UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

From fiction to fact : the literary development of Norman Mailer Campbell, Lawrence Sherwood 1975

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FROM FICTION TO FACT: THE LITERARY DEVELOPMENT OF NORMAN MAILER by LAWRENCE SHERWOOD CAMPBELL B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of E n g l i s h We ac c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1975 1 1 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e -ments f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l -a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o r l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date 'cTO@€ft ills-ABSTRACT The t h e s i s concerns the development of Norman M a i l e r ' s work, f o c u s i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y upon the nature and s i g n i f i c a n c e of h i s change i n form, from novel to c o m p i l a t i o n to j o u r n a l i s m , from f i c t i o n to f a c t . The argument i s t h a t the movement from one form or category to another re p r e s e n t s an attempt t o s o l v e problems i n h e r e n t i n the p r e v i o u s form. The problem t h a t i n i -t i a t e s and u n d e r l i e s h i s e n t i r e e v o l u t i o n might be s t a t e d crude l y as t h a t of r e c o n c i l i n g " r e a l i t y " and "meaning" i n a s i n g l e work, though these terms should be understood as a b s t r a c t i o n s whose a c t u a l d e f i n i t i o n v a r i e s with d i f f e r e n t works. T h i s d e s i r e d r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , i t i s argued, i s not a t t a i n e d i n the n o v e l s . M a i l e r goes through three g e n e r a l phases, how-ever, i n attempting t o b r i n g i t about: h i s f i r s t n o v e l , The  Naked and the Dead, i s l i m i t e d by i t s n a t u r a l i s t format to a d e p e r s o n a l i z e d , o m niscient d e p i c t i o n of a seamless r e a l i t y , a l i to human value or meaning; h i s second phase, r e p r e s e n t e d by The  Deer Park, t r i e s to c o r r e c t t h i s l i m i t a t i o n by i n t r o d u c i n g a p e r i p h e r a l n a r r a t o r , w i t h the r e s u l t , however, t h a t meaning (or the p o t e n t i a l f o r meaning) and r e a l i t y appear as balanced but separate and mutually i r r e l e v e n t terms; and h i s t h i r d phase represented by An American Dream, v i r t u a l l y abandons the r e a l world a l t o g e t h e r , d e v o l v i n g i n t o a p r i v a t e realm of meaning centred about a h e r o - n a r r a t o r . M a i l e r ' s f i c t i o n i s seemingly caught i n a b i n d where meaning and r e a l i t y appear as opposing i v terms, so t h a t the p u r s u i t of one r e q u i r e s the r e l i n q u i s h m e n t of the other. With Advertisements f o r Myself, however, p u b l i s h e d p r i o r to An American Dream, h i s development branches i n a d i r e c t i o n t h a t allows escape from t h i s t r a p . T h i s i s the f i r s t of the " c o m p i l a t i o n s " , unique and s e l f - c o n t a i n e d forms c o n s i s t i n g of a double l e v e l : a c o l l e c t i o n of e a r l i e r w r i t i n g s and a u n i f y -i n g , i n t e r l a c e d commentary. While r e l i e v i n g M a i l e r from the i m a g i n a t i v e burdens o f f i c t i o n , they p r o v i d e a d i s p l a y f o r a s c a t t e r e d v a r i e t y of a l t e r n a t e forms and s t y l e s , i n c l u d i n g the l a t e r j o u r n a l i s m . More i m p o r t a n t l y , they p r e s e n t the c o n s t r u c -t i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n of a M a i l e r persona, the embodiment of a k i n d of Mailer-myth, and a p o t e n t i a l hero who p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r an e v e n t u a l s y n t h e s i s of r e a l i t y and meaning. But the c o m p i l a t i o n i t s e l f i s a t r a n s i t i o n a l form, becoming o b s o l e t e as the persona becomes s t a b i l i z e d and the gap between i t s two l e v e l s v a n i s h e s . A f t e r t h i s g e s t a t i o n p e r i o d , M a i l e r a c h i e v e s h i s g r e a t e s t success to date w i t h The Armies of the N i g h t . Here, meaning d e r i v e s e x p l i c i t l y from the " M a i l e r " c h a r a c t e r c o n s t r u c t e d i n the c o m p i l a t i o n s , r a t h e r than i m p l i c i t l y from a f i c t i o n a l nar-r a t i v e ; and r e a l i t y i s secured simply through the r e p o r t i n g r a t h e r than through a mimetic r e a l i s m . M a i l e r ' s fundamental problem of f u s i n g r e a l i t y and meaning i s s o l v e d i n t h i s work (and to a l e s s e r extent i n h i s subsequent jo u r n a l i s m ) by means of a symbiosis of h i s t o r y and persona. The l a t e r j o u r n a l i s m , V however, e x h i b i t s a growing r i g i d i t y , as the M a i l e r persona becomes s t e r e o t y p e d and i n c r e a s i n g l y d i v o r c e d from h i s s u b j e c t , meaning d i v o r c e d from r e a l i t y . v i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s Page A b s t r a c t i i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 C h a p t e r 1 The Naked and t h e Dead 1+ C h a p t e r 2 B a r b a r y S h o r e and The Deer P a r k . . . . 21+ C h a p t e r 3 An A m e r i c a n Dream and Why A r e We I n V i e t n a m ? I4.6 C h a p t e r 4 A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f and t h e C o m p i l a t i o n s 714. C h a p t e r 5 The A r m i e s o f t h e N i g h t and t h e J o u r n a l i s m 1 1 8 C o n c l u s i o n 1 3 5 F o o t n o t e s 1 3 9 B i b l i o g r a p h y 1 5 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Norman M a i l e r has always co n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f p r i m a r i l y a n o v e l i s t . ". . . 1 wouldn't want ever to be caught j u s t i f y i n g j o u r n a l i s m as a major a c t i v i t y ( i t ' s o b v i o u s l y l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g than to w r i t e a n o v e l ) " , he t o l d an i n t e r v i e w e r i n 1964. 1 Yet, i n the twenty-six years of h i s l i t e r a r y c a r e e r , he has w r i t t e n only f i v e n o v e l s , and only the f i r s t of these has r e c e i v e d unmixed a c c l a i m . The r e s t of h i s p u b l i s h e d works have taken a v a r i e t y of f o r m s — a book of poetry, a p l a y , a f i l m s c r i p t — 2 but s i n c e the p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s l a s t n o v el to date they have been almost e x c l u s i v e l y j o u r n a l i s m ; and the i r o n y of t h i s change i s deepened by the f a c t t h a t i t i s M a i l e r ' s j o u r n a l i s m t h a t i s p r i n c i p a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the g r e a t improvement i n h i s r e p u t a -t i o n . Despite h i s own i n t e n t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , M a i l e r ' s develop-ment re p r e s e n t s a c u r i o u s r e v e r s a l of the more t r a d i t i o n a l pro-cess by which r e p o r t e r s grow i n t o n o v e l i s t s (as e x e m p l i f i e d by h i s own mentor, Hemingway). I t i s the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s to i n v e s t i g a t e such an unusual e v o l u t i o n through a study of c e r t a i n of M a i l e r ' s works, seeking to i s o l a t e a t key p o i n t s the l i t e r -ary f o r c e s , t e n s i o n s , and tendencies t h a t are i t s c a u s a l f a c t o r s That t h i s i s an examination of a l i t e r a r y development, and not merely of s e l e c t e d autonomous works, should be emphasized. The works t h a t are s t u d i e d are t h e r e f o r e not n e c e s s a r i l y M a i l e r ' b e s t — r a t h e r , a t t e n t i o n i s concentrated on those t h a t mark the s i g n i f i c a n t phases of h i s c a r e e r . Three of these books, d i s -cussed i n the f i r s t three chapters, are n o v e l s — T h e Naked and 2. the Dead, The Deer Park, and An American Dream; the a p p a r e n t l y d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of space devoted to a form t h a t M a i l e r e v e n t u a l l y seems to leave behind i s a consequence of the f a c t t h a t he h i m s e l f (however mistakenly) p l a c e s so much val u e upon the n o v e l as an i d e a l , and i t i s i n h i s v a r i o u s attempts to make th a t i d e a l concrete t h a t one can t r a c e the o r i g i n s of the problems and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t h a t are a t the b a s i s of h i s e n t i r e develop-ment. The f o u r t h chapter focuses on the p i v o t a l work of M a i l e r ' s c a r e e r , Advertisements f o r Myself, a book t h a t i s of a unique though u n s t a b l e form i t s e l f , and which begins h i s movement toward the j o u r n a l i s m of h i s m a t u r i t y . And the f i f t h chapter d i s c u s s e s the f i r s t and best example o f t h a t l a t e r j o u r -nalism, The Armies of the N i g h t . These f i v e books c o n s t i t u t e the p r i n c i p l e markers of M a i l e r ' s l i t e r a r y development. With the e x c e p t i o n of the l a s t , perhaps, they tend to be i m p e r f e c t , s p o i l e d , unbalanced, or u n f i n i s h e d , y e t u s u a l l y charged w i t h a k i n d of p o t e n t i a l energy t h a t i s the source o f M a i l e r ' s power as a w r i t e r . T h i s p e c u l i a r combin-a t i o n of s t r e n g t h and weakness, f r e q u e n t l y t r o u b l i n g to c r i t i c s , can be e x p l a i n e d by the same q u a l i t y t h a t makes i t d i f f i c u l t to study h i s works as separate e n t i t i e s : M a i l e r ' s w r i t i n g s , as he h i m s e l f s t a t e s i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n to C a nnibals and C h r i s t i a n s , "are p a r t s of a c o n t i n u i n g and more or l e s s comprehensive v i s i o n 3 of e x i s t e n c e i n t o which e v e r y t h i n g must f i t " . I t i s t h i s t o t a l i z i n g . c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t not only allows but r e q u i r e s the 3. c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f h i s work as a d e v e l o p m e n t , as a p r o g r e s s i v e s e r i e s o f s t r u g g l e s t o g i v e l i t e r a r y f o r m t o a v i s i o n t h a t i s i t s e l f u n d e r g o i n g e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a n g e . 4. Chapter 1 The Naked and the Dead The key q u e s t i o n to ask of t h i s f i r s t n o v e l , i n any study of M a i l e r ' s development, i s why i t i s unique among h i s works. I t was an immediate and enormous success, both p o p u l a r l y and c r i t i c a l l y . A l f r e d K a z i n , f o r example, regards i t as " s t i l l the only one o f M a i l e r ' s novels t h a t c o n t i n u a l l y reads l i k e a n o vel t h a t i s s t a b l e i n conception.""'' Why, then, d i d M a i l e r not continue to w r i t e novels of the k i n d he had seemingly e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h h i s f i r s t ? He h i m s e l f has t o l d o f h i s r e f u s a l to r e t u r n merely to the subject-matter of The Naked and the 2 Dead, but t h a t h a r d l y e x p l a i n s h i s abandonment of i t s very form or type. I t i s an i n s u f f i c i e n t e x p l a n a t i o n , t h a t i s , u n l e s s one supposes t h a t the form i t s e l f i s i n some way an o b s t a c l e , t h a t i t c o n t a i n s c e r t a i n i n h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t render i t i n -capable of g i v i n g e x p r e s s i o n to new-found v i s i o n s and ambitions. The q u e s t i o n of the uniqueness of M a i l e r ' s f i r s t n o v e l i n v o l v e s the broader q u e s t i o n of the i n i t i a t i n g impulse behind the whole of h i s development, the q u e s t i o n of the o r i g i n o f those l i t e r -ary f o r c e s and s t r a i n s t h a t have s u s t a i n e d h i s o f t e n r i s k -f i l l e d quest f o r new forms. To answer these q u e s t i o n s i t i s f i r s t necessary to examine the form or type of The Naked and the Dead i t s e l f , so as to understand more p r e c i s e l y what i t i s t h a t M a i l e r i s r e j e c t i n g . I f we begin, c o n v e n i e n t l y , a t the beginning, we n o t i c e o n l y a 5. short and simple opening paragraph; i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g simply i n t hat M a i l e r chooses not to begin i r i media r e s , w i t h dialogue or s p e c i f i c d e s c r i p t i o n , but r a t h e r w i t h a f a i r l y a b s t r a c t and o b j e c t i v e statement. L i k e the e s t a b l i s h i n g shot i n f i l m , t h i s f i r s t paragraph i s a means of q u i c k l y s i t u a t i n g the s t o r y i n space, time, and mood. The f o l l o w i n g two paragraphs, separated from the f i r s t by a t e x t u a l gap, are then o b v i o u s l y designed to i l l u s t r a t e t h a t mood; the f i r s t sentence had s t a t e d t h a t "Nobody could s l e e p " , and now, l i k e the cut from a long shot to a close-up, we are shown the anonymous case of one of those s l e e p l e s s s o l d i e r s , h i s simple e f f o r t s to get to a t o i l e t t o l d i n a dramatic present tense. Then, w i t h another break i n the t e x t , the novel cuts to a scene of men p l a y i n g poker elsewhere aboard the same troop ship the n i g h t before the l a n d i n g . Here, f o r the f i r s t time, we are provided w i t h names, d e s c r i p t i o n s , and b r i e f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s . Wilson, Gallagher, .and S t a f f Sergeant C r o f t are introduced i n t u r n (though not, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , the two other men who w i l l play no f u r t h e r r o l e i n the n o v e l ) , along w i t h j u s t enough of t h e i r thoughts and f e e l i n g s to d i s t i n g u i s h each as a separate p e r s o n a l i t y . The poker game i t s e l f f u n c t i o n s as l i t t l e more than a frame upon which to hang the character p o r t r a i t s , but i t s climax pro-vides an almost textbook example of foreshadowing: Sergeant C r o f t r eceives a sudden i n t u i t i o n that he i s going to win ("Croft didn't question i t . A c e r t a i n t y as v i v i d as t h i s one had 3 to mean something." ), but he i s wrong and l o s e s ; h i s mistake here o b v i o u s l y presages h i s more momentous d e f e a t a t the end, and i s the f i r s t i n s t a n c e o f the s o r t of i r o n i c r e v e r s a l t h a t i s common i n the n o v e l . Yet, a p a r t from t h i s l i t e r a r y r e l a -t i o n s h i p , the scene i s e s s e n t i a l l y an i s o l a t e d v i g n e t t e , w i t h -out f u r t h e r consequence i n the a c t i o n of the book. Enough has been s a i d about the w r i t i n g to allow some pre-limenary g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . F i r s t l y , there i s the matter of the ci n e m a t i c analogy i n the d i s c u s s i o n of these opening segments. T h i s i s not merely a r e s u l t of t h e i r j u x t a p o s i t i o n , l i k e the ed-i t e d sequences of a f i l m , but of t h e i r d e p e r s o n a l i z e d n a r r a t i v e tone; they seem not to be " t o l d " , i n other words, but r a t h e r , i n some o b j e c t i v e f a s h i o n , simply recorded, l i k e the p i c t u r e s of a camera. Yet, u n l i k e the r i g i d l y e x t e r n a l i z e d "camera-eye" n a r r a t i o n , the r e c o r d i n g instrument behind these scenes i s omniscient, p o t e n t i a l l y a b l e to p r o v i d e an unmediated, shadowless v i s i o n o f every thought, every emotion, and the consequences of every deed. The r e s u l t of such an overviewing n a r r a t i o n (one can h a r d l y speak of a " p o i n t " of view) i s t h a t an a i r of i determinism e n t e r s the novel from i t s e a r l y pages, an a n t i -dramatic i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t i t s course i s p r e d e s t i n e d , and a l l t h a t remains i s a methodical working-out through the d i s p l a y and e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n of i t s m a t e r i a l . A second g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n concerns p r e c i s e l y the de-gree of "method" i n v o l v e d i n these segments, the evidence o f a very d e l i b e r a t e and o r g a n i z e d composition. They are arranged, f o r example, "in a c l e a r sequence from a b s t r a c t statement, to 7. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e t a i l , t o f u l l y developed i l l u s t r a t i o n . With-i n the segments, as w e l l , one f i n d s an o r d e r l y arrangement of m a t e r i a l ; the p r i n c i p l e c h a r a c t e r s are presented as they p l a y t h e i r cards b e f o r e the scene moves to i t s c o n t r i v e d a n t i -climax. The very use of a scene, i n f a c t , as no more than a frame f o r such d e v i c e s as c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n or foreshadowing argues a h i g h degree of t e c h n i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n , and t h i s i s a q u a l i t y manifested throughout the n o v e l , as M a i l e r h i m s e l f l a t e r admitted: "I s t u d i e d e n g i n e e r i n g a t Harvard, and I suppose i t was the book of a young engineer. The s t r u c t u r e i s sturdy, but there's no f i n e f i l i g r e e to the j o i n t s . J u s t spot welding 4 and r i v e t i n g . " The consequence of such a c o m p o s i t i o n a l method, combined w i t h the d e p e r s o n a l i z e d omniscient n a r r a t i o n , i s t h a t the novel tends to appear somewhat a r b i t r a r y as a whole; i t s n a t u r a l u n i t s are the i n d i v i d u a l segments and scenes which are simply added to one another l i k e a p i l e of b l o c k s to produce a t o t a l i t y t h a t may be ingenious but i s nonetheless mechanical. C e r t a i n l y , n e i t h e r of these g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are e x t r a o r d i n a r y , but they may s u f f i c e to p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n of the type of t h i s n o v e l , as w e l l as some i d e a of i t s i n -herent l i m i t a t i o n s . Consider the f o l l o w i n g passage, f o r ex-ample, i n the l i g h t of what has been s a i d of The Naked and the  Dead: The composition c o n s i s t s of the assemblage of a l l the important d e t a i l s as seen from v a r i o u s p o i n t s of view. The r e s u l t i s a s e r i e s of s t a t i c p i c t u r e s , of s t i l l l i v e s connected only through the r e l a t i o n s of o b j e c t s arrayed one beside the o t h e r a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r own 8. i n n e r l o g i c , n e v e r f o l l o w i n g one f r o m t h e o t h e r , c e r t a i n l y n e v e r one o u t o f t h e o t h e r . The s o -c a l l e d a c t i o n i s o n l y a t h r e a d on w h i c h t h e s t i l l l i v e s a r e d i s p o s e d i n a s u p e r f i c i a l , i n e f f e c t i v e ,-f o r t u i t o u s s e q u e n c e o f i s o l a t e d , s t a t i c p i c t u r e s . What m i g h t seem an a p p o s i t e summary o f M a i l e r ' s f i r s t n o v e l i s i n f a c t a p i e c e f r o m an e s s a y by G e o r g L u k a c s i n w h i c h he s e t s o u t t h o s e a s p e c t s o f " n a t u r a l i s m " t h a t c o n t r a s t w i t h " r e a l i s m " . Of c o u r s e , one does n o t n e e d L u k a c s t o c l a s s i f y t h i s work as n a t u r a l i s t — M a i l e r h i m s e l f a d m i t s t o t h a t l a b e l , . a l b e i t r e l u c t a n t l y : " T h a t t e r r i b l e word ' n a t u r a l i s m ' . I t was my l i t e r a r y h e r i t a g e — t h e t h i n g s I l e a r n e d f r o m Dos P a s s o s and F a r r e l l . I t o o k n a t u r a l l y t o i t , t h a t ' s t h e way one w r o t e a book."6 S t i l l , L u k a c s ' c o n t e n t i o u s b u t t r e n c h a n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s g i v e s i g n i f i c a n t i n s i g h t i n t o t h o s e f e a t u r e s o f t h e n a t u r a l i s t n o v e l t h a t l i m i t o r c h a n n e l i t s v i s i o n . F o r him, n a t u r a l i s m c o n s t i t u t e s a d e c a d e n t u s u r p a t i o n o f t h e l e g i t i m a t e l i n e o f e p i c n a r r a t i o n by a " d e s c r i p t i v e " mode o f f i c t i o n : I n d e s c r i p t i o n men's q u a l i t i e s e x i s t s i d e by s i d e and a r e so r e p r e s e n t e d ; t h e y do n o t i n t e r p e n e t r a t e o r r e c i p r o c a l l y e f f e c t e a c h o t h e r so as t o r e v e a l t h e v i t a l u n i t y o f p e r s o n a l i t y w i t h i n v a r i e d m a n i f e s t a t i o n s and a m i d s t c o n t r a d i c t o r y a c t i o n s . 7 I n t h i s t y p e o f n o v e l , t h e r e f o r e , "A c h a r a c t e r a p p e a r s as a f i n i s h e d ' p r o d u c t ' p e r h a p s composed o f v a r i e d s o c i a l and n a t -g u r a l e l e m e n t s " --an o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t p e r t a i n s e s p e c i a l l y t o M a i l e r ' s use o f a Dos P a s s o s - l i k e i n t e r p o l a t i o n , "The Time M a c h i n e " , t o p r o v i d e h i s c h a r a c t e r s w i t h a s k e t c h y , e x p l a n a t o r y p a s t . 9. Lukacs' views on n a t u r a l i s m are i n t e r e s t i n g f o r one of the very reasons that make them c o n t r o v e r s i a l - - t h e y go to the root of the phenomenon. He does not see M a i l e r ' s " l i t e r a r y h e r i t a g e " as simply one brand of r e a l i s m among many, nor does he define i t i n terms of some s u p e r f i c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c such as determinism or s o r d i d subject-matter; r a t h e r , these o f t e n -noted features are d e r i v e d from deeply based metaphysical and e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l assumptions. Perhaps the keystone of h i s c r i t i q u e i s the idea that n a t u r a l i s m i s but one strand of the modern s p l i t between s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e , between "inner" and "outer" worlds, so that I t makes l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e whether the multidimension-a l i t y of the outer and inner worlds or of t h e i r un-i n t e r r u p t e d i n t e r a c t i o n i s reduced u l t i m a t e l y to an i n t e r n a l i z e d monotonous stream of a s s o c i a t i o n s i n mono-logue or whether an autonomous e x t e r n a l , s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t world emerges i n the trend toward l i f e l e s s o b j e c t i v i s m , a world which can have no r e l a t i o n to men and w i t h which they can have nothing i n common, where every meaningful i n t e r a c t i o n between an i n d i -v i d u a l ' s inner l i f e and h i s environment i s precluded by the very mode of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . 9 ( I t i s t h i s " s i n g l e - d i m e n s i o n a l " o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n of human e x i s -tence that e l i m i n a t e s the conscious, d e c i s i v e q u a l i t y of w i l l , thus g i v i n g r i s e to naturalism's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c determinism, i t s r e l i a n c e upon cause and chance as i t s m o t i v a t i n g p r i n c i -p l e s .) Lukacs' c r i t i c i s m i s c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to M a i l e r ' s f i r s t n o v e l , and the passage quoted above:—most e s p e c i a l l y i t s l a s t c l a u s e — d e s e r v e s p a r t i c u l a r emphasis, f o r i t contains a 10. p o s s i b l e answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n p o s e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s t u d y : M a i l e r abandons t h e h e r i t a g e t h a t h a d g i v e n him h i s f i r s t and g r e a t e s t s u c c e s s b e c a u s e i t s " v e r y mode o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " p r e c l u d e s t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f g e n u i n e , i n t e g r a t e d human s t r u g g l e . The e n t i r e d i c h o t o m y between s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e has a deep and l a s t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e t h r o u g h o u t M a i l e r ' s c a r e e r , w h i c h i n many ways c a n be s e e n as a s e a r c h f o r a h e r o w i t h w h i c h t o h e a l t h a t d i v i d e . A t t h i s p o i n t , h o w e v e r , . L u k a c s ' r e l e v e n c e i s o n l y somewhat t e n t a t i v e and a b s t r a c t . H i s comments on s p e c i f i c works t e n d t o be more c o n c r e t e and j u d i c i o u s t h a n h i s o c c a s i o n a l l y s w e e p i n g a t t a c k s upon t h e n a t u r a l i s t t r a d i t i o n g e n e r a l l y , and he has i n f a c t s i n g l e d o u t The Naked and t h e Dead f o r s p e c i a l commen-d a t i o n , g i v e n t h e " e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s " o f i t s t i m e . 1 0 He h i m s e l f , i n o t h e r words, d i s p l a y s a c a u t i o n i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i s l a r g e r t h e o r i e s t h a t one w o u l d be w i s e t o e m u l a t e . W i t h t h i s i n mind, and w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t t h a t h i s i l l u m i n a t i n g r e -marks have p r o v i d e d , we c a n r e t u r n t o t h e n o v e l , l o o k i n g f o r e v i d e n c e o f h i s g e n e r a l d i a g n o s i s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f M a i l e r ' s d e v e l -opment two a s p e c t s o f The Naked and t h e Dead d e s e r v e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n s i n c e t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e o p p o s i n g e x t r e m e s o f weak-n e s s and s t r e n g t h n o t o n l y o f t h i s n o v e l b u t o f most o f h i s work. The f i r s t has t o do w i t h t h e a r t i f i c i a l o r m e c h a n i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e a l r e a d y e v i d e n t i n t h e o p e n i n g s e g m e n t s . I n f a c t , t h i s i s a q u a l i t y t h a t p e r v a d e s t h e book, f r o m i t s l a r g e s t 11. t o i t s s m a l l e s t e l e m e n t s . The v e r y c h o i c e o f war as a s u b j e c t l e n d s i t s e l f t o t h i s s o r t o f s t r u c t u r a l s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , ' ' " ' ' ' c l e a r , d e f i n e d , and s t a r k , by i t s v e r y n a t u r e i t p r o v i d e s a ready-made p a r a d i g m o f human e x i s t e n c e . (War, w i t h i t s a t t e n -d e n t i m a g e r y , has r e m a i n e d t h e most common me t a p h o r i n a l l o f M a i l e r ' s works.) And t h e a u t h o r i n t e n s i f i e s t h e p a r a d i g m a t i c q u a l i t y o f h i s s u b j e c t by means o f f i c t i o n a l i z i n g as much o f h i s s t o r y as p o s s i b l e ; r a t h e r t h a n s e t h i s n o v e l w i t h i n an h i s t o r -i c a l p l a c e and t i m e (as James J o n e s d i d i n From H e r e t o  E t e r n i t y ) , M a i l e r c h o o s e s t o i n v e n t a S o u t h P a c i f i c i s l a n d , " A n o p o p e i " , as t h e s c e n e f o r h i s i m a g i n a r y i n v a s i o n w h i c h i s c o n d u c t e d by a f i c t i o n a l G e n e r a l . The n o v e l i s v e r y n e a t l y c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h i s i l l u s t r a t i v e a c t o f war, o p e n i n g w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e l a n d i n g ( i n P a r t One: "Wave") and c l o s i n g w i t h some s c e n e s f r o m t h e "mopping-up" ( P a r t F o u r : "Wake"). W i t h t h i s model i n v a s i o n as b a c k g r o u n d , t h e n , t h e n o v e l f o c u s e s upon a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p l a t o o n , e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s r e g i o n a l and e t h n i c c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r t y p e s by means o f i n t e r p o l a t e d b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h e s and some s c e n e s o f t y p -i c a l m i l i t a r y s i t u a t i o n s ( w e a t h e r i n g a s t o r m , b u i l d i n g a r o a d , m oving guns, f a c i n g combat, and s o o n ) . I n d e e d , t h e n o v e l i s l a i d o u t w i t h an o r d e r l i n e s s r e s e m b l i n g t h a t o f a w o r k s h o p o r l a b o r a t o r y , t h e c h a r a c t e r s l i k e s p e c i m e n s , t h e e v e n t s l i k e e x e r c i s e s o r e x p e r i m e n t s . 1 ^ T h i s p l o d d i n g d e l i b e r a t e n e s s i s a b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f 12. the book's s t r u c t u r e . P a r t Two, " A r g i l and Mold", makes use of a stock i r o n i c c o n t r a s t between the immediate view of the "o r d i n a r y s o l d i e r s " o f the p l a t o o n and the overview o f the o f f i c e r s a t Headquarters, as t r i v i a l d e c i s i o n s a t the l a t t e r l e v e l r e s u l t i n momentous, even f a t a l , consequences a t the f o r -mer. Only i n P a r t Three, " P l a n t and Phantom", i s the p l a t o o n f i n a l l y s e nt on the "long p a t r o l " t h a t was the o r i g i n a l purpose 13 of the book. Agaxn, M a i l e r h i m s e l f g i v e s the bes t summary of the novel's o v e r a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n : . . . the working p l a n was very simple. I d e v i s e d some p r e l i m i n a r y a c t i o n s f o r the p l a t o o n i n order to g i v e the reader an o p p o r t u n i t y to get to know the men, but t h i s b e g i n n i n g . . . took over two-thirds o f the book. The p a t r o l i t s e l f i s a l s o simple, but I d i d gi v e more thought t o working i t out ahead of time.14 The a c t u a l n o v e l , of course, i s more complex than t h i s "working p l a n " i n d i c a t e s , but i t a t l e a s t p r o v i d e s evidence o f the book's programmatic composition and corresponds t o Lukacs' g e n e r a l a n a l y s i s of n a t u r a l i s m as a " s e r i e s of s t a t i c p i c t u r e s " (a q u a l i t y b e s t epitomized, again, by the "Time Machine" i n t e r -r u p t i o n s ) . T h i s c a r e f u l arrangement of m a t e r i a l , then, com-b i n e d w i t h i t s p a r a d i g m a t i c s u b j e c t and i t s f i c t i o n a l removal from the r e a l world, g i v e the novel a m a n i p u l a t i v e e f f e c t t h a t i s i t s g r e a t e s t weakness. The fundamental problem i s t h a t M a i l e r too o f t e n tends t o s u b s t i t u t e a w i l l e d or i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d p l a n f o r a f u l l f i c t i o n a l c r e a t i o n - - a f a i l u r e o f the imagina-t i o n , perhaps, t h a t manifests i t s e l f i n a fre q u e n t r e l i a n c e upon the " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " , the " i l l u s t r a t i v e " , or the merely 13. "average d e t a i l . The impression of light-weight a r t i f i c i a l i t y conveyed by th i s construction, however, i s counterbalanced by a series of remarkably v i v i d and concrete scenes i n which the d e t a i l seems not at a l l "representative" but exhaustively i n c l u s i v e . In stark contrast to the s t r u c t u r a l a r i d i t y of the novel, these scenes present a r e a l i t y that i s thick, immediate, and ines-capable. Here, for example, i s a d e t a i l from the long descrip-t i o n of the climb up the mountain i n Part Three: In the awful heat of the middle slopes they bogged down. Each time they passed through a draw or a hollow the a i r seemed to be refracted from the blazing rocks, and after a time t h e i r cheek muscles ached from continual squinting. I t was a minor pain and should have been l o s t i n the muscle cramps of t h e i r thighs, the s u l l e n vicious aching of t h e i r backs, but i t became the greatest torment of the march. The bright l i g h t lanced l i k e s p l i n t e r s into the tender f l e s h of t h e i r eyeballs, danced about the base of t h e i r brains i n reddened ch o l e r i c c i r c l e s . (p. 657) The "minor pain" of the refracted l i g h t i s exactly the sort of precise and p a r t i c u l a r observation that distinguishes these descriptions. (Some other examples are the storm pp. {95-1023 , the scene of the old, body-strewn battle f i e l d [pp. 210-2171, or any one of a number of segments i n Part Three on the long patrol.) In t h e i r accumulation of objective d e t a i l and t h e i r r e l e n t l e s s focus upon the concrete r e a l i t i e s of c o l l e c t i v e ex-perience, these scenes provide the novel with i t s weight and substance, and thus, to an extent, redeem the a r t i f i c i a l i t y of i t s form. Certainly t h i s i s the aspect of the book most f r e -quently singled out for praise by c r i t i c s , though they r a r e l y g i v e i t c l o s e a t t e n t i o n : J o h n W. A l d r i d g e r e f e r s s i m p l y t o 16 M a i l e r ' s " m a g n i f i c e n t r e p o r t o r i a l s e n s e " ; D i a n a T r i l l i n g s p e a k s o f " h i s f e e l i n g — u n m a t c h e d i n o u r t i m e , e v e n by Hemingway i n F o r Whom t h e B e l l T o l l s — f o r t o p o g r a p h y , f o r t h e l o o k o f t h e 17 n a t u r a l s c e n e " ; and Norman P o d h o r e t z p o i n t s t o M a i l e r ' s "phenomenal t a l e n t f o r r e c o r d i n g t h e p r e c i s e l o o k and f e e l o f t h i n g s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s p e c i f y j u s t how t h e s e p a s s a g e s p r o d u c e s u c h an i m p r e s s i o n , . f o r t h e r e seems l i t t l e a b o u t them t h a t i s o u t o f t h e o r d i n a r y . I t i s o n l y when one n o t i c e s t h e i r g e n e r a l l e n g t h t h a t one b e g i n s t o s u s p e c t t h e e f f e c t may be c u m u l a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n i s o l a b l e . M a i l e r ' s u s u a l s t y l e i n t h i s n o v e l i s an u n o b t r u s i v e one, i t s c h i e f v i r t u e b e i n g i t s l a c k o f a f f e c -t a t i o n , i t s p r a c t i c a l l u c i d i t y ; b u t i n t h e s e l o n g d e s c r i p t i o n s one s e n s e s a s u b t i l e n o t e o f s t r a i n i n t h e l a n g u a g e , due i n p a r t , p e r h a p s , t o i t s v e r y r e p e t i t i o u s n e s s . T h i s i s a sample f r o m a s c e n e o f men p u l l i n g f i e l d guns: T h e i r f e e t s a n k i n t o t h e deep mud and, a f t e r a few y a r d s , t h e i r b o o t s were c o v e r e d w i t h g r e a t s l a b s o f muck. The men on t h e guns w o u l d l u n g e f o r w a r d f o r a few f e e t and t h e n h a l t , l u n g e f o r w a r d and h a l t . E v e r y t e n y a r d s a gun w o u l d bog down and t h e t h r e e men a s s i g n e d t o i t w o u l d have t o t u g u n t i l t h e i r s t r e n g t h s e e p e d f r o m t h e i r f i n g e r s . They w o u l d w r e s t l e t h e gun o u t o f i t s r u t and p l u n g e i t f o r w a r d f o r f i f t e n f e e t b e f o r e t h e i r momentum was l o s t . Then t h e y w o u l d p u l l i t and l i f t i t f o r a n o t h e r few y a r d s u n t i l i t sank i n t o a h o l e once more. (p. 130) The l a n g u a g e h e r e seems t o i m i t a t e t h e s p a s m o d i c r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t y i t s e l f ; and one c a n s a y i n g e n e r a l t h a t t h e s e p a s s a g e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i n c e s s a n t r e t u r n , a g a i n and again, to the a c t u a l experience, i n a l l i t s d e t a i l , i t s minutiae, i t s v a r i e t y . There i s no attempt to summarize or condense, no e f f o r t to p r e s e n t the "meaning" of experience; i n f a c t , though there i s an abundance o f s i m i l e s i n t h i s s t y l e , t here are a l -most no m e t a p h o r s — a s though only the comparison o f apparent d i f f e r e n c e s were t o l e r a b l e , not t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , even as f i g u r e of speech. T h i s i s a language, i n o t h e r words, t h a t i s s c r u p u l o u s l y of appearance, of the s u r f a c e . I t s t r a i n s t o -ward experience i t s e l f , adhering as c l o s e l y as words allow to the sensuous t e x t u r e of f e e l i n g ( e s p e c i a l l y under the extremes of f a t i g u e or dread). I t i s , i n a r a d i c a l sense, t h e r e f o r e , a r e p o r t o r i a l language, concerned s o l e l y w i t h the phenomenon, not the essence, f a i t h f u l only to the r i c h d e n s i t y of r e a l i t y . These two a s p e c t s , then, can be seen as opposing tendencies i n The Naked and the Dead: on the one hand, there i s an a b s t r a c t , i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d form; on the o t h e r , a p u r e l y concrete d e s c r i p t i o n . They c o e x i s t u n e a s i l y i n t h i s n o v e l , the form p r o v i d i n g a rough c o n t a i n e r f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n , the d e s c r i p t i o n g i v i n g substance to the form. But even t h i s c o e x i s t e n c e cannot overcome the weaknesses i n h e r e n t i n the n a t u r a l i s t format. Despite t h e i r immediacy and t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l e x c e l l e n c e , the d e s c r i p t i v e scenes c l e a r l y are s t i l l no more than a " s e r i e s of tableaux", a r b i t r a r i l y s e l e c t e d , and p a t e n t l y arranged i n a 19 " f o r t u i t o u s sequence of i s o l a t e d , s t a t i c p i c t u r e s " . The very i n c l u s i v e n e s s w i t h which they r e p o r t experience reduced t h e i r d e t a i l t o what Lukacs terms "mere p a r t i c u l a r i t y " (as o p p o s e d t o t h e " c o n c r e t e t y p i c a l i t y " o f r e a l i s m ) , and s o , i n t h e end, o n l y e x a g g e r a t e s t h a t d i v o r c e between " i n n e r l i f e " and " e n v i r o n m e n t " t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s t h e c e n t r a l f l a w o£ n a t u r a l -i s m . L u k a c s 1 g e n e r a l t h e o r i e s , t h e r e f o r e , i l l u m i n a t e t h i s n o v e l ( w h a t e v e r one may t h i n k o f them i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s ) ; b u t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n a n o m o l i e s i n i t s n a t u r a l i s t f a b r i c t h a t have n o t been d i s c u s s e d u n t i l now b e c a u s e t h e y r e p r e s e n t i m p o r t a n t i n d i -c a t i o n s o f t h e d i r e c t i o n o f M a i l e r ' s s u b s e q u e n t d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e s e c e n t r e a b o u t t h e p e c u l i a r f i g u r e o f S t a f f S e r g e a n t C r o f t , b u t e x t e n d as w e l l i n t o o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e n o v e l , e s p e c i a l l y t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f G e n e r a l Cummings and h i s a i d e , L i e u t e n a n t H e a r n . H e a r n h i m s e l f , as a d i s i l l u s i o n e d l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l , i s a r a t h e r e x p e c t a b l e f i g u r e , b u t h i s d i a l o g u e s w i t h Cummings g r a n t him some s h a r e o f t h e l a t t e r ' s s t a t u r e . Cummings i s an a l t o g e t h e r more complex p e r s o n a l i t y , b o t h a t t r a c t i v e and r e -p e l l a n t , as H e a r n a t t e s t s (p. 7 7 ) . He p o s s e s s e s an " a l m o s t u n i -que a b i l i t y t o e x t e n d h i s t h o u g h t s i n t o i m m e d i a t e and e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n " (p. 7 7 ) , a power t h a t , i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e n o v e l , i s d e v e l o p e d t o s u c h a d e g r e e t h a t he looms as a k i n d o f S a t a n i c embodiment o f war, as i n t h e s e r e f l e c t i o n s a f t e r f i r i n g an a r t i l l e r y p i e c e w h i l e on i n s p e c t i o n : He d w e l t p l e a s u r a b l y i n many-webbed l a y e r s o f c o m p l e x i t y . The t r o o p s o u t i n t h e j u n g l e were d i s p o s e d f r o m t h e p a t t e r n s i n h i s mind, and y e t a t t h i s moment he was l i v i n g on many l e v e l s a t 17. o n c e ; i n f i r i n g t h e gun he was a p a r t o f h i m s e l f . A l l t h e r o a r i n g complex o f o d o r s and sounds and s i g h t s , m u l t i p l i e d and r e m u l t i p l i e d by a l l t h e guns o f t h e d i v i s i o n , was c o n t a i n e d i n a few c e l l s o f h i s h e a d , t h e f a i n t e s t c r e a s e o f h i s b r a i n . A l l o f i t , a l l t h e v i o l e n c e , t h e d a r k c o o r d i n a t i o n had s p r u n g f r o m h i s mind. (p. 566) Y e t Cumihings i s d i s c r e d i t e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f h i s d e b a t e s w i t h H e a r n , by b o t h h i s o v e r t f a s c i s m and h i s ( t r i t e ) homosex-u a l i t y — t r a i t s t h a t a l l o w him t o be f i x e d and c a t e g o r i z e d f i n a l l y . The i r o n i c a l l y a c c i d e n t a l manner i n w h i c h h i s " v i c t o r y " i s a c h i e v e d i s o n l y t h e t o k e n o f t h i s l o s s o f p r e s t i g e , and he i s l a s t s e e n r e d u c e d t o t h e l e v e l o f t h e c a l c u l a t i n g p o l i t i -c i a n : " I n t h e end t h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g was a l w a y s t o t o t e up y o u r p r o f i t and l o s s " (p. 7 1 7 ) . H e a r n i s k i l l e d d u r i n g t h e l o n g p a t r o l when C r o f t a l l o w s him t o w a l k i n t o an ambush, t h e r e -by r e g a i n i n g t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e p l a t o o n . E s s e n t i a l l y , o n l y C r o f t h i m s e l f r e m a i n s an anomaly t o t h e end, s i l e n t and m y s t e r -i o u s e v e n i n h i s p e r s o n a l d e f e a t . C r o f t i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y an e x t r a o r d i n a r y man, as i s a p p a r -e n t f r o m an e a r l y a c c o u n t o f h i s b e h a v i o r u n d e r f i r e : " 'But C r o f t — I t e l l y o u C r o f t l o v e s combat, he l o v e s i t . T h e r e a i n ' t a w o r se man y o u c o u l d be u n d e r o r a b e t t e r one, d e p e n d i n g on how y o u l o o k a t i t 1 " (p. 1 7 ) . Y e t t h e n a t u r a l i s t n o v e l i s a b l e t o p o r t r a y p o w e r f u l and e x t r a o r d i n a r y f i g u r e s , c h a r a c t e r s embodying an e l e m e n t a l f o r c e o r d r i v e (London's W o l f L a r s e n i n The Sea  W o l f , f o r example, o r D r e i s e r ' s Cowperwood i n The F i n a n c i e r ) . What s e t s C r o f t a p a r t f r o m t h e h e r o s o f t h o s e books and l i f t s h i m o u t o f t h e n a t u r a l i s t t r a d i t i o n i s n o t h i s s t r e n g t h so much 18. as h i s m y s t e r y . L i k e Cummings, h i s m o r a l n a t u r e i s r a d i c a l l y d i v i d e d , and he seems b o t h a d m i r a b l e and r e p u l s i v e , c o u r a g e o u s and m u r d e r o u s . "No, b u t why ijs C r o f t t h a t way?" i s t h e r h e t o r -i c a l q u e s t i o n a s k e d e a r l y i n h i s "Time M a c h i n e " segment: Oh, t h e r e a r e a n s w e r s . He i s t h a t way b e c a u s e o f t h e c o r r u p t i o n - o f - t h e - s o c i e t y . He i s t h a t way b e c a u s e t h e d e v i l has c l a i m e d h i m f o r one o f h i s own. I t i s b e c a u s e he i s a Texan; i t i s b e c a u s e he has r e n o u n c e d God. ( p . 1 5&) One b e g i n s t o s e n s e a l i t e r a r y s t r a t e g y a t work i n t h i s s o r t o f m i s d i r e c t i o n , as t h o u g h C r o f t ' s n a t u r e were b e i n g d e l i b e r a t e l y o b s c u r e d o r m y s t i f i e d i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h h i m n o t m e r e l y f r o m t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s b u t f r o m h i s l i t e r a r y c o n t e x t as w e l l . T h e r e i s no answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f h i s n a t u r e b e c a u s e he i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n e x p l i c a b l e , and so he a l o n e i s s h i e l d e d f r o m t h e w i t h e r i n g o m n i s c i e n c e o f t h e n a t u r a l i s t v i s i o n , . and i s p r e -s e r v e d as t h e e n i g m a t i c O t h e r . A t t h e c o r e o f h i s m y s t e r y i s an i n c h o a t e v i s i o n t h a t comes t o h i m a t odd moments o f c r i s i s o r c h a n g e . We have s e e n a m i n o r i n s t a n c e o f t h i s d u r i n g t h e o p e n i n g p o k e r game: Somehow, he knew he was g o i n g t o p u l l a s e v e n o r a t e n f o r a f u l l h o u s e . C r o f t d i d n ' t q u e s t i o n i t . A c e r t a i n t y as v i v i d as t h i s one had t o mean s o m e t h i n g . . . He h a d a deep u n s p o k e n b e l i e f t h a t w h a t e v e r made t h i n g s happen was on h i s s i d e ...... . .- (pp. 8-9) I n i t s l a r g e r d i m e n s i o n s — f i r s t s e e n h e r e when one o f h i s men i s k i l l e d d u r i n g t h e l a n d i n g — i t i s a l m o s t a m y s t i c e x p e r i e n c e : H i s r e a c t i o n was s i m i l a r t o t h e one he h a d f e l t a t t h e moment he d i s c o v e r e d h i s w i f e was u n f a i t h f u l . A t t h a t i n s t a n t , b e f o r e h i s r a g e and p a i n h a d begun t o o p e r a t e , he had f e l t o n l y a numb t h r o b b i n g ex-c i t e m e n t and t h e knowledge t h a t h i s l i f e was c h a n g e d 19. t o some d e g r e e and c e r t a i n t h i n g s w o u l d n e v e r be t h e same. He knew t h a t a g a i n now. H e n n e s s e y ' s d e a t h had opened t o C r o f t v i s t a s o f s u c h i m n i p o t e n c e t h a t he was a f r a i d t o c o n s i d e r i t d i r e c t l y . A l l day t h e f a c t h o v e r e d a b o u t h i s h e a d , t a n t a l i z i n g h i m w i t h odd dreams and p o r t e n t s o f power. (p. 40) I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Cummings t o o i s s e i z e d by s u c h v i s i o n s , as i n t h i s r e a c t i o n t o h i s f i r s t g l i m p s e , as a young o f f i c e r , o f a massed a t t a c k : T h e r e were a l l t h o s e men, and t h e r e had b e e n someone above them, o r d e r i n g them, c h a n g i n g p e r -haps f o r e v e r t h e f i b r e o f t h e i r l i v e s . I n t h e d a r k n e s s he l o o k s b l a n k l y a t t h e f i e l d , t a n t a l i z e d by t h e l a r g e s t v i s i o n t h a t has e v e r e n t e r e d h i s s o u l . (p. 415) The s i m i l a r i t y between t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s i s a s i g n o f t h e deep b u t i m p l i c i t l i n k between t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s , and i n d i c a t e s a 21 w i d e r s t r a t e g y o f m y s t i f i c a t i o n . B u t , as we have s e e n , Cummings 1 a u r a o f m y s t e r y r e c e d e s , and C r o f t a l o n e i s l e f t t o b e a r t h e v i s i o n . I n P a r t T h r e e , on t h e l o n g p a t r o l , t h a t v i s i o n a c q u i r e s an e x t e r n a l o b j e c t o r g o a l i n t h e shape o f Mount Anaka, w h i c h C r o f t o b s e s s i v e l y d e t e r m i n e s t o c l i m b , r e g a r d l e s s o f h i s o s t e n s i b l e m i s s i o n . A t t h e i r f i r s t s i g h t o f i t h i s s p e c i a l n a t u r e i s e m p h a s i z e d a g a i n i n t h e c o n t r a s t between h i s r e a c t i o n and t h a t o f a n o t h e r s o l d i e r : G a l l a g h e r s t a r e d a t i t i n a b s o r p t i o n , c a u g h t by a s e n s e o f b e a u t y he c o u l d n o t e x p r e s s . The i d e a , t h e v i s i o n he a l w a y s h e l d o f s o m e t h i n g f i n e r and n e a t e r and more b e a u t i f u l t h a n t h e m o i l i n w h i c h he l i v e d t r e m b l e d now, p i t c h e d a l m o s t t o a c l i m a x o f w o r d s . T h e r e was an i n s t a n t i n w h i c h he m i g h t have s a i d a l i t t l e o f what he was f e e l i n g , b u t i t p a s s e d and he was l e f t w i t h a t r o u b l e d j o y , an e c ho o f r a p t u r e . (p. 447) 20. G a l l a g h e r t o o seems s t r u c k by t h o u g h t s b e y o n d t h e r e a c h o f h i s e x p r e s s i o n , b u t h i s w o r d l e s s n e s s seems m e r e l y i m p o t e n t and p a t h e t i c ; C r o f t , on t h e o t h e r hand . . . was moved as d e e p l y , as f u n d a m e n t a l l y as c a i s s o n s r e s e t t l i n g i n t h e r i v e r mud. The m o u n t a i n a t t r a c t e d him, t a u n t e d and i n f l a m e d h i m w i t h i t s s i z e . . . . He s t a r e d a t i t now, e x a m i n e d i t s r i d g e s , f e e l i n g an i n s t i n c t i v e d e s i r e t o c l i m b t h e m o u n t a i n and s t a n d on i t s peak, t o know t h a t a l l i t s m i g h t y w e i g h t was b e n e a t h h i s f e e t . H i s e m o t i o n s were i n t e n s e ; he knew awe and h u n g e r and t h e p e c u l i a r u n i q u e e c s t a s y he had f e l t a f t e r H e n n e s s e y was d e a d , o r when he had k i l l e d t h e J a p a n e s e p r i s o n e r , (p. 447) C r o f t ' s v i s i o n i s n o t o n l y s t r o n g e r t h a n G a l l a g h e r ' s i t i s d i f f -e r e n t i n k i n d — i t p o s s e s s e s t h e i n c o m p l e t e n e s s o f t h e s i g n o r p o r t e n t and c o n v e y s a p r o m i s e o f some l a t e r f u l f i l m e n t , some u l t i m a t e r e v e l a t i o n . T h e s e p a s s a g e s , i n f a c t , p r o v i d e a l m o s t a model o f t h e c o n t r a s t between C r o f t and h i s n a t u r a l i s t c o n t e x t , f o r G a l l a g h e r ' s " v i s i o n " , l i k e v i r t u a l l y e v e r y t h i n g e l s e i n t h e n o v e l , . i s e a s i l y and c o n d e s c e n d i n g l y c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e p a n o r a m i c , e n c o m p a s s i n g o v e r v i e w , w h e r e a s C r o f t ' s v i s i o n , w i t h i t s w o r d l e s s n e s s , s u g g e s t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f some t r u t h o r meaning t h a t i s l a r g e r t h a n t h e n o v e l i t s e l f . The e n i g m a t i c , v i s i o n a r y C r o f t , t h e n , comes as c l o s e t o 22 b e i n g a " h e r o " as t h i s n o v e l w i l l a l l o w . Towards t h e end, as he and what r e m a i n s o f t h e p l a t o o n n e a r t h e summit, h i s i s o l a t e w i l l i s a l l t h a t i s l e f t t o s u p p o r t him, a g a i n s t w h i c h i s n o t o n l y t h e m o u n t a i n b u t t h e r e c a l c i t r a n c e o f t h e men and and e v e n h i s own body: The c l o s e r he came t o t h e c r e s t o f t h e m o u n t a i n t h e g r e a t e r became h i s a n x i e t y . E a c h new t u r n o f 21. t h e s t a i r c a s e demanded an e x c e s s i v e e f f o r t o f w i l l f r o m him. He had b e e n d r i v i n g n e a r e r and n e a r e r t o t h e h e a r t o f t h i s c o u n t r y f o r d a y s , and i t h ad a c u m u l a t i v e t e r r o r . A l l t h e v a s t a l i e n s t r e t c h e s o f l a n d t h e y h a d c r o s s e d h a d e r o d e d h i s w i l l , p i t c h e d him a l i t t l e f i n e r . I t was an e f f o r t , a l m o s t p a l p a b l e , t o keep a d v a n c i n g o v e r s t r a n g e h i l l s and up t h e f l a n k s o f an a n c i e n t r e s i s t i n g m o u n t a i n . (p. 699) He becomes t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i n an a r c h e t y p a l s t r u g g l e between human p u r p o s e and s i m p l e p h y s i c a l r e s i s t a n c e . I n an e a r l y i n t e r v i e w , M a i l e r h a d s a i d t h a t , d e s p i t e i t s n a t u r a l i s t h e r i -t a g e , t h e b i g g e s t i n f l u e n c e on The Naked and t h e Dead was Moby D i c k : " ' I had Ahab i n i t , and I s u p p o s e t h e m o u n t a i n was 2 3 Moby D i c k . 