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Shakespeare’s use of names in the dramatic romances Allen, Steven D. 1975

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SHAKESPEARE'S USE OF NAMES IN THE DRAMATIC ROMANCES by STEVEN D. ALLEN .A., State U n i v e r s i t y of New York at Albany, 19 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of E n g l i s h We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the requ i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1975 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s rep r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of English The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date July 18. 1975 Shakespeare's choice and use of names i s d e l i b e r a t e and c a l c u l a t e d , a c o n t r o l l e d technique which makes a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to each p l a y . This i s demonstrable by examining the use of names i n the Dramatic Romances, i n co n t r a s t to t h e i r use i n the preceding comedies. The naming technique c o n t r i b u t e s to the i n d i v i d u a l character of each Romance and to t h e i r c o l -l e c t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n from the e a r l i e r comedies. The tragedies and h i s t o r i e s were not considered because t h e i r goals are d i f f e r e n t from those of the comedies and Romances; thus t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n would b l u r the l i n e s of development and the con t r a s t s d i s c e r n i b l e from.The Comedy of  Er r o r s to The Tempest. Works on Shakespeare's s t a g e c r a f t were examined f o r comments about naming techniques; standard c o l l e c -t i o n s and studi e s of h i s sources were used to determine p o s s i b l e provenances of names. A l l the names i n the s i x t e e n plays under c o n s i d e r a t i o n were compiled, w i t h p o s s i b l e d e r i v a t i o n s and sources noted, cross-referenced and checked against t h e i r appearances i n the trage-dies and h i s t o r i e s . Their frequency of r e p e t i t i o n , order and i n t e r v a l of appearance were a l l noted, and patterns were sought by drawing up p a r a l l e l l i s t s . The patterns which emerged prove that Shakespeare repeat-edly u t i l i z e d various techniques, such as with h o l d i n g the names of c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r s , f o r c a l c u l a t e d dramatic e f f e c t s . i i i Though the techniques serve to i n d i v i d u a l i z e each p l a y , they bear c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the Romances which correspond to the p a r t i c u l a r shared atmosphere of those p l a y s . Thus there are r e l a t i v e l y few a l l u s i o n s or references to a contem-porary world outside that of the Romance, c y c l i c a l name-patterns are common and names are i n t e r r e l a t e d , i n sound or sense, to r e f l e c t the mystic"sympathies present i n the p l a y s . While not every name can be c l e a r l y seen to have a spe-c i f i c and d e l i b e r a t e f u n c t i o n , the ma j o r i t y i n each play con-s i d e r e d make c l e a r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the tone and meaning of •the pla y . Naming technique must be considered an important p a r t of Shakespeare's a r t , over which he ex e r c i s e d masterful con-t r o l . iv CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION: NAMES AND THE ELIZABETHAN DRAMATIC ENVIRONMENT. . . . • 1 THE FIRST TWELVE COMEDIES 15 THE DRAMATIC ROMANCES 49 TevLc'les 52 CymbeHne 77 The Winter's Tale 98 The Tempest 113 CONCLUSION 130 FOOTNOTES 139 APPENDIX I : HOW NAMES ACQUIRE MEANING 147 APPENDIX I I : NUMBERS OF NAMES. . . . . . . 150 BIBLIOGRAPHY 151 INTRODUCTION NAMES AND THE ELIZABETHAN DRAMATIC ENVIRONMENT This t h e s i s examines Shakespeare's use of proper names i n P e r i c l e s , Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale and The Tempest, i n general c o n t r a s t to h i s use of them i n the preceding twelve comedies f o r the purpose of demonstrating that Shakespeare's use of names i s a conscious, c o n s i s t e n t and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r a c t i c e which helps to shape each p l a y . These l a s t four p l a y s , here-a f t e r r e f e r r e d to c o l l e c t i v e l y as the Dramatic Romances, are set apart as a group from the e a r l i e r comedies. The s i m i l a r i t i e s among them, which the term Romances acknowl-edges, are p a r a l l e l e d by s i m i l a r i t i e s i n Shakespeare's naming p r a c t i c e . The d i s t i n c t i o n s among them are l i k e w i s e p a r a l l e l e d , and the naming p r a c t i c e can be shown to c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y to t h e s e . s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i s t i n c t i o n s . I t was decided to exclude examination of Shakespeare's naming p r a c t i c e i n the h i s t o r y plays and tragedies f o r s e v e r a l reasons. Except f o r minor " a h i s t o r i c a l " c h a r a c t e r s , the h i s -tory plays o f f e r no scope f o r c r e a t i v e name-giving. Other tech-niques such as punning, v a r i a t i o n i n form and r e p e t i t i o n at s i g -n i f i c a n t moments were of course a v a i l a b l e and used by Shakespeare, such as John of Gaunt's punning on h i s own name i n Richard II and the use of "Hal, " "Prince H a l , " or "Prince 1 2 Henry," i n Henry IV Part I to achieve c e r t a i n e f f e c t s . These techniques are a l l d i r e c t e d , however, i n the h i s t o r y plays to the v i v i d r e c r e a t i o n of an h i s t o r i c a l event or p e r s o n a l i t y . Likewise i n the tr a g e d i e s , which are al s o often drawn from what the Elizabethans.considered h i s t o r i c a l sources and .thus o f f e r e d l i m i t e d opportunity f o r c r e a t i v e naming, the emphasis i s on the v i v i d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of one or,more p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Any sym-b o l i c or a l l u s i v e names which appear are.c o n s c r i p t e d to c o n t r i b -ute to the c e n t r a l p o r t r a i t or p o r t r a i t s . In c o n t r a s t the comedies o f f e r f r e e r e i n to the use of names, i n p r o p o r t i o n as they concern themselves w i t h represen-t a t i o n s of s i t u a t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n s rather than p o r t r a i t s of c e n t r a l f i g u r e s . This i s evident even i n t h e i r t i t l e s . Whereas every one of the h i s t o r y plays and tragedies bears as t i t l e the name of the prot a g o n i s t or p r o t a g o n i s t s , only the Romances Pericles and.Cymbeline employ a character's name, and four of the.previous comedies a l l u d e to a character or charac-t e r s . P e r i c l e s i s a c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n the play which bears h i s name, though he shares the stage w i t h Marina. Katherine the shrew, the two gentlemen of Verona and the merry wives of Windsor are prominent i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e .plays, though a great deal else goes on around them. Cymbeline and the,Venetian merchant, are considerably l e s s v i s i b l e , symbols of the dramatic world but removed from the a c t i o n . None of these have r o l e s , l i k e the t i t l e characters of the t r a g e d i e s , which serve p r i m a r i -l y to d i s p l a y the p r o t a g o n i s t s ' p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Instead, the es-sence of Shakespearean comedy i s the r o l e of the character i n the dramatic s o c i e t y . Thus comedy i s the proper realm of the s i g n i f i c a n t name, which serves to confirm or confound the audience's expectations f o r a character based on h i s dramatic r o l e . The t r a g i c hero i s . an i n d i v i d u a l par. excellence; the comic hero gains h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y by a c c r e t i o n of d e t a i l s such as names, at the same time that they c l a r i f y h i s r o l e . Over and over i n the comedies, •. as opposed to the h i s t o r y plays and t r a g e d i e s , Shakespeare demonstrates a w i l l i n g n e s s to a l t e r names from h i s p l a y s ' sources, borrow from othe r s , invent and introduce new names. Any names r e t a i n e d from a source are r e t a i n e d not merely out of respect f o r the source or a l a c k of imagination but because Shakespeare found them adequate f o r h i s conception of a p a r t i c u l a r p l a y or character. Moreover, a l l the comedies have a common goal,, the represen-t a t i o n of a regenerated s o c i e t y , restored.to i t s proper balance. Thus the comedies present a u n i f i e d background against which d i s t i n c t i o n s can be seen more c l e a r l y , and. a wide scope f o r the dramatist's development of h i s naming technique. Some background i s necessary to j u s t i f y the a s s e r t i o n that Shakespeare's use of names i s a conscious p r a c t i c e . In 4 the f i r s t p l a c e , a widespread audience i n t e r e s t i n names and t h e i r meanings must be supposed. Evidence f o r . t h i s i n t e r e s t i s l a r g e l y i n f e r e n t i a l s i n c e , as C o g h i l l says, "From no side do we get support f o r the b e l i e f that the s u b t l e t i e s we d i s -cern i n Shakespeare's plays were presented, or appreciated, 1 2 i n h i s own times." The Shakspere Allusion-Book c i t e s only twenty-three references to comic cha r a c t e r s ' names, and two to locales,.from.1591 to 1667, and these as w e l l as Manningham's and Forman's f a m i l i a r accounts of Twelfth Eight.and.The Winter's Tale, i n d i c a t e t h e i r authors attached l i t t l e or no s i g n i f i c a n c e to the names. "Pompey the huge," Bo u l t , Bottom, Oberon, Cymbeline and K i t S l y each re c e i v e one mention, Oberon l i n k e d not w i t h T i t a n i a but w i t h Queen Mab. Pyramus and Thisbe i n t h e i r Midsummer .Eight 's Dream.connection appear twice, and Thisbe alone once; Benedict and B e a t r i c e are mentioned three times. I n t e r e s t i n g s p e l l i n g v a r i a n t s turn up: " M a l v o g l i o " 3 ("ugly-faced") f o r M a l v o l i o and " P y r o c l e s " . t w i c e f o r P e r i c l e s . In the f i r s t example.we are perhaps presented w i t h a case i n which the w r i t e r has s e l e c t e d one of s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e meanings 4 f o r a name, others as o f f e r e d by Hotson being " i l l - w i l l e d , " " e v i l concupiscence" and."I want M a l l " ; i n the second, an a s s o c i a t i o n . w i t h Sidney's Pyrocles i n Arcadia .may have in f l u e n c e d the w r i t e r . I f there i s scant evidence of audience r e c o g n i t i o n of Shakespeare's s u b t l e t i e s of naming, there i s a considerable amount of evidence that the general p u b l i c was i n t e r e s t e d i n names. S p e c i f i c a l l y , f i v e L a t i n and three E n g l i s h works from 1489 to 1605 are known^ which gloss names from M a r t i a l , the B i b l e and, i n the cases of Camden's Remaines and Verstegan's Restitution, Anglo-Saxon sources. Perusal of works on Shake-speare's presumable education reveals a high p r o b a b i l i t y that he was f a m i l i a r w i t h some of these and w i t h s i m i l a r and d e r i v -a t i v e works d i s p l a y i n g an i n t e r e s t i n names. Jonson a l l u d e s to the contemporary r e l i s h f o r anagrams i n Epicene, Act IV s c . i i i . 1 . 4 8 , and we cannot deny the p o s s i -b i l i t y that many El i z a b e t h a n dramas e i t h e r are elaborate romans a. clef or contain some anagrams the key to which--the a c t u a l name and i t s relevance--has been l o s t . The emblem t r a d i t i o n d i s c l o s e s a s i m i l a r enthusiasm f o r ingenious connections of word and image. Rosemary Freeman describes the d e l i g h t the Elizabethans took i n emblem-books, and i n d i s c u s s i n g the generative impulse of the emblem t r a d i t i o n considers the t a s t e f o r emblems as pa r t of a wider t a s t e f o r a l l e g o r y . "The accounts of the progresses of the Queen represent an England i n which nothing had a s i n g l e meaning and nothing lacked s i g n i f -icance. I t i s the wit, the apparent lack of any r e l a t i o n between two ideas and the subsequent establishment of an i n t e l l e c t u a l l y convincing l i n k between them, that pleases; i t does not matter how forced and a r b i t r a r y the l i n k may seem 7 to common-sense.or to f e e l i n g . " We note, however, that w i t h the gradual breakdown of the medieval world-scheme, a l l e g o r y i n the E l i z a b e t h a n p e r i o d l o s t i t s deeper r o o t s , becoming fragmentary, i s o l a t e d . a n d hence h i g h l y a r t i f i c i a l . No longer could extraneous elements be t o l e r a t e d , f o r they were now seen as t r u l y . e x t r a n e o u s , whereas the medieval mind had accepted t h e i r presence.as not incompatibl w i t h the a l l e g o r y . E l i z a b e t h a n a l l e g o r i e s were n e c e s s a r i l y circumscribed and t i g h t l y i n t e r r e l a t e d , or were so fragmentary as to be unrecognizable as a l l e g o r y . They seem now only l i k e carry-overs or p a r t i a l memories of an e a r l i e r s t y l e of drama. As an example we may c i t e the tournament dumb-show i n Pericles. A medieval audience c o u l d ' i n t e g r a t e t h i s i n t o the e n t i r e p l a y , f o r they would already be i d e n t i f y i n g P e r i c l e s w i t h a B i b l i c a l f i g u r e , a moral symbol and an h i s t o r i c a l process. Shakespeare's play can be seen t h i s way by us,and could have been seen t h i s way by h i s audience, had they s t u d i e d the p r i n t e d play as we do today, but the s t r a i n of r e c o g n i z i n g , r e c o n c i l i n g and accept-ing the play's diverse elements, and i g n o r i n g those which were i r r e c o n c i l a b l e , would even i n 1610 have been too great f o r the audience i n the theater. They needed the emblematic w i t , the l i n k however forced and a r b i t r a r y . Shakespeare's contemporaries had begun to r e a l i z e that they belonged not to 7 Christendom but to the Eli z a b e t h a n Age. In- consequence the comparatively simple contrast of Greek or Roman versus barbarian or C h r i s t i a n versus heathen was replaced.by.a much more complex p i c t u r e of human.society. This d i d not happen a l l at once; i t was prepared over a long p e r i o d of.time; but i n the s i x t e e n t h century i t progresses by leaps and bounds, adding enormously both to the breadth of per-spective and to the number of i n d i v i d u a l s a c q u i r i n g i t . The world of r e a l i t i e s i n which men l i v e i s changed; i t grows broader, r i c h e r i n p o s s i b i l i t i e s , l i m i t l e s s . And i t changes correspondingly when i t appears as the subject matter of a r t i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The sphere of l i f e represented i n a p a r t i c u l a r instance i s no longer the only one p o s s i b l e or a part of that only and c l e a r l y circumscribed one. Very o f t e n there i s a switch from one sphere to another, and even i n cases where t h i s does not occur, we are able to d i s c e r n as the ba s i s of the re p r e s e n t a t i o n a f r e e r consciousness embracing an u n l i m i t e d world. Quite o f t e n Shakespeare makes the s e t t i n g of a play some f a i r y l a n d only l o o s e l y connected w i t h r e a l times and pl a c e s . But t h i s too i s only p l a y i n g upon the p e r s p e c t i v e view. Consciousness of the manifold c o n d i t i o n s of human l i f e i s a f a c t w i t h him, and he can take i t f o r granted on the part of h i s audience.^ This audience consciousness guaranteed i t s a t t e n t i o n to ambiguous or m u l t i p l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n names. Eli z a b e t h a n s ' t h e a t r i c a l t r a i n i n g , stemming as i t d i d p a r t l y from a t r a d i t i o n of m o r a l i t y p l a y s , ensured that they would expect i n s t r u c t i v e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of c e r t a i n t r a i t s , though not thorough a l l e g o r i e s , and t h e i r b e l i e f i n sympathetic magic, which o f t e n extended to an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the th i n g and i t s name, would predispose them to expect and appreciate a s k i l l f u l use of s i g n i f i c a n t names not only of characters but of places and persons a l l u d e d to. Some sub t l e nuances might 8 escape the l e s s educated playgoers, of course, but s u r p r i s i n g l y few names i n Shakespeare are t r u l y obscure i n s i g n i f i c a n c e , i n cont r a s t to the p r a c t i c e of the more "academic" dramatists such as L y l y . Meaningful names are, of course, a mainstay of Jonson-ian humour comedy which was competing at the time w i t h Shake-spearean romantic comedy f o r p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n . I t would be s u r p r i s i n g indeed i f Shakespeare had been unaware of the dramat-i c value of names, given h i s competitor's example. . This must serve as our assurance that Shakespeare manip-u l a t e d names not simply f o r h i s own amusement or p o s t e r i t y ' s but f o r a c a l c u l a t e d e f f e c t upon h i s audience. Since any dramatist as s k i l l e d and commercially s u c c e s s f u l as Shakespeare must have been .cognizant of t h i s p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i t i s reasona-b l e to suppose that.he was aware of wider and more complex uses of names, since the c a l c u l a t i o n of one dramatic e f f e c t i n e v i t a -b l y leads to a n . e f f o r t to extend and va r i e g a t e i t . I t must always be remembered, of course, that when we speak of audience r e c o g n i t i o n or of r e a c t i o n to a c e r t a i n name, p a r t i c u l a r l y of a minor character or a l l u s i v e r e f e r e n c e , we are not n e c e s s a r i l y or even u s u a l l y r e f e r r i n g to a conscious c o g n i t i v e act but rather to that s u b t l e , o f t e n delayed and almost c e r t a i n l y cumulative r e t e n t i o n of impressions. These are no l e s s c e r t a i n f o r being subconscious; they are the i n e v i t a b l e or h i g h l y probable r e s u l t s , except i n the case of an i d i o s y n c r a t i c viewer, of the c u l t u r a l background of the audience a c t i n g upon the foregoing actions and meanings on the stage. As such they are under the dramatist's c o n t r o l . This c o n t r o l i s conscious i n a l l important i n s t a n c e s , but Shakespeare may have t r u s t e d h i s "dramatic i n s t i n c t " i n minor aspects of naming. The conscious e f f o r t to p o r t r a y f i c t i o n a l r e a l i t y on stage engages the dramatist's f a c u l t i e s i n such a way that he n e c e s s a r i l y i n c o r -porates h i s own c u l t u r a l p erception of r e a l i t y . Since that r e a l i t y i s s e l e c t i v e l y shaped,, almost created, by h i s s o c i a l h abits of p e r c e p t i o n ; since he n e c e s s a r i l y f i t s h i s naming prac-t i c e i n w i t h h i s dramatic p r a c t i c e i n general, that is., w i t h h i s mode of re p r e s e n t i n g f i c t i o n a l r e a l i t y , and.since he i s of the same s o c i e t y as h i s audience, i t f o l l o w s that, what he uncon-s c i o u s l y perceives i n names as corresponding to r e a l i t y w i l l t a l l y c l o s e l y w i t h the perception of.the audience. Conscious c o n t r o l i n such cases c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y of a mental censoring process which r e j e c t s i n a p p r o p r i a t e names. C e r t a i n l y there i s ample i n t e r n a l evidence that Shakespeare con s c i o u s l y used names i n a v a r i e t y of ways, whether h i s audience n o t i c e d or not, and that he also knew better, than to overextend that use. We have no a l l e g o r i e s or true humour comedies from h i s hand. An a d d i t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r of the consciousness of h i s naming a c t i v i t y i s that he apparently s e l e c t e d names, o c c a s i o n a l l y of a c h a r a c t e r i z i n g nature, which never reached the dialogue 10 but languish i n stage d i r e c t i o n s . The Dramatis Personae l i s t s we have today i n most tex t s are those s u p p l i e d by Rowe i n 1709; the F i r s t F o l i o provides "Names of the A c t o r s " f o r only Two Gentlemen of Verona, Measure for Measure, The Winter's Tale and The Tempest,, and Henry V, Timon of. Athens and Othello.- Even these may have been s u p p l i e d by Heminge, Condell or some other i n d i v i d u a l . When a name appears only i n these l i s t s , as does " V i n c e n t i o " i n Measure for Measure, and n e i t h e r i n stage d i r e c t i o n s or dialogue, i t s o r i -g i n i s suspect. In any case i t cannot have relevance to the audience r e a c t i o n to the p l a y . Neither can names which appear only i n stage d i r e c t i o n s , as do " F r a n c i s c o " and " I r i s " i n The Tempest. There i s no assurance e i t h e r that a l l of the stage d i r e c t i o n s of the Quartos and F i r s t F o l i o are Shakespeare's own, as Charlton Hinman po i n t s out: We need not assume that the f o u l papers, though indeed the author's l a s t complete d r a f t of h i s p l a y , i n v a r i a b l y represented h i s very l a s t thoughts about every p a r t of i t . A play i s r e a l l y f i n i s h e d only i n performance, and we ought not to be g r e a t l y s u r p r i s e d i f a prompt-book some-times t r u l y improved on what stood i n the author's own d r a f t . Yet a prompt-book was, a f t e r a l l , a t r a n s c r i p t . I t was bound to contain a c e r t a i n amount of u n i n t e n t i o n a l e r r o r and doubtless also of change d e l i b e r a t e l y but unwisely made by someone other than the author. A u t h o r i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n can r a r e l y be demonstrated and can h a r d l y have been common, whereas omissions, some of them i n t e n t i o n a l cuts made f o r more or l e s s obvious reasons, are f r e q u e n t l y in evidence. Hence an e d i t i o n based on a prompt-book, on copy once removed from Shakespeare's autograph manuscript, must be regarded as g e n e r a l l y l e s s a u t h o r i t a t i v e than one p r i n t e d d i r e c t l y from the a u t h o r i a l v e r s i o n , the f o u l papers. In the course of s e t t i n g a l i t t l e over h a l f the p l a y Compositor B a l t e r e d the reading of the copy 135 times i n the t e x t proper alone. (Not counted here are some t h i r t y - f i v e a l t e r a t i o n s i n the stage d i r e c t i o n s - - f o r a few of which changes, though only a few, an e d i t o r g r a t h e r than the compositor was probably responsible.) On the other hand, the stage d i r e c t i o n s o f t e n c o n tain produc-t i o n d e t a i l s which a p r a c t i c i n g dramatist would i n c l u d e i n a s c r i p t , and o c c a s i o n a l l y they r e f e r to a character by name i n one p l a c e , f u n c t i o n i n another and even by actor's name i n another. Thus i n The Comedy of Errors Egeon i s .sometimes l i s t e d as "Mar. Fat.," i . e . Merchant-Father, and i n Much Ado. About Nothing Dogberry and Verges are l i s t e d as Kempe and Cowley. Then, too, we cannot deny the p o s s i b i l i t y that c e r t a i n i n i t i a l l y conceived names were f o r g o t t e n i n the haste to meet some produc-t i o n deadline; The Two Gentlemen of Verona1s Speed may be an example of t h i s , there being no evident reason to w i t h h o l d h i s name. Measure for.Measure's V i n c e n t i o presents a d i f f e r e n t case, discussed below. In these and s i m i l a r cases, we may have a glimpse of the playwright's mind at work, though the e f f e c t never reached the audience. Such names i n stage d i r e c t i o n s and, w i t h a l e s s e r p r o b a b i l i t y , i n the o r i g i n a l L i s t s of A l l the Actors can at l e a s t be t e n t a t i v e l y used to corroborate the. character impressions conveyed by the dialogue. They cannot be taken as proof, but may be one i n d i c a t i o n of Shakespeare's conscious 12 use of names. Shakespeare had the great i n i t i a l advantage, g e n e r a l l y lacked by playwrights since the eighteenth century, of con-t r o l l i n g the moment of a name's i n t r o d u c t i o n . No theater programs were used"^ and i f p l a y b i l l s were posted, f o r which no evidence e x i s t s , they probably would not have contained more information than the t i t l e - p a g e s of the Quartos, which seldom name names. Given the n o t o r i o u s l y short runs of plays i n London, the s i z e of the playgoing populace and the t a r d i n e s s of plays to appear i n p r i n t , i t may s a f e l y be assumed that word of mouth d i d not provide much p r i o r information about names to the audience. In a theater without programs, w r i t i n g f o r an audience ignorant of the names of the characters about to appear, the f i r s t dramatic p r i n c i p l e of naming.must.be the moment of i n t r o -duction. Often i n t r o d u c t i o n i s accomplished at the f i r s t o pportunity. The Two Gentlemen of Verona opens w i t h the l i n e "Cease to.persuade, my l o v i n g Proteus." On the other hand, an i n t r o d u c t i o n may be reserved f o r a d r a m a t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t moment. V i o l a . i s not named i n Twelfth Eight u n t i l V.i.248. O c c a s i o n a l l y a character remains unnamed. Measure for Measure's Duke, given i n the Dramatis Personae as V i n c e n t i o , i s never named i n the dialogue or stage d i r e c t i o n s . I t i s i n f a c t part of h i s character as "the o l d f a n t a s t i c a l Duke of dark corners" or, as some c r i t i c s suggest, appropriate to h i s r o l e as impersonal head, of s t a t e , that he remain nameless, simply "the Duke," as much an o f f i c e as a man. In the main,; Shakespeare appears to have been i n f u l l c o n t r o l of h i s namings v a l i d dramatic reasons.can be found f o r most manipulations of moments of i n t r o d u c t i o n , as w i l l subsequently appear. The second p r i n c i p l e of naming must be the meaning con-veyed by the name i t s e l f . The meaning can be l i n g u i s t i c , as M a l v o l i o , or a l l u s i v e , as Proteus; i t can be p h y s i c a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e or merely pleasant sounding; i t can acquire s i g n i f -icance i n some f i f t y d i f f e r e n t ways or combinations of ways, and the impact.of that s i g n i f i c a n c e can be g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by the p o i n t s of i n t r o d u c t i o n and r e p e t i t i o n . Whether introduced, at the f i r s t o pportunity or reserved f o r a s t r a t e g i c moment, the c h a r a c t e r i z i n g e f f e c t of a s i g n i f i c a n t name i s q u i t e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . The name e i t h e r sets an.expectation to be f u l f i l l e d or f o i l e d , or i t f u l f i l l s or f o i l s an expectation p r e v i o u s l y set by other means. S i g -n i f i c a n t names a p p l i e d not to characters i n the play but to o t h e r s - - m y t h o l o g i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l or simply "off-stage"--operate i n the same way f o r a more ge n e r a l i z e d r e s u l t , the s e t t i n g of tone. Use of names can, i n a d d i t i o n to s e t t i n g tone, l o c a t e the a c t i o n i n time and space, and draw analogies w i t h other s i t u a t i o n s . The u l t i m a t e achievement i n dramatic naming 14 p r a c t i c e i s the c r e a t i o n of a symbol from a name. In c o n t r a s t to names w i t h "ready-made" s i g n i f i c a n c e which can be used as signs posted at s t r a t e g i c j u n c t i o n s i n the p l a y , i t i s p o s s i b l e by appropriate r e p e t i t i o n s of a name, i n t r i n s i c a l l y meaningful or not, to imbue i t w i t h a contextual meaning. Thus a name becomes a symbol i n the p l a y , as does the Forest or Arden i n As You Like It. Symbol d i f f e r s from a l l e g o r y i n that i n a l l e g o r y the o b j e c t i v e r e f e r e n t evoked i s without value u n t i l i t i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the f i x e d meaning that i t has i n i t s own p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r e of ideas whereas a symbol has permanent o b j e c t i v e value, independent of the meanings which i t may suggest. I t d i f f e r s from metaphor i n that a metaphor evokes an object i n order to i l l u s t r a t e an idea or the q u a l i t y , whereas a symbol embodies the idea .or the q u a l i t y . H From t h i s standpoint Jonson may be .said to u s u a l l y use names me t a p h o r i c a l l y while Shakespeare of t e n uses them sym-b o l i c a l l y . Both dramatists have escaped the l i m i t a t i o n s of a l l e g o r y . The development of "Arden" i n t o a symbol i s an e a r l y example of a technique which reached i t s f u l l development i n the Dramatic Romances. This and the other techniques mentioned above, w i t h t h e i r combinations and permutations, are c l o s e l y l i n k e d to Shakespeare's other dramatic s k i l l s . Before t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i n the Dramatic Romances can be discussed,.then, a survey must be made of the preceding comedies i n order to provide a bas i s f o r comparison. THE FIRST TWELVE COMEDIES I t i s to be expected that the broad o u t l i n e s of Shakespeare's naming p r a c t i c e would not change much i n the course of h i s career, that refinements would be more or l e s s p r o g r e s s i v e and. that s p e c i f i c v a r i a t i o n s would be responses to the dramatic requirements of each p l a y . A survey of the f i r s t twelve comedies confirms t h i s , and serves as our p o i n t of departure i n examining, the names i n the Dramatic Romances i n the l i g h t of t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e l y d i s t i n c t dramatic requirements. This survey i s not intended to be complete but r a t h e r to i l l u s -t r a t e the general c o n t i n u i t y of Shakespeare's naming p r a c t i c e by noting and e x p l a i n i n g s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the twelve p l a y s . In preface we note that the l i n g u i s t i c stock from which Shakespeare draws shows no great changes. Most of the names i n all the comedies are I t a l i a n i n o r i g i n , even when the s e t t i n g i s elsewhere. The few exceptions.are i n those plays set i n the Aegean, France, or England: The Comedy of Errors, Love's Labour's Lost, A Midsummer Night' s Dream, The Merry Wives of Windsor, A l l ' s Well That Ends Well, P e r i c l e s and Cymbe\ ine. In Cymbeline, of course, the names as w e l l as the l o c a -t i o n are a mixture of B r i t i s h , L a t i n and I t a l i a n , a p o i n t taken up i n d e t a i l i n our d i s c u s s i o n of that p l a y . As You Like It mixes various names i n i t s imaginary l o c a t i o n and Measure for Measure has I t a l i a n and indeterminate names i n a nominally Viennese s e t t i n g . Lower-class characters i n a l l the plays g e n e r a l l y have E n g l i s h names, as discussed i n d e t a i l below. Numerous names can be traced to the p l a y s ' sources and analogues, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Much Ado About Nothing, A l l ' s Well That Ends Well, Pericles and Cymbeline, but these are f r e q u e n t l y a l t e r e d or transposed, and the m a j o r i t y of names in. a l l the plays were c l e a r l y chosen independently by Shakespeare. THE COMEDY OF ERRORS1 Of the 55 names i n The Comedy of Errors, 20 represent characters i n the dramatic world. Ten of these, nine servants and Duke Menaphon, do not appear on the stage but are c a l l e d to or mentioned. . Among the servants, only one name, Dowsabell, i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n ; the others are t y p i c a l Shakespearean servants' names. "Dovsabell," from "douce et 2 b e l l e , " i s i r o n i c a l l y appropriate f o r the greasy k i t c h e n wench whom Dromio S. so designates and i n f a c t i t may w e l l be h i s nickname f o r her, f o r when Antipholus S. asks him her name he answers " N e l l , " though h i s immediate pun on "an e l l " makes h i s v e r a c i t y here suspect. Robert Greene's Menaphon (1589) contains a shipwreck, 3 separation and encounter w i t h p i r a t e s . Considering the asso-c i a t i o n of Greene and Shakespeare, Shakespeare's use of the name probably derives from Greene's work. Likewise the Duke's name, S o l i n u s , i s probably an acknowledgement of Shakespeare's 17 debt f o r place-names to the geographer Caius J u l i u s S o l i n u s , 4 t r a n s l a t e d by Golding i n 1587. Each of these names appears only once. Shakespeare f r e q u e n t l y makes such acknowledgements, co n s c i o u s l y or not, as we s h a l l see. The minor characters i n the play are Angelo the goldsmith and Balthasar the merchant, Dr. Pinch the conjuror and the unnamed merchant, courtesan, gaoler and others. Luce, the ser-vant whose voice i s heard w i t h i n , I l l . i . , but who never appears, i s here considered as one of the servants. Her name has no mean-in g . Balthasar's name lacks s i g n i f i c a n c e , but Angelo's may re-f e r to the angel, a gold c o i n , and Pinch's may i n d i c a t e a pinched-looking man or one who pinches, i . e . swindles h i s c l i e n t s [OED]. Egeon, A E m i l i a , Adriana and Luciana are not s i g n i f i c a n t names, but Antipholus and Dromio probably are. "The twins' name Antipholus i s u s u a l l y derived from CXVTKJUAoa, meaning 'mutual a f f e c t i o n ' ; but i n Sidney's Arcadia- L i b . 2 Antiphilus, beloved by Erona and rescued by her from p r i s o n , f a l l s i n love w i t h someone e l s e . When King he j u s t i f i e s . p o l y g a m y and i s s l a i n by women. Perhaps Shakespeare was t h i n k i n g i r o n i c a l l y of t h i s when he had to name h i s henpecked and not-very-f a i t h f u l or a f f e c t i o n a t e c i t i z e n . " ^ There may al s o be a sugges-t i o n of antiphonal, " s u i t i n g the antiphonal q u a l i t y of the r a p i d a l t e r n a t i o n s of t h e i r balanced appearances." The name was probably i n i t i a l l y suggested by the presence i n Terence 18 of one " A n t i p h o l a " and two "Antiphos." 