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Territory, territoriality and cultural change in an indigenous society : Old Crow, Yukon Territory McSkimming, Robert James 1975

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TERRITORY, TERRITORIALITY, AND CULTURAL CHANGE IN AN INDIGENOUS SOCIETY: OLD CROW, YUKON TERRITORY  by ROBERT JAMES B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y  McSKIMMING  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of Geography  We a c c e p t required  THE  this  t h e s i s as conforming t o the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May,  1975  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  make i t  freely available  that permission  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s of  this  representatives. thesis  It  is understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  written permission.  Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  Columbia  not be allowed without my  ii  ABSTRACT  The impact on  purpose of the r e s e a r c h  of c u l t u r a l ,  t e r r i t o r y and  Territory. spatial  e c o n o m i c , and  territoriality  changes i n the the  the  environmental  the  society.  An  circumstances  social  and  historical  which l e d K u t c h i n  o f t h e n o r t h e r n Yukon t o e v e n t u a l l y a t t a c h  themselves to t r a d i n g p o s t s .  The  resource-use  relationship  p a t t e r n s and  •land-use'  territory  compared.  The  evolution  The reflects  and  thesis  the  changing  nature  and  of  between  'perceived' t e r r i t o r y  framework, t h e n ,  of t e r r i t o r y  indigenous  is  i s to present  territoriality  i n an  an  isolated  society.  territory n a t i v e use  o f O l d Crow i s d e f i n e d a s and  perception.  t h a t which  Territoriality,  the  o t h e r hand, i s t h e b e h a v i o u r  of dominating,  and  defending  Through use  approach the  a specific relationship  space.  between o c c u p i e d  t h e g r o u p ' s image o f i t s t e r r i t o r y same t i m e  the  perceived  territory  expressions The  factors  i n O l d Crow, Yukon  I t i n v e s t i g a t e s both  sketch provides Indians  i s t o examine  of  present  i s compared w i t h  of the  territory  ecological and  At  the  Crow's u s e d  and  p a s t use  and  past  territoriality.  u l t i m a t e purpose of t h i s  on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h w h i c h he  controlling,  i s explored.  c o n d i t i o n s of Old  on  between man  work i s t o s h e d  and  the  is intimately familiar.  light  environment Little  i s known  ill  of  the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t e r r i t o r i a l i t y  and  even l e s s  i s known a b o u t t h e e f f e c t  change on t h a t The  shows t h a t t e r r i t o r y  from t h e b e h a v i o u r  study, the  that  a  t o them.  c o u l d n o t be s e c u r e d .  through  cultural,  extent  separated  t h e community's could  The g r o u p , e s s e n t i a l  i s shown t o be h e l d t o g e t h e r  spatial  c a n n o t be  of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y ;  c o n t r o l and use o f t h e i r  points  o f territorial  i s t h a t s p a c e w h i c h a l l members  as b e l o n g i n g  behaviour  behaviour.  thesis  territory  on human  to  geographic  by common v a l u e s  t e r r i t o r y and i n d i v i d u a l The r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t s  i n the s p a t i a l  extent  However, a l t h o u g h  The of  of l a n d use parallelled  of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y .  o f the land i s not used,  extent  t h a t the people  do n o t v i e w t h e l a n d a s  l a n d a n d i t s r e s o u r c e s a s p e r c e i v e d by t h e p e o p l e  O l d Crow a r e shown t o be t h e o n l y known a n d permanent Not o n l y c a n t h e l a n d p r o v i d e a  i t i s shown t o be p a r t o f t h e p e o p l e  identity. now  was  t o them.  commodities. but  i n the expressions  the t o t a l  does n o t s u g g e s t  belonging  the t h e s i s  of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y .  t h e ' c o r e ' o f t h e t e r r i t o r y which has been  by a n i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n  view-  s o c i a l , a n d e c o n o m i c change t h e  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e has b e e n a n i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n  it  toward  o f l a n d used d i m i n i s h e d and t h a t t h e r e  comparable drop  in  identify  In the f i n a l  under a t t a c k which  between O l d Crow p e o p l e  livelihood,  - a base f o r  a n a l y s i s i t i s the land intensifies and t h e i r  itself  the r e l a t i o n s h i p land.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER  CHAPTER  I  II  INTRODUCTION 1. The S t u d y : I t s P u r p o s e a n d Scope (a) The L a n d - S e t t l e m e n t Dichotomy (b) T h e K u t c h i n P e o p l e 2. L o c a t i o n a n d S e t t i n g o f t h e Study Area (a) P h y s i c a l G e o g r a p h y (b) T h e P e o p l e o f O l d Crow 3. M e t h o d o l o g i c a l C o n t e x t (a) The E c o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h ( i ) human e c o l o g y ( i i ) ecology i n A r c t i c studies ( i i i ) e c o l o g i c a l approach i n the present study (b) T e r r i t o r y a n d T e r r i t o r i a l i t y (c) The P r o b l e m ( i ) the hypothesis ( i i ) d a t a a n d sample s i z e ( i i i ) procedures and measurements PEOPLE AND PLACE: OLD CROW'S HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT A. TRADITIONAL MATERIAL AND SOCIAL CULTURE 1. S e a s o n a l Movement a n d L o c a t i o n 2. H u n t i n g a n d F i s h i n g 3. D r e s s , S h e l t e r a n d T r a v e l k. S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n B. EARLY POST-CONTACT CULTURE 1. C o n t a c t H i s t o r y (a) F u r T r a d e r s (b) M i s s i o n a r i e s (c) G o l d S e e k e r s a n d W h a l e r s (d) The Government 2. Changes i n t h e Way o f L i f e (a) S e a s o n a l Movement a n d L o c a t i o n (b) H u n t i n g , F i s h i n g , a n d Trapping (c) D r e s s , S h e l t e r , a n d T r a v e l (d) S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n 3. The E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f O l d Crow  1 1 2 k 8 8 10 12 12 12 16 18 19 22 22 23 2k 2? 27 27 30 32 3k 3k 35 35 41 k2 k$ k5 k"? kB 50 52 5k  V  Page CHAPTER  CHAPTER  III  IV  CHAPTER V  OLD CROW TERRITORY A . THE OLD CROW LAND 1. U t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e O l d Crow L a n d 2. Change i n Land-Use P a t t e r n 3. O w n e r s h i p a n d t h e I n t e n s i t y o f t h e Use o f t h e O l d Crow Land . (a) O w n e r s h i p (b) I n t e n s i t y o f L a n d U s e (i) trapping ( i i ) hunting (iii) ratting (iv) f i s h i n g 4. Summary B. THE OLD CROW ECONOMY 1. The Community Based Economy 2. L a n d B a s e d Economy (a) Cash f o r Land A c t i v i t i e s (b) D i r e c t C o n s u m p t i o n f r o m Land A c t i v i t i e s 3. Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s  58 58 58 6l 70 70 81 81 89 93 96 96 99 100 105 105 108 113  TERRITORIALITY 1. T e r r i t o r i a l i t y i n t h e P a s t 2. P r e s e n t Day C l a i m s 3. The P e r c e p t i o n o f a T e r r i t o r y (a) C o r e A r e a (b) Home T e r r i t o r y 4. T e r r i t o r i a l Commitment 5 . T h e O l d Crow C l a i m  115 116 122 126 130 130 134 142  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 1. Land-Use 2. P e r c e i v e d T e r r i t o r y 3. E c o n o m i c R e a l i t i e s 4. T e r r i t o r y a n d T e r r i t o r i a l i t y  144 144 146 147 149  REFERENCES  *  151  APPENDIX I  OLD CROW FACT AND OPINION QUESTIONNAIRE 165  APPENDIX I I  ENDPAPERS  I83  vi  LIST  OF FIGURES Page  1.1  Athapaskans  1.2  O l d Crow R e g i o n  2.1  Kutchin Territory Yukon  2.2  i n Northwest America  5 9  i n the Northern 28  C o n t a c t H i s t o r y and t h e T r i b e s i n Northwest America  '  J6  2.3  C a r i b o u M i g r a t i o n Routes  56  3.1  Trapping Centre Locations  60  3.2  O l d Crow L a n d U s e , Long Ago  63  3.3  O l d Crow Land U s e , i 9 6 0  64  3.4  Crow F l a t s  6?  3.5  O l d Crow L a n d U s e , 1 9 7 3  3.6  Crow F l a t s (i960  3.7  and  Crow F l a t s  Muskrat T r a p p i n g S e c t o r s  69  M u s k r a t T r a p p i n g Camps 1961)  72  M u s k r a t T r a p p i n g Camps,  1973  3.8  78  C o u n t r y Food P r o d u c t i o n : O l d Crow Hunter/Trapper Family i n 1973  109  4.1  Kutchin  117  4.2  Land C l a i m T e r r i t o r y Trapping Area  Inter T r i b a l T e r r i t o r i a l i t y and Group  124  4.3  Image o f O l d Crow T e r r i t o r y ' s  4.4  O l d e r P e o p l e ' s Image o f O l d Crow Territory  131  Y o u n g e r P e o p l e ' s Image o f O l d Crow Territory  132  4.5  Core  129  vii  Page 4.6  4.7  4.8  Category Frequency of Scale For Each L o c a t i o n  Points  136  C o r r e l a t i o n and R e g r e s s i o n o f Defense I n t e n s i t y and A c c e s s i b l e Distance f r o m O l d Crow  138  O l d Crow A t t i t u d e  140  Questionnaire L o u c h e u x Map  Toward  Pipeline  I69  Map o f t h e O l d Crow  Old  Crow, 196 3  Old  Crow,  1973  Country  •e-r  En&pap-er  cm  r  n-> f  ocket  vill L I S T OF TABLES Page . 3.1  Ratting  Old 3.2  Camps a n d R a t t i n g  Sectors,  Crow F l a t s , 196O-6I  73  Muskrat T r a p p i n g A s s o c i a t i o n s L o n g A g o , I 9 6 0 , 1973  77  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between M u s k r a t T r a p p e r s and Owner o f R a t t i n g S e c t o r s , 1973  79  P r o d u c t i v i t y of Winter T r a p l i n e s In O l d Crow by M i l e o f L i n e Length and P e r T r a p p e r  83  3.5  O l d Crow F u r R e t u r n s ,  87  3.6  Hunt P r o d u c t i v i t y a n d L a n d Use  3.3 3.4  1938-1973  Intensity  90  3.7  O l d Crow Game R e t u r n s , 1963-1973  92  3.8  Muskrat  94  3.9  F u r Returns f o r Muskrats  3.10  O l d Crow F i s h e r i e s ,  3.11  L e n g t h o f Time i n Wage Employment,  Old  Camp P r o d u c t i v i t y "  1967-1973  Crow, 1972-73  3.12  Employment O p p o r t u n i t i e s  3.13  Wage Income D i s t r i b u t i o n , O l d Crow,  1972-73 3.14  95  97  100 101  102  A f f i n i t y t o O l d Crow by R e s i d e n t s F u r Income, 1967-73  106  3.16  F a m i l i e s w i t h Income From L a n d A c t i v i t i e s , O l d Crow, 1972-73  107  3.17  L a n d - B a s e d Income a s a P e r C e n t a g e o f T o t a l Income, O l d Crow, 1972-73  108  3.15  104  ix  Page 3.18 4.1  4.2  11.1  F a m i l y Requirements and Consumption of Country Food, 1 9 7 3  110  Pre-Contact and E a r l y Contact T e r r i t o r i a l i t y i n Northwest North America  119  A . D e f e n s e Response V a l u e s B. D e f e n s e I n d i c i e s a n d A c c e s s i b l e D i s t a n c e f r o m O l d Crow t o t h e Sample L o c a t i o n s Loucheux  135 136  P l a c e Name Map, Name a n d 184  Number K e y 11.2  Building  Code Key f o r O l d Crow  (1973)  196  11.3  Building  Code Key f o r O l d Crow  (1963)  200  X  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The out  field  i n the  summer o f 1 9 7 3 »  Department  territorial  r e s e a r c h was  carried  under the a u s p i c e s  of I n d i a n A f f a i r s  F e d e r a l and i n my  p o r t i o n of t h i s  and  Northern  agencies  of  Development.  were e x t r e m e l y  helpful  search f o r data. In  O l d Crow t h e p e o p l e  were f r i e n d l y a n d  e n d u r i n g what must have seemed c e a s e l e s s T h a n k s go assisted  t o t h e f o l l o w i n g , who, i n the r e s e a r c h :  M a r t h a B e n j a m i n , Ben Helen  Charlie,  inquiry.  time  to  time  C h a r l i e A b e l , Johnny  Charlie,  Shirley  from  open,  Charlie Peter  F r o s t , John Kendl,  Moses T i z y a .  Peter  My  Norma K a s s i , who  s t a y i n O l d Crow w o u l d n o t without  the  have b e e n  company o f Bob  and  Mary I s s a c s , H e r t a R i c h t e r , a n d  are a l l knowledgeable  society.  and  made  c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e r e s e a r c h team.  rewarding Ed and  Lord,  S p e c i a l m e n t i o n i s made o f R a n d a l l  C h a r l i e , G l e n n a F r o s t , and valuable  Abel,  Charlie,  N e i l M c D o n a l d , G e o r g e Moses, G r a f t o n N J o o t l i ,  who  the  I came t o r e l y  as major c r i t i c s  of the  on Bob  Sharp and  research.  C l a r e Sharp,  Rev.  of the problems  as  John Watts,  i n northern Mary  Issacs  xi  A t U.B.C. more t h a n g r a t i t u d e i s owing t o my a d v i s o r , D r . J o h n S t a g e r , a n d t o my r e a d e r , D r . D a v i d Ley,  f o rtheir  endless patience.  i n the n o r t h proved  i n v a l u a b l e t o t h e framework o f t h e  r e s e a r c h , w h i l e Dr. Ley's techniques  Dr. Stager's e x p e r t i s e  guidance  with  certain  i n b e h a v i o u r a l g e o g r a p h y a d d e d much t o  the t h e s i s .  Mary C.orbett t o i l e d  o v e r t h e computer  work, a n d my w i f e , A l l e n a , a c t u a l l y made t h e c o n f u s e d mass o f n o t e s  legible.  Robert  J . McSkimming  March,  1975  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Old  Crow, a r e l a t i v e l y  n o r t h e r n Yukon T e r r i t o r y , cultural  change.  isolated  exists  Traditional  Indian v i l l a g e  i n a c o n d i t i o n of  settlement  patterns  n o m a d i c g r o u p s have c h a n g e d t o a s e d e n t a r y The  band u n i t  still  exists;  f a c t o r s have a l t e r e d l a n d and  the use  Subsistence  of  Crow has  1.  The  in  a r e now  basin.  paralleled  examines b o t h  O l d Crow's s o c i e t y .  economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s  The  p a t t e r n s and  territory  and  to a  Movement o f p e o p l e  by  resource  into  changes  c h a n g e s on t h e  Old  land.  Scope  the  first  the  of  i n the  s o c i a l and  spatial  changes  thesis describes h i s t o r i c a l  permanently, to t r a d i n g posts.  •land-use'  the  the w i d e r expanse  which l e d K u t c h i n  Yukon t o a t t a c h t h e m s e l v e s  resource-use  life.  cultural  occupance of  pressures, causing  S t u d y : I t s P u r p o s e and  study  small,  community  restricted  Crow, r a t h e r t h a n  created social  This  of  resources.  drainage  community w h i c h a r e  rapid  however, economic and  p e r c e p t i o n and  activities  h i n t e r l a n d near Old the Porcupine  the  i n the  Indians  tentatively, The  changing  relationship  of the  and  then  nature  between  'perceived' t e r r i t o r y  and northern more  of the  i s compared.  2 Many s e t t l e m e n t s "base b r o a d (Usher,  i n t h e n o r t h do n o t have an  enough t o a b s o r b  1970:  xix; Wolforth,  d e c l i n e d as an  a l a r g e number o f r e s i d e n t s 1971:  the v o i d , t r a p p i n g , e s p e c i a l l y  t r a p p i n g and but  has  (Tanner,  ratting  trapping; destined  1966:  12).  increasing  however, o v e r t h e t o a mixed  Honigmann and  since.  The  to  fill  engages  1969-70,  in  R e c e n t l y many  to take the p l a c e  of  l o n g t e r m , O l d Crow seems  s e t t l e m e n t and  land  Land-Settlement  t o changing  economy.  Dichotomy  Honigmann gave t h e  f o r an a d a p t i v e process community.  has  I n O l d Crow, w i n t e r  extreme low  o p p o r t u n i t i e s have a r i s e n  (a) The  a  Trapping  f o r muskrat, s t i l l  d e c l i n e d t o an  been s t e a d i l y  short-term  1).  occupation, although with nothing  many o f t h e p e o p l e  economic  label  'dual  allegiance'  economic c o n d i t i o n s i n  condition described resistance to  changes.  "Where some f a m i l i e s have c h o s e n c a r e e r s i n town, o t h e r s r e m a i n p r i m a r i l y f i x e d i n h u n t i n g and trapping careeers. O t h e r s seem u n d e c i d e d , or unable t o keep a Job i n town, s h i f t b a c k and f o r t h . " (Honigmann and Wolforth is  a t one  xix).  expresses end  and  Honigmann, 1965:  77)  t h i s a s a s c a l e where t h e b u s h the  town d w e l l e r i s a t t h e  other  dweller  (1970:  3  Such p e o p l e s h i f t seasonal  in nature.  delibertately order  back and f o r t h because t h e jobs a r e  sought  to return  out seasonal  t o land  E s k i m o s on B a r t e r  (1965: 375).  not only  1  also  (  1  9  6  8  )  ,  areheld  Mailhot  i nthenorth.  condition;  i nfact,  (  employment there  self  this  identity  'dual  but a l s o i n  1  9  6  8  i n high )  ,  esteem.  and Lubart  (  1  i n t h e Mackenzie  O l d Crow does n o t e s c a p e  i t i si n a critical  had been a steady d e c l i n e  near future  acceptance  Smith 9  6  9  have  )  Delta.  s u g g e s t a p o l a r i z a t i o n between b u s h a n d  settlement  full-time  that  i ntheir  described  o b s e r v e d t h e same c o n d i t i o n s These s t u d i e s  there  He s t a t e d  c l a s s s y s t e m where p e o p l e who have  some w h i t e t r a i t s  (1967), E r v i n  allegiance of  i n terms o f l i v e l i h o o d  t e r m s o f a new s o c i a l accepted  the dual  means a s h i f t  (1962: 133)  Vallee  jobs i n  (1962: ?6).  activities  Island, Alaska.  c e r t a i n white t r a i t s  allegiance  or part-time  (1965) a l s o d e s c r i b e d  Chance  of  (1962) o b s e r v e d t h a t p e o p l e  Cohen  of trapping,  opportunities  i s a proposal  position.  this T o 1970  a l t h o u g h few  were a v a i l a b l e . <  f o r an o i l p i p e l i n e  In the close  1 t o O l d Crow.  There  is also  thequestion  o f Land  t o be s e t t l e d , a s w e l l a s g r o w i n g p r e s s u r e  Claims  for o i l exploration  Land C l a i m s : N e g o t i a t i o n s f o r t h e t i t l e o f c e r t a i n crown l a n d o r l a n d l e a s e d f r o m t h e crown t o be s e t a s i d e f o r c o n t r o l a n d management by t h e l o c a l i n d i g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n .  4  i n the region.  The p r o b l e m  i s to assess  w h i c h have a f f e c t e d t h e people the  impact  of these  past c o n d i t i o n s  o f O l d Crow, a n d d e t e r m i n e  c o n d i t i o n s on t h e economy  of the  community.  (b) The K u t c h i n  People  Many s t u d i e s have r e c o n s t r u c t e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l graphy o f the K u t c h i n (1936b) done  of Kutchin  (193*0.  by n o t t r a v e l l i n g and  relying  bands  The r e s e a r c h d e a l t w i t h (1936a) a n d t h e  e x t e n s i v e l y through  on two p r i m a r y  informants.  similarities  h i s research  the K u t c h i n  country  Osgood a l s o  cited  f u r traders (e.g. Hardisty,  1866;  1866) a n d m i s s i o n a r i e s ( e . g . K i r k b y , 1864).  O t h e r r e s e a r c h has b e e n s p e c i f i c a l l y Kutchin  i s Osgood's  U n f o r t u n a t e l y he l i m i t e d  o b s e r v a t i o n s made by e a r l y Jones,  The c l a s s i c  i n t h e summer o f 1932.  the d i s t r i b u t i o n among them  Indians.  ethno-  bands, both  findings. isolation  s u p p o r t i n g and q u e r y i n g  F o r example, t h e r e than  inter-tribal  on  Osgood t h o u g h t ,  individual many o f Osgood's  seemed t o be l e s s w i t h numerous  commerce a n d w a r f a r e  geographical  examples o f  i n s t u d i e s by  Slobodln  (I960, 1962) among t h e T a t l i t K u t c h i n , a n d Leechman (1954) among t h e V u n t a K u t c h i n working  (see F i g . #  i n O l d Crow c r i t i c i z e s  1.1).  Balikci  (I963)  Osgood's r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  5  in  G u l f  NORTHWEST AMERICA (After  A  M Clellan, 1964) c  FIGURE  1.1  I  a  O f s  k a  6  the  social  s y s t e m , w h i l e McKennan ( 1 9 6 5 ) »  clan  country, disagrees with Kutchin located their  in Natsit  Osgood's a s s e r t i o n t h a t a l l  summer r e s i d e n c e s f o r  fishing  purposes. The  v a r i o u s groups of I n d i a n people  g r a p h i e s were c a l l e d  "tribes",  i n these  "community", o r  ethno-  "bands".  2 Welsh the  (1970)  social  particular  adds the term  cohesiveness  on w h i t e  h i g h l y mobile  literature c o n t a c t and  distinct hunting  from  on K u t c h i n I n d i a n s has social  change.  for particular  studies  (1936a,  groups:  " ...  for  focussed  However, no  primarily  one  has  convenient  groups.  Osgood's  i s attached to a section  i s the  Balikci  principal  (1963),  and  artery"  McKennan ( 1 9 6 5 )  c h a n g e s , w h i l e Leechman (195*0  contemporary m a t e r i a l change.  of  country  (1936b:  d i s c u s s e d i n tremendous d e t a i l m a t e r i a l a n d  cultural on  (1962),  small,  were t r u l y a taxonomy o f A t h a p a s k a n  each t r i b e  w h i c h some r i v e r  Slobodin all  1936b)  social  the  in a  bands.  gone b e y o n d u s i n g t h e r e s o u r c e r e g i o n as a classification  which d e s c r i b e d  among s m a l l h u n t i n g g r o u p s  r e s o u r c e r e g i o n and  socio-economic, The  " r e g i o n a l band"  have  social-  concentrated  Slobodin also  13)•  mostly  described  2 T h i s c o n c e p t was a d o p t e d f r o m J u n e Helm, " B i l a t e r a l i t y i n the S o c l o - t e r r i t o r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n of the A r c t i c Drainage Dene" Ethnology ( 4 : 4 ) , 1964, pp. 3 6 I - 3 8 5 , i n h e r a t t e m p t t o d e s c r i b e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f members i n s m a l l h u n t i n g g r o u p s w i t h members o f o t h e r h u n t i n g g r o u p s , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the l a r g e r t e r r i t o r i a l groups w i t h other territorial groups.  7  s e a s o n a l movement w i t h analyzed study  the  effects  on T a t l i t  of the K l o n d i k e  Kutchin  G o l d Rush i n h i s  (1963).  O t h e r s t u d i e s have b e e n d i r e c t e d problems.  Honigmann  described  social  communities, was evil  including  thoughts  Marshall  that  toward  social  (1965) and B a l i k c i (1968)  disintegration  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  (i960) and  respect to warfare  in certain  O l d Crow.  This  distrustful  northern  disintegration  competition,  i n d i v i d u a l s have f o r one  envy  and  another.  (1970) g i v e s a n example o f t h i s c o n d i t i o n by  describing  the  social  effects  from a  series  of  environmental  changes. R e s e a r c h a l s o has (Irving, history Hall  put  occurred  1968), p a l a e o n t o l o g y migration forward  mountain, not  (Hall, the  riverine,  fields  w i t h i n the  archaeology pre-  O l d Crow r e g i o n .  t h a t K u t c h i n were  people"  of  1971)* and  (Harrington,  1969)  thesis  i n the  "distinctly  (19&9: 328), b u t  Irving  (1968j 19) and H a r r i n g t o n (1971: 59) have shown t h a t f o r at  l e a s t a part of the year  people  utilized  river  valleys  i n p r e - h i s t o r y times. There are (Welsh,  t h r e e contemporary  1970; N a y s m i t h , 1971;  Naysmith's  study  hunting-trapping the v i l l a g e . and  B i s s e t and  Meldrum,  Crow  1973).  (1971) c e n t r e s on t h e p r o b l e m s o f a economy and  Bisset  hunting w i l l  s t u d i e s of Old  and  f u t u r e wage employment  Meldrum  become e x t i n c t  for  (1973) assume t r a p p i n g in their  description  of  8  the  contemporary  Both  s t u d i e s  f u t u r e v i e w ,  of  i s  the  f a l l e n  e v i d e n t  and t h a t  a n a l y s i s  s h o r t .  It  L o c a t i o n (a.)  to  the none  man  of  of  and  i n t e n t  between  man  and  P h y s i c a l  of  the  h i s  the  Geography  s o c i a l  s t u d i e s  t h i s  study  a r e a  d r a i n a g e  b a s i n  of  Yukon. l a k e s a  In  t h i s  abound.  g e n e r a l l y  M o u n t a i n s , through  a  i n c l u d e s  the  l a n d The  Study (Old  broad  f l o w i n g f l a t  n o r t h ,  p l a i n  the  P o r c u p i n e  P l a t e a u .  and  a l l  t h e i r  t r i b u t a r i e s  Crow,  g e n e r a l  l e v e l  of  A  most  the  a r e a  of  t h i s  Crow t o  has  add  the  Y . T . :  139° 4 5 '  N,  the  n o r t h e r n  and  c r o s s e s  t h i s i n  numerous a r e a the  meandering  s w i n g i n g  v a l l e y s  W)  i s o l a t e d  streams  then  l a k e - c o v e r e d  s i g n i f i c a n t  i n  P o r c u p i n e  have  To  Old  o r i g i n a t i n g  before  The  attempted  A r e a  R i v e r  R i v e r  d i r e c t i o n ,  i n  r e l a t i v e l y  r i v e r s ,  P o r c u p i n e  westward f i r s t  l a r g e  have  environment.  the  P o r c u p i n e  o r g a n i z a t i o n .  t h e s i s  67° 35*  The  h i s t o r i c a l  environment.  of  Crow.  c h a n g i n g  c o n d i t i o n s  the  S e t t i n g  of  Old  economic  an  between  the  p r e s e n t  i n  the  w i t h  nature  i s  and  p r e d i c t  r e l a t i o n s h i p  i n t e g r a t e  r e l a t i o n s h i p  2.  the  c o n d i t i o n  (1970),  Welsh  p a t t e r n s  t o t a l l y  p o i n t  undertaken  Crow.  d e s c r i b e s  It t o  were  Old  s e t t l e m e n t  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  i n O g i l v i e  s l o w l y  west  R i v e r ,  Old  w e l l  below  through Crow the  p l a t e a u .  l a k e s  i s  l o c a t e d  f i f t y  R i v e r ,  9  FIGURE  1.2  10  miles n o r t h of the Porcupine as  O l d Crow F l a t s .  R i v e r , a broad  The " F l a t s " a b o u n d  have a l w a y s p l a y e d a c e n t r a l Kutchin annual occur  cycles.  immediately  south  the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n Elevated areas cover  in wildlife  other areas  of heavy  o f t h e O l d Crow v i l l a g e ,  of the Eagle exist  clay  ponding and i n  Plain.  between t h e l a k e s a n d h a v e a stunted  of the drainage area the s o i l  of g l a c i o - l a c u s t r i n e  origin.  an abundance o f s e g r e g a t e d  thick  spruce.  is silt  The p o l y g o n a l  network of r i d g e s i n t h e low l y i n g a r e a s suggest  that  i n the d i f f e r e n t  of peat w i t h dwarf b i r c h and s c a t t e r e d  For the remainder and  Two  position  b a s i n known  of the region  i c e i n the form  of i c e  wedges a n d g r o u n d i c e . The continuous surface layer of  Porcupine permafrost  (Naysmith,  of peat  several  Gullies  i s u n d e r l a i n by  l o c a t e d w i t h i n two f e e t  1971: 2 0 ) .  of the ground  When t h e i n s u l a t i n g  i s disturbed the permafrost  melts  surface  t o depths  f e e t with a great d e a l of subsidence o c c u r r i n g .  draining  themselves  drainage'area  from  the b a s i n surface r a p i d l y  a n d on a number o f o c c a s i o n s e n t i r e  the main stream  lakes bordering  have b e e n d r a i n e d .  (b) The P e o p l e  Three  incise  Kutchin  o f O l d Crow  ' r e g i o n a l bands' a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n O l d  11  Crow.  Kutchin,  of Northern originally meaning at  one  or  "dwellers" , are a d i s t i n c t i v e  i n h a b i t e d the  'among t h e time  lived  creek'.  R i v e r and of Old and  were  Crow no  tribal  14)  The  The  ' d w e l l e r s among t h e Natsit  longer relate  of the  the  t r a d i n g post  O l d Crow i s l o c a t e d on R i v e r , a m i l e west O l d Crow has  Crow was  Upper  life  "melting pot"  Chandalar people  tribes  i s i n Old (Osgood,  (Harrington, 196I1  5).  t h e n o r t h bank o f t h e the  top  Porcupine  O l d Crow R i v e r .  a remoteness, being a c c e s s i b l e only  In the one  who  The  original  of i t s j u n c t i o n w i t h  maintained  by a i r o r w a t e r . of Old  to t h e i r  T h e i r home and by  Vunta,  rocks a t the  i n h a b i t e d the  who  Porcupine  ' d w e l l e r s above the t i m b e r ' .  territory.  people  Tukkuth K u t c h i n ,  i n the headwaters of the  Crow, b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r 1936:  The  Crow F l a t s were t e r m e d  lakes'.  R i v e r , were known a s of the  (see P i g . # 1 . 1 ) .  Athapaskans  group  summer o f 1973  h u n d r e d and  the n a t i v e  eighty-three,  population  predominantly  4 status  I n d i a n s and  T h e r e was on t h o s e  a  s m a l l m i n o r i t y who  are non-status  a white p o p u l a t i o n of e i g h t e e n . people  i n the  community who  regard  This  study  i t as a  focusses  permanent  ' Q u a r r e l e r s ' and 'Loucheux' were o r i g i n a l l y u s e d by e x p l o r e r s and 'Loucheux* i s s t i l l u s e d a s t h e name o f Kutchin language. J  .  early the  4 S t a t u s and n o n - s t a t u s I n d i a n s : S t a t u s I n d i a n s a r e t h o s e who a r e r e g i s t e r e d ( l e g a l l y ) a s a n I n d i a n w i t h h i s name a p p e a r i n g on a band l i s t . He has a b o r i g i n a l o r t r e a t y r i g h t s and c a n h a v e r e s i d e n c e on a r e s e r v e o r crown l a n d . Non-status Indians a r e t h o s e t h a t g i v e up t h e r i g h t , o r I n d i a n women who m a r r y n o n - I n d i a n s , and a l l t h e i r descendants.  12  home; i t e x c l u d e s t h e w h i t e p e o p l e b e c a u s e permanent  none a r e  residents.  3. M e t h o d o l o g i c a l C o n t e x t  (a)  The changes  The E c o l o g i c a l  p r e s e n t s t u d y employs  an e c o l o g i c a l approach t o  i n t h e s o c i a l and s p a t i a l arrangement  We a r e i n t e r e s t e d , of  Approach  therefore,  of groups.  i n the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  men, who b e h a v e i n s p a c e a n d who e x p r e s s  social  o r g a n i z a t i o n and p e r c e p t i o n , and t h e encompassing environment  (BrookfIeld,  Ecology of the  study.  1964: 284, 2 8 6 ) .  i s both an approach and a d i s t i n c t i v e  The d i f f e r e n c e  researcher  —  whether  lies  i n t h e major  one i s i n t e r e s t e d  e c o l o g i c a l balance i n an ecosystem, place  (i)  field  concern of i n the t o t a l  or a population's  i n a p a r t i c u l a r web o f l i f e .  human e c o l o g y  Barrows  was f i r s t  t o suggest the importance of  •hiuman e c o l o g y ' t o g e g g r a p h y , reaction against  the process ideas  Semple, who p r o f e s s e d R a t z e l ' s influence  i n 1923.  of the p h y s i c a l  H i s p l e a was a  of D a v i s , and a g a i n s t  thoughts concerning the  environment  on m a n k i n d .  13  Barrows  (1923) p u t f o r w a r d human e c o l o g y a s t h e o r g a n i z i n g  concept  i n geography  r e g i o n a l geography.  ( p . 8) w h i c h he c o n s i d e r e d t o be I n o t h e r w o r d s , he s u g g e s t e d t h a t  g e o g r a p h y a n d human e c o l o g y were one a n d t h e same t h i n g (p.  3)•  T h o s e who f o l l o w e d  Barrow's  lead  separated  man  a n d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t by e i t h e r c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p h y s i c a l aspects  o f the environment alone  ( e . g . Wedel,.. 1961) , o r  man's e f f e c t s upon i t ( e . g . Thompson, These  studies  human e c o l o g y  established  fruitful  c o n c e r n e d w i t h groups dependent indigenous groups i n t i m a t e l y environment.  L e a c o c k , 195^;  (e.g.  