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A survey of resources for continuing education in nursing in northeastern Ontario Reid, Una Viviene 1975

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SURVEY OF RESOURCES FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION IN NURSING IN NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO by UNA VIVIENE REID R.N.,' B.Sc.N., U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1971 .A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL' FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN NURSING i n the School of NURSING We ac c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1975 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f NURSING The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada - 6 ABSTRACT T h i s d e s c r i p t i v e study f o c u s e s on r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . T e c h n o l o g i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c changes i n h e a l t h c a r e d e l i v e r y make I t i m p e r a t i v e f o r nurses t o keep a b r e a s t o f new knowledge i n t h e i r area o f work. The o b l i g a t i o n s o f e f f e c t i v e performance, which are both expected and i n c r e a s i n g l y demanded by r e g u l a t o r y agencies and the p u b l i c , can o n l y be met- through s y s t e m a t i c continuous l e a r n i n g i n the a r t and s c i e n c e of the p r o f e s s i o n . A program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n an approp-r i a t e s e t t i n g i s e s s e n t i a l f o r nurses t o m a i n t a i n s a t i s f a c t o r y standards o f performance. The p r e s e n t study i s concerned w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of such a program f o r nurses i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o w i t h i n the framework of a r e g i o n a l p l a n . The purposes o f the study are t o i d e n t i f y a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o , and an a l y z e the i d e n t i f i e d r e s o u r c e s i n terms of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o an o v e r a l l r e g i o n a l p l a n of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . Some s i m p l i f y i n g assumptions w i t h r e s p e c t t o the g o a l s and needs of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g are made t o f a c i l i t a t e subsequent a n a l y s i s . An e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e review supports the approach of e s t a b l i s h i n g a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i i i n n u r s i n g on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . On t h i s b a s i s , a suggested p l a n of o r g a n i z a t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o i s appended to the study, i t s aim b e i n g to f a c i l i t a t e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . A v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o were i d e n t i f i e d u s i n g the d e s c r i p t i v e survey r e s e a r c h method. M a i l q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s of the mixed type served as the b a s i c instrument f o r data c o l l e c t i o n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were developed around t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s of r e s o u r c e s — h u m a n and p h y s i c a l r e -s o u r c e s , and e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . For convenience, i t was d e c i d e d t o c a r r y out t h e survey based on the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s of the Region. The s u b j e c t s surveyed i n c l u d e d i n s t i t u t i o n s , a g e n c i e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s which are c o n s i d e r e d p o t e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s f o r a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n nursing: • i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . The sample elements f o r the s u r v e y were h o s p i t a l s , p u b l i c h e a l t h u n i t s , v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s , e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . A d e s c r i p -t i v e a n a l y s i s of the data c o l l e c t e d c e n t r e d around the c a t e g o r i e s of r e s o u r c e s both a t the r e g i o n a l and d i s t r i c t l e v e l . A d i r e c t o r y of the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s i n the Region i s a l s o appended to the study. The data were o b t a i n e d from 54 completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e t u r n e d by respondents out of the 75 c o n t a c t e d . Based on the 72 per cent response r e s u l t , the major f i n d i n g of the survey i s t h a t human and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s and e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s are inadequate i n terms o f number of i n s t i t u t i o n s o r agencies which possess such r e s o u r c e s . An o v e r a l l a s s e s s -ment of the adequacy of the r e s o u r c e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t d i s -p a r i t y e x i s t s between d i s t r i c t s i n a l l c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . W i t h i n d i s t r i c t s a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s a l s o v a r i e s . Some d i s t r i c t s are without c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s of r e s o u r c e s . The survey a l s o r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e i s a h i g h l e v e l of i n t e r e s t (91 per cent o f respondents) i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g w i t h i n the Region. An o v e r a l l p l a n of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g must pay s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o f i l l i n g these i n a d e q u a c i e s i n or d e r t o ensure an e f f e c t i v e program. The w r i t e r acknowledges the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the. s t u d y and no attempt i s made t o g e n e r a l i z e the r e s u l t s beyond the Region of N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . F i n a l l y , t he study concludes w i t h recommendations. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i i CONTENTS ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v i i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i x Chapter I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Problem . . . . . . . . . 3 Assumptions . . . . . . . . 4 Statement o f Purpose . . . . . . . . . . 5 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 6 Need f o r the Study . . . . . . . . . . . 8 T h e o r e t i c a l B a s i s f o r the Study . . . . 9 P h i l o s o p h y of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g . 11 Scope o f the Study . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Summary . . . . . . 13 I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . . . . . . . . . 15 C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n General . . . . 15 The A d u l t Learner . . . . . . . . . . . 17 C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n the H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n s . . . . . 19 C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g . . . . 22 Chapter Page Goal of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nursing . . . 26 Women and C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . . . . 27 P a r t i c i p a n t s i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . . 28 Pl a n n i n g f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N ursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nu r s i n g . . •• . . . . . '. . 33 Regi o n a l P l a n n i n g f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nur s i n g . 36 Resources f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . . 38 O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Co n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nur s i n g . . . . 48 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 I I I . METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Design f o r the Study and Study Methods . 55 D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Study Area . . . . . 5 5 Development of the Instrument . . . . . 67 Survey Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . 70 C o l l e c t i o n of Data . . . . . . . . . . 78 IV. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA . . . 81 Subject Group 1 - H e a l t h and E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Su b j e c t Group 2 - P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s • - ^go S u b j e c t Group 3 - Radio and T e l e v i s i o n - , S t a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . .., . . . 1 0 2 Subject Group 4 - P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s . . . ... . . . . . . . . 1 0 3 D i s c u s s i o n o f F i n d i n g s . . . . . . . . 105 v i Chapter Page V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . ,.. 107 The Study i n Review . . . . . . . . . . 107 Co n c l u s i o n s and I m p l i c a t i o n s . . . . . . I l l Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . • • • • • • . . . 115 APPENDIX A - ADMINISTRATIVE MAP OF THE STUDY AREA - • . 124 APPENDIX B - LIST OF SUBJECTS CONTACTED BY DISTRICT . . . . "". . . . . • 126 APPENDIX C - COVERING LETTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 APPENDIX D - QUESTIONNAIRES . . ... . . . . . . ... . 141 APPENDIX E - DIRECTORY OF RESOURCES FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION IN NURSING IN NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 APPENDIX F - A PROPOSED PLAN FOR ORGANIZATION OF A PROGRAM IN CONTINUING EDUCATION IN NURSING IN NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO . . . . 199 v i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e g i s t e r e d Nurses i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o , 1973 by D i s t r i c t s . - 62 2. D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e g i s t e r e d Nurses i n N o r t h -e a s t e r n O n t a r i o , 1 9 7 3 , A c c o r d i n g t o L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n and by D i s t r i c t s . 64 3. D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e g i s t e r e d Nurses In N o r t h -e a s t e r n O n t a r i o , 1 9 7 3 , A c c o r d i n g t o F i e l d of Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 4. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e g i s t e r e d Nurses i n N o r t h -. e a s t e r n O n t a r i o , 1 9 7 3 , A c c o r d i n g t o Employment Status and by D i s t r i c t s . . . . 6 6 5. D i s t r i b u t i o n of H o s p i t a l s , V o l u n t a r y A g e n c i e s , and P u b l i c H e a l t h Agencies by D i s t r i c t s . . 73 6. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Radio and T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n s by D i s t r i c t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 7. D i s t r i b u t i o n of E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s by D i s t r i c t s . . . . . - - - . 7 5 8. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s by D i s t r i c t s . . . . . 77 9. Number o f Returned Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . . . . . 79 10. Percentage of Returned Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on Resources by D i s t r i c t s 83 1 1 . Response R e s u l t s of 43 Returned Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s Showing A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Human, P h y s i c a l and E d u c a t i o n a l Resources i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o by D i s t r i c t s (51 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s sent) . . . 87 v i i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS F i g u r e Page 1. A Proposed P l a n f o r the O r g a n i z a t i o n o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nursing i n No r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Map 1. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Map of Study Area 124 i x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Modern s o c i e t y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by change. The n a t u r e , b a s i s and impact of s o c i a l change was a p t l y d e s c r i b e d by Robert Oppenheimer when he s t a t e d t h a t : . . . In an important sense t h i s w o r l d o f ours i s a new wo r l d , i n which the u n i t y o f knowledge, the nat u r e o f human communities, the o r d e r o f s o c i e t y , the o r d e r o f i d e a s , the v e r y n o t i o n s of s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e have changed and w i l l not r e t u r n t o what they have been i n the past.* . . . One t h i n g t h a t i s new i s the p r e v a l e n c e o f newness, the changing scope of change i t s e l f , so the worl d a l t e r s as we walk i n i t , so t h a t the years o f man's l i f e measure not some s m a l l growth or rearrangement or moderation of what he l e a r n e d i n c h i l d h o o d , but a g r e a t upheaval. . . . To a s s a i l the changes t h a t have unmoved us from the p a s t i s f u t i l e and i n a deep sense, . . . i s wicked. We need t o r e c o g n i z e the change and l e a r n what r e s o u r c e s we h a v e . l Change i s a permanent phenomenon i n our l i v e s . We are l i v i n g i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y w i t h r a p i d expansion of knowledge. T h i s c o n s t a n t change l e a d s t o the s w i f t o b s o l e s c e n c e o f knowledge. In the f i e l d o f h e a l t h c a r e , the impact of s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes has been s i g n i f i c a n t . There has been a r e v o l u t i o n i n the r e q u i r e -Robert Oppenheimer, "Prospects i n A r t s and S c i e n c e s , " P e r s p e c t i v e s , U.S.A. I I (Sp r i n g , 1955), 10. 1 2 merits and standards of h e a l t h c a r e . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e changing requirements i n v o l v e the use of b e t t e r equipment, f a c i l i t i e s and t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s o c i e t y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n o f a high l e v e l o f h e a l t h c a r e . Thus, t h e r e i s a c o n s t a n t need i n the h e a l t h s c i e n c e s t o keep a b r e a s t o f the s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes which a r e t a k i n g p l a c e so as t o ensure t h a t the r e s o u r c e s f o r h e a l t h c a r e are u t i l i z e d i n an e f f i c i e n t way. To keep a b r e a s t of change and t o prevent o b s o l e s -cence one needs to l e a r n c o n t i n u o u s l y . C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i s one w a y — a ve r y important w a y — o f meeting t h i s c h a l l e n g e . T h i s r o l e of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n has been s u c c i n c t l y d e s c r i b e d by C u r t i s . . . . B a s i c a l l y the need f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n emerges from the phenomena o f change: Change i n what i s known about man and how he f u n c t i o n s i n h e a l t h and i l l n e s s ; change i n the ways i n which people meet the c h a l l e n g e t o s u r v i v e i n a dynamic age; change i n the o b j e c t i v e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n and f i n a n c i n g o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . P r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s are a l t e r e d as s o c i e t y changes and as new knowledge and t e c h n o l o g i e s emerge. The i n d i v i d u a l who wishes t o a v o i d obsolescence cannot lea v e t o chance h i s a q u i s i t i o n of new knowledge or h i s a b i l i t y t o adapt t o changing demands. He must meet the c h a l l e n g e o f change a c t i v e l y or the w o r l d w i l l pass him by.2 F r i e d a C u r t i s , e t a l . , C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n  Nursing (Boulder, Colorado: Western I n t e r s t a t e Commission f o r Higher E d u c a t i o n , 1966), p. 1. 3 The constancy of change then emphasizes the need f o r c o n t i n u -i n g e d u c a t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o d e a l w i t h these changes "must be made a v a i l a b l e and a c c e s s i b l e t o the nurse p r a c t i t i o n e r s , w h e r e v e r they a r e , e d u c a t i o n a l l y and 3 g e o g r a p h i c a l l y . " The Problem An important g e n e r a l need i n the p r o v i s i o n of h e a l t h care i n modern s o c i e t y i s the improvement o f the q u a l i t y of h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . T h i s r e q u i r e s the upgrading and a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge. Nurses occupy a v i t a l p o s i t i o n i n any h e a l t h s e r v i c e s program. To a c h i e v e h i g h standards o f performance i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n and f o r s e l f -development i t i s necessary t h a t they do have access t o c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . The s u c c e s s f u l e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a program i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g depends on the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s and t h e i r adequacy. The a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s need t o be i d e n t i f i e d and a n a l y z e d f o r t h e i r p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o an o v e r a l l p l a n f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r nurses w i t h i n a r e g i o n . T h i s study i s concerned w i t h the problem o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . . 3 Signe Cooper, "Sub R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g f o r C o n t i n u -i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , " i n P r o c e e d i n g s : Conference on  C o n t i n u i n g N u r s i n g E d u c a t i o n (Vancouver, H e a l t h S c i e n c e s Centre, School of N u r s i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, June 29, 1969), p. 27. Assumptions T h i s study i s based on the f o l l o w i n g assumptions: 1. That t h e r e i s a need f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the r e g i o n o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . 2. That the nurses are i n t e r e s t e d i n a v a i l i n g themselves o f the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n the r e g i o n o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . 3. That r e g u l a r n u r s i n g programs i n the Region are not designed t o meet the e d u c a t i o n needs o f graduate nurses and these nurses do not have access t o courses t h a t w i l l (a) prepare them f o r the l e v e l and demands o f the work they are asked t o do, and (b) keep them up-to-date on developments i n n u r s i n g c a r e , the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n and the h e a l t h c a r e system. 4 . That a u n i v e r s i t y has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o see t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s are p r o v i d e d f o r the c i t i z e n s o f the community i t s e r v e s t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r 4 . e d u c a t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , the S c h o o l of N u r s i n g E l d a P o p i e l , " C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n : P r o v i d e r and Consumer," American J o u r n a l of N u r s i n g , LXXI (August, 1971), 1586. a t L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y must p r o v i d e oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r the nurses i n t h a t community to upgrade t h e i r knowledge and s k i l l s . ^ 5. That a comprehensive r e g i o n a l p l a n c o n s t i t u t e s the most e f f e c t i v e way of p l a n n i n g . f o r c o n t i n -uing e d u c a t i o n f o r nurses.** Statement o f Purpose I t has been assumed t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r con t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the r e g i o n o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . I t has a l s o been assumed t h a t t h i s need can be met e f f e c t i v e l y through a r e g i o n a l p l a n f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . T h i s study focuses on r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . I t s purpose i s t o i d e n t i f y the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the r e g i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the study i s d e s i g n e d t o : 1. I d e n t i f y a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the r e g i o n o f N o r t h -e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . . L a u r e n t i a n / L a u r e n t i e n n e 1974 : 1975. C a l e n d a r / .. Anriuaire and the P h i l o s o p h y of the School of N u r s i n g , L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y . Jerome Lysaught, An A b s t r a c t f o r A c t i o n (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970), p. 122. 6 2. Analyze the i d e n t i f i e d r e s o u r c e s i n terms of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to the over-., a l l r e g i o n a l p l a n of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . The study uses the d e s c r i p t i v e survey method. M a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are the b a s i c instrument f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms For the purpose of t h i s study, the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l be used: C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i s d e f i n e d as any planned e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y — l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s and/or e x p e r i e n c e s — - d i r e c t e d toward meeting the l e a r n i n g needs of the nurse f o l l o w i n g b a s i c n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n , e x c l u s i v e of f u l l o r p a r t - t i m e formal p o s t - b a s i c n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n . ^ I n s e r v i c e E d u c a t i o n I n s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as those programs a d m i n i s t e r e d by an employing agency designed t o upgrade the P a t r i c i a Wadsworth, Document on S t a f f Development (Ottawa: Canadian Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n , 1972), p. 2. knowledge and s k i l l s o f persons f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n t h a t 8 agency. Resource A r e s o u r c e i s d e f i n e d as a means s u p p l y i n g a want; 9 s t o c k t h a t can be drawn on. P o s s i b i l i t y o f a i d . In t h i s study, r e s o u r c e s are those a i d s — h u m a n , p h y s i c a l and m a t e r i a l - — w h i c h can be employed i n a r e g i o n a l p l a n f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . Examples o f r e s o u r c e s which would b e , r e q u i r e d f o r a r e g i o n a l p l a n f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n are nurses and a l l i e d p e r s o n n e l p r o -v i d e d by the u n i v e r s i t y , community c o l l e g e s , h e a l t h a g e n c i e s and o t h e r s ; p h y s i c a l space and audio v i s u a l a i d s , c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs, the media, p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s , p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s . L e a r n i n g Needs L e a r n i n g needs are d e f i n e d as a d e f i c i e n c y o f knowledge, s k i l l , o r a t t i t u d e t h a t prevents an employee from g i v i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y j o b performance, o r t h a t i n t e r f e r e s w i t h h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r assuming g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . . . . E x i s t e n c e o f a need means t h a t p r e s e n t performance Jerome Lysaught, From A b s t r a c t i n t o A c t i o n (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973), p. 174 . f . ; ,; '; „,, 9 H.F. Fowler and F.G. Fowler, The Concise Oxford  D i c t i o n a r y (Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1964). should be changed i n some way. . . . Change must come through new l e a r n i n g . 1 ^ Program Program i s d e f i n e d as planned o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t s d i r e c t e d toward a c c o m p l i s h i n g major e d u c a t i o n a l objectives. 1"'' In t h i s study program i s not synonymous w i t h c o u r s e . Program i s seen as much broader, c o m p r i s i n g a l l the e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g s p r o v i d e d by a c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n department. Need f o r the Study A l l a s pects of h e a l t h c a r e have been a f f e c t e d by the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, s o c i a l changes, p r o f e s s i o n a l advances and t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t of these changes the d e l i v e r y o f h e a l t h c a r e i s becoming more complex and t h e r e i s the danger t h a t ". the p r o f e s s i o n w i l l outdate i t s e l f u n l e s s c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n becomes an i n t e g r a l a s p e c t of i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l 12 p r o c e s s . " No b a s i c n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n program can be expected t o p r o v i d e the nurse w i t h a l l the knowledge she T r a i n i n g and C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n : A Handbook  f o r H e a l t h Care I n s t i t u t i o n s (Chicago: H o s p i t a l Research and E d u c a t i o n a l T r u s t , 1970), p. 7. 1 1 S i g n e Cooper and Helen Hestad Byrns, A P l a n f o r  C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g i n F i v e North C e n t r a l S t a t e s (Madison: Department of N u r s i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n -E x t e n s i o n , 1973) , p. 10. 12 Malcolm S. Knowles, L e t t e r s , J o u r n a l o f Nurse  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , I I I (November-December, 1973) , 6~. ~ 9 r e q u i r e s t o g i v e q u a l i t y p a t i e n t c a r e on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s . C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i s o n l y one way o f s e e i n g t h a t nurses c o n t i n u e t o update t h e i r knowledge and s k i l l s . I t has been f r e q u e n t l y suggested t h a t a planned program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g can be expected to c o n t r i b u t e t o b e t t e r p a t i e n t c a r e , t o more e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of h e a l t h c a r e p e r s o n n e l , and t o more c r e a t i v e 13 ways of d e l i v e r i n g h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . To date, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s as one step i n the pro c e s s o f p l a n n i n g f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the r e g i o n o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o has not been s t u d i e d . Such a step c o u l d be a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the o v e r a l l p l a n o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . The p r e s e n t study i s undertaken as p a r t o f t h a t c o n t r i b u t i o n . T h e o r e t i c a l B a s i s f o r the Study R e g i o n a l i z a t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g , w i t h the nucleu s a t a s c h o o l o f n u r s i n g w i t h i n a u n i v e r s i t y , i s e s s e n t i a l t o ensure an e f f e c t i v e program throughout a r e g i o n . Without p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n , o v e r l a p p i n g and d u p l i c a t i o n are common, and r e s o u r c e s are not used e f f e c t i v e l y 13 E r l i n e M c G r i f f and Signe Cooper, A c c o u n t a b i l i t y  t o the Consumer Through C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g (New York: N a t i o n a l League f o r N u r s i n g , 1973) , p. 2~. ~~ The use of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s i s an important aspect of a r e g i o n a l p l a n f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . The u n i v e r s i t y needs t o look a t the r e s o u r c e s : f a c u l t y , time, money, o p p o r t u n i t i e s , e t c . , i n a s s e s s i n g the f e a s i b i l i t y o f a r e g i o n a l p l a n . The u n i v e r s i t y a l s o needs t o examine i t s commitment t o the s o c i e t y . ' : . . . Every c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y i s committed t o t e a c h i n g , r e s e a r c h and community s e r v i c e . C o n t i n u -i n g e d u c a t i o n encompasses a l l t h r e e of t h e s e , but the primary commitment i s t e a c h i n g the a d u l t l e a r n e r . Thus i t i s one avenue through which a u n i v e r s i t y can f u l f i l l i t s m i s s i o n t o i t s graduates, t o the c i t i z e n s , and t o a l l s o c i e t y . The c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y r o l e i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n can be planned on campus, or elsewhere i n the s t a t e [ p r o v i n c e ] or region.14 C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l o f n u r s i n g , i n the u n i v e r s i t y o r c o l l e g e , c o n t r i b u t e s t o each o f the t h r e e b a s i c f u n c t i o n s o f these i n s t i t u t i o n s . Long-range p l a n n i n g f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n on a r e g i o n a l o r p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s p r e v e n t s the d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t , and uses r e s o u r c e s w i s e l y . The e x i s t i n g u n i v e r s i t y c e n t r e would make i t s r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o the nearby community and a t the same time h e l p i t s n u r s i n g and a l l i e d p e r s o n n e l t o a c q u i r e necessary e x p e r i e n c e i n p l a n n i n g 14a c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs. A r e g i o n a l p l a n would thus ensure t h a t a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n P o p i e l , "Continuing. E d u c a t i o n , " p. 1586. Ida See Appendix F f o r a Proposed P l a n f o r O r g a n i z -a t i o n of a Program of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g f o r the study area. 11 i n n u r s i n g are u t i l i z e d i n the most e f f i c i e n t manner. The u n i v e r s i t y c e n t r e would develop a p h i l o s o p h y of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g t o guide i t s a c t i o n . P h i l o s o p h y o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g A p h i l o s o p h y o r b e l i e f i n c l u d e s a l l those views by which a man a c t u a l l y guides h i s a c t i o n s . 1 ^ The purpose of any p h i l o s o p h y i s t o ". . . e s t a b l i s h a common p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e , and an i n t e g r a t e d v i e w p o i n t toward c e r t a i n b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s . " " ^ Each e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n has i t s own s e t o f b e l i e f s t h a t guides i t s a c t i o n . There are c e r t a i n b e l i e f s , however, which form the b a s i s of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . 1. "A p h i l o s o p h y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n [must] acknowledge the r i g h t and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of nurses t o c o n t i n u e 17 l e a r n i n g i n t h e i r c l i n i c a l areas o f i n t e r e s t . " 15 W i l l i a m E. Hockin, Types o f P h i l o s o p h y (New York: C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1929), p. 1. 1 6 P a u l B e r g e v i n , A P h i l o s o p h y f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n (New York: The Seabury Press Inc., 1967), p. 3. • ^ R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n of O n t a r i o , '-. G u i d e l i n e s f o r E s t a b l i s h i n g C l i n i c a l Programs f o r R e g i s t e r e d  Nurses (Toronto: R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n of O n t a r i o , 1972), p. 3. 2. Inherent i n any b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a l programs should be the concept o f l i f e - l o n g l e a r n i n g . 3. "Continuing e d u c a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l nurse and i s o n l y one means by which nurses can m a i n t a i n competence, e x e r c i s e l e a d e r s h i p i n e f f e c t i n g changes i n h e a l t h care d e l i v e r i e s and a c h i e v e 18 c a r e e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . " 4. The nurse as an a d u l t l e a r n e r should have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o take p a r t i n p l a n n i n g her l e a r n i n g programs. 5. "A wide v a r i e t y of l e a r n i n g t e c h n i q u e s , r e s o u r c e s and approaches a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the a d u l t l e a r n e r are necessary w i t h the program which s h o u l d a l l o w f o r i n d i v i d u a l development of each l e a r n e r 19 based on h i s / h e r l e a r n i n g needs." Any program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n must r e f l e c t the p h i l o s o p h y of the s c h o o l or department o f which i t i s a p a r t . I t must a l s o r e f l e c t the p h i l o s o p h y o f the p a r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n . R egistered.Nurses 1 A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, A. Proposed Plan; f o r the O r d e r l y Development of. N u r s i n g /. -\ E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, P a r t 111, C o n t i n u i n g N u r s i n g  E d u c a t i o n (Vancouver: R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973), p. 7. 19 R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n o f O n t a r i o , Guide-l i n e s f o r E s t a b l i s h i n g C l i n i c a l Programs, p. 4. 13 Scope of the Study T h i s study i s l i m i t e d to i d e n t i f y i n g and a n a l y z i n g r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the r e g i o n of N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . While the w r i t e r r e a l i z e s t h a t i d e n t i f y i n g the p e r c e i v e d l e a r n i n g needs of the nurse i s the t r a d i t i o n a l f i r s t s tep t o p l a n n i n g a fo r m a l program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g t h i s has not been attempted i n the study. Although the method of i d e n t i f y i n g r e s o u r c e s employed i n t h i s study may be u s e f u l t o o t h e r s no attempt i s made to g e n e r a l i z e beyond the Region o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . Summary In the contemporary world, nurses have t o f u n c t i o n i n a dynamic and c o n s t a n t l y changing environment brought about by the i n f l u e n c e o f s c i e n t i f i c , t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l changes. H e a l t h care i s a major f i e l d i n which the impact o f these changes has been and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be f e l t . I f nurses, as important members o f any h e a l t h c a r e scheme f o r a s o c i e t y , are to c o n t i n u e t o m a i n t a i n s a t i s f a c -t o r y standards of performance and not l a g behind the changing times continuous l e a r n i n g i n an a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g through a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l . The p r e s e n t study i s concerned w i t h the e s t a b l i s h -ment of such a program f o r nurses i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o 14 w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . In doing t h i s the w r i t e r has made some s i m p l i f y i n g assumptions to f a c i l i t a t e subsequent a n a l y s i s , and has a l s o d e v i a t e d somewhat from the u s u a l procedure i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n and study of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g . While these and oth e r l i m i t a t i o n s a re r e c -ognized, implementation of a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o w i t h i n the framework o f a r e g i o n a l p l a n i s s t r e s s e d . Some i d e a l s o r p h i l o s o p h y which c o u l d guide such a program are c i t e d . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n General C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i s synonymous w i t h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . I t . . . extends the i n s t r u c t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n a u n i v e r s i t y [and/or c o l l e g e ] to i n d i v i d u a l s not e n r o l l e d i n a formal e d u c a t i o n program. I t i s an o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t i n which the element o f chance i n l e a r n i n g i s reduced by means o f s y s t e m a t i c l e a r n -i n g , and i t g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e s the a c t i v e p a r t i c i -p a t i o n of the l e a r n e r i n s t e a d of p a s s i v e l i s t e n i n g , v iewing, o r random r e a d i n g . ! C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r anyone i s b a s i c a l l y what the term i -i m p l i e s — a l i f e - l o n g l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . F o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o m a i n t a i n i n g competence i n p r a c t i c e . L i f e -l o n g l e a r n i n g a l s o i n c l u d e s those a c t i v i t i e s which enhance p e r s o n a l development and which enable the i n d i v i d u a l t o d i s c h a r g e h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as a c i t i z e n . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s an e s s e n t i a l component o f any n a t i o n ' s p o l i c y f o r coping w i t h the c h a l l e n g e s o f change E l d a P o p i e l , "How One C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Program Developed," i n B e t t y H. Gwaltney, ed., Proceedings Book o f the  N a t i o n a l Conference on C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r Nurses (W i l l i a m s b u r g : School o f Nursing, M e d i c a l C o l l e g e o f V i r g i n i a , H e alth S c i e n c e s D i v i s i o n of V i r g i n i a Commonwealth U n i v e r s i t y , 1969), p. 114. 15 > 16 and improving the q u a l i t y o f l i f e . . . . The n e c e s s i t y of b r i n g i n g i t w i t h i n r e c o g n i z e d s t a t e s t r u c t u r e o f e d u c a t i o n and a l l o w i n g i t open ac c e s s t o the f a c i l i t i e s o f s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s have been recognized.2 . . . Nothing w i l l s u f f i c e than t h a t people everywhere should come t o accept a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as a norm, and t h a t governments should t r e a t i t as a nece s s a r y p a r t of e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n of every country.3 The i d e a of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of l i f e - l o n g l e a r n i n g i s n ot new. In 1919, the r e p o r t o f the M i n i s t r y o f R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Committee i n Great B r i t a i n 4 s t a t e d t h a t l e a r n i n g was both "necessary and l i f e - l o n g . " I t i s t h e r e f o r e a r e c o g n i z e d f a c t t h a t l e a r n i n g i s a l i f e -5 . long p r o c e s s and t h a t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , i n any s o c i e t y , must be f o r m a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o any n a t i o n ' s e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s and budgets.