7 Likewise "Dromo" appears three times i n Terence; i t i s derived from "dromos," "running," r e f e r r i n g to a servant's d u t i e s . There i s a Dromio i n L y l y ' s Mother Bombiey which g contains i n c i d e n t s s i m i l a r to The Comedy - of Errors. Even a l l o w i n g f o r the f a c t that there are two of each of them, Antipholus's and Dromio's names are.repeated f a r more ofte n than those of any other character. However, there i s no development i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r names: they remain simple c h a r a c t e r i z i n g s i g n s , as do those of t h e i r f e l l o w s . In f a c t the only wordplay i n The Comedy of Errors i s a pun on "Dromio" and "drone," Dromio's pun on " N e l l " and h i s humorous ca t a l o g of N e l l ' s geographical features i n . I I I . i i . , which ac-counts f o r ten of the twenty-eight place-names i n t h i s p l a y . There are four inns, the names of which are unimportant, and two s h i p s , the bark E x p e d i t i o n and.the hoy Delay, probably f a c e t i o u s l y named by Dromio. Seven other geographical r e f e r -ences describe Egeon's search f o r h i s f a m i l y , t h e i r homes and t r a v e l s , one, P e r s i a , i s a merchant's d e s t i n a t i o n and three are used as a d j e c t i v e s : Turkish t a p e s t r y , Tartar limbo and Lapland s o r c e r e r s . Only the l a s t has any importance, as one of s e v e r a l references to sorcery. The play i s set i n Ephesus, s i t e of Diana's temple and known to the Elizabethans as a home of sorcery. The 19 a s s o c i a t i o n i s ignored at f i r s t , but i n Act I I I , s c . i i . A ntipholus S. begins to be alarmed at the behavior of strangers toward him, and d e c l a r e s , "There's none but witches.do i n h a b i t here." The subsequent references to sorcery,,bewitchment, demon-i c possession and e v i l b r i n g home the po i n t of the l o c a t i o n ; among the names, mentioned we f i n d "Satan" three times, " C i r c e " once and "God", ten times, as opposed to once p r e v i o u s l y . More-over, the l o c a t i o n of the pl a y i n Ephesus suggests an i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n of AEmilia's abbey w i t h Diana's temple and h e r s e l f w i t h the p r i e s t e s s , which adds a sense of m y s t i c a l solemnity.to the reun-ion of the e n t i r e f a m i l y . The audience, may have r e c a l l e d at t h i s p o i n t that St. Paul exhorted the Ephesians to domestic 9 u n i t y . (Ephesians 5:22-6:9) The remaining three names, r e f e r -ences to p e r s o n i f i e d Time, to Noah and to Pentecost as a date are not s i g n i f i c a n t , being simply stock comic dialogue which would f i t e q u a l l y w e l l i n any scene between master and servant. C l e a r l y the use of names i n The Comedy of•Errors, though competent, i s f a i r l y - simple. There i s some c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , notably of Dromio., Angelo and Pinch; t h e i r names are i n t r o -duced at the time of t h e i r appearance and thus set the audi-ence's expectations. Antipholus i s f i r s t named some 340 l i n e s a f t e r h i s appearance, which provides time f o r the. audience to develop p r i o r expectations of him. The possible' meanings of hi s name would support r a t h e r than c o n t r a d i c t those impressions. 20 Shakespeare remained fond of the device of mistaken iden-t i t i e s , but he never returned to the doubling, e f f e c t of the twins i n t h i s p l a y . Henceforth he employed a l i a s e s , a l l o w i n g himself greater freedom of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and presumably r e -ducing the bewilderment of l e s s a t t e n t i v e or sober members of hi s audience. The l o c a l e and s i t u a t i o n are q u i c k l y e s t a b l i s h e d by r e p e t i -t i o n s of place names i n the f i r s t scene, and a f t e r that the only s i g n i f i c a n t name which shows development i n t o .a symbol i s "Ephesus." This sets a p a t t e r n of the use of place-names which Shakespeare returned .to throughout h i s career. THE TAMING OF THE SHREW, THE TWO GENTLEMEN OF VERONA AND LOVE'S LABOUR'S LOST We have devoted considerable space to The Comedy of Er-rors as a po i n t of departure f o r the ensuing d i s c u s s i o n , i n which we s h a l l consider the next eleven comedies i n groups corresponding to t h e i r shared c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The chronology of the e a r l y plays i s u n c e r t a i n , and we w i l l not attempt to trace developments i n them. A c l o s e study of the use of names might a c t u a l l y lend weight to one chron-ology, but from our standpoint these plays are ra t h e r u n d i f -f e r e n t i a t e d i n technique. Even a f t e r The Comedy of Errors, The Taming of The Shrew seems rat h e r barren regarding name.use. " S l y " comes from the immediate source and i s w e l l enough f o r the outfoxed rogue i n the Induction, and "Kate," also from the source, allows puns on "cate" a,dainty, and " c a t , " a whore; Tranio and Grumio the groom are drawn from Plautus's M o s t e l l a r i a whence t h e i r r o l e s of s l i p p e r y townsman and downright countryman a r e . p r e s e r v e d . ^ There i s i n the Induction a c l e v e r c o n t r a s t o f , S l y ' s references to h i s English-named cronies and the Lord's and servant's c l a s s -i c a l references, and i n Act IV sc. i . a s i m i l a r c o n t r a s t of Petruchio's English-named servants w i t h the I t a l i a n names i n the r e s t of the p l a y . Yet these are poor rocks above the sea of 115 names i n the p l a y , some 20 or more of which are geo-g r a p h i c a l and another 20 c l a s s i c a l . By c o n t r a s t The Two Gentlemen of Verona i s a treasure-trove. "Proteus" i s s e l f - e v i d e n t , employed without i r o n y ; " V a l e n t i n e " along w i t h i t s obvious meaning, may h i n t at "endur-i n g , strong" from valens;11 "Eglamour" may blend. eglise and amour; J u l i a i s j e w e l - l i k e and S i l v i a has a f o r e s t adventure; "Thurio" may suggest thurible, et c e t e r a , the connection w i t h 12 incense matching h i s adoration and h i s c l o y i n g p e r s o n a l i t y . The a c t i o n moves from Verona to M i l a n to the f o r e s t , the f a c t being conveyed by the presence of one or more characters who had p r e v i o u s l y been mentioned as being i n that p l a c e . No c o n t r a s t i s made, and no symbolism developed. There are nine r e l i g i o u s references of one s o r t or another, but the r o l e of r e l i g i o n i n the p l a y i s not c l e a r . We may note that the names Antonio and Sebastian both appear here, Antonio being Proteus's f a t h e r , ergo an older man, and "Sebastian" being S i l v i a ' s a l i a s , ergo seen onstage as a younger, effeminate man. We s h a l l have occasion to r e f e r to t h i s again o c c a s i o n a l l y as these two names recur i n other p l a y s . Love's Labour's Lost i s unimaginative i n i t s names; some humor derives from "Costard," "Dull,"•"Don Adriano de Armado" 13 and "Moth," i . e . , mote, r e f e r r i n g to h i s di m i n u t i v e s i z e , and the clowns' confusion of names such as "Pompey the huge"; and the audience might have recognized a few a c t u a l Frenchmen i n Navarre, Berowne (Biron) and Dumain (Du Mayenne), though t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and r o l e s bear no r e l a t i o n to the h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s . "Holofernes" a t t e s t s to Shakespeare's f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h R a b e l a i s , i n which Holofernes i s Gargantua's t u t o r , and numerous c l a s s i c a l references, p a r t i c u l a r l y to Ovid and h i s works, show o f f both the author's l e a r n i n g and h i s a b i l i t y to parody l e a r n -i n g . A MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM, THE MERCHANT- OF VENICE, MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING, AND AS YOU LIKE IT A Midsummer Night's Dream stands f a r above these e a r l y plays as do the three plays which f o l l o w i t . The play i s l o c a t e d immediately by the naming of H i p p o l y t a (1.1), Athenian (1.12) and Theseus (1.20). The impression- one r e c e i v e s that t h i s Theseus s t r o n g l y resembles Chaucer's Duke Theseus i s con-firmed by the naming of P h i l o s t r a t e (1.11), A r c i t e ' s pseudonym i n the Knight's Tale. Between Demetrius and Lysander, Hermia and Helena there 14 i s l i t t l e to choose; t h e i r names possess no c h a r a c t e r i z i n g power and occur w i t h n e a r l y equal frequency throughout the p l a y , e s p e c i a l l y i n sc. i , presaging t h e i r romantic confusions and e s s e n t i a l i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y . The a r t i s a n - a c t o r s introduced i n sc. i i a l l have names s u i t e d to t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n s . . From the importance they place on t h e i r p lay of Pyramus and Thisbe, which includes frequent r e p e t i t i o n of the names, we might expect some analogy w i t h the ensuing a c t i o n , but i t f a i l s .to m a t e r i a l i z e . T h i s . i s e v i d e n t l y only another example of Shakespeare's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c handling of "low" f i g u r e s , which.we s h a l l have occasion to mention many times. Act I I introduces Oberon, T i t a n i a and Puck. This i s the Oberon of Lord Berners' Huon of Bordeaux, the Indian f a i r y -king w i t h power over the weather. "Indian" i s i n f a c t t h r i c e mentioned i n sc. i . T i t a n i a i s Ovid's enchantress; the name suggests a power d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e to her s i z e . " ^ Puck, or Robin Goodfellow, i s a f a m i l i a r E n g l i s h s p r i t e . These are a l l the important names of the pl a y ; the r e s t are c h i e f l y references to the world of Theseus and H i p p o l y t a , to set the tone. Shakespeare apparently had been reading medieval romances when he composed t h i s p l a y ; not only are Theseus and many other names drawn from Chaucer, and Oberon from Huon of Bordeaux, but the play has many general s i m i l a r i t i e s to medieval romance. As Sidgwick says, "A Midsummer Eight's Dream i s more of a masque than a drama--an entertainment r a t h e r than a pl a y . The characters are mostly puppets, and s c a r c e l y any except Bottom has the l e a s t p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t f o r the reader. P r o b a b i l i t y i s thrown to the winds; anachronism i s rampant; c l a s s i c a l f i g u r e s are mixed w i t h f a i r i e s and sixt e e n t h - c e n t u r y 17 Warwickshire peasants." L i t t l e e l s e i s done w i t h names i n the play save f o r the punning on "Bottom";:the names of the lov e r s have served t h e i r purpose by being.interchangeable, those of the a r t i s a n s by r e f e r r i n g to t h e i r occupations and those of the f a i r i e s by being a l l u s i v e to the Faerie realm. The Merchant of Venice s k i l l f u l l y c o n t r a s t s Venice w i t h Belmont, employing the mer c a n t i l e a s s o c i a t i o n s of watery Venice and the l i t e r a l meaning and supporting imagery of Belmont, j u s t as the names are used i n IZ Pecorone. The play uses many sup-p o r t i n g names, a common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the previous p l a y s . A good deal of work has been done on the names i n t h i s p l a y , though much of i t i s sheer s p e c u l a t i o n . "Bassanio" i t has been 25 pointed out, may echo the Greek "basanoi," " o r d e a l , " or 18 "touchstone." " P o r t i a " i s "fortune lady," r e l a t e d to "por-19 t i o n , " according to Ruskin; she deals e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h things Roman,' as i s h i n t e d when her name i s introduced: . "Nothing under-valued to Cato's daughter, Brutus' P o r t i a . " Shylock's name has a t t r a c t e d some a t t e n t i o n , i n accordance w i t h h i s s t a t u r e i n the p l a y , but there, i s no agreement as to i t s o r i g i n or meaning. Old Gobbo's name may be the I t a l i a n f o r "hunchback"; a l t e r n a t i v e l y i t may p o i n t to a s i m i l a r i t y i n 20 p a t i e n t s u f f e r i n g to Job. His son's, Launcelot Gobbo, presents an i r o n i c c o n t r a s t of f i n e and mean. In comparison to the e a r l i e r plays s e v e r a l things seem to be going on here: F i e d l e r p o i n t s out that there i s an as s o c i a -t i o n of Bassanio w i t h Jason e a r l y i n the p l a y , and near the end a mention of Medea. He suggests that Shakespeare's subconscious 21 conception of Bassanio.was as a v i c t i m o f P o r t i a ' s w i l e s . Morocco's name may, as Knight suggests, image f o r t h the hot sun 22 w i t h i t s three "o"s, and i f Freud's a n a l y s i s of the meaning of the casket scenes i s c o r r e c t , t h i s would support h i s view of Morocco as the f i g u r e of the sun d e i t y . " J e s s i c a " comes 23 from "Iscah," "she that looketh out," and J e s s i c a has spent a great deal of time c l o i s t e r e d i n her f a t h e r ' s home. The Prince of Arragon's name, l i k e h i s conduct, i n d i c a t e s the arrogance expected of a Spaniard. The names i n the l a s t act c o n t r a s t sharply w i t h the world-l i n e s s of most of the names i n the r e s t of the play underscor-ing the triumph of Belmont over Venice. J e s s i c a and Lorenzo r e f e r to numerous c l a s s i c a l , i d y l l i c f i g u r e s , u n t i l the harsh Venetian world and i t s vocabulary seem-very remote. These dual l o c a l e s are the f i r s t f u l l y symbolic names Shakespeare has used since The Comedy of Errors. Much Ado r e t a i n s . t h r e e names from Bandel.lo's s t o r y ; Don 24 Pedro, Messina and Leonato are v a r i a t i o n s i n s p e l l i n g only. No s i g n i f i c a n c e i s attached to any of the names, though Leonato has, of course, a noble connotation. Claudio may mean "the lame one" i n reference to h i s lack of t r u s t ; t h i s i s the name's 25 l i t e r a l meaning. B e a t r i c e and Benedict are of course the 2 6 b l e s s e r and the blessed, the f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t l y named p a i r since V a l e n t i n e and Proteus. Hero i s probably conceived a f t e r Marlowe's Hero; there i s a reference i n the pl a y to Leander and hi s s t o r y though i t does not take the form of a.comparison. 2 7 "Borachio" means "wineskin," the f i r s t time a d i g n i f i e d - s o u n d -ing name has had an.ignoble meaning. Dogberry and Verges (often "Kempe" and "Cowley" i n the stage d i r e c t i o n s ) have names i n d i -28 e a t i n g a u s t e r i t y and sourness; along w i t h Oatcake and the two Seacoals, one of whom i s unnamed i n our Dramatis Personae l i s t s , they represent the f i r s t such "low" group since Midsummer Night's Dream, and the world of dark s t r e e t s that they p a t r o l i s f a r t h e r removed from the main a c t i o n of the play than was the reh e a r s a l 27 glade of Bottom and h i s f r i e n d s . "Low" characters p l a y a l a r g e r r o l e henceforth i n Shakespeare's p l a y s , notably i n Merry Wives and Measure- for-Measure, but they mingle more f r e e l y w i t h the higher c h a r a c t e r s . Much Ado About Nothing seems to be i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l stage. I t should be noted i n t h i s connection that Henry IV 3 which Auerbach chooses to i l l u s t r a t e the mingling of "low" c r e a t u r a l r e a l i s m w i t h the sublime and a r i s t o c r a t i c , was w r i t t e n , according to the accepted chronology, between Merchant of Venice and Much .Ado. A f t e r Much.Ado t h i s mingling becomes more pronounced i n Shakespeare's plays i n a l l c a t e g o r i e s , w i t h the sole exception of Merry l/iues, which eschews the sublime. This i s one reason why many c r i t i c s f e e l d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h Merry Wives and are prompted to argue that i t must be an e a r l i e r work. A more l i k e l y explanation i s that i t was an experiment i n a form w i t h which other dramatists had achieved considerable suc-cess, and which Shakespeare t r i e d , perhaps at the urging of h i s company, but found uncongenial to him at a time when h i s great-est achievements i n tragedy and comedy l a y j u s t ahead. Much Ado represents an advance i n naming technique over the preced-ing p l a y s , not only having m o r e . s i g n i f i c a n t l y named characters but s i g n i f i c a n t l y delaying the moments of i n t r o d u c t i o n . Whereas, f o r example, Two Gentlemen of Verona and Midsummer Night's Dream introduced t h e i r characters promptly at t h e i r f i r s t appearances, Much Ado h a b i t u a l l y introduces them long before or a f t e r , i n 28 each case c r e a t i n g a tension.of expectations. This p o i n t w i l l be taken up again at the end of t h i s survey. As You Like It i s perhaps Shakespeare's most pleasant and l e a s t d i s t u r b i n g comedy, and i t s use of names i s calm and f l u i d . 29 Adapted from Rosalynde, i t c a r r i e s over only.the names of Adam, Rosa l i n d and the .aliases Ganymede and A l i e n a . These Shakespeare e v i d e n t l y found so appropriate as. to admit of no improvement. Lodge's Rosader howeverbecomes Orlando, a name f a r b e t t e r s u i t e d to h i s ch a r a c t e r , which has a tendency to ro-mantic exaggeration. His f a m i l y , de Boys, may be that de Boys f a m i l y which h e l d the Weston-in-Arden manor i n the Middle Ages, 30 r e c o l l e c t e d by Shakespeare on t h i s occasion. I t i s l i k e l y that t h i s i s our source f o r the f o r e s t of Arden, though the audience would probably assume the Ardennes. The l o c a t i o n , how-ever, i s unimportant; what counts i s the landscape. The melancholy Jacques's name i s of course a pun on "jakes"; Touchstone c a l l s him "good Master What-ye-call't." Touchstone's name "suggests that he and not Jaques i s the sound 31 c r i t i c of f o l l y " i n the p l a y . The names of the other charac-t e r s c o n t r a s t and complement one another w e l l enough; compare the c o n v e n t i o n a l l y p a s t o r a l C o r i n , S i l v i u s and Phebe to the r e a l i s t i c W i l l i a m and.Audrey. The f o r e s t of Arden becomes a symbol of the regenerative world to which the a c t i o n must move, i n the t r a d i t i o n of.the l o c a l e s of Ephesus. and Belmont. In 29 general, though,, l i t t l e i s done w i t h the names i n t h i s p l a y . There are no i n t r i c a t e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s or echoes, and a minimum of t o n e - s e t t i n g a u x i l i a r y names are used. TWELFTH EIGHT Twelfth Eight represents Shakespeare's highest achievement i n the use of names, and to do j u s t i c e to an a n a l y s i s would r e q u i r e f a r more space than i s here a v a i l a b l e . , The best t r e a t -ment i s . by L e s l i e Hotson i n h i s The F i r s t Eight of Twelfth Eight, but even t h i s i s w o e f u l l y incomplete i n se v e r a l respects and inaccurate or h i g h l y c o n j e c t u r a l i n many others. We may note here the c e n t r a l f e a t u r e of the names i n Twelfth Eight;. the r e l a t i o n s h i p of O l i v a , M a l v o l i o and V i o l a . That M a l v o l i o f u n c t i o n s . s y m b o l i c a l l y as the "distempered" side of O l i v i a ' s household management i s c l e a r , as i s i n d i c a t e d by the way i n which the l e t t e r s of the names are shared. Shake-speare has drawn f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n to this by the MOAI ci p h e r . The crux, however, i s that V i o l a goes unnamed u n t i l the recog-n i t i o n scene, Act V. Ab r u p t l y , w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of her m u s i c a l l y symbolic name, the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of characters f a l l i n t o harmonious balance, her r e l a t i o n to her now s i s t e r - i n - l a w O l i v i a i s manifest and the maZ--a.spect of O l i v i a e x i t s from the a c t i o n . T h i s , as we have s a i d , i s c e n t r a l . To explore the other s i g n i f i c a n c e s i n the play leads to the r e a l i z a t i o n that none of the names la c k meaning, and most have s e v e r a l . Here we 30 w i l l only note that Sebastian and Antonio appear as a p a i r f o r the second time, the f i r s t being i n Two Gentlemen, Antonio bearing a strong resemblance to The Merchant-.of Venice's Antonio and Sebastian being of i d e n t i c a l appearance w i t h a young woman; that the name " V a l e n t i n e " never reaches the stage, though h i s name i s appropriate to h i s f u n c t i o n ; that the f o o l i s named but once throughout the p l a y , and that i n a passage which bears evidence of t e x t u a l confusion; and that the imaginary I l l y r i a i s a symbol i n the t r a d i t i o n of Ephesus, Belmont and Arden. Shakespeare d i d not repeat t h i s performance; whether i t was beyond h i s c a p a c i t y i n l a t e r years or merely outside h i s f i e l d of i n t e r e s t cannot be known. THE MERRY WIVES OF WINDSOR, ALL'S WELL THAT ENDS WELL AND MEASURE FOR MEASURE Twelfth Night i s followed by Merry Wives of Windsor, which o f f e r s nothing unusual or i n t e r e s t i n g i n the way of names. Li k e an expansion of."low" scenes i n other Shakespearean come-d i e s , i t abounds i n common names c o n s t a n t l y repeated, c l e a r l y a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l convention f o r t h i s type of pl a y . A l l ' s Well That Ends Well o f f e r s l i t t l e more. Several names are derived from or suggested by various versions of the source. The use of "Bertram" or "Count R o u s i l l i o n " accord-ing to the d i g n i t y of the moment and the s t a t u r e of Bertram i n 31 the speaker's eyes, i s noteworthy, as i s the name "Diana" f o r the chaste maiden of Florence. There are s e v e r a l l i n g u i s t i c a l l y meaningful names, those of characters being " P a r o l l e s , " "Lafeu" and "Lavache," that i s "words," " f i r e " and "cow," and i n the camp scenes we again encounter the frequent use of names which c h a r a c t e r i z e s "low" scenes. Measure for Measure shows q u i t e a s o p h i s t i c a t e d use of names, i n technique not u n l i k e the Dramatic Romances. The a c t i o n i s i n Vienna, yet t h e r e . i s only one German name among a l l the c h a r a c t e r s , and that i s the Duke's a l i a s , F r i a r Lodowick. I t i s probable that Shakespeare planned t h i s ; the Duke's r e a l name i s never mentioned. In f a c t " V i n c e n t i o " may be a non-Shakespearean a d d i t i o n ; Shakespeare may have thought of h i s Duke as "Lodowick." At any rat e he has kept him o f f i c i a l l y nameless, emphasizing h i s c i v i c f u n c t i o n , h i s i d e n t i t y as "Vienna" r a t h e r than h i s i n d i v i d u a l humanity. Elsewhere we have the i r o n i c a l l y named Angelo, Elbow, Froth and the s i m i l a r l y conventional names of the "low" c h a r a c t e r s , and numerous other names which can be t e n t a t i v e l y i n t e r p r e t e d as comments on. t h e i r bearers,- as Battenhouse has attempted. Moments, of i n t r o d u c t i o n are e f f i c i e n t l y handled, c l o s e l y c o i n -c i d i n g w i t h the char a c t e r s ' entrances or the po i n t s at which they become important. The t o t a l number of names i n the comedies v a r i e s from 32 44 i n Two Gentlemen of Verona to 147 i n The Merry Wives of Windsor. E l i m i n a t i n g £ O T the time being The Comedy of Errors, Two Gentlemen .of Verona and The Merry- Wives of Windsor which as we s h a l l show below are exc e p t i o n a l i n many ways, we f i n d a range i n the comedies from The. Taming of the Shrew to Measure for Measure of 62, from Measure for Measure-1 s own 64 to The Merchant of Venice's 126. The average, i s 96 and the mean 95. ( I n c l u d i n g The Comedy of Errors, Two- Gentlemen of< Verona and The Merry.Wives of,Windsor the average drops to 92.) I t i s p o s s i b l e to d i s c e r n a c e r t a i n p a t t e r n . The Merchant of Venice and The Merry Wives of Windsor represent the high p o i n t s . They are the more domestic and mercantile of the comedies and the l a r g e numbers of names i n these works r e f l e c t the chatty s t y l e of the dialogue i n t h i s . t y p e of p l a y . This i s conformable to the impression one receives from Ben Jonson's p l a y s , of a b u s t l i n g , s e l f - s a t i s f i e d l i f e going on a l l about the l i v e s of the play's characters much as i t d i d about those of the audience. The l e s s " r e a l i s t i c " plays have lower numbers of names. The Comedy of Errors has a low number p a r t i a l l y due to i t s being the sh o r t e s t of a l l Shakespeare's p l a y s . In f a c t , a general rough c o r r e l a t i o n between length and t o t a l number of names used i s observable through a l l the comedies and 33 probably, the other plays as w e l l . The Taming of the Shrew was of course a c l o s e adaptation from a s i m i l a r l y ' chatty, source. There i s no c l e a r reason f o r The Two Gentlemen, of Verona's slimness; i t may w e l l i n d i c a t e an experiment i n s t y l e . I f so and i f the g e n e r a l l y accepted chronology i s c o r r e c t the e x p e r i -ment was not a notable success, f o r Love's Labour's Lost r e -turns to 117 names. Whatever t h e i r order, these four plays show Shakespeare searching f o r optimum dramatic expression, and by the time of w r i t i n g A Midsummer Eight's Bream he had h i t h i s s t r i d e . From A Midsummer Eight's Bream to Measure for Measure the only l a r g e d e v i a t i o n s from the 65 - 95 range are The Merchant of Venice and The Merry Wives of Windsor, both of which can e a s i l y be explained by t h e i r s e t t i n g , > and con-cerns, as described above. The Merry Wives of Windsor, i n f a c t , though i t s dramatic use of names, i s completely uncomplicated, may be another c o n f i r m a t i o n of the E l i z a b e t h a n s ' i n t e r e s t i n s i g n i f i c a n t names, i f i t s characters approximate London the a t r e -goers at a l l c l o s e l y ; the characters are obviously f a s c i n a t e d and d e l i g h t e d by names and t h e i r meanings. The bulk of the names i n a l l the plays f a l l s i n t o the category of "other" names, that i s , supporting references. Most place-names f a l l i n t h i s category, as do most c l a s s i c a l r eferences. These "other" names p a r a l l e l i n t h e i r numbers the v a r i a t i o n s of the t o t a l s , except i n the case of Measure 34 for Measure and to a l e s s e r extent A l l ' s Well That Ends Well. Reserving d i s c u s s i o n of. these f o r a moment, i t is. p o s s i b l e to say that the c l e a r m a j o r i t y of names f a l l i n t h i s category and thus the v a r i a t i o n . f r o m play to p l a y , phase to phase i s due c h i e f l y to v a r i a t i o n s i n frequency of use of supportive names. The phases d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e are f i r s t , a p e r i o d of experimenta-t i o n embracing the f i r s t four comedies, second a p e r i o d of subdued use of names from A Midsummer Eight's Bream through Twelfth Eight, broken by the mercantile Merchant-, of Venice, and t h i r d , a p e r i o d of changing s t y l e i n c l u d i n g The Merry Wives of Windsor, A l l ' s Well. That Ends Well and Measure for Measure. The Dramatic Romances present a f o u r t h and f i n a l , s t a b l e phase, discussed l a t e r . Next to the speakers i n the p l a y s , discussed below, the longest remaining category i s that of s i l e n t nominees. These are c h a r a c t e r s , i n a sense, though they need not appear on the stage. They are names which the speaking characters mention, of f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s or others i n the. world of the p l a y . As examples, i n The Comedy of Errors,.Duke. Menaphon i s mentioned as the uncle of S o l i n u s . Thus though he does not appear, has no l i n e s and does not i n f l u e n c e the a c t i o n , he i s yet an acknowl edged member of the dramatic world. So too are the servants i n Luciana's household w i t h the exception of Luce, who speaks from o f f s t a g e , a rare occurrence. 35 S i l e n t nominees oft e n bear "low" names of a c h a r a c t e r i z i n g nature, l i k e Masters Dizzy and Deepvow i n Measure for Measure, but the object i s not.to c h a r a c t e r i z e them, but to create an impression of m i l i e u , a d e f i n i t i o n of the background of the ac-t i o n . In t h i s t h e i r f u n c t i o n i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h the other sup-p o r t i n g references, but i s more pointed due to the i m p l i c a t i o n of t h e i r " a c t u a l " e x i s t e n c e . A l t o g e t h e r , s i l e n t nominees do not c o n s t i t u t e a major p o r t i o n of the names i n any plays except All's Well and Measure for Measure; i n A l l ' s Well the number i s i n f l a t e d to 19 by a l i s t of c a p t a i n s , i n Measure for Measure to 23 by a l i s t of M i s t r e s s Overdone's c l i e n t e l e . In these two i t a c t u a l l y exceeds the number of nominated speakers. Elsewhere, those two pro-f l i g a t e s , The Taming of the Shrew and The Merchant of Venice have 14 and 11 r e s p e c t i v e l y , but none of the others exceeds e i g h t , and t h e i r average i s four and o n e - t h i r d . S i l e n t nominees-are few i n Love 's Labour 's Lost, where t h e i r f u n c t i o n i s usurped by other references and the play's background i s of no r e a l importance, but elsewhere t h e i r numbers f l u c t u a t e i n p r o p o r t i o n to t o t a l numbers of names, u n t i l Merry Wives.. Their e s p e c i a l s c a r c i t y i n Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It and Twelfth Night i s a measure of the dramatic economy of those p l a y s ; s u r p r i s i n g l y that economy seems to have been c a r r i e d over i n t o The Merry Wives of Windsor. Merry Wives 36 i s an enormous d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e n o r m a l t e n d e n c y to c o n f o r m p r o p o r t i o n a l l y t o t h e f l u c t u a t i o n s o f t o t a l and " o t h e r " names, and t h e r e a s o n must l i e i n t h e u n i q u e s t y l e and f o r m o f t h e p l a y . Whatever i t may be i t was f o l l o w e d by t h e e x c e s s e s o f A l l ' s Well That Ends Well and Measure, for Measure m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . The b a l a n c e i s r e s t o r e d i n t h e D r a m a t i c Romances. The r e m a i n i n g i m p o r t a n t c a t e g o r i e s a r e the.two d i v i s i o n s o f s p e a k e r s named and unnamed. The unnamed s p e a k e r i s most o f t e n a s e r v a n t , m e s s e n g e r , " 1 s t L o r d , " e t c . , u s u a l l y w i t h o n l y a few words t o s a y . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e c i d e when t h e s e r v a n t who e n t e r s i n A c t V i s meant t o be t h e same man who e n t e r e d i n A c t I. Though o b v i o u s l y t h e s e p a r t s w o u l d be d o u b l e d f o r p r o d u c t i o n p u r p o s e s , i t i s n o t u n l i k e l y t h a t costume changes were o f t e n employed, to g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f a l a r g e and v a r i e d h o u s e h o l d , so t h a t an . i l l u s t r i o u s c h a r a c t e r n e e d n o t seem t o s p e a k to t h e same s e r v a n t t w i c e . One d o u b t s . t h a t t h e a u d i e n c e w o u l d pay t o o much c o n s c i o u s a t t e n t i o n t o s u c h d e t a i l s , y e t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e s e s e r v a n t s s u p p l y i s o f t e n o f v i t a l . i n t e r e s t and m i g h t w e l l c a u s e them to s t i c k i n t h e a u d i e n c e ' s memories. I f s o , t h e t i m e l y . r e a p p e a r a n c e o f s u c h a one c o u l d be a u s e f u l d r a m a t i c t o o l . We c a n n o t o v e r l o o k t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e u s e d s u c h d e v i c e s ; n e v e r t h e l e s s s i n c e we c a n n o t p r o v e i t we have h e r e t a k e n t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e a p p r o a c h t h a t any i d e n t i c a l l y d e s i g n a t e d c h a r a c t e r s , L o r d s , M e s s e n g e r s o r w h a t e v e r , b e l o n g i n g t o t h e same 37 household or f o l l o w i n g are considered f o r counting purposes to be the same characters in.each scene. The number of unnamed speakers soars to 19 i n The Taming of the Shrew and 16 i n A l l ' s Well That Ends Well, thanks to ser vants i n the f i r s t and s o l d i e r s i n the second; throughout the other comedies up through Measure for Measure i t ranges from zero to nine, and averages f i v e . In Much Ado, As. You Like It, and Twelfth Night i t r i s e s , apparently to.provide a greater sense of ongoing l i f e by p u t t i n g more players on the stage. This compensates f o r t h e . r e l a t i v e l y low number of s i l e n t nomin-ees i n these p l a y s , and represents a change i n technique of whi Shakespeare makes good use i n the Dramatic Romances. There i s another extremely important poi n t to be made i n regard to Shakespeare's use of unnamed speakers, one which has been touched on from time to time above:,. Often a major character remains unnamed. Sometimes, l i k e " V i n c e n t i o " i n Measure for Measure, he i s named i n the Dramatis Personae and stage d i r e c t i o n s ; at other times he i s t r u l y nameless l i k e the King i n A l l ' s Well That Ends Well,, but there i s g e n e r a l l y an e x c e l l e n t reason. Thus i n Two Gentlemen of Verona the Duke of Mila n i s unnamed, i n Love's Labour's Lost the King, of Navarre i s "Navarre," not "Ferdinand," and the Princess of France i s unnamed; in.The.Merchant of Venice the Duke of Venice i s 38 unnamed,, i n As You Like It the Duke senior i s unnamed; i n All's Well That Ends Well, the King, Countess and Duke of Florence are a l l unnamed and of course Measure for Measurers Duke i s unnamed save f o r h i s a l i a s . This i s c l e a r l y the r u l e , the exceptions being S o l i n u s , Theseus, Orsino and perhaps Much Ado About Noth-ing's Don Pedro and Leonato. Shakespeare tends t o . i d e n t i f y the r u l e r w i t h h i s s t a t e , a common E l i z a b e t h a n . h a b i t of thought. Apparent omissions on Shakespeare's p a r t , i f we may t r u s t the a u t h e n t i c i t y of stage d i r e c t i o n s , s e r v i n g no apparent pur-pose and i n f a c t d e t r a c t i n g from the f u l l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n other-wise a v a i l a b l e , are Two Gentlemen of Verona's Speed, e i t h e r S a l e r i o and S a l a r i n o or Salanio and S a l a r i n o , depending on wheth-er emendation of S a l e r i o i s accepted, i n The Merchant of Venice, As You Like I t ' s O l i v e r , -Twelfth Night'' s V a l e n t i n e , A l l ' s Well That Ends- Well' s V i o l e n t a and.Mariana, Measure for Measure's Fr. Thomas and F r a n c i s c a , as w e l l as. The Winter's Tale's Archidamus and The Tempest's Francisco and I r i s . . The s i g n i f i -cance of such omissions as p o s s i b l e i n d i c a t o r s of Shakespeare's i n t e n t i o n has been noted i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n . As mentioned above, the p a r t s of nondescript unnamed servants and such, were s u r e l y doubled f o r production. By sub-t r a c t i n g these doublings, then, and adding the remainder to the number of named speakers i n a p l a y , we should a r r i v e at a very cl o s e approximation of the maximum number of actors r e q u i r e d a to produce i t . The a c t u a l f i g u r e s would probably be o f t e n lower as some of the more important r o l e s were doubled. Though i t i s not c e n t r a l to a d i s c u s s i o n of names i t should be noted that i n p r a c t i c e there must have been some pres-sure on Shakespeare to make maximum use of the actors at h i s d i s p o s a l , p r e f e r a b l y without burdening them unduly w i t h l i n e s or the need to appear i n each scene. We might speculate, then, that our t o t a l of speakers, as i t v a r i e s from p l a y to p l a y , re-f l e c t s a var y i n g t o t a l of actors a c t i v e in.the company. I f so, t h i s was u s u a l l y about twenty men, w i t h p o s s i b l e a few " e x t r a s " dded i n the. prosperous l a t e r days that saw.the production of the Dramatic Romances. Having seen how the numbers of names i n each category vary from play to pl a y according to dramatic requirements, we s h a l l now look b r i e f l y . a t the usual sources of meaning i n the names. We have repeatedly noted the d i s t i n c t i o n between "low" r e a l i s t i c names and the names of the p l a y s ' p r i n c i p a l s . By "low" names we mean g e n e r a l l y the names of lower or middleclass characters and members of the dramatic world, u s u a l l y i n the. c a p a c i t y of servants, tradesmen and t h e i r customers. These names are g e n e r a l l y though not always contemporary E n g l i s h ; they o f t e n r e f e r to o b j e c t s , p h y s i c a l t r a i t s and fe a t u r e s , or humors. Examples