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The family life cycle and family needs in a housing project : a case study of the Westview Garden Apartments,… Yamamoto, Tomizo 1975

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THE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE AND FAMILY NEEDS IN A HOUSING PROJECT A Case Study of the Westview Garden Apartments, North Vancouver by TOMIZO YAMAMOTO B. Arch, Waseda U n i v e r s i t y , Tokyo, Japan, 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE i n the School of A r c h i t e c t u r e Ve accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1975 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of School of A r c h i t e c t u r e The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8. Canada Date A p r i l 15« 1975. i ABSTRACT The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study i s t o d i s c e r n how f a m i l y needs i n housing change through the stages of the f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e . The V/estview Garden Apartments, a townhouse and apartment development i n North Vancouver was chosen f o r conducting t h i s study. For the c o l l e c t i o n of r e s i d e n t s ' b e h a v i o r a l d a t a , a number of f a m i l y member's d a i l y a c t i v i t y l o g records were ob-ta i n e d through a s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s . The data were c o l l e c t e d i n the p e r i o d from September 1973 t o A p r i l 1974* d u r i n g which time my f a m i l y and I occupied one of the housing u n i t s i n t h i s p r o j e c t . The f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e i s d i v i d e d i n t o e i g h t stages, from a r r i v a l of the f i r s t baby t o the e l d e r l y couple. The f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s of a s e l e c t e d number of f a m i l i e s i n each stage were tr a c e d through the a n a l y s i s of t h e i r a c t i v i t y l o g r e c o r d s ; S l e e p i n g , E a t i n g , Housekeeping, Shopping, C h i l d r e n P l a y i n g , Evening S i t t i n g , S o c i a l i z i n g and Fami l y R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s . From these a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s , together w i t h the r e s i d e n t s ' opinions about t h e i r housing, and adding t o t h i s the author's own observation of the d a i l y l i f e i n the sample p r o j e c t , the f a m i l y ' s needs i n each stage were d i s c e r n e d . A f t e r t h a t the design of sample housing was examined i n d e t a i l . The f i n d i n g s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e the v a r i a t i o n s i n f a m i l y needs a f f e c t i n g t h e i r housing requirements through the l i f e c y c l e . i i The author concludes t h a t the present housing system has d i f -f i c u l t y i n accommodating changing f a m i l y needs. Many f a m i l i e s are e i t h e r forced to move or s u f f e r from l i v i n g i n an i n c o n -gruent r e s i d e n c e . To improve t h i s s i t u a t i o n , two d i r e c t i o n s i n f u t u r e f a m i l y housing are suggested. 1) An adaptable housing system should "be developed. T h i s can accommodate i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y ' s s p e c i a l needs and r e f l e c t the changing needs i n t h e i r l i f e c y c l e . F a m i l i e s should be able t o a s s i s t i n d e s i g n i n g , b u i l d i n g and a l t e r i n g t h e i r own houses without h i g h c o s t s or much s k i l l . The author b e l i e v e s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o produce such housing w i t h advanced technology. 2) The present space d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r d a i l y f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s i n p r i v a t e and p u b l i c space, must be recon-s i d e r e d . Many f a m i l y needs which are now b e i n g met w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l housing u n i t could be s a t i s f i e d more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n neighbourhood communal spaces. In f u t u r e urban housing development, there i s bound to be a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s . This demands new ways of communal l i v i n g . The i n d i v i d u a l , i n f u t u r e housing, must have maximum power to c o n t r o l h i s own residence and h i s neighbourhood. R«seeta?cb A d v i s o r i i i TA3LS OF CONTENTS Page PAST I - INTRODUCTION 1 1. Necessity to Define Family's Needs i n Housing . . . 1 2. Family's Needs i n Housing - Family Variables 5 3. Various Methods to Study Our P h y s i c a l Environments. 11 4. Study Objective, Scope and Method 15 PART I I - THE WESTVISW GARDEN APARTMENT 32 5. Choice of Sample Project 32 6. The S i t e , Residents and F a c i l i t i e s 34-PART I I I - FAMILY LIFE CYCLE A N D FAMILY ACTIVITY PATTERN 68 7. Family A c t i v i t y Pattern Through Stages of Family L i f e Cycle 68 8. Summary of A c t i v i t y Patterns and S p a t i a l Require-ments Through the Family L i f e Cycle 166 PART IV - CONCLUSION 203 9. Adaptable Housing System: I n d i v i d u a l i t y i n Housing 203 10. Neighbourhood F a c i l i t y : Communality i n Housing . . 207 i v Page BIBLIOGRAPHY 214 APPENDIX I - Some Problems and Suggestions on the Research Method 217 APPENDIX II - Interview Questionnaire Form . . . . 223 V LIST OF TABLES • Table Page 1. Number of Sample Families by Family L i f e Cycle Stage 31 2a. Parking Space 4-7 2b. Number of Sample Families by Dwelling Type . . 54-3. Intention to Move 61 4 . P u b l i c Transportation 63 5. Location of F a c i l i t i e s of Recreational Centre . 66 6. Hospital and C l i n i c 67 7. Location of Last Residence 171 8. Reason f o r Moving of Families Who Moved Within The Vancouver Area 171 9. Bedroom Size 172 10 . Dining Room Size and Arrangement 175 1 1 . A c t i v i t i e s i n Back Yard 176 12. A c t i v i t i e s i n Front Yard 176 1 3 . Kitchen 179 14. Resident's Likes 18° v i Table Page 15. Convenience of Shopping 181 16. Location and F a c i l i t i e s of School 182 17. Children's Playground 187 18. Driveway 188 19. Swimming Pool 188 20. L i v i n g Room 192 21. Space Wanted 192 22. Neighbourhood Relations 198 23. What Do You D i s l i k e About L i v i n g Here 199 24. Location of Church „ 202 25. A c t i v i t i e s Which Occur i n a Dwelling Unit . . . 209 26. D i s t r i b u t i o n of D a i l y Family A c t i v i t i e s . . . 210 27. Number of Families Interviewed 219 V I 1 LIST OF FIGURES Figure P a S e V. \ 1. Housing Plans 9 2. Sample Activity Log Record Sheets 19-21 3. Family Activity Mapped on Floor Plan 23-30 4. Location Map 35 5. Site Area 36 6. Site Plan 37 7. Pictures 38-43 8. Dwelling Types A, B, C, D 55-58 9. Period of Occupancy 62 10. Sleeping 1 6 7 11. Eating 1 ? 3 12. Occupational Activity (work, housekeeping, school) '77 13. Children's Playing 1 8 3 14. Evening Sitting 1 8 9 15. Social Activity 1 9 3 16. Weekend Activity 2 0 0 v i i i ACENOWLSDGEMENT I would l i k e t o acknowledge my a p p r e c i a t i o n to the many people who helped w i t h t h i s study. P a r t i c u l a r thanks t o P r o f e s s o r Wolfgang Gerson of the School of A r c h i t e c t u r e and to Dr. Henry S. Maas of the School of S o c i a l Work, U.B.C., f o r t h e i r p a t i e n t guidance. To A r c h i t e c t Leon G. D i r a s s a r of D i r a s s a r , James, Jorgenson, David, designer of the sample p r o j e c t , f o r h i s v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . To Ann Motozono f o r h e l p i n g me c o r r e c t and type the d r a f t , and to Donna Peaker f o r t y p i n g the t h e s i s . To r e s i d e n t s of the Westview Garden Apartments, whose warm and cooperative a t t i t u d e made t h i s study p o s s i b l e , and made my r e s i d i n g i n the p r o j e c t an enjoyable and rewarding experience. F i n a l l y t o my wife 311a, through whose i n f o r m a l contact w i t h neighbours as mother and w i f e , made v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . PART I - INTRODUCTION 1. NECESSITY TO DEFINE FAMILY'S NEEDS IN HOUSING Each person develops h i s pe r s o n a l i t y through i n t e r a c t i o n with h i s environment. A c e r t a i n environment encourages him to develop h i s maximum p o t e n t i a l i t y which might not unfold i n another environment. Man, through h i s b i o l o g i c a l mechanisms, can become adjusted even to conditions that w i l l i n e v i t a b l y destroy the very values of the human being. The f r i g h t e n i n g f a c t i s that the process of adaptation takes place often without man's consciousness. People i n a region of inadequate food supply or extremely hot climate become adjusted to t h e i r environment by l i v i n g l e s s intensely, p h y s i c a l l y and mentally. People i n modern urban areas also have to cope with serious con-d i t i o n s of crowding, p o l l u t i o n , h i ghly regimented s o c i a l structure and a r t i f i c i a l p h y s i c a l environments whose long range e f f e c t s to the human being have not been f u l l y explored. Housing, as man's primary p h y s i c a l environment, rooted i n h i s basic b i o l o g i c a l needs, has great importance f o r the future d i r e c t i o n of human development. In infancy, h i s home i s almost h i s t o t a l environment. As he grows, i t expands to the neighborhood, the c i t y and the world, yet h i s d a i l y l i f e s t a r t s and ends i n h i s home. As R. Dubos, So Human an Animal. 1968. 2 i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n has brought the migration of r u r a l populations to c i t i e s , housing i n the urban areas has become an urgent issue almost u n i v e r s a l l y . Numerous new housing projects and r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n of e x i s t i n g housing have been planned. But i n the planning process, we s t a r t to r e a l i z e the r e a l needs of the actual occupants are often not enough r e f l e c t e d i f not completely neglected. Why does t h i s unfortunate s i t u a t i o n happen? F i r s t l y , the present housing system lacks the d i r e c t communication between housing planners or designers and the actual future occu-pants. The occupants' needs are brought to the professionals (housing designers, a r c h i t e c t s and planners) not by themselves, but through housing suppliers (developers and public housing agents). Therefore, the majority of housing today i s b u i l t f o r the assumed occupants' assumed needs. The suppliers and designers have t h e i r own image of people's needs, derived from t h e i r l i m i t e d experience. That i s often not accurate and sometimes completely wrong. This misunderstanding can be corrected by evaluating the completed housing and getting information on how they are used and what c o n f l i c t s are encountered. Unfortunately, such e f f o r t s are r a r e l y seen and accumulated information i s not a v a i l a b l e . Therefore, mistakes are l i k e l y to be r e p l i c a t e d without being aware of i t . Even doctors perform autopsies, but then doctors custo-marily bury t h e i r mistakes, while a r c h i t e c t u r a l and environmental blunders not only remain v i s i b l e but are often replicated.1 Robert Helmrich, "Behavioral Observations i n an Undersea Habitat," from Architecture f o r Human Behavior. 1971. 3 Housing markets get feedback v i a consumer demands. But compared to other consumer goods, houses require a much greater c a p i t a l outlay and have s o c i a l consequences that make i t d i f f i c u l t to change when they do not meet the occupant's needs. Because of t h i s l i m i t e d experience of the consumers, they do not have enough knowledge about what they r e a l l y need i n the long run. Therefore, there i s a l i m i t i n housing market research. Besides, l i k e any other consumer goods, housing suppliers tend to neglect some demands which are r e a l but not eye-catchers of consumers. Secondly, we do not have free choice to obtain the suitable houses because of l i m i t e d resources of housing a v a i l a b l e i n the market and the funds i n the consumer side. Ever expanding suburbias are s t i l l being developed into t r a d i t i o n a l subdivisions. With the c o s t l y consumption of our l i m i t e d resources, land and con-s t r u c t i o n materials, the high standard detached houses are pro-vided bearing the p r i c e which i s beyond the reach of the majority of Canadian f a m i l i e s . Yet, the alternate types of housing cannot meet t h e i r housing needs eithe r i n t h e i r q u a l i t y or i n t h e i r quantity. Therefore many fa m i l i e s are forced to l i v e i n the incongruent r e s i d e n t i a l environment where some fundamental needs of d a i l y l i v e s are often to be s a c r i f i c e d . To improve these shortcomings of the present housing system, the f i r s t step we have to take i s to inform ourselves with more accurate knowledge of what are the r e a l needs of people i n housing. Then, we can consider the a p p l i c a t i o n of those needs t o f u t u r e housing. 5 2. FAMILY'S NEEDS IN HOUSING - FAMILY VARIABLES Family's needs i n housing varies i n the wide range from the basi c physiological requirements (protection from bad weather, sun, fresh a i r , hygienic and energetic services, etc.) to socio-psychological needs (privacy and communication of a family or neighbors, educational and r e c r e a t i o n a l needs). They vary through a time span and geographical l o c a t i o n s . Among contemporary Canadian f a m i l i e s , many needs i n housing vary although some are common, according t o : -1) family structure 2) stage of family l i f e cycle 3) socio-economic status 4) l i f e s t y l e 5) c u l t u r a l background 1) Family Structure The dominant pattern of the contemporary Canadian family structure i s the conjugal nuclear family. But the number of single parent fa m i l i e s i s increasing and the extended f a m i l i e s are also observed. Each family of d i f f e r e n t structure has t h e i r own housing require-ments to meet t h e i r family member's needs. B e l l i n and Kriesberg discovered 40 to 55% more husbandless mothers than regular mothers put a value on f r i e n d l i n e s s i n neighbors. S. B e l l i n and L. Kriesberg, Informal S o c i a l Relations of  Fatherless Families, 1965, quoted by V/. Michelson, Man and" His Urban Environment. 1970. 6 Housing which intends to accommodate fat h e r l e s s f a m i l i e s must r e f l e c t those needs f o r mutual assistance into i t s design. The extended family requires more than an a d d i t i o n a l bedroom f o r a grandparent to accommodate family a c t i v i t i e s of two or three generations. The "inlaw s u i t e " i s a housing type generated from a family structure. The number of family members i s another important v a r i a b l e f o r the family's needs i n housing. One of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the modern family i s i t s small s i z e . The average number of chi l d r e n per Canadian family i s 1.7* However, the number of chi l d r e n v a r i e s and so does each family's needs. Not only more bedrooms but also a la r g e r family s i t t i n g area, dining area and play area are wanted by a family with several c h i l d r e n . 2) Stage of Family L i f e Cycle A family's needs change constantly according to i t s stage i n the l i f e c y c l e . A house which f i t s a family today may not accommodate the same family a f t e r f i v e years. Families i n d i f f e r e n t stages of the l i f e cycle have d i f f e r e n t needs that may c o n f l i c t with each other. A r e t i r e d couple whose c h i l d r e n have l e f t home may have d i f f i c u l t y l i v i n g i n a neighborhood of f a m i l i e s with young ch i l d r e n . 1971 Census of Canada 3) Socio-Economic Status Upper, upper middle, lower middle and lower class f a m i l i e s have d i f f e r e n t needs i n t h e i r housing according to the d i f f e r e n t ways of l i f e . An upper class family requires a larger dining room for t h e i r s o c i a l gatherings which i s an unnecessary burden to maintain f o r a lower middle class family. A labourer who wants a physical r e s t at home requires a simple house plan with a cosy s i t t i n g area f o r the evening while a computer s c i e n t i s t may want v i s u a l v a r i a t i o n s i n h i s household spaces to rest h i s b r a i n or a space f o r physical exercise a f t e r h i s mental work. 4 ) L i f e Style Within the same socio-economic c l a s s many fa m i l i e s have d i f f e r e n t ways of l i f e . Wendell B e l l explains the l i f e s t y l e s , "familism," "careerism," "consumership pattern" and the growth of the suburbs as the r e s u l t of an emphasis on "familism." A family of "careerism" put a high value to a house on the close lo c a t i o n to the working place. Families with active s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s also show the d i f f e r e n t preference pattern against t h e i r housing type from non-social-type f a m i l i e s . Increasing l e i s u r e time i s going to b r i n g wider v a r i e t i e s of the family l i f e s t y l e s and the various types of housing must be avail a b l e to meet the d i f f e r e n t housing needs. W. B e l l , "The C i t y , the Suburb and a Theory of S o c i a l Choice," S. Geer et a l . The New Urbanization, 1968 from W. Michelson, The Theoretical Status and Operational Usage of L i f e 8 New inventions of household mechanism also a f f e c t the family l i f e s t y l e . Modern e l e c t r i c kitchen appliances made Frank Lloyd Wright's open house plan acceptable, which brought a new family l i f e s t y l e , e s p e c i a l l y a change i n the housewife's p o s i t i o n i n 1 ; the family. 5) C u l t u r a l Background People of each country have a unique way of l i f e , developed through a long t r a d i t i o n f i t to t h e i r country's n a t u r a l condition. This t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e i s often c a r r i e d on even a f t e r f a m i l i e s migrate to a d i f f e r e n t country. John Z e i s e l lays out three d i f f e r e n t apartment plans suitable to each l i f e s t y l e of Puerto Rican working f a m i l i e s , middle c l a s s p white f a m i l i e s and black f a m i l i e s i n the U.S.A. The l i v i n g room of middle c l a s s white f a m i l i e s i s the symbol of the major s o c i -a b i l i t y and the open kitchen allows wives i n the kitchen to j o i n the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s taking place i n the l i v i n g room. The entrance can be d i r e c t l y open to the l i v i n g room. (Figure 1-A) Working class Puerto Rican mothers spend much time i n the kitchen where the f a m i l i e s also eat. The l i v i n g room i s a reserved space to r e l a x away from the kitchen and f o r s p e c i a l occasions. (Figure 1-B) D.E. Smith, "Household Space and Family Organization," P a c i f i c S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, January 1971* p J . Z e i s e l , "Fundamental Values i n Planning With the Non-Paying C l i e n t , " from Architecture f o r Human Behavior, 1971. 9 Figure 1 10 Southern black f a m i l i e s s t i l l keep t h e i r t r a d i t i o n , the dining room separate from the kitchen, which originated because of the cooking of spicy and smelly foods. (Figure 1-G) In a young country l i k e Canada, where people of various c u l t u r a l backgrounds co-exist, d i f f e r e n t needs of various f a m i l i e s must be considered i n t h e i r housing design. The needs also vary according to whose needs they are. Individual family members' needs sometimes c o n f l i c t with other family members. Many family needs are not always f u l f i l l e d i n the i n d i v i d u a l housing unit but are solved only at the neighbourhood l e v e l or even at a larger community l e v e l . I f we do not approach broadly scoped and complicated f a m i l i e s ' needs i n housing through a l l those v a r i a b l e s , the r e a l needs of people cannot be f u l l y r e a l i z e d and the housing which meets various f a m i l i e s ' needs cannot be achieved. 11 3. VARIOUS METHODS TO STUDY OUR PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS Various studies have been done to evaluate man-made environments. Two d i f f e r e n t approaches are used f o r those researches. One i s the evaluation of the environments by the occupants' (users') opinions, and the other i s the observation of t h e i r behavior i n a c e r t a i n environment. In the housing f i e l d , the former data i s c o l l e c t e d through the resident's opinion surveys. The d i r e c t information of actual occupants' s a t i s f a c t i o n , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n or l i k e s - d i s l i k e s i s a popular and strong t o o l to evaluate t h e i r housing. But there are some shortcomings to be considered to handle the data. F i r s t l y , t h e i r evaluation i s based on t h e i r l i m i t e d experience i n t h e i r former residences. Each respondent has a d i f f e r e n t scale f o r t h e i r evaluation. Two f a m i l i e s have moved i n t o the same townhouse un i t s , one from the h i g h r i s e apartment and the other from the detached house. Their evaluations of the new townhouse unit are based on a d i f f e r e n t standard. Secondly, the complicated nature of the environmental e f f e c t s creates the d i f f i c u l t y i n d e f i n i n g i t s c l e a r cause-result r e l a t i o n s . The residents are not always f u l l y aware of r e a l causes of t h e i r l i k e s (or d i s l i k e s ) . D a i l y p h y s i c a l environments often e f f e c t people without t h e i r recognition. A family l i v i n g near the a i r p o r t says that the noise does not bother them a f t e r a while. But the record of b r a i n waves during t h e i r sleep shows c l e a r l y the disturbance of t h e i r sleep beyond the l e v e l of t h e i r consciousness. 12 I f those shortcomings can be covered by the c a r e f u l handling of the questionnaire, the resident's opinions give us valuable data fo r the assessment of housing. The other data, the objective behavioral data i s s t a r t i n g to be used i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l research. Direct observations of human behavior i n c e r t a i n b u i l d i n g types have been done, but the intense study of everyday a c t i v i t i e s within the dwelling u n i t i s r a r e l y seen. Only on such occasions when ar c h i t e c t s are asked to design a custom-built house, might they study a family's d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s i n d e t a i l . In housing research, the private nature of family l i f e sets up a high b a r r i e r f o r researchers and l i m i t s c e r t a i n research methods that are u s e f u l f o r behavioral data c o l l e c t i o n i n other f i e l d s . Direct observation i s commonly used by behavioral s c i e n t i s t s . I t i s r e l a t i v e l y easy to c o l l e c t data i n the laboratory but the observation of a person's continuous a c t i v i t i e s i n h i s actual d a i l y l i f e i s much more d i f f i c u l t . A boy's behavioral record f o r 15 days by R. Barker may be one of the most complete written docu-ments of human behaviors related to h i s environment. The enormous e f f o r t s of the research crew can be imagined. This d i r e c t observation method cannot be used to record the family l i f e within the dwelling u n i t f o r the v i o l a t i o n of t h e i r privacy, V. P r e i s e r , "The Use of Ethnological Method i n Environmental Analysis," EDRA 3, 1972. A.H. Esser et a l " T e r r i t o r i a l i t y of Patients on a Research Ward," from H.M. Prochansky et a l Environ-mental Psychology, 1970. 