nasik inscription of the Abhira Isvarasena.^1 The genetive singular termination regularly used here is the Sanskritlc SYA in preference to the Prakrit SA, (ie, SlvadattabhlraputraSYA. the son of the Abhira Slvadatta, line 1). The Prakrit orthography is retained in the compound Bhlkhusaphasya. 'the community of monks' (line 8), In preference to the Sanskritlc Bhikkhusanghasva. Again here, however, the Sanskritlc genetive singular termination SYA is used. The inscriptions of 'mixed dialect' represent, in the caves of Western India, the increasing use of Sanskrit in inscriptional records throughout India from the end and immediately after the period under consideration. The scholarly interest in the inscriptions from the caves of 16 Western India dates to the early decades of the nineteenth century. The inscriptions attracted the attention of the great pioneer of India epigraphy, James Prinsep. After the pioneering work of scholars such as Stevenson and West, the first nearly comprehensive collection of the inscriptions and their translations appeared in a work by Bhagwanlal Indraji and James Burgess.**2 This work was revised and enlarged by Burgess and G. Buhler in I 8 8 3 in volume four of, the Archaeological Survey of Western India.^3 The next major works on the inscriptions are by E. Senart in the 1902-03 and 1905-06 numbers o f Eplgraphia Indlca. where the Karle and Naslk inscriptions were re-read and translated.^ The inscriptions were brought together by Luders and included in his list of Brahml inscriptions.^ The readings recorded by Luders, his translation and bibliographic information, closes the initial stage of reading and translation of the inscriptions. Thereafter, occasional Inscriptions are to be found in Epigraphia Indiea and other publications as the inscriptions were found.^ i t should be noted that several inscriptions, particularly from Kanheri, are yet to be found translated in any published source. Following the initial reading and translation of the inscriptions, scholarly interest focused on the historical and social information contained in the inscriptions. In terms of historical information, the inscriptions are, in addition to coins, the major, i f somewhat limited, source materials for the political history of the Satavahana-Ksatrapa period. The political information contained in the Inscriptions is important because of its uniqueness, though as has been previously mentioned, the chronologies deduced from the inscriptions: are problematic. This political information which 17 has been gleaned from Inscriptions, In addition to evidence from coins and occasional outside sources has been largely incorporated into the standard histories of ancient India and as sujhr provides the essential historical framework for this study.^ ® The social data provided by the inscriptions has been largely used to provide a description of the contemporary ancient Indian society. One of the first scholars to use the inscriptions to this end, stated in 1919 that, The inscriptions which throw light on this history [the political history of the Deccan during the Satavahana period3 throw light on the religious, social and economic condition of Maharashtra. 9^ On several occasions the specific social Information contained in the inscriptions has been incorporated into general expositions of the ancient society.5° Often i t has been used to confirm the existence, from a historical source, of persons, occupations and organizations known from the theoretical Sanskrit literature. The inscriptions have been used, for example, to confirm the existence of guild organizations.51 The inscriptions, together with others from throughout India, have also had a prominent part in determining the spatial distribution of the schools of Hinayana Buddhism.52 While in recent years the significance of the data contained in the inscriptions for the understanding of the Buddhist religious institution has been noted, the relation has not, however, been meaningfuly developed. The inscriptions have been used only for an exposition of those people and organizations which supported the cave excavations. Certain obvious implications concerning the support and maintenance of the Buddhist religious institution 18 have been stated, but only In the most general manner.53 No attempt has yet been made to u t i l i z e a l l the inscriptions from a closely related set of sites as those of the early cave excavations of Western India. A l l available inscriptions from the early cave excavations w i l l be considered i n this study. Further, no attempt has been made to analyze a clearly defined corpus of inscriptions in terms of the original purpose of their record, the support and maintenance of the religious institution represented by the sites where the inscriptions are found. In this study, the types of donations recorded by the inscriptions w i l l be identified and detailed at each site. The types of donors and their donations w i l l also be f u l l y considered. No attempt has hitherto been made to distinguish between any general trends indicated by the inscriptions over a l l the sites and any specific developments at a particular s i t e . That i s , to detail the differences, as indicated by the inscriptions, between sites otherwise closely related. In this study, special consideration w i l l be given to the types of donors and donations i n relation to the spatial distribution of the sites throughout Western India. The specific characteristics of particular sites which arise from this analysis w i l l be examined in relation to the known contemporary economic and p o l i t i c a l history of Western India. The inscriptions from the cave excavations of Western India are not a complete description of the contemporary society. They are, at best, descriptive of certain limited elements of that society. It i s the relation of these limited elements of society to the Buddhist religious institution, in the general context of the contemporary society, which w i l l be here considered. The 19 primary concern of this study, however, w i l l he the religious institution, for i t i s in fact what the corpus of inscriptions describe. 20 1James Fergusson and James Burgess, The Cave Temples of India (London, 1880), chapters one to seven. This volume, the first of its kind on the subject, is s t i l l the fundamental work on the cave excavations. 2The Imperial Gazeteer of India. New Edition, vol. 8 (Oxford, 1908), pp. 272-273. 3 l b l d . . p. 270. 4Ibld.. p. 268. 5Sukumar Dutt, Buddhist Monks and Monasteries of India (London, 1962), pp. 114-117; for the expansion of Buddhism into Western India, see also pp. 118-125. ^Balkrishna Govind Gokhale, "Theravada Buddhism in Western India," Journal of the American Oriental Society vol. 92 (1972), pp. 230-233* where he cogently argues, from literary evidence, that Buddhism was introduced into Western India in a period before Asoka. Such an assertion would not change the thrust of the argument here. 7shantaram Balchandra Deo and Jagat Pati Joshl, Paunl Excavation  (1969-70) (Nagpur, 1972). ^Percy Brown, Indian Architecture, vol. one (Bombay, 1971)» PP. 5-6, plates l,3f4. ^Excavations may have likely continued at Kanheri during the third and even the fourth centuries A.D. The chronology of Kanheri is obscure and no published authority yet exists on this important site. 1 l°See for example, Fergusson and Burgess, 0£. cit., p. 297. lisammuel Seal, trans., Si Yu Ki, Buddhist Records of the Western  World (London. 1906). vol. 2, pp. 254, 257. l2Vidya Dehejia, Early Buddhist Rock Temples (London, 1972), PP. 75-76, H3t see also table 10, pp. 206-207. 13lbld.. pp. 21-22, 148} see also table 2, pp. 208-2Q9. The dating accepted in this study, except where noted, is as set forward in this most recent chronological study. l^For differing chronological Interpretations see for example, Dehejia, op., cit., pp. 1-30| G. Venket Rao, "The Pre-Satavahana and Satavahana Periods," Part 2 in G. Yazdanl, ed., The Early History of the Deccan (Oxford, I960), who argues for an early establishment of the Satavahana dynasty, 271 B.C., and an early beginning to the second phase of Satavahana rule (Gautamlputra, A.D. 62-86) based mainly on Puranic evidence. Compare with D.C. Sircar, "The Satavahanas and the Chedis,? chapter 13 in R.C. Majumdar, ed., The Age of 21 Imperial Unity (Bombay, i960), who argues for a later chronology, (start of Satavahana rule, 30 B.C., Gautamiputra, A.D. 106-130). The chronology of Dehejia appears the most plausible, (start of Satavahana rule, 120 B.C., Gautamiputra, A.D. 86-110). I5see Dehejia, op,, c i t . , p. 26. 16James Burgess, "Report on the Elura CaJve Temples and the Brahmanlcal and Jaina Caves i n Western India," Archaeological  Survey of Western India, volume 5 (London, 1883), PP. 59-74 by G. Buhler. See.also H. Luders, "A L i s t of Brahml Inscriptions," appendix to Eplgraphla Indica. volume 10 (1909-1910), nos. 1112-1120. Hereafter referred to as 'Luders no.*. ^Luders no. 1144. 18G. Venket Rao, pj). c i t . , chapter 2. The arguments for the two views have been f u l l y summarized here. 19Andhrabhrtya could mean either, those who are to be maintained or nourished in*Andhra or those who are to be maintained or nourished by the Andhras, i e , the servants or dependents of the Andhras. 20Luders nos. 1131-1135. 2lLuders nos. 1097» 1099. 22Luders no. 1174. 2 3 L u d e r s no. 1123» translation by G. Buhler in James Burgess, "Report on the Buddhist Cave Temples and their Inscriptions," Archaeological Survey of Western India, volume 4 (London, I 8 8 3 ) , p. 109. For Gautamiputra see also Luders nos. 1125, 1126 from Naslk. 2^For inscriptions of Pulumavl or those dated in his reign see Luders nos. 1100, 1106, Karlei 1122, 1123, 1124, 1147, Nasik. For Yajnasri Satakarni see Luders nos. 987, 1024, Kanherij 1146, Nasik. 25Rudrad3man states i n an inscription from Girnar that he twice defeated Satakarni, Lord of the Deccan, but did not destroy him on account of their "not too distant relationship". See F. Kielhorn, "Junagadh Rock Inscription of Rudradamanj the Year 72," Eplpraphla  Indica. volume 8 (1905-06), pp. 36-49. The chronological problem here, of course, i s which Satavahana ruler i s meant by satakarni. One inscription from Kanheri, Luders no. 994, states that the queen of Vasifthiputra S i r l Satakarni (a short reigned successor to Pulumfwi) was the daughter of MahSksatrapa Ru..., undoubtably Rudradaman. It i s very much tempting to equate this Vasifthiputra S i r i Satakarni with the Satakarni of Rudradaman*s record from Girnar. This would make Vasisthlputra S i r i Satakarni's reign* f a l l around A.D. I 5 0 as 22 the year 72 of Rudradaman's Inscription is usually thought to belong to the Saka of A.D. 78. Dehejia ^argues that the Satakarni referred to by Rudradaman is Sivaskandha Satakarni another*short reigned Satavahana ruler who apparently followed VasisthTputra Siri Satakarni, see Dehejia, op. cit., pp. 26-27. Again,' such chronological problems do not materially affect this study. 26Luders no. 1137. 27Luders nos. 1001, 1002. 28Dehejia, op,, cit., p. 69, table 2, pp. 208-209. 29See D.C. Sircar, "The Deccan after the SStavahanas," chapter 14 in R.C. Majumdar, The Age of Imperial Unity (Bombay, 1951), PP. 221-223. 3°Dehejia, op_. cit.. pp. 32-33. 3lMadhukar Anant Mehendale, Historical Grammar of Inscrlptional  Prakrits (Poona, 1948), p. 46. 32Ahmad Hasan Dani, Indian Palaeography (Oxford, 1963), PP. 50-51. 33lbld.. p. 51. 34lbld.. p. 52. 35lbld., p. 67, where Dani sees examples of imitation of the reed from Nanaghat. 36ibid.. pp. 65-68. 37lbid.. pp. 93-97. 38Dehejia, op_. cit., pp. 38-39. Particularly convincing is the example of the inscription from Bharut which, on internal evidence, is from the reign of the Sungas. Dani dates this inscription also in the first half of the first century A.D., whereas the Sungas are by common consensus thought to have ruled only to circa 70 B.C., see Dehejia, op., cit.. p. 36. ^Mehendale, op,, ci^t;. p. xxviii. ^Qlbid.. p. xxxv. ^Luders no. 1137. 2^James Burgess and Bhagwanlal Indrajl, Inscriptions from the  Cave-Temples of Western India (Bombay, 1881). 43james Burgess, "Report on the Buddhist Cave Temples and their Inscriptions,"; Volume 5 of the Archaeological Survey of Western 23 India, for the inscriptions from Kanheri. ^ E . Senart, "The Inscriptions i n the Caves at Karle," Epigraphla Indlca volume ? (1902-03), pp. 47-74. "The Inscriptions in the Caves at Nasik," Eplgraphia Indica volume 8 (1905-06), PP. 59-96. 45Luders, oj>. c i t . ^See particularly, for example, M.S. Vats, "Unpublished Votive Inscriptions in the Chaitya Cave at Karle," Eplgraphia Indlca volume 14 (1925-26), pp. 325-329. ^?The sense of these unread inscriptions from Kanheri has been obtained from M. Dikshit, "The Origin and Development of the Buddhist Settlements of Western India," (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Bombay, 1942). ^8For the use of the inscriptions for p o l i t i c a l history see for example, R.G. Bhandarkar, Early History of the Deccan (Bombay, 1895)i D.R. Bhandarkar, "Dekkan of the Satavahana Period, pt. 1," The Indian Antiquary volume 47 (1918), pp. 69-78; V. Smith, Early  History of India (Oxford. 1924); D.C. Sircar in The Age of Imperial  Unity; G. Venket Rao in The Early History of the Deccan; and Dehejia, op. c i t . The major work on coins of the period remains, E.J. Rapson, Catalogue of the Coins of the Andhra Dynasty, the Western Ksatrapas. the Traikutaka Dynasty and the Bodhi Dynasty (London, 1908£ The major outside source with important references for p o l i t i c a l history i s a classi c a l European mariners' guide, the Periplus Marls  Erythraei i n R.C. Majumdar, Classical Accounts of India (Calcutta, I960), pp. 288-312. 49D .R. Bhandarkar, "Dekkan of the Satavahana Period, pt. 2," The Indian Antiquary volume 48 (1919), p. 77. 50See for example Ibid.. G. Venket Rao, "Cultural Condition under the satavahanas," i n Early History of the Deccan. pp. 131-147. Dipakranjan Das, Economic History of the Deccan (Delhi, 1969) 51R.C. Majumdar, Corporate Life in Ancient India (Calcutta, 1922), pp. 34-36. -^A. Bareau, Les Sectes Bouddhlques du Petit Vehicule (Paris, 1955), P. 36. 53see Dehejia, op., c i t . , pp. 135-447* B.G. Gokhale, oj>. c i t . pp. 235-236, where Gokhale presents a brief, "...analysis of the social and economic composition of the donors mentioned in the inscriptions..." in percentage terms. While this analysis i s the f i r s t of i t s kind, Gokhale does not adequately define his corpus of inscriptions. The results he presents.are sketchy and of limited value. See also Romila Thapar, A History of India (Harmondsworth, 1966), pp. 110-112. 24 CHAPTER TWO. THE CAVE SITES AND THEIR INSCRIPTIONS Inscriptions from sixteen sites w i l l be considered in this study. These sixteen sites form six groups of cave excavations of one or more sites, based primarily on geographical considerations of the sites' locations. From north to south these six groups of cave excavations are: I. The caves at Pltalkhora and the early excavations at Ajanta, both located on the Deccan plateau i n the interior of present day Maharashtra. II. The caves near the town of Nasik. III. The caves surrounding the town of Junnar. IV. The Kanheri caves on Salsette Island i n present day Bombay. V. The Karle caves and five other sites located i n the region of the Bor ghat (pass). VI. A southern group consisting of the caves at Kuda and four other sites located in the coastal Konkan or across the nearby ghats.1 Map One (page 41) shows the location of these cave sites in the context of peninsular India. Within these six groupings there exist several other cave excavations than the sixteen to be here considered. These excavations do not, however, contain any published inscriptions. These excavations w i l l be noted in the context of the six established groups. The f i r s t group of cave excavations are located significantly more inland than the other cave sites to be considered. Both the Ajanta and Pltalkhora caves are located in the Indhyadri h i l l s which divide that part of the Deccan drained by the Krishna-Godavari 25 r i v e r system with that part drained by the Tapti, that i s Khandesh. The caves are located close to the modem day Bombay-Nasik-Calcutta railroad. The Ajanta caves, better known for their later, Mahayana excavations, also contain some three excavations which can be attributed to the early period under consideration. Two caityas and a small adjacent vlhara are to be found at Ajanta. The less well known caves at Pitalkhora are located about f i f t y miles to the west of Ajanta. There are thirteen caves excavated on either side of a ravine at Pitalkhora, The major site contains one caltya and eight vlhSras. The recently discovered smaller site at Pitalkhora contains four small caityas only. The published inscriptions from Pitalkhora are found at the f i r s t mentioned major s i t e . 2 One caitya in the caves located on a h i l l outside of modern Aurangabad belongs to the period under consideration and should be Included in this f i r s t , interior group of caves. The other caves at Aurangabad belong to the later Mahayana phase of cave excavation. No inscriptions have been discovered in this early caitya at Aurangabad. The Pitalkhora caves contain eleven published inscriptions.3 One of these inscriptions, Luders no. 1190, i s very fragmentary but does contain meaningful information, i t mentions a royal physician. This i s understandable i n the context of the other inscriptions. The caves and inscriptions at Pitalkhora date to the early phase of the period under consideration, that i s the f i r s t century B.C.^ The early caves at Ajanta contain fiv e published inscriptions from the period under consideration,5 The three incised inscriptions a l l provide some meaningul information. The two painted inscriptions 26 at Ajanta are Luders no. 1199 and Dhavallkar no. 2. One of these Inscriptions, Luders no. 1199, is fragmentary and its sense is not clear. These two painted inscriptions are the only two examples in this study where inscriptions are not incised. The fragments of painting found in many sites to be considered would appear to indicate that such painted inscriptions might have been once much more prevalent throughout Western India than is the case today. The inscriptions at Ajanta are early, being roughly contemporary with those from Pltalkhora. The Nasik caves are located five miles south south-west of the ancient city of the same name located on the Godavari river. Map Two (page 42) details the exact location of this site. The caves are located on the north-east face of a h i l l which rises prominently from the surrounding countryside. This h i l l is located beside the modern Bombay road and not far from the main line of the Central Railway, Both these routes pass through passes of gentleiincline which lead to Bombay via Kalyan. The Nasik caves consist of one caltya and over twenty vlharas. The majority of the cave date to the period under consideration. There is, however, a cave which belongs to the later, Mahayana, phase of excavation. Some of the earlier vlharas were also modified in this later period with the addition of sculpture of Mahayana iconography. The excavation of the Nasik caves dates to the earliest phase of Satavahana rule as indicated by an inscription of Kanha (Krsna) found in the small vihara no. 19.6 The construction of the caltya appears to have been first started in the middle of the first century B.C. and to have been completed in the first half of the first century A.D. Several large, regular quadrangular 27 viharas which date to the later part of the f i r s t and to the second centuries A.D. are to he found at the Nasik caves. These viharas contain several of the most important inscriptions of the Ksaharata Ksatrapas and of the Satavahanas.7 Twenty-eight published inscriptions are to be found at the Nasik caves. While some of these inscriptions are fragmentary, notably Luders nos. 1122, 1135, 1136 and 1143, a l l provide some meaningful information. Two of the inscriptions at Nasik are of a mixed Sanskrit and Prakrit orthography, that which i s characterized by Luders as "mixed dialect".8 Both these inscriptions, being records of Usavadata, belong to the period under consideration. One of these inscriptions, Luders no. 1136, i s a fragmentary record concerned with donations to Brahmans. It appears that this inscription i s a continuation of an inscription of Usavadata, Luders no. 1135. These two inscriptions should therefore be taken together as one.9 The cave excavations at Junnar are located at six separate sites surrounding the ancient town of Junnar. One site i s located on each of the Tulja, Shivneri and Lenyadri h i l l s . Three sites are located on the Manmodi h i l l . A seventh set of caves are located at Nanaghat some eighteen miles west of Junnar.1° Map Three (page 43) details the precise locations of these cave sites. The caves at Nanaghat take their name from the pass which connects the town of Junnar with coastal Kalyan. A modern road traverses what i s a most ancient route. The Nanaghat caves are located at the edge of the pass, the 1000 f t . contour on Map Three indicating the steep escarpment. The inscriptions from the Nanaghat caves are extremely important for the chronology of the early Satavahanas, as has been noted i n the previous chapter. The caves themselves are not of Buddhist excavation, therefore their 28 inscriptions have been excluded from this study. The Tulja group of caves, west of Junnar, consists of a single caitya, two vlharas and several individual c e l l s . The caitya i s notable in that i t i s circular, such caityas apparently being an early development in Western India. No inscriptions are extant from the Tulja group of caves. Over thirty separate excavations are to be found i n the Lenyadri caves, to the north of Junnar. This group of caves includes two caityas. one of which has a blind caitya arch window. This feature, found three times at Junnar, i s unique to the Junnar caves. The Lenyadri caves also contain one large quadrangular vlhara and a number of smaller irregular vlharas. individual c e l l s and cisterns. Six inscriptions are known from the Lenyadri caves.H This group of cave excavations belongs to the later part of the period under consideration, probably to the second century A.D. The Shlvaerl group of caves are located south-west of the town of Junnar. Two caityas. four substantial vlharas and numerous open halls, individual c e l l s and cisterns to a total of ninety separate excavations are found at this s i t e . Nine inscriptions are known from the Shivneri group of caves.12 These caves are roughly contemporary with the Lenyadri group. Three separate sites are located on the Hanmodi h i l l , a mile south of the town of Junnar. Proceeding from east to west, the f i r s t s i te encountered i s that known as the Bhima Shankar. This s i t e consists of an unfinished caitya with a blind caitya arch and some six vlharas. Three inscriptions are known from this site.