are Bottom, Belch and Aguecheek, and Lafeu. They are f r e q u e n t l y s u s c e p t i b l e to punning, of t e n 40 amusing i n sound.as w e l l as sense and almost i n v a r i a b l y of a c h a r a c t e r i z i n g nature. Like most c h a r a c t e r i z i n g names, they u s u a l l y play upon expectations, e i t h e r confirming or c o n t r a d i c t -ing an apparent t r a i t . When a p p l i e d to a c t u a l onstage charac-t e r s they are u s u a l l y introduced at.the moment of f i r s t entrance rather than appreciably before or a f t e r . This i s because, un-l i k e the c h a r a c t e r i z i n g names a p p l i e d to major c h a r a c t e r s , they seldom r e f e r to f u n c t i o n s , and t h e i r possessors do not undergo p e r s o n a l i t y changes i n the course of the p l a y . Thus a "low" name i s r a r e l y used to i n d i c a t e character development or d i s -play an unseen f a c e t of char a c t e r ; i t comments d i r e c t l y , i f some-times i r o n i c a l l y , on a s a l i e n t t r a i t . Characters w i t h "low" names may appear anywhere i n a p l a y , but the tendency i s f o r t h e i r stage a c t i v i t i e s to be con-centrated i n a few scenes, which we have r e f e r r e d to as "low" scenes, though other characters often enter i n t o them. I t i s improper i n most cases to speak of comic relief scenes i n a comedy, though plays l i k e Measure for Measure possess them; the low scenes g e n e r a l l y counterpoint the main a c t i o n , as i n As You Like It, where the scenes w i t h Touchstone, Audrey, W i l l i a m and S i r O l i v e r Martext present a view of c o u r t s h i p d i s t i n c t from those of Rosalind and Orlando and of Phebe and S i l v i u s . Often too they are f a i r l y autonomous b i t s of entertainment, as are Launce and h i s dog Crab i n Two Gentlemen of Verona. "Low" names are used to denote dealings w i t h a d i f f e r e n t stratum of s o c i e t y i n The Comedy of Errors and The .Taming of the Shrew. Luce, Dowsabel, and Maud, B r i g e t , Marian, C i s l e y , G i l l i a n and Ginn are.the household servants, d i s t i n c t from the two Dromios. Though Dromio, or Dromo, may have been, a "low" name i n Terentian comedy, whence Shakespeare took i t , i t i s here d i s -t i n c t from the names of AdrianaVs household. The.other "low" name i n the play i s "Dr. P i n c h . " Here and w i t h Dowsabel we f i n d the humorous s i t u a t i o n . c a l l i n g f o r the humorous name. In The Taming of the Shrew l i k e w i s e , the "low" names are. r e s t r i c t e d to S l y and h i s c i r c l e , and Petruchio's r e t a i n e r s , i n the country, both r e a l i s t i c as compared to- the I t a l i a n a t e world of the r e s t of the p l a y . Two Gentlemen, of Verona has only Launce and Crab, and the two F r i a r s . Speed i s unnamed on stage, an apparent example of a name which though i n a c c e s s i b l e to the audience, s i g n a l s Shakespeare's i n t e n t i o n s . I t i s i n harmony w i t h "Launce" and presents no new f a c e t s . The names i n Love's Labour's Lost and A Midsummer Eight's Dream serve p r i m a r i l y as denotators.of s o c i a l c l a s s and v e h i c l e s of humor. The Merchant of Venice contains only Launcelot and h i s f a t h e r , the elder Gobbo, w i t h a reference to Margery h i s mother. Humor seems to be the e s s e n t i a l o b j e c t i v e here. In Much Ado and As You Like It humor shares the* stage w i t h the p o r t r a y a l of a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l of s o c i e t y . Names such as Sea-coal and W i l l i a m c e r t a i n l y denote lower c l a s s , r e a l i s t i c charac-t e r s who i n e v i t a b l y are objects of humor, but they also connote a yeomanly r e l i a b i l i t y . A c c o r d i n g l y we f i n d ourselves approving t h e i r a c t i o n s and opinions and acknowledging that they have a v a l i d , serious place and f u n c t i o n i n the dramatic world, as i n our own. So we are pleased when the watch i n Mueh Ado unmasks a v i l l a i n and we t a c i t l y recognize that a l l . the romantic, comedy of As You Like It r e s t s l i g h t l y on the r e a l country world of W i l l i a m and Audrey. T h i s . s o c i a l s e t t i n g i s hardly e x p l i c i t , but i t does begin to emerge and play a l a r g e r r o l e i n subsequent p l a y s . Twelfth Eight..is i n t h i s l i n e but w i t h added dimensions of s o c i a l comment and a t i g h t e r dramatic s t r u c t u r e due to the i n t e r -l o c k i n g nature of the names, e.g., Aguecheck derived from or cog-32 nate w i t h "Male v o l t i , " r e l a t e d to " M a l v o l i o " as the r o l e s of the two as s u i t o r s to O l i v i a are r e l a t e d . Merry. Wives, of course, i s wholly given over to what we have c l a s s e d as "low" names. With no c o n t r a s t i n g names, the humor i s somewhat muted, and Ford's name w i t h h i s a l i a s "Brook" may a c t u a l l y i n d i c a t e 33 character development. A l l ' s Well has no genuine "low" names; i t s humorous c h a r a c t e r i z i n g names are French, allow of v a r y i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , are introduced long a f t e r the c h a r a c t e r s ' appearances and above a l l are a p p l i e d to p r i n c i p a l actors i n the pla y . The r e a l i s t i c names of captains i n the camp scenes have no 43 s i g n i f i c a n c e save as a t o n e - s e t t i n g device. A f t e r these, two exceptions, Measure for Measure returns to the technique of "low" names used by previous comedies such as Much Ado About Nothing, w i t h no unusual developments. We may note that i t contains the t h i r d and l a s t example of a "low" name which i s s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y ; "Pompey Bum" functions as do "Christophero S l y " and Launcelot Gobbo.". When, we come below to consider the Dramatic Romances' use of "low" names, we s h a l l f i n d some s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . As set f o r t h i n the Appendix, names acquire meaning i n a v a r i e t y of ways, b a s i c a l l y . d i v i s i b l e i n t o sound, l i t e r a l . s e n s e and a s s o c i a t i v e value. The f i r s t , i s h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e , and Shakespeare makes l i t t l e s e rious use of i t . There i s of course the c o n t r a s t between "low" and d i g n i f i e d names, which of t e n em-braces the sound, and a tendency f o r servants' names to be shorter and more consonantal. Other than t h i s we note only eight p l a u s i b l e . i n s t a n c e s of au d i t o r y s i g n i f i c a n c e from The Comedy of Errors through Measure for Measure. The endings of The Taming of The Shrew's "Tranio" and "Grumio" reproduce t h e i r s i m i l a r occupations and encourage f u r t h e r s p e c u l a t i o n on t h e i r s i m i l a r i -t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s , and the s i m i l a r i t y of "Grumio". to "Gremio" may be an i r o n i c comment on the l a t t e r . . Knight comments on the " t h i c k and, c o l o u r l e s s b r e v i t y " of "Thurio" i n Two Gentlemen of Verona; "Don Adriano de Armado" i s an a p p r o p r i a t e l y long, thumping name f o r the bombastic Spaniard in. Love's Labour's Lost. In The Merchant of Venice Knight has noted the long "o" sounds of "Morocco," r e c a l l i n g the southern sun, and we note that "Shylock" has, by c o n t r a s t to the other names i n the pl a y , an unpleasing sound. Likewise i n Much Ado, "Borachio" has an ugly, r e t c h i n g sound. Most c e r t a i n l y and s u c c e s s f u l l y , Twelfth Night's M a l v o l i o , O l i v i a and V i o l a are a l l l i n k e d by-the sound of t h e i r names. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to separate the ways i n which a name may have l i t e r a l and a s s o c i a t i v e meanings, and more d i f f i c u l t s t i l l to define them. Because of the magnitude of the task we s h a l l here confine ourselves to a summary of the types of meanings found i n p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s ' names. In The Comedy of Errors the names D r o m i o A n t i p h o l u s and Pinch r e f e r to character and f u n c t i o n s , Pinch and Dowsabell to appearance and Angelo to occupation. ITY, The Taming-, of the Shrew S l y , Grumio, Tranio and Kate r e f e r to character., though i n d i f -f e r e n t ways. In Two Gentlemen of Verona Proteus, V a l e n t i n e , J u l i a , Eglamour and Thurio r e f e r to ch a r a c t e r , Proteus v i a a c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n . S i l v i a ' s name r e f e r s , to her experience, as w e l l as being a conventional i d e a l i s t i c feminine name. In Love's Labour's Lost none of the serious characters bear mean-i n g f u l names; Costard, D u l l , Moth, Armado and Holofernes a l l r e f e r to personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Armado via,Spanish and 45 Holofernes v i a l i t e r a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . A Midsummer Night's earn uses, names w i t h a s s o c i a t i o n s from medieval romance and humorous occupational names. The names i n The Merchant of Venice evoke a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h words: Bessanio - basanoi, Arragon - arrogance,.Portia - p o r t i o n , and Gobbo - hunchback. The l a s t two also suggest the f i g u r e s of P o r t i a and Job, as Arragon suggests t y p i c a l l y Spanish t r a i t s . In Much Ado B e a t r i c e and Benedict's names e x p l a i n t h e i r u l t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p , while Borachio, Dogberry, Verges, Oatcake, and Seacoal evoke objects w i t h . c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As You Like It puns on Jaques and Touchstone, pokes fun at Orlando by asso-c i a t i n g him w i t h A r i o s t o ' s hero, and c o n t r a s t s the p a s t o r a l and r e a l i s t i c l o v e r s . Twelfth Night, even i f Hotson's theory of i t s court a l l e -gory based on Orsino i s disregarded, i s r i c h i n s i g n i f i c a n t names and succeeds to an unprecedented degree i n i n t e r r e l a t i n g them. One example must serve here as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Shakespeare's craftsmanship i n t h i s p l a y . Curio i s named once, i n the opening scene, where he asks Orsino i f he w i l l hunt the h a r t , e v i d e n t l y to cheer him up. -Appearing a g a i n . i n I I . i v . he has f i v e l i n e s , e x p l a i n i n g to Orsino that Feste;, who should sing the song Orsino wants to hear, i s absent. ,• Curio's name may i n d i c a t e cure, i n that he wishes to help Orsino, curial, a c o u r t i e r , curious i n the senses of c a r e f u l , i n q u i s i t i v e , 46 s o l i c i t o u s , and curioso, a connoisseur. Each meaning i s apt, and the e n t i r e play meets the standards thus s e t . A f t e r Twelfth. Night Shakespeare seems, to have r e s t e d from h i s labors.. The names i n The Merry Wives of Windsor are simply d e s c r i p t i v e , l i k e "Shallow," or not s i g n i f i c a n t at a l l . All's Well i s s i m i l a r , though the names are French. Measure for Measure shows greater v a r i e t y , Angelo's name i n p a r t i c u l a r being f i n e l y i r o n i c . Changes i n technique throughout the twelve comedies are s l i g h t , c o n s i s t i n g not of the use of names which c h a r a c t e r i z e i n d i f f e r e n t ways but i n the more complex way i n which the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n is. revealed. In other words, the a t t r i b u t e s described by the names are ones which are not.immediately appar-ent, and a te n s i o n of expectations r e s u l t s , the.audience being o f f e r e d two a l t e r n a t e a t t i t u d e s toward a c h a r a c t e r , and i n the end a f u l l e r understanding of him. This i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e development i n Much Ado. In accordance w i t h t h i s there i s a progr e s s i v e development of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n the moments of i n t r o d u c t i o n of the names. In The Comedy of Errors we are given a chance to know Antipholus before we l e a r n h i s name, but h i s i s the only such case before The Merchant of Venice. There Antonio and Shylock are both w e l l depicted before t h e i r names are spoken, but the extent to which these names add to c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s 47 s l i g h t ; they serve more as l a b e l s a f f i x e d to henceforth i d e n t i f y the character. In t h i s they d i f f e r l i t t l e from names introduced before or upon a character's entrance. The c o n t r a s t i n Much Ado i s a s t o n i s h i n g . Only Borachio and Dogberry, are.named when they enter. Leonato, Hero, Don John, B e a t r i c e and Verges.are a l l named a f t e r they have had opportunity to show t h e i r c h a r a c t e r , and Claudio and Benedict are named before they enter,' s e t t i n g up a p r i o r e xpectation. . As You Like It makes s i m i l a r uses of the names Orlando, Touch-stone, Phebe and S i l v i u s . Twelfth Night e x c e l l s i n s k i l l f u l use of moments of i n t r o d u c t i o n as i n a l l other aspects of naming. V i o l a ' s true name i s the c l e a r e s t example i n a l l . Shakespeare's plays of the symbolic power of a s i g n i f i c a n t name introduced at a s i g n i f i c a n t moment. Merry Wives, due to i t s unusual s t y l e , returns to the p r a c t i c e of i n t r o d u c i n g a l l names promptly upon the char a c t e r s ' entrance. In All's Well, i n c o n t r a s t , a l l characters but Diana C a p i l e t are named w e l l a f t e r t h e i r appearances. Thus t h e i r names comment on observed q u a l i t i e s , while Diana's defines the r o l e she i s to play. Measure- for Measure, introduces Angelo and I s a b e l l a upon entrance, but a l l others before or a f t e r . At f i r s t t h i s seems l i k e a l a c k of s k i l l a f t e r Twelfth Night, degenerating to p o s i t i v e naivete in Merry Wives, but a c t u a l l y Twelfth Night and Merry Wives are exceptions, the 48 one due to craftsmanship, the other to a s t y l i s t i c experiment. The other plays d i s p l a y a developing mastery of technique, most n o t i c e a b l e a f t e r Midsummer Night's Dream. A corresponding development e x i s t s i n the o v e r a l l a l l o c a t i o n of names, as we have pointed out above,.with a.growing tendency to assign names w i t h more than a simple one-to-one r e l a t i o n to character. THE DRAMATIC ROMANCES The four plays we have now to examine i n d e t a i l are c a l l e d romances i n r e c o g n i t i o n of c e r t a i n shared c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Chief among these are loose, complicated.episodic s t r u c t u r e , remote s e t t i n g s r e p l e t e w i t h anachronism, a strong supernatural element, l i k e w i s e a grotesque element, a c t i o n covering a long span of time, i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and the occa-s i o n a l presence of a n a r r a t o r w i t h the a b i l i t y to comment on the a c t i o n . Measuring w i t h t h i s y a r d s t i c k we can see that The Tempest i s l e s s a romance than the other three. I t s observation of the u n i t i e s preclude l o o s e . s t r u c t u r e , i t s characters are c o n s i s t e n t l y i f not r e a l i s t i c a l l y drawn, and the f u n c t i o n of commentator i s shared among the c h a r a c t e r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s . i t c l e a r l y shares the other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of romance as l i s t e d above. Northrop Frye notes a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Dramatic Romances: V e r t i c a l extension of the a c t i o n i n t o upper and lower worlds recurs i n the o r a c l e s and epiphanies at the end of Cymbeline. The Winter's Tale seems almost w r i t t e n to Sidney's s t r i c t u r e s i n the Defence of Poesy about the. romances of .his day that show a character as an i n f a n t i n one act and as grown up i n the next, and Shakespeare takes the f u l l e s t advantage of the p r i n c i p a l s t a t e d i n the Preface to F l e t c h e r ' s Faithful Shepherdess (c. 1610) that i n a p a s t o r a l tragi-comedy a god i s " l a w f u l . " A l l four romances provide us w i t h i n f a n t s growing i n t o a d u l t s during the a c t i o n of the p l a y , presented or recounted. The requirement that no proper romance can take l e s s , than f i f t e e n years f o r i t s t o t a l a c t i o n i s met i n The Tempest by a long and r a t h e r wooden 49 50 e x p o s i t o r y harangue from Prospero to Miranda at the be-ginning. The expansion of time to include the passing of a generation--a theme much i n s i s t e d on i n The Winter's Tale--seems., p a r a d o x i c a l l y , to have something to do with the sense of timelessness i n which* these romances move. In Cymbeline, as already mentioned, we enter a world i n which Rome and the Renaissance.exist simultane-ously, and the only phrase that w i l l date such a play i s "once upon a time." The romances, i n the f i r s t p l a c e , set up a h i e r -archy of behavior, more c l e a r l y s t r a t i f i e d than we f i n d i n the comedies. We can see at l e a s t f i v e l e v e l s of i t i n a l l the romances. On the highest l e v e l i s the prov-i d e n t i a l d e i t y or i t s human counterpart Prospero; next come the hero and heroine; next the minor.characters who represent a middle l e v e l of f i d e l i t y or common sense--Helicanus, Cam i l l o , P i s a n i o , Gonzalo. Below these are, f i r s t , the clownish or absurd, and below that the e v i l or v i l l a i n o u s . We can g e n e r a l i z e these l e v e l s by saying that i n a l l the romances there i s a tendency to set an i d e a l i z e d or noble s i t u a t i o n over against an e v i l or demonic parody of i t . In the romances there i s a c o n f l i c t between a s o c i e t y which i s a r t i f i c i a l i n the modern sense, a c o u r t l y a r i s t o c r a c y f u l l of all-too-human p r i d e , passion, and s e l f i s h n e s s , and another society, which we may c a l l a "natural, s o c i e t y , " i n the pa r a d o x i c a l sense j u s t estab-l i s h e d . This n a t u r a l s o c i e t y develops from the green world of the f o r e s t comedies, and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a f i g u r e who i s e i t h e r a healer or i n some other way a preserver of l i f e . - * -Frye gives.examples and arguments to support these p r o p o s i -t i o n s , which we s h a l l deal w i t h s p e c i f i c a l l y i n our i n d i v i d u a l d i s c u s s i o n s of the pl a y . Other c r i t i c s , Evans and Biswas, have noted f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n s : 51 In comparison w i t h the tragedies the language has on the whole a quietness, a thinness, an absence of over-tones or su b t l e a s s o c i a t i o n s . I t serves the complex a c t i o n w i t h complete adequacy but i t does not i n i t s passage explore the depths of human experience, any more than does the a c t i o n i t s e l f . 2 Shakespeare's a t t e n t i o n seems to have been focussed on spectacular dramatic e f f e c t r a t h e r than:on o r g a n i z a t i o n of p l o t or s i g n i f i c a n c e of the p l a y . ^ These remarks stand here as i n d i c a t o r s of the manner i n which the Dramatic. Romances are d i s t i n c t from the previous twelve comedies. By analyzing them s e q u e n t i a l l y and summarizing we s h a l l demonstrate how Shakespeare's naming p r a c t i c e c o n t r i b u t e s to these d i s t i n c t i o n s . Perictes Gower opens the p l a y , i n t r o d u c i n g h i m s e l f i n the second l i n e of a sing-song prologue. In a d d i t i o n to,thus acknowledg-ing h i s debt to Gower's s t o r y of A p o l l o n i u s of Tyre i n Confessio Amantis Shakespeare emphasizes that t h i s i s "a song that o l d was sung" and w i l l be conformable to expectations i n regard to fabulous events, e p i s o d i c form.and moral e d i f i c a t i o n . Gower proceeds to say This Antioch then Antiochus the Great B u i l t up, t h i s c i t y , f o r h i s c h i e f e s t seat, The f a i r e s t i n a l l S y r i a . (11..17 - 19) So we are g e o g r a p h i c a l l y l o c a t e d by l i n e nineteen. More impor-t a n t l y , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Antiochus w i t h A n t i o c h , and the f a i l u r e to name h i s wife or incentuous daughter .create a sense 4 of a b s t r a c t i o n . Antiochus, h i s f a m i l y and c i t y are simply d e a l t w i t h as a two-dimensional r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of e v i l , which precludes personal concern, f o r Antiochus, h i s daughter or the c i t i z e n s of A n t i o c h . D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of names would have been the f i r s t step toward rounded c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , which would i n t e r f e r e w i t h the r o l e set f o r Antiochus, so Shakespeare, l i k e Gower, has w i s e l y avoided i t . Scene One begins as Antiochus and P e r i c l e s enter, and Antiochus says: ANT. Young Pri n c e of Trye, you have at large received The danger of the task you undertake. PER. I have, Antiochus, and w i t h a soul Emboldened w i t h the g l o r y of her. p r a i s e , Think death no hazard i n t h i s e n t e r p r i s e . ( I . i . 1 - 5 ) 52 53 This exchange i s repeated, i n essence, twenty l i n e s l a t e r when P e r i c l e s i s named; ANT. "Prince Pericles--"/PER. "That would be son to great Antiochus." (11. 25 - 26) Thus a p a r a l l e l i s set up, probably aided on stage by appropriate p o s i t i o n s and costume, without which P e r i c l e s might e a s i l y be immediately seen as Antiochus's moral opposite r a t h e r than a p o t e n t i a l f e l l o w i n s i n . Much in g e n u i t y has been expended on the name " P e r i c l e s , " Shakespeare's most s i g n i f i c a n t departure from Gower's names i n Confessio Amantis. Many c r i t i c s have suspected a connection with the Pyrocles of Sidney's Arcadia. At l e a s t two seventeenth-century references to the p l a y have " P i r r o c l e s , " or " P y r o c l e s , " and Bullough l i s t s s e v e r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the s t o r i e s . However, he also notes that " ' P e r i l l i e ' i s a name assumed by, A p o l l o n i u s i n a French MS i n Vienna . . . Was there a b a l l a d . o r l a y i n E n g l i s h (now l o s t ) i n which A p o l l o n i u s became ' P e r i l l e s ' or ' P e r i c l e s , ' perhaps because of the p e r i l s ( p e r i c u l a ) he endured?"^ G. W. Knight f i n d s the ' p e r i c u l a ' d e r i v a t i o n a t t r a c -t i v e , but others f e e l that the name genuinely r e f e r s to P l u t a r c h ' s P e r i c l e s . . Tompkins r e j e c t s both- Sidney's P y r o c l e s and Spenser's Pyrochles as being too.impulsive, ardent and f i e r y , whereas P l u t a r c h s t r e s s e s the patience of P e r i c l e s under s u f f e r i n g . ^ Barker f i n d s supporting.evidence i n Wilson's Arte of Rhetorique (1553) and the Homily, against Contention and Brawling, b o t h o f w h i c h name P e r i c l e s as an example o f pa-7 t i e n c e . The a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h p a t i e n t s u f f e r i n g seems most s a t i s f a c t o r y , b u t i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f Shake-s p e a r e ' s a u d i e n c e w o u l d make t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n f i r s t . Most p r o b a b l e i s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n by c o n t r a s t w i t h P y r o c h l e s and P y r o c l e s , as t h e s e w o u l d p r o b a b l y be more f a m i l i a r t o t h e a u d i -ence o f a d r a m a t i c romance. I n t h i s i n s t a n c e i t i s n o t t h e i n t r i n s i c meaning t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t b u t t h e u s e w h i c h S h a k e s p e a r e makes of. t h e name. In t h i s f i r s t s c e n e i t i s "Young P r i n c e o f T y r e , " " P r i n c e P e r i c l e s , " " P r i n c e P e r i c l e s , " and " P e r i c l e s " i n " t i l l P e r i c l e s i s d e a d , " a f i n a l n o t e w h i c h i s made more ominous by t h e o m i s s i o n o f t h e t i t l e . S h a k e s p e a r e f i r s t e m p h a s i z e s P e r i c l e s ' s p r i n c e l y d i g n i t y . T h i s was, f i r s t o f a l l , n a t u r a l t o S h a k e s p e a r e ; h i s a p p r o a c h t o s t a g e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , as A u e r b a c h n o t e s , demanded t h a t h i s p r o t a g o n i s t s be a r i s t o c r a t i c f i g u r e s , however, much t h e y m i g h t s u f f e r . I n d e e d , o n l y t h e s u f f e r i n g o f s u c h a f i g u r e h a d any deep i n t e r e s t o r meaning f o r him. In a d d i t i o n , he was i n a c c o r d w i t h h i s s o u r c e . Gower's A p o l l o n i u s n e v e r l o s e s h i s n a t u r a l d i g n i t y . F u n c t i o n a l l y , t h i s d e v i c e o f e m p h a s i z i n g P e r i c l e s ' s n o b i l i t y h e i g h t e n s t h e a u d i e n c e ' s a n t i c i p a t i o n . I t becomes more momentous, more p o t e n t i a l l y t r a g i c t h a t a c h a r a c t e r o f h i s s t a t u r e m i g h t u n i t e h i m s e l f w i t h A n t i o c h u s ' s d a u g h t e r and t h u s w i t h t h e s i n f u l r e a l m o f A n t i o c h . A l s o , i t d i s p l a y s e v i l A n t i o c h u s as a f l a t t e r e r and d i s s e m b l e r ; t h o u g h r e s p e c t f u l t o h i s v i s i t o r ' s f a c e , he c o n c l u d e s n o t t o r e s t " t i l l . P e r i c l e s be d e a d . " The p o i n t e d o m i s s i o n o f a t i t l e w o u l d not. go u n n o t i c e d by a London a u d i e n c e , and s e r v e s t o f u r t h e r b l a c k e n A n t i o c h u s w h i l e i t seems t o i n t e n s i f y and p e r s o n a l i z e t h e t h r e a t t o P e r i c l e s . Now n o t h i s s o u l b u t h i s l i f e i s i n d a n g e r . P r e v i o u s l y A n t i o c h u s has b een d e r o g a t e d - i n a n o t h e r way. In A c t I , s c . i , 11 7-9, A n t i o c h u s m e n t i o n s t h a t h i s d a u g h t e r i s f i t F o r t h e embracements even o f J o v e h i m s e l f , A t whose c o n c e p t i o n , t i l l L u c i n a r e i g n e d , N a t u r e t h i s dowry gave Few f a t h e r s w o u l d commend t h e i r d a u g h t e r s t o t h e embraces o f s u c h a n o t a b l y immoral d e i t y . T h i s f a i n t l y u n s a v o r y r e mark i s n e a r l y . l o s t when the n e x t f o u r l i n e s p r e s e n t an e l a b o r a t e compl ment, L u c i n a b e i n g g o d d e s s o f c h i l d b i r t h . However, P e r i c l e s has n o t m i s s e d i t ; a t l i n e s 104 - 105 a f t e r s o l v i n g t h e r i d d l e he t e l l s A n t i o c h u s " I f J o v e s t r a y , who d a r e s s a y J o v e d o t h i l l ? / I t i s enough y o u know." Not o n l y i s . t h e a u d i e n c e r e m i n d e o f A n t i o c h u s ' i m m o r a l i t y b u t an a n t i p a g a n b i a s i s e s t a b l i s h e d , and i t i s f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d when a t l i n e 27, A n t i o c h u s l i k e n s h i s d a u g h t e r t o t h e H e s p e r i d e s , w h i c h S h a k e s p e a r e . e v i d e n t l y t h o u g h t t o be t h e name o f t h e g a r d e n , n o t t h e women, and i n 56 l i n e 38 r e f e r s t o P e r i c l e s ' p r e d e c e s s o r s as " m a r t y r s , s l a i n i n C u p i d ' s w a r s . " The e f f e c t o f t h e s e u n p l e a s a n t . a s p e c t s o f pagan d e i t i e s i s t o make any f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e s t o them s u s p e c t . T h a l i a r d i s a l s o i n t r o d u c e d i n s c . i . a t l i n e 151: " T h a l i a r d , y o u a r e o f o u r chamber. . ." and h i s name, w i t h no t i t l e o r e p i t h e t , i s r e p e a t e d t w i c e . T h i s i s S h a k e s p e a r e ' s c u s t o m a r y p r a c t i c e i n s c e n e s w i t h u n d e r l i n g s r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s and i n r e a l i s t i c s c e n e s g e n e r a l l y . Scene I I i s a t T y r e , t h o u g h t h e f a c t i s n o t m e n t i o n e d f o r 115 l i n e s . P e r i c l e s s o l i l o q u i z e s , r e f e r r i n g o nce t o A n t i o c h and once t o A n t i o c h u s , e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t t h e t h r e a t e x t e n d s t o him a t home. , Then H e l i c a n u s e n t e r s w i t h o t h e r l o r d s , whom he r e b u k e s f o r f l a t t e r y . P e r i c l e s t h e n r e b u k e s and t h r e a t e n s him: " H e l i c a n u s , t h o u h a s t moved u s " and a t L i n e 67 s a y s " t h o u s p e a k ' s t l i k e a p h y s i c i a n , H e l i c a n u s . " P a u s a n i u s s a y s o f Mt. H e l i c o n t h a t " n e i t h e r p o i s o n o u s p l a n t n o r s e r p e n t was t o be f o u n d on i t , w h i l e many o f i t s h e r b s p o s s e s s e d m i r a c u l o u s v i r -g t u e . " The name c h o i c e i s Gower's ( H e l l i c a n ) b u t i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e was aware o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n " o f H e l i c o n , " t h u s m e d i c i n a l o r h e a l t h f u l , i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e remark a b o u t p h y s i c i a n s h i p and t h e s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n w h i c h may be t a k e n t o mean " o f H e l i c o n . " Gower does n o t p r e s e n t a s i m i l a r remark. P e r i c l e s p r o c e e d s , t o e x p l a i n h i s f e a r s t o H e l i c a n u s , 57 m e n t i o n i n g A n t i o c h once ( 1 . 7 0 ) . H e l i c a n u s m e n t i o n s A n t i o c h u s once (1. 102) i n a d v i s i n g him t o f l e e " t i l l t h e D e s t i n i e s do c u t h i s ( A n t i o c h u s ' ) t h r e a d o f l i f e . " ( 1 . 108) T h i s p e r s o n i f i c a -t i o n , t h e D e s t i n i e s , i s t h u s s e p a r a t e d and, opposed., as i n d e e d i t o f t e n seemed t o t h e G r e e k s t o be, t o t h e p a n t h e o n headed by J o v e , who has p r e v i o u s l y b een p l a c e d on t h e s i d e o f i m m o r a l i t y . The D e s t i n i e s l a t e r a p p e a r t o be m a n i f e s t l y s u p e r i o r t o w h a t e v e r d e i t i e s A n t i o c h u s - s u b s c r i b e s t o , f o r t h e y " c u t h i s t h r e a d " i n d r a s t i c f a s h i o n . Then P e r i c l e s announces " T y r e , I l o o k f r o m t h e e t h e n , and to T h a r s u s / I n t e n d my t r a v e l , " (11. 115 - 1 1 6 ) , t h e f i r s t men-t i o n o f T y r e . S i g n i f i c a n t l y i t has b e e n p r e p a r e d f o r by f o u r r e p e t i t i o n s i n t h e l a s t f o r t y - f o u r . l i n e s o f " t y r a n t " and " t y r a n n o u s . " ' The j u x t a p o s i t i o n c r e a t e s . a s y m b o l i c metonymy w h i c h p a v e s t h e way f o r t h e e n t r a n c e o f T h a l i a r d , a s A n t i o c h u s ' s a g e n t and t h e e x i t o f P e r i c l e s f r o m T y r e . The m e n t i o n o f T h a r s u s w o u l d c o n n o t e m e r e l y a w e a l t h y and l u x u r i o u s c i t y , much 9 l i k e T y r e , t o an E l i z a b e t h a n a u d i e n c e . S i n c e o n l y t h e P u r i t a n s among them w o u l d p o s s e s s much f i r s t h a n d knowledge o f t h e New T e s t a m e n t , no c o n f u s i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h . St.. P a u l w o u l d o c c u r , a n d i n d e e d none seem to have o c c u r r e d t o S h a k e s p e a r e . Scene I I I b r i n g s T h a l i a r d t o T y r e ; "So, - t h i s i s T y r e , and t h i s t h e C o u r t . Here must I k i l l K i n g P e r i c l e s , " (11. 1-2) " T y r e " i s r e p e a t e d t w i c e more, once by T h a l i a r d and once by 58 H e l i c a n u s ; t h e n (11.19 - 21) we h e a r " B e i n g a t A n t i o c h -THAL. ( A s i d e ) . What f r o m A n t i o c h ? HEL. R o y a l . A n t i o c h u s i . . , " w h i c h sudden r e p e t i t i o n s i g n a l s t h e e n t r a n c e o f t h e e v i l i n f l u -e n c e, T h a l i a r d . The naming i n t h e r e s t o f t h e s c e n e r e i n f o r c e s i t : " P e a c e t o t h e l o r d s o f T y r e ! HEL. L o r d T h a l i a r d f r o m A n t i o c h u s i s welcome." (11. 29 - 31) "As f r i e n d s t o A n t i o c h , we may f e a s t i n T y r e . " (1.40) A t t h e c l o s e o f t h e s c e n e t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , t h r o u g h t h e r e p e a t e d a s s o c i a t i o n s o f " T y r e " w i t h " t y r a n t " and " A n t i o c h , " i s c o m p l e t e ; T y r e , t h o u g h n o t P e r i c l e s , has " f a l l e n " t o A n t i o c h . Scene IV moves t h e a c t i o n t o f a m i n e - s t r i c k e n T h a r s u s . The g o v e r n o r ' s w i f e D i o n y z a i s named by him i n t h e f i r s t l i n e o f t h e s c e n e , and a g a i n two l i n e s l a t e r . F o r t h o s e i n t h e a u d i e n c e who knew s o m e t h i n g o f Greek h i s t o r y and myth--not c l e a r l y s e p a r a t e d i n 1608--her name c o u l d have two a s s o c i a -t i o n s ; w i t h t h e c u l t o f D i o n y s u s , i n which, case. " D i o n y z a " e m p h a s i z e s t h e n o r m a l p r o s p e r i t y o f T h a r s u s , . o r w i t h D i o n y s i u s and t h u s w i t h t y r a n n y and v i o l e n c e . The f o r m e r i s a t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e p l a y more p r o b a b l e b u t i t . i s n o t i m p o s s i b l e t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e i n t e n d e d t h e l a t t e r s i n i s t e r a s s o c i a t i o n t o s u b s e -q u e n t l y s u g g e s t i t s e l f and r e p l a c e t h e b e n i g n one.. The name comes from Gower's Dionyse, and Knight f e e l s that "the ' z' does something to prevent so grand a name being i n a p p r o p r i a t e to so unpleasant a p e r s o n " ^ though t h i s would seem to be h i n d s i g h t . The governor describes at length ''This Tharsus, o'er which I have the government" and i t s change of for t u n e , concluding CLE. Oh,.let those c i t i e s that o f . P l e n t y ' s cup And her p r o s p e r i t i e s so l a r g e l y t a s t e , With t h e i r superfluous r i o t s , hear these t e a r s ! The misery of Tharsus may be t h e i r s . " Tyre i s one of these; when P e r i c l e s a r r i v e s he remains unnamed to the l i k e w i s e unnamed governor. I t i s "Tyre 1' (.1.88) which has come to Tharsus though e x i l e d from i t s e l f , and the "Trojan Horse" of Pericles' f l e e t brings, corn, not war, f o r which he i s b l e ssed, "The gods of Greece p r o t e c t you!", a conventional-sounding but appropriate phrase, i t s deeper s i g n i f i c a n c e hinging on the r o l e of the gods i n the Trojan War. P e r i c l e s i s to have l i t t l e p r o t e c t i o n from the f i c k l e gods of Greece, save from Diana. Act I I opens w i t h Gower, who informs the audience that the following,dumb show takes place at Tharsus. Shakespeare makes, considerable use of the dumb, show i n Pericles, not only f o r b r e v i t y ' s sake but as p a r t of the a r c h a i c atmosphere. A f t e r i t , Gower r e c a p i t u l a t e s the events at Tyre, f i r s t men-t i o n i n g Helicanus, then Tyre and T h a l i a r d , then Tharsus. The r a p i d succession of names beginning w i t h "T" 60 r e i n f o r c e s t h e s e n s e o f H e l l i c a n u s ' f e a r t h a t P e r i c l e s w i l l be p u r s u e d . T h e r e f o r e , Gower t e l l s u s , P e r i c l e s " p u t f o r t h to s e a s " b u t was w r e c k e d . In s c e n e i P e r i c l e s e n c o u n t e r s t h e f i s h e r m e n , two o f whom a r e named P i l c h and P a t c h b r e e c h - - the f i r s t " l o w " names i n t h e p l a y a n d t h e l a s t b e f o r e B o u l t . They a p p e a r t o be t h u s named o n l y as p a r t o f t h e r e l i e f o f f e r e d by t h i s s c e n e , a p r o c e d u r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h S h a k e s p e a r e ' s p r a c t i c e i n t h e o t h e r p l a y s as w e l l . P e r i c l e s o v e r h e a r s them m e n t i o n " t h e good k i n g S i m o n i d e s " and e c h o e s , " S i m o n i d e s ! " . ( 1 . 