Heidenreich,  Downs are  1966).  i n s t u d i e s which a r e  upon t h e l a n d ,  l i n k e d w i t h t h e immediate  Murphy a n d S t e w a r t , 1956) a n d g e o g r a p h e r s  1963; P o o t e a n d W i l l i a m s o n , I966;  (1970) s t a t e d t h a t a l l man-land ecological  (p.  a n t h r o p o l o g y t o be t h e man-land w h i c h he t e r m e d  'cultural  (1967)  geography and  v i e w o f 'human e c o l o g y ' ,  ecology'.  The c o n c e p t o f c u l t u r a l  e c o l o g y was  by t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t J u l i a n that  relationships  68) w h i l e M i k e s e l l  c o n s i d e r e d t h e common b o r d e r between  He f e l t  particularly  1968).  essentially  labelled  This point of  T h i s work h a s b e e n common among a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s  (e.g.  Brookfield,  the'man-land view' o f  (see Eyre and Jones,  v i e w h a s been e s p e c i a l l y  196l).  originally  Steward  (195*0.  t h e e c o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h c o u l d be u s e d t o  e x p l a i n the adjustment of c u l t u r a l  features  "which a r e  In-  most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o s u b s i s t e n c e a r r a n g e m e n t s " (195^-s 36).  He was most i n t e r e s t e d i n how  p a r t i c u l a r variables functioned R a p p a p o r t , 1968: 485).  a c t i v i t i e s and economic  together  (Vayda and  C a r l Sauer s i m i l a r l y  stated  that  t o u n d e r s t a n d human a s s o c i a t i o n s we must examine t h e development  o f l a n d - u s e p r a c t i c e s , a sequence o f e v e n t s ,  with respect  t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the population  (1941:  360). Brookfield  (1964: 286) a d d e d t h a t t h e i n n e r w o r k i n g s  of c u l t u r e and the reasons be  included  f o r human b e h a v i o u r must  t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o c e s s e s o f l a n d and  exploitation patterns.  Mikesell  of landscape and l i v e l i h o o d , and  cultural An  basis  factors  as w e l l as t h e i n v i s i b l e  f o r these patterns  social  (1967: 628-629).  I t defined  of sociology  'human e c o l o g y ' a s :  ... a s t u d y o f t h e s p a t i a l a n d t e m p o r a l r e l a t i o n s o f human b e i n g s a s a f f e c t e d by t h e s e l e c t i v e , d i s t r i b u t i v e , a n d accommodation f o r c e s o f t h e environment." ( M c K e n z i e , 1924:  Park  empirical  o r i g i n a t e d i n the Chicago school  t h e 1920's. "  included  resource  a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w o f 'human e c o l o g y ' i s t h e ' s p a t i a l  view' that in  also  18)  (1936) d e a l t w i t h man's p l a c e i n t h e web o f l i f e ; t h e  balance of nature; succession,  the concepts of competition,  and symbiosis;  and b i o l o g i c a l  dominance,  economics.  Faris  (I967) s t a t e d , i n r e t r o s p e c t , t h a t t h e method o f t h e human e c o l o g i s t was t o i s o l a t e  the symbiotic  elements  i n human  15  life  ( p . 4 6 ) . McKenzie  (1924: 18) f e l t t h a t i n o r d e r t o  u n d e r s t a n d t h e s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r o f p e o p l e , human e c o l o g y was a n e c e s s a r y p e r s p e c t i v e t o d i s c o v e r t h e s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p among p o p u l a t i o n s and t h e i r  institutions.  Modern views o f t h e s o c i a l e c o l o g i c a l s c h o o l have dropped the i d e a t h a t t h e community i s a b i o l o g i c a l organism and s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y viewed i n a s y m b i o t i c s t a t e ( e . g . Rowland, 1972; o r Peuker and Rase, 1971). A t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e view o f 'human e c o l o g y ' i s t h e m o d e l l i n g ( S t o d d a r t , I967), o r systems view (Morgan and Moss, 1965).  T h i s view has been e x p r e s s e d o f t e n i n terms  of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s ( e . g . Schnore, 1 9 6 l ; o r N a y s m i t h , 1971).  The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s view i s t o p r o v i d e a p r e c i s e  q u a n t i t a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n , or p r e d i c t i o n , or r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e s o u r c e s and t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n .  F a c t o r i a l ecology  ( e . g . B l a c k , 1973)1 based upon m u l t i v a r i a t e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , c o u l d e a s i l y be drawn m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y i n t o t h i s  systems  view. W i t h i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h e r e i s c o n f l i c t about t h e use of t h e e c o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h .  One argument i s d i r e c t e d  towards whether t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between man and t h e environment s h o u l d be viewed f u n c t i o n a l l y , i n an i s o l a t e d p e r i o d o f t i m e , .or h i s t o r i c a l l y .  The second argument a r i s e s  o v e r t h e d u a l i s m o f man and t h e environment by s e p a r a t i n g r a t h e r t h a n i n t e g r a t i n g t h e e f f e c t s on each o t h e r .  The  c o n f l i c t r e m a i n s ; we must r e a l i z e t h a t t h e environment,  16  cultural  d e v e l o p m e n t , and  social  interaction  cannot  be  separated.  (ii)  ecology i n A r c t i c  studies  In  sub-Arctic  the A r c t i c  indigenous people  and  from t h e i r  one  cannot  environment.  offered.  Much o f t h e e a r l y work d o c u m e n t i n g  a d a p t a t i o n s t o environment  of  (e.g. Jones,  c u l t u r a l a r e a s and n a t u r a l a r e a s  and  Osgood, 1 9 3 ^ ) .  and  industrial  has  i n c r e a s e d our u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  and  s t u d y was  R e c e n t l y , w i t h economic  Project  ecological  as an  change.  Murray,  congruence  Possibly  of  studies  t h e most  C h a r i o t , which i n c l u d e d  integral  part  and  work  Foote  of a study  I n Canada, t h e D e p a r t m e n t  5 I n d i a n A f f a i r s a n d N o r t h e r n Development initiated  studies  i n the l a t e  5  (I.A.N.D.)  1950's for regional  e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t programmes  1913;  expansion,  ( S a a r i o and K e s s e l , 1 9 6 6 ;  and W i l l i a m s o n , I966)  particular  (e.g. Stefansson,  development, a p r o l i f e r a t i o n  i n human g e o g r a p h y  planned  1866;  O t h e r s drew a t t e n t i o n t o t h e r e l a t i v e  profound  the  on r e s o u r c e s t h e  t h e s u b s i s t e n c e a n d m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e s , r e m a r k e d on  1910).  the  T h e y were a t  top of the food c h a i n s u b s i s t i n g t o t a l l y environment  separate  (e.g. Tanner,  F o r m e r l y N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l (N.A.N.R.).  1966).  Resources  on of  17  S t u d i e s now t e n d of  small v i l l a g e s  and  the behaviour  territories  t o focus  on t h e e c o l o g y  ( e . g . M a r s h a l l , 1 9 7 0 ; and Usher, 1970) w i t h i n these  villages  1967).  (Sonnenfeld,  the potential  regions cultural  a wealth  few e x c e p t i o n s  provided  (Arbess, particular  and t h e s o c i a l /  (Honigmann a n d Honigmann, 1 9 6 5 ;  T h e s t u d i e s have b e e n s t r o n g  have p r o v i d e d with  development f o r  provided  c o n d i t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g demographic s t u d i e s , w i t h i n  c e r t a i n communities 1971).  of resource  o f communities  1967; Naysmith, 1971);  (Hill,  (Welsh, 1970) and  T h e s e s t u d i e s have  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e e c o n o m i c t r e n d s I967);  a n d economy  of reference  (Usher,  1971)  i n d e s c r i p t i o n and information.  However,  t h e s t u d i e s have n o t  adequate a l t e r n a t i v e s i n s o l v i n g  depression  Smith,  socio-economic  i n t h e communities.  Most s t u d i e s o r i g i n a t e f r o m a c e n t r a l p r o b l e m t h a t i s evident  over  the A r c t i c :  the needs o f s e d e n t a r y Land a c t i v i t i e s , life Old  life  the centre  o f economic and s o c i a l  populations,  Crow i s no e x c e p t i o n a n d a l t h o u g h increase  cautious  has n o t s a t i s f i e d  people.  w i t h i n the indigenous  marked be  settlement  i n land a c t i v i t i e s  i n predicting this  have b e e n d e c l i n i n g .  t h e r e has been a  s i n c e 1 9 7 0 , we must  trend f o r the future.  18  (iii)  e c o l o g i c a l approach  The  thesis  i s interested  resource u t i l i z a t i o n Old  Crow.  i n the present  i n the s p a t i a l  o v e r t i m e by  Specifically,  the  people  t h e s t u d y examines how  t h e man-land view concerned spatial  on s o c i a l ,  K a p l a n and  environment', concept  (Brookfield,  (1968: 490).  r a t h e r than as  1964; used  d e s c r i b e d i t as  a n d m o d i f i e d by man"  h i s t o r i c a l argument.  as  the s p a t i a l  Rappaport, 'effective  Brookfield defined  (1964: 287),  "the c o g n i t i v e  while  environment"  Manners u s e d  the  (1972: 79).  encompasses man  Although  and  a v o i d s the  the  environment  functional-  the primary g o a l i s to  ramifications  i t c h a n g e d o v e r t i m e , we  changes  which i s " c o n c e p t u a l i z e d ,  r a t h e r t h a n s e p a r a t i n g them, a n d  understand  the term  "the l a n d as r e s o u r c e s "  T h i s present study  economic  Vayda and  'environment'.  environment  the  of the resources,  the consequent  More r e c e n t l y , K a p l a n a n d  as t h a t  utilized,  It i s  the nature of r e s o u r c e s .  Manners, 1972)  V a y d a and R a p p a p o r t  concept  of takes  ecology.  c u l t u r a l and  o f t h e community, and  Many s t u d i e s  this  s o c i a l behaviour  i n the u t i l i z a t i o n  these c o n d i t i o n s that a f f e c t  1968;  socio-economic  o f human, o r c u l t u r a l ,  of these  of  changes i n  Thus, the p r e s e n t approach  ramifications  conditions  of  w i t h the nature of the r e s o u r c e s themselves,  the e f f e c t s  in  the s p a t i a l and  i n the r e g i o n .  change  indigenous people  i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n e n v i r o n m e n t a l and conditions affect  study  must a l s o  of resource i n c l u d e the  utilization parallel  19  changes i n the  s o c i a l structure.  A l l these socio-economic  v a r i a b l e s a r e a product of c u l t u r e and  c u l t u r e change,  and  a r e manifested i n n o r t h e r n communities such as Old Crow. As  the v a l u e s of an i n v a d i n g  view of resources changes. becomes a r e s o u r c e and  c u l t u r e become dominant, the I t w i l l be  therefore  shown t h a t even land  the a r e a l extent of  that  l a n d I t s e l f becomes a c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  (b) T e r r i t o r y and  One  Territoriality  theme of the t h e s i s i s to examine the  relationship  between the p h y s i c a l land use around Old Crow and community's s p a t i a l image of i t s t e r r i t o r y . ' e f f e c t i v e environment' i s important here but defined  spatially.  Yet  the  The  concept  cannot be e a s i l y  i t i s i n t h i s environment t h a t a l l  human a c t i v i t y occurs and a l l behaviour i s e l i c i t e d ; i t engulfs  a l l of a group's a c t i v i t i e s - they l i v e i n i t ,  shape i t , and i n an  are products of i t . T h i s  evident  indigenous s o c i e t y where the group's l i v e l i h o o d i s  dependent on the p h y s i c a l The  environment.  concept of t e r r i t o r y may  t o g i v e the  be u s e f u l l y employed here  ' e f f e c t i v e environment' s p a t i a l bounds.  a d d i t i o n , i t r e p r e s e n t s an a r e a t h a t i s important t o the p e r c e i v e r . introduced and  i s most  the  In  behavlourally  T e r r i t o r i a l i t y should a l s o  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the  i n t e n s i t y of commitment by  be  i d e a of s p a t i a l extent  i n d i v i d u a l s and  a community  20  to t h i s t e r r i t o r y .  In summary, t e r r i t o r y i s an assigned  area determined by the c r i t e r i a used, while t e r r i t o r i a l i t y comprises the behaviour and cognitive processes of dominating, c o n t r o l l i n g , and belonging to a s p e c i f i c space. These concepts are important for the understanding of human behaviour.  In an experimental s i t u a t i o n It was shown  that i f th© designed environment was changed, Individual behaviour also changed (Stea, 1 9 6 9 ) .  One's t e r r i t o r y i s  both learned and i n s t i n c t u a l (Lymann and Scott, 1 9 6 ? : 236) and i f the t e r r i t o r y were to be encroached upon, some reaction would result that expressed t e r r i t o r i a l i t y . Bragdon (1967) decided that a deep attachment to the land provided a sense of identity for the people who obtained t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d from i t . The loss of this identity was described by Bourne (1955) during the urban invasion of small self-supporting r u r a l parishes near London i n l a t e 1 9 t h century England; l i f e became meaningless as s o c i a l conditions altered people could not adapt.  Happaport's  and  study (1968) i n New  Guinea indicated the attachment primitive people have f o r t h e i r land through a symbolic r i t u a l of defending t h e i r territory.  Boal ( I 9 6 9 ) has shown that the image of a  t e r r i t o r y based on r e l i g i o u s identity i n Belfast  affects  s p a t i a l behaviour. The obvious importance f o r s p a t i a l behaviour has turned the attention of some geographers to the study of  21  human t e r r i t o r i a l i t y (e.g. Doherty, 1 9 6 9 ; SosJa,  Porteous,  1.97.1.;  1  9  7  1  )  .  1970;  %les,  P h i l i p Wagner  (  I  9  6  0  )  viewed  the p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n i n g of the world as a dominating behaviour, expressed i n terms of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y .  However,  l i k e many writers  1966;  Ardrey,  1  9  6  6  )  ,  organizational  on human t e r r i t o r i a l i t y ( H a l l ,  Wagner's main concern was i n presenting an model of human t e r r i t o r i a l i t y .  these taxonomies, u n t i l recently, about the implications  Other than  l i t t l e has been known  of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y on human behaviour  and even less i s known about the effect of t e r r i t o r i a l change on that behaviour. T e r r i t o r y i s not separate from t e r r i t o r i a l i t y ~ the assigned area of a p a r t i c u l a r group i s that space which a l l members of the group i d e n t i f y as belonging to them. To t h i s end, one may ask what w i l l happen to feelings of identity and commitment i f there Is a change i n the area of j u r i s d i c t i o n ; Is t e r r i t o r i a l i t y an integral element of s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , or more simply a fear of losing the resources of the e f f e c t i v e environment?  The ultimate  purpose i s to shed l i g h t on the relationship between man and his environment and provide f o r a continuation of meaningful integration complexity.  i n a society of ever  increasing  22  ( c ) The P r o b l e m  By u s i n g t h e t e r r i t o r i a l understanding  concept as t h e v e h i c l e i n  man's i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , we  l o o k s p e c i f i c a l l y a t how man b e h a v e s i n s p a c e .  These a r e  major i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e development o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t , not  o n l y i n terms o f economic e x p a n s i o n , b u t a l s o i n terms  o f m i g r a t i o n a l streams o f young p e o p l e , a n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s t h a t e x i s t f r o m one g e n e r a t i o n  (1966)  Gould  t o the next.  Peter  h a s shown t h a t p e o p l e ' s a c t i o n s i n a p a r t i c u l a r  place are r e l a t e d t o the perception  o f t h a t place and  d i f f e r e n t i a l e v a l u a t i o n s they p l a c e on d i f f e r e n t p o r t i o n s of i t . It  i s e s s e n t i a l t o focus  i s held together use  on t h e g r o u p s i n c e t h e g r o u p  b y common v a l u e s  o f t h e i r p o r t i o n o f space.  group's viewpoint  toward the c o n t r o l and  While a p o r t i o n of the  i s q u i t e p a r t i c u l a r t o each  individual,  a n o t h e r p a r t i s s h a r e d , w h i c h a l l o w s t h e members t o o p e r a t e as a u n i t .  (i) the hypothesis  What i s t h e s p a t i a l c o n s e q u e n c e o f s o o i o - e c o n o m i c change?  T h i s t h e s i s examines t h e impact o f c u l t u r a l ,  23  economic, and environmental changes on the s p a t i a l  behaviour  of a r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d indigenous s o c i e t y .  new  With  v a l u e s i n t r o d u c e d by c u l t u r a l and economic f a c t o r s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h c e r t a i n a l t e r a t i o n s i n the environment',  'effective  changes are c r e a t e d i n the s p a t i a l behaviour  of the people, with p a r a l l e l changes i n the  territorial  image possessed by them.  ( i i ) data and sample s i z e  The p o p u l a t i o n f o r the c u r r e n t study was  determined  by the number of a d u l t s , t h a t i s people over 17 age, who  r e s i d e d i n Old Crow.  The age of 17  years of  was  used as  the lower boundary f o r the p o p u l a t i o n because people any younger were a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l , dependent on p a r e n t s , and had no say i n community p o l i t i c s .  With the e x c e p t i o n of  f a m i l y allowance, those younger than 17 economic impact on the community.  had l i t t l e  The sampling  procedures  f o l l o w e d a combination of n o n p r o b a b i l i t y methods et a l , 1959« 516). people t h e r e was  (Sellltz,  With a constant i n f l o w and outflow of  no guarantee t h a t the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n  c o u l d be i n t e r v i e w e d w i t h i n the time c o n s t r a i n t s . the aim was  direct  t o o b t a i n a sample of a t l e a s t 66%,  Thus, The  n e c e s s i t y of such a l a r g e sample p o r t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d  24  critical  "because o f t h e  s a m p l i n g was within  the  population 77  sufficient  (iii)  f o r our  p r o c e d u r e s and  Old  the  current  toward t h e i r  in  h i r e d and  of the  records.  provide  Individuals end  of the because  their  some o f  the  experience with  The It  strangers.  d o c u m e n t s , and  interview  concerning  the  and  on  their  sample o f  sources  residents  felt  willing  been  that  to  share  i n town,  statistical served  the  to  community had i t was  to  attitude  f r o m one  young p e o p l e  Available  published  to  records,  supplement  data.  nature of the  is this  interviewing  d a t a were u s e d  lasting  from a l a r g e  more r e l a x e d  other  The  Interviews  trained to this  than with  final  population,  through  information  o l d e r p e o p l e w o u l d be  rather  adult  The  socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  territory.  community.  elements  measurements  h o u r s were s e c u r e d  the  74$  d a t a were o b t a i n e d  Crow p e o p l e and  three  Quota  needs.  available statistical  portray  size.  were t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t .  p e o p l e , or  Quantitative and  population  used to guarantee that a l l d i v e r s e  sample s i z e , was  small  method t h a t  data d i c t a t e d the  need f o r  interviewing.  i s most e f f e c t i v e f o r g a t h e r i n g  i n d i v i d u a l s who  are  difficult  to  observe.  informati Wherever  25  p o s s i b l e , the i n t e r v i e w i n f o r m a t i o n was  cross-checked  by a v a i l a b l e records or by v e r b a l c o n f i r m a t i o n another member of the v i l l a g e . v a l i d a t e the accuracy  T h i s was necessary  of the informants,  r e c a l l i n g past events from memory. data through these techniques,  with to  e s p e c i a l l y when  By v a l i d a t i n g the  r e l i a b i l i t y was a l s o  p r o v i d e d among I n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w e r s and each i n t e r v i e w . The concept of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y measured i n numerous ways.  i n Old Crow may be  One method was by mapping  movement, showing the areas o f i n t e n s i v e use.  T h i s took  the form of nodes and paths t o c r e a t e a network over the region.  Another method l o c a t e d the s i t e and amount of  game a c q u i r e d by i n d i v i d u a l s i n the town. provided  The procedures  the p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n and i n t e n s i t y o f use f o r  d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s and the extent of p h y s i c a l l a n d use. The image of the community's t e r r i t o r y was through c o g n i t i v e mapping (Downs, 1970s 6 7 ) • Williamson extent  obtained  Foote and  ( 1 9 6 6 ) used c o g n i t i v e mapping t o i d e n t i f y the  of s p a t i a l knowledge t h a t the people of Cape  Thompson, A l a s k a i had of t h e i r r e g i o n .  They assumed  t h a t the responses were not n e c e s s a r i l y expressions of 6 See Appendix I f o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  26  t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , but r a t h e r were only f i x i n g f e a t u r e s people f e l t  important i n t h e i r t e r r i t o r y .  that  T h i s method  measures i n t e r p r e t e d t e r r i t o r y r a t h e r than t e r r i t o r y used. T e r r i t o r i a l i t y , the process defending,  and  of occupying, c l a i m i n g ,  i d e n t i f y i n g with an a r e a , can be measured  by the i n t e n s i t y of a person's r e a c t i o n t o a t h r e a t what i s considered  his territory.  A t h r e a t was  on  presented  t o our Informants i n the form of a p i p e l i n e , pumping s t a t i o n s and  c o n s t r u c t i o n "camps and  or n e g a t i v e l y toward them. q u e s t i o n of how people, not how  they responded e i t h e r p o s i t i v e l y Another i d e a f a l l s  i n t o the  much the l a n d , i t s e l f , r e a l l y means t o  only i n terms of p o s s e s s i o n but  much the people are p a r t of the l a n d .  the  i n terms of T h i s may  be  determined i n d i r e c t l y by measuring the a t t i t u d e people have toward other economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t are  not  land r e l a t e d . In summary, we have measured not only the development and  c u r r e n t s t a t u s of socio-economic c o n d i t i o n s i n Old  Crow, but a l s o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the and  people of Old Crow through use and  environment  perception.  27  CHAPTER I I PEOPLE AND PLACE:  With the opening  OLD CROW'S HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT  of a t r a d i n g post i n 1 9 1 2 , Old Crow  became an e s t a b l i s h e d settlement  (Ballkci, 1963: 35)•  Old Crow's development, from the b e g i n n i n g , was d i r e c t l y 7  r e l a t e d t o i n f l u e n c e s from ' o u t s i d e ' .  As a r e s u l t o f  white c o n t a c t , t r a d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l and s o c i a l  culture,  seasonal movements, and l o c a t i o n s changed c o n s i d e r a b l y . A.  1.  TRADITIONAL MATERIAL AND SOCIAL CULTURE  Seasonal Movement and L o c a t i o n  The K u t c h i n were p r i m a r i l y a h u n t i n g people whose quest f o r food depended l a r g e l y on the seasonal m i g r a t i o n of the c a r i b o u .  F i s h i n g was a secondary,  summer a c t i v i t y .  Despite the r e l a t i v e abundance and v a r i e t y of f o o d s t u f f s , game was migratory and the quest f o r food hard and u n c e r t a i n .  7  The people of Old Crow responded i n a v a r i e t y of ways t o what i s meant by ' o u t s i d e ' . The term i s r e l a t i v e . Residents of Whltehorse, Inuvik, and Y e l l o w k n i f e r e f e r t o ' o u t s i d e ' as any l o c a t i o n i n southern Canada. Residents o f Old Crow r e f e r t o the same d e f i n i t i o n but a l s o i n c l u d e statements such as o u t s i d e v i l l a g e l i m i t s , or more g e n e r a l l y , p l a c e s o u t s i d e the Porcupine R i v e r drainage a r e a .  FIGURE  2.1  29  Thus, K u t c h i n l i f e was  f l e x i b l e , s h i f t i n g w i t h the changes  i n season, and a d j u s t i n g t o many environmental S p r i n g , p r i o r t o break-up, was for  the K u t c h i n .  variations.  the time of movements  A f t e r being d i s p e r s e d throughout  f o r e s t s a l l w i n t e r , they began t o congregate  a l o n g major  r i v e r a r t e r i e s t o await break-up and the annual m i g r a t i o n of c a r i b o u .  The  s p r i n g hunt was  the  northern  described i n  the f o l l o w i n g manner: "When the c a r i b o u entered the water, men would paddle a canoe r i g h t up on the animal's back and l e t i t r e s t t h e r e . At f i r s t the c a r i b o u would s t r i k e but w i t h i t s f o r e f e e t t o r i d i t s e l f of the canoe but would then content i t s e l f w i t h merely swimming f a s t e r . Through f e a r , the herd of c a r i b o u would spread a l i t t l e , making a path f o r the one b e a r i n g the canoe, and the man armed w i t h a spear w i t h a c a r i b o u a n t l e r p o i n t would s t a b the animals on each s i d e of him." (Leechman, 195^:  6)  Prom the s p r i n g hunt Tukkuth and Vunta s h i f t e d  into  the s m a l l e r t r i b u t a r y streams and l a k e areas a l o n g the Porcupine.  Here f i s h t r a p s were c o n s t r u c t e d and moose  and waterfowl were hunted.  Other K u t c h i n were found i n  the tundra area d u r i n g s p r i n g and summer w i t h a  few  going i n t o the r i v e r v a l l e y s t o f i s h and hunt moose. Summer was  the time t o renew o l d acquaintances, t r a d e ,  and prepare f o r the next w i n t e r . The hunting season began e a r n e s t l y i n f a l l , when the c a r i b o u herds s t a r t e d t h e i r southern m i g r a t i o n .  From the  summer f i s h camp l o c a t i o n s people s c a t t e r e d a l o n g the  hills  30  above the t r e e s t o a t t e n d c o r r a l s .  Everyone  took p a r t :  "As soon as the herd approached, boys, men and women t r i e d t o run behind the c a r i b o u , I m i t a t i n g the c r y of the w o l f , and attempting t o d r i v e the herd toward the opening of the surround." ( B a l i k c i , 1963: Immediately  15-16)  a f t e r the hunt the animals were butchered  and cached by d r y i n g or f r e e z i n g .  People engaged i n the  hunt a t each surround then prepared f o r the w i n t e r by forming a l a r g e "meat camp", which stayed t o g e t h e r u n t i l the game was  depleted.  The people then d i v i d e d  s m a l l groups and d i s p e r s e d throughout  into  the w i n t e r i n g  grounds of the c a r i b o u u n t i l s p r i n g once a g a i n a r r i v e d .  2 . Hunting and  Fishing  F i s h i n g and h u n t i n g w e r e . b a s i c a l l y communal e f f o r t s a l t h o u g h i n d i v i d u a l s might f i s h and hunt a l o n e . D r i v i n g c a r i b o u i n t o e n c l o s u r e s , or surrounds, the p r i n c i p a l hunting method used i n the f a l l .  was  Osgood  d e s c r i b e d the surround as: "Posts about f o u r f e e t h i g h a r e s e t i n the ground t o form an e n c l o s u r e r o u g h l y c i r c u l a r i n form. Between these p o s t s , p o l e s and brush prevent the c a r i b o u from escaping except through narrow openings about e i g h t f e e t a p a r t i n which snares a r e s e t . One s i d e of the surround i s open and from t h i s entrance s t r e t c h out two l i n e s of posts ever widening l i k e the mouth of a f u n n e l ... c a r i b o u which have entered the t r a p w i l l be a f r a i d t o r u n any other d i r e c t i o n except t h a t which l e a d s t o the snare-set enclosure." (Osgood, 1 9 3 6 :  25)  31  Surrounds were owned by a s i n g l e person, u s u a l l y an experienced hunter of the group, who d i r e c t e d i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n and use.  The owner of the surround took charge of the game  captured and d i s t r i b u t e d the meat (Osgood, 1 9 3 6 : Welsh, 1 9 7 0 : 2 2 ) . ownership  115;  The e l d e s t son normally I n h e r i t e d  o f a surround, but a more capable b r o t h e r c o u l d (Osgood, 1 9 3 6 : 1 3 5 ) .  supersede him i n that r i g h t  In w i n t e r the people f o l l o w e d the m i g r a t i n g herds  into  the f o r e s t e d lower s l o p e s , capturing:them by e n c i r c l e m e n t . As the f r i g h t e n e d animals attempted of bowmen, they were k i l l e d .  t o escape the r i n g  Other times a surround of  snares was c r u d e l y and h u r r i e d l y c o n s t r u c t e d i n the f o r e s t . Other animals were hunted on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . Moose were c a p t u r e d by ambush and snares p l a c e d around l a k e s favoured by them.  During the w i n t e r moose had t o be  run down (Osgood, 1 9 3 6 : 2 6 ; McKennan, 1 9 6 5 : 3 2 ) .  Mountain  sheep were hunted, p a r t i c u l a r l y by the Tukkuth and N a t s i t , by c l i m b i n g t o the leeward above the sheep so t h a t the animals c o u l d not escape upwards (Osgood, 1 9 3 6 : 3 6 ) . Bears hunted d u r i n g the w i n t e r were p u l l e d from dens and clubbed.  their  Smaller game such as r a b b i t , groundhog,  s q u i r r e l , and ptarmigan were snared as w e l l d u r i n g the winter.  P i t f a l l s were s e t f o r w o l v e r i n e , porcupine and  lynx. Salmon f i r s t appeared and Porcupine R i v e r s .  i n e a r l y J u l y a l o n g the Yukon  F i s h t r a p s were l o c a t e d only on  32  s m a l l t r i b u t a r y streams, where the water was shallow enough to permit b u i l d i n g weirs across  them.  Salmon going upstream  t o spawn would s t r i k e the V-shaped weir and f o l l o w i t from one  bank t o another, e v e n t u a l l y  e n t e r i n g a w i l l o w pole  trap  which was p o s i t i o n e d below one end (Osgood, 1936: 13)L i k e the c a r i b o u surround, there was ownership of a f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n , which the e l d e s t son c o u l d i n h e r i t .  The  r i g h t t o the f i s h i n g s i t e s was h e l d from one year t o the next, but i f the 'owner' d i d not occupy the s i t e f o r a season i t c o u l d be taken over and r e t a i n e d by another. I t was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the 'owner' t o arrange and d i r e c t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the wier, and t o keep c l o s e v i g i l a n c e f o r schools  of f i s h and f l u c t u a t i o n i n water  level. 