** UNESCO, A R e t r o s p e c t i v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l Survey of  A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , Montreal 1960 to Tokyo 1972, T h i r d I n t e r - n a t i o n a l Conference~on A d u l t E d u c a t i o n (Tokyo: UNESCO/ CONFEDAD 4, 1973), p. 9." 3 I b i d . , c i t i n g UNESCO Second World Conference on  A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ( P a r i s : UNESCO, 1960), p. 9. 4 UNESCO, A R e t r o s p e c t i v e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Survey o f  A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , p. 13. 5 I b i d . , p. 22. p. 201. 6UNESCO, L e a r n i n g To Be (London: Harrap, 1972), 17 E v o l u t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o t h a t o f s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s . T h e r e f o r e , e d u c a t i o n a l s t r a t e g y can o n l y p l a y i t s p a r t e f f e c t i v e l y i f i t i s con-s t a n t l y r e l a t e d to the t o t a l i t y o f n a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , needs and r e s o u r c e s . Every i n d i v i d u a l must be i n a p o s i t i o n t o keep l e a r n i n g through h i s l i f e . The " i d e a o f l i f e - l o n g 7 e d u c a t i o n i s the keystone o f the l e a r n i n g s o c i e t y . " The A d u l t Learner I t may be assumed t h a t most a d u l t s are s e l f -d i r e c t i n g . Malcolm Knowles has d i s t i n g u i s h e d between th e concepts o f pedogogy (the a r t and s c i e n c e o f t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n ) and andragogy (the a r t and s c i e n c e o f h e l p i n g a d u l t s to l e a r n ) . Andragogy i s based on c e r t a i n assumptions about the a d u l t as a l e a r n e r . These i n c l u d e : 1. That a d u l t s are s e l f - d i r e c t i n g . Of importance t o t h i s assumption i s t h a t the a d u l t has freedom o f c h o i c e , i s t r e a t e d as an a d u l t capable o f making d e c i s i o n s . In the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n the atmosphere should be one o f i n f o r m a l i t y and mutual r e s p e c t . 2. That a d u l t s can s e l f - d i a g n o s e . That i s , g i v e n the chance f o r comparison w i t h o t h e r s , the a d u l t I b i d . , p. 205. 18 can diagnose h i s own s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. T h e r e f o r e , he i s capable o f d e t e r m i n i n g h i s own needs f o r l e a r n i n g . 3. That a d u l t s s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d m e a n i n g f u l l y and r e l e v a n t l y i n the p l a n n i n g o f t h e i r own . . 8 l e a r n i n g . An important p a r t o f any l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i s the concept o f e v a l u a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o the p r i n c i p l e s o f andragogy a d u l t l e a r n e r s must engage i n the "process o f a s s e s s i n g the remaining gaps between the competencies they want t o have and the competencies they do have. The a d u l t , t h e r e f o r e , undergoes the same p r o c e s s as f o r s e l f - d i a g n o s i s . " The a d u l t l e a r n e r i s a r i c h r e s o u r c e f o r l e a r n i n g . He comes t o the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n w i t h h i s l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s from which he d e r i v e s h i s s e l f - i d e n t i f y v These e x p e r i e n c e s must be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n t o make the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s worthwhile f o r the a d u l t l e a r n e r . Teaching t e c h n i q u e s t h a t a l l o w the l e a r n e r t o draw on h i s e x p e r i e n c e s should be used i n meeting s t a t e d e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . Some of the t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s i n c l u d e "Malcolm S. Knowles, " C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r the P r o f e s s i o n a l s , " i n B e t t y H. Gwaltney, ed., Proceedings Book  o f the N a t i o n a l Conference on C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r Nurses (W i l l i a m s b u r g : School of Nursing, M e d i c a l C o l l e g e of V i r g i n i a H e a l t h S c i e n c e s D i v i s i o n o f V i r g i n i a Commonwealth U n i v e r s i t y , 1969), p. 16. 9 I b i d . , p. 16. 19 s i m u l a t i o n e x e r c i s e s , l a b o r a t o r y t r a i n i n g , case s t u d i e s , c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t p r o c e s s , community a c t i o n p r o j e c t s , and s m a l l group d i s c u s s i o n s . An a d u l t comes i n t o the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n wanting to l e a r n something new t h a t w i l l h e l p him s o l v e a problem w i t h h i s job tomorrow. "His time p e r s p e c t i v e i n r e g a r d t o l e a r n i n g i s one o f immediate a p p l i c a t i o n , and h i s o r i e n -t a t i o n t o e d u c a t i o n i s p r o b l e m - c e n t e r e d . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t the o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f the c u r r i c u l u m f o r the a d u l t l e a r n e r should be p r o b l e m - o r i e n t e d r a t h e r than s u b j e c t -o r i e n t e d . The r e l e v a n c e o f the new l e a r n i n g t a s k s t o the e x i s t i n g needs and i n t e r e s t s o f the l e a r n e r must be e s t a b l i s h e d . The p a r t i c i p a n t s a t a conference on c o n t i n u -i n g , e d u c a t i o n f o r the p r o f e s s i o n s agree t h a t c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n depends on undergraduate or p r e p a r a t o r y t r a i n i n g p - ^ T h i s t r a i n i n g should f o s t e r the concept o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n o r l i f e - l o n g l e a r n i n g , and the a c q u i s i t i o n o f l e a r n i n g s k i l l s r a t h e r than simply the a q u i s i t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n the H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n s C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i s b e i n g g i v e n i n c r e a s i n g emphasis w i t h i n the h e a l t h f i e l d . Rapid changes i n s c i e n c e 1 0 K n o w l e s , " C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r the P r o f e s s i o n -a l s , " p. 20. ^ O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , Contin- u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n the H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n s (Toronto, O n t a r i o , 1970) , p. 9. and technology demand t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l seeks means t o k e e p - u p - t o - d a t e . 1 2 Houle s t a t e s t h a t . . . even more d i s c o n c e r t i n g i s the e x p r e s s i o n o f a growing p u b l i c h o s t i l i t y toward the s e v e r a l p r o f e s s i o n s because of the a l l e g e d incompetence o r s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l members, f a u l t s which b e t t e r c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n might have h e l p e d to p r e v e n t . ^ The r a p i d changes and complexity of h e a l t h c a r e make i t unsafe to assume t h a t a b a s i c p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t knowledge and s k i l l s f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l . Today, knowledge gained through a b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a l program 14 becomes o b s o l e t e w i t h i n a s h o r t time. A survey of m e d i c a l s o c i e t i e s , h o s p i t a l a s s o c i a -t i o n s , s t a t e departments o f h e a l t h , h e a l t h i n s u r a n c e groups and p l a n n i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s showed t h a t "90% agreed t o the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t s o c i a l change and t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances w i l l i n c r e a s e the emphasis on c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . . . The American P h a r m a c e u t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n s t a t e s t h a t 12 . . Donald R. M c N e i l , " S t r u c t u r i n g f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nursing w i t h i n the U n i v e r s i t y , " J o u r n a l of  C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , 1 ( J u l y , 1970) , W. ~ 13 C y r i l 0. Houle, "To Learn the F u t u r e , " M e d i c a l  C l i n i c s o f North America, LIV (January, 1970), 5. 14 " C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n - - L i f e - L o n g L e a r n i n g , " J o u r n a l o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , V ( M a r c h - A p r i l , 19 74), 5. •^Lysaught, From A b s t r a c t i n t o A c t i o n , p. 174. 21 . . . f o r many years r e l i a n c e has been p l a c e d on the p r o c e s s of r e g i s t r a t i o n and l i c e n s u r e as a means o f a s s u r i n g competence o f h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n -a l s t o serve the p u b l i c . In the p r o c e s s of these s c r e e n i n g mechanisms, i t has been assumed w i t h r a r e e x c e p t i o n s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a l l y r e g i s t e r e d o r l i c e n s e d would co n t i n u e t o possess competence t o p r a c t i c e . T h i s assumption i s now b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d not o n l y by many members of the p r o f e s s i o n s but a l s o by the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The i s s u e o f c o n t i n u i n g competence of p r o f e s s i o n a l s to p r a c t i c e i s i n f l u e n c e d by v a r i o u s f a c t o r s , such as the r a p i d and numerous s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments d u r i n g the p a s t s e v e r a l decades, the i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f persons se e k i n g h e a l t h c a r e , the changing p a t t e r n s i n the management and d e l i v e r y of h e a l t h c a r e , and the growing r e c o g n i t i o n of the need t o p r o t e c t the p u b l i c from u n q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l , a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i s shared by an expanding p r o p o r t i o n o f the h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s themselves. . . . 16 Two b a s i c f a c t o r s on which c o n t i n u i n g competence depends a r e : 1. P o s s e s s i o n by the i n d i v i d u a l o f a body o f c u r r e n t and up-to-date knowledge i n the s p e c i a l i t y i n which the i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e s . 2. Adequate and a p p r o p r i a t e performance i n a manner c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge and procedures. Involvement on the p a r t o f the p r a c t i t i o n e r i n c o n t i n u a l l e a r n i n g t o advance h i s knowledge and h i s a b i l i t y to understand and use newly-developed concepts i s one way o f m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t i n u i n g competence. 1^ American P h a r m a c e u t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Report o f the Task Force on C o n t i n u i n g Competency i n Pharmacy, The  C o n t i n u i n g Competence of Pharmacists (Washington, D.C.: American P h a r m a c e u t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1974), p. 1. I b i d . , pp. 2-4. 22 C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g " E v o l v i n g c a r e d e l i v e r y and changed n u r s i n g r o l e s , have mandated some form o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l 18 p r a c t i t i o n e r s . " As standards o f h e a l t h care and consumers' e x p e c t a t i o n s r i s e , i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t q u a l i t y h e a l t h s e r v i c e s cannot be rendered without the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of w e l l - q u a l i f i e d nurses who s y s t e m a t i c a l l y b u i l d upon t h e i r b a s i c n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n through l i f e - l o n g l e a r n i n g i n the a r t and s c i e n c e of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n . . . . The q u a l i t y of h e a l t h c a r e depends t o a l a r g e degree on the knowledge, s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e s o f p r a c t i c i n g nurses. With the emergence o f new knowledge, t e c h n o l o g i e s and c o n t i n u i n g s o c i a l change, a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t i s necessary t o a s s i s t nurses i n (1) m a i n t a i n i n g and improving t h e i r p r a c t i c e ; (2) p r o -moting and e x e r c i s i n g l e a d e r s h i p i n e f f e c t i n g change i n h e a l t h c a r e d e l i v e r y systems; and (3) f u l f i l l i n g i n d i v i d u a l a s p i r a t i o n s . 1 9 Programs o f i n s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n p r o b a b l y account f o r the l a r g e s t number of nurse l e a r n e r s and are the most 20 p r e v a l e n t form o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . I t i s o n l y one way o f a s s u r i n g t h a t the nurse a c q u i r e s new knowledge t o f u n c t i o n competently i n her a r e a o f work. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " L OLysaught, From A b s t r a c t i n t o A c t i o n , p. 175. 19 Landmark Statement, American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n , • .-. "Standards f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , " J o u r n a l o f  C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , V (May-June, 1974), 33. 20 Dorothy J . Hutchinson, " I n s e r v i c e E d u c a t i o n : I s i t R e a l l y 'In?'" J o u r n a l of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , 1 (May, 1970), 33. : : : f o r t h i s a s p e c t o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r i t s employees 21 r e s t s w i t h the employing agency. No program o f b a s i c n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n , whatever i t s type o r q u a l i t y , c o u l d p o s s i b l y encompass a l l t h a t the p r a c t i t i o n e r w i l l need t o know f o r s k i l l e d p r a c t i c e through-out a l i f e time c a r e e r . .' . . For c o n t i n u i n g p r a c t i c e , the emphasis i s p l a c e d upon the n e c e s s i t y f o r each p r a c t i t i o n e r . . . t e a c h e r , e n g i n e e r , d o c t o r o r nurse , . . t o keep s k i l l s and competencies c u r r e n t w i t h the growth of knowledge i n each f i e l d . 2 2 N u r s i n g i s not e x c e p t i o n a l among the p r o f e s s i o n a l s today i n g r a n t i n g a one-time l i c e n s e t h a t , "although renewed p e r i o d i c a l l y , a u t h o r i z e s the i n d i v i d u a l t o p r a c t i c e over a l i f e time w i t h o u t any requirement o f demonstrated c o n t i n u i n g 23 maintenance of competence. . . . " In i t s B r i e f t o the Royal Commission on H e a l t h S e r v i c e s the Canadian Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n (CNA) urged t h a t ". . . governments and o t h e r employing agencies r e c o g n i z e t h a t b a s i c e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g p r e p a r e s nurses f o r b e g i n n i n g p o s i t i o n s o n l y and t h a t f u r t h e 21 R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columb A Proposed P l a n f o r the O r d e r l y Development o f Nur s i n g  E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, P a r t I I I , p. 5. 22 J o u r n a l o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , IV (July-August^ 1973), 31, c i t i n g Avenues f o r Continued L e a r n i n g , " American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n , 19 67. 23 Ruth McHenry, ed., Ends and Means: The N a t i o n a l  Conference on C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nursing (Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y : P u b l i c a t i o n i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , May, 1971), p. 15. 24 e d u c a t i o n i s necessary to prepare e x p e r t n u r s i n g p r a c t i -24 t i o n e r s , head nurses, s u p e r v i s o r s , t e a c h e r s . . . . " F l a h e r t y i n t e r v i e w e d a v a r i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l s on the i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t "there was unanimity among those i n t e r -viewed r e g a r d i n g the need f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r n u r s i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r s a t a l l l e v e l s , and t h i s was seen as a major 25 i s s u e i n n u r s i n g today." She concluded t h a t "an o v e r -whelming m a j o r i t y of nurses saw the need f o r and were i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n ; and over o n e - h a l f o f them r e c o g n i z e d t h i s need a t the time o f g r a d u a t i o n from 2 the b a s i c n u r s i n g course and o t h e r s became i n t e r e s t e d l a t e r . " A 19 68 survey of the graduates o f the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto b a s i c degree program showed t h a t "approximately 10% o f those who had. graduated b e f o r e 1961 s t a t e d the l a c k of competence they f e l t i n t h e i r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n was not due t o i n a d e -q u a c i e s i n t h e i r b a s i c p r e p a r a t i o n but t o the need f o r new knowledge; 28% o f a l l a c t i v e nurses were i n t e r e s t e d i n 24 Canadian Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n , B r i e f t o the Royal  Commission on H e a l t h S e r v i c e s , Recommendation K (Ottawa: The A s s o c i a t i o n , 1962). 25 M. Josephine F l a h e r t y , E n q u i r y i n t o the Need f o r  C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r R e g i s t e r e d Nurses i n O n t a r i o ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto:. Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , 1965) , p. .50. 2 ^ I b i d . , p. 74. c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s to keep a b r e a s t o f 27 advances i n n u r s i n g . " The p r o f e s s i o n a l nurses' a s s o c i a t i o n s and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s have a l s o shown i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u i n g educa-t i o n as i n d i c a t e d by o f f i c i a l statements, by the p u b l i c a t i o n of the J o u r n a l f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nu r s i n g , by t h e number o f n a t i o n a l conferences h e l d , and by the number o f re q u e s t s from nurses f o r workshops, i n s t i t u t e s , and o t h e r types o f e d u c a t i o n a l programs. Although t h e r e i s widespread i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r nurses, t h e r e i s no unanimous agreement on the meaning o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r n u r s e s . U p r i c h a r d sees c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n as " i n c l u d i n g advanced c o u r s e s a t a u n i v e r s i t y or such p l a c e f o r which the s t a f f member i s 28 gi v e n l e a v e - o f - a b s e n c e . " Others see c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n as a l i f e - l o n g process which improves the i n d i v i d u a l ' s knowledge and s k i l l s and prepares him f o r work i n an e v e r -changing s o c i e t y , and a l s o a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e members C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r Nurses: A Study f o r the Need f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r R e g i s t e r e d Nurses i n  O n t a r i o (Toronto: School of Nu r s i n g and D i v i s i o n of E x t e n -s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 1969) , p. 27', c i t i n g Nora J . Parker, Survey of the Graduates o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f To r o n t o  B a c c a l a u r e a t e Courses i n Nursing (Toronto: School o f N u r s i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 1968), p. 34. • '28 " '' •"" ' ; r 1 ' M u r i e l U p r i c h a r d , " I n s e r v i c e E d u c a t i o n , " Canadian J o u r n a l o f P u b l i c H e a l t h , L I I (February, 1963), 47. 26 29,30,31 o f a p r o f e s s i o n . Goal o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g The primary g o a l o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i s improved p a t i e n t care "by p r o v i d i n g the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r nurses t o a c q u i r e knowledge, s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s essen-32 t i a l t o t h i s end.» • Olson sees the g o a l as " . . . a change i n behaviour . i i n the p r a c t i t i o n e r which c o n t r i b u t e s t o the maintenance 33 and upgrading of q u a l i t y h e a l t h c a r e . " A c c o r d i n g t o Wadsworth, ". . . the g o a l o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs f o r nurses i s the improvement o f p a t i e n t c a r e , as e v i d e n c e d by standards o f p a t i e n t care and competence o f n u r s i n g 34 -personnel as members of the h e a l t h c a r e team." 29 C a r o l i n e S. Dauk, " I n s e r v i c e E d u c a t i o n : I t s A p p l i c a t i o n i n a General H o s p i t a l , " Canadian Nurse, L V I I I (May, 1 9 6 2 ) , 4 1 9 . 30 K a t h l e e n Ruane, "Under Review: E x t e n s i o n Course i n U n i t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " Canadian Nurse, LXI (May, 1965), 390. 31 See A l s o d e f i n i t i o n o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n on page 6. 32 R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, A Proposed P l a n f o r the O r d e r l y Development of Nursing Edu- c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, P a r t I I I , p. 7. 33 E d i t h V. Olson, " P h i l o s o p h i e s o f E d u c a t i o n . I m p l i -c a t i o n s f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , " i n Signe Cooper, ed., C r i t i c a l Issues i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n  N u r s i n g . Report of a N a t i o n a l Conference on C o n t i n u i n g  E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g (Wisconsin: Department of N u r s i n g , October 18-21, 1971), p. 23. 34 Wadsworth, Document on S t a f f Development, p. 7. 27 Women and C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n To date n u r s i n g i s l a r g e l y a women's p r o f e s s i o n . W e l l over o n e - h a l f o f i t s members are ma r r i e d . "Re-entry i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n should be p o s s i b l e f o r them f o l l o w i n g the r e a r i n g o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s . C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i s „35 one answer. In F l a h e r t y ' s study i n O n t a r i o , the m a j o r i t y o f nurses surveyed p r o f e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . "Only 12% had been so i n v o l v e d a t any time s i n c e g r a d u a t i o n 36 from the b a s i c n u r s i n g program." V a r i o u s reasons were g i v e n . Home r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s was named by one o f the groups, f i n a n c i a l reasons ranked second, f o l l o w e d by l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y . H o t t e l c i t e s f o u r o f the most s e r i o u s problems f o r women c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a s: 1. Geographic a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f a p p r o p r i a t e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . 2. Schedule o f c l a s s e s . 3. F i n a n c i a l involvement. Helen Mussallem, "Manpower Problems i n the Nurs i n g P r o f e s s i o n , " i n M e d i c a l Care Insurance and H e a l t h  Manpower; Proceedings (Quebec: The Canadian M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1967), p. 52. 3 6 F l a h e r t y , i n q u i r y i n t o the Need f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , p . 8 6 . 28 4. Development o f adequate home arrangements.^ 7 Cockburn has f u r t h e r l i s t e d the o b s t a c l e s t o c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r women as: 1. Lack o f f a c i l i t i e s f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d c a r e . 2. Fear o f being unable t o cope w i t h study a f t e r a l o n g absence from s c h o o l . 3. I n a b i l i t y t o meet course requirements i f away from formal study f o r a l o n g p e r i o d o f time. 4. R i g i d i t y o f u n i v e r s i t y admission s t a n d a r d s and c l a s s s c h e d u l e s . 5. Lack o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g job o p p o r t u n i t y and the s p e c i f i c s k i l l s r e q u i r e d . 6. Lack of f a m i l y funds f o r t u i t i o n and expense i n -c u r r e d , such as baby s i t t e r s and housekeepers.38 39 40 Some s t u d i e s ' r e v e a l t h a t a l a r g e number o f . nurses a re i n t e r e s t e d i n r e - e n t e r i n g the work f o r c e p r o v i d e d , o f c o u r s e , they are helpe d t o do so through r e f r e s h e r c o u r s e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . In a study done a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n the r e s e a r c h e r s attempted t o i d e n t i f y the t y p i c a l nurse a t t e n d i n g 37 A l t h e a K. H o t t e l , "Role o f the C o l l e g e and U n i v e r -s i t y i n P r o v i d i n g C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n : From the V i e w p o i n t o f t he Woman Edu c a t o r , " i n Nu r s i n g E d u c a t i o n , C r e a t i v e , Con- t i n u i n g , E x p e r i m e n t a l (New York: N a t i o n a l League f o r N u r s i n g , 1966), p. 31. ~~~ 38 P a t r i c i a Cockburn, Women U n i v e r s i t y Graduates i n  C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n and Employment (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 1967), p. -83. 39 Idaho Nurses* A s s o c i a t i o n , N u r s i n g i n Idaho: A  Study o f Nu r s i n g Needs and Resources (Idaho: Western I n t e r -s t a t e Commission f o r Higher E d u c a t i o n and the Mountain S t a t e s R e g i o n a l M e d i c a l Program, 1969), p. 53. 40 Samuel S. Dubin and H. LeRoy Marlow, The Determin-a t i o n and Measurement o f S u p e r v i s o r y T r a i n i n g Needs o f H o s p i t a l  P e r s o n n e l : A Survey o f P e n n s y l v a n i a H o s p i t a l s ( P e n n s y l v a n i a : The P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1965), p. 41. 29 t h e i r c o u r s e s . The t y p i c a l nurse was i d e n t i f i e d as m a r r i e d , having c h i l d r e n and over f o r t y y e a r s o f age. She i s employed f u l l - t i m e as a Head Nurse i n a g e n e r a l h o s p i t a l o f 40 t o 100 beds. Although she may have been i n the p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n f o r l e s s than one y e a r , she has been employed i n n u r s i n g f o r more than t e n y e a r s . F i f t y - f o u r per c e n t of the e n r o l l e e s t r a v e l l e d f i f t y m i l e s or more to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program. "Since t h i s means a t l e a s t 100 m i l e s o f t o t a l t r a v e l and s i n c e many o f these nurses have f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , one can assume a f a i r l y h i g h degree o f m o t i v a t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g " 4 1 Other s t u d i e s show t h a t the main f a c t o r which d i s -couraged or prevented nurses from a t t e n d i n g c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs away from home was home r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . ^ 2 / 4 3 , F i n a n c i a l reasons, l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s , d i s t a n c e away from home, shortage of s t a f f a t the employing agency were o t h e r reasons g i v e n . 45 A study i n O n t a r i o showed t h a t t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f a l l nurses i n the p r o v i n c e work i n p u b l i c h o s p i t a l s . P u b l i c 41 Signe Cooper and May Hornback, " P r o f i l e o f t h e C o n t i n u i n g Learner i n N u r s i n g , " N u r s i n g Outlook, XIV (December, 1966), 24. 42 Dubin and Marlow, The D e t e r m i n a t i o n and Measure- ment o f S u p e r v i s o r y T r a i n i n g Needs, p. 45. 43 Cooper and Hornback, " P r o f i l e o f the C o n t i n u i n g Learner," p. 24. 44 F l a h e r t y , E n q u i r y i n t o the Need f o r C o n t i n u i n g  E d u c a t i o n , p. 86. 45 M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h , The Study o f and Demand f o r  R e g i s t e r e d Nurses and R e g i s t e r e d Nursing A s s i s t a n t s i n O n t a r i o (Toronto: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1972), p. 8. 3 0 h e a l t h a g e n c i e s employ the second l a r g e s t group. From t h i s , i t can be assumed t h a t the l a r g e s t percentage o f nurses t a k i n g p a r t i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n would be from the h o s p i t a l group. Nakamoto and Verner i n t h e i r review of the l i t e r a t u r e v e r i f y t h i s assumption. They found t h a t "the m a j o r i t y o f nurses p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs were f u l l - t i m e employees of h o s p i t a l s . S u p e r v i s o r y p e r s o n n e l made up the l a r g e s t s i n g l e group of p a r t i c i p a n t s , w i t h some 4 0-50 per c e n t o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s group. S t a f f nurses were next i n frequency, a c c o u n t i n g f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 0 per c e n t . 46 A m i s c e l l a n e o u s c a t e g o r y accounted f o r 15 p e r c e n t . " Most nurses were i n t e r e s t e d i n e d u c a t i o n programs concerned w i t h c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n n u r s i n g and s u b j e c t s r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o the p o s i t i o n and f i e l d s o f n u r s i n g i n which they were employed. H o s p i t a l c l i n i c a l c o u r s es i n s p e c i a l f i e l d s were the most p o p u l a r . In terms o f the l o c a t i o n o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n 47 48 49 programs some surveys ' ' show t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s wanted the programs to be g i v e n i n t h e i r l o c a l communities. Nakamoto 46 . June Nakamoto and C o o l i e Verner, C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g : A Review of the North American L i t e r a - t u r e , 1960-1970 (Vancouver: D i v i s i o n of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n the H e a l t h S c i e n c e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972), p. 23. 47 Cooper and Byrns, A P l a n f o r C o n t i n u i n g  E d u c a t i o n , p. 47. 48 Idaho Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n , Nursing i n Idaho, p. 65. 49 Dubin and Marlow, The D e t e r m i n a t i o n and Measurement  o f S u p e r v i s o r y T r a i n i n g Needs, p. 41. 31 a l s o d i s c l o s e d t h a t a W i s c o n s i n survey o f nurses showed t h a t "approximately 73% o f the respondents o f the study d e s i r e d r e f r e s h e r courses scheduled as p a r t - t i m e c l a s s e s w i t h r o u g h l y one h a l f p r e f e r r i n g a day time schedule; the o t h e r h a l f an evening schedule; about 68% o f the i n a c t i v e n u r s e s expressed a w i l l i n g n e s s t o t r a v e l but one h a l f would not commute over 10 m i l e s i n o r d e r t o a t t e n d r e f r e s h e r „50 c o u r s e s . " P l a n n i n g f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g The American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n (ANA) landmark statement on standards f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g s t a t e s t h a t "the content and s t r u c t u r e o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n must be f l e x i b l e i n o r d e r t o meet the n u r s i n g p r a c t i c e needs and c a r e e r g o a l s o f nurses. C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs should be c o n s i d e r e d equal w i t h o t h e r components o f the e d u c a t i o n a l system and/or o t h e r programs 51 w i t h i n the sp o n s o r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . " P l a n n i n g f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i s a c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e i n v o l v i n g many d i f f e r e n t groups and i n n o v a t i v e approaches. These e f f o r t s cannot be focused i n any one agency; r a t h e r , 5 0Nakamoto and Verner, C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n  Nu r s i n g , p. 27. 51 American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n , "Landmark Statement, Standards f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , " J o u r n a l o f  C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , V (May-June, 1974), 32. p r o v i n c i a l and/or r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g are e s s e n t i a l . The c e n t r e of such a p l a n would be the u n i v e r s i t y s e r v i n g t h a t r e g i o n . The o b j e c t i v e s o f such a c e n t r e would be: 1. Examining region-wide nurses' p e r c e i v e d l e a r n -i n g needs. 2. I d e n t i f y i n g and a n a l y z i n g a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r nurses i n t h a t r e g i o n . 3. Developing these r e s o u r c e s t o meet i d e n t i f i e d needs o f the nurses. 4. C o o r d i n a t i n g the u t i l i z a t i o n o f a r e a r e s o u r c e s ' f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . 5. P r o v i d i n g systems f o r m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i n g 4-v, 52 these programs A review o f the l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t a m u l t i -d i s c i p l i n a r y approach to c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i s t h e most e f f e c t i v e way o f p l a n n i n g . One o f the recommendations o f the Carnegie Commission on Higher E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e Study of N u r s i n g and Nursing E d u c a t i o n s t a t e s t h a t : . . . i n the face of changing h e a l t h r o l e s and f u n c t i o n s , and the interdependence o f the h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s , vigorous' e f f o r t s be taken t o have c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs j o i n t l y planned and conducted by i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y teams.53 52 I b i d . , p. 34. 53 Lysaught, An A b s t r a c t f o r A c t i o n , p. 122. One o f the recommendations made by the McNally study i s t h a t : . . . e f f o r t s should be made to a l l o c a t e r e s o u r c e s f o r new approaches to c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y programs, implemen-t a t i o n o f i n n o v a t i o n , and the expansion o f programs concerned w i t h new knowledge, s p e c i f i c needs of s e l e c t p r a c t i t i o n e r s , and s o c i a l and h e a l t h programs w i t h i n p a r t i c u l a r geographic l o c a t i o n s . 5 4 R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g The assessment o f needs, p l a n n i n g and implementation o f a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n v o l v e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a number o f key o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . ^ ' ^ These f a l l i n t o t h r e e broad groups, namely: 1. E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , 2. Employing a g e n c i e s , and 3. P r o f e s s i o n a l n u r s e s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s . These bodies may be c a l l e d upon t o make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the program a t d i f f e r e n t stages o f i t s e v o l u t i o n o r on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s . The u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the 54 Jeanne M. McNally, C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r Nurses: A Survey o f C u r r e n t Programs (Missouri:. ANA, 1972), p. 44. 55 American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n , "Landmark Statement, Standards f o r C o n t i n u i n g Nursing E d u c a t i o n , " 34. 5 6 M c G r i f f and Cooper, A c c o u n t a b i l i t y t o the Consumer, program p l a n n i n g , implementation and e v a l u a t i o n , however, r e s t s w i t h the i n i t i a t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s I n c l u d e d i n t h i s group are the community c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s w i t h s c h o o l s o f n u r s i n g . Each o f these i n s t i t u t i o n s i s d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n d e v e l o p i n g n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l needs f o r the h e a l t h s e r v i c e . Because o f t h e i r i n t i m a t e knowledge o f the changing environment o f n u r s i n g p r a c t i c e , they occupy a s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n i n the s u c c e s s f u l implementation of a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . Such a program may a l s o b e n e f i t from the accumulated e x p e r i e n c e and r e s o u r c e s which these i n s t i t u t i o n s may have a c q u i r e d i n d e v e l o p i n g , implementing and e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r r e g u l a r n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n programs.^7 Employing Agen c i e s Employers of nurses can c o n t r i b u t e t o the success o f a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g through c o o p e r a t i o n i n s e c u r i n g t h e i r r e l e a s e from normal d u t i e s . Some o f the ways i n which employers can f a c i l i t a t e p a r t i c i -p a t i o n o f nurses i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs a r e : reimbursement o f or payment o f t u i t i o n f e e s , f i n a n c i a l American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n , "Landmark Statement, Standards f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , " 34. 58 M c G r i f f and Cooper, A c c o u n t a b i l i t y t o the Consumer, p. 3. a s s i s t a n c e to a t t e n d programs of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n ; and p r o v i s i o n i n agency employment p o l i c i e s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l 59 l e a v e - o f - a b s e n c e w i t h pay. P r o f e s s i o n a l Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n s The p r o f e s s i o n a l nurses' a s s o c i a t i o n s have been e s t a b l i s h e d not o n l y t o d e f i n e and m a i n t a i n the i d e a l s o f n u r s i n g p r a c t i c e and e d u c a t i o n but a l s o t o f u r t h e r the p r o f e s s i o n a l and s e l f development o f , o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , "based on the standards f o r n u r s i n g and the needs of the nurse. In a d d i t i o n t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n s mentioned above, the i n d i v i d u a l nurse p r a c t i t i o n e r c a r r i e s a major r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . T h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s based on a commitment to l i f e - l o n g l e a r n i n g ". . . as a means of p e r s o n a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l growth."