4 9 ) , as i f t h e name were f a m i l i a r t o him. T h e r e i s no f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f t h i s , f o r on l i n e 102 t h e f i r s t f i s h e r m a n s a y s " t h i s i s c a l l e d P e n t a p o l i s , and o u r K i n g t h e good Simonides.'! P e r i c l e s r e s p o n d s , "The good K i n g S i m o n i d e s , do y o u c a l l h i m ? " T h i s emphasis on "good" i s c o n t i n u e d ; a t I I i i i . 20 and.v. 1 and 24, i t i s "good S i m o n i d e s . " O n l y Gower ( I I I . Chorus 23) o m i t s t h e e p i t h e t . I t i s a p p a r e n t l y meant t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e a u d i e n c e ' s a p p r e h e n s i o n t h a t S i m o n i d e s ' p l a y f u l t h r e a t e n i n g c f P e r i c l e s and mock d i s a p -p r o v a l o f t h e m a r r i a g e o f h i s . d a u g h t e r may t u r n o u t t o be g e n u i n e . As f o r t h e c h o i c e o f " S i m o n i d e s , " . Barker"*"^ a d v a n c e s t h e t e n u o u s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i t was made b e c a u s e t h e name 12 a p p e a r s i n W i l s o n ' s Arte of Rhetorique . f r o m . w h i c h he f e e l s S h a k e s p e a r e may have drawn t h e name " P e r i c l e s . " But W i l s o n ' s a c c o u n t o f S i m o n i d e s i s s e v e r a l p a g e s d i s t a n t f r o m t h e m e n t i o n o f P e r i c l e s and b e a r s no r e s e m b l a n c e to S h a k e s p e a r e ' s S i m o n i d e s , b e i n g t h e a c c o u n t o f a man w i t h a. good memory:.. Q u i l l e r - C o u c h m e r e l y r e m a r k s w i t h o u t s t a t i n g any r e a s o n t h a t i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e 13 f o r an a n t a g o n i s t o f P e r i c l e s . A more l i k e l y p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e had i n mind S i m o n i d e s o f C e o s , t h e p o e t t o whom the s a y i n g i s a t t r i b u t e d , " t h a t p o e t r y i s a s p e a k i n g p i c t u r e , . a n d p a i n t i n g a s i l e n t p o e t r y . T h i s may have been s u g g e s t e d t o S h a k e s p e a r e ' s mind by t h e e m b l e m a t i c s h i e l d s c a r r i e d i n t h e t o u r n a m e n t dumb show. S h a k e s p e a r e w o u l d have known l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g a b o u t S i m o n i d e s e x c e p t t h i s remark, w h i c h was a l m o s t a t r u i s m o f E l i z a b e t h a n a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y . . P e n t a p o l i s i s l o c a t e d i n , G r e e c e ( A c t I I , s c . i , 1. 68 " o u r c o u n t r y o f G r e e c e " ) b u t a l t h o u g h t h e r e were some g e n u i n e " P e n t a p o l i s e s , ' . ' t h i s one i s p u r e l y i m a g i n a r y , and a p p a r e n t l y c a r r i e s no a l l u s i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s , b u t . o n l y a s e n s e o f t h e s i z e o f S i m o n i d e s ' s kingdom. The o r i g i n s o f t h e k n i g h t s i n t h e t o u r n a m e n t - - e v e n t h e one f r o m A n t i o c h - - a p p e a r , t o s e r v e no g r e a t e r p u r p o s e t h a n t o l e n d a c o s m o p o l i t a n a i r to Simonides'.s c o u r t , s u g g e s t i n g t h e w i d e s p r e a d fame o f h i s d a u g h t e r ' s . b e a u t y . In Scene I I I T h a i s a i s named--once. In Gower, T h a i s e was P e r i c l e s ' s d a u g h t e r , n o t h i s b r i d e . Any i n t e n d e d a s s o c i a -t i o n w i t h t h e Greek c o u r t e s a n who s u p p o s e d l y p e r s u a d e d A l e x a n d e r t o s e t f i r e t o P e r s e p o l i s ^ i s d o u b t f u l , r e s t i n g 62 o n l y on t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f names w h i c h , s i n c e Gower i s t h e s o u r c e , i s i r r e l e v a n t . An i n t e r e s t i n g p a s s a g e i s . P e r i c l e s ' s o a t h "By J o v e . . . t h a t i s k i n g o f t h o u g h t s " a n d - T h a i s a ' s "By J u n o , t h a t i s queen o f m a r r i a g e . " T h i s b a l a n c e l e g i t i m i z e s , A n a s e n s e , P e r i c l e s ' s o a t h by p a i r i n g t h e d e s i r e s o f J o v e w i t h a w i f e . I t a l s o p a r t i a l l y i d e n t i f i e s Juno w i t h L u c i n a . I n t h i s way a f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n i s drawn between P e r i c l e s ' s l e g i t i m a t e and A n t i o c h u s ' s i l l e g i t i m a t e d e s i r e s . The r e p e t i t i o n o f " P e r i -c l e s " t w i c e and " T y r e " t h r e e t i m e s i n t h e s c e n e e s t a b l i s h e s P e r i c l e s ' s p o s i t i o n i n P e n t a p o l i s . Scene IV, s w i t c h i n g b a c k t o T y r e , . i n t r o d u c e s E s c a n e s and r e v e a l s t h e end o f A n t i o c h u s , b u t more i m p o r t a n t l y r e v e a l s H e l i c a n u s ' s p o p u l a r i t y , w h i c h may c o s t P e r i c l e s h i s t h r o n e . I n t h i s s c e n e t h e s p e l l i n g i s " H e l i c a n e " r e p e a t e d . f o u r t i m e s . S i n c e H e l i c a n e i s p o r t r a y e d as P e r i c l e s ' s s e n i o r , . t h i s v a r i a n t may be i n t e n d e d to c o n j u r e t h e image o f a p e l i c a n d e v o u r i n g i t s young, a p o p u l a r t a l e i n E l i z a b e t h a n . n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . F o r -t u n a t e l y , H e l i c a n u s t u r n s o u t t o be more s c r u p u l o u s . . Scene V, r e t u r n i n g to P e n t a p o l i s t o c o n c l u d e t h e u n i o n o f P e r i c l e s and T h a i s a , c o n t a i n s n o t h i n g u n u s u a l s a v e S i m o n i d e s ' s r e p o r t t o t h e k n i g h t s t h a t T h a i s a has vowed: "One t w e l v e moons more s h e ' l l wear D i a n a ' s l i v e r y . T h i s by t h e eye o f C y n t h i a h a t h she vowed, And on h e r v i r g i n h o n o r w i l l n o t . b r e a k i t . " (11. 10 - 12) The immediate b r e a k i n g o f t h i s o a t h , w h e t h e r made by T h a i s a o r f a b r i c a t e d by S i m o n i d e s , m i g h t be s e e n as c a u s e o f t h e e n s u -i n g d i s a s t e r a t s e a , and T h a i s a ' s t w e l v e y e a r s as D i a n a ' s hand-m a i d e n t h e n e c e s s a r y r e p e n t a n c e . A c t I I I opens w i t h Gower's summary, i n t h e c o u r s e o f w h i c h L y c h o r i d a i s named. She i s named f i v e more t i m e s i n t h e e n s u i n g s c e n e , f o r no p e r c e p t i b l e r e a s o n . When n e x t we h e a r o f h e r , (IV C h o r u s , 1. 42) she i s dead. T h i s i s a p p a r e n t l y an example o f a f r e q u e n t phenomenon i n S h a k e s p e a r e : t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t name o f a s e r v a n t . We see i t a g a i n i n Cymbeline w i t h " P i s a n i o " and The Winter's Tale w i t h " C a m i l l o . " P r e s u m a b l y i t s i m p l y m i r r o r s a common s o c i a l p r a c t i c e . A l s o i n t h e s h i p w r e c k s c e n e , P e r i c l e s c a l l s on N e p t u n e , to whom Gower has r e f e r r e d , and on L u c i n a , r e s p e c t i v e l y t o c a l m t h e s t o r m and e a s e T h a i s a ' s c h i l d b i r t h . N e i t h e r a p p e a l i s s u c -c e s s f u l . The o n l y a p p e a l t h a t i s , i s a s a i l o r ' s "God s a v e y o u . " ( 1 . 38) I n o r d e r i n g t h e s a i l o r s t o change c o u r s e f o r T h a r s u s P e r i c l e s f i r s t m e n t i o n s C l e o n by name. The o n l y s o u r c e o f f e r e d f o r t h i s name i s P l u t a r c h ' s " L i f e o f N i c i a s " i n w h i c h " C l e o n was a r a s h f e l l o w w i t h a l o u d v o i c e and b r a z e n f a c e , " " ^ an u n a p t d e s c r i p t i o n of, T h a r s u s ' s g o v e r n o r . However, he does emerge, as d i d t h e h i s t o r i c a l . C l e o n , as an a n t a g o n i s t o f P e r i c l e s . Scene i i c o n c e r n s t h e d i s c o v e r y a n d , r e s u s c i t a t i o n o f T h a i s a . I t opens w i t h C e r i m o n summoning P h i l e m o n by name, t h e o n l y t i m e i n t h e p l a y t h a t he i s named. B u l l o u g h . n o t e s i n s p e c u -l a t i o n on t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a common s o u r c e t h a t v o n N e u s t a d t ' s 17 poem c o n t a i n s a " P h i l o m i n u s " i n t h i s r o l e ; be t h a t as i t may, t h e name p r o b a b l y comes f r o m O v i d ' s s t o r y o f P h i l e m o n and B a u c i s , who showed h o s p i t a l i t y t o Zeus. I t a l s o a p p e a r s i n t h e New T e s t a m e n t as t h e name o f a man whose c h a r i t y i s a p p e a l e d t o . S i n c e P h i l e m o n ' s o n l y l i n e i s " D o t h my l o r d c a l l ? " he i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y named f o r t h e sake o f the.name's i m p r e s s i o n o f h o s p i -t a l i t y and c h a r i t y . The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s t o r n t e r m i n a t e s i n t h e naming o f t h e . l o c a t i o n as Ep h e s u s and i t s c h a r i t a b l e p h y s i -c i a n - l o r d as C e r i m o n . E p h e s u s was o f c o u r s e a m a g i c a l p l a c e ; S h a k e s p e a r e had. p o r t r a y e d i t as s u c h i n The Comedy of Errors. I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f E p h e s u s i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e p l a y s e r v e s t o " r a d i a t e a l l t h e v a l u e s and p e r -18 t i n e n t i d e a s o f t h e e n t i r e a c t i o n . " " C e r i m o n , " w h i c h K n i g h t u n f o r t u n a t e l y a s s o c i a t e s w i t h 19 "ceremony" ( i t m i g h t as w e l l as c e r e m e n t s , g i v e n h i s r o l e as c o r p s e - r e v i v e r ) i s a p p a r e n t l y made up t o match P h i l e m o n . No a n t e c e d e n t s a r e d i s c o v e r a b l e . The power o f h i s name comes f r o m i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h E p h e s u s . L a t e r , i n t h e s c e n e , "an E g y p t i a n " i s m e n t i o n e d by C e r i m o n , a m i n o r c o n f u s i o n o f a b i t o f m e d i c a l s c h o l a r l y v e r i s i m i l u t u d e i n Gower, where t h e E g y p t i a n was t h e p h y s i c i a n , n o t t h e p a t i e n t , and C e r i m o n c o n c l u d e s t h e s c e n e b y t h e p'rayer, " A e s c u l a p i u s g u i d e u s , " b o t h v e r y much i n c h a r a c t e r . By f a r t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t i n t h e s c e n e i s T h a i s a ' s a w a k ening, upon w h i c h she s a y s , "0 d e a r D i a n a , where am I ? " T h a t t h i s s h o u l d be h e r i n v o c a t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e . She i s i n E p h e s u s , s i t e o f D i a n a ' s t e m p l e , she has p e r h a p s b r o k e n an o a t h to D i a n a and she i s d e s t i n e d t o sp e n d t w e l v e y e a r s i n h e r s e r v i c e . I n t h e n e x t s c e n e , P e r i c l e s vows t o Diana, t o keep h i s h a i r c u t u n t i l h i s d a u g h t e r ' s m a r r i a g e , and i n Scene i v , T h a i s a d e t e r m i n e s t o become a v e s t a l i n D i a n a ' s t e m p l e . In t h e l a s t s c e n e C l e o n ' s i d e n t i t y . a s g o v e r n o r o f T h a r s u s i s c o n f i r m e d t o t h e a u d i e n c e and M a r i n a i s named'-:.-of a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s , t h e o n l y one whose name i s e x p l a i n e d : - " f o r she was b o r n a t s e a . " ( 1 . 13) F i e d l e r f e e l s t h a t t h e name was pr o m p t e d by S h a k e s p e a r e ' s r e c o l l e c t i o n o f M a r i n a , t h e I n d i a n m i s t r e s s o f C o r t e z whose " r o m a n t i c a d v e n t u r e s . . .. had. s t i r r e d ' t h e i m a g i n a -t i o n o f . a l l C a t h o l i c E u r o p e , t o w h i c h she r e p r e s e n t e d , p e r h a p s , 20 t h e hope o f an a l l i a n c e i n l o v e between O l d W o r l d and New." I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see any r e l e v a n c e i n t h i s s u g g e s t i o n s a v e to F i e d l e r ' s own t h e o r i e s , w h i c h do n o t . c o n c e r n us h e r e . Gower's i n t r o d u c t i o n t o A c t IV c o v e r s y e a r s , names P h i l o t e n , who n e v e r a p p e a r s , . a n d i n t r o d u c e s " L e o n i n e , a m u r d e r e r . " I n Gower's poem, t h i s was t h e name o f t h e M i t y l e n e b r o t h e r -21 m a s t e r , which. Q u i l l e r - C o u c h d e r i v e s f r o m " l e n o , " a p a n d e r . K n i g h t s i m p l y r e m a r k s . t h a t t h e name i s t o o good f o r him. I t may i n d i c a t e an u n d e r l y i n g n o b i l i t y , , s i n c e M a r i n a s a y s , " I saw you l a t e l y when y o u c a u g h t h u r t i n p a r t i n g two t h a t f o u g h t , " i i i . I I . 87 - 88, o r i t may i n d i c a t e l i o n - l i k e s a v a g e r y . The l a t t e r i s more p r o b a b l e , s i n c e t h e o r i g i n a l name i n Gower's poem, " T h e o p h i l u s , " i s e v e n more n o b l e - s o u n d i n g t h a n " L e o n i n e . " The o n l y r e a s o n a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g o f the p i r a t e V a l d e s i s o f f e r e d by C l a r k e : "Don Pedro d e V a l d e s was an a d m i r a l i n t h e f l e e t o f t h e S p a n i s h Armada; t h e d r a m a t i s t t h i n k -i n g t h a t t o a s s i g n t h i s h o s t i l e a d m i r a l ' s name t o a " p i r a t e " was 22 l i k e l y t o p r o v e a p o p u l a r p o i n t w i t h an E l i z a b e t h a n a u d i e n c e . " Scene I I i s l a i d i n M i t y l e n e . T h i s c i t y ' s h i s t o r y , a s s o -c i a t e d w i t h C l e o n , c a n n o t have i n f l u e n c e d S h a k e s p e a r e ' s c h o i c e s i n c e Gower u s e d " M e t e l i n e " b u t n o t " C l e o n " ; p e r h a p s i t worked t h e o t h e r way. C e r t a i n l y i t t i e s i n n i c e l y . The. name " B o u l t " c o u l d have s u g g e s t e d t o S h a k e s p e a r e ' s a u d i e n c e , i n a d d i t i o n t o sudden movements, a s h a c k l e o r f e t t e r . o r , a p p r o p r i a t e l y f o r one whose j o b i s t o s e l e c t women f o r t h e b r o t h e l , " t o s i f t . " S h a k e s p e a r e u s e d i t t h i s way b e f o r e [OED], M o r e o v e r , i t has an u n p l e a s a n t sound, u s e d as i t i s s i x t i m e s i n t h i s s c e n e . I t i n t e r r u p t s t h e f l o w o f . d i a l o g u e w i t h an u g l y w r e n c h l i k e a h i c c u p . O t h e r u s e s o f names f o l l o w t h e "low" r e a l i s m p a t t e r n , b e s t d i s p l a y e d i n The Merry Wives of Windsor, o f r e f e r r i n g t o numerous n a t i o n a l i t i e s , a c c o r d i n g w i t h : t h e c o s m o p o l i t a n x e n o p h o b i a o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n s . Y e t a t t h e c l o s e o f t h i s low s c e n e we a r e t w i c e r e m i n d e d o f D i a n a : 67 MAR. I f f i r e s be hot, k n i v e s s h a r p , o r w a t e r s deep, U n t i e d I s t i l l my v i r g i n k n o t w i l l k e e p . D i a n a , a i d my p u r p o s e . BAWD. What have we t o do w i t h D i a n a ? P r a y y o u , w i l l y o u go w i t h us? ( I V . i i . 159-163) We may s a f e l y r e g a r d t h i s as S h a k e s p e a r e ' s a s s u r a n c e t o t h e a u d i e n c e t h a t . M a r i n a w i l l come.to no harm; D i a n a b e i n g the t u t e l a r y d e i t y o f h e r mother and, by e x t e n s i o n , o f h e r s e l f , t h e bawd, t h e p a n d e r and B o u l t do i n f a c t have ,a g r e a t d e a l t o do w i t h h e r , o r she w i t h them. T h r o u g h o u t t h e n e x t two s c e n e s , e n c o m p a s s i n g C l e o n and D i o n y z a ' s d e c e p t i o n o f P e r i c l e s , P e r i c l e s ' name i s m e n t i o n e d s i x t i m e s , M a r i a n a ! s t h r e e t i m e s and D i o n y z a ' s t w i c e . The f o c u s i s t h u s on P e r i c l e s and h i s r e a c t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n any i n t e r p l a y o f p e r s o n a l i t i e s . The r e m a i n d e r o f A c t IV, d e a l i n g w i t h M a r i n a ' s e n c o u n t e r w i t h L y s i m a c h u s and .escape f r o m t h e b r o t h e l , i s r e m a r k a b l y p o o r i n use o f names... I n 220 l i n e s L y s i m a c h u s i s named t w i c e , M i t y l e n e and B o u l t once e a c h , and t h e god P r i a p u s i s r e f e r r e d t o once. 1 The name L y s i m a c h u s was e v i -d e n t l y p i c k e d up f r o m P l u t a r c h : " L y s i m a c h u s was. a g e n e r a l o f A l e x a n d e r ' s and K i n g o f T h r a c e , to.whom t h e p o e t P h i l i p p i d e s , b e i n g a s k e d what he w o u l d l i k e as a g i f t , a n swered, ' A n y t h i n g b u t y o u r s e c r e t s ' CLife. o f D e m e t r i u s ' ) . A c r u e l man, he was u n l i k e o u r L y s i m a c h u s , b u t n o t e t h a t t h e 23 P h i l i p p i d e s a n e c d o t e a p p e a r s a t I . i i i . 4-6." A c t V s p r o l o g u e m e n t i o n s Neptune's a n n u a l f e a s t , 68 a p p a r e n t l y i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e e a r l i e r s t o r m s . When M a r i n a has i n d u c e d P e r i c l e s t o spe a k , he b u i l d s t o w a r d t h e d i s c o v e r y o f h e r i d e n t i t y by c o m p a r i n g h e r w i t h Juno ( t h e f i r s t m e n t i o n o f t h e name s i n c e t h e J o v e - J u n o c o n t r a s t w i t h T h a i s a ) , J u s t i c e and "a p a l a c e f o r T r u t h and P a t i e n c e . " When she names h e r s e l f , "My name i s M a r i n a , " ( 1 . 1 4 3 ) , he i s o b l i g e d t o r e p e a t h e r name t h r e e t i m e s , 11. 148, 152 and 157, and she to c o n f i r m i t : " C a l l e d M a r i n a / F o r I was b o r n a t s e a . " (11. 157 - 1 5 8 ) . By t h e t i m e she has m e n t i o n e d L y c h o r i d a , C l e o n , T h a r s u s and M i t y l e n e , and d e c l a r e d h e r s e l f " d a u g h t e r t o K i n g P e r i c l e s , / I f good K i n g P e r i c l e s be - " (11. 180 - 181) P e r i c l e s i s a r o u s e d , c a l l s f o r H e l i c a n u s , r e p e a t s h i s own name t w i c e , t h e n M a r i n a ' s and t h e n r e p l y s t o h e r q u e s t i o n , " I am P e r i c l e s o f T y r e . " ( 1 . 206) T h i s a wakening a f t e r t h r e e months t r i g g e r s t h e m e n t i o n o f T h a i s a ' s name, a t l i n e 212. H e r e t o f o r e named o n l y o n c e , she i s named e i g h t t i m e s i n t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e p l a y . A t t h i s j u n c t u r e D i a n a a p p e a r s t o P e r i c l e s , t o d i r e c t h i m t o E p h e s u s . The e n s u i n g d i s c o v e r y s c e n e i s so b r i e f as t o make q u i t e c l e a r t h e e s s e n t i a l i d e n t i t y o f M a r i n a and T h a i s a . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n b e f o r e t h e te m p l e t o u c h e s on, a l l t h e l o c a l e s and e v e n t s o f t h e p l a y s i n c e P e r i c l e s ' s e s c a p e f r o m A n t i o c h u s , and Gower's m o r a l i z i n g e p i l o g u e i n c l u d e s t h a t . P e r i c l e s i s Gower's s t o r y , , w h i c h was t o l d and r e t o l d many t i m e s b e f o r e S h a k e s p e a r e t o o k i t up. D i s c u s s i o n c o n t i n u e s 69 as t o how much o f t h e p l a y i s h i s work, so t h a t we may n o t a s -s e r t a b s o l u t e l y t h a t - h e e x e r c i s e d c h o i c e and c o n t r o l o v e r t h e names. I n d e e d , t h e f a c t t h a t so many a r e r e t a i n e d u n c h a n g e d s a v e f o r m i n o r s p e l l i n g v a r i a t i o n s c o u l d be t a k e n . a s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s l i g h t n e s s o f S h a k e s p e a r e ' s hand i n t h e w r i t i n g . Con-v e r s e l y , t h o u g h , t h e changes t h a t were made have a d i s t i n c t l y S h a k e s p e a r e a n r i n g t o them. The most p r o m i n e n t , o f c o u r s e , i s " M a r i n a . " She i s a new c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s . v e r s i o n o f t h e o l d s t o r y , t a k i n g o v e r a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e r o l e o f Gower's T h a i s e , and h e r name i s t h e f i r s t i n t h e s e r i e s o f M a r i n a , P e r d i t a and M i r a n d a making i t v i r t u a l l y c e r t a i n t h a t t h e name i s S h a k e s p e a r e ' s . A n o t h e r man's " M a r i n a " m i g h t c o n c e i v a b l y have s u g g e s t e d t o S h a k e s p e a r e t h a t h i s f o l l o w i n g h e r o i n e s b e a r names s i m i l a r i n sound and f u n c t i o n , b u t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e n e x t p l a y , Cymbeline, b r e a k s t h e . p a t t e r n w i t h "Imogen" w o u l d seem t o i n d i c a t e an o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e a d o p t i o n o f a n o t h e r man's t e c h n i q u e . Next i n - p r o m i n e n c e t o " M a r i n a " i s " P e r i c l e s , " and a g a i n we have e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e c h o i c e i s S h a k e s p e a r e ' s , f o r i t seems t o be i n t e r w o v e n w i t h h i s r e a d i n g o f N o r t h ' s P l u t a r c h : " C l e o n " and " L y s i m a c h u s , " b o t h names f r o m P l u t a r c h , a r e s u b s t i t u t e d f o r Gower's " S t r a n g u i l i o " and " A t e n a g o r a s . " The naming h e r e s t r e n g t h e n s t h e argument f o r S h a k e s p e a r e ' s a u t h o r s h i p o f t h e p l a y p r i o r t o W i l k i n s ' n o v e l , s i n c e t h e 70 d e r i v a t i o n o f names f r o m P l u t a r c h i s a common f e a t u r e o f P e r i c l e s and The Winter's Tale3 S h a k e s p e a r e seems to have c o n c e i v e d The Winter's Tale s h o r t l y a f t e r w r i t i n g P e r i c l e s i f i n d e e d he was n o t a t work on them s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , ' and t o have b e e n c a l l e d upon e i t h e r l i t e r a l l y o r by h i m s e l f t o t u r n a s i d e and w r i t e Cymbeline, c o n c e i v a b l y i n r e s p o n s e to a p a t r i o t i c s t i m u l u s . F o r e a s e o f c o m p a r i s o n we s h a l l s u m marize.our e x a m i n a t i o n o f P e r i c l e s as we d i d t h e p r e c e d i n g comedies.. T h e r e a r e 62 names u s e d i n Pericles3 n o t so d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e p r e c e d i n g Measure for Measure, b u t f a r f r o m t h e a v e r a g e o f 9 2 and l o w e r t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r c o m e d i e s s i n c e The Comedy of Errors and Two Gentlemen of Verona, The r e a s o n f o r t h i s , as w i t h t h e o t h e r s , i s a low number o f . s u p p o r t i n g r e f e r e n c e s . Most o f them a r e c l a s s i c a l , a nd as we have s e e n above, p e c u l i a r l y a p t . " J o v e " c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f A n t i o c h u s , h e l p s t o c r e a t e . a n a n t i - p a g a n b i a s and l a t e r w i t h " J u n o " c o n t r a s t s P e r i c l e s and T h a i s a ' s l o v e w i t h A n t i o c h u s and h i s d a u g h t e r ' s . The r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e H e s p e r i d e s and C u p i d ' s wars s u p p o r t t h e meaning o f " J o v e " and " t h e D e s t i n i e s " c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e s e . The r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e T r o j a n h o r s e and t h e gods o f G r e e c e a r e s u b t l y i r o n i c , as a r e t h o s e t o Neptune. C e r i m o n makes two m e d i c a l r e f e r e n c e s , t o t h e E g y p t i a n and A E s c u l a p i u s , and B o u l t l i s t s a c l i e n t e l e o f l e c h e r o u s s t e r e o t y p e s , t h e / S p a n i s h and F r e n c h . 71 F o r b r e v i t y ' s sake i n o u r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r e v i o u s p l a y s we i n c l u d e d p l a c e s i n t h e p l a y u n d e r th e h e a d i n g o f s u p p o r t i n g r e f e r e n c e s . . Here we must l o o k more c l o s e l y . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f E p h e s u s , a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d i n c o n n e c -t i o n w i t h The Comedy of Errors, and p e r h a p s T h a r s u s and M i t y l e n e , t h e l o c a l e s o f P e r i c l e s had no i n h e r e n t meaning t o S h a k e s p e a r e ' s a u d i e n c e , b u t S h a k e s p e a r e s u c c e s s f u l l y c r e a t e d meanings f o r A n t i o c h , T y r e and t h e f i c t i o n a l P e n t a p o l i s . A n t i -och becomes t h e abode o f e v i l by i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h i t s r u l e r , and T y r e grows i n f e c t e d by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h " A n t i o c h " and " t y -r a n t . " P e n t a p o l i s by i t s n o b l e s o u n d and i t s v e r y f i c t i v e n e s s becomes a f i t p l a c e f o r P e r i c l e s t o w i n . h i s l a d y i n a s e q u e n c e o f p u r e romance. " T h a r s u s " may have s i g n a l l e d w e a l t h , b u t t h e c i t y ' s f u n c t i o n as home t o C l e o n , D i o n y z a and young M a r i n a i s i n no way i n d i c a t e d by i t s name. M i t y l e n e , b e i n g on t h e i s l a n d o f L e s b o s , may have ha d some l i c e n t i o u s c o n n o t a t i o n s . . C e r t a i n l y t h e c e n t r a l s y m b o l i c l o c a t i o n i n t h e p l a y i s .Ephesus.j t h i s t i m e e x p l i c i t l y m e a n i n g f u l as t h e s i t e o f D i a n a ' s t e m p l e and t h e r e -f o r e a p l a c e f o r r e u n i o n o f a f a m i l y . In c o n t r a s t t o A l l ' s Well's n i n e t e e n and Measure for Measure's t w e n t y - t h r e e , P e r i c l e s has o n l y f i v e s i l e n t n o m i n e e s : P h i l o t e n , t h e p i r a t e V a l d e s , N e s t o r and M e a n d e r t h e s e r v a n t s , and M. V e r o l l e s , one o f B o u l t ' s c l i e n t s . The c o n t r i b u t i o n s a r e i n t o n e - s e t t i n g s ; V a l d e s and V e r o l l e s evoke t h e S p a n i s h 72 and F r e n c h , i . e . r o g u e s and l e c h e r s , and t h e s e r v a n t s ' names a r e r e s p e c t a b l e as b e f i t s t h e i r t a s k o f p r e p a r i n g T h a i s a f o r b u r i a l a t s e a . " P h i l o t e n " i s f r o m Gower;.'its* o n l y a p p a r e n t v a l u e i s t o s h i e l d i t s b e a r e r f r o m t h e blame a t t a c h e d t o 'iTjionyza's i n t e n t i o n s . We have s e e n t h a t P e r i c l e s has f e w e r s u p p o r t i n g r e f e r e n c e s and no more s i l e n t nominees t h a n t h e average, f o r t h e p r e v i o u s p l a y s . The r e s u l t i n g d e a r t h o f v i t a l i t y i n t h e d i a l o g u e i s r e p l e n i s h e d by an enormous i n c r e a s e i n m i n o r , unnamed s p e a k i n g c h a r a c t e r s . These a r e much t h e same t y p e o f c h a r a c t e r s as we e n c o u n t e r e d b e f o r e , i f a l i t t l e more v a r i o u s ; t h e y a r e L o r d s , L a d i e s , K n i g h t s , g e n t l e m e n , f i s h e r m e n , s a i l o r s , p i r a t e s and m e s s e n g e r s , a bawd, a p a n d e r and a m a r s h a l w i t h A n t i o c h u s ' s d a u g h t e r . T h e r e a r e 23 o f them. T h e i r p r e s e n c e c r e a t e s a b u s t l i n g e f f e c t , an i m p r e s s i o n o f w i d e r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e l a r g e r w o r l d w h i c h S h a k e s p e a r e e a r l i e r t r i e d . t o a c h i e v e by naming many a b s e n t p e r s o n a g e s , as i n The Taming.of the Shrew, The Merchant of Venice, A l l ' s Well That Ends Well, and Measure for Measure, o r a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t i n g r e f e r e n c e s . H e r e he seems t o h a v e . t u r n e d t o the.more v i v i d d e v i c e o f numerous s p e a k e r s , t h u s a v o i d i n g t h e l o c a l i z i n g : , r e a l i z i n g e f f e c t o f a l a r g e number o f names w h i c h w o u l d be a n t i t h e t i c a l t o t h e romance mood, and s t i l l a c h i e v i n g t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e d r a m a t i c w o r l d i s somehow a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e London p l a y - g o e r s . 73 C i t y comedy c a r i c a t u r e d t h e v i e w e r ' s w o r l d b e f o r e h i s e y e s ; S h a k e s p e a r e h e r e p r e s e n t e d a new one and made him b e l i e v e he m i g h t be p a r t o f i t . The r e a s o n A n t i o c h u s ' s d a u g h t e r r e m a i n s n a m e l e s s i s g i v e n above. P e r i c l e s has no n a m e l e s s r u l e r s o r o t h e r e m i n e n t f i g u r e s b e c a u s e i t s main a c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e among s u c h f i g u r e s . They c a n n o t r e p r e s e n t c i v i l a u t h o r i t y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e s t o r y . A n t i o c h u s a p p r o a c h e s t h e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e b u t has been even more e x p l i c i t l y i d e n t i -f i e d w i t h h i s c i t y t h a n i f he had r e m a i n e d n a m e l e s s . S h a k e s p e a r e (and Gower) t h u s e n s u r e d t h a t A n t i o c h i t s e l f w o u l d a c q u i r e an e v i l a u r a . S i n c e m o s t . o f t h e m i n o r r o l e s and some o f t h e l a r g e r ones c o u l d be d o u b l e d t h a n k s t o t h e e p i s o d i c s t r u c t u r e , we need n o t t h i n k t h a t t h e K i n g ' s Men were a much l a r g e r company t h a n h e r e -t o f o r e , b u t i t seems p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e r e was some i n c r e a s e , f o r i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e 23 n a m e l e s s s p e a k e r s t h e r e a r e t w e n t y named and s p e a k i n g c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e p l a y . The a b s e n c e o f low names i s s t r i k i n g . P e r i c l e s o f f e r s o n l y P i l c h and P a t c h b r e e c h , i n t h e f a m i l i a r t r a d i t i o n b u t n e v e r r e p e a t e d , a n d B o u l t . The l a t t e r i s unhumorous, and i t s f r e -q u e n t r e p e t i t i o n goes b e y o n d c o n f o r m i t y w i t h a c c u s t o m e d d r a m a t i c p r a c t i c e t o a c q u i r e by i t s a b r u p t sound a s p e c i a l v a l u e , as d i s c u s s e d above. 74 B o u l t ! s .name i s t h e c l e a r e s t example i n P e r i c l e s o f c h a r a c -t e r i z a t i o n by s o u n d . , A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e c a n d i d a t e . i s D i o n y z a , a l s o as n o t e d above.. T h e r e a r e few names w i t h l i t e r a l , m e a n i n g s . " M a r i n a " b e i n g t h e most i m p o r t a n t . The o t h e r s a r e P i l c h and P a t c h b r e e c h , and p e r h a p s H e l i c a n u s , C e r i m o n , Leonine, and B o u l t . More i m p o r t a n t a r e t h e a s s o c i a t i v e meanings d e r i v e d f r o m , f i r s t , "Gower", s e c o n d , " P e r i c l e s " and t o l e s s e r e x t e n t s f r o m " D i o n y z a " and " C e r i m o n . " S u r p r i s i n g l y i n t h e l i g h t o f h i s r o l e as c h o r u s , Gower i n t r o d u c e s o n l y two c h a r a c t e r s ' names o t h e r t h a n h i s own, A n t i o c h u s a n d L e o n i n e . He l e a v e s no room f o r doubt' a b o u t e i t h e r o f them, condemning th e f o r m e r b e f o r e h i s a p p e a r a n c e and i n t r o -d u c i n g t h e l a t t e r as " L e o n i n e , a. m u r d e r e r . " A n t i o c h u s l i v e s up f u l l y t o h i s r e p o r t , b u t L e o n i n e seems t o have d i s p l a y e d a t one t i m e a n a t u r e more a p p r o p r i a t e t o " L e o n i n e " t h a n t o " m u r d e r e r , " a c c o r d i n g - t o M a r i n a ' s d e s c r i p t i o n . o f h i s i n t e r v e n -t i o n i n a q u a r r e l . The t e n s i o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s s e t up by Gower's i n t r o d u c t i o n i s n e v e r r e s o l v e d h e r e . O t h e r c h a r a c t e r s named a t o r . n e a r t h e moment o f e n t r a n c e a r e P e r i c l e s h i m s e l f , T h a l i a r d , H e l i c a n u s , D i o n y z a , E s c a n e s , P h i l e m o n and C e r i m o n , L y s i m a c h u s and B o u l t . P h i l e m o n ' s name e x i s t s o n l y t o i m p u t e . h o s p i t a l i t y t o C e r i m o n and t h e s i g n i f -i c a n c e o f t h e o t h e r names c a n n o t be p r o v e n , b u t i f o u r s u g g e s -t i o n s above a r e c o r r e c t , H e l i c a n u s and D i o n y z a ' s names i n i t i a l l y b e a r good a s s o c i a t i o n s b u t a r e l a t e r s e e n as h a v i n g u n p l e a s a n t o n e s . H e l i c a n u s i s redeemed t o o u r i n i t i a l . g o o d o p i n i o n b u t D i o n y z a has i r r e t r i e v a b l y t r a d e d a s s o c i a t i o n ' s , o f " D i o n y s u s " f o r " D i o n y s i u s . " L y s i m a c h u s p r e s e n t s an o p p o s i t e i n s t a n c e ; h i s b e h a v i o r e v e n t u a l l y redeems him f r o m t h e b a d o p i n i o n f o s t e r e d by h i s s i n i s t e r name and l e c h e r o u s i n t e n t . The meaning o f B o u l t ' s name g r a d u a l l y a c c r u e s f r o m h i s a c t i o n s . " P e r i c l e s , " as e x p l a i n e d a bove, i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a t i e n t s u f -f e r i n g , e i t h e r by c o n t r a s t , d i r e c t l y o r b o t h . S i m o n i d e s , D i a n a and M a r i n a a r e named, l o n g b e f o r e t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e s , S i m o n i d e s f o r no known reason.. D i a n a i s m e n t i o n e d s e v e r a l t i m e s b e f o r e P e r i c l e s ' s v i s i o n w h i c h l e a d s t o t h e r e u n i o n a t E p h e s u s , e v i d e n t l y t o b u i l d a n t i c i p a t i o n . i n t h e a u d i e n c e and h e i g h t e n t h e i r e v e n t u a l s e n s e o f . r i g h t e o u s g r a t i f i c a t i o n . I f a d e i t y must a p p e a r i n a p l a y , i t ' s b e s t she be p r e v i o u s l y i n v o k e d i n a r e v e r e n t i a l manner. M a r i n a i s named a f t e r h e r s h i p b o a r d a p p e a r a n c e as an i n f a n t b u t b e f o r e h e r r e - e n t r a n c e as an a d u l t . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f h e r s y m b o l i c name i s t i m e d c o i n c i d e n t a l l y w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e l o c a l e and, name.of E p h e s u s , p r e s a g i n g M a r i n a ' s r o l e as a g e n t i n t h e f i n a l r e u n i o n . T h a i s a and L y c h o r i d a a r e b o t h named a f t e r t h e i r a p p e a r -a n c e s , as i s C l e o n . S i n c e t h e f o r m e r two. a r e Gower's names and o f no p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e , S h a k e s p e a r e may have t h o u g h t 76 i t s u p e r f l u o u s t o name them p r o m p t l y . H i s d e l a y on " C l e o n " i s more p r o b a b l y a s i m p l e o v e r s i g h t . R e p e t i t i o n s o f names a r e d i f f i c u l t t o d e a l w i t h and an exam-i n a t i o n o f a l l o f them h e r e w o u l d be t r e m e n d o u s l y t i m e - c o n s u m i n g . F o r t h i s r e a s o n no a t t e m p t a t a l l was made i n o u r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r e v i o u s t w e l v e .comedies. We n o t e t h a t t h e y g e n e r a l l y r e -f l e c t a c h a r a c t e r ' s i m p o r t a n c e ; " P e r i c l e s " i s r e p e a t e d 34 t i m e s , M a r i n a 25, H e l i c a n u s 19, D i a n a 15, and so f o r t h . T h e r e i s no t e n d e n c y f o r more m e a n i n g f u l names t o be more o f t e n r e p e a t e d ; . i n f a c t S h a k e s p e a r e seems t o assume t h e y w i l l - b e b e t t e r remem-b e r e d . R e p e t i t i o n s , l i k e i n t r o d u c t i o n s , o f t e n come a t moments when a c h a r a c t e r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y i s b e i n g i l l u s t r a t e d , b u t most o f t e n t h i s i s due t o t h e s i m p l e f a c t t h a t he i s b e i n g t a l k e d to o r h i s b e h a v i o r t a l k e d a b o u t . A c c o r d i n g l y , we have m e n t i o n e d o n l y o u t s t a n d i n g u s e s o f m e a n i n g f u l r e p e t i t i o n h e r e a f t e r , i n the b o d i e s o f o u r a n a l y s e s , and s h a l l n o t i n c l u d e i t as a means o f c o m p a r i n g t h e p l a y s . CymbeZine W i t h p a t r i o t i s m r u n n i n g h i g h i n 1610, when James's popu-l a r i t y h a d n o t y e t f a i l e d him and h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e h a d made o f t h e Tudor p e r i o d a G o l d e n Age, some o f S h a k e s p e a r e ' s a u d i e n c e m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t o know c e r t a i n o f t h e names i n t h i s p l a y , s i n c e t h e y come f r o m H o l i n s h e d ' s C h r o n i c l e s , " ' " b u t i f t h e y were f a m i l i a r w i t h H o l i n s h e d ' s a c c o u n t t h e y w o u l d s o o n r e a l i z e t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e ' s use o f t h e names was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . S h a k e s p e a r e u s e d t h e names he f o u n d i n H o l i n s h e d t o c r e a t e a g e n e r a l " p e r i o d a t m o s p h e r e , " r a t h e r t h a n any s t r i c t r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f h i s t o r y , e v e n a c c o r d i n g t o J a c o b e a n s t a n d a r d s . The p l a y o f f e r s f i r s t a p e d i g r e e o f Posthumus, i n w h i c h t h e key p h r a s e i s " a g a i n s t t h e Romans w i t h C a s s i b e l a n " ( A c t I , s c . i , 1 30.) Those f a m i l i a r w i t h C a s s i b e l a n ' s d e f e a t by J u l i u s C a e s a r w o u l d have t h e a n t i - R o m a n i m p r e s s i o n o f t h a t p h r a s e s t r e n g t h e n e d . The n e x t l i n e " b u t h a d h i s t i t l e s by T e n a n t i u s " r u n s c o u n t e r t o t h a t i m p r e s s i o n , as does t h e f a t h e r ' s name " S i c i l i u s . " N e i t h e r o f t h e s e r e f e r t o a c t u a l i n d i v i d u a l s , b u t b o t h a r e L a t i n a t e , and " T e n a n t i u s " c a r r i e s a h i n t o f s u b s e r v i e n c e . The n e t r e s u l t , t h e time we l e a r n t h a t t h e K i n g named him Posthumus L e o n a t u s , i s t o make o f him an i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s t a n d i n g midway between t h e B r i t i s h and Roman w o r l d s . The m a r v e l l o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e o f h i s b i r t h , s i g n a l i z e d by t h e name Posthumus, f u r t h e r i s o l a t e s him, so t h a t he i s c l e a r l y 78 t o be c a s t i n t h e r o l e o f median o r m e d i a t o r between two a n t i p a t h e t i c s o c i e t i e s . The i m p r e s s i o n i s s t r e n g t h e n e d when he d e c l a r e s h e ' l l t a k e up r e s i d e n c e " i n Rome a t one E h i l a r i o ' s . " The name Posthumus c a n p r o b a b l y be s a f e l y t r a c e d t o H o l i n s h e d ; i t o c c u r s t h e r e as t h e name o f t h e son o f Aeneas and 2 L a v i n i a . As s u c h i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a man who d i v i d e s him-s e l f between B r i t a i n , c o n c e i v e d as o f T r o j a n o r i g i n , and Rome. 3 R o b i n M o f f e t , i n d e a l i n g w i t h Cymbeline as a t r e a t m e n t o f a s p e c t s o f t h e N a t i v i t y theme, s u g g e s t s t h a t Posthumus's name i n d i c a t e s t h a t he i s t h e l a s t pagan t o be b o r n . T h i s , M o f f e t s a y s , i s s u p p o r t e d by Imogen's c a t a l o g u e o f gods' names o v e r h i s s u p p o s e d c o r p s e : " H i s f o o t M e r c u r i a l , h i s M a r t i a l t h i g h . The brawns o f H e r c u l e s ; b u t h i s J o v i a l f a c e - - " ( A c t IV, s c . i i , 11 310, 311). Y e t Posthumus does n o t f u n c t i o n as " t h e l a s t p a g a n , " and t h e o t h e r s u p p o s i t i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e N a t i v i a r e h i g h l y u n l i k e l y . They a r e t h e d a t e s o f C y m b e l i n e ' s r e i g n as e m b r a c i n g t h e N a t i v i t y y e a r , t h e r e f e r e n c e t o C a e s a r A u g u s t u s ' s l e v y o f t r i b u t e , s u p p o s e d t o be t h a t t a x d e c r e e w h i c h b r o u g h t Mary and J o s e p h t o J e r u s a l e m , and t h e r e v e r e n t i a l manner i n w h i c h p e a c e i s s p o k e n o f a t t h e p l a y ' s c o n c l u s i o n . However, t h e a c t i o n i s d a t e d v e r y p r e c i s e l y - - a s s u m i n g t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e ' s knowledge o f a n c i e n t h i s t o r y was a c c u r a t e i n t h i s c a s e - - b y C y m b e l i n e ' s remark a t A c t I I I , s c . i , 11 73-75: " I am p e r f e c t T h a t t h e P a n n o n i a n s and D a l m a t i a n s f o r T h e i r l i b e r t i e s a r e now i n arms- - -" 79 4 This r e v o l t began i n 7 A.D. and was crushed i n 9 A.D. I f Shakespeare knew about i t at a l l , he very probably knew i t s date, or at l e a s t that i t d i d not c o i n c i d e w i t h the N a t i v i t y . Since t h i s c ontrary evidence i s more s p e c i f i c than Moff e t ' s , Moffet's theory and attendant s p e c u l a t i o n on the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Posthumus's name and Imogen's catalogue of pagan gods can be d i s -missed. L e s l i e F i e d l e r o f f e r s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l explanation which i s not e a s i l y r e f u t a b l e . He says that "the boy whose mother dies bearing him grows up s o l e l y h i s f a t h e r ' s son. And t h i s , f o r Shakespeare, p r e c i s e l y q u a l i f i e s him to be a hero, that i s , one capable of co n f r o n t i n g and defeating the female p r i n c i p l e . " ^ The contention that Shakespeare's heroes are s u c c e s s f u l oppon-ents of the female p r i n c i p l e i s wide of our mark; here we may note that a pre-psychoanalytic audience indisposed to study a l l Shakespeare's p l a y s , very p o s s i b l y not even f a m i l i a r w i t h most o f them, could s c a r c e l y be expected to n o t i c e or even sense such a p o s s i b i l i t y i n "Posthumus." This being the case, and Shakespeare being no b e t t e r informed on psychoanalysis than h i s audience, any such meaning cannot have been d e l i b e r a t e and thus p r o p e r l y i s outside the realm of t h i s study. "Leonatus" i s unconnected w i t h any of the known or postu-l a t e d sources f o r Cymbeline, but the name had been a v a i l a b l e to Shakespeare ever since he used i t as "Leonato" i n Much Ado 80 About Nothing. T h e r e he drew i t f r o m " L i o n a t o d i L i o n a t i " i n B a n d e l l o ' s n o v e l o f 1554. T h a t t h i s i s t h e s o u r c e f r o m w h i c h " L e o n a t u s " was r e c a l l e d by S h a k e s p e a r e f o r u s e i n Cymbeline i s made a l m o s t c e r t a i n by t h e f a c t t h a t i n Much Ado's o p e n i n g s t a g e d i r e c t i o n and i n a s t a g e d i r e c t i o n a t t h e o p e n i n g o f A c t I I L e o n a t o i s g i v e n a w i f e , I n n o g e n , t h o u g h she n e v e r a p p e a r s i n t h e d i a l o g u e . An " I n n o g e n " a p p e a r s i n H o l i n s h e d as w i f e t o B r u t e , who was a c c o r d i n g t o G e o f f r e y o f Monmouth t h e g r e a t -g r a n d s o n o f Aeneas by C r e u s a and t h u s h a l f - g r a n d - n e p h e w t o Posthumus.^ Simon Forman, i n f a c t , w r o t e " I n n o g e n " i n h i s a c -c o u n t o f C y m b e l i n e . "Imogen" may have an a s s o c i a t i o n , by homonymy, w i t h " i n n o c e n t , " b u t i t s p r i n c i p a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e w i t h i B r i t a i n as t h e f i r s t queen and, i n S h a k e s p e a r e ' s memory, w i t h " L e o n a t u s . " I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o s a y w i t h a b s o l u t e c e r t a i n t y t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e c h o s e " L e o n a t u s " f r o m memory b e c a u s e he had a l r e a d y d e l i b e r a t e l y c h o s e n "Imogen" f o r i t s p a t r i o t i c a s s o c i a -t i o n s . The c h o i c e o f L e o n a t u s , p e r h a p s s i m p l y t o " r e p r e s e n t a f o r m o f n a t u r a l n o b i l i t y , u n e d u c a t e d i n t h e s u b t l e r i n t r i c a -7 c i e s o f c o u r t i n t r i g u e " o r l e s s p r o b a b l y , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e g P a p h l a g o n i a n p r i n c e i n Arcadia may have come f i r s t and pr o m p t e d t h e use o f "Imogen." The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g , however, i s t h a t t h e two names were c l e a r l y l i n k e d i n S h a k e s p e a r e ' s mind and t o g e t h e r p r e s e n t us w i t h an embarrassment o f r i c h e s 81 f o r a n a l y s i s and s p e c u l a t i o n . "Posthumus" i s u s e d by a l l c o n c e r n e d r o u g h l y t w i c e as o f t e n as " L e o n a t u s , " a c i r c u m s t a n c e w h i c h s t r e s s e s Posthumus's m a g i c a l r o l e i n r e c o n c i l i n g t h e o p p o s e d s o c i e t i e s r a t h e r t h a n h i s h e r o i s m , w h i c h i s i n f a c t t r e a t e d i n q u i t e an o f f h a n d manner. Posthumus's f r i e n d ' s name " P h i l a r i o " i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a f r i e n d ; u s e d o n l y o n c e , i t n e v e r t a k e s on any l a r g e r m eaning. H i s man's name, P i s a n i o , t h o u g h v e r y o f t e n u s e d i s a p p a r e n t l y f r e e f r o m any p r i o r a s s o c i a t i o n s and no c o n s i s t e n t ones a r e d e v e l o p e d i n t h e p l a y . He r e m a i n s f u n c t i o n a l l y a v e h i c l e f o r messages, i n f o r m a t i o n and a s l e e p i n g p o t i o n , p e r s o n a l l y a d e v o t e d s e r v a n t , b u t a l w a y s a f l a t f i g u r e w i t h a c h a r a c t e r l e s s name. A t I . i i i . 2 9 , we h e a r Imogen remark on " t h e s h e s o f I t a l y " an i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n f r o m Rome made c o n s i s t e n t l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y . G u i l e and i m m o r a l i t y a r e I t a l i a n t r a i t s ; s t r a i g h t -f o r w a r d o p p o s i t i o n a Roman one. Scene i v . b r i n g s us f u r t h e r i n t o t h e modern w o r l d as P h i l a r i o ' s g u e s t s t a l k o f B r i t a i n , F r a n c e , t h e B r i t o n , O r l e a n s , F r a n c e t w i c e more, B r i t t a n y ( f o r B r i t a i n ) , I t a l y a nd B r i t a i n a g a i n . The s t a t e i s s e t f o r some p e c u l i a r l y I t a l i a n a t e d e c e i t , and C a e s a r ' s Rome has f a d e d w e l l i n t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d . The wager b e i n g made, we l e a r n I a c h i m o ' s name a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e s c e n e . I t has s p a r k e d a g r e a t d e a l o f h i g h l y 82 s u b j e c t i v e s p e c u l a t i o n . To a c c o r d w i t h t h e u s u a l m e t e r i t must be p r o n o u n c e d J a c h i m o ; F i e d l e r s a y s t h a t i t "means, o f 9 c o u r s e , " l i t t l e I a g o . " So i t d o e s , b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n t h e s e n s e o f a d i m i n u t i v e v e r s i o n o f O t h e l l o ' s N e m e s i s . B r o c k b a n k p o i n t s o u t t h e p r e s e n c e o f " I a g o " i n H o l i n s h e d , ^ and R u s k i n p o i n t e d o u t t h e d e r i v a t i o n f r o m " J a c o b , " " t h e s u p p l a n t e r . K n i g h t , l e a s t o b j e c t i v e o f a l l , r e m arks t h a t " B o t h ' I a c h i m o ' a n d 'Iago' c l e a r l y s u i t b a d p e r s o n s . I a g o , S p a n i s h f o r James, was, i t i s t r u e , t h e name o f t h e p a t r o n s a i n t o f S p a i n , i n v o k e d i n h e r n a t i o n a l w a r - c r y ; b u t e v e n so b o t h t h e r e l i g i o n and t h e war c r y o f S p a i n w o u l d be e v i l l y t o n e d f o r E l i z a b e t h a n a n d J a c o b e a n e a r s . A p a r t f r o m t h i s , t h e v o w e l - s o u n d s i n e v i t a b l y s u g g e s t e v i l , 12 r e c a l l i n g M a c h i a v e l l i . " I t s u f f i c e s t h a t " I a c h i m o " i s n o t v e r y m e l o d i o u s , f o r t h e a u d i e n c e c a n f e e l no l i k i n g f o r him by t h e t i m e he encoun-t e r s Imogen. H i s a p p r o a c h i s v e r y " s l i c k " ; as h i s r e m a r k s a b o u t " t h e A r a b i a n b i r d " and " l i k e t h e P a r t h i a n " show, he i s w e l l s t o c k e d w i t h c o u r t l y m e t a p h o r s . So he s a y s o f Posthumus t h a t "he i s c a l l e d t h e B r i t o n r e v e l l e r , " and t h a t he l a u g h s a t t h e l o v e -s i c k n e s s o f a Frenchman. The F r e n c h r e p u t a t i o n f o r c y n i c i s m was a l r e a d y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1610, and by making Posthumus y e t more c y n i c a l , I a c himo n o t o n l y i n j u r e s Imogen b u t i n s u l t s B r i t a i n , w h i c h p l a c e s h i m i n t h e eyes of t h e a u d i e n c e c o m p l e t e l y on t h e wrong s i d e . 83 Y e t I a c h i m o ' s s u b t l e t y b a c k f i r e s , f o r t h o u g h he s p e a k s o f t h e C a p i t o l and D i a n a , h i s f i n a l a p p e a l r e s u l t s i n Imogen's r e v u l s i o n and h e r p h r a s e "as i n a Romish s t e w " d r o p s much o f t h e p r e s t i g e o f "Rome" t o t h e l e v e l o f " I t a l y . " I a c himo k e eps t i ) i n g and i n some measure r e s t o r e s t h a t p r e s t i g e i n Imogen's e y e s , s p e a k i n g o f "some doz e n Romans o f u s " as he l a y s t h e g r o u n d -work f o r e n t r a n c e i n t o h e r chamber, b u t n o t w i t h t h e a u d i e n c e . The o p p o s i t e e f f e c t o b t a i n s t h e r e ; "Rome" i s f u r t h e r d e b a s e d . When A c t I I opens on C l o t e n and two L o r d s , t h e y s p e a k t w i c e o f t h e " I t a l i a n , " and "Rome" i s n o t m e n t i o n e d u n t i l t h e a r r i v a l i n A c t I I , s c . i i i o f L u c i u s . In t h e bedchamber s c e n e , A c t I I , s c . i i , Imogen's woman H e l e n was p e r h a p s s u g g e s t e d by C o e l l ' s d a u g h t e r H e l e n , m e n t i o n e d 13 i n H o l i n s h e d , o r i n t e n d e d as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Imogen as f i t t o be m i s t r e s s t o t h e T r o j a n H e l e n . I a c h i m o ' s r e m a r k s a b o u t T a r q u i n , C y t h e r e a , and t h e book opened t o t h e t a l e o f T e r e u s and P h i l o m e l a r e s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y , d e e p e n i n g t h e a t m o s p h e r e o f t h r e a t . The r e f e r e n c e , 1. 34, t o t h e G o r d i a n k n o t may i m p l y t h e " e m p i r e " Iachimo hopes t o c o n v i n c e Posthumus he has g a i n e d by r e m o v i n g t h e b r a c e l e t , a s y m b o l i c c u t t i n g o f t h e k n o t between t h e two l o v e r s . In s c e n e i i i we f i r s t h e a r o f C a i u s L u c i u s . H o l i n s h e d c o n t a i n s two; one d e f e a t e d by A r t h u r and one t h e f i r s t C h r i s t i a n 14 k i n g o f B r i t a i n . So a g a i n an a m b i g u i t y a p p e a r s ; we c a n n o t p l a c e L u c i u s as f r i e n d o r f o e . The d i f f i c u l t y i s a s u s t a i n e d 84 one t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y . L u c i u s i s welcomed t h o u g h he e s s e n -t i a l l y d e c l a r e s war on B r i t a i n , and he winds up p a r d o n e d f r o m d e a t h and r e c o n c i l e d t o C y m b e l i n e . Camden f e l t t h a t C a i u s was an u n l u c k y n a m e , ^ and t h i s C a i u s i s c e r t a i n l y u n l u c k y i n war, b u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h i s name l i e s i n t h e way i t s a m b i g u i t y f i t s t h a t o f h i s r o l e i n t h e p l a y . W i t h i n t e n l i n e s "Rome" and "Roman" a r e a l s o mentioned-)a b r i e f r e m i n d e r o f t h e b r o a d e r a c t i o n d e v e l o p i n g . B e f o r e we h e a r more o f Rome t h e r e i s a p a s s i n g m e n t i o n o f J u p i t e r , i n a c o m p a r i -s o n f a v o r a b l e t o Posthumus and u n f a v o r a b l e t o C l o t e n , and t h e a p p a r e n t l y p o i n t l e s s naming o f a n o t h e r o f Imogen's women, D o r o t h y . IMOGEN. P r o f a n e f e l l o w ! Wert t h o u t h e s o n o f J u p i t e r , and no more But what t h o u a r t b e s i d e s , t h o u w e r t t o o b a s e To be h i s groom. ( I I . i i i . 129-32.) a IM. To D o r o t h y my woman h i e t h e e p r e s -e n t l y ( 1 . 143.) Then i n s c e n e IV we h e a r t h a t " C a i u s L u c i u s w i l l do 's commis-s i o n t h o r o u g h l y . " (11. 1 1 - 1 2 ) , and be l o w t h a t he was e x p e c t e d i n t h e B r i t i s h c o u r t when Iachimo l e f t . O t h e r Roman r e f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t w e n t y - s i x l i n e s a r e t o A u g u s t u s , Romans, G a l l i a and J u l i u s C a e s a r . E v e n I a c h i m o ' s n a r r a t i o n o f h i s s e d u c t i o n o f Imogen b e g i n s i n t h e s e t e r m s , " P r o u d C l e o p a t r a when she met h e r Roman" ( 1 . 7 0 ) , and c o n t i n u e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e s t o D i a n and C u p i d . Posthumus's o a t h " J o v e " and I a c h i m o ' s "By J u p i t e r " e c h o e d by 85 Posthumus c o n t i n u e t h e s h i f t o f a t t e n t i o n f r o m " I t a l y " t o "Rome" and t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g l o s s o f "Rome's" r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . Scene v. and A c t I I I , s c . i c o n t a i n s e v e r a l a t t r a c t i v e b u t c o n v e n t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n s ; "My mother seemed t h e D i a n o f t h a t t i m e , " " m i g h t w e l l have warmed o l d S a t u r n , " " l i k e a f u l l - a c o r n e d b o a r , a German one" and "Y o u r i s l e , w h i c h s t a n d s as Ne p t u n e ' s p a r k , " b u t t h e p r i n c i p a l i n t e r e s t i n A c t I I I i s t h e m e e t i n g between C y m b e l i n e and C a i u s L u c i u s i n w h i c h t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n be-comes e n t i r e l y Roman v e r s u s B r i t i s h o r i e n t e d , t o u c h i n g on Lud's town, B r i t o n s , t h e P a n n o n i a n s and D a l m a t i a n s , J u l i u s C a e s a r , A u g u s t u s , B r i t a i n , Romans, C a s s i b e l a n , M u l m u t i u s and C y m b e l i n e h i m s e l f , who i s f i r s t named h e r e . H i s i d e n t i t y o f c o u r s e c a n n o t have b e e n i n d o u b t ; t h e naming a t t h i s j u n c t u r e s i m p l y s e r v e s t o s w e l l t h e r o l l o f B r i t i s h h e r o e s . Y e t on t h e who l e t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s c e n e i s t o s u g g e s t C a e s a r ' s " f u r y n o t t o be r e s i s t e d , " p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h o s e i n t h e a u d i e n c e who knew t h a t A u g u s t u s e v e n t u a l l y c r u s h e d t h e r e v o l t o f t h e P a n n o n i a n s and D a l m a t i a n s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e p r e s t i g e o f "Rome" i s so low i n t h i s s c e n e t h a t ' ev e n C l o t e n g a i n s a s o r t o f n o b i l i t y by v i r t u e o f h i s n a t i o n a l -i s t i c s e n t i m e n t s . As i n P e r i c l e s , A c t I I I , s c . i i p r e s e n t s a f o c a l l o c a t i o n f r o m w h i c h t h e r e s t o r a t i v e i n f l u e n c e c a n r a d i a t e . I n t h i s c a s e i t i s M i l f o r d Haven i n C a m b r i a ( W a l e s ) . The l o c a t i o n i s i n s i s t e n t l y s t r e s s e d : " M i l f o r d " o c c u r s s e v e n t i m e s , t w i c e i n 86 t h i s s c e n e : " M i l f o r d Haven" n i n e t i m e s , a l s o t w i c e i n t h i s s c e n e . Imogen s a y s " T e l l me how Wales was made so happy a s / To i n h e r i t s u c h a h a v e n . " I n Tethys F e s t i v a l (1610) M i l f o r d i s " t h e happy P o r t o f U n i o n " ; ^ Emrys J o n e s s a y s 9 " I s u g g e s t t h a t a t t h e t i m e Cymbeline was w r i t t e n M i l f o r d Haven was c h i e f l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e l a n d i n g t h e r e i n 148 5 o f H e n r y E a r l o f Richmond, w i t h , 17 t h a t i s , t h e a c c e s s i o n o f H e n r y V I I t o t h e t h r o n e . " Thus the u s e o f " M i l f o r d " c o m p l i m e n t s t h e T u d o r s and l e s s d i r e c t l y , t h e S t u a r t s , and f i t s p e r f e c t l y i n t o t h e n a t i o n a l i s t i c s p i r i t Cymbe-line seems t o be c e l e b r a t i n g . Whether t h i s i s t r u e o r n o t , t h e r e m o v a l t o M i l f o r d Haven commences a new p h a s e o f t h e p l a y , and p a t r i o t i s m r u n s h i g h i n t h e n e x t s c e n e . B e l a r i u s i n h i s e x p o s i t o r y s p e e c h m e n t i o n s C y m b e l i n e f o u r t i m e s , t w i c e i n c l o s e o p p o s i t i o n t o "Romans." Most i n t e r e s t i n g , t h o u g h , a r e t h e a l i a s e s o f C y m b e l i n e ' s two sons and o f B e l a r i u s h i m s e l f . " T h i s P o l y d o r e , The h e i r o f C y m b e l i n e and B r i t a i n , who The K i n g h i s f a t h e r c a l l e d G u i d e r i u s - - " (11. 86 - 88) i s p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d f r o m P o l y d o r e V e r g i l , h i s t o r i a n o f t h a t 18 same Henry V I I who l a n d e d a t M i l f o r d . Thus t h o u g h n o t an E n g l i s h name, i t i s an E n g l i s h m a n ' s name. The t r u e name " G u i d e r i u s " i s e v i d e n t l y f r o m H i g g i n s ' "The C o m p l a i n t o f G u i d e r i u s " i n The Mirror for Magistrates (1587) i n w h i c h G u i d e r i u s i s s l a i n by Hamo, a Roman d i s g u i s e d as a B r i t o n , and " A r v i r a g u s " avenges h i s d e a t h . Muis f e e l s t h a t t h i s a l s o 87 s u g g e s t e d t h e k i l l i n g o f C l o t e n and Posthumus's f i g h t i n g i n 19 d i s g u i s e . A r v i r a g u s ' pseudonym "C a d w a l " i s a s o l i d W elsh-B r i t i s h name, as i s "Morgan." I n t e r e s t i n g l y , we have t h e s p e c -t a c l e o f L a t i n - n a m e d h e i r s t o t h e B r i t i s h t h r o n e h a v i n g f a l s e B r i t i s h names a s s i g n e d them. As a p a t r i o t i c p r o g r e s s i o n t h i s i s h i g h l y ambiguous; S h a k e s p e a r e by t h i s t e c h n i q u e manages t o b a l a n c e two o p p o s i n g w o r l d s a l l t h r o u g h t h e p l a y u n t i l he i s r e a d y t o r e u n i t e them. As f o r E u r i p h i l e t h e n u r s e , " l o v e r o f t h e e a s t w i n d " i s a l l t h a t c a n be made o f h e r name, and i f t h i s i s so and was meant as a f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e t o t h e l a n d i n g o f H e n r y V I I i t i s d e s p e r a t e l y o b s c u r e and a t y p i c a l l y p e d a n t i c f o r S h a k e s p e a r e . We must assume i n t h e a b s e n c e o f any d e m o n s t r a t e d s o u r c e f o r " E u r i p h i l e " t h a t i t i s s i m p l y a n o t h e r n o n - B r i t i s h name employed t o m a i n t a i n t h e a m b i g u i t y . Imogen's m e n t i o n o f Aeneas and S i n o n i n t h e n e x t s c e n e , 11.60 - 61, a g a i n s u g g e s t s a l i n k between B r i t a i n and Rome, t h e i r s u p p o s e d l y common T r o j a n o r i g i n . By i d e n t i f y i n g Posthumus w i t h Aeneas and S i n o n she makes him t h a t l i n k . C l o t e n i s f i r s t named i n t h i s s c e n e : W i t h t h a t h a r s h , n o b l e , s i m p l e n o t h i n g , T h a t C l o t e n , whose l o v e s u i t h a t h b e e n t o me As f e a r f u l as a s i e g e . (11. 135-36.) H i s name may come e i t h e r f r o m H o l i n s h e d o r Govboduo, i n w h i c h 20 r e s p e c t i v e l y he f i g u r e s as K i n g and Duke o f C o r n w a l l . A t t i m e s i t seems as t h o u g h mere o v e r s i g h t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u c h 88 a c h a r a c t e r g o i n g unnamed so l o n g . I n C l o t e n ' s c a s e however, s i n c e t h e name does n o t enhance h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , S h a k e s p e a r e p r o b a b l y h e l d i t b a c k u n t i l t h e a m b i g u i t i e s o f C l o t e n ' s r o l e - -f a i r l y e l o q u e n t p a t r i o t v e r s u s v i l l a i n - - w e r e c l e a r e d up. H i s r o l e as p a t r i o t i s o v e r and a n y t h i n g w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s t o an u n f a v o r a b l e image may h e r e be b r o u g h t t o t h e f o r e . I n t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s s c e n e and t h r o u g h t h e n e x t , t h e f o c u s s h i f t s f r o m t h e s t o r y o f Imogen and Posthumus t o t h e d e v e l o p i n g war, and b a c k a g a i n . Imogen, s t i l l c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f where t o e s c a p e f r o m C l o t e n , m e n t i o n s " B r i t a i n " f o u r t i m e s i n f i v e l i n e s , and P i s a n i o t e l l s h e r " L u c i u s t h e Roman comes t o M i l f o r d Haven" ( 1 . 1 4 5 ) , and s u g g e s t s , " ' f o r e n o b l e L u c i u s / P r e s e n t y o u r s e l f " (11. 175 - 7 6 ) . I n s c e n e v. L u c i u s r e q u e s t s "A c o n d u c t o v e r l a n d t o M i l f o r d Haven" and C y m b e l i n e o r d e r s t h a t he be a c c o m p a n i e d " t i l l he have c r o s s e d t h e S e v e r n . " Amid t h e t a l k o f l e g i o n s i n G a l l i a t h e m a t t e r o f Imogen's ab-s e n c e comes up a l o n g w i t h t h r e e m e n t i o n s o f Posthumus's name, and t h e n a m e l e s s Queen u n i t e s t h e two p l o t l i n e s w i t h h e r s t a t e -ment: H a p l y , d e s p a i r h a t h s e i z e d h e r , Or, w i n g e d w i t h f e r v o r o f h e r l o v e , s h e ' s f l o w n To h e r d e s i r e d Posthumus. Gone she i s To d e a t h o r t o d i s h o n o r , and my end Can make good us e o f e i t h e r . She b e i n g down, I have t h e p l a c i n g o f t h e B r i t i s h crown. ( 1 1 . 60 - 65) The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e s c e n e d e a l s w i t h C l o t e n ' s p l a n t o p u r s u e Imogen. He s p e a k s o f Posthumus f o u r t i m e s and M i l f o r d 89 three. Scene v i , the meeting of Imogen with her two brothers and Belarius, mentions Milford three times. M i l f o r d i s s t i l l c entral to the action at this point; i t i s the place from which a l l the players return to Cymbeline's court. Also i n this scene Imogen takes the name "Fidele." Unlike Marina, whose name's meaning was twice pointed out, "Fidele" i s l e f t to the audience, implying not only i t s s i m p l i c i t y but i t s r e l a t i v e unimportance. It i s a sign, a simple statement, not a symbol or an i n v i t a t i o n to explore i t s implications. It may be drawn from The Rare Triumphs of Love and Fortune, one of the play's sources, which also contains an apparition of Jupiter. A "princess F i d e l i a " • r, m • 7 21 appears i n Rare Triumphs. Scene v i i closes the act with a business-like look at the Roman preparations. The l o g i s t i c a l problems of waging war against the Pannonians, Dalmations and Britons are being e f f i -c i e n t l y dealt with here, and the two mentions of Lucius as Proconsul and General serve to maintain the impression of Roman might and emphasize the growing importance henceforth of Lucius as a character i n the pl o t . In Act IV Cloten i s named f i f t e e n times after his death as opp9sed to three times before. What this accomplishes is not quite clear; apparently the audience's r e c o l l e c t i o n of his death i s more important than t h e i r recognition of him i n l i f e , or perhaps Shakespeare feared the slower members of the 90 a u d i e n c e w o u l d be d e c e i v e d , l i k e Imogen, by t h e garments o f Posthumus. I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r C l o t e n ' s d e a t h , P o l y d o r e and Cadwal's names a r e r e p e a t e d t h r e e and f o u r t i m e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , as " F i d e l e " i s f i v e t i m e s . The r e p e t i t i o n o f " P o l y d o r e " and "Cad w a l " s e r v e s t o e m p h a s i z e t h e i r t r u e " B r i t i s h n e s s , " e v e n t h o u g h t h e names a r e a l i a s e s , and t h u s a b s o l v e them o f C l o t e n ' s d e a t h . When Imogen awakes by t h e h e a d l e s s body o f C l o t e n h e r f i r s t words a r e " Y e s , s i r , t o M i l f o r d Haven." ( A c t IV, s c . i i , 1. 2 9 1 ) . On h e r l i p s a B r i t i s h p l a c e - n a m e i s d o u b t l e s s f i r m l y B r i t i s h ; M i l f o r d i s where she has hoped t o meet h e r h u s b a n d . Her d i s m a y when she b e l i e v e s h i m dead makes " M i l f o r d " r i n g a b i t h o l l o w . Then L u c i u s and o t h e r s e n t e r , a l s o s p e a k i n g o f M i l f o r d Haven as t h e p l a c e t h e y have j u s t l a n d e d , d r a w i n g an a n a l o g y between B r i t a i n ' s Roman enemies and h e r own He n r y V I I . A l l t h e v a l u e s and i d e n t i t i e s o f t h e p l a y a r e c o n f u s e d ; t h e Romans come "Under t h e c o n d u c t o f b o l d I a c h i m o , / S i e n n a ' s b r o t h e r " ( 11. 340 - 341), and t h e s o o t h s a y e r p r o p h e s i e s " S u c c e s s t o t h e Roman h o s t " ( 1 . 3 5 2 ) . The p l a y h o l d s no r e a s o n f o r " R i c h a r d du Champ," t h e name " F i d e l e " g i v e s t o " h i s " dead m a s t e r . S h a k e s p e a r e may have b e e n p a y i n g t r i b u t e t o a S t r a t f o r d f r i e n d , R i c h a r d F i e l d , who may have t a u g h t S h a k e s p e a r e F r e n c h and who, when he p r i n t e d books 22 i n S p a n i s h , s i g n e d h i m s e l f " R i c a r d o d e l Campo." 91 I n s c e n e i i i Imogen i s r e f e r r e d t o t w i c e . Then i n A c t V, s c . i , she i s named t h r e e t i m e s by Posthumus. She was o n l y named f o u r t i m e s b e f o r e she assumed t h e a l i a s ; w h e t h e r t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n i s t o keep t h e a u d i e n c e f r o m f o r g e t t i n g h e r r e a l i d e n t i t y o r t o make o f h e r name a symbol o f t r u e B r i t a i n i s n o t c l e a r . I n s c e n e i i i a t t h e end o f h i s n a r r a t i o n o f t h e b a t t l e Posthumus a g a i n names Imogen, a t w h i c h moment an e n t e r i n g B r i t i s h c a p t a i n s a y s " G r e a t J u p i t e r be p r a i s e d . " S cene i v c l i m a x e s t h e p l a y w i t h t h e a p p a r i t i o n o f t h e g h o s t s and J u p i t e r . The " p r e s e n c e " o f Imogen i s m a i n t a i n e d : Posthumus goes t o s l e e p a f t e r s a y i n g "0 Imogen! I ' l l s p e a k t o t h e e i n s i l e n c e . " The f i r s t b r o t h e r names h e r , t h e n t h e mother, t h e n J u p i t e r . She i s n o t a g a i n named u n t i l h e r i d e n t i t y as F i d e l e i s r e v e a l e d . J u p i t e r i s named t h r e e t i m e s i n a p p e a l and once i n t h a n k s i n t h i s s c e n e , i n a c o n t e x t w i t h M a r s , J u n o , L u c i n a and E l y s i u m . P r e v i o u s l y t h e o n l y s e r i o u s m e n t i o n was by t h e s o o t h s a y e r : " I saw J o v e ' s b i r d , t h e Roman e a g l e - - -" ( A c t IV, s c . i i i , 1. 3 4 8 ) . J o v e , o r J u p i t e r , i s e l s e w h e r e p r e v i o u s l y named n i n e t i m e s , b u t a l w a y s i n an o a t h o r by way o f c o m p a r i s o n , as S h a k e s p e a r e f r e q u e n t l y u s e s t h e name. I t i s , however, a s u f f i c i e n t l y f r e q u e n t r e p e t i t i o n t o keep J u p i t e r i n t h e a u d i e n c e ' s mind. F u r t h e r m o r e , Imogen i s t w i c e compared t o J u n o , a t A c t I I I , s c . i v , 11. 167-168 and A c t V, s c . i i , 11. 50-51. "Your l a b o r s o m e and d a i n t y t r i m s , w h e r e i n You made g r e a t Juno a n g r y . " "And s a u c e d o u r b r o t h s , as Juno h a d b e e n s i c k , And he h e r d i e t e r . " I n t h e a p p a r i t i a n s c e n e t h e r e seems t o be a s y m b o l i c i d e n -t i f i c a t i o n o f Imogen and J u p i t e r . Whether t h i s i n v o l v e s P o s t h u -mus as J u p i t e r and Imogen as Juno i s n o t s p e c i f i e d ; r a t h e r , Imogen, Posthumus and t h e p r e s i d i n g d e i t y o f u n i f i c a t i o n a r e com-m i n g l e d . The c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e v i s i o n w i t h t h e p r o p h e c y " . . . t h e n s h a l l Posthumus end h i s m i s e r i e s , B r i t a i n be f o r t u n a t e and f l o u r i s h i n p e a c e and p l e n t y , " ( A c t V, s c . i v , 11. 143-145) l i n k s Posthumus and B r i t a i n c o n c l u s i v e l y . The f i n a l s c e n e o f t h e p l a y t o u c h e s on a l l t h e u s e s o f names i n t h e p l a y . I t opens on C y m b e l i n e , B e l a r i u s and t h e two s o n s ; B e l a r i u s s a y s " I n C a m b r i a a r e we b o r n " t h u s l i n k i n g M i l f o r d Haven w i t h t h e B r i t i s h v i c t o r y o v e r t h e Romans. M i l f o r d i s m e n t i o n e d a l a s t t i m e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e d e a t h o f C l o t e n . E ven h e r e S h a k e s p e a r e i s n o t t o o b u s y t o i n t r o d u c e a new name; we f i n d t h a t t h e Queen's p h y s i c i a n , whose h o n e s t p r i n c i p l e s have a v e r t e d t h e p o i s o n i n g o f C y m b e l i n e and Imogen, i s named C o r n e l i u s . H i s name may come f r o m H o l i n s h e d , where C o r n e l i u s 23 T a c i t u s t h e h i s t o r i a n i s m e n t i o n e d , o r i t may, as K n i g h t f e e l s , be a " r e f e r e n c e t o some s u p p o s e d m e d i c i n a l p r o p e r t i e s i n 24 t h e c o r n e l i a n s t o n e . " (The l a t t e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s s l i g h t , no e v i d e n c e e x i s t i n g t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e knew o f any s u c h p r o p e r t i e s and t h e s p e l l i n g c a . 1610 commonly b e i n g " c o r n a l i n e " a c c o r d i n g t o t h e OED.) The s c e n e b e g i n s i n terms o f B r i t a i n and Rome, b u t I a chimo i n r e p e n t i n g s p e a k s o f I t a l y and "mine I t a l i a n b r a i n " ; Posthumus c a l l s h i m " I t a l i a n f i e n d . " T hen, b r e a k i n g down, he c r i e s : 0 Imogen! My queen, my l i f e , my w i f e ! 0 Imogen, Imogen, Imogen! IMO. P e a c e , my l o r d . H e a r , h e a r POST. S h a l l 's have a p l a y o f t h i s ? Thou s c o r n f u l p a g e , T h e r e l i e t h y p a r t . P I S . Oh, g e n t l e m e n , h e l p ! Mine and y o u r m i s t r e s s ! Oh, my L o r d Posthumus! (11. 225-230) The i n v o c a t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y w o r k s , t h o u g h Posthumus f a i l s a t f i r s t t o r e a l i z e i t . She i s named a g a i n a t l i n e 231, 238, 269, 372 and f i n a l l y a t l i n e 393, "Posthumus a n c h o r s upon Imogen." The i d e n t i t i e s o f B e l a r i u s , G u i d e r i u s and A r v i r a g u s a r e r e v e a l e d , meaning t h a t t h e y reassume t h e i r t r u e Roman names, and t h e s o o t h s a y e r , a p p r o p r i a t e l y named P h i l h a r m o n u s , e x p l a i n s b o t h J u p i t e r ' s p r o p h e c y t o Posthumus and t h e c o r r e c t meaning o f h i s v i s i o n o f t h e e a g l e , so t h a t C y m b e l i n e o r d e r s " L e t A Roman and a B r i t i s h e n s i g n wave F r i e n d l y t o g e t h e r . So t h r o u g h Lud's Town march; And i n t h e t e m p l e o f g r e a t J u p i t e r Our p e a c e w e ' l l r a t i f y , s e a l i t w i t h f e a s t s . " ( A c t V, s c . v , 11. 