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The Kātyāyanī myth in the Vāmana Purāna (18.39-21.52) Dunlap, William Devereux 1975

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THE KATYAYANI MYTH IN THE VAMANA PURANA (18.39-21.52) by WILLIAM DEVEREUX DUNLAP B.S.,  Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e o f Technology, 1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of Asian Studies Ule a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required standard  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h May, 1975  Columbia  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  that  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l written  gain  permission.  Depa rtment The  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  shall  not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Abstract T h i s t h e s i s i s the t r a n s l a t i o n , a n n o t a t i o n ,  and  commentary of  s e c t i o n of the Vamana Purana i n uihich the s t o r y of K a t y a y a n l i s (18.39-21.52)..  I have t r a n s l a t e d the s t o r y l i t e r a l l y ,  s i m p l e r manner, a n a l y z e d i t and p o s s i b l e about t h e c h a r a c t e r s , aim  narrated  recounted i t i n a  t r i e d t o i n c l u d e as much i n f o r m a t i o n customs, r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , e t c .  i s t o u n d e r s t a n d the s t o r y a c c u r a t e l y , f u l l y , and  enable a c r i t i c a l  that  reader to do the same.  as  The  critically  and  to  Thus, the major purpose of  the t h e s i s i s p h i l o l o g i c a l s i t i s an e x e r c i s e i n a c q u i r i n g a more p r e c i s e knowledge of p u r a n i c  S a n s k r i t , myths, c h a r a c t e r s ,  secondary purpose i s to study the m y t h o l o g i c a l the s t o r y , a9 u i e l l as the gods and  beliefs.  The  motifs appearing i n  demons utho p l a y a r o l e i n the  B r i e f l y , t h i s passage of the Vamana Purana i s the s t o r y of d e f e a t of the gods by the demons, and how the demons by  story.  the  the gods i n t u r n d e f e a t e d  j o i n i n g t h e i r powers t o g e t h e r .  The  goddess K a t y a y a n l ,  i s the c e n t r a l f i g u r e of the s t o r y , i s an i n t e g r a t i o n of a l l the  mho  godst  strength. The  s t r u c t u r e of the t h e s i s i s as f o l l o w s : a) an I n t r o d u c t i o n  c o n c e n t r a t e s on a n a l y s i s and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the s t o r y and on  language used i n the s t o r y ; b) the t r a n s l a t i o n and Glossary  critical  S a n s k r i t t e x t of the s t o r y ,  as w e l l as e x p l a n a t o r y  of proper names of i n d i v i d u a l s and  i n the s e l e c t e d segment.  annotations;  that  the literal  c) a  c l a s s e s of b e i n g s mentioned  ii  Table o f Contents  I.  Introduction  1  Puranic l i t e r a t u r e . . . 2 I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Vamana Purana . 4 The s t o r y i n b r i e f . . . 5 The s t r u c t u r e o f the s t o r y . . . . . . . 7 M o t i f s f i g u r i n g i n the s t o r y 8 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the s t o r y . .13 A c r i t i q u e on how the s t o r y i s n a r r a t e d 15 The Uisrju element i n t h e s t o r y . . .16 V i s n u - P a n j a r a Mantra . 1? Comparison with the same s t o r y i n the Markandeya . Purana .18 The author as-a poet . . .20 Metre • .23 Method o f t r a n s l a t i o n 24 r  II.  III.  Text, T r a n s l a t i o n and A n n o t a t i o n s  Glossary  o f Names o f I n d i v i d u a l s and C l a s s e s Beings  26  of  jll8  iii  Acknouiledqements  I w i s h t o thank my t h e s i s a d v i s o r and S a n s k r i t p r o f e s s o r , Dr. Ashok N. A k l u j k a r f o r h i s steady a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . He has been most p a t i e n t and h e l p f u l i n h i s s u g g e s t i o n s and g u i d a n c e .  1  I.  INTRODUCTION  2  The  p r i n c i p a l aim of t h i s t h e s i s i s p h i l o l o g i c a l : a t r a n s l a t i o n ,  annotation  and  c r i t i c a l study of a S a n s k r i t t e x t t h a t has  been t r a n s l a t e d or s t u d i e d i n E n g l i s h . Vamana Purana was  so f a r  p a r t i c u l a r passage o f  the myth of the c r e a t i o n of t h e goddess  matter of t h i s t h e s i s p r o v i d e d  me  an  opportunity  t o get a c q u a i n t e d w i t h many B r a h m a n i c a l r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and I have p r e s e n t e d a study of t h e s e and  thought i n the f o l l o w i n g pages of the  Puranic The  at  Besides g i v i n g a rigorous e x e r c i s e i n p h i l o l o g i c a l t r a n s -  l a t i o n , the s u b j e c t  beings.  the  chosen because i t afforded.me a good chance to look  a s p e c i f i c Brahmanical myth — Katyayanl.  The  not  mythical  a l l i e d branches of  Introduction.  literature  purana-s are a c l a s s o f r e l i g i o u s l i t e r a t u r e of Brahmanism,  along w i t h the V e d i c l i t e r a t u r e , the s m r t i - s , the i t i h a s a - s ( h i s t o r i e s ) l i k e the Mahabharata, as w e l l as the s a s t r a - s and literature. and  I t i s v a s t , l a s i t comprises  minor works and  contains  Besides- b e i n g e x t e n s i v e  eight  T h e i r aim d i d not  perpetuation,  and  major  verses.  i n volume, the purana-s are a l s o unique by  rather preservation,  contain countless  hundred and  at l e a s t f o u r hundred thousand  of t h e i r r i c h n e s s and v a r i e t y of c o n t e n t . b r e v i t y , but  . one  philosophical sutra  dint  seem t o  expansion.  be  They  d i g r e s s i o n s , and d i g r e s s i o n s w i t h i n d i g r e s s i o n s .  As  the purana-s were an o r a l l i t e r a t u r e f o r some t i m e , almost every purana seems t o have grown over c e n t u r i e s through a d d i t i o n s . . In t h i s aspect they can be compared t o Homer's e p i c s , uihich were a l s o sung by a n c i e n t l o n g b e f o r e they were w r i t t e n down. people and  provide  popular appeal.  The  bards  d i g r e s s i o n s served to e n t e r t a i n  3  The  s u b j e c t matter of t h e purana-s i s as e x t e n s i v e as t h e i r volume.  The purana-s cover the r e l i g i o u s , c u l t u r a l , and s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y of I n d i a through a v a s t t i m e span ( a n c i e n t t o medieval I n d i a ) . ment r e l i g i o u s and successions  They docu-  social practices, philosophical speculations, dynastic  and even the geography of the l a n d .  n a n t l y m y t h o l o g i c a l , and has  Their form i s predomi-  a c a s t of gods, demons, m y t h i c sages  and  s e e r s ; the s e t t i n g i s sometimes e a r t h , sometimes one of the heavens or hells.  The  a u t h o r s wove Brahmanic m e t a p h y s i c a l  d o c t r i n e s i n t o the f a b r i c of myths and One  legends.  of t h e p r o p e r t i e s of mythology i s t h a t i t i s e x p l a n a t o r y .  mythologems seek to e x p l a i n why way,  (especially devotional)  or how  something i n the w o r l d i s a c e r t a i n  an o b j e c t or a being got i t s or h i s name.  i n the mythologem of the s e c t i o n t r a n s l a t e d below, we of the goddess KatyayanT. The  The  Many  For  instance,  see t h e  origin  o r i g i n of her name i s a l s o g i v e n ( i n 19.13).  very format of p u r a n i c l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h i s q u a l i t y of e x p l a i n i n g  things.  One  sage a s k s another about the o r i g i n of some b e i n g , and  l e a d s to f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s  that  and d i g r e s s i o n s .  P u r a n i c l i t e r a t u r e a l s o c o n t a i n s the b e l i e f i n the p u r i f y i n g i n f l u e n c e of the purana. reading  In almost every purana, one  comes a c r o s s t h i s i d e a , t h a t  ( o r even l i s t e n i n g t o ) the purana w i l l  s i n or f e t t e r s of t r a n s m i g r a t i o n . i n the beginning  U s u a l l y , such a statement i s found  c h a p t e r s o f the purana.  v a t a Purana, where we  remove the s t a i n s of  read on the f i r s t  Such i s the case i n the Bhagapage:  While i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t God can be s p e e d i l y c a p t u r e d i n one's h e a r t by o t h e r means, He can be i n s t a n t l y s e i z e d t h r o u g h t h i s work [ i . e . the Bhagavata Purana] by those b l e s s e d persons who have a keen d e s i r e t o hear i t r e c i t e d . — B h a g a v a t a Purana 1.1.3  4  There are constant r e m i n d e r s of t h i s p u r i f y i n g q u a l i t y throughout purana as w e l l ,  f o r i n s t a n c e , i n v e r s e 21.3  the  o f our s t o r y uie f i n d :  " L i s t e n t o t h i s a n c i e n t , a u s p i c i o u s s t o r y t h a t removes s i n and f e a r . "  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Vamana Purana There are one hundred and e i g h t purana-s, d i v i d e d i n t o (major) Mahapurana-s ( o f which t h e r e are e i g h t e e n ) and Vamana Purana ( c a l l e d VP from now purana-s.  (minor) Upapurana-s.  The  on) i s f o u r t e e n t h i n t h e l i s t o f  fflaha-  I t i s named a f t e r Vamana (the Dwarf), the f i r s t human i n c a r -  n a t i o n of V i s n u . n a v i t e and  The e i g h t e e n Mahapurana-s are evenly d i v i d e d i n t o V a i s -  S a i v i t e groups, t h e former being devoted t o the d e i t y Visnu  and the l a t t e r t o the d e i t y S i v a . s t r o n g l y s e c t a r i a n on one  Whereas many o f the purana-s are  s i d e o r the o t h e r , the VP seems t o i n c o r p o r a t e  elements of both s e c t s , though i t s t i l l i s cegai'ded as a V a i s n a v i t e purana.  I t g i v e s almost as much r e c o g n i t i o n t o S i v a as t o V i s n u , w h i l e  h o l d i n g V i s n u supreme. As f o r age, t h e VP i s p r o b a b l y one of the e a r l i e r purana-s ( a t l e a s t , the e d i t o r of the c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n o f the VP makes t h i s argument), p r o bably d a t i n g back t o the seventh for  c e n t u r y i n i t s p r e s e n t form.  the VP i s n o r t h I n d i a , though t h e r e are many r e f e r e n c e s t o  I n d i a n geography and In  The  setting  south  religion.  a d d i t i o n t o the Dwarf i n c a r n a t i o n of V i s n u , t h e VP d e a l s w i t h  the marriage  of S i v a and P a r v a t T , the b i r t h o f Skanda, and the wars  between the asura-s  (demons) and deva-s ( g o d s ) .  of the demons than almost any o t h e r ^ p u r a n a . n a r r a t o r i s P u l a s t y a , mho  i s s a i d to be  an  I t n a r r a t e s frpre e x p l o i t s  T h i s c o u l d be because i t s a n c e s t o r of the demons.  5  The  s t o r y chosen f o r t r a n s l a t i o n i s one o f t h i s c a t e g o r y .  It tells  houi t h e gods were d e f e a t e d and came back t o power a g a i n . The  form o f t h i s purana i s a d i a l o g u e between the sages P u l a s t y a  and Narada.  J u s t b e f o r e P u l a s t y a n a r r a t e d o u r s t o r y , he t o l d Narada  about c e r t a i n r e l i g i o u s observances and the p r o d u c t i o n o f v a r i o u s f r u i t s and f l o w e r t r e e s , and a hymn o f p r a i s e t o V i s n u .  When P u l a s t y a mentions  t h a t S i v a had once used t h i s hymn f o r K a t y a y a n I ,  Narada asks f o r f u r t h e r  explanation.  Here i s where our s t o r y b e g i n s .  The l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e s t o r y g i v e n i n t h e next s e c t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s i s not easy t o f o l l o w .  T h e r e f o r e , a b r i e f summary o f t h e s t o r y  would be u s e f u l f o r a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g : The  story i n brief  Two demon b r o t h e r s , Rambha and Karambha, went t o t h e Panca-nada c o u n t r y t o perform  penance f o r o b t a i n i n g sons.  While they were  i n g t h e i r penance, t h e god I n d r a k i l l e d Karambha.  When Rambha came  t o know t h i s , he wanted t o k i l l h i m s e l f , but was prevented A g n i , who gave him a boon. the boon.  t o Rambha's w i f e , and fought  He d e s i r e d a v i c t o r i o u s s o n , and Agni  granted  I n t h e meanwhile, a male b u f f a l o was a t t r a c t e d Rambha t o b b t a i n h e r .  l a t e r h i m s e l f d i e d as a r e s u l t o f drowning. as t h e demon Namara.  fflahisa,  He k i l l e d Rambha, but  A f t e r d y i n g , he r e i n c a r n a t e d  Rambha a l s o r e i n c a r n a t e d as a demon c a l l e d  These t h r e e demons —  the gods,  by t h e god  Soon he found a s h e - b u f f a l o he l i k e d and had a son by h e r .  This son was named Wahisa.  bija.  perform-  fflahisa,  Namara, and RaktabTja  —  Rakta-  conquered  b e i n g the most p o w e r f u l a c c o r d i n g t o t h e boon, was  6  cro  wn ed ,-_s k i n g . A f t e r t h e i r d e f e a t , the gods sought r e f u g e i n V i s n u and S i v a .  They t o l d these Supreme Gods about the v i c t o r i o u s demons. s m e l l e d w i t h uirath.  Visnu  When he became angry, the o t h e r gods a l s o became  angry, and out of t h e i r mouths they a l l e m i t t e d i n t e n s e t e j a s T h i s s p l e n d o r was  combined w i t h the s p l e n d o r o f t h e seer Katyayana and  r e s u l t e d i n a young woman of m i r a c u l o u s f e a t u r e s . imparted s e v e r a l u s e f u l weapons and t h i n g s to h e r . to  l i v e on t h e Vindhya  The prominent gods Then she  started  mountain.  Mahisa soon heard about t h e b e a u t i f u l woman l i v i n g on the mountain,- and r e s o l v e d to a c q u i r e her as w i f e . to  Vindhya  The demon army moved  the f o o t of the Vindhya mountain, and Oundubhi, as  ffiahisa's  s e n t a t i v e , went t o ask K a t y S y a n i f o r her hand i n m a r r i a g e . p r o p o s a l was  'splendor'.  repre~  When the  put t o h e r , K a t y i y a n l r e p l i e d t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o the  i n her f a m i l y she must marry a p o w e r f u l male — Wahisa must f i r s t  d e f e a t her i n b a t t l e .  The demon army a t t a c k e d , l e d f i r s t  tradition  t h a t i f he wanted h e r ,  Dundubhi r e p o r t e d t h i s to by Namara.  k i l l e d many of the demons and Namara as w e l l .  Mahisa.  KatyayanT e a s i l y  She l e t out a l o u d l a u g h ,  from which came many s o r t s of f i e r c e b e i n g s t o h a r a s s the demon army. C i k s u r a a t t a c k e d n e x t , but the a t t a c k was  q u i c k l y put down by KatyayanT.  Many demons came i n next t o a t t a c k KatyayanT, but were e a s i l y Then Mahisa a t t a c k e d K a t y a y a n l and her host o f b e i n g s .  defeated.  When she bound  him w i t h a r o p e , he t r a n s f o r m e d h i m s e l f i n t o an e l e p h a n t .  When she  c u t o f f h i s t r u n k , he went back t o t h e form of a b u f f a l o .  Katyayanl  t r i e d a l l t h e weapons p r o v i d e d her by the gods when she was they a l l f a i l e d .  c r e a t e d , but  F i n a l l y , she jumped on Mahisa's back and pounded him  7  heavily.  But when she c u t h i s t h r o a t , a man w i t h a sword emerged t o  f i g h t her. head.  At l o n g l a s t , she made an end o f t h i s demon by c u t t i n g h i s  The o t h e r demons b e i n g s c a r e d l e f t e a r t h f o r t h e nether  The gods p r a i s e d K l t y a y a n f f o r her v i c t o r y .  world.  K a t y a y a n l s a t at t h e f o o t  of Lord S i v a and announced, " I s h a l l a g a i n be born f o r t h e sake of t h e gods."  The S t r u c t u r e o f t h e Story What has been n a r r a t e d above can be b e t t e r understood  as a myth  i f we a n a l y z e i t i n t o u n i t s and s u b s t i t u t e i m p e r s o n a l t e r m i n o l o g y f o r proper names. Two demons perform penance f o r a purpose.  A god k i l l s one o f them.  Another god comes t o g i v e t h e o t h e r demon a boon.  The demon asks f o r a  v i c t o r i o u s s o n . The son i s born and becomes head o f t h e demon f o r c e . The demons d e f e a t t h e gods. A f t e r the gods a r e d e f e a t e d , they gor'tortbechief gods f o r h e l p . Together,  t h e gods form a b e a u t i f u l woman f o r t h e purpose o f d e f e a t i n g  the demons. The head demon hears about t h i s b e a u t i f u l woman and wants t o be her husband.  She s t i p u l a t e s " t h a t b e f o r e he does so he must f i r s t  defeat  her i n b a t t l e . The b e a u t i f u l woman k i l l s many o f the demons e a s i l y , but has c o n s i d e r a b l e t r o u b l e d e f e a t i n g t h e c h i e f demon.  Many o f her weapons f a i l h e r .  F i n a l l y , she o p t s f o r an u n c o n v e n t i o n a l and unexpected method and k i l l s the enemy.  The gods a r e * r e t u r n e d t o supremacy.  The above, t h e n , i s t h e s k e l e t o n o f what we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h i n t h e  8  present  thesis.  M o t i f s f i g u r i n g i n the sfcory. Tapas;  Tapas ( u s u a l l y t r a n s l a t e d as ' a u s t e r i t y ' or 'penance') i s an  i n t e r n a l energy  b u i l t up i n s i d e a y o a i n by h i s a s c e t i c a c t i o n s .  (The  primary meaning f o r t h e word is'heat', but t a p a s has come to mean ' i n t e r n a l energy'.) power.  The l o n g e r he performs t a p a s , the g r e a t e r w i l l  be h i s e v e n t u a l  I t i s r e c o r d e d t h a t some y o o i n s p r a c t i c e d so much t a p a s t h a t even  tBne gods ( p a r t i c u l a r l y I n d r a , c h i e f of gods) became a f r a i d of them. such c a s e s , u s u a l l y a b e a u t i f u l g i r l or  l u r e him away.  In  i s sent down t o d i s t r a c t the y o o i n  I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e f o r demons and s p i r i t s o f lower  n a t u r e t o p e r f o r m t _ p _ s , as happens i n t h e p r e s e n t s t o r y (Rambha and Karambha). Examples of t a p a s a r e , b e s i d e s t h e two v a r i e t i e s mentioned i n 18.44, long f a s t i n g , c e l i b a c y ,  a s c e t i c i s m , and o t h e r a c t s o r vows of  a b s t e n t i o n t h a t were u s u a l l y p a i n f u l . and the Mundaka Upanisad  The Chandogya Upanisad  V.10.1-2  1.2.10-11 p l a c e tapas even over yajfta  (sacrifice),  when i t comes t o w i n n i n g t h e f a v o r of the gods and b u r n i n g o f f the d r o s s of  one's karman.  In the p r e s e n t case o f Rambha and Karambha, the a s c e t i c  a c t s were performed  i n o r d e r t o a c q u i r e a son.  g a i n i n g " , i f you w i l l .  This i s " s p i r i t u a l  Such p r a c t i c e s are common throughout  bar-  Indian  liter-  ature.  I n d r a k i l l s a demon;  Perhaps one might wonder why  c o d i l e to k i l l Karambha i n t h e r i v e r (18.45).  I n d r a became a c r o -  Indra i s a deity a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h t h e storm c l o u d s and w i t h r a i n , and thus a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w a t e r . So i t would be n a t u r a l t o see him a s a c r e a t u r e i n the r i v e r .  Presumably,  9  he k i l l e d Karambha because o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  enmity between gods and  demons.  Sacrificing  o n e s e l f i n the f i r e ;  When Rambha sees h i s b r o t h e r k i l l e d ,  he begins t o s a c r i f i c e h i m s e l f i n the f i r e results thing  from m e r i t , and merit  ( t h a t i s why r e l i g i o u s  Sacrificing it  death  things to oneself.  Thus,  (here, capable o f revenge)  A l s o , i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the l a s t d e s i r e b e f o r e  i n f l u e n c e s one's f u t u r e i n c a r n a t i o n .  to k i l l  o n e s e l f some-  vows c o n t a i n the elemfent o f r e s t r a i n t ) .  o n e s e l f i s the u l t i m a t e i n denying  life.  Greater power  can be had through denying  i s a means of Rambha becoming powerful  i n the next  (18.47).  Thus, when Rambha wants  h i m s e l f , he wants t o d i e with a d e s i r e f o r revenge i n hfcs h e a r t .  T h i s would f a c i l i t a t e the revenge o f h i s b r o t h e r ' s murder. fherbelief  t h a t s a c r i f i c i n g o n e s e l f i n t h e f i r e was m e r i t o r i o u s  seems p r e v a l e n t i n a n c i e n t t i m e s . satl,  f o r the r i t e o f  a c c o r d i n g t o which t h e w i f e o f a dead man being  throws h e r s e l f on the f i r e spirit  I t a l s o accounts  of her l a t e  husband.  immolated a l s o  and thus ascends t o heaven along with the We f i n d t h e r i t e of s a t l i n t h i s  s t o r y : when Rambha d i e s , h i s f a i t h f u l w i f e , the s h e - b u f f a l o , h e r s e l f on t h e f u n e r a l pyre  (18.67).  view, the e a r l i e s t  later  pro-  (Kane; 1930 ; I I , 625). v  p o s s i b l e date f o r the Vamana Purana  would have t o be l a t e r than t h e t h i r d o r f o u r t h century  G r a n t i n g a boon:  offers  According t o Kane, t h i s r i t e  bably arose as a custom a few c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e C h r i s t I f we accept t h i s  very  Agni, the god o f F i r e , granted  l e d t o the d o w n f a l l o f the gods.  B.C.  Rambha a boon, which  I t i s n e a r l y as i f Agni and  Indra were working t o g e t h e r t o s t i r up m i s c h i e f .  Perhaps Indra  kills  10  one b r o t h e r so t h a t Agni c o u l d grant the o t h e r b r o t h e r a boon. bly  A g n i p r e v e n t e d Rambha from g a i n i n g a b s o l u t e i n v i n c i b i l i t y  self-sacrifice. for  Or p o s s i through  At any r a t e , t h e r e appears t o be no e x t e r n a l motive  Agni t o g r a n t the boon, a l t h o u g h u s u a l l y a p e r s o n does something  good f o r the god or s e e r and i s g r a n t e d a boon i n r e t u r n . Rambha asked f o r a v i c t o r i o u s son.  P r e v i o u s l y , the purpose of h i s  a u s t e r i t i e s had been t o g a i n a son, but now he wants a v i c t o r i o u s  one,  presumably f o r the purpose o f c r e a t i n g havoc among t h e gods, s i n c e I n d r a took away h i s b r o t h e r .  Furthermore, Agni g i v e s Rambha t h e a b i l i t y t o  b r i n g about what he w i s h e s from any source ( 1 8 . 5 2 ) , by t e l l i n g him t h a t any female he p u t s h i s mind t o w i l l bear him a son.  T h i s k i n d o f boon  l e a v e s the e x a c t outcome up t o the person r e c e i v i n g i t , and thus almost a n y t h i n g can i h a p p e n, depending on chance. the  mischief.  T h i s c o u l d be p a r t o f  But i t c e r t a i n l y accounts f o r t h e b i r t h of Mahisa.  The u s u a l hero i n e f f e c t i v e :  I t o c c a s i o n a l l y happens i n mythologems  t h a t a s i t u a t i o n d e v e l o p s where so many unexpected problems a r i s e t h a t not even t h e most p o w e r f u l god ( o r hero) can do a n y t h i n g about i t .  In  such c a s e s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o see how he g e t s out or i s h e l p e d t o get  out of the s i t u a t i o n .  I n t h i s s t o r y , V i s n u i s asked by t h e gods  to remove the Buffalo-demon Wahisa, who  has o v e r r u n the gods.  t h e m s e l v e s have been thrown out of Svaroa ( h e a v e n ) . h i m s e l f c o u l d not a v a i l ,  The gods  This time, Visnu  and so the gods pour a l l t h e i r e n e r g i e s t o g e t h e r  from which comes t h e g r e a t goddess K a t y S y a n l .  The gods need the a s s i s t a n c e of someone mature i n penance:  When the  gods are ready to form K a t y a y a n I , t h e i r s p l e n d o r i s combined w i t h t h a t  11  o f the seer Katyayana, who  i s r i c h i n penance ( i _ p a s ) .  In o t h e r words,  they cannot form the Goddess a l o n e , but need the h e l p o f someone who has a c q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e m e r i t and power through p e r f o r m i n g T h i s reminds one of the s t o r y of Dadhlca, the V e d i c s e e r .  penance.  Dadhlca i s  s a i d t o have devoted h i m s e l f t o death s o ' t h a t I n d r a and the o t h e r gods c o u l d arm themselves  w i t h h i s bones i n t h e i r b a t t l e w i t h V r t r a and  the  *  demons.  In t h a t c a s e , t h e  s e e r had undergone much s a c r i f i c e and, con-  s e q u e n t l y had b u i l t up a s t o r e of g r e a t power.  Thus, he was  able to  h e l p t h e gods. The t r i a d o f eyes?  K a t y i y a n t possesses  s e v e r a l o t h e r c r e a t u r e s i n mythology. the f o r e h e a d between the o t h e r two G i f t s to K a t y a y a n l :  like  The t h i r d eye i s s i t u a t e d i n  eyes.  S e v e r a l o f the g i f t s g i v e n t o K a t y a y a n l are m o t i f s  which are found i n o t h e r mythologems. her 'two  a t r i a d o f eyes ( 1 9 . 9 ) ,  For example, V i v a s v a t (Sun)  q u i v e r s which had i n e x h a u s t i b l e arrows'  theme of something t h a t does not go empty.  (19.14).  gives  Here I s the  ( i t i s found i n o t h e r mytho-  logems f a m i l i a r t o u s : the urn of water t h a t i s never dcy, the bag  of  f o o d which i s never empty, and even the C h r i s t s t o r y of the f e e d i n g of the f i v e thousand w i t h a mere few l o a v e s of bread and f i s h e s . )  In  I n d i a n mythology, Rlma and A r j u n a a l s o have q u i v e r s t h a t never go empty. A s i m i l a r m o t i f i s found i n 19.17, where the Seasons g i v e KatyayanT •a g a r l a n d of n e v e r - f a d i n g f l o w e r s ' .  T h i s i s the m o t i f of f o r e v e r - f r e s h  f l o w e r s , o r something t h a t needs no r e p l e n i s h i n g . P r a i s e by gods:  A f t e r she had been c r e a t e d and the g i f t s bestowed on h e r ,  12  KatyayanI i s p r a i s e d by a l l the gods (19.18). q u e n t l y i n mythology (another sis).  The  We  f i n d t h i s motif  example mould be the f i r s t  c h a p t e r o f Gene-  t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t the  or goddess who  i s expected to accomplish  o r her s t r e n g t h because of the p r a i s e . Loka-s and  Tala-s.  