*3 One of these inscriptions, Luders no. 1174, Is of Ayama, minister to Nahapana. 29 This site then dates to before A.D. 100. The second site on the Hanmodi h i l l , the Amba/Ambika caves, consists of one unfinished caitya and six vlharas. Fourteen inscriptions are known from this site.!** Eleven of these inscriptions, Luders nos. 1158-1168, are found on the caitya. The Amba/Ambika site is again late in the period under consideration, dating to after A.D. 100. The third and most easterly site on the Hanmodi h i l l is that known as the Budh Lena. Here again is an unfinished caitya with a blind arch peculiar to Junnar. Some small irregular vlharas and individual cells are also to be found at this site. One inscription is known from this sit e . ^ The Budh Lena caves appear to be contemporary with the Bhima Shankar caves on the same Hanmodi h i l l , that is dating to at least A.D. 100. Out of the thirty-four inscriptions located at five of the six cave sites surrounding, thirty provide meaningful information. Three Inscriptions have not been read.16 These inscriptions are in clearly cut Brahml letters, but yield no clear sense upon reading. One other inscription, Luders no. 1168, appears to record various donations, but Is far too fragmentary to offer any details. The Kanheri caves are located in the interior of Salsette Island, present day Bombay, near to the modern suburb of Borivali. Over one hundred separate excavation are located on two adjacent hills.17 Kanheri, Sanskrit Krsnagiri, means black mountain (cf. Kanhasela, Sanskrit Krsnasaila of the inscriptions).18 Kanheri is the cave site which appears to have been longest occupied in Western India, with inscriptions dating past A.D. 1000. The earliest caves, dating to the period under consideration, begin 30 at the base of the main h i l l , surrounding the two caityas at the si t e , the largest of which i s an early excavation. Many of the- vlharas at the site containing early inscriptions were altered at a later date with the addition of sculpture having Mahayana iconography. Kanheri i s a late site in the period under consideration with most excavation dating to the second century A.D. The caitya at Kanheri, for example, dates to the late second century A.D., as i t contains an inscription dated in the reign of Yajnasrl Satakarni.19 One other site on Salsette island, Kondvite, i s to be grouped with Kanheri. This site, consisting of one caitya and several vlharas and individual c e l l s located eight miles south of Kanheri, i s an early excavation i n the period under consideration. No early inscriptions are found at Kondvite. Forty-three inscriptions from Kanheri can be attributed to the period under consideration. The selection of the inscriptions to be used in this study i s at times problematic. Excavation at this site started late in the period under consideration and continued to at least A.D. 600, The division between the early phase and the later Mahayana phase of excavation i s not as distinct as i n other sites. Further, no complete chronological study of the caves and their inscriptions has yet been published. Luders enumerates fifty-one inscriptions from Kanheri. 2^ Of these inscriptions, nine can clearly be attributed to the later Mahayana phase on the basis of their language, form and content and have been excluded from this study.21 One unpublished inscription has been included i n this study.22 six of the forty-three inscriptions are fragmentary and convey l i t t l e , i f any meaningful information.23 31 Nineteen of the Kanheri inscriptions axe l i s t e d by Luders as not read. The sense of these inscriptions has been obtained.24 Ten of these previously unread inscriptions have been used i n this study, whereas four are late and five are fragmentary. Six cave sites are included in the f i f t h group of cave excavations to be considered i n this study. These six sites are a l l located close to the modern day Bombay to Foona railway which passes through the Bor ghat. Map Four (page 44) details the exact locations of these six sites. Four of the s i t e s i Karle, Bhaja, Bedsa and Selarvadi, are located on the upland side of the pass. Two sites; Kondane and Ambivale, are located on the seaward side of the pass. The thousand foot contour on Map Four represents the steep escarpment of the Deccan plateau. The Karle caves are the most important of the six sites here considered, as they are by f a r the most extensive of the excavations and contain the majority of the inscriptions i n this group. The Karle caves have one caltya, an excavation often considered the most f u l l y developed rock-cut caltya in Western India. At least five vlharas and several individual c e l l s are to be found at Karle. Several unfinished vlh&ras and individual c e l l s are also to be found i n the h i l l s i n the v i c i n i t y of Karle. 2$ The Karle caves appear to be contemporary with later Nasik, much of Junnar and to be somewhat earlier than Kanheri. The caves then date from the late f i r s t century A.D. Inscriptions of Nahapana*s son-in-law Usavadata and of the Satavahana Pulumavi are found at Karle.26 The caves at Bhaja are located on the side of a h i l l directly across the valley from Karle. This site consists of one caltya and over fifteen small vlharas. One small circular caltya and an 3 2 unfinished vlhara have recently been discovered near Bhaja. 2 ? The architectural evidence of the caitya at Bhaja would suggest that this i s a very ancient s i t e , probably dating to at least the early f i r s t century B.C. On the opposite side of the h i l l on which Bhaja i s situated and facing a valley adjoining to that one i n which Karle and Bhaja are located are the Bedsa caves. This site consists of one small caitya and one unique apsidal vlhara. On the basis of architectural and palaeographic evidence, Bedsa belongs to the early phase of cave excavation i n the period under consideration, although i t i s somewhat later than Bhaja. The caves at Selarvadi are located on a h i l l at the places where the valleys i n which Karle and Bedsa are located meet. One main vlhara and some small Individual c e l l s are found at this s i t e . The Selarvadi caves are late i n the period under consideration. The caves on the seaward side of the Bor ghat are located north-east of modern Karjat on the Bombay to Poena railroad. The Kondane caves, four miles from Karjat, consist of a caitya. three vlharas and a row of nine individual c e l l s . The architectural evidence indicates that this i s an early s i t e , contemporary with Bhaja. A single vlhara at Amblvale i s located sixteen miles north-east of Karjat. Palaeographic evidence would indicate that this s i t e comes late in the period under consideration. The six sites in this f i f t h group of cave excavations account for fifty-nine published inscriptions. Karle contains the majority of these inscriptions, thirty-seven i n a l l . ^ 8 The excavations at Bhaja account for eleven Inscriptions. 2 9 Three inscriptions are found at Bhaja.3 0 Two inscriptions are found at Selarvadi. 3 1 The 33 Ambivale vlhara accounts for five inscriptions.32 Two inscriptions remain at Kondane, although here as at Bhaja, the missing facade of the caltya may have contained more inscriptions.33 Ten of the fifty-nine inscriptions from this group are fragmentary or do not provide any meaningful information, these inscriptions include two from Karle, Luders no. 1086 and Vats no. 13, two from Bhaja, Deshpande nos. 2, 3 a°d one from Kondane. A l l f i v e inscriptions from the Ambivale vlhara do not provide any meaningful information. They perhaps record the solitary names of devotees. The caves at Kuda are the most important of the five sites included in the sixth, southern group of excavations. The Kuda caves are located on the so called Rajapuri creek, a t i d a l basin, some forty-five miles south of Bombay. Map Five (page 45) details the Kuda region. There are twenty-six excavations at Kuda. Five of these excavations are caityas, one of which i s unfinished. Twenty-one vlhara excavations are included at this site, in addition to eleven cisterns. The Kuda caves appear to be contemporary with Karle, that i s , they date from the late f i r s t century A.D. Two sites are located near to the ancient town of Mahad situated on the Savitri river on the seaward side of the passes which lead from the Deccan to the coastal Konkan region surrounding Kuda. These two sites which might be considered one site on the model of Junnar are considered separately by most authorities. The main s i t e , known as Mahad, i s located north-west of the town of Mahad. This i s an extensive site consisting of three caityas and twenty-five vlharas. many of which are unfinished. The other site i s that known as Kol, located south-east of Mahad across the Savitri river. Here there are two cave sites consisting of individual 34 c e l l s . One site i s located north-east of the village. The other, where the inscriptions are found, i s located south-east of the same village. These sites around Mahad are roughly contemporary with Kuda. Two other sites, containing a very few inscriptions, have been included i n this southern group of excavations. These two sites are somewhat distant from the Kuda-Mahad region and are the only two examples of excavations with inscriptions from among the many cave sites located throughout the southern Konkan and in the adjacent h i l l s of the Deccan. The site of Nadsur i s located north-east of Kuda in the passes above the ancient seaport of Ghaul. Here are twenty separate excavations.34 The other site i s the isolated excavations of Karadh, located near Satara on the upland passes which lead to Mahad and then to the Kuda region.35 Karadh i s an extensive site with some sixty excavations including three caityas which are roughly contemporary with Kuda. The sixth group of excavations contains thirty-five inscriptions to be considered i n this study. Kuda contains twenty-six of these inscriptions.36 Two of these inscriptions are fragmentary and one inscription has not been read} thus they have not been used.3? Three inscriptions are found at Mahad, one of which i s fragmentary.38 Kol contains three inscriptions.39 Two inscriptions are found at Nadsur and a single inscription comes from Karadh.^ Thirty-one inscriptions from this sixth group of excavations thus contain meaningful information and can be used i n this study. The corpus of inscriptions used i n this study amounts to a to t a l of 216 separate epigraphs. Of this t o t a l , 190 or 88.0$ provide some meaningful information. Table One at the end of the chapter 35 details the distribution of the numbers of the inscriptions considered and the percentage actually used from the individual sites and the six established groupings of these sites. The percentage of the inscriptions used i n each of the six groups of sites i s in a l l cases above 80$, with an average of 89.9$ used. This percentage compares very favourably with the 88.0$ of the inscriptions used out of a tota l of 216 epigraphs. These high percentages of useable inscriptions indicate that the corpus here considered provides a s t i l l remarkably complete record. While a significant percentage of the remaining inscriptions from the cave excavations are available for analysis, this does not deny the possibility that some inscriptions may have disappeared i n the past two millennia. There probably would have existed more painted inscriptions and also inscriptions on parts of the excavations no longer remaining, as for example on the facades of Bhaja and Kondane. There also exists a very strong possibility that more inscriptions remain to be discovered and read. Nevertheless, with the available data, i t i s considered that a large enough corpus exists to undertake an analysis of the donors and their donations recorded in the inscriptionsfefrom the cave excavations of Western India. The majority of the inscriptions, 168 or 77.8$ of the total corpus, or 84.8$ of the inscriptions used, come from five sites, Nasik, Junnar, Kanheri, Karle and Kuda. These five sites are among the largest to be considered in this study. They are also the sites which underwent the most intense architectural elaboration and development. A subjective Impression of these sites' high degree of development in addition to their numbers of inscriptions indicates the importance of these excavations for this study. An analysis of 36 the numerous inscriptions from these fiv e sites w i l l form an important part of the subsequent chapters. At 'this point, however, the geographical significance of these fiv e sites with their associated sites i n addition to Ajanta and Pltalkhora should be considered. The cave sites are, br i e f l y , located along specific lines of communication between the interior of the Deccan and the coastal Konkan. The coastal sites Kanheri and Kuda can be said in each case to be a terminus of a particular line of communication. The terminology adopted here, 'line of communication*, i s deliberate - i Much has been made, particularly by D.D. Kosambi, of the cave excavations* relationship with 'trade routes*.^! Trade routes are, however, primarily lines of communication, particular routes between two points or regions.* It i s not surprising, then, to find the caves and communication routes coincident, for they both took advantage of the topography. In the one case, steep side h i l l s exposed to weathering and excavation and i n the other, the associated valley bottoms leading travellers through the Western ghats. The relationship between lines of communication and the cave excavations becomes even more obvious when the importance of town an layman to the Buddhist religious institution i s considered, the details of which w i l l be seen from the inscriptions. » The relationship of the cave excavations to established lines of communication can perhaps best be seen from a map of present day Western India (see Map Six, page 46). The cave excavations are located on lines of communication which s t i l l lead from,the coast, the primary port being Bombay, to the interior of the Deccan and from here to north and north-east India and the eastern Andhra coast. 37 Nasik, in addition to Pitalkhora and Ajanta are located on a route, today the main line of the Central Railway, which leads from Bombay to north and north-east India. In ancient times the coastal terminus of this route would have been the important ports of Kalyan and also of Sopara, located north of present day Bombay.^2 The Kanheri caves, as w i l l be seen from the inscriptions, had an important close relationship with these ports. The Junnar caves are also located on a route which leads from Kalyan through the Nanaghat pass. A modern road traverses this route, although i t has not been suitable for the development of r a i l t r a f f i c . Jn ancient times this route led to the interior of the Deccan, particularly to Pratisthaha, modern day Paithan, located on the Godavari river and ancient capital of the SStavShanas. The Karle cave excavations and i t s associated sites are also located on a route which leads to Kalyan. This i s the modern day main r a i l and road route from Bombay to the Hyderbad-Andhra region and also to Madras. In ancient times this route along the Bhima river, joining the Godavari river, would have been the easiest route across peninsular India to the eastern coast. Map One of peninsular India details the relationship of the cave excavations to this trans-peninsular route. The southern group of cave sites also lead, from the western coast, through the passes, to the Deccan and from here to the eastern coast, although i n this case via the Krishna river valley. In modern times, because of the dominating position of Bombay, the region of the southern group of cave excavations has not been well developed i n terms of road and r a i l t r a f f i c . The inscriptions w i l l indicate that this region was similarly relatively isolated i n ancient times. The cave excavations to be considered in this study are, 38 therefore, closely connected in terms of geographical position and function. The four sites of Kanheri, Nasik, Junnar and Karle are particularly closely related. The significance of the cave excavations' locations i n terms of trade w i l l be considered when analyzing the inscriptions i n the subsequent chapters. The sites here considered, then, directly refer to a limited geographical area, the coastal region from Kanheri to Kuda and the traditional routes from the interior to the coast. TABLE 1. Inscriptions by Sites group site no. of group % of 216 group no. group % group inscr. t o t a l inscr. total used total used to t a l I Pltalkhora 11 Ajanta 5 16 7.4 11 4 15 100 80 93.3 II Nasik 28 13.0 28 100.0 III Junnar 34 15.7 30 88.2 IV Kanheri 43 19.9 37 86.0 V Karle 3? Bhaja 11 . Bedsa 3 Selarvadl 2 Kondane 2 Ambivale 5 60 17.6 27.8 35 9 3 2 1 50 94.6 81.8 100.0 100.0 50.0 0 83.3 VI Kuda 26 Mahad 3 Kol 3 Nadsur 2 Karadh 1 35 12.0 16.2 23 2 3 2 1 35 88.5 66.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 88.6 Maps - Legend Railroads.... Roads Modem towns and c i t i e s o Cave sites % Contours in thousand foot intervals. Map One - 1:6,000,000 Maps Two, Three, Four Five - 1:253.440 Map Six - 1:1,000,000 4 40 s 47 *Fergusson and Burgess, op,, c i t . . pp. 168-169, where the cave excavations of Western India are similarly grouped. Fergusson and Burgess divide the sixth, southern group of caves into two groups of excavations, the coastal and interior. In this study, these two groups are considered together for reasons which w i l l be later explained. Fergusson and Burgess further group Pltalkhora and Ajanta with Nasik. While these caves do bear some relationship, they w i l l be here considered separately, largely for geographic reasons as w i l l be detailed later. 2F6r Pltalkhora see M.N. Deshpande, "The Rock-Gut Caves of Pltalkhora in the Deccan," Ancient India volume 15 (1959), pp. 66-93. Also, William Willets, "Excavation at Pltalkhora," Oriental Art volume 7, number 2 (1961), pp. 59-65. ^Luders nos. 1187-1193 and M.N, Deshpande, op,, c i t . . four inscriptions, pp. 76-82. ^Thls and subsequent dating of the caves and their inscriptions has been taken, in terms of relative chronology, from Dehejia. ^Luders nos. 1197-1199 and M.K. Dhavalikar, "New Inscriptions from Ajanta," Ars Orlentalls volume 17 (1968), pp. 147-149, two new inscriptions, one incised, one painted. 6Luders no. 1144. 7see notes 20, 24, Chapter One. For Nasik see also, Jeanne L. Trabold, "A Chronology of Indian Sculpturei The Satavahana Chronology at Nasik," Artlbus Asiae volume 32 (1970), pp. 49-88. 8Luders nos. 1131, 1136. 9Senart, Epigraphla Indica. volume 8, pp. 85-88, numbers them as 14a and 14b. but says, " . . . i t cannot even be decided i f these fragments (l4b| are connected with the preceeding epigraph (14a) or independent from i t . " lOsee Dehejia, op,, c i t . , pp. 179-182, also Vidya Dehejia, "Early Buddhist Caves at Junnar," Artlbus Asiae volume 31 (1969), pp. 147-166. 1 1Luders nos. 1175-1180. !2Luders nos. 1150-1155, 1181-1183. ^Luders nos. 1172-1174. l^Luders nos. 1158-1171. ^Luders no. II56. 16Luders nos. 1159, 1160, 1161. l?For Kanheri see Ruth Wingfield Boosman, "Kanheri Caves," 48 (Ph.D. dissertation, The Claremont Graduate School, 1961). l 8 l e , Luders no. 1011| Dikshlt, 0 £ . c i t . . p. 441$ 1013, 1024. 19Luders no. 98?, similarly Luders no, 1024 from cave 81. _Also the previously mentioned Luders no. 994 of the queen of Vasisthlputra Satakarni, daughter of Rudradaman, circa A.D. 150. 20Luders nos. 985-1034. 2lThese inscriptions are Luders nos. 984, 989, 990, 991, 992, 997, 1026, 1028, 1029. 22courtesy of Mrs. Marilyn Leese, M.A., Ph.D. candidate, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. The inscription reads, Kalianesa negamasa chita... kiyasa puno vasuyatasa podhi deyadhamma It refers to the g i f t of a water cistern by some merchant from Kalyan. The inscription i s located over a cistern at cave 2. 23Luders nos. 1004, 1008, 1022, 1023, 1030, 1034. 2**M. Dlkshit, "The Origin and Development of the Buddhist Settlements of Western India," (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Bombay, 1942). These inscriptions are« Luders no. 997-excluded from this study. 1003-gift of a cave, bathing cistern, by the wife of a merchant and householder, endowment to Ambika monastery near Kalyan. p. 436. 1008- fragmentary, not used. 1009- g i f t of cave, water cistern and clothes by the mother of a merchant, also endowment, p. 440. 1010- g i f t of cave by householder, son of a sethi. also endowment, p. 441. 