3.  Dress. S h e l t e r and T r a v e l  In summer, garments were made of c a r i b o u s k i n , tanned without the h a i r .  S h i r t s were cut a few inches above the  knee and t r o u s e r s were connected i n one p i e c e t o footwear which had s o l e s from the n e c k s i n l a y e r o f moose s k i n .  of c a r i b o u and a second  Winter dress  f o r the most p a r t  d u p l i c a t e d t h a t of summer except t h a t the h a i r was l e f t on the s k i n and i t was turned p a r t of the garment.  Inward.  Hoods.were not  33  McKennan ( 1 9 6 5 ) and Osgood ( 1 9 3 6 ) mentioned s e v e r a l types of K u t c h i n d w e l l i n g s i n p r e - c o n t a c t time:  skin-  covered dome lodges, teepees, moss covered houses, and lean-tos.  The moss-house was  ground was  f r o z e n and  c o n s t r u c t e d soon a f t e r  occupied u n t i l mid-winter.  the  The  semi-permanent s k i n - c o v e r e d d w e l l i n g s were made of t h i n spruce or w i l l o w poles t h a t were bent and d r i e d . added i n s u l a t i o n d u r i n g the w i n t e r , snow was the s t r u c t u r e . s t r u c t u r e was  For  heaped over  During the summer the semi-permanent  preferred for i t s lightness.  These were  c a r r i e d t o the c a r i b o u hunting range i n the l a t e summer. Teepees and l e a n - t o s were of a temporary n a t u r e , used p a r t i c u l a r l y when on the  trail.  Summer t r a n s p o r t a t i o n v a r i e d immensely among the Kutchin.  The b i r c h bark canoe and moose s k i n boat were  the most Important water c r a f t . who  On the other hand, those  hunted p r i m a r i l y i n the f o o t h i l l s used narrow p o i n t e d  rafts for crossing rivers.  Although  t o the Crow R i v e r a r e a , t h e r e was size trees.  b i r c h was  indigenous  a s c a r c i t y of good canoe  Canoes were obtained from people downstream  i n the Yukon F l a t s  (Leechman, 1 9 5 4 :  26).  "Snowshoes, s l e d s and dog packs were used i n l a n d t r a v e l " ( B a l i k c i , 1963: and  21).  o c c a s i o n a l l y by men,  ends curved upwards.  The  S l e d s , p u l l e d by the women,  were small and narrow with  both  low c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of the  s l e d s d i c t a t e d the need f o r packing dogs.  3k  k. S o c i a l  Organization  In p r e - c o n t a c t time two m a t r i l i n e a l c l a n s e x i s t e d which were s o c i a l u n i t s c u t t i n g a c r o s s a l l . t r i b a l groups. c l a n s were exogamous, termed Crow and Wolf. r i g o r o u s l y observed,  Exogamy was  so a t h i r d category c l a s s i f i e d  c h i l d r e n of endogamous marriages.  The not  the  C h i l d r e n of a middle  c l a n woman a f f i l i a t e d with the c l a n of t h e i r grandmother. I t was  the c l a n system t h a t provided a s t r o n g s o c i a l  u n i t , i n c r e a s e d cohesion w i t h i n the t r i b e and  provided  p e a c e f u l r e l a t i o n s between d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s .  The  clan  system p r o v i d e d a framework f o r the e x e r c i s e of a c h i e f t a n s h i p system ( B a l i k c i , 1 9 6 3 : 2 7 ) .  There were f i v e c l a s s e s  of c h i e f s : economic c h i e f s , owners of c a r i b o u surrounds and f i s h t r a p s ; war  c h i e f s , the l e a d e r s of war  c l a n c h i e f s whose concern was  activities;  the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of  the c l a n ; Shamen or s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r s ; and  tribal  chiefs.  Shamen c h a l l e n g e d the power of other c h i e f s and may been the most i n f l u e n t i a l of  have  all.  B?. EARLY POST-CONTACT. CULTURE  The agents of c u l t u r a l change were motivated d i f f e r e n t causes a t v a r i o u s times. t a s k i t was  by  There were those whose  t o f i n d a sea route t o the P a c i f i c .  Others,  35  such as f u r t r a d e r s and in new  g o l d miners, were i n t e r e s t e d only  e x p l o i t i n g the r i c h e s of the n o r t h . l a n d and  people opened the way  The  discovery  for missionaries.  Government a l s o made a strong commitment to develop North, t o a l l e v i a t e s o c i a l and p r o t e c t Canadian s o v e r l g n t y . i t s mark on the l a n d and  1.  the  of  economic problems In some way  The the  and  each has  left  people.  Contact H i s t o r y (a) Pur  The  f u r t r a d e r had  t r a d i t i o n a l K u t c h i n way first  Traders  the most profound i n f l u e n c e on of l i f e .  B a l i k c i s t a t e d that  imported items were i r o n spears of Russian  ( B a l i k c i , 1963s  3*0.  The  spears were obtained  by f u r t r a d e r s who valued  spread along  sea o t t e r p e l t s .  Company had  Chirikof  By 1784  ( 1 7 4 1 ) ,  the coast the  the  origin  through  t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r - t r i b a l trade ventures downriver. f i r s t Russians, B e r i n g and  the  were  The  followed  i n pursuit  of  Russian-American  e s t a b l i s h e d i t s headquarters a t Kodiak,  and  many t r a d e r s were known t o be l i v i n g a t the head of Cook I n l e t i n 1794  (McClellan, 1964:  moved i n 1801  t o S i t k a , i n the heart of T l l n g l t  (ibid).  Figure 2.2  contact  fur trading  5).  The  headquarters  shows the l o c a t i o n of the posts.  territory early  36  FIGURE 2.2  37  The Russians a l s o penetrated from the west, up the Yukon River,  St. Michael was  established on the coast i n  1833 while Nulato was b u i l t on the Yukon River, 50 miles downstream from i t s confluence with the Koyukuk River, i n I838.  In t h i s region the Tanana Indians operated  as  middlemen between Europeans and native people farther up r i v e r .  Middlemen attempted to exert as much control  as possible over t h e i r monopoly by: sealing off the country and establishing blockades "which successfully prevented whites from entering the area, or. Athabaskans from leaving i t " (McClellan, 1964:  5).  Direct access to Kutchin country was accomplished from the east, even though for a great length of time exploration and trading were r e s t r i c t e d to the, Mackenzie drainage system. S i r Alexander Mackenzie was  probably the f i r s t to come into  d i r e c t contact with the Kutchin i n 1789  (Osgood, 1936:  He c a l l e d the people "Quarrelers" (Mackenzie, 1801:  47).  72),  "the  people who avoid the arrows of t h e i r enemies, by keeping a look out on both sides" (Franklin, 1828: A permanent trading establishment  24).  opened i n 1805 at  Ft. Good Hope on the Mackenzie River but was not conveniently located for a large volume of trade.  In 1826 Franklin  learned that none of the Peel River inhabitants a c t u a l l y traded at Ft. Good Hope (Franklin, 1828:  182) because i t  38  was too far from t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l hunting t e r r i t o r y (Wolforth, 1970: 5 3 ) .  Consequently,  a major e f f o r t  was made to establish a fur trading post closer to Western Kutchin.  Also, the establishment  ofawestern  post was necessary to check Russian trade. Richardson observed  M  ... the goods which the Mountain  Indians exchange with the Esquimaux at Herschel Island are very unlike those issued by the Hudson's Bay Company Post, I conclude they obtain them from the Russians" (Franklin, 1828:  180). Peel's River, l a t e r F t . McPherson, was constructed i n  1840.  The f o r t was unsuccessful at f i r s t as the location  was north of the Kutchin customary: hunting and  fishing  grounds, and south of the areas used by Eskimos.  The f o r t ,  located on the Peel River about 35 miles upstream from the r i v e r mouth, was  situated i n the dangerous neutral t e r r i t o r y  between Kutchin and Eskimo (Slobodin, 1962: 18).  Kutchin  of the Peel River headwaters were not interested i n Ft. McPherson because many of the commodities offered i n trade were not of immediate need for the people (Wolforth, 1970* 62) and they were part of "that hinterland of f u r trappers to which the P a c i f i c coastal tribes had access" (Slobodin, 1963: 25).  Tukkuth Kutchin of the Porcupine River frequented the  f o r t more often than the Peel River people. As the T l i n g i t and Tanana operated as middlemen from the P a c i f i c , the Tukkuth and Vunta operated from the Mackenzie.  39  I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the l a t t e r were v i g o r o u s i n p r o t e c t i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n , from Richardson's account I n d i a n s " , who  attempted  of "Mountain  t o v i o l e n t l y overtake h i s t r a d i n g  and e x p l o r i n g p a r t y , i n 1826  ( i n F r a n k l i n , 1828:  179).  He  s t a t e d t h a t these people had been t r a d i n g a t Hersehel I s l a n d and a f t e r r e a l i z i n g the t h r e a t of the Europeans " r e s o l v e d on coming down i n a body t o d e s t r o y us" ( i b i d ) .  These  mountain people were probably Vunta, as t r a d i n g w i t h H e r s e h e l Eskimos was 1936:  45; The  not uncommon among them (Osgood,  Leechman, 1954:  26).  f i r s t d i r e c t European c o n t a c t i n the  territory  came w i t h the establishment of F t . Yukon i n 1847 1936:  17).  I t i s understandable  (Osgood,  t h a t the n a t i v e s c o n t r o l l i n g  trade were h o s t i l e towards the post because i t destroyed the m o n o p o l i s t i c c o n d i t i o n s they h e l d . i n whose t e r r i t o r y F t . Yukon was  The Kutcha K u t c h i n ,  l o c a t e d , were t o t a l l y  dependent on the other t r i b e s ( K i r k b y , 1864:  418).  8 La P i e r r e House I t was  was  the trans-shipment  opened i n 1846,  on the B e l l R i v e r .  p o i n t f o r F t . Yukon s u p p l i e s .  Goods being sent t o F t . Yukon from F t . McPherson were shipped t o La P i e r r e House and f l o a t e d downriver.  Furs  from F t . Yukon were shipped back t o La P i e r r e House on the r e t u r n run i n the summer, s t o r e d over the w i n t e r a t La P i e r r e House, then forwarded  to F t . McPherson a f t e r break-up.  g A l s o L a p i e r r e House or L a p i e r r e ' s House. 1  40  As  a t r a d i n g c e n t r e L a P i e r r e was  dealing  only  iron  The  Nakotcho K u t c h i n  t o o l s , but  P o r c u p i n e ) , and  Tranjik (Birch  inactive,  i n guns, ammunition, t e a , t o b a c c o ,  few  dependent  relatively  no  (Mackenzie F l a t s ) , Tukkuth ( P e e l R i v e r ) became  on F t . M c P h e r s o n w h i l e  (Black R i v e r ) , Kutcha C r e e k ) , and  1963:  foodstuffs (Balikci,  Tatlit  Natslt  a 35).  (Upper  increasingly  the Vunta  ( O l d Crow),  (Yukon F l a t s ) ,  (Chandalar)  and  Tennuth  became d e p e n d e n t  on F t . Y u k o n .  I867 t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p u r c h a s e d A l a s k a and  In  Hudson's Bay been  Company a b a n d o n e d F t . Yukon s i n c e i t had  "deliberately built  Russian  i n Alaska; i n order  t r a d e r s w o r k i n g up  ( M c C l e l l a n , 1964:  5).  The  t o O l d Ramparts surveyed  (I869).  i n 1889  American t e r r i t o r y , on t h e  Hudson's Bay  Michael"  Company moved i t s  t h e Company p o s t was  in  1867» a n d  still  s o moved once a g a i n , t o New  then  in Ramparts,  i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary.  Company c l o s e d t h e New  four years a f t e r  counter  When t h e A l a s k a - Y u k o n b o u n d a r y  Canadian s i d e of the  Hudson's Bay  to  t h e Yukon f r o m S t .  p o s t u p r i v e r f r o m F t . Yukon t o H o w l i n g Dog  was  the  Ramparts p o s t  The  in  1894,  s h u t t i n g L a P i e r r e House (Leechman,  195^*  .  26). Dan  Cadzow, a p r i v a t e f u r t r a d e r , r e - o p e n e d t h e  Ramparts p o s t  i n 1904  post a t t r a c t e d Kutchin  ( H a r r i n g t o n , 1 9 6 l : 5)• t r a d e , as w e l l as  Again  some E s k i m o  New the trade  41  1963s  (Balikci, and  lynx.  for  ratting  at  that  35).  Major f u r s t r a d e d  A l t h o u g h Cadzow f i r s t i n 1906,  i t was  not  were m a r t e n , mink  introduced an  steel  intensive  traps  activity  time.  (b)  Kutchin  Missionaries  took to C h r i s t i a n i t y  quite  readily  according  (1864):  to Kirkby  " B e f o r e I l e f t ... ( t h e y ) a l l e a r n e s t l y s o u g h t f o r p a r d o n and g r a c e . Oh, what a g o o d l y s i g h t t o s e e t h a t v a s t number on bended k n e e s , w o r s h i p p i n g t h i s God o f t h e i r s a l v a t i o n , and l e a r n i n g t o s y l l a b l e t h e name o f J e s u s . " (Kirkby, In the  north  1864:  missionaries  419)  depended on  the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks, the  traders' a b i l i t y  the  the  n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e ,  acted and  as  missionaries  accused 1969)  centres  traders  while  f o r the barely  native  people.  The  Ellis,  acquire which  traders  t o l e r a t e d each o t h e r .  regarded missionaries  ( c i t e d by  to  t r a d e r s ' posts  o f e x p l o i t i n g human b e i n g s  traders  from t r a p p i n g  and  traders'  Missionaries  ( c i t e d by as  a  Dailey,  distraction  1964).  A r c h d e a c o n R o b e r t McDonald made h i s h e a d q u a r t e r s S t . Matthew's M i s s i o n , a mission House w i t h  at  F t . M c P h e r s o n , i n 1868.  F t . Yukon, w h i c h moved up  the  trading post.  river  He t o New  McDonald t r a v e l l e d  at  established Ramparts  throughout  the Yukon and Porcupine systems, from the Mackenzie t o F t . Yukon and F t . S e l k i r k .  Delta  I t cannot be overlooked  that McDonald was p a r t Cree and soon a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l , he married a P e e l R i v e r woman which enhanced h i s i n f l u e n c e i n the a r e a .  He became a master of the Tukkuth and T a t l i t  Loucheux d i a l e c t s and guided s e v e r a l s e l e c t e d men, g e n e r a l l y economic or c l a n l e a d e r s , from each band t o become c a t e c h i s t s ( S l o b o d i n , 1962: 26).  He a l s o t r a n s l a t e d the Common Book of  Brayer i n I885 and the complete B i b l e i n I898. The Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s came i n t o K u t c h i n country two. years e a r l i e r than the A n g l i c a n s but d i d not seem t o have the same e f f e c t .  F r . G o l l l e r a r r i v e d a t F t . McPherson i n  the summers o f i860 and 1861 but d i d not stay on e i t h e r occasion.  F t . McPherson was such a s t r o n g A n g l i c a n outpost  f o r such noted m i s s i o n a r i e s as Bompas, S t r i n g e r , and McDonald t h a t C a t h o l i c s c o u l d not succeed i n K u t c h i n territory.  (c) Gold Seekers and Whalers  The slow t r i c k l e of p r o s p e c t o r s i n the 1890's was the f i r s t breach of the T l i n g i t blockade ( M c C l e l l a n , 1964: 6).  K u t c h i n who i n h a b i t e d the O g i l v i e and Richardson  Mountains heard about the Gold Rush from trade p a r t n e r s t o the south and from p a r t i e s of g o l d seekers who mistakenly sought an easy r o u t e t o the g o l d f i e l d s by c r o s s i n g the  43  d i v i d e from the P e e l R i v e r system ( S l o b o d i n , 1963s 2 6 ) . The major route f o l l o w e d the P e e l R i v e r t o the  Ogilvie  Mountains and down t o the Stewart and Yukon r i v e r s . secondary r o u t e , longer i n d i s t a n c e b u t was  e a s i e r to t r a v e l  up the Rat R i v e r , c r o s s i n g the d i v i d e a t Summit Lake,  and down the B e l l and Porcupine The  A  p r o s p e c t o r s progressed,  R i v e r s t o the Yukon R i v e r .  by scow, up the r i v e r s  r a p i d s impeded t h e i r Journey.  The  until  scows then were broken  up and the p r o s p e c t o r s waited u n t i l freeze-up t o c r o s s the mountains. completely  Hardships  were i n t e n s e and p r o s p e c t o r s were  dependent on t h e i r K u t c h i n  guides.  Many of the Tukkuth and T a t l i t began t o t r a d e a t Dawson C i t y and  f o r two  decades t h e i r l i v e s were o r i e n t e d  toward the Yukon ( S l o b o d i n , 1963s 2 9 ) . t r a d e were game and  The main items  of  f i n e f u r s , which c o u l d be s o l d f o r  much h i g h e r p r i c e s at the g o l d f i e l d s than a t F t . McPherson. T h i s was  e s p e c i a l l y t r u e In the winter when the demand f o r  warm c l o t h i n g and  f r e s h meat was  i n s t e a d of f i s h i n g and c o u l d be had  at i t s zenith.  In summer,  t r a d i n g a t F t . McPherson, employment  i n Dawson C i t y ( S l o b o d i n , 1963s 2 9 ) .  Vunta and N a t s i t t r a d e d w i t h whalers a t Hersehel B a r t e r I s l a n d s , u s i n g the o l d w i n t e r routes a l o n g F i r t h and Blow R i v e r s .  more whalers wintered on n a t i v e hunters  the  The whalers were I n i t i a l l y  i n t e r e s t e d i n t r a d i n g w i t h people  and  of the r e g i o n but  not as  on the coast they became dependent  f o r meat.  Word of new,  e x o t i c trade  44  goods reached  the K u t c h i n from Eskimo t r a d e r s w i t h whom  they d i d business a l o n g the F i r t h R i v e r and a t F t . McPherson. By 1889 K u t c h i n people were known t o be t r a d i n g w i t h whalers a t B a r t e r I s l a n d (Stockton, 1890s 186), and a t Hersehel I s l a n d i n I896. K u t c h i n people p r e f e r r e d t o trade with the whalers because commodities o f f e r e d were cheaper and of g r e a t e r v a r i e t y than those of the f u r t r a d e r s .  The whalers were  s u p p l i e d w i t h meat and d r i f t w o o d i n r e t u r n f o r tr ade goods. ;  These were p r i m a r i l y winter t r a n s a c t i o n s , which  reduced  the amount of f u r s a v a i l a b l e f o r summer t r a d i n g a t the Hudson's Bay p o s t s . Due t o the d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n of indigenous trade the posts a t New Ramparts and La P i e r r e House were c l o s e d . Consequently  the people, being dependent on c e r t a i n white  goods, had no other c h o i c e but t o t r a d e with whalers and g o l d r u s h e r s , or make the l o n g hard t r i p t o F t . McPherson. Cadzow's re-opening dramatic  fall  of New Ramparts c o i n c i d e d w i t h the  i n p r i c e of baleen and the Vunta and N a t s l t  a g a i n focussed on the t r a d i n g p o s t s .  Still  later,  i n 1918,  the Tukkuth and T a t l i t were l u r e d back t o t r a d i n g a t F t . McPherson w i t h a r i s e ( S l o b o d i n , 1963: 29).  i n the p r i c e of muskrat p e l t s  45  (d) The  Government  " B o t h t h e G o l d Rush i n t h e Yukon a n d t h e w h a l i n g boom a l o n g t h e A r c t i c C o a s t r e s u l t e d i n the appearance of the R o y a l N o r t h w e s t Mounted P o l i c e .... I n t h e Yukon t h e m a j o r c o n c e r n h a d been t o prevent the l a w l e s s n e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h G o l d Rush towns i n A l a s k a spreading t o Canadian t e r r i t o r y . I n t h e B e a u f o r t Sea a r e a s , a n d elsewhere i n t h e A r c t i c , i t was t o c o n f i r m C a n a d i a n r i g h t s t o the a r e a s t h a t might o t h e r w i s e be d i s p u t e d . "  ( W o l f o r t h , 1970: 118-119) The  p o l i c e were t h e o n l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f  government a t New  i n early  Ramparts  i n 1903.  The  support  those  contact times.  i n the l a t e  officers  e x p l o i t a t i o n , although social  development The  people white  2.  total  t h e r e was  effect  of white  became o r i e n t e d and  established  at Herschel Island  were o f t e n c a l l e d  p r o t e c t them a g a i n s t  of the n a t i v e  no  policy  upon t o  commercial  toward  the  people. c o n t a c t was  dependent  on t h e  t h a t the  Kutchin  institutions  settlement.  Changes i n t h e Way  Although turn  1890's, a n d  i n charge  i n n e e d and  A p o s t was  the  of  Life  a l l Kutchin s t i l l  of the c e n t u r y ,  lived  they d i d so w i t h  on  the  land at  imported  the  equipment,  of  46  c l o t h i n g and f o o d s t u f f s . t o the t r a d i n g post. changing  A r i s e i n f u r p r i c e s drew people  Trapping became the c e n t r a l  r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s and  activity,  seasonal movement and  a l s o r e - o r g a n i z i n g the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . P o p u l a t i o n s of K u t c h i n t r i b e s were reduced by white introduced disease.  The Tennuth of B i r c h Creek and Kutcha 1936:  of Yukon F l a t s were completely a n n i h i l a t e d (Osgood, 14-15).  The Tukkuth and T a t l i t were decimated by measles  c o n t r a c t e d a t Dawson C i t y and spread to F t . McPherson (Wolforth, 1970: smallpox 195^:  epidemic  112;  Wlesh, 1 9 7 0 :  o c c u r r e d a t New  24-25).  A blighting  Ramparts i n 1911  (Leechman,  13). N a t s i t began t o trade a t F t . Yukon, as w e l l as r e s i d e  a t the post when i t was and New  Ramparts.  The  moved t o Howling Dog, smallpox  epidemic was  Old Ramparts, the c a t a l y s t  f o r the e n t i r e community t o once a g a i n move, s i x f c y - f i v e m i l e s u p r i v e r to " F i s h Trap P l a c e " I t was  (ibid).  not u n t i l the Tukkuth r e t u r n e d from Dawson C i t y  t h a t they began t o r e - o r i e n t themselves,  trading at Fish  Trap P l a c e r a t h e r than t a k i n g the long t r e k over Richardson Mountains t o F t . McPherson.  the  Tukkuth g r a d u a l l y  merged w i t h the Vunta and N a t s i t and began t r a v e l l i n g them to the t r a d i n g post. by the establishment  L a t e r , t h i s c o n d i t i o n was  with changed  of a t r a d i n g post a t Whitestone V i l l a g e ,  but when the post c l o s e d the Tukkuth went back to F i s h Place.  Trap  47  (a) S e a s o n a l  White c o n t a c t fishing  patterns.  Movement and  completely  for aboriginal  59)*  i n post-contact  was  and  1908  so t h e  " t r a d i n g had  s u p p l i e s had in  people  annual  crossings. the  forests after  i n favour  i n c r e a s e d and  The  t r a d i n g post  t o be the  killed.  on t h e s e a r t e r i e s .  a t the  traditional  individual The  Instead  By  and store  the  surrounds  were  river  rifle  allowed  dispersed  (see Chapter  trading intensified,  methods  of m i g r a t i n g  c a r i b o u the people  III).  becoming a year  directed  into  to Mobility round  t o i t r a t h e r than  to  hunting.  s e a s o n a l i t y and  location  of a l l K u t c h i n  were p e r m a n e n t l y c h a n g e d a f t e r w h i t e c o n t a c t . gatherings  main  o f t h e m a j o r autumn h u n t a t  o c c u p a t i o n w i t h major e f f o r t s  The  19^2:  I963: 57).  More e f f i c i e n t  camps a l o n g  subsistence  to the  purchased  c o o p e r a t i v e methods.  f o r more a n i m a l s  trapping  (Slobodin,  established activity,  (Balikcl,  c y c l e of migration.  supplanted  was  P o s t s were l o c a t e d on  periodically  and  c o n t a c t t h e r e have b e e n m a j o r c h a n g e s i n t h e  s l o w l y abandoned river  23).  hunting  summer t r a v e l  raiding  a trip  became c e n t r e d  exchange f o r f u r s " Since  the  times  become a n  t o be  times,  t r a d i n g and  i n c l u d e d ( W e l s h , 1970:  rivers  disrupted seasonal  In t r a d i t i o n a l  reserved  Location  were r e l a t e d  t o the  t r a d i n g post  activities  Summer i n -  rather  than  48  t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h trap l o c a t i o n s .  I n a d d i t i o n there was a  new time f o r t r i b a l g a t h e r i n g , a t Christmas, dependent on the people  's m o b i l i t y .  which was  Hunting s h i f t e d from  the tundra t o r i v e r c r o s s i n g s and w i n t e r a c t i v i t i e s were f o c u s s e d on t r a p p i n g r a t h e r than h u n t i n g . a t i o n was completely  Lastly, transport  r e - o r i e n t e d f o r g r e a t e r speed and  m o b i l i t y , with t e r m i n a l s l o c a t e d a t white t r a d i n g e s t a b l i s h ments and camps e s t a b l i s h e d on major waterways (Welsh, 1970s 23).  G r a d u a l l y a l l t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s were taken  over  by these new p a t t e r n s .  (b) Hunting,  The surround  F i s h i n g and Trapping  r i f l e and n e t g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d t h e c a r i b o u and t h e f i s h t r a p .  captured w i t h fewer people  More game and f i s h c o u l d be involved.  There was no longer  a need f o r c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n and people individualistic  i n their  became  outlook.  During the t r a p p i n g season a l l types of game were shot a l o n g the t r a i l  f o r food.  Numerous caches would be s e t up  with an abundant amount o f food so t h a t people concentrate  on t r a p p i n g .  When a hunt was necessary, a  t r a p p e r would scout, without found.  He took h i s k i l l ,  could  toboggan, u n t i l a herd was  then r e t u r n e d f o r a dog team.  I f t h e herd was l a r g e , he r e t u r n e d t o n o t i f y other i n the a r e a .  trappers  4-9  November marked t h e Old  Crow F l a t s w i t h  traps near  lakes  the  beginning  o f t h e mink s e a s o n i n  trapper breaking  i n h a b i t e d by  trail  the animals.  were c h e c k e d r e g u l a r l y b e c a u s e w o l v e r i n e s catches. this  With the  exception  pattern continued  until  Christmas.  from a s e r i e s  along  River  Porcupine  Initially resulted  i n trappers  T h e r e was  no  conditions  l i n e s w o u l d have t o c h e c k on t r a p s was Secondly, Frost,  Christmas settlements  activity  that  t h e r e was  region.  or t r a p l i n e s .  Two  o f more permanent  the r e a l i z a t i o n  i n l e n g t h and  that  a more  trap  systematic  required for greater productivity. such as  Cody began t o e x p l o i t  a number o f d i f f e r e n t trappers  destroy  extensively within a  numerous w h i t e t r a p p e r s  L o r d , and  traps  Chapter I I I ) .  s i t u a t i o n t o one  increase  would  of t r a p p i n g  ownership of t r a p p i n g a r e a s  Firstly,  Ideally,  After  a marginal  shifting  changed the  •ownership'.  (see  t r a p p i n g was  setting  of p e r i o d i c hunting i n t e r r u p t i o n s ,  m a r t e n were t r a p p e d the  and  lines.  i n f l u e n c e d the  S c h u l t z , Johnson,  i n d i v i d u a l areas  Over a p e r i o d o f t i m e  indigenous  people  with  these  i n t h e ways  of  ownership. "Systematic  r a t t i n g w i t h i n the  among t h e V u n t a K u t c h i n of  W o r l d War  I"  d i d not  (Balikcl,  innumerable lakes  1963:  the  stake  I n March and  houses.  until  41).  Ratting occurred  beginning  I n December  r a t houses, trappers April,  the  trade  start  i n O l d Crow F l a t s .  h e a v y snow c o v e r e d the  framework o f f u r  after  on  before  proceeded marten  to  and  50  mink t r a p p i n g , r a t t i n g  began i n e a r n e s t w i t h  placing  traps  unbaited  staked.  steel  By t h e end o f A p r i l  inside  each  person  t h e h o u s e s he h a d  i t was n o l o n g e r  necessary  t o p u t t h e t r a p s i n t h e h o u s e s b u t r a t h e r t h e y were just  i n front  of the r a tholes  b r e a k - u p t h e r a t s were s h o t The  net result  bush e x i s t e n c e . or share;  they  on t h e f l a t  Traditional  would n o t c o l l a b o r a t e  a g r o u p o f autonomous  who b e n e f i t t e d f r o m a p a r t i c u l a r  (c) D r e s s ,  began t o l i v e a n i s o l a t e d  a hunt people  became s i m p l y  After  i n the water.  was t h a t p e o p l e  During  ice.  S h e l t e r and T r a v e l  c l o t h i n g was one o f t h e f i r s t  aspects of  a f t e r white  All  w i t h beads,  c l o t h i n g was a b u n d a n t l y  decorated  f r o m t h e Hudson's Bay p o s t .  Imported  shirts  replaced caribou skin  s h i r t s , and l o c a l l y  parkas  f r o m b l a n k e t s were p r e f e r r e d o v e r  be  concluded  hunters  game c o n c e n t r a t i o n .  Kutchin material c u l t u r e t o disappear  Balikci  placed  that t r a d i t i o n a l  coloured  purchased  woollen tailored  the o l d garments.  clothing  u s e d by t h e t r a p p e r s b u t was t e n d i n g  contact.  continued t o  toward  extinction  (1963: 46). The  f u r trade  i n t r o d u c e d canvas t e n t s w i t h  to r e p l a c e the s k i n houses. c a b i n s were common. non-existant,  t i n stoves  At the t u r n of the century, l o g  With t h e w i n t e r nomadic system  t r a p p e r s no l o n g e r n e e d e d  virtually  semi-permanent  51  dwellings.  People b u i l t  which provided did  the  setting the  u n c o m f o r t a b l e sod t r a p s , and  trapper  be  the  T h e r e was to  increased  introduced  and  used the  cabin  f o r a number o f  summer g a t h e r i n g s  same d w e l l i n g  at  frequently  loads.  days same post,  " ...  a team o f  of t h r e e  Dog  was  lines  to  Dogs were u s e d  considerable  (Balikci,  can 1963:  dogs were h a r n e s s e d  f o o d was  due  toboggan  s e v e n dogs  caribou"  more t h a n e i g h t  The  46), together.  required.  This  methods o f  hunting  was  teams r e a c h e d t h e i r maximum s i z e i n  the  1950's.  I m p o r t e d c a n v a s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r moose s k i n and bark i n the  construction a  of water c r a f t .  long narrow f l a t - b o t t o m e d  used f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g boat t h a t drove the Eventually  that  spring r a t t i n g .  meat.  trapper  a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h more e f f i c i e n t  introduced  as  trail,  trading  of f u r s from t r a p  for hauling  ensure the  speed.  p u l l a load  1 9 4 0 ' s and  the  used d u r i n g  heavier  a s w e l l as  s l e d and  fishing.  Breaking  canvas t e n t , p r o b a b l y the  W i t h l a r g e teams, more dog  and  lines  c h e c k i n g them r e q u i r e d  t o c a r r y heavy l o a d s  m o b i l i t y and easily  s k i n houses.  constantly  m o b i l i t y and  the  t h e i r trap  s u b s t a n t i a l change i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  trading posts, to p u l l  or  away f r o m t h e  t e n t used f o r the w e l l as  on  b e t t e r p r o t e c t i o n from.winter elements  a t w h i c h t i m e he  as  log cabins  p e o p l e , game and  raft  and  The  birch  white  trappers  b o a t made o f  plywood,  furs.  moose s k i n b o a t  I t was  this  into extinction.  t h e s e c r a f t s were e q u i p p e d w i t h o u t b o a r d  motors  52  t o f a c i l i t a t e even g r e a t e r m o b i l i t y .  The canvas canoe,  v e r y s m a l l , l i g h t and manoeuverable, i s s t i l l used f o r shooting  muskrat and f o r f i s h i n g .  (d) S o c i a l  Organization  I n c r e a s i n g dependency on white goods l e d n a t u r a l l y t o g r e a t e r involvement with  fur trading.  