In one  seven l o k a ~ s 'worlds*  and  a particular  fre-  god  thing incrases his  s t u t y a h i vardhante devah.  t r a d i t i o n o f I n d i a n mythology, t h e r e seven t a l a - s ' p l a n e s ' .  are  They are t r a d i t i o n a l l y  as f o l l o w s : s a t y a l o k a (or Brahma l o k a ) tapoloka jana l o k a mahaloka svar l o k a (or I n d r a l o k a ) bhuvar l o k a bhu l o k a (the E a r t h ) The  l o k a - s are g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d  the "heavens" o f I n d i a n mythology,  and the t a l a - s as the "nether w o r l d s " . l o k a - t r a y a 'three w o r l d s ' are extremely They r e f e r to svaroa  atala vitala sutala rasStala talatala mahatala patala  The  terms t r i l o k l , t r a i l o k y a ,  frequent  i n I n d i a n mythology.  'heaven', p r t h v l ' e a r t h , and 1  t h s r ' t h e y comprise the m y t h o l o g i c a l u n i v e r s e .  or  naraka ' h e l l ' .  Toge-  In t h i s present  story,  thejde'mons take over s v a r q a and the gods are f o r c e d down to the  Earth.  Dharma and Karman.  These two  concepts form the warp and woof of  c l a s s i c a l to medieval I n d i a n l i t e r a t u r e .  pre-  B r i e f l y , dharma i s conduct  conducive to m a i n t a i n i n g the d i v i n e (moral) o r d e r i n g of the w o r l d ,  and  karman i s the i d e a of a c t i o n - a n d - r e a c t i o n as i t p e r t a i n s t o moral  life.  According  t o the d o c t r i n e of karman, one's a c t i o n s i n t h i s l i f e t i m e  mine the k i n d of f u t u r e l i f e t i m e one w i l l  have.  deter-  13  Dharma i s the pouter t h a t upholds good e x i s t e n c e , forms the b a s i s of e n j o y a b l e l i f e , verse.  and m a i n t a i n s the growth and development  of the u n i -  Ulhen t h e b a l a n c e of the cosmos i s upset ( f o r i n s t a n c e , when t h e  demons w i n over the g o d s ) , dharma a c t s as a b a l a n c i n g f o r c e , and event u a l l y r e t u r n s the s i t u a t i o n t o normal by r e s t o r i n g t h e gods t o power again.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s t o r y I t i s p o s s i b l e t o i n t e r p r e t t h e s t o r y from s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of v i e w : the m e t a p h y s i c a l p o i n t o f view (which i n c l u d e s a macrocosmic and m i c r o c o s m i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) and a h i s t o r i c a l p o i n t of v i e w .  From  t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l p o i n t of view, the goddess K a t y a y a n l seems t o be t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n ( o r , i n - t e r m s o f t h e s c i e n c e of mythology'; a p r o j e c t i o n o r e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n ) of the supreme energy of t h e u n i v e r s e .  In t h i s  story,  the gods amalgamate t h e i r s e p a r a t e e n e r g i e s t o the f o u n t a i n h e a d from which a l l t h e i r e n e r g i e s stem.  The r e s u l t : a renewal o f t h e o r i g i n a l  s t a t e of cosmic p o t e n c y . To put i t another way.  The cosmos f i r s t began t o be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  when t h e p r i m e v a l s a k t i d i v i d e d i t s e l f i n t o i n d i v i d u a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , i . e . i n t o the v a r i o u s gods and demons and t h e i r e n e r g i e s .  But now the  gods had l o s t t h e i r f o r c e and d i d not prove s t r o n g enough t o a v e r t the conquest by t h e opponents of cosmic o r d e r .  Thus, t h e e n e r g i e s were  r e a b s o r b e d back i n t o the p r i m e v a l m o t h e r - p r i n c i p l e , i n t o the u n i v e r s a l womb. The Great Mother i s an i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e i n mythology, as She the e t e r n a l f e m i n i n e elements of the c r e a t i o n .  embodies  The Great Mother has even  14  reached a h i g h e r rank t h a n t h e h i g h e s t male gods i n some c u l t u r e s .  (In  our own c u l t u r e , d e v o t i o n t o Mary, J e s u s ' mother, has been i n c r e a s i n g for of  some c e n t u r i e s , and c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e C o r o n a t i o n o f Mary as Queen Heaven, an o f f i c i a l d o c t r i n e a c c e p t e d by t h e C a t h o l i c Church  i n 1950.)  One o f K a t y a y a n l ' s names used i n the t e x t i n d i c a t e s h e r aspect o f t h e Great Mother: Ambika, from amba 'mother'. The f a c t t h a t t h e Goddess i s r i d i n g on a l i o n i s q u i t e  significant.  The l i o n r e p r e s e n t s energy and w i l l : both masculine q u a l i t i e s .  The  Goddess, as a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p r i m e v a l U n i v e r s a l S a k t i , o r Energy, i s u p h e l d by an a n i m a l , by an i n s t i n c t u a l c r e a t u r e h a v i n g s t r o n g w i l l and d r i v i n g f o r c e .  Thus.the f e m i n i n i t y o f t h e Goddess i s b a l a n c e d by  t h e m a s c u l i n e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e l i o n , and t o g e t h e r they form a wholeness, which i s t h e p r i m e v a l energy o f t h e cosmos.  T h i s resembles t h e  T a n t r i c d o c t r i n e o f S i v a and £akti, o r pure c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( t h e changel e s s , s t a t i c aspect o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) and a c t i v e , k i n e t i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s d o c t r i n e , t h e r e s h o u l d be a marriage o f t h e S i v a and S a k t i elements o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n man. As f o r the microcosmic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h i s i s merely t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f the above t o Man.  I n o t h e r words, t h e p r i m a l energy  i n man was  d i v i d e d i n t o many s e p a r a t e e n e r g i e s (mental and s p i r i t u a l o n e s ) , which sometimes work a g a i n s t one a n o t h e r .  When i t seems as though t h e lower  f o r c e s a r e c o n q u e r i n g man's h i g h e r f o r c e s , i t i s necessary f o r him t o draw t o g e t h e r and i n t e g r a t e a l l t h e v a r i o u s e n e r g i e s t h a t a r e d i f f u s e d throughout h i s mind and s p i r i t .  T h i s mean ( i n T a n t r i c t e r m i n o l o g y ) , t h e  u n i o n o f S i v a and S a k t i . o f h i g h e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s (uihich i s Energy, p o t e n t i a l ) and i t s e x t e r n a l form (which i s Power).  pure  (See t h e Serpent  15  Power. c h a p t e r one, by A r t h e r  Avalon.)  In t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , KatyayanI  could be t a k e n as a symbol o f the s a k t i i n the human body. can'-the "demons" i n man (the f o r c e s t h r e a t e n i n g  I n t h i s way  t o make h i s l i f e - e n e r g i e s  run amuck) be subdued. Along a h i s t o r i c a l l i n e , t h i s s t o r y might r e p r e s e n t the o f a t o t e m i s t i c t r i b a l god under t h e gods of the e s t a b l i s h e d The  subjugation culture.  t o t e m i s t i c t r i b a l god would be r e p r e s e n t e d by the main demon-buffalo  i n t h i s s t o r y , and t h e e s t a b l i s h e d gods by KatyayanI and o t h e r s o f t h e d i v i n e pantheon.  S i m i l a r i n s t a n c e s o f the s t r u g g l e o f gods and emons are t o '.:(•  be found i n the s t o r y of K r s n a . demons h a v i n g a n i m a l f o r m s - i n Mahabharata.  There a r e many s t o r i e s o f Krsna k i l l i n g .  the Purana-s and t h e Harivamsa s e c t i o n o f the  These s t o r i e s may be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the same way as the  KatyayanI" s t o r y , r e p r e s e n t i n g gods over pagan and t r i b a l  t h e triumph o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d r e l i g i o n and  elements.  A c r i t i q u e o f how t h e s t o r y i s n a r r a t e d  There are s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s i n the s t o r y t h a t are hot s t r u c t u r a l l y necessary f o r the a c t i o n .  The d e s c r i p t i o n of KatyayanI a f t e r she i f formed  i s q u i t e p o e t i c i n p a r t s , but adds n o t h i n g t o the a c t i o n . a long r e f e r e n c e  to the lowering  o f t h e Vindhya mountain, which forms  a s h o r t p a r e n t h e t i c a l s t o r y o f i t s own. superfluous  Verse 18.33 g i v e s  d e t a i l s about Agastya's h e r m i t a g e .  i s concerned w i t h the p r e p a r t i b n Mahisa and K a t y a y a n I .  Also, there i s  strictly  Much o f the main n a r r a t i o n  f o r b a t t l e and the a c t u a l b a t t l e o f  Many d e t a i l s o f t h i s b a t t l e seem t o be somewhat  16  superfluous. B e s i d e s t h e s e o v e r - d e v e l o p e d p a r t s of the s t o r y j u s t  mentioned,  t h e r e a r e , on the o t h e r hand, s e v e r a l d e t a i l s t h a t are not g i v e n any e x p l a n a t i o n at a l l .  For i n s t a n c e , i t i s not t o l d how,  e x a c t l y , Mahisa  conquered the gods.  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e are two i n s t a n c e s of a man  a r i s i n g from a dead body: once, when R a k t a b l j a a r i s e s from the f u n e r a l pyre of Rambha, and second, when a sword-bearing man comes from Mahisa's body a f t e r K a t y a y a n l has pounded him l i k e a wet h i d e ( 2 1 . 4 8 ) .  Why  s h o u l d two such unusual occuE^ances o c c u r , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n such a s h o r t space?  A l s o , i t seems as i f the supreme gods (Brahma,  Visnu,  and S i v a ) were a l s o s u b j u g a t e d by the demons under Mahisa ( c f . 18.7 Rudra, 21.43ab, 21.44ab). all-powerful?  -  Does t h i s imply t h a t they are n o t , i n d e e d ,  They seem to be o b l i v i o u s to what was happening to the  l e s s e r gods ( f o r i n s t a n c e , o b l i v i o u s of Agni going t o Rambha and g r a n t i n g him t h e boon of a v i c t o r i o u s son.)  This i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y to t h e i r  posed omnipotence  F u r t h e r m o r e , why was Mahisa born a  and o m n i s c i e n c e .  w h i t e b u f f a l o (18,60) ?  sup-  — t o make him unique among a l l the demons?  A l s o , t h e r e are d e t a i l s g i v e n i n 18.54 no b e a r i n g on the s t o r y at a l l .  and 18.69 which have a b s o l u t e l y  These a r e some of the q u e s t i o n s a r i s i n g  from t h e s t o r y which have no answers.  The V i s n u element i n t h a s t o r y The VP i s a V a i s n a v i t e purana, and y e t t h e s t o r y b e f o r e us concerns KatySyanI (or Durga), who  i s associated with Siva.  t h a t even V i s n u c o u l d not f i n i s h .  She f i n i s h e s a m i s s i o n  Be t h i s as i t may, t h e r e are s t i l l  few r e f e r e n c e s t o V i s n u as supreme l o r d i n the s t o r y .  a  The V i s n u - p a n j a r a  17  mantra t h a t i s  r e c i t e d to p r o t e c t KatyayanI c o n t a i n s a s t r o n g l y  t i o n a l a t t i t u d e touiard V i s n u .  As a comment to the Visnu-pan.jara mantra  e p i s o d e , v e r s e 20.36 even suggests t h a t the w a r r i o r who i s of Visnu never f e a r d e f e a t i n b a t t l e . again i n 2 1 . 5 1 , where she i s name f o r V i s n u ) .  devo-  KatyayanI i s  c a l l e d NarayanT  a devotee  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Visnu  (Narayana being another  Perhaps she i s a s s o c i a t e d with Visnu here because,  even though the author knew her to be a S a i v i t e d e i t y , he s t i l l d e v o t i o n to Visnu and wanted her to appear with h i s l o r d ' s  felt  name.  Or  perhaps t h i s r e p r e s e n t s a s k i l f u l attempt to reduce the t e n s i o n between Visnu's still  f o l l o w e r s and § i v a ' s f o l l o w e r s .  f i n i s h e s her task  appearing —  Be t h i s  as i t  KatyayanT  and s i t s at the f e e t of Lord S i v a b e f o r e  c e r t a i n l y t h i s shows her c o n n e c t i o n with  V i s n u - P a n j a r a Mantra.  may,  Siva.  When KatyayanT prepared to b a t t l e Mahisa,  gods t r i e d to p r o t e c t her by asking  c a l l e d the V i s n u - p a n j a r a mantra (Visnu-cage  VP ( 1 7 . 3 6 ) ,  (spell)  i n c a n t a t i o n ) , which would  and i s a l s o found i n o t h e r Vaisnava p u r a n a - s : Agni  the Bhagavata  How-  T h i s mantra i s g i v e n i n an e a r l i e r s e c t i o n of the  270.1-15, Garuda Purana 1.13.1-13, (In  the  her to put armor on her body.  e v e r , she would have none of t h a t , and so £ i v a r e c i t e d a mantra  p r o t e c t her ( 2 0 . 4 1 ) .  dis-  Purana  and Bhagavata Purana 6.8.4-40).  Purana, the a s c e t i c V i s v a r u p a uses the mantra t o s t e a l  the f o r t u n e of the demons. able to conquer the demon.)  When V i s v a r u p a t e a c h e s i t to I n d r a , Its  purpose i s  Indra  is  s u c c i n t l y s t a t e d i n the  f o l l o w i n g words: "By r e c i t i n g i t with r e v e r e n t i a l f a i t h a man d e s t r o y s h i s enemies."  (Garuda Purana 1.13)  the e i g h t weapons i n h i s e i g h t hands the devotee with p r o t e c t i o n .  It  i s a hymn t o V i s n u , who h o l d s  ( i n the e i g h t  d i r e c t i o n s ) and e n v e l o p e s  18  e a s t — c a k r a 'discus' south—qada 'club* west*—kamala ' l o t u s * n o r t h — m u s a l a 'a p e s t l e - s h a p e d c l u b ' n o r t h e a s t — d h a n u s 'bow' s o u t h e a s t — l a r i k h a 'conch' s o u t h w e s t — a s i / k h a d g a 'sword, s h i e l d and coat o f arms' n o r t h w e s t — v a i . j a y a n t l 'garland'and S r i - v a t s a (a p a r t i c u l a r mark, s a i d t o be a l o c k o f h a i r on V i s n u ' s chest) With t h e s e o b j e c t s i n h i s hands, V i s n u s h o u l d be imagined back o f Garuda, h i s b i r d .  Then t h e devotee  s e a t e d on t h e  s h o u l d d i r e c t a p r a y e r t o him.  Here i s an e x c e r p t from t h e Agni Purana's v e r s i o n o f t h e p r a y e r : . ...Way the mace o f t h e god, r e s p l e n d e n t as t h e sun o f the m i l l e n i u m , o r b u r n i n g w i t h t h e glow o f l i v i n g f i r e , k i l l t h e demons, monsters, p i s a c a - s and d a k i n i - s t h a t a r e c o n c o c t i n g e v i l s f o r my r u i n . May t h e bow o f t h e god Vasudeva c a s t r u i n and c o n f u s i o n b r o a d c a s t among t h e ranks of my enemies, and men, and kusman<ja-s and p r e t a - s and f i e n d i s h c r e a t u r e s t h a t a r e brewing m i s c h i e f f o r my f a l l . May t h e sworn b r o t h e r h o o d o f demons be d e f e a t e d , f r u s t r a t e d and d i s p e r s e d by t h e m o o n - s h i n e - l u s t r e o f t h e i r r e s i s t i b l e sword of V i s n u , as s e r p e n t s a r e r o u t e d by the mighty p r e sence o f t h e i n v i n c i b l e Garutman..... (from c h a p t e r 270 o f S a s t r i ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e Agni Purana) The Bhagavata Purana c l a i m s t h a t "anyone wearing t h i s armor ( i . e . p r o t e c t e d by t h i s mantra)... fear."  (Bhagavata  i s immediately  Purana 6.8.36)  and c o m p l e t e l y r i d o f ( a l l )  B e s i d e s doing t h i s , t h e mantra i s  supposed t o p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n from w a r r i o r s , r o b b e r s , dangerous a n i m a l s , etc.  So i n r e c i t i n g t h i s mantra f o r KStyayanT, S i v a g i v e s heras much  p r o j e c t i o n as he can i n t h e absence of armor. Comparison w i t h t h e same s t o r y i n t h e Markandeya Purana Another  account o f t h e story under study i s found i n c h a p t e r s 82 and  83 o f t h e Markandeya Pur§na.  (There are o t h e r p u r a n i c a c c o u n t s o f t h e  s t o r y , but they are not a c c e s s i b l e t o me.)  The s t o r y t h e r e f o l l o w s much  19  the same l i n e s i t does i n t h e VP, w i t h minor changes. comparison  Here i s a  o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l u n i t s found i n both p u r a n i c a c c o u n t s .  Markandeya Purana  VP  Mahisa vanquishes t h e gods  11  the gods t a k e r e f u g e i n V i s n u and S i v a  "  Devi formed from t h e i r combined wrath  "  Devi i s p r a i s e d by the gods g i f t s are given to her  "  she l a u g h s , and t a k e s o f f  she l a u g h s , i s p r a i s e d by t h e gods, and t a k e s off  (the reason f o r her f i g h t i n g t h e demons i s s i m p l y t o d e f e a t them)  Namara asks f o r her hand on t h e p a r t o f Mahisa ( t h i s g i v e s her a reason t o f i g h t t h e demons)  b a t t l e between her and t h e demons (descriptions)  it  t h e weapons h u r l e d a t her a r e t r e a t e d as p l a y t h i n g s ; t h e l i o n becomes angry  it  from h e r b r e a t h s i s s u e f o r t h to h e l p her  (the beings i s s u e from her l a u g h s )  beings  she d e f e a t s t h e demons; p r a i s e d by t h e gods C i k s u r a and Camara b a t t l e w i t h h e r ; both are d e f e a t e d  II  C i k s u r a b a t t l e s with.her; he i s d e f e a t e d Katyayanl d r i n k s a drink  Mahisa t u r n s t h e t i d e o f b a t t l e ; harder t o overcome t h a n t h e o t h e r demons  K a t y a y a n l ' s weapons f a i l ; she f a c e s Mahisa squarely  Mahisa t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t shapes (he became a l i o n , a man, an e l e p h a n t  " (he became an e l e p h a n t and t h e n a  20  and a b u f f a l o  buffalo again. A man emerges from h i s t h r o a t )  again)  -i.  Devi d r i n k s a d r i n k , and conquers Mahisa  KatyayanT conquers Mahi sa  While t h e Markandeya Purana v e r s i o n i s much t h e same as i n t h e VP, t h e r e are s e v e r a l events  i n different order.  The g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e  between the two i s the motive f o r Mahisa f i g h t i n g Markandeya Purana, he merely  Katyayanl.  wants t o d e f e a t h e r ; i n the VP v e r s i o n , he  wants t o win her as a w i f e , f o r which he must f i r s t  The  The  In the  defeat h e r .  author as a poet  author of t h i s s e c t i o n o f the VP i s a n a r r a t o r , by and l a r g e .  However, o c c a s i o n a l l y he w r i t e s s e v e r a l v e r s e s t o g e t h e r t h a t can c l a i m to  be p o e t r y .  The s e c t i o n where K a t y a y a n l i s d e s c r i b e d by Canda and  Munda t o Mahisa i s probably the most p o e t i c p o r t i o n o f o u r s t o r y The  (20.4-14).  images f i g u r i n g i n the d e s c r i p t i o n and the f l i g h t s of p o e t i c fancy  are analyzed i n the commentary t o t h e t r a n s l a t i o n . are a l i t t l e obscure  Many o f the images  t o a Western reader s i n c e they are o f t e n based on  r e f e r e n c e s to h a l l m a r k s o f beauty  as c o n c e i v e d i n a n c i e n t I n d i a . F o r  example, t a p e r i n g arms, b r e a s t s w i t h sunken n i p p l e s , t h r e e f o l d s i n the belly, (bar,  a n a v e l with a f o l d e l e p h a n t ' s temple,  Consequently,  skill  staircase,  are the h a l l m a r k s on which the images s e a l , e t c . ) o f the poet a r e based.  these are images that do not communicate extreme beauty t o  the Western mind. t h i s passage.  in i t—  However, the author's keen o b s e r v a t i o n i s manifest i n  Indeed, he has a f e r t i l e i m a g i n a t i o n , as w e l l as the  t o express the products o f h i s p o e t i c f a n c y .  F a i l u r e t o express  21  an i d e a c l e a r l y i s n o t i c e d o n l y The  i n r a r e cases such as i n 19.32, 20.12-13.  o n l y o t h e r s e c t i o n of p o e t i c d e s c r i p t i o n i n t h i s s t o r y i s the  f i n a l b a t t l e scene.(21.4-50).  Though t h i s s e c t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y not  p o e t i c as the above d e s c r i p t i o n of K a t y a y a n i , i t s t i l l w e a l t h of d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l .  contains  (Many v e r s e s are used i n  as  a  describing  the b a t t l e ^ uihich makes i t seem l i k e the a c t i o n i s going s l o w e r t h a n the r e s t of the n a r r a t i v e . ) f a c u l t y of  T h i s f u r t h e r shows the  a u t h o r ' s developed  observation.  Language The  language of the s e l e c t e d  the same as s t a n d a r d S a n s k r i t .  s e c t i o n of the VP  i s to a large  By the term 'standard S a n s k r i t '  extent (Sanskrit  i s a b b r e v i a t e d Skt. i n the a n n o t a t i o n f o l l o w i n g the t r a n s l a t i o n ) , I mean t h a t S a n s k r i t which agrees w i t h  Panini's  c l a s s i c a l a u t h o r s such as K a l i d a s a .  grammar and  the p r a c t i c e  However, o c c a s i o n a l l y the  language  of the VP d e p a r t s from what would be expected i n s t a n d a r d S k t . , such i r r e g u l a r i t i e s as the f o l l o w i n g accounts of the  (see the a n n o t a t i o n s f o r  of  giving  specific  irregularities):  Samdhi: ..-double samdhi (19.35, 20.11, 20.30, 21.32) — u n u s u a l sarndhi (20.15) an i n d e c l i n a b l e t r e a t e d as a d e c l i n e d word (18.45) unusual use of c a s e s : — t w o o b j e c t s , one i n l o c a t i v e and one i n a c c u s a t i v e (18.47) — l o c a t i v e used i n p l a c e of g e n i t i v e (19.3, 19.5) — g e n i t i v e used i n p l a c e of d a t i v e (19.22) - - a c c c u s a t i v e used i n p l a c e of n o m i n a t i v e (21.44) — a c c u s a t i v e used i n p l a c e of a b l a t i v e (21.47) u n u s u a l use of the g e n i t i v e a b s o l u t e c o n s t r u c t i o n (18.60) u n u s u a l use of a r o o t (18.71) t r a n s f e r r e d a d j e c t i v e (20.17) neuter and m a s c u l i n e i n t e r c h a n g e d (20.4, 20.26, 21.2) p l u r a l used i n p l a c e of d u a l (20.15)  22  gerunds t a k i n g -tva" as a s u f f i x i n s t e a d o f -y_a, and v i s a v e r s a (20.33, 21.16) the a i n t h e augment of t h e a o r i s t and i m p e r f e c t t e n s e s dropped (20.17,18) voices interchanged; — a c t i v e and middle -voices i n t e r c h a n g e d (21.3, 21.21, 21.31, 21.-41) . — p a s s i v e used i n s t e a d o f a c t i v e (21.16) words i n s e r t e d w i t h i n a l o c a t i v e a b s o l u t e c l a u s e (21.47) d i f f e r e n t agents f o r a gerund and the r e l a t e d f i n i t e verb (21.44-45) Almost every one of these cases can be e x p l a i n e d by the a u t h o r ' s d e s i r e to s t i c k t o t h e metre chosen f o r t h e v e r s e . t h e whole, o b s c u r e .  The language  i s not, on  However, t h e r e are a few cases of u n i n t e l l i g i b l e  l i n e s (1.32 and 20.12-13). I t i s s u r p r i s i n g t o see s e v e r a l V a i s n a v a names g i v e n t o K a t y a y a n I . For i n s t a n c e , she i s - c a l l e d LaksmI (19.20), S a r a s v a t i (20.36 and 21.36) and Narayani (21.51).  T h i s c o u l d be an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r ' s d e s i r e S\  to s y n t h e s i z e the V a i s n a v a and S a i v a c u l t s . '•' "There are s e v e r a l names o f demons i n the s t o r y t h a t appear t o be deliberately coined: *Canda ' v i o l e n t , impetuous* *Wunda ' b a l d , shaven' B i d a l a - n e t r a 'having c a t ' s eyes" *6askala Pis'anga 'moving b r i l l i a n t l y , g l i t t e r i n g ' Ugrayudha 'having f i e r c e weapons' s'ambara 'having a d r e a d f u l f a c e * TSraka ' p r o t e c t i n g ' Ugrasya ' d r e a d f u l ' KaralSsya 'formidable' Uddhata ' e x c i t e d , l o u d ' Udagra ' e x a l t e d ' Durddhara ' i r r e s i s t i b l e , hard t o bear* Durmukha 'hideous' C o n s i d e r i n g t h e e t y m o l o g i c a l meanings of; t h e names o f these demons, i t  23  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e author used t h e s e a d j e c t i v e s i n terms o f t h e i r conno t a t i o n uihen he wanted t o name i n d i v i d u a l demons". seem S k t . , and are marked w i t h an a s t e r i s k .  Some o f t h e names do" no  These names may r e f e r t o  t r i b a l d e i t i e s t h a t were being r e p l a c e d by e s t a b l i s h e d d e i t i e s o f B r a h manism.  Metre There are p r i n c i p a l l y two d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n o f VP. stubh metre.  t y p e s o f metre used i n t h i s  A l l o f t h e v e r s e s p r i n t e d i n two l i n e s a r e i n t h e anu-  The anustubh metre has e i g h t s y l l a b l e s i n each  quarter,  w i t h t h e f i f t h s y l l a b l e l i g h t ( l a a h u ) . t h e s i x t h s y l l a b l e heavy and t h e seventh heavy i n t h e f i r s t fourth quarters.  and t h i r d and l i g h t i n t h e second and  O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e anustubh l i n e s have s i x q u a r t e r s  i n s t e a d o f f o u r (e.g. 18.40). are i n anustubh.  (guru).  Approximately 46% of the verses  examined  Almost a l l o f t h e o t h e r v e r s e s a r e i n u p a j a t i metre,  which has f o u r e l e v e n - s y l l a b l e d q u a r t e r s : _ ~ v — v v - v - - ( t h e s i g n - means t h a t s y l l a b l e can be e i t h e r heavy o r l i g h t ) .  The o n l y o t h e r metre used  i s a t w e l v e - s y l l a b l e d one c a l l e d v a m s a s t h a v i l a ,  and c o r r e s p o n d s e x a c t l y  t o t h e upa j a t i metre i n t h e f i r s t t e n s y l l a b l e s : - ~ v — vv-v-v-.  This  metre i s used s p o r a d i c a l l y , sometimes found throughout t h e f o u r  quarters  of a v e r s e , sometimes o n l y i n one q u a r t e r . which i n c l u d e t h e v a m s a s t h a v i l a  The percentage o f t h e v e r s e s  metre i s about 10%. (They a r e i n vamsa-  s t h a v i l a i n t h e sense t h a t they are c l o s e s t t o q u a r t e r s i n t h a t metre than any o t h e r metre.)  There a r e a few e x c e p t i o n s  above on t h e v a m s a s t h a v i l a  metre.  