1011- g i f t of cave by upasaka. a sethi from Kalyan, endowment of 300 Karsapanas to Abalika (Ambika?) monastery near Kalyan, p. 441. 1015-gift of*cave, cistern by daughter of goldsmith, p. 442. 1017-gift of cave, p. 444. 1019-gift of cave, cistern by daughter of a householder, p. 446. 1022- fragmentary, not used. 1023-fragmentary, not used. 1025-gift of cave, cistern by nun, p. 451, 1026- excluded from this study. 1027- g i f t of f i e l d (?) by merchant, p. 452. 1028- excluded from this study. 1029- excluded from this study. 1030- fragmentary, not used. 1031-gift of taloka (structural part of cave?) by a householder, a seithi, p. 454. 1032-fragmentary, not used. 25Fergusson and Burgess, op_. c i t . , p. 242. 49 26Luders nos. 1099 and 1100, 1106. 2?M.N. Deshpande, "Important Epigraphlcal Records from the Caltya Cave, Bhaja," L a l l t Kala volume 6 (1959-60), p. 32. 28 Luders nos. 1086-1108, where Luders nos. 1101 and 1102 which refer to the g i f t of some sculpture by a monk are identical and therefore have been considered as one inscription. Thirteen inscriptions from Karle were published by Madho Sarup Vats, "Unpublished Votive Inscriptions in the Chaitya Cave at Karle," Eplgraphla Indica»volume 18 (1925-26), pp. 325-329. One inscription has also been published by K.A, Nilakant Shastri and K. Gopalachari in "Epigraphlcal Notes," Eplgraphla Indica volume 24 (1937-38), P. 282. D.D. Kosambi, "Dhenukakata." Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bombay volume 31 (1955), has re-edited and translated the inscriptions from Karle, in addition to Selarvadl, Bhaja and Bedsa. Kosambi adds one apparently unpublished inscription from the Karle caitya, no. 21, p. 65. 29Luders nos. 1078-1084. Three inscriptions were discovered on the wooden ribs of the Bhaja caltya by M.N. Deshpande, op. c i t . . pp. 30-32. 3°Luders nos. 1109-1111. 3lLuders no. 1121 andone inscription published by C.C. Das Gupta, "Selarwadl Inscription," Eplgraphla Indica volume 28 (1949-50), PP. 76-77. 32Luders no. 1069 and see Moreshwar G. Dikshit, "Ambivale Cave Inscriptions," Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Institute volume 22 (1941), pp. 72-73. ^Luders no. 10?1 and one additional inscription referred to by M.G. Dikshit, "The Origin and Development of the Buddhist Settlements of Western India," p. 329, cited by M.A. Mehendale, op., c i t . . p. 329, the inscription i s very fragmentary. ^Rev. J. E. Abbot, "Recently Discovered Buddhist Caves at Nadsur and Nenavali in the Bhor State, Bombay Presidency," Indian Antiquary volume 20 (1891), pp. 121-123. Several sites are known from this region other than these two described by Abbot. A detailed survey of this region has not been undertaken however, and no other inscriptions than those from Nadsur have been published. For these reasons, the Nadsur inscriptions have been grouped with Kuda, This lacuna i s unfortunate, particularly because the ancient seaport of Chaul was of some importance. 35several sites are also to be found in this region as for example near Wai to the north of Karadh, see Fergusson and Burgess, op. c i t . , pp. 211-212. As i s the case with the Nadsur region, the excavations in the Karadh region should most properly be a separate group. However, this region has also not been adequately surveyed and only a single Inscription from Karadh has been published. 50 For these reasons the Karadh inscription has been grouped with Kuda. 36Luders nos. 1037-1042, i045i|i 1048-1066. Luders nos. 1043, 1044, 1046, 1047 are in Sanskrit and one of which (1047) refers directly to the g i f t of a Buddha image. These four inscriptions are late, outside of the period under consideration and have therefore been excluded from this study. ^Luders nos. 1052, 1059, fragmentary; 1057, not read. 3 8Luders nos. 1072-1074; 1074, fragmentary. 39Luders nos. 1075-1077. ^OLuders nos. 1067-68, Nadsur; 1184, Karadh. ^Kosambi, op_. cit.'. pp. 51-52. ^2The importance of these places as ports in ancient times can be seen from the Perlplus Maris Erythraei. 52. 51 CHAPTER THREE. DONATIONS AND DONORS. The inscriptions from the cave excavations of Western India record, without exception, donations to the Buddhist religious institutions at which they are found. Two distinct major types of donations can he identified among these inscriptions. Certain inscriptions contain within them both types of donations. In this chapter, these two types of donations to the Buddhist religious institutions w i l l be identified at the sites considered in this study In relation to the geographical framework detailed i n the previous chapter. In many of the inscriptions, the occupation or some form of t i t u l a r designation of the donors, i n addition to their personal names, are given and remain extant. The occupational and t i t u l a r designations w i l l be considered i n relation to the two types of donations within the context of the geographical framework of the sites here considered. The majority of the inscriptions here considered record a g i f t of some part of the religious insitution. This g i f t can be of an entire cave, be i t a vlhara or a caitya. as for example, from Nasik, A cave [vlhara]}. the meritorious g i f t of the fisherman Mugudasa, and of his family.1 or from Kuda, The meritorious g i f t of a cave by the physician Somadeva, the son of the Mamaka-vejiya physician and worshipper, Isirakhita, and his (Somadeva's) sons Naga, Isirakhita, and Sivaghosa, and daughters I s i p a l l t a , Pusa, Dhamma and Sapa.2 The g i f t of part of the religious in s i t l t u t i o n need not, however, be of an entire cave, and i s often of part of a cave, for example, from Karle, 52 The g i f t of a p i l l a r by Sihadhaya, 4 Yavana from Dhenukakata.3 or from Nasik, Success I An inner c e l l , the meritorious g i f t of Daksamitra, wife of Dlnlka's son Rsabhadatta, and daughter of the Ksaharata ksatrapa Nahapana.4 The g i f t can also be of some functional or a r t i s t i c addition to the cave si t e , for example, from Nasik, Succesil A cistern (the g i f t ) of Vudhika, a writer of the Saka Damachika.5, and from Karle, The g i f t of a l i o n - p i l l a r by the Maharathi Agnlmitranaka, the son of Goti.° In short, any part of the cave excavations could have been a g i f t to the Buddhist religious institution, although not a l l parts are necessarily recorded as such by inscription. Those inscriptions which primarily record g i f t s to the Buddhist religious institution,are, in form, very similar. They are short, seldom exceeding two or three lines. Almost invariably, the donor's personal name i s mentioned. Other information as to the donor such as occupation, t i t u l a r designation and place of origin i s often added. The designation of the g i f t , i f given, i s placed variably i n the f i n a l or penultimate position i n the inscription. In some cases, the designation of the g i f t i s not given and must be inferred from the location of the inscription. The g i f t to the religious i n s i t i t u t i o n i s most often described as a dana or deyadhamma. these words again being placed variably in the f i n a l or penultimate position in the Inscription. These two words used to describe the act of the donor in his donation to the religious institution are essentially synonomous, though the use of one or the other words i s preferred at particular sites considered here. 53 Both words, dana and deyadhamma. mean a g i f t or donation, although dana i s a simple g i f t and deyadhamma implies the religious duty of giving and as such i f often translated as 'meritorious g i f t * . The expression dana i s most often used, although not without exception, at Karle, Ajanta and Pitalkhora, It also occurs at Junnar, Nasik, Bhaja and Bedsa, although at these sites, in addition to Kanheri and Kuda, deyadhamma i s most often used. The exact significance, i f any, of this regional variation in terminology i s not immediately clear. The results of the action of the donor, at least, i f not their exact intentions, appear to he the same. Occasional examples of other forms of designating donations of g i f t s to the Buddhist religious instiutions are also to be found among the inscriptions here considered. Several inscriptions use the causal past participle, karita?, 'caused to be made', and a few inscriptions use the Prakritic forms of the causal past participle of the root STHA. 'has been established'.^ It i s in the use of these expressions that the only evidence exists for the actual mechanics of the donations of such g i f t s to the religious institutions, i e , they were g i f t s whose execution was paid for. The very occasional use of the simple past participle, kata, 'made', i s also found in the inscriptions from the cave excavations.9 The g i f t referred to in these cases was physically made by the donor. In these few cases, the donation i s l i k e l y one of labour directly for the excavation of the cave, particularly for the addition of sculptural decoration. The apparent, religious motive for donations to the Buddhist religious institutions i s the acquisition oflmerit (Sanskrit punya. puna of the inscriptions), achieved through the act of giving. 54 The extensive use of the term deyadhamma i n the inscriptions implies this acquisition of merit. In a few inscriptions, the object of the acquisition of merit i s in fact specifically recorded, as for example from Kanheri, ...a cave and a water cistern for the acceptance of the ...Bhadrayanlyas. The merit founam] (gained) thereby (shall belong) to...and to (my) mother Nandinika. Ore c e l l . . . ^ The use and importance of the term dana found in the inscriptions has continued in contemporary Buddhism, for, There can be no doubt that the desire for merit i s the primary basis for the practice of dana. and their great concern with dana i s a true measure of the salience of merit i n the Burmese motivational system.H The terminology and internal evidence of the inscriptions strongly suggests that the same basic motivational factor, the acquisition of merit, was present i n ancient Indian Buddhism as represented by the cave excavations of Western India. ffhe majority of inscriptions from the cave excavations record g i f t s to the Buddhist religious institution, conceived by their donors as religious duty. These inscription, on internal evidence alone, yield l i t t l e information as to the financial mechanics and economic consequences of the donations. The information on the donors in these inscriptions, however, i s important and w i l l be examined i n detail. The presence of these inscripti&ns referring to the donations of g i f t s and the information as to the donors of these g i f t s must be considered together with the second type of donation recorded in the corpus of inscriptions, the donations of endowments. The two types of donations w i l l be examined in relation to the spatial distribution of the cave sites previously established. Whereas donations of simple g i f t s to the Buddhist religious institution 55 were to establish that institution, by the excavation of the caves\ donations of endowments were, in purpose, intended for the sustaining and maintenance of the religious institution. The donations of endowments also undoubtably had, as their primary, religious motive, the acquisition of merit on the part of the donors. As with the donations of simple g i f t s , the Inscriptions recording donations of endowments provide important information on their donors which w i l l also be examined i n det a i l . The donations of endowments, however, contain a great amount more informations on the functioning and consequences of donations to the religious institution in the context of the contemporary society. These endowments, then, are the most significant inscriptions for the study of the Buddhist religious institution i n the context of the contemporary society, and their detailed internal source materials w i l l be a subject of a detailed examination in a separate chapter. The f i r s t and sixth groups of cave excavations contain inscriptions which almost exclusively record donations of g i f t s to the Buddhist religious institution. The single exception i s from Mahad in the Kuda group where one inscription records both a g i f t and an endowment.12 The major site of Kuda i t s e l f records only donations of g i f t s i n the period under consideration. One later inscription records an endowment which should be noted, however this epigraph!3 i s obviously outside the period previously defined with regard to i t s language and the purpose of i t s endowment. The f i r s t and sixth group of cave excavations, the Pitalkhora-Ajanta and Kuda groups, are those sites which are on the geographical extremities of the sites considered in this study. The Pitalkhora-Ajanta group i s significantly more inland, the Kuda group being 56 located i n the traditionally isolated Konkan. The relatively few Inscriptions in Group one, nine usable from Pitalkhora and four from Ajanta, a l l record donations of g i f t s . I**-Two inscriptions from Pitalkhora are fragmentary and the exact nature of their donations i s uncertain. However, the donors remain recorded. 15 Deshpande C, found on a loose boulder i n front of the caves, mentions a guild, seni, Sanskrit srenL. The other, Luders no. 1190, mentions only a royal physician, ra.1ave[pja]. The nature of the donor here i s understandable i n the context of the other donors who are recorded at Pitalkhora, those of royal and administrative background. Physicians, veja, Sanskrit yaidya, are occasionally found among the donors to the cave excavations.16 At Pitalkhora, however, i s found the only example of a donor referred to as a royal physician. The royal physician here i n question,..Magila and his family, account f o r f i v e of the donations at Pitalkhora. These five inscriptions, or 33.3$ of a l l donations in Group one, form the bulk of the donations in this group by the f i r s t type of donor encountered throughout the cave excavations, the donor of stated royal or administrative b a c k g r o u n d . I t i s perhaps debatable whether a physician should be included in the f i r s t division of donors. Physicians hereafter are included in the second division of donors, that of the commercial and landed classes, as physicians are like any other merchant, although they s e l l a service rather than a good. The donor Magaila, however, i s particular to designate himself a royal physician; therefore he must have had some close association with his contemporary ruling dynasty. The donations of the family of Magila, the royal physician, are also included i n the division of royal and administrative donors. The recording of donations by relatives of donors of a stated 57 occupation i s a common occurrence among the inscriptions. The donations by female donors, wives, sisters, mothers etc. are of high frequency. They donations by donors who state a particular relationship with some person, who i s l i k e l y the head of the donor's family, are here included among the social group of the person whose occupation or social standing i s identified. These donations are seen as part of the collective enterprise of the family. Four inscriptions or 26.7$ of a l l donations i n Group one are by members of the second division of donors, that of the commercial and landed classes. One of these inscriptions, the previously mentioned Deshpande C, i s perhaps the donation of a guild. A perfumer, gadhlka. Sanskrit gandhlka. from the Satavahana capital of Paithan i s recorded at Pltalkhora.18 The occupation of perfumer i s recorded in one other example at Karle.19 One goldsmith, hlramakara. Sanskrit hiranyakara. i s recorded at Pltalkhora, Deshpande D, as having made the figure of a yaksa. The occupation of goldsmith i s one found three other times in the inscriptions, although by the synonomous term suvanakara. Sanskrit suvarnakara.20 At Ajanta, the only donation recorded as coming from a commercial or landed donor i s that of a merchant, Luders no. 1198. "Merchant' here translates yanija, Sanskrit vanlj. P a l i vanij.ia. The use of this term f o r merchant occurs only three other times i n the inscriptions. 2* That vanlja i s anything more than a general term for merchant, even with i t s limited occurrence i n the inscriptions, cannot be ascertained on the internal evidence of the epigraphs here considered. The much more common term for merchant to be often encountered at other site groups i s negama. A single inscription, Deshpande B, from the Pitalkhora-Ajanta 58 group records a donation by a member of the Buddhist Sangha or religious brotherhood, bhlchunl. more properly i n the inscriptions, bhikhuni. Sanskrit bhiksunl. P a l i bhikkhunl. At a l l s ite groups, except Junnar, a small percentage of the donations made are by people who identify themselves as members of the Sangha> this forms the third grouping of donors detailed i n Appendix B and Table 3. The f i r s t question here i s how members of a religious brotherhood, who have apparently abandoned the world and with i t their material possessions are a%le to make substantial donations to their own religious institutions. There i s no evidence that these religious donors physically made their donations, the terminology in a l l cases being that of a g i f t paid for. Hie internal evidence of the inscriptions perhaps c l a r i f i e s the position of donors who identify themselves as members of the Sangha. An epigraph from Kanheri states, Success! By the female ascetic Sapa, the daughter of the lay-worshipper and inhabitant of Dhenukaka-fca, Kulapiya Dhamanaka, (and) the pupil of the Thera, the reverend;Bodhika (she being associated) with her suster Ratlnlka and with the whole number of her relations and connections, a cave and a water cistern have been excavated (as) a meritorious gift...22 This inscription implies that the families made donations to the Buddhist religious institution through their members who were also members of the Sangha. These donations then, would record the apparent religious donor and not what could be termed the •economic donor'.. Nevertheless, as this 'economic donor' i s never f u l l y recorded, as this would negate the intention of a donation through a family Sangha member, these donations have been separately grouped. Each site group contains a number of donations, the occupation and social position of whose donors i s either missing or was never recorded. At the Pitalkhora-Ajanta group, five inscriptions of 59 33.3$ of a l l inscriptions record such donations which have been grouped as 'others* in Appendix B and Table 3. Four inscriptions from Group one record the place of origin of the donors. Three donors, one a perfumer, come from the ancient Satavahana capital of Paithah, Sanskrit Pratisthana.23 One donor at Pitalkhora comes from Dhenukaka^a.24 The exact location of this important ancient towrf i s unknown but i t appears to be located somewhere near to Karle. Hence, i t w i l l be more f u l l y considered when examining that site. The inscriptions from the Pitalkhora-Ajanta group do not, therefore, indicate any close geographical relationship between a town and the religious institution. On the contrary, on the available evidence, Ajanta and particularly Pitalkhora appear to have been pilgrimage sites, attracting donors from a considerable distance. A l l donations recorded from site group six, with a sole exception from Mahad, are of g i f t s . Six inscriptions, or 19.3$ of a l l donations In this group are by royal and administrative donors. Five of these donations are from Kuda. Four of these records from Kuda refer to a royal personage called a Mahabhoja.25 In addition, one extremely fragmentary inscription from Kuda, which has not been generally included i n this study, makes some reference to a Mahabhoja.26 The t i t l e of Mahabho.ja appears to be confined to the Konkan in the inscriptions from the cave excavations of Western India, The only other references to a Mahabho.ja are to found in inscriptions from Kanheri in the Konkan and from Bedsa. This inscription from Bedsa27t by the daughter of a Mahabho.ja. a Mamdavl and a Maharathini. the wife of a Maharathi. bears a strong relation to those from Kuda, The apparent family name 60 Mamdava i s found i n three of the records from Kuda 2 8 i n addition to a reference found i n the previously mentioned fragmentary epigraph. This record from Bedsa also tends to indicate an equivalence i n rank between a Mahabho.ja and a Maharathl, Sanskrit Mahlrasthrin. a t i t l e found i n several other cave excavations, for the donor indicates she i s daughter of one and wife of the other. The record from Kanheri i s likewise by a wife of a Maharathl. daughter of a Maharaja and a Mahabhoji and also sister of a Mah.abho.1a. These two t i t l e s would appear to designate a local lord, subject to the ruling dynasty, but with a measure of local autonomy. Three of the royal and administrative donors at Kuda belong to a family i n the service of the Mahabho.ja Mamdava Khamdapalita.29 Nothing further i s known of this Mahabho.ja beyond these references. One inscription, Luders no. 1054, i s of the daughter of Mahabho.ja Sadakara Sudamsana. Again, nothing further i s known of this Mahabho.ja. One donation from Kuda, Luders no. 1053» i s by the daughter of a royal minister ra.jamaca. Sanskrit rajamatya. Pali rajamacca. The t i t u l a r designation amatya i s also found at Nasik and at Junnar.30 A single donation from Mahad i s by a certain Prince (kumara) Manaboa VhenupSlita, Luders no. 1072. Nothing further i s known of this donor, the only royal personage in Group six who makes a direct donation to the Buddhist religious institution. Twelve inscriptions or 38.7$ of a l l donations i n Group six are by donors of the commercial and landed classes. These donors include such merchants as a garland maker, malakara. an iron merchant, lohavaniya. and a physician. Five of the donors are designated as, or relatives of, a sethi. Sanskrit sresthln. Sethi i s translated by Luders as •banker', although this translation i s probably not 61 accurate. In i t s particular sense, sethi i s the head of a guild, or i n a general sense the word implies a rich merchant somewhat more than a simple shopkeeper or bazaar merchant. The word i s used i n this general sense i n modern Indian languages. Three donations are by those who c a l l themselves sathavaha or by their relatives. Sathavaha. Sanskrit sarthavaha. i s translated by Luders as 'trader', although i t s common specific meaning in Sanskrit i s that of a head of a caravan. The word occurs only at Kuda and not enough internal evidence i s available to Identify i t s exact significance in Western India in the period under consideration. Four donors from the commercial and landed classes are identified as a householder, gahapati, Sanskrit grhapatl.31 This t i t l e , i n the inscriptions, implies somewhat more than a man who i s head of a household. The gahapati was a man of considerable wealth or property. On several occasions donors detail their relationship to some gahapati. A donor at Kol, Luders no. 10?5, for example, who identifies himself as a sethi adds that he i s the son of a gahapati. There i s a strong relationship between gahapatls and merchants throughout the cave excavations.32 of the some fourteen times the t i t l e gahapati appears in the inscriptions, ten times i t i s recorded i n connection with some type of merchant. Those few times where a donor has been designated only as a gahapati have therefore been included i n the division of commercial and landed donors. Two donations from Kuda are by members of the Sangha, by nuns. The terminology here used i s pavayitlka. Luders no. 1041, and pavaltika. Luders no. 1060, Sanskrit pravrajita. Pali pabba.ilta. •one who has gone forth', synonomous with bhikhunl. Eleven inscriptions, or 35•5% of a l l donations In Group six, 62 do not detail the occupation or social status of the donor. Four of these epigraphs are fragmentary. Only one inscription i n Group six states the place of origin of the donor. This i s a donation by an iron merchant, Luders no. 1055* from Karahakada, most l i k e l y modern day Karadh. Kuda must have been a place of pilgrimage for this iron merchant, who must have had some resources to have made a donation at this coastal s i t e , particularly when the cave excavations of Karadh lay outside his home town. The donations to Group five of the cave excavations, Karle and i t s associated sites, are composed, in the great majority, of simple g i f t s to the Buddhist religious institution. Donations of endowments, a l l at Karle, account f o r a mere 8.6$ of a l l donations at Karle and for 6.0% of a l l donations i n Group five. Donations of g i f t s then account for 91.4$ and 94.0$ of a l l donations at Karle and at Karle and i t s associated sites, respectively. Six donations or 12.0$ of a l l donations at Karle and i t s associated sites are by royal and administrative donors. Three of the donors are feudatory lords, Maharathls. one i s by a Maharathinl. wife of a Maharathl. the previously mentioned daughter of a Mahabhorja from Bedsa. 