UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Polish poets in Canada : a comparative study Nemetz, Lillian Jagna 1974

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POLISH POETS IN CANADA A COMPARATIVE STUDY by L i l l i a n Jagna Nemetz B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of COMPARATIVE LITERATURE He accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1974 In presenting th i s thes is in par t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements f( an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree tha the L ibrary shal l make i t f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes is for scholar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of this thes is for f inanc ia l gain shal l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ^ / : 7 ^ / 1 / | / ^ W /Ct 'hi'iJ-luyu-!. The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT The aim o f t h i s t h e s i s has been t o examine the p l a c e of P o l i s h gmigre", E n g l i s h and F r e n c h Canadian p o e t r y i n "Canadian l i t e r a t u r e " . The st u d y has i n v o l v e d an examina-t i o n of the problems t h a t c o n f r o n t each o f the t h r e e l i t e r -a t u r e s , s e p a r a t e l y and on a c o m p a r a t i v e l e v e l . The work o f the t h r e e groups o f poets has been p l a c e d i n an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e : the " c o l o n i a l mind" o f the E n g l i s h Canadian p o e t , the " s e p a r a t i s t " s t a t e of the French Canadian p o e t , and the depays6* s i t u a t i o n of the P o l i s h emigre". These have been compared and c o n t r a s t e d . The main themes f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h o u t the t h e s i s have been those concerned w i t h the, problems o f i s o l a t i o n and com-m u n i c a t i o n as e x p r e s s e d i n P o l i s h , F rench and E n g l i s h p o e t r y . The f u r t h e r aim o f t h i s a n a l y s i s has been to s t r e s s the need f o r communication between e t h n i c groups i n Canada, to f u r t h e r the mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i r language and t h e i r p o e t r y . In a d d i t i o n i t was n e c e s s a r y t o examine the r o l e of c r i t i c s and w r i t e r s i n b r i n g i n g t o Canadian l i t e r -a t u r e the meaning of the s o c i a l c o n t e n t of t h i s c o u n t r y as e x p r e s s e d i n the p o e t r y o f a l l c u l t u r a l groups. To make the d i s c u s s i o n o f the work o f the P o l i s h emigre I p o e t s p o s s i b l e , comments o f P o l i s h c r i t i c s and an a n t h o l o g y o f poems were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t h r e e c u l t u r e s has shown t h e need f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f a c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y f o r " C a n a d i a n " p o e t s i n o r d e r t h a t b o t h C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e and i t s component e t h n i c l i t e r a t u r e s s h o u l d s u r v i v e . E t h n i c g r o u p s , t h r o u g h t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a new e n v i r o n m e n t , b r i n g r i c h n e s s t o C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e , and c o n v e r s e l y i n t o t h e i r own l i t e r a t u r e , b o t h i n t h e e m i g r e l i t e r a t u r e and t h a t s t i l l b e i n g w r i t t e n i n t h e m o t h e r c o u n t r y . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t G e n e r a l I n t r o d u c t o r y Remarks 1 D i s c u s s i o n o f P o l i s h emigre p o e t r y 23 Some A s p e c t s of P o l i s h emigre p o e t r y i n the context, of E n g l i s h and French Canadian p o e t r y . . 50 Fo o t n o t e s 70 Bi h l ' i o g r a p h y 76 Ant h o l o g y 79 • J I I I ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o e x t e n d my t h a n k s , and s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e many p e o p l e who have h e l p e d me w i t h t h i s p r o j e c t . In p a r t i c u l a r : To P r o f e s s o r Z b i g n i e w F o l e j e w s k i , my s u p e r v i s o r f o r h i s c o n s t a n t g u i d a n c e and i n s p i r a t i o n . To P r o f e s s o r M i c h a e l B u l l o c k f o r h i s a i d i n my t r a n s l a -t i o n programme f o r t h e A n t h o l o g y , and a d v i c e i n o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e t h e s i s . To P r o f e s s o r I r i n a R e i d , f o r h e r a s s i s t a n c e and m o r a l s u p p o r t . To t h e p o e t s i n t h e A n t h o l o g y f o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t and c o o p e r a t i o n . IV GENERAL INTRODUCTORY REMARKS "Canada has developed w i t h the bewil d e r m e n t o f a n e g l e c t e d c h i l d , p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t r y i n g t o d e f i n e i t s own i d e n t i t y . " ! The v a r i o u s p e o p l e s now s e t t l e d i n Canada came from c o u n t r i e s w i t h a w e l l d e v e l o p e d c u l t u r e o f t h e i r own. They came f o r many d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s , b r i n g i n g w i t h them d i v e r s e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s , h o p i n g t o r e t a i n l i n k s w i t h t h e i r n a t i v e c o u n t r i e s , a l l h a v i n g t o s u r v i v e i n a new environment. They d i d not a l l c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s e x i l e s , however they can s t i l l be d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g been o r i g i n a l l y depayse. Having brought the r i c h n e s s o f t h e i r c u l t u r e s i n t o Canadian - l i f e , they at the same time had a tendency t o keep t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e groups i n i s o l a t i o n i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r i d e n t i t y i n the Canadian mosaic. A l a c k of c u l t u r a l communication must r e s u l t from such a s i t u a t i o n . I f an i d e n t i f i a b l e Canadian c u l t u r e i s t o e x i s t , then i t s h o u l d r e f l e c t the mosaic of c u l t u r e s t h a t have c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t . A s t u d y o f Canadian l i t e r a t u r e s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e r e v e a l the e x t e n t t o which i n t e r c o m m u n i c -a t i o n has t a k e n p l a c e . Books on b i - and m u l t i - c u l t u r a l i s m from s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , and h i s t o r i c a l p o i n t s o f view have been p u h l i s h e d . However,the presence and i d e n t i t y of the e t h n i c groups i n Canada have s t i l l l a r g e l y been i g n o r e d by Canadian poets and l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s . N e i t h e r the poets nor the c r i t i c s have r e a l l y d i s c o v e r e d , through the s o c i a l c o n t e n t 3 of t h i s c o u n t r y , the c o l o u r and v a r i e t y w i t h i n . T h i s may be p a r t i a l l y due t o the l a c k of communication between v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s , and one would hope t h a t i t i s not due t o a l a c k o f i n t e r e s t . Communication can be a c h i e v e d by means of p u b l i s h e d t r a n s l a t i o n s from v a r i o u s languages i n t o the E n g l i s h or the F r e n c h , and f o r a l o n g time t h e r e has been a s h o r t a g e of such p u b l i c a t i o n s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e the o f f i c i a l languages of Canada t h a t can h e l p t o b r i d g e the gap between the e t h n i c groups. The a r t of t r a n s l a t i o n i s very much l i k e m a r r i a g e — i t works, b e s t when t h e r e i s a . h i g h degree of c o m p a t i b i l -i t y , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and shared i n t e r e s t s . And l i k e m a r r i a g e , d e s p i t e many p i t f a l l s and i m p e r f e c t i o n s , t r a n s l a t i o n is: something we w i l l p r o b a b l y have t o l i v e writh. f o r a l o n g time t o come . ^  T h i s view e x p r e s s e d by S u t h e r l a n d was made i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the l a c k of t r a n s l a t i o n o f French i n t o E n g l i s h and v i c e v e r s a . French i s the l a r g e s t language group, a f t e r E n g l i s h , and y e t French Canadian p o e t r y remained u n r e c o g n i s e d f o r a l o n g time by the E n g l i s h Canadians because of a l a c k of t r a n s l a t i o n . A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s i n r e g a r d t o the o t h e r e t h n i c groups i n Canada. F o r t u n a t e l y some p r o g r e s s i s b e i n g made t h r o u g h p e r i o d i c a l s p u b l i s h e d by Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s such as P r i s m  I n t e r n a t i o n a l , Tamarack Review and the Malahat Review. These p e r i o d i c a l s now i n c l u d e t r a n s l a t i o n s of the d i f f e r e n t language groups. In a d d i t i o n , the Canada C o u n c i l has r e c e n t l y r e c o g -n i s e d the need t o su p p o r t such p u b l i c a t i o n s . However i n the f i e l d of l i t e r a t u r e , i s o l a t i o n s t i l l e x i s t s l a r g e l y due t o a l a c k o f c u l t u r a l i n t e r c h a n g e . The importance of e t h n i c l i t e r -a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n s s h o u l d be r e c o g n i s e d as a p a r t of the main-stream of Canadian l i t e r a t u r e . • The p r o b l e m s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p a g e s w h i c h f o l l o w j u x t a p o s e t h r e e g r o u p s , E n g l i s h and F r e n c h C a n a d i a n , and t h e P o l i s h e m i g r e p o e t s i n C a n a d a . I n o r d e r t o make a w i d e r s e l e c t i o n o f P o l i s h p o e t r y i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o th.e r e a d e r , an a n t h o l o g y r e p r e s e n t i n g s e v e n P o l i s h p o e t s I s i n c l u d e d . They c h a i n e d me w h i l e I was s t i l l , a c h i l d . And l a t e r i n l i t t l e c h a i n s r e l e a s e d me i n t o t h e w o r l d . I am h e r e . I was b o r n t h e r e . . L a n g uage i s my l e a s h Words a r e my c o l l a r . ^ Bogdan C z a y k o w s k i " R e b e l l i o n i n V e r s e " T h i s f r a g m e n t d e s c r i b e s t h e d i l e m m a o f e i t h e r an e x i l e o r o f a d e p a y s e , t o r n b e t w e e n two c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s , t h e n a t i v e and t h e a d o p t e d . Such a p r o b l e m c a n be f o u n d n o t o n l y i n t h e P o l i s h e m i g r e p o e t r y . I t c a n a l s o be t r a c e d i n t h e E n g l i s h and F r e n c h C a n a d i a n p o e t r y , t h r o u g h t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e " c o l o n i a l s p i r i t " , and t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e c u l -t u r a l o r i g i n s l i e o u t s i d e Canada e v e n t h o u g h t h e y may, i n d i v i d u a l l y , be by now t h e p r o d u c t o f s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s o f C a n a d i a n s . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o b l e m s o f s u r v i v a l f a c i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e s o f c o - e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l g r o u p s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o compare and c o n t r a s t t h e p r o b l e m s and a t t i t u d e s o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p s and t h e i r l i t e r a r y i n t e r a c t i o n s . 5 The image of E n g l i s h Canada has up t i l l now been i d e n t i f i e d by the poets as a vast and l o n e l y l a n d s c a p e i n which man, t e r r o r s t r i c k e n by h i s c o u n t r y ' s n a t u r a l h a zards and i s o l a t e d from o t h e r Canadians by a c u l t u r a l d i s t a n c e , q u e s t i o n s h i s i d e n t i t y . Here on the r i m , c r i n g i n g under the c r a c k e d whip of w i n t e r we l i v e i n houses o f i c e , but not because we want t o : i n o r d e r t o s u r v i v e we make what we can and have t o w i t h what we have. 1* Margaret Atwood Th i s i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of a pers o n l i v i n g o n l y i n o r d e r t o s u r v i v e , and r e s i g n e d to making do w i t h what i s a t hand. The person i s p a s s i v e , i n c o m m u n i c a t i v e , p e r s e c u t e d by n a t u r e , and as Margaret Atwood a p t l y d e s c r i b e s him i n her book S u r v i v a l , i t i s the image o f a " v i c t i m " . I t i s u n d e n i a b l e t h a t the e x t e r n a l p h y s i c a l elements of n a t u r e c o n s t i t u t e an i n t e g r a l p a r t of what i s t y p i c a l l y Canadian and g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e the s u b s t a n c e o f p o e t r y . I t i s a l s o u n d e n i a b l e t h a t t h i s i s o n l y a p a r t o f what l i e s a t the core o f a n a t i o n , and t h a t i t i s the human element which f i n a l l y shapes the s p i r i t u a l l a n d s c a p e o f the a r t i s t . A French Canadian poet G a t i e n L a p o i n t e i n a poem "Your C o u n t r y " shows t h i s awareness. I f you w i l l open your eyes And i f you w i l l l a y your hands On the snow, the b i r d s , the t r e e s , the b e a s t s , P a t i e n t l y , s o f t l y , With a l l the weight of your h e a r t ; I f you w i l l t a k e time by the hand And l o o k upon t h e l a n d P a t i e n t l y , s o f t l y , I f you w i l l r e c o g n i s e your p e o p l e And i f you r e c o g n i s e the p a i n T r e m b l i n g upon the background of t h e i r e y e s ; I f you w i l l w r i t e the words l o v e and l o n e l i n e s s P a t i e n t l y , g e n t l y , On e v e r y s e a s o n , e v e r y house; I f you w i l l name b r e a d , b l o o d , day, n i g h t And t h a t w i l d u n a l t e r a b l e d e s i r e B u r n i n g a t the h e a r t o f a l l t h i n g s ; I f you w i l l t a k e every d e a t h of your c h i l d h o o d P a t i e n t l y , s o f t l y , i n your arms, With a l l the s t r e n g t h o f your d e s p a i r ; Then your c o u n t r y can be b o r n . ^ T h i s poem c l e a r l y shows t h a t o n l y by r e c o g n i s i n g , s e e i n g , t o u c h i n g , and e x p e r i e n c i n g the human and n a t u r a l environment can one comprehend the i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f one's c o u n t r y . I t would seem t h a t w h i l e the French Canadian poet i s aware o f the n e c e s s i t y f o r s p i r i t u a l s u r v i v a l and has o b v i o u s l y found a p l a c e f o r i t i n h i s p o e t r y , the E n g l i s h Canadian poet i s s t i l l s e a r c h i n g f o r i t . There i s a d i s t i n c t element o f a l i e n a t i o n i n E n g l i s h Canadian p o e t r y which asks the q u e s t i o n "Who i s a Canadian?" E n g l i s h Canadian p o e t r y has so f a r not r e c o g -n i s e d i t s i n d i v i d u a l i t y . I t l a c k s human e x p e r i e n c e , i t has not " r e c o g n i s e d i t s p e o p l e " and t h e r e f o r e a more mature 7 s p i r i t u a l p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n i s m i s s i n g . The k i n d o f s p i r i t -u a l i t y d i s c u s s e d h e r e i s n o t t h e o v e r - s e n t i m e n t a l o r t h e . o v e r l y r o m a n t i c k i n d , i t i s t h e k i n d o f s p i r i t u a l i t y t h e p r e s e n c e o f w h i c h i n p o e t r y , h o w e v e r c o n t r o l l e d by t h e a r t i s t , g i v e s d e p t h t o h i s poem and a more p r o f o u n d s t a t e m e n t on t h e human c o n d i t i o n . The need f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s i d e n t i t y and s e a r c h f o r human e x p e r i e n c e i s r e c o g n i s e d by M a r g a r e t A t w o o d : An o t h e r s e n s e t u g s a t u s : we have l o s t s o m e t h i n g , some k e y s t o t h e s e t h i n g s w h i c h must be w r i t i n g s and a r e l o c k e d a g a i n s t us o r p e r h a p s ( l i k e a p o t e n t i a l m i n e , unknown v e i n o f m e t a l i n t h e r o c k ) s o m e t h i n g n o t l o s t o r h i d d e n b u t j u s t n o t f o u n d y e t t h a t i n f o r m s , h o l d s t o g e t h e r t h i s c o n f u s i o n , t h i s l a r g e n e s s and d i s s o l v i n g : n o t above o r b e h i n d o r w i t h i n i t , b u t one w i t h i t : an i d e n t i t y : s o m e t h i n g t o o huge and s i m p l e f o r u s t o see . ^  W h e t h e r M i s s Atwood r e a l i s e d i t o r n o t , h e r poem p r o b a b l y h o l d s t h e key t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f i d e n t i t y a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d . " S o m e t h i n g n o t l o s t o r h i d d e n , b u t j u s t n o t f o u n d y e t " , t h i s s o m e t h i n g may w e l l be d i s c o v e r e d when t h e i n d i f f e r e n c e t o and i g n o r a n c e o f t h e n a t u r e o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , w i l l be r e a l i s e d and a t t e m p t s made t o w a r d s a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h r o u g h c r e a t i n g b e t t e r c h a n n e l s o f human 8 communication. I t i s p a r a d o x i c a l t h a t the e c l i p s e d p a r t o f the Cana-d i a n s o u l e x i s t s , p e r h a p s , i n the u n i t y w i t h i n d i v e r s i t y of Canadian s o c i e t y as w e l l as w i t h i n the immensity and d i v e r s -i t y of i t s p h y s i c a l n a t u r e . John N o r r i s , i n a book c a l l e d S t r a n g e r s E n t e r t a i n e d b r i n g s i n t o f o c u s the v a r i e t y o f as many as f o r t y - s i x e t h n i c groups i n B r i t i s h Columbia a l o n e , and s t r e s s e s t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o Canadian l i f e . T h i s con-d i t i o n i s by no means c o n f i n e d t o B r i t i s h Columbia but e x i s t s t h r o u g h o u t Canada. He a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t the problem o f i d e n t i t y i s caused by the i s o l a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t groups from one a n o t h e r , and t h a t t h i s c o n t r i b u t e s t o the l a c k of a n a t i o n a l u n i t y : By r e a s o n o f our d i f f e r e n t backgrounds and o f our d i f f e r e n t a d j u s t m e n t s of the c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n w o r l d of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , we are s t r a n g e r s t o one another."^ There are v a r i o u s problems i n the development of Canadian c u l t u r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o n d i t i o n o f i s o l a t i o n -ism and l a c k of i d e n t i t y . W. P. W i l g a r i n h i s essay on " P o e t r y and the D i v i d e d Mind of Canada" d i a g n o s e s the s c h i z o -p h r e n i c problem of E n g l i s h Canadian p o e t r y : The Canadian i s s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y B r i t i s h ; h i s a n c e s t r a l background i s i n e x t r i c a b l y t a n g l e d w i t h t h a t of the B r i t i s h I s l e s ; h i s l o y a l t i e s are u n s w e r v i n g l y t o Empire; he i s p l e a s e d w i t h and grasps at t r a d i t i o n a l i s m . But at the same time he f i n d h i m s e l f i n the c u r i o u s , and awkward p o s i t i o n of r e s p e c t i n g a l l t h a t i s B r i t -i s h , w h i l e he has t o admit to h i m s e l f t h a t he has a f a r more advanced u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the American mind than he has of the Old World M e n t a l i t y . I t i s not f o r n o t h i n g t h a t he f e e l s at home i n New York and a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s s t r a n g e r i n London.^ 9 Here we have a p r o b l e m o f t h e " c o l o n i a l mind" i n p o e t r y . T h i s i s t h e i n f e r i o r i t y complex o f a young n a t i o n l o o k i n g back t o t h e g r e a t t r a d i t i o n o f i t s mother c o u n t r y , B r i t a i n . Item: A S t u r d y Boy In s i m p l e c o t t a g e , w i t h s c a n t c e r e m o n i a l , o b s e r v e t h e b i r t h d a y o f t h i s young c o l o n i a l . C l u t c h i n g t h e n e a r e s t good as b e s t he can The h e l p l e s s m i t e p e r c e i v e s no s o c i a l p l a n . He grows unhampered i n h i s n a t u r a l s k i l l s And f i n d s c o m p a n i o n s h i p i n l a k e s and h i l l s . Item: A F o r k e d Road But soon t h i s n a t i v e f r e e d o m meets i t s end and h i s f r e s h mind t o a n c i e n t r u l e s must bend. At s c h o o l he l e a r n s t h e t h r e e C a n a d i a n t h i n g s : O b e d i e n c e , L o y a l t y , and Love o f K i n g s . To s e r v e a c o u n t r y o t h e r t h a n h i s own Becomes f o r him t h e h i g h e s t d u t y known, To keep a n t i q u i t y a l i v e f o r e v e r The p r o p e r o b j e c t o f h i s young e n d e a v o u r . ^ F. R. S c o t t S i n c e 1944-, when W. P. W i l g a r ' s e s s a y a p p e a r e d i n t h e D a l -h o u s i e Review, and 1945, t h e y e a r o f F. R. S c o t t ' s poem "Ode t o t h e P o l i t i c i a n " , many changes have t a k e n p l a c e i n E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n p o e t r y . S c o t t , i n t h e poem, s a r c a s t i c a l l y r e f u t e s Canada's dependence on B r i t a i n . Modern p o e t r y r e v e a l s a w i t h d r a w a l f r o m t h e B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n . 1 0 • I have not l i n g e r e d i n European m o n a s t e r i e s and d i s c o v e r e d among the t a l l g r a s s e s tombs of k n i g h t s who f e l l as b e a u t i f u l l y as t h e i r b a l l a d s t e l l ; I have not p a r t e d the g r a s s e s or p u r p o s e f u l l y l e f t them t h a t c h e d . I have not worshipped wounds and r e l i c s or combs of i r o n , or b o d i e s wrapped and burned i n s c r o l l s . / I have not been unhappy f o r t e n thousand y e a r s D u r i n g the day I laugh and d u r i n g the n i g h t I s l e e p . My f a v o r i t e cooks p r e p a r e my meals, my body c l e a n s and r e p a i r s i t s e l f , and a l l my work goes w e l l . x < ^ Leonard Cohen T h i s detached optimism of Leonard Cohen b r i n g s t o f o c u s s t i l l a n o t h e r problem e v o l v i n g from the " c o l o n i a l or the d i v i d e d mind" of an E n g l i s h Canadian p o e t . While the sarcasm o f S c o t t r e t a i n s a r e s p e c t , and con c e r n f o r c u l t u r e , Cohen, a modern p o e t , not o n l y d e r i d e s the p a s t and i t s h i s t o r y but by t h i s r e f u t a t i o n a l s o u n f o r t u n a t e l y detaches h i m s e l f from human c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r c u l t u r e s , and s p o r t s a t y p i c a l l y N o r t h American i n d i f f e r e n c e by c o a t i n g h i s detachment w i t h the p h y s i c a l i n d u l g e n c e of body and ego. S c o t t was t r y i n g to b u i l d a new Canadian c u l t u r e , t h r o u g h both h i s l i t e r a r y and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h e r e f o r e h i s sarcasm i s i n t e n d e d to be c o n s t r u c t i v e ; Cohen on the o t h e r hand t r i e s t o d e s t r o y the c o l o n i a l r o o t s and detach Canadian c u l t u r e from the r o o t s of i t s h i s t o r i c a l p a s t . The problem of the " c o l o n i a l mind" d i d slow down the development of o r i g i n a l i t y i n p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n . But E n g l i s h Canadian p o e t r y , s t i l l has i t s r o o t s i n the l i t e r a r y h e r i t a g e of the " o l d w o r l d " and need not c o m p l e t e l y c ut i t s e l f o f f from 11 i t . At the same time E n g l i s h Canada i s i n f l u e n c e d by the United S t a t e s , a country with a more developed c u l t u r e . Some of the problems stemming from t h i s i n f l u e n c e are of a t e c h n i c -a l , i n d u s t r i a l and m a t e r i a l i s t i c nature. The c o n f u s i o n i s one between commerce and a r t , an e r r o r which a s o c i e t y such as ours has some d i f f i c u l t y i n escaping. A s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n engaged i n subduing i t s environment and i n e x p l o i t i n g the r e s o u r c e s of a l a r g e new country may very e a s i l y develop an exaggerated o p i n i o n of the value of m a t e r i a l t h i n g s , and has some q u i t e understandable doubts as to the n e c e s s i t y of a r t i s t s . H Although t h i s was s t a t e d by A. J . M. Smith as e a r l y as 1928, i t shows where more of the problems of contemporary E n g l i s h Canadian poetry have t h e i r r o o t s . C u l t u r e i s born i n l e i s u r e and an awareness of standards, and pioneer c o n d i t i o n s tend to make e n e r g e t i c and u n c r i t i c a l work an end i n i t s e l f , to preach a gospel of s o c i a l unconsciousness, which l i n g e r s long a f t e r the pioneer c o n d i t i o n s have disappeared. The impressive achievements of such a s o c i e t y are l i k e l y to be t e c h n o l o g i c a l . - ^ The e a r l y Canadian poetry d e a l t almost e x c l u s i v e l y with, man's s t r u g g l e with nature. In the works of such major poets as E. J . P r a t t , D. C. S c o t t , and A. J . .M. Smith, there i s a s t r e s s mostly on the p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s i d e of man's s t r u g g l e with and conquest of h i s n a t u r a l environment. Nature, i n a l l i t s c h a n g e a b i l i t y , has been d e s c r i b e d ; t e r r o r , i s o l a t i o n and death are the themes which have l a i d a founda-t i o n f o r grayness contemporary poets, i n whose and d i s i l l u s i o n p r e v a i l s . work a g e n e r a l tone of 12 But these dead thoughts Hang l i k e burned f o r e s t s By a N o r t h e r n Lake Whose waters take The bone-grey s k e l e t o n s And m i r r o r the grey bones, Both dead, the t r e e s and the r e f l e c t i o n s . ^ D. C. S c o t t The Canadian " s i n g l e u n i f y i n g symbol", as d e l i n e a t e d by Margaret Atwood, i s " s u r v i v a l " . Miss Atwood t r a c e s , v a r i o u s l i t e r a r y themes o c c u r r i n g t h r o u g h E n g l i s h Canadian l i t e r a t u r e . A p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h one's s u r v i v a l i s n e c e s s a r i l y a l s o a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the o b s t a c l e s t o t h a t s u r v i v a l . In e a r l i e r w r i t e r s , t h e s e o b s t a c l e s are e x t e r n a l — t h e l a n d , the c l i m a t e , and so f o r t h . In l a t e r w r i t e r s , the o b s t a c l e s tend t o become both h a r d e r to i d e n t i f y and more i n t e r n a l ; t hey are no l o n g e r o b s t a c l e s to p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l , but o b s t a c l e s to what we may c a l l s p i r i t u a l s u r v i v a l , to l i f e as a n y t h i n g more than a m i n i m a l l y human b e i n g . Some-t i m e s f e a r of t h e s e o b s t a c l e s becomes i t s e l f an o b s t a c l e , and a c h a r a c t e r i s p a r a l y z e d by t e r r o r C e i t h e r of what he t h i n k s i s t h r e a t e n i n g h i m from the o u t s i d e , or of elements i n h i s own n a t u r e t h a t t h r e a t e n him from w i t h i n ) . I t may even be l i f e i t s e l f t h a t he f e a r s ; and when l i f e becomes a t h r e a t to l i f e you have a m o d e r a t e l y v i c i o u s c i r c l e . ^ To become more than a " m i n i m a l l y human b e i n g " and t o f i n d t h a t he i s not a l o n e i n h i s p r e d i c a m e n t , a man would have t o e xtend h i m s e l f beyond h i m s e l f and r e a c h out o f h i s f e a r and i s o l a t i o n t o h i s f e l l o w men i n o r d e r t o communicate w i t h them and u n d e r s t a n d them. I t i s i n t h i s sphere t h a t the s p i r i t u a l s u r v i v a l of E n g l i s h Canadian p o e t r y i s t h r e a t e n e d . I s o l a t i o n and l a c k of communication between people w i l l c o n t i n u e t o p r e v a i l as l o n g as the " p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h one's s u r v i v a l " p e r s i s t s , and the s p i r i t of man remains p a r a l y z e d by f e a r . i Here a g a i n Margaret Atwood makes an i n t e r e s t i n g comment, 13 "Canada i s l i k e a pond, where the geese s a i l i n c o n t i n u a l c i r c l e s and never get out". She bases t h i s on James Reaney's poem, "The Upper Canadian". The speaker i s a f f l i c t e d w ith both c l a u s t r o p h o b i a and f e a r of the " o u t s i d e " . There i s no v i a b l e c u l t u r a l l i f e i n t h i s pond; the speaker can have con t a c t with other w r i t e r s , but they are a l l dead and E n g l i s h : he s i t s "by an empty stone" r e a d i n g Shakespeare, which he w i l l never see acted. " C u l t u r e " i s not something being c r e a t e d around him: i t i s something great and dead, entombed i n books, i n a c c e s s i b l e . - ^ The "Canadian" poet i s c u l t u r a l l y i s o l a t e d . He l a c k s an i n t e r e s t e d audience, and he s u f f e r s from s p i r i t u a l immobil-i t y . I f t h i s i s s t r o n g l y present and m o t i v a t i o n i s absent, wtat hope is. there f o r the s u r v i v a l of Canadian poetry or i t s emergence as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of world poetry? How can i t f l o u r i s h , without communication between people, which i s the e s s e n t i a l f i r s t step towards conquering the s p i r i t u a l l a n d -scape of the i s o l a t e d "Canadian" poet? The Canadian poet, however i s i n e x i l e , condemned to l i v e i n h i s own country he has no p u b l i c , commands no f o l l o w i n g , s t i r s up l e s s i n t e r e s t than l a s t year's l i c e n c e p l a t e . 