t o t h e comments made  I n s e v e r a l q u a r t e r s o f v e r s e s , such as  19.10abc, 20.19b, arid 21.48d, t h e f i r s t two s y l l a b l e s might be e i t h e r  24  heavy o r l i g h t , but do not conform t o any p a t t e r n l i s t e d i n Apte's  Sanskrit  D i c t i o n a r y . Appendix on Metre.  Method o f t r a n s l a t i o n Tor c o n v e n i e n c e , I have t r a n s l a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g f r e q u e n t l y - u s e d words i h t h i s wayj rsi 'seer' muni 'sage asura Daitya Dgnava [> 'demon' Ditija Danuja / 1  x  As can be seen, t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l words f o r 'demon' i n t h i s s t o r y .  I  have t r a n s l a t e d a l l o f them by 'demon', s i n c e t h e r e i s p r a c t i c a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e i n meaning among them. The t r a n s l a t i o n i s as l i t e r a l  See Asura i n the G l o s s a r y . as E n g l i s h grammar w i l l  permit.  accounts f o r any l a c k o f c l a r i t y i n t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n  This  passages.  Throughout n o n - c l a s s i c a l e p i c p o e t r y , such f i l l e r s as t a t a s , t u vai,  hi,  c a , e t c . a r e used as v e r s e - f i l l e r s , i . e . t o complete t h e metres  of1 t h e v e r s e s . as,  f  I n t h e commentary, such v e r s e - f i l l e r s a r e mentioned  merely  f o r example: " t u : a f i l l e r . " V a r i o u s words a r e used f o r Mahisa throughout the s e l e c t e d VP passage:  Mahisasura and Mahisasurendra ('the demon Mahisa' and *Mahisa t h e k i n g o f demons'), as w e l l as o t h e r e p i t h e t - n a m e s . out,  To p r e s e r v e c o n s i s t e n c y t h r o u g h -  I use simply Mahisa, and t r a n s l a t e any o t h e r words t h a t a r e compounded  w i t h t h a t name. There are many cases o f t h e author u s i n g e p i t h e t s o r o t h e r names for  the characters.  I n such c a s e s , I have t r a n s l a t e d t h e o r i g i n a l word  25  i n the t e x t and i d e n t i f i e d t h e c h a r a c t e r i n p a r e n t h e s e s immediately following i t .  The name found i n p a r e n t h e s e s i s t h e most common name  of t h e c h a r a c t e r and can be found i n t h e G l o s s a r y under t h a t name.  particular  For i n s t a n c e , KatyayanT i s c a l l e d Ambika and Durga many times  i n the t e x t .  When t h a t happens, she i s i d e n t i f i e d t h u s : "Ambika ( K a t y a -  yanl)..." A note on t h e use o f p a r e n t h e s e s and b r a c k e t s i n t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s lation.  P a r e n t h e s e s are used when some e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e p r e v i o u s  word i s needed i n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n .  B r a c k e t s are used t o supply words  not i n the o r i g i n a l , but which a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e verse. All  S a n s k r i t words i n t h i s t h e s i s have been u n d e r l i n e d , except the ones i n  t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l Va"mana Purana t e x t at t h e b e g i n n i n g of each v e r s e .  26  TEXT, TRANSLATION AND COMMENTARY  27  18.39 Nirada  uvaca.  ka 'sau k"atyayanT nama ya jaghne  mahislsuram  namaram r a k t a b l j a f n ca tatha" 'nyan s u r a k a n t a k a n  Narada s a i d : Who i s t h a t one named KatyayanT, mho k i l l e d t h e demon Mahisa, Namara, R a k t a b l j a , and a l s o o t h e r enemies o f t h e gods?  —39d.  'enemies o f t h e gods': s u r a k a n t a k i n .  means ' t h o r n ' .  The meaning  here  Literally,  kantaka  e'enemy* i s a d e r i v e d meaning.  18.40 kasVcisau mahiso nama k u l e j a t a s v c a k a s y a sah kas  c a sau r a k t a b T jakhyo namarah k a s y a  :ca,tmajah  And uiho i s t h a t demon Mahisa, and i n whose f a m i l y was he born? And who i s t h a t one named R a k t a b T j a ? and whose s o n - i s Namara? You s h o u l d t e l l t h i s at l e n g t h , Dear ( P u l a s t y a ) , as i t a c t u a l l y was.  —40c.  ' Dear' . - I t at a, which i s u s u a l l y a term of address t o one's  f a t h e r o r s o n , o r anyone being  i n such a r o l e .  18.41 P u l a s t y a uvaca. s'ruyatSm sampravaksya*mi  katKam  papapranas'inTm  28  sarvada varada durga yeyam k a t y a y a n i mune  Pulastya 0 sage  said:  (Narada), l i s t e n .  t h i s KatyayanT,  mho  I mill tell  the s i n - d e s t r o y i n g s t o r y o f  i s the a l l - b e s t o u i i n g boon-granting  Durga.  18.42 p u r l ^ s u r a v a r a u raudrau jagatksobhakarav rambhas" c a i v a karambhas ca dvav<vistam  ubau  sumahabalau  In the p a s t , t h e r e mere tuio t e r r i b l e , powerful great demons, Rambha and Karambha, both o f whom caused the a g i t a t i o n of t h e w o r l d .  18.43 taS aputrau ca devarse putrartham t e p a t u s tapah bahun v a r s a g a n l n d a i t y a u s t h i t a u pancanade  0 d i v i n e seer (Narada), and these two, penance f o r the purpose demons remained  o f sons.  jale  being without assson, p r a c t i c e d  For many s c o r e s o f y e a r s the  two  i n the Panca*»nada.  — ' p e n a n c e ' : see tapas i n the d i s c u s s i o n of m o t i f s i n the  Intro-  duction. --Although t h i s v e r s e s t a t e s that both Rambha and Karambha stood i n the water, the next v e r s e c l a r r i f i e s i t by s a y i n g t h a t o n l y Karambha p r a c t i s e d the w a t e r - a u s t e r i t y .  29  Panca-nada:  t h e meaning c o u l d bet a) * i n the water h a v i n g f i v e  nada-s (wide r i v e r s ) ' , o r b) ' i n the water of t h e Panca-nada (Punjab) r e g i o n (near t h e A r a b i a n o c e a n ) * .  I n the second c a s e ,  the o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g c o u l d have been a secondary a d j e c t i v a l  derivation,  namely pancanade.  18.44" t a t r a i k o jalamadhyastho d v i t T y o *py agnipancaml karambhas c a i v a rambhas ca yaksam malavatam p r a t i  There, one was i n the middle o f the w a t e r , and t h e second was the one w i t h f i v e f i r e s .  Karambha and Rambha [were thus d e v o t e d ^ around  ( i n the v i c i n i t y o f ) Walavata y a k s a .  — K a r a m b h a was s t a n d i n g i n the r i v e r , and h i s b r o t h e r Rambha was i n the middle o f f i v e f i r e s , i . e . he s t o o d under t h e b l a z i n g sun w i t h f o u r f i r e s around him.  There i s perhaps some symbolism  t o t h e f i v e f i r e s : f i v e u s u a l l y r e f e r s to the senses o f man ( b e i n g f i v e i n number), and w i t h f i v e f i r e s s u r r o u n d him we have an image o f Rambha subduing h i s s e n s e s .  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r form o f a u s t e r i t y i s  c a l l e d p a n c a g n i - v r a t a 'the vow o f f i v e f i r e s ' .  I t i s mentioned i n  K a l i d a s a ' s Raghu-vamsa 13.41: "... S u t T k s n a . . . i s p r a c t i c i n g  asceti-  cism s t a n d i n g i n be midst o f f o u r f i r e s f e d w i t h f u e l , and h a v i n g t h e s e v e r - h o r s e d sun s c o r c h i n g h i s f o r e h e a d . " —44d.  The use of t h e word p r a t i i s i n t e r e s t i n g .  As a p r e p o s i t i o n  ( d i s t i n c t from the p r e f i x o r p r e v e r b p r a t i ) i t i s u s u a l l y used i n the sense o f ' c o n c e r n i n g , w i t h r e s p e c t t o , i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f .  3D  Here i t has the r a r e but not u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d sense 'by the s i d e o f , i n the v i c i n i t y o f .  Cf. the exmple g i v e n by the grammarians  vrksam  p r a t i v i d y o t a t e v i d y u t 'the l i g h t n i n g i s s h i n i n g near the t r e e . 1  — - M a l a v a t a : see G l o s s a r y under Yaksa.  18.45 ekam nimagnarh s a l i l e graharupena vasavah caranabhyam  samadaya n i j a g h a n a y a t h e c c h a y a  Vasava ( I n d r a ) k i l l e d the one (Karambha), sunk i n the r i v e r , as he ( I n d r a ) w i s h e d , h a v i n g s e i z e d JKarambha*s~\ f e e t , i n the form o f a crocodile.  — T h e word f o r I n d r a i s Vasava, a d e r i v a t i v e from Vasu.  See  Glossary. ~~45d.  The s t a n d a r d Skt. form f o r y a t h e c c h a y a 'as he wished'  would be yatheccham.  The compound o f y a t h a and i c c h a i s t r e a t e d as  an i n d e c l i n a b l e i n the s t a n d a r d S k t .  18.46 t a t o b h r a t a r i naste ca rambhah k o p a p a r i p l u t a h vahnau svasTrsam samksipya hotum a i c c h a n mahabalah  Then when f h i s j b r o t h e r had d i s a p p e a r e d , the very p o w e r f u l Rambha, overwhelmed  w i t h anger, d e s i r e d t o s a c r i f i c e h i s own head i n t h e  f i r e , a f t e r having c u t f i t " ) .  31  —In  the c o r r i g e n d a , the e d i t o r recommends the change o f the p r o -  b l e m a t i c r e a d i n g samksipya to samchidv/a  'having thrown t o g e t h e r , h a v i n g  compressed  'having c u t * .  18.47 t a t a h pragrhya kesesu khadgam ca ravisaprabham chettukamo nijam s l r s a m vahnina  pratisedhitah  Then, having taken h o l d of the h a i r , and having taken a suiord as b r i g h t as t h e sun, he wanted t o c u t o f f h i s own p r e v e n t e d by Vahni  —47a.  head, /.but tnasj  (Agni).  Praqr.hya 'having t a k e n ' i s used f o r two o b j e c t s , the  h a i r and the sword.  However, one o b j e c t  i s i n the l o c a t i v e  case  and the o t h e r i s i n t h e a c c u s a t i v e c a s e . — H e r e we  see Agni as a b e n e f i c e n t god, t r y i n g t o save Rambha.  However, out of t h i s a c t i o n , Mahisa, who i s born.  will  conquer  the  gods,  Here i s the m o t i f of one god's boon ( o r a c t i o n ) being  d e t r i m e n t a l t o a l l the gods, except the prominent,  savior  god.  18.48 uktas ca ma d a i t y a v a r a nasayitmanam atmana d u s t a r a paravadhya  And he was self  * p i svavadhya  'py  atidustara  t o l d [by Agni}, "0 prominent  by your own  hands ( i . e . don't  demon, don't d e s t r o y y o u r -  commit s u i c i d e ) : k i l l i n g o f some-  one else i s [a sin] d i f f i c u l t to cross over; to k i l l oneself i s [a s i n that i s ] extremely d i f f i c u l t to cross over.  —In  the l a s t half of the verse, Agni i n d i r e c t l y refers to  the law of karman. according to which one i s responsible f o r one's actions and must make up for them. —48c.  The image implied by dustara  ' d i f f i c u l t to cross over'  i s that of an ocean of s i n . —48c.  api 'also, even' used as a substitute of .pa. 'and'.  18.49 yac ca prarthayase v l r a tad dadami yathepsitam ma mriyasva mrtasyeha pasta bhavati vai katha  "And, die;  0 hero, I give you that which you ask f o r , as you wish; don the talk of one who i s dead perishes i n t h i s world."  — I m p l i c a t i o n : the story of Rambha's l i f e w i l l die i f he dies. Rambha w i l l be quickly forgotton.  18.50-51. tato 'bravld vaco rambho varam cen me dadasi h i t r a i l o k y a v i j a y l putrah syan me tvattejasa 'dhikah ajeyo daivataih sarvaih pumbhir d a i t y a i s ca pavaka mahabalo vayur iva kamarupT k r t a s t r a v i t  33  Then Rambha s a i d , " I f you me  indeed g i v e me  a boon, l e t t h e r e be f o r  a son, v i c t o r i o u s i n the t h r e e worlds, of a splendor g r e a t e r  than  yours,/0 Pavaka ( A g n i ) , unconquerable by a l l the d e i t i e s , by a l l men and by  a l l the demons; he  the wind, and  [should be] one  of g r e a t s t r e n g t h , l i k e  should be a b l e to take the form he d e s i r e s and  [should  be] l e a r n e d i n weapons."  — Jt'he t h r e e worlds' : see "Lokas and T a l a s " i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n . ~50d.  'of a s p l e n d o r g r e a t e r than y o u r s ' : another way  tvattejasa '•-«.51d.  'dhikah; ' r i c h e r because of your  of t a k i n g  splendor'.  ' l e a r n e d i n weapons' - k r t a s t r a v i d , which a l s o means  'learned i n archery'.  Astra i s partly a s p i r i t u a l m i s s i l e , usually  g i v e n t o the hero by the boon of a p a t r o n god.  For i n s t a n c e ,  A r j u n a i s p r o v i d e d w i t h s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t kinds of a s t r a s i n the Mahabh'arata.  As he shoots them one  a f f e c t on the t a r g e t . k g t a s t r a h 'one  who  each has  a different  There i s some redundancy i n k r t a s t r a v i d :  has done h i s weapons, one who  i n weapons', or a s t r a v i d sufficient.  by one,  'one  who  is  accomplished  knows weapons' would have been  Perhaps k r t a s t r a v i d means: i ) 'knower of those  p l i s h e d i n weapons'; i i ) 'knower o f a l l made ( i n v e n t e d , weapons', o r i i i ) 'an accomplished  accom-  artificial)  knower of weapons',  — • s h o u l d be able to take the form he d e s i r e s ' : the i d e a of being a b l e t o take on any k i n d of body a c c o r d i n g to one's wishes i s common i n I n d i a n mythology. demons.  Cf. 21.42.  It i s especially  a s s o c i a t e d with  the  34  18.52-54. tarn provaca k a v i r brahman badfciainevam b h v i s y a t i yasyarfi cittern samalambi k a r i s y a s i t a t a h sutah i t y evam ukto devena vahnina danavo  yayau  drasturii malavatam yaksam y a k s a i s ca p a r i v a r i t a m tesam padmanidhis  t a t r a vasate  ga.jas ca mahisas' cas'va gavo  nanyacetanah  *javipariplutah  0 Brahmin (Narada), the raise one  (Agni) spoke t o him:  "Certainly,  i t m i l l be l i k e t h i s : i n whomever you f i x your mind, from h e r - t h e r e f j j i i l l bsj  a son  [ f o r y o u ] . " /Thus spoken t o by the god VahhJ  the demon (Rambha) went t o see M-lavata-yaksa,  surrounded  by  (Agni), yaksa-s  ( i . e . , on whom other yaksa-s were a t t e n d i n g ) . /Among them, Padmanidhi d w e l l s t h e r e , having a mind devoted t o none o t h e r meditation].  [than the o b j e c t o f  And e l e p h a n t s , b u f f a l o e s , h o r s e s , and cows,  by sheep and goats  [also dwelt  there],  —54a.  The purpose  clear.  He i s one of the twenty-four  ffianibhadra.'mentioned  surrounded  of mentioning Padmanidhi s p e c i f i c a l l y  i s not  sons o f PunyajanT and  i n Brahmanda Purana  3.7.124 and Vayu  Purana  69.155.  18.55 t a n d r s t v a i v a tada cakre bhavam danavaparthivah mahisyam rupayuktayam trihayanyam  tapodh.ana  0 P e n a n c e - r i c h (Narada), having j u s t  seen them ( i . e . as soon as he  35  saw them) at t h a t time, t h e k i n g o f demons (Rambha) developed a p a s s i o n f o r a t h r e e - y e a r o l d s h e - b u f f a l o who had an a t t r a c t i v e  —55b.  'developed  a p a s s i o n ' s cakre bhaftam.  c o u l d be t r a n s l a t e d  form.  Literally, i t  *he made up h i s mind on.,,'  18.56. sa samagac c a daityendrafn kamayantT t a r a s v i n l sa c a p i gamanam cakre b h a v i t a v y a p r a c o d i t a h  She,being  impetuous and l u s t f u l , came t o g e t h e r (got u n i t e d ) with  the c h i e f o f demons (Rambha), and he a l s o made a move urged by f a t e  [towards  herj,  [as he was].  —'she...came t o g e t h e r w i t h (Rambha)': t h i s i s meant i n a s e x u a l way; she came t o have i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h  Rambha.  18.57-8. tasyam samabhavad garbhas tarn pragrhyatha danavah patalam p r a v i v e l a t h a t a t a h svabhavanam gatah drstas' c a danavaih akaryakarakety  s a r v a i h p a r i t y a k t a s ' c a bandhubhih  evam bhuyo malavatam gatah  An embryo came about  i n her.  h e r , e n t e r e d the n e t h e r - w o r l d .  Then the demon (Rambha), having  taken  Then he went t o h i s own abode. /  He was seen by a l l t h e demons and was abandoned by t h e r e l a t i v e s ,  36  w i t h the t h o u g h t ,  "he d i d something t h a t should not have been d o n e . "  [ T h e r e f o r e ^ he went t o M i l a v a t a  —57c.  ' t h e nether world*  again.  patala.  See " L o k a - s and T a l a - s "  in  Introduction. —58c.  ° k a r a k a h i t y would be changed i n s t a n d a r d Skt.  karaka i t y .  t o only  The purana goes f o r double sarhdhi to accomodate  the e x p r e s s i o n i n the metre.  18.59-60. sa ' p i t e n a i v a p a t i n a mahisT samam "jagama t a t  carudarsana  punyam yaksamandalam  uttamam  t a t a s t u v a s a t a s t a s y a syama sa susuve mune ajljanat  sutam subhram mahisam kamarupinam  The a t t r a c t i v e s h e - b u f f a l o that  auspicious highest  a l s o went with that very husband to  assembly  the black one (the s h e - b u f f a l o ) [there];  she begat  of y a k s a - s . /  Then, 0 sage  (Narada),  gave b i r t h , w h i l e [Rambha] was  a white son —  living  Mahisa, who c o u l d take whatever  form he d e s i r e d .  —60a.  ' w i t h him l i v i n g  absolute construction.  £there] '  - vasatas tasya.  a genetive  U s u a l l y g e n e t i v e a b s o l u t e has a conno-  t a t i o n of d i s r e s p e c t i n l a t e r c l a s s i c a l  Skt.,' but i t  does not  have such a c o n n o t a t i o n h e r e . —It  i s unusual to see a black b u f f a l o  (syama) g i v i n g  b i r t h to a  37  w h i t e one  (subhra)..  d i s t i n g u i s h e s him  The  f a c t t h a t Mahisa i s a w h i t e  from o t h e r  buffalo  buffaloes.  18.61-62. etam rtumatlm jatam mahiso nyo 1  sa cSbhyaglid d i t i v a r a m  raksantt  dadarsa ha s l l a m atmanah  tarn unriamitariasa'm ca mahisam v l k s y a danavah khadgam n i s k r s y a t a r a s a mahisam samupadravat  Another b u f f a l o saw  t h i s one  when she had  she went to the prominent [son o f j D i t i  became menstruous,  (Rambha), p r o t e c t i n g ( i . e .  i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t ) her good c h a r a c t e r .  / And  h a y i n g seen t h a t [ o t h e r ]  raised-his nostrils  b u f f a l o who  had  h a v i n g drawn a sword q u i c k l y , r a n toward the  —61c.  The  t e x t has  ditivaram  and  the demon (Rambha), [andl  buffalo.  ('best of the  D i t i - s ' , here r e f e r -  r i n g to Rambha), i n s t e a d of d i t i iavaram or d a i t v a v a r a m (prominent son of —62a.  Diti). 'who  had  raised his nostrils*  - unnamita-nasam.  Raised  n o s t r i l s seem to have been mentioned t o i n d i c a t e the p a s s i o n vehemencerof the  buffalo.  18.63-64. tenapi  d a i t y a s tiksnabhyam srngabhyam h r d i t a d i t a h  n i r b h i n n a h r d a y o bhumau n i p a p a t a mamara ca mrte b h a r t a r i sa syama yaksanam.-s'aranam g a t a  and  38  r a k s i t a guhyakaih  By him  sadhvT n i v a r y a mahisam t a t a h  ( i . e . by the b u f f a l o ) too the demon (Rambha) uias s t r u c k i n  the h e a r t w i t h tuio sharp h o r n s .  With h i s h e a r t p i e r c e d , he (Rambha)  fell  to the ground and d i e d . / With her husband dead, the b l a c k  (the  s h e - b u f f a l o ) sought r e f u g e w i t h the y a k s a - s .  one was  The v i r t u o u s  p r o t e c t e d by t h e y a k s a - s , a f t e r they warded o f f the  —64c.  one  buffalo.  'the y a k s a - s : the word i n the t e x t i s ouhyaka.  'beings  1  to""be h i d d e n ' , t h a t i s , ' s e c r e t b e i n g s , i n v i s i b l e  beings*.  18.65-66. t a t o n i v a r i t o y a k s a i r j h a y a r i r madanaturah n i p a p a t a saro divyam t a t o d a i t y o 'bhavan mrtah namaro nama v i k h y S t o mahSbalaparakramah yaksan a s r i t y a t a s t h a u sa k a l a y a n svapadan mune  Then t h e b u f f a l o , r e p u l s e d by the y a k s a - s , f i l l e d into a divine lake.  with l u s t ,  fell  Thefei [ h a v i n g become^ dead he became { [ r e i n c a r -  n a t e d a s ] a demon named Namara, famous and one h a v i n g g r e a t s t r e n g t h and v a l o u r .  Having depended on the y a k s a - s , he remained t h e r e ,  h e r d i n g the b e a s t s o f p r e y , 0 sage  —65b.  'the b u f f a l o ' £ h a v a r l 'enemy of h o r s e s ' comes t o mean  'buffalo'. to  (Narada).  Compare v e r s e 18.71  where h a y a r i = Mahisa.  According  M o n i e r - W i l l i a m s , h a y a - d v i s a t • ' h o r s e - h a t e r ' (a synonym o f  hayar  39  i s assigned the meaning 'buffalo* i n Skt. lexicons.  The Amarkosa  has vaha-dvisat 'horse-hater' as a word for 'buffalo'. —66c.  'having depended on the yaksa-s' » yaksan I s V i t y a .  What  i s probably meant i s that Namara stayed near the yaksa-s. —66d.  * herding' = kalavan.  or even ' k i l l i n g * .  This word could also mean 'pounding',  Cf. 19.4d.  18.67-69. sa ca daityesVaro yaksair malavatapurassaraih citam aropitah sa ca syama tarn caruhat patim tato 'gnim adhyad uttasthau puruso vyadravayat  raudradarsanah  sa tan yaksan khadgapanir  bhayamkarah  tato hatas tu mahisah sarva eva mahatmanS rte samraksitararh h i mahisam rambhanandanam  And the lord of, the demons (Rambha) uias placed on the funeral pyre by the yaksa-s, mho  had Malavata moving i n the front £as leader].  And the black one (the she-buffalo) climbed on top of that husband _of hers]], ( i . e . stood i n the f i r e protecting her husband's body and performed  s a t ! ) . / Then a man having a t e r r i f y i n g appearance  arose from the middle of the f i r e .  Causing fear and having a suiord  in the hand, he chased the yaksa-s auiay. / Then a l l the buffaloes mere k i l l e d by that great one, except Mahisa the son of Rambha, mho uias a protector.  —In  versev 67 me have an instance of the r i t e of s a t t . mhere the  40  ui i f e throws h e r s e l f on the f u n e r a l pyre o f her husband a f t e n r h e dies.  See I n t r o d u c t i o n , under " M o t i f s " .  --69c.  'except Mahisa' * r t e mahisam.  The word tie governs the  a b l a t i v e case i n s t a n d a r d S k t . , so t h e proper form would be r t e mahisat. — 'who  was  a p r o t e c t o r ' : a p r o t e c t o r of the y a k s a - s , because they  were good to h i s mother,  18.70 sa  namatah smrto d a i t y o r a k t a b l j o mahSmune  yo ' j a y a t s a r v a t o devSn  sendrarudrarkamarutan  0 sage ( N a r a d a ) , t h a t demon ( t h e one who remembered-bv. n a m e a s R a k t a b T j a , who  c o m p l e t e l y conquered  i n c l u d i n g I n d r a , Rudra, Arka ( S u r y a ) , and  —It  arose from the f i r e )  was  the gods,  Maruta-s,  i s nbt known whether t h e a u t h o r i d e n t i f i e d Rudra and s'iva.  He uses both names i n t h i s s t o r y , but does not everymake them e q u i v a l e n t names.  See G l o s s a r y .  18.71 evam prabhava danupumgavas te tej.o ' d h i k a s t a t r a babhau h a y a r i h r a j y e • b h i s i k t a s ' ca maha'surendrair vinirjitaih  sambaratarakadyaih  41  The s u p e r i o r ones among the demons mere o f such pouier. greater i n b r i l l i a n c e —  shone f o r t h among them.  Mahisa  —  He was c o r o n a t e d  i n t h e kingdom by t h e g r e a t c h i e f s o f the demons, who were t o t a l l y c o n q u e r e d [by him^j, and among whom Sambara and Taraka were f o r e m o s t .  —71a.  'of such powers' : t h e e d i t i o n p r i n t s evam prabhava as  two s e p a r a t e words.  However, f o r proper s y n t a x , i t s h o u l d be a  b a h u v r l h i compound, evamprabhavah. —71b.  The word babhau. i n view o f i t s usage i n 19.12-13, e t c . ,  c o u l d be an e q u i v a l e n t o f babhuva (see 19.12, commentary). The meaning would then be 'Mahisa was g r e a t e r i n b r i l l i a n c e  there  among them.' —71b.  Mahifa s h a y a r i .  See commentary t o v e r s e 18.65.  —s'ambara: i n t h e Vedas, a demon and p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of drought. He i s s i m i l a r t o V r t r a , o r perhaps i d e n t i c a l t o him. — T a r a k a : the son o f V a j r a n a k a .  Taraka was a D a i t y a whose  a u s t e r i t i e s rendered him as p o w e r f u l as the gods.- In o r d e r t o d e f e a t him, Skanda, the god o f war, was m i r a c u l o u s l y born.  18.72 asaknuvadbhih s a h i t a i s ' ca d e v a i h s a l o k a p a l a i h sahutas'abhaskaraih s t h a n a n i t y a k t a n i sas'lndrabhaskaraiir dharmas' ca dure p r a t i y o j i t a s c a  And [ t h e i r own] p l a c e s were abandoned by the gods, i n c l u d i n g the  world-protectors,  Agni and the l u m i n a r i e s , uiho had come t o g e t h e r and  uiho mere unable [ t o a l t e r the s i t u a t i o n ] , and by Moon, Indra and Surya And Dharma uias f i x e d at a d i s t a n c e  --72a.  'uiho c o u l d not do'  unable to d o ' .  = asaknuvat,  The o b j e c t f o r t h i s  we may assume that  it  expression i s l e f t out,  cannot conquer Mahisa or r e s i s t  'world-protectors' = lokapala.  of the w o r l d , e i g h t  'uiho cannot do, uiho are but  means 'uiho are unable to do what the Gods  should d o ' , i . e . . t h e y —72b.  (removed from l i f e ) .  him.  These are the  guardians  i n number, one f o r each c a r d i n a l d i r e c t i o n  and i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t .  They i n c l u d e : I n d r a , Agni  Surya (Sun), Varuna, Vayu (Wind),  ( F i r e ) , Yama,  Kubera, and Soma (Moon).  Each  one has an elephant that h e l p s them p r o t e c t the w o r l d . —72b.  ' l u m i n a r i e s ' - s bhaskara,  line for  ' S u n ' , which i s  'light-maker', —72c.  so i t  the same word used i n the next  i t s u s u a l meaning.  Literally, it  can be a p p l i e d to e i t h e r the s t a r s o r the sun.  'ffloon' s s a s i n 'one having  because the spot on i t  is  a hare'.  The Moon i s  supposed to resemble a hare  i t is  left  i n the o r i g i n a l  Skt.  It  so named  (salaj.  —Dharma: a d i f f i c u l t and complex word to t r a n s l a t e i n t o therefore  means  English,  means ' m o r a l or  r e l i g i o u s d u t y , r i g h t e o u s b e h a v i o r , conduct conforming to or helpful  i n m a i n t a i n i n g the Cosmic Law'.  In t h i s v e r s e ,  was f)ixedv;[again] at a d i s t a n c e " means t h a t the p o s i t i v e  "Dharma forces  were dethroned by the n e g a t i v e , u n r i g h t e o u s f o r c e s when the demons won over the gods. —It  i s p o s s i b l e that  71cd i s t o be read w i t h 72ab.  Then the mean-  43  i n g mould be: "Mahisa uias coronated by the great such as  c h i e f s of demons  s'ambara and T a r a k a , uiho mere conquered and by the gods  i n c l u d i n g tttaon, Indra and Surya, uiho had come t o g e t h e r and c o u l d not do [ a n y t h i n g a g a i n s t  CHAPTER  Mahisa7."  