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Social impacts of large scale development projects case study : Hugh Keenleyside dam construction Backerman, Stuart Bruce 1975

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SOCIAL IMPACTS OF LARGE SCALE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS CASE STUDY:  HUGH KEENLEYSIDE DAM  CONSTRUCTION  by  STUART BRUCE BACKERMAN B.S.,  State University  o f New York a t B u f f a l o  A thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l  fulfillment  o f the  requirements f o r t h e degree o f  MASTIR OP ARTS i n the  S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l PTanning  We a c c e p t this- t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d  The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  April,  1975  Columbia  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  for scholarly by h i s of  this  written  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  make i t  freely available  that permission  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  It  for financial  i s understood that gain shall  permission.  Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  20 75 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  for  the requirements  this  flp*;J  J*. J?7J~ '  copying or  for  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  or  publication  not be allowed without my  ABSTRACT  This ducted  for  the  Columbia. that  was  away  w i t h  e f f e c t s  given the  t i f i c a t i o n  formerly  r a t i o n a l e process  of  had  not  development  however,  other  impacts,  which  documented  bution occur  for  towards  unexpectedly  u n a n t i c i p a t e d  planning impacts  period " a f t e r  in  probable  a  proven  a  serve  be  during  to  v a l u a b l e the  f a c t " way  as of  feed-back and  (as an  a  checking  the  that  personal to  a b l e  have  and  assess  which  to  date  been  expected; in  may  Any  c o n t r i -  might  otherwise  p r o c e s s .  planning e f f e c t s  during  the  the  It  range It  times thus  In pre-  i d e n t i f y i n g  -validity.  p r o j e c t s .  undetected,  p r e v i o u s l y  p e r i o d .  however,  Often  planning  manner,  r e c o g n i z e  p r e d i c t i n g  iden-  operation  p r o j e c t .  c e r t a i n  mechanism.  to  comprehensive  planning  development  go  data,  order  unexpected  s t u d i e d ,  e f f e c t s  B r i t i s h  population  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  been  for  i n  c o n s t r u c t i o n  has  in  i n t e n s i v e  fact  the  secondary  i n d i c a t o r  secondary  to  of  follow-up)  subsequent or  the  impacts  be  con-  p o p u l a t i o n .  p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l  e x p l i c i t l y  not  and  development  to  Lakes  d i s p l a c e d  impacts  improve  Arrow  c o l l e c t e d  l i t t l e  of  r e s e a r c h ,  Ethnographic,  completely  large  have the  wrong  a  r e c o g n i t i o n  nominal  as  given  r e s e a r c h  consequences  necessary are  would  e f f e c t s  Some  in  every  the  from  from  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  should  it  p a r t i c u l a r  serve  v i r t u a l l y  was  regard  r e s u l t i n g  about  of  the  h i s t o r y ,  stems  p r o j e c t s .  come  ensuring  I d e a l l y ,  this  have  and  due  were  on  d i s p l a c e d  study  which  e m p i r i c a l  r e g i o n .  people  given  impacts  scale  and  Lakes  the  an  part  c u l t u r e  the  of  l o c a t e d  that  Arrow  upon  for  l a r g e  be  to  d i s p l a c e d  has  s o c i a l  r e s u l t s  communities  from  r e l o c a t i o n  planning  stages  the  community-dynamics,  The  of  d i s p l a c e d  r e l o c a t e d  interviews  the  reports  Emphasis  i n c l u d i n g  the  t h e s i s  a  is  can  of a l s o  p r e d i c t i o n s follow-up  component  w i t h i n  Post twenty-three  the  households  or  Thus,  f o l l o w i n g  of  the  l a r g e  B r i t i s h are  and  c o h e s i o n  and  from  are  more  f i n a l l y , and  and  did  not has  development  a d v e r s e l y that a  been  that  communities  l a c k  s t e p - b y - s t e p  discussed.  eighteen w i t h i n  project have  that  strong  have  in  cent  the  Arrow  than sense  a  the  for  of  w i t h  to  the  Lakes  Arrow  strong  those of  traced  r e g a r d i n g  commitments  d i s p l a y  approach  been  per  formulated  a f f e c t e d a  r e q u i s i t e .  whereabouts  r e l o c a t e  I n d i v i d u a l s  from  communities  i d e n t i f i e d  power  necessary  approximately  c o n c l u s i o n  s c a l e  d i s p l a c e d  And  that  Columbia:  and  a  addresses  p o p u l a t i o n  from  is  r e l o c a t i o n  d i s p l a c e d the  process  r e g i o n .  r e g i o n  community  sense no  t o t a l  displacement Lakes  a  for  of  i d e n t i t y  commitments  i d e n t i t y . r e l o c a t i o n  p l a n n i n g  was  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i n  L I S T OF FIGURES  v m  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  CHAPTER ONE:  ix  INTRODUCTION  PROBLEM STATEMENT  .  1 .  .  RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY  V .  HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE  .  SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION  .  .  ...  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  •  .  1  , 4  .  NEED FOR RESEARCH  .  3  OBJECTIVES  CHAPTER TWO:  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  8 8 9  „  METHODS OF STUDY  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  12  DATA COLLECTION  12  THE SAMPLE  13  THE INTERVIEW PROGRAM  15  LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY  CHAPTER THREE:  CHAPTER FOUR: I II  .  19  LITERATURE REVIEW: THE IMPORTANCE OF LOCALE .  21  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA  OVERVIEW  .  ETHNOGRAPHY A.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  . .  . .  33 . .  . .  RENATA, B.C. - Lower Arrow Lakes 1.  Location  . .  . .  .  ... .  .  .  . .  34 35  .  .  .  „  . .  35 35.  v i  Page  B.  2.  Topography  36  3.  Climate  36  4.  P o p u l a t i o n Composition  36  5.  E a r l y Settlement  36  6.  Activities  37  7.  Community L i f e  8.  Housing  9.  L o c a t i o n i n R e l a t i o n t o Others  »  39 40 . . . .  40  . . . .  40  DEER PARK, B.C.  - Lower Arrow Lakes  1.  Location  . . . .  2.  Topography  41  3.  Climate  41  4.  P o p u l a t i o n Composition  41  5.  E a r l y Settlement  41  6.  Activities  7.  Community L i f e  43  8.  Housing  43  9.  L o c a t i o n i n R e l a t i o n to Others  40  °  . . . .  - C e n t r a l Arrow Lakes  42  43  C.  EDGEW00D - NEEDLES, B.C.  D.  ARROWARK - FACQUIER, B.C.  E.  MT.  CARTIER - Upper Arrow Lakes  49  1.  Location  49  2.  Climate  49  3.  Topography  49  4.  P o p u l a t i o n Composition  49  5.  E a r l y Settlement  50  .  - C e n t r a l Region  44 47  Page  III IV  II III IV  Activities  .  7.  Community L i f e  8.  Housing  9.  Location  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  50  .  51 51  i n R e l a t i o n to Others  .  .  .  .  52  F.  SIDMOUTH, B.C. - Upper Arrow Lakes  .  .  .  .  52  G.  ARROWHEAD, B.C. - Upper Arrow L a k e s  .  .  .  .  53  INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  54  CONCLUSIONS  CHAPTER FIVE: I  6.  59  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  CONCEPT  .  .  .  .  .  .,  64  A WORKING MECHANISM RECOMMENDATIONS:  .  66  PLANNING POLICIES FOR RELOCATION .  Step A  69 .  69  Step B  .  69  Step C  .  69  Step D  71  Step E  71  GENERAL CONCLUSIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY  APPENDIX  67  IMPACT-IDENTIFICATION SCHEME: A STEP BY STEP APPROACH FOR RELOCATION PLANNING  V  64  .  71  75  79  v i i i  LIST  OF  FIGURES Page  Figure  Figure  1  2  E x i s t i n g ,  Under-Construction,  P r o j e c t s  in  the  Columbia  R i v e r  Columbia  Treaty  R i v e r  P r o j e c t s  Proposed Basin,  and  Treaty  5  1960.  7  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  G r a t e f u l a p p r e c i a t i o n i s expressed  t o Dr. Robert  C o l l i e r and  P e t e r Nemetz o f the School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , Dr. George Gray o f t h e School  o f S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y ,  versity  T h e i r a s s i s t a n c e and a d v i c e  ration  o f B r i t i s h Columbia. of this  t h e s i s w i l l never be f o r g o t t e n .  and t o  the U n i -  i n t h e prepa-  And f i n a l l y , t o my w i f e  L i n d a , whose encouragement and p a t i e n c e a i d e d me throughout  the o r d e a l .  Thanks a r e a l s o due t o K a t h i e Cook f o r h e l p w i t h t y p i n g , and many other odd t a s k s which a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a thesis.  S. B.B. April  4, 1975.  CHAPTER ONE  INTRODUCTION  PROBLEM STATEMENT D i s p l a c e m e n t and subsequent r e l o c a t i o n has t a k e n p l a c e parts  o f the world  activities 70 e i g h t e e n  f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons.  o f t e n have c r e a t e d  F o r example, u r b a n renewal  t h e need f o r r e l o c a t i o n .  thousand f a m i l i e s were r e l o c a t e d ,  i n many  A c t u a l l y , by 1969-  or were i n the p r o c e s s o f 1  being  r e l o c a t e d by u r b a n renewal p r o j e c t s a c r o s s  such as p r o j e c t s which i n v o l v e the h a r n e s s i n g tricity,  water s t o r a g e  Canada.  o f r i v e r s t o produce e l e c -  or f l o o d c o n t r o l o f t e n c a l l  dams and t h e c r e a t i o n o f "head ponds".  O t h e r reasons,  f o r the b u i l d i n g o f  The development o f t h e s e head  ponds makes i t n e c e s s a r y to r e l o c a t e the r i p a r i a n i n h a b i t a n t s . B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , r e l o c a t i o n e n t a i l s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new settlements  or replacement o f former communities.  d i s p l a c e d people,  means  number o f  i t o f t e n means i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o an e x i s t i n g community.  Thus, adequate h o u s i n g , s o c i a l provided  For a great  facilities,  f o r the d i s p l a c e d p o p u l a t i o n .  and p r o p e r c o u n s e l l i n g must be  I n Robert C. Weaver's words,  this  that: . . . . R e l o c a t i o n a g e n c i e s have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h e o b l i g a t i o n t o see t h a t those who a r e d i s p l a c e d move t o s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the human s i d e o f r e l o c a t i o n programs, i n terms o f p r o p e r l y l o o k i n g a f t e r needs o f p o t e n t i a l r e l o c a t e e s , s h o u l d be f u l l y p r o v i d e d f o r i n the appropriate agencies o p e r a t i o n a l plans.^ However, even i f t h e p r o p e r s t e p s  are  taken,  t o i n s u r e adequate r e l o c a t i o n  i t may not mean t h a t a s u c c e s s f u l program w i l l  occur.  Massive  development p r o j e c t s , such as the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f dams, o f t e n have e f f e c t s  far  beyond  those  a n t i c i p a t e d agency  or  that  x-/ith  were  any  p r e c i s i o n  o r g a n i z a t i o n mental  p h y s i c a l  and  changed  environment." George  has  for  the  W.  G r i e r  he  a n t i c i p a t e  the  the  a l l  consequence  of  i n s t a n c e s ,  motion  that  even  cannot  at  a l l  --  For  example,  r e l o c a t i o n  and  adjustment  be  by  the  "The to  a  tremendous  shock  that  "displacement"  of  l i v i n g  swept  there  the  one's  cludes  s e n s i t i v i t y  and  i t s  is  The  purpose  of  r e l o c a t e d years,  h i s  he  to  He  "home".  and  from  has  d r a s t i c a l l y .  to  to  a  p l a c e  r e - o r i e n t  has  A l l  has  of  and  a  wider  is  of  b u i l t  up  these  r e p l a c e  -  to  more  planning of  s e n s i t i v i t y  both  need  for  for  spectrum  necessary  wide-ranging  the  p o s s i b l e  demand  p o s s i b l e  that  the  growing change  actions  awareness -  is  many  away,  a  widest  to  and  he  for  them  once.4*  suggest  i f  when  l i v e d  r e s u l t s  account  planning  person, has  are  at  P r e s e n t l y ,  e f f e c t s  i n  accompanying  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  things a l l  in  many  them  s t r e s s e s  pattern  many  of  sets  in  e f f e c t s  3  older  h i s  into  or,  intended;  e l d e r l y : The  take  that  s t r e s s  where  to  o r i g i n a l l y  nature  develop  b r i n g i n g  them  and  a  The  f u l l e r  i t s  e f f e c t s for  some  that new  range  d e s i r a b l e .  methods  under  techniques  mechanisms  e f f e c t s . to  of  e f f e c t i v e  w i l l models  of  This on  i n -  s o c i e t y  a n t i c i p a t i n g  degree  of  the  these  conscious  c o n t r o l .  h i s t o r i c a l  events  to  the  not  provide be  should Rather,  based it  on  the  Defined  should  as  s o c i a l  (although  basis  confuse it  of  of  i t  is  planning  assumption  the  impact  of  p r o b a b i l i t y  take  "anomie"  into  by  one for  future  the  the  not of  p r i m a r i l y  the  p o l i c i e s .  s i n g l e  w i t h  G r i e r .  is  component  the  account  Mr.  a n a l y s i s  most  of  Such  probable  seriousness  range  t o t a l  of  important  to  record  process) planning  outcome, the  but should nor  outcome.  consequences  3  that  can  a l s o  be  be  a n t i c i p a t e d ,  c o n s i d e r e d .  s o p h i s t i c a t e d system  would  information knowledge  I d e a l l y , u n a n t i c i p a t e d  planning impacts serve,  probable  a  have the  proven  a  data  be  not  f a c t " way  (as as  of  feed-back  a  an  or  the  process  RATIONALE  FOR THE  development  other  impacts,  and  which  mented  for  towards  have  come  v i r t u a l l y  unexpectedly  to  be  been  should  to  f a i r l y  occur  Such  means  an  of  a p p r o p r i a t e  to  a  i n f o r m a t i o n a l  r e p o r t i n g agency,  a  e f f e c t s  has for  this  and  a  however  the  the  p r o j e c t s . O f t e n  undetected,  this  i d e n t i f y i n g It  can  range  of  It  a l s o  times thus  In pre-  v a l i d i t y .  p r e d i c t i n g  necessary  p r e v i o u s l y  p e r i o d .  d u r i n g  c e r t a i n  mechanism. go  r e c o g n i z e  p l a n n i n g  development  e f f e c t s  is  a b l e  s t u d i e d ,  follow-up)  not  the  study  given  due  r e s u l t i n g  p r o j e c t s .  which  ensuring  I  has  for  impacts  s c a l e  importance  is  p r e d i c t i o n s  a  follow-up  r e q u i s i t e .  STUDY  r a t i o n a l e  s o c i a l  some  the  secondary  checking  w i t h i n  of  of  subsequent  component  t i o n  to  i n d i c a t o r  secondary  process  r e q u i r e d .  p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l  e x p l i c i t l y  and  planning  speed  the  wrong  The  be  and  a n a l y s i s  a n a l y s i s ,  v a l u a b l e  r e c o g n i t i o n  nominal  as  system w i l l  during  consequences  necessary are  would  r e s e a r c h  i n  a n t i c i p a t o r y  a p p r o p r i a t e  e f f e c t s  " a f t e r  p r o b a b i l i t y  programs. it  period  t h e i r  for  extensive  w i t h  past  both  order  informational  back  p a r t i c u l a r  In  include  of  and  were about every  in  a  should  serve  to  to  impacts  fact  and  been  unexpected  impacts the  planning  to  in  might  Any  may  of  l a r g e  stages be  docu-  c o n t r i b u t i o n  otherwise  p r o c e s s .  the  however,  p l a n n i n g  manner,  date  i d e n t i f i c a -  o p e r a t i o n  expected;  project.  which  that  comprehensive  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  development  improve  the  have  completely  of  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n  l i t t l e  l a r g e  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  from  regard  from  Some  given  stems  occur  4  Although of  impacts  it  has  sound  considered  i m p l i c i t d e c i s i o n  The  simply cerns  into  the  i n  and  j o i n t  for The  decades  to  be  often  Thus,  of  these some  of  it  many  classes""  development provides  hydro  i n  7  program order  to  should  w i t h i n  s o c i a l  i n c o r p o r a t e  methodology  concerns  development  o v e r a l l  needed  u t i l i t y  d e c i s i o n  a  of  -  for  determined.  overlooks  any  one  of  information  information  a  t o t a l  has  average  of  of  the  which  the  the  concerns these  can  (through  -  be  con-  developed  c o n t r i b u t i n g  context  of  to  p r o j e c t  making.  R i v e r  power  annual  of  among  the  Columbia  f o u r t h  square  almost  T r e a t y  n e g o t i a t i o n  the  of  R i v e r  and  ranks  runoff  w i t h  Columbia  study  259,000  seasonal,  W i l s o n  of  development  hydro  d r a i n s  i n  r i v e r s  m i l e s , 100  h a l f  i n  of  the  R i v e r  terms  acre  t o t a l  the  1964  brought  U n i t e d  . . . . i t  is  along  i t s  r i v e r  of  it  banks,  Americans  c l a s s e s  a  harnessed from  impacts  of  awesome  wrought  flow  States  and  f i r s t  America."'  as  t h e i r  are  i n  power;  1948  homes  when and  The i n  feet.  The  r u n o f f ,  i n  Canada,  June  b i o l o g i c a l ,  it  and  before  it  d e s t r u c t i o n drove  38,000  4 1 .  p h y s i c a l ,  economic.  terms  system  a r e  k i l l e d  a  and  i n  39,000  o c c u r r i n g  f r i g h t f u l  to  b a s i n .  of  North  which  m i l l i o n of  by  i n  w r i t e s :  was  Other  -  but  v a l i d i t y  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  p l a n .  have  Columbia  p o t e n t i a l  *  the  approval  Canada  J.W.  the  i s  PERSPECTIVE  two  v e r y  the  p l a n n i n g  study  l a c k s  base)  c o n c l u s i o n  is  of  foremost  subsequent  Formal  an  and  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  HISTORICAL  of  terms  o v e r a l l  information  p l a n n i n g  i n  and  it  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  e v a l u a t i n g  f e a s i b i l i t y  because  a i d  the  making  impact  i n  v a l u e  f i r s t  engineering  to  s o c i a l  and  however,  and  J u l y .  The storage  o b j e c t i v e s of the Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y  f o r the upstream c o u n t r y  (Canada) not  but a l s o f o r use  i n the downstream c o u n t r y  from the  i n two  low  storage  f l o w can  ways: i n c r e a s e d  increase production  downstream; and  for i t s direct  use,  (United States) which b e n e f i t s  flows  during periods  of hydro e l e c t r i c  of natural  power a t head  m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the peak d i s c h a r g e  h i g h r u n o f f can r e d u c e f l o o d h a z a r d flood  only  i n v o l v e d headwater  during  the  plants  season of  i n exposed r e a c h e s o f t h e  downstream  plain. Doubtless motivated  have m u t u a l l y  by  the p o s s i b i l i t y  beneficial results,  Canada i n 1941  r e f e r r e d the  Subsequently,  River Engineering feasibility  endeavor would  the governments o f the U n i t e d  t a s k of a s s e s s i n g  o p e r a t i v e development of the Columbia R i v e r Commission.^  that j o i n t  the I . J o C .  the p o s s i b i l i t y  States  of  and  co-  t o the I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t  formed the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Columbia  Board which endeavored to  i n v e s t i g a t e the  engineering  o f the p r o j e c t .  In 1959,  t h i s board s u b m i t t e d  governments t h e i r  submissions  Arrow Lakes r e g i o n . government who  felt  States  and  Canadian  f o r Columbia R i v e r development based  d i v e r s i o n o f the Kootenay R i v e r involved considerable  to the U n i t e d  i n t o the Columbia R i v e r .  This  f l o o d i n g i n the E a s t Kootenay r e g i o n , However, i t was  not  accepted  t h a t too much v a l u a b l e  by  highway r o u t e s would be a f f e c t e d a d v e r s e l y .  scheme  but  none i n t h  the B r i t i s h  l a n d would be  on  Columbia  f l o o d e d and  Thus, the B r i t i s h  that  Columbia  government o p t e d f o r the s o - c a l l e d H i g h Arrow scheme i n s t e a d , which i n volved  f l o o d i n g i n the Arrow Lakes r e g i o n .  tially  the one The  finally  result  This l a t t e r  agreed upon i n J a n u a r y 1964.  of the Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y was  dams, Duncan Lake, H i g h Arrow, and  Mica.  scheme was.  (See  f i g u r e 1)  the b u i l d i n g o f  Furthermore,  essen-  three  i t necessitated  the  THE  COLUMBIA  RIVER  WATERSHED  _ f r C  Projects existing or under construction in 1960 Proposed projects Treaty projects (underlined)  CANADA NITED STATES  Figure  i n  (Source: Based  E x i s t i n g ,  £9:  P r o j e c t s  J . V .  on  2nd  E n g i n e e r i n g Report Canada,  the  to  1959,  K r u t i l l a ,  S e s s . , Board,  the  Under-Construction,  Columbia P l a t e Water  R i v e r The 1;  67.)  Columbia and J o i n t  Proposed  of  and  T r e a t y  1960. R i v e r  Treaty,  I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Resources  I n t e r n a t i o n a l p.  B a s i n ,  the  Columbia  Commission,  p.  Columbia R i v e r  United  24. R i v e r B a s i n ,  S t a t e s  and  L E G E N D —TREATY  PROJECTS  OTHER PROJECTS EXISTING AND UNDER CONSTRUCTION  CHIEF JOSEPH  Figure  GRAND COULEE  ||§.  (Adapted Annual  Columbia  from:  Report  Washington,  R i v e r  Columbia to  the  Treaty  R i v e r  Governments  D . C . .and O t t a w a :  P r o j e c t s .  Treaty of  Permanent  the  September,  United 1965,  E n g i n e e r i n g States  P l a t e  and  N o .  Board, Canada,  1.)  displacement  and  inhabitants  of  C a s t e l g a r , figure  SCOPE  subsequent  the  t h e i r  homes  and  V a l l e y  farms  approximately  l i v i n g  which  were  between  two  thousand  R e v e l s t o k e  d e s t i n e d  to  be  and  f l o o d e d .  (See  AND ORGANIZATION methodology  based  on  quent  r e l o c a t i o n .  impacts  the  from  " a f t e r  a  search  community.  