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The Lamp of Certainty by ’Jam-mgon Kong-sprul, translated and annotated Hanson, Judith 1975

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THE LAMP OF CERTAINTY by 'JAM-MGON KONG-SPRUL Translated and Annotated by JUDITH HANSON . B.A., State Univers i ty, New York, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Religious Studies We-.accept'this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1975 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes i s fo r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Depa rtment The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i ABSTRACT This thesis i s an annotated t rans lat ion of Nges-don sgron-me3 a meditation text by the Tibetan ec l e c t i c 'Jam-mgon Kong-sprul (1813-99). The text contains instruct ions and commentary on the Four Foundations, the key preliminary practices for the bKa'-brgyud t r ad i t i on . These include the r i t u a l s of Taking Refuge and Engendering the Enl ight-ened At t i tude ; Meditation and Mantra of rDo-rje Sems-dpa'; Mandala-Offen 'ng, and Guru-Yoga. The t rans lat ion elucidates these pract ices , and the footnotes explore the s ign i f icance of key terms. The appendices contain i n t e r -views with two leading Lamas, the Venerable Kalu Rin-po-che and the Venerable sDe-gzhung Rin-po-che, and reproductions of the texts trans-lated in our study. PREFACE Purpose This thesis i s a study of the "Four Foundations," the prel iminary meditative pract ices used in the bKa'-brgyud t r ad i t i on of Tibetan Buddhism. While th i s t r ad i t i on has been the subject of several s tudies, i t s prel iminary pract ices have received l i t t l e at tent ion. Dr. H.V. Guenther^ deals extensively with the phi losophical content, but not with the actual performance of e i ther the advanced or the prel iminary r i t u a l s . Stephan Beyer b r i e f l y mentions the Four Foundations, but i s p r imar i l y concerned with the Tara r i t u a l s which may fol low them. The present study provides a deta i led descr ipt ion of these prel iminary pract ices . Although th i s work may be useful to Western Buddhists who wish to pract ice these r i t u a l s , they should be performed under the personal guidance of a Lama who i s q u a l i f i e d to deal with unforeseen problems which may a r i se . See The Life and Teaching of Naropa. New York: Oxford Univer-s i t y Press, 1963 and 1974. o See The Cult of Tara: magic and ritual in Tibet. Berkeley: Univers i ty of C a l i f o r n i a , 1973, pp. 26-7, 258, 433-42, 461. i i i i i Background In 1972 Kalu Rin-po-che of the Karma bKa'-brgyud sect, visited Vancouver and established a Buddhist centre. Kalu Rin-po-che is con-sidered to be one of several contemporary incarnations or tulkus of 'Jam-mgon Kong-sprul, author of The Lamp of Certainty. Rin-po-che is one of the few refugee Lamas fully trained in Tibet. Born in Khams (eastern Tibet) in 1904, he was educated by his father until the age of sixteen. Thereafter, his principal teacher was Lama Norbu Don-kun-grub, a pupil of 'Jam-mgon Kong-sprul. At twenty-five Rin-po-che began twelve years of intensive meditation in an isolated retreat. Subsequently, he was in charge of the meditation center at Kong-sprul's former monastery of dPal-spungs for fifteen years. There he guided monks in the Four Foundations and more advanced bKa'-brgyuda-pa practices. In the late 1950's he fled to Bhutan where he established a monastery. A few years later he moved to northern India and established bSam-'grub Thar-byed monastery at Sonada, where he now supervises thirty monks in meditation. While touring Europe and North America in 1972 and 1974-5, Rin-po-che established approximately thirty Buddhist centres. In 1972, Dr. Shotaro Iida, my academic advisor, asked Kalu Rin-po-che to name a short Tibetan text dealing with bKa'-brgyuda-pa meditative practices. Rin-po-che recommended Nges-don sgron-me as a brief but thorough explanation—ideal for beginners. i v Dr. Iida suggested that I translate this text as an M.A. thesis. 3 I asked Kalu Rin-po-che for the authorization (lung) to read this text. Rin-po-che gave the lung for the f i rst f i fty pages (containing the Four Foundations) but withheld the final section until I should have practiced the Four Foundations. As the final section contains separate instruc-tions on Mahamudra, a higher stage of doctrine and practice which I felt incapable of translating, Rin-po-che's limitation seemed reasonable. Methods This thesis is a study of the traditional understanding of the Four Foundations. Clarification of this understanding involved the following steps: 1. Reading Nges-don sgron-me and writing a "crib." 2. Consulting Lama Tshe-dbang 'Gyur-med, through interpreters Ingrid and Ken McLeod, on problems of language, theory and practice. Lama Tshe-dbang 'Gyur-med, a native of Khams and experienced meditator, is Kalu Rin-po-che's representative at Kagyu Kunkhyab Chuling, Buddhist centre, in Vancouver. 3. Consulting Lobsang P. Lhalung-pa on these same problems with greater emphasis on higher levels of interpretation and Tibetan customs. Mr. Lhalung-pa is a Tibetan scholar of broad learning and experience. Traditional ceremony of authorization. See n. 382, below. V 4. Preparing a rough translation and footnotes on key technical 4 terms. 5. Consulting the Lama and Mr. Lhalung-pa about problems aris-ing from step 4. 6. Typing a rough draft. 7. Having Ken McLeod check this draft for l iteral accuracy and consistency. Mr. McLeod served as off icial interpreter at Kagyu Kunkhyab Chuling for three years. 8. Consulting the Lama and Mr. Lhalung-pa about problems un-covered in step 7. 9. Translating and annotating relevant sections of 'Phags-lam bgrod-pa'i shing-rta through a process similar to steps 1-8. 10. Rewriting and combining the two annotated translations. 11. Checking by readers, Professor J.I. Richardson (Indian religion and culture), Dr. Shotaro Iida (Indian and Tibetan Buddhism), and Lobsang P. Lhalung-pa. 12. Rewriting. 13. Composing introductory sections. This involved questioning Kalu Rin-po-che and sDe-gzhung Rin-po-che on the historical background i of the practices and their role in the religious l i fe of a practitioner. sDe-gzhung Rin-po-che is the former abbot of a Sa-skya-pa monastery in With the exception of some proper names and well-known terms, al l Tibetan words in this thesis have been transliterated according to Turrell Wylie's system. 5 See Appendix A for complete transcript. vi Khams, and one of today's foremost t r ad i t i ona l Tibetan scholars. 14. Submitting introductory material to readers fo r comments. 15. Rewriting ent i re thes i s . I wish to thank the persons mentioned above for t he i r help. I also wish to thank Joan Girard and Lama Phr in- las 'grub-pa for prov id-ing i l l u s t r a t i o n s , and Mervin V. Hanson for c r i t i c i s m and encouragement. v i i ABBREVIATIONS IBHEC L ' I n s t i t u t Beige des Hautes Etudes Chinoises JAOS Journal of the American Oriental Society JRAS Journal of the Royal A s i a t i c Society Lama Lama Tshe-dbang 'Gyur-med LPL Lobsang P. Lhalunga-pa Melanges Melanges Chinois et Bouddhique 'Phags-lam sGrub-brgyud karma kam-tshang-pa'i phyag-chen lhan-cig skyes-sbyor gyi sngon-'gro bzhi sogs kyi ngag-'don 'phags-lam bgrod-pa'i shing-rta by Karma-pa IX dBang-phyug rDo-rje and others. The l i t u r g i c a l text for the Four Foundations. vi i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF FIGURES x i Chapter I INTRODUCTION . 1 DESCRIPTION 1 NATURE OF A TIBETAN BUDDHIST SECT 2 HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE KARMA BKA'-BRGYUD SECT . . . . 3 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF 'JAM-MGON KONG-SPRUL . 9 DESCRIPTION OF TEXTS 13 1. Lhan-cig skyes-sbyor khrid 13 2. Nges-don sgron-me 14 a. Summary of contents of Nges-don sgron-me . . . . 15 3. 'Phags-lam bgrod-pa'i shing-rta 17 OTHER TEXTS DEALING WITH THE FOUNDATIONS 17 USE OF TEXTS IN PRACTICE 19 II THE FOUR ORDINARY FOUNDATIONS 20 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS . . . 20 TRANSLATION 23 Invocation 23 Prologue 24 1. The Precious Human B i r th 25 2. Impermanence 35 3. Act ion , Cause and Result 40 i x Page 4. The Shortcomings of Samsara 51 Conclusion 58 III FIRST OF THE FOUR SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS: TAKING REFUGE AND ENGENDERING THE ENLIGHTENED ATTITUDE 63 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS 63 TRANSLATION 64 Taking Refuge 64 Engendering the Enlightened Att i tude 84 IV SECOND OF THE FOUR SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS: THE HUNDRED-SYLLABLE MANTRA OF RDO-RJE SEMS-DPA' WHICH PURIFIES HARMFUL DEEDS AND REMOVES OBSCURATIONS 103 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS . 103 TRANSLATION 104 Prologue 104 P rac t i ca l Instructions 106 Commentary 112 V THIRD OF THE FOUR SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS: THE MANDALA-OFFERING WHICH PERFECTS THE TWO ACCUMULATIONS 124 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS 124 TRANSLATION 127 P rac t i ca l Instructions . 127 Commentary 157 Conclusion 169 X Page VI FOURTH OF THE FOUR SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS: THE GURU-YOGA WHICH RAPIDLY CONFERS BLESSING 172 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS 172 TRANSLATION 174 Meditation 174 Commentary 206 Conclusion 221 COLOPHON 229 BIBLIOGRAPHY 230 Appendices A Interviews with Kalu Rin-po-che and sDe-gzhung Rin-po-che 236 B Text of Phyag-rgya chen-po lhan-cig skyes-sbyor gyi khrid kyi spyi-sdom rtsa-tshig by Karma-pa IX, dBang-phyug rDo-rje 250 C Text of f o l i o s 1-50 of Phyag-ohen sngon-'gro bzhi-sbyor dang dngos-gzhi'i khrid-rim mdor-bsdus nges-don sgron-me by 'Jam-mgon Kong-sprul 254 D Text of sGrub-brgyud karma karri-tshang-pa'i phyag-ohen lhan-oig skyes-sbyor gyi sngon-'gro bzhi-sbyor sogs kyi ngag-'don 'phags-lam bgrod-pa'i shing-rta by Karma-pa IX, dBang-phyug rDo-rje and others 289 xi LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. 'Jam-mgon Kong-sprul (by Joan Gi rard, from an iconographic sketch) Frontispiece 2. Wheel of Existences (from Jean Erac le, L'Art des thanka, p. 45) . . 50 3>. The Refuge Tree (from a modern Tibetan paint ing) . . . . 62 4. rDo-rje Sems-dpa' (Vajrasattva) (by Joan Gi rard, from an iconographic drawing 104 5. Trad i t iona l depict ion of main features of the Ideal Universe, fo r V i sua l i za t i on (adapted by Joan G i rard, from a photograph of a Tibetan painting) 136 6. F.D. Lessing 's Mandala of the Universe of th i rty-seven features, fo r Construction (from Yung-Ho-Kung, p. 106) 137 7. Trad i t iona l Tibetan Diagram of the Mandala of the Universe of th i r ty-seven features, for Construction . . 138 8. The Seven Possessions of the Cakravartin (Miniatures by Lama Phr in- las 'Grub-pa) 143 9. The Eight Auspicious Symbols (Miniatures by Lama Phr in- las 'Grub-pa) 147 10. The Eight Auspicious Objects (Miniatures by Lama Phr in- las 'Grub-pa) 148 11. Diagram of the Mandala of the Universe of seven features, for Construction ' 153 12. rDo-rje Phag-mo (Vajravarahi) (from an iconographic drawing) 175 Figure 1. 'Jam-mgon Kong-sprul CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION DESCRIPTION This thesis includes: 1. An annotated t rans lat ion of the Tibetan Buddhist meditation manual Nges-don sgron-me by the nineteenth-century e c l e c t i c 'Jam-mgon Kong-sprul (1813-99). I t contains p rac t i ca l ins t ruct ions and theoret ica l explanation of the "Four Foundations" (sngon-'gro bzhi), the most important beginner 's pract ice of the bKa'-brgyud sect. Nges-don sgron-me i s a commentary on the b r i e f i n s t ruc t iona l " root " tex t Lhan-oig skyes-sbyor khrid by the ninth Karma-pa or head of the Karma bKa'-brgyud sect, dBang-phyug rDo-rje (1556-1603). This text i s repr inted (Appendix B) but not t rans lated. 2. An annotated t rans lat ion of 'Phags-lam bgrod-pa'i shing-rta, a l i t u r g i c a l text used for the pract ice of the Four Foundations, also by the ninth Karma-pa. The appropriate passage of l i t u r gy has been placed before each sect ion of the commentary. As the f i n a l sections of both Nges-don sgron-me and i t s root text deal with Mahamudra, t rans la t ion of them i s beyond the scope of th i s thesis. 3. Transcripts of Kalu Rin-po-che and sDe-gzhung Rin-po-che's answers to questions about pract ice of the "Four Foundations." 1 2 4. Text of Lhan-cig skyes-sbyor khrid, Nges-don sgron-me, f o l i o s 1-50, and 'Phags-lam bgrod-pa'i shing-rta. NATURE OF A TIBETAN BUDDHIST SECT Before discussing the Karma-bKa'-brgyud-pa, the sect whose pract ices are depicted in Nges-don sgron-me, a note on the Tibetan Buddhist concept of " sect " i s necessary. The i dent i t y of a Tibetan Buddhist sect i s dependent on several factor s . According to Tibetan teachers, the most important factor i s the lineage (brgyud), a multi-dimensional phenomenon. The central lineage of a sect includes the l i ne of teachers--from the Buddha, through the Indian teachers, up to contemporary Tibetans--who transmitted the oral and wr i t ten teachings comprising the sec t ' s basic doctr ines. The spec ia l i zed lineages include the teachers who transmitted oral and wr i t ten inst ruct ions for pract ices e spec ia l l y emphasized by the sect. These lineages w i l l include some, but not a l l of the teachers in the central l ineage. A factor related to these lineages i s the body of oral and wr i t ten teachings produced by the i r members. This includes the gzhung, or body of author i tat ive Indian and Tibetan t reat i ses on a l l topics important to the sect, as well as other commentaries, i n s t ruc t i ona l texts and r i t u a l manuals. A t h i r d type of lineage corresponds to the notion of a t r ad i t i on emphasizing a pa r t i cu l a r style p ract i ce . Thus, the bKa'-brgyud sect , 3 which emphasizes meditation, i s commonly ca l l ed a meditative lineage (sgrub-brgyud); the bKa'gdams or dGe-lugs sect i s a lineage of i n -t e l l e c t u a l d i s c i p l i n e (blo-sbyong-brgyud). A second important determinant was the monasteries in which the monks and nuns l i v e d , studied and pract iced. Usual ly, one monastery was the o f f i c i a l headquarters of the sect and model for the operation of the others. Each of the four major sects had scores of monasteries, while some minor sub-sects seem to have had only one or two. The abbots were administrators, but not necessar i ly s p i r i t u a l leaders. Each sect had as i t s s p i r i t u a l head, one or a small group of Lamas, usually tulkus. The influence of these tulkus has f luctuated throughout Tibetan h i s tory. Peripheral determinants not t r a d i t i o n a l l y seen as essent ia l to a sec t ' s i d e n t i t y , included: the lay community which par t i c ipated in the publ ic r i t e s and f e s t i v a l s and may even have rented monastery land; wealthy patrons, often loca l r u l e r s , who in some cases shared t h e i r author ity w i th , and in some imposed i t on the monastic leaders; foreign rulers who sometimes gave patronage and m i l i t a r y support to a pa r t i cu l a r sect. HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE KARMA BKA'-BRGYUD SECT Although Buddhism was known in Tibet as ear ly as the s i x th century, the four major sect s—the rNying-ma-pa, Sa-skya-pa, bKa'-gdams-pa ( l a t e r absorbed into the dGe-lugs-pa) and bKa'-brgyud-pa did not emerge u n t i l the eleventh century. 4 The bKa'-brgyud-pa lineage t r a d i t i o n a l l y begins with the Buddha rDo-rje 'Chang (Vajradhara). Unlike Sakyamuni, rDo-rje 'Chang i s not an h i s t o r i c a l Buddha, but one of many Enlightened Ones con-s idered, i n the Mahayana, to be ever-present, cont inua l ly dispensing blessings to l i v i n g beings. The Indian mahasiddha Ti lopa (988-1069) i s sa id to have received in s t ruct ion d i r e c t l y from rDo-rje 'Chang, through vis ions and other extraordinary means. The Indian scholar and siddha Naropa (1016-1100) was T i lopa ' s d i s c i p l e . From Ti lopa and Naropa or ig inate the meditative pract ices with which the sect i s iden-t i f i e d : the " S i x Yogas" of Naropa (Na-ro'i ehos-drug) and Mahamudra (Phyag-rgya-ahen-po). The or ig inators of the f i r s t two d iv i s ions of the sect were Khyung-po the Yogin (1002-64) and Marpa the Translator (1012-96), both Tibetan d i s c ip le s of Naropa. Khyung-po's d i v i s i on was ca l l ed the Shangs-pa bKa'-brgyud. We w i l l deal only with Marpa's Dwags-po bKa ' -brgyud. Marpa's most famous d i s c i p l e was Milarespa (1052-1135); Mi larespa 's was sGam-po-pa or Dwags-po Lha-rje (1079-1153), who founded many monas-ter ie s inc luding Dwags-po, the one from which th i s d i v i s i on took i t s name. sGam-po-pa became M i l a ' s d i s c i p l e only a f te r a thorough t ra in ing in the bKa'gdams-pa system with i t s emphasis on i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral d i s -c i p l i n e . Mi la instructed him in the meditative techniques transmitted by T i l opa , Naropa and Marpa. "sGam-po-pa combined the teachings of the bKa'gdams and the experiences of Mahamudra in an unique manner so that 5 the two streams un i ted. "^ Subsequent Dwags-po bKa'-brgyud-pa wr i t i ng s , up to the present day, have drawn heavily on the voluminous works of sGam-po-pa. His d i s c ip le s founded the various sub-sects of the Dwags-po bKa-brgyud-pa, t r a d i t i o n a l l y grouped into the "Great Four" (che-bzhi) and "Lesser Eight" (ohung-brgyad). "Great Four" (Founded by sGam-po-pa's immediate d i s c i p l e s ) 1. Karma bKa'-brgyud, founded by Dus-gsum mKhyen-pa (1110-93). 2. 'Ba-ram bKa'-brgyud, founded by 'Ba-ram-pa Dharma dBang-phyug (ca. 1100). 3. Tshal-pa bKa'-brgyud, founded by brTson- 1grags-pa (1123-94). 4. Phag-mo bKa'-brgyud, founded by Phag-mo gru-pa (1110-70). "Lesser Eight" (Founded by Phag-mo gru-pa's d i s c i p l e s ) 1. 'Bri-khung bKa'-brgyud. 2. sTag-lung bKa'-brgyud. 3. Khro-phu bKa'-brgyud. 4. 'Brug-pa bKa'-brgyud or sTod-'Brug, and i t s sub-sects: 5. sMad-'Brug. 6. Bar- 'Brug. H.V. Guenther, t r an s l . and annot., Jewel Ornament of Liberation by sGam-po-pa. Berkeley: Shambala, 1971, x - x i . 6 7. ' Ba r - ra . 8. Lho- 'Brug. From the i r inception in the twelfth and th i r teenth centuries un t i l the Chinese takeover in 1959, these sub-sects have been act ive throughout Tibet. Some, mostly notably the Karma and 'Brug-pa bKa ' -brgyud, now have monasteries in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Scot-land. Most of the Tibetan Buddhist centres which have appeared in Europe and North America over the past f i ve years were founded by two e c l e c t i c Karma bKa'-brgyud Lamas, Chogyam Trung-pa and Kalu Rin-po-che. The Karma bKa'-brgyud sect was founded by Dus-gsum mKhyen-pa (1110-93), i t s f i r s t patr iarch or Karma-pa. The Karma-pa i s the highest tulku, and the s p i r i t u a l head of the Karma bKa'-brgyud. Accord-ing to Kalu Rin-po-che he i s the supreme s p i r i t u a l authority for a l l the bKa'-brgyud sub-sects. As such, he i s the o f f i c i a n t at key r i t u a l s and i s responsible for o f f i c i a l recognition of a l l the important bKa ' -brgyud-pa tulkus. Karma bKa' -brgyud-pas consider his s p i r i t u a l status to be equal to that of the Dalai Lama head of the dGe-lugs-pa sect. Both are con-sidered incarnations of Avalokitesvara, Bodhisattva of Compassion. Both are addressed as, " w i s h - f u l f i l l i n g gem" (yid-bzhin nor-bu). But unl ike the Dalai Lama, the Karma-pa i s not o f f i c i a l l y connected with the central government, i . e . , he i s not considered an incarnation of Srong-bstan sgam-po or any other Tibetan r u l e r , and has never shared the Dalai Lama's ro le as a national symbol. 7 Although the Karma-pa's o f f i c i a l seat was at mTshur-phu monastery (the sec t ' s headquarters founded by Dus-gsum mKhyen-pa in central Tibet) most of the Karma-pas were born in Khams, Eastern T ibet. The Karma-pas exercized great s p i r i t u a l and p o l i t i c a l inf luence i n Khams. Many of them v i s i t e d Yuan China where t he i r s p i r i t u a l sover-eignty was acknowledged by the Emperors.^ A Karma-pa i s referred to as "Wearer of the Black Hat" (zva-nag). This hat, a kind of mitre in which Karma-pas are always depicted, i s a symbol of t he i r s p i r i t u a l author ity. The o r i g ina l Black Hat i s sa id to _ o have been presented to Dus-gsum mKhyen-pa by the dakinis who wove i t of the ha i r of a hundred-thousand of t h e i r k ind. According to Kalu Rin-po-che, th i s o r i g i na l hat was i n v i s i b l e to a l l but those of great merit. A material r ep l i c a was given to the f i f t h Karma-pa De-bzhin gShegs-pa (1384-1415) by the Yuan Emperor Yung-lo, so that the Black Hat, whose very s ight i s sa id to guarantee the behold-9 e r ' s reb i r th i n the higher realms, might be seen by a l l . This materical rep l i ca i s thought to be the same one donned by the present Karma-pa, Rang-'byung r i g - p a ' i rDo-rje (b. 1924) when His Holiness performed the Black Hat ceremony in Vancouver and other North American c i t i e s in 1974. The Black Hat ceremony i s the key r i t u a l of the ' See H.E. Richardson, "The Karma-pa Sect," JRAS3 1958, 139-64; 1959, 1-18. 8 Female de i t i e s . See n. 123 below, q Related at a publ ic lecture i n Vancouver, October 11, 1974, around the time of the present Karma-pa's performance of the Black Hat ceremony. 8 Karma-pas. Its functions are to re-enact the o r i g i na l "coronation" of Dus-gsum mKhyen-pa; to re-assert each Karma-pa's place i n the Karma-pa l i n e , and to invoke Avalokitesvara as the source of that l i n e . There have been s ixteen Karma-pas to date: 1. Dus-gsum mKhyen-pa (1110-93). 2. Karma Pagshi (1206-83). 3. Rang-'byung rDo-rje (1284-1399). 4. Ro l -pa ' i rDo-rje (1340-83). 5. De-bzhin gShegs-pa (1384-1415). 6. mThong-ba Don-ldan (1416-53). 7. Chos-grags rGya-mtsho (1454-1506). 8. Mi-bskyod rDo-rje (1507-54). 9. dBang-phyug rDo-rje (1556-1603). 10. Chos-dbyings rDo-rje (1604-74). 11. Ye-shes rDo-rje (1675-1702). 12. Byang-chub rDo-rje (1703-32). 13. bDud-'dul rDo-rje (1733-97). 14. Theg-mchog rDo-rje (1797-ca. 1845). 15. mKha'-khyab rDo-rje (ca. 1845-1924). 16. Rang-'byung r i g - p a ' i rDo-rje (b. 1924) . 1 0 The present Karma-pa, who was educated at mTshur-phu, now l i ve s at Rumtek monastery in Sikkim, the new seat of the Karma bKa'-brgyud sect. 1 Adapted from H.E. Richardson, "The Karma-pa Sect," JRAS, 1959, p. 18. 9 Other important tulkus of the sect include the Zva-dmar or "Red Hat," S i - t u , rGyal-tshab and dPa'-bo Rin-po-ches. The Zva-dmar l i ne enjoyed periods of p o l i t i c a l power in central T ibet, but was o f f i c i a l l y terminated in the la te eighteenth century due to the ninth tulku's compl ic ity in a Nepalese invat ion. The l i ne was revived by the present Karma-pa. The new Zva-dmar tulku was born in the ear ly 1950's and l i ve s at Rumtek. A l l the Karma-pas are included in the "Golden Rosary of Wish-F u l f i l l i n g Gems," the spec ia l i zed Karma bKa'-brgyud lineage of Mahamudra teachers. Most of the key Karma bKa'-brgyud tulkus appear in i t as w e l l . A few others are included because they were teachers or prominent d i s c ip le s of a Karma-pa. 'Jam-mgon Kong-sprul, teacher of the f i f t een th Karma-pa mKha'-khyab rDo-rje, was one of these few. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF 'JAM-MGON KONG-SPRUL11 'Jam-mgon Kong-sprul blo-gros mtha'-yas-pa (1813-99) was a ver-s a t i l e and p r o l i f i c scholar whose works span the ent i re f i e l d of t r a d i -t i ona l Tibetan learning. Characterized by Smith as a "Tibetan Leonardo," Kong-sprul was a respected phys ic ian, diplomat and p o l i t i c i a n of great consequence in his native Khams. Along with the equally productive 'Jam-dbyangs mKhyen-brtse dbang-po (1820-92), he i n i t i a t e d the e c l e c t i c (ris-med) movement in Khams, Most of the material in th i s section has been drawn from the s ing le relevant source ava i lab le in a Western language: Gen§ Smith's " Introduct ion" to Lokesh Chandra's ed i t i on of Kong-sprul 's Ses-bya kun-khyab. Sata-Pitaka Ser ies, vo l . 80. Delh i : International Acad, of Indian Culture,* 1-87. 10 which Gene Smith c a l l s , " . . . the most important development during 12 the 19th century in the Lamaist wor ld. " He was born in the semi-nomadic settlement of Rong-rgyab. His mother was bKra 1 - sh is -tsho and his nominal father was bSod-nams-'phel, a Bon-po Lama. There i s some evidence that his actual father was the Buddhist Lama Gyung-drung bsTan- 'dzin. Kong-sprul was thoroughly schooled in Bon by bSod-nams-'phel before receiv ing any formal Buddhist education, and never l o s t i n te res t in i t . At th i s time he also studied medicine. When Kong-sprul was fourteen his father bSod-nams-1phel was imprisoned due to a loca l blood feud. Kong-sprul followed and provided him with food. He was aided by a family a l l i e d with the nearby rNying-ma monastery at Zhe-chen. With th i s f ami l y ' s help, he studied at Zhe-chen and was ordained as a rNying-ma monk in 1832 at age nineteen. His l i t e r a r y ta lent became obvious and his services were soon requested at the Karma bKa'-brgyud monastery of dPal-spungs. Before he could accept th i s pos i t ion he was forced to undergo re-ordinat ion as a Karma bKa'-brgyud monk. This pettiness and sectarianism distressed Kong-sprul, but there was l i t t l e he could do except to accede to the 13 demands of his superior. He was re-ordained in 1833 by the ninth S i - t u Padma Nyin-byed dbang-po (1774-1853) whom he invokes i n Nges-don sgron-me 14 as his root-Lama. 2 I b i d . , p. 2-3. 3 I b id . , p. 30. ^ rtsa-ba'i bla-ma. See n. 26, below. 11 15 By 1843 Kong-sprul had studied with and received empowerments from s i x t y Lamas of a var iety of sects and lineages. About th i s time, the S i - tu recognized Kong-sprul as the tulku of an outstanding monk who had served his predecessor. This recognit ion did not please Kong-sp ru l , as i t was a s t r i c t l y p o l i t i c a l move to prevent his conscr ipt ion into the service of the sDe-dge government. As a tulku, Kong-sprul was exempt from such serv ice and could remain as a valuable asset to dPal-spungs. Kong-sprul 's immense l i t e r a r y output of more than ninety volumes was wr i t ten amidst the p o l i t i c a l chaos and re l i g ious warfare of Khams, 1832-99. His works include a wide range of teachings on theory and pract ice according to the rNying-ma-pa, bKa'-gdams-pa, Sa-skya-pa, Zhi-byed gcod-yul and Bon-po, as wel l as the many sub-sects of the bKa 1-brgyud-pa. In some works, designated as " e c l e c t i c " (Ris-med-pa), the subject matter i s treated from the viewpoint of each sect in turn. Most of his works are included i n his Five Treasuries (mDzod-1 fi Inga), pr inted at dPal-spungs i n the l a te nineteenth century. Nges-don sgron-me, wr i t ten i n 1844 when he was th i r ty -one, was one of his ear ly works. dbang. Usually t rans lated " i n i t i a t i o n . " See n. 345, below. For i t s contents, see Gene Smith, op. c i t . , 59-72. 12 In common with Bon-pos and rNying-ma-pas, Kong-sprul was i n -c l ined to accept the authent ic i ty of gter-ma.^ In 1855 Kong-sprul was recognized as a gter-ston by the gter-ston mChog-'gyur gl ing-pa (1829-70). During the many incidents of r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l warfare between 1848 and 1865, Kong-sprul used his diplomatic s k i l l s to reconci le the hos t i l e par t ie s . In 1865 when dPal-spungs, i t s inhabitants and lay a l l i e s were threatened with ann ih i l a t ion by invading dGe-lugs-pa armies, Kong-sprul used his medical s k i l l s to heal an a i l i n g dGe-lugs-pa o f f i c i a l . As a r e su l t , dPal-spungs was spared. With the col lapse of the sDe-dge government i n the l a t t e r part of the nineteenth century, Kong-sprul and mKhyen-brtse became the real p o l i t i c a l power in that area. According to Gene Smith, the e c l e c t i c movement grew from a strong reaction to the re l i g ious r i v a l r y and persecution which had always plagued Buddhist Tibet. He traces the antecedents of th i s movement back to such renowned scholars as the rNying-ma-pa kLong-chen rab-'byams-pa (1308-63), the dGe-lugs-pa founder Tshong-kha-pa (1357-1419), the f i f t h Dalai Lama (1617-82) and the rNying-ma-pa 'Jigs-med gling-pa (1730-98). gter-ma: Texts and teachings which express Buddhist doctr ine in contemporary terms. They are t r a d i t i o n a l l y sa id to have been composed by Padmasambhava when he introduced Buddhism to T ibet, and hidden by him u n t i l they would be needed. When required, they are rediscovered and promulgated by special teachers ca l l ed gter-ston. For d i f f e ren t types of gter-ma and the att i tudes of various sects regarding t he i r au thent i c i t y , see i b i d . , 10-14. 13 Although Smith suggests reasons why Khams became the focus of the movement, these do not seem conclusive. I t i s obvious, however, that the e c l e c t i c movement has strongly influenced Tibetan Buddhism. Most of the i n f l u e n t i a l Lamas i n Europe and North America, including Chogyam Trung-pa, Kalu r in-po-che, sDe-gzhung Rin-po-che, Tarthang Tulku and others, i den t i f y themselves with the ris-med t r a d i t i o n . While emphasizing the techniques developed by t he i r respective sects, they also uphold the v a l i d i t y , draw on the teachings, and encourage t he i r students to venerate and fol low the examples of Lamas of a l l sects. DESCRIPTION OF TEXTS The three texts basic to th i s study—Lhan-cig skyes-sbyor khrid, Nges-don sgron-me and 'Phags-lam bgrod-pa'i shing-rta—belong to a group of Karma bKa'-brgyud texts containing teachings known as "lhan-cig skyes-sbyor," a synonym fo r Mahamudra. A l l the texts i n th i s group deal with - - 18 the Four Foundations, and most with Mahamudra. 1. Lhan-cig skyes-sbyor khrid Lhan-cig skyes-sbyor khrid, (see Appendix B), the i n s t ruc t i ona l " root " text by Karma-pa IX dBang-phyug rDo-rje, i s the shortest in th i s group. I t consists of abbreviated verse descr ipt ions of, and inst ruct ions f o r , pract ice of the Four Ordinary Foundations, the Four Special Foundations E.g., gDams-ngag-mdzod, Vol. VI. Delhi : N. Lungtok and N. Gyaltsan, 1971, f o l i o s 1-16; 70-104; 105-22; 123-63. 14 and Mahamudra. I t contains no commentary, and i s so b r i e f as to be incomprehensible to anyone unfami l iar with the subject. We have not trans lated th i s text. 2. Nges-don sgron-me Nges-don sgron-me ( f o l i o s 1-50, see Appendix C) by 'Jam-mgon Kong-sprul, has been trans lated as Chapters 11-VI of th i s thes i s . According to Kalu Rin-po-che, Nges-don sgron-me i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as a commentary Cgrel-ba) cons ist ing of exoter ic i n s t ruc -tions (thun-mong gi gdams-ngag) on meditation (sgom) according to the Karma bKa'-brgyud sect of Mahayana-Vajrayana Buddhism. I t i s a commentary on Lhan-oig skyes-sbyor khrid in the sense that i t expands upon the l a t t e r to give a more deta i led treatment of the pract ices and adds a discussion of t h e i r theoret ica l bas i s . Each major section ends with warnings, advice and encouragement to the would-be p rac t i t i one r . These are phrased i n a highly expressive and personal language which contrasts with the ter se, formal language used to describe the pract ices . Our t rans la t ion re f l ec t s these f l u c tua -t i ons. Throughout the tex t , Kong-sprul wr ites i n a semi-co l loquia l s t y l e using i r r egu la r s p e l l i n g , grammar and sentence structure not found in " c l a s s i c a l " Tibetan wr i t i ng s , such as sGam-po-pa's Jewel Ornament of Liberation. 15 a. Summary of contents of Nges-don sgron-me Chapter II. The Four Ordinary Foundations (f. la-146) l a . : T i t l e l b . : Invocation lb.-13a: the four Ordinary Foundations (thun-mong sngon-'gro bzhi), pract ices involv ing contemplation of 1. valuable human existence (mi-lus rin-po-che); 2. impermanence (mi-rtag-pa); 3. act ions , t he i r causes and results (las rgyu 'bras), and 4. the shortcomings of samsaric existence Ckhor-ba'i nyes-dmigs), the " four facts which turn the mind toward r e l i g i o n " (blo-'gro rnam-bzhi). 13a.-14b.: Author 's conclusion and comments. Chapters III-VI (f.14b.-50a.) deal with the Four Special Founda-t ions. Chapter I I I . F i r s t of the Four Special Foundations: Taking Refuge and Engendering the Enlightened Att i tude (f.14b.-25b.). 14b.-16b.: Taking Refuge (skyabs-'gro), the f i r s t basic commitment to the goal of f u l l Enlightenment; Engendering the Enlightened Att i tude (byang-sems-bskyed), Bodhic i t ta commitment to a path to Enlightenment which includes a l l l i v i n g beings. 16b.-17b.: The s i x Sources of Refuge (skyabs-yul). 17b.-19a.: The e f fec t of mental a t t i tude on the outcome of one's p ract i ce . 19a.: Benef ic ia l resu lts of e f fec t i ve pract ice of Taking Refuge. 19a.-25b.: Engendering the Enlightened At t i tude : Commentary, theoret ica l discussion of Bodh ic i t ta . 16 Chapter IV. Second of the Four Special Foundations: The Hundred-Syllable Mantra of rDo-rje Sems-dpa' (f. 25b.-31b.). 25b.-26a.: Other versions of the pract i ce . 26a.-27a.: Meditation and Mantra of rDo-rje Sems-dpa', symbolic p u r i f i -cat ion of former misdeeds and d i s tor ted mental a t t i tudes . 27b.: Indications of successful p ract ice. 27b.-31b.: Importance of pu r i f i c a t i o n and great e f f i cacy of th i s pract ice. Chapter V. Third of the Four Special Foundations: The Mandala-Offer ing ( f . 31b.-40a.). 31b.-35b.: Mandala-Offering, symbolic presentation of the ent i re universe to the s i x Sources of Refuge. 35b.: Indications of successful p ract ice. 35b.-40a.: Function of the p rac t i ce , refinement of the ind iv idua l through acqu i s i t i on of merit and awareness (tshogs-gnyis rdzogs-pa); theoret ica l basis of th i s a cqu i s i t i on ; great e f f i cacy of th i s p rac t i ce . Chapter VI. Fourth of the Four Special Foundations: The Guru-Yoga (f. 40a.-50a.). 40a.-42a.: Guru-Yoga (bla-ma'i rnal-'byov) devotional pract ice in which the p rac t i t i one r i s symbol ical ly "matured" (smin-byed) by rece iv-ing the blessings of the Mahamudra l ineage. 42a.-42b.: Appl icat ion of the above in everyday l i f e . 42b.-50a.: Importance of receiv ing the bless ings; the Lama-disciple re la t ionsh ip . 17 50a.-60a.: Mahamudra. 61a.: Colophon. 3. 'Phags-lam bgrod-pa'i shing-rta 'Phags-lam bgrod-pa'i shing-rta by the ninth Karma-pa dBang-phyug rDo-rje and others consists of a l i t u r g y , inc luding prayers and descriptions of v i s ua l i z a t i on s , to be chanted while p rac t i c ing the Four Ordinary and Four Special Foundations. Abbreviated inst ruct ions for pract ice are provided in smaller p r i n t . We have not trans lated the l a s t section of 'Phags-lam, the l i t u r g y of a meditation on rDo-rje rNal- 'byor-ma or Vajrayogin i . This , l i k e Mahamudra, i s a d i screte p rac t i ce , of a higher order than the Four Foundations. OTHER TEXTS DEALING WITH THE FOUNDATIONS According to Kalu Rin-po-che, Nges-don sgron-me i s today pre-ferred above a l l other texts for beginners' study of the Four Foundations because i t i s thorough, concise, and easy to understand. Other Karma bKa'-brgyud-pa texts include: 1. Nges-don rgya-mtsho by 'Jam-mgon Kong-sprul. Longer version of Nges-don sgron-me with more emphasis on Mahamudra. 2. sNgon-'gro'i khrid-yig thun-bzhi'i rnal-'byor du bya-ba by Dwags-po Pan-chen bKra ' - sh i s rnam-rgyal, s ixteenth century bKa'-brgyud Lama. Contains in te res t ing var iat ions 18 19 on the Four Foundations as described in Nges-don sgron-me. 3. Nges-don rgya-mtsho by Karma-pa IX dBang-phyug rDo-rje in co l laborat ion with S i - tu VI Chos kyi rGyal-mTsan (ca. 1600). Intermediate-length version of Lhan-oig skyes-20 sbyor khrid. Nges-don sgron-me was wr i t ten to supplement th i s text . 4. Ma-rig mun-sel, same authors. Long version of Lhan-oig 21 skyes-sbyor khrid. 5. Phyag-rgya ohen-po lhan-oig skyes-sbyor gyi khrid zin-bris snying-po gsal-ba'i sgron-me bdud-rtsi'i nying-khu ohos-sku mdzub-tshugs su ngo-sprod-pa by Karma-pa IX dBang-22 phyug rDo-rje. 6. Chos-drug bdud-rtsi nying-khu'i sngon-'gro dngos-grub myur-stsol by S i - t u IX Padma Nyin-byed, Kong-sprul 's root Lama. Very b r i e f descr ipt ion of Four Foundations, none on - 23 Mahamudra. Lamas of other sects who wrote about the "Foundations" include bSod-nams rGyal-mtshan, dKon-mchog Lhun-grub, and 'Jam-byangs mKhyen-brtse dBang-phyug of the Sa-skya sect ; Rin-chen Tshe-dbang nor-bu, 1975. 1 9 gDams-ngag-mdzod, op. c i t . , Vo l . V, f o l i o s 547-58. 2 0 C i ted by sDe-gzhung Rin-po-che in an interview on 20 February, 2 1 Ib id. 22 gDams-ngag-mdzod, op. c i t . , Vo l . VI, f o l i o s 70-104. 2 3 I b i d . , f o l i o s 181-7. 19 'Jigs-med gling-pa and mKhyen-brtse dBang-po of the rNying-ma-pa, and 24 possibly bLo-bzang Chos Kyi rgya-mtsho of the dGe-lugs-pa. USE OF TEXTS IN PRACTICE Nges-don sgron-me i t s e l f i s not used during the pract ice of the Foundations, but i s studied beforehand, and may be referred to between sessions. Before beginning an actual pract ice session (thun), the p rac t i t i one r excludes a l l d i s t rac t i ons . He may then set before him an icon of the v i s ua l i z a t i on used i n that p ract i ce , e.g., an image of rDo-rje Sems-dpa', a p icture of the Sources of Refuge and so on. The length of the session i s a matter of personal preference. Actual pract ice of each of the Four Special Foundations involves the p rac t i t i one r i n an intense drama, combining phys ica l , verbal and mental acts . As he chants the relevant section of the l i t u r gy he v i sua l i ze s the scenes described, considers the s i gn i f i cance of the prayers, and carr ies out the r i t u a l acts ind icated. During a l l of th i s he t r i e s to keep his attent ion exc lus ive ly on what he i s doing. To complete the p rac t i ce , he must perform each of the Four Special 25 Foundations 111,111 times. Since the f i r s t , Taking Refuge, also i n -cludes 111,111 f u l l prostrat ions, the to ta l i s 555,555. Hence, the pract ice i s commonly ca l l ed the "Five-hundred-thousand" Cbum-lnga). Names supplied by sDe-gzhung Rin-po-che, 20 Feb., 1975. o r We have not discovered the reason fo r th i s re -dupl icat ion of d i g i t s . /-CHAPTER II THE FOUR ORDINARY FOUNDATIONS INTRODUCTORY REMARKS This sect ion confronts the reader with four po ints , held to be undeniable facts about existence, known as the " four thoughts which turn the mind toward r e l i g i o n " (blo-'gro rnam-bzhi). The p rac t i ce , c a l l ed the "Four Ordinary Foundations," consists of meditating on these fac t s , i . e . , s i t t i n g s t i l l and ca re fu l l y considering t he i r impl icat ions and watching t h e i r operation in everyday l i f e . Its aim i s to motivate further re l i g ious p ract i ce . It i s presumed that when the " four thoughts" have been in te rna l i zed so thoroughly that they have become common sense, the ind iv idua l w i l l natura l ly s h i f t his p r i o r i t i e s from short-term worldly goals to long-term re l i g ious ones. These " four thoughts" are one of the most common themes of introductory talks given by Tibetan Lamas of a l l sects. 1. "The Precious Human B i r t h , " i s designed to i n s t i l l an appreciation of the uniqueness and value of th is human existence. I t i s considered unique because a human being 's exceptional phys ica l , verbal and mental 'equipment' make him uniquely capable of consciously choosing and pursuing a constructive course of act ion. It i s considered valuable because Buddhahood—supremely valuable, Enlightened existence—can be more eas i l y appreciated and attained by a human than by any other type of being. 20 2 1 These ideas are presented f i r s t by contrast ing human capab i l i t i e s with those of less fortunate beings ("the eight unfavorable s t a t e s " ) , and the human s i tuat ion with that of beings who are techn ica l l y human but subject to cer ta in dehumanizing circumstances ("the s ixteen unfavorable cond i t ions " ) . Then the specia l bonuses ("the ten bless ings " ) and res-p o n s i b i l i t i e s i m p l i c i t i n human existence are discussed. 2 . "Impermanence," i s a highly in tent iona l treatment of th i s ancient Buddhist doctr ine. I t i s designed to confront the reader with the immanence of death and the utter lack of grounds for expectation that any thing or person we now enjoy w i l l out la s t the next moment. We are urged to l e t the fear of death motivate re l i g ious p ract i ce . Re-l i g ious pract ice is not sa id to be a remedy fo r death, but only for the fear fu l experiences which o rd ina r i l y precede, accompany and fol low death. 3. " Ac t i on , Cause and Result. " According to the Buddhist doctr ine of karma, an " ac t i on " i s anything one does, says, or thinks. A "cause" i s an emotion or intent ion which motivates an act ion. A " r e s u l t " i s an experience a r i s i n g from an act ion and i t s in tent ion. Results are seldom experienced sooner than the next l i f e t i m e ; they may be experienced much l a t e r than that. In th i s t ex t , the notion that the resu l t w i l l resemble the act ion and intent ion i s presented in a s t a r t l i n g l y l i t e r a l manner, in contrast to i t s presentation in texts intended for scholar ly audiences, such as the Abhidharmakosa. Actions are cumulative, and each ind iv idua l " c a r r i e s " his unique accumulation from l i f e to l i f e . This accumulation provides the motive 22 force which perpetuates c y c l i c existence. Samsara pers i s t s un t i l we have experienced a l l the consequences of our acts and ceased to gen-erate new ones. Actions are grouped into two main c lasses, according to the nature of t h e i r motivations and resu l t s . They are not seen as i n t r i n -s i c a l l y good or e v i l . "Samsario" acts are those which are motivated by ignorance and d i s tor ted emotions a r i s i ng from ignorance, and which re su l t in r eb i r t h . The pa r t i cu l a r type of reb i r th we receive depends on whether our samsario actions are large ly "wholesome" or "unwholesome," i . e . , whether they resu l t in health (espec ia l ly mental) and happiness or i l l health and misery. "Neutra l " acts have neg l i g ib le resu l t s . Samsario actions are also "meritor ious" or "non-meritorious," depending on whether they lead us to a higher or lower samsario existence. The other main class of act ions, "act ions which lead to L ibera-t i o n , " consists t o t a l l y of wholesome acts motivated by a desire f o r freedom from samsario existence. Although any wholesome act results in some degree of happiness, samsario happiness i s not highly valued be-cause i t i s subject to impermanence. Only L iberat ion offers happiness which transcends samsara's shortcomings. This t e x t ' s treatment of the doctrine of karma aims to convince the reader that since everything he does w i l l have a de f i n i t e re su l t , he had better avoid unwholesome action and adopt wholesome act ion. Although re l i g ious pract ice w i l l eventually destroy the emotional " roots " of samsario action completely, behavioral control i s here advo-cated as a good s ta r t i ng point. 23 4. "The Shortcomings of Samsara" attempts to consolidate the reader 's growing convict ion that L iberat ion i s the only goal worth pursuing. Its approach i s a systematic devaluation of samsaric e x i s -tence. In conformity with the f i r s t Noble Truth, every dimension of samsaric existance examined i s found to be replete with su f fer ing and devoid of l a s t i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n . In the sect ion on the human realm, the very type of existence previously ex to l l ed as the most r i c h l y endowed, i s shown to imply the greatest var ie ty of su f fe r ing . TRANSLATION lb . Invocation 1 To Marpa, Mi la and Dwags-po, Three Chiefs of the many siddhas, To the glorious bKa'-brgyud-pa, Dus-gsum mKhyen-pa, who received t h e i r oral transmission, To rDo-rje 'Chang, member of the [Golden] Rosary of W i s h - F u l f i l l i n g Gems, 2 To the mighty Padma Nyin-byed, I bow my head. Most Exce l lent , Perfect Buddha, During r e b i r t h , th i s l i f e t ime and beyond, Grant me, and each sent ient being, 3 The bless ing of r ea l i z a t i on of the true state of things.26 t u The f i r s t two l ines invoke the three main s p i r i t u a l ancestors of the bKa'-brgyud sect: Marpa the Translator (1012-97), his d i s c i p l e Milarespa (1040-1123) and his d i s c i p l e , Dwags-po or sGam-po-pa (1079-1153). Upon t h e i r work, Dus-gsum mKhyen-pa (1110-93) founded the Karma bKa'-brgyud sect and became i t s f i r s t Karma-pa, or head. See Ch. I, pp. 6-8. The "Golden Rosary of W i s h - F u l f i l l i n g Gems" i s the Mahamudra l ineage, whose source or, f i r s t member i s considered to be the Buddha 24 lb.2a. Prologue 3 Each of us has obtained a human body. [Now] we must learn 27 the importance of "enter ing the Dharma's door," and turn our 28 thoughts to the Dharma. For th i s to occur, we must have profound 29 30 4 confidence, based on knowledge of the Precious Ones' q u a l i t i e s . In addit ion to th i s confidence, our i n i t i a l motivation must come from meditation on impermanence. I f we do not think about death and impermanence, [our thoughts] w i l l not even begin [to turn to 1 the Dharma]. Relying also on a knowledge of the r a r i t y [of th i s human existence, with i t s ] opportunities and b less ings , we begin the basic [p ract ices , known as the] Four Ordinary Foundations: rDo-rje 'Chang, the sec t ' s supreme symbol of Enlightenment. See Ch. I, p. 9. S i - t u Padma Nyin-byed (1774-1853) was Kong-sprul 's "root-Lama" (rtsa-ba'i bla-ma), i . e . , ch ief s p i r i t u a l teacher from whom he received ord inat ions, important empowerments [dbang see Ch. VI., n. 345), and key teachings. The second stanza a r t i cu l a te s the ult imate goal of a l l Buddhist p rac t i ce : f u l l Enlightenment, or d i r e c t , non-conceptual awareness of the ult imate nature of a l l things (gnas-lugs vtogs-pa). 27 I.e., p rac t i c i ng the Buddhist r e l i g i o n . 28 I.e., Buddhist doctr ine. 29 yid-ches-pa'i dad-pa. 30 The Three Jewels: Buddha, Dharma and Samgha. See Ch. I I I . 1. The Precious Human B i r th "Meditate on the precious opportunities and blessings of th i s rare and f r a g i l e [human existence]. Make i t worthwhile."31 The eight unfavorable states of existence  i n which ind iv idua l s are disadvantaged F i r s t , meditate as fo l lows: Consider the advantages of th i s rare human existence, with i t s eight opportunities and ten bless ings, more precious than a w i s h - f u l f i l l i n g gem! Unlike ourselves, the beings in the eight unfavorable states of ex-istence [are disadvantaged in the fo l lowing ways]: 1. Hell-beings su f fe r from heat and cold without the s l i g h te s t break. 2. S p i r i t s su f fe r the torments of hunger and t h i r s t . 3. Animals are stupid and confused, [incapable of ] any understanding or knowledge. 4. Barbarians, born in those numerous lands untouched by Dharma--which far outnumber Buddhist countr ies—cannot under-stand i t . 5. Long- l iv ing gods of the realms of Desire, Form, and the Formless realms are d i s t racted by the i r love of worldly "Dang-po bsgom gyi da l - ' byor rin-chen ' d i / Thob-dka' ' j i g - s l a da-res don-yod-bya." From 'Phags-lam. gDams-ngag-mdzods vo l . VI, f o l i o 107/1. 26 pleasures and samddhi, and have no in te res t in the Dharma. 2 6. Heretics and those who have a natural d i s l i k e for the Dharma, hold perverted views. 7. For those born in a dark kalpa i n which no Buddha comes and the at t r ibutes of the Precious Ones are not renowned, the world i s a desolate place. 3 8. Mutes, said to be ignorant of the world of language, are stupid and to not turn t he i r thoughts to the Dharma. None of these beings are fortunate enough to pract ice Dharma. A l l of them are tormented by the i r past deeds. [This i s what i t means to] lack le i su re and opportunity. 