1 " B u t M e l v i l l e ' s n o v e l comes t o a c a t a s t r o p h x c c o n c l u s i o n , Ahab's m a n i a c a l p u r s u i t e n d i n g w i t h h i m t i e d i n d e a t h t o h i s i m m o r t a l a n t a g o n i s t ; C r o f t ' s c l i m b , on t h e o t h e r hand, ends a b s u r d l y : he s t u m b l e s i n t o a h o r n e t s ' n e s t on t h e v e r g e o f t h e summit and, i n one o f t h e book's r a r e humourous s c e n e s , t h e s t i n g i n g "bugs" s e n d t h e p l a t o o n f l e e i n g down t h e s l o p e i n a h o p e l e s s , f i n a l abandonment o f t h e m i s s i o n . C r o f t ' s d e f e a t , t h e r e f o r e , i s n o t t r a g i c b u t i r o n i c , an a c c i d e n t , a p r o d u c t o f t h e same i n d i f f e r e n t , mundane c o n t i n g e n c y t h a t o v e r - r u l e s t h e w i l l o f e a c h - o f t h e human p r o t a g o n i s t s o f t h i s n o v e l . The d o m i n a n t n a t u r a l i s t v i s i o n r e a s s e r t s i t s e l f i n t h e f i n a l c o n c a t e n a t i o n o f d e f e a t , r e v e r s a l , d e a t h , and l o s s ; C r o f t o n l y s h a r e s i n t h e common f a t e . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , C r o f t ' s d e f e a t i s t h e o n l y means by w h i c h t h e i n t e g r i t y o f h i s v i s i o n c a n be p r e s e r v e d . H i s f i n a l r e -f l e c t i o n s , g a z i n g b a c k a t t h e m o u n t a i n f r o m t h e b o a t r e t u r n i n g them t o b a s e , a r e i n t e r e s t i n g f o r what t h e y r e v e a l o f t h e v i s i o n ' s t r u e p o t e n t i a l i t y : C r o f t k e p t l o o k i n g a t t h e m o u n t a i n . He had l o s t i t , had m i s s e d some t a n t a l i z i n g r e v e l a t i o n o f h i m s e l f . Of h i m s e l f and much more. Of l i f e . E v e r y t h i n g . (p. 709) E v e n a f t e r h i s d e f e a t , t h e r e f o r e , t h e a b s t r a c t p o s s i b i l i t y o f "some t a n t a l i z i n g r e v e l a t i o n " r e m a i n s ; w h e r e a s , ha d C r o f t a c -t u a l l y r e a c h e d t h e summit what w o u l d have r e s u l t e d ? The r e v e l -a t i o n w o u l d have had t o be named, t h e v i s i o n f i n a l l y p u t i n t o w o r ds, and so become, l i k e G a l l a g h e r ' s , o n l y one more t a t t e r e d , e r s a t z " t r u t h " among many, e q u a l l y v a l i d , e q u a l l y p a r t i a l , and e q u a l l y i l l u s o r y i n t h e l e v e l l i n g o v e r v i e w o f n a t u r a l i s m . J u s t as h i s n a t u r e i s s h i e l d e d by b e i n g m y s t i f i e d , so t h e s p e c i a l q u a l i t y o f h i s v i s i o n ( t h e h e a r t o f h i s n a t u r e ) i s s a v e d by b e i n g l o s t . Though he does n o t a l t e r t h e b a s i c n a t u r a l i s m o f t h e n o v e l , C r o f t r e m a i n s as a warp i n i t s f a b r i c , an i n d i c a t i o n o f a s t r a i n o r t e n s i o n t h a t w i l l be o f c o n s e q u e n c e f o r M a i l e r ' s f u t u r e e v o l u t i o n . The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g a b o u t him, as we have s e e n , i s n o t t h e p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r e o f h i s v i s i o n b u t t h a t he has a v i s i o n a t a l l ; i n a s e n s e , he s t r u g g l e s n o t f o r any one t r u t h o r m eaning b u t f o r meaning as s u c h , t o be a s s e r t e d i n t h e f a c e o f t h e mute b e i n g t h e w o r l d . And h i s i r o n i c , p a r a d o x i c a l de-f e a t i n t h a t s t r u g g l e i s t h e r e s u l t , o d d l y , o f t h e i n h e r e n t b i a s o f h i s l i t e r a r y medium, f o r n a t u r a l i s m n e c e s s a r i l y t a k e s t h e s i d e o f t h e o b j e c t i v e , t h e m a t e r i a l , and t h e c o n t i n g e n t . I t s p r o b l e m i s t h a t , i n a t t e m p t i n g t o e n c l o s e e v e r y t h i n g w i t h -i n t h e sweep o f i t s v i s i o n , i t removes i t s e l f t o o f a r f r o m t h e human s c a l e and l o s e s t h e human d i m e n s i o n . One m i g h t p r e d i c t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t M a i l e r ' s n e x t p h a s e w i l l be marked by t h e i n -t r o d u c t i o n o f a human measure, as a way o f r e s t o r i n g t h e p o t e n -t i a l f o r me a n i n g . C h a p t e r 2 B a r b a r y S h o r e a n d The Deer P a r k I n b r i n g i n g t o a f o c u s — a n d t o a c l i m a x — b o t h t h e s t r e n g t h s and t h e w e a k n e s s e s o f i t s l i t e r a r y t y p e , The Naked and t h e Dead m i g h t be s a i d t o c o n s t i t u t e , by i t s e l f , one p h a s e o f M a i l e r ' s d e v e l o p m e n t as a n o v e l i s t . One d i f f i c u l t y i n t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h some p a t t e r n t o t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t i s t h e g r e a t v a r i a t i o n between e a c h o f h i s n o v e l s . S t i l l , d e s p i t e numerous r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s , c e r t a i n o f t h e s e works a r e s i m i l a r i n ways t h a t s u g g e s t t h e y s h a r e a common o r i g i n , t h a t t h e y a r e p r o d u c t s o f a common s t r a -t e g y . The f i r s t n o v e l s u c c e e d e d so w e l l t h a t i t b o t h i n i t i a t e d and c u l m i n a t e d i t s p a r t i c u l a r p h a s e ; B a r b a r y S h o r e , on t h e o t h e r hand--a s t a r t l i n g l y r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h a t e a r l i e r book i n v i r t u a l l y e v e r y f e a t u r e - - f a i l e d d i s m a l l y , and s o , p a r a -d o x i c a l l y , gave r i s e t o a f u r t h e r a t t e m p t a t i t s a l t e r e d c o n -c e p t i o n o f t h e n o v e l . I t i s t h i s s h a r e d c o n c e p t i o n t h a t s e t s a p a r t B a r b a r y S h o r e and The D e e r P a r k as t h e s e c o n d p h a s e o f M a i l e r ' s n o v e l i s t i c c a r e e r . B a r b a r y S h o r e by i t s e l f i s s i m p l y t o o s p o i l e d a book t o p r o v i d e much i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s c o n c e p t i o n . Some c r i t i c s ( i n c l u d i n g M a i l e r h i m s e l f ) a r e a b l e t o f i n d o c c a s i o n a l f l a s h e s o f h a l l u c i n a t o r y b r i l l i a n c e s c a t t e r e d r a n d o m l y t h r o u g h i t s p a g e s , 1 b u t most seem m e r c i f u l l y c o n t e n t t o p a s s o v e r i t i n s i l e n c e , a c o n s e n s u s p r o b a b l y b a s e d upon A l f r e d K a z i n ' s b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f i t as a " d a r k , s a n d t e s t a m e n t o f a book, o n l y d i s 2 t r a c t e d l y a n o v e l " . S u c h a f a i l u r e m i g h t seem somewhat s u r -p r i s i n g , p e r h a p s , i n t h a t i t f o l l o w s so s o o n upon an immense s u c c e s s , b u t a l i t t l e r e f l e c t i o n s h o u l d make i t a p p a r e n t t h a t i t i s t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f t h a t f i r s t n o v e l , i t s p o w e r f u l r e p u t a t i o n l o o m i n g as an u n d i g e s t i b l e f a c t i n M a i l e r ' s c a r e e r , t h a t e x p l a i n s a good d e a l o f h i s m i s e r a b l e p e r f o r m a n c e h e r e . I n many ways B a r b a r y S h o r e c o n f o r m s t o a p a t t e r n s e e n i n t h e work o f a number o f w r i t e r s , and one t o w h i c h M a i l e r a l l u d e s when he 3 s p e a k s o f h i m s e l f as " f u l l o f s e c o n d n o v e l p a n i c " p r i o r t o i t s w r i t i n g . T h i s p a t t e r n o f a b o t c h e d s e c o n d a t t e m p t a r i s e s f r o m t h e i n h i b i t i n g , c o n s t i p a t i n g i n f l u e n c e o f t h e i n i t i a l s u c c e s s , and t h e e n t i r e s u b j e c t has b e en d i s c u s s e d a t some l e n g t h 4 by M a i l e r h i m s e l f i n h i s numerous s e l f - c o m m e n t a r i e s . B u t , a p a r t f r o m t h e s e l a r g e l y b i o g r a p h i c a l e x c u s e s , t h e r e i s , p e r -h a p s , a l i t e r a r y r e a s o n as w e l l f o r t h i s r u i n o f a n o v e l : i t t e s t i f i e s t o t h e s t r e n g t h o f M a i l e r ' s r e j e c t i o n o f h i s n a t u r -a l i s t " h e r i t a g e " , a t w h a t e v e r c o s t . K a z i n , as q u o t e d e a r l i e r , c o n s i d e r s The Naked and t h e Dead t o be t h e o n l y one o f M a i l e r ' s n o v e l s t h a t i s " s t a b l e i n c o n c e p t i o n " , w h i l e B a r b a r y S h o r e seems so f o r c e d and uneven as t o be " o n l y d i s t r a c t e d l y " a n o v e l 5 a t a l l ; one m i g h t l o o k upon t h e e x t r e m i t y o f t h i s d i s p a r i t y between two works a d j a c e n t t o one a n o t h e r i n t i m e as b o t h a m a n i f e s t a t i o n and a measure o f t h e i r d i v e r g e n c e i n t y p e and i n s p i r a t i o n . Though i t s p o o r q u a l i t y w i l l n o t r e p a y a c l o s e i n v e s t i g a -t i o n , i t i s s t i l l w o r t h w h i l e d i s c u s s i n g , v e r y b r i e f l y and g e n e r a l l y , t h e p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r e o f B a r b a r y S h o r e ' s f a i l u r e , so as to i s o l a t e , i n t h i s extreme form, a f a i l u r e o r breakdown t h a t r e c u r s i n M a i l e r ' s f i c t i o n . And a c l u e to t h i s flaw might be found i n the c o n t r a s t between t h i s n o v e l and the s t y l e and type o f i t s predecessor. There are s t i l l some fragmentary rem-nants of M a i l e r ' s n a t u r a l i s t " h e r i t a g e " — t h e boarding-house l o c a l e , perhaps, o r the s l a n g - d i a l e c t s o f G u i n i v e r e and Ho l l i n g s w o r t h - - b u t these touches of l o w e r - c l a s s r e a l i t y are a l l but l o s t i n the a r i d v e r b i a g e o f the book, i n the s t i l t e d mono-logues, the s t r a i n e d d i a l o g u e s of c h a r a c t e r s c l u m s i l y c o n s t r u c t e d out o f some Meccano s e t of s t e r e o t y p e s and put through a s e r i e s of a r t i f i c i a l encounters i n what serves f o r a p l o t . ' In terms of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the r e a l world Barbary Shore i s the p o l a r o p p o s i t e o f The Naked and the Dead. One o f the major v i r t u e s of the l a t t e r n o v e l , as we have seen, i s i t s a b i l i t y to communicate the sensuous t e x t u r e o f experience—immanent, c o n t i n g e n t , c o n c r e t e , v i r t u a l l y u n f i l t e r e d by schemes of "mean-i n g " or "value"; here, on the oth e r hand, the p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n -ment has almost faded out o f e x i s t e n c e , l e a v i n g o n l y an a b s t r a c t , broken s k e l e t o n of words and s i g n s . I t i s , as one of the char-a c t e r s p o i n t s out, a t a l e t o l d by a n a r c i s s i s t , and i t s o p p r e s s i v e , o f t e n - n o t e d a i r of c l a u s t r o p h o b i a d e r i v e s not from any s p a t i a l confinement so much as from an i n t e l l e c t u a l one, from the sense of entrapment w i t h i n the boundaries of a disembod-7 i e d , d e m a t e r i a l i z e d mind. What i s absent i n Barbary Shore, i n other words, i s p r e c i s e l y t h a t which i s almost too presen t i n The Naked and the D e a d — s i m p l e p h y s i c a l d e t a i l — a n d the consequence of t h i s l a c k ( i t s primary weakness) i s t h a t the n o v e l i s w i t h o u t f o u n d a t i o n o r g r o u n d i n g . E v e n t h e p o l i t i c a l a l l e g o r y t h a t p r o v i d e s what l i t t l e s u b s t a n c e t h e s t o r y p o s s e s s e s seems b a s e l e s s , t h i n , f o r c e d , and b a n a l . Towards t h e e n d t h e s t y l e i t s e l f becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y s t r a i n e d and d i s t o r t e d , a l m o s t h y s t e r i c a l , p e r h a p s an a n x i o u s a t t e m p t t o compensate t h r o u g h r h e t o r i c a l o n e (a k i n d o f F a u l k n e r i a n e l e g a i c ) f o r t h e v i t i a t i n g p o i n t l e s s n e s s o f t h e w h o l e . B a r b a r y S h o r e i s t h e p r o d u c t o f an a m b i t i o n t o c r e a t e a n o v e l ex n i h i l o , by s i m p l e f i a t , f r e e o f any a n c h o r o r r o o t i n r e a l i t y ; and so i t f l o a t s i n a c u r i o u s r e a l m o f c o n c o c t i o n , b e s t v i e w e d , p e r h a p s , as an e x p e r i m e n t , whose f a i l u r e ( j u s t as t h e f i r s t n o v e l ' s s u c c e s s ) e s t a b l i s h e s a l i m i t f o r M a i l e r ' s f u r t h e r s e a r c h f o r a f o r m . The Deer P a r k moves back f r o m t h i s l i m i t t o w a r d a more c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a l i s m . P u b l i s h e d f o u r y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1955, i t i s an a l t o g e t h e r b e t t e r n o v e l — m o r e s t r u c t u r e d , s t a b l e , and c r e d i b l e , b u i l t a r o u n d a " s t o r y " o r g r o u p o f s t o r i e s i n v o l v i n g a u t h e n t i c c h a r a c t e r s , p l a u s i b l e e v e n t s , and a p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g o f some d e n s i t y . T h e s e a r e v e r y o r t h o d o x v i r t u e s , b e f i t t i n g a somewhat c h a s t e n e d a m b i t i o n . One s u s p e c t s t h a t , whereas t h e w r i t i n g o f B a r b a r y S h o r e was done w i t h a hope t h a t t h e words w o u l d s t i l l come as f l u e n t l y as t h e y h a d f o r The Naked and t h e  Dead, h e r e t h e w r i t i n g was a good d e a l more d e l i b e r a t e and d i s -c i p l i n e d , as t h o u g h i n r e l u c t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e s i m p l e work 8 i n v o l v e d i n a n o v e l . The Deer P a r k , t h e n , m i g h t be s e e n as a r e g r o u p i n g o f M a i l e r ' s f o r c e s on more f a m i l i a r t e r r a i n ( t o use one h i s f a v o r i t e m e t a p h o r s ) , b u t i t i s n o t , i n any f u n d a m e n t a l 28. s e n s e , a change o f s t r a t e g y — f o r a l l t h e s u p e r f i c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s b etween t h e s e two n o v e l s o f t h e s e c o n d p h a s e (even i n c l u d i n g t h e c o n t r a s t between a l l e g o r y and r e a l i s m ) , t h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r -e n c e i s one o f d e g r e e , n o t o f k i n d . What use o r i n t e r e s t B a r b a r y S h o r e p o s s e s s e s , t h e n , so f a r as t h i s i n q u i r y i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h a t c o n c e p t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d , l i e s p r i m a r i l y i n t h o s e o f i t s f e a t u r e s t h a t r e a p p e a r i n The  De e r P a r k , t h e s e b e i n g t h e i n v a r i a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s p h a s e . One s u c h u n f o r t u n a t e s i m i l a r i t y — t o be m e n t i o n e d o n l y i n p a s s -i n g a s , p e r h a p s , a symptom o f a d e e p e r and more p e r v a s i v e w e a k n e s s — i s a s e e m i n g i n a b i l i t y t o c a l l t h i n g s by t h e i r p r o p e r names. I n B a r b a r y S h o r e , f o r example, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e S o v i e t U n i o n a r e o n l y r e f e r r e d t o , c o l l e c t i v e l y , as " t h e C o l o s s i " ; t h e S o v i e t U n i o n i t s e l f i s " t h e l a n d a c r o s s t h e s e a " ; Marx i s " t h e g r e a t man"; T r o t s k y i s v a r i o u s l y "a g r e a t man who 9 l e a d u s " and " t h e man w i t h t h e b e a r d " , and so on. One m i g h t s u p p o s e , a t f i r s t , t h a t s u c h c i r c u m l o c u t i o n , however awkward, was made n e c e s s a r y by t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a l l e g o r y — a " d i s t a n c -i n g " o r u n i v e r s a l i z i n g measure (though e v e n as s u c h t h e y seem t r a n s p a r e n t t o t h e p o i n t o f c o y n e s s ) . B u t a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o f euphemism c a n be f o u n d i n The Deer P a r k , where one w o u l d have e x p e c t e d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f r e a l i s m t o p r e c l u d e s u c h u s a g e : t h u s P a l m S p r i n g s becomes " D e s e r t D'Or", H o l l y w o o d i s c a l l e d " t h e c a p i t a l o f c i n e m a " o r s i m p l y " t h e c a p i t a l " , t h e House Un-A m e r i c a n A c t i v i t i e s Committee, a n o t o r i o u s and p o w e r f u l name, i s r e d u c e d m e r e l y t o " t h e S u b v e r s i v e C o m m i t t e e " , 1 0 and e v e n t h e 29 O s c a r , t h e v e r y e p i t o m e o f H o l l y w o o d t i n s e l , i s b l a n d l y renamed " H e r c u l e s " . I n d e l i b e r a t e l y a b a n d o n i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n n o -t a t i o n s o f t h e s e words M a i l e r o b v i o u s l y l o s e s a good d e a l , p a r -t i c u l a r l y i n s o f a r as t h e w o r l d o f t h i s n o v e l i s no a l l e g o r i c a l m i c r o c o s m b u t r a t h e r t h e s e t t i n g f o r a r e a l i s t i c n a r r a t i v e , t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f w h i c h i s o f some i m p o r t a n c e . And i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e e how he g a i n s any c o m p e n s a t i n g a d v a n t a g e s e x c e p t t h o s e o f a n e g a t i v e o r d e f e n s i v e n a t u r e - - t h e s e s u b s t i t u t i o n s s e r v e t o p r o t e c t h i s s t o r y f r o m t h e demands o f h i s t o r i c a l a c c u r a c y , p r o -v i d i n g a l i c e n c e f o r h i s i n v e n t i o n . B u t , t h o u g h h i s f i c t i o n i s t h u s f r e e d o f c e r t a i n c o n s t r a i n t s , i t has i m p o s e d upon i t s e l f an enormous, i n d e e d , i m p o s s i b l e , b u r d e n — t h e r e c r e a t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e f a b r i c o f r e a l i t y . W i t h t h e f a i l u r e o f so h o p e l e s s a t a s k t h e n o v e l i s n e c e s s a r i l y weakened, i t s f i c t i o n a l w o r l d some-what p a t c h e d and t h r e a d b a r e . So, a l t h o u g h The Deer P a r k i s a v a s t improvement upon B a r b a r y S h o r e , i t does n o t e s c a p e some o f t h e a f f l i c t i o n s o f t h e e a r l i e r book; and t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h i s r e c u r r i n g p r o b l e m ( i t i s s i m i l a r , i n f a c t , t o t h e use o f a f i c t i o n a l i s l a n d i n The Naked and t h e Dead) a r e complex and p r o f o u n d , g o i n g , I t h i n k , t o t h e h e a r t o f M a i l e r ' s l i t e r a r y q u e s t i t s e l f . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , t o o e a r l y t o a t t e m p t t o e l u c i -d a t e s u c h r e a s o n s t h e m s e l v e s ; a t t h i s p o i n t i t i s s u f f i c i e n t s i m p l y t o n o t e , and t o b e g i n t o l i n k t o g e t h e r , t h e v a r i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . T h e r e a r e , i n any c a s e , o t h e r and s t r o n g e r p a r a l l e l s b e -tween t h e s e n o v e l s t h a n t h e i r t e n d e n c y t o w a r d a k i n d o f d e f e n s i v e 30o f i c t i o n a l i z a t i o n . P e r h a p s t h e a s p e c t i n w h i c h t h e y seem most a l i k e , and most s h a r p l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m t h e works o f M a i l e r ' s o t h e r p h a s e s , i s i n t h e c h a r a c t e r and f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r n a r r a -t o r s . S e r g i u s 0 ' S h a u g n e s s y , l i k e t h e s t o r y he t e l l s , may be a more r o u n d e d and v i v i d f i g u r e t h a n t h e i n s i p i d M i k e y L o v e t t , b u t t h e y a r e n o t f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n o u t l i n e . B o t h a r e v e t e r a n s o f war, and b o t h , i n one s e n s e o r a n o t h e r , have l o s t t h e i r o r i g i n s ( l o v e t t i s an a m n e s i a c , O'Shaugnessy an o r p h a n ) . E m e r g i n g f r o m t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f o r g a n i z e d , t e c h n o l o g i c a l v i o -l e n c e t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , t h e y a p p e a r i n i -t i a l l y a l m o s t as b l a n k t a b l e t s , upon whose p a s s i v e p e r s o n a l i t i e s t h e e v e n t s t o come may be r e c o r d e d . P e r h a p s i n c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e i r r e l a t i v e l a c k o f p a s t o r p u r p o s e , b o t h s h a r e an amorphous d e s i r e n o t s i m p l y t o w r i t e , b u t t o be a "writer".''""'" M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y o f a l l , b o t h o c c u p y a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s t o r i e s t h e y n a r r a t e — t h a t o f an i n t e r e s t e d b y s t a n d e r . They a r e p r i m a r i l y o b s e r v e r s , , i n o t h e r words, n o t p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t h e i r s t o r i e s a r e l a r g e l y o f o t h e r s , n o t o f t h e m s e l v e s . They seem, i n many ways, t o h a ve been m o d e l e d upon t h e c h a r a c t e r 12 o f N i c k C a r r a w a y i n The G r e a t G a t s b y : b o t h d e t a c h e d and j u d g -m e n t a l , t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n o f t e n r e a d s l i k e a r a t h e r s t i l t e d i m i -t a t i o n o f F i t z g e r a l d ' s r h e t o r i c a l l y r e t r o s p e c t i v e s t y l e , s t r i v -i n g t o a t t a i n t h a t R o m a n t i c , p o e t i c q u a l i t y o f " e m o t i o n r e c o l l e c t e d i n t r a n q u i l l i t y " . Y e t , d e s p i t e h i s p e r i p h e r a l s t a t u s , N i c k C a r r a w a y p l a y s a f a r more s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n The G r e a t G a t s b y 31. t h a n e i t h e r L o v e t t o r O'Shaugnessy i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e n o v e l s , and t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y may be f o u n d t o be a t t h e h e a r t o f t h e f a i l u r e o f The D eer P a r k i n p a r t i c u l a r , a n d o f M a i l e r ' s s e c o n d p h a s e i n g e n e r a l . I n m aking so l a r g e a c l a i m f o r t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e n a r r a t i v e f o c u s o f t h e s e n o v e l s , e s p e c i a l l y o f The D eer P a r k , i t w o u l d be w e l l t o c o n s i d e r t h e g e n e r a l n o t i o n o f " p o i n t o f v i e w " i n f i c t i o n as M a i l e r h i m s e l f c o n c e i v e s i t . He a s c r i b e s , t o i t i n f a c t , as s u r p r i s i n g amount o f w e i g h t , o n c e r e m a r k i n g , i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s v e r y n o v e l , t h a t "The most p o w e r f u l 13 l e v e r a g e i n f i c t i o n comes f r o m p o i n t o f v i e w . . . " T h i s i s a s t a t e m e n t one m i g h t e x p e c t more f r o m H e n r y James ( o r P e r c y L ubbock, p e r h a p s ) t h a n f r o m Norman M a i l e r , w i t h whom one does n o t u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e much c o n c e r n w i t h t h e t e c h n i q u e o r t h e 14 " c r a f t " o f f i c t i o n . B u t t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e meta-p h o r s c h o s e n t o d e s c r i b e and d e f i n e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s p a r -t i c u l a r t e c h n i q u e t h a t i s c r u c i a l f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f M a i l e r ' s p o s i t i o n : p o i n t o f v i e w , f o r him, i s n o t t o be s e e n as a "window" i n t h e "house o f f i c t i o n " , as a mere v a n t a g e p o i n t upon t h e s t o r y , b u t as a l e v e r , a t o o l w i t h w h i c h t o work upon h i s s t o r y , a means t o an end. The n a t u r e o f t h a t e n d — i n d e e d , t h e d e f i n i n g o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s e c o n d : p h a s e - - m i g h t be made c l e a r i f we r e c a l l some o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i r s t p h a s e , The Naked and t h e Dead. T h e r e , t h e n a t u r a l i s t f o r m r e q u i r e d a n a r r a t i o n t h a t was n e u t r a l , 32. o m n i s c i e n t , and d e p e r s o n a l i z e d , t h u s e l i m i n a t i n g any r e a l p o i n t o f v i e w . The r e s u l t , as we have s e e n , was a l a c k o f m o r a l r e l i e f , a f l a t t e n i n g o f v a l u e s , and a c o n s e q u e n t l o s s o f p o t e n -t i a l f o r human s i g n i f i c a n c e o r m eaning. I n t h e u n c o m p r o m i s i n g , " s c i e n t i f i c " o v e r v i e w o f n a t u r a l i s m , t h e s t r u g g l e s o f men a p p e a r t o p o s s e s s l i t t l e more i m p o r t o r p u r p o s e t h a n t h e random a c t i -v i t i e s o f i n s e c t s . The " l e v e r a g e " g a i n e d by l o c a t i n g t h e n a r r a -t i v e w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r o f t h e n o v e l , t h e n , i s i n t e n d e d p r e c i s e l y as a means o f p r y i n g up t h a t f l a t t e n e d o r submerged d i m e n s i o n o f m e a n i n g . 1 ^ I t i s by p r o v i d i n g an embodied o b s e r v e r - -t h e d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s e n o v e l s , as a g a i n s t h i s f i r s t — t h a t M a i l e r a t t e m p t s t o g a i n a measure o r s t a n d a r d o f v a l u e f o r t h e s t o r i e s t h a t t h e y m e d i a t e . T h i s , o f c o u r s e , i s n o t much d i f f e r e n t f r o m F i t z g e r a l d ' s use o f N i c k C a r r a w a y , o r , i n d e e d , f r o m t h e f u n c t i o n o f any s u c h p e r i p h e r a l n a r r a t o r . B u t a p e c u l i a r t h i n g happens t o S e r g i u s O 'Shaugnessy as t h e s t o r y he t e l l s p r o c e e d s : t h i s s u p p o s e d l y c r i t i c a l m e d i a t o r , t h i s j u d g e and s t a n d a r d o f t h e n o v e l a l l b u t d i s a p p e a r s ! He b e g i n s p r o p e r l y enough by i n t r o d u c i n g h i m s e l f , and d e s c r i b i n g t h e s e t t i n g f o r h i s s t o r y , t h e r e s o r t town o f " D e s e r t D'Or"; i n t h e p a g e s t h a t f o l l o w , t a k i n g up a l m o s t t h e f i r s t q u a r t e r o f t h e book, he s l o w l y e s t a b l i s h e s t h e c a s t o f c h a r a c t e r s : M a r i o n F a y e , a s t r a n g e l y ambiguous f i g u r e as a pimp; C h a r l e s E i t e l , t h e m i d d l e - a g e d f i l m d i r e c t o r , p l a g u e d by p o l i t i c a l and p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s ; E l e n a E s p o s i t o , h i s l o w e r -c l a s s m i s t r e s s ; and L u l u M e y e r s , a p o r t r a i t o f t h e H o l l y w o o d 33 s e x - g o d d e s s . T h r o u g h most o f t h i s l e n g t h y s t a g e - s e t t i n g S e r g i u s n a r r a t e s h i s s t o r y i n t h e a c c e p t e d manner o f t h e f i c -t i o n a l w i t n e s s , r e p o r t i n g s c e n e s and c o n v e r s a t i o n s , d r a w i n g t o -g e t h e r s c r a p s o f h e a r s a y , and m a k i n g s u r m i s e s ; b u t as t h e s e p a r a -p h r a s e s a n d t h e o r i e s become more and more e l a b o r a t e S e r g i u s ' f u n c t i o n as a m e d i a t o r becomes l e s s and l e s s e s s e n t i a l , u n t i l f i n a l l y ( u s i n g as an e x c u s e h i s a m b i t i o n t o be a w r i t e r ) he s i m p l y a n n o u n c e s , " I know t h a t f o r a l o t o f what f o l l o w s I must use my i m a g i n a t i o n " (p. 8 8 ) , and v i r t u a l l y p a s s e s f r o m e x i s t e n c e . He r e a p p e a r s a g a i n somewhat l a t e r , b u t no l o n g e r , e f f e c t u a l l y , as a p e r i p h e r a l n a r r a t o r , o n l y as a n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t . I t p o i n t o f v i e w p r o v i d e s " t h e most p o w e r f u l l e v e r a g e i n f i c t i o n " , i t w o u l d seem as t h o u g h M a i l e r has d e l i b e r a t e l y abandoned h i s l e v e r . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d , and t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f , t h i s s t r a n g e d e v e l o p m e n t i t w i l l f i r s t be n e c e s s a r y t o l o o k more c l o s e l y a t t h e a c t u a l e v e n t s and s t r u c t u r e o f t h e n o v e l . From t h e p o i n t t h a t S e r g i u s a b d i c a t e s h i s r o l e as n a r r a t o r (becoming i n s t e a d t h e " a u t h o r " ) , The D eer P a r k i s s p l i t i n t o s e p a r a t e p a r t s , i n t e r l a c e d w i t h one a n o t h e r i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e t e x t , b u t , f o r t h e most p a r t , m u t u a l l y i r r e l e v a n t . The f i r s t o f t h e s e , and t h e c o m i n a n t one, i s t h e s t o r y o f t h e l o v e a f f a i r between E i t e l and E l e n a , c o m p r i s i n g E i t e l ' s a r t i s t i c 16 and p o l i t i c a l c r i s e s as w e l l . The s e c o n d c o n c e r n s S e r g i u s h i m s e l f and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h L u l u M e y e r s . And t h e t h i r d p a r t — n o t s o much a " s t o r y " a s s i m p l y a p r e s e n c e — i s c e n t r e d a b o u t t h e e n i g m a t i c M a r i o n F a y e . The c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e s e d i f -f e r e n t segments e n c o u n t e r one a n o t h e r and o c c a s i o n a l l y e x e r c i s e some i n f l u e n c e upon each o t h e r , but, wit h the absence o f the u n i f y i n g presence o f a n a r r a t o r , they f a l l i n t o realms t h a t are l a r g e l y independent o f , and i s o l a t e d from one another, a t l e a s t on the l e v e l of p l o t . On the l e v e l o f i m p l i c i t p a t t e r n s and themes, however, some connections can be made. The s t o r y of E i t e l and E l e n a i s , 17 i n many ways, M a i l e r ' s g r e a t e s t r e a l i s t i c n a r r a t i v e . They are both h e r o i c f i g u r e s of whom, I t h i n k , even Lukacs would have approved—bounded but not determined by t h e i r temporal and p h y s i c a l environment, shaped by t h e i r p a s t s but, through both t h e i r a c t i o n s and t h e i r i n a c t i o n s ^ — t h e i r c h o i c e s and t h e i r f a i l u r e s to c h o o s e — g i v i n g form to t h e i r f u t u r e s ; s t r u g g l i n g , f i n a l l y , amid the c o r r u p t i o n s o f a decadent c u l t u r e to preserve a degree of p e r s o n a l i n t e g r i t y . For E i t e l (whose r o l e as an o l d e r mentor to the n a r r a t o r i s s t r o n g l y analogous to McLeod's i n Barbary Shore), t h a t s t r u g g l e i s p r i m a r i l y p u b l i c and de-f i n a b l e : on the one s i d e are h i s l i b e r a l conscience and h i s a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s ; on the othe r are the combined f o r c e s o f the "Subversive Committee" and the f i n a n c i a l backers e s s e n t i a l f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s a r t . At the s t a r t o f the no v e l , w i t h h i s c a r e e r stagnant, E l e n a appears to o f f e r both s o l a c e and a renewal o f energy: S i t t i n g b e s i d e E l e n a , t h i n k i n g of how he was back where he had begun, he had a hope t h a t h i s t a l e n t would r e t u r n . She would help him, he cou l d l i v e w i t h such a woman now. (p. 95) But h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with her comes t o e p i t o m i z e , i n a sense, 35 h i s e n t i r e s t r u g g l e , and i n t h e end, h i s c a p i t u l a t i o n c o m p l e t e and f i n a l , he i s l e f t o n l y w i t h d e p e n d e n t p r o p r i e t o r s h i p : . . . f o r o f a l l t h e d i s t a n c e she had come, and he had h e l p e d h e r t o move, and t h e r e were t i m e s l i k e t h i s when he f e l t t h e s u b s t a n c e o f h i s p r i d e t o depend upon e x a c t l y h e r improvement as i f she were f i n a l l y t h e o n l y human c r e a t i o n i n w h i c h he had t a k e n p a r t , he s t i l l knew t h a t he c o u l d h e l p h e r no l o n g e r . . . . (p. 316) F o r E l e n a , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e s t r u g g l e f o r i n t e g r i t y i s more p r i v a t e and c o n f u s e d — d i r e c t e d more t o w a r d t h e s o r t o f s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n d i c a t e d i n h e r l e t t e r t o E i t e l (pp. 263-70) t h a n t o w a r d open c o n f l i c t . She a l o n e a c h i e v e s some s u c c e s s i n h e r s t r u g g l e , and i t i s l e f t f o r h e r — e a s i l y t h e f i n e s t p o r -t r a i t o f a woman M a i l e r h as so f a r w r i t t e n — t o p u t t h e q u e s t i o n t h a t h a u n t s t h e e n t i r e n o v e l ( a f t e r a b a n a l r e s p o n s e f r o m E i t e l ) : "No C h a r l e y , " E l e n a s a i d , "you s e e , t h a t d o e s n ' t answer i t . I c a n ' t t a l k t o y o u u n l e s s y o u ' l l u n d e r -s t a n d t h i s . What am I g o i n g t o do w i t h my l i f e ? (p. 316) I t i s a l a r g e q u e s t i o n , b u t one t h a t demands a r e a l answer. I t i s n o t Why am I h e r e ? b u t What am I g o i n g t o do? H e r s i s a s e a r c h f o r c o n c r e t e m o t i v e s and p u r p o s e s , i n o t h e r w o r d s , j u s t a s E i t e l ' s s t r u g g l e i s t o p r o d u c e a c t u a l f i l m s i n t h e f a c e o f c o n c r e t e o p p o n e n t s and t e m p t a t i o n s . They a r e , s i m p l y , c h a r a c -t e r s who e x i s t on t h e t e r r a i n o f t h e r e a l . S u c h i s n o t t h e c a s e w i t h M a r i o n F a y e , i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h whom E i t e l a n d ' E l e n a seem a l m o s t mundane. He i s a p a r a d o x i c a l , i n s u b s t a n t i a l f i g u r e , g i v e n an age and a d e s c r i p t i o n (p. 1 7 ) , y e t a p u r e a p p e a r n a c e more t h a n an embodied c h a r a c t e r , u n c h a n g -i n g , u n f i x e d i n s p a c e and t i m e . He i m p i n g e s s l i g h t l y upon t h e 36. a c t i o n — i t was a p p a r e n t l y he who had prompted E i t e l t o r e f u s e t o t e s t i f y b e f o r e t h e " S u b v e r s i v e C ommittee", and l a t e r i t i s he who t a k e s i n E l e n a a f t e r she l e a v e s E i t e l and t r i e s t o c o a x h e r i n t o s u i c i d e — b u t i n g e n e r a l F a y e i s s i m p l y o u t s i d e o f w h a t e v e r p l o t e x i s t s i n t h i s n o v e l . H i s p e r i o d i c a p p e a r a n c e s assume t h e f u n c t i o n o f a k i n d o f b a l e f u l commentary upon t h e mai n t e x t , as t h o u g h he were t h e s t a t i c i n c a r n a t i o n o f some s t r a n g e s p i r i t o r p r i n c i p l e . I n some a s p e c t s , t h a t p r i n c i p l e may seem "good", as when, i n t h e r o l e o f E i t e l ' s p r o t e g e and c o n s c i e n c e , he p r e s s u r e s t h e o l d e r man t o m a i n t a i n h i s p o l i t i c a l and a r t i s t i c s t a n d a r d s ( see pp. 39-40 and p. 1 5 8 ) . I n o t h e r a s p e c t s — as i n h i s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e c a l l - g i r l , Bobby (pp. 131-5),, o r o f t h e a d d i c t , P a c o (pp. 1 3 6 - 8 ) — i t seems p l a i n l y " e v i l " . I n f a c t , F a y e i s a c h a r a c t e r much l i k e C r o f t i n The Naked and t h e Dead, b o t h f a s c i n a t i n g and r e p e l l i n g ; and a t l e a s t one r e a s o n b e h i n d h i s ambiguous m o r a l s t a t u s i s t h a t , as i n t h e c a s e o f C r o f t , i t i s a means o f m y s t i f y i n g h i s e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e , p l a c i n g h i m b e y o n d t h e p a l e o f c o n v e n t i o n a l b e h a v i o r ("I h a t e s l o b s , " he s a i d . "They a l w a y s t h i n k what t h e y have t o t h i n k . " [_p. 1 2 8 ] ) , p r e s e r v i n g h i m as t h e i n d e f i n a b l e , u n c l a s s i f i a b l e e l e m e n t o f t h e n o v e l , t h e one c h a r a c t e r u n t a i n t e d by h u m b l i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f c o n s e q u e n c e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . And y e t , u n l i k e C r o f t (who g e n u i n e l y t r a n s c e n d e d h i s n a t u r a l i s t s e t t i n g ) , F a y e seems l i m i t e d by a c e r t a i n " d r i v e n " q u a l i t y t o h i s c h a r a c t e r , a D o s t o y e v s k i a n e s s e n c e t h a t f i n a l l y a l l o w s h i m t o be p l a c e d and l a b e l l e d : "'You know,' S e r g i u s s a i d , ' y o u ' r e j u s t a r e l i g i o u s man t u r n e d .37. i n s i d e out.'" (p.128). He i s i m p e l l e d , as he h i m s e l f admits (p.128), toward some p u r i f i e d extreme of experi e n c e , the d i r e c -t i o n o f t h a t extreme i r r e l e v a n t so long as i t i s f r e e o f the c o r r u p t compromises of the middle, the mundane world. His attempt to induce Elena's s u i c i d e i s motivated p r e c i s e l y by t h i s d e s i r e : Faye had the f e e l i n g so deep i n h i m s e l f t h a t t h i s was f i n a l l y the s i t u a t i o n where he c o u l d push beyond' anything he had ever done, push to the end as he had promised me so many n i g h t s ago, and come out--he d i d not know where, but th e r e was experience beyond experience, there was something. (p. 282) U l t i m a t e l y , h i s i s a p a r t i c u l a r and an extreme form o f the r e l i -gious r e j e c t i o n o f the f l e s h : " . . . f o r the body and the s o u l are s eparate, and to be pure one must seek out s i n i t s e l f , mire the body i n o f f a l so the s o u l may be e l e v a t e d " '(p. 280); and i t i s t h i s r e j e c t i o n t h a t u n d e r l i e s h i s s t r u g g l e not j u s t a g a i n s t l u s t (p. 135), but a g a i n s t those emotions such as f e a r and compassion (p. 131 and p. 138) t h a t t i e him to o t h e r s , t h a t b i n d him to the c o n t i n g e n t w o r l d . F i n a l l y , even language, and even the human world i t s e l f , must be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s r e j e c t i o n : . . . f o r the words belonged to the s l o b s , and the s l o b s h i d the world with words. So l e t i t come, Faye thought, l e t t h i s e x p l o s i o n come, and then another, and a l l the o t h e r s , u n t i l the Sun God burned the e a r t h . L e t i t come, he thought, l o o k i n g i n t o the e a s t a t Mecca where the bombs t i c k e d w h ile he stood on a t i n y r i s e of ground t r y i n g to see one hundred, two hundred, three hundred m i l e s across the d e s e r t . L e t i t come, Faye begged, l i k e a man p r a y i n g f o r r a i n , l e t i t come and c l e a r the r o t and the stench and the s t i n k , l e t i t come f o r a l l of everywhere, j u s t so i t comes and the world stands c l e a r i n the white dead dawn. (p. 139) 38. The p a r t of the n o v e l t h a t Faye r e p r e s e n t s , then, might be seen as the i n v e r s e of the p a r t taken up by E i t e l and E l e n a : where the former i s a b s t r a c t e d , removed, and almost e f f e c t l e s s , the l a t t e r are very much i n and of the world, c o n c r e t e , compli-c i t o u s , d e f i n e d by t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . Faye, on the other hand, i s d e f i n e d by h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o j e c t — t h e g o a l of e x t r i c a t i n g h i m s e l f from the entaglements of the body, o f p h y s i c a l being i n g e n e r a l - - a d e f i n i t i o n t h a t helps to e x p l a i n h i s e t h e r e a l pre-sence i n the n o v e l . S e r g i u s 0'Shaugnessy, the p o s t u l a t e d n a r r a t o r , has a good d e a l more s u b s t a n t i a l a presence i n the b o o k — a n d perhaps too s u b s t a n t i a l . That i s , the impairment o f h i s r o l e as a mediator of events may be p a r t l y due to the emphasis gi v e n h i s r o l e as a p a r t i c i p a n t or a c t o r i n h i s own s t o r y . For, u n l i k e Nick Carraway (whose a f f a i r w i t h Jordan Baker was never of much importance), S e r g i u s has h i s own p a r t i n t h i s n o v e l , q u i t e d i s t i n c t from t h a t of the o t h e r s . His s t o r y , h o w e v e r — c e n t r e d about h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h L u l u , the movie s t a r - - i s p e c u l i a r l y f l a t and s t e r e o t y p e d , S e r g i u s p l a y i n g the awkward and eager a d o l e s c e n t to L u l u ' s t o y i n g child-woman, bitch-goddess (see e s p e c i a l l y pp. 113-21). L a t e r , on " p r i n c i p l e " , he turns down a movie c o n t r a c t i n order to be a " w r i t e r " : I suppose what I r e a l l y was t h i n k i n g i s t h a t I would always be a gambler, and i f I passed t h i s chance by, i t was because I had the deeper i d e a t h a t I was meant to gamble on b e t t e r t h i n g s than money or a quick c a r e e r . (p. 195) L a t e r s t i l l , i n p u r s u i t o f "experience", he goes to Mexico, 39V l e a r n s b u l l f i g h t i n g , s e t s up a b u l l f i g h t i n g s c h o o l i n " t h e V i l l a g e " , a n d r e a d s a l o t ( t h i s i s summarized i n a k i n d o f e p i l o g u e on pp. 297-303). O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e r e a r e some i n t e r -e s t i n g s p e c u l a t i v e p a s s a g e s , b u t on t h e whole t h e s e e p i s o d e s a r e s i m p l y b a d e x a m ples o f f i c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e — q u i c k , s k e t c h y , i m p a t i e n t w i t h d e t a i l , t o o o f t e n c h o o s i n g t h e t r i t e o r common-p l a c e f o r t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . To some d e g r e e , t h e s e d e f e c t s seem a p r o d u c t o f t h a t same i n s e c u r e d e f e n s i v e n e s s n o t e d e a r -l i e r i n M a i l e r ' s t e n d e n c y t o a l l e g o r i z e h i s f i c t i o n a l w o r l d s , a n e e d t o h u r r y h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s l e s t t h e i r t h i n f a b r i c become t o o a p p a r e n t . T h u s , o f h i s r e n t e d h o u s e i n D e s e r t D'Or, he w r i t e s : " I c o u l d d e s c r i b e t h a t h o u s e i n d e t a i l , b u t what w o u l d be t h e u s e ? I t was l i k e most o f t h e h o u s e s i n t h e r e s o r t " (p. 8 ) ; o r , o f h i s g a m b l i n g i n t e r l u d e w i t h L u l u : ". . . l o n g d e s c r i p t i o n i s u n n e c e s s a r y — a l l r e a l g a m b l i n g i s more o r l e s s t h e same" (p. 1 8 6 ) . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s i m p a t i e n c e i s a c l e a r d e s i r e t o h u r r y p a s t t h e f a b r i c o f t h e f i c t i o n t o w a r d some more a b s t r a c t g o a l o r p o i n t , t o u s e t h e f i c t i o n as a means t o an end. T h i s f u n c t i o n a l a p p r o a c h t o t h e w r i t i n g o f n o v e l s o u g h t t o r e m i n d us o f M a i l e r ' s c o n c e r n w i t h p o i n t o f v i e w as t h e s o u r c e o f t h e "most p o w e r f u l l e v e r a g e i n f i c t i o n " . I n f a c t , t h e p r o b -lem m e n t i o n e d above, c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d M a i l e r ' s s e e m i n g abandonment o f S e r g i u s ' n a r r a t i v e f u n c t i o n and t h e r e -s u l t i n g f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f t h e n o v e l i n t o t h r e e m a i n p a r t s , a p p e a r s s t r o n g l y t h o u g h u n c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e r e l a -t i v e b a n a l i t y o f S e r g i u s ' own p a r t . F o r M a i l e r ' s n o t i o n o f t h e no. use and i m p o r t a n c e o f p o i n t o f v i e w i s a p a r t i c u l a r one, as d i f f e r e n t f r o m F i t z g e r a l d ' s as i t i s f r o m J a m e s 1 . The G r e a t  G a t s b y , i n many ways, i s a n o v e l o f d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t , o f t h e b i t t e r d i s c r e p a n c y between g i l d e d a p p e a r a n c e and s o r d i d r e a l i t y , w i t h N i c k C a r r a w a y , t h e o b s e r v e r a n d j u d g e o f t h i s h o l l o w w o r l d , a c t -i n g as t h e s u r r o g a t e o r s t a n d - i n f o r t h e r e a d e r . The D eer P a r k , on t h e o t h e r hand, has no r e v e l a t i o n s t o make; t h e t i n s e l c o r r u p t i o n o f i t s w o r l d i s p l a i n l y e v i d e n t f r o m t h e s t a r t . L a c k i n g t h e i n h e r e n t drama o f d i s c o v e r y t h a t s h a p e s F i t z g e r a l d ' s n o v e l , t h i s book s i m p l y makes t h e C a r r a w a y t y p e o f n a r r a t o r i r r e l e v a n t , i t s c h a r a c t e r s a c t i n g as t h e i r own j u d g e s . And i n p l a c e o f t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e , " M i d d l e W e s t e r n " wisdom w i t h i n w h i c h F i t z g e r a l d so n e a t l y c o n t a i n s The G r e a t G a t s b y , M a i l e r i s man-i f e s t l y s t r i v i n g f o r some more r a d i c a l , t r a n s c e n d i n g v i s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e end; n o t c o n t e n t m e r e l y t o d e p i c t c o r r u p -t i o n , he w i s h e s i n some manner t o redeem i t . When he s p e a k s o f t h e " l e v e r a g e " o b t a i n e d f r o m p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e r e f o r e , i t i s w i t h t h i s s a l v a t i o n a l p u r p o s e i n mind, as he i n d i c a t e s i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e b o o k's s e c o n d d r a f t some t i m e l a t e r : I was a b l e , t h e n , t o c r e a t e an a d v e n t u r e r whom I b e l i e v e d i n , and as he came a l i v e f o r me, t h e o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e book w h i c h had b een s t a g n a n t f o r a y e a r o r more a l s o came t o l i f e , and new t h i n g s b e g a n t o happen t o E i t e l my d i r e c t o r and t o E l e n a h i s m i s t r e s s and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s c h a n g e d . . . . I was no l o n g e r t e l l i n g o f two n i c e p e o p l e who f a i l a t l o v e b e c a u s e t h e w o r l d i s t o o l a r g e and t o o c r u e l f o r them; t h e new 0 ' S h a u g n e s s y had moved me by d e g r e e s t o t h e more p a i n f u l s t o r y o f two p e o p l e who a r e s t r o n g as w e l l as weak, c o r r u p t as much as p u r e , and f a i l t o grow d e s p i t e t h e i r b r a v e r y i n a p o o r w o r l d , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e f i n a l l y n o t b r a v e enough, and s o do more damage t o one a n o t h e r t h a n t o t h e u n j u s t w o r l d o u t s i d e them.18 1*1. The n a r r a t o r i s o f i m p o r t a n c e , t h a t i s , n o t so much as a m e d i a t o r o f e v e n t s b u t , q u i t e s p e c i f i c a l l y , as t h e i r m e a s u r e — t h e i r s t a t u r e , and i n d e e d t h e i r s t a t u s , r i s i n g o r f a l l i n g w i t h h i s own. T h i s , a t l e a s t , i s t h e t h e o r y and t h e hope. Why i s i t , t h e n , t h a t , w h a t e v e r t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e p o r t r a y a l o f E i t e l and E l e n a , t h i s n a r r a t o r who had been " f o r t h r e e y e a r s . . . t h e 19 f r o z e n germ o f some new theme" emerges so b l a n d and p r e d i c t -20 a b l e ? I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t M a i l e r i n t e n d e d t o c o n v e y t h e o p p o s i t e i m p r e s s i o n , as i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a b o u t S e r g i u s t h a t he p u t s i n t h e mouths o f o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s — E i t e l ' s v i e w o f him, f o r example, as a p o t e n t i a l " i n t e l l e c t u a l " , i s c o n t r a d i c t e d by t h a t o f t h e producer., C o l l i e M u n s h i n : ". . . 