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Pedestrian malls : their roles in the revitalization of downtown Yip, Hin-Fong 1975

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PEDESTRIAN MALLS: THEIR ROLES IN THE REVITALIZATION OF DOWNTOWN by HIN-FONG YIP B. ARCH., UNIVERSITY OF B.C., 19 60 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard f o r Master of S c i e n c e THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1975 In p r e s e n t i n g . t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my School or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date: May, 1975 i ABSTRACT During the p a s t two decades the P e d e s t r i a n M a l l has emerged as a new development concept i n the downtowns of many c i t i e s of the world. T h i s paper attempts to study the r o l e of the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l i n the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of downtown. As a background to t h i s study, the author r e s e a r c h e d the v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s of the s t r e e t from h i s t o r i c a l time t o the p r e s e n t day, the type of p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s t h a t have been b u i l t , and the elements t h a t are b a s i c to the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l . Many m a l l s have been b u i l t i n Europe, England, the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada; some have succeeded but some f a i l e d . The e x p e r i e n c e s of e l e v e n p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s were reviewed and the c r i t i c i s m by v a r i o u s w r i t e r s were r e c o r d e d , and sometimes a n a l y s e d . Out o f t h i s review, the author has a l s o i d e n t i f i e d the d i f f e r e n t stages g e n e r a l l y taken d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g process of p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s . These p l a n n i n g stages may be u s e f u l as g u i d e l i n e s f o r f u t u r e m a l l developments. The author f i n d s t h a t the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of downtown i s a v e r y confused i s s u e . T h i s study concludes t h a t the r o l e of the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l i n the r e v i a l i z a t i o n must be looked a t from two d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view. P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l r e p r e s e n t s the r e t u r n of the s t r e e t as a s o c i a l space where people congregate and c a r r y on wit h a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s . In t h i s r e s p e c t the human s c a l e of the space must be emphasized and the images of the c i t y must be p r e s e r v e d and enhanced. P r a g m a t i c a l l y , the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l i s a t o o l to generate a hi g h e r degree o f economic a c t i v i t i e s , t o r e s o l v e the p e d e s t r i a n - v e h i c u l a r c o n f l i c t , and to c r e a t e a b e t t e r environment f o r human b e i n g s . I t f o l l o w s whether a m a l l succeeds or not depends on what i t s e t s out to a c h i e v e . In order t h a t the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l can f u l f i l i t s f u n c t i o n many requirements must be met. These requirements i n c l u d e the c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n between the merchants and the c i v i c government; the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a M a l l A u t h o r i t y ; the p r o v i s i o n o f a c c e s s -i b i l i t y and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to and from the m a l l ; and the a d d i t i o n of a m e n i t i e s and good urban d e s i g n . The G r a n v i l l e M a l l i n Vancouver i s chosen as a case study. T h i s m a l l i s c o n s i d e r e d as a p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n and was completed i n a ve r y s h o r t time. I t has avoided i n the p l a n n i n g process any e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , and the f e a s i b i l i t y study and d e s i g n phase were kept to the minimum. The r e c e n t e v a l u a t i o n surveys have r e p o r t e d t h a t the s a l e s volume has i n c r e a s e d , but a c i t y -wide o p i n i o n survey conducted by the author has i n d i c a t e d t h a t 48% of the sample e i t h e r d i s l i k e d the m a l l f o r v a r i o u s reasons or were i n d i f f e r e n t . I t may be concluded t h a t the G r a n v i l l e M a l l i s s u c c e s s f u l i n r e v i t a l i z i n g the economic a c t i v i t y of downtown but f a l l s s h o r t of becoming a s o c i a l space f o r people. The author has suggested some i d e a s i n making the G r a n v i l l e M a l l i n t o a downtown c e n t r e f o r people i f the t r a n s i t i s removed from the M a l l . ABSTRACT LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION A . THE "MALL MOVEMENT" 1 B. THE DECAY OF DOWNTOWN CORE 2 C. REVITALIZATION OF DOWNTOWN AND THE PEDESTRIAN MALL 4 D. SCOPE OF THE STUDY 5 I I . PEDESTRIAN MALLS A . DEFINITION OF THE STREET 7 B. FUNCTION OF THE STREET 8 C. TYPE OF PEDESTRIAN MALLS 10 1. TEMPORARY MALLS 10 2. TRANSIT MALLS 12 3. PERMANENT MALLS 12 4. COVERED MALLS 14 5. ELEVATED MALLS 14 6. UNDERGROUND MALLS 16 D. ELEMENTS OF PEDESTRIAN MALLS 20 1. THE PHYSICAL ELEMENTS 20 2. AMENITIES 21 3. ACTIVITIES 22 4. SERVICES AND ACCESSIBILITY 22 5. MALL MANAGEMENT 23 OF CONTENTS PAGE i y i i i 2 CHAPTER PAGE I I I . REVIEW OF PEDESTRIAN MALL EXPERIENCES A . EUROPEAN AND U.K. EXPERIENCE 25 1. COPENHAGEN, DENMARK 26 2. MUNICH, GERMANY 29 3. NORWICH, ENGLAND 33 4. NEWCASTLE, ENGLAND 34 5. OTHER MALLS 37 B. U .S . EXPERIENCE 38 1. KALAMAZOO, MICHIGAN 38 2. FRESNO, CALIFORNIA 39 3. MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 40 4. NEW YORK, NEW YORK 45 C. CANADIAN EXPERIENCE 47 1. OTTAWA, ONTARIO 48 2. CALGARY, ALBERTA 52 3. TORONTO, ONTARIO 55 D. ASIAN EXPERIENCE 59 IV. PLANNING PROCESS OF PEDESTRIAN MALLS 62 A . DEFINITION OF GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 6 2 B. FEASIBILITY STUDY 64 C. EXPERIMENT 6 6 D. DESIGN PHASE 67 E . IMPLEMENTATION 68 F . EVALUATION 69 CHAPTER V . GRANVILLE STREET MALL, VANCOUVER — A CASE STUDY A . BACKGROUND 1. DOWNTOWN STUDIES (1968-1974) 2. THEATRE ROW - A BEAUTIFICATION PROJECT 3. MERCHANTS' REQUEST 4. COUNCIL'S ACTION B. PLANNING PROCESS 1. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2. FEASIBILITY STUDIES 3. EXPERIMENT 4. DESIGN PHASE C . IMPLEMENTATION 1. CONSTRUCTION 2. BUDGET 3. TRANSIT 4. GRANVILLE MALL INTERIM AUTHORITY 5. GRANVILLE MALL MERCHANTS ASSOCIATION 6. BY-LAWS D. EVALUATION 1. METHODS OF EVALUATION 2. GRANVILLE MALL PRELIMINARY IMPACT STUDY 3. A SURVEY OF THE GRANVILLE MALL, RETAIL SALES, PHASE II 4. COMPARISON OF GROSS SALES VOLUMES GRANVILLE MALL AND ROBSON STREET 5. POLICE REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION 6. TELEPHONE SURVEY OF OPINIONS ON GRANVILLE MALL CHAPTER V. E. PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. ACCESSIBILITY AND PARKING 2. MALL AUTHORITY 3. SOCIAL SPACE 4. FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES F. SUMMARY AND SUGGESTIONS V I . CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES APPENDICES y i i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE PAGE 1. MILAN'S GALLERIA 15 2. MINNEAPOLIS' ELEVATED MALLS SYSTEM 17 3. MINNEAPOLIS' SKYWAY 18 4. THE STR0GET, COPENHAGEN 27 5. VIEW OF THE STR0GET 28 6. MUNICH'S PEDESTRIAN MALL 30 7. MAP OF MUNICH'S PEDESTRIAN MALL 31 8. A PEDESTRIAN MALL IN NORWHICH, ENGLAND 35 -9. NEWCASTLE'S PEDESTRIAN MALL 36 10. PLAN OF FRESNO'S PEDESTRIAN MALL 41 11. VIEW OF FRESNO'S PEDESTRIAN MALL 41 12. PLAN AND AERIAL VIEW OF NICOLLET MALL 43 13. PARKING AREAS AROUND NICOLLET MALL 44 14. PLAN OF MADISON AVENUE MALL, N . Y . 46 15. PLAN OF SPARKS STREET MALL, OTTAWA 49 16. VIEW OF SPARKS STREET MALL 50 17. PLAN OF 8th AVENUE MALL, CALGARY 53 17a. PEOPLE ON 8th AVENUE MALL, CALGARY 53 18. VIEW OF 8th AVENUE MALL, CALGARY 54 19. YONGE STREET MALL TRAFFIC REGULATIONS 58 19a. VIEW OF YONGE STREET MALL, TORONTO 56 19b. TEMPORARY PLANTERS ON YONGE ST. MALL 56 20. NORMAL CONDITION OF THE GINZA, TOKYO 60 FIGURE PAGE 21. TEMPORARY MALL IN THE GINZA, TOKYO 60 22. PEDESTRIAN STREET IN HONG KONG 61 23. GRANVILLE STREET MALL, VANCOUVER 85 24. THEATRE ROW 86 25. THEATRE ROW AT NIGHT 86 26. GRANVILLE MALL AT NIGHT 86 27. PHOTOGRAPHS SHOWING THE BLEAKNESS OF A TRANSIT MALL ROADWAY 110 28. PLAYGROUND IN PEDESTRIAN MALL, LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY 115 29. THEATRE-IN-THE-ROUND, RICHMOND, INDIANA 115 30. EATING AREA ON MALL, SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS 116 31. PLANTERS FOR SEATING, SPARKS STREET MALL, OTTAWA 116 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank P r o f e s s o r M i c h a e l S e e l i g , my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r and f r i e n d , f o r r e a d i n g the e n t i r e d r a f t and o f f e r i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s . I a l s o wish to thank P r o f e s s o r P e t e r Oberlander, my former mentor of many years back, f o r h i s most v a l u a b l e a d v i c e on the s u b j e c t . I am most g r a t e f u l t o Mr. Jonathan Baker of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, C i t y o f Vancouver, f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n and r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l on G r a n v i l l e M a l l . I am a l s o i n d e b t e d to Mr. Ronald B a i n , a r c h i t e c t , and Mr. Hugh Hancock, former manager of G r a n v i l l e M a l l Merchant A s s o c i a t i o n , f o r e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r views and s h a r i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s on G r a n v i l l e M a l l w i t h me. 1. I . INTRODUCTION A . THE "MALL MOVEMENT" In recent years many shopping s t reets i n the downtown area of our c i t i e s have been converted in to pedestr ian ma l l s . In North America , the pedestr ian ma l l "experiment" s ta r ted i n 1957 i n S p r i n g f i e l d , Oregon, as a 10 day t r i a l , and i t immedi-a te ly gained na t iona l prominence through i t s nove l ty , featured a t t r a c t i o n s and boldness i n banishing the auto and f ree ing the pedestr ian (Weiss 1964) . The "mal l movement" soon spread across the United States and in to Canada, p i ck ing up momentum as time went on, r e s u l t i n g i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l major c i t i e s possessing some form of pedestr ian m a l l s . I t was estimated that there are over 50 malls i n existence or being planned i n c i t i e s of the United States of var ious s izes which inc lude Kalamazoo (1958) , Toledo (1960), Fresno (1964), Minneapolis (1968), Tacoma, New York and many others . In Canada, the most p u b l i c i z e d malls can be found i n Ottawa (1964) , Toronto (1971) , Calgary (1971) and recent ly i n Vancouver (-1974) . In Europe, where the c i t i e s have a d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c background, t h i s movement d i d not f l o u r i s h u n t i l about 19 66 when Essen, Germany, converted i t s major shopping s t r e e t , Limbecker-strasse in to a pedestr ian m a l l , which was be l i eved to be the f i r s t modern one i n Europe (Cott le 1972). Since then we have witnessed some pedestr ian mal l development i n Cologne (19 66), 2. Copenhagen (1966), Munich (1967) and Vien n a (1972). C i t i e s i n the U n i t e d Kingdom have a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e i n the b u i l d i n g of p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c i t y of London (1972). Other B r i t i s h c i t i e s which have p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s i n c l u d e Leeds (1970), L i v e r p o o l (1970), Norwich and Newcaslte (1971). The approximate time of c o n v e r s i o n i s shown i n p a r e n t h e s i s . B. THE DECAY OF THE DOWNTOWN CORE The main argument behind the "mall movement" i s t h a t the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l can be a u s e f u l t o o l to r e v i t a l i z e our downtown cores which are i n a s t a t e of decay, although the p o l i t i c i a n s , the p l a n n e r s and the b u s i n e s s p u b l i c r e a l i z e t h a t the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the panecea to a l l the problems i n our downtown today. The decay of down-town has prompted many c i t i e s t o undertake l a r g e urban renewal p r o j e c t s i n the 50's and 60's. N e a r l y a l l of these p r o j e c t s i n v o l v e d e x t e n s i v e d e m o l i t i o n and r e - b u i l d i n g which were v e r y c o s t l y . Some c i t i e s chose the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l as a s m a l l s c a l e urban renewal p r o j e c t which c o u l d be done a t a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l c o s t . The degree of decay of our downtown cores v a r i e s from one c i t y to another, and the nature of the decay c o u l d be e i t h e r economical, p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l or environmental. In some c i t i e s t h e i r downtowns have never matured enough to be i n a s t a t e of decay. They are i n f a c t s u f f e r i n g from the "growing p a i n s " r a t h e r than decay. The downtown i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be the h e a r t 3. of our c i t i e s , which must be kept h e a l t h y a t a l l times i f the c i t i e s are to s u r v i v e (Gruen 1964). A c c o r d i n g to C h a r l e s Abrams: "A c i t y ' s l i f e depends upon whether i t s h e a r t c o n t i n u e s f u n c t i o n i n g . The hear of a c i t y i s i t s downtown. Downtown i s the b u s i n e s s c e n t r e , the p l a c e of work, the museum of s t y l e , the change of scene, the c o n f l u e n c e of d i v e r s i t i e s , the escape to anonymities .... I t i s the p l a c e t h a t draws the masses and t h a t the masses have made." (Abrams 19 61). He f u r t h e r emphasized t h a t the c i t i e s w i t h p u l s a t i n g downtowns are the c i t i e s which t h r i v e . Those w i t h o u t them are doomed to slow o b l i v i o n . The decay of the downtown core may be a t t r i b u t e d t o many causes. But the major cause i s the f l i g h t to the suburbs d u r i n g the 50's made p o s s i b l e by the automobiles and the f r e e -ways. The suburban shopping c n e t r e s soon become v e r y p o p u l a r because of easy a c c e s s i b i l i t y , sample p a r k i n g space and a p e d e s t r i a n m a l l concept which o f f e r e d a s a f e and e n j o y a b l e environment f o r shoppers. The c o m p e t i t i o n from these suburban shopping c e n t r e s has l e d to the d e c l i n e of the r e t a i l t r a d e s i n downtown. Another major reason f o r the decay of the downtown core i s the v e h i c u l a r - p e d e s t r i a n c o n f l i c t . The r a p i d l y r i s i n g p o p u l a t i o n i n our c i t i e s and the i n c r e a s i n g volume of c a r s and t r u c k s have c r e a t e d chaos i n our s t r e e t system. 4. The p e d e s t r i a n s are r e s t r i c t e d t o the narrow s t r i p of sidewalk w h i l e the c a r s which are capable of t r a v e l l i n g a t h i g h speeds are v i r t u a l l y c r a w l i n g a t 5 m.p.h.. The r e s u l t i s q u i t e obvious: a v e r y h i g h a c c i d e n t r a t e , a d e t e r i o r a t i n g environment due to a i r and n o i s e p o l l u t i o n , i n c r e a s i n g mental s t r e s s and f r u s t r a t i o n t o the p e d e s t r i a n s and the d r i v e r s , and a v e r y d e p r e s s i n g view of our c i t y s t r e e t s c a p e . C. REVITALIZATION OF DOWNTOWN & THE PEDESTRIAN MALL The p e d e s t r i a n m a l l was i n t r o d u c e d w i t h the purpose of p r e v e n t i n g f u r t h e r decay of the downtown c o r e , and i n so doing r e s t o r i n g i t s v i t a l i t y as a c e n t r a l p l a c e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of the North American c i t i e s . E c o n o m i c a l l y , r e v i t a l i z a t i o n means the a n t i c i p a t e d i n c r e a s e i n r e t a i l s a l e s and p r o p e r t y v a l u e s . S i n c e the tax base of most of our c i t i e s i s on assessment the i n c r e a s e of p r o p e r t y v a l u e s w i l l t h e r e f o r e b r i n g about an i n c r e a s e i n tax revenues. The improvement of the s t r e e t coupled w i t h the i n c r e a s e of s a l e s w i l l l e a d to the p h y s i c a l improvement of the b u i l d i n g s f r o n t i n g on the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l and a l s o encourage new c o n s t r u c t i o n developments. I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t a b e t t e r p h y s i c a l environment w i l l reduce the crime r a t e of our s t r e e t s . Rudofsky (1964) p o i n t e d out " t h a t the u g l i n e s s of c i t i e s begets boredom and v i o l e n c e i n c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s a l i k e . " 5. S o c i a l l y , r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i m p l i e s an a n t i c i p a t i o n of an i n c r e a s e of p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c i n the m a l l a r e a . T h i s i n c r e a s e of p e d e s t r i a n volume i s important not o n l y to the b u s i n e s s e s but a l s o to the i d e a of r e s t o r i n g the s t r e e t as a s o c i a l space. S o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and "happenings" w i l l a t t r a c t people of a l l ages to v i s i t the m a l l , to enjoy or to p a r t i c i -pate i n the a c t i v i t i e s . R e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the downtown a l s o i m p l i e s the improvement of the environment. As a r e s u l t of the v e h i c l e s being t o t a l l y or p a r t i a l l y banned from the s t r e e t s where these m a l l s are planned t h e r e w i l l be a r e d u c t i o n o f a i r and n o i s e p o l l u t i o n . The v e h i c l e - f r e e and p l e a s u r a b l e e n v i r o n -ment i s most condusive to w a l k i n g and shopping as proven by the success of the suburban shopping c e n t r e s . A lthough the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l i s employed as a t o o l t o r e v i t a l i z e downtown i t has met w i t h f a i l u r e i n some c i t i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s the m a j o r i t y o f the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s c r e a t e d d u r i n g the p a s t 15 years have proven s u c c e s s f u l . D. SCOPE OF THE STUDY The h y p o t h e s i s of t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l p l a y s a v e r y important r o l e i n the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of downton. T h i s paper begins w i t h a r e s e a r c h i n t o the v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s of the s t r e e t , a study of the v a r i o u s types of 6. p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s and t h e i r b a s i c elements. Based on p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e the experi e n c e of some of the c i t i e s o f the world i n b u i l d i n g p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s are reviewed. From the pl a n n i n g process of these e x p e r i e n c e s the g e n e r a l l y adopted procedure and problems i n v o l v e d can be i d e n t i f i e d . These may be u s e f u l as g u i d e l i n e s f o r f u t u r e m a l l developments. The r e c e n t l y completed G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t M a l l i n Vancouver i s d i s -cussed as a case study. In t h i s case study some comparisons are drawn from s i m i l a r m a l l s i n other c i t i e s and some r e -commendations are made to ensure c o n t i n u i n g success of the G r a n v i l l e M a l l . 