33 One of the royal and administrative donors at Karle i s Usavadata, son-in-law of the Ksaharata ksatrapa Nahapana, Luders no. 1099. Nahapana himself i s never recorded i n the inscriptions as having made a donation to the Buddhist religious institutions. Usavadata never directly states that he i s even i n the service of Nahapana, only that he i s married to Dakhamita, daughter of Nahapana. While this information i s enough to indicate the social position of Usavadata and to therefore Include him in the f i r s t grouping of donors, 63 i t would seen l i k e l y that Usavadata would have been the o f f i c e r to Nahapana i n his most southern conquests, the region of the cave excavations. One donation at Karle, Luders no. 1105, appears to be a direct donation by a royal personage. However, the i n i t i a l portion of the inscription where the name of the king would have been placed i s fragmentary. This epigraph i s very similar i n form to three Satavahana records from Nasik, one by Pulumavi and two by Gautamlputra. 34 Scholarly debate has been considerable as to which of these two kings was responsible f o r the Karle inscription. The internal evidence of the inscription i s , however, not strong enough to make a f i n a l decision.35 Ten inscriptions, or 20.0$ of a l l donations i n Group f i v e , are by commercial and landed donors. Included among these donors are merchants such as a perfumer, gamdhlka. Luders no. 1090, and a carpenter, vadhaki. Sanskrit vardhakl. Luders no. 1092. One donor, Luders no. 1091, ca l l s herself the mother of a householder, gahata. Sanskrit grhastha. a word which appears only once i n the inscriptions. This usage i s perhaps significantly different from the use of gahapati. indicating the simple householder i n the brahmanical sense rather than the l i k e l y more commercial sense of gahapati as seen i n the inscriptions. 36 One other t i t u l a r designation from an inscription from Selarvadi, Luders no. 1121, i s translated here as householder. The word here used i s kuduklya. Sanskrit kutumbln. This designation occurs once more i n an inscription at Nasik, Luders no. 1147, in the more Sankritic form kutumbika. The householder from Selarvadi i s also called a halakiya. often translated as •ploughman', and which implies that this kutumbln was head of an agricultural household, but certainly without the degree of wealth and commercial associations of a gahapati.37 64 Seven inscriptions, a l l from Karle, or 14.0$ of a l l donations i n Group five, are by members of the Sangha. One donation i s by a thera. Sanskrit sthavlra. l i t e r a l l y meaning 'elder', but In Buddhist usage synonomous with bhikkhu. Thera i n i t s s t r i c t sectarian meaning refers to the f i r s t great division of Buddhism, i n opposition to the Mahasanphika. at the second Buddhist council at Vaisali. Two donations are by one Satimita from coastal Sopara who designates himself as a preacher, bhanaka. of the Dharmutarlyas. Sanskrit Dharmottariyas. Bhanaka refers to a person skilled i n the recitation of certain sections of the Buddhist scriptures who i s l i k e l y a particularly s k i l l e d monk. The mention of particular schools of Hinayana Buddhism, such as the Dharmottariyas. i s found frequently i n the inscriptions. It i s useful i n determining the spatial distribution of these schools i n ancient India. The schools themselves, however, do not appear to have made a substantial difference i n either the nature of the donations or the composition of the donors at the sites here considered.39 Twenty-seven inscriptions or 54.0$ of a l l donations i n Group five are by donors of other designations. This large percentage i s accounted for by a type of donation and a group of donors particularly common to this group. Four inscriptions from Bhaja do not identify donors and are simply labels identifying one of a series of votive stupas as being of some th e r a . ^ The stupas i n question are not the donations of the thera mentioned i n the inscription but are the g i f t of some unmentioned donor. An inscription on a similar stupa at Bedsa, Luders no. 1110, includes such information as to the name of the donor who caused the stupa to be made. This series of small votive stupas with inscriptions mentioning only to whom the donation i s dedicated i s peculiar to Bhaja. 65 Seven donors from Group five identify themselves only as a Yavana. which i n this ancient period i s taken to mean Greek.^ Donations are also made by Yavanas at Junnar and at Nasik.^2 The question as to the particular Greek association of these donors, a l l of whom have Indian names, i s one which the available evidence i s not l i k e l y to solve. Whether they were Indianized Greeks, Indian culture-Greeks, Indians who were also citizens of Greek towns or just foreigners from the West i s relatively unimportant for this study.^3 The donors who c a l l themselves Yavanas i n no case give any other occupational t i t l e . Presumably, Yavana was informative enough i n the contemporary s o c i e t y . ^ The most common interpretation i s that these Yavanas were also merchants. 45 The seaborne trade with Greeks from the eastern sections of the Roman Empire with the west coast of India i s well known from works such as the Perlplus. It i s tempting to associate these Yavanas with this trade. In this connection, however, i t i s significant to note that no notice of Yavanas i s found at coastal Kanheri, i t i s found only at the three inland sites of Karle, Junnar and Nasik. In any case, one would assume that such presumed foreigners as Yavanas. whatever their exact origin, would have been drawn to Western India for the purposes of trade. Such internal evidence form the inscriptions, however, wanting} therefore those donors who designate themselves as Yavanas have been grouped among "* others*. Dhenukakata i s given seventeen times i n Group five as the place of origin of the donor. ^  six of the donors from Dhenukakata are Yavanas. Dhenukakata i s also found recorded i n the previously mentioned inscription from Pltalkhora and also at Kanheri.^ 8 It was obviously then a place of considerable importance, yet i t s exact 66 location has not been generally agreed upon. It has been identified as a coastal ci t y because of i t s large population of Yavanas. Yet only one donor from Dhenukakata and no Yavanas are found at Kanheri.^9 The substantial donations made by various types of donors from Dhenukakata to the Karle caltya and also at Selarvadl would indicate a particular relationship between this town and the sites located in the Indrayani valley, known as Maval.50 Certainly, the carpenter from Dhenukakata who made the door to the caltya. Luders no. 1092, would not have travelled too.far to undertake his meritorious task. The identification by D.D. Kosambi of Dhenukakata with the village of Devagad near to Karle appears then to be plausible.51 Karle then would have been a site that was primarily established and maintained by a nearby town. Donors did, however, come from other towns and villages a i for example the preacher Satimita who journeyed from coastal Sopara, to the north of present day Bombay,-52 Several places, l i k e l y villages, remain unidentified.53 The three remaining site groups, Nasik, Junnar and Kanheri, are characterized by a substantial number of donations of endowments. The endowments, however, never comprise a majority of the inscriptions at any of the sites. Each s i t e contains a number of epigraphs which record both the donation of a g i f t and also an endowment. This type of dual donation has hitherto not been found i n the: inscriptions, except for the single instance from Mahad. These dual donations must then be considered both with donations of g i f t s for the establishment of the Buddhist religious institution and perhaps more Importantly with the donation of endowments for the maintenance of the religious institution. When the dual donations are considered with the donation of endowments, such endowments account for at least 25$ of a l l 67 inscriptions at Nasik, Junnar and Kanheri. These three sites, then, contain inscriptions which have the most detailed information on the maintenance of the religious institution and, by consequence of the nature of the inscriptions, the most specific information on the functioning and consequences of donations to the Buddhist religious institution i n the context of the contemporary society. Of the thirty usable inscriptions i n Group three, Junnar, twenty-one or 70.0$ are donations of g i f t s to the Buddhist religious institution. Seven inscriptions or 23.3$ record donations of endowments. Two inscriptions record both donations of g i f t s and endowments. Endowments then occur i n nine inscriptions or 30.0$ of a l l donations at Junnar. Only a single inscription at Junnar records a donation by a royal or administrative donor. This i s the donation of a g i f t by the royal minister of Nahapana, Luders no. 1174. It should be noted that extensive Satavahana records are found at Nanaghat close to Junnar. These are not, however, donations to a Buddhist religious institution. The Satavahanas did not apparently have a direct donative interest i n the cave sites surrounding Junnar. Eight inscriptions or 26.7$ of a l l donations at Junnar are by commercial and landed donors. Four of these donations are by those who designate themselves solely as householders or as a relative of a householder.-5^ One of these donations by a householder, Luders no. 1153? i s an inscription which has been variously translated. Buhler would make itidonatlon by Virasenaka, a chief, pamugha. Sanskrit pramukha. householder and upright merchant, dhammanigama. Luders here takes nlgama i n i t s more usual sense as a settlement and translates i t as "a pious hamlet". Luders however makes the donation 68 by the nigama called Virasenaka which i s "headed by householders". My interpretation, however, i s that the donation i s by the chief householder called Virasenaka of the f*pious hamlet' or Buddhist town.55 One donation at Junnar, Luders no. 1172, i s by a merchant, negama, Sanskrit naigama. Negama means one coming from a town or a market place, i e , a townsman or merchant. That nigama can also mean an association of merchants, perhaps indicates that the negamas here recorded were members of urban guilds, which might help i n distinguishing this designation from that of yanija previously mentioned. The inscriptions do not, however, offer any internal evidence to make such a distinction. A negama i s not, for example, simultaneously identified as a sethi or a member of a seni. Negama must, however, be a merchant with a particular association with a town. One donation at Junnar, the g i f t of a cave and a cistern, Luders no. 1180, i s made collectively by a guild of corndealers, dhamnikaseni. Sanskrit dhanya-. Pali dhanfia-. The a c t i v i t i e s of such guilds are important i n considering donations of endowments; however donations by guilds themselves are rare.56 One donation, Luders no. 1177, i s by a goldsmith from Kalyan. From Kalyan also i s a donor who identifies himself as a halranyaka. Sanskrit hiranyaka. Luders 1179» which i s most commonly translated as 'treasurer'. This donor could be a treasurer of a guild or some other commercial organization o r hiranyaka could perhaps be a dealer i n gold as distinguished from a maker of gold, a goldsmith, hiranyakara.57 Twenty-one inscriptions or 70.0$ of a l l donations at Junnar are by donors who do not clearly identify themselves by occupation or social position. Junnar i s the site which contains the largest per-centage of donors, or donations without extant donors, that are 69 included i n the 'others* grouping. Five of these donations are fragmentary, four of which are donations of endowments whose donors are lacking or perhaps, unusually, were not recorded.5$ Three donors from Junnar designate themselves as Yavanas.59 One donor, Luders no. 1162, c a l l s himself a Saka. which might associate him with the Ksatrapa or Abhira dynasties.60 Several inscriptions at Junnar are by donors who identify themselves only as an upasaka. a lay-worshipper, or by designations which appear to be perhaps family or caste group names.61 ©nly three donors at Junnar record identifiable places of origin. Two donors, the goldsmith and •treasurer' previously mentioned, came up the Nanaghat from the important coastal town of Kalyan. One donation, Luders no. 1169, i s by two brothers who came from Bharukacha, modern day Broach which was an important port at the mouth of the Narmada river. Two Yavanas may perhaps have come from some unidentified Gata country.62 Most of the donors, however, must have come from the town on the ancient site of Junnar. Perhaps the dhammanigama. the Buddhist town, mentioned i n Luders no. 1153, i s not specifically named because i t would have obviously referred to the town which the cave excavations surround. Of the twenty-eight usable inscriptions found i n Group two, Nasik, twenty-five provide information as to the type of intended donation. One inscription, Luders no. 1122, consists of only a f i r s t l i n e , giving the date i n the regnal years of Pulumavi. The intended donation i s thereafter missing as i s the name of the donor. On the model of Luders no. 1123, this may be a royal inscription of Queen Balasri, however this cannot be confirmed on the available evidence. Two inscriptions, Luders nos. 1135 and 1136, which have 70 been previously discussed as probably belonging together, no. 1135 being definately a donation of Usavadata, are so fragmentary that the type of donation cannot be ascertained. Sixteen inscriptions, or 64.0$ of the usable inscriptions at Nasik then are donations of g i f t s . Nine inscriptions, or 36.0$ of the usable inscriptions contain donations of endowments. Of these donations, of endowments, four inscriptions are of the dual nature, containing both donations of g i f t s and endowments. One inscription, Luders no. 1130, while apparently a dual donation, has been grouped as a donation of an ens dowment only. This epigraph again records the donation of the same cave, by the fisherman Mugudasa, previously recorded i n Luders no. 1129. Twelve inscriptions or 42.9$ of the donations at Nasik are by royal and administrative donors. This i s the highest percentage of such donors found at any of the site groups. Nasik was a site of particular importance for the contemporary reigning dynasties, as can be seen from the four donations of the Satavahanas and the five of the Ksharata Ksatrapas here recorded.^ The p o l i t i c a l relations between these two dynasties i n the context of their donative a c t i v i t i e s towards the Buddhist religious institution i s of particular importance in the donations of endowments to the Nasik cave excavations and w i l l be further examined i n the following chapter. Two donations at Nasik are given by royal officers or their families, one, Luders no. 1141, by the daughter and wife of ministers, amatya. The other, Luders no. 1144, i s by an important minister to the king a maJbiamata. Sanskrit mahamatra. Pali mahamatta. The king i n question here was Krsna, the —1"-1111111 -• • w w • t 9 early Satavahana. One donation:at Nasik, Luders no. 1146, i s by the wife of a great general, mahasenapati. The general was under the command of Yajnasrl Satakarni, The presence of such a donation by the 71 family of an important military personage would emphasize the importance of Nasik for the contemporary reigning dynasties. Seven inscriptions or 25.0$ of a l l donations at Nasik are by commercial and landed donors. These donors include two merchants, negama.64 One donor, Luders no. 1147, i s the head of an agricultural household, kutumbika. Two donors, who make three donations, identify themselves as writers or scribes, lekhaka. or as members of their families.65 These writers have been included i n the division of commercial and landed donors rather than i n the division of royal and administrative donors as i n the case of the writer at Kuda, Luders no. I037t because here such a royal a f f i l i a t i o n i s not directly stated. One of the writers at Nasik, Vudhika, responsible for two donations, states that he i s the writer to a Saka. l i k e l y an important personage but without any of the usually stated royal connections. These writers or scribes, then were l i k e l y professionals who sold a service rather than a good. One donation was made by a fisherman, dasaka. Sanskrit dasaka.66 While a fisherman i s a seemingly humble occupation, the fisherman here considered must have been of some means to travel inland, his occupation implies a coastal place of origin although this i s not so stated, and give a cave to the Buddhist religious institution at Nasik. Dasaka could also have ferryman or mariner as secondary meanings. Eight inscriptions or 28.6$ of a l l donations at Nasik are by donors whose occupation and social position i s either missing or not known. Three of these donations are fragmentary, two of which, however, may be of royal donors.67 One donation, Luders no. 1140, i s by the previously mentioned Yonaka. who because of his place of origin has the strongest Greek association of any donor to the cave 72 excavations, notwithstanding his very Indian name, Indragnidatta. One donation, i n the time of the Abhira dynasty, Luders no. 1137» i s by a donor who i s the wife of a ganapaka. the exact meaning of which i s uncertain.68 One donation, Luders no. 1142, i s a collective endowment by the village of Dhambika, "the Nasik people". This i s the only example in the inscriptions where a village has made such a collective donation. One i s not certain though, whether such a collective donation was made by popular subscription or by administrative decision. The ancient town of Nasik would appear to be the most immediate place of origin of the donors. The Manama.ta previously mentioned was a resident of this town. The writer Vudhika records that he i s an inhabitant of Dasapura, modem Mandsaur i n Madhya Pradesh. 69 The location of Dhamtamiti, i e , Demetrius, home of the Yonaka Indragnidatta has been a matter of some speculation, the inscription i t s e l f stating only that i t i s i n the north, otaraha.70 Of the thirty-seven usable inscriptions from Group four, Kanheri, twenty-two or 59.5$ a*e donations of gi f t s to the Buddhist religious institution. Inscriptions which record endowments number fifteen or 40.5$ of a l l donations. Fourteen of these donations of endowments are inscriptions of the dual nature, recording both g i f t s and endowments. The large number of such dual donations can in. part b@t. explained by the practise, unique at Kanheri, of recording donations of g i f t s and endowments to Buddhist institutions other than Kanheri, particularly for those at Kalyan, along with a donation to Kanheri. Such donations w i l l be examined when the close relationship of Kanheri with the ancient port of Kalyan i s considered. 