s o c i a l  and  p o l i c y  is  is  impact  b a s i c  this  a  of  case  -  impact  a  impacts is  High  of  Arrow  a  pragmatic  displacement of  Dam.  are  is is  main  the  b a s i s  part  recommendations  from  composed  two  document  c r i t i c a l  t h i r d  e s s e n t i a l l y  approach  and  subse-  documentation  It  the  is  of  concerned  c o n c l u d i n g  the  p r i m a r i l y  component  of  a  statement.  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  study,  the  is  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ,  composed to  study  p o r t i o n  impact  attempts It  the  major  f a c t "  study  which  which  A  s p e c i f i c  the  The  of  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  comprehensive  i n  Lakes  of  2)  The  w i t h  Arrow  r e l o c a t i o n  p a r t s .  v a l i d i t y  for  the  of  and i n  main  is  as  part  a  a  To  general  l i t e r a t u r e  concept  of  d i s c u s s e d .  which  presented.  f i r s t  l o c a l e  second  presented presented  The  the  of  study,  supplement  c o n c l u s i o n s  ,  OBJECTIVES This s p e c i f i c as  study  d i s p l a c e d  w i l l  evaluate  population  and  assess  i n c u r r e d .  The  some  of  the  o b j e c t i v e s  impacts of  the  that study  a are  f o l l o w s :  (1)  placed  people  An  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  of  the  s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l  impacts  the  d i s -  i n c u r r e d . (a)  The  s e r i o u s n e s s  of  the  damages  (measure  of  i n t e n s i t y ) .  9  (2)  To  delineate  the v a l i d i t y  of " a f t e r the  f a c t " impact  identi-  fication.  (3)  To make s u g g e s t i o n s to f u t u r e  p o l i c i e s and  NEED FOR  a l t e r a t i o n s i n e x i s t i n g ones.  RESEARCH B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h the  b r i e f l y why that  d e c i s i o n makers f o r p u b l i c  the  an  i t i s e s s e n t i a l to  consider  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s s o r t s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n .  planning profession  offers a useful  s c a l e r e s e r v o i r development and impacts.  study,  Consideration  the  It is  service with respect  to  felt  large  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r unexpected  of secondary e f f e c t s has  comprehensive manner i n the p a s t , and  not  been c a r r i e d out  there i s l i t t l e  i n the way  of  in a  multi-  purpose i n t e g r a t i o n i n o r d e r to ensure such changes even t o d a y . The opportunity ment.  The  its  own  f o r the  s h o u l d be a b l e  involved.  expertise  Further,  i n the  field  problem p r o v i d e s an  to c o n t r i b u t e  to o f f e r a basic  necessarily high expertise,  of a l t e r n a t i v e s . and  planning profession  profession  though not which a r e  m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y n a t u r e o f the  excellent  towards i t s improveunderstanding,  i n each of the many f i e l d s o f  the p r o f e s s i o n  s h o u l d be  of a s s i m i l a t i n g m a t e r i a l  In t h i s c o n t e x t , the p l a n n e r r e q u i r e s  capable of f o r the the  applying  analysis  cooperation  u n d e r s t a n d i n g between s p e c i a l i s t s i n many f i e l d s . The (1)  need o f the  s t u d y i s a c c e n t u a t e d by a number o f  The  absence o f l o c a l  initiative  The  l a c k of such i n f o r m a t i o n  i n assessing  factors:  relocation  programs.  (2)  on a n a t i o n a l  study  level,  and  (3)  B.C.  and  The  Canada  recent  per  se.  expansion  of  dam  b u i l d i n g  a c t i v i t i e s ,  throughout  FOOTNOTES  1 C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n : Scheme P r e p a r a t i o n Handbook, 1969.  Ottawa, The U r b a n Renewal  2 E x c e r p t from R o b e r t C. Weaver, address b e f o r e the H e a l t h and W e l f a r e C o u n c i l o f t h e B a l t i m o r e Area, March 28, 1968, pp. 2-3. 3 Thayer, Scudder. "Man-made l a k e s and p o p u l a t i o n r e s e t t l e m e n t " , 1960. Symposium o f the I n s t i t u t i o n o f B i o l o g y , #15 Academic P r e s s , London. 4 G r i e r , George. From t h e U.S. Senate H e a r i n g s E l d e r l y , P a r t 1, p. 104.  on R e l o c a t i o n o f t h e  5 K r w i t i l a , J.V. The Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y , The economics o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r b a s i n development, p u b l i s h e d f o r R e s o u r c e s F o r t h e F u t u r e , I n c . , 1968, p. 1. 6 Wilson,  J.W.  P e o p l e i n t h e Way, U n i v .  o f Toronto  Press,  1970, p. 3.  7 W a t e r f i e l d , D. C o n t i n e n t a l Waterboy; C l a r k e , I r w i n and Co. L t d . , Toronto, 1970; Vancouver, Canada.  CHAPTER  METHODS  In a  given  developing  s i t u a t i o n ,  fact  was  this  p a r t i c u l a r  ology and  given  The previous  w i t h  f i n a l l y Regional the  the  w i t h  in  to  epidemic  c o n d i t i o n s  the  D i r e c t o r the  A an  o b j e c t i v e  f i e l d i n  to  the  would  was  used  d e s i g n points  to  framework. and  be  This  completion  w i t h i n  w i l l  e v a l u a t e  the  of  method-  brought  f o r t h  case,  met  conduct  of  the  i n t e r e s t  evident,  that  developed  Hydro  a  and  and  that  Hydro  that  s y n t h e s i s  meetings  Power  of  of  that the an  were  the  were  r e s e a r c h e r  o f f e r e d  r e s e a r c h  shown  had  was  and  and  and  r e s e a r c h  " o g r e "  were  A u t h o r i t y  Community  enthusiasm  was  the  study,  and  School  Assurances and  the  however,  B . C .  from  r e s e a r c h .  to  framework,  be  was  Columbia  D i r e c t o r  prove  fact  the  c o n s t r a i n t s  s o c i a l  i n s t i t u t i o n .  in  be  o b j e c t i v e  c e r t a i n  study  B r i t i s h  each  concern  at  l a t e r  an  throughout  permission  of  have  These  this  A s s i s t a n t In  to  w i l l  chapter.  of  gain  which  However,  concerning  P l a n n i n g .  the  necessary  l i m i t e d .  methodology  w i t h i n  entering  is  was  STUDY  methodology  r e s e a r c h .  order  OF  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  l a t e r  p r o p o s a l .  taken  was  due  l i t e r a t u r e In  held  it  o b j e c t i v i t y  d i s c u s s e d  a  TWO  be  under-  not  that  that  in  simply apathy  these  academic  l e g i t i m a c y .  DATA  COLLECTION Assessment  involved  of  the  two  main  data  ethnographic  data  on  s o c i a l  c o l l e c t i o n  the  impacts  of  the  a c t i v i t i e s .  communities  in  the  Arrow One  Arrow  Lakes  was Lakes  the  dam  project  a c q u i s i t i o n  r e g i o n .  This  of was  done  in  other  order  method  were  property  l e f t  f i t t i n g  and  (the  the  i n t e n s i v e  and  the  the  geographical  w i t h  e n t i r e l y .  Lakes  (b)  subsequent  c r i t e r i a :  Arrow  dam;  in  interviews  r e g i o n  f o l l o w i n g  in  of  communities  personal  the  the  l i v e d  completion  cate  compare  was  d i s p l a c e d  p o p u l a t i o n  and  to  have  boundaries  The (a)  r e g i o n  l e f t  of  the  the  former  sample  have  at  was  time  Arrow  r e g i o n  drawn  or  that  from  a  rented  of  Lakes  The  r e s i d e n t s  owned  the  study  a n a l y s i s .  the  b u i l d i n g  r e g i o n  appears  to  r e l o -  in  Appendix). The  group  that  d i s p l a c e d  p o p u l a t i o n .  d i s p l a c e d  and  On R i v e r l i t t l e  was  present  known  that  the  d i s p l a c e d  THE  SAMPLE The  Consequently, and form  other of  why  they  which  there  time  most  One  the  main  reasonably  group  under  the  l e f t  these  r e g i o n  in  to  people fact  i n  sample.  i t  sample  of  e i t h e r  d e c l a r a t i o n s for  contact  c o l l e c t i o n  t h e i r  Hence, a  r e l o c a t e  made  i n  Thus,  i n c l u d i n g  study  n e c e s s i t a t e d  problems  the  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  l o s t  r e g i o n .  -  to  the  were  Columbia.  r e l o c a t e . and  t o t a l  who  p o p u l a t i o n .  r e g i o n .  p r o v i s i o n s  This  r e s u l t e d  problems  the  the  Lakes  the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n to  of  owners  Arrow  under  l o c a t e  A c c o r d i n g no  the  r e g i o n  the  l e f t  of  d i s p l a c e d  had  a g e n c i e s .  which  the  segment  property  p r o v i s i o n  to  were of  of  one  former  v a l u a b l e  p o p u l a t i o n  Treaty  used,  a  more  no  l e f t  i n d i v i d u a l s .  sample  s e l e c t i n g  be  only  boundaries  was  study  governmental  of  there  the  as  i n  the  about  p o p u l a t i o n  R i v e r  include  s t u d i e s  and  included  not  w i t h i n  would  or  d i d  hand,  d i s p l a c e d  groups  Columbia  it  s t u d i e d  follow-up  r e s i d e n c e ,  f e l t  small  other  for  was  It  r e l o c a t e d  the  Treaty  was  the of  Since  of  i n the  follow-up  s u r v e y s .  w i t h  B . C .  Hydro  the  type  and  c o l l e c t i o n  of  data  was  that  there  was  no  data. of  econ-  omical on  or  e f f i c i e n t  personal  Hydro  r e f e r r a l s  r e l o c a t i o n  r e l o c a t i o n stoke  o f f i c e  computation  in  in  the the  d i d  a  provide At  l i m i t a t i o n s died  three to  the  to  used, view  study,  the  r e s e a r c h e r  and  An  to  was  make  not  is  other If an  c l e a r  subsequent  a  the  r e f e r r a l . former  three  i n d i v i d u a l s  or  f a m i l i e s .  instance  the  Another constant  longer  problem,  and  to  sample.  of of  f i r e  and  at  mainly  a c q u i r e d  were  Hydro  the  R e v e l -  Thus,  the  by  from  the  other  that  made  r e -  c o u l d  to  be  m a i n t a i n  twenty-three  d e f e n s i b l e  d i s c u s s from of  e i t h e r  have  out  the  a l s o  interviews  r e s u l t s  an  fact  the  people  address of  a  be  but  r e a l  of  they  Some  led  some  of  and  names or  up  to the  d i s p l a c e e s ,  of  the  a f t e r  each  request  a  l i s t  but  then sample  a  more  given  were  r e s e a r c h e r  w i t h  this  d i s p l a c e e s  two  addresses  end  the  many  moved  nature  ended  of  i n t e r for txro  or  f r u i t f u l in  more  than  out-dated.  personal a  that  the  the  would  known  some  address. l a c k e d  o f t e n  to  b r i e f l y  the  forwarding  other  lack  up  was  interviews  was  a  interviews  O c c a s i o n a l l y  turned  which  around  of  r e s e a r c h e r  of  p r o j e c t ,  during  leads  Because  A l l  the  various  p i c t u r e .  r e s i d e n t s ,  l i s t s  r e f e r r a l s  t r a v e l l i n g  did  of  determined  number  appointment.  of  one  good  name  names  to  time  There  respondents  known  led  of  was  A s i d e  sketchy  other  interviews  memories  study.  s t a t i s t i c a l l y  a  where  The  attempt  design..  a  the  amount  n e c e s s a r y  p e r i o d ,  depended  drawing  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  it  approach  burned  s i g n i f i c a n c e . give  the  f o l l o w i n g  a v a i l a b l e .  not  population,  the  s i z e  the  ambiguous.  c a l l it  and  l e a v i n g by  in  sample i n  in  at  u t i l i z e d  sample  t h i s  the  were  by  d i d  often  which  r e s e a r c h e r  point  during  extremely had  of  times  of  g e n e r a l l y  t h i s  employed  d e s i r e d  s t a t i s t i c a l This  sampling  respondents  a l s o  time  completed.  had  by  most  the  the  s u f f i c i e n t  -  we're  of of  spondents managed  -  of  o f f i c e r s  f i l e s  i n i t i a t i v e  way  nature,  home  base.  concerned This  the  r e s u l t e d  in  b y - p a s s i n g  the  breadth  known  of  addresses  B r i t i s h  and  Columbia  rushed  -  from  i n t e r v i e w s .  Vancouver  The  Island  area  to  covered  R e v e l s t o k e  and  beyond.  One r e f u s a l  or  f i n a l  non-response  who  s p e c i f i c a l l y  was  f e l t  no  one  was  that  was  did  these  out  simply  t r u s i o n  to  t h e i r  on  t h e i r  of  of  the  the  those t o t a l  r e s u l t s  which  from  not  want  "get"  to  them.  way  of  should  be  respondents  p a r t i c u l a r  own  mentioned c o n t a c t e d .  cooperate.  In  needed  It  f e l t  a l s o  i n d i c a t i n g  that  the  There  a s s e s s i n g  respondents was  was  more  that  o c c a s i o n a l were  the  two  people  s i t u a t i o n  r e a s s u r a n c e  i n  some  cases  q u e s t i o n i n g  them  was  i t  t h a t t h i s  an  i n -  time.  F i n a l l y , cent  problem  the  who  respondents,  r e l o c a t e d  d i s p l a c e d are  of  the  p o p u l a t i o n .  In  t y p i c a l  or  out  though  can  be  they  c o n s t i t u t e d  r e g i o n , other  a p p l i e d  represent  words,  to  the  it  whole  about only  20  4  cannot  per  per  be  d i s p l a c e d  cent  s a i d  that  p o p u l a -  t i o n .  THE  INTERVIEW The  PROGRAM  interview  schedule  open-ended  questions.  p a r i n g  q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  ARDA  the  p u b l i c a t i o n ,  1968.)  problems  of  r u r a l  d e c i d i n g  to  migrate.  study  was  Other  studies  p a r i n g  both  farm  The  The  large  the  p o r t i o n  to  i n  the  interview  of  Urban  the  was  f e l t  by  A.  i n to  the  new  by  J.A..  study  and were  i n c l u d i n g  q u i t e a l s o some  open-ended  i n  i n  and pre-  Abrahmson,  dealt  environments  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Mermin)  were  s t r u c t u r e d  e x t e n s i v e l y  this  r e s e a r c h  schedule  questions  used  of  Adjustment,  covered  present  F a m i l i e s ,  combination  a d j u s t i n g  r e s e a r c h e r to  a  study  r e s e a r c h  f a m i l i e s  ( R e l o c a t i n g for  p a r t i c u l a r (Rural  a p p l i c a b l e  questions  A  One  included  used  w i t h  the  a f t e r i n  t h i s  p e r c e p t i v e . used  i n  personal  order  to  preinput.  enable  a  f r e e - w h e e l i n g  change  of  i n  way  the  views of  The an  average  telephone  by  cases,  from  one  check,  lack  of  l e a v i n g  than  5  In  per  a  cent  and  p e r m i s s i o n provide  for  time  a  for  d i r e c t i o n  l i t t l e  made  a l s o  enabled  more  b a s i c  an  up  personal  the  ex-  information  adequate  cases  of  e l i g i b l e  of  to  h o u r s .  two  c a l l  where  i n  both and  1974,  of  by  contacted  In  the  wife  and  no then,  some  i n t e r v i e w s ,  e i t h e r  husband  was were  time.  on-the-spot  l a s t e d A  there  Interviews  amount  p r e p a r a t i o n  of  summer  interview.  r e s u l t e d for  the  l a s t e d  an  majority those  allowed  during  interviews  p o s s i b l e ,  and  and  It  forth.  were  Some  to  time  come  which  where  c o n v e r s a t i o n .  e q u a l - f o o t i n g ,  hour.  appointment  probing  to  e s t a b l i s h e d  respondent.  Less  an  i n t e r v i e w s ,  consequently or  deep  a t t i t u d e s  of  telephone, made  and  i n t e r v i e w e r  were  r e f u s e d  to  p r e s e n t .  be  i n t e r -  This  took  viewed. P r e - t e s t s the  form,  f i r s t ,  scanning  the  when  broad  the  small  s c a l e The  area  of  was  of  the a  i n t e r v i e w  s e r i e s  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  of  for  of  the  enquiry  r e p l i c a  of  the  main  that  c a r r i e d  was  problems  out.  which in  e s t a b l i s h e d ,  the of  s i m p l y d e s i g n ;  a  p i l o t  meant and  then,  survey,  a  survey.  survey  was  taken  p i l o t  survey  was  the  it  provided s t u d i e d ;  tests some  (b)  and  by  v a r i o u s  the  r e s i d e n t s  of  the  method  the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e ;  and  (e)  to  r e h e a r s a l ,  t r i a l s . on:  The (a)  non-response  s u i t a b i l i t y  questions  dress  guidance  the  the  were  " p r e - t e s t s " ,  i s o l a t e d  of  p r e l i m i n a r y  p o p u l a t i o n  of  small  p l a n  p i l o t  schedule  (11)  of  the  Dunbar  Vancouver. The  s e r i e s  of  the  of  e f f i c i e n c y  respondents.  reason  the  r a t e  c o l l e c t i n g of  and  i t  for  was the  v a r i a b i l i t y to  the the  c e r t a i n data;  (d)  preceded p i l o t  w i t h i n  q u e s t i o n s ; the  i n s t r u c t i o n s  by  survey the (c)  adequacy and  a  of  b r i e f i n g  The but  it  much  d i d  p i l o t not  bigger  p i l o t  gave  no  warning.  of  community  to  h i s  or  e t c . ,  on  own  and  In  a  p l a c e  on  former  one  d i s p l a c e e s '  number  a f t e r  of  the  the  changes  cases,  the  interview  an  of  s i t u a t i o n s  and  w i t h  opinions  of  r e l o c a t i o n  were  to  the  tape  best  a b i l i t y  recorder  dents  and  was  made  v a t i o n s  and  between  myself, As  not  lack  of  the  because  uneasy, the  wary  study,  the  neighbors procedures  standardized,  was  not  of of and  in  f e l t  notes  data  were:  part  number  it  was  of  made),  to  s e r v i c e s ,  from  the  the  i n t e r -  t h i s  i n t e r v i e w time  more  had  comments  the  based  scheme.  respondent  l e a v i n g  that  o f  A t  These  that  r e l o c a t i o n  procured  the  in  comments  of  the  person  r e s p e c t  ended.  were and  for  and  There  the  the  dealt  were  premises.  d i s t r a c t e d  the  noted, No  respon-  r e s p o n s i v e .  d i s p l a c e d  complete  the  a f t e r  l e s s  records  by  the  which  d i s p l a c e d  process  informative  behavior,  the  a  w i t h  expressed.  and  of  occurred  general  experiences  was  f i e l d  obtainable.  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n  it  survey;  i m p a c t - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  researcher,  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  e n t i r e l y  s i t u a t i o n s  used  them  Throughout  of  the  o f f i c i a l l y  examples  that  information  most  had  by  main  q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  program  (measured  and  of  The  for  which  community  o p i n i o n  personal and  to,  the  headaches  and  former  data  and  interview  to  to  the  the  degree  experience.  p r o v i d i n g  snags  community  and  of  in  belonged  present  personal  focused  the  a l t e r a t i o n s  trouble  created  d i s p l a c e e s  her  major  the  covered  r e l o c a t i o n ,  between  f r i e n d s ,  took  of  o r g a n i z a t i o n s  comparisons  t h e i r  to  survey  factors  s t y l e s  due  "committed"  the  i n  absolve  the  l i f e  s t y l e  views  n e c e s s a r i l y of  Some  l i f e  r e s u l t e d  s c a l e  survey  previous  survey  kept  the  people  and  r e l o c a t i o n  then  c o l l e c t i o n .  of  substance  comparable  were  both  of  Hydro and  personal  conversations  personnel.  compensation  information  ommissions While  i t  obser-  and c o u l d  for a  were  a l l  degree not  be  of  18  d i r e c t l y the  tested,  amount  of  c o n c l u s i o n s  Did  a  the  of  set  h e l p f u l .  Other  and The  the  Arrow  Lakes  The  i n f l u e n c e d  a c c e p t a b l e It  was  to  f e l t  o b l i g a t i o n  that do  strong  f e e l i n g  reason  being  ings  were  record  the  by  s t r a i n a n a l y s i s  It B . C . ,  and  was  extending  to  d i s c u s s  the  r e s e a r c h  to  some  simple  a l s o of  the  l i f e ,  to  did  were  and  asked in  not  v a r i a t i o n s  p h y s i c a l  not  people  dimensions  of  but  r e p o r t i n g  to  in  the  and  in  i t s  i n t e r v i e w A l b e r t a  is  the  information  a  being  in  of  i n  the  w i t h o u t  s t r u c t u r e  and  the  border  and  was  t h e i r not  i n t e r e s t .  it  became  process the  of  in  of  became responses.  simply  an  A c t u a l l y ,  developed,  a  one  These  d i f f i c u l t of  the  f e e l to  r e l o c a t i o n  was  d i s p l a c e d • p o p u l a t i o n .  hopefully  presented  outside  i n  respondents.  the on  course  r e s e a r c h e r  interviewed  that  which  the  guarded  f r i e n d l y  impact  r e c o g n i z e d , which  As  i n  g i v i n g  s t y l e  way  formed  l e s s  people and  were  became  c o n f l i c t i n g  personnel  the  f o l l o w i n g  degree.  involved  manner  r e s p e c t s  some  they  but  to  the  represent  Some  ambiguous  l e a d i n g  country  which  so,  f e l t ,  r e s u l t  not  respondents  were  q u e s t i o n s .  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  f e l t ,  bias  only  etc-.  aspects  was  or  c e r t a i n  cooperation  Hydro  r e p l y  toward  l i m i t e d  respondents  r o u t i n e ?  to  the  some  p o s i t i v e  organized This  in  the  everyday  does  as  a l l  s i m i l a r  respondents,  for  d i s p l a c e e s  dimensions,  your  study  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  example,  no  the  data.  w i t h  a l l  of  a  a t t i t u d e s  the  the  to  t r i e d  not  the  For  had  had  responses  s o c i a l  on  a f f e c t  e i t h e r  r e g i o n ,  d i d  interviews  period  probes:  features  and  from  sample  questions of  these  q u e s t i o n s .  r e s e a r c h e r  d i r e c t  study  of  question  k i n d  drawn  the  whole  c o n s t r u c t i o n t h i s  u s i n g  the  that  gathered  be  of  number  answering  number  f e l t  would  a n a l y s i s  response  answer  was  information  which  The the  it  did not  subsequent  the  r a d i u s  the  Okanagan)  unduly  i n f l u e n c e  c h a p t e r s .  chosen would  (southeastern be  extremely  -  19  time  consuming  r e s u l t i n g  of  the  r e s u l t s .  it  was  decided  l i m i t a t i o n . no  i s  i n  no  it  time  upon  the  i n t o  a  The to  competence study.  where of  the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  i s ,  s p e l l s  out  the  act  cause  w i t h of  project  were  study, i n  the  p o s s i b l e ,  r e s e a r c h e r  knowledge  w i t h  personnel  as  the  and  adequate  v a l u e  geographic  the  the  And,  both  to  o b j e c t i v e  i n i t i a l  comfort  study  does  data  i s  as  had  that  e x t e n s i v e  from  and  represented  w i t h i n  l i m i t a t i o n s  the  a n a l y s i s  course, i t s e l f  to  be  serves  the  l i t e r a -  r e l i a b l e .  