2R. Barker, One Boy's Day, 1951. but i t i s us e f u l f o r the a c t i v i t i e s i n the public space around t h e i r u n i t . P a r t i c i p a n t observation gives us more det a i l e d data, though i t 1 2 i s a time-consuming research method. H. Gans and Oscar Lewis made f u l l use of t h i s t o o l to c o l l e c t data of complicated human inte r a c t i o n s i n urban communities and Mexican f a m i l i e s that could not be obtained by any other method. For housing research, u s e f u l information about neighborhood s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s may be c o l l e c t e d by t h i s method. Instead of man's observation, audio-visual machines can be used to record the accurate data of human behavior. Because of such machines' l i m i t e d m o b i l i t y and high running costs, t h i s method i s suited to intense studies of human behavior i n a l i m i t e d time and 5 space such as R. Helmrich's study of an undersea habitat. For the study of d a i l y family l i f e at home, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to apply t h i s method because of the family's privacy as well as i t s cost. The behavioral record of d a i l y l i f e described by the family i t s e l f gives us s a t i s f a c t o r y data f o r the study of housing spaces. Per-sonal d i a r i e s ( f a m i l i e s are asked to record t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s ) i s a heavy burden f o r the respondents and t h e i r cooperation may be H. Gans, The Urban V i l l a g e r s , 1962. The Levittowners, 1967. C Oscar Lewis, Five Families, 1959. Halmrich, I b i d . 1 4 d i f f i c u l t to obtain. A high r e f u s a l rate i s l i k e l y . 1 The family's a c t i v i t y time budget described by Chapin and Michelson i s more suited to c o l l e c t i n g reasonably d e t a i l e d data, as well as a c e r t a i n quantity of data, For those reasons, a c t i v i t y log records supplemented by the author's p a r t i c i p a n t observation are used i n t h i s research f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of residents' objective behavioral data. Residents' evaluation of t h e i r housing and the behavioral data of t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s together form more complete information to define a family's needs i n housing. F . S . Chapin, Urban Land Use Planning. V. Michelson, Man and His Urban Environment, 1 9 7 0 . 4-. STUDY OBJECTIVES, SCOPE AND METHOD This i s a methodological study to t e s t the a p p l i c a t i o n of the resident's behavioral data } " A c t i v i t y Log Records," to define the family's needs i n housing. From the various family v a r i a b l e s described i n Section I I , how the Family L i f e Cycle induces d i f f e r e n t family a c t i v i t y patterns and how the sample housing accommodates various family's needs are examined. A Family Variable - Stage of Family L i f e Cycle Each family grows through the years i n i t s own p a r t i c u l a r way. The problem of d i v i d i n g the family l i f e cycle into a number of stages i s that f a m i l i e s are so varied i n t h e i r structure and grow-ing pace. In r e a l i t y , there are no c l e a r d i v i s i o n s from one stage to the next, although each family goes through various stages. A family takes form u s u a l l y i n marriage. A couple, husband and wife, may keep a s i m i l a r l i f e s t y l e to the one they had before marriage. A s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n t h e i r d a i l y l i f e i s brought with the coming of t h e i r f i r s t baby. As successive c h i l d r e n are born, not only does the number of family members increase, but a reorganization of family l i f e occurs. Parents grow older as c h i l d r e n grow and a constant adjustment i n each family member's d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s i s required to f u l f i l t h e i r changing needs and d e s i r e s . A family s t a r t s to contract as 16 children leave home one by one to pursue t h e i r own independent l i v e s . Then aging parents again l i v e together as a p a i r . Dividing a family l i f e cycle i n t o a c e r t a i n number of stages i s more d i f f i c u l t than d i v i d i n g a person's l i f e c y c l e . Various ways of d i v i s i o n are considered according to the research subject. Duvall i n h i s "Family Development - 1962" divides the family l i f e cycle into 8 stages based on the oldest c h i l d ' s phase of growth; 1) Beginning Families (married couple without children) 2) C h i l d Bearing Families (oldest c h i l d b i r t h to 30 months) 3) Families with Pre-school Children (oldest c h i l d 2)4 to 6 years) 4) Families with School Children (oldest c h i l d 6 to 13 years) 5) Families with Teenagers (oldest c h i l d 13 to 20 years) 6) Families as Launching Centres ( f i r s t c h i l d gone, to l a s t c h i l d ' s leaving home) 7) Families i n the Middle Years (empty nest to retirement) 8) Aging Families (retirement to death of one or both spouses) In t h i s study, each family member's a c t i v i t i e s are being focussed; the d i v i s i o n i s based on the youngest c h i l d ' s development stages. Family a c t i v i t i e s ( e s p e c i a l l y mother's) are supposed to be more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the youngest c h i l d ' s development stages. The f i r s t stage, b i r t h to 30 months, i s divided into two stages, J . Lansing and L.D. Kish, "Family L i f e Cycle as an Independent Variable," American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, Vol. 22, 1957. 17 infancy ( b i r t h to 18 months) and toddlerhood (1)4 to 3 years), because of a s i g n i f i c a n t d ifference i n t h e i r p h y s i c a l a b i l i t i e s . Infant, toddler, pre-school c h i l d r e n , school c h i l d r e n , adolescents and young adults seem to be more suitable d i v i s i o n s f o r observing a person's a c t i v i t y patterns through l i f e c y c l e . In t h i s study, a f t e r those modifications to Duvall's eight stages, the family l i f e cycle i s divided i n t o the following 9 stages; Stage 0 Married couple without c h i l d r e n Stage I Youngest c h i l d , b i r t h to 18 months (in f a n t ) Stage II Youngest c h i l d , 1)4 to 3 years (toddler) Stage I I I Youngest c h i l d , 3 to 6 years (pre-school c h i l d ) Stage IV Youngest c h i l d , 6 to 12 years (school children) Stage V Youngest c h i l d , 12 to 18 years (adolescent) Stage VI Youngest c h i l d , over 18 years to leaving home (young adults) Stage VII Married couple a f t e r c h i l d r e n leave home Stage VIII Retirement to death of one or both spouses A c t i v i t y Log Record - C o l l e c t i o n of Data Family members' a c t i v i t y log records were c o l l e c t e d through the respondents' descriptions i n a ser i e s of interviews. (See Sample Record Sheets) No l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s was previously given f o r the reference. The respondent was simply asked to describe h i s d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s f o r a weekly period i n as much d e t a i l as possible. He u s u a l l y described one t y p i c a l weekday's a c t i v i t i e s from morning to night and gave the alternate a c t i v i t i e s f o r the other weekdays. 18 Weekend activ i t i e s on Saturday and Sunday were described separately. A clear difference i n act i v i t y ;vas mostly observed between these two days. Many respondents found i t d i f f i c u l t to r e c a l l daily routine a c t i v i t i e s i n time budget. To collect data with the same density, I had to often interrupt the respondent's description, which tended to be too sketchy. Even so, the continuous description of whole ac t i v i t i e s i n a day enabled me to visualize the complete daily l i f e of each family. For the effective collection of a large quantity of data, each activity's time and spatial distribution may be asked for separately. The main interview respondents were mothers who were at home most of the day. Since this study concerns a c t i v i t i e s i n the unit and the neighborhood, husbands' and older children's daytime a c t i v i t i e s outside of the sample area were not obtained. If this information i s necessary, each family member should be interviewed. what do-jx'd Z . : c o \ f£?:''Lf?_ where ir'i.tb V7h.cm alteriaatti 19 -Or-A * «•»• «M w» »**• • • p*" HI ______ I — \ £ v ^ i 7~/° F i g u r e 2-a Sample A c t i v i t y Log Record Sheet 1. T L ' d S what do.i.nc; where w i t h whom alternate 20 1 r 9 . ^ / y z ^ =r=3L r ^ i U . Figure 2-b Sample Activity Log Record Sheet 2 21 I i , T V CLTO&h < S " " T T I J V l ^ C ^ U . - - i — A ' cs^u^< -te Figure 2-c Sample A c t i v i t y Log Record Sheet 3 22 A c t i v i t y Pattern - Analysis of Data A c t i v i t y log records of each sample family are f i r s t mapped on the f l o o r plan of t h e i r u n i t . The sp a c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of each t a c t i v i t y such as sleeping, eating, etc. i s shown separately with i t s time duration and members involved i n the a c t i v i t y . (See Figure 3) Each family's a c t i v i t i e s mapped on the f l o o r plan are then ana-l i z e d according to t h e i r stage of the family l i f e cycle and a c t i v i t y patterns of each stage are generalized. Thus, the family's needs i n housing are defined i n i t s r e a l state, constantly chang-ing forms rather than permanent ones. Then the sample housing i s evaluated by seeing the f i t between various f a m i l i e s ' needs generated from those family a c t i v i t y patterns and the space pro-vided. Both the resident's own assessment of the space and the author's p a r t i c i p a n t observation are the sources t h i s evaluation i s based on. 23 I i ) i 1 , \ 1 ": i IL • i i ! i ! ii —• i j! I t U i i1 ' ii o i — i ! I S-eptrwt* bedrock "He's * Figure 3-a Family A c t i v i t y Mapped on Floor Plan - 1 24 25 II 1 i — i i o l.i i * i J ! f' V 5 i q p l W, I I <2> Figure 3-c Family A c t i v i t y Mapped on F l o o r P l a n - 3 26 Figure 3-d Family A c t i v i t y Mapped on F l o o r P l a n - 4 27 28 yrxoY*. space Figure 3-f Family Activity Mapped on Floor Plan O - 6 29 i i Figure 3-g Family Activity Mapped on Floor Plan - 7 30 ! i i! n (! fAPTf Figure 3-h Family A c t i v i t y Mapped on Floor Plan - 8 31 Number of Sample F a m i l i e s T o t a l number of f a m i l i e s i n t e r v i e w e d i s 2 3 - C o l l e c t i o n of data from 3 to 5 sample f a m i l i e s i n each stage had been planned but due to the l i m i t e d number of f a m i l i e s i n l a t e r stages i n the sample p r o j e c t , the expected number of samples was not obtained. TABLE 1 - Number of Sample F a m i l i e s by Family L i f e Cycle Stage Stage 0 I I I I I I I V V V I V I I V I I I T o t a l 0 4 3 3 6 2 1 2 2 2 3 No f a m i l y i n Stage 0 (young married couples without c h i l d r e n ) was observed i n the sample p r o j e c t . PART I I - THE VESTVIEV GARDEN APARTMENT 5. CHOICE OF SAMPLE PROJECT The Westview Garden Apartments were chosen as a sample p r o j e c t f o r t h i s study f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: 1. The p r o j e c t i s f o r f a m i l y accommodation and c o n s i s t s of two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s , two bedroom apartment u n i t s and three bedroom townhouse u n i t s , which enable i t to accommodate v a r i o u s kinds of f a m i l i e s . In f a c t , f a m i l i e s i n a l l stages of t h e i r l i f e c y c l e could be observed i n the sample p r o j e c t except young married couples without c h i l d r e n . 2. The s i z e of the p r o j e c t , t o t a l 178 u n i t s , i s l a r g e enough to o b t a i n a v a r i a t i o n i n f a m i l i e s , yet s m a l l enough t o evaluate the whole p r o j e c t as a homogeneous l i v i n g e n v i r o n -ment. 3. The p r o j e c t has been i n e x i s t e n c e f o r ten y e a r s , a p e r i o d long enough t o observe the adjustments t o the o r i g i n a l design as w e l l as adjustments i n r e s i d e n t s ' way of l i f e . 4-. Since b a s i c a l l y the same d w e l l i n g u n i t s are used through-out the p r o j e c t , each f a m i l y ' s d i f f e r e n t response to t h e i r housing environment could be c l e a r l y observed. 5. In f u t u r e housing development i n c i t i e s , there i s bound to be a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s due to e c o l o g i c a l and economic reasons. The f a c t u a l data about 33 f a m i l y l i f e i n townhouses and apartments i s needed today f o r b e t t e r f a m i l y housing. However, there are a l s o l i m i t a t i o n s i n data c o l l e c t i o n caused by the sample p r o j e c t . Since the sample u n i t s are a l l r e n t a l accommo-d a t i o n s , the p e r i o d of occupancy i s s h o r t . The average occupancy i s l e s s than two years and many f a m i l i e s have moved i n l e s s than a year ago. Even a f t e r f o u r or f i v e years' s t a y , many f a m i l i e s s t i l l t h i n k of the townhouse/apartment as a temporary r e s i d e n c e . A l s o , because they are r e n t i n g accommodation, f a m i l i e s are not able to change d w e l l i n g u n i t s according to t h e i r needs. Therefore, the data i s a v a i l a b l e o n l y f o r the f a m i l y ' s adjustments t o t h e i r own re s i d e n c e . A minimum of changes t o the d w e l l i n g u n i t s them-se l v e s were observed. 3 4 6. THE SITE, RESIDENTS AND FACILITIES L o c a t i o n The Westview Garden Apartments are l o c a t e d i n the C i t y of North Vancouver which i s connected to the C i t y of Vancouver by two bri d g e s over the Burrard I n l e t . The C i t y ' s c e n t r a l , i n d u s t r i a l and commercial areas as w e l l as the r e c r e a t i o n a l spots are e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e from t h i s s i t e . Downtown Vancouver i s 6 . 5 m i l e s away and i t takes twenty to t h i r t y minutes t o d r i v e down. The C i t y of North Vancouver has i t s own c e n t r a l business area which i s one and a h a l f m i l e s away. The s i t e i s adjacent t o a l o c a l shopping centre on i t s south s i d e . The sample p r o j e c t and the shopping centre were developed together by the same developer i n 1 9 6 4 . An a r t e r i a l road, Upper L e v e l s Highway, connects the area t o the C i t y of North Vancouver. Two garden apartment developments of s i m i l a r type are at i t s north and west s i d e s , and there i s another townhouse development on the opposite s i d e of the s t r e e t , Westview D r i v e . T h i s s t r e e t runs i n a north-south d i r e c t i o n and has a busy f l o w of t r a f f i c . A creek runs along the east border of the s i t e . Over i t s w e l l - t r e e d banks i s a park w i t h walkways and s p o r t s c o u r t s . The area i s surrounded by middle and upper-middle c l a s s detached houses. F a c i n g n o r t h there i s a panoramic view of mountains. tft>tt#5 V ~1 " S T Y &euwaW Figure 5 - S i t e Area 39 Figure 7 - (e) Landscaped Courtyard 40 Figure 7 - (g) Playground at South East Corner of the S i t e Figure 7 - (h) Walkway to Entrance Gate Figure 7 - ( i ) Townhouse Entrance Figure 7 ( j ) Covered Carports and Open Guest P a r k i n g Figure 7 - (k) Front Yard of Townhouse U n i t Figure 7 - (1) Landscaped Courtyard Between Townhouse Blocks Figure 7 - (m) Backyard of Townhouse U n i t Facing Creek Figure 7 - (n) 3 Storey Apartment - Entrance Figure 7 - (o) 3 Storey Apartment - Balcony and Terrace Facing P u b l i c Backyard 4 4 S i t e P l a n The s i t e area of the Westview Garden Apartments i s 9«5 acres and contains 178 d w e l l i n g u n i t s . Despite i t s r e l a t i v e l y h i g h d e n s i t y , 18.8 u n i t s per acre, the t o t a l design of the p r o j e c t s u c c e s s f u l l y avoids the overcrowded atmosphere. The a r c h i t e c t s ' i n t e n t i o n t o reduce the appearance of b u i l d i n g volumes to a minimum i s w e l l achieved by the landscaping, e s p e c i a l l y since the t r e e s have grown to good s i z e s i n the t e n years s i n c e b u i l d i n g completion. Cuter u n i t s are l a i d out along p r o p e r t y l i n e s t o take advantage of the s i t e which i s surrounded by open spaces. Inner u n i t s are arranged to shape a s e r i e s of s m a l l c o u r t y a r d s . Along the creek bank t o the west of the s i t e , there are open spaces of 2 0 t o 4 0 f o o t width from the backyards to the fence. T h i s p a r t does not belong t o the apartment s i t e but i s maintained by a manager of the Westview Garden Apartments and used as extensions of the backyards. Presidents i n the u n i t s along t h i s creek can enjoy the open space at back as w e l l as view the many t a l l evergreens on the opposite s i d e of the creek. A sewer easement to the n o r t h of the s i t e i s used p a r t i a l l y as a c h i l d r e n ' s playground and the r e s t i s l e f t undeveloped. Although townhouse u n i t s do not d i r e c t l y face t h i s playground, r e s i d e n t s complain about the n o i s e from the p l a y area. To the south, u n i t s are f a c i n g a shopping centre's s e r v i c e yards which have a grade 6 f e e t lower than the backyards of the townhouses. 45 This d i f f e r e n c e i n l e v e l s and landscaped banks allows r e s i d e n t s s u f f i c i e n t p r i v a c y . F a m i l i e s i n b l o c k s along the s t r e e t t o the east of the s i t e s u f f e r most from the noise of busy t r a f f i c f l o w . There i s a minimum setback of 12 f e e t and 6 inches from the s t r e e t , and a sidewalk i n f r o n t i s o n l y 6 f e e t wide. Access t o a u n i t i s not p l e a s a n t , e s p e c i a l l y on r a i n y days. Residents of i n n e r u n i t s around courtyards expressed high s a t i s -f a c t i o n , w i t h the exception of f a m i l i e s who l i v e c l o s e t o the swimming po o l who complained about noi s e d u r i n g the summer season. A swimming p o o l i s i n the centre of the s i t e , and an o f f i c e and s e r v i c e b u i l d i n g are adjacent t o the swimming p o o l . The r e s i d e n t manager suggested those s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s could have been l o c a t e d at the s t r e e t s i d e where f a m i l i e s i n townhouse u n i t s are now bothered by the t r a f f i c n o i s e . Driveway and Sidewalk: There are two access roads i n the V/estview Garden Apartments; one loop driveway and one short dead-end driveway. Both roads are connected t o the c i t y s t r e e t , Westview D r i v e ; and the loop d r i v e -way i s a l s o connected t o the a d j o i n i n g shopping centre at the south west corner of the s i t e . The driveway i s 25 f e e t wide and has a sidewalk f o u r f e e t wide on one s i d e . The driveways are designed t o have many bends to reduce the d r i v i n g speed as w e l l as to avoid the monotonous appearance of the long 46 s t r a i g h t s t r e e t . Speed c o n t r o l bumps have been added on the driveway si n c e the bends alone were not s u f f i c i e n t to reduce the d r i v i n g speed. Although there are sidewalks beside the driveway, people u s u a l l y walk on the driveway. The driveway serves only the people i n the sample area, so the t r a f f i c f l o w i s minimum and the sidewalks seem to be used only when they are the s h o r t e s t route to the p e d e s t r i a n s ' d e s t i n a t i o n . P a r k i n g Space: One covered ca r p o r t per f a m i l y and a t o t a l of 38 open guest park-i n g spaces are provided i n the s i t e . They are l o c a t e d along the driveway and are u s u a l l y i n f r o n t of the b u i l d i n g s . This l a y o u t has the advantage of a l l o w i n g the minimum d i s t a n c e between the p a r k i n g space and the entrance door to the u n i t . The l i n e a r p a r k i n g spaces a l s o work as a b u f f e r zone between d w e l l i n g u n i t s and p u b l i c roadways. This screening f u n c t i o n i s important t o p r o t e c t the entrance and the f r o n t yard of d w e l l i n g u n i t s from the d i r e c t exposure to the p u b l i c roadway, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the b u i l d -i n g setback from the roadway i s minimum (12 f e e t 6 i n c h e s ) . P a r k i n g i n Westview Garden Apartments i s a problem most f a m i l i e s complain about. Only three out of 22 sample f a m i l i e s t h i n k the present p a r k i n g spaces are adequate f a c i l i t i e s . The f i r s t complaint i s the shortage of p a r k i n g spaces which i s c i t e d by 14 f a m i l i e s . Almost every f a m i l y owns a car and many f a m i l i e s have two c a r s . One f a m i l y i n a townhouse u n i t even keeps f o u r c a r s , one f o r each 47 f a m i l y member. Consequently, spaces f o r the guest parking are always f i l l e d by the cars of r e s i d e n t s . V i s i t o r s have a hard time f i n d i n g a space w i t h i n the sample area and q u i t e o f t e n have to park i n the p a r k i n g area of the adjacent shopping c e n t r e . The next complaint i s the narrowness of each p a r k i n g space which i s mentioned by s i x f a m i l i e s . A p a r k i n g space i s e i g h t f e e t wide and has two s t e e l posts on one s i d e . The present d i s t a n c e from the p a r k i n g space t o the entrance door of the u n i t i s accepted by the m a j o r i t y of sample f a m i l i e s . Three f a m i l i e s who have p a r k i n g spaces i n f r o n t of t h e i r u n i t s have to use the f u r t h e r spaces,100 to 150 f e e t a p a r t , due t o the o v e r a l l arrangement of p a r k i n g spaces. A three s t o r e y apartment bl o c k needs more spaces f o r p a r k i n g than i t s b u i l d i n g f r o n t a g e . The manager of the Westview Garden Apartments complains about the damage done to the cars i n c a r p o r t s while c h i l d r e n are p l a y i n g around the p a r k i n g space. TABLE 2a - P a r k i n g Space (N = 22) F a i r 3 Poor 19 Not enough spaces 14 Too narrow 6 Too f a r 3 48 Courtyard: The courtyards surrounded by apartment and townhouse b l o c k s are w e l l landscaped w i t h many t r e e s and shrubs around the a r t i f i c i a l ponds. They are g e n e r a l l y w e l l kept p a r t i a l l y due t o the manager's s t r i c t ban against c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g i n the c o u r t y a r d s . Only t o d d l e r s are seen o c c a s i o n a l l y p l a y i n g i n the s m a l l courtyard i n the n o r t h end of the s i t e which i s f a r from the manager's s i g h t . The courtyards are enclosed by a 6-foot fence and have access gates from the driveway. The fence and gates discourage people from passing through except those who l i v e i n the u n i t s f a c i n g the co u r t y a r d , although there i s a passage through the c o u r t y a r d . The passage i t s e l f i s designed to have a minimum w i d t h , sometimes c o n s i s t i n g j u s t of stepping stones. Few people other than c h i l d r e n are seen w a l k i n g through the c o u r t y a r d . Most f a m i l i e s enjoy the view of the yard from t h e i r backyard or l i v i n g room r a t h e r than a c t u a l l y u s i n g i t . The d i s t a n c e between two f a c i n g b l o c k s i s seventy f e e t at the c l o s e s t p o i n t w i t h f u r t h e r setback at every 2 to 3 u n i t s . Trees and shrubs have grown t o good s i z e s i n the t e n years since the Vestview Garden Apartments' completion and give a good v i s u a l e f f e c t f o r the p r i