^"1' U l t i m a t e l y , i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l nurse to keep a b r e a s t of c u r r e n t knowledge and p r a c t i c e i n her p r o f e s s i o n , 62 and t h i s "must be seen as a p e r s o n a l commitment." Such 59 I b i d . , p. 4. 60 Wadsworth, Document on S t a f f Development, p. 3. ^ I b i d . , p. 4. Jean Hayter, " I n d i v i d u a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Con-t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , " J o u r n a l of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n  N u r s i n g , I I I (November-December, 1972), 31. a commitment r e p r e s e n t s the way i n which nurses convey t h e i r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y to s o c i e t y f o r q u a l i t y h e a l t h care s e r v i c e s . 6 R e g i o n a l P l a n f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nursing R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g and a c t i o n . I t i s comprehensive, i n n o v a t i v e , m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y and prevents d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t s and waste of s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g group and an a d v i s o r y committee should p r o v i d e f o r o r d e r l y development of a bal a n c e d c u r r i c u l u m based on the needs and r e s o u r c e s i n the area served. The concept of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g o r r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n i s n ot new. I t has been used b e f o r e i n h o s p i t a l p l a n n i n g and n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n . As LaMarsh s t a t e d , . . . The concept o f r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n and area p l a n n i n g has much t o commend i t . I t i s charged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t the needs of the community and d i s t r i c t a r e met i n the most rea s o n a b l e and economic way. . . . Demands f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n must be r e l a t e d t o the t r u e need and sho u l d be c a r e f u l l y a n a l y z e d t o determine the most e f f e c t i v e way o f meeting i t . The m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s does not always r e p r e s e n t the most u s e f u l use o f d o l l a r s and personnel.64 63 " ' " • • M c G r i f f and Cooper, A c c o u n t a b i l i t y to the Consumer, p. 4. 64 Judy LaMarsh, " 1 Community-Conscious,' P o l i t i c i a n s Warn H o s p i t a l Boards a t OHA Annual Convention," Canadian  H o s p i t a l , XLI (December, 1964), 29. 37 Community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g groups b r i n g an i n t i m a t e knowledge of a c t u a l l o c a l needs t h a t s t u d i e s made elsewhere may not r e v e a l . The r e p o r t o f the N a t i o n a l Commission to Study Nursing and Nur s i n g E d u c a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t : . . . While the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n t i n u e d l e a r n i n g must r e s i d e w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l , we s t r o n g l y urge t h a t more e f f e c t i v e a i d s be s u p p l i e d t o a l l h e a l t h p e r s o n n e l i n the f u t u r e t o h e l p meet the a c c e l e r a t i n g changes i n h e a l t h p r a c t i c e . We recommend t h a t : . . . The s t a t e master p l a n n i n g committee f o r n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n i d e n t i f y one or more i n s t i t u t i o n s to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e g i o n a l coverage o f c o n t i n u e d e d u c a t i o n programs f o r nurses w i t h i n t h a t a r e a , and f u r t h e r t h a t : . . . f e d e r a l and s t a t e funds be u t i l i z e d t o p l a n and implement c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs f o r ^ n u r s i n g on e i t h e r s t a t e w i d e o r broader b a s i s . . . . Re g i o n a l M e d i c a l Programs (RMP) have been developed over the ye a r s i n the U.S.A. to g i v e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs based on the needs o f t h e i r community. Some o f these r e g i o n a l programs a r e : Colorado-Wyoming, Mountain S t a t e s , Western P e n n y s l v a n i a and Oregon. There i s a l s o the Midwest C o n t i n u i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n f o r Nurses (MCPEN), 6 6 Area H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n Program (AHEC) and ., 67 o t h e r s . O D L y s a u g h t , An A b s t r a c t f o r A c t i o n , p. 122. MCPEN, MCPEN R e g i o n a l Survey. A Model f o r Program O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r P l a n n i n g R e g i o n a l C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n  Nur s i n g ( M i s s o u r i : MCPEN, Schoo l o f Nursing, S t . L o u i s U n i v e r s i t y , 1971). ^ V i r g i n i a Conley, and C a r o l L a r s o n , "Among R e g i o n a l M e d i c a l Programs--An E n q u i r i n g Commitment," J o u r n a l o f C o n t i n u - i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nu r s i n g , 1 (November-December, 1970), 28. 38 Resources f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n In c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g , nurses s h o u l d be a b l e to l e a r n new conte n t , s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s , t o renew and add to knowledge a l r e a d y gained, t o i n v e s t i g a t e new approaches t o a i d p a t t e r n s o f n u r s i n g c a r e and t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r a b i l i t i e s to change t h e i r own behaviour, as w e l l as 68 i n f l u e n c e the behaviour o f o t h e r s . Q u a l i t y p a t i e n t c a r e r e q u i r e s a p p l i c a t i o n o f new knowledge, but p r a c t i t i o n e r s must have access t o t h a t knowledge. T h i s i n t u r n demands expansion and more e f f e c t i v e use o f a v a i l a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . U n i v e r s i t y s c h o o l s of n u r s i n g have the o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f n u r s i n g t o improve t h e i r knowledge and s k i l l s to cope w i t h the c h a l l e n g e o f change. . . . Changes i n d e f i n i t i o n o f n u r s i n g p r a c t i c e and n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n , changes i n the environment i n which both o p e r a t e , changes i n the need o f peo p l e f o r c a r e , each p r e s e n t s a c h a l l e n g e and an o b l i g a t i o n . . . . T h i s o b l i g a t i o n i s to make a v a i l a b l e t o p r a c t i t i o n e r s the most c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n , methods, a t t i t u d e s , and t r e n d s i n c l i n i c a l and f u n c t i o n a l n u r s i n g s p e c i a l i t i e s . 6 9 These f a c t o r s make i t i m p e r a t i v e f o r the u n i v e r s i t i e s t o d i s c h a r g e t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n o f p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n -i t i e s f o r nurses t o enable them t o keep a b r e a s t o f t h e s e changes. 68 P o p i e l , " C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , " p. 1586. 69 A l i c e E. Ingmire, C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Program, Mimeographed Report (San F r a n c i s c o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1968) ,-p. 1. 39 Although i n the p a s t the major commitment o f the u n i v e r s i t y s c h o o l s o f n u r s i n g was to the undergraduate and graduate programs, they are now becoming more i n v o l v e d w i t h c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n and h e l p i n g t o make these e d u c a t i o n a l 70 r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . Consequently, c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n has o n l y r e c e n t l y been made an i s s u e i n n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n . There i s now an i n c r e a s e i n the number o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n 71 c o u r s e s , "and the more s e q u e n t i a l , long-range programs are 72 the p r o d u c t s o f a r e l a t i v e l y few u n i v e r s i t i e s . " In p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a r e g i o n a l p l a n o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n f i v e n o r t h c e n t r a l s t a t e s , Cooper and o t h e r s d e l i n e a t e d c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s . One o f these o b j e c t i v e s i s t o " i d e n t i f y a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s and r e s o u r c e s u s e f u l i n 73 d e v e l o p i n g a c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n program." Resources f a l l under the broad c a t e g o r i e s o f human, p h y s i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . During the survey o f these r e s o u r c e s Cooper found t h a t " c o n s i d e r a b l e time was spent by the p r o j e c t s t a f f i n s e a r c h i n g f o r these r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the 74 ' r e g i o n . " She concludes t h a t : 70 May Hornback, "Issue Paper: C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , Whose R e s p o n s i b i l i t y ? " J o u r n a l o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n  Nu r s i n g , I I (July-August, 1971), 9. 71 Guest E d i t o r , " C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f  C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nursing, I I (July-August, 1971), 17. ^ 2Nakamoto and Verner, C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n  Nu r s i n g , pp. 17-18. 73 . Signe Cooper, "Planning f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n the North C e n t r a l S t a t e s , " J o u r n a l o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  i n N u r s i n g , IV (September-October, 1973), 8. • 74 I b i d . , p. 10. 40 To some e x t e n t , l o c a t i n g s u i t a b l e r e s o u r c e s was d i f f i c u l t and f r u s t r a t i n g . . . . As a r e s u l t o f our c o n s t a n t review o f the l i t e r a t u r e , awareness of l i k e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . . . and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h p r o v i d e r s of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , we are c o n v i n c e d t h a t much n u r s i n g time i s spent i n s i m i l a r searches.75 The i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l s o r e v e a l t h a t many r e s o u r c e s s u i t a b l e f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n are a v a i l a b l e . However, t h e r e was r e l u c t a n c e to share these r e s o u r c e s because o f f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s . I t seems i m p e r a t i v e t h a t as the demands f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n c r e a s e , emphasis s h o u l d be p l a c e d on 76 u s i n g these r e s o u r c e s e f f i c i e n t l y . Cooper and Byrns s t a t e : The absence of p l a n n i n g f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g has r e s u l t e d i n s c a t t e r e d , fragmented, i n a d e q u a t e l y planned and p o o r l y conducted e d u c a t i o n o f f e r i n g s . There i s d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t s i n some areas o f n u r s i n g p r a c t i c e , but no o f f e r i n g s i n o t h e r s . L i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n o f course o f f e r i n g s . E d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s are not used as e f f e c t i v e l y as they c o u l d be.77 I t seems a l s o t h a t these r e s o u r c e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y p o o r l y used. T h i s may occur because t h e i r e x i s t e n c e o r a v a i l a b i l i t y i s unknown. I f nurses are to b e n e f i t from c o n t i n u i n g 7 8 e d u c a t i o n , r e s o u r c e s must be made a v a i l a b l e t o them. Cooper and Byrns made the f o l l o w i n g recommendation: 75- . - .. I b i d . , p. 11.- '- -: -y- " ' 76 I b i d . , p. 12. 77 Cooper and Byrns, A P l a n f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , p. 7. ; : ; 7 8 I b i d . , pp. 16-21. 41 . . . t h a t e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n r e s o u r c e s be made a v a i l a b l e t o nurses, i n the community i n which the i n s t i t u t i o n i s l o c a t e d . 7 9 There are a number of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s i n s c h o o l s o f n u r s i n g f o r t h e i r undergraduate programs. These c o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e t o p r a c t i c i n g and n o n - p r a c t i c i n g nurses i n the community. "The gap between a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s and the use o f these r e s o u r c e s appears t o be a wide one. T h i s i n p a r t i s due to the d i f f i c u l t y t h a t nurses have i n l o c a t i n g . , „ 8 0 these r e s o u r c e s . Human Resources should be e x p e r t s i n the f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . T h i s c r i t e r i o n has been i d e n t i f i e d as one o f the main problems department does not have i t s own f a c u l t y t h i s c r e a t e s an e x t r a burden f o r the r e s t of the f a c u l t y i n the s c h o o l o f n u r s i n g . Some u n i v e r s i t y s c h o o l s o f n u r s i n g are att e m p t i n g t o s o l v e the problem o f shortage o f a d u l t educators through The f a c u l t y i n the c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n department i n the s e l e c t i o n o f t e a c h e r s . 8 1 , 8 2 I f the c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n 79 I b i d . , p. 4 2 . 80 I b i d . / P- 4 3 . 81 Nakamoto and Verner, C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nurs i n g , p. 4 3 . 82 Cooper and Byrns, A P l a n f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , p . 2 3 . 83* p e r i o d s o f i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g c o u r ses f o r nurse f a c u l t y . Community c o l l e g e s f a c u l t y and o t h e r q u a l i f i e d people i n the community are i d e a l r e s o u r c e s . The h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s a l s o have an abundance o f r e s o u r c e people f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . ^ 4 P h y s i c a l Resources These i n c l u d e f u n d i n g and p h y s i c a l space s u i t a b l e f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs. L o c a t i o n o f programs should be e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Rooms i n a p u b l i c l i b r a r y , h i g h s c h o o l , community c o l l e g e s , h o s p i t a l s and o t h e r h e a l t h agencies are i d e a l f o r programs. I t i s up t o the f a c u l t y and p a r t i c i p a n t s t o d e c i d e on the most s u i t -a b l e c h o i c e o f l o c a t i o n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r program. ". . . W i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s o f the e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n i n which ho i s employed, the educator must be s e l e c t i v e i n 85 d e t e r m i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e f a c i l i t i e s f o r o f f e r i n g s . These 83 " E d u c a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the Nurse-Learner," J o u r n a l o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , V (January-February, 1974), 54. * Regular s e c t i o n a p p e a r i n g i n the J o u r n a l o f C o n t i n u -i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g . 84 Barbara Ann Racine, S t r u c t u r e : An Approach to Con-t i n u i n g N u r s i n g E d u c a t i o n ( U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a : Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , 1971), p. 47. 85 Signe Cooper and May Hornback, C o n t i n u i n g Nursing Education(New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973), p. 216. . 43 f a c i l i t i e s must be s u i t a b l e i n terms of a v a i l a b l e space f o r the number of r e g i r t r a n t s and a l s o f o r the q u a l i t y o f t e a c h i n g o r a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s they o f f e r . from u n i v e r s i t y budgets and/or p a r t i c i p a n t s f e e s — m o r e i d e a l l y b o t h — o r from p r i v a t e or government g r a n t s . The more f i r m l y based c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n departments are those which have r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e f i n a n c i a l support from the be c o n t r i b u t i o n s from p a r t i c i p a n t s ' employers. Such c o n t r i b u t i o n s , which s h o u l d be v o l u n t a r y , may o r may not be i n a d d i t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a n t s ' f e e s . They however, r e p r e s e n t one way o f e x p r e s s i n g employers' i n t e r e s t i n improving h e a l t h c a r e , i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y o f employees 88 and promoting t h e i r w e l f a r e . -E d u c a t i o n a l Resources 89 90 91 The l i t e r a t u r e ' ' r e v e a l s t h a t books, p e r i o d i -c a l s and o t h e r w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s remain the most e a s i l y In terms o f f u n d i n g , f i s c a l support may be e i t h e r u n i v e r s i t y . 86,87 Another important source o f f u n d i n g c o u l d 86 Cooper and Hornback, C o n t i n u i n g N u r s i n g E d u c a t i o n , p. 216. Nurses, n Signe Cooper, " U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n Courses f o r N u r s i n g Outlook, I I (January, 1963), 36. 88 M c G r i f f and Cooper, A c c o u n t a b i l i t y t o the Consumer, p. 4 . p. 44. N u r s i n g , p. 221. 44 a c c e s s i b l e sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n and c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n t o o l s f o r the l a r g e s t number of nurses. These r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s t o be u s e f u l must, however, be kept up-to-date by a c q u i r i n g the l a t e s t p u b l i c a t i o n s on s u b j e c t s and expand-i n g the range o f d i s c i p l i n e s covered. The c o n t i n u i n g educator must be aware o f these r e s o u r c e s and t h e i r l o c a t i o n s . Although nurses f r e q u e n t l y b e l i e v e they have ac c e s s t o few e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s , "many are unaware of the g r e a t r e s o u r c e t o which most nurses have r e l a t i v e l y easy a c c e s s : the p u b l i c community l i b r a r y . " These l i b r a r i e s p r o v i d e a system o f i n t e r l i b r a r y l o a n s . H o s p i t a l l i b r a r i e s a re a l s o a 92 v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e . P u b l i c l i b r a r i e s may be encouraged t o e s t a b l i s h a c o l l e c t i o n o f n u r s i n g textbooks and j o u r n a l s . The nurses themselves o r the c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t o r may i n i t i a t e a c t i o n f o r the l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n . Some areas use a mobile l e a r n i n g c e n t r e stocked w i t h books and o t h e r a u d i o - v i s u a l . , 9 3 a i d s . The l o c a l t e l e v i s i o n and/or r a d i o s t a t i o n s may be encouraged t o b r o a d c a s t programs i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r n u rses. These programs, based on the e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f the nurses and t h e h e a l t h needs o f the community. 92 Cooper and Byrns, A P l a n f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . 9 3 I b i d . , p. 48. should be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the department o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g , o f a u n i v e r s i t y . Other areas a re u s i n g t e l e v i s i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y to c a r r y c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n 94 programs f o r t h e i r n u rses. A survey o f the PANMED 95 t e l e v i s i o n program i n Kentucky showed t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f nurses v i e w i n g the program were diploma graduates employed i n a g e n e r a l duty p o s i t i o n i n a g e n e r a l h o s p i t a l . Most nurses f e l t the PANMED program c o u l d be used t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . The program was however, g e n e r a l l y c r i t i c i z e d f o r inadequate coverage and poor p u b l i c i t y . One experiment on open c i r c u i t t e l e v i s i o n i n which i t was sought t o determine whether nurses g a i n e d more from a b r o a d c a s t viewed i n d i v i d u a l l y a t home than from one viewed w i t h a group o f c o l l e a g u e s i n a h o s p i t a l c o n f e r e n c e room concluded t h a t : . . . The f i n d i n g s . . . i n d i c a t e . . . t h a t through home vie w i n g , b r o a d c a s t t e l e v i s i o n has the p o t e n t i a l t o serve a l l h e a l t h s c i e n c e p r o f e s s i o n a l s , i n c l u d i n g those i n which members spend t h e i r working day sep a r a t e d from each other.96 " " i b i d . , p. 48. 95 Irma B o l t e , and J u a n i t a Flemmmg, "A Study o f R e g i s t e r e d Nurses who viewed the PANMED T.V. Program S e r i e s i n N u r s i n g , " Journal- o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , I I (September-October, 1971), 13. 9 6 June Abbey, e t a l . " T e l e v i s i o n i n H e a l t h S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n : Home and H o s p i t a l Viewing o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n B r o a d c a s t s under Three Presentation-Response C o n d i t i o n s , " J o u r n a l o f M e d i c a l E d u c a t i o n , XXXIX ( J u l y , 1964), 693. The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a School o f N u r s i n g i n Los Angeles a l s o o f f e r s c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs v i a the scrambled network. The programs are p a t i e n t c e n t r e d , 97 a r e f r e q u e n t l y s i m u l a t e d and sometimes r e a l . The s t a t e u n i v e r s i t y h o s p i t a l s i n Ohio a l s o b r a o d c a s t programs v i a a two-way r a d i o t e l e v i s i o n system to o t h e r s t a t e h o s p i t a l s . T h i s enables a s c a t t e r e d audience to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o n t i n u -i n g e d u c a t i o n programs i n n u r s i n g . I t i s a w e l l r e c e i v e d 98 program. The U n i v e r s i t y of W isconsin a l s o has a s t a t e w i d e t e l e l e c t u r e f o r nurses. The l e c t u r e s are telephoned from the U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n to p r o f e s s i o n a l nurses i n the s t a t e . S l i d e s are used i n the c e n t r e s as v i s u a l a d j u n c t s t o the l e c t u r e s . Management o f t h e c l a s s e s a t each c e n t r e 99 i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of n u r s e - c o o r d i n a t o r s . On June 23, 1970, under B i l l 43, the O n t a r i o L e g i s l a t u r e e s t a b l i s h e d the O n t a r i o E d u c a t i o n a l Communications A u t h o r i t y . Through t h i s B i l l , Channel 19 Toronto, was e s t a b l i s h e d as Canada's f i r s t f u l l - t i m e e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e -v i s i o n . I t s e s t i m a t e d p o t e n t i a l audience i s 900,000, and i t c o v e r s 95 per c e n t of the p o p u l a t i o n o f O n t a r i o . The p l a n s f o r t h i s s t a t i o n c a l l f o r a wide range o f programs. Nakamoto and Verner, C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n  N u r s i n g , p. 62. : 9 8 I b i d . , p. 63. 99 May Hornback and Helen B r u n c l i k , " P a r t y - l i n e f o r Nurses/J N u r s i n g Outlook, XVI (May, 1968) , 30. from p r e - s c h o o l t o c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t c o u r s e s , programs f o r t e a c h e r s , and b r o a d c a s t s o f g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t . N u r s i n g D i a l A c c e s s ^ ^ i s another form o f l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e which has been employed i n W i s c o n s i n . I t i s a taped l i b r a r y a v a i l a b l e by telephone t o p r o f e s s i o n a l nurses i n W i s c o n s i n . I t c o n s i s t s o f a number of p r e - r e c o r d e d s i x to e i g h t minute tapes on a v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t s r e l a t e d t o n u r s i n g . The nurse d i a l s a s p e c i a l telephone number and asks f o r the d e s i r e d tape. The tape i s p l a y e d over the telephone. An e v a l u a t i o n o f t h i s s e r v i c e shows t h a t about 55 per cent of the c a l l s r e c e i v e d are from the W i s c o n s i n a r e a . Nurses may a l s o be taught how t o develop t h e i r own s e l f -i n s t r u c t i o n a l packages on v a r i o u s n u r s i n g p r o c e d u r e s . Where p o s s i b l e the nurses may work w i t h t h e i r a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s departments t o develop these package programs. The Carnegie Commission on Higher E d u c a t i o n p r e -d i c t e d i n a r e c e n t r e p o r t , "The F o u r t h R e v o l u t i o n : I n s t r u c - • t i o n a l Technology i n Higher E d u c a t i o n , " t h a t w i t h i n the next t h r e e decades 10 to 20 per c e n t o f on-campus i n s t r u c t i o n and 80 per c e n t o f off-campus e d u c a t i o n w i l l be c a r r i e d out by ^ ^ R e p o r t o f the M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , 1970, (Toronto: L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of O n t a r i o , 197 0), p. 1 . ^^"Anne N i l e s , "Nursing D i a l A c c e s s : A T o o l f o r I n s e r v i c e E d u c a t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n  Nu r s i n g , I I I (May-June, 1972) , 39. 102 Cooper and Byrns, A P l a n f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , p. 48. 48 means o f computers, t e l e v i s i o n s , c a s s e t t e s , and v a r i o u s o t h e r e l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e s . T h i s new technology w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e f o r students to l e a r n s k i l l s on t h e i r own, a t t h e i r own pace, and w i l l expand off-campus s t u d y . ^ 3 Independent study guides may a l s o be developed by the u n i v e r s i t y and c o l l e g e s . These would be based on a v a r i e t y o f t o p i c s suggested by nu r s e s . "Although developed i n i t i a l l y f o r under-graduate l e a r n i n g , i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g l a b o r a t o r i e s a l s o have g r e a t v a l u e f o r the s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g needs o f p r a c t i c -104 m g nurses. F i n a l l y , nurses may a l s o c o n t i n u e l e a r n i n g through correspondence c o u r s e s . An example o f t h i s type of program i s the one o f f e r e d by the Canadian Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n and the Canadian H o s p i t a l A s s o c i a t i o n E x t e n s i o n Course on U n i t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 1 ^ Government, through the H e a l t h and Ed u c a t i o n Departments, can c o n t r i b u t e t o an o v e r a l l p l a n o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g by making money a v a i l a b l e . 1 ^ 6 O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f C o n t i n u i n g  E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g To get a proper p e r s p e c t i v e o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y 1 ( ^ " E d u c a t i o n a l Body P r e d i c t s R e v o l u t i o n i n Teach-i n g , " N u r s i n g Outlook, XX ( J u l y , 1972), 424. 104 Cooper and Byrns, A P l a n f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , P ' 1 5 ' 105 Nakamoto and Verner, C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n  Nursing, p. 37. 1 0 6 R a c i n e , S t r u c t u r e , p. 121. t o look a t i t s p l a c e w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the u n i v e r s i t y . C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs, are e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n a u n i v e r s i t y o r community c o l l e g e i n con-f o r m i t y w i t h the p h i l o s o p h y o f these i n s t i t u t i o n s . Each u n i v e r s i t y ' s c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n program i s unique and t h i s uniqueness, i n p a r t , i s i n f l u e n c e d by the form o f f a c u l t y commitment t o the u n i v e r s i t y . The c o n t i n u -i n g e d u c a t i o n department i n a u n i v e r s i t y may be c e n t r a l i z e d or d e c e n t r a l i z e d . In the d e c e n t r a l i z e d department the f a c u l t y i n i t i a t e s , p l a n s , implements, and e v a l u a t e s i t s own program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . In the c e n t r a l i z e d form a s e p a r a t e department or e x t e n s i o n d i v i s i o n i s r espon-s i b l e f o r the c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n program o f the university." 1" 108 Burch o u t l i n e s arguments f o r both c e n t r a l i z e d and decen-t r a l i z e d approaches. For d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , c h a r a c t e r i z e r ; by programming w i t h i n each academic department, i t was p o i n t e d out t h a t f a c u l t y i n v o l v e d i n c o n s u l c a t i o n and surveys w i t h the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r s u b j e c t f i e l d were most knowledgeable about the needs f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . Proponents of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , w i t h p r o v i s i o n of programs from a s e p a r a t e department or e x t e n s i o n d i v i s i o n , argue t h a t d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n fragments the u n i v e r s i t y , i n c r e a s e s c o s t s F r i e d a C u r t i s , e t a l . , C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n  N u rsing (Boulder, C o l o r a d o : Western I n t e r s t a t e Commission f o r Higher E d u c a t i o n , 1969), p. 12. 108 Glen Burch, C h a l l e n g e to the U n i v e r s i t y : I n q u i r y  i n t o the U n i v e r s i t y ' s R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ,  Notes and Essays on E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s # 35 (Boston: Boston U n i v e r s i t y , 1961), p~. 33. ~ ~~ ~ 50 by d u p l i c a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and does not p r o v i d e programs designed t o meet the needs and i n t e r e s t s of a d u l t s . The f i n a n c i a l support f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs a l s o i n f l u e n c e s the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n department w i t h i n a u n i v e r s i t y . In some i n s t i t u -t i o n s c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i s s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g ; i n o t h e r s , the u n i v e r s i t y budget c o v e r s the c o s t o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f . The types of program o f f e r e d a re i n f l u e n c e d t o some degree by the u n i v e r s i t y f i n a n c i a l support. S e l f - s u p p o r t i n g programs may be l i m i t e d t o o f f e r i n g the types o f programs 109 t h a t a re f a i r l y c e r t a i n t o draw a l a r g e audience. F a c u l t y assignment a l s o v a r i e s w i t h the o r g a n i z a -t i o n o f the c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n program. In some i n s t i t u -t i o n s f a c u l t y may be a s s i g n e d t o the c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n department as a p a r t o f the r e g u l a r t e a c h i n g l o a d . I n o t h e r s , the f a c u l t y may te a c h on an o v e r - l o a d b a s i s . F a c u l t y may a l s o be employed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , or n o n - u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y may be h i r e d on a c o n t r a c t u a l b a s i s to t e a c h s p e c i f i c c o u r s e s . 1 1 0 For the c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n department i n a u n i v e r -s i t y t o f u n c t i o n adequately i t must be seen as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n ' s e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s and not as C u r t i s , e t a l . , C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , p. 12. — 1 1 0 I b i d . , 12-13. 51 . a f r i n g e b e n e f i t . T h i s means t h a t i t should be f u l l y budget-ed f o r and supported by u n i v e r s i t y p o l i c i e s . The u n i v e r s i t y department o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g should have the s e r v i c e s of a f u l l - t i m e d i r e c t o r o r chairman. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the d i r e c t o r should i n c l u d e i d e n t i f y i n g the l e a r n i n g needs of the nurse p o p u l a t i o n ; d e v e l o p i n g and implementing a program t o meet these needs, and e v a l u a t i n g the r e s u l t s o f the program. In order to accomplish these most a f f e c t i v e l y , c e r t a i n support s t a f f s e r v i c e s a re ne c e s s a r y . These should i n c l u d e an a d v i s o r y committee, s e c r e t a r i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and o t h e r suppor-112 t i v e s e r v i c e s . The a d v i s o r y committee should i n c l u d e members of the community. R e p r e s e n t a t i o n should be from the c l i n i c a l and f u n c t i o n a l areas of n u r s i n g , p r o v i n c i a l n u r s e s ' a s s o c i a t i o n , h e a l t h c a r e a g e n c i e s , and me d i c a l and a l l i e d h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s . Each o f the members o f the a d v i s o r y committee w i l l be i n c o n t a c t w i t h a d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n of the 113 p o p u l a t i o n and w i l l a l s o have p e r s o n a l v e s t e d i n t e r e s t . "The i n f o r m a t i o n gathered by t h i s group may i n d i c a t e need f o r e d u c a t i o n a l programs q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n na t u r e and broader i n scope than those r e q u e s t e d by i n d i v i d u a l nurse p r a c t i t i o n e r s . The committee a l s o s e r v e s as a l i a i s o n 1 1 1 R a c i n e , S t r u c t u r e , p. 123. 112 . • • C u r t i s , e t a l . , C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , • L X - 3 I b i d . , pp. 12-14. 52 between the community and the u n i v e r s i t y and f u l f i l l s t h e 114 f u n c t i o n s o f communication and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . " The l i f e o f the committee i s dependent on i t s s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n s and, o f cour s e , i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . I t may be a permanent committee or i t may be a r o t a t i n g one. A permanent committee may, i n time, o u t - s e r v e i t s u s e f u l n e s s ; on the o t h e r hand a r o t a t i n g committee may s u f f e r from l a c k of c o n t i n u i t y . In a d d i t i o n , s p e c i a l committees s h o u l d be formed t o p l a n i n d i v i d u a l program o f f e r i n g s . The members of t h i s committee are chosen on the b a s i s o f t h e i r exper-115 t i s e and i n t e r e s t i n the p a r t i c u l a r program being planned. Summary The l i t e r a t u r e review i n t h i s c h apter was i n t e n d e d to b r i n g t o g e t h e r some of the accepted concepts, bases and o r i e n t a t i o n o f . c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l . Some o f the important i d e a s s p e c i f i c to c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n the h e a l t h s c i e n c e s and i n n u r s i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r , were a l s o b r i e f l y reviewed. C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n as a form o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s t r e s s e s the d e s i r a b i l i t y and n e c e s s i t y f o r l i f e - l o n g l e a r n i n g i n the modern world. C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n has as 114 T, . , ; I b i d . , p. 14. 115_. ., I b i d . , p. 14 , 53 i t s f o c u s the a d u l t l e a r n e r . The concept of andragogy d e a l s w i t h the p e c u l i a r i t i e s and requirements o f a d u l t - l e a r n i n g . The main p r i n c i p l e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n the p r o f e s s i o n s were o u t l i n e d a t a c o n f e r e n c e sponsored by the O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r the S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n i n 1970. These p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l i n e the o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n t o enable i n d i v i d u a l s t o m a i n t a i n an a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l o f competence i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e l d s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e . A v a i l a b l e evidence suggests t h a t a consensus on the term " c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n " i s s t i l l d e v e l o p i n g . Recent surveys have i n d i c a t e d widespread i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n among p r a c t i c i n g n u r s e s . Nurses, who are predominantly women, have to f a c e many problems which pr e v e n t them from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n such programs. The main f a c t o r which d i s c o u r a g e s nurse p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs i s home r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . F i n a n c i a l , l o g i s t i c and l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s a l s o p l a y a p a r t . S o l u t i o n s to these problems must be found i f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs f o r nurses are to be s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented. A number o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d as having some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s -i n g . Of these the u n i v e r s i t y , through i t s department o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n o c c u p i e s a p i v o t a l p o s i t i o n . U l t i m a t e l y , however, the success o f the program depends p r i m a r i l y on t h e enthusiasm and sense o f commitment on the p a r t o f the p a r t i c i p a t i n g nurses. 