7 3 Only three inscriptions at Kanheri record the donations of royal and administrative donors. A l l three donations are made by female donors, only one, Luders no. 994, being a member of a contemporary reigning dynasty. This donor i s the wife of Vasisthlputra Satakarni and l i k e l y the daughter of Rudradaman. The other royal donors include the wife of a Bho.ja. Luders no. 1013, a- local feudatory ruler, presumably close i n rank to a Mahabho.ja. A donation i s also made by a Maharathinl, Luders no. 1021, a wife of a Maharathl. Twenty-three inscriptions at Kanheri or 62.2$ of a l l donations are made by donors of thecommercial and landed classes. Eight of these donors designate themselves as negama. merchant, or their relatives.71 Five donors are 'treasurer-gold merchants' or goldsmiths or their relatives.72 Four donors are sethls. bankers or guild leaders.73 If indeed negama refers to a merchant who i s a member of a guild and If hiranyaka i s i n r e a l i t y a treasurer of a guild rather than a gold merchant, then with the addition of sethis. fifteen of the commercial donors at Kanheri would have guild associations. In any case, mercantile donations at Kanheri are the most numberous, both i n number and percentage terms, of any site here considered. Three donations are made by commercial donors not otherwise found among the inscriptions. One, Luders no. 1 0 0 5 , i s by a manikara. Sanskrit manlkara. obviously a jeweller or gem merchant. One, Luders no. 1012, appears to be a corporate g i f t of a cave by a community of sea traders or some other group involved with the sea, sagarapaloga. Sanskrit sagarapraloka.74 The other, Luders no. I032f i s the g i f t of a blacksmith, kamara. Sanskrit karmara. Six inscriptions or 16.2$ of a l l donations at Kanheri are by member of the Sangha. Five inscriptions or 1 3 . 5 $ of a l l donations 74 are fragmentary or do not record the occupation or social position of the donor. Eleven donors at Kanheri record that they come from the nearby port of Kalyan.75 Kalyan then, had a particularly close relation in donative a c t i v i t i e s with the religious Institution established at Kanheri. This relationship of the religious institution with a not too distant town i s the same as that seen at Karle with Dhenukakata • and with those l i k e l y existing between the towns of Junnar and Nasik and their associated cave sites. The particularly close relationship of Kalyan with Kanheri i s emphasized by the recording of donations at Kanheri to a certain Ambalikavihara at Kalyan.?6 Apart from this close relationship with Kalyan, Kanheri also drew pilgrim donors from throughout Western India. • Three donors come from the port of Sopara to the north and two from the port of Chaul to the south of Kanheri.77 Individual donors record their places of origin as Nasik and Dhenukakata.78 One inscription, Luders no. 988, i n addition to recording donations to the Ambalikavihara at Kalyan, records donations i n the d i s t r i c t , ahara. of Sopara and as f a r away as Paithan and i t s vi c i n i t y . From this information recorded i n the inscriptions, i t becomes apparent that Kanheri was among the most important Buddhist religious institutions i n Western India i n i t s time. Not only could i t attract wealthy local donors, and donors from important, adjacent coastal towns, Kanheri could also attract inland donors and also become a place to record various donations to Buddhist religious institutions throughout Western India. The percentage of royal and of mercantile donors at the sites here considered follow a consistent pattern regardless of the type of donation, g i f t or endowment. That i s , the percentage of royal 75 donors and of mercantile donors i s that same at each si t e , within broad limits, but with one site having a substantially larger percentage of one group of donors. Kanheri was then, largely supported and maintained by commercial and landed donors with 62.2$ of a l l donations made by this group. The other five sites were also well supported by commercial and landed donors, ranging from a low of 20$ of a l l donations at Karle and i t s associated sites to 38.7$ at Kuda and i t s associated sites. If Yavanas are also supposed to be merchants, then these percentages would increase, particularly i n the case of Karle, making the percentage of mercantile donors here 3k.Q%. In any case, i n the fiv e site, excepting Kanheri, the average percentage of mercantile donors i s at present 28.0$, less than half that of Kanheri. The dominance of commercial and landed donors at Kanheri may be explained by the commercial ac t i v i t y of the region of the s i t e , particularly of Kalyan, at the time of Kanheri's establishment, after A.D. 100* This i s most l i k e l y i n part caused by the contemporaneous development of the monsoon sea trade at this time. The dominance of the Kanheri region i n this trade i s a factor of this region's position as the terminus of the local interior to coastal routes as detailed i n the previous chapter. It may be noted here that Kanheri also contains the most donations by members of the-Sangha. 16.2$, at least one of which from Dhenukaka-ta would have been brought to Kanheri by the same routes which terminate i n this region. While Kanheri i s the site most supported by mercantile donors, for which particular causes can be suggested i f not confirmed, i t i s important to realize the consistently high percentage of donations made by commercial and landed donor at each site. Nasik was the site most supported by royal and administrative 76 donors, 42.9$ of a l l donations. Nasik was particularly w i l l supported by members of the contemporary ruling dynasties. Groups three to six have a low of 3.3$ at Junnar to a high of 19.3$ at Kuda of a l l donations made by royal and administrative donors. Only at Pitalkhora-Ajanta, with 33.3$ of a l l donations;, made by such donors, does the percentage approach that at Nasik. This perhaps i s deceiving, for at this group few inscriptions remain, this high percentage being caused by the generosity of the family of one royal physician at Pitalkhora. The relatively high number, among Groups three to six, of royal donations at Kuda can perhaps be explained by the geographical position of this site. None of the donors at Kuda and i t s associated sites belongs to one of the great contemporary dynasties, they are feudatories, Mahabhojas etc. Kuda then was an isolated region, as i t i s even today, with numerous donations made by local merchants and feudatory lords. At each site, royal and administrative donors have some part i n the establishment and maintenance of the religious institution. The average percentage of donation by such donors being, excluding Nasik and Pitalkhora-Ajanta, 10.7$. The importance of Nasik for royal donors appears to be largely p o l i t i c a l as w i l l be seen i n an examination of endowments from that site. The Buddhist religious institutions, as seen from their inscriptions, were largely supported by f i r s t l y the mercantile sections of society and then by the ruling classes of the contemporary society. The donations to certain sites are dominated by one or the other of these two groups of donors because of some particular circumstance of that site. Members of the Sangha had some part i n supporting a l l sites, but these donations have been considered apart because they appear to be representing other persons. The large number of donations 77 where the donor i s stated by name only, where a t i t u l a r designation cannot be translated or where the inscription i s fragmentary at some part, must make a l l numbers and percentages of groups of donors necessarily tentative. The available evidence, however, well establishes the general nature of the types of donors, their donations and the composition of each at the Buddhist religious institutions here considered. TABLE 2. Donations b y Sites Group I no. % Group II no. % Group III no. % Group IV no. % Group V no. % Group VI no. % Gi f t 13 100.0 16 64.0 21 70.0 22 59.5 47 94.0 30 96.8 G i f t and Endowment - 4 16.0 2 6.7 14 37.8 - 1 3.2 Endowment - 5 20.0 7 23.3 1 2.7 3 6.0 -Others 2 //// 3 //// - - - -TABLE 3. Donors by Sites Royal and Administrative Commercial and Landed Sangha Others -Yavana -others -fragmentary not given Group I no. 3 Group II no. % Group III no. % Group IV no. % Group V no. % Group VI no. % 5 33.3 12 42.9 1 3.3 3 8.1 6 12.0 6 19.3 4 26.7 7 25.0 8 26.7 23 62.2 10 20.0 12 38.7 1 6.7 1 3.6 - 6 16.2 7 14.0 2 6.5 33.3 5 28.6 1 4 3 70.0 3 13 5 13.5 3 2 54.0 7 14 6 35.5 7 4 79 ^Luders no. 1129. 2Luders no. 1048. 3Luders no. 1093. ^Luders no. 1132. 5Luders no. 1149. °Luders no. 1088. 7Luders no. 1123 karita deyadhama. 1131, 1140, 1143, 1144, 1147, Nasik; Vats no. 5, Karle; 1110 Bedsa. 8Luders nos. 1 0 0 1 , 1006 patithaplta - 'established', Kanheri; 1087 parinlthapita here implying completion, Karle, cf, Senart, Eplgraphla Indica^ 7 . p. 4 9 ; 1141 nithapapita again implying completion, Nasik, cf, Senart, Eplgraphla Indica 8 , p. 92. ^Luders nos. 1067, Nadsur; I07lf. Kondane; 1092, 1104, Karle; Deshpande nos. A, D, Pltalkhora. l°Luders no. 1018. llMelford E. Splro, Buddhism and Society (New York, 1970), p. 1 1 1 . l2Luders no. 1073. A detailed l i s t of the types of donations by site group with the terminology used to describe the donation and a description of the donation i t s e l f w i l l be found in Appendix A. 1 3 L u d e r s no. 1047. l**The numbers of types of donations with their percentage of the respective site group w i l l be found i n Table 2 . 15A detailed l i s t of the donors by occupation and social standing at each s i t e w i l l be found i n Appendix B. 16EI vol. 24, Karle; Luders no. 1048, Kuda. I7lhe numbers and types of donors with ther percentage within their respective site groups w i l l be found i n Table 3. l^Luders no. II87. !9Luders no. 1090. 20mders no. 1177, Junnar; 9 8 6 , 1015, Kanheri. 2lLuders no. 9 8 7 , Kanheri; Vats nos. 3, 9, Karle. 22Luders no. 1 0 2 0 . 80 23Luders nos. 118?, 1188, Pltalkhoraj Dhavalikar no. 2, Ajanta. 24neshpande A. 25in one case Mahabhoya. Luders no. 1054. 26Luders no, 1052. 2?Luders nos. 1021, Kanheri? 1111, Bedsa, again -bhoya i n preference to -bho.ja. Mamdavi reconstructed by Luders. 28Luders nos. 1037, 1045* 1049. 29Luders nos. 1037, 1045, 1049 by inference. 30mders nos. 1141, Nasik, raya- for ra.ja-t 1174, Junnar where i n i t s Sanskritic form [a.] miatya. Buhler restores [ajmatya. although a- i s more correct. Xuders records amatya. perhaps a typographical error. Kautilya discusses the appointment of ministers, amatya. in relation to councillors, mantrin. to the king, Arthasastra. I, 8. R.P. Kangle, ed., (Bombay, i960), vol. 1, pp. 9-10. 3lLuders nos. 1056, 1062, Kuda; 1073, Mahad; 1075» Kol. 32Senart recognizes this relationship, for, "...grhapati i s , i n the Buddhist language, specially restricted to people of v&rious castes, who are included i n the large class of Vaisyas." Epigraphia  Indica 8, p. 75. 33Luders nos. 1088, 1100, Karle; 1079, Bhaja; 1111, Bedsa. 3i)Xuders nos. 1124, Pulumavi; 1125, 1126, Gautamiputra. 35Buhler does not indicate a preference. Senart prefers Pulumavi and discusses this epigraph f u l l y , Epigraphia Indica 7, pp. 65-71. Luders inclines towards Gautamiputra. The mention of the order of the king being Issued from "the victory camp" i n both the Karle inscription and Luders no. 1125 would incline me to think that the Karle inscription i s of Gautamiputra. Senart recognizes this possibility. 36senart says that Gahata indicated a householder of brahmanical rather than vaisya origin. Epigraphia Indica 7, pp. 52*53. 37Luders no. 1084, Bhaja, is the donation of Badha, wife of Halika, which may also be an agriculturist, although not necessarily a householder, kutumblka. Halika may also be a personal name, Luders prefers this sense. This epigraph has therefore been grouped in the 'others* class of donors. 38Luders nos. 1094, 1095. I follow Senart and Luders that in 1095 the reading must be Nadlputa. rather than Nadipati. husband of Nadi, cf, Senart, Epigraphia Indica 7, p. 55. These two inscriptions 81 are on the same p i l l a r and perhaps could be taken as the same donation, although 1095 also refers to the g i f t of r e l i c s , the appropriate hole being found on the p i l l a r . 39Donations are also made to the Mahasanghlkas at Karle, Luders nos. 1105, 1106, to the Gaitikas at Nasik, Luders no. 1130 and possibly at Junnar, Luders no. 1171, to the Bhadrayaniyas at Kanheri, Luders nos. 987, 1018 and at Nasik, Luders nos. 1123, 1124 and to the Dharmottariyas at Junnar, Luders no. 1152. The Bhadrayaniyas and the Dharmottariyas apparently popularin Western India at this time, were divisions of the Vatslputrlya school noted f o r the much c r i t i c i z e d doctrine of the sel f , pudgala. ie , Gandrakirti, Prasannapada Madhyamakavritti tradult par Jacques May (Paris, 1959), P . 162, note 502 for f u l l references. Cf, Bareau, Les Sectes. pp. 114-120, 127-129. The Mahasanghlkas were the more li b e r a l schools of Hinayana Buddhism dating from the second council at V a i s a l i , for their doctrines see Bareau, op., c i t . . pp. 55-74. The Gaitikas were a division of the Mahasanghlkas. Certain donors, particularly royal personages, had distinct preferences i n the schools which were the recipients of their donations. The Satavahana donation, Luders no. 1105, of the endowment of the village of Karajaka i s made to the Mahasanghlkas. This same village had previously been donated to the Sangha of the four quarters, catudlsa bhikhusarigha. by Usavadata, Luders no. 1099, similarly nos. 1131, 1133 at Nasik of Usavadata. Other donations to the Sangha of the four quarters includelLuders nos. 1137, 1139, Nasikj 1024, Kanheri. ^OLuders nos. 1080, 1081, 1082, 1083. ^iLuders nos. 1093, 1096, Vats nos. 1, 4, 6, 7, 10. ^Luders nos. 1154, II56, 1182, Junnari 1140, Nasik i n the more Prakritic form Yonaka. It has been maintained that Yonaka indicates an origin from contemporary Hellenistic Greek, see W. W, Tarn, The Greeks i n Bactria and India (Cambridge, 1951), pp. 416-418. Tarn believes that this usage, the single example from the inscriptions, i n addition to the donor stating that he comes from Damtamiti, ie , Demetrius, indicates a more direct Greek origin. Yona. however, i s a standard Prakrit form of Yavana. i e , Asokan Rock Edict 13, and the suffix -ka often indicates i n the Inscriptions l i t t l e more than a person, i e , bhanaka. hiranyaka etc. The single usage of the form Yonaka and the common usage of the Sanskritlc form Yavana i s in i t s e l f anomolous. See also A. K. Naraln, The Indo-Greeks (Oxford. 1957), P P . 165-169. ^ T a r n discusses f u l l y the question, pj>. c i t . , pp. 254-258, his conclusion being that they were Greeks by law, i e , citizens of some polls, derives from Luders no. 1096, where the donor i s styled as Dhammayavana. Buhler, Senart and Luders a l l translate this as, "of Dhamma, a Yavana," although Senart suggests that i t i s , "of a Yavana of the Law." i e , a Buddhist Yavana. this appears to me a more l i k e l y resolution of the compound. It i s interesting to note the strong association of Western 82 India with such 'Greeks'. For example, in the Ceylonese tradition the mission sent to Apaxantaka by Moggaliputta Tissa i n the time of Asoka was a Yona Dhammarakkhita, see Mahavamsa. translated by Wilhelm_Geiger (London, 1964), ch. 12, 4-4, pp. 82} 34-36, p. 85. Also, Dipavamsa. edited and translated by B.C. Law, The Ceylon  Historical Journal volume 7» nos. 1-4, ch, 8, 7, text p. 60, trans, p. 186, where the form Yonaka i s used. For the identification of Aparantaka with the coastal regions of Western India see Luders no. 1013, Kanheri. Also, the viceroy of Asoka who completed the Sudarsana lake at Girnar i s said to be the Yavana king Tusaspha in the Junagadh inscription of Rudradaman commemorating the restoration of this lake, see Kielhorn, op_. c i t . , Luders no. 965. In addition, the coins of Nahapana have inscriptions i n Greek letters, on the obverse, transliterating the Prakrit Brahml and Karosthi inscriptions on the reverse, see H.R. Scott, "The Nasik (Jogaithembi) Hoard of Nahapana's Coins," Journal of the Bombay  Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society volume 22 (19057» PP. 226-231. ^Kosambi, however, maintains that the donation of the physician, EI vol. 24, i s by the Greek Milimda rather than Mitidasa, While not called a Yavana. the'name Milimda would imply the Greek name Menander, as for example i n the Pali text Milimdapanha. This reading i s based on the re-reading of t to 1, two letters which could easily be confused i n Brahml. The'addition of the anusvara i s also possible, i t being often added or deleted in the reading of the inscriptions,^because of the nature of the stone. This suggested reading would also have the advantage of placing the name and occupation of the donor i n the genetive case in apposition, i e , Milimdasa ve.jasa. the form more common in the inscriptions, rather than i n a compound, i e , Mitidasa-vejasa. ^5see for example, Dehejia, Early Buddhist Rock Temples, p. 143. Dehejia here also maintains that the royal physician Magila at Pitalkhora, "seems to have been a yavana." without presenting evidence to this effect. ^Luders nos. 1093, 1096, 1097, Vats nos. 4, 5 , 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, Kosambi, Karle; 1121, Selarvadi as Dhenukakada. ^Luders nos. 1093, 1096, Vats nos. 4, 6, 7, 10. ^8Deshpande A, Pitalkhora} Luders no, 1020, Kanheri. ^ E . H . Johnston, "Two Notes on Ptolemy's Geography of India," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1941), pp. 208-213, where Dhenukakata i s identified with the Dounga of Ptolemy. •5^ Mamade and Mamala of Luders no. 1105, Karle. ^iKosambi, op_. c i t . , pp. 56-6I. 52Luders nos. 1094, 1095. 53umekanakata, Vats no. 1, Gonekaka(ta), Vats no. 2, note the similarity i n form to Dhenukakata.' Kosambi states that, "Vats read 83 Gonekaka-sa, but the last syllable i s ta or ja and the f i r s t two letters are also doubtful, so that this donor was i n a l l probability from Dhenukakata, but unfortunate i n his choice of scribe and mason," op_. cit.', p. 66. Kata means curve, i e , slope of a h i l l . ^Luders nos. 1153, H 5 7 , H 7 0 , 1 1 7 L 55Senart, however, commenting on this inscription i n connection with the expression dhammayavana i n Luders no. 1096, Karle, takes dhammanigama as, "a member of the guild of Buddhist merchants." Epigraphia Indica 7, P. 56. Nlgama in the f i n a l position i n a compound could mean a guild of traders, 56others perhpas include Deshpande C, Pltalkhora; Vats no, 3, Karle, 57hiranyaka. Luders nos. 993, 996, 1033, Kanheri; 1177, Junnar. 58Luders nos. 1150, g i f t ; 1163, 1165, 1166, 116?, endowments. 59Luders nos. 1154, 1156, 1182. 60usavadata, f o r example, ca l l s himself a Saka. Luders no, 1135, Nasik;the donor_Visnudatta, Luders no. 1139, Nasik, recorded i n the time of the Abhira dynasty, i s the wife of a ganapaka. she c a l l s herself a Sakanl and i s daughter of Agnivannan, a Saka. 6lsee particularly Luders nos. 1151, Mudhaklya. Goliklya; 1152, 1155, Patibadhaka; II76, Nadaka. 62Luders nos, 1154, 1182, as translated by Buhler. Luders makes i t a personal rather than a geographical name. Buhler recognizes this possibility i n 1182. Kosambi, op., c i t . , pp. 65-66, commenting on Vats no. 1 from Karle takes gata as a separate word, Vats took i t as part of the personal name of the Yavana Vitasamgata. Kosambi then takes gata to mean 'departed, deceased', implying a posthumous g i f t . The consistent use of ghe genetive plural, although found to modify a genetive singular in such a way i n the inscriptions, would rather imply a country or a people. ^Luders nos. 1123, 1124, 1125, 1126, Satavahana; 1131, 1132, 1133, H34, 1135, Ksatrapa. ^Luders nos. 1127, nyegama; 1139, nekama. 65Luders nos. II38, 1148, 1149. 6 6Luders no. 1129. ^Luders nos. 1122 of Balasrl?; II36 of Usavadata i f continuation of 11351 11^ 3. 68Buhler supposes i t to mean 'military officer', op. c i t . . p. 104' Senart, Epigraphia Indica 8, p. 89, questions this, with good reason, and supposes i t to be ganaka. accountant or astrologer. Luders leaves this word untranslated, D.C. Sircar, Indian Epigraphlcal Glossary (Delhi, 1966), p. 110, also supposes i t to be the same as ganaka. which he translated as accountant. The addition of -pa- remains, however, unexplained. Whatever the exact meaning of this t i t u l a r designation, the donor and her family had considerable means to be able to make at least four substantial endowments at Nasik. _As the inscription i s dated i n the regnaly years of the AbhTra Isvarasena and as theidonor Visnudatta, wife of the ganapaka Rebhila i s said to be the daughter of a Saka. one could suppose some royal connection. This, however, i s not directly so stated. ^9See Parmanand Gupta. Geography in Ancient Indian Inscriptions  upto 650 A.D. (Delhi, 1963). p. 68. The location of Mandsaur, close to Rajasthan and Udaipur, would be appropriate as the writer from Dasapura i s i n the service of a Saka. Dasapura i s also mentioned in an inscription of Usavadatay Luders no. 1131. 