1 6 Northrop Frye's answer to Atwood's and Layton's "poet i n i s o l a t i o n " appears to f i n d a s o l u t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n : A great work of l i t e r a t u r e i s a l s o a p l a c e i n which the whole c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y of the n a t i o n that produced i t comes i n t o f o c u s . In the Canadian e x p e r i e n c e , i f m u l t i - c u l t u r a l i s m is. to mean a n y t h i n g , then "these great works of l i t e r a t u r e " should i n c l u d e not only the E n g l i s h and American c l a s s i c s , but a l s o the' l i t e r a t u r e of o t h e r e t h n i c groups who are a p a r t o f Canadian s o c i e t y . The c o n s t r u c t s of the i m a g i n a t i o n t e l l us t h i n g s ahout human l i f e t h a t we don't get i n any o t h e r way. That's why i t ' s i m p o r t a n t f o r Canadians t o pay p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , even when the im p o r t e d brands are b e t t e r seasoned.18 The above statement i s very ambiguous w i t h r e g a r d t o the meaning of the term "Canadian l i t e r a t u r e " . F r y e , by h i s use of the h i s t o r y of E n g l i s h and American l i t e r a t u r e t o i l l u s -t r a t e the problems of E n g l i s h Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , appears to e x c l u d e any s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of o t h e r l i t e r a t u r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y French Canadian. The h i s t o r i c a l s e p a r a t i o n o f E n g l i s h and French-Canadian w r i t i n g has been a g g r a v a t e d by the p r a c t i c e of l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s . . A n t h o l o g i e s and l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i e s have u s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d these two l i t e r a t u r e s i n s e p a r a t e language compartments and have t r e a t e d one or the o t h e r i n i s o l a t i o n . E n g l i s h Canadian s c h o l a r s and w r i t e r s have found themselves r e l u c t a n t or i l l - e q u i p p e d t o w r i t e about French Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , and v i c e v e r s a . Attempts t o i n t e g r a t e the two l i t e r a t u r e s under the u m b r e l l a of a common l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y of Canada have been e x t r e m e l y modest and r a r e . l ^ I t i s a s m a l l wonder t h a t t h i s h i s t o r i c a l s e p a r a t i o n e x i s t s and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o do so. I f Nor t h r o p F r y e ' s comment i n t h above q u o t a t i o n i s to i n f l u e n c e Canadian t h o u g h t , then why does he c o n t r a d i c t i t w i t h s t a t e m e n t s which c r e a t e p r e j u d i c e and t h e r e f o r e s e p a r a t i s m ? T h i s c o l o n i a l tendency has been sharpened by the French E n g l i s h s p l i t . The E n g l i s h h a v i n g tended t o s p e c i a l i z e i n the i m p e r i a l and the French i n the r e g i o n a l a s p e c t s of i t . The French are on the whole worse o f f by t h i s arrangement, which has made Quebec i n t o a c u t e t o u r i s t r e s o r t f u l l of ye q u a i n t e j u n k e , made by r e a l p e a s a n t s a l l of whom go t o church and say t h e i r p r a y e r s l i k e the c h i l d r e n they a r e , and l o v e t h e i r l a n d , and t e l l f o l k t a l e s , and s i n g b a l l a d s j u s t as the f a s h i o n a b l e n o v e l i s t s i n the c i t i e s say they do.^0 It remains to be seen whether i n f a c t the French are worse o f f , e s p e c i a l l y when i t comes to t h e i r p o e t r y . 1 6 Canadian l i t e r a t u r e thus branches i n t o two main streams. So f a r only the E n g l i s h Canadian p o i n t of view has been g i v e n . The French Canadians have o b v i o u s l y a c q u i r e d a separate *" i d e n t i t y but although, they have a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , they do c o n t r i b u t e to Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , and t h e i r p o i n t of view must be e q u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d . As we have a l r e a d y men-t i o n e d , French Canadian poetry i s s t i l l l i t t l e understood by the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g audience, p a r t l y through a lack of t r a n s l a t i o n : The h i s t o r y of s e r i o u s t r a n s l a t i o n of French Canadian poetry is. s h o r t , c o v e r i n g l i t t l e more than a dozen y e a r s . ^ 1 and p a r t l y through a lack of i n t e r e s t of the E n g l i s h Canadian audience i n the l i t e r a t u r e s of other c u l t u r e s i n Canada. The tendency of French Canadians towards i s o l a t i o n i s m has i t s r o o t s i n the h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s which o c c u r r e d i n the French, m i n o r i t y s t r u g g l e with the E n g l i s h f o r s u r v i v a l i n Canada. Therefore they have developed a very s t r o n g n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y and a separate c u l t u r e . In John Glassco's i n t r o d u c t i o n to Poetry of French Canada i n T r a n s l a t i o n , he s t a t e s : It w i l l be seen that the poetry of French Canada i s a poetry of e x i l e — f r o m France and North America a l i k e - -and that a note of d e s e r t i o n , of n o s t a l g i a , of the depayse r e c u r s c o n s t a n t l y , forming a k i n d of g r o u n d — \ bass, to themes of avoidance, r e t r e a t and escape, ^ The word " e x i l e " i s not used here i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l sense of someone who has been e x i l e d from h i s country, but probably denotes an i s o l a t i o n and lack of contact between the French Canadians and France and the E n g l i s h Canadians, and thus a 1 7 f e e - l i n g of non-acceptance. I am r o o t e d i n a people t h a t has l o s t i t s r o o t s , And f i e l d s t h a t would s m i l e i n the sun are s h r i n k i n g under so many dry s e a s o n s , so many ungarnered sheaves. I am p a r t of an exhausted c r y , weary of b e a t i n g , b a n g i n g , hammering a g a i n s t t h e s e w a l l s , t hese masks t h a t s p i t d i s d a i n . I walk w i t h the ghost of a r a c e brushed o f f l i k e an u n c o m p l a i n i n g whore.23 Yves P r d f o n t a i n e "Country t o L e t " 2 4 Gera r d Tougas c o n s i d e r s Yves P r e f o n t a i n e a poet who t r u l y r e p r e s e n t s the c o l l e c t i v e t h o u g h t s of the Quebecois. Saint-Denys-Garneau (1912-43) was a poet whose work changed the shape of French Canadian p o e t r y from the t r a d i -2 5 t i o n a l form o f i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s . Tougas comments t h a t Saint-Denys-Garneau r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h h i s J o u r n a l a u n i q u e l y d i s c i p l i n e d s t y l e i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e which evoked r e s p e c t from the poets who f o l l o w e d h i s new d i r e c t i o n i n p o e t r y . Garneau i n h i s J o u r n a l - Notes on N a t i o n a l i s m - w r i t e s : A people forms i t s e l f by a c t i n g , by c r e a t i n g — t h a t i s , by communicating. I t f i n d s i t s e l f t h r o ugh the a c t of communication.26 He s t a t e s f u r t h e r i n r e g a r d t o Fre n c h Canadian c u l t u r e t h a t : The problem f a c i n g us i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y human. By s e a r c h i n g f o r what i s ' human, human v a l u e s and human j u s t i c e , we s h a l l c o n t r i b u t e something t o i t s s o l u -t i o n . We must c o n s i d e r the human s t a t e o f the n a t i o n . 2 7 C u l t u r e , t h e n , has a sense o f human improvement. I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y humanist. I t wishes t o form men, not French Canadians. There i s no c o n t r a d i c t i o n h e r e , o n l y a d i s t i n c t i o n as t o p r i o r i t y of v a l u e s , as t o d i r e c t i o n . To make men out of French Canadians and not French Canadians out of men.28 Garneau does not b e l i e v e t h a t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e t r e a t t o the 1 8 s e l f ( i n order to d i s c o v e r the " s e l f " ) can r e s u l t i n a c u l -t u r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n , r a t h e r that i t i s the s e l f s e a r c h i n g process (by means of human a c t i v i t y ) that r e l e a s e s the human s p i r i t and e l e v a t e s the c u l t u r a l standard. I t i s at t h i s p o i n t that one ought to c o n s i d e r the nature of the poem by Yves Pre"fontaine — "Country to L e t " " — a n d the f a c t t h at he i s the contemporary spokesman f o r French Canadians and as Nairn Kattan observes: The young poets have gone much f u r t h e r than t h e i r p r e -d e c e s s o r s . They not only a f f i r m t h e i r accord with t h e i r people but wish to b u i l d a new s o c i e t y and p l a n a future.29 Pre"f ontaine ' s poem ends on a note of r e b e l l i o u s p e r s i s t e n c e to continue the s t r u g g l e f o r s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s , And so, t e e t h clenched, I rage a g a i n s t poverty of s p i r i t with words whose b r i e f l i g h t f l a r e s up only to d i e . * At t h i s p o i n t one can draw a c o n t r a s t between the "preoccupa-t i o n with s u r v i v a l " i n E n g l i s h Canadian p o e t r y , which i n v o l v e s mostly "the s e l f " , and French Canadian p o e t r y , which i s more concerned with "group" s u r v i v a l . The statements of Garneau are e q u a l l y true when c o n s i d e r i n g the o v e r a l l Canadian e x p e r i -ence. When a p p l i e d to a community of e t h n i c groups they may r e s u l t i n communication. However, i t would be wrong to assume that the nature of modern French Canadian poetry c o n s i s t s s o l e l y of a need to express the c o l l e c t i v e s p i r i t . There seems to be an emphasis on the p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n i n E n g l i s h Canadian poetry and the "Yves P r ^ f o n t a i n e , "Country to L e t " see r e f e r e n c e 23 19 s p i r i t u a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n i n French Canadian p o e t r y , T h i s type of a n a l y s i s has been made by o t h e r s , f o r example: There i s a good d e a l o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u b t l e t y i n the work of a l l ( t h e s e ) E n g l i s h Canadian p o e t s of the 40's and 50's, but f o r s p i r i t u a l i n s i g h t we must t u r n t o two of t h e i r French c o m p a t r i o t s , Saint-Denys-Garneau and h i s c o u s i n Anne Hubert.^0 P o e t i c examples from two contemporary women poets on a s i m i l a r s u b j e c t ( n a t u r e ) , s u p p o r t t h i s a n a l y s i s : Snow puts us i n a dream on v a s t p l a i n s w i t h o u t t r a c k or c o l o u r Beware, my h e a r t , snow puts us i n the s a d d l e on s t e e d s o f foam Ri n g out f o r a crowned c h i l d h o o d , snow c o n s e c r a t e s us on h i g h s e a s , dreams f u l f i l l e d , a l l s a i l s s e t Snow puts us i n a t r a n c e , a wide spr e a d w h i t e n e s s , f l a r i n g plumes p i e r c e d by t h e r e d o f t h i s b i r d My h e a r t ; a p o i n t o f f i r e under palms of f r o s t f l o w s the m a r v e l l i n g b l o o d . 31 Anne Hubert—"Snow" Those i n the v e g e t a b l e r a i n r e t a i n an a r e a b e h i n d t h e i r s p r o u t i n g eyes h e l d s o f t and rounded w i t h the dream of snow p r e c i o u s and r e m i n i s c e n t as t h o s e g l o b e s — s o u v e n i r of some never n e t h e r l a n d — which h o l d t h e i r snow storms c i r c u l a r , c o m p l e t e , h i g h i n a t a l l and teakwood c a b i n e t . And of the swan i n death th e s e dreamers t e l l of i t s l a s t f l i g h t and how i t f a l l s , a plummet, p i e r c e d by the f r e e z i n g b u l l e t and how t h r e e f e a t h e r s , l o o s e n e d by t h e s h o t , descend l i k e snow upon i t . While h u n t e r s plunge t h e i r f i n g e r s i n i t s down deep as a d r i f t , and d i v e t h e i r hands up t o the neck of the w r i s t i n t h a t warm metamorphosis of snow as g e n t l e as the s o r t t h a t woodsmen know who, l o s t i n the w h i t e c i r c l e , f a l l at l a s t and dream t h e i r way t o d e a t h . 31a from " S t o r i e s of Snow" by P. K. Page While both poems d e a l w i t h snow, the t r e a t m e n t of each i s d i f f e r e n t . In Anne Hebert's poem, "Snow" s y m b o l i s e s a dream w o r l d p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y s e t a p a r t from the e x t e r n a l 20 r e a l i t y . I t a c q u i r e s a s u p e r n a t u r a l q u a l i t y of the power "t o c o n s e c r a t e " and b r i n g back innocence i n t o the w o r l d by re-emergence of "a crowned c h i l d h o o d " . I t a l s o bears a s p i r i t u a l l o n g i n g f o r p u r i t y e x p r e s s e d i n such metaphors as " s t e e d s of foam", "a w i d e s p r e a d w h i t e n e s s " . T h i s poem i s f i l l e d w i t h e n e r g y — a p o s i t i v e movement of r e v i v a l , a t r i u m p h of l i f e over the monotony of " v a s t p l a i n s " where the h e a r t becomes "a p o i n t of f i r e under palms of f r o s t " . The poet appears t o be the v e r y c e n t e r of her e x p e r i e n c e . In j u x t a p o s i t i o n , " S t o r i e s o f Snow" by P. K. Page, d i f f e r s i n t o n e , mood, and imagery. While i n both poems "snow" t a k e s on the mood o f a dream and evokes images of c h i l d h o o d , Anne Hebert's images f r e e and e l e v a t e the s p i r i t . Her poem r i s e s l i k e a c h a n t , beyond e a r t h l y l i m i t s , and has an e c s t a t i c t o n e . With P. K. Page we d r i f t i n t o a dream which makes us f e e l l o c k e d i n . We s'ee t h a t the i n n o c e n t w o r l d of the c h i l d ' s g l a s s globe has t a k e n on a new, b e a u t i f u l but s i n i s t e r s l g n i f i c a n c e . 3 2 We f i n d o u r s e l v e s i n s i d e the " g l o b e s " , "which h o l d t h e i r snow storms c i r c u l a r , c o m p l e t e , h i g h i n a t a l l and teakwood c l o s e t " . Then snow assumes the image of a "swan i n d e a t h " , and a p l a c e where the woodsmen "who, l o s t i n the w h i t e c i r c l e , f a l l a t l a s t and dream t h e i r way t o d e a t h " . These two poems show the c o n t r a s t between the s p i r i t u a l element which t r a n s c e n d s m o r t a l i t y , and a p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n which i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c e r e b r a l , and w h i c h , a l t h o u g h i h i g h l y 1 i m a g i n a t i v e , c r e a t e s a mood of c l a u s t r o p h o b i c gloom. 21 A s t r o n g l y r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e l i e s b e h i n d the d e v e l -opment of the s p i r i t u a l element i n French Canadian p o e t r y , as w e l l as the e x p e r i e n c e of a mass t r a n s p l a n t o f a p e o p l e who f o u g h t f o r s u r v i v a l by c a r e f u l l y c u l t i v a t i n g t h e i r r o o t s i n a new environment where h o s t i l e elements of n a t u r e and p e o p l e p r e v a i l e d . T h i s produced s t r o n g f e e l i n g s of n a t i o n a l i s m i n the o l d e r poets who l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n s o f i d e n t i t y f o r the new ones, who have now been a b l e t o s y n t h e s i z e i n t h e i r a r t the e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l c o m p l e x i t y of t h e i r F rench and Canadian e x i s t e n c e . In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the O x f o r d book o f Canadian v e r s e , A. J . M. Smith d e s c r i b e s t h i s s i t u a t i o n as: The s t u d y of the h e r o i c p a s t i n the work of a n a t i o n a l h i s t o r i a n F r a n c o i s X a v i e r Garneau and the n a t i o n a l poet Octave Cre*mazie, gave an impetus t o the F r e n c h Canadian p a t r i o t i s m a t the v e r y moment i t became e s s e n t i a l t o s u r v i v a l . The n a t i o n a l p r i d e of the d e f e a t e d and as t h e y f e l t , abandoned c o l o n i s t s o f New France was s t i m -u l a t e d and t h e i r wounds t o some e x t e n t s a l v e d by the g l o w i n g pages of Garneau and i m p a s s i o n e d v e r s e of Cr£maz i e . 3 3 The p o e t r y o f Cre"mazie a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t s of F r e n c h Canadian n a t u r e and makes i t s i s o l a t i o n more emphat i c . Pray f o r the e x i l e , who f a r away from h i s c o u n t r y W i l l d i e w i t h o u t h e a r i n g a f r i e n d l y word; I s o l a t e d i n h i s l i f e , i s o l a t e d i n h i s d e a t h , No one w i l l come t o o f f e r a p r a y e r , The alms of a t e a r onto a s t r a n g e tomb! Who t h i n k s of the unknown a s l e e p i n the e a r t h ? S i n c e the time of C r e m a z i e , as was demonstrated i n p r e v i o u s comments and examples, French Canadian p o e t r y has undergone many changes and from the s i m p l e , p a s s i o n a t e and p a t r i o t i c 22 verse emerged a new poetry e x p r e s s i n g a more inward s p i r i t u a l a t t i t u d e as w e l l as a g r e a t e r note of optimism, although the f e e l i n g s of i s o l a t i o n are s t i l l p r e s e n t . This change has been d e s c r i b e d by Nairn Kattan: At l a s t , though i n an ambiguous manner, the French Canadi-an w r i t e r has conquered h i s s p i r i t u a l t e r r i t o r y . D i v i d e d between a Europe whose circumference i s i n process of redrawing and an America he accepts only half-way and b e g r u d g i n g l y , he i s i d e n t i c a l with a l l the w r i t e r s who are making t h e i r way, c a u t i o u s l y and d e s p i t e themselves, i n t o the age of t e c h n o l o g y — a n age a l s o of the s p e c i f i c , f o r one i s no longer simple: North America when a l l the c u l t u r e s have been melted down i n a s i n g l e c r u c i b l e . ^ This i s , a f a r - s i g h t e d statement which indeed grasps a more im-mediate problem deeply rooted i n s i d e Canada and s t r e t c h e s even beyond b i - c u l t u r e to m u I t i - c u l t u r e . But the problem of the French Canadian poet i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d , i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t at l a s t he has to some extent l e a r n e d to cope with i t . We have thus seen how h i s t o r y , p o l i t i c s and i n h e r i t e d a t t i t u d e s have a f f e c t e d French and E n g l i s h Canadian poetry and caused a s p l i t of Canadian l i t e r a t u r e i n t o two main streams. We should now c o n s i d e r the poetry of a s m a l l e r e t h n i c group i n Canada--the P o l i s h Emigre poets. They are a l s o s u b j e c t to problems s i m i l a r to those of E n g l i s h and French Canadians. How have they d e a l t with them and do they have problems p e c u l i a r to t h e i r own e t h n i c group? Does t h e i r e x i s t e n c e i n Canada e n r i c h both Canadian and P o l i s h l i t e r a t u r e ? It i s at l e a s t c l e a r that through P o i i s h eyes, Canadian l i t e r -ature b r i n g s both French and E n g l i s h poetry i n t o f o c u s . DISCUSSION OF POLISH EMIGRE POETRY 23 In o r d e r t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d the work of contemporary P o l i s h emigre p o e t s i n Canada, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d i s c u s s b r i e f l y the h i s t o r y o f the two P o l i s h p o l i t i c a l e m i g r a t i o n s . Both these e m i g r a t i o n s from P o l a n d were a r e s u l t of war. The f i r s t e m i g r a t i o n o c c u r r e d almost a hundred and f i f t y y e a r s ago as a consequence of the war between P o l a n d and R u s s i a , which took p l a c e i n 1831. The poets of the 'Romantic' e r a : M i c k i e w i c z , K r a s i n s k i , S i o w a c k i , and Norwid wrote most of t h e i r g r e a t works o u t s i d e of P o l a n d , making P a r i s the ' c e n t e r 3 6 of P o l i s h c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e ' . I t i s i n t h e i r p o e t r y t h a t the g r e a t n a t i o n a l t r a g e d y o f P o l a n d i s . v i v i d l y and p a s s i o n a t e l y d e p i c t e d .in themes of g l o r i f i c a t i o n , m e s sianiam, n a t i o n a l i s m , h e r o i s m , and martyrdom. M i c k i e w i c z and the o t h e r emigres of the Romantic e r a were a b l e t o mold t h e i r p o e t r y i n the s t y l e o f the r o m a n t i c s u s i n g s p i r i t u a l and l y r i c a l v e r s e . However they were a l s o p o l i t i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d . T h e i r d i s p l a c e m e n t from P o l a n d which must have been e m o t i o n a l l y c o n f u s i n g d i d not r e s u l t i n a c u l -t u r a l shock, because t h e i r c u l t u r e was a l r e a d y r o o t e d i n the l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h European l i t e r a t u r e . They were t h e r e f o r e a b l e t o c o n t i n u e c r e a t i n g i n the P o l i s h t r a d i -t i o n , s t a r t e d i n P o l a n d by Rey and Kochanowski. T h e i r message was e s s e n t i a l l y a c r y f o r a more h u m a n i t a r i a n l e a d e r -s h i p , and t o throw o f f the R u s s i a n yoke. These p o e t s , a l t h o u g h they belonged t o a s i n g l e group d e f i n e d as 'Romantic', approached the c o n f l i c t s of P o l a n d i n d i f f e r e n t ways and o f t e n appeared t o be i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h 24 each o t h e r . There i s no doubt t h a t t h e i r emigre works not o n l y s u r v i v e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f P o l i s h l i t e r a t u r e but formed a unique t r a d i t i o n i n the h i s t o r y of P o l i s h a r t . However, i t was C y p r i a n Norwid (.1821-1883 ), a poet i g n o r e d d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e but r e a p p r a i s e d twenty y e a r s a f t e r h i s 3 7 d e a t h , who became "the p r e c u r s o r of modern P o l i s h p o e t r y . " Norwid, whose p o e t r y was concerned w i t h the f a t e of the P o l i s h p e o p l e , was not as p o l i t i c a l l y - m i n d e d as the o t h e r P o l i s h Romantics and had a p h i l o s o p h y t h a t d i f f e r e d from h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . Norwid was not a p o l i t i c i a n and he m a i n t a i n e d h i s d i s t a n c e from a l l the p o l i t i c a l g r o u p i n g s of the g r e a t e m i g r a t i o n . . . . . The g o a l o f h i s t o r y a c c o r d i n g t o Norwid was 'to make martyrdom unnecessary on the e a r t h ' and the a c h i e v e -ment o f t h i s was the o n l y c r i t e r i o n of p r o g r e s s , as he s a i d h i m s e l f : 'A man i s born on t h i s p l a n e t t o g i v e t e s t i m o n y t o the t r u t h . He s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e know and remember t h a t every c i v i l i z a t i o n s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as a means and not as an a i m — t h u s t o s e l l one's s o u l t o a c i v i l i z a t i o n and at the same time to pray i n c h u r c h i s to be a phar i s e e. '^ 8 For the cause of P o l a n d , M i c k i e w i c z f a v o u r e d M e s s i a n i s m and martyrdom, e x a l t i n g the human s p i r i t t o g o d l y h e i g h t s , and c a l l e d P o l a n d "the C h r i s t of N a t i o n s . " T h i s a t t i t u d e d i s t i n -g u i s h e d M i c k i e w i c z ' s p o e t r y from the more r e a l i s t i c and p h i l o -s o p h i c a l approach of Norwid. The l a t t e r d i d not mix a r t and n a t i o n a l i s m t o the same e x t e n t , and a l t h o u g h his p o e t r y e x p r e s s e d h i s moral v i e w s , i t concerned i t s e l f w i t h the n a t u r e of a r t and human i s s u e s , on a more u n i v e r s a l s c a l e . The second g r e a t e m i g r a t i o n , a consequence of the Second World War, was a l s o a g r e a t n a t i o n a l t r a g e d y . A g a i n P o l i s h l i t e r a t u r e s p l i t i n t o two wings, the domestic and the emigre. Emigre l i t e r a t u r e , however, as Czeslaw M i i o s z p o i n t s out i n The H i s t o r y of P o l i s h L i t e r a t u r e : Cannot he i n t e r p r e t e d as the outgrowth of a neat p o l i t i c a l c leavage, and the p i c t u r e i s much more complex. Post—war Poland witnessed departures as w e l l as homecomings: these were motivated sometimes by p o l i t i c a l , sometimes by p u r e l y p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s , ^ As i n the f i r s t e m i g r a t i o n , the poets of the second e m i g r a t i o n are s e a r c h i n g f o r freedom of e x p r e s s i o n which the true poet w i l l always seek. The Romantic poets fought f o r the p o l i t i c a l and domestic freedom of Poland. The emigre poets of the modern era are simply f i g h t i n g f o r a human cause-the freedom of i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n on a more u n i v e r s a l s c a l e . Such a freedom i s l i m i t e d i n modern Poland. There-f o r e M i i o s z ' s statement concerning "the outgrowth" of the present emigre l i t e r a t u r e i s of a r a t h e r g e n e r a l nature, e x c l u d i n g the f a c t t h a t freedom of speech i s a p o l i t i c a l i s s u e , and although many w r i t e r s have come and gone f o r "pu r e l y p e r s o n a l reasons" the p o l i t i c a l reason would seem to be the most important one f o r them to have remained o u t s i d e Poland. For a b e t t e r d e f i n i t i o n one must turn to J o s e f . W i t t l i n , a P o l i s h poet and e s s a y i s t who s t a t e s , i n h i s essay on "The Splendor and Squalor of E x i l e " t h a t : Ours i s not a v o l u n t a r y e m i g r a t i o n . Writers have been d r i v e n to i t by b i t t e r n e c e s s i t y , by a c a t a s t r o p h e , a n a t i o n a l c a l a m i t y — o r e l s e by the need to a c t , to oppose defeat i n the hope of u l t i m a t e v i c t o r y . In any event, the type of e m i g r a t i o n to which we belong was produced by a set of circumstances which threatens a w r i t e r ' s 26 c r e a t i v i t y , i f not h i s p h y s i c a l s a f e t y . That i s why we have adopted the somewhat melodramatic name of e x i l e s . The word need not connote the grim image of men b r u t a l l y d r i v e n out of t h e i r country. There are many among e x i l e d w r i t e r s who l e f t of t h e i r own f r e e w i l l , r e f u s i n g to submit to c o n d i t i o n s they would not e n d u r e . ^ Th.e contemporary P o l i s h poet i n Canada i s a t r a n s p l a n t i n t o a new environment whose c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y i s s t i l l i n the process of development. His c o n d i t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e that of man i n c o n f l i c t with a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e and t r a d i t i o n . He d i d not have the advantage that the Romantic poets d i d , namely a s i m i l a r c u l t u r a l m i l i e u . He has t h e r e f o r e been sub-j e c t e d to a c u l t u r a l shock. Modern man begins by being d i s o r i e n t e d with r e s p e c t to h i m s e l f , depayse, he i s out s i d e of h i s own country, t h r u s t i n t o new circumstances which are l i k e an unknown la n d . Such i s always the v i t a l s e n s a t i o n which besets a man i n p e r i o d s of h i s t o r i c a l c r i s i s . 