54 C e n t r a l i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n as a l t e r n a t i v e forms i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g have been d i s c u s s e d by v a r i o u s a u t h o r s . N e i t h e r of these i s f a u l t l e s s but reasons which seem t o favour a c e n t r a l i z e d approach i n c l u d e avoidance of d u p l i c a t i o n and waste of r e s o u r c e s . I t i s suggested t h a t o r g a n i z i n g the program under a D i r e c t o r o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n and as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the u n i v e r s i t y s h o u l d c o n s i d e r a b l y reduce many i n i t i a l o b s t a c l e s to p r o g r e s s e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d to f i n a n c i n g , access t o f a c i l i t i e s and m o b i l i z i n g r e s o u r c e s . The r e g i o n a l approach t o p l a n n i n g f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g was d i s c u s s e d . A number o f s t u d i e s on t h i s s u b j e c t s t r e s s the u s e f u l n e s s of such an approach as a way of i n v o l v i n g the l o c a l community who are b e s t p l a c e d to i d e n t i f y the l e a r n i n g needs i n t h e i r a r e a . Such p l a n n i n g must c o n s i d e r not o n l y the s t a t e d g o a l s o r o b j e c t i v e s but a l s o r e l a t e t o the t o t a l i t y of the v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n an o p e r a t i o n a l framework of o r g a n i z a t i o n . The f u l f i l l m e n t of the g o a l s o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r nurses r e q u i r e s human, p h y s i c a l and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s as w e l l as adequate e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . The q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f a v a i l a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s i s most important. In p a r t i c u l a r , " g o o d ' l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s need to be p r o v i d e d , f a c u l t y upgraded, w h i l e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g a u d i o -v i s u a l t e a c h i n g a i d s , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n and s e l f -e d u c a t i o n by correspondence should be e x p l o r e d . CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY Design f o r the Study and Study Methods The purpose o f the survey i s t o l e a r n what the r e g i o n o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o o f f e r s i n terms o f r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n t h a t a r e a . T h i s study uses the d e s c r i p t i v e survey r e s e a r c h method. I t i s desig n e d t o i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e the e x i s t -i n g r e s o u r c e s t h a t may be used f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . The study f o c u s e s on the a v a i l a b i l i t y and adequacy o f e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o t o p r o v i d e q u a l i t y c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s f o r the nurses a t a r e g i o n a l l e v e l . D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Study Area C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Region^ The N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o Region, "The Tre a s u r e Chest o f Canada," comprises s i x d i s t r i c t s o f Algoma, Cochrane, The i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s o b t a i n e d from, Department of Economics and Development, .Economic  Survey.of N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o (Toronto, O n t a r i o : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1966), pp. 1-3. 55 56 M a n i t o u l i n , N i p i s s i n g , Sudbury and Timiskaming. I t has a l a n d a r e a of n e a r l y 105,000 square m i l e s or about 30 per cent of the l a n d area of O n t a r i o . I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t the 1971 p o p u l a t i o n would be about 658,000, 8.5 per c e n t of the p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l w i t h a p r o j e c t i o n o f 875,300 persons by 1981, 8.8 per c e n t of the p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l . The p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y of the r e g i o n i s e s t i m a t e d t o be s i x persons per square m i l e . The economy of the Region i s based on i t s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . Mining and f o r e s t r y , manufacturing and the p r o d u c t i o n of e l e c t r i c i t y , t o u r i s m and i t s r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s , a l l are dependent on the r o c k s and t r e e s , the l a k e s and r i v e r s t h a t abound i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . The c h i e f mining r e s o u r c e s are n i c k e l , copper, uranium, i r o n and g o l d . The m a g n i f i c i e n t scenery t o be found i n many p a r t s of the Region, i t s areas of untouched w i l d e r n e s s , and i t s e x c e l l e n t h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g are s t i l l the n a i n a t t r a c t i o n s f o r t o u r i s t s . There are r e l a t i v e l y few v a r i a t i o n s i n monthly average temperatures; the temperature tends t o become lower the f u r t h e r n o r t h one goes. Most of the a r e a r e c e i v e s an average minimal p r e c i p i t a t i o n ( r a i n p l u s snow) of between 30 and 35 i n c h e s . Average annual minimal s n o w f a l l v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y , from 74 i n c h e s i n some areas (Sudbury) t o 150 i n c h e s i n o t h e r s (North of Lake S u p e r i o r ) . Average d a i l y temperatures v a r i e s from -0.7 degrees F a h r e n h e i t i n January to 78.4 degrees F a h r e n h e i t i n J u l y . 57 . By e t h n i c groups, 39 per c e n t o f the Region's people are o f B r i t i s h a n c e s t r y and 36 per c e n t are French. The next l a r g e s t groups are I t a l i a n (5 per c e n t ) , German (3.5 per c e n t ) , F i n n i s h (3 per cent) and Ukranian (2.4 per c e n t ) . Two per cent, 10,552 are n a t i v e I n d i a n s . The mother tongue o f 55 per c e n t of the people o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o i s E n g l i s h , 30 per c e n t French. Four per c e n t speaks I t a l i a n , 2 per c e n t F i n n i s h , 2 per c e n t German and 1.5 per c e n t an I n d i a n language. With a l a n d area o f 19,320 square m i l e s , Algoma i s the second l a r g e s t D i s t r i c t i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . "As i n much of the North, i t i s a l a n d of r o c k s and f o r e s t s , r u s h i n g streams and l a k e s on the one hand, and Canada's second l a r g e s t s t e e l complex and a c i t y o f 65,000 persons, 2 on the o t h e r . " The wealth o f the D i s t r i c t i s based on i t s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , i t s m i n e r a l s , i t s f o r e s t s , i t s l o c a t i o n on the r i v e r which j o i n s Lakes S u p e r i o r and Huron and s e p a r a t e s O n t a r i o from the S t a t e of M i c h i g a n . I r o n , copper and uranium are i t s c h i e f m i n e r a l s . The D i s t r i c t has a p o p u l a t i o n of over 11,408. S a u l t S t . Marie the D i s t r i c t c i t y has a p o p u l a t i o n of 81,000. N e a r l y 47 per cent o f the p o p u l a t i o n are of B r i t i s h d e s c e n t , w h i l e 19 per c e n t a r e French, 10 per c e n t I t a l i a n and 4.5 per c e n t German. 2 I b i d . , p. 125. 58 The D i s t r i c t of Cochrane accounts f o r o n e - h a l f o f the area o f the Region and approximately 15 .per c e n t o f t h a t of the P r o v i n c e . The economy of the Cochrane D i s t r i c t i s based on i t s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s — i t s m i n e r a l s and f o r e s t s , i t s l a k e s and r i v e r s . There are m i n e r a l i z e d d e p o s i t s o f g o l d , s i l v e r , n i c k e l , copper, l e a d , z i n c , c o b a l t and a s b e s t o s . T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t i s over 100,000. N e a r l y o n e - h a l f o f the p o p u l a t i o n i s o f F r e n c h d e s c e n t and approximately o n e - t h i r d i s B r i t i s h . The remaining 20 per c e n t are I t a l i a n , F i n n i s h , Ukranian, P o l i s h , German, Sc a n d i n a v i a n and n a t i v e I n d i a n s . The l a r g e s t community i n the D i s t r i c t i s Timmins" w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 29,270. The D i s t r i c t s of M a n i t o u l i n and Sudbury t o g e t h e r make up the s u b - r e g i o n known as the N i c k e l Range. Some 180,000 people, more than o n e - t h i r d o f the Region's popu-l a t i o n , l i v e i n t h i s area which c o n t a i n s o n e - f i f t h o f a l l the l a n d . M a n i t o u l i n w i t h a l a n d a r e a of 1,585 square m i l e s , i s the s m a l l e s t D i s t r i c t i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . I t c o n s i s t s o f one l a r g e i s l a n d ( M a n i t o u l i n I s l a n d ) , a number of s m a l l i s l a n d s l y i n g i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o i t and a p o r t i o n of the mainland l y i n g between Georgian Bay and the D i s t r i c t o f Sudbury. M a n i t o u l i n I s l a n d (1,073 square m i l e s i n a r e a ) , " i s s a i d t o be the l a r g e s t f r e s h water i s l a n d i n the w o r l d . I t i s n e a r l y 100 m i l e s l o n g and from 3 t o 40 m i l e s wide. Main a c c e s s t o the i s l a n d i s by highway. About t w o - t h i r d s o f the people i n the D i s t r i c t a r e o f B r i t i s h o r i g i n . The next l a r g e s t group i s n a t i v e I n d i a n s . A g r i c u l t u r e and t o u r i s m are the main economic a c t i v i t i e s o f the i s l a n d . The p o p u l a t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t i s 11,176. The town o f L i t t l e C u r r e n t i s the l a r g e s t s e t t l e m e n t i n the D i s t r i c t w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 1,527. Some 7,560 square m i l e s o f l a n d , about 7 per c e n t o f the t o t a l l a n d area o f the Region, l i e w i t h i n the boundaries o f the D i s t r i c t o f N i p i s s i n g . F o r e s t - b a s e d i n d u s t r i e s m i n i n g equipment p r o d u c t i o n , t o u r i s m and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication s e r v i c e s are the major elements i n the economy of the D i s t r i c t . The p o p u l a t i o n o f N i p i s s i n g D i s t r i c t i s 70,568. F o r t y - f o u r per c e n t o f the p o p u l a t i o n i s of French o r i g i n and 41 per c e n t B r i t i s h . The c i t y o f North Bay "Gateway o f the North" i s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e o f the D i s t r i c t . I t has a p o p u l a t i o n o f 23,781. Much o f the 18,058 square m i l e s o f l a n d w i t h i n the borders of the Sudbury D i s t r i c t i s covered w i t h r o c k s , f o r e s t s , l a k e s and streams but w i t h l i t t l e l a n d s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . More than t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the D i s t r i c t i s p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t l a n d . The t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y i s an important p a r t of i t s economy. Mini n g , however, along w i t h i t s dependent i n d u s t r i e s , remains the major economic a c t i v i t y i n the D i s t r i c t . The Sudbury B a s i n c o n t i n u e s t o 60 b e t h e w o r l d ' s g r e a t e s t n i c k e l a n d p l a t i n u m p r o d u c i n g a r e a . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 p e r c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t ' s l a b o u r f o r c e i s e n g a g e d i n m i n i n g . W i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f o v e r 1 6 5 , 8 6 2 , S u d b u r y i s t h e l a r g e s t a n d m o s t p o p u l o u s D i s t r i c t i n t h e R e g i o n . T h i r t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s o f F r e n c h o r i g i n , a n d 33 p e r c e n t i s B r i t i s h . The n e x t l a r g e s t g r o u p i s I t a l i a n w h i c h a c c o u n t s f o r 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l . The l a r g e s t c i t y i n t h e D i s t r i c t i s S u d b u r y w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f o v e r 9 0 , 5 3 5 . L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y i s s i t u a t e d i n t h e c i t y o f S u d b u r y . The D i s t r i c t o f T i m i s k a m i n g i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5,896 s q u a r e m i l e s l a r g e . . Economy o f t h e D i s t r i c t i s b a s e d o n m i n i n g a n d f o r e s t r y . .Gold i s t h e c h i e f m i n e r a l m i n e d . The p o p u l a t i o n i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 0 , 9 7 1 . F o r t y - s e v e n p e r c e r . t o f 'z.he p o p u l a t i o n i s B r i t i s h o r i g i n a n d 31 p e r c e n t F r e n c h . K i r k l a n d L a k e i s t h e l a r g e s t t o w n w i t h a p o p u l a -t i o n o f 1 5 , 3 6 6 . The R e g i o n i s w e l l s e r v e d b y a i r a n d s e a p l a n e s , 4 h i g h w a y s , r o a d s , a n d r a i l w a y s . L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y o f S u d b u r y , a n o n - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l , b i l i n g u a l i n s t i t u t i o n , i s N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o ' s o n l y U n i v e r s i t y . I t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1960 a n d h a s a f f i l i a t i o n s w i t h t h r e e c o l l e g e s i n t h e R e g i o n . T h e s e a r e C o l l e g e De H e a r s t , a t H e a r s t , N i p i s s i n g U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e a t N o r t h B a y , a n d A l g o m a U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e a t S a u l t S t . M a r i e . 4 . S e e A p p e n d i x A. 61 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Nurses i n the Region 5 A v a i l a b l e d a t a on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the nurse p o p u l a t i o n r e f e r t o the r e g i s t r a t i o n y e a r ending December 31, 197 3. These are the l a t e s t t a b u l a t e d d a t a . Table I g i v e s the age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e g i s t e r e d nurses i n the N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o Region i n 1973. The t o t a l number of r e g i s t e r e d nurses i s 2901. Of these, 1463 or 50.4 per c e n t are aged between 17 and 34 y e a r s . Nurses aged between 25 y e a r s and 29 y e a r s r e p r e s e n t the l a r g e s t s i n g l e age group w i t h approximately 24 per c e n t o f the t o t a l . Only 92 or under 3 per cent o f a l l the r e g i s t e r e d nurses a r e aged 60 years and o v e r . The ages o f 271 nurses o r 8 per c e n t o f the t o t a l a r e r e c o r d e d as unknown. Four d i s t r i c t s , Sudbury, N i p i s s i n g , Cochrane and Algoma account f o r 79.4 per c e n t o f the t o t a l number o f r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e s . The age d i s t r i b u t i o n of nurses i n the d i s t r i c t s tends to f o l l o w the p a t t e r n f o r the Region as a whole, the important e x c e p t i o n s b e i n g Muskoka and M a n i t o u l i n where nurses aged 17 to 34 y e a r s make up 42.1 per c e n t and 39.5 per c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y o f the d i s t r i c t t o t a l . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was r e c e i v e d by d i r e c t m a i l from the C o l l e g e o f Nurses, O n t a r i o . TABLE I AGE DISTRIBUTION OF REGISTERED NURSES IN NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO, 1973 BY DISTRICTS Age Range Muskoka Nipissing Parry Sound Manitoulin Sudbury Timiskaming Cochrane Algoma Total 17-19 mm _ mm 20-24 19 36 9 2 92 40 67 64 329 25-29 34 93 23 9 207 41 103 178 688 30-34 22 71 !7 6 135 35 78 82 446 35-39 17 56 21 1 89 21 41 63 309 40-44 16 37 21 4 72 24 41 52 267 45-49 15 33 11 5 55 21 33 36 209 50-54 15 29 12 4 47 14 20 29 170 55-59 16 18 5 2 32 9 15 23 120 60-64 3 10 2 3 10 10 9 15 62 65-99 7 3 2 2 6 5 2 3 30 Age Unknown 14 44 12 5 84 19 40 53 271 Total 178 430 135 43 829 239 449 598 2901 Source: College of Nurses, Ontario, 1975. to 63 T a b l e 2 g i v e s the l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n of r e g i s t e r e d nurses i n the Region by d i s t r i c t s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e o f t h i s t a b l e i s the v e r y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n (81%) o f nurses w i t h no u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . More than 50 per c e n t o f these nurses are employed i n Sudbury and Algoma. Nurses w i t h u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n l e a d i n g t o a degree i n n u r s i n g or o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e number 168, o f which o n l y 6 have graduate degrees. Of the 168 nurses w i t h u n i v e r s i t y degrees 87 or approximately 52 per c e n t are employed i n Sudbury and Algoma d i s t r i c t s . T a b l e 3 shows the f i e l d o f employment o f r e g i s t e r e d nurses i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o i n 1973. E i g h t y per c e n t o f a l l nurses i n the Region: work i n p u b l i c h o s p i t a l s . P u b l i c h e a l t h u n i t s and n u r s i n g homes employ the second and t h i r d l a r g e s t groups. Sudbury and Algoma d i s t r i c t s a g a i n account f o r more than 50 per c e n t o f the t o t a l and o f the h o s p i t a l employed nurses. The employment s t a t u s of nurses i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o by d i s t r i c t s i n 1973 i s shown i n Table 4. 2,868 or 96 per c e n t o f the t o t a l are employed i n the f i e l d o f n u r s i n g . A n e g l i g i b l e number i s unemployed. Less than 2 per c e n t are employed i n f i e l d s o t h e r than n u r s i n g . Among those employed i n n u r s i n g , approximately 70 per c e n t are i n f u l l - t i m e employment, 24 per c e n t p a r t - t i m e and 6 per c e n t employed a t unknown times. Sudbury and Algoma d i s t r i c t s account f o r 50 per cent o f a l l nurses employed i n the f i e l d o f n u r s i n g and 48 per c e n t o f those employed f u l l - t i m e . TABLE 2 DISTRIBUTION OF REGISTERED NURSES IN NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO, 1973, ACCORDING TO LEVEL OF EDUCATION AND BY DISTRICTS . ;'; U n i v e r s i t y Q u a l i f i c a t i o n Muskoka Nipissing — i Parry Sound Manitoulin Sudbury Timiskaming Cochrane Algoma Total No University 146 350 104 29 668 190 343 489 2319 University Diploma 7 26 9 2 39 17 32 30 162 Credits Toward Bachelor 16 33 7 4 64 13 33 49 219 Bachelor i n Nursing 4 8 1 2 25 4 11 12 67 Post-basic Bachelor i n Nursing Other Bachelor 4 1 11 2 1 1 - • 25 4 13 1 16 12 4 82 13 Master i n Nursing - - - - 2 • 1 - 2 5 Master Ocher - - - — — — — — " Doctorate i n Nursing - - - - - - - -' Doctorate i n Other - - - - 1 - - - 1 Total 178 430 123 37 828 239 435 598 2868 Source: C o l l e g e of Nurses, O n t a r i o , 1975. TABLE 3 DISTRIBUTION OF REGISTERED NURSES IN NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO, 1973 ACCORDING TO FIELD OF EMPLOYMENT Field of Employment Muskoka Nipissing Parry Sound Manitoulin Sudbury Tinriskatning Cochrane Algoma Total Hospital 130 349 98 25 665 185 338 469 2259 Nursing Home 20 12 11 3 19 4 17 21 107 School of Nursing 1 17 2 . - • 28 8 16 18 90 Private Nursing 2 - - - 7 4 2 2 17 Public Health 13 22 2 6 63 25 42 45 218 School Health 1 6 4 .1 13 - 3 9 37 Occupational Health 3 6 1 1 10 - 4 8 33 Doctor's Office 7 16 4 1 16 10 8 18 80 Other - — - - - - 1 - 1 Unknown - - ' - - 1 - - - 1 Total 177 428 122 37 822 236 431 590 2843 Source: C o l l e g e of Nurses, O n t a r i o , 1975. <r> ! TABLE 4 DISTRIBUTION' OF REGISTERED NURSES IN NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO, 1973 ACCORDING TO EMPLOYMENT STATUS AND BY DISTRICT Employment Status Muskoka Nipissing Parry SouM Manitoulin Sudbury Tircuskaming Cochrane Algoma Total Employed i n Nursing Full-time 125 305 90 27 579 179 319 397 2021 Part-time 46 105 29 8 204 52 94 167 705 Unknown time 7 20 4' 2 45 8 22 34 142 Total i n . Nursing 178 430 123 37 828 239 435 598 2868 Employed but not i n Nursing 5 9 2 1 21 2 9 10 59 Not Employed 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 3 14 Employment Status Not Known 4 5 1 - 11 1 4 6 32 Total 189 446 127 39 863 244 450 617 2973 Source: C o l l e g e o f Nurses, O n t a r i o , 1975. CTl (Tl 67. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f nurses i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o d e s c r i b e d above can be summarized as f o l l o w s : They f a l l l a r g e l y i n the age group 17-34 y e a r s ; the m a j o r i t y have no u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n ; they are mainly employed i n h o s p i t a l s and work f u l l - t i m e . The number o f unemployed nurses i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s a h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n of nurses i n the Sudbury and Algoma d i s t r i c t s . These d i s t r i c t s account f o r over o n e - h a l f o f a l l nurses employed i n n u r s i n g and on a f u l l - t i m e b a s i s . Over 50 per c e n t of the nurses w i t h a u n i v e r s i t y degree a r e a l s o t o be found i n Algoma and Sudbury. M a r i t a l s t a t u s and work e x p e r i e n c e are o t h e r nurse c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t need to be c o n s i d e r e d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s a s p e c t i s not a v a i l a b l e t o the w r i t e r . The i n f o r m a t i o n d i s c u s s e d i s , however, o f c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and p o t e n t i a l needs f o r a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r nurses i n the r e g i o n . Development of the Instrument V a r i o u s approaches may be employed to c o l l e c t the n e c e s s a r y d a t a or i n f o r m a t i o n on r e s o u r c e s f o r a program i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . Important among these a r e d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n and measurement (assessment) of r e l e -vant r e s o u r c e s , d i r e c t i n t e r v i e w s of r e s o u r c e s u b j e c t s and the use o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . For the p r e s e n t study, m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were used as the instrument f o r the r e s o u r c e s 68 survey. The l i m i t a t i o n s of the m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e technique are known and have been w e l l documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e . 6 The c h o i c e o f method has been c o n s t r a i n e d by the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of expense, time and d i s t a n c e which made the q u e s t i o n n a i r e the most p r a c t i c a l and f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . I t was not p o s s i b l e t o t e s t f o r r e l i a b i l i t y of the instrument used i n the study. However, the p r e - t e s t responses produced a c c u r a t e , s t a b l e d a t a . In terms of v a l i d i t y , the instrument produced the d a t a c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t t o the study. Although such l i m i t a t i o n s are acknowledged, the w r i t e r b e l i e v e s the instrument c o u l d be used f o r s i m i l a r s t u d i e s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were developed t o e l i c i t responses from 7 v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s i n the study a r e a . Separate q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i r e c t e d t o the f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t groups: 1. E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s and H e a l t h Agencies i n c l u d i n g V o l u n t a r y A g e n c i e s . 2. P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s . 3. Radio and T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n s . 4. P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s — R e g i s t e r e d Nurses* A s s o c i a t i o n of O n t a r i o (RNAO), O n t a r i o M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n (OMA), and the O n t a r i o H o s p i t a l A s s o c i a t i o n (OHA). Each q u e s t i o n n a i r e was of the mixed type c o n t a i n i n g both open and closed-ended q u e s t i o n s . They were developed ^ C h a r l e s H. Backstrom and G e r a l d D. Hursh, Survey  Research, M i n n e o p o l i s : Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. 7 See Appendix B. 69. around the c a t e g o r i e s of r e s o u r c e s , namely: human and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s and e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . Respondents were asked q u e s t i o n s about the l o c a t i o n , amount and types of r e s o u r c e s i n t h e i r l o c a l a r e a s ; t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to be p a r t of a r e g i o n a l p l a n f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g and t h e i r knowledge of p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s i n o t h e r a r e a s . A p o o l of items f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was prepared f o l l o w i n g a s e a r c h of the l i t e r a t u r e . The items 8 were then e d i t e d and arranged i n l o g i c a l o r d e r . In d e v e l o p i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c l a r i t y and ease of completing were accounted f o r . A l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were m a i l e d w i t h an e x p l a n a t o r y c o v e r i n g l e t t e r t o the D i r e c t o r , School of N u r s i n g , L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y , Sudbury, who then forwarded them w i t h two c o v e r -8a i n g l e t t e r s t o the r e s p e c t i v e respondents. The q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d d i r e c t l y t o the w r i t e r . P r e - T e s t i n g The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were p r e - t e s t e d i n the Thunder Bay area of O n t a r i o b e f o r e b e i n g m a i l e d to the study a r e a . The Thunder Bay area i s s i m i l a r t o the Region being s t u d i e d . The p r e - t e s t was necessary t o a s s e s s the adequacy of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s as w e l l as c l a r i t y of the q u e s t i o n s asked. See Appendix D. a S e e Appendix C. Survey Procedure The Sample For convenience, i t was d e c i d e d t o c a r r y out the survey based on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s o f the Region. T h i s approach was c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e because the a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g may be based on such d i s t r i c t s . For t h i s purpose, N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o c o n s i s t s o f s i x d i s t r i c t s — A l g o m a , Cochrane, M a n i t o u l i n , N i p i s s i n g , Sudbury and Area,9 and 9a Timiskaming. W i t h i n each d i s t r i c t , the survey o f r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the major town(s) o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e . 1 0 Although such an approach does not l e a d t o coverage o f a l l p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , i t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the view a l r e a d y expressed' t h a t i t i s the e f f e c t i v e r e s o u r c e s or those w i t h i n f e a s i b l e o r o p t i m a l areas f o r l o c a t i n g the programs, t h a t s h o u l d r e c e i v e primary a t t e n t i o n . 1 1 The survey sample comprised those i n s t i t u t i o n s , p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and a g e n c i e s which were c o n s i d e r e d Q Sudbury and A r e a i n c l u d e s Muskoka and P a r r y Sound, ^%ee Map i n Appendix A. 1 0 T h e survey o f the h o s p i t a l s covered the adminis-t r a t i v e c e n t r e and o u t l y i n g areas of each d i s t r i c t . 1 1 S e e page 42. p o t e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s f o r a c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n program i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . The sample elements f o r the survey were: 1. H o s p i t a l s , p u b l i c h e a l t h u n i t s and v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s . 2. Radio and t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s . 3. E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ( c o l l e g e s o f a p p l i e d a r t s and technology a f f i l i a t e c o l l e g e s , u n i v e r s i t y and a c e n t r e f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n ) . 4. P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s . 5. P r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s — R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n o f O n t a r i o (RNAO), O n t a r i o M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n (OMA), and the O n t a r i o H o s p i t a l 12 13 14 15 A s s o c i a t i o n (OHA). C e r t a i n sources ' ' we used t o compile the l i s t o f respondents making up the sample. 12 See Appendix B f o r l i s t o f s u b j e c t s c o n t a c t e d i n each d i s t r i c t . 13 Susan W a l t e r s , ed., Canadian Almanac and  D i r e c t o r y , 1974 (Toronto: Copp C l a r k Pub., 1974 ) . 14 Kaye French, ed., Canadian H o s p i t a l D i r e c t o r y  1974-1975 (Toronto: Canadian H o s p i t a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1974). 15 Department o f Economic Development, Economic  Survey of N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . 72 1. H o s p i t a l s and P u b l i c H e a l t h Agencies The h o s p i t a l s and p u b l i c h e a l t h u n i t s c o n s t i t u t e v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e c e n t r e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . U s u a l l y , these i n s t i t u t i o n s have e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s o n n e l i n c r i t i c a l areas o f n u r s e s ' l e a r n i n g needs. They may a l s o be i n a p o s i t i o n to p r o v i d e such requirements as c l a s s r o o m space, equipment and a u x i l i a r y s t a f f . F i n a l l y , some h o s p i t a l s or t h e i r s a t e l l i t e v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s as w e l l as p u b l i c h e a l t h u n i t s o c c a s i o n a l l y m a i n t a i n u s e f u l l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s or f a c i l i t a t e a c c e s s t o o t h e r s o u r c e s . Fo r the purposes o f t h i s study a l l h o s p i t a l s and t h e i r v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s as w e l l as p u b l i c h e a l t h u n i t s i n each a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t o f the r e g i o n of North-e a s t e r n O n t a r i o were i n c l u d e d i n the sample. A t o t a l o f t h i r t y - s i x h o s p i t a l s , one v o l u n t a r y agency (the A d d i c t i o n Research F o u n d a t i o n ) , and f i v e p u b l i c h e a l t h u n i t s were i n v o l v e d . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these a g e n c i e s a c c o r d i n g t o d i s t r i c t s i s shown i n T a b l e 5. Cochrane and Sudbury and Area accounted f o r twenty-one, or 50 per cent, o f the t o t a l number o f h e a l t h a g e n c i e s i n the sample. Only one p u b l i c g e n e r a l h o s p i t a l i s l o c a t e d i n M a n i t o u l i n d i s t r i c t . The h o s p i t a l s i n the above sample i n c l u d e those o u t s i d e the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e o f each d i s t r i c t . T h i s has been done i n o r d e r t o g e t some p i c t u r e of the p o t e n t i a l r e p r e -sented by those agencies o u t s i d e the major town i n each, d i s t r i c t , and a l s o to take account o f the f a c t t h a t the 73 m a j o r i t y of the nurses working i n the r e g i o n a r e l o c a t e d i n h o s p i t a l s o u t s i d e the major towns. TABLE 5 DISTRIBUTION OF HOSPITALS, VOLUNTARY AGENCIES, AND PUBLIC HEALTH AGENCIES BY DISTRICTS D i s t r i c t s H o s p i t a l s V o l u n t a r y A g e n c i e s P u b l i c H e a l t h U n i t s T o t a l Algoma 5 - 1 6 Cochrane 10 • - 1 11 M a n i t o u l i n 1 - - 1 N i p i s s i n g 5 - 1 6 Sudbury and Area 11 1 1 13 Timiskaming 4 -. 1 5 T o t a l 36 1 5 42 2 . Radio and T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n s There are s e v e r a l r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s i n the r e g i o n but the same management sometimes c o n t r o l s two o r t h r e e of such s t a t i o n s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . F i f t e e n l e a d -i n g s t a t i o n s c o v e r i n g uhe whole Region were i n c l u d e d i n the sample. T h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n i s shown i n T a b l e 6. A l l the r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n the sample are l o c a t e d i n the major a d m i n i s t r a t i v e town of each d i s t r i c t . Those s t a t i o n s l o c a t e d i n o u t l y i n g areas and not i n c l u d e d here are u s u a l l y a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the l e a d i n g s t a t i o n s i n terms o f e i t h e r ownership or the programs they p r e s e n t . N e a r l y h a l f (7) o f the s t a t i o n s a r e l o c a t e d i n Sudbury and A r e a . N i p i s s i n g has t h r e e of the s t a t i o n s , w h i l e Algoma and Cochrane each has two s t a t i o n s . Timiskaming has one s t a t i o n . No r a d i o or t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n i s l o c a t e d i n M a n i t o u l i n , but the area i s covered by the o t h e r s t a t i o n s . TABLE 6 DISTRIBUTION OF RADIO AND TELEVISION STATIONS BY DISTRICTS D i s t r i c t s Number o f S t a t i o n s Algoma 2 Cochrane 2 M a n i t o u l i n • — N i p i s s i n g 3 Sudbury and Area 7 Timiskaming 1 T o t a l 15 3. E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s The e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n the sample are the c o l l e g e s of a p p l i e d a r t s and technology, (CAAT) a f f i l i a t e c o l l e g e s , (AC) and L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y as w e l l as the Centre f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n (CCE) a t E l l i o t Lake. The number and type o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the sample and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n by d i s t r i c t s are shown i n T a b l e 7 . TABLE 7 DISTRIBUTION OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS BY DISTRICTS D i s t r i c t s CAAT AC CCE U n i v e r s i t y T o t a l Algoma 1 1 1 - 3. Cochrane 1 1 - - 2 M a n i t o u l i n - - - - -N i p i s s i n g 1 1 - - -Sudbury and Area 1 - - 1 2 Timiskaming 1 - - . 1 T o t a l 5 3 1 1 10 76 There are a t o t a l o f t e n i n s t i t u t i o n s made up of f i v e c o l l e g e s of a p p l i e d a r t s and t e c h n o l o g y , t h r e e a f f i l i a t e c o l l e g e s , one c e n t r e f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n and one u n i v e r s i t y . Algoma and Timiskaming d i s t r i c t s have t h r e e and one i n s t i t u t i o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y w h i l e Sudbury and Area, N i p i s s i n g and Cochrane d i s t r i c t s each have two i n s t i t u t i o n s . None o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the sample i s l o c a t e d i n M a n i t o u l i n d i s t r i c t . One of the two i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Sudbury and Area i s L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y (the o n l y u n i v e r s i t y i n N o r t h e a s t e r n Ontario) which i s the proposed c o o r d i n a t i n g c e n t r e f o r a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . 4 . L i b r a r i e s P u b l i c l i b r a r i e s are l o c a t e d i n M u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of 10,000 and over. A l l e x i s t i n g p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s i n the major a d m i n i s t r a t i v e town of each d i s t r i c t were i n c l u d e d i n the sample. I t may be noted t h a t some h o s p i t a l s and p u b l i c h e a l t h u n i t s m a i n t a i n s m a l l l i b r a r i e s which c o u l d be used by n urses. These l i b r a r i e s are a s s e s s e d s e p a r a t e l y from the p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s and as p a r t o f the r e s o u r c e s of the h o s p i t a l s , h e a l t h u n i t s o r i n s t i t u t i o n s i n which they are l o c a t e d . The sample of l i b r a r i e s t o t a l s i x . These are d i s t r i b u t e d as shown i n T a b l e 8. Algoma,- Cochrane, N i p i s s i n g and Timiskaming d i s t r i c t s each has one p u b l i c l i b r a r y . Sudbury and Area has two p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s . 7 7 TABLE 8 DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES BY DISTRICTS D i s t r i c t s Number o f P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s Algoma 1 Cochrane 1 M a n i t o u l i n -N i p i s s i n g 1 Sudbury and Area 2 Timiskaming 1 T o t a l 6 5. P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s A number of p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s have a l s o been i n c l u d e d i n t h i s survey. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n o f O n t a r i o (RNAO), O n t a r i o M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n (OMA) and the O n t a r i o H o s p i t a l A s s o c i a t i o n (OHA) make up the r e l e v a n t b o dies o f i n t e r e s t t o t h i s study. The a c t i v i t i e s o f these o r g a n i z a t i o n s cover the whole Region and are c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l source o f r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about a v a i l a b l e p o t e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the a r e a . In a d d i t i o n , some o f these a s s o c i a t i o n s do run t h e i r own c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs i n n u r s i n g . 78 C o l l e c t i o n o f Data The m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s t i t u t e d the b a s i c i nstrument f o r the c o l l e c t i o n o f the da t a f o r the study. A f t e r p r e - t e s t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , due ammendments were made, t h a t i s , c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s were made more s p e c i f i c . They were then m a i l e d t o the respondents through the D i r e c t o r S c h o o l o f N u r s i n g , L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y , Sudbury. Each q u e s t i o n n a i r e was accompanied by two e x p l a n a t o r y c o v e r i n g l e t t e r s from the w r i t e r and the D i r e c t o r , School o f Nu r s i n g , L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y . ^ 6 A postage p a i d , " S p e c i a l D e l i v e r y , s e l f - a d d r e s s e d envelope W P . S a l s o i n c l u d e d w i t h each q u e s t i o n -n a i r e . Reminder cards were s e n t t o a l l respondents one and two weeks r e s p e c t i v e l y a f t e r m a i l i n g the f i n a l s e t of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A time l i m i t o f t h r e e weeks was s e t f o r r e t u r n o f a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Response r e s u l t s f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 9. The o v e r a l l degree o f response i s 72 per c e n t . I t has not been p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f r e t u r n s due t o the l i m i t a t i o n s o f time but c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the survey covered a l l the d i s -t r i c t s and types of r e s o u r c e s o f i n t e r e s t t o t h i s study, the i n d i c a t e d percentage r e t u r n s can be c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e The d a t a are a n a l y z e d d e s c r i p t i v e l y a c c o r d i n g t o the c a t e g o r i e s o f r e s o u r c e s both a t the r e g i o n a l and d i s -t r i c t l e v e l . A d i r e c t o r y i s p r o v i d e d t o g i v e f u l l d e t a i l s 17 of the r e s o u r c e s o f the Region. "^6See Appendix C. 17 See Appendix E. 79 TABLE 9 NUMBER OF' RETURNED QUESTIONNAIRES D i s t r i c t and Number Number Response S u b j e c t Sent Returned P e r c e n t ALGOMA: P u b l i c L i b r a r y 1 0 0 Radio & T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n 2 0 0 E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n 3 3 100 P u b l i c H e a l t h U n i t 1 1 100 H o s p i t a l 5 4 80 COCHRANE: P u b l i c L i b r a r y 1 1 100 Radio & T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n 2 1 50 E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n 2 1 50 P u b l i c H e a l t h U n i t 1 1 100 H o s p i t a l 10 8 80 •MANITOULIN: P u b l i c L i b r a r y Radio <* T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n • — — — E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n — — — P u b l i c H e a l t h U n i t • — — — H o s p i t a l 1 1 100 NIPISSING: P u b l i c L i b r a r y 1 1 100 Radio & T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n 3 1 33.3 E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n 2 2 100 P u b l i c H e a l t h U n i t 1 1 100 H o s p i t a l 5 5 100 SUDBURY and AREA: P u b l i c L i b r a r y 2 2 100 Radio & T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n 7 1 14 E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n 2 2 100 P u b l i c H e a l t h U n i t 1 1 • 100 H o s p i t a l 11 9 82 V o l u n t a r y Agency 1 0 0 . 