7°Tarn, op, c i t . , p. 142, maintains Demetrius was i n Sind and founded by Demetrius of Bactria i n the f i r s t half of the second century B.C. E.H. Johnston. "Demetrius i n Sind?," Journal of the  Royal Asiatic Society (1939). PP. 217-240, opposes this view and places Demetrius in the Punjab. Tarn reiterates his views, "Demetrius in Sind," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (19^0), pp. 179-189, with a reply by Johnston, pp. 189-193. Senart, Epigraphia Indica 8, p. 91, following Buhler, takes i t to be Demetrius i n Archosia mentioned by Isidore of Charax i n Parthian  Stations. ?lLuders nos. 995, 998, 1000,.1001, 1002Twife, 1009 mother, 1024 son, M. Leese. 72Luders nos. 986, 1015 daughter, suvarnakara; 993 wife, 996 son, 1033, hiranyaka. 73Luders n ° s « 1°°3 wife, 1010 son, 1011, 1031. 7^This translation i s the suggestion of Buhler. Luders leaves this compound untranslated, such a designation apparently not being attested to i n other examples. Loka can mean 'men* and particularly a 'company or community* when used at the end of a compound i n plural to form collectives. Pra+loka i s not attested to, but pra often adds l i t t l e meaning apart from emphasis. ?5Luders nos. 986, 998, 1000, 1001, 1002, 1003, 1011, 1014, 1024, 1032, M. Leese. 7 6Luders nos. 988,_998, 1003, 1011. 998 does not specifically mention the Ambalikavihara, but does record the donation to a vlhara in Kalyan i n the Gamdharlkabhami. presumably, as Buhler suggests, the bhami. Sanskrit bhrami. 'cir c l e , circular array of troops, l e , place, bazaar* of the Gandharas, l i k e l y the location of the Ambalikavihara. That there existed such a place of the Gandhara people i n Kalyan could possibly explain the ultimate origin of the 85 Yavanas recorded at other sites. 77Luders nos. 995, 1005, 1027, Sopara; 996, 1033, Ghaul. ?8Luders nos. 985, Nasik; 1020, Dhenukakata. 86 CHAPTER FOUR. DONATIONS OF ENDOWMENTS. Endowments to the Buddhist religious institutions were made to sustain the monastic l i f e associated with the institutions. After the establishment of the institutions, means of support were instituted to provide those things thought necessary to sustain the population of monks resident in the caves, particularly during the canonical rainy season retreat. The Buddhist monkhood i s at f i r s t a collection of religious ascetics, bhlksus. supported by the donations of individual households located i n the towns and villages close to the residences of the monks. As such, the day-to-day donations of the morning meal to a monk or the occasional g i f t of a monk's robe would go unrecorded i n inscriptions meant to record specific and memorable meritorious acts. These inscriptions which record endowments are the acts of the same sections of the lay population which established the religious institution, when information i s available as to the occupation or social position of the donors. The establishment of such large religious institutions implies, i n the early centuries of Buddhism here under consideration, a more cenobitic form of Buddhist monasticism with at least some monks li k e l y resident i n the caves throughout the year. Endowments then represent a means of support developed by lay donors to sustain those institutions which they themselves had given permanence to through their donations of g i f t s . Two types of endowments to the Buddhist religious institutions are evident from the inscriptions, those of land and of money. These two types of endowments w i l l be examined as to the financial mechanisms, intended income and; particular purpose of the endowments as recorded i n the inscriptions. The two types of endowments w i l l 8? be further considered i n relation to the established groups of donors and to the spatial distribution of the sites here considered. The types of endowments, their donors and their spatial distribution w i l l then be considered i n relation to the known contemporary p o l i t i c a l and economic history of Western India. Endowments of land to the Buddhist religious institutions are recorded i n nineteen Inscriptions.* These endowments of land can be further subdivided by the type of land endowed, either that of a f i e l d or of a village. Fourteen inscriptions record endowments of fiel d s whereas only f i v e inscriptions record endowments of v i l l a g e s . 2 Apart from a single inscription at Mahad, Luders no. 1073t which while fragmentary, appears to mention the endowment of f i e l d s located below the caves, endowments of fie l d s are found only at Junnar, Kanheri and Nasik. The endowments of villages are found recorded only i n inscriptions at Nasik and Karle. Six inscriptions at Junnar record endowments of at least thirteen different f i e l d s . In a l l cases, these endowments are made by donors whose occupation and social position i s unknown.3 In a l l cases at Junnar, the f i e l d s endowed are stated as being of a certain measure, ranging from two to twenty nivartanas.^ The precise modern equivalent to this ancient measure i s unknown, the measure apparently varying at different times and places.5 At Junnar the types of fie l d s endowed, particularly of various types of trees, are i n some cases specified.^ One inscription at Junnar, Luders no. If67, describes the intended nature of the endowment, i n the manner of a simple g i f t , as a deyadhamma. a meritorious g i f t . This i s the only example i n the inscriptions where any type of endowment i s described i n this manner. The financial mechanisms of the endowments of fie l d s are hinted at 88 in the Junnar inscriptions. In two cases, the income of the f i e l d endowed i s invested with the gana, i e , school, company, of the Apara.jitas.? In no cases at Junnar i s the purpose of the endowments of f i e l d s extant i n the inscriptions. At Kanheri, three endowments of fie l d s are made, a l l by merchants i n two cases from Kalyan and i n one case from Sopara. One of these inscriptions, Luders no. 102?» the donation of the merchant from Sopara, while i t s reading i s tentative, does appear to record the endowment of a f i e l d . One inscription, Luders no. 1000, describes the endowment of a f i e l d as an akhayanlvi. Sanskrit aksayanivi. *a perpetual endowment.!. This term, most commonly used to describe endowments of money i s employed only three times in the inscriptions to describe endowments of land to the religious institutions.9 The two complete inscriptions at Kanheri recording endowments of f i e l d s detail the precise purpose of the donations. Both donations were made to provide robes (clvarika) for the monks resident i n the caves where the inscriptions were inscribed. One inscription, Luders no. 1000, designates that this endowment i s to be given to the monk who spends the rainy season retreat i n the cave. The amounts designated for robes are twelve karsapanas (kahapana of the inscriptions) i n Luders no. 1000 and sixteen karsapanas i n luders no. 1024. The karsapana. the standard monetary unit i n the inscriptions, i s a sil v e r c o i n . l u In addition to the provision for robes, the monks were granted one karsapana per m o n t h . T h i s money was to be distributed, "in the season" as recorded i n Luders no. 1024 and, "in the hot season" as recorded i n Luders no. 1000.^ A small amount 89 for structural repairs to the cave i s recorded i n Luders no. 1 0 0 0 . The purposes f o r which the endowments were intended, as recorded i n these two endowments of fi e l d s at Kanheri, are those which are found, with minor variations, throughout the inscriptions which record endowments. Most often provision i s made for robes and also for some small provision f o r monks, particularly for their rainy season retreat. The keeping of this rainy season retreat i n a particular cave appears to have thus associated the monk with that cave and to have made him el i g i b l e f o r the provisions of the endow-ments found inscribed at the cave. Four endowments of fie l d s are recorded at Nasik. Three of these endowments are by members of contemporary ruling dynasties, two by Gautamiputra and one by Usavadata. One inscription, Luders no. 1 1 3 0 , which records the g i f t of a cave by the fisherman Mugudasa also records the endowment of a f i e l d for the inhabitants of the cave by Dhamanamdin, a lay worshipper. The establishment of the cave and the donation of any endowment for sustaining the inhabitants of the cave appears to have been a joint venture by these two lay persons. One inscription, Luders no. 1 1 3 1 » records that Usavadata endowed a f i e l d bought f o r the substantial sum of four thousand karsapanas from a certain Brahman. The purpose of this endowment i s said to be for the provision of food (mukhahara). In this endowment, presumably the product of the land endowed rather than the revenue from the f i e l d or the interest from the invested revenue of the f i e l d i s the actual income of the endowment. In addition to being a unique example i n the inscriptions where this i s so stated, the type of income from this endowment would tend to emphasize the increasingly cenobitic l i f e associated with the religious institutions 90 here considered. While the paying of monks a monthly stipend seen earlier may perhaps violate the letter of the Buddhist monastic rules, the supplying of presumably large quantities of food to the monks is certainly a significant departure from the Vinaya.13 How general this practice of monks receiving food rather than obtaining i t through begging and among which sections of the monkhood this occurred cannot, unfortunately, be determined from this single example recorded in the inscriptions. The two remaining fi e l d s endowed upon the Buddhist religious institution at Nasik were donated by Gautamlputra. One inscription, Luders no, 1125, records that a f i e l d of two hundred nivartanas. which had been "previously enjoyed" by Usavadata was donated in the eighteenth year of an unspecified era, though l i k e l y the regnal era of Gautamlputra. Gautamlputra as the recent conqueror of Nasik and i t s environs and of Usavadata's brother-in-law Nahapana, must have thought i t judicious to endow an institution, receiving the support of important sections of the contemporary society as detailed i n the previous chapter, with a f i e l d which he specifically records as previously being in the possession of the family of his conquered r i v a l . Six years after this endowment, in the year twenty-four, Gautamlputra records, i n Luders no. 1126, that another f i e l d of one hundred nivartanas was exchanged for his previously endowed f i e l d of two hundred nivartanas because the, " f i e l d i s not t i l l e d nor i s the village inhabited." Apart from the fact that this f i e l d represents an endowment of only half that of the previous, this inscription would appear to indicate Gautamlputra*s continuation of his policy towards the religious institution at Nasik instituted after his conquest of Nahapana. 91 The two endowments of fields at Nasik by Gautamlputra include the provision of immunities (parihara) which members of the ruling dynasty could make along with their endowments of land. These immunities, Identical i n both cases, include: apavesa. Sanskrit apravesya. the freedom from the entry of royal agentsj anomasa. Sanskrit anavamarsya. freedom from the troubles associated with the v i s i t of a royal agent; alonakhadaka. Sanskrit alavanakhataka. freedom from being dug for salt; and arathasavlnaylka. Sanskrit arastrasamvinayaka. freedom from the administrative control to which the d i s t r i c t was subject.^ Similar immunities are provided by the Satavahanas i n endowments of villages recorded at Nasik and Karle. 15 The endowments of villages to the Buddhist religious institutions are recorded i n five inscriptions, three of which are found at Karle and two found at Nasik. A l l these endowments of villages are made by royal donors. While an individual could endow the religious institution with a f i e l d or with money, the donation of entire villages was certainly the prerogative of members of the ruling dynasty or their officers.16 Similar endowments of villages to Buddhist religious institutions can be seen throughout the history of Buddhism i n India. Nalanda i n the seventh century A.D., for example, i s said to be endowed by the reigning king with a hundred village.17 The villages given at Nasik are both recorded i n inscriptions found i n the same cave. Both endowments are from the time of Pulumavi. One inscription, Luders no. 1123, dated i n the year thirteen i s an, endowment of a village by the queen mother Balasri, the purpose of this endowment was for the embellishment (cltananimita) SI the cave. The inscription records that the Satavahanas renounced 92 a l l of their rights to the village (savajatabhoganlrathl). These rights, taxes etc., were presumably used to accomplish the embellishment of the cave. This inscription would also tend to emphasize the p o l i t i c a l importance of Satavahana endowments at Nasik as seen previously i n Gautamiputra1s endowment of a f i e l d . It i s i n this inscription that Balasri describes her late son Gautamiputra i n a long series of adjectives unique i n the Inscriptions. Among other praises, Gautamiputra i s described as having destroyed the Sakas. Yavanas.-Pahlavas and KSaharatas and having restored the Satavahanas. The other endowment of a village at Nasik, by Pulumavi i n the year twenty-two, Luders no. 1124, i s inscribed immediately below the previous endowment. This endowment, described as being an akhayanivi. records the exchange of villages. The reasons for this exchange of villages i n not stated, perhaps the village had become uninhabited as i s the case of the village i n which the donated f i e l d i s located, recorded i n Luders no. 1126 also found at Nasik. This inscription implies the existence of a previous endowment which i s not so recorded by an extant inscription. The strong possibility then exists that other donations of g i f t s and endowments were made to the Buddhist religious institutions but, for whatever reasons, are not recorded by inscriptions. The new village here donated i s given the usual immunities. The purpose to which this endowment i s intended i s for the care of the cave (patisamtharana). At Karle, the endowment of a village by the Maharathi Somadeva in the year seven of Pulumavi, recorded i n Luders no. 1110, details the type of royal rights surrendered to the religious institution, 93 which are alluded to i n Luders no. 1123 at Nasik. The village i s stated to be endowed together with i t s taxes and income. The technical terminology here employed for taxes i s kara and ukara. Sanskrit utkara. and f o r income deya and meya. The exact s i g -nigicance of these terms i s uncertain, but i t appears the former two refer to taxes i n money while the latter two refer to taxes i n kind from the product of the village.1® One inscription at Karle, Luders no. 1099, records the endowment of the village of Karajika by Usavadata to the Sangha of the four quarters. This same village, although spelled at Karajaka, i s recorded i n Luders no. 1105 as being endowed upon the Mahasanghikas. This endowment, described as monk's land (bhikhuhalaij)'. i s a Satavahana donation, l i k e l y of Gautamlputra. These two endowments are similar in character to the endowment of a f i e l d previously i n the possession of Usavadata, as recorded at Nasik, Luders no. 1125. Here, however, the village i n question i s endowed upon the religious institution twice, whereas the f i e l d donated at Nasik i s stated by Gautamlputra as merely being In the possession of Usavadata. The only difference between the two endowments of the village here recorded at Karle i s the recipient of the endowment; Gautamlputra dedicated the village to the Mahasanghlkas rather than to the monks of the four quarters. The donative a c t i v i t i e s of royal donors at Karle i s limited, these three endowments of villages being their only recorded donations. Nevertheless, i t i s apparent that a situation similar to that of Nasik, well supported by royal donors, i s existant at Karle. Gautamlputra i s particular to legitimize an endowment of Usavadata and in addition to distinguish his re-endowment from that of Usavadata's original endowment. At Karle then, i t would appear 94 that endowments to the religious institutions were again used by the Satavahanas to emphasize their reconquest of Western India. It i s significant that a l l the indications of the Satavahana-Ksatrapa conflict i n the inscriptions should be found i n endowments recorded at Nasik and Karle, located on the routes to the coast as they pass through the most strategic passes, close to two of the most important upland towns, Nasik and Dhenukakata. A l l royal endowments, i n fact, as can be seen from Table Five at the end of the chapter, are to be found at these two sites. The p o l i t i c a l control of these areas along with the support of the important institutions i n these areas, that i s the religious institutions and their donors, appears from the inscriptions to have been essential for any dynasty's control of Western India at this time.^-9 Endowments of money are recorded i n eleven inscriptions found at Junnar, Nasik and Kanheri. The usual form of these inscriptions i s to designate the endowment as an akhayanivi. a perpetual endowment, which i s closely followed by the amount of the endowment expressed i n karsapanas. 2 0 Seven inscriptions follow closely this form, but while they are donations designated as an akhayanivi. amounts of money are either not given or are missing due to the fragmentary nature of the inscription. 2* The term akhayanivl^is used i n inscriptions from Nasik and Kanheri which are not endowments of money.22 This usage i s , however, very limited, with akhayanivi moresoften referring to endowments of money where enough information i s available to classify the endowments. These seven endowments which are designated as 'other akhayanivi' i n Table Four, while l i k e l y endowments of money, are grouped separately as a subdivision of endowments of money because the nature of the endowment cannot be 95 ascertained with absolute certainty. The amounts of the endowments of money are specified i n eight inscriptions. 2 3 The endowments range from a low of one hundred karsapanas endowed by a merchant at Nasik, to a high of over three thousand five hundred karsSpanas endowed by a ganapaka also at Nasik. Usavadata endows a total of three thousand karsapanas at Nasik, recorded in Luders no. 1133« This substantial endowment, i n addition to his endowment of a f i e l d bought for four thousand karsapanas. form the largest total endowment, where the value of the endowment can be determined by amounts recorded i n the inscriptions. The generosity of Usavadata at Nasik would then also tend to emphasize the importance of this region and i t s important religious institution in the Satavahana-Ksatrapa conflict. The Ksatrapas held Nasik for probably l i t t l e more than half a century and although followers of the Brahmanical religion, they made such substantial endowments at Nasik.2^ Individual merchants, particularly at Kanheri, endowed amounts in the two to three hundred karsapana range.25 The value of such endowments in the contemporary society cannot be determined with any accuracy, however they must represent considerable amounts for such individual donors. Three endowments originally recorded amounts which are now missing due to the fragmentary nature of the inscriptions. 2^ The a c t i v i t i e s of guilds are of particular importance i n the financial mechanisms associated with endowments of money. One inscription,from Junnar, Luders no. 1165, while very fragmentary records endowments with the guilds of the bamboo workers (vasakara. Sanskrit vamsakara) and with the metalworkers (kasakara. Sanskrit kamsyakara). While the amounts of money invested with these guilds 96 are not extant i n these inscriptions, the returns from the investments are recorded as one and three quarters per cent monthly from the guild of bamboo workers and one quarter perecent monthly with the guild of the metalworkers. Endowments of money are recorded as being invested with guilds i n two inscriptions from Nasik. One, Luders no. 1137» records endowments of money invested i n four separate guilds. The guilds include the potters (kularika). the oilmillers (tllapisaka) and workers fabricating hydraulic engines (odayamtrika). 