4 You who have not been born into any of the eight unfavorable 33 states i n which ind iv idua l s [are disadvantaged] possess eight A l l the gods of the three samsavio realms (dhatus) l i v e much longer than humans. Gods of the Desire-realm (Kamadhatu) are attached to worldly pleasures. Those of the other two realms (Rupa, AYupyadhatu) c l i n g to the subt ler del ights of samddhi, meditative concentration. See L. de La Val lee Poussin, t r an s l . and annot., "L 1Abhidharmakosa de Vasubandhu," Melanges, Vo l . XVI. Bruxel les: IBHEC, 1971, ch. i i i , 172-3 ( l i fespans of gods), 6-7 (three dhatus); ch. v i i i , 127-218 {dhyanas, levels of samadhi). 33 rang-rgyud; sva-samtana: "stream of being." According to H.V. Guenther: "An i nd i v i dua l , which in other systems i s regarded as a combination of matter and permanent mental p r i nc i p l e (atman), i s in r e a l i t y a continuously changing stream of that which from one viewpoint i s said to be matter and from another a mind. However, what we c a l l the mental and the material occurs in a unity of organization . . . something dynamic." Jewel Ornament. Berkeley: Shambala, 1971, p. 27, n. 27. This stream i s s im i l a r to karmia accumulation. Each one i s beginningless and unique. (Lama) 27 3 kinds of opportunity. But though you have obtained a human body capable of p ract i c ing Dharma, i f your pract ice i s to be r ea l l y e f f e c t i v e , you must [ f i r s t ] be free of the fo l lowing s ixteen unfavorable condit ions: The sixteen unfavorable conditions Eight unfavorable conditions based on present circumstances 4 1. Because the f i ve [emotional] poisons 3 ^ are extremely 5 potent, the ind iv idual i s [mentally] d isturbed, 2. under the influence of corrupting compaions; 3. of fa l se views and p rac t i ce , or 4. subject to extreme laz iness . 5. Due to previous bad deeds, a f lood of obstacles now advances. 6. [The i nd i v i dua l ] comes 3 under others ' control as a slave or servant, 7. enters the Dharma 6 because he fears death or [being l e f t without a regular source o f ] food or c lo th ing , but does not p rac t i ce , or 8. i s in s incere ly involved in the Dharma for the sake of p r o f i t or renown. Eight unfavorable conditions involv ing mental  re ject ion of the Dharma. 3a. 1 1. He has great desire and attachment for his body, wealth and so on. 2. Since his character i s extremely coarse, a l l his dug-lnga: pride (nga-rgyal), desire and attachment ('dod-ohags)} aversion (zhe-sdang), jealousy (phrag-dog)3 and confusion or bewilderment (gti-mug). o c I.e., a monastery. (Lama) 28 acts are mean. 3. No matter how much [the Lama] explains the 36 miseries of the lower realms he i s not fr ightened. 4. No matter how much [the Lama] explains the great bless ing of L iberat ion, he has no f a i t h in i t . 5. He natura l ly del ights in unwholesome act ion. 6. He has as much motivation to pract ice Dharma as has a dog to eat grass. 7. The " roots " of his [Bodhisattva] resolut ion and his vows are broken. 8. He breaks his sacred commitments to the Lama and re l i g i ou s companions. Had you been subject to these s ixteen unfavorable condit ions, you would not have been influenced by the Dharma. Since that would have led you to act in a manner conducive to b i r t h in the lower realms, re jo i ce in the fact that you are free of these [unfavorable cond i t ions ] , and learn how to prevent the i r future occurrence. 36 ngan-song: the realms of he l l -be ings , s p i r i t s and animals. 37 (byang-chub) sems-bskyed dang sdom-pa'i rtsa-ba nyams-pa. A l l vows include an essent ia l clause or " r oo t . " I f th i s i s transgressed the en t i re vow i s destroyed. For example, the " root " of most vows i n -cludes a promise not to harm sentient beings. See Ch. I l l , p. 89 fo r the Bodhisattva vow's " roo t s . " 38 dam-tshig._ _A11 sacred oaths and promises, ca l l ed "vows" (sdom-pa) in the Mahayana_are ca l l ed "sacred bonds" or "commitments" (dam-tshig) in the Vajrayana. Types of dam-tshig e spec ia l l y character i s -t i c of the Vajrayana include 1. the bond establ ished by the Lama's be-stowal of teaching or empowerment (dbang) to the aspirant who requests i t . I t defines his special re lat ionsh ip to the Lama from that point on. See Ch. VI., Commentary. 2. the bond establ ished between an aspirant and any yi-dam (See Ch. I l l , n. 118) upon the former's empower-ment. Thereafter, that yi-dam and the c lu s te r of meditative practices associated with i t w i l l be the major focus of the asp i rant ' s Vajrayana pract ice. 29 3a. The ten blessings of the precious human b i r t h The f i ve personal blessings 4 1. You have obtained a human body, the reverse of the eight unfavorable s tates, 2. You were born in a land to which, by v i r tue of the Dharma's words, Buddhism has spread. 3. Since 5 your eyes and other f i v e sense organs are i n t a c t , you can under-stand whatever i s taught. 4. Since you have "entered the door" of the Buddha's Dharma and not become involved with heret i c s , your acts are wholesome. 5. You have profound confidence in the Three Jewels. The f i v e blessings received from others 1. Although the frequent per iod ic r i se and destruction 6 of the many realms of th i s universe makes i t d i f f i c u l t for a Buddha to come even once, to even one of them, here and now the 39 Buddha Sakyamuni has come! 2. Although Pratyekabuddhas and others who did not preach the Dharma have come, now th i s Excel lent 40 One preaches the profound and extensive Saddharma. 3. The 3b. 1 Buddha's doctrine has not decl ined, but endures. 4. I t has many fo l lowers. 5. Other sent ient beings, out of love, give food, 39 rang-sangs-rgyas. Meditating in i s o l a t i on to achieve Enl ighten-ment for himself alone, the Pratyekabuddha does achieve a degree of r ea l i z a t i on . But in the Mahayana, he i s considered i n f e r i o r to a Bodhisattva, who works to help a l l beings reach Enlightenment, and him-s e l f achieves complete Buddhahood. ^ dam-chos zab-rgyas. "Profound" (sab) refers to the prajnapara-mita; "extensive" (rgyas)t to the sutva, vinaya and abhidharma teachings. 30 c lo th ing and other items needed to maintain conditions conducive to re l i g ious p ract i ce , to those who, observing the v i c i s s i tudes of old age, sickness and the l i k e , are determined [to leave 2 samsara].^ Thus, those who pract ice Dharma are not des t i tu te . Why the human b i r t h i s precious  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to obtain 42 3 A l l sent ient beings have a natural tendency to act harmful ly; few act b e n e f i c i a l l y . Even among the few who do, the capacity for moral conduct required for acqu i s i t i on of a human body i s t y p i c a l l y very rare. As a r e su l t , beings of the three lower realms are numerous as grains of s o i l i n the earth, whi le gods and human beings are exceedingly rare. Furthermore, there are scarcely enough sentient beings with human bodies who l i v e 4 by the Dharma [to const i tute a class of samsaric'] beings! I t i s impossible to count a l l the insects l i v i n g beneath a slab of rock. But i t i s quite possible to count a l l the men l i v i n g in [an en t i re ] kingdom! Since so few human beings pract ice Dharma, those who 5 behave in accordance with i t are [as rare as] daytime stars . 41 'khor-ba las nges-par-'byung-'dod kyi bio, or Simply, nges-'byung: determination to qu i t samsara based on convict ion of i t s short-comings, which provides a stable motivation for p ract i ce . (LPL) 42 . rang-bzhin. Ignorance (ma-rig-pa; Sanskr i t , avidya) i s the fundamental, def ining condit ion of sent ient beings. It which gives r i se to the d i s torted emotional reactions (nyon-mongs-pa; klesa) natura l ly re su l t ing in misguided behavior or bad deeds (sdig-pa'i las; papakarma). 31 It i s ea s i l y l o s t This body i s threatened by many potent i a l l y f a t a l circum-43 stances such as f i r e , f l ood, poison, weapons, malevolent plane-tary inf luences, earthquakes and so on; yet we never know when they w i l l occur! Few conditions favor i t s s u r v i va l . Since the only d i f ference between l i f e and death i s the exhalation or inhala-t ion of one rasping breath, th i s body more eas i l y destroyed than a bubble. A precious human body l i k e th i s one w i l l not be found again. Many people l e t i t go to waste. I f you had an animal 's body [ instead], the means to achieve Enlightenment would be beyond 44 your reach. You would not even know how to rec i t e one Mam but you would have the power to do the [kinds of deeds which] cause reb i r th in the lower realms. I t has a great object ive Thanks to th i s human body, we have the a b i l i t y to achieve 45 even complete Buddhahood: This i s i t s great object ive. Up to now, we have not valued i t very h ighly, but spent i t in vain. AC Worldly men concerned for future happiness are able to deal with hardships in business or other worldly work. But when i t comes to 4^ ohi-ba'i vkyen. 4 4 I.e., the mantra, "Om Mani padme hum." 45 don chen-po. 4 6 M i spr int : "phug gi bed" should be "phug gi bde." 32 dealing with hardships encountered in s t r i v i n g toward [Enl ighten-ment], l i f e ' s ever-present goal, we are completely devoid of 47 4 energy. We are degenerate, diss ipated and beguiled by Mara. From th i s day on, meditate repeatedly on the thought: "I must exert myself exc lus ive ly in re l i g ious p ract i ce ! I must accomplish the ob ject i ve ! " 5 Generally speaking, one whose [past good] deeds have spread 48 into his present l i f e i s c a l l ed a "karma-carrier." A "karma-carrier" who pract iced Dharma in his previous l i f e now finds i t 6 easy to place his t ru s t in the Lama and the Dharma. This i s an ind icat ion that his [past] "white" deeds have been reawakened. But the karma of one who i s accustomed to act ing harmfully w i l l simply "car ry " him to reb i r th in the lower realms, not to a human body. 49 From the Kstigarbha-sutra: 4b. 1 "There are ten kinds of samsario beings for whom true human b i r t h i s d i f f i c u l t to obtain. Who are they? They are: 1. those who have not cu l t i va ted the causes of wholesome bDud: 1. Person i f icat ions of factors which hinder or obstruct re l i g i ous p rac t i ce ; 2 Z A demon of the fourth dhyana who endangers f a i t h . (Lama); 3. The four Maras: Skandhamara, Klesamara, Mrtyumara, and Devaputramara, described by H.V. Guenther as, " . . '. cer ta in l i m i t i n g factors which . . . have a deadening inf luence on l i f e . " {Jewel Ornament, 199-200). For a f i ne study, see T.O. L ing, Buddhism and the Mythology of Evil. London: A l len and Unwin, 1962. ^ las-'phro [-can]. 49 'Phags-pa sa'i snying-po'i mtshan brgya-rtsa-brgyad gzung-shags dang boas-pa. bKa'-'gyur, rGyud-'bum, 327, 506. A devotional work. 33 4 b " 50 1 ac t i on ; 2. who have not accumulated a quantity of merit ; 3. who fol low the ways of corrupting companions; 4. for 2 whom the klesas pe r s i s t ; 5. who do not fear suf fer ing in future l i v e s ; 6. who are very disturbed by klesas; 7. who out of indolence and inattent ion are every lazy about 3 Dharma p rac t i ce ; 8. who embrace Buddha's teachings but do not fol low them; 9. who fo l low, or 10. who bel ieve in perverted views." 4 Beware of these! To say, "Since I understand the great importance of th i s human body, I am great! I am learned! I am nobly born! I am good!," const itutes contempt for others. Take 5 notice and des i s t ! Since a l l l i v i n g beings possess the tatha-51 gatagarbha, i t i s wrong to despise even a mere insect. It i s sa id that when [the tendency to] condemn others has f u l l y ripened, in th i s l i f e you w i l l lose what you cherish. In the next, you w i l l e i the r be born among the s p i r i t s or as an enslaved human being. Since ordinary beings [ l i k e ourselves] lack C O the supersensible cognitions [of s p i r i t u a l l y advanced beings], 50 -dge-ba'i rtsa-ba' kusalamula: the reverse of the three klesas3 i . e . , non-attachment, non-aversion and mental c l a r i t y . 51 de-bzhin gshegs-pa'i snying-po: p o t en t i a l i t y for Buddhahood present in a l l sent ient beings. ^See David Ruegg, Theorie du tatha-gatagarbha et gu gotva. Pa r i s : Ecole Francaise D 1Extreme-Orient, 1969. 52 nmgon-sh.es; abhijna. According to H.V. Guenther: "There are s i x supersensible cognitions and f a c u l t i e s , of which the f i r s t f i ve may be possessed by ordinary beings, the s i x th belongs exc lus ive ly to the flryas, who are s p i r i t u a l l y advanced. The s i x are: miraculous powers (such as mult ip ly ing oneself, walking through wal l s and so on); hearing human and div ine voices far and near; knowing others ' thoughts; r eco l l ec t i on of former l i v e s ; the v i s ion of beings passing away and then re incarnat ing; and the awareness that a l l d i sturbing elements have l o s t t he i r power of keeping us on low planes." Jewel Ornament, op. c i t . , p. 52. 34 6 we do not know who may be an Arhat and who a Bodhisattva, how such Beings may be teaching Dharma, or what special methods they may be using to help sent ient beings. 5a. 1 Being ignorant yourse l f , do not judge others! Since i t i s said that one who despises a Bodhisattva w i l l su f fer the agonies of he l l for many kalpas, do not discount the seriousness of even one unpleasant joke at another 's expense. The type of person whose f a i t h v a c i l l a t e s , whose ins ight 2 i s l i m i t e d , who i s ea s i l y led astray by companions and i s fr ightened by profound teachings w i l l develop gradual ly, and be trained in a 53 gradual path, c lose ly [guided] by a Lama of s k i l l f u l methods. id 55 54 Before he may be instructed on "seeing" and "meditating" he must amass and integrate the Two Accumulations. But the type of person capable of instantaneous i l l um ina -56 t i o n , whose ins ight i s expansive, compassion i s great, who i s f i l l e d with unbending f a i t h and devotion, lacks desire and attach-ment, thinks only of the Dharma and espec ia l l y del ights in profound 53 •» thabs-mkha.s-pa.j- upaya-kausalya. 54 ' Ita; darsana: examination or perception of the nature of things; sgom; bhavana: meditation on, or attent ive concentration to that which has been perceived. Both are essent ia l to re l i g ious pract ice. See Jewel Ornament, op. c i t . , p. 84. 55 tshogs-gnyis; dvi-varga: 1. Accumulation of Merit (bsod-nams kyi tshogs); 2. Accumulation of Awareness (ye-shes kyi tshogs); "Mer i t " refers to meritorious act ion. "Awareness" i s transcending awareness: seeing things as they rea l l y are. This double accumulation i s an important prerequis i te to successful higher meditative pract ice. See Ch. V. Introductory Remarks and pp. 159-69-*^ cig-char-ba'i rigs-can. 35 5 doctr ines, merely requires a teaching which immediately points out [the ultimate nature of r e a l i t y ] , dispensing with the many v i sua l i za t ions [and other pract ices employed by] the "path of 57 means." Thus i t i s ! 2. Impermanence "The whole external world and the world of beings i s impermanent. The l i f e of beings i s l i k e a bubble. We never know when we w i l l d ie. At death, we become corpses. Thus, s t r i v e to achieve the aims of Dharma."58 According to the bKa'-gdams school, these are the f i v e basic thoughts comprising meditation in impermanance: 6 1. "Think that nothing l a s t s . " F i r s t , the external world i s produced, then i t pe r s i s t s , u n t i l f i n a l l y , destroyed by f i r e and f l ood , nothing remains of i t , not even specks of dust! Last year and th i s year are soon over. Moment by moment, 5b. 1 th i s and other days, months, and years are used up. A l l l i v i n g beings, contents of the world, are impermanent. F i r s t you were an i n fan t ; l a t e r , a c h i l d ; then, a youth; now, an 57 - -thabs-lam; upaya-marga: gradual path or approach to Enlighten-ment such as the one described in th is text , employing v i s u a l i z a t i o n , r e c i t a t i on of prayers and mantras, and so on. (Lama) 58 "Gnyis-pa snod-bcud thams-cad mi-rtag cing/ sGos-su 'gro-ba'i tshe-srog chu-bur-'dra/ Nam 'ahi eha-med shi-tshe ro-ru-'gyur/ De-la chos kyi phan-phyir brtson-pas bsgrub." 'Phags-lam, op. c i t . , 107/2-3. 36 2 old man. Since each day, each month quickly brings us c loser and c loser to death, meditate on th i s now, th ink ing , "What should I do??" 2. "Think that many other people have d ied. " Although there are many who are o lder, younger or the 3 same age as yourse l f , remember that many others, who were once [ a l i ve ] l i k e them, are now dead. This one died; that one, too, 4 turned to dust. F i r s t they grew o l d , then they died! The two always seem to go together. Most of them did not die too pain-f u l l y , but qu ick ly , with no time for thoughts or reminiscences. Sometimes, even without dying, prominent men f a l l ; the lowly become prominent. A beggar becomes r i c h ; a r i ch man be-comes a beggar, and so on. 5 Since absolutely nothing in your da i l y experience over-59 comes impermanence, at some time i t i s bound to a f f ec t you, too. So r i gh t now, while there i s s t i l l time, think, "I r e a l l y must pract ice Dharma strenuously!" 3. "Think repeatedly of the many circumstances  which might cause death." 6 Since there are a great many circumstances which might cause death—such as avalanches, f a l l i n g objects , thunder or 60 61 l i gh tn ing , strokes, interna l ai lments, and the l ike--we do oi mthong ai thos mi-rtag-pa kho-na las ma 'das-pa. 61 grib-kha. glang-thabs. 37 6a. 1 not know how or when we w i l l die. But as long as we have [accumulated] karma, death i s unpreventable. Neither our food and c lo th ing , nor f r iends , attendants and servants can aid us in dealing with the circumstances leading to death. 2 Since you do not know when you w i l l d ie , now earnestly meditate on the thought, "How w i l l I die?" CO The Bodhisattva-pitaka l i s t s the nine causes of sudden death: " 1 . eating unwholesome food; 2. eating although you are f u l l ; 3. eating before d igest ing the previous meal; 4. not e l iminat ing at the r i ght time; 3 5. while i l l , neither heeding the nurse nor taking his p resc r ip t ions ; 6. being possessed by a f i e r ce disease-demon; 7. taking an emetic and vomiting; 8. impuls ively engaging in v io lence; 9. indulging in sex without r e s t r a i n t . " 4 Beware of these! 4. "Meditate on what w i l l happen  at the hour of death." The coming of death i s unwanted, inev i tab le and unwelcome. An ind iv idua l who has done harm i s t e r r i f i e d . In his dying hours, 5 he experiences inc red ib ly intense pain and the shuddering sensation of l i f e being cut o f f . He sees apparit ions everywhere. He cannot control his body or mind. Since dying thoughts are so very potent, CO _ _ Byang-chub sems-dpa'i sde-snod. Early Mahayana sutra contain-ing basic doctrine of the s i x paramitas to be car r ied out by Bodhisattvas. Part of the Ratnakuta group of sutras. bKa'-'gyur, dKon-brtsegs, 760 (12). 38 anything which enters his mind, even one careless unwholesome 6 thought, assures his reb i r th in the lower realms. Thus, instead of act ing in your usual manner, from now on, get into the habit of p ract i c ing the Dharma! 6b. 1 Since you cannot reverse a used-up l i f e t i m e , even with a Buddha's he lp- - to say nothing of the impotence of methods l i k e CO d i v ina t i on , exorcism, medical treatment, scr ipture-read ing, or [o f fer ing o f ] food or money, in lu r ing i t away--there i s simply no way to escape death. So instead of gr ieving l a t e r , set to work now! 5. "Think about what happens a f te r death." 64 2 Think: From the moment of death, even a wor ld- ru ler lacks the power to take along one mouthful of food, one a r t i c l e of c l o th ing , one cent of his money. He cannot even take along a s ing le servant. Af ter your corpse has been wrapped in a shroud and 3 bound with rope, everyone w i l l turn away from i t in disgust. 65 A f te r a few days, not even "the remains" w i l l be l e f t . Lacking mental con t ro l , l i k e a feather car r ied o f f by 4 wind, you walk the dangerous narrow path of the t e r r i f y i n g Div inat ion (mo) and exorcism (gto) were part of the standard medical p ract ice i n Tibet. F i r s t the demon who was causing the i l l n e s s would be i d e n t i f i e d by d i v i na t i on , then i t would be exorcized. (LPL) ^ 'khor-los sgyur-ba'i rgyal-po; cakvavartin: see Ch. V., n. 248. 65 This i s because the corpse has been l e f t on a deserted h i l l t o p as food for vultures, a common pract ice in mountainous regions of Tibet. (LPL) 39 bar-do. 66 You wander aimlessly in an unfamil iar place, another world. Your "b lack" and "white" deeds fol low you. There i s simply no way to undo the harm you have done, 5 but the Saddharma and wholesome action w i l l help you. Now, medi-ta te , " I f I do not s t r i v e to achieve these aims r i gh t now, a f te r death [ i t w i l l be too l a te ] for anyone to grant me an extension!" In short, there i s nothing for you to do but pract ice make i t part of your very existence. You should meditate on making i t part of your existence. As a r e su l t , your hour of death w i l l be a happy one, and everyone else w i l l say, "He was a t r u l y re l i g ious man!," and surely make you an object of veneration. 7a. 1 Someone i s always c ry ing , "A man has died! Oh, no! Oh, fi7 Lama, help him!" In the same way, death w i l l s t e a l t h i l y and quick ly catch up with you, too! You know that you w i l l die some 2 day, but you imagine that i t w i l l not happen for quite a whi le. I n t e l l e c t ua l l y you know that death may come at any time, but you are not r ea l l y convinced of t h i s . Whenever something u u The state experienced by each ind iv idua l between the time of his death and entry into a womb, during which he sees himself acting in various ways which r e f l e c t his past deeds, but i s unable to do any-thing to change t h i s . This drivenness and helplessness i s symbolized by the feather (the ind iv idua l ) tossed about by the wind (of karma). An ind iv idua l who i s s p i r i t u a l l y prepared for these experiences i s not help less , and may a t ta i n Enlightenment d i r e c t l y from the bar-do instead of being conceived anew. See W.Y. Evans-Wentz, ed., Tibetan Book of the Dead. Oxford Univers ity Press; New York, 1960. 6 Dharma from now on. You cannot simply " l e t i t be!" You should Su-zhig shi-song a-kha-kha/ Ga-shad goig tshang-ma lo-shad bla-ma rnkhyen. 40 68 J - * * J u • - r 6 9 , goes wrong, you are d i s t racted by samsara's appearances and act in opposition to the Dharma. Since such behavior cannot do you any good, you have already wasted the greater part of th i s l i f e t i m e ! Think: "Right now, since death i s at my door, I must f o r -get about things l i k e food, money, clothes and fame. There i s no time to spare!" and f i t yourse l f in to the path of the Dharma in body, speech and mind. You should always have p i t y for those who simply "take i t easy"^ 0 and do not focus t he i r minds on [the fac t that] they w i l l die sooner or l a t e r . ' ' 1 What are t h e i r inmost thoughts? Alas! they are not a f r a i d of death! 3. Act ion , Cause and Result "At the hour of death, our powers are d i s s ipated, and former deeds take t he i r course. To overcome t h i s , abandon harmful deeds and pract ice wholesome ones. With th i s i n mind, s c ru t i n i ze the stream of your existence everyday. " 7 2 68 rkyen-ngan re dang 'phrad-pa'i dus. 69 'jig-rten gyi snang-ba: the d i s tor ted ways in which things o rd i na r i l y appear to us, due to our ignorance and bewilderment. Especial-ly heightened in times of emotional s t ress. (Lama) ^ gzhan-dag so-sa dal-du 'dug-pa dang. ^ snga-chis phyi-ohis blo-la-bkram-pa-rnams. 72 "gSum-pa shi-tshe rang-dbang mi-'du-bas/ Las ni bdag-gir-bya phyir sdig-pa spangs/ dGe-ba'i bya-bas rtag-tu 'da'-bav-bya/ Zhes-bsam nyin-re rang-rgyud nyid-la brtag." 'Phags-lam, op. c i t . , 107/3-4. 41 5 Since [the doctrine of] " a c t i on , cause and resu l t " contains the fundamental message of the l im i t l e s s co l l e c t i on of Buddha's teachings, i t i s extremely profound and extensive. Only a person 73 who has reached the "one-valueness" r ea l i z a t i on w i l l have cleared up his doubts about " a c t i on , cause and re su l t . " Ordinary people 6 w i l l not r ea l l y understand i t . But general ly, th i s sums i t a l l up: A wholesome cause y i e ld s a pleasant r e su l t ; an unwholesome cause y ie ld s an unpleasant re su l t . F i r s t we w i l l discuss the causes and results of samsara, then the causes and results of L iberat ion. 7b. Action which leads to samsava. 1 The accumulation of bad deeds i s the root of suf fer ing i n 2 samsava. The klesas are to blame for bad deeds. Ignorance or 3 mental darkness i s the root of a l l the klesas. Because of mental darkness, we do not know where samsava comes from, what i t s nature i s , what types of act ions, causes and results are he l p f u l , and what types are harmful, and so on: We are in the dark! For example, ro-goig; eka-rasa: t h i rd of the four stages in Mahamudra r e a l i z a t i o n . According to H.V. Guenther: "One-valueness i s the experience of everything that appears as nothing, though not in the sense that appearance i s mere i l l u s i o n and that . . . there i s no need for serious act ion. On the contrary, one-valueness i s the spontaneous i n te re s t in the several s i tuat ions of l i f e which man encounters. This i n te res t has been pu r i f i ed of a l l vested interests through the preceding phases of the concentrative process, and hence i s more suited for benef i c i a l a c t i v i t y . However . . . th i s stage i s not the f i n a l r ea l i z a t i on 1 . . " Life and Teaching of Naropa, op. c i t . , p. 195. 42 i f the Lama explains [the nature of r e a l i t y ] , a f te r l i s t en i ng and thinking about [what he said] we may reach a conceptual under-4 standing. But j u s t as when we day-dream of a land we have never v i s i t e d , when we apply conceptual designations to [ultimate r e a l i t y ] , which i s not a " t h i n g , " ' ' 4 we are simply playing with concepts. By th i s [same] process, we apply the designation " I " to that which i s not [a s o l i d , separate s e l f ] and c l i ng to that 75 5 " I . " Based on t h i s , doubt about ultimate r e a l i t y and many 7fi other perverted att i tudes a r i se . Then, attachment toward [any thing which supports the " s e l f , " such as] your body, wealth and so on, and consequently pr ide, jealousy and greed spring up. 6 A v e r s i o n ^ to what i s "o ther , " and consequently, burning anger, malice and the l i k e erupt. I f you are free of [mental darkness, attachment and aver-s i on ] , the three emotional poisons, you w i l l not accumulate actions. Since results do not come about without act ions, you must do what 8a. . 1 you can to dig up these three roots of wandering in samsava. I H The ultimate nature of r e a l i t y , which the mental i s t i c a l l y -oriented bKa'-brgyud-pas term "the ultimate nature of mind" (sems gyi gnas-lugs) i s openness or emptiness (stong-pa-nyidj sunyata), and can-not be understood through concepts or characterized by conceptual desi gnations. 75 Doubt about ultimate r e a l i t y , i . e . , about the ultimate nature of r e a l i t y , leads ordinary people to look upon the various, loosely-connected, ever-changing factors (dharmas) of t he i r existence as i f these comprised a s o l i d , unitary, unchanging s e l f or ego. This mis-apprehen-sion leads to defensive and aggressive emotions (klesas) and actions (karma) in behalf of that non-existent " I. " 'dod-chags; raga. zhe-sdang; dvesa. 43 To b r i e f l y summarize [the topic of ] "act ion which leads to samsara"'. Non-meritorious ac t ion , grouped into "ten unwholesome 2 acts , " leads to reb i r th i n the lower realms. Meritorious act ion, inc luding generosity and so on, i f not motivated by the desire to achieve Nirvana leads to reb i r th in the higher realms as a god or 78 — human. The neutral act ion of samadhi leads to reb i r th [as a god], in the realm of Form or the Formless realm. 79 3 In short, u n t i l our propensit ies fo r conceptual izat ion have been exhausted, th i s continuous pattern of karmia accumulation 4 w i l l not be interrupted, thus insur ing perpetuation of the i l l u s i o n which i s samsara. A stupid person who, since his meditation i s blank, says "Ah! I have understood [the ultimate nature of mind], so I need not keep an eye on my actions or t h e i r consequences," i s a great t h i e f of the d o c t r i n e . ^ Unwholesome action 81 These are the ten unwholesome acts : 5 1. Do not consciously take the l i f e of any l i v i n g being, mi-gyo-pa'i las; aninjya-karma: " . . . act ion invar iab le . . . en vue de la sensation d 1 i nd i f fe rence des etages superieurs . . . " or " . . . action non-agite" of the Rupa and Arupyadhatu. See L. de La Vallee Poussin, "L'Abhidharmakosa," op. c i t . , Ch. I l l , p. 84; Ch. IV, p. 106. 79 mam-rtog gyi bag-ahags. 80 Because he steals or d i s to r t s the s p i r i t of the doctrine by mistaking his "blank" meditation for the r ea l i z a t i on of the ultimate nature of mind, openness or emptiness. (Lama) 81 mi-dge-ba bou. 44 even an ant, fo r when i t comes to l i f e there is no " b i g " or " s m a l l . " 8 2 2. Do not secret ly take another 's property when i t hasn 't been offered to you. 3. Do not indulge in sexual intercourse with an inappro-6 p r ia te partner: one who has taken vows; at an inappropriate time: when your wife i s pregnant; in an inappropriate place: near a Lama, shrine-room or stupa; or in an inappropriate manner: o r a l l y 8b. 1 or ana l ly . These are the four unchaste acts. A l l of the above const i tute the three unwholesome physical acts. 4. Do not consciously l i e , that i s , say what i s untrue. 5. Do not slander, that i s , say things which w i l l promote discord. 6. Do not speak i l l of others, that i s , c a l l a man a 2 t h i e f or h a l f - w i t , or hurt his feel ings by c rue l l y point ing out his f a u l t s . 7. Do not engage in i d l e chatter about m i l i t a r y or bus i -ness matters, about women, or in the form of songs, dances, jokes and so on. These are the four unwholesome verbal acts. 3 8. Do not covet someone e l se ' s money, w i fe , reputation, and so on, th ink ing, "Oh, i f only I had that ! " 9. Do not resent others, that i s , be displeased at t he i r happiness or good fortune. 82 Refers espec ia l l y to animals. It i s more serious to k i l l a human being than an animal. (Lama) 45 10. Do not hold perverted views, that i s , doubt the existence of past or future l i v e s ; or ac t ion , cause and re su l t ; or of the special qua l i t i e s of the Precious Ones. These are the three unwholesome mental acts. To sum up, when each of these ten unwholesome acts has f u l l y matured, you w i l l be reborn in the lower realms. Even i f you are reborn in the human realm, since you have taken l i f e , your l i f e w i l l be cut short. Since s tea l ing leads to many sorrows, such as f a l l i n g into poverty, simply do not s t e a l ! Turn away from others who commit [unwholesome ac t s ] ; regret those acts which have been committed. Wholesome action Reject these unwholesome acts. 1. Instead of k i l l i n g , save l i v e s . 2. Instead of s t ea l i n g , d i s t r i bu te your own food and money. 3. Preserve moral conduct whether anyone i s watching or not. 4. Speak t r u t h f u l l y . 5. Patch up quarrels caused by slander. 6 . Use gentle words. [7. Speak only of meaningful th ings] . 9a. 8. Rejoice in the good fortune of others. 1 9. Think only of t he i r benef i t . 10. Even on hearing the views of [another] re l i g ious sect, 46 2 instead of denouncing i t , have f a i t h in the Buddha's words. These are the ten wholesome acts. Do your best to carry them out. Bid others to do the same. Rejoice at those which have already been done. 3 As a r e su l t , you w i l l l i v e long in the higher realms, possessing many comforts such as great wealth. Neither wholesome nor unwholesome action You might " k i l l time" walking, moving, s leeping or s i t t i n g : 83 inef fectua l acts which are neither wholesome nor harmful, and 4 mature into neither good nor bad experiences. But since such actions simply waste th i s human l i f e , instead of throwing your a b i l i t y away i n i d l e amusements, make a conscious e f f o r t to devote your time exc lus ive ly to wholesome act ion. Avoid care less ly 5 committing even minor harmful ac t s , r e ca l l i n g that "Even a small amount of poison may be f a t a l . " Do not underestimate the power of even a minor wholesome act , r e ca l l i n g that, "Enough grains of barley w i l l [eventual ly] f i l l the bag." The eight heavenly qua l i t i e s You should develop a character endowed with the renowned 6 "e ight heavenly q u a l i t i e s , " the basis for the accumulation of a great deal [of merit] in l i ves to come. [This inc ludes] : 1. Long 9b. 1 l i f e , since you have stopped harming others; 2. a pleasing form, lung-ma bstan. 47 since you have offered lamps, c loth ing and so on; 3. a noble b i r t h , since you have humbly paid homage to the Lama and re l i g ious companions; 4. the power of wealth, since you have given poor learned men, the s ick and other needy ones a l l they wished; 5. author i ta t i ve speech, since you have only spoken cons t ruct i ve ly ; 6. great power and inf luence, since you have made f ine offer ings and prayers to the Precious Ones and your parents; 7. a male body, since you have befriended men and saved [animals] from cas t ra t ion , and 8. a l l types of strength in abundance, since you have help-f u l l y befriended others without hoping to f u l f i l l re l i g ious ob l i ga -tions thereby. Cu l t i vate [the kind of behavior which] w i l l give 84 you these [ q u a l i t i e s ] . Unt i l you have no more desire fo r samsara, you must learn to abandon i t s cause: unwholesome act ion. And, whether anyone i s watching or not, do not cheat in the performance of these and other wholesome acts which accumulate merit, [or in the preserva-t i on o f ] vows, sacred commitments and other wholesome acts which lead to L iberat ion. Action which leads to L iberat ion To achieve L ibe ra t i on , you must f i r s t become a learned man who un fa i l i ng l y adheres to moral conduct because he i s determined to leave samsara. Consequently, you w i l l achieve the samadhi in which the attent ion remains one-pointed. As a re su l t , through de-dag gi ?gyu-la-bslab. 48 i n s i ght which rea l i zes "non-se l f , " you w i l l know the general and s pec i f i c character i s t i c s of impermanence, su f fe r i ng , emptiness and so on, and your previously accumulated [deeds], which now obstruct [your s p i r i t u a l progress], w i l l be removed. They w i l l not recur. When your suf fer ing i s f i n a l l y used up, you w i l l rest in the r e a l i z a -oc t ion beyond extremes, which i s ca l l ed " L i be r a t i on . " [Achieving] " L i be ra t i on " or "Nirvana" does not en ta i l going to another place or becoming someone e l se. Summary In b r i e f : The re su l t of wholesome action is happiness; the re su l t of unwholesome action i s su f fe r i ng , and nothing e lse. [The re su l t s ] are not interchangeable: When you plant buckwheat [you get buckwheat. When you plant] barley [you get bar ley] . Actions and intentions K i l l i n g a l i v i n g being as an o f fe r ing to the Precious Ones, or beating and i n su l t i ng someone " f o r his own good" are examples of blending "white" intent ions with "b lack" act ions. Bu i ld ing a temple out of desire for fame, or gett ing an education out of an urge to compete, are examples of blending "b lack" intentions with "white" act ions. Along with pretending to be a monk out of fear of embarrassment, a l l these are fundamentally unwholesome act ions. We have stated that you must re jec t the poisonous tendencies which shes-rab; prajna.' mtha'-bral gyi rig-pa. 49 6 w i l l l a t e r become concrete unwholesome acts. But how are you to do th i s ? Be content with wholesome acts [which have been done]; 87 confess harmful acts and so on. I f you do not conquer them with these remedies, the deeds you have done w i l l " r i pen " only for your-10b. 1 s e l f , and no one e l se. They cannot possibly be l o s t or used up, even with the passing of many kalpas. Furthermore, actions always increase, even those a r i s i ng from the s l i g h te s t motivation. You 2 c o u l d . k i l l out of f i e r ce anger, or save a doomed man out of pure benevolence. Major actions increase unboundedly. Even the most weakly motivated wholesome or harmful word or deed increases a 3 hundred, even a thousandfold. I f you yourse l f have not acted or had in tent ions , i t i s impossible for someone e l s e ' s acts to a f fec t you. Thus, i f you can l i v e by the doctrine of "cause and resu l t " pronounced by the Buddha Himself, no matter how bad other people 4 are, i t w i l l be absolutely impossible for them to throw you into the lower realms. Scrut in ize every one of your own f a u l t s , and no one e l s e ' s , and see others as pure. Since th i s i s the root of [the ent i re doctr ine o f ] "act ion and r e su l t , " i t i s said to have been highly 88 pr ized by the Great bKa'-brgyud-pas. 87 shags. For the pract ice of Confession, see n. 168, below and Ch. IV, pp. 110; 116-18 88 bKa'-brgyud gong-ma-rnams: eminent bKa'-brgyud Lamas of the Figure 2. Wheel of Existences 51 4. The Shortcomings of Samsava 5 "Due to the constant torture of the three types of su f fer ing [experienced there in ] , the friends and pleasures of samsava are l i k e a feast held for a condemned man as he i s led to the gallows. Sever desire and attachment, and s t r i v e to a t ta in En-l i ghtenment. " 8 9 Hell-beings The eight hot he l l s For those born in the eight hot h e l l s , a l l the mountains and val leys are red-hot i ron and tongues of flame, v i o l en t l y burn-ing. The r i ve r s and lakes are molten copper and bronze. Even 6 the trees are swords and other sharp weapons. The beings cannot rest fo r even a moment, but are [repeatedly] slaughtered by w i ld beasts and horr ib le demons. 11a. 1 L i f e i n the AvTci h e l l i s the most intensely painful of - 90 a l l the eight [hot h e l l s ] . Even the Bhagavan cannot bear to speak of i t s miseries. For when He does, i t i s sa id , the merci-fu l Bodhisattvas vomit blood and come dangerously close to dying. 89 "bZhi-pa 'khor-ba'i gnas gvogs bde-'byov sogs/ sDug-bsngal-gsum gyis vtag-tu mnav-ba'i phyiv/ bSod-sav khvid-pa'i gshed-ma'i dga-ston Ztav/ Zhen-'khvis bcad-nas bvtson-pas byang-chub sgvub." 'Phags-lam, op. c i t . , 107/4-5 90 bcom-ldan-' das: "Conquerer," i . e . , Buddha. Many Mahayana sutvas take the form of narratives del ivered by the BhagavSn to a crowd of Bodhisattvas. 52 The eight cold he l l s For those born in the cold h e l l s , a l l the mountains and val leys are snow and i c e . Due to the b i t t e r cold of wind and storms, the i r bodies are covered with t iny cracks. Even before the i r b i l l i o n - yea r l i fespan ends, they die again and again and are in s tant l y reborn, only to undergo the same suf fer ing once more. Miscellaneous he l l s 91 The miseries [experienced by] those in the "occas iona l " 92 and "neighboring" he l l s are as bad as the res t . Sp i r i ts The s p i r i t s cannot f i nd any food or drink. Increasingly hungry and t h i r s t y , they f i nd only mucus and feces, and are wearied by t he i r hopeless search. Unclothed, they burn i n summer and freeze in winter. When i t ra ins , l i v e coals f a l l and burn them. They see water as pus. Flames shoot up from the i r d i s -located j o i n t s . They cont inual ly f i g h t and beat each other, each one thinking that the other i s his enemy. They may l i v e for f ifteen-thousand [human] years. Animals Animals in the sea are [as crowded as grains o f ] malting barley. They survive by eating each other. Constantly tormented nye-tshe-ba. nye-'khor-ba. 53 by fear, they wander about uncerta in ly, carr ied along by waves. Even animals whose habitats are spread throughout the mountains are unhappy, always fearing some enemy's approach. They k i l l each other. Even the domesticated ones are hitched to ploughs or k i l l e d for meat and hides. They are stupid. In addit ion to the misery of s t up i d i t y , they suf fer as badly from heat and cold as do the hel l-beings and s p i r i t s . Gods The gods of the realm of Desire are d i s t racted by the pleasant l i ve s they lead, so they do not think about the Dharma. Seven god-days before t he i r l i ve s are over, they perceive f i ve 93 d i f f e ren t death-omens. They see that t h e i r future b i rthplaces w i l l be in the he l l s and elsewhere, and experience the misery of t he i r own downfal l, l i k e f i s h wr ith ing on hot sand. When they have exhausted the i r store of good deeds, even 94 the gods of the four dhyanas and the Formless realm gradually degenerate and f a l l from samadhi. " . . . his dress becomes s o i l ed ; his garlands of flowers fade; persp i rat ion breaks forth from his arm-pits [ for the f i r s t t ime]; an e v i l smell r i ses from his body and he i s d i s s a t i s f i e d with his seat." H.V. Guenther, Jewel Ornament, op. c i t . , p. 6 8 . ^ 4 I.e., the realm of Form (Rupadhatu). 54 Asuras Since Asuras are natura l ly envious of the [superior] splendor of the gods, they do nothing but f i gh t with them. Their accumulated merit i s weak, and they d i s l i k e the Dharma. They are defeated in b a t t l e , su f fer ing the extreme pain of the slaughter. Humans The misery of b i r th in th i s human realm resembles that of a l i t t l e b i rd car r ied o f f by a hawk. The misery of ageing i s l i k e that of a mother camel los ing her young. The misery of i l l n e s s i s l i k e that of a gu i l t y man going to j a i l . The misery of death i s l i k e being pursued by an executioner. And each of these includes f i ve kinds of misery. The f i ve miseries of b i r t h Due to the v io lent pain which accompanies i t , 1. b i r t h enta i l s the misery of being born. Because anyone who i s born has sown viable klesa-seeds, 2. b i r t h [may] en ta i l the misery of receiv ing a low status. Because old age, sickness and death come a f t e r i t , 3. b i r th en ta i l s the misery of changes of state. Because the klesas gradually expand and we accumulate act ions, 4. b i r th enta i l s the misery of ac tua l i za t i on of the klesas. Because of momentariness and impermanence, 5. b i r t h implies the misery of being powerlessly destroyed. 55 The f i ve miseries of ageing The miseries of ageing include: 1. fading of the complexion 2. deter iorat ion of the form; 3. d i s s ipat ion of energy; 4. impair-ment of the senses, and 5. the decl ine of wealth. The f i ve miseries of i l l n e s s The miseries of i l l n e s s include: 1. the increase of f ru s t ra t ion and anxiety; 2. the body's natural changes; 3. the i n a b i l i t y to enjoy pleasant things; 4. the i n a b i l i t y to get r i d of what i s unpleasant, and 5. the approaching separation from l i f e . The f i ve miseries of death The miseries of death include: 1. separation from wealth; 2. from inf luence; 3. from attendants and f r iends , 4. and even from your own body, and 5. v io lent anguish. The misery of not f ind ing what you seek Furthermore, i f you have not avoided harmful acts and malicious t a l k , no matter how hard you t r y to obtain food, money or fame, you w i l l not succeed. This i s the misery of not f ind ing what you seek. The misery of not reta in ing what you have Dreading the approach of an enemy, t h i e f or a strong robber who might leave you with only the stars for a hat, and the f ro s t for boots; fear ing that too much work w i l l leave you in a state of exhaustion; worrying about your a b i l i t y to protect [your 56 95 3 dependents], or [worrying that] your enemies w i l l not [be pun-i s h e d ] : 9 6 This i s the misery of not reta in ing what you have. The misery of separation from what i s dear Loss of a mother, brother, mate, servants, students and so 4 on; decl ine of wealth and power; loss of a large sum of money; anxiety about slander you have incurred through bad deeds or another 's jealousy: This i s the misery of separation from what i s dear. The misery of encountering the undesirable Encountering i l l n e s s , dangerous enemies, the arm of the 97 law, murder of a l i v i n g being, bad reputat ion, e v i l rumors; harming others when you t r y to help them; having lazy servants, and so on: This i s the misery of encountering the undesirable. The above eight categories of misery perta in ch i e f l y to human beings. • - 98 Three types of misery common to a l l samsaric beings The misery of misery i t s e l f 6 In b r i e f , humans, gods and beings in the three lower realms [experience the pain o f ] disease, malicious gossip, and so on. 95 96 ma 'khyongs dogs. ma nyen dogs. 97 rgyal-po'i chad-pa. no The f i r s t i s actual painful experience; the second i s anxiety based on the trans i tor iness of pleasant experience; the_third i s the misery " l a ten t " in a l l types of samsaric l i f e , since samsaric beings may encounter any of the above-mentioned miseries at any time. This i s the misery of misery i t s e l f . The misery of change When you lead a wealthy, peaceful existence, l i f e seems to be very pleasant. But soon, because of impermanence, comes the misery of change. The misery of a l l conditioned existence The two [kinds of misery mentioned above] are grounded in the fac t that f i ve skandhas have come together. This i s the misery la tent in a l l conditioned existence. Finding the i r foothold in the f i ve skandhas, the many kinds of misery of the three dhatus a r i s e . Thus, no matter how high or low your state of b i r th may be, you cannot avoid samsara's very nature: The three types of misery! Even i f your l i f e seems to be endowed with happiness, [and you possess] a [healthy] body, a house, wealth, fr iends and servants, th i s i s but the dece i t fu l procession of misery. I t i s l i k e food offered to a nauseated man; l i k e a hangman's feast honoring a condemned prisoner. Turn your back on longing! Root out attachment! Destroy desire [ for conditioned existence] from i t s foundation! Ref lect for a moment on the great bless ing of L ibe ra t i on , the reverse of [.samsara with i t s obvious] shortcomings. Then, energet ica l ly apply the methods for achieving Enlightenment [presented below]. 58 Conclusion 5 Generally speaking, the Four Ordinary Foundations are found in a l l ins t ruct ions i n the graded path [to Enlightenment]. Our version i s based on A t i s a ' s [system, known as] "the graded 99 path fo r the three types of re l i g ious asp i rant, " which was elaborated by mNyam-med Dwags-po, who joined the two streams of the bKa'-gdams-pa and Mahamudra systems. 6 I f you do not apply these four with some f o r t i t ude , instead of strengthening a l l the actual meditative pract ices [described below], you w i l l only strengthen the "e ight worldly dharmas."