80 T a b l e 9 (continued) D i s t r i c t and Number Number Response S u b j e c t Sent Returned Per c e n t TIMISKAMING: P u b l i c L i b r a r y 1 1 100 Radio & T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n 1 0 0 E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n 1 1 100 P u b l i c H e a l t h U n i t 1 1 100 H o s p i t a l 4 2 50 PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS: 3 3 100 TOTAL 75 54 AVERAGE 72 CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA The data a n a l y z e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r r e l a t e t o the human, p h y s i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s and are based on the r e t u r n of 54 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (72 per cent) o f the study p o p u l a t i o n . The o b j e c t i v e of the a n a l y s i s i s to i d e n t i f y the types o f r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g t h a t e x i s t i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o as r e v e a l e d by the survey, t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n and t h e i r adequacy. The data are a n a l y z e d as they r e l a t e t o the items on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s sent t o the s u b j e c t groups.^ The r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r each s u b j e c t group are an a l y z e d s e p a r a t e l y . F i f t y - o n e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s e n t t o the h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Of the s e , f o r t y - t h r e e were r e t u r n e d . The r e p l i e s to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the c a t e g o r i e s of human, p h y s i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s both a t the r e g i o n a l and d i s t r i c t l e v e l . F i r s t , the region-wide s i t u a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d and an a l y z e d . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f d i s t r i c t - l e v e l r e s o u r c e s . The r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s See page 68. 81 82 , from the o t h e r s u b j e c t g r o u p s — n a m e l y , p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , are d e a l t w i t h s i m i l a r l y . The aim o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s to compare and c o n t r a s t the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s a c c o r d i n g t o d i s t r i c t s i n o r d e r to r e v e a l t h e i r r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses and to i n d i c a t e what the s p e c i a l needs of d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s might be. The percentages o f r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s by d i s t r i c t s are shown i n T a b l e 10. The degree of response v a r i e d between d i s t r i c t s but was g e n e r a l l y h i g h . However, an attempt to compare the r e s o u r c e s o f each d i s t r i c t i s made not i n a b s o l u t e terms but w i t h r e g a r d to the propor-t i o n o f r e t u r n s f o r each d i s t r i c t i n d i c a t i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e . S i x q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent to the p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s . Of these, 5 o r 83.3 per c e n t were r e t u r n e d . The response r e s u l t s f o r the r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s a r e 2 0 per c e n t o r 3 out o f 15 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s 100 per cent. D e t a i l e d p a r t i c u l a r s o f the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s are c o n t a i n e d i n a D i r e c t o r y o f Resources 2 f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . The chapter concludes w i t h an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s . See Appendix E. 83 TABLE 10 PERCENTAGE OF RETURNED QUESTIONNAIRES ON RESOURCES BY DISTRICTS Number Number Response D i s t r i c t Sent Returned Per c e n t Algoma 9 m 8 89 Cochrane 13 10 77 N i p i s s i n g 8 8 100 M a n i t o u l i n 1 1 100 Sudbury and Area 14 12 86 Timiskaming 6 4 67 T o t a l 51 43 86.5 S u b j e c t Group 1 - H e a l t h and E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s 1. Are you i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a program of  C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n your area? T h i r t y - n i n e out of the 43 (or 91 per cent) o f the r e -spondents i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n an on-going program of con-t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . The respondents expressed the b e l i e f t h a t c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i s a l i f e - l o n g p r o c e s s and t h a t nurses needed t o have on- ' going e d u c a t i o n to f u n c t i o n competently i n t h e i r a r e a of work. 84 A t the d i s t r i c t l e v e l , the response v a r i e d . The • f i n d i n g s show N i p i s s i n g , Timiskaming and M a n i t o u l i n w i t h 100 per c e n t i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . M a n i t o u l i n had o n l y one ma i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Response r e s u l t s f o r t h i s d i s t r i c t are based on the r e p l y t o t h i s one q u e s t i o n -n a i r e . The p r o p o r t i o n of respondents i n d i c a t i n g i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g f o r Cochrane are 90 per c e n t , Algoma, 88 per cent and Sudbury and Area, 83 per c e n t . Summary A h i g h l e v e l of i n t e r e s t (91%) i s shown i n c o n t i n u -i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o as i n d i c a t e d by the f i n d i n g s a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . A t the d i s t r i c t l e v e l the i n d i c a t e d degree of i n t e r e s t ranges from 100 per cent i n N i p i s s i n g , Timiskaming and M a n i t o u l i n t o 83 per cen t i n Sudbury and Area. T h i s v a r i a t i o n , however, s t i l l i n d i c a t e s a h i g h l e v e l o f i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n each d i s -t r i c t . However, t h i s l e v e l o f i n t e r e s t r e p r e s e n t s those r e p l y i n g t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and may not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the nurse p o p u l a t i o n o f the a r e a . 2. Has a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g been  o f f e r e d i n your area i n the l a s t 5 y e a r s ? T h i r t e e n or 30.2 per cen t of those answering the q u e s t i o n s a i d programs f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g have been o f f e r e d i n t h e i r a r e a i n the p a s t f i v e y e a r s . Some of the programs l i s t e d a r e : l e a d e r s h i p c o u r s e , manage-ment and development program f o r head nurses and s u p e r v i s o r s , 85 c h r o n i c and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e c a r e symposium, death w i t h meaning and d i g n i t y , e t c . Twenty-five or 58.2 per cent o f the respondents s a i d no programs o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n have been o f f e r e d i n t h e i r area over the p a s t f i v e y e a r s . F i v e o r 11.6 per cent d i d not answer the q u e s t i o n . The f i n d i n g s a t the d i s t r i c t l e v e l v a r y . Some d i s t r i c t s , f o r example, Timiskaming and M a n i t o u l i n have had no program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r the p a s t f i v e y e a r s , w h i l e i n the oth e r d i s t r i c t s c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs have been o f f e r e d . For the d i s t r i c t o f N i p i s s i n g , 50 per cent o f those r e p l y i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n had been o f f e r e d i n the area i n the pa s t f i v e y e a r s . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g percentages f o r the o t h e r d i s t r i c t s a r e — S u d b u r y and Area, 4 2 per cent; Algoma, 38 per cent; and Cochrane, 10 per c e n t . Summary Th^ o v e r a l l f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t v e r y few c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs i n n u r s i n g were o f f e r e d i n Nor t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o over the p a s t f i v e y e a r s . A t the d i s t r i c t l e v e l the f i n d i n g s v a r y . Some d i s t r i c t s - - T i m i s k a m -i n g and M a n i t o u l i n — h a d no programs, w h i l e t h e r e were few j programs i n the o t h e r d i s t r i c t s . The response r e s u l t s , however, i n d i c a t e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of respondents c l a i m t h a t no program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n has been o f f e r e d i n t h e i r area over the p a s t f i v e y e a r s . I t would appear a l s o t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n the course o f f e r i n g s as i n d i c a t e d by the co u r s e s l i s t e d . Most course o f f e r i n g s were geared t o the management l e v e l w h i l e t h e r e were v e r y few o f f e r i n g s i n c l i n i c a l n u r s i n g . 3. What r e s o u r c e s are a v a i l a b l e a t your i n s t i t u t i o n f o r o p e r a t i n g a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g ? P l e a s e d e s c r i b e and e l a b o r a t e under the f o l l o w i n g  headings. (a) Human Resources T h i s c a t e g o r y of r e s o u r c e s c o n s i s t s of f a c u l t y ( n u r s e s ) , a l l i e d h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s , a l l i e d b u s i n e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l s and s e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e . A v a i l a b i l i t y of these r e s o u r c e s as i n d i c a t e d by the respondents i s shown i n T a b l e 11. F o r t y - t h r e e o f t h e . f i f t y - o n e or 84.3 per cent o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s sent to respondents f o r c o n t i n u -i n g e d u c a t i o n were r e t u r n e d . Of t h e s e , 24 o r 56 per c e n t i n d i c a t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f human r e s o u r c e s . The most commonly mentioned human r e s o u r c e s are a l l i e d h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s (58%), and f a c u l t y (56%). The p r o p o r t i o n o f respondents i n d i c a t i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a l l i e d b u s i n e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l s i s approximately 26 per cent and t h a t f o r s e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s 20 per ce n t . These e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f human r e s o u r c e s a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . The f i n d i n g s a t the d i s t r i c t l e v e l w i l l now be p r e s e n t e d and ana l y z e d . TABLE 11, RESPONSE RESULTS OF 43 RETURNED QUESTIONNAIRES SHOWING AVAILABILITY OF HUMAN, PHYSICAL AND EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO BY DISTRICTS (51 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s sent) D i s t r i c t Resources Algoma Cochrane M a n i t o u l i n N i p i s s i n g Sudbury & Timiskaming T o t a l * (8) * (10) * (1) * (8) Area *(12) (4) No . % No . % No. % No % No. % No. % No. % Human F a c u l t y (Nurses) 5 62.5 5 50 1 100 5 62.5 6 50 2 50 24 56 A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s 4 50 4 40 1 100 5 62.5 8 66.6 3 75 25 58 A l l i e d Business P r o f e s s i o n a l s 1 12.5 1 10 0 0 3 37.5 5 41.6 1 25 11 26 S e c r e t a r i a l A s s i s t a n c e 5 62.5 0 0 0 0 2 25 2 16.6 0 0 9 20 P h y s i c a l -L a b o r a t o r i e s 2 25 1 10 0 0 1 12.5 2 16.6 1 25 7 16 Classrooms and Lect u r e H a l l s 6 75 5 50 1 100 6 75 7 58.3 2 50 27 62. 7 Conference rooms 5 62.5 2 20 0 0 6 75 9 75 1 25 23 53. 4 E d u c a t i o n a l L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s • (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) 4 50 4 40 1 100 4 50 6 50 3 75 22 51. 6 A u d i o - v i s u a l Equipment 7 88 6 60 1 100 5 62.5 8 66.6 3 75 30 70 Pre-packaged Programs 2 25 4 40 1 100 4 50 4 33.3 2 50 17 40 Radio & T e l e v i s i o n Programs 0 0 1 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 Other ( s p e c i f y ) 0 0 2 20 1 100 1 25 1 8.3 0 0 . 5 12 •Numbers i n br a c k e t r e p r e s e n t r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r each d i s t r i c t . 88 The f i n d i n g s on a v a i l a b l e human r e s o u r c e s a t the d i s t r i c t l e v e l are shown i n T a b l e 11. The t a b l e r e v e a l s t h a t 5 out of 8 o r 62.5 per c e n t of those responding f o r the d i s t r i c t o f Algoma i n d i c a t e d the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f a c u l t y f o r o p e r a t i n g a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g percentage f o r a v a i l a b l e s e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e , a l l i e d h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s and a l l i e d b u s i n e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l s are 62.5 per c e n t , 50 per c e n t and 12 per c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . The f i n d i n g s f o r the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r the remaining d i s t r i c t s a r e : Cochrane — 50 p e r c e n t f a c u l t y ^ 40 per c e n t a l l i e d h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s , 10 per c e n t a l l i e d b u s i n e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l s and s e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e 0 per cent; N i p i s s i n g — 6 2 . 5 per c e n t f a c u l t y and a l l i e d h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s r e s p e c t i v e l y , 37.5 per c e n t a l l i e d b u s i n e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l s and s e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e 25 per cent; Sudbury and A r e a — 6 6 . 6 per c e n t a l l i e d h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s , 50 per c e n t f a c u l t y , 41.6 per c e n t a l l i e d b u s i n e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l s and 16.6 per c e n t s e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e ; Timiskaming:— 75 per c e n t a l l i e d h e a l t h pro-f e s s i o n a l s , 50 per c e n t f a c u l t y , 25 per c e n t a l l i e d b u s i n e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l s , 0 per c e n t s e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e . The d i s t r i c t of M a n i t o u l i n has a s m a l l sample p o p u l a t i o n as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the one q u e s t i o n n a i r e sent was r e t u r n e d i n d i c a t i n g t h a t f a c u l t y and a l l i e d h e a l t h p r o -f e s s i o n a l s are a v a i l a b l e . A l l i e d b u s i n e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l s and s e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e are not a v a i l a b l e . Table 11 89 a l s o r e v e a l s t h a t w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f Algoma and N i p i s s i n g , a l l o t h e r d i s t r i c t s show low a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e . A l l i e d b u s i n e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l s a re a l s o not g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e i n almost a l l the d i s t r i c t s . F o r example, none e x i s t s i n the d i s t r i c t o f M a n i t o u l i n . Algoma and Cochrane have the lowest p r o p o r t i o n o f a l l i e d h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s , w h i l e Timiskaming, Sudbury and Area and Cochrane have the lowest p r o p o r t i o n o f f a c u l t y . In i n t e r p r e t i n g these f i n d i n g s , i t i s nece s s a r y to bear i n mind the f a c t t h a t an unequal number of q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s were r e c e i v e d from.the d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s . The c a l c u l a t e d p r o p o r t i o n s of r e t u r n s which i n d i c a t e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a r e s o u r c e cannot t h e r e f o r e , be used d i r e c t l y t o compare r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y between d i s t r i c t s . However, s i n c e the sample d i s t r i b u t i o n was r e l a t e d t o s i z e o f d i s t r i c t the r e t u r n s measure t o some e x t e n t , r e l a t i v e a v a i l a b i l i t y of the r e s o u r c e s . Most of the human r e s o u r c e s are p r o v i d e d by the U n i v e r s i t y , C o l l e g e s o f A p p l i e d A r t s and Technology, some of the l a r g e r h o s p i t a l s and area h e a l t h u n i t s . Nurses i n e d u c a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a v a r i e t y o f c l i n i c a l areas a r e a v a i l a b l e i n some areas o f the Region f o r a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n nu r s i n g . M e d i c a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s , both i n g e n e r a l i z e d and s p e c i a l i z e d p r a c t i c e / a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e . The f i n d i n g s a l s o show t h a t b u s i n e s s f a c u l t i e s i n the U n i v e r s i t y , C o l l e g e s o f A p p l i e d A r t s and Technology, 9 0 h o s p i t a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , l o c a l lawyers and h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s are a v a i l a b l e f o r a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . Summary I t has not been p o s s i b l e from the r e t u r n s t o a s s i g n any q u a n t i t a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the human r e s o u r c e s which are a v a i l a b l e . But i t would seem c o r r e c t t o say t h a t on a region-wide l e v e l , a v a i l a b i l i t y o f human r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y inadequate i n terms of number of i n s t i t u t i o n s and/or agencies which possess them. T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o l l o w s from the low p r o p o r t i o n o f r e t u r n s i n d i c a t i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f a c u l t y and a l l i e d h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s — t h e key human r e s o u r c e i n p u t s f o r a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . The number of a v a i l a b l e a l l i e d b u s i n e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l s and s e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e a l s o appears t o be inadequate. The broad view of a v a i l a b l e human r e s o u r c e s f o r a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o p r e s e n t e d a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l t o some e x t e n t ob-scur e s the d i s p a r i t i e s between d i s t r i c t s . A breakdown of the human r e s o u r c e s i s g r e a t l y uneven. Some areas a t p r e s e n t have few necessary human r e s o u r c e s . In summary, t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n a v a i l a b l e human r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g among the d i s t r i c t s of N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . • ' • 91 There i s need to upgrade these r e s o u r c e s i n a l l the d i s t r i c t s but the g r e a t e s t i n a d e q u a c i e s e x i s t i n the a r e a of a l l i e d b u s i n e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l s and s e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e . (b) P h y s i c a l Resources I n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y are l a b o r a t o r i e s , c l a s s -rooms and l e c t u r e h a l l s , and c o n f e r e n c e rooms. The main aim o f the survey was to o b t a i n r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n from respondents on the amount, l o c a t i o n and degree of a v a i l a b i l -i t y of these r e s o u r c e s . The r e s u l t s o f the e n q u i r y are shown i n Table 11. Twenty-seven out o f f o r t y - t h r e e o r 62.7 per c e n t o f the r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n d i c a t e d the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . Seven br 16 per c e n t o f the respondents i n d i c a t e d they have l a b o r a t o r i e s . The f i n d i n g s f o r classrooms and l e c t u r e h a l l s , and c o n f e r e n c e rooms are 62.7 per cent and 53.4 per c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . T a b l e 11 a l s o shows the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s a t the d i s t r i c t l e v e l . The t a b l e reveal's t h a t 6 out of 8 (75%) of those responding f o r the d i s t r i c t o f Algoma i n d i c a t e d t h a t classrooms and l e c t u r e h a l l s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . The percentage f o r the a v a i l a b l e c o n f e r e n c e rooms and l a b o r a t o r i e s are 62.5 per c e n t and 25 per c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . The f i n d i n g s f o r a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r the remaining d i s t r i c t s a r e : Cochrane, classrooms and l e c t u r e h a l l s 92 50 per cent, c o n f e r e n c e rooms 20 per c e n t and l a b o r a t o r i e s 10 per cent; N i p i s s i n g , 75 per cen t each classrooms and l e c t u r e h a l l s and confer e n c e rooms and 12 per cen t l a b o r a t o r -i e s ; Sudbury & Area, c o n f e r e n c e rooms 75 per c e n t , c l a s s -rooms and l e c t u r e h a l l s 58.3 per cent and l a b o r a t o r i e s 16.6 per c e n t ; Timiskaming, classrooms and l e c t u r e h a l l s 50 per cent, and conference rooms and l a b o r a t o r i e s 25 per cent each. The f i n d i n g s f o r M a n i t o u l i n show t h a t o n l y classrooms are a v a i l a b l e . The g e n e r a l o r d e r o f a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s i s classrooms and l e c t u r e h a l l s , con-f e r e n c e rooms and l a b o r a t o r i e s . In a l l d i s t r i c t s , t h e r e i s a shortage o f l a b o r a t o r i e s and none e x i s t ' i n some. Cochrane and Timiskaming have l i m i t e d c o n f e r e n c e room f a c i l i t i e s , though o t h e r d i s t r i c t s appear to be w e l l p l a c e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t . Summary In terms of o v e r a l l response (63%) p h y s i c a l r e -sources f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o do not seem c r i t i c a l l y s h o r t i n supply. However, the survey shows t h e r e i s an acute shortage of l a b o r a t o r i e s . In a d d i t i o n , Timiskaming and M a n i t o u l i n appear as the p o o r e s t d i s t r i c t s i n terms o f c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s The a v a i l a b i l i t y of. p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s may be c o n s i d e r e d e a s i e r t o assess than human r e s o u r c e s s i n c e the former are g e n e r a l l y f i x e d . However, t h e i r use over time may be l e s s f l e x i b l e , e s p e c i a l l y where e x i s t i n g classrooms or l e c t u r e h a l l s are committed t o some o t h e r long-term purposes which might prevent t h e i r use i n a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . The c u r r e n t apparent d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n d i c a t e s l i m i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y i n some d i s t r i c t s . Even i n those d i s t r i c t s r e p o r t i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a re s o u r c e , t h e r e a re important d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s i z e and q u a l i t y o f such r e s o u r c e s . For example, s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y o f c l a s s -rooms ranges from 10 to 300. Most o f the classrooms and l a r g e c o n f e r e n c e rooms as w e l l as l a b o r a t o r i e s a re l o c a t e d i n the U n i v e r s i t y , A f f i l i a t e C o l l e g e s , C o l l e g e s o f A p p l i e d A r t s and Technology and l a r g e h o s p i t a l s . In some areas where a v a i l a b l e p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s are poor, respondents have suggested the p o s s i b l e use of l o c a l h i g h s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s . (c) E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s The e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s c o n s i s t o f a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment, pre-packaged programs, l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s and p e r i o d i c a l s ) and "others." Seventy per cent o f the respondents (30 out of 43) i n d i c a t e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g are a v a i l a b l e . Table 11 r e v e a l s t h a t 51 per cent o f the respondents i n d i c a t e d they have l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s . The 94 c o r r e s p o n d i n g percentages f o r a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment, p r e -packaged programs, r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n programs and " o t h e r s " are 70 per c e n t , 40 per c e n t , 2 per c e n t and 12 per c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s by d i s -t r i c t i s shown i n Table 11. The o v e r a l l p i c t u r e which emerges i s one of poor a v a i l a b i l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i n almost a l l the d i s t r i c t s . Even i n the d i s t r i c t o f Sudbury and Area, o n l y 67 per c e n t o f the respondents i n d i c a t e d they have e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . The f i n d i n g s v a r y w i d e l y between c a t e g o r i e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s r a n g i n g from 2 per cent f o r r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n programs to 61 per c e n t f o r audio^-visual equip-ment. Most s t r i k i n g i s the n o n - a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n programs. Only i n one d i s t r i c t , Cochrane, are such programs i n d i c a t e d to be a v a i l a b l e but even then, by o n l y 10 per c e n t o f the respondents. The o n l y r e s o u r c e s t o be found i n each d i s t r i c t are l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s and a r . d i o - v i s u a l equipment. However, not o n l y are these a t an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l q u a n t i t a t i v e l y but a l s o , they show g r e a t v a r i a b i l i t y from d i s t r i c t t o d i s t r i c t . T able 11 a l s o r e v e a l s t h a t 4 out of 8 or 50 per c e n t of those responding f o r the d i s t r i c t o f Algoma i n d i c a t e d the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g percentage f o r a v a i l a b l e a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment and p r e -packaged programs are 88 per cent and 25 per c e n t . There are no r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n programs. The f i n d i n g s f o r a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r the o t h e r d i s t r i c t s are shown i n the same o r d e r as f o r Algoma. C o c h r a n e — 40 per cent l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s , 60 per cen t a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment, 40 per cent pre-packaged programs, 10 per c e n t r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n programs, 20 per cent " o t h e r " ; N i p i s s i n g — 50 per c e n t l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s , 62.5 per c e n t a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment, 50 per c e n t pre-packaged programs, 0 per cent r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n programs, 12.5 per cent " o t h e r " ; Sudbury and A r e a — 50 per cent l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s , 67 per c e n t a u d i o -v i s u a l equipment, 33.3 per cent pre-packaged programs, 0 per c e n t r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n programs, 8.3 per cent " o t h e r " T i m i s k a m i n g — 75 per c e n t f o r l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s and a u d i o -v i s u a l equipment r e s p e c t i v e l y , 50 per c e n t pre-packaged programs, 0 per cent each f o r r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n programs, and "other" c a t e g o r y . The e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e a t M a n i t o u l i n i n c l u d e l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s , a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment, pre-packaged programs and "o t h e r " a t the g e n e r a l h o s p i t a l i n the d i s t r i c t . As expected, the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i s i n the U n i v e r s i t y , A f f i l i a t e C o l l e g e s , C o l l e g e s o f A p p l i e d A r t s and Technology and l a r g e h o s p i t a l s . There i s , however, some v a r i a t i o n i n the type of m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e among the i n s t i t u t i o n s . F or example, the A f f i l i a t e C o l l e g e s , the C o l l e g e s o f A p p l i e d A r t s and Technology and l a r g e h o s p i t a l s are g e n e r a l l y w e l l 9 6 . equipped w i t h a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment, pre-packaged programs, v i d e o t a p i n g , e t c . In c o n t r a s t , the School of N u r s i n g , L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y has a v e r y poor supply of e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s both i n terms of hard and s o f t ware. There are no pre-packaged programs, v i d e o t a p i n g , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n programs a t t h i s S c h o o l . Most C o l l e g e s of A p p l i e d A r t s and Technology have t e l e v i s i o n equipment a v a i l a b l e f o r p r e p a r a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n programs. A number of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n d i c a t e they have l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s and p e r i o d i c a l s ) which c o u l d be used by nurses f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . Some respondents i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r l i b r a r y h o l d i n g s need upgrading and/or augmenting. Some areas w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t s of the Region have no e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s or f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s . Summary E d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s r e p r e s e n t a more v a r i e d group of r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . T h i s makes t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t . However, the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s of m a t e r i a l s tend t o be complemen-t a r y , so t h a t w i t h proper p l a n n i n g , t h e i r i n t e g r a t e d u t i l i z -a t i o n c o u l d be u s e f u l i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . 4. P l e a s e g i v e your assessment of the adequacy of the  a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s a t your i n s t i t u t i o n . 97 5 . In what r e s p e c t s do r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e a t your  i n s t i t u t i o n need upgrading and/or augmenting? For an o v e r a l l assessment o f the adequacy o f the r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the Region o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o , 9 per c e n t o f the respondents judged them t o be ve r y good, 28 per c e n t r a t e d them good, 3 5 per ce n t f a i r and 16.2 per c e n t r a t e d them poor, w h i l e 11.8 per ce n t were n e u t r a l . Thus o n l y 37 per cent o f the respon-dents c o n s i d e r e d r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g t o be adequate. F i n d i n g s f o r the d i s t r i c t s v a r y . However, g e n e r a l l y , ^ i t would appear t h a t a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s and equ i p -ment need upgrading and/or augmenting i n some a r e a s . Some d i s t r i c t s , f o r example Timiskaming, need augmenting of some r e s o u r c e s . In o t h e r s , improved communication between i n s t i t u t i o n s would f a c i l i t a t e e f f e c t i v e use of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . A l s o , i n many c a s e s , more use c o u l d be made o f a v a i l a b l e human r e s o u r c e s . Summary The above o v e r a l l assessment of the adequacy of r e s o u r c e s by respondents, to be sure, i s e s s e n t i a l l y based on p e r s o n a l i m p r e s s i o n s , o f t e n as a r e s u l t o f l o c a l exper-i e n c e s . Hence, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s above cannot be a s c r i b e d g e n e r a l v a l i d i t y . A d i f f e r e n t sample might l e a d t o d i f f e r e n t i m p r e s s i o n s . However, when the o v e r a l l a s s e s s -ment i s r e l a t e d t o responses on s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s , i t 98 becomes c l e a r t h a t i n a d e q u a c i e s e x i s t i n a l l the c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s i n the Region. The p h y s i c a l , human and e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s need upgrading and/or augmenting. These in a d e q u a c i e s are more s e r i o u s i n some d i s t r i c t s than i n o t h e r s and an important f i r s t s t e p i n improving the r e s o u r c e s s i t u a t i o n c o u l d be t o r e d r e s s the i n t e r - d i s t r i c t imbalances b e f o r e a t t a c k i n g the problem of inadequate t o t a l R e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b i l i t y w i t h i n the framework of an i n -t e g r a t e d p l a n f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the Region. The a v a i l a b l e d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t augmenting and/or upgrading of r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g v a r i e s from d i s t r i c t t o d i s t r i c t . Some d i s t r i c t s need augmenting, w h i l e o t h e r s would b e n e f i t from upgrading of t h e i r e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s . 6. Are you aware of o t h e r r e s o u r c e s i n your area which may  be a v a i l a b l e t o a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n  n u r s i n g ? Twenty-four out o f f o r t y - t h r e e or 56 per c e n t l i s t e d r e s o u r c e s i n t h e i r areas t h a t may be a v a i l a b l e t o a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . The l o c a l C o l l e g e s of A p p l i e d A r t s and Technology, A f f i l i a t e C o l l e g e s , L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y and the RNAO are most, o f t e n l i s t e d as having r e -sources and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . Gen-e r a l h o s p i t a l s , s p e c i a l i z e d u n i t s i n h o s p i t a l s , - l o c a l p u b l i c h e a l t h u n i t s , f a c i l i t i e s f o r the r e t a r d e d , a d d i c t i o n r e s e a r c h f o u n d a t i o n , l o c a l h i g h s c h o o l s and p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s are a l s o a v a i l a b l e i n c e r t a i n areas of the Region. Some of these i n s t i t u t i o n s , such as the RNAO, have c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e of o r g a n i z i n g and running programs o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . I t i s assumed t h a t they w i l l render a s s i s t a n c e t o the l o c a l communities i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o i n implementing t h e i r programs of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . 7. Do you have any su g g e s t i o n s as t o how a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s  f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n your area might  be improved? R e p l i e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n were r e c e i v e d from 22 r e -spondents out of a t o t a l o f 43 c o n t a c t e d (55.4%). They i n -d i c a t e d t h a t they would be i n t e r e s t e d i n a r e g u l a r on-going program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n and t h a t courses be o f f e r e d i n l o c a l communities. They suggested t h a t j o i n t programming w i t h s e v e r a l agencies c o u l d be encouraged t o pre v e n t d u p l i -c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s and t h a t the l o c a l C o l l e g e s o f A p p l i e d A r t s and Technology, A f f i l i a t e C o l l e g e s , L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y and the RNAO c o u l d make l c n g e r - t e r m programs a v a i l a b l e t o nurses of N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . They a l s o suggested t h a t • b e t t e r use c o u l d be made of the l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i f p e r s o n n e l were a v a i l a b l e and a s s i g n e d t o o r g a n i z i n g a program of con-t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . Some respondents proposed t h a t a p o s t -b a s i c n u r s i n g degree program be o f f e r e d by L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y through e x t e n s i o n and on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s . Others want c r e d i t t o be g i v e n f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n courses taken. Other i d e a s f o r improving r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g are the o f f e r i n g o f s h o r t courses (no time l i m i t g i v e n ) , f i v e day workshops and n i g h t c l a s s e s on c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n t o p i c s twice 100 weekly a t the l o c a l C o l l e g e o f A p p l i e d A r t s and Technology. The f i n d i n g s a l s o r e v e a l t h a t t h e r e i s a h i g h degree of s t a f f t u r n - o v e r i n some areas w i t h i n the Region and t h i s i s a t t r i b u t e d t o the l a c k of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the Region. The d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c r u i t i n g s t a f f f o r t h i s Region i s a l s o c i t e d as due to the l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . S u b j e c t Group 2 - P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s S i x m u n i c i p a l l i b r a r i e s were surveyed. F i v e (83%) r e p l i e d . 