v a c y of r e s i d e n t s . The landscaped courtyards are one of the r e s i d e n t s ' " l i k e s " and the managers have made good e f f o r t s to maintain them. 4 9 Childrens 1 Play Area: In the sample project, there are two childrens* playgrounds which are b u i l t outside of the Westview Garden Apartment property. One i s on the c i t y sewage easement on the north of the s i t e and the other i s i n the shopping centre property on the southeast corner of the s i t e . The l a t t e r had been larger i n the o r i g i n a l scheme but when the medical b u i l d i n g was erected, the s i z e of the play-ground was cut down. Both playgrounds were developed as parts of the sample project. Play f a c i l i t i e s such as swings, jungle-jim and see-saws have been supplied and maintained by the Westview Garden Apartments. The playground on the north of the s i t e i s approximately 60 feet wide by 120 feet long and p a r t i a l l y paved with concrete. The smaller playground i s 60 feet by 60 feet and the whole area i s paved and fenced around. The landscaping and maintenance of the play areas seems to be poor compared to the courtyards. The swings are often tangled up high beyond younger childrens' reach, by the older children,and there are water pools under the see-saws. Children are more often seen playing on the driveway than i n the playgrounds. In the smaller playground, e s p e c i a l l y , c h i l d r e n are scarcely seen. This i s due to the l o c a t i o n of the playground as well as the unattractive landscaping and the poor maintenance. Both are located out of the residents' sight to get maximum use of property for dwelling units and also to avoid the noise problem from the 50 playgrounds. Due to t h i s remote l o c a t i o n , not o n l y the noise but c h i l d r e n s ' p l a y i n g i t s e l f seems to be cut down. Swimming P o o l : Many sample f a m i l i e s ' e x p r e s s e d the s t r o n g " l i k e " f o r the outdoor swimming p o o l on the s i t e . The swimming pool i s l o c a t e d i n the centre of the s i t e and i s w e l l appreciated through the summer season by both c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . The deck c h a i r s are u s u a l l y f u l l y occupied,with a d u l t s having p r i o r i t y on t h i s s e a t i n g . A l i f e - g u a r d i s h i r e d through the season and, from the management p o i n t of view, the swimming p o o l i s one of the f a c i l i t i e s which needs the most maintenance. Besides the swimming p o o l there i s an o f f i c e and s e r v i c e b u i l d i n g . There a l s o used t o be a cabana which was converted i n t o the work-shop and storage f o r b u i l d i n g maintenance. The cabana was used f o r p r i v a t e p a r t i e s by the r e s i d e n t s i n the sample p r o j e c t but due to the shortage i n the maintenance storage and the d i f f i c u l t y i n c l e a n i n g the place a f t e r use, the f r o n t p a r t i s now used as a common s i t t i n g area,which i s h a r d l y used, and the r e s t i s used f o r the workshop. Front Yard: Every townhouse u n i t has a paved f r o n t yard 12 f e e t 6 inches wide and 16 f e e t deep, which i s enclosed by the wooden fence. The height of the fence was f o u r f e e t s i x inches at the o r i g i n a l d e s i g n , but soon a f t e r i t s completion, another foot was added. The 51 residents complained about the lack of privacy i n t h e i r family room which i s facing the public sidewalk through the front yard. A garbage can and storage shed are b u i l t to form a p a r t i t i o n between the adjoining u n i t s . The entrance gate i s lower than the fence (3 feet, 6 inches high), so people can see over the gate inside of the fence. This opening above the gate has an important function f o r the i n c i d e n t a l s o c i a l i z i n g between neighbours (see Part I I - S o c i a l A c t i v i t y ) . Mothers on the way to t h e i r shopping stop at the gate to have a l i t t l e chat with the neighbour who i s i n the front yard or i n the family room. Sometimes they exchange just greetings and at other times t h e i r conversation continues f o r hours i n the neighbour's family room with coffee and cake. This opening does not seem to bother the majority of the sample f a m i l i e s . Only one sample family complained about the lack of privacy i n the front yard. The gate i s three feet wide and people passing by the sidewalk cannot have more than a momentary look at the inside unless they stop at the gate. This combination of the fence ( f i v e feet s i x inches wide) and the gate (three feet s i x inches), works well to give s u f f i c i e n t privacy to the resident and at the same time to provide f o r the openness which i s e f f e c t i v e f o r neighbourhood s o c i a l i z i n g . Childrens' playing and families* outdoor eating are two popular a c t i v i t i e s due to the a c c e s s i b i l i t y from the family room. The front yard i s also the place to store bulky goods l i k e b i c y c l e s , 52 t r i c y c l e s , sleighs and a goalie net for street hockey. One family has a metal pre-fabricated storage uni t i n the front yard. Backyard: The backyard of each townhouse u n i t i s 20 feet wide and 12 feet deep and paved with concrete. The yard i s p a r t i a l l y enclosed by a wooden fence and the re s t i s open to the public landscaped garden. Some diffe r e n c e i s observed between a c t i v i t i e s i n the front yard and ones i n the backyard. Outdoor s i t t i n g i s the most popular a c t i v i t y observed i n the backyard. Garbage Can Storage: Each townhouse unit has i t s own covered space f o r a garbage can i n the front yard. For the apartment u n i t s , a communal garbage can storage i s provided f o r every two to three u n i t s . In the o r i g i n a l design, a larger communal garbage can space was provided besides the carport serving more f a m i l i e s , but t h i s was divided i n t o the present smaller spaces because there was a con-stant mess around. Even now, the inside of the communal garbage can storage i s us u a l l y quite d i r t y although i t i s not seen from the outside, being fenced completely. I t does not seem to work properly to depend on the residents to clean the communal spaces. Some fa m i l i e s i n the apartment blocks are using t h e i r own garbage cans i n t h e i r units to avoid the trouble and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of cleaning up the communal garbage can storage. 53 Three sample f a m i l i e s i n the apartment units complained of the untidiness of the garbage can storage. No complaints are heard from the sample f a m i l i e s i n the townhouse units about t h e i r own garbage can storage. Dwelling Type As described before, the Westview Garden Apartments consist of 114 three-bedroom townhouse uni t s and 64 two-bedroom apartment u n i t s . Two types of b u i l d i n g blocks are mixed side by side with-out any incoherence by keeping t h e i r appearance and volumes s i m i l a r . Six to ten townhouse units are i n a row and the f l o o r area of a u n i t i s 1,332 square f e e t . End units are s l i g h t l y larger (1,434 square feet) but f l o o r plans are b a s i c a l l y the same. Three bed-rooms are on the upper f l o o r with two bathrooms. L i v i n g room, kitchen, family room and a washroom are on the main f l o o r . The family room faces the front yard and the l i v i n g room opens to the backyard. A storage and garbage can shed i s i n f r o n t , forming a part of the fence. Apartment blocks are two and three s t o r i e s high and each u n i t i s accessible d i r e c t l y from an e x t e r i o r stairway. There are two types of two-bedroom apartments. One has two bath-rooms and a f i r e p l a c e i n the l i v i n g room, the other has one bath-room and no f i r e p l a c e . The f l o o r area of a uni t i s 1,106 square feet or 1,061 square feet each. 5 4 A u n i t has entrance h a l l , k i t c h e n , separate u t i l i t y room and open d i n i n g - l i v i n g room. The d i n i n g room opens to a balcony or a t e r r a c e at the ground f l o o r . TABLE 2b - Number of Sample F a m i l i e s by D w e l l i n g Type Stage 0 I I I I l l IV V VI V I I V I I I T o t a l Type A 1 1 — 1 — — — - 3 B - - - - - - — 1 1 C 3 2 2 5 - 1 1 - 14 D - - 1 - 2 - 1 1 5 T o t a l 2 3 APARTMENT TYPE A The standard two-bedroom garden apartment comprising 105i square feet is imaginatively planned to offer the maximum ir convenience and comfort features. The hardv/ood entrance Hal leads directly to the luxuriously appointed living dining area The completely equipped kitchen is central to the dining anc utility areas. The two full size bedrooms are removed from the jiving area and are convenient to the fully-equipped bathroom. Oar floors in the living area, ceramic tile in the bathroom and vinyl tile in the kitchen are included, of course. yj, Equipment includes Dish Washer. Garbage Disposal Unit and Washer and Dryer in each apartment. ARTMENT TYPE B • delu/': t.vo bedroom garden apartment is a spacious 1106 iare fed. The deluxe apartment includes all of the distinc-; detail"; of the standard apartment plus a full Norman brick tplace HI the living area and a fuily-equipped bathroom scent to each bedroom. The storage facilities for both rtrr.ents M O amply generous. h .-ipariiNcnt'. offer a private balcony opening from the ng aiua whn.h permits full appreciation of the garden-like iLf:sp';d M d t m g in which the apartments are located. rtment lit'.- in Westview Town House is a splendid ex-ence in 'muirp.-issed surroundings. APARTMENT TYPE C The standard three-bedroom town house offers 13.32 square feet of unequalled comfort and convenience. The main floor generously provides family area in abundance—inside and out —with two attractive terraces. The kitchen includes Arborite counter tops and colored appliances. Upstairs three twin-size bedrooms are served by spacious closets and two complete bathrooms. The standard town house is a family home desired and detailed for those with particular preferences in comfortable ac-commodation. 'ARTMENT TYPE D i r!ol:i": H'..'':f-!,':d'o:rri town house is a larger edition of the :;-.dard |il;m described opposite. All other aspects are :iitic;il. •nc: p.-utK.iiliirly the unity in design between the central enor <i":a ;md 'he accessible patios. The entire plan com-v.s IIVIIIJ! '.|i;ir.<: with just a subtle transition of glass from .•de to nut ur Wcslvii"// lown House offers the advantages of suburban ; -.v::iirj;tj itn- (.'.triplication of maintenance chores. Westview .vn Mouse will '.,<-. completely and carefully tended for your itimimj: i!ii|iiyment. 59 Residents The sample p r o j e c t houses v a r i o u s types of f a m i l i e s , but no s i n g l e a d u l t s o r young married couples without c h i l d r e n are found i n t h i s area. Most f a m i l i e s have c h i l d r e n except e l d e r l y couples whose c h i l d r e n are grown up. F a m i l i e s up t o stage IV occupy the maj-o r i t y of the area. F a m i l i e s of stages V, V I , V I I , V I I I are found o n l y i n l i m i t e d numbers. Although the dominant p a t t e r n of a f a m i l y c o n s i s t s of parents w i t h or without c h i l d r e n , the o c c a s i o n a l s i n g l e parent ( a l l of them mothers) i s a l s o seen. Extended f a m i l i e s are a l s o found but t h e i r number i s ve r y l i m i t e d . Among the f a m i l i e s i n t e r v i e w e d , there i s a case of an e l d e r l y couple l i v i n g w i t h the wi f e ' s s i s t e r and another f a m i l y l i v i n g w i t h the wi f e ' s mother. E t h n i c a l l y , people from many c o u n t r i e s are seen w i t h i n the area. Among the f a m i l i e s i n t e r v i e w e d were E n g l i s h , German, Swiss, South A f r i c a n , Japanese, East I n d i a n from N a i r o b i and Uganda, American, as w e l l as Canadian. D i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s i n f a m i l i e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds were not observed c l e a r l y i n t h e i r response to t h e i r l i v i n g environment, p a r t i a l l y due t o the l i m i t e d number of f a m i l i e s i n t e r v i e w e d . However, the d i f f e r e n c e was i n the f a m i l y ' s a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s ; e s p e c i a l l y evident i n t h e i r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . The monthly rent i n 1 9 7 5 was 205 and 2 2 5 d o l l a r s f o r a two-bedroom apartment u n i t , and 2 7 0 and 2 8 0 d o l l a r s f o r a three-bedroom town-house u n i t . This rent a t t r a c t s middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s . 60 The occupation of the head of each household i n t e r v i e w e d (two of them s i n g l e mothers) i s shown as an example of the type of people l i v i n g i n t h i s area. Occupation of Family Head; Managers 9 P r o f e s s i o n a l s 5 White C o l l a r Workers 2 Blue C o l l a r Workers 3 Surveyor 1 Trained Nurse ( w i t h 1 advanced nurse's t r a i n i n g ) R e t i r e d 2 23 Three wives have p a r t - t i m e work and f o u r are working f u l l - t i m e , P e r i o d of Occupancy and I n t e n t i o n t o Move The d u r a t i o n of the occupancy p e r i o d v a r i e s f o r f a m i l i e s i n v a r i o u s stages of t h e i r l i f e c y c l e . A c e r t a i n p a t t e r n i s observed d e s p i t e the s m a l l number of sample f a m i l i e s . I n e a r l i e r s tages, d u r a t i o n of r e n t a l i s short and i n l a t e r stages the d u r a t i o n of r e n t a l periods grows longer. A l l f a m i l i e s i n stages I and I I have l i v e d i n t h i s area f o r l e s s than two years. F a m i l i e s i n stages I I I t o VI have a p e r i o d of residence v a r y i n g from l e s s than a year to seven y e a r s . In 61 stages V I I and V I I I the longest d u r a t i o n i s observed. Both f a m i l i e s i n stage V I I I have l i v e d i n t h i s sample area f o r nine years, one f a m i l y i n a townhouse u n i t and the other i n an a p a r t -ment u n i t . F a m i l i e s ' i n t e n t i o n s to move a l s o show a d i f f e r e n c e i n response according t o f a m i l i e s ' v a r i o u s stages. Up t o stage IV, a l l f a m i l i e s answered "Yes" when asked i f they p l a n to move. The main reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t they want to buy a house, and they c o n s i d e r t h e i r present residences as temporary ones. In f a m i l i e s a f t e r stage V, t h e i r i n t e n t i o n to move seems to slow down. Both f a m i l i e s i n stage V I I I show no i n t e n t i o n t o move as long as t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s of h e a l t h a l l o w them to l i v e i n t h e i r present u n i t s . Table 3 - I n t e n t i o n t o Move Stage of f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e I I I I I I IV V VI V I I V I I I Yes 4 3 4 4 1 1 0 0 No 0 0 0 0 1' 0 1 2 P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n There i s a bus l i n e s e r v i n g t h i s area every h a l f hour from s i x o'clock i n the morning to two o'clock at n i g h t . In the morning and evening rush hours, people can take d i r e c t bus s e r v i c e s to and 62 over 6 5 years o - H . u 4- years g 3 years •H •p cd § 2 years 1 year X x II I I I IV V VI VII VIII Stage of L i f e Cycle Figure 9 - Period of Occupancy 63 from downtown Vancouver. During other times of the day, people have to change buses t o get e i t h e r t o downtown Vancouver or a major shopping c e n t r e , and i t takes almost an hour. In the morning peak hour, s i x to ten people are u s u a l l y seen w a i t i n g f o r a bus at the bus stop i n f r o n t of the Westview Garden Apartments. A number of people who own cars take a bus r e g u l a r l y to t h e i r work. Bus seats are almost f i l l e d i n the rush hours; at other times, o n l y a few passengers are seen. Host of them are secondary school c h i l d r e n and e l d e r l y l a d i e s . Almost every f a m i l y i n the sample area owns one or two cars and the m a j o r i t y o f f a m i l i e s commonly depend on p r i v a t e c a r s . About h a l f of the sample f a m i l i e s do not use bus s e r v i c e at a l l . Only c h i l d r e n use buses i n two of the e i g h t f a m i l i e s who expressed s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the bus s e r v i c e s . Four respondents complained about the poor bus s e r v i c e . Three of them mentioned o c c a s i o n a l bus r i d e s f o r shopping. Since most f a m i l i e s regard the bus s e r v i c e as a supplementary means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s not s t r o n g . Table 4- - P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Good S e r v i c e Poor S e r v i c e Not Using Number of f a m i l i e s 8 4 11 64 Shopping The s i t e i s adjacent t o a shopping centre which c o n s i s t s of 18 st o r e s of v a r i o u s k i n d s . Most sample f a m i l i e s do t h e i r d a i l y shopping at t h i s shopping c e n t r e . Since the sample p r o j e c t and the shopping centre were developed at the same time, the two s i t e s were c o n v e n i e n t l y connected. There are d i r e c t p e d e s t r i a n accesses as w e l l as a c a r access to the shopping centre from the sample area. Shopping centre c a r t s are always seen on the sidewalks i n the Westview Garden Apartments s i t e s i n c e many f a m i l i e s take shopping c a r t s to t h e i r f r o n t doors i n s t e a d of t a k i n g t h e i r c a r s . The next c l o s e s t shopping area i s c a l l e d "the V i l l a g e , " which i s thr e e - q u a r t e r s of a m i l e east of the s i t e . I t i s a t y p i c a l suburban shopping s t r e e t and not i n t e n s i v e l y used by f a m i l i e s i n the sample area due t o the l i m i t e d numbers of s t o r e s . The c e n t r a l commercial area of the C i t y of North Vancouver i s along Lonsdale Avenue which i s one and a h a l f m i l e s east of the s i t e . Although some f a m i l i e s do t h e i r shopping on Lonsdale Avenue, most f a m i l i e s i n Westview Garden Apartments go to e i t h e r Park Royal Shopping Centre or to downtown Vancouver f o r t h e i r major weekly shopping. 65 Recreational F a c i l i t i e s Parks: Two parks are i n adjacent blocks to the Westview Garden Apart-ments. One, on the north of the s i t e , has tennis courts, a large open play f i e l d and a children's playground. The other, on the opposite side of the creek, has not been f u l l y developed yet and presently an outdoor i c e - s k a t i n g r i n k and baseball f i e l d are the major f a c i l i t i e s . An indoor swimming pool and r i d i n g t r a i l s are under construction. There i s a t r a i l along the creek with a small p i c n i c area. People are frequently seen having t h e i r d a i l y walks with t h e i r dogs whenever the weather i s good. Otherwise, not many a c t i v i t i e s are c a r r i e d on i n those parks, except on the tennis courts. Despite t h e i r proximate locati o n s , the use of the two parks by people i n the Westview Garden Apartments seems to be minimum. Neither park has f a c i l i t i e s f o r f a m i l i e s to spend an afternoon together with t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Open f i e l d s are good f o r organized sport and games but not f o r f a m i l i e s ' ( e i t h e r parents' or childrens') d a i l y use. The indoor swimming pool w i l l be much appreciated when completed. The most popular family outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l spot i s Stanley Park, which i s four miles away from the s i t e and has various f a c i l i t i e s f o r people of a l l age groups. 66 R e c r e a t i o n a l Centre - North Vancouver Community Centre: North Vancouver Community Centre i s one m i l e away from the s i t e and teenage students are the main users of i t s indoor swimming p o o l , i c e - s k a t i n g r i n k and gymnasium. S e v e r a l snack bars and cof f e e shops are around t h i s r e c r e a t i o n a l centre and make t h e i r area a popular meeting spot f o r secondary school students. The d i s t a n c e from the sample area i s walki n g d i s t a n c e f o r teens. A swimming p o o l and an i c e - s k a t i n g r i n k are o c c a s i o n a l l y used by younger c h i l d r e n f o l l o w e d by t h e i r p a r e n t s . S k i slopes are e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e from the s i t e (30 minutes* d r i v e ) ; and some f a m i l i e s , e s p e c i a l l y the boys, c i t e d s k i i n g as a major outdoor a c t i v i t y . Table 5 - L o c a t i o n of F a c i l i t i e s of R e c r e a t i o n a l Centre (N = 22*) I I I I I I IV V VI V I I V I I I TOTAL Good 1 2 3 1 0 0 0 11 Bad 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Not Using 3 1 0 2 1 1 1 2 11 * One sample unusable. 67 Amusement: A few movie theatres and a community h a l l are i n the C i t y of North Vancouver, but major amusement f a c i l i t i e s are found i n downtown Vancouver. Although there i s a restaurant i n the ad-jacent shopping centre, people i n the Westview Garden Apartments us u a l l y go to the downtown area when they eat out. Hospital and C l i n i c Two doctors and a de n t i s t have t h e i r o f f i c e s i n the adjacent shop-ping centre. Some fa m i l i e s i n the sample area go to doctors' o f f i c e s i n the V i l l a g e shopping area (3/4- mile away from the s i t e ) and on Lonsdale Avenue (1#> miles away). A h o s p i t a l i s about two miles away from the s i t e . The sample f a m i l i e s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n s about medical service f a c i l i t i e s around the area are high and no complaints are c i t e d . Table 6 - Hospital and C l i n i c Good Poor Have Not Used Number of ^ fami l i e s 0 8 (One sample unusable) PART I I I - FAMILY LIFE CYCLE AND FAMILY  ACTIVITY PATTERN 7. FAMILY ACTIVITY PATTERN THROUGH STAGES OF FAMILY LIFE CYCLE Family a c t i v i t y l og records are analyzed according to the stage of the family l i f e cycle using a method described i n Part I, Family a c t i v i t y patterns are thus drawn. In each stage, a f t e r a general d e s c r i p t i o n of i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , family a c t i v i t y patterns are summarized i n the following i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s ; sleeping, eating, housekeeping, shopping, playing, evening s i t t i n g , weekend a c t i v i t y and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . S p a t i a l requirements are derived from each a c t i v i t y pattern. Some requirements are basic needs f o r every family and some are preferences f o r most f a m i l i e s . How the sample project accommodates those requirements i s examined and then alternate design solutions are also suggested. 69 STAGE I : GENERAL The b i r t h of the neonate brings about a b i g change i n the f a m i l i e s ' d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . The new family member requires the a d d i t i o n a l space i n the dwelling unit and forces many f a m i l i e s to move. The i n f a n t ' s d a i l y environment i s almost t o t a l l y l i m i t e d to i t s family and i t s dwelling u n i t . I t requires the constant care of the family f o r i t s growth. Lack of.proper care at t h i s stage s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t s the c h i l d ' s mental and physical development and may even cause i t s 2 death. The infant i s completely dependent on i t s family and e s p e c i a l l y on i t s mother. Mothers' d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s are l i m i t e d to within the dwelling u n i t or the immediate neighbourhood by her i n f a n t . 