XIX  19.1-2. Pulastya uvaca. t a t a s t u deva mahisena n i r j i t a h s t h a n a n i samtyajya  savahanayudhah  jagmuh p u r a s k r t y a pitamaham t e drastum t a d a cakradharam s r i y a h  patim  gatva t v apas'yams ca mithah surottamau s t h i t a u khagendrasanasarhkarau  hi  d r s t v a pranamyaiva ca s i d d h i s a d h a k a u nyavedayamstan  Pulastya  mahisadicestitam  said:  But then the gods, conquered by Mahisa, having abandoned / t h e i r j p l a c e s and having put Brahma i n the f r o n t , went, along w i t h t h e i r v e h i c l e s and weapons, to see at t h a t time the w i e l d e r of the d i s c u s , the husband of gods —  Sri  (Visnu).  S i v a and Visnu —  And having gone, they saw the two supreme  s e a t e d i n each o t h e r ' s p r e s e n c e ; having  seen and having bowed down b e f o r e the two who b r i n g about a c c o m p l i s h ment [ o f  what i s  s o u g h t ] , they n a r r a t e d that deed of Mahisa and o t h e r s ,  44  —lad. —2a.  t a t a s 'then' and t a d a *at t h a t t i m e ' are almost  repetitious.  ' i n each o t h e r ' s presence' = mithab, uihich u s u a l l y means  ' i n between, to each o t h e r ' . —2b.  Visnu - •khaoendrSsana 'he whose seat ( v e h i c l e ) i s the  c h i e f of b i r d s (Garuda).' —2b,  See G l o s s a r y .  £iva = s'amkara 'one who  does ( o r makes) t h e A u s p i c i o u s ' .  19.3 prabho • s'visuryendvanilagnivedhasam jalesasakradisu cadhikaran akramya nakat t u n i r a k r t a vayam krtavanistha  mahis'asurena  "0 L o r d , h a v i n g invaded the a u t h o r i t i e s o f the A s v i n s , Surya, Moon, Wind, Agni and the c r e a t o r , and ^ h a v i n g i n v a d e d j a l s o i n the case o f Varuna,  I n d r a , e t c . , we are removed from heaven and made to remain  on the e a r t h by the demon Mahisa.  —3b.  'and a l s o i n the c a s e of Varuna,  sakradisu —  s  jalesa-  a l o c a t i v e p l u r a l , where one e x p e c t s a g e n i t i v e  as i n the f i r s t l i n e .  plural,  The author seems to have s w i t c h e d to the  l o c a t i v e f o r t h e sake of t h e —3d.  Indra, e t c '  metre.  'made to remain on the e a r t h ' - k r t a v a n i s t h a h . T h i s i s a  j o i n i n g (samdhi) of two words, k r t l h ^ and a v a n i s t a h t h a t t r a n s -  45  g r e s e e s t h e r u l e s o f s t a n d a r d Skt., i n which t h e change o f k y t a h t o kr,t'a mould alone be s a n c t i o n e d .  The overdone samdhi t h a t r e -  s u l t s i n a b s o r b i n g t h e a o f t h e f o l l o w i n g word i s prompted by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f metre.  Another  p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t the author  has t r u n c a t e d a v a n i s t h a t o vanistha", as aoidhava i s t r u n c a t e d to p i d h a v a ( c f . v a g t i B h a q u r i r a l - l o p a m avapyor  upasarqayob').  ' a c c o r d i n g t o B h a g u r i , _a o f t h e p r e f i x e s ava and a p i can be dropped.  19.4 e t a d bhavantau saranagatanam s r u t v a vaco b r u t a h i t a m sur'anam na ced vrajamo 'dya r a s S t a l a m h i samkalyamana yudhi danavena  "Having heard t h i s speech o f t h o s e ( i . e . o f u s , t h e gods) uiho have gone t o you two f o r s h e l t e r , t e l l what i s good f o r t h e gods; o t h e r w i s e , we w i l l go t o t h e n e t h e r - w o r l d now, b e i n g pounded i n b a t t l e by t h e demon ( M a h i s a ) . "  — ' t h o s e who have gone t o you two f o r s h e l t e r ' : t h e speakers mean t h a t very assembly o f gods which they c o n s t i t u t e .  So the i n t e n d e d  sense i s : *u;e have come t o you two f o r s h e l t e r ; h a v i n g heard our words, ...' —4c.  'nether-world' = rasatalam.  and Tala*-s".  Rasatalam  s u f f e r a complete  Se I n t r o d u c t i o n under "Loka-s  v r a i c o u l d a l s o be an i d i o m meaning ' t o  d o w n f a l l , t o r e a c h the l o w e s t p o s s i b l e s t a g e ' .  48  Compare M a r a t h i i d i o m r a s a t a l a l ^ ~4c.  iane.  hi a f i l l e r .  19.5  i t t h a m m u r a r i h saha samkarena s r u t v a vaco v i p l u t a c e t a s a s t a n d r s t w a 'tha c a k r e s a h a s a i v a kopam k a l i g n i k a l p o h a r i r avyayatma  V i s n u , h a v i n g thus heard the speech t o g e t h e r w i t h S i v a , and  having  seen them [the gods] of s m i t t e n mind, then suddenly became angry V. i s n ( j , , time of  whose S e l f i s immutable,[was] l i k e the f i r e at the  deluge.  —5a.  Visnu =  —5d.  'the f i r e at t h e time o f deluge s - ^ k a l l g n i : l i t . , the  of  —  Time.  fflurari  'enemy of Mura [ a demon]'. fire  A c c o r d i n g t o the I n d i a n c o n c e p t i o n , at the end of every  c y c l e of c r e a t i o n , the u n i v e r s e burns up i n a u n i v e r s a l c a t a c l y s m ( n o t i c e t h a t t h e theme o f u n i v e r s a l c a t a c l y s m i s found i n many d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s throughout  the w o r l d ) .  The f i r e which  up the u n i v e r s e when t h i s t a k e s p l a c e i s c a l l e d k a l a g n i ; happens i n each p r a l a y a , o r p r o c e s s of d i s s o l u t i o n . 19.6  t a t o 'nukopan madhusudanasya salamkarasyapi  pitamahasya  burns  this  47  tathaiva sakradisu daivatesu maharddhi  t e j o vadanad  vinihsrtam  Then, because of t h a t anger, a s p l e n d o r of g r e a t grouith i s s u e d out of the mouth of V i s n u [and] of Brahma, a l o n g w i t h  [that o f ] S i v a ,  and l i k e w i s e i n the case o f d i v i n i t i e s such as I n d r a .  --6a.  'because o f .that a n g e r  1  s t a t o 'nukopat.  I f one a c c e p t s  t h i s r e a d i n g , then anukopa ' a f t e r - a n g e r ' and kopa 'anger' would be synonyms.  I t i s p o s s i b l e to read t a t o n u 1  ' a f t e r t h a t ' and kopat  'from the anger'. —6c.  ' i n the case o f d i v i n i t i e s such as I n d r a ' " s a k r a d i s u  daivatesu.  As i n v e r s e 19.3, t h i s i s t h e l o c a t i v e  substituting  y  f o r the g e n i t i v e .  S a k r i d l n a m daivatan_m i s e x p e c t e d .  19.7 t a c c a i k a t a m parvatakutasannibham jagama t e j a h pravarasrame mune katyayanasyapratimasya tena maharsina t e j a upakrtam ca  And, 0 sage ( N a r a d a ) , t h a t s p l e n d o r , r e s e m b l i n g ' a mountain went to oneness  peak,  (became u n i f i e d ) i n the g r e a t hermitage of the incom-  p a r a b l e Katyayana, and the s p l e n d o r was f a v o r e d (enhanced) by t h a t great seer.  48  — • Katyayana'  means 'born i n the f a m i l y o f  Katya'.  — T h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f 'hermitage', or asrama. mas q u i t e common i n ancient times.  An asrama uias a p l a c e o f r e s t  and i n s t r u c t i o n ,  uihere s e e r s , sages, t e a c h e r s and t h e i r d i s c i p l e s l i v e d .  It uias  u s u a l l y l o c a t e d i n a p e a c e f u l f o r e s t , o r , o c c a s i o n a l l y , as i n s t o r i e s of m i r a c l e s , i n the sky. rasrame, which  The word i n t h e t e x t  i s prava-  c o u l d mean 'the hermitage on t h e P r a v a r a R i v e r '  as w e l l as 'the prominent  hermitage'.  19.8-9. t e r i a r s i s r s t e n a ca t e ias5 vrtam jvlatprakasarkasahasratulyam tasmac ca j a t a taralayata'ksT katyayanl  yogavisuddhadehl  mShesvarad vaktram  atho babhuva  netratrayarh p a v a k a t e j a s a ca yamyena kesa h a r i t e j a s a ca bhujas t a t h a s t a d a s a s a m p r a j a j n i r e  And  [the f i r s t  s p l e n d o r ] enveloped by that  s p l e n d o r whichswas r e l e a s e d  by the s e e r , [became] s i m i l a r t o a thousand suns o f d a z z l i n g  light.  And from i t K a t y a y a n l , h a v i n g l o n g , sutift-moving eyes, and h a v i n g a body pure on account o f yoga, was born. / Then, [ h e r ] f a c e came about from [ t h e s p l e n d o r ] o f S i v a , and [ h e r ] t r i a d o f eyes by t h e s p l e n d o r of Agni, £her] h a i r came about  by [ t h e s p l e n d o r ] o f Yama, and l i k e w i s e  her e i g h t e e n arms by the s p l e n d o r o f V i s n u .  4§  —Bd.  'a body pure from t h e p r a c t i c e o f yooa': t h e p r a c t i c e o f  yooa r e s u l t s i n t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n o f one's body and mind. the  s e e r Katyayana who p r a c t i c e d yoga.  I t was  KatyayanI i n h e r i t e d p u r i t y  and s t r e n g t h from him. — T h e goddess KatyayanT i s here d e s c r i b e d ( v e r s e s 9-11) from head t o f o o t , which i s not i n k e e p i n g w i t h the way gods a r e u s u a l l y i  described i n c l a s s i c a l Skt. poetry.  According to  fflallinatha's  commentary t o K a l i d a s a ' s Kumarasambhava ( 1 . 3 2 ) , "devatanam  rupam  padariqusthaprabhgti v a r n y a t e manusaoam kesad a r a b h y e t i dharmikah". " A c c o r d i n g t o t h o s e who f o l l o w dharma  f  t h e form o f d e i t i e s i s de-  s c r i b e d from t o e n a i l s ; o f men, b e g i n n i n g w i t h h a i r . "  Each o f t h e A-  prominent gods w i l l make a p a r t o f KatyayanT's body ( v e r s e s 9-12), and each w i l l  p r o v i d e her e i g h t e e n arms w i t h something ( v e r s e s  14-17). 19.10-11. saumyena yugmam stanayoh susamhatam madhyam t a t h a i n d r e n a ca t e j a s a 'bhavat uru  c a jaffghe c a nitambasamyute  jate jalesasya tu tejasa h i padau ca l o k a p r a p i t a m a h a s y a padmSbhikosapratimau  babhuvatuh  divakaranam a p i t e j a s g 'rigulTh k a r a n g u l T s ca v a s u t e j a s a i v a  Her compact p a i r of b r e a s t s came about by t h e s p l e n d o r o f t h e  60  (Vfooni, and h e r middle (stomach and w a i s t ) l i k e w i s e by t h e s p l e n d o r of I n d r a .  The t h i g h s and c a l v e s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e b u t t o c k s , were  born o f t h e s p l e n d o r o f Varuna. /  Her two f e e t , which were l i k e t h e  i n t e r i o r o f t h e l o t u s , came about  by t h e s p l e n d o r  o f t h e Great Grand-  f a t h e r o f t h e w o r l d (Brahma); t h e t o e s came about by the s p l e n d o r o f the suns, and t h e f i n g e r s o f t h e hands by the s p l e n d o r o f t h e Vasus.  — V e r s e s 9-11 have e s s e n t i a l l y one c o n s t r u c t i o n , "... came about through t h e s p l e n d o r o f ..."  t h e form b e i n g  I n the o r i g i n a l  Skt. some words e s p e c i a l l y meaning ' s p l e n d o r ' and 'came about' are l e f t o u t o c c a s i o n a l l y because o f t h e metre, b u t t h e meaning i s c l e a r j u s t t h e same. —lOd.  t u , hi are f i l l e r s .  —•like  the i n t e r i o r o f t h e l o t u s ' : l o t u s e s a r e r e p u t e d t o have  extremely s o f t i n t e r i o r s .  Many t i m e s a p o e t i c image comes from  t h i s , when t h e poet i s d e s c r i b i n g how s o f t something i s .  The  t e x t r e a d s padmabhikosapratimau: kosa would have s u f f i c e d , b u t here we f i n d a b h i k o s a (perhaps f o r t h e sake o f t h e m e t r e ) . —He. enough.  'suns' = divakaranam.  The word i s i n t h e p l u r a l ,  curiously  Perhaps t h i s p l u r a l form had t o be used i n s t e a d o f t h e  s i n g u l a r because o f the metre.  19.12 p r a j a p a t l n a m das'anas c a t a j a s a yaksena nasa s'ravanau ca marutat sadhyana ca bhruyugalam s u k a n t i m a t  51  kandarpabanasanasannibham  babhau  And [ h e r ] t e e t h [came a b o u t ] by the s p l e n d o r o f t h e P r a j a p a t i - s , t h e nose by [ t h e s p l e n d o r ] o f t h e Yaksa-s and be two e a r s from [ t h e s p l e n dor] o f the the  ffiaruts;  t h e v e r y b e a u t i f u l p a i r of eyebrows, r e s e m b l i n g  bow o f Kama, came about by [ t h e s p l e n d o r ] of Sadhyas.  —12cd.  Another t r a n s l a t i o n o f 'cd' would be:  " [ h e r ] very beau-  t i f u l p a i r of eyebrows [came about] by [ t h e s p l e n d o r ] of Sadhyas. I t appeared l i k e Kama's bow."  However, i t i s c l e a r from 19.13c  t h a t t h e author o f the VP i s i n the h a b i t o f u s i n g babhau as an e q u i v a l e n t of babhuva. a l t h o u g h f o r s t a n d a r d S k t . , babhau i s d e r i v e d from bha ' t o s h i n e , t o appear, t o seem' and babhuva from bhu t o become.'.  19.13-14 t a t h a r s i t e j o t t a m a m uttamam mahan namna p r t h i v y a m abhavat prasiddham k a t y a y a n i t y eva t a d a babhau sa namnS c a t e n a i v a j a g a t p r a s i d d h a dadau t r i ^ u l a m v a r a d a s t r i s u l i cakram m u r a r i r varunas c a sankham s a k t i m h u t a s a h evasanas c a capam tunau t a t h l k s a y y a s a r a u v i v a s v S n  52  In t h a t manner ( o r because i t had a l l t h e s e i n g r e d i e n t s ) the g r e a t supreme, e x c e l l e n t s p l e n d o r of the s e e r ( K i t y a y a n a ) became known on t h e e a r t h by the name K a t y a y a n l .  Then she became ( o r shone f o r t h ) ,  well-known i n the w o r l d by t h a t same name. / The b o o n - g r a n t i n g or bf t h e t r i d e n t ( S i v a ) gave a t r i d e n t \jto h e r ] , " V i s n u d i s c u s , Varuna a conch, Agni a m i s s i l e ( l a k t i \ , Vayu. a bow, s v a t two  Possess-  a and V i v a -  q u i v e r s which had i n e x h a u s t i b l e arrows,  —13a.  'the...supreme...splendor o f Katyayana': the t e x t reads  °tejottamam.  T h i s i s the changed form ( t h r o u g h samdhi) of t h e  words t e jab and uttama.  W i t h i n a compound, the v i s a r g a (h_) s h o u l d  be dropped and we s h o u l d be l e f t w i t h t a j a - u t t a m a ; but the  author  has seen f i t t o f u r t h e r j o i n t h e §_ and t h e u_ i n t o t e j o t t a m a . — V a r u n a i s t h e Lord o f ' t h e ocean, so i t i s n a t u r a l t h a t he would g i v e a conch s h e l l to K S t y a y a n i . t o announce and  Conches were blown i n b a t t l e s  inspire.,'  19.15 vajram t a t h e n d r a h saha ghantaya ca yamo 'tha dandam dhanado gadam ca brahma 'ksamalam sakamandalum ca kamo 'sim ugram saha carmana ca  I n d r a [gave h e r ] t h e t h u n d e r b o l t , t o g e t h e r w i t h a b e l l , Yama a s t i c k , Kubera a mace, Brahma a g a r l a n d o f beads along w i t h an a s c e t i c ' s water-pot,  K l l a a t e r r i b l e sword a l o n g w i t h a s k i n f t o s e r v e as s h i e l d ] .  53  — f . l h u n d e r b o l t * : I n d r a ' s t r a d i t i o n a l weapon, i s the va.jra •thunderbolt'.  T h i s would be the n a t u r a l weapon f o r the l o r d  the s t o r m - c l o u d s to —15c.  of  carry.  Brahma i s o f t e n d e p i c t e d  Thus here he  or  as o l d . and  appears w i t h a r o s a r y  and  as a r i t u a l i s t .  water-pot.  19.16 hSram ca somah saha camarena malam samudro himavan mrgendram cudamanim kundalam arddhacandram p r a d a t kuthararfi v a s u s ' i l p a k a t t t a  And  >.the Moon  a garland,  gave a n e c k l a c e along w i t h a c h o w r i e , Ocean (Samudra)  Himalaya a l i o n , the maker of r i c h e s and  t h e maker of a r t - o b j e c t s who  was  one  ' c h o w r i e ' : the t a i l o f a yak  summer months. —16b.  The  an  axe.  used f o r f a n n i n g d u r i n g  T h i s word can mean e i t h e r l i o n or  ' k i n g of b e a s t s ' .  But from v e r s e s 21.9,  and 46,  i t i s c l e a r t h a t a l i o n i s me-ant h e r e .  —16d.  'the maker of r i c h e s and  a r t o b j e c t s ' : t h i s i s the  a r t i s a n , Visvakarman, a b e a u t i f u l , s k i l f u l worker, who the t h u n d e r b o l t s f o r  the  word i s an- a n g l i c i z e d form of camara.  ' l i o n ' ' mygendra.  tiger:: l i t e r a l l y ,  (or  of the Vasu&s) a c r e s t - j e w e l ,  an e a r r i n g , a half-moon ( c r e s c e n t ) , and  —16a.  art objects  Indra.  14,  divine  forges  54  19.17.. :. . gandhar;varajo r a j a t a n u l i p t a m panasya purnam sadrsam ca bhajananv' bhujamgaharam bhugagesvVaro ' p i amlanapuspamctavah srajam  ca  The k i n g of the Gandharvas [ g a v e ] a v e s s e l f o r d r i n k i n g coated w i t h silver —  s i l v e r and proper  ( o r s u i t a b l e ) [[to h e r ] ; the L o r d of  snakes a l s o [gave h e r ] a s e r p e n t - n e c k l a c e ( o r : a p a r t i c u l a r type of n e c k l a c e ) , and the Seasons a g a r l a n d of n e v e r - f a d i n g f l o w e r s .  — ' G a n d h a r v a s ' : see G l o s s a r y . —17b.  ' v e s s e l f o r d r i n k i n g ' = panasya bha.janam.  T h i s use o f  the g e n i t i v e would be u n u s u a l , though such usage i s customary i n E n g l i s h : 'a v e s s e l of d r i n k i n g * . would be: "...  gave  Another p o s s i b l e t r a n s l a t i o n  a v e s s e l , coated w i t h s i l v e r , f i l l e d w i t h a  d r i n k , and worthy [ o f h e r j . "  T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n uses panasya w i t h  purnam, w i t h t h e g e n i t i v e s u b s t i t u t i n g f o r t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l case. —9-17.  P e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t s of n a t u r e  (e.g.  Samudra 'ocean') are ranked along w i t h the prominent d e i t i e s .  19.18 t a d a ' t i t u s t S surasattamanam a t t a t t a h a s a f h mumuce t r i n e t r a tarn t u... s t u v u r devavarah, sahendrah, savisnurudrendvanilagnibhaskarah  55  Then t h e t h r e e - e y e d goddess, g r e a t l y p l e a s e d u i i t h t h e prominent gods, gave a very l o u d l a u g h .  The great gods, i n c l u d i n g I n d r a ,  V i s n u , Rudra, Soma, t h e Wind, Agni and Surya —  —18c.  'a l o u d l a u g h  a t t a repeated,  1  ~ attattahas'a.  p r a i s e d h e r [as f o l l o w s  I t i s unusual t o have  a t t a h a s a i s t h e common word.  19.19 namo ' s t u d e v y a i s u r a p u j i t a y a i ya s a m s t h i t a yogavisuddhadeha n i d r a s v a r u p e n a mahTm v i t a t y a t r s n a t r a p a ksud bhayada ' t h a k a n t i h  " S a l u t a t i o n be t o t h e honored goddess, worshipped  by t h e gods, who  s t a n d s (remains i n e x i s t e n c e ) w i t h a body p u r i f i e d through yoga, h a v i n g f i l l e d t h e e a r t h i n t h e form df n i d r a ( s l e e p ) ; [she i s ] t h i r s t , shame, hunger, and t e r r i f y i n g r e s p l e n d e n c e and  ( o r t h e t e r r i f y i n g one  resplendence).  —19b.  ' w i t h a body p u r i f i e d through y o g a ; see commentary t o 19.8.  —19c.  'having f i l l e d ' - - v i t a t y a .  is  1  'having extended,  The l i t e r a l meaning o f v i t a t y a  h a v i n g spreadi:V  — K a t y a y a n T i s d e s c r i b e d w i t h both good and e v i l q u a l i t i e s . of  Many  t h e g r e a t gods o f t h e I n d i a n pantheon a r e d e s c r i b e d i n a n t i -  t h e t i c a l terms ( e . g . Krsna i n t h e Bhagavad-GTta, chapter 1 2 ) . There seems t o be no p a r t i c u l a r i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n h a v i n g both s e t s  56  of  q u a l i t i e s to d e s c r i b e the same god.  of  the d i v i n i t y  are merely two d i f f e r e n t  Rather, these two a s p e c t s s i d e s , o r f a c e s , o f him.  When a d e i t y i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s way, as both good and e v i l , the i d e a i s that he o r she i s a l l ,  and comprises a l l e x i s t e n c e .  19.20 s'raddha s m r t i h p u s t i r atho ksama ca chaya ca s'aktih kamalalaya ca vrttir  daya b h r a n t i r atheha maya  namo ' s t u d e v y a i b h a v a r u p i k a y a i  "She  i s f a i t h , remembrance ( o r w a t c h f u l n e s s ) , nourishment, f o r b e a r -  ance, shadow, power, one having the l o t u s as her abode, e x i s t e n c e (or  tendency o r l i v e l i h o o d ) , compassion, c o n f u s i o n , and i l l u s i o n .  S a l u t a t i o n be to the goddess, who has the form of [_all] e x i s t e n c e . "  —20a. the  'one having the l o t u s as her abode* s kamalaTayff. This i s  goddess LaksmT.  I t i s unusual to see KatyayanI named Laksma,  s i n c e LaksmT (s'ri) i s V i s n u * s c o n s o r t . —20a.  There are two ea.-s 'and*.  translation, left  One can be l e f t  out i n the  afoha, which has the sense of 'and', can a l s o be  out i n t h e , f i r s t  q u a r t e r , where i t appears combined w i t h  _u to g i v e atho.  19.21 t a t a h s t u t a d e v a v a r a i h mrgendram  57  aruhya d e v l p r a g a t a *variidhram vindhyam mahaparvatam uccasrrigam c a k a r a yam nimnataram t v agastyah  Then the Goddess, p r a i s e d by t h e s u p e r i o r gods, h a v i n g mounted the l i o n , proceded t o t h e g r e a t mountain Vindhya, t h e t a l l - p e a k e d s u p p o r t e r o f t h e e a r b h , whom Agastya made l o w e r .  19.22. narada uvaca kim-artham adrim bhagavan  agastyas  tarn nimnasrngam k r t a v S n maharsih kasmai k r t e kena ca karanena etad  vadasvamalasattvavrtte  Narada s a i d : UJhy d i d t h e v e n e r a b l e g r e a t seer Agastya make t h e mountain one o f low peaks?  For whose sake, and f o r what reason?  Speak of t h i s , you  who remain i n s p o t l e s s s a t t v a .  —22c.  ' f o r whose sake' = kasmai k ^ t e .  I n s t a n d a r d S k t . , kr,te  ' f o r t h e sake o f . . . ' c a l l s f o r a g e n i t i v e . dative —22d.  However, we f i n d a  here. ' s a t t v a : according to Indian philosophy ( e s p e c i a l l y i t s 1  Sankhya s c h o o l ) , t h e r e a r e t h r e e s t r a n d s , t e n d e n c i e s , a s p e c t s , o r q u a l i t i e s , , c a l l e d guna-s: s a t t v a , r a j a s , and tamas.  Together they  58  compose p r a k r t i ' p r i m o r d i a l matter o r s u b s t a n c e ' .  S a t t v a i s the  q u a l i t y of p u r i t y , e n l i g h t e n m e n t , and the f o r c e b e h i n d mental a c t s . Ra j as i s the s t r a n d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p h y s i c a l a c t i o n , a m b i t i o n and desire. —22d.  Tamas i s t h e f a c t o r c a u s i n g i n e r t i a , s l e e p i n e s s , p a s s i v i t y . 'you who  remain i n s p o t l e s s s a t t v a ' - a m a l a s a t t v a v c t t e .  The i d e a i s t h a t a sage, or any l i b e r a t e d man,  has accumulated  the s a t t v a i n h i m s e l f , and i s f r e e from any forms of the "lower q u a l i t i e s , of r a j a s and tamas.  Compare the n o t i o n i n the Bhagavad-  G l t a 2.45: "ever f i r m i n s a t t v a ,  t  r  "  19.23. p u l a s t y a uvaca p u r l h i vindhyena d i v a k a r a s y a g a t i r n i r u d d h a gaganecarasya r a v i s t a t a h kumbhabhavam sametya homavasane vacanam babhase  Pulastya said: I n t h e p a s t , t h e passage of t h e Sun, who s t r u c t e d lay V i n d h y a .  moves i n t h e s k y , was  ob-  Then the Sun, h a v i n g come t o the bowl-born  one  (Agastya) at the c o n c l u s i o n o f a ceremony, s a i d the words:  —23b.  'the sun' ~ qaqanecara 'mover i n the s k y ' .  aluk-compound,  T h i s i s an  where t h e case ending o f the compound's f i r s t  member i s not e l i d e d , as i n most c a s e s . — T h e r e a s o n f o r Vindhya b l o c k i n g the sun i s not g i v e n i n t h i s r e n -  59  d i t i o n of the story. (1953 :  A c c o r d i n g t o a s t o r y g i v e n by Douison  357 ) , Vindhya became j e a l o u s o f (£h^ Himalaya because he  was t h e s h o r t e r o f the two.  So he t r i e d t o make t h e Sun r e v o l v e  around him, as t h e Sun t h e n r e v o l v e d around Himalaya. Sun r e f u s e d , Vindhya b l o c k e d i t s passage. h e r e p r o b a b l y t a k e s up a t t h i s  When the  This story recounted  point.  19.24 samagato *ham d v i j a d u r a t a s tvam k u r u s v a mam uddharanam munTndra dadasva danarn mamayan: manlsitam carami yena t r i d i v e s u  "I  nirvrtah  have come t o you from f a r o f f , 0 Brahmin.  Make an u p l i f t m e n t f o r  me, 0 C h i e f o f sages; g i v e me t h e g i f t t h a t i s d e s i r e d by me, on account o f which ( i . e . so t h a t ) I ' l l move i n t h e heavens  —24a.  'Brahmin' s d v i j a , ' t w i c e - b o r n one'.  relaxed."  The Brahmins were  c a l l e d t w i c e - b o r n because t h e y had two b i r t h s —  one from  their  p a r e n t s , the second a s y m b o l i c one from t h e t h r e a d - b e a r i n g c e r e mony c a l l e d upanayana, —24b.  j u s t b e f o r e they began t h e i r  schooling.  'make an u p l i f t m e n t f o r me' = k u r u s v a mSm uddharanam.  U s u a l l y we would expect t h e g e n i t i v e mama i n s t e a d o f t h e a c c u s a t i v e mam.  The r o o t k r does not u s u a l l y t a k e two a c c u s a t i v e s f o r  o b j e c t s t o convey  ' t o do something f o r someone*.  60  19.25 i t t h a m d i v a k a r a v a c o guriasamprayogi s r u t v a t a d a k a l a s a j o vacanam babhase danam dadami t a v a yanmanasas t v abhlstam *  * *  n a r t h i p r a y a t i vimukho mama k a s c i d eva  Having t h u s heard the Sun's speech, endowed w i t h good q u a l i t i e s , the bowl-born one  (Agastya) then s a i d t h e words: " I ' l l g i v e you the  g i f t t h a t i s d e s i r e d by your mind; not one o f my s u p p l i c a n t s d e p a r t s as one whose f a c e i s i n the o t h e r d i r e c t i o n ( i . e .  unfulfilled)."  —25c.  tu a f i l l e r .  —25d.  'one whose f a c e i s i n the o t h e r d i r e c t i o n ' » vimukha.  one does not get what one wants, one t u r n s one's f a c e .  When  Hance t h i s  expression.  19.26 s r u t v a vaco  'mrtamayam kalasodbhavasya  praha prabhuh k a r a t a l e v i n i d h a y a murdhni eso 'dya me g i r i v a r a h p r a r u n a d d h i margam v i n d h y a s y a nimnakarane bhagavan y a t a s v a  Having heard the n e c t a r - f i l l e d words of the bowl-born one ( A g a s t y a ) , the L o r d ( t h e Sun), p l a c i n g h i s hands on h i s head, s a i d "At p r e s e n t , t h i s prominent  mountain  o b s t r u c t s my p a t h , 0 v e n e r a b l e one.  at a l o w e r i n g of the Vindhya."  