^ The root of the ent i re Dharma i s mental re jec t ion of [the 13b. 1 concerns o f ] th i s l i f e . But a l l your re l i g ious pract ice up to now has not destroyed your attachment for this l i f e . Your mind has not turned away from des i re. You have not given up longing for r e l a t i v e s , f r iends , attendants and servants. You even reta in 2 some desire for food, c loth ing and conversation. [This i s ] not the way to re jec t [the concerns of th i s l i f e ] ! You have missed the whole point of applying wholesome ac t i on ; the stream [of your existence] i s on the wrong course! You do not consider the extent to which [your pract ice] has weakened the klesas, but only the 99 skyes-bu-gsum gyi lam-rim: A t i s a ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the three types of re l i g ious aspirant and the practices which s u i t them. Taranatha wrote a book by that name. ^ ahos-brgyad: the eight major concerns of a worldly person, i . e . , 1. p r o f i t , 2. loss , 3. fame, 4. notor iety , 5. slander, 6. pra i se, 7. happiness, and 8. misery. 59 number of months and years you have been working at i t . You scrutinize others' faults, but not your own. You are proud of every [good] quality [you possess]. Your thoughts are lost in [tr ivial it ies like] your reputation and amusements. You indulge in a lot of meaningless chatter. You imagine that you have inte-grated religious and worldly achievements when in fact, one of these goals has not been met. You have not kept impermanence in mind from the start, and so are in the clutches of your brutish . . 101 mi nd. The Excellent One of 'Bri-khung has said: "The [Four 1 no Ordinary] Foundations are more profound than the actual practice [of Mahamudra]." It follows that i t is better to inst i l l these Four Foundations in the stream [of your existence], even to a limited extent, than to practice all the recitations and meditations of the four tantras of today. An individual who practices Dharma in a half-hearted 103 manner is cheating himself and others, and wasting his human l i fe. In short, i f you lack the determination [to leave samsara]* all the meditation [you may practice in your mountain retreat will ^ bio dred-pa. 102 dngos-gzhi: the "thing itself." For the beginner, these Foundations are far more accessible and potent than the remote Mahamudra meditation. They are essential prerequisites for Mahamudra practice. (Lama) 103 vang-vgyud tha-mal-du lus-pa'i byas by as kyi ohos de. 60 accumulate no merit. A l l i t ] w i l l accumulate i s a p i l e of feces 14a. 1 on the mountainside! So, consider the miseries of samsava and the uncertainty of [the time of] death. Then, no matter how scattered your thoughts are, make them converge! They say that when a person begins to travel the re l i g ious path, i f Mara has thrown obstacles in his way, his f a i t h w i l l 2 diminish. Thus, examination of the Lama's or Sp i r i t u a l F r i e n d ' s ^ 4 fau l t s i s a sign of Mara's embrace. [Such a person] notices serious fau l t s in most people who pract ice Dharma, befriends ordinary 105 3 people, i s unconcerned with strenuous appl icat ion [of the teach-ings ] , s a t i s f i e d with worldly pleasures and lacks devotion and reverence fo r the Precious Ones. Such a person should think about 4 the pos i t i ve qua l i t i e s of the Lama and the Precious Ones, and learn to see those who pract ice Dharma as pure. Seeing bad qua l i t i e s in others indicates that your own acts have been impure. I t i s j u s t l i k e seeing your own d i r t y face in a mirror. 5 Do not associate with ordinary people or l i s t e n to t he i r t a l k ! Remember the shortcomings of worldly pleasures! Generally speaking, i f you have no f a i t h you w i l l not develop "white" q u a l i t i e s . Hence, f a i t h must precede a l l re l i g ious p ract i ce . Furthermore, though there are many kinds [of f a i t h ] , deep confidence 6 and sincere respect [ for the Precious Ones] are included in a l l of them. dge-ba'i bshes-gnyen; kaly ana-mitva: re l i g i ous teacher. I.e., non-rel igious people. 61 Experiencing the v ic i s s i tudes of l i f e and death and the misfortunes of i l l n e s s , and l i s t en i ng to s p i r i t u a l biographies of the Great Ones and s tor ies of the Buddha's previous l i v e s , w i l l 14b. 1 0 6 1 encourage the development of f a i t h . Engender f a i t h by turning them over in your m i nd 1 ( ^ da i l y . Some people seem to have great f a i t h while they are with t he i r Lama. When separated from him, they forget. When they encounter [certa in] circumstances, they have [ f a i t h ] ; l a t e r , i t 2 i s gone. When they receive desired teachings or g i f t s , or are tormented by disease-demons or other misfortunes, they have great f a i t h . Afterwards, they have none. They have no r ea l l y deep 3 f a i t h in one pa r t i cu l a r root-Lama or one profound teaching, and [often] throw one aside in favor of a [new] one. Reject such pract ices . Learn [to develop] unchanging f a i t h . Stop looking to external things. Internal ize [the foregoing teach-ings]. And when some re l i g ious qua l i t i e s ar i se in the stream [of 4 your ex istence], you w i l l t r u l y comprehend these in s t ruct ions . 108 Then, you w i l l be absolutely certa in about the Dharma. I f at that time, you think about your Lama's kindness, devotion and 5 reverence toward him w i l l spring up on the i r own. As a r e su l t , a l l the pos i t i ve qua l i t i e s associated with the [ r e l i g i ou s ] path w i l l spontaneously a r i s e , without any e f f o r t [on your pa r t ] . ^ dad-pa skye-ba'i rkyen yin-pa. yid-la brtsis-bgrang. ™ 8 , nges-snes. CHAPTER III FIRST OF THE FOUR SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS: TAKING REFUGE AND ENGENDERING THE ENLIGHTENED ATTITUDE INTRODUCTORY REMARKS After internalizing the "four thoughts which turn the mind to religion," the aspirant Takes Refuge and Engenders the Enlightened Attitude, the two rituals dealt with in this chapter. The heart of the f i rst ritual is the Refuge Vow, recited in the visualized presence of the Six Sources of Refuge, i .e., Buddhist doctrine and the five types of Enlightened beings. In making this commitment to strive toward Buddhahood and become like these Enlightened beings, the aspirant becomes a Buddhist and gains their protection from the vicissitudes of samsara. In this tradition, a further ritual, Engendering the Enlightened Attitude, always accompanies Taking Refuge. The core of this ritual is the Bodhisattva Vow, in which the individual resolves to devote himself fully to the Liberation of all beings. In making this resolution, he becomes a Bodhisattva: a socially-oriented Buddha-to-be. The actual practice of Taking Refuge and Engendering the Enlightened Attitude involves the following steps: 1. Sitting cross-legged before an icon of the Sources of Refuge, and chanting the liturgical description of the Sources arranged in the 63 64 Refuge Tree (pp. 65-71 below), while imagining that a l l beings are doing the same. 2. Recit ing the Refuge Vow (p. 71) and performing f u l l p rost ra-t ions , each a to ta l of 111,111 times. 3. Recit ing the Bodhisattva Vow (p. 72) and re lated prayers 4. Dissolving the v i s ua l i z a t i on (p. 75), and l e t t i n g the mind rest (p. 5. Dedicating merit (p. 75). TRANSLATION Taking Refuge V i sua l i za t i on 14b. 5 After [you have pract iced the Four Ordinary Foundations, begin the pract ice ca l l ed ] "Taking Refuge," f i r s t of the Four Special Foundations, [by chanting the l i t u r g y ] as you gradually v i s ua l i ze the fo l lowing: "In front of me, in the midst of a lake, i s a wish-granting t ree, With one root and one trunk, which divides into f i ve branches. On the centra l branch, on a l ion-throne, atop a lo tus , Sun, and moon, s i t s my root-Lama As rDo-rje 'Chang, surrounded by the bKa'-brgyud Lamas. In front of them, are the yi-dams; to t h e i r l e f t i s the Samgha, Below the throne are the dharmapalas, each surrounded by a sea of attendants of his own kind. On the grassy shores of the lake, in numbers which would f i l l the sky, 65 Are a l l my grandmothers. With one-pointed thoughts, we Take Refuge -.QQ and Engender the Enlightened A t t i t ude . " 6 On a wide, spacious p la in in a pure land, i s the "mNan-na-nem-bstegs-na-spar" forest . In the middle of a r i c h , green f lower-bedecked meadow i s a lake whose water has eight f ine q u a l i t i e s . [The lake i s ] inhabited by heavenly birds whose songs are most 15a. 1 pleasing to the ear. In the midst of th i s lake stands a wish-granting tree laden with leaves, flowers and f r u i t of precious gems. Its s ingle-rooted trunk divides into f i ve branches l i k e a parasol, one [pointing i n ] each of the four d i rect ions and one [point ing s t ra i ght up] at the c e n t e r . 1 1 ^ "mDun-du mtsho-dbus dpag-bsam-ljon-shing gi/ sDong-bo rtsa-ba goig-la yal-ga Ingar/ Gyes-pa'i dbus-mar seng-khri padma dang/ Nyi-zla steng-du rtsa-ba'i bla-ma ni/ rDo-rje- 'Chang-la bKa'-brgyud bla-mas bskor/ mDun-du yi-dam gyas-su sangs-rgyas dang/ rGyab-tu dam-chos gyon-du dge-'dun dang/ gDan-khri 'i 'og-tu ohos-skyong srung-ma-rnams/ So-so'i rigs-mthun 'khor tshogs rgya-mtshos bskor/ mTsho-mtha' ne'u-seng steng-du mkha'-khyab kyi/ Ma-rgan thams-oad 'khod-par gyur-pa las/ rTse-goig yid kyis skyabs-'gro sems-bskyed gyur." From 'Phags-lam, op. c i t . , 107/6-108/3. " A l l my grandmothers" refers to a l l sent ient beings. ^ The ornate imagery i s derived from c l a s s i c a l Hindu l i t e r a t u r e . See, for example M.R. Kale, ed. and t r a n s l . , Meghaduta by Kalidasa. Delhi : Mot i l a l Banarsidass, 1969. Each component represents the f i ne s t of i t s kind. The forest i s a lush, green garden of de l ights . The water in the lake, l i k e that of the legendary Ganges, i s coo l , sweet, gentle, c l ea r , free of impur i t ies , soothes the stomach and clears the throat. The wish-granting t ree, a key symbol in ancient Indian L i te ra tu re , bears any f r u i t one desires. Possession of such a tree is a t r ad i t i ona l 66 Lamas 2 Resting on the central branch, at the point at which a l l the branches converge, i s a jewelled throne upheld by eight l i ons . [The throne i s ] covered with pr ice less s i l k s , [on which re s t ] a thousand-petal lotus and [above i t ] , a f u l l moon [ l y ing f l a t ] . [On top of t h i s ] s i t s your own root-Lama in the form of rDo-rje 'Chang 3 (Vajradhara), His Body blue as the autumn sky. rDo-rje 'Chang has one face and two hands, crossed at his breast; the r i ght holds a 4 golden vajra and the l e f t a s i l v e r b e l l . 1 1 1 His gaze i s peaceful. He wears the diadem, earrings and the rest of the " t h i r teen peaceful 112 a r t i c l e s . " His upper garment i s made of many kinds of s i l k , his 113 lower i s red. He s i t s with legs [crossed] in the u a j r a - p o s i t i o n . 5 His Body, endowed the [ th i r ty - two] major and [eighty] minor marks of 114 physical per fect ion, shines with a lustrous glow, as He meditates with a joy fu l heart. sign of power, and i s one of the marks of a wor ld- ru ler Ckhor-los sgyur-ba'i rgyal-po; cakravartin, see n. 248 above). In our context, re l iance on the Sources of Refuge v i sua l i zed in th i s tree w i l l lead to the f u l f i l l -ment of man's highest wish, the attainment of Buddhahood. 1 1 1 The vajra (rdo-rje) and be l l (dril-bu), the key tantrio r i t u a l implements, generally symbolize the integrat ion of in s i ght (shes-rab; prajna, the rdo-rje) and s k i l l f u l means or compassion (thabs; upaya, the dril-bu). 112 Ornaments of royalty worn by Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, general-ly symbolizing the enr ich ing, enl ivening influence of the Sambhogakaya. They include eight pieces of jewelry and f i v e s i l k garments. 113 I.e., f u l l - l o t u s pos i t i on . 114 Trad i t iona l physical a t t r ibutes of a Buddha or a cakravartin, including_long earlobes, webbed f ingers , a small bump on the top of the head (usnisa) and so on. 67 5 On the crown of His head, seated one above the other in a ve r t i c a l column [ s ta r t ing with the f i r s t named and going upwards] 6 are [the Lamas of the Mahamudra l ineage]: Padma Nyin-byed dbang-po, Mi-pham Chos-grub rgya-mtsho, bDud-'dul rDo-rje, Chos kyi 'byun-gnas, Byang-chub rDo-rje, Chos kyi don-grub, Ye-shes sNying-po, 15b. Chos-dbyings rDo-rje, Chos kyi dbang-phyug, dBang-phyug rDo-rje, 1 dKon-mchog yan- lag, Mi-bskyod rDo-rje, Sangs-rgyas mNyan-pa, Chos-grags rGya-mtsho, dPal- 1 byor don-grub, 'Jam-dpal bzang-po, 2 mThong-ba don-ldan, R ig-pa 1 i r a l - g r i , De-bzhin shegs-pa, mKha'-spyod dbang-po, Ro l -pa ' i rDo-rje, gYung-ston rDo-rje dpal , Rang-byung rDo-rje, 0-rgyan-pa Rin-chen-dpal, Grub-chen Pagshi, sBom-brag 3 bSod-nams rDo-rje, 'Gro-mgon Ras-chen Sangs-rgyas-grags, Dus-gsum mKhyen-pa, mNyam-med Dwags-po, rJe-btsun Mi l a , Marpa Lotsa, 4 Ma i t r ipa , Shabari, 'Phags-pa klu-grub, Saraha, and bLo-gros Rin-c h e n . 1 ' 5 Surrounding [the column of Lamas] in the upper part of the - 11 fi -sky, are the Six Ornaments of Jambudvipa, Ti lopa and Naropa, and the learned and s p i r i t u a l l y accomplished Lamas of 'Br i -khung, 'Brug-pa, Tshal-pa, sTag- lung 1 1 ^ and other [Lamas] of India and 5 T ibet , who s i t l i k e a c l u s te r of clouds. These Lamas, named in reverse chronological order, comprise the Mahamudra lineage (see Ch. I, p. 9). See Ch. VI, pp. 180-90, for a more up-to-date l i s t and information on each Lama. 1 1 6 S ix great Indian Mahayana teachers: Aryadeva, Asanga, Vasumitra, Dignaga, Dharmakirti and Nagendra. ^ Names of four bKa 1-brgyud-pa sub-sects. See Ch. I, pp. 5-6. 68 Yi-dams ' 5 On the eastern branch, on a lo tus , sun and corpse stands rDo-rje Phag-mo (Vajravarahi) , with 'Khor- lo bDe-mchog (Cakrasam-vara), dGyes-pa rDo-rje (Hevajra), and sKu-gSang-ba grub-pa (Guhyasamaja); 'Phrul-sgyu chen-mo, rGyes-rdo Thod-pa-can and rDo-rje gdan-ma (Vajrasana); gShin-rje dgra-nag, gShin-rje gdong-drag and rDo-rje ' j i g s -byed (Vajrabhairava), and the rest of the yi-dams of the four or s i x tantras, surrounded by hosts of [atten-dant] de i t i e s . Buddhas On the r i gh t hand branch, [seated] on a lotus and moon [on top of a] l i o n throne i s our Teacher, Sakyamuni, surrounded by the 119 thousand Buddhas of the fortunate kalpas and a l l the other 120 Buddhas of the three times and the ten d i rect ions . 6 16a. 1 1 1 0 Yi-dams, male and female tute lary or meditational d e i t i e s , are " d i r e c t manifestations" or symbols of Enlightenment who can provide ordinary beings with means of conceiving of and i den t i f y i ng with that f a r - o f f goal. An aspirant communicates with a yi-dam by receiv ing that de i t y ' s empowerment (dbang, see Ch. VI, n. 345), p rac t i c ing his meditation, r e c i t i n g his mantra and praying to him. Each aspirant spec ia l i zes in the body of pract ices associated with one pa r t i cu l a r yi-dam whom he chooses, with his Lama's help, to s u i t his d i spos i t ion and s p i r i t u a l needs. rDo-rje Phag-mo and 'Khor- lo bDe-mchog are the ch ief bKa'-brgyud-pa yi-dams. 119 bskal-bzang: any era in which a Buddha appears. (Lama) 120 dus-gsum: past, present and future, phyogs-bcu: north, south, west, east, the " four corners" and the " top" and "bottom" of the t r ad i t i ona l Buddhist universe. (LPL) 69 Dharma On the rear branch are the twelve d iv i s ions of the Buddha's Dharma-teachings, pa r t i cu l a r l y the Mahayana and the 2 secret tantrio mantras. The various books, [whose ends] face you are [wrapped i n f ine c lo th ] of a l l colors of the rainbow, with 1 2 1 golden t i t l e - f l a p s . The vowels and consonants [which comprise the wr i t ten words] murmur aloud [of t he i r own accord]. Samgha On the left-hand branch s i t the countless Bodhisattvas, Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas of the Mahayana and Hinayana Samgha. [They include] the Lords of the Three Fami l ies, and the rest of 3 Buddha's Eight Sons, Bodhisattvas of fortunate kalpas; the [Buddha's] Excel lent Pa i r [of d i s c i p l e s ] ; Ananda; the Sixteen 1 2 2 Elders and others. xcx gdong-khra. Rectangular c loth draped over the end of a Tibetan book, which bears i t s t i t l e . Books are stacked with th i s end facing f ront for easy i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . (LPL) 1 2 2 - -Lords of the Three_Families (rigs-gsum mgon-po): Manjusn, Bodhisattva of in s i ght ; Vajrapani, Bodhisattva of siddhi or s p i r i t u a l attainment, and Ava lok i tesvara,Bodhisattva of Compassion. The other f i ve of the Eight Sons or ch ief Bodhisattvas are Ks i t igarbha, Sarvanivaranaviskambhi; Akasagarbha, Maitreya and Samantabhadra. The Excel lent Pa i r were Sakyamuni's chief d i s c i p l e s , Sariputra and Maudgalyayana. Ananda was Sakyamuni's cousin and personal attendant. The Sixteen Elders (sthavira) were d i s c ip le s of Sakyamuni who preached Buddhism in various lands a f te r the parinirvana. 70 Dharmapalas, dakas and dakinvs 3 Beneath [the Refuge Tree] are the inconceivably numerous "awareness-deit ies," inc luding dharmapalas, dakas and dakinis. 4 Among them are rDo-rje Ber-can (Mahakala) [flanked by] Rang-byung-ma [dPal-ldan Lha-mo] (SYidevi) and the four and six-armed [Mahakala]. [V i sua l i ze ] yourse l f standing on the ground, facing [ a l l these sources of Refuge]. Your father and mother, most important 5 of a l l the l im i t l e s s sentient beings who now surround you, stand at your r i gh t and l e f t [ respect i ve ly ] . [The crowd of sent ient beings includes] in pa r t i c u l a r , hated enemies, harmful demons, and various demonic beings beginninglessly a f f l i c t e d with anger and desire. The whole crowd of beings, led by [you], who have brought 6 them together, phys i ca l l y , mentally and verbal ly venerates [the chos-skyongs dpa'-bo mkha'-'gro. A l l three are termed "aware-ness deit ies " (ye-shes kyi lha) because they personify certa in aspects of Enlightened beings, p a r t i c u l a r l y of Bodhisattvas. Six-armed Mahakala i s , for example, the wrathful aspect of Avalokitesvara, Bodhisattva of Compassion. These Enlightened dharmapalas are thus dist inguished from the "wor ld ly de i t i e s " ('jig-rten-pa'i lha), samsario demons who are not Sources of Refuge. Dharmapalas help the aspirant c lear away a l l types of obstacles to his p rac t i ce , and often appear in threatening forms un t i l those obstacles have been overcome. As with the yi-dams, the aspirant and his Lama choose the dharmapala most appl icable to his personal s i t u a t i on , the Lama gives him the empowerment, and he concentrates on the dharmapala's r i t u a l s . rDo-rje Ber-can or Ber-nag-che i s the main bKa'-brgyud-pa dharma-pala. Dakas_(male) and dakinis (female) share some of the dharmapalas' functions. Dakinis or yoginis (rnal-'byor-ma) are female Bodhisattvas who sometimes act as messengers or mediators who f a c i l i t a t e communication between ordinary beings and f u l l y Enlightened Buddhas. See R. de Nebesky-Wojkowitz, Oraoles and Demons of Tibet. S'Gravenhage: Mouton, 1956, pa r t i c u l a r l y 3-202. 71 16b. 1 Sources of Refuge by] jo in ing palms, [performing prostrat ions, engendering] f a i t h and devotion, and r ec i t i n g [the fo l lowing Vow, ca l led ] "Taking Refuge" more than one hundred thousand times: " I , and a l l sentient beings, numerous as the sky i s vast, [Take Refuge] in the kind root [Lama] and the [Lamas] of the l ineage, who encompass the Body, Speech, Mind, pos i t i ve q u a l i t i e s , and Buddha-activity of a l l the Tathagatas in the ten di rect ions and the three times; who are the source of the eighty-four # thousand Dharma teachings; who are the Lords of the Noble Samgha." 1 2 4 "We Take Refuge in the g lor ious , holy Lamas. We Take Refuge in the yi-dams, de i t ie s of the mandala. We Take*Refuge i n the Buddha Bhagavan. We Take Refuge in the holy Dharma. We Take Refuge in the noble Samgha_ We Take Refuge in the dxtkas, dakinis and dharmapalas, guardians 125 Who possess the "eye of awareness." l£~^ "bDag dang mnam-kha'i mtha' dang mnyam-pa'i sems-aan thams-oad phyogs-bcu dus-gsum gyi de-bzhin gshegs-pa thams-aad kyi sku gsung thugs yon-tan phvin-las thams-cad goig-tu bsdus-pa'i ngo-bor-gyur-ba/ Chos kyi phung-po stong-phrag brgyad-ou rtsa-bzhi'i 'byung-gnas/'Phags-pa'i dge-bdun thams-cad kyi mda'-bdag/ Drin-can rtsa-ba dang brgyud-par bcas-pa'i . . . " Phags-lam, op. c i t . , 108/3-4. This prologue to the Refuge Vow i s rec i ted only once per session. 125 "dPal-ldan bla-ma dam-pa-rnams-la skyabs-su-mchi'o/ Yi-dam dkyil-'khor gyi lha-tshogs-rnams-la skyabs-su-mchi'o/ Sangs-rgyas boom-Idan-'das-rnams-la skyabs-su-mchi'o/ Dam-pa'i chos-rnams-la skyabs-su-mchi'o/ 'Phags-pa'i dge- 'dun-mams ' la skyabs-su-mchi'o/ dPa'bo mkha'-'gvo chos-skyong-svung-ma'i tshogs ye'shes kyi spyan dang Idan-pa-rnams-la skyabs-su-mchi'o." 'Phags-lam, op. c i t . , 108/4-5. The Refuge Vow i s rec i ted while performing f u l l prostrat ions. Since the rec i ta t ions take longer than prost rat ions , and both must be performed a to ta l of 111,111 times, the missing rec i ta t ions may be added e i the r a f te r completing a l l the prost rat ions, or a f te r completing each session of prostrat ions. (Lama) This pa r t i cu l a r Refuge Vow i s the most elaborate of several Tibetan versions. E a r l i e r Indian versions invoke only the Buddha, Dharma and Samgha. The Lama may have been added by the Tibetans. The invocation 72 16b. 1 [While you rec i te the words], think about what they mean, and do not l e t your mind stray from a reverent a t t i tude . [Then] engender the asp i rat ion [to reach Enlightenment for the sake of a l l sent ient beings, by r e c i t i n g the Bodhisattva Vow three t imes]: " U n t i l [I reach] Enlightenment i t s e l f , I Take Refuge in the.Buddhas, And l ikewise in the Dharma and assembled Bodhisattvas. Just as the Tathagatas of the past Engendered the Enlightened A t t i tude , Were tra ined as Bodhisattvas, And gradually came to dwell in the [ten] Bodhisattva [stages], So w i l l I, for the sake of beings, Engender the Enlightened At t i tude , Undertake the same t r a i n i n g , 126 And gradually, as they d id , become p r o f i c i e n t . " of the other three Sources i d e n t i f i e s th i s as a Vajrayana Vow. According to the Lama, the Tibetans' elaboration of the basic Refuge formula r e f l ec t s the fact that, unl ike the fortunate ear ly Buddhists, who actua l l y met Sakyamuni or His immediate d i sc ip le s and could pract ice Dharma with the sole guidance of the Three Jewels, contem-porary people encounter great obstacles in t he i r re l i g i ous pract ice and need the help of every ava i lab le Source of Refuge. 12g "Byang-chub snying-por mdhis kyi-bar/ Sangs-vgyas-rnams-la skyabs-su-mchi/ Chos dang byang-chub-sems-dpa' yi/ Tshogs-la'ng de-bzhin skyabs-su-mchi/ Ji-ltar sngon gi gi bdev-gshegs kyis/ Byang-ohub-thugs ni bskyed-pa dang/ Byang-chub sems-dpa'i bslab-pa-la/ De-dag rim-bzhin gnas-pa Itar/ De-bzhin 'gvo-la phan-don-du/ Byang-chub sems ni bskyed-bgyi zhing/ De-bzhin-du ni bslab-pa la'ng/ Rim-pa bzhin-du bslab-par-bgyi." 'Phags-lam, o p . c i t . , 180/5-109-1. The Bodhisattva Vow i s rec i ted fo l lowing completion of the desired number of Refuge Vows and prostrat ions fo r each session. (Lama) Tinis version of the Bodhisattva Vow i s from Santideva's Bodhicaryavatara (Byang-chub spyod-'jug). bsTan-'gyur, dbU-ma, 3871. 16b. [Then, think that you have taken the Bodhisattva Vow and r e c i t e ] : "Today, my l i f e i s f r u i t f u l ! I have obtained a human existence, And jo ined the Family of Buddha. From now on, everything I do W i l l r e f l e c t th is f a c t , And leave no s ta in Upon this f lawless , noble Family. Today, before a l l the protectors, I have i nv i ted a l l beings to become Tathagatas, And un t i l they do, I have ca l l ed them To a celebrat ion of this goal. May a l l beings rejo ice! "127 [Then rec i t e these prayers]: "May the precious Enlightened Att i tude Ar i se wherever i t has not ar i sen. Where i t has ar i sen, may i t not deter iorate, But s tead i ly increase C l Deng-dus bdag-tshe 'bras-bu yod/ Mi yi srid-pa legs-par-thob/ De-ring sangs-rgyas rigs-su-skyes/ Sangs-rgyas sras-su bdag deng gyuv/ Da ni bdag-gis ai-nas kyang/ Rigs dang mthxm-pa'i las bvtsams te/ sKyon-med btsun-pa'i rigs 'di-la/ rNyog-par mi-'gyur de-ltar-bya. bDag gis de ring skyob-pa thams-cad kyi/ sPyan-sngar 'gro-ba bde-gshegs-nyid dang ni/ Bar-du bde-la mgron-du bos-sin gyis/ Lha dang lha-min-la sogs dga'-bar-gyis." "Phags-lam, op. c i t . , 109/1-3. 1 2 8 "Byang-chub sems-ni rin-po-dhe/ Ma skyes-ba-rnams skyes gyur cig/ Skyes-ba nyams-ba med-pa dang/ Gong-nas gong-du 'phel-bar-shog." 'Phags-lam, op. c i t . , 109/3-4. 74 16b. "May beings never lose the Enlightened At t i tude. May they apply themselves to the Bodhisattva-conduct. May they be embraced by the Buddhas. May they re jec t the deeds of Mara. May the Bodhisattvas succeed in helping sentient beings. May the Buddhas1 wishes Bring happiness to sentient beings. May a l l sentient beings be happy. May the lower realms be always empty. May the earnest wishes of Bodhisattvas of a l l stages Be f u l f i l l e d ! " ^ 9 [Recite th i s prayer three t imes]: "May a l l sentient beings gain happiness and the cause of happiness. May they be safe from suf fer ing and from the cause of su f fer ing . May they never be cut o f f from the highest b l i s s , which i s devoid of su f fe r ing . May they come to rest in the great i m p a r t i a l i t y , free of attachment and aversion."130 129 "Byang-ohub-sems dang mi-'bral oing/ Byang-chub-spyod-la gzhol-ba dang/ Songs-rgyas-rnams kyis yongs-bzimg zhing/ bDud kyi las-rnams spong-par-shog/ Byang-ohub-sems-dpa'-rnams kyis ni/ 'Gro-don thugs-la dgongs-'grub shog/ mGon-po-yis ni gang dgongs-pa/ Sems-oan-rnams-la bde-'byor shog/ Sems-can thams-cad bde dang Idan gyur cig/ Ngan-'gro thams-cad rtag-tu stong-par-shog/ Byang-chub-sems-dpa' gang-dag sar-bzhugs-pa/ De-dag kun gyi smon-lam 'grub-par-shog." 'Phags-lam, op. c i t . , 109/4-7. 130 "Sems-can thams-cad bde-ba dang bde-ba'% rgyu dang Idan-par-gyur cig/ sDug-bsngal dang sdug-bsngal gyi rgyu dang 'bral-bar-gyur cig/ sDug-bsngal-med-pa'i bde-ba dam-pa dang mi-'bral-bar-gyur cig/ Nye-ring chags-sdang dang 'bral-ba'i btang-snyoms chen-po-la gnas-bar-gyur cig." Abridged in 'Phags-lam, op. c i t . , 109/7-8. 75 16b. [Rec i te] : " F i n a l l y , the Sources of Refuge dissolve in to l i g h t and blend into m y s e l f . " 1 3 1 1 % The Sources of Refuge, the throne, and the re s t , dissolve 2 in to l i g h t and are absorbed in to yourse l f . Think that your own body, speech and mind have become inseparable from the Body, 132 Speech and Mind of your root-Lama as rDo-rje 'Chang. Let your 133 mind rest natura l l y . Share the merit [by r e c i t i n g th i s prayer]: "Once I have quick ly achieved Mahamudra, May every s ingle sentient being Be placed in that same state By v i r tue of my [pract i ce ] . 1 , 1 34 131 "mTha'-mav skyabs-yul 'od-zhu bdag dang 'dres." 'Phags-lam, op. c i t . , 109/8. 132 More p rec i se l y : the Body, Speech and Mind of a l l the Enlightened Beings dissolves into l i g h t and merges i n to rDo-rje 'Chang's. rDo-rje 'Chang then dissolves in to l i g h t and merges into your own body, speech and mind. (Lama) 133 sems rang-babs-su bzhag. ^ 3 4 'dGe-ba 'di yi myur-du bdag/ Phyag-rgya-ohen-po 'grub-gyur nas/ 'Gro-ba goig kyang ma lus-pa/ De yis sa-la 'god-par-shog." This i s one of may "Sharing Mer it " prayers which may be used fo l lowing any p rac t i ce , by inser t ing the name of the goal of the pract ice in the place of "phyag-rgya-ohen-po." Sharing or dedicating merit i s the essent ia l conclusion of a l l Mahayana p ract i ces , as i t serves to broaden the p r a c t i t i o ne r ' s f i e l d of a c t i v i t y to encompass not only himself but a l l l i v i n g beings. Although a l l re l i g i ous pract ice accumulates merit, i f the p r a c t i -t ioner t r i e s to keep th i s merit fo r himself, i t can be eas i l y destroyed by a burst of anger or a harsh word on his part. But merit which has been dedicated to a l l beings cannot be destroyed by any act of h i s . Shar-ing merit also increases the e f f i cacy of a pract ice by transforming i t from a meritorious samsario act in to one which leads to L iberat ion. (Lama) 76 16b. Commentary 2 [The fol lowing] points should be understood in re la t ion 3 to Taking Refuge: In th i s world, we [natura l l y ] seek someone capable of protect ing us or providing refuge from sources of fear and anxiety, including demons of disease and the l i k e . [Pre-occupied as we are] by the countless fears which plague us through-out th i s l i f e , future l i v e s and in the bar-do, we could sink 4 forever in the ocean of samsario su f fer ing . Neither our father, mother, r e l a t i v e s , f r i ends , nor powerful gods, nagas or s im i l a r 5 beings are capable of g iv ing us refuge from samsario su f fe r ing . Nor are we capable of dr iv ing i t o f f on our own. I f we do not f ind some [e f fec t i ve source of refuge], we w i l l be u t te r l y helpless. Only the Precious Ones have the a b i l i t y to draw us out 6 of samsara. And i n order to save others, we must f i r s t gain the a b i l i t y to save ourselves. The Six Sources of Refuge [The Six Sources of Refuge consist of the Three Jewels and the Three Roots]. The Three Jewels are the Buddha, Dharma and Samgha. According to the Mantrayana, to these, the Three 17a. 1 Roots should be added: 135 1. The Lama i s the root of a l l b less ing. byin-rlabs: Process by which one ind iv idua l introduces some of his accumulated merit into the "stream of being" of another i nd i v i dua l . A b i l i t y to bestow bless ing depends both on the donor's degree of s p i r i t u a l attainment and the r e c i p i en t ' s f a i t h , or receptiveness. General ly, the 77 1 ^ * 136 1 2. The yi-dam i s the root of a l l siddhi. 3. The dakinis and dharmapalas are the root of a l l Buddha-137 a c t i v i t y . ' These three are included in the Three Precious Ones. The Mantrayana holds that a l l s i x are encompassed i n the root-Lama alone. 2 Furthermore, Buddha [manifests in the three fo l lowing ways]: the Dharmakaya, which knows [ a l l th ings ] , both as they appear donor i s the root-Lama, whose bless ing i s said to contain that of a l l the Sources of Refuge combined. Although actions are the "seeds" (rgyu) which shape our future experiences, the root-Lama's bless ing can create certa in conditions (rkyen) favorable to the maturation of any re l i g ious predisposit ions our past acts may have generated, g iv ing us the i n sp i r a t i on and energy we require to undertake re l i g ious pract ice. Unless our acts have been unwholesome, the Lama can intervene to help us overcome the klesas and other obstacles. Like the sun, Enlightenment i s always present. Just as the sun's rays focussed through a magnifying glass can burn a piece of paper, Enl ighten-ment, "focussed" through the Lama's b less ing, can destroy the klesas. Thus, the Lama's bless ing helps us r ea l i z e the Buddha-potential we a l l possess. (Lama) 136 dngos-grub: attainment or power. The ordinary (thun-mong) type includes worldly inf luence or wealth. The supreme or special (mohog3 thun-mong ma-yin) type i s s p i r i t u a l attainment, such as Mahamudra r e a l -i z a t i o n . Any yi-dam can bestow both types to anyone who sees or exper-iences the yi-dam's presence as the re su l t of receiv ing the empowerment, p rac t i c ing the meditation, r e c i t i n g the mantra and saying the prayers for that yi-dam. (Lama) 137 phrin-las: appl icat ion of dngos-grub. For ordinary people, i t i s phys i ca l , verbal or mental re l i g ious a c t i v i t y , inc luding spread-ing the Dharma and carrying out Buddha's precepts. (Lama) For Buddhas, " I t i s s c r i p t u r a l l y defined as the unbroken stream of spontaneous f u l -f i lment of the Bodhi-vows." (LPL) For the four types of Buddha-a c t i v i t y (phrin-las rnam-bzhi), see n. 347 below. 78 i / u • _ 2 and as they are [u l t imate ly ] found to be; the Sambhogakaya, possessed of the " f i v e c e r t a i n t i e s , " and the Nirmanakaya, which takes the form of [any type of ] worldly ar t or s k i l l , [the form 3 of a being, [who i s an incarnation of an Enlightened being] or 13Q of a Buddha. ["Buddha"] thus includes the three kayas. 139 "Dharma" refers to the s c r i p tu ra l Dharma, that i s , the names, words and l e t te r s in the [Buddha's] verbal teachings, 1 38 sku-gsum. The three kayas are not physical bodies (lus) or beings dispatched by the " r e a l " Buddha as avatars, but are symbols of three ways in which Buddha acts , three " e x i s t e n t i a l norms" which we hope to achieve through re l i g ious pract ice. The Nirmanakaya (sprul-sku, pronounced tulku) represents, the var iety of roles Buddha may play among ordinary people. He may appear fo r example, as a type of a r t or a r t i s t i c ta lent (bzo-ba'i sprul-sku); as an apparently ordinary being who i s an incarnation of an Enlightened one, such as the Karma-pa, considered an incarnation of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara; or as a Buddha born i n a given era , such as Sakyamuni. The l a t t e r i s the supreme type of Nirmanakaya (mchog gi sprul-sku). (Lama) The Nirmanakaya i s often ca l l ed the sgyu-lus, the "transformation" or " i l l u so ry -body , " based on i t s a b i l i t y to appear and function exactly as do the beings who surround i t , enabling Buddha to communicate with a l l types of beings and inf luence them most e f f e c t i v e l y . The Sambhogakaya (longs-spyod rdzogs-pa'i sku) symbolizes Buddha's a c t i v i t y among higher beings, i . e . , _ ten th - l e ve l Bodhisattvas. Its " f i v e ce r t a i n t i e s " are: 1. The Sambhogakaya Buddha abides only i n the highest Buddha-realnWzhing-nges-pa or 'og-min-zhing), where he 2. appears as the Sambhogakaya (sku-nges-pa or longs-spyod-sku), and 3. teaches only the Mahayana (chos-nges-pa or theg-ohen kho-na), while 4. surrounded only by tenth- level Bodhisattvas ('khor-nges-pa or sa-bcu byang-ohub-sems-dpa'). 5. He abides un t i l samsara i s empty (dus-nges-pa or 'khor-ba ma-stong-bar). (Lama) The Sambhogakaya i s sometimes characterized as srog-tsol, "en-l i ven ing , " because i t excites and inspires beings to achieve Buddhahood. This l i f e - e n r i c h i n g function i s i l l u s t r a t e d in the iconographical depic-t ions of Sambhogakayas as r i c h l y adorned royalty. The Dharmakaya, (chos-sku) the only one of the three considered to be u l t imately real and thus incomprehensible through concepts, i s pure Enlightened Awareness (ye-shesj jmna), devoid of cha rac te r i s t i c s . 139 lung gi ohos: includes a l l scr iptures to be read, learned and appl ied. (Lama) 79 and the rec i ted [prayers and mantras]. 140 "Dharma" also includes the realization-Dharma, that i s , the Ground, Dharmadhatu, Tathata; or the Noble Truth of Cessation [of suf fer ing] which i s the re su l t , and the Noble Truth of the Path—al1 of which lead to Enlightenment. "Dharma" thus includes both scr ipture and r ea l i z a t i on . ["Samgha" includes] the real Samgha,^ which consists of 142 Bodhisattvas, and the provis ional Samgha, which consists of Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas and Arhats. Since Buddha has demonstrated what should be accepted and what should be rejected, regard Buddha as your teacher. Since His teachings motivate p rac t i ce , regard the Dharma as the path. Since th i s path i s unfami l iar , you need the constant inst ruct ions and examples of the Holy Ones. Thus, seek companions in the Samgha. When you reach the path 's end, [your awareness] w i l l be 143 144 the same as the Enlightened Awareness of a l l Buddhas. You rtogs-pa'i chos: the r ea l i z a t i on which comes with Buddhahood. dge-'dun dngos: includes only those members of the s p i r i t u a l community who have a l l the character i s t i c s (mtshan-nyid) of f u l l y En-lightened beings. (Lama) 140 gnas-skabs dge-'dun: includes anyone who has joined the. Buddhist community by Taking Refuge or ord inat ion, as wel l as Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas and Arhats who are above samsara but have not reached f u l l Enlightenment. (Lama) 143 ro-gcvg. 144 , dgongs-pa. 80 1 w i l l no longer need the Dharma and Samgha. The ultimate Refuge i s Buddha alone. The phi losophical l i t e r a t u r e of today contains much discussion of what i s and what i s not an [ e f fec t i ve ] source of 2 Refuge. But a l l you must do i s pract ice [Taking Refuge], es tab l i sh good habits and i n s t i l l f a i t h and devotion as much as poss ib le. [Certain] factors w i l l promote the awakening of f a i t h . 3 In the sutras that which i s termed the "Buddha to be placed be-1 AC fore you" is i d e n t i f i e d as a [symbol of ] Buddha such as an image or stupa. By imp l i ca t ion , the Dharma [to be placed before you i s a symbol of the Dharma, such as] a volume of the sutras or tantras; the Samgha [to be placed before you i s a symbol of ] the e th ica l human Samgha. I f you meditate that these are the real Precious Ones, you w i l l Take Refuge with f a i t h and devotion. - 146 4 Taking Refuge i n the Hinayana or worldly manner i s 5 not the proper way, and w i l l not do you much good. It i s extremely important that you th ink, "I Take Refuge [ in the Precious Ones] from th is day un t i l a l l sentient beings, immeasurable as the sky, >ifJ mdun-tu bzhag-pa'i sangs-rgyas. 146 - -. Hinayana: 1. Taking refuge in beings who are not f u l l y Enlightened, such as Arhats, Sravakas or Pratyekabuddhas; 2. Taking refuge for one's personal safety or L iberat ion. Worldly: Taking refuge i n samsario beings, such as gods or demons. (Lama) 81 6 have reached Enlightenment." Through this [thought, your pract ice] becomes Mahayana Refuge. Because you understand the sutras' conception of the Precious Ones [on which our account i s based], 1. You appreciate Their 18a. 1 q u a l i t i e s , 2. You appreciate the Buddha, Dharma and Samgha's super-i o r i t y to non-Buddhist teachers, wrong paths and heret ics . 3. Due to th i s appreciat ion, when you take the Refuge Vow, you are s incere. 4. Even i f your l i f e i s at stake, you do not seek refuge in any-2 one but the Precious Ones. It i s said that when you Take Refuge with these four 147 exce l lent [ a t t i t ude s ] , you are r e a l l y doing i t properly. I t i s not enough to Take Refuge ve rba l l y , you must also 3 have the deepest confidence in the Precious Ones. I f you have th i s kind of confidence, you w i l l never lack the protect ion of Their Compassion. There i s no doubt that you w i l l su f fe r the ef fects [of former deeds] in th i s l i f e . When you are su f fe r ing these re su l t s , you may feel that the Precious Ones' Compassion has been vanquished. 4 But i f you have deep f a i t h in Them, They w i l l ce r ta in l y protect you i n your next l i f e . I f , when experiencing some s l i g h t unpleasant-ness, you say, "The Precious Ones have no Compassion!" or you expect to be helped by such things as d i v i na t i on , exorcism or medical treatment—these are signs of s tup id i t y . khyad-par-bzhi dang Idan na skyabs-'gro rnam-dag-tu 'gyur-bar-gsungs. 82 5 I f Their Compassion has not emerged in your l i f e , i t i s not because They have no bless ing to bestow! You yourse l f are to blame for not praying fo r i t ! Therefore, cont inual ly think of the Precious One's 6 q u a l i t i e s , meditate with f a i t h , and pray i n ten t l y . Do not accumu-la te bad deeds by ta l k ing nonsense or slandering others. Pay I AO homage to symbols of [Buddha's] Body, Speech and Mind, as wel l 18b. 1 as to people who wear the yellow robes [of a monk or nun] with f a i t h and devotion, conceiving of them as the real Precious Ones. Restore old images and make new ones. Do not lay them on bare ground or i n a spot where they may be disturbed. I t i s unthinkable to trade an image for food or pawn i t for cash. I t i s wrong to 149 2 walk on even a scrap of tsha-tsha or a s ingle l e t t e r . Remembering [the Precious Ones'] kindness, o f fe r homage, 3 praise and other devotions with your body, speech and mind. Remembering [Their] compassion, encourage others to Take Refuge, and t e l l them about the Precious Ones' great q u a l i t i e s . Remembering the advantages [of doing so ] , repeat the 4 Refuge meditation s i x times during the course of one day and night. I H O rten: "conta iner. " sku-rten: statue or p icture which in a sense "contains " the Body of Buddha, gsung-rten: book or saying which "contains" His Speech, thugs-rten, also ca l l ed mohod-rten (stupa): contains r e l i c s of a Buddha or other Enlightened being, a tangible which represents the Buddha-Mind i t s e l f . (Lama) 149 tsha-tsha are miniature stupas or f igures of Buddhas or other Enlightened beings, made e i ther of clay or ground bones of an animal you have eaten, pressed into a mould. I f made of the l a t t e r , i t brings b less -ing to the animal. (Lama) 83 Remembering the shortcomings [of samsava], never re jec t the Sources of Refuge, even i f your l i f e i s at stake. 5 No matter what comes your way--happiness, misery, prominence or degradation--think of the Precious Ones with profound confidence. Do not re ly on anyone else for even a moment. In short, once you have Taken Refuge in the Buddha, you w i l l not re l y on worldly gods. Once you have Taken Refuge in the Dharma, you w i l l re ject thoughts and acts in jur ious to sentient 6 beings. Once you have Taken Refuge in the Samgha, you w i l l no 150 longer associate with heretics or t he i r sympathizers. Done properly, Taking Refuge includes most of the pract ices of the gradual paths [to Enlightenment] of the Sutra- and 19a. 1 Mantrayana. But i f you merely "act i t out" without becoming deeply involved, even i f you ta lk about "emptiness" in l o f t y language, you have strayed from the path [and f a l l en in to ] a deep chasm. Results of Taking Refuge 2 I f you pract ice Taking Refuge continuously, and i t never leaves your thoughts, you become a Buddhist. Your minor wrong-doings are pu r i f i e d ; your major ones are decreased [ in potency]. Human and non-human obstacles cannot harm you. Your vows, studies The three prohib i t ions expressed in th i s paragraph comprise the essent ia l clause or " root " of the Vow of Refuge, which, i f trans-gressed, w i l l re su l t in the Vow's destruct ion. According to Kalu Rin-po-che, " he re t i c s " here refers to i r r e l i g i o u s people, i . e . , those who doubt the p o s s i b i l i t y of L iberat ion , the existence of Enlightened beings, and so on. 84 19a. 3 and your fundamentally wholesome a c t i v i t i e s become more and more [ f r u i t f u l ] . I f you t ru l y re ly on the Precious Ones, you w i l l not be reborn i n the lower realms. 151 According to the Saddharmapundarika-sutra, 152 4 "Even lay d i sc ip les and counterfe i t monks who embrace th i s teaching of mine w i l l t o t a l l y pass beyond sorrow with in th i s very kalpa. Not one w i l l be l e f t behind!" 5 To th i s we add that you w i l l benef i t immensely from Taking Refuge and reta in ing th i s frame of mind [ in between sessions]. Engendering the Enlightened Att i tude Engendering an Enlightened Att i tude (Bodhic itta) follows Taking Refuge. Generally speaking, once an i nd i v i dua l ' s thoughts have 6 turned toward the Dharma, i f he develops the Enlightened At t i tude , he w i l l t ravel the Dharma-path; i f he does not develop i t , he w i l l not t rave l the Dharma-path. Whether his wholesome acts have been many or few, once he has acquired the means of a t ta in ing 153 Buddahood, he i s said to have embarked on the Dharma-path. 151 Dam-pa'i chos padma dkav-po. b'Ka'.-'gyuv, mDo-sde,, 781. 152 Lay d i sc ip les (dge-bsnyen; upasaka) are those who have Taken Refuge and vowed to observe some or a l l of the " f i v e precepts" which pro-h i b i t k i l l i n g , s tea l i ng , l y i n g , sexual misconduct, and taking intox icants . "Counterfe i t monks" (dge-sbyong Itar-boos-pa; sramana-pratirupaka) pretend to be monks or do not l i v e up to the i r monastic vows. (LPL) 153 I.e., the Enlightened At t i tude , Bodh ic i t ta . 85 19b. 1 How could we possibly measure the merit accumulated by wholesome acts undertaken in an Enlightened Attitude?? Even commonplace actions become means of at ta in ing Buddhahood [when accompanied by the Enlightened A t t i t ude ] . Thus, a sutra says, " I f you desire complete, perfect Buddhahood, you are not to be trained in many aspects of the Dharma, but only in one. Which one? The Enlightened A t t i t ude ! " The two types of Bodhic i t ta 154 There are two types of Bodh ic i t ta : the r e l a t i ve and 155 the ult imate. These two are the basis of the ent i re extensive and d i f f i c u l t co l l ec t i on of the "e ighty- four thousand Dharma-1 cc teachings." But at this time, when [you should be ] immersing 157 yourse l f in meditation, you have no need for the many teachings about the two [types of Bodh ic i t ta ] . I f you want to know about them, study the s i x standard reference works of the bKa'-gdams-pa s e c t 1 ^ 8 and other texts. ^ 4 kun-rdzob; samvrta. 155 don-dam; paramartha. 156 The number t r a d i t i o n a l l y used to designate the to ta l number of Buddhist teachings. 157 , . 'oog-sgom. 1 5 8 bKa'gdams gzhung-drug: Six books used by that sect to prepare monks f o r , and t r a i n them in meditation. They include: 1. Buddha-Jataka (sKyes-rabs. bKa'-'gyur, 748;; 2. Expanded version of the Dhammapada, . the Udanavarga (Tshoms. bKa'-'gyur, 992; bsTan-'gyury 5600); 3. Santideva's Bodhicaryavatara (Byang-chub-spyod-'jug. bsTan-'gyur, mDo-' g r e l j 5272); 4. Siksasamuccaya (bsLab-pa kun-las btus-pa. bsTan., mDo-' g r e l j 5336; 5. Bodhisattvabhumi and Sravakabhumi (Byang-chub sems-dpa'i sa and Nyan-thos-pa'i sa. bsTan-'gyur, Sems-tsam, 5538 and 5537); and 6. Mahayanasutralamkara (Theg-chen mdo-sde-rgyan. bsTan-'gyur, Sems-tsam, 5521 yanasutra ). (LPL) 86 4 In b r i e f , r e l a t i v e Bodhic i t ta i s e s sen t i a l l y compassion. Ultimate Bodhic i tta i s e s sent i a l l y ins ight . The a r i s i n g of the 159 5 second type depends on the f i r s t . Pha-dam-pa sa id , "A f i s h w i l l take to water but not to dry land; r ea l i z a t i on w i l l not ar i se in the absence of compassion." Just so, the ultimate [Bodh i c i t ta ] , r ea l i z a t i on of the undistorted true nature of th ings, depends on the [presence of ] r e l a t i v e [Bodh ic i t ta ] . A person who has not 6 yet rea l i zed [the ultimate nature of th ings ] , but has awakened the force of genuine compassion, w i l l be quite capable of working phys i ca l l y , verbal ly and mentally for the welfare of others. 20a. Engendering the r e l a t i ve Bodh ic i t ta : the Bodhisattva Vow 1 The presence or absence of the r e l a t i ve type i s the sole determinant for the presence or absence of Bodhic i t ta per se. F i r s t , a means of engendering i t i s required. Spec i f i c observances must be performed to engender i t s " a s p i r a t i o n " ^ and "persever-e n c e " ^ aspects. 2 A superior type of person engenders i t by simply r e c i t i n g the Bodhisattva Vow three times, with s i n ce r i t y and understanding, 159 Pha-dam-pa, an eleventh century Tibetan teacher. 