1 "The human b r a i n grows to approximately 70% of i t s adult weight at about the age of one year. By age 6 i t s f i n a l structure i s essen-t i a l l y completed. The experience of e a r l y extrauterine l i f e i n -fluences man's mental development as well as the conditions of i n t r a u t e r i n e existence." Rene Dubos, So Human An Animal, 1968. 2 Spitz' reports of the babies r a i s e d i n a foundling home t e l l s us the extreme t r a g i c example. "Being deprived of aff e c t i o n a t e care and the a t t e n t i o n and receiving l i t t l e stimulation of any type, about 3Cr% of the babies i n the foundling home died within the f i r s t year." Rene A. S p i t z , "Hospitalism: An Inquiry Into the Genesis of Psychia-t r i c Conditions i n E a r l y Childhood," i n The Psychoanalistic Study of  the C h i l d V o l . 1, 194-5. Cited by Theodore Lidz i n The Person, 1968. 70 STAGE I ; SLEEPING The long sleeping hours of the i n f a n t (both i n the night and daytimes) require a space undisturbed by family members' a c t i v i t i e s within the u n i t as well as by outside noise. When such space i s not a v a i l a b l e , the f a m i l y u s u a l l y intends to move. A l l three sample fam i l i e s moved within the Vancouver area to provide space f o r the infant's undisturbed sleep. Family A moved from a two-bedroom h a l f duplex uni t to t h e i r present three-bedroom townhouse u n i t when t h e i r infant was 3)4 months o l d . Family B moved from a one-bedroom u n i t to t h e i r present two-bedroom apartment u n i t when t h e i r daughter was' 7 years o l d . Family E moved from a two-bedroom u n i t to a three-bedroom townhouse unit f o r the c h i l d they were expecting. Some parents put the neonate's c r i b i n t h e i r bedroom f o r a short period and the others l e t him sleep i n a separate room from the begin-ning when such space i s a v a i l a b l e . U n t i l the i n f a n t i s 6 to 12 months o l d , the parents want a separate sleeping space f o r the infant from h i s s i b l i n g s because of t h e i r d i f f e r e n t sleeping patterns. 71 A f t e r about one year, the infant and her s i b l i n g s can sleep i n the same room without disturbing each other too much. The four sample families show the difference i n s p a t i a l usage f o r sleep according to t h e i r family structure. In Family A two boys, ages 2 and 3)4 years o l d , occupy one room each and the parents and 9)4 month old g i r l sleep i n one room. They would p r e f e r to have four smaller separate rooms rather than three f a i r - s i z e d bedrooms (111311 x 14'6", 10'6" x 12'8" and 9'2" x 10'6"). The one year old g i r l of Family B used to sleep i n her own room but since 8 months of age she has s l e p t with her 8 year old s i s t e r i n the same room. Her former bedroom i s now used as the childrens' playroom. In Family C, boys of 8 and 11 years of age occupy one room and a 1)4 year o ld g i r l and her parents use the other two rooms to sleep. Family D l i v e s i n a two-bedroom u n i t . The parents occupy the smaller bedroom and the 2 year old boy and 2)4 year old g i r l use the other. The c o n f l i c t observed i n the space f o r sleeping i s the noise from out-side of the u n i t . The noise from the i n s i d e of the u n i t (such as 72 housekeeping, family a c t i v i t i e s ) does not seem to be so c r i t i c a l as the noise from the outside. In the townhouse u n i t , the difference i n the l e v e l makes a good separation between the s i t t i n g area (down) and the sleeping area (up). In the apartment u n i t , the doors of the bed-rooms do not open d i r e c t l y into the l i v i n g room but in t o the hallway which protects the bedrooms from d i r e c t sound and l i g h t transmission from the fa m i l y s i t t i n g area to the infant's sleeping area. The noise from the neighbours which i s one of the sample f a m i l i e s main d i s l i k e s i n t h i s p r oject, i s caused by the poor sound-proof construction i n party walls and f l o o r s . The noise of childr e n p l a y i n g i n the d r i v e -way and the e x t e r i o r s t a i r h a l l i s complained about by Family D i n the apartment u n i t . Their two bedrooms both face the driveway which i s the childrens' main play area and the i n f a n t ' s day sleep i s exposed to the childrens' noise. REQUIREMENT : SL-I-1 The i n f a n t s ' sleeping space i s preferred separated from other family members' sleeping spaces because of t h e i r d i f f e r e n t sleeping hours. 73 In the sample project, the largest bedroom may accommodate an in f a n t ' s c r i b as well as the parents' bed, but any kind of separation between them cannot be provided. I f parents want the separation, they have to put the c r i b i n another room, A possible alternate s o l u t i o n i s an alcove large enough f o r a c r i b and a chest which can be separated by a simple p a r t i t i o n f o r the privacy of the neonate and the parents. Up to 6 to 12 months of age, the i n f a n t needs a sleeping space separated from her s i b l i n g s . D i f f e r e n t sleeping patterns between s i b l i n g s d i s t u r b the other's sleep. REQUIREMENT SL-I-2 The separation between the spaces f o r infants* sleep and other family a c t i v i t i e s i s necessary. Between those two d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s , the p r o v i s i o n of a buffe r zone i s preferred rather than a separation by just walls and a door. In the townhouse u n i t , the l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e between the family s i t t i n g -working area and the sleeping area serves as a good b u f f e r zone f o r 74-two d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . In the apartment u n i t , the hallway works as an adequate b u f f e r zone. The openings to the l i v i n g room and bedrooms from the hallway are arranged so as not to allow the l i g h t and sound to come i n when the bedroom door i s opened. REQUIREMENT SL-I-3 The convenient connection from the parents' bedroom to the i n f a n t ' s c r i b i s necessary f o r feeding and changing diapers at night, e s p e c i a l l y f o r the neonate. In the sample u n i t (both apartment and townhouse u n i t s ) the distance between doors of parents' and childrens' bedrooms i s minimum. In the townhouse u n i t , the smaller bedroom f o r the i n f a n t s ' use could be located c l o s e r to the master bedroom. Alcove f o r a c r i b i n the par-ents' bedroom, as described i n Sl-I - 1 i s also desirable to meet t h i s requirement. 75 REQUIREMENT Sl-I-4 The space f o r the i n f a n t s ' sleep should be free from the daytime out-side noise of t r a f f i c flows and childrens' playing. In the townhouse unit the parents' bedroom, (which may be used as the neonate's sleeping area too) i s preferred f a c i n g the quiet landscaped courtyard instead of the.driveway which i s the childrens' main play area. In the apartment u n i t , at l e a s t one bedroom i s to be located i n the courtyard side. 76 STATE I EATING Mother feeds her infant before or a f t e r the family eats. When the family i s eating, the in f a n t i s i n t h e i r s i g h t . Breakfast i s not always eaten by the family together (Families A and C), but a l l four sample f a m i l i e s eat dinner together. The family room i s used f o r eating by a l l three sample f a m i l i e s i n the townhouse u n i t and the siz e of eating space (10'0 M x 10'5" or 10'6" x 9'0") i s evaluated as ade-quate by three of the f a m i l i e s . Family B c i t e d the family room as being too small f o r the father's work table and the dining table (see Evening S i t t i n g ) . REQUIREMENT EA-I-1 Family d i n i n g space should be large enough to have the i n f a n t beside the d i n i n g table without any danger or at l e a s t opening to another space where the infant can see and l i s t e n to the family members at the d i n i n g t a b l e . The L-shaped d i n i n g - l i v i n g room i n the apartment u n i t i s good i n t h i s Supervise feA-I- 1 3 77 regard. The family room i n the townhouse u n i t i s large enough f o r the extra space f o r the infant (10*0" x 10'5") i f no other large f u r n i t u r e other than the dining table and chairs are i n the room. STAGE I ; HOUSEKEEPING A l l mothers of the four sample f a m i l i e s i n Stage I are not working outside the house. Their weekday daytime i s mainly spent i n childcare and housekeeping ( i . e . cleaning, washing dishes, laundry, cooking, sewing and i r o n i n g ) . Mother A has three young childre n to look a f t e r and her housekeeping i s extended i n t o the evening. She does sewing and i r o n i n g i n the l i v -i n g room where her husband i s r e l a x i n g with T.V. Mothers B and C i n the townhouse unit have only one infant to look a f t e r when other c h i l d r e n are i n school, and most of t h e i r housekeeping i s done i n the daytime. They work i n the l i v i n g room or the family room as well as i n the kitchen with t h e i r infants around them. Laundry f a c i l i t i e s within the u n i t are appreciated by a l l mothers, but 78 Mother B complained of the noise of the machines and wants to have a separate laundry room. The apartment u n i t has a separate u t i l i t y room where laundry f a c i l i t i e s , storage space and a hot water tank are provided. Mother D i n the apartment unit complains that the kitchen s i z e (7 , 6" x 8'6") i s too small and also enclosed too much to watch her ch i l d r e n from the kitchen playing i n the l i v i n g room. Mothers i n the townhouse u n i t are s a t i s f i e d with the kitchen s i z e (7'6" x 13'0") i n -cluding the laundry space. The shortage of cupboards i s c i t e d by mothers i n both apartment and townhouse u n i t s . A l l mothers i n the townhouse u n i t do housekeeping on the ground f l o o r where they can watch c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g i n the l i v i n g room, family room or i n the front yard. REQUIREMENT HK-I-1 Mothers' main working area, the kitchen, should be close enough to the in f a n t s ' p l a y area (both indoor and outdoor) f o r v i s u a l and verbal communication between her and her in f a n t while she i s doing the house-work. 79 The kitchen i n the townhouse unit has a good connection to the family room and the frontyard. The kitchen i n the apartment does not have enough view of children playing i n the u n i t and more opening to the dini n g space and balcony should be provided. Also, the siz e of the kitchen i n the apartment unit (7'6" x 8'6") i s too small f o r the family accommodation. The s i z e s of l i v i n g room (13'6" x 17'0 f l, 12*8" x 20 , 0"), family room ( I C O " x 10'5"), dining space (9'0" x 10*6"), can accommodate the mothers* housekeeping and childrens' p l a y i n g at the same time without d i f f i c u l t y . STAGE I : SHOPPING D i f f e r e n t patterns of shopping are observed among the four sample f a m i l i e s . Since Mother C has her own car and only an infant to look a f t e r i n the daytime, she goes shopping every day with her i n f a n t without much d i f f i c u l t y . I f the mother has a toddler or two besides the i n f a n t to look a f t e r , she can hardly manage shopping with her c h i l d r e n . She can go shopping on the weekend while her husband i s 80 watching the c h i l d r e n (Families A and B). When the husband i s out of the c i t y , she has to ask a babysitter i n i n order to go shopping (Family D). Family B occasionally goes shopping together on the week-end. A l l mothers use t h e i r cars f o r shopping and tend to go by them-selves to the major shopping areas rather than to the adjacent shopping centre. For the mother of the i n f a n t , shopping i s a chance to go out, free from her house and c h i l d r e n , to see people and breathe the a i r outside of her neighbourhood. REQUIREMENT SH-G-1 (Apply to a l l stages) The major shopping area which draws various kinds of people and a c t i v i t i e s should be e a s i l y accessible as well as the neighbourhood convenience stores. The sample pr o j e c t i s located close to three major shopping areas: downtown Vancouver, downtown North Vancouver, and Park Royal Shopping Centre, besides the adjacent shopping centre. The sample f a m i l i e s are h i g h l y s a t i s f i e d with shopping. 81 STAGE I ; PLAYING - Infants For the f i r s t 12 months, the infant cannot move much by himself so h i s a c t i v i t i e s are completely dependent on his mother. He plays q u i e t l y with toys and enjoys the view and sounds around him. The mother's daytime a c t i v i t i e s are managed with the i n f a n t around her. The mother keeps her in f a n t close enough to be able to see, t a l k and l i s t e n to the in f a n t while she i s working. As the i n f a n t s t a r t s to grow, the mother has to keep her eyes on her c h i l d constantly. No sample family uses a playpen, so the i n s i d e of the u n i t should be free from any danger and the family must t r y to eliminate damage to family possessions. The infant also needs a safe outdoor space where he can get f r e s h a i r , sunbathe and view nature. REQUIREMENT PL-I-1 The i n f a n t ' s play area should be free from danger and should be close to h i s mother's working area (see Housekeeping). Both outdoor and i n -door spaces f o r the in f a n t are necessary. V e r b a l Common. PU I- 1 oc 82 The space does not ne c e s s a r i l y have to be large f o r the i n f a n t ' s p l a y i n g . The room s i z e s of the townhouse and apartment u n i t s are evaluated to be adequate by the sample f a m i l i e s . The front yard (12'6" x 16'0") i n the townhouse u n i t , and the balcony (5*6" x 10'0") i n the apartment u n i t are adequate outdoor spaces f o r the i n f a n t . The balcony and the fr o n t yard f a c i n g the north are useless f o r the i n f a n t ' s outdoor s i t t i n g area because of the lack of sun. STAGS I ; EVENING SITTING Family evening a c t i v i t i e s show some diff e r e n c e s between sample f a m i l i e s according to the family structure and the head of the household's occupation. The infant i s put to bed a f t e r the feeding following supper. Toddlers i n Families A and B also go to bed a f t e r supper. Mother A has an hour's break i n the l i v i n g room from the day's house-keeping and childcare when the three c h i l d r e n , aged 2 years and 9# months, go to bed a f t e r supper. Then, she s t a r t s sewing and i r o n i n g 83 i n the l i v i n g room with her husband who i s r e l a x i n g with t e l e v i s i o n . Father B i s a school teacher and does h i s work f o r the school paper a f t e r an hour's relaxation i n the l i v i n g room watching t e l e v i s i o n . His homework l a s t s about two hours i n the family room. There are a w r i t i n g t a b l e and book shelves i n the corner of the family room be-sides a large dining t a b l e . Family B mentioned that the family room i s too small f o r them. Mother B writes l e t t e r s i n the family room or watches t e l e v i s i o n i n the l i v i n g room. School c h i l d r e n of Family C spend time together with t h e i r parents i n the l i v i n g room watching t e l e v i s i o n or t a l k i n g before they go to bed. A f t e r the c h i l d r e n are i n bed, t h e i r parents stay i n the l i v i n g room u n t i l 11 or 12 o'clock, u s u a l l y watching t e l e v i s i o n . Mother D spends her evenings with her g i r l aged 2$. years i n the l i v i n g room. A f t e r the g i r l i s i n bed, she watches t e l e v i s i o n and crochets, u s u a l l y by h e r s e l f , since her husband i s out of the c i t y most of the time. No complaints are heard among the four sample f a m i l i e s about the l i v i n g room s i z e . 84 The family room (10'O n x 11 f8") i n the townhouse unit i s adequate f o r family d i n i n g but not f o r other evening a c t i v i t i e s which require a d d i t i o n a l space for furniture or equipment. An a d d i t i o n a l room f o r hobbies or f o r use as a den or exercise room i s desired by Families A, B and C. In the sample u n i t s , the lack of the extra space l i m i t s the family's evening a c t i v i t i e s to passive ones, mainly watching t e l e v i s i o n . REQUIREMENT ES-I-1 The family s i t t i n g area should be located so as not to disturb the i n f a n t ' s sleep. (See Requirement Sleeping: Stage 1 - 1 ) REQUIREMENT ES-G-1 (Apply to a l l stages) For the family who wants active a c t i v i t i e s i n the evening (such as homework, c r a f t s , or exercise) an a d d i t i o n a l space i s necessary besides the family s i t t i n g area used f o r passive evening a c t i v i t i e s . Such space should be located so as not to disturb other family members' a c t i v i t i e s . Sound • 6- 1 85 This i s the main reason that people i n the sample project wish to have a basement. The extra space affords the family opportunity to pursue t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s i n t h e i r free time rather than watching t e l e v i s i o n a l l evening. For some a c t i v i t i e s which require a la r g e r space, a communal room f o r the neighbourhood can be provided instead of a p r i v a t e one i n each u n i t . Father B uses the school workshop to do h i s hobby metal work i n . For the maximum usage of such communal space, a proximate l o c a t i o n (to be within a short \valking distance) and good maintenance are e s s e n t i a l . I f the communal space i s successful, neighbourhood contact based on a common i n t e r e s t i s also encouraged. For passive evening a c t i v i t i e s , the l i v i n g room s i z e of the sample u n i t ( 1 3 ,6 M x 17'0 M i n the apartment u n i t and 12'8" x 20 ,0" i n the r townhouse u n i t ) i s adequate. STAGE I : WEEKEND ACTIVITY Weekend a c t i v i t i e s c i t e d by four sample f a m i l i e s i n Stage I are family 86 outings (3 f a m i l i e s ) , exchange v i s i t s with friends (2 f a m i l i e s ) or with r e l a t i v e s (2 f a m i l i e s ) , shopping (3 f a m i l i e s ) , watching t e l e -v i s i o n (2 f a m i l i e s ) and church attendance (1 f a m i l y ) . Most a c t i v i t i e s are done by the family together except shopping (See Shopping). Father B goes to school to supervise the school band on Saturday. Exchanging v i s i t s , family outings (to the park, beach or ju s t d r i v -ing) and shopping are the major weekend a c t i v i t i e s observed i n f a m i l i e s i n Stage I. REQUIREMENT WA-G-1 (Apply to a l l stages) Easy access to public family r e c r e a t i o n a l spots i s to be considered. The sample project i s located close to the major parks and beaches f o r f a m i l i e s to spend weekends. Indoor places f o r the family to v i s i t i n the winter season should also be provided. (The shopping centre can be used as a place f o r more a c t i v i t i e s than just shopping.) STAGE I : SOCIAL ACTIVITY - Neighbours 87 The d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s of the in f a n t ' s mother are l i m i t e d to her u n i t and immediate neighbourhood during the weekdays. The p o s s i b i l i t y f o r her to have contact with people outside of her family i s mostly within the neighbourhood. When such contacts are not a v a i l a b l e , she f e e l s shut o f f from the outside world. Staying home a l l day long with an i n f a n t i s a b i g change i n a woman's way of l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y f o r those mothers who worked outside the home before having t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d . Having a l i t t l e chat with her neighbour helps to pre-vent the mother from f e e l i n g sudden i s o l a t i o n from the outside world. Easy access f o r mothers to the places f o r i n c i d e n t a l meetings with neighbours should be considered i n designing the family housing. Two mothers (Families A and B) mentioned a regular afternoon t a l k with neighbours. Both have toddlers and infants and the neighbours with whom they have contacts have toddlers a l s o . The other two mothers (Families B and C) have school c h i l d r e n besides i n f a n t s and do not c i t e such regular neighbour contacts. 88 Toddlers seem to work as the p r i n c i p a l medium f o r mothers' neighbour-hood i n t e r a c t i o n (See Stage H - S o c i a l A c t i v i t y ) . Mothers' immobility i n the daytime i s also considered a determinant of her neighbourhood i n t e r a c t i o n or lack of i n t e r a c t i o n . The two mothers who do not have neighbourhood contact f i n d i t easier to go out since both can use t h e i r own car and have only an i n f a n t to take with them while the other c h i l d r e n are i n school (Families B and C). The mother of toddlers and an i n f a n t hardly manages to go out without a car (Family A) or even with a car (Family D). The more m o b i l i t y the mother has, the l e s s contacts with the neighbours she tends to have. The length of the occupancy does not seem to be a determinant of such contacts. Mothers A and D who have such contacts have stayed i n the u n i t f o r 6 months and 1)4 years and Mothers 3 and C who do not have contacts i n the neighbourhood, have stayed 1)4 and 1 year. For the afternoon talk s with neighbours, Mother A, i n the townhouse u n i t , uses the family room and Mother D, i n the apartment u n i t , uses the l i v i n g room. No neighbourhood contact i s observed between fathers of the four sample f a m i l i e s . I t i s considered that they do not f e e l 5Qn' I- 1 8 9 the need f o r s o c i a l contacts with neighbours as t h e i r wives do, since the contact with the outside world i s availa b l e f o r them during t h e i r working hours. A children's party or such occasion as a birthday or Halloween are mentioned by Families B and D as opportunities f o r neighbourhood contact. No s p a t i a l complaints on such occasions are c i t e d . REQUIREMENT SON-G-1 The frequent i n c i d e n t a l meetings with neighbours encourage the neigh-bourhood contacts. A part of each dwelling u n i t ( e i t h e r indoor or outdoor) should have v i s u a l connection to the p u b l i c walkway which neighbours use most commonly on such occasions as shopping. The f r o n t yard and the family room of the townhouse u n i t s a t i s f i e s t h i s requirement. Through the entrance gate of the front yard fence, neighbours can see and t a l k to the residents i n the front yard or i n the family room. In the apartment unit no such space i s a v a i l a b l e . I f the balcony faces the sidewalk instead of the courtyard, i t may <? TOWNHOUSE 00 CD 90 serve as a place f o r communication between residents and t h e i r neighbours on the sidewalks. Those outdoor semi-private spaces should p r e f e r a b l y be connected to the family s i t t i n g area or the mothers' working area to best serve t h i s requirement. Direct access from the outside to such indoor space i s preferable to provide a place f o r casual neighbourhood t a l k . REQUIREMENT SON-I-2 An open p u b l i c space should be provided i n the neighbourhood f o r mothers with a baby carriage to have a short afternoon break and meet neighbours f o r a l i t t l e chat. Such public space i s important e s p e c i a l l y f o r mothers i n the apartment u n i t since they have l e s s chance f o r such contact because there i s no d i r e c t connection between the p u b l i c walkway and t h e i r u n i t s . The space i s to be protected from the t r a f f i c noise, danger and bad weather. The size of the open space does not n e c e s s a r i l y have to be large but should be well-landscaped and equipped with benches f o r casual neighbourhood meetings. Easy access from each u n i t and v i s u a l connection between the area and the public walkway i s necessary. 