2 7 The name of one of the guilds with which an endowment of five hundred karsapanas was invested i s missing due to the fragmentary nature of the inscription. The return expected from the investment of the endowments i n these guilds i s not stated i n the inscriptions. Two weavers guilds (kolikanlkaya) at Nasik were invested with endowments of one and two thousand karsapanas by Usavadata as recorded i n Luders no, 1133. These amounts were to bear i n t e r e s t 2 8 of three quarters of a per cent and one per cent monthly respectively,29 This inscription also states that only the interest from the endowment i s to be paid and that the capital i s not to be repaid by the guilds. An endowment of two hundred karsapanas at Kanheri, recorded i n Luders no. 1024, i s also to bear interest at the rate of one per cent monthly. It i s not stated i n this inscription which guild or other organization was to pay -this interest. The purpose to which the accrued interest from the endowments i s intended i s for cloth money for the monks. It i s interesting to see Interest paid by guilds of weavers, on capital which they need not repay, for the purchase of cloth. The provision of money for cloth for monks? robes i s the major purpose of donations which are, or l i k e l y are, endowments of money when the purpose of the 97 endowment i s recorded i n the inscriptions.30 The majority of firmly established and l i k e l y endowments of money are to be found at Kanheri, twelve as opposed to six at Nasik and Karle. Kanheri also has the most donations of money recorded as being made by individual merchants. Kanheri, i n fact, has by far the most endowments of a l l kinds made by commercial donors. Endowments of any kind by royal donors are, however, lacking at Kanheri. Endowments by royal donors predominate at Nasik and Karle. This i s much the same type of trend as detected i n the general analysis of donors i n Chapter Three. Such trends cannot be detected at Junnar because of the fragmentary nature of i t s inscriptions. The presence of donations by royal donors at the upland sites of Nasik and Karle appears to have been, at least i n part, a factor of the Satavahana-Ksatrapa conflict as the inscriptions themselves would tend to indicate. The types of donors and their endowments at Kanheri would also appear to have a relation with this conflict. F i r s t l y , i t should be remembered that Kanheri i s a later site, dating to after the Satavahana-Ksatrapa conflict. This would mean that any particular developments at Kanheri would have arisen because of p o l i t i c a l and economic factors resulting from the re-establishment of Satavahana rule. Fortunately a passage i n the Periplus Maris Erythraei helps to explain the situation. It i s states that Kalyan was, ...a cit y which was raised to the ranks of a regular mart i n the times of the elder Saraganus, but after Sandanes became i t s master i t s trade was put under the severest restrictions; for i f Greek vessels even by accident enter i t s ports, a guard i s put on board and they are taken to Barygaza.3i Saraganus i s Satakarni and Sandanes, presumably the younger Saraganus, i s supposed to be Sundara Satakarni, a king mentioned i n the Furanas 98 not recorded by inscription who would date to the period of Satavahana decline. The Periplus appears to date from the time of Nahapana.32 This passage would then suggest that Kalyan was under the rule of a local Satavahana ruler but was being blockaded by the forces of Nahapana.33 The relation between Kanheri and Kalyan was close as the inscriptions indicate. Kalyan, as was described in Chapter Two, occupies an important geographical position as a coastal terminus of the routes from the interior of Western India} the routes on which Nasik, Junnar and Karle are located. The large number of donations by commercial donors and the large number of endowments of money by these donors would then be a consequence of the control of the upland passes as indicated indicated in the inscriptions from Nasik and Karle, and the resulting favourable conditions for international trade created at Ka3yan in the f i r s t century A.D, with the re-establishment of Satavahana rule throughout Western India, The international trade may have had a part in the inception of the excavation of much of Kanheri for the Periplus states that Kalyan was made a regular mart only in the time of the elder Saraganus. Perhaps, this international trade was also responsible for the general improvement in the economic conditions and increased economic activity throughout Western India in the firsthand second centuries A.D, as reflected by the numbers of merchants who made donations at a l l the sites considered here. This, however, cannot be directly confirmed on the evidence of the inscriptions as would appear the case in the specific example of Kanheri. It is known that international trade to the western coast of India did increase in the f i r s t century A.D, with the discovery and use of the monsoon winds. 34 99 The Periplus records the imports of this coast as wine, metals, gold and silver specie and other luxury and finished goods. 35 The exports of this coast included precious stones, spices and cloth, particularly cotton.36 Endowments are a particular type of donation to the Buddhist religious institution. As such, they form only a small part of the donative a c t i v i t i e s associated with the religious institutions here considered. Endowments are donations made necessary by the establishment of large religious institutions i n such permanent residences as represented by the cave excavations. They are then, a new, perhaps more formal, way for the lay population to undertake their meritorious duty of the support of the monks resident In the caves. Endowments do also appear to have been donated at particular sites for p o l i t i c a l and economic reasons specific to a si t e . The interpretations presented here are tentative, endowments never being inscribed with a view to record such p o l i t i c a l and economic developments. Nevertheless, such an interpretation would seem just i f i e d on the basis of a l l sourdes available for the period under consideration. too TABLE 4. Endowments by Sites Nasik Junnar Kanheri Karle Mahad Field 4 6 - 1 Village 2 - - 3 -Money 2 6b - -Other akhayanivi - 1 6c - -Others la - 2C - -notes: aLuders no. 1133 twice. bLuders no. 1024 twice. cLuders no. 998 twice. TABLE 5. Donors of Endowments by Sites Nasik Junnar Kanheri Karle Mahad Royal 6 - - 3 -Commercial 2 - 8 - 1 Sangha - - 4 -Others 1 9 3 - -101 ^•Refer to Appendix A for detailed l i s t . 2Luders no. 998 from Kanheri records the endowment of a house in Kalyan. This is a type of land endowment, however being the single instance where a building i s endowed, this endowment has been included i n the residual 'other* group. Luders no. 1010 also from Kanheri has also been included here as not enough information i s available to classify this endowment. Table 4 details the type of endowment by site group. ^Table 5 details the groups of donors of endowments by site group. ^Luders nos. 1158, 15s 1162, 20, 9; H63, 26, 3; 1164, 2; 1166, 2; 1167, 4, 8, 12. Three measures are fragmentary and lacking. 5See D.C. Sircar, Indian Epigraphy (Delhi, I966), p. 409, where he quotes Sanskrit authorities to arrive at equivalents ranging from one-half to four and three-quarters acres per nivartana. 6Luders nos. 1162, 1166, Karaftja, a medicinal tree; 1162, Banyan; 1164, Mango; II63, Jambu, Palmyra, SSla; following Luders. 7Luders nos. II58, II63. The significance of the t i t l e Apara.iita. the unconquered of the West, i s unknown. ^Luders no, 1162. The sense of this and of the two preceeding inscriptions i s that supplied by Luders. ^Luders nos. 998, Kanheri, akhayanivi data for building, 1000, Kanheri, akhayanivi dina for f i e l d ; 1124, akhayanivihetu twice for exchange of f i e l d s . l^The amounts designated for robes are expressed only i n terms of numbers. That the unit referred to are in fact karsapanas i s by the implication of calculated interest rates found i n endowments of money, particularly Luders no. 1133» Nasik. This inscription, i n a postscript referring to a donation to the Brahmans records that thirty-five karsapanas equal one suvarna. thus implying that a karsapana was a'silver coin. 11In these examples, one karsapana i s expressed in terms of a padika. Sanskrit pratika. *2The donation of one karsapana per month in the hot season refers also the the period of monastic retreat for Senart supposes, "that at that time and in that place the annual retreat began already i n Asadha, ie, s t i l l in summer." Epigraphia Indica 8, p. 83. 13see Vinayapltaka. translated by T.W, Rhys David and Hermann Oldenburg (Oxford, 18817, Patimokkha. 38, "Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall eat food, whether hard or soft, that has been put by - that i s a Pacittiya (offense)." p. 40; Cullavagga. VII, 2, 5, where the ascetic Devadatta i s brough food each morning by Prince Ajatasattu and i s 102 condemned by the Buddha. The citations here given are from the Vinaya of the Theravadins and particular points may vary amongst the many schools previously seen to be represented i n the cave excavations, nevertheless the general monastic regulations are well illustrated. l^see Sircar, op,, c i t . . p. 390. 15Luders no. 1124, Nasik} 1105, Karle, fragmentary following payesa, l^Luders no. 1110 i s the donation of a Maharathl of Pulumavi; l?Hwui L i , The Life of Hluen Tsiang. translated by Samuel Beal (London, 1911), PP. 112-113. l^see Senart, Epigraphia Indlca 7, P. 62, where kara i s translated as "taxes, ordinary," ukara. "taxes extraordinary," deya. "income, fixed," and meya. "income, proportional." Similarly, Sircar, op_. c i t . . p. 390 translates kara as "tax," ukara as "minor tax?," deya as "periodical offering to be offered theyking," and meya as "the king's share of grains." The provisions of deya and meya might imply the supplying of food to the religious institution at Karle as i s recorded at Nasik, Luders no. 1131. The purpose for which this endowment at Karle i s intended i s not, however, stated. The income of the product of the village could have been sold to provide robes for example, as recorded i n other endowments. 19The importance of these passes for the p o l i t i c a l control of Western India may also by way of comparison be seen from the series of Maratha fortresses throughout the Western ghats. Here also, the presence of the contemporary dynasty was made very v i s i b l e , although in this case by the presence of military fortifications common throughout India at this later date, see Surendra Nath Sen, The Military  System of the Marathas (Bombay, 1958), pp. 79-95. 2 0Luders nos. 1006, 1007, 1024, Kanheri; 1133, 1137, 1139, Nasik} 1152, Junnar} closely follow this form. Luders nos. 1003, 1011, 1018, Kanheri and II65, Junnar are grouped as endowments of money upon analysis of their contents. ^ f o r example, Luders no. 1155, Junnar, fragmentary after akhayanivl; 988, Kanheri, donation of a g i f t together with a perpetual endowment, sa-akhayanivl. 22see note 9. 23Luders nos. 1003, 300; 1006, 200; 1011, 300; 1018, 1600 mentioned by Buhler as contained in untranslated, fragmentary addition to this inscription; 1024, 200; 1137, 3,000; 1137, 3,500+; 1139, 100. ^That the Ksatrapas were Brahmanists i s obvious from Luders no. 1131, 1135, Nasik. The various donations of villages and cows etc. to the Brahmans in addition of Usavadata's public works recorded In 103 the inscriptions, although interesting in themselves, have not been directly considered i n this study of the Buddhist religious institution. The Satavahanas were also Brahmanists, see Luders no. 1123, Nasik. The religious a f f i l i a t i o n of the contemporary ruling dynasties, stated i n donations to Buddhist institutions and inscribed on their walls, would also tend to indicate that these donations were in some way matters of state policy. 25Luders nos. 1003, 1006, 1011, 1024. 2^Luders nos. 1007, 1137, 1152. One inscription, Luders no. 1133, in addition to an endowment of three thousand karsapanas by Usavadata, mentions the figure eight thousand in connection withcocanut trees. Buhler takes this as the price for the trees, although karsapanas are not mentioned. Senart and Luders take this as the number 6f the trees donated. This interpretation would make this a type of endowment of land. The question here i s whether mula refers to "value, capital" of the trees (Buhler) or the stems of the trees (Senart). Because of the uncertainty of interpretation of this inscription, this endowment has been included in the residual 'others* group in Table 4. 2?Kularika i s l i k e l y Sanskrit, kulala; tllapisaka would be Sanskrit t a l l a - ; odayamtrika would be a derivative audayantrika from the Sanskrit udayayantra. The o- in this words i s read by Senart, as i s the term's translation, see Senart Eplgraphia Indica 8, pp. 88-89. 2 8 I n t e r e s t i s vadhl of the inscriptions, Sanskrit vrddhi. 29lnterest rates are expressed as for example, padike sate, one pratlka (ie, karsapana) i n a hundred (karsapanasTT The calculation of interest rates monthly i s not directly expressed but can be understood by comparison to Luders no, 1165, Junnar. The interpretation of Buhler i n this and the following example from Kanheri, Luders no. 1024, i s incorrect, see Senart, Eplgraphia  Indica 8, pp. 83-84. 30Luders nos. H33, U39, Nasik; 1152, Junnar; 998, 999, 100,3, 1006, 1007, 1009, 1020, 1024, Kanheri. 3lperiplus 52. 3 2Periplus 41, For details of the revised reading of the transliteration of Nahapana's name see J.A.B. Palmer, "Perlplus  Maris Erythraeii The Indian Evidence as to the Date," Classical  Quarterly (1947). p. 137. 33Periplus 51, also indicates that Kalyan was blockaded when commodities from Paithan and Ter, "are carried down on wagons to Barygaza (Broach) along roads of extreme d i f f i c u l t y . " The lines of communication i n Western India, as analyzed i n Chapter Two, would indicate that Kalyan i s the natural seaport for these interior centers. The merchants must have had some good reason to make such a long journey on bad roads to bring their goods to port. 104 3*»Periplus 39. 35Periplus 49, for Broach's imports and exports. 36For the spice trade see J. Innes Miller, The Spice Trade of  the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1969), for pepper, pp. 80-86. For cotton seeoop., c i t . , pp. 136-137, 196 for i t s importance in the Roman Empire after the f i r s t century A.D. The trade i n cloth, particularly cotton, may have hada particular importance i n Western India, as may he indicated hy Usavadata's generous endowments invested i n weavers guilds. These guilds could keep and use the capital for their own purposes. Also, the purpose of this and many other endowments was for the purchase of cloth for monk's robes. It may be speculated that the encouragement of cloth production at this time was of some importance for the the economy of Western India, perhaps even a matter of state concern and policy. Some support i s given to this suggestion by a story recorded i n a ninth century Chinese work, the ¥u Yang Tsa Ts'u by Tuan Ch'eng Shih, being a collection of anecdotes and stories. It i s recorded that Kaniska was enraged to find the mark: of a hand on two pieces of fine cloth. Upon equiry, he found that such a mark was found on cloth sold i n the realm of king Satavahana. The story further records that this insult to Kaniska was the cause of a punitive expedition to the Deccan mounted by him. This story i s recorded very late and must be taken with some suspicion, yet i t must have some origin i n fact to be so specific. For the text and translation of this story, in addition to i t s continuation i n the Arabic tradition, seet Ed. Huber, "Etudes de Litterature Bouddhique," Bulletin Ecole Francaise d'Extreme Orient, volume 6 (1906), "Kaniska et Satavahana," PP. 37-39. 105 CHAPTER FIVE. CONCLUSIONS This study has examined some of the earliest sources for the social and economic history of the Buddhist religious institution. These sources, the inscriptions from the cave excavations of Western India, describe in some detail the methods of support of the religious institution at this early period. The general conclusions concerning the types of donations and the method and purposes of the donations here described are in many ways similar to other ancient and contemporary examples which have been reported concerning the method of suport of the Buddhist religious institution. The broad outlines of the religious basis of such donations, the acquisition of merit, and of the social and economic consequences of this merit acquisition through giving has only in recent years been recognized as c r i t i c a l to the understanding of Buddhist societies. This awareness has particularly developed in studies of contemporary . Buddhist societies i n S r i Lanka, South East Asia and Tibet. 2 Scant attention, however, has been given to the h i s t o r i c a l development of the process and consequences of donations to the Buddhist religious institution.3 The inscriptions here considered are important because they are chronologically the f i r s t spatially differentiated yet his t o r i c a l l y connected corpus of data on donations to the Buddhist religious institution available for study. This i s not to claim that the inscriptions here considered describe the origin of the donative process yet, I think, they are the only available starting point for the study of this very important element of Buddhism,: Indeed, this donative process l i k e l y evolved very early i n Buddhism and had i t s origins i n the general cultural context of India, being not 106 specially Buddhist at a l l . Any statements about the particular origin of the donative process i n Buddhism must however remain mostly speculation due to the lack of substantive source materials. Earlier epigraphlcal materials, such as exist, from the stupas of Bharut, Sanchi and Pauni would indicate the presence of similar donative processes as found i n the inscriptions here considered. These earlier inscriptions, however, are short with generally l i t t l e information as to the donations and donors. They are a l l donations here designated as simple g i f t s . These inscriptions nevertheless indicate an established system of donations i f not the elaboration of this system seen through the donations of endowments from the cave excavations. An analysis of the Sanchi inscriptions, the inscriptions from Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda, i n addition to the inscriptions considered i n this study, would broaden the geographical distribution of sites dating to the period before the fourth century A.D. With the relative chronological sequence of these sites, some development of the types of donations and the methods and purposes of these donations might perhaps be indicated i n this early period. The source material i s available, I think, to detail the Indian origins of the elaborations of the donative process in Buddhism, i f not the origins of the process i t s e l f . The basic forms of donations to the Buddhist religious institution were then established in India at an early date with the details seen i n the inscriptions here considered the most common seen later. The general outlines of the donative process then being established, the elaborations and adaptations of this process in later Buddhist societies can be examined. Such a society would be Sri Lanka i n the Anuradhapura period which follows closely chronologically the period 107 here considered and which has close social and religious connections with peninsular India, particularly with Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda.^ Other areas for such a study would include North India in the Gupta and post Gupta periods, Burma i n the Pagan period and wherever a series of sites and bodies of inscriptions is., available. Any analysis undertaken, however, having f i r s t detailed the l o c a l developments of the basic forms of donations must then examine such epigraphlcal evidence in terms of the particular social and economic developments of the area and society under consideration. Within the general characteristics common to a particular area and society, the types of donations, the process and purpose of these donations and the groups of donors w i l l vary even from site to site. Such variations w i l l form, as i n this study, an important element of the analysis of any corpus of inscriptions. The inscriptions from the cave excavations of Western India form a corpus of inscriptions closely related i n form and purpose. The types of donations and the groups of donors have been closely detailed. The general donative process, having been established on the basis of the inscrlptional evidence, has been related to the spatial distribution of the sites here considered. The distribution of the types of donations andgroups of donors has shown the particular significance of individual sites. Particular characteristics of individual sites are of special importance when considered together with the known contemporary po l i t i c a l and economic history of Western India, The inscriptions here considered reveal the importance of donations by merchants for the support of the Buddhist religious Institution. A substantial percentage of donations at each site 108 are by such mercantile donors. The spatial distribution of the cave excavations, particularly the relationships between coastal Kanheri and the upland sites of Nasik, Junnar and Karle, emphasizes the importance of mercantile donors. Thesmerchants of the towns of Nasik, Junnar, Dhenukakata and Kalyan, by virtue of the favourable commercial locations of their towns, had; economic surpluses which could be donated to local cave excavations. The relation between town and cave excavation i s very important for as D.D, Kosambi has remarked, "Trade was large only i n the aggregate, i t s density noticeably important only at a few emporia,"5 This relationship between town and cave excavation i s apparent from the inscriptions at a l l major sites except Kuda. The geographical position of Kuda as a coastal terminus for a southern route through the Western Ghats, as indicated by the location of sites such as Mahad, would indicate some relationship with some coastal town, such as the relationship between Kanheri and Kalyan. The importance of Kalyan as a port and a center of international trade i s reflected i n donations made at Kanheri. The number of endowments of money made at Kanheri would well indicate the economic surplus created i n Western India by this international seaborne trade, particularly after the re-establishment of Satavahana rule i n the second century A.D. Royal donors also had an important part i n the support of the Buddhist religious institution. This royal support i s , however, more important at particular sites such as Nasik and to a lesser degree Karle, The analysis of donations of endowments in terms of the spatial distribution of the sites has indicated the reasons for the degree of royal support at individual sites. It has been suggested from an analysis of these royal endowments that the ruling 109 dynasties in effect used their donations to secure the support of the religious institution and thus i t s lay, particularly mercantile, supporters. These royal donations were a factor of the dynasties' efforts