7. I I . PEDESTRIAN MALLS A. DEFINITION OF THE STREET Since the pedestr ian mal l involves the banning of veh icu lar t r a f f i c on the s t ree t and re turning i t to the f u l l use of the p e d e s t r i a n s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l to understand the funct ion of the s t ree t from h i s t o r i c a l time to the present day. The genera l ly accepted d e f i n i t i o n of today's s t reets i s that i t i s an urban form of layout c o n s i s t i n g of a carriageway for v e h i c l e s , f l anking pavements for pedestr ians , and with frontage development with d i r e c t access to premises for pedestrians and occa s iona l ly for veh ic l e s (Al len 1967). Charles Abrams considered the s t reets as a set of a r t e r i e s v i t a l to the hea l th of the heart which i s the downtown. Louis Kahn i n h i s address to the design seminar, "Man i s the Measure", severa l years ago re fe r red to the s t ree t as a community room where people l i v e , l e a r n , shop and work and that a long s t ree t i s a succession of rooms given t h e i r d i s t i n c t i o n , room for room, by t h e i r meeting of cross ing s t ree t s . He further emphasized: "A c i t y i s measured by the character of i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s . The s t ree t i s one of i t s f i r s t i n s t i t u t i o n s . Today these i n s t i t u t i o n s are on t r i a l . I be l i eve i t i s so because 8. they have l o s t the i n s p i r a t i o n s of t h e i r beg inning . " (Seminar sponsored by American Iron and S tee l I n s t i t u t e , N.Y. ) B. FUNCTION OF THE STREET From the e a r l i e s t periods of town b u i l d i n g the s t ree t has had, to vary ing degrees, three main funct ions , to some extent de l ibera te and to some extent f o r t u i t o u s . These are: (1) a means of d i r e c t access to bu i ld ings which face on to i t or l i e ju s t behind i t ; (2) a means of p h y s i c a l communication between one part of a town and another for people, veh ic l e s and animals; and (3) a means of a f fording contact between people l i v i n g along the s t ree t (Al len 1967). The f i r s t two functions of access and communication are rather c l e a r but the t h i r d funct ion assumes the means whereby chance and planned contacts could take place on the s t ree t and not nece s sa r i ly to be i n a formal gathering place such as the pub l i c square or c i v i c b u i l d i n g . There are a l so other functions which changed the forms of the s t ree t depending on the dynamics of soc ie ty and p o l i t i c a l and c i t y admini s t ra t ion . The Romans, for ins tance , with t h e i r p o l i t i c a l genius for large sca le p h y s i c a l organizat ions , needing to express the concept of Empire, introduced the formally conceived s t ree t for c i v i c spectac le . The mediaeval s t r ee t s , on the other hand, were very t i g h t l y 9. spaced and seemingly random i n t h e i r l a y o u t because they were c o n f i n e d w i t h i n e n c l o s i n g d e f e n s i v e w a l l s . Lawrence H a l p r i n d e s c r i b e d the mediaeval s t r e e t as having i n t r i g u i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r modern people i n t h a t i t tends to be narrow and winding w i t h an a i r of mystery and adventure. One does not see v e r y f a r ahead, and the promise of f u l f i l m e n t i s always one step beyond ( H a l p r i n 1972). The Renaissance s t r e e t was t r e a t e d as grand urban space w i t h both s i d e s l i n e d w i t h a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y designed facades as w e l l as o r d e r l y arranged t r e e s and p l a n t s . These s t r e e t s were a l s o i n t e r c o n n e c t e d w i t h p i a z z a s which were the p e r f e c t space f o r s o c i a l d i s p l a y . The b u i l d i n g of Renaissance s t r e e t s extended w e l l i n t o the 19th c e n t u r y . With i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and the demand f o r r a p i d housing, the g r i d - i r o n l a y o u t became the vogue i n i n d u s t r i a l Europe and /America: because of i t s s i m p l i c i t y and expediency. The s t r e e t s then were r e s t r i c t e d t o the one f u n c t i o n of s e r v i n g the i n d i f f e r e n t b u i l d i n g s which l i n e d them. Today the motor v e h i c l e p e n e t r a t e s every s t r e e t and l a n e of our c i t i e s , v i l l a g e s and towns. As the p o p u l a t i o n and the volume of v e h i c l e s i n c r e a s e a c o n f l i c t i n our s t r e e t s i s i n e v i t a b l e . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l i n the shopping s t r e e t s . Many attempts have been made i n s e g r e g a t i n g the p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c from the c a r s e i t h e r h o r i z o n t a l l y or v e r t i c a l l y , r e s u l t i n g i n the d e s i g n and 10. construct ion of pedestr ian mal l s at various l e v e l s . Sometimes a compromise i s made, r e s u l t i n g i n segregation by time zones and t r a n s i t m a l l s . C . TYPE OF PEDESTRIAN MALLS There are severa l types of pedestr ian mal l s depending on the p h y s i c a l layout of the s t reets and b u i l d i n g s , the volume of t r a f f i c they have to handle, the b u i l d i n g funds ava i l ab le and the kind of environment the c i t y wishes to achieve. The pedestr ian i s simply a person t r a v e l l i n g on foot and a ma l l can be defined as a pedestr ian s t ree t from w h i c h , i n i t s pure form, a l l but emergency veh ic l e s are excluded and which extends the f u l l length of the defined area without i n t e r r u p t i o n . (1) TEMPORARY MALLS These may be market s t reet s c losed to veh ic l e s on market days or busy shopping s t reet s c losed on c e r t a i n days of the week or time of the year , e . g . weekends or Christmas or when the pedestr ian flows are the heav ies t . In Vancouver, Robson S t reet has been temporari ly c losed on several weekends as a temporary m a l l . Many c i t i e s have introduced the temporary mal l as an experiment i n order to discover the p u b l i c ' s and the merchants' r eac t ions , to check sales volume, to record problems 11. t h a t may need a t t e n t i o n and to observe the t r a f f i c flow i f a permanent m a l l i s c o n s i d e r e d . The temporary m a l l s are c r e a t e d by c l o s i n g a s t r e e t , o f t e n the c i t y ' s main shopping s t r e e t , t o v e h i c l e s f o r a s p e c i f i e d t r i a l p e r i o d . Some s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e s , p l a n t e r boxes, k i o s k s and other movable d e c o r a t i o n s are p l a c e d i n the r i g h t of way i n order to c r e a t e a m a l l atmosphere. A f t e r the t e s t , the r i g h t o f way a g a i n becomes the c o n v e n t i o n a l sidewalk and road way. Such temporary m a l l s are g e n e r a l l y f i n a n c e d by the c i t y and some p r i v a t e merchants. The Yonge S t r e e t M a l l i n Toronto and the Madison Avenue M a l l i n New York are examples of temporary m a l l s which d i d not m a t e r i a l i z e i n t o a permanent m a l l . Many p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s do not c o n s i d e r e x p e r i m e n t a l m a l l s a s e r i o u s attempt to s o l v e downtown's problems and c a u t i o n a g a i n s t u s i n g them. V i c t o r Gruen has p o i n t e d out: "The improvement of the appearance of our c i t i e s cannot be accomplished merely by s u b t r a c t i o n , but r a t h e r by a d d i t i o n . By s u b t r a c t i n g automobile t r a f f i c from one s t r e e t w i t h o u t adding a n y t h i n g to i t s environemntal q u a l i t i e s , a d e a d l y atmosphere i s c r e a t e d ... T r a f f i c e l i m i n a t e d from one s t r e e t i s , p e r f o r c e , t r a n s f e r r e d to neighbouring s t r e e t s , and unbearable c o n d i t i o n s of c o n g e s t i o n are thereby c r e a t e d . " (Gruen 1964) 12. (2) TRANSIT MALLS These are streets dedicated to pedestrians and public transport and from which a l l private vehicles are excluded, with t r a n s i t lanes divided from the pedestrian areas. In most cases only buses, emergency vehicles and taxis are allowed i n the mall area. Delivery trucks may be permitted i n the mall area only i n c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d times of the day. In t r a n s i t malls, the sidewalks are widened, leaving a carriage way i n the middle for public transport. This carriage way may take on a serpentine form i n order to reduce the monotony of a st r a i g h t roadway. Extensive planting of trees i s generally employed to provide shade and to emphasize the human scale of the mall. T r a n s i t malls are not f u l l pedestrian malls but they are b u i l t on a permanent ba s i s . A t r a n s i t mall i s i d e a l when there i s no alternate form of transportation to service the area or when the cost for a f u l l mall i s p r o h i b i t i v e . The most pu b l i c i z e d t r a n s i t mall i s the N i c o l l e t M a l l i n Minneapolis. Other recent t r a n s i t malls include the Newcastle Ma l l i n the U.K., the Zurich M a l l i n Switzerland and the Gra n v i l l e Mall i n Vancouver. (3) PERMANENT MALLS These streets are t o t a l l y repaved and a l l t r a f f i c i s 13. banned from e n t e r i n g the s t r e e t s a t a l l times. T h i s type of m a l l a l l o w s complete freedom of movement f o r p e d e s t r i a n s who would otherwise be p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i n h i b i t e d by the presence o f c a r s . A l l m a l l f u r n i t u r e i s r e l a t i v e l y immobile and l a n d s c a p i n g i s on a permanent b a s i s . The s e r v i c e s are p l a c e d underground and the facades of the s t r u c t u r e s f a c i n g the m a l l are g i v e n some form of u n i f i e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l treatment. S i n c e no t r a f f i c i s allowed on these f u l l m a l l s , s c u l p t u r e s , f o u n t a i n s , e t c . can be permanently p l a c e d . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e are g e n e r a l l y spaces a v a i l a b l e f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of sidewalk c a f e s , playgrounds and h o l d i n g o f f l o w e r shows and c o n c e r t s , e t c . . Most of the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s i n Europe are of t h i s type where the d e s i g n blends i n v e r y w e l l w i t h the s c a l e and c h a r a c t e r of the s t r e e t s . The b e s t known examples are the StrjzJget i n Copenhagen and the m a l l i n the Old Town of Munich. In the U.S., f u l l m a l l s can be found i n Kalamazoo, M i c h i g a n and Fresno of C a l i f o r n i a . In Canada, the most s u c c e s s f u l one i s the SparkS S t r e e t M a l l o f Ottawa. Of the t h r e e types of p e d e s t r i a n s t r e e t m a l l s mentioned so f a r , the most expensive w i l l be the permanent m a l l s , because they r e q u i r e v e r y e x t e n s i v e work on the roadway and on r e l o c a t i n g a l l the underground s e r v i c e s . The e x i s t i n g t r a f f i c on these s t r e e t s a l s o has to be r e - r o u t e d . 14 (4) COVERED MALLS T h i s i s another type of permanent m a l l devoted t o p e d e s t r i a n s o n l y except i t i s r o o f e d over. S i n c e the people are p r o t e c t e d from the weather the covered m a l l does convey the f e e l i n g of b e i n g i n a room. M i l a n ' s G a l l e r i a i s an e x c e l l e n t example of t h i s type. T h i s m a l l has a dominantly v e r t i c a l p r o p o r t i o n of space w i t h a g l a s s r o o f over i t . The facade treatment and the f l o o r d e s i g n are w e l l i n t e g r a t e d . The space i s used v e r y e x t e n s i v e -l y f o r a r t shows and e x h i b i t s ( F i g u r e 1 ) . T h i s concept of a covered m a l l i s w i d e l y used i n the shopping c n e t r e s , where the e n t i r e m a l l i s c l o s e d i n and a i r -c o n d i t i o n e d . I t a l l o w s complete freedome of movement w i t h i n the m a l l space and i s i d e a l f o r indoor a r t shows and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . (5) ELEVATED MALLS T h i s type of m a l l i s used to segregate the p e d e s t r i a n s from the v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c by c o n n e c t i n g the second f l o o r s of the b u i l d i n g s w i t h b r i d g e s a c r o s s the s t r e e t s . Thus, the second f l o o r l e v e l s of the b u i l d i n g s become shopping a r c a d e s . T h i s type of m a l l has the advantage of being a b l e to be b u i l t q u i c k l y w i t h o u t having t o c o n f l i c t w i t h underground u t i l i t i e s FIGURE 1 MILAN'S GALLERIA ( Sourcei B. Rudofsky streets for People ) 16. or surface t r a f f i c . However, the design of a e s t h e t i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e bridge connections between bu i ld ings i s a challenge to the a r c h i t e c t and the s t r u c t u r a l engineer. The C i t y of C i n c i n n a t i , Ohio has a planned pedestr ian skyway system which interconnects 10 square blocks i n the heart of the downtown d i s t r i c t . This system i s being developed with a combination of p r i v a t e , munic ipal and federa l f inancing (Fruin 1971). Minneapolis i n Minnesota a lso has an elevated walkway system to complement the N i c o l l e t Street M a l l . So far 16 downtown bu i ld ings have been l i n k e d by 6 elevated walkways which were f inanced mostly by pr iva te developers. The Minneapolis Planning and Development Department has set guide l ines for th i s type of ma l l to insure adequate walkway dimensions for pedes t r ian ' s comfort and safety , to provide s e c u r i t y , and to set design standards. (Figures 2 and 3) (6) UNDERGROUND MALLS The underground malls are completely enclosed and c l i m a t e - c o n t r o l l e d i n both summer and winter . This i s most appreciated during the r igorous winters by a l lowing the pedestr ian to avoid the co ld and s lush above. Shops, theatres and restaurants may l i n e the ma l l and the t r a f f i c and noise of the s t ree t above are completely e l iminated . I t i s important that t h i s type of development should have a v i s u a l 17. SKYWAYS FIGURE 2 MINNEAPOLIS' ELEVATED MALLS SYSTEM Q S O U R C E . : D O W N T O W N COUNCIL, M ' M E A p o U S j J8. FIGURE 3 MINNEAPOLIS' SKYWAY (^f\RCti. fORUM NOV. \9J3) 19. r e l a t i o n s h i p wi th the bu i ld ings and a c t i v i t i e s of the s t reets above. This can be achieved by incorpora t ing some open plazas and s k y l i g h t s , e t c . . Both Montreal and Toronto have embarked on programmes to e s t a b l i s h pedestr ian networks beneath t h e i r c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s . The Montreal system began i n 1962 wi th the development of Place V i l l e - M a r i e shopping ma l l s . This ma l l became so popular that by 19 71 there were approximately 2 miles of connecting pedestr ian passageways serving 40 acres of prime o f f i c e , h o t e l and r e t a i l s tores , inc lud ing 300 underground shops, 50 restaurants and 2500 h o t e l rooms (Fruin 1971). The uniqueness of the Montreal underground system was that i t was f i r s t developed on an ad hoc bas is by i n d i v i d u a l developers and a l l the underground malls were l a t e r l i n k e d together. The Toronto underground pedestr ian c i r c u l a t i o n system has adopted the p r i n c i p l e of an "open" system, which means i t i s open to the s t ree t l e v e l downtown environment. Design guide l ines ind ica te the concern for v a r i e t y of experiences, open space, q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e , s t ree t f u r n i t u r e , e t c . . (Pandakur 1971) Toyko also has a very successful underground shopping mal l leading from the Cent ra l Business D i s t r i c t to Tokyo's Cent ra l Railway S t a t i o n . 20. D. ELEMENTS OF PEDESTRIAN MALLS With the exception of a temporary c losure of a s t ree t there are severa l bas ic elements that are e s s e n t i a l to a pedestr ian mal l i n order to assure i t s success whether i t i s a permanent ma l l or a t r a n s i t m a l l . These bas ic elements, e i t h e r e x i s t i n g or newly added are : (1) The p h y s i c a l elements; (2) Amenit ies ; (3) A c t i v i t i e s ; (4) Services and a c c e s s i b i l i t y ; and (5) M a l l Management. d l . T H E PHYSICAL ELEMENTS The more successful pedestr ian malls are major shopping s t reet s comprising a v a r i e t y of shops, res taurants , theatres , department stores and o f f i c e s . Shopping i s a s o c i a l r i t u a l . In a shopping s t ree t people enjoy looking a t , p r i c i n g or buying merchandise d i sp layed for sale (Bennett 1971). Department stores are e s s e n t i a l i n drawing large crowds of shoppers because they of fer a greater s e l e c t i o n of merchandise at a wider range of p r i c e s . Restaurants, theatres and other entertainment centres are a lso cont r ibu t ing to the success of a pedestr ian m a l l . The o f f i ce s located on or near the mal l w i l l house the daytime populat ion who w i l l patronize the m a l l . The bu i ld ings enclos ing the mal l should be upgraded i f they are d i l a p i d a t e d i n order to create a bet ter v i s u a l 21. environment. B u i l d i n g s o f s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y those of h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e s should be p r e s e r v e d i n o r d e r to m a i n t a i n the i d e n t i t y of the s t r e e t . Another important p h y s i c a l element i s the f l o o r of the m a l l . A f t e r the a s p h a l t roadway has been removed, th e r e i s an o p p o r t u n i t y to t r e a t the f l o o r w i t h d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s and p a t t e r n s and to apply v a r i o u s designs to complement the b u i l d i n g s and other a m e n i t i e s . (2) AMENITIES The term amenities i n t h i s s e c t i o n i m p l i e s the added f e a t u r e s t o the m a l l which tend to make i t more a t t r a c t i v e and p l e a s a n t f o r the p e d e s t r i a n s . These w i l l i n c l u d e p l a n t i n g of t r e e s of s u i t a b l e s i z e s , l a n d s c a p i n g , removable p l a n t e r boxes, e t c . . L i g h t i n g standards and d e s i g n are very important i n c r e a t i n g a s p e c i a l e f f e c t or an atmosphere f o r s t r o l l i n g and w a l k i n g , e s p e c i a l l y a t n i g h t time. Lamp pol e s d e s i g n , l i g h t i n g l e v e l s , s i z e and l o c a t i o n of s i g n s , e t c . must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Many m a l l s have i n c l u d e d f o u n t a i n s and s c u l p t u r e s as f o c a l p o i n t s whenever the space permits w i t h the purpose of e n r i c h i n g v i s u a l d i v e r s i t y along the path network. Other amenities i n c l u d e k i o s k s , benches and canopies f o r the convenience of the p e d e s t r i a n s . (3) ACTIVITIES The success of a p e d e s t r i a n m a l l depends l a r g e l y on the volume of people u t i l i z i n g the space. A p a r t from the shops and entertainment e s t a b l i s h m e n t s which tend to a t t r a c t the crowd, ot h e r a c t i v i t i e s are a l s o i n t r o d u c e d to make a m a l l area a s o c i a l space. A c t i v i t i e s t h a t are g e n e r a l l y found t a k i n g p l a c e i n the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s are a r t s and c r a f t s shows, outdoor c o n c e r t s , f l o w e r and food markets, e t h n i c f e s t i v i t i e s , c h i l d r e n ' s days, e t c . S a l e s promotions i n c l u d e boat shows, an t i q u e car shows, sidewalk c a f e s , s p e c i a l m a l l s a l e s days and many o t h e r s . A l l the above a c t i v i t i e s i f w e l l planned and p u b l i c i z e d w i l l b r i n g people to the downtown core a g a i n . (4) SERVICES AND ACCESSIBILITY When s t r e e t s are co n v e r t e d i n t o p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s most os the u t i l i t i e s such as telephone and pwer l i n e s have to be r e l o c a t e d or p l a c e d underground. The r e l o c a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s and u t i l i t i e s comprises a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l c o s t of the m a l l c o n v e r s i o n although these cannot be seen. Loading s e r v i c e s are c o n f i n e d to the back of the b u i l d i n g i f there i s a l a n e , otherwise they can be c a r r i e d out o n l y d u r i n g c e r t a i n hours o f the day. A c c e s s i b i l i t y must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g stage of the m a l l . People a r r i v e a t the m a l l s e i t h e r on foot , by pr iva te car or various forms of pub l i c t ranspor ta t ion . Those who come on foot are mainly from the housing i n and around the downtown core or from the o f f i c e s . But the major pedestr ian t r a f f i c generators are the car parks, bus stops, underground or rai lway s t a t ions . I t i s des i rab le to keep walking dis tance from these t r a f f i c generators as small as po s s ib l e . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y accepted c r i t e r i o n for pedestr ian access to the malls i s approximately a 5 minute maximum walking d i s t ance . This i s about 400-500 metres, except for older people and young c h i l d r e n which i s about 300 metres maximum (Cott le 1972). I t i s therefore e s s e n t i a l that car parks, bus stops, e tc . are s t r a t e g i c a l l y located i n order to provide maximum convenience for the pedestr ians . (5) MALL MANAGEMENT Although there i s considerable l i t e r a t u r e wr i t t en about pedestr ian ma l l s , the various aspects of ma l l management have not been dea l t with i n depth. Af te r the pedestr ian mal l has been completed, i t requires much greater a t tent ion on the cont inuing f i n a n c i n g , p o l i c i n g , operat ion and maintenance to insure the continuing success. Without proper management a l l the noble goals and object ives may be defeated. The mal l w i l l dec l ine and eventual ly re turn to i t s o ld form of a t r a f f i c - c l o g g e d and congested s t ree t with an unsafe and unhealthy atmosphere as demonstrated i n the m a l l f a i l u r e i n Vienna. The a u t h o r i t y of c o n t i n u i n g manage-ment may be i n the hands of the c i t y or a m a l l merchant a s s o c i a t i o n i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the c i t y . I t may be mentioned here t h a t survey of o p i n i o n s o f the p e d e s t r i a n s should be c a r r i e d out and e v a l u a t e d . New idea s may be i n t r o d u c e d by the m a l l management a u t h o r i t y t o make the m a l l a dynamic space. 25. I I I . REVIEW OF PEDESTRIAN MALL EXPERIENCE For the p a s t 18 years many p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s have been experimented w i t h and b u i l t a l l over the w o r l d . Some f a i l e d but most succeeded. A review of some ex p e r i e n c e s w i t h m a l l s p r o v i d e s an i n s i g h t i n t o the reasons why some m a l l s are more s u c c e s s f u l than the o t h e r s and why some never got o f f the ground a t a l l . The c r i t i c i s m on the m a l l s i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the paper are mostly taken from a v a i l a b l e p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l . O c c a s i o n a l comments are p r o v i d e d by the author were a p p l i c a b l e . A. EUROPEAN AND U.K. EXPERIENCE There are important d i f f e r e n c e s between the m a l l s of the Euopean c i t i e s and the U.S./Canadian c i t i e s . European c i t i e s have n a t u r a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l a t t r a c t i o n s , p l u s s t r e e t s o f t e n designed f o r p e d e s t r i a n use; o n l y the i n s a t i a b l e d e s i r e of the automobile f o r space had t h r e a t e n e d t h e i r v i a b i l i t y . V e n i c e , f o r example, has always been a p e d e s t r i a n c i t y , and a l l the o t h e r forms of t r a f f i c have been permanently segregated from the p e d e s t r i a n s . European c i t i e s a l s o took advantage of the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n programme a f t e r the wat d e s t r u c t i o n to c r e a t e more s t r e e t s and p r e c i n c t s f o r p e d e s t r i a n use. The new towns t h a t have sprung up i n England a f t e r the Second World War are mostly p e d e s t r i a n o r i e n t e d . Four m a l l s are d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g pages. (1) COPENHAGEN, DENMARK The StrjzSget i n Copenhagen i s one of the most famous and i n t e r e s t i n g pedestr ian malls i n Europe. I t i s approximately 1,200 metres long and i t var ie s i n width from 9 metres for most of the mal l to 31 metres at c e r t a i n p o i n t s . The Str^get i s a nickname for f i ve ancient s t reets l i n k i n g two main squares where the Town H a l l and the Opera House are located i n the mediaeval part of the c i t y . The Strjz5get (Figures 4 & 5) i s b i sec ted by three main t r a f f i c - b e a r i n g s treets each c o n t r o l l e d by t r a f f i c l i g h t s , and by three minor cross ings where pedestrians have the r i g h t of way. The advent of motor t ranspor ta t ion threatened to turn the core area in to a pedestr ian zone about 20 years ago. But business oppos i t ion delayed ac t ion u n t i l 1962, when the town c o u n c i l secretary suddenly banned t r a f f i c from most of Str^get , with the purpose of improving the environment. At f i r s t , r eac t ion was h o s t i l e but a f ter 4 months of experience and a considerable increase i n p r o f i t , the business community changed i t s a t t i tude completely and was s trongly i n favour of the mal l idea . A further experimental per iod of 12 months was c a r r i e d out before a d e c i s i o n was reached i n convert ing the Str^get in to a permanent m a l l . By 1967 the s t ree t was completely repaved as a permanent mal l and s t ree t furn i ture was added. 27. FIGURE 4 THE STR0GET, COPENHAGEN ( Sourcei GLC Intelligence Unit Quarterly Bulletin, No. 21, December 1972. ) FIGURE 5 VIEW OF THE STR0GET ( Sourrai HT.P qmrf v Tm.r. 1Q-71 1 29. The s i g n i f i c a n t point of the Str^get was that the pedes t r i an iza t ion scheme was sponsored and implemented by the C i t y C o u n c i l without previous consu l ta t ion with the businesses. Nevertheless , despite t h e i r i n i t i a l mi sg iv ings , i t seems to haye operated smoothly and succes s fu l ly . Thi s mal l has a t t rac ted large numbers of s t r o l l e r s , t o u r i s t s and shoppers. I t has replaced the squares funct ion as the town's meeting and gathering p lace . The Str^get i s c r i t i c i z e d for being too shop-oriented, which has forced many mono l i th i c , b lock- s i zed department stores to c l o s e . Some c r i t i c s a lso f e e l that i f the area i s to surv ive , there i s a need for more diverse a c t i v i t i e s , such as workshops, theatres , restaurants and l i b r a r i e s for c h i l d r e n and adults ( V i l l e c c o 1973). (2) MUNICH, GERMANY The pedestr ian mal l i n the Old Town of Munich i s probably the most successful one i n Europe. This mal l i s approximately 900 metres long and 22 metres wide comprising two main shopping s t r ee t s , Neuhauserstrasse and Kauf ingers trasse . This ma l l s t a r t s and ends with h i s t o r i c landmarks which are located at Kar l sp laz at one end and Marienplatz at the other . (Figures 6 & 7) 30. FIGURE 6 MUNICH'S PEDESTRIAN MALL ( Sources GLC Study Tour, 1971 ) . - - • • - ' - - " - » ^ / V. 'w. ,Ti* V . - S . . V . fJiW FIGURE 7 MAP OF MUNICH'S PEDESTRIAN MALL ( Sourcei GLC Studv Tour. 1971 \ The en t i r e pro jec t has been met iculous ly planned, s t a r t i n g with an ana lys i s of the c i t y i n i t s e n t i r e t y and i t s t ransporta t ion systems i n p a r t i c u l a r . A f t e r World War I I , the heav i ly damaged c i t y was r e b u i l t around the o r i g i n a l mediaeval town and i t s s t ruc tures . Some of the s treets have been widened so that the mal l space can be used more than for shopping. Thi s arrangement c l e a r l y shows that the malls are intended as a s o c i a l space. In 1965, a l o c a l planner analyzed the core area and showed that i t s v i t a l i t y depended l a r g e l y on pedestrians and that motor t r a f f i c only detracted from the area. A pedestr ian m a l l was proposed to strengthen the inner c i t y against d e c l i n e . In 1966, the C i t y C o u n c i l announced a competit ion and the winning a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i rm s tar ted preparing plans for the core area. During the planning stage, the l o c a l property owners were consulted at a l l times and the designs were reviewed i n the newspapers, so that by 1969 the pro jec t was o f f i c i a l l y approved with a l l controvers ies already se t t l ed . . The most important part of the m a l l ' s planning was the C i t y ' s in s i s t ence on severa l pre-condi t ions for the pro jec t . One of these pre-condi t ions was that the mal l must be supported by an improved pub l i c t ransporta t ion system and that the m a l l must be integrated with the two subways under construct ion for the 1972 summer Olympics. The C i t y a l so d e c i d e d to ban a l l but emergency, maintenance and s e r v i c e v e h i c l e s from the m a l l i t s e l f and d e c i d e d t o r e g u l a t e t h e i r schedule. The m a l l was completed on schedule j u s t b e f o r e the Olympic Games i n June 1972 ( V i l l e c c o 1973). A f t e r the m a l l was completed, an e v a l u a t i o n showed t h a t the tr a d e had i n c r e a s e d by 40% and the p e d e s t r i a n volume had i n c r e a s e d by 60% (G.L.C. 1971). The m a l l has a l s o l e d to e x t e n s i v e work on r e s t o r a t i o n and redevelopment of the p e d e s t r i a n area ( C o t t l e 1972). The success o f the m a l l may be a t t r i b u t e d to the easy access p r o v i d e d by the subway which runs beneath the e n t i r e m a l l ( F i g u r e 7 ) . (3) NORWICH, ENGLAND Norwich i s one of the h i s t o r i c c i t i e s l o c a t e d near the e a s t c o a s t of England. S i n c e the s t r e e t p a t t e r n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n the 11th c e n t u r y , the automobile had posed a r e a l t h r e a t to the c i t y ' s environment and development. In 1967, the c i t y c o u n c i l c r e a t e d an urban s t r a t e g y f o r Norwich to the year 2000. T h i s urban s t r a t e g y i s more than a t r a f f i c p l a n because i t s e t s the g o a l of l i m i t i n g t r a f f i c i n the core and e v e n t u a l l y t u r n i n g the h i s t o r i c area over to the p e d e s t r i a n s . As f a r as the p l a n n i n g process i s concerned Norwich s t a r t e d w i t h a 6 month e x p e r i m e n t a l c l o s i n g of London S t r e e t which i s a narrow, winding road t h a t j o i n s the market and c a t h e d r a l areas of the c i t y ( F i g u r e 8). During the e x p e r i -mental p e r i o d the c i t y worked c l o s e l y w i t h l o c a l b u s i n e s s e s . Newspaper and T e l e v i s i o n were used t o generate p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n . S i n c e the experiment was s u c c e s s f u l , London S t r e e t was made i n t o a permanent m a l l i n May 1968. In 19 69 i t was completely repaved and t r e e s , p l a n t e r s , s e a t s , showcases, l i t t e r b i n s and new l i g h t i n g were i n s t a l l e d . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s m a l l i s t h a t i t was not j u s t an i s o l a t e d phenomenon; i t was w e l l i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a t o t a l development and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o u t l o o k ( V i l l e c c o 1973). The narrowness of the meandering s t r e e t s p r o v i d e s an i n t i m a t e atmosphere f o r the m a l l . (4) NEWCASTLE, ENGLAND Newcastle i s the most important shopping c e n t r e as w e l l as the s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and commercial focus of the n o r t h -e a s t r e g i o n o f England. As p a r t of the t o t a l p r ocess of s u s t a i n i n g the v i t a l i t y of the c e n t r a l core a r e a , the c i t y d e c i d e d to co n v e r t Northumberland S t r e e t i n t o a t r a n s i t m a l l (Figufce 9 ) . T h i s m a l l , completed i n 1971, i s approximately 265 metres long and 21 metres wide and i t c o n t a i n s many of the l a r g e s t s t o r e s 3 5 . FIGURE 8 A PEDESTRIAN MALL IN NORWICH ( Sourcei V. Gruen Centres for the Urban Enviroment ) FIGURE 9 NEWCASTLE'S PEDESTRIAN MALL * ( Sourcei GLC Study Tour,1971 ) i n the c i t y . There are a l s o some very s u c c e s s f u l s m a l l e r s p e c i a l t y shops and t h e a t r e s . The t r a n s i t way was reduced to 5.3 m and the pavements were i n c r e a s e d i n width from 3.5 m to 7.0 m. Bays 2.5 m wide are p r o v i d e d f o r s e r v i c i n g v e h i c l e s and buses. S u b s t a n t i a l p l a n t i n g boxes and s e a t i n g s have been i n s t a l l e d . T h i s p r o j e c t was 100% f i n a n c e d by the C i t y and the success of t h i s m a l l cannot t r u l y be e v a l u a t e d u n t i l the proposed r a p i d t r a n s i t system has become a r e a l i t y (G.L.C. 1971). (5) OTHER MALLS Many o t h e r m a l l s have been e s t a b l i s h e d throughout Europe and the U.K. i n c i t i e s such as Vien n a , Essen, Amsterdam, Stockholm, Leeds, Glasgow and London. I t might be of i n t e r e s t t o note t h a t Vienna's p e d e s t r i a n m a l l , which c e n t r e s aronnd the c a t h e d r a l a r e a , i s c o n s i d e r e d a f a i l u r e . The scheme has d e t e r i o r a t e d s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 1971 because of i t s l a c k o f environmental improvements such as re p a v i n g i n the wide s t r e e t s and the l a c k of enforcement r e g u l a t i o n s by p o l i c e . A l l k i n d s of v e h i c l e s are e n t e r i n g the m a l l area d e s p i t e the p r o h i b i t i v e s i g n s . Loading and unlo a d i n g are c a r r i e d out a t a l l hours and the m a l l i s f u l l of parked c a r s . A t the same time the b u s i n e s s e s were a l s o a g a i n s t any demonstrations and youth a c t i v i t i e s i n the m a l l ( C o t t l e 1972; V i l l e c c o 1973; G.L.C. 1971). 38. I t was reported only r e c e n t l y that Moscow has planned to turn one of i t s o ldes t s t r e e t s , October 25 S t ree t , in to a pedestr ian m a l l and b u i l d a tunnel under i t to carry v e h i c l e t r a f f i c . (Vancouver Sun, January 15, 1975) The October 25 S t ree t , which honours the Russian r e v o l u t i o n , i s l i n e d wi th h i s t o r i c bu i ld ings and shops. I t a l so l i n k s Red Square wi th Dzerzhinsk i Square. B. U .S . EXPERIENCE In the United States , wherethe car has long dominated c i t y p lanning , the s treets are more often s t r a i g h t and the a rch i tec ture mostly "barren" or u n i n s p i r i n g as compared to c i t i e s r i c h i n heri tage from the middle ages or before . In the U.S . one has to r e l y on more than na tura l charm to p lan a successful ma l l ( V i l l e c c o 1973). Consequently, the s t ree t that has been chosen to be converted in to a mal l must have a high p o t e n t i a l for r ec rea t ion and i t must be one which i s present ly experiencing a pedes t r i an-vehic le c o n f l i c t . (1) KALAMAZOO, MICHIGAN The Kalamazoo M a l l i s probably one of the e a r l i e s t permanent pedestr ian malls that were ever b u i l t i n the U . S . . This mal l ,which was completed i n August 1959,is only two blocks long . The s t reet i n the two block area was r ipped up and the sidewalks were widened. Pavement was l a i d i n coloured 39. squares and new l i g h t i n g i n s t a l l e d . The t o t a l cost of the construct ion wag derived from general c i t y taxes, s p e c i a l property tax assessment and renta l s of a stage to c i t y businessmen (Aspo Newsletter , December 19 59). In order to cont ro l and regulate a l l a c t i v i t i e s on the mal l and to maintain i t s aes thet ic appeal and pleasantness, the C i t y of Kalamazoo has es tab l i shed a Pedestr ian M a l l Advisory Board, which i s made up of 7 members: s ix to be appointed by C i t y C o u n c i l together with the D i r e c t o r of the Park Board. In a d d i t i o n , there i s a c i t y ordinance to encourage well-designed s igns , decorat ion and s torefronts i n the downtown area (See G r a n v i l l e M a l l Resource M a t e r i a l #1). (2) FRESNO, CALIFORNIA In 19 58 the f irm of V i c t o r Gruen Associates was commissioned by the C i t y of Fresno and a downtown merchant organizat ion to conduct a study i n order to e s t a b l i s h goals and c r i t e r i a for the redevelopment of downtown Fresno. Gruen's proposal submitted to the C i t y included two new freeways that would be joined with an e x i s t i n g freeway so as to create a t r i angu la r core area of 2500 acres . Within th i s area a pedestr ian-only core super-block of 36 acres (three by s ix b locks , enclosed by a loop road) was proposed ( F i g u r e s 1.0 & 11) . T h i s p r o p o s a l of the s u p e r - b l o c k was approved and implemented by the C i t y C o u n c i l . By September 19 64 a network of p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s c e n t e r i n g on F u l t o n S t r e e t were c r e a t e d (Arch. Record. June 1965). Gruen used water as the c e n t r a l a e s t h e t i c theme i n response to the warm c l i m a t e . He has i n c l u d e d i n the m a l l many f o u n t a i n s , ponds and r i v u l e t s . T r e l l i s e s and shade t r e e s are used to s h e l t e r the s i t t i n g and p l a y a r e a s . S i n c e the F u l t o n S t r e e t M a l l i s 6 b l o c k s l o n g , a slow speed e l e c t r i c tramway which w i l l run the e n t i r e l e n g t h o f the m a l l was i n s t a l l e d . There are a l s o two l a r g e playgrounds t o a t t r a c t c h i l d r e n ( V i l l e c c o 1973). The success of the m a l l i s due to the combined e f f o r t of the c i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , l o c a l businessmen and the renewal agency d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g s t a g e . Gruen's f i r m f e l t t h a t t h e r e i s room f o r improvement, e s p e c i a l l y i n the areas o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n . Judging from the plans and photographs,Fulton S t r e e t M a l l i s much more than a shopping s t r e e t f r e e from c a r s but a l s o an urban park. The s i z e of the scheme i s a l s o b i g g e r than most oth e r schemes i n N o r t h America. (3) MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA The N i c o l l e t M a l l i n M i n n e a p o l i s i s c o n s i d e r e d one of the most s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t m a l l s i n North America. I t 41. f • ! ««• .!. q r i L^n" So coJ QrBI VAN NESS AVENUE QIIPo.L FULTON S T B E " -DDTQ • LTJi_ BROAOWAY STREET II12vS • ID mo. FIGURE 10 PLAN OF FRESNO'S PEDESTRIAN MALL 1  I fr .1 FIGURE 11 VIEW OF FRESNO'S PEDESTRIAN MALL ( Sourcei Arch i tec ture P lus , A p r i l 1973 ) 42. s t a r t e d i n 1957 when the C i t y C o u n c i l was p r e s s u r e d by the c e n t r a l area b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s to stop f u r t h e r d e c l i n e i n the r e t a i l t r a d e s due to c o m p e t i t i o n from the suburban c e n t