91 P r e f e r a b l y , the location should be adjacent to the toddlers' play-ground f o r mothers of both infants and toddlers (See Stage I I S o c i a l A c t i v i t i e s ) , In the sample project, no benches are provided besides i n the c h i l d r e n ' s playgrounds and i n the landscaped courtyards. Benches adjacent to the swimming pool or children's playground could a t t r a c t mothers i n the neighbourhood as well as e l d e r l y people (See Stage VIII, S o c i a l A c t i v i t y ) . STAGE I : SOCIAL ACTIVITY - Friends and Relatives On weekends, Families A and B mentioned the exchange of v i s i t s with f r i e n d s , and Families B and C exchange v i s i t s with r e l a t i v e s . They dine together i n the family room and t a l k i n the l i v i n g room (Families A, B and C) or play cards i n the family room (Family A). Family B mentioned the family room could be l a r g e r f o r a dinner party. Family D want a separate dining room which can be opened in t o the l i v i n g room when more space i s needed. 92 R e l a t i v e s ' occasional overnight v i s i t s are mentioned by Families A, B and D. They sleep on a f o l d i n g bed or a couch i n the l i v i n g room (Families A and C), or i n the childrens* bedroom (Family D). No strong inconvenience i s f e l t by the sample f a m i l i e s about the usage of space f o r occasional p a r t i e s or overnight v i s i t o r s . People are to l e r a n t of the shortage of space (at p a r t i e s ) or the inconvenience i n space usage (guests' sleeping i n the l i v i n g room) because of the short duration of such occasions. REQUIREMENT SOF-G-1 (Apply to a l l stages) Some f a m i l i e s want larger dining space f o r occasional dinner p a r t i e s although many f a m i l i e s do not strongly f e e l the need. A possible s o l u t i o n f o r t h i s requirement, while s t i l l keeping the f l o o r area minimum, i s the expandable dining space i n such occasions. I f the di n i n g area i s adjacent to the l i v i n g room as i t i s i n the sample apartment u n i t , the dining space can expand to the l i v i n g room. Isolated d i n i n g space as i n the sample townhouse u n i t i s impossible to expand. 93 VOyClPrncO) STAGE I I : GENERAL The baby s t a r t s to walk and t a l k i n the toddler phase. His r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g p h y s i c a l and verbal c a p a c i t i e s encourage him to explore h i s surroundings. As h i s area of a c t i v i t i e s expands, the safety of the in f a n t and the protection of the family's possessions has to be con-sidered both i n and out of the u n i t . In spi t e of the newly-gained a b i l i t y to walk by himself, the toddler s t i l l requires h i s parents' constant company and attention because of h i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l i n s t a b i l i t y . The parents' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ( e s p e c i a l l y the mother's) as the tut o r of t h e i r t o ddler has great importance i n guiding the c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y development. "In learning the language, the c h i l d i s learning only the v e r b a l communication but i s also a s s i m i l a t i n g the culture's system of meanings and i t s ways of thinking and reasoning." (Theodore L i d z , The Person, 1968). The mother's d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s are s t i l l mostly confined to her u n i t and neighbourhood. The need f o r the toddler's playmates increases the mother's neighbourhood i n t e r a c t i o n s . Rttnfjy V F ' 9 4 STAGE II ; SLEEPING As the i n f a n t enters the toddler stage, he needs le s s sleep. He commonly has one to two hours' sleep i n the afternoon. In the evening he goes to bed a f t e r a short time of play. Two sample f a m i l i e s (E and F) i n the townhouse uni t s have only one c h i l d each. The parents use the la r g e r room with the bathroom and the c h i l d occupies the other room. The t h i r d room i s used as a children's playroom (Family F ) , or f o r the father's workroom (Family E) . Both f a m i l i e s are s a t i s f i e d with the sizes of the bedrooms. Family G i n the apartment unit has two g i r l s ; ages s i x and three, and expressed the wish to have a t h i r d bedroom so that each g i r l could have her own room. The older g i r l , now i n grade one, i s s t a r t -ing to have her own e f f e c t s f o r school. The si z e of the bedrooms, (12'-0" x 13'-0" and 10'-6" x 12'-0"), i s c i t e d as " f a i r " by Family G. The poor sound-proofing from the u n i t above rather than from the side i s a source of complaint by Family G i n the apartment u n i t . 95 REQUIREMENT ; SL-II-1 The toddler needs a sleeping space apart from h i s parents' bedroom. For s i b l i n g s up to the pre-school stage, the sleeping spaces can be arranged i n the same room. The toddler s t a r t s to be an i n d i v i d u a l person i n the family and par-ents want to have t h e i r own privacy from him at night as w e l l . The toddler no longer requires nursing at night and a convenient connec-t i o n between h i s bedroom and the parents' i s not important. The pre-school c h i l d and the toddler can sleep i n the same room without much c o n f l i c t . The toddler and h i s school age s i b l i n g s p r e f e r to have separate bedrooms because of t h e i r d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t y patterns and the school c h i l d ' s need f o r h i s own space. (See Stage IV) STAGE II : SATING The toddler now joins the family at the dining t a b l e . Families E and G have breakfast together but i n Family F, the father just has a cup of CO 96 coffee before leaving f o r work and the mother and the two-year-old g i r l eat breakfast an hour l a t e r . In a l l three f a m i l i e s , the mother and c h i l d r e n eat lunch together while the fathers eat out. At supper, a l l family members get t o -gether. Families E and F i n the townhouse units use the family room f o r eating, and Family G i n theapartment uses the d i n i n g space. A l l mentioned that the siz e of the dining space was "good." REQUIREMENT ; EA-II-1 Ext r a space i s required besides that already occupied by the di n i n g table and c h a i r s , to accommodate a highchair as we l l as an area f o r the toddler to sa f e l y walk about i n . The s i z e s of the family rooms i n the townhouse u n i t s and the di n i n g space i n the apartments are large enough to s a t i s f y t h i s requirement ( 1 0 ' - 0 " x 1 0 ' - 5 " and 9 ' - 0 " x 10'-6"). STAGE I I : HOUSEKEEPING 97 When the toddler s t a r t s walking by himself, h i s mother has d i f f i -c u l t y i n keeping her eyes on him. He does not stay i n one place f o r long and follows h i s mother "to help" her with the household chores. The mother spends a f a i r amount of time d a i l y i n preparing meals and washing dishes, while supervising her c h i l d r e n at the same time. Families E and F i n the townhouse u n i t s do t h e i r sewing i n the family room. Ironing i s done i n the room where the t e l e v i s i o n set i s located; the l i v i n g room (Family E) or the family room (Family F ) . The mother does her i r o n i n g and k n i t t i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y i n the evening while e i t h e r watching t e l e v i s i o n or having a conversation with her husband a f t e r the c h i l d r e n are i n bed. No complaints were made concerning space of housework except f o r the shortage of kitchen space i n the apartment un i t (Family G). REQUIREMENT -HK-II-1 The kitchen should be connected to an area where the toddler can play both indoors and outdoors and yet where the mother working i n the kitchen can maintain v i s u a l and verbal communication with him, (See Requirement HK-I-1). REQUIREMENT HK-G-1 (Applies f o r a l l stages) The family s i t t i n g area should have space f o r i r o n i n g and sewing with-out taking over the space f o r family s i t t i n g . The s i z e of the l i v i n g room (l2'-8" x lO'-O") and the family room (10'-0" x 10'-5") was c i t e d as " f a i r " by the sample f a m i l i e s . The L-shaped d i n i n g - l i v i n g room i n the apartment unit allows more f l e x i b i l i t y i n the usage of space for more than two d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s at the same time. When the family members engage i n d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s and want to maintain some v i s u a l and verbal contact, the open l i v i n g -d i n i n g room could give them more space than two separate rooms. One open space, however, does not allow f o r two d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s at the same time, f o r example, sewing and watching t e l e v i s i o n or l i s t e n i n g to music. STAGE II : SHOPPING 99 A l l three f a m i l i e s do t h e i r grocery shopping two or three times a week during the day at the adjacent shopping centre. The mother takes her toddler along whether she uses the car or not. The major shopping i s done on Saturdays (Family G) or every Friday evening (Family E) by the e n t i r e family. They go to the Park Royal S hopping Center or down-town Vancouver. REQUIREMENT SH-G-2 (Applies to a l l stages) The stores f o r d a i l y grocery shopping are preferred to be located within walking distance. Th© sample project has a shopping centre adjacent to i t which i s one of the top " l i k e s " of the residents. For the mother and toddler with-out a car f o r d a i l y grocery shopping, the shopping cart i s an i d e a l convenience i f i t can be taken to the entrance door of each u n i t . At the present time, the carts are not allowed to be taken out of the shopping centre area but some carts are always seen on the sidewalks of the sample project. A simple s o l u t i o n to the problem of empty carts l e f t around would be the provision of several spaces f o r them beside 100 the sidewalk. STAGE II : PLAYING - Toddlers The c h i l d ' s p h y s i c a l development allows the toddler much active playing but h i s t e r r i t o r y i s s t i l l l i m i t e d most of the time to within h i s dwelling u n i t . He cannot stay long by himself or with h i s playmates of the same age group without an adult's supervision. His mental development i s not comprehensive enough to control h i s p h y s i c a l capacity. He s t i l l has to depend on h i s parents' constant supervision. He enjoys h i s r a p i d l y expanding p h y s i c a l capacity to walk, run, jump and toss objects. He learns the language and recognizes the outside world of h i s family and dwelling u n i t by knowing the playmates i n h i s neighbourhood. In the morning, a l l three mothers do t h e i r housekeeping accompanied by t h e i r c h i l d r e n who play either within the u n i t or i n the front yard. A f t e r lunch, Families F and G c i t e d the exchange of v i s i t s with neigh-bours. While the mothers t a l k , the c h i l d r e n of both p l a y together i n 101 the family room or frontyard (Family F i n the townhouse u n i t ) or i n the l i v i n g room and the children's bedroom (Family G i n the apartment u n i t ) . Family E moved to the present u n i t a month ago and t h e i r c h i l d (twenty months of age) has not had the opportunity to p l a y with neighbouring childr e n as yet. The front yard of the townhouse u n i t i s w e l l used f o r toddlers' play and Family F, who moved from the high-r i s e apartment un i t , l i s t e d the front yard f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n to play i n as one of t h e i r " l i k e s . " They also c i t e d the a v a i l a b i l i t y of playmates f o r t h e i r g i r l s compared to when they were l i v i n g i n the h i g h - r i s e apartment u n i t . A l l three mothers expressed t h e i r d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n with the playgrounds i n the sample p r o j e c t . Family E c i t e d poor maintenance and a d i s l i k e of the concrete paving. Family F complained of the older childrens' dominance i n the playgrounds. Mothers of Families E and F occasionally take t h e i r toddlers to a p u b l i c playground i n Delbrook Park which i s h a l f a block away from the s i t e . A l a r g e r space and greater v a r i e t y of play equipment as well as b e t t e r landscaping are provided there. Family G mentioned the remote l o c a t i o n of the playground which i s located completely out of the sight of most u n i t s . Their apartment u n i t s do not have an enclosed 102 priv a t e yard as do the townhouse u n i t s . Their three-year-old daughter u s u a l l y plays i n the front yard of the neighbouring townhouse u n i t or i n the driveway with her f r i e n d . Family G also c i t e d the a v a i l a b i l i t y of playmates and play areas as t h e i r top " l i k e s " of l i v i n g i n the sample pro j e c t . The swimming pool on the s i t e i s used "every day" by Families F and G i n the summer. REQUIREMENT Pl-II-1 Within the u n i t , the toddler requires the space (both indoor and out-door) to run and jump around without any danger and damage to family possessions. The play area i s to be located close enough to the mother's working area f o r constant supervision. danger PL- K- i The toddler requires a larger and f r e e r space f o r p l a y i n g than the i n -fant, but the r e l a t i o n between the mother's working area and the c h i l d ' s p l a y area i s s i m i l a r to that of Stage I. (See PL-I-1) The siz e of rooms i s c i t e d as adequate f o r the toddler's indoor a c t i v i t i e s and M O ISO 103 the paved front yard (12'-6" x 16'-0") i s well appreciated by f a m i l i e s i n the townhouse u n i t s , (Families E and F ) . The balcony i n the apart-ment u n i t ( 5'6" x 10'-0") i s not large enough to be considered as an outdoor play area. The family i n the apartment u n i t requires communal open outdoor space f o r toddlers which i s located close enough f o r a mother's v i s u a l and verbal supervision from her u n i t . REQUIREMENT PL-II-2 The communal playground i s to be provided within a short walking d i s -tance from the u n i t . Benches and pleasant landscaping are required as well as play f a c i l i t i e s . An open grassed area f o r toddlers i s pre-f e r r e d to be provided i n the neighbourhood. I t i s preferred that the mother can see and c a l l her toddler i n the playground from the unit or from the entrance of i t . The playgrounds of the sample project are at the corners of the s i t e and out of sight from most of the uni t s , mainly to protect the u n i t s from noise. The complaints about the noise are heard mostly from c h i l d l e s s couples or f a m i l i e s with an infant (See SL-I-4). The grouping of f a m i l i e s according PL 11 "2 o 00 104 to t h e i r stage i n the l i f e cycle to occupy one to two blocks of the bu i l d i n g s ( s i x to twelve units) would solve the problem of noise as well as proximity to the playground. In t h i s way, the young c h i l d has more of an opportunity to get together with playmates i n the neighbour-hood. STAGE I I : EVENING SITTING A f t e r supper, the toddler stays together with h i s f a m i l y f o r a while. A f t e r the c h i l d r e n go to bed, the parents r e l a x by watching t e l e v i s i o n (Families E, F and G), while k n i t t i n g (mothers E and F) or d r i n k i n g (Father G). In good weather, Family E go out f o r a walk together or to the playground. The family room i s used f o r evening s i t t i n g by Family F and the l i v i n g room by Families E and G„u A l l three f a m i l i e s are s a t i s f i e d with the siz e of the room. No active evening a c t i v i t i e s within the u n i t are observed among the three sample f a m i l i e s . REQUIREMENT ES-II-1 The f a m i l y s i t t i n g area i s to be separated from the children's bedrooms, (See ES-I-1). 105 STAGE II ; WEEKEND ACTIVITY Families E and G spend much of t h e i r time outside on the weekends. They v i s i t parks, beaches and eat out frequently. Family E also go out f o r walks. Father G spends a day g o l f i n g while h i s wife and c h i l d r e n stay home. Father F has Monday and Wednesday o f f each week instead of the weekend. Occasional v i s i t s of f r i e n d s , father's bowling or s i t t i n g at home are c i t e d as a c t i v i t i e s on his days o f f . STAGE II : SOCIAL ACTIVITY - Neighbours Compared to the mother i n Stage I, the mother i n t h i s stage has more of an opportunity to go out with her c h i l d . Since the toddler needs fri e n d s outside of h i s family to p l a y with under h i s mother's super-v i s i o n , neighbourhood i n t e r a c t i o n i s observed to be most active among mothers i n t h i s stage. When the toddlers are accompanied by t h e i r mother and meet on the sidewalk or playground, they do not hesitate to play together immediately. The mothers, meanwhile, s t a r t a conversation and become acquainted. The next time, the mother, on her way shopping 106 greets her neighbour i n the front yard or i n the family room and stops over f o r a short v i s i t . Often the v i s i t extends to hours i n the neighbour's family room with coffee and cake while t h e i r c h i l d r e n play together. Both mothers of Families F and G mentioned such contacts with neigh-bours. Mother E did not mention her neighbourhood i n t e r a c t i o n s , pos-s i b l y due to her short period of occupancy i n the sample u n i t , (one month). Families A and D i n Stage I also c i t e d the neighbourhood con-t a c t s through t h e i r toddlers* playmates. In the townhouse u n i t , the family room i s the area f o r mothers' v i s i t s while i n the apartment u n i t , the d i n i n g - l i v i n g room i s used. Fathers' neighbourhood i n t e r -actions were not observed among the three sample f a m i l i e s i n Stage I I . REQUIREMENT SON-II-1 The place f o r the mothers' neighbourhood contacts i s to be considered together with that of the toddlers' play area. Outside of the u n i t , t h i s place i s to be adjacent to the children's playground, (See SON-I-2). Within the u n i t , i t should be connected to the children's outdoor and indoor p l a y areas. ~f|-om SON • I • I 107 The arrangement of the family room and front yard i n the townhouse unit w e l l s a t i s f i e s t h i s requirement. The d i n i n g - l i v i n g room of the apart-ment u n i t has enough space f o r the mothers' t a l k s with her neighbours and the play of t h e i r children but lacks the informal access from the p u b l i c sidewalk (See SOII-I-1), and the children's outdoor play area. (The balcony i s too small for the c h i l d r e n to play on.) SOCIAL ACTIVITY - Friends and Relatives Family E mentioned evening v i s i t s from friends to t a l k , drink and play cards i n the l i v i n g room and the family room. (Four adults and two high school children.) They have not had over-night v i s i t o r s yet. Family F c i t e d an evening c o c k t a i l party of approximately twenty adults held i n t h e i r l i v i n g room and also a dinner party with four couples i n t h e i r family room. Over-night v i s i t o r s ( f riends and r e l a t i v e s ) stay i n the children's playroom. Family G i n the apartment unit complained that the kitchen was f a r too small. In the summer, they use the backyard (since t h e i r unit i s on the ground f l o o r ) f o r barbeque p a r t i e s . Over-night v i s i t o r s sleep on 1 0 8 the couch i n the l i v i n g room. They wish to have an a d d i t i o n a l room to use as a guest room hut mentioned the greater need to have an extra room so that t h e i r two g i r l s could each have her own bedroom. Strong complaints about the space l i m i t a t i o n i n the u n i t f o r p a r t i e s and over-night v i s i t o r s i s not observed. REQUIREMENT SOF-G-2 (Applied to a l l stages) The space f o r occasional p a r t i e s and over-night v i s i t o r s i s to be considered. The degree of s p a t i a l need f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s v a r i e s among the f a m i l i e s . Most fa m i l i e s can manage such occasions within the a v a i l -able space of t h e i r u n i t . Some f a m i l i e s who have frequent over-night v i s i t o r s p r e f e r to have a guest room, but the need i s not so c r i t i c a l as the s p a t i a l need f o r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . 109 STAGE I I I : GENERAL When the c h i l d passes the infancy and toddler stages, h i s independence increases. His i n t e r e s t s h i f t s from the close attachment to h i s family, ( e s p e c i a l l y h i s mother) to h i s playmates. The t e r r i t o r y of h i s a c t i v i t i e s also expands to that beyond the dwelling u n i t - to the neigh-bourhood. Easy access to playmates and a safe play area are both e s s e n t i a l f o r fa m i l i e s with pre-school c h i l d r e n . D i s t i n c t i o n between the sexes becomes evident when the c h i l d r e n separate at play. Although incre a s i n g detachment of the c h i l d allows the mother more time f o r h e r s e l f , the pre-school c h i l d s t i l l requires occasional super-v i s i o n . Consequently, the mother's a c t i v i t i e s are s t i l l mostly con-fi n e d to her dwelling uni t and neighbourhood. STAGE I I I : SLEEPING Children begin to d i s t i n g u i s h between the sexes at t h i s stage and some parents p r e f e r to provide separate bedrooms f o r c h i l d r e n of the opposite sex. There i s no shortage of sleeping space as observed i n Families H 110 and J. Family J have two g i r l s of ages f i v e and three and a h a l f years and each has occupied her own room since the younger was two months o l d . Family H has only a four and a h a l f year old boy. Family K, the largest family among twenty-three sample f a m i l i e s , con-s i s t s of parents, mother of the husband ( s i x t y - s i x years o l d ) , two boys and one g i r l . The grandmother and ten-year-old g i r l share a bedroom as do the boys, ages eight and f i v e . They expressed the need fo r an extra bedroom f o r the g i r l . They were s a t i s f i e d with the sizes of the bedrooms of the parents and the boys. REQUIREMENT SL-III-1 Some parents p r e f e r to have separate bedrooms f o r pre-school c h i l d r e n of the opposite sex. The need f o r privacy between two sleeping areas f o r a boy and g i r l at Stage I I I i s much less than at Stage IV. The sleeping alcoves created by a simple p a r t i t i o n opening i n t o a common play area can serve the purpose. They begin to c o l l e c t toys and other personal belongings i n t h e i r rooms and want t h e i r own s t o r i n g spaces which, i n many cases, i s t h e i r bedroom. S L - 3L- 1 i — ' i — 1 o 111 STAGE I I I : EATING S i m i l a r patterns to Stage I I are observed i n the f a m i l i e s at Stage I I I . A l l three sample f a m i l i e s eat supper together. Family J eat breakfast together. The father of Family H leaves home at s i x o'clock i n the morning without breakfast. He has coffee i n h i s o f f i c e . The mother and boy eat breakfast together. In Family K, the father and three c h i l d r e n eat breakfast quickly, then grandmother and mother have t h e i r s . The fathers lunch out while the rest of the family members eat at home. A l l three sample f a m i l i e s use the family room f o r dining and c i t e d the room size as " f a i r . 