1 s e e him g r o w i n g i n t o a s u p e r - W e s t e r n t y p e . The whole b i t . H e ' l l p u t h a i r t o n i c on h i s c h e s t , and h e ' l l k i c k y o u i n t h e c r o t c h i f i t ' s a f i g h t t o t h e d e a t h . I ' l l s a y s o m e t h i n g w o r s e . I s e n s e u g l i n e s s i n t h a t k i d . . . ." E i t e l s h r u g g e d u n h a p p i l y . " W e l l , I d o n ' t know t h a t I d i s a g r e e w i t h y o u . T h a t ' s p o s s i b l e , t o o . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r l i g h t - h e a v y w e i g h t c a n go i n any one o f a h u n d r e d d i r e c t i o n s . I t ' s why I f i n d h i m i n t e r e s t i n g . " C o l l i e n odded. "You may have a t a s t e f o r h i p s t e r s , b u t t h e y ' r e j u s t p s y c h o p a t h s t o me." (p. 170) B u t t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g , ambiguous, m u l t i - d i r e c t e d S e r g i u s O 'Shaugnessy i s n o t t h e t h i n , i m i t a t i v e f i g u r e t h a t a c t u a l l y a p p e a r s i n t h e n o v e l - - r a t h e r , he i s s i m p l y a c o n c e p t , an ab-s t r a c t i o n , a p u r e i d e a . He i s a c h a r a c t e r a r i s i n g f r o m , a n d b a s e d upon, an i n t e l l e c t u a l n o t i o n . The i d e a i t s e l f may be r i c h and p r o f o u n d , b u t t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h a t i d e a i n t o r e a l t e r m s , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f f l e s h and b l o o d , o f f e r s d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a n o t h e r o r d e r a l t o g e t h e r , and i t seems a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e 14.2. n o v e l has f o u n d e r e d upon t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y b etween t h e c o n c e p -t i o n and t h e r e a l i z a t i o n . I t i s a common enough f a i l i n g , o f c o u r s e , and seems e s -p e c i a l l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e when one l o o k s a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i d e a f r o m w h i c h S e r g i u s i s s u p p o s e d t o have b e e n formed; f o r he r e -p r e s e n t s t h e i d e a l o f p o t e n t i a l i t y , o f t o t a l , unbounded p o s s i -b i l i t y b e y o n d t h e o r d i n a r y l i m i t a t i o n s o f t i m e and s i t u a t i o n . As an o r p h a n , he l a c k s a t r u e p a s t o r l i n e a g e ; as an ex-S e r v i c e m a n , l i v i n g on w i n n i n g s f r o m a g a m b l i n g s t r e a k , he i s w i t h o u t a f i x e d p o s i t i o n i n t h e p r e s e n t . I t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o make a c r e d i b l e p e r s o n a l i t y f r o m s u c h s p a r s e m a t e r i a l i n any c a s e — b u t when t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y i s r e q u i r e d t o be t h e w a l k i n g embodiment o f some n o t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l i t y t h e p r o b l e m becomes v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . P h y s i c a l e x i s t e n c e i s i t s e l f a l i m i t a t i o n , a r e s t r i c t i o n , a nd e v e r y t i m e S e r g i u s a p p e a r s i n t h e n o v e l , no m a t t e r how q u i e t l y o r r e s e r v e d l y , he i s t o some e x t e n t d e f i n e d , p a r t o f h i s f u t u r e s h a p e d . M a i l e r i s t h u s f a c e d w i t h a dilemma: b e c a u s e o f h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p o i n t o f v i e w , he needs a s t r o n g and p o s i t i v e n a r r a t o r ; y e t , b e c a u s e he must be a f i g u r e s u g g e s t -i n g e n d l e s s p o s s i b i l i t y , t h e n a r r a t o r i s p r e c l u d e d f r o m a l l b u t t h e most n e u t r a l and t y p i c a l o f a c t i o n s . H e r e , t h e n , l i e s a d e e p e r r e a s o n f o r t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e n o v e l , and a h i n t t o w a r d t h e r e a s o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e breakdown o f M a i l e r ' s e n t i r e s t r a t e g y i n t h i s p h a s e . L e t us b r i e f l y r e c a p i t u l a t e t h e argument o f t h i s c r i t i q u e t h u s f a r : The D e e r P a r k b e g i n s as a n o v e l t o l d by a p e r i p h e r a l 1*3. n a r r a t o r , b u t l e s s t h a n a t h i r d o f t h e way t h r o u g h t h a t n a r r a t o r seems v i r t u a l l y t o d i s a p p e a r as s u c h , t h o u g h he r e -m ains as a c h a r a c t e r a t t h e c e n t r e o f one o f t h e t h r e e main •fragments i n t o w h i c h t h e n o v e l s u b s e q u e n t l y d i v i d e s . One o f t h o s e f r a g m e n t s , a t l e a s t , seems good i n i t s e l f , b u t t h e book as a whole i s b a d l y weakened by t h e r e l a t i v e i n d e p e n d e n c e - -a l m o s t t h e m u t u a l i r r e l e v e n c e — o f t h e t h r e e t a k e n t o g e t h e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p a r t g r o u p e d a r o u n d t h e ( e x - ) n a r r a t o r — t h e one c h a r a c t e r , i t was hoped, whose s t a t u r e w o u l d p r o v i d e d i -m e n s i o n t o t h e r e s t — i s i t s e l f f l a w e d by t h e s e e m i n g l y i n e s c a p -a b l e c o l o u r l e s s n e s s o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y ( " i n e s c a p a b l e " b e c a u s e he i s n o t , i n a s e n s e , a t r u e c h a r a c t e r a t a l l , b u t t h e p e r -s o n i f i c a t i o n o f an i d e a , t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e p o t e n t i a l ) . I t r e m a i n s , now, t o l i n k t h e s e v a r i o u s p e r c e p t i o n s and judgments i n t o a g e n e r a l a s s e s s m e n t . The key t o t h e p r o b l e m o f t h i s n o v e l i s t h a t i t s f u n d a -m e n t a l v i s i o n i s s p l i t i n t o two d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s , r e p r e -s e n t e d by E i t e l and by F a y e . The f o r m e r m i g h t be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as t h e " r e a l w o r l d " , t h e w o r l d o f c o n t i n g e n c y and o f m o r a l c o n s e q u e n c e ( a p t l y d e s c r i b e d , p e r h a p s , i n E i t e l ' s f i n a l words t o S e r g i u s , as t h e w o r l d "where o r p h a n s b u r n o r p h a n s and n o t h i n g i s more d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c o v e r t h a n a s i m p l e f a c t . " p. 318); t h e l a t t e r l o o k s i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n , away f r o m t h e immanent, t o w a r d a w o r l d o f t r a n s c e n d e n c e , o f " e x p e r i e n c e b e -y o n d e x p e r i e n c e " (p. 2 8 2 ) , b e y o n d m o r a l c o n s e q u e n c e ("good and e v i l " ) , b e y o n d t h e c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f e x i s t e n c e i t s e l f . Between t h e s e two terms t h e r e i s an o b v i o u s room f o r , and n e e d o f , a m e d i a t o r , and i t i s p l a i n t h a t S e r g i u s O'Shaugnessy was i n t e n d e d f o r t h a t r o l e . Had he b een a d e q u a t e t o h i s t a s k , he • m i g h t have s a l v a g e d t h e b e s t f r o m b o t h t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s — F a y e ' s t r a n s c e n d e n t v i s i o n w i t h o u t h i s o b s e s s i v e r e j e c t i o n o f t h e body, E i t e l ' s m o r a l s t r e n g t h w i t h o u t h i s weakness f o r m a t e r i a l t e m p t a t i o n — a n d , f u s i n g t h e s e q u a l i t i e s i n h i s own b e i n g , emerged c l e a r l y as t h e r e d e m p t i v e h e r o f o r w h i c h M a i l e r had p l a n n e d . B u t t h e t a s k , as i t i s s e t up, i s an i m p o s s i b l e one. The two o p p o s i n g t e r m s a r e g i v e n f r o m t h e s t a r t as r e a l i t i e s o u t s i d e o f S e r g i u s , o b j e c t i v e and ( t h e i r o c c a s i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g ) autonomous. T h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n F a y e ' s s e l f -p u r g a t i v e p r o j e c t t h a t w o u l d be o f any h e l p t o E i t e l i n h i s r e a l s t r u g g l e s and t o r m e n t s ; and t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n E i t e l ' s r e a l c o n c e r n s t h a t w o u l d make any d i f f e r e n c e t o F a y e ' s w o r l d -21 s p u r n i n g a m b i t i o n s ; t h e y a r e e a c h , t o t h e o t h e r , l i k e a d e n i z e n o f an a l i e n r e a l m , g a z i n g a c r o s s an i m p e n e t r a b l e b a r r i e r . T h e r e i s no g r o u n d , i n t h e n o v e l i t s e l f , upon w h i c h t h o s e r e a l m s c a n be b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r , and S e r g i u s i s t h e r e f o r e l e f t h a n g i n g i n t h e s p a c e between them, an i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s t r u c t , a c o n c e p t o f p o t e n t i a l i t y . S e r g i u s r e l i n q u i s h e s h i s r o l e o f n a r r a t o r b e c a u s e he c a n n o t u n i f y , i n h i s own p e r s o n , t h e d i s p a r a t e e l e -ments o f t h e n o v e l , and t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n t h a t a f f l i c t s i t on t h e l e v e l o f p l o t i s b u t t h e e x t e r n a l c o r r e l a t i v e o f an i n n e r f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f v i s i o n . W i t h The D e e r P a r k , t h e s e c o n d p h a s e o f M a i l e r ' s n o v e l s 14.5. has come t o an e n d . I t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r a t e g y has b e e n p a r -t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l and p a r t i a l l y a f a i l u r e . C e r t a i n l y , by i n -t r o d u c i n g a n a r r a t o r , a m e d i a t o r o f i t s s t o r y , t h e n o v e l r e g a i n s a m o r a l d i m e n s i o n - - a l e v e l o f m e a n i n g f u l s t r u g g l e — t h a t The  Naked and t h e Dead, w i t h i t s inhuman o m n i s c i e n c e , had l o s t . Y e t , by l e a v i n g t h a t - n a r r a t o r on t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e s t o r y — m a k i n g t h e s t o r y , i n o t h e r w o rds, e x t e r n a l t o , and i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e n a r r a t o r — a n o t h e r p r o b l e m , as r a d i c a l as t h e f i r s t , i s e n -c o u n t e r e d . F o r t h e v i s i o n t h a t M a i l e r w i s h e s t o p r o j e c t ( p e r -haps h i s d e f i n i n g q u a l i t y as a w r i t e r ) i s b i f u r c a t e d , and s o l o n g a s i t s two b r a n c h e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d as o b j e c t i v e t e r m s f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g t h e r e w i l l be no means o f f u s i n g them i n t o a u n i f i e d e x p r e s s i o n . I n s t e a d , g i v e n M a i l e r ' s u n w i l l i n g n e s s s i m p l y t o abandon e i t h e r t e r m , t h e n o v e l b r e a k s a p a r t , and t h e n a r r a t o r becomes i n e f f e c t u a l , r e n d e r i n g i r r e l e v a n t e v e n h i s c a p a c i t y as w i t n e s s . W i t h t h i s a s s e s s m e n t i n mind, t h e r e f o r e , one m i g h t p r o p o s e a s o r t o f scheme f o r M a i l e r ' s d e v e l o p m e n t t h u s f a r : i n t h e f i r s t p h a s e , t h e s t o r y was s e t a t a d i s t a n c e , w i t h t h e r e a d e r p r o v i d e d n o t so much w i t h a " p o i n t " o f v i e w as w i t h an " o v e r v i e w " ; i n t h e s e c o n d p h a s e , t h e s t o r y i s moved c l o s e r t o t h e r e a d e r , h i s v i e w p o i n t ( t h r o u g h t h e n a r r a t o r ) t h a t o f an o b s e r v e r a t i t s edge; i n t h e t h i r d p h a s e , t h e n , a s s u m i n g t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h i s t e n d e n c y , one c o u l d p r e d i c t t h a t t h e r e a d e r w i l l be p l a c e d i n t h e v e r y c e n t r e o f t h e s t o r y , the. h e r o - n a r r a t o r g i v i n g u n i t y t o i t s v i s i o n i n t h e c o u r s e o f h i s own a c t i o n s and s t r u g g l e s . 1*6. C h a p t e r 3 An A m e r i c a n Dream and Why A r e We I n V i e t n a m ? Between t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f The D eer P a r k and o f An A m e r i c a n  Dream, M a i l e r ' s f o u r t h n o v e l , t h e r e i s a gap o f a l m o s t t e n y e a r s . Though he w r o t e no m a j o r f i c t i o n i n t h a t t i m e , however, M a i l e r was f a r f r o m i d l e . A number o f s m a l l e r p i e c e s were c o l l e c t e d t o g e t h e r , i n t e r l a c e d w i t h an e x t e n s i v e commentary, and p u b l i s h e d i n two b o o k s : A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f i n 195 9, and The  P r e s i d e n t i a l P a p e r s i n 1963. The f i r s t o f t h e s e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , had an i m p a c t upon h i s c a r e e r c o m p a r a b l e o n l y t o t h a t o f The  Naked and t h e Dead; c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e i s a f a i r l y l a r g e o m i s s i o n a t t h i s p o i n t i f we s i m p l y c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f M a i l e r ' s n o v e l i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t . The e x c u s e s f o r d o i n g s o , r e g a r d l e s s , a r e two: f i r s t l y , t h e n o v e l s by t h e m s e l v e s e x h i b i t a p a t t e r n o f d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t c a n b e s t be d i s p l a y e d by c o n s i -d e r i n g them t o g e t h e r ; and s e c o n d l y (an e x c u s e t h a t w i l l , p e r -h a p s / o n l y be u n d e r s t a n d a b l e l a t e r ) , t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e l a t e r n o v e l s w i l l n o t be d o m i n a t e d by t h e M a i l e r " p e r s o n a " b r o u g h t i n t o b e i n g by t h e i n t e r v e n i n g c o m p i l a t i o n s . What p r o b -lems and p e c u l i a r i t i e s r e s u l t f r o m t h i s u n c h r o n o l o g i c a l p r o -c e d u r e c a n h o p e f u l l y be r e s o l v e d when we r e t u r n t o t h o s e o m i t t e d l i n k s . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d , however, t h a t t h e p u b l i c c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h Ah A m e r i c a n Dream was f i r s t r e c e i v e d was v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f any o f M a i l e r ' s o t h e r n o v e l s . No l o n g e r m e r e l y t h e e r s t w h i l e a u t h o r o f a good war n o v e l , M a i l e r , 14.7 • by 1965, was w i d e l y and c r i t i c a l l y r e g a r d e d as a W r i t e r , s t i l l somewhat on t h e edge o f t h e r e s p e c t a b l e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , no d o u b t , b u t c e r t a i n l y among i t s most v i s i b l e p r o f i l e s . T h e s e new-found a t t e n t i o n s were due i n p a r t t o h i s own i n s i s t e n t s e l f - a d v e r t i s i n g , and, s i n c e h i s r o l e was t h a t o f a n o v e l i s t who h ad n o t a t t e m p t e d t h e f o r m f o r n e a r l y a d e c a d e , h i g h e x-p e c t a t i o n s w e r e n a t u r a l l y g e n e r a t e d . What i s s u r p r i s i n g a b o u t t h e c r i t i c a l r e s p o n s e t o An A m e r i c a n Dream, however, i s n o t i t s i n t e n s i t y b u t i t s e x t r e m e d i v e r s i t y . The n o v e l i s e a s i l y t h e most c o n t r o v e r s i a l o f a l l M a i l e r ' s w o r k s , and as s u c h i t o c c u p i e s a c r u c i a l p o s i t i o n n o t so much i n h i s a c t u a l d e v e l o p -ment as i n t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t . I t m i g h t a l m o s t be s e e n as t h e t o u c h s t o n e among h i s w r i t i n g s , d i v i d i n g c r i t i c s i n t o camps whose o p p o s i n g judgments b e a r upon t h e whol e c o u r s e and w o r t h o f h i s c a r e e r . F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e d e b a t e s u r r o u n d i n g t h e n o v e l i s o f e x c e p t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e and w i l l be g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e e m p h a s i s i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . An i d e a o f t h e s h a r p n e s s o f t h a t d e b a t e , and o f some o f t h e p o s i t i o n s a nd i s s u e s i n v o l v e d , c a n be p r o v i d e d a t t h e o u t -s e t , as a c o n t e x t f o r t h e s t u d y o f t h e n o v e l i t s e l f . B o t h s i d e s a r e a t l e a s t u n e q u i v o c a l . F o r E l i z a b e t h H a r d w i c k t h e book i s "an i n t e l l e c t u a l and l i t e r a r y d i s a s t e r , p o o r l y w r i t t e n , m o r a l l y f o o l i s h and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y e m p t y . " 1 F o r S t a n l e y E d g a r Hyman ( i n an a r t i c l e w i t h t h e i n s p i r e d t i t l e o f "Norman M a i l e r ' s Yummy Rump") An A m e r i c a n Dream i s a d r e a d f u l n o v e l , p e r h a p s t h e w o r s t I have r e a d i n many y e a r s , s i n c e i t i s i n f i n i t e l y more p r e t e n t i o u s t h a n t h e c o m p e t i t i o n . M a i l e r ' s n o v e l i s bad i n t h a t a b s o l u t e f a s h i o n t h a t makes i t u n l i k e l y t h a t he c o u l d e v e r have w r i t t e n a n y t h i n g good.2 Tom W o l f e , d i s m i s s i n g what he t a k e s t o be t h e b o ok's D o s t o e v s k i a n a m b i t i o n s , compares M a i l e r t o James M. C a i n : Of c o u r s e , M a i l e r c a n n o t match C a i n i n w r i t i n g d i a l o g u e , c r e a t i n g c h a r a c t e r s , s e t t i n g up s c e n e s o r c a r r y i n g c h a r a c t e r s t h r o u g h a l o n g s t o r y . B u t he i s k e e n e r t h a n C a i n i n summoning up s m e l l s , e s p e c i a l l y e f f l u v i a . 3 And P h i l i p Rahv, t h o u g h a l i t t l e more t e n t a t i v e t h a n t h e o t h e r s , makes t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t seems t o r e p r e s e n t t h e common g r o u n d o f t h e h o s t i l e camp, and most i n v o k e s t h e d i s d a i n o f t h e n o v e l ' s d e f e n d e r s : "On t h e t e c h n i c a l s i d e what t h e n o v e l o b v i o u s l y 4 l a c k s i s v e r i s i m i l i t u d e , e v e n i n t h e most l i t e r a l s e n s e . " B e n e a t h t h e o u t r a g e and s a t i r e , i t seems e v i d e n t t h a t t h e l i t e r a r y o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e n o v e l i s b a s e d upon i t s l a c k o f c e r -t a i n c o n v e n t i o n s o f r e a l i s m : b e l i e v a b l e c h a r a c t e r s , c r e d i b l e p l o t , r e a l d i a l o g u e , a c c u r a t e m e t a p h o r s , and so on. The d e f e n d e r s , n o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , c h o o s e t o d i r e c t t h e i r c o u n t e r - a t t a c k a t t h i s v e r y p o i n t . R i c h a r d P o i r i e r , f o r example, r e j e c t i n g t h e " always outmoded c r i t e r i a o f v e r i s i m i l i t u d e " , u p h o l d s i n s t e a d t h e " e x t r a v a g a n c e o f M a i l e r ' s r e n d i t i o n " o f 5 a v a r i e t y o f f i c t i o n a l modes. Leo B e r s a n i a d m onishes r e a d e r s i n words v e r y s i m i l a r t o P o i r i e r ' s : The p l o t o f An A m e r i c a n Dream i s . . . n o t h i n g more t h a n a mode o f R o j a c k ' s i n v e n t i v e e x u b e r a n c e , a n d , w h i l e i t i s p e r h a p s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t t h e a n e c d o t a l a s p e c t o f f i c t i o n s h o u l d t r i c k us most e a s i l y i n t o c o n f u s i o n s between a r t and l i f e , we s h o u l d be a d m i r i n g t h e power o f e x t r a v a g a n c e i n R o j a c k ' s t a l l s t o r y , i n s t e a d o f u p h o l d i n g t h e f a d e d b a n n e r o f v e r i s i m i l i -t u d e . 6 J o h n A l d r i d g e p u t s t h e argument f o r t h e d e f e n s e i n b r i e f and i n g e n e r a l : ". v . what t h e c r i t i c s f a i l e d t o comprehend was t h a t An A m e r i c a n Dream c o u l d n o t be p r o p e r l y j u d g e d by s t a n -7 . . d a r d s n o r m a l l y a p p l i e d t o t h e n o v e l . . . ." T h e s e c r i t i c s , t h e n , f i n d a v i r t u e i n t h e n o v e l ' s v e r y d i s a p p o i n t m e n t o f what a r e s e e n as t h e o l d - f a s h i o n e d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f i t s o p p o n e n t s . E v i d e n t l y , t h e n o t i o n o f " v e r i s i m i l i t u d e " r e p r e s e n t s a key t o t h e d e b a t e , and i t r a i s e s t h e o l d ( b u t o b v i o u s l y s t i l l c u r r e n t ) q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h a t c r i t e r i o n , e v e n i n i t s "most l i t e r a l s e n s e " , c a n be abandoned i n t h e n o v e l , and w h e t h e r any a l t e r -n a t i v e c a n be f o u n d t o t a k e i t s p l a c e . A p a r t i c u l a r answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n , a t l e a s t , may be d e r i v e d f r o m t h i s p a r t i c u l a r n o v e l . From i t s o p e n i n g s e n t e n c e — "I met J a c k Kennedy i n November, 1 9 4 6 " - - i t . a n n o u n c e s i t s b r e a k w i t h t h e p a t t e r n o f M a i l e r ' s p r e v i o u s n o v e l s and t h e i n a u g u r a -t i o n o f a new p h a s e ; one w o u l d n o t have e x p e c t e d t h e name o f an a c t u a l P r e s i d e n t e v e n t o be m e n t i o n e d i n t h o s e e a r l i e r w o r k s , much l e s s i n p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e n a r r a t o r , g i v e n t h e i r d e f e n s i v e o b s e s s i o n w i t h f i c t i o n a l i z a t i o n . The n a r r a t o r h i m -s e l f , h e r e , i s o f a new t y p e , and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o s e e i n j u s t what ways he d i f f e r s f r o m h i s p r e d e c e s s o r . S t e p h e n R o j a c k a p p e a r s somewhat s i m i l a r t o S e r g i u s O'Shaugnessy i n h i s t o n e o f s t u d i e d n o n c h a l a n c e : We went o u t one n i g h t on a d o u b l e d a t e and i t t u r n e d o u t t o be a f a i r e v e n i n g f o r me. I s e d u c e d a g i r l who w o u l d have been b o r e d by a diamond Jo. as b i g as t h e R i t z . " B u t i n o t h e r a s p e c t s he i s more l i k e E i t e l : m i d d l e - a g e d , w i t h a s t a l l e d c a r e e r , and an e s t r a n g e d w i f e he i s b o t h a d d i c t e d t o (pp. 24-5) and f r i g h t e n e d o f (p. 3 1 ) . F i n a l l y , t h e s t r a n g l i n g o f h i s w i f e i s a d e e d o f w h i c h o n l y t h e a m o r a l , i m p u l s e - d r i v e n M a r i o n F a y e c o u l d h a v e b e e n c a p a b l e . I n a s e n s e , t h e n , R o j a c k r e p r e s e n t s t h e i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e t h r e e f r a g m e n t s i n t o w h i c h The D eer P a r k h a d s p l i t , and t h i s may be one r e a s o n why he a p p e a r s t o P o i r i e r , f o r example, as "an a s s e m b l i a g e o f p a r t s , some o f 9 them d i s j u n c t i v e w i t h o t h e r s . " As s u c h , he i s n o t o n l y a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e n o v e l , he i s v i r t u a l l y t h e whole o f t h e n o v e l , o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s a p p e a r i n g o n l y one by one i n what W o l f e c a l l s "cameo p a r t s " . 1 0 I t i s t h i s s o r t o f e n g u l f m e n t — a means o f h e a l i n g t h e d i v i d e d v i s i o n t h a t a f f l i c t e d t h e p r e v i o u s n o v e l — t h a t i s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e o f t h e n o v e l s o f M a i l e r ' s t h i r d p h a s e . The c o m p o s i t e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e n a r r a t o r , however, i s o n l y one o f t h e f e a t u r e s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h i s n o v e l f r o m e a r l i e r o n e s - -and, t h o u g h i t i s c e n t r a l , . i t i s by no means t h e most o b v i o u s . The most i m m e d i a t e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h a t d i f f e r e n c e i s s u r e l y t h e s t y l e - - u n l i k e t h e s u b d u e d , p r a g m a t i c p r o s e o f The Naked and  t h e D e a d , , t h i s i s l a n g u a g e t h a t c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o i t s e l f ; and u n l i k e t h e F i t z g e r a l d i a n r h e t o r i c o f The Deer P a r k , t h i s i s a s t y l e u n i q u e t o M a i l e r . S e n t e n c e s t h a t a r e s h o r t and a b r u p t a l t e r n a t e w i t h s e n t e n c e s t h a t a r e l o n g a n d . o r n a t e , f r e q u e n t l y o b s c u r e i n s y n t a x , and so a b u n d a n t w i t h a l l u s i o n s and m e t a p h o r s 51 as a l m o s t t o over-whelm t h e i r s u b j e c t s . So much i s made o f t h i s h i g h l y v i s i b l e s t y l e by b o t h d e t r a c t o r s and d e f e n d e r s , i n f a c t , t h a t i t c o u l d a l m o s t be made t h e f o c u s o f t h e d e b a t e o v e r t h e n o v e l i t s e l f . The f o l l o w i n g l e n g t h y p a s s a g e f r o m R o j a c k ' s r e m i n i s c e n c e o f a war e x p e r i e n c e i s q u o t e d f o r t h e d o u b l e p u r p o s e o f b o t h i l l u s t r a t i n g t h i s s t y l e and o f p r o v i d i n g , a r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h a t c r i t i c a l d e b a t e : Y e a r s l a t e r I r e a d Zen i n t h e A r t o f A r c h e r y and u n d e r s t o o d t h e book. B e c a u s e I d i d n o t thro w t h e g r e n a d e s on t h a t n i g h t on t h e h i l l u n d e r t h e moon, i t t h r e w them, and i t d i d a n e a r p e r f e c t j o b . The g r e n a d e s went o f f somewhere between f i v e and t e n y a r d s o v e r e a c h m a c h i n e gun, b l a s t , b l a s t , l i k e a b o x e r ' s t a t t o o , one-two, and I was e x p l o d e d i n t h e b u t t f r o m a p i e c e o f my own s h r a p n e l , whacked w i t h a d e l i c i o u s p a i n c l e a n as a m i s t r e s s ' s h a r p t e e t h g o i n g "Yummy" i n y o u r rump, and t h e n t h e b a r r e l 1 o f my c a r b i n e swung a r o u n d l i k e a l o n g f i n e a n t e n n a and p o i n t e d i t s e l f a t t h e machine gun h o l e on my r i g h t where a g r e a t g l o o d y sweet German f a c e , a h e a l t h y s p o i l e d o v e r -s p o i l e d y o u ng b e a u t y o f a f a c e , m o t h e r - l o v e a l l o v e r i t s m a k i n g , p o s s e s s e r o f t h a t o v e r c u r v e d mouth w h i c h o n l y g r e a t f a t sweet young f a g g o t s c a n have when t h e i r r e c t u m i s t u n e d and e n t e r t a i n e d f r o m a d o l e s c e n c e on, came c r y i n g , s l i d i n g , s m i l i n g up o v e r t h e edge o f t h e h o l e , " H e l l o d e a t h l " b l o o d and mud l i k e t h e h e r a l d o f sodomy upon h i s c h e s t , and I p u l l e d t h e t r i g g e r as i f I were s q e e z i n g t h e s o f t e s t b r e a s t o f t h e s o f t e s t p i g e o n w h i c h e v e r f l e w , s t i l l a woman's b r e a s t t a k e s me now and t h e n t o t h e p i g e o n on t h a t t r i g g e r , and t h e s h o t c r a c k e d l i k e a b i r t h t w i g a c r o s s my p a l m , whop I and t h e r o u n d went i n a t t h e bas e o f h i s n o s e and s p r e a d and I saw h i s f a c e s u c k e d i n ba c k w a r d upon t h e gouge o f t h e b u l l e t , he l o o k e d s u d d e n l y l i k e an o l d man, t o o t h l e s s , s l y , r e m i n i s c e n t o f l e c h e r y . Then he whimpered " M u t t e r " , one y e l p f r o m t h e f i r s t memory . o f t h e womb, and down he went i n t o h i s own b l o o d j u s t i n t i m e , t i m e d l i k e t h e i n t e r v a l i n a s h o o t i n g g a l l e r y , f o r t h e n e x t was up, h i s h o l e - m a t e , a h a r d a v e n g i n g s p e c -t e r w i t h a p i s t o l i n h i s hand and one arm o f f , b l o w n o f f , r e c t i t u d e l i k e a s t r i n g e r o f s a l i v a a c r o s s t h e s t r a i g h t edge o f h i s l i p , t h e s t r a i g h t e s t l i p I e v e r saw, G e r m a n - P r o t e s t a n t r e c t i t u d e . (pp. 11-12) 52 The l o n g s e n t e n c e s , o f c o u r s e , r e m i n d one o f F a u l k n e r , b u t t h e y do n o t h a v e — d o n o t t r y f o r — F a u l k n e r ' s n a r r a t i v e , r h e t o r i c a l c a d e n c e ; r a t h e r , t h e i r l e n g t h seems t o r e s u l t f r o m t h e e x f o l i a -t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , one a l l u s i o n t r i g g e r i n g a n o t h e r i n a s e l f - g e n e r a t i n g p r o c e s s . Such a s t y l e p r o v i d e s h o s t i l e c r i t i c s w i t h i n n u m e r a b l e examples o f what Hyman c a l l s " M a i l e r ' s scLovenly m i s u s e o f l a n g u a g e " 1 1 , and y e t P o i r i e r , f o r example, a d m i r i n g l y d e s c r i b e s t h i s v e r y p a s s a g e as sh o w i n g M a i l e r ' s " i n t e n s e i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e words he u s e s and i n t h e 12 p a t t e r n s o f a s s o c i a t i o n among them." As a l w a y s , t h e i s s u e o f t h e s t y l e i s i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d t o t h e l a r g e r i s s u e o f t h e n o v e l i t s e l f , b u t i t o f f e r s an i n t e r e s t i n g 1 , , and p o s s i b l y c r u c i a l , i l l -u s t r a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n s u r r o u n d i n g t h a t i s s u e . The s t y l e , however, i s n o t t h e o n l y a s p e c t o f t h i s book t h a t s e p a r a t e s i t n o t m e r e l y f r o m M a i l e r ' s o t h e r n o v e l s b u t f r o m t h e r e a l i s t t r a d i t i o n o f t h e n o v e l g e n e r a l l y — a l m o s t as s i g n i f i c a n t and as o b v i o u s i s i t s s t r a n g e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f o c c u l t p a r a p h e r n a l i a . On t h e f i r s t page one f i n d s a r e f e r e n c e t o " o g r e s " t h a t " s t a n d on g u a r d b e f o r e t h e p o r t a l o f an h e i r e s s " , t h o u g h t h i s seems o n l y a f i g u r e o f s p e e c h . On t h e v e r y n e x t page, however, j u s t p r i o r t o h i s s t o r y o f h i s w a r - t i m e h e r o i s m , R o j a c k a d m i t s t h a t "The r e a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e P r e s i d e n t and m y s e l f may be t h a t I ended w i t h t o o l a r g e an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e moon . . ." (p. 1 0 ) , and l a t e r we s e e him h a n g i n g by one hand f r o m an a p a r t m e n t b a l c o n y , e n g a g e d i n a d i a l o g u e o v e r 53 s u i c i d e w i t h t h e moon, " t h a t p l a t i n u m l a d y w i t h h e r s i l v e r l i g h t " (p. 1 9 ) . S h o r t l y a f t e r , l e a v i n g t h e a p a r t m e n t , he f a i l s t o s h u t t h e d o o r : " I t u r n e d a r o u n d t o jam i t o n c e a g a i n and f e l t a f o r c e on me as p a l p a b l e as a m a g n e t i c f i e l d . 'Get o u t o f h e r e , ' s a i d a v o i c e i n my b r a i n " (p. 2 0 ) . B u t i t i s o n l y a f t e r R o j a c k ' s murder o f D e b o r a h , h i s w i f e , a t t h e end o f t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r , t h a t t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l a p p a r a t u s f u l l y m a n i -f e s t s i t s e l f : S o m e t h i n g t o u c h e d me and now p u s h e d me w i t h o u t t o u c h t o w a r d t h e d o o r . Once a g a i n I c o u l d h a v e b e e n i n a m a g n e t i c f i e l d where some f o r c e w i t h o u t s e n s a t i o n o t h e r t h a n i t s own p r e s e n c e was c o a x i n g me f i r m l y t o s t e p away f r o m D e b o r a h , c r o s s t h e room, and o u t t h e d o o r . (p. 4 4) From t h i s p o i n t on, " v o i c e s " , " f o r c e s " , and omens o f v a r i o u s k i n d s a r e f o u n d on v i r t u a l l y e v e r y p a g e , i n t e r m i x e d w i t h t h e w o r l d o f t a n g i b l e t h i n g s , and so e v o k i n g a s y n t h e s i s o f r e a l m s d i s p l a c e d f r o m t h e p l a n e o f t h e r e a l . P e r h a p s t h e e p i t o m e o f t h i s odd f u s i o n i s t h e d u e l R o j a c k f i g h t s i n t h e n i g h t c l u b w i t h " p s y c h i c p a r t i c l e s , p e l l e t s , r o c k e t s t h e l e n g t h o f a p i n , p l a n e t s t h e s i z e o f y o u r e y e ' s p u p i l when t h e i r i s c l o s e s down" and "even some a r t i l l e r y . . . ." (p. 9 5 ) . R o j a c k d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f e a r l y i n t h e n o v e l as "a p r o f e s s o r o f e x i s t e n t i a l p s y c h o l o g y w i t h t h e n o t i n c o n s i d e r a b l e t h e s i s t h a t m a g i c , d r e a d , and t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f d e a t h were t h e r o o t s o f m o t i v a t i o n " (p. 1 5 ) , and l a t e r a d m i t s t h a t , t h r o u g h h i s m a r r i a g e w i t h D e b o r a h , ". . . 1 h a d come t o b e l i e v e i n s p i r i t s and demons, i n d e v i l s , w a r l o c k s , omens, w i z a r d s and f i e n d s , i n i n c u b i and s u c c u b i " (p. 4 0 ) , so one m i g h t e x p e c t t h e s t o r y he t e l l s t o r e f l e c t t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l b i a s ; b u t s i n c e t h e s t o r y o n l y e x i s t s as R o j a c k ' s n a r r a t i o n h i s " b i a s " i s a u t h o r i t a t i v e , and e s t a b l i s h e s a v e r s i o n o f r e a l i t y f o r t h e n o v e l , w h i c h i n t u r n has a p r o f o u n d e f f e c t upon t h e n a t u r e o f t h e n o v e l . One s u c h c o n s e q u e n c e i s t h e r e l a t i v e a b s e n c e o f p s y c h o l o g y o r o f f u l l s u b j e c t i v i t y . I n t h e c a s e o f R o j a c k h i m s e l f i t i s as t h o u g h h i s p s y c h e has b e e n t u r n e d i n s i d e o u t , h i s i n n e r d e s i r e s and f e a r s , h i s m o t i v a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l , e x t e r n a l i z e d i n t h e f o r m o f o u t e r f o r c e s and v o i c e s . The o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s seem more l i k e t h e embodiments o f c e r t a i n m o r a l e s s e n c e s , d e f i n e d by t h e i r s p i r i t u a l a l l i a n c e s t o God o r t h e D e v i l , r a t h e r t h a n c h a n g i n g , e v o l v i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s ; t h e y a r e complex o n l y t o the' e x t e n t t h a t t h e t w i n a l t e r n a t i v e s o f t h e i r m o r a l n a t u r e a r e m i x e d o r o b s c u r e d , . a s e x e m p l i f i e d by R o j a c k ' s p u z z l e m e n t o v e r h i s w i f e : She was e v i l , I w o u l d d e c i d e , and t h e n t h i n k n e x t t h a t g o o d n e s s c o u l d come on a v i s i t t o e v i l o n l y i n t h e d i s g u i s e o f e v i l : y e s , e v i l w o u l d know t h a t g o o d n e s s ha d come o n l y by t h e power o f i t s f o r c e . I m i g h t be t h e one who was t h e r e f o r e e v i l , and D e b o r a h was t r a p p e d w i t h me. Or was I b l i n d ? (p. 40) I n t h e n o n - r e a l w o r l d o f t h i s n o v e l , t h e n , R o j a c k becomes, as P o i r i e r d e s c r i b e s him, "a k i n d o f b a t t l e g r o u n d where e x t e r n a l 13 f o r c e s w h i c h i n h a b i t t h e s o u l o r t h e p s y c h e war f o r p o s s e s s i o n " and t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s become t h e ambiguous a g e n t s i n t h a t war. A f u r t h e r c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e book's s u p e r n a t u r a l i s m i s t h e a b s e n c e o f p l o t , i n t h e s e n s e o f a c a u s a l o r m o t i v a t e d s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s . T h u s , t h e n o v e l as a w h o l e i s composed o f a s e r i e s o f e p i s o d e s , w i t h i n w h i c h R o j a c k ' s a c t i v i t i e s ( which c o m p r i s e 55 most o f t h e a c t i o n o f t h e book) r e s u l t s i m p l y f r o m t h e m y s t i c f o r c e s and v o i c e s t h a t i m p e l him. What m i g h t be t a k e n as t h e v e r y c l i m a x o f t h e n o v e l , i n f a c t — R o j a c k ' s w a l k i n g o f t h e p a r a p e t a t K e l l y ' s a p a r t m e n t — i s a p e r f e c t i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s p l o t l e s s n e s s , f o r i t i s p u r e l y g r a t u i t o u s a c t i o n , whose o r i g i n s and e f f e c t s a r e on a w h o l l y o c c u l t l e v e l : I b e n t t o p i c k up t h e u m b r e l l a , and t h e n t h e message came c l e a r , "Walk t h e p a r a p e t , " i t s a i d . "Walk t h e p a r a p e t o r C h e r r y i s d e a d . " B u t I h a d more f e a r f o r m y s e l f t h a n f o r C h e r r y . I d i d n o t want t o w a l k t h a t p a r a p e t . "Walk i t , " s a i d t h e v o i c e , " o r y o u a r e w o rse t h a n d e a d . " ( p . 238) B u t , b e f o r e he w a l k s t h e p a r a p e t o n c e , t h e v o i c e t e l l s h i m he must w a l k i t a g a i n , w h i c h he n e g l e c t s t o do, and i n t h e end C h e r r y i s i n d e e d d e a d . By l i n k i n g t h e e v e n t s o f h i s n o v e l t h r o u g h s u c h a m y s t i c a l d i m e n s i o n M a i l e r o b v i o u s l y g a i n s a c o n s i d e r a b l e f r e e d o m , s i n c e he p r o v i d e s h i m s e l f w i t h an a u t o -m a t i c e x c u s e f o r c o i n c i d e n c e s o r c o n n e c t i o n s t h a t w o u l d seem i n c r e d i b l e i n a r e a l i s t i c s e t t i n g . I n t h i s w o r l d one s i m p l y a c c e p t s t h e f a c t t h a t C h e r r y h e r s e l f was once i n v o l v e d w i t h K e l l y , f o r e x a m p l e , o r t h a t she s h o u l d be k i l l e d b e c a u s e R o j a c k f a i l s t o h e e d an i n j u n c t i o n t o "go i n t o H a r l e m t h i s n i g h t and d r i n k u n t i l c l o s i n g " (p. 1 9 0 ) , o r t h a t R o j a c k s h o u l d evade t h e l e g a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f h i s murder b e c a u s e h i s w i f e was i n v o l v e d w i t h s p i e s . H e r e , s u c h i n t e r t w i n i n g s o f c h a r a c t e r s and e v e n t s seem f a t e f u l r a t h e r t h a n random o r a c c i d e n t a l , and g o od d e a l o f t h e n o v e l ' s i s o l a t i o n f r o m t h e r e a l w o r l d r e s u l t s f r o m t h i s p e r v a s i v e s e n s e o f f a t e t h a t o p e r a t e s as a k i n d o f s e a l upon i t s own w o r l d . 56. T h e r e a r e a few i n s t a n c e s , however, i n w h i c h R o j a c k him-s e l f a p p e a r s t o a t t e m p t an e s c a p e f r o m t h e s e a l e d , f a t e f u l w o r l d o f t h e n o v e l : . . . I h a d a sudden h a t r e d o f m y s t e r y , a moment when I w a n t e d t o be i n a c e l l , my l i f e b u r n e d down t o t h e b a r e l i n e s o f a l e g a l d e f e n s e . I d i d n o t want t o s e e B a r n a r d O s w a l d K e l l y l a t e r t o n i g h t , and y e t I knew I must f o r t h a t was p a r t o f t h e c o n t r a c t I h a d made on t h e m o r n i n g a i r . I w o u l d n o t be p e r m i t t e d t o f l e e t h e m y s t e r y . I was c l o s e t o p r a y e r t h e n , I was v e r y c l o s e , f o r what was p r a y e r b u t a b e s e e c h m e n t n o t t o p u r s u e t h e m y s t e r y , "God," I wanted t o p r a y , " l e t me l o v e t h a t g i r l , and become a f a t h e r , and t r y t o be a good man,, and do some d e c e n t work. Y e s , God," I was c l o s e t o b e g g i n g , "do n o t make me go b a c k and b a c k a g a i n t o t h e c h a r n e l h o u s e o f t h e moon." (p. 153) L a t e r , he a r g u e s w i t h h i s " v o i c e " o v e r g o i n g t o H a r l e m : "Go t o H a r l e m , " s a i d t h e v o i c e , " i f y o u l o v e C h e r r y , t o t o H a r l e m — t h e r e i s t i m e . " Then I knew how a f r a i d I was o f H a r l e m , and a r g u e d w i t h t h a t v o i c e , s a y i n g , " L e t me l o v e h e r some way n o t a l t o g e t h e r d e r a n g e d and doomed. I t makes no s e n s e t o go t o H a r l e m . L e t me l o v e h e r and be s e n s i b l e as w e l l . " (p. 196) And s t i l l l a t e r , j u s t b e f o r e v e n t u r i n g o n t o t h e p a r a p e t , t h e d e s i r e t o e s c a p e becomes a l m o s t a r e p u d i a t i o n o f t h e n o v e l : . . . I w a n t e d t o e s c a p e f r o m t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e w h i c h l e t me know o f mu r d e r s i n one d i r e c t i o n and c o n c e i v e o f v i s i t s t o C h e r r y f r o m t h e o t h e r , I wa n t e d t o be f r e e o f m a g i c , t h e t o n g u e o f t h e D e v i l , t h e d r e a d o f t h e L o r d , I w a n t e d t o be some s o r t o f r a t i o n a l man a g a i n * n a i l e d t i g h t t o d e t a i l s , p r o m i s c u o u s , r e a s o n a b l e , b l i n d t o t h e r e a c h o f t h e s e a s . (p. 238) P o i r i e r s e i z e s upon t h e s e b r i e f and p a t h e t i c p a s s a g e s t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a f u n d a m e n t a l o p p o s t i o n i n t h e n o v e l , man-i f e s t e d by R o j a c k ' s d e s p a r a t e d e s i r e n o t o n l y " t o e s c a p e f r o m t h e w o r l d as i t i s c o n t r i v e d and s t r u c t u r e d by c o n s p i r a c i e s 57 o f power" b u t a l s o " t o e s c a p e f r o m h i s own, w h i c h i s t o s a y f r o m M a i l e r ' s c o u n t e r - c o n s p i r a c i e s , h i s a l t e r n a t i v e b u t o f t e n 14 i n s a n e i n v e n t i o n s . " B u t t h i s w o u l d seem t o p l a c e undue em-p h a s i s upon what a r e , a f t e r a l l , o n l y r a r e and f i t f u l w i s h e s , s l i g h t i n t e r r u p t i o n s i n t h e d o m i n a t i n g t o n e o f "magic" and " m y s t e r y " . R a t h e r , r e c a l l i n g t h e t i t l e o f t h i s n o v e l , t h e s e moments more s t r o n g l y r e s e m b l e t h o s e o c c a s i o n a l e f f o r t s o f a dreamer t o wake h i m s e l f f r o m h i s own dream, f r e e h i m s e l f f r o m h i s own i m p r i s o n i n g f a n t a s y . The f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e f r o m S a r t r e ' s P s y c h o l o g y o f I m a g i n a t i o n , d e s c r i b i n g t h i s o c c u r r e n c e , seems a good c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f R o j a c k ' s own e s c a p i s t d e s i r e s : . . . n o t h i n g i s more s t r a n g e t h a n t h e d e s p e r a t e e f f o r t s made by t h e s l e e p e r i n c e r t a i n n i g h t m a r e s t o r e m i n d h i m s e l f t h a t a r e f l e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s p o s s i b l e . S u c h e f f o r t s a r e made i n v a i n , most o f t h e t i m e , b e c a u s e he i s f o r b i d d e n by t h e v e r y " e n c h a n t -ment" o f h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o p r o d u c e t h e s e memories i n t h e f o r m o f f i c t i o n . He s t r u g g l e s b u t e v e r y t h i n g g l i d e s i n t o f i c t i o n , e v e r y t h i n g i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n s p i t e o f him i n t o t h e i m a g i n a r y . 1 5 J u s t s o i s R o j a c k ' s e v e r y a t t e m p t t o be "some s o r t o f r a t i o n a l man a g a i n " a b s o r b e d b a c k i n t o t h e f i c t i o n a l f a b r i c o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r A m e r i c a n Dream. T h e s e momentary w i s h e s o f R o j a c k , t h e n , may have p r o v i d e d t h e v e r y c l u e n e c e s s a r y t o g a i n a t l a s t some i n t e l l e c t u a l h o l d upon t h e m a n i f o l d p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f t h i s n o v e l . P o i r i e r i s o n l y one o f a number o f c r i t i c s who have d e t e c t e d a d o u b l e r e a l i t y i n t h e book, w i t h R o j a c k p l a c e d s c h e m a t i c a l l y i n t h e m i d d l e : "He l i v e s a t t h e d i v i d e o f two k i n d s o f e q u a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e power: o f demonic s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s and o f demonic 58 i m a g i n a t i o n s o f h i m s e l f as a k i n d o f Ubermensch." I t may b o t h s i m p l i f y and c l a r i f y t h e n o v e l t o t h i n k o f R o j a c k a s , i n t h i s s e n s e , a d r e a m e r — o n e who u s e s h i s own "demonic i m a g i n a -t i o n s " as a weapon o r a d e f e n s e a g a i n s t t h e e x t e r n a l s y s t e m s i n w h i c h he f i n d s h i m s e l f e n m e s h e d — a n d t o t h i n k o f t h e s t o r y i t s e l f ( o r a t l e a s t o f a good d e a l o f i t ) as h i s dream, t r i g -g e r e d , p e r h a p s , by t h e murder t h a t s e t s t h e r e s t o f t h e s t o r y i n m o t i o n : " I was. f l o a t i n g . I was as f a r i n t o m y s e l f as I had e v e r b e e n and u n i v e r s e s w h e e l e d i n a dream." (p. 36) Now, t h e r e i s a k i n d o f " v u l g a r " R o m a n t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e dream w h i c h l o o k s upon i t as a r e l e a s e f r o m t h e mundane s h e l l , as a m y s t i c p o r t a l o p e n i n g o n t o i n n e r w o r l d s o f p r i m o r d i a l m eaning and s p l e n d o r ; R o j a c k , f o r example, l i k e n s t h e s t r a n g -l i n g o f h i s w i f e t o t h e f o r c i n g open o f "an enormous d o o r " : ". . . 1 h a d h a d a v i e w o f what was on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e d o o r , and h e a v e n was t h e r e , some q u i v e r o f j e w e l e d c i t i e s s h i n i n g i n t h e glow o f a t r o p i c a l dusk . . . " (p. 3 5 ) . B u t S a r t r e ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e dream s e e s i t n o t as a r e l e a s e , n o t as a l i b e r a t i o n , . n o t as an o p e n i n g a t a l l , b u t as a v e r y p r i s o n o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n : . . . what we want t o show i s t h a t t h e dream i s t h e p e r f e c t r e a l i z a t i o n o f a s h u t i m a g i n a r y c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h a t i s , a c o n s c i o u s n e s s f o r w h i c h t h e r e i s a b s o l u t e l y no e x i t and t o w a r d s w h i c h no e x t e r n a l p o i n t o f v i e w o f any s o r t i s p o s s i b l e . 1 7 S a r t r e , o f c o u r s e , i s an e x i s t e n t i a l i s t whose temper i s n o t e n -18 t i r e l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h M a i l e r ' s , b u t some o f h i s comments on t h e dream may s e r v e as an i l l u m i n a t i n g g l o s s upon much o f t h i s 5 9 . p a r t i c u l a r n o v e l . He s p e a k s , f o r example, o f t h e " u n i q u e nuance o f f a t a l i t y " o f t h e dream: "The e v e n t s o c c u r as i f n o t b e i n g a b l e n o t t o happen, i n c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h a c o n s c i o u s n e s s 19 w h i c h c a n n o t h e l p i m a g i n i n g them." And one t h i n k s , i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , n o t o n l y o f t h e f a t e f u l " p l o t " o f t h e n o v e l , b u t o f i t s i n t e n s e immediacy, an e f f e c t by w h i c h e v e n memory ( t h e k i l l i n g o f t h e Germans, pp. 10-13) and a n t i c i p a t i o n ( t h e d r e a d o f p r i s o n , pp. 85-6) a r e r e n d e r e d w i t h a l l t h e v i v i d n e s s o f p r e -s e n t r e a l i t i e s ; s p e a k i n g o f t h e dream as a " s t o r y " , S a r t r e e l a b o r a t e s upon t h i s e f f e c t : A l l a n t i c i p a t i o n a t a g i v e n moment o f a s t o r y d e r i v e s f r o m t h e v e r y f a c t t h a t t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n a p p e a r s as an e p i s o d e o f t h e s t o r y . I c a n n o t e n t e r t a i n , c o n c e i v e a n o t h e r e n d i n g , I have no c h o i c e , no r e c o u r s e , I am c o m p e l l e d t o n a r r a t e t h e s t o r y t o m y s e l f : t h e r e i s no "blow f o r n o t h i n g " . So e a c h moment o f t h e s t o r y o c c u r s as h a v i n g an i m a g i n a r y f u t u r e , b u t a f u t u r e I c a n n o t f o r s e e , w h i c h w i l l come o f i t s own a c c o r d , i n i t s own t i m e , t o h a u n t c o n s c i o u s n e s s , , a g a i n s t w h i c h c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i l l be c r u s h e d . 