e n t a i l s  the  c o n t r i b u t i o n  s o c i a l  of  problems.  The  lack  d e s i g n  of  students  t r a i n  f o r  of  of  f a c t o r present  a n and  i n  the  r e s e a r c h  techniques as  a  s o c i a l  problem  r e s u l t s  way  i n  i n  context  the  t h a t  explanatory  out.  p r o f e s s i o n a l  c o n s t r u c t i o n .  to  which  c a r r i e d  encountered  academic  theory  attempts  t r u l y  r e l o c a t i o n  s o l u t i o n s  i n v o l v e d  p r e s e n t a t i o n .  was  problems an  t r a n s l a t e d  merely  study  upon  c h i e f l y  and  t e x t u a l  to  p r o v i d i n g  each  by  i n  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  a n a l y z e d  the  the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  factors  depends  expected  d i f f i c u l t i e s  number  which  and  c o n s i d e r a b l e  to  it  p r i m a r i l y  encountered  was  the  a s p i r e s  depend  R a t h e r ,  l i m i t a t i o n s  context  not  assembled,  Furthermore,  l a r g e  This  the  t h i s  a v a i l a b l e .  which  p r i n c i p a l  which  problems.  to  in  o p e r a t i o n a l  copying  the  p l a n n i n g  the  presents  r e c o g n i z e  a  of  study  as  resource  d e s c r i p t i o n  This  be  to  seek  interviews  resources  way  the  i n  from  a c t i o n  of  to  i n t e r v i e w e r .  of  the  p r o p o r t i o n  outside  can  course  r e s e a r c h i n g .  problem  of  t e c h n i c a l  f o l l o w i n g i n d i c a t e  the  of  had  p r i o r  i d e a l  out  STUDY  meaningful  One  the  that  recommended  one  a c q u i r e d  v a l i d i t y  and  areas  although  an  being  sample  other  as  a d v i c e  OF THE  The the  being  f e l t  LIMITATIONS  i n c l u d e  cost  the  i n t e r v i e w i n g ,  and  i s  the  because  f i n a l l y ,  such  a s s i s t a n c e ture,  to  And  t r a i n i n g  there  But  i n  i n  An must  s o c i a l  framework x^hich  i n v e s t i g a t e d  they only  which i n t e r a  20  l i m i t e d  number  process  or  for  of  f a c t o r s ,  exploratory  i d e n t i f y i n g  hence  work  s o c i a l  the  aimed  impacts  study  at  and  claims  g i v i n g  only  d e c i s i o n  suggestions  for  to  be  a  makers  d i s c o v e r y  information  r e f i n i n g  the  process  of  r e l o c a t i o n .  Other i z a t i o n the  of  impact  of  data.. the  be  the  And  which  and  background  ture  the  handicaps are  g e n e r a l ,  common  r e l a t i v e  to  i n  study  from  the  l a c k  of  i n f o r m a t i o n  u n a n t i c i p a t e d  This  be  values  the  Arrow  Lakes  time,  which  a  one  can  bias  be  and  that  s t a n d a r d -  arose  measure  of  of  a  during  accomplished and  by a  a  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n s  operated  under  However and  handicap by  in  t h i s  academic  study  q u a l i t y .  more probe area  formal over  of  s t r u c -  time.  c o n s i d e r a b l e  these  academic,  a n a l y s i s  o r g a n i -  deep  of  changes  s o c i a l  a g e n c i e s '  Another  data.  encountered  much  respondents.  p r o f e s s i o n a l they  how  r e l o c a t i o n  more  study  is  determinants  of  or  d e t a i l e d  both  l i m i t a t i o n s  a c h i e v i n g  of  e f f e c t s  i n  to  answered  s t r u c t u r e  process  of  be  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  s t u d i e s ,  degree  the  the  to  previous  the  lack  most  the  Consequently, the  to  to  could  r e l o c a t i o n  due  f i n a l l y ,  of  and  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  In  general  procedures.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  f u r t h e r of  the  remains  a t t r i b u t e d  p o l i c i e s  extensive  was  study.  question  can  z a t i o n a l  i n t o  the  course A  l i m i t a t i o n s  and d i d  l i m i t a t i o n s and  are  merely  d e s i g n . not  prevent  CHAPTER THREE  LITERATURE REVIEW:  THE  IMPORTANCE OF LOCALE  "Community" i s these days an o f t e n used but not w e l l d e f i n e d Planners  a r e urged to " p l a n w i t h  the community"; p o l i t i c i a n s a r e  for f a i l i n g  to " c o n s u l t the community" or to r e p r e s e n t  community.  Thus,  the  term.  criticized  issues of  i t i s e s s e n t i a l to attempt to g i v e meaning to the  the term.  There have been numerous d e f i n i t i o n s o f "community" proposed. However, a c c o r d i n g  to S c o t t Greer, t h e r e a r e u s u a l l y t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  t h a t s e r v e as a b a s i s interaction,  f o r a meaningful d e f i n i t i o n ;  shared p e r s p e c t i v e s ,  down to encompass two f e r r i n g to "the The an  intrinsic  area  and  locale.'''  quite d i f f e r e n t  they i n c l u d e  This  formula can  social be  though r e l a t e d c o n c e p t s , one  community-settlement" and  one  broken re-  to "community".  "community-settlement" c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i n c l u d e s " l o c a l e " component.  The  community i n t h i s sense must e x i s t w i t h i n  t h a t can be comprehended by  shops, landmarks and  the senses - a p l a c e whose roadways  p h y s i c a l h a z z a r d s each i n h a b i t a n t can know.  It  as an  and can  be p a r t of a much l a r g e r whole as o l d e r c i t y neighborhoods were, but i t must n e v e r t h e l e s s  be d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e to i t s i n h a b i t a n t s .  "Community" on and  the o t h e r hand, s t r e s s e s the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n  s h a r e d p e r s p e c t i v e components of the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . . I t i s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d not cohesion  and  so much by  l o c a l e as by  more l o o s e a s s o c i a t i o n s . ^  "loyalty", According  cans a r e becoming more c l o s e l y t i e d to v a r i o u s to p l a c e communities, whether the activities,  commitment,  to Mel  social  Webber, "Ameri-  i n t e r e s t communities  i n t e r e s t be based on  occupational  l e i s u r e pastimes, s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , or  intellectual  than  3  "  p u r s u i t s . " no  He  longer  an  l o c a t i o n a l  pattern  i n t r i n s i c  communities  s t i l l one  the  have  they  are  strong  respondents displacement "home".  because some at  of  f e e l  adequate  have  in  to  the  fact  is  sense  of  and  relevance  of  the  researcher between w i l l  means  to the  a l s o for  As settlement"  stated  the  " k i n " ,  that  in  Thus, l o c a l  mere  t h a t  there  a r e  many  example,  numerous  aspect  the  l o s s  s e m i - i s o l a t e d  community  of  of  areas  the  t h e i r it  i s  "community-settlement  out  l e v e l ,  Renata,  o c c a s i o n s  d i s h e a r t e n i n g and  i n  who  d i s p l a y e d  vehemence  t h i s  of b a s i s  d e s p i t e  of  k i n d s the  of  g l o b a l  i s  on  o u t s i d e  or  l o c a l e  the  a l s o  For  friends  hence,  which  hand,  On  l o c a l ,  "community  and,  i n h a b i t a n t s  community. most  i n  but  other  i s  order.  basis  l o c a l e .  from  c i t y  purpose  l o c a l - b a s e d  the  some  i n i t i a l  of  community the  chapter  controversy  concept  s u b s t a n t i a t e  making  of  the  concerning  sense  the  p r o p i n q u i t y  of  w i t h i n  which  e x i s t e n c e ,  there  are  1  whether  others  who  v i t a l .  the  make  the  that  the  of  community  studied,  c o n s t r a i n t s .  c o n c e p t u a l i z e  necessary  On  l o c a l  s e p a r a t i o n  any  l i t e r a t u r e  the  t h e i r  symbol  on  or  r e l a t i o n s ;  a n a c h r o n i s t i c ,  concept  e x p l a n a t i o n  pertinent  review  the  of  only  enough.  the  geographic  is  not  become  neighborhood, v i l l a g e ,  it  ships  concepts  communities  Consequently,  the  longer  towards  have  observers  the  an  Lakes  was  to  no  u n i v e r s a l  Another  d i f f i c u l t  f u n c t i o n a l  c r i t i c i z e d  a l l u d e d  s e p a r a t i o n  of  b e l i e v e  f e e l i n g s  s p a t i a l  i n d i c a t o r  w i t h  not  Arrow  that  t r a d i t i o n a l  dealt  the  is  been  strongly  of  b e l i e v e s  accurate  Thus,  that  a l s o  of  w i l l  over  community.  c o n c l u s i o n s and  the  f i n d i n g s  of  be  to  the T h i s  modern-day w i l l  p e r t a i n i n g  e f f e c t s the  of  review  to  l a t e r the  enable r e l a t i o n  r e l o c a t i o n .  r e s e a r c h  and  The  w i l l  p r o v i d  recommendations.  e a r l i e r ,  there  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  as  are no  many longer  who  e n v i s i o n  necessary.  the  "community-  Others  f e e l  it  i s  23  s t i l l the  v i a b l e .  Hence,  dispute,  importance  the  beginning of  the  w i t h  l o c a l  to  for  develop  Thus,  s o c i a l  was  to  one  attempt  for  to  review  r e l i n q u i s h i n g  both  the  s i d e s  concept  of  and  depended  r e l a t i o n s h i p s to  the  to  on  have  s o c i a l  group  s p a t i a l  p r o p i n q u i t y .  s o c i a l  cohesion  in  absence  the  or  It  for  of  was  people  nearness.  indispensable.  A c c o r d i n g bound  case  community  attachments  l o c a l e  the  w i l l  community.  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , d i f f i c u l t  researcher  to  p l a c e .  Clarence They  P e r r y ,  tune  i n  "...nowadays  to  n a t i o n a l  or  most  people  l o c a l  media.  are  not  They  e v a l u -  4 ate  people  and  s i t u a t i o n s  R.  Merton  i n  communication,  have  argues  profoundly The  s i o n  -  the  s o c i a l ; places  changed  trend  l o c a l  the  world  toward  i s ,  ever  the  e s p e c i a l l y  changing  that is  that  according  the  to  u n i v e r s a l  community  the  mass  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  the  proportion and  out-of-date  media,: as of  w e l l  space  m i d - t w e n t i e t h  u r b a n i z a t i o n .  i n c r e a s i n g ,  is  o b j e c t i v e  of  This  the  the  influence  human  is  has  both  urban  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . ~* a  key  dimen-  demographic  population  of  improvements  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  century  trend  w o r l d ' s  s i n c e  as  for  c r i t e r i a . "  l i v i n g  ways  is  i n  a  and urban  p e r v a s i v e  phonomenon. C i t i e s major  functions  economic the  and  of  surrounding to  is  accepted  an  networks which  urban  of  they  segmental  those the  aspect  urban l i v e . and  f o c i ,  regions place  agglomerations  i n d u s t r i a l  p o l i t i c a l  place  a  are  in of  are  s o c i e t y  whose  urban  are  of  economic  l i f e .  are  not  Not  are  many  nature,  and  c a r r i e d  interconnections  dwellers  impersonal  people  unquestionable.  search  only  of  A c c o r d i n g encompassed of but  t h e i r the  i n f l u e n c e  of  L o u i s  w i t h i n  immediate of  where  C i t i e s  people  p r o f e s s i o n a l  to  means  out.  and  Movement and/or  a c t i v i t i e s  the  are over  from  urban  opportunity  W i r t h ,  " S o c i a l  communities  s o c i a l  the  contacts  communication  and  i n of  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n make p o s s i b l e the c o n t i n u i n g v i a b i l i t y despite r e s i d e n t i a l "The only  separation.  „6  d i s t r i b u t i o n of people i n dispersed  s p a t i a l b u t "mental".  their limited  area,  interests.  i s ) not s e c u r e  a r e i n a community bounded  Critics  o f t h i s t h e s i s argue t h a t  a r e i n v a r i a b l y i n t h i s predicament, u r b a n l i v i n g c a n  a l s o b r i n g about o t h e r (or  others  community;  Hence, many have a r g u e d t h a t u r b a n  i n an impersonal w o r l d .  while urban dwellers  systems i s n o t  The bodies o f p e o p l e might be i n one s p a t i a l  but not t h e i r s o c i a l w o r l d s . "  man i s l i v i n g  social  Some p e o p l e a r e i n a p l a n e t a r y  some a r e i n a n a t i o n a l community; s t i l l by  of relationships  results.  S c o t t G r e e r says,  "The o l d s o c i e t y was  but r e p r e s s i v e , and i t may be t h e t i e s  u r b a n i z a t i o n c a n break.  The " a r t i f i c i a l "  of slavery  that  s o c i e t y i s one i n w h i c h man has  freedom, the freedom t o e s t a b l i s h h i s own network o f a c t i v i t i e s and contacts.  Modern man, w i t h h i s enhanced c a p a c i t y t o d e a l w i t h h i s p h y s i c a l  environment and w i t h  the o p p o r t u n i t y  t o c r e a t e h i s own s o c i a l w o r l d , i s  g freed  for a potential l i f e  pointed  of c r e a t i v i t y . "  out t h a t "today m e t r o p o l i t a n  r e f i n e d sense,  i n contrast  George Simmel c o n c u r r e d .  He  man i s ' f r e e ' i n a s p i r i t u a l i z e d and  t o the p e t t i n e s s and p r e j u d i c e s w h i c h hem i n  9 the l o c a l - b a s e d man." Louis Wirth,  gave a somewhat d i f f e r e n t but e q u a l l y  a n a l y s i s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the c i t y  ( n o n - l o c a l e ) , emphasizing not  a g e o g r a p h i c e n t i t y but a s e t o f s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s characteristics "The  o f the urban way o f l i f e  c i t y as a community r e s o l v e s  itself  from w h i c h t h e v a r i o u s  c a n be d e r i v e d .  far  but w i t h o u t a d e f i n i t e p e r i p h e r y  He s t a t e d  that,  i n t o a s e r i e s o f tenuous s e g -  mental r e l a t i o n s h i p s superimposed upon a t e r r i t o r i a l center  penetrating  base w i t h a d e f i n i t e  and upon a d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r w h i c h 10 t r a n s c e n d s t h e immediate l o c a l i t y and i s world-wide i n s c o p e . "  Scott  Greer  fact  that  many  s o c i a l  in  h i s  a r t i c l e ,  ' i n d i v i d u a l s ' groups.  "Major  f u n c t i o n a l  One  group  may  communion,  and  another  r e c r e a t i o n .  c a r r i e r  a l l  or  of  may  of  become  n o t i n g These  that  the  groups  are  home.  the  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n t h e i r  communities  of  of  These,  and  to  the  a  much  narrow  k i n  group, may  s o c i a l  and  of  taking is  important  s p e c i a l i z e d  s t a t u s  men  i n  away  twofold; of  upon  a and  continues  r e s u l t  p l a c e  part  being  s p e c i a l i z e d  o f t e n  the  based  than  separate  new,  to  r e l i g i o u s  Greer  creates  community  an  r a t h e r  have  a l l u d e s  t y p i c a l l y  l i f e . ^  a c t i v i t i e s  of  bodies  by groups.  the from  h i s  f u n c t i o n a l  t h e i r  i n t e r a c t i o n  themselves  become  p l a c e .  the  and  income,  l o c a l - b a s e d  S h i l s ,  government  l o c a t i o n .  c u l t u r a l  another  l o c a l  out  Edward  t e l e v i s i o n ,  confined  the  of  attainment,  a v a i l a b i l i t y  once  to  t e r r i t o r i a l  educational  records,  and  independent  A c c o r d i n g concept  to  people  neighbors,  provide  in  s o c i a l  Groups", is  interdependence  important  p u l l s  Human  functions,  n e c e s s a r i l y  threat  of  interdependence  The  unimportant  not  most  Thus,  these  f u n c t i o n a l  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  w i t h  most  r e l a t i v e l y  Types  He  higher  b e l i e v e s  degree  of  products  l i k e  w i r e l e s s  programs  c i r c l e  greater  at  has  that,  the  center of  the  over the  a  t r a d i t i o n a l  higher  and  of  greater  gramophone  c u l t u r e f a r  l e v e l  the  p e r i o d i c a l s ,  spread  " p o l i t i c i z a t i o n "  "The  l i t e r a c y ,  books,  the  changed  which  g r e a t e r  p o p u l a t i o n  was r a d i u s .  b r i n g  about  13 an  h i s t o r i c a l l y The  and  the  cases,  neighborhhod t h e i r  concept  i d e a l .  neighborhood some  unique  l i v e s  is in  peer human no  of  community  Beginning  and the  of  measure  at  the  community  of  c u l t u r e .  appears  to  embody  family,  it  moves  both  the  outward  group,  congregation,  and  c o l l e g i u m ,  race.  Saul  for  example,  longer  a 'viable  neighborhoods.  The  A l i n s k y , e n t i t y r e a l  -  l i f e  " P e o p l e of  the  no  d e s c r i p t i v e  to the  include  the  n a t i o n  and  b e l i e v e d longer  people  is  that  r e a l l y  the l i v e  elsewhere.  i n  We  are  i t . "  1  going  to  have  l o c a l e - b a s e d  from of  find  common  to  Mel  community  is  of  He  are  from  went  the  we  have  (now  create  and  is  a  t h e i r  has  important  how  l i e  to  the  organize  time  and  the  when  disappear  c i t y  as  a  concept  w i t h i n  a  in  i n  who  systems. the  i n f l u e n c e  d i s t a n c e  however,  it  must  c l a i m  the  bound  to  range  evaluate  whole l o c a l  of  others  on  an  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  the  l i v e d in  Arrow  their c l o s e  the  s i g n i f i c a n t argue  against  Lakes  e n t i r e  the  in  by  l i f e  be c i t y  a  was  relevance  the  of  of 18  poor, standards  becomes  of  an  community. of  and  "whole  l o c a l e  or  i d i o s y n c r a t i c  the  o r i g i n a l  c h i l d r e n ' s  empire,  T h e i r  many  other  context.  t h e i r R i c h  b a s i s  t h e i r  concept  i n t o  as  a r e a s .  concept  each  t h e i r  put  M i c h e a l s o n  i n  to  community  r o l e  l o c a l e - b a s e d  communities,  proximity  l o c a l  and  geogra-  t e r r i t o r y .  determining of  and  r a p i d l y . 1 6  defined  them, a  s o c i a l  the  yet  s o c i a l  t e r r i t o r i a -  o n e . . . . I n  as  l i v e d  played  of  serious  p a s s i n g no  emerging  that  s t y l e  some and  the  the have  of  l i m i t e d  they  l i f e  for  assume  a n a c h r o n i s t i c  from  importance  "Many  are  r e g i o n . . . .  s t i l l  emerging...the  v a l i d i t y ;  and  We  a t t r i b u t e a  and  over  is  u r b a n i z a t i o n  a n d . . . t h e  c a r r i e d  to  that  of  c i t y  terms  the  others  Thus,  For  Those  from  that  r e v o l u t i o n  d e c l i n i n g  against  S t i l l  inhabitants  sequently  are  M i c h e a l s o n ,  born  frequently.  a r c h a i c  saying  geographic  W:..  factor  were  of  obvious  17  example,  tants  place  standards,  knowledge."  be  f i x e d  been  now  has  i n t e r e s t s  l o c a l  w i l l  as  a  seem  necessary  error  argument  more.  far  c o n f u s i o n ) .  s t i l l  s o c i e t y  phic  not  be  language  d e s c r i p t i v e  s i g n i f i c a n c e  The  is  not  processes  l o c a t i o n a l l y  thought-ways  novel  to  s o c i a l our  . . . T h e  According  far  of  l i t y  community  as  through  the  o r d e r . . . . W e  For  r e a l l y  may  'community'  p a s s i n g  adequate  The  "We  D e f i c i e n c i e s era  are  it  out-of-date:  u n h i t c h i n g  i f  where  Webber,  meaning  u s a g e . " ^  We  of  out  4  According the  to  i n h a b i -  communities.  i n t e r a c t e d l i f e "  and  con-  o u t l o o k s . put  up  a  very  persuasive case.  Still,  a good case can a l s o be made f o r the r e t e n t i o n  and importance o f the settlement c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  of community.  Robert M. Maclver argued that there i s no necessary c o n f l i c t between the l o c a l community and the more i n c l u s i v e community, or s o c i e t y . Some needs are more a p p r o p r i a t e l y other.  f i l l e d on the one l e v e l than on the  "The s e r v i c e of the large community i s to f u l f i l l and not t o  destroy the smaller.""'"^  And even though he wrote over f i f t y years ago,  much of what he had t o say i s h i g h l y relevant today, as the o r i e n t a t i o n of various community u n i t s turns i n c r e a s i n g l y outward to the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . Maclver observed that, " I t i s i n very great measure the mere convenience of c o n t i g u i t y rather than the i n t r i n s i c d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s of l o c a l i n t e r e s t s which makes the l o c a l i t y an e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l u n i t . . . . A s s o c i a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s grown great seem to become remote from humanity i n the pro20 cess, and greatness i t s e l f proves no true s u b s t i t u t e f o r intimacy." Roland Warren, w r i t i n g on the l o c a l community, says that the a l l e g e d demise of the l o c a l community i s g r e a t l y exaggerated.  Rather,  American communities are undergoing important changes o f s t r u c t u r e and function.  Two dimensions of the community are a h o r i z o n t a l a x i s , which  emphasizes "the r e l a t i o n s h i p of i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l and o f group t o group w i t h i n the l o c a l i t y " , and a v e r t i c a l a x i s , which involves "the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the i n d i v i d u a l to a l o c a l i n t e r e s t group and o f that l o c a l i n t e r e s t group to a r e g i o n a l , s t a t e or n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " .  He believes  that community developments are tending to strengthen the v e r t i c a l a x i s of the community and weaken i t s h o r i z o n t a l a x i s .  But conventional  com-  munity theory i s oriented toward emphasizing the former and ignoring the 21 l a t t e r , hence i t s inadequacy. Gerald S u t t l e s argues that the neighborhood remains "an indepen-  dent  f e a t u r e o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which must be examined i n i t s own  right.  He b e l i e v e s t h a t p h y s i c a l boundaries  still  have meaning t o p e o p l e  22 and  a r e important A.E.  i n d e f i n i n g one's  'home'."  