UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Social impacts of large scale development projects case study : Hugh Keenleyside dam construction Backerman, Stuart Bruce 1975

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SOCIAL IMPACTS OF LARGE SCALE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS CASE STUDY: HUGH KEENLEYSIDE DAM CONSTRUCTION by STUART BRUCE BACKERMAN B.S., State U n i v e r s i t y of New York at Buffalo A thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements for the degree of MASTIR OP ARTS i n the School of Community and Regional PTanning We accept this- thesis as conforming to the standard The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1975 In presenting th i s thes i s in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes i s fo r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Depa rtment The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 20 75 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date flp*;J J*. J?7J~ ' A B S T R A C T T h i s t h e s i s r e p o r t s t h e r e s u l t s o f a n e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h , c o n -d u c t e d f o r t h e d i s p l a c e d c o m m u n i t i e s l o c a t e d o n t h e A r r o w L a k e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . E m p h a s i s w a s g i v e n t o t h a t p a r t o f t h e d i s p l a c e d p o p u l a t i o n t h a t r e l o c a t e d a w a y f r o m t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n . E t h n o g r a p h i c , d a t a , i n c l u d i n g c o m m u n i t y - d y n a m i c s , c u l t u r e a n d h i s t o r y , a n d i n t e n s i v e p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h f o r m e r l y d i s p l a c e d p e o p l e w a s c o l l e c t e d i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t s r e l o c a t i o n h a d u p o n t h e d i s p l a c e d p o p u l a t i o n . T h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e s t u d y s t e m s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t o d a t e t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s h a s n o t g i v e n d u e r e g a r d t o t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e i d e n -t i f i c a t i o n o f s o c i a l i m p a c t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d o p e r a t i o n o f l a r g e s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s . S o m e i m p a c t s h a v e b e e n e x p e c t e d ; h o w e v e r , o t h e r i m p a c t s , w h i c h w e r e g i v e n l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g s t a g e s a n d w h i c h h a v e c o m e a b o u t i n a c o m p l e t e l y u n e x p e c t e d m a n n e r , m a y b e d o c u m e n t e d f o r v i r t u a l l y e v e r y l a r g e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t . A n y c o n t r i -b u t i o n t o w a r d s e n s u r i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i m p a c t s w h i c h m i g h t o t h e r w i s e o c c u r u n e x p e c t e d l y s h o u l d s e r v e t o i m p r o v e t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I d e a l l y , i t w o u l d b e v a l u a b l e t o b e a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e p r e v i o u s l y u n a n t i c i p a t e d e f f e c t s d u r i n g t h e p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p e r i o d . I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e s e a r c h r e c o g n i t i o n o f s e c o n d a r y e f f e c t s d u r i n g t h e p r e -p l a n n i n g p e r i o d h a v e n o t e x p l i c i t l y b e e n s t u d i e d , h o w e v e r , i d e n t i f y i n g i m p a c t s " a f t e r t h e f a c t " ( a s a f o l l o w - u p ) h a s c e r t a i n - v a l i d i t y . I t c a n s e r v e i n a n o m i n a l w a y a s a n i n d i c a t o r f o r p r e d i c t i n g t h e r a n g e o f p r o b a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f s u b s e q u e n t d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s . I t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y a s a f e e d - b a c k o r c h e c k i n g m e c h a n i s m . O f t e n t i m e s p r e d i c t i o n s a r e p r o v e n w r o n g a n d s e c o n d a r y e f f e c t s g o u n d e t e c t e d , t h u s a f o l l o w - u p c o m p o n e n t w i t h i n t h e p r o c e s s i s a n e c e s s a r y r e q u i s i t e . P o s t r e l o c a t i o n a d d r e s s e s a n d w h e r e a b o u t s h a v e b e e n t r a c e d f o r t w e n t y - t h r e e h o u s e h o l d s o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l d i s p l a c e d p o p u l a t i o n t h a t d i d n o t r e l o c a t e w i t h i n t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n . T h u s , t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n h a s b e e n f o r m u l a t e d r e g a r d i n g d i s p l a c e m e n t f r o m t h e l a r g e s c a l e p o w e r d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t i n t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : I n d i v i d u a l s t h a t h a v e c o m m i t m e n t s t o a c o m m u n i t y a n d a r e d i s p l a c e d f r o m c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t d i s p l a y a s t r o n g s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y a n d c o h e s i o n a r e m o r e a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d t h a n t h o s e w i t h n o c o m m i t m e n t s a n d f r o m c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t l a c k a s t r o n g s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y . A n d f i n a l l y , a s t e p - b y - s t e p a p p r o a c h f o r r e l o c a t i o n p l a n n i n g w a s i d e n t i f i e d a n d d i s c u s s e d . ABSTRACT LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGMENT CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 PROBLEM STATEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . • 1 RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY V . 3 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE . . . . . . , 4 SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION . . . . 8 OBJECTIVES . . . . . 8 NEED FOR RESEARCH „ 9 CHAPTER TWO: METHODS OF STUDY . . . . . . . . . . 12 DATA COLLECTION 12 THE SAMPLE 13 THE INTERVIEW PROGRAM 15 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY . . . . . . . . . . 19 CHAPTER THREE: LITERATURE REVIEW: THE IMPORTANCE OF LOCALE . 21 CHAPTER FOUR: INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA 33 I OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 II ETHNOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 A. RENATA, B.C. - Lower Arrow Lakes . . . . . 35 1. Location „ . . 35. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page i n v m i x v i Page 2. Topography 36 3. Climate 36 4. Population Composition 36 5. E a r l y Settlement 36 6. A c t i v i t i e s 37 7. Community L i f e » 39 8. Housing 40 9. Location i n R e l a t i o n to Others . . . . 40 B. DEER PARK, B.C. - Lower Arrow Lakes . . . . 40 1. Location . . . . 40 2. Topography 41 3. Climate 41 4. Population Composition 41 5. E a r l y Settlement 41 6. A c t i v i t i e s ° 42 7. Community L i f e 43 8. Housing 43 9. Location i n R e l a t i o n to Others . . . . 43 C. EDGEW00D - NEEDLES, B.C. - Central Arrow Lakes 44 D. ARROWARK - FACQUIER, B.C. - Central Region 47 E. MT. CARTIER - Upper Arrow Lakes 49 1. Location . 49 2. Climate 49 3. Topography 49 4. Population Composition 49 5. E a r l y Settlement 50 Page 6. A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . 50 7. Community L i f e . 51 8. Housing 51 9. Location i n R e l a t i o n to Others . . . . 52 F. SIDMOUTH, B.C. - Upper Arrow Lakes . . . . 52 G. ARROWHEAD, B.C. - Upper Arrow Lakes . . . . 53 III INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA . . . . . . . . 54 IV CONCLUSIONS 59 CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . 64 I CONCEPT . , 64 II A WORKING MECHANISM . 66 III RECOMMENDATIONS: PLANNING POLICIES FOR RELOCATION . 67 IV IMPACT-IDENTIFICATION SCHEME: A STEP BY STEP APPROACH FOR RELOCATION PLANNING 69 Step A . 69 Step B . 69 Step C . 69 Step D 71 Step E 71 V GENERAL CONCLUSIONS . 71 BIBLIOGRAPHY 75 APPENDIX 79 v i i i L I S T O F F I G U R E S P a g e F i g u r e 1 E x i s t i n g , U n d e r - C o n s t r u c t i o n , P r o p o s e d a n d T r e a t y 5 P r o j e c t s i n t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r B a s i n , 1 9 6 0 . F i g u r e 2 C o l u m b i a R i v e r T r e a t y P r o j e c t s 7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Grat e f u l appreciation i s expressed to Dr. Robert C o l l i e r and Peter Nemetz of the School of Community and Regional Planning, and to Dr. George Gray of the School of Sociology and Anthropology, the Uni-v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Their assistance and advice i n the prepa-r a t i o n of th i s thesis w i l l never be forgotten. And f i n a l l y , to my wife Linda, whose encouragement and patience aided me throughout the ordeal. Thanks are al s o due to Kathie Cook for help with typing, and many other odd tasks which are associated with the production of a the s i s . S. B.B. A p r i l 4, 1975. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION PROBLEM STATEMENT Displacement and subsequent r e l o c a t i o n has taken place i n many parts of the world for a v a r i e t y of reasons. For example, urban renewal a c t i v i t i e s often have created the need for r e l o c a t i o n . A c t u a l l y , by 1969-70 eighteen thousand fa m i l i e s were relocated, or were i n the process of 1 being relocated by urban renewal projects across Canada. Other reasons, such as projects which involve the harnessing of r i v e r s to produce elec-t r i c i t y , water storage or flood c o n t r o l often c a l l for the b u i l d i n g of dams and the c r e a t i o n of "head ponds". The development of these head ponds makes i t necessary to r e l o c a t e the r i p a r i a n inhabitants. Broadly speaking, r e l o c a t i o n e n t a i l s the constr u c t i o n of new settlements or replacement of former communities. For a great number of displaced people, i t often means i n t e g r a t i o n into an e x i s t i n g community. Thus, adequate housing, s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s , and proper c o u n s e l l i n g must be provided for the displaced population. In Robert C. Weaver's words, t h i s means that: ....Relocation agencies have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the o b l i g a t i o n to see that those who are d i s -placed move to standard housing. A d d i t i o n a l l y , the human side of r e l o c a t i o n programs, i n terms of properly looking a f t e r needs of p o t e n t i a l re-locatees, should be f u l l y provided for i n the appropriate agencies operational plans.^ However, even i f the proper steps to insure adequate r e l o c a t i o n are taken, i t may not mean that a successful program w i l l occur. Massive development projects, such as the construction of dams, often have e f f e c t s f a r b e y o n d t h o s e t h a t w e r e o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d ; e f f e c t s t h a t c a n n o t b e a n t i c i p a t e d x - / i t h a n y p r e c i s i o n o r , i n m a n y i n s t a n c e s , e v e n a t a l l b y t h e a g e n c y o r o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t s e t s t h e m i n m o t i o n - - F o r e x a m p l e , " T h e p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l s t r e s s a c c o m p a n y i n g r e l o c a t i o n a n d a d j u s t m e n t t o a 3 c h a n g e d e n v i r o n m e n t . " G e o r g e W . G r i e r s t r e s s e s t h e t r e m e n d o u s s h o c k t h a t " d i s p l a c e m e n t " h a s f o r t h e e l d e r l y : T h e o l d e r p e r s o n , w h e n h e i s r e l o c a t e d f r o m a p l a c e w h e r e h e h a s l i v e d f o r m a n y y e a r s , h a s t o r e - o r i e n t h i s p a t t e r n o f l i v i n g d r a s t i c a l l y . H e h a s b u i l t u p m a n y r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o h i s " h o m e " . A l l o f t h e s e t h i n g s a r e s w e p t a w a y , a n d h e h a s t o r e p l a c e t h e m a l l a t o n c e . 4 * P r e s e n t l y , t h e r e i s a g r o w i n g d e m a n d f o r m o r e e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s t o a n t i c i p a t e t h e r e s u l t s o f c h a n g e a n d f o r p l a n n i n g m e c h a n i s m s t h a t w i l l t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e w i d e s t p o s s i b l e s p e c t r u m o f e f f e c t s . T h e n e w m o d e l s o f p l a n n i n g a l l s u g g e s t t h a t a w i d e r s e n s i t i v i t y t o a f u l l e r r a n g e o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f o n e ' s a c t i o n s i s b o t h n e c e s s a r y a n d d e s i r a b l e . T h i s i n -c l u d e s s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e w i d e - r a n g i n g n a t u r e o f i t s e f f e c t s o n s o c i e t y a n d i n i t s a w a r e n e s s o f t h e n e e d t o d e v e l o p m e t h o d s f o r a n t i c i p a t i n g t h e s e e f f e c t s a n d - i f p o s s i b l e - b r i n g i n g t h e m u n d e r s o m e d e g r e e o f c o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l . T h e p u r p o s e o f s o c i a l i m p a c t a n a l y s i s i s n o t p r i m a r i l y t o r e c o r d h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s ( a l t h o u g h i t i s o n e c o m p o n e n t o f t h e t o t a l p r o c e s s ) b u t t o p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s o f p l a n n i n g f o r f u t u r e p o l i c i e s . S u c h p l a n n i n g s h o u l d n o t b e b a s e d o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e s i n g l e m o s t p r o b a b l e o u t c o m e , n o r s h o u l d i t c o n f u s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y w i t h t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e o u t c o m e . R a t h e r , i t s h o u l d t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e r a n g e o f i m p o r t a n t c o n s e q u e n c e s D e f i n e d a s " a n o m i e " b y M r . G r i e r . 3 t h a t c a n b e a n t i c i p a t e d , a n d b o t h t h e i r p r o b a b i l i t y a n d i m p o r t a n c e s h o u l d a l s o b e c o n s i d e r e d . I n o r d e r f o r a n t i c i p a t o r y a n a l y s i s t o o c c u r a f a i r l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n a l s y s t e m w i l l b e r e q u i r e d . S u c h a n i n f o r m a t i o n a l s y s t e m w o u l d i n c l u d e e x t e n s i v e d a t a a n a l y s i s , s o m e m e a n s o f r e p o r t i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n b a c k w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e s p e e d t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a g e n c y , a n d a k n o w l e d g e o f p a s t p r o g r a m s . I d e a l l y , i t w o u l d b e v a l u a b l e t o b e a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e p r e v i o u s l y u n a n t i c i p a t e d e f f e c t s d u r i n g t h e p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p e r i o d . I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e s e a r c h r e c o g n i t i o n o f s e c o n d a r y e f f e c t s d u r i n g t h e p r e -p l a n n i n g p e r i o d h a v e n o t e x p l i c i t l y b e e n s t u d i e d , h o w e v e r i d e n t i f y i n g i m p a c t s " a f t e r t h e f a c t " ( a s a f o l l o w - u p ) h a s c e r t a i n v a l i d i t y . I t c a n s e r v e , i n a n o m i n a l w a y a s a n i n d i c a t o r f o r p r e d i c t i n g t h e r a n g e o f p r o b a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f s u b s e q u e n t d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s . I t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y a s a f e e d - b a c k o r c h e c k i n g m e c h a n i s m . O f t e n t i m e s p r e d i c t i o n s a r e p r o v e n w r o n g a n d s e c o n d a r y e f f e c t s g o u n d e t e c t e d , t h u s a f o l l o w - u p c o m p o n e n t w i t h i n t h e p r o c e s s i s a n e c e s s a r y r e q u i s i t e . R A T I O N A L E F O R T H E S T U D Y T h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e s t u d y s t e m s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t o d a t e t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s h a s n o t g i v e n d u e r e g a r d t o t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n o f s o c i a l i m p a c t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d o p e r a t i o n o f l a r g e s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s . S o m e i m p a c t s h a v e b e e n e x p e c t e d ; h o w e v e r , o t h e r i m p a c t s , w h i c h w e r e g i v e n l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g s t a g e s a n d w h i c h h a v e c o m e a b o u t i n a c o m p l e t e l y u n e x p e c t e d m a n n e r , m a y b e d o c u -m e n t e d f o r v i r t u a l l y e v e r y l a r g e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t . A n y c o n t r i b u t i o n t o w a r d s e n s u r i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i m p a c t s w h i c h m i g h t o t h e r w i s e o c c u r u n e x p e c t e d l y s h o u l d s e r v e t o i m p r o v e t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I 4 A l t h o u g h s o c i a l i m p a c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s b u t o n e o f m a n y c l a s s e s " " 7 o f i m p a c t s c o n s i d e r e d i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f a d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m -i t h a s i m p l i c i t v a l u e i n t e r m s o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i t p r o v i d e s i n o r d e r f o r s o u n d d e c i s i o n m a k i n g a n d p l a n n i n g t o b e d e t e r m i n e d . T h e f i r s t a n d f o r e m o s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f h y d r o d e v e l o p m e n t - t h e e n g i n e e r i n g f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y - o f t e n o v e r l o o k s o v e r a l l s o c i a l c o n c e r n s s i m p l y b e c a u s e i t l a c k s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n n e e d e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e s e c o n -c e r n s i n t o t h e o v e r a l l p l a n . T h u s , a n y m e t h o d o l o g y w h i c h c a n b e d e v e l o p e d t o a i d i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e c o n c e r n s s h o u l d ( t h r o u g h c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n b a s e ) h a v e s o m e u t i l i t y w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g a n d s u b s e q u e n t d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . H I S T O R I C A L P E R S P E C T I V E F o r m a l a p p r o v a l o f t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r T r e a t y i n 1 9 6 4 b r o u g h t t o a c o n c l u s i o n t w o d e c a d e s o f s t u d y a n d n e g o t i a t i o n b y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d C a n a d a f o r j o i n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r b a s i n . T h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r r a n k s f o u r t h i n t e r m s o f f l o w a n d f i r s t i n t e r m s o f p o t e n t i a l h y d r o p o w e r a m o n g t h e r i v e r s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . " ' T h e s y s t e m d r a i n s a t o t a l o f 2 5 9 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e m i l e s , o f w h i c h 3 9 , 0 0 0 a r e i n C a n a d a , a n d h a s a n a v e r a g e a n n u a l r u n o f f o f 1 0 0 m i l l i o n a c r e f e e t . T h e r u n o f f , h o w e v e r , i s v e r y s e a s o n a l , w i t h a l m o s t h a l f o f t h e t o t a l o c c u r r i n g i n J u n e a n d J u l y . J . W . W i l s o n w r i t e s : . . . . i t i s a r i v e r o f a w e s o m e p o w e r ; a n d b e f o r e i t w a s h a r n e s s e d i t w r o u g h t f r i g h t f u l d e s t r u c t i o n a l o n g i t s b a n k s , a s i n 1 9 4 8 w h e n i t d r o v e 3 8 , 0 0 0 A m e r i c a n s f r o m t h e i r h o m e s a n d k i l l e d 4 1 . * O t h e r c l a s s e s o f i m p a c t s a r e b i o l o g i c a l , p h y s i c a l , e c o n o m i c . The objectives of the Columbia River Treaty involved headwater storage for the upstream country (Canada) not only for i t s d i r e c t use, but a l s o for use i n the downstream country (United States) which benefits from the storage i n two ways: increased flows during periods of natural low flow can increase production of hydro e l e c t r i c power at head plants downstream; and m o d i f i c a t i o n of the peak discharge during the season of high runoff can reduce flood hazard i n exposed reaches of the downstream flood p l a i n . Doubtless motivated by the p o s s i b i l i t y that j o i n t endeavor would have mutually b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s , the governments of the United States and Canada i n 1941 r e f e r r e d the task of assessing the p o s s i b i l i t y of co-operative development of the Columbia River to the I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission.^ Subsequently, the I . J o C . formed the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Columbia River Engineering Board which endeavored to i n v e s t i g a t e the engineering f e a s i b i l i t y of the p r o j e c t . In 1959, t h i s board submitted to the United States and Canadian governments t h e i r submissions for Columbia River development based on d i v e r s i o n of the Kootenay River into the Columbia River. This scheme involved considerable flooding i n the East Kootenay region, but none i n th Arrow Lakes region. However, i t was not accepted by the B r i t i s h Columbia government who f e l t that too much valuable land would be flooded and that highway routes would be a f f e c t e d adversely. Thus, the B r i t i s h Columbia government opted for the s o - c a l l e d High Arrow scheme instead, which i n -volved flooding i n the Arrow Lakes region. This l a t t e r scheme was. essen-t i a l l y the one f i n a l l y agreed upon i n January 1964. (See f i g u r e 1) The r e s u l t of the Columbia River Treaty was the b u i l d i n g of three dams, Duncan Lake, High Arrow, and Mica. Furthermore, i t necessitated the THE COLUMBIA RIVER WATERSHED _ r C f Projects existing or under construction in 1960 Proposed projects Treaty projects (underlined) CANADA NITED STATES F i g u r e £9: E x i s t i n g , U n d e r - C o n s t r u c t i o n , P r o p o s e d a n d T r e a t y P r o j e c t s i n t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r B a s i n , 1 9 6 0 . ( S o u r c e : J . V . K r u t i l l a , T h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r T r e a t y , p . 2 4 . B a s e d o n 2 n d S e s s . , P l a t e 1 ; a n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o l u m b i a R i v e r E n g i n e e r i n g B o a r d , W a t e r R e s o u r c e s o f t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r B a s i n , R e p o r t t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n , U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d C a n a d a , 1959, p . 6 7 . ) L E G E N D — T R E A T Y PROJECTS OTHER PROJECTS EXISTING AND UNDER CONSTRUCTION CHIEF JOSEPH GRAND COULEE F i g u r e | | § . C o l u m b i a R i v e r T r e a t y P r o j e c t s . ( A d a p t e d f r o m : C o l u m b i a R i v e r T r e a t y P e r m a n e n t E n g i n e e r i n g B o a r d , A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d C a n a d a , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . . a n d O t t a w a : S e p t e m b e r , 1965, P l a t e N o . 1.) d i s p l a c e m e n t a n d s u b s e q u e n t r e l o c a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o t h o u s a n d i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e A r r o w L a k e s V a l l e y l i v i n g b e t w e e n R e v e l s t o k e a n d C a s t e l g a r , t h e i r h o m e s a n d f a r m s w h i c h w e r e d e s t i n e d t o b e f l o o d e d . ( S e e f i g u r e 2) S C O P E A N D O R G A N I Z A T I O N T h e m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h i s s t u d y i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p r a g m a t i c a p p r o a c h b a s e d o n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i m p a c t s f r o m d i s p l a c e m e n t a n d s u b s e -q u e n t r e l o c a t i o n . A m a j o r p o r t i o n i s c o m p o s e d o f d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f t h e i m p a c t s f r o m a s p e c i f i c c a s e - H i g h A r r o w D a m . I t i s c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h " a f t e r t h e f a c t " i m p a c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , t h e c o n c l u d i n g c o m p o n e n t o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s o c i a l i m p a c t s t a t e m e n t . T h e s t u d y i s c o m p o s e d o f t w o m a i n p a r t s . T h e f i r s t i s a l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o d o c u m e n t t h e v a l i d i t y o f l o c a l e a s a c o n c e p t o f c o m m u n i t y . I t i s a c r i t i c a l b a s i s f o r t h e s e c o n d m a i n p a r t o f t h e s t u d y , i n w h i c h i m p a c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d a n d d i s c u s s e d . T o s u p p l e m e n t t h e b a s i c s t u d y , a t h i r d p a r t i s p r e s e n t e d i n w h i c h g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s a n d p o l i c y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d . , O B J E C T I V E S T h i s s t u d y w i l l e v a l u a t e a n d a s s e s s s o m e o f t h e i m p a c t s t h a t a s p e c i f i c d i s p l a c e d p o p u l a t i o n i n c u r r e d . T h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a s f o l l o w s : ( 1 ) A n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p a c t s t h e d i s -p l a c e d p e o p l e i n c u r r e d . ( a ) T h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e d a m a g e s ( m e a s u r e o f i n t e n s i t y ) . 