2 0 O r d i n a r y r e t r o s p e c t i o n , , i n o t h e r w o rds, g i v e s a c e r t a i n shape t o e v e n t s , d r a w i n g them t o w a r d , o r r e l e a s i n g them f r o m , some p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t o r c l i m a x ; b u t r e t r o s p e c t i o n r e q u i r e s a r e -f l e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t i s d i s r u p t i v e o f t h e " f a s c i n a t i o n " 21 e s s e n t i a l t o t h e dream, so t h a t i n t h e dream, as i n t h i s n o v e l , t h e e v e n t s r e e l p a s t i n mere s e r i a l o r d e r . S a r t r e ' s p a s s a g e seems an a p t commentary on t h e s i t u a t i o n o f S t e p h e n R o j a c k , "no l o n g e r a p e r s o n , a c h a r a c t e r , a man o f h a b i t s , r a t h e r a g h o s t , a c l o u d o f l o o s e e m o t i o n s w h i c h s c a t t e r e d on t h e w i n d " (p. 5 7 ) , d r i v e n a b o u t a dream l a n d s c a p e by p r o j e c t i o n s 60 o f h i s own i m p u l s e s , h a u n t e d by, c r u s h e d a g a i n s t , h i s own c o m p u l s i v e i m a g i n i n g s . The r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e dream, and o f i t s c o m p a r i s o n w i t h An A m e r i c a n Dream, c a n o n l y be a p p r e c i a t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e l a r g e r s t u d y o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . F o r i n h i s book S a r t r e t r i e s t o u p s e t t h e r o m a n t i c c o n v e n t i o n o f t h e p r i o r i t y o f i m a g i n a t i o n : he s p e a k s o f " t h e w e a l t h o f my a c t u a l p e r c e p t i o n " and, by c o n t r a s t , o f t h e " e s s e n t i a l p o v e r t y " f r o m w h i c h t h e ( i m a g i n a t i v e ) image 2 2 s u f f e r s ; and l a t e r , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e dream i t s e l f , he s t a t e s t h a t , i n a f u n d a m e n t a l s e n s e , i t s images " r e m a i n i s o l a t e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r , s e p a r a t e d by t h e i r e s s e n t i a l p o v e r t y . . . ; t h e r e i s no o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between them t h a n t h e ones c o n s c i o u s -2 3 n e s s c a n c o n c e i v e a t e a c h moment i n c o n s t i t u t i n g them." The dream, f o r S a r t r e , i s t h e a p o t h e o s i s o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , b u t o f an i m a g i n a t i o n c o n c e i v e d i n a new and d i m i n i s h e d f a s h i o n : "So, c o n t r a r y t o what c o u l d be b e l i e v e d , t h e i m a g i n a r y w o r l d o c c u r s as w o r l d w i t h o u t f r e e d o m : n o r i s i t d e t e r m i n e d , i t i s t h e 24 o p p o s i t e o f f r e e d o m , i t i s f a t a l . " W i t h t h i s r e v e r s a l o f c o n -v e n t i o n s as a c o n t e x t , S a r t r e draws a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t com-p a r i s o n between t h e dream and t h e n o v e l : t T h e dream! i s p r i m a r i l y a s t o r y and o u r s t r o n g i n -t e r e s t i n i t i s o f t h e same s o r t as t h a t o f t h e n a i v e r e a d e r i n a n o v e l . I t i s l i v e d as a f i c t i o n and i t i s o n l y i n c o n s i d e r i n g i t as a f i c t i o n w h i c h happens as s u c h t h a t we c a n u n d e r s t a n d t h e s o r t o f r e a c t i o n i t a r o u s e s i n t h e s l e e p e r . O n l y i t i s a " s p e l l - b i n d i n g " f i c t i o n : c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . has become k n o t t e d . And what i t l i v e s , a t t h e same t i m e as t h e f i c t i o n a p p r e h e n d e d as a f i c t i o n i s t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f e m e r g i n g o u t o f t h e f i c t i o n . 2 5 61 i T h i s m i g h t be t a k e n as a d i a g n o s i s o f M a i l e r ' s s t o r y as w e l l , and i n t h i s l i g h t S a r t r e ' s f i n a l comments on t h e dream r e a d a l m o s t l i k e a summary and a judgment o f t h e n o v e l : . . . what c o n s t i t u t e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e dream i s t h a t r e a l i t y e l u d e s a l t o g e t h e r t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h d e s i r e s t o r e c a p t u r e i t ; a l l t h e e f f o r t o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s t u r n s i n s p i t e o f i t s e l f t o p r o d u c e t h e i m a g i n a r y . The dream i s n o t f i c t i o n t a k e n f o r r e a l i t y , i t i s t h e o d y s s e y o f a c o n s c i o u s n e s s d e d i -c a t e d by i t s e l f , and i n s p i t e o f i t s e l f , t o b u i l d o n l y an u n r e a l w o r l d . 2 6 I f one e l i m i n a t e s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t i t s u n r e a l i t y i s u n i n -t e n t i o n a l , however, t h i s s t a t e m e n t i s c l o s e t o what t h e n o v e l ' d e f e n d e r s w o u l d c l a i m f o r i t . T h e i r p o s i t i o n , as we have s e e n i s t h a t t h e book t u r n s i t s b a c k upon t h e demands o f " v e r i s i m i l t u d e " , t h a t , as B e r s a n i a s s e r t s , " . . . t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f An A m e r i c a n Dream i n v o l v e s a d e n i a l o f c e r t a i n k i n d s o f n o v e l -i s t i c s e r i o u s n e s s , o f s o c i a l p r o b a b i l i t y and r e l e v a n c e , as 27 w e l l as o f s o - c a l l e d i n t e l l e c t u a l d e p t h . " B e r s a n i ' s i s p e r -haps t h e most a g g r e s s i v e o f t h e s e d e f e n c e s , and h i s argument i sometimes p u r s u e d t o u n c o n v i n c i n g e x t r e m e s : The p l a u s i b i l i t y o f R o j a c k ' s s i m i l e s i s i r r e l e v a n t ; what m a t t e r s i s t h a t he makes us f e e l h i s a s s o c i a -t i o n s as s p o n t a n e o u s , i r r e s i s t i b l e f a n t a s i e s and t h a t we a c c e p t h i s most e l a b o r a t e v e r b a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s as i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e e l a b o r a t e n e s s o f immediacy r a t h e r t h a n o f d e v e l o p m e n t t o w a r d an i d e a . 2 8 What i s i n t e r e s t i n g a b o u t h i s c a s e , however, i s t h a t i t i s f o u n d e d , t o a r a d i c a l d e g r e e , upon t h e n o t i o n o f " s t y l e " : . . . t h e p l a y f u l n e s s o f t h e n o v e l i s by no means a f r i v o l o u s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d " d i r t y " o r " u g l y " e v e n t s , b u t r a t h e r t h e n a t u r a l t o n e o f a man f o r whom e v e n t s have become s t r i c t l y l i t e r a r y - n o v e l i s t i c s i t u a t i o n s t o be f r e e l y e x p l o i t e d f o r t h e s a k e o f a c e r t a i n s t y l e and t h e s e l f - e n j o y m e n t i t p e r h a p s u n e x p e c t e d l y p r o -v i d e s . 2 9 .62. The foregrounded s t y l e t h a t was so d e r i d e d by the opponents of the novel i s r e q u i r e d , by B e r s a n i , to bear the whole of the argument f o r i t s worth, the content d i s m i s s e d as no more than. an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i s p l a y : "Rojack's experience i s l a r g e l y a p r e t e x t f o r t r y i n g h i s hand a t d i f f e r e n t ways o f t e l l i n g a 30 s t o r y " . B e r s a n i ' s case i s weakened, however, by h i s focus upon the n a r r a t o r as the source or c r e a t o r of t h i s s t y l i s t i c extravagance: "The t e l l i n g of h i s s t o r y becomes Rojack's i n -v e n t i o n as w e l l as M a i l e r ' s once h i s l i f e c o n f r o n t s him as 31 ch o i c e s to be made about language and n o v e l i s t i c form." But t h i s s o r t of c o n t r o l l i n g , shaping, " p l a y f u l " Rojack seems more a f i g u r e concocted to s u i t the purposes of a c r i t i c a l apology than a c h a r a c t e r t h a t appears i n the n o v e l , wherein the n a r r a -t o r seems much more the v i c t i m or the p r i s o n e r o f fa n t a s y r a t h e r than i t s i n v e n t o r . A somewhat more s o p h i s t i c a t e d v e r s i o n o f t h i s argument from s t y l e , however, i s put forward by P o i r i e r , who a t l e a s t manages to d i s t i n g u i s h s u f f i c i e n t l y between author and n a r r a t o r . In h i s essay on the n o v e l , he r e p r i n t s the lengthy passage on the k i l l i n g of the Germans quoted above (page5l), and analyzes i t s a s s o c i a t i o n a l sequence of images. He f i n d s t h e r e i n a s e r i e s of se x u a l metaphors, a l l u s i o n s , and suggestions t h a t he then r e l a t e s t o "the o b s e s s i v e t e n s i o n throughout the book be-tween c r e a t i v e s e x u a l i t y . . . and sex t h a t i s murderous, asso-32 c i a t e d w i t h blood, mud, f e c e s , and buggery." Such an organ-i z a t i o n would seem to i n d i c a t e a f a i r degree of c a l c u l a t i o n i n 6-3. the s t y l e , but P o i r i e r wishes to a v o i d t h a t c o n c l u s i o n : Perhaps M a i l e r planned t h i s sentence, but I suspect i t r e p r e s e n t s something b e t t e r than p l a n n i n g , some s a t u r a t i o n of the author's mind i n what he wants to do t h a t makes e v e r y t h i n g t h a t spontaneously i s s u e s from i t par.t of the l i f e t h a t the language has a l r e a d y produced.33 By i t s e l f , t h i s statement too seems a l i t t l e weak and ap o l e -g e t i c , an excuse f o r what may, a f t e r a l l , be no more than an accumulation of o b s e s s i v e images, as random and as u n c o n t r o l l e d as the a s s o c i a t i o n s o f the dream. But i n h i s l a t e r book on M a i l e r P o i r i e r i n t r o d u c e s a p e c u l i a r n o t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c auton-omy t h a t both deepens and b r i n g s to a focus the i s s u e s r a i s e d by t h i s defense of the novel's s t y l e . Speaking of Rojack, P o i r i e r a s s e r t s t h a t "His h y p e r b o l i c i m a g i n a t i o n o f h i m s e l f and o f h i s p s y c h i c powers occur i n language: h i s experience 34 and h i s e x p r e s s i o n . a r e as one." T h i s i d e a i s expanded: . . . the w r i t i n g o f M a i l e r is_ the experience of a Rojack or a Se r g i u s or a D.J. or a M a i l e r . I t i s known f o r what i t i s i n the language which i n v e n t s i t , and not otherwise known. The language i s , then, not a r e f e r e n c e to experience. To read M a i l e r as i f . the language were a s e r i e s of r e f e r e n t i a l s i g n s i s wholly to misread him, to make him an obnoxious p u f f e r . Now, e i t h e r t h i s statement i s merely t r i v i a l ( a l l f i c t i o n , a l l l i t e r a t u r e , i s "known f o r what i t i s i n the language which i n v e n t s i t and not otherwise known"), or i t i s a r a d i c a l i z a t i o n of the argument from s t y l e to an extent t h a t i s almost c r y p t i c - -f o r how can language not be "a s e r i e s of r e f e r e n t i a l s i g n s " , not be, i n some sense, a " r e f e r e n c e t o experience"? Perhaps what i s meant i s t h a t the language i s s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l , a pro-p e r t y i m p l i e d by B e r s a n i a l s o when he compares M a i l e r to 61+. P r o u s t and t h e l a t e r James: I n b o t h James and P r o u s t , what seems t o be a f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t h e s u g g e s t i v e n e s s and s e l f -i n v e n t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f l a n g u a g e l e a d s t o some c a r e l e s s n e s s a b o u t n o v e l i s t i c s i t u a t i o n s , a t e n -d e n c y t o a l l e g o r i z e t h e w o r l d as a r a t h e r t r a n s -p a r e n t ( r a t h e r t h a n h i d d e n ) p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e s e l f . 3 6 B u t e v e n a s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l l a n g u a g e remains" a t l e a s t r e f e r e n -t i a l , c o i l i n g i n upon i t s e l f and c o n s t i t u t i n g i t s own l i n g u i s t i c and l i t e r a r y s u b s t a n c e as i t s s u b j e c t (a b e t t e r example o f w h i c h may be t h e w r i t i n g s o f Nabokov o r B o r g e s ) . Such a l a n g u a g e may be f r e e d f r o m t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f p h y s i c a l o r s o c i a l r e a l i t y , b u t i t r e m a i n s l i n k e d t o , and c o n t r o l l e d b y, t h e l i t e r a r y r e a l i t i e s o f l a n g u a g e , s t y l e , and t r a d i t i o n . B u t P o i r i e r a p p e a r s t o go e v e n f u r t h e r t h a n B e r s a n i i n s e v e r i n g M a i l e r ' s l a n g u a g e f r o m i t s c o n n e c t i o n t o t h e w o r l d ( a t l e a s t i n t h e p a s s a g e q u o t e d a b o v e ) , f o r he seems t o i m p l y n o t a s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l a e s t h e t i c i s m b u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a p u r e l y s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , s e l f - e n c l o s e d l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n , f a s h i o n e d o u t o f l a n g u a g e b u t no l o n g e r c o n s t r a i n e d by any r e f e r e n t i a l r e q u i r e -ment a t a l l . What he s p e a k s o f as t h e " o n e n e s s " o f R o j a c k ' s e x p e r i e n c e and e x p r e s s i o n , t h e n , i s r e a l l y j u s t t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e a b s e n c e a l t o g e t h e r o f e x p e r i e n c e i n i t s u s u a l s e n s e -as e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e r e a l w o r l d . I t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s a b s e n c e , i n f a c t , t h a t p r o d u c e s t h e c u r i o u s i n e f f e c t u a l i t y o f t h e book's 37 many m o r a l t r a n s g r e s s i o n s , f o r m o r a l i t y has m eaning o n l y i n a c o n t i n g e n t w o r l d , i n w h i c h i t s e r v e s as b o t h a g u i d e and a s t a n d a r d f o r t h e c o n s e q u e n t i a l d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s o f p e o p l e ; b u t i n a w o r l d g o v e r n e d by " f a t e " , a w o r l d i n w h i c h e v e n t s e v o l v e 65, o n l y o u t o f t h e c o m p e l l i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s o f l a n g u a g e o r f a n t a s y , m o r a l i t y i s s i m p l y i r r e l e v e n t . By i t s n o n - r e f e r e n t i a l l a n g u a g e , t h e n , An A m e r i c a n Dream i s as e f f e c t i v e l y s e a l e d as t h e S a r t r i a n dream, i t s w o r l d as f a t a l , as o b s e s s i v e , and as e s s e n t i a l l y e m p o v e r i s h e d . T h e r e i s an i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n t o be made a t t h i s p o i n t : M a i l e r ' s b o o k ' i s n o t an a e s t h e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e dream ( i n t h e way, f o r example, t h a t J o y c e " r e p r e s e n t s " a s t r e a m - o f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , o r P r o u s t " r e p r e s e n t s " r e v e r i e ) , b u t i s , i n a s e n s e , i t s l i n g u i s -t i c - l i t e r a r y e q u i v a l e n t . E a r l i e r , t h e n o v e l was s p o k e n o f as t h o u g h i t were, i n p a r t , R o j a c k ' s dream, and t h a t d e s c r i p t i o n s u i t s t h o s e p o r t i o n s o f i t t h a t a r e e s p e c i a l l y m a g i c - r i d d e n , " v o i c e " - d r i v e n . B u t i n t h e l i g h t o f P o i r i e r ' s argument, e s -p e c i a l l y , one c a n see t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e dream i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t i n h e r e s i n t h e v e r y s t y l e o f t h e book, and t h a t i t i s n o t R o j a c k b u t M a i l e r h i m s e l f who i s t h e "dreamer" h e r e , p r o j e c t i n g h i s "dream" n o t i n images b u t i n w o r d s . W i t h t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i n mind i t may be p o s s i b l e a t l a s t t o r e a c h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f some o f t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d , and t h e n a t u r e o f , t h e e x t r e m e d i v e r g e n c e i n c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n o v e r t h i s n o v e l . The o p p o n e n t s , as we have s e e n , t e n d t o c o m p l a i n o f i t s l a c k o f " v e r i s i m i l i t u d e " , w h i c h i s , a t f i r s t s i g h t , an o l d and p o s s i b l y n a i v e c r i t e r i o n ; b u t t h a t c o m p l a i n t may be o n l y a f r u s t r a t e d r e s p o n s e t o t h e v e r y c l o s e d n e s s o f t h e n o v e l , t o i t s l a c k o f r e f e r e n c e t o any e x t e r n a l s t a n d a r d by w h i c h i t c o u l d be j u d g e d . The d e f e n d e r s , i n d i s m i s s i n g t h e o l d - f a s h i o n e d c r i t e r -66 i o n o f v e r i s i m i l i t u d e , have had t o f o c u s a l m o s t e n t i r e l y upon t h e s t y l e o f t h e n o v e l — t h a t i s , upon t h e manner o f i t s t e l l i n g o r w r i t i n g - - a s t h e s o u r c e o f i t s w o r t h ; i n d o i n g s o , however, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e y do n o t r e f e r t o s t y l i s t i c , l i t e r -a r y c r i t e r i a , b u t r a t h e r t o s u c h v i r t u e s as " e x u b e r a n c e " , 3 8 " e x t r a v a g a n c e " o r a " f r i g h t e n i n g " " f l u i d i t y o f a s s o c i a t i o n " . What t h i s argument f r o m s t y l e i s a c t u a l l y a t t e m p t i n g t o do, c l e a r l y , i s t o d e f e n d t h e c l o s e d n e s s o f t h e n o v e l by f i n d i n g p u r e l y i n t e r n a l q u a l i t i e s t o p r a i s e i n p l a c e o f t h e l a c k o f e x t e r n a l r e f e r e n c e . B u t t h e s e mere q u a l i t i e s o f t h e l a n g u a g e a r e n o t r e a l l y v i r t u e s a t a l l , f o r i t i s o b v i o u s l y p o s s i b l e ( i n -d e e d , common) f o r a s t y l e t o be b o t h e x t r a v a g a n t and b a d . And t h a t ( B e r s a n i and P o i r i e r n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g ) i s what must f i n a l l y be s t a t e d o f t h e s t y l e o f An A m e r i c a n Dream. The p a s s a g e t h a t P o i r i e r q u o t e s t o e x h i b i t t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f M a i l e r ' s l a n g u a g e (see a bove, p age5 l ) i s p e r h a p s s u p e r i o r t o i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s , l a r g e l y b e c a u s e i t a t l e a s t c o n c e r n s a c o n c r e t e a c t i o n , b u t e v e n t h e r e t h e words and a l l u s i o n s seem j u x t a p o s e d i n a c c i d e n t a l o r m e r e l y o b s e s s i v e o r d e r , w i t h images l o o m i n g a b s u r d l y o u t o f p r o -p o r t i o n (" . . . a d e l i c i o u s p a i n c l e a n as a m i s t r e s s ' s h a r p t e e t h g o i n g 'Yummy' i n y o u r rump . . . " p . 11). The s e x u a l theme t h a t P o i r i e r f i n d s i n t h e p a s s a g e i s d o u b t l e s s l y t h e r e , i n however b r o k e n o r c o n f u s e d a f a s h i o n , b u t i t seems, b e c a u s e o f t h e v e r y a n a r c h y o f t h e s t y l e , t o be f o r e i g n t o t h e e v e n t d e s c r i b e d , a s o r t o f w i l l e d , i n t e l l e c t u a l i m p o s i t i o n t h a t o n l y s e r v e s t o d i s c r e d i t t h e theme and o b s c u r e t h e e v e n t . P o i r i e r i s c o r r e c t t o s t a t e t h a t t h i s l a n g u a g e i s " n o t a r e f e r e n c e t o e x -p e r i e n c e " ,. b u t he i s w r o n g , I t h i n k , i n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s he d r a w s f r o m t h a t , f o r a l a n g u a g e t h a t i s w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e i s a l a n g u -age t h a t i s o u t o f c o n t r o l , i t s w o r d s and i m a g e s l a c k i n g t h e s p e c i f i c s h a p e a n d s t r u c t u r e , t h e p o i n t , o f d e n o t a t i o n , r e t a i n -i n g o n l y an empty c o n n o t a t i v e r e s o n a n c e . The e f f e c t o f t h i s u n c o n t r o l l e d l a n g u a g e i s n o t t h e "mar-v e l o u s l i g h t n e s s o f i m a g i n a t i o n " i n w h i c h B e r s a n i p r o f e s s e s t o 39 d e l i g h t , b u t a p u r e l y p r i v a t e , i d i o s y n c r a t i c v i s i o n , a c c e s s -i b l e t o M a i l e r i n i t i a t e s , p e r h a p s , who p o s s e s s an i n t e r p r e t i v e k e y d e r i v e d f r o m h i s more l u c i d w r i t i n g s ( c o n t a i n e d i n t h e s o -f a r o m m i t t e d c o m p i l a t i o n s ) , b u t a n a r c a n e , i m p e n e t r a b l e , s t r a i n e d , a n d f l a t p i e c e o f w r i t i n g f o r an a v e r a g e r e a d e r . I m p l i c i t i n much o f t h e c r i t i c a l d e f e n s e o f t h i s n o v e l (and p e r h a p s i n t h e n o v e l i t s e l f ) i s t h e v u l g a r R o m a n t i c v i e w o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n t h a t s e e s t h a t f a c u l t y n o t m e r e l y as " e s e m p l a s t i c " b u t a s s e l f - s u f f i -c i e n t , a n d a s , i n an a l m o s t d i v i n e s e n s e , c r e a t i v e ; t h e b o ok i t s e l f , h o w e v e r , l e n d s c r e d e n c e t o . t h e S a r t r i a n v i e w o f t h e i m a g -i n a t i o n as a n e s s e n t i a l l y e m p o v e r i s h e d f a c u l t y , whose i m a g e s d i s -p l a y o n l y w h a t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n c o n s t i t u t e d i n them. I t i s t h i s " p o v e r t y " t h a t e x p l a i n s t h e Pop o r p a s t e - b o a r d q u a l i t y o f t h e i m a g e s o f t h e n o v e l , t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t s u c h c h a r a c t e r s a s D e b o r a h o r C h e r r y , s u c h p l a c e s a s t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n o r K e l l y ' s a p a r t m e n t a r e no more t h a n f a c a d e s , t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l c u t - o u t s f r o m p r i o r s o u r c e s ; i t i s t h i s t h a t f o r c e s t h e c o n c o c t i o n o f an o c c u l t a p p a r a t u s o f e x t e r n a l " f o r c e s " and " v o i c e s " a s t h e o n l y 6 8 , means o f m a n i p u l a t i n g t h e s e f i x e d and i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s ; i t i s t h i s t h a t makes t h e a l l u s i v e n e s s o f t h e n o v e l m e r e l y i d i o s y n -c r a t i c ; and i t i s t h i s o p p r e s s i v e s e n s e t h a t e v e r y t h i n g has a l -r e a d y b een c o n s t i t u t e d , a l r e a d y w o r k e d - o u t , t h a t t r a p s t h e n o v e l i n i t s s e a l o f f a t e . The n o v e l , t h e n , i s l i k e a l i n g u i s t i c S a r t r i a n dream, s h u t o f f f r o m t h e r e a l w o r l d and f r o m t h e " w e a l t h " o f " a c t u a l p e r c e p t i o n " , l e f t o n l y w i t h a l i m i t e d f u n d o f o l d images and themes, t o be r e - w o r k e d i n o b s e s s i v e p a t t e r n s . L a c k -i n g e v e n t h e v i v i d n e s s o f t h e t r u e dream's u n m e d i a t e d image, i t s " n o n - r e f e r e n t i a l " l a n g u a g e d e v o l v e s f i n a l l y i n t o s t a l e and h o l l o w v e r b i a g e . Much t h e same s o r t o f c r i t i c i s m c a n o b v i o u s l y be made o f M a i l e r ' s l a s t n o v e l t o d a t e , Why A r e We I n V i e t n a m ? (19 6 7 ) , and a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f i t w o u l d o n l y be r e d u n d a n t . H e r e a g a i n , i n an even more ex t r e m e manner, l a n g u a g e i s u s e d n o t as a r e -f e r e n c e t o , b u t as an i n s u l a t i o n f r o m , e x p e r i e n c e . The a c t u a l e v e n t s o f t h e n o v e l a r e few, b a n a l , and d e r i v a t i v e , b u t t h e y a r e a l l b u t c o n c e a l e d b e h i n d a m a n i c t o r r e n t o f words t h a t a r e r a r e l y s o much as g a t h e r e d i n t o an image. The " n a r r a t o r " f r o m w h i c h a l l t h i s s o u n d and f u r y i s s u e s i s o s t e n s i b l y a T e x a s a d o l e s c e n t , "D.J.", b u t o f c o u r s e "one c a n ' t be s u r e " : B i s h o p B e r k e l e y , goes t h e mad comptometer i n o l d D.J.'s hea d , am I t h e i d e a t i o n a l h e a t o f a r e a l c r a z y - a s s b r o k e n - l e g g e d H a r l e m Spade, and j u s t t h i n k m y s e l f D . J . w h i t e boy g e n i u s T e x a n i n A l a s k a i m a g i n -i n g my o p p o s i t e number i n H a r l e m l a n d , when i n f a c t , Good L o r d , when i n f a c t , I , D.J., am t r a p p e d i n a H a r l e m h e a d w h i c h has gone s o c r a z y t h a t I t h i n k I s i t t i n g a t a b a n q u e t i n t h e D a l l a s a s s w h i t e - a s s manse remembering A l a s k a am i n f a c t a f i g m e n t o f a Spade gone ape i n t h e m i n d f r o m o u t r a g e o u s f r u s t r a t e s w a s t i n g him and so now l i v i n g i n an i m a g i n a r y w h i t e b r a i n , o r i s t h a t e t h e r - l o a d man?40 E v e n as a p a r o d y o f t h e ambiguous n a r r a t o r t h i s seems weak, f o r i t i s b l a t a n t l y e v i d e n t t h a t t h e o n l y e n t i t y s p e a k i n g h e r e i s Norman M a i l e r , t h e i m i t a t i o n d i a l e c t (". . . 1 t h i n k I s i t t i n g . . .") an e m b a r r a s s i n g l y i n a d e q u a t e mask f o r t h e a n t i c a l l y p o s t u r i n g a u t h o r . The most c h a r i t a b l e r e a d i n g o f t h e n o v e l , p e r h a p s , w o u l d be t o v i e w i t as m e r e l y a p r i v a t e e x e r c i s e , t h e h y p e r - a c t i v e , throw-away l a n g u a g e s i m p l y a k i n d o f soup i n w h i c h t o mix p e r s o n a l themes, o l d i d e a s , and b o r r o w e d p l o t s . More t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e , t h e n o v e l s o f M a i l e r ' s t h i r d p h a s e c o n v e y an i m p r e s s i o n o f d e c a d e n c e , o f a s p e n t f i c t i o n a l o r n o v e l i s t i c i m p u l s e t u r n i n g i n upon i t s e l f t o d a b b l e w i t h t h e remnants o f a p e t r i f i e d m y t h o l o g y . The q u e s t i o n t h a t g i v e s t h i s l a s t n o v e l i t s c a t c h y t i t l e , f o r e x a m p l e , was a s k e d and a n s wered much more h o n e s t l y and p o w e r f u l l y two y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y 41 i n a s p e e c h and e s s a y , a n d t h o s e p i e c e s p r o v i d e t h e k e y t o what l i t t l e c o n t e n t i s t o be f o u n d i n t h i s work. E v e n P o i r i e r seems t o be aware o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y e x h a u s t e d , p r o g r a m m a t i c q u a l i t y o f t h e s e . l a t e r n o v e l s when he s p e a k s o f R o j a c k , i n An A m e r i c a n Dream, as moving " i n o b e d i e n c e t o a map a l r e a d y c h a r t e d i n M a i l e r ' s e a r l i e r w o r k s , a d i a g r a m o f t h e f o r m a t i v e w o r k i n g s 42 o f M a i l e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n . " Y e t he, among o t h e r s , c o n t i n u e s t o i n s i s t upon t h e w o r t h o f t h e s e b o o k s , d e s c r i b i n g Why A r e We I n V i e t n a m ? as " t h e most d a z z l i n g and p e r h a p s t h e most i n c o m p r e -„4 3 h e n s i b l y s l i g h t e d o f h i s n o v e l s . T h i s s o r t o f judgment c a n 7.0. o n l y be e x p l a i n e d as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e skew o r b i a s im-p a r t e d t o M a i l e r c r i t i c i s m by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e M a i l e r p e r s o n a i n t h e e a r l i e r c o m p i l a t i o n s , and, l i k e t h e phenomenon o f d e c a d e n c e i n t h e n o v e l s t h e m s e l v e s , c a n n o t f u l l y be u n d e r -s t o o d u n t i l t h o s e works a r e d i s c u s s e d . B u t on one p o i n t P o i r i e r seems c l e a r l y and i n s t r u c t i v e l y wrong: he a s s e r t s , w i t h o u t r e a l l y p r o v i d i n g any examples, t h a t . t h i s n o v e l i s "a f u n n y book, 44 among t h e c o m i c m a s t e r p i e c e s , I t h i n k , o f A m e r i c a n l i t e r a t u r e . B u t , d e s p i t e t h e book's i n c e s s a n t and most s t r e n u o u s a t t e m p t s a t a s o r t o f f a s t - t a l k i n g a d o l e s c e n t w i t , I m y s e l f am u n a b l e t o f i n d more t h a n one o r two i n s t a n c e s o f g e n u i n e humour i n i t ( " I n t r o Beep 7" i s p e r h a p s t h e o n l y good e x a m p l e ) . I f t h i s i n a b i l i t y i s n o t m e r e l y a m a t t e r o f t a s t e b u t r e f l e c t s a r e a l f a i l u r e o f t h e n o v e l , one c a n l i n k t h a t f a i l u r e t o t h e f u n d a -m e n t a l f l a w o f t h i s t h i r d p h a s e . F o r humour, i n a s e n s e , r e s u l t s f r o m t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f r e a l i t y and human e x p e c t a t i o n s o r p r e t e n t i o n s ; t h e p r o b l e m i s n o t t h a t M a i l e r l a c k s a s e n s e o f humour, f o r t h a t i s amply d e m o n s t r a t e d i n h i s j o u r n a l i s m , b u t t h a t , i n h i s l a t e r n o v e l s , he has l o s t h i s s e n s e o f r e a l i t y . W i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f Why A r e We I n V i e t n a m ? , i n 1967, M a i l e r ' s n o v e l i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t comes t o an a t l e a s t t e m p o r a r y h a l t . The l a r g e n o v e l t h a t i s r e p o r t e d l y now i n p r o g r e s s , i f i t i s s u c c e s s f u l , w i l l c o n s t i t u t e a m a j o r a d d i t i o n t o t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t and may w e l l r e l e g a t e a l l o f t h e n o v e l s d i s c u s s e d h e r e t o m e r e l y an " e a r l y p h a s e " . Any c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t t o be drawn a t t h i s p o i n t , t h e r e f o r e , must 7 1 , n e c e s s a r i l y be p a r t i a l , . b u t t h e f i v e n o v e l s t h a t have so f a r a p p e a r e d , as o r g a n i z e d i n t o t h r e e p h a s e s , d i s p l a y a p a t t e r n o f e v o l u t i o n t h a t i s r e m a r k a b l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y s y m m e t r i c . The key t o t h a t p a t t e r n , and p e r h a p s t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n b e h i n d M a i l e r ' s f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h t h e n o v e l f o r m , i s t h a t d i v i d e d v i s i o n f i r s t i n d i c a t e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f The D eer P a r k . T h a t n o v e l , i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , was s p l i t i n t o m u t u a l l y i r r e c o n c i l a b l e f r a g m e n t s , one c e n t r e d a b o u t a m o r a l h e r o , a man who s t r u g g l e s w i t h i n , and a g a i n s t , a r e a l w o r l d , f o r s u c h t r a d i t i o n a l v i r t u e s as l o v e , i n t e g r i t y , and j u s t i c e ; and t h e o t h e r c e n t r e d a b o u t a k i n d o f d r e a m - h e r o , a f i g u r e p r o j e c t i n g a n a r c i s s i s t i c c o u n t e r -w o r l d o f s e x and power, a v i s i o n o f meaning t h a t i s e i t h e r i m m e d i a t e o r m y s t i c . F o r t h e s a k e o f s c h e m a t i c s i m p l i c i t y t h e s e o p p o s i n g t e n d e n c i e s m i g h t be t e r m e d " w o r l d " and "meaning", t h e f o r m e r r e p r e s e n t i n g t h a t w h i c h i s c o n t i n g e n t , p e r c e p t u a l , and t e m p o r a l , and t h e l a t t e r r e p r e s e n t i n g n o t any p a r t i c u l a r m e a ning b u t t h e i d e a o f m e a n i n g . I n t h i s s e n s e , The Naked and  t h e Dead i s c l e a r l y a n o v e l i n w h i c h t h e w o r l d i s d o m i n a n t , t o t h e v i r t u a l e x c l u s i o n o f meaning; b u t f o r t h e l o s t v i s i o n o f C r o f t , i t s n a t u r a l i s t o v e r v i e w p r e s e n t s a r e a l i t y t h a t i s s u b -s t a n t i a l , s e a m l e s s , and mute, a l i e n t o a l l n o t i o n s o f v a l u e o r p u r p o s e , c l o s e d by i t s d e t e r m i n i s m . The s e c o n d p h a s e (The Deer P a r k ) , m o ving t h e n a r r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e c l o s e r t o t h e a c t i o n , , a t t e m p t e d a f u s i o n o f w o r l d and meaning, b u t managed i n s t e a d o n l y a k i n d o f s t r a i n e d b a l a n c e t h a t l e f t t h e two t e r m s s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t . And t h e t h i r d p h a s e , f i x i n g t h e n a r r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e 72 i n t h e v e r y c e n t r e o f t h e a c t i o n , has s i m p l y moved e n t i r e l y i n t o "meaning", i t s c h a r a c t e r s and e v e n t s r e d u c e d t o t h e l e v e l o f s i g n s i n a dream, i t s w o r l d i n s u b s t a n t i a l , w e i g h t l e s s , s e a l e d by f a t e . M a i l e r ' s n o v e l i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e n , m o ving a l o n g an a x i s d e f i n e d by t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s o f " w o r l d " and "meaning", and u s i n g , as t h e l e v e r o f t h a t movement, t h e r e l a t i v e d i s t a n c e between n a r r a t i o n and n a r r a t i v e , has c o n c l u d e d ( t h u s f a r ) o n l y i n t h e o p p o s i t e end o f t h e box i n w h i c h i t b e g a n . G e o r g L u k a c s , t h e c r i t i c whose g e n e r a l r e m a r k s on n a t u r a l i s m so i l l u m i n a t e d t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f The Naked and t h e Dead, w o u l d d o u b t l e s s l y c a l l t h i s box t h e box o f m odernism, and i t i s a g a i n s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t h i s comments on a p r e v a l e n t l i t e r a r y s i t u a t i o n a r e so p e r t i n e n t t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r c a s e o f Norman M a i l e r : The e x t r e m e s u b j e c t i v i s m o f t h e new b o u r g e o i s l i t e r a t u r e i s o n l y a p p a r e n t l y i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e t r e n d t o w a r d t h e common-place. E v e n t h e a p p a r e n t l y f i e r c e a t t e m p t s t o o p p o s e n a t u r a l i s m by d e p i c t i n g t h e " e x c e p t i o n a l " man, t h e " e c c e n t r i c " and e v e n t h e "superman" a r e l o c k e d i n t h e s t y l i s t i c v i c i o u s c i r c l e o f t h e n a t u r a l i s m i n w h i c h t h e y o r i g i n a t e . I n l i t e r a t u r e and l i f e t h e e c c e n t r i c i n d i v i d u a l , a l i e n a t e d f r o m d a i l y r e a l i t y , and t h e " a v e r a g e " man a r e c o m p l e m e n t a r y , i n t e r d e p e n d e n t p o l a r o p p o s i t e s . * • • • B o t h t y p e s — t h e superman and t h e p h i l i s t i n e — a r e e q u a l l y f a t u o u s , e q u a l l y d i v o r c e d f r o m s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s , e q u a l l y d e v o i d o f h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e n t . They a r e p a l l i d , s i n g l e - d i m e n s i o n a l phantoms, n o t l i v i n g b e i n g s . I n o r d e r t o i n v e s t them w i t h some meaning a u t h o r s must r e p r e s e n t s s u c h t y p e s as i n s t r u m e n t s o f some m y s t i c a l f o r c e . O t h e r -w i s e , n o t h i n g a t a l l c a n happen i n a work i n w h i c h t h e h e r o i s s u p p o s e d t o be a superman. N a t u r a l i s m and i t s o p p o s i n g movements r e s t on t h e same p h i l o -s o p h i c b a s e and o f f e r e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r a p p r o a c h e s t o c o m p o s i t i o n . B o t h r e s t on a s o l i p s i s t i c c o n c e p - ^ tio'n o f man h o p e l e s s l y i s o l a t e d i n an inhuman s o c i e t y . 73. There i s , perhaps, an i r o n i c pathos i n t h i s conclusion for a writer possessed of such reaching ambitions for the novel as a form. Yet, as we s h a l l see, i t i s only with the abandonment of that form that Mailer f i n a l l y begins to move toward a way out of his box, toward a representation of that ultimate syn-thesis, a meaningful world. ?1*. C h a p t e r 4 A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f and t h e C o m p i l a t i o n s M a i l e r ' s n o v e l s ( t h u s f a r ) e x h i b i t an e v o l u t i o n t h a t a p p e a r s c o m p l e t e i n i t s e l f , t h o u g h u l t i m a t e l y a b o r t i v e . B u t between t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d p h a s e o f t h a t e v o l u t i o n h i s w i d e r l i t e r a r y c a r e e r b r a n c h e d o u t i n t o a l t e r n a t e f o r m s , and b e g an t o a c h i e v e t h a t l o n g - s o u g h t c o m b i n a t i o n o f p o p u l a r and c r i t i c a l s u c c e s s t h a t h a d e l u d e d him s i n c e The Naked and t h e Dead. T h e s e u n i q u e " c o m p i l a t i o n s " 1 a r e t r u l y l i k e m i s s i n g l i n k s i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n t o t h i s p o i n t , n o t o n l y i n t h a t t h e y e l u c i d a t e c e r t a i n a n o m o l i e s o f t h e l a t e r n o v e l s ( s u c h as t h e p a r t i s a n n a t u r e o f t h e c r i t i c a l r e s p o n s e t o them, t h e i d i o s y n c r a s y o f t h e i r s t y l e and t h o u g h t / o r t h e i r e x h a u s t e d d e c a d e n c e ) , b u t a l s o i n t h a t t h e y a r e p u r e l y t r a n s i t i o n a l f o r m s , p r o d u c t s o f t h e f a i l u r e o f one l i n e o f d e v e l -opment and i n d i s p e n s i b l e p h a s e s i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f a n o t h e r - -t h e j o u r n a l i s m o f M a i l e r ' s m a t u r i t y . T h e s e i n t e r m e d i a t e works a l l o w M a i l e r a r e l e a s e f r o m t h e i m a g i n a t i v e b u r d e n s o f f i c t i o n w h i l e d i s p l a y i n g a s c a t t e r e d v a r i e t y o f a l t e r n a t e f o r m s and e x -p e r i m e n t s , l i t e r a r y m u t a t i o n s i n a s e n s e . More i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e y p r e s e n t t h e c o m i n g i n t o b e i n g o f a M a i l e r - p e r s o n a , a l i t -e r a r y c r e a t i o n t h a t w i l l f i g u r e as t h e c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e l a t e r j o u r n a l i s t i c n a r r a t i v e s . A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , p u b l i s h e d i n 1959, i s o f p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e s i n c e i t i s t h e f i r s t o f t h e new s p e c i e s , t h e two o t h e r s (The P r e s i d e n t i a l 2 P a p e r s , i n 1963, and C a n n i b a l s and C h r i s t i a n s , i n 1966 ) r e -- 75. p r e s e n t i n g o n l y more p o l i s h e d v a r i a t i o n s . More t h a n j u s t t h e f i r s t example o f a f o r m , i t i s a work t h a t marks a w a t e r s h e d i n M a i l e r ' s c a r e e r , g a t h e r i n g up a l l t h a t has gone b e f o r e and f o r e c a s t i n g much t h a t i s t o come, c h a n g i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n o f h i s l i t e r a r y d e v e l o p m e n t f u n d a m e n t a l l y and i r r e v e r s i b l y . Y e t i t i s a work t h a t has r a r e l y b e e n g i v e n any c l o s e a t t e n t i o n by M a i l e r c r i t i c s , t h e r e a s o n no d o u b t h a v i n g t o do w i t h i t s p e c u l i a r l y u n c l a s s i f i a b l e f o r m a t . F o r a t f i r s t s i g h t A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f h a r d l y a p p e a r s t o be a "work" a t a l l , i n t h e s e n s e o f a s i n g l e , u n i f i e d l i t e r a r y a r t e f a c t . Thrown t o g e t h e r i n t h e s e p a g e s one f i n d s j u v e n i l e s h o r t s t o r i e s , p o l -i t i c a l e s s a y s , poems, r e p r i n t e d newspaper c o l u m n s , e x c e r p t s f r o m n o v e l s , e a r l y d r a f t s , l e t t e r s t o t h e e d i t o r , u n p u b l i s h e d n o t e s , and work i n p r o g r e s s . B u t t h e book i s n o t s i m p l y a m i s c e l l a n y ( l i k e t h o s e p u t t o g e t h e r by p u b l i s h e r s t o k e e p an a u t h o r ' s name c u r r e n t d u r i n g a q u i e t p e r i o d ) , and an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s t o be f o u n d b o t h i n t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e -n e s s and i n t h e d i s p a r a t e n e s s o f t h e m a t e r i a l g a t h e r e d h e r e . T h e s e a r e t h e v e r y q u a l i t i e s , o f c o u r s e , t h a t make t h e book d i f f i c u l t t o s t u d y as a t o t a l i t y , b u t t h e y a r e as w e l l t h e mark o f an a m b i t i o n t h a t e x t e n d s b e y o n d t h e l i m i t s o f t h e mere a n t h o l -ogy, t o w a r d some i n c l u s i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s e l f . The d o u b l e T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s — o n e s e q u e n t i a l , t h e o t h e r c a t e g o r i c a l — i s a m i n o r b u t i n t e r e s t i n g h i n t i n i t s e l f o f a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and p u r p o s e t o t h i s book t h a n i s a p p a r e n t on t h e s u r f a c e . B u t t h e a s p e c t t h a t makes t h i s book a "work", t h e s t a t e -76, merit o f i t s a m b i t i o n , t h e s o u r c e o f i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t s p u r -p o s e , and i t s u n i t y , i s t h e i t a l i c i z e d s e l f - c o m m e n t a r y , t h e s e t o f i n t e r s p e r s e d r e f l e c t i o n s t h a t , a l t o g e t h e r , c o n s t i t u t e an a m a z i n g and p o w e r f u l a m a l g a m a t i o n o f a p o l o g y , e x p l a n a t i o n , c o n -f e s s i o n , r e t r o s p e c t i o n and i n t i m a t i o n , r e g r e t and p r o m i s e . T h i s i s a work, t h e n , t h a t i s c o n s t r u c t e d on two l e v e l s : one c o n -s i s t s o f t h e c o l l e c t e d p i e c e s t h e m s e l v e s , t h e r a w m a t e r i a l o f M a i l e r ' s l i t e r a r y s e l f , s e t p l a i n l y , b e f o r e t h e r e a d e r l i k e t h e l e t t e r s o f an e p i s t o l a r y n o v e l ; t h e o t h e r i s a k i n d o f meta-commentary, d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m i t s s u b j e c t - m a t t e r by i t s v e r y p r i n t , c o l l e c t i v e l y l a b e l l e d " B i o g r a p h y o f a S t y l e " by M a i l e r h i m s e l f i n h i s "Second T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s " . M a i l e r ' s t i t l e f o r t h i s l e v e l seems b o t h a p p r o p r i a t e and i n a c c u r a t e — t h a t i s , i t seems t r u e t o s a y t h a t t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s commentary i s n o t so much a p e r s o n , as a " s t y l e " , n o t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l b u t a l i t e r a r y r e a l i t y ; on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h a t l i t e r a r y r e a l i t y seems more p r o p e r l y t e rmed a " s t o r y " t h a n a b i o g r a p h y , and t h e book as a w h o l e m i g h t w e l l be r e a d as a f o r m o f 3 b i l d u n g s r o m a n . I n t h i s s e n s e , A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f i s t h e s t o r y o f t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a " h e r o " . The v e r y p r o f u s i o n o f t h e b o o k's m a t e r i a l , however, p r e -v e n t s any e x h a u s t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h a t f o r m a t i o n , r e q u i r i n g i n -s t e a d a f o c u s upon c e r t a i n o f i t s c r u c i a l moments. M a i l e r h i m -s e l f , i n a p r e f a t o r y "Note t o t h e R e a d e r " , s e l e c t s what he 4 b e l i e v e s t o be " t h e b e s t p i e c e s i n t h i s b o o k ", and, t h o u g h he i s h a r d l y o b j e c t i v e , h i s f i r s t two c h o i c e s i n p a r t i c u l a r seem 7 7 . t o f u l f i l t h a t d e s c r i p t i o n — " T h e Man Who S t u d i e d Y oga" i s a s h o r t s t o r y w r i t t e n i n 1952, and i s p e r h a p s M a i l e r ' s b e s t work o f f i c t i o n ; "The W h i t e N e g r o " i s an e s s a y w r i t t e n i n 1957, and i s among h i s best-known w r i t i n g s . T h e s e a p p e a r r e s p e c t i v e l y a b o u t a t h i r d and a b o u t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e way t h r o u g h t h e volume and so p r o v i d e a n e a t , i f m e c h a n i c a l , d i v i s i o n o f i t s c o n t e n t s . B u t , more i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e y r e p r e s e n t key s t a g e s i n t h e d e v e l -opment b e i n g n a r r a t e d h e r e , and so w i l l s e r v e a s t w i n f o c a l p o i n t s i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . "The Man Who S t u d i e d Y oga" seems a t f i r s t r e l a t i v e l y s i m -p l e , i t s s t r e n g t h d e r i v i n g f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t i t r e t u r n s ( a f t e r t h e a b s t r a c t d i s a s t e r o f B a r b a r y S h o r e ) t o a s u b s t a n t i a l r e a l i t y , t o t h e c l o s e l y o b s e r v e d d e p i c t i o n o f s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u r f a c e s . I t p r e s e n t s , o s t e n s i b l y , a day i n t h e l i f e o f Sam S l o v o d a , m a r r i e d , m i d d l e - a g e d w r i t e r o f c o n t i n u i t y f o r c o m i c m a g a z i n e s , e x - r a d i c a l and n o v e l i s t - m a n q u e : I n h i s l i v i n g room he w o u l d go o u t t o t i l t t h e w i n d m i l l s o f a v a s t , p o w e r f u l , and h y p o c r i t i c a l s o c i e t y ; i n h i s week o f work he l a b o r s i n an e d i -t o r i a l c u b i c l e t o c r e a t e s p a c e s h i p s - , v i o l e n t d e a t h , women w i t h g o l d e n t r e s s e s and wanton b r e a s t s , men who a c t w i t h t h e i r f i s t s and speak w i t h p a t r i o t i c s l o g a n s . (p. 148) Su c h a c h a r a c t e r , o f c o u r s e , seems a l m o s t ready-made f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f s a t i r e , and t h e s t o r y t a k e s a d v a n t a g e o f t h o s e s a t -i r i c a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n numerous i n s t a n c e s , s u c h as t h e F r e u d i a n -t i n g e d b r e a k f a s t g o s s i p i n w h i c h Sam and h i s w i f e engage t h e m o r n i n g a f t e r a p a r t y : " ' C h a r l e s h a t e s women,' Sam s a y s s m u g l y . ' I f y o u n o t i c e , a l m o s t e v e r y t h i n g he s a y s a b o u t them i s a d i s -78. c h a r g e o f a g r e s s i o n . ' " (p. 1 4 6 ) . B u t i n i t s c e n t r a l a c t i o n , t h e s t o r y seems u n u s u a l and a l m o s t d i s c o r d a n t : Sam and h i s w i f e and two o t h e r c o u p l e s — s i m i l a r l y g e n t e e l , e d u c a t e d , b o u r g e o i s , s i m i l a r l y s e t t l e d i n t h e i r r e p r e s s e d s o c i a l c o n t e x t s — g a t h e r a t Sam's home t o w a t c h a p o r n o g r a p h i c m o v i e . Such a s c e n e c o u l d o b v i o u s l y p a s s q u i c k l y f r o m s a t i r e t o b u r l e s q u e , b u t , a p a r t f r o m a g e n t l y s a r d o n i c commentary, M a i l e r t a k e s t h e s i t u a t i o n o d d l y s e r i o u s l y , as t h o u g h he w i s h e s n o t m e r e l y t o mock t h e anx-i o u s f e a r s and d e s i r e s o f h i s m i d d l e - c l a s s s p e c i m e n s , b u t t o s t u d y them. And as t h e f i l m becomes g r a p h i c a l l y s e x u a l t h e n a r r a t i o n i t s e l f becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y s u g g e s t i v e , l o s i n g i t s t o n e o f c o n d e s c e n d i n g i r o n y , and e x e r t i n g upon t h e r e a d e r t o o t h e h y p n o t i c f a s c i n a t i o n o f t h e e r o t i c — t h e " a u d i e n c e " t h a t " l a u g h s no l o n g e r " (p. 159) i s l a r g e r t h a n j u s t t h e f i c t i o n a l one, and t h e i r r e s p o n s e , t h o u g h more i n t e n s e , i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e r e a d e r ' s as w e l l : A l i t t l e murmur, a l l u n c o n s c i o u s , p a s s e s f r o m t h e i r l i p s . The a u d i e n c e sways, e a c h now f i n a l l y l o s t i n h i m s e l f , communing h u n g r i l y w i t h shadows, v i o l a t e d o r v i o l a t i n g , f a n t a s y t r i u m p h a n t . (p. 159) The s t o r y t h u s i n v o l v e s i t s v e r y r e a d e r s i n a k i n d o f f i c t i v e e x p e r i m e n t ' i n a manner t h a t t h e s u p e r i o r v i s i o n o f s a t i r e g e n e r -a l l y p r e c l u d e s , and i t s c o n c l u s i o n s a r e t h e r e b y endowed w i t h a p e c u l i a r f o r c e . I t i s S a m — n o l o n g e r an o b j e c t o f amusement, b u t now become o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e — w h o , as t h e f i l m i s p r o j e c t e d a s e c o n d t i m e , draws t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s . T h i n k i n g o f t h e Deer P a r k o f L o u i s XV, t o w h i c h were b r o u g h t " t h e most b e a u t i f u l 79. maidens o f F r a n c e " , he c o n t r a s t s t h a t "lewd t r a n s l a t i o n o f a k i n g ' s power" w i t h o u r p r e s e n t u s e s o f power: T h a t c e n t u r y men s o u g h t w e a l t h so t h e y c o u l d use i t s f r u i t s ; t h i s e p o c h men l u s t e d f o r power i n o r -d e r t o amass more power, a compounding o f power i n -t o p y r i m i d s o f a b s t r a c t i o n whose y i e l d a r e cannon and w i r e e n c l o s u r e , p i l l a r s o f s t a t i s t i c s t o t h e men who a r e t h e k i n g s o f t h i s c e n t u r y and do no more i n power's l e i s u r e t i m e t h a n go t o c h u r c h , c l a i m t o l o v e t h e i r w i v e s , and e a t v e g e t a b l e s . I s i t p o s s i b l e , Sam wonders, t h a t e a c h o f them h e r e , two Rossmans, two S p e r b e r s , two S l o v o d a s , w i l l c a s t o f f t h e i r c l o t h e s when t h e movie i s done and p e r -f o r m t h e o r g y w h i c h t i c k l e s a t t h e h e a r t o f t h e i r d e s i r e ? They w i l l n o t , he knows, t h e y w i l l make j o k e s when t h e p r o j e c t o r i s p u t away, t h e y w i l l g o r g e t h e p l a t e o f d e l i c a t e s s e n E l e a n o r p r o v i d e s , and s w a l l o w more b e e r , he among them. He w i l l be t h e f i r s t t o make j o k e s . (p. 160) One n o t i c e s , i n t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e p a r a g r a p h s o f t h i s p a s s a g e , a sudden s h i f t i n f o c u s f r o m t h e h i s t o r i c a l t o t h e p e r s o n a l t h a t i s t h e k e y n o t j u s t t o t h i s s t o r y b u t t o much o f M a i l e r ' s t h o u g h t i n g e n e r a l ; i t e x p l a i n s t h e r e a l s e r i o u s n e s s b e h i n d t h e s t o r y ' s j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e b o u r g e o i s and t h e p o r n o -g r a p h i c , a n d a s s o c i a t e s t h a t c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e more g e n e r a l d i s s o c i a t i o n between p o l i t i c s a n d s e x , between p u b l i c a c t i o n and p r i v a t e l u s t , between r e a l i t y and dream, between h i s t o r y and t h e moment. I t i s M a i l e r ' s d i a g n o s i s o f a c u l t u r a l i l l n e s s — t h a t t h e r e has f o r m e d a s p l i t , i n o u r t i m e , between d e s i r e and power, a n d t h a t as a c o n s e q u e n c e e a c h s i d e o f t h e d i v i d e , g r o w i n g i n i s o l a t i o n , has become p e r v e r t e d and d i s e a s e d . A p o w e r l e s s d e s i r e t w i s t s i n upon i t s e l f i n a f u t i l e c o n s u m p t i o n o f e n e r g y , w h i l e , on t h e o t h e r s i d e , a d e s i r e l e s s power s w e l l s w i t h o u t p u r p o s e o r c h e c k . I t i s t h i s c u l t u r a l l e s i o n , t h e n — and n o t t h e m i n o r c o m e d i e s o f t h e b o u r g e i o s i e - - t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s 80, t h e s t o r y ' s r e a l theme. I t i s t h i s theme t h a t p r o v i d e s t h e r a d i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m o f t h e s t o r y , i n f u s i n g e v e n s u c h c o n v e n -t i o n a l l i b e r a l v i c e s as " a l i e n a t i o n " arid " c o n f o r m i t y " w i t h new p r o f u n d i t y and r e l e v e n c e . The e v a s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l i z a t i o n , f o r example, t o w h i c h t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s a r e so p r o n e (as i n t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o t a l k " f o r a r e s p e c t a b l e p e r i o d o f t i m e " b e f o r e t h e f i l m Cp. 1543/ o r t h e i r n e e d t o " d o m i n a t e " i t w i t h d i s c u s s i o n a f t e r [ p . 