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Stephen Dedalus : a psychoanalytic interpretation Arthur, Henry 1975

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STEPHEN DEDALUS: A PSYCHOANALYTIC INTERPRETATION by HENRY ARTHUR B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENT MASTER PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n the Department o f E n g l i s h We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 19 75 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of E n g l i s h  The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 207S Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1WS D a t e OntohPr 7 . 1 9 , 7 5 ABSTRACT The main t h e s i s of t h i s essay i s t h a t Stephen Dedalus, i n James Joyce's novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Ulysses, i s dominated by an i n v e r t e d Oedipus complex Contrary to the usual p a t t e r n f o r males, he hates and fears h i s mother, while l o v i n g and d e s i r i n g h i s f a t h e r . This t h e s i s leads to a r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s e v e r a l c r u c i a l aspect of the two novels. The e a r l i e s t c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Stephen fears females i s the "eagles" scene near the beginning of Portrait His aunt Dante and h i s mother together threaten him w i t h the l o s s of h i s eyes, w i t h c a s t r a t i o n i n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c terms. This female t h r e a t to Stephen i s reenforced during the Christmas dinner argument about P a r n e l l . He i d e n t i f i e s w ith P a r n e l l , and w i t h h i s f a t h e r and John Casey, and thus p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e i r crushing defeat by, again, Dante and h i s mother. In the face of these d r a s t i c female t h r e a t s , Stephen turns to i n c i p i e n t homosexuality as a sexual s t r a t e g y at the a l l - m a l e Clongowes school. He i s a t t r a c t e d by the touch of male hands, but h i s a t t r a c t i o n i s challenged by a pandying given him by Father Dolan, the p r e f e c t of s t u d i e s . He triumphs over t h i s c a s t r a t i n g male t h r e a t , but not over h i s e n g u l f i n g female enemies, who e v e n t u a l l y d r i v e him out of I r e l a n d . He f l e e s , c a l l i n g I r e l a n d i t s e l f a. devouring i v female, "the o l d sow t h a t eats her farrow." In Ulysses, we l e a r n t h a t Stephen r e t u r n e d home to I r e l a n d i n response to a telegram from h i s f a t h e r t h a t h i s mother i s dying. T h i s message f u l f i l l s Stephen's deep wish t h a t she should d i e i n order t o c l e a r the way f o r unhampered r e l a t i o n s between h i m s e l f and h i s f a t h e r . But at the time of Ulysses, almost a year a f t e r she has di e d , Stephen i s caught i n a p s y c h i c , s e x u a l , c r e a t i v e p a r a l y s i s . He f e e l s g u i l t y t h a t he has caused h i s mother's death, and i s haunted by her "breath . . . of wetted ashes" i n a v i v i d l y remembered dream. He a l s o has two dreams e x p r e s s i n g i n d i s g u i s e d form h i s c o n t i n u i n g thwarted wish f o r sexual r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h h i s f a t h e r . One i s of f l y i n g as Icarus with h i s f a t h e r Daedalus. The other i s of being beckoned i n t o a sexual hallway by h i s d i s g u i s e d f a t h e r . During the day Stephen w r i t e s a s h o r t poem. Together with h i s thoughts as he composes i t , i t r e v e a l s h i s incestuous homosexual d e s i r e to be k i s s e d by h i s f a t h e r , along with the p a r a l l e l wish t o completely e l i m i n a t e h i s mother, and an overwhelming f e a r o f her r e p r i s a l f o r both the d e s i r e and the wish. In the nighttown scene of Ulysses, Stephen experiences a s e r i e s of h a l l u c i n a t i o n s which begin by d r a m a t i z i n g h i s wish t o be r e c o n c i l e d s e x u a l l y with h i s f a t h e r , but end by d r a m a t i z i n g h i s c o n t i n u i n g and overwhelming f e a r o f h i s memory of h i s e n g u l f i n g mother. He e v e n t u a l l y i s V k n o c k e d o u t by a s o l d i e r , t h e n c a l l e d b a c k i n t o c o n s c i o u s -n e s s by t h e b e n d i n g f i g u r e o f L e o p o l d B l o o m . H i s r e a w a k e n i n g i s d e s c r i b e d p a r t l y i n t e r m s o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n a n d r e b i r t h . B u t he l a t e r u n d e r c u t s t h e s e p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t i o n s by r e t r e a t i n g f r o m t h e f r i e n d l y human c o n t a c t o f B l o o m . And a t t h e e n d o f Ulysses, t h e i n d i c a t i o n s f o r S t e p h e n a r e t h a t he h a s n o t y e t d e a l t w i t h t h e r o o t s o f h i s r e l a t i o n a l a n d c r e a t i v e p a r a l y s i s , a n d g o e s f o r t h f r o m B l o o m ' s h o u s e more l i k e l y t o drown t h a n t o f l y . I n t h e A f t e r w o r d , ' I d e a l w i t h t h e i n t e r a c t i o n among c h a r a c t e r s , a u t h o r , a n d r e a d e r , u s i n g S t e p h e n ' s i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f Hamlet t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e d a n g e r s o f p s y c h o l o -g i c a l l y s e l f - s e r v i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I s u g g e s t t h a t a p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a w a r e n e s s c a n o f f e r t h e r e a d e r , t h r o u g h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e t e x t , i n s i g h t i n t o h i s o r h e r own u n r e s o l v e d p s y c h i c t e n s i o n s a n d u n c o n s c i o u s m o t i v a t i o n s , a n d c a n t h e r e f o r e h e l p t o p r e v e n t m i s r e a d i n g s c a u s e d b y them. I n t h e A p p e n d i x , I o u t l i n e t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t J o y c e knew a n d u s e d s o m e t h i n g o f F r e u d i a n p s y c h o a n a l y s i s when he was w r i t i n g Ulysses, b u t t h a t he c o n s i s t e n t l y d e r i d e d i t t h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e . vi TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION 1 I I . STEPHEN IN A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST AS A YOUNG MAN 11 A. The "Eagles" Scene 11 B. The Christmas Dinner Argument . . 1.7 C. The Pandying Episode 24 D. The Devouring Female 36 I I I . STEPHEN IN ULYSSES 5 0 A. Wish F u l f i l l m e n t and G u i l t . . . . 50 B. Stephen's Dream o f h i s Dead Mother 53 C. The Poem 61 D. Stephen's Dreams of F l y i n g and of h i s Beckoning Father 79 E. Stephen i n Nighttown 86 IV. CONCLUSION 110 AFTERWORD: PSYCHOANALYSIS: THE CHARACTERS, THE AUTHOR, THE READER 115 APPENDIX: JOYCE AND FREUD 122 NOTES 131 LIST OF REFERENCES 14 9 STEPHEN DEDALUS: A PSYCHOANALYTIC INTERPRETATION I. INTRODUCTION You have homosexual c a t h e i s o f empathy between n a r c i s s i s m of the expert and s t e a t o p y g i c i n v e r t e d n e s s . Get y o u r s e l f psychoanolished! --Finnegans Wake (522) From a p s y c h o a n a l y t i c p o i n t of view, s e v e r a l important unresolved q u e s t i o n s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c e n t e r around Stephen Dedalus' r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s mother and f a t h e r i n A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t as a Young Man and Ulysses. There are two b a s i c t h e o r i e s about those r e l a t i o n s . One i s t h a t Stephen loves and d e s i r e s h i s mother, but hates and f e a r s h i s f a t h e r . The other, d i r e c t l y c o n t r a r y to the f i r s t , i s t h a t Stephen hates and f e a r s h i s mother, while l o v i n g and' d e s i r i n g h i s f a t h e r . In p s y c h o a n a l y t i c terms, the f i r s t , of course, d e s c r i b e s a standard Oedipus complex, while the second d e s c r i b e s an i n v e r t e d Oedipus complex.''" Many c r i t i c s , some of them u s i n g p s y c h o a n a l y t i c approaches, have o r g a n i z e d evidence from the two n o v e l s , and from other sources, e s p e c i a l l y Joyce's own l i f e , to develop and support t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r v e r s i o n s of the two 2 b a s i c t h e o r i e s . But n e i t h e r theory has y e t become g e n e r a l l y accepted. Each has i t s a p p a r e n t l y s t i l l -c r e d i b l e adherents. Our view of Stephen's f i l i a l r e l a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e s our - 1 --2-i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s e v e r a l important and co n t e n t i o u s passages i n the two n o v e l s . For example, when Stephen leaves home a t the end o f Portrait, w r i t i n g i n h i s 3 d i a r y "Away! Away!" , i s he f l e e i n g from h i s mother, May Dedalus, and a t the same time from I r e l a n d , h i s motherland, and from h i s mother Church? I f we b e l i e v e t h a t he hates and f e a r s h i s mother, t h a t would be a l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Or i s he f l e e i n g from h i s f a t h e r , Simon Dedalus, from I r e l a n d , h i s fatherland, and from the f a t h e r s who c o n t r o l the Roman C a t h o l i c Church? I f we see i n Stephen a b a s i c f e a r o f h i s f a t h e r , what we see would l e a d us to b e l i e v e so. The q u e s t i o n o f which i n t e r -4 p r e t a t i o n i s more accurate i s not y e t r e s o l v e d . And i n Ulysses, when Stephen smashes the c h a n d e l i e r with h i s ash p l a n t d u r i n g the c l i m a c t i c scene i n B e l l a Cohen's 5 b r o t h e l , i s he smashing a t , and t h e r e f o r e attempting to g a i n h i s freedom from, the gras p i n g f i g u r e o f h i s dead mother? Or, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , s i n c e he shouts "Non serviam!" {U 582) a few moments e a r l i e r , i s he smashing at , and t h e r e f o r e d e c l a r i n g h i s independence from, God the F ather, and through God, from Simon Dedalus, who arranged f o r young Stephen to atte n d the two r e l i g i o u s l y charged J e s u i t s c h o o l s , Clongowes and Belvedere? No two g c r i t i c s seem to agree on the exact meaning of the scene. F i n a l l y , there i s the c r u c i a l i n t e r p r e t i v e problem of what happens t o Stephen a t the end of Ulysses. When he r e f u s e s , -3-"Promptly, inexplicably, with amicability, g r a t e f u l l y " (U 695), Leopold Bloom's o f f e r of h o s p i t a l i t y for the night, i s he once again f l e e i n g , t h i s time from a threaten-ing father-figure embodied by Bloom? Or i s he perhaps running away from the p o s s i b i l i t y of a r e l a t i o n s h i p , seemingly offered by Bloom, with Bloom's wife Molly, because she represents i n his mind yet another threatening mother? Further, when Stephen leaves Bloom's house, does he leave to seek a creative r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with his memory of his now-dead mother? Or does he go home to his ' <. father's house, there to seek substantial r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with his s t i l l - l i v i n g father? Or does he, as some c r i t i c s claim, not have the capacity for eit h e r c r e a t i v i t y or r e c o n c i l i a t i o n ? Neither the c r i t i c s nor Joyce's own words seem to o f f e r clear and convincing answers to 7 such questions. One ambitious attempt to resolve several of these basic interpretive problems i n Joyce's work i s made by Sheldon B r i v i c i n his essay "James Joyce: From Stephen g to Bloom." Using a psychoanalytic approach, B r i v i c claims that "longing for the distant mother and fear of the threatening father remain the basic pattern behind a l l of Stephen's experience" (132). In other words, he ascribes to Stephen a standard Oedipus complex. B r i v i c l a t e r draws the following conclusion about Stephen's actions at the end of P o r t r a i t : -4-Stephen's d e c i s i o n t o leave I r e l a n d r e p r e s e n t s the l a t e s t c y c l e i n an expanding s p i r a l o f a c t i o n t h a t repeats i t s e l f again and again i n Portrait. In each c y c l e he wanders o f f i n search o f some v e r s i o n o f h i s mother. But whenever he e s t a b l i s h e s h i m s e l f i n a s a t i s f y i n g p o s i t i o n with regard t o some mother-surrogate, whether i t be h i s Alma Mater, a p r o s t i t u t e , the B l e s s e d V i r g i n , E___. C . , or I r e l a n d , he begins t o become aware of a p a t e r n a l t h r e a t and he f e e l s the need t o wander o f f again i n search o f another s u b s t i t u t e . (141-142) As we can see, t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t with the O e d i p a l p a t t e r n t h a t B r i v i c a s c r i b e s t o Stephen's p e r s o n a l i t y . When he extends h i s b a s i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f " l o n g i n g f o r the d i s t a n t mother and f e a r of the t h r e a t e n i n g f a t h e r " to Ulysses, B r i v i c c a r e f u l l y takes i n t o account the major event between the end of Portrait and the b e g i n n i n g o f Ulysses: the death of May Dedalus, Stephen's mother. R e f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the paragraph i n Ulysses t h a t begins a t the bottom of U 47 and ends a t the top of U 48, he says "the h o r r i f y i n g i d e a of the c a s t r a t e d mother accompanied by the p a t e r n a l p h a l l i c t h r e a t , haunts Stephen throughout Ulysses. I t i s a v e r s i o n o f the Portrait's combination o f a l o n g i n g f o r the mother and an accompanying f e a r of c a s t r a t i o n , now transformed by the i n j u r y o f the mother's death" (146). -5-However, B r i v i c ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d i s s o l v e s i n t o c o n f u s i o n and c o n t r a d i c t i o n when he attempts t o d e a l with the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Stephen and Bloom, which i s a c e n t r a l i s s u e i n Ulysses. At one p o i n t he r e f e r s t o them as " f a t h e r l o o k i n g f o r son and son l o o k i n g f o r f a t h e r , " and says t h a t i n many ways they " s e t each o t h e r o f f , f u l f i l l each other's wishes, serve as r e c i p r o c a l defenses" (156). T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y a c o n v e n t i o n a l enough view, expressed here i n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c terms, but i t f l a t l y c o n t r a d i c t s h i s o v e r a l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Stephen as a son who f e e l s " l o n g i n g f o r the . . . mother" (132, 146) and " f e a r o f the t h r e a t e n i n g f a t h e r " (132). He attempts to r e c o n c i l e t h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by a s e r i e s o f r a t h e r f r a n t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s o f how Bloom, " f a t h e r l o o k i n g f o r son," might s a t i s f y Stephen's apparent search f o r h i s l o s t mother: Bloom seems to have the p o t e n t i a l f o r f u l -f i l l i n g Stephen's need through f e t i s h i s t i c submission to the mother. Moreover, Bloom i s , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , a f a t h e r - f i g u r e who i s c a s t r a t e d , and so Stephen can r e l a t e to him wit h a minimum of a n x i e t y . In the c l i m a c t i c " I t h a c a " episode Bloom makes an o f f e r to Stephen which would s a t i s f y Stephen's utmost d e s i r e s and f a n t a s i e s . Here Bloom, the f a t h e r rendered harmless, o f f e r s the mother, M o l l y , t o Stephen. (154-155) Stephen, of course, r e j e c t s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f any lon g -term r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Bloom f a m i l y by t u r n i n g down -6-Bloom's o f f e r of a bed for the night, and by leaving "problematic for Bloom the r e a l i s a t i o n of . . . propositions [for future contacts between them]" (V 696). B r i v i c recognizes t h i s i n stat i n g that, while "Bloom . . . accepts and desires the union without reservation . . . Stephen . . . rejects i t as f a l s e " (156). However, he explains that "The combination of connection and separation i n the ending of Ulysses r e f l e c t s two separate intentions . . . . These positions represent a c o n f l i c t within Joyce: He wants 'at onement' at the same time that he r e a l i z e s i t to be a delusion" (156). B r i v i c ' s assertion that the ambiguity and paradox i n his interpretation i s caused by o r i g i n a l ambiguity and paradox i n the author's mind i s reasonable enough on the face of i t . But B r i v i c does not stop there. He goes on to say that the discrepancy between his i n t e r -pretation of the meaning of Stephen's relat i o n s h i p with Bloom and what actually happens i n the text represents a f a i l u r e in the novel: The stature of Joyce's work seems to me to rest primarily on the depth of his psychol-og i c a l v i s i o n . We understand the minds of Stephen and Bloom with a ful l n e s s that i s almost unparalleled. Joyce's understanding i s nevertheless limi t e d , and t h i s l i m i t a t i o n i s nowhere more seriously r e f l e c t e d than i n his portrayal of Bloom. Because Bloom i s unable to think of himself as a parent and i s himself bound to parental a u t h o r i t i e s , he i s less a father - 7 -than a son, and t h i s i s a major f a i l u r e o f Ulysses. Bloom and Stephen are both sons, confused with each other, and t h e r e f o r e the theme o f p a t e r n i t y i n Ulysses l o s e s much of i t s f o r c e . We may guess t h a t i f Bloom and Stephen were to u n i t e w i t h M o l l y they would soon f i n d themselves i n need of a t h i r d man to a c t as a f a t h e r f i g u r e t o them. The no v e l can o n l y d e s c r i b e fatherhood as a f a i l u r e , whatever symbolic success may be intended. Moreover, Joyce's attempt t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e the two p r o t a g o n i s t s founders on the f a c t t h a t they have e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l complexes. (161) What we see i n t h i s passage i s the working out i n B r i v i c ' s mind of a profound i n t e r p r e t i v e c h o i c e . His e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t he w i l l f i n d a p a r t i c u l a r p s y c h o a n a l y t i c p a t t e r n i n the novel i s d i s a p p o i n t e d , and he r e s o l v e s the c o n f l i c t between i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and t e x t by a s c r i b i n g f a i l u r e to the t e x t . F u r t h e r than t h a t , he i m p l i e s t h a t Joyce's understanding o f human nature and human behaviour, espec-i a l l y with r e g a r d to parenthood, i s more l i m i t e d than h i s own understanding guided by the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r i e s of Freud. So when he claims t h a t Joyce f a i l s , he does so i n o r d e r t o c l a i m t h a t he succeeds i n h i s own a n a l y s i s , and by i m p l i c a t i o n , t h a t Freudian theory i s more accurate i n gauging human behaviour than Joyce's p o r t r a y a l o f c h a r a c t e r . Such an i n t e r p r e t i v e choice does not i n d i c a t e ipso facto a f a i l u r e on the p a r t o f the c r i t i c . In f a c t , such c h o i c e s are a d i f f i c u l t but necessary p a r t o f our ongoing e v a l u a t i o n of the i n t r i n s i c and e x t r i n s i c human -8-t r u t h expressed i n l i t e r a r y f i c t i o n . Some f i c t i o n i s fake, and s e r i o u s c r i t i c s s h ould say so when they d e t e c t the fakery. And i n d i s c u s s i n g i n terms of f a i l u r e one of the most committed, most s e r i o u s , most r e s p e c t e d of w r i t e r s , B r i v i c shows c o n s i d e r a b l e d a r i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , I am made uneasy by B r i v i c 1 s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t Joyce f a i l e d i n h i s p o r t r a y a l o f Bloom. In p a r t , I am uneasy because I i n t u i t i v e l y respond to Bloom as a c r e d i b l e and r i c h l y i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r . In the context of Ulysses, Joyce's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f Bloom i s not a f a i l u r e i n my opinion.''" In a d d i t i o n , there are a number o f s p e c i f i c p o i n t s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n B r i v i c ' s a n a l y s i s t h a t I do not agree with (see Chapters I I and I I I below). However, there i s another, more fundamental reason why any reader of B r i v i c ' s essay should be wary of h i s c o n c l u s i o n about Bloom. I t i s expressed i n F r e d e r i c k Crews' statement about p s y c h o a n a l y t i c c r i t i c i s m i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to Psychoanalysis and L i t e r a r y Process ( i n which B r i v i c ' s essay i s p u b l i s h e d ) : . . . the v a l i d a t i o n o f a p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d c r i t i c i s m r e s t s on whether, at i t s be s t , i t can make f u l l e r sense of l i t e r a r y .: t e x t s than c o u l d the most impressive i n s t a n c e s of a r i v a l c r i t i c i s m . The l i k e l i h o o d o f t h i s r e s u l t r e s t s on the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a n t i c i p a t i o n t h a t even the most anomalous d e t a i l s i n a work o f a r t w i l l prove p s y c h i c a l l y f u n c t i o n a l . Being at bottom a theory of how c o n f l i c t i n g demands are a d j u s t e d and merged, p s y c h o a n a l y s i s i s q u i t e prepared -9-f o r l i t e r a t u r e ' s mixed i n t e n t i o n s , d i s s o c i a t i o n s of a f f e c t from i d e a t i o n a l content, h i n t s o f atonement f o r uncommitted a c t s , b u r s t s o f v i n d i c t i v e n e s s and s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , and i r o n i e s t h a t seem to occupy some middle ground between s a t i r e and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m . (Crews, p. 15) I f p s y c h o a n a l y s i s i s indeed " q u i t e prepared f o r l i t e r a t u r e ' s mixed i n t e n t i o n s , " then s u r e l y p s y c h o a n a l y t i c c r i t i c s w i l l d i s c o v e r e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r such mixed i n t e n t i o n s , r a t h e r than simply use them, as B r i v i c does, and as c o n v e n t i o n a l c r i t i c s o c c a s i o n a l l y do, to demonstrate t h a t the w r i t e r has f a i l e d . Another reason to be uneasy about B r i v i c ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t there i s a f a i l u r e i n the n o v e l i s expressed by one of h i s own comments e a r l y i n h i s essay. He i s d i s c u s s i n g an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by S.L. Goldberg, whose book The Classical Temper11 he c a l l s "the f i n e s t book on Ulysses" (118-119): Many c r i t i c s r e g a rd Portrait and Ulysses as negative statements, d e s c r i b i n g them e i t h e r as tragedy or as d e v a s t a t i n g s a t i r e . Others, i n c l u d i n g Goldberg, have c o n s t r u c t e d theses a c c o r d i n g to which Ulysses i n d i c a t e s t h a t Stephen, Bloom, and M o l l y w i l l somehow be r e c o n c i l e d or reformed a f t e r the l a s t page as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r experiences w i t h each o t h e r i n the course of the n o v e l . A l l these theses, however, are u n s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n t r i v a n c e s based on hopes and h i n t s . They can o n l y be s u s t a i n e d by i g n o r i n g the g r e a t bulk of negative i n d i c a t i o n i n Ulysses. I t i s noteworthy t h a t Goldberg, the most con-s i s t e n t and s y s t e m a t i c of these c r i t i c s , a c t u a l l y goes so f a r as to deny the v a l i d i t y -10-o f s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n s o f Ulysses, c l a i m i n g t h a t Joyce was a e s t h e t i c a l l y mistaken when he wrote c e r t a i n scenes and episodes because they do not f i t Goldberg's conception o f the n o v e l . (120) As we have a l r e a d y seen, l a t e r i n h i s essay B r i v i c does e x a c t l y what he c a s t i g a t e s Goldberg f o r : he denies the v a l i d i t y (by c a l l i n g i t a f a i l u r e ) of what i s p o s s i b l y the most important aspect of Ulysses, Joyce's p o r t r a y a l of 12 Leopold Bloom. And he c a l l s the p o r t r a y a l a f a i l u r e because i t does not f i t his conception of the n o v e l . Such an i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n h i s essay seems to me to c o n s t i t u t e a s u b s t a n t i a l , though u n i n t e n t i o n a l , admission o f f a i l u r e by B r i v i c h i m s e l f . In t h i s " I n t r o d u c t i o n " I c l a i m t h a t Sheldon B r i v i c ' s p s y c h o a n a l y t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Portrait and.Ulysses i s not completely accurate or c o n s i s t e n t . The immediate source o f B r i v i c ' s i n a c c u r a c y and i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s , I b e l i e v e , i n s e v e r a l of h i s s p e c i f i c t e x t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . My own approach t o Stephen Dedalus i s a l s o p s y c h o a n a l y t i c . But my t h e s i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y the o p p o s i t e of B r i v i c ' s . I f i n d t h a t Stephen i s dominated by an i n v e r t e d Oedipus complex: t h a t i s , he hates and f e a r s h i s mother, while l o v i n g and d e s i r i n g h i s f a t h e r . I w i l l begin to develop s p e c i f i c t e x t u r a l support f o r t h i s t h e s i s by t a k i n g i s s u e w i t h B r i v i c ' s a n a l y s i s of a c r u c i a l episode i n Stephen's l i f e , the "eagles" scene at the b e g i n n i n g of Portrait. I I . STEPHEN IN A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST AS A YOUNG MAN . . . yung and e a s i l y freudened . . . . --Finnegans Wake (115) A. The "Eagles" Scene B r i v i c s t a t e s a t the beginning of h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t , although there are good e x t r i n s i c reasons presented i n Portrait f o r "Stephen's sundering h i m s e l f from h i s s o c i e t y , h i s p a r e n t s , h i s church, h i s beloved E . C . , and h i s n a t i o n " (123), i n f a c t "Stephen f e e l s a l i e n a t e d from the beginning, before he has framed any c r i t i c i s m s and i n t e l l e c t u a l i z a t i o n s . . . . h i s a l i e n a t i o n i s b u i l t i n " (123-124). B r i v i c l o c a t e s the source of Stephen's b a s i c trauma, or a t l e a s t i t s e a r l i e s t m a n i f e s t a t i o n , i n the "eagles" scene a t the end of the f i r s t s h o r t s e c t i o n of the n o v e l . He c i t e s the passage as the f i r s t evidence of a c a s t r a t i o n a n x i e t y i n Stephen: When they were grown up he was going to marry E i l e e n . He h i d under the t a b l e . His mother s a i d : — 0 , Stephen w i l l a p o l o g i s e . -11--12-Dante s a i d : —O, i f not, the e a g l e s w i l l come and p u l l out h i s eyes. Pull out his eyes, Apologise, Apologise j Pull out his eyes. Apologise3 Pull out his eyes3 Pull out his eyess Apologise. (P 8, c i t e d by B r i v i c on pp. 124-125) B r i v i c i d e n t i f i e s the c a s t r a t i o n t h r e a t i n t h i s passage as a masculine t h r e a t , s a y i n g , "In t h i s scene the O e d i p a l content i s , n a t u r a l l y enough, d i s g u i s e d , but i t i s s t i l l c l e a r t h a t Stephen i s b e i n g punished f o r showing a d e s i r e to p l a y the r o l e of the f a t h e r " (125). B r i v i c ' s i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t , because Stephen i s attempting to p l a y the masculine r o l e o f f a t h e r , the t h r e a t o f c a s t r a t i o n t h a t i s burned i n t o h i s consciousness by the i n c i d e n t t h e r e f o r e becomes a s s o c i a t e d i n h i s mind with a masculine r a t h e r than w i t h a feminine source. However, the a c t u a l source o f the c a s t r a t i o n t h r e a t i s Dante, who i s a woman, and Dante's t h r e a t i s t a c i t l y supported by Stephen's mother. In f a c t , the a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t Stephen b u i l d s i n t o h i s poem between "Apologise" ( s a i d by h i s mother) and " P u l l out h i s eyes" ( s a i d by Dante) e l e v a t e s h i s mother t o the s t a t u s o f an equal p a r t n e r i n the t h r e a t . And, although eagles would -13-seem to be masculine agents with t h e i r sharp pointed beaks and talons, the action ascribed to them of p u l l i n g out rather than of poking out Stephen's eyes i s more of a feminine than a masculine threat i n psychoanalytic terms. But i n any case, even i f the threat of the eagles were sexually ambiguous, Dante and Stephen's mother both are d e f i n i t e l y female. There i s another, more persuasive, argument presented by B r i v i c to imply that the scene embodies a masculine castration threat. At the same time that he f i r s t i d e n t i f i e s 15 the passage as representing "a threat of castration " (125, footnote designation i n o r i g i n a l ) , he has the following information inserted i n his footnote: "15 In the o r i g i n a l early epiphany upon which th i s scene i s based, the person voicing the threat i s a man, Mr. Vance. The boy i s Joyce" (125n.). Here, for comparison with the passage i n P o r t r a i t , i s the complete text of the epiphany: [Bray: i n the parlour of the house i n Martello Terrace] Mr Vance—(comes in with a s t i c k ) . . . 0, you know, h e ' l l have to apologise, Mrs Joyce. Mrs Joyce—0 yes . . . Do you hear that, Jim? Mr Vance—Or e l s e - - i f he doesn't—the eagles'11 come and p u l l out his eyes. Mrs Joyce—0, but I'm sure he w i l l apologise. Joyce--(under the table, to himself) -14-— P u l l out his eyes, Apologise, Apologise, P u l l out his eyes. Apologise, P u l l out his eyes, P u l l out his eyes, Apologise.^ B r i v i c 1 s unstated conclusion i n comparing the two scenes i s that, since Joyce wrote the epiphany some years before he wrote the passage i n P o r t r a i t , the epiphany i s l i k e l y to be the more accurate account of what r e a l l y happened to Joyce, or at least of what actually haunts his memory. And c e r t a i n l y the threat i n the epiphany i s predominantly masculine and paternal. However, although B r i v i c ' s conclusion about Joyce i s probably correct, i t does not change the s i t u a t i o n for Stephen. Stephen i s not Joyce, and what happened to Joyce does not always happen to 3 Stephen (and vice versa). So, while the o r i g i n a l epiphany might t e l l us something about Joyce's Oedipal anxieties, i t does not t e l l us anything d i r e c t l y about Stephen's anxieties. A c a r e f u l comparison of the scene i n P o r t r a i t with the o r i g i n a l epiphany on which i t i s based nevertheless does t e l l us something about Joyce's apparent intentions regard-ing his readers' perception of Stephen. We can see that, i n t r a n s f e r r i n g the scene from the epiphany to the novel, he made five changes: -15-1. He r e p l a c e d Joyce (himself) with Stephen. 2. He r e p l a c e d Mr. Vance, a man, with Dante, a woman. 3. He added a s p e c i f i c motive f o r the t h r e a t : "When they were grown up he was going t o marry E i l e e n . " 4. In the epiphany, he had " a p o l o g i s e " mentioned f i r s t by Mr. Vance, and then p i c k e d up by Mrs. Joyce; he changed i t i n the Portrait scene so t h a t " a p o l o g i s e " i s mentioned o n l y by Stephen's mother. 5. He changed the t i m i n g o f the event: Joyce's age i n the epiphany i s nine; Stephen's age i n the Portrait scene i s much younger, about f o u r t o s i x ( B r i v i c suggests "about s i x " - 125). Since we know t h a t Joyce was a most c a r e f u l and c o n s c i e n t i o u s w r i t e r , we can conclude t h a t the f i v e changes were made f o r conscious a r t i s t i c reasons. The f i r s t f o u r changes form a c l e a r p a t t e r n . 