became t i e d t o the "superordinate  The n a t i v e people  position" (Balikci,  1963*  48) of the t r a d i n g post which c o n t r o l l e d t h e i r economic p o s i t i o n and a l t e r e d t h e i r s o c i a l White c o n t a c t l e a d e r s h i p forms. missionary  on K u t c h i n  organization.  s o c i e t y destroyed  A l s o , many K u t c h i n  traditional  people b e l i e v e t h a t  a c t i v i t y played an important r o l e i n b r i n g i n g  Eskimo-Kutchin h o s t i l i t i e s t o a c l o s e .  To be sure, the  t r a d e r s made attempts t o r e s o l v e h o s t i l i t i e s and ,in t h a t way c o u l d a s s i s t  i n promoting the s e r i o u s business o f  t r a p p i n g and t r a d i n g .  T h i s peace ended the r o l e of the war  c h i e f and e l i m i n a t e d many o f the reasons f o r c l a n e x i s t a n c e . With the s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n c l a n f u n c t i o n s , c l a n " c h i e f t a n s h i p i t s e l f q u i c k l y became an i n s t i t u t e of bygone days" ( B a l i k c i , 1963s ^ 8 ) . In a d d i t i o n , the f u n c t i o n s of t h e economic l e a d e r f o l l o w e d the c a r i b o u surrounds and f i s h traps i n t o e x t i n c t i o n .  53  The chief.  r o l e of t r i b a l c h i e f changed t o t h a t of a t r a d i n g The Hudson's Bay  Company o f t e n d e a l t with  c h i e f s r a t h e r than with each t r a p p e r . however, was  The  not t h a t of a g e n e r a l t r i b a l  tribal  r o l e of c h i e f , 'wise man',  but  r a t h e r a puppet of the Company, a c t i n g as middleman and promoter f o r the f u r t r a d e .  There was  a gradual erosion  of the t r i b a l c h i e f ' s trade r o l e with the Company as more i n d i v i d u a l s t r a d e d a t the post. Ramparts c l o s e d i n 1894,  A f t e r the post a t  the t r a d i n g c h i e f  New  disappeared.  Shamen continued to be a c t i v e f o r a much longer time and undercurrents  of the Shamenism can s t i l l be f e l t  today.  Even though the K u t c h i n took to C h r i s t i a n i t y q u i t e r e a d i l y , the Shamen d i d not l o s e power.  In some cases Shamen were  t r a i n e d as c a t e c h i s t s , e s t a b l i s h i n g church power among the people. Leadership  systems broke down and the s t e e l t r a p , r i f l e ,  and  f i s h net made c o l l a b o r a t i v e economic p a t t e r n s o b s o l e t e .  The  f u n c t i o n s of the c l a n system d i s i n t e g r a t e d and the b a s i c  socio-economic  u n i t became the f a m i l y , which was  c r e d i t of the t r a d i n g post.  These agents of c o n t a c t d i r e c t e d  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a l l y w e l l - o r g a n i z e d nomadic hunters i n a s m a l l nodal  centre.  t i e d t o the  to  living  54  3 . The  Establishment  Old Crow was  of Old Crow  a f o c a l p o i n t f o r Vunta K u t c h i n bands l o n g  b e f o r e the a r r i v a l of white men,  although  i t was  the  intro-  d u c t i o n of white i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t e v e n t u a l l y l e d t o the formation  of a community.  Old Crow, f o r m e r l y known as P i s h Trap P l a c e , was  an  i n f o r m a l g a t h e r i n g spot where i n t e r - t r i b a l f e a s t i n g and t r a d i n g took p l a c e . was  In p o s t - c o n t a c t  time, the  more f o r m a l , the purpose being to organize  gathering trading  p a r t i e s t h a t would t r a v e l down r i v e r t o F t . Yukon. Trap P l a c e , l o c a t e d a t the confluence p o r t a t i o n routes  i n the r e g i o n , was  of the major t r a n s -  the most  l o c a t i o n f o r a l l groups t o congregate. of the t r a d i n g p a r t y , remaining  Fish  convenient  A f t e r the  departure  band members t r a v e l l e d  up  the Crow R i v e r and d i s p e r s e d throughout the Crow F l a t s t o fish. The  f u n c t i o n of F i s h Trap Place d i d not change u n t i l  an i n c r e a s e d number of people accompanied the t r a d i n g p a r t i e s on the s h o r t e r hauls to Ramparts House. was  encouraged by m i s s i o n a r i e s who  themselves a t the t r a d i n g post New  Ramparts House was  c e n t r e of the r e g i o n . post  This  had e s t a b l i s h e d  location.  the economic and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  P r i o r to Cadzow opening h i s t r a d i n g  i n 1904, K u t c h i n people had been t r a d i n g a t  I s l a n d , Dawson C i t y , and  F t . McPherson.  Hersehel  A f t e r the  new  55  trading  post  opened a t New  Ramparts t r a d i n g a g a i n  a t a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the K u t c h i n New  Ramparts was  adequate f o r f i s h i n g  but  limited  i n number and  river.  Trapping  accessible the  and  fish  were on  the  were few,  and  h e a v y snow d r i f t i n g . and  b i s e c t e d by  was  the  areas  there  to Old  Crow and  Old  for a  some o f t h e T h e r e was  i s o l a t i o n and  easier access Crow.  An  prevented  of l i f e ,  Physical  was  minimal  the  post  routes  moved  followed.  a c e n t r a l place  boredom a t  in  Kutchin  the  eliminated  trapping  t r a p p i n g , and n a r r o w west  suited for constructing Old  Vunta.  f a m i l i e s would  Eventually  to f i s h i n g ,  well  the  However, Ramparts House  people  a d d e d bonus t o t h e  to migratory  land area  In a d d i t i o n , the  Crow R i v e r was  traps.  l o c a t i o n on  p e o p l e began t o s t a y l o n g e r , which  from Old  of Old  the  easily,  f o r N a t s i t , T u k k u t h and  a way  Crow d e v e l o p e d a s  t e r r i t o r y as  were n o t  the  l o c a t i o n susceptible to  short time.  again  s i d e of  t o the west.  flat  centre  was  apparently  a d.eep r a v i n e .  t r a p p i n g was  reside  areas  The  t r a d i n g post  l o n g as  the  It  other  Ramparts House and  of f u r species  territory.  t r a p l o c a t i o n s were  i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary l i n e  amenities  #  located.  hunting  f r o m New  exploitation  As  poorly  focussed  Crow s i t e  of barren-ground  was  caribou  camps. hunting channel fish  i t s nearness  (see  Figure  2.3). Old  Crow was  institutionalized  by  the  conditions  of  an  56  FIGURE  2.3  57  external society.  These e x t e r n a l i t i e s i n c l u d e d  goods t h a t i n f l u e n c e d a change i n the way t h i s new and  way  strange  of l i f e was  the people i n the Besides men  was  p u r e l y economic.  from trade and The  Trade goods,  conveniently relatively  t i e d the n a t i v e people  Government people s h i f t e d the  emphasis  i m p o s i t i o n of e x t e r n a l r o l e s d r a m a t i c a l l y a l t e r e d of l i f e .  The  t h a t was  settlement  p a t t e r n changed  f l e x i b l e and mobile t o  s t a t i o n a r y f o r a l a r g e p a r t of the year.  of s u b s i s t e n c e turned  hold  Old Crow's a t t r a c t i o n f o r white  of t r a p p e r s and  c h a r a c t e r , from one  t h a t was  to e f f e c t i v e l y  commerce t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  the Old Crow way in  amenities  t o corner the market on t h i s  large concentration t o the community.  Once  community.  the m i s s i o n ,  a v a i l a b l e , helped  of l i f e .  established social  laws were administered  outside  inward.  l i v i n g changed and  one  Seasonality  the focus of the people  58 •  CHAPTER I I I  OLD CROW TERRITORY  The the in  effect  o f c u l t u r a l change c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d i n  people's r e l a t i o n s h i p land-use as well  land.  to their land.  as i n the people's a t t i t u d e  Each has r a m i f i c a t i o n s  III describes  the a l t e r e d  i nthe present  patterns  of alternative  of land  out  t h e impact  the  t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d - b a s e d way o f l i f e  IV  i s reserved  to  their territory.  There a r e s h i f t s  pursuits  toward  day.  their  Chapter  use and p o i n t s  o f l i v e l i h o o d on i n O l d Crow.  Chapter  f o r t h e s t u d y o f t h e community's commitment  A. THE OLD CROW LAND  1. U t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e O l d Crow L a n d  With the K u t c h i n people f i r m l y trade, small  entrenched  t h e p o p u l a t i o n became d i s t r i b u t e d settlements along  l o c a t i o n was a t r a p p i n g families,  i n a series of  the Porcupine River,  House t o W h i t e s t o n e V i l l a g e  i n the f u r  from Ramparts  (see F i g u r e # 3.1).  camp c o n s i s t i n g  o f one o r more  e a c h o c c u p y i n g a l o g c a b i n , where t h e y  f o r a good p a r t  of the year.  Each  resided  C o - o p e r a t i v e meat camps were  e l i m i n a t e d and l a r g e r  fish  camps d i s a p p e a r e d w i t h  fishermen r e - l o c a t i n g  n e a r t h e i r t r a p p i n g camps.  individual The  59  location  of t r a p  lines  ownership of an  area  an  traps.  Individual's  line in was  and  varied  was  identified At  either divided  their  respective  established,  by  catch  traps.  established  the  camp.  intended trail If  and  through  line,  he  main t r a i l s ,  the  along  line  without  then the  rights to  trap  A trapper and  haul  the  s l e d and  travel  lines  the  the  to the  was  rest  of  used  be  trapped  to break  Most t r a p s day  the  "owner".  could  first  the  theirs.  permanent  i t , applied.  before  were  round t r i p  main t r a i l  trail  only  set  to  after  obtained. could  more f u r s  and  t r a v e l f a s t e r , cover a  i f he  leaving  lightly  season  conversation.  repetitively  r u l e , the  trap along  caught  to break  line  e a c h t a k i n g a one  Others could was  considered  general  trap  indicating their  although public property,  branch t r a i l s ,  permission  being  was  A g a i n the  trapping  check.  intended  information  o v e r a number o f y e a r s a t r a p p e r  privately. had  left  informal  however, i f t h e y were f i r s t  c l e a r the  same t r a p The  times trappers  lines,  shared a  of  respected.  k i n would convey the  At  that  occupation  Once o w n e r s h i p f o r a  usually  so  o r k e p t what was  T r a p p e r s would u s u a l l y mention t h e i r l e a v i n g , and  the  times partners  the  i t was  O w n e r s h i p was  from year t o y e a r ,  the  was  alone.  family at  speedily.  This  By  resulted of  trap  line,  h i t c h i n g more dogs  camp, t h e  away f r o m camp f o r a l a r g e p a r t  longer  the  trapper i n the time.  could trapper  to  FIGURE  3.1  61  Muskrat t r a p p i n g added t o the changing seasonal and  settlement  pattern.  During  cycle  the s p r i n g , about a month  p r i o r t o break-up t o immediately f o l l o w i n g break-up, the people spent  t h e i r time r a t t i n g on Crow P l a t s .  T h i s was a  f a m i l y o p e r a t i o n because the number of p e l t s skinned too l a r g e f o r an I n d i v i d u a l t r a p p e r .  Each camp was r e l a t i v e l y  c l o s e t o another, a l l o w i n g f o r more s o c i a l i z a t i o n . areas were i n surrounding  was  The r a t t i n g  l a k e s , u n l i k e the winter t r a p l i n e s  that extended many miles from the camp. The  f u r trade obviously influenced a l l Kutchin  activities.  F a m i l i e s began to stand as independent economic u n i t s i n a l l subsistence a c t i v i t i e s ;  the c o - o p e r a t i v e  r e g i o n a l band no  l o n g e r e x i s t e d and p a r t n e r s h i p s were not l a s t i n g forms of economic i n t e g r a t i o n .  2. Change i n Land-Use P a t t e r n  Since the r i s e i n f u r p r i c e s a f t e r 1906, emphasis on land-use s h i f t e d from hunting  to trapping.  I n i t i a l l y , the  d i s t r i b u t i o n of people d i d not d r a m a t i c a l l y a l t e r from e a r l y c o n t a c t time u n t i l people d e s i r e d more o f the l i f e based on f u r t r a d i n g .  style  Thus, p a r t s of the Old Crow l a n d  became s p e c i a l i z e d with a c t i v i t y d u r i n g c e r t a i n p a r t s o f the year.  For example, hunting  by t h e l o c a t i o n of settlements  l o c a t i o n s were i n f l u e n c e d a l o n g the Porcupine R i v e r .  T h i s can be seen i n F i g u r e #3.2,  where hunting l o c a t i o n s  62  are  found a l o n g  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n e s and  around trapping connected with along  winter  settlements.  Other hunting  m u s k r a t t r a p p i n g camps  trap l i n e s .  concentrated locations are  i n Crow F l a t s , a n d  F i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s , on t h e o t h e r  hand, p e r f e c t l y c o r r e l a t e w i t h  trapping  settlements.  O c c a s i o n a l l y modern meat camps were e s t a b l i s h e d the main w i n t e r contact  time  trails,  trails  that d i d not exist  ( s e e end p a p e r s , L o u c h e u x Map).  however, g r o u p s o f t r a p p e r s  along  i npre-  More o f t e n ,  r e t u r n i n g from Whitestone or  J o h n s o n V i l l a g e w o u l d b r i n g meat i n t o O l d Crow o r c a c h e it  along  the t r a i l .  Figure  #3.2  shows t h e l o c a t i o n s o f l a n d u s e  i n the"1930's - 40's.  Trapping  a c t i v i t y which i s r e f l e c t e d the  trap line By  i n extensive  i n t r a p p i n g and an i n c r e a s e income.  resource  e x p l o i t a t i o n along  f u r c a t c h was d i m i n i s h e d .  neglected  61).  so t h a t he c o u l d  River.  i n s i z e and t h e  t i m e t r a p p i n g was a n d by 1961  O l d Crow a t Salmon Cache  Rumour h a d i t t h a t t h i s  bush r e s i d e n c e  i s reflected i n  the Porcupine  by a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n  person resided outside  1963:  Full  govern-  r a n g e shows a l s o  i 9 6 0 many o f t h e t r a p l i n e s were r e d u c e d  total  settlements.  i n various  This  # 3«3 where a r e d u c e d t e r r i t o r i a l  intensified  one  land coverage of  p a t t e r n r a d i a t i n g from t r a p p i n g  ment a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h p r o v i d e d  By  remmunerative  i 9 6 0 t h e O l d Crow economy was c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a  slow decrease  Figure  was a h i g h l y  specialization  being only  (Balikci,  p e r s o n c h o s e permanent  s e t a brew p o t w i t h  relative  OLD CROW LAND USE, LONG AGO  O L D  C R O W  L A N D  65  9 freedom from the watchful eye of the R.C.M.P. Most t r a p p e r s commuted t o t h e i r t r a p l i n e s from Old Crow i n i 9 6 0 .  The t r a p p e r s e t camp f o r a month or two of  i n t e n s i v e t r a p p i n g and then r e t u r n e d t o Old Crow. longer d i d the f a m i l y r e s i d e a t the t r a p p i n g  No  settlements  nor were t h e r e groups o f t r a p p e r s based a t any camps. Summer r e s i d e n c e a l s o s h i f t e d from the t r a p p i n g t o Old Crow.  settlements  With t h i s s h i f t , fewer f i s h i n g s i t e s were  l o c a t e d along the Porcupine  River.  where the dogs were u s u a l l y kept  Most were a t Old Crow,  (see F i g u r e # 3 . 3 ) .  Less a c t i v i t y was based from winter t r a p p i n g camps because f a m i l i e s no l o n g e r occupied them. mostly  Hunting,occurred  d u r i n g the f a l l while some occurred along the t r a p  l i n e and i n Crow F l a t s d u r i n g the r a t t i n g season. l e s s , the extent of used land d i m i n i s h e d  Neverthe-  ( F i g u r e # 3 . 3 ) due  t o the f a c t t h a t Old Crow had become a s i t e of permanent residence. The  government a l s o a p p l i e d p r e s s u r e . f o r the development  of permanent t r a p p i n g s e c t o r s i n Crow F l a t s (see F i g u r e # 3 « 4 ) . T h i s had the e f f e c t of reducing the d i s p u t e s over muskrat "pushups" but a l s o reduced  the r a t t i n g  certain  territory.  U n t i l 1966 i t was i l l e g a l f o r a n a t i v e Canadian t o make 'home brew' or consume a l c o h o l .  66  After  the  s c h o o l was  amount o f t i m e t h e y  e s t a b l i s h e d , many f a m i l i e s c u t spent  on  the  Plats ratting.  some p e o p l e were much more c o n s c i o u s of Old  Crow and  village.  chose t o spend l e s s  T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s had  number of r a t t i n g  camps a n d  the  the  of the  the  In a d d i t i o n ,  "social  centre"  t i m e away f r o m effect  the  of reducing  amount o f a r e a  the  u s e d on  the  Flats. I n I960, f a c t o r s f o r l o c a t i n g p e r m a n e n t l y a t resulted To  from  inter-related  begin with  i n the with  there  was  a  government  construction with  particularly  a man  logger,  c o u l d be w i t h  Crow, and  Federal  considered  In a d d i t i o n , the  importantly,  latter  activity occurred  distance  to t r a v e l  his family a great  trapping was  longer.  economic b e n e f i t  shifted  27) Day  the  government c o n t r i b u t e d  a  system t h a t encouraged people t o s t a y  head of household.  the  This  most  jobs  school  because i t i n c r e a s e d h i s p r e s t i g e i n  generous r e l i e f  25,  sale.  e a s i e r , the  Immediate payment was  (1970:  and  h o u s e and  Many p r e f e r r e d wood c u t t i n g t o  work was  s h o r t e r , and  community.  institutions,  d e t r a c t e d from t r a p p i n g because i t  the winter.  because the  Old  economic c o n d i t i o n s .  l i m i t e d amount o f work a v a i l a b l e  Indian A f f a i r s ;  wood c u t t i n g f o r d o m e s t i c  t o the  and  Crow  community: a h a l f d o z e n t e m p o r a r y m a i n t e n a n c e  different  during  social  Old  the  e c o n o m i c power f r o m t h e  Lastly, Balikci  (1963:  70)  and  in  male Welsh  have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e  establishment  of  i n 1950  most p r o f o u n d  impact  School  had  the  67  ^  ABEL  ;«&jtsJOHN  oh  KENDI  .A'  AOSES/*  J  *  CHARLIE  -2>i  CROW FLATS MUSKRAT TRAPPING SECTORS  1 A ^ E N  FROST  Va>. 10  2 0  mi let  F I G U R E  3.4  **°<J>  68  on settlement people  saw  i n Old Crow.  B a l i k c i commented t h a t the  the advantage of education of t h e i r  thus abandoning w i n t e r t r a p p i n g .  children,  R e a l i s t i c a l l y , people  were f o r c e d t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n to s c h o o l or the  law  c o u l d take the c h i l d r e n away to a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . any  In  case, the government had a s t r o n g impact on permanent  settlement a t Old Crow. At present evident. people  Pew  the e f f e c t of s c h o o l i n g i s d r a m a t i c a l l y  of the young people know how  i n the community now  t o t r a p and  set a t r a p l i n e .  In the  few  winter  of 1 9 7 2 - 7 3 s i x t r a p l i n e s were e s t a b l i s h e d with l e n g t h s of a two-day, round t r i p d u r a t i o n .  A l l the l i n e s were checked  on s p o r a d i c weekends. The 1972-73. All  Old Crow l a n d was Hunting was  almost empty d u r i n g the w i n t e r  recorded only once a l o n g the t r a p l i n e .  other hunting o c c u r r e d i n the summer and  Porcupine  of  f a l l along  the  R i v e r or on Crow Mountain (see F i g u r e # 3 . 5 ) •  Trapping  settlements d i d not e x i s t ; the f o c a l p o i n t f o r a l l t r a p l i n e s was  Old Crow. There has been a s i g n i f i c a n t drop i n the muskrat h a r v e s t  s i n c e i 9 6 0 (see Table # 3 . 6 ) .  The  a combination  economic changes.  of c u l t u r a l and  reduction i s attributed  F i r s t l y , more  people have jobs and t h e r e f o r e l e s s time i s spent r a t t i n g it  occurs d u r i n g the s c h o o l year.  t h e i r r a t t i n g camps.  to  as  F a m i l i e s cannot a t t e n d t o  In the p a s t , c h i l d r e n were g i v e n time  o f f s c h o o l so they c o u l d help with s p r i n g r a t t i n g , but  this  OLD CROW LAND  70  was d i s c o n t i n u e d  i n the s p r i n g of 1973.  T h i s has i n c r e a s e d  the i s o l a t i o n of bush l i f e , reduced catches, and r e s t r i c t e d the p e r i o d of stay i n the bush. r a t t i n g i s a source  L a s t l y , many ,now t h i n k  of pocket money, and a s h o r t h o l i d a y .  To t h i s end many b r i e f p a r t n e r s h i p s a r e formed immediately f o l l o w i n g break-up, but only f o r the purpose of shooting r a t s , r a t h e r than the more d i f f i c u l t t r a p p i n g of them.  3. Ownership and I n t e n s i t y i n the Use of the O l d Crow Land  (a) Ownership  K u t c h i n developed i n d i v i d u a l t r a p p i n g i n response t o the f u r t r a d e .  territories  S i m i l a r t o the Montagnais of  Quebec (Leacock, 1964), K u t c h i n t r a p l i n e s were used  Initially  by who ever f i r s t c l e a r e d them, and through r e p e t i t i v e use, l i n e s were e v e n t u a l l y regarded  as ' p r i v a t e ' .  Montagnais, p r i v a t e K u t c h i n hunting  preserves d i d not develop,  however, the meat captured was considered of the t r a p or surround The  U n l i k e the  the p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y  owner.  i n t r o d u c t i o n of r e g i s t e r e d muskrat t r a p p i n g  (see F i g u r e # 3.4) i n the mid 1950's d i d not a l t e r c o n d i t i o n s i n Crow F l a t s .  areas  "ownership"  R a t t i n g camps s h i f t e d from year t o  year,, even a f t e r the s e c t o r s were r e g i s t e r e d . i n r a t t i n g p a t t e r n s were maintained.  Flexibility  People not only  71  switched from t h e i r own s e c t o r  i n t o p u b l i c s e c t o r s , but  a l s o r a t t e d i n other ' p r i v a t e ' s e c t o r s .  3.6  Figure #  i960  t h i s s p a t i a l s h i f t from  Table # 3.1  p r o v i d e s more d e t a i l on the r e l a t i o n s h i p  involved  to  1961  exemplifies  while  i n the s h i f t .  On F i g u r e # 3«6 the muskrat t r a p p i n g p l o t t e d and numbered f o r the  i960  and  camps a r e  1961  seasons.  The numbers on the map correspond t o the camp numbers listed  i n Table # 3.1*  Trappers l o c a t e d a t each camp  are a l s o recorded i n an attempt t o understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a p p e r s and s e c t o r  'owners'.  A note on any r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a p p e r and i s provided t o complete the a n a l y s i s . each t r a p p e r from on the map and  1961  (Figure  camps.  i960 #  to  3.6)  1961  'owner'  The move by  i s graphically  illustrated  by a l i n e connecting the  i960  FIGURE  3.6  Table  #  3.1 R a t t i n g  Camps  and  R a t t i n g  S e c t o r s ,  Sector Camp  (a)  Mary  (b)  Rowena  (c)  Mary  John  John  (a) (b)  Mary  R.  K a s s i  L o r d  N e t r o  Moses  Joanne N e i l  K a s s i  Crow  Trapped  own  T i z y a  F l a t s ,  1960-61  In R e l a t i o n s h i p  1961  1960  Trappers  No.  Old  (a) (b)  own unknown  (c)  unknown  P a u l  Ben  No  r e l a t i o n s h i p  John Moses j o i n e d h i s s o n - i n - l a w L a z a r u s C h a r l i e i n 1961. N e i t h e r are r e l a t e d to P a u l Ben K a s s i .  K a s s i  own  own  N j o o t l i McDonald  John four  J . Kay Thomas B r o s .  own  E f f i e  E f f i e  L i n k l a t e r  i s  N e i l * s  daughter.  open  area  (a)  open  area  (b)  No  unknown own  &  open  area  continued  r e l a t i o n s h i p .  In 1961 Thomas r e t u r n e d to t h own a r e a , exce C h a r l i e , who r j u s t o u t s i d e t a r e a .  e p a h  B r o s , i r t t t e d e i r  V-0  Table  # 3.1  continued Sector Trapped  Camp  1960  Trappers  No.  In Relationship  1961  CP. Charlie Moses T i z y a  J.R. T i z y a J. Njootli  Andrew i s Moses' s o n and c o u s i n o f J.R. Tizya.  CP. Charlie Moses T i z y a  open  Peter  (a) C l a r e F r o s t (b) Don F r o s t  own  (a) d i d n o t t r a p (b) J.R. Tizya J. Njootli  Don's mother d i d n ' t t r a p i n 1961 so he j o i n e d Joanne N j o o t l i h i s mother-in-law.  Dolly  Peter Lord Albert Abel  unknown  Dolly i s sister.  Peter Lord A l b e r t Abel  open  area  No  own  open  area  Ratted with brothersi n - l a w A l b e r t and Charlie.  J o e Kay Robert Bruce  (a) open (b) open  Andrew  Peter  Tizya  Tizya  Josie  10  John  Kendi  11  Peter  12  (a) C h a r l i e A b e l (b) R o b e r t B r u c e  Lord  area  area area  continued  i s Moses  1  son.  Albert's  relationship.  (a) No r e l a t i o n s h i p . (b) J o e Kay i s Robert's f a t h e r - i n law.  Table  # 3.1  Camp No,  continued Sector Trapped In 1960  Trappers  13  Albert  Abel  14  Abraham P e t e r J o e Kay  Relationship  1961  open  area  open  area  See  #11.  open  area  open  area  J o e Kay was Abe Peter's grandfather. (a) C P . C h a r l i e i s s e c o n d c o u s i n t o J.R. Tizya. (b) See # 2.  15  (a) C P . C h a r l i e open area (b) L a z a r u s C h a r l i e  (a) J.R. T i z y a J. Njootli (b) P a u l Ben Kassi  16  Jack  own  own  17  P a u l Ben K a s s i Steven F r o s t  unknown  open  18  Peter  Moses  Lazarus C h a r l i e J o h n Moses  Lazarus C h a r l i e J o h n Moses  Old Peter i s brother t o John Moses.  19  Peter  Charlie  own  own  (evidence suggest that he and h i s w i f e e v e r y year r a t here alone)  20  Philip  unknown  John  Source:  1960 1961  Frost  Joseph  f i e l d data B a l i k c i (1963: 2, 86, 88)  (data obtained hand f r o m Don area  Kendi  No  No  second Frost)  relationship.  relationship.  76  I t i s obvious that many of these s h i f t s i n v o l v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p through the f a m i l y .  However there were  occasions  where f r i e n d s h i p was  the l i n k i n g bond and  occasions  where r a t t i n g e x p e r t i s e was  same v i c i n i t y as the previous i s the f a c t t h a t together  i n one  other  the c r i t e r i o n .  the twenty r a t t i n g s e t s r e p o r t i n g i n i 9 6 0 and remained a t t h e i r same camp and  a  1961,  six  seven s h i f t e d w i t h i n  year's camp.  Of  the  Of s p e c i a l note  'co-owners' ,of some s e c t o r s d i d not r a t of the years, nor d i d they n e c e s s a r i l y r a t  i n t h e i r own  sectors.  partnerships  were e s t a b l i s h e d but were not always renewed.  The  I t i s evident  that other  number of people r a t t i n g diminished  ratting  by f i v e from i 9 6 0  to  1961. In 1973  r a t t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s d i s i n t e g r a t e d t o the  point  where numerous people merely shared camps (see T a b l e #  3.3).  Table # 3 . 2 and  p o i n t s out that even the f a m i l y , the b a s i c  social  economic u n i t , had broken down. In many cases there has been a complete breakdown i n  k i n s h i p t i e s between t r a p p e r and eleven times i n 1973f  occurred  owner of a s e c t o r .  by f a r the h i g h e s t  This  frequency.  S i x cases r e f l e c t e d the blood r e l a t i o n s h i p s of parents  and  children.  area  There were two  t r a p p i n g camps i n the p u b l i c  which d i d not r e q u i r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p , and of o l d p a r t n e r  relationships.  i n t e r e s t i n g arrangement was and  two  three  occurrences  In a l l , however, the most  three uncle-nephew r e l a t i o n s h i p s  grandfather-grandson r e l a t i o n s h i p s , which suggests  Table  #  3.2 Muskrat Long  Trapping Ago,  A s s o c i a t i o n s  1960,  1973  Long Number  of  F a m i l y  u n i t s  of  f a m i l y  t o t a l  Approx. days  *Long  as  a  r a t t i n g  average each  Ago:  Source:  u n i t s  u n i t  r a t t i n g  percentage  14 60.8%  1960 9 50.0%  1973 6 15.8%  u n i t s  number  of  105  r a t t e d  the time when an o l d e r p e r s o n , over 40 y e a r s o f was a young man of about  f i e l d  Ago*  data  age, 20 y e a r s .  80  42  ^  3b  O  o  * O0 t  l  53<  0  ft  o roar  1<#  '8 ff  14  Do  0  5&  3?  V2>  \s9  02 )  w  Q  4 •ft °  7  CROW FLATS MUSKRAT TRAPPING CAMPS, 1973  0  ,0  K.y 10  LOCATION J OF CAMPS ™ SOURCE: FIELD  DATA  D  >0  HFI« to IEXI fOW NUMUt KEY.  FIGURE  3.7  ^o  9  79  Table  #3.3 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Muskrat Trappers and Owner of R a t t i n g S e c t o r s , 1973  Camp Number and  Trapper  •Owner* of Sector Trapped  Relationship  1.  Mary K a s s i (with family)  own  2.  Jimmy L i n k l a t e r  Mary K a s s i  none  Peter C h a r l i e  Randall i s Peter C h a r l i e ' s grandson; others are unrelated.  Effie Linklater (no l o n g e r l i v i n g i n Old Crow)  Effie*s  N e i l McDonald  Thomas Bros, are not r e l a t e d to Nell.  8. John T i z y a 9 . Dick Nukon  Peter Moses (deceased)  none  10.  Joanne N j o o t l i  Joanne's  11.  Joanne N j o o t l i ( w i t h family) Grafton & Stanley Njootli  12.  CP.  Andrew T i z y a  C P . C h a r l i e and Andrew T i z y a are brothers-in-law.  CP.  Brothers-in-law.  3. J o e l Peter, B i l l y Bruce 4. R a n d a l l C h a r l i e , Ronnie L i n k l a t e r 5.  6. 7.  13.  W i l l e & Irwin Linklater  N e i l McDonald Issac & Jerome Thomas  C h a r l i e (with family) John Joseph Kay  14. Andrew and Tizya  Peter  Charlie  sons.  sons.  15.  Roger Kay and George Moses  Charlie Abel  C h a r l i e i s Roger's great u n c l e .  16.  P e t e r , David, Lawrence Lord John A b e l (with family)  Peter Lord and A l b e r t Abel  Peter i s f a t h e r of David and Lawrence, w h i l e A l b e r t i s John's uncle.  17.  80  T a b l e # 3 . 3 continued Camp Number and Trapper  •Owner* of S e c t o r Trapped  Relationship  18. F l o r e n c e Netro 19. Abraham P e t e r  Joe Kay (deceased) and Robert Bruce  Joe Kay was Abraham's grandfather.  20. Robert Bruce J r . and Peter J o s l e  John Kendi  none  21. Robert Bruce 22. John Joe Kay (with family)  Stephen F r o s t  none  23.  A l b e r t Abel and Wilfred Josie 24. C h a r l i e A b e l  P e t e r Lord  A l b e r t and Charlie are P e t e r s brothersi n - law.  2 5 . John Kendi and Donald F r o s t 2 6 . D o l l i e Josie (with family) 2 ? . Pharas Thomas  P u b l i c Area  f  Sources f i e l d data  t h a t a weak exogamous c l a n system may s t i l l  p e r s i s t i n Old Crow.  The c l a n system was supposedly d e s t r o y e d by the i m p o s i t i o n of white economic and s o c i a l o r d e r . order may s t i l l members.  However, the o l d s o c i a l  e x i s t i n a weak form among some community  Most i m p o r t a n t l y , the number of people r a t t i n g  i n 1 9 7 3 was f o r t y - t w o , an Increase of about t e n from i 9 6 0 . The number of camps a l s o i n c r e a s e d from 20 t o 2 7 .  In c o n t r a s t ,  however, the amount of time spent r a t t i n g i n 1 9 7 3 was c a n t l y s h o r t e r than i n i 9 6 0 .  signifi-  81  'Ownership' of t r a p l i n e s and r a t t i n g s e c t o r s seemed t o be an a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r i n the i n c r e a s e d  i n d i v i d u a l i t y of  l a n d a c t i v i t i e s and r e s u l t a n t s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n s activities. use  f o r land  It also contributed to intensive i n d i v i d u a l  of the land near Old Crow, as w e l l as Crow F l a t s , and  a n e g l e c t f o r the broader t e r r i t o r y .  (b) I n t e n s i t y o f Land Use  The  d i s t r i b u t i o n of l a n d use a c t i v i t i e s  provides  i n f o r m a t i o n on the s p a t i a l v a r i a t i o n over time, but i t does not i n d i c a t e the i n t e n s i t y of u t i l i z a t i o n w i t h i n those p a t t e r n s .  The s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of l a n d use has  a l t e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y but t o understand more c l e a r l y the e f f e c t of t h a t s h i f t , l a n d use i n t e n s i t y must be e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s may i n c l u d e the number of people who use the l a n d or the amount o f time spent on the land; the amount of game captured area.  throughout the r e g i o n ; or the p r o d u c t i v i t y of an  Land use i n t e n s i t y , t h e r e f o r e , i s r e a l l y an i n d i r e c t  measure of the value  i n d i v i d u a l s p l a c e on t h e i r  territory  because i n t e n s i t y depends on each i n d i v i d u a l ' s need t o use the  land.  ( i ) Trapping  The  most a c c u r a t e  measure of the i n t e n s i t y of l a n d use  82  f o r t r a p l i n e s i s the a c t u a l number of l i n e s , t h e i r l e n g t h , the t r a p p e r s ' d u r a t i o n l i n e i s an and  i n d i c a t o r of land use  the l e n g t h  land.  on the l i n e .  P r o d u c t i v i t y of the  More e f f o r t  trap  i n t e n s i t y along a t r a p  i n d i c a t e s the commitment a t r a p p e r has i s r e q u i r e d i n a l o n g e r l i n e and  and  line  to  the  more time  must be spent away from camp or town. The  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e attempts t o show a t r e n d i n the  i n t e n s i t y of t r a p l i n e use  from 'Long Ago',  people were young, t o the present. recorded  represent  The  when the  older  number of t r a p  a l l the t r a p l i n e s r e p o r t e d by the  inform-  ants but the data on p r o d u c t i v i t y per l i n e i s d e r i v e d only those l i n e s r e p o r t i n g use.  The  reason i s t h a t  'Long Ago',  the p r o d u c t i v i t y data may  from  reliability  of the respondants• memories f a i l e d i n some cases. the case of  lines  Also, i n be  not  t r u l y comparable to other years because the method of s p e c i a l i z e d t r a p p i n g changed. two  In the p a s t ,  i n s t e a d of e s t a b l i s h i n g one  or three l i n e s were set i n t e r r i t o r i e s known to be  i n s p e c i f i c f u r types.  The  i s r e f l e c t e d i n the low i n Table #  t r a p checks.  p r o d u c t i v i t y per t r a p l i n e  This  recorded  3.4.  Data presented i n Table #3.4  shows a major d e c l i n e i n  the number of t r a p l i n e s , t h e i r l e n g t h , number of and  productive  trapper would then d i v i d e time  between these l i n e s , w i t h l e s s frequent  t o t a l catch.  On c l o s e r a n a l y s i s i t i s evident  trappers, that  d e c l i n e i n c a t c h per t r a p p e r has not been as dramatic.  line,  the In  Table  # 3.4  P r o d u c t i v i t y o f Winter  T r a p l i n e s I n O l d Crow by M i l e o f L i n e L e n g t h Per Trapper  and  Long Ago Number o f t r a p Sample  34  lines  Number o f t r a p p e r s as a p e r c e n t a g e o f O l d Crow Adult Population  marten mink weasel lynx fox beaver wolverine wolf  344 116 381 60 80 24 16 9  57  26  size*  Catch  Average l e n g t h o f l i n e  73.9%  Catch/Mile 6.0 • 2.0 6.7 1.1 1.4 0.4 0.3 0.2  Catch/Trapper 15.6 5.3 17.3 •2.7 3.6 1.1 0.7 0.4  continued  Table  # 3.4  continued  1960 Number o f t r a p l i n e s  21  Sample s i z e  32  Number o f t r a p p e r s as a p e r c e n t a g e o f O l d Crow A d u l t Population  63.2%  Catch marten mink weasel lynx fox beaver wolverine wolf  319 262 225 48 43 25 36 4  Average l e n g t h o f l i n e  Catch/Mile 6.4 5.2 4.5 1.0 0.9 0.5 0.7 0.1  50 m i l e s  Catch/Trapper 13.9 11.4 9.8 2.1 1.9 1.1 1.6 0.2  continued  Table  # 3.4  continued  197 3 Number o f t r a p l i n e s  6  Average  Sample s i z e  77  Number o f t r a p p e r s as a p e r c e n t a g e o f O l d Crow A d u l t Population  10.7%  Catch  Catch/Mile  103 47 9 19 4 10 0 0  3.4 1.6 0.3 0.6 0.1 0.3 -  marten mink weasel lynx fox beaver wolverine wolf Source: f i e l d  length of l i n e  30 m i l e s  Catch/Trapper 14.7 6.7 1.3 2.7 0.6 1.4  data  * Sample s i z e i s f r o m r e s p o n d a n t s o n l y and may be m i s l e a d i n g b e c a u s e a number o f t r a p p e r s " l o n g ago" and 1960 a r e no l o n g e r a r o u n d .  86  c e r t a i n cases p r o d u c t i v i t y per t r a p p e r "between i 9 6 0 1973  has  and  i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y , r e f l e c t i n g the change i n  p e l t p r i c e s , i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , r e d u c t i o n i n t r a p l i n e l e n g t h s , or an improved system of t r a p In g e n e r a l , g r e a t e r m o b i l i t y and caused t h i s i n c r e a s e . important captured  shortened  checks.  trap lines  has  Marten has always been the most  winter f u r w h i l e w o l v e r i n e , i n the same t r a p s .  fox and wolf  are  A c o n f l i c t of I n t e r e s t a r i s e s  between marten and mink t r a p p i n g , with the former more popular because the p r i c e i s h i g h e r .  A l s o there i s always  a chance of c a t c h i n g other f u r on a marten l i n e .  Thus there  i s a tendency among the small number of t r a p p e r s to s p e c i a l i z e i n marten. Trapping  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n has a l t e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y over  time p e r i o d of the d a t a .  'Long Ago* data r e f l e c t s a  the  special-  i z a t i o n I n f l u e n c e d by group hunting and t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s that p e r s i s t e d a t the t u r n of the c e n t u r y . #3.4 was  shows t h a t by 1973 aimed a t marten.  However, Table  the major w i n t e r t r a p p i n g e f f o r t  Table # 3 - 5  supports  this finding  showing a g e n e r a l d e c l i n e i n w i n t e r t r a p p i n g catches  by  and  t h a t marten have taken up a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of the c a t c h . The  f u r takes have tended to d e c l i n e through numerous  f l u c t u a t i o n s although marten d e c l i n e s have not been as marked and l y n x have not shown a d e c l i n e . from Table # 3.5  A l s o evident  i s the c y c l i c a l p o p u l a t i o n of f u r s p e c i e s  Table  # 3.5 Old  marten mink beaver lynx fox otter weasel wolverine wolf squirrel  marten mink beaver lynx fox otter weasel wolverine wolf squirrel  Crow F u r R e t u r n s  1938-1973  1938 -39  1939 -40  1940 _  1941 -42  1942 -43  1943 -4 4  1944 -45  1945 -46  1946 -47  1947 -48  97 21 21  97 54 5  234 83 36  272 173 146  199 65 94  205 68 . 40  183 123 50  113 176  132 70 2  200 117  1957 -58  1960 -61  1961 -62  1962 -63  1963 -64  1964 -65  1965 -66  218 5 47  110 247 48  4 19 26 2  475 165 13 4 15 0 159 0 0 31  248 70 37 17 22 0 138 0 1 7  142 14 19 17 2 0 38 1 0 0  84 18 45 19 3 0 10 1 0 4  4 1  continued  -  -  Table  # 3.5  continued  1966 -67 marten mink beaver lynx fox otter weasel wolverine wolf squirrel  Source:  34 4 98 12 4 1 46 0 2 0  1967 -68 104 8 47 3 1 1 49 0 2 2  1968 -69 98 29 13 11 2 0 30 0 1 7  B a l i k c i , 1963: 93 N a y s m i t h , 1971: 21 General Hunting Licences f i e l d data.  1969 -70 13 4 11 1 0 0 20 1 0 19  1970 -71 33 25 13 26 0 0 3 0 1 0  1971 -72 76 23 12 24 3 3 17 2 4 0  1972 -73 103 47 10 19 3 0 10 0 0 0  89  although the extreme low  catches of  were responses t o job o p p o r t u n i t i e s  1969-70 i n the  community.  C y c l i c a l trends must be taken i n t o account and n e c e s s a r i l y mean l e s s i n t e n s i v e use Although the s p a t i a l extent  do  not  land.  of t r a p p i n g has  a l o n g w i t h the number of t r a p p e r s , i n t e n s i t y of use  of the  1970-71  and  declined  t r a p l i n e s , and  the  f o r each u t i l i z e d t r a p p i n g p a r c e l ,  p r o d u c t i v i t y per t r a p p e r has not been reduced  proportionately,  e s p e c i a l l y i n the s p e c i e s t h a t account f o r most of the T h i s suggests t h a t land use  for trapping  is s t i l l  catch.  relatively  intensive.  ( i i ) Hunting  The  i n t e n s i t y of hunting i n the Old Crow land has  similar pattern.  a  There has been a g e n e r a l d e c l i n e i n the  s p a t i a l extent  of the hunting t e r r i t o r y and  of hunting has  s h i f t e d i n response to the a l t e r e d w i n t e r  t r a p p i n g p a t t e r n s , but has not d e c l i n e d . one  reported  network.  the p r o d u c t i v i t y per hunting  In the w i n t e r of  1972-73  area  there was  only  case of hunting o f f the main t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  T a b l e # 3.6  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the l a n d use maps  presented p r e v i o u s l y provides f o r T a b l e # 3.6 provided  seasonality  the  Information.  Productivity  i s d e r i v e d from those Informants t h a t  data on the q u a n t i t i e s t h a t were taken i n a  given  Table  # 3.6 Hunt P r o d u c t i v i t y  size*  Number o f h u n t e r s as a percentage o f O l d Crow A d u l t P o p u l a t i o n Total  Catch  Intensity 1973  26  32  77  95.4%  65.5%  66%  497 160 515 147 unknown  512 32 432 335 2  751 22 202 342 1  16. 5, 17 4  18.9 1.2 16.0 32.7 0  18.2 .6 4.4 8.1 0  Reported:  caribou moose rabbit birds bears Productivity  per hunter:  caribou moose rabbits birds bears  Source:  Use 1960  L o n g Ago Sample  and Land  field  data  * Sample c o n s i s t s o f r e s p o n d a n t s o n l y , t h e r e f o r e may be m i s l e a d i n g t e r m s o f t o t a l number o f h u n t e r s f o r " l o n g ago ' and "I960".  91  hunt.  A l l hunts, whether d a t a was  l o c a t e d on F i g u r e s # 3 . 2 ,  p r o v i d e d or n o t , a r e  # 3 . 3 and #  3.5.  Although the t o t a l numbers vary and p a r t i a l l y are s u b j e c t to the method of data g a t h e r i n g , the p r o d u c t i v i t y s e c t i o n of T a b l e # 3,6 pattern.  i s a f a i r i n d i c a t o r of the aggregate  hunting  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n c a r i b o u v a l u e s between 'Long  Ago' and the other columns r e p r e s e n t s the s h i f t from communal meat camps d u r i n g the t r a p p i n g season t o year round hunting.  individual  The d e c l i n e i n moose hunting shows the s h i f t  l i v i n g i n d i s p e r s e d settlements throughout  from  the h u n t i n g  t e r r i t o r y t o one l a r g e community i n Old Crow, infamous f o r l a c k of moose i n the immediate a r e a .  The d e c l i n e of hunting  other s p e c i e s i s due t o the great amount of e f f o r t r e q u i r e d and  s m a l l r e t u r n i n hunting these animals  (see Table # 3 * 7 ) «  The a t t i t u d e t h a t the c a r i b o u i s the l i f e - l i n e f o r Old Crow i s by no means  exaggerated.  U n l i k e t r a p p i n g , the number of hunters has not d e c l i n e d , but has been r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e over r e c e n t y e a r s .  In the  p a s t , most w i n t e r hunting took p l a c e a l o n g the t r a p l i n e , a very r a r e occurrence a t p r e s e n t . past and now, now  The f a l l hunt, both i n the  i s the most important hunt.  However the  people  have g r e a t e r m o b i l i t y and more e f f i c i e n t means t o capture  l a r g e r game r e s e r v e s and use more powerful r i v e r c r a f t t h e i r advantage i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  to  Although the same number  of people make l a r g e r catches the amount of time spent on the l a n d i s l e s s because each i n d i v i d u a l has a s p e c i f i c  intent,  Table  # 3.7 O l d Crow, Game R e t u r n s  caribou moose bear geese ducks ptarmigan rabbits  1963 -64  1964 -65  706 10 1 15 155 196  769 7 1 3 110 12  -  -  * incomplete Source:  1963-73  1966 -67  1967 -68  1968 -69  1969 -70  1970 _71  --  592 22 4 4 28 15  590 17 3 11 77 10  557 24 1 25 50 27  478 18 5 5 16 50  503 11 1 0 20 100  -  -  —  —  —  —  1965* -66 •mm  -  1971 -72  1972 -73  573 751 22 26 2 0 12 ) 44 ) 342 43 ) — 202  data  1963-64 t o 1971-72 - G e n e r a l H u n t i n g L i c e n c e s , Game B r a n c h , W h i t e h o r s e , Y.T. 1972-73 - f i e l d  data  93  t o hunt c a r i b o u .  With s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , the land i s c o n t i n u a l l y  viewed with a h i g h  (iii)  i n t e n s i t y of use.  Ratting  Contrary  t o the diminished  s p a t i a l extent  of hunting and  t r a p p i n g , the a r e a f o r r a t t i n g has been r e l a t i v e l y  constant.  T h i s i s due t o the s p e c i a l h a b i t a t r e q u i r e d by muskrats, the l o c a t i o n and s i z e of t h a t h a b i t a t .  Since 1917* Crow F l a t s  has been used f o r the s p r i n g muskrat h a r v e s t .  R a t t i n g camps  may be on the o l d f i s h camp s i t e s of the p o s t - c o n t a c t e r a . I t i s evident from the three land use maps ( F i g u r e s # 3.2, # 3»3» # 3*5) t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r a t t i n g camps has not a l t e r e d , even though s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s have changed. T h i s i s a l s o evident  i n F i g u r e s # 3*6 and # 3*7 which more  p r e c i s e l y l o c a t e the muskrat camps i n Table  # 3 . 8 provides  I 9 6 0 ,  1961, and 1973*  the data on muskrat p r o d u c t i v i t y .  The p r o d u c t i v i t y per camp and per muskrat t r a p p e r only from informants  i s derived  t h a t were a b l e t o provide q u a n t i t a t i v e  data. The muskrat harvest  Is down per person r a t t i n g .  most s t r i k i n g s t a t i s t i c however i s the tremendous i n the number of r a t t i n g camps. used more while not  The  increase  The l a n d i t s e l f i s being  productivity i s declining.  This trend i s  s i m i l a r t o t r a p p i n g , which has a d e c l i n i n g number of  Table  # 3.8 M u s k r a t Camps P r o d u c t i v i t y L o n g Ago  1960  1973  Number o f camps  19  20  27  Number o f p e o p l e r a t t i n g as a percentage of T o t a l O l d Crow Adult Population*  86.9%  56.6%  69.2%  Muskrat Harvest: Total P e r camp Per muskrat trapper  Source:  field  10,210 537  8,950 448  13,725 521  486  389  320  data  * Sample s i z e c o n s i s t s o f r e s p o n d a n t s o n l y , t h e r e f o r e may b e f o r " l o n g ago" and "1960".  misleading  Table  # 3.9 Fur  Year 1938-39 1939-40 1940-41 1941-42 1942-43 1943-44 1944-45 1945-46 1946-47 1947-48  Source:  Amount 30,084 19,688 13,858 11,120 10,965 15,137 15,920 22,405 18,940 14,946  Returns f o r Muskrats Year  Amount  Year  1957-58  36,311  1960-61 1961-62 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67  21,017 12,361 17,411 14,000 7,860 9 ,688 13,324  1967-68 1968-69 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73  B a l i k c i , 1963: 93 N a y s m i t h , 1971: 21 General Hunting Licences F i e l d data  Amount 11,273 9,461 753 5,225 9,798 13,725  96  t r a p p e r s but a steady f u r r e t u r n ; or t o hunting which i s seeing a steady number of hunters and a steady r e t u r n of caribou.  The number of people r a t t i n g has i n c r e a s e d c a u s i n g  the p r o d u c t i v i t y per person t o drop.  The muskrat c a t c h has  been f l u c t u a t i n g , on a downward t r e n d , but r e c e n t l y an i n c r e a s e has been noted  (see Table # 3 » 9 ) .  When comparing  T a b l e # 3 . 9 with Table # 3 . 5 i t i s evident t h a t the muskrat h a r v e s t accounts f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of the t o t a l f u r return.  (iv)  Pishing  F i s h i n g i s a much l e s s i n t e n s i v e endeavour.  Table  # 3 . 1 0 compares the catches f o r the l a s t few y e a r s .  Like  t r a p p i n g and h u n t i n g , a c y c l i c a l t r e n d i s noted w i t h a s l i g h t l y declining catch. Twenty-two fishermen took f i s h i n 1 9 7 3 on a l e s s than intensive basis. and l e f t  They went a f t e r the salmon r u n i n August  t h e i r nets i n f o r o n l y a s h o r t p e r i o d .  4. Summary There  i s a d e c l i n e i n the t o t a l number of t r a p p e r s and  a steady drop i n the p r o d u c t i v i t y of muskrats.  Hunting i s  d i f f e r e n t , f o r with l o n g range r i f l e s , c a r i b o u a r e easy t o catch.  The l a n d s t i l l  i s b e i n g used as i n t e n s i v e l y as i n the  Table  # 3.10 Old  Crow F i s h e r i e s ,  1967-1973  1970  1967  1968  1969  Chinook Chum Coho Whitefish Other*  43 11,768  27 3,377 34 734 657  8 620  1,124 2,001  38 10,000 261 2,550 2,431  195 368  Total  14,936  15,300  4,829  1,191  1972  1973  13 5,780  3,000  81 4,570 25 650 4,100  13,000  9,425  10,895  1971  Type  * Others: Sources:  -  grayling,  sucker,  jackfish,  -  10,000  -  hump w h i t e f i s h ,  1967 - 1970 - B i s s e t and Meldrum, 1973: 37. 1971 - :i972 - S t e i g e n b e r g e r , e t a l , 1973: 42. 1973 - f i e l d d a t a .  losch,  inconnu.  -  870 4,232  98  p a s t , but not f o r the v a r i e d harvest of resources the land can p r o v i d e .  No one any longer occupies h i m s e l f with the  r o u t i n e p a t i e n c e r e q u i r e d t o p a t r o l a t r a p l i n e , or accepts the i s o l a t i o n of t r a p p i n g .  Now, t r i p s i n t o the bush a r e  f r e q u e n t , but s h o r t , t o meet immediate needs only, r e s u l t i n g i n the new p a t t e r n of l a n d use. Resources from the l a n d do not meet the t o t a l community needs.  The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l show the extent t o which  the l a n d f i l l s  the people's requirements,  and uncover other  sources t h a t p r o v i d e f o r the n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e . .  The  s e c t i o n a l s o explores the 'dual economy* of Old Crow.  In  t h i s way we can p r e c i s e l y measure the s t a t u s of the economy i n an e c o l o g i c a l way.  99  B.  THE OLD CROW ECONOMY  The s p a t i a l change i n l a n d use i s r e f l e c t e d  i n the  s o c i a l and economic changes that have o c c u r r e d i n Old Crow. The purpose here i s t o present the economic c o n d i t i o n s as they now e x i s t and examine the r e l a t i v e importance of the l a n d and community as the base f o r the people's economic existence. Cash f o r f i n e f u r s , woodcutting, and h a n d i c r a f t can be added t o other cash i n f l o w s such as wages, pensions, allowances, and government a s s i s t a n c e t o make up an aggregate income.  The gross community cash income f o r  1 9 7 2 - 7 3 was $ 3 1 5 , 0 0 0 w i t h the average f a m i l y income as follows:  Wages Allowances, Pensions, e t c . Other: Trapping  4,580.00 720.00 1,090.00  (67%) (11$) (16$)  Woodcutting  310.00  ( 9%)  Handicraft  120.00  I 2$) #6,820.00  Source: f i e l d d a t a .  100:  It  i s evident t h a t the r e s i d e n t s of Old Crow d e r i v e  t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d from a mixed community-based and  land-  based economy.  1.  Community Based Economy  In the twelve months p r i o r to the f i e l d were f i f t y - t h r e e wage earners were employed f u l l - t i m e and lengths.  Table #  season there  i n Old Crow, of which seventeen  the others  T h i s i s shown i n Table  #  for various  time  3.11.  3,11  Length of Time i n Wage Employment, Old Crow, 1 9 7 2 - 7 3 Weeks of 10  Work No.  10-17  19-25  25-31  32-38  39-45  2  1  46-52  Total  of  People  11  8  Source: f i e l d  11  3  17  53  data  Permanent jobs have been a s s o c i a t e d with the government while  o i l d r i l l i n g s have a t t r a c t e d people f o r short  L a t e l y many r e s e a r c h groups have provided temporary employment.  Table # 3.12  periods.  opportunities for  suggests that there  has  been an i n c r e a s e i n wage employment, although t h i s trend must be viewed c a u t i o u s l y .  Some of the f u l l - t i m e jobs r e q u i r e  only  101  Table  #3.12 Employment O p p o r t u n i t i e s  1961  full time  Type Janitor Guides or h e l p e r s Trader or co-operative Labourer: Indian A f f a i r s Yukon Gov't O i l Companies D.O.T. Fisheries Renewable Resources L t d . Forestry S p e c i a l Constable Equipment Operator & Truck D r i v e r Teacher A s s i s t a n t Weather Observer Post O f f i c e C l e r k Band S e c r e t a r y A i r l i n e Agent Domestic News Reporter Forest F i r e Observer  part time  1973  full time  part time  2 0  0 4  6 0  0 7  0  1-2  2  0 0 0 0 0  5-10 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0  3 10 1 19 2 1  0 0 1  0 0 0  7 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1  0  0  1  0  ~3~  10-16  17  1,  4  0 3 0 0 0 2 1 ~6l  i n v o l v e d : 196l - unknown 1973 - 53 (17 people employed f u l l time; 40) people Source: B a l i k c i , 1963: 96 employed p a r t Canada Manpower Study, time, w i t h many 1971, updated by having more than f i e l d data, 1973. one job)  Note: number of people  102  a  few h o u r s a week, w h i l e o t h e r s h a v e u n c e r t a i n Wage income made up a b o u t  Old  Crow  i n 1973.  Steady  two-thirds of that. for  60%  of the t o t a l  employment a c c o u n t e d  T a b l e # 3.13  durations. income f o r f o r about  shows t h e wage  distribution  t h e community.  Table  #3.13 Wage Income D i s t r i b u t i o n ,  O l d Crow  1972-73 Income Range  No.  #10,000 7,500-10,000 15,000-7,499 #3,000-4,999 12,000-2,999 11,000-1,999 #1,000  Source:  77%  field  1 8 3 17 9 9 6__ 53  data  o f t h e O l d Crow p e o p l e h a d l e s s  wage i n c o m e , y e t employment of  c a s h Income i n O l d Crow.  is  restricted  organizations,  t o those  the  term  i s t h e most Steady  $5,000  than a  important  source  employment, however,  j o b s w i t h d i f f e r e n t government  limiting  be s t e a d y e m p l o y e e s . short  of People  t h e number  of people that  The o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e s  left  can are the  j o b s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , o r employment o u t s i d e  village.  Most O l d Crow p e o p l e h a v e c h o s e n  the f i r s t  103  a l t e r n a t i v e , a t y p i c a l choice i n small, isolated northern communities.  Evidently Old Crow has not  the necessary economic base to absorb the labour force that i s looking more and more toward wage employment.  When wage income i s combined with a l l  other forms of cash income, families are pushed into a higher range.  However, i t remains that 48$ of Old  Crow has less than $5»000 t o t a l  income.  There i s a general f e e l i n g i n Old Crow that fewer jobs w i l l be available i n Old Crow i n the future. Yet, i t also seems that employment opportunities are l e v e l l i n g o f f . Stager (m ds 94) has shown that there is a tendency toward more temporary employment i n the village. Some people have worked away from Old Crow, only to return.  The government has encouraged and f i n a n c i a l l y  assisted residents to seek employment elsewhere, but many have preferred to remain at home.  Table § 3.14  shows the percentage number of people who would not seek work outside Old Crow.  It shows that more of the younger  people are w i l l i n g to go.  104  T a b l e #3.1*+ Affinity Age  t o Old Crow by Residents  Would Leave %  Would Stay %  Total N = 77  Male: 5 6  40 y r s . 30-40 y r s . 17-29 y r s Total  25  19 1 _9_ 29  3  18  21  10  _2  1  J8  62  100  14  24 7  8  Female:  40 y r s . 30-40 y r s . 17-29 y r s . Total  0  13  Totals: Source: f i e l d  6  6  33  data  I f the t r e n d t o " u r b a n i z e " p e r s i s t s i n Old Crow, an economic base must be found t o support the p o p u l a t i o n . P r e s e n t l y , none i s e v i d e n t ; resource development would p r o v i d e temporary employment only, not u n l i k e present conditions.  B i s s e t and Meldrum ( 1 9 7 3 : 7*0  report that  l o c a l dependence on renewable resources w i l l remain.  It  i s t o t h i s idea t h a t the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n i s presented to determine the extent of present c o n d i t i o n s of l a n d a c t i v i t i e s and t o evaluate t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i n the f u t u r e of Old Crow.  105  2.  Land  Based  There that  Economy  i s a need  to e s t a b l i s h  the products of land a c t i v i t i e s  living  standards.  Cash  to  other constituents  of  c o u n t r y f o o d c a n a l s o be  of  importance  have on O l d Crow  i s paid d i r e c t l y  w o o d c u t t i n g , and h a n d i c r a f t s and  food  the l e v e l  for fine  can e a s i l y  of the aggregate  be  compared  income.  estimated i n the  furs,  The  role  domestic  budget,  (a) Cash  Woodcutting y e a r t o y e a r , and community various  f o r Land  Activities  is a relatively accounts  income.  f o r about  Twenty-six  l e n g t h s o f time  stable  enterprise  $13,000  from  of the  gross  p e o p l e went w o o d c u t t i n g f o r  i n 1973  which  i s typical  of other  years. Handicrafts, enterprise.  on t h e o t h e r hand, seem t o be a  They a c c o u n t e d  f o r around  growing  $5»000 o f t h e g r o s s  community  income, d i s t r i b u t e d among f o u r t e e n women i n t e n  different  families.  fluctuating prices.  Lastly,  enterprise,  T a b l e # 3.15  income f o r 1 9 7 2 - 7 3 .  saw  t r a p p i n g and 1973  ratting,  a  highly  a s a good y e a r f o r f u r  shows t h e d r a m a t i c  increase  in fur  Table  # 3.15 Fur 1967 -68  muskrat marten mink beaver lynx fox otter weasel wolverine wolf squirrel  $7,440. 18 1,027. 52 128. 64 591. 73 59, 82 6. 82 17. 37 27. 44 0 42. 62 .74  $9,342.88  1968 -69  Income, 1967-1973 1969 -70  1970 -71  1971 -72  1972 -73  737. 94 133. 51 59. 96 142. 12 22. 50 0 0 9. 00 45. 89 0 5. 32  6,740. 25 325. 05 283. 50 137. 80 440. 70 0 0 1. 35 0 34. 18 0  16,460 .64 790 .40 373 .52 190 .56 643 .20 41 .25 77 .64 7 .31 111 .12 178 .00 0  34,312. 50 1,236. 00 470. 00 450. 00 2,090. 00 180. 00 0 15. 00 0 0 0  11,903.53 1,156.24  7,962.83  18,873.64  38,753.50  9,934. 05 896. 70 512. 14 177. 97 309. 10 25. 80 0 16. 50 0 28. 68 2. 59  Source: d e r i v e d from average c a t a l o g u e 23: 207.  fur prices  reported i n S t a t i s t i c s  Canada,  10?  With the e x c e p t i o n of 196-9-70 muskrat p e l t s have been making an i n c r e a s i n g l y g r e a t e r percentage of the t o t a l fur  income; 79% i n 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 t o 8 8 $ i n 1 9 7 2 - 7 3 . The upward t r e n d i n income i s d e c e p t i v e , however.  T a b l e # 3.16  shows t h a t cash f o r land-based  accounts f o r l e s s than # 2 , 0 0 0  activities  f o r 75% of the f a m i l i e s  who engage i n those a c t i v i t i e s .  Table #  3.16 F a m i l i e s with Income From Land A c t i v i t i e s , Old Crow 1972-73 Income Range  No. of F a m i l i e s  $10,000 #7,500-10,000 #5,000-7,499 #3,000-4,999 #2,000-2,999 #1,000-1,999 #1-1,000 0 unknown  1 0 0 3 3 10 9 11 4  Total  41  Source: f i e l d data  In combining # 3.17,  the a n a l y s i s of Table # 3 . 1 6 w i t h Table  we see t h a t f o u r f a m i l i e s  land-based a c t i v i t i e s f a m i l y cash income.  (12 people) r e l i e d  f o r more than 5 0 $ of t h e i r  on  total  One of these f a m i l i e s had a l a n d -  d e r i v e d income of over # 1 0 , 0 0 0 ,  w h i l e the remaining t h r e e  f a m i l y incomes were l e s s than # 4 , 0 0 0 .  I t i s a l s o evident  108  t h a t over t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the community r e l y on the l a n d for  l e s s than 2 0 $ of t h e i r  income.  Table # 3 . 1 7 Land-Based Income as a Percentage Income, Old Crow 1972-73 Percentage  Range  of T o t a l  No. of F a m i l i e s 1  71-80  1  61-70 51-60 41-50  0 2  31-40 21-30 11-20 1-10 0  o  -2 3 8 9  unknown  11 4.  Total  41  Source: f i e l d data  (b) D i r e c t Consumption from Land A c t i v i t i e s  In a s s e s s i n g f i s h and game f o r a p r o d u c t i o n consumption a n a l y s i s , a l l catches were converted t o weight. all  f a m i l y food requirements  Similarly,  were converted t o weight.  By  doing t h i s i t i s assumed t h a t country food i s p r e f e r r e d and people w i l l eat mostly meat when i t i s a v a i l a b l e .  109  Country  Food  Production: Old  Hunter/Trapper  Family  in  Crow 1973  lb. 1500  birds I  muskrats 13504-  y* J A 'A  rabbits moose  12001  caribou fish  •  1050  consumption (Source:  900  750  600  450  Feb  Mar  Apr  May  Jun  FIGURE  Aug  3.8  Sept Oct  Nov  Dec  f ield  / data)  Table  #  3.18 F a m i l y Requirements and Consumption  amily Jo. p  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21  Persons Estimated l b s . P e r F a m i l y o f meat and fish required per f a m i l y 1 1 4 11 5 8 9 2 7 5 8 9 6 7 5 4 3 9 8 4 8  1,825 1,825 4,740 8,580 5,840 9,490 8,760 2,375 8,945 7,850 8,205 7,490 8,945 7,665 9,125 4,745 4,200 11,315 9,490 7,300 6,945  o f C o u n t r y F o o d 1973  E s t i m a t e d l b s . o f meat & consumed fish 480 690 15 935 400 750 615 85 105 105 625 490 350 825 130 20 510  meat 625 1,345 20 5,120 780 8,555 1,340 125 2,925 7,220 2,010 1,840 2,570 3,200 8,340 4,165 2,560 8,770 5,635 3,560 4,040  muskrats 120 40 90 140 520 150 15 160 160 250 200 480 120 230 300 360 75  fish  Consumed f o o d as % o f r e q u i r e d food  Subsii Class  Total 625 1,945 60 6,525 935 10,010 1,340 675 3,675 7,850 2,095 2,105 • 2,730 3,555 9,165 5,495 3,030 9,825 6,065 3,940 4,625  34.2% 100 1.2 76.0 16.0 100 15.3 28.4 41.0 100 25.5 28.1 30.5 46.4 100 100 72.1 86.8 63.9 53.9 66.6  II I IV I IV I IV III II I III III III III I I II I II II II  continued  Table  #  Family No.  22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 -37 38 39 40 41  3.18  continued  Persons Per Family  3 1 2 4 2 2 5 12 1 7 2 2 2 1 1 1 6 3 1 1  4,200 1,825 3,650 7,300 3,650 3,650 7,845 11,680 1,825 6,390 3,650 2,920 2,000 1,800 1,000 1,100 8,200 4,200 1,825 1,100 225,465  183  Source:  field  Estimated l b s . o f meat and fish required per family  data  Estimated  fish 30 125 375 425 0 0 50 0 0 0 0 0  0  l b s . o f meat & consumed meat  muskrats  1,250 1,095 2,455 6,265 3,000 2,830 0  120 70 75 120 180 0  0 2,030 0 0 0 0 0  0  0 40 0 0 0 0 0  0  Consumed as % o f required  fish  food  Subsistence Class  food  Total 1,250 1,245 2,650 8,990 3,495 3,435 0 unknown 0 unknown 2,120 0 0 0 0 0 unknown unknown unknown 0 106,805  28.8 68.2 72.6 100 95.7 94.1 0  III II II I I I  0 58.1 0 0 0 0 0  0 55.29%  II  H  112  The  two most Important components o f the food  supply,  c a r i b o u and salmon, a r e a v a i l a b l e on a pronounced basis.  seasonal  T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n F i g u r e #3.8 where country  food p r o d u c t i o n shows a seasonal peak.  