P a r r speaks o f t h e s t r o n g attachment t o one's community;  by those who l i v e  even  i n l e s s d e s i r a b l e environments - "an a f f e c t i o n f o r  l o c a l e t h a t causes them t o e x p e r i e n c e  t h e pangs o f genuine g r i e f over a  23 l o s t home, when they a r e r e l o c a t e d i n t o another  vicinity."  notes  i s undoubtedly a longing  for  t h a t t h e c h i e f component o f t h i s a t t i t u d e  the remembered s e c u r i t y o f the p a s t .  He s t a t e s ,  Mr. P a r r  "However hazardous  l i f e may seem, and however m i s e r a b l e t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f e x i s t e n c e may be, the of  f o u r w a l l s o f home s t i l l course  they cannot cope w i t h . " According  t h a t t h e y have n o t l o s t t h e i r way i n t o a w o r l d  o/  t o Marc F r i e d ,  " i t i s the sense o f b e l o n g i n g  someplace,  a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e which i s q u i t e f a m i l i a r and e a s i l y d e l i n e a t e d in. a  wide a r e a of  to t h e v e r y young, and  the f a m i l i a r s i g h t s o f t h e v i l l a g e or n e i g h b o r h o o d g i v e a s s u r -  ance t o s m a l l a d v e n t u r e r s  in  mean food and s h e l t e r  i n which one f e e l s  the l o c a l a r e a .  'at home'.  Even f a m i l i a r and e x p e c t a b l e  f a c e s a t t h e windows^ and p e o p l e w a l k i n g concrete  T h i s i s t h e c o r e o f t h e meaning s t r e e t s and houses,  by may s e r v e t o d e s i g n a t e t h e  f o c i o f a sense o f b e l o n g i n g somewhere and may p r o v i d e  special  k i n d s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l meaning t o a community one d e f i n e s as 'home'."  25  R i c h a r d Goodwin, w r i t i n g on t h e l a c k o f community i n o u r p r e s e n t society,  says t h a t , "Community i s a c o r n e r o f s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e i n d i -  v i d u a l c a n f e e l some c o n f i d e n c e o f a c c e p t a n c e  on f a i r l y h o n e s t  terms and  can m a i n t a i n a c o n t i n u i n g a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s , whose f a m i l i a r i t y i s comforting.  Community p r o v i d e s a mooring f o r t h e s p i r i t  f o r community i s  a  r e s t r a i n t  to  prove  that  our  s t r e s s e s  l i b e r a t e s .  worth  that  man  or  to  has  It  seek  nearly  r e l i e v e s  us  reassurance always  of  of  the  need  that  "anchored  to  w o r t h . "  h i s  sense  c o n t i n u a l l y  26  of  The  author  r e a l i t y ,  h i s  27 sense  of  c l u s i o n has  himself, i s  that  c o n s t a n t l y  of  to our  a  f i x e d  world  s h i f t e d ,  p l a c e  has  and  amid  become  that  f a m i l i a r  nomadic  the  modern  as  landmarks." the  world  scenery  deprives  H i s of  our  most  conl i f e  Westerners  community. According  that  sense  community  of  to  Scott  shared  i t s e l f .  Greer,  concerns  A l l  the  "The  which  other  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  is  elemental  components  -  to  of  community  the  concept  c u l t u r e ,  provide  of  language,  l o c a l economic 28  process, In  an  s i z e  p o l i t i c a l  a g r i c u l t u r a l of  crops  the  tend  community of  s t r u c t u r e community,  harvest. to  -  And  share  together  interdependence  the is  have for  those  common  a  state  and  c r y s t a l l i z e d  example,  few  whose  concern. of  mind  most  the  t h i s  people  income Thus,  on  around  is  a  stake  independent  what  part  have  n u c l e u s . "  f i n a l l y  of  i t s  of  i n  the  the  binds  a  l o c a l  members,  a  sense  l o y a l t y . 29  In concluded a  change  that  the  v i d u a l in  a  a  that of  h a b i t a t  shares  a  systems  We the  become act as  conduct  a  G l e i c h e r attached of  and to  Marc  the  uprooting.  secure  F r i e d ,  p l a c e s They  e x i s t e n c e  i n  and  has  the  f e e l i n g  of  p l a c e ,  and  i t s  importance  they  they  l i v e  f u r t h e r which b e i n g  i n ,  concluded  the w i t h  i n d i others  network. for  the know  stand  P e t e r  serves  of  one's  portrayed of  by  p a i n f u l  community  f e e l i n g  S e a t t l e  people  is  warm-sustaining  eloquently  Chief  conducted  because  l o c a l  The is  study  this  Duwamish that  our  same  in  the  ways. to  him  excerpt  of  a  l e t t e r  to  w r i t t e n  t r i b e : white One as  man  does  p o r t i o n  the  next,  of for  not the he  underland is  a  is  the in  i n d i v i d u a l , 1855  by  30  stranger  who  from  land  the  earth and  is  not  when  every  people.  c e r t a i n l y are  most  geographic  x^hich  f e e l i n g s  occur  among  noted,  "The  factions  e n t i t i e s of  have  of  t h e i r The  dom  connotes  to  tends  of  the  and  l i v e s  very  us  we  of  our  we  are  and  w i t h  u n i f o r m i t y  l i v e  apply  ground."  emotional  community  human  b u i l t  contacts  to  to  The  are  piece  is  people.^®  would  another.  i n c r e a s i n g l y  where  my  important  which  includes in  and  i n s e c t  of  is  i d e n t i t y  trend  make  place  or  same  o r i g i n  surroundings.  " P l a c e to  my every  brave  humming  on;  to  needle,  experience  sort  the  our  and  enemy, moves  sacred  every  systems  one  s h a r i n g  q u a l i t y  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and  is  pine  hut,  Greer,  of  s o c i a l it  he  committment  people  that  h i s  earth  takes  The  it,  s h i n i n g  s o c i a l  and  needs. but  c l e a r i n g  Scott  night  he  brother,  every  memory  the  the  conquered  this  every  to  of  of  Every  h o l y  A c c o r d i n g  has  shore,  squaw, the  in  whatever h i s  he  part  sandy  comes  i t s  contacts  on  l i k e l y  Rene  Dubos  s p i r i t u a l  the  the  t r a d i t i o n a l  has  and  sense  i n  to  s a t i s -  p h y s i c a l  i n t e r e s t e d  and  concept  most  our  and  the  for  of  bore-  unique  l i f e  s t y l e s  32 l o c a l  communities There  sides  of  the  community  i s ,  mean  of  w i l l  present most  the  that  people,  thus,  the  that  a l s o  l o c a l its  be  community accepts  a  the  and  l i t e r a t u r e it  pervasive  one even  the  community meaning  from  Nonetheless, to  fact  1  support  continue  l o c a l  one  the  persist."  controversy.  S t i l l , tance  w i l l  does in  not this  to  importance  though  f a c t o r  in  our  r e j e c t  the  and  make  a  the  does Even  a l l  both  l o c a l  and  not  the  i n  impor-  n e c e s s a r i l y  though  d i f f e r e n c e  changing  to  s o c i e t y .  presence  age  concept.  is  r e s p e c t  as  day  t r a d i t i o n a l  continues  seems  w i t h  the time.  for  the  l i v e s  of  FOOTNOTES 1 G r e e r , S c o t t ; "Major Types o f Human Groups", The Concept o f Community, ed. David Minar and S c o t t Greer, A d e l i n e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1964, p. 60. 2 I b i d . , p.  60.  3 Webber, M e l v i n M.; "Order i n D i v e r s i t y : Community Without P r o p i n q u i t y " , i n C i t i e s and Space, ed. by Lowden Wingo, J r . , John Hopkins P r e s s , B a i t . , 1963, p. 29. 4 P e r r y , C l a r e n c e ; "The Neighborhood U n i t Format", i n W i l l i a m Wheaton et a l . (eds.) Urban Housing, New York, The F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , 1966, pp. 94-101. 5 Merton, K. Robert; " P a t t e r n s o f I n f l u e n c e " , i n P a u l L. L a z a r s f e l d and F.N. S t a n t o n (eds.) Communications Research, 1948-9, New York, Harper Bros., 1949, pp. 180-219. 6 W i r t h , L o u i s ; "Urbanism as a Way S o c i o l o g y 44 (1938), 1-24.  of L i f e " ,  American J o u r n a l o f  7 McClanhan, B.; "The Community: The Urban S u b s t i t u t e f o r the T r a d i t i o n a l Community", S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l Research, 30 ( M a r c h - A p r i l ) 1964, p. 267. 8 G r e e r S c o t t ; " S o c i a l and P e r s o n a l Consequences o f Change", The Concept o f Community, ed. David Minar and S c o t t Greer, A d e l i n e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1969, p. 285. 9 Simmel, George; "The S o c i o l o g y o f George Simmel", by K u r t H. W o l f f , (eds.) C. Wright M i l l s and H.H. G e r t h , p u b l i s h e d by The F r e e P r e s s , 1950, p. 40'9. 10 W i r t h , o p . c i t . , 11 Greer, 12 I b i d . ,  p.  19.  loc.cit. p.  286.  13 S h i l s , Edward; "The Theory o f Mass S o c i e t y " , i n The Concept o f Community, ed. David Minar and S c o t t Greer, A d e l i n e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1969, p. 290. 14 A l i n s k y , S a u l ; " R e v e i l l e N.Y.,  f o r R a d i c a l s " . New  York,  V i n t a g e Books,  1969.  15 Webber, M e l v i n ; "The P o s t C i t y Age", 16 I b i d . ,  p. 258.  17 M i c h e a l s o n , Wm.; P r e s s , 1970, p. 61. 18 I b i d . ,  Daedalus,  p.  63.  Fall,  1968,  p.  1098. '  Man  and H i s Urban Environment,  Univ. of Toronto  32  19 The  M a d v e r ,  Robert;  Macmillan  20  I b i d . ,  21  Warren,  Human  C o . ,  p.  Community:  U . S . ,  1928,  A  p.  S o c i o l o g i c a l  Study,  p u b l i s h e d  by  251.  258.  Roland;  O r g a n i z a t i o n ,  "Toward  XV No.  a  2,  Reformulation  1956,  published  of  Community  by  The  Theory",  S o c i e t y  for  i n  A p p l i e d  Anthropology. 22  S u t t l e s ,  D3969  in  23  Ibid-  25  F r i e d ,  26  Goodwin,  36,  J o u r n a l  of  p.  S o c i a l p.  the  Issues,  Urban  Community",  ( A b s t r a c t  A b s t r a c t s ) . v o l .  22,  #4,  1966,  " P s y c h o -  43  for  a  " R e f l e c t i o n s " ,  L o s t The  Home",  New  p.  160.  Yorker,  J a n :  28,  1973,  v o l .  the  S e a t t l e  11,  York.  45.  P.  29  F r i e d ,  Marc;  31  " G r i e v i n g  R.;  S c o t t ;  The  of  and  S o c i o l o g i c a l  Urbanology".  Marc;  Greer,  1,  to  44.  28  30  a r t i c l e  1974,  p.  The  Concept  " G r i e v i n g is  p r i n t e d  for  S c o t t ;  Dubos,  Rene;  The  Community,  a  L o s t  courtesy  IV-3.  Greer,  of  Home",  of  Dale  p. p.  60. 152.  Jones  of  Emerging  Times,  • •  C i t y ,  New  York,  The  Free  P r e s s ,  . 1962,  64. 32  p.  New  ,  Ibid-,  7  Nov. .  Aspects  " T e r r i t o r i a l i t y  Supplement  A . E . ;  24  2  p.  G e r a l d ; '68  P a r r ,  l o g i c a l  p.  the  8.  " R e c y c l i n g  S o c i a l  Man",  i n  S / R World,  August  24,  1974,  CHAPTER  FOUR  INTERPRETATION  This i t i e s a  s i t u a t e d  study  must  of  chapter t i e s "  whole  s o c i a l  c l a s s  the  c e n t r a l  In v i e w i n g  o u t l i n e  the  on  s o c i a l  d i s p l a c e d and  the  of  the  this  were  a  the as  a  p o i n t  f o r ^ a s s e s s i n g  the  the  e f f e c t s  problem region  p o p u l a t i o n .  the  l i f e  which  d e s c r i p -  s e l e c t i o n  such the  the  not  m u l t i -  importance.  f i r s t ,  of  as  l a c k  of In  a t h i s  " k i n s h i p of  data  r e s e a r c h e r  s o c i o l o g i c a l ,  community,  that  was  While  and  in  researcher  study  d i s p l a c e d  that  the  and  community  issues  of  l i t e r a t u r e  in  Lakes  by  i s  d e s c r i p t i o n  comprehensive  i m p l i e d  review  concept  i n t e r p r e t e d  Arrow  reason  b e l i e  to  t o t a l  It  regarded  study.  w i t h  c e n t r a l  Columbia.  commun-  the  l i t e r a r y ,  consequences  and  of  change.  people,  The  the  due  d i s p l a c e d  at  s a l i e n c e  of  other  r a i s e d  and  for  mentioned  given  the  e f f o r t  facts  areas  involved  l i t e r a t u r e  that  not  focus  has  s t u d i e s  problems  r e g i o n  the  reviewing  work  are  a l l  t h e i r  of  B r i t i s h  a n a l y s i s  l o s e  conspicuous  a n a l y s i s  and  of  data  a t t e n t i o n to  act  of  only  observable  the of  and  r e l o c a t i o n  f i e l d  ranges of  j o u r n a l i s t i c  of  r e g i o n  i f  DATA  a n a l y s i s  because  i l l u s o r y  by  number  second,  Lakes  community  remain  THE  d e s c r i p t i v e  Arrow  a  more  a  complexity  The  of  the  Furthermore,  problem,  and  is  "whole"  and  t i o n .  as  a  i n  n e c e s s a r i l y  p l i c i t y  and  chapter  OF  the some  of  the  of  has  data  from  v a r y i n g people  i n  a  f i e l d  used  i n  both  c e n t r a l the  nominal  i n t e r the  questions  Arrow way  Lakes  as  an  displacement  and  r e l o c a t i o n .  the  the  communities  study  degrees had  the  The  gathered  serve  forced  i n  i n e v i t a b l y  departure.  w i l l  arose  working  of  probably  of  e f f e c t s  on  improved  the t h e i r  34  l i v i n g  conditions  paired  and  And  the in  data  the  in  the  of  g r i e f  the  order  to  f i e l d from  of  l a s t  both  p l a c e .  tioned  dent  i n  i n s o f a r  Therefore,  as  it  r e g i o n ,  t h e i r  Arrow of  various  Lakes  the  thus  the  general  c o n c l u s i o n s  of  any  new  It  of  the  a f f e c t e d impacts  the as  above  being  number  impacts  aim  of  men-  each  responIn  of  member-  f  of  t h i s  communities  displacement  r  the  " a d v e r s e l y  displacement  a c t i v i t i e s  of  communities  the  regarding  the  expres-  c o n s i d e r e d .  the  l o s s ,  i d e a l i z e  environment.) on  i s  p a i n f u l  to  v a r i o u s  expressions  r e a c t i o n s  was  example,  the  p s y c h o l o g i s t  model,  s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l  v a r i o u s  nature,  he  f i e l d .  o c c a s i o n a l  adverse  focus  r e g i o n .  general  the  im-  of  a n a l y s i s  the  Arrow  s u s t a i n e d , i n  the  the  to  Lakes and  r e g i o n .  OVERVIEW:_ P r i o r  A and  the  t h e i r  eminent  considered  of  the  judging  tendencies  was  (For  an  been  r e s e a r c h e r  i n  for  f e e l i n g s  d i s p l a y e d  he  the  Bowlby's  the  a f f e c t e d "  i n  w i l l  to  and  number  used.  groups  the  Bowlby,  i n  anger  " a d v e r s e l y were  c r i t e r i a  have  r e l o c a t i o n .  respondents  h e l p l e s s n e s s ,  i n t e r v i e w  to  displacement,  J .  respondent  a n a l y s i s  a f f e c t e d  of  greater  s o c i a l  overview  some  the  c r i t e r i a  of  an  the  more  ensuing  present  f i n a l l y ,  the  a  of  manifest  d i s p l a c e d i f  during  organized  inhabitants  I  sense  and  of  seemed  subsequent  A c c o r d i n g  longing, d i r e c t  and  o b j e c t i v e  work  are  other  The  the  change.  the  others  interviewing  displacement  d i s p l a y e d ,  ships  w h i l e  used  Obviously,  a d d i t i o n ,  e f f e c t s  r e l a t i v e l y  s o c i a l  r e a c t i o n s  a f f e c t e d " .  the  obtained up  content,  displacement  assess  set  of  appear  by  researcher  continued  sions  to  he  order  effects,  now  " r e m o r s e f u l "  In used  and  to  comparison  i n t e r a c t i o n  the  of w i t h  b u i l d i n g  each the  of  the  respondent environment  Hugh  w i t h was  K e e n l e y s i d e  regards a l s o  to  Dam,  the  pursued.  the  degree  r e g i o n  of  was  a c t i v i t y  c l e a r l y d i v i d e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i n t o t h r e e areas population.  by i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  The n o r t h e r n a r e a was p a r t o f R e v e l s t o k e  I t was made up o f s i x communities, w i t h R e v e l s t o k e one,  having  School  D i s t r i c t #19.  the only i n c o r p o r a t e d  t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n arid p r o v i d i n g t h e m a j o r i t y o f  community s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n t h e a r e a . the Nakusp S c h o o l  D i s t r i c t #10.  were i n c o r p o r a t e d .  The c e n t r a l a r e a  I n t h i s a r e a none o f t h e communities  The s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e r e g i o n i n c l u d e d f i v e  i t i e s w i t h C a s t e l g a r b e i n g by f a r t h e most dominant. Castelgar School  comprised  commun-  They were w i t h i n  D i s t r i c t #9.  As was t h e case, R e v e l s t o k e , a f f e c t e d by t h e dam p r o j e c t .  Nakusp and C a s t e l g a r were not d i r e c t l y  Thus, o n l y t h e communities t h a t were d i r e c t l y  a f f e c t e d by t h e dam ( i . e . where d i s p l a c e m e n t  occurred)  were w i t h i n t h e  scope o f t h e a n a l y s i s .  II  ETHNOGRAPHY:  " .  A.  RENATA, B.C. - Lower Arrow Lakes  1.  Location:  Renata was l o c a t e d i n t h e s o u t h e r n c e n t r a l a r e a o f B r i t i s h approximately journey 25 m i l e s  400 m i l e s  over a w i n d i n g  from Vancouver. road  From Renata i t was a  Columbia  difficult  t o C a s t e l g a r , t h e c l o s e s t major community,  t o t h e southwest. I n r e l a t i o n t o the whole o f t h e Arrow Lakes, Renata was a t t h e  southern  end, on t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e o f t h e l a k e from Deer Park,  another  community f l o o d e d out subsequent t o the b u i l d i n g o f t h e Arrow Dam. the o t h e r end o f t h e l a k e i s R e v e l s t o k e ,  approximately  At  125 m i l e s n o r t h o f  Renata, and s e r v i n g as t h e n o r t h e r n boundary o f t h e Arrow Lakes r e g i o n . The  community u t i l i z e d  the l a k e f o r both s o c i a l and economic  purposes. Park of  to  i t s  A c t u a l l y ,  Renata,  the  r e l a t i v e  communications i s l a n d  unto  rose  high  s p e c i e s . able  Lakes This  for  to  the  lack  road  was  community of  s e r v i c e ,  5,000  paved  it  community may  completed  was  by  roads,  tended  coupled  w i t h  good  producing  p r o p o r t i o n  to  from  f e r r y ;  Deer  and  telephone,  remain  because  other  somewhat  of  an  were the  (60-80).  of  a  years 5.  l a r g e  three  seen  s o i l ,  131  most from  tree  that  in  part  accounts  meadowland.  The  f o l i a g e  in  e l e v a t i o n  mountains  of  v a r i o u s  and  favor-  f r u i t s .  c l i m a t e  c l i m a t i c  fact  f l a t  l u s h  feet  h o s p i t a b l e the  and  mountains.  w i t h  1,400  the  the  summary  community for  the  of  the  whole  i n . t h e was  fact  Arrow  Appendix.  l o c a t e d that  it  on was  f l a t a  Composition: persons  population The  be  of  age.  E a r l y  in  was  remainder  p o r t i o n  must  Renata,  the  B u l l d o g  covered  and  ground  community.  R e l i g i o n  It  growing  w i t h  P o p u l a t i o n  of  were  l e v e l  and  approximately  had be  n a t u r a l l y  M i d d l e , and  berry  The  factor,  feet was  C l i m a t e :  as  on  Sandy,  3.  There  when  by  commercial  4.  f i f t y  s i t u a t e d  v a l l e y  r e g i o n ,  which  e l e c t r i c a l  was  as  The  meadowland f r u i t  access  the  Topography:  surrounded  as  when  i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y , and  Renata was  only  1954,  i t s e l f .  2.  It  u n t i l  noted  1961 made of  i n c l u d i n g up  the  of  33  people  p o p u l a t i o n  were  o r i g i n a l l y  that  at  from of  h o u s e h o l d s . p r a c t i c i n g had  A  the  v a r i o u s  p r a i r i e  the  p o p u l a t i o n  was  i n t o  i n  70%  Dog  Creek,  came  in  v a l l e y .  Mennonite  backgrounds  the  l e a s t  l a r g e  p r o v i n c e s . above  Settlement:  one  Frenchmen  time came  known to  as  prospect  the  b e i n g The  men  cut  1887 cordwood  for  C.P.R.  which  boats  and  a t t r a c t e d  b u i l t  loggers  a  h o t e l  and  made  of  t r a v e l l e r s  hand  that  hewn  passed  n a t u r a l  through  cedar  or  l o g s ,  worked  in  2 the  a r e a . By  Renata many i n  1913,  took  on  a f t e r  the  appearance  n a t i o n a l i t i e s  farm  area  j o u r n a l s  a l s o  people Lower  Arrow 6.  as  as  s a i d  that  settlement  did  of  -  not  have  which  Renata,  was but  as  of  production.  u n i t  only  due  to  and  50  based  per  the  s a l e " .  h e a l t h  took  v i l l a g e .  mostly  people  i l l  r e t i r e d . were  Lakes  any  to  p l a c e ,  Other  through  The  s e t t l e r s  m i c r o - c l i m a t e  decided  of  advertisements  s e t t l e - t h e r e .  they  s i g n i f i c a n t  never  on  f r u i t  of  that  the 15  died was  to  of  the  Some  come  to  the  to  a  (see  expanded  the  dominant  farming  20  d u r i n g  The  the  as  but  per.cent the  o c c u p a t i o n  organized  community,  to  a c t i v i t y .  e a r l y  out.  farming  Consequently,  farmers  i n d u s t r i a l  e x t e n s i v e ,  A c t u a l l y ,  cent  fact  A c c o r d i n g  Arrow  of  a g r i c u l t u r e  was  the  for  for  q u i c k l y  It  households  progressed,  b u i l d i n g  O c c u p a t i o n a l  community.  . pension  "complete"  land  because  Economically,  factor  time  inducement  Sustenance  industry,  employed  a  and  Lakes.  Renata  the  of  " f r u i t  an  p l a n t i n g ,  A c t i v i t i e s :  a)  mining  came  n o t i n g  served  a l s o  c l e a r i n g ,  a  around f u l l  was  of  the  the  time  r e a l l y  of  family  more  m a j o r i t y  of  of  a  were  Appendix).  P r o v i n c i a l  A g r i c u l t u r e  is  i n  w i t h  area  of  Government  r e l a t i v e l y about  c u l t i v a t i o n .  The  but  a r e a  important  acres  are  in  on  employable  p u b l i c a t i o n  i n  speaking  r e g i o n :  the  farm  o c c u p a t i o n  households  overwhelming  the  3,000  Renata where  t r e e - f r u i t  minor  importance  acres  under  d i s t r i c t  is  a  approximately p r o d u c t i o n . . . . .  small 250 .  of  38  According and  general  community  land  t h e i r  "prime"  was  a p r i c o t s  The  l a n d ' s  whole  land  that  important garden  e a s i l y  housewife  the  was  a  to  c l o s e - b y  was  that  mason  economy.  important  make  annual a  was  free  always  a  For  from  were  time  the  j u s t  i n  p e a r s ,  from  farm  to  A l t h o u g h growing  the  farm  on  the  a r e a  i n f e c t i o n  i n  of  the  " l i t t l e - b i t t e r - c h e r r y " .  the  many  deep  f r e e z e  f a m i l i e s  i n  supplement.  vegetable  the  complex.  