1 Stephen (not Joyce) i s i n t i m i d a t e d by h i s aunt and h i s mother, not, as i n Joyce's case, by a f r i e n d ' s f a t h e r with h i s own mother onl y p a s s i v e l y s u p p o r t i n g the e s s e n t i a l l y p a t e r n a l t h r e a t . He i s threatened with a form o f c a s t r a t i o n , a p p a r e n t l y f o r i n d i c a t i n g a d e s i r e to assume a male s e x u a l r o l e i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s f r i e n d E i l e e n . The change i n characters, from E i l e e n ' s f a t h e r , a P r o t e s t a n t male, t o -16-Stephen's aunt Dante, a v i o l e n t l y chauvinistic Catholic female, emphasizes both the r e l i g i o u s and the female elements i n the s i t u a t i o n . Stephen i s threatened with blindness, l i t e r a l l y a form of excommunication from the opportunity for f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l i f e , because he, a Catholic boy, apparently has expressed a desire to mate with a Protestant g i r l . The movement represented i n Joyce's changes i s from a masculine, paternal, non-family and e s s e n t i a l l y non-religious threat i n the epiphany to a feminine, maternal, family-based and r e l i g i o n - o r i e n t e d threat i n the P o r t r a i t scene. And t h i s feminine threat to Stephen i n P o r t r a i t apparently i s prompted by his stated inten-tion to assume an independent and h e r e t i c a l male sexual role when he grows up. The f i f t h change between the two scenes, the change of timing,, i s , I think, a matter of s t r u c t u r a l , a r t i s t i c design i n the novel. For Stephen the event i s an e a r l i e r and therefore a more seminal experience than i t was for Joyce. In addition, the scene i n P o r t r a i t i s the f i r s t recorded overt anxiety-producing threat to Stephen. I t thus serves to foreshadow, and to a f f e c t the reader's perception of, the two central scenes i n Chapter 1 of P o r t r a i t , the argument about the p r i e s t s and Parnell at Stephen's f i r s t Christmas dinner, and the pandying of Stephen by Father Dolan at Clongowes College. Since these scenes stand out so v i v i d l y i n Stephen's early experience, -17-and since B r i v i c i d e n t i f i e s both as scenes of paternal castration anxiety for Stephen (130-132), they are worth looking at i n l i g h t of the reinterpretation of the "eagles" scene as representing for Stephen a feminine rather than a masculine castration threat. B. The Christmas Dinner Argument Our knowledge of the events that take place on the Christmas day of the argument can be summarized as follows: i n the morning, Stephen pa r t i c i p a t e s i n a communion service (P 30), almost c e r t a i n l y his f i r s t communion at home, and his f i r s t Christmas communion (see P 9 3) ; Mr. Dedalus, Mr. Casey and Stephen go walking i n the a f t e r -noon (P 28); there i s some mildly self-congratulatory conversation between Mr. Dedalus and Mr. Casey before dinner (P 28-29); they a l l s i t down, Stephen says grace, then notes to himself that i t i s the f i r s t Christmas dinner he has eaten with the adults (P 2 9-30); as they eat, a heated argument over the role of the p r i e s t s and the Church i n the downfall of Parnell erupts between Mr. Casey and Mr. Dedalus on one side defending Parnell and attack-ing the p r i e s t s , and Dante, apparently with t a c i t support from Mrs. Dedalus and Uncle Charles, on the other side -18-defending the r o l e s of the p r i e s t s (P 31-39); Dante ends the argument by storming out o f the room, v i c i o u s l y remind-i n g the men as she leaves t h a t "We won! We crushed him [ P a r n e l l ] to death!" (P 3 9 ) ; Stephen sees at the end t h a t Mr. Casey i s sobbing over the l o s s of P a r n e l l , h i s "dead k i n g " (P 3 9 ) , and t h a t h i s " f a t h e r ' s eyes [ a r e ] . . . f u l l o f t e a r s " (P 3 9 ) . We can f a i r l y conclude t h a t Dante wins the argument, but o n l y because she c o u l d f a l l back on the f a c t t h a t her s i d e o f the d i s p u t e won the o r i g i n a l s t r u g g l e by hounding P a r n e l l to death, and w i t h him immediate hopes f o r a u n i f i e d independent I r e l a n d . In t h a t context she can c l a i m a c l e a r and complete v i c t o r y , while John Casey and Simon Dedalus can o n l y lament t h e i r permanent l o s s . Before the argument takes p l a c e , the c h i e f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the day f o r Stephen i s t h a t i t marks a major step f o r him toward manhood. In s h a r i n g i n h i s f i r s t f a m i l y communion, h i s acceptance i n t o a form of adulthood by the Church i s confirmed. In walking t h a t a f t e r n o o n with the men, and i n b e i n g p r e s e n t d u r i n g t h e i r b e f o r e - d i n n e r d r i n k and conver-s a t i o n , he i s accepted i n t o the company o f h i s f e l l o w males i n the household. And i n e a t i n g Christmas dinner f o r the f i r s t time with the a d u l t s while " h i s l i t t l e b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s . . . were w a i t i n g i n the nursery, as he had o f t e n waited, t i l l the pudding came" (P 3 0 ) , he i s accepted by h i s f a m i l y p a r t of the way i n t o a d u l t -19-s o c i e t y . In t h i s momentous context of a y o u t h f u l r i t e s of passage, Stephen i s o b v i o u s l y happy to be home from s c h o o l ("Clongowes was f a r away" - P 30), and i s f e e l i n g very p o s i t i v e toward h i s f a t h e r and Mr. Casey (see P28, P29. P 35) . However, as the argument pr o g r e s s e s , Stephen i s reminded twice of the t h r e a t to h i s emerging manhood embodied i n the "eagles" i n c i d e n t . Once, as he p u z z l e s about whether Dante c o u l d be r i g h t i n the argument, he remembers t h a t "she d i d not l i k e him to p l a y with E i l e e n because E i l e e n was a p r o t e s t a n t " (P 35). L a t e r , Mr. Casey i n t r o d u c e s the b l i n d i n g m o t i f to the argument when he t e l l s o f the time he s p i t i n t o the eye o f a woman who had i n s u l t e d K i t t y O'Shea, P a r n e l l ' s m i s t r e s s ( e v e n t u a l l y h i s w i f e ) . With d e r i s i v e emotion he recounts the woman's r e a c t i o n : "I'm blinded! I'm blinded and drownded.' . . . I'm blinded entirely" (P 37). Stephen responds to the s t o r y w i t h an unvoiced o p i n i o n , " I t was not n i c e about the s p i t i n the woman's eye" (P 37). I t i s probable t h a t i n doing so he i s r e v e a l i n g a t l e a s t a s u b l i m i n a l memory of the t h r e a t to h i s own eyes made s e v e r a l years e a r l i e r by Dante and h i s mother. Stephen's steps toward r e c o g n i z e d manhood, the r o l e of Dante, and i n a s u p p o r t i n g r o l e h i s mother, as avengers, and the r e p e t i t i o n of the b l i n d i n g theme, a l l work to remind Stephen (and the reader) o f the events t h a t caused -20-his e a r l i e r anxiety. But i n the Christmas argument, the actual threat to Stephen i s not so d i r e c t as the " p u l l out your eyes" of the "eagles" scene. His corresponding anxiety, though, i s perhaps greater. I t i s conveyed to us i n the f i n a l sentence of the section, when "Stephen, r a i s i n g his t e r r o r s t r i c k e n face, saw that his father's eyes were f u l l of tears" (P 39). And, although the source of Stephen's t e r r o r i s not completely clear, i t seems to be rooted i n his tentative but growing i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with his father and Mr. Casey as fellow males. We have already noted his posi t i v e sense of fellowship with them. His fellow f e e l i n g continues and i s encouraged as he s i l e n t l y p a r t icipates i n t h e i r argument with Dante, and p r o v i s i o n a l l y supports t h e i r view (see P 35 and P 37). I t i s deepened further by his excited response to the cold angry emotion of Mr. Casey's r e c i t a t i o n of the complicity of the Catholic bishops and p r i e s t s i n past betrayals of Ireland to England: "His [Mr. Casey's] face was glowing with anger and Stephen f e l t the glow r i s e to his own cheek as the spoken words t h r i l l e d him" (P 38). Insofar as Stephen does i d e n t i f y with his father and Mr. Casey he, along with them, i s defeated by Dante and May Dedalus. And his defeat i s a kind of diminution of his steps that day toward manhood. I t could well be interpreted by him as a feminine punishment to thwart any attempt to assert masculine i n d i v i d u a l i t y , or freedom from p u r i t a n i c a l -21-G a t h o l i c i s m . As such, i t strengthens the e a r l y p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d by the "eagles" i n c i d e n t . There i s another, perhaps s t r o n g e r , sense o f i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n f e l t by Stephen which might l e a d him to p e r c e i v e Dante's f i n a l v i o l e n t statement as a d i r e c t t h r e a t t o h i m s e l f and h i s a s p i r a t i o n s . Immediately before the Christmas scene, we see him i n the i n f i r m a r y at Clongowes, and the wanderings of h i s mind there r e v e a l t h a t s u b c o n s c i o u s l y he i d e n t i f i e s s t r o n g l y with P a r n e l l , the dead I r i s h hero who i s so c e n t r a l i n the l a t e r argument. He i s i n the i n f i r m a r y because he i s s i c k w i t h a f e v e r . As he l i e s i n bed, he f e e l s t h a t he might d i e from h i s s i c k n e s s , and fuses the imagined scene of h i s own death with events around him i n the i n f i r m a r y ("He c o u l d hear the t o l l i n g [of the b e l l ] " - P 24). L a t e r i n the day, half-dreaming, he again melds an a c t u a l event i n the i n f i r m a r y , Brother Michael (the nurse) t e l l i n g 4 the boys t h a t P a r n e l l has d i e d , i n t o h i s own imagined scene of B r o t h e r Michael b r i n g i n g by s h i p the news o f P a r n e l l ' s death to a shadowy crowd o f people gathered by the edge of the sea. The p a r a l l e l s between the two h a l l -u c i n a t o r y scenes of imagined death are s t r i k i n g . In each of them he imagines sorrow i n a c e n t r a l person who c o u l d be s a i d t o r e p r e s e n t the cause of the death i n v o l v e d : ". . . Wells would be s o r r y . . . . " (P 24); ". . . the s o r r o w f u l face of B r o t h e r M i c h a e l " (P 27), who r e p r e s e n t s -22-t h e Roman C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s . B o t h d e a t h s a r e mourned by l a r g e crowds o f p e o p l e . B o t h d e a d p e r s o n s a r e i m a g i n e d by S t e p h e n t o have h e r o e s ' f u n e r a l s , as t h e word " c a t a f a l q u e , " r e f e r r i n g t o a wooden framework u s e d i n e l a b o r a t e f u n e r a l s , o c c u r s i n e a c h h a l l u c i n a t i o n (P 24 and P 27). T h e s e p a r a l l e l s make i t c l e a r t h a t S t e p h e n i d e n t i f i e s i n a s u b c o n s c i o u s way w i t h t h e h e r o i c m a r t y r P a r n e l l . The m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two d r e a m - l i k e s e q u e n c e s i s t h a t , a t t h e e n d o f t h e s e c o n d one, Dante a p p e a r s as a v i c t o r i o u s a v e n g e r : "And he saw Dante i n a maroon v e l v e t d r e s s and w i t h a g r e e n v e l v e t m a n t l e h a n g i n g f r o m h e r s h o u l d e r s w a l k i n g p r o u d l y and s i l e n t l y p a s t t h e p e o p l e who k n e l t by t h e w a t e r s ' edge" (P 27). S i n c e S t e p h e n s u b c o n s c i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h P a r n e l l , t h e p r e s e n c e i n h i s i m a g i n a t i o n o f Dante as a p r o u d v i c t o r i o u s f i g u r e a t t h e news o f P a r n e l l ' s d e a t h i n d i c a t e s t h a t he i s aware o f h e r as a t h r e a t t o h i m s e l f . He h a d e a r l i e r shown t h a t he c l e a r l y remembered t h e p r e c i s e e x p r e s s i o n o f D a n t e ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o P a r n e l l : " . . . Dante h a d r i p p e d t h e g r e e n v e l v e t b a c k o f f t h e b r u s h t h a t was f o r P a r n e l l one day w i t h h e r s c i s s o r s and h a d t o l d h i m t h a t P a r n e l l was a b a d man" (P 1 6 ) . The t o n e o f p e r s o n a l c o n f u s i o n i n h i s memory o f t h e i n c i d e n t (see P 16) i n d i c a t e s t h a t S t e p h e n i s p r o b a b l y u n c o n s c i o u s l y r e a c t i n g t o t h e c a s t r a t i n g n a t u r e o f D a n t e ' s a c t . I n h i s h a l l u c i n -a t i o n he i m a g i n e s what happens t o t h e l o s t p h a l l u s r e p r e s e n t e d -23-by the "green v e l v e t back [ r i p p e d ] o f f the brush." I t becomes a f e t i s h i s t i c "green v e l v e t mantle hanging from her [Dante's] shoulders." And s i n c e a f e t i s h can soothe c a s t r a t i o n a n x i e t y by s e r v i n g as "a token o f triumph over the t h r e a t o f c a s t r a t i o n and a p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t i t , " " * the watching Stephen can f e e l more comfortable i n the imagined scene about the p o s s i b l e t h r e a t t o h i m s e l f . Dante i s n e u t r a l i z e d i n h i s mind by the imagined f e t i s h . When we move our a t t e n t i o n back t o the l a t e r Christmas dinner scene, b r i n g i n g w i t h us Stephen's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h P a r n e l l , and h i s awareness, however, shadowy, of a c a s t r a t i o n t h r e a t d i r e c t e d by Dante a t both h i m s e l f and P a r n e l l , we can see why h i s face i s t e r r o r s t r i c k e n at the end of the argument. He i s r e a c t i n g , because o f h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h P a r n e l l , with i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l f e a r to Dante's v i c i o u s l y triumphant p a r t i n g words about the dead hero: " — D e v i l out of h e l l ! We won! We crushed him to death! F i e n d ! " (P 3 9 ) . And there i s no f e t i s h here to soothe h i s anxious f e a r s of p e r s o n a l c a s t r a t i o n . B r i v i c argues about Stephen's t e r r o r t h a t , "Because Stephen has an unconscious O e d i p a l d e s i r e t o d e s t r o y h i s f a t h e r , he f e e l s g u i l t y whenever he sees h i s f a t h e r i n j u r e d " ( 1 3 1 ) . However, I t h i n k i t i s c l e a r t h a t Stephen's t e r r o r i s p r i m a r i l y and d i r e c t l y a r e s u l t of h i s sense o f participation i n the i n j u r y d e a l t by Dante t o h i s f a t h e r , t o Mr. Casey, and to the memory of P a r n e l l , and onl y -24-s e c o n d a r i l y because o f any l i n g e r i n g unconscious wish he might be harbouring f o r such an i n j u r y t o h i s f a t h e r . And h i s sense of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the female i n j u r y t o male psyches undoubtedly adds t o the c o n f u s i o n i n Stephen's mind about h i s own p r o v i s i o n a l s exual i d e n t i t y . T h i s c o n f u s i o n becomes e v i d e n t i n the pandying episode a t Clongowes. C. The Pandying Episode The scene a t Clongowes i n which Stephen i s pandied by Father Dolan seems to be i n t e r p r e t e d by him as another symbolic c a s t r a t i o n . But t h i s time the source of the c a s t r a t i o n i s masculine and p a t e r n a l , r a t h e r than the e a r l i e r feminine, maternal t h r e a t s . The a c t u a l pandying i s d e s c r i b e d as a f e e l i n g of v u l n e r a b i l i t y , f o l l o w e d by s i m i l e s of breakage, d e s t r u c t i o n , and l o s s of vigorous l i f e : "Stephen c l o s e d h i s eyes and h e l d out i n the a i r h i s t r e m b l i n g hand with the palm upwards. . . . A hot b u r n i n g s t i n g i n g t i n g l i n g blow l i k e the l o u d crack of a broken s t i c k made h i s t r e m b l i n g hand crumple t o g e t h e r l i k e a l e a f i n the f i r e . . . . h i s crumpled b u r n i n g l i v i d hand shook l i k e a loose l e a f i n the a i r " (P 50). H i s pandied hands are then d e s c r i b e d as though i n h i s mind -25-they are actually detached from his own body: "Stephen drew back his maimed and quivering right arm and held out his l e f t hand [to be pandied]" (P 50, emphasis added); "To think of them [his pandied hands] beaten and swollen with pain a l l i n a moment made him f e e l so sorry for them as i f they were not his own but someone else's that he f e l t sorry for" (P 51) . The images of masculine castration i n t h i s scene are complicated by accompanying evidence that Stephen i s generally preoccupied with homosexuality. He seems to f e e l and to r e s i s t the upwelling of a latent homosexual drive i n himself, which i s probably coming to the surface i n response to the recent crushing blow to his male i d e n t i f i c a t i o n during the Christmas dinner argument, and also to the e a r l i e r suppression of his c h i l d i s h hetero-sexual feelings i n the "eagles" incident. His preoccupation i s clear during the pandying episode, when his attention i s attracted to what seems to be an i n c i d e n t a l d e t a i l , the touch of Father Dolan's fingers on his hand just before he i s pandied. What i s described i n very simple terms at the beginning becomes successively more charged with significance as he returns to i t i n his mind. F i r s t , "He f e l t the prefect of studies touch i t [his hand] for a moment at the fingers to straighten i t . . . . " (P 50). Shortly af t e r that i t becomes i n his memory "the firm touch of the prefect of studies when he had steadied the -26-shaking f i n g e r s . • . . " (P 51, emphasis added). Then, "He f e l t the touch of the p r e f e c t ' s f i n g e r s as they had s t e a d i e d h i s hand and at f i r s t he had thought he was going to shake hands w i t h him because the f i n g e r s were s o f t and f i r m . . . . " (P 52). F i n a l l y , there i s an Obscure cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p p o s t u l a t e d by Stephen between the touch o f the p r e f e c t ' s f i n g e r s and h i s c r u e l l o o k s : "And h i s whitegrey face and the nocoloured eyes behind the steelrimmed s p e c t a c l e s were c r u e l l o o k i n g because he had s t e a d i e d the hand f i r s t with h i s f i r m s o f t f i n g e r s . . . . ".(P 52, emphasis added). S e v e r a l commentators have n o t i c e d the homosexual component of Stephen's p e r s o n a l i t y i n the e a r l y p a r t of Portrait. S p e c i f i c a l l y , B r i v i c c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e s the "dense homosexual atmosphere" (130) of one o f Stephen's e a r l i e s t memories, t h a t of h i s f a t h e r p u l l i n g up the stopper of a h o t e l washbasin i n which Stephen had j u s t washed h i s hands. The i n c i d e n t i s r e c a l l e d t o Stephen's mind by one of h i s f e l l o w students c a l l i n g another, named Simon Moonan, a "suck" (P 11): Suck was a queer word. The f e l l o w c a l l e d Simon Moonan t h a t name because Simon Moonan used to t i e the p r e f e c t ' s f a l s e s l e e v e s behind h i s back and the p r e f e c t used to l e t on to be angry. But the sound was ugly. Once he had washed h i s hands i n the l a v a t o r y o f the Wicklow H o t e l and h i s f a t h e r p u l l e d the stopper up by the c h a i n a f t e r and the d i r t y water went down through the hole i n the b a s i n . And when i t had a l l gone down slowly the hole i n the b a s i n had made a sound l i k e t h a t : suck. Only l o u d e r . - 2 7 -To remember that and the white look of the lavatory made him f e e l cold and then hot. There were two cocks that you turned and water came out: cold and hot. He f e l t cold and then a l i t t l e hot: and he could see the names printed on the cocks. That was a very queer thing. (P I D As B r i v i c points out, i n these two paragraphs of revery the words "suck", "cocks" and "queer" are repeated by Stephen twice each. In doing so Stephen seems to be groping toward a sexual strategy to replace the hetero-sexual drive so vigourously suppressed by Dante and his mother i n the "eagles" scene. His anxious emotional response to the homosexual overtones of his memory reveals considerable ambivalence: "cold and then a l i t t l e hot." Nevertheless, the d e t a i l s of the memory do indicate a par t l y repressed desire to form a sexual relationship with his father. I t also seems to indicate a displacement of the di r e c t i o n of his i n i t i a l Oedipal sexual drive away from his mother and toward his father. This suggests that his o r i g i n a l heterosexual a t t r a c t i o n to females such as Eileen could become a homosexual at t r a c t i o n to males. S p e c i f i c evidence that Stephen does f e e l unconsciously attracted to males i s p l e n t i f u l i n the all-male context of 7 Clongowes College. For instance, he hears about a myster-ious and forbidden incident at the College that i s c a l l e d "Smugging" (P 42) by Athy, one of his fellow students. -28-Stephen does not know what "smugging" i s , but his subsequent thoughts about the two central characters i n the incident o are d i s t i n c t l y homosexual i n nature: Simon Moonan had nice clothes and one night he had shown him a b a l l of creamy sweets that the fellows of the f o o t b a l l f i f t e e n had r o l l e d down to him along the carpet i n the middle of the refectory when he was at the door. . . . the b a l l was made just l i k e a red and green apple only i t opened and i t was f u l l of the creamy sweets. And one day Boyle had said that an elephant had two tuskers instead of two tusks and that was why he was c a l l e d Tusker Boyle but some fellows c a l l e d him Lady Boyle because he was always at his n a i l s , paring them. (P 42) E a r l i e r , Simon Moonan had been the i n d i r e c t cause of Stephen's homosexually charged revery about his father, who i s also named Simon. Here, Moonan's "nice clothes" and the g i f t of "creamy sweets" suggest payment of some kind for secretive services rendered to the f o o t b a l l e r s . His " b a l l . . . l i k e a red and green apple" seems to be connected i n Stephen's mind, through h i s use of the "apple" simile, with the temptation of Eve by the serpent, one r e s u l t of which was human awareness of sexual s i n . And the colours of the apple, of course, serve as a reminder of the c o n f l i c t i n Ireland, and i n Stephen's family, over Parnell's " s i n f u l " sexual conduct. But here these associations are set i n a context with homosexual rather -29-th an heterosexual overtones. The nickname "Tusker" for "Tusker Boyle" suggests threatening aggressive masculinity. But Stephen quickly s h i f t s to another nickname, "Lady Boyle", and, although the other students consistently refer to Boyle as "Tusker" (P 42 and P 44), Stephen c a l l s him "Lady Boyle" (P 45) i n his only other reference to him. In i n d i c a t i n g a preference for Boyle's feminine aspect, Stephen reveals his own homosexual tendency, and at the same time evades the aggressive masculine threat implied by the tusks. And since Boyle always pares his f i n g e r n a i l s , they presumably do not get long enough to be a danger comparable to the sharp talons implied by Dante's threat that "eagles w i l l come and p u l l out his eyes" (PS). The prescribed flogging to punish the boys involved i n the "smugging" i s also fantasized by Stephen i n terms that imply homosexuality. Athy, the student who speaks most au t h o r i t a t i v e l y about the whole incident, attempts to make l i g h t of the flogging: It can't be helped; It must be done. So down with your breeches And out with your bum. (P 44) The other boys laugh nervously, but Stephen responds by displacing the punitive threat onto himself. Apparently, - 3 0 -he feels g u i l t i l y involved i n the homosexual a c t i v i t y that he seems to i n f e r from the word "smugging". He also shows further anxiety about the submissive sexual role that could be interpreted from the words of the rhyme. His response i s therefore a g u i l t y , anxious, sensual one: It made him shivery: but that was because you always f e l t l i k e a shiver when you l e t down your trousers. . . .Mr. Gleeson [who would do the flogging] had round shiny cuffs and clean white wrists and f a t t i s h white hands and the n a i l s of them were long and pointed. Perhaps he pared them too l i k e Lady Boyle. But they were t e r r i b l y long and pointed n a i l s . So long and cruel they were though the white f a t t i s h hands were not cruel but gentle. And though he trembled with cold and f r i g h t to think of the cruel long n a i l s and of the high whistling sound of the cane and of the c h i l l you f e l t at the end of your s h i r t when you undressed yourself yet he f e l t a f e e l i n g of queer quiet pleasure inside him to think of the white f a t t i s h hands, clean and strong and gentle. (P 45) It i s clear i n thi s passage that Stephen's anxiety derives s p e c i f i c a l l y from the threatening feminine attribute of long n a i l s , and that his "queer" sensuality i s attracted by the masculine hands, "clean and strong and gentle." I t i s t h i s sensual a t t r a c t i o n to men's hands that compels Stephen to li n g e r over his memory of the touch -31-of Father Dolan's f i n g e r s on h i s i n the subsequent pandying episode (pp. 25-26 above). But t h a t a c t u a l male touch turns out to be only the p relude to a b e t r a y a l : ". . . h e had s t e a d i e d the hand f i r s t w i t h h i s f i r m s o f t f i n g e r s and t h a t was to h i t i t b e t t e r and louder" (P 52). Stephen concludes b i t t e r l y t h a t " i t was u n j u s t and c r u e l and u n f a i r " (P 53). He f e e l s v i o l a t e d , and the s e x u a l overtones o f h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f the event l e a d us to i n t e r -p r e t the v i o l a t i o n as a combination of male c a s t r a t i o n and male rape. But Stephen's response to the t r a u m a t i c i n c i d e n t i s a very courageous one: he r e b e l s a g a i n s t i t . Stephen's r e b e l l i o n i s a t h r e e - f o l d one a g a i n s t three d i f f e r e n t kinds of male a u t h o r i t y : t h a t of h i s f a t h e r , o f h i s church and s c h o o l , and of h i s peers. He i s break-i n g f r e e from h i s f a t h e r ' s admonition "never t o peach on a f e l l o w " (P 9), which he had e a r l i e r heeded (P 21). He i s d i r e c t l y c h a l l e n g i n g F a ther Dolan's d i s c i p l i n a r y a u t h o r i t y as p r e f e c t of s t u d i e s . And he i s making a s i g n i f i c a n t break from the a t t i t u d e s o f a l l but one of h i s f e l l o w s t udents. Fleming, the one e x c e p t i o n , had suggested a s h o r t time b e f o r e t h a t they "get up a r e b e l l i o n " to p r o t e s t u n f a i r punishment a r i s i n g from the "smugging" episode, but " A l l the f e l l o w s were s i l e n t " (P 44) i n r e p l y . Stephen's a c t u a l d e c i s i o n to f i g h t back by a p p e a l i n g to the r e c t o r i s made a t the p r e c i s e i n s t a n t t h a t he manages to n e u t r a l i z e in sexual terms the most immediately -32-t h r e a t e n i n g o f the three kinds o f a u t h o r i t y : Dolan: i t was l i k e the name of a woman t h a t washed c l o t h e s . He had reached the door and, t u r n i n g q u i c k l y up t o the r i g h t , walked up the s t a i r s and, b e f o r e he c o u l d make up h i s mind t o come back, he had entered the low dark narrow c o r r i d o r t h a t l e d t o the c a s t l e . (P 55) Reversing h i s e a r l i e r p s y c h i c s t r a t e g y of imagining Dante the t h r e a t e n i n g female, with a masculine f e t i s h , here he wards o f f the t h r e a t e n i n g male aspects of Father Dolan by i n v e s t i n g him, through h i s name, wit h n e u t r a l i z i feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In a d d i t i o n , however, these feminine a t t r i b u t e s are themselves non-threatening: a woman who works, and e s p e c i a l l y one who washes c l o t h e s , would not be able t o maintain on her f i n g e r s the k i n d o f long c r u e l sharp n a i l s t h a t Stephen i s so t e r r i f i e d o f . Stephen's a c t u a l e n t r y i n t o the c o r r i d o r l e a d i n g t o the r e c t o r ' s o f f i c e r e s u l t s i n a sharp change o f focus from masculine t h r e a t to feminine t h r e a t . As B r i v i c demonstrates, i t i s " d e s c r i b e d w i t h emphatic r e p e t i t i o n as an entrance i n t o the female: 'he would be i n the low dark narrow c o r r i d o r t h a t l e d through the c a s t l e t o the r e c t o r ' s room . . . he had entered the low dark narrow c o r r i d o r . . . He passed along the narrow dark c o r r i d o r . (P 54-55)" ( B r i v i c 131, e l l i p s e s B r i v i c ' s ) . What B r i v i c - 3 3 -does not mention i s t h a t Stephen works i n h i s mind t o ward o f f the t h r e a t o f engulfment posed by h i s en t r y i n t o "the female". In t h i s case, h i s s t r a t e g y i s another r e v e r s a l , r e f l e c t i n g h i s confused sense o f sex r o l e i d e n t i t y . Here he wards o f f f e a r o f the female by i n v e s t i n g the c o r r i d o r with n e u t r a l i z i n g , but non^threatening, male a t t r i b u t e s : He passed along the narrow dark c o r r i d o r , p a s s i n g l i t t l e doors t h a t were the doors o f the rooms o f the community. He peered i n f r o n t o f him and r i g h t and l e f t through the gloom and thought t h a t those must be p o r t r a i t s . I t was dark and s i l e n t and h i s eyes were weak and t i r e d with t e a r s so t h a t he c o u l d not see. But he thought they were the p o r t r a i t s o f the s a i n t s and gre a t men of the order who were l o o k i n g down on him s i l e n t l y as he passed: s a i n t I g n a t i u s L o y o l a h o l d i n g an open book and p o i n t i n g to the words Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam i n i t , s a i n t F r a n c i s X a v i e r p o i n t i n g to h i s chest, Lorenzo R i c c i with h i s b e r r e t t a on h i s head l i k e one o f the p r e f e c t s o f the l i n e s , the three patrons of h o l y youth, s a i n t S t a n i s l a u s Kostka, s a i n t A l o y s i u s Gonzaga and b l e s s e d John Berchmans, a l l with young faces because they d i e d when they were young, and Father P e t e r Kenny s i t t i n g i n a c h a i r wrapped i n a b i g c l o a k . (P 55-56) The e c c l e s i a s t i c a l males p r o j e c t e d onto the w a l l o f the c o r r i d o r o f Stephen do not d i r e c t l y t h r e a t e n him because they are a l l long dead. There i s no Father Dolan among them. And they do seem t o p r o v i d e him w i t h a k i n d o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l safe-conduct through the t h r e a t e n i n g female - 3 4 -c o r r i d o r to the entrance h a l l and thence t o the r e c t o r ' s room. At the same time, however, t h e i r p r o j e c t e d presence i n d i c a t e s t h a t , i n Stephen's mind, "the female" i s a pl a c e o f death. I t i s not o n l y womb-like, and t h e r e f o r e a p l a c e of comfort, however t h r e a t e n i n g . I t i s a l s o tomb-l i k e , and t h e r e f o r e a p l a c e of d e a t h - o r i e n t e d i n t i m i d a t i o n and a n x i e t y : " I t was dark and s i l e n t and h i s eyes were weak and t i r e d with t e a r s so t h a t he c o u l d not see" (P 5 5 ) . His eyes, of course, have been threatened b e f o r e by females. The r e c t o r ' s room changes Stephen's sense of the sexual o r i e n t a t i o n of h i s journey from female back t o male. I t i s the sanctum of male a u t h o r i t y , and i s d e s c r i b e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y masculine terms. Stephen e n t e r s i t through a c o a r s e - t e x t u r e d "green b a i z e door" (P 5 6 ) . The d e s c r i p -t i o n o f how he p e r c e i v e s what i s i n the room r e v e a l s a somewhat t h r e a t e n i n g masculine atmosphere, w i t h a s k u l l as the focus o f h i s a t t e n t i o n : He saw the r e c t o r s i t t i n g a t a desk w r i t i n g . There was a s k u l l on the desk and a strange solemn sm e l l i n the room l i k e the o l d l e a t h e r o f c h a i r s . His h e a r t was b e a t i n g f a s t on account o f the solemn p l a c e he was i n and the s i l e n c e of the room: and he looked a t the s k u l l and at the r e c t o r ' s k i n d l o o k i n g f a c e . (P 56) The l e a t h e r t h a t Stephen smells has two p o s s i b l e r e f e r e n t s i n h i s memory t h a t we know o f . One i s the "greasy l e a t h e r - 3 5 -orb" : (P 8) of the foot b a l l e r s , whose "rude feet" ( P 8) are a type of masculine p h a l l i c threat to Stephen (see B r i v i c , p. 1 2 5 ) . The other i s the leather of the pandybat ( P 4 5 ) , which i s also associated with threatening masculinity. Stephen i s made nervous by the multiple anxieties of his s i t u a t i o n , but, helped by the kindness of the fatherly rector, he forges into his story. And although he has several clear opportunities to stop without f i n i s h -ing, he presses his point u n t i l the rector agrees to i n t e r -vene personally with Father Dolan. In doing so, Stephen achieves a s i g n i f i c a n t moral victory over the various masculine threats l i k e Father Dolan who are represented by the rector. In i t s way, and at that time i n his l i f e , i t i s a complete victory for Stephen, and he deserves the recognition accorded to him by his less courageous schoolmates. Many c r i t i c s claim that the victory i s hollow because i t i s l a t e r i r o n i c a l l y undercut (see P 7 2 ) , but they are missing an important point. For Stephen himself, the def l a t i o n of his victory does not take place u n t i l several years l a t e r , when he i s about to enter Belvedere College. He has had plenty of time to savour (and to evaluate) the experience. And even when i t i s deflated by his father reporting the conversation with Father Conmee, the former rector of Clongowes, the irony i s not complete. In fact, the Jesuits' reaction, however jocular, shows that Stephen -36-made h i s p o i n t f e l t . The former r e c t o r remembers the i n c i d e n t w e l l , and Stephen's image i n h i s eyes was t h a t of a "Manly l i t t l e ehap!" (P 72). At the c o n c l u s i o n o f h i s meeting w i t h the r e c t o r , Stephen continues to maintain h i s a c t i v e masculine r o l e : "The r e c t o r h e l d h i s hand across the s i d e of the desk where the s k u l l was and Stephen, p l a c i n g h i s hand i n i t f o r a moment, f e l t a c o o l moist palm" (P 5 8 ) . However, Stephen's triumph i n h i s meeting with the r e c t o r i s a triumph o n l y over masculine t h r e a t s . The feminine t h r e a t s 9 of the long sharp n a i l s and e s p e c i a l l y of the e n g u l f i n g c o r r i d o r remain unchallenged, and continue to haunt him. D. The Devouring Female I t i s c l e a r from the f o r e g o i n g analyses of scenes from Chapter 1 of P o r t r a i t t h a t Stephen's p e r s o n a l i t y i s dominated by what Freud c a l l s an i n v e r t e d n e g a t i v e Oedipus complex: . . . one gets an impression t h a t the simple Oedipus complex i s by no means i t s commonest form, but r a t h e r r e p r e s e n t s a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n or s c h e m a t i z a t i o n which, to be sure, i s o f t e n enough j u s t i f i e d f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes. C l o s e r study u s u a l l y d i s c l o s e s the more complete Oedipus complex, which i s t w o f o l d , p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e , and i s due to the - 3 7 -bisexuality o r i g i n a l l y present i n children: that i s to say, a boy has not merely an ambivalent attitude towards his father and an affectionate object-choice towards his mother, but at the same time he also behaves l i k e a g i r l and displays an affectionate feminine attitude to his father and a corresponding jealousy and h o s t i l i t y towards his mother. . . . the re s u l t i s a series with the normal p o s i t i v e Oedipus complex at one end and the inverted negative one at the other, while i t s i n t e r -mediate members exhibit the complete form with one or other of i t s two components preponderating. The dominant role i n Stephen's personality of an inverted Oedipus complex, of hating and fearing his mother, while loving and desiring his father, continues throughout the period of his l i f e recounted i n P o r t r a i t . One important r e s u l t of t h i s dominance i s that his relations with his mother are controlled i n his consciousness by jealousy, h o s t i l i t y , and a v e i l e d wish to get r i d of her so that he can replace her with himself i n her rel a t i o n s with his father. In addition, he i n turn feels threatened by her, and fears the p o s s i b i l i t y of feminine r e t r i b u t i o n for his h o s t i l e feelings. The f i r s t expression of Stephen's wish to get r i d of his mother appears i n a concealed form i n his e a r l i e s t consciousness. P o r t r a i t begins with a story t o l d by his father i n answer to Stephen's basic c h i l d i s h question, "'Where did I come from?'"'''''" In the story, Stephen's mother i s i d e n t i f i e d as "a moocow": -38-Once upon a time and a very good time i t was there was a moocow coming down alo n g the road and t h i s moocow t h a t was coming down along the road met a nicens l i t t l e boy named baby tuckoo. . . . His f a t h e r t o l d him t h a t s t o r y : h i s f a t h e r looked a t him through a g l a s s : he had a h a i r y f a c e . He was baby tuckoo. The moocow came down the road where Bet t y Byrne l i v e d : she s o l d lemon p l a t t . 