The graph a l s o shows  an estimated consumption l e v e l with the r a t e c a l c u l a t e d on the b a s i s o f s u r p l u s c a r r y - o v e r .  By February  the s u r p l u s  runs out and t h e importance of muskrat meat becomes very evident i n May and June.  In March and A p r i l people  a "grub s t a k e " from t h e co-op.  I t must be concluded  muskrats as a source o f food, as w e l l as a source a t t r a c t e d people  required that  of p e l t s ,  t o Crow F l a t s .  T h i s r e s e a r c h made an attempt t o c l a s s i f y the people of O l d Crow by t h e i r r a t e of country food consumption. Usher (1971: I I ; 73) p r o v i d e d guidance f o r d e v e l o p i n g a f a m i l y food budget - consumption was c a l c u l a t e d a t a r a t e of 5 l b s . / a d u l t and 1.5-2 l b . / c h i l d p e r day through the year  (ibid).  Table # 3.18 l i s t s each Old Crow f a m i l y ,  t h e i r amount of food r e q u i r e d , estimated amount o f country food consumed, and t h e consumed as a percentage o f r e q u i r e d . A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t o " s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l s " was made on a q u a r t i l e basis with  "Class I " c o n t a i n i n g those with  t h e i r d i e t a r y needs s u p p l i e d by country declined to  food.  75$ of  The percentage  25$ f o r "Class IV".  Table # 3.18 shows t h a t 55$ o f the food needs i n Old Crow a r e s u p p l i e d by the l a n d .  There a r e 10 f a m i l i e s w i t h  113  f i f t y - o n e people ( 2 8 $ of Old Crow) i n "Subsistence 9 f a m i l e s , or 37 people (20$) c o n t a i n i n g 35 people (19$) or 18 people (10$)  Class I";  i n "Class I I " ; 6 f a m i l i e s  i n "Class I I I " ; and  3 families  T h i s means t h a t 77$  i n "Class IV".  of  the people i n Old Crow r e l y t o some extent on food from the l a n d and  t h a t 48$  of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n have a t  h a l f t h e i r food needs met  3. Summary and  by the  least  land.  Conclusion  With modern views toward employment, the monetary r e t u r n from l a n d based a c t i v i t i e s i s secondary. e f f o r t and  Greater  the u n c e r t a i n r e t u r n s of a bush e x i s t e n c e move  people to town employment.  Yet, Old Crow i s not  caught; up  i n r e a c h i n g f o r the new  evidenced  by the f a c t that country  with over h a l f i t s requirements;  m a t e r i a l world.  The  land i s s t i l l  This i s  food s u p p l i e s the community  f a t t i n g i s gaining i n  p o p u l a r i t y ; and autumn hunting t r i p s are s t i l l excursions.  completely  annual  s t r o n g i n terms of the  people's l i v e l i h o o d . The  people no longer e x p l o i t the e n t i r e Porcupine  drainage a r e a but have focussed t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o the l a n d t h a t i s w i t h i n easy commuting d i s t a n c e of Old Crow. and  t r a p p i n g are s t i l l  scale.  The  c a r r i e d on, but on a small  Hunting  spatial  muskrat h a r v e s t i n g t e r r i t o r y has not been  114  reduced and  more people are engaging i n the a c t i v i t y .  People s t i l l  see land a c t i v i t i e s as a necessary  i n every day  subsistence,  symbolic meaning.  The  function  w h i l e the view of land has  l a n d , by  taken  i t s e l f , i s a product of  t h e i r h e r i t a g e ; a f u l f i l l i n g of the need f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l escape as w e l l as being of  territoriality.  the object f o r c u l t u r a l  expressions  115  CHAPTER  IV  TERRITORIALITY  T h e r e has territory. (1936b),  always been concern  Traditional  delimit  ethnographies,  territories  T h i s assumes t h a t t h r o u g h area  over  area.  time,  on t h e b a s i s o f  repeated  a group w i l l  not an  and  cultural  expression  feel  use  another  group.  change.  defending  expressions  o f O l d Crow p e o p l e ,  i n the  land light  i s the  i s directed at  on t h e a g g r e s s i v e  through  t h e commitment p e o p l e  or  i n the  the  have  perception toward  land. The  Old  i n an  to that  that occurred  of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y  and  occupance.  Territoriality  focus  d e f e n s i v e a c t i o n s of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y past, the  Osgood's  O c c u p a n c e , however, i s  a t e r r i t o r y and  This chapter w i l l  for their  of r e s o u r c e s  they belong  of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y .  o f c l a i m i n g and  their  such as  C h a p t e r I I I examined K u t c h i n t e r r i t o r y  of land-use  act  among K u t c h i n  f o l l o w i n g quote e x e m p l i f i e s the  Crow p e o p l e  now  have f o r t h e i r  possessive  land:  "You c a n ' t c u t t r e e s a r o u n d 300 s q u a r e m i l e s o f O l d Crow ... b u t ... I s u p p o s e ... you c a n t a k e l o g s o u t o f t h e r i v e r b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n ' t on t h e l a n d . " 1 0  10 Personal  conversation: J u l y 23,  1973*  feeling  116  This the  expression claims  o u t r i g h t ownership of the  over  control In the  T h e r e was, a  of the r i v e r past  the  the  over  l a n d , but  that flows  concept  however, a  p a r t i c u l a r hunting  took  territory.  "outsiders'" intentions.  on n e u t r a l g r o u n d where b o t h  Territoriality  driven  out  d i d not along  the  I850 ( H a l l , 1969:  natives'  area.  unknown. control  territoriality territorial  were u n s u r e  exchange  parties  equally  felt  over  occurred secure.  i n the f o l l o w i n g past.  that Kutchin, after  of the  B r o o k s Range i n A l a s k a ,  territory until  Porcupine  and  being  they  Peel Rivers.  settled It is  t h a t when t h e K u t c h i n a r r i v e d a t t h e s e l o c a t i o n s  i n the a r e a .  arising  the  t r a d i n g on  were r e q u i r e d t o c l a i m a h u n t i n g  others as  foothills  Chandalar,  confusion  Past  e s t a b l i s h a hunting  inferred they  of the  infers  Inter t r i b a l  become e v i d e n t  i n the  of  because people  (1969) has s u g g e s t e d  Hall  through  Acts  examples o f r e c o r d e d a c t i o n i n t h e  1.  suggests  s e n s e o f p o s s e s s i o n and  C o n f l i c t s arose  These r e l a t i o n s h i p s  land-use,  o f o w n e r s h i p was  f o r m of r a i d i n g a s w e l l a s  peripheries. of  control  The  last  s e t t l e m e n t was  as  against recent  321), s u g g e s t i n g t h a t c o n f l i c t s  from t e r r i t o r i a l i t y lives  territory  a f t e r white  were s t i l l contact.  a p a r t of  the  117  FIGURE  4.1  118  R a i d i n g and  trading  were warm w e a t h e r a c t i v i t i e s  b e c a u s e p e o p l e were h i g h l y R a i d i n g was and  where two  conflict  or  in detail  the  Figure  4.1.  #  Of not  the  neutral  Other cases  ground.  other  T a b l e #4.1  explains  mapped  locations,  only  boundaries.  in  six  Half  usually  are  in retaliation  third  are  the  In a d d i t i o n ,  situated  come upon a n o t h e r , and  One  occurring  deep for  within  conflicts  exclusively  four  at  of the  five  peripherally. behaviour  group would  thinking  territory,  not  Kutchin  p a r t i e s were c i t e d  such t e r r i t o r i a l  economic.  followed,  occurred  However, w a r f a r e was  motive f o r  the  of Nakotcho  of c o n f l i c t  locations.  locations  essentially  often  was  twenty-six  locations  undisputed t e r r i t o r i e s  three d i f f e r e n t  pillaging  the  territorial  Kutchin-Eskimo c o n f l i c t ;  The  #4.1  Trade  r e c o r d e d r e l a t e t o a wide n o - m a n ' s - l a n d  Eskimos.  trading  surprise,  retaliation.  recorded.  happenings a t  each o t h e r ' s t e r r i t o r y on  winter. •  element of  In Figure  twenty-one c o n f l i c t  between the and  during  g r o u p s have e n c o u n t e r e d e a c h  trade are  situated along  conflicts  the  rapid to avoid  on w i t h c a u t i o n .  locations in  swift, u t i l i z i n g  r e t r e a t was  carried  dispersed  these  would s t r i k e deep'in the  was  unexpectedly 'outsiders' swiftly.  were  Revenge  opposition's  territory.  Table  #  4.1 P r e - C o n t a c t In  A.  Mapped  Map  C o n f l i c t  E a r l y  Contact  N o r t h  Notes  Source  p r e - c o n t a c t s k i r m i s h e s i n Eskimo t e r r i t o r y i n of 3  T e r r i t o r i a l i t y  America  L o c a t i o n s :  No,  1  2,  and  Northwest  other  deep r e t a l i a t i o n  S l o b o d i n ,  1960:  85  c o n f l i c t s .  p r e - c o n t a c t  MD  s k i r m i s h e s  deep  S l o b o d i n ,  1960:  83  a t times Eskimos a l s o p e n e t r a t e d deep i n t o K u t c h i n t e r r i t o r y to r e t a l i a t e .  S l o b o d i n ,  1960:  85  5 - 1 1  c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n a wide no-man's l a n d . Any group found w i t h i n the no-man's l a n d was c o n s i d e r e d a t h r e a t to the other group.  S l o b o d i n ,  1960:  89  12  a c t of defense a g a i n s t t r i b e who h a d been o u t f o r economic g a i n .  S l o b o d i n ,  1960:  77  i n  Eskimo  of  other  t e r r i t o r y  i n  r e t a l i a t i o n  c o n f l i c t s .  an e a s t e r n e x p l o r i n g  c o n t i n u e d  Table  Map  #  4.1  c o n t i n u e d  Source  Notes  No.  13  14  c o n f l i c t a r i s i n g because Tutchone f e l t K u t c h i n were e n c r o a c h i n g on t h e i r t e r r i t o r y .  S l o b o d i n ,  Eskimos  B a l i k c i ,  boys a c t  kidnapped  a f t e r of  defending  p o s i t i o n  a g a i n s t  attempted 16  k i l l e d  K u t c h i n  e x p e d i t i o n .  32  An  to  (— 1  t h e i r w h i t e s  by-pass  middleman  F r a n k l i n ,  McKennan,  17,  18  p r e - c o n t a c t s k i r m i s h e s d r a i n a g e d i v i d e near a c a r i b o u hunting a r e a .  19,  20  e a r l y  Brooks  K u t c h i n  Range  t h a t  m i g r a t i o n  14  them. B a l i k c i ,  Kutchin/Eskimo  1828:  who  c o u n t e r - r e t a l i a t i o n to k i d n a p p i n g (#14); K u t c h i n a n n i l a t e d an Eskimo v i l l a g e at S h i n g l e P o i n t .  of  1963:  86  r e t a l i a t i o n .  K u t c h i n  15  and  t r a d i n g  1960:  along common  c o n f l i c t s f o r c e d  eastward. c o n t i n u e d  H a l l ,  1963:  1965:  1969:  321  32  68-69  o  Table Map  # 4.1  continued  No.  21  B.  Mapped T r a d e 1  Source  Notes Tanana, e x p r e s s i n g f e a r o f i n v a s i o n , surrounded Kutchin while Archdeacon M c D o n a l d was p r e a c h i n g , b u t no f i g h t developed.  Balikci,  1963:  32  H  Locations Slobodin,  1962:  31  unusual w i n t e r aggregation of Tutchone and K u t c h i n f o r h u n t i n g and t r a d i n g .  Slobodin,  1962:  32  Kutchin trade with Athapaskans.  McKennan, 1965:  25  Leechman, 1954:  26  McKennan, 1965:  25  post-contact gold rush.  trade with whites  during  downriver  4  t r a d e between two  5  Eskimo/Kutchin trade during and p o s t - c o n t a c t p e r i o d s .  Kutchin  bands. pre  122  P r e s t i g e a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e economic warfare.  O f t e n i f a group  felt  to gain  (Slobodin,  I960: 87; H a l l , 1969: 87).  Kutchin economic motives  point  f a c e , but not u s u a l l y t o g a i n m a t e r i a l l y  were aware o f t h e i r  reasons.  Thus p r e s t i g e  was  territory basically  for  P r e s t i g e and  revenge, a l t h o u g h p o s s i b l e  i n t h e m s e l v e s , were g e n e r a l l y b y - p r o d u c t s  p r e s t i g e and an  they  in itself.  economic-based  not  of  cheated i n trade  retaliated  a l s o a motive  motive  revenge.  issue. o f view  defensive  hostilities.  True aggession  accompanied  Consequently, m a t e r i a l gain  Today, n a t i v e p e o p l e argue - that t e r r i t o r i a l  claims  was  f r o m t h e same  are merely  measure i n r e t a i n i n g what t h e y a l r e a d y  2. P r e s e n t - d a y  of  a  possess.  Claims  Present-day land  claims,  according  q u o t e , a r e m o t i v a t e d by c u l t u r a l  t o the  following  survival.  " W i t h o u t l a n d I n d i a n p e o p l e have no s o u l no l i f e - no i d e n t i t y - no p u r p o s e . Control o f o u r own l a n d i s n e c e s s a r y f o r o u r c u l t u r a l and economic survival." (Y.N.B., 1973:  ID  123  The  quote suggests that the l a n d has  become a symbol,  r e p r e s e n t i n g a h e r i t a g e t h a t people can and  take p r i d e i n .  T h i s does not  identify  with  e l i m i n a t e the economic  motive, but a c t u a l l y complements i t .  I t w i l l be shown  t h a t although the reasons g i v e n f o r l a n d claims  are  c u l t u r a l , deep economic i n s e c u r i t y i s the major c o n t r i b u t o r . Land c l a i m s by n a t i v e people i s an important i s s u e i n the Yukon. l a n d has  In the Old Crow r e g i o n much of the  o i l lease p o t e n t i a l .  Native  groups are concerned  about the l a n d s u r f a c e by t i t l e as w e l l as mineral data  r i g h t s , water r i g h t s , and  i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , presented  sub-surface  timber r i g h t s .  Field  i n Chapter I I I , has  shown the value of the l a n d as a food and F i n a l l y , the l a n d i s viewed as a refuge  1973:  unresolved  income  also  source.  from town (Usher,  6). There are two  s p a t i a l s c a l e s of land claims from the  Old Crow Band - the t o t a l Porcupine R i v e r drainage a r e a and  the r e g i o n of Crow F l a t s (see F i g u r e # 4.2).  Crow Band C o u n c i l presented  The  Old  c l a i m t o the Porcupine  Drainage by c i t i n g precedence i n u s i n g the l a n d f o r t r a d i t i o n a l hunting 29).  The  and  Yukon Native  t r a p p i n g purposes (Y.N.B., Brotherhood, on b e h a l f of the  1973: Old  Crow Band, suggested a formula f o r j o i n t management of the a r e a . S e r v i c e and  Two  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , from the F e d e r a l  Wildlife  the Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government, would  be  124  FIGURE  4.2  125  appointed  t o a b o a r d by t h e O l d Crow C o u n c i l .  addition to this  c o n t r o l t h e Band C o u n c i l w o u l d  complete freedom t o r e - l o c a t e the v i l l a g e , and  The  i f necessary,  River  and David Lord  O l d Crow Band a l s o h a s c l a i m e d  area  called  Crow F l a t s "  Creek. clear t i t l e "to  (Y.N.B., 1 9 7 3 :  12).  problem immediately a r i s e s i n the d e f i n i t i o n that area  of present  occupation;  topography and l a k e s ;  last  s t a t e m e n t h a s b e e n made c o n c e r n i n g  area area.  query  i n the  t h a t no d e f i n i t i v e land  claims.  B o t h l a n d c l a i m a r e a s have b e e n r e s e r v e d mid  of f l a t  Government  an o i l e x p l o r a t i o n permit  However, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t  since the  1 9 5 0 ' s a s t h e O l d Crow r e g i s t e r e d g r o u p t r a p p i n g # 4.2).  (see  Figure  used  extensively  feel  t h a t when o u t s i d e  area  A l t h o u g h t h e s e a r e a s have n o t b e e n  f o r many y e a r s ,  t h e p e o p l e o f O l d Crow  employment  return t o a l u c r a t i v e hunting Flats  Flats:  i n a Band M e e t i n g on  i n response t o a Federal  on w h e t h e r t o g r a n t Flats.  into the f l a t  i d e a was a d o p t e d f o r m a l l y  2 3 , 1973*  July  drainage  A major  o f Crow  the t o t a l area  or, the t o t a l  i n c l u d i n g t h e streams d r a i n i n g The  have  have e x c l u s i v e t i m b e r r i g h t s t o two a r e a s - a t t h e  mouths o f D r i f t w o o d  the  In  them, t h e y  and t r a p p i n g  e s p e c i a l l y has been l a b e l l e d  to which the people can t u r n  fails  economy.  could Crow  " t h e bank" - s o m e t h i n g  i n time o f need.  126  T e c h n i c a l l y , without B a s i n c l a i m , i t may utilization  be  complete t i t l e  impossible  of the a r e a .  Flats a conflict  i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundaries Ethnographies territories  arises  actually  that review t h a t do n o t  have been r e c o g n i z e d  a  just  3.  The  claim area.  o f c l a i m s must be there  smaller,  both  life  be  These anomalies and  accepted.  clarified  and  claims.  provide the  in However,  to include  specific  c o n s i s t e n t development  toward  settlement.  Perception  A territory d e f e n d e d and w h i c h one  he  Therefore  of a  Territory  i s not  simply  the  piece  c o n t r o l l e d , i t i s a l s o the  identifies.  territoriality area,  can  Crow  of  n e c e s s a r i l y conform t o  territory  powers b e f o r e  restrict  past Kutchin  Basin  type  to  scale the  resource  In a d d i t i o n , t e r r i t o r i a l  Porcupine  the  over  l a r g e r t e r r i t o r y and  more i n t e n s i v e t e r r i t o r y .  Porcupine  t o manage t h e  With complete t i t l e  immediately  c o n t r o l between t h e  f o r the  Perception  i s an  because as a p e r s o n  i s , at least  i n h i s own  of  ground  zone  with  expression  of  i d e n t i f i e s with  an  mind, c l a i m i n g i t .  l o c a t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the  become s i g n i f i c a n t  and  territory  become i n d i c a t o r s o f  territoriality.  127  In the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n an attempt  i s made t o  d e l i m i t the s p a t i a l p e r c e p t i o n of the Old Crow t e r r i t o r y h e l d by members of the community.  The knowledge of t h e i r  t e r r i t o r y i s based p a r t i a l l y on past experience and  history,  or r e p u t a t i o n , of I d e n t i f i a b l e s i t e s w i t h i n i t , as w e l l as the people's a t t i t u d e s toward those s i t e s .  T h i s paper  p r o v i d e s data on the nature of the p e r c e i v e d t e r r i t o r y of Old Crow, gauges the i n f o r m a t i o n flow between g e n e r a t i o n s , and may last  e x p l a i n the two-scale l a n d claims presented  i n the  section. The  procedure  of Old Crow was language,  i n o b t a i n i n g the p e r c e i v e d t e r r i t o r y  through the c o m p i l a t i o n of an Indian  Loucheux, p l a c e name map.  Two  groups,  one  of  'older people' and one of 'younger people*, were I n v i t e d 11 t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n producing the Loucheux map  .  By  careful  s e l e c t i o n , the members of these groups f a i r l y  represented  the community. The mapping a c t i v i t y was  generally unsupervised.  I n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n were t o i d e n t i f y and p r o v i d e names f o r the most important  l o c a t i o n s i n the Old Crow l a n d s .  11 Older people were those over 40 years of age; younger people ranged from 17 years t o 29 years of age.  128  T h e r e was no c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t h e two g r o u p s . P a r t i c i p a n t s were g i v e n a l a r g e s k e t c h map Porcupine eight  Drainage  pattern.  of the  One h u n d r e d a n d  l o c a t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d  sixty-  - one h u n d r e d a n d  t w e n t y - t w o by t h e y o u n g e r g r o u p , one h u n d r e d a n d thirty  by t h e o l d e r g r o u p , w i t h a t o t a l  four duplications.  Both groups l i s t e d  r a n k o f i m p o r t a n c e a n d i t was work, g i v i n g  twenty-five  was most v a l i d Consequently, important  that the f i r s t  o f t h e b e s t known  i n expressing a t e r r i t o r i a l the l a s t  i s no r i g h t  evaluate  territory.  i n people's  c a n be u s e d  least  territory.  o r wrong answer t o t h i s  exercise objective  I t i s impossible to  p e r c e p t i o n due t o h i s t o r i c a l  changes i n l a n d use and s e t t l e m e n t .  Shifts  core.  l o c a t i o n s m e n t i o n e d were t h e  of Kutchin  shifts  day's  locations,  i t i s impossible to obtain a reasonably  delimitation  map  locations i n  i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f O l d Crow  There because  felt  of e i g h t y -  However, e a c h  group's  f o r a comparison, the v a r i a b l e being age.  i n p e r c e p t i o n between g e n e r a t i o n s  can then  be  studied. Two  t e r m s , c o r e a r e a a n d home t e r r i t o r y ,  adopted here  t o d e s c r i b e two d i s t i n c t  h e l d by O l d Crow p e o p l e . to which people describes of  be  scales of perception  The c o r e a r e a d e f i n e s t h e zone  immediately  identify.  the range of t e r r i t o r y  O l d Crow.  may  Home  t h a t people  territory feel  i s part  129  FIGURE  4.3  130  (a) Core Area  According to both groups the most Important feature of the Crow lands i s a small tributary of the Old Crow River, Schaeffer Creek.  This stream drains the southern  portion of Crow Plats and Is the main artery to over half the muskrat trapping sectors i n the Plats.  The core area  is i d e n t i f i e d as Crow Flats with Schaeffer Creek as Its focus (see Figure # 4.3)• The delimitation of the core area by the two groups suggests inconsistent information flow between generations. The land area of the core was reduced 59.8 per cent i n passage from the older to the younger generation.  The  decrease i n area r e f l e c t s a reduction i n the number of stream a r t e r i e s and an increase i n the number of lakes i d e n t i f i e d . On the other hand, within the core fifty-two per cent of the locations, a l l lakes, were commonly i d e n t i f i e d .  Also,  very s i g n i f i c a n t i s the fact that neither group included the community s i t e of Old Crow i n the core area. (b) Home T e r r i t o r y The influence of the Porcupine River was the major factor i n i d e n t i f y i n g the home t e r r i t o r y of Old Crow. The older group established 90 locations outside the core  131  132  FIGURE  4.5  133  while  the younger group provided  Figure # 4 . 5 ) .  The  71  (Figure #  4.4,  younger group's image of t h e i r  home t e r r i t o r y i s s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r i n area than the o l d e r group's. least  Where young people c o n s i d e r e d  important l o c a t i o n s t o be on the  the  periphery  of the t e r r i t o r i a l image, o l d e r people s c a t t e r e d l e a s t important l o c a t i o n s throughout the S i t e s of l e s s e r importance recorded  the  territory.  by o l d e r people  were not mentioned by the younger group. Two  remarkable p i e c e s of evidence which c o n t r i b u t e  t o the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two of hunting  and  maps are the i n c l u s i o n  t r a p p i n g t r a i l s , and  the l o c a t i o n of  c a r i b o u surrounds by the o l d e r group. the younger-people's image does not and  hunting  In comparison,  show c a r i b o u  t r a i l s are much s h o r t e r .  surrounds,  A l s o of s p e c i a l  mention i s the l a r g e number of p o i n t s l o c a t e d n o r t h  of  Crow F l a t s i n the f o o t h i l l s of the B r i t i s h Mountains t h a t are mentioned by the o l d e r group.  This  confirms  t h a t the o l d e r people were much more o r i e n t e d to  hunting  c a r i b o u i n the f o o t h i l l s , s i m i l a r t o pre-contact  generations.  I t can be concluded t h a t the t o t a l p e r c e p t i o n has  diminished  image of the core has it  territorial  between generations  intensified.  but  the  I t i s noteworthy t h a t  i s the l a n d , Crow F l a t s , that i s i d e n t i f i e d as the  not the community of Old Crow.  In terms of ranking  core,  order,  134  however, the community i s t a k i n g on more importance. The  younger people are s t i l l aware of the v a s t expanse  of Old Crow t e r r i t o r y and  t h e i r image, although  reduced, i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e . occurred  The  slightly  greatest s h i f t  has  i n the core r e g i o n of the t e r r i t o r y , w i t h minor  s h i f t s on the p e r i p h e r y .  T h i s may  i n view of r e c e n t land claims and  not be too s u r p r i s i n g , o i l e x p l o r a t i o n i n the  Crow F l a t s r e g i o n .  4.  Territorial  The  Commitment  preceding  s p a t i a l extent  s e c t i o n has  provided  of Old Crow t e r r i t o r y .  data on  the  To measure the  i n t e n s i t y of the people's commitment to defend  their  l a n d , a h y p o t h e t i c a l i n v a s i o n , i n terms o f a p i p e l i n e and  e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l of the p i p e l i n e , was  Old Crow r e s i d e n t s .  posed to  Defense responses were  the  obtained  f o r l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n the Porcupine Drainage system as w e l l as two # 4.8). camps and  The  l o c a t i o n s on the A r c t i c Coast (see s i t e s chosen represented  Figure  both c o n s t r u c t i o n  pumping s t a t i o n s that would be necessary i f a  p i p e l i n e were c o n s t r u c t e d .  I t was  found t h a t no  perceptual  d i f f e r e n c e among the Old Crow people occurred between the  135  t h r e a t camp,  of  a  by  added,  The  Crow  became  i n t e n s i t y i n d e x .  was  ( s t r o n g l y  u s u a l  s i t e  was  c l e a r l y  T a b l e  and  on  on  t a b u l a t e d  to  f i g u r e  the and  The to  the  to  summarize  not the  l o c a t i o n s  from  a s k i n g  p o i n t at  c o n s t r u c t i o n  s c a l e ,  the was  Defense  Category a b c d  . . . .  i t .  a The  e.  s t r o n g  V a l u e s  Value  s t r o n g acceptance a c c e p t a n c e n e u t r a l u n a c c e p t a b l e unacceptance  N = 77  v a l u e , per from  a c c e p t a b l e )  p r o c e d u r e :  Response  a  ranged  a c c e p t i n g  a c c e p t i n g  t h e i r  response  v a l u e s  ( s t r o n g l y  Old  s e l e c t e d g i v e n  average  a  the  #4.2  A.  were  o t h e r s .  by  category +2  a  o b t a i n e d  s c a l e  T h e r e f o r e ,  +5.  opposed  f i v e  development  c a t e g o r y  +1  than  was  a  of  a c t u a l  a c c o m p l i s h e d  unacceptable)  the  t a b l e  was  c a l c u l a t e d .  than  t h r e a t  when  commitment  r e s p o n d ,  was  the  t h r e a t e n i n g  p i p e l i n e  Each  frequency  l o c a t i o n -2  to  toward  l o c a t i o n s .  of  or  However,  more  T h i s  r e s i d e n t s  f e e l i n g s  the  s t a t i o n  t h e m s e l v e s .  some  defense  pumping  +2 +1 0 -1 -2  r a t h e r  proposed f o l l o w i n g  136  Table  #4.2  continued  B. D e f e n s e I n d i c e s a n d A c c e s s i b l e D i s t a n c e f r o m O l d Crow f o r t h e Sample L o c a t i o n s Location  Defense Index  Accessible Distance * (miles)  1 2 3 4 5 6  -1.22 -1.10 -1.25 -1.03 -1.01 -1.43 -1.49 .27 .16  23  54 28 152 58 12  Route A (Old Route B  Crow)  7  0  **  * A c c e s s i b l e d i s t a n c e was measured i n m i l e s a c c o r d i n g t o the e a s i e s t and q u i c k e s t r i v e r and/or o v e r l a n d r o u t e t o the p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n . ** The a c c e s s i b l e d i s t a n c e t o t h e s e l o c a t i o n s c a n n o t be measured a c c u r a t e l y . The l o c a t i o n s , i n f a c t , t o t h e p e o p l e o f O l d Crow have become i n a c c e s s i b l e . Figure  #4.6  Category Frequency of Scale For Each L o c a t i o n  Points Location  Frequency  Route A ( O l d Crow)  6  -2  +2 (neutral)  (acceptable) Source:  field  data  (unacceptable)  137  The  p e o p l e were a l s o a s k e d  alternative for  pipeline  routes.  Figure # 4.8). pipeline  significant  draining  the townsite  expressed  l o c a t i o n s (see  river  concern  remaining  t h a t h a s a n y meaning t o  The s o u t h e r n r o u t e was p l a c e d  o f O l d Crow b e c a u s e many  respondants  o v e r how t h e p i p e l i n e w o u l d r u i n  Crow. Figure #4.6 responses  portrays the e f f e c t  on t h e d e f e n s e  index.  l o c a t i o n 7 and r o u t e B a r e h i g h l y s i d e w h i l e the remainder skewness i s r e f l e c t e d  of the frequency  The c u r v e s f o r skewed on t h e p o s i t i v e  a r e skewed on t h e n e g a t i v e i n the defense  i n T a b l e # 4.2 B where t h e i n t e n s i t y  provide  the lowest  index.  side.  listed from  responses  The c o m p a r i s o n a l s o  t h a t a l o c a t i o n which possesses territoriality  indices  index ranges  + .27 t o -1.49 a n d t h e s t r o n g e s t d e f e n s e  of  they  T h e n o r t h e r n r o u t e was f i x e d where t h e  t h e O l d Crow p e o p l e .  The  index d e r i v e d  crosses the F i r t h R i v e r , the only  major A r c t i c  of  The d e f e n s e  however, f o r c a r t o g r a p h i c c o n v e n i e n c e ,  were f i x e d a t p a r t i c u l a r l y  Old  to the  t h e s e r o u t e s c o u l d be l o c a t e d anywhere a l o n g t h e  lines,  at  t o respond  shows  the strongest expression  h a s a mode o f t h e s t r o n g e s t  defense  category. The  data  from T a b l e  a non-linear function  #4.2  B i n i t s raw f o r m  presents  i n a c o r r e l a t i o n and r e g r e s s i o n  138 analysis.  Even i n the untransformed s t a t e the c o r r e l a t i o n  i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l with r = .77. when the data  However,  i s l o g a r i t h m i c a l l y transformed the s t r e n g t h  of the c o r r e l a t i o n was i n c r e a s e d and the r e g r e s s i o n equation Figure  took a l i n e a r form. #4.7 C o r r e l a t i o n and Regression of Defense I n t e n s i t y and A c c e s s i b l e D i s t a n c e from Old Crow r = .88 y = .19 +• .08x  (log)  .10-* 0 [  (log) a c c e s s i b l e d i s t a n c e from Old Crow  The  r e g r e s s i o n f u n c t i o n ( F i g u r e # 4.7) shows a  strong c o r r e l a t i o n (.88)  between defense I n t e n s i t y ,  which drops o f f r a p i d l y , and a c c e s s i b l e d i s t a n c e . distance  i s not the only v a r i a b l e determining  However,  the s t r e n g t h o f  139  territoriality that  23  f o r most l o c a t i o n s ,  per cent  of the  spatial  the r ~ value  p a t t e r n may  be  i s 0.77 explained  other v a r i a b l e s .  L o c a t i o n 6 i s the g r e a t e s t deviant  the  squares  line  of l e a s t  because  h u n t i n g r a n g e o f O l d Crow and river the  crossing location  Crow F l a t s  i t i s i n the  i n the  fall  for caribou.  Drainage  D i v i d e and  index. recently  the  old site  there  o f 1973  and  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work by  Old  Crow have l e a r n e d a b o u t t h e i r  the n a t u r a l h i s t o r y  i s a very  because the people  Location  5 had  in  no  focus  r e l a t i o n t o the  lowest  defense  cartographically  indices  of Table  numbers  only, while  iality from  at  the  historical  Many p e o p l e  Drainage;  and  from  resulted  than  was  people's  other l o c a t i o n s ,  has  h i s t o r y , as w e l l  identified  i n the  defense  with  the  mind,  resulting  of as  location.  especially i n the  index.  