r e s . A c o n s u l t i n g f i r m was engaged to assess the s t r e n g t h and weakness of N i c o l l e t Avenue which was the major shopping s t r e e t i n M i n n e a p o l i s ( F i g u r e s 12 & 13) . The c o n s u l t a n t ' s study showed f i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s but the t r a n s i t m a l l scheme was favoured by the m a j o r i t y . Con-s t r u c t i o n began i n 1966 and the M a l l , as w e l l as the t r a n s i t way, were completed i n 1968. The concept of the t r a n s i t m a l l was to p r e s e r v e the b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of" the s t r e e t , w h i l e a l l o w i n g i t to be dominated by the p e d e s t r i a n r a t h e r than the motor v e h i c l e . The t r a n s i t way was reduced to 7.3 m wide from 18 m w i t h a s e r p e n t i n e alignment which allowed the c o n v e n i e n t p l a c i n g of landscape f e a t u r e s such as bus s h e l t e r s , s e a t s and d i r e c t o r i e s . The s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s t h a t were s e t f o r t h can be c a p i t u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : (1) To improve p e d e s t r i a n c i r c u l a t i o n i n terms of e f f i c i e n c y and comfort; (2) To improve access and encourage mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n usage. (3) To c r e a t e new o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r promotion of the r e t a i l a rea and the C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t . (4) To encourage p r i v a t e investment. I t was a s s e s s e d t h a t a l l the main o b j e c t i v e s have been FIGURE 12 PLAN AND AERIAL VIEW OF NICOLLET MALL 44. PARKING RAMPS FIGURE 13 PARKING AREAS AROUND NICOLLET MALL ( Sourcet Nicollet Mall, City of Minneapolis ) reached a f t e r the m a l l has been i n o p e r a t i o n f o r s e v e r a l years (Aschman 1971). Throughout the p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n stage which t o g e t h e r took oyer 10 y e a r s , t h e r e was c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n between the C i t y C o u n c i l , the P l a n n i n g Department, the businessmen and the c o n s u l t a n t . I t a l s o had s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p and p e r s i s t e n c e by the people concerned to b r i n g such a p r o j e c t t o f r u i t i o n . I t i s important t o note t h a t the m a l l today does not j u s t e x i s t ; i t i s m a i n t a i n e d and enhanced through c o n t i n u i n g e f f o r t and t h i s i s p a i d f o r through annual s p e c i a l assessments on the a f f e c t e d p r o p e r t y (Aschman 1971; Robertson 1973; G.L.C. 1971; V i l l e c c o 1973). (4) NEW YORK, NEW YORK Madison Avenue i n New York C i t y was c l o s e d d u r i n g the summer of 1972 as an exp e r i m e n t a l m a l l . The i d e a was to c r e a t e a t r a n s i t m a l l along Madison Avenue i f the experiment proved f a v o u r a b l e i n order to a t t r a c t more p e d e s t r i a n s to the Midtown shopping area ( F i g u r e 14). U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l m a l l d i d not r e c e i v e any support from the b u s i n e s s e s . L i k e many ex p e r i m e n t a l m a l l s the l a c k of amenities conveyed an unfavourable image to the FIGURE 14 PLAN OF MADISON AVENUE MALL, N .Y . 47. b u s i n e s s e s and the p e d e s t r i a n s , Madison Avenue i s a major uptown r o u t e f o r c a r s and as a r e s u l t of the temporary c l o s u r e , i t c r e a t e d tremendous t r a f f i c problems f o r the o t h e r s t r e e t s . Today t h i s I d e a of c o n v e r t i n g Madison Avenue i n t o a p e d e s t r i a n m a l l has been t e m p o r a r i l y d i s c a r d e d . One c r i t i c i s m of t h i s m a l l i s t h a t the s t r e e t s were c l o s e d by the C i t y w i t h o u t c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the merchants. There was a l s o a l a c k of communication d u r i n g the experimental p e r i o d . C. CANADIAN EXPERIENCE In Canada the ex p e r i e n c e s w i t h p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s are v e r y s i m i l a r to t h a t of the U n i t e d S t a t e s because our s t r e e t systems are b a s i c a l l y the same and our m a l l s are modelled a f t e r those b u i l t i n the U.S.. The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t p e d e s t r i a n m a l l p r o j e c t s i n Canada do not r e c e i v e any F e d e r a l g r a n t , whereas i n the U.S. most m a l l s r e c e i v e d F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e i f they were approved by an urban renewal agency. P e d e s t r i a n m a l l s have been c o n s t r u c t e d or t r i e d out only i n major urban c e n t r e s such as Ottawa, Toronto, C a l g a r y and Vancouver, but t h i s i d e a o f p e d e s t r i a n i z i n g our main 48. s t reets has already spread to the small centres such as Quebec C i t y , V i c t o r i a , Vernon and many others . (1) OTTAWA, ONTARIO The most celebrated m a l l i n Canada i s the Sparks Street M a l l i n Ottawa (Figures 15 & 16). I t was i n i t i a t e d by a group of businessmen, who i n 19 59 formed the Sparks Street Development A s s o c i a t i o n (SSDA) to promote the idea of a pedestr ian m a l l . At that time the business on Sparks Street was d e c l i n i n g due mainly to the increas ing competit ion from spreading suburban shopping centres coupled with the increas ing t r a f f i c congestion and parking problem i n downtown. This idea of pedes t r i an iz ing Sparks S treet rece ived the support from the C i t y of Ottawa and the Nat iona l C a p i t a l Commission. The planning process began with a f i e l d t r i p to Toledo, which at that time was experimenting a temporary m a l l . As soon as the SSDA was formed, Sparks Street was c losed to veh icu la r t r a f f i c by c i t y by-law for s ix consecutive summers. The s t ree t surface was painted and other features added to convert i t in to a temporary m a l l . The aim was to create an urban environment i n which t rees , f lowers , grass , water, outdoor cafes , sculptures and other features w i l l create a relaxed and pleasant atmosphere conducive to r e s t i n g , 49. PLAN OF SPARKS STREET MALL. OTTAWA FIGURE 15 — The Sparks Street Experiment 1960 ) ( Sourcei A. Tate 50. FIGURE 16 VIEW OF SPARKS STREET MALL, OTTAWA. (Sourcei Architecture Plus, A p r i l 1973) s t r o l l i n g , shopping, seeing or being seen. During th i s experimental pe r iod , opinion surveys of the pub l i c and of the businesses were conducted and the re su l t s were mostly i n favour of a permanent pedestr ian m a l l . The SSDA l a t e r organized a C i t i z e n s Committee to oversee and cont ro l the cos t -es t imat ing , evaluat ing and the planning of the permanent m a l l . In 1964 the m a l l was f i n a l l y completed with the t o t a l cost shared equal ly between the C i t y and the property owners. The mal l has a rock court as a c e n t r a l feature. Other amenities include a s t e e l and stained-cedar c lock tower; a speaker's p la t form; open-air res taurants , temporary and permanent sculptures and a r t e x h i b i t s ; an e x h i b i t i o n kiosk and an information booth. Unl ike many other schemes the Sparks Street M a l l was not planned as part of an urban development scheme nor was i t integrated in to a c i ty-wide t ransporta t ion p l an . Yet , i t stands up as one of the most popular places i n Ottawa. Another important point i s that there are s ix M a l l Commissioners appointed to maintain the m a l l and c o n t r o l changes to bu i ld ings and s ign i n order to safeguard the m a l l i n the future (Tate 1960, V i l l e c c o 1973, Harvor 1964, Flanders 1969). (2) CALGARY, ALBERTA The 8th Avenue M a l l i n C a l g a r y was b u i l t as p a r t of an o v e r a l l movement p o l i c y known as the +15 e l e v a t e d walkway system. The p e d e s t r i a n m a l l i s 2 b l o c k s long and 66 f e e t wide w i t h shops on both s i d e s ( F i g u r e s 17 & 18). I t was designed as an "urban park" and y e t a t r a n s i t way was l e f t i n the middle of the s t r e e t . R e c e n t l y a Vancouver c o n s u l t a n t v i s i t e d the 8th Avenue M a l l and r e p o r t e d t h a t although t h i s m a l l was v e r y popular d u r i n g the daytime, i t was not c o n s i d e r e d a success e i t h e r by the businessmen or by the p l a n n e r s . The g e n e r a l complaint of the merchants was t h a t t h e r e were too many s t r o l l e r s and by-standers and not enough shoppers. The merchants were a l s o imjappy about the scheme because there was no communication d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s between the merchants and the C i t y . As a r e s u l t t h e r e i s the l a c k of a s t r o n g merchant group which i s so e s s e n t i a l i n making the m a l l a c o n t i n u i n g s u c c e s s . Another comment was t h a t the t r a n s i t - w a y t h a t was l e f t on the m a l l has prevented the a d d i t i o n of any d e s i g n f e a t u r e s or a m e n i t i e s to improve the p h y s i c a l environment (Bain 1973, Pendakur 1971, B.B.H. 1973). An urban park i s p r i m a r i l y a s o c i a l space f o r people and not n e c e s s a r i l y f o r b u s i n e s s g a i n s . In t h i s .regard, the 8th Avenue M a l l i s s u c c e s s f u l because i t has f u l f i l l e d the p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the m a l l has not l i v e d up FIGURE 17a PEOPLE ON 8TH AVENUE MALL, CALGARY FIGURE 17 PLAN OF 8th AVENUE MALL, CALGARY. ( Sourcei Highway Research Record #355, 1971 ) 54. ( Sourcei R.B. Baine Calgary, An Urban Study.) to the expectations of the merchants for an increase i n t h e i r business sa le s . (3) TORONTO, ONTARIO The Yonge Street i n Toronto was e s tab l i shed as an experimental pedestr ian mal l for the past few summers s ince 19 71. The durat ion of the convert ing the s t ree t in to a mal l var ied from 4 weeks to 3 months. The primary purpose was to separate pedestr ian and veh icu la r t r a f f i c i n an attempt to improve pedestr ian movement. A t the same time the C i t y Counc i l expected to obtain reac t ion of what would happen to Yonge Street i f i t were set up as a permanent ma l l (Figures 19a & 19b). During the experimental per iod of the summer of 1971 which l a s ted for only one month, the business sales had nei ther increased nor decreased, although the pub l i c t r a n s i t bureau reported an increase of 3% i n passengers t r a v e l l i n g downtown. On th i s point the pedestr ian mal l was not considered as a success. A l so because of i t s i n i t i a l a t t r a c t i o n , there were so many people crowded in to the mal l during the week that i t d id not i n fact funct ion as a v i a b l e pedestr ian walkway. (Metropolitan Toronto T r a f f i c Conference, January 13, 1972). During the summer of 1973, the Yonge S t reet M a l l was increased to e ight blocks long . The theme of that year was 56. FIGURE 19b TEMPORARY PLANTERS ON YONGE ST. MALL "Main S t r e e t Canada". As can be seen from the t r a f f i c diagram, the people u s i n g the m a l l were t o t a l l y confused because c e r t a i n b l o c k s along the m a l l p e r m i t t e d c a r s and c e r t a i n b l o c k s d i d not. The t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n s a l s o changed f o r d i f f e r e n t days of the week (Fi g u r e 19). The m a l l experiment was a g a i n c a r r i e d out i n the summer of 1974. The major problem i n the m a l l seemed to be the c o n t r o l of the l a r g e number of p e d d l a r s , panhandlers and l i t e r e r s . P o l i c e o f f i c i a l s r e p o r t e d a t a M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P o l i c e Commission meeting on A p r i l 3rd, 1975 t h a t more than 1,200 persons were a r r e s t e d i n the downtown Yonge S t r e e t M a l l d u r i n g the summer of 1974 and charged w i t h o f f e n c e s r a n g i n g from l i q u o r - l a w i n f r a c t i o n s to attempted murder (Vancouver Sun A p r i l 4, 1975). The C i t y C o u n c i l f e l t t h a t w i t h a s t r i c t e r p o l i c e c o n t r o l the crime element would d i s a p p e a r from the M a l l a r e a . There was a l s o s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t the C i t y should r e s t r i c t the i s s u a n c e of l i c e n s e s to c e r t a i n types of b u s i n e s s e s which would downgrade the a r e a . The author f e e l s t h a t the s o c i a l problems encountered on Yonge S t r e e t M a l l i s one common to a l l l a r g e urban c e n t r e s i n North America and not n e c e s s a r i l y a t t r i b u t e d to the M a l l i t s e l f . L i k e the 8th Avenue M a l l i n C a l g a r y , the Yonge S t r e e t M a l l succeeded as a s o c i a l space because i t -has a t t r a c t e d l a r g e crowds of people, but i t f a i l e d i n c r e a t i n g s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s i n s a l e s f o r the merchants. G r m u n n s r C10SI.0 [XCffT /:00A.M. 10 10.00 A.M. FOR OEi rvERirs OPEN TWO WAY MONDAY TO FRIDAY CLOSED WEEKENDS AND HOUOAYS n i i N O A S s r . TERAULAY $T, TRINITY SQUARE IQl ' ISAST TWO LANES NORTHBOUND MONDAY 10 FR'PAY. CLOSED WFfKfNOSAND HOUOAYS. CLOSED FOR DURATION OF MAIL s\ SIIUTEH ST. AlBERT ST. CLOSED EXCEPT 7:80 A.M. 1010:00 A.M. FOR DELIVERIES L OPEN TWO WAY MONOAY TO FRIDAY CLOSEO WEEKENDS ANO HOLIDAYS QUEEN ST. CLOSED FOR DURATION OF MAIL 7 '• " I I M O N D S T TF MfTRANT A O E L A i n r S T f:*T.l~3 I KING ST I TWO LANES N0RIH80UXO AT ALL TIMES 58 FIGURE 19 YONGE STREET MALL TRAFFIC REGULATIONS, SUMMER, 1973. ( Sourcei Toronto City Council Report June 15,1973 ) D. ASIAN EXPERIENCE Very l i t t l e i s w r i t t e n about the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l movement i n A s i a and the F a r E a s t although many m a l l s have e x i s t e d f o r c e n t u r i e s as p a r t of t h e i r indigenous s t r e e t system. In Tokyo, however, the main shopping and e n t e r t a i n -ment s t r e e t i n Ginza d i s t r i c t was c l o s e d on s e v e r a l Sundays as an e x p e r i m e n t a l m a l l to combat the a i r p o l l u t i o n problem. I t was a completely d i f f e r e n t s i g h t to f i n d the s t r e e t suddenly f l o o d e d w i t h thousands of people a f t e r the c a r s had been banned (F i g u r e s 20 & 2 ] ) . The i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t i n t h i s experiment was t h a t people were not a f r a i d of crowded p l a c e s . Another example of an A s i a n p e d e s t r i a n m a l l i s the s i d e s t r e e t of Hong Kong. These s i d e s t r e e t s have been c l o s e d to a l l v e h i c l e s s i n c e the end of the Second World War, p r i m a r i l y because they are too narrow f o r v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c . A l s o the Government would l i k e t o m a i n t a i n the bazaar atmosphere of these s m a l l shopping s t r e e t s f o r the enjoyment of the l o c a l people as w e l l as the t o u r i s t s . However, c a r s are p e r m i t t e d on these s i d e s t r e e t s o n l y a t n i g h t f o r l o a d i n g and u n l o a d i n g f o r f o r c l e a n i n g purposes (Figure 22) . 60. FIGURE 20 NORMAL CONDITIONS OF THE GINZA TOKYO ( Sourcei V. Gruen Centre f o r the Urban Enviroment ) FIGURE 21 TEMPORARY MALL IN THE GINZA TOKYO ( Sourcei V. Gruen Centre for the Urban Enviroment ) 61. ( Sourcei V. Gruen Centre for the Urban Enviroment ) IV. PLANNING PROCESS OF PEDESTRIAN MALLS There are no hard and f a s t r u l e s f o r the p l a n n i n g of p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s . However, a f t e r r e v i e w i n g a number of p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s e x p e r i e n c e s , i t appears t h a t there are s e v e r a l i d e n t i f i a b l e stages i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Some m a l l s were implemented without going through the stages of f e a s i b i l i t y study and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . On the ot h e r hand, some m a l l s took g r e a t p a i n s t o go through s e v e r a l e v a l u a t i o n p e r i o d s b e f o r e they were b u i l t . The v a r i o u s stages of the p l a n n i n g process are as f o l l o w s : A. D e f i n i t i o n o f Goals and O b j e c t i v e s ; B. F e a s i b i l i t y Study; C. Experiment; D. Design Phase; E. Implementation; F. E v a l u a t i o n . The elements of the v a r i o u s p l a n n i n g stages w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g pages. A. DEFINITION OF GOALS AND OBJECTIVES I t i s common p r a c t i c e t h a t the g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s must be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Cut, i n the planning of pedestr ian m a l l s , t h i s cannot be easily-done because there are toojmany u n c e r t a i n t i e s . This accounts for the f ac t that so many mal ls have to go through the experimental stage. In genera l , the goals and object ives of a pedestr ian m a l l are : (a) to provide an improved environment for the pedestr ians ; (b) to reduce the pedes t r i an-vehic le c o n f l i c t by space separat ion, e i ther h o r i z o n t a l l y or v e r t i c a l l y or by time separat ion; (c) to re-arrange the t r a f f i c system i n and around uhe core of the c i t y ; (d) to stop the dec l ine of businesses i n the downtown core and the dec l ine of property values which i s v i t a l for the c i t y ' s tax base; (e) to preserve the characters of h i s t o r i c areas; and (f) to create more p u b l i c space or an urban park. Some c i t i e s may place more emphasis on c e r t a i n ob ject ives than others . Pedestr ian malls are genera l ly being i n i t i a t e d e i t h e r by c i t y c o u n c i l s , p r iva te c i t i z e n s , downtown business groups, . senior governments responsible for urban renewal schemes or a combination of any of the par t i e s mentioned. I t i s important to make c l e a r to the people concerned i n de f in ing the goals and object iyeg whether the m a l l i s an i s o l a t e d incidence or par t of an integrated scheme of pedestr ian mal l s because i n the l a t t e r case, a comprehensive plan and a great dea l of s tudies would be required i n the decision-making process . B. FEASIBILITY STUDY The f e a s i b i l i t y study i s a very important stage i n the planning process of a pedestr ian m a l l because t h i s study i s intended to help decide whether a m a l l should be b u i l t or not . However, the fea s ib i l i ty study could a l so turn out to be a waste of time i f the c i t y c o u n c i l per s i s t ed to b u i l d a pedestr ian mal l regardless of the outcome of the study. The general procedure i s that a p ro fe s s iona l or a consul t ing f i rm would be h i r e d to conduct the study. The study w i l l begin by taking inventory of the e x i s t i n g land use, the type and number of s tores , the pedestr ian movements, the phys i ca l feature of the e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s , e t c . . The study should a lso include the c o l l e c t i o n of re levant data such as sales records , r e n t a l r a te s , property values and assessment ra te s , taxes, vacancy ra te s , accidents and crime ra te s , e t c . . Another important aspect of the f e a s i b i l i t y study i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of r e s i d e n t s , t r a f f i c pat terns , access roads, pub l i c t r anspor ta t ion , parking f a c i l i t i e s , the l e g a l i t y of convert ing a s t ree t in to a m a l l , the by-law chang necessary and many others . In order to see a pedestr ian mal l i n ac t ion a f i e l d t r i p i s genera l ly arranged for the p o l i t i c i a n s , c i v i c o f f i c i a l s , p ro fe s s iona l consultants and representat ives of the