4 1 The new l i t e r a t u r e t h at e x i s t s i n Poland i s a l s o i n c o n f l i c t with the r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed on i t by the present regime Cthe r e s u l t of a h i s t o r i c a l c r i s i s ) and i s s u b j e c t to the dual i n f l u e n c e s of Western Democracy and Communism. It has r e j e c t e d t r a d i t i o n a l i s m and i s a l i e n a t e d from the P o l i s h s p i r i t of p a t r i o t i s m . Since the mood of the m a j o r i t y of Poland's w r i t e r s i s pragmatic, i t seems only f a i r to p r o g n o s t i c a t e that the P o l i s h experiment i n the realm of l e t t e r s proceeds along c o n s t r u c t i v e l i n e s . . . I should l i k e to s t r e s s some permanent f e a t u r e s of the P o l i s h a r t i s t i c genius: s e n s u a l i t y , nature v e r g i n g on pantheism, a keen eye f o r m a t e r i a l d e t a i l coupled with the very S l a v i c p r o p e n s i t y f o r the a b s t r a c t ; above a l l , a r a p t attachment to h i s t o r i c t r a d i t i o n . ^ 2 P o l i s h poetry i n Canada i s a l s o undergoing a p e r i o d of t r a n s i t i o n , d i s o r i e n t a t i o n , a s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l and 27 r e c o g n i t i o n i n Canada and abroad. There i s thus a p a r a l l e l ' experiment' among the emigre w r i t e r s which can be compared w i t h t h a t of P o l a n d , the two groups h a v i n g d i f f e r e n t problems but the same "permanent f e a t u r e s . " Some of these problems have been d i s c u s s e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n a symposium formed by a group o f P o l i s h p o e ts i n London who a t one time were known as " K o n t y n e n t y " , the name o f a P o l i s h p e r i o d i c a l w i t h which t h e s e p o e t s were a s s o c i a t e d . Some are now l i v i n g i n Canada and one of them, A n d r z e j Busza, m a i n t a i n s t h a t emigre p o e t r y : C o n t a i n s w i d e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Who knows i f our b e i n g s e v e r e d from a P o l i s h c o n t e n t and i t s p u r e l y n a t i v e c h a r a c t e r , won't f o r c e us i n t o a c e r t a i n " c o s m o p o l i t a n -ism" a g a i n s t which t h e r e was always o p p o s i t i o n , and w h i c h made I t more d i f f i c u l t f o r P o l i s h p o e t r y and l i t e r a t u r e t o r e a c h beyond t h e l i m i t s o f t h e i r own l a n g u a g e . 4 ^ Abroad, P o l i s h views have become more c l o s e l y i n t e r -woven w i t h the p a t t e r n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m . O u t s i d e o f the now p o l i t i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d P o l a n d , P o l i s h l i t e r a t u r e t h r o u g h the e f f o r t s of the emigre w r i t i n g has a chance t o escape the l i m i t a t i o n s o f a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n i n the t o t a l i t a r i a n s t a t e s . In c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r n a t i o n s i t can e x p e r i e n c e f o r i t s e l f and draw i n t o i t s own c o n t e n t s l i t e r a r y powers from the r e s e r v o i r s of o t h e r g r e a t contemporary works. The younger g e n e r a t i o n of emigre w r i t e r s , who were f o r the most p a r t educated i n Europe (.not n e c e s s a r i l y i n P o l a n d ) are now l i v i n g i n Canada, the U n i t e d S t a t e s and E n g l a n d , and have c o n t i n u e d to w r i t e t h e i r p o e t r y i n P o l i s h . They d i f f e r from p o e t s l i k e Z o f i a Bohdanowiczowa who belonged t o the 28 Ska-mander t r a d i t i o n of: P o l a n d , and from Czesiaw H i l o s z and Waclaw Iwaniuk who belonged t o the l a t e r s c h o o l c a l l e d the Ava n t - g a r d e . These o l d e r p o e t s a re t h e ' l i n k s ' between the P o l i s h 'Romantic' t r a d i t i o n and t h e modern. T h e i r p o e t r y was c r y s t a l l i s e d i n P o l a n d , where they were educated and e x p e r i e n c e d P o l i s h pre-war l i f e , and the h o r r o r s o f the Second World War. Iwaniuk's p o e t r y , and p o s s i b l y the p o e t r y o f the younger e m i g r e s , may be i n f l u e n c e d by the t r e n d s s e t by Norwid. As M i i o s z p o i n t s out i n r e f e r e n c e t o the p o e t r y of Norwid: Today's r e a d e r s may see i n h i s c o n t r o l l e d i r o n y a f o r e shadowing of the k i n d of p o e t r y J u l e s L a f o r g u e or T. S. E l l i o t were t o w r i t e . 4 - 4 For example i n Vade Mecum, N o r w i d , u s i n g i r o n y , d i s t i n g u i s h e s between c r e a t i n g l y r i c s and merely p r i n t i n g : . speaks: 'I s t a r t e d s i n g i n g a rhyme. . .' Whom are you d e c e i v i n g ? I don't f e e l s t r i n g s t r e m b l i n g under your f i n g e r t i p : You a re merely a p r i n t e r . 4 ^ " L y r i c s and P r i n t i n g " ( L i r y k a i Druk) I t was a l s o Norwid's use of words i n an e f f o r t t o change the language and h i s attempt at f r e e v e r s e i n P o l i s h p o e t r y t h a t d i r e c t e d i t towards modernism and the Avant-Garde. Norwid a c h i e v e d a more r e a l i s t i c form o f e x p r e s s i o n and e x p l o r e d man's t r u e c o n d i t i o n t h r o u g h d e s c r i b i n g h i s b e h a v i o r . E s p e c i a l l y i n the c o l l e c t i o n of poems Vade Mecum he uses " g e s t u r e s " i n s t e a d o f speech i n an e f f o r t t o r e v e a l t h i s con-d i t i o n . For example i n a poem "S p h i n x " (Vade Mecum, poem XV), i n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e a r i d d l e on the t r u e n a t u r e of man, and h i s con I r o n t a t i o n w i t h i t , Norwid uses a s h o r t d r a m a t i c 29 s k i t between man and Sphinx. Thus he i l l u s t r a t e s the p o i n t by economy of d i a l o g u e accompanied by a c t i o n , r a t h e r than by way of a l o n g verbose poem as was the p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n of the t i m e . T h i s economy of s t r u c t u r e p a r a l l e l s the e f f o r t s of the Avant-garde whose aims were t o change the language of the Skamander group. The l a t t e r were s t i l l l i n k e d t o the 'Roman-t i c s ' and imposed on t h e i r v e r s e the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the t r a d i -t i o n a l rhythm and f l o w e r y language of the Romantic s c h o o l . T h i s o f t e n produced i n t h e i r p o e t r y a f a l s e and u n r e a l i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n o f s e n t i m e n t . The A v a n t - g a r d i s t s l i b e r a t e d t h e i r v e r s e from t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s . They were more i n t e r e s t e d i n the o r i g i n a l i t y of the "word" and i t s usage i n the morpho-l o g i c a l sense than as a t o o l o f o r n a m e n t a t i o n . They were a l s o more i n t e r e s t e d i n man and h i s everyday l i f e . In Vade Mecum Norwid s a y s : Above a l l your charms, You, P o e t r y , and you, Speech! O n e — w i l l f o r e v e r be e x a l t e d : 5» !rf 5*C 5£ 5*» 5V Si? To g i v e the t h i n g — i t s a p p r o p r i a t e word.^^ I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o do j u s t i c e i n t r a n s l a t i o n t o t h i s or b i s o t h e r poems. Norwid r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t the r u l e s s e t f o r him by h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s and, i n an attempt t o change them, used a d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e , the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f which make both the r e a d i n g and the t r a n s l a t i o n o f h i s poems r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t . U n l i k e h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s whose language was s i m p l e , Norwid's e f f o r t s to use words d i f f e r e n t l y r e s u l t e d i n s t r u c t u r e s the uniqueness of which has f a s c i n a t e d many modern r e a d e r s , and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the way he e x p r e s s e d h i s a r t may have sown 30 a s'eed f o r f u t u r e generations, of P o l i s h p o e t s . The younger emigre poets have had t o c r y s t a l l i s e t h e i r p o e t r y i n a f o r e i g n environment and have been more d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the E n g l i s h t r a d i t i o n s e t by poets such as T. S. E l l i o t . T h e i r P o l i s h language i s t h e r e f o r e s u b j e c t t o the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e of E n g l i s h . Adam C z e r n i a w s k i i s of the o p i n i o n t h a t : Many e x p r e s s i o n s c i t e d now as i n h e r e n t l y P o l i s h were r e a l l y d e r i v e d from L a t i n , German, or F r e n c h . Why then wouldn't the P o l i s h language of the 20th c e n t u r y , b e s i d e s i t s " R u s s i f i c a t i o n s " , become e n r i c h e d by the i n f l u e n c e of English? 4''' T h i s would be one p o s i t i v e a s p e c t of the language i t s e l f , but i t c o u l d a l s o become a p a r a d o x i c a l f a c t o r i n the a r t i s t ' s v work, s i n c e as F l o r j a n Smieja p o i n t s o u t : I t i s . the E n g l i s h language t h a t c o n t a i n s r e a l i t y not the P o l i s h , whose f u l l and buoyant l i f e f l o w s f a r away from us. O f t e n we must use t h i s ' f o r e i g n language not o n l y i n work and on the s t r e e t , much of our a r t i s t i c e x p e r i -ences are c o n c e i v e d i n the adopted l a n g u a g e . 4 ^ H e r e i n l i e s the f r u s t r a t i o n o f the emigre p o e t , i t i s a l s o h i s " s p l e n d o r and s q u a l o r " , and he becomes a t r a n s l a t o r of f o r e i g n e x p e r i e n c e i n t o h i s n a t i v e tongue. I t i s a t t h i s " p o i n t t h a t he i s an e x i l e , depayse, who t u r n s i n w a r d t o f i n d h i s p a r t i c u l a r v e h i c l e t h rough which he can c h a n n e l h i s a r t . Here i s the c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h "the word" and g i v i n g " t h i n g s " an " a p p r o p r i a t e meaning." Through the a b s o r p t i o n of f o r e i g n e x p e r i e n c e and i t s e x p r e s s i o n i n P o l i s h , the poet e n r i c h e s h i s own c u l t u r e as w e l l as the c u l t u r e of the c o u n t r y i n which he l i v e s . T h i s i s p r o v i d i n g t h a t he has a means of communicating h i s a r t to 31 the people of o t h e r c u l t u r e s . Both the younger and o l d e r P o l i s h emigre poets r e l y s o l e l y on a s m a l l number of P o l i s h p u b l i c a t i o n s . These i n c l u d e ' K u l t u r a ' i n P a r i s , ' O f i c y n a Poetow I M a l a r z y ' , and 'Wiadomosci' i n Lond on, England. These p e r i o d i c a l s have been f o r many y e a r s the s t r o n g h o l d of f r e e e x p r e s s i o n f o r the P o l i s h e m i g r e s . W i l l t h i s p o e t r y s u r v i v e ? i s the q u e s t i o n t h a t haunts a l l t hose concerned w i t h P o l i s h c u l t u r e . Bogdan Czaykowski has d e s c r i h e d the e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s , i n v o l v e d i n the s u r -v i v a l o f emigre p o e t r y as "an experiment the r e s u l t , of which 49 i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t . " A l t h o u g h t h i s s tatement was made i n I960, P o l i s h emigre p o e t r y i s s t i l l i n a s t a t e of c r i s i s . I t has not as y e t been i d e n t i f i e d as an independent body of l i t e r a t u r e bound by a common l i t e r a r y s t y l e , o t h e r than t h a t o f the la n g u a g e , and i t s freedom from s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as " s e n t i m e n t a l i s m " and "propagandism". I t a l s o has not fl o w e d i n t o the mainstream of the n a t i o n a l P o l i s h l i t e r a t u r e f o r o b v i o u s r e a s o n s . However the scene c o n s t a n t l y changes. Some n o t e s of opt i m i s m are i n o r d e r . F i r s t l y , i t i s i n some way a v i c t o r y t h a t an a n t h o l o g y of P o l i s h poems c o l l e c t e d by A n d r z e j Lam, p u b l i s h e d as r e c e n t l y as 1972 i n Warsaw, P o l a n d , i n c l u d e s poems of some of the e m i g r e s , among them Adam C z e r n i a w s k i who now l i v e s i n London, and Bogdan C z a y k o w s k i , who r e s i d e s i n Canada. S e c o n d l y , t r a n s l a t i o n s are b e i n g made of the P o l i s h emigre p o e t r y , i n t o E n g l i s h and o t h e r l a n g u a g e s , t h u s making t h e i r work a c c e s s i b l e t o a l a r g e r a u d i e n c e . 32 Canadian p e r i o d i c a l s such as 'Prism I n t e r n a t i o n a l ' , 'Tamarack Review' and a n t h o l o g i e s l i k e the 'Volvox' are now p u b l i s h i n g t r a n s l a t i o n s , of poets of d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s . Among these are Waclaw Iwaniuk, Bogdan C z a y k o w s k i , and A n d r z e j Busza. S u r e l y the concept of "an e x p e r i m e n t " can be a p p l i e d e q u a l l y w e l l to the s u r v i v a l of both French and E n g l i s h p o e t r y i n Canada, f o r , as we have seen, t h e s e groups are c u l t u r a l l y i s o l a t e d and are s t i l l i n the p r o c e s s of development. We have a l r e a d y quoted M a r i a Kuncewicz"who has d e s c r i b e d the s t a t e of p o e t r y i n P o l a n d as b e i n g "an e x p e r i m e n t " . T h i s runs c o u n t e r t o the argument t h a t P o l i s h emigre p o e t r y i s i n danger, by b e i n g i s o l a t e d from the mainstream o f P o l i s h p o e t r y . Emigre p o e t r y may w e l l s t a n d i n a s t r o n g e r p o s i t i o n , b e i n g l e s s i s o l a t e d t h r o u g h h a v i n g a f r e e r a c c e s s t o o t h e r c u l t u r e s and, i n f a c t , i t i s the n a t i o n a l mainstream t h a t may not s u r v i v e . The P o l i s h , emigre poets now r e s i d i n g i n Canada who have t h e i r r o o t s i n P o l i s h and B r i t i s h European c u l t u r e are a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by E n g l i s h and French Canadian c u l t u r e , as w e l l as t h a t o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The P o l i s h poet must t h e r e f o r e e i t h e r l o o k t o the p a s t f o r n o u r i s h m e n t , a l l o w the p r e s e n t t o i n f l u e n c e him, or d r i f t between the two. Hence the p a r a d o x i c a l c o n d i t i o n e s s e n t i a l to our l i v e s t h a t man has no way of o r i e n t a t i n g h i m s e l f i n the f u t u r e except t o r e f l e c t on what the p a s t has been, the ^ p a s t whose form i s u n e q u i v o c a l l y f i x e d and unchangeable. Ortega y Gasset argues t h a t i n o r d e r t o g a i n an under-s t a n d i n g o f the p r e s e n t or even p r e d i c t the f u t u r e , man must f i r s t examine each segment of h i s t o r y , which he terms "the "Quote 42, page 26 l i n e a r system" s t r e t c h e d a c r o s s t i m e . The P o l i s h emigre poet b u i l d s h i s work of the p r e s e n t out of h i s c u l t u r a l p a s t , and because of h i s o r i g i n , h i s con-d i t i o n , whether d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , i s a consequence of some moment i n the h i s t o r y o f t h a t c u l t u r e . The emigres f i n d t h i s "moment i n t i m e " i n a way t h a t r e f l e c t s t h e i r own c u l t u r a l background. The o l d e s t poet i n the a n t h o l o g y t h a t f o l l o w s i s Z o f i a Bohdanowiczowa who b e l o n g e d t o the Skamander group which formed i t s e l f d u r i n g the y e a r s o f independent P o l a n d . The f o l l o w i n g m a n i f e s t o e x p r e s s e s t h e i r v i e w s and aims, i n p o e t r y . When r a i s i n g the o l d c l a i m s we are aware t h a t we are a hundred y e a r s o l d e r , t h a t our words are d i f f e r e n t though they sound the same, t h a t new times w i l l see and must see i n a symbol a n o t h e r meaning. We are aware t h a t owing t o a t u r n of h i s t o r y we have t o i n c a r n a t e what those men of the p a s t announced. . . . We are not tempted by s e r m o n i z i n g , we do not want t o c o n v e r t anybody. . . . We b e l i e v e u n s h a k a b l y i n the s a n c t i t y o f a good rhyme, i n the d i v i n e o r i g i n of rhythm, i n r e v e l a t i o n t h r o u g h images born i n e c s t a s y and t h r o u g h shapes c h i s e l e d by work.5 1 "Skamander M a n i f e s t o " In a l l u d i n g to the i n c a r n a t i o n of "what those men of the p a s t announce," the m a n i f e s t o r e f e r s t o the 'Romantics' and t h e i r p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g poem e x e m p l i f i e s the Skamander t r a d i t i o n , e x c ept t h a t i t was not p o s s i b l e t o t r a n s l a t e the rhythm and rhyme of the o r i g i n a l P o l i s h v e r s i o n , w i t h o u t changing the meaning. 34 ' Summer e v e n i n g , how much s a d n e s s i n y o u , A p a t h weaves among the c o l o r e d g a r d e n s L i k e a c o u n t r y r o a d . A r e d and w h i t e i n s i g n i a hangs f r o m t h e b a r r a c k s . Today i s t h e a n n i v e r s a r y Of some l o n g - p a s t n a t i o n a l t r i u m p h . A t w o — t o n e f l u t t e r a l o n g t h e s q u a t t i n g w a l l s , A s c e n t o f g i l l y f l o w e r s , a wooden c h a p e l , M a l l o w s and hop l e a v e s And b e h i n d t h e c h a p e l i n b l a c k b e r r y h u s h e s , A s t a r — g a z e r w h i s t l e s t h e k u j a w i a k , P u s h i n g b a c k h i s h a t . E v e n i n g on t h e g r o u n d and e v e n i n g i n t h e s k y E v e n i n g e y e s i n t r o v e r t e d , E v e n i n g t e m p l e s and g r e y h a i r . And we on t h e s t a g e o f a d a r k t h e a t e r U n d e r t h e w h i r l i n g r o s e o f f o r e i g n w i n d s C o n t i n u a l l y a c t o u r p l a y , "The N a t i v e Land".^2 P e n r h o s — P o l i s h Home ( P e n r h o s , 1954) The poem r e v e a l s , s e n t i m e n t s o f n o s t a l g i a and p a t r i o t i s m , t h e r e i s a r e f e r e n c e t o P o l i s h f o l k l o r e ( k u j a w i a k * ) a n d r o m a n t i c a l l u s i o n s t o n a t u r e r e f l e c t i n g i n i t s d e s c r i p t i v e t e r m s t h e P o l i s h c o u n t r y s i d e . I n t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e poem t h e p o e t i n t r o d u c e s t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e d e p a y s e a nd p u t s t h e e m p h a s i s on t h e t r a g e d y o f t h e l o s t h o m e l a n d . B o h d a n o w i c z o w a a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e d e p a y s e b e i n g d i s p l a c e d f r o m h i s moment i n h i s t o r i c a l t i m e . The f o l l o w i n g poem was w r i t t e n i n T o r o n t o on t h e day o f h e r m e e t i n g w i t h J o s e p h W i t t l i n : T o d a y ' s poem d i s a g r e e s w i t h me I s e e k c o n s o l a t i o n b u t f i n d f o r e b o d i n g H i s t o r i c a l n o s t a l g i a E x p a t r i a t i o n o u t o f t i m e and s p a c e Where i s man c r e a t i v e m a n — Who s e e k s a l i n k w i t h t h e w o r l d b u t has none " N a t i o n a l d ance o f P o l a n d 35 • Modernism draws i t s s t r e n g t h From a t t a c k s on the p a s t We are a herd of r e c l u s e s . ^ 3 In the above poem Bohdanowiczowa drops her t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e and changes to f r e e v e r s e . She a l s o a t t a c k s modern s o c i e t y and blames the i s o l a t i o n of man on h i s break w i t h the p a s t . Waciaw Iwaniuk belongs t o the- post-Skamander s c h o o l of the A v ant-garde. T h i s s c h o o l e l i m i n a t e d t r a d i t i o n a l v e r s e i n f a v o u r of a f r e e r s t r u c t u r e . I t a dvocated the use o f metaphors, a s i m p l e r statement of everyday l i f e on themes such as the i n d u s t r i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l development of the c i t y , and tbe e c o n o m i c a l use of the word as a n e c e s s a r y p a r t of the poem. T h i s s c h o o l was a l s o d e s c r i b e d by the h i s t o r i a n and c r i t i c K a z i m i e r z Wyka: . . . as c o n s i s t i n g o f s y m b o l i s t - c l a s s i c i s t e l a b o r a t i o n (sometimes w i t h a s u r r e a l i s t or e x p r e s s i o n i s t t i n g e ) o f themes s u g g e s t i n g and announcing an i n e v i t a b l e h i s t o r i c a l and moral c a t a s t r o p h e . ^ Iwaniuk's p o e t r y c o ncerns i t s e l f w i t h a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and l o o k s t o the p a s t , and l i k e Norwid uses t h i s t o warn of the f u t u r e . For Norwid, h i s t o r y was a c o n t i n u i t y , a p r o c e s s t e n d i n g i n a c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n . . . . A g i v e n c i v i l i z a t i o n was j u s t a phase between the p a s t and the f u t u r e , the p r e s e n t c o u l d not s i m p l y be c a s t a s i d e , because i t was the p l a c e where the f u t u r e was b e i n g engendered. Edward Dusza, a P o l i s h poet and c r i t i c , i n an a r t i c l e on emigre p o e t s , says o f Iwaniuk: The a u t h o r l i v e s i n two w o r l d s : i n a nightmare w o r l d and the w o r l d of r e a l i t y , and n e v e r t h e l e s s has no courage to t u r n away from the past i n o r d e r t o e n t e r the p r e s e n t • ^ 36 While Dusza p r a i s e s Iwaniuk's p o e t r y , he does not see the merit of h i s " l i v i n g i n the p a s t " . Obviously "the world of r e a l i t y " must be "the p r e s e n t " and the f a c t t h at Iwaniuk continues to c r e a t e i n a new environment, i s proof enough that he has entered the r e a l i t y of the prese n t . He i s concerned about the importance of the present needs of P o l i s h emigre poetry and i t s c o n t i n u a t i o n . Also h i s l o o k i n g back i s a statement that a b e t t e r f u t u r e i s engendered i n the r e c o g n i -t i o n of the mistakes of the p a s t . This i s h i s message to h i s contemporaries. While Bohdanowiczowa looked back with n o s t a l g i a to the pre-war f r e e Poland, Iwaniuk's "moment i n h i s t o r y " , to which he c o n s t a n t l y r e t u r n s , i s the Poland of World War Two and i t s aftermath. Iwaniuk uses the concept of a "self-owned cosmos" as d e s c r i b e d i n h i s poem "My Contemporaries". This "cosmos" i s a realm i n h i s t o r i c a l time, through which Iwaniuk r e v e a l s , e x p l o r e s , and evokes i n v i v i d images and m e t a p h o r s — t h e c r u e l t y of man, the crimes which are committed, f o r g o t t e n (by the world) and committed again. Reach out and you w i l l f i n d many f o r g o t t e n f a c t s i n s i d e which a hungry memory claws People can be i d e n t i f i e d by the c h r o n i c l e of time How do we i d e n t i f y a sentence r o l l e d by f e a r How do we i d e n t i f y the s i l h o u e t t e s of our e x e c u t i o n e r s . In t h i s poem "The Sign", Iwaniuk s t a t e s that we know and understand what i s happening around us by "the s i g n " the t r a c e s that time leaves on people. In anoth er poem he a c t u a l l y 37 i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h t h e p a s t , i n c o n c r e t e p h y s i c a l t e r m s , t o d e s c r i b e a m e t a p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n : B e w i l d e r e d l e t us l o o k a t n a t u r e ' s r a p e — c o u l d t h e c l a w o f t h e human b r a i n r e a c h f u r t h e r t h a n d e a t h ? J u s t t h i n k how many b o i l s s t i l l b u r n i n g i n s i d e me n a t u r e has n o t h e a l e d . How many open wounds. My hands p u r p l e w i t h eczema u n t i l t h i s v e r y day c a n n o t t o u c h l i f e . A f t e r a l l t h e y c a r r i e d d e a t h . ^ 8 The p o e t l o o k s i n t o h i m s e l f , a t h i s " p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n " , f o r a n s w e r s w h i c h he c a n o n l y f i n d i n t h e w o r l d o f e x p e r i e n c e . H i s work r e f l e c t s t h i s i n an i n t e r e s t i n g j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f p a r a d o x e s i n t i m e and s p a c e . I b r i n g my f a c e c l o s e r t o t h e m i r r o r b u t t h e r e i s no m i r r o r I t r a c e my f e a t u r e s w i t h a hand b u t I h a v e no h a n d I am f i l l e d w i t h m emories — t i m e ' s d r y s p l i n t e r s . . . . How I w i s h t o be t h e r e T h e r e have been few c r i t i c a l a n a l y s e s o f I w a n i u k ' s p o e t r y . A n d r z e j C h c i u k o f t h e T y g o d n i k P o l s k i i n p r a i s i n g I w a n i u k a l s o comments t h a t he has n o t become a p o p u l a r p o e t b e c a u s e he does n o t f o l l o w t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y ' c e r e b r a l ' p o e t i c t r e n d s . He ( I w a n i u k ) does n o t c o n s i d e r t h e t a s t e o f t h e a v e r a g e r e a d e r . I w a n i u k , s t r i p p e d o f t h e f a l s e r o m a n t i c p o e t r y , I w a n i u k b i t i n g i n t o e a c h word u n t i l he i s t h o r o u g h l y f a m i l i a r w i t h i t , w a l k s i n f r o n t o f t h e r e a d e r . Walks a l o n e f o l l o w i n g h i s p o e t r y , h i s own i m a g e , h i s own c r i t e r i a o f b e a u t y and t r u t h , c o o l and c o l l e c t e d , and y e t so p a s s i o n a t e — w a l k s b e h i n d man and h i s t i m e . ^ I w a n i u k ' s l i f e s t y l e , and h i s s e n s e o f h i s t o r y , and t h e i m p o r t a n c e he a t t r i b u t e s t o t h e " w o r d " i n p o e t r y r e s e m b l e somewhat t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f N o r w i d . F o r e x a m p l e ^ b o t h 38 M i i o s z i n 'The H i s t o r y of P o l i s h L i t e r a t u r e ' , and 'Post-War P o l i s h P oetry', both p u b l i s h e d i n North America, and Lam i n h i s new anthology of contemporary P o l i s h p o e t s , which does i n c l u d e some of the emigre poets--pub1ished i n P o l a n d — h a v e chosen not to i n c l u d e Iwaniuk. Iwaniuk l i k e Norwid has been c r i t i c a l of h i s contempor-a r i e s and the l i m i t e d p o e t i c language of h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s . Norwid i n the f o l l o w i n g poem c r i t i c i s e s h i s P o l i s h e l d e r s : L a u r e l s , I have not taken, then or now, A s i n g l e l e a f from you, nor a l e a f ' s notch Only perhaps a c o o l shade on my brow (and t h a t ' s not yours but comes with the sun's touch); Nor d i d I take from you, g i a n t s of stardom, Anything save your roads a l l overgrown With Wormwood, and your curse-scorched e a r t h and boredom. I came alone, I wander on alone. In t h i s poem Norwid shows h i s independence and h i s i n d i v i d u a l -i t y . He c l a i m s not to have f o l l o w e d any p o e t i c s t y l e but goes on alone and c r e a t e s h i s own. This i s comparable to the pr e v i o u s comment on Iwaniuk by Chciuk, who s a i d Iwaniuk "walks alone f o l l o w i n g h i s p o e t r y " . I am proud that I am that I am crowned by a self-owned cosmos although my body i s not meant f o r c r u c i f i x i o n I enjoy the faraway s l o t h f u l p l a n e t s i n the dark. The day whispers i n my ear s e c r e t s unobstructed by the wayside wormwood dry words re-opening wounds. While they, so cocksure, so 1 i f e - o r i e n t e d , cannot even f r e e themselves from the day's grey web, t h e i r word s l i p s by s l y l y b l i n d l y , not t o u c h i n g the root of matter. T h e i r f e e t creep s t e a l t h i l y s i d e by si d e and only a golden ducat from a c o u n t e r f e i t mint and darkness w i l l p i t y them. 6 2 "My Contemporaries"--Waclaw Iwaniuk 3 9 It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that both poets r e f e r to wormwood, the image of a b i t t e r p l a n t which r e p r e s e n t s decay of p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n . Iwaniuk c r i t i c i s e s h i s contemporaries f o r not s e a r c h i n g and e x p l o r i n g new words and l a c k i n g i n g e n u i t y i n t h e i r use of language. Although Iwaniuk's poetry uses sharp p a i n f i l l e d images that b r i n g back the memories of Poland at war he does i t i n d i r e c t l y , never s t a t i n g the s p e c i f i c and t h e r e f o r e h i s work i s u n i v e r s a l . He i s always sear c h i n g f o r new words and new forms. As an emigre he looks to a l l aspects of h i s e n v i r o n -ment f o r i n s p i r a t i o n . There i s i n t h i s s e a r c h a s i g n of great optimism concerning the development and s u r v i v a l of P o l i s h emigre p o e t r y . This optimism i s based on Iwaniuk's strong sense of i d e n t i t y as a poet, h i s knowledge of the past and h i s f a i t h i n h i s own c u l t u r e . The younger P o l i s h emigre poets are more s c e p t i c a l about the f u t u r e . T h i s may be the r e s u l t of t h e i r own P o l i s h c u l t u r a l displacement and the con-d i t i o n of being depayse . This displacement, which o c c u r r e d at a much younger age, i s g r e a t e r than that of Iwaniuk. We s h a l l see how they have d e a l t with t h i s problem i n the f o l l o w -ing s e c t i o n . Iwaniuk's optimism and hope f o r d i s c o v e r i n g new expres-s i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g poem: Much has been t o r n from us. We are r e t u r n i n g to a s c e t i c i s m P o o r l y c o n s t r u c t e d baroque f e l l o f f u s together with the f a t . We await i n o u r s e l v e s the coming of the s i g n And only thus can we i d e n t i f y o u r s e l v e s . ^ "The S i g n " One o f t h e y o u n g e s t e m i g r e s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e K o n t y n e n t y 4 0 group, Andrzej Busza, whose work appears i n an anthology of poems Ryby na p i a s k u p u b l i s h e d i n England, r e b e l s a g a i n s t the i n f l u e n c e of the P o l i s h l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . Your grotesque concepts s h a t t e r e d my world i n t o b i t s and I was l e f t alone on the junk p i l e of the absurd How can I a c h i l d of a c a t a c l y s m i c era r a i s e temples of hope f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s ? You have de s t r o y e d f o r me the o l d forms; new ones, I am unable to c r e a t e I wander n i g h t a f t e r n i g h t i n the r u i n s of g o t h i c churches and d i g i n t o the r u b b l e I am s e a r c h i n g f o r the t r e a s u r e s of time past but the d e b r i s becomes an even g r e a t e r chaos Is i t not b e t t e r to stop t h i s s i s y p h u s - l i k e work and e x i s t i n a s t a t e of n e u t r a l i n a c t i v i t y which at l e a s t does not create new chaos? Maybe at l a s t a new g e n e r a t i o n w i l l come f r e e d from time's exorcism f r e e d from your a t r o c i o u s dreams and w i l l b u i l d a c i t y of sun on the p l a i n s of a new day. Let s i l e n c e become t h e i r f o u n d a t i o n upon which they w i l l e m b e l l i s h t h e i r v i s i o n with f o r m . ^ 4 "The Argument"--Andrzej Busza The poem expresses a hope f o r the f u t u r e of P o l i s h poetry i n a "new g e n e r a t i o n " s t i l l to come. I t a l s o expresses anger, f r u s t r a t i o n and c r i t i c i s m of the "grotesque concepts" of the poet's P o l i s h p r e d e c e s s o r s . Confronted with h i s P o l i s h and E n g l i s h background he f e e l s deserted "on the junk p i l e of the absurd" and questions h i s a b i l i t y to c r e a t e new p o e t i c forms. This dilemma has l e d Busza to the f o r m u l a t i o n of h i s own inn e r world, w i t h i n which he can cre a t e as does Iwaniuk, h i s "self-owned cosmos". although i t ' s o f t e n c l o s e here and mildew a f f o r e s t s the wallpaper with green t e t t e r I keep the windows shut from the other s i d e the whole orchard creeps l e d by the f u l l moon mountains gnaw at the sky swallowing anaemic c o n s t e l l a t i o n s p i e c e by pie c e but I more or l e s s have a l r e a d y c o n t r o l l e d my own m i c r o c l i m a t e once a week I c l i p the cactuses on the s i l l and feed m i l l e t to mice when ou t s i d e the g u t t e r s wheeze I plug my ears with cotton wool and read the Odyssey. ^ 5 "Microcosmology"--Andrzej Busza While both poets have i n common the i d e a of a world i n which they can s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t and which they can c o n t r o l , Iwaniuk's i s d e r i v e d from a moment i n h i s t o r y and c o n t a i n s some of the elements of the school of the P o l i s h Avant-garde. Busza, who i s more a l i e n a t e d from the P o l i s h l i t e r a r y p a s t , 12 and i s more i n f l u e n c e d by the trends of E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , has c r e a t e d a " m i c r o c l i m a t e " s t r u c t u r e d i n u n i v e r s a l time, "But I more or l e s s have already c o n t r o l l e d my own micro-c l i m a t e " . This gives Busza the freedom to embrace time p a s t , p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e without imposed r e s t r i c t i o n s . His use of the P o l i s h language a l s o allows him to c r e a t e new trends i n P o l i s h emigre poetry by i s o l a t i n g i t from the c l i c h e s of E n g l i s h . Thus Busza has become the "new g e n e r a t i o n " he speaks of i n h i s poem "The Argument". Another poem c a l l e d "Argument", w r i t t e n by Bogdan Czaykowski, expresses a c o n f l i c t which d i f f e r s somewhat from that of Busza. The c o n f l i c t l i e s w i t h i n the "two incomplete r e a l i t i e s " of the P o l i s h emigre poet who Is t o r n between them. As i n the poem " R e b e l l i o n i n Verse" he r e v o l t s a g a i n s t h i s c u l t u r a l displacement. There i s no p l a c e f o r me not here not there here there i s freedom a f i s h on the sand there a cage awaits me i n the horn of p l e n t y between the t h e a t r e and the stage I am the i r o n c u r t a i n d i v i d i n g two incomplete r e a l i t i e s . ^ 6 Czaykowski l i k e Iwaniuk, r e c o g n i s e s the importance of the past but seems uncomfortable with the p r e s e n t . He i s t r y i n g to f i n d h i s i d e n t i t y i n two worlds; t h a t of h i s P o l i s h h e r i t a g e and that of the emigre worlds of B r i t a i n and Canada. Like Norwid he has chosen to look to the u n l i m i t e d p a s t , using the h i s t o r y of world c u l t u r e : from mythology and the 4 3 B i b l e to modern l i t e r a t u r e . For example, one can look at hi s poem 'The Garden' (Ogrod) as. an a l l u s i o n to the Garden of Eden as w e l l as a c h i l d h o o d p a r a d i s e : L o s t , which I d e s c r i b e d from memory, or to the poem c a l l e d "Mythology" C M i t o l o g i a ) , which i n c l u d e s images of Greek mythology e.g. A p o l l o , Cassandra, The F u r i e s , e t c . His awareness of modern l i t e r a t u r e i s found f o r example i n the poem "The Stanza of Dylan Thomas" which a l s o c o n t a i n s p h i l o s o p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c concepts, themes of time and space, l i f e , death, and r e b i r t h . Like both Iwaniuk and Norwid he sees a l i n k between the p a s t , present and f u t u r e . He uses the past to d e s c r i b e man's c o n d i t i o n i n the presen t and thus q u e s t i o n s the f u t u r e . U n l i k e Iwaniuk, but l i k e Norwid, i n hi s own time, he has s t i l l to f i n d h i s "moment i n time". Czaykowski's e x p r e s s i o n of r e b e l l i o n stems from a f e e l i n g that he does not belong. His poetry r e f l e c t s the r e a l world and not a "self-owned cosmos" or a " m i c r o c l i m a t e " . . . . Czaykowski says that 'he i s l i k e a f i s h thrown onto sand'. We are a l l that f i s h . We can r e t u r n to the sea, we can die on the sand, or of course we can a l s o change i n t o an amphibian. . . the matter concerns our b a s i c a t t i t u d e to l i f e , the shape of our l i f e , of the f r u i t i o n of our c r e a t i v i t y . 6 ^ Lawrynowicz i n commenting on Czaykowski's image of " f i s h thrown onto sand", which i s the e'migre' cond i t i on--one of the two "Incomplete R e a l i t i e s " — g i v e s three p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the f u t u r e . P o l i s h emigre' poets can r e v e r t to P o l i s h t r a d i t i o n , P o l i s h emigre' poetry can d i e , or i t can evolve i n t o new forms. Perhaps i t i s i n the l a s t p o s s i b i l i t y that the f u t u r e of 4 4 P o l i s h e m i g r e p o e t r y l i e s . T h i s d e p e n d s , as Lawrynowicz p o i n t s out, on t h e p o e t ' s a t t i t u d e towards h i s c r e a t i v i t y as an emigre i n a new e n v i r o n m e n t . Czaykowski once s t a t e d t h a t we are s t i l l i n t h e s t a g e s of an "experiment"; he thus t r i e s to f i n d a path a l o n g w h i c h P o l i s h e'migre poetry w i l l e v o l v e , and he continues t o q u e s t i o n : What have I done w i t h the boat? Was i t made of paper? Did i t f a l l a p a r t i n t h e r a i n ? Oh, here are the keys! But none f i t any o f the d o o r s . 5 ^ "The Keys" Where i n h i s t o r y , i n what time or p l a c e , does an e x i l e f i n d h i m s e l f ? I t i s f r o m t h i s predicament that Czaykowski d e r i v e s h i s p o e t i c d r i v e . . . . he a t t a c k s d i r e c t l y the p i t i f u l c o n d i t i o n of the poet i n e x i l e and a p p l i e s in that way the o l d p r i n c i p l e of e x i s t e n t i a l wisdom: to transform through awareness, one's weakness i n t o m a t e r i a l and thence i n t o the source of one's energy.69 Both Czaykowski and Iwaniuk use i r o n y to emphasize vari o u s s t a t e s of c o n f l i c t . This i r o n y i s o f t e n expressed by the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of c o n t r a s t i n g statements to produce a paradox: I b r i n g my face c l o s e r to the m i r r o r , but there i s no m i r r o r I t r a c e my f e a t u r e s with a hand, but I have no hand.^° Iwaniuk—"The M i r r o r " On which s i d e o f t h e d o o r am I? 71 Am I l o o k i n g m o r o u t o f t h e window? "The Keys"—Czaykowski This use of p a r a d o x c a n be a l s o found i n the poems of Busza and Ihnatowicz: even the rose the flower of dawn the sweetness of suns d i s t i l l e d from lowly grass i n a p e t a l e d c h a l i c e stands f i r m l y rooted l i k e a white t o o t h i n dung.72 "The Rose"—A. Busza In very concrete terms "The Rose" e x e m p l i f i e s a paradox i n which u g l i n e s s and beauty are i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d . Like Iwaniuk and Busza, Ihnatowicz a l s o commands h i s own u n i v e r s e . His use of images w i t h i n images produces a t e l e s c o p e d view, not always easy to d i s c e r n . The f o l l o w i n g poem embodies t h i s technique which Ihnatowicz c a l l s h i s " I n t e r n a l Landscape". Looking i n t o the darkness at my own l i g h t where a luminous f i s h hangs motionless i n the darkness that spreads out l i k e water I c l o s e my eyes suddenly and through a clenched e y e l i d I see an image, c o n t r a s t of n i g h t , b r i g h t n e s s . Thus s i g h t immersed i n i t s e l f c o n s t a n t l y c r o s s e s the border there and back l i k e a pendulum and I know, I am l o o k i n g at a world that can only be seen i n the m i r r o r . Suddenly the f i s h explodes i n t o l i g h t l i k e a scream and through a i r suspended between s t a r s we f a l l s c a t t e r e d i n t o ashes when the monster of the ocean's depths devours us so that transformed i n t o him we may r i s e a g a i n . ^ 3 " I n t e r n a l Landscape"--Ihnatowicz Ihnatowicz's use of images i s more a b s t r a c t than Busza's. His j u x t a p o s i t i o n of l i g h t and darkness produces a paradox where l i g h t and darkness are at some p o i n t i n e x t r i c a b l e : Looking i n t o the darkness at my own l i g h t . . . . I see an image, c o n t r a s t of n i g h t , b r i g h t n e s s , The paradox becomes more i n v o l v e d because of t h i s " t e l e s c o p e d t e c h n i q u e " ; l i k e a 1 o l o s c o p e t h e images a r e f i t t e d one w i t h i t h e o t h e r , so t h a t t h e y change i n p e r s p e c t i v e : S u d d e n l y t h e f i s h e x p l o d e s i n t o l i g h t l i k e a s c r e a m . The m e t a p h o r i s t r a n s f o r m e d and i n t h i s way e x t e n d e d — w e s e e t h a t t h e f i s h e x p l o d e s i n t o l i g h t , t h e l i g h t t h e n becomes u s , ou r a s h e s , w h i c h a r e i n t u r n t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a m o n s t e r , who i n t u r n t r a n s f o r m s i n t o us as we a r e r e s u r r e c t e d . T h i s a l t h o u g h s e e m i n g l y c o m p l e x i n t e c h n i q u e i s e c o n o m i c a l i n i t s use o f i m a g e r y . I n t h e " I n t e r n a l L a n d s c a p e " o f I h n a t o w i c z t h e r e l i e s a s p i r i t u a l a c t i v i t y w i t h i n a r e l i g i o u s c o n c e p t o f d e a t h and r e s u r r e c t i o n . B u s z a 's c o n c e r n w i t h p o e t i c f o r m i n c o n c r e t e i m a g e s r e v e a l s t h e p o e t ' s f i r m c o n t r o l o f e m o t i o n . I h n a t o w -i c z ' a p o e t i c f o r m i s d e s i g n e d t o a l l o w a g r e a t e r r e l e a s e o f e m o t i o n . He does t h i s by use o f a b s t r a c t Images a n d t h e s p i r i t u a l t r a n s c e n d e n c e o f t h e c o n c r e t e w o r l d . L i k e I w a n i u k ' s , I h n a t o w i c z ' s p o e t r y d o es n o t e x c l u d e h i s h i s t o r i c a l a w a r e n e s s o f t h e P o l i s h p l i g h t i n W o r l d War I I . The poem " C h i l d r e n i n t h e Window" c o n s i s t s o f two p a r t s . The f i r s t d e s c r i b e s a P o l i s h p a r a d e Day b e f o r e y e s t e r d a y l i g h t f r o l i c k e d i n t h e w i n d o w s . . . . p r o c e s s i o n s p u l l e d a l o n g t h e s t r e e t s C h i l d r e n i n t h e window w a t e r e d t h e s t r e e t s w i t h r o s e p e t a l s and l i l i e s o f t h e v a l l e y . . . The s e c o n d p a r t g r i m l y d e s c r i b e s t h e t r a g e d y t h a t b e f e l l t h e c o u n t r y , when t h e war s t a r t e d , t h a t was y e s t e r d a y , t h e n n i g h t f e l l a i r p l a n e s W«TO g a t h e r i n g f l o w e r s i n t h e d a r k when we c o t up a t l a s t (woken by s o b s ) t h e s t r e e t s were ::. t rnwn w i t h c o r p s e s . 47 With the change of time Ihnatowicz employs a dramatic s t y l e i n the change of scene, i t i s as though one were viewing a f l a s h b a c k w i t h i n a f l a s h b a c k . then there was nothing but d r i e d up f e a t h e r s d e p a r t i n g from the windows of s i l e n t a n g e l s . ^ The l a t e Danuta Bienkowska, who a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d war-time Poland, although she expressed n o s t a l g i a f o r Poland, d i d not r e a l l y a l l u d e to the war i n her poems. Her response to the emigre l i f e was expressed i n the form of s a t i r e and s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m and above a l l the element of the grotesque. In her poem "A P a r t y " she uses " P a r r o t s " as her image of the c a p i t a l -i s t i c bourgeois s o c i e t y . It i s a world of t r i t e n e s s , i n which the e x t e r n a l appearances and the content of c o n v e r s a t i o n undermine the more s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s of l i f e : I wish to be immortal Yes, Yes, without exaggeration And s i t f o r e v e r on v e l v e t sofas Hand i n hand, nose to nose. You too? Or not? Death i s so p r o s a i c I t o l d my h a i r d r e s s e r I want a permanent For a l l e t e r n i t y 7 ^ "A P a r t y " The grotesque concept of l i f e i s expressed i n the l a s t verse of the poem: L i f e resembles an egg White o u t s i d e Yellow i n s i d e And then n o t h i n g . "A P a r t y " In the second p a r t of the poem "A Monologue at I n t e r m i s s i o n Between Two C o c k t a i l s " the poet r e v e a l s her depayse a t t i t u d e u s i n g as an analogy a P o l i s h man at a c o c k t a i l p a r t y who 48 babbles drunkenly: I come from there Where we a l l come from, But f o r some time now That means n o t h i n g . Even our o l d song 'Man of the Mountains, have you no r e g r e t s , ' Sounds somewhat out of tune. I was t h e r e f o r e I am, gentlemen, And as long as I am Please don't laugh Because I know what I am aiming at It i s not easy to change one's s k i n But I hear i t pays w e l l My name i s Jan I am not a man of the mountains And I r e g r e t n o t h i n g . 7 5 "A P a r t y " — D . Bienkowska A w e l l known P o l i s h f o l k song (Man of the mountains have you no r e g r e t s ) i s the c e n t r a l p o i n t on which the e n t i r e poem p i v o t s emphasizing a s a r c a s t i c statement on the c o n d i t i o n of the P o l i s h emigre. Other poems of Bienkowska express n o s t a l -g i a and y e a r n i n g f o r the pas t . As we have seen, the P o l i s h emigre poets have chosen d i f f e r e n t approaches to p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n , as a consequence of d e a l i n g with the c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s of a depayse . There i s no s i n g l e s c h o o l of P o l i s h emigre p o e t r y . They must a l l be c o n s i d e r e d as i n d i v i d u a l s . The themes d e a l t with i n t h i s s e c t i o n have been con-cerned with the g e n e r a l problems of P o l i s h poetry i n e x i l e and i t s r o o t s i n h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e and i t s p l a c e i n time. These are qu e s t i o n s that i n f l u e n c e the s u r v i v a l of P o l i s h emigre p o e t r y . We can only s p e c u l a t e on the answers. • A r e c e n t o i r n r r o w r i t e r , A l e x a n d e r S o l z h e n i t s y n whose moment i n t i m e , l i k e I w a n i u k ' s i s t h e p a s t and whose " s e l f -owned c o s m o s " i s t h e R u s s i a n l a b o r camp, i n an e n c o u n t e r w i t h a y o u n g R u s s i a n e m i g r e - - w h o had been a r r e s t e d on h i s r e t u r n t o Rus s i a - - s p e c u l a t e s on t h e f a t e o f e m i g r e ' p o e t r y . We w o u l d o f t e n l i e b e s i d e one a n o t h e r on t h e wooden b u n k s . I t r i e d t o u n d e r s t a n d as b e s t I c o u l d , and o u r e n c o u n t e r r e v e a l e d t o me a c o n c e p t c o n f i r m e d by l a t e r e n c o u n t e r s — t h a t t h e o u t f l o w f r o m R u s s i a o f a s i g n i f -i c a n t p a r t o f h e r s p i r i t u a l f o r c e s , w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n t h e C i v i l War, had d e p r i v e d us o f a g r e a t and i m p o r t a n t s t r e a m o f R u s s i a n c u l t u r e . E v e r y o n e who r e a l l y l o v e s t h a t c u l t u r e w i l l s t r i v e f o r t h e r e u n i o n o f b o t h s t r e a m s , t h e one a t home and t h e t r i b u t a r y a b r o a d . O n l y t h e n w i l l o u r c u l t u r e a t t a i n w h o l e n e s s . O n l y t h e n w i l l i t r e v e a l i t s . c a p a c i t y f o r b e n i g n d e v e l o p m e n t . And I dream o f l i v i n g u n t i l t h a t d a y . ^ 6 Whether t h e P o l i s h e m i g r e l i t e r a t u r e may one day f o r m a new and u n i q u e c h a p t e r i n t h e h i s t o r y o f P o l i s h l i t e r a t u r e s t i l l r e m a i n s t o be s e e n . SOME ASPECTS OF POLISH EMIGRE*POETRY IN THE CONTEXT OF ENGLISH AND FRENCH CANADIAN POETRY 50 ' The C a n a d i a n p o o l c a n n o t w r i t e i n a d i s t i n c t i v e l y -C a n a d i a n l a n g u a g e ; he i s c o m p e l l e d t o t a k e t h e l a n g u a g e he was b r o u g h t up t o s p e a k , w h e t h e r F r e n c h , E n g l i s h , o r I c e l a n d i c and a t t e m p t t o a d j u s t t h a t l a n g u a g e t o an e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h i s f o r e i g n t o i t , i f n o t f o r e i g n t o h i m s e l f . ' 7 T h i s e x p r e s s e s some o f t h e p r o b l e m s f a c i n g a l l t h e c u l t u r a l g r o u p s o f Canada p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e E n g l i s h and F r e n c h C a n a d i a n and o f c o u r s e t h e P o l i s h e m i g r e p o e t . The E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n p o e t s ' e n v i r o n m e n t i s i n f l u e n c e d by e l e m e n t s p e c u l i a r t o t h e C a n a d i a n l a n d s c a p e . N a t u r e t o an E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n p o e t i s a n e g a t i v e and a t e r r i f y i n g f o r c e , c r e a t i n g a p a r a l l e l b e t w e e n t h e e x t e r n a l l a n d s c a p e o f h i s e n v i r o n m e n t and t h e i n t e r i o r l a n d s c a p e o f h i s a r t . The E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n p o e t t h u s becomes an u n i n v o l v e d o b s e r v e r o f h i s e x t e r n a l w o r l d and d e s c r i b e s i t i n h i s a r t i n t h e same manner. M a r g a r e t Atwood i n "The J o u r n e y t o t h e I n t e r i o r " u s e s w o r d s t h a t c r e a t e o n l y a mood r a t h e r t h a n an i n t e r n a l s p i r i t u a l w o r l d and l e a v e s t h e r e a d e r on t h e p e r i p h e r i e s o f d e p r e s s i o n . I n o t i c e ; t h a t t h e h i l l s w h i c h t h e e y e s make f l a t as a w a l l , w e l d e d t o g e t h e r , open as I move t o l e t me t h r o u g h ; become e n d l e s s as p r a i r i e s ; t h a t t h e t r e e s grow s p i n d l y , have t h e i r r o o t s o f t e n i n swamps; t h a t t h i s i s a p o o r c o u n t r y . ^ 8 W h i l e t h e l a n g u a g e i n Atwood's poem e x h i b i t s t h e t h i n use o f m e t a p h o r s ( s p i n d l y t r e e s , a c l i f f t h a t i s now known, a t a n g l e o f b r a n c h e s , e t c . ) i t a l s o r e f l e c t s h e r v i s i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n l a n d s c a p e as " p o o r " and l e a v e s n o t o n l y h e r poem b u t a l s o t h e r e a d e r b e r e f t of t h e r i c h e x p e r i e n c e o f n a t u r e . In c o n t r a s t t h o F r e n c h C a n a d i a n p o e t who l i v e s i n t h e 51 same country and experiences the same landscape, does not observe i t i m p a s s i v e l y but becomes i t s c e n t r a l f o r c e . His p o e t i c language i s t h e r e f o r e r i c h e r , more l y r i c a l and more meaningful. Yves P r e f o n t a i n e ' s poem "The R i v e r ' s Blood and Sap" i s an ex p e r i e n c e : R i s i n g i n the R i v e r ' s blood and sap I hear the song of tomorrow, of my country t a l l as a red p i n e , b l a z i n g i n a f i r e of p r i d e on c o l d American sands. Louder and louder at the headwaters grows the murmur of the gagged man; soon t o r r e n t s w i l l thunder from our f e v e r i s h t h r o a t s . And I s h a l l not be a s i n g l e r e d pine consumed i n v a i n , but a l i v i n g flame w h i r l e d by the winds from t r e e to t r e e , u n t i l along the shores of the R i v e r of Speech, a whole f o r e s t i s burning. ^ 9 Instead of d e s c r i b i n g h i s environment as Atwood does i n morbid and f l a t words, P r e f o n t a i n e gives i t the image of a "red pi n e , b l a z i n g i n a f i r e of p r i d e " . He then extends t h i s image to "a l i v i n g flame", u n t i l "along the shores of the Ri v e r of Speech, a whole f o r e s t i s burning". The words of the poem r i n g out l i k e a song, and the metaphors come a l i v e with depth and s p i r i t u a l f e r v o u r . The French Canadian poet, by becoming the ce n t e r of h i s environment, has l e a r n t to mould i t to h i s c u l t u r a l and a r t i s -t i c needs. The E n g l i s h Canadian poet i s s t i l l a v i c t i m of h i s environment and by remaining an o u t s i d e r has not absorbed i t s r i c h n e s s i n t o the a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n of a meaningful world. In the poems quoted above the environment i s d e s c r i b e d i n terms of nature. Both poets r e a c t d i f f e r e n t l y to the same landscape. One i s i s o l a t e d from i t ; the other i s i n communion with i t : It i s a l l very w e l l f o r a European poet to see nature i n terms of s e t t l e d order l i k e Wordsworth What the poet sees i n Canada, t h e r e f o r e i s very d i f f e r -ent from what the p o l i t i c i a n or businessman sees and d i f f e r e n t again from what h i s European contemporaries see Frye i s c o r r e c t i n h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between what the European emigre poet and the Canadian poets see i n Canada. Why should there be such a d i s t i n c t i o n ? The emigre has a choice of languages i n which to w r i t e . T h i s i s l e s s l i k e l y f o r the o l d e r poets than f o r the younger ones. However, i f he chooses to w r i t e i n h i s own tongue, i n t h i s case P o l i s h , then he must cope with a new environment and f i n d words to d e s c r i b e t h i s f o r e i g n experience. In the p o e t r y of Andrzej Busza, which i s w r i t t e n i n P o l i s h by c h o i c e , he has mastered this, problem by c r e a t i n g a world of h i s own. This world can be c o n s i d e r e d o r d e r l y , because i t i s f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d by the poet. t r a n s p a r e n t world as. i f someone had i n j e c t e d g l a s s i n t o the veins f r u i t s i n g s on a g l a s s t r e e the wind r u f f l e s c e l l ophane leaves a woman walks along the garden's pane she has a body and e n t r a i l s of c r y s t a l her feet do nut shadow even an inch of ground below her she c l e a r l y sees a mult i t i e r e d honeycomb a beehive of g l a s s c o f f i n s . Busza c r e a t e s a world which is. molded by h i s c a r e f u l c o n t r o l of the language. In t h i s r e s p e c t i t i s the language which c o n t a i n s the r e a l i t y of Busza's a r t . It i s a unique microcosm i s o l a t e d from the E n g l i s h speaking environment. In the p r e f a c e to " A s t r o l o g e r i n the Underground" Michael B u l l o c k comments on Busza's a r t : He writes, i n a t r a d i t i o n which, i f i t i s not s p e c i f i c -a l l y P o l i s h , i s at l e a s t s t r o n g l y European. His poems are f u l l of i n t e n s e emotion h e l d i n check and s u b o r d i n -ated to the demands of form and s t r u c t u r e . They are c h a r a c t e r i s e d by l u c i d and v i v i d imagery formulated with great economy of language. A r i c h content i s compressed and c r y s t a l l i s e d i n t o a few short stanzas t h a t have the conc e n t r a t e d glow of s t a i n e d g l a s s windows.