9 (2) To delineate the v a l i d i t y of " a f t e r the f a c t " impact i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n . ( 3 ) To make suggestions to future d e c i s i o n makers for p u b l i c p o l i c i e s and a l t e r a t i o n s i n e x i s t i n g ones. NEED FOR RESEARCH Before proceeding with the study, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to consider b r i e f l y why an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s sort should be undertaken. I t i s f e l t that the planning prof e s s i o n o f f e r s a u s e f u l s e r v i c e with respect to large scale r e s e r v o i r development and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r unexpected impacts. Consideration of secondary e f f e c t s has not been c a r r i e d out i n a comprehensive manner i n the past, and there i s l i t t l e i n the way of multi-purpose i n t e g r a t i o n i n order to ensure such changes even today. The m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y nature of the problem provides an e x c e l l e n t opportunity for the planning prof e s s i o n to contribute towards i t s improve-ment. The pr o f e s s i o n should be able to o f f e r a basic understanding, though not n e c e s s a r i l y high expertise, i n each of the many f i e l d s of study which are involved. Further, the p r o f e s s i o n should be capable of applying i t s own expertise i n the f i e l d of a s s i m i l a t i n g material for the a n a l y s i s of a l t e r n a t i v e s . In t h i s context, the planner requires the cooperation and understanding between s p e c i a l i s t s i n many f i e l d s . The need of the study i s accentuated by a number of f a c t o r s : ( 1 ) The absence of l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e i n assessing r e l o c a t i o n programs. (2) The lack of such information on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l , and ( 3 ) T h e r e c e n t e x p a n s i o n o f d a m b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s , t h r o u g h o u t B . C . a n d C a n a d a p e r s e . FOOTNOTES 1 Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation: Ottawa, The Urban Renewal Scheme Preparation Handbook, 1969. 2 Excerpt from Robert C. Weaver, address before the Health and Welfare Council of the Baltimore Area, March 28, 1968, pp. 2-3. 3 Thayer, Scudder. "Man-made lakes and population resettlement", 1960. Symposium of the I n s t i t u t i o n of Biology, #15 Academic Press, London. 4 Grier , George. From the U.S. Senate Hearings on R e l o c a t i o n of the El d e r l y , Part 1, p. 104. 5 K r w i t i l a , J.V. The Columbia River Treaty, The economics of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r basin development, published for Resources For the Future, Inc., 1968, p. 1. 6 Wilson, J.W. People i n the Way, Univ. of Toronto Press, 1970, p. 3. 7 Waterfield, D. Continental Waterboy; Clarke, Irwin and Co. Ltd., Toronto, 1970; Vancouver, Canada. C H A P T E R TWO M E T H O D S O F S T U D Y I n d e v e l o p i n g a m e t h o d o l o g y w h i c h w i l l l a t e r b e u s e d t o e v a l u a t e a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o h a v e a n o b j e c t i v e f r a m e w o r k . T h i s f a c t w a s g i v e n d u e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e d e s i g n a n d c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e s e a r c h . H o w e v e r , a t c e r t a i n p o i n t s w i t h i n t h e m e t h o d -o l o g y o b j e c t i v i t y w a s l i m i t e d . T h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s w i l l b e b r o u g h t f o r t h a n d d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h e c h a p t e r . T h e m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h i s s t u d y w a s d e v e l o p e d f r o m a s y n t h e s i s o f p r e v i o u s l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g s o c i a l r e s e a r c h . I n o r d e r t o g a i n p e r m i s s i o n t o c o n d u c t t h e s t u d y , m e e t i n g s w e r e h e l d w i t h t h e D i r e c t o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H y d r o a n d P o w e r A u t h o r i t y a n d f i n a l l y w i t h t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f t h e S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . I n e a c h c a s e , i n t e r e s t a n d e n t h u s i a s m w e r e s h o w n i n t h e p r o p o s a l . A c o n c e r n w a s e v i d e n t , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h b e u n d e r -t a k e n w i t h i n a n o b j e c t i v e f r a m e w o r k , a n d t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r w a s n o t s i m p l y e n t e r i n g t h e f i e l d t o p r o v e t h a t B . C . H y d r o w a s a n " o g r e " a n d t h a t a p a t h y w a s e p i d e m i c i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . A s s u r a n c e s w e r e o f f e r e d t h a t t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s w o u l d i n f a c t b e m e t a n d t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h h a d a c a d e m i c l e g i t i m a c y . D A T A C O L L E C T I O N A s s e s s m e n t o f t h e s o c i a l i m p a c t s o f t h e A r r o w L a k e s d a m p r o j e c t i n v o l v e d t w o m a i n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . O n e w a s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a o n t h e c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n . T h i s w a s d o n e i n o r d e r t o c o m p a r e t h e c o m m u n i t i e s i n s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s i s . T h e o t h e r m e t h o d w a s i n t e n s i v e p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h f o r m e r r e s i d e n t s t h a t w e r e d i s p l a c e d a n d l e f t t h e r e g i o n e n t i r e l y . T h e s a m p l e w a s d r a w n f r o m a p o p u l a t i o n f i t t i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : ( a ) h a v e o w n e d o r r e n t e d p r o p e r t y a n d l i v e d i n t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n a t t h e t i m e o f t h e b u i l d i n g a n d c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e d a m ; ( b ) h a v e l e f t t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n t o r e l o -c a t e ( t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e s t u d y r e g i o n a p p e a r s i n A p p e n d i x ) . T h e g r o u p t h a t w a s s t u d i e d i n c l u d e d o n l y o n e s e g m e n t o f t h e t o t a l d i s p l a c e d p o p u l a t i o n . I t d i d n o t i n c l u d e f o r m e r p r o p e r t y o w n e r s w h o w e r e d i s p l a c e d a n d r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e w a s n o p r o v i s i o n u n d e r t h e C o l u m b i a . R i v e r T r e a t y f o r f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s o f t h e d i s p l a c e d p o p u l a t i o n . T h u s , l i t t l e w a s k n o w n a b o u t t h e s t u d y g r o u p u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n c l u d i n g t h e i r p r e s e n t r e s i d e n c e , a n d w h y t h e y l e f t t h e r e g i o n t o r e l o c a t e . H e n c e , i t w a s f e l t t h a t i t w o u l d b e m o r e v a l u a b l e t o l o c a t e a n d s t u d y a s a m p l e o f t h e d i s p l a c e d p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h h a d l e f t t h e r e g i o n . -T H E S A M P L E T h e d i s p l a c e d p o p u l a t i o n l e f t t h e r e g i o n t o r e l o c a t e e i t h e r i n s m a l l g r o u p s o r a s i n d i v i d u a l s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e c l a r a t i o n s o f t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r T r e a t y t h e r e w e r e n o p r o v i s i o n s m a d e f o r f o l l o w - u p s u r v e y s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n t i m e m o s t o f t h e s e p e o p l e l o s t c o n t a c t w i t h B . C . H y d r o a n d o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s . T h i s f a c t n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e t y p e a n d f o r m o f s a m p l e u s e d , w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n p r o b l e m s i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a . O n e o f t h e m a i n p r o b l e m s i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a w a s t h a t o f s e l e c t i n g a r e a s o n a b l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e . S i n c e t h e r e w a s n o e c o n -o m i c a l o r e f f i c i e n t w a y o f s a m p l i n g t h e p o p u l a t i o n , t h e a p p r o a c h d e p e n d e d o n p e r s o n a l r e f e r r a l s b y r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e s t u d y . T h e m e m o r i e s o f v a r i o u s H y d r o r e l o c a t i o n o f f i c e r s e m p l o y e d a t t h e t i m e o f t h e p r o j e c t , a n d H y d r o r e l o c a t i o n f i l e s - m o s t o f w h i c h w e r e b u r n e d d u r i n g a f i r e a t t h e R e v e l -s t o k e o f f i c e - w e ' r e a l s o u t i l i z e d i n d r a w i n g u p t h e s a m p l e . T h u s , t h e c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e d e s i r e d s a m p l e s i z e w a s d e t e r m i n e d m a i n l y b y t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n f o l l o w i n g l e a d s a c q u i r e d f r o m o t h e r r e -s p o n d e n t s i n t h e s t u d y , a n d b y t h e a m o u n t o f i n t e r v i e w s t h a t c o u l d b e m a n a g e d i n t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e . A n a t t e m p t w a s a l s o m a d e t o m a i n t a i n s u f f i c i e n t s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e r e w e r e t w e n t y - t h r e e i n t e r v i e w s c o m p l e t e d . T h i s d i d n o t g i v e s t a t i s t i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e r e s u l t s b u t t h e y d i d p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p i c t u r e . A t t h i s p o i n t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d i s c u s s b r i e f l y s o m e o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s a m p l e d e s i g n . . A s i d e f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t m a n y d i s p l a c e e s h a d d i e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , a g o o d n u m b e r o f t h e p e o p l e m o v e d t w o a n d t h r e e t i m e s o f t e n l e a v i n g a s k e t c h y f o r w a r d i n g a d d r e s s . S o m e n a m e s g i v e n t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r b y o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t s e i t h e r l a c k e d a d d r e s s e s o r w e r e e x t r e m e l y a m b i g u o u s . I f a n a m e d i d h a v e a n a d d r e s s t h e r e s e a r c h e r t h e n h a d t o c a l l t o m a k e a n a p p o i n t m e n t . B e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s a m p l e u s e d , i t w a s n o t c l e a r w h e r e t h e r e s e a r c h e r w o u l d e n d u p a f t e r e a c h i n t e r -v i e w a n d s u b s e q u e n t r e f e r r a l . A l l i n t e r v i e w s e n d e d w i t h a r e q u e s t f o r o t h e r k n o w n n a m e s o f f o r m e r r e s i d e n t s , o f t e n t h i s l e d t o a l i s t o f t x r o o r t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l s o r f a m i l i e s . O c c a s i o n a l l y s o m e o f t h e m o r e f r u i t f u l i n t e r v i e w s l e d t o l o n g e r l i s t s o f o t h e r k n o w n d i s p l a c e e s , b u t i n m o r e t h a n o n e i n s t a n c e t h e r e f e r r a l s t u r n e d o u t t o b e o u t - d a t e d . A n o t h e r p r o b l e m , w h i c h w a s o f a p e r s o n a l n a t u r e , c o n c e r n e d t h e c o n s t a n t t r a v e l l i n g a r o u n d a n d l a c k o f a r e a l h o m e b a s e . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n b y - p a s s i n g k n o w n a d d r e s s e s a n d r u s h e d i n t e r v i e w s . T h e a r e a c o v e r e d t h e b r e a d t h o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - f r o m V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d t o R e v e l s t o k e a n d b e y o n d . O n e f i n a l p r o b l e m w h i c h s h o u l d b e m e n t i o n e d w a s t h e o c c a s i o n a l r e f u s a l o r n o n - r e s p o n s e f r o m r e s p o n d e n t s c o n t a c t e d . T h e r e w e r e t w o p e o p l e w h o s p e c i f i c a l l y d i d n o t w a n t t o c o o p e r a t e . I n a s s e s s i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n i t w a s f e l t t h a t t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r r e s p o n d e n t s n e e d e d m o r e r e a s s u r a n c e t h a t n o o n e w a s o u t t o " g e t " t h e m . I t w a s a l s o f e l t t h a t i n s o m e c a s e s t h i s w a s s i m p l y t h e i r o w n w a y o f i n d i c a t i n g t h a t q u e s t i o n i n g t h e m w a s a n i n -t r u s i o n o n t h e i r t i m e . F i n a l l y , t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , t h o u g h t h e y c o n s t i t u t e d a b o u t 2 0 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e w h o r e l o c a t e d o u t o f t h e r e g i o n , r e p r e s e n t o n l y 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l d i s p l a c e d p o p u l a t i o n . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t c a n n o t b e s a i d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s a r e t y p i c a l o r c a n b e a p p l i e d t o t h e w h o l e d i s p l a c e d p o p u l a -t i o n . T H E I N T E R V I E W P R O G R A M T h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e i n c l u d e d a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r e d a n d o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s . O n e p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y w a s u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n p r e -p a r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . ( R u r a l t o U r b a n A d j u s t m e n t , b y J . A . . A b r a h m s o n , A R D A p u b l i c a t i o n , 1 9 6 8 . ) T h e r e s e a r c h c o v e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y d e a l t w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s o f r u r a l f a r m f a m i l i e s i n a d j u s t i n g t o n e w e n v i r o n m e n t s a f t e r d e c i d i n g t o m i g r a t e . T h e r e s e a r c h e r f e l t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y w a s b o t h a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h a n d q u i t e p e r c e p t i v e . O t h e r s t u d i e s ( R e l o c a t i n g F a m i l i e s , b y A . M e r m i n ) w e r e a l s o u s e d i n p r e -p a r i n g q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e i n c l u d i n g s o m e p e r s o n a l i n p u t . A l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n s w e r e o p e n - e n d e d i n o r d e r t o e n a b l e a f r e e - w h e e l i n g a n d d e e p p r o b i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n . I t a l s o e n a b l e d t h e e x -c h a n g e o f v i e w s f r o m a n e q u a l - f o o t i n g , a n d a l l o w e d m o r e b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e w a y o f a t t i t u d e s t o c o m e f o r t h . T h e i n t e r v i e w s , w h i c h w e r e m a d e d u r i n g t h e s u m m e r o f 1 9 7 4 , l a s t e d a n a v e r a g e o f o n e h o u r . S o m e i n t e r v i e w s l a s t e d u p t o t w o h o u r s . A t e l e p h o n e c h e c k , w h e r e p o s s i b l e , a n d a p e r s o n a l c a l l w h e r e t h e r e w a s n o t e l e p h o n e , e s t a b l i s h e d p e r m i s s i o n f o r a n i n t e r v i e w . I n t e r v i e w s w e r e t h e n , m a d e b y a p p o i n t m e n t t o p r o v i d e f o r a n a d e q u a t e a m o u n t o f t i m e . I n s o m e c a s e s , l a c k o f t i m e a n d d i r e c t i o n r e s u l t e d i n o n - t h e - s p o t i n t e r v i e w s , c o n s e q u e n t l y l e a v i n g l i t t l e t i m e f o r p r e p a r a t i o n b y e i t h e r t h e i n t e r v i e w e r o r r e s p o n d e n t . I n a m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s b o t h h u s b a n d a n d wife w e r e p r e s e n t . L e s s t h a n 5 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e e l i g i b l e a n d c o n t a c t e d r e f u s e d t o b e i n t e r -v i e w e d . P r e - t e s t s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e w e r e c a r r i e d o u t . T h i s t o o k t h e f o r m , f i r s t , o f a s e r i e s o f s m a l l " p r e - t e s t s " , w h i c h s i m p l y m e a n t s c a n n i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r i s o l a t e d p r o b l e m s i n t h e d e s i g n ; a n d t h e n , w h e n t h e b r o a d p l a n o f t h e e n q u i r y w a s e s t a b l i s h e d , o f a p i l o t s u r v e y , a s m a l l s c a l e r e p l i c a o f t h e m a i n s u r v e y . T h e p i l o t s u r v e y w a s t a k e n b y v a r i o u s r e s i d e n t s ( 1 1 ) o f t h e D u n b a r a r e a o f V a n c o u v e r . T h e p i l o t s u r v e y w a s t h e d r e s s r e h e a r s a l , a n d i t w a s p r e c e d e d b y a s e r i e s o f p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t s a n d t r i a l s . T h e r e a s o n f o r t h e p i l o t s u r v e y w a s t h a t i t p r o v i d e d s o m e g u i d a n c e o n : ( a ) t h e v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e d ; ( b ) t h e n o n - r e s p o n s e r a t e t o c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s ; ( c ) t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e m e t h o d o f c o l l e c t i n g t h e d a t a ; ( d ) t h e a d e q u a c y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; a n d ( e ) t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d b r i e f i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n s t o r e s p o n d e n t s . T h e p i l o t s u r v e y r e s u l t e d i n m a j o r a l t e r a t i o n s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , b u t i t d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a b s o l v e t h e t r o u b l e o f t h e m a i n s u r v e y ; t h e m u c h b i g g e r s c a l e o f t h e s u r v e y c r e a t e d s n a g s a n d h e a d a c h e s o f w h i c h t h e p i l o t s u r v e y g a v e n o w a r n i n g . S o m e o f t h e f a c t o r s c o v e r e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w p r o g r a m w e r e : t h e p r e v i o u s l i f e s t y l e s o f d i s p l a c e e s a n d t h e c h a n g e s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h a t l i f e s t y l e d u e t o r e l o c a t i o n , t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h a d i s p l a c e d p e r s o n w a s " c o m m i t t e d " t o h i s o r h e r f o r m e r c o m m u n i t y ( m e a s u r e d b y t h e n u m b e r o f c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s o n e b e l o n g e d t o , a n d b y g e n e r a l c o m m e n t s m a d e ) , c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n p r e s e n t a n d f o r m e r c o m m u n i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o s e r v i c e s , f r i e n d s , e t c . , a n d d i s p l a c e e s ' o p i n i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f r e l o c a t i o n b a s e d o n t h e i r o w n p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c u r e d f r o m t h e i n t e r -v i e w s f o c u s e d o n p r o v i d i n g d a t a f o r a n i m p a c t - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c h e m e . I n a n u m b e r o f c a s e s , t h e m o s t i n f o r m a t i v e p a r t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w t o o k p l a c e a f t e r t h e i n t e r v i e w h a d o f f i c i a l l y e n d e d . A t t h i s t i m e m o r e p e r s o n a l e x a m p l e s o f s i t u a t i o n s a n d e x p e r i e n c e s t h e r e s p o n d e n t h a d d e a l t w i t h a n d o p i n i o n s o f r e l o c a t i o n w e r e e x p r e s s e d . T h e s e c o m m e n t s w e r e n o t e d , t o t h e b e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r , a f t e r l e a v i n g t h e p r e m i s e s . N o t a p e r e c o r d e r w a s u s e d b e c a u s e i t w a s f e l t t h a t i t d i s t r a c t e d t h e r e s p o n -d e n t s a n d m a d e t h e m u n e a s y , w a r y a n d l e s s r e s p o n s i v e . T h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y , f i e l d n o t e s w e r e k e p t b o t h o f p e r s o n a l o b s e r -v a t i o n s a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r , a n d t h e s u b s t a n c e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s b e t w e e n m y s e l f , n e i g h b o r s o f t h e d i s p l a c e d p e o p l e a n d H y d r o p e r s o n n e l . A s t h e p r o c e d u r e s a n d r e c o r d s f o r r e l o c a t i o n a n d c o m p e n s a t i o n w e r e n o t e n t i r e l y s t a n d a r d i z e d , c o m p l e t e a n d c o m p a r a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a l l s i t u a t i o n s w a s n o t o b t a i n a b l e . T h e r e w e r e t h e n o m m i s s i o n s a n d a d e g r e e o f l a c k o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . W h i l e i t c o u l d n o t b e 1 8 d i r e c t l y t e s t e d , i t w a s f e l t t h a t t h e s e f e a t u r e s o f t h e s t u d y l i m i t e d o n l y t h e a m o u n t o f i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d a n d d i d n o t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y b i a s t h e c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h w o u l d b e d r a w n f r o m t h e d a t a . T h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h d i s p l a c e e s d o e s n o t r e p r e s e n t t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e w h o l e s a m p l e o n a l l d i m e n s i o n s , a s r e s p o n d e n t s d i d n o t a n s w e r a s e t n u m b e r o f q u e s t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , a l l r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e a s k e d -D i d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d a f f e c t y o u r e v e r y d a y r o u t i n e ? S o m e p e o p l e i n a n s w e r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n e i t h e r h a d n o r e p l y o r w e r e a m b i g u o u s a n d n o t h e l p f u l . O t h e r q u e s t i o n s h a d a s i m i l a r r e s u l t l e a d i n g t o v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e n u m b e r a n d k i n d o f r e s p o n s e s t o c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s . T h e r e s e a r c h e r t r i e d t o d i s c u s s t h e f o l l o w i n g d i m e n s i o n s w i t h o u t u s i n g d i r e c t p r o b e s : a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d c o u n t r y l i f e , p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n , e t c - . T h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h w e r e f o r m e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t u d y i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e s e a r c h t o s o m e d e g r e e . A s t h e r e s e a r c h e r b e c a m e a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , t h e y b e c a m e l e s s g u a r d e d i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . I t w a s f e l t t h a t t h e c o o p e r a t i o n i n g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n w a s n o t s i m p l y a n o b l i g a t i o n t o d o s o , b u t a l s o i n v o l v e d a f r i e n d l y i n t e r e s t . A c t u a l l y , a s t r o n g f e e l i n g f o r s o m e o f t h e p e o p l e b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d d e v e l o p e d , o n e r e a s o n b e i n g t h e s i m p l e m a n n e r a n d s t y l e o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . T h e s e f e e l -i n g s w e r e i n s o m e r e s p e c t s c o n f l i c t i n g i n t h a t i t b e c a m e d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o r d p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e w a y i n w h i c h t h e p r o c e s s o f r e l o c a t i o n w a s o r g a n i z e d b y H y d r o p e r s o n n e l a n d i t s i m p a c t o n t h e d i s p l a c e d • p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s s t r a i n w a s f e l t , b u t r e c o g n i z e d , a n d h o p e f u l l y d i d n o t u n d u l y i n f l u e n c e t h e a n a l y s i s a n d r e p o r t i n g w h i c h i s p r e s e n t e d i n s u b s e q u e n t c h a p t e r s . I t w a s f e l t , t o i n t e r v i e w o u t s i d e t h e r a d i u s c h o s e n ( s o u t h e a s t e r n B . C . , e x t e n d i n g t o t h e A l b e r t a b o r d e r a n d t h e O k a n a g a n ) w o u l d b e e x t r e m e l y 19 t i