Strive  61  19.27 iti  r a v i v a c a n a d athaha kumbhajanrria  krtam i t i  v/iddhi maya h i nTcas'rngam  t a v a k i r a n a j i t o b h a v i s y a t e mahTdhro mama caranasamas'ritasya ka v y a t h a t e  Then, a f t e r the speech o f the Sun, the boml-born one ( A g a s t y a ) s a i d , "Knout _ V i n d h y a ] as made o f low peaks by me ["already] ( i . e . you can assume t h a t what you ask f o r i s a l r e a d y done). be conquered by your r a y s .  The mountain  What a f f l i c t i o n i s t h e r e f o r you  will who  have sought my f e e t ( i . e . sought r e f u g e i n me)?"  -—27a.  " t h e n , a f t e r t h e speech o f the Sun' s r a v i - v a c a n a d a t h a .  T h i s phrase seems t o have been used i n the sense of r a v i - v a c a n a d urdhvam/anantaram/ u t t a r a m / pas'c'at. —27b.  'know [vindhya^] t o be made o f low peaks by me  lit.,'know: " i t  [already] , 1  i s made (krjtam)" by me one o f low peaks (nTcas'rngam).'  The s t a n d a r d S k t . would have been n l c a s r n g a b k r t a h i n s t e a d o f n i c a sVrigam kytam, as -~27b.  i t i f l a n k s the clause.  .hi a f i l l e r , o r t o be t a k e n as ' i n d e e d ' .  19.28 i t y evam u k t v a k a l a s o d b h a v a s t u suryam h i samstuya vinamya b h a k t y a jagama samtyajya h i dandakam h i v i n d h y a c a l a m vrddhavapur maharsih  62  Having spoken t h u s , the bowl-born  one  ( A g a s t y a ) , the g r e a t s e e r uiho  had an o l d body, h a v i n g p r a i s e d Surya and bowed doum to [ h i m ] w i t h d e v o t i o n [and] h a v i n g l e f t the D a n d a k a - f o r e s t , went to t h e  Vindhya  mountain.  —28a.  _tu a f i l l e r .  —28b.  hi a  filler.  —28c.  hi a  filler.  —28c.  'Dandaka-forest*:  and Narmada.  a f o r e s t l y i n g between t h e G o d a v a r l  I t i s the s e t t i n g f o r many e p i s o d e s of the Ramayana.  19.29 g a t v a vacah praha munir mahTdhram yas~ye mahatlrthavaram vrddho.'smy as'aktas c a  supunyam tavadhirodhum  tasrnad bhavan n l c a t a r o ' s t u :sadyah  Having gone, the sage spoke [ t h e s e ] words t o the mountain: to  " I ' l l go  the s u p e r i o r of the g r e a t p l a c e s o f p i l g r i m a g e , a most h o l y one.  I am o l d and unable to c l i m b on you; t h e r e f o r e , may become lower  —29b.  you ( o r •• you  please)  immediately."  'the s u p e r i o r of the g r e a t p l a c e s of p i l g r i m a g e ' » maha-  tlrthavaram.  A t T r t h a ( e t y m o l o g i c a l l y ' f o r d a b l e , the p o i n t at  which one can c r o s s the stream') i s a p l a c e o f p i l g r a m a g e , where people go t o bathe i n the r i v e r - w a t e r s , i n o r d e r to g a i n m e r i t .  63  There mere (and a r e ) c e r t a i n s p e c i a l s p o t s where one c o u l d bathe ( e . g . i n the Ganges) which are supposed to. have e x t r e m e l y good r e s u l t s f o r the bather. Note: Agastya does not s p e c i f y which p l a c e of p i l g r i m a g e he i s going t o . —-29c.  Is t h i s d e l i b e r a t e l y  vague?  'unable to c l i m b on you' ~ a s a k t a s ca tavadhirog"hum.  Normally we would expect t h e a c c u s a t i v e tvam of the second person pronoun, not the g e n i t i v e t a v a , as we have h e r e .  19.30  i t y evam ukto  munisattamena  sa n i c a s r n g a s t v abhavan samakramac c a p i  mahldhrah  maharsimukhyah  p r o l l a n g h y a vindhyam t v idam aha s a i l a m  Thus addressed by the best sage ( A g a s t y a ) , the mountain became one o f low peaks, and the c h i e f o f great s e e r s ( A g a s t y a ) too t r a v e r s e d  / i t ] ; •• f  a f t e r g o i n g beyond the Vindhya, he s a i d to t h e mountain:  19.31 y i v a n na bhuyo n i j a m a v r a j a m i mahasramam dhautavapuh  sutTrthat  t v a y a na t a v a t t v i h a v a r d h i t a v y a m no ced v i s a p s y e 'ham  avajnaya te  "As l o n g as I don't come back a g a i n as one of c l e a n s e d body to my  64  g r e a t hermitage from the good p l a c e o f p i l g r i m a g e , you s h a l l not grow here [ i n h e i g h t ^ .  O t h e r w i s e ( i . e . i f you grow b e f o r e I r e t u r n ) I ' l l  c u r s e you because of d i s r e s p e c t i n g ( o r n o n - a b i d i n g ) on your p a r t . "  —31c.  tu a f i l l e r .  —31d.  A l t e r n a t i v e t r a n s l a t i o n : ' o t h e r w i s e , I s h a l l c u r s e you  w i t h contempt ( c o n t e m p t u o u s l y ) . '  19.32 i t y evam u k t v l bhagavan jagama disam sa yamyam sahasa ' n t a r i k s a m akramya t a s t h a u s a h i t a m tadasam k a l e vrajamy a t r a yada  munlndrah  Having spoken t h u s , the v e n e r a b l e one southerly d i r e c t i o n i n the sky.  ( A g a s t y a ) suddenly went i n the  Heiremained  [ t h e r e ] at t h a t t i m e ,  h a v i n g o c c u p i e d t h a t q u a r t e r , when the c h i e f of sages ( A g a s t y a ) ^ t h o u g h t ] "I  s h a l l go here [ t o Vindhya o r t o my o l d hermitage"] a t a ^ p r o p e r ] t i m e . "  —32a.  I assume here t h a t the r o o t gam  can t a k e two  accusatives,  disam and a n t a r i k s a m , —32b.  ' s o u t h e r l y d i r e c t i o n ' = dis'am.. .yamyam.  means 'of Yama*.  The word yamya  Yama was the l o k a p a l a ' p r o t e c t o r ' f o r the s o u t h e r n  d i r e c t i o n (see 18.72). —32cd.  The meaning of the l a s t two q u a r t e r s i s d o u b t f u l ,  though a l l t h e words are i n t e l l i g i b l e  individually.  even  The s y n t a x  65  i s p r o b l e m a t i c , t o say t h e l e a s t .  The word s a h i t a m i n t h e c r i t i -  c a l e d i t i o n s h o u l d be read s a _ h i tarn, as i n t h e r e c a s t o f t h e c r i t i c a l text i n the Hindi e d i t i o n .  18.33 tatras'ramam ramyataram  h i krtva  samsuddhajambunadatoranantam tatratha niksipya vidarbhaputrlm svam asramam saumyam upajagama  Having b u i l t t h e r e a more b e a u t i f u l hermitage r i g h t up t o an arched p o r t a l o f pure g o l d  and  then h a v i n g p l a c e d V i d a r b h a ' s daughter  ( A g a s t y a * s w i f e , Loparnudra) t h e r e , he went t o h i s own p l e a s a n t h e r m i tage.  —33c.  Loparnudra i s t h e g i r l whom Agastya formed o u t o f t h e most  g r a c e f u l p a r t s o f d i f f e r e n t animals and had brought up i n t h e palace of the king of Vidarbha.  When she was o l d enough, Agastya  asked t h e k i n g f o r her hand i n marriage and became h e r husband (from p. 181, Dowson: 1953).  18.34 5tau r t i u p a r v a k l l e s u nityam tarn ambare hy asramam a v a s a t sah sesarfi c a kalam s a h i dandakasthas tapa£ c a c a r a m i t a k a n t i m a n munih  66  In each season, a t the p e r i o d s o f j u n c t u r e , he always o c c u p i e d t h a t hermitage  i n t h e s k y . And f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g t i m e , the sage ( A g a s t y a ) ,  h a v i n g immeasurable r e s p l e n d e n c e ,  p r a c t i c e d penance, r e m a i n i n g  i n the  Dandaka-forest,  —34a.  ' p e r i o d s o f j u n c t u r e ' : the Skt. word f o r j u n c t u r e i s parvan,  meaning a time o f change, t h e p e r i o d t h a t j o i n s two r e c o g n i z a b l e segments o f t i m e . activity,  They a r e u s u a l l y o c c a s i o n s f o r r e l i g i o u s  f o r instance,  a t t h e f u l l or new moon, o r at t h e equinoxes.  —34b.  hi a filler.  —34c.  hi a filler.  —34d.  ' p r a c t i c e d penance': see s e c t i o n on m o t i f s i n t h e I n t r o -  duction, tapas.  18.35 vindhyo  ' p i drst^va gagane mahasramam  vrddhim na y a t y eva bhayan maharseh nasau n i v r t t e t i matim v i d h a y a sa s a m s t h i t o  Having  nlcataragrasrngah  seen the g r e a t hermitage  i n t h e s k y , Vindhya  too d i d not a t  a l l grow, out o f f e a r f o r the g r e a t s e e r ( A g a s t y a ) . one has not r e t u r n e d * , he remained one w i t h extremely  —35c.  ' t h a t one has not r e t u r n e d ' n a s a u  i s a case o f double-sjajfidhi h e r e :  Thinking 'that low top peaks.  nivrtteti.  There  o r i g i n a l l y , t h e words were  67  nivi;ttah The  i t i , t h e n they became n i v c t t a i t i , and f i n a l l y  ni\/r.tteti  f i n a l change i s not a l l o w e d i n s t a n d a r d S k t . , but i t e n a b l e s  the author t o f o l l o w t h e metre.  18.36 evam tv agastyena  mahacalendrah  sa nicasrh'go h i k r t o maharse tasyorOdhvasrnge duroa s t h i t i "  munisamstuta s a  dawaaaoaiiarivaBtham  Thus, 0 g r e a t seer ( N a r a d a ) , t h e c h i e f o f the g r e a t mountains was made one o f low peaks by Agastya.  On i t s t o p peak, t h a t Durga (Katy  y a n i ) who mas p r a i s e d by t h e sages, remained i n o r d e r t o d e s t r o y t h e demons.  —-36a.  tu a f i l l e r .  —36b.  hi a f i l l e r .  18.37 devas' c a siddhas' ca mahoragas c a v i d y a d h a r a bhutaganas' ca s a r v e sarvapsarobhih  pratiramayantah  katyayanTm t a s t h u r  All  apetasokah  t h e gods, S i d d h a * s , Great  along w i t h the c e l e s t i a l  Snakes, F a i r i e s , and h o s t s o f s p i r i t s ,  nymphs, s t a y e d t h e r e w i t h j T t h e i r ] g r i e f sub  68  s i d e d , c a u s i n g K a t y a y a n l to be happy.  — F o r the d i f f e r e n t b e i n g s i n t h i s v e r s e , see G l o s s a r y under each i n d i v i d u a l name. —37cd.  p r a t i r a m a y a n t a b katyavanim.  i s quite rare.  Another way  The word p r a t i r a m a y a n t a h  o f t a k i n g q u a r t e r s c and d i s : " e n j o y i n g  w i t h the c e l e s t i a l nymphs, t h e i r g r i e f s u b s i d e d , they a t t e n d e d upon Katyayanl."  Here one assumes t h a t p r a t i r a m a y a n t a b does not have  a c a u s a l meaning, but i s e q u a l to ramahtah o r ramamanah and t h a t t a s t h u h 'remained,  stood  1  has the sense o f upatasthuh  'attended upon'.  CHAPTER XX  20.1 pulastya  uvaca  t a t a s t u ta"m t a t r a t a d a vasantTm katygyanlm  s a i l a v a r a s y a srrige  apasyatam danavasattamau dvau candas ca mundas' ca t a p s v i n i m tarn  But t h e n , Canda and Munda, two g r e a t demons, saw the a s c e t i c KatyayanT who  was  --Id.  d w e l l i n g t h e r e at t h a t time on the peak of the g r e a t  tarn i s r e p e a t e d u n n e c e s s a r i l y .  mountain.  69  20.2 d r s t v a i v a s'ailad a v a t i r y a a"jagmatuh svabhavanam  sTghram  surarl  d r s t v o c a t u s t a u mahisasurasya dutav idam candamundau d i t i s a m  As soon a s they saui h e r , the tuio enemies of the gods, h a v i n g descended'-from the mountain q u i c k l y ,  came home.  Having seen [ h i m , M a h i s a ] ,  Canda and Munda, messengers o f the demon Mahisa, s a i d t h i s t o the l o r d of [ t h e sons o f ] D i t i  —2d.  (Mahisa):  d i t i s a m ; l i t . , ' l o r d of D i t i ' .  t u a l l y i s ' l o r d of t h e sons of  What we expect c o n t e x -  Diti . 1  20.3 s v a s t h o bhavan kirn t v a s u r e n d r a sampratam agaccha pasyama ca t a t r a vindhyam t a t r a s t i devT sumahanubhava kanya surupa  surasundarinam  "j^MayJ you [_be^| happy, 0 Mahisa. joverj there. [inorej b e a u t i f u l  —3a.  But come now  and w e ' l l  see Vindhya  There i s t h i s d i v i n e v i r g i n o f extreme majesty, uiho i s than the b e a u t i f u l  '[.Way] y °  u  women of  gods.  E^e] happy' s svastho bhavan.  you [be] s e l f - r e s t i n g ' .  Literally,  '[may]  70  20.4 j i t a s taya toyadhara  'lakair hi  j i t ah sas'anko vadanena t a n v y a netrais tribhis t r l n i  hutasanani  j i t a n i kanthena j i t a s t u .sankhah  "•Clouds are indeed conquered by her through  [ h e r ] l o c k s ; the Moon  i s conquered by the s l e n d e r one through [ h e r ] f a c e ; the t h r e e f i r e s are conquered by  her ' t h r e e eyes, u i h i l e ( t u ) a conch i s conquered  by [ h e r ] neck. —4b. The  'Moon  1  = sas^arikab.  L i t e r a l l y , 'having the mark of a h a r e ' .  Moon i s a l s o c a l l e d mrqafika: 'having t h e mark o f a deer'.  C f . 18.72, commentary. —•4c. Skt.  ' f i r e s ' a hutasanani.  T h i s i s a neuter p l u r a l .  mould employ masculine p l u r a l  Standard  hutasanah.  20.5 stanau s u v r t t a v atha magnacucukau sthitau  v i j i t y eva g a j a s y a kumbhau  tvarh s a r v a j e t a r a m i t i p r a t a r k y a kucau smarenaiva  k r t a u sudurgau  "Her u i e l l - r o u n d e d b r e a s t s have sunken n i p p l e s ; they s t a n d as i f they have conquered the temples of an e l e p h a n t ; the b r e a s t s were made a l l the more d i f f i c u l t f o r access by Kama h i m s e l f , [ w i t h him]  having  71  i n f e r r e d 'you are the conqueror  of a l l *  J_and hence must have a r e a l  challenge],  —5b,  'having conquered t h e temples o f an e l e p h a n t ' .  The i d e a i s  t h i s : her b r e a s t s have t h e ' q u a l i t i e s o f expanse, roundness and f i r m n e s s t h a t a r e o f such a h i g h q u a l i t y t h a t they r i v a l even the temples o f elephants. —5cd.  Kama (the god o f Love) uianted e i t h e r t o pose a r e a l  lenge t o Mahisa o r t o do h i s best t o p r o t e c t KatyayanI  from  chalMahisa.  20.6 (Dinah s a s a s t r a h parighopamas ca bhujas t a t h a ' s t a d a s a b h a n t i t a s y a h parakramam v a i bhavato v i d i t v a kamena y a n t r a i v a t e k r t a s t u  "Her  e i g h t e e n arms, rounded, b e a r i n g uieapons, and s i m i l a r t o a b a r ,  appear l i k e machines f a s h i o n e d by Kama, [ p r o p e r l y c h a l l e n g i n g ] f o r you [0 M a h i s a ] , a f t e r l e a r n i n g of your  valor.  — T h e bar i n mind ( p r o b a b l y ) i s t h e t y p e o f bar used f o r l o c k i n g doors from the i n s i d e : a s o r t o f l a t c h .  Such a b a r was l a r g e at  one end and t a p e r e d down to a l e s s e r t t h i c k n e s s at t h e o t h e r end. —6cd.  Kama p l a c e d p r o t e c t i o n s around KatylyanT the way one  p r o t e c t s a p a l a c e o r a f o r t , by,? e r e c t i n g mechanical around i t .  devices  72  20.7 madhyam ca t a s y a s t r i v a l l t a r a n g a m v i b h a t i daityendra bhayatur  suromaraji  arohanakatarasya  kamasya sopanam i v a prayuktam  "And,  0 King o f t h e demons ( M a h i s a ) , h e r b e l l y , uihich has a r i p p l e  of t h r e e f o l d s and uihich has a n i c e s t r e a k o f h a i r , appears l i k e a s t a i r c a s e put t o use by Kama, uiho i s a f f l i c t e d by f e a r £of you and hence i s ^ s c a r e d t o mount.  ~~7ab.  *her b e l l y , uihich has a r i p p l e o f t h r e e f o l d s and uihich  has a n i c e s t r e a k o f h a i r . . . ' : t h i s uias c o n s i d e r e d t o be a mark o f extreme f e m i n i n e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . —7cd.  ' . . . l i k e a s t a i r c a s e put t o use by Kama, mho i s a f f l i c t e d  by f e a r  o f you and hence i s s c a r e d t o mount': an example o f  utpreksa (poetic fancy).  The image i s t h i s : t h e t h r e e f o l d s i n  KatyayanT's b e l l y a r e comparable t o a s t a i r c a s e uihich uias b u i l t t o enable  the god o f Love t o c l i m b .  He i s so f r i g h t e n e d by Mahisa  as a p o t e n t i a l r i v a l t h a t he cannot e a s i l y c l i m b i n the u s u a l uiay. 'Climb'  (arohana) suggests  d e s i r e t o enjoy her b e a u t i f u l body.  This p o e t i c image l e a d s us i n t o t h e one i n the next  20; 8 sa romarajT sutaram h i t a s y a v i r a j a t e pTnakucavalgna  verse.  73  arohane t v a d b h a y a k a t a r a s y a svedapravaho 'sura manmathasya  "That s t r e a k o f h a i r o f h e r s , t o u c h i n g from beloui her round b r e a s t s , appears e x t r e m e l y b e a u t i f u l , 0 demon; [ i t i s j the stream o f sweat o f Kama, who, i n c l i m b i n g , i s cowardly (shaken) through f e a r o f you.  — T h e u t p r e k s a ' p o e t i c f l i g h t * here i s a l i t t l e o b s c u r e , and needs explanation.  The r o m a r a j l ( t h e s t r e a k o f h a i r on KatyayanT's  belly)  i s now d e c l a r e d hot t o be a s t r e a k o f h a i r at a l l , but r a t h e r t h e sweat from Kama ( t h e god o f L o v e ) , who i s c l i m b i n g up t h e s t a i r c a s e of KatyayanT's t r j j y a l T ( t h r e e f o l d s o f her b e l l y ) .  Thus KatyayanT  i s so b e a u t i f u l t h a t even t h e god o f Love, Kama h i m s e l f , cannot r e s i s t h e r , but he i s at t h e same time e x t r e m e l y a f r a i d o f Mahisa who, Kama t h i n k s , must want KatyayanT.  20.9 n a b h i r g a b h l r a sutaram v i b h a t i p r a d a k s i n a ' syah parivafctamana t a s y a i v a l a v a n y a g r h a s y a mudra k a n d a r p a r a j n a svayam eva d a t t a  "The deep n a v e l o f t h i s one ( i . e . ..of.'-hers), which t u r n s around  (i.e.  i t has a f o l d t u r n i n g ) from t h e r i g h t , appears v e r y b e a u t i f u l ; [it i s i n d e e d ] t h e s e a l , p l a c e d by king»Kama himself, o f t h a t very [ t r e a s u r e ;  house o f beauty.  74  —9ab.  'the deep n a v e l of t h i s one, uihich t u r n s around from  the r i g h t ' : t h i s i s a mark o f beauty and an i n d i c a t i o n o f the a u t h o r ' s good o b s e r v a t i o n . —9cd.  ' [ i t i s i n d e e d ] the s e a l . v ; of t h a t very  of b e a u t y ' : t h e imagery i s q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g here. n a v e l i s compared t o a s e a l .  [treasure-house Katyayanl's  A s e a l i s used i n c o m p l e t i n g  a mork,  such as a l e t t e r o r a k i n g ' s e d i c t , or something e l s e very cious.  pre-  Thus, i n p u t t i n g a s e a l on h e r , KTama i s marking her as a  very s p e c i a l beauty t o be c a r e f u l l y l o o k e d  after.  20.10 v i b h a t i ramyam jaghanam mrgak^yah samantato mekhalaya  'vajustam  manyama tarn kamanaradhipasya prikarag'uptam  "The  nagaram sudurgamam  h i p - r e g i o n of t h a t g a z e l l e - e y e d one, uihich i s enjoyed on a l l  s i d e s by a g i r d l e , appears b e a u t i f u l . of king-Kama, p r o t e c t e d by r a m p a r t s ,  —10a.  ' g a z e l l e - e y e d one':  We mould c o n s i d e r i t the one of extremely  —10c,  access.  h a v i n g eyes l i k e the eyes of a g a z e l l e  i s a s i g n o f beauty i n women f o r Skt. p o e t s . black  difficult  city  G a z e l l e s have w i d e ,  eyes. 'uie mould c o n s i d e r i t '  - manyama tarn.  Standard  employ manySroahe (middle v o i c e ) i n the p l a c e o f manygma. word f o r ' i t '  S k t . would A l s o , the  i s tarn ( m a s c u l i n e ) , but s h o u l d be t a t ( n e u t e r ) , s i n c e  75  i t s t a n d s f o r jaqhanam ^ h i p ' . —lOcd.  'we  would c o n s i d e r i t the c i t y of king-Kama, p r o t e c t e d  by ramparts, one of extremely image, t h i s  d i f f i c u l t access* : a g a i n a l o v e l y  time an image of K a t y a y a h l ' s w a i s t .  Her w a i s t i s  l i k e a c i t y b u i l t by the k i n g of Love ( i . e . i t c o n t a i n s l o v e l i n e s s p e r s o n i f i e d ) , and the c i t y i s imagined  to have a f o r t r e s s w a l l  about i t , p r o t e c t i n g i t from o u t s i d e i n v a s i o n s .  Similarly,  Katya-  y a h l ' s w a i s t has a g i r d l e about i t , p r o t e c t i n g her from the supposed a s s a u l t s of those who  cannot h e l p but be a t t r a c t e d by  her.  20.11  vrttavaromau  ca mrdu kumaryah  sobheta uru samanuttamau h i avasanartham makaradhvajena j a n a s y a desav i v a s a n n i v i s t a u  "The  g i r l ' s most e x c e l l e n t t h i g h s , which are round, w i t h o u t  and s o f t , look b e u a t i f u l .  £They are*]» as i f , two r e g i o n s p l a c e d  t o g e t h e r by Kama f o r the purpose o f s e t t l i n g  —lib,  people.  'most e x c e l l e n t ' = samanuttamau, a r a r e compound, r a r e  because of the s u p e r f l u o u s sam-. to  hair  L i t e r a l l y , i t means, 'compared  which t h e r e i s nothing b e t t e r ' .  —lib.  * [ h e r j t h i g h s . . . l o o k b e a u t i f u l ' - sobheta u r u .  The  words  t h a t underwent the p r o c e s s of samdhi t o o b t a i n t h e s e two words a r e sobhete u r u .  A p p a r e n t l y , the s t e p s through which these words  76  passed t o g a i n t h e present (then w i t h t h e dropping i n standard author  sarfidhi form a r e —  o f y_) £nbheta U r u .  sobhetay u r u . and  But t h i s i s n ' t  S k t . , t o happen t o a d u a l ending i n i ,  u, o r &.  allowed, The  must be e f f e c t i n g t h i s type o f samdhi f o r t h e sake o f t h e  metre. —lied.  Here i t i s s a i d t h a t KatyayanT's t h i g h s have a l l t h e  hallmarks of land desirable f o r s e t t l i n g . h a i r , and s o f t .  They a r e round, w i t h o u t  I n t h e comparison, a good, l a n d f o r s e t t l i n g  would  be rounded w i t h h i l l s ; i t would not have many t r e e s , s i n c e a s e t t l e ment cannot be made i n a j u n g l e , but o n l y i n an open r e g i o n ; and the ground i t s e l f s h o u l d be s o f t and m a l l e a b l e , f o r growing vegetables.  Thus, t h e q u a l i t i e s o f a r e g i o n t h a t i s d e s i r a b l e f o r  s e t t l i n g a r e a l s o t h e q u a l i t i e s o f KatyayanT's t h i g h s , and f o r t h a t r e a s o n t h e author c l a i m s t h a t Kama c r e a t e d h e r t h i g h s t o s e t t l e people ( a s u g g e s t i o n o f p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i o n ) .  20.12  t a j ' januyugmam mahisasurendra arddhonnatam b h a t i t a t h a i v a t a s y a h s r s t v a v i d h a t a h i nirupanaya s r a n t a s t a t h a h a s t a t a l e dadau h i  " L i k e w i s e , 0 Mahisa, k i n g o f t h e demons, t h a t p a i r o f knees o f h e r s , r a i s e d half-way,  appears £as i f ] t h e C r e a t o r , a f t e r having  [_them], b e i n g t i r e d , p r e s e n t e d  created  £them~j l i k e t h a t on t h e palm o f a hand  for the observation fof others!.  77  —What  i s g i v e n here i s o n l y a probable t r a n s l a t i o n .  The  author's  i m a g i n a t i o n here seems to o u t r e a c h h i s words and the metre. s e q u e n t l y , what e x a c t l y he has  i n mind i s n o t  Con-  clear.  20.13 janghe  suvrtte  ' p i ca romahlne  sobheta d a i t y e s v a r a te t a d i y e akramya l o k a n i v a n i r m i t a y a r u p a r j i t a s y a i v a krtadharau h i  "Those c a l v e s of h e r s , w e l l - r o u n d and h a i r l e s s , appear 0 Lord o f the demons ( M a h i s a ) . earned through overcoming  : —13b,  form  j j h e y a r e ] k r t a d h a r a - s of what i s  (beauty) o f that one who  ( t r a n s c e n d i n g ) the  beautiful,  i s c r e a t e d as i f by  worlds.  sobheta i s used where one would expect sobhete,  a dual  verb. —13d.  The author's i n t e n t i o n  i s f a r from c l e a r .  have p u z z l e d the w r i t e r o f every s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i e t y of readings i s a v a i l a b l e . a v a i l a b l e makes s a t i s f a c t o r y 'done, made' and adhara context.  sense.  manuscript,  as a  However, none of the r e a d i n g s The o r d i n a r y meanings of k g t a  'lower, lower l i p '  do not seem to f i t the  Perhaps krtadharau i s the m e t r i c a l l y  krtadharau  I t seems t o  f o r c e d form of  'have been made s u p p o r t s / p r o p s / f o u n d a t i o n s ' .  Even then  the use of a compound to express the i d e a o f k r t a u adharau be s t r a n g e .  One  would  expects krtadharau or krtadharau to be a bahu-  78  v r i h i compound. f e m i n i n e janghe.  Moreover, such a b a h u v r l h i must agree u i i t h t h e Perhaps 13cd i s t o be connected t o 14ab.  20.14 padau ca t a s y a h  kamalodarabhau  prayatnatas tau h i krtau vidhatra a j n a p i tabhyam nakharatnamala n a k s a t r a m a l a gagane y a t h a i v a  •'And her f e e t a r e l i k e t h e i n s i d e o f a l o t u s . uiith g r e a t e f f o r t by the C r e a t o r .  They have been made  A s e r i e s of j e w e l - l i k e  l i k e t h e s e r i e s o f c o n s t e l l a t i o n s i n t h e s k y , was o r d e r e d  nails,.just come  n e a r j by them.  —14cd_  Another very p o e t i c image.  KatyayanT s reddish bright 1  t o e n a i l s are compared f i r s t t o j e w e l s , and then t o t h e s t a r s i n the sky.  20.15 evamsvarupa danunatha  kanya  mahogras'astrani c a d h a r a y a n t i d r s t v a yathestam na c a vidma ka s a s u t a 'thava k a s y a c i d eva b a l a  "Now, 0 L o r d o f [ t h e sons o f ] Danu ( M a h i s a ) , t h e g i r l i s o f such and such form, and i s b e a r i n g e x t r e m e l y s c a r i n g weapons.  Having seen f h e r  79  at m i l l , uie don't know uiho she i s , o r |_whether t h a t ] young g i r l i s someone's  —15c.  daughter.  'at w i l l ' s  i . e . , we saw her as long as we wished. Con. 20.2a  d r s t v a i v a 'as soon as they saw h e r ' . •—15c.  'we don't know...' s na ca vidma...  T h i s i s an unusual  form, coming from vidmaft, w i t h t h e f i n a l b_ dropped B e f o r e _.  More-  o v e r , c o n t e x t u a l l y , t h e verb s h o u l d be i n t h e d u a l . —15d.  eva a f i l l e r .  20.16 t a d b h u t a l e ratnam anuttamam s t h i t a m svargam p a r i t y a j y a maha  'surendra  g a t v a 'that/ vindhyam svayam eva pasya k u r u s v a y a t t e 'bhimatam ksarnam ca  "•That incomparable  j e w e l , h a v i n g l e f t heaven, remains on t h e s u r f a c e  of the e a r t h , 0 Lord o f t h e g r e a t demons ( M a h i s a ) . to Vindhya, see f o r y o u r s e l f . and  Having  gone  Do t h a t w h i c h i s p r e f e r a b l e t o you  feasible."  —16b.  In the l i g h t  o f 20.20b, which g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the  demons were s e t t l e d i n heaven, one c o u l d take svargam p a r i t y a j y a 'having l e f t heaven' as a p p l y i n g t o Mahisa and t r a n s l a t e s "That iincomparable j e w e l remains on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e e a r t h . a f t e r l e a v i n g heaven [and] going t o Vindhya,  0 Mahisa,  see f o r y o u r s e l f . "  eo  —16d.  ' f e a s i b l e ' = ksamam.  Ksama u s u a l l y  means ' c a p a b l e ' , but  here i t means ' f e a s i b l e ' .  