1601) becomes n o t j u s t a common p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a i l i n g , b u t a symptom o f a g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l m a l a i s e , and a p a r t o f t h e e l a b o r a t e s y s t e m o f a p o l o g e t i c s by w h i c h t h a t i l l n e s s i s s u s -t a i n e d . E v e n a t r i t e o b s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e b l a n d n e s s o f Sunday S u p p l e m e n t s a c q u i r e s a l a r g e r and more ominous s i g n i f i -c a n c e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f s u c h a d i a g n o s i s : Sam t h r o w s t h e M a g a z i n e S e c t i o n away. Moments o f s u c h a n g e r t o r m e n t him f r e q u e n t l y . D e s p i t e h i m s e l f , Sam i s e n r a g e d a t e d i t o r i a l d i s h o n e s t y , a t t h e smooth s t r i f e l e s s w o r l d w h i c h s u c h a r t i c l e s p r e s e n t . How a n g r y he i s — h o w a n g r y and how h e l p -l e s s . " I t i s t h e a c t i o n s o f men and n o t t h e i r s e n t i m e n t s w h i c h make h i s t o r y , " He t h i n k s t o h i m s e l f , and s m i l e s w r y l y . ... . I know what Sam f e e l s . As he s i t s i n t h e a r m c h a i r , t h e Sunday p a p e r s a r e s t r e w n a r o u n d him, c a r r y i n g t h e i r war news, t h e i r m u r d e r s , t h e i r p a r l e y s , t h e i r e n -t e r t a i n m e n t s , mummery o f a r e a l w o r l d w h i c h no one c a n g r a s p . I t i s t e r r i b l y f r u s t r a t i n g . One does n o t know where t o b e g i n . (p. 148) One o f t h e c h i e f v i r t u e s o f t h i s s t o r y i s i t s ambiguous p r e s e n -t a t i o n o f Sam S l o v o d a , who m i g h t so e a s i l y have been a s i m p l e c a r i c a t u r e ; h e r e he seems a t t i m e s b o t h s m a l l and l a r g e , b o t h d e l u d e d and aware, b o t h o b j e c t and s u b j e c t . By t h e end, s e e i n g h i m as a d i s i l l u s i o n e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y and now i m p o t e n t a r t i s t 81. ("He c a n n o t f i n d a f o r m , he e x p l a i n s . He does n o t want t o w r i t e a r e a l i s t i c n o v e l b e c a u s e r e a l i t y i s no l o n g e r r e a l i s t i c " , £ p . 16 3 ] ) , h i s c h a r a c t e r has assumed t h e v e r y f e a t u r e s and p r o -p o r t i o n s o f h i s t i m e . I n d e e d , i t i s , a t i m e o r an "epoch" i t -s e l f t h a t i s t h e t r u e s u b j e c t o f t h i s s t o r y . B u t Sam i s no h e r o , and t h e t i m e , as one o f t h e symptoms o f i t s d i s e a s e , i s i n i m i c a l t o h e r o s : One c o u l d n o t have a h e r o t o d a y , Sam t h i n k s , a man o f a c t i o n and c o n t e m p l a t i o n , c a p a b l e o f s i n , l a r g e enough f o r g o o d , a man immense. T h e r e i s o n l y a modern h e r o damned by no more t h a n t h e u g l i -n e s s o f w i s h e s whose s a t i s f a c t i o n he w i l l n e v e r know. One needs a man who c o u l d w a l k t h e s t a g e , someone w h o — n o m a t t e r who, n o t h i m s e l f . Someone, Sam t h i n k s , who r e a s o n a b l y c o u l d n o t e x i s t . (p. 167) T h e s e t h o u g h t s o c c u r n e a r t h e end o f t h e s t o r y , when Sam i s i n b e d and a b o u t t o f a l l a s l e e p ; t h e y a r e t r i g g e r e d by a sudden t h o u g h t o f " t h e n o v e l he wants t o w r i t e " , . . . t h a t huge work w i t h w h i c h he has c h e a t e d him-s e l f , h o l d i n g i t b e f o r e him as a c o v e n a n t o f h i s w o r t h , t h a t enormous n o v e l w h i c h w o u l d l i f t h i m a t a bound f r o m t h e i m p a s s e i n w h i c h he s t i f l e s , whose d o z e n s o f c h a r a c t e r s w o u l d d e v e l o p a v i s i o n o f l i f e i n b o u n t i f u l c o m p l e x i t y . . . (p. 167) And t h e s e t h o u g h t s , i n t u r n , t r i g g e r o t h e r s , a n x i e t y - r i d d e n n i g h t t h o u g h t s , " y e a s t - s w e l l s o f a p p r e h e n s i o n " (p. 1 6 7 ) ; one i n p a r -t i c u l a r c o n c e r n s a g i r l he and E l e a n o r h a d o nce v i s i t e d i n a m e n t a l h o s p i t a l , who b a b b l e d o f m o v i e s , c o n v e n t s and s e x u a l v i o l a t i o n : Sam s w e a t s . T h e r e i s so l i t t l e he knows, and so much t o know. Y o u t h o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n w i t h i t s e c -onomic t e r m s , what c a n he know o f madness o r r e l i -g i o n ? They a r e b o t h so a l i e n t o him.' (p. 168) 82 To e s c a p e t h e s e t o r m e n t i n g s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n s he a t t e m p t s t o t a l k h i m s e l f t o s l e e p , a t w h i c h p o i n t t h e n a r r a t o r e n t e r s t h e s t o r y i n a c r y p t i c manner; t h e s e a r e i t s c o n c l u d i n g l i n e s : I n t h e m i d d l e f r o m w a k e f u l n e s s t o s l u m b e r , i n t h e t o r p o r w h i c h f l o a t s between b l a n k e t s , I g i v e an i d e a t o Sam. " D e s t r o y t i m e , and c h a o s may be o r d e r e d , " I s a y t o him. " D e s t r o y t i m e , and c haos may be o r d e r e d , " he r e -p e a t s a f t e r me, and i n d e s p e r a t i o n t o s e e k h i s coma, m u t t e r s b a c k , " I do n o t f e e l my n o s e , my n o s e i s numb, my e y e s a r e h e a v y , my e y e s a r e h e a v y . " So Sam e n t e r s t h e u n i v e r s e o f s l e e p , . a man who-s e e k s t o l i v e i n s u c h a way as t o a v o i d p a i n , and s u c c e e d s m e r e l y i n a v o i d i n g p l e a s u r e . What a d r e a r y compromise i s l i f e ! (pp. 168-9) The p o r t r a i t o f Sam S l o v o d a i s t h u s c l e a r l y an anatomy o f t h e a n t i - h e r o i c , t h a t a n x i o u s p a r a l y s i s o f t h e s p i r i t t h a t n e i t h e r damns n o r s a v e s and t h a t d e s i r e s o n l y s l e e p . B u t t h e r e i s a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n t o t h i s s t o r y e n t i r e l y , p e r -v a s i v e , and v i r t u a l l y e x p l i c i t i n t h e f i n a l l i n e s . The e x c l a m a -t i o n mark a t t h e end i n i t s e l f seems oddly, o u t o f k e e p i n g w i t h t h e p e s s i m i s t i c t o n e o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n . More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e r e i s a t l e a s t an " i d e a " h e r e , however o r a c u l a r i t s e x p r e s s i o n , f o r t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f an " i d e a " i s a p r o m i s e t h a t Sam's c o n d i t i o n i s n e i t h e r n e c e s s a r y n o r u n i v e r s a l . And b e h i n d t h a t " i d e a " i s t h a t i n t r u s i v e n a r r a t o r , . a p a r a d o x i c a l l y o m n i s c i e n t f i r s t p e r s o n , a u b i q u i t o u s , j u d g m e n t a l , c o n d e s c e n d i n g , c o n t r o l -l i n g , and d i s e m b o d i e d i n t e l l i g e n c e who, i n a d e f i a n t a n t i t h e s i s o f J a m e s i a n r e t i c e n c e , i s c o n s t a n t l y p l a c i n g h i m s e l f between t h e t a l e and t h e r e a d e r , g u i d i n g o n e ' s r e s p o n s e i n a l m o s t e v e r y p a r t i c u l a r . He i n t r o d u c e s h i s c h a r a c t e r s w i t h s w e e p i n g , g e n e r -83o a l i z e d a s s e s s m e n t s ("May I s t a t e t h a t I do n o t d i s l i k e Sam S l o v o d a ; i t i s j u s t t h a t I am d i s a p p o i n t e d i n him . . . . Of h i s a p p e t i t e f o r a v a r i e t y o f new e x p e r i e n c e I may s a y t h a t i t i s m a t ched o n l y by h i s f e a r o f new p e o p l e and n o v e l s i t u a t i o n s " £ p p . 1 4 2 - 3 ] ) ; he t a k e s s i d e s ("At t h o s e t i m e s when I do n o t l i k e E l e a n o r , I am i r r i t a t e d by h e r l a c k o f h o n e s t y " [ p . 1 4 5 ] ) ; he a f f e c t s a s k e p t i c a l p u z z l e m e n t ("I f i n d i t h a r d t o e x p l a i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e " [ p . 1533); n e makes a d m i s s i o n s ("I s u p p o s e I am a r o m a n t i c " [ p . 1 6 4 ] ) ; and i n d u l g e s i n a p h o r i s m s ("I w o u l d i n t r o d u c e m y s e l f i f i t were n o t u s e l e s s . The name I had l a s t n i g h t w i l l n o t be t h e same as t h e name I have t o n i g h t " [ p . 142}) . And he t e l l s t h e e n t i r e s t o r y i n t h e . p r e s e n t t e n s e , as t h o u g h g i v i n g a moment by moment a c c o u n t o f e v e n t s s e e n t h r o u g h some d i m e n s i o n a l k e y h o l e . He a p p e a r s , i n o t h e r w o r d s , q u i t e l i t e r -a l l y t o t r a n s c e n d t h e s t o r y t h a t he n a r r a t e s , and t h u s p r o v i d e s , i n t o n a l c o u n t e r p o i n t t o t h e a n t i - h e r o i c s u b j e c t - m a t t e r , a t l e a s t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a t r a n s c e n d i n g v i s i o n . The e n i g m a t i c " i d e a " t h a t he g i v e s t o Sam a t t h e end i s meant, p e r h a p s , s i m p l y a s a f o c u s f o r t h i s s e n s e o f " p o s s i b i l i t y " , n o t as a s t a t e m e n t i n t e r -p r e t a b l e i n i t s e l f . ~* T h i s g h o s t l y n a r r a t o r , t h e r e f o r e , r e p r e s e n t s a t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p a c t , a means o f a v o i d i n g c e r t a i n p i t f a l l s o r l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t p l a g u e M a i l e r ' s p a s t and f u t u r e a t t e m p t s a t n a r r a t i o n . I n The Naked and t h e Dead, as we have s e e n , t h e a b s e n c e o f a n a r r a t o r l e f t i t s s t o r y w i t h o u t human o r m o r a l measure, and so f l a t t e n e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f i t s e v e n t s ; t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n a r r a t o r i n The Deer P a r k t e n d e d t o r e - e s t a b -l i s h a m o r a l r e l i e f — b u t as an embodied c h a r a c t e r , S e r g i u s O 'Shaugnessy had t o become t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h a t n o v e l ' s r e -d e m p t i v e v i s i o n , , a t a s k t o w h i c h n e i t h e r he n o r ( a t t h a t p o i n t ) M a i l e r h i m s e l f was e q u a l . B e i n g n e i t h e r a b s e n t n o r p h y s i c a l l y p r e s e n t , t h e " I " o f t h i s s t o r y c a n be i t s j u d g e and m e a s u r e , t h e b e a r e r o f i t s s a v i n g v i s i o n , b u t , b e c a u s e he has no e f f e c t upon i t s e v e n t s , he i s n o t f o r c e d i n any way t o r e a l i z e o r l i v e t h a t v i s i o n , as was O'Shaugnessy. So t h e v i s i o n t h a t w i l l h e a l t h e c u l t u r e so f i n e l y d i s s e c t e d h e r e r e m a i n s h i d d e n b u t " p r o m i s e d " , a p o t e n t i a l i t y . F o r t h i s v e r y r e a s o n t h e t e c h n i q u e o f t h i s s t o r y c a n n o t be e a s i l y o r f r e q u e n t l y d u p l i c a t e d , a s r e p e t i t i o n w o u l d t e n d t o d i s c r e d i t i t s p r o m i s e . The s t o r y , i n o t h e r w o rds, d e r i v e s a good d e a l o f i t s u n u s u a l f o r c e and i n t e n s i t y f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t i s i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y o f f - b a l a n c e , l e a n i n g t o w a r d , and d e p e n d i n g upon, some u n d e f i n e d b u t u l t i m a t e r e v e l a t i o n . T h i s s t o r y has s o m e t h i n g o f t h e f o r c e o f p r o p h e c y t h o u g h when i t was w r i t t e n , i n 1952, M a i l e r was h i m s e l f a p p a r e n t l y s t i l l e n g a g e d i n t h e t a s k o f d i s c o v e r i n g o r f o r g i n g h i s r e v e l -a t i o n . T h e r e a r e some i n d i c a t i o n s o f i t s e v e n t u a l n a t u r e , however, t o be f o u n d among those, v e r y e l e m e n t s t h a t , w i t h t h e n a r r a t o r , c o n t r i b u t e t o i t s u n b a l a n c e d l e a n . The t i t l e o f t h e s t o r y , f o r example, r e f e r s t o a c h a r a c t e r named " C a s s i u s O ' S h a u gnessy" i n a s u b - s t o r y t o l d by one o f Sam's g u e s t s , who has "done a b o u t e v e r y t h i n g " — h e has been a b u s i n e s s m a n , e n t e r e d a m o n a s t e r y , " i n f l u e n c e d T.S. E l i o t " , become a Communist, an 8 5 . a n a r c h i s t , a g a n g s t e r , and f i n a l l y a man who s t u d i e d y o g a (pp. 1 5 5 - 7 ) . L a t e r , Sam and a n o t h e r g u e s t s peak o f " J e r r y 0'-S h a u g n e s s y " , a f i g u r e o u t o f t h e i r r a d i c a l b a c k g r o u n d , who p o s - . s e s s e d , l i k e C a s s i u s , a v a r i e d and a d v e n t u r o u s h i s t o r y (pp. 161-2 ) . And i t was e a r l i e r r e v e a l e d t h a t Sam was u n d e r g o i n g p s y -c h o a n a l y s i s w i t h an a n a l y s t named "Dr. S e r g i u s " (p. 1 4 4 ) . T h e s e s c a t t e r e d a l l u s i o n s t o t h e n a r r a t o r o f The D e e r P a r k a r e e x p l a i n e d i n t h e s h o r t P r e f a c e t h a t M a i l e r w r o t e f o r t h e B a l l a n t i n e e d i t i o n o f t h e s t o r y : My l a s t n o v e l , The D eer P a r k , was o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e i v e d as t h e f i r s t book o f an enormous e i g h t -p a r t n o v e l . The themes o f t h i s huge--and f i n a l l y u n w o r k a b l e — c o n c e p t i o n a r e b u r i e d i n "The Man Who S t u d i e d Yoga", a s h o r t n o v e l w r i t t e n as a p r o l o g u e t o a l l e i g h t n o v e l s . (p. 141) And he p o i n t s , i n t h e same P r e f a c e , t o "a p l a y on c e r t a i n names,. p a r t i c u l a r l y '0'Shaugnessy'" as b e i n g among " c e r t a i n e x c u r s i o n s and d i v e r s i o n s r e m a i n i n g as p a r t o f t h e abandoned- a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e l a r g e work" (p. 142) . I n t h e " A d v e r t i s e m e n t " f o r t h i s s t o r y , M a i l e r p r o v i d e s a more c o m p l e t e s t a t e m e n t o f h i s ambi-t i o u s o r i g i n a l scheme: I woke up i n t h e m o r n i n g w i t h t h e p l a n f o r a p r o -l o g u e and an e i g h t - p a r t n o v e l i n my m ind, t h e p r o l o g u e t o be t h e day o f a s m a l l f r u s t r a t e d man, a m i n o r a r t i s t manque. The e i g h t n o v e l s were t o be e i g h t s t a g e s o f h i s dream l a t e r t h a t n i g h t , and t h e b o o k s w o u l d r e v o l v e a r o u n d t h e a d v e n t u r e s o f a myth-i c a l h e r o , S e r g i u s 0 ' S h a u g n e s s y , who w o u l d t r a v e l t h r o u g h many w o r l d s , t h r o u g h p l e a s u r e , b u s i n e s s , communism, c h u r c h , w o r k i n g c l a s s , c r i m e , h o m o s e x u a l i t y and m y s t i c i s m . (pp. 139-40) I t i s t h i s f i g u r e , t h e n — S a m S l o v o d a ' s dream-ego and so a k i n d 86 o f a n t i - " a n t i - h e r o " , a c r e a t u r e o u t o f myth--who i s t h e key t o w h a t e v e r r e v e l a t i o n l i e s b e y o n d t h i s s t o r y . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s f i g u r e , and o f t h e v i s i o n o f s a l -v a t i o n t h a t he b e a r s , i s t o be t h e d o m i n a t i n g f e a t u r e o f M a i l e r ' s work f o r many y e a r s , c o n t i n u i n g , w i t h p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s commit-ment, a t l e a s t up t o An A m e r i c a n Dream; b u t i t r e a c h e s s o m e t h i n g o f a c l i m a x i n 1957, w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f "The W h i t e N e g r o " . One m i g h t m e n t i o n two b r i e f c l u e s as t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h a t v i s i o n t h a t a p p e a r i n M a i l e r ' s e a r l i e r w o r k s : i n "The'Man Who S t u d i e d Yoga", as C a s s i u s 0 ' S h a u g n e s s y 1 s random a s s o r t m e n t o f c a r e e r s i s r e c i t e d , one o f t h e g u e s t s r e m a r k s t h a t "'Today, we'd c a l l C a s s i u s a p s y c h o p a t h ' " (p. 1 5 6 ) ; i n The D e e r P a r k , t h e p r o d u c e r , C o l l i e M u n s h i n , r e f e r s t o O'Shaugnessy a t one p o i n t as b o t h a " h i p s t e r " and a " p s y c h o p a t h " ; f i n a l l y , i n "The W h i t e N e g r o " ( s u b t i t l e d " S u p e r f i c i a l R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e H i p s t e r " ) , M a i l e r r i s k s d i s p l a y i n g h i s hand as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e : I n s h o r t , w h e t h e r t h e l i f e i s c r i m i n a l o r n o t , t h e d e c i s i o n i s t o e n c o u r a g e t h e p s y c h o p a t h i n o n e s e l f , t o e x p l o r e t h a t domain o f e x p e r i e n c e where s e c u r i t y i s boredom and t h e r e f o r e s i c k n e s s , and one e x i s t s i n t h e p r e s e n t , i n t h a t enormous, p r e s e n t w h i c h i s w i t h o u t p a s t o r f u t u r e , memory o r p l a n n e d i n t e n t i o n , t h e l i f e where a man must go u n t i l he i s b e a t , where he must gamble w i t h h i s e n e r g i e s t h r o u g h a l l t h o s e s m a l l o r l a r g e c r i s e s o f c o u r a g e and u n f o r s e e n s i t -u a t i o n s w h i c h b e s e t h i s day, where he must be w i t h i t o r doomed n o t t o s w i n g . The u n s t a t e d e s s e n c e o f H i p , i t s p s y c h o p a t h i c b r i l l i a n c e , q u i v e r s w i t h t h e know-/ l e d g e t h a t new k i n d s o f v i c t o r i e s i n c r e a s e o n e ' s power f o r new k i n d s o f p e r c e p t i o n ; and d e f e a t s , t h e wrong k i n d s o f d e f e a t s , a t t a c k t h e body and i m p r i s o n o ne's e n e r g y u n t i l one i s j a i l e d i n t h e p r i s o n a i r o f o t h e r p e o p l e ' s h a b i t s , o t h e r p e o p l e ' s d e f e a t s , boredom, q u i e t d e s p e r a t i o n , and muted i c y s e l f -d e s t r o y i n g r a g e . (pp. 304-5) 87. H e r e a t l a s t , t h o u g h s w a d d l e d i n an a b s t r a c t r h e t o r i c , i s t h a t l o n g - p r o m i s e d r e v e l a t i o n , t h a t e s c a p e f r o m t h e p r i s o n o f o u r t i m e — t h e s a l v a t i o n o f " H i p " . Nowhere e l s e has M a i l e r l a i d b a r e t h e v i s i o n l u r k i n g a t t h e c o r e o f h i s t h o u g h t and work f o r a t l e a s t a d e c a d e so c o m p l e t e l y o r so f o r c e f u l l y . B e f o r e "The W h i t e N e g r o " i t was l a r g e l y i n c h o a t e , s t i l l s e e k i n g a f o r -m u l a t i o n t h a t w o u l d b r i n g t o g e t h e r i t s d i s p a r a t e s t r a n d s ; a f t e r , i t t e n d e d t o become a d e f e n s i v e , q u a l i f i e d v i s i o n , t h e v i t a l i t y s l o w l y l e a k i n g f r o m i t o v e r t h e y e a r s . B u t i n t h e l o n g , w i n d -i n g , e n r a p t u r e d s e n t e n c e s o f t h i s e s s a y t h e v i s i o n i s c h a r g e d w i t h a p a s s i o n a t e , a p o c a l y p t i c e n e r g y , a y o u t h f u l and s t r a n g e l y i n n o c e n t e n e r g y t h a t w i l l n o t , so c l e a r l y , be f o u n d i n h i s w r i t i n g a g a i n . A n a l y z i n g s u c h a v i s i o n i s n o t e a s y , as i t s h o r t a t o r y a p p e a l i n t e r f e r e s w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y a t t i t u d e o f o b j e c t i v i t y , b u t t h e a t t e m p t must be made, f o r we w i l l o n l y be a b l e t o u n d e r -s t a n d t h e i n h e r e n t drama o f d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t i s A d v e r t i s e m e n t s  f o r M y s e l f o n c e we have a c h i e v e d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e v i s i o n t o w a r d w h i c h so much o f i t p o i n t s . P e r h a p s t h e most s u r p r i s i n g a s p e c t o f t h i s e ssay,, g i v e n M a i l e r ' s s o c i a l i s t p a s t , i s i t s a n t i -s o c i a l b i a s , i t s t e n d e n c y t o v i e w " o t h e r p e o p l e " as p r i s o n s o f h a b i t and boredom, i t s h o s t i l i t y t o t h e v e r y n o t i o n o f m a n -o r a t l e a s t o f o n e s e l f — a s a s o c i a l b e i n g . The r e s p o n s e o f t h e " h i p s t e r " t o t h e c u l t u r a l m a l a i s e t h a t s u r r o u n d s him i s n o t a c u r e a t a l l b u t a r e n u n c i a t i o n : 88, . . . i f t h e f a t e o f t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y man i s t o l i v e w i t h d e a t h f r o m a d o l e s c e n c e t o p r e m a t u r e s e n e s c e n c e , why t h e n t h e o n l y l i f e - g i v i n g answer i s t o a c c e p t t h e terms o f d e a t h , t o l i v e w i t h d e a t h as i m m e d i a t e d a n g e r , t o d i v o r c e o n e s e l f f r o m s o c i e t y , t o e x i s t w i t h o u t r o o t s , t o s e t o u t on t h a t u n c h a r t e d j o u r n e y i n t o t h e r e b e l l i o u s i m p e r a t i v e s o f t h e s e l f . (p. 304) I t i s t h i s n e e d f o r a r a d i c a l b r e a k w i t h s o c i e t y t h a t a t t r a c t s M a i l e r t o t h e model o f t h e p s y c h o p a t h , f o r t h e p s y c h o p a t h i s one who i s c u t o f f f r o m s o c i e t y n o t j u s t l e g a l l y , a s an " o u t -law" ( t h o u g h M a i l e r u s e s t h a t f r o n t i e r t e r m as a me t a p h o r f o r t h e c o n d i t i o n ) , b u t c u l t u r a l l y , m o r a l l y , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y a s w e l l , i s o l a t e d i n a manner t h a t c u t s t o t h e v e r y r o o t o f h i s b e i n g . The c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h i s s o r t o f p s y c h o p a t h i c b r e a k i s an a l m o s t H o b b e s i a n v i s i o n o f s o c i e t y as a c o l l e c t i o n o f human atoms, and l i f e as "a p e r p e t u a l c o m p e t i t i o n o f c o l l i d i n g ex-p l o r e r s " (p. 3 1 4 ) . So, however i r o n i c a l , i t i s no a c c i d e n t t h a t we f i n d t h e emergence o f a c a p i t a l i s t e c o n o m i c i m a g e r y i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n . The w o r l d , f i r s t l y , i s s e e n as a r e a l m o f s c a r c i t y : L i k e c h i l d r e n , h i p s t e r s a r e f i g h t i n g f o r t h e swee t , and t h e i r l a n g u a g e i s a s e t o f s u b t l e i n d i -c a t i o n s o f t h e i r s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e i n t h e com-p e t i t i o n f o r p l e a s u r e . U n s t a t e d b u t o b v i o u s i s t h e s o c i a l s e n s e t h a t t h e r e i s n o t n e a r l y enough sweet f o r e v e r y o n e . (p. 314) I n s u c h a w o r l d , " e n e r g y " t a k e s t h e p l a c e o f c a p i t a l a s t h e g o a l o f a l l s t r i v i n g s : And so t h e sweet goes o n l y t o t h e v i c t o r , t h e b e s t , t h e most, t h e man who knows t h e most a b o u t how t o f i n d h i s . e n e r g y and how n o t t o l o s e i t . The e m p h a s i s 89, i s on e n e r g y b e c a u s e t h e p s y c h o p a t h and t h e h i p s t e r a r e n o t h i n g w i t h o u t i t s i n c e t h e y do n o t have t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f a p o s i t i o n o r a c l a s s t o r e l y on when t h e y have o v e r e x t e n d e d t h e m s e l v e s . (p. 314) And l i k e a l l c a p i t a l , o nce a c c u m u l a t e d t h i s e n e r g y c a n n o t be a l l o w e d t o s i t i d l e , b u t must be i n c e s s a n t l y r e - i n v e s t e d : F o r l i f e i s a c o n t e s t between p e o p l e i n w h i c h t h e v i c t o r g e n e r a l l y r e c u p e r a t e s q u i c k l y and t h e l o s e r t a k e s l o n g t o mend, . . . i n w h i c h one must grow o r e l s e pay more f o r r e m a i n i n g t h e same (pay i n s i c k n e s s , o r d e p r e s s i o n , o r a n g u i s h f o r t h e l o s t o p p o r t u n i t y ) , b u t pay o r grow. (p. 314) The h i p s t e r must become, t h e r e f o r e , a h u s t l e r , p s y c h i c e n t r e -p r e n e u r , c o n s t a n t l y h a v i n g t o r i s k h i s hard-won e n e r g y i n new s i t u a t i o n s , new gambles, i n w h i c h l o s s may l e a d t o t h e s p i r i t u a l b a n k r u p t c y o f t h e " b e a t " : . . . one c a n h a r d l y a f f o r d t o be p u t down t o o o f t e n , o r one i s b e a t , one has l o s t o ne's c o n f i d e n c e , one has l o s t o ne's w i l l , one i s i m p o t e n t i n t h e w o r l d o f a c t i o n and so c l o s e r t o t h e demeaning f l i p o f b e c o m i n g a q u e e r , o r i n d e e d c l o s e r t o d y i n g , and t h e r e f o r e i t i s even more d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o v e r enough e n e r g y t o t r y t o make i t a g a i n , b e c a u s e once a c a t i s b e a t he has n o t h i n g t o g i v e , and no one. i s i n t e r e s t e d any l o n g e r i n making i t w i t h him. (p. 317) H a v i n g e x h a u s t e d h i s c o l l a t e r a l , i n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e b e a t h i p -s t e r c a n no l o n g e r n e g o t i a t e l o a n s . One m i g h t wonder, g i v e n t h i s d e c l a s s e i m i t a t i o n o f t h e b o u r g e o i s r a t r a c e , w h e r e i n l i e s t h e s u p e r i o r i t y , t h e s a v i n g v i s i o n , o r e v e n t h e a p p e a l o f t h e h i p s t e r . M a i l e r s u g g e s t s one answer i n h i s e x c i t e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i p s t e r h e a v e n , t h e - a p o c a l y p t i c orgasm: B u t t o be w i t h i t i s t o have g r a c e , i s t o be c l o s e r t o t h e s e c r e t s o f t h a t i n n e r u n c o n s c i o u s l i f e w h i c h w i l l n o u r i s h y o u i f y o u c a n h e a r i t , f o r y o u a r e t h e n n e a r e r t o t h a t God w h i c h e v e r y h i p s t e r b e -l i e v e s i s l o c a t e d i n t h e s e n s e s o f h i s body, t h a t t r a p p e d , m u t i l a t e d and n o n e t h e l e s s m e g a l o m a n i a c a l God who i s I t , who i s e n e r g y , l i f e , s e x , f o r c e , t h e Yoga's p r a n a , t h e R e i c h i a n ' s o r g o n e , L a w r e n c e ' s " b l o o d , " Hemingway's "good", t h e S h a v i a n l i f e - f o r c e ; " I t " ; God; n o t t h e God o f t h e c h u r c h e s b u t t h e u n a c h i e v a b l e w h i s p e r o f m y s t e r y w i t h i n t h e s e x , t h e p a r a d i s e o f l i m i t l e s s e n e r g y and p e r c e p t i o n j u s t b e y o n d t h e n e x t wave o f t h e n e x t orgasm. (p. 316) B u t t h i s b r e a t h l e s s s e x u a l m y s t i c i s m i s n o t t h e r e a l k e y t o t h e v i s i o n , and M a i l e r h i m s e l f does n o t t a k e i t so s e r i o u s l y (" . . . what I have o f f e r e d above i s an h y p o t h e s i s , no more . . . CP« 3 1 6 ] ) . A p a r t o f i t s r e a l a p p e a l u n d o u b t e d l y has t o do s i m p l y w i t h i t s r o m a n t i c p o t e n t i a l : . . . t h e e l e m e n t w h i c h i s e x c i t i n g , d i s t u r b i n g , n i g h t m a r i s h p e r h a p s , i s t h a t i n c o m p a t i b l e s have come t o b e d , t h e i n n e r l i f e and t h e v i o l e n t l i f e , t h e o r g y and t h e dream o f l o v e , t h e d e s i r e t o .murder and t h e d e s i r e t o c r e a t e , a d i a l e c t i c a l c o n -c e p t i o n o f e x i s t e n c e w i t h a l u s t f o r power, a d a r k , r o m a n t i c , and y e t u n d e n i a b l y d y n a m i c v i e w o f e x i s t e n c e f o r i t s e e s e v e r y man and woman a s m o v i n g i n d i v i d u a l l y t h r o u g h e a c h moment o f l i f e f o r -w ard i n t o g r o w t h o r b a c k w a r d i n t o d e a t h . (p. 308) B u t t h e c e n t r a l s t r e n g t h o f t h i s v i s i o n , t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f i t s r e d e m p t i v e p r o m i s e , i s s o m e t h i n g i n h e r e n t o n l y i n t h e r a d i c a l l y a n t i - s o c i a l m o del o f t h e p s y c h o p a t h , and t h e f o l l o w i n g p e c u -l i a r p a s s a g e p r o v i d e s a c l u e t o i t s t r u e n a t u r e : The s t r e n g t h o f t h e p s y c h o p a t h i s t h a t he knows (where most o f us c a n o n l y g u e s s ) what i s good f o r him and what i s bad f o r him a t e x a c t l y t h o s e i n s t a n t s when an o l d c r i p p l i n g h a b i t has become so a t t a c k e d by e x p e r i e n c e t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l i t y e x i s t s t o change i t , t o r e p l a c e a n e g a t i v e and empty f e a r w i t h an o u t w a r d a c t i o n , e v e n i f — a n d h e r e I 91. obey t h e l o g i c o f t h e e x t r e m e p s y c h o p a t h - - e v e n i f t h e f e a r i s o f h i m s e l f , and t h e a c t i o n i s t o m u rder. (p. 312) Now how, p r e c i s e l y , i s murder an a c t i o n t h a t i s a b l e t o r e p l a c e a f e a r o f o n e s e l f ? And what, i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , does i t r e a l l y mean t o f e a r o n e s e l f ? S uch a f e a r w o u l d seem t o i m p l y a s p l i t i n one's b e i n g , some s o r t o f p s y c h i c s e l f - b e t r a y a l , as t h o u g h a p a r t o f o n e s e l f t y r a n n i z e s o v e r a n o t h e r p a r t : and t h i s b e g i n s t o s u g g e s t a F r e u d i a n answer, p a r t i c u l a r l y when p l a c e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f M a i l e r ' s r e m a r k s on p s y c h o p a t h y as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o p s y c h o a n a l y s i s : L i k e t h e n e u r o t i c he i s l o o k i n g f o r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o grow up a s e c o n d t i m e , b u t t h e p s y c h o p a t h knows i n s t i n c t i v e l y t h a t t o e x p r e s s a f o r b i d d e n i m p u l s e a c t i v e l y i s f a r more b e n e f i c i a l t o him t h a n m e r e l y t o c o n f e s s t h e d e s i r e i n t h e s a f e t y o f a d o c t o r ' s room. (p. 311) M a i l e r l o o k s upon t h e h i p s t e r as a k i n d o f d e l i b e r a t e o r w i l l i n g p s y c h o p a t h , and upon t h e p s y c h o p a t h as one whose " f u n d a m e n t a l d e c i s i o n " i s t o " t r y t o l i v e t h e i n f a n t i l e f a n t a s y " (p. 3 1 1 ) ; murder, i n t h i s s e n s e , i s t h e n s e e n as a means o f r e - e n a c t i n g , and f i n a l l y b r e a k i n g t h r o u g h , t h e O e d i p a l Complex: F o r i f he has t h e c o u r a g e t o meet t h e p a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n a t t h e moment when he i s r e a d y , t h e n he has a c h a n c e t o a c t as he has n e v e r a c t e d b e f o r e , and i n s a t i s f y i n g t h e f r u s t r a t i o n - - i f he c a n s u c c e e d — h e may t h e n p a s s by s y m b o l i c s u b s t i t u t e t h r o u g h t h e l o c k s o f i n c e s t . (p. 311) I n t h e F r e u d i a n s y s t e m , o f c o u r s e , i t i s t h r o u g h t h e O e d i p a l Complex t h a t t h e s u p e r - e g o comes i n t o b e i n g , an i m p l a n t a t i o n o f e x t e r n a l s o c i a l norms and v a l u e s , and p o t e n t i a l l y an i n n e r t y -r a n t , an a l l - s e e i n g c r i t i c o f e v e r y a c t i o n and m o t i v e , t h w a r t -9 2 . i n g o ne's w i l l , s t i f l i n g o n e ' s i m p u l s e , s e t t i n g e v e r y p e r s o n a t a d i s t a n c e f r o m h i s s e l f and so c r e a t i n g a h o l l o w a t t h e c e n t r e o f h i s b e i n g ; i t i s t h e v e r y a g e n c y o f r e p r e s s i o n . The' d e f i n i n g a m b i t i o n o f t h e h i p s t e r , t h e r e f o r e , i s " t h e d i v o r c e o f man f r o m h i s v a l u e s , t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f t h e s e l f f r o m t h e S u p e r -Ego o f s o c i e t y " (p. 318); and t h e r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f H i p , f o r M a i l e r , i s t h a t i s r e p r e s e n t s a v i s i o n o f t h e end o f r e p r e s s i o n , a v i s i o n o f r e d e m p t i o n f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l s i n o f c u l t u r e . I n a s e n s e , and d e s p i t e M a i l e r ' s own c o n t r a r y o p i n i o n (see pp. 317-18), t h e e m p h a s i s o f H i p r e a l l y i s upon s i m p l i c i t y , n o t c o m p l e x i t y . I n t h e v i s i o n o f H i p , m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s i m p o s s i b l e , " b e c a u s e i t w o u l d a r g u e t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f o u r a c t i o n s a r e u n f o r e s e e a b l e " (p. 318); and knowledge i s e i t h e r l o s t i n an " a b s o l u t e r e l a t i v i t y where t h e r e a r e no t r u t h s o t h e r t h a n t h e i s o l a t e d t r u t h s o f what e a c h o b s e r v e r f e e l s a t e a c h i n s t a n t o f h i s e x i s t e n c e " (p. 3 1 8 ) , o r i t i s i n s t i n c t i v e and i m m e d i a t e , t h e h i p s t e r s ' "knowledge t h a t what i s h a p p e n i n g a t e a c h i n s t a n t o f t h e e l e c t r i c p r e s e n t i s good o r b a d f o r them, good o r b a d f o r t h e i r cause,, t h e i r l o v e , t h e i r a c t i o n , t h e i r n e e d " (p. 3 0 8 ) . I t p r e s e n t s a w o r l d , as we s e e , t h a t i s s t r i p p e d e v e n o f t h e t e m p o r a l d i m e n s i o n s o f p a s t and f u t u r e , g o v e r n e d o n l y by t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s i m p e r a t i v e s o f "need" (p. 3 1 9 ) . The one r e a l v a r i a b l e i n t h i s l i f e - v i e w , t h e h i p -s t e r ' s o n l y v i r t u e , i s c o u r a g e , h i s o n l y v i c e i s c o w a r d i c e . And h i s hope i s t h a t w i t h s u c h a v i s i o n he c a n make h i m s e l f 93 w h o l e and s o l i d a g a i n , h e a l t h e wound o f r e p r e s s i o n , f i l l t h e s e l f - c r i t i c a l h o l l o w o f h i s p s y c h e w i t h an i n s t i n c t i v e b o d y -k n o w l e d g e , and so e s c a p e t h e bonds o f t h e d i s e a s e d and doom-r i d d e n c u l t u r e t h a t s u r r o u n d s him. The n a i v e t e o f s u c h a hope, o f c o u r s e , i s s c a r c e l y h i d d e n by M a i l e r ' s r o m a n t i c a l l y c h a r g e d p r o s e . On t h e w h o l e , t h e v i -s i o n t h a t i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s e s s a y seems u n d e n i a b l y f l a w e d — e a s i l y d a t e d , o f t e n i l l u s o r y o r s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y , and w i s t -f u l l y , e x c i t e d l y b o y i s h ; t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e "Negro j a z z m u s i -c i a n s " t h a t M a i l e r and James B a l d w i n knew i n P a r i s — " T h e y p t h o u g h t he was a r e a l sweet o f a y c a t , b u t a l i t t l e f r a n t i c " — seems t o c h a r a c t e r i z e much o f t h i s e s s a y w e l l . The m i d d l e s e c -t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y , i n w h i c h M a i l e r i s t r y i n g t o e l u c i d a t e t h e h i p s t e r ' s p s y c h o p a t h y o r h i s q u a i n t l y o b s o l e s c e n t j a r g o n , seem weak; t h e s e n t e n c e s a r e t o o l o n g , t h e c l a u s e s a n x i o u s l y r e p e t i -t i v e , t h e a r g u m e n t s f r e q u e n t l y u n d e r g o i n g an o p p o r t u n i s t i c r e v e r s a l ("By t h i s p r e m i s e t h e h i p s t e r i s a p s y c h o p a t h , and y e t n o t a p s y c h o p a t h b u t t h e n e g a t i o n o f t h e p s y c h o p a t h . . ." [ p . 308j; M a i l e r does n o t a l w a y s a p p e a r t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t n o t e v e r y c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s d i a l e c t i c ) . The v e r y a t t e m p t t o " a r g u e " H i p , a p p a r e n t i n t h e s t y l e ' s p r o f u s i o n o f l o g i c a l c o n j u n c t i o n s — " i f " , "why t h e n " , " b e c a u s e " , "and s o " , " f o r " , " s i n c e " , " t h e r e -f o r e " , and so o n - - i s i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e . h i p s t e r ' s a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e i n s t i n c t i v e , t h e i n t u i t i v e , and t h e i r r a t i o n a l ; and t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s c o n f l i c t i s t o i s o l a t e M a i l e r f r o m h i s s u b j e c t , l e a v i n g him, t o a d e g r e e , m e r e l y an u n c r i t i c a l o b s e r v e r , an o u t -9k. s i d e r g a z i n g upon an e x p e r i e n c e t h a t seems r i c h and s t r a n g e , b u t i s u n t r i e d and u n l i v e d . I t i s t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a d o l e s -c e n t , o f c o u r s e , and a c c o u n t s f o r much o f t h e e a r n e s t l y b o y i s h t o n e o f t h e e s s a y ; M a i l e r h i m s e l f seems t o r e a l i z e and a c c e p t t h i s c o m p a r i s o n , f o r he d e s c r i b e s t h e l a n g u a g e o f H i p as one t h a t "most a d o l e s c e n t s c a n u n d e r s t a n d i n s t i n c t i v e l y , f o r t h e h i p s t e r ' s i n t e n s e v i e w o f e x i s t e n c e m a t c h e s t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e a n d t h e i r d e s i r e t o r e b e l " (pp. 3 0 8 - 9 ) . B u t he does n o t a p p e a r t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e s i m p l e bad f a i t h i n v o l v e d i n t h e a b s t r a c t " d e s i r e t o r e b e l " — u n l i k e t h e h e r m i t , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e a n t i -s o c i a l h i p s t e r i s t i e d n e g a t i v e l y b u t i n e x t r i c a b l y t o t h e v e r y s o c i e t y t h a t he r e j e c t s , b e c o m i n g a k i n d o f r e b e l - m a n q u e . Be-c a u s e h i s r e b e l l i o n i s w i t h o u t a c a u s e , i t i s d e v o i d o f d i r e c -t i o n , . p u r p o s e , o r c o n t e n t , and so becomes, f i n a l l y , no more t h a n a p o s t u r e o r an a f f e c t a t i o n . Y e t t h e e s s a y has some v e r y r e a l s t r e n g t h s a s w e l l , and t h e s e a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n t h e o p e n i n g and c l o s i n g s t a t e -ments, when M a i l e r l e a v e s a s i d e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e h i p s t e r h i m s e l f , and s p e a k s i n s t e a d o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o u t o f w h i c h he a r o s e and t o w h i c h he i s a r e s p o n s e : P r o b a b l y , we w i l l n e v e r be a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p s y c h i c h a v o c o f t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps and t h e atom bomb upon t h e u n c o n s c i o u s m i n d o f a l m o s t e v e r y o n e a l i v e i n t h e s e y e a r s . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n c i v i l -i z e d h i s t o r y , p e r h a p s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n a l l o f h i s t o r y , we have been f o r c e d t o l i v e w i t h t h e s u p -p r e s s e d knowledge t h a t t h e s m a l l e s t f a c e t s o f o u r p e r s o n a l i t y o r t h e most m i n o r p r o j e c t i o n o f o u r i d e a s , o r i n d e e d t h e a b s e n c e o f i d e a s and t h e a b s e n c e 95. o f p e r s o n a l i t y c o u l d mean e q u a l l y w e l l t h a t we m i g h t s t i l l be doomed t o d i e as a c i p h e r i n some, v a s t s t a t i s t i c a l o p e r a t i o n i n w h i c h o u r t e e t h w o u l d be c o u n t e d , and o u r h a i r s a v e d , b u t o u r d e a t h i t s e l f w o u l d be unknown, u n h o n o r e d , and u n r e m a r k e d , a d e a t h w h i c h c o u l d n o t f o l l o w w i t h d i g n i t y as a p o s s i b l e c o n s e q u e n c e t o s e r i o u s a c t i o n s we had c h o s e n , b u t r a t h e r a d e a t h by deus ex m a c h i n a i n a gas chamber o r a r a d i o a c t i v e c i t y ; and so i f i n t h e m i d s t o f c i v i l i z a t i o n — t h a t c i v i l i z a t i o n f o u n d e d upon t h e F a u s t i a n u r g e t o d o m i n a t e n a t u r e by m a s t e r i n g t i m e , m a s t e r i n g t h e l i n k s o f s o c i a l c a u s e and e f f e c t — i n t h e m i d d l e o f an e c o n o m i c c i v i l i z a t i o n f o u n d e d upon t h e c o n f i d e n c e t h a t t i m e c o u l d i n d e e d be s u b j e c t e d t o o u r w i l l , o u r p s y c h e was s u b j e c t e d i t s e l f t o t h e i n t o l e r a b l e a n x i e t y t h a t d e a t h b e i n g c a u s e l e s s , l i f e was c a u s e l e s s as w e l l , and t i m e d e p r i v e d o f c a u s e and e f f e c t had come t o a s t o p . (p. 30 3) And he c o n c l u d e s w i t h a s w e e p i n g p e r o r a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e h i p -s t e r 's v i s i o n o f p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n i s s i t u a t e d w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l i s t t r a d i t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v e r e d e m p t i o n , an i m p a s s i o n e d e x p r e s s i o n o f hope f o r a v a s t s y n t h e s i s o f t h e o u t w a r d and i n -ward h a l v e s o f human b e i n g : F o r i f a r e v o l u t i o n a r y t i m e s h o u l d come a g a i n , t h e r e w o u l d be a c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e i f someone had a l r e a d y d e l i n e a t e d a n e o - M a r x i a n c a l c u l u s aimed a t compre-h e n d i n g e v e r y c i r c u i t and p r o c e s s o f s o c i e t y f r o m u k a s e t o k i s s as t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s o f human e n e r g y — a c a l c u l u s c a p a b l e o f t r a n s l a t i n g t h e e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s o f man i n t o h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s and t h e n back' a g a i n , h i s p r o d u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s t h e r e -by e m b r a c i n g h i s s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s as w e l l , u n t i l t h e c r i s e s o f c a p i t a l i s m i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y w o u l d y e t be u n d e r s t o o d as t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a d a p t a -t i o n s a d a p t a t i o n s o f a s o c i e t y t o s o l v e i t s e c o n o m i c i m b a l a n c e a t t h e e x p e n s e o f a new mass p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m b a l a n c e . (p. 322) H e r e m i g h t be f o u n d t h e t r u e s i g n i f i c a n c e and r e l e v e n c e o f t h i s e s s a y , f o r t h e hope o f a b r i d g e between Marx and F r e u d , t h e t w i n p i l l a r s o f modern s e c u l a r t h e o r y , i s a s s o c i a t e d n o t on 96 w i t h much o f t h e r a d i c a l t h o u g h t o f o u r t i m e b u t w i t h M a i l e r ' s own n o t i o n s o f c u l t u r a l s p l i t , d i s c u s s e d above, an d w i t h t h e w h o l e o f h i s a t t e m p t t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l s t o c r e a t e a v i s i o n t h a t w o u l d r e c o n c i l e w o r l d and m e a n i n g . S t i l l , i t r e m a i n s o n l y a hope o r a t b e s t a p o t e n t i a l . The f u n d a m e n t a l and i n e r a d i c a b l e weakness o f "The W h i t e N e g r o " i s t h a t i t s h e r o r e m a i n s an e t h e r e a l u n r e a l i z e d a b s t r a c t i o n ; e v e n t h e h i s t o r i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t h a t h e r o i s p l a c e d i s g e n e r a l and l a c k i n g i n c o n c r e t e i l l u s t r a t i o n . F o r t h a t i l l u s t r a t i o n one c o u l d t u r n t o "The Man Who S t u d i e d Yoga", and i n t h i s s e n s e one m i g h t v i e w t h e e s s a y as l e a n i n g b a c k t o w a r d t h e e a r l i e r s t o r y , j u s t a s t h e s t o r y , a s we have s e e n , p o i n t e d t o w a r d t h e e s s a y f o r t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f i t s p r o -m i s e . The two p i e c e s a r e l i k e e x a c t i n v e r s i o n s o f one a n o t h e r : t h e one i s f i c t i o n a l and c o n c r e t e , q u o t i d i e n i n s u b j e c t , i r o n i c and s k e p t i c a l i n t o n e ; t h e o t h e r i s j o u r n a l i s t i c and a b s t r a c t , a p o c a l y p t i c i n s u b j e c t , d i r e c t and c o m m i t t e d i n t o n e . As s u c h , t h e y a r e s t r o n g l y d e p e n d e n t upon one a n o t h e r f o r t h e i r u l t i m a t e v a l i d i t y , e s s e n t i a l l y i n c o m p l e t e as i s o l a t e d p i e c e s , t h e s e p a r a -t i o n between them a p p r o x i m a t i n g t h a t g u l f between w o r l d and m eaning t h a t , t h r o u g h v a r i o u s f o r m s , c o n s t i t u t e d a p e r p e t u a l p r o b l e m f o r M a i l e r as a n o v e l i s t . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y were o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n -d e p e n d e n t l y , h o w e v e r , i n A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f t h e s e w r i t -i n g s a r e n o t i s o l a t e d p i e c e s , f o r n o t o n l y a r e t h e y c o l l e c t e d t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r s a m p l e s f r o m t h e whole M a i l e r ' s c a r e e r t o 1959 b u t t h e y a r e embedded i n a commentary t h a t u n i t e s t h e e n -97. t i r e c o l l e c t i o n i n t o a n a r r a t i v e and d r a m a t i c t o t a l i t y . Sam S l o v o d a , i t w i l l be remembered, i s a would-be a r t i s t , a n o v e l i s t 'who l a c k s a h e r o ; t h e h i p s t e r i s a would-be r e b e l , a h e r o , i n a s e n s e , who l a c k s a c o n c r e t e c o n t e x t ; t h e f i g u r e t h a t c o u l d b r i n g t h e s e two t o g e t h e r w o u l d t h e r e f o r e be a r e b e l - a r t i s t , a h e r o w i t h an a c t u a l c o n t e x t and s u b s t a n c e . T h i s book, as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , i s t h e s t o r y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u c h a h e r o , h i s s u b -s t a n c e p r o v i d e d n o t by any p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y b u t by t h e c o l l e c t e d p i e c e s t h e m s e l v e s , h i s shape g i v e n by t h e i t a l i c i z e d s e l f -commentary. T h i s i s how he i n t r o d u c e s h i m s e l f : L i k e many, a n o t h e r v a i n , empty, and b u l l y i n g body o f o u r t i m e , I have been r u n n i n g f o r P r e s i d e n t t h e s e l a s t t e n y e a r s i n t h e p r i v a c y o f my mind, and i t o c c u r s t o me t h a t I am l e s s c l o s e now t h a n when I b e g a n . D e f e a t has l e f t my n a t u r e d i v i d e d , my s e n s e o f t i m i n g i s e c c e n t r i c , and I c o n t a i n w i t h i n m y s e l f t h e b i t t e r e x h a u s t i o n s o f an o l d man, and t h e c o c k y arguments o f a b r i g h t b o y . So I am e v e r y t h i n g b u t my p r o p e r age o f t h i r t y - s i x , and a n g e r has b r o u g h t me t o t h e edge o f t h e b r u t a l . I n s i t t i n g down t o w r i t e a sermon f o r t h i s c o l l e c t i o n , I f i n d a r r o g a n c e i n much o f my mood. I t c a n n o t be h e l p e d . The s o u r t r u t h i s t h a t I am i m p r i s o n e d w i t h a p e r -c e p t i o n w h i c h w i l l s e t t l e f o r n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n m aking a r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f o u r t i m e . Whether r i g h t l y o r w r o n g l y , i t i s t h e n o b v i o u s t h a t I w o u l d go so f a r as t o t h i n k i t i s my p r e s e n t and f u t u r e work w h i c h w i l l have t h e d e e p e s t i n f l u e n c e o f any work b e i n g done by an A m e r i c a n n o v e l i s t i n t h e s e y e a r s . I c o u l d be wrong, and i f I am, t h e n I'm t h e f o o l who w i l l pay t h e b i l l , b u t I t h i n k we c a n a l l a g r e e i t w o u l d c h e a t t h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f i t s t r u e i n t e r e s t t o p r e s e n t m y s e l f as more modest t h a n I am. (p. 15) The s p e a k e r o f c o u r s e i s Norman M a i l e r h i m s e l f , who i s f i n a l l y a b l e t o p r o d u c e a c r e d i b l e , v i a b l e h e r o o n l y by b e c o m i n g o n e , by a d o p t i n g t h e h e r o i c r o l e o f " t h e N o v e l i s t " . B e c a u s e t h a t is_ a r o l e , however, o n l y m a n i f e s t e d , so f a r as t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s 98. c o n c e r n e d , i n h i s l i t e r a r y s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n s , and s e r v i n g t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t l i t e r a r y f u n c t i o n , i t w o u l d be w e l l t o d i s -t i n g u i s h a t t h e o u t s e t between t h e p e r s o n t h a t i s M a i l e r and t h e p e r s o n a he a d o p t s and m a n i f e s t s ; f o r i t i s o n l y as t h e l a t t e r t h a t " M a i l e r " becomes an o b j e c t o f c r i t i c a l s t u d y . I t i s by means o f t h i s complex p e r s o n a t h a t i s " M a i l e r " t h a t t h e c o m p i l a t i o n i s u n i f i e d , i t s a b s t r a c t , t r a n s c e n d e n t hopes t i e d t o c o n c r e t e , immanent r e a l i t i e s . The key t o t h i s u n i t y i s t o be f o u n d i n t h e component p a r t s o f t h e p e r s o n a — Sam S l o v o d a and M a i l e r ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e h i p s t e r , S e r g i u s 9 0 ' S h a u g n e s s y — a n d i n t h e p e c u l i a r r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t t h e y b e a r t o one a n o t h e r . F o r S e r g i u s i s Sam's dream-ego, h i s i n n e r p r o -j e c t i o n o f a h e r o t o s e t a g a i n s t h i s t i m e , "a man o f a c t i o n and c o n t e m p l a t i o n , c a p a b l e o f s i n , l a r g e enough f o r good, a man immense" (p. 1 6 7 ) ; and Sam i s S e r g i u s ' g r o u n d and r o o t , t h e e p i t o m e o f h i s t i m e , t h e v e r y image o f h i s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e . The i n n e r / o u t e r a m b i v a l e n c e a l r e a d y i n h e r e n t i n s u c h a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t S e r g i u s , t h o u g h t h e embodiment o f a b s t r a c t h o p e , i s a l s o r e -p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p h y s i c a l , t h e s o l i d , t h e i n s t i n c t u a l , w h i l e Sam, t h o u g h immersed i n h i s c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n , a p p e a r s as a h o l l o w man, t h e mere t y p e o f t h e l a r g e r c o n d i t i o n . The f u s i o n o f t h e s e two f i g u r e s i n " M a i l e r " p r o d u c e s a c h a r a c t e r who i s t r u l y a match f o r t h e p a r a d o x e s o f h i s t i m e , a l t e r n a t e l y b o l d and d i f f i d e n t , b o a s t f u l and c o n f e s s i o n a l , p a s s i o n a t e and c y n i -c a l ; above a l l , a t t h e i n t r i c a t e h e a r t o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , he u n i t e s i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l , e n g u l f i n g e l e m e n t s o f t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d , and p r o j e c t i n g an i n n e r d e s i g n t o g i v e shape and meaning t o t h e w o r l d - - h e i s a man who r u n s f o r P r e s i d e n t i n t h e p r i v a c y o f h i s mind. U n l i k e Sam, t h e dreamer, and u n l i k e S e r g i u s , h i s dream, he i s a t l a s t t h e l i t e r a r y i n c a r n a t i o n o f t h e dream. The " F i r s t A d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r M y s e l f " ( o f w h i c h t h e above q u o t a t i o n i s t h e f i r s t p a r a g r a p h ) i n t r o d u c e s t h i s c h a r a c t e r i n h i s f i n i s h e d f o r m ( t o 1959); b e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g him i n more de-t a i l , however, i t w o u l d be w e l l t o l o o k b r i e f l y a t t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f h i s d e v e l o p m e n t as p r e s e n t e d i n t h e r e s t o f t h e book H e r e , t h e two f o c a l works d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y c a n be u s e d t o d i v i d e t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t i n t o t h r e e r o u g h p h a s e s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s " M a i l e r " a s an i n n o c e n t , r e p r i n t i n g some e a r l y and v e r y i m i t a t i v e a t t e m p t s a t s t o r i e s , some e x c e r p t s f r o m B a r b a r y S h o r e , and some p o l i s h e d b u t u n a s s u m i n g s h o r t s t o r i e s t h a t f o l l o w e d t h a t n o v e l a s e v i d e n c e . H i s i n n o c e n c e was n o t u n c o m p l i c a t e d , however, and t h e c o n j u n c t i o n o f h i s f i r s t n o v e l ' a s t o u n d i n g s u c c e s s w i t h h i s s e c o n d n o v e l ' s a b y s m a l f a i l u r e , c ombined w i t h "a dumb d u l l s e t o f i n t i m a t i o n s t h a t t h e t h i n g s I was drawn t o w r i t e a b o u t were t a b o o " (p. 9 6 ) , t e n d e d t o p r o -d u c e a r a t h e r f r i g h t e n e d d e f e n s i v e n e s s : " T h r e e o r f o u r y e a r s o f c o n s t i p a t e d work, l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e , c o w a r d l y s w e e t n e s s and b o u t s o f c h u r l i s h n e s s were t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e dumb d u l l i n t i m a t i o n s " (p. 9 6 ) . I t i s o n l y w i t h "The Man Who S t u d i e d Y oga", however, t h a t " M a i l e r " makes t h e d e c i s i o n t h a t ends h i s i n n o c e n c e , t h e d e c i s i o n t o a c c e p t t h e b u r d e n o f h i s a m b i t i o n : TOO T h a t e v e n i n g was t h e end o f many d e a d months f o r me. I was done w i t h s h o r t s t o r i e s and m a r k e t s and e d i t o r s and a g e n t s and t h o u g h t s o f m a k i n g my way b a c k as some s o r t o f amateur l i t e r a r y p o l i t i c i a n , done w i t h t r y i n g t o w r i t e l e s s t h a n I knew, r a t h e r t h a n g e t t i n g r e a d y f o r s o m e t h i n g t o o l a r g e . (p. 139) The s e c o n d p h a s e c o n c e r n s t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i n n o c e n t , i n w h i c h he g r a d u a l l y g i v e s f o r m t o h i s a m b i t i o n , s l o w l y and p a i n -f u l l y , t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f bad e x p e r i e n c e s , s h a p i n g i t s v i s i o n . I t c o n s i s t s o f e s s a y s and' some columns f o r t h e n e w l y - e s t a b l i s h e d V i l l a g e V o i c e t h a t a r e t a i n t e d , as M a i l e r c o n f e s s e s , by "an i n t r i c a t e and l e s s f o r t h r i g h t n a r c i s s i s m " (p. 2 4 3 ) ; b u t t h e c e n t r e p i e c e o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d by t h e l o n g s t o r y o f h i s p r o b l e m s w i t h h i s t h i r d n o v e l , e n t i t l e d " F o u r t h A d v e r t i s e -ment f o r M y s e l f : The L a s t D r a f t o f The Deer P a r k " . 1 0 H e r e , he d e s c r i b e s , s t i l l w i t h some s e l f - p i t y , t h e c r i s i s e n g e n d e r e d by t h e numerous r e j e c t i o n s o f t h e f i r s t d r a f t : I t u r n e d w i t h i n my p s y c h e I c a n a l m o s t b e l i e v e , f o r I f e l t s o m e t h i n g s h i f t t o murder i n me. I f i n a l l y h a d t h e s i m p l e s e n s e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t i f I w a n t e d my work t o t r a v e l f u r t h e r t h a n o t h e r s , t h e l i f e o f my t a l e n t d e p e n d e d on f i g h t i n g a l i t t l e more, and l o o k i n g f o r h e l p a l i t t l e l e s s . B u t I deny t h e s e q u e n c e i n p u t t i n g i t t h i s way,, f o r i t t o o k me y e a r s t o come t o t h i s f i n e p o i n t . A l l I f e l t t h e n was t h a t I was an o u t l a w , a p s y c h i c o u t l a w , and I l i k e d i t , I l i k e d i t a good n i g h t b e t t e r t h a n t r y i n g t o be a g e n t l e m a n . . . (p. 211) A f t e r t h i s , "The W h i t e N e g r o " comes n o t as a c r i s i s so much as a c u l m i n a t i o n , , a c l i m a c t i c f o r m u l a t i o n , w h i c h M a i l e r a s s o c i a t e s w i t h two o f t h e f r a g m e n t s f r o m h i s p r o j e c t e d n o v e l : I n "The W h i t e N e g r o " , i n "The Time o f H e r T i m e " , and i n " A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f on t h e Way Out" c a n be f o u n d t h e r e a l e nd o f t h i s muted a u t o b i o -g r a p h y o f t h e n e a r - b e a t a d v e n t u r e r who was m y s e l f . 1-0.1 W i t h t h e s e t h r e e s e e d s , l e t us s a y t h e book has i t s e n d . (p. 302) The t h i r d s e c t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g o f t h i s work i n p r o g r e s s , m i s c e l l -aneous s c r a p s , and f u r t h e r d e f e n s e s , e l a b o r a t i o n s and r e f i n e -ments o f t h e theme o f H i p , c a n be s e e n as a k i n d o f e x t e n d e d denouement, a g a t h e r i n g o f l o o s e e n d s . The p i e c e s f r o m t h e n o v e l , w h i c h M a i l e r (and some c r i t i c s ) f e e l t o p o s s e s s g r e a t i n t r i n s i c m e r i t , seem on t h e c o n t r a r y t o be d i s a p p o i n t i n g i n t h e m s e l v e s - -e i t h e r p r e d i c t a b l e o r o b s c u r e c o n c o c t i o n s o f d e t a i l t h a t m e r e l y i l l u s t r a t e t h e a b s t r a c t i o n s o f H i p t h a t h a v e a l r e a d y b e en e n u n c i a t -e d . They m i g h t b e t t e r be r e a d s i m p l y as t o k e n s o f t h a t v a s t and u l t i m a t e work whose p r o m i s e h a u n t s t h i s book, o r p e r h a p s as a p p e n d i c e s t o t h e b e t t e r c o n c l u s i o n , t h e " L a s t A d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r M y s e l f B e f o r e t h e Way Out" (a f i n e l y ambiguous t i t l e f o r an e n d i n g ) . I n t h i s p a r t i n g word, t h e f o c u s o f t h e commentary b r o a d e n s t o i n c l u d e some a n g r y r e f l e c t i o n s on t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r , w i t h i n w h i c h " M a i l e r " s i t u a t e s h i m s e l f ; and i n t h e m i d s t o f t h a t s i t u a t i o n he v o i c e s a g a i n t h e a m b i t i o u s p r o p h e c y f i r s t h e a r d i n t h e o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h , t y i n g t o g e t h e r t h e w h o l e o f t h i s work w i t h t h e p r o m i s e o f a n o v e l t h a t w i l l redeem t h e p r e s e n t c o r r u p t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e by a d d i n g a l i n k t o t h e l a r g e r t r a d i t i o n o f l i t e r a r y t r u t h : F o r i f I h a v e one a m b i t i o n above a l l o t h e r s , i t i s t o w r i t e a n o v e l w h i c h D o s t o y e v s k y and Marx; J o y c e and F r e u d ; S t e n d h a l , T o l s t o y , P r o u s t and S p e n g l e r ; F a u l k n e r , . a n d e v e n o l d m o l d e r i n g - H e m i n g w a y m i g h t come t o r e a d , f o r i t w o u l d c a r r y what t h e y h a d t o t e l l a n o t h e r p a r t o f t h e way. (p. 427) 102., H a v i n g d i s p l a y e d t h e e v i d e n c e and t o l d h i s s t o r y , i n t h e end " M a i l e r " r e t u r n s t o t h e b e g i n n i n g , t o t h e s i m p l y s t a t e d " s o u r t r u t h " o f t h e o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h i n w h i c h t h e a n g r y , c o n f e s s i o n a l h e r o - n a r r a t o r f i r s t r e v e a l s t h e s c o p e o f h i s i m p r i s o n i n g p e r -c e p t i o n . The " F i r s t A d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r M a y s e l f " , i n f a c t , i s an i d e a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e book, s i n c e i t c o n t a i n s i n b r i e f a l l t h e v a r i e d p a r t s o f t h e p e r s o n a who i s t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e s t o r y . T h a t f i g u r e , we have s e e n i s a u n i o n o f Sam and S e r g i u s , o f i n n e r and o u t e r , i n t e r n a l i z i n g e l e m e n t s o f t h e w o r l d and e x -t e r n a l i z i n g an i n n e r d e s i g n i n w h i c h t h o s e e l e m e n t s r e a p p e a r c h a r g e d w i t h p r i v a t e e m o t i o n and me a n i n g . "Running f o r P r e s i -d e n t " , f o r e x a m p l e — t h a t t y p i c a l " M a i l e r " a c t i v i t y — i s a r e -p u b l i c a n f o r m o f t h e d e s i r e t o be k i n g , t o p o s s e s s t h e k i n d o f e f f e c t i v e power t h a t c o u l d i n d e e d make a r e v o l u t i o n . "Heming-way", as a n o t h e r example, i s i n t h e s e p a g e s more t h a n j u s t a name i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e A m e r i c a n n o v e l , . b u t i s a k i n d o f g e n -e r a t i o n a l f a t h e r - f i g u r e , an e g o - i d e a l f o r t h e r e b e l - a r t i s t " M a i l e r " : F o r y o u s e e I have come f i n a l l y t o have a g r e a t sympathy f o r The M a s t e r ' s i r r e p r e s s i b l e t a n t r u m t h a t he i s t h e champion w r i t e r o f t h i s t i m e , and o f a l l t i m e , and t h a t i f anyone c a n p i n T o l s t o y , i t i s E r n e s t H. (p. 17) B u t he becomes, n e c e s s a r i l y , an i d e a l o u t g r o w n , and b e t r a y e d : "He's no l o n g e r any h e l p t o u s , he's l e f t us marooned i n t h e n e r v o u s boredom o f a w o r l d w h i c h f i n a l l y he d i d n ' t t r y h a r d enough t o c h a n g e " (p. 1 8 ) ; he becomes, i n f a c t , b o t h a m o d e l and a w a r n i n g f o r t h o s e n o v e l i s t s ( s u c h as " M a i l e r " ) who w o u l d -103 u s e t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s t o a d v e r t i s e t h e i r work. " C a n c e r " , as one f u r t h e r e x ample, i s n o t j u s t a d i s e a s e , b u t an image o f t h e c e n t r a l o r r o r o f o u r t i m e , " t h a t d i s e a s e w h i c h i s o t h e r t h a n d i s e a s e , t h a t wave o f t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f u n c t i o n , t h e o r g y o f t h e l o s t c e l l s " (p. 2 1 ) . T h e s e and o t h e r s u c h images and •fragments o f t h e r e a l w o r l d g r a d u a l l y a c c u m u l a t e a s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s book (and t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e s t o f M a i l e r ' s c a r e e r ) t h a t i s o v e r and above t h e i r o r d i n a r y c o n n o t a t i o n , and a r e f i t t e d i n t o an. e v o l v i n g p r i v a t e s y s t e m o r "myth" t h a t s h o u l d be s e e n as s i m p l y t h e o u t e r s i d e o f t h e c r e a t e d p e r s o n a . The d u a l i t y o f t h e " M a i l e r " p e r s o n a , i n o t h e r w o r d s , i s i n h e r e n t i n t h e o p p o s i t i o n between t h e s e l f and t h e t i m e t h a t p e r v a d e s t h i s commentary. The i n s i d e o f " M a i l e r " i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p h y s i c a l b r a v e r y and c o w a r d i c e (" . . . I ' v e been h i t on t h e he a d by a hammer, and had my l e f t e ye gouged i n a s t r e e t f i g h t — a n d o f c o u r s e I'm p r o u d o f t h i s (I was a p h y s i c a l c o w a r d as a c h i l d ) . . . " [ p . 20] ) ; c o n c e r n e d w i t h p s y c h i c w a s t e and e x h a u s t i o n ("I've b u r n e d away t o o much o f my c r e a t i v e e n e r g y .... I t w i l l be f i n e i f I c a n w r i t e so w e l l and so s t r o n g l y as t o c a l l my s h o t , b u t u n f o r t u n a t e l y I may have f a t i g u e d t h e e a r t h o f r i c h l a n g u a g e b e y o n d r e p a i r , I do n o t know, b u t i t i s p o s s i b l e " f p . 2 0 ] ) ; and c o n c e r n e d , sometimes a r r o g a n t l y , some-t i m e s a n x i o u s l y , w i t h s e l f ("To w r i t e a b o u t m y s e l f i s t o se n d my s t y l e t h r o u g h a c i r c u s o f v a r i a t i o n s and p o s t u r e s , a f i r e -w orks o f v i r t u o s i t y d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e . . . I do n o t ev e n 101 * . know w h a t " [ p . 1 5 ] ) . B u t t h i s v e r y s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s becomes a means o f r e f l e c t i n g him o u t w a r d , n o t o n l y t h r o u g h t h e more o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t i e s o f s t y l e , b u t t h r o u g h h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , w i t h what he t e r m s "my r e b e l g e n e r a -t i o n " (p. 1 8 ) . And t h i s g e n e r a t i o n i s t h e n s e t a g a i n s t t h e c u l -t u r a l m i l i e u , " o u r most s u b t l e and d e a r t o t a l i t a r i a n t i m e , p o l i t e l y c a l l e d t h e t i m e o f c o n f o r m i t y " : Y e s , I w a n t e d t o s a y , my c r e a t i v e r a g e i s b e i n g s a p p e d , I have been d y i n g a l i t t l e t h e s e f i f t e e n y e a r s , and so have a good many o f y o u , no d o u b t — none o f us a r e d o i n g q u i t e so much as we o n c e t h o u g h t we w o u l d . B u t t h e n t h i s has b een a b a d t i m e , we've a l l b een f l a t t e n e d by t h e dead a i r o f t h i s t i m e , d i n c h e d and tamped i n t o a f l a t - f o o t e d c l a s s . (p. 16) J u s t as t h e p e r s o n a t h a t i s " M a i l e r " i s g e n e r a l i z e d t o i n c l u d e f a r more t h a n m e r e l y t h e p e r s o n M a i l e r , so " t h e t i m e " s h o u l d be s e e n as more t h a n a p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d ("the f i f t i e s " ) — r a t h e r , i t r e f e r s t o any age i n w h i c h an a n x i o u s l y e n f o r c e d s o c i a l c o n f o r m i t y has grown up i n t h e p l a c e o f l o s t t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s and b e l i e f s , i n . p l a c e o f .the m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s and d r e a d t h a t s u c h a l o s s p r o d u c e s . " M a i l e r " , t h e n , i s a c h a r a c t e r l i n k e d i n e x t r i c a b l y t o h i s s o c i a l s u r r o u n d i n g s , a man f o r whom s e l f and t i m e a r e b u t o p p o s i t e p o l e s o f a s i n g l e p e r c e p t i o n . And t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f t h a t p e r c e p t i o n , t h e v e r y b a s i s o f h i s r o l e as an a r t i s t - h e r o , i s t h a t e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f s e l f i n t h e f o r m o f a n o v e l , a r e d e m p t i v e a r t i s t i c work w i t h w h i c h t o e f f e c t "a r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f o u r t i m e " (p. 1 5 ) . 105* F o r " M a i l e r " i s t h e a n t i t y p e o f t h e a e s t h e t e , t h e a r t i s t f o r whom a r t i s an end i n i t s e l f ; i n h i s v i e w , a r t i s i n s t e a d a t o o l , a c u l t u r a l weapon i n t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e e n c r o a c h i n g " t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m " and i n t h e d e f e n s e o f v a l u e and m eaning: So, y e s , i t may be t i m e t o s a y t h a t t h e R e p u b l i c i s i n r e a l p e r i l , and we a r e t h e cowards who-must d e f e n d c o u r a g e , s e x , c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e b e a u t y o f t h e body, t h e s e a r c h f o r l o v e , and t h e c a p t u r e o f what may be, a f t e r a l l , an h e r o i c d e s t i n y . (p. 21) I t i s t h i s p u b l i c and u t i l i t a r i a n a p p r o a c h t o a r t , i n f a c t , t h a t i s p a r t l y b e h i n d t h e c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s o f " M a i l e r ' s " a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e b u s i n e s s o f w r i t i n g , t h e r e a s o n f o r h i s f r e q u e n t t e n d e n c y t o compare h i m s e l f w i t h h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s (and w i t h h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s ) , and f o r h i s numerous r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s i z e o f one's " t a l e n t " (as t h o u g h t h a t were some i n h e r e n t and common . q u a l i t y i n a l l n o v e l i s t s ) ; f o r he s e e s h i s f e l l o w w r i t e r s as e s s e n t i a l l y e n g a g e d i n t h e same t a s k , t h e common s t r u g g l e , and t h e g r e a t n o v e l t h a t he p r o m i s e s as t h e v a l i d a t i o n o f h i s h e r o i c r o l e i s s e e n as t h e o b j e c t o f a r a c e , i t s s i z e and s c o p e b e c o m i n g a measure o f h i s own s t a t u s as an a r t i s t - h e r o . A t l e a s t as much as " t r u t h " , " M a i l e r " i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h e f f e c t : I f i t i s t o have any e f f e c t , and I can h a r d l y l o o k f o r w a r d t o e x h a u s t i n g t h e n e x t t e n y e a r s w i t h o u t hope o f a deep e x p l o s i o n o f e f f e c t , t h e book w i l l be f i r e d t o i t s f u s e by t h e rumor t h a t o n c e I p o i n t e d t o t h e f a r t h e s t f e n c e and s a i d t h a t w i t h i n t e n y e a r s I w o u l d t r y t o h i t t h e l o n g e s t b a l l e v e r t o go up i n t o t h e a c c e l e r a t e d h u r r i c a n e a i r o f o u r A m e r i c a n l e t t e r s . (p. 427) By now,, o f c o u r s e , t h o s e t e n y e a r s have l o n g p a s t , and no s u c h immense, " u n p u b l i s h a b l e " " o u t l a w o f t h e u n d e r g r o u n d " (p. 427) 106. has a p p e a r e d . L i k e t h e S e c o n d Coming, i t h a s , p e r h a p s , had a g r e a t e r i m p a c t i n i t s f a i l e d p r o m i s e t h a n i t e v e r c o u l d have had i n i t s r e a l i z a t i o n . I t seems, a t l e a s t , t o be a m a j o r r e a s o n b e h i n d t h e p e c u l i a r l y skewed r e s p o n s e t h a t has b e s e t M a i l e r c r i t i c i s m s i n c e t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r  M y s e l f , f o r t h e s a l v a t i o n a l r o l e t h a t " M a i l e r " a d o p t s i n t h i s book t e n d s t o d i v i d e c r i t i c s i n t o t h e s h a r p l y o p p o s i n g camps i n d i c a t e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f An A m e r i c a n Dream: t h e p a r -t i s a n s , whose i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , a l l t o o o f t e n , a r e l i t t l e more t h a n p a r a p h r a s e s o f M a i l e r ' s p e r s o n a l themes and n o t i o n s ; 1 " ' ' and t h e a n t a g o n i s t s , who g e n e r a l l y c o n t e n t t h e m s e l v e s w i t h 12 s w e e p i n g , m o c k i n g d i s m i s s a l s . I t has had t h e u n f o r t u n a t e 13 e f f e c t o f e n c a s i n g M a i l e r , even i n h i s own mind, i n t h e r o l e o f t h e N o v e l i s t , and c r i t i c s e i t h e r make a l l o w a n c e s f o r t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h a t r o l e o r become i n d i g n a n t a t i t s c o r r u p t i o n ( b o t h s i d e s b e i n g i n a g r e e m e n t t h a t An A m e r i c a n Dream was n o t 14 t h e p r o m i s e d work ) . B e c a u s e o f t h i s b i a s , M a i l e r ' s a c t u a l work, i n c l u d i n g A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , t o o o f t e n i s r e l e g a t e d 15 t o a m i n o r , i n c i d e n t a l , . o r m e r e l y p r e p a r a t o r y s t a t u s . B u t s u c h a r e s p o n s e seems due t o an o v e r l y - l i t e r a l r e a d i n g o f t h i s c r u c i a l book, a f a i l u r e a d e q u a t e l y t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e c o n s t r u c t e d , o r t h e l i t e r a r y , n a t u r e o f t h e " M a i l e r " p e r s o n a , and o f t h e p r o m i s e he r e p r e s e n t s . I n t h e book i t s e l f , " M a i l e r " a t one p o i n t s p e a k s o f t h i s p r o m i s e as t h e " s e e d s " w i t h w h i c h t h e book i s e n d e d : "Seed i s an end, i t i s t h e end o f p o t e n t i a l -i t i e s s e e n f o r o n e s e l f , and e v e r y o r g a n i s m c r e a t e s i t s s e e d o u t 107. o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f i t s p a s t and i t s u n s p o k e n v i s i o n o r c u r s e upon t h e f u t u r e " (p. 3 0 2 ) . The c r e a t i o n t h a t grew f r o m t h a t s e e d , however, was n o t a n o v e l , n o t a n o t h e r work a t a l l , b u t r a t h e r a f i g u r e , a l i t e r a r y c h a r a c t e r , f a b r i c a t e d o u t o f t h e w r i t i n g s o f an a c t u a l a u t h o r b u t c l e a r l y made i n t o s o m e t h i n g more t h a n , and o t h e r t h a n , t h a t p e r s o n h i m s e l f , a n d f o r whom t h e p r o m i s e o f a n o v e l i s b u t an a s p e c t o r a q u a l i t y . I t i s t h i s f i g u r e t h a t o f f e r s t h e r e a l "Way Out" i n d i c a t e d i n t h e t i t l e o f t h e " L a s t A d v e r t i s e m e n t " . F o r i n t h e p a g e s o f t h i s book, M a i l e r c r e a t e s , f r o m t h e s t u f f o f h i s own l i t e r a r y s u b s t a n c e , a f i g u r e whose d i m e n s i o n s and whose c o m p l e x i t i e s r e d u c e t h e h e r -o e s o f h i s s u b s e q u e n t f i c t i o n s t o t h e l e v e l o f s e l f - p a r o d y i n g i m i t a t i o n s ; he p r o d u c e s a h e r o a b l e t o engage an e n t r o p i c , c o n t i n g e n t r e a l i t y w i t h t h e f i a t o f h i s work, and so a t l a s t i n t r o d u c e f o r m a n d m e a n i n g t o t h e w o r l d . H e r e , o f c o u r s e , t h a t r e a l i t y i f n o t y e t engaged, t h e word n o t y e t s a i d , f o r t h i s book s i m p l y p r e s e n t s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t . o f t h e h e r o . He has s t i l l t o f i n d h i s s t o r y . A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , t h e n , c o n s t i t u t e s a b r e a k t h r o u g h i n M a i l e r ' s l i t e r a r y d e v e l o p m e n t , and t h e s u c c e s s o f i t s u n i q u e f o r m a t l e a d t o f u r t h e r a t t e m p t s a t t h e c o m p i l a t i o n . T h e s e l a t e r w o r k s — T h e P r e s i d e n t i a l P a p e r s , i n 19 63, and C a n n i b a l s and  C h r i s t i a n s , i n 196 6 — a r e s i m i l a r i n t h e i r t w o - p a r t s t r u c t u r e o f a c o l l e c t i o n o f a s s o r t e d w r i t i n g s s t r u n g t o g e t h e r by a u n i -f y i n g commentary, and many o f t h e i d e a s and images o f t h e f i r s t book r e c u r i n v a r y i n g forms i n t h e s e . They e x h i b i t v a r i a t i o n s 108. i n theme and i n s t r u c t u r e , however, t h a t a r e n o t m e r e l y a r b i -t r a r y , b u t d i s p l a y a p a r t i c u l a r d e v e l o p m e n t , an e v o l u t i o n a r y t r e n d t h a t , as we s h a l l s e e , w i l l e v e n t u a l l y l e a d t o t h e o b s o -l e s c e n c e o f t h e f o r m . The most o b v i o u s c h a n g e i n t h e l a t e r c o m p i l a t i o n s , p e r h a p s , i s t h e v i r t u a l a b s e n c e o f any r e f e r e n c e t o " H i p " , t h e c e n t r a l theme o f A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f . T h i s seems l a r g e l y a r e s u l t o f t h e f a c t t h a t " H i p " was so q u i c k l y and e a s i l y c o - o p t e d by t h e m e d i a , t h e h i p s t e r , w i t h a l l h i s s t y l i z e d p a r a p h e r n a l i a and h i s j a r g o n , s o o n r e d u c e d t o m e r e l y 16 a n o t h e r c o l o u r f u l c u l t f i g u r e i n t h e A m e r i c a n t a p e s t r y . I n t h e f a c e o f s u c h c o r r u p t i o n , M a i l e r has s i m p l y t e n d e d t o sub-s t i t u t e t h e more a b s t r a c t and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y p r e s t i g i o u s t e r m " e x i s t e n t i a l i s m " f o r " H i p " , r e t a i n i n g a t l e a s t i t s p h i l o s o p h i -c a l c o r e . B u t t h a t s u b s t i t u t i o n , however n e c e s s a r y , i s i t s e l f an i n d i c a t i o n o f a new e l e m e n t o f d e f e n s i v e n e s s and c a u t i o n i n h i s v i s i o n . A more s i g n i f i c a n t a b s e n c e i n t h e s e b o o k s i s a l l b u t t h e b r i e f e s t o f a l l u s i o n s t o t h a t huge n o v e l whose p r o m i s e seemed so i m p o r t a n t an a s p e c t o f t h e " M a i l e r " p e r s o n a . W i t h o u t t h a t p r o m i s e , t h e l a t e r c o m p i l a t i o n s — a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i r n a r r a -t o r s — a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y a l t e r e d i n s t a n c e , b e c o m i n g more s t a b l e and c o n f i d e n t , b u t a t t h e c o s t o f some o f t h e a m b i t i o u s , un-b a l a n c e d f o r c e o f A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f . The r e b e l - a r t i s t , t h e " n e a r - b e a t a d v e n t u r e r " o f t h a t book i s t r a n s f o r m e d , i n The 17 P r e s i d e n t i a l P a p e r s , i n t o "a c o u r t w i t , an amateur a d v i s o r " and, i n C a n n i b a l s and C h r i s t i a n s , i n t o a c a l m e r and more d i s -109;. t a n c e d s o c i a l p r o p h e t . B u t t h e r e a l e v o l u t i o n o f t h e s e works i s t o be d i s c e r n e d i n t h e d i m i n i s h i n g s t a t u s o f t h e commentary, t h e g r a d u a l r e d u c t i o n i n t h e r o l e o f t h e n a r r a t o r h i m s e l f . T h i s i s a p r o c e s s t h a t i s m a n i f e s t e d f i r s t l y i n t e r m s o f t h e a c t u a l l e n g t h o r amount o f t h e commentary, and s e c o n d l y i n t e r m s o f i t s r e l e v e n c e t o , o r i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h , t h e c o l l e c t e d p i e c e s t h a t make up t h e c o m p i l a t i o n . I n A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , as we have s e e n , t h e commentary i s c r u c i a l , a c o n t r o l l i n g , s h a p i n g , u n i f y i n g medium, c l o s e l y i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h i t s s u b j e c t ; i n C a n n i b a l s and  C h r i s t i a n s , however, i t has become a l m o s t a s e p a r a t e "Argument" i n i t s e l f , t h r e a d e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s b u t l a r g e l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f them and l e a v i n g them i n d e p e n d e n t o f i t . The r e a s o n t h a t M a i l e r ' s l a s t c o l l e c t i o n t o d a t e , E x i s t e n t i a l  E r r a n d s ( 1 9 7 3 ) , has n o t been i n c l u d e d among t h e " c o m p i l a t i o n s " i s t h a t , i n t a k i n g t h i s p r o c e s s .to i t s c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s l a c k -i n g e n t i r e l y i n a commentary o r a n a r r a t o r , and so marks t h e p a s s i n g o f t h a t u n i q u e l y d o u b l e - l e v e l e d f o r m M a i l e r c r e a t e d i n 1959. M a i l e r t a c i t l y a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t p a s s i n g i n some p r e f a t o r y r e m a r k s t o t h e l a s t c o l l e c t i o n t h a t - p r o v i d e a c l u e t o t h e r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s e x t i n c t i o n : I f t h e e m p h a s i s i s t h e n l e s s p e r s o n a l t h a n A d v e r t i s e -ments f o r M y s e l f , The P r e s i d e n t i a l P a p e r s , o r C a n n i - b a l s and C h r i s t i a n s , i t o u g h t a l s o t o be s a i d b e f o r e t o o many a p o l o g i e s a r e upon us t h a t t h i s book may have a p a r t i c u l a r m e r i t t h e o t h e r s do n o t p o s s e s s . I t s p a r t s a r e more e v e n . I t i s more c o h e r e n t . The ends o f one p i e c e a r e l i k e l y t o b u t t r e s s t h e i d e a s ii'o. i n t h e n e x t . What i s s a i d a b o u t f i l m has i t s r e l a -t i o n t o b o x i n g , and t o t h e a t r e and t o b u l l f i g h t ; t h e p i e c e s s i d e by s i d e o f f e r e l u c i d a t i o n o f one a n o t h e r . . . 18 I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d what has happened h e r e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e c a l l t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e l e v e l s o f t h e e a r l i e r c o m p i l a t i o n s . The p i e c e s t h a t a r e c o l l e c t e d t o g e -t h e r i n t h o s e b o o k s a r e a w i d e l y v a r y i n g a s s o r t m e n t , b o t h i n f o r m and i n q u a l i t y ; w r i t t e n a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s , u n d e r d i f f e r e n t c o n -d i t i o n s , t h e y c o n s t i t u t e t h e raw m a t e r i a l o f t h e s t o r y o r t h e argument o f t h e work i t s e l f . I t i s t h e s e l f - r e f l e c t i v e com-m e n t a r y t h a t p l a c e s t h e s e p i e c e s i n t h e i r p r o p e r l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e work, r i s i n g above them t o d i r e c t t h e i r f o r c e a g a i n s t t h e l a r g e r t h r e a t - * - " t h e t i m e " , " t o t a l i -t a r i a n i s m " , " c a n c e r " — t h a t i s s e e n as t h e a b s t r a c t f o r m o f t h e enemy. I n e a c h s u b s e q u e n t c o m p i l a t i o n , however, a s M a i l e r ' s v i s i o n becomes s t e a d i l y more e n c o m p a s s i n g , more c o h e s i v e , and more s t a b l e , t h e gap between t h e two l e v e l s n a r r o w s ; M a i l e r , who i s t h e a u t h o r o f t h e p i e c e s , a p p r o a c h e s t h e " M a i l e r " who i s t h e p e r s o n a o f t h e commentary, w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e s e c -ond l e v e l t e n d s t o become r e d u n d a n t . The d o u b l e l e v e l o f ex-p e r i e n c e and r e f l e c t i o n t h a t was so c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f h a s , i n E x i s t e n t i a l E r r a n d s , s i m p l y b e en i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e f a b r i c o f t h e p i e c e s t h e m s e l v e s , M a i l e r ' s e v e r y w r i t i n g b e c o m i n g a s e l f - c o m m e n t a r y . T h i s s h o u l d e x p l a i n , t h e n , t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e c o m p i l a t i o n f o r m : o r i g i n a t i n g as a means o f s h a p i n g a p e r s o n a o u t o f l i t e r a r y s u b s t a n c e , i t becomes o b s o l e t e as t h a t p e r s o n a 111 i s w o r k e d i n t o t h e s u b s t a n c e i t s e l f . One e f f e c t o f t h i s change i n t h e l a t e r c o m p i l a t i o n s i s t o s h i f t t h e e m p h a s i s f r o m t h e commentary t o t h e p i e c e s t h e m s e l v e s ; i n d e e d , t h e s e b ooks m i g h t be s e e n as forums f o r t h e d i s p l a y and t e s t i n g o f a w i d e r a n g e o f f o r m s , t e c h n i q u e s , s t y l e s , and manners, o f a v a r i e t y o f l i t e r a r y m u t a t i o n s , i n a s e n s e , whose " s u r v i v a l " i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e d e g r e e o f t h e i r p u b l i c s u c c e s s — t h a t i s , by t h e i r i m p a c t , o r t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r a l a r g e e f f e c t . From s u c h a t e s t i n g w i l l emerge t h e c o u r s e o f M a i l e r ' s f u t u r e e v o l u t i o n , so t h a t he d e r i v e s f r o m t h e c o m p i l a t i o n n o t o n l y a p e r s o n a , o r a h e r o , b u t a f o r m f o r t h a t h e r o as w e l l , as t h e c o m p i l a t i o n , i n p a s s i n g , g i v e s r i s e t o t h e t h i r d s t a g e o f h i s l i t e r a r y d e v e l o p m e n t . I t w o u l d r e q u i r e a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount o f s p a c e t o c o n -s i d e r e a c h o f t h e forms and t e c h n i q u e s t h a t a p p e a r i n t h e s e b o o k s i n d e t a i l , b u t i t w o u l d be i n s t r u c t i v e t o l o o k b r i e f l y a t a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f p i e c e t h a t seemed a t one p o i n t t o be o f m a j o r i m p o r t a n c e , t a k i n g up a l m o s t a t h i r d o f t h e l e n g t h o f C a n n i b a l s and C h r i s t i a n s . T h i s i s what m i g h t be t e r m e d t h e i m a g i n a r y o r t h e f i c t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w , t h e f i r s t example o f w h i c h was p u b l i s h e d i n P a r i s Review i n 1961, e n t i t l e d "The F i r s t Day's 19 I n t e r v i e w " . I n The P r e s i d e n t i a l P a p e r s , M a i l e r i n c l u d e d a l o n g e r , more a b s t r a c t and a m b i t i o u s , and p r e v i o u s l y u n p u b l i s h e d s e q u e l t o t h a t p i e c e , e n t i t l e d "The M e t a p h y s i c s o f t h e B e l l y " ; and i n C a n n i b a l s and C h r i s t i a n s , t h e two p i e c e s a r e r e p r i n t e d a l o n g w i t h a t h i r d example o f t h e t y p e . "The P o l i t i c a l Economy 112 o f Time", as l o n g and as b o m b a s t i c a l l y m e t a p h y s i c a l as t h e s e c o n d . W i t h t h e l a s t two " i n t e r v i e w s " , d e s c r i b e d by M a i l e r as "done c o n s e c u t i v e l y as two c h a p t e r s o f a p r o j e c t e d book on 20 P i c a s s o " , t h e f o r m r e a c h e s i t s c l i m a x . The l a t e s t example a p p e a r e d o r i g i n a l l y i n t h e New Y o r k Times Book Review i n 1967, and was r e p r i n t e d i n E x i s t e n t i a l E r r a n d s ; much s h o r t e r , l i g h t e r , a n d - t o t a l l y w i t h o u t t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l p r e t e n s i o n s o f t h e e a r l i e r 21 p i e c e s , i t seems c l e a r l y t o mark t h e end o f t h e " e x p e r i m e n t " H e r e i s a f o r m , t h e n , t h a t has a p p a r e n t l y f a i l e d , and i n t h a t f a i l u r e c o n s t i t u t e s a l m o s t a p e r f e c t example o f t h e most e n f e e b l i n g t e n d e n c y i n a l l . o f M a i l e r ' s w r i t i n g , t h e t e n d e n c y t o d e v o l v e i n t o s e l f . T h i s m i g h t be made e v i d e n t by means o f an i n t e r e s t i n g c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e two v e r s i o n s o f "The F i r s t Day's I n t e r v i e w " , t h e f i r s t i n t h e P a r i s Review and t h e s e c o n d i n C a n n i b a l s and C h r i s t i a n s . The l a t t e r , a c c o r d i n g t o M a i l e r , i s an a b r i d g m e n t , m e r e l y e l i m i n a t i n g some e a r l y p a g e s "where 22 t h e manner i s d i r e c t l y c l o y i n g " , b u t i n f a c t t h e p i e c e seems t o have been r e v i s e d somewhat more e x t e n s i v e l y , and t h e e f f e c t o f t h o s e c h a n g e s i s c e r t a i n l y l a r g e r t h a n M a i l e r i m p l i e s . The m a t e r i a l t h a t was c u t o u t s e r v e d p r i m a r i l y t o e s t a b l i s h t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f b o t h t h e " i n t e r v i e w e r " and " M a i l e r " as i n d e -p e n d e n t and d i v e r g e n t c h a r a c t e r s , and t h i s i s a v i r t u e t h a t M a i l e r h i m s e l f a p p e a r s t o u n d e r s t a n d when, i n a p r e f a c e t o t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n , he compares t h a t p i e c e t o G i d e ' s C o r y d o n ; I n t h i s f r a g m e n t . . . t h e e n c o u n t e r i s l e s s n a r -c i s s i s t i c . The s u b j e c t i s a Norman M a i l e r , a weary, c y n i c a l , now p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y t u r n e d h i p s t e r o f m i d d l e y e a r s ; t h e i n t e r v i e w e r i s a young man o f a s o r t t h e a u t h o r was n e v e r v e r y c l o s e t o . 2 3 The e x c h a n g e o f s h o r t r e m a r k s t h a t M a i l e r l a t e r f e e l s t o be " d i r e c t l y c l o y i n g " i n f a c t d i s p l a y a d e g r e e o f g e n u i n e humour and i n t e l l i g e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y on t h e p a r t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r : INT.: Some have a c c u s e d me o f b e i n g a t o u c h d o n n i s h . MAILER: T h e r e i s a c l o y i n g E n g l i s h s i m p l i c i t y t o y o u r r e m a r k s . INT.: The I-am - s i m p l e s c h o o l o f O x f o r d i n t e r r o g a t i o n ? MAILER; T h e r e y o u go. F i r s t t i m e I've s m i l e d . 2 4 S u c h an o p e n i n g p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e f o r m 25 i s "a p l a y w i t h two c h a r a c t e r s " , and d e f i n e s t h e r a m b l i n g r e m a r k s t h a t f o l l o w as t h e amateur p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s o f a p u b l i c f i g u r e , o f i n t e r e s t n o t f o r t h e m s e l v e s so much as f o r t h e i n s i g h t t h e y o f f e r i n t o t h e mind o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r "Norman M a i l e r " . B u t t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h i s o p e n i n g i n t h e s e c o n d v e r s i o n t e n d s t o d e p e r s o n a l i z e t h e i n t e r v i e w e r , and s o , by d e p r i v i n g " M a i l e r " o f a r e a l o p p o s i t e i n t h e p i e c e , t r a n s f o r m i n g i t f r o m a p l a y o r a d i a l o g u e i n t o what i s e s s e n t i a l l y a monologue, m e r e l y b r o k e n up by a s e r i e s o f c o y , i n a n e , and i r r i t a t i n g i n -t e r r u p t i o n s : MAILER F o r i n s t a n c e , I know n o t h i n g a b o u t H e i d e g g e r , b u t I g e t t h e i m p r e s s i o n f r o m B a r r e t t ' s book, I r r a t i o n a l  Man, t h a t H e i d e g g e r m i g h t a r g u e mood has p r e c e d e n c e o v e r m a t t e r . I know I w o u l d a r g u e t h a t . INTERVIEWER Why? MAILER Too d i f f i c u l t t o t a l k a b o u t y e t . 1-1 il..-M o r e o v e r , b e c a u s e t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r i s e l i m i n -a t e d t h e c h a r a c t e r o f " M a i l e r " i s a l s o s e v e r e l y r e d u c e d , l a c k i n g an a l t e r n a t e a g a i n s t w h i c h i t c o u l d be g i v e n d e f i n i t i o n . As a r e s u l t (no d o u b t p a r t i a l l y i n t e n d e d ) , t h e d i s c u r s i v e s p e c u l a -t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s become, t h r o u g h d e f a u l t , t h e f o c u s o f a t t e n -t i o n , and t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t e n t i s s i m p l y n o t s u b s t a n t i a l enough t o b e a r t h a t w e i g h t ; h e r e , f o r e x ample, i s t h e a b s t r a c t i d e a t h a t M a i l e r f e l t was "Too d i f f i c u l t t o t a l k a b o u t y e t " : Mood i s a harmony. The harmony o f a G e s t a l t . The harmony o f t h e l i f e i n t h e toom, o r t h e h a r -mony one s e n s e s i n a l a n d s c a p e . And harmony p e r m i t s one t o r e l a x . As one r e l a x e s , so new p e r c e p t i o n comes f r o m t h e c o n d u i t s o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , and one has added one's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e mood, w h i c h i s now s u b t l y . d i f f e r e n t b u t i s s t i l l a l i v e i n t h e g r o w i n g t i s s u e o f p r e v i o u s s e n s a t i o n , p r e c i s e l y t h a t t i s s u e w h i c h was t h e mood o f t h e p r e v i o u s moment. When a mood i s s h a t t e r e d , t h e l i f e i n t h e room c o n t r a c t s , and a new mood, d i s c o n t i n u o u s t o t h e l a s t , b e g i n s i t s e x i s t e n c e . 2 7 What m i g h t have b e e n i n t e r e s t i n g as a b r i e f m e taphor ("mood" as a k i n d o f d i s e m b o d i e d o r g a n i s m ) i s i n s t e a d p r e t e n t i o u s l y e l a b o r a t e d — o v e r a n o t h e r s e v e n p a g e s — i n t o a c o n c e p t t h a t i s e i t h e r b a n a l o r a b s u r d . 2 8 I n t h e " v a s t l y more a m b i t i o u s " p i e c e s t h a t f o l l o w , t h i s p e c u l i a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f b a n a l i t y and a b s u r d i t y i s o n l y i n -t e n s i f i e d , as v a r i o u s o t h e r " c o n c e p t s " - - s h i t , b u l l ' s b a l l s , f o r m , d r i f t w o o d , s o u l , s p i r i t , and v i s i o n — a r e t a k e n up w i t h h i g h s e r i o u s n e s s , t o r p o r o u s l e n g t h , and numbing a b s t r a c t i o n ; a t b e s t , t h e s e a r e no more t h a n a t w i s t e d melange o f P l a t o , B e r g s o n , .and p o p u l a r i z e d E x i s t e n t i a l i s m , p h i l o s o p h y made s i m p l e -115-.