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The Kātyāyanī myth in the Vāmana Purāna (18.39-21.52) Dunlap, William Devereux 1975

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THE KATYAYANI MYTH IN THE VAMANA PURANA (18.39-21.52) by WILLIAM DEVEREUX DUNLAP B.S., Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Asian Studies Ule accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia May, 1975 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s rep r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Abstract This t h e s i s i s the t r a n s l a t i o n , annotation, and commentary of that s e c t i o n of the Vamana Purana i n uihich the story of Katyayanl i s narrated (18.39-21.52).. I have t r a n s l a t e d the story l i t e r a l l y , recounted i t i n a simpler manner, analyzed i t and t r i e d to i n c l u d e as much inf o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e about the c h a r a c t e r s , customs, r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , e t c . The aim i s to understand the story a c c u r a t e l y , f u l l y , and c r i t i c a l l y and to enable a c r i t i c a l reader to do the same. Thus, the major purpose of the t h e s i s i s p h i l o l o g i c a l s i t i s an e x e r c i s e i n a c q u i r i n g a more p r e c i s e knowledge of puranic S a n s k r i t , myths, ch a r a c t e r s , b e l i e f s . The secondary purpose i s to study the mythological motifs appearing i n the s t o r y , a9 u i e l l as the gods and demons utho play a r o l e i n the s t o r y . B r i e f l y , t h i s passage of the Vamana Purana i s the story of the defeat of the gods by the demons, and how the gods i n t u r n defeated the demons by j o i n i n g t h e i r powers together. The goddess Katyayanl, mho i s the c e n t r a l f i g u r e of the s t o r y , i s an i n t e g r a t i o n of a l l the godst st r e n g t h . The s t r u c t u r e of the t h e s i s i s as f o l l o w s : a) an I n t r o d u c t i o n that concentrates on a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s t o r y and on the language used i n the s t o r y ; b) the S a n s k r i t t e x t of the s t o r y , l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n and c r i t i c a l as w e l l as explanatory annotations; c) a Glossary of proper names of i n d i v i d u a l s and c l a s s e s of beings mentioned i n the s e l e c t e d segment. i i Table of Contents I. Introduction 1 Puranic l i t e r a t u r e . . . 2 Introduction to the Vamana Purana . 4 The story i n b r i e f . . . 5 The structure of the story . . . . . . . 7 Motifs f i g u r i n g i n the story 8 Interpretation of the story . .13 A c r i t i q u e on how the story i s narrated 15 The Uisrju element i n the story . . .16 Visnu-Panjara Mantra . 1? Comparison with the same story i n the Markandeya . Purana .18 The author as-a poet . . .20 Metre • .23 Method r of t r a n s l a t i o n 24 II . Text, Translation and Annotations 26 I I I . Glossary of Names of Individuals and Classes of j l l 8 Beings i i i Acknouiledqements I wish to thank my t h e s i s advisor and Sanskrit p r o f e s s o r , Dr. Ashok N. Akl u j k a r f o r h i s steady assi s t a n c e i n the pre p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . He has been most pa t i e n t and h e l p f u l i n h i s suggestions and guidance. 1 I . INTRODUCTION 2 The p r i n c i p a l aim of t h i s t h e s i s i s p h i l o l o g i c a l : a t r a n s l a t i o n , annotation and c r i t i c a l study of a Sanskrit t e x t that has not so f a r been t r a n s l a t e d or s t u d i e d i n E n g l i s h . The p a r t i c u l a r passage of the Vamana Purana was chosen because i t afforded.me a good chance to look at a s p e c i f i c Brahmanical myth — the myth of the c r e a t i o n of the goddess Katyayanl. Besides g i v i n g a r i g o r o u s e x e r c i s e i n p h i l o l o g i c a l t r a n s -l a t i o n , the subject matter of t h i s t h e s i s provided me an opportunity to get acquainted with many Brahmanical r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and mythical beings. I have presented a study of these and a l l i e d branches of thought i n the f o l l o w i n g pages of the I n t r o d u c t i o n . Puranic l i t e r a t u r e The purana-s are a c l a s s of r e l i g i o u s l i t e r a t u r e of Brahmanism, along with the Vedic l i t e r a t u r e , the s m r t i - s , the i t i h a s a - s ( h i s t o r i e s ) l i k e the Mahabharata, as w e l l as the s a s t r a - s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l s u t r a l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s v a s t , l a s i t comprises . one hundred and eight major and minor works and contains at l e a s t four hundred thousand verses. Besides- being extensive i n volume, the purana-s are a l s o unique by d i n t of t h e i r r i c h n e s s and v a r i e t y of content. Their aim d i d not seem to be b r e v i t y , but r a t h e r p r e s e r v a t i o n , perpetuation, and expansion. They contain countless d i g r e s s i o n s , and d i g r e s s i o n s w i t h i n d i g r e s s i o n s . As the purana-s were an o r a l l i t e r a t u r e f o r some time, almost every purana seems to have grown over c e n t u r i e s through a d d i t i o n s . . In t h i s aspect they can be compared to Homer's e p i c s , uihich were also sung by ancient bards long before they were w r i t t e n down. The d i g r e s s i o n s served to e n t e r t a i n people and provide popular appeal. 3 The subject matter of the purana-s i s as extensive as t h e i r volume. The purana-s cover the r e l i g i o u s , c u l t u r a l , and s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y of India through a vast time span (ancient to medieval I n d i a ) . They docu-ment r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s , p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s , d y n a s t i c successions and even the geography of the l a n d . Their form i s predomi-nantly m y t h o l o g i c a l , and has a cast of gods, demons, mythic sages and seers; the s e t t i n g i s sometimes e a r t h , sometimes one of the heavens or h e l l s . The authors wove Brahmanic metaphysical ( e s p e c i a l l y devotional) d o c t r i n e s i n t o the f a b r i c of myths and legends. One of the p r o p e r t i e s of mythology i s that i t i s explanatory. Many mythologems seek to e x p l a i n why something i n the world i s a c e r t a i n way, or how an object or a being got i t s or h i s name. For instance, i n the mythologem of the s e c t i o n t r a n s l a t e d below, we see the o r i g i n of the goddess KatyayanT. The o r i g i n of her name i s also given ( i n 19.13). The very format of puranic l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h i s q u a l i t y of e x p l a i n i n g t h i n g s . One sage asks another about the o r i g i n of some being, and that leads to f u r t h e r questions and d i g r e s s i o n s . Puranic l i t e r a t u r e also contains the b e l i e f i n the p u r i f y i n g i n f l u e n c e of the purana. In almost every purana, one comes across t h i s i d e a , that reading (or even l i s t e n i n g to) the purana w i l l remove the s t a i n s of s i n or f e t t e r s of t r a n s m i g r a t i o n . U s u a l l y , such a statement i s found i n the beginning chapters of the purana. Such i s the case i n the Bhaga-vata Purana, where we read on the f i r s t page: While i t i s doubtful that God can be speedily captured i n one's heart by other means, He can be i n s t a n t l y s e ized through t h i s work [ i . e . the Bhagavata Purana] by those blessed persons who have a keen d e s i r e to hear i t r e c i t e d . —Bhagavata Purana 1.1.3 4 There are constant reminders of t h i s p u r i f y i n g q u a l i t y throughout the purana as w e l l , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n verse 21.3 of our story uie f i n d : " L i s t e n to t h i s a n c i e n t , auspicious story that removes s i n and f e a r . " I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Vamana Purana There are one hundred and eight purana-s, d i v i d e d i n t o (major) Maha-purana-s (of which there are eighteen) and (minor) Upapurana-s. The Vamana Purana ( c a l l e d VP from now on) i s fourteenth i n the l i s t of fflaha- purana-s. I t i s named a f t e r Vamana (the Dwarf), the f i r s t human i n c a r -n a t i o n of Visnu. The eighteen Mahapurana-s are evenly d i v i d e d i n t o V a i s -nav i t e and S a i v i t e groups, the former being devoted to the d e i t y Visnu and the l a t t e r to the d e i t y Siva. Whereas many of the purana-s are s t r o n g l y s e c t a r i a n on one side or the other, the VP seems to incorporate elements of both s e c t s , though i t s t i l l i s cegai'ded as a V a i s n a v i t e purana. I t gives almost as much r e c o g n i t i o n to Siva as to Visnu, while holding Visnu supreme. As f o r age, the VP i s probably one of the e a r l i e r purana-s (at l e a s t , the e d i t o r of the c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n of the VP makes t h i s argument), pro-bably dating back to the seventh century i n i t s present form. The s e t t i n g f o r the VP i s north I n d i a , though there are many references t o south Indian geography and r e l i g i o n . In a d d i t i o n to the Dwarf i n c a r n a t i o n of Visnu, the VP deals with the marriage of Siva and ParvatT, the b i r t h of Skanda, and the wars between the asura-s (demons) and deva-s (gods). I t narrates frpre e x p l o i t s of the demons than almost any other^purana. This could be because i t s n a r r a t o r i s P u l a s t y a , mho i s s a i d to be an ancestor of the demons. 5 The story chosen f o r t r a n s l a t i o n i s one of t h i s category. I t t e l l s houi the gods were defeated and came back to power again. The form of t h i s purana i s a dialogue between the sages Pulastya and Narada. Just before Pulastya narrated our s t o r y , he t o l d Narada about c e r t a i n r e l i g i o u s observances and the production of various f r u i t s and f l o w e r t r e e s , and a hymn of p r a i s e to Visnu. When Pulastya mentions that Siva had once used t h i s hymn f o r KatyayanI, Narada asks f o r f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n . Here i s where our story begins. The l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n of the story given i n the next s e c t i o n of the t h e s i s i s not easy to f o l l o w . Therefore, a b r i e f summary of the story would be u s e f u l f o r a c l e a r e r understanding: The story i n b r i e f Two demon brothers, Rambha and Karambha, went to the Panca-nada country to perform penance f o r o b t a i n i n g sons. While they were perform-i n g t h e i r penance, the god Indra k i l l e d Karambha. When Rambha came to know t h i s , he wanted to k i l l h i m s e l f , but was prevented by the god Agni, who gave him a boon. He d e s i r e d a v i c t o r i o u s son, and Agni granted the boon. Soon he found a she-buffalo he l i k e d and had a son by her. This son was named Wahisa. In the meanwhile, a male b u f f a l o was a t t r a c t e d to Rambha's w i f e , and fought Rambha to b b t a i n her. He k i l l e d Rambha, but l a t e r himself died as a r e s u l t of drowning. A f t e r dying, he reincarnated as the demon Namara. Rambha also r e i n c a r n a t e d as a demon c a l l e d Rakta-b i j a . These three demons — fflahisa, Namara, and RaktabTja — conquered the gods, fflahisa, being the most powerful according to the boon, was 6 c r o wn ed ,-_s k i n g . A f t e r t h e i r defeat, the gods sought refuge i n Visnu and S i v a . They t o l d these Supreme Gods about the v i c t o r i o u s demons. Visnu smelled with uirath. When he became angry, the other gods a l s o became angry, and out of t h e i r mouths they a l l emitted intense t e j a s 'splendor'. This splendor was combined with the splendor of the seer Katyayana and r e s u l t e d i n a young woman of miraculous f e a t u r e s . The prominent gods imparted s e v e r a l u s e f u l weapons and t h i n g s to her. Then she s t a r t e d to l i v e on the Vindhya mountain. Mahisa soon heard about the b e a u t i f u l woman l i v i n g on the Vindhya mountain,- and re s o l v e d to acquire her as w i f e . The demon army moved to the foot of the Vindhya mountain, and Oundubhi, as ffiahisa's r e p r e ~ s e n t a t i v e , went to ask KatySyani f o r her hand i n marriage. When the proposal was put to her, K a t y i y a n l r e p l i e d that according to the t r a d i t i o n i n her f a m i l y she must marry a powerful male — that i f he wanted her, Wahisa must f i r s t defeat her i n b a t t l e . Dundubhi reported t h i s to Mahisa. The demon army attacked, l e d f i r s t by Namara. KatyayanT e a s i l y k i l l e d many of the demons and Namara as w e l l . She l e t out a loud laugh, from which came many s o r t s of f i e r c e beings to harass the demon army. Ciksura attacked next, but the attack was q u i c k l y put down by KatyayanT. Many demons came i n next to attack KatyayanT, but were e a s i l y defeated. Then Mahisa attacked Katyayanl and her host of beings. When she bound him with a rope, he transformed himself i n t o an elephant. When she cut o f f h i s trunk, he went back to the form of a b u f f a l o . Katyayanl t r i e d a l l the weapons provided her by the gods when she was created, but they a l l f a i l e d . F i n a l l y , she jumped on Mahisa's back and pounded him 7 h e a v i l y . But when she cut h i s t h r o a t , a man with a sword emerged to f i g h t her. At long l a s t , she made an end of t h i s demon by c u t t i n g h i s head. The other demons being scared l e f t earth f o r the nether world. The gods p r a i s e d Kltyayanf f o r her v i c t o r y . Katyayanl sat at the foot of Lord Siva and announced, " I s h a l l again be born f o r the sake of the gods." The Structure of the Story What has been narrated above can be b e t t e r understood as a myth i f we analyze i t i n t o u n i t s and s u b s t i t u t e impersonal terminology f o r proper names. Two demons perform penance f o r a purpose. A god k i l l s one of them. Another god comes to give the other demon a boon. The demon asks f o r a v i c t o r i o u s son. The son i s born and becomes head of the demon f o r c e . The demons defeat the gods. A f t e r the gods are defeated, they gor'tortbechief gods f o r h e l p . Together, the gods form a b e a u t i f u l woman f o r the purpose of defeating the demons. The head demon hears about t h i s b e a u t i f u l woman and wants to be her husband. She sti p u l a t e s " that before he does so he must f i r s t defeat her i n b a t t l e . The b e a u t i f u l woman k i l l s many of the demons e a s i l y , but has c o n s i d -erable t r o u b l e defeating the c h i e f demon. Many of her weapons f a i l her. F i n a l l y , she opts f o r an unconventional and unexpected method and k i l l s the enemy. The gods are*returned to supremacy. The above, then, i s the s k e l e t o n of what we are d e a l i n g w i t h i n the 8 present t h e s i s . M o t i f s f i g u r i n g i n the sfcory. Tapas; Tapas ( u s u a l l y t r a n s l a t e d as ' a u s t e r i t y ' or 'penance') i s an i n t e r n a l energy b u i l t up i n s i d e a yoain by h i s a s c e t i c a c t i o n s . (The primary meaning f o r the word is'heat', but tapas has come to mean ' i n t e r n a l energy'.) The longer he performs tapas, the greater w i l l be h i s eventual power. I t i s recorded that some yooins p r a c t i c e d so much tapas t h a t even tBne gods ( p a r t i c u l a r l y Indra, c h i e f of gods) became a f r a i d of them. In such cases, u s u a l l y a b e a u t i f u l g i r l i s sent down to d i s t r a c t the yooin or l u r e him away. It i s a l s o p o s s i b l e f o r demons and s p i r i t s of lower nature to perform t _ p _ s , as happens i n the present s t o r y (Rambha and Karambha). Examples of tapas are, besides the two v a r i e t i e s mentioned i n 18.44, long f a s t i n g , c e l i b a c y , a s c e t i c i s m , and other acts or vows of ab s t e n t i o n that were u s u a l l y p a i n f u l . The Chandogya Upanisad V.10.1-2 and the Mundaka Upanisad 1.2.10-11 place tapas even over yajfta ( s a c r i f i c e ) , when i t comes to winning the favor of the gods and burning o f f the dross of one's karman. In the present case of Rambha and Karambha, the a s c e t i c acts were performed i n order to acquire a son. This i s " s p i r i t u a l bar-g a i n i n g " , i f you w i l l . Such p r a c t i c e s are common throughout Indian l i t e r -a ture. Indra k i l l s a demon; Perhaps one might wonder why Indra became a c r o -c o d i l e to k i l l Karambha i n the r i v e r (18.45). Indra i s a d e i t y a s s o c i a t e d with the storm clouds and w i t h r a i n , and thus associated with water. So i t would be n a t u r a l to see him as a creature i n the r i v e r . Presumably, 9 he k i l l e d Karambha because of the t r a d i t i o n a l enmity between gods and demons. S a c r i f i c i n g oneself i n the f i r e ; When Rambha sees his brother k i l l e d , he begins to s a c r i f i c e himself i n the f i r e (18.47). Greater power r e s u l t s from merit, and merit can be had through denying oneself some-thing (that i s why r e l i g i o u s vows contain the elemfent of r e s t r a i n t ) . S a c r i f i c i n g oneself i s the ultimate i n denying things to oneself. Thus, i t i s a means of Rambha becoming powerful (here, capable of revenge) i n the next l i f e . Also, i t i s believed that the l a s t desire before death influences one's future incarnation. Thus, when Rambha wants to k i l l himself, he wants to die with a desire f o r revenge i n hfcs heart. This would f a c i l i t a t e the revenge of his brother's murder. f h e r b e l i e f that s a c r i f i c i n g oneself i n the f i r e was meritorious seems prevalent i n ancient times. It also accounts f o r the r i t e of s a t l , according to which the wife of a dead man being immolated also throws herself on the f i r e and thus ascends to heaven along with the s p i r i t of her lat e husband. We f i n d the r i t e of s a t l i n t h i s very story: when Rambha dies, his f a i t h f u l wife, the she-buffalo, o f f e r s h e r s e l f on the funeral pyre (18.67). According to Kane, t h i s r i t e pro-bably arose as a custom a few centuries before Christ (Kane; 1930 ; v I I , 625). If we accept t h i s view, the e a r l i e s t possible date f o r the Vamana Purana would have to be l a t e r than the t h i r d or fourth century B.C. Granting a boon: Agni, the god of F i r e , granted Rambha a boon, which l a t e r led to the downfall of the gods. It i s nearly as i f Agni and Indra were working together to s t i r up mischief. Perhaps Indra k i l l s 10 one brother so that Agni could grant the other brother a boon. Or p o s s i -bly Agni prevented Rambha from gaining absolute i n v i n c i b i l i t y through s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . At any r a t e , there appears to be no e x t e r n a l motive f o r Agni to grant the boon, although u s u a l l y a person does something good f o r the god or seer and i s granted a boon i n r e t u r n . Rambha asked f o r a v i c t o r i o u s son. P r e v i o u s l y , the purpose of h i s a u s t e r i t i e s had been to gain a son, but now he wants a v i c t o r i o u s one, presumably f o r the purpose of c r e a t i n g havoc among the gods, s i n c e Indra took away h i s brother. Furthermore, Agni gives Rambha the a b i l i t y to brin g about what he wishes from any source (18.52), by t e l l i n g him that any female he puts h i s mind to w i l l bear him a son. This kind of boon leaves the exact outcome up to the person r e c e i v i n g i t , and thus almost anything can i h a p p e n, depending on chance. This could be part of the m i s c h i e f . But i t c e r t a i n l y accounts f o r the b i r t h of Mahisa. The usual hero i n e f f e c t i v e : I t o c c a s i o n a l l y happens i n mythologems that a s i t u a t i o n develops where so many unexpected problems a r i s e that not even the most powerful god (or hero) can do anything about i t . In such cases, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to see how he gets out or i s helped to get out of the s i t u a t i o n . In t h i s s t o r y , Visnu i s asked by the gods to remove the Buffalo-demon Wahisa, who has overrun the gods. The gods themselves have been thrown out of Svaroa (heaven). This time, Visnu himself could not a v a i l , and so the gods pour a l l t h e i r energies together from which comes the great goddess KatySyanl. The gods need the assi s t a n c e of someone mature i n penance: When the gods are ready to form KatyayanI, t h e i r splendor i s combined with that 11 of the seer Katyayana, who i s r i c h i n penance ( i _ p a s ) . In other words, they cannot form the Goddess alone, but need the help of someone who has acquired considerable merit and power through performing penance. This reminds one of the story of Dadhlca, the Vedic seer. Dadhlca i s s a i d to have devoted himself to death so'that Indra and the other gods could arm themselves with h i s bones i n t h e i r b a t t l e with V r t r a and the * demons. In that case, the seer had undergone much s a c r i f i c e and, con-sequently had b u i l t up a s t o r e of great power. Thus, he was able to help the gods. The t r i a d of eyes? Katyiyant possesses a t r i a d of eyes (19.9), l i k e s e v e r a l other creatures i n mythology. The t h i r d eye i s s i t u a t e d i n the forehead between the other two eyes. G i f t s to Katyayanl: Several of the g i f t s given to Katyayanl are motifs which are found i n other mythologems. For example, Vivasvat (Sun) gives her 'two quivers which had i n e x h a u s t i b l e arrows' (19.14). Here I s the theme of something that does not go empty. ( i t i s found i n other mytho-logems f a m i l i a r to us: the urn of water t h a t i s never dcy, the bag of food which i s never empty, and even the C h r i s t s tory of the feeding of the f i v e thousand with a mere few loaves of bread and f i s h e s . ) In Indian mythology, Rlma and Arjuna a l s o have quivers that never go empty. A s i m i l a r motif i s found i n 19.17, where the Seasons give KatyayanT •a garland of never-fading f l o w e r s ' . This i s the motif of f o r e v e r - f r e s h f l o w e r s , or something that needs no r e p l e n i s h i n g . P r a i s e by gods: A f t e r she had been created and the g i f t s bestowed on her, 12 KatyayanI i s p r a i s e d by a l l the gods (19.18). We f i n d t h i s motif f r e -quently i n mythology (another example mould be the f i r s t chapter of Gene-s i s ) . The t r a d i t i o n a l Indian explanation f o r t h i s i s that the god or goddess who i s expected to accomplish a p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g i n c r a s e s h i s or her strength because of the p r a i s e . s t u t y a h i vardhante devah. Loka-s and Tala-s. In one t r a d i t i o n of Indian mythology, there are seven loka~s 'worlds* and seven t a l a - s 'planes'. They are t r a d i t i o n a l l y as f o l l o w s : The loka-s are g e n e r a l l y considered the "heavens" of Indian mythology, and the t a l a - s as the "nether worlds". The terms t r i l o k l , t r a i l o k y a , or l o k a - t r a y a 'three worlds' are extremely frequent i n Indian mythology. They r e f e r to svaroa 'heaven', p r t h v l ' e a r t h 1 , and naraka ' h e l l ' . Toge-thsr'they comprise the mythological universe. In t h i s present s t o r y , thejde'mons take over svarqa and the gods are forced down to the Earth. Dharma and Karman. These two concepts form the warp and woof of pre-c l a s s i c a l to medieval Indian l i t e r a t u r e . B r i e f l y , dharma i s conduct conducive to maintaining the d i v i n e (moral) ordering of the world, and karman i s the idea of a c t i o n - a n d - r e a c t i o n as i t p e r t a i n s to moral l i f e . According to the d o c t r i n e of karman, one's actions i n t h i s l i f e t i m e d e t e r -mine the kind of future l i f e t i m e one w i l l have. satya l o k a (or Brahma loka) tapoloka jana l o k a mahaloka svar l o k a (or Indra loka) bhuvar l o k a bhu l o k a (the Earth) a t a l a v i t a l a s u t a l a r a s S t a l a  t a l a t a l a  mahatala  p a t a l a 13 Dharma i s the pouter that upholds good e x i s t e n c e , forms the b a s i s of enjoyable l i f e , and maintains the growth and development of the u n i -verse. Ulhen the balance of the cosmos i s upset ( f o r i n s t a n c e , when the demons win over the gods), dharma acts as a balancing f o r c e , and even-t u a l l y r e t urns the s i t u a t i o n t o normal by r e s t o r i n g the gods to power again. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the story It i s p o s s i b l e to i n t e r p r e t the story from se v e r a l d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view: the metaphysical point of view (which includes a macrocosmic and microcosmic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) and a h i s t o r i c a l point of view. From the metaphysical point of view, the goddess Katyayanl seems to be the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n ( o r , in-terms of the science of mythology'; a p r o j e c t i o n or e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n ) of the supreme energy of the u n i v e r s e . In t h i s s t o r y , the gods amalgamate t h e i r separate energies to the fountainhead from which a l l t h e i r energies stem. The r e s u l t : a renewal of the o r i g i n a l s t a t e of cosmic potency. To put i t another way. The cosmos f i r s t began to be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d when the primeval s a k t i d i v i d e d i t s e l f i n t o i n d i v i d u a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , i . e . i n t o the v a r i o u s gods and demons and t h e i r energies. But now the gods had l o s t t h e i r force and d i d not prove strong enough to avert the conquest by the opponents of cosmic order. Thus, the energies were reabsorbed back i n t o the primeval m o t h e r - p r i n c i p l e , i n t o the u n i v e r s a l womb. The Great Mother i s an important f i g u r e i n mythology, as She embodies the e t e r n a l feminine elements of the c r e a t i o n . The Great Mother has even 14 reached a higher rank than the highest male gods i n some c u l t u r e s . (In our own c u l t u r e , devotion t o Mary, Jesus' mother, has been i n c r e a s i n g f o r some c e n t u r i e s , and culminated i n the Coronation of Mary as Queen of Heaven, an o f f i c i a l d o c t r i n e accepted by the C a t h o l i c Church i n 1950.) One of Katyayanl's names used i n the text i n d i c a t e s her aspect of the Great Mother: Ambika, from amba 'mother'. The f a c t that the Goddess i s r i d i n g on a l i o n i s q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t . The l i o n represents energy and w i l l : both masculine q u a l i t i e s . The Goddess, as a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the primeval U n i v e r s a l S a k t i , or Energy, i s upheld by an animal, by an i n s t i n c t u a l creature having strong w i l l and d r i v i n g f o r c e . Thus.the f e m i n i n i t y of the Goddess i s balanced by the masculine q u a l i t i e s of the l i o n , and together they form a whole-ness, which i s the primeval energy of the cosmos. This resembles the Ta n t r i c d o c t r i n e of Siva and £akti, or pure consciousness (the change-l e s s , s t a t i c aspect of consciousness) and a c t i v e , k i n e t i c consciousness. According to t h i s d o c t r i n e , there should be a marriage of the Siva and S a k t i elements of consciousness i n man. As f o r the microcosmic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h i s i s merely the a p p l i c a -t i o n of the above t o Man. In other words, the primal energy i n man was d i v i d e d i n t o many separate energies (mental and s p i r i t u a l ones), which sometimes work against one another. When i t seems as though the lower f o r c e s are conquering man's higher f o r c e s , i t i s necessary f o r him to draw together and i n t e g r a t e a l l the v a r i o u s energies that are d i f f u s e d throughout h i s mind and s p i r i t . This mean ( i n T a n t r i c terminology), the union of Siva and S a k t i . of higher consciousness (uihich i s Energy, pure p o t e n t i a l ) and i t s e x t e r n a l form (which i s Power). (See the Serpent 15 Power. chapter one, by Arther Avalon.) In t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , KatyayanI could be taken as a symbol of the s a k t i i n the human body. In t h i s way can'-the "demons" i n man (the fo r c e s threatening to make h i s l i f e - e n e r g i e s run amuck) be subdued. Along a h i s t o r i c a l l i n e , t h i s s t o r y might represent the subjugation of a t o t e m i s t i c t r i b a l god under the gods of the e s t a b l i s h e d c u l t u r e . The t o t e m i s t i c t r i b a l god would be represented by the main demon-buffalo i n t h i s s t o r y , and the e s t a b l i s h e d gods by KatyayanI and others of the d i v i n e pantheon. S i m i l a r instances of the s t r u g g l e of gods and emons are to '.:(• be found i n the story of Krsna. There are many s t o r i e s of Krsna k i l l i n g . demons having animal forms-in the Purana-s and the Harivamsa s e c t i o n of the Mahabharata. These s t o r i e s may be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the same way as the KatyayanI" s t o r y , representing the triumph of the e s t a b l i s h e d r e l i g i o n and gods over pagan and t r i b a l elements. A c r i t i q u e of how the story i s narrated There are se v e r a l s e c t i o n s i n the story that are hot s t r u c t u r a l l y necessary for the a c t i o n . The d e s c r i p t i o n of KatyayanI a f t e r she i f formed i s quite p o e t i c i n p a r t s , but adds nothing to the a c t i o n . A l s o , there i s a long reference to the lowering of the Vindhya mountain, which forms a short p a r e n t h e t i c a l story of i t s own. Verse 18.33 gives s t r i c t l y superfluous d e t a i l s about Agastya's hermitage. Much of the main n a r r a t i o n i s concerned with the p r e p a r t i b n f o r b a t t l e and the a c t u a l b a t t l e of Mahisa and KatyayanI. Many d e t a i l s of t h i s b a t t l e seem to be somewhat 16 superfluous. Besides these over-developed p a r t s of the story j u s t mentioned, there are, on the other hand, s e v e r a l d e t a i l s that are not given any explanation at a l l . For i n s t a n c e , i t i s not t o l d how, e x a c t l y , Mahisa conquered the gods. Furthermore, there are two instances of a man a r i s i n g from a dead body: once, when R a k t a b l j a a r i s e s from the f u n e r a l pyre of Rambha, and second, when a sword-bearing man comes from Mahisa's body a f t e r Katyayanl has pounded him l i k e a wet hide (21.48). Why should two such unusual occuE^ances occur, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n such a short space? Also, i t seems as i f the supreme gods (Brahma, Visnu, and Siva) were al s o subjugated by the demons under Mahisa ( c f . 18.7 -Rudra, 21.43ab, 21.44ab). Does t h i s imply that they are not, indeed, a l l - p o w e r f u l ? They seem to be o b l i v i o u s to what was happening to the l e s s e r gods ( f o r instance, o b l i v i o u s of Agni going to Rambha and granting him the boon of a v i c t o r i o u s son.) This i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y to t h e i r sup-posed omnipotence and omniscience. Furthermore, why was Mahisa born a white b u f f a l o (18,60) ? — t o make him unique among a l l the demons? Als o , there are d e t a i l s given i n 18.54 and 18.69 which have a b s o l u t e l y no bearing on the story at a l l . These are some of the questions a r i s i n g from the story which have no answers. The Visnu element i n tha story The VP i s a V a i s n a v i t e purana, and yet the story before us concerns KatySyanI (or Durga), who i s associated with S i v a . She f i n i s h e s a mission that even Visnu could not f i n i s h . Be t h i s as i t may, there are s t i l l a few references to Visnu as supreme l o r d i n the s t o r y . The Visnu-panjara 17 mantra that i s r e c i t e d to protect KatyayanI contains a strongly devo-t i o n a l a t t i tude touiard Visnu. As a comment to the Visnu-pan.jara mantra episode, verse 20.36 even suggests that the warr ior who i s a devotee of Visnu never fear defeat i n b a t t l e . KatyayanI i s associated with Visnu again in 21.51, where she i s c a l l e d NarayanT (Narayana being another name for V i snu) . Perhaps she i s associated with Visnu here because, even though the author knew her to be a Sa iv i te de i t y , he s t i l l f e l t devotion to Visnu and wanted her to appear with his l o r d ' s name. Or perhaps t h i s represents a s k i l f u l attempt to reduce the tens ion between V i snu ' s fo l lowers and § i v a ' s f o l l owers . Be th i s as i t may, KatyayanT s t i l l f i n i s h e s her task and s i t s at the feet of Lord Siva before d i s -appearing — ce r t a in l y t h i s shows her connection with Siva. Visnu-Panjara Mantra. When KatyayanT prepared to ba t t l e Mahisa, the gods t r i e d to protect her by asking her to put armor on her body. How-ever, she would have none of that , and so £ i v a r e c i t e d a mantra ( spe l l ) c a l l e d the Visnu-panjara mantra (Visnu-cage incan ta t i on ) , which would protect her (20.41). Th i s mantra i s given in an e a r l i e r sect ion of the VP (17.36), and i s a lso found in other Vaisnava purana-s: Agni Purana 270.1-15, Garuda Purana 1.13.1-13, and Bhagavata Purana 6.8.4-40). (In the Bhagavata Purana, the a s ce t i c Visvarupa uses the mantra to s t ea l the fortune of the demons. When Visvarupa teaches i t to Indra, Indra i s able to conquer the demon.) I ts purpose i s succ in t l y stated i n the fo l lowing words: "By r e c i t i n g i t with r e v e r e n t i a l f a i t h a man destroys h i s enemies." (Garuda Purana 1.13) It i s a hymn to Visnu, who holds the eight weapons i n h i s eight hands ( in the eight d i rec t i on s ) and envelopes the devotee with p ro tec t i on . 18 e a s t — c a k r a 'discus' south—qada 'club* west*—kamala ' l o t u s * n orth—musala 'a pestle-shaped club' northeast—dhanus 'bow' s o u t h e a s t — l a r i k h a 'conch' southwest—asi/khadga 'sword, s h i e l d and coat of arms' n o r t h w e s t — vai.jayantl 'garland'and S r i - v a t s a (a p a r t i c u -l a r mark, s a i d to be a lock of h a i r on Visnu's chest) With these o b j e c t s i n h i s hands, Visnu should be imagined seated on the back of Garuda, h i s b i r d . Then the devotee should d i r e c t a prayer to him. Here i s an excerpt from the Agni Purana's v e r s i o n of the prayer: . ...Way the mace of the god, resplendent as the sun of the millenium, or burning with the glow of l i v i n g f i r e , k i l l the demons, monsters, pisaca-s and d a k i n i - s that are concocting e v i l s f o r my r u i n . May the bow of the god Vasu-deva cast r u i n and confusion broadcast among the ranks of my enemies, and men, and kusman<ja-s and preta-s and f i e n d i s h c reatures that are brewing mischief f o r my f a l l . May the sworn brotherhood of demons be defeated, f r u s t r a t e d and dispersed by the moon-shine-lustre of the i r r e s i s t i b l e sword of Visnu, as serpents are routed by the mighty pre-sence of the i n v i n c i b l e Garutman..... (from chapter 270 of S a s t r i ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of the Agni Purana) The Bhagavata Purana claims that "anyone wearing t h i s armor ( i . e . protected by t h i s mantra)... i s immediately and completely r i d of ( a l l ) f e a r . " (Bhagavata Purana 6.8.36) Besides doing t h i s , the mantra i s supposed to provide p r o t e c t i o n from w a r r i o r s , robbers, dangerous animals, e t c . So i n r e c i t i n g t h i s mantra f o r KStyayanT, Siva gives heras much p r o j e c t i o n as he can i n the absence of armor. Comparison with the same story i n the Markandeya Purana Another account of the story under study i s found i n chapters 82 and 83 of the Markandeya Pur§na. (There are other puranic accounts of the s t o r y , but they are not a c c e s s i b l e to me.) The story there f o l l o w s much 19 the same l i n e s i t does i n the VP, with minor changes. Here i s a comparison of the s t r u c t u r a l u n i t s found i n both puranic accounts. Mahisa vanquishes the gods 11 the gods take refuge i n Visnu and Siva " Devi formed from t h e i r combined wrath " Devi i s p r a i s e d by the gods g i f t s are given to her " she laughs, and takes o f f she laughs, i s pr a i s e d Markandeya Purana VP by the gods, and takes o f f (the reason f o r her f i g h t i n g the demons i s simply to defeat them) Namara asks f o r her hand on the part of Mahisa ( t h i s gives her a reason to f i g h t the demons) b a t t l e between her and the demons ( d e s c r i p t i o n s ) it the weapons hurled at her are t r e a t e d as p l a y t h i n g s ; the l i o n becomes angry it from her breaths i s s u e f o r t h beings to help her (the beings issue from her laughs) she defeats the demons; pra i s e d by the gods II C i k s u r a and Camara b a t t l e w i t h her; both are defeated Ciksura b a t t l e s with.her; he i s defeated Katyayanl d r i n k s a drink Mahisa turns the t i d e of b a t t l e ; harder to overcome than the other demons Katyayanl's weapons f a i l ; she faces Mahisa squarely Mahisa transformed i n t o d i f f e r e n t shapes (he became a l i o n , a man, an elephant " (he became an elephant and then a 20 and a buffalo again) buffalo again. A man emerges from h i s throat) - i . Devi drinks a drink, and conquers Mahisa KatyayanT conquers Mahi sa While the Markandeya Purana version i s much the same as i n the VP, there are several events i n d i f f e r e n t order. The greatest difference between the two i s the motive f o r Mahisa f i g h t i n g Katyayanl. In the Markandeya Purana, he merely wants to defeat her; i n the VP version, he wants to win her as a wife, for which he must f i r s t defeat her. The author of t h i s section of the VP i s a narrator, by and large. However, occasionally he writes several verses together that can claim to be poetry. The section where Katyayanl i s described by Canda and Munda to Mahisa i s probably the most poetic portion of our story (20.4-14). The images f i g u r i n g i n the de s c r i p t i o n and the f l i g h t s of poetic fancy are analyzed i n the commentary to the t r a n s l a t i o n . Many of the images are a l i t t l e obscure to a Western reader since they are often based on references to hallmarks of beauty as conceived i n ancient India. For example, tapering arms, breasts with sunken nipples, three f o l d s i n the b e l l y , a navel with a f o l d i n i t — are the hallmarks on which the images (bar, elephant's temple, s t a i r c a s e , s e a l , etc.) of the poet are based. Consequently, these are images that do not communicate extreme beauty to the Western mind. However, the author's keen observation i s manifest i n t h i s passage. Indeed, he has a f e r t i l e imagination, as well as the s k i l l to express the products of his poetic fancy. F a i l u r e to express The author as a poet 21 an idea c l e a r l y i s n o t i c e d only i n rare cases such as i n 19.32, 20.12-13. The only other s e c t i o n of p o e t i c d e s c r i p t i o n i n t h i s story i s the f i n a l b a t t l e scene.(21.4-50). Though t h i s s e c t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y not as p o e t i c as the above d e s c r i p t i o n of Katyayani, i t s t i l l c ontains a wealth of d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l . (Many verses are used i n d e s c r i b i n g the b a t t l e ^ uihich makes i t seem l i k e the a c t i o n i s going slower than the r e s t of the n a r r a t i v e . ) This f u r t h e r shows the author's developed f a c u l t y of observation. Language The language of the s e l e c t e d s e c t i o n of the VP i s to a l a r g e extent the same as standard S a n s k r i t . By the term 'standard S a n s k r i t ' ( S a n s k r i t i s abbreviated Skt. i n the annotation f o l l o w i n g the t r a n s l a t i o n ) , I mean that Sanskrit which agrees with Panini's grammar and the p r a c t i c e of c l a s s i c a l authors such as K a l i d a s a . However, o c c a s i o n a l l y the language of the VP departs from what would be expected i n standard Skt., g i v i n g such i r r e g u l a r i t i e s as the f o l l o w i n g (see the annotations f o r s p e c i f i c accounts of the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s ) : Samdhi: ..-double samdhi (19.35, 20.11, 20.30, 21.32) — u n u s u a l sarndhi (20.15) an i n d e c l i n a b l e t r e a t e d as a d e c l i n e d word (18.45) unusual use of cases: — t w o o b j e c t s , one i n l o c a t i v e and one i n accusative (18.47) — l o c a t i v e used i n place of g e n i t i v e (19.3, 19.5) — g e n i t i v e used i n place of d a t i v e (19.22) --acccusative used i n place of nominative (21.44) — a c c u s a t i v e used i n place of a b l a t i v e (21.47) unusual use of the g e n i t i v e absolute c o n s t r u c t i o n (18.60) unusual use of a root (18.71) t r a n s f e r r e d a d j e c t i v e (20.17) neuter and masculine interchanged (20.4, 20.26, 21.2) p l u r a l used i n place of dual (20.15) 22 gerunds t a k i n g -tva" as a s u f f i x i n s t e a d of -y_a, and v i s a versa (20.33, 21.16) the a i n the augment of the a o r i s t and imperfect tenses dropped (20.17,18) v o i c e s interchanged; — a c t i v e and middle -voices interchanged (21.3, 21.21, 21.31, 21.-41) .—passive used i n s t e a d of a c t i v e (21.16) words i n s e r t e d w i t h i n a l o c a t i v e absolute clause (21.47) d i f f e r e n t agents f o r a gerund and the r e l a t e d f i n i t e verb (21.44-45) Almost every one of these cases can be explained by the author's desire to s t i c k to the metre chosen f o r the verse. The language i s not, on the whole, obscure. However, there are a few cases of u n i n t e l l i g i b l e l i n e s (1.32 and 20.12-13). I t i s s u r p r i s i n g to see s e v e r a l Vaisnava names given to KatyayanI. For i n s t a n c e , she i s - c a l l e d LaksmI (19.20), S a r a s v a t i (20.36 and 21.36) and Narayani (21.51). This could be an i n d i c a t i o n of the author's d e s i r e S\ to synthesize the Vaisnava and Saiva c u l t s . '•' "There are se v e r a l names of demons i n the story that appear to be d e l i b e r a t e l y coined: *Canda ' v i o l e n t , impetuous* *Wunda 'bald, shaven' B i d a l a - n e t r a 'having c a t ' s eyes" *6askala Pis'anga 'moving b r i l l i a n t l y , g l i t t e r i n g ' Ugrayudha 'having f i e r c e weapons' s'ambara 'having a d r e a d f u l face* TSraka ' p r o t e c t i n g ' Ugrasya ' d r e a d f u l ' KaralSsya 'formidable' Uddhata ' e x c i t e d , loud' Udagra 'exalted' Durddhara ' i r r e s i s t i b l e , hard to bear* Durmukha 'hideous' Considering the etymological meanings of; the names of these demons, i t 23 i s p o s s i b l e that the author used these a d j e c t i v e s i n terms of t h e i r conno t a t i o n uihen he wanted to name i n d i v i d u a l demons". Some of the names do" no seem Skt., and are marked with an a s t e r i s k . These names may r e f e r to t r i b a l d e i t i e s that were being replaced by e s t a b l i s h e d d e i t i e s of Brah-manism. Metre There are p r i n c i p a l l y two d i f f e r e n t types of metre used i n t h i s s e c t i o n of VP. A l l of the verses p r i n t e d i n two l i n e s are i n the anu-stubh metre. The anustubh metre has eight s y l l a b l e s i n each quarter, w i t h the f i f t h s y l l a b l e l i g h t ( l a a h u ) . the s i x t h s y l l a b l e heavy (guru). and the seventh heavy i n the f i r s t and t h i r d and l i g h t i n the second and fo u r t h quarters. O c c a s i o n a l l y the anustubh l i n e s have s i x quarters i n s t e a d of four (e.g. 18.40). Approximately 46% of the verses examined are i n anustubh. Almost a l l of the other verses are i n u p a j a t i metre, which has four e l e v e n - s y l l a b l e d q u a r t e r s : _ ~ v — v v - v - - (the s i g n - means that s y l l a b l e can be e i t h e r heavy or l i g h t ) . The only other metre used i s a t w e l v e - s y l l a b l e d one c a l l e d vamsasthavila, and corresponds e x a c t l y to the upa j a t i metre i n the f i r s t ten s y l l a b l e s : - ~ v — vv-v-v-. This metre i s used s p o r a d i c a l l y , sometimes found throughout the four quarters of a verse, sometimes only i n one quarter. The percentage of the verses which i n c l u d e the vamsasthavila metre i s about 10%. (They are i n vamsa-s t h a v i l a i n the sense that they are c l o s e s t to quarters i n that metre than any other metre.) There are a few exceptions to the comments made above on the vamsasthavila metre. In se v e r a l quarters of verses, such as 19.10abc, 20.19b, arid 21.48d, the f i r s t two s y l l a b l e s might be e i t h e r 24 heavy or l i g h t , but do not conform to any patter n l i s t e d i n Apte's Sanskrit  D i c t i o n a r y . Appendix on Metre. Method of t r a n s l a t i o n Tor convenience, I have t r a n s l a t e d the f o l l o w i n g frequently-used words i h t h i s wayj r s i 'seer' muni 'sage 1  asura x  Daitya Dgnava [> 'demon' D i t i j a  Danuja / As can be seen, there are se v e r a l words f o r 'demon' i n t h i s s t o r y . I have t r a n s l a t e d a l l of them by 'demon', since there i s p r a c t i c a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e i n meaning among them. See Asura i n the Glossary. The t r a n s l a t i o n i s as l i t e r a l as E n g l i s h grammar w i l l permit. This accounts for any lack of c l a r i t y i n the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n passages. Throughout n o n - c l a s s i c a l epic poetry, such f i l l e r s as t a t a s , tu f h i , v a i , ca, e t c . are used as v e r s e - f i l l e r s , i . e . to complete the metres of1 the verses. In the commentary, such v e r s e - f i l l e r s are mentioned merely as, f o r example: " t u : a f i l l e r . " Various words are used f o r Mahisa throughout the s e l e c t e d VP passage: Mahisasura and Mahisasurendra ('the demon Mahisa' and *Mahisa the king of demons'), as w e l l as other epithet-names. To preserve consistency through-out, I use simply Mahisa, and t r a n s l a t e any other words that are compounded with that name. There are many cases of the author using e p i t h e t s or other names fo r the characters. In such cases, I have t r a n s l a t e d the o r i g i n a l word 25 i n the t e x t and i d e n t i f i e d the character i n parentheses immediately f o l l o w i n g i t . The name found i n parentheses i s the most common name of the character and can be found i n the Glossary under that p a r t i c u l a r name. For i n s t a n c e , KatyayanT i s c a l l e d Ambika and Durga many times i n the t e x t . When that happens, she i s i d e n t i f i e d thus: "Ambika (Katya-y a n l ) . . . " A note on the use of parentheses and brackets i n the E n g l i s h t r a n s -l a t i o n . Parentheses are used when some explanation f o r the previous word i s needed i n the t r a n s l a t i o n . Brackets are used to supply words not i n the o r i g i n a l , but which are necessary f o r understanding the verse. A l l Sanskrit words i n t h i s t h e s i s have been underlined, except the ones i n the reproduction of the o r i g i n a l Va"mana Purana t e x t at the beginning of each verse. 