160 smon. 161 'jug. 87 162 while facing any representation [of the Three Jewels]. Ordinary people should receive the Vow from a s p i r i t u a l teacher belonging to an unbroken [lineage of transmission of th i s Vow]. Then, the most capable persons are expected to repeat the Vow s ix times [a day], intermediate persons four times, and i n f e r i o r persons twice—once during dayl ight and once at night. Aspirat ion and perseverence in Bodhic i t ta To aspire to the Enlightened Att i tude i s to constantly th ink, "I w i l l a t ta in omniscient Buddhahood for the sake of a l l sent ient beings." [Asp i rat ion] i s l i k e des i r ing to go somewhere. To persevere in [developing] the Enlightened Att i tude i s to perform wholesome acts which w i l l actua l i ze that promise, while th ink ing, "To that end, I w i l l apply the instruct ions for - - - ICO Sahaja Mahamudra meditat ion." [Perseverence] i s l i k e ac tua l l y s t a r t i n g out on a path. Af ter you have engendered the asp i rat ion for Bodhic i t ta by thr ice r e c i t i n g [the Bodhisattva Vow] while [ v i s ua l i z i ng ] that 1 cp A person of superior capab i l i t y need never undergo the formal ceremony of receiv ing the Bodhisattva Vow from a Lama. He may simply r ec i t e i t three times before representations of the Three Jewels, or while v i s ua l i z i n g Them in the sky, imagining that They are actua l l y present. However, aspirants are generally advised to take the bene f i c i a l Vow as many times, and from as many Lamas as poss ible. (Lama) 163 - -Phyag-rgya-ohen-po lhan-oig skyes-sbyor: Mahamudra meditation, oneway of persevering in the Enlightened At t i tude. 88 exce l lent realms, with Buddha Sakyamuni and His Sons facing you, 20b. 1 before you dissolve the [ v i sua l i za t i on of the] Sources of Refuge in to yourse l f , t r a i n yourse l f to persevere in an Enlightened At t i tude. How i s th is to be done? By thinking as fo l lows: "I 2 must engender an Enlightened Att i tude and gradually t r a i n myself I CA in the Six Perfections for the sake of my parents: a l l sentient 3 beings." Then, j o y f u l l y meditate that the Enlightened Att i tude has in fact been engendered. Pray that i t s b less ing be trans-ferred to others. F i n a l l y , d issolve the Sources of Refuge into «i ~ 165 yourse l f . Continue to nurture the Bodhisattva vow as long as you l i v e , [by v i s ua l i z i n g ] the l ion-throne in the sky before you, with the lotus and moon upon i t and the Teacher Sakyamuni surrounded 4 by the Samgha including the Eight Sons, Sixteen Sthaviras, Bodhisattvas, SYavakas and Pratyekabuddhas, and a t ten t i ve l y taking 166 the Bodhisattva Vow. F i n a l l y , rest i n non-conceptualization. Training in the asp i rat ion for Bodhic i t ta  Keeping the Bodhisattva vow The t ra in ing involved in Engendering the Enlightened Att i tude i s very broad because i t draws from a l l aspects of re l i g ious 164 - -pha-rol-tu phyin-pa; paramita: Six transcending functions or c lusters of att i tudes and actions which help lend us (phyina-pa) to the other shore (pha-rol-tu), i . e . , Buddhahood. See H.V. Guenther's Jewel Ornament, op. c i t . , pp. 148-231, and Ch. V. below. 165 A l l the instruct ions in th i s paragraph refer back to pp. 73-4, above. 166 See p. 75, above. 89 pract ice. But b r i e f l y , t ra in ing to aspire for Bodhic i t ta consists of [keeping the Bodhisattva Vow]. Since 1. mentally abandoning sentient beings and 2. adopt-6 ing att i tudes contrary to Bodhic i t ta w i l l uproot and destroy the Bodhisattva Vow, once you have taken the Vow i t i s c ruc ia l that you re ject both of these. Regardless of the number of sentient beings i t concerns, 21a. 1 to think malicious thoughts such as: "Even i f I have a chance to help you, I w i l l no t ! " ; or to be overcome by hate, envy or anger toward others i s the transgression ca l l ed "mentally abandoning sentient beings." Likewise, th inking: "I am j u s t an ordinary layman; I 2 cannot do anything to help myself or others! Complete Buddhahood i s so hard to a t ta in that i t does not matter i f I engender Bodhic i t ta 3 or not! I cannot possibly help sentient beings! " ; adopting the a t t i tude of a SYavaka or Pratyekabuddha who are merely concerned with the i r own welfare; th ink ing, "The benefits of Bodhic i tta are not that great," or giv ing up on the Vow--all these are att i tudes contrary to Bodh ic i t ta . 4 I f you do not correct e i ther of these [a t t i tudes ] with in three hours, the vow i s b r o k e n . ^ Be constantly wary of them! Many vows are broken by overt contrary actions. But the Bodhisattva Vow i s exceptional ly f r a g i l e because i t may be broken by mere thoughts. Constant awareness of one's thoughts i s c ruc i a l for i t s pre-servat ion. (Lama) 90 Even i f they ar i se unconsciously, immediate Confession w i l l repa i r the vow. 5. In b r i e f : Never l e t the excel lent A t t i t ude—the desire to . es tab l i sh even enemies and harmful demons in Buddhahood—deteriorate. - 169 Even an offense as serious as a SYavaka's worst misdeeds cannot 6 destroy Bodh ic i t ta . Thus, carry out a l l the t r u l y benef ic ia l acts you can. Even i f you are incapable [of actua l l y helping others ] , always think [of how you might] help them in the future. Remembering the Enlightened Att i tude 21b. 1 Throughout your l i f e , you should re jec t the " four black deeds," the causes of forgett ing the Enlightened A t t i tude , and t r a i n yourse l f in the " four white deeds," the causes of remembering i t . 2 [The f i r s t black deed i s ] to consciously l i e in order to deceive a Lama or other worshipful person. Whether he hears you shags. There are two types: 1. spyi-shags or general Confes-s ion : and 2. nyes-ltung-shags, Confession of a s p e c i f i c misdeed, such as breaking the Bodhisattva Vow in e i the r of the two above-mentioned ways. According to the Lama, Confession enta i l s facing symbols of the Precious Ones or v i s ua l i z i n g Them before one, and 1. personally recognizing the misdeed, 2. s incere ly regrett ing i t , and 3. resolv ing to never repeat i t . - See Ch. IV., pp. 116-18 for.author ' s deta i led account of Confession. Certain long prayers may be rec i ted a f te r Confession of a v i o l a t i on of the Bodhisattva Vow, but the prayer for the development of the Enl ighten-ed A t t i tude , which appears on p. 73 above, w i l l s u f f i c e . Af ter Confession and prayer, one v i sua l i zes the Sources of Refuge d i s so lv ing into l i g h t and then into one's s e l f . Then, one rests without conceptual iz ing, for as long as poss ible. (Lama) One need not confess to a Lama or to any other person. 169 nyan-thos kyi phas-pam: k i l l i n g , s t ea l i ng , l y ing about his s p i r i t u a l attainments and indulging i n sex. (LPL) 91 21b. or not, whether your words are many or few, i t i s wrong to slander and l i e , even as a joke. [The f i r s t white deed i s to t e l l the truth under a l l c i r -cumstances]. 2 [The second black deed i s ] to make others regret t he i r wholesome acts. You ought to make others regret t he i r harmful 3 ac t s , but [wholesome acts are] no grounds for regret. You w i l l be at f a u l t whether or not you succeed in making them regret [ the i r wholesome ac t s ] . [The second white deed i s ] to urge a l l sent ient beings 4 to undertake the three yanas}^ e spec ia l l y the Mahayana, in combination with fundamentally wholesome act ion. Pray for the universal achievement of Supreme Enlightenment. [The t h i r d black deed i s ] to pub l i c l y or p r i va te l y use a s ing le word of censure against any sentient being who has even 5 verba l ly engendered Bodh ic i t ta . [This i s because by engendering Bodh ic i t ta ] he has joined the Bodhisattvas. [The t h i r d white deed i s ] to pra i se, not condemn, even 6 ordinary sentient beings. Since a l l sent ient beings possess the "Heart of Buddha" 1 ' ' 1 and are capable of gathering the [Two] Accumu-lat ions and removing obscurations, i t has been declared that they do not d i f f e r from Buddhas. 1 7 0 I.e., S*ravakayana, Pratyekabuddhayana and Mahayana. 1 7 1 sangs-rgyas kyi snying-po; here used as a synonym f bzhin-gshegs-pa'i snying-po (tathagatagarbha). See n. 51 above. 92 [The fourth black deed i s ] to phys i ca l l y , mentally or verbal ly cheat, deceive or double-cross others, even a l i t t l e , to further your own in te res t s . [The fourth white deed i s ] to make others ' welfare your personal concern by des i r ing to establ i sh a l l sent ient beings in a blessed and happy state fo r t h e i r present and future l i v e s . In everything you say, you should speak s incere ly , l i k e a father to his son [and a son to his fa ther ] . B r i e f l y , everything [you must do to aspire fo r Bodh ic i t ta ] i s encompassed [ in the fo l lowing statement]: Give a l l p r o f i t and v ictory to others; accept a l l loss and defeat [as your own]. Since the intent ion of the Bodhisattva vow i s the most important th ing, t ry to cont inual ly keep [the Enlightened] A t t i t ude , [ in your mind], in everything you do or say. Since increasing the Two Accumulations leads to the steady growth of Bodh ic i t ta , t r a i n yourse l f to do t h i s . Training in the perseverence of Bodhic i t ta 1. Carrying out the Bodhisattva 's ten tasks - - 172 From the Sagavamatipavipvccha-sutra: "A Bodhisattva i s said to have ten tasks. They are: 1. To abide in f a i t h , which i s the root, and re ly on a s p i r i t u a l teacher; 2. to greatly exert himself in s i ng le -mindedly seeking the Saddharma; 3. to earnestly exert himself in wholesome ac t ion , [impelled] by the earnest bLo-gros rgya-mtsho zhus-pa'i mdo. bKa'-'gyur, mDo-sde, 819. 93 desire [to help others ] ; 4. to ca re fu l l y avoid any waste-fu l acts ; 5. to help sentient beings develop [ s p i r i t u a l l y ] , free of attachment to personal [accumulation of] merit; 6 6. to adhere to the Saddharma without concern for l i f e and limb; 7. to never be s a t i s f i e d with his accumulation of 22b. merit ; 8. to assiduously accumulate transcending awareness; 1 9. to always remember the highest goal, and 10. to completely a t ta in that goal, using the s k i l l f u l means of the path of his choice." Carry out these tasks assiduously! As for the t ra in ing in perseverence, ju s t as a farmer who wants a good crop must not simply plant seeds, but cu l t i va te them as w e l l , i f you want to a t ta i n Buddhahood you need more than the asp i ra t ion . You must carry out Enlightening a c t i v i t y to the best of your a b i l i t y . 2. P ract i c ing the Six Perfections 1. Give g i f t s ; 2. observe moral conduct; 3. pract ice patience; 4. exert e f f o r t [ in a l l of these]; 5. cu l t i v a te medi-ta t i ve concentration and 6. ins ight . Pract ice the Six Perfect ions! 143 In b r i e f , since "There are no true Sons of Buddha who have not pract iced the Six Per fect ions , " single-mindedly perform fundamentally wholesome acts; j o y f u l l y think about those which others have performed. 23a. 3. Applying the Four Immeasurables 1-2 [To apply] the Four Immeasurables^ 4 i s to think of [ a l l ] sentient beings, immeasurable as the sky i s vast--without d i s -t inguish ing between an "enemy," " f r i e n d " or "mother"--with these [four a t t i t ude s ] : ^ 3 I.e., Bodhisattvas. ^ 4 tshad-med-bzhi; catvdra-apramdna. 94 1. Benevolence: the desire to establ i sh a l l sentient beings in a state of happiness which they have not previously enjoyed, and to establ i sh them i n the cause of happiness, whole-some act ion. 2. Compassion: the desire to free them from suf fer ing from this day forward, and to remove the cause of t he i r su f fe r -ing, unwholesome act ion. 3. [Sympathetic] joy : del ight in the physical and mental happiness of others. 4. Equanimity: [the att i tude that] a l l sent ient beings are l i k e one's own mother; that not one of them i s more or less important than another; that they are equal. Neither attachment nor h o s t i l i t y i s f e l t toward a s ing le one, [whether he i s ] near or f a r . A l l are regarded equal ly. To persevere in Mahayana p rac t i ce , henceforth apply [the Four Immeasurables] with a l l your heart. They are the essence of the Dharma. According to the bKa'-gdams-pas' i n s t ruc t i on s , thinking about the connections between [certa in] causes and results leads an ind iv idua l to develop Benevolence, and the rest . [Think as fo l l ows ] : "I must a t ta in Buddahood above a l l e l se . I must engender the Enlightened At t i tude , the cause [of a t ta in ing Buddhahood]. 95 "Compassion i s the cause of [engendering the Enlightened A t t i t ude ] . Benevolence i s the cause of Compassion. Remembering and returning kindness i s the cause [of Benevolence]. Appreciation [of the fac t that] a l l sent ient beings have been my parents i s the cause of [remembering and returning the i r kindness]. I must do t h i s ! Having appreciated [ th i s f a c t ] , remembering my present mother's kindness i s the primary source [of Benevolence]. I must remember my mother's kindness! 5 I must regard her with Benevolence! Since a l l sentient beings are ju s t l i k e her, I must broaden th i s a t t i tude to include a l l who l i v e and breathe!" 175 The two "roots of degeneracy" are: 1. To pretend to be a Bodhisattva but act h y p o c r i t i c a l l y , hoping to be regarded as a "good Buddhist"; des i r ing food, c loth ing and fame; or hoping to 6 be regarded as nobler than others. 2. To c a l l yourse l f a " r ea l i z ed being" or "siddha." Apply the ant idote: meditation on the r a r i t y of the opportunities and blessings [of the human 23b. 1 b i r t h ] , and on impermanence. , To carry out wholesome acts or re l ig ious pract ice merely because you want godly or human happiness in future l i ve s i s phung gi rtsa-ba. 96 contrary to Bodh ic i t ta . [Apply the ant idote]: r eco l l ec t i on of act ion and re su l t , and of sarnsara's shortcomings. To think only of your own welfare instead of the welfare of others i s to ignore what i s fundamental. [Apply the ant idote] : meditation on exchanging your own [wholesome acts and happiness] for the [unwholesome acts and suf fer ing] of others. This i s most important. Moreover, [remember that] a l l sent ient beings are the same as you, since they want to be happy and do not want to su f fer . Like yourse l f , they are [u l t imate ly ] " j u s t - s o " ^ lacking any real 1 y o 1 nature of t he i r own. Since you are but one, and sentient beings are many, they are not merely equal to but much more important than you. Thus, with confidence and determination—and not as a mere i n t e l l e c t u a l exe rc i ze—th ink : "For t h e i r sake, once I have obtained Buddhahood, I w i l l e s tab l i sh a l l sent ient beings in Buddhahood." To do th i s p r o f i t ab l y , instead of cherishing yourse l f , regard any other sentient being as much more important than yoursel f . Undergo even severe suf fer ing to bring happiness to others. bdag-gzhan mnyam-brge. For deta i led inst ruct ions on t ra in ing the mind to do t h i s , see Kong-sprul 's Theg-pa chen-po blo-sbyong don bdun-ma, gDams-ngag-mdzod, Vol. I I I . Delhi: N. Lungtok and N. Gyaltsan, 1971, f o l i o s 181-213, and Ken McLeod's t rans la t ion of i t , A Direct Path to Enlightenment. Vancouver: Kagyu Kunkhyab Chuling, 1975. See also below, "Sending and Receiving." ohos-nyid; dharmata. 178 -rang-bzhin med-pa; nih-svabhava. 97 Expanding these att i tudes and applying them, act so le ly fo r the sake of others. Nowadays, even i f we carry out a few wholesome acts, most 24a. 1 of us do i t for our own sake. But carrying out your appointed task only for the sake of i t s appointee w i l l not get you anywhere! You should move, walk, s leep, and s i t - - t o say nothing of prac t i c ing r e l i g i o n — w i t h the sole intent ion of helping others! 4. Sending and Receiving , 2 When you are beset by i l l n e s s or demons, tormented by gossip or by an upsurge of the klesas, gather up and take on the misfortunes of a l l other sent ient beings. Knowing that your former deeds are the cause [of present sorrow], do not be depressed when sorrow s t r i k e s , but take up the sorrows of others. 3 When you are happy, do not s i t i d l y by, but use your wealth, influence and merit to urge others to perform wholesome acts. 4 Pray fo r the happiness of a l l sentient beings. In b r i e f : Do not do anything for your own benef i t , but 179 turn a l l your re l i g ious pract ice into an antidote to ego-c l ing ing. 180 As you inhale through your nose, take in the black mass 5 of a l l the misery, harmful acts and obscurations of a l l sent ient beings, and l e t i t melt into your heart. As you exhale through 1 g i your nose, send out the "white rays" of a l l the merit and happiness bdag-'dzin gyi gnyen-po. 180 , , 181 7 nag-'ub. akar-lam. 98 6 you have accumulated through beginningless time. Think that a f t e r each sentient being has received his share, a l l of them at ta in Buddhahood. Joyously meditate, and continuously r e c i t e : "When I am happy, may my merit bless others! 24b. May i t s bless ing f i l l the sky! 1 When I am unhappy, may the sorrows of a l l beings be mine. May the ocean of suf fer ing evaporate!" Even when you are on your deathbed and cannot perform any other type of p rac t i ce , [as long as] you can breathe, spend your [remaining] time Sending and Receiving. 2 When subject to any misfortune, such as physical i l l n e s s , mental disturbance, disputes or lawsuits, do not blame others, but 3 blame yourse l f , th ink ing that i t i s simply the f a u l t of your own ego-cl inging. Since [ a l l sentient beings], your enemies, f r iends , and those who are in between the two, provide you with a basis for [Sending and Receiving, the] mental d i s c i p l i ne which r ids you of your harmful acts and obscurations, think about how very kind they are. 4 Do not say or do anything simply because you want others to think that you are free of ego-cl inging. A l l your acts must be pure as the vinaya. Do not discuss the fau l t s of others. Realize that 5 t he i r " f a u l t s " are actua l l y your own impure project ions. Do not c a l l attent ion to human f a i l i n g s or use f i e r ce 99 mantras against non-humans or other creatures. Do not relegate troublesome duties to others or have them do your d i r t y -work fo r you. 6 I t i s wrong to enjoy the prospect of an opponent's defeat, to be glad when an enemy dies, or to think about how you w i l l p r o f i t from a competitor 's i l l n e s s . Without concern for the state 25a. 183 1 of your health or your capacity [to stand up to ] gossip, meditate on the Enlightened At t i tude. Intently meditate on [engendering 184 compassion f o r ] d i f f i c u l t objects of compassion, such as enemies and obstruct ive creatures. Since you are not yet absolutely certa in about the Dharma, 2 pract ice i t with regu la r i t y . Since i t i s to your own advantage to pract ice Dharma, do not boast about the hardships you are undergoing. When others harm you by c a l l i n g attent ion to your f a u l t s , 3 by humi l ia t ing , beating or gett ing angry at you, instead of respond-ing, simply meditate with compassion. Never display your happy or unhappy moods. I f you w i l l not endure any s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , or help others even a l i t t l e , you have missed the s ign i f i cance of Engendering the Enlightened At t i tude. Exchanging your [wholesome acts and happiness] for [the unwholesome acts and suf fer ing o f ] others i s an espec ia l l y 182 mi-ma-yin. Troublesome s p i r i t s who may appear human. 183 mi-kha thub mi-thub. 1 8 4 snying-rje bskyed-dka'-imams. 100 forcefu l type of s k i l l f u l means and must be applied with strong determi nation. Results of Engendering Bodhic i t ta Merely Engendering the Enlightened Att i tude pu r i f i e s countless harmful acts and immeasurably enlarges wholesome acts. The merit [you accumulate] in one instant of Bodhic i t ta exceeds [the merit you would accumulate by] o f fe r ing each of the Buddhas as many vast realms, f i l l e d to the brim with precious gems, as there are grains of sand in the Ganges! We need not even mention i t s measureless b less ing! I t i s the heart of the ent i re Dharma. Subsequent act ion: the two types of  moral conduct b e f i t t i n g a Bodhisattva Since a l l Bodh i sa t t va -ac t i v i t i e s , such as the Six Per-fect ions and the l i k e , ar i se from compassion alone, do not think "I have meditated for th i s many months," or "I have compassion fo r th i s suf fer ing sentient being." Continually cu l t i va te great compassion for [ a l l ] beings, free of bias or p a r t i a l i t y . [ C u l t i -vate the two types of moral conduct]: 1. Cu l t ivate a l l types of wholesome action for the sake of your own s p i r i t u a l development. This i s the "moral conduct of c o l l e c t i n g wholesome dharmas." 2. Set out to perform a l l possible wholesome deeds for the sake of others ' s p i r i t u a l development. This i s the "moral conduct which benefits others." 101 The Bodhisattva Vow [which you have received] applies to both of these [types of moral conduct]. Anyone who does not 4 pract ice them as much as he can i s sa id to f a i l as a Bodhisattva. Thus, engage i n fundamentally wholesome acts at a l l times, and encourage others to do the same. Anyone who feels i t i s s u f f i c i e n t [to apply] only one [type of moral conduct] without the other i s merely c l i ng ing to 1 an insubstant ia l meditative experience which w i l l not withstand 5 adverse circumstances. [Such a person surely] does so out of ignorance of the Buddha's words and the s p i r i t u a l biographies of holy men! nyams-mong mag-mog. Since he has not meditated with the correct a t t i tude he w i l l neither develop Bodhic i t ta nor come to act as a Bodhisattva. (LPL) Figure 4. rDo-rje Sems-dpa' (Vajrasattva) CHAPTER IV SECOND OF THE FOUR SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS: THE HUNDRED-SYLLABLE MANTRA OF RDO-RJE SEMS-DPA' WHICH PURIFIES HARMFUL DEEDS AND REMOVES OBSCURATIONS INTRODUCTORY REMARKS A f te r Taking Refuge and Engendering the Enlightened A t t i tude , the newly committed aspirant i s symbol ical ly pu r i f i ed by p rac t i c ing the meditation and r e c i t i n g the mantra of the Buddha rDo-rje Sems-dpa1 (Vajrasattva). This p u r i f i c a t i o n insures the e f f i cacy of his future re l i g ious endeavors. The impurit ies to be removed include the accumulated influences of a l l the unwholesome thoughts, words and deeds he has committed through-out his samsario career, as wel l as t he i r cause: ignorance or bewilderment. While th i s p u r i f i c a t i o n removes past unwholesomeness, i t does not insure the ind iv idua l against future defilement. Any new unwholesome act necessitates Confession (pp. 116-8) and renewed p u r i f i c a t i o n p r io r to further re l i g ious pract ice. Therefore, r e c i t a t i on of rDo-rje Sems-dpa''s mantra normally precedes other Vajrayana r i t u a l s . According to Kalu Rin-po-che, the e f f i cacy of th i s pract ice i s greatly enhanced i f one has received i t s empowerment (dbang). In the empowerment r i t u a l , the Lama plays the part of rDo-rje Sems-dpa' and, using r i t u a l implements, scented water and incense, pu r i f i e s the aspirant fo r the f i r s t time. 103 104 The pract ice involves the fo l lowing steps: 1. S i t t i n g cross-legged before an icon of rDo-rje Sems-dpa', and v i s ua l i z i n g Him seated on one's head (pp. 106-8). 2. Praying to Him for pu r i f i c a t i on (p. 108). 3. V i sua l i z i ng the process of pu r i f i c a t i on (p. 108-9). 4. Recit ing the hundred-syllable mantra while counting the number of rec i ta t ions on a rosary. 5. Recit ing prayers of Confession (p. 110). 6. Imagining rDo-rje Sems-dpa''s bestowal of blessing (p. 111). 7. Dissolving the v i s ua l i z a t i on and l e t t i n g the mind rest (p. 111). 8. Dedicating merit. TRANSLATION Prologue 25b. 5 Generally speaking, two "hundred-syl lable" mantras e x i s t . One i s the "hundred-syl lable mantra of the Tathagata," which i s - - 186 6 said to come from the Trisamayavyuharaja-tantra. the other i s the "hundred-syl lable mantra of rDo-rje Sems-dpa' (Vajrasattva). " [This i s the one we w i l l discuss here]. [The hundred-syllable mantra o f ] rDo-rje Sems-dpa' ex i s t s 26a. 1 i n two forms. The f i r s t one i s a "hundred-syl lable name-mantra" which incorporates the boundless family of peaceful de i t i e s who Dam-tshig-gsum bkod kyi rgyud. bKq'_. t rGyud-'bum, 134. A kriya-tantra. The mantra invokes the name of Sakyamuni. (LPL) 105 I OJ 26a. are beyond samsava. The second i s the "hundred-syl lable mantva 2 of the wrathful Heruka," said to come from the Abhidhanottava-188 tantva. These mantvas are known as "hundred-sy11 able" mantvas by our school of the Mantrayana despite the fact that they may actua l l y contain e i ther more or less than one hundred s y l l ab le s . At th i s time we w i l l describe, in stages, the v i s ua l i z a t i on 3 which accompanies the peaceful rDo-rje Sems-dpa 1 's hundred-syllable mantva. There are two d i f f e ren t ways of v i s ua l i z i n g [the peaceful 189 rDo-rje Sems-dpa']: 1. Alone, as a universal ru le r according to the yoga-tantva; 2. In sexual embrace, according to the anuttavayoga 190 4 tantva. Here we w i l l fo l low the yoga-tantva. "Name-mantras" or "adaptable name-mantras" (mtshan-sngags spo-chog-pa) including a l l the mantvas mentioned here, consist of a basic mantva, into which the name of any. Buddha, yi-dam or other Enlightened being may be inserted. One version of the mantva i s designed for peace-f u l , and another for wrathful de i t i e s . In the peaceful mantva mentioned above, rDo-rje Sems-dpa1 stands for a l l peaceful yi-dams combined. (LPL) "I po Mngon-bvjod bla-ma'i vgyud.. bKa'., 17. "Heruka" i s a generic term for wrathful male yi-dams. Here i t denotes the wrathful aspect of rDo-rje Sems-dpa'. (LPL) This mantva i s used in the version of th i s pract ice which appears in Dwags-po bKra ' -sh is rnam-rgyal 's sNgon-'gvo'i khvid-yig thun-bzhi'i vnal-'byov du bya-ba. gDams-ngag-mdzod, Vol. V. Delhi: N.Lungtok and N. Gyaltsan, 1971, f o l i o s 547-58. 189 'khov-los sgyuv-ba; cakvavavtin. See n. 248, below. E.G., see H.V. Guenther's Life and Teaching of Navopa, op. c i t . , pp. 131-4. 106 Pract i ca l Instructions 26a. V i sua l i za t ion and Mantra [Rec i te ] : "On a lotus and moon-seat on the crown of your head, S i t s the excel lent rDo-rje Sems-dpa', white and ornamented, With one face and two hands; in the r ight he holds a vajra, l q i In the l e f t , a b e l l . " ' y i 4 Think: On the crown of your head i s the s y l l ab l e (pam) which changes into a lotus. Above the lotus i s an l3| (a) which changes into a moon [ l y ing f l a t ] . Resting on top of the lotus and 5 moon i s a j~? (hum) which changes into a white, five-pronged vajra marked with a -^p where the prongs converge. Light radiates from th i s as an of fer ing to the Noble Ones, f u l f i l s the aims of sentient beings and then returns [ into the « ^ . The ent i re vajra] changes into rDo-rje Sems-dpa' (Vajrasattva), who i s not separate from your own root-Lama. 6 His Body is white, with one face and two hands. His r i gh t hand holds a five-pronged [golden] vajra at his heart. His l e f t holds a s i l v e r be l l at his s ide. "Rang gi spyi-bor pad-zla'i gdan gyi. steng/ Bla-ma rDo-rje Sems-dpa' rgyan-ldan dkar/ Zhal-goig phyag-gnyis gyas-pas rdo-rje dang/ gYon-pas dril-bu 'dzin cing skyil-krung-bzhugs. " 'Phags-lam. gDams-ngag-mdzod, Vol. V., op. c i t . , 109/8-110/1. For vajra (rdo-rje) and b e l l (dril-bu), see n. I l l , above. 107 192 He s i t s in the Bodhisattva posture with the r ight foot 26b. 1 s l i g h t l y extended and the l e f t f u l l y drawn i n . His upper and lower garments are of precious s i l k s . He wears the jewelled diadem and the other peaceful ornaments. On the crown of his head, on his topknot [ s i t s ] the Excel lent [Buddha] Mi-bskyod-pa (Aksobhya), 193 symbol of his Family. 2 His Body, adorned with the [ th i r ty - two] major and [eighty] minor marks [of physical per fec t ion ] , i s c lear and emits measureless 194 l i g h t . I t appears to lack a l l s ub s t an t i a l i t y , l i k e a r e f l e c t i on of the moon in water. Three sy l l ab le s [are located] at the three 195 [usual] places. 3 Above the lotus and moon, enc i r c l i n g a white ^ at His heart l i k e a snake co i l ed clockwise, are the l e t t e r s of His hundred-s y l l a b l e mantra. The l e t t e r s are white; t he i r fronts face outward, [away from rDo-rje Sems-dpa']. 4 L ight radiates from the mantra, i n v i t i n g the Buddhas of the ten d i rect ions and three times and Their Sons. They a l l d issolve 192 sems-dpa"i skyil-krung: a more relaxed posture than the vajra posture of deep meditation assumed by rDo-rje 'Chang. 193 Mi-bskyod-pa i s rDo-rje Sems-dpa"s root-Lama. rDo-rje Sems-dpa' i s his "Son" and Sambhogakaya form. 194 snang-la rang-bzhin med-pa. 195 Y^T"' _ gnas-gsum bru-gsum: 1. a white U \ (om) at the eyes; 2 a red \*5}^(ah) at the throat; a blue (hum) at the heart. Standard way of depict ing Enlightened beings. 108 4 [ into rDo-rje Sems-dpa1] who thus becomes the unity of a l l the 196 Precious Ones. Pray to Him for the removal of harmful acts and obscura-197 t ions : "Exce l lent rDo-rje Sems-dpa', I pray that you remove and pur i fy A l l my harmful deeds, obscurations and transgressions, And those of sent ient beings,-igo Numerous as the sky i s vast. " 199 5 Then the [white] e l i x i r of awareness pours down from p. the seed-sy l lable [ y? ] and c i r c l e of mantra-letters at His Heart, f i l l i n g up His ent i re Body. The excess streams out through the big toe of His r i ght foot , and enters [your body] in the form of 196 At th i s point, 'Fhags-lam i n s t ruc t s : "Meditate that l i g h t from His Heart i nv i te s the ye-shes-pas. They dissolve and He becomes the essence of a l l the Precious Ones combined" (110/1). The incorporation of a l l Enlightened beings into the v i sua l i zed deity makes him a t ru l y e f fec t i ve p u r i f i e r . (Lama) For further explanation of these meditational or "sacred bond" de i t i e s (dam-tshig-pa'i lha) and Enlightened Ones who ex i s t "independent" of one's meditation (ye-shes-pa'i lha), see n. 233, below. 197 sdig-sgrvb sbyong. For "harmful acts " see n. 207, below. Obscurations (sgrib-pa; avarana) are of two basic types: 1. klesavarana, disturbing ef fects of the kle'sas or c o n f l i c t i n g emotions, and the d i s -torted att i tudes and actions motivated by them; 2. jheyavarana, "obscura-t ion of^knowledge," i . e . , the ignorance (ma-rig-pa; avidya) underlying the kle'sas which obscures the true nature of things. For a four - fo ld c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of obscurations, i . e . , phys ica l , verbal , mental and meditat ional , see Ch. VI, pp. 199-202. 198 "Bla-ma rDo-rje Sems-dpa' bdag gzhan nam-mkha'i mtha' dang mnyam-pa'i sems-oan kyi sdig-sgrib nyes-ltung gi tshogs thams-cad byang zhing dag-par-mdzad-du-gsol." 'Phags-lam, op. c i t . , 110/1. 199 ye-shes kyi bdud-rtsi; jnana-amrta. 109 6 l i g h t , through the crown of your head. A l l the harmful deeds and obscurations you have gathered throughout your beginningless l i f e t ime s , such as v io la t ions of sacred commitments and so on, take the form of soot and sludge. A l l diseases [ i n fec t i ng your body] take the form of pus and blood. A l l the demons [ inhabit ing your body] take the forms of d i f f e ren t insects. A l l the substances [comprising your physical body], i n -27a. 1 eluding f lesh and blood, stream out l i k e bubbles through the o r i f i c e s of the sense-organs and the pores, and dissolve into the mighty IA ,i-200 golden ground. V i sua l i ze that a f te r your body has been pu r i f i ed by the 2 e l i x i r of awareness, the excess e l i x i r overflows [at the crown of your head] and comes in contact with rDo-rje Sems-dpa''s foot. V i sua l i ze th i s very c l ea r l y again and again. I t i s sa id : " I f your mind i s d i s t racted [during v i s u a l i z a t i o n ] , r e c i t a t i o n [of 3 the mantra] even for a kalpa w i l l be f r u i t l e s s . " Thus, do the v i s ua l i z a t i on without a moment's d i s t r a c t i o n , and continuously 4 rec i te the hundred or the s i x - s y l l a b l e [mantra] c l ea r l y and s o f t l y , at a moderate pace: dbang-chen gser gyis gzhi; kancanamayi-bhumi. See n. 243, below. The Lama inst ructs that at th i s point the meditator should think that he retains only the in subs tant ia l , c lear "rainbow body" Cja'-lus) of an Enlightened being. This body looks l i k e a transparent container, into which the white e l i x i r i s poured. no "Om benza sato samaya, manu palaya, benza sato te no padiktra dri dho me bha wa, suto kaiyo me bha wa, supo kaiyo me bha wa, anu rato me bha wa, sarwa siddhi metra ya t sa , sarwa karma sut tsa me tsu tarn shriya kuru hum ha ha ha ha hoh bha ga wan, sarwa ta tha ga ta benza ma me mutsa benza bha wa ma ha sa ma ya sato ah." Or, "Om benza sato hum." F i n a l l y , j o i n your palms [ in f ront of you] in a gesture of devotion. 4 Recite the prayers of Confession: "Lord, because of my ignorance and bewilderment I have broken and neglected my sacred commitments. Great Lord, grant me Refuge! Supreme yaj ' ra-bearer, Person i f i cat ion of Great Compassion, Chief of beings, I Take Refuge in You!" I admit and confess having broken and destroyed the root and the branches of a l l the sacred commitments of body, speech and mind. I pray that You w i l l remove and pur i fy a l l my harmful deeds, obscurations and transgressions."202 Both versions are found i n 'Phags-lam, 110/3-5, in t r a s -l i t e r a t e d Sanskr it . Our t r an s l i t e ra t i on s represent the Tibetan pro-nunciation. Recitat ion of the long version i s required when the mantvas are being counted with the intent ion of completing the ent i re pract ice of 111,111 rec i t a t i on s . At other times the short version may be used. (LPL) 202 "mGon-po bdag ni mi-shes vmongs-pa yis/ Dam-tshig las ni 'gal zhing nyams/ bLa-ma mgon-pos skyabs-mdzod cig/ I l l Then, pleased by [your r e c i t a t i o n ] , the smil ing rDo-rje 5 Sems-dpa' c a l l s out, "Oh, son of good fami ly , a l l your harmful deeds, obscurations and transgressions are pu r i f i ed from this day forward." [Then r e c i t e ] " rDo-rje Sems-dpa' breathes on me, Dissolves into l i g h t , and i s absorbed into me. Thus, we become one."203 Then, He dissolves in to l i g h t , which melts into yourse l f . Now, rDo-rje Sems-dpa''s Body, Speech and Mind are non-separate from your own body, speech and mind. Let your mind re s t , w i th -out conceptual iz ing. 6 At the close of each meditation sess ion, share the merit: "Once I have quick ly become rDo-rje Sems-dpa', May every s ing le sentient being Be placed i n th i s state By v i r tue of my practice."204 gTso-bo rdo-rje-'dzin-pa kye/ Thugs-rje-chen-po'i bdag-nyid-oan/ 'Gro-ba'i gtso-la bdag-skyabs-mohi. sKu gsung thugs rtsa-ba dang yan-lag gi dam-tshig nyams chags thams-oad mtho-lo bshags-so/ sDig-sgrib nyes-ltung gi tshogs thams-oad byang zhing dag-par byin-gyis-brlab-tu-gsol." 'Phags-lam, 110/6-8. 203 "rDo-rje Sems-dpas bdag-la dbugs-dbyung zhing/ 'Od-zhu bdag-la thim-pas gnyis-med-gyur." 'Phags-lam, 110/8. "dGe-ba 'di yi myur-du bdag/ rDo-rje Sems-dpa'i 'grub-gyur nas/ 'Gro-ba goig kyang ma lus-pa/ De yis sa-la 'god-par-shog." Provided by the Lama. 112 Indications of successful practice 6 The signs of the purification of your harmful acts are 205 elucidated in the authoritative treatises [of this tradition]. 27b. 1 In particular, i t is said that you will experience a feeling of physical bouyancy, l i t t le need for sleep, good health, clear PDfi thinking and glimpses of realization [of the ultimate nature of things]. Commentary 1 The overall significance of this [practice] is: Abandon all harmful deeds; accomplish wholesome ones. 2 Only the Perfect Buddha knew what to reject and what to adopt, and demonstrated this to others. One who has deep faith in His Teachings and then applies them, has grasped their most essential meaning. Action and result 3 Although a wholesome or harmful act may have been minute while i t was s t i l l merely a motivation, by the time i t yields its result i t will have grown considerably. Harmful deeds lead to lower states of existence; wholesome deeds lead to happy ones. 4 None of your deeds will be impotent. You will not experience [the results] of that which you have not done. 205 . gznung. 206 nyams-rtogs thal-thol. 113 27b. The source of a l l actions 4 Actions which are wholly motivated by attachment, 207 aversion and s tup id i ty but have not assumed a concrete physical or verbal form, are mental actions. Those which have assumed 5 concrete form are physical and verbal act ions. A l l act ions, then, begin as mental act ions. Therefore i t i s sa id: "The mind i s the source of the poison which leads the world into darkness." 6 "Harmful act ion " includes the " f i v e most heinous acts , " " f i v e less heinous act s , " "ten unwholesome ac t s , " " f ou r burdens," 208 "e ight deviat ions" and others. ["Harmful ac t i on " ] also includes c v / I.e., the klesas. 208 The " f i v e most heinous acts " (mtshams-med-pa Inga; pahoa-anantarya-karma), often ca l l ed the " f i v e inexpiables, " l i t e r a l l y , " f i v e acts which bring immediate r e t r i bu t i on " are: matr ic ide, pa r r i c i de ; k i l l i n g an Arhat or Lama; creat ing discord in the Samgha, and w i l l f u l l y making a Tathagata bleed. The " f i v e less heinous acts " (nye-ba'i mtshams-med) are k i l l i n g a novice or monk; seducing a monk or nun; destroying or mut i lat ing images of Buddha, sc r ip tures , or shrine-rooms. The ten unwholesome acts (mi-dge-ba bcu) have been explained i n Ch. I I , 3, above. The " four burdens" (Ici-bzhi) or four weighty acts , consist of four sets of acts : 1. Four burdens of pervers i ty: a. Looking down on learned people; b. t reat ing holy persons, monks or nuns in a condescend-ing manner; c. s tea l ing food belonging to someone in meditation re t rea t ; d. s tea l ing a yogin's r i t u a l implements. 2. Four burdens of degeneracy: a. swearing i n order to conceal your g u i l t ; b. v i o l a t i n g the svavaka precepts; c. the Bodhisattva precepts, d. tantric precepts. 3. Four  burdens of verbal abuse: a. Denouncing sacred images; b. b e l i t t l i n g the knowledge of learned people; c. der id ing words of t ru th ; d. engaging in re l i g ious polemics out of prejudice. 4. Four burdens of blasphemy: a. Holding perverted views; b. i n ju r i ng a holy person; c. i n su l t i ng your equals; d. accusing an innocent person of wrongdoing. (LPL) The "e ight perversions" (log-brgyad): despising the wholesome; g l o r i f y i n g the unwholesome; d i sturb ing truth-seekers; abandoning your s p i r i t u a l teacher; d iv id ing the Samgha; abandoning s p i r i t u a l brothers and s i s t e r s , and desecrating a sacred mandala. (LPL) 114 28a. 1 breaking any of the three types of vows [Hinayana, Mahayana, or Vajrayana], encouraging others to do so, and de l ight ing in or pra i s ing t he i r v i o l a t i o n . In short, besides carrying with us the mountain of mis-2 deeds we have accumulated during beginningless past l i v e s , we add to i t in the present l i f e , as most of our motives are trans-formed into phys i ca l , verbal and mental actions by v i r tue of the three klesas. 3 Even in th i s l i f e , gods and men w i l l curse and slander you for your bad deeds. You w i l l be besieged by sorrows. Your protect ing de i t ie s w i l l grow lazy, and demons w i l l take advantage of th i s and obstruct [your re l i g ious p rac t i ce ] . You w i l l j o i n 4 the lower classes of men. [L iv ing] in the shadow of your bad deeds, you w i l l have bad luck. Even your dreams w i l l be bad. You w i l l be unhappy. Po ten t i a l l y f a t a l accidents w i l l crop up; disease-demons w i l l attack you. You w i l l suf fer intense pain, fear and f r u s t r a t i on while 5 dying, and great mental disturbance in the bar-do. Af te r death [and reb i r th ] you w i l l have to undergo a long period of suf fer ing in the three lower realms, proportionate to your great, moderate or small misdeeds. 6 Even i f you are reborn in the higher realms, your l i f e w i l l be b r i e f and disease-ridden. You w i l l be hated by ho s t i l e enemies, although you have done them no wrong. Your homeland w i l l be plagued by epidemics, crop f a i l u r e s and war. 115 Because of the s i m i l a r i t y between a cause and r e su l t , i f you are proud of your harmful acts your su f fer ing w i l l con-t i n u a l l y , uninterruptedly increase. 28b. 1 You are absolutely wrong [ i f you imagine] any harmful act to be necessary or p ro f i t ab l e . [You are mistaken i f you 2 think that you must commit one] to subdue enemies or protect f r i ends , or fo r money, property, fame, food, clothes and so on. No matter how r i ch you are in these things, at death they w i l l be more useless than a sesame seed! You w i l l not be able 3 to take along a morsel of food or scrap of c lo th ing , to say nothing of your fame, wealth, son, wife and the rest . When you wander alone in the lower realms, the painful consequences of your harmful acts cannot be transferred to others--you alone must suf fer them! [Think as fo l lows: "In th i s uncertain wor ld] , enemies 4 may become fr iends and fr iends may eas i l y become enemies. I, who have dared to do harm, may be seized by Maras, possessed by harmful s p i r i t s and become a du l l -w i t ted and ignorant person. In the past, I never thought about the consequences [of my 5 a c t s ] , and there was no one to t e l l me what not to do. Since death may come at any time, I may not even have a chance to pur i fy my harmful acts! I f I have not pu r i f i ed them at a l l , 6 what awful miseries await me in the lower realms a f te r death takes me away!" There i s no harm in l e t t i n g se l f -d i sgus t motivate 116 209 you [to change]. You should meditate unhappily. Furthermore, concealed misdeeds grow larger and larger, 29a. 1 as the seeds of harmful acts are mixed with the water and manure of deception. I f you do not conceal your f a u l t s , but recognize them and reveal your sad state to others, [your f a u l t s ] w i l l not 210 2 grow but w i l l diminish in strength, f o r , "The truth c u r t a i l s . " Harmful acts may be eas i l y uprooted by assiduous a p p l i -cation of the means of pu r i f i c a t i o n of misdeeds: intense regret and sincere Confession. When you perfect the use of these s k i l l -3 f u l means, each wholesome deed you do w i l l have the capacity to to un-do heaps of harmful ones. Confession To say, "I committed th i s misdeed" i s to admit to wrong-doing. To do so with strong regret and mental anguish i s to Confess. Confession en ta i l s [ v i s ua l i z i ng ] the wonderful, worship-4 fu l Excel lent Ones, [the Sources of Refuge], who are free of wrongdoing; f ee l i ng dismayed and ashamed of your misdeed, and 5 stra ightforwardly, s incere ly saying, "Please regard me with Compassion, and pur i fy th is deed of mine!" 209 rang-la khrel baas-'dug mi-tshugs. ^® bden-pas mtha'-sdoms-pa. 117 The four powers [Your Confession w i l l be e f fec t i ve i f you apply these four powers]: 1. The power to renounce and regret your previous mis-deeds as vigorously as i f you had swallowed poison. 2. The power to des i st from doing any more harm, even at the cost of your l i f e , and to f i rmly resolve to think before you act. 3. The power to re l y on Taking Refuge and Engendering the Enlightened At t i tude. 4. The power to carry out a l l types of remedial whole-some acts to pur i fy harmful ones, inc luding the "S ix Gates of Remedy" and others. You ought to apply a l l four powers. [ I f you do not apply them, the fo l lowing conditions w i l l r e s u l t ] : 1. I f you merely go through the motions of Confession, without regrett ing your former misdeeds, these deeds w i l l not be pu r i f i e d . 211 2. I f you have not ruled out future [misdeeds], Con-fession and wholesome action w i l l be a complete waste of time. 3. A s ingle Confession by one who has t r u l y Taken Refuge and Engendered the Enlightened Att i tude has more power to pur i fy harmful acts than a hundred-thousand Confessions by one who has phyin-chad sdom-sems med-na. 118 4 not Taken Refuge or Engendered the Enlightened At t i tude. Further-more, one day of Confession by one who has received [Vajrayana] 212 empowerment clears away more harmful acts than many years of Confession by one who has received only [Hinayana and Mahayana vows]. This i s because [Vajrayana empowerment] greatly increases the power of re l iance. 4. The same [reasoning] applies to increasing your whole-5 some acts and [e l iminat ing] harmful ones. The Six Gates of Remedy 1. to remove karmic obscurations, say the name of 'Od-dpag-med (Amitabha), sMan-bla (Bhaisajyaguru), Mi- 'khrugs-pa (Aksobhya) and other praiseworthy Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, and rec i t e [ the i r names] to others. 2. Set up images, holy books and stupas, [symbols of Buddha's Body, Speech and Mind]. 3. Make offer ings to these three symbols; serve the Samgha; 213 o f fe r the mandala [of the universe]. I f you have jo ined the 214 Mantrayana, pract ice dkyil-'khor meditations and par t i c ipate 30a. 1 2 1 2 dbang: See Ch. VI., n. 345. 2 1 3 See Ch. V. 214 dkyil-'khor i s the usual Tibetan t rans la t ion of the Sanskrit word "mandala." But in th i s tex t , the t r an s l i t e ra ted Sanskrit word mandala and the Tibetan dkyil-'khor are not used interchangeably. A "mandala" (pronounced "man-dal" by Tibetans) i s a symbol of 119 215 in community o f fe r ing f e s t i b a l s . E spec ia l l y , honor the Lama 216 with the " f i v e pleasing o f fe r ings . " 4. Recite the sutras and tantras taught by Buddha, such as the Prajnaparamita. and Mahaparinirvana sutras. 5. Recite the "hundred-syl lable mantra of the Tathagata," [the mantras of ] Kun-rig (Sarva-vid Vairocana), Mi- 1khrugs-pa (Aksobhya) and other profound mantras. 217 6. Confident in the [presence of the] tathagatagarbha, 218 meditate on the s ign i f i cance of non-self. Recite (rDo-rje Sems-219 d p a M s mantra] without thinking of the "three spheres": the universe offered to the Sources of Refuge, as in Ch. V. below. dkyil-'khor refers to a genre of Vajrayana meditation aimed at the gradual transformation of the meditator from an ordinary being into a Buddha. "Maps" of Enlightenment (dkyil-'khor; mandala) are employed, in which the highest Buddha, the ultimate goal, i s the central f igure. He i s surrounded by various yi-dams who represent that goal as i t appears at various stages of the meditator 's s p i r i t u a l development. The yi-dams are arranged in a geometric pattern dominated by a c i r c l e with in a square. 215 'khor-lo'i mohod-pa: Devotional services cons i s t ing of prayer and mantra chanting, o f fe r ing and feas t ing , held bi-monthly, on the waxing and waning moon days, by tantrio Lamas and the i r close d i sc ip les . (LPL) 216 bla-ma-la mnyes-pa Inga: 1. to show him respect; 2. o f fe r him service and needed goods; 3. have f a i t h and confidence in him; 4. obey him, and best of a l l , 5. to pract ice Dharma. (LPL) 217 See n. 51, above. 218 -bdag-med-pa'; anatman. 