m e c o n s u m i n g r e s u l t i n g i n t h e c o s t b e i n g o u t o f p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e v a l u e o f t h e r e s u l t s . B u t b e c a u s e t h e s a m p l e h a d t o b e a s o b j e c t i v e a s p o s s i b l e , i t w a s d e c i d e d t o i n c l u d e o t h e r a r e a s o u t s i d e t h e i n i t i a l g e o g r a p h i c l i m i t a t i o n . A n d f i n a l l y , a l t h o u g h p r i o r t o t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e s e a r c h e r h a d n o t r a i n i n g i n i n t e r v i e w i n g , o n e c a n s e e k c o m f o r t i n t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e r e i s n o s u c h b e i n g a s a n i d e a l i n t e r v i e w e r . A n d , w i t h t h e e x t e n s i v e a s s i s t a n c e a n d a d v i c e a c q u i r e d f r o m r e s o u r c e p e r s o n n e l a n d f r o m t h e l i t e r a -t u r e , i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w s w e r e b o t h a d e q u a t e a n d r e l i a b l e . L I M I T A T I O N S O F T H E S T U D Y T h e v a l i d i t y o f a p l a n n i n g s t u d y d o e s n o t d e p e n d p r i m a r i l y u p o n t h e t i m e a n d t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . R a t h e r , i t d e p e n d s c h i e f l y u p o n t h e m e a n i n g f u l w a y i n w h i c h d a t a i s a s s e m b l e d , a n a l y z e d a n d t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a r e c o m m e n d e d c o u r s e o f a c t i o n a s r e p r e s e n t e d b y t e x t u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h e f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s e n c o u n t e r e d m e r e l y a t t e m p t s t o i n d i c a t e t h e o p e r a t i o n a l c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e s t u d y w a s c a r r i e d o u t . O n e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l l i m i t a t i o n s w a s t h e l a c k o f t r u l y p r o f e s s i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e i n c o p y i n g w i t h t h e a n a l y s i s a n d d e s i g n p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e s t u d y . T h i s i s , o f c o u r s e , t o b e e x p e c t e d i n a n a c a d e m i c c o n t e x t w h e r e t h e s t u d y p r o j e c t i t s e l f s e r v e s t o t r a i n s t u d e n t s i n t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f r e s e a r c h i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f r e l o c a t i o n a s a s o c i a l p r o b l e m p r e s e n t s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r t h e o r y c o n s t r u c t i o n . A n i n v e s t i g a t i o n w h i c h a s p i r e s t o p r o v i d i n g s o l u t i o n s t o t h a t p r o b l e m m u s t r e c o g n i z e t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d w h i c h r e s u l t s i n s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . T h i s e n t a i l s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a n e x p l a n a t o r y f r a m e w o r k w h i c h s p e l l s o u t t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f e a c h f a c t o r a n d t h e w a y i n x ^ h i c h t h e y i n t e r -a c t t o c a u s e s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . T h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t e d o n l y a 20 l i m i t e d n u m b e r o f f a c t o r s , h e n c e t h e s t u d y c l a i m s o n l y t o b e a d i s c o v e r y p r o c e s s o r e x p l o r a t o r y w o r k a i m e d a t g i v i n g d e c i s i o n m a k e r s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s o c i a l i m p a c t s a n d s u g g e s t i o n s f o r r e f i n i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f r e l o c a t i o n . O t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s w a s t h e g e n e r a l l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d s t a n d a r d -i z a t i o n o f t h e d a t a . . A n d f i n a l l y , t h e u n a n t i c i p a t e d b i a s t h a t a r o s e d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t u d y . A q u e s t i o n w h i c h r e m a i n s t o b e a n s w e r e d i s h o w m u c h o f a s o c i a l i m p a c t c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f r e l o c a t i o n a g e n c i e s ' o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s . T h i s c a n b e a c c o m p l i s h e d b y a m o r e e x t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s a n d a d e e p p r o b e i n t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d a n d p r e v i o u s v a l u e s o f r e s p o n d e n t s . A n o t h e r a r e a o f f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o u l d b e t h e e f f e c t s o f c h a n g e s i n t h e f o r m a l s t r u c -t u r e o f t h e r e l o c a t i o n p r o c e s s i n o n e o r m o r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o v e r t i m e . I n g e n e r a l , t h e A r r o w L a k e s s t u d y o p e r a t e d u n d e r c o n s i d e r a b l e h a n d i c a p s d u e t o l a c k o f t i m e , d e t a i l e d d a t a . H o w e v e r t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s a r e c o m m o n t o m o s t s t u d i e s , b o t h p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d a c a d e m i c , a n d a r e m e r e l y r e l a t i v e i n t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e y h a n d i c a p a n a l y s i s a n d d e s i g n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e l i m i t a t i o n s e n c o u n t e r e d b y t h i s s t u d y d i d n o t p r e v e n t t h e s t u d y f r o m a c h i e v i n g a m e a s u r e o f a c a d e m i c q u a l i t y . CHAPTER THREE LITERATURE REVIEW: THE IMPORTANCE OF LOCALE "Community" i s these days an often used but not well defined term. Planners are urged to "plan with the community"; p o l i t i c i a n s are c r i t i c i z e d for f a i l i n g to "consult the community" or to represent the issues of the community. Thus, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to attempt to give meaning to the term. There have been numerous d e f i n i t i o n s of "community" proposed. However, according to Scott Greer, there are u s u a l l y three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that serve as a basis for a meaningful d e f i n i t i o n ; they include s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , shared perspectives, and locale.''' This formula can be broken down to encompass two quite d i f f e r e n t though r e l a t e d concepts, one r e -f e r r i n g to "the community-settlement" and one to "community". The "community-settlement" conceptualization includes " l o c a l e " as an i n t r i n s i c component. The community i n t h i s sense must e x i s t w i t h i n an area that can be comprehended by the senses - a place whose roadways and shops, landmarks and physical hazzards each inhabitant can know. It can be part of a much larger whole as older c i t y neighborhoods were, but i t must nevertheless be d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e to i t s inhabitants. "Community" on the other hand, stresses the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and shared perspective components of the conceptualization.. I t i s characterized not so much by l o c a l e as by " l o y a l t y " , commitment, s o c i a l cohesion and more loose a s s o c i a t i o n s . ^ According to Mel Webber, "Ameri-cans are becoming more c l o s e l y t i e d to various i n t e r e s t communities than to place communities, whether the i n t e r e s t be based on occupational a c t i v i t i e s , l e i s u r e pastimes, s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , or i n t e l l e c t u a l 3 " p u r s u i t s . " H e a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t s p a t i a l s e p a r a t i o n o r p r o p i n q u i t y i s n o l o n g e r a n a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t o r o f f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s ; a n d , h e n c e , m e r e l o c a t i o n a l p a t t e r n i s n o l o n g e r a n a d e q u a t e s y m b o l o f o r d e r . T h u s , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t s o f c o m m u n i t y i n w h i c h l o c a l e i s i n t r i n s i c h a v e b e e n c r i t i c i z e d n o t o n l y o n t h e b a s i s t h a t t h e k i n d s o f c o m m u n i t i e s d e a l t w i t h h a v e b e c o m e a n a c h r o n i s t i c , b u t a l s o o n t h e b a s i s t h a t t h e y a r e n o t u n i v e r s a l e n o u g h . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e a r e m a n y w h o s t i l l s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e i n t h e c o n c e p t o f l o c a l e . F o r e x a m p l e , i n R e n a t a , o n e o f t h e A r r o w L a k e s c o m m u n i t i e s s t u d i e d , t h e i n h a b i t a n t s d i s p l a y e d s t r o n g f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s t h e i r l o c a l c o m m u n i t y . O n n u m e r o u s o c c a s i o n s t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a l l u d e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e m o s t d i s h e a r t e n i n g a s p e c t o f d i s p l a c e m e n t w a s t h e s e p a r a t i o n f r o m " k i n " , f r i e n d s a n d t h e l o s s o f t h e i r " h o m e " . A n o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t i n l o c a l , s e m i - i s o l a t e d a r e a s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o h a v e a n y s e n s e o f " c o m m u n i t y o u t s i d e o f " c o m m u n i t y - s e t t l e m e n t 1 b e c a u s e o f g e o g r a p h i c c o n s t r a i n t s . T h u s , d e s p i t e v e h e m e n c e w i t h i n w h i c h s o m e o b s e r v e r s c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y o u t o f e x i s t e n c e , w h e t h e r a t t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d , v i l l a g e , c i t y o r g l o b a l l e v e l , t h e r e a r e o t h e r s w h o f e e l i t i s n e c e s s a r y a n d v i t a l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l b e t o r e v i e w p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r t h e m o d e r n - d a y r e l e v a n c e o f t h e l o c a l - b a s e d c o n c e p t o f c o m m u n i t y . T h i s w i l l l a t e r e n a b l e t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o m a k e s o m e i n i t i a l c o n c l u s i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e s e n s e o f c o m m u n i t y a n d t h e e f f e c t s o f r e l o c a t i o n . T h e r e v i e w w i l l a l s o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e r e s e a r c h a n d w i l l p r o v i d t h e m e a n s f o r m a k i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . A s s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e r e a r e m a n y w h o e n v i s i o n t h e " c o m m u n i t y -s e t t l e m e n t " c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n a s n o l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y . O t h e r s f e e l i t i s 23 s t i l l v i a b l e . H e n c e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r w i l l a t t e m p t t o r e v i e w b o t h s i d e s o f t h e d i s p u t e , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e c a s e f o r r e l i n q u i s h i n g t h e c o n c e p t a n d i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , c o m m u n i t y d e p e n d e d o n s p a t i a l p r o p i n q u i t y . I t w a s d i f f i c u l t f o r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o h a v e s o c i a l c o h e s i o n o r f o r p e o p l e t o d e v e l o p a t t a c h m e n t s t o t h e s o c i a l g r o u p i n t h e a b s e n c e o f n e a r n e s s . T h u s , l o c a l e w a s i n d i s p e n s a b l e . A c c o r d i n g t o C l a r e n c e P e r r y , " . . . n o w a d a y s m o s t p e o p l e a r e n o t b o u n d t o o n e p l a c e . T h e y t u n e i n t o n a t i o n a l o r l o c a l m e d i a . T h e y e v a l u -4 a t e p e o p l e a n d s i t u a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o u n i v e r s a l o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a . " R . M e r t o n a r g u e s t h a t t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y i s o u t - o f - d a t e s i n c e i m p r o v e m e n t s i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y t h e m a s s m e d i a , : a s w e l l a s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , h a v e p r o f o u n d l y c h a n g e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s p a c e f o r h u m a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . ~* T h e c h a n g i n g w o r l d o f t h e m i d - t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y h a s a k e y d i m e n -s i o n - t h e t r e n d t o w a r d u r b a n i z a t i o n . T h i s t r e n d i s b o t h d e m o g r a p h i c a n d s o c i a l ; t h a t i s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n u r b a n p l a c e s i s e v e r i n c r e a s i n g , a n d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f u r b a n w a y s i s a p e r v a s i v e p h o n o m e n o n . C i t i e s a r e t h o s e a g g l o m e r a t i o n s o f p e o p l e a n d a c t i v i t i e s w h e r e t h e m a j o r f u n c t i o n s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y a r e c a r r i e d o u t . C i t i e s a r e e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l f o c i , w h o s e i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s a n d i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n s a r e u n q u e s t i o n a b l e . M o v e m e n t o f p e o p l e f r o m u r b a n p l a c e t o u r b a n p l a c e i n s e a r c h o f e c o n o m i c a n d / o r p r o f e s s i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s a n a c c e p t e d a s p e c t o f u r b a n l i f e . A c c o r d i n g t o L o u i s W i r t h , " S o c i a l n e t w o r k s o f u r b a n d w e l l e r s a r e n o t e n c o m p a s s e d w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t i e s i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e . N o t o n l y a r e m a n y o f t h e i r i m m e d i a t e s o c i a l c o n t a c t s o f a s e g m e n t a l a n d i m p e r s o n a l n a t u r e , b u t t h e m e a n s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n make poss i b l e the continuing v i a b i l i t y of r e l a t i o n s h i p s „ 6 despite r e s i d e n t i a l separation. "The d i s t r i b u t i o n of people i n dispersed s o c i a l systems i s not only s p a t i a l but "mental". Some people are i n a planetary community; some are i n a national community; s t i l l others are i n a community bounded by t h e i r l i m i t e d i n t e r e s t s . The bodies of people might be i n one s p a t i a l area, but not t h e i r s o c i a l worlds." Hence, many have argued that urban man i s l i v i n g i n an impersonal world. C r i t i c s of t h i s t h e s i s argue that while urban dwellers are i n v a r i a b l y i n t h i s predicament, urban l i v i n g can also bring about other r e s u l t s . Scott Greer says, "The o l d so c i e t y was (or is) not secure but repressive, and i t may be the t i e s of sla v e r y that urbanization can break. The " a r t i f i c i a l " s o c i e t y i s one i n which man has freedom, the freedom to e s t a b l i s h h i s own network of a c t i v i t i e s and con-t a c t s . Modern man, with h i s enhanced capacity to deal with h i s p h y s i c a l environment and with the opportunity to create h i s own s o c i a l world, i s g freed for a p o t e n t i a l l i f e of c r e a t i v i t y . " George Simmel concurred. He pointed out that "today metropolitan man i s 'free' i n a s p i r i t u a l i z e d and re f i n e d sense, i n contrast to the pettiness and prejudices which hem i n 9 the local-based man." Louis Wirth, gave a somewhat d i f f e r e n t but equally penetrating analysis of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c i t y (non-locale), emphasizing not a geographic e n t i t y but a set of s o c i a l conditions from which the various c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the urban way of l i f e can be derived. He stated that, "The c i t y as a community resolves i t s e l f i n t o a s e r i e s of tenuous seg-mental r e l a t i o n s h i p s superimposed upon a t e r r i t o r i a l base with a d e f i n i t e center but without a d e f i n i t e periphery and upon a d i v i s i o n of labor which 10 far transcends the immediate l o c a l i t y and i s world-wide i n scope." S c o t t G r e e r i n h i s a r t i c l e , " M a j o r T y p e s o f H u m a n G r o u p s " , a l l u d e s t o t h e f a c t t h a t ' i n d i v i d u a l s ' f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i s t y p i c a l l y b a s e d u p o n m a n y s o c i a l g r o u p s . O n e g r o u p m a y p r o v i d e i n c o m e , a n o t h e r r e l i g i o u s c o m m u n i o n , a n d a n o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n . T h e k i n g r o u p , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g a c a r r i e r o f a l l o r m o s t o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s , m a y h a v e s e p a r a t e s t a t u s a n d m a y b e c o m e r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t i n s o c i a l l i f e . ^ G r e e r c o n t i n u e s b y n o t i n g t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e c r e a t e s n e w , s p e c i a l i z e d g r o u p s . T h e s e g r o u p s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l o c a l - b a s e d a n d o f t e n r e s u l t i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s m o s t i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s t a k i n g p l a c e a w a y f r o m h i s h o m e . T h u s , t h e t h r e a t t o t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y i s t w o f o l d ; f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n p u l l s p e o p l e o u t o f a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r n e i g h b o r s , a n d b o d i e s o f s p e c i a l i z e d m e n t h e m s e l v e s b e c o m e c o m m u n i t i e s i n d e p e n d e n t o f p l a c e . A c c o r d i n g t o E d w a r d S h i l s , g o v e r n m e n t h a s c h a n g e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t o f t e r r i t o r i a l l o c a t i o n . H e b e l i e v e s t h a t , " T h e h i g h e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t , t h e h i g h e r d e g r e e o f l i t e r a c y , a n d t h e g r e a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s l i k e b o o k s , p e r i o d i c a l s , g r a m o p h o n e r e c o r d s , t e l e v i s i o n , a n d w i r e l e s s p r o g r a m s s p r e a d t h e c u l t u r e w h i c h w a s o n c e c o n f i n e d t o a n a r r o w c i r c l e a t t h e c e n t e r o v e r a f a r g r e a t e r r a d i u s . T h e s e , a n d t h e m u c h g r e a t e r " p o l i t i c i z a t i o n " o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n b r i n g a b o u t 13 a n h i s t o r i c a l l y u n i q u e m e a s u r e o f c o m m u n i t y o f c u l t u r e . T h e c o n c e p t o f c o m m u n i t y a p p e a r s t o e m b o d y b o t h t h e d e s c r i p t i v e a n d t h e i d e a l . B e g i n n i n g a t t h e f a m i l y , i t m o v e s o u t w a r d t o i n c l u d e t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d a n d p e e r g r o u p , c o n g r e g a t i o n , a n d c o l l e g i u m , t h e n a t i o n a n d i n s o m e c a s e s , t h e h u m a n r a c e . S a u l A l i n s k y , f o r e x a m p l e , b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e n e i g h b o r h h o d i s n o l o n g e r a ' v i a b l e e n t i t y - " P e o p l e n o l o n g e r r e a l l y l i v e t h e i r l i v e s i n n e i g h b o r h o o d s . T h e r e a l l i f e o f t h e p e o p l e i s e l s e w h e r e . W e a r e g o i n g t o h a v e t o f i n d o u t w h e r e i t r e a l l y i s a n d h o w t o o r g a n i z e i t . " 1 4 A c c o r d i n g t o M e l W e b b e r , " W e m a y n o t b e f a r f r o m t h e t i m e w h e n t h e l o c a l e - b a s e d m e a n i n g o f ' c o m m u n i t y ' w i l l b e a r c h a i c a n d d i s a p p e a r f r o m c o m m o n u s a g e . " ^ H e w e n t a s f a r a s s a y i n g t h a t t h e c i t y a s a c o n c e p t o f c o m m u n i t y i s o u t - o f - d a t e : W e a r e p a s s i n g t h r o u g h a r e v o l u t i o n t h a t i s u n h i t c h i n g t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n f r o m t h e l o c a t i o n a l l y f i x e d c i t y a n d r e g i o n . . . . D e f i c i e n c i e s o f o u r l a n g u a g e a n d . . . t h e a n a c h r o n i s t i c t h o u g h t - w a y s w e h a v e c a r r i e d o v e r f r o m t h e p a s s i n g e r a ( n o w c r e a t e c o n f u s i o n ) . W e s t i l l h a v e n o a d e q u a t e d e s c r i p t i v e t e r m s f o r t h e e m e r g i n g s o c i a l o r d e r . . . . W e s t i l l s e e m t o a s s u m e t h a t t e r r i t o r i a -l i t y i s a n e c e s s a r y a t t r i b u t e o f s o c i a l s y s t e m s . . . . T h e e r r o r h a s b e e n a s e r i o u s o n e . . . . I n t h e n o v e l s o c i e t y n o w e m e r g i n g . . . t h e i n f l u e n c e a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e o f g e o g r a p h i c d i s t a n c e a n d g e o g r a -p h i c p l a c e a r e d e c l i n i n g r a p i d l y . 1 6 T h e a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e l o c a l e - b a s e d c o n c e p t o f c o m m u n i t y h a s o b v i o u s v a l i d i t y ; h o w e v e r , i t m u s t b e p u t i n t o c o n t e x t . A c c o r d i n g t o W: . . M i c h e a l s o n , " M a n y c l a i m t h e w h o l e c i t y a s t h e i r e m p i r e , i f n o t m o r e . S t i l l o t h e r s a r e y e t b o u n d t o l o c a l a r e a s . R i c h o r p o o r , t h e i r i n t e r e s t s l i e w i t h i n a l i m i t e d r a n g e o f t e r r i t o r y . T h e i r s t a n d a r d s are l o c a l s t a n d a r d s , a n d t h e y e v a l u a t e o t h e r s o n a b a s i s o f i d i o s y n c r a t i c 1 7 1 8 k n o w l e d g e . " T h u s , l i f e s t y l e a s d e f i n e d b y M i c h e a l s o n b e c o m e s a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c e p t o f c o m m u n i t y . F o r e x a m p l e , i n s o m e o f t h e A r r o w L a k e s c o m m u n i t i e s , m a n y o f t h e i n h a b i -t a n t s w e r e b o r n a n d l i v e d t h e i r e n t i r e l i f e i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l c o m m u n i t i e s . T h e i n h a b i t a n t s l i v e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o e a c h o t h e r a n d i n t e r a c t e d f r e q u e n t l y . F o r t h e m , t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y w a s t h e " w h o l e l i f e " a n d c o n -s e q u e n t l y p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s o u t l o o k s . T h o s e w h o a r g u e a g a i n s t t h e r e l e v a n c e o f l o c a l e p u t u p a v e r y persuasive case. S t i l l , a good case can also be made for the retention and importance of the settlement conceptualization of community. Robert M. Maclver argued that there i s no necessary c o n f l i c t between the l o c a l community and the more incl u s i v e community, or society. Some needs are more appropriately f i l l e d on the one l e v e l than on the other. "The service of the large community i s to f u l f i l l and not to destroy the smaller.""'"