c h e r r y  as  and  income  d i r e c t  r e s e a r c h  c h e r r i e s ,  t r e a t e d .  only  known  from  of  g r e a t l y  was  the  jar  was  orchards  source  v a r i e d  land  commonly  the  f a m i l y ' s  occupation  community's  the  the  farmers.  c h i e f  c a p a c i t y  d i s e a s e  an  Renata  N e l s o n - T r a i l - C a s t e l g a r  Columbia  R e n a t a ' s  a b l e  the  only  which  garden,  of  f r u i t  marginal, it  B r i t i s h  represented  produced  1965 the  w i t h  of  throughout  inhabitants,  R e n a t a ' s  the  only  family  parts  up  productive  was  of  By  for  care  causes  The  the  the  i n t e r i o r  became  provided  and  interviewed  neighboring made  c l e a r e d . and  to  v i r u s  from  farming  according  the  respondents  overwhelmingly  f i r s t  the  the  comments  F r u i t  apples,  to  need,  c o n t r i b u t i o n  and to  A in  the  were  a l s o  the  v i l l a g e ,  s m a l l  garden  t h i s  way  economy  the  of  the  household. b)  R e c r e a t i o n a l  R e c r e a t i o n a l summer  months.  prevalent  own  boys  l e i s u r e  had  use  F i s h i n g ,  B a s e b a l l Many  A c t i v i t i e s :  time was  a  home-made  was  made  h i k i n g ,  of  the  l a k e s ,  hunting,  and  e s p e c i a l l y  swimming  during  were  the  the  most  a c t i v i t i e s . popular  sport  scooters  to  and play  was  played  w i t h  and  in  the  enjoyed  community b u i l d i n g  park. t h e i r  "machines". Gardening,  d e s i r e d  l e i s u r e  and  although  it  was  r e c r e a t i o n a l  an  economic  a c t i v i t y .  a c t i v i t y ,  a l s o  was  a  much  39  Community  7. In aware  of  a f f a i r s in  order  the of  of  v a r i o u s  homes,  committee Renata  i n  h i s t o r y .  community  l i f e .  groups  and  These  s o c i a l  a c t i v i t i e s  p a r t i c u l a r l y discharged  of  in  the  t h e i r  Renata,  groups took  and  t h a t  place  s c h o o l .  duties  one  had  to  attended  i n  the  the  to  the  church,  Innumerable kept  be  p l a n n i n g  organized  l i f e  motion.  Most The  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n s  and  Community t a n t s .  understand  community  p r i v a t e  and  to  L i f e :  l i f e  f a m i l i e s Women's  A s i d e  a  very  belonged  I n s t i t u t e  from  i t s  deeds  outside  the  honor  of  deceased  each  was  s p e c i a l  to  some  played  community  community.  of  sort  a  v i t a l  such the  of  of  and  i t s  i n h a b i -  o r g a n i z a t i o n .  it  deed  Renata  r o l e  function,  One  person  part  in  the  community's  accomplished  was  sending  community  to  help  many  s o c i a l  donations  i n  c r i p p l e d  c h i l d r e n  4 in  V i c t o r i a . "Bees",  foods, added  was a  e x i s t e d . there. Renata A  was  d e l i g h t  c o n s i s t i n g  to  the  community  The  was  school  Dances,  part in  was  the  the  church.  was  centered  Much  was  made  birthday expected  p a r t i e s to  was  remember  of  other  at  of  the  the  sausages,  c o - o p e r a t i o n  of  and  other  these  f a m i l i e s  quite  l i f e  s i n c e  great  a  community  meetings  community  a c t i v i t i e s  importance  so  no  i n  the  part was  and  of  took  s o c i a l  the  p l a c e l i f e  community  captured  a l l  h a l l  by  of  a c t i v i t y .  a c t i v i t i e s  important  commun-  church.  b i r t h d a y s .  and  meats,  community  major  Committee  business  The  s o c i a l  c o n s t i t u t e d  a t t e n t i o n  of  of  and  a l s o  it  ground  s p i r i t .  hub  meetings,  because of  the  of  c h i l d r e n .  harmonious  simply  centered  at  feast  Church-going  large  i t y  a  a  keen. attend  .The  competition  I n v i t a t i o n s each  birthday  were  i n  fancy,  not  foods  extended  gathering."*  served but  one  There was,  of c o u r s e ,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t  a g r e a t range i n the volume o f  individuals.  Some p e o p l e  non-work time around community g a t h e r i n g s . l i m i t e d way  w i t h r e l a t i v e s or a few  whO'prefered t h e i r p r i v a c y and  All  o f Renata's r e s i d e n t s owned t h e i r own the l a n d c l e a r e d w i t h a hoe  o f the homes was  9.  between 30 and  i n c l u d i n g e l e c t r i c i t y and  Because the l a n d was were f a i r l y miles  40 y e a r s .  L o c a t i o n i n R e l a t i o n to Each  s m a l l and  from any  f l a t and  compact.  DEER PARK, B.C.  1.  Location:  Deer Park was  homes.  and The  flush  Most  shovel.  average  m a j o r i t y o f homes had toilets.  Other: the  holdings  not  too d i s t a n t  no more  than  from each o t h e r .  - Lower Arrow Lakes  l i k e Renata, was 125  reservoir.  on the s o u t h e r n  boundary o f the Arrow  m i l e s south o f R e v e l s t o k e .  o p p o s i t e s i d e o f the l a k e from Renata but o c c a s i o n a l l y b o t h together  dwellings  on a s t r e t c h of w a t e r f r o n t .18 m i l e s west o f C a s t e l -  Lakes r e g i o n a p p r o x i m a t e l y  participated  too,  activity.  The  Thus, the community c o r e was  gar on the n o r t h shore of the p r e s e n t Deer Park,  T h e r e were those  densely populated,  community member and  B.  i n a very  themselves from a l l such  Housing:  l i m i t e d amenities  two  isolated  organized a l l t h e i r  socialized  close friends.  8.  were s e l f - b u i l t and age  Others  social  i n j o i n t ventures.  I t was  on  the  communities  ( i . e . P i c n i c s and s p o r t i n g  events.) The  community was  a c c e s s i b l e .by a g r a v e l road e x t e n d i n g  C a s t e l g a r and a f e r r y system, roads were b u i l t  (which  ended i t s s e r v i c e i n 1954).  to r e p l a c e the s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d by  the s t e r n  to Few  wheelers.  However, between Deer Park and Arrowhead province b u i l t  (a d i s t a n c e o f 150 m i l e s ) ,  the  (by 1965) about f o r t y ' m i l e s o f road o f which one m i l e  was  h a r d topped. 2.  Topography:  •  •? .  U n l i k e Renata, Deer Park s l o p e d down from the f o r e s t e d to  f l a t meadowland on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e mouth o f Deer Creek.  f a i r amount o f the community According  was  l o c a t e d on h i l l y ,  undulating  •  .  hillsides Thus, a land.  to c e r t a i n c o n s e r v a t i o n groups such as the W i l d l i f e  A s s o c i a t i o n and the West Kootenay Outdoorsman, p r e s e n t r e s e r v o i r and former community  the h i l l s  a l o n g s i d e the  were prime w i n t e r range f o r e l k •  and d e e r . ^ 3.  Climate:  Deer Park, l i k e Renata, g e n e r a l l y had one o f the most  moderate  c l i m a t e s i n a l l o f Canada except f o r the N i a g a r a P e n i n s u l a and the B.C. Coast. -  good s h e l t e r  from heavy winds, v e r y l i t t l e  threat of h a i l  damage  and the f r o s t - f r e e season was up t o 150 days, the l o n g e s t d u r a t i o n o f any p a r t o f the Kootenay 4. In  region.  P o p u l a t i o n Composition: 1961, Deer Park had 62 i n h a b i t a n t s and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 16 house-  holds. The community most  was made up o f a d i v e r s e group o f n a t i o n a l i t i e s ,  of which were o f B r i t i s h  origin.  The m a j o r i t y o f the p o p u l a t i o n were over f i f t y y e a r s o f age because most o f the "young" p e o p l e had l e f t educational -5.  the r e g i o n i n o r d e r to get  advancement. Early  The f i r s t  Settlement: p e o p l e a t Deer Park were p r o s p e c t o r s b e f o r e the t u r n o f  the c e n t u r y .  Some o l d p r o s p e c t h o l e s and c a b i n s can s t i l l  In the boom days o f r e a l  be found  there.  e s t a t e i n the Kootenays s e v e r a l s e t t l e r s  bought and s t a r t e d s m a l l o r c h a r d s , however, lumbering  was the p r i m a r y  a t t r a c t i o n f o r settlement.  a l l along the lake-  I n the t w e n t i e s  shore d e c l i n e d due to depressed  markets, but then i n the e a r l y  the lumber based economy r e v i v e d (because 6.  Activities:  a)  Work - Sustenance:  lumbering  o f the need f o r lumber o v e r s e a s ) .  Most Deer Park workers were employed by C e l g a r , operating  i n the West Kootenay r e g i o n a t the time.  a small r e s i d u a l men.  the o n l y  :farmers  There was a l s o a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n o f pensioned  and f i s h e r -  citizens,  dealers.  U n l i k e Renata, most farms i n Deer Park were s u b s t a n c e  farms where  p e o p l e had a cow, a few p i g s and c h i c k e n s , v e g e t a b l e  gardens and  They were a b l e t o supplement t h e i r  by what they  income a d e q u a t e l y  o f f t h e i r own s m a l l p i e c e o f l a n d . b)  i n the community.  I n a l l o f the i n t e r v i e w s i t was c o n s i s t e n t l y mentioned as a  The  i t a l s o provided  l a k e i t s e l f was a l s o u t i l i z e d  However, t h e r e was no mention-of o r g a n i z e d appeared t h a t r e c r e a t i o n tended respondents  produced  '  Hunding deer was a prime r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y  However,  fruit.  .  Recreation:  l e i s u r e sport.  company  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was  group c o n t a i n i n g o t h e r t y p e s , m a i n l y  i n c l u d i n g two r e t a i l  forties  food and c l o t h i n g . both  f o r swimming and b o a t i n g .  leisure activity,  t o be a p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e .  a l s o a l l u d e d to the f a c t  favorite  t h a t t h e r e was no time  t h a t working to eat was t h e i r o n l y means o f r e c r e a t i o n .  and i t Some o f the for leisure;  43  7.  Community  Deer It  seems  Park  that  community  a  w i t h  There community  a  church  friends  or  was  of  some  to  and  8.  Hous i n g :  A l l  homes  clubs  9;.  L o c a t i o n  Not  as  other  s o c i a l were  educational  " t r a v e l l i n g  took  p l a c e  community".  o u t s i d e  the  p l a c e s . groups  no  r e f l e c t i n g  s c h o o l s ,  purposes.  occurred  respondents,  detached  age  homes of  in  compact  t e r r a i n .  or  there  hence  Most  average  in  a  there  communal  and  p r i v a t e l y  n e c e s s i t a t e d  Nonetheless, from  o c c a s i o n a l  the  which  organized  time  feuding  s p i r i t  to  there time.  occurred  l a c k e d  was  the  between  v i g o r  that  cooperation.  were  The  small  some  as  s o c i a l i z i n g  a c t i v i t y  community, for  the  s o c i a l l y  r e l a t i v e s  for  s o c i a l  s e l f - b u i l t .  n a t u r a l core  the  of  major  C a s t e l g a r  fundamental  whole,  no  t y p i f i e d  Furthermore,  According members  be  part  were  to  and  might  large  l i f e .  t r a v e l l i n g  L i f e :  the  had  S t i l l ,  Renata most  commercial  minimal  dwellings  R e l a t i o n as  a  to due  people  was  Each to  of  the  l i v e d  Deer  amount between  They of 35  were,  on  the  a m e n i t i e s . and  40  y e a r s .  Other:  l o c a l e .  Sketch  owned.  Park  h i l l y w i t h i n  topography  and  the  3  the  community  miles  of  44  C.  EDGEWOOD - NEEDLES, B.C.  For purposes o f t h i s study one,  - C e n t r a l Arrow Lakes  t h e s e two  communities were grouped as  because they were about e q u a l l y dependent upon the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y  as the c h i e f source  of income i n the a r e a .  There was  a v a i l a b l e c o n c e r n i n g v a r i a b l e s such as s o c i a l T h i s s e c t i o n o f the r e g i o n s e r v e d as district  and was  also limited  structure, etc. the o u t e r l i m i t  on the west s i d e o f the Arrow L a k e s .  about f o r t y m i l e s south of Nakusp, which was  data  o f the  I t was  the g e o g r a p h i c  central  located  centre of  the  Arrow Lakes r e g i o n . The l a n d was  a r e a was  f l a t and  predominately  rose s l i g h t l y  mountainous.  Along  from the l a k e s .  The  the lakeshore  the  outlying valley  was  a l o n g the I n o o a k l i n R i v e r , which r a n n o r t h to s o u t h through provided and  f a i r l y good p a s t u r e and  ran approximately T h e r e was  crop l a n d .  seven m i l e s from Edgewood to  Arrowpark; the annual  p r e c i p i t a t i o n was  p r e c i p i t a t i o n was  v e r y c o l d and  and  basically  level  Needles.  a f a i r amount o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n which v a r i e d depending  on what p a r t o f the c e n t r a l r e g i o n one  the annual  The a r e a was  Edgewood  20.2  the summers d r y .  lived 30.4  inches.  The  in.  F o r example,  inches.  i n East  However, i n Edgewood  The w i n t e r s were g e n e r a l l y  average annual  temperature was  44.5  degrees ( F ) . In t h e v a l l e y a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n was The  r e s t o f the a r e a was  people  of Swedish o r i g i n .  residing region, of  a mixture  i n this area.  I n 1961  of B r i t i s h ,  and  a s m a l l number o f  t h e r e were a p p r o x i m a t e l y  In t h i s a r e a , as was  Dutch.  425  people  t r u e o f the whole c e n t r a l  i t appeared t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n  children. E a r l y settlement  i n the a r e a developed  because o f the  activity  a s s o c i a t e d between  w i t h  base  Arrowhead I n i t i a l  farming dence the  horses  to  the  tisements to  come  of  by  means  hay  was  popular  use  of of  of  prime  along  the  "farms"  c o u l d  serious  l o c a l  needs.  which  in  Celgar that  been  was  were  too,  f o r e s t r y - l o g g i n g  was  town.  orchards  Farms  and  employed  which  in  the  the  of  the  r e g i o n .  However,  as  for  transport  part  a  r e s u l t  Because  l a t e r  the  of  the  of  t h i s  horses  d i e s e l  a  depen-.  dependence,  i n  a  engines.  encouraged  V a l l e y  were  timothy  f r u i t s  more  i n  core  lakeshore  not  hay,  considered  p e r i o d Adver-  many  s e t t l e r s  farmed  but  farmers  it in  production  was  and  were  c a t t l e  appeared  is the  to  be  c h a r a c t e r -  i n t e n s i v e l y .  Many  u n l i k e l y  many  true  geared  that  sense.  p r i m a r i l y  r a i s e d  on  On to  these  the  serve  lands  s t a b i l i z e  the  days  dominant as  such  forest  of  the  r e g i o n  the  "gyppo"  employer were  on  for a  i n d u s t r i e s ,  through  year  logger.  the  people  p a r t - t i m e rather  as  employ-  A c t u a l l y ,  v  who  i n  b a s i s  than  round  l i v e d  for a  persons  f u l l - t i m e  e f f o r t . Approximately government. of  They  properties The  l e i s u r e  time  in  30  per  dominated both  Edgewood  the  cent the  There  of  the  upland  v i l l a g e  population  a c t i v i t i e s .  of  productive.  helped  l a c k i n g  the  and  this  lakeshore.  importance  Inoonaklin  a g r i c u l t u r a l  B a s i c a l l y ,  general  the  produced  have  the  Water  r e g i o n .  small  u n i t s  serve  c e n t r a l  g a s o l i n e ,  numerous small  the  to  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  in  lakeshore,  s t e a d i l y  of  orchards  part  along  outside  l y i n g  owners  ment  began  a  a n d . p r o c e s s i n g .  developed  land  these  the  of  that  The ized  as  s e l l i n g  to  Robson  developed  production  p r i o r  and  mining  settlement  v a l l e y  on  metals  and  was were  community  lot parts  very  pensioned  and  the  w a t e r f r o n t  of  the  a d j o i n i n g  a c t i v e  j u n i o r  was  in  leagues  lot  the type  lands.  r e c r e a t i o n a l for  by  and  youngsters,  46  badminton and t e n n i s f o r t h e o l d e r people and f i s h i n g f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r ( t h e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h respondents I n Edgewood  made t h i s p o i n t c l e a r l y ) .  t h e r e seemed t o be a s t r o n g sense o f c o h e s i o n and  i d e n t i t y , as was t h e case i n o n l y one o t h e r community i n t h e s t u d y a r e a that o f Renata. community.  There seemed t o be a c l o s e n e s s between members o f t h e  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n many c o o r d i n a t e d a c t i v i t i e s ,  a communal s p i r i t .  f r i e n d l i n e s s and  1  Edgewood had b o t h a c h u r c h and a h a l l took p l a c e q u i t e o f t e n .  Furthermore,  i n w h i c h community f u n c t i o n s  a good many Edgewoodites grew up  t o g e t h e r and remained i n t h e v i l l a g e t o l i v e and work. T h e i r community park was a p e r f e c t s e t t i n g f o r s p o r t i n g tournaments, w h i c h a l s o s e r v e d t o u n i t e f a m i l i e s and p r o v i d e e n j o y a b l e community  events.  The C a n a d i a n L e g i o n was an i m p o r t a n t community o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t was m a i n t a i n e d  in- a Community H a l l w h i c h s u p p o r t e d  other l o c a l  activities.  The L e g i o n o f f e r e d i t s members an i n t i m a t e , warm and r i t u a l i z e d  relation-  s h i p w i t h o t h e r members, and p r o v i d e d a q u a s i - k i n s h i p bond w i t h a l l " b r o t h e r s " t o whom a t any time one need n o t be a s t r a n g e r .  The L e g i o n  a c t i v i t i e s were o f a g r e a t range and s i n c e most f a m i l i e s b e l o n g e d  o r were  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e L e g i o n , i t s a c t i v i t i e s permeated t h e e n t i r e community. On t h e o t h e r hand, N e e d l e s had one s m a l l s c h o o l - h o u s e r e p o r t e d as h a v i n g o n l y 47 more, t h e r e was m i n i m a l  s t u d e n t s i n t h e s c h o o l y e a r 1958-1959.  e v i d e n c e o f o r g a n i z e d community a c t i v i t y  than that of church attendance. t o Edgewood  for social  and was  Needles'  Furtherother  r e s i d e n t s appeared t o migrate  activity.  The h o u s i n g s t o c k i n t h e a r e a was b a s i c a l l y made up o f o l d e r , detached  d w e l l i n g s w i t h minimal amenities.  a v e r a g e s i x rooms and were f a i r l y  spacious.  Most homes c o n t a i n e d on t h e  47  And of  finally,  Edgewood.  manner.  The  The  to Needles,  D.  the n u c l e u s  c o r e was  o f the a r e a was  compact and  r e s t o f the a r e a was  laid  out  w i t h i n the v i l l a g e i n a rather informal  spread out a l o n g the I n o o n a k l i n V a l l e y  about seven to e i g h t m i l e s away.  ARROWPARK - FAGQUIER, B.C.  - C e n t r a l Region  '  T h i s s e c t i o n o f the r e g i o n c o u l d a l s o be broken down i n t o individual as one.  core  communities,  Furthermore,  v e r y s i m i l a r except  but  f o r purposes o f t h i s study  f o r a l l i n t e n t s and  for. the f a c t  it will  be  three grouped  purposes the communities were  t h a t B u r t o n was  l o n g e r and  a b i t more  s o c i a l l y c o h e s i v e than e i t h e r Arrowpark or F a c q u i e r . T h i s s e c t i o n o f the d i s t r i c t s o u t h of Nakusp and  was  l o c a t e d from 15 t o 40  miles  c h i e f l y on the e a s t s i d e o f the Arrow L a k e s , xtfith  the e x c e p t i o n of West Arrowpark . which l a y on the west s i d e o f the l a k e , and was  s e r v e d by a The  t e r r a i n and  ferry.  l a k e s h o r e lands were s m a l l s h e l v e s circumvented the Arrow Lake.  t h a t o f the Edgewood a r e a . The  The  c l i m a t e o f the a r e a was  much the same as  (See c l i m a t i c summary i n the Appendix.)  t o t a l l i n g approximately  e t h n i c backgrounds were q u i t e d i v e r s e and  600  people.  to  The  c o n s i s t e d o f Canadian,  British  American. The  The  mountainous  p o p u l a t i o n of the a r e a ranged from 50 h o u s e h o l d s i n B u r t o n  25 households i n F a c q u i e r ,  and  by  name F a c q u i e r d e r i v e d from one  communities w i t h i n the a r e a developed  as the r e s t o f the c e n t r a l The  of the p i o n e e r s o f the a r e a . about the same time and  lakes r e g i o n .  l a r g e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l group o f the F a c q u i e r - A r r o w p a r k  were l o g g e r s , but  manner  i t must n e v e r t h e l e s s be noted  district  that pensioners c o n s t i t u t e d  48  as  l a r g e  a  c o n s t i t u e n c y  West productive areas.of  Thus,  Arrowpark.  forest  the In  Burton  d i s t r i c t , In  number  of  and  afforded  d i d .  assembly  were  three  and  were  by  of  sort  that  of  point  access  gas  some  for  to  some  some  s t a t i o n s ,  degree,  the  of  of  two  was  C e l g a r ' s  the  most  t i m b e r - r i c h  combined  a l s o  had  was  o r i e n t e d  than  group  i d e n t i t y  that  marked  both  Housing  h a b i t a n t s  were  r e c o g n i z a b l e  town  place an  a  throughout  pub  an  w i t h  s t o r e s .  important  occupa-  F a c q u i e r the  made quite  of  In  Renata and  area  was  and  wood.  i s o l a t e d  The from  Y e t ,  n o t i c e a b l e .  b u i l d i n g s area  In  except  one  the  ,  West  one  c o u l d  were  sense  i n e v i t a b l e . which  and  the  served  the  community  community  h a l l  community  h a l l .  seemed  Edgewood  to  e x i s t e d .  whole  church  Burton. seemed  core  o f f i c i a l '  essence,  i n  prevalent.  and  h o t e l  the  leisure" a c t i v i t i e s  quite  the  s o c i a l i z i n g  o r i e n t e d . the  and  rundown  and  was  p r o p e r t i e s  because  o l d ,  minimal  in  p r o p e r t i e s  abandonment  of  popular  a l s o  commercial  comprised  most was  A c t u a l l y ,  meeting  and  f a i r l y  the  hunting  abandoned  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  s e l f - b u i l t  sport  community  Facquier  i n  f i s h i n g  a  1964.  Burton  l a c k i n g  an  to  although  a l l  f e e l i n g  a  was  e n t e r p r i s e ,  seemingly  abandoned  as  there  Burton,  Arrowpark  the  loggers  a c t i v i t y . ^ Swimming  the  areas  the  r e g i o n .  