^ In the poem " G l a s s " each image f a i t h f u l l y corresponds to and becomes an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a " g l a s s world". In the f i r s t l i n e the world i s c r e a t e d , "as i f someone had i n j e c t e d g l a s s i n t o the v e i n s " . The world, although seemingly s t a t i c , moves as. "the wind r u f f l e s cellophane l e a v e s " and a "woman walks along the garden's pane". In the l a s t l i n e the c y c l e i s com-p l e t e d as the woman sees "a beehive of g l a s s c o f f i n s " . The poet i s an a r b i t r a t o r ; he b u i l d s , he d e s t r o y s . He does not condemn nor bemoan the f a t e of h i s environmental c o n d i t i o n . His words i n c a r e f u l l y carved metaphors d e s c r i b e what l i e s i n the centre of h i s c r e a t i v e energy. Although the a r t i s t i c worlds of Atwood and P r e f o n t a i n e d i f f e r from those of Busza, one can conclude that the a f f i n i t y between him and the French poet l i e s i n t h e i r mastery of t h e i r " s p i r i t u a l l a n d s c a p e s " , while Atwood's psyche continues to f l o u n d e r i n the Canadian swamp, The worlds c r e a t e d i n Busza's poetry are not e x c l u s -i v e l y a r t i f i c i a l , they can a l s o i n c l u d e the r e a l world of nature. For example: day a f t e r day the rose become s the c e n t e r and c z a r i n a of my garden g r e e d i l y drawing i n a l l the r e d . . . the garden p a l e s and b l a n c h e s 8 ^ In the world of Busza's garden, we e x p e r i e n c e the over-powering r i c h n e s s of the red r o s e , which i n c o n t r a s t to the l i g u i s t i c form i n which the poem i s presented extends metaphor-i c a l l y w e l l beyond i t s r e a l i s t i c p r o p o r t i o n s . Thus we have the s u r r e a l i s t image of the r e a l world w i t h i n the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the c o n s t r u c t e d world of the poet. The i s o l a t i o n i s t elements i n Busza's poetry appear, as we have seen, w i t h i n the " m i c r o c l i m a t e s " as does the f a c t t h a t he uses P o l i s h i n an E n g l i s h context. In Atwood's poetry the theme of i s o l a t i o n i s a consequence of her c o n f r o n t a t i o n with nature and search f o r the Canadian i d e n t i t y . The f e e l i n g of i s o l a t i o n expressed i n P r e f o n t a i n e ' s poetry i s p o l i t i c a l s i n c e he i s i n harmony with nature, but as the " v o i c e of the French c o l l e c t i v e " s u f f e r s the consequences of s e p a r a t i s m i n Canada. It may be argued that i s o l a t i o n i s m i n contemporary poetry r e v e a l s the u n i v e r s a l c o n d i t i o n of the a r t i s t . An emi'gre i s .' rc<\uon 11 y In a s i t u a t i o n where he i s d e p r i v e d o f an i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h p o e t s o f h i s own o r i g i n and who a r e I n a s i m i l a r p r e d i c a m e n t . The " K o n t y n e n t y " g r o u p w h i c h e x i s t e d i n L o n d o n , E n g l a n d a r o u n d 1960 was an e x a m p l e o f a g r o u p o f e m i g r e p o e t s who i n s p i r e d e a c h o t h e r t h r o u g h t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n . Among them a t t h a t t i m e were C z a y k o w s k i , B u s z a and I h n a t o w i c z , t h r e e p o e t s a p p e a r i n g i n t h i s a n t h o l o g y . I n r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s g r o u p J u l i a n P r z y b o s has w r i t t e n : Time and s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e change and d e s c r i b e more and more t h e P o l e and t h e E n g l i s h m a n who f i n d s e x p r e s -s i o n i n y o u r poems. I n more t h a n one I d e t e c t e d t h a t w h i c h I a w a i t e d i n v a i n t o f i n d i n t h e p o e t r y o f y o u r e m i g r e c o l l e a g u e s ; a b e n e f i c i a l c r e a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f f o r e i g n p o e t r y , a new f l o w o f e x p e r i e n c e s , new d i s c i -p l i n e , new d i r e c t i o n i n t h e c r e a t i v e s t y l e o f t h e p o e t i c w i l l . . . . T h i s i s a b s e n t f r o m t h e l y r i c s o f y o u r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s i n P o l a n d , t h o s e a r e t h e b a s i s f o r y o u r P o l i s h p o e t r y A l t h o u g h t h e P o l i s h e m i g r e s i n C a n a d a a r e now d e p r i v e d o f i n t e r a c t i o n , b e i n g so few and d i s p e r s e d a c r o s s t h i s l a r g e c o u n t r y , t h e i r p o e t r y has n e v e r t h e l e s s been e n r i c h e d by c o n -t a c t w i t h a new c u l t u r e . B o t h t h e E n g l i s h and F r e n c h C a n a d i a n p o e t s have t h e p o t e n t i a l t o f o r m g r o u p s l i k e t h e •Kontynenty", s i n c e t h e y a r e n o t i s o l a t e d by l a n g u a g e o r e n v i r o n -ment f r o m e a c h o t h e r . The F r e n c h C a n a d i a n p o e t s a r e a t l e a s t bound by a common c a u s e . T h i s m o t i v a t e s them t o c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h each o t h e r , and s t r e n g t h e n s t h e i r a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s a s t r o n g s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y i n t h e i r p o e t r y . The p a r a d o x o f t h e E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n p o e t i s t h a t i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n e x i s t , he seems u n m o t i v a t e d t o i n t e r a c t . H i s poo t r y e x p r e s s e s a s e a r c h F o r i d e n t i t y , 56 but one senses i n i t a lack of s u f f i c i e n t energy necessary f o r the c r e a t i o n of something unique. This l e t h a r g y i s s t i l l , as we have seen, a consequence of the n a t i o n a l i n f e r i o r i t y complex which stems from the " c o l o n i a l mind". In c o n t r a s t to the E n g l i s h Canadian poet who i s more at ease with North American s o c i e t y d e s p i t e the B r i t i s h i n f l u e n c e i n his. background, the P o l i s h emigre poet who l i v e s i n Canada has the re v e r s e problem and i s more at home i n Europe. His poetry r e f l e c t s h i s European c u l t u r e i n h i s v i s i o n of Canadian nature and s o c i e t y . Because he i s r o o t e d i n European c u l t u r e h i s poetry has an i d e n t i t y of i t s own and t h e r e f o r e expresses a more i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e . It has a u n i v e r s a l appeal and t h e r e f o r e communicates more e f f e c t i v e l y . To a P o l i s h poet, Canadian s o c i e t y and i t s p h i l i s t i n e a t t i t u d e towards l i f e i s a h a r a s s i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Because of h i s w e l l developed l i t e r a r y background he i s b e t t e r able to cope with, t h i s new experience and h i s poetry w i l l t h e r e f o r e absorb i t i n a way that w i l l add r a t h e r than d e t r a c t from the p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n . A crowd i s l i k e the sea. We dip our hands i n i t and almost b l i n d l y f i s h out companions We walk out t o g e t h e r on the beach f o r our bare f e e t to t a s t e the yellow sand. We drop i n t o the dry sand next to each other l i k e s e a - s h e l l s and l i s t e n to our own sound, unable to p i e r c e the c r u s t that covers i t unable to explore the s e c r e t 5 7 of our own and another's mus i c . Next to us, abandoned i n yellow sand, l i e c r u s t s of f r a c t u r e d s h e l l s empty and s i l e n t . In a while the t i d e w i l l moisten the sand beneath, i n a while the waves w i l l deafen and c a r r y us to t h e i r depths, where we l o s e ourselves.85 "Man i s only a Humming S e a - s h e l l " — C z a y k o w s k i By g i v i n g man the image of a "Humming S e a - s h e l l " Czaykowski has c o n s t r u c t e d a non-communicating s o c i e t y . Each person, encrusted by h i s own hard s h e l l , n e i t h e r reaches out nor i s able to be reached. While t h i s i s t r u e of s o c i e t y i n ge n e r a l i t p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i e s to Canadian s o c i e t y , a p o i n t that has been d i s c u s s e d i n previous pages. In the l a s t s t anza of the poem one gets the f e e l i n g t h at i f t h i s l a c k of communication p e r s i s t s , s o c i e t y w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be destroyed and the language of poetry be dead. John Newlove's poem r e f l e c t s t h i s non-communication i n E n g l i s h Canadian s o c i e t y through very crude, though c l e v e r l y c o n t r i v e d images: What are people t a l k i n g about. Everywhere I go they whisper. They s t i c k t h e i r eyes at me, r i g h t at the base of the breastbone, when I'm not l o o k i n g . The breastbone seems f l a t , p o i n t e d l i k e a dagger to the top of my stomach. 0, my stomach, my stomach ... when the k n i f e r i p s you open i t w i l l f i n d c o f f e e and four s t r i p s of bacon, p i e c e s of chewed beard and a handwritten note s a y i n g I have l e f t town f o r e v e r again.^6 This poem draws the s u b j e c t i v e image of a " v i c t i m " struck with p a r a n o i a , whose only consciousness i s that of a 5 8 stomach f i l l e d with f o o d , and at t a c k e d hy a k n i f e . Thus i n fea r the v i c t i m keeps on running, s t i l l the ob s e r v e r , not the part i c i p a n t . The d i f f e r e n c e between the two poems, i s apparent i n the one-sided awareness w i t h i n the e x p r e s s i o n of the c o n d i t i o n of the English. Canadian poet. He i s preo c c u p i e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y with h i m s e l f , he o b v i o u s l y doesn't communicate with o t h e r s . The poem p r o j e c t s a mood i n which one senses p a n i c , f e a r , and shallowness of thought. In c o n t r a s t , Czaykowski's poem expresses a u n i v e r s a l awareness and understanding of the human c o n d i t i o n , and embodies w i t h i n the p h i l o s o p h i c a l concept o f the poem, l y r i c a l v e r s e , accompanied by r i c h and s e n s i t i v e images. The man who i s a "Humming S e a - s h e l l " i s not ' v i c t i m i z e d ' f o r the same reasons that the c h a r a c t e r i n Newlove's poem i s . The former i s s u f f e r i n g from l a c o n d i t i o n  humaine i n g e n e r a l , while the l a t t e r i s an e x i l e i n h i s own country. Here once more we witness the elements of i s o l a -t i o n i s m and lack of communication as they apply to the P o l i s h emigre and the E n g l i s h Canadian poet. We a l s o see the d i f -ference i n the treatment of the same theme by the two poets. I have long been impressed i n Canadian p o e t r y by a tone of deep t e r r o r i n regard to nature. . . . It i s not a t e r r o r of the dangers or di s c o m f o r t s or even the myster-i e s of nature but a t e r r o r of the s o u l at something t h a t these t h i n g s manifest.87 A f u r t h e r example of t h i s c o n d i t i o n , t h i s time i n regard to nature, i s expressed i n the poetry of E a r l e B i r n e y : Then he knew though the mountain s l e p t the winds were shaping i t s peak to an arrowhead poised But by now he could only bar h i m s e l f In and wait f o r the great f l i n t to come s i n g i n g i n t o h i s heart 5 9 88 Man is. not i n harmony with nature, there i s no p o s i t i v e communion. He awaits h i s f a t e p a s s i v e l y , he sees i t as being the only r e a l i t y . He has not assessed the value of nature nor h i s r o l e i n i t . He i s p r i m i t i v e i n h i s a t t i t u d e to s u r v i v a l . In the mind of the P o l i s h poet, man i s an i n t e g r a l part of nature and t h e r e f o r e i t i s not something with which he s t r u g g l e s but something he i s i n harmony with. He can t h e r e -f o r e r e gard the " t e r r i f y i n g aspect" of Canadian nature p h i l o -s o p h i c a l l y , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n t e r p r e t i n g i t as p a r t of the working order of l i f e . I The mountain moved a great hulk p i e r c e d by a t u n n e l as i f crumbled w i t h i n by a dark thought a r u b b l e of rocks suddenly s l i d e s i n an avalanche beyond the c a t h e d r a l rock a p a r t i n g of waters as r i v e r s u n r a v e l from streams at the p a r t i n g of the waters where time has a stone back I d r i n k from a chained mug from a dog's g u l l e t the sun above me w h i t t l e s a lake of boats a b i r d c r i e s i n the w a t e r f a l l 60 II In the mountains a i r i s c l e a r the panoramic copperplate t i g h t l y clamps the passage of escape one's own death i s v i s i b l e who f a l l s who when wounded crawls l i k e a r a t t l e s n a k e who s t o n i l y s t a r e s who thunde r o u s l y g l i d e s by a cl o u d s i l e n t l y c l o s e s the overpass above a fuming storm f i l l s the w i l d spaces dark i s the climb deaf i s the f a l l . 8 9 "From the Rocky Mountains"—Czaykowski The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of nature i n Czaykowski's poem d i f f e r s from Birney's i n demonstrating how the aspect of nature evolves w i t h the aspect of time. In the concept of the moving mountain ' l i e s the concept of i t s h i s t o r i c a l l i f e on a u n i v e r s a l time s c a l e . The b e a u t i f u l image that runs through the poem i s the movement of the mountain as analogous with the movement of time. "The t u n n e l " i n i t s "great bulk" i s but an image of man's t i n y segment on t h i s i n f i n i t e s c a l e , no more than "a rubhle of r o c k s " . Man, the observer, but at the same time a p a r t i c i p a n t , at some "moment i n time", "where time has a stone back", drinks, "at the p a r t i n g of the waters". But even the mug from which he d r i n k s i s "chained", i t i s not h i s water, i t i s not h i s mug. He i s but a b r i e f i n s t a n t i n time, as "the sun w h i t t l e s a lake of boats", no more than the c r y of a b i r d " i n the w a t e r f a l l " . In t h i s g i g a n t i c panorama of time and space "one's own death i s v i s i b l e " , the mountain l i v e s on u n i n f l u e n c e d by the wounds imposed by men, f o r example "The 61 t u n n e l " and "thunderously g l i d e s by". Man, too, "when wounded cra w l s " , and when hurt " s t o n i l y s t a r e s " . "Dark i s the climb., deaf i s the f a l l " embraces the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of both, the b e g i n n i n g (.the climb) and the end (the f a l l ) f o r both man and nature. In B i r n e y 1 s "Bushed" the man sees the moun-t a i n as a menacing messenger "shaping i t s peak to an arrowhead" in order to e v e n t u a l l y s t r i k e him dead. The mountain sym-b o l i z e s the conquest of man by nature. I t i s obvious from t h i s comparison t h a t the maturity of Czaykowski's poem l i e s i n his. a b i l i t y to communicate h i s human experience with r e g a r d to h i s environment, no matter how h o s t i l e I t may appear to B i r n e y . In Paul Wyczynski's "Le langage des a r b r e s " we see another aspect of nature which i s analogous with human l i f e . The t r e e i s : That which i n times of extreme c r e a t i v e energy has become fo r some poets an honest testimony of t h e i r e f f o r t s , the magic m i r r o r of t h e i r dreams.... The union with a t r e e i s already the b e g i n n i n g of a symbol that suggests the blossoming, the s p i r i t and the e t e r n a l movement. 'Live l i k e a t r e e ' remarks Bachelard, 'what growth, what depth, what r e c t i t u d e , what t r u t h . '^° In the poem "O b i t u a r y " Bohdanowiczowa " m i r r o r s her dream" i n a t r e e : Tree s i l e n t as thought Mysterious as a parable E l e v a t e d as a c a t h e d r a l propped on black arches Where angels c a s t from the sun Dance along the b i l l o w i n g s t u c c o , Painted aquamarine Afterwards darkness grew on the l e a v e s , Dew welled up, fog f l o a t e d , And I s a i d goodnight to the tree With Robert F r o s t ' s s e n t i m e n t a l poem 9 1 Tree at my window, window t r e e 62 In t h i s dream Ih e poet approaches what Maria Kuncewic z r e f e r r e d to as "Love of nature v e r g i n g on pantheism". The tr e e becomes a c a t h e d r a l , with angels dancing around i t . In the second part of the poem the dream i s s h a t t e r e d when: People came with saws and axes With h e a r t s of screws and f a c t o r y smoke A h a n d f u l of L i l l i p u t i a n s they swarmed at the trunk Dwarfs hate g i a n t s . They sawed i t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y F i r s t the hands then the arms The green head on the black carcass F a l t e r e d f o r a long time. Then they butchered the body i n t o q u a r t e r s Through the b r e a s t , stomach, l o i n s And drove i t out to an unknown cemetery In the t r u c k i n g caravans of death. Now the world tumbled i n t o my window: The dynamo and t i n drums S e x o l o g i c a l p o s t e r s Rouged showcases Posts, chimneys, w i r e s . And the g a s o l i n e - p o i s o n e d wind And the s.ky t o r n i n t o shreds By the p r o p e l l e r s ' i r o n f i n g e r s While on the uncovered w i n d o w - s i l l Whose naked whiteness g l i n t s above the s t r e e t A s t u p e f i e d pigeon tramps i n c i r c l e s Always cooing the same t h i n g : Tree at my window, window t r e e 9 ^ "Obituary"—Bohdanowiczowa Having l o s t the s h e l t e r of the t r e e and what i t stood f o r , the world of a new environment i s suddenly exposed; Toronto--a place of " s e x o l o g i c a l p osters...and g a s o l i n e poisoned wind". Canadian s o c i e t y assumes the form of L i l l i p u t i a n s , "dwarfs who hate g i a n t s " . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note how the new environment i n f l u e n c e d the poetry of a poet from the pre-war P o l i s h l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . However the poet's love of 63 n a t u r e and t h e n o s t a l g i c mood r e a p p e a r a t t h e end o f t h e poem where she s e e s h e r s e l f i n t h e image o f a " s t u p e f i e d p i g e o n , " who " t r a m p s i n c i r c l e s , a l w a y s c o o i n g t h e same t h i n g , t r e e a t my window, window t r e e . . . " But t h e s e dead t h o u g h t s Hang l i k e b u r n t f o r e s t s By a n o r t h e r n l a k e Whose w a t e r s t a k e The bone g r e y s k e l e t o n s And m i r r o r t h e g r e y b o n e s b o t h d e a d , t h e t r e e s and t h e r e f l e c t i o n s . ^ The dead t r e e s and r e f l e c t i o n s i n D. C. S c o t t ' s poem p a r a l l e l t h e s y m b o l i s m o f t h e dead t r e e i n " O b i t u a r y " . How-e v e r , t h e t r e e s i n S c o t t ' s v i s i o n h a v e n e v e r r e a l l y b e e n t h e sym-bo l o f l i f e , l i k e t h e t r e e i n " O b i t u a r y " , b u t s i m p l y t r e e s . The s e c o n d p a r t o f B o h d a n o w i c z o w a ' s poem e x p r e s s e s h e r c r i t i -c i s m o f t h e C a n a d i a n t r e a t m e n t o f n a t u r e . I n t h e poem " C a n a d a " t h e p o e t , o v e r w h e l m e d by t h e m a s s i v e n e s s o f t h i s c o u n t r y , s h a r e s t h e t e r r o r o f n a t u r e w i t h t h e E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n . And b r o u g h t c l o s e by a m u t u a l f e a r We w a t c h how d e a t h c r e e p s T h r o u g h t h e b r i s t l i n g b r u s h o f p i n e s And t e r r o r - s w e a t i n g l e a v e s . ^ The l a s t poem w r i t t e n b e f o r e h e r d e a t h i n 1964 t a k e s t h e p o e t b a c k t o h e r o r i g i n a l s p i r i t u a l i t y and n a t u r e once more becomes a t r a n q u i l p l a c e : Where a s i l v e r p i e r c e d cobweb U n f o l d s wounded w i n g s on t h e h e a t h e r Where m o u r n i n g f o r g r a s s c r u s h e d by s t o n e s A d a n d e l i on l i g h t s a c a n d l e Where a l e a f s p e a r e d by b l a c k b e r r y b a r b s S t i l l d r a i n s i t s own f a d i n g v e r d u r e T h e r e l a y me down on t h e c r o s s r o a d s o f s a n d And c o v e r me w i t h r a i n . 9 ^ B o t h P o l i s h and F r e n c h C a n a d i a n p o e t r y c o n t a i n a 64 s i m i l a r s p i r i t u a l w o r l d , where n a t u r e and r e l i g i o n i n t e r a c t . I n J e a n - G u y P i l o n ' s poem "The P u r e P r e s e n c e " O n l y t h e t r e e , t h e t r e e i s a p u r e p r e s e n c e a s p e e c h l e s s s t r e n g t h . ^ P a r a d o x i c a l l y t h e " s p e e c h l e s s • s t r e n g t h " o f J e a n - G u y P i l o n ' s t r e e p a r a l l e l s t h e " M u r m u r i n g T r e e " by I h n a t o w i c z . The t r e e i n t h i s poem e m b o d i e s t h e C h r i s t i a n e t h i c o f l i f e , d e a t h and r e s u r r e c t i o n . F i r s t t h e t r e e s y m b o l i z e s l i f e , and i t s c r e a t i o n ; as t h e c y c l e e v o l v e s t h e t r e e p e r s o n i f i e s C h r i s t when He was s i n n e d a g a i n s t : t h e r e were s c r e a m s b e n e a t h me u n d e r my b r a n c h e s t h e y c u t o f f n o s e s and hands t h o u s a n d s o f e y e s were b u r n t o u t i n my shadow The c y c l e o f t h e t r e e t h e n p a s s e s t h r o u g h a p h a s e o f r e t r i b u -t i o n a g a i n s t man a c h i l d was b o r n w i t h f r o g ' s e y e s and l i z a r d ' s paws my t r u n k i s o f t h u n d e r my r o o t i s o f f i r e my autumn l e a v e s b l o o d y s t o r k s The t r e e i s t h e n c r u c i f i e d as i t t a k e s on t h e s h a p e o f man, and a c r o s s : t h e n t h e y c r u c i f i e d me n a i l i n g me t o a man's body and w i t h t h i s c o r p s e I am e s c a p i n g t h r o u g h row upon row o f g r a v e s The m e t a p h o r o f t h e t r e e i s now e x t e n d e d t o t h e " s t e e p l e o f t h e c h u r c h o f n a t i o n s " above me i n mourning towers a trunk s t e e p l e of the church of nations, and the p r o c e s s i o n s whisper at ni g h t these are my leaves that have r e t u r n e d from the dead The t r e e has come to l i f e a g ain; i t has been r e s u r r e c t e d . now I wait f o r the serpent t h a t i s being born to embrace and f i l l my womb with a n c i e n t flame. The l a s t four l i n e s of the poem s t i l l w i t h i n the metaphor of the t r e e , symbolize the p r o p h e t i c concept of a w a i t i n g once more the beginnings of C r e a t i o n . This i s another example of Ihnatowicz's t e l e s c o p e d image but i n t h i s case b e a r i n g a deeply r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c -ance. J u x t a p o s i n g t h i s poem with that of the French Canadian poet Gatien Lapointe "The F i r s t Word", we can note t h a t the technique and the concept of man and nature as symbolized by a t r e e are s i m i l a r . I say t r e e , but cannot grasp the word Nor name the time which c a r r i e s i t I c a r r y man w i t h i n my b r e a t h , my cry Grows t a l l i n t o the sky. I c a r r y i n me a l i v i n g c a t h e d r a l And a l l the s i n s of God I do not know what I am But there i s a q u i v e r i n g i n me Which w i l l not go Upr i g h t , I s h a l l be born with a w o r d . 9 7 The c o n t i n u a t i o n of the symbolism of the t r e e , as an embodiment of human l i f e i s c l e a r l y c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the images of t h i s poem. The b i r t h of something to come i s a n t i c i p a t e d , t h i s something new w i l l c a r r y i t s own i d e n t i t y 66 i n a n a t i o n a l , r e l i g i o u s and a r t i s t i c sense. Within t h i s search f o r a "new word" we should c o n s i d e r those emigre P o l i s h poets who have adopted one of the l a n -guages of t h e i r new country (Canada), E n g l i s h and French. For e xample: Verbe t u es l e monde Le rythme et l e temps Tu tournes avec l e s o l e i l Tu es 1'ame de toutes choses La c ouleur et l ' e l a n Tu es a i g l e de feu et de vent Quand tu es verbe de l'amour. Mais l e verhe de ton coeur Est mon de* s e r t de sable Le verbe de ton coeur Et ma chute m o r t e l l e Verbe tu n'es qu'un muet Tu deviens sang Quand l e c r i est dans l a gorge.^8 Kwiatowska-De Grandpre very a p t l y s t r e s s e s the meaning of the "word". While she w r i t e s i n f r e e verse her s t y l e , r e f l e c t i n g both French and P o l i s h backgrounds, can be d e s c r i b e d as romantic symbolism. The mood i n her poem i s of a romantic nature, while the word" i s endowed with symbols of rhythm, time, c o l o u r : eagle of f i r e and wind, d e s e r t of sand; she a l s o r e f e r s to i t as a word of l o v e , the s o u l of a l l t h i n g s . T h i s mixture of symbolism i s c r e a t e d i n a blend of the modern and romantic t r a d i t i o n . Jagna Boraks, a P o l i s h emigre poet who came to Canada a f t e r the Second World War, has chosen to w r i t e In the E n g l i s h language. 67 before the leaves u n f o l d In our eyes l e t the sea-weed bind and tow you to my I s l a n d l e t the c r a t e r flow i t s l a v a tongue i n t o my mouth l i g h t i n g the words of your song l e t the e a r t h p a r t so that heaven may pass unseen and we s h a l l t r a c e the levels, of time through the veined r o o t s of t r e e s i n the f o s s i l - s t r u n g deeps where l o v e r s once dwelt on the i s l e of s p r i n g so engendered i n the dust and the darkness of our search wait t i l l the leaves u n f o l d i n our eyes and a garden of s l e e p b u r s t s f i e r y green from the smoldering pores of t h i s branded s t a r 99 " A t l a n t i s " — J a g n a Boraks The s e a r c h f o r the "word" i s evident i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : l e t the c r a t e r flow i t s lava tongue i n t o my mouth l i g h t i n g the words of your song. In a s i t u a t i o n where a poet of one country adopts the l a n -guage of another, a new set of c o n f l i c t s a r i s e s . The poet has a need to c r e a t e a new and d i f f e r e n t i d e n t i t y u s i n g the roots of both c u l t u r e s . and we s h a l l t r a c e the l e v e l s of time through the veined r o o t s of t r e e s i n the f o s s i l - s t r u n g deeps so engendered in the dust and darkness of our search wait t i l l the leaves u n f o l d i n our eyes. Both poems express an experience conceived i n one c u l t u r e but w r i t t e n i n the language of another. This combination pro-duces a form of e x p r e s s i o n which may not always be understood 68 o r a p p r e c i a t e d by t h e E n g l i s h r e a d e r . T r a n s l a t i o n o f P o l i s h p o e t r y i n t o E n g l i s h may p r o d u c e a s i m i l a r e f f e c t . H o w e v e r , w h e t h e r t r a n s l a t e d o r w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h o r F r e n c h , e m i g r e p o e t r y must s t i l l s t a n d on i t s own m e r i t . The E u r o p e a n r e a d e r may be more s y m p a t h e t i c t h a n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n r e a d e r t o t h i s p o e t r y . The f u t u r e o f " C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e " w h i c h , as we have s e e n , i n c l u d e s two m a j o r l a n g u a g e g r o u p s and a number o f s m a l l e r e t h n i c g r o u p s l i k e t h e P o l i s h , d e p e n d s on i n t e r c o m m u n -i c a t i o n , and l i t e r a r y i n t e r a c t i o n — t h u s a m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e a c h o t h e r ' s c u l t u r e s as r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h p o e t r y . B u t most i m p o r t a n t t h e new p o e t r y s h o u l d be i n n o v a t i v e and c o n -t i n u e t o s e a r c h f o r i t s own t r u t h . whose i s t h i s r e d and w h i t e s a i l f r a y e d l i k e a s k e l e t o n I s t h e r e s t i l l room i n s i d e f o r a c r e d i b l e w o r d -u n s u l l i e d n o t o v e r h e a r d o n e ' s own P u r e w i t h o u t d e c o y v i s a o r p a s s p o r t n a k e d as a bone . 1 0 ( ^ I w a n i u k c r i e s o u t l i k e N o r w i d i n Vade Mecum t h a t t h e r e must be a c o n t i n u i n g s e a r c h f o r a " w o r d " , new f o r m s , new u s e s o f l a n g u a g e and new s t y l e s i n p o e t r y . He r e m i n d s t h e e m i g r e p o e t s t h a t i n order t o d e v e l o p t h e i r a r t t h e y must make u s e , i n t h i s s e a r c h , o f t h e i r u n i q u e b a c k g r o u n d s . 69 Those whose h o r i z o n was sealed o f f by f i r e c ontinue to c i r c l e shadows -While those who were saved and s h a t t e r e d by war have so much to t e l l who could t i e sentences with threads of l i g h t n i n g and rescue l i f e with l i f e - they f o r e v e r b u r i e d m themselves - remain s i l e n t . T h i s i s another reminder that the f u t u r e of P o l i s h emigre poetry cannot be t o t a l l y d i v o r c e d from i t s P o l i s h p a s t , j u s t as the poetry of French and E n g l i s h Canadians cannot be d i v o r c e d from t h e i r s . C r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y must be co n t i n u e d ; poets must not remain s i l e n t i f t h e i r poetry i s to s u r v i v e . The s e c r e t of t h i s s u r v i v a l i s i n e v i t a b l y c o n t a i n e d i n the never c e a s i n g e v o l u t i o n of language, and i t s use f o r communi-c a t i o n through l i t e r a t u r e . 09a FOOTNOTES "'"Northrop F r y e , C a n a d i a n W r i t i n g T o d a y , p. 312. Ed. M o r d e c a i R i c h l e r . P e n g u i n B o o k s , London 1 9 7 0 . 2 R o n a l d S u t h e r l a n d , ' L i t e r a t u r e o f Quebec i n T r a n s l a t i o n ' Read C a n a d i a n , p. 237. E d s . R. F u l f o r d , D. G o d f r e y , A. R o t -s t e i n . James L e w i s 6 S a m u e l , T o r o n t o 1972. 3 Bogdan C z a y k o w s k i , see A n t h o l o g y p. A30. 4 M a r g a r e t A t w o o d , 'A P l a c e : F r a g m e n t s ' . P o e t s o f Con-t e m p o r a r y C a n a d a , 1 9 6 0 - 7 0 , p. 89. Ed. E l i M a n d e l . M c C l e l l a n d £ S t e w a r t , T o r o n t o , 1972. 5 G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , 'Your C o u n t r y ' . P o e t r y o f F r e n c h C a n a d a i n T r a n s l a t i o n , p. 214. Ed. J . G l a s s c o . O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1 9 7 0 . M a r g a r e t A t w o o d , 'A P l a c e : F r a g m e n t s ' . P o e t s o f Con- t e m p o r a r y C a n a d a , 1 9 6 0 - 7 0 . p. 92. Ed. E l i M a n d e l . M c C l e l l a n d £ S t e w a r t , T o r o n t o 1972. 7 J o h n N o r r i s , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o ' S t r a n g e r s E n t e r t a i n e d ' . ,A H i s t o r y o f t h e E t h n i c G r o u p s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p. 1. E v e r g r e e n P r e s s , V a n c o u v e r 1971. g W. P. W i l g a r , ' P o e t r y and t h e D i v i d e d M i n d i n C a n a d a ' . Masks o f - P o e t r y , p. 70. Ed. A. J . M. S m i t h . M c C l e l l a n d £ S t e w a r t , T o r o n t o 1 9 6 2 . 9 F. R. S c o t t , 'Ode t o a P o l i t i c i a n ' . P o e t s B e t w e e n t h e  Wars . p. 87. Ed. M i l t o n W i l s o n . M c C l e l l a n d & S t e w a r t , T o r o n t o 1967. ^ L e o n a r d C o h e n , ' I Have Not L i n g e r e d i n E u r o p e a n Monas-t e r i e s ' . P o e t s o f C o n t e m p o r a r y Canada 1960-70 , p . 4 7. Ed. E l i M a n d e l . M c C l e l l a n d £ S t e w a r t , T o r o n t o 1 9 7 0 . "'""'"A. J . M. S m i t h . The M a k i n g o f Modern P o e t r y i n C a n a d a , p. 31. Ed. D u d e k / G n a r o w s k i . R y e r s o n P r e s s , T o r o n t o 1970. 12 N o r t h r o p F r y e . C a n a d i a n W r i t i n g T o d a y , pp. 3 1 2 - 1 3 . Ed. M o r d e c a i R i c h l e r . P e n g u i n B o o k s , London 1970. 13 D. C. S c o t t , E x c e r p t f r o m ' T h o u g h t s ' . P e n g u i n Book o f  C a n a d i a n V e r s e , p. 1 0 3 . Ed. R a l p h G u s t a f s o n . P e n g u i n B o o k s , L o ndon 1958. 14 M a r g a r e t A t w o o d . S u r v i v a l , p. 33. A n a n s i P r e s s , T o r o n t o 1972. "'""'Margaret A t w o o d , i b i d . , p. 18 4. 16 I r v i n g L a y t o n . Mak i. ng o f" M o d o r n P o e t r y i n C anada , p. 145. D u d e k / G n a r o w s k i . R y e r s o n P r e s s , T o r o n t o 1970. 