F i g u r e #4.8  Crow and  own  intensity  expected  destroy  reference to  of the Porcupine  a  real  thus a higher  the government.  t h i s work a h i g h e r d e f e n s e  was  o f L a P i e r r e House,  b e e n i n O l d Crow news w i t h  from  L o c a t i o n 3 i s near  p o p u l a t i o n of the F l a t s ;  L o c a t i o n 4,  by  immediate  f e a r w i t h i n t h e community t h a t a p i p e l i n e w o u l d the muskrat  so  #4.2  B.  The  the width  each l o c a t i o n  l o c a t i o n with  numbers a r e of the l i n e  p o r t r a y the  each l o c a t i o n . the  r e p r e s e n t s the  These  location between  intensity  intensity  defense  of  Old  territor-  lines radiate  strongest defense  index.  140  Source:  FIGURE  4.8  field  data  141  Included base.  on t h e map  There  i s the l o c a t i o n o f an e x i s t i n g  seemed t o be no o p p o s i t i o n  camp a n d b e c a u s e  i t already  to this  e x i s t e d was  excluded  from the study. U n d o u b t e d l y , O l d Crow i s t h e c e n t r e territory,  having the greatest  It  evident  i s also  part the  low d e f e n s e  indices  i s impossible  the c o a s t a l l o c a t i o n s are not  polation.  t o provide  function  ibility  t o give  boundaries f o r  It is difficult  and  think  but r a t h e r ,  t o measure t h e  o f many l o c a t i o n s a n d , o f c o u r s e ,  to various  parts  of t h e i r  land.  front  i n the defense  this  by O l d Crow O l d Crow  a s a community; t h e y v i e w t h e l a n d  exhibit a solid  access-  However,  s e c t i o n h a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e commitment h e l d  do  f o r extra-  of d i s t a n c e ,  distance,  c h a n g e s f r o m w i n t e r t o summer.  residents  a r e n o t enough  a basis  intensity i s a function  i s not a s t r a i g h t l i n e  accessible distance. accessibility  accurate  o f O l d Crow; t h e r e  throughout the area Although  i n view of  (see Table # 4 . 2 B).  defendable t e r r i t o r y  locations  the  (see Table # 4 . 2 B).  index  o f t h e O l d Crow d e f e n d a b l e t e r r i t o r y ,  It the  that  of the defense  people  collectively  of t h e i r  territory.  142  5. The O l d Crow  Claim  Two s c a l e s , the  Porcupine  region  shifted  core  have emerged a s t h e m a j o r  spatial  The e x e r c i s e  of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y  The p e r c e p t i o n s t u d y  have  #4.1)  h a s shown t h a t  i s t a k i n g on more i m p o r t a n c e  territorial  s i n c e t h e number  This  This  than  while  an  intensification  f o r the Porcupine  i n O l d Crow's b i d f o r A b o r i g i n a l L a n d  i s f u r t h e r supported  space,  suggests  a w a r e n e s s a n d e x p l a i n s t h e much  on Crow F l a t s ,  Basin,  where t h e d e f e n s e the defense  This chapter  by t h e a n a l y s i s o f  that  past  index dropped  Drainage Rights. defendable  o f f rapidly with  h a s a l s o shown a s h i f t  expressions  stronger  o f t h e c o r e was h i g h l y  were m o t i v a t e d  intensified distance.  i n a t t i t u d e as  w e l l as motives toward c l a i m i n g t e r r i t o r y .  I t was  possessing gather  location.  another  T h e s e g r o u p s were i n t e r e s t e d irv  t h a t l a n d o n l y f o r the time the resources.  shown  by e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s -  g r o u p w o u l d v i e f o r t h e same f o o d r e s o u r c e s a s  in a particular  to  intensified  l o c a t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the region increased  claim  one  encompassing  from p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n s (see Figure  between g e n e r a t i o n s . of  Basin and the h i g h l y  that the expressions  a core area.  the  expression  i n O l d Crow t e r r i t o r i a l i t y .  indicates  of  Drainage  o f Crow F l a t s ,  concerns  to  the t e r r i t o r i a l  that they  required  P o s s e s s i o n now means a c t u a l  143  ownership and The reasons  c o n t r o l through l e g a l t i t l e  of the t e r r i t o r y .  p r o v i d e d have been both c u l t u r a l and  To an extent the view of l a n d , i t s e l f , has symbol of c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e .  The  s h i f t e d to a  people are a l s o r e a l i s t i c  i n knowing that labour employment cannot l a s t and they w i l l be assured  economic.  that  l a n d resources when i n need only  through a s t r o n g c l a i m .  144  CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  The f o r e g o i n g chapters have attempted t o d e s c r i b e the changing s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of settlement and resource use as w e l l as examine the a t t i t u d e Old Crow people h o l d toward t h e i r t e r r i t o r y .  Mainly through i n t e r v i e w i n g ,  f a c t s and o p i n i o n s were obtained on v a r i o u s economic a c t i v i t i e s and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s .  These data  provided  the b a s i s f o r e s t i m a t i n g the community's a d a p t a b i l i t y to new s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s , the economic c o n d i t i o n w i t h i n the community, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the people of Old Crow and t h e i r l a n d . In c o n c l u d i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n we must ask whether the c o n d i t i o n s l a i d out i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n have been met. must examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t e r r i t o r y and the 'perceived' t e r r i t o r y .  We  'land-use' In the context  of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p a note should be added on the economic r e a l i t i e s e x i s t i n g i n Old Crow.  1. Land-Use  The c o n t a c t h i s t o r y of the K u t c h i n people i s n e a r i n g 150 years but changes i n the way of l i f e occurred r e c e n t l y .  i n Old Crow have  The r e s e a r c h has shown a s h r i n k i n g  145  land area  used f o r t r a d i t i o n a l  almost h a l f their  food  hunting  the  from the  the  form  land.  remain annual  trapping are The  people s t i l l  on  the  spatial  trapping  less few of the  to the  more r e c e n t of  intense  effort  trappers  1972-73.  activities  T h i s move  s i n c e the  per  cent  of the  Old  but  only  18. p e o p l e  took series  created  at  to trap lines  Old  and  settlement. phase of t h i s  concentration  o l d way  emerged now  winter  co-operative  convergence i n the  cost  of equipment,  t r a p p i n g has  in this  s u p p l i e d by  this  the  winter  shown t h a t complete.  analysis i s that  viewed d i f f e r e n t l y .  (nine per  and  Consequently,  i s not  Crow p o p u l a t i o n  land  Seventy-seven  rely  on  country  c e n t ) have a l l t h e i r means.  With  become  Crow d u r i n g  of l i f e  has  village.  However, i n C h a p t e r I I I i t was  are  requirements  Crow f r o m a  rapid trips  were a c t i v e i n O l d  What has  and  of l a n d - u s e  t h a n wage employment.  break from the  autumn  Permanent r e s i d e n c e  required, winter  attractive  and  fishing  extent  u n r e l i a b l e f u r market, the  extra  while  been l o s t  days.  p u n c t u a t e d by  speedy r e t u r n s  an  ratting  settlements.  t h a t had  bands o f p r e - c o n t a c t  b e e n one  Spring  events,  yet  a l a r g e p o r t i o n of  of a convergence onto Old  socialization  The  get  harvesting,  decline.  diminishing  of d i s p e r s e d  Crow was  resource  O n l y one  food,  food  family  out  146  of f i f t y t o t a l r e l i e s on t r a p p i n g f o r the t o t a l income. Obviously, l a n d a c t i v i t i e s are not a n e c e s s i t y but  they  are viewed as important f u n c t i o n s i n t h e i r way  life.  T h i s t r e n d i s , i n p a r t , symbolic.  They go  of  partially  because of the need f o r food, but they a l s o go back t o an o l d e r , s i m p l e r , yet v a r i e d way t h e i r own own  boss and  experiences.  p l a c e to  land i s a refuge from town, a good  Territory  i n the form of  i s a dominant f a c t o r i n the f u t u r e of Old Crow.  study i n d i c a t e s t h a t over time the people's awareness  of t h e i r t e r r i t o r y has The  be  of c u l t u r a l change i n t h e i r  has been shown t h a t t e r r i t o r i a l i t y  l a n d claims The  The  People can  be.  2. P e r c e i v e d  It  span the gap  of l i f e .  strengthening  probably  s h i f t e d from the p e r i p h e r y  community consensus a g a i n s t  c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h i s a t t i t u d e of  Perception  outsiders  of the Old Crow t e r r i t o r y i s no longer  present  c o n d i t i o n s where the people have a tenuous h o l d on ownership.  Old Crow would have never e x i s t e d . w i t h the past and rewarding way  land  Without Crow F l a t s I t l i n k s the  present  the f u t u r e ; i t i d e n t i f i e s an o l d ,  of l i f e ;  and  the  occupance  T e r r i t o r i a l i t y must be r e l a t e d to  t h a t has q u e s t i o n a b l e  core.  territoriality.  s p a t i a l p e r c e p t i o n d e r i v e d from l o n g standing of the l a n d .  to a  i t s resources  assure  future  147  economic s t a b i l i t y .  Land use meets the immediate needs,  w h i l e the e x p r e s s i o n of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y r e v e a l s the l o n g term d e s i r e f o r s e c u r i t y from u l t i m a t e  domination.  3. Economic R e a l i t i e s  It  i s c l e a r from t h i s study t h a t a  characteristic  f e a t u r e of Old Crow economy i s the dichotomy between l a n d based and town-based a c t i v i t i e s . all  food requirements  F i f t y - f i v e per cent of  i n the community are met  by l a n d  a c t i v i t i e s , but only t e n per cent of the cash income i s d e r i v e d from t h i s source.  Obviously, i n t e n s i v e t r a p p i n g  has disappeared, a l l o w i n g f o r more time i n the v i l l a g e and  i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r wage employment.  For example,  f o u r of the b e s t t r a p p e r s and hunters i n Old Crow have steady employment.  Each s t i l l  manages t o shoot some  c a r i b o u , a l l engage i n muskrat t r a p p i n g , and is  one  still  a p a r t time w i n t e r t r a p p e r . Old  Crow i s caught  i n modernization and the dilemma  of b r e a k i n g o f f w i t h the l a n d i s upon the people. t r a n s i t i o n need not be p a i n f u l .  The  Although the f u r resources  cannot m a i n t a i n the whole economy, i t has been shown t h a t a number of people can be employed a t a good standard of living.  In Old Crow t h i s t r e n d i s o c c u r r i n g ; the land  a c t i v i t i e s are i n c r e a s i n g i n response  t o the q u e s t i o n a b l e  148  duration  o f wage employment.  The of f u l l time  wage economy i s one o f boom a n d b u s t . time  jobs has reached  jobs r e s u l t  forseeable attract  from  The number  i t s peak a n d many o f t h e p a r t  short, terminal projects.  In the  f u t u r e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a gas p i p e l i n e  people  s e e k i n g wage employment.  The b u l k o f  employment w i l l  be f o r two w i n t e r s a n d two summers  a  jobs a f t e r  few permanent  impact  will  construction.  be a l a r g e I n f l o w  of cash  which l e a d s t o the danger of f r e e take air  t h e form travel,  of accumulating  and undoubtedly  will  The  with  initial  t o t h e community  spending.  This  m a t e r i a l items,  will  increased  a g r e a t e r consumption of  alcohol. Many a c t i v i t i e s Commissioner This,  went w i n t e r  the fact  This  that a dual  it  was o b s e r v e d  i n 1974  economy I s s t a b i l i z i n g  expressed  r a t h e r than permanently that  1973-74 t h a n i n 1972-73* a n d  i d e a was u n d e r l i n e d d u r i n g t h e f i e l d  when r e s p o n d e n t s  these  expressed  i n a pipeline  that only f i f t y - t w o  interest  stabilization  i n O l d Crow.  investigation,  related  job.  Granted  t h e community, y e t when per cent  i n working a t a l l ,  of a dual  ratting,  p r e f e r e n c e t o work s e a s o n a l l y  j o b s w o u l d be away f r o m  i s realized  related.  t h a t a l a r g e r number o f  trapping i n  t h a t a more s e r i o u s e f f o r t suggests  by t h e O l d Crow Band t o t h e  on l a n d c l a i m s a r e i n some way l a n d  coupled with  people  proposed  of the people  t h e emergence a n d  economy a p p e a r s  t h e more  likely.  149  4.  Territory The  and  and  Territoriality  research  has  shown t h a t  through time,  e c o n o m i c c h a n g e s have a l t e r e d  relationship spatial while  between, l a n d  extent  the  of l a n d  subjective  to' a n o d a l f o c u s .  use  the  conditions  use  and  has  been r e d u c e d  territory  With t h i s  cultural  territoriality.  has  shifted  conclusion  can land  parallelled  spatial  in  It  is also  evident  intensified within of the used, land  hypothesis i t does n o t  as  belonging  community has The fishing,  less  The Crow a r e The  future  from p l a n n i n g  a  I t may  of the  Crow g e n e r a l l y will  be  Thus t h e  be  The  of t h e i r  and  by  local  an  acceptance land view one  is  not  the in  the  hunting,  a f f e c t e d by  expressed  pace i n Old  fear that events.  agree that  the  increased  concern that  c u l t u r e so  shown f o r t r a d i t i o n a l  intimidated  not  has  needed.  adversely  character  is  territoriality  p e o p l e do  l a n d as  the  territoriality.  mean- t h a t any  i s most u n c e r t a i n  anxious.  and  the  T h e y have a l s o  change t h e  people are  activity  suggest that  of Old  will  use  i s t e n t a t i v e because though the  trapping  interest  data that  shrinking area.  t o them.  wage employment. wages w i l l  the  f r e e use  people and  from the  extent  dispersed  accept  in territorial  a diminished  The  from a  we  and  significantly,  hypothesis that a reduction by  of,  that  activities.  people  Crow has  high  of  Old  been a c c e l e r a t i n g .  unknown p i c t u r e  government w i l l  be  of  intense  eliminated .  150  The  l a n d and i t s resources  as p e r c e i v e d by the people  of Old Crow a r e the only known and permanent commodities. Not  only can t h i s l a n d p r o v i d e a l i v e l i h o o d , but the l a n d  has a l s o been shown t o be p a r t of the people.  In the f i n a l  a n a l y s i s I t i s the land I t s e l f now under a t t a c k which i n t e n s i f i e s the s o l i d a r i t y of the n a t i v e The  northerners.  r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t the people's concern f o r  the Old Crow l a n d i s i n t e n s e and they do c o n s i d e r the l a n d collectively theirs.  C o n t r o l of the l a n d Is the key f o r  the people of Old Crow t o evolve t h e i r own n o r t h e r n  i  society.  151  152-  REFERENCES Arbess, Saul 1967  "Economic R e a l i t i e s and P o l i t i c a l Development: The George R i v e r Case." A n t h r o p o l o g l c a N.S. ( I X : 2 ) pp. 6 5 - 7 6 .  Ardrey, Robert 1966  "The Noyau." r e p r i n t in-Kasperson, R.E. and J.V. Minghi ( e d s ) . The S t r u c t u r e of P o l i t i c a l Geography. Chicago, A-ldine. pp. 3 1 9 - 3 2 2 . (1969).  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December.  162  Stockton, C h a r l e s 1890  "The A r c t i c C r u i s e of USS T h e t i s i n the Summer and Autumn of 1889" N a t i o n a l Geographic Magazine (11:2). pp. 171-198.  Steward, J u l i a n H. 1954  Theory o f C u l t u r a l Change. of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , Urbana.  S t o d d a r t , David 196?  "Organism and Ecosystem as G e o g r a p h i c a l Models" i n C h o r l e y , R. and C. Raggett (eds) I n t e g r a t e d Models i n Geography. Methuen, London, pp. 5H-548.  Tanner, A. 1966  T r a p p e r s . Hunters and Fishermen: W i l d l i f e U t i l i z a t i o n i n the Yukon. Department of Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. Yukon Research P r o j e c t (YRP5).  Theodorson, George A. (ed) 1961 S t u d i e s i n Human Ecology. Row, New York.  University  Harper-  Thompson, L. 1961  "The R e l a t i o n s o f Man, Animals and P l a n t s i n an I s l a n d Community." i n Theodorson, G. (ed) S t u d i e s i n Human Ecology. 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(NCRC 6 2 - 2 ) .  Vayda, A. and R. Rappaport 1968 "Ecology, C u l t u r a l and N o n - C u l t u r a l " i n C l i f f t o n , J . (ed) I n t r o d u c t i o n t o C u l t u r a l Anthropology. Houghton M i f f i n Co., Boston, pp. 4 7 7 - 4 9 7 . Wagner, P. and M. M i k e s e l l (eds) 1962 Readings i n C u l t u r a l Geography. U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , Chicago. Wagner, P. 1969  "Rank and T e r r i t o r y " i n Kasparson, R.E. and J.V. Mlnghi (eds) The S t r u c t u r e of P o l i t i c a l Geography. Chicago, A l d i n e P u b l i c a t i o n Co. PP.  Wedel,  89-93.  W.R.  1961  Welsh, Ann 1970  "Some Aspects of Human Ecology i n the C e n t r a l P l a i n s " r e p r i n t i n Theodorson, G. (ed) S t u d i e s i n Human Ecology. Harper-Row, New York, pp. 451-461. "Community Pattern.and Settlement P a t t e r n i n the Development of Old Crow V i H g , Yukon T e r r i t o r y " . Western Canadian J o u r n a l of Anthropology. ( 2 : 1 ) pp. 1 7 - 3 0 . a  e  Wolforth, J . 1970  Dual A l l e g i a n c e i n the Mackenzie Delta. Unpublished Ph.D. T h e s i s , Department of Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  164  Wolforth, J .  1971  The E v o l u t i o n and Economy o f the D e l t a Community. Department of I n d i a n and Northern Development. (MDRP 11) Northern C o - o r d i n a t i o n , and Research Centre. Mackenzie D e l t a Research P r o j e c t .  Yukon N a t i v e Brotherhood 1973 Report f o r the Commission on Indian Claims and the Government of Canada. Whitehorse S t a r , Whitehorse. Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l  Government T r a p p i n g Areas and Camp S i t e s i n the Old Crow F l a t s . Y.T. Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government, W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e , Game Branch, Whitehorse.  165  APPENDIX I OLD CROW FACT AND OPINION QUESTIONNAIRE  166 APPENDIX I OLD CROW FACT AND  OPINION  QUESTIONNAIRE  T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d about people's Further,  and g e n e r a l  life  facts  i n O l d Crow.  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e  community's could  activities  to e l i c i t  o p i n i o n a b o u t a n a t u r a l gas p i p e l i n e t h a t  be c o n s t r u c t e d n e a r O l d Crow.  was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e  parts  - Activity  Survey and Main Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . were a s k e d a l l q u e s t i o n s .  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e Survey,  The sample  People  population  responded t o t h e Main I 9 6 0 and  Questionnaire  once f o r e a c h t i m e p e r i o d 1973»  •Long A g o ' .  The sample was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e  1  according The  t o age, that  groups  i s , younger, middle and o l d e r .  younger responded t o 1973  I960,  Opinion  o n l y , middle t o 1973 and  and o l d e r t o a l l s e c t i o n s .  'Long A g o ' r e p r e s e n t s t h e t i m e when a n o l d e r p e r s o n , o v e r 4 0 y e a r s , was a young p e r s o n . It i s unrealistic t o a s k p e o p l e t o remember c e r t a i n d a t e s i n t h e d i s t a n t p a s t , however, p e o p l e do remember c e r t a i n f a c t s p e r t a i n i n g t o a y e a r when s o m e t h i n g i m p o r t a n t o c c u r r e d . The r e s p o n s e s of t h i s t i m e p e r i o d f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t t h e f o r m a t i v e y e a r s of O l d Crow, when t h e r e were o n l y m i n o r c h a n g e s f r o m y e a r to y e a r . The l o w e r bound o f t h i s t i m e p e r i o d i s 1 9 2 6 , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g o f O l d Crow, a n d t h e u p p e r bound I s 1953, the e s t a b l i s h i n g of a group t r a p p i n g a r e a , r a t t i n g s e c t o r s i n Crow F l a t s , a n d a p u b l i c d a y s c h o o l .  167  PART Aj^ A c t i v i t y  Survey  The primary purpose of t h i s survey was Canada Manpower Survey of 1971.  t o update the  We asked the respondents  what they were doing each month f o r the l a s t two y e a r s , f o r whom they were working, and the l o c a t i o n .  The  categories  were: Activity  Employer  Location  (a) None (b) T r a p p i n g , Hunting (c) Woodcutting (d) Housekeeping (e) School ( f ) Labour (g) Tradesman (h) Equipment Operator ( i ) Other  (a) None (b) S e l f  (a) Old Crow (b) 25 m i l e r a d i u s of Old Crow (c) Crow P l a t s (d) Porcupine B a s i n (e) Yukon or N.W.T. ( f ) Outside (g) Unstated  PART B:  (c) O i l Company (d) Government (e) Other  Opinion Survey  The i n t e r v i e w e r read the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e paragraphs t o the respondent and then asked him a l l q u e s t i o n s , c i r c l i n g the respondent's answer. "The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s s k your o p i n i o n on many t h i n g s about n a t u r a l gas p i p e l i n e s . I would l i k e you t o t e l l me whether you s t r o n g l y agree or s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e , or f e e l somewhat i n between f o r each of the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . I would then l i k e t o hear how you f e e l about a gas p i p e l i n e t h a t would pump n a t u r a l gas. a  A n a t u r a l gas p i p e l i n e b u i l t i n the n o r t h e r n p a r t of the Yukon would be b u r i e d . To operate i t would need a pumping s t a t i o n every 50 m i l e s which they say would employ between 4 t o 8 men. The Yukon p a r t o f the p i p e l i n e would be maintained from some l a r g e maintenance camp which they say w i l l employ  168  between 20 and JO men. The b u i l d i n g of the n a t u r a l gas p i p e l i n e w i l l need about 1,000 men f o r the n o r t h e r n p a r t . B u i l d i n g t h i s p a r t would take about one y e a r . Work would be done only i n the w i n t e r . A l l the t h i n g s about t h i g p i p e l i n e have not y e t been d e c i d e d . The exact l o c a t i o n of the p i p e l i n e has not y e t been d e c i d e d . We have been asked t o get your o p i n i o n s on the two p o s s i b l e r o u t e s shown on the map. Since no d e c i s i o n s have been d e f i n i t e l y made, your o p i n i o n s a r e v a l u a b l e t o h e l p the Government d e c i d e . "  1. How would you f e e l about a p i p e l i n e b e i n g b u i l t here? ( p o i n t t o r o u t e A on the map) Very Good OK Don't Care No D e f i n t e l y Not 2. How would you f e e l about a p i p e l i n e b e i n g b u i l t here? ( p o i n t t o r o u t e B on the map) Very Good OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not 3. How do you f e e l about a p i p e l i n e b e i n g b u i l t a t a l l ? Very Good OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not 4. How would you f e e l about a pumping s t a t i o n b e i n g b u i l t here? ( p o i n t t o #1 on map) Very Good OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not 5. How would you f e e l about a pumping s t a t i o n b e i n g b u i l t here? ( p o i n t t o #2 on map) Very Good OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not 6. How would you f e e l about a pumping s t a t i o n b e i n g b u i l t here? (point t o #3 on map) Very Good OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not 7. How would you f e e l about' them p u t t i n g a c o n s t r u c t i o n camp here? ( p o i n t t o #4 on map) Very Good OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not 8. How would you f e e l about them p u t t i n g a c o n s t r u c t i o n camp here? ( p o i n t t o #5 on map) Very Good OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not 9. How would you f e e l about them p u t t i n g a c o n s t r u c t i o n camp here? ( p o i n t t o #6 on map) Very Good OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not  169  i?o  10. How would you f e e l about them p u t t i n g a c o n s t r u c t i o n camp here? ( P o i n t t o #7 on map) Very Good OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not 11. How would you f e e l about them p u t t i n g the maintenance camp f o r o p e r a t i n g the p i p e l i n e i n Old Crow? Very Good OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not 12. How would you l i k e a permanent job on the (10 days on and 5 days o f f ) ? Very Good OK Don't Care No  pipeline Definitely  Not  13. How would you l i k e a seasonal job on p i p e l i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n ( a l l winter)? Very Much OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not 14. How would you f e e l about t a k i n g s p e c i a l f o r work on the p i p e l i n e ? Very W i l l i n g OK Don't Care No  training  outside  Definitely  Not  15. How do you f e e l about working 10 days on and 5 days o f f ? Very W i l l i n g OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not 16. How do you f e e l about working 20 days on and 10 days o f f ? Very W i l l i n g OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not 17. Would you be w i l l i n g t o work on a p i p e l i n e away from home and f a m i l y f o r 2 weeks? D e f i n i t e l y Yes Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not 18. Would you be w i l l i n g t o work on a p i p e l i n e away from home and f a m i l y f o r 2 months? D e f i n i t e l y Yes Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not 19. Do you t h i n k a p i p e l i n e w i l l change the way i n which the f a m i l y works together? D e f i n i t e l y Yes Don't Know No D e f i n i t e l y Not 20. Would you move your f a m i l y away from Old Crow t o work on the p i p e l i n e ? D e f i n i t e l y Yes Don't Know No D e f i n i t e l y Not 21. I f a p i p e l i n e was b u i l t , how much time would women spend w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s ? Much More More Unsure Same Less Much Less 22. I f a p i p e l i n e was b u i l t , how much time would men spend with t h e i r families? Much More More Unsure Same Less Much Less  171  23.  I f a p i p e l i n e was b u i l t , do you t h i n k young a d u l t s would move out of Old Crow? Much More More Don't Know No D e f i n i t e l y Not  24. I f a p i p e l i n e was b u i l t , would i t change the way people d r i n k i n O l d Crow? Much More More Same Unsure Less Much More 25.  How would you f e e l about twenty f a m i l i e s from o u t s i d e moving i n t o O l d Crow? Very Good OK Don't Know No D e f i n i t e l y Not  26.  How would you f e e l about f i v e f a m i l i e s from o u t s i d e moving i n t o Old Crow? Very Good OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not  27.  How do you t h i n k o u t s i d e r s would change the way the community runs I t s a f f a i r s ? No Change L i t t l e Change Moderate Large Complete Change Change Change  28.  How do you t h i n k o u t s i d e r s would change dances i n O l d Crow? No Change L i t t l e Change Moderate Large Complete Change Change Change  29.  How do you f e e l about more t o u r i s t s coming t o O l d Crow? Very Good OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not  30. How would you l i k e 1000 men working on the p i p e l i n e t o l i v e near Old Crow? Very Good OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not 3 1 . How would you l i k e 100 men working on the p i p e l i n e t o l i v e near O l d Crow? Very Good OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not 32.  How would you l i k e O l d Crow t o be the base f o r about 30 men o p e r a t i n g the p i p e l i n e ? Very Good OK Don't Care No D e f i n i t e l y Not  33.  How many other kinds of jobs do you t h i n k w i l l be c r e a t e d i n O l d Crow as a r e s u l t o f the p i p e l i n e ? Many More More Don't Know Less Much Less  34.  Do you t h i n k people would order more goods from o u t s i d e ? Much More More Same Unsure Less Much Less  35*  I f a p i p e l i n e was b u i l t how much do you t h i n k people would depend upon the l a n d f o r food and money from f u r s ? Much More More Same Unsure Less Much Less  1?2  36.  I f a p i p e l i n e was b u i l t , how much money would people In Old Crow have compared t o day?; Much More More Same Unsure Less Much Less  37.  I f a p i p e l i n e was b u i l t how d i f f i c u l t would i t be t o get s t u f f i n from the o u t s i d e ? Much E a s i e r Easier Same Unsure Harder Much Harder  38.  Do you t h i n k people w i l l go t o t r a p and hunt more o f t e n by plane i f a p i p e l i n e i s b u i l t ? Much More More Same Unsure Less Much Less  39.  W i l l people use boats as a way of t r a v e l l i n g a f t e r the p i p e l i n e comes? Much More More Same Unsure Less Much Less  40.  W i l l people use dog teams as a way of t r a v e l l i n g a f t e r a p i p e l i n e comes? Much More More Same Unsure Less Much Less  41.  Do you t h i n k the people of Old Crow w i l l be t r a v e l l i n g t o the o u t s i d e more i f a p i p e l i n e comes? Much More More Same Unsure Less Much Less  42.  I f a p i p e l i n e i s b u i l t a l o n g r o u t e A do you t h i n k as many c a r i b o u w i l l c r o s s the r i v e r where they used t o ? Many More More Same Unsure Less Much Lass  43.  I f a p i p e l i n e i s b u i l t , how much hunting do you t h i n k the people w i l l do? Much More More Same Unsure Less Much Less  44.  I f a p i p e l i n e goes i n do you t h i n k there w i l l be as many r a t s as t h e r e i s now? Many More More Same Unsure Less Much Less  45.  I f a p i p e l i n e goes i n how o f t e n do you t h i n k people w i l l hunt and t r a p r a t s ? More Often Often Same Unsure Less Much Less  46.  How much do you t h i n k people w i l l f i s h i f a p i p e l i n e is built? Much More More Same Unsure Less Much Less  47.  I f the p i p e l i n e was b u i l t do you t h i n k t h a t hunting and t r a p p i n g would be seen as a good occupation by the people? D e f i n i t e l y Yes Don't Know No Definitely Not  48.  W i l l you t e l l me how you f e e l about the p i p e l i n e ?  Why?  173  PART C; The  Main Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t e r v i e w e r read the f o l l o w i n g paragraph  respondent  and then asked  the q u e s t i o n s , f i l l i n g  t o the i n the b l a n k s .  "We a r e a s k i n g questions of Old Crows how i s i t now, was about twelve years ago, and was long ago. The f a c t s you g i v e us w i l l show how Old Crow has been changing. Knowing about these changes w i l l h e l p t e l l us what s o r t of good t h i n g s and bad t h i n g s would come t o Old Crow w i t h the b u i l d i n g of the p i p e l i n e . We would l i k e t o get f a c t s from you t h i s time and we would l i k e t o speak w i t h you l a t e r t o get your o p i n i o n s on the kinds of changes you describe."  