03 the wild rose blossoms On the l i t t l e green place. He sang t h a t song. That was h i s song. 03 the green wothe botheth. \ When you wet the bed f i r s t i t i s warm then i t gets c o l d . H is mother put on the o i l s h e e t . That had the queer s m e l l . (P 7 , e l l i p s e s i n o r i g i n a l ) Paragraphs two, th r e e , and fou r o f t h i s passage a t the b e g i n n i n g o f Portrait seem t o be a r e c o r d o f Stephen's e a r l y mental processes as he r e g i s t e r s impressions o f h i s f a t h e r , i n t e r p r e t s and extends the s t o r y of paragraph one, and then switches h i s a t t e n t i o n t o " h i s song". But they a l s o have the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a dream: they are compressed i n form, are composed p r i m a r i l y o f sensory images (mainly v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y ) , have the s l i g h t l y d i s j o i n t e d q u a l i t y o f h a l l u c i n a t i o n , and are 12 i n t e r c o n n e c t e d by a s s o c i a t i o n a l , n o n - l i n e a r l o g i c . The p h y s i c a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f having a "green wothe" i s noted l a t e r by Stephen: ". . . h e remembered the song -39-about the w i l d rose blossoms on the l i t t l e green p l a c e . But you c o u l d not have a green rose. But perhaps somewhere i n the world you c o u l d " (P 12). Green roses are p o s s i b l e , of course, i n dreams, as w e l l as i n c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n (the usual i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Stephen's "green r o s e " ) . In f a c t , the suggestion of a green rose does appear l a t e r i n another of Stephen's dreams: "He c l o s e d h i s eyes i n the languor of s l e e p . . . . an opening flower . . . b r e a k i n g i n f u l l crimson and u n f o l d i n g and f a d i n g to p a l e s t rose, l e a f by l e a f . . . ." (P 172). The use o f the word " l e a f " , 13 which i s " t y p i c a l l y . . . green," i n s t e a d of " p e t a l " , adds an i m p l i c a t i o n of "green" to the "rose" of h i s dream. There i s another i n c o n g r u i t y i n the "green wothe" o f Stephen's "song" t h a t can be e x p l a i n e d best by r e f e r e n c e to s l e e p and dreams, and t h a t i s i t s s p e l l i n g . There i s a change of s p e l l i n g s t y l e i n Stephen's l i n e between "03 the green" and "wothe botheth" t h a t seems to correspond to a s h i f t i n the p a t t e r n of h i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n . T h i s s h i f t can be e x p l a i n e d as the break between a sharp, c l e a r dream sequence, i n which sounds t h a t have been heard are c l e a r l y reproduced, and a groggy, just-waking s t a t e i n which the dream-sounds are b l u r r e d . The a c t u a l sound o f the b l u r r e d words "wothe botheth" a l s o suggests the m u f f l e d f e e l i n g of u r i n a t i n g underneath the b e d c l o t h e s . -40-Stephen's wetting the bed i s the next thing mentioned i n the passage, and i s probably what wakes him from his dream. The e l l i p s e s at the end of paragraph one probably 14 xndicate the beginning of his dre am—thoughts. with Stephen f a l l i n g asleep as he i s being t o l d a bedtime story. Another reason for thinking that paragraphs two, three, and four at the beginning of P o r t r a i t are a dream sequence i s that close analysis reveals a wish f u l f i l l -15 ment hidden i n the pattern of thought and imagery. Stephen's song i n paragraphs three and four i s adapted from a l i n e of the song " L i l l y Dale" by H.S. Thompson: 17 "Now the wild rose blossoms o'er her l i t t l e green grave." So Stephen's interpretation of his father's story i n paragraph three, together with his "song" i n the same paragraph, establishes i n his dream-thoughts a deeply concealed relationship between his mother, along with another woman named Betty Byrne, and a song that laments the death caused "By the hand of disease" of a female loved one, and that portrays the grave i n which she i s buried. This association i n Stephen's dream-thoughts between his mother, i n the guise of a "moocow",'- and a song of disease, death, and grave indicate the nature of the wish f u l f i l l m e n t i n his dream. In accordance with his inverted Oedipus complex, Stephen's wish i s that his mother should get sick, die, and be buried i n order to clear the -41-way f o r unhindered r e l a t i o n s between h i m s e l f and h i s f a t h e r . I t i s the re v e r s e o f the c l a s s i c O e d i p a l p a t t e r n i n which the son wishes h i s f a t h e r dead so he can marry h i s mother. And i t shows up i n the very e a r l i e s t r e c o r d we have o f Stephen's consciousness, even b e f o r e the "eagles" scene. The e a r l y i n d i c a t i o n o f a deep and l a s t i n g r e l a t i o n -s h i p i n Stephen's mind between women and death, and s p e c i f i c a l l y between h i s mother and death, i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by some o f h i s l a t e r thoughts. For example, d u r i n g h i s stay a t Clongowes, Stephen remembers the "square d i t c h " 18 ("the c e s s p o o l i n the boys' l a v a t o r y " ) i n t o which he had been pushed by We l l s , one of h i s schoolmates. He i n t e r t w i n e s h i s memory of the i n c i d e n t , t o g e t h e r with some morbid s p e l l i n g sentences, w i t h thoughts o f h i s mother, h i s aunt Dante, and t h e i r female s e r v a n t B r i g i d : They were l i k e poetry but they were only sentences t o l e a r n the s p e l l i n g from. Wolsey died in Leicester Abbey Where the abbots buried him. Canker is a disease of plants, Cancer one of animals. I t would be n i c e to l i e on the he a r t h r u g before the f i r e , l e a n i n g h i s head upon h i s hands, and t h i n k on those sentences. He s h i v e r e d as i f he had c o l d slimy water next h i s s k i n . That was mean of Wells t o shoulder him i n t o the square d i t c h because he would not swop h i s l i t t l e snuffbox f o r Wells's seasoned hacking chestnut, the conqueror o f f o r t y . How c o l d and slimy the water had been! -42-A f e l l o w had once seen a b i g r a t jump i n t o the scum. Mother was s i t t i n g at the f i r e w i t h Dante w a i t i n g f o r B r i g i d t o b r i n g i n the t e a . (P 10) The "square d i t c h " i s a type o f grave s i n c e o n c e - l i v i n g matter i s b u r i e d t h e r e . A l s o , i t i s a l l e g e d l y i n h a b i t e d by a r a t , which Stephen l a t e r d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e s w i t h death and graves {P 22 and P 112). The a c t u a l event o f be i n g pushed by Wells i n t o the square d i t c h i s a d i r e c t male punishment o f Stephen f o r r e f u s i n g to exchange a p a s s i v e feminine o b j e c t ("his l i t t l e snuffbox") f o r an a c t i v e masculine o b j e c t (the "seasoned hacking chestnut, the conqueror o f f o r t y " ) . But i n h i s thoughts about the i n c i d e n t , Stephen t r a n s f e r s the punishment to the p s y c h i c v i c i n i t y o f h i s mother. I t i s as i f he f e e l s i t should come from her to punish him f o r wanting to usurp her feminine s e x u a l r o l e , or as i f he would l i k e to i n f l i c t i t upon her i n order to get r i d o f her so t h a t he can r e p l a c e her. Stephen's womb-like image o f hearth and home i s an escape i n h i s i m a g i n a t i o n from the unpleasant f o o t b a l l f i e l d where h i s revery a c t u a l l y takes p l a c e , but not from the unpleasant thoughts i n the re v e r y . In f a c t , he would l i k e t o be a t home so he could " t h i n k on those sentences," the p o e t i c but s t i l l very d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n s -43-of disease, death, and b u r i a l . His pattern of thought i n this passage shows that womb, mother, and women are naturally linked i n his consciousness with disease, death, and b u r i a l . I t also helps to explain why he composes a l e t t e r to his mother when he i s sick i n the infirmary and thinks he might be dying (P 2 3). We notice, on the other hand, that when his glasses are broken he writes "to his father . . . to send him a new pai r " (P 52, emphasis added) so that his a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the l i f e of the college w i l l be restored. There i s more evidence i n P o r t r a i t of Stephen's suppressed desire to k i l l his mother, or, usually, the less d i r e c t wish to render her absent from his l i f e . His long struggle to evade the fact and implications of his own physical b i r t h i s the main source of such evidence. For instance, he reacts with h o r r i f i e d shock to the sight of the word "Foetus" carved on a desk i n the anatomy theatre at Cork, finding that i t evokes "recent monstrous reveries . . . into his memory" (P 89-90). Our interpre-tation so far enables us to f e e l reasonably confident that one aspect of his shock at those reveries has to do with his r e l a t i o n s with his mother, and with his suppressed wish to be free from her moral and physical influence. This interpretation i s strengthened by the content of Stephen's thoughts when he t r i e s to recover the psychic equilibrium and sense of i d e n t i t y that i s put to f l i g h t -44-by his "monstrous reveries." F i r s t , he desperately relates himself to his father: " — I am Stephen Dedalus. I am walking beside my father whose name i s Simon Dedalus" (P 92). This i s natural enough since they are v i s i t i n g Cork together, and have been together for almost a f u l l day. But when he attempts to go further and remember some of the " v i v i d moments" (P 93) of his childhood, his mother does not appear once i n the half-page of r e c o l l e c t i o n s . His memory of her i s completely repressed by the shock of the incident. A short time l a t e r , Stephen confirms why she i s absent from his memories of childhood. With reckless spending of academic prize money he t r i e s and f a i l s to bridge "the rest l e s s shame and rancour that divided him from his mother and brother and s i s t e r " (P 98). As a r e s u l t , "He f e l t that he was hardly of the one blood with them but stood to them rather i n the mystical kinship of fosterage, f o s t e r c h i l d and fosterbrother" (P 98). In denying physical family t i e s with his mother and her children, he attempts to eliminate them from any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n to his l i f e . His wish is to have not been a foetus himself. But he s i g n i f i c a n t l y exempts his father from the denial, and apparently retains his sense of actual kinship with him. Near the end of the novel, during an uneasy conver-sation he has with his fri e n d Cranly about love for one's mother, Stephen makes a more symbolic, less d i r e c t , -45-statement denying motherhood, and p r o v i s i o n a l l y accepting 19 fatherhood. He says of Jesus Christ that "He i s more l i k e a son of God than a son of Mary" (P 24 3). Since Stephen's conscious i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Christ at t h i s 20 time i n his l i f e i s well documented, he i s r e f e r r i n g i n this statement to himself i n his f i l i a l r elations with his parents (his mother's formal f i r s t name i s Mary) as well as to Christ. There i s also evidence i n P o r t r a i t that Stephen has a powerful continuing fear of being engulfed by maternal females that p a r a l l e l s his wish to be r i d . o f his mother, and probably i s rooted i n the g u i l t and corresponding fear of r e t r i b u t i o n engendered by such a wish. One of his e a r l i e s t , and therefore most d i r e c t and unsuppressed, expressions of such fear i s at the end of an escapist womblike revery: They l i v e d i n Clane, a fellow said: there were l i t t l e cottages there and he had seen a woman standing at the halfdoor of a cottage with a c h i l d i n her arms, as the cars had come past from S a l l i n s . I t would be lovely to sleep for one night i n that cottage before the f i r e of smoking t u r f , i n the dark l i t by the f i r e , i n the warm dark, breathing the smell of the peasants, a i r and r a i n and t u r f and corduroy. But, O, the road there between the trees was dark! You would be l o s t i n the dark. I t made him a f r a i d to think of how i t was. (P 18) -46-Stephen i s not a f r a i d here of the peasants o r the country s e t t i n g . Rather, he i s a f r a i d of b eing swallowed up by the maternal female r e p r e s e n t e d by the dark road between the t r e e s . But Stephen's most powerful emotional response to any t h r e a t to him comes d u r i n g the annual r e t r e a t a t Belvedere. H i s sense of danger i s evoked by the sermons o f Father A r n a l l , but i t i s c l e a r t h a t the p r i e s t i s only an agent, and t h a t the source o f the danger i s maternal and female r a t h e r than p a t e r n a l and male. For example, Father A r n a l l h i m s e l f d e s c r i b e s the r e t r e a t as t a k i n g p l a c e "on the days . . . s e t a p a r t by our holy mother the church" {P 109, emphasis added). And the enormous sense o f g u i l t t h a t makes Stephen so v u l n e r a b l e to the message of the sermons i s generated by h i s frequent 21 s e x u a l c o n t a c t s w i t h female p r o s t i t u t e s . T h i s g u i l t makes him f e e l v i v i d l y and p e r s o n a l l y threatened: His s o u l was f a t t e n i n g and c o n g e a l i n g i n t o a gross grease, p l u n g i n g ever deeper i n i t s d u l l f e a r i n t o a sombre t h r e a t e n i n g dusk, while the body t h a t was h i s stood, l i s t l e s s and d i s -honoured, gazing out of darkened eyes, h e l p l e s s , p e r t u r b e d and human f o r a bovine god to s t a r e upon. The next day brought death and judgment, s t i r r i n g h i s s o u l s l o w l y from i t s l i s t l e s s d e s p a i r . The f a i n t glimmer of f e a r became a t e r r o r o f s p i r i t as the hoarse v o i c e o f the preacher blew death i n t o h i s s o u l . He s u f f e r e d i t s agony. He f e l t the d e a t h c h i l l touch the e x t r e m i t i e s and creep onward towards the h e a r t , -47-the f i l m of death v e i l i n g the eyes, the bright centres of the brain extinguished one by one l i k e lamps, the l a s t sweat oozing upon the skin, the powerlessness of the dying limbs, the speech thickening and wandering and f a i l i n g , the heart throbbing f a i n t l y and more f a i n t l y , a l l but vanquished, the breath, the poor breath, the poor helpless human s p i r i t , sobbing and sighing, gurgling and r a t t l i n g i n the throat. No help! No help! He, he himself, his body to which he had yielded was dying. Into the grave with i t ! N a i l i t down into a wooden box, the corpse. Carry i t out of the house on the shoulders of h i r e l i n g s . Thrust i t out of men's sight into a long hole i n the ground, into the grave, to rot, to feed the mass of i t s creeping worms and to be devoured by s c u t t l i n g plump-b e l l i e d rats. (P 111-112) Stephen's description of his watching god as "bovine" establishes an association with other feminine bovine imagery i n the novel (see, for example, P 6 3-64) and notably with the "moocow" designation of his mother (P 7). So, although the s p e c i f i c agent of death i s the male preacher, he i s only acting on behalf of "our holy mother the church," and for a god who, i n Stephen's mind, has not only feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ("bovine"), but also vengeful female antecedents, the p u r i t a n i c a l l y r e l i g i o u s Dante and May Dedalus. The t o t a l engulfment by dusk, by d e a t h c h i l l , by the grave, with i t s worms and rats, that Stephen imagines and i s i n te r r o r of i s for him e s s e n t i a l l y a feminine threat. He has f e l t i t before at Clongowes i n connection with the square ditch and the corridors of -48-the c o l l e g e . And he expresses the f e e l i n g again much l a t e r i n the n o v e l when he speaks t o Davin about the b i r t h and growth o f h i s s o u l : — T h e s o u l i s born, he s a i d vaguely, f i r s t i n those moments I t o l d you o f . I t has a slow and dark b i r t h , more mysterious than the b i r t h o f the body. When the s o u l o f a man i s born i n t h i s country there are nets f l u n g a t i t to h o l d i t back from f l i g h t . You t a l k to me of n a t i o n a l i t y , language, r e l i g i o n . I s h a l l t r y to f l y by those nets. Davin knocked the ashes from h i s p i p e . — T o o deep f o r me, S t e v i e , he s a i d . But a man's country comes f i r s t . I r e l a n d f i r s t , S t e v i e . You can be a poet o r mystic a f t e r . --Do you know what I r e l a n d i s ? asked Stephen with c o l d v i o l e n c e . I r e l a n d i s the o l d sow t h a t eats her farrow. •CP 203) In l e a v i n g I r e l a n d , f l e e i n g , s h o r t l y a f t e r w r i t i n g i n h i s d i a r y "Away! Away!" (P 252), Stephen i s attempting to f l y p a s t those n e t s , t o escape b e i n g devoured and e n g u l f e d by h i s female enemies. He r e j e c t s the l u r e o f the e n g u l f i n g maternal "white arms of roads" (P 252) t h a t l e a d from D u b l i n t o the r e s t o f I r e l a n d , and t h a t "promise . . . c l o s e embraces" CP 252). Instead, he accepts the c a l l o f the p a t e r n a l "black arms of t a l l s h i p s t h a t stand against the [feminine] moon" (P 252, emphasis and i n s e r t i o n added), and t h a t t e l l " t h e i r t a l e of d i s t a n t n a t i o n s " (P 252) The n o v e l ends as i t begins, with Stephen's f a t h e r : -49-"Old f a t h e r , o l d a r t i f i c e r , stand me now and ever i n good 22 stead" (P 25 3). We n o t i c e t h a t no such wish i s expressed f o r h i s mother. And we know why. Stephen's c o n t i n u i n g r e p r e s s e d wish f o r h i s mother i s the o p p o s i t e of her s t a n d i n g f o r him "now and ever i n good s t e a d " : i n f a c t , he wishes her dead. I I I . STEPHEN IN ULYSSES . . . has an eatupus complex and a d r i n k t h e d r e g s kink . . . . --Finnegans Wake (128-129) A. Wish F u l f i l l m e n t and G u i l t E a r l y i n Ulysses we d i s c o v e r t h a t Stephen l e f t I r e l a n d and l i v e d i n P a r i s f o r a time, but r e t u r n e d a b r u p t l y i n response to a telegram from h i s f a t h e r : "—Mother dying come home f a t h e r " (U 42). The message i n t h i s telegram of an impending death i n the f a m i l y i s an unhappy one on the face of i t . But on a deeper l e v e l i t r e p r e s e n t s an almost complete working out of the unconscious wish a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Stephen's i n v e r t e d Oedipus complex. His wish, as we have seen, has been t h a t h i s mother should d i e i n order to c l e a r the way f o r him to e s t a b l i s h unhampered r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s f a t h e r . The telegram not o n l y brought news of h i s mother's imminent death, but a l s o was a request from his father to r e t u r n home. The f i r s t p a r t of Stephen's wish was f u l f i l l e d . Stephen was back i n D u b l i n and by h i s mother's bedside as she continued to weaken and f i n a l l y d i e d (see U 5-10). Based on our knowledge of Stephen we can expect t h a t he -50--51-would f e e l an enormous sense of g u i l t a t s e e i n g h i s deeply f e l t , deeply r e p r e s s e d wish t h a t she should d i e a c t u a l l y f u l f i l l e d i n dramatic f a s h i o n r i g h t b e f o r e h i s eyes. And there i s no doubt t h a t a t the time of Ulysses Stephen i s obsessed w i t h g u i l t about h i s mother's death,"*" 2 even though i t i s now almost a year s i n c e she d i e d . Stephen's f e e l i n g of g u i l t , which he c a l l s "Agenbite of i n w i t . Conscience" [U 16), i s e v i d e n t throughout Ulysses. In the opening scene, Buck M u l l i g a n , h i s companion and roommate, s t r i k e s a t the reason f o r h i s g u i l t when he b l u n t l y r a i s e s the i s s u e o f Stephen's own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s mother's death: " — T h e aunt t h i n k s you k i l l e d your mother, he s a i d . That's why she won't l e t me have anything to do with you" (U 5). Stephen r e p l i e s w i t h an o b l i q u e and somewhat o f f h a n d remark, "—Someone k i l l e d her" (U 5), and s t u d i o u s l y i g n o r e s M u l l i g a n ' s f u r t h e r gibes on the t o p i c (U 5 and U 6). N e v e r t h e l e s s , he remembers the a c c u s a t i o n very c l e a r l y and a c c u r a t e l y l a t e r d u r i n g h i s walk on Sandymount s t r a n d . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , h i s memory o f i t i s t r i g g e r e d by h i s deeply engraved memory of the words of h i s f a t h e r ' s telegram: . . . a b l u e French telegram, c u r i o s i t y to show: --Mother d y i n g come home f a t h e r . The aunt t h i n k s you k i l l e d your mother. That's why she won't. Then here's a health to Mulligan's aunt And I ' l l t e l l you the reason why. She always kept things decent in The Hannigan famileye. -52-His f e e t marched i n sudden proud rhythm over the sand furrows, along by the boulders of the south w a l l . (U 42) We can see i n t h i s passage t h a t Stephen chokes o f f the p a r t o f the o r i g i n a l a c c usatory statement which i m p l i e s t h a t he i s u n f i t to a s s o c i a t e with M u l l i g a n by r e c i t i n g 3 a s u i t a b l y amended verse o f "Matthew Hanigan's Aunt," and by marching b r i s k l y a cross the sand. In doing so, he a l s o chokes o f f f u r t h e r thought about h i s r e a c t i o n to the message o f the telegram, or about the p o s s i b l e t r u t h i n the charge t h a t he k i l l e d h i s mother, or about why he f e e l s g u i l t y i n response to such a d r a s t i c a c c u s a t i o n . He simply covers h i s thoughts b e f o r e they become dangerous. However, Stephen i s not able to maintain a complete g r i p on the r e p r e s s e d m a t e r i a l t h a t i s r e l a t e d t o h i s mother's death. A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of t h i s p s y c h i c m a t e r i a l breaks through to h i s conscious mind i n v a r i o u s forms i n Ulysses. Two important breakthroughs are r e l a t e d to h i s s t r u g g l e with the memory o f h i s mother's death, and w i t h the g u i l t a s s o c i a t e d with her death as a f u l f i l l -ment o f h i s own wish. One i s h i s memory, repeated i n v a r i o u s forms s e v e r a l times d u r i n g the day, of a dream he has had o f h i s dead mother. The other i s a r e l a t e d s h o r t poem he w r i t e s d u r i n g h i s walk on the s t r a n d . A t h i r d s i g n i f i c a n t breakthrough of r e p r e s s e d m a t e r i a l i s a - 5 3 -p a i r of dreams remembered by Stephen from the n i g h t before Ulysses takes p l a c e . Both are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the second p a r t of Stephen's two-fold Oedipal wish, t h a t he be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h h i s f a t h e r . I w i l l discuss each of these three major expressions of repressed m a t e r i a l i n t u r n , and then deal w i t h one more, a most important one, Stephen's h a l l u c i n a t i o n s i n nighttown during the " C i r c e " episode. B. Stephen's Dream of h i s Dead Mother I t i s immediately f o l l o w i n g h i s b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n w i t h Buck M u l l i g a n about k i l l i n g h i s mother that Stephen r e c a l l s f o r the f i r s t time i n Ulysses the dream i n which h i s dead mother appears: S i l e n t l y , i n a dream she had come to him a f t e r her death, her wasted body w i t h i n i t s loose brown graveclothes g i v i n g o f f an odour of wax and rosewood, her breath, t h a t had bent upon him, mute, r e p r o a c h f u l , a f a i n t odour of wetted ashes. (U 5) This dream i s notable f o r i t s ambivalent p o r t r a i t of Stephen's mother: she seems to be both a l i v e and dead. For example, she has body and breath and movement, a l l signs of l i f e . But her body i s wasted, i s c l a d i n graveclothes, and gives o f f an odour of wax and rosewood. -54-The odour may remind Stephen o f her deathbed scene, with i t s "ghostcandle" (U 10), and perhaps w i t h an odour o f rosewood f u r n i t u r e . Or i t may r e f e r to wax used "to c l o s e up a l l the o r i f i c e s " o f her dead body (see U 98), p o s s i b l y along w i t h the odour of a rosewood c o f f i n . In e i t h e r case, i t i s an odour t h a t , t o g e t h e r w i t h the wasted body c l a d i n g r a v e c l o t h e s , suggests death r a t h e r than l i f e . And her b r e a t h has the s i m i l a r l y d e a t h l i k e odour o f wetted ashes, probably d e r i v e d by Stephen's dreaming mind from the "Ashes to ashes" (see U 114) 4 of her f u n e r a l s e r v i c e . Even here there i s ambivalence, s i n c e i t i s a b r e a t h o f "wetted ashes" as though coming from the moist mouth, t h r o a t , and lungs o f a l i v i n g person. F i n a l l y , the nature and degree of her freedom of movement seems c i r c u m s c r i b e d by the f a c t t h a t she comes s i l e n t l y , and i s mute. The problem o f t h i s k i n d of ambivalent treatment of l i f e and death i n dreams of dead people who have been love d by the dreamer i s c i t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y by Freud i n The Interpretation of Breams'. I t i s t r u e t h a t dreams o f dead people whom the dreamer has l o v e d r a i s e d i f f i c u l t problems i n d r e a m - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and t h a t these cannot always be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y s o l v e d . The reason f o r t h i s i s to be found i n the p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g l y marked emotional ambivalence which dominates the dreamer's r e l a t i o n to the dead person. I t very commonly happens t h a t i n dreams o f t h i s k i n d the dead person i s t r e a t e d to begin with as though - 5 5 -he were a l i v e , t h a t he then suddenly, turns out to be dead and t h a t i n a subsequent p a r t of the dream he i s a l i v e once more. This has a confusing e f f e c t . I t e v e n t u a l l y occurred to me t h a t t h i s a l t e r n a t i o n between death and l i f e i s intended to represent indifference on the p a r t of the dreamer. ('It's a l l the same to me whether he's a l i v e or dead.') This i n d i f f e r e n c e i s , of course, not r e a l but merely d e s i r e d ; i t i s intended t o help the dreamer to repudiate h i s very intense and o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y emotional a t t i t u d e s and i t thus becomes a dream-re p r e s e n t a t i o n of h i s ambivalence Stephen's "intense and . . . c o n t r a d i c t o r y emotional a t t i t u d e s " toward h i s mother when she was s t i l l a l i v e are already known to us: he wished on a deep l e v e l t h a t she would d i e , and feared being engulfed by her i n r e t r i b u t i o n f o r h i s wish. So i t seems q u i t e reasonable t h a t he might wish to be i n d i f f e r e n t to such f e e l i n g s and to repudiate them. However, the ambivalent aspects of Stephen's dream of h i s dead mother r e v e a l a stronger wish than j u s t to be i n d i f f e r e n t . We can see i n the dream th a t she i s not a l i v e and then dead and then a l i v e again. She i s apparently both at the same time: l i f e and death are s u b t l y interwoven i n Stephen's dream-image of her. This close interweaving of l i f e and death i n d i c a t e s f e e l i n g s t h a t I t h i n k are d i r e c t extensions of h i s e a r l i e r a t t i t u d e s . Now t h a t she i s dead i n seeming obedience to h i s unconscious wish, but not yet f o r g o t t e n , Stephen wishes to f o r g e t - 5 6 -her completely. He wishes to render her f i n a l l y and f u l l y absent even from h i s memory. In a d d i t i o n , o f course, he s t i l l f e a r s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f her r e c i p r o c a l h a t r e d and r e t r i b u t i o n . He f e a r s t h a t she continues to e x i s t a f t e r death, as she b e l i e v e d she would, and w i l l t h e r e f o r e seek revenge f o r h i s l a t e s t wish d i r e c t e d by him a g a i n s t h i s memory of her. The f a c t t h a t she comes s i l e n t l y and i s mute i s f u r t h e r evidence of Stephen's c o n t i n u i n g wish to be completely f i n i s h e d with her. Stephen's dream, s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d , reappears i n h i s thoughts a few minutes l a t e r . Here i t i s s e t i n a context, c o n s t r u c t e d by h i s own consciousness, o f blood, death, and t e r r o r : Memories beset h i s brooding b r a i n . Her g l a s s o f water from the k i t c h e n tap when she had approached the sacrament. A cored apple, f i l l e d w ith brown sugar, r o a s t i n g f o r her a t the hob on a dark autumn evening. Her shapely f i n g e r n a i l s reddened by the blood o f squashed l i c e from the c h i l d r e n ' s s h i r t s . In a dream, s i l e n t l y , she had come t o him, her wasted body w i t h i n i t s loose g r a v e c l o t h e s g i v i n g o f f an odour of wax and rosewood, her breath bent over him with mute s e c r e t words, a f a i n t odour o f wetted ashes. Her g l a z i n g eyes, s t a r i n g out o f death, to shake and bend my s o u l . On me alone. The ghostcandle to l i g h t her agony. Ghostly l i g h t on the t o r t u r e d f a c e . Her hoarse l o u d b r e a t h r a t t l i n g i n h o r r o r , while a l l prayed on t h e i r knees. Her eyes on me to s t r i k e me down. L i l i a t a vutilantium te confessorum turma circumdet: iubilantium te virginum chorus e x c i p i a t . - 5 7 -Ghoul! Chewer of corpses! No mother. Let me be and l e t me l i v e . (U 10) Since Stephen's reca p i t u l a t i o n of his dream i s triggered by the memory of his mother's fi n g e r n a i l s reddened by her children's blood (sucked out of them by l i c e ) , i t suggests that a deep fear of the threatening female s t i l l haunts him. Together with the image of a cored apple, an apple with i t s reproductive parts cut out so that i t can be more e a s i l y eaten, the bloody f i n g e r n a i l s convey a sense of engulfing, castrating female violence which heightens both the threatening aspect of the dream and the terro r of the remembered scene of his mother's death. His outburst of "Ghoul! Chewer of corpses!", whether i t refers to his mother, to God, to his own conscience, or to a l l three, caps his r i s i n g t e r r o r at the threat of engulfing violence. And the passage taken as a whole provides ample j u s t i f i c a t i o n for Stephen's rather mildly stated wish that his dead mother would "Let me be and l e t me l i v e , " a wish that we are now thoroughly f a m i l i a r with. A moment l a t e r Stephen i s described i n the narrative as " s t i l l trembling at his soul's cry" (U 1 0 ) . This reference to "soul", the Christian representation of the unconscious, indicates that both his continuing wish -58-to be completely r i d of h i s mother, however unemphatically s t a t e d , and h i s f e e l i n g o f b e i n g i n s p e c i f i c danger from h e r — e v e n a f t e r she i s dead--are s t i l l deeply b u r i e d i n h i s c onsciousness. There are f i v e a d d i t i o n a l d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s by Stephen to h i s dream of h i s dead mother. Each o f them a l l u d e s to the t h r e a t e n i n g image of "her breath . . . of wetted ashes" (U 5), which seems to emerge as by f a r the most v i v i d aspect of h i s memory of the dream. In a d d i t i o n , the f i r s t three r e f e r e n c e s , quoted below, r e f e r c o n t e x t u r a l l y to one or more of the processes of conception, g e s t a t i o n , b i r t h , and l a c t a t i o n : [Stephen i s t e a c h i n g d u r i n g the morning, and h e l p s a student named C y r i l Sargent with h i s "Sums" (U 27). While he helps him, Stephen s p e c u l a t e s about the student and h i s mother, and then, b e g i n n i n g w i t h "She was no more," about h i m s e l f and h i s own mother.] . . . someone had l o v e d him, borne him i n her arms and i n her h e a r t . But f o r her the race of the world would have trampled him under f o o t , a squashed boneless s n a i l . She had l o v e d h i s weak watery blood d r a i n e d from her own. Was t h a t then r e a l ? The only t r u e t h i n g i n l i f e ? His mother's p r o s t r a t e body the f i e r y Columbanus i n h o l y z e a l bestrode. She was no more: the t r e m b l i n g s k e l e t o n of a twig burnt i n the f i r e , an odour of rosewood and wetted ashes. She had saved him from being trampled under f o o t and had gone, s c a r c e l y having been. (U 27-28) [ L a t e r t h a t same morning, as he walks on Sandymount s t r a n d , Stephen s p e c u l a t e s about two women walking on the beach, about h i s own b i r t h , about Eve, naked and pregnant, and then again about h i s own conception and b i r t h . ] -59-One of her s i s t e r h o o d lugged me s q u e a l i n g i n t o l i f e . C r e a t i o n from n o t h i n g . What has she i n the bag? A m i s b i r t h w i t h a t r a i l i n g n a v e l c o r d , hushed i n ruddy wool. The cords o f a l l l i n k back, st r a n d e n t w i n i n g cable of a l l f l e s h . That i s why mystic monks. W i l l you be as gods? Gaze i n your omphalos. H e l l o . Kinch here. Put me on to E d e n v i l l e . Aleph, alpha: nought, nought, one. Spouse and helpmate of Adam Kadmon: Heva, naked Eve. She had no n a v e l . Gaze. B e l l y without blemish, b u l g i n g b i g , a b u c k l e r o f t a u t vellum, no, whiteheaped corn, o r i e n t and immortal, s t a n d i n g from e v e r l a s t i n g t o e v e r l a s t i n g . Womb of sin... Wombed i n s i n darkness I was too, made not begotten. By them, the man with my v o i c e and my eyes and a ghostwoman with ashes on her b r e a t h . They c l a s p e d and sundered, d i d the c o u p l e r ' s w i l l . (U 37-38) [ i n the e a r l y evening, Stephen i s d r i n k i n g and t a l k i n g w ith s e v e r a l people, i n c l u d i n g Leopold Bloom, at the l y i n g - i n h o s p i t a l i n H o l i e s s t r e e t . There i s much d i s c u s s i o n d u r i n g the scene by Stephen and others of b i r t h i n i t s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s . ] But thou hast s u c k l e d me with a b i t t e r m i l k : my moon and my sun thou hast quenched f o r ever. And thou hast l e f t me alone f o r ever i n the dark ways o f my b i t t e r n e s s : and w i t h a k i s s o f ashes h a s t thou k i s s e d my mouth. {U 393) As we can see, i n each o f the three i n s t a n c e s thoughts of b i r t h or r e l a t e d matters are f o l l o w e d i n Stephen's mind by the s p e c t r e o f h i s dead mother. We can presume t h a t Stephen would n a t u r a l l y be reminded o f h i s mother by thoughts of b i r t h and e a r l y c h i l d h o o d , h i s own or someone e l s e ' s . But i n each of these cases he i s reminded, not of -60-h i s mother i n her l i v i n g r o l e as p r o t e c t o r and s u s t a i n e r , but r a t h e r o f her as a "ghostwoman wi t h ashes on her bre a t h . " I t i s c l e a r t h a t he continues t o wish her dead and gone, but he a l s o seems t o r e j e c t the n o t i o n o f h i s own n a t u r a l p h y s i c a l b i r t h . In doing so, he wishes t h a t she had never even l i v e d . And, as the second passage quoted i n d i c a t e s , he harbours i n v e i l e d form the onl y p o s s i b l e consonant wish, t h a t he were Adam, the r e s u l t o f " C r e a t i o n from n o t h i n g , " and t h e r e f o r e "made not begotten." These two phrases a n n i h i l a t e h i s mother i n her r e l a t i o n to him. They go beyond the sense o f h i s e a r l i e r statements t h a t "She was no more," and t h a t she "had gone, scarcely having been" (see above, U 27-28; emphasis added): i t i s now h i s extended wish t h a t she fade from a f a i n t memory to "nothing". But of course she does not. His memory of her i s not s i l e n t , and t h a t evening a t the l y i n g - i n h o s p i t a l , i n the t h i r d passage quoted, he i s reduced to a f e e l i n g of " b i t t e r n e s s . . . and . . . a k i s s of ashes." The f i n a l two d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s to Stephen's dream of h i s dead mother