1. Do you possess any c o l l e c t i o n o r h o l d i n g s o f n u r s i n g  textbooks and/or j o u r n a l s i n your l i b r a r y ? Three or s i x t y per c e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t some n u r s i n g textbooks and a n u r s i n g j o u r n a l are a v a i l a b l e i n t h e i r l i b r a r i e s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these l i b r a r i e s w i t h n u r s i n g textbooks and j o u r n a l s a re Sudbury and Area, Cochrane and Timiskaming. The p u b l i c l i b r a r y i n N i p i s s i n g has no n u r s i n g textbooks or j o u r n a l s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e from Algoma was r e t u r n e d unanswered. 2. Are you i n a p o s i t i o n to r e c e i v e textbooks and j o u r n a l s  c r p e r i o d i c a l s f o r nurses f o r g e n e r a l use? Two or f o r t y per cent o f those responding i n d i c a t e d they c o u l d r e c e i v e textbooks and j o u r n a l s f o r n u r s i n g . These l i b r a r i e s a r e l o c a t e d i n Timiskaming and Sudbury and Area. 101 3. Are t h e r e any c u r r e n t books and j o u r n a l s on n u r s i n g  which you are unable t o a c q u i r e but would l i k e to? One or twenty per cen t o f those r e s p o n d i n g i n d i c a t e d no i n t e r e s t i n a c q u i r i n g n u r s i n g textbooks and/or j o u r n a l s . E i g h t y per c e n t are i n t e r e s t e d i n upgrading and/or augmenting these h o l d i n g s p r o v i d i n g t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t demand by nurses f o r these f a c i l i t i e s . 4. To what e x t e n t do nurses now f r e q u e n t your l i b r a r y ? Three or s i x t y per cen t o f those responding i n d i c a -t e d t h a t nurses use t h e i r l i b r a r i e s f r e q u e n t l y . One or twenty per c e n t i n d i c a t e d i n f r e q u e n t l y and one or twenty per c e n t were n e u t r a l . There was an i n c r e a s e i n the demand f o r n u r s -i n g textbooks and j o u r n a l s by nu r s e s . Summary There seems t o be an i n c r e a s e i n the use of p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s by l o c a l nurses. Some o f these l i b r a r i e s c a r r y n u r s i n g textbooks and a n u r s i n g j o u r n a l . The l i b r a r i a n s a r e w i l l i n g t o upgrade and/or augment h o l d i n g s o f n u r s i n g textbooks p r o v i d i n g t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t demand f o r these by nurses. The f i n d i n g s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t some l i b r a r i e s would a p p r e c i a t e r e c e i v i n g a y e a r l y up-dated l i s t o f n u r s i n g textbooks and j o u r n a l s . Perhaps the U n i v e r s i t y o r the l o c a l C o l l e g e o f A p p l i e d A r t s and Technology o r the l o c a l c h a p t e r of the p r o f e s s i o n a l nurses' a s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d f u l f i l l t h i s r o l e . These l i b r a r i e s a l s o have a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment and are a b l e to borrow f i l m s from o t h e r s o u r c e s . 102 S u b j e c t Group 3 - Radio and T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n s F i f t e e n r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n the survey. Three (20%) responded (See T a b l e 9 f o r breakdown of q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n ) . These r e p r e s e n t the d i s t r i c t s of N i p i s s i n g , Sudbury and Area and Cochrane. 1. Are you aware o f any e x i s t i n g programs o f c o n t i n u i n g  e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o ? Two out o f t h r e e o r 67 per c e n t were not aware o f any programs o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . One s t a t i o n i n Cochrane i n d i c a t e d an awareness and had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n such a program through o c c a s i o n a l p u b l i c i t y . 2. I f you do not a l r e a d y p a r t i c i p a t e i n any program, would  you be prepared to p a r t i c i p a t e i n one i f e s t a b l i s h e d i n  the Region? A l l t h r e e respondents i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the Region. 3. I f answer to (2) i s "YES", which o f the f o l l o w i n g forms  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n would you p r e f e r ? S t u d i o group d i s c u s s i o n , d i r e c t p r e s e n t a t i o n of prepared programs, s i m u l a t e d programs, coverage of some a s p e c t s o f such programs a t L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y , and g e n e r a l p u b l i c i t y of programs were l i s t e d as p o s s i b l e forms o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Approximate t i m i n g , c o s t per program and p o t e n t i a l sponsors f o r such programs were a l s o g i v e n . 103 Summary F i f t e e n r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n the survey. Three (20%) responded. A l l t h r e e i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the Region o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . I n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c l u d e s g e n e r a l program p u b l i c i t y and b r o a d c a s t s of d i f f e r e n t types ^ o f p r e p a r e d programs. G e n e r a l l y , the response from these respondents seems f a v o u r a b l e i n terms of the i n t e r e s t they i n d i c a t e i n b e i n g I n v o l v e d i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the Region. S u b j e c t Group 4 - The P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s Three p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n the survey f o r the study. They are the R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n of O n t a r i o (RNAO), the O n t a r i o M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n (OMA) and the O n t a r i o H o s p i t a l A s s o c i a t i o n (OHA). A l l t h r e e r e p l i e d . 1. Do you c u r r e n t l y have an on-going program i n c o n t i n u i n g  e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o ? A l l t h r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e are no on-going programs i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . 2. Do you p l a n to i n i t i a t e such a program i n t h i s Region  i n the near f u t u r e ? The response from a l l t h r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s was n e g a t i v e . I 104 3 . Have you mounted any new programs i n c o n t i n u i n g  e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the l a s t year? The f i n d i n g s show t h a t the OMA and the OHA have not mounted any programs i n t h i s Region f o r the p a s t year. The RNAO has no r e g u l a r programs i n the Region except f o r the o c c a s i o n a l s h o r t programs based on needs, t r e n d s , e t c . 4. What r e s o u r c e s under your c o n t r o l a re a v a i l a b l e f o r  o p e r a t i n g a c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n program i n n u r s i n g  i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o ? The RNAO i n d i c a t e d t h a t human r e s o u r c e s are o b t a i n e d from n u r s i n g and o t h e r f i e l d s , a t l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s . For p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , l o c a l s c h o o l s , h o t e l s and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s , depending on needs, a r e used. E d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s are o b t a i n e d from l o c a l l i b r a r i e s , P r o v i n c i a l S p e c i a l L i b r a r y and a u d i o - v i s u a l r e s o u r c e s . The OMA and OHA have no r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e f o r N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . 5. What are your views r e g a r d i n g a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s for,  a c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n program i n n u r s i n g i n North- e a s t e r n O n t a r i o ? The RNAO w i l l encourage support o f programs under the a e g i s o f r e c o g n i z e d i n s t i t u t i o n s t o p r o v i d e f o r a v a r i e t y of needs, f o r example, c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e s k i l l s . The OMA conducts c o n t i n u i n g m e d i c a l e d u c a t i o n throughout O n t a r i o to which nurses a re welcome without charge. The OHA f e e l s t h a t r e s o u r c e s a re never.adequate, but would however, suggest g r e a t e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f l o c a l c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . The OHA a l s o f r e q u e n t l y 105 sponsors, w i t h the RNAO, s h o r t i n s t i t u t e s and c o n f e r e n c e - t y p e e d u c a t i o n programs f o r nurses as and when needs a r i s e . The A s s o c i a t i o n a l s o has a f i l m l i b r a r y . D i s c u s s i o n o f F i n d i n g s T h i s survey has r e v e a l e d some of the important f e a t u r e s o f the a v a i l a b i l i t y and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . Human, p h y s i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s on a region-wide b a s i s a re inadequate, i n terms of number of i n s t i t u t i o n s o r a g e n c i e s which possess such r e s o u r c e s . Based on the f i n d i n g s f o r each r e s o u r c e c a t e g o r y , a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the r e s o u r c e s i n d e c l i n i n g o r d e r , a re p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , human r e s o u r c e s and e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s between d i s t r i c t s i n the Region. Vo uniform p a t t e r n emerges i n r e s p e c t o f a l l r e s o u r c e s mentioned but on the whole, Timiskaming and M a n i t o u l i n are c u r r e n t l y the p o o r e s t d i s t r i c t s . N i p i s s i n g , Cochrane, Algoma and Sudbury and Area i n d e c l i n i n g o r d e r , appear t o be the b e s t p l a c e d . W i t h i n d i s t r i c t s , a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a t e g o r i e s o f r e s o u r c e groups a l s o v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y . However, i f the Region as a whole i s c o n s i d e r e d , then the g r e a t e s t i n a d e q u a c i e s i n r e s o u r c e s are with r e s p e c t t o a l l i e d b u s i n e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l s and s e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e , under human r e s o u r c e s ; l a b o r a t o r i e s , under 106 p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s and r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n programs and pre-packaged programs, under e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . An o v e r a l l p l a n o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the Region must pay s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o f i l l i n g these i n a d e q u a c i e s i n o r d e r t o ensure an e f f e c t i v e program. Some t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s are i n t e r e s t e d i n programs f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . T h i s should be e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r i n terms of o r g a n i z i n g b r o a d c a s t s , d e t e r m i n i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l areas to be covered, sponsors, e t c . The l o c a l l i b r a r i e s a l s o have r e s o u r c e s . T h i s a r e a needs to be e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r r e g a r d i n g l i b r a r y h o l d i n g s f o r n urses. How b e s t may they be upgraded and/or augmented and whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s i t ? In s m a l l areas where a l l e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g a r e not a v a i l a b l e , bookmobiles c o u l d be used to s u p p l y these areas w i t h such m a t e r i a l s . CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ; The Study i n Review In the contemporary world, nurses have to f u n c t i o n i n a dynamic and c o n s t a n t l y changing environment brought about by the i n f l u e n c e o f s c i e n t i f i c , t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l changes. H e a l t h c a r e i s a major f i e l d i n which the impact o f these changes has been and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be f e l t . I f nurses, as important members o f any h e a l t h c a r e scheme f o r a s o c i e t y , a r e to c o n t i n u e to f u n c t i o n competently i n t h e i r area o f work, c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l . The s u c c e s s f u l e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g depends on the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s and t h e i r adequacy. The a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s need t o be i d e n t i f i e d and a n a l y z e d f o r t h e i r p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o an o v e r a l l p l a n f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g w i t h i n a r e g i o n . The r e s u l t s o f such an' a n a l y s i s s h o u l d p o i n t to areas where e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s are inadequate as w e l l as i n d i c a t e p o s s i b l e measures f o r t h e i r improvements. T h i s study was concerned w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f such a program f o r nurses i n North-e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . 107 108 The purposes o f the p r e s e n t study were t o i d e n t i f y a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the Region, and a n a l y z e the r e s o u r c e s i n terms of t h e i r poten-t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o an o v e r a l l r e g i o n a l p l a n o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s was based on assumptions w i t h r e s p e c t t o the g o a l s and needs f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . A p l a n of o r g a n i z a t i o n based on the concept of r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n was proposed as an a i d t o f u t u r e p l a n n i n g of a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the Region and i s apprnded to the s t u d y . 1 The l i t e r a t u r e review r e v e a l e d t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s i s an important s t e p i n p l a n n i n g f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . To t h i s w r i t e r ' s knowledge, no study t o i d e n t i f y a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o has been done. The p r e s e n t study was i n t e n d e d to f i l l t h i s gap. The study used the d e s c r i p t i v e survey r e s e a r c h method. M a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s of the mixed type, u s i n g both open-ended and closed-ended q u e s t i o n s were used f o r data c o l l e c t i o n . The l i m i t a t i o n s of the m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e approach are w e l l documented and acknowledged by the w r i t e r . The l i m i t a t i o n s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s used i n t h i s study are a l s o acknowledged by the w r i t e r . F o r t h i s study, however, i t was found b e s t , g i v e n the time and f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t had to be met. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were developed around the c a t e g o r i e s "^See Appendix F. 109 o f human and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s and e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . The survey sample c o n s i s t e d of those i n s t i t u t i o n s , p r o f e s s i o n -a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and agencies which are c o n s i d e r e d t o be p o t e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s f o r a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . The sample elements f o r the survey are h o s p i t a l s , p u b l i c h e a l t h u n i t s , v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s , e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . The d a t a c o l l e c t e d are a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o c a t e g o r i e s of r e s o u r c e s both a t the r e g i o n a l and d i s t r i c t l e v e l . A d i r e c t o r y i s p r o v i d e d t o g i v e f u l l d e t a i l s of the 2 a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s i n the Region. A t o t a l of 75 respon-dents were c o n t a c t e d by m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , out o f whom, 54 (72%) r e p l i e d . The p r o p o r t i o n of non-respondents (28%) was c o n s i d e r e d s m a l l enough to be t o l e r a t e d f o r the purposes o f the study. The reasons f o r not responding by these s u b j e c t s are not known. Approximately 57 per c e n t of the not-respondents r e p r e s e n t the r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n s u b j e c t group. The remaining 43 per c e n t r e p r e s e n t the p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s and h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s (See T a b l e 9 f o r r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ) . The f i n d i n g s o f the study are based on the 54 completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s which were r e t u r n e d w i t h i n the s p e c i f i e d time l i m i t of 3 weeks. The survey r e v e a l s t h a t on a"region-wide b a s i s , human and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s and e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o are inadequate i n terms of number 2 See Appendix E. i l i p o f i n s t i t u t i o n s which possess them. A v a i l a b i l i t y o f these r e s o u r c e s between d i s t r i c t s v a r i e s . W i t h i n d i s t r i c t s , a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c a t e g o r i e s o f r e s o u r c e s a l s o v a r i e s . Some d i s t r i c t s are completely l a c k i n g c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s of r e s o u r c e s . The survey a l s o r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e i s a h i g h l e v e l o f i n t e r e s t (91%) i n a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the Region. The o v e r a l l assessment of the adequacy of r e s o u r c e s shows t h e r e are in a d e q u a c i e s i n a l l the c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s i n the Region. Both the human and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s and the e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s need upgrading and/or augmenting. These i n a d e q u a c i e s are more s e r i o u s i n some d i s t r i c t s than i n o t h e r s and i n t e r - d i s t r i c t imbalances need t o be r e d r e s s e d . The w r i t e r r e c o g n i z e s t h a t , w h i l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the p e r c e i v e d l e a r n i n g needs of the nurse i s the t r a d i t -i o n a l f i r s t s t e p i n p l a n n i n g a f o r m a l program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g , no attempt was made to do so In t h i s study. However, the w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t a study t o i d e n t i f y a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , i s a major s t e p i n p l a n n i n g f o r a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g and can m e a n i n g f u l l y be undertaken i n d e p e n d e n t l y of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the p e r c e i v e d l e a r n i n g needs of nu r s e s . S t u d i e s of t h i s l a t t e r a s p e c t , i f undertaken by o t h e r s , can v i t a l l y complement the p r e s e n t one. The response r e s u l t o f 72 per c e n t i s c o n s i d e r e d r e a s o n a b l e f o r the study because a l l d i s t r i c t s i n the Region were i n c l u d e d as w e l l as a l l s u b j e c t groups deemed r e l e v a n t f o r the purposes of the I l l study. Although the method o f i d e n t i f y i n g and a n a l y z i n g a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g employed i n the study may be u s e f u l t o o t h e r s , no attempt was made t o g e n e r a l i z e beyond the Region of N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . F i n a l l y , the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s and t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e l a t e t o the s i t u a t i o n i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o a t the time of the survey. No attempt has been made t o show p o s s i b l e f u t u r e changes i n the a v a i l a b l e r e -sources or t o g e n e r a l i z e the r e s u l t s of the study beyond the Region. C o n c l u s i o n s and I m p l i c a t i o n s The a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o have been i d e n t i f i e d and a n a l y z e d . The f i n d i n g s of the survey show s e r i o u s i n a d e q u a c i e s i n terms of the number of i n s t i t u t i o n s and agencies which possess such r e s o u r c e s both a t the r e g i o n a l and d i s t r i c t l e v e l . An o v e r a l l p l a n of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the Region must come t o terms w i t h these d e f i c i e n c i e s i n o r d e r t o ensure e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g . The survey r e v e a l e d a h i g h l e v e l of i n t e r e s t (91%) i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . T h i s l e v e l of i n t e r e s t should f a c i l i t a t e implementation of a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . The f i n d i n g s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a h i g h t u r n - o v e r r a t e of n u r s i n g s t a f f and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e c r u i t -112 i n g new s t a f f which are a t t r i b u t e d t o the l a c k o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r nurses i n the Region. The h i g h t u r n - o v e r r a t e o f n u r s i n g s t a f f and the c u r r e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e c r u i t i n g n u r s i n g s t a f f f o r the Region make i t i m p e r a t i v e t h a t a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g be o f f e r e d i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o , i n order t o ensure a s t a b l e and e f f i c i e n t n u r s i n g s e r v i c e . Recommendations Based on the assumptions, l i t e r a t u r e review and the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study, the f o l l o w i n g recommendations are made: That — 1. L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y immediately i n i t i a t e p l a n s t o e s t a b l i s h a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s along the l i n e s of the proposed p l a n o f organ-i z a t i o n of a program as appended t o the study. 2. L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y e s t a b l i s h a Department of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nur s i n g t o serve as the R e g i o n a l Centre f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o , w i t h o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n . 113 3. The Department c o n t i n u e t o i d e n t i f y the c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n needs o f the nurses i n the Region. 4 . The Department i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h l o c a l communities, where f e a s i b l e , e s t a b l i s h s a t e l l i t e c e n t r e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g throughout the Region. 5. The Department promote and sponsor c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs f o r nurses through the e s t a b l i s h e d s a t e l l i t e c e n t r e s . 6. The Department and the s a t e l l i t e c e n t r e s use the Region's a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , i n a manner p r e v e n t i n g d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t , to o f f e r a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g a c r o s s the Region. 7. The Department e s t a b l i s h and o f f e r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n courses i n the i n t e r i m , w h i l e seeking ways and means to e s t a b l i s h s a t e l l i t e c e n t r e s . 8. Future p l a n s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g l o c a l t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s f o r a wide v a r i e t y o f programs r e l a t e d t o n u r s i n g i n t e r e s t s and areas. 114 9. Radio and t e l e v i s i o n programs based on e s t a b l i s h e d n^eds of the nurse p o p u l a t i o n be b r o a d c a s t t o areas not served by s a t e l l i t e c e n t r e s . 10. The Department e x p l o r e ways and means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs f o r nurses i n remote or i n a c c e s s i b l e areas of the Region. 11. The Region seek ways and means of upgrading and/or augmenting the c a t e g o r i e s of r e s o u r c e s . 12. 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" T e l e l e c t u r e ? T r y i t Y o u ' l l L i k e I t . " J o u r n a l of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , IV ( M a r c h - A p r i l , 1973), 14-18. Shore, Helen. "Adopters and Laggards." Canadian Nurse, LXVIII ( J u l y , 1972), 36-39. Thomas, Barbara, and.Heick, M e r l e . "A Survey o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Needs." J o u r n a l of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  i n N u r s i n g , IV (May-June, 1973), 26-31. . T r u s s e l , P a t r i c i a M., and T a i t , Emily. " P r i v a t e U n i v e r s i t y C o n t r i b u t e s to Community H e a l t h Throujh a C o n t i n u -i n g Nursing E d u c a t i o n Program."* I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Nursing Review, XVIII (1971), 66-75. 121 U p r i c h a r d , M u r i e l . " I n s e r v i c e E d u c a t i o n . " Canadian J o u r n a l o f P u b l i c H e a l t h , L I I I (February, 1962), 47-56. Proceedings Cooper, Signe, S. 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Ottawa: The A s s o c i a t i o n , 1972. 122 Canadian Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n . On Record. Canadian Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n Statements Approved 1970. Ottawa: Canadian Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n , 1970. C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r Nurses. A Study f o r the Need f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r R e g i s t e r e d Nurses i n  O n t a r i o . Toronto: School o f Nursing, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1969. O n t a r i o Department o f Economics and Development. Economic  Survey o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . Toronto: Queens P r i n t e r , 1966. Idaho Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n . Nursing i n Idaho: A Study of  Nursing Needs and Resources. Idaho: Western I n t e r s t a t e Commission on Higher E d u c a t i o n and the Mountain S t a t e s R e g i o n a l M e d i c a l Program, 1969. Ingmire, A l i c e E. C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Program. Memeographed  Report. San F r a n c i s c o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1968. Midwest C o n t i n u i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n f o r Nurses (MCPEN). Reg i o n a l Survey. A Model f o r Program O r g a n i z a t i o n  f o r P l a n n i n g R e g i o n a l C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n  Nur s i n g . M i s s o u r i : MCPEN, School o f Nu r s i n g , S t . L o u i s U n i v e r s i t y , 19 71. M i n i s t r y . o f H e a l t h . The Supply and Demand f o r R e g i s t e r e d Nurses and R e g i s t e r e d N u r s i n g A s s i s t a n t s i n Ontario, Toronto: Queens P r i n t e r , 19 72. R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia (RNABC). A Proposed P l a n f o r the O r d e r l y Development of  Nu r s i n g E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, P a r t I I I , C o n t i n u i n g Nursing E d u c a t i o n . Vancouver: RNABC, 1973. Report o f the M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , O n t a r i o , 1970. Toronto: L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, 1970. Report o f a Survey o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Needs f o r H e a l t h  P r o f e s s i o n a l s . Boulder, Colorado: Western I n t e r -s t a t e Commission on Higher E d u c a t i o n , Mountain S t a t e R e g i o n a l M e d i c a l Program, 1969. \ UNESCO. T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . F i n a l Report. Tokyo; J u l y 25 - August 7, 1972. Tokyo: UNESCO, 1972. 123 UNESCO. A R e t r o s p e c t i v e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Survey o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . M o n t r e a l , 1960 to Tokyo 1972. T h i r d  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . Tokyo: UNESCO/CONFEDAD 4, 1973. Theses - Unpublished F l a h e r t y , M. Josephine. E n q u i r y i n t o the Need f o r C o n t i n u i n g  E d u c a t i o n f o r R e g i s t e r e d Nurses i n the P r o v i n c e o f  O n t a r i o . Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 19 65. Johnson, S i s t e r L o u i s e . R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g f o r Nur s i n g E d u c a t i o n . Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r -s i t y o f Western O n t a r i o , 19 65. Racine, Barbara Ann. S t r u c t u r e : An Approach to C o n t i n u i n g  N u r s i n g E d u c a t i o n . Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1971. M i s c e l l a n e o u s Calendar L a u r e n t i a n / L a u r e n t i e n n e 19 74:1975 Calendar/Annuaire, and Ph i l o s o p h y o f the School o f Nu r s i n g . Correspondence Joan MacDonald, D i r e c t o r , C o l l e g e o f Nurses, O n t a r i o , Toronto, 1975. < APPENDIX A ADMINISTRATIVE MAP OF STUDY AREA 124 125 (PATRICIA PORTION) 3.* .!*< • tyT^TOIIT A L B A N Y , v ' V . > - . . . yV-' \ .JL. 1 B E A C O N P T ' * • ' j ' * SANDBANK I. A N E D T 7 E R R A P I D S S M O K Y FALLS C A R E Y A K E THUNOE BAY, »?>*6BA KABIHAKAGAMI I fcvTi j-iLLAieue L T R A N S P O R T A T I O N IN THE N O R T H E A S T E R N O N T A R I O R E G I O N 1965 LEGEND RAILWAYS— ROADS: KING'S HIGHWAYS— SECONDARY HIGHWAYS— UNDER CONSTRUCTION— AIRPORTS: LANO BASED— WAifK OR WATER * ICE BASED— STEAMSHIP ROUTES-JO » n WHITE RIVEH MICHIflCOTEN* ; ,• •-•V:- . . . ..• '..•< MtSSINAIBl L (T, ) . ( ( F R A N Z [ M ^ p ^ M .IRtJQTJOts'TAl.tS ,./&V__ " R Q U I S J L i N c r n g N ^ - ^ p j i r SCALE IN MILES PHMWO BY M WPLltD ICflNOMlCS 8UNCH OWICt 01 IHE CHILI ECONOMIST , ONTARIO 0IPARIMIN1 Of ECONOMICS AND DEVLLOfMENT i F O L E Y E J . TVANHOE L . — + — \ R A M O R E 1-r^VllSKAMING QurBiiC; th MMSMAKWA ( V G O G A M A KtNOGAMI L ' E L K L A K E 1. fi « L | ) N _ • • • J E W L I S K E A R D r 1 V ( TIMlSKAMJNG ^WAKAPITtt I CAI'REOLik^I jL. MICHIGAN U.S.A. / E L L I O T LAkfl « ! < C O P P F T H MACXtHAC l«IOClJi\ V-» t M A C K I N A W CirY x ^ " ; ? M E s s A L O N N.~o^-- :-^iSi--^ i—•vK^r j v - ^ "--^  -y(v> A T T A W A j f l i . . ' . " . . ; . I M A C K I N A W CI v_ PARRY SO V ND[[ \ NIPISSING ^ i : X , L ' MICHIGAN U.S.A. A H I T N E Y \ APPENDIX B LIST OF SUBJECTS CONTACTED BY DISTRICT 126 127 NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO - SURVEY OF RESOURCES DISTRICTS 1. ALGOMA Town-Sault S t . Marie L i b r a r y D i r e c t o r P u b l i c L i b r a r y 50 E a s t S t r e e t S a u l t S t . Marie, O n t a r i o Radio and T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n s CJIC-TV Hyland Radio & TV L t d . Hyland B u i l d i n g 119 E a s t S t r e e t S a u l t S t . Marie, O n t a r i o CKCY Algo n q u i n Radio & TV Co., L t d . 254 Queen S t . E. S a u l t S t . Marie, O n t a r i o A f f i l i a t e C o l l e g e . P r i n c i p a l Algoma U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e Shingwauk H a l l , Queen St. E. , S a u l t S t . Marie, O n t a r i o C o l l e g e o f A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology Chairman, H e a l t h S c i e n c e s D i v i s i o n S a u l t C o l l e g e o f A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology Box 60, 443 Northern Avenue, P6A 5L3 S a u l t S t . Marie, O n t a r i o Centre f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n E l l i o t Lake De E l l i o t Lake Centre f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n D i r e c t o r , 180 M i s s i s s a u g a Avenue E l l i o t Lake, O n t a r i o * P u b l i c H e a l t h U n i t D i r e c t o r o f Nursino Algoma H e a l t h U n i t " 235 W e l l i n g t o n West S a u l t S t . Marie, Ontario, P6A 1H6 P u b l i c G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l s D i r e c t o r o f N u r s i n g : S t . Joseph's General L a k e s i d e Avenue Box 970, B l i n d River, POR ICO O n t a r i o S t . Joseph's General Spine Road E l l i o t Lake, P5A 1X2 O n t a r i o G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l 941 Queen St. E. S a u l t S t . Marie, P6A 2B8 O n t a r i o Plummer Memorial 969 Queen St. E. S a u l t S t . Ma r i e , P6A ?.C4' O n t a r i o The Lady Dunn Gene r a l S t a t i o n Road, Box 179 Wawa, POS 1K0 O n t a r i o COCHRANE Town - Timmins L i b r a r y S e c r e t a r y P u b l i c L i b r a r y 236 Algonquin B l v d . E. Timmins O n t a r i o Radio & T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n s 129 CBFOT Tinunins, O n t a r i o CFCL-TV Timmins, Box 620 O n t a r i o A f f i l i a t e C o l l e g e D i r e c t e u r , C o l l e g e De H e a r s t H e a r s t , O n t a r i o C o l l e g e o f A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology Chairman o f the N u r s i n g Program, Northern R e g i o n a l C o l l e g e o f A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology 155 P i n e S t r e e t . S., Box 2002 South P o r c u p i n e , O n t a r i o P u b l i c H e a l t h U n i t P o r c u p i n e P u b l i c H e a l t h U n i t 70 Balsam S t . S. and 234 A l g o n q u i n B l v d . Timmins, O n t a r i o D i r e c t o r o f Nursing P u b l i c General H o s p i t a l s D i r e c t o r o f N u r s i n g : The Lady Minto H o s p i t a l a t Cochrane 156-8th S t . , Box 1660 Cochrane, POL 1C0 O n t a r i o Notre-Dame 1405 Edward S t . Box 850 He a r s t , POL 1N0 O n t a r i o Anson General E i g h t S t . Box 37 0 I r o q u o i s F a l l s , P0K 1E0 O n t a r i o 130 Sensenbrenner 10 Drury S t . Kapuskasing, P5N 1K9 O n t a r i o Bingham Memorial P.O. Box 70 Matheson, POK 1N0 O n t a r i o James Bay General - Moosonee Wing P.O. Box 370 Moosonee, POL 1Y0 O n t a r i o Smooth Rock F a l l s 105 Second Ave. Box 219 Smooth Rock F a l l s , POL 2B0 O n t a r i o Porcupine General Bruce Ave. Box 850 South Porcupine, PON 1H0 O n t a r i o N o r t h e a s t e r n R e g i o n a l Mental H e a l t h Centre P.O. Box 1720 Porcupine, PON 1H0 O n t a r i o St . Mary's General 41 Pine St. N. Timmins, P4N 6K7 O n t a r i o 3. MANITOULIN Town - L i t t l e C u r r e n t P u b l i c General H o s p i t a l D i r e c t o r o f N u r s i n g : S t . Joseph's G e n e r a l M e r e d i t h St. Box 250 L i t t l e C u r r e n t , POP 1K0 O n t a r i o 4. NIPISSING 131 Town - North Bay L i b r a r y D i r e c t o r P u b l i c L i b r a r y 217 Worthington S t . E. North Bay O n t a r i o Radio & T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n s CHNB-TV D i r e c t o r N o r t h Bay O n t a r i o D i r e c t o r , CFCH Northern B r o a d c a s t i n g L t d . No r t h Bay O n t a r i o D i r e c t o r CKNY Box 1050, North. Bay O n t a r i o A f f i l i a t e C o l l e g e P r e s i d e n t , N i p i s s i n g U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e Box 5002, Nor t h Bay O n t a r i o C o l l e g e of A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology D i r e c t o r of the Nursing Program Canadore C o l l e g e o f A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology G o r m a n v i l l e Road, Box 5001 North Bay P l B 8K9 O n t a r i o P u b l i c H e a l t h U n i t D i r e c t o r o f N u r s i n g North Bay & D i s t r i c t P u b l i c H e a l t h U n i t 204 M c l n t y r e S t . E., North Bay O n t a r i o P u b l i c General H o s p i t a l s D i r e c t o r o f Nur s i n g ; Mattawa General 215 - 3rd S t . Box 7 0 Mattawa, POH 1V0 O n t a r i o North Bay C i v i c 750 S c o l l a r d S t . North Bay, P1B 15A4 O n t a r i o North Bay P s y c h i a t r i c . Hwy. U N . , Box 3010 North Bay, P1B 8L1 O n t a r i o St . Joseph's General 720 McLaren S t . North Bay, P1B 3L9 O n t a r i o St . Jean de Brebeuf 145 Main S t . Sturgeons Fall,POH 2G0 O n t a r i o SUDBURY AND AREA Town - Sudbury L i b r a r y D i r e c t o r , P u b l i c L i b r a r y 74 McKenzie S t . Sudbury O n t a r i o Radio & T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n s D i r e c t o r CKSO-TV & Radio 336 Ash S t r e e t Sudbury O n t a r i o D i r e c t o r CFRB 166 Elm S t . Sudbury O n t a r i o D i r e c t o r CHNO 166 Elm S t . Sudbury O n t a r i o D i r e c t o r CBFST-1 Sudbury O n t a r i o D i r e c t o r CKNC-TV Sudbury O n t a r i o U n i v e r s i t y D i r e c t o r , The School of N u r s i n g L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y Ramsey Lake Road Sudbury O n t a r i o C o l l e g e of A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology D i r e c t o r o f Nursing Program Cambrian C o l l e g e of A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology 1400 Barrydowne Road Sudbury O n t a r i o P u b l i c H e a l t h U n i t D i r e c t o r o f Nu r s i n g Sudbury & D i s t r i c t P u b l i c H e a l t h U n i t 1300 P a r i s C r e s c e n t Sudbury O n t a r i o P u b l i c General H o s p i t a l s D i r e c t o r o f N u r s i n g : The Lady Minto H o s p i t a l a t Chapleau 77 Queen S t . S., Box 757 Chapleau , POM 1K0 O n t a r i o Copper C l i f f H o s p i t a l 38 G r a n i t e St Copper C L i f f O n t a r i o Espanola G e n e r a l 79 Tudhope S t . , Box 1280 Esp a n o l a , POP ICO O n t a r i o * S t . Joseph's Gene r a l MacKenzie S t . Sudbury , P3C 4X9 O n t a r i o Sudbury General H o s p i t a l o f the Immaculate Heart o f Mary 700 P a r i s St Sudbury O n t a r i o Memorial H o s p i t a l Regent S t . S. Sudbury, P3E 3Y9 O n t a r i o * L a u r e n t i a n H o s p i t a l 1222 P a r i s C r e s c e n t Sudbury, P3E 3A6 O n t a r i o Sudbury & Algoma S a n i t o r i u m 680 Kirkwood D r i v e Sudbury , P3E 1X3 O n t a r i o Sudbury Deto-cication U n i t 1237 Kingsway Sudbury O n t a r i o * Moving t o L a u r e n t i a n H o s p i t a l as o f May 1975. PARRY SOUND L i b r a r y D i r e c t o r P a r r y Sound P u b l i c L i b r a r y 29 Mary S t . P a r r y Sound O n t a r i o Radio & T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n s D i r e c t o r CKVR-TV-1 P a r r y Sound O n t a r i o D i r e c t o r 135 CKAR-1 28 W i l l i a m St. " P a r r y Sound O n t a r i o P u b l i c General H o s p i t a l s D i r e c t o r o f N u r s i n g : . South Muskoka Memorial 75 Ann St. , Box 1570 B r a c e b r i d g e , POB ICO O n t a r i o H u n t s v i l l e D i s t r i c t Memorial 14 M i l l S t . , Box 5500 H u n t s v i l l e , POA 1K0 O n t a r i o P a r r y Sound D i s t r i c t G eneral 10 James S t . Par r y Sound, P2A 1Z3 O n t a r i o 6. TIMISKAMING Town - K i r k l a n d Lake L i b r a r y D i r e c t o r Teck C e n t e n n i a l L i b r a r y 10 K i r k l a n d St. E. Box 670 K i r k l a n d Lake, P2N 3K2 O n t a r i o Radio & T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n s D i r e c t o r CJKL Government Road W., Woolworth B u i l d i n g K i r k l a n d Lake O n t a r i o C o l l e g e o f A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology D i r e c t o r of the N u r s i n g Program Northern C o l l e g e o f A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology - K i r k l a n d Lake Campus 140 Government Road, E. K i r k l a n d Lake O n t a r i o P u b l i c H e a l t h U n i t D i r e c t o r of Nursing Timiskaming P u b l i c H e a l t h U n i t Box 1240 New L i s k e a r d , O n t a r i o P u b l i c General H o s p i t a l s D i r e c t o r o f N u r s i n g : E n g l e h a r t & D i s t r i c t 61 - 5th S t . , Box 69 E n g l e h a r t , POJ 1H0 O n t a r i o Temiskaming H o s p i t a l - H a i l e y b u r y U n i t Georgina Ave. H a i l e y b u r y , O n t a r i o K i r k l a n d Lake & D i s t r i c t 30 Second S t . E. K i r k l a n d Lake, P2N 1R2 O n t a r i o Temiskaming H o s p i t a l - New L i s k e a r d U n i t H e s s l e Ave., P.O. Box 340 New L i s k e a r d O n t a r i o PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS 1. ONTARIO HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION (OHA) A s s i s t a n t E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r E d u c a t i o n S e r v i c e s O n t a r i o H o s p i t a l A s s o c i a t i o n 150 Fe r r a n d D r i v e Flemingdon Park Don M i l l s , M3C 1H6 O n t a r i o 2. ONTARIO MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (OMA) S e c r e t a r y Committee on E d u c a t i o n O n t a r i o M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n 240 S t . George S t . Toronto, M5R 2P4 O n t a r i o 3. REGISTERED NURSES' ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO (RNAO) D i r e c t o r , P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Department R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n o f O n t a r i o 33 P r i c e S t . Toronto, M4W 1Z2 O n t a r i o APPENDIX C COVERING LETTERS 138 L A U R E N T I A N U N I V E R S I T Y SCHOOL OF NURSING U N I V E R S I T E L A U R E N T I E N N E ECOLE DES INFIRMIERES 139 S U D B U R Y , O N T A R I O , C A N A D A Laurentian University School of Nursing is pleased to cooperate with Una Reid in her study to determine continuing education resources for nurses in Northeastern Ontario. The findings will be of great value vo us as we begin to assume responsibility for this3 hopefully, in the near future. I encourage you to complete the enclosed questionnaire and return it to Miss Raid by April 53 1975. Your cooperation will be appreciated by both Miss Reid and the School of Nursing Thank you. Dorothy 'Rringle Director School of Nursing 14Q 2455 West 2nd Avenue Apt. 106 Vancouver, B.C. V6K 1J5 Dear I am a graduate student a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia e n r o l l e d i n the Master's program i n the School of N u r s i n g . At the end of my s t u d i e s I s h a l l be r e t u r n i n g t o the School of Nursing, L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y , Sudbury. I have s e l e c t e d f o r my t h e s i s , "A Survey of A v a i l a b l e Resources f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nursing i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . " For the purposes of the study " C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n " i s d e f i n e d as any planned e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y — l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s and/or e x p e r i e n c e s — d i r e c t e d toward meeting the l e a r n i n g needs of the nurse f o l l o w i n g b a s i c n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n , e x c l u s i v e of f u l l o r p a r t - t i m e f o r m a l p o s t - b a s i c n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s t o p i c i s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and I am t h e r e f o r e c o n t a c t i n g h e a l t h a g e n c i e s , a f f i l i a t e c o l l e g e s , c o l l e g e s of a p p l i e d a r t s and t e c h n o l o g y , p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s r e g a r d . As one of the l e a d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study, I am forwarding a q u e s t i o n n a i r e through the D i r e c t o r , School of Nursing, L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y , Sudbury f o r your k i n d c o m p l e t i o n . K i n d l y r e t u r n completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i r e c t l y t o me. A s e l f - a d d r e s s e d envelope, " S p e c i a l D e l i v e r y " , i s e n c l o s e d f o r your convenience. I wish t o a s s u r e you t h a t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d w i l l be t r e a t e d i n the s t r i c t e s t c o n f i d e n c e . Thank you f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n . I remain, Yours s i n c e r e l y , UVR/mle Una V. R e i d , R.N., B.Sc.N. APPENDIX D QUESTIONNAIRES: 1. HEALTH AND EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 2. PUBLIC LIBRARIES 3 . RADIO. AND TELEVISION STATIONS 4. PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS (RNAO, OMA, OHA) 141 HEALTH AND EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS SURVEY OF AVAILABLE RESOURCES FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION IN NURSING IN NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Name o f I n s t i t u t i o n 2. L o c a t i o n c i t y o r town 3. Address 4. Person (s) Responding Chairman, P r i n c i p a l , D i r e c t o r , P r e s i d e n t , e t c . 