20.17 srutvaiva  tabhyam mahisasuras t u  devyah p r a v r t t i m  kamaniyarupam  cakre matim n a t r a v i c a r a m a s t i i t y evam u k t v a mahiso  'pi nasti  As soon as he heard t h a t a t t r a c t i v e coming-about  (or news) of the  goddess from those two (Canda and Munda), the demon Mahisa t h o u g h t , " t h e r e does not e x i s t a n y t h i n g worth c o n s i d e r i n g i n t h i s matter ( i . e . •I need not w a i t ) " [[and s a i d s o ] . not  Having s a i d t h a t , Mahisa too does  e x i s t ( i . e . he paves the path to h i s own  —17b.  ' a t t r a c t i v e ' " kamaniyarupam —  form'.  This i s a t r a n s f e r r e d  adjective,  destruction)I  lit.,  'having a  here a p p l i e d  desirable  to pravr,f t i  (coming about, news', but i t a c t u a l l y goes w i t h KatyayanT, i n terms of meaning.  I f , however, one assumes t h a t karnanlya-rupam i s a  m e t r i c a l l y t r u n c a t e d v e r s i o n of the l o c a t i v e form a better  translation i s possible:  kamanlya-rupayam,  "As soon as he heard the news  of the Goddess from those two, Mahisa f i x e d h i s mind on t h a t one of desirable  form.  Having s a i d , ' t h e r e does not e x i s t a n y t h i n g worth  c o n s i d e r i n g i n t h i s m a t t e r , ' Mahisa too does not e x i s t ( i . e . i n v i t e s h i s own  destruction)I"  81  20.18 p r i g eva purfisas t u s'ubhas'ubhani sthlne vidhatra. p r a t i p a d i t a n i yasmin y a t h a y a n i y a t o 'tha v/ipra sa nTyate va v r a j a t i svayam va  0 Brahmin ( N a r a d a ) , good and e v i l f a t e s of a p e r s o n are a l r e a d y p r o p e r l y by the C r e a t o r manner, t o w h i c h , and  —This Man  [even to the extent  imparted  as to] i n uthich, i n what  from which he i s e i t h e r l e d or goes h i m s e l f .  v e r s e b r i n g s out the i d e a of e v e r y t h i n g  being  foreordained.  i s e i t h e r l e d by f a t e to what must happen, or performs a c t i o n s  t h a t amount t o moving towards t h a t f a t e .  20.19 t a t o nu mundam namaram sacandam vidalanetram ugrayudham  sapisVngavaskalam ciksuraraktabTuau  samadidesatha mahasurendrah  The  g r e a t k i n g of the demons (Mahisa) t h e n i s s u e d o r d e r s t o Munda  and  Namara, along w i t h Canda, B i d a l a . n e t r a , along w i t h  Baskala  —19b.  and  Ugrayudha, C i k s u r a and  Pisanga,  RaktabTja.  * B i d a l a - n e t r a * : the word i n the t e x t i s V i d a l a n e t r a .  u s u a l form of the word i s B i d a l a . 0  Many times the v^ and b are  The  82  interchanged i n manuscripts. —Some of the names i n t h i s v e r s e have i n t e r e s t i n g e t y m o l o g i c a l meanings.  See I n t r o d u c t i o n under "Language".  20.20 ahatya b h e r i r a n a k a r k a s a s t e svargam p a r i t y a j y a mahTdharam t u agamya mule s i v i r a r n m v e s y a tasthus' ca sa!jja danunandanas t e  Those sons of Danu, uiho were roughened by b a t t l e , h a v i n g beaten  the  drums, h a v i n g l e f t heaven, h a v i n g come t o the J^Vindhya] mountain, and h a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d an encampment at j ^ i t s ^ ' f o b t , s t o o d ready.  Sr-20b.  tu. a  —20c.  The same i n t e r c h a n g e of v and b_ t h a t uie saui i n t h e l a s t  filler.  v e r s e o c c u r s here t o o .  I n t h e present v e r s e uie f i n d  Sivirarn,  i n s t e a d of the u s u a l S i b i r a m .  20.21 tatas tu daityo sampresito  danavayuthapalah  mayasya p u t r o sa dundubhir  mahisasurena  ripusainyamardT dundubhinihsvanas  tu  Then a demon, uiho was the p r o t e c t o r o f the m u l t i t u d e s df demons, uias  83  sent f o r t h [ t o K a t y a y a n l ] by the demon Mahisa. Quias]  That [demon] Oundubhi  t h e son of Maya, the c r u s h e r o f enemy's a r m i e s , and t h e one  h a v i n g t h e v o i c e of a b a t t l e - d r u m .  —21a.  tu_ a  filler.  —21d.  tu a f i l l e r .  20.22 abhyetya devim g a g a n a s t h i t o ' p i sa  dundubhir vakyam uvaca v i p r a  kumari duto 'smi  mahasurasya  rambhatmajasyapratimasya yuddhe  And ( a p i ) , 0 Brahmin ( N a r a d a ) , h a v i n g approached the goddess, t h a t Dundubhi, s t a t i o n e d i n t h e s k y , s a i d t h e words: "0 young woman, I am a messenger of the great demon (Mahisa) who  i s the son o f Rambha,  and i s incomparable i n b a t t l e . "  —22a.  One can a l s o t r a n s l a t e g a g a n e s t h i t o ' p i as 'even w h i l e he  was s t a t i o n e d i n the s k y ' .  The purpose perhaps i s t o p o i n t out  t h a t Dundubhi d i d not o b s e r v e t h e messenger's e t t i q u e t e o f occupying  a l o w e r or e q u a l p o s i t i o n ~~ t h a t he was rude.  20.23 k a t y a y a n l dundubhim abhyuvaca ehy e h i d a i t y e n d r a bhayam vimucya  84  vakyam ca yad rambhasuto babhase vadasva t a t satyam apetamohah  KatyayanI s a i d t o Dundubhi: "Come, come, 0 c h i e f o f t h e demons, h a v i n g abandoned f e a r .  Say as one whose c o n f u s i o n i s removed the  words which the son o f Rambha (Mahisa) s a i d , as they were."  20.24 tathoktavakye d i t i j a h sivSyas tyajyambaram b h u m i t a l e  nisannah  s u k h o p a v i s t a h paramasane ca rambhatmajenoktam uvaca vakyam  When t h e words o f KatyayanT were spoken t h u s , t h e son o f D i t i  (Dun-  d u b h i ) , having l e f t t h e s k y , came down t o the s u r f a c e o f t h e e a r t h , and, s e a t e d h a p p i l y on a v a l u a b l e s e a t , s a i d t h e words u t t e r e d by the son o f Rambha ( M a h i s a ) .  •—24a.  £iva:  t h i s i s t h e f i r s t time i n t h e p r e s e n t v e r s i o n t h a t  the name has been a p p l i e d t o K a t y a y a n I ,  I t i s probable t h a t she  i s c a l l e d S i v a , the female c o u n t e r p a r t o f L o r d S i v a , who i s the god o f d e s t r u c t i o n , because t h i s i s j u s t about t h e time when she w i l l make b a t t l e f o r t h e gods a g a i n s t the demon. cannot  However, one  r u l e out t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the author may have used the  word i n i t s u s u a l sense 'the a u s p i c i o u s one'. —24b,  'having l e f t *  ~ tyajya.  The gerund from s i m p l e t v a j  85  s h o u l d be t v a k t v a .  I f tya.j had a p r e f i x a t t a c h e d t o i t , t y a j y a  utould have been proper  i n standard Skt.  20.25 dundubhir uvaca evam samajnapayate s u r a r i s tvam d e v i d a i t y o mahisasuras t u yathamara h i n a b a l a h prthivyarn bhramanti  yuddhe v i j i t a maya t e  Dundubhi s a i d : "The  demon Mahisa, enemy o f the gods, commands you t h u s , 0 Goddess.  •As t h e gods, shorn o f power, wander the e a r t h , they a r e conquered i n b a t t l e by me.  — ' t h e gods, shorn o f power..': see t h e l a s t p a r t o f c h a p t e r 18 f o r r e f e r e n c e t o the d e f e a t o f t h e gods. —25b.  iji. a f i l l e r .  20.26 svargam mahT vayupathas ca vasyah patalam  anye ca mahesvaradyah  i n d r o 'smi rudro'*smi  d i v a k a r o 'smi  s a r v e s u l o k e s v adhipo  'smi b a l e  "'Heaven,  c o n t r o l , as w e l l  86  as ( c a ) t h e nether world and Mahes'vara ( S i v a ) , e t c . I am Rudra,  I am the Sun, I am the master  |_Nowj I am Indra,  i n a l l the w o r l d s , 0 young  girl.  —Perhaps since  Mahisa presupposes that  Siva has not y e t opposed  S i v a i s s u b s e r v i e n t t o him,  him.  I f he had a c t u a l l y  vanquished  S i v a , the s p e c i a l s t a t u s g i v e n t o Siva i n 19.2b does not f i t very well. —26a.  'heaven'svargam.  The word i s used here i n the neuter,  i n s t e a d o f the u s u a l m a s c u l i n e .  Svarqa c o u l d have been o r i g i n a l l y  a neuter ( a d j e c t i v a l ) noun l i k e durga. but by c l a s s i c a l it  time  had become a masculine noun.  20.27 na so ' s t i  nake na m a h l t a l e va  r a s a t a l e devabhto  'suro va  yo mam h i samgramam upeyivams t u bhOto na yakso na j i j i v i s u r yah  "'There  i s n e i t h e r i n heaven, nor on the s u r f a c e o f the e a r t h , nor  i n the nether world, a w a r r i o r o f the gods or a demon o r a s p i r i t or a yaksa, who wished t o l i v e and has approached  —2?c.  'approached'  s a t i v e s , mam —27c.  = upeyivan —  *me'and samgramam  ty a f i l l e r .  me i n b a t t l e .  here the word t a k e s two a c c u -  'battle'.  87  20.28 yany eva r a t n a n i m a h l t a l e va svarge  ' p i p a t a l a t a l e ' t h a mugdhe  s a r v a n i mam adya samagatani vlryarjitariiha visalanetre  " ' A l l p r e c i o u s t h i n g s , 0 i n n o c e n t one ( K a t y a y a n l ) , uihich a r e on the s u r f a c e o f t h e e a r t h o r i n heaven o r on t h e s u r f a c e o f the n e t h e r r e g i o n •—- a l l o f them have come t o me noui — i n t h i s u i o r l d , 0 you o f b i g eyes  a c q u i r e d through  valor  (KatyayanT).  20.29 s t r l r a t n a m agryam bhavatT ca kanya prapto 'smi s a i l a m t a v a karanena tasmad bhajasveha  j a g a t p a t i m mam  p a t i s t a v a r h o 'smi vibhuh prabhus ca  "'And  you a r e an unmarried  g i r l , t h e foremost  among women-jewels.  I have a r r i v e d at t h e mountain because o f you. the l o r d o f t h e w o r l d .  T h e r e f o r e , take t o me,  I am a worthy husband f o r you and a s o v e r e i g n  master.'" —29b.  'because o f you' ~ t a v a karanena —  purpose'.  lit.,  'with you as  88  20.30 pulastya  uvSca  i t y evam u k t a d i t i j e n a  durga  k a t y a y a n l prSha mayasya putram satyarh prabhur danavarat p r t h i v y a m satyarh ca yuddhe v i j i t ' a m a r a s ca  Pulastya said: When t h u s addressed by the son of D i t i  (Dundubhi), Durga  (KatyayanT)  s a i d to the son of Maya (Dundubhi), " I t i s t r u e t h a t the k i n g of demons (Mahisa) i s the l o r d on the e a r t h , and t r u l y the gods have been conquered i n b a t t l e .  ~-30d.  v i . j i t a m a r a b : a case o f double samdhi.  The o r i g i n a l words  vin'itab amarab mould be changed o n l y to v i j i t a amarah i n s t a n d a r d  20.31 kirn t v a s t i d a i t y e s a k u l e 'smadTye dharmo h i s u l k a k h y a i t i  prasiddhah  tarn c e t pradadyan mahiso mamadya bhajami s a t y e n a p a t i m hayarim  "But, 0 c h i e f of the demons (Dundubhi), t h e r e i s a mell-known i n our f a m i l y c a l l e d b r i d e - p r i c e .  I f Mahisa gave i t to me nom,  s h a l l t r u l y t a k e t o H a y a r i (Mahisa) as husband."  custom I  89  —31c.  ' i f Mahisa gave i t t o me*:  the word f o r ' i t ' i n the t e x t  i s tarn, a m a s c u l i n e form of the pronoun t a d .  But i t s h o u l d be  neuter t a d , f o r the pronoun here stands f o r s^ulka, the n e u t e r uiord for  dowry-price.  The m a s c u l i n e form i s p r o b a b l y a r e s u l t of the  m a s c u l i n e word dharma a s s o c i a t e d u i i t h s u l k a i n 31b. —31c.  'now'  s ady a, u s u a l l y means 'today',  —31d.  'I s h a l l t r u l y take to  Here, i t means 'now'.  him' s bhajami satyena...Hayarim.  The word s a t y e n a means 'swearing by t r u t h , i n t r u t h ' . cf.  For H a y a r i ,  18.71.  20.32 s r u t v a ' t h a v'akyam mayajo ' b r a v i c ca S3ulkam vadasvambujapatranetre dadyat svamurdh'anam a p i t v a d a r t h e kirn nama sulkam yad i h a i v a  labhyam  And t h e n , on h e a r i n g t h i s speech, t h e son on Maya (Dundubhi)  said,  "Say what t h e p r i c e i s , 0 one whose eyes a r e l i k e l o t u s l e a v e s ! Mahisa] would g i v e h i s own head f o r your sake.  What then indeed  i s a b r i d e - p r i c e , o b t a i n a b l e i n t h i s very w o r l d ! "  — •he would g i v e h i s own head f o r your sake' : i r o n i c , s i n c e Mahisa w i l l a c t u a l l y g i v e ' h i s own l i f e f o r K a t y a y a n l .  90  20.33 p u l a s t y a uvaca i t y evam u k t a danunayakena katyayanT sasvanam u n n a d i t v a v i h a s y a c a i t a d vacanam babhase h i t a y a sarvasya  caracarasya  Pulastya saidt Thus spoken t o by t h e l e a d e r o f t h e [sons o f ] Danu (Dundubhi),  Katya-  yanT, h a v i n g r o a r e d w i t h £great] sound and h a v i n g laughed , s a i d these words f o r the b e n e f i t o f e v e r y t h i n g moving and unmoving:  —33b.  'having r b a r e d r w i t h f_great] sound' - u n n a d i t v a .  be unnadya i n s t a n d a r d S k t .  Here i t i s p r o b a b l y  T h i s would  changed f o r t h e  sake o f t h e metre.  20.34 s r l d e v y uvaca k u l e ' smadlye srnu d a i t y a s'ulkam krtam h i y a t p u r v a t a r a i h yo j e s y a t e 'smatkulajam  prasahya ranagre  t a s y a h sa b h a r t t a ' p i b h a v i s y a t l t i  The  G l o r i o u s Goddess  (Katy§yanT) s a i d :  " L i s t e n t o t h e p r i c e , 0 demon, which was made (determined) a n c e s t o r s i n o u r f a m i l y , a f t e r e n d u r i n g a l o t s 'He who w i l l  by t h e conquer  91  i n the b a t t l e - f r o n t a uioman born i h our f a m i l y , m i l l become her  hus-  band t o o . ' "  —34b.  1  a f t e r i e n d u r i n g a l o t * ~ p r a s a h y a , from the r o o t sah 'to  t o l e r a t e , s u f f e r , endure p a t i e n t l y ' , m i t h p r a as p r e f i x intensity.  indicating  The i m p l i c a t i o n p r o b a b l y i s : ' a f t e r h a v i n g gone through  a l o t of e x p e r i e n c e s ' .  20.35-36 pulastya  uvaca  t a c c h r u t v a vacanam devya dundubhir g a t v a nivedayamasa  mahis'aya  danavesvarah  yathatatham  sa cabhyagan mahatejah s a r v a d a i t y a p u r a h s a r a h agatya v i n d h y a s i k h a r a m yoddhukamah s a r a s v a t l m  On h e a r i n g t h i s speech of the Goddess, Dundubhi, c h i e f o f the demons, h a v i n g gone, r e p o r t e d as i t mas  t o Mahisa. / And he (Mahisa) of g r e a t  b r i l l i a n c e came f o r w a r d f o l l o w e d by a l l the demons —  £ ] n e  wishing to  f i g h t SarasvatT ( K a t y a y a n I ) a f t e r coming t o the peak o f Vindhya.  — T h e word f o r KatyayanT/ i n the t e x t i s S a r a s v a t T .  This i s a rather  unusual usage of ' S a r a s v a t T ' , as the goddess S a r a s v a t T i s the p r e s i d i n g d e i t y of l e a r n i n g , the w i f e of Brahma*, and K a t y a y a n I i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h S i v a i n the t r a d i t i o n .  92  20.37-38 tatah senapatir daityo ciksuro nama narada senagragaminam cakre namaram n'arna danavam sa ca*pi tenadhikrtas caturangam samurjitam balaikadasam adaya durgam dudrava vegitah  Then, 0 Narada, the demon named Ciksura, the army general, made a demon named Namara the one going in front of the army ( i . e . Ciksura appointed Namara to head the assault). / He (Namara) too, authorized by him (Ciksura), rushed swiftly at Durga (Katyayanl"), having taken an energetic, four-limbed section of the army.  —38b.  caturanga, l i t . , 'one which has four limbs*.  In the  context of the army it means divisions comprising of foot soldiers horse;riders (cavalry), elephant-riders, and charioteers (or occasionally camel-riders).  Cf. 21.4.  20.39-40 tam'Spatantam viksyatha deva brahmapurogamah ucur vakyam mahadevlm varma hy abandha cambike athovaca suran durga naham badhnami devatSh kavacam ko 'tra samtisthet mamagre danavadhamah  On seeing him rushing up, the gods, led by Brahma, said the words "Put on your armor, 0 Ambika (KatyayanT)? 'to the great goddess. / Then Durga (KatyayanT) said to the gods, "0 Divinities, I will not  93  t i e on t h e armor.  What wretched demon would remain here i n f r o n t o f  me ( i i e . would w i t h s t a n d me)?"  &*j39d.  'put on your armor'  =  varma hy abandha.  Since t h e r o o t  bandh i s o f t h e n i n t h c o n j u g a t i o n , t h e s t a n d a r d verb form would have been abadhana h e r e . —39d. —In  hi a filler.  v e r s e 40, the verb i s badhnami, w h i l e i n v e r s e 39 i t was  abandha.  Both bandh and abandh a r e a p p a r e n t l y used i n t h e same  sense, even though they d i f f e r i n the p r e f i x . •—KatyayanT i s here showing her c o n f i d e n c e and prowess.  20.41 yada na devya kavacarfi krtarn s'astranibarhanam tada r a k s a r t h a m asyas t u v i s n u p a n j a r a m uktavan  When the Goddess d i d not put on ( l i t . , make) the armor which d e s t r o y s weapons, £siva] r e c i t e d t h e Visnu-cage [ m a n t r a j f o r the purpose o f protecting her.  •—41d.  Visnu-panjaram, a mantra t h a t has t h e e f f e c t o f p u t t i n g an  i n v i s i b l e p r o t e c t i v e cage around KatyayanT.  See I n t r o d u c t i o n under  "The V i s n u element i n the s t o r y " . — T h e f a c t t h a t i t was S i v a who r e c i t e d t h i s mantra i s g i v e n i n 43ab.  94  20.42 sa t e n a r a k s i t a brahman durga danavasattamam avadhyam d a i v a t a i h s a r v a i r mahisam p r a t y p i d a y a t  0 Brahmin ( N a r a d a ) , Durga ( K a t y a y a n I ) , p r o t e c t e d by i t (the S l v a - p r o . nounced V i s n u - c a g e ) , h a r r a s s e d Mahisa, the b e s t of demons, uiho uias i n v i o l a b l e by a l l the  divinities.  20.43 evam pura devavarena -tad vaisnavam  panjaram  saifibhuna ayataksyah  proktam t a y a c a p i h i p a d a g h a t a i r n i s u d i t o 'sau  mahisasurendrah  Thus, i n the p a s t , t h a t Visnu-cage g r e a t god  mantra  uias p r o c l a i m e d by the  s'iva f o r the one u i i t h l o n g eyes ( K a t y a y a n T ) .  And by her  a l s o , Mahisa, k i n g of demons, uias crushed uiith blouis of the f e e t .  20.44 evamprabhSvo d v i j a v i s n u p a n j a r a h s a r v a s u r a k s a s v adhiko h i gTtah kas t a s y a kuryad y u d h i darpahanim yasya s t h i t a s c e t a s i c a k r a p a n i h  0 Brahmin (Narada), the Visnu-cage ^ m a n t r a ] , h a v i n g such power, i s s a i d to be s u p e r i o r to a l l the d e f e n c e s .  Who  would make h i s p r i d e -  95  killing is  (who would d e s t r o y h i s p r i d e )  s t a t i o n e d ( i . e . o f a devotee of  i n b a t t l e , i n whose mind Visnu  Visnu)?  —The last  h a l f of t h i s v e r s e expresses a f e e l i n g of d e v o t i o n to  Visnu.  says t h a t the person who has h i s mind s t e a d i l y on V i s n u  It  cannot have h i s p r i d e s a c r i f i c e d i n b a t t l e ; that  is,  he w i l l  remain  unconquered because of d i v i n e h e l p .  CHAPTER  XXI  21.1-2 narada uvaca katham k a t y a y a n l d e v i sanugam mahisasuram savahanam h a t a v a t T t a t h a v i s t a r a t o  vada  e t a c ca samsayam brahman h r d i me p a r i v a r t a t e vidyamanesu s a s t r e s u  yat padbhyahi tarn amardayat  Narada s a i d : Tell  ,  i n d e t a i l how the goddess Katyayanl k i l l e d the demon IViahisa,  along w i t h h i s f o l l o w e r s and v e h i c l e s . / there i s  this  And, 0 Brahmin  doubt t u r n i n g i n my heart [as to why i s  when the weapons e x i s t e d , she crushed him w i t h  —2a.  'this  doubt'  i n standard Skt.  = e t a t samsayam.  (Pulastya),  it]  T h i s would be esah  i n the n e u t e r .  even  Jjner] f e e t .  But i n s t e a d of u s i n g the word samsaya  m a s c u l i n e , the author uses i t  that  sarosayah i n the  96  21.3 p u l a s t y a uvaca srnus'vav a h i t o bhutva katham etam  puratanlm  vrttafh devayugasyadau punyam papabhayapaham  Pulastya said: L i s t e n a t t e n t i v e l y t o t h i s a n c i e n t , a u s p i c i o u s s t o r y which removes sin  and f e a r and which took p l a c e i n the b e g i n n i n g of the age o f the  gods.  —3a.  ' l i s t e n ' s srnusva  t h i s verb i s u s u a l l y a c t i v e ,  not  m i d d l e : the s t a n d a r d form would have been s r n u . —3c.  'the age of the gods': the word f o r 'age'  i s yuga.  The  concept of the yuga-s i s found i n most of c l a s s i c a l I n d i a n l i t e r ature.  I t p a r a l l e l s t h e i d e a o f an age o f g o l d , of s i l v e r ,  bronze, and of i r o n i n o t h e r t r a d i t i o n s .  of  Here i s a l i s t o f the  yuqa-s and t h e i r l e n g t h s : K c t a ( o r Satya) yuga T r e t a yuga  — —  4 x 432,000 y e a r s 3 x 432,000 y e a r s  With every s u c c e s s i v e age, t h e r e i s a f a l l o f r i g h t e o u s n e s s i n the w o r l d , u n t i l , d u r i n g K a l i Yuga (which began about 5,000 y e a r s one would be hard put to f i n d a r i g h t e o u s person anywhere.  ago),  After  a c a t a c l y s m f o l l o w i n g K a l i Yuga. the s e r i e s of yuoa-s b e g i n s a l l over a g a i n .  Now,  the 'age  sents a l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y  of the gods' i s an e x p r e s s i o n t h a t p r e in interpreting.  This might r e f e r to the  97  t h e f i r s t yuga, Kr,ta Yuga, or i t might s i m p l y be a r e f e r e n c e to a p e r i o d of time so l o n g ago t h a t t h e r e i s no way  o f measuring i t ,  a p e r i o d of time known as m y t h o l o g i c a l t i m e , when the gods are supposed to have l i v e d and made t h e i r  history.  21.4 evafh sa namarah kruddhah sarnapatata vegavan s a g a j a s v a r a t h o brahman d r s t o devya  yathecchaya  0 Brahmin (Narada), the angry, s w i f t Namara a t t a c k e d thus w i t h e l e p h a t n s , h o r s e s and c h a r i o t s .  The  Goddess saw him, a c c o r d i n g to  [ h e r ] "wish ( i . e . w i t h o u t any h u r r y ) .  — ' e l e p h a n t s , h o r s e s , and c h a r i o t s ' : t h r e e l i m b s of the demon army. --4b.  sarnapatata i s found, where one would expect  standard  samapatat i n  Skt.  21.5-6 t a t o banaganair  d a i t y a h samanamyatha karmukam  v a v a r s a s'ailam d h a r a u g h a i r  dyaur i v a m b u d a v r s t i b h i h  s a r a v a r s e n a t e n a t h a vilokyadrirh samavrtam kruddha bhagavatT vegad^ acakarsa"' dhanur varam  Then the demon (Namara), h a v i n g s t r e t c h e d the bow,  r a i n e d the mountain  [Vindhya] w i t h h o s t s o f arrows, j u s t as the sky [ r a i n s ] a mountain uiith streams of showers t h a t are the downpour from c l o u d s . /  Seeing  98  the  h i l l covered with that shower of arrows, the angry Goddess  quickly drew a great bow.  21.7-8  tad dhanur danave sainye durgaya namitam balat suvarnaprstharh vibabhau vidyud ambudharesv iva banaih suraripun.ahyan khadgenanyan subhvrata gadaya musalenanyams carmana 'nyan apatayat  That bow was bent with strength by Durga (KatyayanT) over the demon army.  I t , having a golden back, appeared l i k e lightning i n the clouds./  0 one of good vows (Narada), she struck down some enemies of the gods by arrows, some by sword, some by mace and a pestle, and others by the s h i e l d .  21.9-10  eko 'py asau bahun devyah kesarl kalasamnibhah vidhunvan kasarasatam nisudayati danavan kulisabhihata daityah saktya nirbhinnavaksasah l i n g a l a i r daritagrlva vinikrttah para^vadhaih  The Death-like l i o n of the Goddess, shaking the folds of l_his] mane, k i l l e d many demons, although he was struck by thunderbolt.  one. / The demons were open by the missile.  Their necks were torn by ploughs (a kind of weapon). by axes.  They were cut  99  21.11-12 dandanirbhinnasirasas'_akraai_cha nnabandhanah 5  c e l u h petus c a mamlud' c a t a t y a j u s capare ranam te vadhyamana r a u d r a y a durgaya  daityadanavah  k a l a r a t r i m manyamana dudruvur b h a y a p i d i t a h  T h e i r heads mere broken by c l u b s . mere c u t by t h e d i s c u s .  Their t i s s u e s ( a r t e r i e s or veins)  Some shook, [some] f e l l , £some] became p a l e  (or v a n i s h e d ) , and [ o t h e r s ] l e f t t h e b a t t l e - f i e l d . / Those sons o f D i t i and sons o f Danu ( i . e . t h e demons), b e i n g k i l l e d by the f i e r c e Durga (KatyayanT) and tormented by f e a r , r a n amay t h i n k i n g i t mas the n i g h t o f d e l u g e .  —lib.  ' t i s s u e s * ~ bandhana.  L i t e r a l l y , 'bonds o r b i n d s ( o f t h e  body)'. —12c.  'the n i g h t o f d e l u g e ' - k a l a r a t r l " 'time c f d e l u g e , t o t a l  destruction!.  There i s i n I n d i a n mythology  a c y c l e o f unmanifest  p o t e n t i a l e x i s t e n c e , a f t e r a f u l l c y c l e of manifest e x i s t e n c e . The b e g i n n i n g o f t h a t unmanifest e x i s t e n c e i s h e r a l d e d by k a l a ratrl.  See 19.5,  commentary.  21.13-4 sainyagram bhagnam a l o k y a durgam agre t a t h a s t h i t a m drstvajagama namaro m a t t a k u n j a r a s a r h s t h i t a h samagamya ca vegena devyah s'aktim mumoca ha t r i s u l a m a p i simhaya p r a h i n o d danavo rane  100  J: On s e e i n g the f r o n t of the army broken, and on s e e i n g Durga ( K a t y a y a n l ) thus s t a n d i n g i n the f r o n t , Namara came, s e a t e d on a  mad  ( a t t a c k i n g ) e l e p h e n t . / On coming near, t h e demon q u i c k l y r e l e a s e d , i n the b a t t l e - f i e l d , a m i s s i l e f o r ( i . e . t o get a t ) t h e Goddess and a l s o a t r i d e n t f o o the —'mad e l e p h a n t ' s  lion.  o f t e n e l e p h a n t s mere used i n the army i n I n d i a .  Before a t t a c k i n g , the s o l d i e r s mould g i v e them a d r i n k and t h e i r temper t o make them t h a t much more f i e r c e ,  arouse  matta 'mad*  c o u l d a l s o mean ' r u t t i n g , i r r i t a t e d by p a s s i o n . ' —14b.  h_ a f i l l e r .  21.15-16 t a v apatantau devya t u humkarenatha bhasmasat k r t a v atha gajendrena g r h l t o madhyato h a r i h a t h o t p a t y a ca vegena t a l e n a h a t y a danavam gatasuh kap\}araskandhat  ksipya devyai n i v e d i t a h  Those tuio (^weapons] coming up [ t o the GoddessJ mere reduced t o ashes by the Goddess uiith a 'hum* sound. the middle by the best e l e p h a n t  Then, the l i o n uias grasped  around  [of Namara]. / And t h e n , h a v i n g jumped  q u i c k l y , h a v i n g s t r u c k down t h e demon (Namara) uiith the paw thrown the dead ["Namara] from the e l e p h a n t ' s s h o u l d e r s , [ t h e  and  having  lion]  conveyed [him as dead] to the Goddess.  --'with a  "huiT)"  sound's i n d e s t r o y i n g the weapons aimed at her i n  t h i s manner, K a t y a y a n l d i s p l a y s her contempt f o r such an attack.  The d e s c r i p t i o n i n d i c a t e s her prowess.  inferior  In T a n t r a ,  'hum'  101  i s a f r e q u e n t sound in s a l u t a t i o n s t o the d e i t i e s . — T h e s t r u c t u r e of v e r s e 16 is t h r e e gerunds w i t h a past p a s s i v e participle. niveditavan. ksipva.  