480-483) Cymbeline has 91 names. Though f a r more t h a n t h e o t h e r t h r e e D r a m a t i c Romances, t h i s i s o n l y a b o u t t h e l e v e l o f t h e h i g h c o m e d i e s Much Ado, As You Like It and Twelfth Night. T w o - t h i r d s o f t h e names a r e s u p p o r t i n g r e f e r e n c e s , 94 many c l a s s i c a l and o t h e r s t o g e o g r a p h y c o n t e m p o r a r y e i t h e r w i t h C y m b e l i n e o r S h a k e s p e a r e . The h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e c r e a t e s , as F r y e p o i n t s o u t ab o v e , a s e n s e o f t i m e l e s s n e s s by t h e c o n f u -s i o n o f t i m e s . The p l a c e s i n w h i c h t h e a c t i o n o c c u r s a r e t h e B r i t i s h c o u r t , t o w h i c h t h e c l o s e s t r e f e r e n c e s a r e " B r i t a i n " and "Lud's town," Rome and a c o n t e m p o r a r y I t a l y , a d i c h o t o m y d e s c r i b e d above, and M i l f o r d Haven i n Wa l e s . The s t r o n g p o s s i b i l i t y o f a p o l i t i c a l c o m p l i m e n t e x i s t i n g h e r e has b e e n m e n t i o n e d ; more i m p o r t a n t i s t h e symbol w h i c h M i l f o r d p r o v i d e s i n t h e p l a y . L i k e E p hesus i n P e r i c l e s 3 i t i s a c e n t r a l r e u n i f i c a t i o n s y m b o l , and w i l l be f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d below. T h e r e a r e e i g h t s i l e n t n o m i n e e s . Imogen's woman D o r o t h y i s u n i m p o r t a n t , and A u g u s t u s , J u l i u s C a e s a r and C l e o p a t r a a r e named t o s u g g e s t Roman power. I n t h e a c c o u n t o f Posthumus's p a r e n t a g e t h e name o f h i s f a t h e r , S i c i l i u s , and t h e f a c t t h a t he s e r v e d C a s s i b e l a n b u t had h i s t i t l e s f r o m T e n a n t i u s u n d e r -s c o r e s t h e c o n f u s i o n between Rome and B r i t a i n , as does t h e name o f E u r i p h i l e t h e n u r s e . Among t h e unnamed s p e a k e r s a l l b u t one a r e s o l d i e r s , s e r v a n t s and so f o r t h . The e x c e p t i o n i s t h e Queen. R a t h e r t h a n r e p r e s e n t i n g c i v i l a u t h o r i t y , t h i s o m i s s i o n u n d e r -s c o r e s t h e f o l k - t a l e m o t i f o f t h e w i c k e d s t e p m o t h e r . The Queen p l o t s t o p r e v e n t t h e e v e n t s w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y r e s o l v e t h e c o n -f l i c t o f Rome and B r i t a i n . 95 As w i t h Pericles, " l o w " names a r e c o n s p i c u o u s l y a b s e n t . O n l y H e l e n and D o r o t h y a r e common and e v e n t h e y s c a r c e l y meet t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r " l o w " names. " C l o t e n " has t h e s o u n d we a s s o c i a t e w i t h them, b u t we must r e c a l l t h a t t h e name i s t h a t o f t h e Duke o f C o r n w a l l i n Gordoduc. " I a c h i m o " l i k e w i s e h a s an u n p l e a s a n t s o u nd, b u t i t s c h i e f meaning i s a s s o c i a t i v e . The c o n t r a s t o f Roman and B r i t i s h names i s , o f c o u r s e , i m m e d i a t e l y p e r c e p t i b l e , b u t t h i s i s a c t u a l l y a b a s i c l i n g u i s t i c meaning. L i n g u i s t i c meaning and h i s t o r i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e c r u c i a l t o Cymbeline. The p l a y t u r n s on t h e c o n f l i c t between two r u l e r s a n d two n a t i o n s , b u t whereas c i v i l a u t h o r i t y was p r e v i o u s l y a c k n o w l e d g e d by l e a v i n g r u l e r s n a m e l e s s , i n t h i s p s e u d o -h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g t h e n a t i o n a l i s t i c a s p e c t s a r e a c t u a l l y empha-s i z e d by a s s i g n i n g t h e r e c o g n i z a b l e names C y m b e l i n e and A u g u s t u s , vice C a i u s L u c i u s , t o t h e heads o f t h e p o w e r s . S h a k e s p e a r e r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t o l e a v e them n a m e l e s s , m e r e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e i r c o u n t r i e s , w o u l d weaken t h e immediacy o f t h e c o n f l i c t . I n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t was n o t a t t h e c o r e o f t h e o t h e r p l a y s . Posthumus's name, Imogen's and t h e K i n g ' s s o n s ' and B e l a r i u s ' s names w i t h t h e i r a l i a s e s a r e a l l s i g n i f i c a n t by v i r t u e o f t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c p r o v e n a n c e a l o n e , a s i d e f r o m o t h e r m e a n i n g s . "Posthumus" a l s o h a s an a p p r o p r i a t e l i t e r a l m e a n i n g , as we n o t e d above, and "Imogen" may h i n t a t i n n o c e n c e , " C l o t e n " a t " c l o t " and " C o r n e l i u s " a t " c o r n e l i a n . " " P h i l h a r m o n u s " i s a p u r e l y e m b l e m a t i c name, s i g n a l l i n g t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l l y c r e a t e d harmony w h i c h c o n c l u d e s t h e p l a y . The h i s t o r i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s as we have s a i d , go h a n d - i n - h a n d w i t h t h e l i n g u i s t i c o r i g i n s , i n a n a t o m i z i n g t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t . Posthumus i s named s h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s e n t r a n c e , t h u s c r e a t -i n g t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f a c h a r a c t e r w i t h u n u s u a l a b i l i t i e s and a c c e s s t o m y s t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . L i k e w i s e J u p i t e r , o r J o v e , i s named l o n g b e f o r e h i s a p p a r i t i o n , and each- o f t h e s u b s e q u e n t r e p e t i t i o n s o f h i s name i s made w i t h m o u n t i n g r e v e r e n c e , j u s t as D i a n a ' s name was employed i n Pericles. The o n l y o t h e r names sp o k e n b e f o r e t h e i r b e a r e r s ' a p p e a r a n c e s a r e " P h i l a r i o , " w h i c h i s r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t , and " C a i u s L u c i u s . " The l a t t e r ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n c r e a t e s a s e n s e o f m o u n t i n g a n x i e t y o v e r t h e t h r e a t h i s a p p r o a c h r e p r e s e n t s . O n l y H e l e n i s named upon e n t r a n c e ; a l l t h e o t h e r c h a r a c -t e r s a r e named a f t e r t h e a u d i e n c e has h a d a c h a n c e t o p a s s j u d g -ment on them. A p a r t f r o m n a t i o n a l i s t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s , o n l y I a c himo i s t o u c h e d by t h i s . I f any o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s o f h i s name w h i c h we have c i t e d above were made, h i s naming a t t h e end o f t h e wager s c e n e w o u l d c o n f i r m t h e o p i n i o n t h e a u d i e n c e h a d j u s t f o r m e d o f him. One name, " P i s a n i o , " i s m e n t i o n e d more o f t e n t h a n any save Posthumus's own, y e t has no i n t r i n s i c o r d e v e l o p e d m e a n i n g . 97 His function i s e s s e n t i a l l y as a messenger, though he brings Imogen to Milf o r d , and we must conclude that in this play he has assumed the otherwise empty place of the "low" characters in pre-vious plays. The only s i m i l a r i t y i n the characters we meet i s Camillo, i n The Winter's Tale. The Winter's Tale The Winter's Tale i s b a s e d on G r e e n e ' s Pandosto, b u t b o r -rows v i r t u a l l y no names f r o m i t : Bohemia and S i c i l i a a r e t h e s e t t i n g s , b u t t h e y a r e r e v e r s e d , L e o n t e s b e i n g K i n g o f S i c i l i a whereas P a n d o s t o was K i n g o f Bohemia. The j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e two c o u n t r i e s b e g i n s a t o n c e . ARCH. I f y o u s h a l l c h a n c e , C a m i l l o , t o v i s i t Bohemia on t h e l i k e o c c a s i o n whereon my s e r v i c e s a r e now on f o o t , y o u s h a l l s e e , as I have s a i d , g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w i x t o u r Bohemia and y o u r S i c i l i a . CAM. I t h i n k t h i s coming summer t h e K i n g o f S i c i l i a means t o pay Bohemia t h e v i s i t a t i o n w h i c h he j u s t l y owes him. ( I , i , 1-7) CAM. " S i c i l i a c a n n o t show h i m s e l f o v e r k i n d t o Bohemia." ( I , i , 23) C a m i l l o i s named f o r t y - t h r e e t i m e s , y e t h i s name, l i k e P i s a n i o ' s i n Cymbeline, has no a p p a r e n t s i g n i f i c a n c e e i t h e r p r i o r o r c o n t e x t u a l l y d e v e l o p e d , u n l e s s a v e r y o b l i q u e r e f e r -ence i s i n t e n d e d t o t h e " C a m i l l u s f r o m P l u t a r c h whose name L i v y u s e d i n t h e a p p e l l a t i v e "novus C a m i l l u s " meaning a s a v i o r o f one's c o u n t r y . " M a m i l l i u s , " named a t l i n e 38, s u g g e s t s a n u r s e l i n g ; " H e r m i o n e , " named a t s c . i i , 1. 33 may have b e e n remembered by S h a k e s p e a r e f r o m Rare Triumphs of Love and For-tune, where however i t was a man's name.* C e r t a i n l y S h a k e s p e a r e e n c o u n t e r e d i t t h e r e , where he f o u n d some o f t h e m a t e r i a l f o r 2 Cymbeline. R u s k i n s a y s "Hermione" means " p i l l a r - l i k e " ; o r i t may p o s s i b l y have b e e n s u g g e s t e d by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Hermione t h e w i f e o f Obrestes as a woman whose h u s b a n d was d r i v e n t o a 98 f r e n z y , t h o u g h no e v i d e n c e e x i s t s t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e was f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e d e t a i l s o f O r e s t e s ' s t o r y . L e o n t e s , named a t l i n e 41--t h e names come l e i s u r e l y and r e g u l a r l y - - m a y s u g g e s t a " l e o n i n e 3 n o b i l i t y , " o r be due t o r e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e L e o n a t i o f Cymbeline w h i c h was w r i t t e n t h e y e a r b e f o r e , o r have b e e n s u g g e s t e d by L e o n t i n i , a town i n S i c i l y . An o b l i q u e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t i t l e comes a t A c t I , s c . i i , 1. 169: "He makes a J u l y ' s day s h o r t as December." F u r t h e r s e a s o n a l r e f e r e n c e s a r e s p r i n k l e d t h r o u g h o u t , more t h a n i n any o f S h a k e s p e a r e ' s p r e v i o u s c o m e d i e s . C o n t i n u i n g t h e S i c i l i a -Bohemia i n t e r p l a y , on l i n e 219 L e o n t e s a n t i c i p a t e s w h i s p e r s o f " S i c i l i a i s a s o - f o r t h " ; on l i n e 230 C a m i l l o s a y s "Bohemia s t a y s h e r e ' l o n g e r " t h u s i n d i c a t i n g t h e t u r n o f j u x t a p o s i t i o n t o o p p o s i t i o n . C a m i l l o names P o l i x e n e s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e on l i n e 353. P r e v i o u s l y he h a s been "Bohemia" s e v e n t i m e s and once ( l i n e 196) " S i r S m i l e . " As K n i g h t p o i n t s o u t , t h i s i s an a p p r o p r i a t e n i c k n a m e , f o r " P o l i x e n e s " s u g g e s t s " t h e ' e n t e r t a i n e r o f o r 4 'one e n t e r t a i n e d by' 'many f r i e n d s . ' " Though C a m i l l o e l e v e n l i n e s l a t e r u s e s "Bohemia," L e o n t e s , i n a c c u s i n g Hermione i n A c t I I , s c . i , u s e s " P o l i x e n e s " t w i c e . S u b s e q u e n t l y t o t h e end o f A c t I I I , " P o l i x e n e s " i s u s e d t w e l v e t i m e s , whereas t h e r e -a f t e r i t a p p e a r s o n l y o n c e , i n A c t V. A l s o , "Bohemia" -is n o t u s e d a g a i n i n A c t s I I and I I I t o r e f e r t o P o l i x e n e s . T h i s 100 c l e a r l y p o i n t s t o t h e p e r s o n a l o u t r a g e f e l t by L e o n t e s , t h a t i t i s n o t "Bohemia" b u t h i s f r i e n d P o l i x e n e s who, as he t h i n k s , has wronged him. The names o f t h e two m e s s e n g e r s s e n t t o t h e o r a c l e , Cleomenes a n d D i o n , seem t o a f f o r d us a g l i m p s e i n t o t h e w o r k i n g s o f S h a k e s p e a r e ' s memory. B o t h names a r e c e r t a i n l y t a k e n f r o m P l u t a r c h . " D i o n " may have b e e n s u g g e s t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t h i s namesake u n d e r t o o k an e x p e d i t i o n t o S i c i l y . P l u t a r c h ' s Cleomenes a p p e a r s c o n n e c t e d w i t h many o t h e r names u s e d i n The Winter's Tale. H i s f a t h e r was Leonidas, one o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s was Antigonus and one o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s Arohidamus,^ t h e name g i v e n i n D r a m a t i s P e r s o n a e and s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s t o t h e c h a r a c t e r who spe a k s w i t h C a m i l l o i n A c t I , s c . i and i s n e v e r named, n o r s e e n on s t a g e t h e r e a f t e r . T h e s e c o n n e c t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as t h e y ex-p l a i n " A r c h i d a m u s , " r u l e o u t any p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e h a d i n mind a d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o Cleomenes I , who once b r i b e d t h e D e l p h i c O r a c l e , b u t a f a i n t i n p r e s s i o n i n h i s mind o f an a s s o c i a t i o n o f Cleomenes w i t h t h e o r a c l e may be i n d i c a t e d . H e r m i o n e ' s woman E m i l i a i s named f o u r t i m e s i n s c e n e i i , t r e a t i n g o f Hermione's d e l i v e r y i n t h e p r i s o n . S h a k e s p e a r e u s e d t h e name t w i c e b e f o r e , i n The Comedy of Errors and more r e c e n t l y i n Othello, t h e r e t o o as a f a i t h f u l s e r v i n g woman. T h i s p r o b a b l y e x p l a i n s t h e name's p r e s e n c e h e r e and n o t e l s e -where i n t h e p l a y . Scene i i i names A n t i g o n u s . K n i g h t makes 101 t h e i n f e l i c i t o u s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t " A n t i g o n u s ' k i n d l y s o u l o p p o s e s t y r a n n y l i k e t h a t o f h i s namesake A n t i g o n e " ; ^ t h e r e i s l i t t l e c h a n c e t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e o r h i s a u d i e n c e were s u f f i c i e n t l y f a m i l -i a r w i t h S o p h o c l e s t o make s u c h an a s s o c i a t i o n . T h e r e may be a c o n n e c t i o n w i t h " a n t a g o n i s t , " r e f e r r i n g t o h i s r o l e i n op p o s -i n g L e o n t e s ; t h e f i r s t r e c o r d e d u s e o f t h e word was b y J o n s o n i n 1599 [OED]. The C h a u c e r i a n a l l u s i o n t o dame P a r t l e t ( A c t I I , s c . i i i , 1. 75) i s a p t , b u t may have c o n f u s e d S h a k e s -p e a r e ' s a u d i e n c e , s i n c e A n t i g o n u s ' w i f e i s s t i l l unnamed, t h o u g h s h a p i n g up as a m a j o r c h a r a c t e r . She makes t h e f i r s t m e n t i o n o f N a t u r e , w h i c h l a t e r becomes so i m p o r t a n t , a t A c t I I , s c . i i i , 11. 104 - 105, i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i n f a n t g i r l : "And t h o u , good goddess N a t u r e , w h i c h h a s t made i t / So l i k e t o h im t h a t g o t i t . " v I f " L ady M a r g e r y , y o u r m i d w i f e t h e r e " a t l i n e 160 i s an a l l u s i v e r e f e r e n c e t o P a u l i n a , t h e a l l u s i o n i s o b s c u r e . I t seems t o be m e r e l y a s n e e r f r o m L e o n t e s . In A c t I I I , s c . i , Cleomenes and D i o n d e s c r i b e t h e i r v i s i t t o " s a c r e d D e l p h o s , t o A p o l l o ' s t e m p l e , " i n h i g h l y r e v e r e n t i a l t e r m s . When t h e o r a c l e i s r e a d and L e o n t e s c o n t r a d i c t s " g r e a t A p o l l o " ( I I I , i , 14; i i , 129, 138) t h e p l a y t u r n s i n d e e d t o a s a d t a l e b e s t f o r w i n t e r . L e o n t e s i m m e d i a t e l y c o n c l u d e s t h a t M a m i l l i u s ' d e a t h o c c u r r e d b e c a u s e " A p o l l o ' s a n g r y , and t h e Heavens t h e m s e l v e s / Do s t r i k e a t 102 my i n j u s t i c e . " (11. 147-48) The r e s t o f t h e p l a y c o n f o r m s t o t h e D e l p h i c p r o p h e c y , e v e n t o t h e naming o f P e r d i t a . L e s s n o t i c e a b l y , a g r e a t d e a l o f t h e name--imagery o f A c t IV i s s e a -s o n a l and r e l a t e d t o A p o l l o as t h e s u n - d e i t y . I n f a c t , a s t r u g -g l e d e v e l o p s t o emerge f r o m t h e s p i r i t u a l w i n t e r h e r e imposed by L e o n t e s . I n h e r t r i a l s c e n e Hermione makes the a p p a r e n t l y g r a -t u i t o u s remark, "The Emperor o f R u s s i a was my f a t h e r " ( I I I , i i , 1 2 0 ) . T h i s i s r e p r o d u c e d f r o m Pandosto, i n f a c t , b u t r e i n -f o r c e s t h e " w i n t e r " theme by m e n t i o n i n g a l a n d t h e E n g l i s h 7 t h o u g h t o f as b e i n g p e r p e t u a l l y w i n t r y . P e r d i t a ' s and P a u l i n a ' s names a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A n t i g o n u s ' s a c c o u n t o f h i s dream and t h e a p p a r i t i o n o f H e r m i o n e . J u s t as M a r i n a ' s name was e x p l a i n e d i n Pericles, we a r e t o l d t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e c h i l d ' s name: " . . . f o r t h e babe Is c o u n t e d l o s t f o r e v e r , P e r d i t a I p r i t h e e c a l l ' t . " ( I l l , i i i , 32-34) I t was i n f a c t d e f i n e d e a r l i e r by t h e o r a c l e : " . . . t h e K i n g s h a l l l i v e w i t h o u t an h e i r i f t h a t w h i c h i s l o s t be n o t f o u n d . " ( I l l , i i , 136-37) The naming o f P a u l i n a p r e s e n t s a p r o b l e m . She has a l r e a d y p l a y e d a m a j o r r o l e unnamed s a v e f o r two e p i t h e t s , and she does n o t a p p e a r a g a i n , n o r i s she named a g a i n u n t i l A c t V. The name w o u l d seem t o a s s o c i a t e i t s e l f w i t h t h e B i b l i c a l P a u l "as a 8 p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f L e o n t e s ' c o n s c i e n c e " ; c e r t a i n l y i t c o n t r a s t s 103 w i t h t h e G r e e k - p a g a n names i n t h e p l a y , y e t no s p e c i f i c New T e s t a -ment a s s o c i a t i o n s a p p e a r , o n l y vague s u g g e s t i o n s o f c o n s c i e n c e and o f a z e a l w h i c h i g n o r e s p e r s o n a l d a n g e r . A c t IV opens w i t h Time as c h o r u s : t h i s may r e c a l l t h e sub-t i t l e o f Pandosto, The Triumph of Time, b u t more p e r t i n e n t l y i t r e m i n d s t h e a u d i e n c e o f t h e s e a s o n a l theme. Time t e l l s us t h a t L e o n t e s has s h u t h i m s e l f up, t h a t t h e s c e n e i s now Bohemia, w h i c h has been named as a p l a c e s e v e n t i m e s p r e v i o u s l y i n t h e p l a y , and s a y s . . . remember w e l l , I m e n t i o n e d a s o n o' t h e K i n g ' s , w h i c h F l o r i z e l I now name t o y o u , and w i t h s p e e d so p a c e To s p e a k o f P e r d i t a , now grown i n g r a c e E q u a l w i t h w o n d e r i n g . ( I V , i , 21-25) The name " F l o r i z e l " s t r i k e s us a t f i r s t as m e r e l y an a t t r a c t i v e name, w h i c h i s r e p e a t e d t w i c e b e f o r e h i s a p p e a r a n c e i n s c . i i i , y e t i t must a l r e a d y h i n t a t " f l o w e r " and t h u s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s e a s o n a l theme. Scene i i t h e n opens on P o l i x e n e s and C a m i l l o , who a r e t a l k i n g o f t h e l a t t e r ' s h o m e s i c k n e s s ; P o l i x e n e s s a y s , "Of t h a t f a t a l c o u n t r y S i c i l i a p r i t h e e s peak no more" (11. 21-22) an d (1 . 58) " L a y a s i d e t h e t h o u g h t s o f S i c i l i a . " Thus as t h e p r e s -ence o f Bohemia was r e p e a t e d l y s u g g e s t e d i n S i c i l i a , t h e p r e s -ence o f S i c i l i a b e g i n s i m m e d i a t e l y t o i n t r u d e upon Bohemia. Scene i i i i n t r o d u c e s A u t o l y c u s , who a m i d s t h i s song s a y s , " I have s e r v e d P r i n c e F l o r i z e l and i n my t i m e wore t h r e e - p i l e , b u t now I am o u t o f s e r v i c e " : (11. 13-14) and t h e n g i v e s an e x p l a n a t i o n 104 o f h i s name: My f a t h e r named me A u t o l y c u s , who b e i n g , as I am, l i t t e r e d u n d e r M e r c u r y , was l i k e -w i s e a s n a p p e r - u p o f u n c o n s i d e r e d t r i f l e s . ( 1 1. 24-26) S h a k e s p e a r e p r o b a b l y l e a r n e d t h e name, and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l a t l y i n g and c h e a t i n g o f A u t o l y c u s s o n o f C h i o n e and M e r c u r y , 9 10 fr o m G o l d i n g ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f O v i d . K n i g h t ' s s u g g e s t i o n o f " a u t o " and " l y c u s , " " l u k o s , " " i n d i v i d u a l i s t w o l f " i s u n n e c e s -s a r y a t b e s t . I n d e s c r i b i n g h i s p a s t o c c u p a t i o n s t o t h e c l o w n , A u t o l y c u s s a y s he "compassed a m o t i o n o f t h e P r o d i g a l Son" (11. 102-103), i . e . a c q u i r e d a puppet-show on t h e s u b j e c t . T h e r e has a l r e a d y b een s u f f i c i e n t p r e p a r a t i o n i n P o l i x e n e s ' q u e s t i o n s a b o u t F l o r i z e l ' s w h e r e a b o u t s t o a l l o w t h e a u d i e n c e t o see a p o s s i b l e a n a l o g y between t h e p a r a b l e and t h e p l a y . Scene i v s u g g e s t s an e x p l a n a t i o n o f F l o r i z e l ' s name. I t i s n o t m e r e l y t h a t i t f i t s i n w i t h t h e p a s t o r a l theme, as K n i g h t says"^; i t ean be t a k e n t o mean " z e a l o u s o f t h e f l o w e r , " i . e . i n l o v e w i t h P e r d i t a whom F l o r i z e l c a l l s "No s h e p h e r d e s s , b u t F l o r a / P e e r i n g i n A p r i l ' s f r o n t . " ( 11. 2-3) The m e n t i o n o f A p r i l a nd F l o r a , and t h e l a t e n t i m p l i c a t i o n o f F l o r i z e l ' s r o l e as an A p o l l o f i g u r e , wooer o f t h e s y m b o l i c f i g u r e o f S p r i n g , c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e a u t u m n a l atmosphere o f t h e s h e e p - s h e a r i n g . F l o r i z e l i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h A p o l l o a few l i n e s l a t e r : FLO. " A p p r e h e n d N o t h i n g b u t j o l l i t y . The gods t h e m s e l v e s , H u m b l i n g t h e i r d e i t i e s t o l o v e , have t a k e n The s hapes o f b e a s t s upon them. J u p i t e r 105 Became a b u l l , and b e l l o w e d ; t h e g r e e n Neptune A ram, and b l e a t e d ; and t h e f i r e - r o b e d god, G o l d e n A p o l l o , a p o o r humble s w a i n . As I seem now. T h e i r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s Were n e v e r f o r a p i e c e o f b e a u t y r a r e r , Nor i n a way so c h a s t e , s i n c e my d e s i r e s Run n o t b e f o r e mine h o n o r , n o r my l u s t s B u r n h o t t e r t h a n my f a i t h . " (11. 25-34) As a s e a s o n a l f i g u r e , F l o r i z e l l o g i c a l l y s u f f e r s i n t h e en-s u i n g w i n t r y e n v i r o n m e n t , w h i c h S h a k e s p e a r e i s a t c o n s i d e r a b l e p a i n s t o p o i n t o u t i n t h e l o n g d i s c u s s i o n o f f l o w e r s w i t h P o l i x e n e s and C a m i l l o w h i c h ends w i t h P e r d i t a ' s e x c l a m a t i o n PER. "Out, a l a s ! You'd be so l e a n t h a t b l a s t s o f J a n u a r y Would b l o w y o u t h r o u g h and t h r o u g h . " (11. 110-112) P e r d i t a p r o c e e d s t o s p e a k t o F l o r i z e l o f P r o s e r p i n a and D i s , w i n d s o f M a r c h and " p a l e p r i m r o s e s , T h a t d i e u n m a r r i e s , e r e t h e y c a n b e h o l d B r i g h t Phoebus i n h i s s t r e n g t h , a malady Most i n c i d e n t t o m a i d s . " (11. 122-125) C e r t a i n l y no a u d i e n c e o f S h a k e s p e a r e ' s w o u l d have f a i l e d t o n o t i c e t h i s r e f e r e n c e and t h e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e c u r r e n t a c t i o n , o r t o remember t h a t t h i s same Phoebus A p o l l o e a r l i e r d e l i v e r e d t h e o r a -c l e and t h e r e t r i b u t i o n f o r i g n o r i n g i t . P e r d i t a ' s m e n t i o n a t 1. 134 o f W h i t s u n p a s t o r a l s r e i n f o r c e s t h e s e n s e o f c o n t r a s t be-tween g e n e r a t i o n s a n d between s e a s o n s . E v e n some o f A u t o l y c u s ' f o o l e r y i s b e n t t o t h e p u r p o s e , f o r t h e w o m a n - t u r n e d - f i s h o f h i s s e c o n d b a l l a d a p p e a r e d on " t h e f o u r s c o r e o f A p r i l . " ( 1 . 280) E l s e w h e r e i n t h e s c e n e , F l o r i z e l ' s assumed name " D o r i c l e s , " 106 and " D o r c a s " a r e b o t h Greek, t h o u g h " D o r i c l e s " i s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y -p a s t o r a l and " D o r c a s " r e a l i s t i c . A n o t h e r r e a l i s t i c name i s "Mopsa" w h i c h comes d i r e c t l y f r o m Pandosto where i t was t h e name o f P e r d i t a / F a w n i a ' s s h e p h e r d e s s f o s t e r - m o t h e r . When P o l i x e n e s , whose name i n c i d e n t a l l y , and a p p e l l a t i v e "Bohemia" a r e n o t men-t i o n e d w h i l e he r e m a i n s i n Bohemia where he p l a y s t h e r o l e o f v i l l a i n , i s t h r e a t e n i n g t o d i s o w n F l o r i z e l , he a p p r o p r i a t e l y u s e s t h e image o f c a s t i n g h i m o f f as f a r as D e u c a l i o n , t h e Greek v e r s i o n o f Noah and t h u s as d i s t a n t a r e l a t i v e as p o s s i b l e . A s t u t e members o f t h e a u d i e n c e may have r e c a l l e d t h a t D e u c a l i o n was i n f a c t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e e a r t h , a n a l o g o u s t o t h e s o c i e t y - r e n e w i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e co m i c h e r o . Now t h a t Bohemia has become i n h o s p i t a b l e t o l o v e , t h e a c t i o n t u r n s , v i a C a m i l l o , b a c k t o S i c i l i a . C a m i l l o hopes t o " P u r c h a s e t h e s i g h t a g a i n o f d e a r S i c i l i a " ( 1 . 521) and s u g g e s t s t o F l o r i z e l : "make f o r S i c i l i a , a nd t h e r e p r e s e n t y o u r s e l f and y o u r f a i r P r i n c e s s , f o r so I see she must be, ' f o r e L e o n t e s . ' ( 11. 553-55) " M e t h i n k s I s e e / L e o n t e s o p e n i n g h i s f r e e arms" ( 1 1 . 5 5 7 - 5 8 ) . A t 11. 598-99, F l o r i z e l s a y s , "We a r e n o t f u r n i s h e d l i k e Bohemia's s o n / Nor s h a l l a p p e a r i n S i c i l i a . " I n A c t V, s c . i , t h e s c e n e i s i n S i c i l i a b u t t h e l o v e r s have n o t y e t a r r i v e d . F i r s t we f i n d P a u l i n a ; d e l i v e r i n g a s p e e c h w h i c h w h i l e r e v i e w i n g and summing up t h e e v e n t s o f A c t s I - I I I , c o n t a i n s two i n t e r e s t i n g s u g g e s t i o n s : F o r h as n o t t h e d i v i n e A p o l l o s a i d , Is ' t n o t t h e t e n o r o f h i s o r a c l e 107 T h a t K i n g L e o n t e s s h a l l n o t have an h e i r T i l l h i s l o s t c h i l d be f o u n d ? Which t h a t i t s h a l l Is a l l as m o n s t r o u s t o o u r human r e a s o n As my A n t i g o n u s t o b r e a k h i s g r a v e And come a g a i n t o me, who, on my l i f e . D i d p e r i s h w i t h t h e i n f a n t . ' T i s y o u r c o u n s e l My L o r d s h o u l d t o t h e Heavens be c o n t r a r y , Oppose a g a i n s t t h e i r w i l l s . ( t o LEONTES) C a r e n o t f o r i s s u e . The crown w i l l f i n d an h e i r . G r e a t A l e x a n d e r L e f t h i s t o t h e w o r t h i e s t , so h i s s u c c e s s o r Was l i k e t o be t h e b e s t . " (V, i , 37-49) Taken i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h L e o n t e s ' r e p l y , l i n e s 49-52: "Good P a u l i n a , Who h a s t t h e memory o f H e rmione, I know, i n h o n o r , oh, t h a t e v e r I Had s q u a r e d me t o t h y c o u n s e l ! " , t h e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f A n t i g o n u s ' r e s u r r e c t i o n as no more p o s s i b l e t h a n P e r d i t a b e i n g f o u n d , w h i c h i s i n f a c t q u i t e p o s s i b l e , p r e p a r e s t h e a u d i e n c e f o r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y , n o t t h a t Hermione i n p a r t i c u l a r c o u l d b r e a k h e r g r a v e , b u t t h a t a r e s u r r e c t i o n i s w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t u a l p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e p l a y . The o t h e r , r a t h e r ominous remark i s a b o u t A l e x a n d e r . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e f a t e o f h i s e m p i r e a f t e r h i s d e a t h , t h e a n a l o g y i s n o t a c h e e r i n g p r o g n o s i s f o r t h e kingdom o f S i c i l y . The t h e o r e t i c a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r H e r m i o n e ' s r e s u r r e c t i o n c o n t i n u e s as P a u l i n a s a y s " U n l e s s a n o t h e r , As l i k e Hermione as i s h e r p i c t u r e , A f f r o n t h i s e y e . " (11. 73-75) A t 1. 84 a G e n t l e m a n e n t e r s and a n n o u n c e s : "One t h a t g i v e s o u t h i m s e l f P r i n c e F l o r i z e l , Son o f P o l i x e n e s , w i t h h i s P r i n c e s s , she 108 The f a i r e s t I have y e t b e h e l d , d e s i r e s a c c e s s To y o u r h i g h p r e s e n c e . 1 1 The c o u p l i n g o f " F l o r i z e l " w i t h " P o l i x e n e s " r a t h e r t h a n "Bohemia" b e g i n s an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s i n w h i c h F l o r i z e l t a k e s t h e p l a c e o f P o l i x e n e s a n d P e r d i t a t h e p l a c e o f H e r m i o n e . P a u l i n a e x c l a i m s : 0 Hermione, As e v e r y p r e s e n t t i m e d o t h b o a s t i t s e l f Above a b e t t e r gone, so must t h y g r a v e G i v e way t o what's s e e n now! (11. 95-98) The symbolic r e s u r r e c t i o n o f Hermione i s t h u s a c c o m p l i s h e d . A t l i n e 112, Cleomenes i s s e n t t o u s h e r F l o r i z e l and P e r d i t a i n t o L e o n t e s ' p r e s e n c e . As one o f t h o s e who b r o u g h t t h e o r a c l e , w h i c h was r e f e r r e d t o some 75 l i n e s e a r l i e r i n t h e s c e n e , he i s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e man t o b r i n g i n " t h a t w h i c h was l o s t . " N o r t h r o p F r y e remarks on a p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r t h e c h o i c e o f Smalus o f L i b y a as P e r d i t a ' s f i c t i o n a l f a t h e r : No s u c h e x p l i c i t l i n k s ( t o t h e b i r t h o f C h r i s t as i n C y m b e l i n e ) a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o The Winter's Tale, t h o u g h i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e s t o r y does t e l l o f a m y s t e r i o u s d i s a p p e a r i n g c h i l d b o r n i n t h e w i n t e r who has f o u r f a t h e r - f i g u r e s a s s i g n e d t o h e r : a r e a l one, a p u t a -t i v e one who l a t e r becomes h e r f a t h e r - i n - l a w , a f i c t i o n a l one, Smalus of Libya i n F l o r i z e l ' s t a l e , and a s h e p h e r d f o s t e r - f a t h e r . T h i s makes up a g r o u p o f a s h e p h e r d and t h r e e k i n g s , o f whom one i s A f r i c a n . 1 2 I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t F r y e ' s s u g g e s t i o n , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e two m e n t i o n s o f P a u l i n a e a r l i e r i n t h e s c e n e , w o u l d j o g t h e s u b c o n s c i o u s memory o f an a u d i e n c e w e l l t r a i n e d i n c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n ; t h e s e c o n d m e n t i o n o f P a u l i n a , 109 l i n e s 81-82, "My t r u e P a u l i n a / We s h a l l n o t m a r r y t i l l t h o u b i d ' s t u s , " has some a f f i n i t y w i t h S t . P a u l ' s s u p p o s e d a n t i -m a r r i a g e d i c t u m , w h i c h was t h e p r i n c i p a l t h i n g a 1611 a u d i e n c e w o u l d know o f P a u l . T h i s seems a r a t h e r f a r - f e t c h e d i d e a and s c a r c e l y one t h a t an a u d i e n c e w o u l d p a u s e a t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e a c t i o n t o e n t e r t a i n , b u t when we b e g i n t o c o n s i d e r t h e p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s why Shake-s p e a r e a s s i g n e d L i b y a n p a r e n t a g e t o P e r d i t a , whose a p p e a r a n c e must be d i s t i n c t l y n o n - A f r i c a n , we have o n l y one o t h e r c h o i c e . I f t h e use o f "Smalus o f L i b y a " does n o t p o i n t t o t h e N a t i v i t y , i e . , t h e a r r i v a l i n m i d - w i n t e r o f a Redeemer, i t must be an even more d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o s u c h a f i g u r e . I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e c a s k e t s c e n e i n The Merchant of Venice, F r e u d i d e n t i f i e d t h e P r i n c e o f M o r o c c o as a t y p e o f t h e sun-f i g u r e , p a r t l y on t h e b a s i s o f h i s n e a r - e q u a t o r i a l o r i g i n . S h a k e s p e a r e may have c o n c e i v e d o f Smalus i n t h e same t e r m s , so t h a t P e r d i t a as h i s d a u g h t e r i s a g a i n l i n k e d t o t h e s e a s o n a l d e i t y , whose t i m e i s a b o u t t o come. The b r i e f o b s t a c l e p o s e d by P o l i x e n e s ' a r r i v a l i s s c a r c e l y n o t i c e d , f o l l o w e d s w i f t l y as i t i s by t h e l o n g p r o s e n a r r a t i o n o f t h e r e u n i o n i n s c . i i . T h a t P o l i x e n e s i s h e n c e f o r t h r e f e r r e d t o as "Bohemia," s c . i , 1. 181, and 185, and s c . i i , 1. 56, s e r v e s t o e x t e n d t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n t h r o u g h a l l t h e s o c i a l l e v e l s . 110 The l a s t new names a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n s c . i i . A t 1.2 3 t h e s e c o n d g e n t l e m a n i s named R o g e r o , a p p a r e n t l y f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n t h a n t o f i l l o u t t h e l i n e . A t l i n e 105 we h e a r o f " t h a t r a r e I t a l i a n m a s t e r , J u l i o Romano," who (11. 108-110) "so n e a r t o Hermione h a t h done Hermione t h a t t h e y s a y c n e w o u l d speak t o h e r and s t a n d i n hope o f answer." T h i s a n a c h r o n i s m i s e v i d e n t l y i n s e r t e d as a l a s t c o n c e s s i o n t o v e r i s i m i l i t u d e b e f o r e t h e c h a p e l s c e n e . The l a s t s c e n e makes no u s e o f names s a v e t o remark "Our P e r d i t a i s f o u n d . " ( 1 . 