merchant group to v i s i t other mal l s of c i t i e s which are of s i m i l a r s ize to the one being s tudied . A pub l i c opinion p o l l may be taken at th i s time to determine the general a t t i tude towards a pedestr ian m a l l . The more important step would be to get the reac t ion from the merchants who w i l l be d i r e c t l y af fected by the m a l l . Constant communication between the c i t y and the merchant group at t h i s time would have most of the d i f f i c u l t i e s re so lved . The consultant would be expected to present h i s f indings of the study, whether favourable or otherwise. He may a l so be required to present a l t e rna t ive s and some prel iminary designs. The f indings would be s c r u t i n i z e d by a l l par t ie s concerned; i t may even be p u b l i c i z e d i n newspapers and on radio and t e l e v i s i o n i n order to st imulate greater involvement. Some c i t i e s hold p u b l i c meetings for everybody to a i r the i s sue , but some are against the idea because they f e e l that publ ic meetings w i l l only br ing out the oppos i t ion wi th a negative a t t i t u d e . The t o t a l cost of the pro jec t and the f inanc ing formula should a l so be approved before the m a l l can proceed. In Europe and the U .K . the i n i t i a l cost of the mal l p ro jec t was forced to be borne e n t i r e l y by the c i t y although the subsequent assessment to the property owners was not known. C. EXPERIMENT A f t e r the f e a s i b i l i t y study obtains a favourable support, a temporary m a l l may be constructed for a spec i f i ed experimental per iod . One may consider that the temporary m a l l i s part of the f e a s i b i l i t y study. The expenditure on a temporary m a l l i s u sua l ly kept to the minimum. As such i t i s often c r i t i z e d for the lack of amenit ies . The e x i s t i n g roadway w i l l remain unchanged except perhaps ge t t ing a new coat of pa int i n some i n t e r e s t i n g pat terns . The landscaping and fountains , e t c . w i l l be of the portable type which can be removed as soon as the experiment i s over. I f the experiment takes place i n the summer months when the weather i s i d e a l , more pedestrians can be expected. Promotion by the merchants i s a l so important i n order to a t t r a c t more people to the m a l l . An evaluat ion survey would be taken during t h i s pe r iod . Further inyentory and data c o l l e c t e d would be requ i red . The r e s u l t s of the evaluat ion survey w i l l most l i k e l y help decide whether a permanent m a l l i s f ea s ib le or not . In f ac t , severa l major urban centres have voted against the construct ion of a permanent m a l l a f ter unfavourable r e s u l t s were produced by the experimental m a l l . D. DESIGN PHASE This stage of the planning process w i l l be c a r r i e d out by profess ional s such as a r c h i t e c t s , p lanners , engineers , s o c i a l planners and landscape a rch i tec t s i f the c i t y c o u n c i l decides to proceed with the design and construct ion of the permanent m a l l , which may be a f u l l mai l or a t r a n s i t m a l l . The design phase w i l l be concerned with the r e l o c a t i o n of u t i l i t i e s underground such as hydro, gas, sewer, water and telephone. The o ld ones w i l l be replaced at t h i s time s ince the roadway w i l l be made permanent. E x i s t i n g t r a f f i c on the s treets w i l l have to be re-routed to other s t reet s i n the case of a f u l l m a l l or improved i n the case of a t r a n s i t m a l l . D e l i v e r y v e h i c l e s , t ax i s and garbage trucks may be allowed i n the m a l l a t c e r t a i n times of the day and emergency veh ic l e s such as ambulance and f i r e engines should have access to the m a l l i f needed. 68. Urban, d e s i g n p l a y s an important r o l e i n the success of the m a l l . The added f e a t u r e s must be such as not to over-crowd the area and should convey a r e l a x i n g and p l e a s a n t atmosphere. The lamp standards, t r e e - p l a n t i n g and ca n o p i e s , e t c . must r e l a t e to the human s c a l e . V i c t o r Gruen (1973) maintained t h a t a l l urban p l a n n i n g which i g n o r e s the human s c a l e and human v a l u e s w i l l i n e v i t a b l y erode "the u r b a n i t y " of our c i t i e s . Other major problems t o be c o n s i d e r e d d u r i n g the d e s i g n phase are p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , p a r k i n g spaces, p o l i c i n g , snow-removal and g e n e r a l maintenance, e t c . An attempt should be made to p r e s e r v e some of the e x i s t i n g f e a t u r e s t h a t are i d e n t i f i a b l e w i t h the s t r e e t such as some s t a t u t e s , c l o c k towers, g a t e s , e t c . E. IMPLEMENTATION Durin g the c o n s t r u c t i o n stage, i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t l e a s t i n c onvenience be caused t o the l o c a l merchants i n con-d u c t i n g t h e i r b u s i n e s s . A schedule of work should be worked out and adhered t o so t h a t there i s a t a r g e t date f o r completion. The b u s i n e s s e s should be r e a r r a n g e d a t t h i s time to c a r r y out any a l t e r a t i o n or r e n o v a t i o n work to t h e i r premises. They should also work c l o s e l y wi th the planning o f f i c i a l s and consultants to e s t a b l i s h design and c o n t r o l standards for any future construct ion on the j n a l l . Some of these standards would be incorporated in to the by-laws and regulat ions appl icab le to the pedestr ian mal l only . The cost of future maintenance and operat ion should a l so be decided at t h i s stage. F . EVALUATION A f t e r the mal l has been completed and has been i n operat ion for a per iod of time, an eva luat ion survey should be c a r r i e d out . The main purpose of t h i s stage i s to f ind out whether the o r i g i n a l goals and ob jec t ives have been met. The eva luat ion study i s genera l ly conducted by interviews and by d i s t r i b u t i n g quest ionnaires to merchants for information and comments. The re su l t s are tabulated and analyzed and normally ava i l ab l e for re lease to the p u b l i c . The fo l lowing ind ica tor s are use fu l i n evaluat ing a m a l l ' s success or f a i l u r e . (a) Pedestr ian count (b) Sales volume (c) New construct ion (d) Renovations and improvements 70. (e) Property, v a l u e s and assessment Cf) Crime r a t e s . (g) T r a f f i c a c c i d e n t s (h) Vacancy r a t e and r e l o c a t i o n Ci) P o l l u t i o n standards An i n c r e a s e i n p e d e s t r i a n count and s a l e s volume i n d i c a t e t h a t more people are u s i n g the m a l l and the b u s i n e s s has improved. More new c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e n o v a t i o n work to the b u i l d i n g s along the m a l l not o n l y p r o v i d e more work and employment, but a l s o show the c o n f i d e n c e of the merchants and p r o p e r t y owners i n the m a l l . Otherwise t h e r e w i l l be no need f o r c a p i t a l investment. As the p o p u l a r i t y of the m a l l i n c r e a s e s the demand of space w i l l most l i k e l y i n c r e a s e . Consequently p r o p e r t y v a l u e w i l l r i s e and the tax d o l l a r s f o r the c i t y ' s c o f f e r w i l l a l s o i n c r e a s e . With the e l i m i n a t i o n of most c a r s and t r u c k s on the s t r e e t the t r a f f i c a c c i d e n t r a t e i s expected to drop d r a s t i c a l l y . As f a r as the crime r a t e i s concerned a g r e a t d e a l depends on the law enforcement. The m a l l i s an i d e a l p l a c e where the policeman mingles w i t h the crowd. I t i s a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t a b e t t e r environment i s the b e s t cure f o r vandalism. I t i s expected that some types of business w i l l be forced to move out of the m a l l area because they depend heav i ly on door to door d e l i v e r y such as stores s e l l i n g heavy appl iances , r e p a i r shops and other d r i v e - i n businesses . But as long as the vacancy rate i s kept r e l a t i v e l y low there i s no cause for alarm. L a s t l y , the o v e r a l l environment should be grea t ly improved with the low l e v e l of a i r and noise p o l l u t i o n a f ter the cars have been removed from the m a l l . V . GRANVILLE STREET MALL,. VANCOUVER - A CASE STUDY A . BACKGROUND (1) DOWNTOWN STUDIES (1968 - 1974) G r a n v i l l e S treet i s the major thoroughfare of downtown Vancouver. Along i t s length G r a n v i l l e S t ree t of fers a v a r i e t y of people-or iented a c t i v i t i e s which inc lude theatres , restaurants and r e t a i l shopping, as w e l l as o f f i ce s and f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Because of these a c t i v i t i e s i t i s quite na tura l that G r a n v i l l e S treet has the heaviest pedestr ian t r a f f i c . The C i t y of Vancouver has c a r r i e d out many downtown studies over the years , p a r t i c u l a r l y s ince 19 68. In almost a l l the studies planning for pedestrians i n downtown has been the major t o p i c . Consequently, many recommendations have been made to provide sa fety , comfort and convenience for the pedestr ians . In the study e n t i t l e d "Downtown Vancouver P l a n , Part I - The Issues" of August 1968, i t was shown that -pedestr ian t r a f f i c was the heaviest on G r a n v i l l e Street i n the 400, 500 and 6Q0 block area. This study recognized that the c o n f l i c t e x i s t i n g between the pedestr ians and veh ic l e s on G r a n v i l l e S treet was very severe and commented that the one-way s t ree t system and mid-block pedestr ian cross ings on Theatre Row of G r a n v i l l e S t reet may not be the s o l u t i o n . However, t h i s study d i d suggest that more continuous, permanent canopies and bus she l ter s should be provided for weather pro tec t ion of the pedestrians Cp. 47). In June 1970, a very comprehensive report e n t i t l e d "Downtown Vancouver, Development Concepts" was publ i shed . In t h i s r epor t , f i v e a l t e r n a t i v e development concepts were proposed for the comments and suggestions from intere s ted c i t i z e n s or groups of c i t i z e n s . The theme of the repor t was to make Downtown Vancouver in to the executive and c u l t u r a l centre of the Canadian West. I t emphasized that the s p e c i a l needs of pedestrians for safety from v e h i c l e s , ample room to walk, places to r e s t , she l ter s from r a i n and i n t e r e s t i n g , pleasant or e x c i t i n g environments to experience should be provided i n both pr iva te and p u b l i c developments (p. 22) . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n Concept 5 of the Report, a pedes t r i ma l l was proposed for G r a n v i l l e S t reet ; G r a n v i l l e Street would be developed as a pedestr ian m a l l . The new character of the s t ree t would have a decidedly urbane q u a l i t y wi th sidewalk cafes , small sidewalk shops, k io sks , semi-permanent bu i ld ings to be used for boutiques, magazine s tores , t o u r i s t and g i f t shops, planted areas and t rees , s ide-walk ar t d i sp lays and permanently placed sculptures donated by pr iva te i n d i v i d u a l s or groups . . . Cp. 54) The concept a lso suggested a network of pedestr ian walkways: A system of pleasant and i n t e r e s t i n g walkways would l i n k the downtown parks, squares and malls . . . (p. 54) Of the f i ve a l t e r n a t i v e concepts, Number 5 rece ived the most favourable comments. I t i s qui te c l ea r then that the mal l idea for G r a n v i l l e Street was accepted i n p r i n c i p l e . Another study came out i n A p r i l 1973 e n t i t l e d : "Downtown Vancouver, Part I , Proposed Goals" aiming to encourage more c i t i z e n s * p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the planning process of our downtown. This report proposed nine goals which were considered to be fundamental to the future of downtown Vancouver, one of which i s to "Make Downtown a Place for Pedes t r i ans . " Although there was no mention about pedestr ian m a l l s , t h i s report s ing led out a few important pedestr ian s t ree t s : A l l Pedestr ian Streets should be made more a t t r a c t i v e for pedestr ians , w i t h p r i o r i t y given to the people a c t i v i t y cor r idor s such as Hast ings , G r a n v i l l e and Robson S t reet s . Programs to carry out th i s p o l i c y would include design and zoning c o n t r o l s , and b e a u t i f i c a t i o n programs such as the one on G r a n v i l l e Street . . . (p. 14) I t went on to suggest l inkages to adjacent bu i ld ing s and s treets by either, o v e r - s t r e e t or underground connections, and the importance of preserving o lder bu i ld ing s (p. 15) . While the G r a n v i l l e S treet M a l l was nearing completion, a study report was released by the C i t y c a l l e d "Downtown Vancouver, Report for Di scus s ion" dated September 197 4. Aga in , planning for pedestrians was one of the main themes i n t h i s r epor t . In d i scuss ing the downtown core , the report s ta tes : Within the boundaries of the core ou t l ined by the inner r i n g road, a new network of t r a n s i t malls i s set out which forms the focus for an ult imate new pedestr ian system. Extension of c e r t a i n of these malls beyond the core , Hastings Street to the east , Robson Street to the west and G r a n v i l l e Street to the south, provides for the pedestr ian l inkage of the core to other areas . . . (p. 46) At that time, G r a n v i l l e S treet M a l l was already a r e a l i t y . This report was to suggest development of further t r a n s i t malls and more important ly , an inner r i n g road for veh icu la r t r a f f i c on ly . In th i s way, the veh ic l e -pedes t r i an c o n f l i c t would hopeful ly be e l iminated . (2) THEATRE ROW - A BEAUTIFICATIQN PROJECT The above four downtown studies c l e a r l y show that G r a n v i l l e Street has always been favoured as a pedestr ian m a l l . I t might be mentioned here that around 1967 a b e a u t i f i c a t i o n pro jec t was a c t u a l l y completed fo r the "Theatre Row" on G r a n v i l l e S t ree t . In th i s p ro j ec t , the sidewalks i n the several blocks were repayed with coloured concrete ; some benches and concrete planters were placed near the mid-block pedestr ian crossings and on-street parking was banned. This pro jec t received very good comments except for the complaints from the merchants about the l o c a t i o n of the benches which a t t rac ted many "undes irable" people. (3) MERCHANTS' REQUEST Between 1971 and 1973 the business on G r a n v i l l e Street had been on a steady d e c l i n e . Many businesses had c losed or re located i n the suburban shopping centres . As a r e s u l t there was a high vacancy r a t e . I t was the C o u n c i l ' s concern to strengthen the p o s i t i o n of G r a n v i l l e S treet as the major shopping s t ree t i n the downtown area. In that per iod construct ion and demoli t ion work was taking place on the west s ide of the 600 and 700 blocks which contr ibuted to a very confused t r a f f i c c o n d i t i o n . In order to f a c i l i t a t e cons t ruc t ion , the sidewalks on these two blocks were c losed for a long per iod of time. This was another reason for the dec l ine of r e t a i l business . As the environment de te r io ra ted , the crime problems began t o emerge. E a r l y i n 1973 t h e merchants on G r a n y i l l e S t r e e t between Robson and N e l s o n made a f o r m a l p e t i t i o n t o C i t y C o u n c i l t o s o l y e t h e problems a l o n g G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t s u c h as p r o s t i t u t i o n , d r u g - p e d d l i n g , v a n d a l i s m , l o i t e r i n g and g e n e r a l d i s t u r b a n c e t o t h e s t o r e - k e e p e r s and t h e p e d e s t r i a n s a l i k e . As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e p e t i t i o n s and c o m p l a i n t s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e C i t y ' S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department and P o l i c e Department met t o t r y to s o l v e the problems w h i c h were c a u s i n g c o n c e r n . B o t h s h o r t and l o n g e r - t e r m s o l u t i o n s were d i s c u s s e d and r e p o r t e d t o C o u n c i l . I t was p r o p o s e d t h a t G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t , i f c o n v e r t e d i n t o a p e d e s t r i a n m a l l , w i l l p r o v i d e a l a s t i n g s o l u t i o n . The i d e a was t h a t by i m p r o v i n g t h e en v i r o n m e n t and by p r o v i d i n g b e t t e r p o l i c i n g and c o n t r o l , G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t w i l l become a much s a f e r and e n j o y a b l e p l a c e f o r p e o p l e t o shop, t o do b u s i n e s s , t o s t r o l l o r t o a t t e n d o t h e r e v e n t s ( G r a n v i l l e M a l l Committee R e p o r t , March 1 9 7 4 ) . (4) COUNCIL'S ACTION F o l l o w i n g t h i s r e p o r t t h e C i t y C o u n c i l t o o k immediate a c t i o n t o i n y e s t i g a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f b u i l d i n g a G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t M a l l . 78. . On June 26, 1973 C i t y C o u n c i l approved the establishment of an Alderman as l i a i s o n with the s ta f f Committee of P lanning , S o c i a l Planning and Engineering on the G r a n v i l l e Street M a l l and other m a l l developments i n the downtown area. On June 28, 1973 the Alderman's report to C i t y C o u n c i l recommended the fo l lowing ac t ions : That a G r a n v i l l e S treet Planning Committee be e s t ab l i shed , the members to include the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P lanning , C i t y Engineer , Deputy D i r e c t o r of Planning and C i v i c Development, and a member of the P o l i c e Force . Alderman Massey would serve as chairman of the Committee and the Mayor's representat ive would serve as l i a i s o n with the Mayor's o f f i c e . The D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l Planning would co-ordinate a l l aspects of the pro jec t inc lud ing the l i a i s o n with merchants and property owners, information and des ign . An amount not to exceed $10,000 for a pre l iminary design report to be prepared by a pr iva te consul tant . That the C i t y Counc i l request the P o l i c e Department to increase the number of p a t r o l constables i n the t r a n s i t m a l l area . (Granv i l l e S t reet planning Committee, September 24, 1973) (b) (c) (d) The above recommendations were adopted by C o u n c i l on Ju ly 3, 1973 wi th the exception of clause (c ) . However, a f ter further meetings and the preparat ion of terms of reference , th.e consultants Ba in , Burrough & Hanson, A r c h i t e c t s , were approved on Ju ly 17, 1973. The consul tants ' r epor t , " G r a n v i l l e as a Pedestr ian Transitway" was submitted to Counc i l on September 14, 1973 and was immediately d i s t r i b u t e d to S o c i a l P lanning , Engineer ing , P o l i c e , Planning and C i v i c Development, and Finance Departments for comments. Further copies were a l so sent to merchants and Downtown Business A s s o c i a t i o n . A l l the comments from the committee members as w e l l as the merchants were i n favour of the G r a n v i l l e T r a n s i t M a l l as proposed by the consul tants . The S o c i a l Planning Department contr ibuted the most comprehensive ana lys i s of the repor t . I t endorsed the consul tants ' concept of making downtown a place of exchange for c u l t u r a l , commercial and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . I t went on to suggest many m a l l a c t i v i t i e s that can take place and improvement to the l i g h t i n g and s igns , e t c . . The Engineering Department presented a budget of $3,250,000 for Phase I of the cons t ruc t ion . The P o l i c e Department was opposed to seating south of Robson Street and recommended maximum l i g h t i n g i n the en t i r e m a l l area . The D i r e c t o r of Planning merely endorsed the concept of a pedestr ian mal l for G r a n v i l l e S treet and suggested that design work must begin immediately i f the 80. deadline for. completion of the m a l l on Ju ly 1974 was to be met. The D i r e c t o r of Finance reported that the pro jec t be financed from 1973/74 Supplementary C a p i t a l Funds a v a i l a b l e which i s estimated at 2 to 2.5 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . The C i t y Counc i l f i n a l l y approved the recommendations of the Committee and authorized the work, of convert ing G r a n v i l l e Street in to a t r a n s i t m a l l to proceed immediately with a target date for completion set at Ju ly 1974. B. PLANNING PROCESS (1) GOALS AND OBJECTIVES The proposed goals for downtown Vancouver ( A p r i l 1973) are the bas is for c i t y i n i t i a t i v e s for c rea t ing a t r a n s i t ma l l along G r a n v i l l e S t ree t . These goals for the downtown area are : 1. Encourage downtown to become the execut ive , c u l t u r a l and t o u r i s t centre of Western Canada. 