71 17 N o r t h r o p F r y e , i b i d . , p. 194. 18 N o r t h r o p F r y e , i b i d . , p. 195. 19 D u d e k / G n a r o w s k i , i b i d . , p. 247. 20 N o r t h r o p F r y e , i b i d . , p. 89. 21 J o h n G l a s s c o . The P o e t r y o f F r e n c h Canada i n T r a n s l a -t i o n , p. x x i i . O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , T o r o n t o 1970 . 22 J o h n G l a s s c o , i b i d . , p. x v i i . 2 3 Yves P r e f o n t a i n e , ' C o u n t r y t o L e t ' , i b i d . , p. 238. 2 4 G e r a r d T o u g a s . L i t t e r a t u r e c a n a d i e n n e f r a n c a i s e  c o n t e m p o r a i n e , p. 188. O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , T o r o n t o 1 969. 2 5 G £ r a r d T o u g a s , i b i d . , p. 142. 2 6 H e c t o r de S a i n t - D e n y s - G a r n e a u , ' N o t e s on N a t i o n a l i s m ' . C a n a d i a n W r i t i n g T o d a y , p. 88. Ed. M. R i c h l e r . P e n g u i n B o o k s , L o n d o n 1970. 27 H e c t o r de S a m t - D e n y s - G a r n e a u , i b i d . , p. 92. 2 8 H e c t o r de S a i n t - D e n y s - G a r n e a u , i b i d . , p. 89. 29 Nairn K a t t a n , i b i d . , p. 83. 3 0 A. J . M. S m i t h . M a k i n g o f C o n t e m p o r a r y P o e t r y o f  C a n a d a , p. 255. D u d e k / G n a r o w s k i . R y e r s o n P r e s s , T o r o n t o 1 9 7 0 . 31 Anne H e b e r t , 'Snow'. The P o e t r y o f F r e n c h Canada i n  T r a n s l a t i o n , p. 138. E d . J . G l a s s c o . O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , T o r o n t o 1 9 7 0 . ^ l a P . K. P a g e . " S t o r i e s o f Snow". 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P a r i s : P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1967. L i t t e r a t u r e c a n a d i e n n e - f r a n c a i s e c o n t e m p o r a i n e . T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969 T yrmand, L. K u l t u r a E s s a y s . New Y o r k : F r e e P r e s s , 1970. Whitman, W a l t . L e a v e s o f G r a s s . New Y o r k : The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1961. W i l s o n , M i l t o n e d . P o e t s B e t ween t h e Wars. T o r o n t o : M c L e l l a n d & S t e w a r t , 1967. P o e t r y o f M i d - C e n t u r y 1 9 4 0 - 6 0 . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d & S t e w a r t , 1964. W y c z y n s k i , P a u l . P o e s i e e t s y m b o l e . O t t a w a : L i b r a r i e Deom 1965. ~ 78a Anthology 79 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Z o f i a B o h d a n o w i c z o w a O b i t u a r y A 1 P e n r h o s A 2 E x c e r p t f r o m B e y o n d t h e Ocean A 3 Canada " A 4 Snows A 5 Luna A 6 To J o s e p h W i t t l i n on t h e day o f h i s a r r i v a l . . . A 7 Waclaw I w a n i u k I n t r o d u c t o r y v e r s e t o The M i r r o r A 8 The M i r r o r A 9 I f n i g h t was a s s i g n e d t o e a r t h A10 Those whom t h e n i g h t r e l e a s e s A l l Out o f K i e r k e g a a r d A12 A F o u r F o l d Poem A13 My C o n t e m p o r a r i e s AIM-Don't Touch me I am F u l l o f S n a k e s A15 P l a n e t A16 S y l v i a P l a t h A17 On t h e A n t i p o d e s A18 An e x c e r p t f r o m My E p i c p a r t V A20 The S i g n A21 When D y l a n Thomas was d y i n g i n New Y o r k . . . . A22 The L e a f A23 N o r w i d i n New Y o r k A24 Naked as a bone A25 Bogdan C z a y k o w s k i From t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s A26 Keys A27 Man i s o n l y a Humming S e a - s h e l l A28 Argument A29 R e b e l l i o n i n V e r s e A30 A s p e c t s o f Time A31 Announcement A32 J a n u s z I h n a t o w i c z T h r o u g h t h e P r a i r i e s - At Sundown A33 I n s e a r c h o f a l o s t Home A34 C u p i d F l y i n g by A35 A nun t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a s c r e a m A36 0, P o o r , P o o r , P o o r A37 M u r m u r i n g T r e e A38 I n t e r n a l L a n d s c a p e A 3 9 C h i l d r e n a t t h e Window A 40 oO Page A n d r z e j B u s z a B r i g h t M o r n i n g A41 Red Rose A42 W h i t e Rose A43 G l a s s A44 P a l m i s t r y i n t h e Shade o f P l a n e T r e e s A45 W i t c h c r a f t A46 S i l e n c e A47 From M i c r o c o s m o l o g y A48 D a n u t a B i e n k o w s k a A P a r t y - I P a r r o t s A49 I I A monologue as i n t e r m i s s i o n b e t w e e n two c o c k t a i l s A50 You N o t - Y o u A51 I r e n a K w i a t k o w s k a - D e G r a n d p r e Word y o u a r e t h e W o r l d A52 The W e l l A53 M e t a m o r p h o s i s A54 F o u r W a l l s A55 8 1 ZOFIA BOHDANOWICZOWA (1898-1965) l e f t Poland dur i n g the war, and having t r a v e l l e d v i a Roumania, Y u g o s l a v i a , I t a l y and France, came to Wales i n 1943 where she made her home u n t i l her a r r i v a l i n Canada i n 1960. She wrote p o e t r y and prose f o r which, i n 1951, she r e c e i v e d an award from the C a t h o l i c p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n V e r i t a s , who a l s o p u b l i s h e d s e v e r a l books of her poetry and prose. Some of her poems were pub-l i s h e d i n P o l i s h p e r i o d i c a l s i n England. She a l s o t r a n s -l a t e d American, E n g l i s h , French, and B i e l o r u s s i a n p o e t r y i n t o P o l i s h . A volume of these t r a n s l a t i o n s , Time of Unrest, was p u h l i s h e d i n New York i n 1958. Because Z o f i a Bohdanowiczowa belonged to the Skamander t r a d i t i o n of P o l i s h p o e t r y , most of her poems, are rhymed. In t r a n s l a t i o n , t h i s rhyme has not been reproduced i n order to give the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the imagery i t s f u l l f o r c e , r a t h e r than s a c r i f i c e i t i n order to c o n t r i v e rhymes. 82 Do Jdzefa Wittlina na dzieri Jego przyjazdu do Toronto w 1963 r. A spotkalis'my sie, w Sa^ dny Dzieri Kiedy niego wezbraio piaczem Izraela. Po raz pierwszy ogladalismy wzajemnie Gliniane oprawy naszych dusz. — Amfory archaiczne i osniedziale, Twoja miala pewna, przezroczystosd I ametystcwe swiatlo przebijalo od wne^trza. Swiadomosd po mistrzcwsku nam vaiadwiia, Ze jestesnny w raiejskim parku nad jeziorem, W jesieni plonacych drzew I naszych dusz opurpurowialych od cierpieri. A naprawde, nie bylo nas. Pochmurnym niebem grzmialo wielkie granie Jerozolimskich trab, archanioi g a s i l siorice I wypeklala siq cmentarna ziemia. I to bylo nasze pierwsze spotkanie, A nastepne bedzie w Dzieri Sadu. * * * * * Wiersz dzisiejszy w opozycji do mnie. Szukam w nim pociechy znajduje_ pogrdzke,, Nostalgia historyczna Ekspatricja z czasu i przestrzeni. Komu budujemy katedry? Kubizm, Dadaizra, Verticyzm, Futuryzm Nasz bog ma Przemysi na imie,. Wrog wspdiczesnosci — Ilodernizm. Modernistyczna literatura, modernistyczne dany Modernistyczny gust i reklama Zmumifikowany swiat. Gdzie jest czlcwiek, twdrczy czlowiek Szuka wiQzi ze swiatem a wie.zi nie raa. Modernizm sile. swg. czerpie jedynie Z atakow na przeszlodd. Stado saraotnikow % To Jozcf Wtulin 0„ the Day of His A r r i v a l In Toronto - 1963 We met on the Day of Atonement When the sky svelled -with the tears of Israel For the f i r s t time v,e examined together The clay frames of our souls Those stale and archaic amphoras. Yours had a certain transparence And an amethyst light beaming from the interior Consciousness masterfully persuaded us That we were in an urban park above a pond Within the autumn's flaming trees Inside our souls purpled with much suffering But we weren't really there. Clouded heavens thundered loud music Of the trumpets of Jerusalem, the Archangel extinguished the sun And the funereal earth was bursting This was our f i r s t encounter The next w i l l take place on Judgement Day. Today's poem disagrees with me I seek consolation but find foreboding Historical nostalgia Expatriation out of time and space. For whom are we building c a t h e d r a l s ? Cubism, Dadaism, Vorticism, Futurism Our god c a l l s himself Industry Enemy of our time - Modernism Modern li t e r a t u r e , modern houses Modern taste and commercials Mummified world Where is man, creative man Who seeks a l i n k with the world but has none Modernism draws i t s strength From attacks on the past We are a herd of recluses 8*4-Luna Tutaj nie ma ksi^zyca, co by drzai na wodzie I sypai zlote iskry po czarnych lagunach. Tu czasem z Europy utraconej przychodzi Blada Luna, mleczna Luna, sliczna Luna. Leca, wichry z Jukonu i chmurami trzQsa,, Wszystkie drogi run^ly w otchlari Atlantyku. A Luna milczy i patrzy w oczy lunatykiiw, Ktorzy wcia.z jeszcze t^sknia,. L u n a There i s no moon here t r e m b l i n g on the water C a s t i n g g o l d over b l a c k lagoons. Here from l o s t Em-ope sometimes comes Pale Luna, m i l k y Luna, l o v e l y Luna. Winds rac e from the Yukon shaking the c l o u d s , A l l roads have c o l l a p s e d i n t o the A t l a n t i c p i t . While Luna s i l e n t l y gazes i n t o the eyes o f l u n a t i c Who s t i l l yearn. 86 Sniegi Wicher nas zadusil, huragan pogrzebal, Zasypalo nas, zasypalo po szyj^. W zylach powolny rytm wiecznosci bi j e , Na wargach zimny smak nieba. Krysztaiami sieka. w nas gwiazdy, Wala, siupy zorzy polarnej, Peiznie po zaspach trwoga. R^ce nam do bokow przymarzly I stoimy, baiwany niezdarne, Na op^cznialych nogach. A gdy przyjdzie v/iosenna odmiana, Osuniemy siej na kolana, Mokryrni stxzepami zwisniem, Ziemia nas wypije. Trawa z nas wytrys-: Toronto, 1961 AS 87 Snows The wind s t i f l e d us, the hur r i c a n e b u r i e d us We are covered, covered t o our neck The slow rhythm of e t e r n i t y beats through our L i p s t a s t e the coolness of the sky The s t a r s ' c r y s t a l smites us The po l e s o f northern l i g h t s s t r i k e Fear creeps along the snowdrifts Hands f r o z e n at our si d e s We stand l i k e clumsy snowmen On b u l g i n g l e g s And when s p r i n g comes We drop t o our knees Dangling wet wisps The e a r t h w i l l d r i n k us, s p u r t i n g g r a s s . Toronto 1 9 6 1 88 Kanada Kanada blaskiem rozsypana, Na dwdch lecaca oceanach, Nie siyszy mnie i nie dostrzega Zdzbia wisza^cego na jej brzegach. Ona jest skrzydlo i huragan I spiewajaca wichrem saga. A ja — przywiana z drdg kurzawy Niedodeptana kepka trawy. Lecz noc nas laczy jak dwie siostry, Kiedy klingami swiatei ostrych Tysiaardlcwa autostrada Pod serce puszczy sie. podkrada. I wspdlnym lekiem b l i s k i e sobie Na smierc peizna^ca, patrzym obie Przez najezone sosen kiscie I przez spocone w strachu l i d c i e . Toronto, 1960 Canada Canada strewn with br i l l i a n c e Races along two oceans Like a storm and a wing And the saga of a singing wind Neither sees nor hears me And I - clown by a cloud of dust Am a p a r t i a l l y trampled small patch of grass But the night unites us l i k e two sisters When with the sharp blades of ligh t A thousand mile superhighway Steals underneath the jungle's heart And brought close by a mutual fear We watch how death creeps Through the b r i s t l i n g brush of pines And terror-sweating leaves 9 0 Gdzie przestrzelona srebrem paJQezyna Zranione skrzydia na wrzosach rozpina Gdzie przygniecionej karriieniarni trawie Zalobna, lampke, zapala dmuchawiec Gdzie l i s c przebity czarnym grotera ozym Gasnqpa, zieleri saczy z siebie jeszcze Tarn mnie poldzcie na piaskach rozdrozy Nakryjcie deszczem. Ostatni wiersz Poetki napisany w roku 1964 A3 91 An Excerpt from "Beyond The Ocean" f i ^ t ™ ucean (.last poem w r i t t e n by the author before her death i n Toronto i n 1964) Where a s i l v e r - p i e r c e d cobweb Unfolds wounded wings on the heather Where mourning f o r grass crushed by stones, A dandelion l i g h t s a candle Where a l e a f speared by b l a c k b e r r y barbs S t i l l d r a i n s i t s own f a d i n g verdure There l a y me down on the cro s s r o a d s of sand And cover me with r a i n . 92 Penrhos — Polish Kcme Wieczorze l e t n i , i l e z w tobie smutku! Wije sie, sciezka wsrdd barwnych cgrx5dkdw Niby wioskowa ulica . Z baraku zwisa znak czerv/ono-bialy, Bo jakiejs dawnej narodowej chwaly Dzisiaj przypada rocznica. Trzepot dwubarwny po niziutkich scianach, Zapach maciejki, kapliczka drewniana I malwy i l i s c i e chmielu... A za kapliczka. w jezynowych krzakach Ktos patrzac w gwiazdy gwizdze kujawiaka, Zsuna.wszy z czola kapelusz. Wieczdr na ziemi i wieczdr na niebie. Oczy wieczorne zapatrzone w siebie, Wieczorna skrori i siwizna. A my na scenie ciemnego teatru Pod kolujaca. rdza, obcych wiatrdw Wcia.z gramy sztuke, — „Ojczyzna". Penrhos, 1954 9 3 Penrhos -Polish Home Summer evening, how much sadness in you, A path weaves among the colored gardens Like a country road. A red and white insignia hangs from the barracks Today i s the anniversary Of some long-past national triumph. A two-tone flut t e r along squatting walls, A scent of gillyflowers, a wooden chapel, Mallows and hop leaves And behind the chapel in blackberry bushes, A star-gazer whistles the kujawiak,* Pushing back his hat. Evening on the ground and evening in the sky Evening eyes introverted, Evening temples and grey hair. And we on the stage of a dark theater Under the whirling rose of foreign winds Continually act our play, "The Native Land". Penrhos, 1954 * National dance of Poland 9^ Nekrolog Byio drzewo wiadomosci dobrego: Fi n e z j i l i s c i i prostoty ptakdw, Przyjaznych szeptdw i znakdw Wsrdd mrugajacych g a l ^ z i . Drzewo ciche jak my s i , Tajemne w tresci jak przypowiesd, Wyniosle jak katedra na czarnych wsparta lukach, Gdzie ulani ze slorica aniolowie Tariczyli po sklebionych stiukach Malcwanych akwamaryna.. Drzewo przystari, gdzie pod brzeg cienisty Podplywaly smukle ryby poranka Koloru mleka i miodu, A koralowe okrQty zachodu Zaczepialy zaglami o szczyt. Potem ciemnosd na li s c i a c h rosla, Tryskaly rosy, falcwaly mgly I mdwilam drzewu na dobranoc Sentymentalny wiersz Roberta Frosta: Tree at my window, window tree... Przyszli ludzie z piiami, siekierami, Z sercami ze srobek i fabrycznych dymdw, Garstka. liliputdw wyroili sie, u pnia I r z e k l i : „Zamordujemy drzewo." Karly nienawidza. olbrzymdw. Pilowali je systematycznie, Najpierw dlonie, potem ramiona, Dlugo na czarnym kadlubie Chwiala sie, giowa zielona. Potem rznQli cialo na dwierci Przez p i e r s i , przez brzuch, przez lqdzwie I wywiez"li na nieznany cmentarz W cie,zarowych karawanach smierci. Teraz runa.1 w me okno swiat: Dynamo i beben z cyny, Seksologiczne afisze, Uszminkowane witryny, Slupy, kominy, druty I wiatr brnzyna. otruty I niebo darte na strzepy W zelaznych palcach smigiei. A na odslonietym parapccie, Co naga. biela_ nad ulica. ls"ni Oszolomiony golab drepcze w kdlko I grucha wciajz to samo: Tree at my windo/, window t r e e . . . A l 95 O b i t u a r y T h e r e was a t r e e b e a r i n g good news: S u b t l e l e a v e s and s i m p l e b i r d s F r i e n d l y w h i s p e r s and g e s t u r e s A m i d s t w a v e r i n g b r a n c h e s . T r e e s i l e n t as t h o u g h t M y s t e r i o u s as a p a r a b l e E l e v a t e d as a c a t h e d r a l p r o p p e d on b l a c k a r c h e s Where a n g e l s c a s t f r o m t h e sun Dance a l o n g b i l l o w i n g s t u c c o , P a i n t e d a q u a m a r i n e . A t r e e - p o r t where t o w a r d s t h e shadowy bank Swam t h e s l e n d e r f i s h o f dawn I n c o l o r s o f m i l k and honey W h i l e w e s t e r n c o r a l s h i p s C a u g h t t h e i r s a i l s on t h e p e a k s . A f t e r w a r d s d a r k n e s s grew on t h e l e a v e s , Dew w e l l e d up, f o g f l o a t e d , And I s a i d good n i g h t t o t h e t r e e W i t h R o b e r t F r o s t ' s s e n t i m e n t a l poem T r e e a t my window, window t r e e P e o p l e came w i t h saws and a x e s W i t h h e a r t s o f s c r e w s and f a c t o r y smoke A h a n d f u l o f L i l l i p u t i a n s t h e y swarmed a t t h e t r u n k . D w a r f s h a t e g i a n t s . They sawed i t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y F i r s t t h e hands t h e n t h e arms The g r e e n h e a d on t h e b l a c k c a r c a s s F a l t e r e d f o r a l o n g t i m e . Then t h e y b u t c h e r e d t h e body i n t o q u a r t e r s T h r o u g h b r e a s t , s t o m a c h , l o i n s D r ove i t t o an unknown c e m e t e r y I n t h e t r u c k c a r a v a n s o f d e a t h . Now t h e w o r l d t u m b l e d i n t o my window: Dynamo and t i n drums S e x o l o g i c a l p o s t e r s Rouged s h o w c a s e s P o s t s , c h i m n e y s , w i r e s . And g a s o l i n e - p o i s o n e d w i n d And s k y t o r n i n t o s h r e d s , By p r o p e l l e r s ' i r o n f i n g e r s W h i l e on t h e u n c o v e r e d w i n d o w - s i l l Whose n a k e d w h i t e n e s s g l i n t s above t h e s t r e e t A s t u p e f i e d p i g e o n t r a m p s i n c i r c l e s A l w a y s c o o i n g t h e same t h i n g : T r e e a t my window, window t r e e 96 WACLAW IWANIUK i s a poet, t r a n s l a t o r and e s s a y i s t . He was born i n Warsaw, Poland, where his f i r s t books were p u b l i s h e d . A f t e r g r aduating at the Free U n i v e r s i t y i n Warsaw he j o i n e d the P o l i s h F oreign O f f i c e and was posted to Buenos A i r e s . At the outbreak of war he j o i n e d the P o l i s h Army i n France and served with the Mountain Brigade and l a t e r the F i r s t P o l i s h Armoured D i v i s i o n . In 1948 he moved to Canada, and he i s now employed as an i n t e r p r e t e r by Toronto C i t y H a l l and the Ontario P r o v i n c i a l Government. He i s the author of seven volumes of poems i n c l u d i n g h i s C o l l e c t e d Poems pub-l i s h e d i n 1964- by K u l t u r a , P a r i s , and has been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o French, German and I t a l i a n . He has been awarded s e v e r a l major P o l i s h l i t e r a r y p r i z e s . Waclaw Iwaniuk's p o e t r y has i t s r o o t s i n the P o l i s h Avant-garde, which i n t u r n has set trends f o r h i s emigre contemporaries. He i s t h e r e f o r e the major l i n k between the P o l i s h n a t i v e and P o l i s h emigre poets; that i s why h i s poems i n t h i s anthology outnumber those of the o t h e r s . 97 Lustro Mowia, ze ja nie cierpie, — a kto m y s 1 i za mnie Kto sie. za mnie przez zycie codziennie przedziera Kto t r a c i s i l y , kto pada, kto kleka Komu noc jest torture Kogo krwawi sen. — AO 98 I n t r o d u c t o r y verse to LUGTRO They say I do not s u f f e r - but who t h i n k s my thoughts Who t e a r s through my everyday l i f e f o r me Who l o s e s s t r e n g t h , who f a l l s , who kn e e l s For whom i s my night a t o r t u r e Who bleeds i n my dreams — 99 Lustro Przyblizam twarz do lustra ale lustra nie ma Szukam rysdw mych dionia. ale nie mam dioni. Pod turkuscwym niebem ktdre nie plowieje Czysta jak l i l i a Rdzia pcwraca z kosciola. Wiem ze sie, w cnotach zanurza, jak paw Pilnuje wlasnej dumy jak przadka kadzieli J e d l i mdwi, orkiestra instrumentdw gra w niej Jak w parku na Powis'lu w sloneczna, niedziele,. Wspominam tamte czasy zamienione w v/idr Z drzewa ktdre sie, spdznia nie toper z ulata. Pod gdre. po kamieniach prosto na Krakowskie Przedmiescie, biegnie Tamka wyboistym krokiem. Chcialbym tarn byd, ktos sicwo ponagla do ucha Pragne, istnied, o lustro, pomdz mi wyjsd z siebie. Niestety, bladze, jak krdl Lear, palce sa. mi wzrokiem I byle wiersz ojczysty przegija mnie wskros"; Chwytam, co mam pod reka^. Moze sucha gala,z Polamana wiatrami, wskaze mi kierunek. 0, s"lepy krdlu Learze, z niedoieznym cialem Jak dlugo mozna byd s"lepym i nie wiedzied o tym. Mirror I bring my face closer to the mirror but there is no mirror I trace my features with a hand but I have no hand. Underneath a colorfast turquoise sky The lily-white Rosie returns from church. I know that she basks in her virtues l i k e a peacock Guards her pride like a spinner her wool If she speaks, an orchestra plays in her As in a Powisle park on a sunny Sunday. I am f i l l e d with memories - tine's dry splinters Off a tree that releases a bat at twilight. Uphill on tie cobblestone road straight to the Krakowskie Przedmiescie, speeds Tamka. How I wish to be there, someone bends a reminder to my ear I long to be, oh mirror, help mc to become myself. Alas, l i k e King Lear I wander, my fingers my sight And the native verses stab me. I clutch at whatever touches the palm of my hand. Maybe a dry branch Snapped by the winds w i l l point the way. Oh blind King Lear of the awkward body How long can one be blind and not know i t ? 101 Oldze poswie,cam J e z e l i ziemi przypisano noc J e z e l i trawy maja, zejsc nam z oczu J e z e l i rnamy stracid wiare w zieleri J e z e l i drzewa wywioza, do piecdw I ptakcm kaza, uciekad za morze Jez e l i kwiaty umra, bez po/odu Odcie.ta gala,z* oprdzni powietrze Slodkie cwoce przedziurawi robak To co z czlowiekiem stanie sie.? Go z nami Po przebudzeniu? Powiedz — co? A10 102 For Olga I f night was assigned to earth If grasses should uncover our eyes If we must lose f a i t h in verdure If trees w i l l be transported to ovens And birds ordered to escape far beyond the sea If flowers wilt without reason If a snapped-off branch w i l l empty the air And sweet f r u i t be hollowed by a worm What then w i l l become of man? of us After the awakening? T e l l me - what? 103 Ci ktdrych noc uwalnia C i ktdrych noc uwalnia, niosa. z soba. ciemnosd Ida. jak dimury dyrndw z pogorzelisk. A gdy przechodza. przez prog horyzontu Dzieri odwraca sie do nich plecami, jak czicwiek Przed nirni drzewo poci sie, i drzy Cienki ksztait l i s c i a ciemnieje od wnQtrza W kore, o skdrze pcmarszczonych ropuch Wbiegaja. z hukiem krople rosy I wchodzi noc, zatrzaskuja.c drzwi. C i ktdrych noc uwalnia, niosa. z soba. ciemnosc Wchodza. w nasze wnQtrza slaytymi kruchtami By nas z nienacka nakryd zapomnieniem. A l l 10k Those Whom Night Releases Those whom night releases, bring with them darkness They d r i f t from the ruins, like clouds of smoke. And when they cross the horizon The day turns i t s back on them, l i k e a man The tree sweats and trembles before them The leaf's slender form blackens from inside Dewdrops rush thundering Into the toadlike skin of the bark And night enters, bolting the door. Those whom the night releases, carry with them darknes They enter us through secret passages To cast oblivion over our memories. 105 Z Kierkegaarda Zegary nasze az do smierci szukaja. gruntu pod nogami . g_dy nas powoli przysypuje czas, Slepi, wchodzimy w stygnace godziny — Pod nami krok sie, ugina i iamie. Czasem w ciemnosci zawiedzie nas siowo martwe, jak gdra obrdoona w kamien. Inne jak drzewo, jak skarlaly dzwiek w suchym korycie zdania. C i , ktdrym ogieri zagrodzil horyzont, c i ciacfle chodza, dookoia cieni — A c i , oo o c a l e l i , zdruzgotani wojna, mogliby duzo pcwiedzid o sobie, powia.zad n i c i w blyskawice zdari i zycie zyciem ratowad — lecz oni na zawsze w sobie pogrzebani — milcza,. Out of Kierkegaard U n t i l death our c l o c k s seek a s o l i d f o o t i n g on the ground while time slowly covers us, B l i n d , we enter the c h i l l i n g hours -Steps bend and crack beneath us. Sometimes i n the dark a word thwarts us dead, l i k e a h i l l turned to rock. l i k e a t r e e , a note stunted i n s i d e the dry trough of a phrase. Those whose h o r i z o n was s e a l e d o f f by f i r e continue to c i r c l e shadows -While those who were saved and s h a t t e r e d by war have so much to t e l l who could t i e sentences with threads of l i g h t n i n g and rescue l i f e with l i f e - they f o r e v e r b u r i e d i n themselves - remain s i l e n t . 107 Czterowiersz Tylko droga do swiatla nigdy sie, nie koriczy I pamiec zlobi we mnie swdj. odwieczny krzyk Tylko ciemnosd za nami ziobi korytarze I sicwo szuka po amacku jakubowych drabin. A F o u r f o l d Poem O n l y t h e r o a d t o w a r d l i g h t has no end And memory f u r r o w s i n me i t s e v e r l a s t i n g s c r e a m O n l y d a r k n e s s f u r r o w s c o r r i d o r s b e h i n d us And t h e word b l i n d l y g r o p e s f o r J a c o b ' s l a d d e r s . 1 0 9 Moi wspdlczesni Durriny jestem ze jestem ze mam sw6j kosmos nad glcv/a, a chociaz cialo moje nie do krzyzcwania lubie, w ciemnosci gnusne odlegie planety. Dzieri mi do ucha szepcze tajemnice nie zamulone przydroznym pioiunem suche slcwa otwieraja, zagojone rany. A oni, choc tacy pewni siebie, oblatani zyciem nie moga, siQ uwolnid z pajeczyny dnia, ic h slowo obok nich przemyka sie, chylkiem s"lepe, nie dotyka sedna spraw. Stopa ich skrada slq przy stopie i tylko ciemnosd zatroszczy sie, o nich i zioty dukat z falszywej mennicy. A l l * ' 110 My Contemporaries I am proud that I am that I am crowned by a self-owned cosmos although my body i s not meant for crucifixion I enjoy the faraway slothful planets in the dark. The day whispers in my ear secrets unobstructed by the wayside wormwood dry words re-opening wounds. While they, so cocksure, so life-oriented, cannot even free themselves from the day's grey web, their word slips by s l y l y blindly, not touching the root of the matter. Their feet creep stealthily side by side and only a golden ducat from a counterfeit mint and darkness w i l l pity them I l l Don't Touch Me, I'm F u l l of Snakes Don't touch me, I'm f u l l of snakes! Jestem jak martwa gleba bez kropli powietrza Jak zestrzelony wiatrem obiok Jak rzeka ktora byla i ktdrej juz nie ma 0 skamienialych brzegach. Jak bezsilne siowo. Don't touch me! Wole, nos i d w sobie To, co wypeinia moje sny po brzegi Lata ktdrych zadne slowa nie odrrodla.. Chowam w sobie truj^ce v/spomnienia Zmije plomieni i jad gazu — Zyje, jak lustro, z twarza. ku przeszlosci. A15 112 Don't Touch Me I'm F u l l o f S n a k e s Don't t o u c h me, I'm f u l l o f s n a k e s ! Dead s o i l w i t h o u t a i r A c l o u d s h o t down by t h e w i n d A r i v e r t h a t was and no l o n g e r i s , Whose b a n k s have t u r n e d t o s t o n e . A p o w e r l e s s w o r d . Don't t o u c h me! I p r e f e r t o c a r r y i n m y s e l f Th.at w h i c h f i l l s my dreams t o t h e b r i m Years, w h i c h p r a y e r c a n n o t undo. I h i d e p o i s o n o u s m emories i n m y s e l f V i p e r s o f f l a m e and venom o f gas -I l i v e l i k e a m i r r o r , my f a c e t o w a r d s t h e p a s t . 113 Planeta Nauczylem sie. mcwid szeptem Gdziekolwiek wkraczam budzQ. poploch Napelniony po brzegi ciemnos'cia. ZeruJQ na waszych snach. Jestem jak suche drzewo Jestem nagi Zdje,to ze mnie klejnot zieleni Bez kwiatu Bez owocu Jestem jak paralityk elektrycznie zwawy Z glowa, pochylona. nad wiasna. ruina.. Gdybym byl planeta., mialbym wlasny ruch I wiasna. sile, do dzwigania innych. Al6 Ilk Planet I learned to speak in whispers And create chaos everywhere I go F i l l e d to the brim with darkness Scavenging food in your dreams I am a dry tree My green jewel has been removed I am naked Without flower Without f r u i t I am a paralytic e l e c t r i c a l l y mobile . With head lowered over my own ruin I f I were a planet, I would possess my own motion And my own strength to carry others 115 Sylvia Plath Znalem ja. — drobna jak diament — slcwa jej koronowal blask. . J e s l i porownad z dzieckiem, to jeszcze drobniej i nieskazitelniej — a j e s l i z aniolem, to widziala wszystko jak na dloni. W jej wyobrazni swiat sie. kurczyt, nabieral swiatia. Jej jasne oczy zamienialy siej w dwie zarzace swiece i gasly jednoczesnie — dwa naparstki popiolu. Weszla w gardlo ziemi jak plomienna rdza. Byla glosem zapcwiadajacym bitwy. Z ustnikiem zlotego rogu przy wargach, grala Bogurodzicej na powszechny mord — ulatujac w niebo. Widzialem ja, w Chicago, tak jak sie. patrzy na czerwccwy ranek. Klasztor miasta przemycal. na jej skroni mlode pasma l^kdw. Juz wtedy niosla w sobie madre skapstwo slew bolesne ich piekno, kosciste <±icxiniki, zgrzane w ulicach domy i whitmanowska, fale. gorapego zdania. Znalem ja. — Czytalem o ni e j . Umarla nagle — Czas zalamal rece. I tylko Poezja z palcem na ustach mdwi cicho — usnela. S y l v i a P l a t h I knew h e r - t i n y as .a d i a m o n d -h e r words h a l o e d i n b r i l l i a n c e . Compared w i t h a c h i l d she was e v e n s l i g h t e r , and more i n n o c e n t -w i t h an a n g e l , she saw i t a l l on t h e p a l m o f h e r h a n d . I n h e r i m a g i n a t i o n t h e w o r l d c o n d e n s e d , a c q u i r e d l i g h t . Her b r i g h t e y e s t u r n e d i n t o f l a r i n g c a n d l e s and waned t o g e t h e r -two t h i m b l e s o f a s h e s . She e n t e r e d t h e e a r t h ' s g u l l e t l i k e a f l a m i n g r o s e . Her v o i c e f o r e t o l d r e b e l l i o n g o l d h o r n a t h e r l i p s s o a r i n g t o w a r d h e a v e n She p l a y e d B o g u r . o d z i c a a t t h e u n i v e r s a l s l a u g h t I saw h e r i n C h i c a g o as one b e h o l d s a June m o r n i n g . The u r b a n c l o i s t e r p r e m a t u r e l y s t r e a k e d h e r t e m p l e s w i t h f e a r . E v e n t h e n h e r words b o r e a w i s e f r u g a l i t y p a i n i n t h e i r b e a u t y , s k e l e t a l p a t h s , h o u s e s s w e a t i n g i n t h e s t r e e t s and t h e W h i t m a n e s q u e t i d e o f a h e a t e d s e n t e n c e . I knew h e r -Read a b o u t h e r . S u d d e n l y she d i e d -Time c l a s p e d i t s h a n d s . And o n l y P o e t r y f i n g e r on i t s l i p s w h i s p e r s - " s h e ' s a s l e e p " . 