^ And even though he wrote over f i f t y years ago, much of what he had to say is highly relevant today, as the orie n t a t i o n of various community units turns increasingly outward to the larger society. Maclver observed that, " I t i s i n very great measure the mere convenience of contiguity rather than the i n t r i n s i c distinctiveness of l o c a l interests which makes the l o c a l i t y an e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l unit....Associations and i n s t i t u t i o n s grown great seem to become remote from humanity i n the pro-20 cess, and greatness i t s e l f proves no true substitute for intimacy." Roland Warren, w r i t i n g on the l o c a l community, says that the alleged demise of the l o c a l community is greatly exaggerated. Rather, American communities are undergoing important changes of structure and function. Two dimensions of the community are a horizontal axis, which emphasizes "the relationship of indiv i d u a l to individual and of group to group wit h i n the l o c a l i t y " , and a v e r t i c a l axis, which involves "the relationships of the individual to a l o c a l interest group and of that l o c a l interest group to a regional, state or national organization". He believes that community developments are tending to strengthen the v e r t i c a l axis of the community and weaken i t s horizontal axis. But conventional com-munity theory i s oriented toward emphasizing the former and ignoring the 21 l a t t e r , hence i t s inadequacy. Gerald Suttles argues that the neighborhood remains "an indepen-dent feature of s o c i a l organization which must be examined i n i t s own r i g h t . He believes that physical boundaries s t i l l have meaning to people 22 and are important i n d e f i n i n g one's 'home'." A.E. Parr speaks of the strong attachment to one's community; even by those who l i v e i n less d e s i r a b l e environments - "an a f f e c t i o n f o r l o c a l e that causes them to experience the pangs of genuine g r i e f over a 23 l o s t home, when they are relocated into another v i c i n i t y . " Mr. Parr notes that the c h i e f component of th i s a t t i t u d e i s undoubtedly a longing for the remembered s e c u r i t y of the past. He states, "However hazardous l i f e may seem, and however miserable the conditions of existence may be, the four walls of home s t i l l mean food and shel t e r to the very young, and of course the f a m i l i a r sights of the v i l l a g e or neighborhood give assur-ance to small adventurers that they have not l o s t t h e i r way in t o a world o / they cannot cope with." According to Marc F r i e d , " i t i s the sense of belonging someplace, i n a p a r t i c u l a r place which i s quite f a m i l i a r and e a s i l y delineated in. a wide area i n which one fe e l s 'at home'. This i s the core of the meaning of the l o c a l area. Even f a m i l i a r and expectable s t r e e t s and houses, faces at the windows^ and people walking by may serve to designate the concrete f o c i of a sense of belonging somewhere and may provide s p e c i a l kinds of interpersonal and s o c i a l meaning to a community one defines as 'home'."25 Richard Goodwin, w r i t i n g on the lack of community i n our present society, says that, "Community i s a corner of s o c i e t y i n which the i n d i -v i d u a l can f e e l some confidence of acceptance on f a i r l y honest terms and can maintain a continuing a s s o c i a t i o n with others, whose f a m i l i a r i t y i s comforting. Community provides a mooring for the s p i r i t f o r community i s a r e s t r a i n t t h a t l i b e r a t e s . I t r e l i e v e s u s o f t h e n e e d t o c o n t i n u a l l y 2 6 t o p r o v e o u r w o r t h o r t o s e e k r e a s s u r a n c e o f t h a t w o r t h . " T h e a u t h o r s t r e s s e s t h a t m a n h a s n e a r l y a l w a y s " a n c h o r e d h i s s e n s e o f r e a l i t y , h i s 2 7 s e n s e o f h i m s e l f , t o a f i x e d p l a c e a m i d f a m i l i a r l a n d m a r k s . " H i s c o n -c l u s i o n i s t h a t o u r w o r l d h a s b e c o m e n o m a d i c a s t h e s c e n e r y o f o u r l i f e h a s c o n s t a n t l y s h i f t e d , a n d t h a t t h e m o d e r n w o r l d d e p r i v e s m o s t W e s t e r n e r s o f c o m m u n i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o S c o t t G r e e r , " T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c o m m u n i t y p r o v i d e t h a t s e n s e o f s h a r e d c o n c e r n s w h i c h i s e l e m e n t a l t o t h e c o n c e p t o f l o c a l c o m m u n i t y i t s e l f . A l l t h e o t h e r c o m p o n e n t s - c u l t u r e , l a n g u a g e , e c o n o m i c 2 8 p r o c e s s , p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e - h a v e c r y s t a l l i z e d a r o u n d t h i s n u c l e u s . " I n a n a g r i c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i t y , f o r e x a m p l e , m o s t p e o p l e h a v e a s t a k e i n t h e s i z e o f t h e h a r v e s t . A n d t h o s e f e w w h o s e i n c o m e i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e c r o p s t e n d t o s h a r e t h e c o m m o n c o n c e r n . T h u s , w h a t f i n a l l y b i n d s a l o c a l c o m m u n i t y t o g e t h e r i s a s t a t e o f m i n d o n t h e p a r t o f i t s m e m b e r s , a s e n s e o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e a n d l o y a l t y . 2 9 I n a s t u d y c o n d u c t e d b y P e t e r G l e i c h e r a n d M a r c F r i e d , t h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t b e c a u s e p e o p l e b e c o m e a t t a c h e d t o t h e p l a c e s t h e y l i v e i n , a c h a n g e o f h a b i t a t i s a p a i n f u l a c t o f u p r o o t i n g . T h e y f u r t h e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y s e r v e s a s a s e c u r e e x i s t e n c e i n w h i c h t h e i n d i -v i d u a l s h a r e s s y s t e m s o f c o n d u c t a n d h a s t h e f e e l i n g o f b e i n g w i t h o t h e r s i n a w a r m - s u s t a i n i n g n e t w o r k . T h e f e e l i n g f o r o n e ' s p l a c e , a n d i t s i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l , i s e l o q u e n t l y p o r t r a y e d i n t h i s e x c e r p t o f a l e t t e r w r i t t e n i n 1 8 5 5 b y C h i e f S e a t t l e o f t h e D u w a m i s h t r i b e : W e k n o w t h a t t h e w h i t e m a n d o e s n o t u n d e r -s t a n d o u r w a y s . O n e p o r t i o n o f t h e l a n d i s t h e s a m e t o h i m a s t h e n e x t , f o r h e i s a 30 s t r a n g e r w h o c o m e s i n t h e n i g h t a n d t a k e s f r o m t h e l a n d w h a t e v e r h e n e e d s . T h e e a r t h i s n o t h i s b r o t h e r , b u t h i s e n e m y , a n d w h e n h e h a s c o n q u e r e d i t , h e m o v e s o n ; e v e r y p a r t o f t h i s e a r t h i s s a c r e d t o m y p e o p l e . E v e r y s h i n i n g p i n e n e e d l e , e v e r y s a n d y s h o r e , e v e r y h u t , e v e r y b r a v e a n d s q u a w , e v e r y c l e a r i n g a n d h u m m i n g i n s e c t i s t h e h o l y m e m o r y a n d e x p e r i e n c e o f m y p e o p l e . ^ ® A c c o r d i n g t o S c o t t G r e e r , " P l a c e i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o m m u n i t y f o r c e r t a i n l y m o s t o f t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m s t o w h i c h w e w o u l d a p p l y t h e c o n c e p t a r e g e o g r a p h i c e n t i t i e s o f o n e s o r t o r a n o t h e r . T h e h u m a n c o n t a c t s o n x ^ h i c h f e e l i n g s o f c o m m i t t m e n t a n d i d e n t i t y a r e b u i l t a r e m o s t l i k e l y t o o c c u r a m o n g p e o p l e s h a r i n g t h e s a m e p i e c e o f g r o u n d . " R e n e D u b o s h a s n o t e d , " T h e q u a l i t y o f o u r l i v e s i n c l u d e s e m o t i o n a l a n d s p i r i t u a l s a t i s -f a c t i o n s t h a t h a v e t h e i r o r i g i n i n o u r c o n t a c t s w i t h o u r p h y s i c a l a n d s o c i a l s u r r o u n d i n g s . T h e v e r y t r e n d t o u n i f o r m i t y a n d t h e s e n s e o f b o r e -d o m i t c o n n o t e s t e n d s t o m a k e u s i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p l a c e w h e r e w e l i v e a n d i t s t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e s 32 l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s w i l l p e r s i s t . " 1 T h e r e i s , t h u s , s u p p o r t f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e w i t h r e s p e c t t o b o t h s i d e s o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y . N o n e t h e l e s s , i t s e e m s a s t h o u g h t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o b e a p e r v a s i v e f a c t o r i n o u r s o c i e t y . S t i l l , t h e f a c t t h a t o n e d o e s n o t r e j e c t t h e p r e s e n c e a n d i m p o r -t a n c e o f t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y e v e n i n t h i s d a y a n d a g e d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y m e a n t h a t o n e a l s o a c c e p t s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t . E v e n t h o u g h f o r t h e p r e s e n t t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y c o n t i n u e s t o m a k e a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e l i v e s o f m o s t p e o p l e , i t s m e a n i n g a n d i m p o r t a n c e i s c h a n g i n g a l l t h e t i m e . FOOTNOTES 1 Greer, Scott; "Major Types of Human Groups", The Concept of Community, ed. David Minar and Scott Greer, Adeline P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1964, p. 60. 2 Ibid., p. 60. 3 Webber, Melvin M.; "Order i n D i v e r s i t y : Community Without Propinquity", i n C i t i e s and Space, ed. by Lowden Wingo, J r . , John Hopkins Press, B a i t . , 1963, p. 29. 4 Perry, Clarence; "The Neighborhood Unit Format", i n W i l l i a m Wheaton et a l . (eds.) Urban Housing, New York, The Free Press of Glencoe, 1966, pp. 94-101. 5 Merton, K. Robert; "Patterns of Influence", i n Paul L. L a z a r s f e l d and F.N. Stanton (eds.) Communications Research, 1948-9, New York, Harper Bros., 1949, pp. 180-219. 6 Wirth, Louis; "Urbanism as a Way of L i f e " , American Journal of Sociology 44 (1938), 1-24. 7 McClanhan, B.; "The Community: The Urban Substitute for the T r a d i t i o n a l Community", Sociology and S o c i a l Research, 30 (March-April) 1964, p. 267. 8 Greer Scott; " S o c i a l and Personal Consequences of Change", The  Concept of Community, ed. David Minar and Scott Greer, Adeline P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1969, p. 285. 9 Simmel, George; "The Sociology of George Simmel", by Kurt H. Wolff, (eds.) C. Wright M i l l s and H.H. Gerth, published by The Free Press, 1950, p. 40'9. 10 Wirth, o p . c i t . , p. 19. 11 Greer, l o c . c i t . 12 Ibid., p. 286. 13 Shils, Edward; "The Theory of Mass Society", i n The Concept of  Community, ed. David Minar and Scott Greer, Adeline P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1969, p. 290. 14 Alinsky, Saul; " R e v e i l l e for Radicals". New York, Vintage Books, N.Y., 1969. 15 Webber, Melvin; "The Post C i t y Age", Daedalus, F a l l , 1968, p. 1098. 16 Ibid., p. 258. ' 17 Michealson, Wm.; Man and His Urban Environment, Univ. of Toronto Press, 1970, p. 61. 18 Ibid., p. 63. 3 2 1 9 M a d v e r , R o b e r t ; C o m m u n i t y : A S o c i o l o g i c a l S t u d y , p u b l i s h e d b y T h e M a c m i l l a n C o . , U . S . , 1 9 2 8 , p . 2 5 1 . 2 0 I b i d . , p . 2 5 8 . 2 1 W a r r e n , R o l a n d ; " T o w a r d a R e f o r m u l a t i o n o f C o m m u n i t y T h e o r y " , i n H u m a n O r g a n i z a t i o n , X V N o . 2 , 1 9 5 6 , p u b l i s h e d b y T h e S o c i e t y f o r A p p l i e d A n t h r o p o l o g y . 2 2 S u t t l e s , G e r a l d ; " T e r r i t o r i a l i t y a n d t h e U r b a n C o m m u n i t y " , ( A b s t r a c t D 3 9 6 9 i n t h e ' 6 8 S u p p l e m e n t t o S o c i o l o g i c a l A b s t r a c t s ) . 2 3 P a r r , A . E . ; J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s , v o l . 2 2 , # 4 , 1 9 6 6 , " P s y c h o -l o g i c a l A s p e c t s o f U r b a n o l o g y " . p . 4 3 2 4 I b i d - , p . 4 4 . 2 5 F r i e d , M a r c ; " G r i e v i n g f o r a L o s t H o m e " , p . 1 6 0 . 2 6 G o o d w i n , R . ; " R e f l e c t i o n s " , T h e N e w Y o r k e r , J a n : 2 8 , 1 9 7 3 , v o l . 1 1 , p . 3 6 , N e w Y o r k . 2 7 I b i d - , P. 4 5 . 2 8 G r e e r , S c o t t ; T h e C o n c e p t o f C o m m u n i t y , p . 6 0 . 2 9 F r i e d , M a r c ; " G r i e v i n g f o r a L o s t H o m e " , p . 1 5 2 . 3 0 T h e a r t i c l e i s p r i n t e d c o u r t e s y o f D a l e J o n e s o f t h e S e a t t l e T i m e s , N o v . 1 , 1 9 7 4 , p . I V - 3 . - • • . . 3 1 G r e e r , S c o t t ; T h e E m e r g i n g C i t y , N e w Y o r k , T h e F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 , p . 6 4 . 3 2 D u b o s , R e n e ; " R e c y c l i n g S o c i a l M a n " , i n S / R W o r l d , A u g u s t 2 4 , 1 9 7 4 , p . 8 . C H A P T E R F O U R I N T E R P R E T A T I O N O F T H E D A T A T h i s c h a p t e r i s a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d i s p l a c e d c o m m u n -i t i e s s i t u a t e d i n t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t i s n o t a s t u d y o f a " w h o l e " c o m m u n i t y b e c a u s e a l l e f f o r t a t t o t a l d e s c r i p t i o n m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y r e m a i n i l l u s o r y i f o n l y f o r t h e r e a s o n t h a t t h e m u l t i -p l i c i t y a n d c o m p l e x i t y o f o b s e r v a b l e f a c t s b e l i e c o m p r e h e n s i v e d e s c r i p -t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , b y t h e a c t o f a n a l y s i s i m p l i e d b y t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a p r o b l e m , w h o l e r a n g e s o f d a t a l o s e t h e i r s a l i e n c e a n d i m p o r t a n c e . I n t h i s c h a p t e r a n u m b e r o f c o n s p i c u o u s a r e a s o f c o m m u n i t y l i f e s u c h a s " k i n s h i p t i e s " a n d s o c i a l c l a s s a r e n o t m e n t i o n e d d u e t o f i r s t , t h e l a c k o f d a t a a n d s e c o n d , t h e a t t e n t i o n g i v e n o t h e r i s s u e s w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h e r r e g a r d e d a s m o r e c e n t r a l t o t h e f o c u s o f t h e s t u d y . T h e a n a l y s i s h a s i n v o l v e d a r e v i e w o f s o c i o l o g i c a l , l i t e r a r y , a n d j o u r n a l i s t i c s t u d i e s o n t h e c o n c e p t o f c o m m u n i t y , t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f r e l o c a t i o n a n d s o c i a l c h a n g e . I n r e v i e w i n g t h i s l i t e r a t u r e a n d i n w o r k i n g i n t h e f i e l d i n t e r -v i e w i n g d i s p l a c e d p e o p l e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r h a s i n e v i t a b l y u s e d b o t h t h e f i e l d w o r k a n d l i t e r a t u r e a s a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e . T h e c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s a n d p r o b l e m s t h a t w e r e r a i s e d w i t h t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d i n t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n a n d i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e s t u d y w i l l s e r v e i n a n o m i n a l w a y a s a n o u t l i n e f o r ^ a s s e s s i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f f o r c e d d i s p l a c e m e n t a n d r e l o c a t i o n . T h e c e n t r a l p r o b l e m t h a t a r o s e f r o m t h e s t u d y o f t h e c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n w a s t h e v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f e f f e c t s o n t h e d i s p l a c e d p o p u l a t i o n . W h i l e s o m e p e o p l e h a d p r o b a b l y i m p r o v e d t h e i r 34 l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s a n d n o w a p p e a r c o n t e n t , o t h e r s s e e m e d t o h a v e b e e n i m -p a i r e d a n d " r e m o r s e f u l " b y d i s p l a c e m e n t a n d s u b s e q u e n t r e l o c a t i o n . I n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t s o f d i s p l a c e m e n t , t h e r e s e a r c h e r u s e d t h e d a t a h e o b t a i n e d w h i l e i n t e r v i e w i n g r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e f i e l d . A n d i n o r d e r t o s e t u p r e l a t i v e l y o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g t h e v a r i o u s e f f e c t s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r u s e d t h e w o r k o f J . B o w l b y , a n e m i n e n t p s y c h o l o g i s t i n t h e f i e l d o f s o c i a l c h a n g e . A c c o r d i n g t o B o w l b y ' s m o d e l , e x p r e s s i o n s o f g r i e f f r o m d i s p l a c e m e n t a r e m a n i f e s t i n t h e f e e l i n g s o f p a i n f u l l o s s , t h e c o n t i n u e d l o n g i n g , t h e s e n s e o f h e l p l e s s n e s s , t h e o c c a s i o n a l e x p r e s -s i o n s o f b o t h d i r e c t a n d d i s p l a c e d a n g e r a n d t e n d e n c i e s t o i d e a l i z e t h e l a s t p l a c e . T h e r e f o r e , i f a r e s p o n d e n t d i s p l a y e d a n y o f t h e a b o v e m e n -t i o n e d r e a c t i o n s d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w h e w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s b e i n g " a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d " . O b v i o u s l y , t h e g r e a t e r n u m b e r o f a d v e r s e r e a c t i o n s e a c h r e s p o n -d e n t d i s p l a y e d , t h e m o r e " a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d " h e w a s c o n s i d e r e d . I n a d d i t i o n , o t h e r c r i t e r i a w e r e u s e d . ( F o r e x a m p l e , t h e n u m b e r o f m e m b e r -s h i p s i n o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l g r o u p s i n t h e i r n e w e n v i r o n m e n t . ) r f T h e e n s u i n g a n a l y s i s w i l l t h u s f o c u s o n t h e i m p a c t s o f d i s p l a c e m e n t i n s o f a r a s i t a f f e c t e d t h e v a r i o u s s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n . I t i s t h e a i m o f t h i s a n a l y s i s t o p r e s e n t a n o v e r v i e w o f t h e v a r i o u s a f f e c t e d c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n , t h e i r g e n e r a l n a t u r e , t h e i m p a c t s t h e c o m m u n i t i e s s u s t a i n e d , a n d f i n a l l y , s o m e g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g d i s p l a c e m e n t i n t h e r e g i o n . I O V E R V I E W : _ P r i o r t o t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e H u g h K e e n l e y s i d e D a m , t h e r e g i o n w a s A c o m p a r i s o n o f e a c h r e s p o n d e n t w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e d e g r e e o f a c t i v i t y a n d i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t w a s a l s o p u r s u e d . c l e a r l y divided geographically into three areas by i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n of population. The northern area was part of Revelstoke School D i s t r i c t #19. It was made up of s i x communities, with Revelstoke the only incorporated one, having two-thirds of the population arid providing the majority of community services a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the area. The ce n t r a l area comprised the Nakusp School D i s t r i c t #10. In t h i s area none of the communities were incorporated. The southern part of the region included f i v e commun-i t i e s with Castelgar being by far the most dominant. They were w i t h i n Castelgar School D i s t r i c t #9. As was the case, Revelstoke, Nakusp and Castelgar were not d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the dam project. Thus, only the communities that were d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the dam ( i . e . where displacement occurred) were w i t h i n the scope of the a n a l y s i s . II ETHNOGRAPHY: " . A. RENATA, B.C. - Lower Arrow Lakes 1. Location: Renata was located i n the southern c e n t r a l area of B r i t i s h Columbia approximately 400 miles from Vancouver. From Renata i t was a d i f f i c u l t journey over a winding road to Castelgar, the c l o s e s t major community, 25 miles to the southwest. In r e l a t i o n to the whole of the Arrow Lakes, Renata was at the southern end, on the opposite side of the lake from Deer Park, another community flooded out subsequent to the b u i l d i n g of the Arrow Dam. At the other end of the lake i s Revelstoke, approximately 125 miles north of Renata, and serving as the northern boundary of the Arrow Lakes region. The community u t i l i z e d the lake for both s o c i a l and economic p u r p o s e s . A c t u a l l y , u n t i l 1 9 5 4 , w h e n t h e r o a d w a s c o m p l e t e d f r o m D e e r P a r k t o R e n a t a , t h e o n l y a c c e s s t o t h e c o m m u n i t y w a s b y f e r r y ; a n d b e c a u s e o f i t s r e l a t i v e i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y , l a c k o f p a v e d r o a d s , t e l e p h o n e , o t h e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a n d e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c e , i t t e n d e d t o r e m a i n s o m e w h a t o f a n i s l a n d u n t o i t s e l f . 2 . T o p o g r a p h y : R e n a t a w a s s i t u a t e d o n n a t u r a l l y l e v e l g r o u n d a n d f l a t m e a d o w l a n d . I t w a s s u r r o u n d e d b y S a n d y , M i d d l e , a n d B u l l d o g m o u n t a i n s . T h e m o u n t a i n s r o s e a s h i g h a s 5 , 0 0 0 f e e t a n d w e r e c o v e r e d w i t h l u s h f o l i a g e o f v a r i o u s s p e c i e s . T h e v a l l e y w a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 , 4 0 0 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n a n d f a v o r -a b l e f o r c o m m e r c i a l b e r r y g r o w i n g a n d t r e e f r u i t s . 3 . C l i m a t e : T h e c o m m u n i t y h a d t h e m o s t h o s p i t a b l e c l i m a t e o f t h e w h o l e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n , a s m a y b e s e e n f r o m t h e c l i m a t i c s u m m a r y i n . t h e A p p e n d i x . T h i s f a c t o r , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o m m u n i t y w a s l o c a t e d o n f l a t m e a d o w l a n d w i t h g o o d s o i l , i n p a r t a c c o u n t s f o r t h e f a c t t h a t i t w a s a f r u i t p r o d u c i n g c o m m u n i t y . 4 . P o p u l a t i o n C o m p o s i t i o n : T h e r e w e r e 1 3 1 p e r s o n s i n 1 9 6 1 i n c l u d i n g 3 3 h o u s e h o l d s . A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w a s m a d e u p o f p e o p l e p r a c t i c i n g t h e M e n n o n i t e R e l i g i o n ( 6 0 - 8 0 ) . T h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n h a d v a r i o u s b a c k g r o u n d s o f w h i c h a l a r g e p o r t i o n w e r e o r i g i n a l l y f r o m t h e p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . I t m u s t b e n o t e d t h a t a t l e a s t 7 0 % o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w a s a b o v e f i f t y y e a r s o f a g e . 5 . E a r l y S e t t l e m e n t : R e n a t a , o n e t i m e k n o w n a s D o g C r e e k , c a m e i n t o b e i n g i n 1 8 8 7 w h e n t h r e e F r e n c h m e n c a m e t o p r o s p e c t i n t h e v a l l e y . T h e m e n c u t c o r d w o o d f o r C . P . R . b o a t s a n d b u i l t a h o t e l m a d e o f h a n d h e w n n a t u r a l c e d a r l o g s , w h i c h a t t r a c t e d l o g g e r s a n d t r a v e l l e r s t h a t p a s s e d t h r o u g h o r w o r k e d i n 2 t h e a r e a . B y 1 9 1 3 , a f t e r c l e a r i n g , p l a n t i n g , a n d b u i l d i n g t o o k p l a c e , R e n a t a t o o k o n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a " c o m p l e t e " v i l l a g e . O t h e r s e t t l e r s o f m a n y n a t i o n a l i t i e s c a m e a s t i m e p r o g r e s s e d , m o s t l y t h r o u g h a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n f a r m j o u r n a l s n o t i n g " f r u i t l a n d f o r s a l e " . T h e m i c r o - c l i m a t e o f t h e a r e a a l s o s e r v e d a s a n i n d u c e m e n t f o r p e o p l e t o s e t t l e - t h e r e . S o m e p e o p l e a l s o s a i d t h a t b e c a u s e o f i l l h e a l t h t h e y d e c i d e d t o c o m e t o t h e L o w e r A r r o w L a k e s . 6 . A c t i v i t i e s : a ) S u s t e n a n c e - O c c u p a t i o n a l R e n a t a d i d n o t h a v e a n y s i g n i f i c a n t i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y . T h e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y , w h i c h w a s n e v e r e x t e n s i v e , e x p a n d e d d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t o f R e n a t a , b u t q u i c k l y d i e d o u t . E c o n o m i c a l l y , a g r i c u l t u r e w a s t h e d o m i n a n t o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . I t w a s b a s e d o n f r u i t f a r m i n g o r g a n i z e d a r o u n d t h e f a m i l y f a r m a s t h e u n i t o f p r o d u c t i o n . A c t u a l l y , f a r m i n g a s a f u l l t i m e o c c u p a t i o n e m p l o y e d o n l y 5 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o m m u n i t y , b u t w a s r e a l l y m o r e o f a f a c t o r d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t 1 5 t o 2 0 p e r . c e n t o f t h e h o u s e h o l d s w e r e o n . p e n s i o n a n d r e t i r e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f e m p l o y a b l e h o u s e h o l d s w e r e f a r m e r s ( s e e A p p e n d i x ) . A c c o r d i n g t o a P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t p u b l i c a t i o n i n s p e a k i n g o f t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n : A g r i c u l t u r e i s o f r e l a t i v e l y m i n o r i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e a r e a w i t h a b o u t 3 , 0 0 0 a c r e s u n d e r c u l t i v a t i o n . T h e R e n a t a d i s t r i c t i s a s m a l l b u t i m p o r t a n t a r e a w h e r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 5 0 a c r e s a r e i n t r e e - f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . 3 8 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e s e a r c h a n d g e n e r a l c o m m e n t s f r o m n e i g h b o r i n g i n h a b i t a n t s , R e n a t a w a s a l w a y s a c o m m u n i t y o v e r w h e l m i n g l y m a d e u p o f f r u i t f a r m e r s . F r u i t f a r m i n g b e c a m e R e n a t a ' s c h i e f o c c u p a t i o n f r o m t h e t i m e t h e f i r s t l a n d w a s c l e a r e d . B y 1 9 6 5 t h e c o m m u n i t y ' s o r c h a r d s w e r e j u s t i n t h e i r " p r i m e " a n d p r o v i d e d t h e o n l y c l o s e - b y s o u r c e o f c h e r r i e s , p e a r s , a p p l e s , a n d a p r i c o t s f o r t h e N e l s o n - T r a i l - C a s t e l g a r c o m p l e x . T h e l a n d ' s p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y v a r i e d g r e a t l y f r o m f a r m t o f a r m a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c a r e w i t h w h i c h t h e l a n d w a s t r e a t e d . A l t h o u g h o n t h e w h o l e t h e l a n d w a s o n l y m a r g i n a l , i t w a s t h e o n l y c h e r r y g r o w i n g a r e a i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h a t w a s f r e e f r o m t h e i n f e c t i o n o f t h e v i r u s t h a t c a u s e s t h e d i s e a s e c o m m o n l y k n o w n a s " l i t t l e - b i t t e r - c h e r r y " . T h e f a m i l y g a r d e n , t h e m a s o n j a r a n d t h e d e e p f r e e z e w e r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t p a r t s o f R e n a t a ' s e c o n o m y . F o r m a n y f a m i l i e s i n t h e v i l l a g e , t h e g a r d e n r e p r e s e n t e d a n i m p o r t a n t i n c o m e s u p p l e m e n t . A s m a l l g a r d e n e a s i l y p r o d u c e d a f a m i l y ' s a n n u a l v e g e t a b l e n e e d , a n d i n t h i s w a y t h e h o u s e w i f e w a s a b l e t o m a k e a d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e e c o n o m y o f t h e h o u s e h o l d . b ) R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s : R e c r e a t i o n a l u s e w a s m a d e o f t h e l a k e s , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h e s u m m e r m o n t h s . F i s h i n g , h i k i n g , h u n t i n g , a n d s w i m m i n g w e r e t h e m o s t p r e v a l e n t l e i s u r e t i m e a c t i v i t i e s . B a s e b a l l w a s a p o p u l a r s p o r t a n d w a s p l a y e d i n t h e c o m m u n i t y p a r k . M a n y b o y s h a d h o m e - m a d e s c o o t e r s t o p l a y w i t h a n d e n j o y e d b u i l d i n g t h e i r o w n " m a c h i n e s " . G a r d e n i n g , a l t h o u g h i t w a s a n e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y , a l s o w a s a m u c h d e s i r e d l e i s u r e a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . 39 7. C o m m u n i t y L i f e : I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y o f R e n a t a , o n e h a d t o b e a w a r e o f t h e v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d s o c i a l g r o u p s t h a t a t t e n d e d t o t h e a f f a i r s o f c o m m u n i t y l i f e . T h e s e a c t i v i t i e s t o o k p l a c e i n t h e c h u r c h , i n p r i v a t e h o m e s , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e s c h o o l . I n n u m e r a b l e p l a n n i n g a n d c o m m i t t e e g r o u p s d i s c h a r g e d t h e i r d u t i e s a n d k e p t t h e o r g a n i z e d l i f e o f R e n a t a i n m o t i o n . C o m m u n i t y l i f e w a s a v e r y s p e c i a l p a r t o f R e n a t a a n d i t s i n h a b i -t a n t s . M o s t f a m i l i e s b e l o n g e d t o s o m e s o r t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e W o m e n ' s I n s t i t u t e p l a y e d a v i t a l r o l e i n t h e c o m m u n i t y ' s h i s t o r y . A s i d e f r o m i t s c o m m u n i t y f u n c t i o n , i t a c c o m p l i s h e d m a n y s o c i a l d e e d s o u t s i d e t h e c o m m u n i t y . O n e s u c h d e e d w a s s e n d i n g d o n a t i o n s i n h o n o r o f e a c h d e c e a s e d p e r s o n o f t h e c o m m u n i t y t o h e l p c r i p p l e d c h i l d r e n 4 i n V i c t o r i a . " B e e s " , a f e a s t c o n s i s t i n g o f g r o u n d m e a t s , s a u s a g e s , a n d o t h e r f o o d s , w a s a d e l i g h t t o t h e c h i l d r e n . T h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s a d d e d a h a r m o n i o u s c o m m u n i t y s p i r i t . T h e s c h o o l w a s t h e h u b o f s o c i a l l i f e s i n c e n o c o m m u n i t y h a l l e x i s t e d . D a n c e s , m e e t i n g s , a n d o t h e r c o m m u n i t y a c t i v i t i e s t o o k p l a c e t h e r e . C h u r c h - g o i n g w a s a l s o o f m a j o r i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e s o c i a l l i f e o f R e n a t a s i m p l y b e c a u s e i t c o n s t i t u t e d s o g r e a t a p a r t o f c o m m u n i t y a c t i v i t y . A l a r g e p a r t o f t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e c o m m u n i t y w a s c a p t u r e d b y a c t i v i t i e s c e n t e r e d i n t h e c h u r c h . C o m m i t t e e m e e t i n g s a n d a l l t h e i m p o r t a n t c o m m u n -i t y b u s i n e s s w a s c e n t e r e d a t t h e c h u r c h . M u c h w a s m a d e o f b i r t h d a y s . . T h e c o m p e t i t i o n i n f a n c y , f o o d s s e r v e d a t b i r t h d a y p a r t i e s w a s q u i t e k e e n . I n v i t a t i o n s w e r e n o t e x t e n d e d b u t o n e w a s e x p e c t e d t o r e m e m b e r a n d a t t e n d e a c h b i r t h d a y g a t h e r i n g . " * There was, of course, a great range i n the volume of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . Some people organized a l l t h e i r non-work time around community gatherings. Others s o c i a l i z e d i n a very l i m i t e d way with r e l a t i v e s or a few close f r i e n d s . There were those too, whO'prefered t h e i r privacy and i s o l a t e d themselves from a l l such a c t i v i t y . 8. Housing: A l l of Renata's residents owned t h e i r own homes. Most dwellings were s e l f - b u i l t and the land cleared with a hoe and shovel. The average age of the homes was between 30 and 40 years. The majority of homes had l i m i t e d amenities in c l u d i n g e l e c t r i c i t y and f l u s h t o i l e t s . 9. L o c a t i o n i n R e l a t i o n to Each Other: Because the land was f l a t and densely populated, the holdings were f a i r l y small and compact. Thus, the community core was no more than two miles from any community member and not too d i s t a n t from each other. B. DEER PARK, B.C. - Lower Arrow Lakes 1. Location: Deer Park was on a s t r e t c h of waterfront .18 miles west of C a s t e l -gar on the north shore of the present r e s e r v o i r . Deer Park, l i k e Renata, was on the southern boundary of the Arrow Lakes region approximately 125 miles south of Revelstoke. I t was on the opposite side of the lake from Renata but o c c a s i o n a l l y both communities p a r t i c i p a t e d together i n j o i n t ventures. ( i . e . P i c n i c s and sporting events.) The community was a c c e s s i b l e .by a gravel road extending to Castelgar and a f e r r y system, (which ended i t s s e r v i c e i n 1954). Few roads were b u i l t to replace the s e r v i c e provided by the s t e r n wheelers. However, between Deer Park and Arrowhead (a distance of 150 miles), the province b u i l t (by 1965) about forty' miles of road of which one mile was hard topped. 2. Topography: • •? . • . Unlike Renata, Deer Park sloped down from the forested h i l l s i d e s to f l a t meadowland on ei t h e r side of the mouth of Deer Creek. Thus, a f a i r amount of the community was located on h i l l y , undulating land. According to c e r t a i n conservation groups such as the W i l d l i f e A s s o c i a t i o n and the West Kootenay Outdoorsman, the h i l l s alongside the present r e s e r v o i r and former community were prime winter range for elk • and deer.^ 3. Climate: Deer Park, l i k e Renata, generally had one of the most moderate climates i n a l l of Canada except for the Niagara Peninsula and the B.C. Coast. - good s h e l t e r from heavy winds, very l i t t l e threat of h a i l damage and the f r o s t - f r e e season was up to 150 days, the longest duration of any part of the Kootenay region. 4. Population Composition: In 1961, Deer Park had 62 inhabitants and approximately 16 house-holds. The community was made up of a diverse group of n a t i o n a l i t i e s , most of which were of B r i t i s h o r i g i n . The majority of the population were over f i f t y years of age be-cause most of the "young" people had l e f t the region i n order to get educational advancement. -5. E a r l y Settlement: The f i r s t people at Deer Park were prospectors before the turn of the century. Some old prospect holes and cabins can s t i l l be found there. In the boom days of r e a l estate i n the Kootenays several s e t t l e r s bought and st a r t e d small orchards, however, lumbering was the primary a t t r a c t i o n for settlement. In the twenties lumbering a l l along the lake-shore declined due to depressed markets, but then i n the e a r l y f o r t i e s the lumber based economy revived (because of the need for lumber overseas). 6. A c t i v i t i e s : a) Work - Sustenance: Most Deer Park workers were employed by Celgar, the only company operating i n the West Kootenay region at the time. In a d d i t i o n , there was a small r e s i d u a l group containing other types, mainly :farmers and f i s h e r -men. There was a l s o a s u b s t a n t i a l proportion of pensioned c i t i z e n s , i n c l u d i n g two r e t a i l dealers. Unlike Renata, most farms i n Deer Park were substance farms where people had a cow, a few pigs and chickens, vegetable gardens and f r u i t . They were able to supplement t h e i r income adequately by what they produced o f f t h e i r own small piece of land. . b) Recreation: ' Hunding deer was a prime r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n the community. In a l l of the interviews i t was c o n s i s t e n t l y mentioned as a f a v o r i t e l e i s u r e sport. However, i t a l s o provided food and c l o t h i n g . The lake i t s e l f was also u t i l i z e d both for swimming and boating. However, there was no mention-of organized l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y , and i t appeared that r e c r e a t i o n tended to be a personal experience. Some of the respondents also alluded to the fact that there was no time f o r l e i s u r e ; that working to eat was t h e i r only means of re c r e a t i o n . 4 3 7 . C o m m u n i t y L i f e : D e e r P a r k m i g h t b e t y p i f i e d s o c i a l l y a s a " t r a v e l l i n g c o m m u n i t y " . I t s e e m s t h a t a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e s o c i a l i z i n g t o o k p l a c e o u t s i d e t h e c o m m u n i t y w i t h f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s i n o t h e r p l a c e s . T h e r e w e r e n o m a j o r c l u b s o r s o c i a l g r o u p s r e f l e c t i n g o r g a n i z e d c o m m u n i t y l i f e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e w e r e n o s c h o o l s , w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e d t r a v e l l i n g t o C a s t e l g a r f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e r e w a s a c h u r c h a n d s o m e s o c i a l a c t i v i t y o c c u r r e d t h e r e f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . A c c o r d i n g t o s o m e r e s p o n d e n t s , o c c a s i o n a l f e u d i n g o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n m e m b e r s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y , h e n c e t h e c o m m u n a l s p i r i t l a c k e d t h e v i g o r t h a t w a s f u n d a m e n t a l f o r c o o p e r a t i o n . 8 . H o u s i n g : A l l h o m e s w e r e d e t a c h e d a n d p r i v a t e l y o w n e d . T h e y w e r e , o n t h e w h o l e , s e l f - b u i l t . M o s t h o m e s h a d a m i n i m a l a m o u n t o f a m e n i t i e s . T h e a v e r a g e a g e o f t h e d w e l l i n g s w a s b e t w e e n 3 5 a n d 4 0 y e a r s . 9 ; . L o c a t i o n i n R e l a t i o n t o E a c h O t h e r : N o t a s c o m p a c t a s R e n a t a d u e t o t h e h i l l y t o p o g r a p h y a n d t h e n a t u r a l t e r r a i n . S t i l l , m o s t p e o p l e l i v e d w i t h i n 3 m i l e s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y c o r e a n d s m a l l c o m m e r c i a l l o c a l e . S k e t c h o f D e e r P a r k 44 C. EDGEWOOD - NEEDLES, B.C. - Central Arrow Lakes For purposes of t h i s study these two communities were grouped as one, because they were about equally dependent upon the f o r e s t industry as the c h i e f source of income i n the area. There was a l s o l i m i t e d data a v a i l a b l e concerning v a r i a b l e s such as s o c i a l s tructure, etc. This s e c t i o n of the region served as the outer l i m i t of the c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t and was on the west side of the Arrow Lakes. I t was located about f o r t y miles south of Nakusp, which was the geographic centre of the Arrow Lakes region. The area was predominately mountainous. Along the lakeshore the land was f l a t and rose s l i g h t l y from the lakes. The o u t l y i n g v a l l e y was along the Inooaklin River, which ran north to south through Edgewood and provided f a i r l y good pasture and crop land. The area was b a s i c a l l y l e v e l and ran approximately seven miles from Edgewood to Needles. There was a f a i r amount of p r e c i p i t a t i o n which v a r i e d depending on what part of the c e n t r a l region one l i v e d i n . For example, i n East Arrowpark; the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n was 30.4 inches. However, i n Edgewood the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n was 20.2 inches. The winters were generally very co l d and the summers dry. The average annual temperature was 44.5 degrees (F). In the v a l l e y a large proportion of the population was Dutch. The r e s t of the area was a mixture of B r i t i s h , and a small number of people of Swedish o r i g i n . In 1961 there were approximately 425 people r e s i d i n g i n this area. In t h i s area, as was true of the whole c e n t r a l region, i t appeared that the population consisted of a large proportion of c h i l d r e n . E a r l y settlement i n the area developed because of the a c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b a s e m e t a l s m i n i n g a n d . p r o c e s s i n g . W a t e r t r a n s p o r t b e t w e e n A r r o w h e a d a n d R o b s o n d e v e l o p e d t o s e r v e t h i s p a r t o f t h e r e g i o n . I n i t i a l s e t t l e m e n t b e g a n a l o n g t h e l a k e s h o r e . H o w e v e r , t h e f a r m i n g v a l l e y d e v e l o p e d o u t s i d e t h e c e n t r a l c o r e a s a r e s u l t o f a d e p e n - . d e n c e o n h o r s e s a s a m e a n s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . B e c a u s e o f t h i s d e p e n d e n c e , t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f h a y w a s o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e h o r s e s i n a p e r i o d p r i o r t o t h e p o p u l a r u s e o f g a s o l i n e , a n d l a t e r d i e s e l e n g i n e s . A d v e r -t i s e m e n t s s e l l i n g o r c h a r d s a l o n g t h e l a k e s h o r e e n c o u r a g e d m a n y s e t t l e r s t o c o m e t o t h a t p a r t o f t h e r e g i o n . T h e l a n d l y i n g i n t h e I n o o n a k l i n V a l l e y a p p e a r e d t o b e c h a r a c t e r -i z e d b y n u m e r o u s s m a l l " f a r m s " w h i c h w e r e n o t f a r m e d i n t e n s i v e l y . M a n y o f t h e s e s m a l l u n i t s p r o d u c e d t i m o t h y h a y , b u t i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t m a n y o f t h e o w n e r s c o u l d h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d f a r m e r s i n t h e t r u e s e n s e . O n t h e l a k e s h o r e , s e r i o u s a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n w a s g e a r e d p r i m a r i l y t o s e r v e l o c a l n e e d s . B a s i c a l l y , f r u i t s a n d c a t t l e w e r e r a i s e d o n t h e s e l a n d s w h i c h i n g e n e r a l w e r e m o r e p r o d u c t i v e . C e l g a r t o o , h e l p e d s t a b i l i z e t h e r e g i o n t h r o u g h y e a r r o u n d e m p l o y -m e n t t h a t w a s l a c k i n g i n t h e d a y s o f t h e " g y p p o " l o g g e r . A c t u a l l y , v f o r e s t r y - l o g g i n g w a s t h e d o m i n a n t e m p l o y e r f o r t h e p e o p l e w h o l i v e d i n t o w n . F a r m s a n d o r c h a r d s a s s u c h w e r e o n a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s f o r p e r s o n s s t e a d i l y e m p l o y e d i n t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s , r a t h e r t h a n a s a f u l l - t i m e e f f o r t . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o m m u n i t y w a s p e n s i o n e d b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t . T h e y d o m i n a t e d t h e u p l a n d l o t a n d t h e w a t e r f r o n t l o t t y p e o f p r o p e r t i e s i n b o t h t h e v i l l a g e a n d p a r t s o f t h e a d j o i n i n g l a n d s . T h e E d g e w o o d p o p u l a t i o n w a s v e r y a c t i v e i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a n d l e i s u r e t i m e a c t i v i t i e s . T h e r e w e r e j u n i o r l e a g u e s f o r y o u n g s t e r s , 46 badminton and tennis f o r the o l d e r people and f i s h i n g f o r the remainder (the i n t e r v i e w s w i t h respondents made t h i s p o i n t c l e a r l y ) . In Edgewood there seemed to be a s t r o n g sense of cohesion and i d e n t i t y , as was the case i n only one other community i n the study area -that of Renata. There seemed to be a closeness between members of the community. This r e s u l t e d i n many coordinated a c t i v i t i e s , f r i e n d l i n e s s and a communal s p i r i t . 1 Edgewood had both a church and a h a l l i n which community f u n c t i o n s took place q u i t e o f t e n . Furthermore, a good many Edgewoodites grew up together and remained i n the v i l l a g e to l i v e and work. The i r community park was a p e r f e c t s e t t i n g f o r s p o r t i n g tournaments, which a l s o served to u n i t e f a m i l i e s and provide enjoyable community events. The Canadian Legion was an important community o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t was maintained in- a Community H a l l which supported other l o c a l a c t i v i t i e s . The Legion o f f e r e d i t s members an i n t i m a t e , warm and r i t u a l i z e d r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h other members, and provided a q u a s i - k i n s h i p bond w i t h a l l " b r o t h e r s " to whom at any time one need not be a s t r a n g e r . The Le g i o n a c t i v i t i e s were of a great range and s i n c e most f a m i l i e s belonged or were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Legion, i t s a c t i v i t i e s permeated the e n t i r e community. On the other hand, Needles had one small school-house and was r e p o r t e d as having only 47 students i n the school year 1958-1959. F u r t h e r -more, there was minimal evidence of organized community a c t i v i t y other than that of church attendance. Needles' r e s i d e n t s appeared to migrate to Edgewood f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . The housing stock i n the area was b a s i c a l l y made up of o l d e r , detached d w e l l i n g s w i t h minimal amenities. Most homes conta i n e d on the average s i x rooms and were f a i r l y spacious. 47 And f i n a l l y , the nucleus of the area was w i t h i n the v i l l a g e core of Edgewood. The core was compact and l a i d out i n a rather informal manner. The r e s t of the area was spread out along the Inoonaklin V a l l e y to Needles, about seven to eight miles away. D. ARROWPARK - FAGQUIER, B.C. - Central Region ' This s e c t i o n of the region could a l s o be broken down in t o three i n d i v i d u a l communities, but for purposes of t h i s study i t w i l l be grouped as one. Furthermore, for a l l intents and purposes the communities were very s i m i l a r except for. the fa c t that Burton was longer and a b i t more s o c i a l l y cohesive than e i t h e r Arrowpark or Facquier. This s e c t i o n of the d i s t r i c t was located from 15 to 40 miles south of Nakusp and c h i e f l y on the east side of the Arrow Lakes, xtfith the exception of West Arrowpark . which lay on the west sid e of the lake, and was served by a f e r r y . The lakeshore lands were small shelves circumvented by mountainous t e r r a i n and the Arrow Lake. The climate of the area was much the same as that of the Edgewood area. (See c l i m a t i c summary i n the Appendix.) The population of the area ranged from 50 households i n Burton to 25 households i n Facquier, t o t a l l i n g approximately 600 people. The ethnic backgrounds were quite diverse and consisted of Canadian, B r i t i s h and American. The name Facquier derived from one of the pioneers of the area. The communities w i t h i n the area developed about the same time and manner as the r e s t of the c e n t r a l lakes region. The l a r g e s t occupational group of the Facquier-Arrowpark d i s t r i c t were loggers, but i t must nevertheless be noted that pensioners c o n s t i t u t e d 48 a s l a r g e a c o n s t i t u e n c y a s t h e l o g g e r s d i d . W e s t A r r o w p a r k . w a s a n a s s e m b l y p o i n t f o r s o m e o f C e l g a r ' s m o s t p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t a r e a s a n d a f f o r d e d a c c e s s t o s o m e o f t h e t i m b e r - r i c h a r e a s . o f t h e r e g i o n . I n B u r t o n t h e r e w e r e t h r e e g a s s t a t i o n s , t w o c o m b i n e d w i t h s t o r e s . T h u s , c o m m e r c i a l e n t e r p r i s e , t o s o m e d e g r e e , w a s a l s o a n i m p o r t a n t o c c u p a -t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . ^ S w i m m i n g a n d f i s h i n g w e r e t h e m o s t p o p u l a r l e i s u r e " a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e d i s t r i c t , a l t h o u g h s p o r t h u n t i n g w a s a l s o p r e v a l e n t . I n B u r t o n , a f a i r l y r e c o g n i z a b l e t o w n c o r e e x i s t e d . Y e t , t h e , n u m b e r o f s e e m i n g l y a b a n d o n e d p r o p e r t i e s w a s q u i t e n o t i c e a b l e . I n W e s t A r r o w p a r k a l l o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l p r o p e r t i e s a n d b u i l d i n g s e x c e p t o n e w e r e a b a n d o n e d b y 1 9 6 4 . A c t u a l l y , t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e a r e a o n e c o u l d s e n s e t h e f e e l i n g t h a t c o m m u n i t y a b a n d o n m e n t w a s i n e v i t a b l e . B u r t o n c o m p r i s e d o f a p u b a n d h o t e l w h i c h s e r v e d t h e c o m m u n i t y a s a s o r t o f m e e t i n g p l a c e b e c a u s e t h e o f f i c i a l ' c o m m u n i t y h a l l w a s b a t t e r e d . F a c q u i e r h a d a n o l d , r u n d o w n c h u r c h a n d c o m m u n i t y h a l l . C o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n w a s m i n i m a l a n d s o c i a l i z i n g s e e m e d t o b e m o r e i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i e n t e d t h a n g r o u p o r i e n t e d . I n e s s e n c e , t h e c o h e r e n c e a n d s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y t h a t m a r k e d t h e R e n a t a a n d E d g e w o o d c o m m u n i t i e s s e e m e d t o b e l a c k i n g i n b o t h F a c q u i e r a n d B u r t o n . . H o u s i n g i n t h e a r e a s e e m e d t o c o n s i s t o f o l d e r d w e l l i n g s ; m a i n l y s e l f - b u i l t a n d m a d e o f w o o d . T h e a r e a w a s r a t h e r s p r e a d o u t , t h u s i n -h a b i t a n t s w e r e q u i t e i s o l a t e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r . 4 9 E . M T . C A R T I E R - U p p e r A r r o w L a k e s 1 . L o c a t i o n : M t . C a r t i e r w a s t h e n o r t h e r n b o u n d a r y o f t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n . I t w a s b o u n d e d b y G r e e n s l i d e C r e e k o n t h e s o u t h a n d M o n t a n a S l e w o n - t h e n o r t h . . . T h e c o m m u n i t y w a s a b o u t 1 2 m i l e s s o u t h o f R e v e l s t o k e , w h i c h s u p p l i e d t h e c o m m u n i t y w i t h n e e d e d s e r v i c e s a n d a c c e s s t o - t h e T r a n s - C a n a d a H i g h w a y . A r o a d r u n n i n g n o r t h - s o u t h t h r o u g h M t . C a r t i e r p r o v i d e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n b o t h t o t h e s o u t h e r n l a k e s a n d o t h e r p o i n t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n . 2 . C l i m a t e : T h e a r e a i n q u e s t i o n h a d t h e l e a s t h o s p i t a b l e c l i m a t e o f t h e w h o l e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n , s o m e y e a r s r e c e i v i n g 3 0 0 i n c h e s o f s n o w f a l l . T h u s , i t xtfas c o i n e d t h e " s n o w - b e l t " b y t h e i n h a b i t a n t s . 3 . T o p o g r a p h y : M t . C a r t i e r w a s a n a r r o w m o u n t a i n v a l l e y w h i c h w a s i n s h a d o w f o r s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n s o f e a c h d a y . I t w a s r u g g e d c o u n t r y , t h e m o u n t a i n s o f t e n r i s i n g d i r e c t l y o u t o f t h e l a k e s . T h e s n o w - c a p p e d p e a k s o f f e r e d a n e x c i t i n g c o n t r a s t a g a i n s t t h e n a r r o w v a l l e y b e l o w . T h e c o m m u n i t y w a s l o c a t e d o n h i l l y l a n d ; M t . C a r t i e r h a d a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f u s a b l e l a n d . 