219 'khor-gsum dmigs-med. Any act ion i s sa id to cons i s t of three factors or "spheres": 1. an object; 2. an instrument; and 3. a subject or actor. Religious acts performed in a s p i r i t of d i s interested-ness, with no preconceived notions about any of these three or about the outcome of the act ion , are uninfluenced by the kle'sas and therefore conducive to L iberat ion. 120 1. obstructions to be p u r i f i e d ; 2. an instrument of p u r i f i c a t i o n : the de i t y ' s mantra, or 3. a p u r i f i e r : yourse l f . This i s the appl icat ion of profound openness (sunyata). A l t e rna t i ve l y , a f te r meditation sessions, concentrate on the unrea l i ty , the i l l u s o r i -ness [of a l l phenomena]. The hundred-syllable mantra of rDo-rje Sems-dpa' Any of these s i x remedies, i f s incere ly appl ied, can [eventual ly] put an end to the causes and results of harmful ac t ion . But fo r immediate p u r i f i c a t i o n of the formidable mis-deeds and obscurations which block Mahamudra r e a l i z a t i o n — t h e actual pract ice—we have explained the meditation and mantra of rDo-rje Sems-dpa'. The great mental confusion we experience in th i s l i f e i s due to misdeeds and obscurations we have amassed in recent l i f e -times. V io lat ions of the Three Vows are pa r t i c u l a r l y [serious misdeeds]; transgressions of the Body, Speech and Mind of the Lama are extremely serious. [Misdeeds such as] v i o l a t i on of sacred Mantrayana commitments, trading images fo r cash or food, and so on, tend to weaken the ef fects of previous meditative experiences, and to i n h i b i t the a r i s i n g of new ones. The hundred-syllable mantra of rDo-rje Sems-dpa' i s the most praiseworthy [of a l l remedies] because i t clears away such misdeeds. According to Lord A t i s a : 121 3 " Jus t as a freshly-cleaned mandala placed in a very dusty spot immediately becomes smeared with dust again, many minor v io la t ions of Mantrayana [commitments] con-s tant ly crop up."220 But i f you ask [ in despair ] , " W i l l the time never come when the Path [to Enlightenment] w i l l t r u l y become part of me?" the answer i s : The Mantrayana employs a great var iety of s k i l l f u l 4 means, yet many minor misdeeds may be pu r i f i ed by employing j u s t one of them for a s ingle moment!" For this reason, we have pro-vided a deta i led account of the meditation and hundred-syllable mantra of rDo-rje Sems-dpa'. In praise of the hundred-syllable mantra The measureless immediate and ultimate advantages [to be gained from rec i t i n g rDo-rje Sems-dpa''s mantra] are unanimously 5 proclaimed in both the new and old tantras. An Indian work sums i t a l l up: "Although they embody the f i ve transcending awarenesses, Pract ices ca l l ed dharani, mantra, mudra, stupa and mandala Do not y i e l d as much merit As one good rec i t a t i on of the hundred-syllable mantra, Adorned by a l l the Buddhas, 2 2 1 Numerous as specks of dust." Since Mantrayana commitments are extremely easy to break, the pu r i f i ca to r y meditation and mantra of rDo-rje Sems-dpa' i s espec ia l l y important fo r a Mantrayana aspirant, enabling him to immediately repair and renew his vows. The pract ices named are various ways of re l a t i ng to (rDo-rje 122 31a. 1 And further: "Whoever chants the hundred sy l l ab les Is struck neither by sickness, sorrow, Nor untimely death. 2 Whoever chants the hundred sy l l ab le s Is not beset by poverty or su f fe r i ng , His enemies are destroyed, A l l his wishes are f u l f i l l e d . 3 Whoever chants the hundred s y l l ab le s Obtains a son i f he wants a son, Or wealth, i f wealth he wants, I f land he lacks , then land he f inds . Whoever wants longevity Should chant the hundred s y l l a b l e s , And, pleased to die when his time comes, 4 H e ' l l l i v e [another] three hundred years. [The same man], pleased with this [long] l i f e , W i l l be reborn in bDe-wa-can. 2 2 2 Whoever chants the hundred s y l l ab le s Cannot be made forget fu l By mkha'-gro, byung-vQ ro-langs, Or d e f i l i n g demons. 2 2 3 Sems-dpa1 as) a yi-dam. Dharani (gzungs): most general term f o r mantra. Mantra (sngags): here refers to Vajrayana pract ice fo r trans-formation of ordinary consciousness into ultimate awareness through meditation on, v i s ua l i z a t i on of, and rec i t a t i on of mantras. Mudra (phyag-rgya), stupa (mohod-rten)_and mandala (dkyil-'khor, see n. 213 above) are also tools of the Vajrayana. (LPL) 222 This man's wishes are f u l f i l l e d beyond his expectations. bDe-wa-can (Sukhavati): The "Land of B l i s s , " Buddha Amitabha's Paradise. Unlike the deva-heavens, Buddha Realms are not places of sensory enjoyment. Their inhabitants enjoy the best possible conditions fo r re l i g ious p rac t i ce , inc luding in s t ruct ion in the Dharma by the resident Buddhas, and eas i l y obtain Enlightenment. Ent i re Buddhist t rad i t ions in China and Japan stem from the quest for reb i r th in Amitabha's Paradise. 223 These mkha'-'gro are not the ye-shes mkha'-'gro of the Refuge Tree, but sha-za mkha'-'gro or f lesh-eat ing dakinis, who, along with byung-po ro-langs are samsario demons whose destruct ive t ac t i c s include robbing beings of t he i r memory. (LPL) 123 I f they rec i te the hundred s y l l a b l e s , Even great wrongdoers Wi l l surely see the Buddha. I f he rec i tes the hundred s y l l a b l e s , 6 A fool w i l l gain i n te l l i g ence , A luckless man turn fortunate. Change and f ru s t ra t i on w i l l be destroyed, The worst wrong doer,224 pu r i f i ed . 31b. 1 In th i s and other l i ve s as wel l He wi11 be a cakravartin. And f i n a l l y , in Freedom re s t , And Buddhahood a t t a i n . " I t i s said that i f you [pract ice th i s meditation and rec i t e th i s mantra] assiduously, your minor and moderate mis-2 deeds w i l l be t o t a l l y pu r i f i ed . Your major misdeeds w i l l not increase, but be suppressed and gradually pu r i f i ed . Generally speaking, i f you f i rmly bel ieve in [the doctrine 3 o f ] act ion and re su l t , you w i l l i nev i tab ly regret your harmful deeds. Then, your Confession w i l l be genuine. A l l th i s points to the fact that p u r i f i c a t i o n w i l l i n -4 ev i tab ly lead to r e a l i z a t i o n . On the other hand, monks who have no f i rm b e l i e f [ in action and re su l t ] or fee l ing of regret [ for t h e i r misdeeds], and merely go through the motions without r ea l l y [Confessing], w i l l achieve as much r ea l i z a t i on as a to r to i se has . . 225 ha i r . 224 mtsham-med Inga dang-ldan-pa. See n. 208, above. 225 I.e., none. CHAPTER V THIRD OF THE FOUR SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS: THE MANDALA-OFFERING BY WHICH THE TWO ACCUMULATIONS ARE PERFECTED INTRODUCTORY REMARKS In preparation for the Guru-Yoga and further p rac t i ces , the aspirant must be purged of negative q u a l i t i e s , and enriched with pos i t i ve ones. The purging i s achieved by the rDo-rje Sems-dpa1 r i t u a l of the l a s t chapter; the enrichment, by the Mandala-Offering which "per fect s " the Two Accumulations (tshogs-gnyis). These are the Accumula-t ion of Merit (bsod-nams kyi tshogs), and the Accumulation of Transcend-ing Awareness (ye-shes kyi tshogs). "Mer i t " refers to the cumulative ef fects of "meritorious act ions" (see Ch. I I, 3). "Transcending Awareness" i s d i r ec t understanding of ultimate r e a l i t y . PERFECTION OF THE TWO ACCUMULATIONS ACCUMULATION OF MERIT ACCUMULATION OF AWARENESS 1. Perfection of generosity 6. Perfection of ins ight 2. Perfection of moral conduct 3. Perfection of patience 4. Perfect ion of strenuousness 5. Perfect ion of meditative concen-t r a t i on . _ \ _ SKILLFUL MEANS INSIGHT 124 125 As i l l u s t r a t e d above, " pe r fec t i on , " or complete a cqu i s i t i on , of the Two Accumulations i s equivalent both to the f u l f i l l m e n t of the Six Perfections and the integrat ion of s k i l l f u l means (compassion) and ins ight ( rea l i za t i on of emptiness), the goals of the Mahayana and Vajrayana respect ive ly. In th i s p rac t i ce , the aspirant perfects his Accumulation of Merit through the supremely meritorious act of repeatedly o f fe r i ng the ent i re universe to the Sources of Refuge. He perfects his Accumulation of Transcending Awareness by understanding a l l the while that th is o f f e r i n g , i t s rec ip ien t s , and the giver himself are no things-in-them-selves, but u l t imate ly empty. A short version of th i s pract ice i s generally performed at the s t a r t of Vajrayana r i t u a l s . In i t , the mandala-mudra. i s used to symbolize the universe. (See Beyer, The Cult of Tara, p. 168). Throughout th i s chapter, the word "mandala" has four referents: 1. the metal disk (resembling an inverted pie plate) on which the p i le s of r i ce are placed; 2. the small p i le s of r i ce (tshom-bu); 3. the v i s u a l -i z a t i o n , and 4. the three together. Pract ice of the Mandala-Offering e n t a i l s : A. Preparation of the sgrub-pa'i mandala (prel iminary mandala) re -presenting the Sources of Refuge. This involves: 1. Holding a metal disk in the l e f t hand whi le cleaning i t by three clockwise movements of the r ight w r i s t , and r e c i t i n g two p u r i -f i ca to ry mantras (p. 128). 2. P lac ing f i ve p i l e s of r i ce on the disk and v i s ua l i z i n g them as the f i v e Sources of Refuge (p. 129). 126 3. Imagining the union of these de i t i e s with the " r e a l " Sources of Refuge (p. 129). 4. Placing the sgrub-pa'i mandala on a high covered table or a l t a r . B. Preparation of the mohod-pa'i mandala, representing the ideal universe, to the Sources of Refuge. This involves: 1. Holding a second disk in the l e f t hand while cleaning i t as before, and pur i f y ing i t by r e c i t i n g rDo-rje Sems-dpa''s mantra. 2. Chanting the "ground"-mantra (p. 134); sp r ink l i ng perfumed water on the d isk, and v i s ua l i z i n g i t as the golden ground. 3. Chanting the " r i m " - m a n t r a (p. 134); dropping r i ce around the rim of the disk, and v i s ua l i z i n g i t as the c i r c u l a r iron mountain which surrounds the universe. 4. Chanting the l i t u r g y (p. 132; 134-46) while dropping p i le s of r i ce on the disk and v i s ua l i z i n g them as the th i rty-seven features of the ideal universe. 5. V i s ua l i z i ng the addit ional features of th i s universe r e c i t i n g the four l i ne prayer (pp.. 148-9); praying for acceptance of the Mandala-Offering, and fo r universal Enligntenment (pp. 150-1). 6. Recit ing the "mandala-mantra"; tossing some r i ce into the a i r , and praying for universal L iberat ion (p. 151). 7. Clearing the r i ce o f f the disk. 8. Recit ing the four l i ne prayer (p. 152); dropping p i le s of r i ce on the disk to represent a s imp l i f i ed universe of seven features, while v i s u a l i z i n g the same elaborate universe as before. 127 9. Clearing the r i ce o f f the disk; repeating steps 8 and 9 as many times as desired for the session. 10. Praying for universal r ea l i z a t i on of Mahamudra (p. 154); r e c i t i n g the Seven Branches of Religious Service (p. 155), and the concluding prayers. 11. Dedicating merit. The pract ice i s complete when 111,111 long or short mdhod-pa'i mandalas have been offered. TRANSLATION 31b. P rac t i ca l Instructions Construction of mandalas 5 There i s nothing wrong with o f fe r ing a small mandala i f i t i s made of some f ine mater ia l , such as precious metal. But a mandala made of a poor mater ia l , such as clay or wood, ought 00 f. to be large. I f you lack [such mater ia l s ] , you may use a slab of wood 6 or stone. I f you lack even these, a mentally-created mandala w i l l s u f f i c e . The most important thing i s the v i sua l i z a t i on [which accompanies construction of any mandala']. [To pract ice th i s Mandala-Offering] you w i l l need two mandala-[disks]. Use the f i ne r or larger of the two [as the base "Mandala" here denotes the c i r c u l a r disks upon which sgrub-pa'i and mchod-pa'i mandalas are b u i l t . 128 for the] sgrub-pa'i mandala. Use the other one f o r the mohod-pa'i 6 mandala. [To construct both mandalas], use p i le s of precious (gold or s i l v e r ) , semi-precious ( tor to i se or cowrie she l l ) or 32a. 1 s l i g h t l y precious ( r i ce) grains, moistened with scented water. I f you can af ford i t , change [ a l l ] the grains for fresh ones each time [you o f fe r a mandala]. I f you cannot af ford i t , change some 2 of the grains for fresh ones put aside [ for th i s purpose]. These grains are not for your own consumption l a te r on, 227 but should be offered to the Precious Ones. Construction and v i sua l i z a t i on of the sgrub-pa'i mandala 3 V i sua l i ze the Sources of Refuge as you clean and pur i fy 228 the sgrub-pa'i mandala. [Meanwhile, r ec i t e the mantras]: "Om Benza Amrita Hum Pheh" and "Om Sabhawa Shuddha Sarwa Dharma Sabhawa 229 Shuddho Ham" three times. This may be done by using the r i ce fo r some re l i g ious a c t i v i t y , such as giving i t to monks to eat, or to poor people, w i ld birds or animals, as an exercise in generosity. The c ruc i a l point i s that i t must not be used for one's own enjoyment. (Lama) 228 A mandala i s symbol ical ly cleaned by running the inner part of the wr i s t around i t s rim thr i ce clockwise, while chanting the p u r i f i -catory mantras. In some other t r ad i t i on s , th i s i s done counterclockwise, or f i r s t counterclockwise and then clockwise. See F.D. Lessing, "Mis-cellaneous Lamaist Notes I: Notes on the Thanksgiving Of fer ing. " Central Asiatic Journal, II: 1, Berkeley, 1956, p. 65. 229 Two pur i f i ca to ry mantras, correct Sanskrit s pe l l i n g : "Om Vajra Amrta Hum Phat," and Om Svabhava-Suddhah Sarva-Dharmih Svabhava-S"uddho Ham." The f i r s t removes the impurit ies of the materials which comprise the sgrub-pa'i mandala; the second removes that mandala's s ub s t an t i a l i t y , reducing i t ' t o "pure emptiness." It then reappears "out of emptiness" (stong-pa'i ngang las) as the pa l a t i a l abode of the Sources of Refuge. 129 Meditate that out of emptiness, [on top of the mandala-disk] a magnificent palace appears, endowed with a l l the specia l a t t r i b u t e s . 2 3 0 In the center [of the d i s k ] , place f i v e small p i l e s of r i c e . V i sua l i ze these as the f i v e Sources of Refuge j u s t as they 231 were in the Refuge meditation, except that the lake and the wish-granting tree may be omitted, and the dharmapalas should be in between [the f i ve Sources, instead of below Them]. L ight radiates from the three seed-syl lables located at 232 the three places, i n v i t i n g the numberless ye-shes-pa de i t i e s [to come forth from the Dharmadhatu], t he i r natural abode. Medi-tate that [the ye-shes-pa de i t ie s and the de i t ie s whom you have 233 v i sua l i zed on the mandala] d issolve into one. Place [the mandala on a high, covered table in f ront of you. Surround i t 230 According to Kalu Rin-po-che, i t has four sides and four storeys and i s made of magnificent mater ia ls. 2 3 1 See Ch. I l l , pp. 66-70. 232 _I.e., on the Bodies of the Lamas, yi-dams, Buddhas, Bodhisattvas and dharmapalas, not on the Dharma texts . See n. 195, above. 233 Any yi-dam, inc luding the Sources of Refugees said to ex i s t in two respects: 1. as a ye-shes-pa'i lha or "awareness-deity," the " r e a l " yi-dam whose existence does not d i r e c t l y depend on a meditator ' s v i s ua l -i za t i on but who, l i k e a l l beings, "abides i n " or "emerges from" the Dharmadhatu; 2. as a dam-tshig-pa'i lha or "sacred bond de i t y , " who ex-i s t s only fo r aspirants who have undertaken the sacred commitment (dam-tshig) to keep him as a personal yi-dam by meditating on him, r e c i t i n g his mantra, and praying to him. (LPL) Meditating that these two aspects of a deity have merged i s sa id to greatly increase that de i t y ' s effectiveness as a Source of Refuge. (Lama) 130 234 with the f i v e types of o f fer ings , i f you possess them. 6 I f you do not have a sgrub-pa'i mandala[-disk], or i f 235 you perform the Mandala-Offering very regu lar ly , simply meditate that the de i t ie s to whom you are about to o f fe r i t are present in the sky before you [as i n the Refuge v i s u a l i z a t i o n ] . Construction and v i sua l i za t i on of the mohod-pa'i mandala Then, hold the mohod-pa'i mandala[-disk] in your l e f t hand and flower petals [or some scented water] in your r i ght . Recite 32b. 1 the hundred-syllable mantra [of rDo-rje Sems-dpa 1] while you dust the mandala three times in a clockwise d i rect ion [ jus t as you cleaned the sgrub-pa'i mandala]. Meditate that the i l l n e s s e s , misfortunes, harmful ac t s , obscurations and impurities, of a l l 2 l i v i n g beings, and [the impur i t ies ] of a l l objects are wholly and p oc completely removed. Just l i k e the mind, whose nature i s s t a i n l e s s , your mandala must be thoroughly c lean, u t te r l y free of d i r t and other impur i t ies . 234 Each o f fe r ing corresponds to a sense-faculty: 1. s ight: a mirror; 2. smel l : incense; 3. taste: water; 4. hearing: b e l l or other musical instrument; 5. touch: s i l k c lo th . Any f i ve f ine offer ings appre-c iated by the sense f acu l t i e s may replace these t r ad i t i ona l ones. (Lama) 235 "!-/] a nd a-| a_offering" here refers to the symbol of the ideal universe described in th is sect ion. 2 36 "Mind" (rang-sems) here does not re fer to the ego-centered perception comprising the mental facu l ty (sems; oitta) or, in f a c t , to any ent i ty at a l l . _"Mind" in th i s context s i g n i f i e s emptiness seen from the menta l i s t i c Yogacara-Vijnanavada perspective. H.V. Guenther describes i t as, "noet ic nothingness as a necessary condit ion fo r the attainment of knowledge." Jewel Ornament, op. c i t . , 227 . 131 237 Since th i s Mandala-Offering i s of great consequence, 3 you must use the f i ne s t materials you can a f fo rd , and carry out 238 the pract ice with the utmost c leanl iness. As for the main v i s u a l i z a t i o n , two d i f f e ren t arrangements of the universe are commonly used. One i s based on the Kalaoakra-239 tantra and the other on the Abhidharma l i t e r a t u r e . Because 4 Mahamudra i s the consummation of the essent ia l s of a l l the tantras, i n p rac t i c ing these Foundations [of Mahamudra], i t makes no d i f f e r -240 ence which of the two you use. However, our descr ipt ion of the v i s ua l i z a t i on follows the Abhidharma vers ion, since the l a t t e r i s so well known. 2 3 7 rten-'brel che-ba. 238 I.e., the room, the meditator ' s hands and body, the mandala-disk and the r i ce or other grain used, must be spotless. (Lama) This important document reached Tibet in the eleventh century. See G.N. Roerich, t r a n s l . , The Blue Annals, Vol I I, Ca lcutta: A s i a t i c Society, 1953, pp. 753-838 for the t r ad i t i ona l account of i t s o r i g in and transmission._ The Kalaaakra-tantra includes theories of astro logy, astronomy, chronology, physiology and other sciences. Its f i r s t chapter deals with cosmology. See Lokesh Chandra and Raghu V i ras ' e d i t i o n , Kalacakra-tantra and Other Texts. Sata-pitaka s e r i e s , Vo l . 69-70. New Delh i : I n te rna t ' l Acad, of Indian Culture, 1966. 240 Since the end_result of p ract i c ing the Foundations (sngon-'gro) i s the r ea l i z a t i on of Mahamudra, which i s beyond d i s t i n c t i o n s , i t does not matter which of the two tools one uses to achieve that r ea l i z a t i on . (Lama) 132 32b. L i turgy, v i s ua l i z a t i on and construction of  the mandala of the universe of th irty-seven features Liturgy 11 Om Benza Bhumi Ah Hum. The ground i s the 'pure, mighty golden ground. Om Benza Re-khe Ah Hum. The c i r c u l a r iron'mountain surrounds i t . [1] In i t s center i s the king of mountains, Meru the supreme. [2] In the east i s Videha, _ [3] In the south i s Jambudvipa, [4] In the west i s Godaniya, [5] In the north i s Uttara-Kuru, [6] [Videha i s flanked by i t s ] s a t e l l i t e s , Deha [7] and Videha, [8,9] [Jambudvipa by] Camara and Upacamara, [10,11] [Godaniya by] Satha and Uttara-mantrina, [12,13] [Uttara-Kuru by] Kurava and Kaurava. [14] The mountain of jewels, [15] The wish-granting trees, [16] The wish-granting cows, [17] The crops which need no c u l t i v a t i o n . [18] The precious wheel, [19] The precious w i s h - f u l f i l l i n g gem, [20] The precious queen, [21] The precious min i s ter , [22] The precious elephant, [23] The precious horse, [24] The precious general. [25] the treasure-vase. [26] The goddess of laughter [27] The goddess of garlands, [28] The goddess of music, [29] The goddess of dance, [30] The flower-goddess, [31] The incense-goddess, [32] The goddess of lamps, [33] The goddess of perfume. 133 [34,35] The sun and moon [36] The precious parasol, [37] The victory-banner. I have set before You A l l the flawless goods possessed by gods and men, Incalculable as the drops of water in the ocean. Oh Lamas, yi-dams, Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, dakas, ddkinis and dharmapalas, I o f fe r a l l th is to You. Please accept i t out of Compassion for a l l beings, And then, grant us Your blessing!"241 241 This i s to be rec i ted while v i s ua l i z i n g the universe as described below, and constructing the mohod-pa'i mandala of thirty-seven features: "Om Benza Bhumi Ah. Hum/gZhi mam-par dag-pa dbang-ohen gser gyis gzhi/ _' Om Benza Re-khe Ah Hum/Phyi-lcags-ri'i 'khor-yug gi robs yongs-su-[1] bskor-ba'i dbus-su ri'i rgyal-po ri-bo mohog-rab/ [2-4] Shar Lus-'phags-po/ Lho Dzam-bu-gling/ Nub-ba Lang-spyod/ [5] Byang sGra-mi-snyan/ [6-10] Bus dang Lus-'phags/ rNga-yab dang rNga-yab gzhan/glo-ldan dang [11-13] Lam-mohog-'gro/ sGra-mi-snyan dang sGra-mi-snyan gyi zla/ [14-16] Rin-po-che'i ri-bo/ dPag-bsam gyi shing/ 'Dod-'jo'i-ba/ [17] Ma-rmos-pa'i lo-tog/ [18-20] 'Khor-lo rin-po-ohe/ Nor-bu rin-po-che/ bTsun-mo rin-po-che/ [21-3] bLon-po rin-po-ohe/ gLang-po rin-po-che/ rTa-mchog rin-po-che/ [24] dMag-dpon rin-po-che [25] gTer-chen-po'i bum-pa/ [26-30] sGeg-mo-ma/ Phreng-ba-ma/ gLu-ma/ Gar-ma/ Me-tog-ma/ [31-3] bDug-spos-ma/ sNang-gsal-ma/ Dri-chab-ma/ [34-5] Nyi-ma/ Zla-ba. [36-7] Rin-po-ohe'i gdugs/ Phyogs-las mam-par-rgyal-ba'i rgyal-mtshan. "dBus-su lha dang mi'i dpal-'byor phun-sum-tshogs-pa ma tshangs-ba med-pa/ Rab-'byams rgya-mtsho'i rdul gyi grangs-las-'das-pa mngon-par bkod-de/ bLa-ma yi-dam sang-rgyas byang-chub sems-dpa' dpa'-bo mkha'-'gro chos-skyong-srung-ma'i tshogs dang boas-pa rnams-la 'bul-par-bgyi'o/ Thugs-rjes 'gro-ba'i don-du bzhes-su-gsol/ bZhes-nas byin-gyis-brlab-tu-gsol. " 'Phags-lam. gDams-ngag-mdzod, op. c i t . , 110/8-112/1. 134 V i sua l i za t ion and Construction 5 While r e c i t i n g the mantra "Om Benza Bhumi Ah Hum, spr ink le the mandala[-disk] with the scented water [which you have been 6 holding in your r i gh t hand], to represent i t s being moistened with the "dew" of Bodh ic i t ta . I f you do not have scented water, scat ter flower petals [on the d i sk ] . Meditate that [the mandala-disk] i s the wide and spacious golden ground, with plains smooth as the palm of your hand, on which there i s an ocean whose sw i r l i n g , fragrant waters have the 242 eight f ine a t t r ibu tes . You need not v i sua l i ze the c i r c l e s of 243 water and wind beneath the ground. While r e c i t i n g the mantra, "Om Benza Re-khe Ah Hum," scat ter 33a. 1 some r i ce counterclockwise around the rim [of the disk, with your r i gh t hand]. Meditate that th i s i s the c i r c u l a r iron mountain which surrounds [the universe]. 2 In some versions of th i s pract ice you would now rec i te "Hum" and place a drop of scented water or a c i r c l e of petals in the center [of the mandala']. In the present version th i s w i l l not be done. See n. I l l , above. 243 According to Abhidharma cosmology below the earth s surface i s a c i r c u l a r ground of gold. Thousands of yojanas below the golden ground there i s a c i r c l e of wind, 1,600,000 yojanas th ick , created " . . . par la force des actes des et res . " Above th i s i s a c i r c l e of water 1,200,000 yojanas th ick , created as fo l lows: "Par la souverainete . . . des actes des et res , tombe des nuages amonceles sur le cerc le du vent, une p lu ie dont les gouttes sont comme des timons de char. Cette eau forme le cerc le de l 'eau . . . " Louis de La Val lee-Pouss in, t r a n s l . "L'Abhidharmakosa," Melanges. Bruxel les: IBHEC, 1971, Ch. I l l , 45-6, 138-9, 135 S im i l a r l y , i n some versions you would v i sua l i ze Mt. Meru and the other [topographical features] growing out of various seed-sy l lables. But in th i s version you meditate that they are complete from the moment at which you c a l l them to mind. 244 Then, gradually chant the words as you meditate on the i r s i gn i f i cance. [Rec i te] : "Om Benza Bhumi Ah Hum. The ground i s the 'pure, mighty golden ground. Om Benza Re-khe Ah Hum. The c i r c u l a r i ron mountain surrounds i t . [1] In i t s center i s the king of mountains, Meru the supreme."245 In the midst of the ocean stands Mt. Meru, with i t s four square steps and four s ides. Its eastern slope i s made of c r y s t a l , i t s southern of lap i s l a z u l i , i t s western of ruby, i t s northern of emerald. The lakes, sky and continents [surrounding one Meru] r e f l e c t the colors of i t s respective slopes. At i t s borders are the seven gold mountains surrounding Meru on a l l four s ides. Each mountain i s one-half as high as The "words" comprise the l i t u r g y , which appears in i t s en t i re ty on p. 132, above, and in sections before corresponding sections of commentary on pp. 134-46, below. 245 The numbers in square brackets placed to the l e f t of the l ines of the l i t u r gy correspond to the order in which p i le s of r i ce representing those features are to be placed on the disk in construction of the mandala of the universe of th i rty-seven features. O AC For example, the blue_color of Meru's southern slope gives our southern continent of Jambudvipa i t s blue color and blue sky. 136 Figure 5. a. iron mountain b. ocean c. golden ground d. seven lakes e. Mt. Meru Trad i t iona l Depiction of the Main Features of the Ideal Universe, for V i sua l i za t i on f. 9-h. i . j . c i t y of Visnu Indra's palace deva-rea1ms sun moon k. Videha and s a t e l l i t e s 1. Jambudvipa and s a t e l l i t e s m. Godaniya and s a t e l l i t e s Not v i s i b l e : Uttara-Kuru and s a t e l l i t e s . 137 S N Figure 6. F.D. Lessing 's Diagram of the Mandala of the Universe of thirty-seven features, for Construction (From Yung-Ho-Kung, p. 106). The numbers correspond to those which we have inserted into the l i t u r g y , and indicate the order in which the p i l e s of r i ce are to be dropped on the mandala-disk. The p rac t i t i one r imagines he i s facing east (arrow). 138 s N Figure 7. Traditional Tibetan Diagram of the Mandala of the Universe of thirty-seven features, for Construction. 139 5 the preceeding one. [They are named] Yugandhara, Tsadhara, Khadiraka, Sudarsana, Asvakama, Vinataka and Nimindhara. Interspersed among these mountains are the [seven S i t a s ] , sw i r l i ng lakes whose waters have the eight f ine a t t r ibu tes . They 6 are f u l l of w i s h - f u l f i l l i n g gems and other treasures belonging to 247 the nagas [who l i v e there] . Surrounding [the gold mountains and the lakes are the continents. Rec i te ] : [2] "In the east i s Videha,. [3] In the south i s Jambudvipa, [4] In the west i s Godaniya, [5] In the north i s Uttara-Kuru. [6] [Videha i s flanked by i t s ] s a t e l l i t e s , Deha [7] and Videha, [8,9] [Jambudvipa by]_Camara and Upacamara, [10,11] [Godaniya by] Satha and Uttara-mantrina, [12,13] [Uttara-Kuru by] Kurava and Kaurava." ' Videha, in the east, i s white and semi -c i rcu lar . Jambudvipa, 33b. 1 in the south, i s blue and trapezo ida l . Godaniya, in the west, i s red and round. Uttara-Kuru, in the north, i s green and square. CL*' Nagas, snake-l ike nature d e i t i e s , were widely worshiped i n ancient India as dispensers of ra in and other natural treasures, who were ea s i l y offended. In several Indian Buddhist myths, local naga kings were converted by Buddha, which r e s t r i c t ed t he i r freedom to withhold t he i r goods. In many myths nagas acted as personal guardians of Buddha, His r e l i c s and the stupas which housed them. There is iconographic evidence that the naga became a symbol of the Buddha's power, and perhaps even i d e n t i f i e d with Buddha. See L.W. Bloss, "The Buddha and the Naga: A Study in Buddhist Folk Re l i g i o s i t y , " History of Religions. XII I: 1 Chicago: Univ. of Chicago, Aug. 1973, pp. 36-53. The Tibetan naga king i s believed to l i v e in a palace of jewels and precious metals underwater. See R. Nebesky-Wojkowitz, Oracles and Demons of Tibet. S'Gravenhage: Mouton, 1956, p. 290. 140 Each of the four main continents has two s i m i l a r l y shaped and colored " s a t e l l i t e " continents, one to i t s l e f t and one to i t s r i gh t . [Rec i te] : [14] "The mountain of jewels, [15] The wish-granting trees, [16] The wish-granting cows, [17] The crops which need no c u l t i v a t i o n . " In the four continents, above Mt. Meru and in the various quarters of the sky [are the fo l lowing features] : The mountain of jewels [ in the eastern sky] i s made of diamond, lap i s l a z u l i , sapphire, emerald, pea r l , gold, s i l v e r and [c lear ] c r y s t a l . The grove of wish-granting trees from which everything desired f a l l s l i k e rain [ i s in the southern sky]. The herd of wish-granting cows, from whose every pore springs anything you des i re, [ i s in the western sky]. The inexhaust ib le, s a t i s f y i ng food which grows with no cu l t i v a t i on [ i s i n the northern sky]. There are also the "seven possessions of the aakravartin." [Rec i te] : [18] "The precious wheel, [19] The precious w i s h - f u l f i l l i n g gem, [20] The precious queen, [21] The precious min ister, [22] The precious elephant, [23] The precious horse 141 248 [24] The precious general." The thousand-spoked wheel [ in the eastern sky] is made of gold from the r i ve r Jambud. The eight-s ided w i s h - f u l f i l l i n g gem [ in the southern sky] i s br ight as the sun's rays, and can be seen to shine from a 249 distance of several yojanas. The beaut i ful queen [ in the western sky] possesses the th i r ty - two marks of feminine perfect ion. The minister [ in the northern sky] excel l s i n both physique and i n t e l l i g ence , and can spot treasures buried underground. 248 According to Heinrich Zimmer in Philosophies of India, Prince-ton: Bo l l ingen, 1951, the idea of the oakravartin or universal ru le r had i t s roots in pre-Aryan India. As a Buddhist symbol, i t connotes worldly supremacy, the secular equivalent of the Buddha's s p i r i t u a l supremacy. The oakravartin bears the same "major and minor marks of per fect ion" as the Buddha. Just as the l a t t e r "turns the wheel" (oakram vartayati) of the Dharma, the oakravartin " . . . sets the sacred wheel (of the world-pac i fy ing monarchy) in motion." (p. 129). The "seven possessions" are symbols associated with this worldly supremacy, the central one being the wheel or cakra. "The day when th i s f i r s t appeared to him, coming before his pure v i s ion in . . . his morning prayer and meditation, i t stood as the sign that he was to under-take the campaign of unify ing the whole earthly realm. He rose and followed the symbol, which now moves before him as he marches." (p. 129). According to Kalu Rin-po-che, propelled by the monarch's great stock of merit, the cakra e f f i c i e n t l y transports himself and his ent i re retinue to his desired dest inat ion, a l l of them r id ing on i t s huge hub; and the w i s h - f u l l i n g gem not only takes care of his des i res, but grants the wishes of a l l who are with in range of i t s great radiance. Each of the remaining "possessions" i s the best in i t s class and brings happiness, peace and prosperity to the oakravartin and his realms. See H. Zimmer, I b id . , pp. 127-39. 249 One yojana possibly equals nine miles, 142 250 The seven steadfast limbs of the golden-necklaced 6 white elephant [ in the southeastern sky] can take [the aakravartin] anywhere at a l l . The excel lent horse [ in the southwestern sky], the colors of a peacock's neck, can travel the four continents i n an instant. The mighty general [ in the northwestern sky] possesses the s i x t y - fou r special s k i l l s . [Rec i te] : [25] "The treasure-vase." 34a. 1 There i s a beaut i fu l treasure-vase [ in the northwestern sky] containing inexhaustible quant i t ies of jewels of seven kinds, inc luding sapphires and others. [There are eight goddesses with offer ings. Rec i te] : [26] "Goddess of laughter, [27] Goddess of garlands, [28] Goddess of music, [29] Goddess of dance, [30] Flower-goddess, [31] Incense-goddess, [32] Goddess of lamps, [33] Goddess of perfume." The white goddess of laughter [ in the eastern sky] stands 251 in the vajra-musti-sandhi posture. 250 I.e., four legs, head, t a i l and trunk. 251 rdo-rje khu-tshur. In th i s posture, the goddess stands with closed f i s t s rest ing on her hips. (Lama) Figure 8. The Seven Possessions of the Cakravartin 144 34a. 2 The yellow goddess of garlands [ in the southern sky] holds garlands of flowers and jewels. The white goddess of music [ in the western sky] plays a -. - 252 Vina. The green goddess of dance [ in the northern sky] i s dancing. 3 The yellow flower-goddess [ in the southeastern sky] holds a bunch of f lowers. The white incense-goddess [ in the southwestern sky] holds a censer of burning incense. The red goddess of lamps [ in the northwestern sky] holds a butter-lamp. The green goddess of perfume [ in the northeastern sky] holds a conch she l l f u l l of perfume. [Rec i te ] : [34,35] "The sun and moon." 4 In the northeastern sky above Mt. Meru i s the f i e r y c ry s ta l disk of the sun, emitt ing b r i l l i a n t rays. [In the southwestern sky 253 above Meru] i s the coo l , refreshing disk of the moon. The palaces of planets and stars emit t he i r varied radiances. t J t Indian str inged instrument resembling the lute. 253 The sun, whose nature i s that of the element f i r e , looks l i k e a c lear lens through which hot rays are being focussed. The moon, whose nature i s that of the element water, looks l i k e a lens of frosted glass, cool and soothing to the eyes. (Lama) 145 On top Mt. Meru are Indra's palace (Vaijayanta) and Sudarsana, the c i t y of Visnu. At the four corners of this c i t y are Caitraratha and the rest of the four parks. [In these parks] are Par iyatra and other wish-granting t rees, a slab of stone much l i k e [the legendary magic stone ca l led] Pandukambalasilatala, 254 and Sudharma, assembly-hall of the devas. In the sky above these, perched,upon magnificent clouds, in ascending order are the Yamas, Tus itas, and the other deva-255 realms, f i l l e d with the measureless array of gods and t he i r possessions. [Rec i te] : 254 The "gods of the t h i r t y - t h r e e , " the f i r s t level of devas of the Kamadhatu, inhabit Visnu 's c i t y of the top of Mt. Meru. The wal ls of the c i t y surround Indra 's palace in the manner of a mandala (dkyil-'khor, n. 214). The palace i s square and mu l t i - s t o r i ed , each storey s l i g h t l y narrower than the preceeding one (see i l l u s t r a t i o n , p. 136 7 above). Par iyatra i s the same wish-granting tree found in depictions of the srid-pa'i 'khor-lo, "wheel of existences" (see i l l u s t r a t i o n , p. 50, above). Its roots are in the asura -realm but i t s leaves, f r u i t , flowers and a l l the riches they produce, grace only the deya-realm. This predicament, the cause of the constant s t r i f e between asuras and devas, epitomizes the f ru s t ra t i on of a l i f e ruled by jealousy. The magic white stone (T ib. , Ar-mo-ni-ka or A-mo-li-ka) appears in the l i f e story of the Buddha, in the episode in which He went to the above-mentioned deya-realm to preach to his mother, Queen Maya. While He spoke she sat on the stone. (LPL) It also appears in the story of Milarespa, as the r e l i c he l e f t fo r his d i s c i p l e s . See W.Y. Evans-Wentz, Tibet's Great Yogi Milarepa. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1957, p. 301. The above-mentioned features are v i sua l i zed , but not represented by any r i ce -const ruct ion. 255 For names and descr ipt ions of the deva-realms of the Kama-. Rupa- and Arupyadhatus, see La Val lee-Pouss in, "L'Abhidharmakosa," op. c i t . , ch. i i i , pp. 159-174. 146 [36] "The precious parasol, [37] The victory-banner." 6 Interspersed between the levels [of dewa-realms] are the "e ight auspicious symbols," inc luding the precious parasol [ in the south], the golden f i s h , the vase, the lotus , the white 34b. 1 conch-shell whose swir l s go clockwise, the magnificent knot, the 256 v ictory, banner [ in the north], and the golden wheel. 2 There are the "e ight auspicious objects , " inc luding the mirror, vermi l l i on dye, the white conch-shel l , medicine extracted from an elephant 's b ra in , durva-grass, bilva-fruit, yoghurt and 257 white mustard seed. 3 There are also the "seven semi-precious a r t i c l e s " [assoc-iated with r o ya l t y ] , inc luding the sleeping-couch, throne, cushion, sword, shoes, snakeskin and robe. There are the " spec ia l substances which prolong l i f e , " 258 such as the " s i x good medicines" and many other cures and 256 See i l l u s t r a t i o n on fo l lowing page. Of the eight symbols, only two--the parasol and the v ic tory banner—are mentioned in the l i t u r g y . The placement of those two p i le s of r i ce on the disk completes the con-s t ruct ion of the mandala. The other s i x auspicious symbols, and the rest of the offer ings described in the commentary, are simply v i sua l i zed here and there in the sky above the universe, and are summed up by the chanted phrase, " A l l the flawless goods possessed by gods and men." 257 Some of these a r t i c l e s are considered generally auspicious in Indo-Tibetan cu l ture. Some derive t he i r importance from the role they played in episodes of Sakyamuni's l i f e . (LPL) When He rejected extreme ascet ic ism, His f i r s t meal included yoghurt. When He attained Enl ighten-ment, He sat on a bunch of durva or kusa-grass under the Bo tree. See p. 107 of Foucher's Life of the Buddha. Conn.: Wesleyan Univ. Press, 1963. 258 bzang-po drug: s i x types of beets or roots renowned in India and Tibet for t he i r amazing curative powers, mostly for digest ive ailments. They are grown in India and were imported into Tibet. (LPL) Figure 9. The Eight Auspicious Symbols Figure 10. The Eight Auspicious Objects 149 nutr i t ious substances; a beaut i fu l vase of amrta, and other e l i x i r s . There i s the sword [of prajna], the book \Prajhaparamita], the vind and other musical instruments, and other " a r t i c l e s which bring ins ight and renown." There i s a ra in of rainbow-colored flowers, a pond of perfumed water, a lotus grove, a magical b i rd and antelope, and other "wonderful o f fe r ing s . " With your mind, o f fe r a l l things which g ra t i f y the senses of s i ght , hearing, smel l , taste and touch, as wel l as [things offered by] the servants of gods and goddesses. In short, imagine that you are o f fer ing a l l the flawless possessions of gods and men that can poss ibly be p i l ed up, as wel l as a l l the wonderful things not owned by anyone i n pa r t i c u l a r , to the Precious Ones in the ten d i rect ions . [Then r e c i t e ] : "I have set before You A l l the flawless goods possessed by gods and men, Incalculable as the drops of water in the ocean. 0 Lamas, yi-damsA Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, dakas, dakinis and dharmapalas, 1 o f fe r a l l th i s to You. Please accept i t out of Compassion for a l l beings, And then, grant us Your b less ing! " [Then rec i t e the four l i ne prayer]: "I have offered the ground, spr ink led with perfume, strewn with f lowers, Adorned by Mt. Meru, the four continents, the sun and moon, 150 And v i sua l i zed i t as [being perfect as] the Buddha-realm. Thus, may a l l beings enjoy that u t te r l y pure realm!"259 6 Ten m i l l i o n times one hundred, or a b i l l i o n w o r l d s ^ " l i k e the one made up of the four continents, Mt. Meru and the re s t , comprise th i s " t r i c h i l i o c o s m . " This i s one whole universe. 35a. 1 Immeasurable as i t i s , repeatedly o f f e r i t to the Excel lent Precious Ones. F i l l i t to the brim with Samantabhadra's clouds of o f f e r -ings, the bodies and possessions of a l l sentient beings, yours 2 and other s ' , and a l l the wholesome acts of your parents and r e l a -t i ves . Then, pray fo r [un iver sa l ] , unobstructed attainment of 3 Enlightenment and the supreme siddhi of Mahamudra in th i s very l i f e t i m e : "Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, Lamas, Vajrayana masters, Yi-dams and attendants In the ten direct ions and the three times, Every Tathagata of the three times, I have assembled the four continents, £ b 9 "Sa-gzhi spos-ehus byugs shing me-tog bkram/ Ri-rab gling-bzhi nyi-zlas brgyan-pa 'di/ Sangs-rgyas zhing-du dmigs-te 'phul-ba yis/ 'Gro-kun rnam-dag zhing-la spyod-par-shog," 'Rhags-lam, 112/6-7. 260 Mi spr int : "bye-ba phrag-brgya sto" should be "bye-ba phrag-brgya ste. " 261 Refers to the inexhaustible flow of wondrous offer ings mentally created by the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra and offered to a l l the Buddhas in the Gandavyuha-sutra. See G.C.C. Chang, The Buddhist Teaching of Totality. P i ttsburgh: Penn. State Univ. Press, 1971, p. 187, 190. 151 Mt. Meru [and the r e s t ] , a b i l l i o n times, in th i s mandala. And o f f e r e d ' i t to You with devotion, Oh Great Ones. Please accept i t with Love and Compassion, And then, grant us Your blessings!"262 [Then, hold up the mandala while you rec i te the mantva. "Om Mandal Pudza Meghasa Mudra Sparana Samaye Ah Hum"263 and toss a l i t t l e r i ce in to the a i r as an o f fe r ing . Then rec i te th i s prayer fo r the achievement of the aims of the Mandala-Of fer ing ] : "As I have offered th i s f i ne , pleasing mandala, May I experience no obstacles in the P a t h " to Enlightenment, May I understand the In tent iona l i t y of Tathagatas of the three times, May I not stray into samsava, May I not rest in the Nirvana [of Arhats and Pratyekabuddhas], May beings, numerous as the sky i s vast, be freed!"264 262 "Phyogs-bcu dus-gsum bzhugs-pa yi/ Sangs-vgyas byang-ahub sems-dpa' dang/ bLa-ma vdo-vje slob-dpon dang/ Yi-dam lha-tshogs 'khov dang boas/ Dus-gsum bde-gshegs ma lus-la/ gLing-bzhi vi-vab-bcas-pa dang/ ghing-bzhi bye-ba phvag-bvgya dang/ Bye-ba 'bum dang dung-phyuv te/ Mandal goig-tu bsdus-nas ni/ Mos-blos gong-ma-vnams-la 'bul/ Thugs-vjes bvtsev-dgongs bzhes-su-gsol/ bZhes-nas byin-gyis-bvlab-tu-gsol." 'Phags-lam, 112/2-3. 2 6 3 'Phags-lam, 112/4. This i s the "mandala mantva." 264 "mNyes-byed mandal bzang-po 'di phul-bas/ Byang-ohub lam-la bav-ohad mi-'byung zhing/ 152 [After o f fe r ing one mandala of th irty-seven features, sweep the r i ce o f f the disk with your r ight hand. To o f fe r the 3 " short " mandalas, simply] o f fe r the seven p i l e s of r i ce with your hand while you v i sua l i ze [the universe] with your mind, and rec i t e the four l i ne prayer [once for each construction and v i s ua l -i z a t i on ] without i n te r rup t i on : "I have offered the ground, spr inkled with perfume, strewn with f lowers, Adorned by Mt. Meru, the four continents, the sun and moon, And v i sua l i zed i t as [being perfect as] the Buddha-realm. Thus may a l l beings enjoy that u t te r l y pure realm!"265 [After o f fe r ing one " long" mandala], when you are repeating the pract ice many times [ in a sess ion], i f your mind cannot cope with the elaborate v i s ua l i z a t i on [described above], simply v i sua l i ze 4 the ground, the iron mountain, Mt. Meru, the four continents, and 266 the sun and moon. [V i sua l i ze these] c l ea r l y and in the proper Dus-gsum bder-gshegs dgongs-pa rtogs-pa dang/ Srid-par mi-'khrul zhi-bav mi-gnas shing/ Nam-mkha' mnyam-pa'i 'gro-ba sgrol-bar-shog." 'Phags-lam, 112/4-5. This r e c i t a t i on completes one o f fe r ing of the " long" mandala of th i rty-seven features. This " long" o f fe r ing need not be performed more than once per pract ice session. Subsequent offer ings may cons ist of the " short " mandala of seven features. » • 265 Same as n. 259 above. pee However, according to Kalu Rin-po-che, even while one i s constructing "short " mandalas of seven features and rec i t i n g the four l i ne prayer, one should try to v i sua l i ze the " long" mandala of thirty-seven features, described above. 153 Mandala-Disk Figure 11. Diagram of the Mandala of the Universe of seven features ' fo r 'Const ruct ion Dotted l ines depict the pathway of the hand in dropping the p i le s of r i c e . Numbers represent p i l e s of r i ce depict ing: 1. Mt. Meru; 2. Videha; 3. Jambudvipa; 4. Godaniya; 5. Uttara-Kuru; 6. Sun; 7. Moon. 154 order, f i l l i n g the universe and the sky with a l l the offer ings they can poss ibly hold. Intently imagine that these offer ings are actua l l y present. There are many kinds [of mandalas], both short and long, ranging [ in s i ze ] from f i ve p i l e s of r i ce to thirty-seven features. The construction of th i s pa r t i cu l a r mandala of th irty-seven 267 features must be learned by means of a " v i sua l transmission." 268 When you are o f fer ing a great number [of mandalas] simply o f f e r mandalas of seven features. [Then, at the end of a sess ion, r e c i t e ] : "0 Excel lent Ones, 0 three perfect kayas, I have given You the outer} inner and secret o f fer ings , and the o f fe r ing of tathata. Please accept my body, my wealth, a l l appearances and p o s s i b i l i t i e s , Then, grant me that unsurpassable supreme siddhi, Grant me the attainment of Mahamudra."269 mthong-brgyud: demonstration of the mandala's construction by a Lama or tra ined fel low Buddhist. (LPL) 2 6 8 I.e., i n a regular pract ice session. 269 "sKu-gsum yongs-rdzogs bla-ma'i tshogs-rnams-la/ Phyi nang gsang gsum de-bzhin-nyid kyis mohod/ bDag lus longs-spyod snang-srid yongs-bzhes-la/ bLa-med mchog gi dngos-grub stsal-du-gsol/ Phyag-rgya-ohen-po'i dngos-grub stsal-du-gsol." 'Phags-lam, 112/7-8. "Outer," " inner " and " secret " offer ings here denote three t r ad i -t iona l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of o f fe r ing s ; tathata i s a fourth. "Outer" (phyi) refers e i ther to actual material things, such as the seven offer ings placed in bowls on a Tibetan a l t a r , or to anything perceivable by the s i x senses, offered through v i s ua l i z a t i on . This may include things which have not been personally perceived by the g iver, but which he has seen depicted in p ictures , and so on. The object of this type of o f fe r ing i s to give the greatest quantity of the most 155 [Recite th i s l i s t of the Seven Branches of Religious Serv ice] : [1] "I perform prost rat ions , [2] Present o f fe r ings , [3] Confess [harmful deeds], [4] Rejoice [ in wholesome deeds], [5] Urge [that the Dharma be preached], [6] Beseech [Enlightened Ones not to pass into f i n a l Nirvana], [7] Dedicate any merit I have accumulated to the Complete Enlightenment of a l l . " [Then r e c i t e ] : wonderful and valuable things imaginable. Presentation of the " inner " and " secret " offer ings requires p r i o r empowerment to do so. (LPL) The " inner " (nang-ba) offering., not actua l l y represented in this mandala p rac t i ce , i s the symbolic presentation of the normally d i s ta s te fu l " f i v e kinds of f l e sh " (sha-lnga) and " f i v e bodi ly f l u i d s " (bdud-rtsi-lnga), and t he i r mental transformation into an ocean of e l i x i r . (LPL) See Beyer's The Cult of Tara, p. 158. The " secret " (gsang-ba) o f f e r i n g , also absent in th i s p rac t i ce , i s the mental presentation of the sixteen dakinis of sensual enjoyment. (LPL) See Beyer, I b id . , p. 159. The o f fe r ing of tathata (de-bzhin-nyid, de-kho-na-nyid), i s the "presentat ion" of the awakened cognit ion--the perception of the co-emergence of ultimate r e a l i t y and b l i s s f u l awareness—attained by the yogin involved in esoter ic Vajrayana pract ice. (LPL) For more on the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of o f fe r ing s , see Beyer, I b id . , 148-64, and Alex Wayman, The Buddhist Tantras. New York: Samuel Weiser, 1973, pp. 71-81. 270 "Phyag-'tshal-ba dang mchod oing bshags-pa dang/ rJes-su yi-rang bskur zhing gsol-ba-yi/ dGe-ba oung-zad bdag-gis oi bsags-pa/ Thams-oad rdzogs-pa'i byang-chub chen-por-bsngo." 'Phags-lam, 112/8, abbreviated version. There are many versions of this prayer. See the more elaborate one in Ch. VI, p. 179. For de ta i l s on th i s key Mahayana p rac t i ce , see pp. 166-9, below. 156 "Through my of fer ing of a l l my own wealth and that of countless others, May a l l beings come to gather the Two Accumulations. May the l i g h t i ssu ing from the Great Assembly [of Enlightened Ones] Transform me into one l i k e Them!"271 5 F i n a l l y , l i g h t radiates out from the de i t ie s v i sua l i zed 6 on the sgrub-pa'i mandala to whom you have been o f fe r ing [the mohod-pa'i mandalas. This l i g h t ] s t r i kes yourse l f and a l l other sentient beings, re su l t ing in everyone's complete acqu i s i t i on of 272 the Two Accumulations. Imagine that these de i t ie s dissolve into l i g h t and are absorbed into yourse l f . 