26 TEXT, TRANSLATION AND COMMENTARY 2 7 18.39 Nirada uvaca. ka 'sau k"atyayanT nama ya jaghne mahislsuram namaram raktabljafn ca tatha" 'nyan surakantakan Narada s a i d : Who i s that one named KatyayanT, mho k i l l e d the demon Mahisa, Namara, R a k t a b l j a , and also other enemies of the gods? — 3 9 d . 'enemies of the gods': surakantakin. L i t e r a l l y , kantaka means 'thorn'. The meaning h e r e e'enemy* i s a derived meaning. 18.40 kasVcisau mahiso nama kule j a t a s v c a kasya sah kas c a sau raktabT jakhyo namarah kasya :ca,tmajah And uiho i s that demon Mahisa, and i n whose f a m i l y was he born? And who i s that one named RaktabTja? and whose son-is Namara? You should t e l l t h i s at l e n g t h , Dear ( P u l a s t y a ) , as i t a c t u a l l y was. — 4 0 c . ' Dear' . - I t at a, which i s u s u a l l y a term of address to one's f a t h e r or son, or anyone being i n such a r o l e . 18.41 Pulastya uvaca. s'ruyatSm sampravaksya*mi katKam papapranas'inTm 28 sarvada varada durga yeyam katyayani mune Pulastya s a i d : 0 sage (Narada), l i s t e n . I m i l l t e l l the sin-destroying story of t h i s KatyayanT, mho i s the all-bestouiing boon-granting Durga. 18.42 p u r l ^suravarau raudrau jagatksobhakarav ubau rambhas" caiva karambhas ca dvav<vistam sumahabalau In the past, there mere tuio t e r r i b l e , powerful great demons, Rambha and Karambha, both of whom caused the a g i t a t i o n of the world. 18.43 taS aputrau ca devarse putrartham tepatus tapah bahun varsaganln daityau sthitau pancanade j a l e 0 divine seer (Narada), and these two, being without assson, practiced penance for the purpose of sons. For many scores of years the two demons remained i n the Panca*»nada. —'penance': see tapas i n the discussion of motifs i n the Intro-duction. --Although t h i s verse states that both Rambha and Karambha stood i n the water, the next verse c l a r r i f i e s i t by saying that only Karambha practised the water-austerity. 29 Panca-nada: the meaning could bet a) * i n the water having f i v e nada-s (wide r i v e r s ) ' , or b) ' i n the water of the Panca-nada (Punjab) region (near the Arabian ocean)*. In the second case, the o r i g i n a l reading could have been a secondary a d j e c t i v a l d e r i v a t i o n , namely pancanade. 18.44" t a t r a i k o jalamadhyastho dvitTyo *py agnipancaml karambhas c a i v a rambhas ca yaksam malavatam p r a t i There, one was i n the middle of the water, and the second was the one with f i v e f i r e s . Karambha and Rambha [were thus devoted^ around ( i n the v i c i n i t y o f ) Walavata yaksa. —Karambha was standing i n the r i v e r , and h i s brother Rambha was i n the middle of f i v e f i r e s , i . e . he stood under the b l a z i n g sun with four f i r e s around him. There i s perhaps some symbolism to the f i v e f i r e s : f i v e u s u a l l y r e f e r s to the senses of man (being f i v e i n number), and with f i v e f i r e s surround him we have an image of Rambha subduing h i s senses. This p a r t i c u l a r form of a u s t e r i t y i s c a l l e d pancagni-vrata 'the vow of f i v e f i r e s ' . I t i s mentioned i n Kalidasa's Raghu-vamsa 13.41: "... SutTksna...is p r a c t i c i n g a s c e t i -cism standing i n be midst of four f i r e s fed with f u e l , and having the sever-horsed sun scorching h i s forehead." — 4 4 d . The use of the word p r a t i i s i n t e r e s t i n g . As a p r e p o s i t i o n ( d i s t i n c t from the p r e f i x or preverb p r a t i ) i t i s u s u a l l y used i n the sense of 'concerning, with respect t o , i n the d i r e c t i o n of. 3D Here i t has the rare but not unsubstantiated sense 'by the side o f , i n the v i c i n i t y o f . Cf. the exmple given by the grammarians vrksam  p r a t i v i d y o t a t e vidyut 'the l i g h t n i n g i s shining near the t r e e 1 . —-Malavata: see Glossary under Yaksa. 18.45 ekam nimagnarh s a l i l e graharupena vasavah caranabhyam samadaya nijaghana yathecchaya Vasava (Indra) k i l l e d the one (Karambha), sunk i n the r i v e r , as he (Indra) wished, having seized JKarambha*s~\ f e e t , i n the form of a c r o c o d i l e . —The word f o r Indra i s Vasava, a d e r i v a t i v e from Vasu. See Glossary. ~~45d. The standard Skt. form f o r yathecchaya 'as he wished' would be yatheccham. The compound of yatha and i c c h a i s t r e a t e d as an i n d e c l i n a b l e i n the standard Skt. 18.46 tato b h r a t a r i naste ca rambhah kopapariplutah vahnau svasTrsam samksipya hotum aicchan mahabalah Then when f h i s j brother had disappeared, the very powerful Rambha, overwhelmed with anger, de s i r e d to s a c r i f i c e h i s own head i n the f i r e , a f t e r having cut f i t " ) . 31 — I n the corrigenda, the editor recommends the change of the pro-blematic reading samksipya 'having thrown together, having compressed to samchidv/a 'having cut*. 18.47 tatah pragrhya kesesu khadgam ca ravisaprabham chettukamo nijam slrsam vahnina pratisedhitah Then, having taken hold of the h a i r , and having taken a suiord as bright as the sun, he wanted to cut o f f h i s own head, /.but tnasj prevented by Vahni (Agni). — 4 7 a . Praqr.hya 'having taken' i s used f o r two objects, the h a i r and the sword. However, one object i s i n the l o c a t i v e case and the other i s i n the accusative case. — H e r e we see Agni as a beneficent god, t r y i n g to save Rambha. However, out of t h i s action, Mahisa, who w i l l conquer the gods, i s born. Here i s the motif of one god's boon (or action) being detrimental to a l l the gods, except the prominent, savior god. 18.48 uktas ca ma daityavara nasayitmanam atmana dustara paravadhya * pi svavadhya 'py atidustara And he was t o l d [by Agni}, "0 prominent demon, don't destroy your-s e l f by your own hands ( i . e . don't commit s u i c i d e ) : k i l l i n g of some-one else i s [a sin] d i f f i c u l t to cross over; to k i l l oneself i s [a sin that i s ] extremely d i f f i c u l t to cross over. — I n the last half of the verse, Agni indirectly refers to the law of karman. according to which one is responsible for one's actions and must make up for them. —48c. The image implied by dustara ' d i f f i c u l t to cross over' i s that of an ocean of sin. —48c. api 'also, even' used as a substitute of .pa. 'and'. 18.49 yac ca prarthayase vlra tad dadami yathepsitam ma mriyasva mrtasyeha pasta bhavati vai katha "And, 0 hero, I give you that which you ask for, as you wish; don die; the talk of one who is dead perishes in this world." —Implication: the story of Rambha's l i f e w i l l die i f he dies. Rambha wil l be quickly forgotton. 18.50-51. tato 'bravld vaco rambho varam cen me dadasi hi trailokyavijayl putrah syan me tvattejasa 'dhikah ajeyo daivataih sarvaih pumbhir daityais ca pavaka mahabalo vayur iva kamarupT krtastravit 33 Then Rambha said, " I f you indeed give me a boon, l e t there be for me a son, v i c t o r i o u s i n the three worlds, of a splendor greater than yours,/0 Pavaka (Agni), unconquerable by a l l the d e i t i e s , by a l l men and by a l l the demons; he [should be] one of great strength, l i k e the wind, and should be able to take the form he desires and [should be] learned i n weapons." — Jt'he three worlds' : see "Lokas and Talas" i n the Introduction. ~50d. 'of a splendor greater than yours': another way of taking t v a t t e j a s a 'dhikah; 'richer because of your splendor'. '•-«.51d. 'learned i n weapons' - k r t a s t r a v i d , which also means 'learned i n archery'. Astra i s partly a s p i r i t u a l m i s s i l e , usually given to the hero by the boon of a patron god. For instance, Arjuna i s provided with several d i f f e r e n t kinds of astras i n the Mahabh'arata. As he shoots them one by one, each has a d i f f e r e n t a f f e c t on the target. There i s some redundancy i n k r t a s t r a v i d : kgtastrah 'one who has done his weapons, one who i s accomplished i n weapons', or astravid 'one who knows weapons' would have been s u f f i c i e n t . Perhaps k r t a s t r a v i d means: i ) 'knower of those accom-plish e d i n weapons'; i i ) 'knower of a l l made (invented, a r t i f i c i a l ) weapons', or i i i ) 'an accomplished knower of weapons', — • s h o u l d be able to take the form he desires': the idea of being able to take on any kind of body according to one's wishes i s common i n Indian mythology. It i s e s p e c i a l l y associated with the demons. Cf. 21.42. 34 18.52-54. tarn provaca kavir brahman badfciainevam bhvisyati yasyarfi cittern samalambi k a r i s y a s i tatah sutah i t y evam ukto devena vahnina danavo yayau drasturii malavatam yaksam yaksais ca parivaritam tesam padmanidhis t a t r a vasate nanyacetanah ga.jas ca mahisas' cas'va gavo *j a v i p a r i p l u t a h 0 Brahmin (Narada), the raise one (Agni) spoke to him: "Certainly, i t m i l l be l i k e t h i s : i n whomever you f i x your mind, from her-there f j j i i l l bsj a son [for you]." /Thus spoken to by the god VahhJ (Agni), the demon (Rambha) went to see M-lavata-yaksa, surrounded by yaksa-s ( i . e . , on whom other yaksa-s were attending). /Among them, Padmanidhi dwells there, having a mind devoted to none other [than the object of meditation]. And elephants, buffaloes, horses, and cows, surrounded by sheep and goats [also dwelt there], — 5 4 a . The purpose of mentioning Padmanidhi s p e c i f i c a l l y i s not c l e a r . He i s one of the twenty-four sons of PunyajanT and ffianibhadra.'mentioned i n Brahmanda Purana 3.7.124 and Vayu Purana 69.155. 18.55 tan drstvaiva tada cakre bhavam danavaparthivah mahisyam rupayuktayam trihayanyam tapodh.ana 0 Penance-rich (Narada), having just seen them ( i . e . as soon as he 35 saw them) at that time, the king of demons (Rambha) developed a passion f o r a three-year o l d she-buffalo who had an a t t r a c t i v e form. —55b. 'developed a passion' s cakre bhaftam. L i t e r a l l y , i t could be translated *he made up his mind on.,,' 18.56. sa samagac ca daityendrafn kamayantT t a r a s v i n l sa capi gamanam cakre bhavitavyapracoditah She,being impetuous and l u s t f u l , came together (got united) with the chief of demons (Rambha), and he also made a move [towards h e r j , urged by fa t e [as he was]. —'she...came together with (Rambha)': t h i s i s meant i n a sexual way; she came to have intercourse with Rambha. 18.57-8. tasyam samabhavad garbhas tarn pragrhyatha danavah patalam pravivelatha tatah svabhavanam gatah drstas' ca danavaih sarvaih parityaktas' ca bandhubhih akaryakarakety evam bhuyo malavatam gatah An embryo came about i n her. Then the demon (Rambha), having taken her, entered the nether-world. Then he went to h i s own abode. / He was seen by a l l the demons and was abandoned by the r e l a t i v e s , 36 with the thought, "he d id something that should not have been done." [Therefore^ he went to Mi lavata again. — 5 7 c . ' t he nether world* pa ta l a . See "Loka-s and T a l a - s " i n Introduct ion. — 5 8 c . °karakah i t y would be changed in standard Skt. to only karaka i t y . The purana goes f o r double sarhdhi to accomodate the express ion in the metre. 18.59-60. sa ' p i tenaiva pat ina mahisT carudarsana samam "jagama tat punyam yaksamandalam uttamam tatas tu vasatas tasya syama sa susuve mune a j l j ana t sutam subhram mahisam kamarupinam The a t t r a c t i v e she-buffa lo also went with that very husband to that auspicious highest assembly of yaksa-s. / Then, 0 sage (Narada), the black one (the she-buf fa lo) gave b i r t h , while [Rambha] was l i v i n g [ t h e r e ] ; she begat a white son — Mahisa, who could take whatever form he des i red . — 6 0 a . 'with him l i v i n g £there] ' - vasatas tasya. a genetive absolute cons t ruc t ion . Usual ly genetive absolute has a conno-t a t i on of d i s respect i n l a t e r c l a s s i c a l Skt.,' but i t does not have such a connotat ion here. — I t i s unusual to see a black buf fa lo (syama) g iv ing b i r th to a 37 white one (subhra).. The f a c t that Mahisa i s a white b u f f a l o d i s t i n g u i s h e s him from other b u f f a l o e s . 18.61-62. etam rtumatlm jatam mahiso 1nyo dadarsa ha sa cSbhyaglid d i t i v a r a m r a k s a n t t s l l a m atmanah tarn unriamitariasa'm ca mahisam v l k s y a danavah khadgam n i s k r s y a t a r a s a mahisam samupadravat Another b u f f a l o saw t h i s one when she had became menstruous, and she went to the prominent [son o f j D i t i (Rambha), p r o t e c t i n g ( i . e . i n order to p r o t e c t ) her good ch a r a c t e r . / And the demon (Rambha), haying seen that [ o t h e r ] b u f f a l o who had r a i s e d - h i s n o s t r i l s [ a n d l having drawn a sword q u i c k l y , ran toward the b u f f a l o . — 6 1 c . The t e x t has d i t i v a r a m ('best of the D i t i - s ' , here r e f e r -r i n g to Rambha), i n s t e a d of d i t i iavaram or daitvavaram (prominent son of D i t i ) . — 6 2 a . 'who had r a i s e d h i s n o s t r i l s * - unnamita-nasam. Raised n o s t r i l s seem to have been mentioned to i n d i c a t e the passion and vehemencerof the b u f f a l o . 18.63-64. tenapi d a i t y a s tiksnabhyam srngabhyam h r d i t a d i t a h nirbhinnahrdayo bhumau nipapata mamara ca mrte b h a r t a r i sa syama yaksanam.-s'aranam gata 38 r a k s i t a guhyakaih sadhvT n i v a r y a mahisam tatah By him ( i . e . by the b u f f a l o ) too the demon (Rambha) uias struck i n the heart with tuio sharp horns. With h i s heart p i e r c e d , he (Rambha) f e l l to the ground and d i e d . / With her husband dead, the black one (the she-buffalo) sought refuge with the yaksa-s. The v i r t u o u s one was protected by the yaksa-s, a f t e r they warded o f f the b u f f a l o . — 6 4 c . 'the y a k s a - s 1 : the word i n the t e x t i s ouhyaka. 'beings to""be hidden', that i s , 'secret beings, i n v i s i b l e beings*. 18.65-66. t a t o n i v a r i t o y a k s a i r j h a y a r i r madanaturah nipapata saro divyam t a t o d a i t y o 'bhavan mrtah namaro nama vikhySto mahSbalaparakramah yaksan a s r i t y a tasthau sa kalayan svapadan mune Then the b u f f a l o , repulsed by the yaksa-s, f i l l e d with l u s t , f e l l i n t o a d i v i n e l a k e . Thefei [having become^ dead he became {[reincar-nated a s ] a demon named Namara, famous and one having great strength and v a l o u r . Having depended on the yaksa-s, he remained there, herding the beasts of prey, 0 sage (Narada). — 6 5 b . 'the b u f f a l o ' £ h a v a r l 'enemy of horses' comes to mean ' b u f f a l o ' . Compare verse 18.71 where h a y a r i = Mahisa. According to Monier-Williams, haya-dvisat•'horse-hater' (a synonym of hayar 39 is assigned the meaning 'buffalo* in Skt. lexicons. The Amarkosa has vaha-dvisat 'horse-hater' as a word for 'buffalo'. —66c. 'having depended on the yaksa-s' » yaksan IsVitya. What is probably meant i s that Namara stayed near the yaksa-s. —66d. * herding' = kalavan. This word could also mean 'pounding', or even ' k i l l i n g * . Cf. 19.4d. 18.67-69. sa ca daityesVaro yaksair malavatapurassaraih citam aropitah sa ca syama tarn caruhat patim tato 'gnim adhyad uttasthau puruso raudradarsanah vyadravayat sa tan yaksan khadgapanir bhayamkarah tato hatas tu mahisah sarva eva mahatmanS rte samraksitararh hi mahisam rambhanandanam And the lord of, the demons (Rambha) uias placed on the funeral pyre by the yaksa-s, mho had Malavata moving in the front £as leader]. And the black one (the she-buffalo) climbed on top of that husband _of hers]], (i.e. stood in the f i r e protecting her husband's body and performed sat!). / Then a man having a terrifying appearance arose from the middle of the f i r e . Causing fear and having a suiord in the hand, he chased the yaksa-s auiay. / Then a l l the buffaloes mere k i l l e d by that great one, except Mahisa the son of Rambha, mho uias a protector. — I n versev 67 me have an instance of the r i t e of satt. mhere the 40 ui i f e throws h e r s e l f on the f u n e r a l pyre of her husband aftenrhe d i e s . See I n t r o d u c t i o n , under " M o t i f s " . --69c. 'except Mahisa' * r t e mahisam. The word tie governs the a b l a t i v e case i n standard Skt., so the proper form would be r t e mahisat. — 'who was a p r o t e c t o r ' : a p r o t e c t o r of the yaksa-s, because they were good to h i s mother, 18.70 sa namatah smrto daityo r a k t a b l j o mahSmune yo 'jayat sarvato devSn sendrarudrarkamarutan 0 sage (Narada), that demon (the one who arose from the f i r e ) was remembered-bv. nameas RaktabTja, who completely conquered the gods, i n c l u d i n g Indra, Rudra, Arka (Surya), and Maruta-s, — I t i s nbt known whether the author i d e n t i f i e d Rudra and s'iva. He uses both names i n t h i s s t o r y , but does not everymake them equivalent names. See Glossary. 18.71 evam prabhava danupumgavas te tej.o 'dhikas t a t r a babhau hayarih r a j y e •bhisiktas' ca maha'surendrair v i n i r j i t a i h sambaratarakadyaih 41 The super i o r ones among the demons mere of such pouier. Mahisa — greater i n b r i l l i a n c e — shone f o r t h among them. He was coronated i n the kingdom by the great c h i e f s of the demons, who were t o t a l l y c onquered [by him^j, and among whom Sambara and Taraka were foremost. — 7 1 a . 'of such powers' : the e d i t i o n p r i n t s evam prabhava as two separate words. However, f o r proper syntax, i t should be a ba h u v r l h i compound, evamprabhavah. — 7 1 b . The word babhau. i n view of i t s usage i n 19.12-13, e t c . , could be an equivalent of babhuva (see 19.12, commentary). The meaning would then be 'Mahisa was greater i n b r i l l i a n c e there among them.' — 7 1 b . Mahifa s h a y a r i . See commentary to verse 18.65. —s'ambara: i n the Vedas, a demon and p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of drought. He i s s i m i l a r to V r t r a , or perhaps i d e n t i c a l to him. — T a r a k a : the son of Vajranaka. Taraka was a Daitya whose a u s t e r i t i e s rendered him as powerful as the gods.- In order to defeat him, Skanda, the god of war, was miraculously born. 18.72 asaknuvadbhih s a h i t a i s ' ca devaih s a l o k a p a l a i h sahutas'abhaskaraih sthanani t y a k t a n i sas'lndrabhaskaraiir dharmas' ca dure p r a t i y o j i t a s ca And [ t h e i r own] places were abandoned by the gods, i n c l u d i n g the wor ld -protectors , Agni and the luminar ies , uiho had come together and uiho mere unable [ to a l t e r the s i t u a t i o n ] , and by Moon, Indra and Surya And Dharma uias f i x e d at a distance (removed from l i f e ) . - -72a. 'uiho could not do' = asaknuvat, 'uiho cannot do, uiho are unable to do ' . The object for t h i s expression i s l e f t out, but we may assume that i t means 'uiho are unable to do what the Gods should d o ' , i . e . . t hey cannot conquer Mahisa or r e s i s t him. —72b . 'wor ld -p ro tec to r s ' = lokapa la . These are the guardians of the world, eight i n number, one for each card ina l d i r e c t i o n and intermediate po int . They inc lude : Indra, Agni ( F i r e ) , Yama, Surya (Sun), Varuna, Vayu (Wind), Kubera, and Soma (Moon). Each one has an elephant that helps them protect the world. —72b . ' l um ina r ie s '-s bhaskara, the same word used i n the next l i n e for ' Sun ' , which i s i t s usual meaning. L i t e r a l l y , i t means ' l i gh t -maker ' , so i t can be appl ied to e i ther the s ta r s or the sun. — 7 2 c . 'ffloon' s sas in 'one having a h a r e ' . The Moon i s so named because the spot on i t i s supposed to resemble a hare ( s a l a j . —Dharma: a d i f f i c u l t and complex word to t rans l a te into Eng l i sh , therefore i t i s l e f t i n the o r i g i n a l Skt. It means 'moral or r e l i g i o u s duty, r ighteous behavior, conduct conforming to or h e l p f u l i n maintaining the Cosmic Law'. In t h i s verse, "Dharma was f)ixedv;[again] at a d i s tance" means that the po s i t i ve forces were dethroned by the negat ive, unrighteous forces when the demons won over the gods. — I t i s poss ib le that 71cd i s to be read with 72ab. Then the mean-43 ing mould be: "Mahisa uias coronated by the great ch ie f s of demons such as s'ambara and Taraka, uiho mere conquered and by the gods inc lud ing tttaon, Indra and Surya, uiho had come together and could not do [anything against Mahisa7." CHAPTER XIX 19.1-2. Pulastya uvaca. tatas tu deva mahisena n i r j i t a h sthanani samtyajya savahanayudhah jagmuh puraskrtya pitamaham te drastum tada cakradharam sr iyah patim gatva tv apas'yams ca mithah surottamau s th i tau khagendrasanasarhkarau h i drstva pranamyaiva ca siddhisadhakau nyavedayamstan mahisadicestitam Pulastya s a i d : But then the gods, conquered by Mahisa, having abandoned / t h e i r j places and having put Brahma in the f r o n t , went, along with the i r veh i c le s and weapons, to see at that time the wielder of the d i scus , the husband of S r i (V i snu) . And having gone, they saw the two supreme gods — Siva and Visnu — seated i n each o the r ' s presence; having seen and having bowed down before the two who br ing about accomplish-ment [of what i s sought], they narrated that deed of Mahisa and others, 44 — l a d . t a t a s 'then' and tada *at that time' are almost r e p e t i t i o u s . — 2 a . ' i n each other's presence' = mithab, uihich u s u a l l y means ' i n between, to each other'. — 2 b . Visnu - •khaoendrSsana 'he whose seat ( v e h i c l e ) i s the c h i e f of b i r d s (Garuda).' See Glossary. — 2 b , £iva = s'amkara 'one who does (or makes) the Auspicious'. 