2. Promote h igh standards of environment. 3. Make downtown a place for pedestr ians . 4. Expand the housing opportuni ty . 5. Improve the m o b i l i t y of people to and w i t h i n downtown. 6. Require development proposals to meet o v e r a l l community goa l s . 7. Increase p u b l i c presence and spending. 8. Reinforce tire character of s p e c i a l areas. 9. E s t a b l i s h a program f o r downtown development. CBain, Burroughs and Hanson Report) According to the consultants' report, G r a n v i l l e Street was chosen as the f i r s t c i t y - i n i t i a t e d project to provide a place for people because i t has a h i s t o r i c a l sense of being a s p e c i a l street i n downtown and i t o f f e r s more opportunities for the pedestrians and a v a r i e t y of people-oriented a c t i v i t i e s along i t s length than any other north-south s t r e e t i n downtown. Also the automobile can be renoved from G r a n v i l l e Street with less d i s r u p t i o n of vehicular flow than on other s t r e e t s . The long-term objective, according to the S o c i a l Planning Report, was that G r a n v i l l e Street M a l l , i n addition to f a c i l i t a t i n g pedestrian use, would also act as a framework for redevelopment and to stimulate r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . Despite a l l the long term goals, the immediate objective for the M a l l construction was to combat the crime problems. The S o c i a l planning Report stated; Although there have been exceptions, the conversion of a st r e e t to a pedestrian mall has generally reduced s o c i a l problems. Great increases i n pedestrian t r a f f i c <— shoppers, s t r o l l e r s and theatre-goers — 82. create a sa fer , s e l f - p o l i c i n g environment. (Questions and Answers about G r a n v i l l e M a l l , March. 1974 ) The D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l Planning was l a t e r appointed by the C i t y Counc i l to coordinate the en t i r e pro jec t with the var ious departments, the merchant groups and the c i t i z e n s . (2) FEASIBILITY STUDY Unl ike Sparks Street M a l l or N i c o l l e t M a l l , the time spent on f e a s i b i l i t y study was very b r i e f p r i o r to C i t y C o u n c i l ' s approval to construct the G r a n v i l l e S t reet M a l l . I t seems that the Planning Committee had the idea of a t r a n s i t mal l modelled a f ter the N i c o l l e t M a l l at the outset . A f t e r s e t t ing the terms of reference and the appointment of the consul tant , the members of the G r a n v i l l e S t reet Planning Committee flew to Minneapolis to meet with o f f i c i a l s and study the N i c o l l e t M a l l . Apparent ly , the reason for v i s i t i n g the N i c o l l e t M a l l was that there are s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l s between i t and G r a n y i l l e S treet i n width , length and the r e l a t i o n s h i p to other s t reets i n downtown. The consul tant ' s report may be considered a more formal f e a s i b i l i t y study although the terms of reference and 83. the design were determined by the Planning Committee. The only dec i s ion l e f t was to decide on the length of the m a l l and .the width of the t r a n s i t way. The S o c i a l Planning Department, however, d id conduct an opinion survey i n August of 1973. The survey showed that of the 250Q interviews , 86% were i n favour of making G r a n v i l l e S treet a pedestr ian t r a n s i t m a l l with buses, but no car s . A por t ion of the 14% opposed to a t r a n s i t ma l l wanted no bus at a l l . A l e t t e r from the Downtown Business A s s o c i a t i o n (September 20, 1973) seemed to i n d i c a t e that t h e i r a s soc ia t ion and many other r e t a i l members were not consulted i n the decision-making process . However, they d i d endorse the proposal of a t r a n s i t mal l i n p r i n c i p l e . (3) EXPERIMENT As noted i n Chapter I I I , the Spark Street M a l l i n Ottawa went through an experimental per iod of s ix years before the permanent m a l l was f i n a l l y constructed. The G r a n v i l l e S treet M a l l , however, d i d not go through any experimental per iod because i t was banking, on the experience of N i c o l l e t M a l l , which took ten vears to plan and had been i n operation s ince 1968. The only other experience the C i t y had i n an experimental ma l l were the temporary c losure of Robson Street and Pender Street for one or two days at a time. The Robson S t ree t experience showed that the costs of promotion and c leaning afterwards were very h igh . (4) DESIGN PHASE The G r a n v i l l e Street M a l l was designed as a t r a n s i t m a l l . (Figure 23) This m a l l i n t h i s stage i s s i x blocks long , extending from Hastings S t reet to Nelson S t ree t . The t r a n s i t way i s 24 feet wide i n order to accommodate two lanes of bus t r a f f i c on ly . Part of t h i s t r a n s i t way i s widened to f a c i l i t a t e the turning of buses, e s p e c i a l l y at i n t e r s e c t i o n s . The sidewalks have been widened and new curbs were i n s t a l l e d . The design of Theatre Row has been incorporated i n the o v e r a l l f l o o r treatment (Figure 24). New lamp standards have been i n s t a l l e d and the l i g h t i n g l e v e l has been reduced to create an intimate atmosphere for s t r o l l i n g at night although the p o l i c e department had recommended maximum l i g h t i n g l e v e l (Figures 25 & There are over 2Q0 trees planted on th i s m a l l of approximately 15 to 2Q feet h igh i n order to emphasize the human scale of the space. There are a l so landscaped FIGURE 23 GRANVILLE STREET MALL, VANCOUVER 87. areas on the 900. block, to define the southern entrance to the m a l l . Other s t ree t furn i ture includes l i t t e r containers and pub l i c telephone booths, e t c . (see Appendices) . I t was suggested i n the report that cons idera t ion should be given to provide sea t ing , bus stop s h e l t e r s , kiosks and a r t works, e t c . . Vendors would be permitted i f they met the standards and regulat ions as set down by the C i t y C o u n c i l . In genera l , the consultant was in s t ruc ted to provide the minimum at th i s time i n order to meet the budget. Further refinements may be added af ter the ma l l has been i n operation for a per iod of time or when more funds are a v a i l a b l e . C . IMPLEMENTATION (1) CONSTRUCTION Implementation of the plan was almost immediate a f ter the consu l tant ' s f i n a l drawings were completed and approved on October 16, 1973. A deadline for completion of the ma l l was o r i g i n a l l y set for J u l y , 1974. In order to meet the target date, the Counc i l waived 88. normal tendering procedures and i n s t r u c t e d the Engineering Department to negotiate d i r e c t l y with, contractors and s u p p l i e r s . Some of th.e sewer work had begun during the Christmas per iod wi th no t r a f f i c d i s r u p t i o n . Despite the e l e c t r i c i a n s t r i k e during the summer, the ma l l was o f f i c i a l l y opened on August 22, 1974 with three days of s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . (2) BUDGET The t o t a l cost of the pro jec t was estimated at $3,250,000.00 by the Engineering Department. The formula for cos t- shar ing was such that the property owners' share would be o n e - t h i r d , and th i s would be recovered through l o c a l improvement charges included i n property taxes. The C i t y ' s share would be two-thirds of the t o t a l cos t , which would be der ived from p r o f i t s of property sales i n 1972 and funds that were ava i l ab le i n 1973 supplementary C a p i t a l Budget. However, the C i t y ' s share was further reduced by the Federa l Winter Works Programme which has contr ibuted about $700,000.00 of the cos t . The f i n a l cost of the pro jec t was 3.9 m i l l i o n . (3) TRANSIT E a r l y i n August 1973, two meetings had been he ld between the Planning Committee and the Bureau of T r a n s i t Services .89. presided by th.e .Mayor. According to the Bureau's forecas t , there w i l l be a 5% - 10% annual growth, i n t r a n s i t patronage u n t i l 198Q. I t was suggested that the 2-lane t r a n s i t would handle the t r a f f i c u n t i l 1976, and a f ter that 4 lanes would be requ i red . However, the Planning Committee decided that a 5% annual growth rate u n t i l 19 80 would be more r e a l i s t i c . I t was the C o u n c i l ' s hope that some form of L ight Rapid T r a n s i t would be i n operat ion i n downtown Vancouver a f ter 1980. During the course of cons t ruc t ion , B . C . Hydro moved t r a n s i t to adjacent s t reets by the end of January 1974. The bus service was resumed i n September 15, 1974 af ter the mal l had been completed. (4) GRANVILLE MALL INTERIM AUTHORITY During the course of cons t ruc t ion , a G r a n v i l l e M a l l Interim Author i ty was e s t ab l i shed . This Author i ty was made up of e lec ted and appointed o f f i c i a l s , as w e l l as 1.2 G r a n v i l l e S treet businessmen and property owners appointed by C i t y C o u n c i l . The f i n a l goal was to have a M a l l Author i ty Which w i l l organize a c t i v i t i e s to create i n t e r e s t during the construct ion per iod of the m a l l and afterwards. I t would a lso recommend measures to encourage jnal l improvement. Other r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s included adver t i s ing of a c t i v i t i e s to 90. be p e r m i t t e d on the m a l l , such as s a l e s , f e s t i v a l s , e x h i b i t s , and recommending on signage and s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e , i n c l u d i n g f o u n t a i n s , s c u l p t u r e s , p l a n t e r s , e t c . . (Questions and Answers about G r a n v i l l e M a l l , March 1974) . (5) GRANVILLE MALL MERCHANT ASSOCIATION On September 1, 1974 the G r a n v i l l e M a l l Merchant A s s o c i a t i o n was formed. The e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s serve i n the G r a n v i l l e M a l l A u t h o r i t y . The membership i s on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s , and a c c o r d i n g to the M a l l Manager, o n l y 50% of the merchants and p r o p e r t y owners have j o i n e d the A s s o c i a t i o n to da t e . However, t h i s f i g u r e i s expected t o r i s e as time goes on. The purpose of t h i s A s s o c i a t i o n i s to promote b u s i n e s s s a l e s and s o c i a l e vents, and to a c t as an a d v i s o r y body t o C o u n c i l on matters r e l a t i n g to the m a l l . (6) BY-LAWS In order to c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t e the land use, t r a f f i c and b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s of the G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t M a l l , many new by-laws have been i n t r o d u c e d . There i s an i n t e r i m ' z o n i n g by-law which l e g i s l a t e s the type of bu s i n e s s t h a t would be allowed i n the M a l l area 91. (CM-1A and CM-2A). For example, massage parlours and arcades w i l l not be permitted on the m a l l , and the frontage for new banks and o f f i ce s facing the mal l s h a l l be l i m i t e d to 25 feet frontage. By-law No. 4792 was passed on August 13, 1974 to p r o h i b i t any v e h i c l e s , except buses and emergency veh ic le s to enter the m a l l . Taxis are allowed on the mal l only when they have been c a l l e d . Any other vehic le s using the mal l must have received a permit issued by the C i t y Engineer. On June 11, 1974 a by-law was passed to regulate s t r ee t vending i n downtown Vancouver (By-Law No. 4781). Recently i n one of the Counc i l meetings, i t was passed that only 30 vendors w i l l be allowed on G r a n v i l l e S treet M a l l . A l so the s i ze and design of these k iosks , the l o c a t i o n and the type of merchandise of the vendors must be approved by the C i t y Engineer before a l i cense w i l l be i s sued . D. EVALUATION (1) METHODS OF EVALUATION Although the mal l was o f f i c i a l l y opened on August 22, 1974 the business condi t ion d id not resume to normal u n t i l the bus was i n operat ion again on September 15, 19 74. Under the d i r e c t i o n of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, c o n s u l t a n t s were employed to conduct an impact study d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d and a r e t a i l s a l e s survey a f t e r the m a l l was opened i n order to e v a l u a t e the success of the m a l l . The methods of survey adopted by the c o n s u l t a n t s i n c l u d e d p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , d i s t r i b u t i o n of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , the c o u n t i n g of p e d e s t r i a n flows and r e s e a r c h of r e l e v a n t data such as l a n d assessments and downtown employment s t a t i s t i c s . I t i s understandable t h a t a l l these s t u d i e s and surveys can o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d as p r e l i m i n a r y s i n c e the m a l l has been completed o n l y f o r 7 months. Other surveys w i l l be needed d u r i n g the summer months ahead i n o r d e r to have a more complete e v a l u a t i o n of the impact on the b u s i n e s s e s . B e s i d e s , the c u r r e n t c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an o f f i c e - h o t e l complex on the west s i d e of the 600 b l o c k and an o f f i c e - b a n k p r o j e c t on the e a s t s i d e of the 700 b l o c k w i l l have s u b s t a n t i a l impact on the m a l l because of t h e i r day-time p o p u l a t i o n and the t o u r i s t s i n the h o t e l . (2) GRANVILLE MALL PRELIMINARY IMPACT STUDY T h i s study was c a r r i e d out by AVG Management S c i e n c e s 93. L t d . i n v a r i o u s s t a g e s . The i n i t i a l surveys were done i n June 1974 d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d and f o l l o w - u p surveys on commencement of bus s e r v i c e i n October 1974. A f u r t h e r b u s i n e s s survey was performed a t the end of January 1975. The o b j e c t i v e s of the impact study were t o : develop standard formats and methods f o r a s s e s s i n g the impacts of m a l l development; assess the impact of the c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d of development and to assess the immediate b e n e f i t s of a m a l l development. The type of impacts c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s study were p r o p e r t y and r e n t a l v a l u e s , ownership p a t t e r n s , major developments, t r a n s i t and p a r k i n g , employment, r e t a i l t r a d e s , p e d e s t r i a n surveys and a t t i t u d e s towards G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t M a l l . For the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s o n l y the h i g h l i g h t s of the impact study are d i s c u s s e d . A s s e s s e d P r o p e r t y and R e n t a l Values There are 144 p r o p e r t i e s on the M a l l which are p r e s e n t l y owned by 70 persons or b u s i n e s s f i r m s . T h e i r t o t a l 1974 v a l u e i s $107 m i l l i o n . The t o t a l p r o p e r t y tax amounts to $2.9 m i l l i o n and the assessed r e n t a l v a l u e i s $7.8 m i l l i o n . I t was r e p o r t e d i n the impact study t h a t the r e n t a l r a t e s seemed to have lagged behind the l a n d v a l u e s f o r commercial p r o p e r t y downtown i n the p a s t few y e a r s . Ownership P a t t e r n s I t was r e p o r t e d t h a t over 25% of the p r o p e r t i e s i n B l o c k 80 0 changed hands. T h i s was the same b l o c k i n which r e n t e r s had the h i g h e s t l e v e l of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n over the r e n t a l i n c r e a s e s t h a t f o l l o w e d i n 197 4. Many s t o r e s i n t h i s b l o c k had e i t h e r moved out of t h i s area or to the 900 b l o c k where the r e n t was cheaper. Major Developments The major developments t h a t are t a k i n g p l a c e on or i n the v i c i n i t y of the M a l l w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the p e d e s t r i a n movements and b u s i n e s s volume. These developments are the Simpson Sears development on Hastings S t r e e t , the P a c i f i c C entre development on B l o c k 42, the Vancouver Centre complex on the s i t e o f the o l d B i r k s B u i l d i n g and the new P r o v i n c i a l Courthouse p r o j e c t between Howe and Hornby S t r e e t s . 