-minded. The p r e d o m i n a n t i m p r e s s i o n t o be g a i n e d f r o m r e a d i n g t h e " f i c t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w s " i s o f s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e ; h a v i n g e a r l i e r e x p r e s s e d a d i s t a s t e f o r t h e d i a l e c t i c o f t h e r e a l i n t e r v i e w ("I n e v e r have good n o r a c c u r a t e i n t e r v i e w s s i n c e I a l w a y s 29 seem t o g e t i n t o d i s a g r e e a b l e s i t u a t i o n s w i t h r e p o r t e r s . . . " ) , M a i l e r h as s i m p l y made and p u b l i s h e d f o r h i m s e l f a p r o t e c t e d f o r m t h a t a l l o w s h i m t o p o n t i f i c a t e a t h i s e a s e , t o t h e a d m i r -i n g wonderment o f h i s p u p p e t i n t e r v i e w e r . The o n l y w o r t h i n d i s c u s s i n g s u c h p i e c e s a t a l l i s t h a t t h e y e x e m p l i f y , i n an extr e m e f o r m , a weakness t h a t a f f l i c t s a good d e a l o f M a i l e r ' s w r i t i n g , and i s e s p e c i a l l y a p p a r e n t i n h i s l a s t two n o v e l s ; t h e " i d e a s " o f t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s , i n f a c t , seem t o g e n e r a t e them-s e l v e s i n a manner s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f images i n An A m e r i c a n Dream o r t h e v e r b a l c o n c a t e n a t i o n s o f Why A r e We I n V i e t n a m ? . E a c h o f t h e s e c a s e s r e p r e s e n t s a mode o f e n t r a p m e n t w i t h i n t h e n a r r o w c o n f i n e s o f a c o n c o c t i o n , a p u r e f i c t i o n , w h e r e i n t h e i d e a s , i m a g e s , o r words a r e p r o d u c e d o n l y t h r o u g h t h e c o n t i n g e n c i e s o f n o n - r e f e r e n t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n . T h e f a i l u r e o f t h i s " i n t e r v i e w " f o r m , t h e n , r e p r e s e n t s i n an e x e m p l a r y manner t h e f a i l u r e o f t h a t e n t i r e t e n d e n c y i n M a i l e r t h a t , i m p a t i e n t w i t h t h e s t r i c t u r e s and c o m p l i c a t i o n s o f r e a l i t y and p e r h a p s f e a r f u l o f i t s u l t i m a t e a b s u r d i t y , s e e k s m e r e l y t o p o s t u l a t e t r u t h , t o a s s e r t a m e a n i n g , and so t o l o s e h i m s e l f i n t h e i m p o v e r i s h e d f i g m e n t s o f h i s p u r e i m a g i n a t i o n . I f t h e f i c t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w s r e p r e s e n t M a i l e r ' s t e n d e n c y t o d e v o l v e i n t o s e l f , however, t h e c o m p i l a t i o n s a l s o c o n t a i n t h e emergence o f a f o r m t h a t r e p r e s e n t s t h e v e r y o p p o s i t e t e n -1 1 6 d e n c y , t h e i n j e c t i o n o f s e l f i n t o t h e w o r l d . I n t h e i n t e r v i e w s , t h e " M a i l e r " p e r s o n a i s d e p r i v e d o f any l i m i t o r b o u n d a r y , and so h i s s h a p e , h i s c h a r a c t e r i s l o s t i n t h e b i l l o w i n g s o f h i s argument; i n i m m e r s i n g t h a t p e r s o n a i n c o n c r e t e e x i s t e n c e , however, where h i s s t r u g g l e s a r e n o t w i t h t h e w i s p s o f h i s own f a n t a s y b u t w i t h t h e s h a r p , o b d u r a t e s u r f a c e s o f t h e r e a l w o r l d , w i t h a c t u a l p e o p l e and s i t u a t i o n s , h i s c h a r a c t e r c a n be d e f i n e d , t e s t e d , and d i s c i p l i n e d , h a r d e n e d so t h a t i t may be t h e h e r o i c embodiment o f m e a n i n g . The r e c o r d s o f s u c h s t r u g g l e s t h a t a p p e a r i n t h e c o m p i l a t i o n s a r e what a r e v a r i o u s l y t e r m e d " a c c o u n t s " , " r e p o r t a g e " , o r " j o u r n a l i s m " , b u t none a r e q u i t e a d e q u a t e l a b e l s 'for t h e b l e n d o f o b s e r v a t i o n and i m a g i n a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n and a s s e r t i o n , " r e a l i t y " and "meaning", t h a t M a i l e r a c h i e v e s h e r e . By any measure, i n c l u d i n g M a i l e r ' s o w n - - t h a t o f " e f f e c t — t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e most s u c c e s s f u l p i e c e s o f t h e c o m p i l a t i o n s . The e v o l u t i o n o f t h i s f o r m , c o m p l e t e w i t h p r e c u r s o r y s t a g e s and awkward e a r l y v e r s i o n s , c a n be e a s i l y t r a c e d t h r o u g h t h e s e b o o k s . The f i r s t example, t h o u g h p r o b a b l y n o t y e t a c o n s c i o u s a t t e m p t a t a new f o r m , i s t h e a r t i c l e M a i l e r w r o t e f o r E s q u i r e i n 1958 on h i s b a t t l e w i t h t h e New Y o r k p u b l i s h i n g h o u s e s o v e r h i s t h i r d n o v e l , and r e p r i n t e d as p a r t o f t h e i t a l i c i z e d com-m e n t a r y i n A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f (pp. 2 0 5 - 2 5 ) . The f i r s t d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t a t r e p o r t a g e i s an a r t i c l e on j u v e n i l e gangs e n t i t l e d "'She T h o u g h t t h e R u s s i a n s Was Coming'", w r i t t e n 30 i n F e b r u a r y , I9 6 0,. and r e p r i n t e d i n ' The P r e s i d e n t i a l P a p e r s ; 1 1 7 . i t i s n o t y e t , however, an example o f t h e f o r m a t i t s m a t u r i t y , f o r i t i s t o o n e u t r a l and d i s e n g a g e d , t o o c o n v e n t i o n a l l y r e p o r -t o r i a l . I n J u l y and A u g u s t o f t h a t same y e a r , . however, he 31 w r o t e "Superman Comes t o t h e S u p e r m a r k e t " , h i s a r t i c l e on t h e 1960 D e m o c r a t i c C o n v e n t i o n , and, as he f a t e f u l l y a d m i t s , " T h i s 32 p i e c e had more e f f e c t t h a n any o t h e r s i n g l e work o f mine . . ." I n O c t o b e r and November o f 1962 he w r o t e "Ten T h o u s a n d Words 33 a M i n u t e " , a l o n g , o r n a t e s t o r y on t h e P a t t e r s o n - L i s t o n h e a v y w e i g h t f i g h t i n w h i c h M a i l e r h i m s e l f becomes i n v o l v e d b o t h i n mind and body. T h e s e two p i e c e s s t a k e o u t t h e two p r i n c i p l e a r e a s o f t h e r e a l t h a t he w i l l c o n t i n u e t o e x p l o r e i n a s e r i e s o f b r i l l i a n t s e q u e l s , t h e f i r s t o f w h i c h i s "In 34 t h e Red L i g h t : A H i s t o r y o f t h e R e p u b l i c a n C o n v e n t i o n i n 1964" W i t h t h e s e l a s t t h r e e p i e c e s , t h e j o u r n a l i s t i c f o r m i s b r o u g h t t o a peak o f e x c e l l e n c e w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h e " a r t i c l e " ; t h e s t a g e i s s e t f o r M a i l e r ' s n e x t m a j o r l i t e r a r y a d v a n c e , t h e emergence o f t h e f o r m i n an autonomous work o f i t s own. 1 1 8 0 C h a p t e r 5 The A r m i e s o f t h e N i g h t and t h e J o u r n a l i s m What i s r e m a r k a b l e a b o u t M a i l e r ' s l i t e r a r y d e v e l o p m e n t i s t h e e a s e w i t h w h i c h i t c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o c l e a r p h a s e s o r p e r -i o d s , e a c h marked by an e x p l o s i v e and u n i q u e l y f o r m e d work a t t h e i r i n i t i a t i o n , and e a c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s u b s e q u e n t works o f an i m i t a t i v e f o r m and o f d i m i n i s h e d i n t e n s i t y . The books t h a t f o l l o w e d The Naked and t h e Dead, o f c o u r s e , a r e n o t s t r i c t l y i m i t a t i v e o f t h a t w o r k , b u t t h e y do i n d i c a t e a g e n e r a l l y f a i l e d a t t e m p t t o r e p e a t i t s s u c c e s s i n t h e n o v e l f o r m . Ten y e a r s a f t e r i t s a p p e a r a n c e M a i l e r p u b l i s h e d A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f w h i c h , as we have s e e n , c h a n g e d t h e d i r e c t i o n o f h i s c a r e e r f o r c e f u l l y and f u n d a m e n t a l l y . T h e r e a f t e r , d e s p i t e two r a t h e r d e c a d e n t l a t e r n o v e l s , t h e e m p h a s i s o f M a i l e r ' s work s h i f t e d away f r o m f i c t i o n t o w a r d a more o v e r t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s e l f i n t h e g u i s e o f a l i t e r a r y p e r s o n a , and t o w a r d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f an a b s t r a c t s y s t e m o r "myth" i n t h e c o m m e n t a r i e s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m p i l a t i o n s . W i t h t h i s p h a s e t o o , however, t h e l a t e r works b e g i n t o seem r e p e t i t i v e and s e l f - e x p l o i t a t i v e ; i n f a c t , a c a r e -f u l e x a m i n a t i o n w i l l r e v e a l a d o u b l e p r o c e s s o c c u r r i n g i n e a c h p h a s e : as t h e o l d f o r m grows i n c r e a s i n g l y r i g i d and s t e r e o -t y p e d a new v i s i o n i s i n c u b a t i n g , and t h e e n e r g y r e l e a s e d by t h a t v i s i o n , w e l l i n g b e n e a t h t h e c o n s t r i c t i o n s o f t h e f o r m , e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t s i n a work t h a t , i n M a i l e r ' s p e c u l i a r p a t t e r n , b o t h b e g i n s and b r i n g s t o a c l i m a x t h e new p h a s e . So, i n 1967, e i g h t y e a r s a f t e r A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , t h e r e a p p e a r e d what 119.., i s p e r h a p s M a i l e r ' s g r e a t e s t work t o d a t e , The A r m i e s o f t h e  N i g h t . W i t h t h i s book he c o m p l e t e s h i s movement away f r o m f i c t i o n by s i t u a t i n g t h e p e r s o n a t h a t he had f a s h i o n e d f r o m h i s l i t e r a r y s u b s t a n c e i n t h e m i d s t o f a c o n c r e t e h i s t o r i c a l o c c a -s i o n ; a n d i n t h i s s y m b i o s i s o f p e r s o n a and h i s t o r y he manages a t l a s t t o a c h i e v e t h e f u s i o n o f meaning and r e a l i t y t h a t had e l u d e d h i m t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l s . The A r m i e s o f t h e N i g h t i s n o t m e r e l y a l e n g t h i e r v e r s i o n o f t h e s o r t o f j o u r n a l i s t i c a c c o u n t t h a t a p p e a r e d i n t h e com-p i l a t i o n s . T h o s e a n t e c e d e n t s may b e a r some s i m i l a r i t y t o t h i s book, b u t a m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s h o u l d be a p p a r e n t from t h e s t a r t , w i t h t h e r e p r i n t o f Time m a g a z i n e ' s s c a t h i n g r e p o r t o f M a i l e r ' s b e h a v i o r a t t h e Ambassador T h e a t e r . N o t o n l y a r e we i n t r o d u c e d t o a " p r o t a g o n i s t " h e r e , and n o t o n l y do we f i n d t h a t p r o t a g o n -i s t t o be M a i l e r h i m s e l f , b u t we a r e i m m e d i a t e l y p r o v i d e d w i t h a c o m i c a l l y s c o r n f u l summary o f t h e e n t i r e s t o r y . I n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i s r e f e r r e d t o e x p l i c i t l y as "Norman M a i l e r " and t h r o u g h o u t t h e book i s m e n t i o n e d o n l y i n t h e t h i r d p e r s o n . One i s r e m i n d e d o f M a i l e r ' s r e s o l u t e a v o i d a n c e o f t h e t h i r d p e r s o n i n h i s l a s t f o u r n o v e l s , and o f h i s remark i n an i n t e r v i e w i n 1963: " I t h i n k I must have f e l t a t t h a t t i m e as i f I w o u l d n e v e r be a b l e t o w r i t e i n t h e t h i r d p e r s o n u n t i l I d e v e l o p e d a c o h e r e n t v i e w o f l i f e " . ' ' " I n d e e d , one q u i c k l y n o t i c e s a new t o n e o f e x p a n s i v e , a l m o s t c o n t e n t e d s e l f - c o n f i -d e n c e i n h e r e n t i n t h e r a m b l i n g , , d i g r e s s i v e s t y l e o f t h e s e o p e n i n g s e c t i o n s t h a t w o u l d t e n d t o i m p l y t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f s u c h a 120. v i e w o f l i f e . T h us, as " M a i l e r " ( t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ) r e a c h e s f o r t h e t e l e p h o n e , o v e r t h e s p a c e o f twp p a g e s , t h e r e a d e r i s p r o -v i d e d w i t h h i s d i v e r s e o p i n i o n s on t e l e p h o n e s , d r u g s , and h i s own image; t h e s e v i e w s a r e g i v e n w i t h a s u r p r i s i n g d i f f i d e n c e f o r M a i l e r (he a d m i t s one o f h i s i d e a s t o be " u n d e n i a b l y o v e r -2 s i m p l e " ) , and w i t h a g e n u i n e l y c o m i c s e n s e o f s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n ("Sometimes he t h o u g h t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s image was n o t u n l i k e some p o o r f e l l o w who s t r a i n s h i s v e r y t e s t i c l e s t o b r i n g i n emoluments f o r h i s w i f e y e t i s n e v e r f a v o r e d w i t h c a r n a l knowledge o f h e r " [ p . 1 6 ] ) . T h i s i s n o t t h e work, i n o t h e r w o r ds, o f a l i t e r a r y p r o d i g y , o r o f an a n g r y y o u ng man w i t h v a s t a m b i t i o n s , b u t o f a d i s t i n c t l y m i d d l e - a g e d and r e l a t i v e l y e s -t a b l i s h e d w r i t e r , s u r e enough o f h i m s e l f and o f h i s image b o t h t o make i t t h e c e n t e r o f h i s n a r r a t i v e and t o a c c e p t i t as an o b j e c t o f humour. P e r h a p s t h e b e s t way o f a p p r o a c h i n g t h i s work i s by means o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t , t h e " M a i l e r " p e r s o n a f i n a l l y o b j e c t i f i e d as a c h a r a c t e r i n a n a r r a t i v e . He i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h t h e c o m p i l a t i o n s , and so h i s s u b s t a n c e has a c c r e t e d d e n s e and complex l a y e r s — m o r e t h a n j u s t a c h a r a c t e r , a p e r s o n a l i t y , i n f a c t , he i s t h e v o i c e , t h e " p r o p h e t " o f a p r i -v a t e myth, an i n t r i c a t e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f n o t i o n s and images t h a t has come t o be r e g a r d e d as M a i l e r ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v i s i o n , by w h i c h he y o k e s t o g e t h e r H i p , t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m , o r gasm, t e c h n o -l o g y , e x i s t e n t i a l i s m , c a n c e r , c o u r a g e , m a g i c , God, and t h e D e v i l . T h u s , t h e p e r s o n a i s f o u n d e d upon a c e r t a i n p o l a r i t y — o n t h e 121 one hand, p e r s o n a l and c o n f e s s i o n a l , and on t h e o t h e r , a b s t r a c t and t h e o r e t i c a l . I n t e rms v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e o p e n i n g p a r a -g r a p h o f A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , M a i l e r a d m i t s t o a d e g r e e o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l a m b i g u i t y : M a i l e r h a d n e v e r had a p a r t i c u l a r age--he c a r r i e d d i f f e r e n t a g e s w i t h i n h i m l i k e d i f f e r e n t m o d e ls o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e : p a r t s o f him were e i g h t y - o n e y e a r s o l d , f i f t y - s e v e n , f o r t y - e i g h t , t h i r t y - s i x , n i n e t e e n , e t c e t e r a , e t c e t e r a - - h e now went b a c k a b r u p t l y f r o m f i f t y - s e v e n t o t h i r t y - s i x . (p. 20) S i g n i f i c a n t l y , he r e t u r n s t o t h e r e b e l l i o u s age a t w h i c h he w r o t e t h a t f i r s t c o m p i l a t i o n i n a c c e p t i n g t h e i n v i t a t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e march on t h e P e n t a g o n . And t y p i c a l l y , h i s i n t e r e s t i n s u c h a march i s p i q u e d by t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f v i o -l e n c e : "He f e l t one l i t t l e b u b b l e o f f e a r t i l t somewhere a b o u t t h e s o l a r p l e x u s . 'Yes, t h i s sounds more i n t e r e s t i n g , ' he g r o w l e d " (p. 1 9 ) . A t t h e o t h e r p o l e , t h e s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n c e r n s o f t h e l a t e r c o m p i l a t i o n s a r e a b u n d a n t l y e v i d e n t i n " M a i l e r ' s f r e q u e n t d i g r e s s i o n s a n d " r u m i n a t i o n s " : he p u n c h e s a g a i n a t t h e l i b e r a l a c a d e m i c s : I f t h e r e p u b l i c was now managing t o c o n v e r t t h e c i t i z e n r y t o a p l a s t i c mass, r e a d y t o be a t t a c h e d t o any m a n i p u l a t i v e gung-ho, t h e a u t h o r was r e a d y t o c a s t much o f t h e blame f o r s u c h s u c c e s s i n t o t h e u n d e r n o u r i s h e d l a p , t h e o v e r p s y c h o l o g i z e d l o i n s , o f t h e l i b e r a l a c a d e m i c i n t e l l i g e n t s i a . (p. 26) And he a g a i n e x p o s e s h i s c r a n k i l y r o m a n t i c v i e w s on s e x : F o r g u i l t was t h e e x i s t e n t i a l edge o f s e x . W i t h o u t g u i l t , s e x was m e a n i n g l e s s . One a d v a n c e d i n t o s e x a g a i n s t one's s e n s e o f g u i l t , and e a c h t i m e g u i l t was s u c c e s s f u l l y d e f i e d , one had l e a r n e d a l i t t l e more a b o u t t h e c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n o f o n e ' s own e x i s t e n c e t o t h e u n h e a r d t h u n d e r s o f t h e d e e p — e a c h t i m e g u i l t h e r d e d one b a c k w i t h i t s a u t h o r i t y , some p r i m i t i v e a w e — h e n c e some c r e a t i v e c l u e t o t h e r a g e s o f t h e deep--was l e f t t o b r o o d a b o u t . (p. 36) 122 T h e s e samples o f t h e " M a i l e r " p e r s o n a a r e s i m p l y i n t e n d e d as an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e c h a r a c t e r ; t o be s u r e , he has m a t u r e d , and h i s s e n s e o f h i m s e l f and o f h i s o p i n i o n s i s more s e t t l e d , b u t i n t h a t s e l f a n d i t s i n t e g u m e n t o f o p i n i o n one c a n s t i l l e a s i l y d i s c e r n t h e r e b e l o f A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , t h e amateur a d v i s o r o f The P r e s i d e n t i a l P a p e r s , o r t h e c u l t u r a l c r i t i c o f C a n n i b a l s and C h r i s t i a n s . 3 Y e t , e v e n as a " c o u r t w i t " i n The P r e s i d e n t i a l P a p e r s M a i l e r t o o k h i m s e l f c o m p a r a t i v e l y s e r i o u s l y ; what d i s t i n g u i s h e s The A r m i e s o f t h e N i g h t f r o m h i s p r e v i o u s work i s n o t m e r e l y i t s humour b u t t h e f a c t t h a t so much o f i t s humour i s d i r e c t e d a t h i m s e l f , t h a t " M a i l e r " i s i n f a c t t h e v e r y b u t t o f t h e comedy. The humour o f t h e book i s r i c h and c o m p l ex, d e r i v i n g f r o m d i f -f e r e n t s o u r c e s and s e r v i n g d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s — t h e w i t h e r i n g and r e d u c t i v e r i d i c u l e o f t h e Time r e p o r t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , f o r example, i s i n s h a r p and d e l i b e r a t e c o n t r a s t t o t h e o r n a t e s e l f - s a t i r e w i t h w h i c h M a i l e r h i m s e l f d e s c r i b e s "what happened" a t t h e a n t i - w a r m e e t i n g i n t h e Ambassador T h e a t e r . I n t h e h i g h b u r l e s q u e o f t h i s s c e n e one c a n f i n d p a r o d i e s n o t o n l y o f M a i l e r as a c h a r a c t e r b u t o f v i r t u a l l y e v e r y theme and t h e o r y t h a t have e v e r f o u n d a p l a c e i n h i s i d i o s y n c r a t i c s y s t e m . H i s a n t i - t e c h -n o l o g i c a l b i a s , f o r example, r e t u r n s t o h a u n t him when t h e m i -c r o p h o n e f a i l s t o work a t t h e s t a r t o f h i s p e r f o r m a n c e : . . . t h e g e n t l e h i g h - s t r u n g b e a s t o f a d e v i c e p u s h e d i n t o a p a n i c by t h e e l e c t r i c p r e s e n c e o f a r e a l B e a s t , l e t l o o s e a s q u e a l w h i c h shook t h e w e l d s i n t h e o l d f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e Ambassador. M a i l e r i m m e d i a t e l y d e c i d e d he had had enough o f p u b l i c a d d r e s s s y s t e m s , e l e c t r o n i c f i e l d s o f p h a s e , impedence, and s p o o k s i n 123 t h e c i r c u i t r y . A hex on c o l l a b o r a t i n g w i t h C a n c e r G u l c h . (p. 149) E v e n " e x i s t e n t i a l i s m " , M a i l e r ' s r e s p e c t a b l e s u b s t i t u t e f o r h i s o r i g i n a l o b s e s s i o n , H i p , i s g e n t l y mocked, u s e d by " M a i l e r " t o commandeer t h e s t a g e : "We a r e h a v i n g a d i s a g r e e m e n t a b o u t t h e v a l u e o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s . Some t h i n k de G r a z i a s h o u l d resume h i s p o s t as M a s t e r o f C e r e m o n i e s . I w o u l d l i k e t o k e e p t h e p o s i t i o n . I t i s an e x i s t e n t i a l moment. We do n o t know how i t w i l l t u r n o u t . So l e t us v o t e on i t . " Happy l a u g h t e r f r o m t h e a u d i e n c e a t t h e s e c o m i c e f f e c t s . A c t u a l l y M a i l e r d i d n o t b e l i e v e i t was an e x i s t e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n any l o n g e r . He r e c k o n e d t h e v o t e w o u l d be w e l l i n h i s f a v o r , (p. 52) B u t t h e g r e a t e s t humour i s d i r e c t e d a t t h e c o n f e s s i o n a l mode i t s e l f , v i e w e d a s " t h e R o m a n t i c ' s g r e a t m i l i t a r y dream, w h i c h i s : s i e z e d e f e a t , c o n v e r t i t t o t r i u m p h " (p. 4 3 ) — " M a i l e r " a t t e m p t s an E m e r s o n i a n t r a n s c e n d e n c e by p l a n n i n g t o announce t o t h e a u d i e n c e t h a t he had m i s s e d t h e bowl i n t h e men's room: W e l l , he w o u l d c o n v e r t t h i s d e f i c i e n c y t o an a s s e t . From gap t o g a i n i s v e r y A m e r i c a n . He w o u l d c o n f e s s s t r a i g h t o u t t o a l l a l o u d t h a t he was t h e one who wet t h e f l o o r i n t h e men's room, he a l o n e I W h i l e t h e a u d i e n c e was r e c o v e r i n g f r o m t h e e x i s t e n t i a l a n x i e t y o f e n c o u n t e r i n g an o r a t o r who c o n f e s s e d t o s u c h a c r i m e , he w o u l d be a b l e — t h e i r a t t e n t i o n now r i v e t e d — t o b r i n g them up t o a c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f d e e p e r p r o b -lems , o f , i n d e e d , t h e d e e p e s t p r o b l e m s , t h e most c h i l l i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s , and w o u l d f r o m t h e r e s e e k t b b r i n g them b a c k t o a r e s t o r a t i v e v i e w o f man. Man m i g h t be a f o o l who p e e d i n t h e wrong p o t , man was a l s o a s c r u p u l o u s s e r v a n t o f t h e s e l f -d amaging a d m i s s i o n ; man was t h e r e f o r e a p h i l o s o p h e r who p o s s e s s e d t h e m a g i c s t o n e ; he c o u l d t u r n l o s s t o p h i l o s o p h i c a l g a i n , and so i l l u m i n e t h e d e e p s , f i n d t h e p o l e s , and e v e n t u a l l y l e a r n t o c u l t i v a t e h i s most s p e c i a l f o o l ' s g a r d e n : s a t o r i , i n c a n d e s c e n c e , and t h e h a r d g e m - l i k e f l a m e o f b o u r b o n b u r n i n g i n t h e f u r n a c e s o f m e t a b o l i s m . (p. 44) i 24.; I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare t h e g e n i u n e comedy o f . s u c h a s c e n e w i t h t h e much more f r a n t i c a t t e m p t a t humour i n s u c h a n o v e l as Why A r e We I n V i e t n a m ? . T h e r e , comedy i s d e f i n e d as " t h e s t u d y 4 o f t h e unsound a c t i o n s o f t h e c o w a r d l y u n d e r s t r e s s " — a s t a t e -ment whose v e r y p r e t e n t i o u s n e s s i s an i r o n i c i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e r e a s o n b e h i n d t h a t b o ok's s i n g u l a r l a c k o f humour. He r e t h e comedy r e s u l t s p r e c i s e l y f r o m t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f p r e t e n s i o n and r e a l i t y . I t i s , somewhat p a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h e v e r y l a u g h t e r e n g e n d e r e d by s u c h s c e n e s , w i t h t h e i r c l e a r a w a r e n e s s o f r e a l i t y / t h a t u l t i m a t e l y r e s c u e s M a i l e r ' s p e t o b s e s s i o n s f r o m t h e o b l i -v i o n o f mere e c c e n t r i c i t y . F o r .iV>Mailer" i s more t h a n j u s t a b u f f o o n i n t h i s book, as t h e a u t h o r h i m s e l f r e a l i z e s i n h i s r e f l e c t i o n s on h i s c h o s e n p r o t a g o n i s t : . . . an e y e w i t n e s s who i s a p a r t i c i p a n t b u t n o t a v e s t e d p a r t i s a n i s r e q u i r e d , f u r t h e r he must be n o t o n l y i n v o l v e d , b u t ambiguous i n h i s own p r o p o r -t i o n s , a c o m i c h e r o , w h i c h i s t o s a y , one c a n n o t h a p p i l y r e s o l v e t h e e m p h a s i s o f t h e c a t e g o r y — i s he f i n a l l y c o m i c , a l u d i c r o u s f i g u r e w i t h mock-h e r o i c a s s o c i a t i o n s ; o r i s he n o t u n h e r o i c , and t h e r e f o r e embedded somewhat t r a g i c a l l y i n t h e c o m i c ? Or i s he b o t h a t o n c e , and a l l a t o n c e ? (p. 6 7) B u t e v e n s u c h p e r t i n e n t s e l f - c r i t i c i s m o n l y t o u c h e s upon t h e d e p t h o f a m b i g u i t y i n h e r e n t i n t h i s c h a r a c t e r , f o r b e y o n d t h e s e r e m a r k s i s t h e f a c t t h a t , a f t e r a l l , t h e a u t h o r i s h i m s e l f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t a t a l a t e r s t a g e o f r e f l e c t i o n — n o t o n l y i s he am-b i g u o u s i n h i s s e r i o u s / c o m i c s t a t u s b u t t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r un-c e r t a i n t y a t t a c h e d t o h i s v e r y a w a r e n e s s o f t h a t a m b i g u i t y , t o h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f h i m s e l f as h i s own h e r o . And t h i s s u g g e s t s 125. t h e r e a l f u n c t i o n o f t h i s t h i r d p e r s o n mode o f n a r r a t i o n , t h e most i m m e d i a t e l y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f t h i s book. W i t h t h e new-found s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f M a i l e r s p o k e o f " t h e yaws o f c o n s c i e n c e a w r i t e r l e a r n s t o f e e l when he s e t s h i s m i r r o r s f a c e t o f a c e and b e g i n s t o j i g g l e h i s S e l f f o r a s t y l e w h i c h w i l l have some r e l a t i o n t o him"^; w i t h The A r m i e s o f t h e N i g h t , M a i l e r has l e a r n e d t o c o n t r o l t h a t s h i v e r i n g s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s b y t a k i n g i t a s t e p f u r t h e r , by t u r n i n g i t i n t o h i s e x p l i c i t s u b j e c t , i n f a c t , and c o n s t i t u t i n g h i m s e l f as a l i t e r a r y o b j e c t i n a l i t e r a r y t e x t . T h i s a e s t h e t i -c i z e d s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s t h e r e a l f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e b o o k's s a v i n g humour, t h e s o u r c e o f i t s e s s e n t i a l a m b i g u i t y , a n d t h e means by w h i c h meaning and w o r l d a r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r . M a i l e r i s o b v i o u s l y d o i n g more, i n o t h e r w o r d s , t h a n m e r e l y p r o v i d i n g a j o u r n a l i s t i c a c c o u n t o f t h e march on t h e P e n t a g o n — i n d e e d , one m i g h t as e a s i l y t a k e " M a i l e r " h i m s e l f as t h e s u b -j e c t o f t h e book, r a t h e r t h a n t h e m arch, and v i e w t h a t e v e n t as b u t t h e f r a m e w o r k . o f t h e c o n c r e t e o p p o r t u n i t y , f o r t h e d i s -p l a y o f t h e p e r s o n a and i t s a t t e n d e n t myth. B u t i n f a c t t h e two s u b j e c t s a r e merged h e r e i n a work o f s u s t a i n e d t e n s i o n be-tween t h e l i t e r a l and t h e l i t e r a r y , , a work t h a t r a i s e s a c o n t i n -g e n t , h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t t o t h e l e v e l o f a e s t h e t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . " M a i l e r " , t h e c o m i c - h e r o , i s o n l y one p a r t o f t h i s n a r r a t i v e ; a t t h e o p p o s i t e p o l e , s h a r i n g t h e f o c u s o f t h e book, i s t h e theme and n o t i o n o f " A m e r i c a " , " t h a t c o u n t r y who e x p r e s s e s o u r w i l l " (p. 3 2 0 ) , t h e n a t i o n whose f u n d a m e n t a l a m b i v a l e n c e c o n t a i n s 126 a l l o t h e r s . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h " M a i l e r " as f e l l o w c h a r a c t e r s f o r much o f t h e book a r e Dwight M a c d o n a l d and R o b e r t L o w e l l , t h e t h r e e c o n s t i t u t i n g a t r i p t y c h o f t h e A m e r i c a n l i t e r a r y c o n -s c i e n c e , " t h e C r i t i c , t h e P o e t , and t h e N o v e l i s t " (p. 1 2 3 ) , g a t h e r i n g b e f o r e t h e L i n c o l n M e m o r i a l on t h e day o f t h e march, w i t h M a i l e r c o n j u r i n g images o f t h e " g h o s t s o f t h e U n i o n d e a d " (p. 1 0 5 ) . L o w e l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y , i s w e l l drawn, f i l l i n g t h e r o l e o f " M a i l e r ' s " o p p o s i t e , a k i n d o f a n t i - " M a i l e r " , whose i n h e r e n t a r i s t o c r a t i c n o b i l i t y i n s p i r e s i n t h e p r o t a g o n i s t an e n v i o u s , d i s g r u n t l e d a d m i r a t i o n : "You, L o w e l l , b e l o v e d p o e t o f many, what do y o u know o f t h e d i r t and t h e d a r k d e l i v e r i e s o f t h e n e c e s s a r y ? What do y o u know o f d i g n i t y h a r d a c h i e v e d , and d i g n i t y l o s t t h r o u g h i n n o c e n c e , and d i g n i t y l o s t by s a c r i f i c e f o r a c a u s e one c a n n o t name. What do y o u know a b o u t g e t t i n g f a t a g a i n s t y o u r w i l l , and t u r n i n g i n t o a c l o w n o f an a r r i v i s t e b a r o n when y o u w o u l d r a t h e r be an e a g l e o r a c o u n t , o r r a r e s t o f a l l , some n a t u r a l a r i s t o c r a t f r o m t h e s e damned d e m o c r a t i c s t a t e s . (p. 54) E v e n t h e c o n c r e t e b a s e o f t h i s l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e — t h e march i t s e l f - - i s t i n g e d w i t h a e s t h e t i c o v e r t o n e s , f o r i t i s r e p e a t e d l y e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n i s s y m b o l i c i n i n t e n t ( see p. 68, f o r e x a m p l e ) , t h o u g h n o t o f c o u r s e i n r e s u l t . I n a l o n g a n d m a g n i f i c e n t s e n t e n c e j u s t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e march, M a i l e r b r i n g s t o g e t h e r a l l t h e s e d i v e r s e t h r e a d s o f h i s n a r r a -t i v e and h o l d s them i n t h e moment o f a s i n g l e s t a t e m e n t — b e c a u s e i t so e p i t o m i z e s t h e l i t e r a r y d i m e n s i o n o f t h i s book, and e x -p r e s s e s so many o f t h e c e n t r a l themes o f M a i l e r ' s work i n ge n -e r a l , i t d e s e r v e s q u o t a t i o n i n i t s e n t i r e t y : r 127. I n any e v e n t , up a t t h e f r o n t o f t h i s M a r c h , i n t h e f i r s t l i n e , b a c k o f t h a t h o l l o w s q u a r e o f mon-i t o r s , M a i l e r and L o w e l l w a l k e d i n t h i s b a r r a g e o f c a m e r a s , h e l i c o p t e r s , TV c a r s , m o n i t o r s , l o u d -s p e a k e r s , and w a v e r i n g b u c k l i n g t w i s t i n g l i n e o f n o t a b l e s , arms l i n k e d ( l i n e t w i s t i n g so much t h a t a t t i m e s t h e movement was i n f i l e , one arm l o c k e d a h e a d , one b e h i n d , t h e n t h e l i n e w o u l d i n d u l a t e a b o u t and t h e o t h e r arm wo u l d be ahead) s p e e d i n g up a few s t e p s , s l o w i n g down w h i l e a g r e a t h a p p i n e s s came b a c k i n t o t h e day as i f f i n a l l y one s t o o d u n d e r some m y t h i c a l a r c h i n t h e g r e a t v a u l t o f h i s t o r y , h e l i c o p t e r s b u z z i n g a b o u t , c h o p - c h o p , and t h e s e n s e o f A m e r i c a d i v i d e d on t h i s day no l i b e r a t e d some u n d i s c o v e r e d p a t r i o t i s m i n M a i l e r so t h a t he f e l t a s h a r p s e a r i n g l o v e f o r h i s c o u n t r y i n t h i s moment and on t h i s day, c r o s s i n g some d i v i d e i n h i s own mind w i d e r t h a n t h e Potomac, a l o v e so l a c e r a t e d he f e l t as i f a m a r r i a g e were b e i n g t o r n and c h i l d r e n l o s t — n e v e r d o e s one l o v e so much as t h e n , o b v i o u s l y , t h e n - - a n d an o d o r o f wood smoke, f r o m where y o u knew n o t , was a l s o i n t h e a i r , a smoke o f d i g n i t y and some c a l m h e r o i s m , n o t u n l i k e t h e s e n s e o f f r e e d o m w h i c h a l s o comes when a m a r r i a g e i s b u r s t — M a i l e r knew f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e why men i n t h e f r o n t l i n e o f a b a t t l e a r e a l m o s t a l w a y s r e a d y t o d i e : t h e r e i s a p r o m i s e o f some s w i f t t r a n s i t — o n e ' s s o u l seems c l e a n ; a s we have g a t h e r e d , he was n o t u s e d much more t h a n any o t h e r A m e r i c a n p o l i t i c i a n , l i t t e r a t e u r , o r r a c k e t e e r t o t h e s e n t i m e n t t h a t h i s s o u l was n o t u n c l e a n , b u t h e r e , w a l k i n g w i t h L o w e l l and M a c d o n a l d , he f e l t a s i f he s t e p p e d t h r o u g h some c r o s s i n g i n t h e r e a c h e s o f s p a c e between t h i s moment, t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , and t h e C i v i l War, as i f t h e g h o s t s o f t h e U n i o n d e a d a c c o m p a n i e d them now t o t h e B a s t i l l e , he was n o t d r u n k a t a l l , m e r e l y i l l u m i n e d by h u n g e r , t h e s e n s e o f dan-g e r t o t h e f r o n t , s e n s e o f d a n g e r t o t h e r e a r — h e was i n f a c t i n l o v e w i t h h i m s e l f f o r h a v i n g l e s s f e a r t h a n he had t h o u g h t he m i g h t h a v e — h e knew s u d d e n l y t h e n he had l e s s f e a r now t h a n when he was a young man; i n some p a r t o f h i m s e l f a t l e a s t * he had grown; i f l e s s i n n o c e n t , l e s s t i m i d — t h e c o l d f l a m e o f a p e r f e c t l y COIIT t a i n e d e x a l t a t i o n warmed o l d asthmas o f g r a v e l i n t h e h e a r t , and t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y were g o i n g t o f a c e t h e sy m b o l , t h e embodiment, no, c a l l i t t h e t r u e and h i g h c h u r c h o f t h e m i l i t a r y - i n d u s t r i a l complex, t h e P e n t a g o n , b l i n d f i v e - s i d e d eye o f a s u b t l e o p p r e s s i o n w h i c h had come t o A m e r i c a o u t o f t h e v e r y a i r o f t h e c e n t u r y ( t h i s e v i l t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y w i t h i t s c u r s e on t h e s p e c i e s , i t s o p p r e s s i v e F a u s t i a n l u s t s , i t s t e c h n o l o g i c a l 1 2 8 e x c r e m e n t a l l o v e r t h e c o n d u i t s o f n a t u r e , i t s e n t r a p m e n t o f t h e i n n o c e n c e o f t h e b e s t — f o r w h i c h y o u n g A m e r i c a n s o l d i e r s h o t o u t o f h i g h s c h o o l and i n l o v e w i t h a h o t r o d and h i s M a r i n e b u d d i e s i n h i s p l a t o o n i n V i e t n a m c o u l d b e g i n t o know t h e d e v i l o f t h e o p p r e s s i o n w h i c h w o u l d s t e a l h i s s o u l b e f o r e he knew he had one) y e s , M a i l e r f e l t a c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e s t s o f h i s own l i f e on t h i s M a r c h t o t h e eye o f t h e o p p r e s s o r , g r e e d y s t i n g y dumb v a l v e o f t h e w o r s t o f t h e Wasp h e a r t , c h a l i c e and anus o f c o r p o r a t i o n l a n d , smug, e n c l o s e d , m o r a l l y b l i n d P e n t a g o n , d e s t r o y i n g t h e f u t u r e o f i t s own n a t i o n w i t h e a c h day i t augmented i n s t r e n g t h , and t h e N o v e l i s t i n d u c e d on t h e c o n s e q u e n c e some dim unawakened knowledge o f t h e m y s t e r i e s o f A m e r i c a b u r i e d i n t h e s e l i b e r t i e s t o d i s s e n t - -What a m y s t e r i o u s c o u n t r y i t was. (pp. 131-33) I n t h i s immense s e n t e n c e — a s , i n d e e d , i n t h e book as a w h o l e — M a i l e r manages t o e f f e c t a g e n u i n e s y n t h e s i s o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e c o n c e r n s , t o a s s o c i a t e t h e c o n c r e t e o d o r o f wood smoke w i t h an a b s t r a c t p a t r i o t i s m , t o t r a n s c e n d a p e r s o n a l f e a r w i t h h i s t o r i c a l i m a g i n i n g s — t o l i n k t h e l i t e r a r y b e i n g s o f " M a i l e r " and " A m e r i c a " i n e x t r i c a b l y , as t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r were a k i n d o f p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e f o r m e r , o r a s t h o u g h " M a i l e r " were a m i c r o -cosm o f " A m e r i c a " . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f s y n t h e s i s , however, i s n o t e v e r y -where e f f e c t i v e — a p o i n t t h a t may be e v i d e n t i f one c o n s i d e r s t h e c o n t r a s t between t h e r e l a t i v e s e r i o u s n e s s o f M a i l e r ' s s e n t i -ments h e r e a n d . t h e s a t i r i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f h i s n o t i o n s e a r l i e r . An o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two s i t u a t i o n s , and a s u f f i -c i e n t e x p l a n a t i o n f o r " M a i l e r ' s " c o n t r a s t i n g s t a t u s , i s t h e f a c t t h a t he i s h e r e m e r e l y r e f l e c t i n g , whereas i n t h e e a r l i e r i n s t a n c e he was a c t i n g . So l o n g a s " M a i l e r " i s m e r e l y an anon-ymous p a r t i c i p a n t i n a mass e v e n t h i s m e d i t a t i o n s ( o r " r u m i n a -1 2 9 . t i o n s " , [ p . 105]) c a n grow n a t u r a l l y and f r e e l y f r o m t h e e v e n t i t s e l f , u n c h e c k e d by any c o n t r a r y e x p e r i e n c e ; b u t when he i s r e q u i r e d t o t a k e a c t i o n h i m s e l f , on t h e b a s i s o f h i s v a r i o u s and p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r i e s , t h o s e " r u m i n a t i o n s " a r e p u t t o a t e s t , and t h e f r e q u e n t comedy i s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e u s u a l d i s c r e p -a n cy between h i s n o t i o n s and t h e r e a l w o r l d . " M a i l e r " i s t h e r e -f o r e a c h a r a c t e r c o n s t a n t l y m i s u n d e r s t o o d , and p e r p e t u a l l y h a v i n g t o e x p l a i n h i m s e l f — i n a s e n s e , t h e w h o l e o f Book One m i g h t be s e e n as an a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n "what h a p p e n e d " (p. 14) t o c o r r e c t t h e i m p r e s s i o n l e f t by t h e Time r e p o r t . (The P r e s s , o f c o u r s e , and t h e m edia i n g e n e r a l , a r e t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f p u b l i c i m p r e s s i o n , so i t i s l i t t l e wonder t h a t one o f " M a i l e r ' s " m ost common themes i s t h e d u p l i c i t y o f t h e n e wspaper t s e e pp. 237-40] ) . The p e c u l i a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e r i o u s and t h e c o m i c i n " M a i l e r ' s " c h a r a c t e r must be r e s o l v e d by v i e w i n g him as a c e r -t a i n t y p e o f h e r o — h e i s n o t s i m p l e s e r i o u s , as i s R o j a c k , f o r example, f o r he must a c t . i n t h e r e a l w o r l d , n o t i n a dream; n o r i s he s i m p l y a f o o l , f o r he r e t a i n s a n o b l e i n n o c e n c e o f m o t i v e t h a t i s p r e s e n t b eyond a l l t h e o d d i t i e s o f h i s a c t u a l b e h a v i o r . I n a word, h i s c h a r a c t e r i s Q u i x o t i c , t h e t y p e t h a t c o n t a i n s a l l t h e a m b i g u i t i e s t h a t M a i l e r h i m s e l f a s c r i b e d t o h i s p r o t a g o n i s t (p. 6 7 ) . As a s e l f - a p p o i n t e d " h e r o " , p u r s u i n g t h e f a n t a s i e s o f h i s own r o m a n t i c i m a g i n a t i o n , i n d e f e n s e o f v a l u e s e i t h e r o u t w o r n o r e c c e n t r i c , " M a i l e r " , l i k e Don Q u i z o t e , 1 30. i s a c o m i c f i g u r e . B u t i n t h e i m p l i c i t m o t i v e u n d e r l y i n g s u c h p u r s u i t o r d e f e n s e b o t h c h a r a c t e r s a t t a i n a p o i g n a n t d i g n i t y , f o r , , i n a w o r l d t h a t a p p e a r s i n some s e n s e " f a l l e n " , e m p t i e d o f meanin g , and so m e r e l y t r i v i a l and m e n d a c i o u s , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y e a c h s t r u g g l e f o r an i d e a l a t a l l seems, d e s p i t e a l l t h e i r c o m i c d i s p r o p o r t i o n s , s i m p l y and u n d e n i a b l y h e r o i c . I t i s t h i s Q u i x o t i c q u a l i t y t h a t u n d e r l i e s " M a i l e r ' s " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t a -t u r e i n t h i s book, and t h a t g i v e s r i s e t o s u c h c r i t i c a l j u d g -ments as R i c h a r d G i l m a n ' s : "More t h a n e v e r , M a i l e r ' s e m b a t t l e d ego i s s e e n t o be t h e t r o u b l e d , s a c r i f i c i a l , r a s h and u n c o n q u e r -g a b l e champion f o r a l l o f o u r s . " C o n s i d e r i n g " M a i l e r " as a modern Don Q u i z o t e (and, i n h i s c a p a c i t y as a u t h o r , C e r v a n t e s as w e l l ) h e l p s t o make c l e a r t h e t r u e s y m b i o s i s o f h i s t o r y and p e r s o n a i n t h i s w o r k , i t s r e a l f u s i o n o f p r i v a t e and p u b l i c r e a l m s . F o r e a c h a s p e c t , e a c h p o l e p l a i n l y . r e q u i r e s t h e o t h e r : t h e a c c o u n t o f t h e M a r c h on t h e P e n t a g o n w o u l d be an empty document w i t h o u t t h e c o m i c - h e r o i c p r e s e n c e o f " M a i l e r " t o i n f u s e i t w i t h l i f e and meaning; and " M a i l e r " h i m s e l f , o f c o u r s e , w o u l d v a n i s h i n t o t h e dream o f h i s own r o m a n t i c i s m (as he has done i n h i s f i c t i o n s ) w i t h o u t t h e c o n t r a s t and d i s c i p l i n e o f t h e r e a l , p u b l i c , and h i s t o r i c a l w o r l d . H e r e t h e n i s t h e s o l u t i o n t o M a i l e r ' s l o n g - s t a n d i n g p r o b l e m o f b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r "meaning" and " w o r l d " . The i m p o r -t a n c e o f t h e j o u r n a l i s t i c a s p e c t o f t h e work i s t h a t i t f r e e s t h e n a r r a t i v e i t s e l f f r o m t h e n e c e s s i t y o f b e a r i n g t h e meaning 1 3 1 O (as i t must i n f i c t i o n , where "meaning" i s i m p l i c i t i n t h e n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e ) ; i n s t e a d , t h a t m e a n i n g i s embodied i n a p e r s o n a who i s made a p a r t o f t h e e v e n t s t h a t he d e s c r i b e s p r o -d u c i n g a m e a n i n g f u l w o r l d , i n s p i t e o f h i m s e l f , t h r o u g h h i s Q u i x o t i c s t r u g g l e s . What M a i l e r s t r u g g l e s f o r , . f i n a l l y ( l o o k i n g upon him now i n h i s d o u b l e r o l e as b o t h a u t h o r and p r o t a g o n i s t ) , i s n o t f o r any p a r t i c u l a r "meaning" so much as f o r t h e v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y o f m e a n i n g . L i k e S e r g e a n t C r o f t i n h i s f i r s t n o v e l , M a i l e r i s i m p e l l e d by a p a r t i a l l y i n c h o a t e v i s i o n , b u t u n l i k e C r o f t he i s n o t so f o r t u n a t e as t o have l o c a t e d t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f t h a t v i s i o n a t t h e peak o f an u n c l i m b a b l e m o u n t a i n , f o r e v e r i n v i o l -a b l e . Hence M a i l e r ' s s t r u g g l e must r e a l l y be i n two d i r e c t i o n s , a f u r t h e r s o u r c e o f h i s Q u i x o t i c a m b i v a l e n c e : he must a t t e m p t t o p r e s e r v e t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r m eaning, a h e r o i c t a s k ; b u t he must a l s o g u a r d t h a t m e aning f r o m b e i n g r e d u c e d t o t h e b a n a l i t y o f words, an e x e r c i s e i n b a d f a i t h t h a t seems f r e q u e n t l y c o m i c . I n e f f e c t t h e r e a r e two t h r e a t s t o M a i l e r ' s p r o j e c t , t h o u g h he o f t e n , and p e r h a p s r i g h t l y , t e n d s t o a s s o c i a t e them: t h e s e m i g h t be r o u g h l y l a b e l l e d " c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y " and " c h a o s " . The f i r s t e s p e c i a l l y seems an odd s o r t o f t h r e a t , and, i n d e e d , i n t h e p a s t i t m i g h t n o t have been r e g a r d e d as s u c h — M a i l e r w r i t e s w i t h an e a s y n o s t a l g i a o f t h e s t y l e o f h i s W a s h i n g t o n h o t e l " w h ich spoke o f a t i m e when men and e v e n t s were s o l i d , compre-h e n s i b l e , o f t e n o b e d i e n t t o a code o f v a l u e s , and r e s o l u t e l y n o n e l e c t r o n i c " (p. 6 9 ) ; b u t t h e p r e s e n t , f o r M a i l e r , i s • t h r e a t e n -1 32, ed i n d e e d by t h e t o t a l and r e d u c t i v e v i s i o n o f s c i e n c e , by t h e p e r v a s i v e t e c h n o l o g y i t e n g e n d e r s , and by t h e c o n c o m i t a n t p o -t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r o l t h a t c o u l d m a n i f e s t i t s e l f i n a new t o t a l -i t a r i a n i s m . The t h r e a t o f c h a o s , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s more i m m e d i a t e l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e — i t i s i m p l i c i t i n M a i l e r ' s c u s t o m -a r y m e t a p h o r o f " c a n c e r " o r " t h e p l a g u e " , and i t i s i n v o k e d , w i t h v i v i d h o r r o r , i n h i s image o f t h e " i r r e d e e m a b l e madness o f A m e r i c a " , . t h e L a s V e g a s Grandmother w i t h o r a n g e h a i r (pp. 1 7 2 - 4 ) . The- t a c t i c by w h i c h M a i l e r manages t o a v o i d e i t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e , t o p r e s e r v e t h e p o t e n t i a l o f m e aning w i t h o u t e v e r h a v i n g t o g i v e i t s h a p e , i s t o m y s t i f y , t o make h i s g o a l n e i t h e r t h e d i s c o v e r y o f meaning n o r i t s o b l i t e r a t i o n , b u t t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and e x a l -t a t i o n o f M y s t e r y . T h e r e i s , as m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , a s t r o n g e l e m e n t "of bad f a i t h i n s u c h a p r o j e c t , an a s s i d u o u s need t o a v o i d c e r t a i n modes o f a w a r e n e s s and r e a l i z a t i o n , a r e f u s a l o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . B u t t h e t r i u m p h o f The A r m i e s o f t h e N i g h t i s t h a t M a i l e r i s a b l e t o make an o b j e c t o f humour o f t h a t b a d f a i t h (as i n " M a i l e r ' s " " E m e r s o n i a n t r a n s c e n d e n c e " a t t h e Ambassador T h e a t e r , . [ p . 4 4 ] ) , and y e t s t i l l h o l d t o t h e n o t i o n o f M y s t e r y , s t i l l c o n c l u d e h i s book w i t h an a p o c a l y p t i c and e c s t a t i c p e r o r a t i o n , s t i l l end m e r e l y "on t h e r o a d t o t h a t mys-t e r y where c o u r a g e , d e a t h , and t h e dream o f l o v e g i v e p r o m i s e o f s l e e p " (p. 320; my e m p h a s i s ) . M a i l e r ' s l a t e r j o u r n a l i s m has r a r e l y b e en q u i t e so s u p p l e o r complex i n i t s m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f m y s t e r y , and t h e i n h e r e n t b a d f a i t h o f t h e p r o j e c t has grown i n c r e a s i n g l y e v i d e n t and 1 3 3 . c o r r u p t i n g . As w i t h t h e c o m p i l a t i o n s , he c o n t i n u e d t o e x p l o i t a f o r m w i t h w h i c h he had had some s u c c e s s , m aking use o f a t h i r d p e r s o n n a r r a t i o n , and o b j e c t i f y i n g h i m s e l f u n d e r v a r i o u s t i t l e s : " t h e R e p o r t e r " , " A q u a r i u s " , " t h e P r i s o n e r " , e v e n " A - I " , 7 f o r " A e s t h e t i c I n v e s t i g a t o r " . The s e c o n d work i n t h i s f o r m was M i a m i and t h e S e i g e o f C h i c a g o (19 6 8 ) , c o n t i n u i n g h i s s e r -i e s o f r e p o r t s on t h e P r e s i d e n t i a l C o n v e n t i o n s , and i t s t a n d s among M a i l e r ' s b e s t work as w e l l , e x h i b i t i n g t h a t c r u c i a l s y n t h e s i s o f p r i v a t e and p u b l i c f o c u s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e d t h e l i t e r a r y w o r t h o f The A r m i e s o f t h e N i g h t . Of a F i r e on t h e  Moon (19 7 0 ) , however, seemed t o o c o n v e n t i o n a l l y r e p o r t o r i a l f o r much o f i t s l e n g t h , i t s t e c h n o l o g i c a l s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c l e a r l y r e s i s t a n t t o t h e themes and n o t i o n s o f t h e " M a i l e r " p e r s o n a . And The P r i s o n e r o f Sex (19 71) was s i m p l y t o o a b s t r a c t , i t s l a c k o f e v e n t s d e p r i v i n g t h e work o f t h e e s s e n t i a l d i m e n s i o n o f r e a l -i t y , and l e a v i n g i t no more t h a n a c r a n k y and t o o - l i t e r a l de-f e n s e o f a p r i v a t e i d e o l o g y . F i n a l l y , o f c o u r s e , t h e r e a p p e a r e d M a r i l y n ( 1 9 7 3 ) , r e c o g n i z e d by M a i l e r h i m s e l f as among h i s w e a k e s t b o o k s . O t h e r a c c o u n t s and w r i t i n g s have a p p e a r e d b e f o r e and s i n c e , some o f them ( S t . G e o r g e and t h e G o d f a t h e r L1972], f o r example) d i s p l a y i n g a w e l l - c o n t r o l l e d s t y l e and a f i n e ob-s e r v a t i o n ; b u t none have a p p r o a c h e d t h e l i t e r a r y e x c e l l e n c e as a w h o l e o f h i s f i r s t j o u r n a l i s t i c n a r r a t i v e . What has hap-p e n e d i s s i m p l y t h a t t h e " M a i l e r " p e r s o n a has h a r d e n e d i n t o a d e a d and r i g i d mask, and t h e s y s t e m , i n t o a g r i d o f s e t r e s -p o n s e s and s t e r i l e o p p o s i t i o n s . F o r t h e s e t o have r e t a i n e d a l i f e M a i l e r w o u l d have had t o p u t h i m s e l f and h i s b e l i e f s r e -1 3i+« p e a t e d l y a t t h e mercy o f t h e c o n t i n g e n t e v e n t s on w h i c h he i s r e p o r t i n g , and t h i s w o u l d have r e q u i r e d a g r e a t e r commitment, a g r e a t e r i n v e s t m e n t o f e n e r g y t h a n he was o b v i o u s l y w i l l i n g t o a l l o w . I n s t e a d , as he w i t h d r a w s h i s a u t h e n t i c s e l f f r o m t h e s e l a t e r w o r k s , h i s s t y l e becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y o b l i q u e and b a r o q u e , as a d e v i c e f o r m a n i p u l a t i n g " m y s t e r i e s " i n a p u r e l y r h e t o r i c a l , m e c h a n i c a l manner. Cheap s p e c u l a t i o n s , mock d i s c o v e r i e s ("Of c o u r s e ! " ) , s y n t a c t i c a l l y o b s c u r e p l a u s i b i l i t i e s ("Who c o u l d s a y b u t t h a t i t w o u l d n o t be i m p o s s i b l e . . . . " ) , a n d empty, u l -t i m a t e , u n a n s w e r a b l e q u e s t i o n s ("Did God v o y a g e o u t f o r NASA, 8 o r was t h e D e v i l o u r l i n e o f s i g h t t o t h e s t a r s ? " ) — t h e s e , d e s p i t e a l l t h e u n d o u b t e d v i r t u e s o f M a i l e r ' s m a t u r e s t y l e , a r e u n m i s t a k e a b l e s i g n s o f an e x h a u s t e d l i t e r a r y i m p u l s e ; i n d e e d , t h e p u r e r e l i a n c e upon s t y l e i s a good d e f i n i t i o n o f d e c a d e n c e . B u t i t has by now b e en a b o u t e i g h t y e a r s s i n c e M a i l e r ' s l a s t m a j o r b r e a k t h r o u g h — t h e u s u a l l e n g t h o f a p h a s e i n h i s c a r e e r — a n d t h e r e a r e t h e r e p o r t s o f a m a j o r new. n o v e l i n p r o -g r e s s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e how he w o u l d be a b l e t o r e -v i v e a f o r m t h a t h a d p r e v i o u s l y become m o r i b u n d f o r him, b u t more t h a n any o t h e r w r i t e r a l i v e (and most dead) M a i l e r has d e m o n s t r a t e d a r e p e a t e d c a p a c i t y f o r sudden, e v e n r e v o l u t i o n -a r y , s e l f - r e n e w a l ; so i t i s e n t i r e l y c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h i s a p p a r e n t l y d e c a d e n t j o u r n a l i s m i s i n f a c t i n c u b a t i n g a new f o r m o f t h e l i t e r a r y i m a g i n a t i o n - as u n i q u e , as r a d i c a l , and a s power-f u l as The Naked and t h e Dead, A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , and The A r m i e s o f t h e N i g h t . 