are i n h i s h a l l u c i n a t i o n s d u r i n g the l a s t p a r t o f the scene a t B e l l a Cohen's b r o t h e l . There, the f a m i l i a r themes of death, g u i l t , and r e t r i b u t i o n predominate i n the immediate context o f the two a l l u s i o n s t o the dream. Since a l l the O e d i p a l themes we have been d i s c u s s i n g come t o g e t h e r i n the c l i m a c t i c scenes i n and -61-near the b r o t h e l , I w i l l d e a l with the " C i r c e " episode as a whole l a t e r i n the essay ( s e c t i o n I I I . E. below). But before t h a t , we w i l l look c l o s e l y at two oth e r major forays by Stephen beneath the s u r f a c e o f h i s mind, both of which are a l l u d e d t o and extended i n " C i r c e " . One i s the s h o r t but complex poem he w r i t e s d u r i n g h i s walk on Sandymount s t r a n d . The other i s h i s p a i r o f dreams from the p r e v i o u s n i g h t , i n c l u d i n g the one t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e l y c e n t e r s around a beckoning f a t h e r - f i g u r e . C. The Poem Although Stephen w r i t e s h i s f o u r - l i n e poem d u r i n g h i s morning walk on the s t r a n d , we do not see the t e x t o f the poem u n t i l l a t e r i n the day when he v i s i t s the Freeman ' s Journal newspaper o f f i c e . There he i s reminded of the poem when he hands t o Myles Crawford, the newspaper's e d i t o r , G a r r e t t Deasy's l e t t e r on hoof and mouth d i s e a s e . Both Stephen and Crawford n o t i c e t h a t a b i t i s t o r n o f f one o f the typed sheets, and Stephen, remembering t h a t he wrote h i s poem on the t o r n - o f f b i t , a l s o remembers the words of the poem: On swift s a i l flaming From storm and south Be oomeSj pale vampire, Mouth to my mouth. (U 132) - 6 2 -The c e n t r a l image o f Stephen's poem i s the " . . . pale vampire3/Mouth to my mouth," t h a t i s , a vampire's mouth f i x e d , or about to be f i x e d , to the mouth of the speaker i n the poem. But t h i s image i s mixed or confused i n two d i f f e r e n t ways. F i r s t , t here are two kinds o f vampires, and the poem seems to r e f e r to both a t once. There i s the vampire o f f o l k l o r e and s u p e r s t i t i o n , , a reanimated corpse which leaves i t s grave a t n i g h t t o suck the bloo d o f s l e e p i n g persons. Stephen's use o f the p e r s o n a l pronoun "Be" i n l i n e three o f the poem would seem to r e f e r to such a vampire, as perhaps would the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the vampire's mouth f i x e d , o r about t o be f i x e d , to the mouth of the speaker. However, the r e f e r e n c e t o "swift sail" i n l i n e one seems to r e f e r to wings, which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s not u s u a l l y a s c r i b e d t o vampire corpses. But the b l o o d s u c k i n g vampire bat of t r o p i c a l America does have wings so i t can f l y . In a d d i t i o n , s i n c e i t s u s u a l h a b i t a t i o n i s w e l l south o f I r e l a n d , though much f a r t h e r west, i t would be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i t to be f l y i n g "From . . . south." Another p o s s i b l e r e f e r e n t f o r "sail" i s , o f course, the s a i l on a boat, but boats are not u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with e i t h e r k i n d o f vampire. The second way the image seems confused or i n a c c u r a t e i s t h a t n e i t h e r vampire i s l i k e l y to t r y to suck blood from the mouth of i t s intended v i c t i m . Both are thought to almost always a t t a c k the neck of a v i c t i m , where b l o o d -63-i s both p l e n t i f u l and a c c e s s i b l e . So "Mouth to my mouth" i n the poem seems to imply t h a t the vampire seeks b r e a t h r a t h e r than blood, or perhaps b r e a t h as w e l l as blood. In a d d i t i o n , to f u r t h e r complicate the image as i t stands, "Mouth to my mouth" o r d i n a r i l y would d e s c r i b e an e r o t i c and v o l u n t a r y k i s s . But i n the poem i t seems to d e s c r i b e something more a k i n to a murderous a t t a c k , a form of o r a l rape. I t i s p o s s i b l e to i n t e r p r e t the poem as an i s o l a t e d work, something t h a t Joyce seems to encourage by i s o l a t i n g the a c t u a l words of the poem f a r from t h e i r genesis i n Stephen's mind. The speaker i n the poem sees or senses a vampire, mixed or confused i n form (as d i s c u s s e d above), s a i l i n g on wings (or i n a boat) out o f a storm (connoting c o n f u s i o n , but w i t h a sense o f f o r c e and l i f e ) , a p p a r e n t l y seeking from the speaker b r e a t h as w e l l as blood, and t h e r e f o r e seeking the c o n t i n u a t i o n or renewal o f l i f e . There i s a d e f i n i t e sense o f f o r e b o d i n g and danger i n the poem. I t i s caused p a r t l y by the i n e s c a p a b l e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t renewed l i f e f o r the vampire would be a t the expense of the speaker. Blood and b r e a t h when taken are not l i k e l y to be r e t u r n e d , and are f a t a l t o the v i c t i m i f taken i n any q u a n t i t y . In a d d i t i o n , the poem's rhythm, wi t h i t s heavy i r r e g u l a r pausing emphasis on "Mouth" a t the b e g i n n i n g of l i n e f o u r immediately f o l l o w i n g "vamp-ire" a t the end of l i n e t h r e e , adds to the gloomy, t h r e a t e n i n g mood. -64-While the above paragraph may demonstrate t h a t Stephen's poem can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n i s o l a t i o n , i t a l s o demonstrates t h a t i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o make such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n e i t h e r c o n s i s t e n t or coherent. The mixed images, mixed rhythms, and mixed f e e l i n g s expressed i n the poem cannot be r e s o l v e d by r e f e r e n c e t o the poem i t s e l f , and i t s readers are l e f t f r u s t r a t e d . We know t h a t such c o n t r a -d i c t o r y i n d i c a t i o n s are almost always a cover f o r deeper, more coherent emotions. But i f we look a t the poem i n i s o l a t i o n , we can o n l y s p e c u l a t e about the a c t i v e h o s t i l i t y or submissive g u i l t t h a t i t seems t o express, and about the p h y s i c a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l circumstances t h a t might e x p l a i n the vampire image i t s e l f . And we can onl y surmise t h a t there appears t o be e i t h e r e r o t i c danger or dangerous e r o t i c i s m i n ". . . vampire,Mouth to my mouth." Without r e f e r e n c e t o m a t e r i a l e x t e r n a l to the poem, we are stymied. However, r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s e x t e r n a l t o the poem i n Ulysses are p l e n t i f u l . We f i n d when we look a t Stephen's thoughts l e a d i n g up t o the time when he wrote down h i s poem t h a t there i s a g e n e r a l context which i s i l l u m i n a t i n g , and t h a t one p a r t i c u l a r sentence s p e c i f i c a l l y p r e f i g u r e s the poem. Stephen i s watching a p a i r o f gypsy c o c k l e p i c k e r s walking along the s t r a n d , and h i s musings on the female of the p a i r melt i n t o what seem to be musings about h i s dead mother. The f i n a l sentence i n the f i r s t paragraph of the passage s p e c i f i c a l l y p r e f i g u r e s the poem: - 6 5 -She trudges, schlepps, t r a i n s , drags, t r a s c i n e s her l o a d . A t i d e w estering, moondrawn, i n her wake. T i d e s , m y r i a d i s l a n d e d , w i t h i n her, b l o o d not mine, oinopa ponton, a wine-dark sea. Behold the handmaid o f the moon. In s l e e p the wet s i g n c a l l s her hour, b i d s her r i s e . Bridebed, c h i l d b e d , bed o f death, ghostcandled. Omnis oaro ad te veniet. He comes, p a l e vampire, through storm h i s eyes, h i s bat s a i l s b l o o d y i n g the sea, mouth to her mouth's k i s s . Here. Put a p i n i n t h a t chap, w i l l you? My t a b l e t s . Mouth to her k i s s . No. Must be two of em. Glue 'em w e l l . Mouth t o her mouth's k i s s . His l i p s l i p p e d and mouthed f l e s h l e s s l i p s o f a i r : mouth to her womb. Oomb, allwombing tomb. His mouth moulded i s s u i n g b r e a t h , unspeeched: ooeeehah: r o a r of c a t a r a c t i c p l a n e t s , globed, b l a z i n g , r o a r i n g wayaway-awayawayawayaway. Paper. The banknotes, b l a s t them. Old Deasy's l e t t e r . Here. Thanking you f o r h o s p i t a l i t y t e a r the blank end o f f . T u r n i n g h i s back t o the sun he bent over f a r to a t a b l e of rock and s c r i b b l e d words. (U 47-48) The "pale vampire" sentence i s a very t h r e a t e n i n g one, with the danger i n h e r e n t i n the vampire image strengthened by the subsequent image o f " h i s bat s a i l s b l o o d y i n g the sea." And coming as i t does immediately a f t e r " . . . bed of death, ghostcandled. Omnis oaro ad te veniet [ A l l f l e s h w i l l come t o t h e e . ] , " the sentence i s formed by Stephen i n a context of e n g u l f i n g death t h a t i s c o n s i s t e n t with our sense of the danger o f being sucked dry by a vampire. T h i s context, with "bed of death" and "ghostcandled", a l s o makes i t seem c e r t a i n t h a t the "her" i n the sentence r e f e r s t o Stephen's mother, whose memory - 6 6 -has been o b s e s s i n g Stephen a l l morning. "Bed of death" i s a d i r e c t v e r b a l echo o f Stephen's memory o f "her deathbed" (U 5) d u r i n g h i s e a r l i e r c o n v e r s a t i o n with Buck M u l l i g a n a t the top of the M a r t e l l o tower. And a f t e r t h a t c o n v e r s a t i o n he had remembered "The ghostcandle to l i g h t her agony" (U 10) as she l a y dying. The vampire sentence, then, i s y e t another v e r s i o n by Stephen of the cause o f h i s mother's death: the s t r a n g e l y mixed image o f the bat-ghost vampire k i l l i n g her with a d e s t r u c t i v e k i s s . And the p a t t e r n o f our a n a l y s i s so f a r enables us to say p r e t t y d e f i n i t e l y t h a t the vampire, i n Stephen's mind, r e p r e s e n t s Stephen h i m s e l f . I t i s another e x p r e s s i o n , more conscious than h i s dream o f h i s mother, both o f h i s i n e s c a p a b l e f e e l i n g o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r her death, and of h i s wish t o complete the task by k i l l i n g even h i s memory o f her. A paragraph l a t e r , j u s t b e fore he w r i t e s down h i s poem, we see Stephen a c t u a l l y p l a y the r o l e o f vampire by miming the drama he d e s c r i b e s i n the vampire sentence: "His l i p s l i p p e d and mouthed f l e s h l e s s l i p s o f a i r : mouth t o her womb." While Stephen's wish to e l i m i n a t e U h i s mother i s dominant i n the vampire sentence, the phrase "mouth t o her womb" reminds us of h i s p a r a l l e l s u b s i d i a r y p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h h i s own conception and b i r t h . "Wombed i n s i n darkness" (U 38) i s how he d e s c r i b e s h i s o r i g i n near the be g i n n i n g of h i s walk on the s t r a n d . Now, as he s t r u g g l e s t o "Put a p i n i n t h a t chap," to d e f i n i t i v e l y form and r e c o r d h i s -67-thoughts, he v i s u a l i z e s a "mouth t o her womb." I t i s c l e a r from the context t h a t the mouth i s h i s i n h i s assumed r o l e as vampire, and t h a t the womb r e f e r r e d t o i s h i s mother's. "Mouth t o her womb," then, l o c a l i z e s Stephen's e x p r e s s i o n o f h a t r e d f o r h i s mother a t her r e p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y and f u n c t i o n . I t reemphasizes h i s unhappiness at the thought o f human r e p r o d u c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y as i t r e l a t e s to h i s own conception by h i s f a t h e r and mother. Stephen's sense o f h i s m o r t a l i t y i s heightened by any re f e r e n c e t o h i s p h y s i c a l b i r t h . The phrase "mouth t o her womb" i s not the f i r s t time i n t h i s passage t h a t the secondary theme o f conception and b i r t h i s suggested. At the beg i n n i n g o f the scene, Stephen a l l u d e s t o a B i b l i c a l event i n v o l v i n g conception by t h i n k i n g "Behold the handmaid o f the moon." The sentence i s quoted, with one word changed, from Luke 1:38, where Mary agrees to all o w h e r s e l f t o be impregnated by the Holy S p i r i t , s a y i n g to the angel G a b r i e l , "Behold the handmaid o f the Lord; be i t unto me a c c o r d i n g to thy 7 word." The re f e r e n c e t o b i r t h continues i n the next sentence, "In sl e e p the wet s i g n c a l l s her hour, b i d s her r i s e . " The "wet s i g n [ t h a t ] c a l l s her hour" r e f e r s to the brea k i n g o f the amniotic sac and the r e l e a s e o f amnio t i c f l u i d t h a t i s so o f t e n the f i r s t sure s i g n a l g of impending b i r t h . "Bridebed, c h i l d b e d " a t the beg i n n i n g of the f o l l o w i n g sentence summarizes the events o f -68-conception and b i r t h , and connects them d i r e c t l y , through "bed of death, ghostcandled," w i t h death, w i t h Stephen's mother, and w i t h Stephen h i m s e l f , her f i r s t b o r n (see U 581). The vampire sentence can perhaps be read the way B r i v i c reads i t , as "a d i s t o r t e d v i s i o n of p a r e n t a l i n t e r c o u r s e " (145). L a t e r , a t the h o s p i t a l , Stephen does mention "bigness wrought . . . by potency of vampires mouth to mouth" (U 390) as one of a l i s t of methods of conception t h a t avoid d i r e c t i n t e r c o u r s e between male and female. But the vampire sentence seems a c t u a l l y to f o l l o w l o g i c a l l y and d i r e c t l y from the preceding sequence of conception and impending b i r t h . For Stephen, not only i s i t an expression of t h r e a t d i r e c t e d by him as vampire-k i l l e r at h i s mother, but a l s o i t i s an imagined r e l i v i n g of h i s own b i r t h experience. We can read the sentence as a c r y p t i c , symbolic d e s c r i p t i o n of Stephen's b i r t h as f o l l o w s : He comes: male foetus t r a v e l l i n g through the b i r t h canal from the womb; pale vampire: the vampire, as we have seen, represents Stephen, here as a foetus about to be born; as he views i t from the perspe c t i v e of Sandymount strand almost a year a f t e r h i s mother's death, as a foetus he i s already a t h r e a t to h i s mother, already a prospective - 6 9 -"vampire-killer"; i n addition, of course, a foetus, l i k e a vampire, l i v e s on sustenance gained from the blood of a l i v i n g person; the adjective "pale" may allude to the well-known phrase "pale Galilean" used by Swinburne to refer to Christ (we remember that Stephen tends to i d e n t i f y himself with C h r i s t ) : he uses the phrase i n a context that reverses the usual image of Christ, a context of death-dealing destruction that i s consistent with the vampire image: "Thou hast conquered, 0 pale Galilean; the world has grown grey from thy breath;" 9 through storm: "storm" i n t h i s context represents the wavelike muscular contractions of the uterus i n labour as i t pushes the foetus through the cervix and the b i r t h canal; his eyes: baby Stephen emerges from his mother headfirst; Stephen's synechdochic focus on his eyes here, and the phrasing that suggests some degree of threat directed p a r t i c u l a r l y at them—"through storm his eyes"--may owe something to his memory of the early female threats -70-to his eyes i n the "eagles" scene of P o r t r a i t ; his bat s a i l s bloodying the sea; mouth to her mouth's kiss : t h i s refers to the widest part of baby Stephen's body, his shoulders or hips, drawing blood by tearing his mother's perineum; e a r l i e r during his walk, just as he notices two women coming down to the beach, Stephen, l i k e Swin-burne, refers to the sea as "our mighty mother": he i d e n t i f i e s one of the women as a midwife, saying "One of her sisterhood lugged me squealing into l i f e " {U 37); this phrase suggests both the f i r s t embrace of baby Stephen and his mother, and the long term threat to k i l l her with a kiss that Stephen-vampire feels he posed and s t i l l poses to her, a l i v e and dead. That f i n a l phrase "mouth to her mouth's k i s s , " with i t s threatening sexual connotation, and perhaps with i t s reminder of his dream of his dead mother's "breath . . . of wetted ashes" (U 5), seems to trouble Stephen, because he continues to work on i t before writing down his poem. He -71-t r i e s the v a r i a t i o n "Mouth to her k i s s , " r e j e c t s i t because there "Must be two o f em" (mouths), and goes back to h i s o r i g i n a l phrase. Then he i s moved to p h y s i c a l l y mime the a c t i o n o f k i s s i n g , and to make the s p e c i f i c rhyming connec-t i o n between h i s a l r e a d y i n t e r t w i n e d themes o f b i r t h and death: "Oomb, allwombing tomb. But before he f i n a l l y w r i t e s the poem down, Stephen once more ponders the experience o f b i r t h , l i n k i n g human b i r t h and the b i r t h o f p l a n e t s : "His mouth moulded i s s u i n g b r e a t h , unspeeched: ooeeehah: r o a r o f c a t a r a c t i c p l a n e t s , globed, b l a z i n g , r o a r i n g wayawayawayawayawayaway." The sentence d e s c r i b e s p l a n e t s b e i n g f l u n g outward from a c e n t r a l sun, and a l s o seems to d e s c r i b e a baby t r y i n g to breathe f o r the f i r s t time, and w a i l i n g as j u s t - b o r n babies o f t e n do. A l s o , of course, i t can be read as d e s c r i b i n g Stephen as he g i v e s b i r t h , i n a manner o f speaking, to h i s poem, r e h e a r s i n g i t to h i m s e l f j u s t b e f o r e he t h i n k s "Paper", t e a r s the blank end o f f Deasy's l e t t e r , and w r i t e s i t down. The poem, i n i t s f i n a l w r i t t e n form, i s most d i r e c t l y drawn from the vampire sentence, w i t h i t s combined themes of death and b i r t h . But we n o t i c e on r e a d i n g the poem t h a t Stephen does not use i n i t the thematic rhyme-words "womb" and "tomb" t h a t he had seemed to s e t t l e on with "Oomb, allwombing tomb." Instead, he drops " k i s s " , r e t a i n s "mouth", and rhymes i t with "south", a word t h a t .does not appear i n h i s thoughts a t a l l d u r i n g the time he -72-i s composing the poem. In f a c t , as J . P r e s c o t t has shown, x^ the poem i s not s o l e l y d e r i v e d from what we see o f Stephen's thoughts as he composes i t . I t a l s o bears a s t r i k i n g resemblance t o , and must acknowledge as a d i r e c t p r e c u r s o r , the f i n a l s t anza of a t r a g i c love song e n t i t l e d "My G r i e f on the Sea," p u b l i s h e d by Douglas Hyde i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n 13 The Love Songs of Connaeht. T h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r to adequately compare the poem with i t s sources we must look at both the vampire sentence from Stephen's thoughts, which we have now i n t e r p r e t e d i n some d e t a i l , and the song stanza, which must have somehow ent e r e d h i s consciousness as he s e t t l e d on the f i n a l wording o f the poem. I f we read i n o r d e r the sentence, rearranged to more c l o s e l y match the order of the poem, the stanza from the song, and the poem i t s e l f , we can glimpse something more of the protean workings of Stephen's mind as he composed the poem: THE VAMPIRE SENTENCE h i s bat s a i l s b l o o d y i n g the sea, through storm h i s eyes, He comes, p a l e vampire, mouth to her mouth's k i s s . (from U 48) FINAL STANZA OF "MY GRIEF ON THE SEA" And my love came behind me— He came from the South; His b r e a s t t o my bosom, His mouth t o my mouth. STEPHEN'S POEM On swift s a i l flaming From storm and south He comes, pale vampire, Mouth to my mouth. {U 132) - 7 3 -When we compare i n d e t a i l the sentence w i t h the poem, we f i n d t h a t there are s i x s p e c i f i c changes, three o f which can be a s c r i b e d t o the i n f l u e n c e of the song s t a n z a . One o f the changes, of course, i s the form, the change of or d e r and rhythm from prose sentence to f o u r - l i n e poem. Stephen's poem i s not as musical as the song stanza, but c l e a r l y i t i s d e r i v e d from i t : each has f o u r l i n e s , w i t h i d e n t i c a l rhyme-words and s i m i l a r rhythm. The oth e r f i v e changes are word and phrase s u b s t i t u t i o n s from sentence to poem: 1. " h i s bat s a i l s " i n the sentence becomes "On swift sail" i n the poem; 2. " b l o o d y i n g the sea" becomes "flaming"; 3. "through storm" becomes "From storm"; 4. " h i s eyes" becomes "and south"; 5. "her mouth's k i s s " becomes "my mouth". Only the c r u c i a l l i n e "He comes, pa l e vampire," i s l e f t unchanged i n the t r a n s i t i o n from sentence t o poem. The f o u r t h and f i f t h s u b s t i t u t i o n s , "south" and "my mouth", both come from the song, thus p r o v i d i n g the rhyme-words i n Stephen's poem. The main e f f e c t o f the f i r s t f o u r changes i n language i s to make the images i n the poem l e s s s p e c i f i c and l e s s i n h e r e n t l y e m o t i o n a l l y charged. One example i s the change from the v i v i d phrase "bloodying the sea" to the r e l a t i v e l y innocuous s i n g l e word "flaming". Even so s m a l l a change as "From storm" i n the poem r e p l a c i n g "through storm" i n the - 7 4 -sentence, d i s t a n c e s the storm, w i t h i t s accompanying conno-t a t i o n of f u r i o u s a c t i v i t y , from the vampire, from the poet, and from the reader. However, these f o u r changes i n language and image do not s u b s t a n t i a l l y t r a n s f o r m the b a s i c a f f e c t i v e context of the sentence i n t r a n s f e r r i n g i t to the poem. There i s s t i l l the danger i n h e r e n t i n the unchanged image of the vampire, made only somewhat more a b s t r a c t and d i s t a n t by the s u b s t i t u t e language and smoother rhythm of the poem. But the f i n a l change noted, the replacement of "her mouth's k i s s " i n the sentence by "my mouth" (taken from the song stanza) i n the poem, s i g n a l s a d r a s t i c change i n meaning and purpose. I t t r a n s f e r s the o b j e c t of the vampire t h r e a t from Stephen's mother to Stephen h i m s e l f . So the poem seems to say the reverse o f what the sentence says, t o express Stephen's g u i l t and c o n t i n u i n g f e a r o f r e t r i b u t i o n r a t h e r than h i s t h r e a t e n i n g a t t i t u d e , p a s t and p r e s e n t , toward h i s mother. The c a u t i o u s l y v e i l e d t h r e a t by Stephen against his mother i n the vampire sentence i s completely suppressed, along with the i n d i c a t i o n s o f b i r t h symbolism, and i s r e p l a c e d i n the poem by a t h r e a t d i r e c t e d against Stephen, probably as a r e s u l t o f a g u i l t y f e a r of r e t r i b u t i o n f o r h i s thoughts. From being an a c t i v e f o r c e , the vampire, i n h i s thoughts, Stephen assumes an anxious, submissive, m a s o c h i s t i c r o l e i n the poem. Something e l s e t h a t i s suppressed i n the poem i s any -75-p o s s i b l e r e f e r e n c e t o Stephen's mother. Stephen seems to express h i s f e e l i n g toward her by simply e l i m i n a t i n g her from the poem, perhaps again attempting t o e l i m i n a t e her from h i s thoughts and to prevent her from d i s t u r b i n g h i s conscie n c e . We might expect t h a t , i n t u r n i n g the d i r e c t i o n of h i s thoughts around i n the poem, Stephen would i d e n t i f y the vampire w i t h h i s mother, coming to seek vengeance on him. C e r t a i n l y there i s a s t r i k i n g resemblance between the scene d e s c r i b e d i n the poem, "Mouth to my mouth," and the p i c t u r e o f h i s dead mother i n h i s dream, with "her breath, t h a t had bent upon him, mute, r e p r o a c h f u l " (U 5). Nev e r t h e l e s s , our e x p e c t a t i o n i s d i s a p p o i n t e d , f o r the vampire i n the poem i s f i r m l y i d e n t i f i e d as male by t h a t unchanged t h i r d l i n e , "He comes, -pate vampire" (U 132). I t i s p o s s i b l e , e s p e c i a l l y i n the "Proteus" episode, t h a t there i s a c o n f u s i o n o f sexes i n Stephen's mind. Already d u r i n g h i s walk on the s t r a n d he has thought of mixed i d e n t i t i e s (when he f i r s t sees the two c o c k l e p i c k e r s , a man and a woman, he i d e n t i f i e s them as "The two maries" [;£/ 45]), of a man d i s g u i s e d as a woman (he t h i n k s o f how James Stephens of the Fenians escaped, "Got up as a young b r i d e , man" \_U 43]), and of h i s own f e a r f u l r e a c t i o n i f he were faced with t r y i n g to save "A drowning man" (U 46), which metamorphoses i n t o thoughts of h i s mother ("I . . . With him together down . . . I c o u l d not save her " \_U 45, e l l i p s e s i n the o r i g i n a l ] ) . I t seems a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t -76-Stephen should v i s u a l i z e h i s dead mother r e t u r n i n g from her tomb to t h r e a t e n him i n the form of a vampire. She not o n l y i s dead i n accordance w i t h h i s deeply h e l d O e d i p a l wish. She a l s o might be thought by him to have the quid pro quo r i g h t t o demand sustenance from him i n 14 the form of blood to be taken to her tomb n i r e t u r n f o r the sustenance he drew from her, a l s o i n the form o f blood, d u r i n g the time he was a foetus i n her womb. In a d d i t i o n , s i n c e i t i s h i s mouth t h a t i s being threatened i n the poem, perhaps there i s the f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t she i s demanding a r e t u r n f o r the milk he sucked from her as a baby. But s p e c i f i c evidence f o r a c o n f u s i o n of sexes i n the poem does not e x i s t , and we are l e f t t o p u z z l e out the reasons f o r the abrupt change, and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of a male vampire t h r e a t e n i n g another male, Stephen, w i t h a k i s s . Stephen h i m s e l f seems p u z z l e d by the male k i s s , and wonders about i t i n the newspaper o f f i c e s h o r t l y a f t e r he i s reminded of the words of the poem. He i s watching Myles Crawford's month as the e d i t o r f i n i s h e s an animated b u r s t of t a l k : His mouth continued to t w i t c h unspeaking i n nervous c u r l s of d i s d a i n . Would anyone wish t h a t mouth f o r her k i s s ? How do you know? Why d i d you w r i t e i t then? {U 138) -77-Here Stephen takes i n h i s i m a g i n a t i o n the p o i n t of view o f a woman, then q u i c k l y r e t r e a t s by a n x i o u s l y a s k i n g h i m s e l f "How do you know?" (emphasis added). That i n t u r n r a i s e s f o r him the whole q u e s t i o n of why he wrote the poem at a l l , with i t s dominant image of a male vampire k i s s i n g Stephen h i m s e l f . In the next s e c t i o n , a p p r o p r i a t e l y e n t i t e d "RHYMES AND REASONS", Stephen works on the q u e s t i o n o f why he wrote the poem, and on the connected problem of how h i s poem's rhyme-words, "mouth" and "south", are r e l a t e d t o one another. He shows no conscious awareness of h i s p l a g i a r i s m from the lovesong "My G r i e f on the Sea": RHYMES AND REASONS Mouth, south. Is the mouth south someway? Or the south a mouth? Must be some. South, pout, out, shout, drouth. Rhymes: two men dressed the same, l o o k i n g the same, two by two. la tua pace che parlar ti piace . . mentrechh i l vento3 come fa3 si tace. He saw them three by t h r e e , approaching g i r l s , i n green, i n rose, i n r u s s e t , entwining, per I'aer perso i n mauve, i n p u r p l e , quella pacifioa oriafiamma3 i n g o l d of oriflamme, di rimirar fe piu ardenti. But I o l d men, p e n i t e n t , leadenfooted, underdarkneath the n i g h t : mouth south: tomb womb. (U 138, e l l i p s e s i n the o r i g i n a l ) As we can see, i n t h i s passage Stephen ranges a f i e l d to a s s o c i a t i v e rhymes and to remembered fragments from - 7 8 -Dante i n h i s search f o r "REASONS". But e v e n t u a l l y he s e t t l e s back to h i s own o r i g i n a l rhyme-words, "tomb" and "womb", and thus to the thoughts he had had as he was composing h i s poem--thoughts o f h i s mother's death and of h i s own b i r t h . These thoughts, of course, are submerged i n the a c t u a l poem. But the f a c t t h a t Stephen r e t u r n s to them as he searches f o r a reason why he s u b s t i t u t e d "my mouth" i n the poem f o r "her mouth's k i s s " i n the sentence i n d i c a t e s t h a t they are s t i l l c r u c i a l l y i n v o l v e d i n the meaning of the poem. And there i s no doubt t h a t the poem, with i t s m a t e r i a l taken from Hyde's lovesong, f u n c t i o n s as a cover f o r the mingled h o s t i l i t y and f e a r of Stephen's o r i g i n a l thoughts. Dante, t h i n k s Stephen, saw approaching g i r l s , and imbued them wi t h p a r a d i s i a c beauty and p u r i t y . But Stephen h i m s e l f sees o l d men, submissive, e n g u l f e d i n e n v e l o p i n g darkness, a c t i n g out h i s own deep f e a r of b eing e n g u l f e d by h i s female enemies, p e r s o n i f i e d by h i s mother. In a d d i t i o n , the poem i s a s e x u a l f a n t a s y . I t s o v e r t s e x u a l i t y {"Mouth to my mouth") and c o v e r t s e x u a l i t y (the lovesong s o u r c e ) , t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s c l e a r image of a male menacingly k i s s i n g a male, convey i n s u r p r i s i n g l y d i r e c t terms Stephen's wish,.complementary to h i s h o s t i l e f e e l i n g s toward h i s mother, to be k i s s e d , seduced, and even raped, 16 by a male. And we can reasonably surmise, again working from our knowledge of Stephen's i n v e r t e d Oedipus complex, t h a t h i s s p e c i f i c , but s t i l l r e p r e s s e d , f a n t a s y i s to be k i s s e d , seduced, or raped by h i s own f a t h e r . So the mixed -79-emotions, images, rhythms, and sources o f the poem a c c u r a t e l y express the c o n f u s i o n caused i n Stephen's subconscious and unconscious f e e l i n g s by h i s h o s t i l i t y and g u i l t toward h i s mother, and h i s g u i l t y wish f o r recon-c i l i a t i o n , however t h r e a t e n i n g l y s e x u a l , w i t h h i s f a t h e r . Even the anomalous d e t a i l o f h i s use of the word " s a i l s " i n the vampire sentence and "sail" i n the poem makes sense i n t h i s c o n t e x t : Stephen h i m s e l f d i d " s a i l " back from France i n a boat, c a l l e d back, we remember, by h i s f a t h e r to h i s mother's deathbed. (Coming from France, he would approach Dublin from the south.) I t a l s o h e l p s to e x p l a i n why, i n the sentence, the vampire's "bat s a i l s [are] b l o o d y i n g the sea" (U 48, emphasis added). The sea i s c a l l e d "Our mighty mother" (U 5) and "a grey sweet mother" {U 5) by M u l l i g a n when he i s t a l k i n g t o Stephen, "our mighty mother" (U 37) l a t e r by Stephen, and "the g r e a t sweet mother,/Mother and l o v e r o f men, the sea" i n a 17 r e f e r e n c e t o i t by Swinburne ("Algy" as M u l l i g a n [u 5] and Stephen \_U 37] c a l l him) . I t r e p r e s e n t s the e n g u l f i n g 18 mother to Stephen, which i s why he i s a f r a i d o f i t (see P 24 3), and why he would wish i n some way t o t h r e a t e n or d e f i l e i t by "bloodying" i t . 1 9 D. Stephen's Dreams of F l y i n g and o f h i s Beckoning Father On Sandymount s t r a n d , j u s t before he w r i t e s h i s poem, Stephen remembers two dreams from the p r e v i o u s n i g h t : -80-A f t e r he woke me up l a s t n i g h t same dream or was i t ? Wait. Open hallway. S t r e e t o f h a r l o t s . Remember. Haroun a l Raschid. I am al m o s t i n g i t . That man l e d me, spoke. I was not a f r a i d . The melon he had he h e l d a g a i n s t my f a c e . Smiled: c r e a m f r u i t s m e l l . That was the r u l e , s a i d . In. Come. Red c a r p e t spread. You w i l l see who. (U 47) L a t e r , as he leaves the l i b r a r y , Stephen t h i n k s again of the same dreams: L a s t n i g h t I flew. E a s i l y flew. Men wondered. S t r e e t of h a r l o t s a f t e r . A c r e a m f r u i t melon he h e l d t o me. In. You w i l l see. (U 217) I t i s obvious from these two passages t h a t Stephen had two dreams (not j u s t one as many commentators su g g e s t ) , and t h a t they were separated from one another by h i s being awakened by Haines " r a v i n g and moaning t o h i m s e l f about s h o o t i n g a bl a c k panther" (U 4). In the f i r s t dream Stephen "flew. E a s i l y flew," and "Men wondered." A f t e r "he [Haines] woke me up," Stephen dreamed o f an open hallway i n the s t r e e t o f h a r l o t s , and of a beckoning man with a c r e a m f r u i t melon i n h i s hand. The vaguely remembered f i r s t dream, the dream of f l y i n g , can be i n t e r p r e t e d as a sexual dream, s p e c i f i c a l l y a dream of e r e c t i o n . That i s the u s u a l , though not e x c l u s i v e , 20 meaning a s s i g n e d to such dreams. The onl y o t h e r s p e c i f i c -81-i n f o r m a t i o n we have about the dream, t h a t "Men wondered", would tend a t t h i s p o i n t i n our o v e r a l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Stephen's p s y c h i c l i f e , to make us look f o r a homosexual component o r w i s h - f u l f i l l m e n t i n the dream. C e r t a i n l y s exual excitement and the a t t e n t i o n o f men are l i n k e d t o g e t h e r here i n Stephen's dreaming mind. But, s i n c e the dream was i n t e r r u p t e d by Haines' o u t b u r s t , there was probably l i t t l e f o r Stephen t o remember. Another p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n o f the "Men wondered" p o r t i o n o f the dream i s t h a t Stephen's d r e a m - f l i g h t i s a reenactment of Ovid's d e p i c t i o n o f the f l i g h t o f Stephen's namesake Daedalus, and Daedalus' son I c a r u s . Ovid d e s c r i b e s the onlookers t o t h e i r f l i g h t i n terms o f "wonder": Far o f f , below them, some s t r a y fisherman, A t t e n t i o n s t a r t l e d from h i s bending rod, Or a b l a n d shepherd r e s t i n g on h i s crook, Or a dazed farmer l e a n i n g on h i s plough, Glanced up to see the p a i r f l o a t through the s k y , 2 ^ And, t a k i n g them f o r gods, stood s t i l l i n wonder. Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f "Men wondered" would add the element of a f a t h e r - s o n theme t o the dream. In t h i s c ontext, we cannot help but note the overtones o f an ince s t u o u s homosexual w i s h - f u l f i l l m e n t i n the s t o r y o f Daedalus and Ic a r u s , with the wife-mother absent from the scene, and never mentioned. But I c a r u s , with whom Stephen l a t e r i d e n t i f i e s (U 210 and U 572), becomes o v e r - e x c i t e d about f l y i n g with h i s f a t h e r , f l i e s too high, f a l l s , and i s -82-drowned,^' e n g u l f e d , we assume, i n • r e t r i b u t i o n f o r h i s a c t i n g out o f an i n c e s t u o u s homosexual wish, by the "great sweet mother" ocean. The same k i n d of i n c e s t u o u s wish to f l y w i t h h i s f a t h e r , along w i t h the p o s s i b l e f e a r o f r e t a l i a t o r y engulfment, may u n d e r l i e Stephen's dream. But again, without more s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n about the dream, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o do more than suggest these as p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Stephen's second dream, however, h i s dream of the open hallway, can more d e f i n i t e l y be i n t e r p r e t e d as a dream of incestuous homosexual d e s i r e complicated by a p a r a l l e l a n x i e t y about p o s s i b l e dangers. Stephen, the dreamer, f i n d s h i m s e l f c o n f r o n t e d by an open hallway i n the s t r e e t of h a r l o t s , a double r e f e r e n c e which c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e s a sexual theme i n the dream. He i s being l e d and encouraged by a man d i s g u i s e d as Haroun a l Rasehid, a f a t h e r - k i n g f i g u r e . T h i s r e v e r s e s the h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n which Haroun a l Rasehid, a f a t h e r - k i n g , would p e r i o d i c a l l y 23 d i s g u i s e h i m s e l f as an o r d i n a r y person. Stephen's p o s s i b l e f e a r s about e n t e r i n g the hallway are a l l a y e d by 24 the s m e l l of c r e a m f r u i t melon, which i n a d d i t i o n can be r e l a t e d to the usual v u l g a r d e s i g n a t i o n o f homosexuals as " f r u i t s " . The s m e l l may a l s o serve t o ward o f f the t h r e a t e n i n g s m e l l of rosewood and wetted ashes t h a t obsesses him from h i s e a r l i e r dream of h i s dead, but s t i l l p o t e n t i a l l y v e n g e f u l , mother. Stephen's f u r t h e r r e l u c t a n c e to e n t e r - 8 3 -the open hallway i s c o n f r o n t e d by a p a r e n t a l appeal to "the r u l e " , which n e a t l y t u r n s the r u l e s - o r i e n t e d superego to the support of the w i s h - f u l f i l l m e n t expressed by the dream. F i n a l l y , he i s urged by h i s i n c o g n i t o guide, "That man", to e n t e r the open, welcoming ("Red c a r p e t spread"), s e x u a l hallway. "In. Come" says h i s guide, who promises him t h a t he " w i l l see who" i s so anonymously attempting to l u r e him i n . T h i s anonymous f i g u r e , d i s g u i s e d by Stephen's dreaming mind, i s c e r t a i n l y h i s f a t h e r . We c o u l d almost p r e d i c t such a dream from what we know of Stephen's l o n g - c o n t i n u i n g f e e l i n g toward h i s f a t h e r . I t i s h i s f a t h e r who f o r so long has been c o v e r t l y d e s i r e d by Stephen, and who has been rendered i n a c c e s s i b l e by two o f the s t r o n g e s t o f t r a d i t i o n a l human taboos, those a g a i n s t i n c e s t and a g a i n s t homosexuality. Even i n t h i s r e p o r t of Stephen's dreams, these taboos have o b v i o u s l y been a t work to prevent the r e a l content of h i s unconscious from being presented d i r e c t l y . But one major clue t o the d i s g u i s e d man's i d e n t i t y does s l i p through. We remember t h a t the word "Come", spoken by the mysterious f i g u r e i n the dream, has f o r almost a year now been assoc-i a t e d by Stephen w i t h an image of h i s d i s t a n t l y , ambiguously beckoning f a t h e r : " — M o t h e r dying come home f a t h e r " (U 42, emphasis added). And l a t e r , i n the Ormond bar, through Bloom's ears we hear Simon Dedalus s i n g i n g i n a p r a c t i c e d tenor v o i c e the f o r l o r n a r i a "M'Appari" from the opera Martha, s i n g i n g : -84-— Co-me3 thou l o s t one'. Co-me, thou dear one'. . . . --Cornel . . . --To me! (U 2 7 5 - 2 7 6 ) There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t the " l o s t " , "dear" Stephen has heard, probably s e v e r a l times i n h i s l i f e , h i s f a t h e r s i n g t h a t a r i a , which has f o r Stephen such h e a r t r e n d i n g l y t a n t a l i z i n g l y r i c s , and which, l i k e the telegram, f e a t u r e s the dreamword "come". ( I t i s the word "come" i n h i s musings which reminds Stephen again of h i s two dreams as he leaves the l i b r a r y \_U 2 1 7 ] ) . Another, more d i s t a n t , but a l s o more seminal, r e f e r e n t f o r "Come" i n the dream i s the s t o r y t o l d by Stephen's f a t h e r to baby Stephen a t the b e g i n n i n g of Portrait: Once upon a time and a very good time i t was there was a moocow coming down along the road and t h i s moocow t h a t was coming down along the road met a n i c e n s l i t t l e boy named baby tuckoo. . . . ( P 7 ; e l l i p s e s i n o r i g i n a l ) Not o n l y does t h i s f i r s t sentence of Portrait use a v a r i a t i o n of the verb "to come" twice, but, as we have a l r e a d y noted, i t a l s o i s spoken by Stephen's f a t h e r i n r e p l y t o Stephen's c h i l d i s h , but enormously s i g n i f i c a n t q u e s t i o n , suppressed a t the very b e g i n n i n g of the t e x t , "Where d i d I come from?" (see above, p. 3 7 , n . l l ) . That q u e s t i o n , -85-of course, along w i t h i t s p o s s i b l e answers and i m p l i c a t i o n s , s t i l l r e v e r b e r a t e s i n Stephen's consciousness. The f a c t t h a t i n the dream Stephen's f a t h e r seems to be shown as a guide, a c t i n g the r o l e o f pimp r a t h e r than of d i r e c t l y e n t i c i n g male, i s another f a c e t of the d i f f e r e n c e between the r e a l and the manifest content of the dream. A hallway i s o r d i n a r i l y symbolic of r e c e p t i v e female g e n i t a l s , but here i t i s transformed by the beckoning male f i g u r e i n t o a symbol of male but t o c k s . And when h i s f a t h e r says "In. Come", he d i r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f as the r e c e p t i v e agent i n the sexual drama being p l a y e d out i n the dream. His comment a l s o r e e n f o r c e s the s p e c i f i c nature of the sexual a c t : he does not say the commonplace phrase "Come i n , " but i n s t e a d r e v e r s e s the two words, "In" f i r s t , then "Come" afterwards, w i t h i t s sexual meaning of e j a c u l a t i o n o r orgasm. The c o m f o r t i n g d e v i c e s t h a t we have noted i n the dream ("Smiled . . . . c r e a m f r u i t s m e l l . . . . r u l e . . . . Red carpet") show t h a t Stephen i s made anxious by the r e a l content of h i s dream, and needs to be r e a s s u r e d t h a t no harm w i l l come from the a c t i n g out of a prelude to h i s wish f o r i n t e r c o u r s e with h i s f a t h e r . He must always w r e s t l e with h i s c o n t i n u i n g and constant f e a r of h i s mother, but Stephen's g e n e r a l sense o f f e a r was exacerbated at the time of the dream by Haines' n o c t u r n a l o u t b u r s t . Stephen was awakened from h i s dream of f l y i n g by t h r e a t s of s h o o t i n g -86-(U 4) , l i k e l y t o be i n t e r p r e t e d by h i s dreaming mind as v i o l e n t , d i r e c t , and immediate r e t r i b u t i o n f o r the p o s s i b l e i n c e s t u o u s l y homosexual content, or d i r e c t i o n , of the e a r l y dream. His f l y i n g e r e c t i o n i s "shot down" and h i s s l e e p i s d i s t u r b e d . So Stephen, i n c o n t i n u i n g the o r i g i n a l impulse i n h i s second dream, p l a c e s h i m s e l f i n the s t r e e t o f h a r l o t s , a m i l i e u o f : . r e l a t i v e l y conven-t i o n a l s e x u a l i t y a c c e p t a b l e to h i s v i g i l a n t superego, and equips h i m s e l f w i t h a p r o t e c t i v e guide to soothe him with a n x i e t y - r e d u c i n g devices and words. C l e a r l y h i s dream expresses the r e l a t e d s u b s i d i a r y wish t h a t h i s e n t r y be easy, without c o m p l i c a t i o n s or consequences f o r him. He wishes to a v o i d the need f o r a dangerously v i o l e n t e r e c t i o n , the dangerous temptation to f l y too high. But when he a c t u a l l y gets to the " S t r e e t of h a r l o t s " d u r i n g the evening f o l l o w i n g the dream, and r e t u r n s i n h i s h a l l u c i n a t i o n s there to the kinds of s i t u a t i o n s enacted i n h i s remembered dreams, c o m p l i c a t i o n s and consequences prove to be i n e s c a p a b l e . E. Stephen i n Nighttown During h i s v i s i t to Dublin's b r o t h e l d i s t r i c t i n the " C i r c e " episode o f Ulysses, Stephen, " p a r t i a l l y drunk" by h i s own reckoning (U 518), experiences a number o f dramatic h a l l u c i n a t i o n s . Since u s u a l l y they are i n i t i a t e d - 8 7 -by and i n c o r p o r a t e d e t a i l s from s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t e x t e r n a l events, the h a l l u c i n a t i o n s vary i n l e n g t h , i n t e n s i t y and substance. But almost without e x c e p t i o n they u n d e r l i n e Stephen's c o n t i n u i n g p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the O e d i p a l themes and images t h a t we have been d i s c u s s i n g . Moreover, s e v e r a l o f these h a l l u c i n a t i o n s c l a r i f y and extend the contents of h i s three dreams, and c o n f i r m our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f these e a r l i e r e x p r e s s i o n s of Stephen's unconscious mind. Stephen's h a l l u c i n a t i o n s become lo n g e r , more s p e c i f i c , and more frequent as the episode p r o g r e s s e s . At the same time, he becomes both more e x c i t e d and more p h y s i c a l l y weary, and thus l e s s c o n s c i o u s l y a l e r t and l e s s able to suppress the u p w e l l i n g o f d i s t u r b i n g and t h r e a t e n i n g p s y c h i c m a t e r i a l . His e a r l y h a l l u c i n a t i o n s tend to p r o v i d e o n l y h i n t s and a l l u s i o n s t h a t r e l a t e t o the u n d e r l y i n g O e d i p a l f o r c e s p r e s s i n g on h i s consciousness, and t h a t foreshadow the l a t e r h a l l u c i n a t i o n s . For example, when Stephen v i s u a l i z e s AE (George R u s s e l l ) as Mananaan MacLir, a P r o t e u s - l i k e sea god from 2 6 I r i s h myth, the god mentions, almost i n p a s s i n g , a "Dark hidden Father" (U 510). T h i s reminds us, i f not Stephen, 27 of Stephen's dream of h i s i n c o g n i t o , Haroun a l Raschid, beckoning f a t h e r . And when we d i s c o v e r t h a t Mananaan MacLir i s mentioned i n A E 1 s p l a y Beidre, asked by the D r u i d Cathvah to cause the sea t o r i s e and cut o f f the f l i g h t 2 8 of Deidre and her love N a i s i , we can see a shadowy -88-p a r a l l e l w i t h Stephen's dream of f l y i n g as I c a r u s , who was cut o f f by the sea as he f l e d w i t h h i s f a t h e r Daedalus. In the same h a l l u c i n a t i o n there i s another f a i n t echo o f Stephen's dream of h i s beckoning f a t h e r . MacLir says "I am the dreamery creamery b u t t e r " (U 510), suggestive o f dreams i n g e n e r a l , but a l s o o f Stephen's s p e c i f i c dream, and of the unusual " c r e a m f r u i t melon" {U 217, emphasis added) h e l d out t o Stephen by h i s "dark hidden f a t h e r " to h e l p e n t i c e him i n t o the open hallway. In a subsequent scene, Stephen r e f e r s o b l i q u e l y t o h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s f a t h e r as he p l a y s the b r o t h e l piano: STEPHEN (To himself.) P l a y with your eyes shut. Imitate pa. F i l l i n g my b e l l y with husks o f swine. Too much of t h i s . I w i l l a r i s e and go to my. Expect t h i s i s the. Steve, thou a r t i n a p a r l o u s way. (U 517) There i s an a l l u s i o n here, i n c o m p l e t e l y s t a t e d by the s t i l l -i n h i b i t e d Stephen, t o another f a t h e r - s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p , the 29 B i b l i c a l p a r a b l e o f the p r o d i g a l son. The p r o d i g a l son i s r e p o r t e d t o have " . . . wasted h i s substance w i t h r i o t o u s l i v i n g " (Luke 15:13): e a r l i e r , a t the h o s p i t a l , Bloom had " g r i e v e d . . . f o r young Stephen f o r t h a t he l i v e d r i o t o u s l y w i t h those w a s t r e l s and murdered h i s goods wit h whores" (U 390-391). The p r o d i g a l son of the B i b l e , -89-a f t e r s u f f e r i n g extreme hunger so t h a t ". . . h e would f a i n have f i l l e d h i s b e l l y w i t h the husks t h a t the swine d i d e a t . . . . s a i d . . . . I w i l l a r i s e and go t o my f a t h e r , and w i l l say unto him, Father, I have s i n n e d a g a i n s t heaven, and b e f o r e thee, And am no more worthy t o be c a l l e d thy son" (Luke 15: 16-19). Stephen i s another p r o d i g a l son. But he has not y e t been able t o make any k i n d of f i r m d e c i s i o n t o admit g u i l t , o r t o seek recon-c i l i a t i o n w i t h h i s f a t h e r . He i s unable even to say the word " f a t h e r " a t the end o f an otherwise exact and d i r e c t c i t a t i o n from Luke. He stops s h o r t , a b l e to say onl y "I w i l l a r i s e and go to my." The f a i n t sense of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with h i s f a t h e r t h a t Stephen expresses w i t h h i s comment "Imitate pa" (U 517) i s expressed more s t r o n g l y i n a h a l l u c i n a t i o n a few minutes l a t e r . Lynch t r i g g e r s the h a l l u c i n a t i o n by t a u n t i n g l y c a l l i n g Stephen "A C a r d i n a l ' s son" (U 523): STEPHEN C a r d i n a l s i n . Monks o f the screw. (His Eminence, Simon Stephen Cardinal Dedalus , Primate of all Ireland, appears in the doorway, dressed in red soutane, sandals and socks. Seven dwarf simian acolytes, also in red, cardinal sins, uphold his train, peeping under i t . He wears a battered s i l k hat sideways on his head. His thumbs are stuck in his armpits and his palms outspread. . . .) -90-THE CARDINAL Conservio l i e s captured. He l i e s i n the lowest dungeon With manacles and chains around h i s limbs Weighing upwards o f three tons. (U 523-524) The f a c t t h a t Stephen's image of a f a t h e r - f i g u r e , p a r t l y d i s g u i s e d by the combined names and the d e s i g n a t i o n of "Cardinal", "appears in the doorway" of the b r o t h e l , i n d i c a t e s t h a t here i s y e t another c a r e f u l l y v e i l e d r e f e r e n c e by Stephen to h i s dream o f h i s i n c o g n i t o f a t h e r beckoning him i n t o a hallway i n the s t r e e t of h a r l o t s . The "Red c a r p e t " (U 4 7) of the dream appears here as the "red soutane, sandals and soaks" worn by the C a r d i n a l . Even more s p e c i f i c a l l y than i n the dream, t h i s makes the red c a r p e t welcome a sexual o f f e r from a c l o s e l y - r e l a t e d male body. The homosexual and i n c e s t u o u s overtones of the dream-r e f e r e n c e are strengthened by the images of the a c o l y t e s (sins) peeping under the C a r d i n a l ' s t r a i n , and of the C a r d i n a l ' s thumbs stuck i n h i s armpits. These images are v e r s i o n s of an e a r l i e r , o v e r t l y h e t e r o s e x u a l scene i n the b r o t h e l , i n t e r p r e t e d and transformed i n a p r e d i c t a b l e way by Stephen's i n t e r v e n i n g consciousness. In the e a r l i e r scene, Stephen sees the p r o s t i t u t e Zoe s t r e t c h t o l i g h t her c i g a r e t t e by the g a s j e t , "twirling i t slowly, showing -91-the brown tufts of her armpits" {U 511). Lynch l i f t s her s l i p with a poker t o bare her "behind" (U 511), while Bloom, a s u b s t i t u t e f a t h e r - f i g u r e with i n c e s t u o u s l y homo-sexu a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o f h i s own i n Stephen's mind (see U 201 and U 217), stands "smiling desirously, t w i r l i n g his thumbs" (U 511). As we can see, Stephen i n c o r p o r a t e s the images o f thumbs, armpits and l i f t e d a p p a r e l from the a c t u a l b r o t h e l scene i n t o h i s h a l l u c i n a t i o n , g i v i n g them a new context and s i g n i f i c a n c e . We should note t h a t Zoe s t a r t s the o r i g i n a l scene by a s k i n g "Who has a f a g as I'm here?"{U 510). "Fag", o f course, i s a term commonly used to r e f e r t o a male homosexual as w e l l as t o the c i g a r e t t e Lynch t o s s e s t o her, which she s t r e t c h e s t o l i g h t by the flame o f the g a s j e t . Stephen does not experience the scene without g u i l t . The r e f e r e n c e s t o c a r d i n a l s i n , which here i s Stephen's O e d i p a l s i n o f d e s i r i n g h i s own f a t h e r , to Roman C a t h o l i c i s m , and t o the peeping a c o l y t e s , ensure t h a t . The three tons of manacles and chains burdening Conservio i n the lowest dungeon add to the ob s e s s i v e f e e l i n g o f g u i l t and punishment p r o j e c t e d by the scene. Stephen's connection with Bloom d u r i n g the time a t the b r o t h e l reaches a climax o f s o r t s a s h o r t time l a t e r . Bloom rescues Stephen from an a p p a r e n t l y unpleasant r e a d i n g of h i s palm by Zoe (see U 562). Then both Stephen and Bloom look i n t o a m i r r o r , d i r e c t e d by the l a u g h t e r o f others i n the room, and tog e t h e r they see a strange s i g h t : -92-"The face of William Shakespeare. beardless, appears there, rigid in facial paralysis3 crowned by the reflection of the reindeer antlered hatrack in the hall" (U 567). Bloom r e a c t s t o the a n t l e r e d head s i g n i f y i n g c u c k o l d r y by making excuses: "Lapses are condoned" (U 568). Stephen a l s o r e a c t s , but i n a s h o r t speech which emphasizes animal-human s e x u a l i t y : STEPHEN Et exaltabuntur cornua i u s t i . Queens l a y with p r i z e b u l l s . Remember Pasiphae f o r whose l u s t my g r a n d o l d g r o s s f a t h e r made the f i r s t confessionbox. Forget not Madam G r i s s e l Steevens nor the suine s c i o n s of the house o f Lambert. And Noah was drunk wi t h wine. And h i s ark was open. (U 569) Stephen's f i r s t sentence here i s from the second h a l f 30 of Psalms 75:10: " A l l the horns of the wicked a l s o w i l l I cut o f f ; but the horns o f the r i g h t e o u s s h a l l be e x a l t e d . " In q u o t i n g o n l y the second h a l f o f the v e r s e , Stephen seems t o be t r y i n g t o reassure h i m s e l f about a p e r c e i v e d c a s t r a t i o n t h r e a t . Perhaps the beardless and paralyzed face of Shakespeare r e f l e c t i n g back a t him from the m i r r o r reminds him o f h i s own a n x i e t y about 31 c a s t r a t i o n and p a r a l y s i s . C e r t a i n l y the suppressed f i r s t h a l f of the verse i s a powerful image of c a s t r a t i o n , and i t s su p p r e s s i o n i s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f Stephen's own sense o f sexual g u i l t and s e x u a l danger. In the remainder o f the passage, Stephen c i t e s s e v e r a l examples -9 3-of humans appa r e n t l y f o r n i c a t i n g with animals, as though t h a t somehow r e p r e s e n t s the g u i l t t h a t obsesses him, the s i n f o r which he might f e e l t h a t he deserves c a s t r a t i o n . However, Stephen's speech a l s o r e v e a l s the c o n t i n u i n g undercurrent of h i s r e a l s i n , h i s incestuous d e s i r e f o r h i s f a t h e r . When he r e f e r s t o Daedalus as "my grandold-g r o s s f a t h e r , " he i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f again as the son Icarus i n t h a t f a t h e r - s o n s c e n a r i o , and reminds us of h i s dream o f f l y i n g , probably sexual and probably i n c e s t u o u s , from the n i g h t b e f o r e . And when he a l l u d e s to Noah, he a l l u d e s t o another example of a f a t h e r - s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h i s time with more o v e r t l y sexual i m p l i c a t i o n s . The a l l u s i o n i s not to Noah f o r n i c a t i n g with the animals of the ark, f o r which there i s no evidence i n the B i b l i c a l 32 account. Rather, i t i s to the s t o r y of Noah's son Ham s e e i n g h i s f a t h e r asleep and naked: And Noah . . . was uncovered w i t h i n h i s t e n t . And Ham, the f a t h e r of Canaan, saw the naked-ness o f h i s f a t h e r . . . . And Noah awoke from h i s wine, and knew what h i s younger son had done unto him. And he s a i d , Cursed be Canaan; a servant o f servants s h a l l he be unto h i s b r e t h r e n . (Genesis 9: 20-25) The use o f the s e x u a l word "knew" and o f the a c t i v e word "unto" i n "Noah . . . knew what h i s younger son had done -94-unto him" suggests t h a t Ham d i d more than j u s t look at h i s f a t h e r ' s nakedness. I t seems t o i n d i c a t e something c l o s e r t o the more a c t i v e , and f a r more t e r r i b l e and tabooed, s i n of i n c e s t u o u s homosexual rape, or at l e a s t of d e s i r e . C e r t a i n l y the b i t t e r punishment v i s t e d on Ham i n r e t r i b u t i o n f o r h i s t r a n s g r e s s i o n would appear to be more a p p r o p r i a t e i f he d i d more than merely look. B e l l a Cohen, e x p r e s s i n g a c o n v e n t i o n a l p u r i t a n i c a l h o r r o r at Stephen's speech, a p p a r e n t l y recognizes the perverse nature o f h i s comment, and r e p l i e s "None of t h a t here. Come to the wrong shop" (U 569). S h o r t l y a f t e r , as Stephen b r i e f l y a c t s out a stereo-typed homosexual r o l e , he i s drawn again , t h i s time more d i r e c t l y , to h i s two homosexually-charged dreams of the n i g h t b e f o r e . He makes an a s s o c i a t i o n between the words "w a t e r c l o s e t " and "watermelon", then a p p a r e n t l y connects "watermelon" with the " c r e a m f r u i t melon" (U 217) o f h i s beckoning f a t h e r dream: STEPHEN (Mincingly.) I love you, S i r d a r l i n g . Speak you englishman tongue f o r double entente covdiale. 0 yes, mon loup. How much cost? Waterloo. Watercloset. (He ceases suddenly and holds up a fore finger. ) . . . STEPHEN Mark me. I dreamt of a watermelon. . . . -95-STEPHEN (Extending his arms.) I t was here. S t r e e t o f h a r l o t s . In Serpentine Avenue Beelzebub showed me her, a fubsy widow. Where's the red c a r p e t spread? . . . STEPHEN No, I flew. My foes beneath me. And ever s h a l l be. World without end. (He cries.) Pater'. Free! (U 571-572) Stephen's q u e s t i o n "Where's the red c a r p e t spread?" r e f e r s t o the "Red c a r p e t " (U 4 7) mentioned as an inducement by h i s beckoning f a t h e r i n the second dream. When he f o l l o w s t h i s q u e s t i o n with the response "No, I flew," Stephen s h i f t s h i s (and our) a t t e n t i o n to h i s e a r l i e r i n t e r r u p t e d dream of f l y i n g . The subsequent passage "(He cries.) Pater! Free!" i s a d i r e c t v e r b a l a l l u s i o n to h i s unspoken r e f e r e n c e i n the l i b r a r y t o the f l i g h t o f Daedalus and I c a r u s : 3 3 " I c a r u s . Pater, ait. [ F a t h e r , he c r i e s . ] " (U 210). T h i s confirms our e a r l i e r s p e c u l a t i o n (pp. 81-82 above) about the connection i n Stephen's mind between h i s dream o f f l y i n g and the i l l - f a t e d f a t h e r and son f l i g h t o f Daedalus and I c a r u s . But here i n the heady atmosphere o f the b r o t h e l Stephen's deep wish f o r s u b s t a n t i a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with h i s f a t h e r persuades him b r i e f l y t h a t h i s f l i g h t can have a l e s s t r a g i c c o n c l u s i o n than the f l i g h t o f I c a r u s , t h a t he can remain above h i s f o e s , "Free!", and not be e n g u l f e d -96-by the maternal sea. As a r e s u l t , Stephen immediately plunges i n t o a h a l l u c i n a t i o n i n which he c a l l s l i k e a f a l c o n e r c a l l i n g a f a l c o n , and h i s f a t h e r appears, f l y i n g , i n response: STEPHEN . . . (He c r i e s , his vulture talons sharpened.) Hola! H i l l y h o ! (Simon Dedalus' voice h i l l o e s in answer, somewhat sleepy but ready.) SIMON That's a l l r i g h t . (He swoops uncertainly through the a i r , wheeling, u t t e r i n g c r i e s of heartening, on strong ponderous buzzard wings.) Ho, boy! Are you going to win? Hoop! P s c h a t t ! S t a b l e with those h a l f c a s t e s . Wouldn't l e t them w i t h i n the bawl of an ass. Head up! Keep our f l a g f l y i n g ! An eagle gules v o l a n t i n a f i e l d argent d i s p l a y e d . U l s t e r k i n g a t arms! h a i hoop! (He makes the beagle's c a l l giving tongue.) B u l b u l ! B u r b l b l b r u r b l b l ! Hai, boy! (The fronds and spaces of the wallpaper f i l e r a p i d l y across country. A stout fox drawn from covert, brush pointed, having buried his grandmother, runs swift for the open, brighteyed, seeking badger earth, under the leaves. The pack of staghounds follows, nose to the ground,- s n i f f i n g t h e i r quarry, beaglebaying, burblbrbling to be blooded. . . .) (U 572) I t i s c l e a r i n t h i s passage t h a t Stephen cannot s u s t a i n f o r l o n g h i s w i s h f u l f a n t a s y of "heartening" r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with h i s f a t h e r . His c o n t i n u i n g g u i l t about h i s mother i n t e r v e n e s i n the guise o f a fox, "having buried his -97-grandmother3" being h o t l y pursued i n r e p r i s a l f o r h i s s i n . The fox, of course, i s the fox i n the nonsense s o l u t i o n to the r i d d l e Stephen posed f o r h i s students t h a t morning. His s o l u t i o n was " — T h e fox b u r y i n g h i s grandmother under a h o l l y b u s h " (U 27). The a c t u a l o r i g i n a l answer to the r i d d l e , e q u a l l y n o n s e n s i c a l i n o r d i n a r y r i d d l e terms, i f not i n terms of Stephen's own psychology, i s "The fox 34 b u r y i n g h i s mother under a h o l l y t r e e . " In the b r o t h e l , not long before the fox appears i n Stephen's h a l l u c i n a t i o n , Stephen r e s t a t e s the r i d d l e , and a s s o c i a t e s i t w i t h h i s own g u i l t y f e e l i n g s about h i s mother's death by s a y i n g i n answer to i t : " T h i r s t y fox. (He laughs loudly.) Burying h i s grandmother. Probably he k i l l e d her" (U 55 9). Simon Dedalus soon reappears, but i s quashed out o f Stephen's consciousness even more q u i c k l y than b e f o r e , t h i s time crowded out by the d i r e c t i n t e r v e n t i o n of Stephen's mother. Simon i n t e r r u p t s an i n c r e a s i n g l y f r e n z i e d s o l o dance by Stephen w i t h a g u i l t - l a d e n admonition to "Think o f your mother's people!" (U 579). Stephen immediately responds with the phrase "Dance of death" (U 579), e x p r e s s i n g again h i s c o n t i n u i n g wish to be r i d o f h i s mother's s i d e of the f a m i l y . He continues t o dance alone, growing giddy. His f r a n t i c p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y f u r t h e r r e l a x e s the p s y c h i c c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d by h i s superego. But t h i s l o o s e n i n g o f c o n t r o l causes him to experience a powerful and d i r e c t l y - d r a w n h a l l u c i n a t i o n , -98-not of h i s f a t h e r who s t a r t e d i t , but r a t h e r o f h i s dead mother: STEPHEN Ho! (Stephen's mother, emaciated, rises stark through the floor in leper grey with a wreath of faded orange blossoms and a torn bridal veil, her face worn and noseless, green with grave mould. Eer hair is scant and lank. She fixes her blue circled hollow eyesockets on Stephen and opens her toothless mouth uttering a silent word. A choir of virgins and confessors sing voicelessly. ) (U 579) Stephen's mother, with her t o r n b r i d a l v e i l , n o s e l e s s f a c e , s c a n t h a i r , hollow eyesockets and t o o t h l e s s mouth, i s d e p i c t e d here i n terms o f a v i o l e n t s e r i e s of c a s t r a t i o n 35 images t h a t correspond to Stephen's wish to completely i n c a p a c i t a t e her. N e v e r t h e l e s s , designated i n the t e x t i n an a r c h e t y p a l f a s h i o n as "THE MOTHER" (U 5 80-5 82), she takes c o n t r o l of the long h a l l u c i n a t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s . And, c o n t r a r y to Stephen's dream of her, i n the h a l l u c i n a t i o n she i s not "mute" (U 5). So Stephen f i n d s h i m s e l f t e r r i b l y t h r e a t e n e d by her e v e n t u a l statement t h a t "Years and years I l o v e d you, 0 my son, my f i r s t b o r n , when you l a y i n my womb" (U 581). Her a l l u s i o n s t o b i r t h , motherlove, and "Years and y e a r s " o f female engulfment so t e r r i f y Stephen t h a t both F l o r r y and Bloom n o t i c e he turns white (U 5 81). But when she goes on to t h r e a t e n Stephen d i r e c t l y with "Beware! God's hand!" (U 582), he responds to her t h r e a t with "rage" -99-(U 582), and to her subsequent pra y e r s f o r him with v i o l e n c e . C r y i n g "Nothung!" (V 583), he r a i s e s h i s ash-p l a n t , with which he had been dancing i n p r e f e r e n c e t o the whores, and attempts to s t r i k e a t h i s h a l l u c i n a t o r y image of her. But i n s t e a d the a s h p l a n t catches on the lamp above h i s head, smashing the c h a n d e l i e r and e x t i n g u i s h i n g the g a s j e t flame. Lynch then s e i z e s h i s hand, Stephen drops the ashplant, and i n anger, f r u s t r a t i o n , and f e a r , he beats w i t h h i s f e e t on the f l o o r from which h i s mother's image had o r i g i n a l l y r i s e n . His a c t i v e response to the t h r e a t e n i n g mother c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h h i s c o n s i s t e n t l y p a s s i v e r e a c t i o n s to her up u n t i l now. But a moment l a t e r Stephen undercuts h i s show of s t r e n g t h , a l b e i t b r i e f and panicky, by f l e e i n g out the b r o t h e l door, j u s t as he has r e t r e a t e d before from female dangers. Stephen p r o p o s i t i o n s C i s s y C a f f r e y , "a s h i l l i n g whore" (U 587), immediately a f t e r l e a v i n g the b r o t h e l (see U 587-588), which might seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t he has reached a k i n d of a c t i v e r e s o l u t i o n o f h i s s e x u a l p a r a l y s i s , and t h e r e f o r e of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n x i e t i e s causing i t . But h i s extended and i n s i s t e n t exchange with the two s o l d i e r s , who were with C i s s y C a f f r e y , but who had l e f t her b r i e f l y j u s t before Stephen came up, i s the a c t i o n of the same ob s e s s i v e Stephen, a p p a r e n t l y unchanged by h i s s e r i e s of v i v i d h a l l u c i n a t i o n s i n the b r o t h e l . -100-He i s s t i l l d i s t u r b e d by f a m i l i a r O e d i p a l f e a r s d u r i n g h i s long c o l l o q u y with the s o l d i e r s , c a l l i n g h i s b r i e f v i s i o n o f Old Gummy Granny, r e p r e s e n t i n g I r e l a n d , "The o l d sow t h a t e a t s her farrow!" (U 595). He then wards her o f f by r e f e r r i n g to "The reverend C a r r i o n Crow" (U 595), a n u r s e r y rhyme f i g u r e who was shot a t by a t a i l o r . The t a i l o r , a c c o r d i n g to the nursery rhyme, missed the crow and i n s t e a d "shot h i s own sow r i g h t 36 through the h e a r t . " I t i s an a c c i d e n t t h a t undoubtedly appeals to Stephen,, who f e e l s so c o n s t a n t l y threatened by females. However, r e p e a t i n g the p a t t e r n t h a t began at Clongowe Stephen i s not daunted by male t h r e a t s , i n t h i s case from the s o l d i e r s . In f a c t , he seems to welcome t h e i r a t t e n t i o n , however t h r e a t e n i n g t h e i r behaviour. He has ample warning t h a t he i s i n danger o f b e i n g p h y s i c a l l y a t t a c k e d , with P r i v a t e Carr a s k i n g e a r l y i n t h e i r conver-s a t i o n "Say, how would i t be, governor, i f I was to bash i n your jaw?" (U 5 88). And he has ample o p p o r t u n i t y and encouragement to back away. Bloom at one p o i n t p r o v i d e s a f a c e s a v i n g excuse t o leave when he "-plucks Stephen's sleeve vigorously" and says "Come now, p r o f e s s o r , t h a t carman i s w a i t i n g " (U 589). But Stephen m a s o c h i s t i c a l l y c o u r t s the blow by s t a n d i n g h i s ground and f o r c i n g P r i v a t e C a r r , urged on by Private.Compton, to s t r i k e him o r h i m s e l f l o s e face a f t e r so much t a l k and so many t h r e a t -101-As a consequence, Stephen i s knocked out by a blow to h i s undefended face (U 601). The p a t t e r n i n Stephen's h a l l u c i n a t i o n s i n " C i r c e " i s movement from h i n t s about h i s f a t h e r and a l l u s i o n s t o o t h e r f a t h e r - s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t o the b o l d e r appearance o f Simon Dedalus h i m s e l f . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by the prompt i n t e r v e n t i o n of h i s dead mother. He moves from r e f e r e n c e s to h i s two dreams o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with h i s f a t h e r t o an e x t e n s i o n of h i s dream of h i s v e n g e f u l dead mother. H i s mother q u i c k l y crowds out h i s f a t h e r , and dominates h i s psyche. T h i s seems to f o l l o w the p a t t e r n of Stephen's l i f e so f a r , and d r i v e s him toward the blow t h a t knocks him unconscious. Absent from the h a l l u c i n a t i o n s i s any r e a l sense t h a t he i s coming to terms with h i s O e d i p a l a n x i e t i e s , or with h i s r e s u l t a n t g e n e r a l p s y c h i c p a r a l y s i s . In f a c t , h i s p s y c h i c i m m o b i l i t y becomes matched by a p e r i o d of p h y s i c a l i m m o b i l i t y . E v e n t u a l l y , Stephen i s p a r t i a l l y roused from h i s unconscious s t a t e by the p r o t e c t i v e Bloom, who "brings his mouth near the face of the prostrate form" and c a l l s "Stephen! . . . Stephen!" (U 608): STEPHEN {Groans.) Who? Black panther vampire. (He sighs and stretches himself, then murmurs thickly with prolonged vowels.) Who . . . d r i v e . . . Fergus now. And p i e r c e . . . wood's woven shade? . . . (He turns on his left side, sighing, doubling himself together.) -102-BLOOM Poetry. Well educated. P i t y . (Be bends again and undoes the buttons of Stephen's waistcoat.) To breathe. (Be brushes the wood shavings from Stephen's clothes with light hands and fingers.) One pound seven. Not h u r t anyhow. (Be listens.) What! STEPHEN (Murmurs.) . . . shadows . . . the woods. . . . white b r e a s t . . . dim . . . (Be stretches out his arms, sighs again and curls his body. Bloom holding his hat and ashplant stands erect. A dog barks in the distance. Bloom tightens and loosens his grip on the ashplant. Be looks down on Stephen's face and form.) BLOOM (Communes with the night.) Face reminds me of h i s poor mother. In the shady wood. The deep white b r e a s t . Ferguson, I t h i n k I caught. A g i r l . Some g i r l . Best t h i n g c o u l d happen him . . (U 608-609,* e l l i p s e s i n o r i g i n a l ) There are three r e l a t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s we can make of Stephen's words and a c t i o n s a f t e r he i s p a r t i a l l y r e v i v e d by Bloom. Each o f them depends on how we i n t e r p r e t "vampire" i n h i s immediate drowsy r e f e r e n c e t o "Black panther vampire." As we remember from our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Stephen's f o u r - l i n e poem, the vampire symbol r e p r e s e n t s a combination o f three r e l a t e d t h i n g s i n Stephen's mind. In the poem i t s e l f , i t r e p r e s e n t s Stephen's f a t h e r , responding w i t h a r a t h e r t h r e a t e n i n g k i s s to Stephen's wish to r e e s t a b l i s h -103-c o n t a c t w i t h him. In the sentence from h i s thoughts which s p e c i f i c a l l y precedes and foreshadows the poem, the vampire image r e p r e s e n t s Stephen h i m s e l f i n two d i f f e r e n t g u i s e s . In one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Stephen-vampire i s a c t i n g out both h i s g u i l t about h i s mother's death, and h i s f u r t h e r wish t o suppress even h i s memory of her. In the oth e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the vampire i s Stephen a c t i n g out h i s own b i r t h . I f we see the vampire as r e p r e s e n t i n g Stephen's f a t h e r , then we would read the l i n e "Who? Black panther vampire" as Stephen opening h i s eyes and responding to what he sees, which i s Bloom's s o l i c i t o u s mouth bending near h i s f a c e . T h i s scene resembles f o r him the p i c t u r e of the vampire-father i n h i s poem: "He comes, pale vampire Mouth to my mouth" (U 132). The phrase "black panther" i s an a p p r o p r i a t e a d j e c t i v e f o r the b l a c k s u i t e d Bloom. I t i s a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e i f Stephen i s c o n f u s i n g Bloom w i t h h i s f a t h e r , o r i s i d e n t i f y i n g him as a s u b s t i t u t e f a t h e r -f i g u r e . I t was Stephen's dream o f f l y i n g as Icarus with h i s Daedalus-father t h a t Haines i n t e r r u p t e d by " r a v i n g and moaning to h i m s e l f about s h o o t i n g a b l a c k panther" {U 4). And h i s f l y i n g dream, o f course, was f o l l o w e d by h i s dream of a dark beckoning f a t h e r - f i g u r e i n the s t r e e t o f h a r l o t s 37 which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Bloom's r o l e i n t h i s scene. When Stephen goes on to murmur verses from Yeats' 3 8 song "Who Goes with Fergus?", he seems to be i n d i c a t i n g h i s own w i l l i n g n e s s to "go d r i v e with Fergus now," to accept the r u l e o f the dominant male I r i s h f a t h e r - g o d -104-who i s s a i d i n the song t o r u l e a l l , i n c l u d i n g " d i s h e v e l l e d wandering s t a r s " l i k e Stephen. Stephen then "stretches out his arms" to r e c e i v e the wished-for r e c o n c i l i a t o r y p a t e r n a l vampire k i s s . I f , however, we see the vampire as Stephen h i m s e l f , then our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Stephen's f i r s t u t t e r a n c e as he r e g a i n s consciousness i s d i f f e r e n t . When he asks "Who?", h i s q u e s t i o n i s i n response to what he hears r a t h e r than to what he sees. And what he hears i s Bloom c a l l i n g "Stephen'. . . . Stephen!" t o rouse him. S t i l l p a r t l y unconscious, he answers h i s own q u e s t i o n by i d e n t i f y i "Stephen!" as a "Black panther vampire." The "bl a c k panther a d j e c t i v e i s a l s o c o n s i s t e n t f o r Stephen s i n c e he, l i k e Bloom, i s dressed i n b l a c k . And h i s f e a r f u l response the p r e v i o u s n i g h t t o Haines' r a v i n g about s h o o t i n g a bla c k panther may very w e l l have a r i s e n because he h i m s e l f i d e n t i f i e s with Haines* b l a c k panther. As w e l l as being a predatory animal, the b l a c k panther has a h i s t o r y o f 39 being r e c o g n i z e d as a symbol o f C h r i s t , with whom Stephen continues t o i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f . For example, e a r l i e r , when Lynch l e f t the scene o f the a l t e r c a t i o n between Stephen and the s o l d i e r s , Stephen p l a y e d h i s r o l e as C h r i s t by p o i n t i n g to him and s a y i n g "Exit Judas" {U 600). And l a t e r , a f t e r Bloom "commented a d v e r s e l y on the d e s e r t i o n o f Stephen by a l l h i s pubhunting confreres but one," Stephen, as though t o emphasize the p o i n t , r e p l i e s " — A n d t h a t one was Judas" (U 615). -105-I f , then, we see Stephen i d e n t i f y i n g h i m s e l f as the vampire, probably he s t i l l harbours the wish t o d e l i v e r a k i s s o f death to h i s mother, the wish expressed by the sentence which foreshadows h i s poem {U 48). And when he murmurs the song t h a t h i s mother asked him to s i n g to her on her deathbed, he i s encouraging her to d i e p s y c h i c a l l y j u s t as she had e a r l i e r d i e d p h y s i c a l l y . At the same time, f e a r f u l of r e p r i s a l f o r h i s vampire k i s s o f death, he s t r e t c h e s out h i s arms t o t r y to grasp the a s h p l a n t h e l d by Bloom so t h a t he can use i t to p r o t e c t h i m s e l f . However, the r e a d i n g o f t h i s scene a t the end o f the "Circe" episode f o r which there i s the most evidence i s t h a t Stephen, as he g r a d u a l l y r e c o v e r s consciousness, i s e x p e r i e n c i n g a p s y c h i c r e b i r t h p a r a l l e l t o the p h y s i c a l b i r t h a c t ed out by Stephen-vampire i n the pre-poem passage (see pp. 68-70.above). To begin w i t h , i t i s mentioned s e v e r a l times t h a t Stephen i s covered w i t h wood shavings {U 607, 608, 613). These shavings may r e p r e s e n t the a f t e r b i r t h , o r be the d e b r i s t h a t i s l e f t when something new i s chipped o r formed from something o l d . The song t h a t Stephen r e c i t e s , Yeats' "Who Goes w i t h Fergus?", i s a c e l e b r a t i o n o f the r e b i r t h o f I r i s h consciousness and the I r i s h n a t i o n , f u l l o f optimism and hope. At the same time, as the t i t l e i n d i c a t e s , i t i s a c h a l l e n g e t o the I r i s h people t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the I r i s h -106-renaissance being spearheaded by Yeats and h i s f e l l o w poets. In a r t i c u l a t i n g i t here, Stephen i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n both the c e l e b r a t i o n and the c h a l l e n g e as he goes through h i s own p e r s o n a l r e b i r t h and looks forward to a new s t a r t . Stephen's movements i n t h i s scene o f reawakening consciousness s i g n i f y t h a t he responds p h y s i c a l l y t o h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l experience of r e b i r t h . F i r s t he s i g h s and s t r e t c h e s , then he sighs and doubles h i m s e l f t o g e t h e r , and f i n a l l y he s i g h s and c u r l s h i s body. In a l l of t h i s he seems to be t r y i n g to a d j u s t h i m s e l f to the t r a n s i t i o n from the c l o s e q u a r t e r s of h i s former boxed-in p o s i t i o n ( i n the womb) to the more expansive s i t u a t i o n h e r a l d i n g a new s t a r t , and f i n d i n g i t d i f f i c u l t t o m a intain an unaccustomed uncramped po s t u r e . He s i g h s r e p e a t e d l y t o check and recheck h i s new experience of b r e a t h i n g f r e e l y , and a p p a r e n t l y to i n d i c a t e submission to the t o t a l e x p e r i e n c e . A f t e r murmuring " . . . white b r e a s t . . . dim . . .." he s t r e t c h e s out h i s arms, seeking milk from the shadowy white b r e a s t . At the beginning of the next episode, a f t e r Stephen r e g a i n s h i s f e e t , he expresses a " d e s i r e f o r some beverage to d r i n k " (U 613). Bloom s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y does h i s best t o accommodate Stephen's i n f a n t i l e need f o r milk. He suggests "milk and soda or a m i n e r a l " (U 613). And a t the cabman's s h e l t e r , a f t e r Stephen r e f u s e s a bun, but t a s t e s the c o f f e e -107-and i n d i c a t e s t h a t " L i q u i d s I can eat" (U 6 35) , Bloom t h i n k s "he 1 c e r t a i n l y ought to eat, were i t on l y an egg-f l i p made on u n a d u l t e r a t e d maternal nutriment (U 65 6, emphasis added). Bloom e v e n t u a l l y manages t o s t e e r Stephen to Bloom's own house, where "he . . . served e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y to h i s guest . . . the v i s c o u s cream o r d i n a r i l y r e s e r v e d f o r the b r e a k f a s t of h i s wife Marion" mixed i n t o the Epps's cocoa they d r i n k {U 677). Bloom p a r t i c i p a t e s i n o t h e r ways i n the r e b i r t h m o t i f as he tends to Stephen i n a midwifely f a s h i o n (see U 608-609). F i r s t , he c a l l s Stephen i n t o consciousness, then undoes h i s buttons "To breathe", s t a t e s a weight of "One pound seven" f o r him, and says s o l i c i t o u s l y "Not h u r t anyhow." C a r e f u l l y , "with light hands and fingers," he brushes the wood shavings, r e p r e s e n t i n g the a f t e r b i r t h , from Stephen's c l o t h e s . Immediately a f t e r Stephen s t r e t c h e s f o r the "white b r e a s t , " Bloom mentions t h a t Stephen's "Face reminds me o f h i s poor mother," thereby d i r e c t l y i n t r o d u c i n g the maternal theme to the scene, as w e l l as doing what i s t y p i c a l l y done o f newborn bab i e s , t h a t i s s p e c u l a t i n g about which parent he o r she most resembles. S i m i l a r l y , l a t e r , Bloom "looked sideways i n a f r i e n d l y f a s h i o n a t the s i d e f a c e o f Stephen, image of h i s mother" (U 663). But, to maintain a p o l i t i c balance i n the f a m i l y , f a i r - m i n d e d Bloom a l s o f i n d s Stephen's "eyes more e s p e c i a l l y reminding 40 him f o r c i b l y o f f a t h e r and s i s t e r " (U 645). - 1 0 8 -Th e immediate s i g n i f i c a n c e of these i n d i c a t i o n s of a r e b i r t h f o r Stephen seems c l e a r . He i s submissive throughout, from p a s s i v e l y r e c e i v i n g the blow i t s e l f to a c c e p t i n g Bloom's m i n i s t r a t i o n s . His submissive a t t i t u d e seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t he accepts the process o f b e i n g born, thus r e v e r s i n g h i s previous c o n s i s t e n t r e j e c t i o n of h i s own p h y s i c a l b i r t h . As he regains consciousness he " s i g h s " r a t h e r than " c r i e s " , f u r t h e r evidence of submissiveness. In t h i s relaxed, unforced frame of mind Stephen's f a c e , a c c o r d i n g to Bloom, resembles h i s mother's. This resemblance suggests t h a t Stephen has r e l a x e d h i s l o n g s t a n d i n g phobia about being h i s mother's son, and has r e v e r s e d h i s wish to bear no p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p to her at a l l . I f he has succeeded i n o v e r t u r n i n g such b a s i c emotional a t t i t u d e s , Stephen a t the same time must l e a r n to accept h i s own s u b s t a n t i a l m o r t a l i t y . As h i s mother's son, he must accept h i s beginnings i n her womb. And he t h e r e f o r e cannot hope to a v o i d ending, l i k e her, i n the tomb. Each of the above three i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the f i n a l scene ( f o r Stephen) of " C i r c e " has t e x t u r a l v a l i d i t y . But each i s s u g g e s t i v e r a t h e r than d e f i n i t i v e . And taken together, they tend to form a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . The f i r s t two have a s t a t i c q u a l i t y . They suggest a r e l a t i v e l y unchanged a t t i t u d e by Stephen toward h i s p a r e n t s : he s t i l l wishes r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with h i s f a t h e r , and, f e a r i n g -109-r e t r i b u t i o n from h i s dead mother, wishes t o suppress f u r t h e r h i s memory o f her. But the t h i r d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , of p s y c h i c r e b i r t h , has the o p p o s i t e q u a l i t y o f p o s i t i v e change. I t suggests t h a t Stephen makes s u b s t a n t i a l , though not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , progress i n h i s p a r a l y z e d r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s p a r e n t s , s u b s t a n t i a l enough t o f r e e him from h i s own r e s u l t i n g p s y c h i c , s e x u a l , a r t i s t i c p a r a l y s i s . The q u e s t i o n , then, i s which of the two c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n d i c a t i o n s i s s t r o n g e r . The t e x t u r a l evidence f o r r e b i r t h seems very s t r o n g . But i t may be outweighed by the combined f o r c e of the two opposing i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , and by the f a c t t h a t i t i s so sudden and app a r e n t l y unmotivated. We saw t h a t Stephen undercut h i s a c t i v e , though s t i l l s u p p r e s s i v e , response t o the h a l l u c i n a t o r y f i g u r e o f h i s dead mother by f l e e i n g out the door o f the b r o t h e l immediately afterward. But the i n d i c a t i o n s of r e b i r t h a t the end o f the episode are not so s p e c i f i -c a l l y and immediately undercut. The o p t i m i s t i c and sympathetic reader can, l i k e Stephen, breathe somewhat f r e e l y f o r a time. IV. CONCLUSION Seabedabbled, f a l l e n , w e l t e r i n g . --Ulysses (210) When Stephen d e c l i n e s "Promptly, i n e x p l i c a b l y , w i t h a m i c a b i l i t y , g r a t e f u l l y " (U 695) Bloom's i n v i t a t i o n to sl e e p the r e s t of the n i g h t a t Bloom's house, he i s probably r e a f f i r m i n g an e a r l i e r d e c i s i o n , not n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s c i o u s , to cut a l l t i e s and to remain f r e e from a l l entanglements i n Du b l i n . I t i s as though he i s pr e p a r i n g to leave D u b l i n and I r e l a n d a l t o g e t h e r . Stephen has a l r e a d y decided not to r e t u r n to h i s s l e e p i n g q u a r t e r s a t the tower {U 44). He has a l s o a f f i r m e d by h i s l a c k of i n t e r e s t (U 619-620, U 623) and by the tone with which he r e p i c t u r e s h i s f a m i l y h e a r t h (U 620) t h a t he w i l l not s l e e p a t h i s f a t h e r ' s house, which he says he l e f t " — T o seek mi s f o r t u n e " (U 619). He t e l l s "Lord John C o r l e y " (U 616), who touches him f o r a handout, t h a t " — I have no p l a c e to s l e e p myself" {U 617). In a d d i t i o n , Stephen informs C o r l e y t h a t " — T h e r e ' l l be a job tomorrow or the next day . . . i n a boys' s c h o o l a t Dalkey . . . . Mr. G a r r e t [ s i c ] Deasy. . . . You may mention my name" {U 617). -110--111-Th e opening, o f course, w i l l be to r e p l a c e Stephen, who i s l e a v i n g . When he was p a i d t h a t morning by Deasy, Stephen had motivated h i m s e l f to leave by inwardly a s k i n g "And here what w i l l you l e a r n more?" (U 35). When Stephen.refuses Bloom's i n v i t a t i o n to s l e e p over, he a l s o turns down an i m p l i c i t o f f e r o f a s e t o f s u b s t i t u t e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Bloom, whose son Rudy d i e d a f t e r only e l e v e n days o f l i f e (U 736), i s a f a t h e r i n search of a son. His w i f e Molly i s a l s o s e e k i n g a son, as w e l l as a l o v e r and a husband. During her s o l i l o q u y she remembers Stephen i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the mourning p e r i o d f o r her own dead son (U 11 A) . And. although she soon begins to s p e c u l a t e about him as a p o s s i b l e l o v e r (U 775-776), she e v e n t u a l l y i d e n t i f i e s h e r s e l f with h i s mother (U 778), and her fantasy focusses on him as a s u b s t i t u t e son (U 119). Her f a n t a s i e s about l o v e r s and husbands end by b e i n g f i l l e d w ith thoughts and memories o f Bloom (U 738-783). So Stephen s t r i p s h i m s e l f . He i s homeless, f r i e n d l e s about to render h i m s e l f j o b l e s s , and not about to r e t u r n to h i s f a m i l y , or to accept the s u b s t i t u t e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s p r o f f e r e d by Bloom. One major q u e s t i o n about Stephen s t i l l remains unanswered: What w i l l he do now? Does he s t r i p h i m s e l f so t h a t he can come to g r i p s i n an e x i s t e n t i a l way with h i s own a b i d i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems, problems which cause him to be s e x u a l l y and -112-c r e a t i v e l y p a r a l y z e d ? Or does he d i v e s t h i m s e l f o f human cont a c t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s out of d e s p e r a t i o n , so t h a t he can f l e e even more r e a d i l y than b e f o r e from h i s u n r e s o l v e d O e d i p a l t e n s i o n s , and a t the same time, l i g h t e n e d , t r y to f l y over the I r i s h nets o f " n a t i o n a l i t y , language, r e l i g i o n " (P 203)? Do the p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t i o n s o f r e b i r t h or the negative i n d i c a t i o n s o f continued p a r a l y s i s a t the end o f " C i r c e " emerge as the more accurate p r e d i c t o r s ? There are s e v e r a l h i n t s i n Ulysses t h a t Stephen 2 plans to leave I r e l a n d , whose n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r he regards as f i x e d (U 645). The evidence t h a t he intends to leave i s not very c o n v i n c i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s tempting to use what i n d i c a t i o n s there are to extend our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n beyond the s t r i c t l i m i t s of the t e x t , and to see Stephen s t e p p i n g i n Joyce's own f o o t s t e p s by 3 l e a v i n g I r e l a n d i n 1904. That, o f course, c o u l d l e a d us to see Joyce f u s i n g h i s f i c t i o n w i t h h i s l i f e , so t h a t Stephen not only leaves I r e l a n d f o r the Con t i n e n t , but stays on the Continent, w r i t e s Portrait, Ulysses, and l a t e r Finnegans Wake t h e r e , and, l i k e Joyce, r e v i s i t s I r e l a n d only three times i n t h i r t y - s e v e n y e a r s . T h i s would mean, among other t h i n g s , t h a t Stephen would not achieve h i s deeply-sought r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with h i s f a t h e r , except perhaps, as Joyce seemed to t r y to do, through the medium of h i s a r t . Stephen, then, when he i s much o l d e r , might w r i t e a poem l i k e Joyce's very moving poem "Eooe Puer", w r i t t e n i n 19 31 to c e l e b r a t e the b i r t h o f h i s grandson, -113-and a t the same time to mourn the death of h i s d i s t a n t f a t h e r : Ecoe Puev Of the dark pas t A boy i s born. With joy and g r i e f My h e a r t i s t o r n . Calm i n h i s c r a d l e The l i v i n g l i e s . May love and mercy Unclose h i s eyes! ,:. Young l i f e i s breathed Upon the g l a s s , The world t h a t was not Comes to pass. A c h i l d i s s l e e p i n g ; An o l d man gone. 0, f a t h e r forsaken, F o r g i v e your son!4 However, tempting as i t i s to extend our i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n i n t h i s way, Stephen, as we have s t a t e d b e f o r e , i s not Joyce. Joyce d i d not leave I r e l a n d u n t i l a f t e r he had r e s o l v e d h i s own r e l a t i o n a l p a r a l y s i s to the e x t e n t t h a t he was able to approach, to woo and be wooed by, to win and be won by, Nora Barnacle a f t e r she sauntered i n t o h i s l i f e . Joyce d i d not leave I r e l a n d s t r i p p e d and alone when he l e f t . He took Nora with him, having e s t a b l i s h e d a s t r o n g enough r e l a t i o n s h i p with her to l a s t with few i n t e r r u p t i o n s f o r the r e s t o f h i s l i f e . Joyce, t h e r e f o r e , must have f r e e d h i m s e l f from the i n f l u e n c e o f h i s parents s u f f i c i e n t l y to a l l o w him to -114-r e l a t e coherently to an e x t e r n a l love-object.° There i s v i r t u a l l y no evidence i n Ulysses beyond hopeful i n t e r -p r e t i v e h i n t s that Stephen has done the same, or t h a t he i s l i k e l y t o . There i s nothing to suggest t h a t he could s u c c e s s f u l l y r e l a t e to a "'sauntering'" Nora, or even, f o l l o w i n g more n a t u r a l l y from h i s i n v e r t e d Oedipus complex, s u c c e s s f u l l y r e l a t e to a "sauntering Norman". His n e u r o t i c s u b j e c t i o n to the memory of h i s mother has not y e t been broken. So when, i n the company of Bloom, we hear the "double r e v e r b e r a t i o n of [Stephen's] r e t r e a t i n g f e e t " (U 704), what we hear i s not Stephen "stepping i n Joyce's own f o o t s t e p s . " Instead, we hear Stephen r e t r e a t i n g once again from the opportunity and n e c e s s i t y of d e a l i n g w i t h the roots of h i s sexual and c r e a t i v e p a r a l y s i s . He thus undercuts the i n d i c a t i o n s of p o s s i b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l renewal t h a t we saw at the end of the " C i r c e " s e c t i o n . He goes from Bloom's house to encounter, not "the r e a l i t y of experience" ( P 2 5 3 ) , but ra t h e r the r e a l i t y of drowning. Far from being able to f l y , Stephen i s s t i l l unable even to swim. AFTERWORD PSYCHOANALYSIS: THE CHARACTERS, THE AUTHOR, THE READER What have I learned? Of them? Of me? —Ulysses (215) In the l i b r a r y , r i g h t a t the be g i n n i n g o f h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f Hamlet, Stephen asks a r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n , then s e t s about answering i t . H is q u e s t i o n i s "Who i s the ghost from limbo patrum, r e t u r n i n g to the world t h a t has f o r g o t t e n him? Who i s k i n g Hamlet? (U 188). L a t e r , as he concludes h i s long d i s q u i s i t i o n , h i s answer to t h a t o r i g i n a l s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n has become b r o a d l y thematic, and extends beyond Hamlet to Shakespeare h i m s e l f : . . . the theme o f the f a l s e o r the u s u r p i n g or the adul t e r o u s b r o t h e r o r a l l three i n one i s to Shakespeare, what the poor i s not, always with him. The note o f banishment, banishment from the h e a r t , banishment from home, sounds uninterruptedly from The Two Gentlemen of Verona onward t i l l Prospero breaks h i s s t a f f . . . . (U 212) But the o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n and the even t u a l answer frame a d i s c u s s i o n o f Shakespeare and h i s works t h a t i s c a r r i e d -115--116-along by a powerful undercurrent t h a t r e v e a l s i t s e l f p e r i o d i c a l l y i n Stephen's thoughts and words. Though r e l a t e d t o the themes of i d e n t i t y and banishment, t h i s undercurrent i s n e i t h e r . Instead, i t i s the f a m i l i a r problem f o r Stephen of the r e l a t i o n s between f a t h e r and son. While he seems to s e t out to r e l a t e something about Hamlet and Shakespeare, Stephen i n t e r p r e t s them i n a way t h a t makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r him to t e l l as much of h i m s e l f as o f them. Stephen, who i d e n t i f i e s w i t h Hamlet,"1" i s r e a l l y s e eking an end to h i s banishment from h i s own f a t h e r . In a d d i t i o n , he i s s e a r c h i n g f o r a s a t i s f a c t o r y mode o f r e l a t i n g to the very concept of fatherhood. There are subconscious and unconscious f o r c e s i n Stephen t h a t i n f o r m these aspects o f h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Joyce suggests as much when he c h a r a c t e r i z e s the purpose of Stephen's laugh a t the end o f h i s c o n c l u d i n g i n t e r p r e t i v e statement as "to f r e e h i s mind from h i s mind's bondage" (U 212). In the midst o f the d i s c u s s i o n Stephen remembers v i v i d l y the f i r s t meeting between h i m s e l f and h i s f a t h e r a f t e r he had r e c e i v e d i n P a r i s the w i s h f u l f i l l i n g telegram " — M o t h e r d y i n g come home f a t h e r " (U 42): H u r r y i n g to her s q u a l i d d e a t h l a i r from gay P a r i s on the quayside I touched h i s hand. The v o i c e , new warmth, speaking. .Dr Bob Kenny i s a t t e n d i n g her. The eyes t h a t wish me w e l l . But do not know me. (U 207) -117-Apparently u n s e t t l e d by h i s memory of the c o n t a c t ^ and the warmth between h i m s e l f and h i s f a t h e r , Stephen immediately goes on to c o n s t r u c t w i t h i n the context o f h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Hamlet a s e l f - s e r v i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f fatherhood. He c a l l s a f a t h e r "a necessary e v i l " (U 20 7]i-, fatherhood "a m y s t i c a l e s t a t e , an a p o s t o l i c s u c c e s s i o n " {U 20 7), and says " P a t e r n i t y may be a l e g a l f i c t i o n " (U 207). He then c o n t i n u e s : Who i s the f a t h e r o f any son t h a t any son should love him or he any son? . . . They are sundered by a b o d i l y shame so s t e a d f a s t t h a t the c r i m i n a l annals o f the world, s t a i n e d w i t h a l l other i n c e s t s and b e s t i a l i t i e s , h a r d l y r e c o r d i t s breach. (U 207) Driven by the f o r c e of h i s own unconscious in c e s t u o u s d e s i r e f o r the " b o d i l y shame" o f sexual r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s f a t h e r , Stephen attempts t o c o n s t r u c t a workable model o f fatherhood f o r h i m s e l f . One such model, o f course, i s the one which answers h i s o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n about the i d e n t i t y o f k i n g Hamlet. Shakespeare, p l a y i n g the r o l e o f k i n g Hamlet i n Stephen's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , speaks to Hamlet, " c a l l i n g him by a name: Hamlet, I am 3 thy father's s-pvr%t" (U 188). Stephen, i n t e r p r e t i n g , says "To a son he speaks, the son of h i s s o u l , the p r i n c e , young Hamlet" (U 188). And, i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h Hamlet, Stephen r e p l i e s , though not aloud, " A r t thou t h e r e , -118-truepenny?" {U 189). L a t e r he says, again to h i m s e l f , "He [Shakespeare] i s i n my f a t h e r . I am i n h i s son" (U 194). T h i s g h o s t l y f a t h e r - s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h i s " m y s t i c a l e s t a t e [ o f ] . . . a p o s t o l i c s u c c e s s i o n " (U 207) e s t a b l i s h e d by Stephen between Shakespeare as acknowledged gre a t a r t i s t and h i m s e l f as a s p i r i n g young a r t i s t has s e v e r a l b e n e f i t s f o r Stephen. I t poses no t h r e a t to him o f a tabooed inc e s t u o u s p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i o n . I t encourages him to t h i n k t h a t he can succeed by v i r t u e of i n h e r i t e d t a l e n t i n h i s ambition to be a f i r s t - r a t e w r i t e r . I t saves him from the p e r c e i v e d t r a p of b e i n g , l i k e Simon Dedalus, " A l l too I r i s h " (U 623). And i t enables him to l i v e with "banishment, banishment from the h e a r t , b a n i s h -ment from home (U 212)." A l t o g e t h e r , i t i s a s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r Stephen. Nonetheless, beneath h i s c a r e f u l l y m y s t i c a l model o f fatherhood Stephen r e t a i n s a deep l o n g i n g f o r recon-c i l i a t i o n with h i s own f a t h e r . J u s t as he reaches the open a i r o f the l i b r a r y p o r t i c o , he i s reminded o f h i s two dreams of the n i g h t b e f o r e , the dreams of wished-for r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h h i s f a t h e r : L a s t n i g h t I flew. E a s i l y flew. Men wondered. S t r e e t o f h a r l o t s a f t e r . A c r e a m f r u i t melon he h e l d to me. In. You w i l l see. (U 217) -119-These dreams, and the wish they f u l f i l l i n him, do not leave Stephen alone d u r i n g the time t h a t we see him i n Ulysses . Joyce i n s e r t s i n t o t h i s l i b r a r y scene o f l i t e r a r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , through Stephen, a paraphrase o f a statement by M a e t e r l i n c k . Among other t h i n g s , i t i s a warning about the danger of i n t e r p r e t i v e d i s t o r t i o n : If Socrates leave his house today he w i l l find the sage seated on his doorstep. If Judas go forth tonight i t is to Judas his steps will tend. . . . We walk through our-s e l v e s , meeting robbers, ghosts, g i a n t s , o l d men, young men, wives, widows, b r o t h e r s - i n -l o v e . But always meeting o u r s e l v e s . [U 213) Stephen goes f o r t h i n the l i b r a r y scene to meet Hamlet and Shakespeare, but instead, or i n a d d i t i o n , meets h i m s e l f , and works, " b a t t l i n g a g a i n s t hopelessness" (U 20 to read and decipher what he meets. S i m i l a r l y , i n t h i s essay I have gone f o r t h t o meet Stephen, s t r u g g l i n g t o read and d e c i p h e r h i s c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y . Is i t t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e t h a t i n s t e a d I have met myself? Or, much more o p t i m i s t i c a l l y , i s i t p o s s i b l e t h a t I have met myself i n a d d i t i o n to meeting Stephen? Almost a l l c r i t i c a l approaches i n v o l v e : a degree of u n p r e d i c t a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n between the c r i t i c and the work, l e a d i n g to s e l e c t i v e and a f f e c t i v e f a l l a c i e s , t o -120-b l i n d s p o t s , o v e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and t o j u s t p l a i n wrongheaded readings o f the t e x t . But viewing l i t e r a t u r e from a p s y c h o a n a l y t i c p o i n t of view can seem to heighten the r i s k s i n h e r e n t i n any r i g o r o u s c r i t i c a l approach to l i t e r a t u r e . More than most approaches, i t i n t r o d u c e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of imposing an e x t e r n a l framework r i g i d l y and without s e n s i t i v i t y onto a l i v i n g work o f a r t . In a d d i t i o n , more pr o f o u n d l y , the process o f p s y c h o a n a l y t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can i n v o l v e a s e r i e s of very deep i n t e r -a c t i o n s between the c r i t i c and h i s or her own p r e s e n t or past unresolved p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e n s i o n s . In t u r n , as i n Stephen's case, these i n t e r a c t i o n s can d i s t o r t the r e a d i n g o f the t e x t , the sense o f the c h a r a c t e r s , the i n t e n t i o n s o f the author. They don't always. But they can. During the working through of t h i s a n a l y s i s o f Stephen Dedalus, c e r t a i n l y my own r e l a t i o n s with my p a r e n t s , w i f e , and c h i l d r e n came i n t o s t r a n g e l y sharpened focus. At times, they i n t e r v e n e d i n the s o l i t a r y , p a i n s t a k i n g p u r s u i t o f what i s true and coherent about Stephen Dedalus and h i s r e l a t i o n s with h i s f a m i l y i n Portrait and Ulysses. I d i d make a r i g o r o u s attempt, s u c c e s s f u l I t h i n k , to a v o i d the b i o g r a p h i c a l f a l l a c y o f c o n f u s i n g Stephen Dedalus with h i s c r e a t o r James Joyce. But there was no way t h a t I c o u l d ensure, nor would I even want to ensure, t h a t w r i t i n g t h i s paper c o u l d be a p u r e l y o b j e c t i v e , impersonal p r o c e s s . I t c o u l d not -121-proceed unhampered by my own p e r s o n a l i t y , and by the complex i n t e r a c t i o n between my p e r s o n a l i t y and Joyce's p o r t r a y a l of Stephen. J u s t as i n the " C i r c e " s e c t i o n o f Ulysses, a c t u a l events are melded by Stephen and Bloom i n t o t h e i r own f a n t a s i e s , so i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n the raw m a t e r i a l of the t e x t i s fused by the reader, even the very c a r e f u l reader, i n t o the working of h i s or her own consciousness. One reason why a p s y c h o a n a l y t i c approach i s both v a l i d and v a l u a b l e i s t h a t i t can s e n s i t i z e the reader, not j u s t to the c h a r a c t e r s and the author, but a l s o to h i s or her own p a r t l y conscious and unconscious m o t i v a t i o n s . T h i s i n t u r n can l e a d to a t r u e r r e a d i n g o f the t e x t . I t doesn't always. But i t can. In t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the c h a r a c t e r and motives o f Stephen Dedalus, my own dimly p e r c e i v e d , now f a i r l y d i s t a n t , i n v e r t e d Oedipus complex and consequent p e r i o d of p s y c h i c p a r a l y s i s probably had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on what I found i n the two n o v e l s about Stephen's i n v e r t e d 5 Oedipus complex. C e r t a i n l y , i t made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r me t o r e c o g n i z e and accept t h a t the i n d i c a t i o n s o f r e b i r t h and renewal f o r Stephen a t the end o f the " C i r c e " s e c t i o n are o v e r r i d d e n by l a t e r events. For a time, I doubted my methods and my readings of the t e x t , s i n c e Stephen g seemed so f i x e d . I had to ask, Is he r e a l l y t h a t r i g i d ? Or am I? And t h e r e f o r e what have I really, l e a r n e d o f Stephen? Of myself? APPENDIX JOYCE AND FREUD No such a t h i n g ! You never made a more f r e u d f u l mistake, excuse y o u r s e l f ! --Finnegans Wake (411) We cannot be a b s o l u t e l y sure whether or not Joyce had d e t a i l e d knowledge of Freudian p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory when he wrote A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Ulysses. However, even though Joyce and Freud were namesakes,"'" the k i n d of omen t h a t Joyce u s u a l l y d e l i g h t e d i n , we can be sure t h a t Joyce d i s l i k e d Freud and h i s p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r i e s . During h i s time i n T r i e s t e , 1905-1915, and c e r t a i n l y d u r i n g h i s f i r s t s t a y i n Z u r i c h , 1915-1920, Joyce had ample o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n about Freudian theory from f r i e n d s and acquaintances, or to read i t f o r h i m s e l f . But he c o n s i s t e n t l y denied having much sy s t e m a t i c c o n t a c t w i t h Freud e i t h e r way. And h i s d e n i a l s are g e n e r a l l y supported by what h i s f r i e n d s of t h a t p e r i o d have s i n c e r e p o r t e d . ^ There are no d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s to Freud or to psycho-a n a l y t i c theory i n Portrait. But i n Ulysses, there i s one c l e a r d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e and one arguable d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e -122--123-to p s y c h o a n a l y s i s . Both occur i n the l i b r a r y scene o f Shakespearean i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The c l e a r d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e i s by Stephen: " — S a i n t Thomas, Stephen, s m i l i n g , s a i d , whose g o r b e l l i e d works I enjoy r e a d i n g i n the o r i g i n a l , w r i t i n g o f i n c e s t from a s t a n d p o i n t d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f the new Viennese s c h o o l Mr Magee spoke o f , l i k e n s i t i n h i s wise and c u r i o u s way to an a v a r i c e o f the emotions" {U 205). As we can see, Joyce, through Stephen, seems to favour the psychology of Aquinas, and to s l i g h t the "new Viennese s c h o o l " of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s e s t a b l i s h e d by Freud, "The Viennese Tweedledee" as Joyce c a l l e d him i n 4 1921. The arguable d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e i s the comment by Magee-Eglinton t h a t Stephen seems to a l l u d e t o i n the above q u o t a t i o n . M u l l i g a n mentions"pederasty", and Magee says " — T h e doctor can t e l l us what those words mean" {U 204). Not a l l commentators agree, but I t h i n k i t 5 l i k e l y t h a t Magee's "doctor" i s Dr. Freud. Leonard A l b e r t reaches i n t o Joyce's o r i g i n a l notes f o r the "Cyclops" episode to l o c a t e a b u r i e d r e f e r e n c e t o Freud. He f i n d s t h a t the p r e c u r s o r i n the notes to the word " K r i e g f r i e d " i n the phrase "Nationalgymnasium-museumsanatoriumandsuspensoriumsordinaryprivatdocent-g e n e r a l h i s t o r y s p e c i a l p r o f e s s o r d o c t o r K r i e g f r i e d Ueberallgeme (U 307) i s "Siegfriedmund," which he claims i s " p o s s i b l y a parody of the name o f the founder o f p s y c h o a n a l y s i s . " A l b e r t a l s o c o n s t r u c t s a case f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i n the w i n t e r of 1902-03 Joyce might have read Freud's -124-Bie Traumdeutung (The Interpretation of Breams) a t the B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e i n P a r i s . The B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e d i d a c q u i r e the book when i t was p u b l i s h e d i n 1900, and Joyce d i d read widely t h e r e d u r i n g t h a t w i n t e r i n P a r i s . But A l b e r t concludes t h a t the " p o s s i b i l i t y 7 i s not a l i k e l i h o o d . " There i s one other very g l a n c i n g r e f e r e n c e to p s y c h o a n a l y s i s i n Ulysses. Chester Anderson p o i n t s i t out. E a r l y i n the n o v e l , Buck M u l l i g a n t e l l s Stephen t h a t " — T h a t f e l l o w I was w i t h i n the Ship l a s t n i g h t . . . says you have g . p . i . He's up i n D o t t y v i l l e with C o n o l l y Norman. General p a r a l y s i s of the insane" (U 6). C o n o l l y Norman was a prominent D u b l i n p s y c h i a t r i s t , and " f o r twenty-two years was M e d i c a l Superintendent o f the Richmond D i s t r i c t Asylum ( ' D o t t y v i l l e ' ) . " Norman knew something of Freud, and was a c t i v e i n s e e i n g t h a t " ' c l i n i c a l i n s t r u c -t i o n i n mental d i s e a s e . . . [was] a necessary p o r t i o n of the medical c u r r i c u l u m throughout the United Kingdon.'" As Anderson notes, " I t seems l i k e l y t h a t Joyce f i r s t heard o f Freud i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s with the medical students with whom he hung around from A p r i l 1903 t i l l October 1904 i n Dublin . . . ." For students o f p s y c h o a n a l y s i s there i s , o f course, a g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e r n a l evidence, e s p e c i a l l y i n Ulysses, to suggest t h a t Joyce d e r i v e d concepts and i n s i g h t s d i r e c t l y from Freud. For example, i n "Nausicaa" Bloom s p e c u l a t e s about murderous impulses between parents and -125-c h i l d r e n : When we h i d behind the t r e e a t Crumlin. I d i d n ' t want t o . Mamma! Mamma! Babes i n the wood. F r i g h t e n i n g them with masks too. Throwing them up i n the a i r to c a t c h them. I ' l l murder you. Is i t o n l y h a l f fun? . . . Old Barbary ape t h a t gobbled a l l h i s f a m i l y . (U 379-380) And l a t e r , i n the "Oxen of the Sun" episode, immediately a f t e r announcing the s u c c e s s f u l b i r t h o f the n i n t h Purefoy Joyce's n a r r a t o r i n t e r j e c t s something very s i m i l a r to the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory of r e p r e s s i o n : There are s i n s or ( l e t us c a l l them as the world c a l l s them) e v i l memories which are hidden away by man i n the da r k e s t p l a c e s of the h e a r t but they abide there and wai t . He may s u f f e r t h e i r memory to grow dim, l e t them be as though they had not been and a l l but persuade h i m s e l f t h a t they were not o r a t l e a s t were otherwise. Yet a chance word w i l l c a l l them f o r t h suddenly and they w i l l r i s e up to c o n f r o n t him i n the most v a r i o u s circumstances, a v i s i o n or a dream ... . or a t the f e a s t a t midnight when he i s now f i l l e d w i t h wine. Anderson s t a t e s very f l a t l y t h a t Joyce had read three of Freud's e a r l y p u b l i c a t i o n s , The Psyahopathology of Every-day Life ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1901; t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h i n 1914), Jokes and t h e i r Relation to the Unconscious (1905; 1916), and The Interpretation of Dreams (1900; 1913). 