19.3 prabho • s'visuryendvanilagnivedhasam j a l e s a s a k r a d i s u cadhikaran akramya nakat t u n i r a k r t a vayam k r t a v a n i s t h a mahis'asurena "0 Lord, having invaded the a u t h o r i t i e s o f the Asvins, Surya, Moon, Wind, Agni and the c r e a t o r , and ^having invadedj also i n the case of Varuna, Indra, e t c . , we are removed from heaven and made to remain on the earth by the demon Mahisa. — 3 b . 'and a l s o i n the case of Varuna, Indra, e t c ' s j a l e s a - s akradisu — a l o c a t i v e p l u r a l , where one expects a g e n i t i v e p l u r a l , as i n the f i r s t l i n e . The author seems to have switched to the l o c a t i v e f o r the sake of the metre. — 3 d . 'made to remain on the e a r t h ' - k r t a v a n i s t h a h . This i s a j o i n i n g (samdhi) of two words, k r t l h ^ and avanistah that t r a n s -45 gresees the r u l e s of standard Skt., i n which the change of kytah to kr,t'a mould alone be sanctioned. The overdone samdhi that r e -s u l t s i n absorbing the a of the f o l l o w i n g word i s prompted by a co n s i d e r a t i o n of metre. Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s that the author has truncated avanistha to vanistha", as aoidhava i s truncated to pidhava ( c f . v a g t i Bhaqurir al-lopam avapyor upasarqayob'). 'according to Bhaguri, _a of the p r e f i x e s ava and api can be dropped. 19.4 etad bhavantau saranagatanam s r u t v a vaco bruta hitam sur'anam na ced vrajamo 'dya rasStalam h i samkalyamana yudhi danavena "Having heard t h i s speech of those ( i . e . of us, the gods) uiho have gone to you two f o r s h e l t e r , t e l l what i s good f o r the gods; ot h e r -wise, we w i l l go to the nether-world now, being pounded i n b a t t l e by the demon (Mahisa)." — ' t h o s e who have gone to you two f o r s h e l t e r ' : the speakers mean that very assembly of gods which they c o n s t i t u t e . So the intended sense i s : *u;e have come to you two f o r s h e l t e r ; having heard our words, ...' — 4 c . 'nether-world' = rasatalam. Se I n t r o d u c t i o n under "Loka-s and Tala*-s". Rasatalam v r a i could also be an idiom meaning 'to s u f f e r a complete d o w n f a l l , to reach the lowest p o s s i b l e stage'. 48 Compare Marathi idiom r a s a t a l a l ^ iane. ~ 4 c . h i a f i l l e r . 19.5 ittham murarih saha samkarena s r u t v a vaco v i p l u t a c e t a s a s tan drstwa 'tha cakre sahasaiva kopam k a l i g n i k a l p o h a r i r avyayatma Visnu, having thus heard the speech together w i t h S i v a , and having seen them [the gods] of smitten mind, then suddenly became angry — V. i s n (j , , whose Self i s immutable,[was] l i k e the f i r e at the time of deluge. — 5 a . Visnu = fflurari 'enemy of Mura [a demon]'. — 5 d . 'the f i r e at the time of deluge s-^kallgni : l i t . , the f i r e of Time. According to the Indian conception, at the end of every c y c l e of c r e a t i o n , the universe burns up i n a u n i v e r s a l cataclysm ( n o t i c e that the theme of u n i v e r s a l cataclysm i s found i n many d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s throughout the w o r l d ) . The f i r e which burns up the universe when t h i s takes place i s c a l l e d k a l a g n i ; t h i s happens i n each p r a l a y a , or process of d i s s o l u t i o n . 19.6 t a t o 'nukopan madhusudanasya salamkarasyapi pitamahasya 47 t a t h a i v a sakradisu daivatesu maharddhi t e j o vadanad v i n i h s r t a m Then, because of that anger, a splendor of great grouith issued out of the mouth of Visnu [and] of Brahma, along with [that o f ] Siva, and l i k e w i s e i n the case of d i v i n i t i e s such as Indra. --6a. 'because of .that anger 1 s tato 'nukopat. I f one accepts t h i s reading, then anukopa 'after-anger' and kopa 'anger' would be synonyms. I t i s p o s s i b l e to read t a t o 1nu ' a f t e r t h a t ' and kopat 'from the anger'. — 6 c . ' i n the case of d i v i n i t i e s such as Indra' " sakradisu d a i v a t e s u . As i n verse 19.3, t h i s i s the l o c a t i v e s u b s t i t u t i n g y f o r the g e n i t i v e . Sakridlnam daivatan_m i s expected. 19.7 tac caikatam parvatakutasannibham jagama t e j a h pravarasrame mune katyayanasyapratimasya tena maharsina t e j a upakrtam ca And, 0 sage (Narada), that splendor, resembling'a mountain peak, went to oneness (became u n i f i e d ) i n the great hermitage of the incom-parable Katyayana, and the splendor was favored (enhanced) by that great seer. 48 — • Katyayana' means 'born i n the family of Katya'. — T h e i n s t i t u t i o n of 'hermitage', or asrama. mas quite common i n ancient times. An asrama uias a place of rest and i n s t r u c t i o n , uihere seers, sages, teachers and t h e i r d i s c i p l e s l i v e d . It uias usually located i n a peaceful f o r e s t , or, occa s i o n a l l y , as i n s t o r i e s of miracles, i n the sky. The word i n the text i s prava-rasrame, which could mean 'the hermitage on the Pravara River' as well as 'the prominent hermitage'. 19.8-9. teriarsisrstena ca te ias5 vrtam jvlatprakasarkasahasratulyam tasmac ca j a t a taralayata'ksT katyayanl yogavisuddhadehl mShesvarad vaktram atho babhuva netratrayarh pavakatejasa ca yamyena kesa h a r i t e j a s a ca bhujas tathastadasa samprajajnire And [the f i r s t splendor] enveloped by that splendor whichswas released by the seer, [became] s i m i l a r to a thousand suns of dazzling l i g h t . And from i t Katyayanl, having long, sutift-moving eyes, and having a body pure on account of yoga, was born. / Then, [her]face came about from [the splendor] of Siva, and [her] t r i a d of eyes by the splendor of Agni, £her] ha i r came about by [the splendor] of Yama, and likewise her eighteen arms by the splendor of Visnu. 4§ — B d . 'a body pure from the p r a c t i c e of yooa': the p r a c t i c e of yooa r e s u l t s i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n of one's body and mind. I t was the seer Katyayana who p r a c t i c e d yoga. KatyayanI i n h e r i t e d p u r i t y and strength from him. —The goddess KatyayanT i s here described (verses 9-11) from head to f o o t , which i s not i n keeping with the way gods are u s u a l l y i described i n c l a s s i c a l Skt. poetry. According to fflallinatha's commentary to Kalidasa's Kumarasambhava (1.32), "devatanam rupam  padariqusthaprabhgti varnyate manusaoam kesad arabhyeti dharmikah". "According t o those who f o l l o w dharma f the form of d e i t i e s i s de-s c r i b e d from t o e n a i l s ; of men, beginning wit h h a i r . " Each of the A-prominent gods w i l l make a part of KatyayanT's body (verses 9-12), and each w i l l provide her eighteen arms with something (verses 14-17). 19.10-11. saumyena yugmam stanayoh susamhatam madhyam tathaindrena ca t e j a s a 'bhavat uru ca jaffghe ca nitambasamyute j a t e j a l e s a s y a tu t e j a s a h i padau ca lokaprapitamahasya padmSbhikosapratimau babhuvatuh divakaranam api t e j a s g 'rigulTh karangulTs ca v a s u t e j a s a i v a Her compact p a i r of breasts came about by the splendor of the 60 (Vfooni, and her middle (stomach and waist) l i k e w i s e by the splendor of Indra. The th i g h s and calves together with the buttocks, were born of the splendor of Varuna. / Her two f e e t , which were l i k e the i n t e r i o r of the l o t u s , came about by the splendor of the Great Grand-f a t h e r of the world (Brahma); the toes came about by the splendor of the suns, and the f i n g e r s of the hands by the splendor of the Vasus. — V e r s e s 9-11 have e s s e n t i a l l y one c o n s t r u c t i o n , the form being "... came about through the splendor of ..." In the o r i g i n a l Skt. some words e s p e c i a l l y meaning 'splendor' and 'came about' are l e f t out o c c a s i o n a l l y because of the metre, but the meaning i s c l e a r j u s t the same. — l O d . t u , hi are f i l l e r s . — • l i k e the i n t e r i o r of the l o t u s ' : l o t u s e s are reputed to have extremely s o f t i n t e r i o r s . Many times a p o e t i c image comes from t h i s , when the poet i s d e s c r i b i n g how s o f t something i s . The tex t reads padmabhikosapratimau: kosa would have s u f f i c e d , but here we f i n d abhikosa (perhaps f o r the sake of the metre). —He. 'suns' = divakaranam. The word i s i n the p l u r a l , c u r i o u s l y enough. Perhaps t h i s p l u r a l form had to be used i n s t e a d of the s i n g u l a r because of the metre. 19.12 prajapatlnam das'anas ca t a j a s a yaksena nasa s'ravanau ca marutat sadhyana ca bhruyugalam sukantimat 51 kandarpabanasanasannibham babhau And [ h e r ] teeth [came about] by the splendor of the P r a j a p a t i - s , the nose by [the splendor] of the Yaksa-s and be two ears from [the s p l e n -dor] of the ffiaruts; the very b e a u t i f u l p a i r of eyebrows, resembling the bow of Kama, came about by [the splendor] of Sadhyas. — 1 2 c d . Another t r a n s l a t i o n of 'cd' would be: "[h e r ] very beau-t i f u l p a i r of eyebrows [came about] by [the splendor] of Sadhyas. I t appeared l i k e Kama's bow." However, i t i s c l e a r from 19.13c that the author of the VP i s i n the habit of using babhau as an equivalent of babhuva. although f o r standard Skt., babhau i s derived from bha 'to shine, to appear, to seem' and babhuva from bhu t o become.'. 19.13-14 tatharsitejottamam uttamam mahan namna prthivyam abhavat prasiddham katyayanity eva tada babhau sa namnS ca te n a i v a jagatprasiddha dadau t r i ^ u l a m varadas t r i s u l i cakram murarir varunas ca sankham saktim hutasah evasanas ca capam tunau tathlksayyasarau vivasvSn 5 2 In t h a t manner (or because i t had a l l these i n g r e d i e n t s ) the great supreme, e x c e l l e n t splendor of the seer (Kityayana) became known on the earth by the name Katyayanl. Then she became (or shone f o r t h ) , well-known i n the world by that same name. / The boon-granting Possess-or bf the t r i d e n t (Siva) gave a t r i d e n t \jto h e r ] , " V i s n u a d i s c u s , Varuna a conch, Agni a m i s s i l e ( l a k t i \ , Vayu. a bow, and V i v a -svat two quivers which had i n e x h a u s t i b l e arrows, — 1 3 a . 'the...supreme...splendor of Katyayana': the t e x t reads °tejottamam. This i s the changed form (through samdhi) of the words te jab and uttama. Within a compound, the v i s a r g a (h_) should be dropped and we should be l e f t with taja-uttama; but the author has seen f i t to f u r t h e r j o i n the §_ and the u_ i n t o tejottama. — V a r u n a i s the Lord of'the ocean, so i t i s n a t u r a l that he would give a conch s h e l l to KStyayani. Conches were blown i n b a t t l e s to announce and inspire.,' 19.15 vajram tathendrah saha ghantaya ca yamo 'tha dandam dhanado gadam ca brahma 'ksamalam sakamandalum ca kamo 'sim ugram saha carmana ca Indra [gave her] the thunderbolt, together with a b e l l , Yama a s t i c k , Kubera a mace, Brahma a garland of beads along with an a s c e t i c ' s water-pot, K l l a a t e r r i b l e sword along with a s k i n fto serve as s h i e l d ] . 53 — f . l h u n d e r b o l t * : Indra's t r a d i t i o n a l weapon, i s the va.jra or •thunderbolt'. This would be the n a t u r a l weapon f o r the l o r d of the storm-clouds to c a r r y . — 1 5 c . Brahma i s o f t e n depicted as o l d . and as a r i t u a l i s t . Thus here he appears with a rosary and water-pot. 19.16 hSram ca somah saha camarena malam samudro himavan mrgendram cudamanim kundalam arddhacandram pradat kuthararfi vasus'ilpakattta And >.the Moon gave a necklace along with a chowrie, Ocean (Samudra) a garland, Himalaya a l i o n , the maker of r i c h e s and art objects (or the maker of a r t - o b j e c t s who was one of the Vasu&s) a c r e s t - j e w e l , an e a r r i n g , a half-moon ( c r e s c e n t ) , and an axe. — 1 6 a . 'chowrie': the t a i l of a yak used f o r fanning during the summer months. The word i s an- a n g l i c i z e d form of camara. —1 6 b . ' l i o n ' ' mygendra. This word can mean e i t h e r l i o n or tiger:: l i t e r a l l y , 'king of beasts'. But from verses 21.9, 14, and 46, i t i s c l e a r that a l i o n i s me-ant here. — 1 6 d . 'the maker of r i c h e s and a r t o b j e c t s ' : t h i s i s the d i v i n e a r t i s a n , Visvakarman, a b e a u t i f u l , s k i l f u l worker, who forges the thunderbolts f o r Indra. 54 19.17.. :. . gandhar;varajo r a j a t a n u l i p t a m panasya purnam sadrsam ca bhajananv' bhujamgaharam bhugagesvVaro ' p i amlanapuspamctavah srajam ca The king of the Gandharvas [gave] a v e s s e l f o r d r i n k i n g coated with s i l v e r — s i l v e r and proper (or s u i t a b l e ) [[to h e r ] ; the Lord of snakes a l s o [gave h e r ] a serpent-necklace ( o r : a p a r t i c u l a r type of ne c k l a c e ) , and the Seasons a garland of never-fading f l o w e r s . —'Gandharvas': see Glossary. — 1 7 b . 'vessel f o r d r i n k i n g ' = panasya bha.janam. This use of the g e n i t i v e would be unusual, though such usage i s customary i n E n g l i s h : 'a v e s s e l of d r i n k i n g * . Another p o s s i b l e t r a n s l a t i o n would be: "... gave a v e s s e l , coated with s i l v e r , f i l l e d w i t h a d r i n k , and worthy [of h e r j . " This t r a n s l a t i o n uses panasya with purnam, w i t h the g e n i t i v e s u b s t i t u t i n g f o r the instrumental case. — 9-17. P e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t s of nature (e.g. Samudra 'ocean') are ranked along with the prominent d e i t i e s . 19.18 tada ' t i t u s t S surasattamanam attattahasafh mumuce t r i n e t r a tarn tustuvur devavarah sahendrah ... , , savisnurudrendvanilagnibhaskarah 55 Then the three-eyed goddess, g r e a t l y pleased uiith the prominent gods, gave a very loud laugh. The great gods, i n c l u d i n g Indra, Visnu, Rudra, Soma, the Wind, Agni and Surya — p r a i s e d her [as f o l l o w s — 1 8 c . 'a loud laugh 1 ~ attattahas'a. It i s unusual to have a t t a repeated, attahasa i s the common word. 19.19 namo 'stu devyai s u r a p u j i t a y a i ya samsthita yogavisuddhadeha nidrasvarupena mahTm v i t a t y a t r s n a t r a p a ksud bhayada 'tha k a n t i h " S a l u t a t i o n be to the honored goddess, worshipped by the gods, who stands (remains i n existence) w i t h a body p u r i f i e d through yoga, having f i l l e d the earth i n the form df n i d r a ( s l e e p ) ; [she i s ] t h i r s t , shame, hunger, and t e r r i f y i n g resplendence (or the t e r r i f y i n g one and resplendence). — 1 9 b . 'with a body p u r i f i e d through yoga 1 ; see commentary to 19.8. — 1 9 c . 'having f i l l e d ' - - v i t a t y a . The l i t e r a l meaning of v i t a t y a i s 'having extended, having spreadi:V —KatyayanT i s described with both good and e v i l q u a l i t i e s . Many of the great gods of the Indian pantheon are described i n a n t i -t h e t i c a l terms (e.g. Krsna i n the Bhagavad-GTta, chapter 12). There seems to be no p a r t i c u l a r i nconsistency i n having both sets 56 of q u a l i t i e s to describe the same god. Rather, these two aspects of the d i v i n i t y are merely two d i f f e r e n t sides, or faces, of him. When a deity i s described i n t h i s way, as both good and e v i l , the idea i s that he or she i s a l l , and comprises a l l existence. 19.20 s'raddha smrtih p u s t i r atho ksama ca chaya ca s'aktih kamalalaya ca v r t t i r daya bhrantir atheha maya namo 'stu devyai bhavarupikayai "She i s f a i t h , remembrance (or watchfulness), nourishment, forbear-ance, shadow, power, one having the lotus as her abode, existence (or tendency or l i v e l i h o o d ) , compassion, confusion, and i l l u s i o n . Salutation be to the goddess, who has the form of [_all] existence." — 2 0 a . 'one having the lotus as her abode* s kamalaTayff. This i s the goddess LaksmT. It i s unusual to see KatyayanI named Laksma, since LaksmT (s'ri) i s Visnu*s consort. — 2 0 a . There are two ea.-s 'and*. One can be l e f t out i n the t r a n s l a t i o n , afoha, which has the sense of 'and', can also be l e f t out in t h e , f i r s t quarter, where i t appears combined with _u to give atho. 19.21 tatah stuta devavaraih mrgendram 57 aruhya devl pragata *variidhram vindhyam mahaparvatam uccasrrigam cakara yam nimnataram t v agastyah Then the Goddess, pr a i s e d by the superi o r gods, having mounted the l i o n , proceded to the great mountain Vindhya, the t a l l - p e a k e d supporter of the earbh, whom Agastya made lower. 19.22. narada uvaca kim-artham adrim bhagavan agastyas tarn nimnasrngam krtavSn maharsih kasmai k r t e kena ca karanena etad vadasvamalasattvavrtte Narada s a i d : UJhy d i d the venerable great seer Agastya make the mountain one of low peaks? For whose sake, and f o r what reason? Speak of t h i s , you who remain i n s p o t l e s s s a t t v a . — 2 2 c . ' f o r whose sake' = kasmai k^te. In standard Skt., kr,te ' f o r the sake o f . . . ' c a l l s f o r a g e n i t i v e . However, we f i n d a dati v e here. — 2 2 d . ' s a t t v a 1 : according to Indian philosophy ( e s p e c i a l l y i t s Sankhya s c h o o l ) , there are three strands, tendencies, aspects, or q u a l i t i e s , , c a l l e d guna-s: s a t t v a , r a j a s , and tamas. Together they 58 compose p r a k r t i ' p r i m o r d i a l matter or substance'. Sattva i s the q u a l i t y of p u r i t y , enlightenment, and the force behind mental a c t s . Ra j as i s the strand r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p h y s i c a l a c t i o n , ambition and d e s i r e . Tamas i s the f a c t o r causing i n e r t i a , s l e e p i n e s s , p a s s i v i t y . — 2 2 d . 'you who remain i n s p o t l e s s s a t t v a ' -a m a l a s a t t v a v c t t e. The idea i s that a sage, or any l i b e r a t e d man, has accumulated the s a t t v a i n h i m s e l f , and i s f r e e from any forms of the "lower q u a l i t i e s , of r a j a s and tamas. Compare the notion i n the Bhagavad-G l t a 2.45: "ever f i r m i n s a t t v a , t r" 19.23. pu l a s t y a uvaca p u r l h i vindhyena divakarasya g a t i r niruddha gaganecarasya r a v i s tatah kumbhabhavam sametya homavasane vacanam babhase Pulastya s a i d : In the past, the passage of the Sun, who moves i n the sky, was ob-s t r u c t e d lay Vindhya. Then the Sun, having come to the bowl-born one (Agastya) at the conclusion of a ceremony, s a i d the words: — 2 3 b . 'the sun' ~ qaqanecara 'mover i n the sky'. This i s an aluk-compound, where the case ending of the compound's f i r s t member i s not e l i d e d , as i n most cases. —The reason f o r Vindhya b l o c k i n g the sun i s not given i n t h i s ren-59 d i t i o n of the s t o r y . According to a story given by Douison (1953 : 357 ), Vindhya became jealous of (£h^  Himalaya because he was the shorter of the two. So he t r i e d to make the Sun revolve around him, as the Sun then revolved around Himalaya. When the Sun refused, Vindhya blocked i t s passage. This story recounted here probably takes up at t h i s p o i n t . 19.24 samagato *ham d v i j a duratas tvam kurusva mam uddharanam munTndra dadasva danarn mamayan: manlsitam carami yena t r i d i v e s u n i r v r t a h "I have come to you from f a r o f f , 0 Brahmin. Make an upl i f t m e n t f o r me, 0 Chief of sages; give me the g i f t that i s de s i r e d by me, on account of which ( i . e . so that) I ' l l move i n the heavens r e l a x e d . " — 2 4 a . 'Brahmin' s d v i j a , 'twice-born one'. The Brahmins were c a l l e d twice-born because they had two b i r t h s — one from t h e i r parents, the second a symbolic one from the thread-bearing cere-mony c a l l e d upanayana, j u s t before they began t h e i r s c h o o l i n g . — 2 4 b . 'make an u p l i f t m e n t f o r me' = kurusva mSm uddharanam. Usually we would expect the g e n i t i v e mama ins t e a d of the accusa-t i v e mam. The root kr does not u s u a l l y take two accusatives f o r ob j e c t s to convey 'to do something f o r someone*. 60 19.25 ittham divakaravaco guriasamprayogi sr u t v a tada k a l a s a j o vacanam babhase danam dadami tava yanmanasas tv abhlstam * * * n a r t h i p r a y a t i vimukho mama k a s c i d eva Having thus heard the Sun's speech, endowed with good q u a l i t i e s , the bowl-born one (Agastya) then s a i d the words: " I ' l l give you the g i f t t hat i s d e s i r e d by your mind; not one of my s u p p l i c a n t s departs as one whose face i s i n the other d i r e c t i o n ( i . e . u n f u l f i l l e d ) . " — 2 5 c . tu a f i l l e r . — 2 5 d . 'one whose face i s i n the other d i r e c t i o n ' » vimukha. When one does not get what one wants, one turns one's face. Hance t h i s e xpression. 19.26 srutva vaco 'mrtamayam kalasodbhavasya praha prabhuh k a r a t a l e vinidhaya murdhni eso 'dya me g i r i v a r a h prarunaddhi margam vindhyasya nimnakarane bhagavan yatasva Having heard the n e c t a r - f i l l e d words of the bowl-born one (Agastya), the Lord (the Sun), p l a c i n g h i s hands on h i s head, s a i d "At present, t h i s prominent mountain o b s t r u c t s my path, 0 venerable one. S t r i v e at a lowering of the Vindhya." 61 19.27 i t i ravivacanad athaha kumbhajanrria krtam i t i v/iddhi maya h i nTcas'rngam tava k i r a n a j i t o bhavisyate mahTdhro mama caranasamas'ritasya ka vyatha te Then, a f t e r the speech of the Sun, the boml-born one (Agastya) s a i d , "Knout _Vindhya] as made of low peaks by me ["already] ( i . e . you can assume that what you ask f o r i s already done). The mountain w i l l be conquered by your rays. What a f f l i c t i o n i s there f o r you who have sought my feet ( i . e . sought refuge i n me)?" -—27a. "then, a f t e r the speech of the Sun' s ravi-vacanad atha. This phrase seems to have been used i n the sense of ravi-vacanad  urdhvam/anantaram/ uttaram/ pas'c 'at. — 2 7 b . 'know [vindhya^] to be made of low peaks by me [ a l r e a d y ] 1 , l i t . , ' k n o w : " i t i s made (krjtam)" by me one of low peaks (nTcas'rngam).' The standard Skt. would have been n l c a s r n g a b krtah i n s t e a d of n i c a -sVrigam kytam, as i t i f l a n k s the clause. -~27b. .hi a f i l l e r , or to be taken as 'indeed'. 