5 . (a) Are you i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n your area? YES . . . . NO*. . . . (b) B r i e f l y g i v e reasons f o r your answer. 6 . Has a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g been o f f e r e d i n your area i n the l a s t 5 years? YES . . . NO . . . 7 . I f answer t o (6) i s "YES", p l e a s e d e s c r i b e . * P l e a s e c i r c l e c o r r e c t answer. 143 What r e s o u r c e s are a v a i l a b l e a t your i n s t i t u t i o n f o r o p e r a t i n g a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g ? P l e a s e d e s c r i b e and e l a b o r a t e under the f o l l o w i n g headings: (a) Human Resources: (I) F a c u l t y (State area o f e x p e r t i s e and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ) . ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s (State a r e a of e x p e r t i s e and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ) . ( i i i ) A l l i e d B u s i n e s s P r o f e s s i o n a l s (State a r e a of e x p e r t i s e and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ) . (iv) S e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e . (b) P h y s i c a l Resources, f o r example, t e a c h i n g space ( i ) L a b o r a t o r i e s : (a) Number o f l a b o r a t o r i e s (b) S e a t i n g c a p a c i t y ( i i ) Classrooms and l e c t u r e h a l l s : (a) Number o f classrooms and l e c t u r e h a l l s (b) S e a t i n g c a p a c i t y ( i i i ) Conference rooms (a) Number o f c o n f e r e n c e rooms (b) S e a t i n g c a p a c i t y (c) E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s : (i) T o t a l number o f Books, J o u r n a l s , P e r i o d i c a l h e l d by l i b r a r y 145 ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s (equipment) (a) Type (b) Date a c q u i r e d ( i i i ) Pre-packaged programs (iv ) Radio and T e l e v i s i o n programs (v) Other ( S p e c i f y ) 9. P l e a s e g i v e your assessment of the adequacy o f the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s a t your i n s t i t u t i o n . VERY GOOD . . . GOOD . . . FAIR . . . POOR . . . 10. In what r e s p e c t s do r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e a t your i n s t i t u -t i o n need upgrading and/or augmenting? D e s c r i b e b r i e f l y . 146 11. Are you aware o f o t h e r r e s o u r c e s i n your area which may be a v a i l a b l e t o a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g ? D e s c r i b e b r i e f l y . 12. Do you have any s u g g e s t i o n s as to how a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n your area might be improved? P l e a s e be b r i e f . 147 PUBLIC LIBRARIES SURVEY OF AVAILABLE RESOURCES FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION IN NURSING IN NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO QEUSTIONNAIRE 1. Name of I n s t i t u t i o n 2. L o c a t i o n c i t y or town 3. Address 4. Do you possess any c o l l e c t i o n o r h o l d i n g s o f Nursing Textbooks and/or J o u r n a l s i n your L i b r a r y ? YES . . . NO*. 5. I f "YES", how many items are c u r r e n t l y held? 6 . P l e a s e l i s t (on sep a r a t e page) Nursing Textbooks and J o u r n a l s h e l d i n your l i b r a r y . 7. Are you i n a p o s i t i o n to r e c e i v e textbooks and j o u r n a l s o r p e r i o d i c a l s f o r nurses f o r g e n e r a l use? YES . . ., NO . 8. Do you have adequate f a c i l i t i e s f o r the development of r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r nurses i n your l i b r a r y ? YES . . . NO . . . I s any o f the f o l l o w i n g a problem? *Please c i r c l e c o r r e c t answer. 148 ( i ) S h e l v i n g space. YES . . . NO . . . ( i i ) Reading space. YES . . . NO . . . ( i i i ) Reading t a b l e s and/or c h a i r s . YES . . . NO . . . (i v ) A s s i s t i n g p e r s o n n e l . YES . . . NO . . . Are t h e r e any c u r r e n t books and j o u r n a l s on N u r s i n g which you are unable to a c q u i r e but would l i k e to? YES . . . NO . . . P l e a s e s t a t e reason and l i s t o f books: To what e x t e n t do nurses now f r e q u e n t and use your l i b r a r y ? Very F r e q u e n t l y . . . F r e q u e n t l y . . . I n f r e q u e n t l y . . . H?s your l i b r a r y a ccess to o r lending, p r i v i l e g e s f o r N u r s i n g Textbooks w i t h any o t h e r l i b r a r i e s ? YES . . . NO . . . I f your answer to (11) i s "YES", p l e a s e l i s t l i b r a r i e s and t h e i r l o c a t i o n . What are your s p e c i a l problems i n b u i l d i n g up a r e a d i n g c o l l e c t i o n f o r nurses a t your l i b r a r y ? P l e a s e be b r i e f . 149 14. What types o f a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s (equipment) e x i s t i n your l i b r a r y ? P l e a s e d e s c r i b e under the f o l l o w i n g headings: (a) Type (b) Date a c q u i r e d 15. Do you have any s u g g e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g f a c i l i t i e s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n your area? P l e a s e be b r i e f . 150 L i s t o f Nursing Textbooks & J o u r n a l s RADIO & TELEVISION STATIONS SURVEY OF AVAILABLE RESOURCES FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION IN NURSING IN NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Name o f I n s t i t u t i o n 2 . L o c a t i o n c i t y o r town 3. Address 4. Person(s) Responding P r e s i d e n t , D i r e c t o r , Program D i r e c t o r , e t c . 5 . Are you aware of any e x i s t i n g programs of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o ? YES. . . NO* . . . 6. I f answer t o (5) i s "YES", are you a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the program? YES . . . NO . . . I f "YES", i n what form? D e s c r i b e b r i e f l y . 7. I f you do not a l r e a d y p a r t i c i p a t e i n any program, would you be prepared t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n one i f e s t a b l i s h e d i n ' the Region? YES . . . NO . . . *Please c i r c l e c o r r e c t answer. 152 8. I f answer to (7) i s "NO", p l e a s e s t a t e why. 9 . I f answer to (8) i s "YES", which o f the f o l l o w i n g forms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n would you p r e f e r (Please r a n k ) . A. S t u d i o group d i s c u s s i o n B. D i r e c t p r e s e n t a t i o n of prepared programs C. Simulated programs ( s e l e c t e d t o p i c s ) 7 D. Coverage o f some a s p e c t s o f such programs a t L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y E . G e n e r a l p u b l i c i t y o f such programs 10. I f A, B or C, g i v e approximate frequency and c o s t of programming. 11. P l e a s e l i s t below p o t e n t i a l sponsors o f such programs. 12. P l e a s e use space below t o g i v e any o t h e r f u r t h e r i n f o r -mation o r s u g g e s t i o n s you may have on c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . 153 PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS (RNAO, OMA, OHA) SURVEY OF AVAILABLE RESOURCES FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION IN NURSING IN NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Name of A s s o c i a t i o n . . 2. L o c a t i o n . c i t y or town 3. Address. . . . . . . . . 4 . Person (s) Responding. . . ... P r e s i d e n t , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , D i r e c t o r , e t c . 5. Do you c u r r e n t l y have an on-going program i n c o n t i n u i n g -.education i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o ? YES . NO* . . . 6. I f answer t o (5) i s "NO", do you p l a n t o i n i t i a t e such a program i n t h i s r e g i o n i n the near f u t u r e ? YES . . . NO . . . D e s c r i b e b r i e f l y . 7. I f answer t o (5) i s "YES", p l e a s e g i v e below d e t a i l e d p a r t i c u l a r s o f t h i s program. P l e a s e c i r c l e c o r r e c t answer. 154 8. Have you mounted any new programs i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n the l a s t year? YES . . . NO . . 9. I f answer t o (8) i s "YES", p l e a s e g i v e l i s t o f such programs w i t h l o c a t i o n and any c o o p e r a t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . * 10. What r e s o u r c e s under your c o n t r o l are a v a i l a b l e f o r o p e r a t i n g a c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n program i n n u r s i n g i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o ? * D e s c r i b e b r i e f l y under: ( i ) Human Resources ( i i ) P h y s i c a l Resources ( i i i ) E d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s 11. What are your view r e g a r d i n g a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r a c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n program i n n u r s i n g i n North-e a s t e r n O n t a r i o ? P l e a s e be b r i e f . *You may use separate sheets p r o v i d e d f o r q u e s t i o n s 9 & 10. Do you have o t h e r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs i n which nurses c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e ? YES . . . N O . . N / A . . . D e s c r i b e b r i e f l y . Other Comments. 156 Programs O f f e r e d 157 R e s o u r c e s APPENDIX E DIRECTORY OF RESOURCES FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION IN NURSING IN NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO 1975 158 DIRECTORY OF RESOURCES FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION IN NURSING IN NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO, 1975 DISTRICT: ALGOMA HUMAN RESOURCES No. • A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 1 ( i ) Nursing P e r s o n n e l ( i i ) S e c r e t a r i a l A s s i s t a n c e Chairman, H e a l t h Sciences D i v i s i o n S a u l t C o l l e g e of A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology 443 Northern Ave Box 60 S a u l t St. Marie, O n t a r i o P6A 5L3 2 (i ) Nursing P e r s o n n e l ( i i ) S e c r e t a r i a l A s s i s t a n c e D i r e c t o r of Nursing Plummer Memorial H o s p i t a l 969 Queen S t . S a u l t S t . Marie O n t a r i o P6A 2 3' (i ) Nursing Personnel ' ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s (medical p r a c t i t i o n -e r s , p h y s i o t h e r a p i s t , l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i c i a n ) D i r e c t o r of Nursing St Joseph's General H o s p i t a l Spine Road E l l i o t Lake, O n t a r i o P5A 1X2 cn vo DISTRICT: ALGOMA (Human Resources) NO. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 4 (i) A l l i e d Business P r o f e s s i o n a l s D i r e c t o r o f P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s Algoma S t e e l S a u l t S t . Marie O n t a r i o 5 (i) Nursing P e r s o n n e l ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s (medical p r a c t i t i o n e r s ) ( i i i ) S e c r e t a r i a l A s s i s t a n c e D i r e c t o r o f Nursing St. Joseph's '.General H o s p i t a l Lakeside Avenue Box 970, B l i n d R i v e r , O n t a r i o POR ICO 6 (i) Nursing Personnel ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s (M.O.H.) ( i i i ) S e c r e t a r i a l A s s i s t a n c e D i r e c t o r o f Nursing Algoma Health U n i t 235 W e l l i n g t o n S S a u l t S t . Marie O n t a r i o P6A 1H6 7 (i) S e c r e t a r i a l A s s i s t a n c e A c t i n g P r i n c i p a l Algoma U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e Shingwauk H a l l Queen S t . E. S a u l t S t . Marie O n t a r i o 8 (I) S e c r e t a r i a l A s s i s t a n c e A s s o c i a t e D i r e c -t o r of Programs E l l i o t Lake Centre d ' E l l i o t Lake 180 M i s s i s a u g a Ave., E l l i o t Lake, O n t a r i o O DISTRICT: ALGOMA PHYSICAL RESOURCES NO. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 1 (i ) A u t o - t u t o r i a l Laboratory with 14 c a r r e l s ( i i ) 3 Classrooms* (40-80 each) ( i i i ) 1 Conference room (20) Chairman, Health Sciences D i v i s i o n S a u l t C o l l e g e of A p p l i e d A r t s and Technology 443 Northern Ave S a u l t S t . Marie O n t a r i o P6A 5L3 2 ( i ) 10 Classrooms (30-90 each) ( i i ) 3 Conference rooms (10-25 each) A c t i n g P r i n c i p a l Algoma U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e Shingwauk H a l l Queen S t . E. S a u l t St. Marie O n t a r i o 3 ( i ) 10 Classrooms (24-200) ( i i ) 6 Conference rooms (30 each) A s s o c i a t e . D i r e c -t o r of Programs E l l i o t Lake Centre d 1 E l l i o t Lake 180 M i s s i s a u g a Ave. E l l i o t Lake O n t a r i o 4 (i) 1 Classroom (125) ( i i ) 2 Conference rooms (6-10) D i r e c t o r of Nursing Plummer Memorial H o s p i t a l 969 Queen St . E. S a u l t St. Marie O n t a r i o 5 (i) 2 Classrooms (18-30) ( i i ) 1 Conference room (25) D i r e c t o r of Nursing St. Joseph's General H o s p i t a l Spine Road E l l i o t Lake O n t a r i o P5A 1X2 •Numbers i n b r a c k e t s r e p r e s e n t s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y . DISTRICT: ALGOMA ( P h y s i c a l Resources) No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact (i) 1 Classroom (40-50) D i r e c t o r o f Nursing I n s t i t u t i o n Address Algoma H e a l t h U n i t 2 35 W e l l i n g t o n St. W., S a u l t St . Marie, O n t a r i o P6A 1H6 CA DISTRICT: ALGOMA EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 1 ( i ) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s *(books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) Pre-packaged Programs - Canadian h e a l t h law tapes - a u d i o - d i g e s t tapes on g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e ( i i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l E q u i p -ment - B e l l & Howell p r o j e c t o r **(1973) -Kodak s l i d e p r o j e c -t o r (1974) - f i l m s t r i p p r o j e c t o r (1972) D i r e c t o r of Nursing St . Joseph's General H o s p i t a l Spine Road E l l i o t Lake, O n t a r i o P5A 1X2 2 ( i ) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) Pre-packaged Programs - d i a b e t i c t e a c h i n g tapes, e t c . (1973) ( i i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l E q u i p -ment - Sony v i d e o camera (1973) D i r e c t o r of N u r s i n g Plummer Memorial H o s p i t a l 969 Queen S t . E. S a u l t S t . Marie O n t a r i o P6A 2C4 * Nursing textbooks, j o u r n a l s and p e r i o d i c a l s . **Numbers i n b r a c k e t s r e p r e s e n t year a c q u i r e d . CTl CO DISTRICT: ALGOMA ( E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s ) , No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 2 (con.) -Sony v i d e o tape machine w i t h c o l o r e d t e l e v i s i o n (1973) -Auto Advance I I ( f i l m s t r i p s & tapes) (1972) - T i f f i n tape r e c o r d e r (1972) -Kodak e x t r a g r a p h i c s l i d e p r o j e c t o r model B2 w i t h f i l m s t r i p attachment (1972) -2 f i l m p r o j e c t o r s -automatic(1970) -manual (?) - s i n g l e s l i d e viewer (1973) -overhead p r o j e c t o r (?) - r e c o r d p l a y e r (?) -2 viewing screens (?) -models-(Heart, Babe, Resuci-Anne, etc.) -Konica C35 automatic camera (1973) 3 (i ) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) Chairman, Health Sciences D i v i s -i o n S a u l t C o l l e g e of A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology 443 Northern Ave. S a u l t S t . Marie O n t a r i o P6A 5L3 H CTN DISTRICT:. ALGOMA ( E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s ) NO. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address (con.) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l equip-ment - e x t e n s i v e h o l d i n g s i n c l u d i n g a u t o - t u t o r i a l p r o-d u c t i o n s . A l l r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d 4 ( i ) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l equip-ment - e x t e n s i v e , i n c l u d i n g v i d e o -t a p i n g . Recently a c q u i r e d A c t i n g P r i n c i p a l Algoma U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e Shingwauk H a l l Queen S t . E. S a u l t S t . Marie O n t a r i o 5 (i) A u d i o - v i s u a l equip-ment - s l i d e p r o -j e c t o r - f i l m p r o j e c t o r - f i l m s t r i p p r o j e c t o r -tapes. A l l a c q u i r e d i n the p a s t 2 years D i r e c t o r of Nursing S t . Joseph's General H o s p i t a l L a keside Ave. Box 970 B l i n d R i v e r POR ICO O n t a r i o I—1 cn DISTRICT: ALGOMA ( E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s ) No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 6 (i) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - v i d e o t a p e s , overheads, 16 mm s l i d e s , sound. Recently a c q u i r e d A s s o c i a t e D i r e c t o r o f Programs E l l i o t Lake d 1 C e n t r e E l l i o t Lake 180 M i s s i s a u g a Ave. E l l i o t Lake O n t a r i o 7 (i) A u d i o - v i s u a l equip-ment - movie p r o j e c t o r (1967) - f i l m p r o j e c t o r (1971) -2 C a r o u s e l (1971-1973) - overhead p r o j e c t o r (1972) - r a d i o r e c o r d p l a y e r (1971) -tape r e c o r d e r (1972) D i r e c t o r o f Nursing Algoma He a l t h U n i t 235 W e l l i n g t o n St.W. S a u l t St. Marie O n t a r i o P6A 1H6 CA CA DISTRICT: COCHRANE HUMAN RESOURCES A v a i l a b l e Resources (i) Nursing Personnel ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s ( i ) Nursing Personnel (i) N u r s i n g P e r s o n n e l ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s , (medical p r a c t i t -i o n e r s , Ph. D. i n psychology, MSW) (i) Nursing Personnel Contact D i r e c t o r o f Nursing ( i ) N u r s i n g P e r s o n n e l ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s (medical p r a c t i t -i o n e r s , s p e c i a l i s t s i n gynaecology, surgery, ENT, u r o l o g y , p s y c h i a t r y ) D i r e c t o r o f Nursing C l i n i c a l Co-o r d i n a t o r S u p e r v i s o r o f Nurses Chairman, Diploma Nursing Program I n s t i t u t i o n Sensenbrenner H o s p i t a l Porcupine General H o s p i t a l Northeastern Regional Mental H e a l t h Centre Porcupine H e a l t h U n i t Address 10 Drury St. Kapuskasing O n t a r i o P5N 1K9 Bruce Ave., Box 850 South Porcupine O n t a r i o PON 1H0 Box 1720 Porcupine O n t a r i o PON 1H0 70 Balsam S t . and 234 Algonquin Blvd. Timmins O n t a r i o Northern C o l l e g e o f Ap p l i e d A r t s & Technology 155 Pine S t . S. Box 2002 South Porcupine O n t a r i o as DISTRICT: COCHRANE (Human Resources) No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 5 (con.) ( i i i ) A l l i e d Business P r o f e s s i o n a l s (lawyers, b u s i n e s s men) (iv) S e c r e t a r i a l A s s i s t a n c e 6 (i) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s D i r e c t o r of Nursing Notre Dame H o s p i t a l 14 05 Edward S t . Box 850 Hearst O n t a r i o POL 1N0 7 (i) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s (medical p r a c t i t -i o n e r s ) ( i i ) A l l i e d Business P r o f e s s i o n a l s (lawyers, b u s i n e s s men) D i r e c t o r of Nursing St. Mary's General H o s p i t a l 41 Pine St. N. Timmins O n t a r i o P4N 6K7 oo DISTRICT: COCHRANE PHYSICAL RESOURCES NO. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 1 (i) L a b o r a t o r i e s -2 l a b o r a t o r i e s (16-36)* ( i i ) Classrooms & L e c t u r e H a l l s - 28 classrooms (12-38)* - 1 l e c t u r e h a l l (100)* D i r e c t o r of Diploma Nursing Program Northern C o l l e g e of A p p l i e d A r t s or Technology Box 2002 155 Pine S t . S. South Porcupine O n t a r i o 2 ( i ) Classrooms & L e c t u r e H a l l s - 1 l e c t u r e h a l l (60)* ( i i ) Conference Rooms -3 conference rooms (6-8)* D i r e c t o r of Nursing Notre Dame H o s p i t a l 1405 Edward S t . Hearst O n t a r i o POL 1N0 3 (i) Classrooms -1 classroom (25)* ( i i ) Conference Room -1 conference room (60)* C l i n i c a l Coordin-a t o r Northeastern Regional Mental Health Centre Box 1720 Porcupine O n t a r i o PON 1H0 4 (i) Classrooms -1 a u d i t o r i u m (100-125)* - 1 classroom (50)* - 1 boardroom (20)* ( i i ) Conference Rooms -2 conference rooms(12 D i r e c t o r of Nursing )* St. Mary's General H o s p i t a l 41 Pine S t . N. Timmins O n t a r i o P4N 6K7 VO * F i g u r e s i n b r a c k e t s r e f e r t o s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y . DISTRICT: COCHRANE ( P h y s i c a l Resources) No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 5 (i) Classrooms -1 classroom (30) ( i i ) Conference Rooms -1 conference room (20) D i r e c t o r of Nursing Sensenbrenner H o s p i t a l 10 Drury S t . Kapuskasing O n t a r i o P5N 1K9 6 (i) Conference Rooms -1 boardroom (16) D i r e c t o r o f Nursing Anson General H o s p i t a l E i g h t S t . Box 370 Ir o q u o i s F a l l s . O n t a r i o POK 1E0 DISTRICT: COCHRANE EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 1 (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l E q u i p -ment -16 mm f i l m p r o j e c t o r (1970) - 35 mm s l i d e p r o j e c t o r (1974) -Dukane f i l m s t r i p p r o j e c t o r (1974) - f i l m c a t r i d g e p r o-j e c t o r (1974) ( i i i ) Pre-packaged programs -audio tapes -gyane-cology and O b s t e t r i c s (?) - ROCOM - I.C.U.; ecu. D i r e c t o r of Nursing Sensenbrenner H o s p i t a l 10 Drury S t . Kapuskasing O n t a r i o P5N 1K9 2 ( i ) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l E q u i p -ment - tape r e c o r d e r s - p o r t a b l e blackboards -2 16 mm movie pro-j e c t o r s - 35 mm s l i d e p r o j e c t o r - opaque & overhead p r o j e c t o r - anatomical models -Resuci-Anne. D i r e c t o r of Nursing St. Mary's General H o s p i t a l 41 Pine S t . N. Timmins O n t a r i o P4N 6K7 DISTRICT: COCHRANE ( E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s ) NO. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address (cont.) A l l a c q u i r e d over the past s e v e r a l years - videotape -(near future) ( i i i ) P r e - p a c k a g e d Programs -ROCOM - ICU, CCU 3 (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - vid e o t a p e , tape r e c o r d e r - c a s s e t t e r e c o r d e r s : -overhead p r o j e c t o r -movie p r o j e c t o r - s l i d e p r o j e c t o r A l l a c q u i r e d 1969 through 1874 Northeastern Regional Mental H e a l t h Centre Box 1720 Porcupine O n t a r i o PON 1H0 4 (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l E q u i p -ment - B e l l & Howell f i l m p r o j e c -t o r (1966) - f i l m s t r i p s & s l i d e p r o -j e c t o r (1966) - over-head p r o j e c t o r (1973) D i r e c t o r of Nursing Notre Dame H o s p i t a l 1405 Edward S t . Hearst O n t a r i o POL 1N0 i—• DISTRICT: COCHRANE ( E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s ) No.. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 4 (con.) ( i i i ) Pre-packaged Programs - 30 t r a i n e x programs - or 30 day pre-view l i s t f o r t r a i n e x program ' 5 ( i ) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) Radio & T e l e v i s i o n Programs - equipment a v a i l a b l e f o r programs ( i i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - audio c a s s e t t e s audio r e c o r d e r s , video-r e c o r d e r s - p l a y e r s -35 mm s l i d e p r o j e c -t o r s - 16 mm - 8 mm movie p r o j e c t o r s - f i l m loops ( r e l a t i n g t o n u r s i n g procedures) A c q u i r e d w i t h i n the past 5 ye a r s . D i r e c t o r , Diploma Nursing Program Northern C o l l e g e of A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology 155 Pine St. S. Box 2002 South Porcupine O n t a r i o 6 (i) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equipment - f i l m p r o j e c t o r (?) - s l i d e p r o j e c t o r (?) D i r e c t o r of Nursing Anson General H o s p i t a l E i g h t S t . Box 370 I r o q u o i s F a l l s O n t a r i o P0K 1E0 I—' CO DISTRICT COCHRANE (E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s ) No, A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 6 ( i i ) Pre-packaged Program (con.) -Arrhythmia r e c o g n i -t i o n - s l i d e s (?) -emergency c a r e tapes (?) (i) Area T e l e v i s i o n Network Program Broadcasts Program D i r e c t o r CFCL-TV Box 620 Timmins O n t a r i o ( i ) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s - w i l l i n g t o add n u r s i n g textbooks and j o u r n a l s - i n t e r l i b r a r y l o a n ( i i ) Audio Equipment -16 mm B e l l & Howell p r o j e c t o r (1973) S e c r e t a r y Timmins P u b l i c L i b r a r y 236 Algonquin Blvd.E. Timmins O n t a r i o V —J DISTRICT: MANITOULIN HUMAN RESOURCES N O . A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 1 (i) Nursing Personnel ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s (medical p r a c t i t i o n e r s ) D i r e c t o r o f Nursing St. Joseph's General H o s p i t a l M e r e d i t h S t . Box 25 0 L i t t l e C u r r ent O n t a r i o POP IKO DISTRICT: MANITOULIN . P H Y S T ^ T . ' p K p n n P P F f i 1 (i) Classrooms -1 classroom (50) D i r e c t o r of Nursing St. Joseph's General H o s p i t a l M eredith S t . Box 250 L i t t l e C u r r ent O n t a r i o POP IKO DISTRICT: MANITOULIN EDUCATIONAL M A ^ P T A J , * 1 (i ) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - p r o j e c t o r & screen (1970) - tape r e c o r d e r (1973-74) D i r e c t o r of Nursing St . Joseph's General H o s p i t a l M e r e d i t h St. Box 250 L i t t l e C u r r e n t O n t a r i o POP 1K0 DISTRICT: MANITOULIN (E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s ) No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 1 ( c o n . ) ( i i i ) Pre-package Programs - tape c a s s e t t e s of a l l l e c t u r e s g i v e n a t h o s p i t a l -tapes on f i r e & d i s a s t e r DISTRICT: NIPISSING HUMAN RESOURCES No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 1 (i) N u rsing F a c u l t y ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s (Ph.D. i n psychology, MSW) D i r e c t o r of N u rsing North Bay P s y c h i a -t r i c H o s p i t a l Box 3010, Hwy. 11 N. North Bay O n t a r i o PIB 8L1 2 (i) N u rsing F a c u l t y ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s (medical P r a c t i t -i o n e r s , s p e c i a l i s t s i n p s y c h i a t r y , p a e d i a t r i c s , o b s e t r i c s and gynaecology, s o c i a l worker) D i r e c t o r of Nursing St. Joseph's General H o s p i t a l 720 NcLaren St . North Bay O n t a r i o PIB 3L9 3 (i) Nursing F a c u l t y ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s (medical p r a c t i t -i o n e r s , s p e c i a l i s t s i n p s y c h i a t r y , p a e d i a t r i c s , o b s t e t i c s and gynaecology, s o c i a l worker) D i r e c t o r of N u rsing North Bay C i v i c H o s p i t a l 750 S c o l l a r d S t . North Bay O n t a r i o PIB 5A4 DISTRICT: NIPISSING (Human Resources) NO. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 4 (i) N u r s i n g F a c u l t y ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s (medical p r a c t i t -i o n e r s - s p e c i a l i s t s i n p s y c h i a t r y , p a e d i a t r i c s , o b s e t r i c s and gynaecology, s o c i a l worker) D i r e c t o r o f N u rsing Mattawa General H o s p i t a l 215-3rd S t . Box 70 North Bay O n t a r i o POH 1V0 5 (i) Nursing F a c u l t y ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s (medical p r a c t i t -i o n e r s - s p e c i a l i s t s i n p s y c h i a t r y , p a e d i a t r i c s . - o b s t e t i c s and gynaecology, s o c i a l worker) ( i i i ) A l l i e d Business P r o f e s s i o n a l s (Business Adminis-t r a t i o n F a c u l t y ) (iv) S e c r e t a r i a l A s s i s t a n c e Chairman, Diploma Nursing Program Canadore C o l l e g e of A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology G o r m a n v i l i e Rd. Box 5001 North Bay O n t a r i o PIB 8K9 DISTRICT: NIPISSING PHYSICAL RESOURCES No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 1 (i ) L a b o r a t o r i e s -1 l a b o r a t o r y (50) ( i i ) Classrooms & l e c t u r e H a l l s - 2 l a r g e l e c t u r e t h e a t r e s (300 or 105) - s e v e r a l l a r a e classrooms (30-45) - s e v e r a l seminar rooms (20) Chairman,, Diploma Nursing Program Canadore C o l l e g e of A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology Gormanville Rd. Box 5001 North Bay O n t a r i o PIB 8K9 2 (i) Classrooms -1 combined c l a s s -room & l a b o r a t o r y (5) ( i i ) Conference Rooms -3 conference rooms (10-15 & 20) D i r e c t o r of Nursing Mattawa General H o s p i t a l 215-3rd S t . Box 7 0 Mattawa O n t a r i o POH 1V0 3 (i) Classrooms ( i i ) Conference Rooms -2 conference rooms (8) D i r e c t o r of Nursing St. Joseph's General H o s p i t a l 720 McLaren S t . North Bay O n t a r i o PIB 3L9 4 (i) Classrooms ( i i ) Conference Rooms - s e v e r a l conference rooms (?) P r e s i d e n t N i p i s s i n g U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e Box 5002 North Bay " O n t a r i o : K DISTRICT: NIPISSING ( P h y s i c a l Resources) No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 5 (i ) Classrooms -1 classroom (50)* ( i i ) Conference Rooms -16 conference rooms (10)* D i r e c t o r of Nursing North Bay P s y c h i a t r i c H o s p i t a l Hwy. 11 N, Box 3010 North Bay O n t a r i o PIB 8L1 6 ( i ) Classrooms -3 classrooms (100 or 30-34)* ( i i ) Conference Rooms -4 conference rooms (10)* D i r e c t o r of Nursing North Bay C i v i c H o s p i t a l 750 S c o l l a r d S t . North Bay O n t a r i o PIB 5A4 * F i g u r e s i n b r a c k e t s r e f e r t o s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y . 00 o DISTRICT: NIPISSING EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 1 (I) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - 16 mm sound p r o j e c t o r (1965) D i r e c t o r of Nursing Mattawa General H o s p i t a l 215-3rd S t . Box 70 Mattawa O n t a r i o POH 1V0 2 (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l E q u i p -ment - any type of hardware i n c l u d i n g v i d e o - c a s s e t t . A c q u i r e d w i t h i n the past 5 years ( i i i ) Pre-packaged Programs - l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n of v i d e o - c a s s e t t e programs or v a r i o u s t o p i c s (iv) Radio & T e l e v i s i o n Programs P r e s i d e n t N i p i s s i n g U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e Box 5002 North Bay O n t a r i o 3 (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) Chairman, Diploma Nursing Program Canadore C o l l e g e of A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology Gormanville Rd. Box 5001 North Bay O n t a r i o PlB 8K9 DISTRICT: NIPISSING ( E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s ) No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 3 (con.) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - any type o f hardware i n c l u d i n g v i d e o c a s s e t t e . A c q u i r e d w i t h i n the past 5 years ( i i i ) Pre-packaged Programs - l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n o f v i d e o - c a s s e t t e programs on v a r i o u s t o p i c s (iv) Radio & T e l e v i s i o n Programs 4 (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - Caramate (1972) - 16 mm p r o j e c t o r (1968) - s l i d e p r o j e c t o r or f i l m s t r i p (1968) D i r e c t o r of Nursing St. Joseph's General H o s p i t a l 720 McLaren S t . North Bay O n t a r i o PIB 3L9 5 ( i ) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - Sony Model A.V, tape r e c o r d e r (1974) D i r e c t o r o f Nursing North Bay C i v i c H o s p i t a l 750 S c o l l a r d S t . North Bay O n t a r i o PIB 8L1 M CO to DISTRICT: NIPISSING ( E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s ) No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 5 (con.) ( i i i ) Pre-packaged Programs -programs on emergen-cy care and h o s p i t a l law 6 (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s - i n t e r l i b r a r y l o a n and n u r s i n g t e x t -books ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - B e l l & Howell p r o j e c t o r (1974) -micro f i l m r e a d e r (1969) D i r e c t o r P u b l i c L i b r a r y 217 Worthington St North Bay O n t a r i o 7 (i) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - 16 mm p r o j e c -t o r s - overhead p r o j e c t o r - f i l m s t r i p - video tape r e c o r d e r . A c q u i r e d through 1969 to present ( i i ) Pre-packaged Programs - l i f e s k i l l s programs D i r e c t o r of Nursing North Bay P s y c h i a -t r i c H o s p i t a l Hwy. 11 N. Box 3010 North Bay O n t a r i o P l B 8 L l 8 (i) T e l e v i s i o n Program Broadcasts Manager CKNY-TV P.O. Box 1050 North Bay O n t a r i o ( DISTRICT: SUDBURY & AREA HUMAN RESOURCES No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 1 (i) N ursing P e r s o n n e l ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s (MOH, Dental H e a l t h O f f i c e r , ' n u t r i t i o n -i s t s , s a n i t a r i a n ) ( i i i ) S e c r e t a r i a l A s s i s t a n c e D i r e c t o r o f Nursing Sudbury & D i s t r i c t H e a l t h U n i t 1300 P a r i s S t . Sudbury O n t a r i o 2 (i ) Nursing Personnel ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s ( p h y s i c i a n s , d i e t -i t i a n s , m e d i c a l r e c o r d s l i b r a r i a n s , p h y s i o t h e r a p i s t s , pharmacists, m e d i c a l l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i c i a n ) I n s e r v i c e Co-o r d i n a t o r Memorial H o s p i t a l Regent S t . S. Sudbury O n t a r i o P3E 3Y9 3 (i) Nursing P e r s o n n e l ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s (medical s t a f f , d i e t i t i a n s , p h y s i o -t h e r a p i s t s ) I n s e r v i c e E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r *St. Joseph's H o s p i t a l 74 McKenzie S t . Sudbury O n t a r i o •Moving to new l o c a t i o n May 1975 - L a u r e n t i a n H o s p i t a l , 1222 P a r i s Crescent, Sudbury, O n t a r i o . 