1 1 A 10'-0" x 10'-6" d i n i n g room w i l l accommodate s i x people f o r family d i n i n g . STAGE I I I ; HOUSEKEEPING The pre-school c h i l d a f t e r approximately three years of age, s t a r t s to demonstrate the detachment from h i s mother i n h i s a c t i v i t i e s . He plays i n and out of h i s unit with h i s friends without mother's constant supervision although she checks the c h i l d ' s play r e g u l a r l y . Now the mother has more time f o r h e r s e l f , between housework and freedom from 112 her c h i l d . A mother's daytime d i s c r e t i o n a l a c t i v i t y was observed among two f a m i l i e s . Other than meeting with her neighbours, Mother J has piano lessons (every second day) together with her g i r l s , or studies E n g l i s h i n the afternoon. (They are a Japanese family.) Both a c t i v i t i e s are done at home i n the l i v i n g room or family room. Mother K goes to college twice a week f o r a bookkeeping c l a s s . Mother H does sewing upstairs and Mother J does i r o n i n g i n her bedroom u p s t a i r s during the daytime. This i n d i c a t e s that the close r e l a t i o n -ship to the c h i l d ' s play area i s not so important any more. Mother K does sewing and ir o n i n g i n the family room. No complaints were made from the three sample mothers about the space f o r housekeeping. REQUIREMENT HK-G-2 (Apply to a l l stages) Mother needs an area for her priva t e a c t i v i t i e s besides housekeeping, f o r such things as studying, w r i t i n g , reading or arts and c r a f t s . Generally, the mother uses the common family space ( l i v i n g room, dining room, family room, kitchen or bedroom) f o r those a c t i v i t i e s . Some moth-ers pursue a c t i v i t i e s which require more space and b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s . (See Requirement ES-G-1) STAGE I I I : SHOPPING 11$ Grocery shopping i s done by the mother i n the adjacent shopping centre without using a car. (Daily by Families H and K and twice a week by Family J.) The mother u s u a l l y goes grocery shopping alone while her pre-school c h i l d i s playing i n the neighbourhood. On weekends, f a m i l i e s go shopping together by car to downtown Vancouver or the Park Royal Shopping Centre. The weekend family shopping, often combined with eat-ing out, i s a popular form of family outing. REQUIREMENT SH-G-1 (See Stage I : Shopping) STAGE I I I : PLAYING Without mother's constant supervision, the pre-schoolers enjoy c h i l d -ren's programs on t e l e v i s i o n , toys, p i c t u r e books or drawing, i n s i d e of the dwelling u n i t . T r i c y c l e r i d i n g , exploring the neighbourhood and p l a y i n g r o l e s of t e l e v i s i o n heroes are the popular outdoor a c t i v i t i e s of the c h i l d at t h i s stage as observed i n the sample area. He also enjoys the p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y to play without another's help with the M CO 114 f a c i l i t i e s i n the playground, such as swings, s l i d e s , jungle-gyms, see-saws and the merry-go-round. A l l sample f a m i l i e s had complaints concerning the playground s i t e . They c i t e d the l o c a t i o n as too f a r to supervise (Family H), older children's dominance (Family J ) , and poor maintenance (Family K). The most popular outdoor play among pre-school c h i l d r e n i s r i d i n g t h e i r t r i c y c l e s on the driveway.and sidewalk. From la t e morning to a f t e r -noon when the car t r a f f i c within the s i t e i s reduced, the driveway becomes a busy racing track f o r t r i c y c l e s and b i c y c l e s . In f a c t , the driveway i s the only large paved area a v a i l a b l e on the s i t e , and mother can supervise from the u n i t . Mothers d i d not express serious concern about t h e i r c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g on the driveway. Since the landscaped area i s r e s t r i c t e d f o r ch i l d r e n to play on (by the manager) and the playgrounds are poorly located and maintained, the driveway becomes the most popular play area. In the summer season, the swimming pool i s well appreciated by a l l three sample f a m i l i e s . 115 Two mothers c i t e d the lack of an indoor play area f o r the ra i n y weather. The townhouse unit i s too small f o r the pre-schooler's active play. Family H wish to have a basement f o r t h e i r c h i l d to r i d e h i s t r i c y c l e i n . Family K have three children and the mother did not want the l i v i n g room occupied by children playing. No communal playroom i s provided on the s i t e . REQUIREMENT PL-III-1 An outdoor p l a y area large enough f o r t r i c y c l e r i d i n g i s to be provided i n the neighbourhood. The l o c a t i o n should be close enough so that a mother can conveniently supervise. The mother prefers to be able to see and c a l l her c h i l d when he i s playing outside the u n i t . (See PL-II-1) In a number of estates i n London, a r c h i t e c t s have made the experiment of providing small play decks i n blocks of dwellings to fur n i s h un-supervised p l a y f a c i l i t i e s f o r under-fives. However, i t has been found that these have not achieved the purpose f o r which they were intended: mothers are reluctant to l e t t h e i r small c h i l d r e n play i n 116 unsupervised play spaces where they cannot keep an eye on them. (Lady A l l e n of Hurtwood, Planning f o r Play, 1968). The front yard i n the townhouse u n i t (Families H and J) i s used f o r t h e i r c hildren's t r i c y c l e r i d i n g but i t i s not large enough f o r t h e i r c hildren's f r i e n d s to j o i n them there. The driveway and the sidewalk are used commonly for r i d i n g . The driveway which only serves l o c a l t r a f f i c should be designed as a children's play area unless another paved open area, close to the u n i t s , i s provided. Speed con t r o l bumps and bends on the driveways i n the sample project are successful up to a c e r t a i n degree, but are not adequate. E i t h e r a bend or a bump should be provided every one hundred and f i f t y to two hundred feet to r e s t r i c t the d r i v i n g speed to f i v e to ten miles per hour. A c l e a r view of the driveway i s also necessary f o r the safety of the c h i l d r e n on the road. The driveway i n the sample p r o j e c t i s twenty-f i v e feet wide and adjacent to the carports. Children running out to the driveway from behind the parked cars are d i f f i c u l t t o see by the d r i v e r s . An open space between the parking area and the driveway should be provided. Since i t i s the major play area, d i f f e r e n t paving f - 7 ^ U v e ( difference PPJvewAY AS ?{,AXAfeA\ 117 materials, narrowing the driveway at the entrance or a l i t t l e d i f -ference i n l e v e l s could help to c o n t r o l the d r i v i n g speed. Using the driveway as a play area, c h i l d r e n a l so l e a r n to l i v e with cars under safer conditions (less t r a f f i c flow and lower d r i v i n g speed) than on c i t y s t r e e t s . REQUIRET-IENT PL-II1-2 A c h i l d r e n ' s covered play area i s to be provided f o r t h e i r p l a y during the r a i n y weather. A communal covered p l a y area should be provided instead of i n d i v i d u a l ones per u n i t f o r the a c tive p l a y of the pre-schooler (such as b i c y c l e r i d i n g ) . PL-HI - Z For the sample townhouse un i t , another f l o o r (not i n c r e a s i n g the b u i l d -i n g area nor reducing the density of the project) i s necessary to pro-vide the c h i l d ' s play area. The front yard s i z e (12'-6" x 16'-0") seems to be adequate f o r such a play area. Two f a m i l i e s (H and J) c i t e d the front yard as a good place f o r the pre-schooler's t r i c y c l e r i d i n g . The playroom within the uni t i s most convenient f o r mother's supervision 118 but most c o s t l y and not e a s i l y accessible to playmates from the neigh-bourhood. I f the communal play area i s enclosed as a room, a super-v i s o r ' s attendance would be necessary. Since the mother cannot keep an eye on her c h i l d from her u n i t , without a supervisor, she does not l i k e her c h i l d to play there. Two mothers c i t e d t h e i r d i s l i k e f o r the remote l o c a t i o n of the playground on the s i t e . The higher density housing has the advantage to support communal f a c i l i t i e s at a c l o s e r distance from each u n i t . This advantage i s e s p e c i a l l y appreciated f o r the play area of the younger c h i l d r e n . A play area covered only by a roof allows v i s u a l as well as verbal communication between the c h i l d i n the area and the mother i n the u n i t . I t also allows c h i l d r e n active outdoor play i n the r a i n without a supervisor's attendance. STAGE I I I : EVENING SITTING-The l i v i n g room i s used f o r family s i t t i n g a f t e r supper by a l l three sample f a m i l i e s . Children go to bed a f t e r about one hour of t e l e v i s i o n watching. Parents relax with t e l e v i s i o n (Families H, J and K), reading 119 papers with drinks (J) or coffee (H). The father of Family K goes out fo r a walk or v i s i t s h i s friends by himself a f t e r supper. The mother writes l e t t e r s or studies English i n the family room when her husband i s l a t e r eturning from h i s work. A l l the a c t i v i t i e s observed are of the passive type and therefore no s p a t i a l complaints were heard. REQUIREMENT ES-G-1 and ES-II-1 ( S e e Stages I and II Evening S i t t i n g ) STAGS I I I : WEEKEND ACTIVITY Going out to parks, d r i v i n g , shopping and exchanging v i s i t s with f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s are c i t e d commonly by a l l three sample f a m i l i e s as weekend a c t i v i t i e s . D i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s pursued by i n d i v i d u a l members i n one family were also observed among Families H and J . Mother H v i s i t s her f r i e n d on Sundays while the res t of the family go out to a park or f o r a d r i v e . Father J plays g o l f on the weekends while mother and chi l d r e n stay at home. Family K sometimes separates i n t o three p a r t i e s ; parents go 120 shopping, grandmother stays at home and the c h i l d r e n play outside or go to movies. No p a r t i c u l a r weekend a c t i v i t y within the uni t i s observed besides v i s i t s from friends or r e l a t i v e s . STAGE I I I : SOCIAL ACTIVITY i Neighbours A s i m i l a r pattern to mothers at Stage I I i s observed among the pre-schooler's mother. Mothers H and J c i t e d the regular contacts with neighbours whose childre n were playmates of hers. They s i t i n the family room or i n the l i v i n g room while t h e i r c h i l d r e n play together. Mother K does not mention the neighbourhood contact and said, "People here are too busy among themselves to meet each other." Family H of East Indian ethnic o r i g i n , moved from Uganda a year ago. Family J i s of Japanese o r i g i n and the mother has neighbourhood contacts with another Japanese mother. The c u l t u r a l d i f f erences based on ethnic o r i g i n seem to be a strong determinant f o r neighbourhood contact among the new immigrants. The father's neighbourhood contacts are not observed among the three sample f a m i l i e s at t h i s stage. 121 REQUIREMENT SON-II1-1 Same as REQUIREMENT SON-II-1 at Stage I I , but the connection between the children's play area and the mother's s i t t i n g area i s not as c r i t i c a l at t h i s stage as i n I I . (See Stage I I - P l a y i n g ) . 122 STAGE IV : GENERAL Entering school, the c h i l d spends more time outside of h i s family, i n pl a y i n g with h i s peers and i n studying at school. The c h i l d ' s person-al a l i t y development i s greatly affected by the s p e c i a l f r i e n d or the 2 peer group, at t h i s stage. Playmates, play area and school a v a i l a -b i l i t y i n the neighbourhood are the major concerns of f a m i l i e s i n t h i s stage. Five out of s i x sample f a m i l i e s c i t e d t h e i r " l i k e s " as the a v a i l a b i l i t y i n the neighbourhood of playmates, play areas (roadway with l e s s t r a f f i c ) , schools, play f a c i l i t i e s such as a swimming pool; although one sample family c i t e d the lack of a place f o r c h i l d r e n to play as a " d i s l i k e . " During the c h i l d ' s school hours, h i s mother has time of her own, free '"At about the age of ten, the centre of the c h i l d ' s l i f e moves from the group of peers to a s p e c i a l f r i e n d , the "chum." This f r i e n d -ship i s the f i r s t important experience which develops on the basis of the common pers o n a l i t y t r a i t outside of the family." Harry Stack S u l l i v a n , The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry, 1953-2 "The adult's capacity f o r intimacy i s r e l a t e d to the nature of the peer r e l a t i o n i n h i s pre-adolescent period." H„S. Maas, "Pre-adolescent Peer Relations and Adult Intimacy," Psychiatry, 31 * May 1968 123 from the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c h i l d care ( f o r the f i r s t time since her c h i l d ' s b i r t h ) . Mothers with a f u l l - t i m e occupation outside of the home were observed i n f i v e out of s i x sample f a m i l i e s ( i n c l u d i n g two singl e mothers). Three sample f a m i l i e s l i s t e d the maintenance-free aspect of the u n i t as one of t h e i r " l i k e s . " This advantage over the detached house i s appreciated by the family where both parents work. STAGE IV : SLEEPING Children s t a r t to recognize the two sexes i n Stage I I I , but now show the d i s t i n c t i o n c l e a r l y i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . Families P and S use one bedroom f o r both boy and g i r l and have expressed the need to have an extra bedroom. Family L moved to t h e i r present three-bedroom townhouse unit from t h e i r two-bedroom unit because of the need f o r separate bedrooms f o r t h e i r nine-year-old boy and six-year-old g i r l . In Family N, boys of f i f t e e n and sixteen years share a bedroom but they d i d not f e e l such a strong need f o r an extra bedroom. 124 Two school c h i l d r e n of the same sex seem to experience much stress i n sleeping i n the same room. School c h i l d r e n need more space f o r t h e i r personal belongings, to play or to study, compared to c h i l d r e n i n the e a r l i e r stages. However, complaints of space shortage i s not heard from the s i x sample f a m i l i e s . REQUIREMENT SL-IV-1 School c h i l d r e n of d i f f e r e n t sexes need separate rooms i n which to sleep. The c h i l d r e n of the same sex can sleep i n the same room i f adequate space i s provided. For the family whose children are of d i f f e r e n t sexes and have to share the same room, the sizes of t h e i r bedroom i n the townhouse u n i t could be arranged to create four smaller private sleeping spaces The present s i z e s are H'-O" x 12'-8", I C W x 12'-6" and 11'-3" x 14 f-6 i n Type D u n i t ; and 9'-2" x 10*-6", 10'-6" x 12 ,-8" and 11'-3" x 14'-i n Type C u n i t . STAGE IV : EATING 125 A l l s i x sample families have supper together but not always breakfast. Two f a m i l i e s mentioned two-shift breakfasts according to the time the family members had to leave the home (Families L and N). Only Family M i n the townhouse unit uses the family room f o r eating. Families P and S mentioned occasional dinners while watching t e l e v i s i o n i n the l i v i n g room. Space shortage for the dining area i s a complaint from two f a m i l i e s who have extra things to put i n the family room. Family L has a d i s h -washer and a freezer, while Family M has two large b i r d cages i n the family room where they eat. Other f a m i l i e s are s a t i s f i e d with the room s i z e s f o r family dining. STAGE IV : HOUSEKEEPING The mother at t h i s stage i s free from child-care during the school hours and able to leave home alone to pursue her own work or i n t e r e s t s . Five mothers out of s i x sample f a m i l i e s i n t h i s stage are working out. The family where the mother i s working has a d i f f e r e n t d a i l y a c t i v i t y pattern e s p e c i a l l y i n housekeeping. 126 Family members of the working mother p a r t i c i p a t e more i n housekeeping. The father (Family L ) or fourteen-year-old g i r l (Family P ) cooks supper o c c a s i o n a l l y . The grocery shopping i s done by the c h i l d r e n (Families N and 0 ) or the father (Family L ) . Other housekeeping i s done mostly by the mother on her days o f f . Family F has a cleaning-woman i n every Saturday morning. The mother of Family M who i s at home does her housekeeping during the day. Besides housekeeping she looks a f t e r plants and b i r d s , writes l e t t e r s and v i s i t s f r iends during the day. The family shopping on the weekends i s not observed any longer i n the fa m i l i e s of t h i s stage. Children have t h e i r own weekend a c t i v i t i e s . No complaints are heard concerning s p a t i a l inadequacy f o r housekeeping except concerning the shortage of kitchen cupboards. Sewing i s done i n the bedroom (Families M and Q) or i n the l i v i n g room (Families L and N ) . REQUIREMENT HK-G-3 The s e c u r i t y of the house and the minimum maintenance problem are im-portant aspects of housing design, e s p e c i a l l y f o r mothers who have 127 a c t i v i t i e s outside of t h e i r u n i t during the day, Townhouse u n i t s have the advantage on both points over detached houses. Many sample mothers express "freedom to be out" as one of t h e i r strong l i k e s , STAGE.IV ; PLAYING - Children The c h i l d r e n are now playing with t h e i r peers i n the neighbourhood, independent of their parents' supervision. The b i c y c l e r i d i n g on the driveway i s most popular among the school c h i l d r e n of both sexes. Street hockey i s also a popular sport among boys, and skipping rope among the g i r l s . G i r l s use the s t e e l post of the carport to fasten one end of the rope to, A gang of boys are observed exploring the creek bank adjoining the s i t e . G i r l s s i t t i n g and t a l k i n g on the steps of the landscaped courtyard are also observed. G i r l s seem to spend more time i n s i d e of the u n i t with t h e i r f r iends than the boys do. In summer, boys and g i r l s i n t h i s stage most enjoy the swimming pool on the s i t e . They do not require adult accompaniment any longer. School c h i l d r e n also j o i n the organized groups f o r sport games (soccer, b a s e b a l l ) , musical band or dancing classes outside of t h e i r neighbour-hood. 128 The playgrounds on the s i t e are hardly used by school c h i l d r e n . The remote l o c a t i o n and the small s i z e of the open space do not s a t i s f y c h i l d r e n of t h i s stage. Their major play area i s the driveway and the manager complains of damage to the cars i n the carports. The c h i l d r e n ' s indoor a c t i v i t i e s are l i m i t e d to the i n a c t i v e type such as watching t e l e v i s i o n , games, reading, c r a f t s and homework, since no space f o r ac t i v e play i s available i n the neighbourhood. An indoor pl a y area i s not provided either f o r the communal use or f o r private use. In the long, r a i n y winters of t h i s region, parents and c h i l d r e n are both f r u s t r a t e d . Five out of s i x sample f a m i l i e s c i t e d the lack of an indoor play area for chi l d r e n . The space within the u n i t i s large enough to accommodate children's quiet a c t i v i t i e s but not the active play which they require d a i l y . REQUIREMENT PL-IV-1 Outdoor pl a y area large enough f o r b i c y c l e r i d i n g or b a l l games i s to be provided i n the neighbourhood. 129 Part of the l o c a l roadway should be designed as a safe play area un-l e s s another paved play area large enough for b i c y c l e r i d i n g i s provided. (See PL-III-1). REQUIREMENT PL-IV-2 A v i s u a l connection between the children's play area or public s i d e -walks and the children's s i t t i n g area i n the unit i s necessary to encourage contacts with other c h i l d r e n . The v i s u a l connection between the children's s i t t i n g areas (children's bedroom or the family room i n the sample u n i t s ) and the outdoor play area draw more children i n the unit to the play area. When the c h i l d i n the u n i t sees h i s peers playing outside, he tends to j o i n them. Children i n the apartment unit t a l k i n g through the window of t h e i r rooms to t h e i r peers on the driveway are frequently observed. The informal access to the unit described f o r the mother's neighbourhood i n t e r a c t i o n (See SON-II-1), i s also important f o r the school c h i l d r e n . A group of peers gathering at the front gate of the townhouse unit i s also observed frequently. 130 REQUIREMENT PL-IV-3 The indoor p l a y area i s to be provided i n the neighbourhood. (See PL-III - 2 ) . REQUIREMENT PL-IV-4 Access to nature (trees, flowers, water, animals and b i r d s ) a v a i l a b l e i n the neighbourhood, i s desirable f o r school c h i l d r e n . To recognize nature through h i s ovm experience i n d a i l y l i f e , aids the c h i l d i n obtaining a wider v i s i o n of the world. The sample project i s well-landscaped with various kinds of trees and shrubs. The creek runs adjacent to the s i t e and many b i r d s and some-times even raccoons v i s i t the area. Children can enjoy various forms of nature although pets are not allowed on the sample p r o j e c t . The pro-h i b i t i o n of pets i s one of the stresses the people have to bear i n l i v i n g i n t h i s medium-high-density area. However, only one family complained about t h i s r u l i n g . PL- TV- 4 CO o 131 STAGE IV : EVENING SITTING Watching t e l e v i s i o n i s the most popular evening a c t i v i t y observed i n a l l s i x sample f a m i l i e s . One family has t h e i r set i n the family room while the others have i t i n t h e i r l i v i n g room. A new pattern which appeared i n t h i s stage was that the ch i l d r e n watch t e l e v i s i o n separately from t h e i r parents. Families L and N have two sets, one i n the l i v i n g room and one i n the up s t a i r s bedroom. When parents and children d i f f e r on what programs they want to watch, the c h i l d r e n go u p s t a i r s . Games (Families N and R) and reading (Family M) are other evening a c t i v i t i e s c i t e d . Some of the ch i l d r e n do t h e i r homework i n the even-i n g . (See Stage IV - Playing). No complaints about the space f o r family s i t t i n g or childrens* studying are heard. REQUIREMENT ES-IV-1 132 In some f a m i l i e s , children's and parents' s i t t i n g areas s t a r t to become separate. Two separate s i t t i n g areas, therefore, are required by such f a m i l i e s . Evening a c t i v i t i e s observed among the sample f a m i l i e s are i n a c t i v e ; such as watching t e l e v i s i o n , reading, l i s t e n i n g to music or ch i l d r e n doing homework. The sample unit well-accommodates two d i f f e r e n t evening a c t i v i t i e s at the same time. No s p a t i a l inconvenience i s c i t e d by the s i x sample fam i l i e s on t h i s aspect. When the c h i l d r e n want to see a d i f f e r e n t t e l e v i s i o n program, they go up s t a i r s to watch i t on another set, while the parents watch t h e i r s i n the l i v i n g room. Children do t h e i r homework i n the family room while parents s i t i n the l i v i n g room. "tents fcS . Ttf • 1 STAGE IV : WEEKEND ACTIVITY Less time i s spent by the families together on the weekends as they enter t h i s stage. Children s t a r t to have t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s apart from t h e i r parents. They play with peers ( a l l f a m i l i e s ) , or go to 133 movies (Family N). Two s i n g l e mothers spend weekends together with t h e i r c h i l d r e n , v i s i t -i n g grandparents (Family S) or at the vacation cottage (Family R). Working mothers commonly spend one day of the weekend cleaning house and shopping. STAGS IV : SOCIAL ACTIVITY - Neighbours A l i t t l e t a l k with one or two neighbours on the sidewalk i s c i t e d , but no f u r t h e r contacts are observed among the s i x sample f a m i l i e s . 