19.28 i t y evam uktva kalasodbhavas tu suryam h i samstuya vinamya bhaktya jagama samtyajya h i dandakam h i vindhyacalam vrddhavapur maharsih 62 Having spoken thus, the bowl-born one (Agastya), the great seer uiho had an o l d body, having p r a i s e d Surya and bowed doum to [him] with devotion [and] having l e f t the Dandaka-forest, went to the Vindhya mountain. — 2 8 a . _tu a f i l l e r . — 2 8 b . h i a f i l l e r . — 2 8 c . h i a f i l l e r . — 2 8 c . 'Dandaka-forest*: a f o r e s t l y i n g between the Godavarl and Narmada. I t i s the s e t t i n g f o r many episodes of the Ramayana. 19.29 gatva vacah praha munir mahTdhram yas~ye mahatlrthavaram supunyam vrddho.'smy as'aktas ca tavadhirodhum tasrnad bhavan n l c a t a r o 'stu :sadyah Having gone, the sage spoke [ t h e s e ] words to the mountain: " I ' l l go to the s u p e r i o r of the great places of p i l g r i m a g e , a most holy one. I am o l d and unable to climb on you; t h e r e f o r e , may you (or •• you please) become lower immediately." — 2 9 b . 'the superior of the great places of pilgrimage' » maha-tlr t h a v a r a m . A t T r t h a ( e t y m o l o g i c a l l y ' f o r d a b l e , the point at which one can cross the stream') i s a place of pilgramage, where people go to bathe i n the r i v e r - w a t e r s , i n order to gain merit. 63 There mere (and are) c e r t a i n s p e c i a l spots where one could bathe (e.g. i n the Ganges) which are supposed to. have extremely good r e s u l t s f o r the bather. Note: Agastya does not s p e c i f y which place of pilgrimage he i s going t o . Is t h i s d e l i b e r a t e l y vague? —-29c. 'unable to climb on you' ~ asaktas ca tavadhirog"hum. Normally we would expect the accusative tvam of the second person pronoun, not the g e n i t i v e tava, as we have here. 19.30 i t y evam ukto munisattamena sa nicasrngas tv abhavan mahldhrah samakramac capi maharsimukhyah prollanghya vindhyam tv idam aha sailam Thus addressed by the best sage (Agastya), the mountain became one of low peaks, and the c h i e f of great seers (Agastya) too t r a v e r s e d / i t ] ; •• f a f t e r going beyond the Vindhya, he sa i d to the mountain: 19.31 yivan na bhuyo nijam avrajami mahasramam dhautavapuh sutTrthat tvaya na tavat tv i h a vardhitavyam no ced visapsye 'ham avajnaya te "As long as I don't come back again as one of cleansed body to my 64 great hermitage from the good place of p i l g r i m a g e , you s h a l l not grow here [ i n heigh t ^ . Otherwise ( i . e . i f you grow before I return) I ' l l curse you because of d i s r e s p e c t i n g (or non-abiding) on your p a r t . " — 3 1 c . tu a f i l l e r . — 3 1 d . A l t e r n a t i v e t r a n s l a t i o n : 'otherwise, I s h a l l curse you with contempt (contemptuously).' 19.32 i t y evam u k t v l bhagavan jagama disam sa yamyam sahasa 'ntariksam akramya tasthau sahitam tadasam k a l e vrajamy a t r a yada munlndrah Having spoken thus, the venerable one (Agastya) suddenly went i n the southerly d i r e c t i o n i n the sky. Heiremained [there] at that time, having occupied that quarter, when the c h i e f of sages (Agastya) ^thought] "I s h a l l go here [ t o Vindhya or to my o l d hermitage"] at a ^proper] time." — 3 2 a . I assume here that the root gam can take two a c c u s a t i v e s , disam and antariksam, — 3 2 b . 'southerly d i r e c t i o n ' = dis'am.. .yamyam. The word yamya means 'of Yama*. Yama was the l o k a p a l a ' p r o t e c t o r ' f o r the southern d i r e c t i o n (see 18.72). — 3 2 c d . The meaning of the l a s t two quarters i s d o u b t f u l , even though a l l the words are i n t e l l i g i b l e i n d i v i d u a l l y . The syntax 65 i s problematic, to say the l e a s t . The word sahitam i n the c r i t i -c a l e d i t i o n should be read sa _ h i tarn, as i n the recast of the c r i t i c a l t e x t i n the Hindi e d i t i o n . 18.33 tatras'ramam ramyataram h i k r t v a samsuddhajambunadatoranantam t a t r a t h a n i k s i p y a vidarbhaputrlm svam asramam saumyam upajagama Having b u i l t there a more b e a u t i f u l hermitage r i g h t up to an arched p o r t a l of pure gold and then having placed Vidarbha's daughter (Agastya*s w i f e , Loparnudra) there, he went to h i s own pleasant hermi-tage. — 3 3 c . Loparnudra i s the g i r l whom Agastya formed out of the most g r a c e f u l p arts of d i f f e r e n t animals and had brought up i n the palace of the king of Vidarbha. When she was o l d enough, Agastya asked the king f o r her hand i n marriage and became her husband (from p. 181, Dowson: 1953). 18.34 5tau r t i u p a r v a k l l e s u nityam tarn ambare hy asramam avasat sah sesarfi ca kalam sa h i dandakasthas tapa£ cacaramitakantiman munih 66 In each season, at the periods of juncture, he always occupied that hermitage i n the sky. And f o r the remaining time, the sage (Agastya), having immeasurable resplendence, p r a c t i c e d penance, remaining i n the Dandaka-forest, — 3 4 a . 'periods of j u n c t u r e ' : the Skt. word f o r juncture i s parvan, meaning a time of change, the period that j o i n s two recognizable segments of time. They are u s u a l l y occasions f o r r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t y , f o r instance, at the f u l l or new moon, or at the equinoxes. — 3 4 b . h i a f i l l e r . — 3 4 c . h i a f i l l e r . — 3 4 d . ' p r a c t i c e d penance': see s e c t i o n on mot i f s i n the I n t r o -d u c t i o n , tapas. 18.35 vindhyo ' p i drst^va gagane mahasramam vrddhim na yaty eva bhayan maharseh nasau n i v r t t e t i matim vidhaya sa samsthito nlcataragrasrngah Having seen the great hermitage i n the sky, Vindhya too d i d not at a l l grow, out of fear f o r the great seer (Agastya). Thinking 'that one has not returned*, he remained one with extremely low top peaks. — 3 5 c . 'that one has not r e t u r n e d ' n a s a u n i v r t t e t i . There i s a case of double-sjajfidhi here: o r i g i n a l l y , the words were 67 nivi;ttah i t i , then they became n i v c t t a i t i , and f i n a l l y n i \ / r . t t e t i The f i n a l change i s not allowed i n standard Skt., but i t enables the author to f o l l o w the metre. 18.36 evam tv agastyena mahacalendrah sa nicasrh'go h i k r t o maharse tasyorOdhvasrnge munisamstuta sa duroa s t h i t i " dawaaaoaiiarivaBtham Thus, 0 great seer (Narada), the c h i e f of the great mountains was made one of low peaks by Agastya. On i t s top peak, that Durga (Katy yani) who mas p r a i s e d by the sages, remained i n order to destroy the demons. —-36a. tu a f i l l e r . — 3 6 b . hi a f i l l e r . 18.37 devas' ca siddhas' ca mahoragas ca vidyadhara bhutaganas' ca sarve sarvapsarobhih pratiramayantah katyayanTm t a s t h u r apetasokah A l l the gods, Siddha*s, Great Snakes, F a i r i e s , and hosts of s p i r i t s , along with the c e l e s t i a l nymphs, stayed there w i t h j T t h e i r ] g r i e f sub 68 s i d e d , causing Katyayanl to be happy. — F o r the d i f f e r e n t beings i n t h i s verse, see Glossary under each i n d i v i d u a l name. —37cd. pratiramayantab katyavanim. The word pratiramayantah i s q uite r a r e . Another way of t a k i n g quarters c and d i s : "enjoying with the c e l e s t i a l nymphs, t h e i r g r i e f subsided, they attended upon Katyayanl." Here one assumes that pratiramayantab does not have a causal meaning, but i s equal to ramahtah or ramamanah and that tasthuh 'remained, stood 1 has the sense of upatasthuh 'attended upon'. CHAPTER XX 20.1 p u l a s t y a uvaca t a t a s tu ta"m t a t r a tada vasantTm katygyanlm s a i l a v a r a s y a srrige apasyatam danavasattamau dvau candas ca mundas' ca tapsvinim tarn But then, Canda and Munda, two great demons, saw the a s c e t i c KatyayanT who was d w e l l i n g there at t h a t time on the peak of the great mountain. - - I d . tarn i s repeated u n n e c e s s a r i l y . 69 20.2 d r s t v a i v a s'ailad a v a t i r y a sTghram a"jagmatuh svabhavanam s u r a r l drstvocatus tau mahisasurasya dutav idam candamundau d i t i s a m As soon as they saui her, the tuio enemies of the gods, having descen-ded'-from the mountain q u i c k l y , came home. Having seen [him, Mahisa], Canda and Munda, messengers of the demon Mahisa, s a i d t h i s to the l o r d of [the sons o f ] D i t i (Mahisa): — 2 d . d i t i s a m ; l i t . , ' l o r d of D i t i ' . What we expect contex-t u a l l y i s ' l o r d of the sons of D i t i 1 . 20.3 svastho bhavan kirn tv asurendra sampratam agaccha pasyama ca t a t r a vindhyam t a t r a s t i devT sumahanubhava kanya surupa surasundarinam "j^MayJ you [_be^ | happy, 0 Mahisa. But come now and w e ' l l see Vindhya joverj t h e r e . There i s t h i s d i v i n e v i r g i n of extreme majesty, uiho i s [inorej b e a u t i f u l than the b e a u t i f u l women of gods. — 3 a . '[.Way] y ° u E^e] happy' s svastho bhavan. L i t e r a l l y , '[may] you [be] s e l f - r e s t i n g ' . 70 20.4 j i t a s taya toyadhara ' l a k a i r h i j i t ah sas'anko vadanena tanvya n e t r a i s t r i b h i s t r l n i hutasanani j i t a n i kanthena j i t a s tu .sankhah "•Clouds are indeed conquered by her through [her] l o c k s ; the Moon i s conquered by the slender one through [her] face; the three f i r e s are conquered by her 'three eyes, uihile (tu) a conch i s conquered by [ h e r ] neck. — 4 b . 'Moon1 = sas^arikab. L i t e r a l l y , 'having the mark of a hare'. The Moon i s a l s o c a l l e d mrqafika: 'having the mark of a deer'. Cf. 18.72, commentary. —•4c. ' f i r e s ' a hutasanani. This i s a neuter p l u r a l . Standard Skt. mould employ masculine p l u r a l hutasanah. 20.5 stanau s u v r t t a v atha magnacucukau s t h i t a u v i j i t y eva gajasya kumbhau tvarh sarvajetaram i t i pratarkya kucau smarenaiva krtau sudurgau "Her uiell-rounded breasts have sunken n i p p l e s ; they stand as i f they have conquered the temples of an elephant; the breasts were made a l l the more d i f f i c u l t f o r access by Kama h i m s e l f , [ w i t h him] having 71 i n f e r r e d 'you are the conqueror of a l l * J_and hence must have a r e a l c h a l l e n g e ] , — 5 b , 'having conquered the temples of an elephant'. The idea i s t h i s : her breasts have t h e ' q u a l i t i e s of expanse, roundness and firmness that are of such a high q u a l i t y that they r i v a l even the temples o f elephants. — 5 c d . Kama (the god of Love) uianted e i t h e r to pose a r e a l c h a l -lenge to Mahisa or to do h i s best to protect KatyayanI from Mahisa. 20.6 (Dinah sasastrah parighopamas ca bhujas t a t h a 'stadasa bhanti tasyah parakramam v a i bhavato v i d i t v a kamena yantra i v a te k r t a s tu "Her eighteen arms, rounded, bearing uieapons, and s i m i l a r to a bar, appear l i k e machines fashioned by Kama, [properly c h a l l e n g i n g ] f o r you [0 Mahisa], a f t e r l e a r n i n g of your v a l o r . —The bar i n mind (probably) i s the type of bar used f o r l o c k i n g doors from the i n s i d e : a s o r t of l a t c h . Such a bar was la r g e at one end and tapered down to a l e s s e r t t h i c k n e s s at the other end. — 6 c d . Kama placed p r o t e c t i o n s around KatylyanT the way one p r o t e c t s a palace or a f o r t , by,? erecting mechanical devices around i t . 72 20.7 madhyam ca tasyas t r i v a l l t a r a n g a m v i b h a t i daityendra suromaraji bhayatur arohanakatarasya kamasya sopanam i v a prayuktam "And, 0 King of the demons (Mahisa), her b e l l y , uihich has a r i p p l e of three f o l d s and uihich has a nice streak of h a i r , appears l i k e a s t a i r c a s e put to use by Kama, uiho i s a f f l i c t e d by fear £of you and hence i s ^ scared to mount. ~~7ab. *her b e l l y , uihich has a r i p p l e of three f o l d s and uihich has a nice streak of h a i r . . . ' : t h i s uias considered to be a mark of extreme feminine a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . — 7 c d . ' . . . l i k e a s t a i r c a s e put to use by Kama, mho i s a f f l i c t e d by f e a r of you and hence i s scared to mount': an example of utpreksa ( p o e t i c f a n c y ) . The image i s t h i s : the three f o l d s i n KatyayanT's b e l l y are comparable to a s t a i r c a s e uihich uias b u i l t to enable the god of Love to climb. He i s so f r i g h t e n e d by Mahisa as a p o t e n t i a l r i v a l that he cannot e a s i l y climb i n the usual uiay. 'Climb' (arohana) suggests d e s i r e to enjoy her b e a u t i f u l body. This p o e t i c image leads us i n t o the one i n the next verse. 20; 8 sa romarajT sutaram h i tasya v i r a j a t e pTnakucavalgna 73 arohane tvadbhayakatarasya svedapravaho 'sura manmathasya "That streak of h a i r of hers, touching from beloui her round b r e a s t s , appears extremely b e a u t i f u l , 0 demon; [ i t i s j the stream of sweat of Kama, who, i n c l i m b i n g , i s cowardly (shaken) through f e a r of you. —The utpreksa ' p o e t i c f l i g h t * here i s a l i t t l e obscure, and needs ex p l a n a t i o n . The roma r a j l (the streak of h a i r on KatyayanT's b e l l y ) i s now declared hot to be a streak of h a i r at a l l , but rather the sweat from Kama (the god of Love), who i s climbing up the s t a i r c a s e of KatyayanT's t r j j y a l T (three f o l d s of her b e l l y ) . Thus KatyayanT i s so b e a u t i f u l that even the god of Love, Kama h i m s e l f , cannot r e s i s t her, but he i s at the same time extremely a f r a i d of Mahisa who, Kama t h i n k s , must want KatyayanT. 20.9 nabhir gabhlra sutaram v i b h a t i pradaksina ' syah parivafctamana t a s y a i v a lavanyagrhasya mudra kandarparajna svayam eva datta "The deep navel of t h i s one ( i . e . ..of.'-hers), which t u r n s around ( i . e . i t has a f o l d turning) from the r i g h t , appears very b e a u t i f u l ; [it i s indeed] the s e a l , placed by king»Kama;himself, of that very [treasure house of beauty. 74 — 9 a b . 'the deep navel of t h i s one, uihich turns around from the r i g h t ' : t h i s i s a mark of beauty and an i n d i c a t i o n of the author's good o b s e r v a t i o n . — 9 c d . ' [ i t i s indeed] the s e a l . v ; of that very [ t r e a s u r e - h o u s e of beauty': the imagery i s q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g here. Katyayanl's navel i s compared to a s e a l . A s e a l i s used i n completing a mork, such as a l e t t e r or a king's e d i c t , or something e l s e very pre-c i o u s . Thus, i n p u t t i n g a s e a l on her, KTama i s marking her as a very s p e c i a l beauty to be c a r e f u l l y looked a f t e r . 20.10 v i b h a t i ramyam jaghanam mrgak^yah samantato mekhalaya 'vajustam manyama tarn kamanaradhipasya prikarag'uptam nagaram sudurgamam "The h i p - r e g i o n of that gazelle-eyed one, uihich i s enjoyed on a l l sides by a g i r d l e , appears b e a u t i f u l . We mould consider i t the c i t y of king-Kama, protected by ramparts, one of extremely d i f f i c u l t access. — 1 0 a . 'gazelle-eyed one': having eyes l i k e the eyes of a g a z e l l e i s a s i g n of beauty i n women f o r Skt. poets. G a z e l l e s have wide, black eyes. — 1 0 c , 'uie mould consider i t ' - manyama tarn. Standard Skt. would employ manySroahe (middle voice) i n the place of manygma. Als o , the word f o r ' i t ' i s tarn (masculine), but should be t a t ( n e u t e r ) , since 75 i t stands f o r jaqhanam ^ h i p ' . — l O c d . 'we would consider i t the c i t y of king-Kama, protected by ramparts, one of extremely d i f f i c u l t access* : again a l o v e l y image, t h i s time an image of Katyayahl's w a i s t . Her waist i s l i k e a c i t y b u i l t by the king of Love ( i . e . i t contains l o v e l i n e s s p e r s o n i f i e d ) , and the c i t y i s imagined to have a f o r t r e s s w a l l about i t , p r o t e c t i n g i t from outside i n v a s i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , Katya-yahl's waist has a g i r d l e about i t , p r o t e c t i n g her from the sup-posed a s s a u l t s of those who cannot help but be a t t r a c t e d by her. 20.11 vrttavaromau ca mrdu kumaryah sobheta uru samanuttamau h i avasanartham makaradhvajena janasya desav i v a s a n n i v i s t a u "The g i r l ' s most e x c e l l e n t t h i g h s , which are round, without h a i r and s o f t , look b e u a t i f u l . £They are*]» as i f , two regions placed together by Kama f o r the purpose of s e t t l i n g people. — l i b , 'most e x c e l l e n t ' = samanuttamau, a rare compound, rare because of the superfluous sam-. L i t e r a l l y , i t means, 'compared to which there i s nothing b e t t e r ' . — l i b . * [ h erj t h i g h s . . . l o o k b e a u t i f u l ' - sobheta uru. The words that underwent the process of samdhi to o b t a i n these two words are sobhete uru. Apparently, the steps through which these words 76 passed to gain the present sarfidhi form are — sobhetay uru. and (then with the dropping of y_) £nbheta Uru. But t h i s i s n ' t allowed, i n standard Skt., to happen to a dual ending i n i , u, or &. The author must be e f f e c t i n g t h i s type of samdhi f o r the sake of the metre. — l i e d . Here i t i s s a i d that KatyayanT's thighs have a l l the hallmarks of land d e s i r a b l e f o r s e t t l i n g . They are round, without h a i r , and s o f t . In the comparison, a good, land f o r s e t t l i n g would be rounded with h i l l s ; i t would not have many t r e e s , since a s e t t l e -ment cannot be made i n a j u n g l e , but only i n an open regio n ; and the ground i t s e l f should be s o f t and malleable, f o r growing vege-t a b l e s . Thus, the q u a l i t i e s of a region that i s d e s i r a b l e f o r s e t t l i n g are also the q u a l i t i e s of KatyayanT's t h i g h s , and f o r that reason the author claims that Kama created her th i g h s to s e t t l e people (a suggestion of p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i o n ) . 20.12 t a j ' januyugmam mahisasurendra arddhonnatam b h a t i t a t h a i v a tasyah s r s t v a v i d h a t a h i nirupanaya srantas t a t h a h a s t a t a l e dadau h i "Likewise, 0 Mahisa, king of the demons, that p a i r of knees of hers, r a i s e d half-way, appears £as i f ] the Creator, a f t e r having created [_them], being t i r e d , presented £them~j l i k e that on the palm of a hand f o r the observation fof o t h e r s ! . 77 —What i s given here i s only a probable t r a n s l a t i o n . The author's imagination here seems to outreach his words and the metre. Con-sequently, what exactly he has in mind isnot c l e a r . 20.13 janghe suvrtte 'pi ca romahlne sobheta daityesvara te tadiye akramya lokan iva nirmitaya r u p a r j i t a s y a i v a krtadharau h i "Those calves of hers, well-round and h a i r l e s s , appear b e a u t i f u l , 0 Lord of the demons (Mahisa). jjhey are] krtadhara-s of what i s earned through form (beauty) of that one who i s created as i f by overcoming (transcending) the worlds. : —13b, sobheta i s used where one would expect sobhete, a dual verb. —13d. The author's intention i s far from c l e a r . It seems to have puzzled the writer of every s i g n i f i c a n t manuscript, as a var i e t y of readings i s a v a i l a b l e . However, none of the readings available makes s a t i s f a c t o r y sense. The ordinary meanings of kgta 'done, made' and adhara 'lower, lower l i p ' do not seem to f i t the context. Perhaps krtadharau i s the metrically forced form of krtadharau 'have been made supports/props/foundations'. Even then the use of a compound to express the idea of krtau adharau would be strange. One expects krtadharau or krtadharau to be a bahu-78 v r i h i compound. Moreover, such a bahuv r l h i must agree uiith the feminine janghe. Perhaps 13cd i s to be connected to 14ab. 20.14 padau ca tasyah kamalodarabhau prayatnatas tau h i krtau v i d h a t r a a j n a p i tabhyam nakharatnamala naksatramala gagane yathaiva •'And her feet are l i k e the i n s i d e of a l o t u s . They have been made uiith great e f f o r t by the Creator. A s e r i e s of j e w e l - l i k e n a i l s , . j u s t l i k e the s e r i e s of c o n s t e l l a t i o n s i n the sky, was ordered come nearj by them. —14cd_ Another very p o e t i c image. KatyayanT 1s reddish b r i g h t t o e n a i l s are compared f i r s t to jewels, and then to the s t a r s i n the sky. 20.15 evamsvarupa danunatha kanya mahogras'astrani ca dharayanti d r s t v a yathestam na ca vidma ka sa suta 'thava kasyacid eva ba l a "Now, 0 Lord of [the sons o f ] Danu (Mahisa), the g i r l i s of such and such form, and i s bearing extremely s c a r i n g weapons. Having seen fh e r 79 at m i l l , uie don't know uiho she i s , or |_whether t h a t ] young g i r l i s someone's daughter. — 1 5 c . 'at w i l l ' s i . e . , we saw her as long as we wished. Con. 20.2a d r s t v a i v a 'as soon as they saw her'. •—15c. 'we don't know...' s na ca vidma... This i s an unusual form, coming from vidmaft, with the f i n a l b_ dropped Before _. More-over, c o n t e x t u a l l y , the verb should be i n the dua l . — 1 5 d . eva a f i l l e r . 20.16 tadbhutale ratnam anuttamam sthitam svargam p a r i t y a j y a maha 'surendra gatva 'that/ vindhyam svayam eva pasya kurusva yat te 'bhimatam ksarnam ca "•That incomparable j e w e l , having l e f t heaven, remains on the surface of the e a r t h , 0 Lord of the great demons (Mahisa). Having gone to Vindhya, see f o r y o u r s e l f . Do th a t which i s pr e f e r a b l e to you and f e a s i b l e . " — 1 6 b . In the l i g h t of 20.20b, which gives the impression that the demons were s e t t l e d i n heaven, one could take svargam p a r i t y a j y a 'having l e f t heaven' as applying to Mahisa and t r a n s l a t e s "That iincomparable jewel remains on the surface of the e a r t h . 0 Mahisa, a f t e r l e a v i n g heaven [and] going to Vindhya, see f o r y o u r s e l f . " eo — 1 6 d . ' f e a s i b l e ' = ksamam. Ksama u s u a l l y means 'capable', but here i t means ' f e a s i b l e ' . 