117 Na antypodach SiedzQ w milczeniu nad zamknietym slowem. Za oknem plowieje czas, przyroda przezielenia — Zmieniaja. horyzonty. Mam szeroko otwarte oczy, patrze, w glab — I czekam. Siorice octem ziobi warstwy dnia Noc nieskazitelna jak pustynia Gobi Jasnosd wchodzi zrenicami w piasek, za paznokcie diun, swieci gorliwie po chmurach. A ja chodze. i czepiam sie. marginescw dnia. Najpierw biiem swinie w tutejszej rzezni Pracowaiem po pas zanurzony w parze I czekaiem na urodziwe zapalenie piuc. Potem piele,gniarki wlozyiy mnie w czystoscj Cwine,ly przescieradiami Karmily penicylina. — Sakramentem cierpliwych sidw. Czarne i biale godziny przeslizgiwaiy sie, szparami switdw jak kameleony. Parried nie zawsze zgadzaia sie. z czasem. Lezalem w roziozystych snach Strzezony przez doktordw, syntetyczne proszki i zawiesiste plyny, w ktdrych chemia urabiala sobie rece. Wszechmocne zdrowie nie mialo tu wladzy. Zlote promienie jak tancerki wirowaly czasem wokdi czegos, co kiedys tryskaio zyciem, a dzis" wygladalo jak wyschniQty kikut, odcieta reka, nieruchcmy dramat. Wiatr za oknami przesuwal stalugi chmur KsiQzyc wychodzil na samotne spacery A mnie sie, wydawalo ze ukryte wulkany lezaly we mnie oazami bdlu, na pustyni gdzie j u i nic sie, nie dzialo. I ze lada chwila rusza. karawany — Czytelnicy beda. plynad na garbach wielbiaddw Da.zyd pieszo przez wyschni^te diuny Niosa.c w oczach spalone osiedla Zrabowane zycie, susze. smierci ktdrej oni szczQsliwie zdolali uniknq.d. A za nimi przyleca. dobroczynne ptaki Rzeki otworza. swoje koryta A18 118 On -the Antipodes S i l e n t l y I s i t over a locked word. Outside time fades, and nature grows too green P e r s p e c t i v e s change. Eyes wide open, I look inward -Waiting. The sun gouges the l a y e r s of day with v i n e g a r The n i g h t i s as. i n a c c e s s i b l e as the Gobi desert L i g h t pounds i t s p u p i l s i n t o the sand, Under the n a i l s of the dunes, e a g e r l y glimmering on the cl o u d s . And I walk c l u t c h i n g at the day's margins. In the beginning I s l a u g h t e r e d p i g s at the l o c a l s l a u g h t e r house Laboured waist deep i n steam And a n t i c i p a t e d the comeliness of pneumonia Then nurses placed me i n s t e r i l i t y Wrapped i n sheets Fed me p e n i c i l l i n -And the'sacrament of p a t i e n t words Black and white hours s l i t h e r e d l i k e chameleons through the f i s s u r e s of dawn Memory d i d not always agree with time I lounged on the flower beds of dreams Guarded by d o c t o r s , s y n t h e t i c t a b l e t s and t h i c k l i q u i d s , i n s i d e which chemistry kneaded i t s hands. Almighty h e a l t h had no power here. Gold rays l i k e b a l l e r i n a s w h i r l e d at times around' something, t h a t once brimmed with l i f e but today resembled a d r i e d up stump, an amputated hand, an i n e r t drama. The wind o u t s i d e was s h i f t i n g the e a s e l of clouds The moon took l o n e l y walks While I f e l t i n s i d e me hidden volcanoes spread i n t o an o a s i s of p a i n , i n a desert where nothing any longer happened. And that at any moment caravans w i l l s t a r t to move -The readers w i l l f l o a t on' the backs of camels and wander through the d r i e d out dunes eyes c a r r y i n g t h e i r burned s e t t l e m e n t s s t o l e n l i f e , drought of death which they l u c k i l y managed to escape. Benevolent b i r d s w i l l f o l l o w them Riv e r s w i l l open t h e i r beds Mountains w i l l come to l i f e . And before the t r u s t i n g animals r e c o g n i s e human f e a r P l a n t s w i l l come out to greet them Deluge of verdure w i l l k i s s the s o i l . But a l l t h i s needs the word I 119 Gory sie. uplastycznia,. I nim ufne zv/ierzeta poznaja, ludzki strach Rosliny wyjda. na ich spotkanie Potop zieleni ucaluje glebe.. Me do tego potrzebne jest stcwo Nad ktdrym siedze. w milczeniu i czekam W suchym jak ziarno piasku krajobrazie. A19 1 2 0 Above which I s i t s i l e n t l y and wait Inside a landscape dry as a grain of sand. 121 Zdziwieni spdjrzmy na gwalty natury — czyzby drapieznosd ludzkiego umysiu si^gala dalej niz smierd? Pomysl i l e pala^ych jeszcze na mnie vrzodow natura nie zagoita. Ile otwartych ran. Tece moje w liszajach sinych po dzis dzieri nie moga. tknad sie. zycia. Nosily przeciez smierd. A 2 0 122 An E x c e r p t f r o m "My E p i c " P a r t V B e w i l d e r e d l e t us l o o k a t n a t u r e ' s r a p e -c o u l d t h e c l a w o f t h e human b r a i n r e a c h f u r t h e r t h a n d e a t h ? J u s t t h i n k how many b o i l s s t i l l b u r n i n g i n s i d e me n a t u r e has n o t h e a l e d . How many open wounds. My h a n d s p u r p l e w i t h eczema u n t i l t h i s v e r y day c a n n o t t o u c h l i f e . A f t e r a l l t h e y c a r r i e d d e a t h . 1 2 3 Znak Ludzi poznajemy po sylwetce slcwa Po twarzy gdy ciemnieje, gdy zmienia sie, v/ metal Po re,kach gdy wygiaszaja. ruchliwe kazania Po otoczeniu. Sie.gnij a zobaczysz l i e dokola lezy zapcnnianych faktdw W ktdrych niesyta pamied drapieznie pla.druje. Ludzi poznajemy po kronice czasu. Czlowiek z nature sprzyrriierzyi swdj los. Po oczach, bluszczu czoia, po sklepieniu skroni Po wypuklosciach czaszki, po wlosach gdy sa. I biyszcza. niby tiara ozdobna na czubku. Ale po czym poznamy, co ukrywa pamie,c Wypuklosd glosu z wykrojenia warg Susze, gdy idzie na zdobycie c i a l a I atakuje serca ruchome sygnaly Zdolna. zatrzymad zycie. Po czym poznamy zdanie gdy je toczy strach Po czym poznamy sylwetki naszych katdw. Wiele z nas zdarto. Wracamy do ascezy. £le uiozony barok spadl z nas razem z tluszczem Czekamy w sobie na nadejscie znaku I po tym tylko mozemy sie, poznad. A 21 12k The S i g n P e o p l e c a n be i d e n t i f i e d by t h e s i l h o u e t t e o f t h e i r words By t h e f a c e t h a t d a r k e n s , when i t c h a n g e s t o m e t a l By t h e hands t h a t p r e a c h s e r m o n s . By t h e m i l i e u . R e a c h o u t and y o u w i l l f i n d many f o r g o t t e n f a c t s I n s i d e w h i c h a h u n g r y memory c l a w s . P e o p l e c a n be i d e n t i f i e d by t h e c h r o n i c l e o f t i m e . Man a l l i e d h i s f a t e w i t h n a t u r e . By t h e e y e s , by t h e v i n e - c o v e r e d b r o w , by t h e t e m p l e s ' a r c h By t h e b u l g i n g o f t h e s k u l l , by t h e h a i r when i t i s s t i l l t h e r e And g l i s t e n s l i k e a t i a r a b e d e c k i n g t h e h e a d . But how do we i d e n t i f y t h e s e c r e t s h i d d e n by memory The v o i c e b u l g i n g f r o m t h e c a r v e d l i p s . D r o u g h t when i t s e t s o u t t o v a n q u i s h t h e body A t t a c k s t h e h e a r t ' s m o v i n g s i g n a l s And i s a b l e t o h o l d o f f l i f e . How do we i d e n t i f y a s e n t e n c e r o l l e d by f e a r How do we i d e n t i f y t h e s i l h o u e t t e s o f o u r e x e c u t i o n e r s Much has been t o r n f r o m u s . We a r e r e t u r n i n g t o a s c e t i c i s m . P o o r l y c o n s t r u c t e d b a r o q u e f e l l o f f us t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e f a t We a w a i t i n o u r s e l v e s t h e c o m i n g o f t h e s i g n And o n l y t h u s c a n we i d e n t i f y o u r s e l v e s . 125 A22a Gdy w Ncwym Jorku underal Dylan Thomas Gdy w Nowym Jorku umieral Dylan Thcmas Padaly razem z nim walijskie drzewa I wszystkie placzki zbiegly siq na lament. SmierdI Smierd! On, ktdry wszedi zaledwie w zycie Juz kwiatem slcwa klanial sie. ciemnosci Bezradny w swej podrdzy. Pceta umieral! 0, jakiez jady wchodza, w nasze cialo I zmartwychwstaja. w jego zgonie? Chociaz smierd nad nim nie bedzie mied wladzy Zadnej — swieckiej, ani z krzyzem w dloni Gdy do mnie przyjdzie, nie bede sie. bronid Ani uciekad w mdj z popioldw sv/iat, Przeciwnie, poloze, s±q twarza, do zenitu Jak on — i po schodach wylozonych wiatrami Wspinad sie. bede., dochodzid do celu And death shall have no dominion Nad nami! 126 When Dylan Thomas vas Dying in New York When Dylan Thomas vas dying in New York The trees of Wales were f a l l i n g with him And aid. the wailing women gathered, to lament. Death! Death! He who hardly crossed l i f e ' s threshold Was already bowing to darkne'ss, his word in blossom. Helpless in his journey the poet was dying! Oh what venores enter our flesh And r i s e in i t s waste? Although death shall have no dominion over him Whatever - neither worldly nor cross in hand When i t comes to me, I w i l l set my face towards the zenith Like him - and along the stairs laden with winds I w i l l climb, reaching the goal "And death shall have no dominion" Over us! 1 2 7 Lisc" Koniec sezonu: upadiem na ziemie, juz rnnie nie ucaluje promieri juz sie, nie pozbieram ptak mnie podepcze rosa oczy wyje wiatry ze mna. przestana. sie, swarzyd — tyle diugich dni wrastalem — czerpiac — w ndekkosc" tlenu w gory powietrza, w upal tyle dni ch£ona,lem stroma. nawaie, promieni — piaskie moje ci a l o uwieszone za szyje, spiewalo hymny — tyle nocy przeszeptanych ze swierszczem przegadanych z rosa. na s l i s k i c h wywoskowanych zielonych posadzkach a teraz tylko ludzki dia mnie los leze, i cierpie, pamie,cia. nie cialem. The Leaf End of season: I f e l l to the ground no more to be kissed by a sunbeam no more to be gathered or trampled by a bird dew w i l l ravish my eyes winds w i l l stop squabbling behind me -so many long days I thrived - growing -into the softness of oxygen into billowing a i r , into scorching heat so many days I absorbed the steep streams of sunlight my f l a t body strung by the neck sang hymns -so many nights whispered away with the crickets talked away with the dew on wax-green floors -and now only human fate for me I l i e and I suffer the pain of memory not of flesh 129 Norwid w Ncwym Jorku Byl jak schizma odlozona na jutro Jak dab pokryty bluszczem A mys l a l ze sie, o niego upomna, wspdlczesni Ze jego glos wyda echa. Siadal w Parku, na lawce jak starszy pan Ktdrego meczy spacer, ktdry przyszedl z ulicy S3.siaduja.cej z oceanem. Przypiynal tu z portu Do ktdrego musial isd wiele dni i nocy. Nie zatxzymujac si<=, glodny, wyszedl z dcmu W polowie snu. Kraj bezustannie Oddalal s i ^ , dusil go Paryz On siadal w Parku sam Czekal, zapadal sie, w mrok Po kolana Albo po szyje, Uwie,ziony jak Iza Gdy sie. przemienia w perle,. Dzis" tez sa, ludzie Niezreczni Niedogrzebani Zycie po nich przeszlo Z impetem lawiny Starci, podnie^li sie, Wyjechali. Ich slowa w dymie wyplakaly oczy Pozostala na nich skorupa milczenia I ciemnos'd pelna brunatnych opaddw Jak po wybuchu wulkanu. Rozuroie, potrzebe. Ziemi Obiecanej Jerozolimy Ale nie rozumie. Kary samotnosci. I pomyslid ze za drzwiami bylo niebo A on nie mdgl otworzyd drzwi. A24 130 Norwid i n New York He was a s c h i s m postponed t i l l tomorrow An i v y - c o v e r e d oak But he thought t h a t h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s might t h i n k of him That h i s v o i c e w i l l r e s o u n d . He would s i t i n the P a r k , on a bench, a n ' e l d e r l y man Who t i r e d by a walk came o f f a s t r e e t Next door t o an ocean. He d r i f t e d i n from a p o r t Which he reached by w a l k i n g n i g h t s and days Hungry, not s t o p p i n g , he l e f t home In the midst o f a dream. His l a n d c o n t i n u e d To grow more and more d i s t a n t , P a r i s s t i f l e d him He would s i t i n the Park alone W a i t i n g , f a l l i n g i n t o dusk Knee - deep Or up t o the neck Immured l i k e a t e a r c h a n g i n g i n t o a p e a r l Today too t h e r e are people Clumsy Not q u i t e b u r i e d L i f e swept them L i k e a snow s l i d e Wiped o u t , they r o s e L e f t . T h e i r words, whose s m o k e - f i l l e d eyes have shed a l l t h e i r t e a r s Remain c o v e r e d by a s h e l l of s i l e n c e And darkness f i l l e d w i t h brown dust As i f a v o l c a n o had b u r s t I u n d e r s t a n d the need f o r the Promised Land J e r usalem But I don't u n d e r s t a n d The p e n a l t y of l o n e l i n e s s ' To t h i n k t h a t beyond the door t h e r e was a heaven And he c o u l d not open the door. 131 Nagie jak kosd Zairiknad oczy, nie liczyd dni byd slepym (wiatr nade mna. otylym ruchem strzepuje popidl) Czyja to iddz bez dna na opuszczonym morzu — czyj to zagiel bialo-czerv/ony postrze,piony jak szkielet Czy jest w nim jeszcze miejsce na wiarygodne slowo — nie zabrudzone nie podsluchane wlasne Czyste, bez przyn^ty bez wizy i paszportu nagie jak kos"d. Naked As A Bone To c l o s e one's eyes, not counting days to be b l i n d (the wind's c o r p u l e n t arm whisks away ashes above me) Who owns t h i s bottomless boat on a d e s e r t e d sea -whose i s t h i s red and white s a i l f r a y e d l i k e a s k e l e t o n Is there s t i l l room i n s i d e f o r a c r e d i b l e word -u n s u l l i e d not overheard one's own Pure, without decoy v i s a or passport naked as a bone. 133 BOGDAN CZAYKOWSKI Cb. 1932) l e f t P o l a n d a t t h e age o f s e v e n . H a v i n g t r a v e l l e d t h r o u g h P e r s i a and A f r i c a , he came t o E n g -l a n d , where he grew up. He s t u d i e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f L o n d o n , where he o b t a i n e d an M.A. i n S l a v i c L i t e r a t u r e . I n Lo n d o n he became a member o f a g r o u p o f P o l i s h w r i t e r s w i t h whom he s h a r e d a s i m i l a r f a t e . T h i s g r o u p c a l l e d t h e m s e l v e s t h e K o n t y n e n t y a n d , a l t h o u g h f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h , c h o s e t o w r i t e i n t h e i r n a t i v e t o n g u e . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e y d e f i e d - t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n o f e m i g r e s who w r o t e i n t h e o l d t r a d i t i o n . They a l s o e d i t e d a s m a l l m a g a z i n e and p u b l i s h e d an a n t h o l o g y o f poems c a l l e d Ryby ha p'i a s k u ( F i s h on S a n d ) . C z a y k o w s k i has p u h l i s h e d s e v e r a l v o l u m e s o f p o e t r y and many o f h i s poems h a v e a p p e a r e d and s t i l l a p p e a r i n P o l i s h p e r i o d i c a l s . He i s c u r r e n t l y h e a d o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 13k A26a Z gdr skalistych I Gora ruszyla masyw przebity tunelem jak ciemna. mysla. pokruszony rumowisko skai zbocza nagie po lawinie za gdra. katedralna. przedzial wdd r0zplataj3.ce sie. z potokdw rzeki u przedzialu wdd pije, gdzie czas ma grzbiet kamienny z kubka na laiicuchu z gardzieli psa slorice nade mna. luszczy jezioro Iddz' kwili ptak z wodospadu II w strong gdr powietrze czyste zobaczyd by mozna wiasna. ^mierd miedzioryt panoramy przesmyk zaciska kto spada kto poraniony czolga sie. jak grzechotnik kto patrzy kamiennie kto z hukiem przeplywa oblok cicho przelecz zamyka opar bury wypelnia dzikie przestrzenie ciemna teraz wspinaczka gluchy upadek From The Rocky Mountains I • The mountain moved a great bulk pierced by a tunnel as i f crumbled within by a dark thought a rubble of rocks suddenly slides in an avalanche beyond the cathedral rock a parting of waters as rivers unravel from streams at the parting of the waters where time has a stone back I drink from a chained mug from a dog's gullet the sun above me whittles a lake of boats a bird cries in the waterfall. II In the mountains air i s clear the panoramic copperplate ti g h t l y clamps the passage of escape one's own death i s v i s i b l e who f a l l s who when wounded crawls l i k e a rattlesnake who stonily stares who thunderously glides by a cloud s i l e n t l y closes the overpass above a fuming storm f i l l s the wild spaces dark is the climb deaf i s the f a l l . 136 Kluczyki Oto jest dziwny swiat. Gdzie ja zgubilem kluczyki? Wiatr w oMennice. bije. Oto jest dziwny wiatr, Otwierajacy szpary w mroku Dia swoich niewidocznych, chlodnych oczu. A ja? Z ktdrej strony drzwi stoje, ja? W pokdj patrze. czy na dwdr przez okno? Oto jest dziwny deszcz, W ktdrym topole i fotele mokna,. Lecz j a ! W czyim salonie jestem? Malarz j aids' uzywal wodnych farb na dcianach. Gwiazdozbiorem kopula spie,ta. Orion w dloni krzyz poludnia trzyma. Lecz po ktdrej stronie gwiazd j a jestem? Niebo mam pod nogami czy nad oczyma? Dziwne niebo. Dziwole.zne. Gdzie ja podzialem kluczyki? Nid wije sie. — jak w bajce. Lecz wa.tek klebkiem w trawy sie, potoczyl. Ale trawy nie moje. Nie depcz traw — mdwi ksie.zyc. Nie bierz w vista rosy — nie widzisz, Ze j a ja. zapalam. Mdj jest plomierf w wodzie — mdwi sierp Ksie,zyca koszacy blaskiem lake.. Moja jest iaka — woia koii I cwaluje ku ksie.zycowi przez trawy. Gdzie j a jestem, patrza.cy na walke. Ksiezyca z koniem? Grzywe. konia Chwyta zebami ksie,zyc, Kori" staje deba w niebo, rza,c. Gdzie j a zgubilem kluczyki? Gdzie j a podzialem sciezke? Z twoich oczu zielonych Zrobilem c i kolczyki. I teraz oczy nosisz w uszach. Co nimi widzisz? Rozdzielaja. nas fale Unoszac dziwny sen. Gdzie ja podzialem Iddke,? Czy byla papierowa? Czy ja. rozmoczyl deszcz? Ach, znalazlem kluczyki. Ale zaden z nich do zadnych drzwi nie pasuje. A2Y 137 Keys Behold this strange world. Where did I lose the keys? The wind is pounding on the shutters. Behold this strange wind, Opening crooks in the dusk For i t s sightless, cool eyes. But I? On which side of the door am I? Am I looking in or out of the window? Behold this strange rain, That soaks chairs and poplars. But I In whose l i v i n g room am I? Some painter used water colors on the walls. The dome is fastened by a constellation. Orion holds the Southern Cross in his hand. But on which side of the stars am I? Is the sky beneath my feet or above my eyes? Strange sky. Monstrous. What have I done with the keys? Nothing weaves i t s e l f - as in a tale Although the spool of thread rolled into the grass. But the grass is not mine. Don't trample the grass - says the moon. Don't put the dew into your mouth - can't you see That I am setting i t alight * The flame in the water is mine - says the scythe Of the moon mowing the meadow with radiance. The meadow is mine - ye l l s the horse Galloping through the grass towards the moon. Where am I looking at this battle Between the moon and the horse? The moon Grabs the horse's mane with i t s teeth, The* horse strains on nis hind legs towards the sky, neighing. Where did I lose the keys? Where did I lose the way? I made earrings Out of your green eyes Now you are wearing your eyes in your ears. What do you see? We are parted by waves Carrying a strange dream. What have I none with 'the boat ? Was i t made of paper? Did i t f a l l apart in the rain? Oh, ir.'-j-.. nr.- the keys! ' - '•til. n o M O .1' i t ;'M i r y ! df -• the doors .:/-'.~ 1 3 8 Czlowiek to tylko szunuaca rauszla Tium jest jak morze. Zanurzamy w nim dlonie i prawie na slepo wylawiamy przyjacidl. I wycfoodzimy razem na plaze. bosymi stopy smakowad zdlty piasek. W piasku sypkim porzucamy sie, obok siebie jak muszle i sluchamy szumu sweto, nie mogac przebid skorup co kryja, ten szum, nie mogac zbadad tajemnicy n i swojej, n i cudzej tej muzyki. Obok nas, porzucone w zdltym piasku, leza, skorupy p^kni^tych muszlik w nich jest pustka i cisza. Za chwile. przypiyw zacznie zwilzad pod nami piasek, za chwile. jego fale nas zaglusza. i poniosa, w gtab, gdzie sie, gubimy. A28 139 Man Is Only A Humming Sea-Shell • A crowd is like the sea. We dip our hands in i t and almost 'blindly f i s h out companions We walk out together on the beach for our bare feet to taste the yellow sand. We drop into the dry sand side by side like sea-shells and l i s t e n to our own sound, unable to pierce the crust that covers i t unable to explore the secret of our own and another's music. Next to us, abandoned in yellow sand, l i e crusts of fractured shells empty and s i l e n t . In a while the tide w i l l moisten the sand beneath, i n a while the waves w i l l deafen and carry us to their depths, where ve lose ourselves. iko Argument nie ma nie ma dia mnie miejsca n i tu n i tarn tu wolnos"d ryba na piasku tarn mnie klatka czeka w rogu obfitosci mieczy widcwnia, a scena, to ja jestem zelazna, kurtyna, dziele. dwie niedorzeczywistos'ci A29 Ikl Argument There is no place no place for me not here not there here there is freedom a f i s h on the sand there a cage awaits me in the horn of plenty between the theatre and the stage I am the iron curtain dividing two incomplete r e a l i t i e s . 142 Bunt wierszem Urodzilem sie. tam. Nie wybieralem miejsca. Chetaie bym sie. urodzil po prostu w trawie. Trawy rosna, wszedzie. Nie chcialyby mnie tylko pustynie. Lub mogiem si§ przeciez urodzid W klebuszku wiatru, Gdy oddychaja. powietrza. Ale urodzilem sie. tam. Przykuli mnie.gdy jeszcze bylem dzieckiem. A pdzniej z laricuszkami pus"cili w swiat. Jestem tutaj. Urodzilem sie, tam. Gdybym che sie. urodzil na morzu. Zelazo namagnesowane Co wciaz mnie na biegun kierujesz, Ciezkie jested; bez ciebie mi nak lekko, Ze trace, wage, siebie. Wie.c nosze. te laricuszki I potrzasam nimi jak lew grzywa.. A ludzie stamtad krzycza.: Wrdd. Vfolaja.: cip, cip, cip. Proso z kakolem na wiatr. Pies do budy. Ja jestem poeta (trzeba sie. nazwad). Je.zyk moim laricuchem. Slowa obroza. moja,. Urodzilem sie. tam. (ChQtnie bym sie. urodzil po prostu w trawie) 1956 R e b e l l i o n i n Verse I was born over t h e r e . I d i d not choose the p l a c e . I would g l a d l y have been born i n t h e ' g r a s s . Grass grows everywhere. Only d e s e r t s would r e j e c t me. Or I c o u l d have been born In a s k e i n of win d , When the a i r was b r e a t h i n g . But I was born t h e r e . They c h a i n e d me w h i l e I was s t i l l a c h i l d . And l a t e r i n l i t t l e c h a i n s r e l e a s e d me i n t o the wor I am h e r e . I was born t h e r e . I f o n l y I had been born a t sea. 0 magnetic i r o n That f o r e v e r p u l l s towards a p o l e You are heavy; w i t h o u t you I am so l i g h t That I become w e i g h t l e s s . But I wear these l i t t l e c h a i n s And shake them as a l i o n shakes h i s mane While p e o p l e from over t h e r e s h o u t : Come back They c a l l : c h i c k c h i c k c h i c k . M i l l e t and co r n c a s t t o the wind Dog i n t o the k e n n e l 1 am a poet (one has t o be c a l l e d something) Language i s my l e a s h . Words are my c o l l a r . I was born over t h e r e ( I would g l a d l y have been born i n the g r a s s ) . 1 9 5 6 Ikk Aspekty czasu Czas nas dosciga nawet w obiakaniu. Ucieczki nie ma. Gwalt w zawiiych sferach. Kraza. drapiezne sowy puszystsze od snow i jak zegary przybywaja. noca. by w dzieri ubywad cienka. struga. pierza z krwiozerczych szponcw. Tyle napisano 0 wiasciwosciach czasu. Oblakani krzycza.: minuta na dwunasta. I 1 dwunasta b i l a . W cyfrach jest alegoria. Cyfry sa. swiatami. Zamkniete w czaszkach opukuja. swiatlo. Godzina mija, godzina przybywa, w wyschni^tym doku straszy szkielet wrak. Potem okre,ty. Pasazer pijany wstxzymuje slorice, toto coelo slorfca wprawia w iruch czasu. Z dalekich gwiazd zablyska chwila swietlna i okopconym szklem jak Iza w mysl splywa. Godzina mija, godzina przybywa. On nas dosciga nawet w obiakaniu. A cdz dopiero w racjonalnym bycie, ktdry p o d z i e l i l czas na dysocjacje. Pereant mundi: trzeszcza, grawitacje. I zncwu krzycza,: minuta, minuta, a juz dwunasta ich stawia za czasem i sto czterdziesta czwarta grzmi po tarczy zegara, ktdry ptakiem puszystym ucieka rozczapierzony w ptasim obiakaniu. I dzieri ubywa, zastyga w Zodiaku. To jest gwdj laficuch i rytm twego tarica. 0 gv/iazdo czasu. -A31 a*5 Aspects of Time Time overtakes us even in madness. There is no escape. Only panic in twisted realms. Rapacious owls more feathery than dreams, c i r c l e and arrive at night lik e clocks so that by day their bloodthirsty talons wane into thin streams of feathers. Much has been written about the properties of time. The insane scream: one minute to twelve and twelve strikes. There i s an allegory in numerals. Numerals are worlds. Locked inside skulls they sound out l i g h t . An hour comes, an hour goes, The skeleton of a wrecked ship haunts the dry dockyard. Then ships. A drunken passenger halting the sun, sets i t s toto caelo into the motion of time. a moment sparks a light wave from faraway stars and f a l l s along a sooty lens l i k e a tear into thought. An hour comes, an hour goes. Time overtakes us even in madness. And how much more in a state of sanity which divided i t into dissociations. Pereant mundi: screech the gravitations. And they scream again: minute, a minute, while twelve already puts them behind time and a hundred and forty four thunders along the d i a l of the clock, which l i k e a bushy bird escapes dishevelled in birdlike madness. And the day wanes, congealing in the Zodiac. This i s your chain and rhythm of your dance. Oh star of time 146 Komunikat Wchcxizimy potwornie w te same wody, w te same zastaie sadzawki, ale gdzie jestes? Czy ascetyczny piach wyssal juz twoje kodci? Co zrobil z duchem twoim Beg, duch na duchach Gdzie porwal twa. istote jastrzab zlotopidry? Dwie kobiety cie. nosily, a teraz gdzie jested? Pochylaly sie. nad toba, dwie jasnos"ci. A dzis, srebrnie rozswietlona ciemnosd cie, wyobraza pochylona. Z synem brata powiazany ciemnym losem, w konstrukeji serca ponad czas powtdrnie ucieledniony? Nie ma od zywych ratunku, kiedy kochaja.. Z bogami chodza, w ogniach twdrczego szalu. Szale, sprawiedliwodci bezboznie przechylaja, dia tych co wiecznie skrzywdzeni martwa, dlonia. natury? A 3 2 Announcement. Monstrously we enter the same waters, the same stagnant pools, but where ore you? Did the ascetic sand suck a l l marrow from your bones? What has God done with, your soul, soul of souls? Where has the gold-feathered hawk captured you? Tvro women carried you, but where are you now? Two radiances bent over you once. Today, only a stooping s i l v e r - l i t darkness shapes you. Tied by dark fate with a brother's son inside a heart constructed beyond time twice embodied? Is there no salvation from the love of the l i v i n g Who walk with gods in f i r e s of creative frenzy . Impiously tipping the scale of justice for those who are forever wronged by nature's dead hand? •• 3A8, ARTHUR JANUSZ IHNATOWICZ (b. 1929) l e f t P o l a n d i n 1946, s t u d i e d i n B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d , and r e c e i v e d a B.A. i n p h i l o s o p h y and p s y c h o l o g y . He came to Canada i n 1951, l i v e d i n T o r o n t o , then i n 19 5 8 r e t u r n e d to P o l a n d where he a t t e n d e d a t h e o l o g i c a l c o l l e g e and became a p r i e s t . I n 1967 he came back to l i v e i n Ottawa. I h n a t o w i c z i s a p o e t , c r i t i c and e s s a y i s t as w e l l as a d r a m a t i s t and a t r a n s l a t o r of p o ets such as Whitman and Pound. H i s t r a n s l a t i o n s of psalms I z r a e l w p o e z j i p o l s k i e j ( I s r a e l i n P o l i s h P o e t r y ) appeared i n an a n t h o l o g y i n P a r i s . He was a member of the Kontynenty group i n Engla n d . Many of h i s poems were pub-l i s h e d i n P o l i s h p e r i o d i c a l s and a number were i n c l u d e d i n the a n t h o l o g y Ryby na p i a s k u ( F i s h on Sand). H i s l a t e s t book of poems i s P e j z a z z p o s t a c i a m i (Landscape w i t h F i g u r e s and he i s c u r r e n t l y t e a c h i n g at the U n i v e r s i t y of S t . Thomas Hous t o n , Texas. Jadac przez prerie — o zachodzie slorica 1. uciekajac od slorica (podwdjna tasma: zelazo i beton, martwe morze traw i niebo za oddechem chmur martwe) uciekajac od slorica ulatuja.c w noc oto masz powrdt niemarnotrawny ale calkowicie zmarnowany, bo cdzesmy dokonali? 2. przebiegly wieze elewatora i szary jak kosci wykopane corral i tylko slupy kazdy w samotnosci swojej powia.zane tajemnych rozmcw pustka, na plowej f a l i wieczornej trawy slorice (coraz coraz dalej) rozbeltane na pomarariczowy pas krowy zwolna sie. zamieniaja.ce w czarne upiory i kori przez p i s z c z e l i bariere. wycia.gajacjy szyje. ku cienicm z drugiej strony 3. powolnieje metalu o metal gra posrdd ciemno zielonych drzew szary gotycki wiezy kikut i suchy spopielaly drzew trzon i rzeka zimna jak metal to stacja: Medicine Hat! A3 3' 1 5 0 Through The Prairies - At Sundown 1. running away from the sun (a double band: iron and steel. dead sea of grass and the sky dead behind the heaving cloud) running away from the sun flyin g into the night the unprodigal return to t a l l y wasted for what have ve accomplished? 