35b. 1 Share the merit [by r e c i t i n g th i s prayer]: "Once I have quickly achieved Mahamudra, May every s ing le sentient being Be placed in that same s ta te , By v i r tue of my pract ice. "273 Signs of successful pract ice The signs which indicate perfect ion of the Two Accumula-tions are elucidated in the author i ta t i ve t reat i ses [of th i s t r a d i t i o n ] . 271 bDag-gzhan mkha'-mnyam bdog-pa kun phul-nas/ 'Gro-kun tshogs-gnyis rab-tu gang-gyur te/ Tshogs zhing 'od-zhu bdag dang ro-mnyam-gyur. " "Phags-lam, 112/8-113/1. 272 tshogs-gnyis; dvi-varga. See Introductory Remarks to th i s chapter, and n. 55, above. 273 See n. 134, above. 157 In pa r t i c u l a r , your thoughts w i l l spontaneously turn to -2 ward the Dharma. Best of a l l , you w i l l f ind yourse l f surrounded by conditions favorable to Dharma p rac t i ce , without even t ry ing . Commentary 274 When you achieve prof ic iency in Mahamudra meditation, the Accumulations are gathered and a l l your harmful deeds and obscurations removed as a by-product [of th i s achievement]. How-3 ever, unless you have previously gathered the Accumulations, you w i l l not achieve prof ic iency in meditation. Very few people have gathered the Accumulations; very 275 few people are "karma-carriers." Each ind iv idua l who has begun to pract ice Dharma and p -jc 4 acquired a degree of f a i t h , ce r ta i n l y has propensit ies toward wholesome conduct. But j u s t as a spark cannot be made to burst into flame without the r ight condit ions, these propensities can-not be awakened in an instant. And u n t i l they have been awakened [or transformed in to ] wholesome conduct, the ind iv idua l w i l l ex-5 perience no r e a l i z a t i o n . I f he does experience some, i t w i l l not I.e., when you achieve a degree of Mahamudra r e a l i z a t i o n . (Lama) 2 7 5 las-'phro. See Ch. I I., p. 32. 7 7fi — bag-chags; vasana. Although th i s term i s interpreted in various ways by Buddhist schools, i t generally indicates an i nd i v i dua l ' s tendency, generated by his former deeds, toward pa r t i cu l a r types of behavior. See David S. Ruegg, Theorie du tathagatagarbha et du gotra, op. c i t . , pp. 472-95. 158 grow. But i f he practices wholesome conduct anew, he w i l l there-by provide the proper conditions fo r the awakening of his pro-pens i t ies . And as soon as they have been awakened, he w i l l 277 experience a great surge of r e a l i z a t i o n . The Accumulations The Three Accumulations and the Ten Perfections 278 6 The Sems-'grel texts state that there are Three Accumu-279 lat ions to be acquired. [They cons ist of the Ten Perfect ions ] . Generosity, s k i l l f u l means and intense longing comprise the Accumulation of Merit. Moral conduct, patience and strenuousness 36a. 1 compare the Accumulation of Moral Conduct. Meditative concentra-t i o n , in s i ght , the [ f i v e ] forces, and transcending awareness comprise the Accumulation of Transcending Awareness. tm>'' nyams-myong rlabs-chen. 278 -Byang-chub sems kyi 1 gvel-ba; Bodhicitta-vivdrana. bsTan. , 2665-6: commentaries by Nagarjuna on the ten levels (sa; bhumi) of Bodhisattva-hood. This scheme of three, instead of the usual two Accumu-l a t i on s , i s a very uncommon one. (LPL) 279 Bodhisattvas spec ia l i ze in applying one of the Ten Perfections at each bhumi. The Perfections not included in the more common group of s i x are four higher achievements attained only by Bodhisattvas. Bodhisattvas: 1. apply s k i l l f u l means (thabs; up ay a) on a universal bas is ; 2. generate intense longing (smon-lam; pvanidhana) to reach Enlightenment and l i be ra te others; 3. apply the f i ve forces (stobs-lnga; pahca-bala): confidence, strenuousness, inspection (dran-pa' smrti)_, samadhi and i n -s ight ; 4. possess transcending awareness (ye-shes; jnana). (LPL) For deta i l s on the Ten Perfect ions, see H.V. Guenther's Jewel Ornament, op. c i t . , pp. 239-256. 159 The Two Accumulations and the Six Perfections The sutras hold that there are Two Accumulations. [They 2 cons ist of the Six Per fect ions ] . Generosity and moral conduct comprise the Accumulation of Merit. Insight comprises the Accumulation of Transcending Awareness. Patience, strenuousness and meditative concentration are included in both [Accumulations]. The Two Accumulations 3 Meritorious acts undertaken without the Enlightened Att i tude are not conducive to L iberat ion , only to higher r eb i r t h . [The same ac t i on s ] , undertaken with the Enlightened At t i tude, are conducive to L iberat ion and lead to Buddhahood. Furthermore, [meritorious acts] undertaken with no concern 280 4 fo r the "three spheres" of a c t i v i t y comprise the Unsul l ied 281 Accumulation, the gathering of which i s the pr inc ipa l means of at ta in ing Enlightenment. The Six Perfections 1. Generosity Generosity i s threefo ld: (1) "Mater ia l generosity" involves giving as much food, 5 c lo th ing , furn ish ings, even ink and paper, as you can a f fo rd . 280 'khor-gsum yongs-dag; tri-mandala-parisuddha. This term seems to be synonymous with 'khor-gsum dmlgs-med} n. 219, above. 281 -zag-med kyi tshogs; anasrava-varga. 160 At the very l ea s t , give food to a beggar instead of turning him away empty handed. Think about how you w i l l give your body and a l l your wealth when, in the future, you possess a cakravartin's realm. (2) "Giv ing fearlessness" means curing disease, protect-ing others from misfortune, d i rec t ing them out of chasms, escort-ing them out of danger, and removing hindrances to the i r achieve-ment of siddhi and moral conduct. Truly, pract ice th i s type of generosity as much as you can. Protect others from the " four i n j u r i e s " : legal punishment, enemies, thieves and wi ld animals. Then, pray for the a b i l i t y to save them from the miseries of the three lower realms. (3) "Giv ing the Dharma" means that—provided you are competent—you explain those aspects of the Dharma which you feel capable of expla in ing, and which w i l l r ea l l y benef i t others, both immediately and in the long run. [This you should do] without arrogance or desire fo r esteem. I f you cannot do t h i s , pray that the Dharma be explained to [ a l l beings], human and non-human, and rec i te the sutras aloud. 2. Moral conduct Moral conduct i s threefo ld. (1) "Renunciation of harmful act ion " involves both [ re ject ion o f ] the ten unwholesome acts which are reprehensible i n themselves, and unconditional adherence to the Three Vows, whose transgression i s reprehensible. 161 (2) The moral conduct of "gathering wholesome dharmas" 5 includes refusing to be content with performing jus t a few whole-some acts; appl icat ion of wholesome conduct in the broadest sense poss ib le, and prayer fo r the achievement of any wholesome acts which you have not yet achieved. (3) The moral conduct of "act ing for the benef it of sentient 6 beings" means adopting the Enlightened A t t i tude , and then doing a l l you can to help others. Develop a great longing fo r the f u l -f i lment of any [helpful acts ] you have not yet achieved. I t i s not enough to be personally free of wrongdoing. 3. Patience 37a. 1 Patience i s threefo ld. (1) The f i r s t kind of patience i s the " a b i l i t y to bear any in jury i n f l i c t e d by others," such as verbal abuse, beating, s t r i k i n g , robbery or murder, [without r e t a l i a t i n g ] . (2) The second kind of patience i s the " a b i l i t y to bear 2 the d i f f i c u l t circumstances which may accompany Dharma p r a c t i c e " — such as i l l n e s s , pain, hunger, t h i r s t , weariness or fa t i gue - -with no concern f o r your own suf fe r ing . (3) The th i r d kind of patience is i n t e l l e c t u a l recept i v i t y to re l i g i ous truths and [wil l ingness to] contemplate them 282 thoroughly." I t implies the a b i l i t y to fea r l e s s l y accept such 282 - -chos-la nges-pav-sems-pa'i bzod-pa; dharma-nidhyanadhimukti-ksdnti: i n t e l l e c t u a l openness typ ica l of a Mahayana type of person. This 162 [ re l i g ious truths] as the profound s k i l l f u l methods used in the 3 Mantrayana, the great and mighty deeds of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, and the s ign i f i cance of "emptiness which i s beyond ve rba l i z a t i on . " Meditate with patience! 4. Strenuousness 4 Strenuousness i s threefo ld. (1) The f i r s t kind i s the "strenuousness which const itutes a. Bodhisattva 1 s armor." [A Bodhisattva] del ights in wholesome conduct. He i s never s a t i s f i e d u n t i l he has f u l l y appl ied every aspect of wholesome conduct, and never so lax as to think himself incapable of achieving th i s great goal. (2) The second kind i s the "strenuousness involved in 5 pursuing a constructive undertaking to i t s completion" without s lack ing o f f . (3) The t h i r d kind i s the "strenuousness involved in re-fusing to take the easy way out," [and pursuing a pract ice] u n t i l gives him the impetus to undertake meditation aimed at a personal d i s -covery of meaning i n the re l i g i ous " t ru th s " explained to him or en-countered in the sutras. A Hmayana type, on the other hand, feels threatened by exposure to such profound doctrines as "emptiness" and closes his mind_to them. (Lama;_LPL) Here "Hinayana" and "Mahayana"refer to a t t i tudes , not sects. The three kinds of patience counteract the three kinds of obstacles to re l i g i ou s pract ice: the f i r s t kind counteracts "outer" (phyi) obstacles; the second " inner " (nang) obstacles such as i l l n e s s or d i f f i c u l t y in concentration; and the t h i r d , " secret " (gsang) obstacles such as doubt or non-bel ief. (Lama) 163 i t has had some e f fec t . Even i f you do not experience the "signs 283 6 of warmth" immediately, instead of los ing your temper, pract ice more and more assiduously. Apply strenuousness! 5. Meditative concentration [Meditative concentration i s threefo ld ] . (1) The f i r s t kind i s the "meditative concentration in which you remain at peace throughout the present l i f e , " having greatly d i s c i p l i ned your body and mind. 37b. 1 (2) The second kind i s the "meditat ive concentration i n which you acquire the pos i t i ve qua l i t i e s [of s p i r i t u a l l y advanced 284 beings]," inc luding the supersensible cognitions and the 285 a b i l i t y to mentally create appar i t ional beings. (3) The t h i r d kind i s the "meditative concentration in which you benef it sentient beings" by re ly ing on samadhi. [In order to p rac t i ce ] the three kinds of meditative concentration, you must f i r s t achieve a state of f lawless 283 drod-rtags: sensations experienced by a meditator which indicate that his meditation i s genuine and i s having some e f f e c t . S imi lar to the sensation experienced when bless ing (byin-rlabs) i s received. Some meditators take vows to remain in s o l i t a r y meditation un t i l such signs do occur. (Lama) 284 mngon-sh.es; abhijna. See n. 52, above. 285 rdzu-'phml; vddhi: the miraculous a b i l i t y to create benevolent appar i t ions, such as forms of Buddhas. Often contrasted with cho-'phrul; pratiharya, a b i l i t y to create demonic apparit ions. (Lama) 164 286 2 t r anqu i l i t y . It i s absolutely essent ia l to master th i s t r a n q u i l i t y , since i t i s the foundation for the acqu i s i t ion of a l l pos i t ive q u a l i t i e s . To achieve a state of t r a n q u i l i t y , the mind requires so l i tude. Mental so l i tude springs from physical so l i tude. 3 Physical so l i tude results from keeping your goals and a c t i v i t i e s down to a minimum. This resu lts from having few desires and being content with even the most meager food, c loth ing and she l ter . In short, the sources of t r a n q u i l i t y [and hence, of the three types of meditative concentration and the acqu i s i t i on of a l l pos i t i ve q u a l i t i e s ] are: 1. having few desires and 2. being content. 4 5. I n s i g h t 2 8 7 [ Insight i s threefo ld ] . (1) The f i r s t type i s the " i n s i gh t of understanding ultimate r e a l i t y " by r e a l i z i n g i t s true nature—openness. (2) The second i s the " i n s i gh t of understanding r e l a t i v e r e a l i t y , " that i s , the inescapable fact that causes and results w i l l give r i s e to one another. ^0D gzhi-gnas; samatha: withdrawal of the attent ion from the normal confusion of external and mental s t i m u l i , by means of such methods as concentration on a s ing le object, "watching" one's own breathing, and so on. Prescr ibed, by th i s t r a d i t i o n , as an important prel iminary to other meditative p ract i ce . 2 8 7 %. * snes-rab; prajna. 165 (3) The t h i r d i s the " i n s i gh t of knowing what w i l l benef it others," and applying the " four means of a t t rac t i ng o t h e r s . " 2 8 8 A l t e rna t i v e l y , [the three types of in s i ght are]: (1) " i n s i gh t a r i s i ng from hearing; (2) from pondering and (3) 289 from meditating." Achieve a l l of these as well as you can. Results of acquir ing the Two Accumulations  by p ract i c ing the Six Perfections Acqu i s i t ion of the Accumulations y i e ld s the measureless, de l i gh t fu l rewards of godly or human existences. The complete 288 bsdus-pa'i dngos-po bzhi; oatursamgraha-vastu: the means by which a Buddha, Bodhisattva or s k i l l e d Lama at t ract s other beings to himself, and hence to the re l i g ious l i f e . The f i r s t three are: 1. generosity; 2. kind words, and 3. helpfulness (gdul-bya'i don-la-spyod-pa ; arthaoarya). The fourth, 'jig-rten don mthun-pa, or simply, don-mthun-pa; samanarthatd, i s interpreted by Edgerton and others as a teacher ' s adoption of i den t i ca l re l i g ious aims for himself and others. See his Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary. Delhi: Mot i l a l Banarsidass, 1970, p. 569. According to the Lama, i t refers to a teacher 's conformity with loca l customs out of his desire to avoid a l i enat ing others. 289 1. thos-pa-las-'byung-ba'i shes-rab; srutamayi-prajna; 2. bsam-pa-las-'byung-ba'i shes-rab; ointamayi-prajna; 3. bsgom-pa-las- byung-ba'i shes-rab; bhavdnamayi-prajna. Wayman explains these three stages of in s i ght as fo l lows: " . . . one who has f a i t h and endures the hardship to hear the teach-ing has the f i r s t leve l of in s i ght . . . the in s ight cons i s t ing of hearing . . . the second stage, the ins ight cons i s t ing of pondering . . . in conventional Buddhist theory should involve the laid-down procedure of Buddhist meditation . . . having heard with f a i t h and pondered again and again, . . . the t h i r d stage [ i s ] putt ing that teaching into p ract i ce , the ins ight of c u l t i v a t i n g one's l i f e . " The Buddhist Tantras, op. c i t . , p. 61. 166 and perfect acqu i s i t ion of the Two Accumulations and the Six Perfections ult imately resu lts in the attainment of Omniscient 6 Buddhahood. A person who has gathered the Two Accumulations w i l l never fee l himself lacking in the necess i t ies of l i f e . Accumulation of Mer i t : the Seven  Branches of Religious Service 38b. 1 I t i s said that a person who has some f a i t h and ins ight has an incred ib ly great capacity fo r accumulating merit. I f , 2 motivated by the Enlightened A t t i t ude , he simply offers the Seven 290 Branches of Religious Service, a l l his obscurations w i l l be destroyed, and his Accumulation [of Mer i t ] becomes l im i t l e s s as the sky. I t i s said that a person who performs but one prostrat ion w i l l gain these ten benef i t s : 1. a handsome face 2. a good complexion 3. i n f l u e n t i a l speech 4. influence over his associates 5. the a f fec t i on of gods and men 6. the companionship of holy men 290 yan-lag bdun-pa; sapta-anga. See p. 155 above, for the l i s t of seven. According to Beyer, th is pract ice i s an expansion of Taking Refuge and Engendering the Enlightened At t i tude. The three, which are present in some form, at the s ta r t of any Vajrayana pract i ce , effect_the " r i t u a l i z a t i o n of moral i ty " which insures the i n separab i l i t y of Mahayana moral att i tudes from that pract ice. The Cult of Tara., op. c i t . , p. 30. The pract ice of the Seven Branches has i t s canonical o r i g in in the l a s t chapter of the Gandavyuha-sutra, ca l l ed Samantabhadra-pranidhana, the " A l l Benefic ient One's'Vow of Conduct." I b id . , p. 30. The pract ice of the Seven Branches alone achieves the Accumula-t ion of Merit. (Lama) 167 7. robust health 8. wealth 9. higher reb i r th 10. L iberat ion 4 I t i s also said that a person who performs but one pros-t ra t i on with great reverence w i l l be born as a oakravartin as many times as the number of atoms in the piece of ground over which his f i v e limbs [are extended in f u l l p ro s t ra t i on ] , a l l the way down to the golden foundation. 5 I t i s sa id that a person who merely folds his hands [ in a gesture of devotion] to the Precious Ones receives ten benefits, including a beaut i fu l form, many attendants, and the l i k e . Numerous rewards of th i s kind are elucidated in deta i l in the sutras. 291 6 The great dGe-bshes's of the bKa1-gdams-pa sect engaged in no other Dharma pract ice but the constant, strenuous app l i cat ion of the Seven Branches of Religious Service. I t was the common, customary pract ice of a l l the great bKa'-brgyud-pas, including mNyam-med Dwags-po (sGam-po-pa). 38b. 1 But nowadays i t seems to have declined [ in popu la r i t y ] , and people of today have no i n c l i n a t i on to do what we ought to d o -gather the Accumulations to perfect ion! Even i f we do pract ice [the Seven Branches] to some degree, we have so l i t t l e f a i t h 291 dge-ba'i bshes-gnyen; kalyanamitra: in th i s context, denotes a Lama, usually of the bKa'-gdams or dGe-lugs sect, who has certa in ex-tensive scholar ly c redent ia l s . 168 2 and di l igence that we never r ea l l y succeed in gathering the Accumulations. We l e t our sacred images, books and stup as c o l l e c t dust. Some reckless types even leave these things beneath d i r t y rags! 3 [We people of today] place sooty butter-lamps in o f f e r -ing bowls and on a l t a r s , while showing undue concern for our own physical appearance. 4 Never do we o f fe r a s ingle flower to the Precious Ones in a s p i r i t of openness and compassion. I t i s said that a person who has never rec i ted the "Seven Branches of Religious Service" has accumulated no merit. 5 Where,does merit come from? I t comes only from acqu i s i t i on of the Accumulations! I f we possess one grain of r i c e , we eat i t i f i t i s ed ib le , and o f fe r i t [to the Precious Ones] i f i t i s i ned ib le ! Even those of us who have gold, s i l v e r , s i l k , horses, ca t t l e and the l i k e , re luctant l y o f fe r small lamps or scraps of food, 6 saying, "We are so poor in merit that we have nothing better to o f f e r ! " Thus, we o f f e r l i e s to the Precious Ones. Do you suppose 39a. 1 that a l l th is w i l l lead to [the Accumulation of] merit?? Hence, i t i s very important to make offer ings in accordance with your wea1th. 2 According to a l l the sutras and tantras, there i s no more profound way to c o l l e c t the Accumulations than [to o f fe r ] the Seven Branches of Religious Service. Furthermore, they say that 169 each branch of the pract ice y ie ld s more merit than the one pre-ceeding i t . The merit [accumulated by] making offer ings i s greater than [that accumulated by] performing prost rat ions; the merit of confessing i s greater than that of making o f fer ings ; the merit of del ight ing in wholesome conduct i s greater than that of confessing, and so on. Whether you choose to rec i te a long or a short version of [the Seven Branches, the] most important thing i s to ponder the s ign i f i cance [of what you are r e c i t i n g ] . Mere r ec i t a t i on i s a farce. Conclusion 292 There i s said to be no material o f fe r ing more meritor-ious than the Mandala-Offering. I t encompasses the pract ices of the Six Perfect ions , and y ie ld s [the same] benef i c ia l re su l t s . The measureless benefits you w i l l enjoy as a re su l t of o f fe r i ng the mandala are elucidated elsewhere. The Kutagara-293 sutra states that merely bu i ld ing a mandala of the universe gives you dominion over [the actual universe, inc lud ing] the four continents and the deua-realms. [The sutra] implies that merely sp r ink l i ng scented water on the mandala and o f fe r ing flowers pop mchod-pa'i skabs-su lag-nar gyis brkyang-ba'i mchod-pa: of fer ing made with hands outstretched." 293 Khang-bu brtsegs-pa'i mdo.bKa'-'gyur, mDo, 998. 170 results in reb i r th among the four classes of Maharajakayika-. 294 gods. In short, i n s t ruct ion i n the profound Mandala-Offering i s included in these inst ruct ions in the Foundations because of i t s great expediency in the rapid perfection of the Accumulations. 39b. 1 However boastful you may be about your generosity, [ordinary offer ings are by the i r nature] numerically l im i ted to a hundred, a thousand, ten thousand, a hundred thousand, and so 2 on. G i f t s offered through egotism or desire fo r acclaim are ta inted by these [unwholesome motives]. [Offering ordinary g i f t s ] may make [the donor] fee l hopeful or anxious about whether or not they w i l l please the Lama. Recipients [of such g i f t s are by t he i r nature] numerically l im i ted to a hundred, a thousand and so on. 3 The Mandala-Offering i s the biggest of a l l because i t 295 encompasses a l l the riches of the ent i re universe. It i s not susceptible to the ta ints of proud thoughts, s ince [the donor] 4 th inks , "I am merely o f fe r ing a product of the mind." I t does not in sp i re hope or fear about pleasing [or d ispleas ing] the Precious Ones. A person who [offers the mandala], v i s u a l i z i n g the exce l lent rec ip ients of the o f fe r ings—the Precious Ones in 2 9 4 rgyal-chen vigs-bzhi: highest class of devas in the Kamadhatu. phyi-snod nang-bcud nam-mkhas gav-khyab kyi dpal-'byor. 171 296 the ten d i rect ions and four times - -the spacious realms, and the res t , cannot help but gather the Accumulations with every 5 thought, word and deed. Thus, s t r i ve earnestly to do so. Bu i ld new temples and symbols of Buddha's Body, Speech and Mind. Repair o ld ones. Serve the Samgha. I f you have 6 nothing to o f f e r , sweep the shrine room, perform prostrations and circumambulate i t , o f fe r ing prayers of praise. To v i s ua l i ze Buddha while jo in ing your palms or tossing 40a. 1 a flower into the a i r [as an o f f e r i n g ] , i s sa id to y i e l d immeasur-able merit. Thus, you who are a rec ip ient of the fortunate and 2 p r i v i l eged human body--not the i n f e r i o r body of an animal, who can neither d i s t ingu ish between wholesome and unwholesome ac t s , chant a s ing le Mani or f u l f i l l a moral obl igation—must pract ice Dharma without delay! Do not l e t th i s human l i f e go to waste! No matter how you do i t , i t i s most important that you estab l i sh 297 wholesome tendencies of every kind. I.e., past, present, future and timelessness. (LPL) Mispr int: dge-ba'i bag-chag should be dge-ba'i bag-chags. CHAPTER VI FOURTH OF THE FOUR SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS: THE GURU-YOGA WHICH RAPIDLY CONFERS BLESSING INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Af te r having successful ly completed the stages of commitment, p u r i f i c a t i o n and enrichment (the three previous Foundations) the aspirant i s almost ready to begin the Mahamudra practices which w i l l transform his ordinary L i f e into Enlightened existence. He lacks only two f i n a l prerequ i s i tes : 1. Authorization and a b i l i t y to do these pract ices. This can only be conferred by a Lama who has himself received them. 2. Establishment of a close re lat ionsh ip with this Lama and symbolic admission to his l ineage. Receipt of these two comprises the "b less ing " promised to one who pract ices the Guru-Yoga (bla-ma'i rnal-'byor). Hence, th is r i t u a l i s the f i n a l Foundation fo r Mahamudra pract ice. Since the r i t u a l involves v i s ua l i z i n g your Lama in the form of the Buddha rDo-rje 'Chang, and in that form receiv ing from him the Four Empowerments (dbang-bzhi)3 the aspirant should have an unshakeable con-v i c t i on that his Lama i s r ea l l y the Buddha. The author appreciates the fact that , in most cases, th i s convict ion w i l l have to be gradually 172 173 developed, and he provides numerous techniques for doing so. Pract ice of the Guru-Yoga involves: 1. S i t t i n g cross-legged and r e c i t i n g a pur i factory mantra (p. 174). 2. V i sua l i z i ng yourse l f as rDo-rje Phag-mo (pp. 174-5). 3. V i sua l i z i ng rDo-rje 'Chang while th inking of him as your root-Lama, seated on the crown of your head, surrounded by the Lamas of the Mahamudra lineage and other great Lamas and by the other Sources of Refuge (pp. 176-8). 4. Imagining the merging of the dam-tshig and ye-shes aspects of the Sources of Refuge (p. 178). 5. Praying to Them. 6. Rec i t ing the prayer of the Seven Branches of Rel igious Service while imagining that you are actua l l y performing them (p. 179). 7. Recit ing the long prayer to the Lamas of the Mahamudra lineage (pp. 180-91). 8. Recit ing the short prayer to the Lamas of the Mahamudra lineage (p. 192). 9. Praying to the Lamas for various blessings (pp. 192-3). 10. Recit ing the "Ma-nam Four" three times, and the invocation of the Karma-pas several times (p. 194). 11. Recit ing the s i x - l i n e prayer the desired number of times for the session (pp. 194-5). 12. Praying to the Lama for the Four Empowerments; v i s ua l i z i n g your receipt of the Empowerments and the results of th i s (pp. 195-203). 174 13. V i sua l i z i ng your Lama d isso lv ing into l i g h t and then into yourse l f (p. 203). 14. Lett ing your mind rest. 15. Dedicating merit. To complete the Guru-Yoga, the s i x - l i n e prayer must have been rec i ted a tota l of 111,111 times. TRANSLATION 40a. Meditation 3 Meditate that you have been " p u r i f i e d to emptiness" by 298 means of the svabhava-mantra. You now emerge out of emptiness, looking much l i k e rDo-rje Phag-mo, standing on a corpse, red lotus, 249 and sun. 4 As you have not yet pu r i f i ed a l l your obscurations, medi-ta t ing that your ordinary s e l f [ i s performing the Guru-Yoga] would not net you any bless ing. But meditating that the yi-dam [ i s performing the Guru-Yoga] w i l l f a c i l i t a t e your quick and easy rece ipt of b l e s s i n g . 3 0 0 Thus, [when pract ic ing the Guru-Yoga], 298 I.e., r e c i t e , "Om Sabhawa Shuddha Sarwa Dharma Sabhawa Shuddho Ham," as in Ch. V., and then v i sua l i ze yourse l f d i s so lv ing into emptiness. (Lama) 299 See i l l u s t r a t i o n on fo l lowing page. rDo-rje Phag-mo is the chief female yi-dam of the bKa'-brgyud sect. 3 0 0 yi-dam du bsgoms-pas byin-vlabs myur-du 'jug-sla-ba'i vten-'brel yin. 175 b o ' Q O Q Q O Q Q O O o O o o o o 0 0 0 0 0 6 ' ( 5 6 " 6 6 0 ( 5 o o 6 o o Q o o Q o O o C ) O O O Q O O O O Q O O Q Q O ' O " O " Q «b 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 1 Figure 12. rDo-rje Phag-mo (Vajravarahi) 176 you should focus your attent ion on your own yi-dam whoever he may be. rDo-rje Phag-mo i s the mother who begat a l l the Buddhas. She i s e s sen t i a l l y Phyag-rgya-chen-mo (Mahamudra), appearing in 301 the form of Lhan-cig-skyes-ma (Sahaja). She belongs to a family of yoginis who are espec ia l l y warm-hearted toward sentient beings. Hence, through her, bless ing may be quickly received. I t i s e spec ia l l y propit ious [to v i s ua l i ze yourse l f as rDo-rje Phag-mo while you pract ice th i s meditat ion], since she was the secret 302 yi-dam of Lords Marpa, Mi la and Dwags-po. Do as they d id! [Begin the meditation by r e c i t i n g the fo l lowing] : "On the crown of my head, on a lo tus , sun and moon-seat S i t s my own root-Lama as the mighty rDo-rje 'Chang. Wearing ornaments, holding a vajra and b e l l in the "crossed hands" mudra, He s i t s in the vajra-posture. The Lamas of the [Mahamudra] l ineage, An ocean of Precious Ones, s i t in a column [on the crown of His head], And also i n groups [surrounding Him]."303 301 Synonym for rDo-rje Phag-mo. (LPL) 302 gsang-ba'i yi-dam. According to Kalu Rin-po-che, th is means that these three did not reveal to anyone the ident i t y of t he i r yi-dam. Such secrecy w i l l strengthen the bless ing received by the meditator. 303 sByi-por padma zla-nyi'i gdan steng-du/ rTsa-ba'i bla-ma rDo-rje 'Chang dbang-po/ rGyan-ldan rdor-dril-'dzin-pa'i phyag-rgya-bsnol/ rDo-rje'i gdan-bzhugs brgyud-pa'i bla-ma dang/ dKon-mohog rgya-mtsho tho-btsegs khrom-du-tshogs." 'Phags-lam, 113/1-2. The "crossed-hands" mudra (phyag-rgya-bsnol) i s performed by hold-ing the vajra i n the r i ght hand and the b e l l in the l e f t , with the hands crossed in front of the chest. 177 6 On the crown of your head, or in the sky before you, s i t s your own root-Lama as he appeared in Taking Refuge. He i s the 40b. 1 essence of a l l the Buddhas of the three times. In the form of rDo-rje 'Chang, he s i t s on a lotus and moon-seat atop a jewelled throne upheld by eight l ions and covered with pr ice less s i l k s . 2 The bKa 1-brgyud-pa Lamas are seated (on his head), in a column extending from your root-Lama [as rDo-rje 'Chang] up to rDo-rje 'Chang [Himself]. [This column] i s surrounded by Lamas of the 'Br i-khung, 'Brug-pa, Tshal-pa and sTag-lung [branches of the bKa'-brgyud-pa s e c t ] , and by other Lamas of the meditative l i n e a g e 3 0 4 - - a vertable ocean of siddhas! [They are surrounded by 3 Lamas who transmitted] the Great Per fect ion, the Six Yogas, Path 305 and Result and Zhi-byed gCod-yul, and the Lamas of the lineage J U t f sgrub-brgyud: t r ad i t i on which emphasizes meditation. The term i s used to characterize the bKa'-brgyud and rNying-ma sects. (LPL) 305 Great Perfect ion (rDzogs-pa chen-po), Six Yogas (Chos-drug), and Path and Result (Lam-'bras) are key pract ices i d e n t i f i e d with the rNying-ma, bKa'-brgyud and Sa-skya sects respect ive ly. Zhi-byed gCod-yul i s a pa r t i cu l a r r i t u a l whose theoret ica l basis i s the prajhaparamita doctr ine. Developed by ind iv idua l Indian yo-gins, i t was introduced into Tibet in the 11th century by Pha-dam-pa. There, i t became the central pract ice of a d i s t i n c t sect, ca l l ed the Zhi-byed-pa. Later, when the pract ice had been adopted by a l l the major Tibetan sects , the Zhi-byed-pa died out. Zhi-byed gcod-yul was usually pract iced by ind iv idua l s with p r io r t r a in ing in t r anqu i l i t y (gzhi-gnas) meditation, who were in a highly-charged emotional s tate. In t e r r i f y i n g surroundings such as graveyards at n ight, they would attempt a symbolic severance (good) of the pernicious be l i e f in a ' s e l f . ' (LPL) The r i t u a l , often referred to as "good" (pronounced "chb ' t " ) , was also used to cut o f f emotional obsessions (klesas). See Alexandra David-Neel, Magic and Mystery in Tibet. New York: Univers ity Books, 1958, pp. 157-66, and G.N. Roerich, Blue Annals. Calcutta: A s i a t i c S o c , 1953, books XII and XII I. 178 of i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c i p l i n e , gathered l i k e clouds. 4 Devotedly imagine the merging of the dam-tshig and ye-shes aspect of each of the pr imordia l ly present yi-dams, Buddhas, Bodhisattvas,. dakas, dakinis and dharmapalas who surround the Lamas. 3 0 7 5 With deep s i n ce r i t y and longing, c l ea r l y r e c i t e : "Om. You who embody [ a l l the character i s t i c s of Enlightenment], who incorporate the nature of a l l things, Who, l i k e the sky, have no re la t i on to past, present or future, Who cannot be said to have "gone" or "come," But, l i k e the moon in water, appear wherever You are v i sua l i zed , Oh glorious Heruka, conqueror of Mara's armies! 0 Lamas, yi-dams, dakirvis and attendants, As I have prayed to You today with f a i t h , Exert the force of Your unrestr icted compassion, And c l ea r l y show Yourselves to me!"308 Then rec i te the prayer of the Seven Branches or Religious Service: 306 blo-sbyong-brgyud: t r ad i t i on which emphasizes development of Bodh ic i t ta . A t i sa was i t s most famous proponent. Mental d i s c i p l i n e (blo-sbyong) was espec ia l l y emphasized by his Tibetan fo l lowers, the bKa ' -gdams-pas, and t h e i r successors, the dGe-lugs-pas. 307 See n. 233, above, f o r the s ign i f i cance of the merging of these two aspects of Enlightened beings. 3 0 8 "Om/ Khyab-bdag dngos-po kun gyi rang-bzhin-oan/ gNas-med 'gro-'ong-bral-ba nam-mkha' bzhin/ gShegs dang 'byin-pa'i mtshan-ma mi-mnga' yang/ Chu-zla bzhin-du gar-dmigs der-snang-ba/ bDud-dpung 'joms-mdzad dpal-ldan Heruka/ bLa-ma yi-dam mkha'-'gro 'khor dang baas/ bDag gi dad-pas deng-'dir gsol-'debs-na/ dMigs-med snying-rje'i dbang-gis 'dir-gsal-mdzod." 'Phags-lam, 113/2-4. The f i r s t part of this prayer i s addressed to rDo-rje 'Chang. 179 "To You who have come from the highest Buddha-realm, the palace of the Dharmadhatu, Who are es sent ia l l y the Buddhas of the three times, Who d i r e c t l y demonstrate that Mind i s i t s e l f the Dharmakaya, [1] Oh holy Reverend Lamas, I bow down! [2] In praise of You, I o f fe r a l l : My body, wealth, and mental creat ions. [3] I confess each harmful deed I have done; I w i l l commit no further wrongs. [4] I del ight in a l l the wholesome deeds of beings. [5] I share [mer i t ] , the cause of Supreme Enlightenment. [6] I urge [the Buddhas] to remain [ in the world] and not enter f i n a l Nirvana. O Q O [7] And to teach the unsurpassed, excel lent Dharma-paths." [Now, pray fo r b less ings] : "[Grant me the bless ing o f ] unbiased benevolence and compassion, And the u l t imate, co-emergent awareness, Like the understanding possessed by Buddha and His Sons: Grant me the bless ing of penetrating understanding. Grant me the bless ing of d i r ec t understanding of th i s i l l u s o r y body as Nirmanakaya. "'Og-min chos kyi dbyings kyi pho-brang-na/ Dus-gsum sang-vgyas kun gyi ngo-bo nyid/ Rang-sems chos-skur-mngon-sum ston-mdzad-pa/ [l] dPal-ldan bla-ma dam-pa-la phyag-'tshal/ Lus dang longs-spyod yid-kyis-spvul-ba yi/ [2] mChod-pa kun-gyis-mchod cing bstod-par-bgyi/ [3] sNgar-byas sdig-pa ma lus bshags-par-bgyi/ sDig-pa gzhan-yang slan-chad mi-bgyid-do/ [4] 'Gro-kun dge-ba kun-la-rjes-yi-rang/ [5] Byang-chub mchog gi rgyur ni bsngo-bar-bgyi/ [6] Mya-ngan mi-'da' bzhugs-par gsol-ba-'debs/ [7] Theg-mehog bla-med-chos 'khor bskor-bar-bskul." 'Phags-lam, 113/4-7. This version of the Seven Branches of Rel igious Service i s s l i g h t l y more elaborate than the one used in the Mandala-Offering. Branches 5 and 7 are not in t he i r usual order. SeeCh. V. pp. 166-9, for deta i l s on the Seven Branches. 180 Grant me the bless ing of d i rec t understanding of v i t a l i t y as Sambhogakaya. Grant me the bless ing of d i rec t understanding of Mind as Dharmakaya. Grant me the bless ing of d i rec t understanding of the three kdyas, non-separate."310 5-6 Now rec i te the long and short prayers to the [Lamas of the] Mahamudra l ineage. [The long prayer i s as fo l l ows ] : "To the g lor ious , all-encompassing rDo-rje 'Chang; To the Venerable bLo-gros Rin-chen, master of the ten stages; , To Saraha, who appeared in the holy land [of Ind ia] , I pray. 3 1 1 Grant me co-emergent awareness! 1 3 1 0 "Bycms dang snying-rje phyogs-med 'byongs-ba dang/ Don-dam lhan-oig skyes-pa'i ye-shes de/ vGyal-ba sras-boas-rnams kyis rtogs-pa Itar/ bDag-gis rnngon-sum rtogs-pav-byin-gyis-rlobs/ sGyu-lus sprul-skur-rtogs-par-byin-gyis-rlobs/ Srog-stsol longs-skur-rtogs-par-byin-gyis-vlobs/ Rang-sems ohos-skur-vtogs-par-byin-gyis-rlobs/ sKu-gsum dbyer-med 'char-bar-byin-gyis-rlobs." 'Phags-lam, 113/7-114-1. Regarding "co-emergent awareness" (lhan-oig skyes-pa'i ye-shes; sahaja-jndna), H.V. Guenther says: " . . . one speaks of lhan-oig skyes-pa, sahaja, because two features go together, not that one i s in the other. The phi losophical impl icat ion i s that there i s no unbridgeable gulf between 'appearance' and ' r e a l i t y , ' because appearance i s r e a l i t y insomuch as i t i s the appearance of the l a t t e r . To make a difference between appearance and r e a l i t y i s the working of our b i fu rcat ing mind, but in the immediate awareness that r e a l i t y i s co-present with or emerges together with appearance the seemingly abysmal gulf i s bridged." {Naropa, p. 25, n. 3). The l a s t four l ines of th is prayer, a request for the a b i l i t y to view one's ordinary l i f e as the three modes of authentic existence (sku-gsum; tri-kaya, see n. 138) i s again a request for the bless ing of co-emergent awareness. 311 - -See Ch. I, p. 9, on the Mahamudra l ineage. Since the long and short prayers share the same funct ion, i f one i s unable to rec i te both at each session of Guru-Yoga p ract i ce , i t i s 181 "To Arya Nagarjuna, who understood dharmata; To Shabari, who attained Mahamudra; To Lord Maitrepa, who saw the essent ia l meaning, I pray. o-ip Grant me co-emergent awareness! To Lho-brag-pa, master of the tantras; To Lord Mi l a , ch ie f of siddhas in the Land of Snows; To the glorious sGam-po-pa, subject of Buddha's prophesy, I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness! permissible to rec i te the long one only once per day, and subst i tute the short one at a l l other times. (Lama) The long prayer begins: " 'dNgos-kun khyab-bdag dpal-ldan rDo-rje 'Chang/ Sa-bcu'i dbang-phyug bLo-gros Rin-ohen zhabs/ 'Phags-yul grub-pa1'i gtso-bo Saraha/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, l id/1-2. bLo-gros Rin-chen (dates?) was an Indian siddha, said to have received in sp i ra t ion d i r e c t l y from rDo-rje 'Chang. (Lama) Saraha (ca. 633 AD), one of India ' s "e ighty- four mahasiddhas," i s best known for his dohas or tantrio songs. See H.V. Guenther, The Royal Song of Saraha. Seatt le : Univ. of Wash. Press, 1969. 312 "Chos-nyid-don-gzigs 'Phags-pa kLu-grub dang/ Phyag-rgya-ohe-brnyes dpal-ldan Shabari/ sNying-po'i don-gzigs Jo-bo Maitrepa/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, 114/2-3/ Arya Nagarjuna ('Phags-pa kLu-grub or kLu-grub sNying-po, ca. 645 AD ?) was an Indian mahasiddha often i d e n t i f i e d , by the Tibetan t r a -d i t i o n , with the philosopher Nagarjuna, who may have been born f i ve hundred years e a r l i e r . See Tony Schmidt, The Eighty-Five Siddhas. Stock-holm: Reports from the S c i e n t i f i c Expedition to the Northwestern Provinces of China, 1958, Vol. VI I I, part 7, pp. 20-7. Shabari (Shavaripa, ca. 657) was another Indian mahasiddha who i s said to have or ig inated the cu l t of rDo-rje rNal- 'byor-ma, so important to the Karma bKa'-brgyud sect. See Schmidt, I b id . , p. 60 and plate V. Maitrepa (Mait r ipa, ca. 1150) was an Indian teacher of both At i sa and Marpa. 313 "rGyud-sde rgya-mtsho'i mnga'-bdag Lho-brag-pa/ Gangs-can grub-pa'i gtso-bo Mila rJe/ rGyal-bas lung-bstan dpal-ldan sGam-po-pa/ 182 "To Dus-gsum mKhyen-pa, master of Buddha-a c t i v i t y ; To Venerable 'Gro-mgon Ras-chen, the mighty magician; To sBom-brag-pa, Son of Buddha who completed the [Stages of] Production and Per fect ion, I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness 1314 To the glorious Karma-pa who suppressed that which i s d i f f i c u l t to suppress; To the mahasiddha 0-rgyan-pa who achieved both types of siddhi; To Rang-byung [ rDo-r je] , master of the sastras, I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness! gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, 114/3. Lho-brag-pa, "the man from Lho-brag," i s Marpa the Translator (1012-96). Mi la rJe is Milarespa (1052-1135). See Ch. I., pp. 4-5 on sGam-po-pa (1079-1153). 314 "r>Gyal-ba'i phrin-las mnga'-bdag Dus-gsum mKhyen/ mThu-stobs dbang-phyug 'Gro-mgon Ras-chen zhabs/ bsKyed-rdzogs mthar-phyin rgyal-sras sBom-brag-pa/ sGol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol. " 'Phags-lam, 114/3-4.-Dus-gsum mKhyen-pa (1110-93) was the o r i g ina l Karma-pa. See H.E. Richardson, "The Karma-pa Sect," JRAS, 1958, pp. 139-64. 'Gro-mgon Ras-chen [Sangs-rgyas-grags] (ca. 1100) was the f i r s t S i tu Rin-po-che. sBom-brag [bSod-nams rDo-rje] (ca. 1100) was another Mahamudra master. 315 "gDul-dka' 'dul-mdzad dpal-ldan Karma-pa/ dNgos-grub gnyis-brnyes grub-chen O-rgyan-pa/ 'Dzam-gling bstan-pa'i mnga'-bdag Rang-byung-pa/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, 114/4-5. The Karma-pa mentioned i s the second, Karma Pagshi (1204-83), the f i r s t Karma-pa to v i s i t China. There, he stunned the Taoist com-pet i t i on with his feats of magic. 0-rgyan-pa (1189-1258), a l i a s rGod-gtsang-pa or mGon-po rDo-r j e , was the founder of the stod branch of the 'Brug-pa bKa-brgyud-pa. Rang-byung [rDo-rje] (1284-1339) was the th i r d Karma-pa. 183 "To rGyal-ba gYung-ston-pa, siddha of the Mantrayana; To Venerable Ro l -pa ' i rDo-rje, who adorned Jambudvipa; To mKha-1spyod-dbang-po who rea l i zed the true nature of things, I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness 1316 To the great k ing, Lord of the Dharma, De-bzhin gShegs; To the learned, Venerable Ratnabhadra; To mThong-ba Don-ldan, glorious p a c i f i e r of [samsario] existence, I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness! 317 To 'Jam-dpal bZang-po, who i s r e a l l y rDo-rje 'Chang; To Venerable dPal- 'byor Don-grub, per son i f i cat ion of Compassion; To Chos-grags rGya-mtsho, source of bless ings, I pray. 3 1 8 Grant me co-emergent awareness! ° , D "sNgags-rigs grub-pa'i rgyal-ba gYung-ston-pa/ 'Dzam-gling rgyan-gyur Rol-pa'i rDo-rje zhabs/ gNas-lugs-don-rtogs rtogs-ldan mKha'-spyod dbang/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, 114/5-7. gYung-ston [rDo-rje dpa l , b. 1283] was a Mahamudra teacher, Ro l -pa ' i rDo-rje (1340-83) was the fourth Karma-pa, known for his magic powers, and as a teacher of Tsong-kha-pa. mKha'-spyod dBang-po (1350-1405) was probably the second Zva-dmar Rin-po-che. 317 "Sa-skyong gtsug-rgyan chos-rje De-bzhin gShegs/ mKas-pa'i dbang-po Ratnabhadra'i zhabs/ Srid-zhi'i dpal-gyur mThong-ba Don-ldan-la/ .gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, 114/7. De-bzhin gShegs-pa (1384-1415) was the f i f t h Karma-pa, famous for his magical feat s , which helped dissuade the Yuan Emperor from i n -vading Tibet. See Richardson, op. c i t . , 1959, pp. 1-6. Ratnabhadra (ca. 1400) was one of the few Lamas of the Mahamudra lineage who was not an important tulku. mThong-ba Don-ldan (1416-53) was the s ixth Karma-pa. 318 "rDo-rje 'Chang dngos 'Jam-dpal bZang-po dang/ Thugs-rje 'i bdag-nyid dPal-'byor Don-grub zhabs/ 184 "To the unequalled mahasiddha, master of the Dharma; The celebrated bKra-shis dPal - 'byor, And his chosen incarnat ion, Chos-grags dPal-bzang, I pray. 3 i g Grant me co-emergent awareness! To the Wearer of the Red Hat, Lord Amitabha; To the supreme [eighth] rGyal-ba Karma-pa; who embodies the Six Famil ies, And to Venerable dBang-phyug rDo-rje, who embodies a l l the yi-dams of the mandala, I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness"! 320 Byin-rlabs 'byung-gnas Chos-grags rGya-mtsho-la/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, 114/7-8. 'Jam-dpal bZang-po (ca. 1400) was an eminent Karma bKa ' -brgyud Lama. dPal - 'byor Don-grub (ca. 1400) was a close d i s c i p l e of the s ix th Karma-pa. Chos-grags rGya-mtsho (1454-1505) was the seventh Karma-pa. 319 "mTshungs-med bla-ma Grub-chen Chos kyi rje/ bKra-shis dPal-'byor zhes-byar rab-grags-pa/ bSam-bzhin sku-sprul Chos-grags dPal-bzang-la/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, 114/8-115/1. bKra-shis dPal - 'byor (ca. 1450) was the fourth S i t u , pupi l of the fourth Zva-dmar Rin-po-che. Chos-grags dPal-bzang was one of a lesser l i n e of Karma bKa ' -brgyud- pa tulkus. 320 "'Od-dpag-med mgon Zva-dmar ood-pan 'dzin/ Rigs-drug khyab-bdag rGyal-mohog Karma-pa/ dKyil-'khor kun-bdag dBang-phyug rDo-rje'i zhabs/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, 115/1-2. The Red Hat or Zva-dmar Rin-po-che l i n e , i s bel ieved to have or ig inated from Amitabha. See Ch. I., p. 9. The Zva-dmar tulku mentioned here i s probably dKong-mchog Yan-lag (1525-83), the f i f t h . The eighth Karma-pa was Mi-bskyod rDo-rje (1506-54). dBang-phyug rDorje (1556-1603) was the ninth Karma-pa, and pr inc ipa l author of 'Phags-lam. This, and subsequent verses in th i s prayer to the Lamas of the Mahamudra l ineage, were added by other Lamas, a f te r his death. 185 "To one who bears the marks and blessings of Amitabha: "E, " the l ion-throne of Mahamudra, "Vain," the changeless [mahasukha], to Chos-dbyings rDo-r je, I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness! 321 To rDo-rje Sems-dpa 1, [symbol of] i n tegrat ion, constantly unfolding in i l l u s o r y forms; The uaj ' ra -bearer [Padma]Gar[gi ]dBang[-phyug], embodiment of the tantras, And his supreme Nirmanakaya, Ye-shes sNying-po, 1 p r a y * Grant me co-emergent awareness!322 o c 1 "'dPag-med-'od-mtshan byin-rlabs-'ohang de dang/ E-yig phyag-rgya-ohen-po seng-ge 'i khrir/ Vam-yig 'gyur-med Chos-dbyings rDo-rje-la/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, 115/2. "One who bears the marks and blessings of Amitabha" indicates a Zva-dmar Rin-po-che, i . e . , Chos kyi dBang-phyug (1584-1635), the s i x th . "E" s i g n i f i e s s k i l l f u l means or compassion, here paired with Mahamudra. "Vam" s i g n i f i e s in s i ght , here paired with mahasukha, the changeless, absolute b l i s s of ultimate awareness. (LPL) Thus, the tenth Karma-pa Chos-dbyings rDo-rje (1604-74) i s being described as an embodiment of the Vajrayana goal, the union of s k i l l f u l means and ins ight . 322 "sGyu-'phrul drwa-ba'i kha-sbyor rDo-rje Sems/ 'Bras-rgyud khyab-bdag Gar-dBang rDo-rje 'Chang/ mChog gi sprul-sku Ye-shes sNying-po'i zhabs/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, 115/2-3. "[Symbol of ] in tegrat ion " (kha-sbyor) denotes a Sambhogakaya Buddha, such as rDo-rje Sems-dpa'. The "uaj ' ra-bearer " Padma Gar gi dBang-phyug (ca. 1600), i s here i d e n t i f i e d as an incarnation of rDo-rje Sems-dpa'. (LPL) Ye-shes sNying-po (1639-94), the seventh Zva-dmar-pa, i s named as Padma Gar gi dBang-phyug's "supreme Nirmanakaya," or incarnation as a Buddha born in the world. For the d i f fe rent types of Nirmanakaya, see Ch. I l l , n. 138, above. 