In s t a n d a r d S k t . , the p a r t i c i p l e would have been a c t i v e , A l s o , t h e l a s t gerund would have been k s i p t v a , not  Moreover, qatasu as an o b j e c t would have appeared in the  a c c u s a t i v e as  qatasum.  21.17 g r h l t v a dahavarfY rnadhye brahman katyayanT r u s a savyena p a n i n a bhramya vadayat pataham y a t h a  0 Brahmin ( N a r a d a ) , KatyayanT grasped the demon (Namara) by t h e w a i s t w i t h anger, £and3 h a v i n g moved him around w i t h her l e f t hand, she beat  Lhim] l i k e  a drum.  —17c.  bhramya would have beenbhramitva or bhrantva in s t a n d a r d S k t .  —17d.  v a d a y a t ; the verb form s h o u l d have been avadayat.  The  a_-  augment seems t o have been dropped f o r the sake of the metre. - - P l a y i n g Namara l i k e a drum i s another way o f KatyayanT t o show contempt f o r him.  21 U S t a t o ' ttah'asam mumuce t a d r s e vadytam  gate  hasyat samudbhavams t a s y a bhuta nanavidha  'dbhutah  She l e t out a l o u d l a u g h s when t h a t s o r t of t h i n g had become an  instru-  102  ment.  Many k i n d s o f s t r a n g e s p i r i t s arose from her l a u g h t e r .  — ' t h a t s o r t o f t h i n g ' : a s i g n o f t h e a u t h o r ' s awareness t h a t something s t r a n g e was t a k i n g p l a c e . —-18c.  samudbhavan mould have been samudabhavan i n s t a n d a r d S k t .  As i n v e r s e 17, t h e _ a ^ augment o f t h e i m p e r f e c t verb was dropped to p r e s e r v e t h e metre.  21.19-20 k e c i d vyaghramukhB r a u d r a v r k a k a r a s t a t h a pare hayasya mahisasyas ca varahavadanah akhukukkutavaktras  pare  c a . go 'javikamukhas tatha"  n a n a v a k t r a k s i c a r a n a nanayudhadharas t a t h a  Some f i e r c e ones had t h e f a c e o f a t i g e r , o t h e r s had the shape o f a wolf.  Some were h o r s e - f a c e d , [ o t h e r s ] were b u f f a l o - f a c e d , and  s t i l l o t h e r s were b o a r - f a c e d . / £some w e r e ] w i t h a mouth l i k e a mouse or a cock, and o t h e r s had t h e f a c e s o f cows, sheep o r g o a t s ;  they  had many mouths, eyes and l e g s , and they bore d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f weapons.  21.21 gayanty anye hasanty  anye ramanty anye t u samghasah  vadayanty apare t a t r a s t u v a n t y anye tathambikam  103  Some sang, some laughed, some r e j o i c e d —  i n groups;  others played  i n s t r u m e n t s t h e r e ; and o t h e r s p r a i s e d Ambika ( K a t y a y a n l ) .  —21b.  ramanti{  i n s t a n d a r d S k t . , the r o o t ram i s u s u a l l y employed  i n the middle v o i c e ; here i t i s found i n t h e actfive v o i c e . —21b.  tu a f i l l e r .  21'. 22-23 sa t a i r b h u t a g a n a i r  d e v i sarddham t a d danavam balam  satayamasa cakramya y a t h a sasyafn mahasanih senagre n i h a t e t a s m i n t a t h a  senagragamini  c i k s u r a h s a i n y a p a l a s t u yodhayamasa d e v a t l h  Along uiith those groups o f s p i r i t s , the Goddess, a f t e r i n v a d i n g , sleui t h a t army o f demons, as a g r e a t meteor d e s t r o y s t h e c r o p . / When t h e f r o n t of the army and t h e one moving at t h e f r o n t o f the army (Namara) had been s l a i n , C i k s u r a , the army g e n e r a l , engaged the d i v i n i t i e s i n f i g h t ( i . e . s t a r t e d  fighting).  —23c.  tu a f i l l e r .  —23d.  *he engaged the d i v i n i t i e s i n f i g h t ' - yodhayamasa  meaning 'he engaged t h e gods i n f i g h t ' .  21'. 28-25 karmukam drdham akarnam a k r s y a r a t h i n a m  varah  v a v a r s a s a r a j S l a n i y a t h a megho vasundharam  devatah,  104  t a n durga s v a s a r a i s c h i t t v a sarasamghan s u p a r v a b h i h sau varnapurikhan aparan s'aran j a g r S h a  sodasa  On drawing the s t u r d y bom r i g h t up t o t h e e a r , t h e g r e a t c h a r i o t e e r ( C i k s u r a ) r a i n e d down nets o f arrows, j u s t as a c l o u d [ r a i n s ] t h e e a r t h . / Having c u t those h o s t s o f arrows by her arrows having good j o i n t s , Durga ( K a t y a y a n I ) grasped s i x t e e n o t h e r  arrows  h a v i n g golden f e a t h e r s .  —25b. joints'.  'having  good j o i n t s ' ~ s u p a r v a b h i h .  Literally,  'of good  Bamboo s t i c k s have many j o i n t s and were used t o make the  body f o r arrows.  21.26-27  t a t a s c a t u r b h i s c a t u r a s turangan a p i bhamini h a t v a s a r a t h i m ekena dhvajam ekena c i c c h i d e t a t a s t u sasaram capam c i c c h e d a i k e s u n a 'mbika chinne dhanusi khadgam ca carma c a d a t t a v a n b a l l  Then, h a v i n g s l a i n a l l ( a p i ) f o u r f o r s e s w i t h f o u r [ a r r o w s ] , KatyayanI cut down t h e c h a r i o t e e r w i t h one [ a r r o w ] .arid the banner w i t h one ar.row. / Then Ambika ( K a t y a y a n I ) c u t w i t h one arrow t h e bow a l o n g w i t h t h e arrow; when t h e bow was c u t , t h e s t r o n g o n e ( C i k s u r a ) took a s h i e l d and sword.  —27a.  tu a f i l l e r .  105  2l'.2B 29~: j r  tarn khadgam carmana sardharn d a i t y a s y a d h u n v a t o  balat  s a r a i s c a t u r b h i s ' c i c c h e d a t a t ah sularh samadade samudbhramya  mahacchularh  sarhpradravad athambikam  k r o s t u k o rnudito 'ranye mrgarajavadhufn  yatha  3he ( K a t y a y a n I ) d e s t r o y e d w i t h f o u r arrows t h a t sword, a l o n g w i t h the s h i e l d o f t h e demon ( C i k s u r a ) , who was s w i n g i n g {them"] around w i t h s t r e n g t h ; t h e n f*he[| took t h e t r i d e n t . / Having swung  around  the g r e a t t r i d e n t , he r a n up t o Ambika ( K a t y a y a n I ) , l i k e a happy j a c k a l [ r u n s up t o a ] l i o n n e s s i n t h e f o r e s t .  —29c.  k r o ^ u k a h : - the u s u a l word f o r j a c k a l i s k r o s t r or k r o s t u .  The d i m i n u t i v e s u f f i x i s added here t o i n d i c a t e  insignificance  of C i k s u r a . —29cd.  'as a happy j a c k a l i n t h e f o r e s t  j^runs  up t o a] l i o n n e s s ' j  the i d e a p r o b a b l y i s t h i s : t h e j a c k a l i n t h e f o r e s t i s r u n n i n g up t o an animal which he can't see t o o c l e a r l y , a l l t h e time t h i n k i n g i t w i l l make a f i n e meal.  But t h e a n i m a l t u r n s o u t t o be a l i o n n e s s  c a p a b l e o f t e a r i n g him l i m b from l i m b .  21.30-31 tasyabhipiatatBh padau karau slrsarh c a pancabhih s a r a i s c i c c h e d a samkruddha nyapatan tasminsehapatau samadravata  ksunne t a d o g r a s y o  n i h a t o 'surah  mahasurah  vegena k a r a l a s y a s c a danavah  106  The angry one ( K a t y a y a n l ) c u t uiith f i v e arrows the f e e t , arms and head of him uiho uias a s s a i l i n g [her] ; the s l a i n a s u r a f e l l douin. / When the army g e n e r a l ( C i k s u r a ) uias c r u s h e d , then the g r e a t demon Ugrasya and t h e demon K a r a l a s y a rushed q u i c k l y  —31a.  t a s m i n senapatau ksunne.  |at K a t y a y a n l j .  T h i s i s a l o c a t i v e a b s o l u t e con-  s t r u c t i o n ; the next uiord i n the t e x t i s t a d j l , uihich i s not necessary after a locative absolute. —31c.  'rushed' » samadravata.  middle v o i c e . —Ugrasya  The r o o t dru i s used here i n the  I t i s u s u a l l y found i n the a c t i v e  voice.  and K a r a l a s y a are names d e a l t ' uiith e t y m o l o g i c a l l y i n the  I n t r o d u c t i o n , under "Language".  21.32-33 b a s k a l a s coddhatas c a i v a udagrakhyograkarmukah durddharo durmukhas c a i v a b i d a l a n a y a n o ete  'parah  *nye ca mahatmano danava b a l i n a m varah  /  kltyayanim adravanta nanasastrastrapanayah  And B a s k a l a , Uddhata, the one named Udagra uiho had a f i e r c e bout, Durddhara,  Durmukha, another one c a l l e d B i d a l a n a y a n a —  o t h e r g r e a t demons, prominent  these and  among t h e s t r o n g ones, i n whose hands  t h e r e were many weapons and t h i n g s to be h u r l e d , rushed at K a t y a y a n l .  —32a.  Baskalas  i n 20.19, the m a n u s c r i p t s read V a s k a l a .  C l e a r l y , the mark t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s  «|" from  20.19, s i n c e the name here i s B a s k a l a .  oJ was m i s s i n g i n  107  —32b.  'Udagra who  had a f i e r c e , bow  1  s udagrlkhyograkarmukah,.  T h i s can mean e i t h e r : a) udagrakhyah ugrakarmukah, as i n the p r e sent t r a n s l a t i o n , i n which case t h e r e would be a case o f  double  samdhi, o r : b) udagrakhyah agrakarmukah, meaning 'whose bow in  was  front'.  —33c.  adravanta.  Cf. 21.31c, commentary.  — S e e the s e c t i o n on "Language" i n ' t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n , f o r i n f o r mation on t h e e t y m o l o g i e s o f it h e: names o c c u r r i n g i n these v e r s e s .  21.34 t a n d r s t v a l i l a y a durga vlriam j a g r S h a  panina  vadayamasa h a s a t t t a t h a damarukam varam  On s e e i n g them, Durga ( K a t y a y a n I ) s p o r t i n g l y took the vTna w i t h  [her]  hand and, l a u g h i n g , p l a y e d the g r e a t drum t o o .  —34a.  l i l a y a has the f o r c e o f ' e a s i l y , w i t h o u t any  —34c.  h a s a t l would be hasantT i n s t a n d a r d  strain'.  Skt.  21.35-36 y a t h a y a t h a vadayate d e v l v a d y a n i t a n i t u t a t h a t a t h a bhutagana n r t y a n t i ca h a s a n t i ca t a t o 'surah s'astradharah samabhyetya s a r a s v a t l m abhyaghnarfis tarns' ca j a g r a h a kesesu  paramesvarl  The more the Goddess ( K a t y a y a n I ) p l a y e d those m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s , the  108  more the h o s t s o f s p i r i t s danced and l a u g h e d . / Then the weaponb e a r i n g demons, h a v i n g approached  S a r a s v a t l (KatyayanT), attacked  [ h e r } ; and the Great Goddess s e i z e d them by the h a i r .  21.37 p r a g r h y a kes'esu mahasurams t a n u t p a t y a simhat t u nagasya  sanum  n a n a r t a vTnam p a r i v a d a y a n t T papau ca panam j a g a t o j a n i t r T  Having s e i z e d t h e s e g r e a t demons by t h e i r h a i r f a n d ] h a v i n g jumped from the l i o n t o the |_smallj peak of t h e mountain,  she danced,  play-  ing the vTna, and the Mother of the w o r l d (KatyayanT) drank a d r i n k .  —38b.  tu a f i l l e r .  —37d.  KatyayanT's  t a k i n g a d r i n k i s an ominous s i g n i n d i c a t i n g  upheaval and death f o r Mahisa.  The d r i n k and the v e s s e l f o r  d r i n k i n g were g i v e n to KatyayanT i n 19.17ab.  21.38-39 t a t a s t u devyafeliialino mahasurS do_r d a n d a n i r d h u t a v i s T r n a d a r p a h v i s r a s t a f y astra" vyasavas' ca j a t a h t a t a s t u t S n v l k s y a mahasurendrSn devy§ mahauja mahisasuras t u vyadravayad bhutaganan k h u r a g r a i h  109  tundena pucchena t a t h o r a s S ' nyan n i h s v a s a v a t e n a ca bhutasamghan  Then the s t r o n g g r e a t demons became those whose arrogance u/as t o r n and shaken [by K a t y a y a n l ] w i t h a c l u b - l i k e arm, whose c l o t h e s had f a l l e n o f f and who  were w i t h o u t l i f e .  Then, on s e e i n g those g r e a t  c h i e f s of the demons [ i n such a p i t i a b l e  c o n d i t i o n ] , the very p o w e r f u l  demon Mahisa d i s p e r s e d [some o f j the Goddess' h o s t s of the t i p s tail,  spirits-with  of h i s hooves and o t h e r h o s t s of s p i r i t s w i t h h i s mouth,  c h e s t , and gust of e x h a l e d b r e a t h .  —38a. —In  tu a  filler.  v e r s e 39, the author shows h i s awareness o f how  a buffalo  attacks.  21.40 nadena c a i v a s a n i s a n n i b h e n a v i s a n a k o t y a t v aparan  pramathya  dudrava simham y u d h i hantukamah t a t a 'nbik'S krodhavasam jagama  And h a v i n g churned  the o t h e r [ h o s t s of s p i r i t s ] w i t h a t h u n d e r b o l t -  l i k e sound and w i t h the p o i n t s of h o r n s , he, w i s h i n g to k i l l the i n combat, r a n [ t o the l i o n ] . with  anger.  Then Ambika (KatyayanT) was  lion  overwhelmed  110  ~-40a. eva a f i l l e r . —-40a.  a i a n i c o u l d a l s o be t r a n s l a t e d 'meteor'.  —40b.  tu. a f i l l e r .  21.41 t a t a h sa kopad atha ksipram  tlksnasrngah  g i r l n bhumim a s l r n a y a c ca  samksobhayams t o y a n i d h l n ghanams-oa vidhvamsayan p r a d r a v a t a t h a  Then he, having  durgam  sharp h o r n s , q u i c k l y t o r e apart the mountains and  the e a r t h out of anger. ing  Causing a g i t a t i o n i n the oceans and destroy-  t h e c l o u d s , he ran up to Durga  —-41d.  pradravata.  See 21.31c,  (Katyayanl).  commentary.  21.42 sa c a t h a pasena babandha  dustam  sa capy abhut k l i n n a k a t a h k a r l n d r a h karam p r a c i c c h e d a  ca h a s t i n o 'gram  ea c a p i bhuyo mahisc ' b h i j a t a h  She: t h e n bound the v i l l a i n o u s one (Mahisa) uiith a tfethfer;a great elephant  having temples met ["uiith r u t ] .  and f r o n t p a r t o f the e l e p h a n t ,  He became  And she cut t h e trunk  and he became a b u f f a l o a g a i n .  Ill  —'he  became a great e l e p h a n t " : Mahisa i s kamarupa; he has the  a b i l i t y t o change h i s form at m i l l .  C f . 18.51, inhere h i s f a t h e r  Rambha i n c l u d e s kamarupa i n h i s boon as a p r o p e r t y t h e son s h o u l d have.  21.43 t a t o ' s y a sulam v y a s r j a n mrdani sa sTrnamulo nyapatat  prthivyam  saktirh p r a c i k s e p a hutasadattarh sa k u n t h i t a g r a nyapatan maharse  Then Mrdani (KatyayanT) c a s t t h e t r i d e n t on t h i s one ( M a h i s a ) . f e l l t o t h e ground uiith i t s base c u t .  It  [She] threui t h e m i s s i l e g i v e n  by A g n i ; i t f e l l douin, 0 g r e a t seer ( N a r a d a ) , u i i t h [ i t s ]  t i p blunted.  --With t h i s v e r s e begins a l i s t o f v a r i o u s uieapons which mere g i v e n by the gods t o KatyayanT (19.14-17) and how they were o f no a v a i l .  Agni gave a s a k t i  Uieapon  t o KatyayanT i n 19.14.  21.44 cakrarn h a r e r danavacakrahantuh k s i p t a m t v acakratvam upagatam h i gadafh samavidhya dhanesvarasya k s i p t a t u bhagna nyapatat  prthivyam  The d i s c u s of V i s n u , t h e s l a y e r o f t h e c i r c l e s o f demons, when thrown  112  approached n o n - d i s c u s n e s s ( i . e . i t d i d n ' t w o r k ) . Dhane_vara  The mace of  ( K u b e r a ) , uihich was thrown, a f t e r s w i n g i n g around ( i . e .  w i t h g r e a t v e l o c i t y ) , was s h a t t e r e d [and] f e l l to the ground.  — ' t h e d i s c u s o f V i s n u ' t V i s n u gave K a t y a y a n l a d i s c u s ( g a k r a ) a c c o r d i n g t o 19.14. — ' t h e c l u b o f Kubera*: Kubera gave KatyayanT a c l u b a c c o r d i n g to  19.15.  —44c.  samavidhya 'having t h o r o u g h l y p i e r c e d ' must be t a k e n i n  the unusual sense o f ' a f t e r h a v i n g been moved around*. —44c. the  *mace*: one e x p e c t s the n o m i n a t i v e gada i n the p l a c e o f  a c c u s a t i v e gadam, as gada' i s t h e s u b j e c t o f nyapatat and i s  q u a l i f i e d by the n o m i n a t i v e form k s i p t a .  21.45 jales'apaso * p i mahasurena v i s a n a t u n d a g r a k h u ra'.pranunnah n i r a s y a t a t k o p i t a y a ca mukto dandas t u yamyo bahukhandatarh g a t a h  Even the bond of J a l e s a (Varuna) was r i p p e d by the g r e a t demon w i t h h i s h o r n s , t i p o f the mouth, and hooves.  On the o t h e r hand (tu.)»  Yama's c l u b which was r e l e a s e d by t h r o w i n g out [by  K a t y a y a n i ] , who  was angered by him ( M a h i s a ) , went t o many p i e c e s .  — I n . 1 9 . 1 4 , i t i s s a i d t h a t Varuna gave KatyayanT a s h e l l .  Varuna,  113  as a V e d i c d e i t y , i s known t o p o s s e s s bonds; so perhaps the p r e s e n t v e r s e r e f e r s t o t h a t well-known aspect of him. —Yama's c l u b was mentioned i n 19.15b. — 4 4 c d , 45cd.  Two t i m e s i n t h e s e v e r s e s e we have t h e same gramma-  t i c a l fault» a gerund i s used even when t h e a c t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s has a d i f f e r e n t agent.  For i n s t a n c e , i n v e r s e 44, qadlrm samavidhya  has KatyayanT as agent, whereas nyapatat has oada.  ( I t c o u l d be  t h a t samavidhya i s a c t u a l l y a t r u n c a t e d form of samavidhyat, i n which case the t r a n s l a t i o n would be: "She Kubers [ a t him"]..,"  'threw' the c l u b of  T h i s seems t o be the o n l y way around the o t h e r  syntactically unsatisfactory possibility.)  I n 45cd, the gerund  n i r a s y a has KatyayanI as the agent, but the p a r t i c i p i a l  predicate  gatah has danda as the agent.  21.46-7 vajram s u r e n d r a s y a ca v i g r a h e *sya muktam  susuksmatvamr-vppSj^gama  samtyajya simham m a h i s a s u r a s y a durga ' d h i r u d h a s a h a s a i v a prstham p r s t h a s t h i t a y a m mahisasuro ' p i p o p l u y a t e vTrya.madJan  mrdanyam  sa c a p i padbhyafn mrdukomalabhyam mamarda tarn k l i n n a m i v a j i n a m h i  I n d r a ' s t h u n d e r b o l t , r e l e a s e d on the body of t h i s one ( M a h i s a ) , went t o minuteness ( i . e . t o many s m a l l p i e c e s ) .  Having abandoned the l i o n ,  114  Durga (KatyayanT)  mounted the back of Mahisa a l l of a sudden. / When  Mrdanl ( K S t y a y a n l ) uias s t a t i o n e d on [ h i s ^ back, the demon Mahisa r e p e a t e d l y jumped up, out o f i n f a t u a t i o n uiith £his] s t r e n g t h .  And  she  crushed him uiith her s o f t and t e n d e r f e e t , as [one mould c r u s h j a uiet hide.  —As  each o f the weapons i s d e s t r o y e d , one g e t s the f e e l i n g t h a t  the powers p r o v i d e d KatyayanT by the gods are not T h i s adds suspense t i o n of why  effective.  to the n a r r a t i v e and a l s o p r o v i d e s an e x p l a n a -  she t r a m p l e d Mahisa t o death.  — p r s t h a s t h i t a y a m mahisasuro  ' p i poplCfyate vTryamadan mrdanyam.  T h i s i s a l o c a t i v e a b s o l u t e c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n the f i r s t and words of the phrase.  last  Most l o c a t i v e a b s o l u t e s occur w i t h a l l the  words i n the phrase t o g e t h e r .  I t i s unusual to have so many  i n t e r v e n i n g words. —47d. hi a f i l l e r .  21.48 sa mrdyamano dharanTdharSSbho devya b a l T h l n a b a l o babhuva t a t o 'sya s u l e n a bibheda kantham tasmat  puman khadgadharo v i n i r g a t a h  Being p r e s s e d by t h e Goddess, t h e s t r o n g one appearance of a mountain,  ( M a h i s a ) , h a v i n g the  became one whose s t r e n g t h was  she c u t the t h r o a t of t h i s one  lost.  (Mahisa) w i t h [ h e r ] t r i d e n t .  Then From i t  115  •-..Game out a suiord-bearing man.  — T h i s demon i s not easy to k i l l .  Where o t h e r beings mould be  k i l l e d by h a v i n g t h e i r t h r o a t c u t , t h i s one makes s t i l l  another  transformation.  21.49  niskrantamatram  hrdaye pada tarn  ahatya samgrhya kacesu  kopat  s i r a h p r a c i c c h e d a v a r a s i n i 'sya hahakrtam d a i t y a b a l a m t a d a *bhut  As soon as he came o u t , K a t y S y a n i s t r u c k him by [her] f o o t on the heart.  Having a n g r i l y grasped [ h i m ] by the h a i r , she cut o f f the  head of t h i s one  ( t h e smord-bearing  man)  u i i t h [ h e r ] g r e a t smord.  Then the demon army c r i e d uiith p a n i c . .  —49d.  hahakrtam, l i t . ,  'performance  of the m a i l i n g sound*.  mord seems to have been used i n the sense the m a i l i n g sound ha h i ' .  The o t h e r may  This  'one uihich i s p e r f o r m i n g of making a s a t i s f a c t o r y  sense of the l i n e mould be to change the noun d a i t y a - b a l a m to a l o c a t i v e d a i t y a - b a l e ; l e t t e r s l i k e oj^ o f t e n change t o l e t t e r s CO"  i n manuscripts.  like  116  21.50-51 sacandamundah sahasilomna  samayah satar'ah bhayakataraksah  samtadyamanah p r a m a t h a i r patalam e v a v i v i s \ j r  bhavanyah  bhayartah  devya jayam devagana v i l o k y a s t u v a n t i devim s t u t i b h i r narayanTrh  maharse  sarvajagatpratisthafn  katyayanlm ghoramukhlm  surupam  _The demons] i n c l u d i n g Canda, Munda, Maya, Tara, [andjf t o g e t h e r uiith Asiloman, having eyes despondent from f e a r , being beaten^.by Bhavani's  ( K a t y a y a n l * s) a t t e n d a n t s  (and] r a f f l i c t e d uiith f e a r , e n t e r e d  the n e t h e r u i o r l d . / 0 g r e a t seer ( N a r a d a ) , h a v i n g seen t h e v i c t o r y o f the Goddess, the h o s t s o f gods p r a i s e d the Goddess w i t h hymns — / t h e Goddess who i s ] Marayani, the f o u n d a t i o n of the whole w o r l d , KatyayanT, one h a v i n g a t e r r i b l e .face [and] one h a v i n g a b e a u t i f u l body.  —50d.  eva a f i l l e r .  — H e r e we have another a s s o c i a t i o n o f K a t y a y a n l w i t h V i s n u . i s c a l l e d Narayana, and here KatyayanT i s c a l l e d  NarayanT.  / 21.52 samstuyamana surasiddhasarhghair nisanna-bhuta" harapadamule bhuyo bhavisyamy amarartham evam u k t v a surams t a n p r a v i v e s a durga"  Visnu  117  Being p r a i s e d by t h e h o s t s o f gods and t h e Siddhav-s. the Goddess s a t down a t t h e f e e t o f Hara (s'iva).  "I  m i l l become a g a i n ( i . e .  r e i n c a r n a t e ) f o r t h e sake o f the gods."  mill  A f t e r h a v i n g spoken t h u s ,  Durga e n t e r e d thcrse gods.  .—52b.  ' s a t * a nigannabhuta.  necessary,  Strictly  n i s a n n a mould have been  s p e a k i n g , bhuta i s hot  sufficient.  118  GLOSSARY  OF NAMES OF INDIVIDUALS AND CLASSES OF  BEINGS  119  AGASTYA.  Agastya i s a V e d i c s e e r .  H i s b i r t h i s a t t r i b u t e d to f'litra,  whose seed F e l l i n a w a t e r - j a r at the s i g h t o f U r v a s f .  Me was born  from t h e w a t e r - j a r , t h u s h i s e p i t h e t s kumbhabhava, k a l a s a j a . and k a l a sodbhava i n t h i s s t o r y . the  The name Agastya i s supposedly d e r i v e d from  t a l e t o l d i n 19.23-36, where he commands t h e Vindhya mountain t o  lower i t s e l f b e f o r e him. The etymology presupposed i s from aoa - ''mount a i n ' ('that which does not move'), and - t v a . a s u f f i x meaning ' s t a t i o n e d , p l a c e d ' ; thus Agastya i s s a i d t o mean o r i g i n a l l y ' s t a t i o n e d on a mountain'.  top of  However, i t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t t h e myth was i n v e n t e d t o  e x p l a i n Agastya's name. In any c a s e , Agastya i s h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d i n South I n d i a (and Southe a s t A s i a ) and i s a t t r i b u t e d achievements t h a t i n d i c a t e h i s b e i n g f o r e most i n b r i n g i n g c i v i l i z a t i o n ( o r some i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n ) to South I n d i a from North I n d i a . the  I n t h i s s e n s e , he d e f i n i t e l y l o w e r e d  b a r r i e r i n the form o f t h e Vindhya range. E p i t h e t s i n t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e VP: kumbhabhava — 'bowl-born one' — 19.23 kalas'aja — ' b o w l - b o r n one' — 19.25 kalas'odbhava — 'bowl-born o n e — 19.28 1  AGNI.  Agni i s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l god o f F i r e , from V e d i c t i m e s on.  In t h e  Veda, he i s p r i m a r i l y the mediator betweennmen and t h e gods; as t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the s a c r i f i c i a l f i r e , he c a r r i e s men's s a c r i f i c e s up t o the  heavens.  Next t o I n d r a , he was t h e most prominent o f V e d i c gods.  The V e d i c t r i n i t y  i n c l u d e s A g n i , Vayu, and Surya.  Agni i s sometimes  even c a l l e d a s e e r , as w e l l as a p r i e s t . Epithets: v a h n i — 'one who c a r r i e s £the s a c r i f i c e t o t h e g o d s ] ' — 18.47 h u t a s a — ' e a t e r o f what i s o f f e r e d ' — 18.72, 19.14 pavaka — ' p u r i f i e r ' (perhaps from t h e r o o t pu) — 18.50, -19.9  120  ASURA.  T h i s word d e r i v e s from a s u - r a , •ajsu-possessing', asjj meaning  •vitality, life,  energy, b r e a t h ' .  I n the e a r l y V e d i c times the a s u r a - s  mere t h o s e p o s s e s s i n g pouier c a p a b l e o f c o n t r o l l i n g the cosmos and even i n c l u d e d I n d r a , Agni and Varuna.  The  T a i t t l r i y a Brahmana (and the V§yu  Purana) c l a i m t h a t t h e b r e a t h (asu) of P r a j S p a t i became a l i v e , and t h a t b r e a t h he c r e a t e d the a s u r a - s " .  "uiith  But l a t e r , i n l a t e V e d i c t i m e s and  d u r i n g the c l a s s i c a l age, the a s u r a - s mere demons, a d v e r s a r i e s of the gods, and i n c o n s t a n t b a t t l e u i i t h the gods.  The mord 'demon* i s o n l y  an approximate t r a n s l a t i o n , i n the f o l l o w i n g senses the meaning of a s u r a uient from 'power-possessing*  t o 'mighty', t o 'those who  have o n l y power,  not the d i s c r e t i o n necessary f o r i t s use', t o 'power-mad*, t o ' p o s s e s s o r s of  b l i n d might', t o 'those who  a s p i r e b l i n d l y f o r power', to 'demon';  The a s u r a - s conquer^the gods and are conquered by them i n t u r n .  As a  g e n e r a l name f o r the demonic enemies of the gods, i t i n c l u d e s the two groups mentioned  i n the p r e s e n t VP passages  and Danava-s 'progeny  D a i t y a - s 'progeny o f  Diti*  of Danu'.  The Daitya»s inter,f,eredowith s a c r i f i c e s . a n t s of Kas"yapa, a V e d i c sage. means the 'sons of D i t i '  These g i a n t s were  The word D a i t y a d e r i v e s from D i t i ,  descendand  (who was t h e daughter of Daksa, a P r a j a p a t i ) .  Thus the D a i t y a - s have t h e i r a n c e s t o r y i n a sage and a superhuman mother, yet  t u r n out t o be demons. The Danava-s are a l s o demonic descendants o f Kasyapa, but  mother i s Danu.  their  I n the Vedas, Danava i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h V r t r a ,  I n d r a * s demonic enemy.'  THE  A5VIN-S.  The p a i r of A s v i n - s , named Dasra and N a s a t y a , are the t w i n s  121  of the V e d i c pantheon, and the e q u i v a l e n t o f C a s t o r and P o l l u x i n the Greek pantheon.  