'Saying 'Hello,' that's all,"(Family L ) , i s the t y p i c a l neighbourhood i n t e r -a ction of f a m i l i e s i n t h i s stage. Among the f a m i l i e s where the mother i s out working, no further d a i l y s o c i a l contact with neighbours i s observed. Mother M who does not work, mentioned frequent v i s i t s by bus to her fr i e n d s outside of her neighbourhood but not within her neighbourhood. Children's play i s now independent of mothers' supervision which reduces the neighbourhood conta ct between mothers, even among those not working. STAGE IV : SOCIAL ACTIVITY - Friends and Relatives 134 On weekends, two f a m i l i e s mentioned the occasional exchange of v i s i t s with f r i e n d s . Both c i t e d evening v i s i t s without t h e i r c h i l d r e n . A singl e mother v i s i t s her parents home every Sunday with her c h i l d r e n . Another s i n g l e mother mentioned frequent weekend v i s i t s from her separated c h i l d r e n and her s i s t e r . On those weekend v i s i t s casual dining, drinking, t a l k i n g and p l a y i n g games are common a c t i v i t i e s . The l i v i n g room, the family room (town-house u n i t ) , and the dining space (apartment u n i t ) are a l l spacious enough to accommodate a couple or a family's v i s i t . Most f a m i l i e s seem to manage p a r t i e s with a large number of guests without much d i f f i c u l t y . Family N mentioned f o r t y guests, twenty-five at a time, and Family R had sixteen guests at t h e i r Christmas party. Family S i n the apartment unit c i t e d that noise was a problem a f t e r r e c e i v i n g complaints by a neighbour. Noise from the e x t e r i o r wooden s t a i r s which i s adjacent to the bedroom i s the cause of complaints from neighbours when guests leave the apartment u n i t l a t e at night. 135 Children's f r i e n d s ' over-night v i s i t s on weekends and holidays are mentioned by Families L, M and N. No inconvenience f o r such occasions i s c i t e d since they sleep on a i r mattresses and sleeping bags on the f l o o r . REQUIREMENT SOF-G-2 (Apply to a l l stages) The dwelling unit i s to be protected from the noise of neighbour's p a r t i e s . The sound protection should be considered not only at walls and f l o o r s but also at the access to the u n i t f o r guests coming and going at nig h t . In the sample apartment u n i t the ex t e r i o r s t a i r c a s e creates the noise problem. The steps should have a sound-absorbing f i n i s h and the walls between the access s t a i r s and dwelling u n i t s should be constructed f o r minimum sound transmission. The access to the u n i t i s preferred to be located away from the bedrooms. The c h i l d i n the secondary school i s s t i l l wholly under the pr o t e c t i o n of h i s family but constantly increasing his consciousness about s e l f and independent behaviour. His d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s now expand beyond h i s neighbourhood. He spends most of h i s free time pursuing h i s own i n t e r e s t s independent from h i s parents and s i b l i n g s . His parents are now l e s s occupied with t h e i r c h i l d and more with t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s as i n d i v i d u a l s or as a couple. In two sample f a m i l i e s , both mothers are working out, e i t h e r part-time or f u l l - t i m e . The maintenance-free l i v i n g i s c i t e d by both f a m i l i e s as one of t h e i r foremost " l i k e s " of the sample p r o j e c t . STAGE V : SLEEPING Both sample f a m i l i e s l i v e i n the three-bedroom townhouse u n i t s . C h i l d -ren of the same sex sleep i n one room. Two g i r l s of ages seventeen and twelve and a h a l f years (Family S) or three boys of ages eighteen, seventeen and t h i r t e e n years (Family T) share a bedroom while a fourteen-Family v $ ' Family T ' 00 year-old boy (Family S) and a seventeen-year-old g i r l each occupy t h e i r own room. The wish f o r extra bedrooms i n order that the three boys could each have t h e i r own room was c i t e d by Family T, but they do not show any inten t i o n to move f o r t h i s reason. Family T had l i v e d f o r one year i n Malaysia before moving i n t o the sample u n i t . Having experienced the poor housing conditions i n Malaysia, the mother r e -late d that the family was able to cope with the small space i n t h e i r u n i t . Complaints of noise i s made by Family T since t h e i r u n i t faces the busy c i t y s t r e e t (See Section 0 - Si t e P l a n ) . The three boys use the bed-room f a c i n g the c i t y street while the parents and g i r l occupy the r e -maining two bedrooms fac i n g the quiet courtyard. Family S have no complaints about t h e i r bedrooms. The father of Family S uses h i s bedroom as an o f f i c e o c c a s i o n a l l y i n the daytime. Both f a m i l i e s appreciated the two-and-a-half bathroom f a c i l i t i e s i n the u n i t . REQUIREMENT SL-V-1 The secondary school c h i l d ( e s p e c i a l l y the high school c h i l d ) prefers to have h i s own bedroom. i—1 CO 138 When the l i m i t e d space does not allow an i n d i v i d u a l bedroom f o r each c h i l d , alcoves can be created i n parts of a shared bedroom. Such a l -coves are enclosable by a screen whenever privacy i s required. STAGS V : EATING Family members commonly eat breakfast separately according to t h e i r time schedule. In Family S each has the s e l f - h e l p breakfast. Children u s u a l l y come home to have lunch and the mother (Family T) or the f a t h e r (Family S) joins them f o r lunch whenever she or he i s at home. Both fa m i l i e s eat dinner together. The family room i s used f o r dining, although both have a dining suite i n one corner of the l i v i n g room which i s used f o r the occasional dinner party. Both f a m i l i e s are s a t i s f i e d with the family d i n i n g space. STAGE V : HOUSEKEEPING For Mother S who i s working out f u l l - t i m e , Sunday i s the house cleaning 139 day. Mother T who works part-time, does her housekeeping and shopping during the daytime when she i s not working. Sewing and i r o n i n g are done i n the l i v i n g room (Families S and T ) . The seventeen-year-old g i r l of Family S frequently does her own sewing. No space complaints are heard f o r housekeeping. Both f a m i l i e s appreciate the minimum maintenance of t h e i r u n i t compared to the detached house. REQUIREMENT HK-G-3 (See Stage IV) STAGS V : EVENING SITTING D i f f e r e n t evening a c t i v i t i e s are observed between parents and c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d i n l a t e Stage V spends h i s evenings independent of h i s s i b -l i n g s . Both f a m i l i e s c i t e d the family room as the children's s i t t i n g room i n the evening, mostly for watching t e l e v i s i o n . Parents s i t i n the l i v i n g room watching t e l e v i s i o n , reading (father) or k n i t t i n g (mother). Children go out frequently i n the evening. The g i r l s go out with t h e i r f r i e n d s and the boys go out f o r sports. 140 Parents of Family S go out frequently i n the evening to v i s i t f r i ends or to theatres. No complaints are heard about the s i t t i n g spaces. REQUIREMENT ES-V-1 Two separate s i t t i n g areas are required f o r parents and c h i l d r e n . The s i t t i n g areas are to be independent from each other's sound and s i g h t . For the quiet a c t i v i t i e s such as watching t e l e v i s i o n , reading and knit-t i n g , the family room and the l i v i n g room i n the townhouse u n i t can accommodate two separate a c t i v i t i e s . More desirable would be the p r o v i s i o n of a children's common s i t t i n g space u p s t a i r s , c r e a t i n g a separation from the parents' s i t t i n g space ( l i v i n g room). REQUIREMENT ES-V-2 The c h i l d needs a quiet space f o r study, reading and meeting f r i e n d s independent from the sight and sound of other family members. 141 I f the c h i l d can have h i s own bedroom, i t i d e a l l y s a t i s f i e s t h i s require-ment. When enough private space i s not ava i l a b l e i n the u n i t , the communal space can be used. The public l i b r a r y f o r studying and reading or the coffee shop to meet f r i e n d s , i f i t i s c l o s e l y located, i s the possible a l t e r n a t i v e . STAGE V : WEEKEND ACTIVITY Each family member now spends weekends more independently. Children's weekend a c t i v i t i e s are mostly outdoor a c t i v i t i e s such as s k i i n g , p l a y i n g soccer or hockey and meeting f r i e n d s . Parents of Family T v i s i t friends sometimes with the youngest son ( t h i r t e e n years of age) or relax at home with t e l e v i s i o n , drinks and many phone c a l l s to f r i e n d s . Parents of Family S spend h a l f of the weekend at t h e i r work. The father often t r a v e l s on weekends and the mother works on Saturdays and housecleans on Sunday. 142 STAGE V : SOCIAL ACTIVITY Father T mentioned occasional drinks with one neighbour. He c i t e d that the neighbourhood r e l a t i o n i n h i s former detached house had been too strong compared to the one i n the sample project. Family S who have l i v e d i n the unit f o r s i x years d i d not mention any neighbourhood con-t a c t s . They commented that people move before they get to know each other. Ten to fourteen people were i n v i t e d f o r a dinner party at the dining table i n the corner of t h e i r l i v i n g room (Families S and T ) . Twenty-four guests came f o r the c o c k t a i l party i n the l i v i n g room and family room (Family S). When the children have a party, parents u s u a l l y go out (Family T ) . Frequent overnight guests are c i t e d by Family S. A couple with four c h i l d r e n could stay overnight using sleeping bags. Children's f r i e n d s stay overnight frequently (Family T ) . No s p a t i a l requirement i s mentioned f o r the overnight v i s i t o r s but a basement f o r p a r t i e s i s desired by both f a m i l i e s . 14-3 RSQUIRSMENT SOF-V-1 The space f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s should be located so as not to disturb other a c t i v i t i e s of other family members. The basement party room i n the u n i t i s the preferable s o l u t i o n although i t i s c o s t l y f o r the occasional usage i t would have. The simplest s o l u t i o n i s to have other family members stay out of the u n i t during the party. This can be done without much trouble i f the p a r t i e s are not frequent. SOf • V-1 CO 144 STAGE VI : GENERAL The c h i l d r e n leave t h e i r home one by one to s t a r t a l i f e of t h e i r own. A f t e r high school, they may continue to l i v e with t h e i r parents or may s t a r t to l i v e by themselves, independent from parents' p r o t e c t i o n , by e i t h e r working or continuing studies. For parents, t h i s i s a t r a n s i t i o n a l period, a time to s t a r t preparing f o r a new way of l i f e without c h i l d r e n a f t e r a long period of l i v i n g together. A sample family U moved to a house close to the grandparents and married son a f t e r l i v i n g f o r twelve years i n North Vancouver. How-ever, t h e i r unmarried childr e n who had been l i v i n g with the parents did not want to l i v e so f a r away from t h e i r school and friends so did not move with them to the new house. A f t e r nine months, the parents could not l i v e any longer without the c h i l d r e n , so they returned to North Vancouver to l i v e with the c h i l d r e n i n the sample p r o j e c t . Now two of the c h i l d r e n (both are college students) are l i v i n g with them i n the townhouse u n i t . They c i t e d the u n i t as "the second best" since the detached house i s too expensive f o r them to buy or even to rent. They have chosen townhouse l i v i n g because of the d i r e c t accesses to femijy X\J' 145 outdoor yards both i n front and back of t h e i r u n i t , and the f e e l i n g of t h e i r "own" u n i t which i s not avail a b l e i n the apartment u n i t . At the same time, they miss the features of the detached house such as the basement f o r a workshop, r e c r e a t i o n room, and a laundry room; but they did not show any i n t e n t i o n of moving i n the near fut u r e . STAGE VI : SLEEPING Parents, a twenty-year-old g i r l and eighteen-year-old boy each have t h e i r own bedrooms. The two c h i l d r e n have desks f o r study purposes i n t h e i r rooms. They c i t e d the bedroom s i z e s as "good" and the two-and-a-half bathrooms as "extra-good" although one-and-a-half bathrooms would be adequate. REQUIREMENT SL-VI-1 Each c h i l d prefers to have his own room f o r sleeping and studying. See Requirement SL-V-1 i n Stage V. STAGE VI : EATING 146 The father of Family U eats e a r l i e r than the r e s t of the family and the chi l d r e n ' s breakfast time varies according to t h e i r schedule at col l e g e . Mostly the two chi l d r e n come home f o r lunch when they have the use of the second car. Family U eat dinner together. The family room i s used f o r dining and i t s si z e i s c i t e d as "good." STAGE VI : HOUSEKEEPING The mother of Family U i s not working and does her housekeeping and grocery shopping during the daytime. Sewing i s done i n the l i v i n g room and i r o n i n g i n the family room. The kitchen i s c i t e d as ade-quate i n i t s s i z e and handy with a washer and dryer i n i t . In her free time during the day, she takes a Yoga course once a week, and v i s i t s f r i e n d s , her married children's f a m i l i e s , or her parents. REQUIREMENT (See HK-G-3 i n Stage IV) PIWME-R-. STAGE VI : EVENING SITTING The t e l e v i s i o n set i s i n the family room and parents spend the evening 14-7 watching or playing cards. The father attends a r t classes one evening a week. The chil d r e n go out frequently a f t e r supper. The boy goes to hi s college to play basketball and the g i r l goes out with her f r i e n d . At home, they watch t e l e v i s i o n i n the family room or study i n t h e i r bedrooms. The g i r l occasionally plays the piano i n t h e . l i v i n g room. In d i v i d u a l family members' quiet evening a c t i v i t i e s are observed i n the u n i t and no complaints are heard about the space f o r such a c t i v i t i e s . REQUIREMENT ES-VI-1 Each c h i l d prefers to have hi s own space f o r the p r i v a t e a c t i v i t i e s , such as studying and reading, apart from the family s i t t i n g area. In t h i s stage, the family members hardly s i t together except at dinner. Since only parents mostly occupy the family s i t t i n g area, i t need not be n e c e s s a r i l y large. The sizes of the bedrooms of the sample u n i t (9'-2" x 10 ' - 6 " and 10'-6" x 12'-8") seem to be large enough to accom-modate t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l quiet a c t i v i t i e s besides sleeping. ErS-TT- 1 148 STAGE VI : SOCIAL ACTIVITY The neighbourhood contacts are not observed i n Family TJ. Their s o c i a l contacts are mostly with r e l a t i v e s or fr i e n d s i n the region. The mother frequently v i s i t s her chi l d r e n , parents and f r i e n d s during the daytime. On the weekends, parents exchange v i s i t s with friends and r e l a t i v e s without t h e i r c h i l d r e n accompanying them. The g i r l meets with her f r i e n d s more frequently than the boy, and expressed the wish to have the space to b r i n g her friends i n and be free to make noise. When the parents have a dinner party, the childre n go out f o r the evening. REQUIREMENT SOF - VI - 1 Children want to have a space to br i n g friends to which has v i s u a l and sound p r i v a c y from parents and s i b l i n g s . Children's bedroom should have space f o r a few v i s i t o r s . Bedroom sizes i n townhouse type "D", 9'-2" x 10'-6", 10'-6" x 12'-8" seem to be s u f f i c i e n t . See also SOF-V-1 f o r p a r t i e s . SOF •T7T- 1 oo 14-9 STAGE VI : WEEKEND ACTIVITY Children pursue t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s mostly outside of t h e i r u n i t . The boy spends weekends i n sports such as s k i i n g and b a s k e t b a l l . The g i r l works on Saturdays at the department store and spends Sundays u s u a l l y with f r i e n d s working on photography which she studies at c o l l e g e . The f a t h e r i s presently helping h i s son b u i l d a house on the weekends and h i s wife u s u a l l y joins him. He teaches s k i i n g on Saturdays during the winter season and she does some pot gardening i n her yard. Her own yard, where she can a c t u a l l y plant, i s desired; as well as a workshop f o r her husband who i s "a handyman." Frequent v i s i t s are exchanged on weekends with friends and r e l a t i v e s . REQUIREMENT (See ES-G-1 i n Stage I) 150 STAGE VII : GENERAL A f t e r the c h i l d r e n leave home, the couple s t a r t s a l i f e by themselves a f t e r a long period of l i v i n g with c h i l d r e n . This i s a b i g change which they have to cope with. They suddenly f e e l t h e i r house so empty and some fa m i l i e s tend to move in t o the smaller u n i t , while others continue to l i v e i n the same place, emotionally attached to t h e i r long-accustomed residence and neighbourhood. Family W moved to a two-bedroom apartment unit, from t h e i r detached house a f t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n l e f t home. However, they found the apart-ment l i v i n g l e s s spacious with only one bathroom, no extra bedroom f o r guests and no yard. So they moved to the present three-bedroom townhouse u n i t three years ago. They are s t i l l considering buying t h e i r own home f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of gardening and f o r economical reasons (paying rent vs. paying i n t o a home of t h e i r own). Family V with t h e i r c h i l d r e n moved to t h e i r three-bedroom townhouse un i t from a four-bedroom house outside of the province s i x years ago. Since then, t h e i r c h i l d r e n have l e f t home and only the parents (both ^ram'\ ly * vV' M U l o 151 working) l i v e i n the u n i t . However, they do not have any i n t e n t i o n of moving. The convenient l o c a t i o n , the landscaped gardens and the maintenance-free aspect are t h e i r foremost " l i k e s " i n l i v i n g i n the sample p r o j e c t . STAGE VII ; SLEEPING Both couples occupy the bedroom with ensuite bathroom and are s a t i s f i e d with the s i z e . Family W l i k e the two-and-a-half bathrooms. The husband and the wife use separate bathrooms u p s t a i r s . Family V mentioned that one-and-a-half bathrooms would be adequate but the extra bathroom was appreciated f o r guests. The husband of Family W i s a marine p i l o t who works an i r r e g u l a r time-schedule and sometimes has to sleep i n the daytime. A small paved open space used to be i n front of t h e i r u n i t and the noise from c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g there disturbed h i s sleep during the day. A f t e r h i s complaint, the manager converted the paved area i n t o a planted area. His sleeping time i s an exceptional case but s t i l l some people require a nap during the day, i n c l u d i n g i n f a n t s . 152 REQUIREMENT SL-G-1 (Applies to a l l stages) For some people who need day sleep, the quiet area separated from the children's p l a y area should be provided. This can be solved by providing d i f f e r e n t blocks f o r e l d e r l y or adults and also f o r fam i l i e s with young c h i l d r e n . Although i t requires more time to screen tenants to f i l l the vacancy; i t would b r i n g residents a greater degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n and longer residence i n the u n i t s . STAGE VII : HOUSEKEEPING The wife of Family V i s not working out and she does d a i l y housekeeping and shopping i n the morning; k n i t t i n g , sewing and i r o n i n g i n the a f t e r -noon. Her afternoon free-time i s spent at the health spa, w r i t i n g l e t t e r s or v i s i t i n g friends or family. The wife of Family W does laundry and cooking a f t e r she comes home from school (she i s a teacher). On Saturday, she does major cleaning and shopping. 153 No complaints are c i t e d about the space f o r housekeeping, except the "dark" k i t c h e n (Family V). STAGS VII : EVENING SITTING T e l e v i s i o n watching i s c i t e d by both f a m i l i e s . Family V r e l a x i n the l i v i n g room and Family W i n the family room or reading books i n the l i v i n g room. In the summer, Family V u s u a l l y go to the swimming pool on the s i t e . No c o n f l i c t s are observed i n the space f o r evening s i t t i n g among the two f a m i l i e s . STAGE VII : EATING Both couples eat breakfast and supper together. Family V use the dining table i n the l i v i n g room for t h e i r supper but f o r breakfast, they use the family room. Family V use the family room f o r eating but they f e l t the family room was too small when t h e i r c h i l d r e n l i v e d there. How, the space i s more than adequate f o r a couple. 154 STAGE VII : WEEKEND ACTIVITY For the wife of Family W who i s a f u l l - t i m e school teacher, Saturday i s spent cleaning and shopping. Her husband i s b u i l d i n g a house on t h e i r farm on the weekends and she jo i n s him on Sunday. They also see t h e i r grandchildren on weekends eithe r at t h e i r place or the chi l d r e n s * . Family V go out a f t e r a l a t e brunch f o r g o l f i n g , bowling, v i s i t i n g family or meeting with neighbours. At home, the husband works at h i s hobby (miniature e l e c t r i c t r a i n s ) i n h i s den u p s t a i r s . The wife does k n i t t i n g or reading i n the l i v i n g room or a room u p s t a i r s . She misses gardening i n her u n i t . They often eat i n the front yard on weekends. REQUIREMENT (See HK-G-3 i n Stage IV) STAGE VII : SOCIAL ACTIVITY Family V c i t e d frequent informal contacts with the couple next door. Occasional p a r t i e s are mentioned by both f a m i l i e s (the c o c k t a i l party of twelve to f o r t y people i n the l i v i n g rooms and family rooms by f a m i l i e s V and W). 