186 "To you, the Sahaja-jnana-kaya, b l i s s and emptiness inseparable; Whose play i s the unceasing uaj ' ra-dance, Ye-shes rDo-rje, essence of a l l Buddhas, I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness! 323 To Don gnyis Lhun-grub, whose discerning i n te l l i gence Was broad enough to grasp The "profound" and the "extensive" aspects of the Dharma, I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness!324 To the omniscient_Lama Byang-chub rDo-rje, Embodiment of the Adi-Buddha, who, in the Dharmadhatu, Creat ively manifests in the dance of the i n d i v i s i b l e four fo ld vajra, I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness! 325 323 "bDe-stong dbyer-med lhan-skyes ye-shes-sku/ gZhom-med r d o - r j e ' i gar-gyis rnam-rol-pa/ rGyal-kun ngo-bo Ye-shes rDo-rje-la/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes s t s o l . " 'Phags-lam, 115/3. The Sahaja-jnana-kaya (lhan-skyes ye-shes-sku) i s the Dharmakaya. often ca l l ed the Jnana-Dharmakaya. Ye-shes rDo-rje (1676-1702) was the eleventh Karma-pa. 3 2 4 "Zab dang rgya-che'i ohos-tshul ji-snyed-par/ rNam-dpyod blos-gros rgyas-pa'i nus-sbobs-oan/ Tshul-bzhin rtogs-pa'i Don-gnyis Lhun-grub-la/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes s t s o l . " 'Phags-lam, 115/3-4. Don gnyis Lhun-grub may be another name fo r Ye-shes rDo-rje (1675-1702), the eleventh Karma-pa, who i s not mentioned elsewhere in th i s prayer. "Profound" refers to the prajndparamita doc t r i ne 1 "Extensive" refers to doctrine concerned with the other f i ve paramitas. (LPL) 325 "Khyab-dbag gdod-ma'i mgon-po chos kyi dbyings/ Mi-phyed rdo-rje-bzhi yi gar rol-pa/ Kun-mkhyen bla-ma Byang-chub rDo-rje-la/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, 115/4-5. The Adi-Biddha i s rDo-rje 'Chang. The " f ou r fo ld vajra" i s His vajra-Body, Speech, Mind, and Transcending Awareness. (LPL) Byang-chub rDo-rje (1703-32) was the twelfth Karma-pa. 187 "To rDo-rje 'Chang, embraced by the beauty [ ca l l ed ] emptiness, Committed to the path of unchangeable, inexhaustible b l i s s . The yogin bsTan-pa'i Nyin-byed, I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness!326 To him who has seen the essent ia l nature of the i nde s t ruc t i b l e , And wields the power of changeless, supreme awareness, The fear less bDud-'dul rDo-rje, I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness! 327 To him whose Compassion took the form of teaching many d i s c i p l e s , Each according to his temperament, a b i l i t y and i n te re s t , The glorious Mi-pham Chos-grub rGya-mtsho, I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness!328 326 "sTong-nyid mdzas-mas mngon-'khyud rDo-rje 'Chang/ 'Pho-'gyur bde-ba 'dzag-med lam boings-pa/ rNal-'byor bsTan-pa'i Nyin-byed gang de-la/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, 115/6. bsTan-pa'i Nyin-byed (1700-75), also known as Kun-mkhyen Chos kyi 'byung-gnas, was the eighth S i tu Rin-po-che, who founded dPal -spungs monastery in 1727. "'Pho-'gyur bde-ba 'dzag-med" should be understood as "'Pho-'gyur med-pa bde-ba-chen-po 'dzag-pa med-pa." (LPL) 327 "Mi-shigs snying-po'i rang-bzhin mngon-gzigs-nas/ 'Gyur-med ye-shes mohog-la dbang-bsgyur-ba/ 'Jigs-med bDud-tshogs 'Dul-ba'i rDo-rje-la/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, 115/6-7. bDud-'dul rDo-rje (1733-97) was the th i rteenth Karma-pa. 328 "'gDul-bya'i khams dbang mos-pa du-ma'i ngor/ De-snyed thugs-rje'i rol-pa oir-yang ston/ dPal-ldan Mi-pham Chos-grub rGya-mtsho-la/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, 115/7-8. Mi-pham chos-grub rGya-mtsho (ca. 1750) was an eminent Karma bKa'-brgyud Lama. 188 "To him who duly demonstrated the sameness of samsdra and Nirvana, [both pervaded with] b l i s s , [The sameness of] one's own face and the ult imately real Dharmakaya, Padma Nyin-byed, embodiment of a l l the fami l ies [of Enlightened Ones], I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness! ^29 To him whose spontaneous Buddha Awareness is c l ea r as the sky, Whose manifestations of measureless Compassion embrace a l l beings, Theg-mchog rDo-rje, who i s l i k e the sun for a l l beings, I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness!330 To rDo-rje 'Chang, the teacher who embodies the f i v e Buddhas, Who d i r e c t l y sees the non-separateness of b l i s s and emptiness, Mahamudra i t s e l f , The Awakened One, Yon-tan-rgya-mtsho, I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness! 331 329 '"Khor-'das mnyam-nyid bde-chen 'dus-ma-byas/ Don-dam ohos-sku'i rang-zhal legs-ston-pa/ Rigs-kun khyab-bdag Padma Nyin-byed-la/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, 115/8. Padma Nyin-byed (1774-1853), the ninth S i tu Rin-po-che, was the root-Lama of 'Jam-mgon Kong-sprul. This verse was added to the prayer by Theg-chog rDo-rje, the fourteenth Karma-pa. 330 "longs-grub ye-shes dgongs-pa mkha'-ltar dag/ Tshad-med thugs-rje'i snang-ba kun-la khyab/ 'Gro-ba'i nyi-ma Theg-mchog rDo-rje-la/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, 116/1. Theg-mchog rDo-rje, the fourteenth Karma-pa, l i ved from 1797-1845. 331 This and subsequent verses of th i s prayer have been compiled since Kong-sprul 's death, and do not appear in the gDams-ngag-mdzod ed i -t ion of 'Phags-lam. We have obtained these verses from a l a t e r , unedited text , in which the prayer has been updated by Kalu Rin-po-che and the present Karma-pa, Rang-byung-rig-pa'i rDo-rje. "Khyab-bdag ston-pa sku-lnga'i rDo-rje 'Chang/ bDe-stong dbyer-med phyag-rgya-chen-po'i don/ 189 "To the all-encompassing, beginninglessly Enlightened rDo-rje 'Chang, The Karma-pa with the face and form of Buddhas of the three times, To mKha'-khyab rDo-rje, whose Compassion i s measureless, I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness!332 To him who manifests the expansive Buddha-Mind of Maitreya, the a l l pervasive [Dharma-]dhatu, Regent of Padma [-sambhava], protector of beings, Padma dBang-chog, [whose Awareness] i s profound and c lear l i k e no o ther ' s , I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness! 333 To the unequalled 'Jam-mgon mKhyen-brtse 'Od-zer the great, Protector of the teachings of the meditative l ineage; manifestation of Vairocana, [Who person i f ies ] the ongoing [unity of] awareness_ and emptiness, the vast region of the Dharmadhatu, 1 p r a y * Grant me co-emergent awareness! 334 mNgon-gyur sangs-rgyas Yon-tan rgya-mtsho-la/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." Yon-tan-rgya-mtsho was the name given to 'Jam-mgon Kong-sprul upon his ordination as a Karma bKa'-brgyud monk in 1833. See Colophon, below. 332 "Kun-bdag gdod-ma'i klong-grol rDo-rje [Chang/ Dus-gsum rgyal-ba'i sbyi-gzugs karma-kam/ Thugs-rje tshad-med mKha'-khyab rDo-rje-la/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." mKha'-khyab rDo-rje (1845-1926) was the f i f t een th Karma-pa. 333 "Byams-mgon-thugs klong rol-pa khyab-brdal dbyings/ Padma rgyal-ba'i rgyal-bstan 'gro-ba'i mgon/ Zab-gsal mtshungs-med Padma dBang-mchog-la/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." Padma dBang-mchog (b. 1854) was the tenth S i tu Rin-po-che. 334 "Rig-stong zag-med chos-dbyings rab-'byams-ngang/ Vairo'i rnam-'phrul sgrub-brgyud bstan-pa'i mgon/ mTshungs-med 'Jam-mgon mKhyen-brtse 'Od-zer mchog/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Jam-mgon mKhyen-brtse 'Od-zer (ca. 1870) was a d i s c i p l e of 'Jam-mgon Kong-sprul. This verse was added by the present Karma-pa, Rang-byung-rig-pa'i rDo-rje. 190 "To him who penetrated the true nature of the ult imately real Dharmakaya, Whose ta inted skandhas dissolved into a l i v i n g rainbow-body, The master of r e a l i z a t i o n , Norbu Don-kun-grub, I P^y . Grant me co-emergent awareness! J J 0 To the kind one who reveals Mahamudra, e x i s t e n t i a l i t y of the ground, path and goal, Whose innate character i s [ M i n d - i t s e l f ] , To my root-Lama, unity of a l l Buddhas, I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness!336 To the yi-dams and hosts of de i t i e s who bestow the two siddhis, To the dharmapalas, guardians who embody a l l forms of Buddha-activity, To the ocean-l ike assembly of holy attendant d e i t i e s , I pray. Grant me co-emergent awareness!"337 "Don-dam ohos-sku'i gnas-lugs mgon-gzigs shing/ Zag-boas phung-po 'ja'-'od klong-du-thim/ rTog-pa'i mnga'-bdag Norbu Don-kun-grub/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes-stsol." Norbu Don-kun-grub (ca. 1870) was 'Jam-mgon Kong-sprul 's d i s c i p l e and Kalu Rin-po-che's root-Lama. He also taught the present Karma-pa. According to Rin-po-che, when Lama Norbu died, his body d i s -solved into a magnificent rainbow in the sky. 336 "gZhi lam 'bras-bu'i gnas-lugs phyag-rgya-che/ gNyugs-ma'i rang-ngo sprod-mdzad bka'-drin-can/ Sangs-rgyas kun-'dus rtsa-ba'i bla-ma-la/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes-stsol. " 'Phags-lam, 116/1-2. "gNyugs-ma" should be understood as "sems-nyid gnyugs-ma." (LPL) 337 "dNgos-grub gnyis-stsol yi-dam lha-tshogs dang/ Phrin-las kun-bdag ohos-skyong srung-ma'i tshogs/ bKa'-sdod dam-can rgya-mtsho'i tshogs-bcas-la/ gSol-ba 'debs-so lhan-skyes ye-shes stsol." 'Phags-lam, 116/2-3. This verse was wr i t ten by 'Jam-mgon Kong-sprul. 191 [Then r e c i t e ] : "Through the bless ing a r i s i ng from my prayer, May ultimate r e a l i t y , Mahamudra as the ground, be rea l i zed ! D i s t i nc t from samsara, Nirvana, from anything to be removed, i n s t i l l e d , rejected or adopted; D i s t i nc t from " e x i s t s , " from " i n e x i s t s , " from a l l opposites: the ground of everything. May Mahamudra as the path become apparent! In which no thing to be rea l i z ed , no r e a l i z e r , no r ea l i z a t i on i s conceived; In which no thing obscured, no obscuration, no obscuring function i s cast o f f ; In which [ideas of] dest inat ion, t r a v e l l e r and path are u t te r l y transcended. May Mahamudra as the goal become apparent! In which no thing to a t t a i n , no a t ta i ne r , no attainment i s conceived; In which renunciation and acqu i s i t ion are one; the ground and goal inseparable, Which i s d i s t i n c t from things; which partakes in the nature of a l l things."338 [Next, r ec i t e the short prayer to the Mahamudra l ineage]: "De-ltar gsol-ba btab-pa'i byin-rlabs kyis/ 'Khor-'das dngos-kun gsal-bzhag spang-blang dang/ Yod-med-la-sogs kun brat kun gyi gzhi/ gNas-lugs gzhi'i phyag-rgya-che rtogs-shog. rTogs-bya rtogs-byed rtogs-pa ma-dmigs shing/ bsGrib-bya sgrib-byed sgrib-pa spang-med-par/ bGrod-bya bgrod-byed lam-las rab-'das-pa'i/ Lam gyi phyag-rgya-chen-po mngon-gyur-shiog. Thob-bya thob-byed thob-pa ma-dmigs shing/ sPang-thob gnyis-med gzhi 'bras dbyer-med-pa/ dNgos-bral dngos-po kun gyi rang-bzhin-can/ 'Bras-bu'i phyag-rgya-chen-po mngon-gyur-shog." 'Phags-lam, 116/3-6. This concludes the long prayer to the Lamas of the Mahamudra l ineage. 192 "To the great rDo-rje 'Chang, Ti lopa and Naropa, To Marpa, Mi l a and Chos-rje sGam-po-pa, To Karma-pa Dus-gsum shes-bya Kun-mkhyen-pa, To the Lamas of the lineage of the "Great Four" and "Lesser E ight, " Of the 'Br i -khung, sTag-lung, Tshal-pa, glorious 'Brug-pa and others, Lamas of the mNyam-med 'Gro-mgon Dwags-po bKa'-brgyud-pa, Masters of the profound path of Mahamudra, I pray. I have joined the lineage of bKa'-brgyud Lamas. Grant me the bless ing of Liberation!"339 "As revulsion [with samsava] i s ca l l ed the " f e e t " of meditation, Bless th is meditator who i s free of attachment to food and wealth, And has cut o f f longing for the things of th i s l i f e . Bless me with freedom from desire for p r o f i t and esteem. As devotion and reverence are ca l l ed the 'head' of meditation, Bless th i s meditator, who cont inual ly prays To his Lama, who opens the gates of the treasury of in s t ruct ions . Bless me with uncontrived devotion and reverence. As undistractedness i s ca l l ed the s o l i d ground of meditation, Bless th i s meditator, who remains in that uncontrived state In which thoughts are l e f t to ar i se natura l l y , j u s t as they are. Bless me with meditation d i s t i n c t from i n t e l l e c t . "rDo-rje 'Chang-ahen Tito Navo dang/ Mavpa Mila Chos-rje sGam-po-pa/ Dus-gsum shes-bya Kun-mkhyen Kavma-pa/ Che-bzhi chung-bvgyad brgyud-pa-'dzin-vnams dang/ 'Bvi-sTag-Tshal-gsum dpal-ldan 'Bvug-pa sogs/ Zab-lam phyag-rgya-ohe-la rnnga'-bvnyes-pa'i/ mNyam-med ''Gro-mgon Dwags-po bKa'-brgyud-la/ gSol-ba 'debs-so bKa-'brgyud bla-ma-rnams/ brGyud-pa-dzin-no rnam-thar byin-gyis-rlobs." 193 "As d i scurs ive thought i s ca l l ed the very s t u f f of Dharmakaya, Bless th is meditator, f o r whom appearances ar i se in unimpeded play, For whom, though they a r i se , they do not ar i se as " t h i n g s , " 3 4 0 Bless me with r ea l i z a t i on of the non-separateness of samsara and N i r v a n a . " 3 4 ' [Say each of the fo l lowing prayers every time you pract ice the meditat ion]: 6 [ F i r s t r e c i t e ] the "Ma-nam Four" [at least three t imes]: ci-yang. ma-yin cir-yang 'char-ba: "anything which appears i s not any th ing , " i . e . , no t h i n g - i n - i t s e l f , but empty (stong-pa; sunya). The meditator observes samsario appearances (snang-ba) but ascribes no ultimate r e a l i t y to them. (LPL) This l a s t verse i s yet another requeat for the bless ing of co-emergent awareness. 341 "Zhen-log sgom gyi rkang-par gsungs-pa bzhin/ Zas nor kun-la ohags-zhen med-pa dang/ Tshe-'dir gdos thag-chod-pa'i sgom-ohen-la/ rNyed-bkur zhen-pa-med-par-byin-gyis-rlobs. Mos-gus sgom gyi mgo-bor gsungs-pa bzhin/ Man-ngag gter-sgo 'byed-pa'i bla-ma-la/ rGyun-du-gsol-ba 'debs-pa'i sgom-ohen-la' bCos-min mos-gus skye-bar-byin-gyis-rlobs. Yengs-med sgom gyi dngos-gzhir gsungs-pa bzhin/ Gang-shar rtogs-pa'i ngo-bo so-ma de/ Ma boos de kar-'jog-pa'i sgom-ohen-la/ bsGom-bya blo-dang-bral-bar-byin-gyis-rlobs. rNam-rtog ngo-bo chos-skur gsungs-pa bzhin/ Ci-yang ma-yin cir-yang 'char-ba'la/ Ma-'gags rol-par-'char-ba'i sgom-chen-la/ 'Khor-'das dbyer-med-rtogs-par-byin-gyis-rlobs. " 'Phags-lam, 116/8-117/3. This ends the short prayer to the Mahamudra l ineage. The f i r s t l i ne of each verse states a goal; the second and t h i r d l ines state the meditator 's p a r t i a l achievement of that goal in his p rac t i ce ; the l a s t l i ne requests the complete f u l f i lmen t of the goal. 194 " A l l sentient beings, my mothers, numerous as the sky i s vast, pray to the Lama, the Precious Buddha. A l l sentient beings, my mothers, numerous as the sky_ i s vast, pray to the Lama, the all-encompassing Dharmakaya. A l l sentient beings, my mothers, numerous as the sky i s vast, pray to the Lama, the b l i s s f u l Sambhogakaya. A l l sentient beings, my mothers, numerous as_the sky i s vast, pray to the Lama the compassionate Nirmanakaya."34 Recite the u a j r a - l i k e invocation of the Great Lord Dus-gsum mKhyen-pa [one hundred times or more]: "Karma-pa, know me!" Recite th i s s i x - l i n e prayer repeatedly, without al lowing your thoughts to stray: "I pray to the Precious Lama! Bless me with the re ject ion of ego-cl inging. Bless me with ind i f ference [toward objects of des i re ] . Bless me with the cessation of i r r e l i g i o u s J l f t This prayer i s ca l l ed the "Ma-nam For" because each of i t s four l ines begin, "Ma-nam . . . " "Ma nam-mkha'-dang-mnyam-pa'i sems-can thams-cad bla-ma sangs-rgyas rin-po-che-la gsol-ba 'debs-so/ Ma nam-mkha'-dang-mnyam-pa'i sems-can thams-cad bla-ma kun-khyab chos kyi sku-la gsol-ba 'debs-so/ Ma nam-mkha'-dang-mnyam-pa'i sems-can thams-cad bla-ma bde-chen longs - spyod-rdzogs-pa'i sku-la gsol-ba 'debs-so/ Ma nam-mkha'-dang-mnyam-pa'i sems-can thams-cad bla-ma thugs-rje sprul-pa'i sku-la gsol-ba 'debs-so." 'Phags-lam, 117/6-7. 343 "Karma-pa mkhyen-no" ('Phags-lam, 117/7), i . e . , "Karma-pa, see me, see my su f fe r i ng ! " This should be rec i ted while v i s ua l i z i n g or th inking about one or a l l of the Karma-pas. I f you have met him, think of the present Karma-pa. (Lama) 195 thoughts. Bless me with understanding of unborn Mind. Bless me with the spontaneous subsidence of bewilderment. Bless me with the rea l i z a t i on o f _a l l appearances and p o s s i b i l i t i e s as Dharmakaya."344 6-1 Recite the prayer requesting the Four Empowerments: [1] "0 glorious holy Lamas: I pray to You for the Four Empowerments which confer s p i r i t u a l maturity. Bless me with the rapid maturation of the four streams. Bless me with the siddhi of the four kinds of Buddha-activity! [2] As soon as I r e c i t e th i s prayer, The surrounding de i t i e s dissolve into l i g h t , which i s absorbed into the Body of the Pr inc ipa l One, Person i f i cat ion of a l l the Precious Ones combined. My Lama's bodi ly form becomes c lea r ; White l i g h t streams from the place on His Forehead, And i s absorbed into my forehead, removing physical obscurations. I receive the Vase Empowerment, enabling me to pract ice Stage of Production meditation. As a re su l t I become a fortunate perfected one, a Nirmanakaya. This prayer i s to be rec i ted 111,111 times in a l l . A f te r r e c i t i n g i t the desired number of times for a sess ion, proceed to the next step, i . e . , the Four Empowerments. (Lama) "bLa-ma rin-po-che-la gsol-ba 'debs. bDag-'dzin blo-yis-thongs-par-byin-gyis-rlobs/ dGos-med rgyud-la-skye-bar-byin-gyis-rlobs/ Chos-min rnam-tog 'gags-par-byin-gyis-rlobs/ Rang-sems skye-med rtogs-par-byin-gyis-rlobs/ 'Khrul-par-rang-sar-zhi-bar-byin-gyis-rlobs/ sNang-srid chos-skur-rtogs-pav-byin-gyis-rlobs." 'Phags-lam, 117/7-8. The term "bewilderment" Ckhrul-pa) implies fa r more than our common notion of confusion or mis-perception. It denotes also the deluded qua l i t y of our "normal" perception, as when we imagine anything to be a s o l i d , real t h i n g - i n - i t s e l f . 196 [3]"Red l i g h t streams from [my root-Lama's] Throat, And i s absorbed into my throat, removing verbal obscurations. I receive the Secret Empowerment, enabling me to pract ice rTsa-rLung meditation. As a resu l t I become a fortunate perfected one, a Sambhogakaya. [4] Blue l i g h t streams from [my root-Lama's] Heart, And i s absorbed in to my heart, removing mental obscurations. I receive the Prajna Empowerment, enabling me to pract ice sNyom-'jug meditation. As a re su l t , I become a fortunate perfected one, a Dharmakaya. [5] White, red and blue l i g h t streams from the same three places, [on the Lama's Body], And i s absorbed into those three places on my body, removing the impurit ies of those "three gates." I receive the Fourth Empowerment, enabling me to pract ice Mahamudra meditation. As a resu l t I become a fortunate perfected one, a Svabhavikakaya. [6] Then, my Lama dissolves into l i g h t and i s absorbed into me. My own body, speech and mind and the Lama's Vajra-Body, Speech and Mind are inseparable, and of one f l avor . Constantly applying the three [cons iderat ions], I am spontaneously Liberated!"345 We have also placed the ind iv idua l verses of th is prayer before the relevant sections of commentary. [1] "dPal-ldan bla-ma dam-pa khyed-rnams-kyis/ bDag-la smin-byed dbang-bzhi bskur-du-gsol/ rGyud-bzhi myur-du-smin-par-byin-gyis-rlobs/ Phrin-las rnam-bzhi'i dngos-grub stsal-du-gsol. [2] Zhes-pa'i gsol-ba btab-pa'i mod-nyid-la/ 'Khor-rnams 'od-zhu gtso-bo'i sku-la-thim/ gTso-bo dkon-mchog kun-'dus bdag-nyid-la/ rNam-pa bla-ma dngos-su-gsal-gyur-pa'i/ mDzod-pu'i gnas-nas 'od-zer dkar-po 'phros/ 197 [Rec i te] : [1] "0 g lor ious, holy Lamas: I pray to you for the Four Empowerments which confer s p i r i t u a l maturity. Bless me with the rapid maturation of the four streams.346 Bless me with the siddhi of the four types of Buddha-activity.347 Rang gi dpral-bar thim-pas lus-sgrib dag/ Bum-pa'i dbang thob bsKyed-vim-bsgom-la-dbang/ 'Bras-bu sprul-sku-'grub-pa'i skal-ldan gyur. [3] mGrin-pa'i gnas-nas 'od-zer dmar-po 'phros/ Rang gi mgrin-par-thim-pas ngag-sgrib dag/ gSang-ba'i dbang thob rTsa-rLung-bsgom-la dbang/ Longs-spyod-rdzogs-sku-'grub-pa'i skal-ldan gyur. [4] Thugs-ka'i gnas-nas 'od-zer sngon-po 'phros/ Rang gi snying-gar thim-pas yid-sgrib dag/ Sher-dbang thob oing sNyom-'jug-bsgom-la-dbang/ 'Bras-bu ohos-sku-'grub-pa'i skal-ldan gyur. [5] gNas-gsum 'od-zer dkar-dmar-mthing-gsum 'phros/ gEas-gsum-la-thim sgo-gsum dri-ma dag/ bZhi-pa'i dbang thob Phyag-chen-bsgom-la dbang/ Ngo-bo-nyid-sku-'grub-pa'i skal-ldan gyur. [6] De-nas bla-ma 'od-zhu rang-la-thim/ Rang gi lus-ngag-yid-gsum bla-ma yi/ rDo-rje gsum-po dbyer-med ro-goig oing/ Khyer-so-gsum-ldan Ihun-grub rang-grol-lo." 'Phags-lam, 118/1-7. Empowerment (dbang) generally refers to a r i t u a l in which a Lama gives an aspirant the author izat ion and a b i l i t y to employ s pec i f i c Vajrayana pract ices. In th i s Guru-Yoga p rac t i ce , the Four Empowerments (dbang-bzhi) are received during the i nd i v i dua l ' s pr ivate meditation, i n -stead of in a publ ic r i t u a l . No Lama i s phys i ca l l y present. But accord-ing to Kalu Rin-po-che, before the Four Empowerments can be received in meditation, they must have been received in an external r i t u a l . V i r t u a l l y any Vajrayana empowerment r i t u a l contains the basic elements_of these Four. Thus, the receipt of, fo r example, the Avalokitesvara or Tara empowerment enables one to pract ice the Guru-Yoga. According to Kalu Rin-po-che, every empowerment has three aspects: 1. the gzhi or ground: r i t u a l conferral by a Lama; 2. the lam or path: the pract ice of the r i t u a l in pr ivate medi-t a t i on ; 198 [2]"As soon as I rec i te th i s prayer, The surrounding de i t ie s dissolve into l i g h t 248 which is absorbed into the Body of the Pr inc ipa l One, Person i f i cat ion of a l l the Precious Ones combined. My Lama's bodily form becomes c l ea r . " 3. the 'bras-bu or r e su l t : a b i l i t y to pract ice and achieve the aims of the meditation. The immediate re su l t of receiv ing these Four Empowerments i s the a b i l i t y to receive Mahamudra i n s t ruc t i on , the "point ing-out in s t ruct ions " in which the Lama d i r ec t l y demonstrates the nature of mind. The ultimate resu l t i s the r ea l i z a t i on of the nature of mind and achievement of the four Buddba-kayas, as fo l lows: 1. Real iz ing the empty or open (stonq-pa) nature of mind leads to the achievement of the Dharmakaya. 2. Real iz ing the c lear (gsal-ba) nature of mind leads to the achievement of the Sambhogakaya. 3. Real iz ing the unimpeded (ma-'gags-pa) nature of mind leads to the achievement of the Nirmanakaya. 4. Real iz ing the three together leads to the achievement of the Svabhavikakaya. An asp i rant ' s receipt of any empowerment from a Lama establishes a close connection between himself and the Lama, as wel l as between him-s e l f and the yi-dam or other Enlightened being whose meditation he i s being empowered to pract ice. 346 I.e., the four Buddha-fon/as. See n. 138, above. 347 phrin-las rnam-bzhi. According to sDe-gzhung Rin-po-che, these are four types of mastery over one's samsaric s i t u a t i on , equivalent to "worldly siddhi" [thun-mong dngos-grub, see n. 136, above. They need not be accompanied by "supreme siddhi" (mchog gi dngos-grub) or s p i r i t u a l attainment but may appear as by-products of the l a t t e r . They include 1. zhi: pac i f i c a t i on (zhi-ba) of troublesome circumstances, such as i l l -ness, demons or other obstacles; 2. brgyas: expansion (brgyas-pa) o f # one ' s wealth, i n t e l l i g ence , store of merit, l i fespan and other valuable samsaric commodities; 3. dbang: authority and influence over a l l types of beings, and 4. krag: forcefu l (krag-pa) dispersal of distrubances caused by a l l types of samsaric phenomena. logins of former times developed these to an amazing extent— they could f l y through the a i r , and so on--this i s less common today. But these accomplishments are nothing compared to the development of Bodh ic i t ta , the true goal of our pract ice. (Interview, Feb. 20, 1975). 348 I.e., your root-Lama as rDo-rje 'Chang. 199 A f te r you rec i te [verse 1], the de i t ies surrounding [the Lamas of the l ineage] dissolve into l i g h t . This l i g h t i s absorbed into the Lamas of the lineage. The Lamas of the lineage gradually melt into one another, dissolve into l i g h t , and then into the form of your root-Lama. [Now r e c i t e ] : [2] "White l i g h t streams from the place on his Fo rehead, 3 4 9 And i s absorbed into my forehead, removing physical obscurations. I receive the Vase Empowerment, enabling me to pract ice Stage of Production meditation. As a r e su l t , I_become a fortunate one, a Nirmanakaya." Then, from the Forehead of [your root-Lama], who i s essen-t i a l l y a l l the Precious Ones combined, white l i g h t radiates. I t 3 i s absorbed into the place between your eyebrows. I t removes your physical obscurations, such as the taking of l i f e or other [physical misdeeds you committed in the past]. You have now received the 350 Vase Empowerment. You are now able to begin Stage of Produc-351 t ion meditation. As a r e su l t , you become a fortunate one, a Ni rmanakaya. 41a. 1 349 mdzod-pu'i gnas; urna: located ha l f way between the eyebrows. Sometimes referred to as the " t h i r d eye" or "eye of prajna." By pur i fy ing and re f in ing the i nd i v i dua l , the Vase Empower-ment enables him to v i s ua l i ze the pure forms of yi-dams, and so on, in Stage of Production meditation. 351 bsKyed-rim: conceptual (dmigs-boas) phase of meditation, which, in the Vajrayana, i s followed by a nonconceptual (dmigs-med) phase, the 200 [Rec i te] : [3] "Red l i g h t streams from [my root-Lama's] Throat, And i s absorbed into my throat, removing verbal obscurations. I receive the Secret Empowerment, enabling me to pract ice rTsa-rLung meditation. As a re su l t , I become a fortunate one, a Sambhogakaya." 4 In the same way [as before], from the Lama's throat, red l i g h t radiates. I t dissolves into your own throat, removing verbal Stage of Perfect ion (vDzogs-vim). See Guenther's Naropa, pp. 138-141. In the Stage of Production, the meditator v i sua l i zes the pure form of a yi-dam or other symbol of Enlightenment, stage by stage, s i tuated in the sky, on his own head, in his heart, or elsewhere. A f te r thus estab l i sh ing the yi-dam's presence, the meditator v i sua l i zes him " i n ac t i on , " e.g., pur i f y ing ( l i k e rDo-rje Sems-dpa'), rescuing ( l i k e Drol-ma; Tara), bestowing compassionate blessings ( l i k e sPyan-ras-gzigs; Avalokitesvara) and so on. The imagery of rays of l i g h t streaming from the yi-dam to the meditator i s extensively employed in th i s stage. See Beyer, op. c i t . , pp. 100-27. In the Stage of Per fect ion, the pract ice and, hopeful ly, the meditator are "perfected" (rdzogs-pa). The pract ice i s "perfected" in the sense that the yi-dam which has been produced i s now dissolved " i n t o emptiness," and the pract ice has progressed from conceptual to non-conceptual meditation. The meditator i s "perfected" as he lets his mind rest na tu ra l l y , in a non-conceptual s ta te , a b r i e f experience of emptiness. I f he can retain th i s state of mind, his ordinary mental a c t i v i t y actua l ly becomes Enlightened Awareness, inseparable from emptiness. Even his ordinary body becomes the radiant Sambhogakaya, and he can be t ru l y he lp fu l , com-passionate and so on, l i k e the yi-dams. See Beyer, pp. 127-43. According to Kalu Rin-po-che, in the Stage of Production we es-tab l i sh wholesome thought-patterns by subst i tut ing pure, wholesome appearances and concepts for random or unwholesome ones. Since we our-selves have "produced" the v i s u a l i z a t i o n , we do not mistake i t for something substant ial or u l t imately r ea l . [We try to reta in th i s view during a l l our encounters with samsara's appearances]. In the Stage of Perfect ion we dissolve th i s v i sua l i za t i on into nothing. This can lead d i r e c t l y to r ea l i z a t i on of emptiness and Mahamudra. (Publ ic lecture, Vancouver, Feb. 19, 1975). 201 obscurations such as l i e s [you have to ld in the past]. You have now received the Secret Empowerment. You are now able to pract ice 352 5 rTsa-rLung meditation. Thus, you are a fortunate one, a Sambhogakaya. [4] "Blue l i g h t streams from [my root-Lama's] Heart, And i s absorbed into my heart, removing mental obscurations. I receive the Prajna Empowerment, enabling me to pract ice sNyom-'jug meditation. As a r e s u l t , I become a fortunate one, a Dharmakaya." From His Heart, blue l i g h t radiates, and i s absorbed into your own heart. I t removes your mental obscurations, such as per-verted views. You have now received the Empowerment of Insight 353 and Transcending Awareness. You are now able to pract ice 354 sNyom- jug meditation, by which you. become a fortunate one, a Dharmakaya. 352 rTsa-rLung meditation i s a yogio pract ice employing v i s u a l -i z a t i o n , which aims at mastery of the "pathways" (rtsa; nodi) , the st ructur ing of our psycho-organism, and of i t s " m o t i l i t y " '(rlung; vayu) or capab i l i t y of motion. See H.V. Guenther, Naropa, op. c i t . , p. 46; 158-74; 270-2. shes-rab ye-shes; prajna-jnana. 354 Kalu Rin-po-che has explained sNyom-'jug ("blending of equals") meditation as fo l lows: "To t r u l y receive empowerment to meditate on the blending of equals means that one i s authorized and able to completely control the rtsa, rlung and thig-le, and pract ice yab-yum meditation. The l a t t e r may involve meditating on two yi-dams such as 'Khor- lo bDe-mchog (symbolizing s k i l l f u l means or compassion) and rDo-rje Phag-mo (symbolizing ins ight or openness) in yab-yum (sexual union). A l t e r -nat i ve l y , i t may involve meditating on a s ing le deity such as 'Khor- lo 202 [Rec i te] : (5) "White, red and blue l i g h t streams from the [same] three places [on my Lama's Body], And i s absorbed into those three places on my body, removing the impurit ies of the "three gates." I receive the Fourth Empowerment, enabling me to pract ice Mahamudra meditation. As a resu l t^ I become a fortunate one, a Svabhavikakaya." 6 From the three places [on the Lama's Body], white, red and blue l i g h t radiates, and i s absorbed into your forehead, throat and heart. Your mental, emotional, and snyom-'jug obscura-355 356 tions which comprise the obscurations of the "three gates," 41b. 1 are removed. You have received the Fourth Empowerment. You are - 357 able to pract ice Mahamudra, the meditation of the non-separateness bDe-mchog. In that case, one would imagine the union of the clear (gsal-ba) aspect of the yi-dam's Mind, representing s k i l l f u l means, with i t s open (stong-pa) aspect, representing i n s i gh t . " ( Interview, Nov. 4, 1974). The results of th i s pract ice include the experience of the b l i s s (mahasukha) of Transcending Awareness (ye-shes), culminating in f u l l Enlightenment, Dharmakaya. H.V. Guenther, quoting sGam-po-pa and Padma dKar-po, explains sNyom-'jug meditation as that which involves sexual union with a karmamudra, or actual woman, through which the same results as described above are achieved. See his Naropa, op. c i t . , pp. 269-70. 355 Mental obscurations (shes-grib): various forms of bewilder-ment. Emotional obscurations (nyon-sgrib): ef fects of the c o n f l i c t i n g emotions (nyon-mongs; klesa). "sNyom-'jug" obscurations: e f fect s of c l ing ing to the b l i s s f u l , t ranqui l experience of samadhi. They obscure the ultimate goal — the Liberat ion of a l l beings—and resu l t in reb i r th as a god. Arhats, who perfect samadhi, are considered by Mahayanists to be especial ly_suscep-t i b l e to th i s type of obscuration, which entraps them in the "Hinayana" a t t i tude . 356 sgo-gsum: body, speech and mind. ' Mahamudra (Phyag-rgya-chen-po) i s the highest goal and pract ice of the bKa'-brgyud sect. Phi 1 i soph ica l ly based in the menta l i s t i c Yogacara 203 358 of awareness and emptiness. This makes you a fortunate one, a Svabhavikakaya. [Rec i te] : [6] "Then, my Lama dissolves into l i g h t , and i s absorbed into me. My own body, speech and mind and the Lama1s Vajra-Body, Speech and Mind are non-separate, and of one f l avor . 359 Constantly applying the three [cons iderat ions], I am spontaneously L iberated! " Once more, delighted by your fervent devotion and reverence, your Lama, smi l ing chee r fu l l y , dissolves in to l i g h t . This l i g h t enters through the crown of your head, and i s absorbed into your heart-region. Think that your Lama's Mind and your own mind have become inseparable, and l e t your mind re s t , unobstructed by con-ceptua l i za t i on , j u s t as i t i s in i t s natural s tate, fo r as long as system, i t or ig inated in India but was most f u l l y developed i n Tibet by such masters of_theory and pract ice as sGam-po-pa and the other Lamas in the Mahamudra_lineage named in the long prayer, above. Mahamudra meditation i s the top ic dealt with in the l a s t ten pages of our tex t , which have not been trans lated. The theoret ica l basis of Mahamudra i s explained by Guenther in Ndropa, I b i d . , pp. 222-35. 358 Mispr int: "rigs-stong dbyer-med" should be "rig-stong dbyer-med. " 359 "Constantly applying the three [considerat ions] " (khyer-so gsum-Idan) here means always considering a l l forms to be that of the Lama as rDo-rje 'Chang, a l l sounds to be his Speech and a l l mental a c t i v i t y to be his Enlightened Awareness. At th is point, i f you have great f a i t h in him, you w i l l v i sua l i ze your own Lama's form d i s so lv ing into l i g h t . Otherwise, you w i l l v i sua l i ze your Lama as rDo-rje 'Chang d i s so lv ing into l i g h t . (Lama) 204 you can. Think: As a resu l t of th i s p ract i ce , a l l appearances, as soon as they a r i se , change into the form of the Lama's Body. A l l sounds are His Speech, which i s empty of any sound-of- i t s -qcri own. A l l thoughts which occur, and dart to and f r o , are but OC 1 the spontaneous manifestation of His Vajra-Awareness. Share the merit [with this prayer]: "Once I have quick ly achieved Mahamudra, May every s ing le sentient being Be placed in that same state By v i r tue of my p rac t i ce . " How to keep up the pract ice between meditation sessions Even between meditation sessions, when you are walking, imagine yourse l f to be circumambulating the Lama, who i s seated on a lotus and moon in the right-hand quarter of the sky. When you are eating and dr ink ing, imagine yourse l f to be of fe r ing your food and drink—which has melted into amrta—to the Lama, who s i t s in a red lotus located at your throat. Meditate that a l l your speech i s prayer, that a l l your a c t i v i t i e s , even walking or s i t t i n g , const i tute service to the Lama. Try to f a l l asleep while meditating that l i g h t rad iat ing 362 from [the form of] your Lama, seated--the s i ze of your f inger 360 — sgra-ru grags-tshad gsung grags-stong nadi rang-sgra. 361 . 7 rang-rtsal. mtshon-gong-pa: distance between your thumb's knuckle and i t s t i p . (Lama) 205 at your heart, f i l l s your body and your room with l i g h t . 42a. 1 When you wake up, imagine that the Lama i s seated on the crown of your head, and pray to him with f a i t h and reverence. Do this whenever you are s i t t i n g . 2 As soon as you f i n i s h bu i ld ing a new house, making new clothes and so on, o f fe r them to the Lama e i ther actua l ly or mentally. When you are i l l , imagine that amrta flows down from the t iny Body of the Lama seated at your heart and clears away 3 the disease. Happily meditate that a l l methods of curing i l l n e s s , bad deeds and obscurations have sprung from the Lama's bless ing. qc q Even when a demonic apparit ion appears, imagine i t 4 to be the play of the Lama's Buddha-activity, urging you on t o -ward wholesome conduct. In short, imagine a l l pleasant experiences to be the Lama's b less ing. Meditate that a l l painful experiences are the Lama's Compassion. I t i s essent ia l that you make use [of these 3 6 3 gdon gi cho-'phrul. 3 6 4 I t i s not possible to en t i r e l y avoid experiencing the pain-fu l e f fects of our previous acts. But the Lama can intervene so that we experience them in the present l i f e when, because we are human, and have contact with the Dharma and with the Lama himself, we are fa r better able to cope with them than we would be i f they were allowed to mature slowly and we had to face them as an animal or other lower being. This i l l u s t r a t e s the difference between the nature of su f fer ing in the lower and the upper realms. (LPL) 206 5 experiences] to enhance your devotion and reverence, and do not 365 look elsewhere for a remedy [ for su f fe r ing ] . Commentary Importance of receiv ing the Lama's bless ing Now, understand the fo l lowing: In general, in order to pursue the Mantrayana or Vajrayana, 366 espec ia l l y to receive inst ruct ions for Stage of Perfect ion 6 meditation, you must f i r s t receive the Lama's b less ing. Unt i l you have received i t , the true path w i l l not be yours. On the other hand, i t i s said that a d i s c i p l e who i s i n -tensely devoted and reverent toward a f u l l y q u a l i f i e d Vajrayana 368 master with whom he has formed a sacred bond w i l l achieve 42b. 3 6 9 1 supreme and worldly siddhi without doing anything more. But a person who lacks devotion and reverence for the Lama—even i f he rec i tes a great many mantras of the yi-dams 365 I.e., when you are prac t i c ing the Guru-Yoga, i t i s best to focus a l l your re l i g ious pract ice on the Lama. (LPL) 3 ^ rdzogs-rim. See n. 351, above. lam gsha-ma: archaic term for lam yang-dag-pa, the true or wholly correct path. (LPL) 368 A Vajrayana master (rdo-rje slob-dpon) i s a Lama who has re-ceived empowerment, studied, achieved some rea l i z a t i on and i s capable of teaching the Vajrayana. 369 mo hog thun mong gi dngos-grub. See n. 136 and n. 347, above. 207 370 of the four tantras, and pract ices t he i r meditations - - w i l l obtain no supreme siddhi whatsoever. As for worldly siddhi, even though he may s t r i v e very hard to achieve long l i f e , wealth, influence and so on, he w i l l not succeed in obtaining any of these. Any [worldly] success he does manage to achieve w i l l have been won through great hardship. 371 This i s the "non-profound path." On the other hand, i f he develops true devotion and reverence, any obstacles in the path w i l l be c leared, uprooted and expel led, and he w i l l obtain supreme and worldly siddhi w i th -out re ly ing on other [methods]. For th i s reason we c a l l i t the "profound path of the Guru-Yoga." Pos i t i ve and negative qua l i t i e s of a master and d i s c i p l e A master or d i s c i p l e who has such serious defects as lacking compassion, being ea s i l y angered, being mal ic ious, s p i t e -fu l or proud; very attached to his money, property, re la t i ve s and so on; undisc ip l ined in words or deeds or f u l l of s e l f - p r a i s e , should be rejected. J / u yi-dam rgyud-sde bzhi'i bsnyen-grub tshad-du-'khyol. "bsNyen-grub": r e c i t a t i on of a yi-dam's mantra and pract ice of the r i t u a l s concerned with that yi-dam. The performance of large numbers of bsnyen-grub pract ices i s an achievement highly esteemed in the Tibetan t r a d i t i o n . bsNyen-grub i s considered a pa r t i c u l a r l y e f f ec t i ve type of wholesome conduct. (Lama) 371 lam mi-zab-pa: opposite of the "profound path of the Guru-Yoga" explained in th is chapter, which results in the spontaneous achievement of both kinds of siddhi. 208 5 In pa r t i c u l a r , you should absolutely avoid [a master who commits the fol lowing misdeeds], since such a master can only bestow the "b less ing " of Mara: 1. Explaining or demonstrating rTsa-rLung or Mahamudra 6 meditation, pract ices which employ mantras or the essent ia ls of the profound Stage of Perfect ion to a crowd of common f o l k ; 2. Spreading inst ruct ions in the profound philosophy and pract ice of the Mantrayana i n the marketplace; 43a. 1 3. [Boasting that he possesses i n s t ruc t i ons ] not possessed by others; 4. Behaving in an undisc ip l ined manner; 372 5. Verbal iz ing the ultimate phi losophical perspect ive; 2 6. Greatly coveting money and property belonging to the Precious Ones; 7. Being highly dece i t fu l and h y p o c r i t i c a l ; 8. Giving empowerments and inst ruct ions [ for pract ices ] which have not been transmitted to him personal ly; 9. Indulging in the pleasures of l i quor and sex; 10. Teaching a doctrine which con f l i c t s with Dharma in words of his own invent ion, because he does not know 3 how to teach the true path. 372 Since i t i s not subject to ve rba l i za t i on , doing so only dis-torts i t s meaning. 209 [A master should] avoid forming a close re lat ionsh ip with a d i s c i p l e who lacks f a i t h , does not keep his sacred commitments, f l a t t e r s new acquaintances, i s very re s t l e s s , and so on, unless the d i s c i p l e gradually improves. The character i s t i c s of a Lama are discussed at length in the sutras and tantras. [But b r i e f l y , a Lama] should not have allowed his f a i t h and sacred commitments to deter io rate; should 373 have pract iced so much bsnyen-grub that he knows the practices 374 375 w e l l , should care l i t t l e fo r the eight worldly dharmas, and should have personally pract iced any teachings he explains to others. A d i s c i p l e should have f a i t h , be capable of keeping sacred commitments, and always avoid harmful companions. The Lama-disciple re lat ionsh ip Before you have requested Dharma in s t ruc t ion or empower-ment from a master, i t i s permissible fo r you to s c ru t i n i ze his q u a l i t i e s . But once you have received [any in s t ruc t i on or empower-ment] from h i m , 3 7 6 even i f he abounds in the four immoral a c t s , 3 7 7 3 7 3 See n. 370, above. 3 7 4 M i spr int : "mi-gzhan-pa" should be "mi-gzhen-pa." 3 7 5 chos-brgyad.- See n. 100, above. 3 7 6 M i spr int : "gang-du-yin" should be "gong-du-yin." 3 7 7 pham-pa bzhi: k i l l i n g , s t ea l i n g , l y ing and sexual misconduct. 210 you may not turn your f a i t h away from him, slander him, s c ru t i n i ze 43b. 1 his q u a l i t i e s , or do anything but t reat him as one worthy of devotion and reverence. I t i s sa id: "Once you have l i s tened to a s ingle b r i e f discourse, I f you have no respect fo r the Lama You w i l l be reborn as a dog one hundred times, And a f te r that, as a butcher!" Finding a Lama who has r i d himself of a l l defects and perfected the pos i t i ve qua l i t i e s i s not simply a matter of time. Even i f i t were possible to come upon such a Lama in every l i f e -time, without pure v i s ion you might mistake his pos i t i ve qua l i t i e s 378 for f a u l t s , j u s t as Devadatta saw fau l t s in the Bhagavan. Since most people of today are "well-endowed" in nothing except bad deeds, we often see pos i t i ve qua l i t i e s as f a u l t s , and fau l t s as pos i t i ve q u a l i t i e s ! Since we often see a man who has 379 no re l i g ious qua l i t i e s—h idden or overt—as a Worthy One, i t i s d i f f i c u l t fo r us to r ea l l y know a man's qua l i t i e s by examination! 378 Devadatta, the Buddha's jealous cousin i s the v i l l a i n in the t r ad i t i ona l accounts of Sakyamuni's l i f e . Said to be a leader of a r i v a l re l i g ious group, Devadatta did not admit the Buddha's s p i r i t u a l supremacy. His overt crimes included d iv id ing the Samgha and p lo t t i ng to k i l l the Buddha. See Simone B. Boas' t rans lat ion of A. Foucher's Life of the Buddha. Conn.: Wesleyan Univ. Press, 1963, pp. 212-14. 379 skyes-bu dam-pa; satpurusa. According to Edgerton, th i s denotes." . . . a kind of lay equivalent of the Bodhisattvas," of which V imalak i r t i i s an example. [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, Vol. I I, p. 554). 211 380 5 Just as the shape of a tsha-tsha i s determined by the mould from which i t was made, a Lama--part icular ly a Mahamudra teacher--who has achieved no rea l i z a t i on i s incapable of bringing 381 his d i s c i p l e to the pinnacle of r e a l i z a t i o n . [ I f your own root-Lama has achieved no r e a l i z a t i o n ] , a f te r receiv ing from him the 382 6 transmission of the lineage of mNyam-med Dwags-po, Lord Dus-gsum mKhyen-pa, Zhang t sha l -pa, rGod-tshang-pa or another [Mahamudra master], think of your root-Lama as [the master] in whom you have the greatest f a i t h , and pray to him. I f you do t h i s , you w i l l receive the bless ing. This has been promised! 44a. 1 Since Buddha prophesied that the great mNyam-med Dwags-po would spread the Mahamudra teachings, i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important for one who i s interested in p rac t i c i ng Mahamudra to place his 2 f a i t h in rJe-btsun sGam-po-pa. Furthermore, he should meditate 383 on the non-separateness of [sGam-po-pa] and his own root-Lama. 3 8 0 See n. 149, above. 381 rtogs-pa mthar-thug-pa. A Lama who has not achieved any r e a l -i za t i on can help a d i s c i p l e achieve some degree of r e a l i z a t i o n , but not complete r e a l i z a t i o n . 38? lung. Ceremony by means of which a Lama who has himself re-ceived i t , gives another person author ity to read, study and pract ice the teachings put forth i n a pa r t i cu l a r text . I t consists of the Lama read-ing the text aloud very rapidly while the rec ip ient l i s t en s . In most cases the reading i s too rapid to be comprehensible. This ceremony may or may not be followed by a verbal explanation of the t e x t ' s contents. The lung ceremony may be a re-creat ion of the process of oral transmission of Buddha's words, which was the common pract ice before the Scriptures were wr i t ten down. (LPL) Seen th i s way, lung i s a re-authen-t i c a t i on of a pa r t i cu l a r text as Scr ipture, the words of Buddha. 383 I.e., think of your root-Lama who has, in f a c t , received the transmission of the Mahamudra lineage as e s sen t i a l l y the same as sGam-po-pa or any other Lama of that lineage. (LPL) 212 I f he regards his root-Lama as one who has received the 384 bless ing of the lineage as from father to son, he w i l l f ind 385 i t unnecessary to s c ru t i n i ze his Lama's [ q u a l i t i e s ] . [Such scrut iny] i s unnecessary even with respect to oral 3 t rad i t ions other than [the Mahamudra]. Since a l l those Lamas of the past were Great Ones who received the transmission and passed on the i r r e a l i z a t i o n — t h e i r ultimate Awareness--to one another, they a l l have the capacity to bless others. 4 Even i f you do not hear the Dharma d i r e c t l y from a Lama who i s as famous as those " fathers and sons," i f you take as your root-Lama any Lama who has achieved r e a l i z a t i o n , you w i l l receive the bless ing. Thinking of the Lama as the Buddha In a c t ua l i t y , your Lama may be an ordinary being or mani-5 festat ion of a Buddha or Bodhisattva. But i f you can pray to him while meditating that he i s the Buddha, a l l the Buddhas, 6 Bodhisattvas, and yi-dams w i l l enter the Body, Speech and Mind of your Vajrayana master and work for the benef i t of a l l beings. ~ 386 According to the Mukhagama of Manjusri: j o 1 + I.e., sGam-po-pa. 385 I.e., his root-Lama w i l l have the pos i t i ve qua l i t i e s of a l l the Lamas of the Mahamudra l ineage, as described in the long prayer above. 386 'Byams-dpal zhal-lung: an Indian text l i s t e d in the bsTan-'gyuv, rGyud- 'g re l , 2717, as Zhal gyi lung, by Sangs-rgyas Ye-shes (Buddha-jnanapada). According to_sDe-gzhung Rin-po-che 7Sangs-rgyas Ye-shes pract iced so much Manjusri meditation that Manjusri appeared to him in a v i s ion and gave him th is text. 213 "Any sentient being who has contempt for 44b. a future rDo-rje 'Chang 1 Has contempt fo r me; hence, I abandon him forever. " And further: " I t i s I who dwell in [the Lama's] body, I who receive offer ings from aspirants. They please me; hence, the i r karmio obscurations are removed!"387 2 Thus, when you please your root-Lama, you please a l l the Buddhas. When you act harmfully toward him, i t i s j u s t as i f you had done so toward a l l the Buddhas. When you present o f f e r -3 ings to him, you acquire the merit of presenting offer ings to a l l the Buddhas, and your obscurations are removed. In many sutras and sastras i t i s sa id that our attainment 4 of siddhi i s en t i r e l y dependent on the Lama, and that immeasurable benefit w i l l re su l t from our devotion, reverence and presentation of offer ings to him. In the tantras i t i s sa id : "A hundred thousand v i sua l i za t ions of a de i t y ' s Body, performed a hundred thousand times, Are no match for one unwavering v i s ua l i z a t i on of the Lama's Body. A hundred b i l l i o n bsnyen-grub p ract ices , performed a hundred thousand times, Are nowhere near as powerful as a prayer to the 3 8 7 In both verses, rDo-rje 'Chang i s the speaker. "Future rDo-rje 'Chang" refers to the Lama. 214 5 Lama, s incere ly offered t h r i ce . One who does a kaZ-pa-worth of Stage of Perfect ion meditation, and does th i s twenty thousand times, Is no match for one with in whose mind 6 the Lama but appears." _ 388 From the Pradipodyotana: 45a. 1 "Oh, Son of good fami ly, the merit acquired by [wor-shipping] one pore on the master's body i s greater than the heap of merit [acquired by worshipping] the Vajra-Body, Speech and Mind of a l l the Buddha Bhagavans i n the ten d i rect ions . 