1 He goes on to show t h a t Joyce r e f e r s d i r e c t l y to a l l t h r e e of them, e s p e c i a l l y o f t e n to Psyahopathology, i n the 12 "Le s t r y g o n i a n s " episode of Ulysses. Anderson's i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of these r e f e r e n c e s i s t h a t " i n g e n e r a l . . . Joyce -126-i s mocking Freud's e a r l y works, saying t h a t while Freud was c l e v e r enough to t h i n k of many of the t h i n g s Joyce had thought o f , he i s n e v e r t h e l e s s a p l a i n b l u n t man whose ideas about the psychopathology of everyday l i f e were s i m p l i s t i c and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to a Sunday-Supplement 13 s c i e n t i s t l i k e Bloom on June 16, 1904." Mark Shechner, i n h i s r e c e n t p s y c h o a n a l y t i c i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of Ulysses, i s more sweeping. He says t h a t "the book i t s e l f , w i t h i t s imposing i n t e r i o r monologues and i t s ecumenical l i n e u p of f a n t a s i e s , o b s e s s i o n s , p e r v e r s i t i e s , dreams, parapraxes, and other d i s c l o s u r e s 14 of the dynamic unconscious, parades i t s Freudian b i a s e s . " N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n s p i t e of these i n d i c a t i o n s of Freudian i n f l u e n c e on h i s work, Joyce's p r i v a t e comments to f r i e n d s about Freudian p s y c h o a n a l y s i s were never p o s i t i v e . One of h i s most memorably negative comments was t h a t " i t s symbolism was mechanical, a house being a womb, a f i r e a 15 p h a l l u s . " His remark i n d i c a t e s a misapprehension about the f l e x i b i l i t y and s e n s i t i v i t y to context of Freud's sense of symbolism, but perhaps i s an a c c u r a t e enough r e f e r e n c e to h i s p r o p e n s i t y f o r making l i s t s of images 16 r e p r e s e n t i n g male g e n i t a l s , or female g e n i t a l s . However, Joyce's most potent c r i t i c i s m of Freud i s h i s more p o s i t i v e l y ^ s t a t e d comparison of Freud w i t h the N e o p o l i t a n p h i l o s o p h e r G i a m b a t t i s t a V i c o . In 1913, j u s t before he began to w r i t e Ulysses, he commented t h a t "Freud 17 had been a n t i c i p a t e d by V i c o . " And, i n 19 36, when he was c o r r e c t i n g p r o o f s f o r Finnegans Wake, he s a i d to the Danish w r i t e r Tom K r i s t e n s e n t h a t "'my im a g i n a t i o n grows when I read V i c o as i t doesn't when I read Freud or 18 Jung.'" T h i s i s a c u t t i n g e v a l u a t i o n f o r an a r t i s t to make. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Ellmann i s c o r r e c t when he says t h a t "Joyce was c l o s e t o the new p s y c h o a n a l y s i s a t so many p o i n t s t h a t he always disavowed any i n t e r e s t i n i t . " ' ' " Mary Colum once c h a l l e n g e d Joyce about h i s view of Freud and Jung, and about h i s s t o r y t h a t the French n o v e l i s t Edouard D u j a r d i n had mainly i n f l u e n c e d h i s use of the i n t e r i o r monologue technique: "' . . . why deny your indebtedness to Freud and Jung? I s n ' t i t b e t t e r to be 20 indebted to g r e a t o r i g i n a t o r s l i k e t h a t than t o - - . ' " Joyce was f u r i o u s , but she f e l t t h a t she had converted him. Ellmann, i n reviewing the i n c i d e n t , t h i n k s otherwise Colum does note i n the same context t h a t Joyce, perhaps i n c o n s i s t e n t l y , had a p s y c h i a t r i s t come i n to help h i s daughter L u c i a when i t became c l e a r t h a t she d e s p e r a t e l y 22 needed he l p . In f a c t , as long ago as 1946 F r e d e r i c k J . Hoffman wrote what s t i l l seems to be an accurate summary of "the a c t u a l p l a c e of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s i n Joyce's l i t e r a r y c a r e e r " (1) We are f a i r l y c e r t a i n t h a t Joyce had or admitted no knowledge of Freud or psycho-a n a l y s i s b e f o r e he l e f t D u b l i n on h i s tour of c o n t i n e n t a l c i t i e s . (2) We have some b i o g r a p h i c a l data to assure us t h a t he encountered p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , f i r s t c a s u a l l y i n T r i e s t e , then more thoroughly i n Z u r i c h . (3) From i n t e r n a l -128-evidence, we can a s s e r t t h a t some time d u r i n g the w r i t i n g o f Ulysses he l e a r n e d about psycho-a n a l y s i s , and t h a t by 1922 he had read almost a l l of the works of Freud and some of the works of Jung. I t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t h i s was not a s u p e r f i c i a l knowledge, f o r h i s r e f e r e n c e s to p s y c h o a n a l y s i s i n Finnegans Wake presuppose a f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h terms and concepts unusual f o r the layman.2 3 As Hoffman suggests, Finnegans Wake i s the most o v e r t l y F r e u d i a n o f Joyce's works. While Ulysses i s a book "'about the day,'" Finnegans Wake i s a "'book about 24 the n i g h t , ' " and i s w r i t t e n "'to s u i t the e s t h e t i c of 25 the dream.'" As such, i t c o u l d not and d i d not ign o r e Freud. But a look a t the f o l l o w i n g examples o f d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s i n Finnegans Wake to the words "Freud" and "p s y c h o a n a l y s i s " shows how p e r s i s t e n t l y n e g ative Joyce seems to be about what they r e p r e s e n t : . . . but we g r i s l y o l d Sykos who have done our u n s m i l i n g b i t on ' a l i c e s , when they were yung and e a s i l y freudened, i n the penumbra of the p r o c u r i n g room and what o r a c u l a r comepression we have had apply t o them! co u l d (did we care to s e l l our feebought s i l e n c e in camera) t e l l our very m o i s t n o s t r i l l e d one t h a t father i n such v i r g a t e d contexts i s not always t h a t undemonstrative r e l a t i v e . . . who s e t t l e s our h a s h b i l l f o r us . . . .26 . . . what matter what a l l h i s freudzay or who holds h i s hat to harm him . . . . [FW 337) Somebody may perhaps h i n t a t an aughter impression of I was wrong. No such a t h i n g ! You never made a more f r e u d f u l mistake, excuse y o u r s e l f ! (FW 411) -129-Everyday, precious, while m'm'ry's leaves are f a l l i n g deeply on my Jungfraud's Messongebook I w i l l dream . . . . (FW 460) You have homosexual catheis of empathy between narcissism of the expert and steatopygic invertedness. Get yourself psychoanolised! --0, begor, I want no expert nursis symaphy" from yours broons quadroons and I can psoakoonaloose myself any time I want (the fog follow you a l l ! ) without your interferences or any other pigeonstealer. (FW 522) Buy not from dives. S e l l not to freund. (FW 579) From " g r i s l y o l d Sykos" to the inevitable "fraud" to "fog", Joyce places his d i r e c t references i n Finnegans Wake to Freud and psychoanalysis into consistently negative contexts. In his memoir "My Friend James Joyce," Eugene Jolas asserts rather extravagantly that "there was nothing i n common between his [Joyce's] attitude and that of the 27 s u r r e a l i s t s and psychoanalysts." But Frank Budgen, who was very close to Joyce during the composition of Ulysses, and who i s perhaps the most sensitive and sympathetic observer of Joyce's method of writing, has a d i f f e r e n t and more balanced view: -130-I t has o f t e n been s a i d o f Joyce t h a t he was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by p s y c h o a n a l y s i s i n the composition of Ulysses and Finnegans Wake. I f by t h a t i s meant t h a t he made use of the jargon of t h a t s c i e n c e when i t s u i t e d the purpose of h i s f i c t i o n , or made use of i t s p r a c t i c a l a n a l y t i c a l d e v i c e s as when Bloom commits the Fehlleistung of t a l k i n g about "the wi f e ' s admirers" when he meant "the wife' s a d v i s e r s , " the p o i n t holds good. But i f i t i s meant t h a t he adopted the theory and f o l l o w e d the p r a c t i c e o f psycho-a n a l y s i s i n h i s work as d i d the Dadaists and the S u r r e a l i s t s , n o t h i n g c o u l d be f a r t h e r from the t r u t h . The Joycean method of composition and the p a s s i v e l y automatic method are two o p p o s i t e and opposed p o l e s . I f p s y c h o a n a l y s i s cured s i c k people, w e l l and good. Who co u l d q u a r r e l with t h a t ? But Joyce was always impatient or contemptuously s i l e n t when i t was t a l k e d about as both an a l l - s u f f i c i e n t Weltanschauung and a source and law f o r a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n . "Why a l l t h i s f u s s and bother about the mystery of the unconscious?" he s a i d t o me one evening a t the Pfauen Restaurant. "What about the mystery of the conscious? What do they know about t h a t ? " One might say t h a t both as man and a r t i s t Joyce was exce e d i n g l y c o n s c i o u s . Great a r t i f i c e r s have to be.2** Budgen's a n a l y s i s o f Joyce's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p s y c h o a n a l y s i s i s , I t h i n k , f a i r and s e n s i b l e . Joyce was always master of h i s m a t e r i a l . NOTES CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION """Sigmund Freud, The Ego and the Id3 i n The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works, t r a n s , and ed. James Strachey, et al., 24 v o l s . (London: The Hogarth Pr e s s , 1953-1966) ( h e r e a f t e r a b b r e v i a t e d as S.E.), XIX [1923], pp. 33-34. 2 For example, Edmund L. E p s t e i n , The Ordeal of Stephen Dedalus (Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), deals almost e n t i r e l y with Stephen's s t r u g g l e to f r e e h i m s e l f from a s e r i e s o f t h r e a t e n i n g symbolic f a t h e r s so t h a t he h i m s e l f can become a f a t h e r and an a r t i s t . And Jane F o g e l , i n "The C o n s u b s t a n t i a l Family of Stephen Dedalus," James Joyce Quarterly, I I , 2 (Winter, 1965), 111, says t h a t "Ulysses i s a p a t e r n i t y s u i t i n the name o f a l l sons a g a i n s t a l l f a t h e r s . " On the other hand, E v e r t S p r i n c h o r n , "A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as A c h i l l e s , " i n Approaches to the Twentieth-Century Novel, e d i t e d by John Unterecker (New York: Thomas Y. C o r w e l l , 1965), p. 37, claims t h a t " I t i s Stephen's r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t mother and a l l t h a t she stands f o r t h a t i s the making of him as an a r t i s t . . . . The l a s t chapter [of Portrait"} i s devoted e n t i r e l y to mother. From the f i r s t page t o the l a s t she i s u b i q u i t o u s . . . ." And R i c h a r d Wasson, "Stephen Dedalus and the Imagery of S i g h t , " Literature and Psychology, XV, 4 ( F a l l , 1965), 205, a s s e r t s t h a t Stephen i s "punished by h i s mother . . . [but] cannot f u l l y accept h i s f a t h e r . " F i n a l l y , there i s the v e r s i o n i n which f i l i a l r e l a t i o n s are a n n i h i l a t e d by omission. For i n s t a n c e , Darcy O'Brien, The Conscience of James Joyce ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), manages v i r t u a l l y to i g n o r e Stephen's r e l a t i o n s with h i s mother, even though he deals at some len g t h with Stephen's d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h a n d l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other women, and w i t h h i s c o n f u s i o n about the whole concept of womanhood (see e s p e c i a l l y pp. 3-34). NOTE: A l l e l l i p s e s t h a t appear i n quoted m a t e r i a l i n the t e x t or the notes are mine unless otherwise s t a t e d . -131--132-''James Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (New York: The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1964 [1916]), p. 252. Subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s to Portrait w i l l be shown i n parentheses preceded by P. 4 Harry L e v i n , James Joyce: A C r i t i c a l Introduction, r e v i s e d and augmented e d i t i o n (Norfolk, C o n n e c t i c u t : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1960), p. 62, says "On the b r i n k o f e x p a t r i a t i o n , p o i s e d f o r h i s t r i a l f l i g h t , Stephen i n the Portrait of the Artist, i s more n e a r l y a k i n to the son. His n a t u r a l f a t h e r , Simon Dedalus, i s l e f t s t a n d i n g i n the m y s t i c a l k i n s h i p o f f o s t e r a g e . The J e s u i t f a t h e r s , who s u p e r v i s e d h i s e d u c a t i o n , no longer c a l l him son. . . . H i s wings take him from the f a t h e r l a n d . " See W i l l i a m York T i n d a l l ' s A Reader's Guide to James Joyce (New York: F a r r a r , Straus & Giroux, 1959), p. 52, f o r a very s i m i l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . But R i c h a r d Ellmann, i n h i s biography James Joyce (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959) ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Ellmann, James Joyce), p. 307, says o f Portrait t h a t i t "begins w i t h Stephen's f a t h e r and, j u s t b e f o r e the ending, i t d e p i c t s the hero's severance from h i s mother." Ellmann goes on to p l a c e the emphasis i n the f o s t e r a g e r e l a t i o n s h i p on the mother: "Joyce was o b v i o u s l y w e l l -p l e a s e d w i t h the paradox i n t o which h i s method had put him, t h a t he was, as the a r t i s t framing h i s own develop-ment i n a c o n s t r u c t e d matrix, h i s own mother. The c o m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s t a t e are i m p l i e d i n Stephen's thought of h i m s e l f as ;not h i s p a r e n t s ' t r u e son, but a f o s t e r - s o n " {James Joyce, p. 309). ^James Joyce, Ulysses (New York: The Modern L i b r a r y [Random House], 1961 [1922]), p. 583. Subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s to Ulysses w i l l be shown i n parentheses preceded by U. ^ S t a n l e y S u l t a n , The Argument of Ulysses (Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), p. 337, says, "In b o l d and angry d e f i a n c e o f ' a l l ' the agents o f a D e i t y Whom he sees as w i s h i n g to 'break' h i s ' s p i r i t , ' he s t r i k e s a t the lamp." Edward Brandabur, A Scrupulous Meanness: A Study of Joyce's Early Work (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s : 1971), p. 16 7, says o f the i n c i d e n t , "Presumably, the ghost o f Stephen's mother i s no more." 7 E p s t e i n , Ordeal, p. 173, maintains t h a t Stephen " r e j e c t s Bloom's o f f e r o f a p l a c e i n the house . . . because Bloom d e s p e r a t e l y needs a son and Stephen i s no longer a son. . . . the son i s not i n search o f a f a t h e r . " On the c o n t r a r y , Wasson, "Imagery", 205, says "Bloom hopes to make Stephen a surrogate son and thereby become a symbolic f a t h e r , which i s p r e c i s e l y what Stephen seeks." And -133-Ellmann, James Joyce, p. 309, s t a t e s t h a t "The theme o f Ulysses, Joyce i n t i m a t e s , i s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h the f a t h e r . " In c o n t r a s t , Mark Shechner, "The Song o f the Wandering Aengus: James Joyce and His Mother," James Joyce Quarterly, X, 1 ( F a l l , 1972), 87, says t h a t "Stephen, i n r a d i c a l f l i g h t from an i n t e r n a l i z e d ghostwoman with ashes on her breath . . . i s a l s o homeward t e n d i n g . . . . His path leads backward from the c a t a s t r o p h i c mother to the p r i m a l o r a l i d e a l . . . . Stephen, as he leaves Bloom's house, i s Holyhead bound, having t r a v e l l e d t h a t route once be f o r e i n search o f Tara. And Tara . . . i s one and always the same, the arms o f the D r u i d i c p a s t , the bosom o f C e l t i c I r e l a n d , the h e a r t o f Kathleen, the womb of the mother." Harry L e v i n , C r i t i c a l Introduction, p. 125, speaks f o r c r i t i c s who have a r e l a t i v e l y n e g ative view o f the c o n c l u s i o n of Ulysses when he r e f e r s to "Stephen's ever-l a s t i n g nay . . . ." J u l i a n B. Kaye, "A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as Blephen-Stoom," i n A James Joyce Miscellany, Second Series, ed. Marvin Magalaner (Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959), p. 79, c a l l s the group of negative c r i t i c s "the Kenner s c h o o l , " and claims t h a t "To them Ulysses i s a book, not about the q u i c k , but about the dead, the burden o f which i s 'no I s a i d no I won't No.'" g In F r e d e r i c k Crews, ed. Psychoanalysis and Literary Process (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Winthrop, 1970), pp. 118-162. Subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s to B r i v i c ' s essay w i l l be shown i n parentheses. 9 Crews, i n h i s essay " A n a e s t h e t i c C r i t i c i s m " (Psychoanalysis and Literary Process , pp. 1-24), which i n t r o d u c e s the book of essays i n which B r i v i c ' s study of Joyce appears, argues s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t the c l a i m t h a t l i t e r a r y study i s a t p r e s e n t a r i g o r o u s i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c i p l i n e , p o i n t i n g out t h a t c r i t i c s have not been able t o reach agreement about "whether M i l t o n was or wasn't of the D e v i l ' s p a r t y , whether Blake was crazy or v i s i o n a r y or both, whether The Golden Bowl i s an example of s e l f -transcendence or of c o l o s s a l arrogance and e v a s i o n " (p. 6). Crews goes on to d i s c u s s "the c i v i l i t y t h a t makes l i t e r a r y e c l e c t i c i s m p o s s i b l e " (p. 7), c i t i n g as an example t h a t "A c r i t i c can a l l u d e to Marx now and then, but he had b e t t e r not get too i n t e r e s t e d i n exposing the c l a s s a p o l o g e t i c s i n c h e r i s h e d t e x t s , much l e s s i n o t h e r c r i t i c s ' t h e o r i e s o f meaning" (p. 7). When a book i s i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s way, we can expect t h a t the c r i t i c s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the book w i l l not s h r i n k from making thorny choices i n the course o f t h e i r a n a l y s e s . -134-""""I have a l s o w r i t t e n a s h o r t formal essay on Bloom as he appears i n the "Nausicaa" episode, d e a l i n g w i t h h i s v a r i o u s i d e n t i t i e s as C h r i s t c r u c i f i e d , as Moses i n s i g h t o f the Promised Land, and as Odysseus s t r u g g l i n g toward Nausicaa's i s l a n d o f S k h e r i a . The process o f a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e d i n w r i t i n g t h a t essay served to heighten my a p p r e c i a t i o n of the r i c h n e s s and depth of Bloom's c h a r a c t e r . 1 1 The C l a s s i c a l Temper: A Study of James Joyce 's Ulysses (London: Chatto and Windus, 1961). 12 Joyce h i m s e l f seemed to t h i n k t h a t the c h a r a c t e r -i z a t i o n o f Bloom was h i s most d i f f i c u l t as w e l l as h i s most important problem i n w r i t i n g Ulysses, as i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g passage from Frank Budgen, James Joyce and the Making of ULYSSES (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960 [1934]), p. 105: "Joyce's f i r s t q u e s t i o n when I had read a completed episode or when he had read out a passage of an uncompleted one was always: 'How does Bloom s t r i k e you?' " T e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , problems o f homeric correspondence, the chemistry o f the human body, were secondary matters. I f Bloom was f i r s t i t was not t h a t the others were unimportant but t h a t , seen from the o u t s i d e , they were not a problem" CHAPTER I I : STEPHEN IN A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST AS A YOUNG MAN """Otto F e n i c h e l , The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis (New York: Norton, 1945), p. 78, says the f o l l o w i n g about the masculine and feminine sources of c a s t r a t i o n a n x i e t y : "The c a s t r a t i o n a n x i e t y of the l i t t l e boy may be r e p r e s e n t e d by m a n i f o l d i d e a s , the s p e c i a l form o f which becomes under-standable through h i s i n d i v i d u a l h i s t o r y . . . . The nature of the danger t h a t i s b e l i e v e d to be t h r e a t e n i n g the p e n i s l i k e w i s e v a r i e s . I t might be b e l i e v e d t h a t the penis i s endangered by a masculine enemy, t h a t i s , by a p e n e t r a t i n g , p o i n t e d t o o l , or by a feminine enemy, t h a t i s , by an encompassing instrument, depending upon whether the f a t h e r or the mother appeared as the more t h r e a t e n i n g person, or depending upon what s p e c i a l f a n t a s i e s the boy has had about s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e . Persons with o r a l f i x a t i o n s may f e a r t h a t the penis w i l l be b i t t e n o f f , which r e s u l t s i n confused i d e a s made up o f both o r a l and g e n i t a l elements." In the case of the "eagles", the t h r e a t t o Stephen i s sharp and p o i n t e d , but i t i s a l s o encompassing as the t a l o n s and beaks would be open, ready to grasp and p u l l out h i s eyes ( p e n i s ) . R i c h a r d Wasson, "Stephen Dedalus -135-and the Imagery of S i g h t : A P s y c h o l o g i c a l Approach," Literature and Psychology, XV, 4 ( F a l l , 1965), 199, says "The p u n i s h i n g eagles o f Rome f l y a t the command o f female f u r i e s , not f a t h e r imagos." 2 Robert Scholes and R i c h a r d M. Kain, eds., The Workshop of Dedalus (Evanston, I l l i n o i s : Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p. 11, e l l i p s e s i n o r i g i n a l . The e d i t o r s say i n t h e i r notes to the epiphany t h a t "This scene can be dated i n 1891 [when Joyce was nine years o l d ] , but the Epiphany must have been w r i t t e n much l a t e r " (p. 11). 3 S t a n i s l a u s Joyce, My Brother's Keeper (London, Faber and Faber, 195 8), p. 39, has t h i s to say about James Joyce and Stephen: "my b r o t h e r was not the weak, s h r i n k i n g i n f a n t who f i g u r e s i n A Portrait of the Artist. He has drawn, i t i s t r u e , very l a r g e l y upon h i s own l i f e and h i s own experience.. ... . .But A Portrait of the Artist i s not an autobiography; • i t i s an a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n . " 4 Stephen l a t e r t h i n k s back on the scene: "But he had not d i e d then. P a r n e l l had d i e d " (P 93). 5Sigmund Freud, " F e t i s h i s m " , S.E., XXI [1927], p. 154. B r i v i c a c t u a l l y quotes more m a t e r i a l from the scene than I do, so t h a t i n h i s v e r s i o n o f the passage "suck" and "queer" appear three times each i n s t e a d o f twice. 7 A c t u a l l y , Clongowes was not an a l l - m a l e i n s t i t u t i o n a t the time t h a t Joyce h i m s e l f was t h e r e . Kevin S u l l i v a n , Joyce Among the Jesuits (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958), p. 31, d e s c r i b e s Joyce's e a r l y y e a r s a t Clongowes: "He . . . was a s s i g n e d a room i n the i n f i r m a r y . . . where a nurse, Nanny G a l v i n , d o u b l i n g as a governess, took him i n charge. Miss G a l v i n was not a t r a i n e d nurse, but she i s r e p o r t e d to have been f u l l y e x p e r i e n c e d i n l o o k i n g a f t e r the o r d i n a r y ailments and mishaps o f boyhood. I t was she who, d u r i n g Joyce's f i r s t two years a t Clongowes, seems to have acted in loco parentis." Q Johannes Hedberg, "Smugging. An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a Joycean Word," Moderna SprStk, LXVI, 1 (1972), 25, says t h a t "The boys caught i n the u r i n a l smugging may e i t h e r have been t o y i n g 'amorously' with t h e i r own g e n i t a l s or w ith those of each o t h e r . . . ." q Stephen's f e a r o f long sharp f i n g e r n a i l s probably e x p l a i n s h i s view t h a t "The a r t i s t , l i k e the God of the c r e a t i o n , remains w i t h i n or behind or beyond or above h i s handiwork, i n v i s i b l e , r e f i n e d out of e x i s t e n c e , i n d i f f e r e n t , -136-paring his fingernails" (P 215, emphasis added). In a l a r g e r sense, the whole of Stephen's r a t h e r r a r i f i e d theory of a r t d e r i v e s i n p a r t from h i s d e s i r e to a v o i d s p e c i f i c t h r e a t e n i n g r e a l i t i e s l i k e "long sharp f i n g e r n a i l s . " 1 0 F r e u d , The Ego and the Id, S.E.; XIX [1923], pp. 33-34. In d i s c u s s i n g the causes of i n v e r s i o n , Freud notes t h a t "Among the a c c i d e n t a l f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e o b j e c t -choice we have found t h a t f r u s t r a t i o n ( i n the form o f e a r l y d e t e r r e n c e , by f e a r , from sexual a c t i v i t y ) deserves a t t e n t i o n , and we have observed t h a t the presence o f both parents p l a y s an important p a r t . The absence of a s t r o n g f a t h e r i n c h i l d h o o d not i n f r e q u e n t l y favours the occurrence of i n v e r s i o n . " {Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, S.E., VII [1905], p. 146, n. 1 [added 1915].) "'""''Julian B. Kaye, "Who Is B e t t y Byrne?", i n Portraits of an Artist, eds. W i l l i a m E. Morris and C l i f f o r d A. Naul t , J r . (New York: The Odyssey P r e s s , 1962), p. 264. 12 Freud, The Interpretation of Breams, S.E., IV [1900], pp. 48-65. 13 Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language ( S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass.: G. & C. Merriam, 1966), p. 1284. C i t e d h e r e a f t e r as Webster's. 14 See P 19, P 20, and P 138 f o r the s i m i l a r use of e l l i p s e s . 15 See Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams, S.E., IV [1900], pp. 122-133 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f dreams as w i s h - f u l f i l l m e n t s . 16 Matthew J.C. Hodgart and Mabel Worthington, Song in the Works of James Joyce (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959), pp. 61 and 190. 17 The complete t e x t of the poem i s i n Heart Songs: Dear to the American People, ed. The National Magazine, Boston, Mass. (New York: The World Syndicate P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1909), p. 299: 'Twas a calm, s t i l l n i g h t , and the moon's pa l e l i g h t Shone s o f t o'er h i l l and v a l e ; When f r i e n d s mute wi t h g r i e f stood around the deathbed Of my poor l o s t L i l l y Dale. Her cheeks t h a t once glowed w i t h the rose t i n t o f h e a l t h , By the hand of d i s e a s e had turned p a l e , And the death damp was on the pure white brow Of my poor l o s t L i l l y Dale. -137-"I go, she s a i d , to the land o f r e s t , " And ere my s t r e n g t h s h a l l f a i l , I must t e l l you where, near my own lo v e d home, You must l a y poor L i l l y Dale. "Neath the chestnut t r e e , where the w i l d f l o w 1 r s grow, And the stream r i p p l e s f o r t h t h r o ' the v a l e , Where the b i r d s s h a l l warble t h e i r songs i n s p r i n g , There l a y poor L i l l y Dale. Chorus Oh! L i l l y , sweet L i l l y , dear L i l l y Dale, Now the w i l d rose blossoms o'er her l i t t l e green grave, 'Neath the t r e e s i n the flow'ry v a l e . 18 Don G i f f o r d , with Robert Seidman, Notes for Joyce: D u b l i n e r s and & P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man (New York: Dutton, 1967), p. 89. 19 Ellmann, James Joyce, p. 303, quotes Maria J o l a s as s a y i n g t h a t , i n l a t e r l i f e , "'Joyce t a l k e d o f fatherhood as i f i t were motherhood.'" Ellmann, w r i t i n g here o f Joyce i n 1909 not long a f t e r h i s d e c i s i o n to r e w r i t e Stephen Hero as Portrait, goes on to say t h a t Joyce "seems to have longed t o e s t a b l i s h i n h i m s e l f a l l aspects o f the bond o f mother and c h i l d . He was a t t r a c t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y , by the image o f h i m s e l f as a weak c h i l d c h e r i s h e d by a st r o n g woman, which seems c l o s e l y connected w i t h the images o f himself as victim, whether as a deer pursued by hunters, as a p a s s i v e man surrounded by b u r l y e x t r o v e r t s , as a" P a r n e l l or a Jesus among t r a i t o r s . His f a v o r i t e c h a r a c t e r s are those who i n one way or another retreat before masculinity, y e t are lo v e d r e g a r d l e s s by motherly women" {James Joyce, p. 303, emphasis added). While we must be very c a r e f u l about t r a n s f e r r i n g Joyce's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s over t o Stephen, there are i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l s between what we f i n d i n Stephen, and what Ellmann d i s c o v e r e d about Joyce. 20 See, f o r example, J u l i a n B. Kaye, "Who Is B e t t y Byrne?", and C.G. Anderson, "The S a c r i f i c i a l B u t t e r , " both i n Portraits of an Artist, eds. W i l l i a m E. Mo r r i s and C l i f f o r d A. Na u l t , J r . (New York: The Odyssey P r e s s , 1962). Anderson's a r t i c l e was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n Accent, XII (Winter, 1952), 3-13, and Kaye's i n Modern Language Notes, LXXI (Feb., 1956), 93-95. 21 Stephen's s e x u a l i n v e r s i o n does not prevent him from having sexual r e l a t i o n s with female p a r t n e r s : "What decides whether we d e s c r i b e someone as an i n v e r t i s not h i s a c t u a l behaviour, but h i s emotional a t t i t u d e " (Sigmund Freud, "Leonardo da V i n c i and a Memory o f h i s Childhood," S.E., XI [1910], p. 87). -138-" T h e f i n a l sentence o f Portrait f o l l o w s the form, but, a p p r o p r i a t e l y , coming from Stephen, r e v e r s e s the content by making i t masculine, o f the f i n a l sentence of the H a i l Mary p r a y e r : "Holy Mary, Mother o f God, pray f o r us s i n n e r s now and a t the hour o f our death" (A.A. DeMarco, " H a i l Mary", New Catholic Encyclopedia [New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967], VI, 898). CHAPTER I I I : STEPHEN INIULYSSES """Stephen was f e e l i n g g u i l t y i n P a r i s even before h i s mother d i e d : "when I was i n P a r i s . . . . Yes, used to c a r r y punched t i c k e t s t o prove an a l i b i i f they a r r e s t e d you f o r murder somewhere" (U 41). 2May Dedalus was b u r i e d "26 June 190 3" (U 6 95), which means she probably d i e d two or three days e a r l i e r . Ulysses, of course, takes p l a c e "16 June 1904" (U 229), not q u i t e a year l a t e r . Mark Shechner, i n Joyce in Nighttown: A Psychoanalytic Inquiry (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1974), p. 28, n. 10, demonstrates one of the dangers o f c o n f u s i n g biography and f i c t i o n with the f o l l o w i n g comment: "The exact date o f May Dedalus's death i s not r e v e a l e d i n the book, but Joyce's mother, May Murray Joyce, d i e d August 13, 190 3. I t h i n k i t s a f e to t r a n s f e r the date o f the r e a l death onto the f i c t i v e one." 3 Don G i f f o r d , w i t h Robert J . Seidman, Notes for Joyce: An Annotation of James Joyce's ULYSSES (New York: Dutton, 1 9 7 4 ) ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as G i f f o r d , Notes), p. 38. 