commercial  t i o n a l  as  to  be  more  coherence  communities  and  was  b a t t e r e d .  Community  i n d i v i d u a l l y sense  seemed  to  of be  . c o n s i s t  area each  was  of  rather  other.  older  d w e l l i n g s ;  spread  out,  thus  mainly i n -  49  It  was  E.  MT.  1.  L o c a t i o n :  Mt.  C a r t i e r  bounded  CARTIER  by  -  was  Upper  the  Arrow  northern  G r e e n s l i d e  Creek  Lakes  boundary  on  the  of  south  the and  Arrow  Lakes  Montana  r e g i o n .  Slew  on-the  north.  . The  the A  community  community  road  both  running  to  2.  C l i m a t e :  The  area  Thus,  it  Mt.  C a r t i e r  was  narrow  v a l l e y  The of  c e r t a i n  people  community  important  to  years  points  l e a s t  t o - t h e  h o s p i t a b l e  the  mountain  provided  300  which  Trans-Canada  throughout  r e c e i v i n g by  R e v e l s t o k e ,  s u p p l i e d  Highway.  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n the  r e g i o n .  c l i m a t e  inches  of  of  the  s n o w f a l l .  i n h a b i t a n t s .  v a l l e y  which  was  i n  shadow  for  day. the  mountains  peaks  offered  o f t e n an  r i s i n g  e x c i t i n g  d i r e c t l y c o n t r a s t  out a g a i n s t  l o c a t e d  on  h i l l y  l a n d ;  Mt.  C a r t i e r  had  a  i n  o r i g i n ,  coming  l a r g e  l a n d .  The  the  each  was  P o p u l a t i o n  l e f t  C a r t i e r  of  below.  usable  f i f t y  Mt.  the  narrow  snow-capped  4.  over  some  access  other  had  country,  community  s e c t i o n s  a  of  rugged The  and  south  and  " s n o w - b e l t "  was  portions  l a k e s .  p o r t i o n  the  Topography:  It  was  coined  miles  through  question  r e g i o n ,  12  s e r v i c e s  lakes  3.  s i g n i f i c a n t  the  i n  Lakes  xtfas  about  north-south  southern  Arrow  the  needed  the  whole  of  w i t h  was  .  of  Composition: was  the  years  of  t o t a l l y  Ukrahian  Ukraine  in  R u s s i a .  The  age  to  the  that  community  Ukranian  almost  to  due get  parents,..  fact  education "  -  m a j o r i t y  t h i s  most  of  of  the  the  a p p a r e n t l y •  p o p u l a t i o n  younger being "  from  5.  E a r l y  Settlement:  Revelstoke the  steam  a r r i v i n g  engine, i n  e a r l y  Mt.  for  was  and  t h i s  era  of  is  elementary  form  that  remained  Sustenance  The  i n h o s p i t a b l e  d a i r y  Thus, farm  b e t t e r  the  steam men such  and  earned as  only  d i e s e l t h e i r  r a i l r o a d , i n for  a r e a s " and  r a i l  or  era  t r a f f i c .  land  mining  the  of  S e t t l e r  g r a v i t a t e d  to  p r e v a l e n t  i n  were  for  in  r e s u l t , word was  p r a i r i e  lumber  from  throughout  an  i n v o l v i n g was  of the  of  small  During  every  l o c a l l y  the  R e v e l s t o k e  p r a i r i e s .  part  hay  p r o v i n c e s ,  the  the  i n t e g r a l  production  project  the  logging .  led' to  developed  an  acreages  i n i t i a t e d .  Occupation c l i m a t e of  about  and  l a c k  each per  2  of  growing cent  of  a g r i c u l t u r a l  immediately  d i r e c t  west  of  day, the  sun  in  food  part  the  narrow  accounted  s t u f f s was  production Revelstoke  i n  l o c a l l y  l i m i t e d  where  for  the  conto  land  was  a g r i c u l t u r e .  R e v e l s t o k e  had  locomotives, income  sectionmen,  away  been it  from  a  was Mt.  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n no  a c c i d e n t  C a r t i e r .  l o c o m o t i v e - e n g i n e e r i n g ,  predominated  throughout  l i c e n c e  employed  a l s o  horse  s i g n i f i c a n t  for  Because  -  a  household  portions  operations  s u i t e d  As  dam  a)  producing  " w i l d  homesteads  a g r i c u l t u r e ,  for  the  point  lumbering  of  demand  until'' the  v a l l e y  up  the  A c t i v i t i e s :  area  sumed.  a  6.  mountain ' the  the of  on  t r a n s f e r  seeking  i n c r e a s e d .  development hence  a  point  y e a r s .  almost  o p e r a t i o n ,  as  Both  opening  lumber  area  and  C a r t i e r .  the  d i v i s i o n a l  l a t e r  settlement  With demand  and  a  R e v e l s t o k e  unpopulated the  was  Mt.  many  c e n t r e  that  a  l a r g e  Employment  labourers,  C a r t i e r .  C e l g a r ,  w i t h  community  members.  But  i t s  f o r  and  i n  both  number  occupations  truck  f o r e s t  i n v a r i a b l y  of  d r i v e r s  management each  house-  hold  kept  t i e d  to  a  l a n d .  b)  L e i s u r e :  The  most  to  night  Many  chickens  the  appeared day  few  be  and  prevalent  gardening  " d r i n k i n g  respondents  cow  for  butchering  l e i s u r e  and  r e c r e a t i o n a l  time  O c c u p a t i o n a l  f i s h i n g  and  party"  a l s o  a  hunting.  were  a l s o  mentioned  i c e  f a v o u r i t e s k a t i n g  and  i n  l e i s u r e  as  a  much  t h a t  way  remained  a c t i v i t i e s and  time  the  S a t u r -  a c t i v i t i e s .  enjoyed  r e c r e a t i o n a l  a c t i v i t y . 7'.  Community  It of  the  was  went  w i t h  r i d e there  i^ays.  decent time  whole, For  or  organized  were  amenities  severe Most  p r i m a r i l y  members  l i f e .  the  g e n e r a l l y  Most  R e v e l s t o k e  and  of  t h e i r  a r e a .  consequently  stayed  people t h e i r  were  very  U n l i k e  a c t i v i t y  This  Renata  in  s e r i o u s  predominant  c h i l d r e n .  they  organized  community  c l i m a t i c  were  many  a  i n h a b i t a n t s  was  seemed  80 to  i n t e r e s t meant r a r e l y  "get  per  o l d - f a s h i o n e d was  hard  i n  work  i n  p r o v i d i n g and  c o o r d i n a t e d  a  minimal  community  t o g e t h e r s " .  cent  end  and  U k r a n i a n ,  any  r e a l  form  there.'  detached  simple.  and  They  s e l f - o w n e d . were  w e l l  The  b u i l t  homes  for  had  p r o t e c t i o n  c o n d i t i o n s .  p r o p e r t i e s  added  was  -  g e n e r a l l y and  out  s o c i a l i z i n g  It  Housing:  Homes  from  in  R e v e l s t o k e  p a r t i c i p a t e d  community  8.  to  t h e i r  the  community  r e l a t i v e s  example,  Although  community  entertainment.  s o c i a l i z i n g .  a c t i v i t i e s  l i m i t e d  or  the  for  C a r t i e r  organized  weekend  education  for  of  automobile  for a  Mt.  friends  by  As many  that  main-stream  done  short  seems  L i f e :  had  "glamour"  to  gardens the  which  provided  surroundings.  v e g e t a b l e s ,  but  they  of  9.  Location  i n R e l a t i o n to Each O t h e r :  Mt.  C a r t i e r was  spread out  along  T h i s meant t h a t p e o p l e were g e n e r a l l y communities o f the  E.  lower  about 20 m i l e s  and  C a r t i e r i n the  northerly  i t s western p o r t i o n across  considered  the  lake,  Halls  p a r t o f the Sidmouth community.  much the same as Mt.  C a r t i e r , rugged mountains,  narrow mountain v a l l e y s . Sidmouth r e c e i v e d  nonetheless i t s t i l l and  on  H a l l s L a n d i n g was l a n d s c a p e was  s o u t h o f Mt.  region.  Sidmouth c o n t a i n e d ,  The  i s o l a t e d , u n l i k e the more compact  - Upper Arrow Lakes  s e c t i o n o f the Arrow Lakes  Landing.  fashion.  lakes.  SIDMOUTH, B.C.  Sidmouth was  the highway i n a l i n e a r  quite  a inhospitable climate.  community had  summer was  an e t h n i c a l l y mixed p o p u l a t i o n  I r i s h , American and  humid  households i n As was settlements and  and  H a l l s L a n d i n g , t h e r e were about  the c a s e i n most communities  began as  s e t t l e d by  lumbering advanced. i n Mt.. C a r t i e r .  the H a l l f a m i l y e x c l u s i v e l y , and  beef-growing-: e n t e r p r i s e o f the  region,  people, on  People gravitated However, H a l l s there  began  the  district.  Employment i n Sidmouth E a s t , The  i n the upper l a k e s  the r a i l r o a d s u t i l i z e d R e v e l s t o k e as a t r a n s f e r  i n t e r e s t i n m i n i n g and  t e n c e farming.  15  1961.  to Sidmouth i n much the same manner as L a n d i n g was  - Swedish,  others.  Combining Sidmouth E a s t  point,  The  communities,  hot.  The British,  had  l e s s snow t h a n the more n o r t h e r l y  a very  s m a l l community, was  the whole, l i v e d o f f what the  land  subsisprovided.  On the o t h e r hand, H a l l s L a n d i n g was a v i a b l e These  f a r m i n g community.  farms were on l a r g e h o l d i n g s and tended t o be a g r a - b u s i n e s s o p e r a -  tions. In 1954, a f t e r  the boats went out o f s e r v i c e ,  mouth E a s t to 12 m i l e x\?as abandoned. and r e l a t i v e l y living  This  left  t h e l a n d from S i d -  the community  i n a c t i v e due t o t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y t h r e e f a m i l i e s were  i n Sidmouth E a s t by 1964.  Consequently,  social  i n t e r a c t i o n was a t  a minimum i n t h e community.  •  H a l l s L a n d i n g a l s o was s o c i a l l y u n o r g a n i z e d , v i t y c e n t e r e d around  from each o t h e r .  spread out and h o u s e h o l d s  tended t o be  I n H a l l s L a n d i n g , due t o t h e s i z e o f t h e  p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g s and l o t s ,  G'.  a l t h o u g h some a c t i -  the b u s i n e s s r e l a t i o n s h i p s made t h r o u g h f a r m i n g .  Sidmouth E a s t was f a i r l y isolated  isolated  i s o l a t i o n a l s o tended t o o c c u r .  ARROWHEAD, B.C. - Upper Arrow Lakes  Arrowhead was j u s t a few m i l e s s o u t h o f Sidmouth,  approximately  30 m i l e s from R e v e l s t o k e .  I t was a c r o s s t h e l a k e from G e l e n a Bay and  s e r v e d as a rough boundary  o f the n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n o f t h e Arrow Lakes  The Actually,  region  l a n d s c a p e s u r r o u n d i n g the community was mountainous and rugged.  t h e community was a s m a l l s h e l f o f f l a t  land abutting  Arrowhead c o n s i s t e d o f an e t h n i c a l l y mixed p o p u l a t i o n . were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 households  line  i n 1890 a f t e r  the Canadian  eight hotels,  Subsequent  Pacific  from R e v e l s t o k e , p r o v i d i n g a c c e s s t o t h e a r e a .  I t began as a m i n i n g and l u m b e r i n g v i l l a g e and by 1908 a t t r a c t e d 3,000 p e o p l e .  There  o r 115 people i n 1964.  The community was e s t a b l i s h e d R a i l w a y brought a r a i l  the.lakes.  about  b u i l d i n g led' t o a main s t r e e t c o n s i s t i n g o f  a l l o f which were two s t o r i e s h i g h .  A f t e r World War followed.  I mining f e l l  o f f and  A c t u a l l y , the community never r e a l l y  took on the appearance o f a town t h a t was A sawmill dozen men. their  The  jobs On  mill  ran only h a l f a year,  and  for small  i n order  a much enjoyed l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y ;  1964  Arrowhead had  e s s e n c e the community was  "spirit"  o c c a s i o n a l l y dances and  have one  elementary s c h o o l ,  25  t o the n o r t h .  miles  consequently,  As  can  be  as  and  occupied.  surely disappearing project.  also  This  by  Thus, 1964,  in  factor definitely  remained somewhat  meetings were h e l d t h e r e . but  size.  the had  isolated.  c h u r c h t h a t the community used as a  the h i g h  There were no  THE  level.  however, f i s h i n g was  s c h o o l was  organized  essentially  The  hall  community d i d  located at  c l u b s or s o c i a l  Revelstoke groups;  non-existent.  DATA;  inferred  from the  ethnographic  p o r t r a y a l , the Arrow  Lakes communities were q u i t e d i f f e r e n t x«7ith r e s p e c t community l i f e  doing  of the community because i t appeared  s o c i a l a c t i v i t y was  INTERPRETATION OF  land.  time.  t h a t most p e o p l e kept t o themselves and However, t h e r e was an A n g l i c a n  on a s u b s i s t e n c e  vacant l o t s  s l o w l y but  date of the announcement of the dam the s o c i a l  o f f t h e i r own  shrunk t o o n e - q u a r t e r o f i t s o r i g i n a l  There were as many empty houses and  a b e a r i n g on  lived  to supplement  contractors.  mentioned as a n o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l p a s t By  eventually  o t h e r s worked i n the bush  the whole, the community o p e r a t e d  Swimming was  and  dying.  income, the m i l l workers grew gardens and  various  Ill  recovered  employed a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f the community, about a  C e l g a r a l s o employed some men;  and  a decline i n population  culture.  to t h e i r c o n c e p t s  In h i s book, S u i c i d e , E m i l e  of  Durkheim a l l u d e s  to  the  s o c i a l  fact  that  causes  i n d i v i d u a l  ( i . e .  the  U s i n g  this  r e a c t i o n s  loss  of  a  can  sense  be  of  p a r t i a l l y  belonging  e x p l a i n e d  from  through  forced  d i s -  8 placement). that  the  impacts  degree  of  hesive  community  between  cohesion  members In  the be  l o c a l  study  in  the  r e g i o n  the III,  researcher  as  d i s p l a y e d  a  p a r t i a l l y  be  and  strong  as  one  where  was  today.  The  region,  as  d i r e c t l y  place to  examples,  A  f e l t to  the  s o c i a l l y  i n t e r a c t i o n  o u t l i n e of  two  was  and  c o -  a c t i v i t y  r e g u l a r l y .  v a l i d i t y and  it  r e l a t e d  e x h i b i t e d .  s o c i a l  made  Edgewood  to  the  only  communities  sense  of  by  homogenous  the  r u r a l  community  attempt  e x p l a n a t i o n ,  were  h i s  an  Lakes  for  s u s t a i n e d  takes  serve  explained  Renata,  i d e n t i f i e d  base  the  s e l e c t  the  importance  concept  appears  communities  showing  the  degree,  were  of to  w i t h i n  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between  l o c a l e .  being  predominantly In  Arrow  as  a  community)  even  w i l l  and  Renata,  i n  (of  i d e n t i t y  defined  community,  displacement  s e t t l e  was  as  i n d i v i d u a l  and  Chapter  evident  the  each  theory  for  a  l e s s e r  i d e n t i t y  the  fact  w i t h i n  and that  cohesion. Renata  p o p u l a t i o n s .  example,  Mennonites.  environments.  the  a  and  study  by  r e g i o n  Perhaps  the  t h a t  t h i s  can •  Edgewood  c o n s i s t e d  group  f a r  of  ,  l a r g e s t  ethnic  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , As  the  i d e n t i f i e d  group  Mennonites  they  are  by  have  t y p i f i e d  was  tended  by  to  c l o s e  9 family them  to  t i e s  and  r e s i d e  sequently,  it  are  community  o r i e n t e d . which  in  a  community  was  a  smooth  flowing  the  T h e i r  common  inhabitants  community  in  c u l t u r e  "knew"  which  most  enabled  w e l l .  Con-  of  people  the  V f i t " . Renata  was  a l s o  t y p i f i e d  as  a  " s t a b l e  farming  community".  As  was  mentioned respect a  e a r l i e r ,  "to  truck  p o p u l a t i o n  it  whose  employed  s u l t e d  in  a  element and  i n  s o c i a l  goals as  or  and  a s p i r a t i o n s  seen  d e f i n i n g  on  farms. of  f e l t  that  the  seemed  to  both  communities  As  be  of  l a r g e  was  the  and  the  lakes  factors  p r i m a r i l y  a  case  the  w i t h  r e g i o n  r e s u l t e d  w i t h in  same.  p o r t i o n  of  i t s  p o p u l a -  R e n a t a ,  i t  r e -  c o h e s i v e n e s s .  homogeneity  community,,  more  in  these  had  population  a  area  were  u n i f o r m i t y  cohesive  l i f e  Both  e a r l i e r ,  amount  was  productive  f r u i t s .  r e t i r e d  i t  most  and  was  c e r t a i n  Thus,  the  produce  Edgewood, t i o n  was  was  an  but'.community  e f f i c i e n t  i n d i c a t o r  "  . '  ".  a c t i v i t i e s  of  •. . .  i d e n t i t y  and  cohes ion. In numerous  o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  included  l e i s u r e  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s sense an  of  t i o n was of  took  on  l e s s and  s o c i a l l y  ment,  abandoned  example,  had  would  t h e i r  were  t i e d  e l i g i b l e a l l  of  the  anyway; more  brag  a  to  was  for  the -  On how  force In  formed.  as  much  farming the  Edgewood  the  were,  abandoned  l o t s  than  v i l l a g e s  occupied.  fact  that  s i m i l a r , f e l t  Arrow  communities  at  c o o p e r a t i v e most  but  that  no  Renata  communities.  northern  p r i o r  a  was  d i s p l a y i n g  of  during  coopera-  inhabitants  r e l i c s  o c c a s i o n s ,  a  Furthermore,  the  only  d i s p l a y e d  and  to  it  mundane  f r i e n d l i n e s s  a  due  i n  were This  more  communities  c o h e s i v e  communities  and  numerous  Thus,  there  i n t e r a c t i o n .  Renata,  l a n d .  d e f i n i t i o n  other  much  The  In  binding the  Renata)  communities.  e x i s t e d .  be  i n  o r g a n i z a t i o n s  about  r e s p e c t i v e  l e v e l s  unorganized  Most  church  togetherness.  to  general,  and  s o c i a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n  Edgewood were  a c t i v i t i e s  g e t - t o g e t h e r s .  proved  inhabitants  i d e n t i t y .  for  This  s t r e s s e d  party  d i f f e r e n t  s u c c e s s f u l ,  were  as  in  more  a c t i v i t i e s ,  and  p l a c e  many  In  s o c i a l  respondents  formed. the  such  i d e n t i t y  interview,  " l o v e "  time  (but,  l e s s  the  Lakes sense  time  of  remained. The  r e g i o n  s o c i a l  of d i s p l a c e Arrowhead  c o h e s i o n  .  that  was  r e g i o n . some  apparent  in  Although  t h i s  v e s t i g e s  other  c l u b s .  the  Mt.  community  not  c e n t r a l  a c t i v i t y  Edgewood  to  be  a c t i v i t y  r e g i o n ,  ing  and  as  it  were  one  of  the  as  was  m i s s i n g  the  case  and  s o c i a l  the  on  the l i f e  the  appeared  part  tended  to  i n t e r a c t i o n cohesive even  feuding  Arrow  being  it  that  -  Burton  northern  t r u l y  f e l t  extreme  Hence, c l a s s e s ;  in  r e g u l a r  was  an  region,  although  lacked  thought  the  in  the  whole, in  a  r e s t  of  there  few  the  were  of  the  of  the  be  "low  between  have  some  a c t i v e  r e g i o n  a l s o  had  key".  nominal  In  community in  communities  Deer were  i d e n t i f i a b l e ,  cohesive  the  schedule,  These  i n h a b i t a n t s ,  communities.  occurred  Lakes  to  the  church  some l a t t e r  thus  they  remainder  i n t e r a c t i o n  of  was  l a c k -  P a r k . broken  i n t o  e n t i t i e s  two  and  d i s t i n c t  those  that  not. As  a  i n d i v i d u a l s (in  r e s u l t who  the  of  came  form  from  of  e f f e c t s " .  from  respondents.  the  intimated  that  (or  30  25  of  r e s i d e d  in  showed  viewed)  This  cohesive  f a c t  Among  t h e y h a d  no  and  adverse  community confirmed  those  who  had  minimal  e f f e c t s  an  5  which  a g a i n  to  the  "adverse  of  showed  and  the  by  Renata,  community,  e f f e c t " . to  etc.)  a g a i n  in  the  t o t a l  that  B . C . 83  Among  were incurred  the  data and  per  cent  those  community,  30  the  commitments  o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  commitments  ( i . e .  in  data  r e s i d e d  commitments  evidenced  had  the  communities  in  was  strong  respondents)  Renata,  inverview  membership  "adverse  cent  seemed  community  C a r t i e r  communities  made  and  communities. In  were  of  Renata  17  who  per  respondents  i n t e r -  .  A c t u a l l y ,  there  were  two  unique  d i s p l a y e d  severe  adverse  e f f e c t s .  breakdown  at  time  displacement.  the  of  The  cases f i r s t His  in  R.enata.  person w i f e  Both  s u f f e r e d  mentioned  i n d i v i d u a l s from  during  a the  mental  interview  that  The  i n d i v i d u a l  of  other  the.doctor  a l c o h o l i s m .  a t t r i b u t e d In were  only  they  had  people  o s t e n s i b l e ,  a l l  s o c i a l l y strong found  an  three  a  to  displacement  h i s  a  hand,  In  response  of  d e p r e s s i o n f e l t  manifest  seven  move.  i n  but  the  he  form  too  community,  intimated  r e s u l t s  showed  for  inhabitants  that  there  t h a t  a l l  seven  I  and  that  found  l o s t  loss  may  from  future* of  the  a f t e r  f r i e n d s " ,  Losses of  "I  objects  i n  and  the  d i s r u p t i o n to  the  g e n e r a l l y  r o u t i n e s ,  expectations,  a l t e r a t i o n  a  past,  and world  s p a t i a l l y  of  in  b r i n g r e l a t i o n p h y s i c a l l y  oriented  not  h i s  respondents l i t t l e  Renata  loved  present  commun-  was  to  and quite  the  moving,  frequently of  due  concerning  e v e r y t h i n g " .  represent to  the  displacement  questions  my  to  showed  came  a  adverse  other  F r i e d :  fragmentation  a v a i l a b l e  content  community  " I l l o s t  had  r e l a t i o n s h i p  and  quite  an  the d i d  community  were  Otherwise,  experienced  M.  an  r e a c t i o n s  people  to  imply  adverse  where  the  of  occasions  commitment  which  According  the  a  of  c h e a t e d " ;  severe  cases  although  respondents the  three  s e r i e s  though  ships,  to  on  w i t h  that  the  a  as  to  the  to  f e l t  about  f e l t  were  disagreeable.  one's  was  but  commitments  and  forced  cohesive  a l l  two  d i r e c t l y  " p a i n "  had  "I  The  community.  and  Any  was  a  Only  her  Edgewood  "I  as  The  or  other  much",  the  moderately,  However,  respondent!^  the  so  defined  e f f e c t .  it  On  were:  to  displacement.  contrast  c o r r e l a t e d  remorse.  r e p l i e s  it  drank  communities.  adverse  the  commitment  and  a l s o  complete  cases,  cohesive,  sadness  but  forced  community.  i d e n t i f i a b l e  effect  In  the  showed  d i s p l a y  ity.  he  interviewed.  to  respondent was  breakdown  to  was  breakdown  e f f e c t s .  