2 I f you ask, 'Why i s th i s so?' Oh Son of good fami ly, the Enlightened Att i tude [possessed by the master] i s the very core of the Transcending Awareness of [ a l l ] Buddhas!" 3 Generally speaking, there i s no dif ference between [your re lat ionsh ip with] a Lama who has heard the sutras of the Hinayana and Mahayana and one who has received the transmission and p r a c t i -cal inst ruct ions in the tantras of the Mantrayana. The only difference i s that your re lat ionsh ip with the l a t t e r i s of greater 389 consequence than your re lat ionsh ip with the former. sGron-ma gsal-ba. bsTan-'gyur, rGyud- ' g re l , 2650. Indian text by Candrak i r t i , dealing with the Guhya-samaja-tantra. 389 yul-gnyan mi-gnyan gyi khyud-par oung-zad. "Yul-gnyan\_-po" \ commonly denotes a person in a high pos i t ion who i s extremely sens i t i ve and eas i l y i n su l ted, and with whom one must be extremely diplomatic. In th i s context, i t refers to the s p i r i t u a l V.I.P., the Vajrayana Lama. Anything one does in one's re lat ionsh ip with him w i l l have great conse-quences, whether good or bad. One's acts in a re la t ionsh ip with a Hinayana or Mahayana Lama, are not as consequential, hence, he i s here ca l l ed a "yul mi-gnyan." (LPL) 215 Whether a Lama i s said to be the object of your commission 390 of the f i r s t transgression or not, and whether the sacred bond 4 between you i s said to be broken or not, depends on you. I t does 391 not simply depend on whether the Lama i s or i s not your root-Lama. As soon as you ask a Lama for Mantrayana empowerment, a re l i g ious connection ex i s t s between you. True Lamas are those against whom you must not commit the f i r s t transgression. Hence, 5 as soon as you ask a Lama for any Sutra- or Mantrayana teaching, your avoidance of bad conduct becomes very important. rtsa-ltung dang-po. F i r s t of fourteen "bas ic transgressions" of the Vajrayana. Commission of any of these resu lts in the destruction of the sacred bond (dam-tshig) you have establ ished with your Vajrayana Lama. Here i s the l i s t : 1. slandering or b e l i t t i n g your Lama 2. transgressing the Buddha's precepts 3. gett ing angry at your co-Vajrayanists 4. abandoning benevolence 5. abandoning the Enlightened Att i tude 6. disparaging the tenets of other sects 7. pub l i c i z i ng secret teachings 8. having contempt for your essent ia l [Buddha-nature] 9. slandering emptiness 10. befriending bad people 11. not contemplating emptiness 12. arguing with others 13. neglecting your sacred commitments 14. slandering women, who are the source of in s i ght . (adapted from Beyer, The Cult of Tdvd, p. 405.) Only the f i r s t i s discussed in our text. There are also eight "gross transgressions." See Beyer, p. 405. 391 Mispr int: "bla-ma rtsa-ba'i bla-ma . . . " should be "bla-ma ni rtsa-ba'i bla-ma . . . " (LPL) 216 Even though the Lamas of the lineage are not your root-Lamas and there i s no re l i g ious connection between you, they too must never be the objects of a transgression, whether slander or 6 another one. In general, do not sc ru t in i ze the fau l t s of sent ient beings. Knowing that they are your mothers, meditate with grat itude, benevolence and compassion. In pa r t i c u l a r , do not sc ru t in i ze the fau l t s of those who have entered the Dharma's door. Knowing that you are a l l " i n the 4 5 b ' 392 1 same boat," concentrate on the i r pos i t i ve qua l i t i e s and cu l t i v a te sympathetic joy, devotion and reverence for them. From the Arya-Sraddhabaladhdnavataramudra-sutra: " I t i s a much worse offence to slander a s ing le 2 Bodhisattva,394 than to steal a l l the possessions of a l l the sentient beings i n th i s t r i c h i l i o co sm, and destroy a l l the stupas. 3 One who b e l i t t l e s and c r i t i c i z e s a Bodhisattva, regardless of the circumstances, w i l l be born in the Howling Hell395 with a body f i ve hundred yojanas high, with f i ve hundred heads, and f i ve hundred ploughs ploughing into each of his tongues!" 392 gru cig gi mi dang-'dra-ba. Everyone who has begun to pract ice Dharma has boarded the "boat" which leads to Enlightenment. A fee l i ng of love and mutual support in the face of a l l experiences w i l l help ensure a successful voyage. (Lama) 393 'Phags-pa dad-pa'i stobs-skyed-pa-la-'jug-pa phyag-rgya'i mdo. bKa'-'gyur, mDo, 867. 394 I.e., a Lama. 395 Ngu-'bod; Raurava: one of the eight hot h e l l s , whose name re f l ec t s the cr ies of pain of i t s inhabitants. 217 Thus, in general, i t i s an inca lcu lab ly great offence to slander Worthy Ones; in pa r t i c u l a r , Bodhisattvas; but most of a l l , very s i g n i f i c an t persons such as adepts of the Mantrayana. Furthermore, we do not know who may be a Worthy One or a re l i g ious adept. I t i s said that only a Perfect Buddha can 396 accurately perceive the s p i r i t u a l capacit ies of other i nd iv idua l s . Thus, when you hurl abuse at anybody, your own pos i t i ve qua l i t i e s are swept away. Sc ru t i n i z i ng the fau l t s of others i s a contr ibut ing factor to your own ru in. Thus, i t i s c ruc i a l that you recognize any f a u l t to be yours alone. Those who have no f a i t h in the Lama, even in his presence, and who do not regard those who pract ice r e l i g i on as pure, w i l l i nev i tab ly encounter what they least des i re: Others w i l l see them as enemies; they w i l l die i n unpleasant circumstances; they w i l l su f fer unfavorable death-omens; they w i l l become targets of abuse for everyone. Those who reverently re ly on the Lama and regard a l l others as pure w i l l e f f o r t l e s s l y gain happiness and renown. They, w i l l be considered praiseworthy by a l l . They w i l l die in pleasant circumstances, see and hear auspicious death-omens, and so on. From the sayings of the Great bKa 1-brgyud-pas: gang-zag gi tshad: "measure of the i nd i v i dua l . " 218 " I f you see your Lama as a Buddha you w i l l receive a Buddha's bless ing. If you see him as a Bodhisattva, you w i l l receive a Bodhisattva 1s b less ing. I f you see him as a siddha you w i l l receive a siddha's b less ing. I f you see him as an ordinary person--a good Sp i r i t u a l F r i e n d -such i s the bless ing you w i l l receive. I f you feel no devotion or reverence for him, you w i l l receive absolutely no b less ing. " No one but the root-Lama i s as great as the Buddha. He i s the unity of a l l the Precious Ones in the ten d i rect ions and three times. A l l the l im i t l e s s pos i t i ve qua l i t i e s of the Precious Ones 397 are the creat ive manifestations of the root-Lama. Further-more, everyone, everywhere who works for the welfare of sent ient beings, as wel l as the sun, moon, e l i x i r s , medicines, boats and b r i d ge s—a l l these are the Lama's creat ive manifestations! Four thoughts to be i n s t i l l e d 1. Think of anyone who has given you empowerments, transmissions, i n s t ruc t i on s , and even reading s k i l l s , as the root-Lama, and simply resolve that he is a Buddha. 2. Think: The Buddhas, yi-dams, and Great bKa'-brgyud-pa Lamas are wonderful indeed. But we have not been taught by them d i r e c t l y ; we have not heard them speak. Even those we may have met have done nothing which exceeds the Lama's accomplishments. Countless Buddhas of the past have entered Nirvana; countless Buddhas of the present reside in the ten d i rect ions . Innumerable rnam-par rol-pa. 219 Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, Lamas and yi-dams e x i s t . But we have not 4 been fortunate enough to have met a s ingle one of them, even in a dream! But our own root-Lama teaches us the complete, unerring way to achieve Buddhahood in one body, one l i f e t i m e ! Surely, 398 though we died t r y i ng , we could not possibly repay his kindness! 5 3. Think: When the Lama takes an in te res t in us, and gives us re l i g ious teachings and g i f t s , we think about him. When he i s f a r away, we forget about him. When we are subject to i l l n e s s and unpleasant events, we think about him. We do not think about him when we are happy. This i s no way to behave! While you are moving, walking, s leeping, s i t t i n g , whether 6 you are happy or miserable, continuously think about nothing but the Lama. 4. Think: Even i f we do think about the Lama once a day while r e c i t i n g the Vow of Refuge or our morning prayers, [ a l l we are concerned with i s ] counting how many prayers we have sa id . 47a. 1 This i s no way to behave! [Pray] with your ha i r standing on end, tears of great yearning streaming down your face, and true aware-399 ness w i l l soon a r i se . Ordinary appearances w i l l cease. The force of great yearning can stop random thoughts.When these 2 have been suppressed, you w i l l receive the [Lamas'] b less ing. srog rdul-du-brlag-kyang: "even though l i f e i s ground to dust." 399 L • rtg-pa. 400 nyams-gtad-med-pa. 220 Then, you w i l l t r u l y possess devotion and reverence which can br ing about sudden r ea l i z a t i o n . The key to the rapid receipt of bless ing i s meditation on the Lama as the Buddha. Moreover, i f you are p rac t i c ing Mahamudra 401 meditation, think of the Lama as the unadorned Dharmakaya. I f - - 402 you want a long l i f e , think of him as Amitayus or white Tara. 403 I f you wish to cure a disease, think of him as Bhaisajyaguru. [Meditation on the Lama as the Buddha] i s the cure for any mis-fortune! The Lama i s known as the "Lord of the Mandala" because he i s regarded as inseparable from the P r inc ipa l One of the mandalas 404 of a l l the tantras. 401 chos-sku rjen-pa. Because i t i s t o t a l l y beyond samsara, the Dharmakaya cannot be characterized in terms drawm from samsara. Icono-graphic depictions of the Dharmakaya lack the ornaments, r i ch c lo th ing , and so on which represent the qua l i t i e s of the Sambhoga- and Nirmanakaya. Thus, the Dharmakaya i s "naked" (rjen-pa). 402 Numerous r i t u a l s f o r prolonging l i f e center around the Buddha Amitayus and the yi-dam Tara. See Stephan Beyer, The Cult of Tara, pp. 363-398. 403 sMan-bla: the "Medicine Buddha," evoked in many r i t u a l s of heal ing. In th i s sect ion, the author i s urging us to see the Lama as the Buddha, and to choose from the many Buddha-symbols the one to which we can best re la te . S p i r i t u a l l y advanced persons w i l l be able to think of the Lama as the Dharmakaya; those concerned pr imar i ly with achieving long l i f e , and other samsario goals w i l l think of him as the relevant Buddha-symbol . 404 The Lama i s ca l l ed "Lord of the Mandala: (dkyil-'khor 'khor-lo'i mgon-po) because, 1. the Lama leads his d i s c i p l e through the mandala (dkyil-'khor) pract ice (see n. 214, above), enabling the l a t t e r to pro-gress ively i den t i f y with each symbol of Enlightenment of which i t i s 221 Conclusion I f you put the foregoing into p ract i ce , you w i l l t r u l y be 5 p rac t i c ing the Guru-Yoga. Fa i lure to appreciate [the Lama's] kindness reveals lack of esteem for the Dharma. I f you lack such esteem, no matter how hard you t r y , a l l [your Dharma pract ice] i s f u t i l e , and w i l l net you no pos i t i ve q u a l i t i e s . I f , by reason of th i s [lack of esteem], you take the high-6 handed view that i t i s impossible for the Lama to acquire pos i t i ve q u a l i t i e s ; or the cynical view that i t i s impossible for others who pract ice r e l i g i on to do so, you are meditating with a perverted a t t i tude . Having thus f a l l e n into the f i r s t transgression, a l l 47b. 1 the merit you have previously accumulated i s swept away! I f you appreciate [the Lama's] kindness, respect fo r the Lama and the Dharma w i l l ar i se of t he i r own accord. As a r e su l t , a l l the pos i t i ve qua l i t i e s w i l l be yours spontaneously, through no e f f o r t on your part. I f true feel ings of devotion and reverence do not come eas-2 i l y to you, make offer ings to the Precious Ones, serve the Samgha, and do a l l the physical and verbal wholesome deeds you can. It i s said that i f , a f te r doing t h i s , you meditate as fo l lows, with great composed. 2. the Lama i s thought of as non-separate from the " P r i n c i pa l One," the symbol of Enlightenment at the center of the mandala who i s the integrat ion of a l l the symbols which surround him. Each class of tantras has i t s P r inc ipa l One. (LPL) 222 3 yearning: "May any merit I have gathered insp i re strong feel ings of devotion and reverence," these feel ings w i l l d e f i n i t e l y a r i s e . A person of great devotion and reverence performs great wholesome acts. One of average devotion and reverence performs 4 average wholesome acts. One of minimal devotion and reverence performs minimal wholesome acts. 405 Naropa, Ma i t r ipa, Mi l a , Bya-yul-pa and others obtained siddhi so le ly by undergoing hardships for the sake of the i r Lamas. We are not capable of doing what they d id. Uncontrived devotion and reverence do not come e a s i l y , but they may be learned gradual ly, 5 with the guidance of prayer. The devotional path These are the four branches of the devotional path: 1. Do not look at the Lama's f au l t s . Just as Sangs-rgyas Ye-shes's f a i t h l e s s perception—which 6 made him see Manjusri as a monk who had married and had c h i l d r e n 4 0 ^ --obstructed his own achievement of supreme siddhi, [your own fa i th le s s thoughts] po l lute your ent i re mental a t t i t u d e . 4 0 7 48a. 1 How can a Buddha have fau l t s ? Whatever He does, l e t Him do i t ! Even i f you see your Lama having sexual r e l a t i on s , t e l l i n g 405 Bya-yul-pa was an eleventh-century bKa'-gdams-pa teacher. (LPL) vows. (LPL) 407 40^ khyim-btsun: a married monk, i . e . , one who has given up his rang gi sems-rgyud. 223 l i e s and so on, calmly meditate as fo l lows: "These are my Lama's unsurpassed s k i l l f u l methods of t ra in ing d i s c i p l e s . Since many sentient beings have surely been Liberated by re ly ing on him, he i s a hundred, a thousand times more wonderful than those who keep a pure moral code. He never acts out of deception or hypocrisy, but only according to the highest mode of c o n d u c t . 4 0 8 In p a r t i c u l a r , when he scolds you [ th ink ] : "He i s destroy-ing my bad deeds!" When he hits you [ th ink ] : "He is chasing away the demons who obstruct [my s p i r i t u a l progress]!" Above a l l , consider the thought that your Lama loves you l i k e a father loves his son. His fr iendship i s always s incere. He i s very kind. If he seems to be displeased or i nd i f f e ren t toward you, think that th i s i s the re t r i bu t i on which w i l l remove your remain-ing kavmic obscurations. Try to please the Lama by rendering service to his Body, Speech and Mind. In b r i e f , do not look at the Lama's f au l t s . 2. Appreciate the pos i t i ve aspects of a l l his deeds. From the sayings of the Great bKa'-brgyud-pas: "Everything this precious, perfect Lama does, No matter what i t i s , i s good. A l l his deeds are exce l lent . Even when he does a butcher 's harmful work, dam-pa'i kun-spyod: conduct of Bodhisattvas. 224 48b. 1 It is good and beneficial, And surely inspired by Compassion for sentient beings. Even when he exhibits sexual misconduct, His positive qualities are enhanced, [new ones] appear--Signs of his integration of means and insight. and When he deceives people with l ies, He is using a variety of ski l l ful means To guide all beings on the path to Liberation. When he acts as a thief, the objects he steals Are transformed into much-needed goods, Which ease the poverty of beings. Verbal rebukes from a Lama like this 3 Are actually forceful mantras, Certain to clear away bad conditions and obstacles. His beatings are blessings, Which yield both kinds of siddhi, Bringing joy to men of devotion and reverence." 4 As i t is said above, appreciate the positive aspects of all his deeds. 3. The only thing to do is cultivate devotion and reverence, 4. 4 . - I r 409 free of expectation and fear. Here, the author is urging us to rid ourselves of the three klesas or conflicting emotions: the two extremes of attachment (expecta-tion of reward) and aversion (fear of non-reward or of punishment), and the most basic klesa, bewilderment (not caring). We are asked to trans-form bewilderment into devotion and reverence for the Lama not motivated by attachment or aversion. 225 Meditate on the Lama with devotion and reverence, with no concern fo r whether your acts w i l l please or displease him. Do not expect to achieve supreme siddhi; do not fear [that you 5 w i l l not achieve i t ] . Whether you are embraced by his Compassion or not, whether you achieve siddhi or not, the only thing to do i s cu l t i v a te devotion and reverence, free of expectation and fear . 4. Always think of your Lama with a f f ec t i on . A layman of the best ca l ib re always does what he can to help his master in p r i va te , publ ic and in between. Such a man i s 6 a " t h i s - l i f e - p e r s o n , " [one who i s concerned only with what may happen in the next] few months or years. [A re l i g ious person's concerns are long-term]. U n t i l , with [the Lama's] help, we reach Enlightenment, everything that happens to u s - - a l l our goals and expectations, 49a. 1 any degree of happiness and prosperity we f ind in th i s l i f e , future l i ves or in the bar-do—depends so le ly on the Lama's k ind-ness ! Since your acqu i s i t i on of re l i g ious qua l i t i e s depends 2 so le ly on the Lama, think of a l l your phys i ca l , verbal and mental acts as service to the Lama. Since your Lama has spent his l i f e doing many good deeds and praying [ for your bene f i t ] , always think of him with a f f ec t i on . I f you re ly on your Lama with such att i tudes as these, you 3 w i l l d e f i n i t e l y achieve L iberat ion. 226 The pract ice [of the path of devotion] i s t o t a l l y encom-passed in the fol lowing two [d i r e c t i v e s ] : 1. Do whatever your Lama t e l l s you to do. 410 2. Do whatever your Lama wants you to do. With your body, do prostrat ions and circumambulations. 4 Write, sew, rush around [on errands], fetch water and sweep up. With your speech, o f fe r prayers in praise of him. Make your Lama's qua l i t i e s known to others. Ask him what he would 411 l i k e you to do in gentle, po l i t e and straightfoward language. 5 In your mind, cu l t i v a te only devotion, reverence and 412 [perceptions o f ] pure appearance, unpolluted by a s ingle 6 perverted view. I f unpleasant thoughts ar ise due to bad karma and so on, make them cease immediately. Never display your moods through words or deeds. I f , due to former bad deeds, you act in a manner contrary 49b. 1 to his wishes, confess s incere ly and of fer him your body and your possessions. Recite the hundred-syllable mantra [of rDo-rje Sems-413 dpa ' ] , p rop i t ia tory prayers of confession and other confessional 4 1 0 thugs-dgongs-la gang-yod byed-pa: "Do whatever his Buddha-Mind intends you to do." ^ ^ tshig 'jam zhing zhe-sar-boas-pas don gab sbas-med-par-bya. 41 ? dag-snang: opposite of 'khrul-pa, n. 344. Guenther c a l l s i t "aesthet ic immediacy, pure and uncontaminated." See his Tantric View of Life. Berkeley: Shambala, 1972, pp. 27-8. 413 bskang-bshags: a type of confessional prayer. 227 oaths. You must not eat a morsel of food or speak a f r i end ly word with anyone who transgresses the Lama's wishes. -It i s said that when you befriend a man who has great contempt for your Lama i t i s j u s t as [bad as] i f you yourse l f had such contempt, even though, in r e a l i t y , you do not. Unless you are poor, you should give your Lama anything you own which i s valuable or pleasing to him. But you don 't! I f you have valuable goods—fine, expensive things such as young horses, c a t t l e and so on—you keep them fo r yourse l f ! You o f fe r your useless possessions to the Lama, t e l l i n g him how wonderful they are! You ask him for any empowerments or teachings at a l l , no matter how profound they are. I f he does not comply, you look at him sadly and say, "But I have been so kind to you!" Instead of fee l i ng gratitude toward th i s Lama, who has been able to give you Dharma teaching and i n s t ruc t i on s , you say, "I have done him a great favor by asking him [ for i n s t ruc t i on ] and l i s t en i ng to him!" I f you are unaware of the f ac t that i t i s f o r your own good that you give offer ings and service to the Lama; i f you hold up your offer ings with pride and s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n , i t would have been better to have made no offer ings in the f i r s t place! Signs of successful pract ice The author i tat ive t reat i ses [of th i s t r ad i t i o n ] elucidate the nature of the signs--[encountered] in external phenomena, thoughts and dreams—which indicate that, because you have developed 228 50a. 1 true devotion and reverence, you have received the bless ing. In pa r t i cu l a r , the eight worldly dharmas no longer seem a t t r a c t i v e , and your mind i s detached from the concerns of th i s l i f e . The best indicat ions are the glimpses of r e a l i z a t i o n 2 experienced a f te r your awareness has been str ipped down to unadorned c l a r i t y and openness. Since your a b i l i t y to pract ice [Mahamudra], the actual ground-meditation, depends on [your receipt of b le s s ing ] , i t i s sa id : "Do not t ry to race and leap toward t r anqu i l i t y and ins ight . F i r s t , cu l t i va te wi th in yoursel f a [ f e r t i l e ] ground fo r pos i t i ve q u a l i t i e s . " COLOPHON This was written at the request of rJe-btsun bLa-ma Karma 'Od-gsal 'Gyur-med, who desired an eas i l y read, complete and c lear [descr ipt ion of] the v i sua l i za t ions and explanation of the Four Foundations of Mahamudra. I t i s a supplemental text to the ninth Karma-pa's Nges-don rgya-mtsho. I myself have achieved no r ea l i z a t i on and make no fa l se claims to o r i g i n a l i t y , but have based [ th i s work] on the sayings of the Great Ones. 414 - -Written by the fa l se renunciate Karma Ngag-dbang Yon-tan- rgya-mtsho, age th i r ty -one, at the Kun-bzang bDe-chen retreat centre of dPal-spungs monastery. May i t serve to spread the Teachings! May i t s merit [be shared by a l l ] ! spong-ba-pa'i zol-can: t r ad i t i ona l term of se l f -den ig rat ion . 229 BIBLIOGRAPHY A. PRIMARY SOURCES dBang-phyug rDo-rje, Karma-pa IX, and others. 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The Tantric Mysticism of Tibet. New York: Causeway, 1974. Chang, G. C. C. The Buddhist Teaching of Totality: The Philosophy of Hwa-Yen Buddhism. Pittsburgh: Pennsylvania State Univers i ty Press, 1971. Clark, W. E. Two Lamaistic Pantheons. New York: Paragon, 1965. Dasgupta, S. B. An Introduction To Tantric Buddhism. 2nd ed. Berkeley: Shambala, 1974. David-Neel, A. Magic and Mystery in Tibet. New York: Univers i ty Books, 1958. E l iade, M. Shamanism: archaic techniques of ecstasy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1964. Eracle, J . L'Art des thanka et le bouddhisme tantrique. Geneve: Musee d'ethnographie, 1970. Foucher. The Life of the Buddha. Abridged trans, by Simone Brangier Boas. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan Univers i ty Press, 1963. Getty, A. The Gods of Northern Buddhism. 2nd ed. Rutland, Vermont: Tu t t l e , 1962. 233 Govinda, A. Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism. London: Rider & Co., 1969. Guenther, H. V. Buddhist Philosophy in Theory and Practice. Baltimore: Penguin, 1972. . The Tantric View of Life. Berkeley, Shambala, 1972. . Treasures on the Tibetan Middle Way. Berkeley: Shambala, 1971. Lessing, F. D. Yung-ho-kung: An Iconography of the Lamaist Cathedral in Peking. Reports from the S c i e n t i f i c Expedition to the Northwest Provinces of China under the leadership of Dr. Sven Hedin, XVIII, 7. Stockholm, 1942. Ling, T. 0. Buddhism and the Mythology of Evil. London: A l len and Unwin, 1962. Matsunaga, D. and A. The Buddhist Concept of Hell. New York: Philosoph-i c a l L ib rary , 1972. Mus, Paul. La lumiere sur les six voies: tableau de la transmigration bouddhique. Par i s : I n s t i tu t d 1 Ethnologie, 1939. Nebesky-Wojkowitz, Rene de. Oracles and Demons of Ribet. S'Gravenhage: Mouton, 1956. Ruegg, D. S. Theorie du tathagatagarbha et du gotra. Par i s : Ecole , Francaise D'Extreme-Orient, 1969. Schmidt, Tony. The Eighty-five Siddhas. Reports from the S c i e n t i f i c Expedition to the Northwestern Provinces of China under the leader-ship of Dr. Sven Hedin, VI I I , part 7. Stockholm, 1958. Shakabpa, W. B. Tibet—A Political History. New Haven: Yale Univers i ty Press, 1967. S te in , R. A. Tibetan Civilization, trans, by J . E. Stapleton Dr iver. London: Faber and Faber, 1972. Tarthang Tulku, comp. Kalacakra: the cycle of time. Berkeley: Dharma Press, 1971. Tucc i , G. Tibetan Painted Scrolls. Roma: La L i b re r i a Dello Stato, 1949. Warder, A. K. Indian Buddhism. Delh i : Mot i l a l Banarsidass, 1970. Wayman, A. The Buddhist Tantras. New York: Samuel Weiser, 1973. 234 W i l l i s , J . D. The Diamond Light: an introduction to Tibetan Buddhist meditations. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973. Zimmer, Heinr ich. Philosophies of India. Pr inceton, N.J.: Bol l ingen, 1951. 2. A r t i c l e s Bloss, L. W. "The Buddha and the Naga": A Study in Buddhist Folk R e l i g i -o s i t y , History of Religions, XI I I , No. 1 (August 1973), 36-53. Lessing, F. D. "Miscellaneous Lamaist Notes I: Notes on the Thanksgiving Of fer ing , " Central Asiatic Journal, 11:1, Berkeley, 1956, 58-71. Li-An-Che. "The bKa'-brgyud sect of Lamaism," Journal of the American Oriental Society, 69, i i (1949), 51-59. Richardson, H. E. "The Karma-pa sect , " Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1958), pp. 139-64; (1959), pp. 1-17. Schubert, Johannes. "Das Reis-Mandala," Asiatica, Festschrift Friedvich teller, Le ipz i g , 1954, pp. 584-609. Smith, G. " Introduct ion" to the Ses-bya Kunkhyab, Lokesh Chandra's ed i t i on , Sata-pitaka Ser ies, 80. New Delh i : International Academy of Indian Culture, 1970, 1-87. Underwood, F. D. "Buddhist Insight: The Nature and Function of Panna in the Pa l i Nikayas," Ph.D. thes i s , Dept. of Philosophy, Columbia Un ivers i ty , 1973. (Microfi lm) 3. Reference Works Bacot, Jacques. Grammaire du Tibetain litteraire. Index morphologique. Par i s : L i b ra i r e d'Amerique et d 'Or ient , 1948. Das, S. C. A Tibetan-English Dictionary. Rev. ed., 2nd rpt . Delh i : Mot i l a l Banarsidass, 1970. Edgerton, F. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary. 3rd rpt . 2 vols . Delh i : Mot i l a l Banarsidass, 1972. Jaschke, H. A. A Tibetan-English Dictionary. London: Routlege and Kegan Paul, L t d . , 1965. Lalou, Marcel le. Manuel Elementaire de Tibetain Classique. Par i s : Imprimerie Nationale, 1950. 235 Lokesh Chandra. Tibetan-Sanskrit Dictionary. 2 vo ls . Kyoto: Rinsen, 1971. Monier-Williams, M. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 3rd rpt. London: Oxford Univers ity Press, 1964. Potter, Karl H. Bibliography of Indian Philosophies. Delh i : Mot i l a l Banarsidass, 1970. APPENDIX A INTERVIEWS WITH KALU RIN-PO-CHE AND SDE-GZHUNG RIN-PO-CHE 237 APPENDIX A INTERVIEWS WITH KALU RIN-PO-CHE AND SDE-GZHUNG RIN-PO-CHE 4 1 5 Q. Were these Four Special Foundations pract iced by sects other than the bKa 1-brgyud-pa? I f so, how did t he i r ways of p r a c t i c -ing i t d i f f e r ? A. KALU RIN-PO-CHE: Yes, the Four Special Foundations were pract iced by a l l Tibetan sects. They were pract iced in ba s i ca l l y the same way by a l l the sects, with certa in subst i tut ions which re f lec ted the interests of each sect. For example, the lineage of Lamas v i sua l i zed in the practices would vary from sect to sect. In Taking Refuge, the Sa-skya-pas, l i k e the bKa 1-brgyud-pas, would use rDo-rje 'Chang as the central f i gu re ; the rNying-ma-pas would use Guru Rin-po-che and the dGe-lugs-pas would use Buddha Sakyamuni. Also in Taking Refuge, the yi-dams and dharmapalas would vary from sect to sect. For example, rDo-rje ' j i g s -byed would be the chief dGe-lugs-pa dharmapala, instead of the bKa'-brgyud-pa's Ber-nag-che. In the meditation on rDo-rje Sems-dpa', some sects would use the yab-yum form of rDo-rje Sems-dpa' instead of the one we use. Kalu Rin-po-che: November 4, 1974. sDe-gzhung Rin-po-che: February 20, 1975. 238 Even some bKa 1-brgyud-pas would use th i s form. As for the Mandala-Offering, the v i s ua l i z a t i on i s the same for a l l sects, but the l i t u r gy varies somewhat from sect to sect. The Guru-Yoga pract ice i s v i r t u a l l y the same for a l l sects, but the l i t u r g i e s d i f f e r s l i g h t l y . SDE-GZHUNG RIN-PO-CHE: My own t r a d i t i o n , the Sa-skya-pa, pract ices the Four Foundations in a manner very s im i l a r to that of the bKa-brgyud-pa. One d i f ference, however, l i e s in the Vow of Refuge. We use the four fo ld Vow instead of the s i x f o l d one used by the bKa ' -brgyud-pas, that i s , "We Take Refuge in the Lama; We Take Refuge in the Buddha; We Take Refuge in the Dharma; We Take Refuge in the Samgha." In add i t ion, we v i s ua l i z e rDo-rje Sems-dpa' in yab-yum. We usually use the mandala of seven features instead of the t h i r t y -seven featured one used by the bKa'-brgyud-pas. The dGe-lugs-pas added three "hundred-thousand" pract ices to the "Five-hundred-thousand" pract iced by other sects. Their additions cons ist of 111,111 tsha-tsha, water and flower of fer ings . Thus, t he i r pract ice of the Foundations i s ca l l ed the "Eight-hundred-thousand. Do these other sects use the Four Special Foundations as a main p ract i ce , as does the bKa'-brgyud-pa? KALU RIN-PO-CHE: Yes, with minor differences in emphasis between sects. SDE-GZHUNG RIN-PO-CHE: In the Sa-skya sect, there was generally more leeway allowed as to the amount of emphasis an ind iv idua l would place on the Four Foundations. In many instances, a person would pract ice Taking Refuge for three days before p ract i c ing a meditation on t h e i r 239 yi-dam, Kye rDo-rje (Hevajra). Sometimes a person would pract ice the rDo-rje Sems-dpa1 meditation for three days in preparation for Kye rDo-rje meditation. It i s important to r e a l i z e , however, that in Tibet comparatively few monks of any sect had e i ther the le i su re or the i n c l i n a t i o n to pract ice a great deal of meditation of any k ind, the Four Foundations included. For example, in Kalu Rin-po-che's monastery of dPal-spungs, of the f i ve or s i x hundred monks who l i ved there, only seventy or so may have been pract i c ing the Four Foundations in tens ive ly at any one time. The others were preoccupied with the i r monastic dut ies , memori-zation of texts and pa r t i c i pa t i on in numerous group empowerment r i t u a l s . In what ways, i f any, w i l l the manner of p rac t i c i ng the Four Foundations here in the West d i f f e r from those followed in Tibet? W i l l the Foundations be eas ier or more d i f f i c u l t for Westerners to practice? KALU RIN-PO-CHE: The way of p rac t i c ing the Foundations w i l l be ba s i -c a l l y the same here as i t was in Tibet. In Tibet there were people; here there are people. In Tibet they had defilements; here they have defilements. However, Westerners do seem to have the addit ional problem of doubt, of unwillingness to accept the v a l i d i t y of the teachings. This stems from your superior education i n worldly matters. On the pos i t i ve s ide, Westerners can learn the Dharma very quick ly as compared to the length of time i t took Tibetans to learn i t . 240 SDE-GZHUNG RIN-PO-CHE: The Foundations w i l l c e r t a i n l y be pract iced in the same way here as they were in Tibet. Af ter a l l , Tibetans and Westerners can both be Buddhists. Because of the good karma Westerners have accumulated, the in te res t and opportunity to pract ice the Foundations is much greater here than i t was in Tibet. Western-ers have the addit ional advantage of not having broken t h e i r sacred commitments (dam-tshig)3 since they thus f a r have very few commit-ments to break! This i s a factor which w i l l promote the e f f e c t i v e -ness of the pract ice. Before an ind iv idua l practices the Four Special Foundations, what should he study and/or pract ice f i r s t ? KALU RIN-PO CHE: Before a person begins to pract ice the Four Founda-t ions , he should formally take the Vow of Refuge from a Lama in addit ion to taking some other Vajrayana empowerment. The rDo-rje Sems-dpa1 empowerment i s recommended before p rac t i c i ng that medita-t i on. Before he can pract ice the Four Special Foundations, an i n d i -vidual must study the " four thoughts which turn the mind toward r e l i g i o n . " He must also learn as much as possible about the meaning of the Foundations, and must be instructed in t h e i r pract ice by a Lama. SDE-GZHUNG RIN-PO-CHE: Before p ract i c ing the Four Special Foundations, a person must apply the " four thoughts which turn the mind toward r e l i g i o n . " I f he thinks these over ca re fu l l y and learns to appreciate t he i r meaning, his pract ice w i l l be very e f f e c t i v e and f r u i t f u l ; 241 otherwise, i t w i l l be sheer gibberish. In short, as the Buddha sa id : "Abandon a l l unwholesome act ion. Perform as much wholesome action as you can. Learn to control your own mind--this i s Buddha's teaching." A person who i s set t ing out to d i s c i p l i n e and control his mind must f i r s t understand the s ign i f i cance of the precious human existence, impermanence, and so on. These w i l l const i tute a s o l i d basis fo r p rac t i ce . Q. What type of person should pract ice the Four Foundations? A. KALU RIN-PO-CHE: I t does not matter i f he i s a monk, layman, educated, uneducated, male, female, and so on. A person who wishes to pract ice the Foundations need only possess the fo l lowing q u a l i t i e s : He should fee l disgusted with samsara and be acutely aware of i t s inherent misery; he should appreciate the qua l i t i e s of f u l l y Enlightened ex-istence, perfect Buddhahood. In add i t ion, persons who f i nd i t d i f f i c u l t to generate compassion and to understand emptiness should pract ice the Four Foundations. This i s because lack of compassion and d i f f i c u l t y in understanding emptiness reveal the fact that the ind iv idua l has many obscurations. The best way to remove these i s to pract ice the Four Special Foundations. A. SDE-GZHUNG RIN-PO-CHE: The most important prerequis i tes for p r a c t i c -ing the Four Foundations are f a i t h and confidence. As i t i s sa id , " A l l dharmas ar i se in interdependence." This espec ia l l y applies to phenomena l i k e f a i t h and conv ict ion. I f a person who has no f a i t h t r i e s to pract ice Dharma, i t i s as i f he were plant ing a burnt seed. A person who has no f a i t h i s un l ike ly to be interested in p ract i c ing 242 the Foundations in the f i r s t place. Even i f he does pract ice them, they w i l l not do him much good. I f a person has f a i t h , a l l other factor s , such as age, sex, monastic or lay status, and so on, become unimportant. But generally speaking, i t i s best i f the Foundations are pract iced by an ordained monk or nun, or a layman who has taken the f i ve precepts (and become an upasaka). But even a householder becomes an upasaka by receiv ing any Vajrayana empowerment. What ro le does the Lama play in guiding an ind iv idua l through pract ice of the Foundations before, during and a f te r completion of the "Five-hundred-thousand?" KALU RIN-PO-CHE: Before he begins to pract ice the Foundations, an ind iv idua l needs a Lama to give him the ins t ruct ions for pract i ce . During the course of the p rac t i ce , i f he understands i t w e l l , he w i l l not need a Lama's guidance. I f he encounters serious obstacles he should re ly on the Lama's advice. But i f minor obstacles ar i se he should t ry to deal with them himself by r e a l i z i n g that they are simply the outcome of his own former act ions. I f he becomes ser ious ly i l l , he should not be discouraged, but should cease pract i c ing and j o y f u l l y ant ic ipate his future resumption of the pract ice. A f ter he has completed the Four Foundations, an ind iv idual must re ly on the Lama for further teachings, including inst ruct ions in yi-dam meditations, and so on. 243 A. SDE-GZHUNG RIN-PO-CHE: Regarding the ro le of the Lama, i t i s sa id: " A l l the wonderful qua l i t i e s which ar i se in a d i s c i p l e stem from his Sp i r i t ua l Friend (the Lama)." Before p rac t i c ing the Foundations, the ind iv idua l needs a Lama to in s t ruct him in the pract ices . While he i s p rac t i c i ng , he should continue to rely on the Lama for further explanation of the meaning and benefits of each pract ice. A f te r he completes the Foundations, the ind iv idua l needs the Lama to in s t ruct him in Mahamudra pract ices for which the Four Founda-t ions have prepared him. Unt i l you a t ta in Enlightenment, your ent i re re l i g ious career depends on the Lama. The fact that a l l the great Bodhisattvas have the i r Lama seated on the crown on t he i r heads—for example, 'Od-dpag-med on Spyan-ras-gzig 's head and so on—shows that even Bodhisattvas s t i l l re ly on t he i r Lamas. Your Lama embodies your sacred commit-ment to keep Enlightenment foremost in your mind u n t i l you actua l ly achieve i t . Q. In what surroundings should the Four Foundations be practiced? A. KALU RIN-PO-CHE: The ideal environment for pract ice i s one of complete i s o l a t i o n . Lack of external s t imul i f a c i l i t a t e s pract ice. I f th i s i s not fea s ib le , i t i s f ine to l i v e with others, to engage in other a c t i v i t i e s , to see f r iends , and so on. In that case, one should t ry to pract ice for at least one to four hours a day, during which time one should not speak to others or i n te rac t with them in any way. A. SDE-GZHUNG RIN-PO-CHE: In the Buddhist t r a d i t i o n , disengagement from worldly a c t i v i t i e s during re l i g ious pract ice is very highly regarded. 244 In so l i tude, one can devote a l l one's energies to pract ice. I t i s sa id: "Through disengagement of the body and speech from worldly a c t i v i t i e s , comes disengagement of the mind." This i s the best way to p r a c t i c e — i n an i so la ted ret reat . But even pract i c ing in the home, where there may be many d i s t r ac t i on s , i s indeed wonderful. Q. Must the Four Foundations always be pract iced in the same order in which they are presented in the Lamp of Certainty? A. KALU RIN-PO-CHE: This order i s ce r ta i n l y the best, but i f circumstances proh ib i t pract ice of the Foundations i n th is order, or i f one wishes to combine two of the Foundations to avoid becoming too fatigued from doing so many prostrations at once, or i f one works at a very demanding job and cannot do prostrat ions, he may begin with the medita-t ion of rDo-rje Sems-dpa' and the Mandala-Offering. He may even begin with the Guru-Yoga. Q. I f an ind iv idua l can only pract ice one of the Foundations in his 416 l i f e t i m e , which one should he practice? A. KALU RIN-PO-CHE: He should fo l low his own i n c l i na t i on s . Q. I f an ind iv idua l loses i n te res t in the p rac t i ce , should he stop and wait fo r the i n sp i r a t i on to return, or keep pract ic ing? A. KALU RIN-PO-CHE: He should d e f i n i t e l y keep p rac t i c ing . I f he finds that his thoughts wander a great deal , he should end the session and This question was asked in order to determine which pract ice i s regarded as the most e s sent ia l . 245 simply t ry to relax and l e t his mind res t , but he should resume the pract ice as soon as poss ible. Q. What type of pract ice schedule i s best? A. KALU RIN-PO-CHE: This i s en t i r e l y up to the i nd i v i dua l . I f he has no other occupation, four sessions a day (each l a s t i ng at least an hour) i s i d e a l . I f he does have other work to do, he should attempt one session in the morning and one in the evening. But there i s no compulsory schedule. Q. How much time i s required to complete the Four Foundations? A. KALU RIN-PO-CHE: This , of course, depends on the i nd i v i dua l ' s schedule. Refuge and prostrat ions usually take quite a long time to complete, as does the rDo-rje Sems-dpa' meditation. The Mandala-Offering and the Guru-Yoga take less time. Q. How many times should an ind iv idua l pract ice the Four Foundations— once in his l i f e , or more often? A. KALU RIN-PO-CHE: I f he can do i t once, th i s i s very wonderful. I f he then feels very pos i t i ve about th i s method of c lear ing away obscurations and wants, to repeat the p ract i ces , th i s i s also very wonderful and w i l l have the same ef fect as his f i r s t attempt. A. SDE-GZHUNG RIN-PO-CHE: My root-Lama,.Ngag-dbang Legs-pa, performed the 111,111 prostrat ions for ty times during his l i f e , and some of the other pract ices a s im i l a r number of times. This was comparatively rare. I have t r i e d to fol low his example, and have done each pract ice 246 several hundred thousand times. But most people I knew in Tibet merely pract iced Taking Refuge, and so on, for three days in prepar-ation f o r yi-dam meditations. Q. What are the benefits of p rac t i c ing the Four Foundations? A. KALU RIN-PO-CHE: Generally speaking, the f i r s t 444,444 pract ices ( i . e . , Refuge and prostrat ions, rDo-rje Sems-dpa' and the Mandala-Offering) c lear away obscurations and gather the Two Accumulations. The Guru-Yoga gives you great f a i t h in your Lama which leads to your rece ipt of his b less ing and attainment of Mahamudra. P rac t i c ing the Four Foundations w i l l re su l t in increased f a i t h , devotion, in s i ght and compassion, and w i l l enhance the i nd i v i dua l ' s i n te res t in Dharma pract ice and weaken his i n te re s t in worldly matters. Q. What are the indicat ions of successful pract ice? A. SDE-GZHUNG RIN-PO-CHE: Increased f a i t h , confidence and t rus t in your Lama and growing understanding of the workings of actions and re su l t s , and so on, are ind icat ions that your meditative pract ice has been e f fec t i ve and that meditation i s becoming your way of l i f e . Q. How does an ind iv idua l know when his pract ice of the Four Founda-tions has been unsuccessful? A. KALU RIN-PO-CHE: The effects of unsuccessful pract ice w i l l be the opposite of those of successful p ract i ce , that i s , the obscurations w i l l increase, f a i t h w i l l d iminish, and so on. A. SDE-GZHUNG RIN-PO-CHE: (Uproarious l a u g h t e r ) . 4 1 7 Lack of progress Rin-po-che f e l t that any pract ice of the Foundations i s , in a sense, successful p ract ice. 247 in these and other meditative practices manifests i t s e l f through the i nd i v i dua l ' s a t t i tudes . I f he becomes increas ingly concerned with worldly matters; i f he develops greater and greater doubts about the qua l i t i e s of the Three Jewels and denies the v a l i d i t y of the Teachings; i f he i s less and less concerned about the welfare of others and has less and less confidence in his Lama, th i s indicates lack of progress in meditation, and receipt of the "b less ing of Mara." Q. What should a person do i f he feels that his pract ice has been unsuccessful? A. KALU RIN-PO-CHE: Fai lure of the pract ice i s usual ly due to the person's i n a b i l i t y to prevent his thoughts from wandering during p rac t i ce , and his being burdened with great obscurations. To correct t h i s , he should ponder the " four thoughts" again. I f so i n c l i n e d , he should repeat the Foundation pract ices , or re ly on a yi-dam meditation such as that of sPyan-ras-gzigs, which seems to be very e f f ec t i ve in such s i tuat ions . A. SDE-GZHUNG RIN-PO-CHE: An ind iv idua l who has not made any progress should again pract ice Taking Refuge and do pros t rat ions , and pract ice the rDo-rje Sems-dpa' meditation to c lear away the obscurations res-ponsible fo r his lack of progress. He should pract ice the Guru-Yoga to increase his f a i t h in the Lama. An i nd i v i dua l ' s lack of progress i s often due to the fact that he has not r e a l l y begun to appreciate the precious human existence, im-permanence, and so on. I f he appreciates these, true meditation w i l l occur. Lack of th i s appreciation and lack of f a i t h w i l l obstruct true meditation. 248 Q. For which further practices does completion of the Foundations prepare one? A. KALU RIN-PO-CHE: Since we are in the Vajrayana, completion of the Foundations enables us to pract ice a l l other Vajrayana meditations. A. SDE-GZHUNG RIN-PO-CHE: Completion of the Four Foundations enables an ind iv idua l to pract ice a l l the major yi-dam meditations. In the bKa'-brgyud t r ad i t i on th i s would include those of 'Khor- lo bDe-mchog and rDo-rje Phag-mo; i n the Sa-skya t r a d i t i o n , Kye rDo-rje and rDo-r je rNal- 'byor-ma; i n the rNying-ma t r a d i t i o n , the peaceful, wrathful and dakini aspects of Guru Rin-po-che and numerous other peaceful and wrathful yi-dams; in the dGe-lugs-pa t r a d i t i o n , rDo-rje ' j igs-byett and Guhyasamaja. Generally speaking, completion of the Foundations enables an ind iv idua l to pract ice a l l meditations involv ing the Stages of Production and Perfect ion. Q. Is i t possible to reach f u l l Enlightenment simply by p rac t i c ing these Four Foundations? A. KALU RIN-PO-CHE: Yes. In order to become a perfect Buddha, one must develop compassion. In th i s set of p rac t i ces , compassion i s developed by doing prostrat ions accompanied by Engenderment of the Enlightened Att i tude and the Four Immeasurables. To become a perfect Buddha one must also understand emptiness. In each pract i ce , the objects of meditation ( i . e . , the Sources of Refuge and so on) become inseparable from the meditator, and then the 249 meditator let s his mind rest natura l l y . These are the profound means for r e a l i z i n g emptiness and Mahamudra. The development of compassion and the r ea l i z a t i on of emptiness are the two requirements for achieving Enlightenment. During the Four Foundation p r a c t i c e s — p a r t i c u l a r l y in Taking Refuge and Engender-ing the Enlightened Att i tude and in the Guru-Yoga—these two are integrated. 250 *• APPENDIX B Text of Phyag-rgya-ohen-po lhan-cig skyes-sbyor gyi khrid kyi spyi-sdom rtsa-tshig by Karma-pa IX, dBang-phyug rDo-rje \Z 3 * * Z < r T ^ 5-cr VIM irtf ? if w i t tr ML* r f f j( v*. 2^ -L if" 6 7 " nTC jy^  H, ,rr f5 ^r- fe— '5-. 17, 4 f?^ G if L- X- : ,*Z (y;<sei> ^ ~ jfT fo— CT/K /L % XT'. \r~>w err is z <>9 Hr — ?B v/ — £ f £ a * Vi -% YT % f \ r ' e r — & » r B «Li-a rg z £ — 7 1^ J K c ar mttf 252 —TOT >r £ vr-LP J/ M r=— ' - ^ i — ^ — — m ffff cr 2 & •H-" i f >H3—I IT 07 W * I APPENDIX C Text of f o l i o s 1-50 of Phyag-ohen sngon-'gro bzhi-sbyor dang dngos-gzhi '% khrid-rim mdor-bsdus nges-don sgron-me by 'Jam-mgon Kong-sprul c-J f? & & U F » ^ iT'& to r f S i * m % ^ 7 of CO «3 | & fa mis f ^ w I f f W i f i t W'&ZJV'V ft? ^ £ Ji. 1 J3 CO J2 UC^C 1 1 1 ^ i ^ -r r l ^ 256 ,LT> \\i iC-ALA-X, IL. 0 cr J » FT ,_t~-if/ — 17 vr~ cr ?r 14 frJT % If W if cr rings'-" h i Iff A t( ^ t/r g l ;r 77 WW ^_ f l t l # cr ' • — . 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FT ! f 1^7 FT-"'*'"" 3 i.fT-gT 5i> cr %?* 4 •, ^  cr >rf7 ? ? rZ IT xi CO 1 FT 286 a?-E \y if *ET \*4 H "J. r - >yf'zr< • - ' "'[,v \s I •V w •V ii- " M I 6 ! ^ 1 l i l t e g ? -M su • >o Mr-***sCr v ON 1—, rr Sjr E> P- T £ rr GL'§? ** rrc> ^ <-r ^ ? r ^ — ^ rr_ if 1/ n-) tf-. „r~ ui. t.^ l T rr ii o IT) 4. RT 1 ~ J ? or 7 ' 287 i r re T— !ii> r •'3- 5 *f L #ff fell V7w Iff I i f f APPENDIX D Text of sGrub-brgyud karma karri-tshang-pa'i phyag-ahen Ihan-cig skyes-sbyor gyi sngon-'gvo bzhi-sbyor sogs kyi ngag-'don 'phags-lam bgrod-pa'i shing-rta by Karma-pa IX dBang-phyug rDo-rje and others . . . . 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