4 Weldon Thornton, Allusions in ULYSSES: An Annotated List (Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f North C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1968) (h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Thornton, Allusions), p. 106, says " T h i s a l l u d e s t o the B u r i a l o f the Dead s e r v i c e i n the Book of Common Prayer. . ...The I r i s h Book of Common Prayer i s i d e n t i c a l . " S.E., V [1900], p. 431. Freud goes on t o say about "dreams of dead people" t h a t "I w i l l i n g l y confess t o a f e e l i n g t h a t d r e a m - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s f a r from having r e v e a l e d a l l the s e c r e t s o f dreams o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r " (p. 431). g Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed. [1911], a r t . "Vampire", 876, says "Two s p e c i e s o f bl o o d - s u c k i n g bats (the o n l y s p e c i e s known) . . . i n h a b i t the t r o p i c a l and p a r t o f the s u b t r o p i c a l regions o f the New World, and are r e s t r i c t e d to South and C e n t r a l America." -139-'The Holy B i b l e . . . A u t h o r i z e d King James V e r s i o n (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , p. 1023. Subsequent r e f e r e n c e s to the B i b l e w i l l be shown by book, chapter, and ve r s e . g J . Robert W i l l s o n , e t a l . , Obstetrics and Gynecology (St. L o u i s : C.V. Mosby, 1958), p. 341: "Labor u s u a l l y begins promptly a f t e r the membranes rupture i f the p a t i e n t i s near term." g Algernon C h a r l e s Swinburne, "Hymn to P r o s e r p i n e , " Selected Poems (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1939), p. 24. " ^ E a r l y i n Portrait, Stephen i s bothered by the problem of k i s s i n g h i s mother: "Was i t r i g h t to k i s s h i s mother or wrong to k i s s h i s mother? What d i d t h a t mean, to k i s s ? " (P 14-15). L a t e r , when Cranly s t a t e s f i r m l y t h a t "—Whatever e l s e i s unsure i n t h i s s t i n k i n g d u n g h i l l of a world a mother's love i s not. Your mother b r i n g s you i n t o the world, c a r r i e s you f i r s t i n her body" (P 241-242), Stephen r e p l i e s "with assumed c a r e l e s s n e s s : " — P a s c a l , i f I remember r i g h t l y , would not s u f f e r h i s mother to k i s s him as he f e a r e d the c o n t a c t o f her sex" (P 242, emphasis added) . "'""'"The a d d i t i o n a l theme of conception, p a r a l l e l i n g "Bridebed" (U 47), i s suggested by "oomb", which i s formed by combining "o-" o r "oo-" ("comb form: egg; specif: ovum"—Webster.'s, p. 1554) with "womb". The same theme may be conveyed much l a t e r , a t the end o f the "Ithaca" episode, by the symbol "•" (U 737). 12 "Notes on Joyce's Ulysses," Modern. Language Quarterly, XIII (1952), 152-153, c i t e d by Thornton, Allusions, p. 62 and p. 39. 13 (Dub l i n : Dun Emer P r e s s , 1904), p. 21. The l i b r a r i a n Mr. Best mentions t h i s book i n the l i b r a r y scene, c a l l i n g i t "Hyde's Lovesongs of Connacht" (U 186 and U 198). G i f f o r d , Notes, p. 44, l i s t s an e a r l i e r e d i t i o n , with y e t another v e r s i o n o f the t i t l e : "Love.Songs of Connaught (Dublin, 1895)." The f o l l o w i n g t e x t o f the song comes from a copy of the 1904 e d i t i o n h e l d i n the Colbeck C o l l e c t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. L i b r a r y , pp. 20-21: MY GRIEF ON THE SEA. My g r i e f on the sea, How the waves of i t r o l l ! For they heave between me And the love o f my s o u l ! -140-Abandoned, forsaken, To g r i e f and to c a r e , W i l l the sea ever waken R e l i e f from d e s p a i r ? My g r i e f , and my t r o u b l e ! Would he and I were In the p r o v i n c e o f L e i n s t e r , Or county o f C l a r e . Were I and my d a r l i n g — Oh, h e a r t - b i t t e r wound!— On board of the s h i p For America bound. On a green bed of rushes A l l l a s t n i g h t I l a y , And I f l u n g i t abroad With the heat of the day. And my love came behind me— He came from the South; His b r e a s t to my bosom, His mouth to my mouth. We can see how Stephen might s u b c o n s c i o u s l y r e l a t e to t h i s song as he composes h i s poem. I t too f e a t u r e s a somewhat g h o s t l y , though a p p a r e n t l y not dangerous, l o v e r from the sea. 14 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed., a r t . "Vampire": "a term . . . o r i g i n a l l y a p p l i e d i n e a s t e r n Europe to blo o d - s u c k i n g ghosts . . . . a vampire i s u s u a l l y supposed to be the s o u l of a dead man which q u i t s the b u r i e d body by n i g h t to suck the b l o o d of l i v i n g persons." Dudley Wright, Vampires and Vampirism, r e v i s e d e d i t i o n (London: W i l l i a m R i d e r and Son, 1924 [1914]), p. 14, says "According to p r i m i t i v e i d e a s , b l o o d i s l i f e , and to r e c e i v e b l o o d i s to r e c e i v e l i f e : the s o u l of the dead wants to l i v e , and, consequently, loves blood. The shades i n Hades are eager to d r i n k the b l o o d o f Odysseus's s a c r i f i c e , t h a t t h e i r l i f e may be renewed f o r a time." Wright a l s o says t h a t "there appears to be a connection between the vampire b e l i e f and the funerary f e a s t s o f olden times, and even of modern times i n some c o u n t r i e s , I r e l a n d not excepted" (pp. 142-143). In " C i r c e " , Stephen a l l u d e s t o the t h r e a t e n i n g but a t t r a c t i n g s e x u a l aspect of h i s vampire-image when he says " A l l c h i c womans which a r r i v e f u l l o f modesty then d i s r o b e and s q u e a l lo u d t o see vampire man debauch nun very f r e s h young . . . ." {U 570). G i f f o r d , Notes, p. 113. -141-16 Stephen's poem may owe something of i t s o v e r t homosexual component to the f i r s t l i n e o f the f i n a l s t a nza of "My G r i e f on the Sea": "And my love came behind me--" (Hyde, Love Songs, p. 21, emphasis added). Though we assume t h a t a woman i s speaking i n the song (Hyde, p. 20, i n h i s notes to the song, says "This i s how a woman keenes a f t e r her love . . . . I got t h i s p i e c e from an o l d woman named Biddy Crummey . . . . " ) , the a c t u a l words of the song never make t h a t c l e a r . Stephen may have been u n c o n s c i o u s l y drawn to the f i n a l s tanza o f the song f o r m a t e r i a l t o work i n t o h i s poem by the sexual ambiguity o f the song's t e x t , and by the homosexual suggestiveness of the l i n e c i t e d above. 17 In "The Triumph of Time," Selected Poems, p. 15. 18 E a r l i e r , Stephen r e l a t e s the sea to two o r a l aspects of h i s mother, her ashen breath i n h i s dream o f her, and the green b i l e she vomits up as she i s dying: " . . . her br e a t h , t h a t had bent upon him, mute, r e p r o a c h f u l , a f a i n t odour of wetted ashes. Across the threadbare cuffedge he saw the sea h a i l e d as a g r e a t sweet mother by the w e l l f e d v o i c e beside him. The r i n g of bay and s k y l i n e h e l d a d u l l green mass of l i q u i d . A bowl of white ch i n a had st o o d beside her deathbed h o l d i n g the green s l u g g i s h b i l e which she had t o r n up from her r o t t i n g l i v e r by f i t s o f lou d groaning vomiting" (U 5). 19 In a d d i t i o n , the word " s a i l " i s d e r i v e d from the L a t i n "secare to cut" {Webster's, pp. 2000, 2020). As a "steerage passenger. P a r i s and back" (U 210), Stephen was c l o s e t o the boat's c u t t i n g edge as i t made i t s way through the sea. 2 0 Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams, S.E. , V [1900], p. 394. We n o t i c e t h a t Stephen says Haines "woke me up" (U 47,, emphasis added). There i s much made i n Ulysses of "up" as a r e f e r e n c e t o e r e c t i o n (see, f o r i n s t a n c e , U 158, V 326, U 541). 21 The Metamorphoses, t r a n s . Horace Gregory (New York: The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1958), Book VIIT, 11. 217-222 (p. 221). 2 2 I b i d . , 11. 225-235 (p. 222). 2 3 G i f f o r d , Notes, p. 425. W i l l i a m Walcott, "Notes by a Jungian A n a l y s t on the Dreams i n Ulysses," James Joyce Quarterly, IX, 1 ( F a l l , 1971), 37-48, sees Bloom, through the " s y n c h r o n i c i t y " (p. 37) of h i s dream (see U 370, U 381, U 397, U 528) with Stephen's dream, as the Haroun a l Rasehid f i g u r e beckoning to Stephen. He says t h a t i n the " C i r c e " episode, "Bloom, assuming the form o f Haroun a l Rasehid, i s the god Hermes coming to Stephen-Odysseus' -142-rescue . . . ." (p. 46) Walcott a l s o mentions M o l l y ' s dream (see U 7 75 and U 780), and s t a t e s t h a t the dreams are "examples of how the psyches o f each hero o v e r l a p , blend, and sometimes c o i n c i d e with the o t h e r s " (p. 46). Walcott concludes t h a t Joyce "was most of a l l an extremely p e r c e p t i v e , i n t u i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i s t " (p. 46). 24 The " c r e a m f r u i t melon" may r e p r e s e n t "Moly", a p l a n t - l i k e symbol of immunity, "'the g i f t o f Hermes, god of p u b l i c ways'" (Frank Budgen, J.ames Joyce and the Making of ULYSSES, Bloomington, Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960 [1934], p. 230, q u o t i n g J o y c e ) . "Moly", of course, as Budgen p o i n t s out (pp. 230-231), c o n f e r r e d upon Odysseus immunity from C i r c e ' s suggestions of perverse l o v e . 25 From Mark Shechner, whose book on Ulysses i s e n t i t l e d "Joyce in Nighttown" (emphasis added). 2 6 G i f f o r d , Notes, p. 403: "AE (George R u s s e l l ) has metamorphosed i n t o the f i g u r e o f the I r i s h god o f the sea . . . ."; p. 34: ". . . Mananaan MacLir i s the I r i s h god o f the sea, who had Proteus' a b i l i t y f o r s e l f - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , 27 S h o r t l y a f t e r , d u r i n g one of Bloom's h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , both d e t a i l s and theme are r e e n f o r c e d . "A DARKVISAGED MAN (In. disguised accent.) [ b i d s ] Hoondert punt s t e r l i n k " (U 540) f o r Bloom-as-female. "VOICES" i d e n t i f y the b i d d e r as a c t i n g "For the C a l i p h Haroun A l [ s i c ] Raschid" (U 540). 2 8 George W. R u s s e l l (A.E.), Deidre: A Legend in Three Acts (Chicago, I l l i n o i s : Depaul U n i v e r s i t y , 1970 [1903]), p. 29. 29 G i f f o r d , Notes, p. 407. 30 I b i d . , p. 421. A c t u a l l y , as G i f f o r d p o i n t s out, Stephen misquotes s l i g h t l y , b e g i n n i n g with "and" ("Et") r a t h e r than the "but" o f the a c t u a l b i b l i c a l v e r s e . 31 See U 5 79, and p. 9 8 below, f o r another f a c e , t h a t o f the dead May Dedalus, which i n d i c a t e s c a s t r a t i o n . 32 Thornton, Allusxons , p. 414, says "The second sentence i n t h i s a l l u s i o n has no b i b l i c a l b a s i s . In t h i s c o ntext i t suggests t h a t Noah f o r n i c a t e d with the animals of h i s ark, which a l s o has no b i b l i c a l b a s i s . " 33 G i f f o r d , Notes, p. 199: " L a t i n : 'Father, he c r i e s . ' Stephen imagines I c a r u s ' o u t c r y as he f a l l s . Ovid: 'His l i p s , c a l l i n g to the l a s t upon h i s f a t h e r ' s name, were drowned i n the dark blue sea' (Metamorphoses V I I I : 229, 235)." -143-34 Thornton, Allusions, p. 30: "Joseph P r e s c o t t p o i n t s out ('Notes on Joyce's Ulysses/ MLQ, X I I I , 142-62) t h a t t h i s r i d d l e occurs i n P.W. Joyce's English As Vie Speak It, p. 187. The r i d d l e P.W. Joyce g i v e s i s 'Riddle me r i d d l e me right:/What d i d I see l a s t night?/The wind blew/ The cock crew,/The b e l l s of heaven/Struck e l e v e n / T i s time f o r my poor -sowl to go to heaven. Answer: The fox b u r y i n g h i s mother under a h o l l y t r e e . ' " 35 Sheldon B r i v i c , "James Joyce: From Stephen t o Bloom," i n Crews, ed., Psychoanalysis and Literary Process (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Winthrop, 1970), p. 147, says "she i s d e s c r i b e d with extremely v i o l e n t images o f c a s t r a t i o n . . . . There are f i v e images o f c a s t r a t i o n here: t o r n v e i l , h a i r , eyes, nose, and t e e t h . " 3 6 G i f f o r d , Notes,-p. 429. 37 E a r l i e r , as he comes to h e l p Stephen, Bloom i s d i r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d i n the n a r r a t i v e as "Incog Haroun al Raschid": "Bloom . . . draws his caliph's hood and poncho and hurries down the steps with sideways face. Incog Haroun al Raschid, he f l i t s behind the silent lechers and hastens on by the r a i l i n g s with fleet step of a pard . . . (U 586). 3 8 The Collected Poems of W.B. Yeats (London: MacMillan, 1965) , pp. 48-49) : WHO GOES WITH FERGUS? Who w i l l go d r i v e with Fergus now, And p i e r c e the deep wood's woven shade, And dance upon the l e v e l shore? Young man, l i f t up your r u s s e t brow, And l i f t your tender e y e l i d s , maid, And brood on hopes and f e a r no more. And no more t u r n a s i d e and brood Upon l o v e ' s b i t t e r mystery; For Fergus r u l e s the brazen c a r s , And r u l e s the shadows o f the wood, And the white b r e a s t of the dim sea And a l l d i s h e v e l l e d wandering s t a r s . The v e r s i o n sung by Oona i n The Countess Cathleen3 i n The Collected Works in Verse and Prose of William Butler Yeats ( S t r a t f o r d on Avon: Shakespeare Head P r e s s , 1908), V o l . I l l , pp. 33-34, has no t i t l e , but i s otherwise almost i d e n t i c a l . 39 Thornton, Allusions , p. 12: "As A.M. K l e i n p o i n t s out i n h i s a r t i c l e on t h i s chapter o f Ulysses ("The Black Panther, a Study i n Technique," Accent, X, 139-55), the panther was long used as a symbol of C h r i s t . " -144-Stephen h i m s e l f notes t h a t h i s f a t h e r i s "the man with . . . my eyes" (U 38). CHAPTER IV: CONCLUSION ''"Mulligan, with whom he has been l i v i n g , Stephen c a l l s "O mine enemy" {U 197); Lynch, w i t h whom he has been f r i e n d l y i n the pa s t , i s "Judas" (U 600, U 615); Bloom he i s not l i k e l y t o see again (see U 696). 2 Stephen seems t o express i n c r y p t i c f a s h i o n h i s d e c i s i o n to leave I r e l a n d d u r i n g h i s d i s p u t e w i t h P r i v a t e s C a r r and Compton: " W i l l some one t e l l me where I am l e a s t l i k e l y to meet these necessary e v i l s ? Ca se voit aussi a Paris. Not t h a t I . . . But by S a i n t P a t r i c k ! . . . .(17 595; e l l i p s e s i n o r i g i n a l ) . Stephen immediately sees Old Gummy Granny, w i t h "the death flower of the potato blight on her breast" (U 595), who says, "You met with poor o l d I r e l a n d and how does she stand?" (U 595) . He r e p l i e s "How do I stand you?" (U 595). 3 Joyce a c t u a l l y l e f t I r e l a n d , t a k i n g Nora Ba r n a c l e with him, on October 8, 1904 (Ellmann, James Joyce, p. 185). June 16, 1904, the date o f Ulysses, i s of course the day t h a t Joyce f i r s t went walking with Nora (Ellmann, James Joyce, p. 162). As Ellmann, p. 163, says, "June 16 was the s a c r e d day t h a t d i v i d e d Stephen Dedalus, the in s u r g e n t youth, from Leopold Bloom, the complaisant husband." 4 Ellmann, James Joyce, p. 659. Ellmann, p. 659, in t r o d u c e s the poem thus: "His melancholy [about h i s f a t h e r ' s death 29 December 1931] was, however, suddenly r e l i e v e d on February 15. Helen Joyce [ h i s son G i o r g i o ' s w i f e ] , a f t e r a d i f f i c u l t pregnancy, gave b i r t h t o a son, who was named i n h i s grandfather's honor Stephen James Joyce. In some sense the b i r t h seemed t o c o u n t e r v a i l John Joyce's death, and James wrote the same day h i s most moving poem . . . ." 5 Ellmann, James Joyce, p. 165: " . . . Joyce l i k e d to thi n k o f her [Nora] as 'sauntering' i n t o h i s l i f e . . . ." 6 Freud, Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis, S.E., XVI [1916-1917], pp. 336-337: "At t h i s p o i n t [ p u b e r t y ] , then, very i n t e n s e emotional processes come i n t o p l a y , f o l l o w i n g the d i r e c t i o n o f the Oedipus complex o r r e a c t i n g a g a i n s t i t . . . . From t h i s time onwards, the human i n d i v i d u a l has to devote h i m s e l f to the great task o f detaching h i m s e l f from h i s p a r e n t s , and not u n t i l t h a t task i s ach i e v e d can he cease t o be a c h i l d and become a member of the s o c i a l community." -145-'Perhaps Stephen's s u b j e c t i o n to the memory of h i s mother i s p a r t o f a r o l e he i s p l a y i n g d u r i n g a r i t u a l one-year mourning p e r i o d . I f so, h i s p s y c h i c p a r a l y s i s v e r g i n g on me l a n c h o l i a (see Freud, "Mourning and M e l a n c h o l i a , " S.E.} XIV [1917], pp. 243-258) might disappear i n about a week, a t the end o f the one-year p e r i o d o f mourning f o r h i s mother. His s u i t o f "cheap dusty mourning" (U 18) is growing "threadbare" (U 5). \ AFTERWORD PSYCHOANALYSIS: THE CHARACTERS, THE AUTHOR, THE READER "•"Stephen's melancholy mourning f o r h i s dead mother, p a r a l l e l to Hamlet's melancholy mourning f o r h i s dead f a t h e r , i s one way i n which he i d e n t i f i e s w i t h Hamlet. 2 We remember how Stephen was s e n s u a l l y a t t r a c t e d by masculine hands (see p. 30 above, and P 45-46), and how the touch of another f a t h e r ' s hand, Father Dolan's, a t t r a c t e d Stephen, but l e d to a p a i n f u l b e t r a y a l (see above, pp. 25, 26, 31, and P 50-52). 3 G i f f o r d , Notes, p. 166, p o i n t s out t h a t t h i s i s a misquotation, and t h a t the o r i g i n a l reads: "'HAMLET: What? GHOST: 'I am thy f a t h e r ' s spirit,/Doom'd f o r a c e r t a i n term to walk the n i g h t ' ( I , v, 8-10)." 4 G i f f o r d , Notes, p. 203: "Maurice M a e t e r l i n c k (1862-1949), B e l g i a n s y m b o l i s t poet and d r a m a t i s t , i n La Sagesse et la destinee (Wisdom and Destiny) ( P a r i s , 1899): 'Let us never f o r g e t t h a t n o t h i n g happens t o us which i s not o f the same nature as o u r s e l v e s . . . . I f Judas goes out t h i s evening, he w i l l move toward Judas and w i l l have o c c a s i o n to be t r a y ; but i f Socr a t e s opens h i s door, he w i l l f i n d S o c r a t e s asleep on the doorstep and w i l l have the o c c a s i o n to be wise' (p. 28)" ( e l l i p s e s i n G i f f o r d ) . Another Maurice, Maurice Beebe, "Joyce and Stephen Dedalus: The Problem o f Autobiography," i n A James Joyce Miscellany: Second Series, ed. Marvin Magalarier (Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s Univ-e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959), p. 67, w r i t i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y about l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , warns us t h a t "the very abundance o f Joyce readings has taught us t h a t the S e l e c t i v e F a l l a c y i s as dangerous as the I n t e n t i o n a l one: i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s c o n v i n c i n g enough i n themselves tend to r e f u t e one another and to demonstrate t h a t any s k i l l e d c r i t i c can f i n d i n the works of any complex w r i t e r whatever he i s l o o k i n g f o r . " -146-"^ As Stephen says d u r i n g h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Hamlet and Shakespeare, " i n the f u t u r e , the s i s t e r o f the pas t , I may see myself as I s i t here now but by r e f l e c t i o n from t h a t which then I s h a l l be" (U 194). g I a l s o s e r i o u s l y doubted my o v e r a l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n once when Jaye Peebles, who very a c c u r a t e l y typed most of t h i s essay from my handscrawled notes, and who i s f a m i l i a r with the themes i n i t , one day typed, i n s t e a d of " i n v e r t e d Oedipus complex," "invented Oedipus complex." Her Freudian " s l i p o f the t y p e w r i t e r " gave me q u i t e a s t a r t . However, Frank Budgen, James Joyce and the Making of ULYSSES (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960 [1934]), p. 105, quotes Joyce on the unchanging nature of Stephen i n Ulysses: "At about the time of the p u b l i c a t i o n of the Lestrygonians episode (Ellmann, James Joyce, p. 517: " i n 1919, the January number [ o f the L i t t l e Review]") he s a i d t o me: 'I have j u s t got a l e t t e r a s k i n g me why I d i d n ' t give Bloom a r e s t . The w r i t e r of i t wants more of Stephen. But Stephen no longer i n t e r e s t s me to the same extent. He has a shape t h a t can't be changed.'" APPENDIX: JOYCE AND FREUD """Ellmann, James Joyce, p. 10, p. 505, p. 647. 2 For example, Sheldon B r x v i c , "James Joyce from Stephen to Bloom: A P s y c h o a n a l y t i c Study" ( d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a a t Berkeley, 1970), p. 10, quotes I t a l o Svevo ( E t t o r e Schmitz), a f r i e n d o f Joyce's d u r i n g h i s years i n T r i e s t e , as s a y i n g "'In 1915 when Joyce l e f t us he knew n o t h i n g about p s y c h o a n a l y s i s . ' " And Ruth Von Phul, "Joyce and the S t r a b i s m a l A p o l o g i a , " i n A James Joyce Miscellany: Second Series, ed. Marvin Magalaner (Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959), p. 12^8, says "Myron N u t t i n g , who d u r i n g the years o f h i s f r i e n d s h i p with Joyce i n P a r i s underwent a s h o r t a n a l y s i s with Otto Rank, w r i t e s : 'Jung and Freud were sore p o i n t s w i t h J J . He d i d not seem mu c h " i n t e r e s t e d - i n d i s c u s s i n g them with me anyway.'" However, Ellmann, James Joyce, p. 560, records t h a t " . . . Myron N u t t i n g . . . used to t e l l h i s dreams to Joyce and was amazed at the shrewdness of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s Joyce suggested." 3 M.A. Goldberg, "Joyce, Freud, and the I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of Order," i n The Poetics of Romanticism: Toward a Reading of John Keats (Yellow S p r i n g s , Ohio: The A n t i o c h P r e s s , 1969), p. 154, says: "Stephen h i m s e l f looks upon h i s theory as an e x t e n s i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f Aquinas. Yet the psychology i s more Freudian than T h o m i s t i c , more t w e n t i e t h --147-century than medieval. His e t h i c s have more i n common with The Psy chopathology of Every day Life than with the Summa .Theologica. " 4 Ellmann, James Joyce, p. 525. Ellmann, James Joyce, p. 5 38, quotes Joyce d e s c r i b i n g Ulysses i n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c terms j u s t before i t was p u b l i s h e d : "'In Ulysses I have recorded, s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , what a man says, sees, t h i n k s , and what such s e e i n g , t h i n k i n g , s a y i n g does, to what you Freudians c a l l the subconscious--but as f o r p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , ' he broke o f f , c o n s i s t e n t i n h i s p r e j u d i c e , ' i t ' s n e i t h e r more nor l e s s than b l a c k m a i l . ' " ^Thornton, Allusions, p. 199: "Apparently Stephen i s r e f e r r i n g t o Freud and h i s group, but R.M. Adams says . . . t h a t Magee has not spoken o f them, and I can f i n d no r e f e r e n c e to them by Magee. W.Y. T i n d a l l . . . takes 'the doctor' on p. 204.26/202.9 to be the e a r l i e r r e f e r e n c e meant, but t h i s cannot be, s i n c e the L i t t l e Review v e r s i o n of t h i s episode c o n t a i n s Stephen's statement, but l a c k s Magee's r e f e r e n c e t o 'the d o c t o r . ' " However, G i f f o r d , Notes, p. 189, says of "the d o c t o r " : " i . e . Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), A u s t r i a n p h y s i o l o g i s t and p s y c h i a t r i s t who founded p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , which Stephen c a l l s 'the new Viennese School'. . . ." ^"Joyce and the New Psychology," Dissertation Abstracts (Ann Arbor, Michigan: U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , 1958), V o l . XVIII, p. 1424. 7 I b i d . g Chester G. Anderson, "Leopold Bloom as Dr. Sigmund Freud," Mosaic, VI, 1 ( F a l l , 1972), 24, n.2. 9 I b i d . I b i d . 1 : L I b i d . , 24-25. 1 2 I b i d . , 26-43. 1 3 I b i d . , 25. 14 Joyce Nighttown (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1974)/ p. 16. 15 Ellmann, James Joyce, p. 393. However, i n a l e t t e r to Frank Budgen, Joyce d e s c r i b e s the se x u a l symbolism of the Oxen of the Sun episode i n a somewhat mechanical f a s h i o n h i m s e l f : "'Bloom i s the spermatozoon, the h o s p i t a l the womb, the nurse the ovum, Stephen the embryo'" (Ellmann, James Joyce, p 490). -148-16 See, f o r example, The Interpretation of Dreams, S.E., V [1900], pp. 353-359, and Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis, S.E., XV [1916-1917], pp. 153-165. 17 Ellmann, James Joyce, p. 351. 1 8 I b i d . , p. 706 1 9 I b i d . , p. 450. 20 Life and the Dream (Garden C i t y . N.Y.: Doubleday, 1947) , pp. 394-395. 21 Ellmann, James Joyce, pp. 64 7-64 8. 22 Life and the Dream, pp. 395-397. 2 3 " I n f r o y c e " , i n James Joyce: Two Decades of Criticism, ed. Seon Givens (New York: The Vanguard P r e s s , 1948) , p. 403. 24 Ellmann, James Joyce, p. 708, q u o t i n g Joyce. 25 I b i d . , p. 559, q u o t i n g Joyce. 2 6 3 r d ed. (London: Faber and Faber, 1964 [1939]), p. 115. Subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s t o Finnegans Wake w i l l be shown i n parentheses preceded by FW. 2 7 . . In James Joyce: Two Decades of Criticism, p. 15 2 8 James Joyce and the Making of ULYSSES (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960 [1934]), p. 320. LIST OF REFERENCES WORKS BY JOYCE Joyce, James. Finnegans Wake. N i n t h p r i n t i n g , w i t h the author's c o r r e c t i o n s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the t e x t at the e i g h t h p r i n t i n g (1958). New York: The V i k i n g P ress, 1960 [1939]. . A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t as a Young Man. New York: The V i k i n g P ress, 1964 [1916]. T h i s i s a d e f i n i t i v e e d i t i o n , as the f o l l o w i n g e xcerpt from "A Note on the Text," p. 255, i n d i c a t e s : "For t h i s d e f i n i t i v e e d i t i o n , Chester G. Anderson compared Joyce's f i n a l f a i r - c o p y manuscript, i n h i s own handwriting, now i n the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of I r e l a n d , with a l l the t e x t s p u b l i s h e d i n England and America, and with l i s t s of c o r r e c t i o n s and changes noted by Joyce, some of which were never made i n any of the p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n s . Mr. Anderson then prepared an e x t e n s i v e l i s t o f p o s s i b l e c o r r e c t i o n s i n the c u r r e n t Viking-Compass e d i t i o n . R i c h a r d Ellmann, Joyce's biographer and the e d i t o r of h i s l e t t e r s , was asked to a c t as a r b i t e r , and made the f i n a l s e l e c t i o n . . Ulysses. New York: The Modern L i b r a r y [Random House], 1961 [1922]. There are some e r r o r s i n t h i s t e x t , but i t i s the b e s t a v a i l a b l e . OTHER REFERENCES A l b e r t , Leonard. "Joyce and the New Psychology." Dissertation Abstracts, XVIII (1958), 1424-1425 (Columbia). Anderson, Chester G. "Leopold Bloom as Dr. Sigmund Freud." Mosaic, VI, 1 ( F a l l , 1972), 23-43. . "The S a c r i f i c i a l B u t t e r , " i n Portraits, of an Artist, eds. W i l l i a m E. M o r r i s and C l i f f o r d A. N a u l t , J r . , 266-277. New York: The Odyssey Press, 1962. -149--150-Beebe, Maurice. "Joyce and Stephen Dedalus: The Problem of Autobiography," i n A James Joyce Miscellany: Second Series, ed. Marvin Magalaner, 67-78. Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. Brandabur, Edward. A Scrupulous Meanness: A Study of Joyce's Early Work. Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1971. B r i v i c , Sheldon. "James Joyce: From Stephen to Bloom," i n Psychoanalysis and Literary Process, ed. F r e d e r i c k Crews, 118-162. Cambridge, Mass.: Winthrop, 1970. . "James Joyce from Stephen to Bloom: A P s y c h o a n a l y t i c Study." D i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a at B e r k e l e y , 1970. Budgen, Frank. James Joyce and the Making of ULYSSES. Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960 [1934]. Colum, Mary. Life and the Dream. Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Doubleday, 1947. Crews, F r e d e r i c k . " A n a e s t h e t i c C r i t i c i s m " , i n Psychoanalysis and Literary Process, ed. F r e d e r i c k Crews, 1-24. Cambridge, Mass.: Winthrop, 1970. De Marco, A.A. " H a i l Mary", i n New Catholic Encyclopedia, VI, 89 8. 15 v o l s . New York: McGraw-Hill, 196 7. Ellmann, R i c h a r d . James Joyce. New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y . P r e s s , 1959. E p s t e i n , Edmund L. The Ordeal of Stephen Dedalus. Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971. F e n i c h e l , Otto. The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis. New York: Norton, 19 45. F o g e l , Jane. "The C o n s u b s t a n t i a l Family o f Stephen Dedalus." James Joyce Quarterly, I I , 2 (Winter, 1965), 108-132. Freud, Sigmund. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works, t r a n s , and ed. James Strachey, with Anna Freud, A l i x Strachey, Alan Tyson. 24 v o l s . London: The Hogarth P r e s s , 1953-1966. G i f f o r d , Don, w i t h Robert Seidman. Notes for Joyce: D u b l i n e r s and A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t as a Young Man. New York: Dutton, 196 7. • Notes for Joyce: An Annotation of James Joyce's ULYSSES. New York: Dutton, 1974. -151-Goldberg, M.A. "Joyce, Freud, and the I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of Order," i n h i s The Poetics of Romanticism: Toward a Reading of John Keats, 151-160. Yellow S p r i n g s , Ohio: The A n t i o c h P r e s s , 1969. Goldberg, S.L. The Classical Temper: A Study of James Joyce's U l y s s e s . London: Chatto and Windus, 1961. Hanley, M i l e s L. Word Index to James Joyce's Ulysses. Madison: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin P r e s s , 1962. Hart, C l i v e . A Concordance to Finnegans Wake. M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota P r e s s , 196 3. Hedberg, Johannes. "Smugging. An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a Joycean Word." Moderna Sprak, LXVI, 1 (1972), 19-25. Hodgart, Matthew J.C., and Mabel Worthington. Song 'in the Works of James Joyce. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. Hoffmann, F r e d e r i c k J . " I n f r o y c e " , i n James Joyce: Two Decades of Criticism, ed. Seon Givens, 390-435. New York: The Vanguard P r e s s , 1948. The Holy B i b l e . . . A u t h o r i z e d King James V e r s i o n . New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Hyde, Douglas. The Love Songs of Connacht. D u b l i n : Dun Emer Pr e s s , 1904. J o l a s , Eugene. "My F r i e n d James Joyce," i n James Joyce'-: Two Decades of Criticism, ed. Seon Givens, 3-18. New York: The Vanguard P r e s s , 1948. Joyce, S t a n i s l a u s . My Brother's Keeper. London: Faber and Faber, 1958. Kaye, J u l i a n B. "A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as Blephen-Stoom," i n A James Joyce Miscellany: Second Series, ed. Marvin Magalaner, 79-92. Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. . "Who Is B e t t y Byrne?", i n Portraits of an Artist, eds. W i l l i a m E. Morris and C l i f f o r d A. N a u l t , J r . , 264-266. New York: The Odyssey P r e s s , 1962. L e v i n , Harry. James Joyce: A C r i t i c a l Introduction, r e v i s e d and augmented ed. N o r f o l k , C o n n e c t i c u t : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1960. -152-The National Magazine, Boston, Mass., ed., Heart Songs: Dear to the American People. New York: The World Syndicate P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1909. O'Brien, Darcy. The Conscience of James Joyce. P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968. Ovid. The Metamorphoses, t r a n s . Horace Gregory. New York: The V i k i n g P r e s s , 195 8. P r e s c o t t , Joseph. "Notes on Joyce's Ulysses." Modern Language Quarterly, XIII (1952), 149-162. R u s s e l l , George W. (A.E.). Deidre: A Legend in Three Acts. Chicago, I l l i n o i s : Depaul U n i v e r s i t y , 1970 [1903]. Scholes, Robert, and R i c h a r d M. K a i n , eds. The Workshop of Dedalus. Evanston, I l l i n o i s : Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. Shakespeare, W i l l i a m . Hamlet. B a l t i m o r e , Maryland: Penguin Books, 1957. Shechner, Mark. "The Song of Wandering Aengus: James Joyce and His Mother." James Joyce Quarterly, X, 1 ( F a l l , 1972), 73-89. . Joyce in Nighttown: A Psychoanalytic Inquiry. B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1964. S p r i n c h o r n , E v e r t . "A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as A c h i l l e s , " i n Approaches to the Twentieth-Century Novel, ed. John Unterecker, 9-50. New York: Thomas Y. C o r w e l l , 1965. S t e i n b e r g , Erwin R. The Stream of Consciousness and Beyon in U l y s s e s . P i t t s b u r g h : U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h P r e s s , 1973. S u l l i v a n , Kevin. Joyce Among the Jesuits. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. S u l t a n , S t a n l e y . The Argument of Ulysses. Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. Swinburne, Algernon C h a r l e s . Selected Poems. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1939. Thornton, Weldon. Allusions in ULYSSES: An Annotated List Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1968 -153-T i n d a l l , W i l l i a m York. A Reader's Guide to James Joyce. New York: F a r r a r , Straus & Giroux, 1959. "Vampire." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 11th ed. [1911], XXVII, 876-877. Von Phul, Ruth. "Joyce and the S t r a b i s m a l Apologia," i n A James Joyce Miscellany: Second Series, ed. Marvin Magalaner, 119-132. Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. Walcott, W i l l i a m . "Notes by a Jungian A n a l y s t on the Dreams i n Ulysses," James Joyce Quarterly, XI, 1 ( F a l l , 1971), 37-48. Wasson, Richard. "Stephen Dedalus and the Imagery o f S i g h t . " Literature and Psychology, XV, 4 ( F a l l , 1965), 195-209. Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language. S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass.: G. & C. Merriam, 1971. W i l l s o n , J . Robert, C l a y t o n T. Beecham, Isador Forman, and E l s i e Reid C a r r i n g t o n . Obstetrics and Gynecology. St. L o u i s : C.V. Mosby, 1958. Wright, Dudley. Vampires and Vampirism, r e v i s e d ed. London: W i l l i a m R i d e r and Son, 1924 [1914]. Yeats, W i l l i a m B u t l e r . The Collected Poems. MacMillan, 1965. . The Countess Cathleen, i n The Collected Works in Verse and Prose of William Butler Yeats, I I I . S t r a t -f o r d on Avon: Shakespeare Head P r e s s , 1908. 

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