20.17 s r u t v a i v a tabhyam mahisasuras tu devyah p r a v r t t i m kamaniyarupam cakre matim natra vicaram a s t i i t y evam uktva mahiso ' p i n a s t i As soon as he heard that a t t r a c t i v e coming-about (or news) of the goddess from those two (Canda and Munda), the demon Mahisa thought, "there does not e x i s t anything worth considering i n t h i s matter ( i . e . •I need not w a i t ) " [[and s a i d s o ] . Having s a i d t h a t , Mahisa too does not e x i s t ( i . e . he paves the path to h i s own d e s t r u c t i o n ) I — 1 7 b . ' a t t r a c t i v e ' " kamaniyarupam — l i t . , 'having a d e s i r a b l e form'. This i s a t r a n s f e r r e d a d j e c t i v e , here a p p l i e d to pravr,f t i (coming about, news', but i t a c t u a l l y goes with KatyayanT, i n terms of meaning. I f , however, one assumes that karnanlya-rupam i s a m e t r i c a l l y truncated v e r s i o n of the l o c a t i v e form kamanlya-rupayam, a b e t t e r t r a n s l a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e : "As soon as he heard the news of the Goddess from those two, Mahisa f i x e d h i s mind on that one of d e s i r a b l e form. Having s a i d , 'there does not e x i s t anything worth considering i n t h i s matter,' Mahisa too does not e x i s t ( i . e . i n v i t e s h i s own d e s t r u c t i o n ) I " 81 20.18 p r i g eva purfisas tu s'ubhas'ubhani sthlne vidhatra. p r a t i p a d i t a n i yasmin yatha yani yato 'tha v/ipra sa nTyate va v r a j a t i svayam va 0 Brahmin (Narada), good and e v i l f a t e s of a person are already imparted properly by the Creator [even to the extent as to] i n uthich, i n what manner, to which, and from which he i s e i t h e r l e d or goes h i m s e l f . — T h i s verse brings out the idea of everything being foreordained. Man i s e i t h e r l e d by f a t e to what must happen, or performs ac t i o n s that amount to moving towards that f a t e . 20.19 t a t o nu mundam namaram sacandam vidalanetram sapisVngavaskalam ugrayudham ciksuraraktabTuau samadidesatha mahasurendrah The great king of the demons (Mahisa) then issue d orders to Munda and Namara, along with Canda, Bidala. n e t r a , along w i t h Pisanga, Baskala and Ugrayudha, Ciksura and RaktabTja. — 1 9 b . * B i d a l a - n e t r a * : the word i n the text i s V i d a l a n e t r a . The usual form of the word i s B i d a l a 0 . Many times the v^  and b are 82 interchanged i n manuscripts. —Some of the names i n t h i s verse have i n t e r e s t i n g etymological meanings. See I n t r o d u c t i o n under "Language". 20.20 ahatya bheri ranakarkasas te svargam p a r i t y a j y a mahTdharam tu agamya mule sivi r a r n mvesya tasthus' ca sa!jja danunandanas te Those sons of Danu, uiho were roughened by b a t t l e , having beaten the drums, having l e f t heaven, having come to the J^Vindhya] mountain, and having e s t a b l i s h e d an encampment at j ^ i t s ^ ' f o b t , stood ready. Sr-20b. tu. a f i l l e r . — 2 0 c . The same interchange of v and b_ that uie saui i n the l a s t verse occurs here too. In the present verse uie f i n d Sivirarn, i n s t e a d of the usual Sibiram. 20.21 t a t a s tu d a i t y o mahisasurena sampresito danavayuthapalah mayasya putro ripusainyamardT sa dundubhir dundubhinihsvanas tu Then a demon, uiho was the p r o t e c t o r of the multitudes df demons, uias 83 sent f o r t h [ t o Katyayanl] by the demon Mahisa. That [demon] Oundubhi Quias ] the son of Maya, the crusher of enemy's armies, and the one having the voice of a battle-drum. — 2 1 a . tu_ a f i l l e r . — 2 1 d . tu a f i l l e r . 20.22 abhyetya devim gaganasthito ' p i sa dundubhir vakyam uvaca v i p r a kumari duto 'smi mahasurasya rambhatmajasyapratimasya yuddhe And ( a p i ) , 0 Brahmin (Narada), having approached the goddess, that Dundubhi, s t a t i o n e d i n the sky, s a i d the words: "0 young woman, I am a messenger of the great demon (Mahisa) who i s the son of Rambha, and i s incomparable i n b a t t l e . " — 2 2 a . One can also t r a n s l a t e gaganesthito ' p i as 'even while he was s t a t i o n e d i n the sky'. The purpose perhaps i s to point out that Dundubhi d i d not observe the messenger's e t t i q u e t e of occupy-ing a lower or equal p o s i t i o n ~~ that he was rude. 20.23 katyayanl dundubhim abhyuvaca ehy ehi daityendra bhayam vimucya 84 vakyam ca yad rambhasuto babhase vadasva t a t satyam apetamohah KatyayanI s a i d to Dundubhi: "Come, come, 0 c h i e f of the demons, having abandoned f e a r . Say as one whose confusion i s removed the words which the son of Rambha (Mahisa) s a i d , as they were." 20.24 tathoktavakye d i t i j a h sivSyas tyajyambaram bhumitale nisannah sukhopavistah paramasane ca rambhatmajenoktam uvaca vakyam When the words of KatyayanT were spoken thus, the son of D i t i (Dun-dubhi), having l e f t the sky, came down to the surface o f t h e e a r t h , and, seated happily on a valuable seat, s a i d the words u t t e r e d by the son of Rambha (Mahisa). • — 2 4 a . £iva: t h i s i s the f i r s t time i n the present v e r s i o n that the name has been a p p l i e d to KatyayanI, I t i s probable that she i s c a l l e d S i v a , the female counterpart of Lord S i v a , who i s the god of d e s t r u c t i o n , because t h i s i s j u s t about the time when she w i l l make b a t t l e f o r the gods against the demon. However, one cannot r u l e out the p o s s i b i l i t y that the author may have used the word i n i t s usual sense 'the auspicious one'. — 2 4 b , 'having l e f t * ~ t y a j y a . The gerund from simple t v a j 85 should be t v a k t v a . I f tya.j had a p r e f i x attached to i t , t y a j y a utould have been proper i n standard Skt. yathamara hinabalah prthivyarn bhramanti yuddhe v i j i t a maya te Dundubhi s a i d : "The demon Mahisa, enemy of the gods, commands you thus, 0 Goddess. •As the gods, shorn of power, wander the e a r t h , they are conquered i n b a t t l e by me. — ' t h e gods, shorn of power..': see the l a s t part of chapter 18 f o r reference to the defeat of the gods. — 2 5 b . i j i . a f i l l e r . 20.25 dundubhir uvaca evam samajnapayate s u r a r i s tvam devi daityo mahisasuras tu 20.26 svargam mahT vayupathas ca vasyah patalam anye ca mahesvaradyah indro 'smi rudro'*smi divakaro 'smi sarvesu lokesv adhipo 'smi bale "'Heaven, c o n t r o l , as w e l l 86 as (ca) the nether world and Mahes'vara (Siva), etc. |_Nowj I am Indra, I am Rudra, I am the Sun, I am the master i n a l l the worlds, 0 young g i r l . —Perhaps Mahisa presupposes that Siva i s subservient to him, since Siva has not yet opposed him. If he had actually vanquished Siva, the special status given to Siva i n 19.2b does not f i t very w e l l . — 2 6 a . 'heaven'svargam. The word i s used here i n the neuter, instead of the usual masculine. Svarqa could have been o r i g i n a l l y a neuter ( a d j e c t i v a l ) noun l i k e durga. but by c l a s s i c a l time i t had become a masculine noun. 20.27 na so ' s t i nake na mahltale va rasatale devabhto 'suro va yo mam hi samgramam upeyivams tu bhOto na yakso na j i j i v i s u r yah "'There i s neither i n heaven, nor on the surface of the earth, nor i n the nether world, a warrior of the gods or a demon or a s p i r i t or a yaksa, who wished to l i v e and has approached me in b a t t l e . — 2 ? c . 'approached' = upeyivan — here the word takes two accu-satives, mam *me'and samgramam ' b a t t l e ' . — 2 7 c . ty a f i l l e r . 87 20.28 yany eva r a t n a n i mahltale va svarge ' p i p a t a l a t a l e 'tha mugdhe sarva n i mam adya samagatani v l r y a r j i t a r i i h a v i s a l a n e t r e " ' A l l precious t h i n g s , 0 innocent one (Katyayanl), uihich are on the surface of the earth or i n heaven or on the surface of the nether region •—- a l l of them have come to me noui — acquired through v a l o r i n t h i s uiorld, 0 you of b i g eyes (KatyayanT). 20.29 s t r l r a t n a m agryam bhavatT ca kanya prapto 'smi sailam tava karanena tasmad bhajasveha jagatpatim mam p a t i s tavarho 'smi vibhuh prabhus ca "'And you are an unmarried g i r l , the foremost among women-jewels. I have a r r i v e d at the mountain because of you. Therefore, take to me, the l o r d of the world. I am a worthy husband f o r you and a sovereign master.'" — 2 9 b . 'because of you' ~ tava karanena — l i t . , 'with you as purpose'. 88 20.30 pulas t y a uvSca i t y evam ukta d i t i j e n a durga katyayanl prSha mayasya putram satyarh prabhur danavarat prthivyam satyarh ca yuddhe vijit'amaras ca Pulastya s a i d : When thus addressed by the son of D i t i (Dundubhi), Durga (KatyayanT) s a i d to the son of Maya (Dundubhi), " I t i s true that the king of demons (Mahisa) i s the l o r d on the e a r t h , and t r u l y the gods have been conquered i n b a t t l e . ~-30d. vi.jitamarab: a case of double samdhi. The o r i g i n a l words vin'itab amarab mould be changed only to v i j i t a amarah i n standard 20.31 kirn tv a s t i d a i t y e s a kule 'smadTye dharmo h i sulkakhya i t i prasiddhah tarn cet pradadyan mahiso mamadya bhajami satyena patim hayarim "But, 0 c h i e f of the demons (Dundubhi), there i s a mell-known custom i n our family c a l l e d b r i d e - p r i c e . If Mahisa gave i t to me nom, I s h a l l t r u l y take to Hayari (Mahisa) as husband." 89 — 3 1 c . ' i f Mahisa gave i t to me*: the word f o r ' i t ' i n the t e x t i s tarn, a masculine form of the pronoun tad. But i t should be neuter t a d , f o r the pronoun here stands f o r s^ulka, the neuter uiord f o r dowry-price. The masculine form i s probably a r e s u l t of the m a s c u l i n e word dharma associated uiith sulka i n 31b. — 3 1 c . 'now' s ady a, u s u a l l y means 'today', Here, i t means 'now'. — 3 1 d . 'I s h a l l t r u l y take to him' s bhajami satyena...Hayarim. The word satyena means 'swearing by t r u t h , i n t r u t h ' . For Hayari, c f . 18.71. 20.32 sr u t v a 'tha v'akyam mayajo ' b r a v i c ca S3ulkam vadasvambujapatranetre dadyat svamurdh'anam api tvadarthe kirn nama sulkam yad i h a i v a labhyam And then, on hearing t h i s speech, the son on Maya (Dundubhi) s a i d , "Say what the p r i c e i s , 0 one whose eyes are l i k e l o t u s leaves! Mahisa] would give h i s own head f o r your sake. What then indeed i s a b r i d e - p r i c e , obtainable i n t h i s very world!" — •he would give h i s own head f o r your sake' : i r o n i c , since Mahisa w i l l a c t u a l l y g i v e ' h i s own l i f e f o r Katyayanl. 90 20.33 pulas t y a uvaca i t y evam ukta danunayakena katyayanT sasvanam unnaditva vihasya c a i t a d vacanam babhase h i t a y a sarvasya caracarasya Pulastya s a i d t Thus spoken to by the leader of the [sons of] Danu (Dundubhi), Katya-yanT, having roared with £great] sound and having laughed , s a i d these words f o r the b e n e f i t of everything moving and unmoving: — 3 3 b . 'having rbaredrwith f_great] sound' - unnaditva. This would be unnadya i n standard Skt. Here i t i s probably changed f o r the sake of the metre. 20.34 srld e v y uvaca kule ' smadlye srnu d a i t y a s'ulkam krtam h i yat purvataraih prasahya yo jesyate 'smatkulajam ranagre tasyah sa bhartta ' p i b h a v i s y a t l t i The G l o r i o u s Goddess (Katy§yanT) s a i d : " L i s t e n to the p r i c e , 0 demon, which was made (determined) by the ancestors i n our f a m i l y , a f t e r enduring a l o t s 'He who w i l l conquer 91 i n the b a t t l e - f r o n t a uioman born i h our f a m i l y , m i l l become her hus-band too.'" — 3 4 b . 1 after ienduring a l o t * ~ prasahya, from the root sah 'to t o l e r a t e , s u f f e r , endure p a t i e n t l y ' , mith pra as p r e f i x i n d i c a t i n g i n t e n s i t y . The i m p l i c a t i o n probably i s : ' a f t e r having gone through a l o t of experiences'. 20.35-36 pulas t y a uvaca t a c chrutva vacanam devya dundubhir danavesvarah gatva nivedayamasa mahis'aya yathatatham sa cabhyagan mahatejah sarvadaityapurahsarah agatya vindhyasikharam yoddhukamah sarasvatlm On hearing t h i s speech of the Goddess, Dundubhi, c h i e f of the demons, having gone, reported as i t mas to Mahisa. / And he (Mahisa) of great b r i l l i a n c e came forward followed by a l l the demons — £ n e ] wishing to f i g h t SarasvatT (KatyayanI) a f t e r coming to the peak of Vindhya. —The word f o r KatyayanT/ i n the t e x t i s SarasvatT. This i s a rather unusual usage of 'SarasvatT', as the goddess SarasvatT i s the pre-s i d i n g d e i t y of l e a r n i n g , the wife of Brahma*, and KatyayanI i s as s o c i a t e d with Siva i n the t r a d i t i o n . 92 20.37-38 tatah senapatir daityo ciksuro nama narada senagragaminam cakre namaram n'arna danavam sa ca*pi tenadhikrtas caturangam samurjitam balaikadasam adaya durgam dudrava vegitah Then, 0 Narada, the demon named Ciksura, the army general, made a demon named Namara the one going in front of the army (i .e. Ciksura appointed Namara to head the assault). / He (Namara) too, authorized by him (Ciksura), rushed swiftly at Durga (Katyayanl"), having taken an energetic, four-limbed section of the army. —38b. caturanga, l i t . , 'one which has four limbs*. In the context of the army it means divisions comprising of foot soldiers horse;riders (cavalry), elephant-riders, and charioteers (or occa-sionally camel-riders). Cf. 21.4. 20.39-40 tam'Spatantam viksyatha deva brahmapurogamah ucur vakyam mahadevlm varma hy abandha cambike athovaca suran durga naham badhnami devatSh kavacam ko 'tra samtisthet mamagre danavadhamah On seeing him rushing up, the gods, led by Brahma, said the words "Put on your armor, 0 Ambika (KatyayanT)? 'to the great goddess. / Then Durga (KatyayanT) said to the gods, "0 Divinities, I will not 93 t i e on the armor. What wretched demon would remain here i n f r o n t of me ( i i e . would withstand me)?" &*j39d. 'put on your armor' = varma hy abandha. Since the root bandh i s of the ni n t h conjugation, the standard verb form would have been abadhana here. — 3 9 d . h i a f i l l e r . — I n verse 40, the verb i s badhnami, while i n verse 39 i t was abandha. Both bandh and abandh are apparently used i n the same sense, even though they d i f f e r i n the p r e f i x . •—KatyayanT i s here showing her confidence and prowess. 20.41 yada na devya kavacarfi krtarn s'astranibarhanam tada raksartham asyas tu visnupanjaram uktavan When the Goddess d i d not put on ( l i t . , make) the armor which destroys weapons, £siva] r e c i t e d the Visnu-cage [mantra j for the purpose of p r o t e c t i n g her. •—41d. Visnu-panjaram, a mantra that has the e f f e c t of p u t t i n g an i n v i s i b l e p r o t e c t i v e cage around KatyayanT. See I n t r o d u c t i o n under "The Visnu element i n the s t o r y " . —The f a c t that i t was Siva who r e c i t e d t h i s mantra i s given i n 43ab. 94 20.42 sa tena r a k s i t a brahman durga danavasattamam avadhyam d a i v a t a i h s a r v a i r mahisam pratypidayat 0 Brahmin (Narada), Durga (KatyayanI), protected by i t (the Slva-pro. nounced Visnu-cage), harrassed Mahisa, the best of demons, uiho uias i n v i o l a b l e by a l l the d i v i n i t i e s . 20.43 evam pura devavarena saifibhuna -tad vaisnavam panjaram ayataksyah proktam taya capi h i padaghatair n i s u d i t o 'sau mahisasurendrah Thus, i n the past, that Visnu-cage mantra uias proclaimed by the great god s'iva for the one uiith long eyes (KatyayanT). And by her a l s o , Mahisa, king of demons, uias crushed uiith blouis of the f e e t . 20.44 evamprabhSvo d v i j a visnupanjarah sarvasu raksasv adhiko h i gTtah kas tasya kuryad yudhi darpahanim yasya s t h i t a s c e t a s i cakrapanih 0 Brahmin (Narada), the Visnu-cage ^mantra], having such power, i s s a i d to be superior to a l l the defences. Who would make h i s p r i d e -95 k i l l i n g (who would destroy h i s pr ide) in b a t t l e , i n whose mind Visnu i s s tat ioned ( i . e . of a devotee of Visnu)? —The l a s t ha l f of th i s verse expresses a f ee l i n g of devotion to V isnu. It says that the person who has h i s mind s tead i l y on Visnu cannot have h i s pr ide s a c r i f i c e d in b a t t l e ; that i s , he w i l l remain unconquered because of d iv ine he lp . CHAPTER XXI 21.1-2 narada uvaca katham katyayanl devi sanugam mahisasuram savahanam hatavatT tatha v i s t a ra to vada etac ca samsayam brahman hrd i me par ivar ta te vidyamanesu sastresu yat padbhyahi tarn amardayat Narada s a i d : , T e l l i n d e t a i l how the goddess Katyayanl k i l l e d the demon IViahisa, along with his fo l lowers and v e h i c l e s . / And, 0 Brahmin (Pulastya) , there i s t h i s doubt turn ing i n my heart [as to why i s i t ] that even when the weapons ex i s ted , she crushed him with Jjner] f e e t . — 2 a . ' t h i s doubt' = etat samsayam. This would be esah sarosayah in standard Skt. But instead of using the word samsaya in the masculine, the author uses i t i n the neuter. 96 21.3 pu l a s t y a uvaca srnus'vav ahito bhutva katham etam puratanlm vrttafh devayugasyadau punyam papabhayapaham Pulastya s a i d : L i s t e n a t t e n t i v e l y to t h i s a n c i e n t , auspicious story which removes s i n and f e a r and which took place i n the beginning of the age of the gods. concept of the yuga-s i s found i n most of c l a s s i c a l I ndian l i t e r -ature. I t p a r a l l e l s the idea of an age of g o l d , of s i l v e r , of bronze, and of i r o n i n other t r a d i t i o n s . Here i s a l i s t of the yuqa-s and t h e i r l e n g t h s : With every successive age, there i s a f a l l of righteousness i n the world, u n t i l , during K a l i Yuga (which began about 5,000 years ago), one would be hard put to f i n d a righteous person anywhere. A f t e r a cataclysm f o l l o w i n g K a l i Yuga. the s e r i e s of yuoa-s begins a l l over again. Now, the 'age of the gods' i s an expression that pre-sents a l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t e r p r e t i n g . This might r e f e r to the — 3 a . ' l i s t e n ' s srnusva t h i s verb i s u s u a l l y a c t i v e , not middle: the standard form would have been srnu. — 3 c . 'the age of the gods': the word f o r 'age' i s yuga. The Kcta (or Satya) yuga — 4 x 432,000 years Treta yuga — 3 x 432,000 years 97 the f i r s t yuga, Kr,ta Yuga, or i t might simply be a reference to a period of time so long ago that there i s no way of measuring i t , a period of time known as mythological time, when the gods are supposed to have l i v e d and made t h e i r h i s t o r y . 21.4 evafh sa namarah kruddhah sarnapatata vegavan sagajasvaratho brahman drsto devya yathecchaya 0 Brahmin (Narada), the angry, s w i f t Namara attacked thus with elephatns, horses and c h a r i o t s . The Goddess saw him, according to [her] "wish ( i . e . without any h u r r y ) . — ' e l e p h a n t s , horses, and c h a r i o t s ' : three limbs of the demon army. --4b. sarnapatata i s found, where one would expect samapatat i n standard Skt. 21.5-6 ta t o banaganair daityah samanamyatha karmukam vavarsa s'ailam dharaughair dyaur ivambudavrstibhih saravarsena tenatha vilokyadrirh samavrtam kruddha bhagavatT vegad^ acakarsa"' dhanur varam Then the demon (Namara), having s t r e t c h e d the bow, r a i n e d the mountain [Vindhya] with hosts of arrows, j u s t as the sky [ r a i n s ] a mountain uiith streams of showers that are the downpour from clouds. / Seeing 9 8 the h i l l covered with that shower of arrows, the angry Goddess quickly drew a great bow. 21 . 7 - 8 tad dhanur danave sainye durgaya namitam balat suvarnaprstharh vibabhau vidyud ambudharesv iva banaih suraripun.ahyan khadgenanyan subhvrata gadaya musalenanyams carmana 'nyan apatayat That bow was bent with strength by Durga (KatyayanT) over the demon army. It, having a golden back, appeared like lightning in the clouds./ 0 one of good vows (Narada), she struck down some enemies of the gods by arrows, some by sword, some by mace and a pestle, and others by the shield. 21.9-10 eko 'py asau bahun devyah kesarl kalasamnibhah vidhunvan kasarasatam nisudayati danavan kulisabhihata daityah saktya nirbhinnavaksasah lingalair daritagrlva vinikrttah para^vadhaih The Death-like lion of the Goddess, shaking the folds of l_his] mane, ki l l e d many demons, although he was one. / The demons were struck by thunderbolt. open by the missile. Their necks were torn by ploughs (a kind of weapon). They were cut by axes. 99 21.11-12 dandanirbhinnasirasas'_akraai_cha 5nnabandhanah celuh petus ca mamlud' ca t a t y a j u s capare ranam te vadhyamana raudraya durgaya daityadanavah k a l a r a t r i m manyamana dudruvur bhayapiditah Their heads mere broken by clubs . Their t i s s u e s ( a r t e r i e s or veins) mere cut by the d i s c u s . Some shook, [some] f e l l , £some] became pale (or vanished), and [ o t h e r s ] l e f t the b a t t l e - f i e l d . / Those sons of D i t i and sons of Danu ( i . e . the demons), being k i l l e d by the f i e r c e Durga (KatyayanT) and tormented by f e a r , ran amay t h i n k i n g i t mas the night of deluge. — l i b . ' t i s s u e s * ~ bandhana. L i t e r a l l y , 'bonds or binds (of the body)'. — 1 2 c . 'the night of deluge' - k a l a r a t r l " 'time c f deluge, t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n ! . There i s i n Indian mythology a cy c l e of unmanifest p o t e n t i a l e x i s t e n c e , a f t e r a f u l l c y c l e of manifest e x i s t e n c e . The beginning of that unmanifest existence i s heralded by k a l a -r a t r l . See 19.5, commentary. 21.13-4 sainyagram bhagnam alokya durgam agre t a t h a sthitam drstvajagama namaro mattakunjarasarhsthitah samagamya ca vegena devyah s'aktim mumoca ha t r i s u l a m api simhaya prahinod danavo rane 100 J: On seeing the f r o n t of the army broken, and on seeing Durga (Katya-yanl) thus standing i n the f r o n t , Namara came, seated on a mad ( a t t a c k i n g ) elephent. / On coming near, the demon q u i c k l y r e l e a s e d , i n the b a t t l e - f i e l d , a m i s s i l e f o r ( i . e . to get at) the Goddess and also a t r i d e n t foo the l i o n . —'mad elephant ' s o f t e n elephants mere used i n the army i n I n d i a . Before a t t a c k i n g , the s o l d i e r s mould give them a drink and arouse t h e i r temper to make them that much more f i e r c e , matta 'mad* could also mean ' r u t t i n g , i r r i t a t e d by passion.' — 1 4 b . h_ a f i l l e r . 21.15-16 tav apatantau devya tu humkarenatha bhasmasat krtav atha gajendrena g r h l t o madhyato h a r i h athotpatya ca vegena talenahatya danavam gatasuh kap\}araskandhat ksipya devyai n i v e d i t a h Those tuio (^weapons] coming up [to the GoddessJ mere reduced to ashes by the Goddess uiith a 'hum* sound. Then, the l i o n uias grasped around the middle by the best elephant [of Namara]. / And then, having jumped q u i c k l y , having struck down the demon (Namara) uiith the paw and having thrown the dead ["Namara] from the elephant's shoulders, [ t h e l i o n ] conveyed [him as dead] to the Goddess. --'with a "huiT)" sound's i n destroying the weapons aimed at her i n t h i s manner, Katyayanl d i s p l a y s her contempt f o r such an i n f e r i o r a t t a c k . The d e s c r i p t i o n i n d i c a t e s her prowess. In Tantra, 'hum' 101 i s a frequent sound in s a l u t a t i o n s to the d e i t i e s . — The s t r u c t u r e of verse 16 is three gerunds with a past passive p a r t i c i p l e . In standard Skt., the p a r t i c i p l e would have been a c t i v e , n i v e d i t a v a n . Also, the l a s t gerund would have been k s i p t v a , not k s i p v a . Moreover, qatasu as an obj e c t would have appeared in the accusative as qatasum. 