4 . P o p u l a t i o n C o m p o s i t i o n : T h e c o m m u n i t y w a s a l m o s t t o t a l l y U k r a h i a n i n o r i g i n , c o m i n g f r o m c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s o f t h e U k r a i n e i n R u s s i a . T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w a s o v e r f i f t y y e a r s o f a g e d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t m o s t o f t h e y o u n g e r p e o p l e l e f t t h e c o m m u n i t y t o g e t e d u c a t i o n - t h i s a p p a r e n t l y b e i n g i m p o r t a n t t o U k r a n i a n p a r e n t s , . . " • " 5 . E a r l y S e t t l e m e n t : R e v e l s t o k e w a s a d i v i s i o n a l p o i n t o n t h e r a i l r o a d , i n t h e e r a o f t h e s t e a m e n g i n e , a n d l a t e r a s a t r a n s f e r p o i n t f o r r a i l t r a f f i c . S e t t l e r a r r i v i n g i n R e v e l s t o k e a n d s e e k i n g " w i l d a r e a s " o r l a n d g r a v i t a t e d t o u n p o p u l a t e d M t . C a r t i e r . B o t h l u m b e r i n g a n d m i n i n g w e r e p r e v a l e n t i n t h e e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t y e a r s . W i t h t h e o p e n i n g u p o f h o m e s t e a d s i n t h e p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , t h e d e m a n d f o r l u m b e r i n c r e a s e d . A s a r e s u l t , l u m b e r f r o m t h e R e v e l s t o k e a r e a w a s a n d i s a l m o s t a h o u s e h o l d w o r d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r a i r i e s . D u r i n g t h i s e r a o f d e v e l o p m e n t t h e h o r s e w a s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f e v e r y l o g g i n g . o p e r a t i o n , h e n c e t h e d e m a n d f o r p r o d u c t i o n o f h a y l o c a l l y l e d ' t o a n e l e m e n t a r y f o r m o f a g r i c u l t u r e , i n v o l v i n g t h e s m a l l d e v e l o p e d a c r e a g e s t h a t r e m a i n e d u n t i l ' ' t h e d a m p r o j e c t w a s i n i t i a t e d . 6 . A c t i v i t i e s : a ) S u s t e n a n c e - O c c u p a t i o n T h e i n h o s p i t a b l e c l i m a t e a n d l a c k o f d i r e c t s u n i n t h e n a r r o w m o u n t a i n v a l l e y f o r p o r t i o n s o f e a c h g r o w i n g d a y , i n p a r t a c c o u n t e d f o r ' t h e a r e a p r o d u c i n g o n l y a b o u t 2 p e r c e n t o f t h e f o o d s t u f f s l o c a l l y c o n -s u m e d . T h u s , t h e s i g n i f i c a n t a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n was l i m i t e d t o d a i r y f a r m o p e r a t i o n s i m m e d i a t e l y w e s t o f R e v e l s t o k e w h e r e t h e l a n d w a s b e t t e r s u i t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . B e c a u s e R e v e l s t o k e h a d b e e n a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c e n t r e f o r b o t h s t e a m a n d d i e s e l l o c o m o t i v e s , i t w a s n o a c c i d e n t t h a t a l a r g e n u m b e r o f m e n e a r n e d t h e i r i n c o m e a w a y f r o m M t . C a r t i e r . E m p l o y m e n t i n o c c u p a t i o n s s u c h a s s e c t i o n m e n , l o c o m o t i v e - e n g i n e e r i n g , l a b o u r e r s , a n d t r u c k d r i v e r s p r e d o m i n a t e d t h r o u g h o u t M t . C a r t i e r . C e l g a r , w i t h i t s f o r e s t m a n a g e m e n t l i c e n c e a l s o e m p l o y e d m a n y c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s . B u t i n v a r i a b l y e a c h h o u s e -h o l d k e p t a f e w c h i c k e n s a n d a c o w f o r b u t c h e r i n g a n d i n t h a t w a y r e m a i n e d t i e d t o t h e l a n d . b ) L e i s u r e : T h e m o s t p r e v a l e n t l e i s u r e a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l t i m e a c t i v i t i e s a p p e a r e d t o b e g a r d e n i n g a n d h u n t i n g . O c c u p a t i o n a l f i s h i n g a n d t h e S a t u r -d a y n i g h t " d r i n k i n g p a r t y " w e r e a l s o f a v o u r i t e l e i s u r e t i m e a c t i v i t i e s . M a n y r e s p o n d e n t s a l s o m e n t i o n e d i c e s k a t i n g a s a m u c h e n j o y e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . 7 ' . C o m m u n i t y L i f e : I t s e e m s t h a t M t . C a r t i e r c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s g e n e r a l l y s t a y e d o u t o f t h e m a i n - s t r e a m o f o r g a n i z e d c o m m u n i t y l i f e . M o s t o f t h e i r s o c i a l i z i n g w a s d o n e w i t h f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s i n t h e R e v e l s t o k e a r e a . I t w a s a s h o r t r i d e b y a u t o m o b i l e t o R e v e l s t o k e a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y m a n y i n h a b i t a n t s w e n t t h e r e f o r w e e k e n d e n t e r t a i n m e n t . A s a w h o l e , t h e p e o p l e w e r e v e r y s e r i o u s a n d o l d - f a s h i o n e d i n m a n y i ^ a y s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e i r p r e d o m i n a n t i n t e r e s t w a s i n p r o v i d i n g a d e c e n t e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h i s m e a n t h a r d w o r k a n d m i n i m a l t i m e f o r s o c i a l i z i n g . U n l i k e R e n a t a t h e y r a r e l y c o o r d i n a t e d c o m m u n i t y a c t i v i t i e s o r p a r t i c i p a t e d i n o r g a n i z e d " g e t t o g e t h e r s " . A l t h o u g h t h e c o m m u n i t y w a s 8 0 p e r c e n t U k r a n i a n , a n y r e a l f o r m o f o r g a n i z e d c o m m u n i t y a c t i v i t y s e e m e d t o e n d t h e r e . ' 8 . H o u s i n g : -H o m e s w e r e g e n e r a l l y d e t a c h e d a n d s e l f - o w n e d . T h e h o m e s h a d l i m i t e d a m e n i t i e s a n d w e r e s i m p l e . T h e y w e r e w e l l b u i l t f o r p r o t e c t i o n f r o m s e v e r e c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . M o s t p r o p e r t i e s h a d g a r d e n s w h i c h p r o v i d e d v e g e t a b l e s , b u t t h e y p r i m a r i l y a d d e d " g l a m o u r " t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s . 9. Location i n R e l a t i o n to Each Other: Mt. C a r t i e r was spread out along the highway i n a l i n e a r fashion. This meant that people were generally i s o l a t e d , unlike the more compact communities of the lower lakes. E. SIDMOUTH, B.C. - Upper Arrow Lakes Sidmouth was about 20 miles south of Mt. C a r t i e r i n the n o r t h e r l y s e c t i o n of the Arrow Lakes region. Sidmouth contained, on i t s western p o r t i o n across the lake, H a l l s Landing. H a l l s Landing was considered part of the Sidmouth community. The landscape was much the same as Mt. C a r t i e r , rugged mountains, and narrow mountain v a l l e y s . Sidmouth received less snow than the more no r t h e r l y communities, nonetheless i t s t i l l had a inhospitable climate. The summer was humid and quite hot. The community had an e t h n i c a l l y mixed population - Swedish, B r i t i s h , I r i s h , American and others. Combining Sidmouth East and H a l l s Landing, there were about 15 households i n 1961. As was the case i n most communities i n the upper lakes region, settlements began as the r a i l r o a d s u t i l i z e d Revelstoke as a t r a n s f e r point, and i n t e r e s t i n mining and lumbering advanced. People g r a v i t a t e d to Sidmouth i n much the same manner as i n Mt.. C a r t i e r . However, H a l l s Landing was s e t t l e d by the H a l l family e x c l u s i v e l y , and there began the beef-growing-: enterprise of the d i s t r i c t . Employment i n Sidmouth East, a very small community, was subsis-tence farming. The people, on the whole, l i v e d o f f what the land provided. On the other hand, H a l l s Landing was a v i a b l e farming community. These farms were on large holdings and tended to be agra-business opera-tion s . In 1954, a f t e r the boats went out of ser v i c e , the land from S i d -mouth East to 12 mile x\?as abandoned. This l e f t the community i s o l a t e d and r e l a t i v e l y i n a c t i v e due to the fact that only three f a m i l i e s were l i v i n g i n Sidmouth East by 1964. Consequently, s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n was at a minimum i n the community. • Ha l l s Landing a l s o was s o c i a l l y unorganized, although some a c t i -v i t y centered around the business r e l a t i o n s h i p s made through farming. Sidmouth East was f a i r l y spread out and households tended to be i s o l a t e d from each other. In H a l l s Landing, due to the s i z e of the property holdings and l o t s , i s o l a t i o n also tended to occur. G'. ARROWHEAD, B.C. - Upper Arrow Lakes Arrowhead was ju s t a few miles south of Sidmouth, approximately 30 miles from Revelstoke. I t was across the lake from Gelena Bay and served as a rough boundary of the northern s e c t i o n of the Arrow Lakes region The landscape surrounding the community was mountainous and rugged. A c t u a l l y , the community was a small s h e l f of f l a t land a b u t t i n g the.lakes. Arrowhead consisted of an e t h n i c a l l y mixed population. There were approximately 20 households or 115 people i n 1964. The community was established i n 1890 a f t e r the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway brought a r a i l l i n e from Revelstoke, providing access to the area. I t began as a mining and lumbering v i l l a g e and by 1908 a t t r a c t e d about 3,000 people. Subsequent b u i l d i n g led' to a main s t r e e t c o n s i s t i n g of eight hotels, a l l of which were two s t o r i e s high. A f t e r World War I mining f e l l o f f and a decline i n population followed. A c t u a l l y , the community never r e a l l y recovered and eventually took on the appearance of a town that was dying. A sawmill employed a large portion of the community, about a dozen men. The m i l l ran only h a l f a year, and i n order to supplement t h e i r income, the m i l l workers grew gardens and l i v e d o f f t h e i r own land. Celgar a l s o employed some men; others worked i n the bush doing various jobs for small contractors. On the whole, the community operated on a subsistence l e v e l . Swimming was a much enjoyed l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y ; however, f i s h i n g was also mentioned as another r e c r e a t i o n a l past time. By 1964 Arrowhead had shrunk to one-quarter of i t s o r i g i n a l s i z e . There were as many empty houses and vacant l o t s as occupied. Thus, i n essence the community was slowly but s u r e l y disappearing by 1964, the date of the announcement of the dam p r o j e c t . This factor d e f i n i t e l y had a bearing on the s o c i a l " s p i r i t " of the community because i t appeared that most people kept to themselves and remained somewhat i s o l a t e d . However, there was an Anglican church that the community used as a h a l l and o c c a s i o n a l l y dances and meetings were held there. The community di d have one elementary school, but the high school was located at Revelstoke 25 miles to the north. There were no organized clubs or s o c i a l groups; consequently, s o c i a l a c t i v i t y was e s s e n t i a l l y non-existent. I l l INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA; As can be i n f e r r e d from the ethnographic p o r t r a y a l , the Arrow Lakes communities were quite d i f f e r e n t x«7ith respect to t h e i r concepts of community l i f e and c u l t u r e . In h i s book, Suicide, Emile Durkheim alludes t o t h e f a c t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l r e a c t i o n s c a n b e p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d t h r o u g h s o c i a l c a u s e s ( i . e . t h e l o s s o f a s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g f r o m f o r c e d d i s -8 p l a c e m e n t ) . U s i n g t h i s t h e o r y a s a b a s e f o r e x p l a n a t i o n , i t w a s f e l t t h a t t h e i m p a c t s e a c h i n d i v i d u a l s u s t a i n e d w e r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e d e g r e e o f c o h e s i o n a n d i d e n t i t y h i s c o m m u n i t y e x h i b i t e d . A s o c i a l l y c o -h e s i v e c o m m u n i t y w a s d e f i n e d a s o n e w h e r e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a n d a c t i v i t y b e t w e e n m e m b e r s ( o f t h e c o m m u n i t y ) t a k e s p l a c e r e g u l a r l y . I n C h a p t e r I I I , a n a t t e m p t w a s m a d e t o o u t l i n e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y , e v e n t o d a y . T h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e c o n c e p t a p p e a r s t o b e e v i d e n t i n t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n , a n d t w o s e l e c t c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e s t u d y r e g i o n w i l l s e r v e a s e x a m p l e s , s h o w i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n d i s p l a c e m e n t a n d l o c a l e . R e n a t a , a n d E d g e w o o d t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e , w e r e i d e n t i f i e d b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r a s b e i n g t h e o n l y c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e s t u d y r e g i o n t h a t d i s p l a y e d a s t r o n g s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y a n d c o h e s i o n . P e r h a p s t h i s c a n • p a r t i a l l y b e e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t R e n a t a a n d E d g e w o o d c o n s i s t e d o f p r e d o m i n a n t l y h o m o g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n s . , I n R e n a t a , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e l a r g e s t e t h n i c g r o u p b y f a r w a s i d e n t i f i e d a s t h e M e n n o n i t e s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , M e n n o n i t e s h a v e t e n d e d t o s e t t l e i n r u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . A s a g r o u p t h e y a r e t y p i f i e d b y c l o s e 9 f a m i l y t i e s a n d a r e c o m m u n i t y o r i e n t e d . T h e i r c o m m o n c u l t u r e e n a b l e d t h e m t o r e s i d e i n a c o m m u n i t y w h i c h t h e i n h a b i t a n t s " k n e w " w e l l . C o n -s e q u e n t l y , i t w a s a s m o o t h f l o w i n g c o m m u n i t y i n w h i c h m o s t o f t h e p e o p l e V f i t " . R e n a t a w a s a l s o t y p i f i e d a s a " s t a b l e f a r m i n g c o m m u n i t y " . A s w a s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , i t w a s t h e m o s t p r o d u c t i v e a r e a i n t h e l a k e s r e g i o n w i t h r e s p e c t " t o t r u c k p r o d u c e a n d f r u i t s . B o t h o f t h e s e f a c t o r s r e s u l t e d i n a p o p u l a t i o n w h o s e g o a l s a n d a s p i r a t i o n s w e r e p r i m a r i l y t h e s a m e . E d g e w o o d , a s w a s s e e n e a r l i e r , h a d a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f i t s p o p u l a -t i o n e m p l o y e d o r r e t i r e d o n f a r m s . A s w a s t h e c a s e w i t h R e n a t a , i t r e -s u l t e d i n a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f u n i f o r m i t y a n d c o h e s i v e n e s s . T h u s , i t w a s f e l t t h a t p o p u l a t i o n h o m o g e n e i t y w a s a n " . ' ". e l e m e n t i n d e f i n i n g t h e c o h e s i v e c o m m u n i t y , , b u t ' . c o m m u n i t y a c t i v i t i e s •. . . a n d s o c i a l l i f e s e e m e d t o b e a m o r e e f f i c i e n t i n d i c a t o r o f i d e n t i t y a n d c o h e s i o n . I n b o t h c o m m u n i t i e s ( b u t , m o r e s t r e s s e d i n R e n a t a ) t h e r e w e r e n u m e r o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s a n d m u c h i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e d l e i s u r e t i m e a c t i v i t i e s , c h u r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d m o r e m u n d a n e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s u c h a s p a r t y g e t - t o g e t h e r s . T h e c o m m u n i t i e s d i s p l a y e d a s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y a n d s o c i a l t o g e t h e r n e s s . O n n u m e r o u s o c c a s i o n s , d u r i n g a n i n t e r v i e w , r e s p o n d e n t s w o u l d b r a g a b o u t h o w m u c h f r i e n d l i n e s s a n d " l o v e " t o o k p l a c e i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , c o o p e r a -t i o n o n m a n y d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s e x i s t e d . I n R e n a t a , a f a r m i n g c o o p e r a t i v e w a s f o r m e d . T h i s p r o v e d t o b e a b i n d i n g f o r c e d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t m o s t o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s w e r e t i e d t o t h e l a n d . I n E d g e w o o d a s i m i l a r , b u t n o l e s s s u c c e s s f u l , o r g a n i z a t i o n w a s f o r m e d . T h u s , i t w a s f e l t t h a t R e n a t a a n d E d g e w o o d w e r e e l i g i b l e f o r d e f i n i t i o n a s c o h e s i v e c o m m u n i t i e s . I n g e n e r a l , a l l t h e o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n w e r e s o c i a l l y u n o r g a n i z e d - t h e i n h a b i t a n t s d i s p l a y i n g l e s s s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y . M o s t o f t h e n o r t h e r n c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e , a t t h e t i m e o f d i s p l a c e -m e n t , a b a n d o n e d a n y w a y ; o n l y r e l i c s o f p r i o r v i l l a g e s r e m a i n e d . A r r o w h e a d f o r e x a m p l e , h a d m o r e a b a n d o n e d l o t s t h a n o c c u p i e d . T h e s o c i a l c o h e s i o n . t h a t w a s a p p a r e n t i n R e n a t a a n d E d g e w o o d w a s m i s s i n g i n t h e r e s t o f t h e r e g i o n . A l t h o u g h t h i s s e e m e d t o b e t h e c a s e o n t h e w h o l e , t h e r e w e r e s o m e v e s t i g e s o f c o m m u n i t y a c t i v i t y a n d s o c i a l l i f e i n a f e w o f t h e o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s . I n t h e c e n t r a l r e g i o n , B u r t o n a p p e a r e d t o h a v e s o m e a c t i v e c h u r c h c l u b s . M t . C a r t i e r i n t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e r e g i o n a l s o h a d s o m e c o m m u n i t y a c t i v i t y a l t h o u g h i t t e n d e d t o b e " l o w k e y " . T h e s e l a t t e r c o m m u n i t i e s l a c k e d r e g u l a r i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n i n h a b i t a n t s , t h u s t h e y w e r e n o t t h o u g h t o f a s t r u l y c o h e s i v e c o m m u n i t i e s . I n t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e r e g i o n , i t w a s f e l t t h a t e v e n n o m i n a l c o m m u n i t y i n t e r a c t i o n w a s l a c k -i n g a n d a s a n e x t r e m e - f e u d i n g o c c u r r e d i n D e e r P a r k . H e n c e , t h e A r r o w L a k e s c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e b r o k e n i n t o t w o d i s t i n c t c l a s s e s ; o n e b e i n g t h e i d e n t i f i a b l e , c o h e s i v e e n t i t i e s a n d t h o s e t h a t w e r e n o t . A s a r e s u l t o f t h e i n v e r v i e w s c h e d u l e , t h e d a t a s h o w e d t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s w h o c a m e f r o m c o h e s i v e c o m m u n i t i e s i n w h i c h c o m m i t m e n t s w e r e m a d e ( i n t h e f o r m o f m e m b e r s h i p i n c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e t c . ) i n c u r r e d " a d v e r s e e f f e c t s " . T h i s f a c t w a s c o n f i r m e d a g a i n a n d a g a i n b y t h e d a t a f r o m t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . A m o n g t h o s e w h o h a d r e s i d e d i n R e n a t a , B . C . a n d i n t i m a t e d t h a t t h e y h a d s t r o n g c o m m i t m e n t s t o t h e c o m m u n i t y , 8 3 p e r c e n t ( o r 2 5 o f 3 0 r e s p o n d e n t s ) e v i d e n c e d a n " a d v e r s e e f f e c t " . A m o n g t h o s e w h o r e s i d e d i n R e n a t a , a n d h a d m i n i m a l c o m m i t m e n t s t o t h e c o m m u n i t y , 1 7 p e r c e n t s h o w e d n o a d v e r s e e f f e c t s ( i . e . 5 o f t h e t o t a l 3 0 r e s p o n d e n t s i n t e r -v i e w e d ) . A c t u a l l y , t h e r e w e r e t w o u n i q u e c a s e s i n R . e n a t a . B o t h i n d i v i d u a l s d i s p l a y e d s e v e r e a d v e r s e e f f e c t s . T h e f i r s t p e r s o n s u f f e r e d f r o m a m e n t a l b r e a k d o w n a t t h e t i m e o f d i s p l a c e m e n t . H i s w i f e m e n t i o n e d d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w t h a t t h e . d o c t o r a t t r i b u t e d t h e b r e a k d o w n t o t h e f o r c e d m o v e . T h e o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l a l s o h a d a b r e a k d o w n b u t i t w a s m a n i f e s t i n t h e f o r m o f a l c o h o l i s m . P r i o r t o d i s p l a c e m e n t h e d r a n k m o d e r a t e l y , b u t h e t o o a t t r i b u t e d h i s s e v e r e c o n d i t i o n t o f o r c e d d i s p l a c e m e n t . I n E d g e w o o d , w h i c h w a s a l s o d e f i n e d a s a c o h e s i v e c o m m u n i t y , t h e r e w e r e o n l y s e v e n p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d . H o w e v e r , a l l s e v e n i n t i m a t e d t h a t t h e y h a d c o m m i t m e n t s t o t h e c o m m u n i t y . T h e r e s u l t s s h o w e d t h a t a l l s e v e n d i s p l a y e d a d v e r s e e f f e c t s . T h e d a t a s h o w e d a c o m p l e t e c o n t r a s t f o r t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e l e s s c o h e s i v e , i d e n t i f i a b l e c o m m u n i t i e s . O n l y o n t h r e e o c c a s i o n s d i d a r e s p o n d e n t d i s p l a y a n a d v e r s e e f f e c t . T h e t w o c a s e s w h e r e a n a d v e r s e e f f e c t w a s o s t e n s i b l e , c o r r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y w i t h a c o m m i t m e n t t o t h e c o m m u n -i t y . I n a l l t h r e e c a s e s , i t w a s f e l t t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e c o m m u n i t y w a s n o t s o c i a l l y c o h e s i v e , t h e r e s p o n d e n t ! ^ a d v e r s e r e a c t i o n s w e r e d u e t o h i s s t r o n g c o m m i t m e n t t o h i s o r h e r c o m m u n i t y . O t h e r w i s e , o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t s f o u n d d i s p l a c e m e n t a " p a i n " b u t w e r e q u i t e c o n t e n t a n d s h o w e d l i t t l e r e m o r s e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t h a t c a m e f r o m R e n a t a a n d E d g e w o o d a n d h a d c o m m i t m e n t s t o t h e c o m m u n i t y f o u n d d i s p l a c e m e n t q u i t e d i s a g r e e a b l e . I n r e s p o n s e t o a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e f e e l i n g s o f s a d n e s s a n d d e p r e s s i o n w h i c h p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e d a f t e r m o v i n g , m a n y r e p l i e s w e r e : " I f e l t c h e a t e d " ; " I l l o s t m y f r i e n d s " , " I l o v e d t h a t p l a c e s o m u c h " , " I f e l t a s t h o u g h I h a d l o s t e v e r y t h i n g " . A c c o r d i n g t o M . F r i e d : A n y s e v e r e l o s s m a y r e p r e s e n t a d i s r u p t i o n i n o n e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e p a s t , t o t h e p r e s e n t a n d t o t h e f u t u r e * L o s s e s g e n e r a l l y b r i n g a b o u t f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f r o u t i n e s , o f r e l a t i o n -s h i p s , a n d o f e x p e c t a t i o n s , a n d f r e q u e n t l y i m p l y a n a l t e r a t i o n i n t h e w o r l d o f p h y s i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e o b j e c t s a n d s p a t i a l l y o r i e n t e d a c t i o n s F r o m t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e l o s s o f a n i m p o r t a n t p l a c e r e p r e s e n t s a c h a n g e i n a p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o m p o -n e n t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f c o n t i n u i t y . 1 0 I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d a t a , t h i s w a s t r u e o n l y f o r p e o p l e w h o r e s i d e d i n c o h e s i v e c o m m u n i t i e s a n d h a d m a d e c o m m i t -m e n t s t o t h e c o m m u n i t y . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e m a n y v a r i a b l e s c o n c e r n i n g i m p a c t s t o i n d i v i d u a l s d u e t o f o r c e d d i s p l a c e m e n t , i t w a s c o n c l u d e d t h a t : • I n d i v i d u a l s t h a t h a v e c o m m i t m e n t s t o a c o m m u n i t y a n d a r e d i s p l a c e d f r o m c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t d i s p l a y a s t r o n g s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y a n d c o h e s i o n a r e m o r e a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d t h a n t h o s e w i t h n o c o m m i t m e n t s a n d f r o m c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t l a c k a s t r o n g s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y . I V C O N C L U S I O N S : R u r a l - w o r k i n g p e o p l e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e A r r o w L a k e s t y p e , a r e f r e -q u e n t l y h o s t i l e t o w a r d g o v e r n m e n t a l a u t h o r i t y i n g e n e r a l , a n d f e e l t h a t t h e p o l i t i c i a n s a s w e l l a s t h e c i t y o f f i c i a l s s e e k t o d e p r i v e t h e m o f t h i n g s t h e y v a l u e , o r a r e t r y i n g t o c h e a t t h e m o u t o f t h e i r b e l o n g i n g s . T h u s , m a n y A r r o w L a k e s r e s i d e n t s w e r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e d a m p r o j e c t w a s . j u s t a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e o f g o v e r n m e n t a c t i o n t o b e n e f i t t h o s e w i t h g r e a t e r e c o n o m i c r e s o u r c e s a n d p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e . T h i s a t t i t u d e w a s s t r e n g t h -e n e d i n t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d i s p l a c e d p o p u l a t i o n w a s c o m p o s e d o f a l a r g e n u m b e r o f e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s - a g r o u p o f t e n h i g h l y i n v o l v e d i n a n d d e p e n d e n t o n t h e c o m m u n i t y . ^ B . C . H y d r o , a l t h o u g h n o t i n a l l c a s e s , a c t e d a s s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a -t o r s o f t h e l a w , a n d t o o o f t e n f a i l e d t o t a k e r e s i d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s i n t o S o m e v a r i a b l e s o m i t t e d d u e t o l a c k o f t i m e a n d d a t a i n c l u d e : s p a t i a l a n d p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s , i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e s e p a r a m e t e r s s h o u l d a l s o b e c o n s i d e r e d f o r f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g , t o e f f e c t s f r o m f o r c e d d i s p l a c e m e n t . c o n s i d e r a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e i r c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e s i d e n t s f o l l o w e d l o c a l a n d f e d e r a l , r e g u l a t i o n s , a n d t h e y w e r e e x t r e m e l y c a r e f u l n o t t o g i v e o u t a n y i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t w h i c h t h e y w e r e n o t a b s o -l u t e l y c e r t a i n , o r w h i c h w a s n o t r e q u i r e d b y t h e r u l e b o o k s . T h e i n f o r m a -t i o n a l v a c u u m t h u s c r e a t e d i n t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n w a s f i l l e d w i t h r u m o r s . M o r e o v e r , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , t h e o f f i c i a l s a s s u m e d t h a t A r r o w L a k e s r e s i d e n t s w e r e a s e x p e r t a s t h e y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o m p l e x a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s o f d i s p l a c e m e n t - r e l o c a t i o n ' a n d c o u l d t h u s i n t e r p r e t p r o p e r l y t h e c r y p t i c n e w s r e l e a s e s w h i c h H y d r o i s s u e d p e r i o d -i c a l l y . A c t u a l l y , a l m o s t 1 0 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d c o m m e n t e d t h a t t h e H y d r o n e w s l e t t e r s w e r e p r o p a g a n d a . ' N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e n e w s l e t t e r s w e r e n o t m a n d a t o r y , n o r w a s H y d r o , c o m p e l l e d t o i s s u e a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f i t s a c t i o n s . H o w e v e r , s i n c e A r r o w s ' r e s i d e n t s h a d l i t t l e c o n t a c t w i t h b u r e a u -c r a t i c p r o c e d u r e , t h e y t e n d e d t o i n t e r p r e t s u c h p r o c e d u r e s i n p e r s o n a l t e r m s . I n t h e i n t e r v i e w s i t w a s m a d e c l e a r t h a t t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e s i d e n t s , o n t h e w h o l e , w e r e w a r y o f H y d r o ' s m o t i v a t i o n s . B e c a u s e o f t h e i r g e n e r a l l y s u s p i c i o u s v i e w o f g o v e r n m e n t a l a c t i v i t i e s , t h e y r e i n t e r p r e t e d t h e H y d r o c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g l y . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e y e a r s o f d e l a y b e t w e e n t h e a n n o u n c e m e n t o f t h e d a m p r o j e c t a n d t h e f i n a l t a k i n g o f p r o p e r t y w e r e g e n e r a l l y a s s u m e d t o b e d u e t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s d e s i r e t o c o n f u s e t h e r e s i d e n t s ( i n s o m e c a s e s i t d i d ) , s c a r e t h e m o u t o f t h e r e g i o n , t h u s r e d u c i n g t h e a c q u i s i t i o n c o s t s o f p r o p e r t y a n d t h e r e l o c a t i o n p r o b l e m . T h e p a t t e r n o f p o o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f t h e H y d r o o f f i c i a l s a n d t h e n e g a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a n y c o m m u n i c a t i o n b y t h e r e s i d e n t s c o n t i n u e d a f t e r t h e A u t h o r i t y h a d s e t u p a p r o j e c t a r e a r e l o c a -t i o n o f f i c e a n d h a d a n n o u n c e d t h e e x p r o p r i a t i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s b y e m i n e n t d o m a i n . H y d r o c o n t i n u e d t o b e v a g u e o n t h o s e t o p i c s o f m o s t i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e r e s i d e n t s - f o r e x a m p l e , o n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n a n d r e l o -c a t i o n s c h e d u l e s . T h i s w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y f r u s t r a t i n g t o . t h o s e p e o p l e w h o , f i n a l l y r e l i e v e d o f y e a r s o f u n c e r t a i n t y , n o w w a n t e d t o p l a n a h e a d . A c c o r d i n g t o J . W . W i l s o n , t h e r e w a s l i t t l e e f f e c t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n i n t h e e a r l y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r b r o a d e r a m e l i o r a t i v e a c t i o n . H e e x -p l a i n e d t h a t w h e n s u c h p o s s i b i l i t i e s d i d e m e r g e i t w a s r e a l i z e d t h a t H y d r o h a d n e i t h e r l e g a l m a n d a t e n o r f u n d s a s s i g n e d t o i m p l e m e n t t h e m d i r e c t l y , 12 n o m a t t e r h o w d e s i r a b l e t h e y w e r e . H o w e v e r , i n t h e s a m e b r e a t h , i t m u s t a l s o b e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t B . C . H y d r o w a s a s e m i - i n d e p e n d e n t a g e n c y o u t s i d e t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e B . C . G o v e r n m e n t , a n d t h a t i n n o v a t i v e i d e a s o r p r o g r a m s w e r e o f t e n t h w a r t e d a n d d e l a y e d b y r e d - t a p e o r n e c e s s a r y c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e s i d e n t s a n d H y d r o o f f i c i a l s a t t r i b u t e d s o m e o f t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n f a i l u r e t o e a c h o t h e r ' s n e g a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n s , t h e d i f f i c u l -t i e s w e r e b a s e d p r i m a r i l y o n c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s . H y d r o w a s c o n c e r n e d m a i n l y w i t h f o l l o w i n g l o c a l a n d f e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g r e l o c a t i o n . T h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s s a i d n o t h i n g a b o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s t o t h e r e s i d e n t s o f H y d r o ' s o f f i c i a l a c t . H o w e v e r , i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r s u c h a n o p p o r t u n i t y w o u l d h a v e b e e n e x p l o i t e d . T h e o f f i c i a l s c o n c e r n e d w e r e n o t p o l i c y - m a k e r s ; t h e y w e r e h i r e d t o c a r r y o u t t h e i r p r e s c r i b e d d u t i e s . T h e y s i n c e r e l y f e l t s o r r y a n d w e r e h e l p f u l i n m o s t i n s t a n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y t o t h o s e A r r o w r e s i d e n t s w i t h s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s . T h e y t r i e d t o h e l p i n v a r i o u s w a y s n o t r e q u i r e d b y t h e j o b . B u t , s i n c e t h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t r e l o c a t i o n w a s n e c e s s a r y , t h e y c o u l d n o t r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d w h y . A r r o w L a k e s ' r e s i d e n t s w e r e h o s t i l e a n d o f t e n u n w i l l i n g t o c o o p e r a t e . A n d f i n a l l y , t h i s c h a p t e r h a s a t t e m p t e d t o p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n a n d s o c i a l a n a l y s i s o f d i s p l a c e m e n t i n t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e g i o n o f B . C . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l t h u s b e a " s p r i n g - b o a r d " f o r s u b s e q u e n t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d p o l i c y s t r a t e g i e s m a d e i n t h e c o n -c l u d i n g c h a p t e r . FOOTNOTES 1 Bowlby, J . ; "Process of Mourning", International Journal of Psycho-anal, Volume 42, pp. 317-340, N.Y., International Univ. Press, 1961. 2 Warkentin, M. and Rohn R.; The Story of Renata, ed. Wilson, Renata, B.C. Hydro, 1965. 3 Regional Index of B.C., East and West Kootenay's, Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Dept. of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce, V i c t o r i a , May 1967, p. 4. 4 Warkentin, M. and Rohn R., op . c i t . , p. 5. 5 I b i d . , p. 5. 6 Vancouver Sun, Jan. 17, 1974, "Hydro Offers Land Victims of Flooding" 7 Wilson, J.W.; People i n the Way, Univ. of Toronto Press, 1970, p. 136 8 Durkheim, Emile; Suicide, ed., George Simpson, The Free Press, N.Y., 1951. 9 Siemens, A.H.; Mennonite Settlement i n the Lower Fraser V a l l e y , M.A. Thesis i n geography, 1960, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. 10 F r i e d , M.; "Greiving for a Lost Home", i n L. Dutth, ed., The Urban  Condition, p. 154, Basic Books Publishers, 1963. 11 Brodney, J u l i e t ; Advocacy and Service for the Dislodged E l d e r l y , The Free Press,U., 1969, p. 123. 12 Wilson, J.W., op . c i t . , p. 26. C H A P T E R F I V E C O N C L U S I O N S A N D R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S I. C O N C E P T : M u l t i p l e - p u r p o s e r i v e r b a s i n d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s i n m a n y c o u n t r i e s h a v e i n v o l v e d t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f p e o p l e . T h e D a m o d a r V a l l e y p r o j e c t i n I n d i a r e s u l t e d i n t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f 9 3 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e . 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e w e r e d i s p l a c e d a s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e A s w a n D a m i n E g y p t . S i m i l a r l y , t h o u s a n d s o f p e o p l e h a v e b e e n r e l o c a t e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e T e n n e s s e e V a l l e y p r o j e c t . T h e r e l o c a t i o n o f d i s p l a c e d p e o p l e i s o n e o f t h e m o s t p r e s s i n g p r o b l e m s t o b e s o l v e d f o r a n y l a r g e s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t . T h u s , i f r e l o c a t i o n i s t o b e a s u c c e s s f u l p a r t o f a d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n , i t i s e s s e n -t i a l t h a t t h e i m p a c t s a n d c o n s e q u e n c e s o f p r e s e n t a n d p a s t p r o g r a m s b e k n o w n . A n i m p a c t - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c h e m e f o r l a r g e s c a l e r e s e r v o i r p r o j e c t s h a s b e e n d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y . . T h e m a j o r c o n c e r n s o f t h e s c h e m e h a v e b e e n t h e i m p a c t s , m u l t i p l e o r d e r c o n s e q u e n c e s a n d s e c o n d a r y e f f e c t s o f a s e l e c t e d r e s e r v o i r p r o j e c t . F u r t h e r a d d i t i o n s t o t h e s c h e m e w h i c h i n c l u d e s u p p l e m e n t a r y . r e s e a r c h , w i l l s e r v e t o a d d t o i t s c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s a n d i m p r o v e i t s u t i l i t y . I t i s f e l t t h a t a n i m p a c t - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a p p r o a c h ( f o l l o w - u p a n d p r e d i c t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ) i s n e c e s s a r y i n t h e p l a n n i n g o f l a r g e s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s . T h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e a b o v e s t a t e m e n t c a n b e j u s t i f i e d b y s i m p l y e x a m i n i n g p a s t t r e n d s . F o r e x a m p l e , v i r t u a l l y e v e r y l a r g e r e s e r v o i r p r o j e c t w h i c h h a s b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d h a s l e d t o e f f e c t s o t h e r t h a n t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f i t s p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s . T h e s e e f f e c t s m a y b e c l a s s i f i e d a s i m p a c t s . T h e y d i r e c t l y a n d i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t m a n , c a u s -i n g e c o n o m i c l o s s , s u f f e r i n g , a n d i n s o m e i n s t a n c e s , u n a n t i c i p a t e d b e n e f i t s . T h u s , r e c o g n i t i o n o f i m p a c t s a n d t h e i r c o n s e q u e n c e s b e f o r e t h e y o c c u r p e r m i t s p r e p a r a t i o n f o r m i n i m i z i n g n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s a n d m a x i m i z i n g p o s i -t i v e o n e s . F o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s , t h e f i n a l c o m p o n e n t o f a n i m p a c t - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c h e m e , i s a n i m p o r t a n t r e q u i s i t e . T h i s i s s o b e c a u s e u n c e r t a i n t y i s i n h e r e n t i n t h e p r e - e v a l u a t i o n o r p r e d i c t i v e c o m p o n e n t , o f a n i m p a c t -i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a p p r o a c h . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s n ' t a h i g h l e v e l o f c e r t a i n t y c o n c e r n i n g t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f s o m e p o t e n t i a l - e f f e c t s a t p a r t i c u l a r d e v e l o p -m e n t p r o j e c t s , t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e p r e d i c t i v e c o m p o n e n t i s n o t r e d u c e d . M o r e o v e r , i t s e r v e s a s a n i m p o r t a n t l i n k i n t h e t o t a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s o f i m p a c t - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n o f t h e i m p a c t - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c h e m e i s t h a t i t c a n b e a p p l i e d . T h e r e i s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n c r e a s i n g c r e d i -b i l i t y b e t w e e n d e c i s i o n m a k e r s a n d t h e i r p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s a n d v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s . O p e n u s e o f t h e i m p a c t - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c h e m e w i l l a l l o w r e a l i s t i c a p p r a i s a l b y b o t h p r o p o n e n t s a n d o p p o n e n t s o f p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t s . I t a l l o w s f o r s p e c i f i c c r i t i c i s m w h e r e t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n a s t o t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f c e r t a i n s e c o n d a r y e f f e c t s , o r a s t o t h e i r m a g n i -t u d e a n d e v a l u a t i o n . T h u s , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l b e r e q u i r e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e s o c i a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f o u r a c t i o n s . P l a n n e r s w i l l b e a r p a r t o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e r e q u i s i t e a m o u n t o f i n s i g h t i n t o t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e i r a c t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e m a t u r a - , t i o n o f a f r a m e w o r k b y w h i c h s o c i a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s c a n b e u s e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t s u p o n c o m m u n i t i e s o r r e g i o n s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t o i n j e c t a s o c i a l " e t h i c " o r c o m p o n e n t i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . - A m e t h o d o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g s o c i a l v a l u e s t h r o u g h i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s . S o c i a l i m p a c t s o c c u r o v e r t i m e , a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s . T h u s , i t m a y b e f r u i t l e s s t o o u t l i n e s o c i a l c o n s e q u e n c e s w i t h o u t p r o v i d i n g v i a b l e s o l u t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n m u s t b e i n j e c t e d i n t o t h i s p r o c e s s . I n e s s e n c e , a " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n " o f t h e p r o c e s s . I t i s f e l t t h a t p l a n n e r s m u s t s e r v e t h e p e o p l e . T h e r e f o r e , n e e d s m u s t b e s c r u t i -n i z e d b y p r o c u r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n d i r e c t l y f r o m t h o s e p e o p l e b e i n g a f f e c t e d b y a s p e c i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e s h o u l d b e a d i s t i n c -t i o n m a d e b e t w e e n " i n t e n s i v e " i m p a c t s a n d " e x t e n s i v e " i m p a c t s . I n t e n s i v e i m p a c t s r e f e r t o i m m e d i a t e e f f e c t s o r c o n s e q u e n c e s . C o n v e r s e l y , e x t e n -s i v e i m p a c t s r e f e r t o l o n g t e r m o r e x t e r n a l e f f e c t s . A s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r s o c i a l i m p a c t s o c c u r o v e r t i m e a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s , c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e s e v a r i a b l e s m u s t b e r e c o g n i z e d a n d p l a n n e d f o r a c c o r d i n g l y . I I ' A W O R K I N G M E C H A N I S M : O n e s p e c i f i c m e t h o d o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o s s i b l e e x t e r n a l o r l o n g t e r m e f f e c t s f r o m a d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t , e s p e c i a l l y o n e t h a t n e c e s s i t a t e s r e l o c a t i o n , i s " s c e n a r i o s " . I K a h n a n d W e i n e r d e f i n e s c e n a r i o s . , a s " h y p o t h e t i c a l s e q u e n c e s o f e v e n t s c o n s t r u c t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f f o c u s i n g 1 a t t e n t i o n o n c a u s a l p r o c e s s e s a n d d e c i s i o n p o i n t s . " S c e n a r i o s . ^ a t t e m p t t o a n s w e r t w o k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n s : ( a ) P r e c i s e l y h o w m i g h t s o m e h y p o t h e -t i c a l s i t u a t i o n c o m e a b o u t s t e p b y s t e p ? ( b ) W h a t a l t e r n a t i v e s e x i s t f o r e a c h f a c t o r a t e a c h s t e p t o p r e v e n t , d i v e r t o r f a c i l i t a t e t h e p r o c e s s ? I n o r d e r t h a t s c e n a r i o s f u l f i l l t h e i r f u n c t i o n a s c a t a l y s t s i n t h e d e v e m o p m e n t o f p l a n s f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e p e o p l e c e r t a i n -a s s u m p t i o n s m u s t b e m a d e . T h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s c o n c e r n p r e d i c t i o n s o f t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e n e e d s o f t h e p e o p l e b e t w e e n t h e p r e s e n t a n d t h e y e a r f o r w h i c h t h e s c e n a r i o i s b e i n g p r e p a r e d . I t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o m a k e a s s u m -p t i o n s r e s p e c t i n g n e e d e d c h a n g e s i n t h e c o n t r o l s ( l e g i s l a t i v e a n d o t h e r -w i s e ) o f h u m a n a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e s a m e p e r i o d . T h u s , t h e r e e x i s t s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t s . S i n c e m o r e t h a n t h e k i n d o r i n t e n s i t y o f c h a n g e i n n e e d s m a y b e p r e d i c t e d , e v e r y o n e o f w h i c h h a s s o m e m e r i t , i t i s a d v a n t a g e o u s t o h a v e a l t e r n a t i v e s c e n a r i o s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , p r e p a r a t i o n c o s t s a r e o f t e n l i m i t i n g a s r e g a r d s t h e q u a n t i t y d e s i r e d . A d e q u a t e l y d o c u m e n t e d w i t h p r o p o s a l s a n d t h e a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h t h e y a r e a d v a n c e d , s u c h a l t e r n a -t i v e s c e n a r i o s p r o v i d e t h e d e c i s i o n m a k e r s w i t h t h e k i n d o f b a c k g r o u n d w h i c h e n a b l e s t h e m t o m a k e w i s e d e c i s i o n s . I l l R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S : P L A N N I N G P O L I C I E S F O R R E L O C A T I O N C o m p r e h e n s i v e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f r e l o c a t i o n i s r e -q u i r e d i f p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g i s t o i m p r o v e . D e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , h a v e n o t e x a m i n e d t h e e f f e c t s o f p r e s e n t r e l o c a t i o n p o l i c i e s a n d t h e i r i m p a c t u p o n d i s p l a c e d p o p u l a t i o n s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e s t r o n g l y r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t p e r m a n e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a c h i n e r y s h o u l d b e d e v e l o p e d f o r c a r r y i n g o n a c o n t i n u i n g e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e a c t i o n s o f t h o s e r e -l o c a t e d , t o t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e i r l i v e s a n d e n v i r o n m e n t ; i . e . f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s . O n e m a j o r d r a w b a c k i n t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t p r o g r a m o f t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r T r e a t y w a s i t s l a c k o f s o c i a l r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g t h e d i s p l a c e d p o p u l a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o J . W i l s o n , " I t i s r e g r e t t a b l e t h a t n o s o c i a l r e s e a r c h w a s d o n e o n t h e C o l u m b i a p r o j e c t , a n d t h a t n o p r o v i s i o n w a s m a d e f o r f o l l o w - u p s u r v e y s . N o t h i n g i s k n o w n a b o u t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e v i c t i m s o f t h e A r r o w - p r o j e c t ; n o o n e k n o w s w h e r e t h e y a r e , f a r l e s s h o w 2 t h e y f a r e d . " A f o r m e r H y d r o r e l o c a t i o n o f f i c e r c o n c u r r e d . " F i g h t i n g a g a i n s t t i m e , s t e n o g r a p h i c l i m i t a t i o n s , a n d e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s s u c h a s p e n d i n g p r o j e c t s r e s u l t e d i n i n a d e q u a t e f i l e s k e p t o n t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f 3 d i s p l a c e d p e r s o n s - a p i t y . " T h u s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h f u n d s f o r s o c i a l r e s e a r c h a t t h e o n s e t o f a n y l a r g e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t , e s p e c -i a l l y o n e t h a t n e c e s s i t a t e s d i s p l a c e m e n t a n d s u b s e q u e n t r e l o c a t i o n . T h r o u g h o u t W e s t e r n s o c i e t y t h e r e i s a n e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y h i g h d e g r e e o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n t h e p o w e r t o m a k e e f f e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s ; a c t i o n s a r e i n i t i a t e d f a r f r o m t h e i r u l t i m a t e p o i n t s o f i m p a c t . A s y s t e m s o s t r u c t u r e d e x p e r i e n c e s g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e n e e d s o f t h e p e o p l e . B e c a u s e o f t h e m a n y l e v e l s t h r o u g h w h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n m u s t b e f i l t e r e d , d e c i s i o n s t e n d t o b e m a d e t o o s l o w l y i n t h e f a c e o f a c c e l e r a -t i n g c h a n g e s . P r o b l e m s s t a n d i n l i n e , w a i t i n g t o b e r e s o l v e d , b u t v e r y l i t t l e h a p p e n s . O n l y t h o s e t h a t s e e m u r g e n t t o t h o s e w h o o c c u p y p o s i t i o n s o f p o w e r a r e a d v a n c e d u p t h e q u e u e . A s t h e l i n e o f u n a t t e n d e d p r o b l e m s g r o w s , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n r i s e s a m o n g t h e p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s o c c u r s m a i n l y b e c a u s e o f i t s a g o n i z i n g s l o w n e s s , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e i t s d i a g n o s e s a r e o f t e n i n c o r r e c t , b e i n g m a d e o n t h e b a s i s o f h i g h l y a g g r e g a t e d b u t o f t e n i n c o m p l e t e a n d m i s l e a d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . A l l t h e s e p r o b l e m s a r e a g g r a v a t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e f e e d b a c k o f m e a n i n g f u l i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e c e n t e r s o f a c t i o n . F e e d b a c k i s g e n e r a l l y s l o w , e s p e c i a l l y w h e r e a c t i o n s h a v e n o t y e t b e e n r o u t i n i z e d . I n a d d i t i o n , m u c h t h a t i s r e l e v a n t i s e v e n t u a l l y f i l t e r e d out as information moves from i t s points of o r i g i n up through the hierarchy of a c t i o n l e v e l s . Subject to a l l manner of d i s t o r t i o n s on the way, t h i s information a r r i v e s at the top lacking the context that would permit a reasonable i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i t s meaning. These types of problems were p a r t i c u l a r l y evident i n the Arrow Lakes resettlement program. One of Hydro's greatest handicaps was that circumstances required i t to operate so much on i t s own. Furthermore, there was no integrated f i e l d o f f i c e , and most s p e c i f i c decisions had to be made through various departments far away i n Vancouver. Thus, coordination was lacking, which r e s u l t e d in' f r u s t r a t i o n and minimal concern for the s o c i a l welfare of the resident population. I t i s therefore recommended that an i n s t i t u t i o n (board) be set up that would be able to coordinate a l l the assistance to be given by the d i f f e r e n t departments and agencies involved i n the r e l o c a t i o n process. In essence, t h i s means a more complete synthesis of government bodies -an "integrated management approach". And f i n a l l y , the objectives of any large scale development project should r e f l e c t the needs of the resident population. Further-more, those needs should be a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h i n the agency's p o l i c y . IV IMPACT-IDENTIFICATION SCHEME: A STEP BY STEP APPROACH FOR RELOCATION  PLANNING: Step A: Pre-evaluation or p r e d i c t i v e model i s presented - based on a s o p h i s t i c a t e d information system. (See Chapter 1) Step B: Development of a l t e r n a t i v e scenarios - based on "informed" assumptions. Step C: Development of r e l o c a t i o n plan - based on Steps A and B a n d a t h o r o u g h k n o w l e d g e o f t h e p r o j e c t a r e a r e s i d e n t s , s o t h a t t h e p l a n f i t s t h e i r d e m a n d s a n d n e e d s . T h i s w i l l e n s u r e t h a t o f f i c i a l s h a v e s o m e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e i r a c t i o n s b e f o r e t h e y p u t t h e p l a n i n t o e f f e c t . T h e r e l o c a t i o n p l a n w o u l d s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g s t i p u l a t i o n s : 1 . R e s t i t u t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n c o m p e n s a t i o n s h o u l d b e s t r e s s e d . 