121) I t i s i n f a c t a l m o s t a p o s t s c r i p t , t h e s y m b o l i c r e s u r r e c t i o n h a v i n g a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d , and i t s i n -t e r e s t and meaning a r e n o t a u d i t o r y b u t v i s u a l . The Winter's Tale u s e s 58 names, t h u s r e t u r n i n g t o t h e l e v e l i n Pericles. The s u p p o r t i n g r e f e r e n c e s f o l l o w t h e p a t t e r n b u t , p e r h a p s b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e o n l y t h i r t y o f them, S h a k e s p e a r e seems to have t a k e n more c a r e to a s s i g n them a p p r o p r i a t e l y . Ten r e f e r t o t h e s e a s o n a l c y c l e o f n a t u r e . J u l y , December, A p r i l , J a n u a r y , M a r c h and W h i t s u n a r e d i r e c t ; A p o l l o , P r o s e r p i n a , D i s and Phoebus l e s s so b u t w i t h d e e p e r meaning. E i g h t more o f t h e r e f e r e n c e s a r e c l a s s i c a l and t h e r e s t g e o g r a p h i c o r p e r s o n i f y -i n g . The two l o c a l e s o f Bohemia and S i c i l i a were d i s c u s s e d above. Of t h e f o u r s i l e n t n o m i n e e s , M i s t r e s s T a l e p o r t e r and J u l i o Romano a r e u n i m p o r t a n t . The Emperor o f R u s s i a and Smalus I l l o f L i b y a , as p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , augment the themes o f w i n t e r and summer, d e a t h and r e s u r r e c t i o n . T h e r e a r e e i g h t e e n unnamed s p e a k e r s , t h e s h e p h e r d and h i s s o n b e i n g t h e o n l y i m p o r t a n t o n e s . To have named them w o u l d have o v e r - r e a l i z e d t h e p a s t o r a l Bohemian s o c i e t y , l e s s e n i n g i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e as a f o n t o f r e n e w a l . We have a l r e a d y e x p l o r e d t h e meanings and p r o b a b l e o r i g i n s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s ' names; o n l y t h r e e p o i n t s r e m a i n t o be n o t e d . "Low" names a r e w h o l l y a b s e n t s a v e f o r M i s t r e s s T a l e p o r t e r ' s . " D o r c a s , " "Mopsa" and " R o g e r o " may sound amusing b u t a r e n o t t r u l y r e a l i s t i c o r u s e f u l l y c h a r a c t e r i z i n g . L e o n t e s and P o l i x e n e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o as Bohemia and S i c i l i a . I n Cymbeline we saw how t h e naming o f t h e r u l e r s p e r s o n a l i z e d and d eepened the s e n s e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t . H e r e we see how a f r e q u e n t i n t e r c h a n g e o f p e r s o n a l and o f f i c i a l names e x t e n d s a p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t t o embrace a s o c i e t y . L i k e P i s a n i o i n Cymbeline, C a m i l l o i s named f r e q u e n t l y , 43 t i m e s i n f a c t , 26 more t h a n Hermione and P a u l i n a who come s e c o n d . A l s o l i k e P i s a n i o , C a m i l l o ' s name i s n e v e r made t o c a r r y any m e aning. These a r e t h e o n l y two s u c h names o f p r o m i n e n t c h a r a c t e r s i n a l l s i x t e e n p l a y s u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n , and t h e p u r -p o s e b e h i n d them c a n n o t be s u r e l y known. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e i r p r e s e n c e r e p r e s e n t s a l i n k between t h e w o r l d o f romance on t h e s t a g e and t h e r e a l w o r l d o f t h e a u d i e n c e ; t h e y may be 112 Shakespeare's equivalent of Chaucer's dreamer i n The Book of the Duchess, the analogues i n one way of Gower i n P e r i c l e s . Most of the names i n The Winter's Tale are introduced i n reasonable proximity to the entrance of the i r bearers, so that th e i r names are from the outset wedded to their characters. Polixenes, Antigonus and Paulina are named well after their p e r s o n a l i t i e s have been displayed. We have discussed Polixenes's name as s i g n a l l i n g Leontes's changed attitude. Antigonus and Paulina's names support our i n i t i a l assessment of the i r natures. Perdita and F l o r i z e l , Cleomenes and Dion are named before they enter. In the case of the l a t t e r two this occurs naturally during an account of their mission and has no apparent design. Perdita and F l o r i z e l are named, the one by Antigonus i n recount-ing his dream and the other by Time in his summation of the fifteen-year interlude, i n order to signal the t r a n s i t i o n in time, place and mood of the play, the turn from the f a l l i n g to the r i s i n g movement. The Tempest I f S h a k e s p e a r e ' s s k i l l a t u s i n g names d e v e l o p e d c o n t i n u -o u s l y t h r o u g h o u t h i s c a r e e r , one w o u l d e x p e c t t o f i n d them n e a r -e s t t o p e r f e c t i o n i n h i s l a s t i n d e p e n d e n t d r a m a t i c e f f o r t , The Tempest. S i n c e t h e i r f u n c t i o n i s i n f a c t l e s s p r o m i n e n t t h a n i n e a r l i e r e f f o r t s s u c h as Twelfth Night, one may assume a p r e v i o u s m a s t e r y s u b o r d i n a t e d i n The Tempest t o o t h e r d r a m a t i c p u r p o s e s . The Tempest i s a melange o f naming t e c h n i q u e s d i s p l a y e d i n e a r l i e r p l a y s , n o t s e r v i n g a s i n g l e common p u r p o s e as i n Twelfth Night b u t e a c h c o n t r i b u t i n g an i m p r e s s i o n o r a f r a g m e n t a r y meaning to t h e p l a y . The Tempest i s P r o s p e r o ' s p l a y , and h i s i s t h e f i r s t name h e a r d , b u t n o t b e f o r e t h e a u d i e n c e has s e e n t h e s h i p w r e c k o f a k i n g , h i s s o n , an a g e d c o u n s e l l o r and two p r o f a n e c o u r t i e r s , and l e a r n e d f r o m t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n o f a f a t h e r and d a u g h t e r t h a t t h a t f a t h e r has c a u s e d t h e wreck and y e t p r e v e n t e d any damage. Then P r o s p e r o p r o c e e d s on h i s e x p o s i t i o n t o t h e a u d i e n c e and h i s d a u g h t e r : " I have done n o t h i n g b u t i n c a r e o f t h e e , Of t h e e , my d e a r one, t h e e , my d a u g h t e r , who A r t i g n o r a n t o f what t h o u a r t , n a u g h t knowing Of whence I am, n o r t h a t I am more b e t t e r Than P r o s p e r o , m a s t e r o f a f u l l p o o r c e l l , And t h y no g r e a t e r f a t h e r . " ( I , i i , 11. 16-21) The name i t s e l f i s a s o r t o f t a l i s m a n ; however i n t e r p r e t e d i t c l e a r l y must b e l o n g t o a b e n e f i c e n t i n d i v i d u a l . Thus K n i g h t s u g g e s t s two me a n i n g s , " I p r o s p e r " and " I f a v o r , I c a u s e 113 to prosper." Levin notes that Prospero "rounds out a c y c l e 2 of p r o s p e r i t y and a d v e r s i t y , " described i n h i s e x p o s i t i o n , w i t h renewed p r o s p e r i t y . Ruskin gives the etymology as "pro spero," 3 " f o r hope." We cannot assume that Shakespeare composed the name "Prospero." I t appears, along w i t h "Stephano," i n Jonson's Every Man in his Rumour and, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n Thomas' His-tory of Italie (1561) along w i t h "Alonzo," "Antonio" and 4 "Ferdinand." Nevertheless i t i s as apropos as any character's name i n Shakespeare. The play's second important name i s "Miranda," Prospero speaks i t q u i t e c a s u a l l y twenty-eight l i n e s a f t e r naming him-self:' MIRA. 'Tis f a r o f f , And r a t h e r l i k e a dream than an assurance That my remembrance warrants. Had I not Four or f i v e women once that tended me? PRO. Thou hadst, and more, Miranda. But how i s i t That t h i s l i v e s i n thy mind? What seest thou e l s e In the dark backward and abysm of time? I f thou remember'st aught ere thou earnest here, How thou earnest here thou mayst. MIRA. But that I do not. PRO. Twelve year s i n c e , Miranda, twelve year s i n c e , Thy f a t h e r was the Duke of Mi l a n and A p r i n c e of power. (11. 44-55) Prospero's question, by making Miranda's r e c o l l e c t i o n seem unusual and mysterious, not to mention her mere a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a magician, strengthens the impact of her name. Ferdinand l a t e r addresses her as "0 you wonder!" (1. 426) and "Admired Miranda!" ( I l l , i , 1. 38) but the echoes of "admirable," "miraculous," et 115 cetera are present from the outset. No l i t e r a r y source for this name has been found, and i t i s probable that Shakespeare coined i t ; the s i m i l a r i t y to "Marina" and "Perdita" supports t h i s , being evidence of a continuing tendency i n his treatment of heroines i n the l a s t plays. Prospero's next revelation, that he was formerly Duke of Milan, i s repeated on l i n e s 57-58, just as Miranda's name was repeated: "thy father/ Was Duke of Milan." Next Prospero names "My brother, and thy uncle, c a l l e d Antonio" (line 66) to whom he entrusted the government of Milan. C a l l i n g attention to his own name again i n connection with the prosperity of Milan, he says: Through a l l the signories i t was the f i r s t , And Prospero the prime Duke, being so reputed In dignity, and for the l i b e r a l arts Without a p a r a l l e l , those being a l l my study (11.71-74) This dissection of Antonio's ambition concludes: He needs w i l l be Absolute Milan. Me, poor man, my l i b r a r y Was dukedom large enough. Of temporal r o y a l t i e s He thinks me now incapable; confederates, So dry he was for sway, wi' the King of Naples To give him annual tr i b u t e , do him homage, Subject his coronet to his crown, and bend The dukedom, yet unbowed -- alas, poor Milan!--To most ignoble stooping. (11. 108-116) Then, as Prospero says "This King of Naples, being an enemy/ To me inveterate, hearkens my brother's s u i t . " (11. 121-122) So the King of Naples i s mentioned twice, to f i x him i n our minds. Milan i s oftenest named, the instances at l i n e s 126 and 130 b r i n g i n g t h e t o t a l t o s i x . A n t o n i o t o o i s m e n t i o n e d a g a i n . H i s name may d e r i v e f r o m Thomas o r f r o m Eden's History of T r a v a i l l e , whence come " S e t e b o s " and i n w h i c h t h e names A l o n z o , S e b a s t i a n , A n t o n i o , F e r d i n a n d and G o n z a l o a l l appear,"* b u t i t i s one o f t h e most o f t - r e p e a t e d names i n S h a k e s p e a r e . T h e r e a r e " A n t o n i o s " i n The Taming of the Shrew, Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Merchant of Venice, Much Ado About Nothing, Twelfth Night and A l l ' s Well That Ends Well. Matthews has s e e n a s i m i l a r i t y w i t h t h e A n t o n i o o f The Merchant of Venice. The Tempest1s A n t o n i o i s u l t i m a t e l y f o r g i v e n t h o u g h u n r e p e n t a n t , whereas The Merchant of Venice's A n t o n i o f r e e l y f o r g i v e s t h e u n r e p e n t a n t S h y l o c k . ^ K n i g h t p o i n t s o u t t h a t The Tempest's A n t o n i o h a s , l i k e Twelfth 7 Night's, a boon companion named S e b a s t i a n . K n i g h t and F i e d l e r b o t h n o t e t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r " A n t o n i o " i n The Merchant of Venice g and Twelfth Night i s much t h e same: an o l d e r man, unmatched w i t h a woman, a f f e c t i o n a t e and l o y a l t o a y o u n g e r man by whom he i s e v e n t u a l l y r e j e c t e d . I t i s t e m p t i n g , s i n c e The Tempest's A n t o n i o i s matched w i t h a " S e b a s t i a n " as i n Twelfth Night, t o l o o k f o r some c o n t i n u i t y o f c h a r a c t e r , b u t none a p p e a r s u n l e s s i t be an i m p l i e d w i f e l e s s n e s s and c h i l d l e s s n e s s o f A n t o n i o , w h i c h i s d i s c u s s e d a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h b e l o w . A t any r a t e , n o t h i n g more i s made o f A n t o n i o ' s name; i t goes u n m e n t i o n e d a f t e r t h i s u n t i l A c t V, s c . i , 1. 264, so t h a t any s p e c u l a t i o n s on S h a k e s p e a r e ' s s u b c o n s c i o u s m o t i v e s f o r u s i n g i t c a n n o t c o n t r i b u t e t o an 117 u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s s t a g e c r a f t . G o n z a l o , whose name S h a k e s p e a r e p r o b a b l y t o o k f r o m Eden, i s t h e o n l y one s p o k e n w e l l o f by P r o s p e r o ; he i s c a l l e d "a n o b l e N e a p o l i t a n ! ' ( 1 . 1 6 1 ) . Then P r o s p e r o a f t e r e x p l a i n i n g what t h e a u d i e n c e has a l r e a d y g u e s s e d , t h a t t h e a f o r e - n a m e d i n d i -v i d u a l s were t h o s e a b o a r d t h e s h i p , p u t s M i r a n d a t o s l e e p and summons A r i e l : "Come away, s e r v a n t , come. I am r e a d y now./ A p p r o a c h , my A r i e l , come." (11. 187-188) L i k e " P r o s p e r o , " " A r i e l " may n o t be o r i g i n a l w i t h Shake-s p e a r e . Guttman m e n t i o n s t h a t t h e name a p p e a r s i n A g r i p p a ' s Be 9 Occulta Philosophia (1510) . B a k e r n o t e s t h e Hebrew meaning " l i o n o f God" and c i t e s I s a i a h 29:1-7, where A r i e l i s t h e name o f a c i t y , o f w h i c h I s a i a h s a y s " t h y v o i c e s h a l l b e , as o f one t h a t h a t h a f a m i l i a r s p i r i t , o u t o f t h e g r o u n d . " " ^ P r o s p e r o a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e e s s e n t i a l S h a k e s p e a r e a n i m p o r t o f t h e name on l i n e s 272-274: "And, f o r t h o u w a s t a s p i r i t t o o d e l i c a t e To a c t h e r e a r t h y and a b h o r r e d commands, R e f u s i n g h e r g r a n d h e s t s , she d i d c o n f i n e t h e e . " A r i e l i s named s i x t i m e s i n t h e r e m a i n i n g 230 l i n e s o f A c t I , as i f t o f i x h i s name i n t h e a u d i e n c e s ' minds. No c l o s e c o n t r a s t o r c o m p a r i s o n i s o f f e r e d w i t h " C a l i b a n , " who i s named i n a n o t h e r 96 l i n e s . The n e x t s e c t i o n o f e x p o s i t i o n c o n s i s t s o f A r i e l ' s n a r r a -t i o n o f h i s management o f t h e t e m p e s t . Though J o v e and Neptune 118 a r e m e n t i o n e d , i t i s o n l y i n f o r m i n g an a n a l o g y . . A r i e l does name " t h e K i n g ' s s o n , F e r d i n a n d " (1. 212) and m e n t i o n s some h a z y g e o g r a p h y . "The s t i l l v e x e d B e r m o o t h e s , " ( 1 . 229) e v i d e n t l y s u g -g e s t e d by Eden o r a s i m i l a r a c c o u n t a r e p r o b a b l y . m e a n t t o be a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e , s i n c e t h e s u r v i v i n g s h i p s " a r e upon t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n f l o t e , / Bound s a d l y home f o r N a p l e s . " (11. 234-235) L i k e " A n t o n i o , " t h e name " F e r d i n a n d " i s f o u n d i n b o t h Eden and Thomas. I t has no s i g n i f i c a n t meaning, b u t p o s s e s s e s an a f f i n i t y i n sound w i t h " M i r a n d a . " The t h i r d s e c t i o n o f e x p o s i t i o n d e a l s w i t h S y c o r a x , named t h r e e t i m e s b e f o r e t h e e n t r a n c e o f C a l i b a n , h e r e x p u l s i o n f r o m A r g i e r , named t w i c e , and t h e e x i s t e n c e and s t a t e . o f s e r v i t u d e o f C a l i b a n h e r s o n , named f o u r t i m e s b e f o r e h i s e n t r a n c e . , R u s k i n d e r i v e s " S y c o r a x " as " s w i n e - r a v e n " ; 1 1 t h o u g h t h i s i s p e r h a p s c o r -r e c t , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e ' s a u d i e n c e w o u l d p e r c e i v e more t h a n a m a l i g n a n t sound. " C a l i b a n " has g e n e r a t e d s e v e r a l o p i n i o n s . F i e d l e r s a y s i t i s an anagram o f " c a n n i b a l " w h i c h 12 d e r i v e s i n t u r n f r o m " C a r i b . " I f so i t was p r o b a b l y s u g g e s t e d , as B a k e r p o i n t s o u t , by M o n t a i g n e ' s e s s a y No. XXX, " o f t h e c a n n i -b a l s , " f r o m w h i c h G o n z a l o ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i d e a l commonwealth 13 i s t a k e n . However, t h e New V a r i o r u m n o t e s mention, t h e A r a b i c 14 " k a l e b o n , " " v i l e dog" and " C a l i b i a " on t h e M o o r i s h c o a s t . T h i s g a i n s p l a u s i b i l i t y f r o m S y c o r a x ' s o r i g i n i n Argier, and t h e m a r r i a g e i n Tunis. T h a t S h a k e s p e a r e knew t h e A r a b i c i s d o u b t f u l ; t h a t he knew the name " C a l i b i a " i s q u i t e l i k e l y . " C a l i b a n " i s p r o b a b l y , a p r o d u c t o f t h a t knowledge, j o i n e d t o t h a t o f t h e word " c a n n i b a l . " A f u r t h e r s u p p o r t f o r t h e " c a n n i b a l " d e r i v a t i o n i s t h a t " C a l i b a n " seems to be u s e d as a,common noun--C a l i b a n s a y s ( 1 . 350-351) "I had p e o p l e d e l s e / T h i s i s l e w i t h C a l i b a n s . " P r o s p e r o s a y s (1. .480) "To t h e most o f men t h i s i s a C a l i b a n . " " S e t e b o s , " S y c o r a x ' s god a t 1. 373, comes u n q u e s t i o n a b l y f r o m Eden i n w h i c h i t i s t h e name o f a P a t a g o n i a n demon. S e t e b o s i s o f l i t t l e c o n s e q u e n c e ; o n l y C a l i b a n m e n t i o n s him, and o n l y t w i c e , t h e s e c o n d t i m e (V, i , 261) o n l y as an o a t h . When F e r d i n a n d e n t e r s , b e l i e v i n g h i m s e l f K i n g by v i r t u e o f h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h , P r o s p e r o a s k s "What w e r t t h o u i f t h e K i n g o f N a p l e s h e a r d t h e e ? " ( 1 . 431) t o w h i c h F e r d i n a n d r e p l i e s "My-s e l f am N a p l e s . " ( 1 . 433) A moment l a t e r F e r d i n a n d u n h e a r d by P r o s p e r o , w i l l d e c l a r e t o M i r a n d a : " I ' l l make y o u t h e Queen o f N a p l e s . " (1. 449) T h i s p r e f i g u r e s t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f a l l t h e c o n t r a s t s , b u t n o t b e f o r e t h e i r r a m i f i c a t i o n s a r e e x p l o r e d . F e r d i n a n d goes on t o s a y , " M y s e l f am N a p l e s , Who w i t h mine e y e s , n e v e r s i n c e a t ebb, b e h e l d The K i n g my f a t h e r w r e c k e d . MIRA. A l a c k , f o r mercy! FER. Y e s , f a i t h , and a l l . h i s l o r d s , t h e Duke o f M i l a n And h i s b r a v e s o n b e i n g t w a i n . " (11. 433-437) P r o s p e r o r e p l i e s a s i d e "The Duke o f M i l a n / A n d h i s more b r a v e r 120 d a u g h t e r c o u l d c o n t r o l t h e e , / I f now 'twere f i t t o d o ' t . " (11. 438-439) T h i s p a s s a g e i s d e s i g n e d t o s e t up a c o n t r a s t between t h e as-yet-unnamed A l o n z o and h i s s o n F e r d i n a n d , between t h e powers o f M i l a n and N a p l e s , and between A n t o n i o and P r o s p e r o , t h e ( s l u r p i n g and t h e r i g h t f u l Duke. A p r o b l e m a r i s e s i f on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s p a s s a g e we t r y t o i d e n t i f y A n t o n i o ' s s o n . He i s c e r t a i n l y n o t A d r i a n , who is . n a m e d o n c e , has. n i n e l i n e s and i s r i d i c u l e d by A n t o n i o . The c h a r a c t e r c a l l e d F r a n c i s c o i n . D r a m a t i s P e r s o n a e and s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s i s unnamed i n t h e d i a l o g u e and has o n l y e l e v e n l i n e s , t e n o f w h i c h d e s c r i b e how F e r d i n a n d swam f r o m t h e wreck. T h e r e i s n o t h i n g to i n d i c a t e t h a t he was i n i t i a l l y c o n -c e i v e d as A n t o n i o ' s s o n , y e t t h e o n l y o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e T r i n c u l o o r one o f t h e unnamed o t h e r s " o f t h e K i n g ' s p a r t y . " T r i n c u l o i s l i s t e d as " a j e s t e r " i n t h e Names o f t h e A c t o r s b u t t h i s i s an i n f e r e n c e ; he i s nowhere, so d e s i g n a t e d i n t h e p l a y , s a v e by t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r . N e i t h e r however i s he c o n n e c t e d w i t h A n t o n i o i n any way, and i f S h a k e s p e a r e had o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d t o make s u c h an o u t r a g e o u s l i n k i t i s un-l i k e l y t h a t he would.have abandoned t h e . i d e a i n . t h e 400 l i n e s i n t e r v e n i n g between t h e m e n t i o n o f a s o n and T r i n c u l o ' s e n t r a n c e . T h a t F r a n c i s c o m e r i t e d a name i n t h e s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s w h i c h was n e v e r i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e d i a l o g u e may i n d i c a t e an i n i t i a l l y p r o j e c t e d l a r g e r r o l e f o r him. I f so S h a k e s p e a r e abandoned i t s t i l l - b o r n i n t h e f i r s t a c t , p o s s i b l y i n answer t o a s u b c o n s c i o u s 121 i m p u l s e t o c r e a t e y e t a n o t h e r c h i l d l e s s " A n t o n i o " - f i g u r e l i k e t h o s e o f The Merchant of Venice and Twelfth Wight, b u t more p r o b -a b l y as an unmanageable c o m p l i c a t i o n . A c t I I , s c . i i n t r o d u c e s t h e r o y a l p a r t y . A n t o n i o and G o n z a l o have a l r e a d y b een named by P r o s p e r o ; t h e y a r e i d e n t i f i e d and d e l i n e a t e d h e r e . G o n z a l o i s named f o u r t i m e s ; A n t o n i o ' s name i s n o t s p o k e n b u t he i s amply i d e n t i f i e d . w h e n S e b a s t i a n s a y s t o him (11. 270-271) " I remember/ You d i d s u p p l a n t y o u r b r o t h e r P r o s p e r o . " A n t o n i o ' s c r o n y S e b a s t i a n , t h e k i n g ' s b r o t h e r , i s a l s o named f o u r t i m e s i n t h i s s c e n e ; t h e p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h i s name a r e d i s c u s s e d above. The s i m p l e s t e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e name i n Eden. The s c e n e o f f e r s an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p a r t y ' s v o y a g e s w i t h a b r i e f h i s t o r y l e s s o n f r o m G o n z a l o : GON. M e t h i n k s o u r garments a r e now as f r e s h as when we p u t them on f i r s t i n A f r i c , a t t h e m a r r i a g e o f t h e K i n g ' s f a i r d a u g h t e r C l a r i b e l t o t h e K i n g o f T u n i s . SEB. 'Twas a sweet m a r r i a g e , and we p r o s p e r w e l l i n o u r r e t u r n . ADR. T u n i s was n e v e r g r a c e d b e f o r e w i t h s u c h a p a r a g o n t o t h e i r Queen. GON. Not s i n c e Widow D i d o ' s t i m e . ANT. Widow! A pox o' t h a t ! How came t h a t widow i n ? Widow D i d o ! SEB. What i f he had s a i d "Widower A e n e a s " t o o ? Good L o r d , how y o u t a k e i t ' . ADR. "Widow D i d o , " s a i d you? You make me s t u d y o f t h a t . She was o f C a r t h a g e , n o t o f T u n i s . GON. T h i s T u n i s , s i r , was C a r t h a g e . ADR. C a r t h a g e ? GON.. I a s s u r e y o u , C a r t h a g e . " ( A c t I I , s c . i , 11. 68-85) C l a r i b e l ' s name may have been remembered f r o m t h e History of George Lord Faukonbridge, one o f S h a k e s p e a r e ' s s o u r c e s f o r Henry VIII3^ b u t i t seems t o have no i m p o r t a n c e . . T h e r e i s an i n s i s t e n c e on j u x t a p o s i n g " T u n i s " and " N a p l e s " a l i t t l e f u r t h e r on i n t h e p l a y : ANT. Who's t h e n e x t h e i r o f N a p l e s ? SEB. C l a r i b e l . ANT. She t h a t i s Queen o f Tunis., .she t h a t d w e l l s Ten l e a g u e s b e y o n d man's l i f e , she t h a t f r o m N a p l e s c a n have no n o t e . . . (11. 245-47) S E B . . . . ' T i s t r u e , m y b r o t h e r ' s d a u g h t e r ' s Queen o f T u n i s , So i s she h e i r o f N a p l e s , ' t w i x t w h i c h r e g i o n s T h e r e i s some s p a c e . ANT. A s p a c e whose e v e r y c u b i t Seems t o c r y . o u t , "How s h a l l t h a t C l a r i b e l M easure us b a c k t o N a p l e s ? Keep i n T u n i s , And l e t S e b a s t i a n wake." (11. 255-60) The o n l y e x p l a n a t i o n a d v a n c e d f o r t h i s , i n t h e l i g h t o f G o n z a l o ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f T u n i s w i t h C a r t h a g e , . i s F i e d l e r ' s h y p o t h e s i s t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e was p l a y i n g on t h e meanings o f t h e c i t i e s ' names "But " C a r t h a g e " i s a c o r r u p t i o n o f Quarthadasht,. meaning "new town," - - - and i t s G r e e k e q u i v a l e n t i s " N e a p o l i s , " w h i c h becomes " N a p o l i , " and " N a p l e s , " m e m o r i a l i z i n g . a s e c o n d w e s t w a r d voyage t o a s e c o n d New W o r l d . I t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e was aware o f b o t h t h e s e e t y m o l o g i e s ; y e t t h e y so s u i t t h e p a t -t e r n o f a p l a y i n s p i r e d by t h e o p e n i n g o f a t h i r d and f i n a l West, t h a t we c a n n o t d i s m i s s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o u t o f h a n d . " ^ I f F i e d l e r i s c o r r e c t t h i s r e p r e s e n t s t h e most s o p h i s t i c a t e d use o f names i n The Tempest,, b u t as he s a y s , " i t i s d o u b t f u l " t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e had t h i s i n mind, and e v e n l e s s l i k e l y t h a t 123 he e x p e c t e d an a u d i e n c e to be aware o f i t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no o t h e r r e a s o n . f o r G o n z a l o ' s s p e e c h and t h e T u n i s - N a p l e s c o n t r a s t o f f e r s i t s e l f , s a v e t h e h e r e t i c a l p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i t c o n t a i n s no meaning a t a l l . T h e r e i s a l s o o f c o u r s e t h e p r e d i c t a b l e j u x t a p o s i t i o n i n t h i s s c e n e o f " N a p l e s " and " M i l a n , " w h i c h a p p e a r t o g e t h e r t h r e e t i m e s (11. 112, 132 and 291-292). The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s t h e K i n g ' s a p o s t r o p h e , "0 t h o u mine h e i r o f N a p l e s and o f M i l a n " w h i c h w i t h t h e s u b s e q u e n t r e p e t i t i o n s r e m i n d s t h e a u d i e n c e o f t h e p r e v i o u s s c e n e o f F e r d i n a n d and M i r a n d a ' s m e e t i n g , and t h e f a c t t h a t F e r d i n a n d w i l l i n h e r i t N a p l e s and M i l a n by>a means u n s u s -p e c t e d b y h i s f a t h e r . The s c e n e c l o s e s w i t h A r i e l s a y i n g , " P r o s p e r o my l o r d s h a l l know what I have done." ( 1 . 326) T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h C a l i b a n ' s l i n e , w h i c h opens s c e n e i i , CAL. A l l t h e i n f e c t i o n s , t h a t t h e sun s u c k s up From b o g s , f e n s , f l a t s , o n . P r o s p e r f a l l , and make him By i n c h m e a l a d i s e a s e ! (11. 1 - 3 ) He u s e s t h i s f o r m a g a i n a t l i n e 83: "Now P r o s p e r works upon t h e e . " N e i t h e r t i m e i s t h e r e a pun on " p r o s p e r , " so t h e v a r i a -t i o n , i f i t has s i g n i f i c a n c e b e y o n d c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e pentame-t e r l i n e , i s p r o b a b l y i n t e n d e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h C a l i b a n f r o m A r i e l i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e i r m a s t e r . Scene i i a l s o c o n t a i n s two i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f P r o s p e r o ' s i s l a n d , i n a s m u c h as T r i n c u l o s a y s "when t h e y ( t h e 124 E n g l i s h ) w i l l n o t g i v e a d o i t / t o r e l i e v e a lame b e g g a r , t h e y w i l l l a y o u t t e n to s e e / a dead I n d i a n " (11.. 32-34) and S t e p h a n o a s k s "Do/ y o u p u t t r i c k s , u p o n *s w i t h s a l v a g e s and men o f / I n d , ha ? " (11. 59-61) These two, a t l e a s t , t a k e t h e i s l a n d t o be i n t h e West I n d i e s . T r i n c u l o ' s name i s p r o b a b l y meant to s u g g e s t " d r i n k " ; S t e p h a n o ' s may have been drawn f r o m J o n s o n ' s Every Man in his Rumour. As i s t y p i c a l o f "low" scenes, i n S h a k e s p e a r e and E l i z a b e t h a n drama g e n e r a l l y , t h e s e two c a l l e a c h o t h e r o f t e n by name. The s c e n e and the A c t c l o s e . w i t h C a l i b a n ' s s o n g , i n w h i c h he p l a y s w i t h t h e sound o f - h i s own name--" 'Ban, ,'Ban, C a c a l i b a n " - - a g a i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the name i s , l i k e A r i e l ' s , a l -most a g e n e r i c t e r m . A r i e l i s a t y p e o f t h e a e r i a l s p i r i t ; C a l i b a n i s l i k e w i s e a . t y p e , b u t o n l y o f h i m s e l f ; . a c a t e g o r y o f w h i c h he i s the s o l e member. I n A c t I I I , s c e n e i , F e r d i n a n d l e a r n s M i r a n d a ' s name and t h e y p l e d g e t h e i r l o v e ; s c e n e i i a d v a n c e s t h e p l o t o f C a l i b a n , Stephano and T r i n c u l o ; and scene, i i i p r e s e n t s t h e i l l u s o r y b a n q u e t and awakening o f . A l o n z o ' s r e m o r s e . T h i s s c e n e , i n w h i c h A l o n z o i s f i n a l l y named ( I I I , i i i , 75) h o l d s t h e c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e p l a y w h i c h i n Pericles, Cymbeline • and The Winter's Tale was held., by a p a r t i c u l a r s y m b o l i c l o c a l e . . S h a k e s p e a r e ' s o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e u n i t y o f p l a c e i n The Tempest has e l i m i n a t e d t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y and he has s u b s t i t u t e d f o r . i t t h e m a g i c a l b a n q u e t . a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t masque o f C e r e s i n A c t IV, s c . i . " A l o n z o " may be drawn f r o m 125 Eden o r f r o m Thomas, and i t may be i n t e n d e d . t o s u g g e s t " d i s c o n -17 s o l a t e " and " a l o n e , " s i n c e A r i e l ' s s t a t e m e n t i s "Thee o f t h y s o n , A l o n z o / They have b e r e f t , " t h o u g h t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s w o u l d have been more e f f e c t i v e i f t h e name had been i n t r o d u c e d e a r l i e r i n t h e p l a y . The p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n f o r i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n h e r e i s t o s i g n a l t h e s h i f t i n power w h i c h r e e l e v a t e s P r o s p e r o . From b e i n g a d d r e s s e d and r e f e r r e d t o as K i n g o f N a p l e s , . A l o n z o has now become s i m p l y A l o n z o . F e r d i n a n d i s t o r e p l a c e him as N a p l e s , as F e r d i n a n d h i m s e l f b e l i e v e s has a l r e a d y happened; P r o s p e r o i s t o r e p l a c e A n t o n i o as M i l a n , f o r m e r l y . s u b j e c t t o A l o n z o , and b o t h e l d e r s a r e t o be r e p l a c e d by a new g e n e r a t i o n . The masque o f A c t IV, s c . i i s a c e l e b r a t i o n o f l a w f u l mar-r i a g e and f e r t i l i t y and a r e j e c t i o n o f t h a t c a r n a l l o v e a g a i n s t w h i c h P r o s p e r o r e p e a t e d l y warns the young c o u p l e , as s i g n a l l e d by t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f Juno and G e r e s , m e n t i o n e d . f o u r and f i v e t i m e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , a n d . t h e e x c l u s i o n o f Venus, m e n t i o n e d o n l y o n c e . The c o n c l u d i n g dance i s . b r o k e n o f f by P r o s p e r o ' s r e c o l l e c -t i o n o f t h e i s l a n d ' s r e m a i n i n g c a r n a l t h r e a t t o m a r r i a g e and p r o s p e r i t y : PRO. ( A s i d e ) " I had f o r g o t t h a t f o u l c o n s p i r a c y Of t h e b e a s t C a l i b a n and h i s c o n f e d e r a t e s A g a i n s t my l i f e . " (11. 139-141) S e t t i n g t h e hounds on t h e t h r e e c o n s p i r a t o r s c o n c l u d e s t h e A c t . In t h e f i n a l A c t P r o s p e r o ' s r e s t o r a t i o n i s s i g n a l l e d f i v e t i m e s : 126 " I w i l l d i s e a s e me, and m y s e l f p r e s e n t As I was sometime M i l a n . " (11. 85-86) " B e h o l d , S i r K i n g , The wronged Duke o f M i l a n , P r o s p e r o . " (11. 106-07) "know f o r c e r t a i n T h a t I am P r o s p e r o , and t h a t v e r y Duke Which was t h r u s t f o r t h o f M i l a n . " (11. 158-60) "She Is d a u g h t e r t o t h i s famous Duke o f M i l a n . " (11. 191-92) "Was M i l a n t h r u s t f r o m M i l a n , t h a t h i s i s s u e S h o u l d become Kings, o f N a p l e s ? " (11 . 205-06) P r o s p e r o i s named an a d d i t i o n a l t h r e e t i m e s , t h e f i r s t two by A l o n z o , q u e s t i o n i n g how he came t o be t h e r e , t h e l a s t by G o n z a l o i n h i s summary: " I n one voyage D i d C l a r i b e l h e r h u s b a n d f i n d a t T u n i s And F e r d i n a n d , h e r b r o t h e r , f o u n d a w i f e Where he h i m s e l f was l o s t , P r o s p e r o h i s dukedom In a p o o r i s l e , and a l l o f us o u r s e l v e s When no man was h i s own." (11. 208-13) A p p a r e n t l y t h e m e n t i o n o f C l a r i b e l i s made t o h e i g h t e n the im-p r e s s i o n o f harmony by i n c l u d i n g a l l members o f the.new g e n e r a -t i o n . A f t e r C a l i b a n , S t e p h a n o and T r i n c u l o a r e summoned and d i s m i s s e d t o " s e e k f o r g r a c e , " P r o s p e r o c o n c l u d e s "and so t o N a p l e s , Where I have hope t o see t h e n u p t i a l Of t h e s e o u r d e a r - b e l o v e d s o l e m n i z e d , And t h e n c e r e t i r e me t o my M i l a n , where E v e r y t h i r d t h o u g h t s h a l l be my g r a v e . " (11. 307-11) He b i d s A r i e l f a r e w e l l a t l i n e 316 and sp e a k s t h e e p i l o g u e , a s k i n g i n t h e f i f t h l i n e to. be r e t u r n e d t o N a p l e s by t h e a u d i e n c e ' s a p p r o v a l . Thus t h e t w e l v e - y e a r c y c l e o f p r o s p e r i t y , . 