21.17 g r h l t v a dahavarfY rnadhye brahman katyayanT rusa savyena panina bhramya vadayat pataham yatha 0 Brahmin (Narada), KatyayanT grasped the demon (Namara) by the waist with anger, £and3 having moved him around with her l e f t hand, she beat Lhim] l i k e a drum. — 1 7 c . bhramya would have beenbhramitva or bhrantva in standard Skt. — 1 7 d . vadayat; the verb form should have been avadayat. The a_-augment seems to have been dropped f o r the sake of the metre. - - P l a y i n g Namara l i k e a drum i s another way of KatyayanT to show contempt f o r him. 21 U S t a t o ' ttah'asam mumuce tadrse vadytam gate hasyat samudbhavams tasya bhuta nanavidha 'dbhutah She l e t out a loud laughs when that s o r t of t h i n g had become an i n s t r u -102 ment. Many kinds of strange s p i r i t s arose from her la u g h t e r . — ' t h a t sort of t h i n g ' : a s i g n of the author's awareness that something strange was t a k i n g place. —-18c. samudbhavan mould have been samudabhavan i n standard Skt. As i n verse 17, the_a^ augment of the imperfect verb was dropped to preserve the metre. 21.19-20 k e c i d vyaghramukhB raudra vrkakaras t a t h a pare hayasya mahisasyas ca varahavadanah pare akhukukkutavaktras ca. go 'javikamukhas tatha" nanavaktraksicarana nanayudhadharas t a t h a Some f i e r c e ones had the face of a t i g e r , others had the shape of a wolf. Some were horse-faced, [ o t h e r s ] were b u f f a l o - f a c e d , and s t i l l others were boar-faced. / £some were] with a mouth l i k e a mouse or a cock, and others had the faces of cows, sheep or goats; they had many mouths, eyes and l e g s , and they bore d i f f e r e n t kinds of weapons. 21.21 gayanty anye hasanty anye ramanty anye tu samghasah vadayanty apare t a t r a stuvanty anye tathambikam 103 Some sang, some laughed, some r e j o i c e d — i n groups; others played instruments there; and others p r a i s e d Ambika (Katyayanl). — 2 1 b . ramanti{ i n standard Skt., the root ram i s u s u a l l y employed i n the middle v o i c e ; here i t i s found i n the actfive v o i c e . — 2 1 b . tu a f i l l e r . 21'. 22-23 sa t a i r bhutaganair devi sarddham tad danavam balam satayamasa cakramya yatha sasyafn mahasanih senagre nihate tasmin t a t h a senagragamini ciks u r a h sainyapalas tu yodhayamasa devatlh Along uiith those groups of s p i r i t s , the Goddess, a f t e r i n v a d i n g , sleui that army of demons, as a great meteor destroys the crop. / When the f r o n t of the army and the one moving at the f r o n t of the army (Namara) had been s l a i n , C i k s u r a , the army general, engaged the d i v i n i t i e s i n f i g h t ( i . e . s t a r t e d f i g h t i n g ) . — 2 3 c . tu a f i l l e r . — 2 3 d . *he engaged the d i v i n i t i e s i n f i g h t ' - yodhayamasa devatah, meaning 'he engaged the gods i n f i g h t ' . 21'. 28-25 karmukam drdham akarnam akrsya rathinam varah vavarsa s a r a j S l a n i yatha megho vasundharam 104 tan durga s v a s a r a i s c h i t t v a sarasamghan suparvabhih sau varnapurikhan aparan s'aran jagrSha sodasa On drawing the sturdy bom r i g h t up to the e a r , the great c h a r i o t e e r (Ciksura) rained down nets of arrows, j u s t as a cloud [ r a i n s ] the ea r t h . / Having cut those hosts of arrows by her arrows having good j o i n t s , Durga (KatyayanI) grasped s i x t e e n other arrows having golden f e a t h e r s . — 2 5 b . 'having good j o i n t s ' ~ suparvabhih. L i t e r a l l y , 'of good joints'. Bamboo s t i c k s have many j o i n t s and were used to make the body f o r arrows. 21.26-27 t a t a s c a t u r b h i s caturas turangan a pi bhamini hatva sarathim ekena dhvajam ekena c i c c h i d e t a t a s t u sasaram capam cicchedaikesuna 'mbika chinne dhanusi khadgam ca carma cadattavan b a l l Then, having s l a i n a l l (api) four f o r s e s w i t h four [arrows], KatyayanI cut down the c h a r i o t e e r with one [arrow] .arid the banner with one ar.row. / Then Ambika (KatyayanI) cut with one arrow the bow along with the arrow; when the bow was cut, the strong one(Ciksura) took a s h i e l d and sword. — 2 7 a . tu a f i l l e r . 105 2l'.2Br29~: j tarn khadgam carmana sardharn daityasyadhunvato bala t s a r a i s caturbhis' ciccheda t a t ah sularh samadade samudbhramya mahacchularh sarhpradravad athambikam krostuko rnudito 'ranye mrgarajavadhufn yatha 3he (KatyayanI) destroyed with four arrows that sword, along with the s h i e l d of the demon ( C i k s u r a ) , who was swinging {them"] around with s t r e n g t h ; then f*he[| took the t r i d e n t . / Having swung around the great t r i d e n t , he ran up to Ambika (KatyayanI), l i k e a happy j a c k a l [runs up to a] l i o n n e s s i n the f o r e s t . — 2 9 c . k r o ^ u k a h : - the usual word f o r j a c k a l i s k r o s t r or k r o s t u . The diminutive s u f f i x i s added here to i n d i c a t e i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of C i k s u r a . — 2 9 c d . 'as a happy j a c k a l i n the f o r e s t j^ runs up to a] l i o n n e s s ' j the idea probably i s t h i s : the j a c k a l i n the f o r e s t i s running up to an animal which he can't see too c l e a r l y , a l l the time t h i n k i n g i t w i l l make a f i n e meal. But the animal turns out to be a l i o n n e s s capable of t e a r i n g him limb from limb. 21.30-31 tasyabhipiatatBh padau karau slrsarh ca pancabhih s a r a i s ciccheda samkruddha nyapatan nihato 'surah tasminsehapatau ksunne tadograsyo mahasurah samadravata vegena karalasyas ca danavah 106 The angry one (Katyayanl) cut uiith f i v e arrows the f e e t , arms and head of him uiho uias a s s a i l i n g [her] ; the s l a i n a sura f e l l douin. / When the army general (Ciksura) uias crushed, then the great demon Ugrasya and the demon Karalasya rushed q u i c k l y |at K a t y a y a n l j . — 3 1 a . tasmin senapatau ksunne. This i s a l o c a t i v e absolute con-s t r u c t i o n ; the next uiord i n the text i s tadjl, uihich i s not necessary a f t e r a l o c a t i v e a bsolute. — 3 1 c . 'rushed' » samadravata. The root dru i s used here i n the middle v o i c e . I t i s u s u a l l y found i n the a c t i v e v o i c e . — U g r a s y a and Karalasya are names d e a l t ' uiith e t y m o l o g i c a l l y i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n , under "Language". 21.32-33 baskalas coddhatas caiva udagrakhyograkarmukah durddharo durmukhas c a i v a bidalanayano 'parah ete *nye ca mahatmano danava balinam varah / kltyayanim adravanta nanasastrastrapanayah And Baskala, Uddhata, the one named Udagra uiho had a f i e r c e bout, Durddhara, Durmukha, another one c a l l e d Bidalanayana — these and other great demons, prominent among the strong ones, i n whose hands there were many weapons and t h i n g s to be h u r l e d , rushed at Katyayanl. — 3 2 a . Baskalas i n 20.19, the manuscripts read Vaskala. C l e a r l y , the mark that d i s t i n g u i s h e s «|" from oJ was missing i n 20.19, since the name here i s Baskala. 107 — 3 2 b . 'Udagra who had a f i e r c e , bow1 s udagrlkhyograkarmukah,. This can mean e i t h e r : a) udagrakhyah ugrakarmukah, as i n the pre-sent t r a n s l a t i o n , i n which case there would be a case of double samdhi, or: b) udagrakhyah agrakarmukah, meaning 'whose bow was i n f r o n t ' . — 3 3 c . adravanta. Cf. 21.31c, commentary. — S e e the s e c t i o n on "Language" in'the I n t r o d u c t i o n , f o r i n f o r -mation on the etymologies of it h e: names o c c u r r i n g i n these verses. 21.34 tan d r s t v a l i l a y a durga vlriam jagrSha panina vadayamasa h a s a t t t a t h a damarukam varam On seeing them, Durga (KatyayanI) s p o r t i n g l y took the vTna with [ h e r ] hand and, laughing, played the great drum too. — 3 4 a . l i l a y a has the f o r c e of ' e a s i l y , without any s t r a i n ' . — 3 4 c . h a s a t l would be hasantT i n standard Skt. 21.35-36 yatha yatha vadayate d e v l vadyani t a n i tu t a t h a t a t h a bhutagana n r t y a n t i ca h a s a n t i ca tato 'surah s'astradharah samabhyetya sarasvatlm abhyaghnarfis tarns' ca jagraha kesesu paramesvarl The more the Goddess (KatyayanI) played those musical instruments, the 108 more the hosts of s p i r i t s danced and laughed. / Then the weapon-bearing demons, having approached S a r a s v a t l (KatyayanT), attacked 21.37 pragrhya kes'esu mahasurams tan utpatya simhat tu nagasya sanum nanarta vTnam parivadayantT papau ca panam jagato j a n i t r T Having seized these great demons by t h e i r h a i r fand] having jumped from the l i o n to the |_smallj peak of the mountain, she danced, p l a y -ing the vTna, and the Mother of the world (KatyayanT) drank a d r i n k . — 3 8 b . tu a f i l l e r . — 3 7 d . KatyayanT's t a k i n g a drink i s an ominous s i g n i n d i c a t i n g upheaval and death f o r Mahisa. The drink and the v e s s e l f o r d r i n k i n g were given to KatyayanT i n 19.17ab. 21.38-39 t a t a s tu devyafeliialino mahasurS do_r dandanirdhutavisTrnadarpah v i s r a s t a f y astra" vyasavas' ca j a t a h t a t a s t u tSn v l k s y a mahasurendrSn devy§ mahauja mahisasuras tu vyadravayad bhutaganan k h u r a g r a i h [her}; and the Great Goddess seized them by the h a i r . 109 tundena pucchena tathorasS ' nyan nihsvasavatena ca bhutasamghan Then the strong great demons became those whose arrogance u/as t o r n and shaken [by Katyayanl] with a c l u b - l i k e arm, whose clo t h e s had f a l l e n o f f and who were without l i f e . Then, on seeing those great c h i e f s of the demons [ i n such a p i t i a b l e c o n d i t i o n ] , the very powerful demon Mahisa dispersed [some o f j the Goddess' hosts of s p i r i t s - w i t h the t i p s of h i s hooves and other hosts of s p i r i t s with h i s mouth, t a i l , chest, and gust of exhaled breath. — 3 8 a . tu a f i l l e r . — I n verse 39, the author shows h i s awareness of how a b u f f a l o a t t a c k s . 21.40 nadena caivasanisannibhena visanakotya tv aparan pramathya dudrava simham yudhi hantukamah t a t a 'nbik'S krodhavasam jagama And having churned the other [ h o s t s of s p i r i t s ] w i t h a thunderbolt-l i k e sound and w i t h the p o i n t s of horns, he, wishing to k i l l the l i o n i n combat, ran [to the l i o n ] . Then Ambika (KatyayanT) was overwhelmed w i t h anger. 110 ~-40a. eva a f i l l e r . —-40a. a i a n i could a l s o be t r a n s l a t e d 'meteor'. — 4 0 b . tu. a f i l l e r . 21.41 tatah sa kopad atha tlksnasrngah ksipram g i r l n bhumim aslrnayac ca samksobhayams to y a n i d h l n ghanams-oa vidhvamsayan pradravatatha durgam Then he, having sharp horns, q u i c k l y t o r e apart the mountains and the earth out of anger. Causing a g i t a t i o n i n the oceans and destroy-ing the clouds, he ran up to Durga (Katyayanl). —-41d. pradravata. See 21.31c, commentary. 21.42 sa catha pasena babandha dustam sa capy abhut k l i n n a k a t a h karlndrah karam praciccheda ca hastino 'gram ea capi bhuyo mahisc ' b h i j a t a h She: then bound the v i l l a i n o u s one (Mahisa) uiith a tfethfer;- He became a great elephant having temples met ["uiith r u t ] . And she cut the trunk and f r o n t part of the elephant, and he became a b u f f a l o again. I l l —'he became a great elephant": Mahisa i s kamarupa; he has the a b i l i t y to change h i s form at m i l l . Cf. 18.51, inhere h i s f a t h e r Rambha in c l u d e s kamarupa i n h i s boon as a property the son should have. 21.43 t a t o 'sya sulam vyasrjan mrdani sa sTrnamulo nyapatat prthivyam saktirh praciksepa hutasadattarh sa k u n t h i t a g r a nyapatan maharse Then Mrdani (KatyayanT) cast the t r i d e n t on t h i s one (Mahisa). I t f e l l to the ground uiith i t s base cut. [She] threui the m i s s i l e given by Agni; i t f e l l douin, 0 great seer (Narada), uiith [ i t s ] t i p blunted. --With t h i s verse begins a l i s t of various uieapons which mere given by the gods to KatyayanT (19.14-17) and how they were of no a v a i l . Agni gave a s a k t i Uieapon to KatyayanT i n 19.14. 21.44 cakrarn harer danavacakrahantuh ksiptam t v acakratvam upagatam h i gadafh samavidhya dhanesvarasya k s i p t a t u bhagna nyapatat prthivyam The discus of Visnu, the s l a y e r of the c i r c l e s of demons, when thrown 112 approached non-discusness ( i . e . i t didn't work). The mace of Dhane_vara (Kubera), uihich was thrown, a f t e r swinging around ( i . e . w i t h great v e l o c i t y ) , was shattered [and] f e l l to the ground. — ' t h e discus of Visnu't Visnu gave Katyayanl a dis c u s (gakra) according t o 19.14. — ' t h e club of Kubera*: Kubera gave KatyayanT a club according to 19.15. — 4 4 c . samavidhya 'having thoroughly p i e r c e d ' must be taken i n the unusual sense of ' a f t e r having been moved around*. — 4 4 c . *mace*: one expects the nominative gada i n the place of the accusative gadam, as gada' i s the subject of nyapatat and i s q u a l i f i e d by the nominative form k s i p t a . 21.45 jales'apaso * p i mahasurena visanatundagrakhu ra'.pranunnah n i r a s y a t a t k o p i t a y a ca mukto dandas tu yamyo bahukhandatarh gatah Even the bond of J a l e s a (Varuna) was r i p p e d by the great demon w i t h h i s horns, t i p of the mouth, and hooves. On the other hand (tu.)» Yama's clu b which was re l e a s e d by throwing out [by K a t y a y a n i ] , who was angered by him (Mahisa), went to many pi e c e s . —In.19.14, i t i s s a i d that Varuna gave KatyayanT a s h e l l . Varuna, 113 as a Vedic d e i t y , i s known to possess bonds; so perhaps the present verse r e f e r s to that well-known aspect of him. —Yama's club was mentioned i n 19.15b. — 4 4 c d , 45cd. Two times i n these versese we have the same gramma-t i c a l fault» a gerund i s used even when the a c t i o n that f o l l o w s has a d i f f e r e n t agent. For i n s t a n c e , i n verse 44, qadlrm samavidhya has KatyayanT as agent, whereas nyapatat has oada. ( I t could be that samavidhya i s a c t u a l l y a truncated form of samavidhyat, i n which case the t r a n s l a t i o n would be: "She 'threw' the club of Kubers [at him"]..," This seems to be the only way around the other s y n t a c t i c a l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y p o s s i b i l i t y . ) In 45cd, the gerund n i r a s y a has KatyayanI as the agent, but the p a r t i c i p i a l p redicate gatah has danda as the agent. 21.46-7 vajram surendrasya ca vigrahe *sya muktam susuksmatvamr-vppSj^gama samtyajya simham mahisasurasya durga 'dhirudha sahasaiva prstham prsthasthitayam mahisasuro ' p i popluyate vTrya.madJan mrdanyam sa capi padbhyafn mrdukomalabhyam mamarda tarn klinnam ivajinam h i Indra's thunderbolt, released on the body of t h i s one (Mahisa), went to minuteness ( i . e . to many small p i e c e s ) . Having abandoned the l i o n , 114 Durga (KatyayanT) mounted the back of Mahisa a l l of a sudden. / When Mrdanl (KStyayanl) uias s t a t i o n e d on [ h i s ^ back, the demon Mahisa r e -peatedly jumped up, out of i n f a t u a t i o n uiith £his] st r e n g t h . And she crushed him uiith her s o f t and tender f e e t , as [one mould cr u s h j a uiet hide. — A s each of the weapons i s destroyed, one gets the f e e l i n g that the powers provided KatyayanT by the gods are not e f f e c t i v e . This adds suspense to the n a r r a t i v e and also provides an explana-t i o n of why she trampled Mahisa to death. — p r s t h a s t h i t a y a m mahisasuro ' p i poplCfyate vTryamadan mrdanyam. This i s a l o c a t i v e absolute c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n the f i r s t and l a s t words of the phrase. Most l o c a t i v e absolutes occur with a l l the words i n the phrase together. I t i s unusual to have so many in t e r v e n i n g words. — 4 7 d . h i a f i l l e r . 21.48 sa mrdyamano dharanTdharSSbho devya balT hlnabalo babhuva t a t o 'sya sulena bibheda kantham tasmat puman khadgadharo v i n i r g a t a h Being pressed by the Goddess, the strong one (Mahisa), having the appearance of a mountain, became one whose strength was l o s t . Then she cut the throat of t h i s one (Mahisa) with [her] t r i d e n t . From i t 115 •-..Game out a suiord-bearing man. — T h i s demon i s not easy to k i l l . Where other beings mould be k i l l e d by having t h e i r throat cut, t h i s one makes s t i l l another t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . 21.49 niskrantamatram hrdaye pada tarn ahatya samgrhya kacesu kopat s i r a h praciccheda v a r a s i n i 'sya hahakrtam daityabalam tada *bhut As soon as he came out, KatySyani struck him by [her] foot on the heart. Having a n g r i l y grasped [him] by the h a i r , she cut o f f the head of t h i s one (the smord-bearing man) uiith [her] great smord. Then the demon army c r i e d uiith panic.. —49d. hahakrtam, l i t . , 'performance of the m a i l i n g sound*. This mord seems to have been used i n the sense 'one uihich i s performing the m a i l i n g sound ha h i ' . The other may of making a s a t i s f a c t o r y sense of the l i n e mould be to change the noun daitya-balam to a l o c a t i v e d a i t y a - b a l e ; l e t t e r s l i k e oj^ o f t e n change to l e t t e r s l i k e CO" i n manuscripts. 116 21.50-51 sacandamundah samayah satar'ah sahasilomna bhayakataraksah samtadyamanah pramathair bhavanyah patalam ev a v i v i s \ j r bhayartah devya jayam devagana v i l o k y a s t u v a n t i devim s t u t i b h i r maharse narayanTrh sarvajagatpratisthafn katyayanlm ghoramukhlm surupam _The demons] i n c l u d i n g Canda, Munda, Maya, Tara, [andjf together uiith Asiloman, having eyes despondent from f e a r , being beaten^.by Bhavani's (Katyayanl* s) attendants (and] r a f f l i c t e d uiith f e a r , entered the nether uiorld. / 0 great seer (Narada), having seen the v i c t o r y of the Goddess, the hosts of gods pr a i s e d the Goddess with hymns — / t h e Goddess who i s ] Marayani, the foundation of the whole world, KatyayanT, one having a t e r r i b l e .face [and] one having a b e a u t i f u l body. — 5 0 d . eva a f i l l e r . — H e r e we have another a s s o c i a t i o n of Katyayanl w i t h V i s n u . Visnu i s c a l l e d Narayana, and here KatyayanT i s c a l l e d NarayanT. / 21.52 samstuyamana surasiddhasarhghair nisanna-bhuta" harapadamule bhuyo bhavisyamy amarartham evam uktva surams tan pravivesa durga" 117 Being p r a i s e d by the hosts of gods and the Siddhav-s. the Goddess sat down at the feet of Hara (s'iva). "I m i l l become again ( i . e . m i l l r e i n c a r n a t e ) f or the sake of the gods." A f t e r having spoken thus, Durga entered thcrse gods. .—52b. 'sat* a nigannabhuta. S t r i c t l y speaking, bhuta i s hot necessary, nisanna mould have been s u f f i c i e n t . 118 GLOSSARY OF NAMES OF INDIVIDUALS AND CLASSES OF BEINGS 119 AGASTYA. Agastya i s a Vedic seer. His b i r t h i s a t t r i b u t e d to f' l i t r a , whose seed F e l l i n a water-jar at the s i g h t of Urvasf. Me was born from the w a t e r - j a r , thus h i s e p i t h e t s kumbhabhava, k a l a s a j a . and k a l a - sodbhava i n t h i s s t o r y . The name Agastya i s supposedly derived from the t a l e t o l d i n 19.23-36, where he commands the Vindhya mountain to lower i t s e l f before him. The etymology presupposed i s from aoa - ''moun-t a i n ' ('that which does not move'), and - t v a . a s u f f i x meaning ' s t a t i o n e d , placed'; thus Agastya i s s a i d to mean o r i g i n a l l y ' s t a t i o n e d on top of a mountain'. However, i t i s also l i k e l y that the myth was invented to e x p l a i n Agastya's name. In any case, Agastya i s h i g h l y respected i n South India (and South-east Asia) and i s a t t r i b u t e d achievements that i n d i c a t e h i s being f o r e -most i n b r i n g i n g c i v i l i z a t i o n (or some important aspects of c i v i l i z a t i o n ) to South India from North In d i a . In t h i s sense, he d e f i n i t e l y lowered the b a r r i e r i n the form of the Vindhya range. E p i t h e t s i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the VP: kumbhabhava — 'bowl-born one' — 19.23 kalas'aja —'bowl-born one' — 19.25 kalas'odbhava — 'bowl-born one 1 — 19.28 AGNI. Agni i s the t r a d i t i o n a l god of F i r e , from Vedic times on. In the Veda, he i s p r i m a r i l y the mediator betweennmen and the gods; as the per-s o n i f i c a t i o n of the s a c r i f i c i a l f i r e , he c a r r i e s men's s a c r i f i c e s up to the heavens. Next to Indra, he was the most prominent of Vedic gods. The Vedic t r i n i t y i n c l u d e s Agni, Vayu, and Surya. Agni i s sometimes even c a l l e d a seer, as w e l l as a p r i e s t . E p i t h e t s : vahni — 'one who c a r r i e s £the s a c r i f i c e to the gods]' — 18.47 hutasa — 'eater of what i s o f f e r e d ' — 18.72, 19.14 pavaka — ' p u r i f i e r ' (perhaps from the root pu) — 18.50, -19.9 120 ASURA. This word deriv e s from asu-ra, •ajsu-possessing', asjj meaning • v i t a l i t y , l i f e , energy, breath'. In the e a r l y Vedic times the asura-s mere those possessing pouier capable of c o n t r o l l i n g the cosmos and even included Indra, Agni and Varuna. The T a i t t l r i y a Brahmana (and the V§yu Purana) cl a i m that the breath (asu) of P r a j S p a t i became a l i v e , and "uiith t h at breath he created the asura-s". But l a t e r , i n l a t e Vedic times and during the c l a s s i c a l age, the asura-s mere demons, adversaries of the gods, and i n constant b a t t l e uiith the gods. The mord 'demon* i s only an approximate t r a n s l a t i o n , i n the f o l l o w i n g senses the meaning of asura uient from 'power-possessing* to 'mighty', to 'those who have only power, not the d i s c r e t i o n necessary for i t s use', to 'power-mad*, to 'possessors of b l i n d might', to 'those who a s p i r e b l i n d l y f o r power', to 'demon'; The asura-s conquer^the gods and are conquered by them i n t u r n . As a general name f o r the demonic enemies of the gods, i t i n c l u d e s the two groups mentioned i n the present VP passages Daitya-s 'progeny of D i t i * and Danava-s 'progeny of Danu'. The Daitya»s inter,f,eredowith s a c r i f i c e s . These g i a n t s were descend-ants of Kas"yapa, a Vedic sage. The word Daitya d e r i v e s from D i t i , and means the 'sons of D i t i ' (who was the daughter of Daksa, a P r a j a p a t i ) . Thus the Daitya-s have t h e i r ancestory i n a sage and a superhuman mother, yet turn out to be demons. The Danava-s are also demonic descendants of Kasyapa, but t h e i r mother i s Danu. In the Vedas, Danava i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with V r t r a , Indra*s demonic enemy.' THE A5VIN-S. The p a i r of Asvin-s, named Dasra and Nasatya, are the twins 121 of the Vedic pantheon, and the equivalent of Castor and P o l l u x i n the Greek pantheon. They are always young, s w i f t , handsome, and always found moving together. They are prominently s a v i o r s , h e l p e r s , and p h y s i c i a n s . The Asvif>rs r i d e i n a golden car d r i v e n by horses or b i r d s . This golden car i s supposed to go before the sun, and thus the Asvin-s are connected with dawn. BHUTA. L i t e r a l l y , 'ghosts, g o b l i n s * . These are s p i r i t s which haunt t r e e s , streams, cemeteries, e t c . , o c c a s i o n a l l y animate dead bodies, and devour human beings. They are attendants upon Si v a , and are s a i d to be chthonic d e i t i e s of an e a r l i e r t r i b a l p e r i o d i n I n d i a . They were probably S a n s k r i t i z e d by r e l a t i n g them to e s t a b l i s h e d gods. BRAHMA. Brahma i s one of the members of the Indian t r i n i t y : Brahma, Visnu and Siva. Those three represent the Creator, Maintainer and Destroyer of the cosmos, Brahma i s the l o r d and father of a l l creatures and i s o f t e n called"Pitamaha (as i n 19.2) — 'grandfather'. In t h i s r e s p e c t , he i s a recast of the Vedic P r a j a p a t i . He has four arms and faces; i n h i s hands he holds the Vedas and a sceptre, or spoon, a s t r i n g of beads, h i s bow, or a water-jug. His consort i s SarasvatT the goddess of l e a r n i n g . He i s o f t e n depicted as s i t t i n g on the l o t u s coming up from Visnu's naval. Brahma r i d e s on a swan, and l i v e s i n Brahma-vrnd'a. He has seven mind-born sons, among whom i s P u l a s t y a , the seer i n t h i s passage who te l l s the story of Mahisa and KatyayanT.' % E p i t h e t s : pitamaha — 'grandfather* — 19,1.