95. T r a n s i t and P a r k i n g As f a r as the t r a n s i t i s concerned, the peak hour volume i s estimated a t 110 buses per hour. However, t h i s volume may decrease when c o n s t r u c t i o n work i s completed on Seymour S t r e e t and Howe S t r e e t . Owing to the c o n s t r u c t i o n work on Howe and Seymour S t r e e t s , about 792 p a r k i n g spaces have been removed. The pr e s e n t p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n 2 b l o c k s o f the M a l l stand a t j u s t over 5,000 a v a i l a b l e spaces. T h i s r e d u c t i o n of p a r k i n g spaces coupled w i t h the i n c r e a s e o f p a r k i n g f e e s may d i s c o u r a g e a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of p o t e n t i a l M a l l customers. However, the C i t y ' s c o n t e n t i o n i s t h a t the d i f f i c u l t p a r k i n g s i t u a t i o n so imposed w i l l encourage more people to p a t r o n i z e p u b l i c t r a n s i t i n s t e a d . Employment The t o t a l employment f i g u r e i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n because of each f i r m ' s c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . I t was estimated the p r e s e n t t o t a l employment i n the M a l l area i s about 15,000. With the new developments completed t h i s f i g u r e may r i s e to 18,000. R e t a i l Trades A c c o r d i n g t o the D.B.S. Census Data reproduced i n the impact study, there was a d e c l i n e i n the number of r e t a i l s t o r e s from 1961 to 1966. In the C i t y o f Vancouver, the d e c l i n e was 8%; but i n the C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t (C.B.D.) the d e c l i n e was 14%. T h i s c o u l d i n d i c a t e a t r e n d towards l a r g e r s t o r e s or a s h i f t towards l a r g e r shopping c e n t r e s . T h i s study a l s o estimated t h a t the annual volume of r e t a i l t r a d e along the M a l l f o r 1974 would be $127 m i l l i o n by 117 s t o r e s employing about 3,900 s t a f f . P e d e s t r i a n Survey T h i s survey was performed i n f i v e s e c t i o n s : (a) P e d e s t r i a n T r a f f i c (b) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (c) Purpose of V i s i t to M a l l (d) Opinions on the M a l l (e) P e d e s t r i a n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s In p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c : t h i s survey shows t h a t there were approximately 1,000 people on the M a l l a t any one time d u r i n g 97. the day. In pedestr ian o r i g i n , between 60-70% are from Vancouver and the re s t from the neighbouring m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . In t ranspor ta t ion , the survey shows that 4 8% of the people came by bus and 46% came by car during the October survey. Their purpose for v i s i t i n g the M a l l ranged from shopping and browsing (45%) , passing through (15%), business (15%) to eating and dr ink ing (7%). The general opinion on the M a l l was that people d i d not l i k e the buses because they l i m i t t h e i r freedom i n walking. However, the pedestrians f e l t that other amenities such as benches, t o i l e t s and more trees could be added. One very s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c shows up i n the survey of pedestr ian c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t shows that 17% of the people on the M a l l were under the age of 20, 7 8% between the age of 20 to 64 and only 5% were over the age of 65. In order to make the M a l l a people ' s place i t i s important that i t has something to o f fer for people of a l l ages. I t i s hoped that an improved parking s i t u a t i o n and an e f f i c i e n t t r a n s i t system w i l l make i t eas ier for the e l d e r l y to v i s i t the M a l l . A t t i t u d e s Towards the M a l l In g e n e r a l , the businessmen l i k e d the M a l l because i t would be good f o r -their b u s i n e s s . A s m a l l percentage i n t e r v i e w e d (16%) s a i d they l i k e d n o t h i n g about i t . The main concerns seemed to c e n t r e on the c o n t r o l of undesirables',' drug a d d i c t s , panhandlers, e t c . and adequate p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r customers. In summary, t h i s study shows t h a t the M a l l has accomplished a number of i t s g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s ; i n c r e a s e d numbers of people are s t r o l l i n g and shopping i n the M a l l area and p r o p e r t y owners and tenants are making improvements to t h e i r premises thus r e v e r s i n g the decay t h a t had been a matter of concern i n r e c e n t y e a r s . D e s p i t e the adverse economic c o n d i t i o n s more than h a l f of the G r a n v i l l e M a l l b u s i n e s s e s had r e a l i z e d s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n s a l e s volumes s i n c e the opening of the M a l l as compared to the same p e r i o d the p r e v i o u s year. (3) A SURVEY OF THE GRANVILLE MALL, RETAIL  SALES, PHASE I I T h i s survey was conducted i n January 1975 by a p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t f o r the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. The study, u n l i k e the p r e v i o u s one, has the b e n e f i t of a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d of o p e r a t i o n from which to gauge the 99. e f fec t of the G r a n v i l l e M a l l upon the r e t a i l community. A sample of 41 r e t a i l businesses and restaurants on G r a n v i l l e M a l l were chosen for th i s survey of which 23 were chain s tores . The survey shows that more businesses had reported a sales increase : 32% i n October 1974; 47% i n December 1974 and 58% i n January 1975. Of the 58% recorded sales increase , 73% cred i ted the M a l l as a d i r e c t in f luence . The percentages i n th i s sec t ion re fer to the businesses and not the increase of s a le s . The businesses were a lso asked to compare the Christmas sales volume i n 1974 and 1973. 47% had reported an increase while 32% reported unchanged. Of the 47% reported an increase , 72% a t t r ibu ted t h e i r success d i r e c t l y to the inf luence of the M a l l . The major ob ject ion r e l a t i n g to the business aspect of the M a l l was the lack of parking f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n a two block d i s tance . As far as improvements are concerned, the r e t a i l e r s and restaurateurs placed great emphasis on: (1) Greater p o l i c e p a t r o l ; (2) E s t a b l i s h i n g a p o l i c e sub-stat ion near the M a l l ; (3) P r o v i s i o n of s p e c i a l l i g h t i n g for hol iday seasons. 100. N e a r l y a l l merchants i n t e r v i e w e d were a g a i n s t the i n s t a l l a t i o n of benches on the M a l l . They f e l t t h a t the benches and p u b l i c s e a t i n g would a t t r a c t the " u n d e s i r a b l e " . However, they d i d not o b j e c t t o having c h a i r s and t a b l e s o u t s i d e the r e s t a u r a n t s i n the form of a sidewalk c a f e . Other su g g e s t i o n s from the r e t a i l e r s i n c l u d e d b e t t e r designed k i o s k s , more c o v e r i n g s o r canopies f o r the e n t i r e M a l l sidewalk area and the i n s t a l l a t i o n of an i n f o r m a t i o n booth. In summary, t h i s i s a l s o a most encouraging r e p o r t as f a r as the r e t a i l e r s and r e s t a u r a t e u r s are concerned. Both the Impact Study and t h i s R e t a i l Survey have demonstrated t h a t p e d e s t r i a n volume has i n c r e a s e d and b u s i n e s s s a l e s volume has a l s o s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e d over the f i v e month p e r i o d s i n c e the M a l l was opened. (4) COMPARISON OF GROSS SALES VOLUMES -GRANVILLE MALL AND ROBSON STREET T h i s survey was c a r r i e d out i n February 1975 by the same c o n s u l t a n t who made the R e t a i l Survey. Although 58% of the G r a n v i l l e M a l l merchants have r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e i n gross s a l e s volumes, o n l y 14% from the 1000 b l o c k Robson had r e p o r t e d an i n c r e a s e over the p a s t 5 months. However, the Christmas s a l e s volumes f o r the two areas were about the same. 101 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t 50% of the Robson merchants c o n s i d e r e d the G r a n v i l l e M a l l as a disappointment w h i l e 30% thought i t was a s u c c e s s . A c c o r d i n g to the A t t i t u d e Survey by AVG Management onl y 15% of the G r a n v i l l e M a l l merchants d i s l i k e d the M a l l . The Robson merchants' o p i n i o n may i n d i c a t e t h a t they were not i n favour of c o n v e r t i n g Robson S t r e e t i n t o a t r a n s i t m a l l . (5) POLICE REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION Dur i n g the monthly meeting of the G r a n v i l l e M a l l Merchant A s s o c i a t i o n on February 19, 1975 the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the P o l i c e Department r e p o r t e d a s u b s t a n t i a l decrease i n the crime r a t e on G r a n v i l l e M a l l . Although t h e r e s t i l l i s some begging and panhandling on the M a l l most of the drug p e d d l e r s have d i s a p p e a r e d . C u r r e n t l y the P o l i c e Department i s working i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the C i t i z e n s Youth Resource C e n t r e to p a t r o l the M a l l i n order t o p r e v e n t any v a n d a l i s m or problems caused by some young people. T h i s i d e a of combining the e f f o r t o f p o l i c e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s seems t o work out v e r y w e l l on the M a l l . A t the meeting, the s u g g e s t i o n of e s t a b l i s h i n g a s t o r e -f r o n t p o l i c e s t a t i o n was brought up f o r d i s c u s s i o n , The i d e a , of course, was a f o l l o w - u p of the R e t a i l Survey, i n which a 102. p o l i c e s u b - s t a t i o n was favoured near the M a l l . The p o l i c e department was i n v e s t i g a t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e n t i n g a vacant s t o r e i n the 800 and 900 b l o c k a r e a . However, the b i g g e s t stumbling b l o c k would be the f i n a n c i n g and mainten-ance c o s t . (6) TELEPHONE SURVEY OF OPINIONS ON GRANVILLE MALL Both the Impact Study and the Survey of R e t a i l S a l e s d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s were c a r r i e d out on the M a l l . In order t o o b t a i n a c i t y - w i d e o p i n i o n on the M a l l the author of t h i s paper has conducted a telephone survey d u r i n g the f i r s t week of A p r i l 1975. A random sample of approximately 100 Vancouver r e s i d e n t s were c o n t a c t e d by telephone. These telephone numbers were the second or t h i r d numbers on the t h i r d column of every e i g h t h page of the telephone d i r e c t o r y . S i x persons made the phone c a l l s (3 men and 3 women), and h a l f of the c a l l s were made i n the daytime and the other h a l f a t n i g h t - t i m e . The fou r q u e s t i o n s and t h e i r answers are p r e s e n t e d as f o l l o w s : (a) Are you aware t h a t G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t has been changed i n t o a p e d e s t r i a n m a l l ? Yes 105 95% (W - 58%; E - 37%) No 6 5% (W - 1%; E - 4%) T o t a l 111 100% 103. (b) Have you v i s i t e d the G r a n v i l l e M a l l ? Yes 88 80% (W - 50%; E - 30%) No _22 20% (W - 9%; E - 11%) T o t a l 110 100% (c) I f so, do you l i k e the M a l l ? Yes 46 52% (W - 36%; E - 16%) No 28 32% (W - 16%; E - 16%) I n d i f f e r e n t _14 16% (W - 9%; E - 7%) T o t a l 88 100% (d) Do you t h i n k i t i s a good i d e a to have a p e d e s t r i a n m a l l ? Yes 71 67% (W - 41%; E - 26%) No 35 33% (W - 20%; E - 13%) T o t a l 106 100% Although a telephone survey does not g i v e v e r y a c c u r a t e r e s u l t s i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s q u i t e s u f f i c i e n t f o r g e t t i n g an o p i n i o n p o l l . The answers to q u e s t i o n (a) have r e v e a l e d t h a t G r a n v i l l e M a l l was w i d e l y p u b l i c i z e d . The f a c t t h a t G r a n v i l l e M a l l i s a v e r y important s t r e e t i n Vancouver has been i n d i c a t e d i n the answers to q u e s t i o n (b). More than h a l f of the people c a l l e d were i n favour of the M a l l , but about o n e - t h i r d have expressed t h a t they d i s l i k e d the M a l l f o r v a r i o u s reasons. I n g e n e r a l , t w o - t h i r d s of the people thought t h a t i t was a good i d e a t o have a p e d e s t r i a n m a l l . Of the t o t a l samples of r e s i d e n c e s , 47 were l o c a t e d e a s t of Main S t r e e t (E) and the remainder were l o c a t e d west of Main S t r e e t i n c l u d i n g downtown and the West End (W). I t may be 104. of i n t e r e s t t o note t h a t o n l y 30% of those who l i k e d the M a l l l i v e i n the area e a s t of Main S t r e e t . T h i s low percentage may be i n t e r p r e t e d as a g e n e r a l d i s i n t e r e s t of the G r a n v i l l e M a l l by the people i n the e a s t e r n p a r t of Vancouver. E. PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES (1) ACCESSIBILITY AND PARKING The success of a p e d e s t r i a n m a l l depends l a r g e l y on a c c e s s i b i l i t y . In the case of the G r a n v i l l e M a l l , the on l y means of p u b l i c t r a n s i t i s the bus system. A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the people on the M a l l s t i l l a r r i v e by c a r s . There has been a g r e a t d e a l o f t a l k about a r a p i d t r a n s i t system f o r the C i t y of Vancouver between the C i t y C o u n c i l and the two s e n i o r governments. So f a r no c o n c r e t e d e c i s i o n has been made. In the meantime, more p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s s h ould be p r o v i d e d w i t h i n the 2 b l o c k area of the M a l l u n t i l such time when a b e t t e r t r a n s i t system i s e s t a b l i s h e d . (2) MALL AUTHORITY As suggested i n the c o n s u l t a n t ' s r e p o r t , a permanent M a l l A u t h o r i t y should be e s t a b l i s h e d t o c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t e the a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as to oversee the c o n t i n u i n g o p e r a t i o n and maintenance of the M a l l . I t i s a l s o a d v i s a b l e t h a t a M a l l Manager should be employed on a f u l l time b a s i s t o 105. co-operate and c o - o r d i n a t e a l l matters co n c e r n i n g the M a l l between the b u s i n e s s e s and the C i t y C o u n c i l . A t the time of w r i t i n g , i t does not seem t h a t anything f u r t h e r w i l l be done to improve the M a l l . In the f i r s t p l a c e the M a l l Merchant A s s o c i a t i o n has r e c e i v e d support from o n l y 50% of the p r o p e r t y owners and merchants and t h i s w i l l make i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r the A s s o c i a t i o n to promote any a c t i v i t i e s . In the meantime, the C i t y has a l r e a d y exhausted the funds a l l o t t e d on the M a l l p r o j e c t . T h e r e f o r e , f u r t h e r improvements such as benches, k i o s k s , p u b l i c t o i l e t s , e t c . w i l l have to be postponed u n t i l such time as funds are a v a i l a b l e . As f a r as the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department i s concerned, one gets the impr e s s i o n t h a t they have an i n d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e towards the M a l l . T h i s i s understandable because the P l a n n i n g Department had very l i t t l e i n p u t i n t o the de s i g n and p l a n n i n g o f the M a l l s i n c e the i n c e p t i o n . The G r a n v i l l e M a l l i s now be i n g d e s i g n a t e d as a "Character Area" o f downtown and i t w i l l l i k e l y remain as such f o r a long time. The d i f f i c u l t y w i t h a p u b l i c p r o j e c t i s t h a t i f too many departments are i n v o l v e d , the p r o j e c t i s l i k e l y 106. d e l a y e d or not c a r r i e d out. C o n v e r s e l y , i f one department assumed the f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and succeeded i n c a r r y i n g out the p r o j e c t , the other departments w i l l sooner not be i n v o l v e d w i t h i t . The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department and the E n g i n e e r i n g Department have been c a r r y i n g the f u l l l o a d s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g and i t i s h i g h time t h a t a c o o r d i n a t e body such as a M a l l A u t h o r i t y should be formed to take on f u t u r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s M a l l A u t h o r i t y as suggested w i l l be d i f f e r e n t from the M a l l Merchant A s s o c i a t i o n i n t h a t i t s members w i l l i n c l u d e some s e n i o r c i v i c o f f i c i a l s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the Merchant A s s o c i a t i o n and one or two knowledgeable c i t i z e n s . I t w i l l be an a d v i s o r y body which s h a l l have the powers t o r e g u l a t e and c o n t r o l a l l a c t i v i t i e s on the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n the a e s t h e t i c appeal and a p l e a s a n t atmosphere of the m a l l . Most U.S. c i t i e s have e s t a b l i s h e d M a l l A u t h o r i t i e s f o r t h e i r p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s . In M i c h i g a n C i t y , Indianna, the M a l l A u t h o r i t y i s made up of 9 members: 3 p r o p e r t y owners, 2 c i v i c o f f i c i a l s , 3 m a l l merchants and 1 c i t i z e n a t l a r g e . In Kalamazoo, M i c h i g a n , the M a l l A u t h o r i t y i s made up of 7 members: 1 c i v i c o f f i c i a l and 6 c i t i z e n members appointed by the C i t y Commission. In the f i r s t case, i t i s 107. too much l i k e a merchant a s s o c i a t i o n w h i l e the second i s a pure a d v i s o r y body. A compromise of the two would be i d e a l f o r the G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t M a l l . (3) SOCIAL SPACE One of the g o a l s i n b u i l d i n g the G r a n v i l l e M a l l i s to make i t i n t o a s o c i a l space f o r people. To date we have evidence t h a t the b u s i n e s s s a l e s volume has i n c r e a s e d but we have seen very l i t t l e s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . To promote s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e s funds, which has to come e i t h e r from the merchants on an e q u i t a b l e s h a r i n g b a s i s , or from the C i t y . The Merchant A s s o c i a t i o n i s p l a n n i n g on a s s e s s i n g $10.00 per each f r o n t f o o t of the p r o p e r t y f a c i n g the M a l l , so t h a t t h e r e w i l l be e x t r a funds to promote s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . The k i n d of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t the A s s o c i a t i o n p l a n s f o r the summer i n c l u d e c o n c e r t s , c h i l d r e n ' s bands, puppet shows, e t c . . Another problem t h a t the merchants have to f a c e i s t h a t there i s a l a c k of space f o r any s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . The widened sidewalk i s meant f o r easy p e d e s t r i a n movements. Any a c t i v i t i e s t a k i n g p l a c e on the sidewalk w i l l no doubt c r e a t e a crowding s i t u a t i o n . The p l a n n e r s should look v e r y hard a t p r o v i d i n g some open space or p l a z a s on the M a l l i f s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s are to be encouraged. 