2. L o c a l a n d f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s s h o u l d p r o v i d e i n t e r e s t - f r e e o r l o w - i n t e r e s t l o a n s t o r e l o c a t e e s w h o w i s h t o b u y n e w h o m e s . 3 . L i q u i d a t i o n f u n d s i n l i e u o f m o v i n g a l l o w a n c e s s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d t o s m a l l s t o r e o w n e r s a n d o t h e r b u s i n e s s m e n w h o w i l l n o t b e a b l e t o r e - o p e n t h e i r f i r m s e l s e w h e r e . 4. O t h e r f e d e r a l a n d l o c a l p r o g r a m s s h o u l d b e m a d e a v a i l a b l e t o p r o v i d e o c c u p a t i o n a l r e t r a i n i n g . 5 . C o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c y a n d t h e r e s i -d e n t s s h o u l d b a s e t u p s o t h a t : a ) T h e a m o u n t o f i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n t o s i t e r e s i d e n t s i s m a x i m i z e d a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r u m o r s d u e t o i n f o r m a t i o n v a c u u m s i s p r e v e n t e d ( a p r o b l e m w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n t h e A r r o w L a k e s s i t u a t i o n ) . b ) O f f i c i a l s a r e t r a i n e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n e v i t a b l y d e p r i v a t o r y n a t u r e o f r e l o c a t i o n s o t h a t t h e y h a v e m o r e i n s i g h t i n t o w h a t r e l o c a t i o n m e a n s t o t h e r e s i d e n t s , a n d c a n d e v e l o p a - m o r e t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e i r r e a c t i o n s o f s h o c k a n d p r o t e s t . " c ) A " s y n t h e s i z i n g b o d y " s h o u l d b e s e t u p w h i c h w o u l d c o o r d i n a t e T h i s p r o b l e m w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n t h e A r r o w L a k e s r e s e t t l e m e n t p l a n . A c c o r d i n g t o J . W . W i l s o n , " . . . i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t H y d r o d i d n o t s e t a b o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p e o p l e a s x ^ e l l a s w e m i g h t . F i r s t , m o s t o f u s w e r e e s s e n t i a l l y u r b a n p e o p l e w i t h m i d d l e c l a s s p r o f e s s i o n a l v a l u e s . " A t h e d i f f e r e n t a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e l o c a t i o n p r o c e s s . t 6. T h e r e l o c a t i o n s t a f f s h o u l d b e s t r e n g t h e n e d b y t h e a d d i t i o n o f : a ) S o c i a l w o r k e r s w h o c a n p r o v i d e a i d t o r e s i d e n t s f a c e d w i t h a d d i t i o n a l p r o b l e m s r e s u l t i n g f r o m r e l o c a t i o n . • I n s t a f f i n g , a t t i t u d e i s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a r e l o c a t i o n o f f i c e r . 7. I n r e l o c a t i o n p r o j e c t s t h a t i n v o l v e t h e b r e a k i n g a p a r t o f a " k i n g r o u p " o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , e x p e r i m e n t s s h o u l d b e c o n d u c t e d t o : a ) F i n d w a y s o f r e l o c a t i n g t o g e t h e r e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s l i v i n g t o g e t h e r i n s e p a r a t e b u t a d j a c e n t h o u s e h o l d s - p r o v i d e d t h e y w a n t t o b e m o v e d t o g e t h e r . b ) M a k e i t p o s s i b l e f o r i m p o r t a n t p r o j e c t a r e a i n s t i t u t i o n s t o -r e - e s t a b l i s h t h e m s e l v e s i n c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s w h e r e t h e y a r e a c c e s s i b l e ' t o s c a t t e r e d r e l o c a t e e s . c ) D e v e l o p g r o u p r e l o c a t i o n m e t h o d s t o a l l o w m e m b e r s o f a n e t h n i c g r o u p w h o w a n t t o s t a y t o g e t h e r t o m o v e i n t o a n a r e a a s ' a g r o u p , ( i . e . t h e M e n n o n i t e s o f R e n a t a e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e f o r t h i s . ) S t e p D : O n - g o i n g e v a l u a t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e s s p e c i a l m e c h a n i s m s f o r g a t h e r i n g d a t a o n n e w d e v e l o p m e n t s f a l l i n g o u t s i d e p r e d i c t i v e t r e n d s , a n d g a t h e r i n g t h e d a t a r a p i d l y e n o u g h i n o r d e r f o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o b e u s e f u l . . . . . S t e p E : F o l l o w - u p s t u d y ; o r a n " a f t e r - t h e - f a c t a n a l y s i s " . V G E N E R A L C O N C L U S I O N S : . ~ . T h e r e i s a n u r g e n t n e e d f o r o u r p l a n n e r s , a r c h i t e c t s a n d p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t w h a t t h e y d e s i g n i n t h e m i n d s o f m e n i s m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n w h a t t h e y c r e a t e i n s t e e l a n d c o n c r e t e . Assuming our s o c i e t y continues on i t s present course of techno-l o g i c a l progress, i t w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e a constant supply o f the n a t u r a l resources that the h i n t e r l a n d o f f e r s - timber f o r homes and paper, water fo r d r i n k i n g and e l e c t r i c power, and open space f o r new developments and r e c r e a t i o n . In our quest f o r these needed resources, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of displacement o c c u r r i n g w i l l c ontinue to grow. This may add s i g n i f i -c a n t l y to the burden of our times by undermining whatever f e e l i n g s o f s e c u r i t y could s t i l l be obtained from a sense of belonging i n a con-t i n u o u s l y e v o l v i n g , r a t h e r than d i s i n t e g r a t i n g , m i l i e u i n process of being superseded. This i s no argument ag a i n s t progress, o n l y a g a i n s t the a r b i t r a r y i n j e c t i o n of changes designed w i t h s o l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the s t r e s s e s and s t r a i n s i n s t e e l and concrete, but not i n the human mind.' To help l a y the foundations f o r b e t t e r procedures i s a c h a l l e n g -ing task f o r planning. I t has been shown, by the r e s u l t s of the present r e s e a r c h , t h a t r e l o c a t i o n has been i n s e n s i t i v e to people's " r e a l " needs, and i s o f t e n d e s t r u c t i v e i f not p r o p e r l y administered. These observations are a l s o supported by cur r e n t research i n the f i e l d . In c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s b e l i e v e d that r e l o c a t i o n procedures are developed by prof e s s i o n a l s ' whose values are much of the time, d i f f e r e n t i than those being a f f e c t e d by r e l o c a t i o n . These p r o f e s s i o n a l s o f t e n assume the s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y of the nuclear family-household. However, many of these p h y s i c a l l y i n d i v i d u a l households are t i e d to t h o s e o f other f a m i l i e s by st r o n g bonds, e i t h e r of k i n s h i p or peer-group member-See Wood, E l i z a b e t h , "The needs of people a f f e c t e d by r e l o c a t i o n " . A l s o see Stoddard, E.R., " S o c i a l f a c t o r s i n s u c c e s s f u l adjustment of r e l o c a t e e s " . . s h i p . I f h o u s e h o l d s a r e r e l o c a t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y , - s o t h a t t h e y a r e n o t m u t u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e a s t h e y h a v e b e e n , i n t h e p a s t , n e g a t i v e s o c i a l a n d e m o t i o n a l c o n s e q u e n c e s m a y r e s u l t . F o r m a n y o f t h e e l d e r l y p e o p l e , a c c e s s i b i l i t y m e a n s p e d e s t r i a n a c c e s s i b i l i t y , a n d t h u s t h e y w i l l s u f f e r m o s t f r o m b e i n g s e p a r a t e d f r o m r e l a t i v e s a n d n e i g h b o r s . Y o u n g e r p e o p l e c a n c o m e t o g e t h e r a g a i n b y c a r o r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , b u t o n l y i f t h e y a r e r e l o c a t e d i n r e l a t i v e l y a c c e s s i b l e n e i g h b o r h o o d s . S i n c e r e l o c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s d o n o t a l l o w f o r t h e t r a n s f e r o f t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m , t h e s h o c k o f t h e r e l o c a t i o n p r o c e s s i t s e l f i s l i k e l y t o a f f e c t n e g a t i v e l y a n u m b e r o f p e o p l e w h o h a v e n e v e r l i v e d a n y w h e r e e x c e p t t h e i r " h o m e t o w n " , a n d w h o s e s o c i a l a n d e m o t i o n a l t i e s a r e e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e v i l l a g e , n e i g h b o r h o o d o r c i t y . W m . M i c h e a l s o n w r i t e s : ' . . T h e s u r e s t w a y t o i n d u c e p a t h o l o g i c a l -r e s p o n s e s i n p e o p l e t h r o u g h e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n i s t o f o r c e t h e i r m o v e f r o m a n e i g h b o r h o o d o r v i l l a g e w h i c h i s c o n -g r u e n t w i t h t h e i r l i f e - s t y l e s w i t h o u t a s u b s t i t u t e l i f e - s t y l e d e s i r e d o n t h e i r p a r t i 6 T h u s , a n y f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s f i e l d s h o u l d b e c o n c e r n e d w i t h s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e i m p a c t - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c h e m e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . T h i s w i l l h o p e f u l l y r e s u l t i n m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g b e i n g i n i t i a t e d a n d a g r e a t e r r e g a r d f o r t h e s o c i a l w e l f a r e o f o u r c i t i z e n s . • 7 4 F O O T N O T E S 1 K a h n , H . a n d A . J . W e i n e r , 1 9 6 7 . T h e Y e a r 2 0 0 0 , M c M i l l a n C o . , N e w Y o r k , p . 4 3 1 . -2 W i l s o n , J . W . ; P e o p l e i n t h e W a y , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 , p . 1 7 6 . 3 P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , c o n d u c t e d o n A u g u s t 1 , 1 9 7 4 , V i c t o r i a , . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 4 W i l s o n , J . W . , o p . c i t . , p . 1 6 8 . 5 J o y c e , D a v i d ; T h e S o c i a l F u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e D i s l o d g e d E l d e r l y . 6 M i c h e a l s o n , W m . ; M a n a n d H i s U r b a n E n v i r o n m e n t 75 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrahmson, J.A. Rural to Urban Adjustment. Published under the a u t h o r i t y of M i n i s t e r of Forestry,and Rural Development, Ottawa, 1968. Alinsky, Saul David. R e v e i l l e for Radicals. New York, Vintage Books, N„Y., 1969. Bauer, Raymond. S o c i a l Indications. The M.I.T. Press, Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1969. Bowlby, J . 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Perennial L i b r a r y Harper and Row Publishers, N.Y., 1963. Iverson, Noel. Communities i n Decline: An Examination of Household Re-settlement i n Newfoundland. (Newfoundland) St. Johns I n s t i t u t e of S o c i a l and Economic Research, Memorial U n i v e r s i t y of Newfoundland, 1968. Jensen, B r i g i t t e . S o c i o l o g i c a l Aspects of Urban Renewal i n Toronto. I n s t i t u t e for Behavioural Research, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1970. Jones, Dale. An a r t i c l e printed i n the S e a t t l e Times, Nov. 1, 1974, p. IV-3, S e a t t l e , Washington. Joyce, David. The S o c i a l Functioning of the Dislodged E l d e r l y ; a study of p o s t - r e l o c a t i o n assistance. P h i l a d e l p h i a I n s t i t u t e for Environmental Studies, Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1966. Kahn, H. and Weiner, A.J. The Year 2000, McMillan Co., N.Y., 1967. Kaluzny, Richard Lawrence. Patterns of R e s i d e n t i a l Relocation; implications for p ublic p o l i c y . 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The P h y s i c a l Environment as an A t t r a c t i o n and  Determinant: S o c i a l E f f e c t s i n Housing. Centre f o r Urban and Community Studies, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1969. Michaelson, William M. Man and His Urban Environment: A S o c i o l o g i c a l  Approach. Addison-Wesley Pu b l i s h i n g Co., Mass., 1970. Moser, C.A. Survey Methods i n S o c i a l Investigation. Published by Heinmann Educational Books Ltd., The U n i v e r s i t y of Glasgow, London, 1969. National Research Council. Highway Research Board. Relocation; S o c i a l and Economic Aspects. Report of a conference held October 1-3, 1969. No r r i s , June. Human Aspects of Redevelopment. Birmingham Midlands New Town Society, Birmingham, England, 1960. Parr, A.E. Journal of S o c i a l Issues, volume 22, #4, 1966. Perry, Clarence. The Neighborhood Unit Format, i n W i l l i a m Wheaton et a l . , (eds.), Urban Housing, The Free Press, N.Y., 1966. Regional Index of B.C. 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A report prepared by the P h i l a d e l p h i s I n s t i t u t e f o r Environmental Studies, U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania, 1966. S o c i a l Planning Council of Hamilton; The S o c i a l Costs of Urban Renewal, Part Two. Hamilton, Ontario, 1963. Stein, R. Maurice. The E c l i p s e of the Community: An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of American studies. Harper and Row Publishers, N.Y., 1964. Stoddard, Ellwyn R. The Role of s o c i a l factors i n the s u c c e s s f u l adjust-ment of Mexican-American fa m i l i e s to forced housing r e l o c a t i o n . E l Paso, Tex., Dept. of Planning Research and Development, 1970. 78 S u t t l e , Gerald. " T e r r i t o r i a l i t y and the Urban Community", in the '68 Supplement of S o c i o l o g i c a l Abstracts. Thayer, Scudder. "Man-made lakes and population resettlement", 1960; Symposium of the I n s t i t u t i o n of Biology, #15, Academic Press, London. Thursz, Daniel. Where Are They Now? 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Community Renewal Program Committee, P h i l . , 1965. 7 9 APPENDIX 81 APPENDIX I I WEST ROBSON TO RENATA - HOUSEHOLDS BY OCCUPATION Carpenter Farmer ( F u l l Time) Farmer (Part Time) Government1 Labourer 2 Logger Motel 3 Pensioner P u l p m i l l Smelter Service S t a t i o n & Store Truck Driver Welfare Miscellaneous^ West Robson To Syringa Cr 3 2 8 1 27 6 1 2 2 2 13 55 Deer Park 2 2 2 "'' 1 1 4 _3 16 Renata 6 6 4 3 1 6 1 1 1 3 _1 33 T o t a l 8 8 11 8 11 3 1 '• 37 7 2 4 2 5 II 122 1 - Includes Ferry, Highways, and Forestry Department Employees. 2 - Includes Loggers and Sawmill Workers. 3 - Includes a l l Retired Persons l i v i n g on Pensions plus Savings and other means. 4 - Includes categories such as Contractors, School Teachers, Salesmen, R e t a i l Dealers, Iron Workers, and otherwise not ascertained. APPENDIX II-A EDGEWOOD TO BEATON - HOUSEHOLDS BY OCCUPATION East Arrowpark Arrowpark Beaton Burton Edgewood Needles Carpenter • — _ Farmer 2 2 - 35 3 Government''" 1 6 1 . 1 2 2 Labourer 2 10 2 - 7 2 Logger 16 12 5 22 30 Pensioner 19 14 1 27 26. 6 Truck Driver 7 1 2 6 1 Tractor Operator 6 2 4 1 2 -Miscellaneous^ 12 _5 _9 20 23 i i 63 42 34 79 119 ; 37 1 - Includes Ferry, Highways, and Forestry Department Employees. 2 - Includes Loggers, F a l l e r s , Sawmill Workers, Timber Cruisers and Graders. 3 - Includes a l l Retired Persons l i v i n g on Pensions, Savings or other means. 4 - Includes such categories as Mechanics, R e t a i l Dealers, Teachers and others not s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned N.B. - Nakusp with 611 households i s not included i n d e t a i l e d breakdown. Source - Householder Directory, Federal E l e c t o r a l D i s t r i c t of Kootenay West, B.C. 1963. APPENDIX I I I CLIMATIC COMPARISONS Average Annual T o t a l Annual Temp. Extremes A l t i t u d e S t a t i o n Mean Temp. P r i c i p i t a t i o n Min. Max. above M.S Armstrong 44°F 16.9" -44°F 105°F 1,187' Castlegar 46 26.2" -14 106 1,425* Cres ton 45 18.9" -27 103 2,085' Deer Park 47 17.7" -5 101 .1,460* East Arrowpark 30.4" -16 100 Facquier 45 21.4" -25 102 1,570' Kaslo 45 29.8" -17 100 1,930' Kelowna 47 11.9" -24 102 1,590' Nakusp _ 29.0" _ _ 1,500' Nelson 46 24.6" -7 101 1,980* Penticton 48 10.2" -16 105 1,129' O l i v e r 49 10.9" -23 105 997' Reference - "Climate of B.C.", B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1962. 84 APPENDIX IV QUESTIONNAIRE AND INTERVIEW 1974 -INTERVIEWER - STUART BACKERMAN A) NOTE THE COMMENTS DISPLAYED IN THE TOTAL INTERVIEW BY THE RESPONDENTS TOWARDS RURAL AND PRESENT SETTING. WHETHER THEY WERE FAVOURABLE, NON-FAVOURABLE OR FAIRLY BALANCED BETWEEN THE TWO - A GENERAL ATTITUDE. B) NOTE DISPOSITION OF RESPONDENT. I. 1. Name: 2. Is respondent head of the family (major income earner: 3. Age - Under 20 /_/ _20-30 /_/ 30-40 IJ 40-50 £7 oyer 50 /_/ 4. No. of children - 0 /_/ 1 /_/ 2 /_/ 3 /_/ over 3 /_/ 5. Ages of children - Under 1 year fj 1-3 years / / 3-7 years l_J 7-12 years l_J 12-16 years £j over 16 /__/ 6. How long did you l i v e i n the Arrow Lakes Region before relocating? A) Were you born there: B) Where did you grow up: 85 II. l i f e Style Prior to Resettling: 1. How do you feel about the rural l i f e ? (Probe for attitudes towards land) 2. What was the country like around there? 3. What were your favoritejeeisure time social and recreational a c t i v i t i e s while l i v i n g In the Arrow Lakes? (note whereer Lake was an important use) i 4. Did you grow your own food? A) If yes, how much was this of your total need? 5. How far from the village did you live? Less than 1 mile / / 1-3 miles / / 3-5 miles / / greater than five miles / / 6. Did you have any relatives l i v i n g near enough to v i s i t back and forth? A) Did you v i s i t much: Daily / / weekly /~~7 monthly [_J 86 7. Your total annual family income was about $ a) Under 2,000 a year b) 2,000 - 2,999 c) 3,000 - 4,999 d) 5,000 - 7,999 e) 8,000 - 9,999 f) 10,000 - 12,000 8) Over 12,000 III. Former Community 1. How would you describe the people i n your former community of the Arrow Region? 3 V 2. Did your community mainly consist of : a) Farmers b) Celgar workers c) Pensioners d) a l l of the above e) Other 3. How do you feel your community was expanding prior to the announcement of the dam project? a) rapidly b) moderately c) not at a l l 4. Did you depend upon your automobile for transportation? 5. How close were you from the doctors? Less than 1 mile (_/ 1-3 miles /_/ 3-5 miles /_/ Greater than 5 miles J_j 6. How close were you from hospital? Less than 1 mile _/ 1-3 miles / / 3-5 miles / / Greater than 5 miles / / 7. Did you rent or own your previous dwelling? 8. What kind of dwelling did you have: Detached / / Semi / / Room / / Suite / / a) How old was it? b) Number of rooms 87 c) Amenities: Yes No Yes No Telephone E l e c t r i c i t y Radio Basement Central heating Running water Flush t o i l e t T e l e v i s i o n 9. Did you have to get a mortgage i n order to get your house? 10. Why did you move from the Arrow Lakes Region? IV. Dam Construction 1. Were you for or against the b u i l d i n g of the Arrow Lakes? (Probe for a t t i t u d e s - reasons.) 2. When were you f i r s t contacted by B.C. Hydro about relocation? How far i n advance of ph y s i c a l r e l o c a t i o n was i t ? 3. Did the a c t u a l construction period a f f e c t your everyday routine? How? 4. Did you f e e l the h o s p i t a l s , parks and other f a c i l i t i e s b u i l t by Hydro were necessary things for the community? Compensation 1. Do you think the compensation you got from Hydro was; a) generous b) reasonable c) not enough 2, Do you think Hydro treated people f a i r l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y ( a l l the same)? 3. What were the Hydro appraisers' a t t i t u d e s toward you? Adjustment: 1. When you l e f t the Arrow Lakes, where did you go f i r s t ? Why there? A) Get h i s t o r y of moves u n t i l family i s located i n present community. 2. A f t e r you l e f t the Arrow Lakes, what d i f f i c u l t i e s d i d you have i n getting s e t t l e d i n town? (Probe f o r employment, housing, making friends.) A) And what about your wife? B) And what about your children? How did you happen to come to ( )? (Probe here f o r previous knowledge of c i t y , f r i e n d s , or r e l a t i v e s here, job oppcrtunities.) Did you know anyone i n town who helped you get settled? What d i d they do f o r you? Before you came here, what were your expectations about the kind of l i f e you would lead? a) Money you would make? (How does your present income compared with what you thought you would make?) Since you l e f t the Arrow Lakes, have there been any times when you were unemployed? a) i f yes, when? b) i f yes, how long? c) i f yes, what d i d you do then? 90 6. d) Did you get unemployment compensation^ e) Was there any time you applied f or s o c i a l aid? f ) Did you receive s o c i a l aid? For how long? VII. Present Community 1. Do you belong to any organization or s p e c i a l s e r v i c e group which takes an active i n t e r e s t i n the community? a) I f yes, what? 2. What are your f a v o r i t e l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s ? Have you any r e l a t i v e s l i v i n g near enough to v i s i t back and forth? How often do you v i s i t ? a) D a i l y b) Weekly c) Monthly 4. Do you own or rent your present dwelling? 5. Did you have to get a mortgage i n order to get your present house? 6. Taking i n account i n f l a t i o n , does your present house cost you more per month? (rent, mortgage, maintenance) 7. Now, I'd l i k e to get a d e s c r i p t i o n of your house. a) Type: Detached [j Semi £1 Suite £7 Room f~7 b) No. of rooms: c) Amenities Yes No Yes No Telephone Basement E l e c t r i c i t y Central heating ~ ~ Radio Running water T e l e v i s i o n Flush t o i l e t 8. Do you own an automobile? How close are you to the doctors? Less than 1 mile / / 1-3 miles / / 3-5 miles / / Greater than 5 miles / / How close are you to the hospital? Less than 1 mile / / 1-3 miles / / 3-5 miles / / Greater than 5 miles / / How would you rate the educational system i n your present community compared to education i n Arrow? better / / same / / worse / / Interviewer's description of house? Crite r i a : Rundown (not painted recently) Garden neat Back yard New furniture and appliances Total family income at present a) Under 2,000 a year b) 2,000-2,999 c) 3,000-4,999 d) 5,000-7,999 e) 8,000-9,999 f) 10,000-12,000 g) Over 12,000 What about future plans? Live here / / Move i n a few years move soon / / Do you feel you were romanticizing about the Arrow Lakes? Did you plan to stay i n Arrow Lakes before you knew the dam was going to be built? 

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