They are always young, s w i f t , handsome, and  found moving t o g e t h e r . cians.  The  always  They are p r o m i n e n t l y s a v i o r s , h e l p e r s , and p h y s i  Asvif>rs r i d e i n a golden car d r i v e n by h o r s e s o r b i r d s .  T h i s g o l d e n c a r i s supposed to go b e f o r e the sun, and t h u s the are connected BHUTA.  Asvin-s  w i t h dawn.  Literally,  'ghosts, g o b l i n s * .  These are s p i r i t s which haunt  t r e e s , streams, c e m e t e r i e s , e t c . , o c c a s i o n a l l y animate dead b o d i e s , and devour human b e i n g s .  They are a t t e n d a n t s upon S i v a , and are s a i d  to be c h t h o n i c d e i t i e s o f an e a r l i e r t r i b a l p e r i o d i n I n d i a . were p r o b a b l y BRAHMA.  They  S a n s k r i t i z e d by r e l a t i n g them t o e s t a b l i s h e d gods.  Brahma i s one of the members of the I n d i a n t r i n i t y : Brahma,  V i s n u and  Siva.  Those t h r e e r e p r e s e n t the C r e a t o r , M a i n t a i n e r  D e s t r o y e r of the cosmos,  and  Brahma i s the l o r d and f a t h e r of a l l c r e a t u r e s  and i s o f t e n c a l l e d " P i t a m a h a (as i n 19.2)  —  'grandfather'.  r e s p e c t , he i s a r e c a s t o f the V e d i c P r a j a p a t i .  In t h i s  He has f o u r arms and  f a c e s ; i n h i s hands he h o l d s the Vedas and a s c e p t r e , o r spoon, a s t r i n g of beads, h i s bow, of l e a r n i n g .  or a w a t e r - j u g .  H i s c o n s o r t i s SarasvatT the goddess  He i s o f t e n d e p i c t e d as s i t t i n g on the l o t u s coming up  from V i s n u ' s n a v a l .  Brahma r i d e s on a swan, and l i v e s i n Brahma-vrnd'a.  He has seven mind-born sons, among whom i s P u l a s t y a , the seer i n t h i s passage who t e l l s the s t o r y of Mahisa and %  KatyayanT.'  Epithets: pitamaha — ' g r a n d f a t h e r * — 19,1.^2 vedhas — 'the C r e a t o r ' — 19.3 l o k a p r a p i t a t n a h a — ' g r e a t - g r a n d f a t h e r of the w o r l d ' — v i d h a t r — 'the C r e a t o r , O r d a i n e r ' — 20.12, 20.14  19.11  122  CAISJDA.  One  CIKSURA.  of Mahisa's o f f i c e r s i n the army.  The g e n e r a l of Mahisa's army —  20.19  20.37.  Epithets: s a i n y a p i l a — ' p r o t e c t o r o f the army, army g e n e r a l s e n a p a t i — ' l o r d of the army' -- 21.31 DUNDUBHI.  1  —  21.33  A member of fvfahisa's army and p r o t e c t o r of the demons (20.21).  He had the v o i c e of a k e t t l e d r u m , uihich d e s c r i p t i o n i s c l e a r l y prompted by the etymology of h i s name (dundubhi  means ' k e t t l e d r u m " ) .  He  mas  the son of Maya (20.30). Epithets Ditija — FAIRIES. ties]'.  'son of D i t i ' —  20.24.  See note on asura above.  S k t . , v i d y a - d h a r a ' p o s s e s s o r s of knowledge L~of unseen a c t i v i These mere a c l a s s of i n f e r i o r d e i t i e s d w e l l i n g between the  e a r t h and heaven.  They are a l s o a t t e n d a n t s upon I n d r a .  In S a n s k r i t  p l a y s and poems, they appear as r e p o r t e r s o f what the s p e c t a t o r s or c h a r a c t e r s cannot GANDHARVA. of  physically  see.  C e l e s t i a l musicians.  C i t r a - r a t h i s s a i d to be t h e c h i e f  the Gandharva-s, so perhaps he i s meant ( i n 19.17) by ' k i n g of the  Gandharva-s'. GREAT SNAKES.  S k t . mahoragah.  serpent r a c e of Nagas.  Perhaps t h i s i s a r e f e r e n c e to t h e  The k i n g Snake, Sesa, has a thousand  heads and  i s the r e s t i n g p l a c e of V i s n u .  INDRA.  I n d r a i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y the c h i e f of the gods and p u n i s h e r of  demonic enemies of gods.  In V e d i c times^he  stands out as the most p r o -  123  rninent god, as a storm-god.  I n c l a s s i c a l t i m e s he i s l i k e a f i g u r e h e a d ,  the k i n g of the gods ( l i k e Zeus i n Greek m y t h o l o g y ) .  He r i d e s i n a  b r i g h t golden c h a r i o t , drawn by two ruddy h o r s e s w i t h f l o w i n g manes and t a i l s .  He uses the va j r a •.thunderbolt' f o r a weapon, as w e l l as  arrows, a l a r g e hook and a n e t .  The Veda p r e s e n t s him as r e c e i v i n g  g r e a t s t r e n g t h f o r b a t t l e from h i s voluminous draughts of soma.  He r e i g n s  over the weather, and p a r t i c u l a r l y the r a i n and storms.  office  Another  of h i s i s t h a t of a L o k a - p a l a , a w o r l d - p r o t e c t o r . ( T h i s i s the weaker, demoted I n d r a , p r o b a b l y of a l a t e r p e r i o d . ) There are e i g h t l o k a - p S l a - s , one f o r each p o i n t of t h e compass and f o r each p o i n t between c a r d i n a l points.  I n d r a i s regent of t h e e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n , the' d i r e c t i o n of  the r i s i n g sun. KAMA.  I n d r a ' s heaven i s c a l l e d  Svarga.  The I n d i a n e q u i v a l e n t f o r C u p i d , Kama i s the god o f Love.  p o s s e s s e s f i v e arrows, each of them a f l o w e r — h e a r t s o f men w i t h a f l o w e r bow  whfch he s h o o t s at the  s t r e t c h e d w i t h a s t r i n g o f b l a c k bees,  whose b u z z i n g i s t h e twang o f t h e bow.  H i s o r i g i m a p p e a r s t o be unknown —•  the T a i t t T r i y a Brahmana a t t r i b u t e s h i s b i r t h to Dharma and the Harivamsa  He  to Laksml, and another account t o Brahma.  Sraddha,  There i s p r o -  bably some c o n n e c t i o n of the mystery of h i s o r i g i n w i t h the p u z z l i n g o r i g i n of s e x u a l p a s s i o n . Epithets: kandarpa  —  'the i n f l a m e r of Brahma* or 'whom does he not make i n f a t u a t e d ' — 19.12 manfnatha — ' i n t o x i c a t e r and a g i t a t e r ' or ' h e a r t - c h u r n e r * — •20.8 kandarparajan — 'king i n f a t u a t o r ' — 20.9 makaradhvaja — 'having a c r o c o d i l e (or a s p e c i f i c s h a r k ) f o r an emblem' — 20.11  124  KATYAYANI.  KatyayanI i s an incarnation of Devi 'the Goddess', or Maha-  devT 'the Great Goddess'.  From other purana-s i t can be gathered that  she i s the sakti or female energy of Lord Siva. role of his uiife throughout  Indeed she plays the  her various incarnations.  She has many  incarnations during Siva's long l i f e t i m e , and the incarnations are c a l l e d Parvati, Durga, KatyayanT, K a l i , BhavanT, etc.  She shuffles back  and forth between her role as Mother of the cosmos and Siva's consort. Together with Siva, the two !!ace regarded as the primeval twofoldpersonalization of the Absolute.  They are the f i r s t and primeval  unfolding of the neuter Brahman into the opposites of the male and female p r i n c i p l e s . "  (p. 197, Zimmer:1962).  The story of Parvati i s  g i v B n i n the VP 25.1-28, among many other texts. Epithets: s r l d e v l — 'the glorious goddess' — 20.34 devT — 'the goddess' — 20.35, 20.41, 21.22 Sarasvatl — 'watery' — 20.36,.21.36) Ambika — 'the mother' — 20.39, 21.21, 21.27, 21.40 ParamesvarT — 'the great governing Goddess* — 21.36 mrdanl — 'the compassionate' or 'wife of Mrda (Siva) , 21.43, 21.47 BhavanI — 'wife of Bhava (Siva)* — 21.50 Narayani — 'consort of Narayana (Visnu)' — 21.51  KUBERA.  (Also spelled Kuvera)  1  —  In C l a s s i c a l times, Kubera i s the god  of wealth and chief of the yaksa-s or guhyaka-s.  According to one  account, he i s the son of Vis'ravana and Idavida.  However another  account  makes him a son of Pulastya (the father of Vilravana). Epithets: dhanada — 'wealth-giver' — 19.15 dhanes^vara — 'lord of wealth' — 21.44 LAKSMI.  LaksmT i s the goddess of fortune, wife of Visnu.  *",.«• {:.• 'J;- • .7.3 :  125  MAHISA.  The p r i n c i p a l demon a g a i n s t whom KatyayanT f i g h t s i n t h i s  story.  He i s the son o f Rambha (18.50-60), and c o u l d take any form he d e s i r e d . Epithets: d i t i s a — ' l o r d o f the sons o f asurendra — ' l o r d o f / t h e demons' rambhasuta — 'son o f Rambha' — haygri — 'horse-hater, b u f f a l o '  THE  WARUTS.  already  D i t i ' — 20.2 — 20.3 20.24 — 20.31  The Maruts a r e the storm gods i n the V e d i c pantheon, and  i n Vedic times they were prominent d e i t i e s , but not, houiev/er,  as prominent as Agni, Indra, e t c .  As a s s o c i a t e s o f Indra, they a r e  armed with l i g h t n i n g s and t h u n d e r b o l t s , and number e i t h e r 180 o r 27. S e v e r a l o r i g i n s a r e a s c r i b e d t o them, t h e most prominent being from the goddess D i t i  (Visnu Purana).  D i t i l o s t her c h i l d r e n , and begged Kas'yapa  the sage f o r a boon: t h a t she might have a c h i l d who should d e s t r o y the k i l l e r that  Kasyapa g r a n t e d the boon on t h e c o n d i t i o n  she keep her body and mind a b s o l u t e l y pure f o r a hundred years  first. lity.  of her c h i l d r e n .  Indra found out about t h i s ,  and w a i t e d upon her with much humi-  I n t h e l a s t year o f t h e c e n t u r y , D i t i went t o bed without  her f e e t , and Indra saw h i s chance.  He d i v i d e d her embryo i n t o  p o r t i o n s when he saw t h a t the c h i l d was c r y i n g it. is  Indra,  and was unable  washing seven  to pacify  From h i s s a y i n g ma-rodTh 'weep not' t o t h e c h i l d , the word 'Marut' s a i d to have d e r i v e d .  However, t h i s i s c l e a r l y  a folk-etymology.  Maha t o g e t h e r with the root r u t , 'great shouter o r r o a r e r ' i s more l i k e l y to  be the o r i g i n a l word.  MAYA. in  Maya was a demon who was an a r c h i t e c t and a r t i f i c e r o f t h e a s u r a - s .  the same way t h a t Vilvakarman  was the a r t i f i c e r  of the gods.  126  NAMARA,  Namara was t h e r e i n c a r n a t i o n o f t h e b u f f a l o who developed a  l u s t f o r Rambha's w i f e  (18.61-67).  L a t e r i n t h e s t o r y , he i s a p p o i n t e d  by Mahisa (who was Rambha*s son) t o s t a r t t h e a s s a u l t on KatyayanT. (20.37)  E t y m o l o g i c a l l y , t h e name Namara c o u l d be t a k e n t o mean 'one  who does not d i e . ' NARADA.  NSrada i s a V e d i c s e e r , one of t h e P r a j a p a t i - s ' l o r d s of c r e a -  t u r e s ' , and a l s o , a c c o r d i n g (saptarsi-s).  t o one l i s t ,  one of»the seven g r e a t  seers  As f o r h i s o r i g i n , t h e Rg'-Veda a t t r i b u t e s him t o t h e  Kanva f a m i l y , w h i l e t h e V i s n u  Purana says t h a t he i s a son o f Kasyapa  and one o f Daksa's d a u g h t e r s .  Still  out o f the f o r e h e a d o f Brahma.  another source says t h a t he came  Many s t o r i e s r e l a t e how Narada causes  s t r i f e among t h e gods and men; f o r i n s t a n c e , he  warnis"  Kamsa o f Krsna's  imminent b i r t h , and then goes on t o b e f r i e n d Krsna a g a i n s t  Kamsa.  Thus  he i s o f t e n c a l l e d K a l i - k a r a k a ' s t r i f e - m a k e r ' , and k a l a h a - p r i v a 'one to whom q u a r r e l i s d e a r ' . tion or intervention. about KatyayanT  NYMPHS.  He c r e a t e s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r d i v i n e  incarna-  Narada's f u n c t i o n i n t h i s s t o r y i s t o ask P u l a s t y a  (18.39,  etc.).  S k t . a p s a r a - s , o r i g i n a l l y 'water-moving ( s p i r i t s ) ' .  s a r a - s are t h e nymphs o f I n d r a ' s heaven. t h e i r o r i g i n to the churning  o f t h e ocean.  The ap-  The V i s n u Purana a s c r i b e s They are w i v e s o r m i s t r e s s e s  of the Gandharva-s, and have many l o v e r s .  PULASTYA.  P u l a s t y a i s one of t h e P r a j a p a t i - s ( a V e d i c group o f c r e a t i v e  d e i t i e s ) , and, a c c o r d i n g (saptarsi-s).  t o one a c c o u n t , one o f the seven g r e a t  seers  The s e l e c t e d p o r t i o n o f t h e VP makes him t h e s t o r y - t e l l e r ;  127  he n a r r a t e s the s t o r y , w h i l e Narada prods him on uiith q u e s t i o n s . mas  He  the f a t h e r of Ravana of the Ramayana, and a l l the R5ksasa-s 'monsters,  demons* are s a i d to have come from RAKTA3IJA.  him.  R a k t a b l j a i s the r e i n c a r n a t e d Rambha (18.70).  i n Mahisa's army a g a i n s t KatyayanT. h a v i n g empassioned ( o r red) RAMBHA. He was  Rambha mas  He  fought  E t y m o l o g i c a l l y , h i s name means  'one  seed'.  a demon mho  performed a u s t e r i t y to get a son (18.42 f f ) .  k i l l e d by a b u f f a l o a f t e r ha had the son and r e i n c a r n a t e d as  RaktabTja.  H i s name d e r i v e s from the r o o t rambh 'to r o a r ' .  Epithets: d a n a v a p a r t h i v a — ' k i n g of demons' — 18.55 d a i t y a n d r a — ' k i n g of demons' -- 18.56 d i t i v a r a — 'prominent.[son o f j D i t i — 18.61 5ADHYA.  A v e d i c group of d e i t i e s .  According  to one  interpretation,  they mere the p e r s o n i f i e d p r a y e r s and r i t u a l s of the Vedas, and  dwelt  mid-way between e a r t h and heaven.  SIDDHA-S.  A c l a s s of s e m i - d i v i n e b e i n g s .  They have e x t r a o r d i n a r y  powers ( c a l l e d s i d d h i - s ) , and d w e l l i n the sky between the e a r t h  and  heaven.  SIVA.  S i v a , or Mahesa 'the g r e a t L o r d ' , i s the D e s t r o y e r w i t h i n the  t r i m u f c t i f t r i n i t y * of Brahma, V i s n u and the master of a l l y o q i n s .  He i s steeped  uihich g i v e s him many s p e c i a l powers. by the name Rudra 'the h o w l e r * . and b e n e f i c e n t i n f l u e n c e .  Siva.  He i s the g r e a t  i n the h i g h e s t  Yogin,  austerities,  In the Veda he i s p o s s i b l y known  Rudra mas  supposed t o have a d e s t r u c t i v e  He b r i n g s d i s e a s e upon man  and cows, and  yet  128  he  i s known f o r h i s h e a l i n g powers.  In the White Yajur-Veda  Mahadeva, whose symbol i s the l i n q a  ' p h a l l u s ' ; i n the Visnu  he s p r i n g s from the forehead of Brahma, and  ing him  emphasize.6 human e v e n t s .  a u s p i c i o u s , or b e n e f i c e n t one',  i s l o r d of ghosts  even though he  and g o b l i n s , and l i v e s  around h i s neck and  else  In h i s t e r r i b l e  a t h i r d eye  i n the middle  process,  terrible, aspect,  He has  and  fiva  serpents  df h i s f o r e h e a d  the r i v e r  Ganges;  a snake around h i s neck, and h i s neck  d r i n k i n g the poason which would have d e s t r o y e d the  He h o l d s a t r i d e n t ,  'the  up i n matted l o c k s on  top of h i s head i n a c o i l e d shape, out of which pours  i s blue from  s'aivism,  S i v a i s o f t e n d e p i c t e d seated  , a c r e s c e n t moon), h i s h a i r gathered  a necklace of s k u l l s and  He  Sankara  r e p r e s e n t s the  i n cemeteries.  s k u l l s f o r a necklace.  i n samadhi, on a d e e r s k i n , with  s t r u c t u r e and  Siva i s c a l l e d  d e s t r u c t i v e , and d i s s o l v i n g s i d e of n a t u r e .  he has  ferocious.  'highest d e i t y ' , some s o u r c e s c l a i m -  o f laiva, has an emphasis on cosmic  while Vaisnavism  (or  Purana  to be the h i g h e s t , and o t h e r s o u r c e s c l a i m i n g V i s n u .  the worship  i s called  i s the parent of the Rudra-s  or Maruts, h a l f of whom are g e n t l e and the o t h e r h a l f v i e s with Visnu f o r the honor of the  he  i s o f t e n seen with Nandi,  world.  his bull.  Epithets; Sankara ~- 'the b e n e f i c e n t one' — 19.2 Mahesvara — 'the great Lord' — 19.9 varada-trisulin — 'the boon-granting t r i d e n t - p o s s e s s o r ' — hara — 'one who c a r r i e s JTsinJ away' — 21.52  SO MA.  Originally,  extremely  Soma i s the c e l e s t i a l  exhilarating  qualities.  ambrosia  o f the gods, having  I t i s p r a i s e d i n the Rg-Veda as  Indra the s t r e n g t h to conquer the demons, and  later  In l a t e r times, the c o n n e c t i o n was  giving  i n the Veda (the 9th  Mandala), i s d e i f i e d i n t o the Healer of a l l d i s e a s e s , bestower of etc.  19,14  riches,  made between the soma-.iuice  and  129  the Moon, and many of t h e q u a l i t i e s o f Soma mere t r a n s f e r r e d t o the Moon. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e Moon has come t o be c a l l e d o s a d h i - p a t i 'the l o r d o f t h e herbs'.  In t h e purana-s, Soma (as t h e Moon) i s t h e son o f t h e s e e r  and Anasuya.  From him t h e Lunar l i n e o f k i n g s  Atri  arose.  Epithets: l a s i n — ' h a r e - p o s s e s s i n g ' — 18.72 i n d u — l i t . , 'drop £bf Soma-juice^' — SURYA.  Surya i s t h e Sun, c a l l e d l o k a - c a k s u  Vedas.  Sometimes he i s c a l l e d S a v i t r o r A d i t y a .  19.3  'eye o f t h e w o r l d *  i n the  He i s t h e son o f A d i t i  ( a c c o r d i n g t o t h e purana-s) o r o f Dyaus ( a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Vedas) o r . o f Brahma ( a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Ramayana).  Usas 'the dawn* i s h i s c o n s o r t .  c h a r i o t moves through t h e sky, drawn by seven ruddy h o r s e s . are t h e A s v i n s , by the nymph A s v i n l .  His  H i s sons  The r e s u l t o f t h i s a f f a i r d e s e r v e s  mention: when Surya r e t u r n e d t o h i s w i f e a f t e r being w i t h A s v i n l , she took him t o her f a t h e r ( t h e seer V i s v a k a r m a n ) , who put Surya on a l a t h e and c u t o f f an e i g h t h o f h i s e f f u l g e n c e .  The fragments f e l l t o t h e e a r t h ,  b l a z i n g , and from them came s e v e r a l o b j e c t s mentioned i n t h i s p o r t i o n o f the VP: t h e d i s c u s o f V i s n u , the t r i d e n t o f S i v a , t h e c l u b o f Kubera, and weapons o f o t h e r gods.  The S o l a r l i n e o f k i n g s comes from  Surya.  Epithets: bhaskara — ' l i g h t - g i v e r ' — 18.72 gaganecara — 'mover i n t h e sky' — 19.23 d i v a k a r a — ' l i g h t - m a k e r , day-maker' — 19.23 r a v i — 'the sun' — 19.23 VARUNA.  Varuna was t h e c h i e f o f the seven A d i t y a - s i n V e d i c times  he was t h e A d i t y a ) .  (thus,  H i s name means 'the u n i v e r s a l encompasser, t h e a l l -  e m b r a c e r : as such he p l a y s much the same r o l e as Uranus i n Greek myth1  ology.  He i s a past-master o f bonds.  Many V e d i c hymns s e r v e no o t h e r  130  purpose but t o l i b e r a t e man from t h e ' t o i l s o f Varuna'.  ( E l i a d e , Images  and Symbols, p. 95). Varuna knouis houi t o use maya 'magic' t h e t r a n s g r e s s o r s o f ijta 'Laui'.  i n binding  I n t h e Vedas, Varuna i s o c c a s i o n a l l y  t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e sky, t h e maker and upholder o f heav/en and earth.  B e s i d e s t h i s heavenly a s p e c t , he i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d uiith t h e  maters, seas and r i v e r s , as a l u n a r o r a c q u a t i c god. fish.  His sign i s the  When a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e w a t e r s , he h o l d s t h e w a t e r s back ( e . g .  "Great Varuna has h i d d e n t h e sea" —  Rg-Veda 9.73.3).  And f i n a l l y , as  l o r d o f bonds and t h e noose and p u n i s h e r of t h e w i c k e d , he e n f o r c e s feh'simoral other  vl:aw; Varuna i s more connected w i t h t h e moral law than any  deity. Epithet: jalesa —  THE VASU-S. are  ' l o r d of waters' —  19.10, 21.45  The Vasu-s were a c l a s s o f d e i t i e s , e i g h t i n number —  Ap_ 'water', Dhruva ' p o l e - s t a r ' , Soma 'fttoon', Dhara ' e a r t h ' , A n l l a  *wirat«H, prabha'ta 'dawn', and p r a t y u ^ a ' l i g h t ' . c a t i o n s o f n a t u r a l phenomena. of  they  Thus, they are p e r s o n i f i -  The s'atapatha Brahmana g i v e s t h e l i s t  P r t h i v i ' e a r t h ' , A n t a r i k g a 'sky', Agni ' f i r e ' , Vayu 'wind', Dyaus  'heaven', A d i t y a , Candramas'Moon' and N a k s a t r a ' s t a r , c o n s t e l l a t i o n ' . (SB 11.6.3.6) for  They a r e named Vasu because t h e i r presence i s e s s e n t i a l  the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of l i f e  i n matter ( t e yad idam s a r v a r vasayante  tasmad vHsava i t i . S^B. 11.6.3.6).  VIMDHYA.  The Vindhya mountains  are t h e mountains which s t r e t c h a c r o s s  I n d i a , and d i v i d e t h e North Prom t h e South.  According t o the legend o f  t h e Mahabharata (3.104,1-115), t h e p e r s o n i f i e d Vindhya was j e a l o u s o f  131  the Himalaya because he was s h o r t e r than Himalaya, to  r e v o l v e around him as i t d i d around Meru.  so, Vindhya  and commanded the Sun  When t h e Sun r e f u s e d t o do  r a i s e d i t s e l f t o o b s t r u c t t h e passage o f t h e Sun.  The r e s t  of t h e l e g e n d i s e x a c t l y t h e same as t h a t g i v e n i n t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e VP. VISNU. V i s n u i s t h e second member o f the t r i m u r t i Brahma, V i s n u and S i v a .  ' t r i n i t y ' composed o f  He i s t h e M a i n t a i n e r o f t h e u n i v e r s e .  While not  a c h i e f d e i t y i n Vedic t i m e s , he arose t o a supreme p o s i t i o n l a t e r i n C l a s s i c a l t i m e s , and v i e s uiith S i v a f o r a d o r a t i o n as t h e supreme god. .... Whereas S a i v i s m abounds i n elements o f t e r r o r , V a i s n a v i s m shouis i t s d e i t y /  uiith k i n d l y , human t r a i t s .  I t i s V i s n u , not S i v a , who i s w o r s h i p p e d as  a c h i l d , y o u t h , and l o v e r .  V i s n u ' s name comes e i t h e r from t h e r o o t v i s  'to  pervade', o r a l o s t r o o t j / i _ 'to f l y ' .  yana ' vb o. r n  o f  N a r a  Another name f o r him i s Nara-  'man'*.  w o r l d , V i s n u i s p i c t u r e d on h i s s e r p e n t - c o u c h ,  At t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e l y i n g i n t h e midst o f t h e  sea o f m i l k , w i t h Brahma s e a t e d on t h e l o t u s i n h i s b e l l y .  The purana-s  a t t r i b u t e 10 o r 24 a v a t a r a s ' i n c a r n a t i o n s ' t o him. Epithets: c a k r a d h a r a — 'the d i s c u s - w i e l d e r ' — 19.1 khaoendrSsana — 'the one who has t h e c h i e f o f b i r d s (Garuda) f o r h i s s e a t ' — 19.2 mur§ri — 'enemy o f Mura ( a demon)' — 19.5, 19.14 h a r i — ' c a r r i e r ' — 19.5 madhusudana — ' s l a y e r o f Madhu (a demon)' ~ 19.6 VIVASVAT.  Literally,  V i v a s v a t means 'the b r i g h t one'.  The term i s synon-  ymous w i t h t h e Sun, Surya.  YAKSA.  The yaksa-s belong t o t h e bhuta ' s p i r i t ' category and do not  enjoy t h e s t a t u s o f w o r s h i p i n the h i g h e r r e l i g i o n o f I n d i a .  \  They a r e  132  u s u a l l y s a i d t o r e s i d e i n t r e e s ; thus t h e name Malavata 'banyon t r e e on a h i l l ' (18.44) i s s i g n i f i c a n t . wealth.  The yaksa-s s e r v e Kubera, t h e l o r d o f  I n t h e p r e s e n t s t o r y , they seem t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both gods  and demons.  As f o r M a l a v a t a Yaksa, V.S. Agrawala•(1964:39)- says t h i s :  . . . i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i t [the mention o f MSlavata yaksa"} appert a i n s t o one of t h e f o u r yaksa s h r i n e s o f . K u r u k s e t r a noted i n the T I r t h a - y a t r a Parva L(Ch. 81)r-.of t h e Aranyaka-Parvan]. In i t we f i n d a r e f e r e n c e t o Munjavata; M a l a v a t a may w e l l be a v a r i a n t of t h e same name, a l t h o u g h t h e Yak§a p r e s i d i n g - o v e r t h a t p l a c e i s named U l u k h a l a - m e k h a l a .  133  Bibliography Text used: the Vamana Purana, A.S.Gupta, 1967. '—  ed., V a r a n a s i : A l l - I n d i a K a s h i r a j T r u s t ,  B i b l i o g r a p h y on the Vamana Purana: Agrauiala, .V.S., Vamana-purSpa.: a Study, V a r a n a s i : P r t K / i P r a k a s a n a , 1964. Gupta, -A...S.., a r t i c l e , i n Purapa journal., 5.3., J u l y , 1963, pp. 360-6.*. Hazra, R.C., S t u d i e s i n the P u r a p i c Records .and Customs, pp. 77 f f . * Hohenberger, A.,"Das Vamana Purfna". I n d o - I r a n i a n J o u r n a l . V o l . 7 (1963), no. 1, .pp. i-57."" Raghavan, V., "The Vamana-purana", i n Purapa j o u r n a l 421, J a n . , 1968, . .. pp. 184.-9.2.* T r i p a t h i , G.C., Per Ursprunq und d i e E n t w i c k l u n g der VSmana-Leqende, Wiesbaden, 0. H a r r a s s o w i t z , 1968.* T r a n s l a t i o n s of the Vamana-purana: i n t o H i n d i , by £y amasuridara Tripa"thT, 1903, Bombay; Venkateshwar P r e s s . * i n t o B e n g a l i , by Mahesacandra P a l a , 1893, C a l c u t t a : N i r a p e k s a Dharma SaffcarinT Sabha". * i n t o B e n g a l i , by Pancanana T a r k a r a t n a , 1908, VangavasT P r e s s . * . i n t o Kannada, by Venka^acarya, Jayacamarajandra G r a n t h a v a l f , no. 25* B i b l i o g r a p h y of o t h e r books u t i l i z e d i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s  thesis:  the Agni Purapa, Eng. t r a n s l a t i o n by M.N.Dutt Sastr'T, V a r a n a s i : V i d y a v i l a s P r e s s , 1967. the G a r u j a - P u r a p a , Eng. t r a n s l a t i o n by M.N.Dutt S a s t r T , V a r a n a s i : V i d y a u i l a s P r e s s , 196B. the Mahabharata, Eng. t r a n s l a t i o n by P.C. Roy, V o l . I I , C a l c u t t a : O r i e n t a l P u b l i s h i n g Co., second r e v i s e d edn. No date g i v e n . the Markapdaya Purapa, Eng. t r a n s l a t i o n by F.E. P a r g i t e r , C a l c u t t a ; D e l h i : Indolog I C S 1 Book House, r e p r i n t 1969. the Matsya Pur3pa, Eng. t r a n s l a t i o n by a board of s c h o l a r s , S.V. S a s t r T , ed., "Sacred Books of the Aryans", V o l . I , D e l h i : O r i e n t a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1972. ;  Dowson, John, A C l a s s i c a l D i c t i o n a r y of Hindu Mythology, London: Routledge. &. Ke.ga.n Paul,. 1.953, r e p r i n t . . Kane, P.V. A H i s t o r y of the Dharma Sgfstra, Poona: Bhandarkar O r i e n t a l Research Institute.,. 193.0.. Zimmer, H e i n r i c h , Myths and Symbols i n I n d i a n A r t and C i v i l i z a t i o n , New York: Harper & Row, 1962. * t h o s e p u b l i c a t i o n s which c o u l d not be p e r s o n a l l y checked are marked w i t h an *.  

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