2. the elevator towers swept past and a corral-grey l i k e a mass of dug up bones only the solitary telephone poles on the faded wave of twilight grass and bound by the emptiness of secret conversations the sun (farther and farther away) melts into an orange s t r i p covs are slowly transforming into 'black phantoms and the horse stretches i t s neck through the fence's crossbones toward the shadows on the other side 3. the play of metal against metal slows among the darkening trees the grey stump of a gothic tower an ash-dry tree shaft and the river's cold steel the station i s : Medicine Hat 151 A34a W poszukiwaniu straconego dcmu Siostrze mojej Irmie Zalewskiej. w naszym dcmu nie bylo okien tylko niebo poza firanka, na dcianach rosly cienie jak grzyby po sloricu a w nocy spacercv/aly kawalkady swiatel i czasami — gdy ptaki byiy najbardziej glodne — wchodzil czerwony jak begonia klon cowiosenny klon z latajacymi noskami w naszym domu nie bylo mebli tylko przyczajone tygrysy pluszcwe zwierzQta nadymane baloniki i mozna je bylo glaskad i czules jak pod pluszem drza, i mrucza, ospale koty o oczach z poduszek ach te poduczki! ogrody plyn^ce w oceanie kanapy rajskie ptaki sklaniaj3.ce ondlewajaca, glowe, nad jedwadnym strumykiem blekitno-okich gwiazdl o poduszki pachn3.ce tysiacznymi bajkami grajace przytulonej twarzy jak muszla schronienie gdy o zmierzchu v/ysuwa sie, zza firanki straszny pan Cieh i stoJ3.c w ka.cie polyka fiolkowe i jak motyl drz3.ce powietrze a i go zabije strzala, lampy wyplywaJ3.ca z glebin kanapy mama o w naszym domu fontanna swiatla ukryta w zapachu kolan naszej matki A3V-In Search Of A Lost Home To My Sister Irroa Zalewska our home has no windows only sky behind the curtain shadows crept along the walls like vines against the sun cavalcades of lights paraded at .night sometimes - when the birds were noisy -a begonia-red maple entered a spring maple with flying seed-pods our home had no furniture only lurking tigers velvet animals blown up balloons one could caress them and feel how under the velvet sleeping cats with button eyes tremble and purr ah those pillows! gardens floating i n the sofa's ocean paradise birds bowing their languid heads above the silken stream of blue-eyed stars! oh pillows smelling of a thousand f a i r y tales humming li k e shells next to snuggled faces a shelter when in the dusk the te r r i b l e Bogey Man slips from behind the curtain and standing in the corner swallows the trembling butterfly and violet a i r u n t i l he i s stabbed with a lightbeam by mamma flowing out of the sofa's deeps our home has a fountain of light hidden in the fragrance of our mother's knees , 1 5 3 Amor przelatujacy a dalej, za oknem, swieci ogrdd nanizane krysztaiy na krzakdw pre,ty pdjdziemy moze razem tamtQdy srebrne jagody na diori brad otwiera sie, parasol niebieskiej pogody i dymami ulatuje trawnik i my tez, stebrni i barwni, w niebo w przezroczysty swiat zamienieni w powietrze jasniinne i bzowe na szczycie slonecznej fontanny zaspiewaja. mlodziency i panny jak posacji z muzyki i szkla. ...A'3 5 -15^ Cupid F l y i n g By over there o u t s i d e the window, a garden g l i s t e n s the bushes' twigs are threaded with c r y s t a l s mayhe we w i l l go that way to gather s i l v e r b e r r i e s i n our palms the p a r a s o l of blue weather opens the lawn d r i f t s away with smoke and we f l y , i n b r i g h t hues and s i l v e r i n t o the t r a n s p a r e n t world at the top of a s u n l i t f o u n t a i n maidens and youths transformed i n t o jasmin and l i l a c a i r w i l l s i n g out l i k e s t a t u e s of music and g l a s s ,155 Zakonnica przemieniona w krzyk siostro graj na kornecie noc taka pusta jak pieklo . bialy s u f i t biaie wieko wokdl giowy obniz nade mna. bo mie. pochlonie ogrcmnosd ciemnosci siostro milczenie to pora diabelska graj na liczydiach laski brzekaj szeleszcz jak niedokoiiczona ksia.zka siostro zndw sie, cisza otwiera siostro wolaj glosho siostro siostro patrz umieram. A36' ' V156 A Nun Transformed Into a Scream sister p l a v the cornet the night 's empty as he l l lower over me the white ceiling coffin l i d around your head or the immense darkness w i l l swallow me sister silence is the devil's hour play on the abacus of grace tick rustle l i k e an unfinished book sister the pocket of silence opens again sister scream loudly sister sister look I am dying r ,. .157 0 poor poor poor czego c i potrzeba wiecej kochana krcwo? trawy zielonej, milosci troche., dachu nad giowa. i Idzka pod... i kolorowa. poduszke,? wiec dobrze, masz i poduszke, i nawet troche, slonecznego pylu i ciepla troche, pulsujajcego nocami i jego brudne skarpetki pod Idzkiem 0 Poor Poor Poor what more do you need my beloved cow? a l i t t l e green grass, a l i t t l e love, a roof over your head, a bed underneath and a colorful pillow? well then, you have a pillow and even a l i t t l e sundust nights pulsating with warmth and his dirty socks under the bed Drzewo szumiace oliwka przypadia do ziemi w getsemani noc grcmadzaca w zi e l e n i : pode mna, krzyczano w bdlu u moich gai^zi obcinano dlonie i nosy wypalono tysiace oczu w rnoim cieniu u-rodzilo sie, dziecko 0 zabich oczach 1 lapach jaszczdrki mdj pieri jest z huku mdj korzeri z ognia moje l i d c i e jesienne krwawe bociany szybuja, zarzewie zurawie nad lanem prosa i pszenicy halcedama deszcz ognisty spadaja, na wlosy lata rodzac popidl potem mie, ukrzyzowano przybiwszy do czlowieka i z tym trupem uciekam przez szeregi kolejnych grobdw nade mna, w zaiobie s t o i pieri wiezy kosciola naroddw i procesje nocami szepcza.. to moje l i d c i e powrdcone z martwych teraz czekam na weza co sie, rodzi by mnie objad i zaplodnid starowiecznym ogniem. Murmuring Tree an o l i v e squats, c l i n g i n g to the earth i n gethsemane ni g h t s w e l l s i n verdure: there were screams beneath me under my branches they cut o f f noses and hands thousands of eyes were burnt out i n my shadow a c h i l d was born with f r o g ' s eyes and l i z a r d ' s paws my trunk i s of thunder my root i s of f i r e my autumn leaves bloody s t o r k s burning brands cranes g l i d e above a f i e l d o f " m i l l e t and wheat f i e r y r a i n halcedama years f a l l on the h a i r g i v i n g b i r t h to ashes then they c r u c i f i e d me n a i l i n g me to a man's body and with t h i s corpse I am escaping through row upon row of graves above me i n mourning towers a trunk the s t e e p l e of the church of n a t i o n s and the p r o c e s s i o n s whisper at n i g h t these are my leaves that have r e t u r n e d from the dead now I wait f o r the serpent that i s being born to embrace and f i l l my womb with the a n c i e n t flame. loOa Krajobraz wewne.trzny Patrzac we wlasne swiatlo w ciemnos'd gdzie zawieszona trwa krysztalowa ryba zaglebiony w ciemnosd rozpostarta. jak woda oczy nagie zamykam i przez zacisni^ta. powieke. widze. obraz, kontrast nocy, Lwiatlo. Tak wzrok zatopiony w siebie przechodzi wcia^z przez granice, tam i napowrdt jak wahadlo i wiem, ze patrze. we zwierciadlo we swiat widzialny tylko kiedy wspak sie, patrzy. A nagie ryba jak krzyk wybucha w swiatio i oto opadamy na proch rozsypani przez powietrze zawieszone mie^dzy gwiazdami gdy nas potwdr glebi mdrz pozera by zamieniwszy w siebie — wskrzesid. A.39 161 Internal Landscape Looking into the darkness at my own light where a luminous f i s h hangs motionless in the darkness that spreads out like water I close my eyes suddenly and through a clenched eyelid I see an image, contrast of night, brightness. Thus sight immersed in i t s e l f constantly crosses the border there and back l i k e a pendulum and I know, I am looking at a world that can only be seen in the mirror Suddenly the f i s h explodes into light l i k e a scream and through air suspended between stars we f a l l scattered into ashes when the monster of the ocean's depths devours us so that transformed into him we may r i s e again. Dzieci w oknie 1. przedwczoraj gralo swiatlo w oknach i ulicami cia.gne,ly procesje a co chwile, defilada maszercwala raz dwa raz dwa jak zdecydcwany dzieh* w oknach dzieci polewaiy ulice. platkami rdz z cudzych ogrcidcw i konwalii luskanych jak groszek patfinacy z gron na jezdni lopotaly chora,gwie i wstecji i blyszczaly blachy na glowach meznych a na balkonach dywany klask-klask na wietrze i stukala o porecz fotografia w ramkach i wolalismy piskliwie: nich zyje babcia 2. to bylo wczoraj, potem noc zapadla jezdzily samoloty pociemku i zbieraly kwiaty a kiedysrm/ wstali (wreszcie, dbudzeni placzera) na chodnikach i na jezdni zasadzone byly trupy i huki wisialy na galeziach wystraszonych kloncw plakalismy w wysokim oknie, az babcia z trumny wyplynela jak oblok i dalej juz nie bylo nic tylko suche piora odeszlych z okna ucichlych aniolcw C h i l d r e n at The Window I day before y e s t e r d a y l i g h t f r o l i c k e d i n the windows p r o c e s s i o n s p u l l e d along the s t r e e t s and every minute a parade marched by one two one two l i k e a set day c h i l d r e n i n the windows watered the s t r e e t s with rose p e t a l s and l i l i e s of the v a l l e y sweetly s m e l l i n g peas i n c l u s t e r s r i b b o n s and banners f l u t t e r e d i n the s t r e e t t i n glimmered on the heads of the v a l i a n t c o l o u r f u l rugs f l a p p e d on the b a l c o n i e s a framed photograph knocked a g a i n s t the r a i l i n g while we shouted: long l i v e our grandma I I t h a t was y e s t e r d a y , then n i g h t f e l l a i r p l a n e s were g a t h e r i n g flowers i n the dark when we got up at l a s t Cwoken by sobs) the s t r e e t s were strewn with corpses and thunder hung i n the branches of t e r r i f i e d maples framed i n the t a l l windows we c r i e d u n t i l grandma l i k e a cloud f l o a t e d out of her casket then there was nothi n g but d r i e d up f e a t h e r s d e p a r t i n g from the windows of s i l e n t angels 16k ANDRZEJ BUSZA (b. 1938) i s the youngest of the poets appear-ing i n t h i s anthology. A f t e r l e a v i n g Poland at a very young age and l i v i n g i n P a l e s t i n e f o r some time, he went to England, where he was educated. In London, along with s e v e r a l of the other poets c o n s i d e r e d here, he belonged to the Kontynenty group of w r i t e r s and, l i k e h i s f r i e n d s , chose to w r i t e poetry i n h i s n a t i v e language. He has had many poems p u b l i s h e d i n England and France; h i s most r e c e n t volume of P o l i s h poems Znaki wpdne (Signs on the Water) was p u b l i s h e d i n London, England. A book of poems i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , A s t r o l o g e r i n the Underground was p u b l i s h e d by Ohio U n i v e r s i t y Press i n 1969. He i s at present an a s s o c i -ate p r o f e s s o r i n the Department of E n g l i s h at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h . Columbia. 165 Jasny poranek Trzy falujaoe r^lmy potrzasaja. szklistym wlcsem nad zatoka. ktdrej ble,kit uplywa zlota, brama. w nicos'd dzis" w noc nie wierze. nawet cieii ptaka ktdry raz po raz czarna, biyskawica. okna oslepia nie odnajduje cridzwieku w rozwidlonym kamertonie serca zapisuje. ten ranek od razu nim sie, rozwieje z dyrnem parowca odp£ywaja.cego nazajutrz jasnym oceanem na Jawe, A 4 1 166 B r i g h t Morning Three u n d u l a t i n g palms tos s t h e i r g l a s s y h a i r above a bay whose blue seeps away through a golden gate i n t o nothingness Now I do not b e l i e v e i n n i g h t not even a b i r d ' s shadow which time and again b l i n d s the window with b l a c k l i g h t n i n g f i n d s no resonance i n the tu n i n g fork of the heart I am r e c o r d i n g t h i s morning at once before i t d r i f t s away wi t h the smoke of a steamship s a i l i n g tomorrow on the b r i g h t ocean f o r Java 167 Czerwona rdza z dnia na dzieii rdza staje sie. centrum i caryca, mego ogrodu skupia v/ sobie zaborczo wszystkie czerwienie odbarwia maki i maliny okrada gwoz'dzie w plocie ze rdzy ogrdd blednie i bieleje rdza rakowato rodnie jak wampir pecznieje na Mire, i Antares sie, boczy kiedy rano budze. sie. i otwieram oczy przez serca okiennic nie swieci juz slonce tylko lypie czerwona rdza Rea Rose day after day the rose becomes the center and czarina of my garden greedily drawing in a l l the red bleaching poppies and raspberries robbing nails in a fence of rust the garden pales and blanches the rose cancerously growing swells l i k e a vampire and looks with spite at Mira and Antares in the morning when I awaken and open my eyes the sun no longer shines through the hearts of the shutters only a red rose leers 169 Biaia rdza tu ogrdd zaniedbany wszedzie mndstwo zielska panoszy sie, i przelewa jak zielone pomyje pokrzywa zajela dciezki wlochata. horda. chwast wdziera sie, na grzedy zuchwale w samym srodku lysego trawnika sterczy jak piszczel zlamana rnotyka opodal plot kuternogi przebiera zerdziami i rwie sie, do drogi nad nim przewalaja, sie, cie.zko barchanowe chmury wypchane po brzegi rte,cia. wierna. na swdj sposdb pozostala mi w tym krajobrazie tylko rdza wschodzi codzieri z rana bi a l a i niepokalana jak jutrzenka nad rxiina, raju W h i t e R o s e h e r e i s a n e g l e c t e d g a r d e n d o m i n a t e d b y m a s s e s o f w e e d s o v e r f l o w i n g e v e r y w h e r e l i k e g r e e n s w i l l a h a i r y h o r d e o f n e t t l e s o c c u p i e s a l l p a t h s w h i l e t h i s t l e s r u d e l y c l a w i n t o t h e f l o w e r b e d s i n t h e v e r y c e n t e r o n t h e b a l d l a w n a b r o k e n h o e p r o t r u d e s l i k e a s h i n b o n e n e a r b y a c r i p p l e d f e n c e s h i f t s i t s p a l i n g s a n d l e a n s t o w a r d t h e r o a d a b o v e i t f u s t i a n b l a c k c l o u d s s t u f f e d w i t h q u i c k s i l v e r b i l l o w h e a v i l y a l l t h a t i s l e f t t o m e i n t h i s l a n d s c a p e t r u e i n i t s f a s h i o n i s j u s t o n e r o s e i t r i s e s e a c h d a y i m m a c u l a t e a n d w h i t e l i k e t h e m o r n i n g s t a r a b o v e t h e r u i n s o f e d e n 171 Szklo przezroczysty swiat jak gdyby w zyiy ktos wstrzykn^l szklo na szklanym drzewie brzecza, cwoce celofanowe l i s c i e czochra wiatr szyba, ogrodu idzie kobieta ma krysztalcwe cialo i wne.trze stopami nie zaciemnia ani skrawka ziemi i widzi pod soba. jasno wielopie.trowy plaster u l trumien za szkla Glass transparent world as i f someone had injected glass into the veins f r u i t sings on a glass tree the wind ruffles cellophane leaves a voman walks along the garden's pane she has a body and entrails of crystal her feet do not shadow even an inch of ground below her she clearly sees a multitiered honeycomb a beehive of glass coffins . 273 Cnrimancja w cieniu platanow siexizielisrrry na tarasie w samosicxJkie poludnie otuleni ble,kitem platanow z nieba na drzewa opadal bezglodnie cieply zlotospad slorica dwa piohki na ruchomej szachownicy cienia czytalidmy sobie nawzajem dlonie j a w niiekkiej mapie twego c i a l a widzialem swoje ujs"cie szerokie leniwe wody lawice lnianych chraur i biale plamki ptakdw 0 zmroku ty bieglas pod prad linia. mego zycia do z'rddel gdzie paprod plucze wlosy w chlodnym szkle a wokdl nas dopelnial sie. dzieri brzeczaly rauchy i pszczoly 1 kapal na ziemie. midd swiatla Palmistry In The Shade of Plane-Trees ve sat on the veranda in the sveet core of noon •wrapped in the azure of plane-trees from the sky a warm gol d f a l l of l i g h t was s i l e n t l y f a l l i n g on the trees two pawns along the chessboard of shade we read each other's palms I saw i n the soft map of your body my exit wide languid waters dunes of linen clouds and spots of white birds at twilight you ran against the current of my l i f e - l i n e to the springs where ferns wash their hair i n cool glass while around us the day was ripening f l i e s and bees buzzed and the honey of light dripped on the s o i l 175 Czary szpalerem topdl zloto-zielonych jak sredniowieczne zmart^chwstanie biegnie dziewczyna wlosy jasne koloru pszenicy upie.te do g c 5 r y ku sloricu druga dziewczyna wierzbami okolona siedzi nad stawem wlosy czarne rozpuscila po nich do ciemnej wody splywa cierl jak krew dyptyk ten do prostego sprowadza sie. rdwnania albo one w zmowie nad woskowa, kukla, zamowia. mnie albo j a zdaze, przyszpilid je na jednej kartce motyla na drugiej dme. W i t c h c r a f t along the avenue of green—gold p o p l a r s l i k e a mediaeval r e s u r r e c t i o n runs a g i r l her h a i r l i g h t the c o l o u r of wheat pinned upward to the sun a second g i r l e n c i r c l e d by willows s i t s beside a pond she has loosened her black h a i r and down i t a shadow l i k e blood flows i n t o the dark water t h i s d i p t y c h leads to a simple equation e i t h e r they p l o t t i n g over a wax d o l l w i l l bewitch me or I w i l l manage to p i n them down on one sheet the b u t t e r f l y on the other the moth 177 Cisza Cisza nak napdj slodki i gesty wypelnia drzewa po brzegi cienia zylastym wQzlem korzeni saczy sie. z ziemi gdzie bez glosu bija, ciemne z"rddla i diament twardnieje w sercu wecjla gromadzona w jedrnych slojach przez lata przelewa sie. pni pionem w rozwidlone konary ku blaszkom l i s c i ktdrych ostry poszum sprawdza jej smak po zmroku wielokrotniej e mnozona zlotym milczeniem pieciu tysie.cy gwiazd Silence Silence lik e a sweet thick drink f i l l s the trees to their shadows1 brim i t oozes from the earth through the veined knot of roots where dark springs pulse without sound and diamond hardens in the heart of coal gathered in the fibrous jars for years i t flows straight through the trees' v e r t i c a l into the forking boughs towards the f o i l of leaves whose sharp whisper confirms i t s flavour after twilight i t grows multiplied by the gold muteness of five thousand stars 1 7 9 Z rnikrokosrrologii choc" nieraz tu duszno i pledrl zielonym liszajem zalesia tapety nie otwieram okian z tamtej strony caiy sad skrada sie. z pelnyrn ksie,zycem na czele g 6 r y gryza. niebo po£ykaja.c po kawaiku anemiczne konstelacje ja zas" ujarzmiiem juz z grubsza sw<5j iiiikroklimat raz w tygodniu strzyge, kaktusy na parapecie i karmie. myszy prosem kiedy na dworze rz^za. rynny zatykam uszy wata. i czytam cdyseje. From Microcosmology although, i t ' s often close here and mildew-afforests the wallpaper with green tetter I keep the windows shut from the other side the whole orchard creeps led by the f u l l moon mountains gnaw at the sky swallowing anemic constellations piece by piece but I more or less have already controlled my own microclimate once a week I c l i p the cactuses on the s i l l and feed millet to mice when outside the gutters wheeze I plug my ears with cotton wool and read the Odyssey 181 DANUTA BIENKOWSKA (1917-1974) l e f t Poland i n 1940 and l i v e d i n Russian labour camps and P o l i s h refugee camps i n P e r s i a and I n d i a . She a r r i v e d i n London, England, i n 1946, and emigrated to Canada i n 1955. Having r e c e i v e d her Ph.D. i n P o l i s h l i t e r a t u r e at the U n i v e r s i t y of London, O n t a r i o , she became a p r o f e s s o r i n the Department of S l a v i c Languages and L i t e r a t u r e at the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto. She has pub-l i s h e d s c h o l a r l y works i n Canadian S l a v o n i c Papers and The  P o l i s h Review (New Yo r k ) . Many of her poems were p u b l i s h e d i n the p e r i o d i c a l K u l t u r a ( P a r i s ) , and a c o l l e c t i o n of P o l i s h poems, P i e s n suchego j e z y k a , was p u b l i s h e d by " B i b l i o t e k a K u l t u r y " i n P a r i s i n 1970. 182 Seria towarzyska 1. Papugi Papugi na pluszowych fotelach Giowka w gldwke, Dziobek w dziobek Pidrka im sie, lsnia, I wcia.z kre,ca. ogonkiem. — Chcialam byd ni esmi ertelna Tak, tak, nie przesadzam I zeby zawsze na pluszcwych fotelach Raczka w raczke,, nosek w nosek — Pani tez? Czyz nie? Smierd jest taka prozaiczna Powiedzialam u fryzjera: Wieczna ondulacja Na cala. wiecznos"d I zeby mi sie. pidrka ls"nily Bo przyjde. stamtad I zazadam zwrotu pieniedzy. Papugi na pluszowej kanapie Z ogryzkiem papierosa W srebrnym ustniku Ze strzepem mydli Wsrdd kolorowych pidrek Wypchane soba. Az po czubek giowy I po ogonek. Prawda, pani Daiuniu Ja z pania.... Jaka pani... Moze jeszcze s a l a t k i Lub jajko w majonezie? W zyciu jest tez jak w jajku Z wierzchu bialo W srodku zdlto Potem nic. A Party 1. Parrots Parrots on velvet sofas Heads together Beaks together Gleaming feathers Constantly f l i p p i n g their t a i l s - I wish to he immortal Yes, yes, without exaggeration And s i t forever on velvet sofas Hand in hand, nose to nose. - You too? or not? Death i s so prosaic I told my hairdresser: I want a permanent For a l l eternity And I want my feathers to gleam Or I w i l l return from there And demand my money back. Parrots on velvet sofas Nibbling on cigarettes In silve r holders With wisps of thoughts Amidst colored feathers They s i t stuffed with themselves From the t i p of the head To the very t a i l You are right Dziunia I am with you What lady Maybe a l i t t l e more salad Or an egg with dressing? Li f e resembles an egg White on the outside Yellow inside And then nothing. 2. Monolog w przerwie miQdzy jednym, a drugim kieliszkiem Nazywam sie. pan Jan Dlaczego, nie wiem Kazdy jakos" sie. nazywa. Wolalbyra zreszta, Wincenty Albo Napoleon, Ale nic juz nie poradze, Moze zreszta. mdglbym poradzid Wszystko daje sie. naprawid J e d l i nie zalowad pieniedzy. Wiec nazywam sie. Jan I pochodze, stamtad Skad wszyscy pochcdziiny, Ale od pewnego czasu To juz nie ma znaczenia I nawet nasze dawne „Gdralu, czy c i nie z a l " Brzmi cokolwiek falszywie. Bo, po prawdzie, to mi nie zal I wcale sie. tego nie wstydze., To znaczy wstydzilem sie. dawniej, Ale teraz sobie powiedzialem: Janie, daj spokdj mrzonkom. I od razu poczulem sie. l e p i e j . Wiec wlasnie sie. nazywam, Ale to nie jest wazne I pochodze., ale nie o tym Chcialem tutaj mdwid. Chcialem tylko powiedzied Ze jestem. Po co jestem, nie wiem. Jestem, bo bylem. Bede., bo jestem, A potem przestane. byd. I wtedy to juz naprawde. Bedzie wszystko jedno. Prosze. nie chrzakad — powiadam Bylem, wiec jestem, panowie I pdki jestem... Prosze, sie. nie smiad Bo wiem do czego zdazam Nie tak latwo jest zmienid skdre. Chociaz to podobno poplaca. Nazywam sie, pan Jan, Wcale nie jestem gdralem I niczego mi nie jest z a l . A50 185 2. A monologue at intermission - between two cocktails My name is Jan \ Why, I don't know Everyone must have some name I would prefer to be called Vincenty or Napoleon But there is nothing I can do about i t But maybe I could do something Everything can be done If one isn't stingy with money I come from there Where we a l l come from, But for some time now That means nothing. Even our old song "Man of the Mountains, have you no regrets?" " sounds somewhat out of tune Because i s i l l y , I have no regrets 1 And I am not at a l l ashamed of i t That means that I used to feel shame before But then I told myself; Jan stop hallucinating And I f e l t better immediately. In any case I have been named But that is no longer important And I come from, but that i s not what I intended to talk about here. I only wanted to say That I am Why I am I don't know I am because I was I w i l l be because I am And afterwards I w i l l stop being And then i t w i l l r e a l l y be Immaterial Please stop clearing your throat - I say I was, therefore I am, gentlemen And as long as I am Please don't laugh Because I know what I am aiming at It i s not easy to change one's skin But I hear i t pays well My name is Jan I am not a man of the mountains And I regret nothing. 186 Ty nie-Ty Slorice, pajak ognisty Nad korujiami miasta — I dzieri dymem sie, dciele Po dachach. Czemu zawsze stoje, Z twarza. przy szybie? Ja, nie-ja, Ktod, kto ma Glowe, i rece. Slorice, nie-Slorice, Dymem, rrie-dymem, Po dachach, I j a nie-ja, Miedzy dymem, a sloricem. A mowilam c i zawsze: — Ty, nie-Ty, Chciales' byd nie-byd, Moze dymem sie. rozplynad Po niebie? A mowilam c i zawsze: — Ty, nie-Ty, Kcchaled, nie-kochaied, Moze c i sie. zdawalo, Ze widzialed twarz slorica Za szyba,? Czemu zawsze Wiem, nie-wiem, Czuje., nie-czuje.? Czemu patrze., Nie patrzac, Otwartymi szeroko oczyma? Slorice, pajak ognisty, Poza plotem kcxidnow, I dzieri dymem zaglada Do okna. A51 18.7 You not - You Sun,, a f i e r y s p i d e r Above the chimneys of the c i t y -and the day beds down i n smoke Over r o o f t o p s . Why do I always stand Facing the window pane? I, not -1 , Somebody, who has A head and hands. Sun, not-Sun , Smoke, not-Smoke, On r o o f t o p s , And I n o t - I , Between the smoke, and the sun. I always t o l d you; — You, not-You, Wanted to be, not-be, Should one d i s p e r s e l i k e smoke Into the sky? I always t o l d you; — You not-You, Loved, n o t - l o v e d , Maybe you thought That you saw the sun's face Behind the window pane? Why do I always Know, not-know F e e l , n o t - f e e l ? Why do I look Eyes wide open Unseeing? Sun a f i e r y s p i d e r , Beyond the hedge of chimneys, and the day peers i n t o the window Through an eye of smoke. 188 IRENA KWIATKOWSKA-DE GRANDPRE was born i n Poland and com-p l e t e d her u n i v e r s i t y education i n France at the Sorbonne, where she obtained a d o c t o r a t e . She i s both a p a i n t e r and a poet. Her l a t e s t volume of poems, Le Coeur contre  l e s murs, w r i t t e n i n French, was r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d i n Mon-t r e a l . I t i s i l l u s t r a t e d by her and was d i s p l a y e d at the f i r s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l F e s t i v a l of Books, i n Nice. She now l i v e s i n Montreal. Irena Kwiatkowska was a l s o one of the a r t i s t s chosen i n 1967 f o r an i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x h i b i t i o n of p a i n t e r s on the o c c a s i o n of the Centenary of Canada. In a d d i t i o n , she has c o l l a b o r a t e d with her husband, P i e r r e de Grandpre, a Canadian w r i t e r , i n L ' H i s t o i r e de l a l i t t e r a t u r e  f r a n c h i s e du Quebec. 1 8 9 Verbe tu es l e monde Le rythme et le temps Tu tournes avec"le s o l e i l Tu es l'ame de toutes choses La couleur e t l ' e l a n Tu es aigle de feu et de vent Quand tu es verbe de 1'amour. Mai l e verbe de ton coeur Est mon desert de sable Le verbe de ton coeur Est ma chute mortelle Verbe tu n'es qu'un rrruet Tu deviens sang Quand l e c r i est dans l a gorge. *** Word you are the world Rhythm and time You turn with the sun You are the soul of a l l things The color and dash You are the eagle of f i r e and wind When you are a word of love But the word of your heart Is my desert of sand The word of your heart Is my mortal f a l l Word you are only a mute You become blood When a cry rises i n the throat 191 Source Une seule fois J ' a i bu a l a source L'eau pure l'eaii c l a i r e Aujourd'hui Une lourde pierre Blesse mon front Quand je me courbe Pour y boire Et je reviens chaque jour Vers cette source morte Je m'agenouille et j'attends Que l'eau vive r e j a i l l i s s e The Well Once only I drank from the v e i l ' Pure water, clear water Today a heavy stone Bruises my forehead When I bend down to drink And I return each day To that dead well I kneel and wait For l i v i n g water to Spring forth again 193 Metamorphose Dans l a nuit mon corps Chat mechant Se dresse au fond d'un puits Profond Sans sortie La volonte dcmpteur puissant Se repose Je contemple 1'animal Je v e i l l e Et regarde l e c i e l La porte de nuit est bien fermee Le s o l e i l du jour encore s i l o i n Pauvre bete Quelle peine Tu te donnes Et ton ame est toute prete A renaltre humaine Ton ame est toute pr§te A devenir dieu A54 19k Met amorpho sis At night my body A mean cat Arches i t s back at the bottom of the well Abysmal Without an exit The w i l l - a powerful tamer Rests I observe the animal I keep watch Gazing at the sky The door of night i s firmly closed Day's sun s t i l l so far away Poor beast What pain You suffer Your soul i s ready For a human rebirth Your soul i s ready To become god 1 9 5 Quatre murs Jouent avec mon coeur Le renvoient face a face Je regarde Je ne sens plus rien Les heures s'en vont Vides de temps Pas de geste La pensee coule La nuit s'est figee Pas de c i e l Pas d'hier Ni de demain Quatre murs blancs Jouent avec mon coeur Je regarde Je ne sens Plus rien... Four walls Play with my heart Tossing i t back and forth I watch I f e e l nothing Hours pass Timelessly No movement Thought flows Night congeals No sky No yesterday No tomorrow Four blank walls Play with my heart . I watch I f e e l Nothing 197 SOURCES OF POLISH AND FRENCH POEMS (XIIJLECTED FOR THE ANTHOLOGY Bienkowska, Danuta. Piesrf suchego je,zyka. Paryz: Instytut Literacki, 1971. Bohdanowiczowa, Zofia. Przeciwiajac sie, swierszczom. Londyn: Veritas, 1965. Busza, Andrzej. Unpublished manuscripts and the following periodicals: Tematy, New York and London, 31-32, Autumn-Winter 1969. Oficyna Poetow, London, Vol. 5:2, May 1970. Kultura, Paris, December 1971. Tygodnik Powszechny, Krakow, 1974. Czaykowski, Bogdan. Spor z granicami. Paryz: Instytut Literacki, 1964. . Point-No-Point. Paryz: Instytut Literacki, 1971. Ihnatowicz, Janusz. Pejzaz z postaciami. Londyn: Oficyna Poetow i Malarzy, 1972. . Wiersze wybrane. Krakow: Wydawnictwo-Znak, 1972. Iwaniuk, Waclaw. Wybor wierszy. Paryz: Instytut Literacki, 1965. . Ciemny czas. Paryz: Instytut Literacki, 1968. . Lustro. Londyn: Oficyna Poetow i Malarzy, 1971. Kwiatkowska-De Grandpre, Irena. Le Coeur contre les murs. Quebec: Centre Educatif et Culturel, Inc., 1969. 

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