data  cohesive,  the  displacement  which  commitments  The  a  c o n d i t i o n  Edgewood,  adverse  had  to  severe  seven  d i s p l a y e d  less  a l s o  P r i o r  h i s  a t t r i b u t e d  f e e l i n g s  many  that  p l a c e  actions loss  From  of  change nent In only  for  ments  the to  i n  of  a  the  have  communities  that  d i s p l a y  lack  IV  h o s t i l e  Thus,  they many  i n  Arrow  the  Arrow of  involved  the  Some and  to  the  data,  communities a r e many  a  community  t h i s  was  true  a n d h a d made  v a r i a b l e s  displacement,  to  i t  commit-  concerning  was concluded  and a r e d i s p l a c e d  sense  of  i d e n t i t y  w i t h  no  commitments  those  and cohesion and  from  that: from  a r e communities  identity.  a l s o  be  c i t y  t r y i n g  residents of  to  o f f i c i a l s  seek  to  deprive  out  of  t h e i r  cheat  a c t i o n  large  number  of  e l d e r l y  and too  not  often  considered  the  i n  a l l  lack  interpersonal for  fact  on  f a i l e d  omitted due to  factors,  to  influence. the  although  them  convinced  by  and dependent  type,  i n  were  government  Lakes  authority  region  v a r i a b l e s  displacement.  the  the Arrow  Lakes  i n  law,  e s p e c i a l l y  and p o l i t i c a l  Hydro,  p e r s o n a l i t y  should  a  as  a r e  Lakes  resources  B.C. of  or  instance  composed  h i g h l y  tors  a  compo-  continuity.10  there  governmental  as w e l l  value,  another  economic  was  of  forced  people,  toward  p o l i t i c i a n s  things  ened  the  CONCLUSIONS:  quently  just  of  view,  s i g n i f i c a n t  cohesive  strong  than  sense  Rural-working  the  a  of  represents  according  commitments  a f f e c t e d  strong  i n  due to  that  that  study,  Although  • Individuals  a  experience  who r e s i d e d  i n d i v i d u a l s  adversely  point place  p o t e n t i a l l y  community.  more  this  important  p a r t i c u l a r  people  to  impacts  this  an  factors  general,  that  the  benefit This  that  and  that  them  of  belongings.  those  w i t h was  -  a  was .  greater strength-  d i s p l a c e d  i n d i v i d u a l s  f r e -  f e e l  dam project  a t t i t u d e  the  a r e  population  group  often  c o m m u n i t y . ^  cases,  to  of  take  time  acted  as  s t r i c t  r e s i d e n t s '  and data  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . contributing,  to  a d m i n i s t r a -  a t t i t u d e s  i n c l u d e : These  e f f e c t s  into  s p a t i a l  parameters from  forced  c o n s i d e r a t i o n . r e s i d e n t s c a r e f u l  For  followed  not  to  l u t e l y  c e r t a i n ,  t i o n a l  vacuum  rumors. that  complex  give  out  or  which  thus  i c a l l y .  that  were  e x p l a n a t i o n  of  i t s  In  the  whole,  s u s p i c i o u s  i n  announcement  the to  r e s i d e n t s  (in the  The  was  the  100  per  cent  nor  they  r e l e a s e s  newsletters  tended it  of  of  was  not  abso-  The  informa-  f i l l e d  w i t h assumed  understanding  Hydro  and  propaganda.'  the  could  i s s u e d  respondents  Hydro,  extremely  o f f i c i a l s  in  which  the  were  r e s i d e n t s to  be  cases  p a t t e r n  and  r e s i d e n t s  continued  of  it  thus  p e r i o d -  interviewed  Nonetheless,  compelled  poor  had  a f t e r  to  c l e a r  to  issue  and  d i d ) , of  the  the  an  them  property  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  announced  A u t h o r i t y the  and  in  Arrow  of  t a k i n g  of  of  the  personal  of  the  to  part  of  any  communication project  e x p r o p r i a t i n g  of  the  the thus  problem.  the  a  the  the  were  confuse  r e g i o n ,  of  Hydro  between  r e l o c a t i o n  up  g e n e r a l l y  property  the  set  r e s i d e n t s ,  t h e i r  on  had  bureau-  Lakes  delay  d e s i r e  out  w i t h  r e i n t e r p r e t e d  years  government's scare  the  Because  they  f i n a l  communication  the  that  the  contact  procedures  motivations.  example,  the  l i t t l e  such  a c t i v i t i e s ,  For  costs  negative  made  Hydro's  due  had  i n t e r p r e t  was  project  a c q u i s i t i o n  and  r e g i o n  respondents, as  books.  news  dam  to  o f f i c i a l s  o f f i c e  Lakes  r u l e  c r y p t i c  governmental  some  the  the  Lakes  were  were  d i s p l a c e m e n t - r e l o c a t i o n '  wary  the  assumed  the  by  they  of  Arrows'  they  of  g e n e r a l l y  Arrow  which  they  process  a c c o r d i n g l y .  of  required  and  Arrow  a c t i o n s .  were  view  about  the  expert  interviews  communications  t i o n  not  mandatory,  s i n c e  procedure,  w i t h  as  Hydro  not  However,  reducing  was  almost  the  newsletters  the  information  Lakes r e s i d e n t s were  the  communication  federal, r e g u l a t i o n s ,  according  A c t u a l l y ,  terms.  and  created  properly  commented  t h e i r  any  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  i n t e r p r e t  on  l o c a l  Moreover,  Arrow  c r a t i c  example,  Hydro by  area  p r o p e r t i e s  the r e l o c a by  eminent  domain.  importance c a t i o n  to  Hydro  the  r e s i d e n t s  schedules.  f i n a l l y  r e l i e v e d  This of  According in  the  e a r l y  p l a i n e d had  n e i t h e r  to  when  to  for  be  example,  process  there  for  nor  funds  on  those  the  now  was  broader  p o s s i b i l i t i e s  on  did  t o p i c s  l i t t l e  to  a s s i g n e d  it  to  was  r e l o -  people  p l a n  p r e p a r a t i o n  a c t i o n .  He  r e a l i z e d  that  implement  who,  ahead.  e f f e c t i v e  a m e l i o r a t i v e  most  and  t o . t h o s e  wanted  emerge  of  a c q u i s i t i o n  f r u s t r a t i n g  u n c e r t a i n t y ,  W i l s o n ,  mandate  vague  p a r t i c u l a r l y  of  J.W.  such  l e g a l  -  was  years  planning  that  continued  them  exHydro  d i r e c t l y ,  12 no  matter  a l s o the  be  how  d e s i r a b l e  understood  departmental  ideas  or  communication were  based  w i t h  f o l l o w i n g  r e s i d e n t s such  an  were  not  d u t i e s .  the  the  p r o v i n c i a l  on  and  have  s o r r y  r e l o c a t i o n r e s i d e n t s And  ways  was  h o s t i l e this  h i r e d  to  and  were  w i t h  r e q u i r e d  necessary,  were  f i n a l l y ,  not  they and  chapter  by  breath, agency  that  it  must  o u t s i d e  i n n o v a t i v e  r e d - t a p e  by  Hydro  the  or  n e c e s s a r y  it  o f t e n has  i s  h e l p f u l  not  r e l o c a t i o n .  t h e i r in  But,  u n w i l l i n g to  to  the  to  mainly These  the whether  concerned  p r e s c r i b e d  most  i n s t a n c e s ,  problems.  r e a l l y  attempted  concerned  o f f i c i a l s  out  of  d i f f i c u l -  q u e s t i o n a b l e  The  job.  some  the  consequences  serious  could  was  governing  c a r r y  the  a t t r i b u t e d  motivations,  e x p l o i t e d .  r e s i d e n t s  and  o f f i c i a l s  However,  been  f e l t  v a r i o u s  Hydro  a c t .  same  departments.  understanding  They  in  delayed  r e g u l a t i o n s  were  Arrow  and  f a c t o r s .  about  the  Government,  c u l t u r a l  f e d e r a l  in  semi-independent  negative  they  those  a  o t h e r ' s  o f f i c i a l  s i n c e r e l y  was  thwarted  each  would  However,  B . C .  p o l i c y - m a k e r s ;  to  Lakes'  to  and  Hydro's  to  that  o f t e n  nothing  opportunity  of  r e s i d e n t s  l o c a l  e s p e c i a l l y help  Hydro  p r i m a r i l y  s a i d  of  B . C .  v a r i o u s  f a i l u r e  t i e s  r e g u l a t i o n s  were  w i t h  Although  were.  s t r u c t u r e  programs  c o n s u l t a t i o n  that  they  They  s i n c e  t r i e d  they  understand  b e l i e v e d  why.  Arrow  cooperate.  provide  a  d e s c r i p t i o n  and  s o c i a l  The  information  for  subsequent  c l u d i n g  a n a l y s i s  of  displacement  presented  in  this  recommendations  chapter.  and  in  the  chapter p o l i c y  Arrow w i l l  Lakes  thus  s t r a t e g i e s  be  region a  made  of  B . C .  " s p r i n g - b o a r d " i n  the  con-  FOOTNOTES 1 Bowlby, J . ; " P r o c e s s o f Mourning", I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f Psychoa n a l , Volume 42, pp. 317-340, N.Y., I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v . P r e s s , 1961. 2 Warkentin, M. and Rohn R.; B.C. Hydro, 1965.  The S t o r y o f Renata, ed. W i l s o n , Renata,  3 R e g i o n a l Index o f B.C., E a s t and West Kootenay's, Bureau o f Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Dept. o f I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce, V i c t o r i a , May 1967, p. 4. 4 Warkentin, M. and Rohn R., 5 Ibid.,  op.cit.,  p. 5.  p. 5.  6 Vancouver Sun, J a n . 17, 1974, 7 W i l s o n , J.W.; 8 Durkheim, 1951.  "Hydro O f f e r s Land V i c t i m s o f F l o o d i n g "  P e o p l e i n t h e Way,  Emile; Suicide,  Univ. of Toronto Press,  ed., George Simpson,  1970,  The F r e e P r e s s ,  9 Siemens, A.H.; Mennonite S e t t l e m e n t i n the Lower F r a s e r M.A. T h e s i s i n geography, 1960, U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C.  11 Brodney, J u l i e t ; Advocacy and S e r v i c e f o r the D i s l o d g e d The F r e e P r e s s , U . , 1969, p. 123. op.cit.,  p. 26.  Urban  Elderly,  136  N.Y.,  Valley,  10 F r i e d , M.; " G r e i v i n g f o r a L o s t Home", i n L . Dutth, ed., The C o n d i t i o n , p. 154, B a s i c Books P u b l i s h e r s , 1963.  12 W i l s o n , J.W.,  p.  CHAPTER  CONCLUSIONS  AND  FIVE  RECOMMENDATIONS  CONCEPT:  I.  M u l t i p l e - p u r p o s e have  involved  India  the  r e s u l t e d  d i s p l a c e d  as  of  have  people  The problems  t i a l  be  the  of  be  a  impacts  of  the  r e l o c a t e d of  solved to  b a s i n  for  of  Aswan as  a  Damodar  93,000  people.  Dam  in  r e s u l t  any  s c a l e  part  the  is  a  of  in  V a l l e y  of  the  V a l l e y  most  and  plan, past  were  thousands p r o j e c t .  p r e s s i n g  p r o j e c t .  development  i n  people  S i m i l a r l y ,  one  c o u n t r i e s  project  Tennessee  present  many  100,000  development  of  consequences  Egypt.  of  people  large  projects  The  d i s p l a c e d  s u c c e s s f u l and  development  people.  displacement  r e s u l t  been  is  that  the  r e l o c a t i o n  to  r e l o c a t i o n  r e l o c a t i o n  in  the  r i v e r  Thus, it  is  i f  essen-  programs  be  known.  An has  been  i m p a c t - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  developed  have  been  of  s e l e c t e d  a  include and  the  w i t h i n  impacts,  t h i s  study.  m u l t i p l e  r e s e r v o i r  It  its  is  p r e d i c t i v e  j u s t i f i e d  by  for  . The  major  s c a l e  and  a d d i t i o n s  serve  to  r e s e r v o i r  concerns  consequences  Further w i l l  large  add  to  to  of  the  secondary the  its  scheme  p r o j e c t s scheme e f f e c t s which  comprehensiveness  u t i l i t y .  f e l t  that  an  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n )  development  order  project.  supplementary.research,  improve  scheme  p r o j e c t s . simply  The  i m p a c t - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n is  necessary  r a t i o n a l e  examining  past  for  in  the  the  trends.  approach planning  above For  ( f o l l o w - u p  of  l a r g e  statement  example,  can  v i r t u a l l y  and  s c a l e be every  large  r e s e r v o i r  other  than  be  the  c l a s s i f i e d  ing  t i v e  of  impacts.  loss,  of  p r e p a r a t i o n  been  i t s  primary  and  in  m i n i m i z i n g  l e d  o b j e c t i v e s . and  some  t h e i r  has  These  i n d i r e c t l y  instances,  consequences  negative  to  e f f e c t s  a f f e c t  and  may  man,  u n a n t i c i p a t e d before  e f f e c t s  e f f e c t s  they  causb e n e f i t s .  occur  maximizing  p o s i -  ones. Follow-up  scheme,  is  inherent  an  in  s t u d i e s ,  important  the  the  f i n a l  r e q u i s i t e .  p r e - e v a l u a t i o n  or  approach.  Although  concerning  occurrence  of  the  p r o j e c t s ,  Moreover,  it  the  u t i l i t y  serves  as  an  some  of  component This  is  there  l i n k  a  h i g h  e f f e c t s  in  i m p a c t - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n u n c e r t a i n t y  component, of  p r e d i c t i v e  important  an  because  i s n ' t  potential-  the  of  so  p r e d i c t i v e  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  ment  c o n s t r u c t e d  d i r e c t l y  and  impacts for  has  They  s u f f e r i n g ,  r e c o g n i t i o n  permits  which  achievement as  economic  Thus,  project  l e v e l  at  t o t a l  impactof  c e r t a i n t y  p a r t i c u l a r  component the  an  is  is  not  d e v e l o p -  reduced.  p l a n n i n g  process  of  i m p a c t - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The is  that  b i l i t y  it  most can  between  i n d i v i d u a l s .  important  be  a p p l i e d .  d e c i s i o n Open  use  r e a l i s t i c  a p p r a i s a l  It  allows  for  as  to  occurrence  tude  the and  r e q u i r e d  s p e c i f i c  it  is  concerning  part  i n s i g h t  by  of  There  makers of  the  both  of  is  and  the  i m p a c t - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  opportunity  t h e i r  for  planning  proponents  c r i t i c i s m c e r t a i n  where  and  scheme  opponents  there  secondary  i n c r e a s i n g  agencies  i m p a c t - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  are  of  or  as  c r e d i -  and  v a r i o u s  w i l l  a l l o w  proposed  d i f f e r e n c e s  e f f e c t s ,  scheme  to  p r o j e c t s .  of  o p i n i o n  t h e i r  magni-  e v a l u a t i o n . Thus,  bear  f u n c t i o n  obvious the  that  s o c i a l  more  s o p h i s t i c a t e d  consequences  of  the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  into  the  consequences  of  for  of  p r o v i d i n g  t h e i r  a c t i o n .  our the  information a c t i o n s .  r e q u i s i t e  For  example,  w i l l  be  P l a n n e r s amount the  w i l l  of  matura-,  t i o n can  of be  other  a  framework  used  to  words,  process.  which  evaluate  to  -  by  A  i n j e c t method  the a  s o c i a l e f f e c t s  s o c i a l  of  consequences upon  " e t h i c "  development  communities or  i n c o r p o r a t i n g  of  or  component  s o c i a l  r e g i o n s .  into  values  p r o j e c t s  the  In  p l a n n i n g  through  i n s t i t u t i o n a l  arrangements. S o c i a l be  f r u i t l e s s  s o l u t i o n s . In  a  by  s i v e  r e f e r  impacts  s o c i a l  A  WORKING  occur  r e l o c a t i o n ,  be  over  people.  from  and  term  e x t e r n a l  at  and  be  needs  those  people  there  planned  for  be  be  s c r u t i a f f e c t e d  a  d i s t i n c -  impacts.  As  this  f e l t  Intensive  Conversely,  e f f e c t s .  stages,  is  being  should  may  i n t o  It  must  it  v i a b l e  i n j e c t e d  process.  consequences.  v a r i o u s  Thus,  p r o v i d i n g  " e x t e n s i v e "  or  time  the  a d d i t i o n ,  impacts  or  must  Therefore,  d i r e c t l y In  of  e f f e c t s  recognized  s t a g e s .  exten-  mentioned  consequently  e a r l i e r  these  a c c o r d i n g l y .  MECHANISM:  from is  " h y p o t h e t i c a l  long  v a r i o u s  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  p l a n .  immediate  s p e c i f i c  e f f e c t s  the  " i n t e n s i v e "  to  at  " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n "  information  r e f e r  must  One term  to  impacts  v a r i a b l e s  a  time,  consequences without  p u b l i c  development  between  over  s o c i a l  serve  procuring  made  impacts  II'  must  s p e c i f i c  t i o n  o u t l i n e  essence,  planners  nized by  to  occur  Furthermore,  process. that  impacts  a  method  of  determining  development  " s c e n a r i o s " . sequences  of  project,  IKahn events  and  the  p o s s i b l e  e s p e c i a l l y  Weiner  one  define  constructed  for  the  e x t e r n a l that  long  n e c e s s i t a t e s  scenarios., purpose  or  as  of  f o c u s i n g  1 a t t e n t i o n  on  to  two  answer  t i c a l for  c a u s a l kinds  s i t u a t i o n  each  processes  factor  of  come at  questions:  about  each  and  step  step  to  by  d e c i s i o n (a)  p o i n t s . "  Scenarios.^  P r e c i s e l y how  step?  prevent,  (b)  What  d i v e r t  or  might  some  attempt hypothe-  a l t e r n a t i v e s f a c i l i t a t e  the  e x i s t process?  In the  order  that  devemopment  assumptions changes which  in  wise)  must the  the  ptions  of  plans  be  human  n e c e s s i t y  a  Since  c l e a r  more  everyone  people  being  in  i n  the  the  of  which  the  kind has  or  i n t e n s i t y  some  l i m i t i n g  regards  q u a n t i t y  t i v e  the  s c e n a r i o s  which  I l l  enables  assumptions  provide them  to  RECOMMENDATIONS: Comprehensive  quired most and  i f  project  part, t h e i r  have  recommended for  c a r r y i n g  located,  to  on the  PLANNING  i s  POLICIES  changes  in  of  to  the  the  year  f o r  to  make  assum-  and  o t h e r -  e x i s t s  the  contexts.  of it  change is  they  are  w i t h  the  FOR  the  in  needs  advantageous costs  are  may to  have  o f t e n  documented  advanced, k i n d  be  such  of  w i t h a l t e r n a -  background  RELOCATION  consequences  improve.  the  d i s p l a c e d  e f f e c t s  of  present  p o p u l a t i o n s .  e v a l u a t i o n  t h e i r  l i v e s  of  Development  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  c o n t i n u i n g  there  Adequately  makers  of  ( l e g i s l a t i v e  p r e p a r a t i o n  which  c e r t a i n -  p r e d i c t i o n s and  in  d e c i s i o n s .  knowledge  permanent a  wise  examined  upon  that  make  under  people  necessary  Thus,  merit,  d e s i r e d .  d e c i s i o n  planning  not  impact  the  p e r i o d .  planning  Unfortunately,  and  c o n t r o l s  c a t a l y s t s  the  present  a l s o  of  s c e n a r i o s .  proposals  is  as  of  concern  the  It  same  d e f i n i t i o n  than  w e l f a r e  between  prepared.  changes  the  the  function  assumptions  a l t e r n a t i v e as  t h e i r  improving  the  needed  f u l f i l l  These  a c t i v i t i e s  for  p r e d i c t e d ,  of  is  r e s p e c t i n g  for  made.  needs  s c e n a r i o  of  scenarios  of and  It  is  machinery the  r e l o c a t i o n a g e n c i e s ,  r e l o c a t i o n t h e r e f o r e should  r e a c t i o n s  environment;  be  of  r e -  for  the  p o l i c i e s s t r o n g l y developed  those  i . e .  i s  r e -  follow-up  s t u d i e s .  One R i v e r  Treaty  major was  drawback i t s  lack  in of  the  resettlement  s o c i a l  r e s e a r c h  program  concerning  of  the  the  Columbia  d i s p l a c e d  population.  A c c o r d i n g  research  was  done  made  follow-up  for  v i c t i m s  of  the  on  to  the  J .  W i l s o n ,  Columbia  surveys.  "It  is  project,  Nothing  is  one  r e g r e t t a b l e and  known  Arrow-project;  no  knows  A  r e l o c a t i o n  that  no  about  where  t h a t  no  p r o v i s i o n  t w o - t h i r d s  they  s o c i a l  a r e ,  was  of  far  the  l e s s  how  2 they  f a r e d . "  against  time,  pending  projects  former  Hydro  stenographic r e s u l t e d  l i m i t a t i o n s , i n  o f f i c e r and  inadequate  concurred.  external  f i l e s  kept  " F i g h t i n g  pressures  on  the  such  as  d i s p o s i t i o n  of  3 d i s p l a c e d for  persons  s o c i a l  i a l l y  one  -  research that  of  a c t i o n s  are  of  the  be  f i l t e r e d ,  of  often  of  Only  A l l r e l a t i v e l y  i t s  and  to  stand  up  being  the  an  many  make  be  l e v e l s  made l i n e ,  of  responding  to  to l i n e  which  r e s o l v e d ,  those of  face  who  of  i t s  because  system needs  occupy  v e r y p o s i t i o n s  problems  occurs  mainly  diagnoses  h i g h l y  aggregated  the  that  must  a c c e l e r a -  but  unattended  a l s o of  A  information  be  but  basis  high  the  the  slowness, the  to  in  This  on  r e l o c a t i o n .  impact.  slowly  the  espec-  points  w a i t i n g  As  project,  d e c i s i o n s ;  i n  seem urgent  funds  e f f e c t i v e  through  too  e s t a b l i s h  e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y  population.  made  are  but  often  information.  l i t t l e  feedback  of  g e n e r a l l y In  to  subsequent  the  are  r o u t i n i z e d .  is  to  development  ultimate  queue.  problems  yet  and  d i f f i c u l t i e s  in  these  is  large  there  their  necessary  among  misleading  Feedback  is  any  power  that  r i s e s  agonizing  a c t i o n . been  tend  those  advanced  i n c o r r e c t ,  incomplete  from  of  Problems  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  because  the  the  happens.  grows,  s o c i e t y  Because  changes.  of  i t  displacement  great  d e c i s i o n s  are  onset  in  far  Thus,  experiences  people.  power  the  Western  i n i t i a t e d  structured  l i t t l e  at  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  so  t i n g  p i t y . "  n e c e s s i t a t e s  Throughout degree  a  aggravated meaningful slow,  a d d i t i o n ,  by  information  e s p e c i a l l y  much  fact  that  is  where  to  the  there  centers  a c t i o n s  r e l e v a n t  i s  is  have  of not  e v e n t u a l l y  filtered  out as  i n f o r m a t i o n moves from i t s p o i n t s o f o r i g i n up  the h i e r a r c h y o f a c t i o n l e v e l s . the way,  this  would permit  a reasonable  Lakes r e s e t t l e m e n t circumstances  l a c k i n g the c o n t e x t  of problems were p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t program.  One  integrated f i e l d  i n t h e Arrow  of Hydro's g r e a t e s t h a n d i c a p s was so much on  office,  and  i t s own.  most s p e c i f i c  decisions  l a c k i n g , which r e s u l t e d in' f r u s t r a t i o n and  c o n c e r n f o r the s o c i a l w e l f a r e  o f the r e s i d e n t  I t i s t h e r e f o r e recommended t h a t an up  In essence,  departments and  agencies  had  Thus,  minimal  population.  institution  (board) be  t h a t would be a b l e to c o o r d i n a t e a l l the a s s i s t a n c e to be  the d i f f e r e n t  that  Furthermore,  t o be made through v a r i o u s departments f a r away i n Vancouver. c o o r d i n a t i o n was  that  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t s meaning.  