Hunt i n g s 1.  What animals d i d you hunt i n the past one year, and how were they used?  Question Caribou animal hunted use: food clothing dog food other 2.  Moose  Rabbit  Muskrat  Birds  Other  What months of the year d i d you hunt each k i n d of animal? (Write down the number o f animals i n each month and t o t a l ) Caribou  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Total  Moose  Rabbit  Muskrat  Birds  Other  174  3.  How d i d you hunt each p a r t i c u l a r animal t h i s past year?  Caribou Moose Rabbit Muskrat Birds Other 4.  How d i d you keep the meat and who d i d the work?  Caribou Moose Rabbit Muskrat Birds Other 5.  How d i d you t r a v e l t o hunt?  Caribou Moose Rabbit Muskrat Birds Other 6.  D i d you go h u n t i n g : Alone Family  Someone E l s e  And Who Shared the Meat  Caribou Moose Rabbit Muskrat Birds Other 7.  On the map mark the p l a c e s where you hunted: 1. Caribou and the route you t r a v e l l e d t h e r e . 2 . The same f o r moose, r a b b i t s , muskrats and b i r d s .  Trapping: 1.  What type of animals d i d you t r a p over t h i s past one year? Muskrat _ _ Marten  Mink  Lynx  Beaver  Weasel  Other (write).  175  2.. What months d i d you t r a p each animal and how many d i d you get i n each month? Muskrat  Marten  Mink  Lynx  Beaver  Weasel Other  Jan-Feb Mar-Apr May-Jun Jul-Aug Sep-Oct Nov-Dec Total 3.  How  d i d you t r a p each type of animal (Use back of Page)  Muskrat Marten Mink Lynx Beaver Weasel Other 4.  How  d i d you prepare each type of p e l t and who  d i d the work?  Muskrat Marten Mink Lynx Beaver Weasel Other 5.  Did you t r a p : Alone Family  Muskrat Marten Mink Lynx Beaver Weasel Other  Someone E l s e  Who  Shared i n the Catch  176  6. How d i d you s e l l your f u r s ?  To whom?  When?  Where?  Muskrat Marten Mink Lynx Beaver Weasel Other 7. D i d your f a m i l y use any f u r ? Muskrat 8.  Marten  Mink  How much?  Lynx  What kind?  Beaver  Weasel Other  Did you get a grubstake? From whom?  9. a) Mark on the map the p l a c e s t h a t you c a t c h each type of animal (muskrat, marten, mink, l y n x , beaver, weasel, etc.) b) Mark your t r a p p i n g camps. c) Mark the r o u t e s that you go t o your t r a p p i n g camps. Fishing: 1.  What type o f f i s h d i d you c a t c h t h i s past year? were they used f o r ? Dog Salmon  K i n g Salmon  Grayling  What  Hump W h i t e f i s h  Dog Food Food Other continued L i t t l e Whitefish Dog Food Food Other  Jackfish  Losche Sucker Coni  Other  17?  2. What time o f year d i d you f i s h f o r each? How l o n g were you out? How l o n g does i t take t o take f i s h from the net?  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec  Dog King Gray- Hump Little JackSalmon Salmon l i n g W h i t e f i s h W h i t e f i s h f i s h Losche Sucker Coni  3. Are t h e r e any d i f f e r e n t ways of c a t c h i n g d i f f e r e n t Explain.  fish?  4. How much of each type o f f i s h d i d you get over the past one year? Dog King Gray- Hump Little JackSalmon Salmon l i n g W h i t e f i s h W h i t e f i s h f i s h Losche Sucker Coni  #  5. How d i d you keep a l l the f i s h ? 6. Who d i d you go f i s h i n g with l a s t Who shared the catch? Who? Family?  Who d i d i t ? year?  D i d your f a m i l y go? Who Shared?  7. a) Mark on the map the p l a c e t h a t you c a t c h each type o f f i s h . b) I f you have a f i s h camp mark t h a t on the map. c) Mark the route t h a t you use t o get t o your camp and/or n e t ( s ) . Wage A c t i v i t i e s t 1. You were asked about the t h i n g s you have done over the past two y e a r s . Have you taken any jobs s i n c e then? Job Where When  178  2 . How have you g o t t e n most of the jobs you have had? Do you go l o o k i n g , do people ask you, or what? Look Get Asked Notes 3. Have many jobs been going around t h i s year? Is i t hard t o get a job even i f you r e a l l y want one? Jobs around: Lots To g e t : Hard Not Many Sometimes Hard Easy 4. Have you had any s p e c i a l job t r a i n i n g ? I f so, where, when and what kind? Type Where When 5. When you look around f o r a Job what k i n d do you want? How l o n g should i t go on? How do you f e e l about s h i f t work? Type Length S h i f t Work 6. Would you work o u t s i d e ? Have you worked o u t s i d e i n the south? How l o n g , where, when? Outside work: would you: Yes No have you: Yes No Where Family  What  When  How Long  Life:  1. I s Loucheux spoken i n the home r e g u l a r l y ? Among whom? Does anyone understand Loucheux but not answer i n i t ? Loucheux spoken: regularly sometimes none Among: o l d e r people parents & o l d e r people parents parents & c h i l d r e n o l d e r people & c h i l d r e n children a l l of them Notes: 2 . Why do young people leave home? 3. Who t e l l s the c h i l d r e n what t o do? What i s the i n f l u e n c e of s c h o o l and other o u t s i d e groups? 4. How much of the day do young/older c h i l d r e n spend working a t home? P l a y i n g a t home? Working Playing Younger c h i l d r e n hours hours Older c h i l d r e n hours hours  179  5. Does your whole f a m i l y go i n t o t h e bush f o r h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g ? Does each person have a s p e c i a l Job t o do i n the bush? Family i n bush:  always  sometimes  never  Occasion f o r whole f a m i l y , i f not always? 6. How much of your day i s spent a t home? What would you do a t home most days? What s o r t of jobs do a l l members of the f a m i l y do a t home? P o r t i o n of day a t home: Others: (who)  Your j o b : (Job)  Do you know how t o make: No Y  e  s  toboggan dog whip harnesses snow shoes r a t canoe rabbit blanket caribou boat canvas scow log cabin dog packs making babiche t a n n i n g hides sewing boats beading d r y i n g meat making bone grease making pemican Social A c t i v i t i e s :  D i d you make over the past y e a r : Yes No  A. L o c a l Government Meetings:  1. Do you go t o band meetings? always sometimes How o f t e n a r e they held? weekly monthly seldom  never every two weeks  180  2. Do you speak your p i e c e a t band meetings? 3. Do you go t o other meetings such as the men's c l u b , s c h o o l committee, co-op d i r e c t o r s , or any other groups? 4. Does the band c o u n c i l have much i n f l u e n c e i n O l d Crow? Do people do what the band c o u n c i l t e l l s them t o do? 5. Do the same people a t t e n d a l l these meetings? 6. Do most people agree w i t h what happens and i s s a i d a t band meetings? 7. I f you d i s a g r e e w i t h what i s s a i d , what do you do? 8.  Do you t a l k among f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s about what you w i l l say or f e e l about t h i n g s b e f o r e you go t o a band meeting?  9. How do the people of Old Crow d e a l with the government? B. 1.  Recreation:  Do you go t o the dances h e l d i n Old Crow?  2. What k i n d of dances a r e done? 3. About how many people go t o the dances? 4. How o f t e n do they have dances? 5. How much d r i n k i n g i s there done b e f o r e and d u r i n g dances now days? What does d r i n k i n g do t o the dances? 6. Do you go t o the movies? alot sometimes  rarely  Do you go w i t h the f a m i l y ? always sometimes  never  7. What s o r t of t h i n g s do you do when you want t o take i t easy or have a good time? How o f t e n do you do these t h i n g s ? Who does them with you? 8. What kinds of s p o r t s or games do you l i k e ? or watch? C. 1.  Do you p l a y  S o c i a l Gatherings:  How many people go t o church r e g u l a r l y ? changed? I f so, how?  Have the s e r v i c e s  181  2.  When t h i n g s a r e done f o r the community do people h e l p willingly?  3. Do you expect pay f o r working on community a c t i v i t i e s ? Yes No 4. Do people h e l p everyone or j u s t f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s ? Everyone F r i e n d s and R e l a t i v e s 5.  When you run i n t o people i n the s t r e e t do you say n o t h i n g , j u s t h e l l o , or t a l k about something? Nothing Hello T a l k about something  6. D e s c r i b e how a community f e a s t works today? work? Who goes? When does i t take p l a c e ? Community  Who  does the  Economics;  1. What people a t home b r i n g i n money or goods? relationship)  (name,  2. What part of the money coming i n t o the home comes from wages? (give f r a c t i o n of whole amount) 3. What p a r t of the money coming i n t o the house comes from trapping? 4. What p a r t of your household s u p p l i e s d i d you buy a t the Co-op? 5 . How much d i d you buy o u t s i d e and what k i n d of t h i n g s d i d you buy? How easy i s i t t o buy t h i n g s o u t s i d e of Old Crow? How do you do i t ? 6. How o f t e n do you use c a t a l o g u e s t o shop? t h i n g s do you buy from the catalogue?  What s o r t of  7. What type of a s s i s t a n c e do you get from the government to help meet the c o s t of l i v i n g i n Old Crow? 8. Have you taken advantage of government housing programmes? How? 9. What s o r t of major items have you bought over the l a s t couple of years? 10. Show on the map where you got your own how you got i t t o Old Crow.  firewood and  tell  182  P e r s o n a l Movement^ 1. Have you been o u t s i d e i n the l a s t two years? Where When How Long How d i d you get t h e r e ? 2 . Have you t r a v e l l e d i n the O l d Crow l a n d i n the l a s t two y e a r s , besides where you went hunting, f i s h i n g , and t r a p p i n g ? Can you put i t on the map? Where When How Long How d i d you get there? 3. How much of the Old Crow country have you seen? Can you put i t a l l on the map? (Have we missed any t r a i l s or camps t h a t you have ever used?)  **#**THE SAME QUESTIONS WERE ASKED FOR ALL THREE TIME PERIODS****  183  APPENDIX I I ENDPAPER  184  APPENDIX I I COMMENT ON ENDPAPERS A by-product o f the r e s e a r c h i s two maps o f the Old Crow town s i t e  (1963 and 1973).  I n the d i s c u s s i o n on the  p o s s i b l e need t o r e l o c a t e the v i l l a g e , r e f e r e n c e i s made t o the 1973 p l a n showing the r e s t r i c t e d space on which the village i ssituated.  The 1963  m a  P  i  s  i n c l u d e d f o r comparison  which r e v e a l s the extent o f r i v e r bank e r o s i o n .  Grainge  (1972:3) has g i v e n the r a t e of e r o s i o n a t about 10 f e e t per year f o r the past twenty y e a r s .  The 1963 map a l s o  shows the l o t l i n e s In O l d Crow which provide for  reasons  the d i s t r i b u t i o n and d e n s i t y o f b u i l d i n g s i n the v i l l a g e . A Loucheux p l a c e name map i s a l s o , i n a sense, a by-  product  of the r e s e a r c h .  territorial  In the a n a l y s i s o f the group's  image (p. 126) people were asked t o name the  l o c a t i o n i n t h e i r l a n d t h a t they p e r c e i v e d as most  important.  In the a n a l y s i s , the l o c a t i o n s a r e most important.  Reproduced  here a r e the names f o r those l o c a t i o n s : Table  II. 1 Loucheux Place Name Map Name and Number Key  NO. 1. 2.  Name ( T r a n s l a t i o n ) A. Settlements, Vuttzui Thit Chll (Caribou s l e e p s there) The Tou Kwat Ta N e i (Broke through the bank) The Toh Na Goo Ta N e i ( R i v e r broke through)  Map Name Camps, Lookouts Caribou Bar  Goose Camp  185  No. 3.  Name ( T r a n s l a t i o n )  Map Name  Ghoo T s u i N u l Kut (Next t o the water) T h l i i T l u i Thui ( P o i n t where two r i v e r s meet)  Old Crow  4.  Thou Kut (Top of limestone)  Caribou Lookout  5.  The Tou Kwat Ta N e i (Broke through the bank) The Toh Na Goo Ta N e i ( R i v e r broke through)  Goose Camp  6.  Choo Da Zyaah (Noisy water) Choo Da Zyaah (Water making loud n o i s e )  Red  7.  T s h i i T s i Kyee (By the salmon cache) T s h i l T s i Kyee (Salmon by the house)  Salmon Cache  8.  Kyaa T s i k (Channel creek) John Vut Hun Go N J i k Che (A c a b i n a l o n g Johnson R i v e r )  9.  Bluff  Johnson Creek Village  T i n j e e Zyoo Traa ( I n d i a n cache)  10. T s h i T u l N j i i k Zzeh (Whitestone V i l l a g e ) T s h i Ta N j i k Zzeh  Whitestone V i l l a g e  11. T s h i Tee (Under rock)  F i s h Hole (on F i r t h River)  12. N y i I L i ( F i s h  F i s h Hole (on Babbage R i v e r )  spawning)  13. The Ton Nut Kwat Ta N e i (Broke through the bank)  Goose Camp  14. Zzeh Kwut T s u i ( L i t t l e house) Zzeh Kwut t s u i (Small l o g cabin)  L a p l e r r e House  15. Too V i i Kyoa  (Water b o i l i n g strong beneath b l u f f )  Blue B l u f f  186  B. Mountains and H i l l s No. 16.  Name ( T r a n s l a t i o n )  Map Name  C h i t Ctou Duk (Top o f the nest) Tzun eh L h e i (Rat caught i n snare)  Rat  Tun Chyoo L i Dhat (Raking i n mountain) Khui T t e l Vut Kug  Husky Mountain  18.  C h i t Tsho Uut T h u l (Head s k i n fence)  Barren Mountain  19.  Tshi T s l V i T t r i i  F l i n t Mountain  20.  T s i i V i Sooh (Knotted t r e e T s i i VI Choh (Knot h i l l )  17.  hill)  21.  S h i i Dhat T s u i ( L i t t l e  22.  D i n N i Zyoo (Torn o f f p a r t o f the mountain)  23.  Chun Chul (Nose t r a i l mountain Chun Chul ( B i g nose mountain)  24. T s i i  25. 26.  bear mountain)  eh Dee ( F i r e p l a c e and camping grounds)  Hill  Timber H i l l Ammerman Mountain Potato Mountain K i n g Edward Mountain King Edward Ridge  C h i t C h e c h i i (Hawk head) C h i t Che C h i l (Rock mountain)  S c h a e f f e r Mountain  Tyoo Dhat (Blue mountain) Too Dhat (Double mountain)  Blue Mountain  2 7 . Kwut Kun Choh ( B i g f i r e one time)  Burnt H i l l  28. Jug Dhat (Berry  Blueberry Mountain  29. 30.  mountain)  Tshua Dhat (Braided h a i r Tshua N j i k Dhat  mountain)  C h i t Tze (Ear mountain) C h i t Tze (Shape of an ear)  Crow Mountain Ear  Mountain  187  No. 31. 32. 33. 34.  35.  Name ( T r a n s l a t i o n )  Map Name  Dhat Chyaa Tshua Dhat (Caribou s k i n mountain)  Second Mountain  Noo Dhat (No mountain) Noh Dhat (Bare ground mountain)  No Mountain  Dhat C h i t To Kwou (Round T s i i t t e e (Stove pipe)  Round Mountain  hill)  Thun Nut Tha E i (Lone mountain) Thun Nut Tha E i (Mountain a l l by oneself) Dhat Kwut Toh (Winter t r a i l  goes  over the mountain) 36.  Kwe Ko Kyoo (Copy that guy)  3 7 . Zhoo T r i n Choh (White mountain) Zhoo T r i n Choh ( B i g snow d r i f t on i t ) 38. 39.  Lone Mountain Portage Mountain Old  Paul Mountain  White Snow Mountain  C h i t T r i i (Heart mountain) C h i t T r i Dhat  Heart Mountain  Kwut Kun Choh ( B i g burn) Kon Kun T u l  Burnt  40. T s h l Chaun S i i Vun Dhat ( G r i z z l y bear cave) 41. Chin Nee T s i Dhat (Jagged rock mountain)  Hill  Bear Cave Mountain Dewdney Mountain  42. Nut Dhat N i e (Long mountain c r o s s i n g the r i v e r ) 43.  ( C a r i b o u running away t o the h i l l s ) Va E l T i l l Choh ( T i e her up i n b i g knots) O i l Camp Mountain  44.  Chyoo Gwoo (Egg)  45.  T l o o Kuk (Stack of hay)  Va A l T l i i  188  No.  Name ( T r a n s l a t i o n )  Map Name  46.  Njoo Choh ( B i g timber  hill)  47.  V i Rzui Dhat (Cut bank mountain  Cody H i l l  48.  Nut T s h i  Sharp Mountain  Tzii C. R i v e r s and Creeks  49.  Chyoo t e N j i k (Porcupine q u i l l r i v e r ) Kwuk Kuk Tsut T z l t Hun G i g (Porcupine by the r i v e r )  50.  Tshaa N j i k (Long h a i r r i v e r ) Tshau N j i k (Deep water around the shore)  51.  T s l e h Tee N j i k (Cover up each other S t i i Dee N j i k ( F i r e p l a c e creek)  52.  Netei Netei  53.  Maggie Vut Vun Ge Joo Chon N j i k (Small creek beside Maggie Lake)  54.  Kwut Took T r a T e i N j i k (Over d i v i d e creek) Soo S i t C h i L i (You made me happy creek)  Porcupine R i v e r  Crow R i v e r  creek) King Edward Creek  (Braided man r i v e r ) (Braided man r i v e r )  Schaeffer Wild  Creek  Creek  Surprise  Creek  Din N l Zyoo N j i k (Torn o f f p a r t o f the mountain creek) Pedades Ko N j i k De Nen Shoo (Round h i l l t h a t looks l i k e a potato)  Potato Creek  56.  K i Koo ( B i r c h bark f i s h  F i s h Trap Creek  57.  Domas Vut T h u l N j i k (Thomas c a r i b o u fence creek) Domas Ko N j i k  Thomas Creek  58.  Choo Tsun Koo (Stunk water)  F i s h Trap Creek  59.  Tun  60.  T s i i V i Sioh N j i k (Knotted tree) K l i V i i Choh N j i k (Timber creek)  55.  trap)  Chyoo K i N j i k (Rake i t i n creek) Timber Creek  189  No. 61.  Name ( T r a n s l a t i o n )  Map Name  N i L i Kuk T y i Vut Hun (Top o f the meat) Ne Koo Rzui (Black fox) Blackfox  Creek  62.  H l u i Kou N j i k  Dog Creek  63.  A t t r i i N j i k (Bark creek) Chit T e l T l i i  Johnson Creek  64. Chin N e l T l u i ( J u n c t i o n creek) Vun Toh Koo T s u i Ko N j i k 65. 66.  R s i N j a N j i k (Blue f i s h r i v e r ) R s i N j a N j i k (Blue f i s h i n r i v e r ) C h i t Tze N j i k (Bar creek) V i t t z u l Kon N j i k (Caribou b a r creek)  67.  Hun Kwut Rzui  68.  Te T s i k Kwut T s u i ( L i t t l e creek)  69. 70.  T e s i k Good T s u i T l i i Ye N j i k (Opposite flow creek) T l i i Ye N j i k (Burned ground creek)  7 1 . Ttroo Ttroo 72.  (Black  Junction  Creek  Blueflsh  River  Caribou Bar Creek  earth)  Choh N j i k ( B i g wooded creek) Choh N j i k ( B i g t r e e s near r i v e r )  B i g Joe Creek David Lord Driftwood  Creek River  Vun Tut Kwut Chin Te T s i k (People t h a t stay among the lakes) Vun Tut Kwut Chin Ko N j i k (Crow F l a t people camp s i t e on creek)  Rat  Jug Chun N j i k (Under Berry Creek) Ko N j i k Vut D i k Tug K o l i e (Lots of b e r r i e s on the shore)  Berry  Shei Ve N j i k (Gray g r a v e l r i v e r ) Choo Ta Shan N j i k (Noisy waters)  Bell  75.  C h i T a l i L u i T s u i Koh Hun  Little Bell  76.  Choo K o o l i Kon Hun  Waters R i v e r  73.  74.  Indian  Creek  Creek River River  190  No.  Name  (Translation)  Map Name  77. T z u n K o o l i Hun ( M u s k r a t c r e e k )  Rat  78. L a S h u t e Kwin N j i k ( L a S h u t e P a s s C r e e k )  L a Shute Pass  River Creek  T s h i Te T u k (Between t h e r o c k s )  79. T s h i Choh Hun ( B i g r o c k r i v e r ) 80.  Chit Chit  Z i n NJik(Eagle Zhin  Chit  River  river)  81. Nok On K y i i Ko N j i k ( C a r v i n g 82. Nut  Rock  creek)  Cha L e i T s i k (Water f a l l s c r e e k ) Che C h i i Ko N j i k ( B i g S t o n e c r e e k )  83. Chyoo Gwoo N j i k ( E g g c r e e k )  Eagle  River  Nukon  River  Schaeffer Johnson  Creek  Creek  84. T s i i Zuk N i L u i (Water r u n n i n g u n d e r Tsii  Porcupine q u i l l r i v e r ) V i i Z i t Ko N j i k ( C r e e k r u n n i n g through pine trees)  85. E l l e n T t s i i V u t T i T s i k (Gum up Ellen's  creek)  Pine  Creek  Ellen's  Creek  86. Kwuk Kun Choh N j i k ( B i g b u r n wood c r e e k ) Kwuk Kun Choh N j i k Vi  Rzui  Njik  ( B u r n e d a t one t i m e )  Burnt H i l l  Creek  ( B l a c k bank r i v e r )  87. Ve Cuk Poh N j i k ( C u t bank on s h o r e o f creek)  Cody  88. Shee N j i k (Where t h e d o g s a l m o n spawn) T h l o o g K o o l i De K h e t  ( P i s h spawning p l a c e )  89. C h i n Ne T s i N j i k ( J a g g e d r o c k r i v e r ) La  Ra Kun n i t T y l (Man l o o k i n g  f o r money)  90. K e l H i N j i k V u t Hun ( W i l l o w man r i v e r ) 91. T s h i T u l N j i k ( S t o n e a r r o w h e a d c r e e k ) T s h i T a Kw Ko Hun ( W h i t e r o c k r i v e r )  Creek  Fishing River Miner  Branch  River  B e a r Cave  River  Whitestone  92. T r i t T r i K h u i N j i k ( P a d d l e down w i t h canoe)  93. 94.  T s h i Ve N j i k  (Grey r o c k r i v e r )  Trou Tshi N j i k  (Otter t a i l  creek)  Canoe  River  River  191  No.  Name ( T r a n s l a t i o n )  95.  T i n J i k K e i N j i k (Moose willow creek)  96.  Chyoo N j i k Hih K i k h Shoo Old F i r t h Vut Vun  9 7 . V l t Tsuk T s h i k Kon Jun (Caribou hide t r e a d water) 98.  Ah T r u i Kon Hun (Strong wind r i v e r )  Map Name  Firth  River  Babbage R i v e r Blow  river  D. Lakes 99. 100. 101.  Maggie V l v Vun (Maggie's Lake) Zilma Vut Vun Vut Zilma V i v C h a t t r i (Lake Chun Chui Tee  (Zelma's Lake) Vun Choh (Zelma's B i g Lake) with h i g h banks a l l around i t ) Vun (Lake below b i g mountain peaks) King Edward Lake  1 0 2 . Chul K i l Kwin t e ( f i s h hooking p l a c e a l l F i s h Hook Lake around) 1 0 3 . Maggie Vut Vun Ke Soo Vun Tha E i (Lake next t o Maggie's Lake)  Old C h i e f ' s Lake  104. Da Koo Vut Vun (The ptarmigan's lake)  Ptarmigan Lake  1 0 5 . Vun Tun (Frozen lake) Vun Tun (Frozen lake)  Frozen Lake  106.  Happy Lake  Soo Ko L i V n (We a r e now happy lake) U  1 0 7 . Rufus Netro Vut Vun (Wolverine - Rufus Lake)  Rufus Lake  108.  E l i z a Ben Lake  E l i z a Ben Vut Vun ( E l i z a Ben's Lake)  1 0 9 . Vut Kug Te N i T h i N l (Drowned lake) Vut Kuk Te Ne The N i (Somebody around there)  Drown Lake  110.  Ney Khul Vun (Frogs i n the lake)  Frog Lake  111.  T s i i V i i Z l t (Lake i n the green t r e e s )  112.  Stephen Vut Vun (Stephen's lake)  192  Name ( T r a n s l a t i o n )  No.  Map Name  113.  C h i t T l o o (An important  lake)  114.  Chin Nei T l u i Koo ( J u n c t i o n f i s h  115.  A d t l T r o Panyoo Vut Vun (Cautious man's lake)  116.  Tut Chun T t r i i  117.  Own J i t T r i c k Vut Tse (White l a d y ' s hat)  Bonnet Lake  118.  Chi Shoo Vun (White f i s h lake) T s h i i Choh Vun (White f i s h lake)  W h i t e f i s h Lake  119.  Netro Vut Vun (Wolverine's Netro Vut Vun (Wolverine's  Wolvemlne • s Lake  trap)  Vun (Wooden canoe lake)  lake) lake)  1 2 0 . C h i t Troo N d i (Tern a l l around the lake) 121.  Vuna T s u i T s u i Ku Vun (Small lake) Joe Kykavikachik Vut Vun (Joe's c a r r y arrow - lake)  122. Kei Kei 123.  T l u k Z i t (Willow lake) Tluk (Bushy willow lake)  Te T s h i d (Burning under ground) Te T s h i d (Burning ground a f t e r the f i r e was put out)  124.  Shei Tsoo N d i (Swallows a l l around)  125.  Vut Thoo Chya K o o l i  126.  Koo Dei Vun (Lake a t mouth o f f i s h t r a p lake)  127.  Te L u i Koo ( W h i r l i n g water)  Tern Lake  Joe Kay Lake Willow  Lake  David Lord Lake  (Lots o f branches on lake)  1 2 8 . Vut Ta T z u l T r u l D e i (Shoot the l o o n w i t h a bow and arrow) 129.  Chin Ne K u i Vun (Eskimo Lake)  130.  Shei Z i t (In the g r a v e l )  131.  Tsoog Vut Vun  Marten Lake  132.  P e t e r Moses Vut Vun  Chief Peter Moses Lake  193  No.  Name ( T r a n s l a t i o n )  133. Te T s h i i  (Nothing but d r y willows on shore)  134. Isaac Vut Vun (Isaac's l a k e ) Isaac Vut Vun (Isaac's lake)  Map Name Phillip  Lake  Isaac Lake  135. Tun Chyo L i (Rake i t i n the lake) 136. Mun Njoo Win N i L i (Line the i s l a n d on the lake) 137.  Te T i e Enjoo (Timber bay) Te T i e Njoo (Grass around the l a k e )  1 3 8 . K y i i Z i t ( I n the b i r c h e s ) K h y i i Z i t (Deep i n the timber) 139.  Chii hil  c  Shoo ( B i g white f i s h Shoo ( B i g f i s h )  Grassy  Lake  S c h a e f f e r Lake  lake) W h i t e f i s h Lake  140. R s i l Z i t Kwut Choh (Pup lake) 141. Domas Vut Vun (Thomas lake) 142. K e i Te T i l l K h i Te T e i i  1'homas Lake  (Frozen t o death i n the willows) (Willows and swamp around the lake) Willow  Lake  143. Kwi H e l Chya (Torn up lake) Kwi H i l Chyoa (Torn up l a k e ) 144. Esou Vut Vun (Esau's 145.  lake)  Harry Vut Vun (Harry's Lake)  146. Enoch Vu Vun (Enuk's lake) Enoch V t V n (Enuk's lake) u  U  Enoch Lake  147. C h i e f P e t e r Moses Vu Vun ( C h i e f P e t e r Moses Lake) K h y i i Z i t Vun Kejyoo (Lake beside the lake that i s deep i n the timber) 148. P h i l l i p T s u i Vut Vun ( L i t t l e P h i l l i p ' s lake) P h i l l i p T s u i Vut Vun (Small P h i l l i p ' s l a k e ) 149. Vut Kug Njoo (There i s an i s l a n d on i t )  Little Lake  Phillip  194  No.  Name(Translation)  Map  Name  150.  Vun T s i i k a (Narrow lake) Vut Ve Njoo (A long shore around i t )  151.  Ta A l Sha ( F i s h on the shore) E l T i n Vun ( J a c k f i s h i n the lake)  J a c k f i s h Lake  152.  T s i V i Z i t ( I n s i d e the timbers) N e t e i Kww T i k T s u i ( L i t t l e l a k e above S c h a e f f e r Creek)  L i t t l e Timber Lake  153.  W i l l i a m Vu Vun ( W i l l i a m ' s lake) W i l l i a m L i n k l a t e r V t Vun ( W i l l i a m was born on t h i s lake) u  15*.  f h e Toh Na Kwut Tanes Thatoh Na Kut Ta N l  155.  Kei Kei  156.  John C h a r l i e Vut Vun (John C h a r l i e ' s lake) Tsha N j i k Kwut Tuk Vun Choh John C h a r l i e Lake  157.  C h u l v i Vun (Ducks c l o s e t o the C h i l V i i Vun (Widgin's Lake)  158.  C h i t Ve Vut Vun (Hawk's lake) H l e l i Choh Vut K u i  159.  Goo  160.  T s h i Da T s i k (Red rock) Cadzow Vut V n (Cadzow's lake)  C u t - o f f Lake  T l u k Z i t ( I n s i d e of the w i l l o w s ) T l u k ( T h i c k w i l l o w s around the lake)  Sue T s u i Vun  (Small n a i l  shore)  Annie Lake  lake)  Tack Lake Cadzow Lake  161.  L y d l a u t Vun  162.  Ballaam Vut Vun  163.  Vut Nut T u l e h (Water around the Island) Vun Nut '^hul eh (Water around the ground)  164. 165.  Chi Chi  ( L y d i a ' s lake) (Ballaam's  lake)  H i L i Vun ( F i s h running lake) H i Shoa Vun ( B i g white f i s h i n lake)  Da T s u i Vun (The loon's lake) T e i t Tuk u n (Lake among ...) v  166.  Chi H i  Lake  Horseshoe Lake  U  v  Willow  L i I s i k ( F i s h running lake)  Flooded I s l a n d Lake W h i t e f i s h Lake Summit Lake  195  No.  Name ( T r a n s l a t i o n ) E. T r a i l s  167. T e l Kwin N j i k (Main t r a i l t o Crow F l a t s ) 168. Hihy Tye Vut Cue Na T r a T r i Nut T r a R z i (Winter t r a i l we hunt on)  Map Name  196 Table  11..2 B u i l d i n g Code Key- For Old Crow  Description  (1973)  Owner  Date B u i l t  N.A.  1935  1.  Old Community  2.  New C e n t e n n i a l H a l l  N.A.  1966  3.  Band O f f i c e  N.A.  1966  Hall  4. Metal Sided Storage Sheds  1945  5.  1912  Joe Netro*s O l d Store Roman C a t h o l i c  1954  Y.T.G.  1962  Y.T.G.  1969  9. Teacherage  Y.T.G.  1969  10.  Ice House and F r e e z e r  School  1969  11.  School Shed  School  I960  12.  Log B u i l d i n g  N e i l McDonald  1926  13.  Old Post O f f i c e  (Vacant)  1926  14. T e r r i t o r i a l Garage  Y.T.G.  1970  15.  Shed  Canadian W i l d l i f e  16.  Sheds  17.  Office  6. Church 7.  Nursing  Station  8. C h i e f Zzeh G i t t l i t  18. Shed 19. T r a i l e r 20.  Log House  21.  Log House  22. Cook House  School  Service  1971  Water Resources  1970  Northward A v i a t i o n  1973  Yukon E l e c t r i c  1963  School  1959  Robert Bruce  1971  Robert Bruce J r . Roman C a t h o l i c Church  1932 1951  197  2 3. S k i Lodge  N.A.  I960  24. Old Shack  Co-op (Vacant)  1930  2 5 . Log House  Peter Lord  I967  26.  Clara Frost  1970  27. Log House  Stephen F r o s t  1967  28. Log House  Donald F r o s t  1957  29. Log House  Peter Benjamin  1972  30. A n g l i c a n Church Rectory  Church of England  31.  Anglican  1956  (Leased)  1926  Log House  Church  1926  32. Proposed S i t e of New S k i Lodge 33. Palace (Old A n g l i c a n Church) 34. R.C.M.P. 35* Log House 36. Log House 37. Log House 38. Log House 39. Log House 40. Log House 41. Log House 42. Log House 43. Log House 44. Log House 45. Log House  Government of Canada  1964  Martha C h a r l i e  1926  Joanne N j o o t l i  1970  Myra Kay  1963  Alfred Charlie  1970  Peter C h a r l i e  1970  E l i z a Ben K a s s i  1970  Lazarus C h a r l i e  1971  Mary Netro  1962  John Kendi  1970  Peter T i z y a  1970  Abraham Peter  1963  198  1964  46. Log House  Mary K a s s l  47. Log House  John Ross T i y z a  48. Log House  Peter Nukon  1945  49. Log House  Philip  Joseph  1966  50.  Log House  Annie  Fredson  1932  51.  Log House  Rowena Lord  1971  52.  Log House  Moses T i z y a  1970  Y.T.G.  1972  L y d i a Thomas  1938  Y.T.G.  1972  56. Log House  John Abel  1972  57. Log House  C h a r l i e Abel  1971  58. Log House  Joseph Kay  1969  59. Log House  Sarah  Abel  1962  60.  Myra Moses  1972  61. Log House  John Joe Kay  1971  62. Log House  Dick Nukon  1971  63. Log House  Johnny Moses  1972  64. Log House  C h a r l i e Thomas  1971  65. Log House  Mary Thomas  1971  66. Log House  Dolly  1970  67. Log House  Kenneth Nukon  195*  68. Log House  Amos J o s i e Edith Josie  1959  69. Log House  C h a r l i e Peter Charlie  1964  53. Shed  (Forestry)  54. Log House 55. F o r e s t r y  Log House  Office  Josie  199  70. 71.  Work  Shop  S t o r e  Old  Crow  Co-op  1970  Old  Crow  Co-op  1970  72.  ,Log  House  Andrew  73.  Log  House  B i l l  74.  Log  House  F r e d d i e  T i z y a  Smith F r o s t  1963 1965 1973  200 Table I I . 3 B u i l d i n g Code Key f o r Old Crow ( 1 9 6 3 ) Description  Owner  1. Log Shaok 2.  Log House  Mrs. L i n k l a t e r  3.  Log House  Sam 01sen  4. S k i Lodge 5. Log House  P h i l i p Dicquermare  6. Cache  Peter Lord  7.  Peter Lord  House  8. Log House  Mrs.  Frost  9 . Cache  Mrs.  Frost  10.  Log House  Steven F r o s t  11.  Log Shack  12.  Log House  Donald F r o s t  1 3 . .Log Cache  Donald F r o s t  14. Log Cabin 15.  Log Post O f f i c e & Residence  1 6 . Log R.C.M.P. L i v i n g Quarters 17.  New R.C.M.P. L i v i n g Quarters  18. R.C.M.P. I c e House 1 9 . R.C.M.P. P r i v y 20.  R.C.M.P. Warehouse  21.  R.C.M.P.  P.O.L.  22. Log House 23.  Log House  24. Log Warehouse  Martha C h a r l i e John T i z y a Joe Netro  Date B u i l t  201 25.  Log Cache  26.  Log House  27.  Log Cache  28.  Log House  29.  Log House  30.  Log House  Charlie  Vacant Peter T i z y a Peter Tizya John Kendi  Log Cache  John Kendi Joe Netro  34. Log House  L i t t l e Joe  35. Log House  Joe Netro  Log Cache  37. Log House 38.  Alfred  E l i z a Ben K a s s i  33« Log House  36.  Charlie  E l i z a Ben K a s s i  •31. Log Cache 32.  Alfred  Log Cache  Philip  Joseph  Philip  Joseph  39. Log Garage 40. Log F i s h House 41. Log Cache 42. Log House  E l i z a Steamboat  43. Log House  Eliza  Kwatlati  44. Log Cache  Eliza  Kwatlati  45. Log House  Annie Fredson  46. S t o r e  Joe Netro  47. Log Warehouse  Joe Netro  48. Metal Sheet  Joe Netro  Structure  49. Yukon E l e c t r i c  Power  50.  School Complex  51•  Log Warehouse Log Ice House Caterp. House P a l a t i n e r Quarters  202 52.  Nursing  53.  Old C a t h o l i c New C a t h o l i c  Station Church Church  5 4 . A n g l i c a n Church Rectory 5 5 . A n g l i c a n Church 5 6 . Old A n g l i c a n Church (The Palace) 57.  H.C.M.P. Barracks  58. Log House  B i g Joe Kay  59.  Log House  Joanne  60.  Log House  C h a r l i e Peter  61.  Log House  Lazarus  62.  LPS House  Peter  63.  Community  64.  Log House  Dick Nukon  65.  Log House  C h a r l i e Thomas  66.  Log House  C h a r l i e Thomas  67.  Log House  Robert  68.  Log House  John Joe Kay  69.  Log House  Neil  70.  Log House  Sarah  71.  Log Cache  N e i l MacDonaId  Njootli Charlie  Charlie  Charlie  Hall  7 2 . Log House  Bruce  Macponald Ballem  J u l i a MacDonald  7 3 . A n g l i c a n Church Storehouse 74.  Log House  75* Log House 76.  Store House  7 7 . Log House 78.  Log House  Effie Linklater Peter Moses Peter Moses Charlie Sarah  Abel  Abel  20 3  79. Log House  Kenneth Nukon  80. Log House  Edith Josie  81. Netro Store 82.  Store  Harry H a l l e y  83. Warehouse  Harry H a l l e y  84. Store  P e t e r Moses  85.  F i r e Equipment Cache  

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