10 8. I t i s the o p i n i o n of the a r c h i t e c t i n v o l v e d i n the d e s i g n phase of t h i s p r o j e c t t h a t w ithout the fund and f a c i l i t i e s f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and w i t h o u t a s t r o n g o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r management the G r a n v i l l e M a l l i s no t h i n g b ut a b e a u t i f i c a t i o n p r o j e c t . (4) FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES In view of the f a c t t h a t no oth e r form of p u b l i c t r a n s i t i s a v a i l a b l e i n the next few y e a r s , the t r a n s i t m a l l seems to be the o n l y l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n . And s i n c e the G r a n v i l l e M a l l has been s u c c e s s f u l a t l e a s t i n the economic sense, i t i s q u i t e c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h i s t r a n s i t m a l l can be extended to other s t r e e t s such as H a s t i n g s and Robson, so t h a t a network of t r a n s i t m a l l s can be accomplished to m a i n t a i n the economic v i a b i l i t y o f the downtown c o r e . T h i s network would a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e w i t h the underground shopping m a l l s a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n s o f Geo r g i a and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t s and B u r r a r d and Ge o r g i a S t r e e t s . To a c h i v e t h i s g o a l the P l a n n i n g Department must take the i n i t i a t i v e i n i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h i s p e d e s t r i a n - t r a n s i t network i n the downtown p l a n f o r the C i t y o f Vancouver. F. SUMMARY AND SUGGESTIONS D e s p i t e a l l the downtown s t u d i e s the c o n s t r u c t i o n of 109. the G r a n v i l l e M a l l i s c o n s i d e r e d as a p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n to f u l f i l the e l e c t i o n promise of 1972 to make downtown i n t o a "peoples' p l a c e " by the TEAM-member dominated c o u n c i l . The term TEAM i s the a b b r e v i a t e d form f o r a c i v i c p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of Vancouver known as The E l e c t o r s A c t i o n Movement. In the p l a n n i n g process of the M a l l , the C o u n c i l has avoided any e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and kept the f e a s i b i l i t y study and the d e s i g n phase t o the minimum. The r e c e n t e v a l u a t i o n surveys have r e p o r t e d t h a t the s a l e s volume has i n c r e a s e d ; but a c i t y - w i d e o p i n i o n survey conducted by the author has i n d i c a t e d t h a t 48% of the sample e i t h e r d i s l i k e d the M a l l f o r v a r i o u s reasons or were i n d i f f e r e n t . Those who expressed d i s l i k e of the M a l l were a g a i n s t the t r a n s i t b e i n g l e f t i n the s t r e e t and the g e n e r a l l a c k of am e n i t i e s such as benches, bus s h e l t e r s , c a n o p i e s , p u b l i c washrooms, e t c . The problem w i t h a t r a n s i t m a l l i s t h a t the s t r e e t g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n of a l a n d i n g s t r i p when th e r e i s no t r a f f i c on the m a l l ( F i g u r e 27). Much of t h i s space can be put to b e t t e r use f o r the p e d e s t r i a n s had G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t been c o n v e r t e d i n t o a f u l l m a l l i n s t e a d . I t may be con-cl u d e d t h a t G r a n v i l l e M a l l i s s u c c e s s f u l i n r e v i t a l i z i n g the economic a c t i v i t y o f downtown but f a l l s s h o r t o f becoming a "peoples' p l a c e " as advocated by the p o l i t i c i a n s . On the p o s i t i v e s i d e , the G r a n v i l l e M a l l o f f e r s the unique o p p o r t u n i t y of becoming a s u c c e s s f u l s o c i a l space f o r 110. FIGURE 27 PHOTOGRAPHS SHOWING THE BLEAKNESS OF A TRANSIT MALL ROADWAY 111. people i f the t r a n s i t can be removed from the M a l l a r e a . Since most of the b u i l d i n g s a t the south end of the s t r e e t are r a t h e r low, p a r t of the M a l l can be r o o f e d over to-pr o v i d e a year-round weather p r o t e c t i o n . T h i s covered space i s i d e a l f o r many s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s such as c o n c e r t s , a r t d i s p l a y s , f l o w e r and f a s h i o n shows, e t c . Some of the second f l o o r s which have been vacant f o r a long time may be connected by a b r i d g e or p l a t f o r m a c r o s s the M a l l . The i n s i d e spaces would be used as shopping arcades, a r t s and c r a f t s workshops, l i b r a r i e s , e t c . , w h i l e the o u t s i d e space can be used as outdoor r e s t a u r a n t s and d i s p l a y a r e a s . The upper f l o o r s o f many o l d e r b u i l d i n g s may be converted i n t o housing f o r s i n g l e people and the e l d e r l y , who undoubtedly w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n the n i g h t - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s on the M a l l . These are j u s t some of the su g g e s t i o n s t h a t the author has towards making the G r a n v i l l e M a l l a genuine s o c i a l space and a unique downtown c e n t r e f o r peo p l e . 112. V I . CONCLUSIONS The p e d e s t r i a n m a l l concept i s no t h i n g new, because throughout the ages the s t r e e t s have always been designed f o r p e d e s t r i a n use. I t i s o n l y i n the age of the automobile t h a t our s t r e e t s have been l o s t f o r the p e d e s t r i a n s . The p e d e s t r i a n m a l l i s i n t r o d u c e d as a d e v i c e to b r i n g about a s e p a r a t i o n o f the p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c s . In t h i s way, the p e d e s t r i a n s can enjoy the s a f e t y and comfort i n an urban p u b l i c space and a t the same time the v e h i c l e s can operate to t h e i r f u l l e f f i c i e n c y on a d e s i g n a t e d roadway. T h e r e f o r e , a p e d e s t r i a n m a l l cannot be planned as an i s o l a t e d i n c i d e n c e , but r a t h e r must be planned i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n system. The P e d e s t r i a n m a l l s p l a y an important r o l e i n the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f downtown, because i n the process o f s e p a r a t i n g the v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c , they c o n t r i b u t e t o the improvement of the environment conducive to shopping, r e c r e a t i o n and o t h e r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . Most s u c c e s s f u l p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s possess h i g h l e v e l of ame n i t i e s and urban d e s i g n , r e s u l t i n g i n a b e t t e r s o c i a l environment. The con-c e n t r a t i o n o f people i n a p e d e s t r i a n m a l l w i l l b r i n g about economic v i a b i l i t y and thus s t r e n g t h e n i n g the r e t a i l f u n c t i o n of the downtown c o r e . T h i s argument can be s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n the review of p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s . 113. The author has l e a r n e d from the review of m a l l e x p e r i -ences t h a t most of the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s i n Europe are n a t u r a l s o c i a l spaces because of the r i c h n e s s i n c u l t u r e and the e x i s t e n c e of h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s , s t a t u e s and f o u n t a i n s surrounding the m a l l . T h e i r success i s a l s o due to a w e l l -planned t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system such as the one i n Munich, which permits easy access t o the m a l l area whether by automobile or p u b l i c t r a n s i t . Somehow the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s i n the U.S. and Canada appear c o n t r i v e d because of a d i f f e r e n t background i n the development of our c i t i e s . Consequently, a much g r e a t e r e f f o r t must be e x e r t e d i n the U.S./Canadian c i t i e s i n order t o achieve the g o a l of c o n v e r t i n g our p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s i n t o s o c i a l spaces. I t a l s o seems t h a t most U.S./Canadian p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s are e v a l u a t e d on the b a s i s o f economic b e n e f i t s o n l y . The p e d e s t r i a n m a l l i s urban i n appearance but r u r a l i n concept because the most s u c c e s s f u l m a l l s today as we view them are those t h a t have the marketplace and bazaar atmosphere of a v i l l a g e . T h i s i s the s i m i l a r i d e a as advocated by Jane Jacobs t h a t we must b r i n g back the t r u s t of the people to the s t r e e t s i f our c i t i e s are to s u r v i v e . There i s the g e n e r a l t r e n d t h a t people want the s t r e e t s back f o r p e d e s t r i a n use. The p e d e s t r i a n m a l l may be j u s t a b e g i n n i n g towards a new urban p a t t e r n f o r our downtowns. L o u i s Kahn c o n s i d e r e d the s t r e e t as the l i v i n g room of our c i t y . A r t h u r E r i c k s o n echoed h i s sentiment by s a y i n g : 114. "The s t r e e t - the l i v i n g room of the c i t y -i s a s s e n t i n g i t s e l f as the most important c i t y space - r a t h e r than as i t has been i n America - the l e f t o v e r gap between b u i l d i n g s . T h i s growing co n s c i o u s n e s s o f the c o n t i n u i t y of the c i t y marks a s h i f t i n d i r e c t i o n from the tr e n d of the l a s t 500 y e a r s . In f a c t i t suggests a slow but p e r s i s t e n t r e t u r n to a t t i t u d e s which e x i s t e d long b e f o r e i n Western C u l t u r e - as f a r back as the middle ages." ( E r i c k s o n 1975) T h i s study concludes t h a t the r o l e of the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l i n the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of downtown must be looked a t from two d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view. P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l r e p r e s e n t s the r e t u r n of the s t r e e t as a s o c i a l space where people congregate and c a r r y on w i t h a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n t o shops and e a t i n g p l a c e s , many other a c t i v i t y areas should be i n t r o d u c e d such as playgrounds f o r c h i l d r e n ( F i g u r e 28); open a i r stages f o r c o n c e r t s and f a s h i o n shows; t h e a t r e - i n - t h e - r o u n d f o r performances ( F i g u r e 29); and s e a t i n g areas f o r r e s t i n g and l e i s u r e ( F i g u r e s 30 & 31). A l s o , the human s c a l e o f the space must be emphasized and the images of the c i t y must be p r e s e r v e d and enhanced. P r a g m a t i c a l l y , the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l i s a u s e f u l t o o l t o generate a h i g h e r degree of economic a c t i v i t y , to r e s o l v e the p e d e s t r i a n - v e h i c u l a r c o n f l i c t , and to c r e a t e a b e t t e r environment f o r human b e i n g s . T h e r e f o r e , the success and f a i l u r e o f a p e d e s t r i a n m a l l i s a r e l a t i v e t h i n g , depending on what i t s e t s out to a c h i e v e . In order t h a t a p e d e s t r i a n m a l l can f u l f i l i t s r o l e , 115. FIGURE 28 PLAYGROUND IN PEDESTRIAN MALL LOUISVILLE t KENTUCKY FIGURE 29 THEATRE-IN-THE-ROUND, RICHMOND, INDIANA 116. FIGURE 30 SEATING AREA ON MALL  SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS Hu__^ __IHIHHH-_-ffi£v FIGURE 31 PLANTERS FOR SEATING SPARKS STREET MALL, OTTAWA 117. a p l a n n i n g process must be c a r e f u l l y worked out. P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n must be g i v e n to the problems of a c c e s s i b i l i t y , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a m eniti^es and urban d e s i g n , as w e l l as c o n t i n u i n g e v a l u a t i o n . A t the completion of the p r o j e c t a M a l l A u t h o r i t y should be e s t a b l i s h e d to ensure proper o p e r a t i o n and management of the m a l l . Throughout the p r o j e c t , c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n between the merchants and the c i v i c government i s most e s s e n t i a l . F i n a l l y , the p e d e s t r i a n m a l l "movement" s i g n a l s the b e g i n n i n g of a change i n urban forms because i t i n v o l v e s the revamping and s o r t i n g out of our e x i s t i n g s t r e e t systems. As more and more s t r e e t s are b e i n g converted i n t o p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s the b u i l d i n g b l o c k s can no l o n g e r stand i n i s o l a t i o n . A r c h i t e c t s and p l a n n e r s must take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the i n t i m a t e s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the b u i l d i n g s and s t r e e t s i n t h e i r d e s i g n p r o c e s s . T h i s p e d e s t r i a n m a l l concept may even be c a r r i e d i n t o the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . The p l a n n e r s should i n v e s t i g a t e the redundancy of some of our r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s which c o u l d be converted i n t o s o c i a l spaces, and where c h i l d r e n can p l a y s t r e e t hockey w i t h o u t having to a v o i d the c a r s . 118. REFERENCES Abrams, C. (1961) "Downtown Decay and R e v i v a l , " J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , (February) : 3-9. A l l i s o n , J.R. (197) "A Method of A n a l y s i s of the P e d e s t r i a n System of a Town Ce n t r e , (Nottingham C i t y ) , " J o u r n a l  of the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e , (August) : 352-356. A l l e n , N.P. (1967) "The S t r e e t i n E v o l u t i o n , A Short A p p r a i s a l , Journ of the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e , 52 : 2 (February) : 61-65. Aschman, F.T. (1971) " N i c o l l e t M a l l : C i v i c C o o p e r a t i o n t o Pre s e r v e Downtown's V i t a l i t y , " P l a nners Notebook 1:6 (September) : 1-8. Baine, R.B. (1973) C a l g a r y , An Urban Study, (Toronto ; C l a r k Irwin) : 118-120. Bennett, R.M. (1957) "Random Ob s e r v a t i o n s on Shopping C e n t r e s , and P l a n n i n g f o r P e d e s t r i a n s , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record, (September) : 217-219. Bor, W. (1972) The Making of C i t i e s (London: Leonard H i l l ) . C h e r r y, G.E. (1972) Urban Change and P l a n n i n g ( O x f o r d s h i r e , England : G.T. F o u l i s ) . C o t t l e , R.W. (1972) "The E x p e r i e n c e s o f C i t i e s i n the Improve-ment of the P e d e s t r i a n Environment," G.L.C. I n t e l l i -gence U n i t Q u a r t e r l y B u l l e t i n , No. 21, London, (December) : 21-34. De Wolfe, I . (1963) "The Death and L i f e of Great American C i t i z e n s , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review (February) : 91-93. Dober, R.P. (1969) Environmental D e s i g n (New York : Van Nostrand R e i n h o l d ) . E r i c k s o n , A. (1975) " A r c h i t e c t u r e , Urban Development and I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , " The Canadian A r c h i t e c t (January) : 35-38. F l a n d e r s , J . (1969) "Sparks S t r e e t R e v i s i t e d , " The Canadian  A r c h i t e c t (September) : 68. F r u i n , J . (1971) P e d e s t r i a n P l a n n i n g & Design (Massapequa, N.Y. Mandep P r e s s ) . 119. G r e a t e r London C o u n c i l , (1971) G.L.C. Study Tour of Europe and  American P e d e s t r i a n i z e d S t r e e t s (London, England: Cook, Hammond & K e l l ) . Gruen, V. (19 6 4) The Heart of Our C i t i e s (New York: Simon & S c h u s t e r ) . Gruen, V. (1973) Centre f o r the Urban Environment (New York: Van Nostrand R e i n h o l d ) . H a l p r i n , L. (1972) C i t i e s (Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. P r e s s ) . Harvor, S. (1964) "Sparks S t r e e t M a l l , Ottawa," The Canadian  A r c h i t e c t (May): Harwood-Barnes, G.A. (1963) P e d e s t r i a n P r e c i n c t s i n the ' C i t y ' s  C e n t r a l R e t a i l A r e a M.A. Thesxs, U n x v e r s i t y of B.C. Jacobs, J . (1961) The Death and L i f e of Great American C i t i e s New York : Random House) . ' Kahn, L . I . (N.D.) "The S p i r i t of A r c h i t e c t u r e , " Design Seminar: Man i s the Measure, Sponsored by the American I r o n and S t e e l I n s t i t u t e , N.Y. M o r r i s , R.L. and Zisman, S.B. (1962) "The P e d e s t r i a n , Downtown, and the P l a n n e r , " J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e  of P l a n n e r s , 28:3 (August) : 152-158. M a y e r o v i t c h , H. (1973) O v e r s t r e e t , An Urban S t r e e t Development  System (Montreal : Harvest House). Pendakur, V.S. (1971) " P e d e s t r i a n C i r c u l a t i o n System i n Canada," Highway Research Record, No. 355, (Washington: N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l ) 54-66. R i t t e r , P. (1964) "Pl a n n i n g f o r P e d e s t r i a n s , " The Canadian  A r c h i t e c t 9:6 (June) : 59-62. Robertson, J . (1973) " R e d i s c o v e r i n g the S t r e e t , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l  Forum (November) : 24-31. Rodgers, E. (1974) An Annotated B i b l i o g r a p h y on P l a n n i n g f o r  P e d e s t r i a n s , Research Report No. 15, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto & York U n i v e r s i t y . Rosner, M.H. (19 66) The P e d e s t r i a n M a l l : F i n a n c i n g , Maintenance  And O p e r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h . Rudofsky, B. (1969) S t r e e t s f o r People (Garden C i t y , N.Y.) Anchor Press/Doubleday. S p e c t e r , D.K. (1974) Urban Spaces, (Greenwich, Conn. : New York Gr a p h i c S o c i e t y ) . 120. S p r e i r e g a n , P.D. (1965) Urban Design: The A r c h i t e c t u r e of Towns  & C i t i e s (New York: McGraw H i l l ) . S t u a r t , D.G. (1968) "Planning f o r P e d e s t r i a n s , " J o u r n a l of the  American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , (January) : 37-41. Tate, A. (1960) "The Sparks S t r e e t Experiment," Community  P l a n n i n g Review V o l . X Nos. 3 & 4, PP.2-5. V i l l e c c o , M. (1973) " C i t y S t r e e t s f o r People," A r c h i t e c t u r a l  P l u s ( A p r i l ) : 23-43. Weiss, S.F. (1964) "The Downtown M a l l Experiment," J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , (February) : 66-72. Wolfe, M.R. (1962) "Shopping S t r e e t s and the P e d e s t r i a n R e discovered," American I n s t i t u t e of A r c h i t e c t s , J o u r n a l , (May) : 33-42. EDITORIALS FROM PERIODICALS " P e d e s t r i a n M a l l s F i r s t E v a l u a t i o n , " ASPO N e w s l e t t e r , March 1958, (pp. 20-21). "The M a l l Movement," Community P l a n n i n g Review, September 1959, (pp. 70-72) "Downtown M a l l s Permanent and Temporary," ASPO N e w s l e t t e r , December 1959, (108-109) " K n o x v i l l e ' s New M a l l , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, A p r i l 1962, (pp. 128-129). "Upgrading Downtown," A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record, June 1965, (pp. 175-190). "F o r g o t t e n Man i n the C i t y , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, January/ February 1968, (pp. 79-84). "Main S t r e e t R e v i s i t e d , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, November 1973 PAMPHLETS ON MALLS " N i c o l l e t M a l l , the Upper Midwest's L a r g e s t Shopping C e n t r e , " The Downtown C o u n c i l , C i t y of M i n n e a p o l i s (N.D.) 121. " B u i l d i n g Downtown M a l l s , " Downtown Research and Development C e n t r e , Downtown Idea Exchange, New York, 197 3. "Downtown M a l l s : F e a s i b i l i t y and Development," Downtown Idea Exchange, New York, 1974. REPORTS ON DOWNTOWN VANCOUVER "Downtown Vancouver," P a r t I, The I s s u e s , C i t y o f Vancouver, August 1968. "Downtown Vancouver Development Concepts," C i t y of Vancouver, June 1970. "Downtown Vancouver, P a r t I, Proposed Goals," C i t y o f Vancouver, A p r i l 1973. "Issues Report on Downtown Vancouver 1968,"to the C i t y of Vancouver, GVREB, January 1969. "Downtown Vancouver, P l a n n i n g Concepts f o r F u t u r e Development and Process f o r C o n t r o l of Developments, Report f o r D i s c u s s i o n C i t y o f Vancouver, September 1974. REFERENCES ON GRANVILLE STREET MALL G r a n v i l l e As A P e d e s t r i a n T r a n s i t w a y , A Design Study f o r the C i t y o f Vancouver, B a i n , Burrough , Hanson, A r c h i t e c t s , September 1973. G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t P e d e s t r i a n T ransityway, C o n s i d e r a t i o n and Recommendation, G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t P l a n n i n g Committee, 24th September, 1973. C a l i f o r n i a P o l i c e Tour — P e d e s t r i a n M a l l s , G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t M a l l Committee, December 1973. G r a n v i l l e M a l l A d v i s o r y Committee, Resource M a t e r i a l s I . Promotion and Management of M a l l s , G r a n v i l l e M a l l Committee, S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, 6th February, 1974. Questions and Answers About G r a n v i l l e M a l l , G r a n v i l l e M a l l Committee, March 1974. G r a n v i l l e M a l l P r e l i m i n a r y Impact Study, AVG Management Sc i e n c e s Ltd.., Vancouver, B. C. October 1974. A Survey of the G r a n v i l l e M a l l — R e t a i l S a l e s , Phase I I R.E. K a l a p i n s k i , Vancouver, B.C. February 19 The Vancouver Sun, June 1973 - December 1974. The P r o v i n c e , October 1973 - December 197 4. 123. APPENDICES PHOTOGRAPHS OF GRANVILLE MALL 124. AERIAL VIEW OF GRANVILLE MALL & GEORGIA STREET ( FUTURE UNDERGROUND MALL LOCATION ) THE BIRKS CLOCK & LAMP POSTS ( THE CLOCK IS A FAMILIAR LANDMARK TO BE PRESERVED ) 125. 1 2 6 . APPENDIX MAP OF DOWNTOWN VANCOUVER 

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