1 35. C o n c l u s i o n L i k e e v e r y t h i n g e l s e a b o u t him, M a i l e r ' s l i t e r a r y e v o l u -t i o n i s l a r g e l y a p r o d u c t o f h i s i d i o s y n c r a c i e s , i m p e l l e d by f o r c e s and s t r a i n s t h a t a r e p e c u l i a r t o him. The d o m i n a n t f e a t u r e o f t h a t e v o l u t i o n , i n f a c t - - t h e movement f r o m f i c t i o n t o j o u r n a l i s m — c a n be v i e w e d s i m p l y as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f h i s p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c i e n c i e s as a n o v e l i s t . A symptom o f t h i s weakness m i g h t be h i s s e e m i n g i m p a t i e n c e w i t h t h e f i c t i o n a l i z -i n g p r o c e s s , w i t h t h e n e e d f o r a m i n u t e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e r e -c r e a t i o n o f a p p e a r a n c e s ( n o t e d above i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f The  Deer P a r k ) . And t h i s i n t u r n seems t o r e s u l t f r o m h i s o v e r -r i d i n g c o n c e r n f o r t h e e f f e c t o f h i s w r i t i n g , f r o m h i s n o t i o n o f h i s a r t as an i n s t r u m e n t i n t h e s e r v i c e o f l a r g e r ends ( e v i d e n t e s p e c i a l l y i n A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f ) . D i a n a T r i l l i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s q u a l i t y i n M a i l e r a p t l y : To a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n he p e r h a p s r e c o g n i z e s , M a i l e r i s an a n t i - a r t i s t , d e e p l y m i s t r u s t f u l o f a r t i f o n l y b e c a u s e i t p u t s a s h i e l d between t h e p e r c e p t i o n and t h e a c t . H i s w r i t e r ' s r o l e , as he c o n c e i v e s i t , i s much more m e s s i a n i c t h a n c r e a -t i v e . 1 F o r s u c h a w r i t e r , t h e r e f o r e , t h e t u r n t o j o u r n a l i s m seems a v e r y n a t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . Y e t t h e t o r t u o u s p a t h o f M a i l e r ' s e v o l u t i o n s u g g e s t s a g r e a t e r c o m p l e x i t y o f m o t i v e t h a n t h i s i n i t i a l a s s e s s m e n t w o u l d i n d i c a t e , and p e r h a p s o f f e r s a c l u e t o u n d e r l y i n g themes i n h i s d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t e x t e n d b e y o n d h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . F o r i 36 o. M a i l e r i s , by h i s own a d m i s s i o n , a r o m a n t i c , and t h u s a s e l f -c o n s c i o u s member o f a l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n t h a t i s a t t h e f o u n -d a t i o n o f modern c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A m a j o r s o u r c e o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e r o m a n t i c t r a d i t i o n i s t h a t i t i s i n h e r e n t l y p r o b l e m a t i c , n e c e s s i t a t i n g p a r a d o x , d i a l e c t i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n , " n e g a t i v e c a p a b i l i t y " , and so on; and a p r i m e example o f a r o m a n t i c d i l -emma t h a t i s s t i l l p e r p l e x i n g i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f a r t , t h e s t a t u s and f u n c t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t . S i n c e K e a t s s e t t h e terms o f t h i s p r o b l e m , w i t h h i s t r o u b l e s o m e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t r u t h and b e a u t y , i t has und e r g o n e numerous v i c i s s i t u d e s : t h e n o t i o n o f " a r t f o r a r t ' s s a k e " m i g h t be s e e n as an a t t e m p t t o e l i m i n a t e t r u t h f r o m t h e n a t u r e o f a r t , l e a v i n g " b e a u t y " as i t s own r a i s o n d ' e t r e . W i t h h i s n a t u r a l i s t h e r i t a g e and h i s c o n c e r n f o r e f f e c t , M a i l e r c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t s t h e o p p o s i t e s c h -o o l , f o r whom " t r u t h " i s paramount and b e a u t y b u t a means t o t h a t e n d . H i s s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e n o v e l i s a r e s u l t o f t h e f a c t t h a t , s h a r i n g a r o m a n t i c c u l t u r a l p r e j u d i c e , he r e g a r d s t h e n o v e l as a supreme f o r m , and t h e n o v e l i s t as a k i n d o f g i f t e d p h i l o s o p h e r : . . . s i n c e t h e n o v e l i s t i s t h e o n l y p h i l o s o p h e r who works w i t h e m o t i o n s w h i c h a r e a t t h e v e r y edge o f t h e word s y s t e m , and so i s o u t beyond t h e s c i e n t i s t s , d o c t o r s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , e v e n — i f he i s good enough--t h e b e s t o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s who work a t p h i l o -sophy i t s e l f . 2 T h i s i s s i m p l y a v e r s i o n o f t h e common i d e a t h a t n o v e l s t e l l us t r u t h s , i l l u m i n a t e o u r l i v e s , b u t i t i s a t t h e b a s i s o f t h e " m e s s i a n i c " a m b i t i o n t h a t i n c a p a c i t a t e s M a i l e r a s a n o v e l i s t . 137 I r o n i c a l l y , s u c h a n o t i o n may w e l l f o r m t h e b a s i s o f h i s s u c c e s s as a j o u r n a l i s t . F o r t h e d e s i r e t o t e l l t h e t r u t h i s t h e i m p u l s e b e h i n d t h e b r a n c h o f r o m a n t i c i s m t h a t d e v e l o p e d i n t o s o c i a l r e a l i s m , and t h e n i n t o n a t u r a l i s m . As movements, t h e s e now seem m o r i b u n d , and i t was M a i l e r ' s f a t e t o b e g i n h i s c a r e e r j u s t as h i s " l i t e r a r y h e r i t a g e " was i n d e c l i n e . B u t i t may be t h a t t h e i m p u l s e i s s i m p l y m a n i f e s t i n g i t s e l f u n d e r a new g u i s e , t h a t , as Tom W o l f e a r g u e s , t h e t r a d i t i o n o f s o c i a l r e a l i s m i s now b e i n g c o n t i n u e d by t h e "New J o u r n a l i s t s " , f i l l i n g t h e gap l e f t when t h e n o v e l i s t s abandoned " t h e r i c h e s t t e r r a i n o f t h e n o v e l : n a mely, s o c i e t y , t h e s o c i a l t a b l e a u , . manners and m o r a l s , t h e w h o l e b u s i n e s s o f 'the way we l i v e now, 1 i n 3 T r o l l o p e ' s p h r a s e . " I n t h i s s e n s e , M a i l e r ' s d e v e l o p m e n t d i s -p l a y s an u n d e r l y i n g c o n s i s t e n c y , as h i s t a l e n t f o r " r e c o r d i n g 4 t h e p r e c i s e l o o k and f e e l o f t h i n g s " , s t i f l e d i n t h e n o v e l a f t e r h i s r e j e c t i o n Of n a t u r a l i s m , emerges w i t h renewed v i g o r i n h i s j o u r n a l i s m . As W o l f e p o i n t s o u t , s u c h a t a l e n t i s n o t t a k e n v e r y s e r i o u s l y t o d a y : B a l z a c p r i d e d h i m s e l f on b e i n g 'the s e c r e t a r y o f F r e n c h s o c i e t y . ' Most s e r i o u s A m e r i c a n n o v e l i s t s w o u l d r a t h e r c u t t h e i r w r i s t s t h a n be known as 'the s e c r e t a r y o f A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y , ' and n o t m e r e l y b e c a u s e o f i d o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . W i t h f a b l e , myth an d t h e s a c r e d o f f i c e t o t h i n k a b o u t — w h o wants s u c h a m e n i a l r o l e ? ^ B u t t h e m e n t i o n o f B a l z a c , e s p e c i a l l y , s h o u l d r e c a l l t h e c r i t i -c i s m t h a t G e o r g L u k a c s l e v e l s a t t h e modern abandonment o f r e a l i s m . F o r L u k a c s , t h e r e j e c t i o n o f r e a l i s m l e a d s t o an i n -138. e r a d i c a b l e s p l i t between t h e s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e a s p e c t s o f human n a t u r e , as w r i t e r s c o n t e n t t h e m s e l v e s e i t h e r w i t h a s t e r i l e d e s c r i p t i o n o f an e x t e r n a l w o r l d i n n a t u r a l i s m , o r w i t h an e q u a l l y p o i n t l e s s a b s o r p t i o n w i t h s u b j e c t i v e f a n t a s i e s ; i t i s a d i a g n o s i s t h a t i s r e m a r k a b l y p e r t i n e n t t o M a i l e r ' s own e n t r a p m e n t between t h e e x t r e m e s o f " r e a l i t y " a nd "meaning" i n h i s n o v e l s . B u t M a i l e r was n e v e r c o n t e n t w i t h e i t h e r e x-t r e m e , and t h e i m p u l s e t o e s c a p e f r o m t h e t r a p o f modernism i s b e h i n d t h e who l e o f h i s p e c u l i a r and sometimes p a i n f u l e v o l u -t i o n ; t h e mark o f h i s g r e a t n e s s as a w r i t e r , r e d e e m i n g h i s p a r -t i c u l a r f a i l i n g s , i s h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o r e u n i t e t h e h a l v e s o f human n a t u r e , t o e f f e c t a s y n t h e s i s o f r e a l i t y and meaning/ e v e n a t t h e c o s t o f h i s f i r s t l o v e , t h e n o v e l . 139 F o o t n o t e s I n t r o d u c t i o n "'"Norman M a i l e r , C a n n i b a l s and C h r i s t i a n s (New Y o r k : D e l l P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 219. 2 S e e T i m e , J u l y 16, 1973, 44. 3 M a i l e r , C a n n i b a l s and C h r i s t i a n s , x i . C h a p t e r 1 The Naked and t h e Dead "'"Alfred K a z i n , "The T r o u b l e He's S e e n , " The New Y o r k Times  Book Revie w , May 5, 1968, 1. 2 See Norman M a i l e r , A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f (New Y o r k : S i g n e t B o o k s , 1960) , pp. 83-5, where he w r i t e s c l e a r l y and p o w e r f u l l y a b o u t h i s s i t u a t i o n a f t e r The Naked and t h e Dead, and o f h i s s e a r c h f o r a new s u b j e c t : " I f my p a s t had become empty as a theme, was I t o w r i t e a b o u t B r o o k l y n s t r e e t s , o r my m o t h e r and f a t h e r , o r a n o t h e r war n o v e l (The Naked and t h e Dead  Go t o Japan) . . . ?" 3 Norman M a i l e r , The Naked and t h e Dead (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1 9 4 8 ) , p. 11. A l l s u b s e q u e n t page r e f e r -e n c e s i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e t o t h i s e d i t i o n . 4 S t e p h e n M a r c u s , "Norman M a i l e r : An I n t e r v i e w , " P a r i s  Review, XXXI ( W i n t e r - S p r i n g 1 9 6 4 ) , 38. 5 ^ G e o r g L u k a c s , W r i t e r and C r i t i c , and O t h e r E s s a y s , e d . and t r a n s . , A r t h u r D. Kahn (New Y o r k , G r o s s e t and D u n l a p , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 144. H a r v e y B r e i t , The W r i t e r O b s e r v e d (London: A l v i n Redman L i m i t e d , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 199. 7 v L u k a c s , p . 139. 8 I b i d . , p . 139. 9 I b i d . , p . 9. "*"°Georg L u k a c s , R e a l i s m I n Our Time: L i t e r a t u r e and t h e  C l a s s S t r u g g l e , t r a n s . , J o h n and Necke Mander (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1964), pp. 89-90. 1^0. An i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e a r b i t r a r i n e s s o f t h i s s u b j e c t i s s u g g e s t e d by M a i l e r ' s own h i s t o r y o f t h e n o v e l ' s t i t l e i n A d - v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f - - l i k e any o t h e r young-man Who W i s h e s t o W r i t e , M a i l e r h a d made a number o f u n p u b l i s h e d a t t e m p t s a t a n o v e l i n c o l l e g e : "The v e r y l a s t t h i n g was t o t r y t o s t a r t a n o v e l a b o u t an i n s a n e a s y l u m . . . . I t was c a l l e d A T r a n s i t  t o N a r c i s s u s , and i t was b a s e d on a p l a y I had w r i t t e n e a r l i e r a b o u t t h e same i n s a n e a s y l u m c a l l e d The Naked and t h e Dead." p. 24. 12 T h i s c o m p a r i s o n r e c a l l s t h e " s c i e n t i f i c " a m b i t i o n o f Z o l a ' s n a t u r a l i s m , as d e s c r i b e d i n The E x p e r i m e n t a l N o v e l " ; see e s p e c i a l l y The Modern T r a d i t i o n : B a c k g r o u n d s o f Modern L i t e r - a t u r e , R i c h a r d E l l m a n a n d . C h a r l e s F e i d e l s o n , J r . , e d s . (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 273-74. 13 M a r c u s , p . 37. 14 I b i d . , p . 38. ^ E v e n t h e "Time M a c h i n e " a n d ' " C h o r u s " i n t e r p o l a t i o n s t e n d more t o e m p h a s i z e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e m i c r o c o s m t h a n t o p r o v i d e a s o c i a l panorama as i n Dos P a s s o s ; s e e J o h n M. M u s t e , "Norman M a i l e r and J o h n Dos P a s s o s : The Q u e s t i o n o f I n f l u e n c e , " Modern F i c t i o n S t u d i e s , X V I I , No. 3 (Autumn, 19 71) 361-74. 16 J o h n W. A l d r i d g e , A f t e r t h e L o s t G e n e r a t i o n : A C r i t i c a l  S t u d y o f t h e W r i t e r s o f Two Wars (New Y o r k : Noonday P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 ) , p. 134. 17 D i a n a T r i l l i n g , "The M o r a l R a d i c a l i s m o f Norman M a i l e r " , i n R o b e r t F. L u c i d , e d . , Norman M a i l e r : The Man and H i s Work ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 19 7 1 ) , p. 117. 18 Norman P o d h o r e t z , "Norman M a i l e r : The E m b a t t l e d V i s i o n " , i n L u c i d , p. 61. 19 * L u k a c s , W r i t e r and C r i t i c , p . 116 and p . 144. 20 ^ L u k a c s , R e a l i s m I n Our Time, p . 43. 21 I n f a c t , t h i s s i m i l a r i t y b r i n g s up a F r e u d i a n a n a l o g y i n h e r e n t i n t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h , t h o u g h n o t e s s e n t i a l t o t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g , i s n e v e r t h e l e s s f u r t h e r " e v i d e n c e o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e y d e p a r t f r o m t h e n a t u r a l i s t norm. The t r i a d o f H e a r n , Cummings, and C r o f t p a r a l l e l t h e t h r e e F r e u d i a n p s y -c h i c a g e n c i e s , ego, s u p e r - e g o , and i d : H e a r n i s r a t i o n a l b u t m o t i v e l e s s , Cummings i s a u t h o r i t a r i a n , and C r o f t i s w o r d l e s s l y , n a r c i s s i s t i c a l l y i m p u l s i v e . I n t h i s s e n s e , t h e i m p l i c i t a s s o c i a t i o n between Cummings and C r o f t c o r r e s p o n d s t o F r e u d ' s 1 1 + 1 . . . n o t i o n o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s l i n k between s u p e r - e g o and i d . The a n a l o g y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n i t s r e l e v a n c e t o t h e p l o t o f t h e n o v e l : H e a r n 1 s d e a t h r e s u l t s f r o m t h e s e p a r a t e b u t un-w i t t i n g l y c o m p l i c i t o u s w i l l s o f b o t h Cummings and C r o f t , j u s t a s , i n t h e n e u r o s i s F r e u d t e r m s " m e l a n c h o l i a " , a weakened ego i s c r u s h e d between t h e i m p l a c a b l e p u r p o s e s o f s u p e r - e g o and i d . A F r e u d i a n m o t i v a t i o n , o f c o u r s e , i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o r e i g n t o n a t u r a l i s m s i n c e i t " e x p l a i n s " o r " d e t e r m i n e s " b e -h a v i o r . B u t a F r e u d i a n p a t t e r n i m p l i c i t i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e n o v e l i t s e l f s u g g e s t s a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d n o n - r a t i o n a l l i t e r -a r y forms beyond t h e l i m i t s o f n a t u r a l i s m . 22 v The f a c t t h a t , i n L u k a c s 1 s e n s e , a g e n u i n e h e r o i s im-p o s s i b l e w i t h i n a n a t u r a l i s t c o n t e x t may be b e h i n d some o f t h e c r i t i c a l c o n f u s i o n o v e r C r o f t ' s r o l e i n t h e n o v e l . Norman P o d h o r e t z , f o r example, r e g a r d s b o t h Cummings and C r o f t as un-ambiguous h e r o e s , b u t f e e l s t h a t t h e i r f i n a l d e f e a t v i o l a t e s " t h e e m o t i o n a l l o g i c " o f t h e book (p. 6 7 ) ; D i a n a T r i l l i n g , on t h e o t h e r hand, v i e w s them b o t h i n i t i a l l y a s v i l l a i n s , b u t f i n d s a " c u r i o u s s h i f t i n t h e m o r a l f o c u s " o f t h e n o v e l i n w h i c h C r o f t " u s u r p s t h e p l a c e i n h i s a u t h o r ' s s y m p a t h i e s w h i c h we had t h o u g h t was H e a r n ' s " (p. 1 1 8 ) . S uch comments, I t h i n k , r e f l e c t a f a i l u r e t o u n d e r s t a n d M a i l e r ' s s t r a t e g y o f m o r a l m y s t i f i c a t i o n as a means o f p r e s e r v i n g C r o f t f r o m t h e r e d u c -t i v e o m n i s c i e n c e o f h i s n a t u r a l i s t c o n t e x t . 2 3 B r e i t , p . 200. C h a p t e r 2 B a r b a r y S h o r e and The Deer P a r k "'"For M a i l e r ' s o p i n i o n , s e e A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , pp. 83-5. O t h e r o p i n i o n s p a r t i a l l y f a v o u r a b l e a r e A l l e n Gutman's, i n The J e w i s h W r i t e r i n A m e r i c a : A s s i m i l a t i o n and t h e C r i s i s o f  I d e n t i t y (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 158; and P o d h o r e t z ' s , pp. 68-75. ^ K a z i n , p . 1. 3 M a r c u s , p. 34. ^See e s p e c i a l l y A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , pp. 8 3-5; and M a r c u s , pp. 34-5. 5 K a z i n , p . 1. c B a r b a r y S h o r e (New Y o r k : S i g n e t Book, 1 9 5 1 ) , p. 111. 1b,2.-7 " C l a u s t r o p h o b i c " i s a somewhat p e c u l i a r d e s c r i p t i o n f o r a l i t e r a r y work, b u t i t i n t e r e s t i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t how f r e -q u e n t l y i t r e c u r s i n t h e c r i t i c i s m o f M a i l e r g e n e r a l l y , and o f B a r b a r y S h o r e p a r t i c u l a r l y . F o r some e x a m p l e s , s e e H a r r i s D i e n s t f r e y , "The F i c t i o n o f Norman M a i l e r " , i n On C o n t e m p o r a r y  L i t e r a t u r e , R i c h a r d K o s t e l a n e t z , e d . (New Y o r k : Avon B o o k s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 431; Gutman, p. 158; and T r i l l i n g , p . 117. g M a i l e r c o n t r a s t s t h e a c t u a l l a b o u r i n v o l v e d i n w r i t i n g t h e two n o v e l s i n h i s P a r i s Review i n t e r v i e w : " . . . w o r k i n g o n B a r b a r y S h o r e I a l w a y s f e l t as i f I were n o t w r i t i n g t h e book m y s e l f , b u t r a t h e r as i f I were s e r v i n g as a s u b j e c t f o r some i n t e l l i g e n c e w h i c h had d e c i d e d t o u s e me t o w r i t e t h e book", whereas The D eer P a r k "was f a r and away t h e most d i f f i c u l t o f my t h r e e n o v e l s t o w r i t e " ( M a r c u s , p . 3 5 ) . See a l s o A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , pp. 205-24, f o r an e x t e n d e d a c c o u n t o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e l a t t e r work. 9 B a r b a r y S h o r e , pp. 161, 159, 152, 91, and 136, r e s p e c t i v e l y , ^ T h e D eer P a r k (New Y o r k : B e r k l e y M e d a l l i o n E d i t i o n , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 163. A l l s u b s e q u e n t page r e f e r e n c e s i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e t o t h i s e d i t i o n . "'""'"Barbary S h o r e , p . 8; The Deer P a r k , p . 45. 12 M a i l e r h i m s e l f c o n c e d e s t h i s l i k e n e s s i n t h e f i r s t d r a f t , t h o u g h he m i s t a k e n l y f e e l s he has e l i m i n a t e d i t i n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n — s e e A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , p . 212. 13 A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , p . 214. 14 M a i l e r ' s own r e m a r k s on t h i s i s s u e o f " c r a f t " a r e p a r t i c u -l a r l y r e l e v a n t n o t o n l y t o h i s use o f p o i n t - o f - v i e w , b u t t o h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f f i c t i o n a n d a r t g e n e r a l l y : ". . . I'm a b i t c y n i c a l a b o u t c r a f t . I t h i n k t h e r e ' s a n a t u r a l m y s t i q u e i n t h e n o v e l w h i c h i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n c r a f t . One i s t r y i n g , a f t e r a l l , t o c a p t u r e r e a l i t y , and t h a t i s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y and e x c e p -t i o n a l l y d i f f i c u l t . I t h i n k c r a f t i s m e r e l y a s e r i e s o f way-s t a t i o n s " ( C a n n i b a l s and C h r i s t i a n s New Y o r k : D e l l , 19 70 , pp. 215-6) . L a t e r he d e s c r i b e s c r a f t as b e i n g among t h e " e n o r -mous e v a s i o n s " t h r o w n up by w r i t e r s i n t h e f a c e o f t h i s u n c a p -t u r e d r e a l i t y : " I n d e e d , I t h i n k t h i s a d o r a t i o n o f c r a f t , t h i s s p e c i f i c r e s p e c t f o r c r a f t makes a c h u r c h o f l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h a t v a s t number o f w r i t e r s who a r e somewhere on t h e s p e c t r u m b e ^ tween m e d i o c r i t y and t a l e n t . B u t I t h i n k i t s f a t a l f o r somebody who has a l a r g e a m b i t i o n and a c h a n c e o f b e c o m i n g a g r e a t w r i t e r " ( C a n n i b a l s and C h r i s t i a n s , pp. 216-7. T h i s i s a c o n t i n -u a t i o n o f h i s i m p o r t a n t P a r i s Review i n t e r v i e w ) . 11*3'.. 15 I t s h o u l d be c l e a r t h a t t h e s e comments do n o t a p p l y t o t h e g e n e r a l t o p i c o f p o i n t - o f - v i e w , b u t o n l y t o t h e p a r t i -c u l a r use made o f i t i n t h e n o v e l s u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n . B u t M a i l e r h i m s e l f seems t o i m p l y a more g e n e r a l t h e o r y o f t h i s n o t i o n i n a s h o r t comment on t h e i n f l u e n c e o f E.M. F o r s t e r on h i s w r i t i n g i n t h e P a r i s Review i n t e r v i e w : " I s u p p o s e what I r e a l i z e d , a f t e r r e a d i n g F o r s t e r , was t h a t a n o v e l w r i t t e n i n t h e t h i r d p e r s o n was now i m p o s s i b l e f o r me f o r many y e a r s . " A f t e r t h e i n t e r v i e w e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t " F o r s t e r has n e v e r w r i t t e n a n o v e l i n t h e f i r s t p e r s o n " , M a i l e r c o n t i n u e s : " I know he h a s n ' t , b u t i n some f u n n y way F o r s t e r gave my n o t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y a s u f -f i c i e n t s h o c k t h a t I c o u l d n o t manage t o w r i t e i n t h e t h i r d p e r s o n . F o r s t e r , a f t e r a l l , had a d e v e l o p e d v i e w o f t h e w o r l d . I d i d n o t . I t h i n k I must have f e l t a t t h a t t i m e as i f I w o u l d n e v e r be a b l e t o w r i t e i n t h e t h i r d p e r s o n u n t i l I d e v e l -oped a c o h e r e n t v i e w o f l i f e . I d o n ' t know t h a t I ' v e b e e n a b l e t o a l t o g e t h e r " ( C a n n i b a l s and C h r i s t i a n s , p . 2 0 9 ) . 16 T h i s a f f a i r , i n f a c t , seems t o have been t h e c o n c e p t u a l o r i g i n o f t h e n o v e l , l i k e t h e " l o n g p a t r o l " i n The Naked and "the  D e a d — s e e M a r c u s , pp. 40-1. 17 T h i s i s a n o p i n i o n t h a t i s f a i r l y common, i n one f o r m o r a n o t h e r . P o d h o r e t z , f o r e x ample, r e g a r d s t h e n o v e l as a w h o l e as e x h i b i t i n g "a n e w l y l i b e r a t e d c a p a c i t y f o r s h e e r r e l i s h i n t h e l o o k and f e e l and sound o f t h i n g s " , and s e e s t h e a c c o u n t o f t h e a f f a i r as one "where e v e r y nuance i n t h e p r o g r e s s o f a v a s t l y c o m p l i c a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e g i s t e r e d w i t h a d e l i c a c y and a p r e c i s i o n t h a t r e c a l l P r o u s t h i m s e l f " ( P o d h o r e t z , p . 77 and pp. 8 0 - 1 ) . A more i n t e r e s t i n g c o m p a r i s o n , p e r h a p s , i n v i e w o f L u k a c s ' a p p r e c i a t i o n o f r e a l i s m , i s t o be f o u n d i n R i c h a r d C h a s e ' s e a r l y r e v i e w : ". . . . t h e s u s t a i n e d a c c o u n t o f t h e r e -l a t i o n s h i p between E i t e l and E l e n a E s p o s i t o i s w o r t h y o f B a l z a c and makes a s m a l l m a s t e r l y n o v e l w i t h i n a n o v e l " , f r o m " N o v e l i s t G o i n g P l a c e s " , Commentary, December, 1955, 582. 18 A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , p . 214. 1 9 I b i d . , p . 212. 20 T h i s i s a l s o a common o p i n i o n , b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d by R i c h a r d F o s t e r ' s comment: " S e r g i u s , b o t h as a c h a r a c t e r and as an a r c h -e t y p e o f new s t y l e s o f human v a l u e , i s vague and i n c h o a t e as w e l l as f a i n t l y a b s u r d . " F o s t e r , i n f a c t , p u t s h i s f i n g e r on p r e -c i s e l y t h e p r o b l e m : " . . . n e i t h e r S e r g i u s n o r h i s a u t h o r has y e t f o r m e d t h e r e q u i s i t e l i f e - s t y l e , t h e new h e r o i c m o l d t h r o u g h w h i c h t o t u r n u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a f f i r m a t i o n i n t o c r e a t i v e , p e r h a p s r e d e m p t i v e a c t i o n " ( F o s t e r , "Norman M a i l e r " , i n L u c i d , p . 33 and p . 3 4 ) . I n h i s l a t e r r e f l e c t i o n s on t h e book, M a i l e r h i m s e l f seems t o be aware o f t h e f a i l u r e o f h i s n a r r a t o r , t h o u g h c o n f u s e d as t o i t s e x a c t n a t u r e — h e s a y s t h a t ". . .my n a r r a -t o r became t o o i n t e r e s t i n g , and n o t enough h a p p e n e d t o him i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e book . . . " ( A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , p. 2 1 9 ) , w h i c h a p p e a r s t o be a c o n t r a d i c t i o n u n l e s s one u n d e r -s t a n d s t h e " i n t e r e s t " t o be l a r g e l y i n M a i l e r ' s own m i n d . M a i l e r h i m s e l f p e r h a p s a d m i t s t h i s when he c o n f e s s e s t h a t "I knew I h a d f a i l e d t o b i d on t h e b i g g e s t hand I e v e r h e l d " ( I b i d . , p . 2 2 4 ) . 21 T h e r e a r e o c c a s i o n a l a t t e m p t s t o l i n k t h e s e two i n t h e n o v e l i t s e l f , t h e s t r o n g e s t , p e r h a p s , b e i n g t h e s c e n e on pp. 39-40, i n w h i c h F a y e t r i e s t o p e r s u a d e E i t e l n o t t o t e s t i f y . A h y p o t h e t i c a l b a s i s f o r s u c h a l i n k c o u l d be d e r i v e d f r o m some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a b o u t t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s — E i t e l p o s s e s s e s m o r a l -i t y w i t h o u t i n t e g r i t y ; F a y e , i n t e g r i t y w i t h o u t m o r a l i t y ; and e a c h i s a t t r a c t e d t o t h a t a s p e c t o f t h e o t h e r t h a t i s l a c k i n g i n h i m s e l f . B u t t h i s r e m a i n s an a b s t r a c t i o n , n e v e r r e a l i z e d o r made c r e d i b l e i n t h e n o v e l . The i n e s c a p a b l e f a c t i s t h a t t h e s e a r e n o t m e r e l y d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r s , b u t d i f f e r e n t c o n - c e p t i o n s o f c h a r a c t e r . C h a p t e r 3 An A m e r i c a n Dream and Why A r e We I n V i e t n a m ? "'"Elizabeth H a r d w i c k , "A N i g h t m a r e by Norman M a i l e r " , i n L u c i d , p . 145. 2 S t a n l e y E d g a r Hyman, "Norman M a i l e r ' s Ymmy Rump", S t a n - d a r d s : A C h r o n i c l e o f Books f o r Our Time (New Y o r k : H o r i z o n P r e s s , 1 966), p . 274. 3 Tom W o l f e , "Son o f C r i m e and P u n i s h m e n t " , i n L u c i d , p. 161. 4 P h i l i p Rahv, "Crime W i t h o u t P u n i s h m e n t " , L i t e r a t u r e and  t h e S i x t h S e n s e ( B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f l i n , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 415. 5 R i c h a r d P o i r i e r , M a i l e r (London: F o n t a n a , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 125 and p. 12 6. 6 Leo B e r s a n i , "The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Dreams", i n L u c i d , p . 176. 7 J o h n A l d r i d g e , "The E n e r g y o f New S u c c e s s " , i n Leo B r a u d y , e d . , Norman M a i l e r : A C o l l e c t i o n o f C r i t i c a l E s s a y s (Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 118. g An A m e r i c a n Dream (New Y o r k : D e l l , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 9. A l l s u b -s e q u e n t page r e f e r e n c e s i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e t o t h i s e d i t i o n . 9 P o i r i e r , p. 133. •11*5* 1 0 W o l f e , p . 16 0. "^Hyman, p . 278. The t i t l e o f h i s r e v i e w , i n f a c t , i s t a k e n f r o m a c l a u s e i n t h i s p a s s a g e . 12 R i c h a r d P o i r i e r , " ' M o r b i d - M i n d e d n e s s ' " , i n L u c i d , p . 167, 13 P o i r i e r , M a i l e r , p. 133. 1 4 I b i d . , pp. 128-9. J e a n - P a u l S a r t r e , The P s y c h o l o g y o f I m a g i n a t i o n , B e r n a r d F r e c h t m a n , t r a n s . (New Y o r k : W a s h i n g t o n S q u a r e P r e s s , 1966) , p . 227. 1 ft P o i r i e r , M a i l e r , p . 127. See a l s o B e r s a n i , p . 175 and pp. 176-7; and Tony T a n n e r , C i t y o f Words: A m e r i c a n F i c t i o n  1950-1970 (London: J o n a t h a n Cape, 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 365. 17 S a r t r e , p . 215. 18 I n A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , p . 379, he l i s t s S a r t r e on t h e s i d e o f t h e " S q u a r e " , as o p p o s e d t o H e i d e g g e r , who i s " H i p " . 1 9 c . S a r t r e 220. 20 T, I b i d . , p p. 220-1. I b i d . , P. 219 and 22 z z I b i d . , pp. 10-11. 23 " i b i d . , P- 217. 24 * l b i d . , P- 221. I b i d . , P- 228. 2 6 I b i d . , pp. 228-9. 27 B e r s a n i , p i . 173. I b i d . , P. 178. I b i d . , P. 176. 3 0 I b i d . , pp. 176-7. 1 iL6. 31 I b i d . , p . 1 7 6 . 32 P o i r i e r , i n L u c i d , p . 1 6 8 . 3 3 I b i d . , pp. 1 6 7 - 8 . 34 P o i r i e r , M a i l e r , pp. 1 2 7 - 8 . 3 5 I b i d . , pp. 8 8 - 9 . 3 6 B e r s a n i , p. 1 7 8 . 3 7 T h i s l a c k o f a f f e c t i s n o t i c e d by E l i z a b e t h H a r d w i c k , t h o u g h i t seems t o p u z z l e h e r : "How s t r a n g e i t i s , t h o u g h , t h a t u g l y and m e a n s p i r i t e d as t h i s book i s , no h e a t a r i s e s f r o m i t s many b r u t a l c o u p l i n g s , no r e a l s e n s e o f d a n g e r f r o m t h e h e e d l e s s c r u e l t y . You do n o t f e e l c o n f r o n t e d w i t h some un-p l e a s a n t b u t o r i g i n a l f o r c e " (p. 1 6 7 ) . 3 8 F o r t h e l a s t q u o t e , s e e P o i r i e r , i n L u c i d , p . 16 8. 39 B e r s a n i , p . 1 7 9 . 40 Why A r e We I n V i e t n a m ? (New Y o r k : B e r k l e y M e d a l l i o n E d i t i o n s , 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 5 9 - 6 0 . 41 See C a n n i b a l s arid C h r i s t i a n s , pp. 6 8 - 9 0 : 42 P o i r i e r , M a i l e r , p. 1 2 7 . 4 3 I b i d . , p . 1 3 1 . 44 I b i d . , p . 1 4 2 . 45 v L u k a c s , W r i t e r and C r i t i c , pp. 1 6 8 - 9 . C h a p t e r 4 A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f and t h e C o m p i l a t i o n s "'"No l a b e l seems q u i t e a d e q u a t e f o r t h e s e w o r k s , b u t i t i s h o ped t h a t " c o m p i l a t i o n " w o u l d c o n v e y a more c o n s c i o u s l y s t r u c t u r e d q u a l i t y t h a n w o u l d " c o l l e c t i o n " o r " a n t h o l o g y " . 2 The r e a s o n f o r t h e e x c l u s i o n o f M a i l e r ' s l a s t c o l l e c t i o n , E x i s t e n t i a l E r r a n d s ( S c a r b o r o u g h , . O n t a r i o : S i g n e t , 1 9 7 3 ) , f r o m t h i s l i s t o f c o m p i l a t i o n s i s e x p l a i n e d b e l o w . 3 A number o f c r i t i c s have compared t h e work t o a n o v e l , i n c l u d i n g M a i l e r h i m s e l f — s e e Norman M a r t i e n , "Norman M a i l e r a t 1J+7 G r a d u a t e S c h o o l ; o r , One-Man's E f f o r t " , i n L u c i d , p . 248: "He r e a d f i r s t t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y p a r a g r a p h o f A d v e r t i s e m e n t s . He a s k e d us t o t h i n k o f i t as t h e o p e n i n g o f a n o v e l , t h e v o i c e o f a c h a r a c t e r i n a n o v e l . . . " O t h e r s who have drawn t h i s a n a l o g y a r e R.W.B. L e w i s , " R e c e n t F i c t i o n : P i c a r o and P i l g r i m " , i n A Time o f H a r v e s t : A m e r i c a n L i t e r a t u r e , 1910-1960, R o b e r t E . S p i l l e r , e d . (New Y o r k : H i l l and Wang, 1 9 6 2 ) , who l i n k s t h e book w i t h K e r o u a c ' s On t h e Road as a p i c a r e s q u e n a r r a t i v e (p. 1 4 8 ) ; F o s t e r , p . 58; and W i l l i a m H o f f a , "Norman M a i l e r : Ad- v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f " , i n The F i f t i e s : F i c t i o n , P o e t r y ,  Drama, W a r r e n F r e n c h , e d . ( D e l a n d , F l o r i d a : E v e r e t t / E d w a r d s , I n c . , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 74. 4 A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , p. v . A l l s u b s e q u e n t page r e -f e r e n c e s i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e t o t h e e d i t i o n named i n C h a p t e r 1, n o t e 2. 5 T h i s r e f e r e n c e t o " t i m e " i s t h e f i r s t i n t i m a t i o n o f what w i l l l a t e r become a m a j o r , i f somewhat d e r i v a t i v e , theme f o r M a i l e r - - T h e Deer P a r k , as we have s e e n , a l s o c l o s e s w i t h a s i m i l a r l y c r y p t i c a l l u s i o n , t h i s t i m e p r o v i d e d by "God": " R a t h e r t h i n k o f Sex as T i m e , and Time as t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f new c i r c u i t s " (p. 3 1 8 ) . One c o u l d a t t e m p t t o i n t e r p r e t s u c h s t a t e m e n t s , o f c o u r s e , b u t t h e c e n t r a l i m p r e s s i o n r e m a i n s t h a t M a i l e r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t i m e , and u s e s i t as a theme, n o t b e -c a u s e i t p r o v i d e s any a n s w e r s , b u t f o r p r e c i s e l y t h e o p p o s i t e r e a s o n , i t e v o k e s m y s t e r y , w h i c h i s h i s p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e . H e r e , s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e m e n t i o n o f t i m e seems t o be a p a r t o f t h a t "abandoned a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e l a r g e work" t o w h i c h t h e s t o r y was o r i g i n a l l y a P r o l o g u e ( A d v e r t i s e m e n t s , pp. 1 4 1 - 2 ) , and t o w h i c h he r e f e r s i n t h e p r e c e d i n g A d v e r t i s e m e n t : "To t h i c k e n t h e scheme, I was g o i n g t o t w i s t and s c a t t e r Time, h a v i n g many o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s r e a p p e a r i n d i f f e r e n t b o o k s , b u t w i t h t h e i r ages a l t e r e d " ( I b i d . , p . 1 4 0 ) . The D e e r P a r k , p . 170. 7 T h i s c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n o f c o u r a g e i n t h e v i s i o n o f H i p e x p l a i n s a good d e a l i n M a i l e r ' s w r i t i n g , i n c l u d i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , R o j a c k ' s r e p o r t e d a m b i t i o n " t o blow up p o o r o l d F r e u d by de-m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t t h e r o o t o f n e u r o s i s i s c o w a r d i c e r a t h e r t h a n b r a v e o l d O e d i p u s " (Ah A m e r i c a n Dream, p . 2 3 5 ) . p James B a l d w i n , "The B l a c k Boy L o o k s a t t h e W h i t e Boy", i n L u c i d , p . 222. 9 T h i s f u s i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s was s u g g e s t e d by R i c h a r d M. L e v i n e , . "When Sam and S e r g i u s Meet", The New L e a d e r , J u l y 8, 1968, 16-9; D a v i d H e s l a makes a s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n on t h e M a i l e r 1 b,8... h e r o ( t h o u g h n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y on t h e " M a i l e r " p e r s o n a ) i n "The Two R o l e s o f Norman M a i l e r " , i n A d v e r s i t y a n d G r a c e : S t u d i e s  i n R e c e n t A m e r i c a n L i t e r a t u r e , N a t h a n A. S c o t t , J r . , e d . ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) : "He i s a s y n -t h e s i s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y and s e x u a l i t y , mind and body, s e n t i -ment and c o u r a g e , e x p e r i e n c e and v i t a l i t y , and a l s o o f t h e t r a d i t i o n s and c u l t u r e s w h i c h make up t h e A m e r i c a n S t y l e " (p. 2 1 3 ) . " ^ T h i s l o n g commentary was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n E s q u i r e , November, 19 59 (as "The M i n d o f an O u t l a w " ) . "^A p r o m i n e n t example o f s u c h a d i s c i p l e i s J o h n W. A l d r i d g e , who t o o o f t e n sounds l i k e a mere p o p u l a r i z e r o f M a i l e r : " I d e a l l y , t h e f u n c t i o n o f o b s c e n i t y w o u l d be t o m e d i a t e between t h e s u p e r e g o and t h e i d e l e m e n t s o f A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y , r e l e a s i n g t h e b u r i e d f e a r s and h a t r e d s o f t h e WASP E s t a b l i s h m e n t c l a s s e s t o s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h e e m o t i o n a l f r e e d o m o f t h e Negro and h i p s t e r " , "From V i e t n a m t o O b s c e n i t y " , i n L u c i d , p . 190. 12 A number o f t h e b e s t e x a m ples o f t h e s e ( H a r d w i c h , Hyman, W o l f e ) have b e e n g i v e n i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f A n . A m e r i c a n Dream. 13 T h u s , as we have s e e n , he r e l e g a t e s j o u r n a l i s m t o t h e s t a t u s o f a m i n o r a c t i v i t y ( C a n n i b a l s and C h r i s t i a n s , pp. 2 1 8 - 9 ) ; a l s o n o t e t h e numerous r e f e r e n c e s t o h i m s e l f as " t h e N o v e l i s t " t h r o u g h o u t The A r m i e s o f t h e N i g h t , h i s g r e a t e s t work o f j o u r n a l -i s m . 14 P o i r i e r i s n o t u n u s u a l i n f i n d i n g t h a t , d e s p i t e t h e " e x t r a o r d i n a r y a c c u m u l a t i o n s o f i n t e n s i t y and b r i l l i a n c e " t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e M a i l e r ' s c a r e e r , " I t i s n o n e t h e l e s s a c h a o t i c m i x -t u r e t h a t a w a i t s some l a r g e r r e d e m p t i v e e f f o r t . . .", M a i l e r , p . 11. " ^ F o s t e r , f o r example, t h o u g h he a p p r e c i a t e s The A r m i e s o f  t h e N i g h t , a s k s t h e t y p i c a l q u e s t i o n : "Are s u c h v a r i e d and f r e -q u e n t d e t o u r s f r o m t h e h i g h r o a d o f n o v e l - w r i t i n g t h r e a t e n i n g , a t t h i s p r i m e o f h i s c r e a t i v e l i f e , t h e u l t i m a t e d i s s i p a t i o n o f M a i l e r ' s t a l e n t as a m a j o r w r i t e r ? " (p. 4 7 ) ; he i s uncommon,, however, i n a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n e g a t i v e l y . 16 See E v e A u c h i n c l o s s and Nancy L y n c h , "An I n t e r v i e w w i t h Norman M a i l e r " , M a d e m o i s e l l e , F e b r u a r y , 1961, 163: ". . ..The  W h i t e N e g r o i s f o r t h e t i m e , b u t i t w a s n ' t t r u e enough. T h e r e w e r e n ' t enough W h i t e N e g r o e s a r o u n d and so t h e o r g a n i z e d w o r l d t o o k on my n o t i o n o f t h e W h i t e Negro and k i l l e d t h e few o f us a l i t t l e f u r t h e r . And I b e t r a y e d my own by w r i t i n g t h a t p i e c e . " 17 The P r e s i d e n t i a l P a p e r s (New Y o r k : B e r k l e y M e d a l l i o n E d i t i o n , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 1. 1 U9« 18 E x i s t e n t i a l E r r a n d s , pp. x i - x i i . 1 9 P a r i s Review, V I I , No. 26 (Summer, F a l l , 1 9 6 1 ) . 20 C a n n i b a l s and C h r i s t i a n s , p . 261. 2 1 T L o c . c i t . 22 L o c . c i t . 2 3 P a r i s Review, 140. 2 4 I b i d . , p . 144. 25 C a n n i b a l s and C h r i s t i a n s , p . 261. 2 6 I b i d . , p . 253. 2 7 I b i d . , pp. 253-4. 2 8 I b i d . , p . 261. 29 A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , p. 19. 3 0 T h e P r e s i d e n t i a l P a p e r s , p . 305. 3"^Loc. c i t . 32 I b i d . , p . 60. 3 3 I b i d . , p . 307. 34 C a n n i b a l s and C h r i s t i a n s , pp. 6-45. C h a p t e r 5 The A r m i e s o f t h e N i g h t and t h e J o u r n a l i s m "^"Cannibals and' C h r i s t i a n s , p . 209. 2 The A r m i e s o f t h e N i g h t ( T o r o n t o : S i g n e t , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 15. A l l s u b s e q u e n t page r e f e r e n c e s i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e t o t h i s e d i t i o n . 3 The P r e s i d e n t i a l P a p e r s , p . 1. 4 Why A r e We I n V i e t n a m ? , p . 84. 1 5 0 . A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f , p . 15. R i c h a r d G i l m a n , "What M a i l e r Has Done", New R e p u b l i c , J u n e 8, 1968, 28. 7 Norman M a i l e r , . " T h e F a i t h o f G r a f f i t i " , E s q u i r e , May, 1974, 77. g Of a F i r e On t h e Moon ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1970) , p . 80. C o n c l u s i o n " ' " T r i l l i n g , i n L u c i d , p . 136. 2 M a i l e r , The P r i s o n e r o f Sex ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1971), p. 124. 3 Tom W o l f e , "Why They A r e n ' t W r i t i n g t h e G r e a t A m e r i c a n N o v e l Anymore", E s q u i r e , December, 1972, 157. 4 P o d h o r e t z , i n L u c i d , p. 61. 5 W o l f e , p . 157. 151. S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y A l d r i d g e , J o h n W. A f t e r t h e L o s t G e n e r a t i o n : A C r i t i c a l S t u d y o f  t h e W r i t e r s o f Two Wars. New-York, 1951. . "From V i e t n a m t o O b s c e n i t y " . Norman M a i l e r : The Man and H i s Work, R o b e r t F. L u c i d , e d . B o s t o n , 19 71. . "The E n e r g y o f New S u c c e s s " . Norman M a i l e r : A C o l l e c t i o n o f C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , Leo B r a u d y , e d . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , 1972. A u c h i n c l o s s , E v e , and Nancy L y n c h . "An I n t e r v i e w w i t h Norman M a i l e r " , M a d e m o i s e l l e , F e b r u a r y , 1961, 76, 160-3. B a l d w i n , James. "The B l a c k Boy L o o k s a t t h e W h i t e Boy". Norman  M a i l e r : The Man and H i s Work, R o b e r t F. L u c i d , e d . B o s t o n , 1971. B e r s a n i , L e o . "The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Dreams". Norman M a i l e r : The  Man and H i s Work, R o b e r t F. L u c i d , e d . B o s t o n , 1971. B r a u d y , L e o , e d . Norman M a i l e r : A C o l l e c t i o n o f C r i t i c a l E s s a y s . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , 1972. B r e i t , H a r v e y . The W r i t e r O b s e r v e d . London, 1956. C h a s e , R i c h a r d . " N o v e l i s t G o i n g P l a c e s " , Commentary, December, 1955, 581-3. C o r r i n g t o n , J o h n W i l l i a m . "An A m e r i c a n Dreamer", C h i c a g o Review, X V I I I , no. 1 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , 58-66. D i e n s t f r e y , . H a r r i s . "The F i c t i o n o f Norman M a i l e r " . On Contempor- a r y L i t e r a t u r e , R i c h a r d K o s t e l a n e t z , e d . New Y o r k : Avon, 1964. E l l m a n , R i c h a r d , and C h a r l e s F e i d e l s o n , J r . , e d s . The Modern  T r a d i t i o n : B a c k g r o u n d s o f Modern L i t e r a t u r e . New Y o r k , 1965. F o s t e r , R i c h a r d . "Norman M a i l e r " . Norman M a i l e r : The Man and  H i s Work, R o b e r t F. L u c i d , e d . B o s t o n , 1971. G i l m a n , R i c h a r d . "What M a i l e r Has Done", New R e p u b l i c , June 8, 1968, 27-31. Gutman, A l l e n . The J e w i s h W r i t e r i n A m e r i c a : A s s i m i l a t i o n and  t h e C r i s i s o f I d e n t i t y . New Y o r k , 19 71. H a r d w i c k , E l i z a b e t h . "A N i g h t m a r e by Norman M a i l e r " . Norman M a i l e r : The Man and H i s Work, R o b e r t F. L u c i d , e d . Bosto n , . 1971. H e s l a , D a v i d . "The Two R o l e s o f Norman M a i l e r " . A d v e r s i t y and  G r a c e : S t u d i e s i n R e c e n t A m e r i c a n L i t e r a t u r e , N a t h a n A. S c o t t , J r . , e d . C h i c a g o , 1968. H o f f a , W i l l i a m . "Norman M a i l e r : A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f " . The  F i f t i e s : F i c t i o n , P o e t r y , Drama, Warren F r e n c h , e d . D e l a n d , F l o r i d a , 1970. Hyman, S t a n l e y E d g a r . "Norman M a i l e r ' s Yummy Rump". S t a n d a r d s :  A C h r o n i c l e o f Books f o r Our Time. New Y o r k , 1966. Kaufmann, D o n a l d L. Norman M a i l e r : The Countdown (The F i r s t  Twenty Y e a r s ) . C a r b o n d a l e , 1969. K a z i n , A l f r e d . "The T r o u b l e He's S e e n " , The New Y o r k T imes Book  Review, May 5, 1968, 1-2, 26. L e e d s , B a r r y H. The S t r u c t u r e d V i s i o n o f Norman M a i l e r . New Y o r k , 1969. ~ L e v i n e , R i c h a r d M. "When Sam and S e r g i u s Meet", The New L e a d e r , J u l y 8, 1968, 16-9. L e w i s , R.W.B. " R e c e n t F i c t i o n : P i c a r o and P i l g r i m " . A Time o f H a r v e s t : A m e r i c a n L i t e r a t u r e 1910-1960, R o b e r t E . S p i l l e r , e d . New Y o r k , 1962. L u c i d , R o b e r t F., e d . Norman M a i l e r : The'Man and H i s Work. B o s t o n , 1971. L u k a c s , G e o r g . R e a l i s m I n Our Time: L i t e r a t u r e and t h e C l a s s  S t r u g g l e , J o h n and Necke Mander, t r a n s . New Y o r k , 1964. . W r i t e r and C r i t i c , and O t h e r E s s a y s , A r t h u r D. Kahn, e d . and t r a n s . New Y o r k , 1971. M a i l e r , Norman. A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r M y s e l f . New Y o r k : S i g n e t , 1960. . An A m e r i c a n Dream. New Y o r k : D e l l , 1965. . The A r m i e s o f t h e N i g h t . T o r o n t o : S i g n e t , 1968. 153 M a i l e r , Norman. B a r b a r y S h o r e . New Y o r k : S i g n e t , 1951. . C a n n i b a l s and C h r i s t i a n s . New Y o r k : D e l l , 1966. . The D eer P a r k . New Y o r k : B e r k l e y M e d a l l i o n , 1967. . E x i s t e n t i a l E r r a n d s . S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o : S i g n e t , 1973. . "The F a i t h o f G r a f f i t i " , E s q u i r e , May, 1974, 77-88, 154-8. . Miami and t h e S e i g e o f C h i c a g o . New Y o r k : S i g n e t , 1968. . The Naked and t h e Dead. New Y o r k j 1948. . Of a F i r e On t h e Moon. B o s t o n , 1970. . The P r e s i d e n t i a l P a p e r s . New Y o r k : B e r k l e y M e d a l l i o n , 1963. . The P r i s o n e r o f Sex. B o s t o n , 1971. . S t . G eorge and t h e G o d f a t h e r . New Y o r k : S i g n e t , 1972. : " . Why A r e We I n V i e t n a m ? . New Y o r k : B e r k l e y M e d a l l i o n , 1967. M a r c u s , S t e p h e n . "Norman M a i l e r : . An I n t e r v i e w " , P a r i s Review, XXXI ( W i n t e r , S p r i n g , 1 9 6 4 ) , 28-41. M a r t i e n , Norman,. "Norman M a i l e r a t G r a d u a t e S c h o o l ; o r One Man's E f f o r t " . Norman M a i l e r : The Man and H i s Work, R o b e r t F. L u c i d , e d . B o s t o n , 1971. Modern F i c t i o n S t u d i e s , X V I I , No. 3 (Autumn, 1 9 7 1 ) . M u s t e , J o h n M. "Norman M a i l e r and J o h n Dos P a s s o s : The Q u e s t i o n o f I n f l u e n c e " , Modern F i c t i o n S t u d i e s , X V I I , No. 3 (Autumn, 19 7 1 ) , 361-74. P o d h o r e t z , Norman. "Norman M a i l e r : The E m b a t t l e d V i s i o n " . N o r - man M a i l e r : The Man and H i s Work, R o b e r t F. L u c i d , e d . B o s t o n , v1971. P o i r i e r , R i c h a r d . M a i l e r . L o n d o n , 1972. 1514.. P o i r i e r , R i c h a r d . " ' M o r b i d - M i n d e d n e s s ' " . Norman M a i l e r : The Man  and H i s Work, R o b e r t F. L u c i d , e d . B o s t o n , 1971. Rahv, P h i l i p . "Crime W i t h o u t P u n i s h m e n t " . L i t e r a t u r e and t h e  S i x t h S e n s e . B o s t o n , 1969. S a r t r e , J e a n - P a u l . The P s y c h o l o g y o f I m a g i n a t i o n ^ ' New Y o r k : W a s h i n g t o n S q u a r e , 1966. S o l o t a r o f f , R o b e r t . Down M a i l e r ' s Way. C h i c a g o , 1974. T a n n e r , Tony. C i t y o f Words: A m e r i c a n F i c t i o n . 1950-1970. London, 1971. ~ T r i l l i n g , D i a n a . "The M o r a l R a d i c a l i s m o f Norman M a i l e r " . Norman  M a i l e r : The Man and H i s Work, R o b e r t F. L u c i d , e d . B o s t o n , 1971. W o l f e , Tom. "Son o f C r i m e and P u n i s h m e n t " . Norman M a i l e r : The  Man and H i s Work, R o b e r t F. L u c i d , e d . B o s t o n , 1971. . "Why T hey A r e n ' t W r i t i n g t h e G r e a t A m e r i c a n N o v e l Anymore", E s q u i r e , December, 1972, 152-9,. 272-80. 

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