r e q u i r e d i t to o p e r a t e  no  to a l l manner o f d i s t o r t i o n s on  i n f o r m a t i o n a r r i v e s a t the top  These types  t h e r e was  Subject  through  set  given  by  i n v o l v e d i n the r e l o c a t i o n p r o c e s s .  t h i s means a more complete s y n t h e s i s of government b o d i e s  -  an " i n t e g r a t e d management approach". And project  the o b j e c t i v e s of any  should r e f l e c t  more, those  IV  finally,  l a r g e s c a l e development  the needs of the r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n .  needs s h o u l d  be a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h i n the agency's  IMPACT-IDENTIFICATION SCHEME:  A STEP BY  Furtherpolicy.  STEP APPROACH FOR  RELOCATION  PLANNING: Step A:  P r e - e v a l u a t i o n or p r e d i c t i v e model i s p r e s e n t e d  on a s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n system. Step B:  (See C h a p t e r  Development o f a l t e r n a t i v e s c e n a r i o s  - based  1) - based on  "informed"  assumptions. Step C:  Development o f r e l o c a t i o n p l a n - based on S t e p s A and  B  and  a  f i t s  thorough t h e i r  demands  understanding p l a n  knowledge  into  of  and  the  of  the  needs.  project This  consequences  area  w i l l  of  r e s i d e n t s ,  ensure  t h e i r  that  a c t i o n s  so  that  o f f i c i a l s  before  they  the  p l a n  have  some  put  the  e f f e c t .  The  r e l o c a t i o n  p l a n  would  s p e c i f i c a l l y  include  the  f o l l o w i n g  s t i p u l a t i o n s : 1.  R e s t i t u t i o n ,  2.  L o c a l  l o w - i n t e r e s t 3. provided to  to  re-open  (a  the  owners  The  of  up  so  amount  of  t h e i r  r e a c t i o n s c)  This  of  are so  A  and  problem  was  understanding e s s e n t i a l l y  buy  moving  other  l o c a l  new  s t r e s s e d .  i n t e r e s t - f r e e  or  homes.  allowances  b u s i n e s s m e n who  programs  in  due the  to  should  w i l l  should  be  made  be  not  be  able  a v a i l a b l e  the  redevelopment  agency  given  r e s i d e n t s  t r a i n e d  to  they can  and  to  s i t e  information  Arrow  Lakes  to  and  the  r e s i -  more  develop  vacuums  is  is  maximized  prevented  s i t u a t i o n ) .  understand  have  the  i n s i g h t  a-more  i n e v i t a b l y i n t o  t o l e r a n t  what  deprivatory r e l o c a t i o n  a t t i t u d e  towards  p r o t e s t . " body"  should  p a r t i c u l a r l y  J.W.  urban  the  information  and  shock  to  and  of  to  provide  be  that:  " s y n t h e s i z i n g  A c c o r d i n g  wish  l i e u  between  that  r e s i d e n t s , of  i n  rumors  occurred  r e l o c a t i o n the  who  should  should  r e t r a i n i n g .  O f f i c i a l s  to  compensation  elsewhere.  federal  set  which  means  were  firms  Communication  b)  about  store  development  problem  plan.  r e l o c a t e e s  small  ba  than  agencies  funds  should  nature  to  o c c u p a t i o n a l  a) and  federal  L i q u i d a t i o n  Other  5. dents  loans  t h e i r  4. provide  and  rather  W i l s o n , people  people  evident  " . . . i t  as w i t h  be  x^ell  is as  middle  set  in  up  the  which  Arrow  p o s s i b l e we  might.  c l a s s  that  would  Lakes  resettlement  Hydro  F i r s t ,  p r o f e s s i o n a l  coordinate  did  most  of  not  set  us  v a l u e s . "  A  the  d i f f e r e n t  agencies  6.  The  a)  S o c i a l  involved  r e l o c a t i o n  in  s t a f f  the  r e l o c a t i o n  should  be  process.  strengthened  t  by  the  a d d i t i o n  of:  a d d i t i o n a l the  most  problems  important 7.  " k i n  group" a)  together moved  workers  r e s u l t i n g  r e l o c a t i o n  or  o r g a n i z a t i o n , ways  separate  of  provide  from for  p r o j e c t s  a  that  should  s t a f f i n g ,  the be  breaking  -  Make  it  p o s s i b l e  r e - e s t a b l i s h  themselves  to  r e l o c a t e e s .  s c a t t e r e d c)  ethnic  Develop  group the  who  D:  in  group  want  Mennonites  Step  to of  gathering  data  and  gathering  the  on  important  c e n t r a l  stay  is  apart  a  of  to:  f a m i l i e s  provided  project  l o c a t i o n s  where  methods  together  Renata  new  data  for  r e l o c a t i o n  On-going  for  they  l i v i n g  want  to  to  expressed  to  move a  This  developments  f a l l i n g  r a p i d l y  enough  in  i n s t i t u t i o n s  they  are  a l l o w into  d e s i r e  e v a l u a t i o n .  a r e a  be  for  includes  order  members  an  a r e a  GENERAL  E:  to  important  Follow-up  study;  or  an  as' a  is  an  r e c o g n i z e than  what  .  urgent that they  need  for  what  they  c r e a t e  in  our  s p e c i a l  design s t e e l  in  p r e d i c t i v e  for  i n f o r m a t i o n  the  and  group,  .  trends, to .  be .  a n a l y s i s " .  ~  the  an  mechanisms  outside  planners,  '  t h i s . )  " a f t e r - t h e - f a c t  CONCLUSIONS:  There figures  of  . Step  to -  a c c e s s i b l e  u s e f u l .  V  w i t h  a t t i t u d e  conducted  extended  households  faced  o f f i c e r .  involve  together  r e s i d e n t s  • In  r e l o c a t i o n  experiments  adjacent  to  r e l o c a t i o n .  r e l o c a t i n g  but  a i d  together. b)  ( i . e .  can  p r e r e q u i s i t e  In  F i n d  in  who  . a r c h i t e c t s minds  concrete.  of  and  men  is  p o l i t i c a l more  Assuming our s o c i e t y c o n t i n u e s on i t s p r e s e n t c o u r s e o f technol o g i c a l progress, i t w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e a constant supply o f the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s t h a t t h e h i n t e r l a n d o f f e r s - t i m b e r f o r homes and paper, w a t e r f o r d r i n k i n g and e l e c t r i c power, and open space f o r new developments and recreation.  I n our quest  of displacement  f o r t h e s e needed r e s o u r c e s , t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s  o c c u r r i n g w i l l c o n t i n u e t o grow.  c a n t l y t o t h e burden o f our times by u n d e r m i n i n g security could s t i l l  T h i s may add s i g n i f i whatever f e e l i n g s o f  be o b t a i n e d from a sense o f b e l o n g i n g i n a con-  t i n u o u s l y e v o l v i n g , r a t h e r than d i s i n t e g r a t i n g , m i l i e u i n process o f b e i n g superseded.  T h i s i s no argument a g a i n s t p r o g r e s s , o n l y a g a i n s t  t h e a r b i t r a r y i n j e c t i o n o f changes d e s i g n e d w i t h s o l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s t r e s s e s and s t r a i n s i n s t e e l and c o n c r e t e , b u t n o t i n t h e human mind.' ing  To h e l p l a y t h e f o u n d a t i o n s  f o r b e t t e r procedures  i s a challeng-  task f o r planning. I t has been shown, by  the r e s u l t s of the present research, that  r e l o c a t i o n has been i n s e n s i t i v e t o p e o p l e ' s d e s t r u c t i v e i f not p r o p e r l y administered. supported  " r e a l " needs, and i s o f t e n These o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e a l s o  by c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n t h e f i e l d .  In c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t r e l o c a t i o n procedures a r e developed  by p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' whose v a l u e s a r e much o f t h e t i m e ,  different i  than those b e i n g a f f e c t e d by r e l o c a t i o n .  These p r o f e s s i o n a l s o f t e n  assume t h e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y o f t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y - h o u s e h o l d .  However,  many o f t h e s e p h y s i c a l l y i n d i v i d u a l h o u s e h o l d s a r e t i e d t o t h o s e o f o t h e r f a m i l i e s by s t r o n g bonds, e i t h e r o f k i n s h i p o r p e e r - g r o u p memberSee Wood, E l i z a b e t h , "The needs o f p e o p l e a f f e c t e d by r e l o c a t i o n " . A l s o see S t o d d a r d , E.R., " S o c i a l f a c t o r s i n s u c c e s s f u l a d j u s t m e n t o f relocatees". .  s h i p .  If  mutually  households  a c c e s s i b l e as  emotional  can  from come  they  means  being  the to  s o c i a l a f f e c t  except  "home  w i t h i n  a  For  from car  shock  v i l l a g e ,  many  of  the  and  thus  a c c e s s i b l e do  the  not  whose  a l l o w  who  s o c i a l  neighborhood  s u r e s t  way in  manipulation a  w i t h  s u b s t i t u t e parti  Thus, w i t h  This  planning  being  our  any  strengthening  chapter.  c i t i z e n s .  is  neighborhood  gruent  w i l l  to  induce  people to or  t h e i r  s u f f e r people  only  i f  t r a n s f e r  of  and  l i v e d  emotional  c i t y .  Wm.  is  l i k e l y  anywhere  t i e s  are  M i c h e a l s o n  ..  p a t h o l o g i c a l  through force  -  environmental  t h e i r  v i l l a g e  move  which  l i f e - s t y l e s  l i f e - s t y l e  but  i t s e l f  never  '  responses  w i l l  Younger  the  process  have  or  for  w r i t e s : The  and  neighborhoods.  r e l o c a t i o n  people  not  people,  they  neighbors.  are  s o c i a l  e l d e r l y  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  p u b l i c  they  n e g a t i v e  or  of  and  past,  that  and  of  number  the  so  r e l a t i v e s  procedures  town",  the  been ,in  a c c e s s i b i l i t y ,  r e l a t i v e l y  the  i n d i v i d u a l l y , -  r e s u l t .  by  r e l o c a t i o n  n e g a t i v e l y  t h e i r  e n t i r e l y  in  system,  have  p e d e s t r i a n  a g a i n  r e l o c a t e d Since  may  separated  together  are  r e l o c a t e d  they  consequences  a c c e s s i b i l i t y most  are  is  from con-  w i t h o u t  d e s i r e d  on  i n  f i e l d  a  t h e i r  6  f u r t h e r the  research  i m p a c t - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  h o p e f u l l y  i n i t i a t e d  t h i s  and  r e s u l t a  i n  greater  more regard  should  scheme  be  concerned  presented  comprehensive for  the  s o c i a l  i n  t h i s  p r o j e c t w e l f a r e  of  •  74  FOOTNOTES 1 New  Kahn, York,  2 1970, 3  H. p.  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E l Paso, Tex., Dept. of P l a n n i n g R e s e a r c h and Development, 1970.  78  Suttle,  Gerald. " T e r r i t o r i a l i t y and t h e Urban Community", Supplement o f S o c i o l o g i c a l A b s t r a c t s .  i n the '68  Thayer, Scudder. "Man-made l a k e s and p o p u l a t i o n r e s e t t l e m e n t " , 1960; Symposium o f t h e I n s t i t u t i o n o f B i o l o g y , #15, Academic P r e s s , London. Thursz,  D a n i e l . Where A r e They Now? A study o f t h e impact o f r e l o c a t i o n on former r e s i d e n t s o f southwest Washington. H e a l t h and W e l f a r e C o u n c i l o f t h e N a t i o n a l C a p i t o l Area, 1966.  Tonkinson, R o b e r t . Matt V i l l a g e , E f a t e : A R e l o c a t e d Community i n t h e New H e b r i d e s . Eugene, Oregon, Dept. o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon, 1968. Ungerson, C l a r e . Moving Home: A study o f t h e redevelopment p r o c e s s i n two London b o r o u g h s . ' L o n d o n , G. B e l l , 1971. Vancouver Sun, J a n . 17, 1974. Warkentin, M. and Rohn, R. B.C.. Hydro, 1965.  "Hydro o f f e r s  land v i c t i m s o f f l o o d i n g " .  The S t o r y o f Renata, ed. W i l s o n ,  Renata,  Warren, R o l a n d . "Toward a R e f o r m u l a t i o n o f Community Theory", ..in Human O r g a n i z a t i o n XV, No. 2, p u b l i s h e d by the S o c i e t y f o r A p p l i e d A n t h r o p o l o g y , 1956. W a t e r f i e l d , D. C o n t i n e n t a l Waterboy. 1970; Vancouver, Canada.  Clarke,  I r w i n and Co. L t d . ,  Toronto,  Webber, M e l v i n M. "Community Without P r o p i n q u i t y : Order i n D i v e r s i t y . " I n C i t i e s and Space, ed. by Lowden Wingo, J r . , John Hopkins P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , 1963. Wilson,  J.W.  P e o p l e i n the Way.  U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press,  1970, p. 3.  Wilson,  J.W.  P e o p l e i n t h e Way.  U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press,  1970, p. 136.  Wood, E l i z a b e t h . The Needs o f P e o p l e A f f e c t e d by R e l o c a t i o n . Renewal Program Committee, P h i l . , 1965.  Community  7 9  APPENDIX  81  APPENDIX I I  WEST ROBSON TO RENATA - HOUSEHOLDS BY OCCUPATION  West Robson To S y r i n g a Cr  Deer Park  Renata  Carpenter  8 2  6  3  2  6  Government1  2  2  Labourer  8  Farmer ( F u l l Time) Farmer  Total  ( P a r t Time)  2  1  Logger  "''  1  4  27  3 Pensioner Pulpmill Smelter Service Station & Truck D r i v e r Welfare Miscellaneous^  Store  4  11 8  3  11  1  3  1  Motel  8  1 6  '• 37  6  1  7  1  1  2  2  1  4 2  2 2  3  5  13  _3  _1  II  55  16  33  122  1  -  Includes  F e r r y , Highways, and F o r e s t r y Department  Employees.  2  -  I n c l u d e s L o g g e r s and Sawmill Workers.  3  -  I n c l u d e s a l l R e t i r e d Persons l i v i n g on P e n s i o n s p l u s S a v i n g s and o t h e r means.  4  -  I n c l u d e s c a t e g o r i e s such as C o n t r a c t o r s , S c h o o l T e a c h e r s , Salesmen, R e t a i l D e a l e r s , I r o n Workers, and o t h e r w i s e not a s c e r t a i n e d .  APPENDIX I I - A  EDGEWOOD TO BEATON - HOUSEHOLDS BY OCCUPATION  Arrowpark Carpenter  East Arrowpark  Farmer 1  Labourer  2  Logger  2  Pensioner Truck  Driver  T r a c t o r Operator Miscellaneous^  Burton  Edgewood  Needles  -  35  3  1  2  2  10  2  -  7  _  • —  Government''"  Beaton  2  2  6  1  .  16  12  5  22  30  19  14  1  27  26.  7  1  2  6  1  6  2  4  1  2  12  _5  _9  20  23  63  42  34  79  119  6  i i ;  1  -  I n c l u d e s F e r r y , Highways, and F o r e s t r y Department Employees.  2  -  Includes Loggers, F a l l e r s , Graders.  3  -  I n c l u d e s a l l R e t i r e d Persons means.  4  -  I n c l u d e s s u c h c a t e g o r i e s as Mechanics, and o t h e r s not s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned  N.B.  - Nakusp w i t h 611 households  Source  Sawmill Workers, Timber  Cruisers  37  and  l i v i n g on P e n s i o n s , S a v i n g s or o t h e r  R e t a i l D e a l e r s , Teachers  i s not i n c l u d e d  in detailed  - Householder D i r e c t o r y , F e d e r a l E l e c t o r a l D i s t r i c t West, B.C. 1963.  of  breakdown. Kootenay  APPENDIX I I I  CLIMATIC  COMPARISONS  Average Annual T o t a l Annual Temp. Extremes Mean Temp. P r i c i p i t a t i o n Min. Max.  Station  Altitude above M.S  Armstrong  44°F  16.9"  -44°F  105°F  1,187'  Castlegar  46  26.2"  -14  106  1,425*  Cres ton  45  18.9"  -27  103  2,085'  Deer Park  47  17.7"  -5  101  .1,460*  30.4"  -16  100  E a s t Arrowpark Facquier  45  21.4"  -25  102  1,570'  Kaslo  45  29.8"  -17  100  1,930'  Kelowna  47  11.9"  -24  102  1,590'  Nakusp  _  29.0"  _  _  1,500'  Nelson  46  24.6"  -7  101  1,980*  Penticton  48  10.2"  -16  105  1,129'  Oliver  49  10.9"  -23  105  997'  R e f e r e n c e - " C l i m a t e o f B.C.", B.C. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1962.  84 APPENDIX IV  QUESTIONNAIRE AND INTERVIEW 1974 INTERVIEWER - STUART BACKERMAN  A)  NOTE THE COMMENTS DISPLAYED IN THE TOTAL INTERVIEW BY THE RESPONDENTS TOWARDS RURAL AND PRESENT SETTING. WHETHER THEY WERE FAVOURABLE, NON-FAVOURABLE OR FAIRLY BALANCED BETWEEN THE TWO - A GENERAL ATTITUDE.  B)  NOTE DISPOSITION OF RESPONDENT.  I.  1. Name: 2. Is respondent head of the family (major income earner: 3. Age - Under 20 /_/ _20-30 /_/ 30-40 IJ 40-50 £7 oyer 50 /_/ 4. No. of children - 0 /_/ 1 /_/ 2 /_/ 3 /_/ over 3 /_/ 5. 6.  Ages of c h i l d r e n - Under 1 year fj 1-3 years / / 3-7 years l_J 7-12 years l_J 12-16 years £j over 16 /__/ How long d i d you l i v e i n the Arrow Lakes Region before relocating? A) Were you born there: B) Where d i d you grow up:  85  II.  l i f e Style P r i o r to Resettling: 1.  How do you f e e l about the r u r a l l i f e ? land)  (Probe f o r attitudes towards  2.  What was the country l i k e around there?  3.  What were your f a v o r i t e j e e i s u r e time s o c i a l and recreational a c t i v i t i e s while l i v i n g I n the Arrow Lakes? (note whereer Lake was an important use)  i  4.  Did you grow your own food? A) I f yes, how much was t h i s of your t o t a l need?  5.  How f a r from the v i l l a g e did you l i v e ? Less than 1 mile / / 1-3 miles / / 3-5 miles / / greater than f i v e miles / /  6.  Did you have any r e l a t i v e s l i v i n g near enough to v i s i t back and forth? A)  Did you v i s i t much:  Daily / /  weekly /~~7  monthly [_J  86  7.  Your t o t a l annual family income was about $ a) Under 2,000 a year b) 2,000 - 2,999 c) 3,000 - 4,999 d) 5,000 - 7,999 e) 8,000 - 9,999 f) 10,000 - 12,000 8) Over 12,000  III.  Former Community 1.  How would you describe the people i n your former community of the Arrow Region?  3 V  2.  Did your community mainly consist of : a) b) c) d) e)  3.  Farmers Celgar workers Pensioners a l l of the above Other  How do you f e e l your community was expanding p r i o r to the announcement of the dam project? a) b) c)  rapidly moderately not at a l l  4.  Did you depend upon your automobile for transportation?  5.  How close were you from the doctors? Less than 1 mile (_/ 1-3 miles /_/ 3-5 miles /_/ Greater than 5 miles J_j  6.  How close were you from hospital? Less than 1 mile _/ 1-3 miles / / 3-5 miles / / Greater than 5 miles / /  7.  Did you rent or own your previous dwelling?  8.  What kind of dwelling d i d you have: Room / / Suite / / a) b)  How o l d was i t ? Number of rooms  Detached / /  Semi / /  87  c)  9. 10.  IV.  Dam  Amenities: Telephone Electricity Radio Television  Yes  No  Yes  No  Basement Central heating Running water Flush t o i l e t  D i d y o u have t o get a mortgage i n o r d e r Why d i d y o u move from the Arrow Lakes  t o g e t your  house?  Region?  Construction  1.  Were you f o r o r a g a i n s t t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e Arrow Lakes? for a t t i t u d e s - reasons.)  (Probe  2.  When were y o u f i r s t c o n t a c t e d by B.C. Hydro about r e l o c a t i o n ? How f a r i n advance o f p h y s i c a l r e l o c a t i o n was i t ?  3.  D i d t h e a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d a f f e c t your everyday How?  routine?  4.  D i d you f e e l the h o s p i t a l s , parks and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s by Hydro were n e c e s s a r y t h i n g s f o r the community?  built  Compensation 1.  Do you t h i n k the compensation you got from Hydro was; a) generous b) r e a s o n a b l e c ) n o t enough  2,  Do you t h i n k Hydro t r e a t e d p e o p l e f a i r l y the same)?  3.  What were the Hydro a p p r a i s e r s ' a t t i t u d e s toward you?  and c o n s i s t e n t l y ( a l l  Adjustment: 1.  When you l e f t  A)  2.  the Arrow Lakes, where d i d you go f i r s t ?  Get h i s t o r y o f moves u n t i l  Why t h e r e ?  f a m i l y i s l o c a t e d i n p r e s e n t community.  A f t e r you l e f t the Arrow Lakes, what d i f f i c u l t i e s d i d y o u have i n g e t t i n g s e t t l e d i n town? (Probe f o r employment, h o u s i n g , making f r i e n d s . )  A)  And what about your w i f e ?  B)  And what about your c h i l d r e n ?  How d i d you happen t o come t o ( )? (Probe here f o r previous knowledge o f c i t y , f r i e n d s , o r r e l a t i v e s h e r e , j o b oppcrtunities.)  D i d you know anyone i n town who h e l p e d you get s e t t l e d ? What d i d they do f o r you?  B e f o r e you came here, what were your e x p e c t a t i o n s about t h e k i n d o f l i f e you would lead?  a)  Money you would make? (How does your p r e s e n t income compared w i t h what y o u thought you would make?)  S i n c e y o u l e f t the Arrow Lakes, have t h e r e been any times when you were unemployed? a) i f y e s , when? b)  i f y e s , how long?  c)  i f y e s , what d i d y o u do then?  90  6.  VII.  d)  D i d you get unemployment  compensation^  e)  Was  f)  D i d you r e c e i v e s o c i a l a i d ? F o r how long?  t h e r e any time y o u a p p l i e d f o r s o c i a l a i d ?  P r e s e n t Community 1.  Do you b e l o n g to any o r g a n i z a t i o n o r s p e c i a l s e r v i c e group which takes an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n the community? a) I f y e s , what?  2.  What a r e your f a v o r i t e l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s ?  Have you any r e l a t i v e s l i v i n g near enough to v i s i t back and How o f t e n do you v i s i t ? a) Daily b) Weekly c) Monthly  forth?  4.  Do you own  o r r e n t your p r e s e n t d w e l l i n g ?  5.  D i d y o u have t o get a mortgage i n o r d e r to get your p r e s e n t house?  6.  T a k i n g i n account i n f l a t i o n , does y o u r p r e s e n t house c o s t you more p e r month? ( r e n t , mortgage, maintenance)  7.  Now,  I'd l i k e t o get a d e s c r i p t i o n o f your house.  a) b)  Type: Detached [j No. o f rooms:  c)  Amenities  Yes  Semi £1 No  Telephone Electricity Radio Television 8.  Do you own  S u i t e £7  an automobile?  Room f~7 Yes  Basement Central heating Running water Flush t o i l e t  ~  No ~  How close are you to the doctors? Less than 1 mile / / 1-3 miles / / 3-5 miles / / Greater than 5 miles / / How close are you to the hospital? Less than 1 mile / / 1-3 miles / / 3-5 miles / / Greater than 5 miles / / How would you rate the educational system i n your present community compared to education i n Arrow? better / / same / / worse / / Interviewer's description of house? C r i t e r i a : Rundown (not painted recently) Garden neat Back yard New furniture and appliances  T o t a l family income at present a) Under 2,000 a year b) 2,000-2,999 c) 3,000-4,999 d) 5,000-7,999 e) 8,000-9,999 f) 10,000-12,000 g) Over 12,000 What about future plans? move soon / /  Live here / /  Move i n a few years  Do you f e e l you were romanticizing about the Arrow Lakes? Did you plan to stay i n Arrow Lakes before you knew the was going to be b u i l t ?  dam  

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