127 a d v e r s i t y and w o n d e r f u l l y renewed p r o s p e r i t y c l o s e s . T h e r e a r e 61 names i n The Tempest. I t i s t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e number w o u l d be low s i n c e The Tempest, i s S h a k e s p e a r e ' s s e c o n d s h o r t e s t p l a y and i t s m a i n t e n a n c e o f u n i t y o f p l a c e on a d e s e r t i s l a n d n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t s i t s c a s t ; M o r e o v e r a g e n e r a l d r a m a t i c economy i s o b s e r v a b l e h e r e , l i k e t h a t o f t h e h i g h come-d i e s e p i t o m i z e d by Twelfth Night. Over t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e names (45) a r e s u p p o r t i v e , and s i x t e e n o f t h e s e a r e g e o g r a p h i c w h i l e t w e l v e a r e c l a s s i c a l . The g e o g r a p h i c s e r v e t o e m p h a s i z e t h e r e m o t e n e s s o f P r o s p e r o ' s i s l a n d f r o m t h e r e a l w o r l d , t h e c l a s s i -c a l f r o m t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . The o n l y s i l e n t nominees a r e S y c o r a x and C l a r i b e l , u n l e s s we w i s h t o c o u n t d e i t i e s and d ogs. Whether t h e f o r m e r s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d r e a l i n t h e d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t i s d e b a t a b l e ; t h e l a t t e r a r e n o t v e r y . i m p o r t a n t . Unnamed s p e a k e r s a r e r e d u c e d t o s i x , i n s h a r p c o n t r a s t t o t h e o t h e r t h r e e D r a m a t i c Romances, b e c a u s e o f t h e l o c a t i o n . F i v e o f t h e s e a r e m a r i n e r s ; t h e s i x t h i s F r a n c i s c o , t h e o m i s s i o n o f whose name i s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e . The o n l y " l o w " names a r e t h o s e o f the dogs and t h e women i n S t e p h a n o ' s s o n g . " T r i n c u l o " and " C a l i b a n , " i t i s t r u e , e a c h have a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f "low" names, the rhyme w i t h drink and t h e anagram o f cannibal, b u t C a l i b a n i s , l i k e C l o t e n , t o o s e r i o u s a t h r e a t t o be c o n s i d e r e d a low c h a r a c t e r , and T r i n c u l o ' s name i s a b i t t o o p l e a s a n t - s o u n d i n g . S t e p h a n o ' s has no low 128 q u a l i t i e s , t h o u g h he and T r i n c u l o a r e c e r t a i n l y c o mic f i g u r e s . The i n d i v i d u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e s o f the names a r e n o t e d a bove, w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f " F e r d i n a n d " t o . " M i r a n d a . " . T h i s forms the l i n k between t h e I t a l i a n names o f t h e K i n g ' s p a r t y and t h e u n i q u e names o f t h e i s l a n d e r s A r i e l and C a l i b a n . T h e i r names c o n t r a s t , m a n y . f e e l , t h e a i r y and e a r t h y s i d e s o f man; t o g e t h e r t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d as a c c e p t e d by F r y e i n t h e q u o t e on p. 50. They oppose t h e a r t i f i c i a l w o r l d ' s names, and i t i s t h i s o p p o s i t i o n , w h i c h P r o s p e r o , s t a n d i n g midway, must r e -s o l v e . Though he o f t e n .speaks o f h i m s e l f as Duke o f M i l a n , he i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h h i s i s l a n d by h i s power o v e r i t s c r e a t u r e s . " P r o s p e r o " i n d i c a t e s s u c c e s s o r hope, a n d . w i t h " M i r a n d a " d i f f e r s enough f r o m t h e o t h e r I t a l i a n names t o w a r r a n t s u c c e s s f o r h i s m e d i a t o r y r o l e . T h r o u g h h i s magic t h e l o v e r s ' u n i o n comes a b o u t and i n t u r n p r o d u c e s t h e r e s t o r a t i o n . o f t h e s o c i e t y . P r o s p e r o t h e r e u p o n f r e e s A r i e l a nd a c k n o w l e d g e s C a l i b a n h i s own. Some c r i t i c s t a k e t h i s a s . p r o o f o f P r o s p e r o ' s " d a r k s i d e , " and we a g r e e , b u t n o t e t h a t C a l i b a n i n t e n d s t o " s e e k f o r g r a c e . " P r o s -p e r o has a c k n o w l e d g e d h i s n a t u r a l a n i m a l i t y o n l y a f t e r h a v i n g overcome i t , and he has r e l i n q u i s h e d h i s n a t u r a l m agic o n l y when he and h i s w o r l d no l o n g e r n e e d i t . The a g e n t o f a l l t h i s i s h i s c r e a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p r e p r e s e n t e d by F e r d i n a n d and M i r a n d a ' s names. M i r a n d a i s named by P r o s p e r o c o i n c i d e n t a l l y w i t h t h e f i r s t s u g g e s t i o n o f s o m e t h i n g w o n d e r f u l a b o u t h e r , h e r memory o f e v e n t s " i n t h e d a r k b a c k w a r d and abysm o f t i m e . " F e r d i n a n d i s named a t t h e end o f t h e s c e n e , b u t t h e c o n t e x t f a i l s t o p r o v i d e immediate s i g n i f i c a n c e . The v a l u e o f h i s name emerges g r a d u a l l y . None o f t h e o t h e r moment, o f i n t r o d u c t i o n a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t s a v e A l o n z o ' s . . He i s f i r s t named l a t e . i n t h e p l a y , and h i s f a l l f r o m " N a p l e s " t o " A l o n z o " s i g n a l s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s p e n i t e n c e . B o t h h i s p e n i t e n c e and t h e change f r o m "Na-p l e s " a r e e s s e n t i a l t o t h e happy c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e p l a y , f o r F e r d i n a n d must become " N a p l e s , " as he a l r e a d y b e l i e v e s h i m s e l f t o be, i n . o r d e r f o r t h e f u l l v a l u e o f h i s . r e l a t i o n s h i p to M i r a n d a t o emerge. CONCLUSION We have now come to t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h we c a n d e m o n s t r a t e o u r t h e s i s , t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e ' s use o f names, i s a c o n s c i o u s , c o n s i s t e n t and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r a c t i c e w h i c h h e l p s t o shape e a c h p l a y . The f i r s t p o i n t i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e . s h e e r mass o f e v i -d e nce. We do n o t s u g g e s t a p i c t u r e o f t h e p l a y w r i g h t p o r i n g o v e r d i c t i o n a r i e s , g l o s s e s , h i s t o r i e s , l e g e n d s and n o v e l l a e , p a i n -s t a k i n g l y c h o o s i n g names i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a p r i o r schema o f a p r o j e c t e d p l a y . We i n s i s t , however, t h a t no man's s u b c o n s c i o u s c o u l d make so many f e l i c i t o u s s u g g e s t i o n s . S h a k e s p e a r e p r o b a b l y gave l i t t l e t h o u g h t t o t h e p r o v e n a n c e o f t h e names he u s e d ; t h a t w o u l d s o r t i l l w i t h h i s m a n i f e s t i n d i f f e r e n c e a b o u t t h e o r i g i n a l -i t y o f h i s s t o r i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , he c l e a r l y s e l e c t e d names w i t h an eye t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l meanings and. t h e i r harmony w i t h one a n o t h e r . We have s e e n h i s many i n c i d e n t a l acknowledgements o f s o u r c e s , f r o m The Comedy of Errors's S o l i n u s to The Tempest's S e t e b o s . Many were done f o r c o n v e n i e n c e ; t h e name was a t hand and d i d n o t c o n t r a d i c t , p e r h a p s s u p p o r t e d t h e p l a y w r i g h t ' s f e e l i n g f o r a c h a r a c t e r o r s i t u a t i o n . . O f t e n he must have hoped t h a t h i s a u d i e n c e w o u l d r e c a l l t h e s o u r c e when some, name was s p o k e n , a s h o r t c u t f o r h i m . i n c r e a t i n g a d e s i r e d i m p r e s s i o n . P e r i c l e s i s an i n d u b i t a b l e example o f t h i s . 130 131 S h a k e s p e a r e seems t o have b e e n c o n s c i o u s f r o m t h e v e r y f i r s t t h a t names c o u l d be an i m p o r t a n t d r a m a t i c t o o l b u t n a t u r a l -l y , as w i t h t h e o t h e r a s p e c t s o f h i s a r t , he d i d n o t a t t a i n t o immediate m a s t e r y o f t h e i r u s e . The f i r s t f o u r c o m e d i e s show him c h o o s i n g some s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i z i n g names b u t u s i n g them woodenly.. P e r s o n a l names a r e o n e - t o - o n e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i r p o s s e s s o r s , i n t r o d u c e d as c l o s e t o t h e i r e n t r a n c e s as t h e d i a l o g u e w i l l p e r m i t . S u p p o r t i n g names r e f e r i n d i r e c t l y t o c h a r a c t e r s o r s i t u a t i o n s by r e c a l l i n g s i m i l a r o n e s . Thus i n The Comedy of Errors r e f e r e n c e s t o God and S a t a n augment t h e g r o w i n g s e n s e o f w i t c h e r y i n t h e p l a y . The n e x t two com e d i e s show a c l e a r . d e v e l o p m e n t . D e l i b e r a t e a m b i g u i t y and i r o n y emerge, and t h e r e i s an a d r o i t m a n i p u l a t i o n o f moments o f i n t r o d u c t i o n i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e , f u l f i l l o r f o i l e x p e c t a t i o n s . More a t t e n t i o n b e g i n s t o be p a i d t o b a c k g r o u n d r e f e r e n c e s as c r e a t o r s o f t o n e and mood and as c h a r a c t e r i z i n g a g e n t s . More and more r e v e l a t i o n s o f c o n s c i o u s s k i l l a p p e a r h e r e a f t e r , c u l m i n a t i n g i n Twelfth Eight, S h a k e s p e a r e ' s comic m a s t e r p i e c e a t l e a s t i n s o f a r as names a r e c o n c e r n e d . Here he r e a c h e d t h e z e n i t h o f h i s powers, and s u b s e q u e n t p l a y s show them, n o t e x p l o i t e d f o r d i s p l a y ' s s ake b u t e n l i s t e d i n t h e e f f o r t t o u n i f y and e n r i c h e a c h s t o r y . I t s h o u l d n o t be f o r g o t t e n t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e w r o t e o t h e r p l a y s . We have s c r u p u l o u s l y a v o i d e d making use o f examples 132 f r o m them, f o r o u r t o p i c w o u l d t h e n be h o p e l e s s l y u n w i e l d y ; n o n e t h e l e s s we w i s h t o p o i n t o u t t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e ' s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d e v e l o p m e n t was w i d e r t h a n t h e s i x t e e n p l a y s u n d e r d i s c u s -s i o n h e r e . The c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f S h a k e s p e a r e ' s naming p r a c t i c e i n a l l s i g n i f i c a n t i n s t a n c e s and h i s i n s t i n c t i v e a v o i d a n c e . o f i n a p p r o -p r i a t e names i n a l l c a s e s a r e b eyond q u e s t i o n . T h i s i m p l i e s an a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r i n c i p l e s and t e c h n i q u e s i n e a c h p l a y t o a c h i e v e t h e g o a l o r g o a l s o f t h a t p l a y . Where g o a l s a r e s i m i l a r , s i m i l a r t e c h n i q u e s s h o u l d a p p e a r ; where t h e y d i f f e r , . s o s h o u l d t h e t e c h -n i q u e s d i f f e r . B e c a u s e th e D r a m a t i c Romances, t h o u g h h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l , have c e r t a i n g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d s i m i l a r i t i e s , t h e y c a n be u s e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p l a y w r i g h t ' s c o n s i s t e n t and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d use o f t e c h n i q u e s . We t u r n f i r s t t o t h o s e w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o e a c h p l a y ' s u n i q u e q u a l i t i e s . F i r s t we may n o t e t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e names: Gower f o r Pericles., H o l i n s h e d f o r Cymbeline, S h a k e s p e a r e ' s i m a g i n a t i o n f o r The Winter's Tale and t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , h i s t o r y and t r a v e l books f o r The Tempest.. I n P e r i c l e s and Winter's Tale Shake-s p e a r e f o l l o w s c l o s e l y ( f o r him) t h e s t o r y i n h i s s o u r c e ; Tempest and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t Cymbeline a r e o r i g i n a l . The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as to why he abandoned G r e e n e ' s names, f r o n K P a n d a s to w h i l e r e t a i n -i n g Gower's. E v i d e n t l y he f o u n d t h e a s s o c i a t i v e v a l u e o f t h e names r e t a i n e d i n P e r i c l e s and t h o s e u s e d i n Cymbeline t o 133 be h i g h and i n . agreement w i t h h i s p l a n s f o r t h o s e p l a y s ; i n Winter's Tale he f o u n d a l t e r a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y , i n o r d e r t o b r i n g home h i s meaning. Where S h a k e s p e a r e i s c o n c e r n e d s i m p l y w i t h t e l l i n g t h e s t o r y o f P e r i c l e s , h i s w i f e and h i s daughter,.we f i n d t h a t few o f t h e o t h e r names a r e v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t save as a g e n t s o f l i m i t e d c h a r -a c t e r i z a t i o n . I n Cymbeline, where t h e theme o f Rome v e r s u s B r i t a i n and t h e i r r e u n i o n i s c e n t r a l , most o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t names p o i n t to t h e theme. I n Winter 's. Tale most p o i n t t o t h e s e a s o n a l theme, and i n Tempest most a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e two w o r l d s o f I t a l y and t h e i s l a n d . A c c o r d i n g l y we f i n d t h a t t h e names i n Cymbeline c o n v e y meaning by t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h o s e i n Winter 's Tale by s e a s o n a l a s s o c i a -t i o n s and t h o s e i n Tempest by a s s o c i a t i o n . a n d c o n t r a s t w i t h e a c h o t h e r . B e c a u s e n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e l e s s s p e c i f i c and n o t i c e -a b l e , t h e t o t a l number o f names i s h i g h e r and r e p e t i t i o n s a r e more f r e q u e n t , making up i n volume what t h e y l a c k i n imme-d i a c y . A f i n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s t h a t i n t h e two p l a y s c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o n t r a s t i n g s o c i e t i e s , Cymbeline and Tempest, t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r t e n d e n c y t o i n t r o d u c e t h e c h a r a c t e r s ' names w e l l a f t e r t h e y e n t e r . The r e s u l t i n Cymbeline i s t o e s t a b l i s h p e r s o n a l i -t i e s and n a t i o n a l a l l e g i a n c e s and then, t o r e n d e r them ambiguous, d r i v i n g home the n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e i r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . I n The 134 Tempest t h e e f f e c t i s t o g r a d u a l l y r e v e a l t h e n a t u r e o f P r o s -p e r o , M i r a n d a and F e r d i n a n d ' s m e d i a t o r y p o s i t i o n and r e c o n c i l i a -t o r y r o l e . H a v i n g d e s c r i b e d t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g t e c h n i q u e s , we t u r n f i n a l l y t o t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s w h i c h h e l p t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e l a s t f o u r p l a y s as a group and c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p e c u l i a r q u a l i t y we r e c o g n i z e when we t e r m them "romances." The t o t a l numbers o f names i n t h e D r a m a t i c Romances a r e 62 i n P e r i c l e s , 91 i n Cymbeline 3 58 i n The Winter's Tale and 61 i n The Tempest.. The a v e r a g e o f t h e s e , 68, i s 24 b e l o w the a v e r a g e o f t h e p r e c e d i n g c o m e d i e s . Cymbeline's i t s e l f i s one b e l o w t h a t a v e r a g e . The a v e r a g e s a r e a l m o s t p e r f e c t l y m a t c hed by t h o s e f o r t h e s u p p o r t i n g names, 44-3/4 and 66-1/2, t h e d i f f e r e n c e 22-1/2. T h i s i n d i c a t e s what Evans d e s c r i b e s above as "a t h i n n e s s , an a b s e n c e o f o v e r t o n e s ; " t h e l a s t p l a y s become l e s s wordy, l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n r e l a t i n g t h e i r w o r l d s t o t h e l a r g e r w o r l d s i n any r e a l i s t i c . f a s h i o n . The s u p p o r t i n g r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e e a r l i e r p l a y s a r e . l i k e so many t h r e a d s t y i n g t h e l i v e s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s t o t h e l i v e s o f t h e a u d i e n c e , q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t t h i n g f r o m t h e " l o n g ago.and f a r away" atmos-p h e r e o f t h e Romances. Here the s u p p o r t i n g names t e n d t o be p o i n t e d much more, t o w a r d th e c o n c e r n s of, t h e >play i t s e l f , and t h e c h a r a c t e r s ' names become a l m o s t a r c h e t y p a l . To a v o i d s a c r i f i c i n g t h e s e n s e o f , a v i v i d s t a g e w o r l d and s t i l l keep i t a p a r t f r o m t h e l a r g e r , one, S h a k e s p e a r e h i t on t h e happy e x p e d i e n t o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e number of.unnamed s p e a k -e r s . Of c o u r s e he c o u l d n o t do so on The Tempest's d e s e r t i s -l a n d , b u t i n t h e o t h e r t h r e e Romances he u s e d 23, 22 and 18 r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e p r e v i o u s a v e r a g e o f 7. Here we see two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f romance. S e r v i n g m e n a r e anonymous f o r t h e most p a r t , t h o u g h o m n i p r e s e n t ; t h e y i n c r e a s e t h e s e n s e o f a w o r l d w h o l l y o r i e n t e d t o w a r d t h e a r i s t o c r a c y . R u l e r s on t h e o t h e r hand a r e g e n e r a l l y named, b e c a u s e t h e i r power i s s e e n as a r i s i n g f r o m t h e i r p e r s o n s and embodied i n t h e m s e l v e s . I n t h e R e n a i s s a n c e the. i d e a began to t a k e h o l d t h a t c i v i l a u t h o r i t y was vested i n t h e r u l e r b u t p r o p e r l y b e l o n g e d t o t h e o f f i c e , n o t t h e man. S h a k e s p e a r e ' s t a c i t a c q u i e s c e n c e i n t h i s b e l i e f i s shown by h i s p r e v i o u s p r a c t i c e o f l e a v i n g most r u l e r s unnamed. T h a t he names a l l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s i n t h e Romances s a v e f o r Cymbeline's Queen i n d i c a t e s a v e r y d i f f e r e n t , much more c h i v a l r i c p o r t r a y a l . The Queen h e r s e l f r e m a i n s n a m e l e s s b e c a u s e she i s e s s e n t i a l l y a f i g u r e drawn f r o m f o l k l o r e , . a s she i n d i c a t e s by e x p r e s s l y d e n y i n g h e r r o l e as w i c k e d s t e p m o t h e r . Her c o u n t e r p a r t i n Pericles, A n t i o c h u s , i s l i k e w i s e a t y p e o f the W i c k e d K i n g , w h i c h a c c o u n t s f o r h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h h i s c i t y . S h a k e s p e a r e seems to f a v o r c e r t a i n names and t y p e s o f names i n t h e Romances. The names D i s and L u c i n a a p p e a r , t h e \ 136 one i n P e r i c l e s and Cymbeline and t h e o t h e r in Winter's Tale and Tempest, f o r t h e f i r s t time... C y n t h i a and T h e t i s i n P e r i c l e s and P r o s e r p i n a i n Winter's Tale "are a b s e n t f r o m th e o t h e r come-d i e s t h o u g h p r e s e n t i n o t h e r w o r k s . Juno and Neptune a r e b o t h r e f e r r e d t o i n a l l f o u r Romances, w h i l e i n t h e o t h e r comedies Juno a p p e a r s t h r e e t i m e s and Neptune o n c e . The same t e n d e n c y t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t i s o b s e r v a b l e w i t h o t h e r m y t h o l o g i c a l names: Of t h e t h i r t y names w h i c h a p p e a r i n more t h a n one o f t h e e a r l i e r c o m e d i e s b u t do n o t a p p e a r i n any o f t h e Romances., 21 a r e names o f c h a r a c t e r s o r r e c o g n i z e d h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s and o n l y one--S a t a n - - o f . a d e i t y . I n c o n t r a s t among the 34 names r e p e a t e d i n a t l e a s t one o f t h e e a r l i e r c o m e d i e s and one o f t h e Romances, o n l y s e v e n t e e n are.names o f c h a r a c t e r s o r . h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s , and f o u r t e e n a r e o f m y t h o l o g i c a l f i g u r e s , f o r t h e most p a r t d e i t i e s . T h e s e numbers c o n f i r m a c o n c e r n , i n t h e Romances w i t h c r e a t i n g a s e n s e o f t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l . P r e v i o u s l y i t s o n l y s e r i o u s t r e a t m e n t was i n Midsummer.. Night 's Dream, w h i c h was m e n t i o n e d above as h a v i n g some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of. romance, and i n w h i c h no c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f m y t h o l o g i c a l names e x i s t s . The Romances have few "low" c h a r a c t e r s , and few o f t h o s e have t r u l y " l o w " names, a n o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r a r i s t o c r a t i c n a t u r e . Few o f t h e names a r e d e s i g n e d f o r humor;.the c o m p a r i -son o f "Pompey Bum".with " B o u l t " i s i n s t r u c t i v e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e g r o u p s o f i n t e r r e l a t e d names s u c h as t h o s e o f t h e a r t i s a n s i n Midsummer.. Night ' s Dream, s o l d i e r s i n Al-l's Well and l i b e r -t i n e s i n Measure for.Measure a r e a b s e n t . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n , o f Twelfth Night, in. w h i c h the p r i n c i -p a l names a r e c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d , t h e f i r s t t w e l v e c o m e d i e s do n o t group t h e i r u p p e r - c l a s s c h a r a c t e r s by name save i n l i n -g u i s t i c o r i g i n . T h e r e a r e t h e two A n t i p h o l u s e s and Dromios o f Errors, V a l e n t i n e and P r o t e u s i n Two- Gentlemen, t h e f o u r i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e l o v e r s i n Midsummer Night's Dream and B e a t r i c e and B e n e d i c t i n Much Ado, b u t w i d e r and d e e p e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o t h e s t o r i e s a r e n o t g e n e r a t e d by t h e s e names. The c a s e i s a l t e r e d w i t h Cymbeline, Winter's Tale and Tempest, t h o u g h n o t w i t h Pericles. P e r i c l e s i s d i f f e r e n t p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e S h a k e s p e a r e f o u n d i t more i m p o r t a n t t o r e t a i n some names w h i c h a s s o c i a t e d h i s romance w i t h Gower's; P e r i c l e s and M a r i n a ' s names a r e made to s u f f i c e as e n r i c h m e n t s o f t h e p a t i e n c e and r e u n i f i c a t i o n themes. As we e x p l a i n e d i n o u r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e o t h e r t h r e e Romances, t h e names o f t h e i r p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s a r e i n t r i -c a t e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r d r a m a t i c f u n c t i o n s a n d . t o t h e s y m b o l i c l o c a l e s o f t h e p l a y s . Posthumus and h i s f e l l o w . n o b l e m e n b e a r n a t i o n a l l y ambiguous names; L e o n t e s and P o l i x e n e s .are "Bohemia" and " S i c i l i a " a t t i mes,, t h e m s e l v e s a t o t h e r s , and F l o r i z e l 138 a p p e a r s amid f l o r a l i m a g e r y i n a p a s t o r a l s e t t i n g ; P r o s p e r o , M i r a n d a and F e r d i n a n d f o r m t h e l i n k between the i s l a n d and t h e w o r l d o f N a p l e s and M i l a n . We a l s o r e p e a t t h e c o n j e c t u r e made e a r l i e r t h a t P i s a n i o and C a m i l l o a r e meant t o f o r m a l i n k between, the s t a g e and t h e a u d i e n c e , as Gower does i n Fericles. T h i s r e l a t i o n o f name and f u n c t i o n i s more an e m b l e m a t i c t h a n a romance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; i t s r o o t s a r e i n a l l e g o r y . I t d o e s , however, c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s e n s e we have o f a m y s t e r i o u s sympathy o f n a t u r e p e r v a d i n g t h e p l a y s , . a n d t h a t s e n s e i s one o f t e n p r e s e n t i n romance, as Gawain and the Green Knight t e s t i -f i e s . F i n a l l y , t h e c r e a t i o n o f symbols i n names i s most p r o m i n e n t i n t h e Romances. The c e n t r a l f i g u r e s - - P e r i c l e s and M a r i n a , Posthumus and Imogen, P e r d i t a and F l o r i z e l , F e r d i n a n d and Miranda- - ra i l a c h i e v e t h i s s t a t u r e , as do many o t h e r names b e s i d e s . P l a c e names a r e s y m b o l i c , as f o r example E p h e s u s and M i l f o r d Haven.. T h i s u n p r e c e d e n t e d endowment o f s y m b o l i s m does much t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e Romances.' p e c u l i a r i d e n t i t y . The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e names t o t h e u n i q u e q u a l i t y o f t h e Romances, and t o t h e u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ..of t h e i n d i -v i d u a l p l a y s , c o n f i r m s o u r v i e w o f S h a k e s p e a r e as a s k i l l e d c r a f t s m a n f u l l y aware o f h i s t o o l s and how. t o use them--of a l l t h e judgments o f p o s t e r i t y , t h e one w h i c h w o u l d p l e a s e him most. FOOTNOTES I n t r o d u c t i o n N e v i l l C o g h i l l , Shakespeare's Professional S k i l l s (Cam-b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 206. 2 J o h n Munro, e d . The Shaks.pere. Allusion-Book, 2 v o l s . (London: Humphrey M i l f o r d , 1 9 3 2 ) . . 3Munro, V o l . I , p. 45 7, V o l . I I , p. 31. 4 L e s l i e H o t s o n , The F i r s t Night of Twelfth Eight (London: R u p e r t H a r t - D a v i s , 1 954), p. 108. D^. T. Sternes, "A SixteentJa-Century Glossary o f the B i b l e , " Eames. 1 (1959), p. 101. "Make anagrammes o f o u r names . .. . and k i s s o u r hands a l l t h e p l a y - t i m e . . . ." Q u o t e d f r o m C H . H e r f o r d and P e r c y Simpson, Ben Jonson ( O x f o r d - C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 ) . 7 Rosemary Freeman, English Emblem Books (London: C h a t t o and Windus, 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 1, 3. g E r i c A u e r b a c h , Mimesis ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 3 ) , pp. 321-22. 9 C h a r l t o n Hinman, The F i r s t F o l i o of Shakespeare (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n , 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. x i i i , x v i i i , " ^ W i l l i a m J o h n L a w r e n c e , The Elizabethan Playhouse and Other Studies, 2nd s e r i e s ( S t r a t f o r d - u p o n - A v o n : S h a k e s p e a r e Head P r e s s , 1 9 1 3 ) , p. 5 7 f f . , p. 78. 1 1 W i l l i a m F. T h r a l l , A. H i b b a r d and C H . Holman, A Handbook to L i t e r a t u r e (New Y o r k : O d y s s e y P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 478. 139 The F i r s t T w elve Comedies 140 A l l q u o t e s a r e f r o m I r v i n g R i b n e r , ed. The Complete Works of Shakespeare (Waltham, Mass.: Xerox C o l l e g e P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 7 1). L i n e numbers a r e t h o s e o f t h e G l o b e e d i t i o n . 2 A l l e n B. K e l l o g g , "Nicknames and Nonce-Names i n Shake-s p e a r e ' s C o m e d i e s , " Names, 3 ( 1 9 5 5 ) , 3. 3 K e n n e t h M u i r , Shakespeare's Sources (London: Methuen, 1957) , p. 18. 4 i Selma Guttman, The Foreign Sources of Shakespeare 's Works (New Y o r k : O c t a g o n Books, 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 47. ^ G e o f f r e y B u l l o u g h , ed. Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, 8 v o l s . (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 - - ) , v o l . 1, p. 9. ^G. W i l s o n K n i g h t , The Sovereign Flowe-r (London: Metheun, 1958) , p. 173. 7 T e r e n c e , Comedies, ed. R o b e r t G r a v e s ( C h i c a g o : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1962). 8 B u l l o u g h , V o l . 1, p. 9. 9 Ibid. ^Ibid., p. 61. ^ J o h n R u s k i n , Munera Pulveris, ed. E..T. Cook and A. Wedderburn (London: George A l l e n , 1 9 0 5 ) , p. 258. 12 K n i g h t , p. 175. 13 J u r g e n S c h a f e r , "The O r t h o g r a p h y o f P r o p e r Names i n M o d e r n - S p e l l i n g E d i t i o n s o f S h a k e s p e a r e , " Studies in Bibliography 23 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 13. 14 D i n e s h C h a n d r a B i s w a s , Shakespeare's Treatment of His 141 Sources in the Comedies ( C a l c u t t a : J a d a v p u r U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 50. 1 5 B u l l o u g h , V o l . 1, p. 385. 1 6 K n i g h t , p. 184. 1 7 ' F r a n k S i d g w i c k , The Sources and Analogues of 'A Mid-summer-Night's Dream' (London: C h a t t o § Windus, 1 9 0 8 ) , p . 2. 18 N o r t h r o p F r y e , Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e -t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 957), p. 166. 19 R u s k i n , p. 223. 20 B u l l o u g h , V o l . 1, p. 445. 21 L e s l i e F i e d l e r , The Stranger in Shakespeare (New Y o r k : S t e i n $ Day, 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 90. 22 K n i g h t , p. 176. 2 3 I s r a e l G o l l a n c z , A Book of Homage to Shakespeare ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 1 6 ) , p. 172. 24 B u l l o u g h , V o l . 2, p. 64. 2 5 Roy W. B a t t e n h o u s e , "Measure for Measure and C h r i s t i a n D o c t r i n e o f t h e Aton e m e n t , " PMLA 61 (1946) , 1029. 2 6 A l b e r t Howard C a r t e r , "On t h e Me a n i n g o f C h a r a c t e r s ' Names i n S h a k e s p e a r e , " M i s s Q. 14, #1 ( W i n t e r 1960-61), 33. 2 7 K n i g h t , p. 172. 2 8 C h a r l e s Cowden C l a r k e , The Shakespeare Key (New Y o r k : F. Ungar, 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 480-81. 29 Thomas Lodge, Hosalynde, 1590. 142 30 S i r A r t h u r Q u i l l e r - C o u c h and J o h n Dover W i l s o n , The Works of Shakespeare (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 2 1 ) , p. 110. 31 O s c a r James C a m p b e l l , Shakespeare 's .Satire (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 3 ) , p. 56. 3 2 B u l l o u g h , V o l . 2, p. 271. 33 K n i g h t , p. 171. The D r a m a t i c Romances Pericles ^"Northrop F r y e , A Natural:'.. Perspective (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 56-57, 109, 110, 143-44. 2 I f o r E v a n s , The Language of Shakespeare's Plays, 2nd ed. (London: Methuen, 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 201. 3 B i s w a s , p. 134. 4 Thomas A. N e l s o n , Shakespeare 's Comic Theory (Mouton: The Hague, 19 72), p. 32. ^ B u l l o u g h , V o l . 6, p. 355. 6J.M.S. Tompkins, "Why P e r i c l e s ? , " . RES New S e r i e s , 3, 12 ( 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 322. 7 G.A. B a r k e r , "Themes and V a r i a t i o n s i n ..Pericles," English Studies, 44 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 408. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1929 e d i t i o n , . " H e l i c o n . " 9 Edward H. Sugden, A Topographical. Dictionary to the Works of Shakespeare and.his Fellow * Dramatists ( M a n c h e s t e r : M a n c h e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 2 5 ) . 1 0 K n i g h t , p. 196. 143 n B a r k e r , p. 408. 12 Thomas W i l s o n , The Arte of Rhetorique ( G a i n e s v i l l e , F l a . : S c h o l a r s ' F a c s i m i l e s and R e p r i n t s , 1 9 6 2 ) . 13 Quiller-Couch, note to Pericles, 14 E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , " S i m o n i d e s . " 1 5 Ibid., " T h a i s e . " " ^ B u l l o u g h , V o l . 6, p. 356. 17 Ibid., p. 355. " ^ N e l s o n , p. 37. 1 9 K n i g h t , p. 196. 20 F i e d l e r , p. 218. 21 Q u i l l e r - C o u c h , Pericles, n o t e s . 2 2 C l a r k e , p. 484. 2 3 B u l l o u g h , V o l . 6, p. 356. Cymbeline *W.G. B o s w e l l - S t o n e , Shakespeare's Holinshed, 2nd e d . (London: C h a t t o § Windus, 1 9 0 7 ) , p. 17. ZIbid. 3 R o b i n M o f f e t , "Cymbeline and t h e N a t i v i t y , " Shakespeare Quarterly 13 ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 211. 4, E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , " P a i i n o n i a . " ^ F i e d l e r , p. 53. ^ B o s w e l l - S t o n e , p. 17. 7 N e l s o n , p. 47. 8 Q u i l l e r - C o u c h , , Cymbeline, n o t e s . 9 F i e d l e r , p. 153. * ^ J . P . B r o c k b a n k , " H i s t o r y and H i s t r i o n i c s i n Cymbeline," Shakespeare Survey, 11 ( 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 43. 11 R u s k i n , p. 258. 1 2 K n i g h t , p. 179. 13 B o s w e l l - S t o n e , p. 17. 1&r Ibid. 15 W i l l i a m Camden, Remains Concerning B r i t a i n (London: J o h n R u s s e l l S m i t h , 1870), p. 60. " ^ G l y n n e Wickham, "Romance and Emblem," i n The Elizabethan Theatre I I I , ed. D a v i d G a l l o w a y (Hamden, Conn.: A r c h o n Books, 1973), p. 92. 17 • Emrys .Jones, " S t u a r t C y m b e l i n e , " i n Essays in C r i t i c i s m , 11 ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1961), p. 93. 18 B o s w e l l - S t o n e , p. 17. 19 M u i r , p. 235. 20 B o s w e l l - S t o n e , p. 17. 21 B i s w a s , p. 142. 145 22 H e r b e r t G. W r i g h t , "How D i d S h a k e s p e a r e Come t o Know the 'Decameron'?.," Modern Language Review, 50 (1955) , p. 45 and H o t s o n , op. cit., p. 117. 23 B o s w e l l - S t o n e , p. 17. 24 K n i g h t , p. 197. The Winter 's Tale 1„. "Biswas, p. 142 2 R u s k i n , p. 258 3 K n i g h t , p. 196 AIbid. ^ E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , " C l e o m e n e s . " K n i g h t , p. 196. 7 N o r t h r o p F r y e , Fables of Identity (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 107. 8 K n i g h t , p. 196. 9 Q u i l l e r - C o u c h , Winter's Tale, n o t e s . 1 0 K n i g h t , p. 196. Y1Ibid. 12 F r y e , Fables of Identity, p. 112. The Tempest "'"Knight, p. 198, 146 2 H a r r y L e v i n , " S h a k e s p e a r e ' s N o m e n c l a t u r e , " i n Essays on Shakespeare, ed. G e r a l d W. Chapman ( P r i n c e t o n 1 : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p. 79. 3 R u s k i n , p. 258. ^ A r t h u r E. B a k e r , A Shakespeare Commentary (New Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k Ungar, 1957), p. 130. ^ M u i r , p. 261. ^Honor Matthews, Character and Symbol in Shakespeare's Plays (London: C h a t t o $ Windus, 1969), p . 200. 7 K n i g h t , p. 200. g Ibid., and F i e d l e r , p . 91. 9 Guttman, p. 1. 1 0 B a k e r , p. 139. "'"''"Fiedler, p. 205. 12 R u s k i n , p. 258. 13 B a k e r , p. 130. 14 New Variorum Shakespeare, n o t e s t o The Tempest, p. 5. "*" 5Baker, p. 146. 1 6 F i e d l e r , p. 200. 1 7 K n i g h t , p. 199. APPENDIX I HOW NAMES ACQUIRE MEANING Ty p e s : Of p e r s o n s A u d i t o r i l y m e a n i n g f u l : M e l o d i o u s Cacaphonous S i b i l a n t F a s t Slow R e l a t e d by Rhyme A l l i t e r a t i o n S y l l a b i c s i m i l a r i t i e s L i n g u i s t i c a l l y m e a n i n g f u l : S e r i o u s o r humorous: By p u n n i n g By l i t e r a l meaning D e s c r i p t i v e o f t h e whole c h a r a c t e r o r o f a s a l i e n t f e a t u r e : P h y s i c a l l y M e n t a l l y S o c i a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e : C i r c u m s t a n t i a l l y 147 148 F i n a n c i a l l y R e l i g i o u s l y O c c u p a t i o n a l l y S a r t o r i a l l y By v i r t u e o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c p r o v e n a n c e o f t h e name: A c c o r d i n g o r c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r ' s n a t i o n a l i t y I n a l a n g u a g e t h e c o n n o t a t i o n o f w h i c h i s p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e : To t h e a u d i e n c e I n t h e d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t A l l u s i v e l y o r A s s o c i a t i v e l y M e a n i n g f u l To a n o t h e r p e r s o n i n t h e d r a m a t i c w o r l d To a l i t e r a r y c h a r a c t e r To a l i t e r a r y t y p e : humour a l l e g o r y m o r a l i t y To a r e a l p e r s o n a d m i r e d d i s l i k e d c o n t e m p o r a r y h i s t o r i c a l To a l e g e n d a r y , m y t h o l o g i c a l o r r e l i g i o u s f i g u r e 149 To an o b j e c t w i t h s p e c i f i c a s s o c i a t i o n s To an a n i m a l w i t h s p e c i f i c a s s o c i a t i o n s To a p l a c e , r e a l o r i m a g i n a r y , w i t h s p e c i f i c a s s o c i a t i o n s T y p e s : Of p l a c e s R e a l C o n t e m p o r a r y H i s t o r i c a l I m a g i n a r y O r i g i n a l D e r i v e d L e g e n d a r y M y t h o l o g i c a l L i t e r a r y T y p e s : Of t i m e s and e v e n t s H i s t o r i c a l R e l i g i o u s I m a g i n a r y APPENDIX I I : NUMBERS OF NAMES CE TS 2GV LLL MND MV MAN AYL TN MW AW MM P C WT T 13 19 11 16 21 17 18 19 11 21 8 14 20 16 17 14 S p e a k i n g C h a r a c t e r s 6 19 6 4 0 4 5 8 6 1 16 9 23 22 18 6 (Unnamed S p e a k e r s ) 8 14 7 4 7 11 2 1 2 1 19 23 5 8 4 2 S i l e n t Nominees 0 3 1 0 0 1 0 2 3 1 0 1 0 5 2 0 A l i a s e s 34 79 25 97 59 97 66 54 64 123 69 26 37 62 35 45 O t h e r Names = S u p p o r t i n g R e f e r e n c e s 61 L15 44 117 87 126 86 76 80 147 96 64 62 91 58 61 T o t a l Numbers o f Names BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l e n , P e r c y . " M o n t a i g n e and Twelfth Night." TLS, September 18, 1937. p. 675. A u e r b a c h , E r i c . Mimesis, t r . W i l l a r d R. T r a s k . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1953. B a k e r , A r t h u r E. A Shakespeare Commentary. 2 v o l s . New Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k Ungar P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1957. B a k e r , George P i e r c e . The Development of Shakespeare as a Dramatist. New Y o r k : AMS P r e s s , 1965. B a l d w i n , Thomas W h i t e f i e l d . On Act and Scene Division in the Shakespere F i r s t F o l i o . C a r b o n d a l e : S o u t h e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. B a r k e r , G.A. "Themes a n d . V a r i a t i o n s in PericlesVol. 44, English Studies, ( 1 9 6 3 ) , 401-14. B a r t l e t t , H e n r i e t t a C o l l i n s . Mr. William Shakespeare, Original and Early Editions of his Quartos and Folios; -his Source Books and Those Containing Contemporary Notices. 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