to gain effective control over those trade emporia, such as Nasik, which are located at c r i t i c a l locations on the passes which lead from the upland interior regions of the Deccan to the coastal Konkan, The changing p o l i t i c a l conditions in Western India, the Satavahana-Ksatrapa conflict, was what gave impetus to the donations by royal donors. Trade which created the economic surplus necessary for the support of the religious institutions by mercantile donors was also that which the royal dynasties endeavoured to control by their occupation of the important trade emporia associated with the cave excavations. The control of the trade emporia and the routes between these emporia then engendered further support for the religious institutions. The relationship between the ruling dynasty and the religious institution, being mutually beneficial, would emphasize the p o l i t i c a l importance of the religious institutions in Western India at this time. The ruling dynasties were not by persuasion Buddhist yet support for the religious institutions was in some way a matter of state policy necessary for the control of the most important centers of Western India, those located on the passes through the Western Ghats. The support of Buddhism by the ruling dynasty would become essential for the existence of the religion at later times in India and particularly i n S r i Lanka and in South East Asian Buddhist societies. The identity between religion and state becomes complete in Tibet. In the area and time considered here Buddhism was not In any way a state religion. The inscriptions, 110 perhaps intentionally, indicate the ruling dynasties* concern for their Brahmanical subjects. Yet, I think, i t i s through the economic support of the religious institution by the donative process here analyzed, caused by whatever particular circumstances, that the origin for the close relationship between religion and state i n later Buddhist societies i s to be found. The inscriptions reveal the general donative process throughout the cave excavations of Western India. Particular attention has been given to the causes and consequences of this donative process in the closely related sites of Kanheri, Nasik, Junnar and Karle. Such developments as the royal donations-atvNasik and the resulting mercantile donations at Kanheri have, by the nature of the evidence from the inscriptions, become the focus of this study. The southern sites of Kuda etc. and the interior sites of Ajanta and Pitalkhora, while seen from their inscriptions to be part of the general donative process, have not entered into such a detailed examination of the causes and consequences of these donations. The nature of the inscriptions at these sites, being almost exclusively simple g i f t s , precludes this type of analysis. These southern and interior groups of cave excavations then, while part of the general trends seen throughout Western India, are separate regions with most l i k e l y different specific p o l i t i c a l and economic factors present. This has been suggested when the donors at these sites have been examined. The royal donors at the southern sites, for example, would indicate the autonomous nature of this region. Further research, particularly on the spatial distribution of sites with inscriptions and -those without, particularly small excavations, i s certainly desirable for these southern and interior cave excavations. I l l The question as to why the economic surplus generated "by trade was use i n part by merchants, as:indeed by a l l donors as they are a l l part of a society enjoying favourable economic conditions, to so lavishly support Buddhism must be seen as part of the religion. The acquisition of merit through the act of giving was then as i t i s today the essential religious act of the lay person in Buddhism, Religious giving on a l l levels, from the giving of alms to the establishment of a monastery, i s the most important social contact between the lay person and monk. The work of the anthropologist in contemporary Buddhist societies, particularly Burma and Thailand, has made this abundantly clear. The percentage of income, even by the poorest villager, spent on religious giving i s very high.6 The question i s rather, why were the donors and particularly merchants supporters of Buddhism, The inscriptions themselves provide no answers and any suggestions must be speculation. Buddhism was the religion that merchants, newly prosperous but relatively low on the traditional Indian r i t u a l scale, could actively participate i n . The acquisition of merit through the act of giving was something the merchants and other donors could not only participate i n , but as inhabitants of these developing centers of trade, were uniquely able to do. Buddhism and the excavation of the caves was then an expression of the donors* actual wealth and power i n the ancient society of Western India. 112 Isee Melford E. Spiro, "Buddhism and Economic Action i n Burma," American Anthropologist volume 68 (I966), pp. H63-H73. Spiro, Buddhism and Society 7l970). pp. 103-111, 453-568. 2see Andre Bareau, La Vie et L'Organisation des Gommunautes Bouddhlques Modernes de Ceylah "(Pondichery, 1957), PP. 73-76. Spiro, Buddhism and Society. Robert J. Miller, "Buddhist Monastic Economy1 The Jisa Mechanism," Comparative Studies in Society and  History volume 3 (I96O-6I), pp. 427-438, for Tibetan Buddhism. 3Andre Bareau, "Indian and Ancient Chinese Buddhism« Institutions Analogous to the J i s a , " Comparative Studies in Society and History volume 3 (1960-61), pp. 443-451, surveys the sources for such a study, including the inscriptions considered here. I t i s interesting to note that Bareau undertook this survey as historical confirmation of Miller's observations of Tibetan Buddhism. ^see Walpola Rahula, History of Buddhism in Ceylon (Colombo, 1956), pp. 141 f f . for donations. Some details are remarkably similar to those considered here, for example the presence of endowments of money after the fourth-fifth centuries A.D., p. 144. 5"The Basis of Ancient Indian History ( i l ) , " Journal of the  American Oriental Society volume 75 (1955), P. 228. 6spiro, Buddhism and Society, reports from thirty to forty per cent of the income i n the villages studies, p. 459. 113 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbott, Rev. J.E. "Recently Discovered Buddhist Caves at Nadsur and Nenavali in the Bhor State, Bombay Presidency," Indian Antiquary, volume 20 (1891), pp. 121-123. Bareau, Andre'. "Indian and Ancient Chinese Buddhism? Institutions Analogous to the Jisa," Comparative Studies in Society and History, volume 3 (1960-61), pp. 443-451. . Les Sectes Bouddhlques du Petit Vehicule. Pariss Ecole Francaise D'Extreme-Orient, 1955. . La Vie et L'Organisation des Communautes Bouddhlques Modernes de Ceylan. Pondichery: Institut Francais d'Indologie, 1957. Beal, Samuel, trans. 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"The Nasik (Jogalthembi) Hoard of Nahapana's Coins," Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, volume 22 (1905), PP. 223-44. Sen, Surendra Nath. The Military System of the Maharathas. Bombay: Orients Longmans, 1958. Senart, E. "The Inscriptions i n the Caves at Karle," Epigraphia  Indica. volume 7 (1902-03), pp. 47-74. , "The Inscriptions in the Caves at Nasik," Epigraphia Indica. volume 8 (1905-06), pp. 59-96. Sircar, Dines Chandra, Indian Epigraphical Glossary. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, I966. . Indian Epigraphy. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1965. . Selectllnscriptions Bearing on Indian History and C i v i l i z a t i o n , volume 1. Calcutta: University of Calcutta, I965, Smith, Vincent A. The Early History of India. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924. Spiro, Melford E. "Buddhism and Economic Action in Burma," American Anthropologist, volume 68 (1966), pp/ 1163-1173. . Buddhism and Society. New York: Harper and Row, 1970. Tam, W.W. 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Gifts Luders no. or other terminology g i f t of designation 1187 1188 1189 1191 1192 1193 Deshpande A Deshpande B Deshpande D dana dana dana dana dana dana kata dana kata p i l l a r p i l l a r cave cave cave sculpture p i l l a r sculpture 2. Others 1190 Deshpande G fragmentary fragmentary B. Ajanta - 1. Gifts 1197 dana 1198 deyadhama Dhavalikar no. 1 dana Dhavalikar no. 2 dana cave door cave wall ceiling ? Group II A. Nasik - 1. Gifts 1127 deyadhama cave, cells 1128 deyadhama cave 1129 deyadhama cave 1132 deyadhamma c e l l H 3 4 deyadhamma c e l l H 3 8 deyadhamma cave 1140 karita cave, cisterns 1141 nithapapita caitya 1142 dana entrance 1143 karita vedika r a i l , sculpture 1144 karita cave 1145 deyadharmma cave 1146 - completion of cave 1147 karita cave 1148 - cave, cistern 1149 - cistern 119 2. Gifts and Endowments Luders no. or other terminology a. g i f t of designation a. g i f t s b. endowment of b. endowments 1123 a« karita deyadhama a. cave b. dadati b. village 1131 a. karita a, cave, cistern b. data b. f i e l d 1133 a. - a. cave b. aksayanivi b. money 1139 a. deyadhamma a, cave b. akhayanivi b. money 3. Endowments 1124 akhayanivi villages 1125 data f i e l d 1126 dadama f i e l d 1130 data _ f i e l d 1137 aksayanivi money 4. Others 1122 nothing beyond date 1135 fragmentary 1136 fragmentary Group III A. Junnar - 1, Gifts 1150 deyadhama cistern 1151 deyadhama reception room 1153 deyadhamma caitya 1154 deyadhama cisterns H 5 6 deyadhama h a l l front 1157 deyadhamma cave 1169 deyadhamma cave 1170 - cave ? 1171 deyadhama cave ? 1172 - cave ? 1173 deyadhama cistern 1174 deyadhama h a l l 1175 deyadhama cave 1176 deyadhama cistern 1177 deyadhamma cistern 1178 deyadhamma caitya 1179 deyadhama caitya 1180 deyadhama cave, cistern 120 1181 1182 1183 dana deyadhama dana 2. Gifts and Endowments 1152 1155 3. Endowments 1158 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 a. deyadhama b. akhayanivi a, deyadhama b. akhayanivl deyadhama Group IV A. Kanheri - 1. Gifts M. Leese 985 986 987 993 994 995 996 1001 1002 1005 1012 1013 1014 1015 1017 1019 1021 1025 1031 1032 1033 deyadhama deyadhama deyadhamma patithapita deyadhamma deyadharma deyadhama deyadhamma patithapita patithapita deyadhama deyadhama deyadhama deyadhama deyadhama ? n/a n/a deyadhama n/a deyadhamma deyadhama n/a 2. Gifts and Endowments 988 a. deyadhama b. akhayanivi cave ? refectory caitya a, cistern, cave b. money a, cave, cistern b. money ? f i e l d f i e l d f i e l d s f i e l d money fi e l d s f i e l d s cistern seat cistern caitya stupa cistern cistern cistern cave cave cave cave cave, cistern cave, cistern cave, cistern cave cave, cistern cave cave, cistern taloka ? path path a. various gi f t s at Sopara Kalyan, Paithan b. money ? 121 998 a. deyadhama a. cave, cistern, benches b. akhayanivi b. moneyt? 999 a. deyadhama a. cave b. akhayanivi b. money ? loop a. deyadhamma a. cave, cistern b. akhayanivi b. f i e l d 1003 a. n/a a. cave, cistern V b. n/a b. money 1006 a. deyadhama a. cave, cistern b. akhayanivi b. money 100? a. deyadhama a. cave, cistern, h a l l b. akhayanivi b. money 1009 a. n/a a. cave, cistern b. n/a b. money ? 1010 a. n/a a. cave ? b. n/a b. -1011 a. n/a a. cave ? b. n/a b. money 1016 a. deyadhama a. cave, cistern b. akhayanivi b. money ? 1018 a. deyyadhamrmma a. cave, cistern b. — • b. money 1020 a. deyadhama a. cave, cistern akhayanivi b. money ? 1024 a. deyadhama a. cave, h a l l b. akhayanivi b. money, f i e l d 3. Endowment 1027 n/a f i e l d Group V A. Karle - 1. Gifts 1087 parinithapita cave 1088 dana l i o n - p i l l a r 1089 dana vedika r a i l , sculpture 1090 dana cave door 1091 dana p i l l a r 1092 kata door 1093 dSna p i l l a r 1094 dana p i l l a r 122 1095 dana p i l l a r 1096 - p i l l a r 1097 dSna p i l l a r 1098 - cave ? 1101/2 deyadhama sculpture 1103 dSna vedika r a i l 1104 dSha vedika r a i l 1106 deyadhama h a l l 1107 deyadhama cave, cistern 1108 deyadhama cave ? Vats no. i dana p i l l a r Vats no. 2 deyadhama p i l l a r Vats no. 3 dana p i l l a r Vats no. 4 dana p i l l a r Vats no. 5 karita p i l l a r Vats no. 6 dana p i l l a r Vats no. 7 dana p i l l a r Vats no. 8 dana p i l l a r Vats no, 9 dana p i l l a r Vats no, 10 dana p i l l a r Vats no, 11 - p i l l a r Vats no. 12 dana p i l l a r EI vol. 24 dana p i l l a r Kosambi dana p i l l a r 2. Endowment 1099 data village 1100 data village 1105 dadama village B. Bhaja - 1, Gifts 1078 dana c e l l 1079 deyadhama cistern 1080 - stflpa 1081 - stupa 1082 - stupa 1083 . - stupa 1084 dana c e l l ? 1085 - stupa Deshpande no, 1 prasada wooden r i b ? G. Selarvadi - 1. Gifts 1121 deyadhamma cave EI vol 28 deyadhama caitya D. Kondane - 1. Gifts 1071 kata sculpture E. Bedsa - 1. Gifts 1109 dana cave ? 123 1110 karita stupa 1111 deyadhama cistern Group VI A. Kuda - 1. Gifts 1037 deyadhamma cave 1038 - cave 1039 deyadhama cistern 1040 - cave 1041 deyadhamma cave, cistern 1042 - cave ? 1045 deyadhamma cave 1048 deyadhamma cave 1049 deyadhama cistern 1050 deyadhamma caitya 1051 deyadhamma cave 1053 - cave 1054 deyadhamma cave 1055 deyadhamma cave 1056 - bathing tank 1058 deyadhamma caitya, c e l l 1060 deyadhamma cave 1061 deyadhamma cistern 1062 deyadhamma cave 1063 deyadhamma cave 1064 deyadhamma cistern 1065 deyadhamma cave 1066 deyadhamma cave B. Nadsur - 1. Gifts 1067 kata cave ? 1068 - cave ? G. Mahad - 1. Gifts 1072 deyadhamma cave, caitya, c e l l s 2. Gifts and Endowments 1073 a, deyadhamma a. cave, caitya b. - b. f i e l d D. Kol - 1. Gifts 1075 deyadhama cave 1076 deyadhama cave 1077 deyadhama cave E. Karadh - 1. Gifts 1184 deyadhama cave 124 APPENDIX B. DONORS. Group I - Pitalkhora a n d Ajanta A. Royal and Administrative Luders no, or other designation t i t l e name place of origin 1189 1190 1191 1192 1193 royal physician (rajaveja) royal physician royal physician daughter of royal physician son of royal physician B. Commercial and Landed nun (bhichuni) 1187 Deshpande C Deshpande D 1198 C. Sangha Deshpande B D. Others 1188 Deshpande A 1197 Dhavalikar no, 1 Dhavalikar no. 2 Group II - Nasik A. Royal and Administrative 1123 1124 1125 1126 1131 1132 perfumer (gadhika) guild (seni) goldsmith (hiramakara) merchant (vanija) Magila Magila Magila Data Dataka Mitadeva Palthan Kanhadasa Ghanamadada sons of Saghaka Kanha Katahadi Kanhaka Dhamadeva Paithan Dhenukakata Paithan 1133 1134 1135 daughter of Nahapana wife of Usavadata daughter of Nahapana Balasri Pulumavi Gautamlputra Gautamlputra Usavadata Dakhamitra Usavadata Dakhamitra Usavadata 125 1141 daughter of, wife of royal minister (rayamaca) Bhatapalika 1144 officer (mahSmata) Samana Nasik 1146 wife of great general (mahSsenapati) VSsu B. Commercial and Landed 1127 merchant (nyegama) Vira 1129 fisherman (dasaka) Mugudasa 1138 son of writer Ramamnaka (son (lekhaka) of Sivamita 1139 merchant (nekama) Ramanaka (son of Velidata) 1147 householder (kutumbika) Dhanama 1148 writer (lekhaka) Vudhika Dasapura :. 1149 writer Vudhika Dasapura C. Sangha 1128 nun (pavayita) TapasinI D. Others 1122 fragmentary Balasri ? 1130 lay worshipper 1136 (upasaka) Dhamanamdin fragmentary Usavadata ? 1137 wife of ganapaka Vlsnudata" 1140 Yonaka Idrignidata Dhamtamiti 1142 the village of Dhambika, the Nasika people 1143 fragmentary 1145 female lay worshipper (upasika) Mamma Group III - Junnar A. Royal and Administrative 1174 minister (amatya) to Nahapana Ayama B. Commercial and Landed 1153 chief householder (gahapatipamugha) upright merchant ? (dhammanigama) Virasenaka 1157 sons of...a householder 1170 householder Slvadasa 126 1171 grandson of a householder Nandanaka 1172 merchant (negama) - -1177 goldsmith (suvanakara) Saghaka Kalyan 1179 treasurer (hairanyaka) Sulasadata Kalyan 1180 guild of corn dealers (dhamnikaseni) G. Sangha D. Others 1150 1151 1152 1154 1155 1156 1158 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1169 1173 1175 1176 1178 1181 1182 1183 fragmentary Mudhakiya ? Golikiya ? Patibadhaka ? Yavana Patibadhaka Yavana • Saka lay worshipper fragmentary vahata fragmentary fragmentary fragmentary son of upasaka wife of Torika, the Nadaka son and grandson of upasaka son of upasaka Yavana son of upasaka Malla Anada Giribhuti Sakhuyaru -I r i l a Gata (country) ? Giribhuti Camda Palapa Aduthuma -Vaceduka the brotherst Budharakhita Budhamita Bharukacha (Broach) Sivabhuti Sivabhuti Lachinika Snanda Isipalita Gita Gata (country) ? Isip a l i t a Group IV - Kanheri A, Royal and Administrative 994 1013 1021 queen of Vasisthiputra Sa"takarrii daughter of Ru i #• bhoigi (bhojiki) wife of bhoja Damila Mahara-^hini (wife of MahSrathi) sister of Mahabhoja) Aparantika (Konkan), Kalyan Nagamulanika 127 B. Commercial and Landed M. Leese merchant (negama) - Kalyan 986 goldsmith (suvanakora) Samidata Kalyan 187 merchants (vanijaka) Sajasena Gajamita - -993 wife of treasurer (heranika) Sivapalitanika -995 merchant (negama) Samika Sopara 996 son of treasurer (heranika) Sulasadata Chemula (Chaul) 998 merchant (negama) Dhama,,, Kalyan 1000 merchant (negama) Isipala Kalyan 1001 merchant (negama) householder - Kalyan 1002 wife of 1001 - Kalyan 1003 wife of banker (sethi), householder Lavmaka Kalyan 1005 jeweller (manikara) NagapSlita Sopara 1009 mother of merchant (negama) Lopa 1010 householder, son of banker (sethi) ...mita 1011 banker (sethi) - Kalyan 1012 sagarapalogana (commuity of sea traders) ? 1015 daughter of goldsmith (suvanakara) Samadevi 1019 daughter ? of householder 1024 son of merchant (negama) Aparaenu Kalyan 1027 merchant Hundapala Sopara 1031 banker (se^hi) householder Punaka ? 1032 blacksmith (kamara) Nada Kalyan 1033 treasurer (heranaka) Rohanimita Chemula (Chaul) C. Sangha 999 monk (pavajita) Anada 1006 nun (j^vaitika) theri PonakiasanI 1014 nun (bhikhuni) Damila ' Kalyan 1016 monk (pavajita) .,.mitranaRa 1020 nun (pavaitika) Sapa Dhenukakata 1025 nun Gha...? D. Others 985 - Nakanaka Nasik 988 fragmentary 1007 Kanha 1017 fragmentary Pavayamala ? 1018 fragmentary 128 G r o u p V - K a r l e , B h a j a , S e l a r v a d l , K o n d a n e , B e d s a A . R o y a l a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i v e M a h a r a t h l 1088 1099 1100 1105 B h a j a 1079 B e d s a 1111 Maharathl M a h a r a t h l M a h a r a t h i n i d a u g h t e r o f M a h a b h o y a A g n l m i j b r a n a k a U s a v a d a t a S o m a d e v a G a u t a m i p u t r a ? V i n h u d a t a S a m a d i n i k a B . C o m m e r c i a l a n d L a n d e d 1087 1090 1091 1092 V a t s n o . 3 V a t s n o , 9 V a t s n o . 12 E I v o l . 24 S e l a r v a d l 1121 B e d s a 1109 C . S a n g h a 1089 1094 1095 1098 1101/2 1104 1108 D . O t h e r s 1093 1096 1097 1103 b a n k e r ( s e t h i ) B h u t a p a l a p e r f u m e r ( g a m d h i k a ) S i m h a d a t a m o t h e r o f h o u s e h o l d e r ( g a h a t a ) B h a y i l a c a r p e n t e r ( v a d h a k i ) S a m i l a c o m m u n i t y o f t r a d e r s ( v a n i y a - g a m a ) s o n o f t r a d e r ( v a n i y a ) I s a l a k a r e l a t i o n o f h o u s e h o l d e r D h a m d a v a y a D h e n u k a t a p h y s i c i a n ( v e j a ) M i t i d a s a ? D h e n u k a k a t a D h e n u k a k a t a D h e n u k a k a t a D h e n u k a k a t a w i f e o f h o u s e h o l d e r ( k u d u h i k a ) , p l o u g h m a n ( h a l a k i y a ) S i a g u t a n i k a s o n o f b a n k e r ( s e t h i ) P u s a n a k a e l d e r , m o n k ( t h e r a ) I m d a d e v a p r e a c h e r ( b h a n a k a ) S a t i m i t a S o p a r a p r e a c h e r S a t i m i t a S o p a r a n u n ( b h i k h u n i ) A s a d h a m i t a m o n k ( b h i k h u ) B h a d a s a m a n u n ( b h i k h u n i ) K o d i m o n k ( p a v a i t a ) B u d h a r a k h i t a D h e n u k a k a d a Y a v a n a Y a v a n a f r a g m e n t a r y S i h a d h a y a D h e n u k a k a t a D h e n u k a k a t a M i t a d e v a n a k a D h e n u k a k a t a 129 1106 lay worshipper Harapharana -1107 female disciple (atevasini) - -Vats no. 1 Yavana Vitasamgata Umekanakata Vats no. 2 lay worshipper Dhamula Gonekaka Vats no. 4 Yavana Dhamadhaya Dhenukakata Vats no. 5 - Rohamita Dhenukakata Vats no. 6 Yavana Culayakha Dhenukakata Vats no. 7 Yavana Sihadhaya Dhenukakata Vats no. 8 - Somilanaka Dhenukakata Vats no. 10 Yavana Yasavadhana Dhenukakata Vats no. 11 wife of... Manamata Dhenukakata Kosambi wife of Utaramati Draghamita Dhenukakata t Bhaja 1078 Naya ? Nadasava -1080 donor not given 1081 donor not given 1082 donor not given 1083 donor not given 1084 wife of Halika (agriculturist) 1 Badha -1085 fragmentary Deshpande no. 1 Dhamabhaga -Selarvadl EI vol. 28 daughters of nun Budha -Ipavaltikaya) Sagha -Kondane 1071 - Balaka Bedsa - Asalamita 1110 Group VI - Kuda, Nadsur, Mahad, Kol, Karadh A. Royal and Administrative 1037 writer to Mahabhoja Sivabhuti 1045 servant to Sivama (younger 1049 Mahabhoja brother of Sivabhuti) chief of Mamdavas ? son of Sivama Kumara 1053 daughter of royal 1054 minister (rajamaca) Goyamma daughter of MahSbhoya Vijayanika Mahad 1072 prince (kumara) Kanaboa Vhenupalita B. Commercial and Landed 1048 physician (veja) Somadeva 1051 garland maker (malakara) Sivapirita 130 1055 1056 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 Mahad 1073 Kol 1075 C. Sangha 1041 1060 D. Others 1038 1039 1040 1042 1050 1058 Nadsur 1067 1068 Kol 1076 1077 Karadh 1184 iron merchant (lohavaniyiya) banker (sethi) householder garland maker trader (sathavaha) householder banker (se^hi) banker wife of trader (sathavaha) son of trader (sathavaha) Mahika Vasula Mugudasa Naga Vasulanaka Vasulanaka Sivadata Asalamita Karahakada (Karadh)' wife of banker (sethi) householder ' Vadasiri banker (sethi) son of householder nun (pavayitika) nun (pavaitika) fragmentary fragmentary fragmentary fragmentary wife of Brahman lay worshipper adhagacaka ? Sagharakhita Padumanika Sapila Ramadata Godata various names daughter of lay worshipper Sivadata Sanghamitara 

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