00 DISTRICT: SUDBURY & AREA (Human Resources) No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 3 (con.) ( i i i ) A l l i e d Business P r o f e s s i o n a l s - ( a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f ) 4 (i) Nursing Personnel ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s ( s o c i a l work f a c u l t y , h e a l t h & P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f a c u l t y . -Ph.D. 1s, MPE, BPE's w i t h p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n r e h a b i l -i t a t i v e program i n c a r d i o v a s c u l a r problems) ( i i ) A l l i e d Business P r o f e s s i o n a l s (commerce f a c u l t y -Ph.D., M.A., B. Comms. with some . i n t e r e s t i n h e a l t h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) D i r e c t o r , School o f Nursing L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y Ramsay Lake Rd. Sudbury O n t a r i o 5 ( i ) Nursing Personnel C o - o r d i n a t o r of Nursincr Cambrian C o l l e g e of A p p l i e d A r t s and Technology 1400 Barrydowne Rd. Sudbury . O n t a r i o t-1 CO DISTRICT: SUDBURY & AREA (Human Resources) No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 5 (con.) ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s ( p a t h o l o g i s t , r a d i o l o g i s t , m e d i c a l s t a f f , d i e t i t i a n s , i n t e r n i s t s , m edical l a b o r a -t o r y t e c h n o l o g i s t s ) ( i i i ) A l l i e d Business P r o f e s s i o n a l s ( f u l l F a c u l t y i n business adminis-t r a t i o n ) (iv) S e c r e t a r i a l A s s i s t a n c e 6 (i) Nursing Personnel ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s ( r a d i o l o g i s t s , p a t h o l -o g i s t , m e d i c a l s t a f f , d i e t i t i o n , i n t e r n i s t , m e d i c a l l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n o l o g i s t s ) D i r e c t o r o f Nursing South Muskoko Memorial H o s p i t a l 75 Ann S t . Box 1570 Bracebridge O n t a r i o POB ICO DISTRICT: SUDBURY & AREA (Human Resources) No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 7" (i) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s ( i i ) A l l i e d Business P r o f e s s i o n a l s (lawyers, secondary s c h o o l teachers) D i r e c t o r of Nursing Parry Sound D i s t r i c t General H o s p i t a l 10 James S t . Par r y Sound O n t a r i o P2A 173 8 (i) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s ( p s y c h o l o g i s t s , s o c i a l workers, o c c u p a t i o n a l and p h y s i o t h e r a p i s t s , p l a y t h e r a p i s t -master of s c i e n c e i n c h i l d r e n ' s mental h e a l t h , c h i l d care worker) ( i i ) A l l i e d Business P r o f e s s i o n a l s ( a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f ) D i r e c t o r o f Nursing Sudbury & Algoma Sanitarium 680 Kirkwood D r i v e Sudbury O n t a r i o ?3E 1X3 CO DISTRICT: SUDBURY & AREA PHYSICAL RESOURCES A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address (i) L a b o r a t o r i e s - s e v e r a l l a b o r a t o r i e s (300) ( i i ) Classrooms & L e c t u r e H a l l s -3 classrooms & 1 l a r g e demonstration room (14 0) D i r e c t o r , School of Nursing L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y Ramsay Lake Rd. Sudbury O n t a r i o ( i ) Classrooms & L e c t u r e H a l l s -2 classrooms (15 & 50) ( i i ) Conference Rooms -2 conference rooms (6) D i r e c t o r of Nursing Sudbury & D i s t r i c t H e alth U n i t 1300 P a r i s Cresc, Sudbury O n t a r i o (i) Classrooms -2 classrooms (20 & 100) ( i i ) Conference Rooms -7 conference rooms (8-12) I n s e r v i c e Co-o r d i n a t o r Memorial H o s p i t a l Regent S t . S. Sudbury , O n t a r i o P3E 379 (i) Classrooms ( i i ) Conference Rooms -2 conference rooms (10 & 25) D i r e c t o r o f Nursing H u n t s v i l l e D i s t r i c t H o s p i t a l 14 M i l l S t . Box 5500 H u n t s v i l l e O n t a r i o P0A 1K0 H CO CO DISTRICT: SUDBURY & AREA ( P h y s i c a l Resources) No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 5 (i) Classrooms -2 classrooms (10 & 12) ( i i ) Conference Rooms -1 conference room (45) I n s e r v i c e E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r St. Joseph's H o s p i t a l 74 McKenzie S t . Sudbury O n t a r i o 6 (i) Classrooms -1 classroom (24) ( i i ) Conference Rooms -1 conference room (15) D i r e c t o r o f Nursing Parry Sound D i s t r i c t General H o s p i t a l 10 James S t . Parry Sound O n t a r i o P2A 1Y3 7 (i) Classrooms -3 l e c t u r e h a l l s (?) - l a r g e number of classrooms (?) ( i i ) Conference Rooms - conference rooms (?) Co- o r d i n a t o r of Nursing Cambrian C o l l e g e o f A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology 14 00 Barrydowne Rd. Sudbury O n t a r i o 8 (i ) . Conference Rooms . -6 conference r o o r s (8-75) D i r e c t o r of Nursing Sudbury & Algoma Sanitarium 680 Kirkwood D r i v e Sudbury O n t a r i o P3E 1X3 9 , .,„ (i) Conference Rooms -1 conference room (60) D i r e c t o r of Nursing South Muskoko Memorial H o s p i t a l 75 Ann S t . , Box 1570 Bracebridge O n t a r i o POB 1C0 DISTRICT: SUDBURY & AREA EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 1 (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - 35 mm c o l o r s l i d e p r o j e c t o r (1975) - movie p r o j e c t o r (1968) D i r e c t o r of N u rsing South Muskoko Memorial H o s p i t a l 75 Ann St Box 1570 B r a c e b r i d g e O n t a r i o POB ICO 2 (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - t o n i t r a i n e r , i n t r a v e n o u s i n f u s i o n arm t r a i n e r , - f i l m p r o j e c t o r s - f i l m -s t r i p s p r o j e c t o r s - c a s s e t t e r e c o r d e r s -tape machines - over head p r o j e c t o r - c a r o u s e l s l i d e p r o -j e c t o r - cameras -anatomical t o r s o , s k e l e t o n anatomical c h a r t s ( i i i ) Pre-packaged Programs -RoCom - ICU, CCU (?) - d i a b e t i c p a t i e n t , s t r o k e p a t i e n t , hyper-t e n s i v e I n s e r v i c e C o - o r d i n a t o r St. Joseph's H o s p i t a l 74 McKenzie St . Sudbury O n t a r i o P3E 3 Y9 vo o DISTRICT: SUDBURY & AREA ( E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s ) No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 2 (con.) p a t i e n t , c a r d i a c p a t i e n t , mastectomy k i t , v e n e r a l d i s e a s e , Canadian H e a l t h Law, n u r s i n g r e s o u r c e c e n t r e m a t e r i a l ( c a s e t t e s & books) H e a l t h Care Educa-t i o n a l System 3 ' (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - 1 overhead p r o j e c t o r (1970) D i r e c t o r o f Nursing Sudbury & Algoma Sa n i t a r i u m 680 Kirkwood D r i v e Sudbury O n t a r i o P3E 1X3 4 (i ) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-• ment - RoCom (19 69) - f i l m l o o p p r o j e c t o r • (1975). - movie pro-j e c t o r (19 74) - tape r e c o r d e r (19 74) - s l i d e p r o j e c t o r (1973) I n s e r v i c e C o - o r d i n a t o r • • Memorial H o s p i t a l Regent S t . S. Sudbury O n t a r i o P3E 3Y9 VD DISTRICT: SUDBURY & AREA ( E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s ) . No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 4 (con.) ( i i i ) Pre-packaged Programs -RoCom s e r i e s (42 f i l m s t r i p s ) ( ? ) - c a s s e t t e tapes (20) n u r s i n g & m e d i c a l t o p i c s (?) 5 (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s - i n t e r l i b r a r y loans and n u r s i n g textbooks ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l E q u i p -ment -3 m i c r o f i l m p r i n t e r s (?) - 2 m i c r o f i l m r e a d e r s (?) - 2 micro-f i l m readers (?) « D i r e c t o r P u b l i c L i b r a r y 74 McKenzie S t . Sudbury O n t a r i o 6 (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) Pre-packaged Programs • - t r a i n e x - RoCom - CCU D i r e c t o r of Nursing Parry Sound D i s t r i c t General H o s p i t a l 10 James St. P arry Sound O n t a r i o P2A 1Z3 7 (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) D i r e c t o r , School of Nursing L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y Ramsay Lake Rd. Sudbury O n t a r i o VO DISTRICT: SUDBURY & AREA ( E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s ) No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 7 (con.) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - 16 mm f i l m p r o j e c t o r (1967) - overhead p r o j e c t o r (1967) - r e c o r d p l a y e r - s t e r e o r e e l t o r e e l - (1967) - 5 tape r e c o r d e r s (1967) 8 (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - 16 mm pro-j e c t o r s - overhead p r o j e c t o r s - s l i d e p r o j e c t o r s - f i l m s t r i p p r o j e c t o r s -video-monitors. A l l r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d ( i i i ) Radio & T e l e v i s i o n Programs - s t u d i o f o r p r e p a r a -t i o n of m a t e r i a l s C o - o r d i n a t o r o f Nursing Cambrian C o l l e g e o f A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology 1400 Barrydowne Rd. Sudbury O n t a r i o 9 (i) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - p r o j e c t o r s (?) D i r e c t o r of Nursing Sudbury & D i s t r i c t H e a l t h U n i t 1300 P a r i s C r e s c . Sudbury O n t a r i o M vo DIRECT: SUDBURY & AREA ( E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s ) NO. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 10 (i) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equipment - p r o j e c t o r (?) - tape r e c o r d e r (?) D i r e c t o r of Nursing H u n t s v i l l e D i s t r i c t Memorial H o s p i t a l 14 M i l l S t . Box 5500 H u n t s v i l l e O n t a r i o POA IKO 11 (i) T e l e v i s i o n Broadcasts - t e l e v i s i o n broad-c a s t s o f prepared and simu l a t e d programs, a l s o p u b l i c i t y of programs Opera t i o n Manager CKNC-TV Sudbury O n t a r i o M VD DISTRICT:. TIMISKAMING HUMAN RESOURCES NO. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 1 (i) Nursing Personnel ( i i ) A l l i e d H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s - medical p r a c t i t -i o n e r s , pharmacists, p h y s i o t h e r a p i s t D i r e c t o r of Nursing Temiskaming H o s p i t a l ~ H a i l e y b u r y U n i t Georgina Ave. H a i l e y b u r y O n t a r i o 2 (i) Nursing P e r s o n n e l D i r e c t o r of Nursing Timiskaming Health U n i t Box 1240 New L i s k e a r d O n t a r i o 3 (i) A l l i e d Business P r o f e s s i o n a l s - f a c u l t y i n business management Chairman, Diploma Nursing Program Northern C o l l e g e of A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology 140 Government Rd.E K i r k l a n d Lake O n t a r i o DISTRICT: TIMISKAMING PHYSICAL RESOURCES 1 (i) L a b o r a t o r i e s - 1 l a b o r a t o r y (25) ( i i ) Classrooms - 1 classroom (35-100) ( i i i ) Conference Rooms -2 conference rooms (20) Chairman, Diploma Nursing Program Northern C o l l e g e of A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology 140 Government Rd.E K i r k l a n d Lake O n t a r i o DISTRICT: TIMISKAMING ( P h y s i c a l Resources) No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address 2 (i) Classrooms - 1 classroom (50) - 1 a u d i t o r i u m (200) D i r e c t o r of Nursing Temiskaming H o s p i t a l - H a i l e y b u r y U n i t Georgina Ave. H a i l e y b u r y O n t a r i o DISTRICT: TIMISKAMING EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS 1 (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( I i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - 1 f i l m p r o j e c t o r (1973) D i r e c t o r of Nursing E n g l e h a r t & D i s t r i c t H o s p i t a l 61-5th S t . , Box 69 E n g l e h a r t O n t a r i o POJ 1H0 2 (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s ' (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l E q u i p -ment - f i l m s t r i p s - f i l m s , s l i d e s ( i i i ) Pre-Packaged Programs - a u d i o - d i g e s t s e r i e s (ordered and updated y e a r l y s i n c e 1965) D i r e c t o r of Nursing Temiskaming H o s p i t a l - H a i l e y b u r y U n i t -Georgina Ave. H a i l e y b u r y O n t a r i o DISTRICT: TIMISKAMING ( E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s ) No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact I n s t i t u t i o n Address (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s (books, j o u r n a l s , p e r i o d i c a l s ) ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - f i l m p r o j e c -t o r , f i l m s t r i p p r o j e c t o r , overhead p r o j e c t o r (acquired p r i o r to 1973) ( i i i ) Pre-packaged Programs - 65 t r a i n e x f i l m s t r i p s Chairman, Diploma Nursing Program Northern C o l l e g e of A p p l i e d A r t s & Technology 140 Government Rd.E. K i r k l a n d Rd. On t a r i o (i) L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s - i n t e r l i b r a r y l o a n s and n u r s i n g t e x t books ( i i ) A u d i o - v i s u a l Equip-ment - f i l m s (by s p e c i a l request) - v i d e o tape r e c o r d s c o u r t e s y o f North-e a s t e r n L i b r a r y System Teck C e n t e n n i a l L i b r a r y 10 K i r k l a n d S t . E . Box 670 K i r k l a n d Lake O n t a r i o P2N 3K2 PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS HUMAN RESOURCES No. A v a i l a b l e Resources Contact A s s o c i a t i o n Address •1 (i) Nursing F a c u l t y ( i i ) M e d i c a l P r a c t i t i o n e r s ( i i i ) A l l i e d Business P r o f e s s i o n a l s (iv) Programs D i r e c t o r of P r o f e s s i o n a l Development R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n o f Ontario (RNAO) 33 P r i c e St. Toronto O n t a r i o M4W 1Z2 2 (1) M e d i c a l P r a c t i t i o n e r s ( i i ) Programs S e c r e t a r y Committee on Ed u c a t i o n O n t a r i o M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n (OMA) 240 S t . George S t . Toronto O n t a r i o M5R 2P4 3 (i) A l l i e d Business P r o f e s s i o n a l s ( i i ) Programs A s s i s t a n t E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , E d u c a t i o n S e r v i c e s O n t a r i o H o s p i t a l A s s o c i a t i o n (OHA) 150 Ferrand D r i v e Flemingdon Park Don M i l l s O n t a r i o M3C 1H6 vo 00 APPENDIX F PROPOSED PLAN FOR ORGANIZATION' OF A PROGRAM CONTINUING EDUCATION IN NURSING IN NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO 199 APPENDIX F A PROPOSED PLAN FOR ORGANIZATION OF A PROGRAM OF CONTINUING EDUCATION IN NURSING IN NORTHEASTERN ONTARIO Reg i o n a l p l a n n i n g f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i s a c o o p e r a t i v e venture i n v o l v i n g many d i f f e r e n t groups and d i f f e r e n t approaches.^ I t i s comprehensive, m u l t i d i s c i p l i n -"2 ary and p r e v e n t s d u p l i c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . P l a n n i n g f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i s e s s e n t i a l i f the l e a r n i n g needs of nurses are to be met and i f a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s are t o be used e f f e c t i v e l y . E f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e s 3 p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f l o c a l communities. T h e i r i n t i m a t e knowledge o f l o c a l needs and c o n d i t i o n s can prove i n v a l u a b l e f o r the assessment of these needs and the de s i g n o f programs t o meet them. In Chapter I I some approaches t o p l a n n i n g f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g were reviewed. With minor d i f f e r e n c e s o f d e t a i l , the r e g i o n a l approach t o p l a n n i n g f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g seems t o have the w i d e s t support as i t ensures e f f e c t i v e use o f a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . Based on t h i s review, the w r i t e r i s pr o p o s i n g a p l a n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g i n Nor t h -^"See page 31. 2 See page 36. 3 See page 37. 200 201 e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . The p l a n s e r v e s as a guide i n p r o v i d i n g f o r program needs i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n on a r e g i o n a l l e v e l . The aim o f the p l a n i s to i n d i c a t e the f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the u n i t s i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g and implementation of programs and to suggest a mechanism f o r i d e n t i f y i n g l e a r n i n g needs o f nurses and e f f e c t i v e use of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . The proposed p l a n (See F i g u r e 1) i s intended t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r c o n t i n u e d c:-ssessment of needs and course o f f e r i n g s i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . The major o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t s i d e n t i f i e d i n the proposed p l a n a r e : (a) A Department o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y , (b) A Region a l A d v i s o r y Committee, (c) L o c a l . P l a n n i n g Committees, and (d) Course P l a n n i n g Committees. The main a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g f o r a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g a r e : (i) I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the l e a r n i n g needs o f nu r s e s , ( i i ) Assessment o f a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , ( i i i ) P l a n n i n g and implementation of programs, and (iv) E v a l u a t i o n and review o f programs. At L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y , a Department o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nursing would have the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Area i n need of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g T Need I d e n t i f i c a t i o n L o c a l P l a n n i n g Committees L o c a l Course P l a n n i n g Committees Regional A d v i s o r y Committee C o n s u l t a t i o n Department of Continuing E d u c a t i o n i n Nursing, L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y (Regional Centre) Operation S t a f f Course P l a n n i n g Committee f o r -Department of C o n t i n u i n g Education i n Nursing, L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y P l anning Locate and e s t a b l i s h c entres f o r c o n t i n u i n g education 1. S a t e l l i t e c e ntres Implementation I n i t i a t e on-going y e a r l y c o n t i n u i n g education programs: 1. Set p r i o r i t i e s f o r programs 2. E s t a b l i s h c u r r i c u l u m f o r one year 3. E n l i s t f a c u l t y 4. Procure funding 5. E v a l u a t e f o l l o w i n g program p r e s e n t a t i o n F i g u r e 1 A Proposed P l a n f o r Program O r g a n i z a t i o n of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nursing i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o t o o t o p l a n n i n g , implementation and e v a l u a t i o n of programs. T h i s Department i s seen as a c e n t r a l p i v o t , c o o r d i n a t i n g th« r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g and a c t i n g as c l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n the Region. The f u n c t i o n s o f the Department would b r o a d l y i n c l u d e : 1. E s t a b l i s h i n g L o c a l P l a n n i n g Committees t h a t would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r I d e n t i f y i n g and p l a n n i n g f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n needs i n t h e i r l o c a l communities. 2. Making c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs a v a i l a b l e t o nurses i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . 3. A c t i n g as a c l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r the i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n o f needs and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f new developments i n knowledge and p r a c t i c e o f n u r s i n g . 4. C o o r d i n a t i n g c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n e f f o r t s i n the Region o f N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . The R e g i o n a l A d v i s o r y Committee would i n c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the c l i n i c a l and f u n c t i o n a l areas o f n u r s i n g , p r o v i n c i a l nurses' a s s o c i a t i o n , h e a l t h care a g e n c i e s , m e d i c a l and a l l i e d h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f 4 the consumer i n t e r e s t . Members o f the Committee s h o u l d See page 51. 204 be s e l e c t e d so t h a t they are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s of the Region.. The Committee would s e r v e as a l i a i s o n between the community and the proposed Department of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y and f u l f i l l the f u n c t i o n s of communication and p u b l i c 5 r e l a t i o n s . I t s r o l e would be an a d v i s o r y one but i t would a l s o serve t o p r o v i d e i n t e r - r e g i o n a l and i n t e r - p r o f e s s i o n a l l i n k s i n the h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and a s s i s t g e n e r a l l y i n m a i n t a i n -i n g e f f i c a c y o f on-going programs. Through r e g u l a r c o n s u l t a t i o n between the Department of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g a t L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y and the R e g i o n a l A d v i s o r y Committee, i n f o r m a t i o n on l e a r n i n g needs would be augmented. The views of d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t groups would be c o l l a t e d and programs b e t t e r e v a l u a t e d f o r more e f f e c t i v e use of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . The f u n c t i o n s of the R e g i o n a l A d v i s o r y Committee would b r o a d l y i n c l u d e : 1. A s s i s t i n g the Department of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y i n p r o d u c i n g comprehensive w r i t t e n p o l i c i e s on c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g f o r N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . See page 52. 2 0 5 2 . A s s i s t i n g i n the c o l l e c t i o n o f data r e l a t i n g to l e a r n i n g needs o f nurses and the h e a l t h needs o f the community. 3. A s s i s t i n g i n p l a n n i n g , implementing and e v a l u -a t i n g c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs. 4 . A s s i s t i n g i n communicating t o the p u b l i c the aims and p o l i c i e s o f the Department of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g , L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y . A c e n t r a l i d e a o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n proposed i n t h i s study i s the involvement o f l o c a l i n d i v i d u a l s i n any program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n a g i v e n a r e a . Member-s h i p of L o c a l P l a n n i n g Committees may vary between areas but s h o u l d i n c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the h o s p i t a l s , d i s t r i c t h e a l t h u n i t s , v o l u n t a r y h e a l t h a g e n c i e s , c o l l e g e s o f a p p l i e d a r t s and technology, l o c a l c h a p t e r s o f the p r o -f e s s i o n a l nurses' a s s o c i a t i o n , and o t h e r s . Such i n d i v i d u a l s s hould be s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s o f t h e i r knowledge and competence i n a s s e s s i n g c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n needs i n n u r s i n g i n the s p e c i f i c g i v e n a r e a . In a d d i t i o n , they would be i n a p o s i t i o n t o r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about and/or i d e n t i f y l e a r n i n g needs of the nurses. The involvement o f L o c a l P l a n n i n g Committees would r e s u l t i n more e f f e c t i v e program p l a n n i n g and b e t t e r use of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . The f u n c t i o n s o f the L o c a l P l a n n i n g Committees would b r o a d l y i n c l u d e : 1. A s s e s s i n g the h e a l t h needs o f l o c a l communities. 2. A s s e s s i n g the l e a r n i n g needs o f the nurses and e s t a b l i s h i n g p r i o r i t i e s f o r course o f f e r i n g s . 3. D e c i d i n g on a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n based on l e a r n i n g needs o f the nurses and h e a l t h needs of the communities. 4. C o n s u l t i n g w i t h the Department of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . i n N u r s i n g a t L a u r e n t i o n U n i v e r s i t y i n terms o f f e a s i b i l i t y and p r i o r i t i e s o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n o f f e r i n g s . 5. C o n s u l t i n g w i t h L o c a l Course P l a n n i n g Committees i n terms of course o f f e r i n g s . 6 . P l a n n i n g and e v a l u a t i n g c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs i n t h e i r l o c a l communities i n con-j u n c t i o n w i t h the Department o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nursing a t L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y and the R e g i o n a l A d v i s o r y Committee on an on-going b a s i s . Members of the Course P l a n n i n g Committees would r e p r e s e n t the c l i n i c a l and f u n c t i o n a l areas o f n u r s i n g p r a c t i c e . Members of these Committees would be chosen on the b a s i s o f t h e i r e x p e r t i s e and i n t e r e s t i n the p a r t i c u l a r course o f f e r i n g . The Committees would be o r g a n i z e d on a . 207 long-term b a s i s (one year) f o r the s p e c i f i c purpose o f h e l p -i n g t o p l a n , o f f e r and e v a l u a t e course o f f e r i n g s . They would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e c u r i n g e n r o l l m e n t and r e s o u r c e s f o r these c o u r s e s . These Committees would a l s o work c l o s e l y w i t h the L o c a l P l a n n i n g Committees i n p l a n n i n g and o f f e r i n g c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n courses based on the h e a l t h needs o f the communities and the l e a r n i n g needs of the n u r s e s . They would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e l p i n g the L o c a l P l a n n i n g Committees t o meet the aims o f the Department o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g a t L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y . The Course P l a n n i n g Committees have been i d e n t i f i e d a t two l e v e l s . There are Course P l a n n i n g Committees a t the l o c a l l e v e l working c l o s e l y w i t h the L o c a l P l a n n i n g Committees and t h e r e a r e Course P l a n n i n g Committees working c l o s e l y w i t h L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y . The f u n c t i o n s o f both are the same and would b r o a d l y i n c l u d e : 1. P l a n n i n g course o f f e r i n g s based on i d e n t i f i e d l e a r n i n g needs of nurses and the h e a l t h needs of the communities. 2. S u b m i t t i n g the planned course o f f e r i n g s t o the Department o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g at Laurentian. U n i v e r s i t y f o r a p p r o v a l . 3. Implementing (when a p p r o v a l i s granted) and e v a l u a t i n g course o f f e r i n g s . 4. H e l p i n g t o p l a n programs, f o r example, d e v e l o p -i n g pre-packaged programs, correspondence c o u r s e s and programs f o r t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t s . 208 The F u n c t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s U n d e r l y i n g the P l a n To b r i n g order i n t o the r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s o f the u n i t s i d e n t i f i e d i n the p l a n i t i s e s s e n t i a l to d e f i n e the u n d e r l y i n g f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A h o r i z o n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s p o s t u l a t e d between the Regiona l A d v i s o r y Committee and the proposed Department of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n a t L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y . These two bodies would cooperate in. a s s i s t i n g l o c a l nurses t o develop c a p a b i l i t y t o run t h e i r own c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs. They would a l s o j o i n t l y a p p r a i s e the impact o f the programs on the q u a l i t y o f h e a l t h c a r e . L o c a l P l a n n i n g Committees would be formed by the Department to i d e n t i f y c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n needs o f t h e i r l o c a l communities. L o c a l Course P l a n n i n g Committees would a l s o be formed t o p l a n , implement and e v a l u a t e course o f f e r i n g s on an on-going y e a r l y b a s i s . I t would be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f these Committees to implement the aims o f the Department f o r d e v e l o p i n g c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs. S p e c i f i c a l l y , they would r e c e i v e , e v a l u a t e and recommend proposed programs f o r a c t i o n . They would under-take the necessary l o c a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s f o r the e s t a b l i s h -ment and implementation o f s p e c i f i c courses. F i n a l l y , they would review and a s s e s s on-going programs on an annual b a s i s , i n accordance w i t h g u i d e l i n e s e s t a b l i s h e d by a Department o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nursing a t L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y . 2 0 9 The P l a n n i n g and Implementation Framework The p l a n n i n g and implementation framework f o r the program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r nurses can be d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f r e c o g n i z e d s t e p s . I t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t i n a p l a n n i n g framework, programs cannot be c o n s i d e r e d i n i s o l a t i o n . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e v a l u a t e a l l proposed programs s i m u l t a n e o u s l y so t h a t they can be ranked a c c o r d i n g to c l e a r l y s t a t e d c r i t e r i a i n o r d e r t o a v o i d waste o f l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s . Step 1 - I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Area i n Need o f C o n t i n u i n g  E d u c a t i o n The area i n need o f a program of c o n t i n u i n g educa-t i o n i n n u r s i n g must be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d . L o c a l n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l , i n s t i t u t i o n s , the R e g i o n a l A d v i s o r y Committee and/or the L o c a l P l a n n i n g Committees may be the i n f o r m a t i o n source f o r i d e n t i f y i n g the need. U s u a l l y , the i n f o r m a t i o n would be s u p p l i e d to the L o c a l P l a n n i n g Committees f o r a c t i o n but may be d i r e c t e d to the Department o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g a t L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y where n e c e s s a r y . Step 2 - C o l l e c t i o n of B a s i c I n f o r m a t i o n on Area Where an a r e a i n need o f a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n has been i d e n t i f i e d , i n f o r m a t i o n on the area w i l l be needed to determine the amount, type and c o s t o f r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d . I n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d s hould i n c l u d e the f o l l o w -i n g items: .2 (a) G e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a , (b) E x i s t i n g h e a l t h and m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s , (c) P r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h programs i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g , (d) A v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s — h u m a n , p h y s i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l , (e) P o s s i b l e use o f mass communication media, (f) A c c e s s i b i l i t y , and (g) General h e a l t h c a r e needs o f the community. Step 3 - C o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h a Department o f C o n t i n u i n g  E d u c a t i o n , L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y and the Regional A d v i s o r y Committee The L o c a l P l a n n i n g Committees would c o n s u l t w i t h the Department and the A d v i s o r y Committee t o c o n s i d e r the m e r i t s o f program r e q u e s t s and a l t e r n a t i v e approaches t o t h e i r implementation. I t should be s t a t e d t h a t no program r e q u e s t s would be turned down without adequate i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e i r f e a s i b i l i t y . Step 4 - P r e l i m i n a r y D e c i s i o n on Program T h i s would depend on the assessment o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n i t i a l l y s u p p l i e d . Step 5 - S e l e c t i o n o f the L o c a t i o n f o r Program Once a proposed program f o r an area has been approved, a s p e c i f i c c e n t r e f o r implementing the program sh o u l d be s e l e c t e d . Such a c e n t r e c o u l d be a c o l l e g e o f 211 a p p l i e d a r t s and technology, a h o s p i t a l o r some o t h e r l o c a t i o n . I t s s e l e c t i o n should be guided by such f a c t o r s as c e n t r a l i t y of p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t r a v e l and means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , e t c . Step 6 - Implementation o f Program Implementation o f a program of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n would i n v o l v e the use o f a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . The L o c a l P l a n n i n g Committees and the Course P l a n n i n g Committees sh o u l d be a b l e t o implement a program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n c o l l o b o r a t i o n w i t h the Department of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N u r s i n g a t L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y . The Committees would work w i t h areas i n need o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n terms o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f need f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , p l a n n i n g , implementation and e v a l u a t i o n o f programs, w i t h feedback t o the Department and the A d v i s o r y Committee. P r i o r i t i e s f o r program? would be s e t a t t h i s s t e p and a program f o r one year would be e s t a b l i s h e d . F i n a l program e v a l u a t i o n and review would be done by the Department and the A d v i s o r y Committee. A s p e c i f i c approach t o the l o c a t i o n and e s t a b l i s h -ment of a program i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n may be i l l u s t r a t e d as f o l l o w s . Assume the N o r t h e a s t e r n r e g i o n o f O n t a r i o i s d i v i d e d i n t o areas f o r purposes o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g o f c o n t i n u i n g , e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g . An on-going y e a r l y o r g a n i z -a t i o n p l a n f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n might be implemented i n any of the are a s . For example, the area o f L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y and i t s o u t - l y i n g d i s t r i c t s may be d e s i g n a t e d D i s t r i c t I. A program o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n c o u l d be g i v e n i n t h i s d i s t r i c t f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: (1) a re q u e s t has been made f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n t o L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y from a group o f nurses i n Town "A" w i t h i n D i s t r i c t I . (2) The g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n and the nurse popu-l a t i o n i s o f a re a s o n a b l e s i z e . (3) Town o r C i t y "B" would make a d e s i r a b l e c e n t r e as i t i s almost c e n t r a l to D i s t r i c t I. I t is. a l s o e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e by c a r s o r p u b l i c t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n . A l s o l o c a t e d i n Town "B" are the f o l l o w i n g f a c i l i t i e s : G e n e r a l h o s p i t a l C o l l e g e o f a p p l i e d a r t s and technology P u b l i c l i b r a r y The h e a l t h needs o f the d i s t r i c t and a d j a c e n t areas have been i d e n t i f i e d by L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y . The a r e a , D i s t r i c t I, has been i d e n t i f i e d and i n f o r m a t i o n has been c o l l e c t e d . T h i s d i s t r i c t would be ready t o i n i t i a t e on-goi n g y e a r l y programs, i f i n t e r e s t i s h i g h and L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y i s a v a i l a b l e as a support once the program has been s t a r t e d . Assuming these c o n d i t i o n s are f u l f i l l e d , the c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n program c o u l d then be l o c a t e d i n 213 Town "B" to f a c i l i t a t e implementation. I t i s understood t h a t nurses i n Town "A" as w e l l as o t h e r o u t l y i n g areas w i l l b e n e f i t from such a program once i t becomes o p e r a t i o n a l . What i s being argued i n the above i l l u s t r a t i o n i s the need t o c a r e f u l l y a s s e s s the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s i n r e l a t i o n to i n i t i a l demand and t o base program l o c a t i o n on f e a s i b i l i t y , ease o f implementation and maximum e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Summary T h i s appendix has o u t l i n e d and d i s c u s s e d a proposed p l a n f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n n u r s i n g t o serve as a guide i n p r o v i d i n g f o r program needs i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a t a r e g i o n a l l e v e l i n N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . The main f e a t u r e s o f the p l a n are the assignment of a c e n t r a l p l a c e and o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the program t o L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y , f u n c t i o n i n g through a Department o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Nur s i n g and employing the s e r v i c e s o f a Reg i o n a l A d v i s o r y Committee, L o c a l P l a n n i n g Committees and Course P l a n n i n g Committees. E s s e n t i a l l y , a d e c e n t r a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e i s envisaged, embracing the key f u n c t i o n s o f p l a n n i n g , implementation and program e v a l u a t i o n . The s t r a t e g i e s o f implementation i n c l u d e f i v e r e l a t e d p r o c e d u r a l steps, v i z ; c o l l e c t i o n o f r e l e v a n t d a t a , l o c a t i o n and e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c e n t r e s , i n i t i a t i o n o f on-214 g o i n g programs and p r e p a r a t i o n o f an advance p l a n f o r the next p e r i o d u s i n g updated i n f o r m a t i o n . A p o s s i b l e approach t o the l o c a t i o n and e s t a b l i s h m e n t of c e n t r e s i s o u t l i n e d . The d e s i r a b i l i t y o f p r e p a r i n g long-term p l a n s to guide o v e r a l l program implementation i s i n d i c a t e d . 

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