^ 2 vedhas — 'the Creator' — 19.3 lokaprapitatnaha — 'great-grandfather of the world' — 19.11 v i d h a t r — 'the Creator, Ordainer' — 20.12, 20.14 122 CAISJDA. One of Mahisa's o f f i c e r s i n the army. 20.19 CIKSURA. The general of Mahisa's army — 20.37. E p i t h e t s : s a i n y a p i l a — 'protector of the army, army g e n e r a l 1 — 21.33 senapati — ' l o r d of the army' -- 21.31 DUNDUBHI. A member of fvfahisa's army and p r o t e c t o r of the demons (20.21). He had the voice of a kettledrum, uihich d e s c r i p t i o n i s c l e a r l y prompted by the etymology of h i s name (dundubhi means 'kettledrum"). He mas the son of Maya (20.30). Epithets D i t i j a — 'son of D i t i ' — 20.24. See note on asura above. FAIRIES. Skt., vidya-dhara 'possessors of knowledge L~of unseen a c t i v i -t i e s ] ' . These mere a c l a s s of i n f e r i o r d e i t i e s d w e l l i n g between the earth and heaven. They are also attendants upon Indra. In Sanskrit pl a y s and poems, they appear as r e p o r t e r s of what the spectators or characters cannot p h y s i c a l l y see. GANDHARVA. C e l e s t i a l musicians. C i t r a - r a t h i s s a i d to be the c h i e f of the Gandharva-s, so perhaps he i s meant ( i n 19.17) by 'king of the Gandharva-s'. GREAT SNAKES. Skt. mahoragah. Perhaps t h i s i s a reference to the serpent race of Nagas. The k i n g Snake, Sesa, has a thousand heads and i s the r e s t i n g place of Visnu. INDRA. Indra i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y the c h i e f of the gods and punisher of demonic enemies of gods. In Vedic times^he stands out as the most pro-123 rninent god, as a storm-god. In c l a s s i c a l times he i s l i k e a figurehead, the king of the gods ( l i k e Zeus i n Greek mythology). He r i d e s i n a b r i g h t golden c h a r i o t , drawn by two ruddy horses with flowing manes and t a i l s . He uses the va j r a •.thunderbolt' f o r a weapon, as w e l l as arrows, a large hook and a net. The Veda presents him as r e c e i v i n g great strength f o r b a t t l e from h i s voluminous draughts of soma. He r e i g n s over the weather, and p a r t i c u l a r l y the r a i n and storms. Another o f f i c e of h i s i s that of a Loka-pala, a w o r l d - p r o t e c t o r . (This i s the weaker, demoted Indra, probably of a l a t e r period.) There are eight l o k a - p S l a - s , one f o r each point of the compass and f o r each point between c a r d i n a l p o i n t s . Indra i s regent of the e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n , the' d i r e c t i o n of the r i s i n g sun. Indra's heaven i s c a l l e d Svarga. KAMA. The Indian equivalent f o r Cupid, Kama i s the god of Love. He possesses f i v e arrows, each of them a flower — whfch he shoots at the hearts of men with a flower bow st r e t c h e d w i t h a s t r i n g of black bees, whose buzzing i s the twang of the bow. His o r i g i m a p p e a r s to be unknown —• the T a i t t T r i y a Brahmana a t t r i b u t e s h i s b i r t h to Dharma and Sraddha, the Harivamsa to Laksml, and another account to Brahma. There i s pro-bably some connection of the mystery of h i s o r i g i n with the p u z z l i n g o r i g i n of sexual passion. E p i t h e t s : kandarpa — 'the inflamer of Brahma* or 'whom does he not make i n f a t u a t e d ' — 19.12 manfnatha — ' i n t o x i c a t e r and a g i t a t e r ' or 'heart-churner* — •20.8 kandarparajan — 'king i n f a t u a t o r ' — 20.9 makaradhvaja — 'having a c r o c o d i l e (or a s p e c i f i c shark) f o r an emblem' — 20.11 124 KATYAYANI. KatyayanI is an incarnation of Devi 'the Goddess', or Maha-devT 'the Great Goddess'. From other purana-s i t can be gathered that she is the sakti or female energy of Lord Siva. Indeed she plays the role of his uiife throughout her various incarnations. She has many incarnations during Siva's long lifetime, and the incarnations are called Parvati, Durga, KatyayanT, Kali, BhavanT, etc. She shuffles back and forth between her role as Mother of the cosmos and Siva's consort. Together with Siva, the two !!ace regarded as the primeval twofold-personalization of the Absolute. They are the f i r s t and primeval unfolding of the neuter Brahman into the opposites of the male and female principles." (p. 197, Zimmer:1962). The story of Parvati is g i v B n in the VP 25.1-28, among many other texts. Epithets: srldevl — 'the glorious goddess' — 20.34 devT — 'the goddess' — 20.35, 20.41, 21.22 Sarasvatl — 'watery' — 20.36,.21.36) Ambika — 'the mother' — 20.39, 21.21, 21.27, 21.40 ParamesvarT — 'the great governing Goddess* — 21.36 mrdanl — 'the compassionate' or 'wife of Mrda (Siva) 1 — , 21.43, 21.47 BhavanI — 'wife of Bhava (Siva)* — 21.50 Narayani — 'consort of Narayana (Visnu)' — 21.51 KUBERA. (Also spelled Kuvera) In Classical times, Kubera is the god of wealth and chief of the yaksa-s or guhyaka-s. According to one account, he is the son of Vis'ravana and Idavida. However another account makes him a son of Pulastya (the father of Vilravana). Epithets: dhanada — 'wealth-giver' — 19.15 dhanes^vara — 'lord of wealth' — 21.44 LAKSMI. LaksmT is the goddess of fortune, wife of Visnu. *",.«• : {:.• ' J ; - • .7.3 125 MAHISA. The p r i n c i p a l demon against whom KatyayanT f i g h t s i n t h i s story. He i s the son of Rambha (18.50-60), and could take any form he desired. Epithets: d i t i s a — 'lord of the sons of D i t i ' — 20.2 asurendra — 'lordof/the demons' — 20.3 rambhasuta — 'son of Rambha' — 20.24 haygri — 'horse-hater, buffalo' — 20.31 THE WARUTS. The Maruts are the storm gods i n the Vedic pantheon, and already i n Vedic times they were prominent d e i t i e s , but not, houiev/er, as prominent as Agni, Indra, etc. As associates of Indra, they are armed with lightnings and thunderbolts, and number eit h e r 180 or 27. Several o r i g i n s are ascribed to them, the most prominent being from the goddess D i t i (Visnu Purana). D i t i l o s t her childr e n , and begged Kas'yapa the sage for a boon: that she might have a c h i l d who should destroy Indra, the k i l l e r of her chi l d r e n . Kasyapa granted the boon on the condition that she keep her body and mind absolutely pure for a hundred years f i r s t . Indra found out about t h i s , and waited upon her with much humi-l i t y . In the l a s t year of the century, D i t i went to bed without washing her feet , and Indra saw h i s chance. He divided her embryo into seven portions when he saw that the c h i l d was crying and was unable to pacify i t . From his saying ma-rodTh 'weep not' to the c h i l d , the word 'Marut' i s said to have derived. However, t h i s i s c l e a r l y a folk-etymology. Maha together with the root rut, 'great shouter or roarer' i s more l i k e l y to be the o r i g i n a l word. MAYA. Maya was a demon who was an arc h i t e c t and a r t i f i c e r of the asura-s. in the same way that Vilvakarman was the a r t i f i c e r of the gods. 126 NAMARA, Namara was the r e i n c a r n a t i o n of the b u f f a l o who developed a l u s t f o r Rambha's wife ( 1 8 . 6 1 - 6 7 ) . Later i n the s t o r y , he i s appointed by Mahisa (who was Rambha*s son) to s t a r t the assault on KatyayanT. ( 2 0 . 3 7 ) E t y m o l o g i c a l l y , the name Namara could be taken to mean 'one who does not d i e . ' NARADA. NSrada i s a Vedic seer, one of the P r a j a p a t i - s ' l o r d s of cre a -t u r e s ' , and a l s o , according to one l i s t , one of»the seven great seers ( s a p t a r s i - s ) . As f o r h i s o r i g i n , the Rg'-Veda a t t r i b u t e s him to the Kanva f a m i l y , while the Visnu Purana says that he i s a son of Kasyapa and one of Daksa's daughters. S t i l l another source says that he came out of the forehead of Brahma. Many s t o r i e s r e l a t e how Narada causes s t r i f e among the gods and men; f o r i n s t a n c e , he w a r n i s " Kamsa of Krsna's imminent b i r t h , and then goes on to b e f r i e n d Krsna against Kamsa. Thus he i s o f t e n c a l l e d K a l i - k a r a k a ' s t r i f e - m a k e r ' , and ka l a h a - p r i v a 'one to whom q u a r r e l i s dear'. He creates the necessity f o r d i v i n e i n c a r n a -t i o n or i n t e r v e n t i o n . Narada's f u n c t i o n i n t h i s story i s to ask Pulastya about KatyayanT ( 1 8 . 3 9 , e t c . ) . NYMPHS. Skt. apsara-s, o r i g i n a l l y 'water-moving ( s p i r i t s ) ' . The ap-sara-s are the nymphs of Indra's heaven. The Visnu Purana a s c r i b e s t h e i r o r i g i n to the churning of the ocean. They are wives or mistresses of the Gandharva-s, and have many l o v e r s . PULASTYA. Pulastya i s one of the P r a j a p a t i - s (a Vedic group of c r e a t i v e d e i t i e s ) , and, according to one account, one of the seven great seers ( s a p t a r s i - s ) . The s e l e c t e d p o r t i o n of the VP makes him the s t o r y - t e l l e r ; 127 he narrates the s t o r y , while Narada prods him on uiith questions. He mas the f a t h e r of Ravana of the Ramayana, and a l l the R5ksasa-s 'monsters, demons* are s a i d to have come from him. RAKTA3IJA. Ra k t a b l j a i s the r e i n c a r n a t e d Rambha (18.70). He fought i n Mahisa's army against KatyayanT. E t y m o l o g i c a l l y , h i s name means 'one having empassioned (or red) seed'. RAMBHA. Rambha mas a demon mho performed a u s t e r i t y to get a son (18.42 f f ) . He was k i l l e d by a b u f f a l o a f t e r ha had the son and r e i n c a r n a t e d as RaktabTja. His name derives from the root rambh 'to r o a r ' . E p i t h e t s : danavaparthiva — 'king of demons' — 18.55 daityandra — 'king of demons' -- 18.56 d i t i v a r a — 'prominent.[son o f j D i t i — 18.61 5ADHYA. A vedic group of d e i t i e s . According to one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , they mere the p e r s o n i f i e d prayers and r i t u a l s of the Vedas, and dwelt mid-way between earth and heaven. SIDDHA-S. A c l a s s of semi-divine beings. They have ex t r a o r d i n a r y powers ( c a l l e d s i d d h i - s ) , and dwell i n the sky between the earth and heaven. SIVA. Si v a , or Mahesa 'the great Lord', i s the Destroyer w i t h i n the trimufcti f t r i n i t y * of Brahma, Visnu and Siva. He i s the great Yogin, the master of a l l yoqins. He i s steeped i n the highest a u s t e r i t i e s , uihich gives him many s p e c i a l powers. In the Veda he i s p o s s i b l y known by the name Rudra 'the howler*. Rudra mas supposed to have a d e s t r u c t i v e and beneficent i n f l u e n c e . He brings disease upon man and cows, and yet 128 he i s known for h i s healing powers. In the White Yajur-Veda he i s c a l l e d Mahadeva, whose symbol i s the l i n q a 'phallus'; i n the Visnu Purana he springs from the forehead of Brahma, and i s the parent of the Rudra-s or Maruts, half of whom are gentle and the other half ferocious. He vies with Visnu for the honor of the 'highest deity', some sources claim-ing him to be the highest, and other sources claiming Visnu. s'aivism, the worship of laiva, has an emphasis on cosmic structure and process, while Vaisnavism emphasize.6 human events. Siva i s c a l l e d Sankara 'the auspicious, or beneficent one', even though he represents the t e r r i b l e , destructive, and d i s s o l v i n g side of nature. In his t e r r i b l e aspect, f i v a i s l o r d of ghosts and goblins, and l i v e s i n cemeteries. He has serpents around h i s neck and s k u l l s f or a necklace. Siva i s often depicted seated in samadhi, on a deerskin, with a t h i r d eye i n the middle df h i s forehead ( o r e l s e , a crescent moon), his hair gathered up i n matted locks on top of his head i n a c o i l e d shape, out of which pours the r i v e r Ganges; he has a necklace of s k u l l s and a snake around h i s neck, and h i s neck i s blue from drinking the poason which would have destroyed the world. He holds a t r i d e n t , and i s often seen with Nandi, h i s b u l l . Epithets; Sankara ~- 'the beneficent one' — 19.2 Mahesvara — 'the great Lord' — 19.9 v a r a d a - t r i s u l i n — 'the boon-granting trident-possessor' — 19,14 hara — 'one who c a r r i e s JTsinJ away' — 21.52 SO MA. O r i g i n a l l y , Soma i s the c e l e s t i a l ambrosia of the gods, having extremely e x h i l a r a t i n g q u a l i t i e s . It i s praised in the Rg-Veda as giving Indra the strength to conquer the demons, and l a t e r i n the Veda (the 9th Mandala), i s d e i f i e d into the Healer of a l l diseases, bestower of r i c h e s , etc. In l a t e r times, the connection was made between the soma-.iuice and 129 the Moon, and many of the q u a l i t i e s of Soma mere t r a n s f e r r e d to the Moon. Consequently, the Moon has come to be c a l l e d o s a d h i - p a t i 'the l o r d of the herbs'. In the purana-s, Soma (as the Moon) i s the son of the seer A t r i and Anasuya. From him the Lunar l i n e of kings arose. E p i t h e t s : l a s i n — 'hare-possessing' — 18.72 indu — l i t . , 'drop £bf Soma-juice^' — 19.3 SURYA. Surya i s the Sun, c a l l e d loka-caksu 'eye of the world* i n the Vedas. Sometimes he i s c a l l e d S a v i t r or A d i t y a . He i s the son of A d i t i (according to the purana-s) or of Dyaus (according to the Vedas) or.of Brahma (according to the Ramayana). Usas 'the dawn* i s h i s consort. His c h a r i o t moves through the sky, drawn by seven ruddy horses. His sons are the Asvins, by the nymph A s v i n l . The r e s u l t of t h i s a f f a i r deserves mention: when Surya returned to h i s w i f e a f t e r being with A s v i n l , she took him to her f a t h e r (the seer Visvakarman), who put Surya on a l a t h e and cut o f f an eighth of h i s e f f u l g e n c e . The fragments f e l l to the e a r t h , b l a z i n g , and from them came s e v e r a l o b j e c t s mentioned i n t h i s p o r t i o n of the VP: the discus of Visnu, the t r i d e n t of S i v a , the club of Kubera, and weapons of other gods. The Solar l i n e of kings comes from Surya. E p i t h e t s : bhaskara — ' l i g h t - g i v e r ' — 18.72 gaganecara — 'mover i n the sky' — 19.23 divakara — 'light-maker, day-maker' — 19.23 r a v i — 'the sun' — 19.23 VARUNA. Varuna was the c h i e f of the seven Aditya-s i n Vedic times (thus, he was the A d i t y a ) . His name means 'the u n i v e r s a l encompasser, the a l l -embracer 1: as such he plays much the same r o l e as Uranus i n Greek myth-ology. He i s a past-master of bonds. Many Vedic hymns serve no other 130 purpose but to l i b e r a t e man from the ' t o i l s of Varuna'. ( E l i a d e , Images  and Symbols, p. 95). Varuna knouis houi to use maya 'magic' i n binding the t r a n s g r e s s o r s of ijta 'Laui'. In the Vedas, Varuna i s o c c a s i o n a l l y the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the sky, the maker and upholder of heav/en and ear t h . Besides t h i s heavenly aspect, he i s also associated uiith the maters, seas and r i v e r s , as a lunar or acquatic god. His s i g n i s the f i s h . When associated with the waters, he holds the waters back (e.g. "Great Varuna has hidden the sea" — Rg-Veda 9.73.3). And f i n a l l y , as l o r d of bonds and the noose and punisher of the wicked, he enforces feh'simoral vl:aw; Varuna i s more connected w i t h the moral law than any other d e i t y . E p i t h e t : j a l e s a — ' l o r d of waters' — 19.10, 21.45 THE VASU-S. The Vasu-s were a c l a s s of d e i t i e s , eight i n number — they are Ap_ 'water', Dhruva ' p o l e - s t a r ' , Soma 'fttoon', Dhara 'earth', A n l l a *wirat«H, prabha'ta 'dawn', and pratyu^a ' l i g h t ' . Thus, they are p e r s o n i f i -c a t i o n s of n a t u r a l phenomena. The s'atapatha Brahmana gives the l i s t of P r t h i v i 'earth', Antarikga 'sky', Agni ' f i r e ' , Vayu 'wind', Dyaus 'heaven', Ad i t y a , Candramas'Moon' and Naksatra ' s t a r , c o n s t e l l a t i o n ' . (SB 11.6.3.6) They are named Vasu because t h e i r presence i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the ma n i f e s t a t i o n of l i f e i n matter (te yad idam sarvar vasayante  tasmad vHsava i t i . S^ B. 11.6.3.6). VIMDHYA. The Vindhya mountains are the mountains which s t r e t c h across I n d i a , and d i v i d e the North Prom the South. According to the legend of the Mahabharata (3.104,1-115), the p e r s o n i f i e d Vindhya was jealous of 131 the Himalaya because he was shorter than Himalaya, and commanded the Sun to revolve around him as i t d i d around Meru. When the Sun refused to do so, Vindhya r a i s e d i t s e l f to obstruct the passage of the Sun. The r e s t of the legend i s e x a c t l y the same as that given i n t h i s p o r t i o n of the VP. VISNU. Visnu i s the second member of the t r i m u r t i ' t r i n i t y ' composed of Brahma, Visnu and Si v a . He i s the Maintainer of the universe. While not a chi e f d e i t y i n Vedic times, he arose to a supreme p o s i t i o n l a t e r i n C l a s s i c a l times, and v i e s uiith Siva f o r adoration as the supreme god. / .... Whereas Saivism abounds i n elements of t e r r o r , Vaisnavism shouis i t s d e i t y uiith k i n d l y , human t r a i t s . I t i s Visnu, not Siv a , who i s worshipped as a c h i l d , youth, and l o v e r . Visnu's name comes e i t h e r from the root v i s 'to pervade', or a l o s t root j / i _ 'to f l y ' . Another name f o r him i s Nara-yana ' vb o. r n o f N a r a ' m a n ' * . At the c r e a t i o n of the world, Visnu i s p i c t u r e d on h i s serpent-couch, l y i n g i n the midst of the sea of milk, with Brahma seated on the l o t u s i n h i s b e l l y . The purana-s a t t r i b u t e 10 or 24 avataras ' i n c a r n a t i o n s ' to him. E p i t h e t s : cakradhara — 'the d i s c u s - w i e l d e r ' — 19.1 khaoendrSsana — 'the one who has the c h i e f of b i r d s (Garuda) f o r h i s seat' — 19.2 mur§ri — 'enemy of Mura (a demon)' — 19.5, 19.14 h a r i — ' c a r r i e r ' — 19.5 madhusudana — ' s l a y e r of Madhu (a demon)' ~ 19.6 VIVASVAT. L i t e r a l l y , Vivasvat means 'the b r i g h t one'. The term i s synon-ymous with the Sun, Surya. YAKSA. The yaksa-s belong to the bhuta ' s p i r i t ' category and do not enjoy the st a t u s of worship i n the higher r e l i g i o n of I n d i a . They are \ 132 u s u a l l y s a i d to r e s i d e i n t r e e s ; thus the name Malavata 'banyon t r e e on a h i l l ' (18.44) i s s i g n i f i c a n t . The yaksa-s serve Kubera, the l o r d of wealth. In the present s t o r y , they seem to be as s o c i a t e d w i t h both gods and demons. As f o r Malavata Yaksa, V.S. Agrawala•(1964:39)- says t h i s : . . . i t i s p o s s i b l e that i t [the mention of MSlavata yaksa"} apper-t a i n s to one of the four yaksa s h r i n e s of.Kuruksetra noted i n the T I r t h a - y a t r a Parva L(Ch. 81)r-.of the Aranyaka-Parvan]. In i t we f i n d a reference to Munjavata; Malavata may w e l l be a v a r i a n t of the same name, although the Yak§a presiding-over t h a t place i s named Ulukhala-mekhala. 133 Bibliography Text used: the Vamana Purana, A.S.Gupta, ed., Varanasi: A l l - I n d i a K a s h i r a j Trust, 1967. '— Bibl i o g r a p h y on the Vamana Purana: Agrauiala, .V.S., Vamana-purSpa.: a Study, Varanasi: PrtK/i Prakasana, 1964. Gupta, -A...S.., a r t i c l e , i n Purapa journal., 5.3., J u l y , 1963, pp. 360-6.*. Hazra, R.C., Studies i n the Purapic Records .and Customs, pp. 77 f f . * Hohenberger, A.,"Das Vamana Purfna". Indo-Iranian J o u r n a l . V o l . 7 (1963), no. 1, .pp. i-57."" Raghavan, V., "The Vamana-purana", i n Purapa j o u r n a l 421, Jan., 1968, . .. pp. 184.-9.2.* T r i p a t h i , G.C., Per Ursprunq und die Entwicklung der VSmana-Leqende, Wiesbaden, 0. Harrassowitz, 1968.* T r a n s l a t i o n s of the Vamana-purana: i n t o H i n d i , by £y amasuridara Tripa"thT, 1903, Bombay; Venkateshwar Press.* i n t o B e n g a l i , by Mahesacandra P a l a , 1893, C a l c u t t a : Nirapeksa Dharma SaffcarinT Sabha". * i n t o B e n g a l i , by Pancanana Tarkaratna, 1908, VangavasT Press.* . i n t o Kannada, by Venka^acarya, Jayacamarajandra Granthavalf, no. 25* Bibliography of other books u t i l i z e d i n preparing t h i s t h e s i s : the Agni Purapa, Eng. t r a n s l a t i o n by M.N.Dutt; Sastr'T, Varanasi: Vidya-v i l a s Press, 1967. the Garuja-Purapa, Eng. t r a n s l a t i o n by M.N.Dutt SastrT, Varanasi: Vidya-u i l a s Press, 196B. the Mahabharata, Eng. t r a n s l a t i o n by P.C. Roy, V o l . I I , C a l c u t t a : Orien-t a l P u b l i s h i n g Co., second r e v i s e d edn. No date given. the Markapdaya Purapa, Eng. t r a n s l a t i o n by F.E. P a r g i t e r , C a l c u t t a ; D e l h i : Indolog I C S 1 Book House, r e p r i n t 1969. the Matsya Pur3pa, Eng. t r a n s l a t i o n by a board of s c h o l a r s , S.V. SastrT, ed., "Sacred Books of the Aryans", V o l . I , D e l h i : O r i e n t a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1972. Dowson, John, A C l a s s i c a l D i c t i o n a r y of Hindu Mythology, London: Rout-ledge. &. Ke.ga.n Paul,. 1.953, r e p r i n t . . Kane, P.V. A History of the Dharma Sgfstra, Poona: Bhandarkar O r i e n t a l Research Institute.,. 193.0.. Zimmer, H e i n r i c h , Myths and Symbols i n Indian Art and C i v i l i z a t i o n , New York: Harper & Row, 1962. * those p u b l i c a t i o n s which could not be p e r s o n a l l y checked are marked w i t h an *. 

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