155 Both f a m i l i e s mentioned the space of t h e i r u n i t f o r such occasions as "O.K.11 For dinner p a r t i e s , Family V move the dining table i n the family room i n t o the l i v i n g room f o r more space. They p r e f e r the combined d i n i n g - l i v i n g space f o r such occasions. Over-night v i s i t o r s of fa m i l i e s and fri e n d s are c i t e d by both f a m i l i e s . Since they have extra bedrooms, guests can stay without much incon-venience. A mother of the wife stayed f o r a couple of months (Family V ) . Family V s t i l l keep t h e i r children's beds i n t h e i r former bed-rooms although one room i s used as a l i b r a r y . The two-and-a-half bath-rooms are appreciated f o r guests by both f a m i l i e s . REQUIREMENT (See SOF-G-1 i n Stage II) Ul 156 STAGE VIII : GENERAL A f t e r c h i l d r e n leave home, a couple have to face yet another change i n t h e i r l i v e s - retirement. Now, they have to adjust not only mentally but also p h y s i c a l l y to the change i n the way of d a i l y l i v i n g . Their l i m i t e d income may force the couple to move from t h e i r l o n g - l i v e d - i n attached place to a smaller u n i t i n a foreign neighbourhood. Some couples move due to decreasing p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y to maintain t h e i r u n i t s by themselves. I f t h e i r p h y s i c a l condition does not allow them to look a f t e r themselves, they have to move to an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r senior c i t i z e n s or to t h e i r children's home. Two sample f a m i l i e s (Family X and Family Y) have l i v e d i n the present unit since completion of the b u i l d i n g nine years ago. Both moved when they r e t i r e d and showed no inten t i o n of moving as long as t h e i r p hysical condition allows them to care f o r themselves. They chose the sample pro j e c t f o r the proximity to stores as well as to t h e i r childrens' homes and also f o r the maintenance-free aspect of the u n i t . Their complaints were no gardening p o s s i b i l i t i e s and the lack of space f o r entertaining guests or f o r storing t h e i r many possessions which they accumulated 157 throughout l i f e . Family X (a couple and wife's s i s t e r ) l i v e i n a two-bedroom apartment u n i t . Family Y l i v e i n a three-bedroom townhouse u n i t . Both f a m i l i e s spend much time out of town i n the summer. Family X has a summer cottage and Family Y keeps a large t r a i l e r f o r t r a v e l l i n g . STAGS VIII : SLEEPING The e l d e r l y people seem to be more concerned about noise and the safety and s e c u r i t y of t h e i r u n i t . Both f a m i l i e s are cautious about burglary. Family Y do not have newspaper d e l i v e r y because newspapers l e f t at the front door may indicate t h e i r absence from the c i t y . Family X chose the u n i t on the second f l o o r because of less p o s s i b i l i t y of a break-in. They also mentioned the d i s l i k e of the h i g h - r i s e apartment f o r f e a r of f i r e . Family Y l i v e i n the end unit and the neighbouring fami l y do not have younger ch i l d r e n so they are not bothered by noise but complained about the noise from the swimming pool which i s close to t h e i r u n i t . Family X have neighbours with two c h i l d r e n and they c i t e d the noise quite d i s t u r b i n g ( e s p e c i a l l y the stereo sound at n i g h t ) . 158 REQUIREMENT SL-VIII-1 The u n i t f o r e l d e r l y people should be well-protected against noise from the outdoors and the immediate neighbours. The sound transmission through party walls and f l o o r s of the u n i t should be kept to a minimum. Confining f a m i l i e s i n s i m i l a r stages of l i f e to the same block i s pre-fer r e d to avoid the noise complaint. S i m i l a r l y , an e l d e r l y people's block can be established at a l o c a t i o n f a r from the children's p l a y area. REQUIREMENT SL-VIII-2 The s e c u r i t y and the safety of the unit are important features of the e l d e r l y . Good f i r e protection f o r the b u i l d i n g and emergency access should be provided. Townhouse u n i t s have d i r e c t accesses to the outside. Two to three storey apartment blocks have two e x t e r i o r s t a i r s per u n i t which provide s u f f i c i e n t e x i t s although they are of combustible material. The 5L- "VSL - 1 159 e x t e r i o r s t a i r s are also better f o r s e c u r i t y since people on the st r e e t can see the s t a i r c a s e . There are no hidden corners such as there are on the i n t e r i o r s t a i r s and co r r i d o r s of hi g h - r i s e apart-ment b u i l d i n g s . STAGE VIII : SATING Family X u s u a l l y eat a l l three meals together at home i n the di n i n g space. Family Y eat breakfast and supper at home i n the family room, but eat lunch out frequently. Eating lunch at the Park Royal Shop-ping Centre i s part of t h e i r d a i l y schedule and has also the purpose of g e t t i n g out of the un i t and seeing people. No complaints were made about the dining space. " REQUIREMENT SA-VI11-1 The restaurant and coffee shop which a t t r a c t d i f f e r e n t kinds of people i n the daytime, should be e a s i l y accessible from the u n i t , preferably within walking distance. There i s a restaurant with a snack counter i n the adjacent shopping 160 centre but does not seem active during the day. The store lacks the connection to the outside where people are, as w e l l as being a t t r a c t i v e i n i t s e l f . People i n the sample u n i t have to go to the Park Royal Shopping Centre or downtown Vancouver to eat and to enjoy watching people. STAGS VIII : HOUSEKEEPING Both f a m i l i e s u s u a l l y go shopping at the Park Royal Shopping Centre, p a r t i a l l y as an outing from t h e i r place. Family X i n the apartment unit complained that t h e i r kitchen was too small. They also c i t e d the shortage of storage space. They have many possessions which they are too attached to to get r i d of. REQUIREMENT : HK-VIII-1 Generous space f o r storage should be provided f o r the e l d e r l y . I f no extra room besides the bedrooms i s a v a i l a b l e , a larger storage room i s necessary (Family X). Extra rooms as i n the townhouse u n i t HK.-TE-1 i — 1 O 161 can e a s i l y accommodate furniture as well as other possessions. STAGS VIII : SITTING - Evening and Daytime Pl a y i n g games or cards, reading, w r i t i n g l e t t e r s , k n i t t i n g and watching t e l e v i s i o n are sample family a c t i v i t i e s i n the u n i t . Children's noise from the swimming pool (Family Y) or from the driveway and neighbours (Family X) were common complaints. However, Family Y enjoy the view of the swimming pool from t h e i r back yard. The l i v i n g room i s crowded with much fur n i t u r e and even a grand piano (Family Y). Family X complained about the lack of space f o r a card t a b l e . Family Y enjoy gardening i n the front yard although they want more than the flower pots to do t h e i r gardening i n . They also enjoy s i t t i n g i n the backyard i n the summer. Family X c i t e d that they noi miss gardening. REQUIREMENT ES-VIII-1 The s i t t i n g area f o r e l d e r l y people should be well-protected from the noise of children's play, t r a f f i c flow, and other neighbours. See Requirement SL-VIII-1. REQUIREMENT ES-VIII-2 An outdoor s i t t i n g area i s to be the sun or enjoy gardening. 162 provided where people can s i t i n Two d i f f e r e n t kinds of outdoor spaces are preferred to be provided. One i s a quiet and private outdoor s i t t i n g area which has an area f o r gardening f o r those who enjoy i t . The back yard i n the townhouse has enough space f o r a private flower bed. Part of the paved area can be converted to a bed by the resident who wants to do gardening. The balcony (5'-10" x 10'-0") i s large enough f o r flower pots only, and not f o r a flower bed where residents can enjoy a c t u a l gardening. The other outdoor space i s one where the e l d e r l y people can s i t and talk.with neighbours and watch people going by. This can be provided as a p u b l i c area protected from the t r a f f i c noise and older children's active play, yet within a short walking distance from each u n i t . I t would be preferable to be combined with the toddler's play area, f o r the e l d e r l y u s u a l l y enjoy watching them. STAGE VIII : SOCIAL ACTIVITY 163 Strong attachment to t h e i r f a m i l i e s i s observed i n both sample couples. They chose the unit f o r the proximate l o c a t i o n to t h e i r c hildren's homes, as frequent exchanges of v i s i t s with t h e i r c h i l d r e n was observed. Family X v i s i t t h e i r daughter's family on the weekends. Family Y mentioned almost d a i l y v i s i t s to t h e i r son's family. Their grandchildren occasionally stay over-night with them. Despite t h e i r nine-year residence i n the sample pr o j e c t , no neighbour-hood contacts are observed i n e i t h e r f a m i l i e s . Not many e l d e r l y people are l i v i n g i n the area nor i n the immediate neighbourhood. The opportunity of meeting neighbours i s rare e s p e c i a l l y since no communal space i s available f o r the e l d e r l y to meet. Their s o c i a l contacts are only within t h e i r f a m i l i e s and friends outside of the sample area. Occasional exchange of v i s i t s with f r i e n d s are mentioned by both f a m i l i e s . No party with a large number of guests i s observed. REQUIREMENT SOF-VIII-1 E l d e r l y people's residence i s preferred to be located close to t h e i r 164-children's residence. In a l a r g e r scale development, an area of senior c i t i z e n s ' residences or personal care home i s preferred to be included i n the pr o j e c t . I f given the opportunity to l i v e i n such a project, a family of two generations can l i v e close by, yet independently. REQUIREMENT SOF-VIII-2 The extra sleeping place f o r grandchildren's overnight v i s i t s i s to be considered i n the unit for some of the e l d e r l y people. The degree of need f o r extra sleeping space v a r i e s among f a m i l i e s . Some f a m i l i e s do not f e e l the need as strongly as others. REQUIREMENT SON-VIII-1 Outdoor and indoor communal s i t t i n g areas are to be provided within a short walking distance f o r d a i l y neighbourhood contacts. 05 165 Communal f a c i l i t i e s such as an indoor space f o r games, cards and a f t e r -noon teas as well as an outdoor space f o r watching people or sun-bathing are only supportable by a ce r t a i n number of the e l d e r l y l i v i n g i n the area, unless such f a c i l i t i e s are used by other people. Mothers with infants and toddlers would appreciate such f a c i l i t i e s (See Stages I and I I - S o c i a l A c t i v i t y ) . STAGE VIII : WEEKEND ACTIVITY Since the couple are not working, weekend a c t i v i t i e s do not d i f f e r from the week days as they do i n the families of other stages i n the l i f e c y c l e . Frequent exchanges of v i s i t s with fa m i l i e s and occasional church attendance are mentioned by Family X. 166 8. SUMMARY OF ACTIVITY PATTERNS AND SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS THROUGH THE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE The family a c t i v i t y patterns and the s p a t i a l requirements have been generalized i n each stage of the family l i f e c y c l e . Here t h e i r v a r i a t i o n through the family l i f e cycle i s summed up i n each a c t i v i t y - sleeping, eating, evening s i t t i n g , children's playing, s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , week-end a c t i v i t y and occupational a c t i v i t y (working, housekeeping, schooling). 167 Stage I Stage I I Stage I I I Stage IV Stage V Stage V I Stage VII Stage VIII Figure 10 - Sleeping SLEEPING Stage I SL-I-1 SL-I-2 SL-I-3 SL-I-4 Stage I I 3L-II-1 Stage I I I 168 Requirements The infant's sleeping place i s preferred separated from other family members' sleeping places. The separation between the space f o r i n f a n t s ' sleep and other family a c t i v i t i e s i s necessary. Between those two d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s , the provision of a bu f f e r zone i s preferred rather than a separation by just walls and a door. The convenient connection from the parents' bedroom to the infant's c r i b i s important e s p e c i a l l y f o r neonate. The space f o r the infant's sleep should be free from the daytime outside noise of t r a f f i c flows and children's playing. The toddler needs a sleeping space apart from h i s parents' bedroom. For the s i b l i n g s up to the pre-school stage, the sleeping spaces can be arranged i n the same room. SL-III - 1 Some parents prefer to have separate bedrooms f o r pre-school c h i l d r e n of the opposite sex. 169 Stage IV SL-IV-1 School c h i l d r e n of d i f f e r e n t sexes need separate rooms to sleep i n . Stages V and VI SL-V-1 The c h i l d prefers to have h i s own bedroom. SL-VI-1 Stage VIII SL-VIII-1 The unit f o r e l d e r l y people should be well-protected against noise from outdoors and the immediate neighbours. SL-VIII -2 The good f i r e p rotection and easy emergency access are e s p e c i a l l y important f o r e l d e r l i e s ' u n i t . Requirements which apply to a l l stages. SL-G-1 The quiet sleeping space i s required not only at night but also during the day f o r some f a m i l i e s . SLEEPING Sleeping i s one of the major family a c t i v i t i e s within the dwelling unit through the l i f e c y cle. The s p a t i a l requirements (both quantitative and q u a l i t a t i v e ) f o r sleep v a r i e s according to the stage of the family l i f e c y c l e . The quantitative need generally follows the increase and decrease of the numbers of family members i n the dwelling u n i t . A neonate can stay i n the parent's bedroom for a short period but soon requires a separate space (Stage I ) . 170 Many f a m i l i e s move because of the space shortage caused by the increase of the family members. Si b l i n g s of d i f f e r e n t sexes can sleep i n the same room without much c o n f l i c t i n Stage I I , but s t a r t to recognize the sexes and prefer to sleep i n separate rooms i n Stage I I I . In Stage IV, separate rooms f o r c h i l d r e n of d i f f e r e n t sexes become a d e f i n i t e need. This i s the second period f o r fam i l i e s to move when such spaces are unavailable i n t h e i r u n i t . Children i n Stage V increase t h e i r independence and prefer to have t h e i r own room. Then, they leave home one by one to s t a r t t h e i r own careers and f a m i l i e s . The number of the family members decrease and at l a s t , only parents are l e f t by themselves (Stage V I I ) . They now tend to move to a smaller u n i t . This changing s p a t i a l need f o r sleeping i s one of the main causes of the family's moving. About h a l f of those interviewed are fa m i l i e s who moved from other c i t i e s or other countries. Most of them moved because of business tra n s f e r s of the head of the household. Among f a m i l i e s who moved within the Vancouver area, younger f a m i l i e s moved more l i k e l y from apartments and older f a m i l i e s from detached houses. A l l of them mentioned t h e i r s p a t i a l needs, eith e r more or l e s s , as a reason for t h e i r moving. This r e f l e c t s the changing s p a t i a l requirements i n d i f f e r e n t stages of the family l i f e c y c l e . Families i n Stages I, I I and IV moved f o r "more space" and f a m i l i e s i n Stage VIII moved f o r "less space." A family i n Stage VII moved from a house to a two-bedroom apartment but found t h i s space too small and moved to a three-bedroom townhouse u n i t . They 171 could not adjust t h e i r d a i l y l i f e to the d r a s t i c change i n l i v i n g space. TABLE 7 - Location of Last Residence (N = 23) Within the Vancouver Area 11 Other C i t i e s 12 TABLE 8 - Reason f o r Moving of Families Who Moved Within the Vancouver Area (N = 11) Stage of Family L i f e Cycle I II I I I IV V VI VII VIII TOTAL More Space 1 2 - 1 1 5 Less Space - - 2 2 Economic* 2 - - - - 2 Separation of Spouses 1 1 — — 2 *Two f a m i l i e s mentioned economic reasons detached houses to townhouse u n i t s . for moving from Quietness and privacy are required f o r the sleeping space by families of a l l stages, but the e s p e c i a l l y c r i t i c a l need i s f o r e l d e r l y people. Families with infants and toddlers need a quiet space i n the daytime f o r t h e i r children's afternoon nap. Afternoon naps for older people may also be important. Most sample f a m i l i e s show t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n with the size of the bedrooms. TABLE 9 - Bedroom Size (N = 23) 172 Good or f a i r 20 Could be smaller 1 Too small 2* * Both f a m i l i e s who expressed the bedroom siz e "too small" were using a bedroom f o r two childre n (ages 11 and 8, and 12 and 9). Stage I Stage II Stage I I I Stage IV Stage V Stage VI Stage VII Stage VIII Figure 11 • Breakfast Eating Lunch Supper 174 EATING - Requirements Stage I EA-I-1 Family d i n i n g space should be large enough to have the in f a n t beside the dining table without any danger or at le a s t opening to another space where the infant can see and l i s t e n to the family members at the dining t a b l e . Stage I I EA-II-1 The extra space i s required besides that already occupied by the dining table and chairs to accommodate a highchair as well as an area f o r the toddler to s a f e l y walk about i n . Stage VIII EA-VIII-1 The restaurant and coffee shop which a t t r a c t d i f f e r e n t kinds of people i n the daytime are to be e a s i l y accessible from the u n i t , preferably within walking distance. EATING A r e l a t i v e l y consistent pattern i s observed i n eating through the family l i f e c y c l e . The family generally eat supper together, regardless of t h e i r stage of the family l i f e c y c l e . This indicates that having supper together means more than just f i l l i n g t h e i r stomachs. In Stages V and VI, children and parents have more independent a c t i v i t i e s at home and the supper time becomes the 175 only time f o r many fa m i l i e s to s i t together to t a l k as well as to eat. Breakfast i s more oriented to nourishment of the i n d i v i d u a l family members. Whether the family eat breakfast together or not depends on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s time schedule i n the morning. In the l a t e r stages (V and VI) each family member s t a r t s to have h i s i n d i v i d u a l breakfast. Most working fathers (or sometimes mothers) eat lunch out. Children up to Stage V generally have lunch at home with t h e i r mother. Old couples may have a l l t h e i r meals together. Sample f a m i l i e s showed general s a t i s f a c t i o n about t h e i r eating space. Families who complained that the dining room was"too small" were using the space also as working or hobby area ( o f f i c e , b i r d -cages) and storage (freezer, dishwasher). Two f a m i l i e s i n the townhouse u n i t where the eating space i s open to the kitchen, mentioned t h e i r preference i n having the dining room open to the l i v i n g room. One family i n an apartment unit wanted to have a separate dining room instead of the open l i v i n g - d i n i n g space. TABLE 10 - Dining Room, Size and Arrangement (N = 23) F a i r 16 Too small 4-Separate dining room wanted 1 Open l i v i n g - d i n i n g space wanted 2 176 Front and "back yards of townhouse units are extensively used as outdoor eating spaces. The size of the balcony i n the apartment u n i t does not allow f a m i l i e s to enjoy such a c t i v i t y . TABLE 11 - A c t i v i t i e s i n Back Yard (N = 18) Outdoor eating 7 S i t t i n g 6 Childrens' Play 1 Gardening 1 Not Using 4-18 TABLE 12 - A c t i v i t i e s i n Front Yard A c t i v i t y No. of f a m i l i e s Children's Play 8 Outdoor Eating 6 S i t t i n g 2 Greenhouse, Gardening 2 Storage 4 Not Using 5 Unit Neighbourhood D i s t r i c t Stage I Stage II Stage I I I Stage IV Stage V Stage VI Stage VII Stage VIII Figure 12 - Occupational A c t i v i t y (work, housekeeping, school) 178 HOUSEKEEPING - Requirements Stages I and II HK-I-1 Mothers' main working area, the kitchen, should be HK-II-1 close enough to the c h i l d ' s play area (both indoor and outdoor) f o r v i s u a l and verbal communication between her and her c h i l d while she i s doing the housework. HK-VIII-1 General space f o r storage should be provided f o r the e l d e r l y . Requirements which apply to a l l stages. HK-G-1 The family s i t t i n g area should have space f o r i r o n i n g and sewing without taking over the space f o r family s i t t i n g . HK-G-2 Mother's own area for her private a c t i v i t i e s besides housekeeping. HK-G-3 The s e c u r i t y of the house and minimum house maintenance work are key factors i n housing design f o r many f a m i l i e s . OCCUPATIONAL ACTIVITY (Working, Housekeeping, School) Most husbands' occupation work i s done outside of t h e i r home, but some require the space within the dwelling uni t f o r t h e i r work at home. Wives are u s u a l l y involved i n c h i l d care and housekeeping at home u n t i l Stage I I I . A f t e r children s t a r t to go to school many 179 mothers s t a r t to work outside. Means of transportation are necessary f o r wives as well as f o r husbands. As childre n advance from elementary school to secondary school to u n i v e r s i t y or college, the locations of the schools change from the neighbourhood, (reached by walking) to the d i s t r i c t ( b i c y c l e , bus) then to the c i t y (private car, bus). For the children's study area, a common space i s preferred by elementary and secondary school c h i l d r e n . High school or college students want t h e i r own priva t e room f o r study. In e a r l i e r stages, the mother's main working area, the kitchen, should be c l o s e l y connected to the c h i l d ' s play areas f o r con-stant supervision. Only one-third of the sample f a m i l i e s are s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r kitchen. Shortage of cupboard space i s the major complaint and the si z e of the kitchen i n the apartment unit i s c i t e d as "too small" by three f a m i l i e s . TABLE 13 - Kitchen F a i r 8 Poor 15 - not enough cupboards 10 too small 3 other 2 A f t e r children reach school age, mothers s t a r t to have t h e i r own 180 a c t i v i t i e s outside of t h e i r u n i t . The s e c u r i t y and minimum maintenance work at home are e s s e n t i a l f o r f a m i l i e s i n such stages. This i s one of the advantages of apartments or townhouse units compared to detached houses. The maintenance-free aspect of the units i s the second best " l i k e s " l i s t e d by the sample f a m i l i e s . Most of the fam i l i e s who l i s t e d the maintenance-free aspect as t h e i r " l i k e " had experience i n l i v i n g i n t h e i r own detached houses. Young f a m i l i e s i n Stages I and II who moved from apartment suites did not point out the maintenance-free aspect. Also, the family's l i f e s t y l e i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r l i k e s and d i s -l i k e s . Families who have more a c t i v i t i e s outdoors appreciate the freedom from maintaining t h e i r house and yard. Better s e c u r i t y i s also mentioned by f a m i l i e s who moved from detached houses. "We can enjoy freedom to be out." Those advantages over single housing are designed to a t t r a c t more fa m i l i e s i n the future due to increase i n re c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s or weekends and holidays. TABLE 14 - Resident's Likes Location 21 f a m i l i e s Maintenance-free 11 " For children's play 4 " Private yard and landscaped garden 4 " Room layout and f a c i l i t i e s inside and out 4 Swimming pool 3 Other 3 181 SHOPPING - Requirements which apply to a l l stages. SH-G-1 The major shopping area which draws various kinds of people and a c t i v i t i e s should be e a s i l y accessible, as well as the neighbourhood convenience stores. SH-G-2 The stores f o r d a i l y grocery shopping are preferred to be located within walking distance. Convenient neighbourhood stores i n the minimum walking distance and the active c e n t r a l commercial area i n the handy l o c a t i o n are both the needs of a l l f a m i l i e s . A l l the sample f a m i l i e s expressed the highest s a t i s f a c t i o n on the convenient shopping. TABLE 15 - Convenience of Shopping (N = 23) Convenient 23 f a m i l i e s Inconvenient 0 fa m i l i e s SCHOOLS Parents and children were highly s a t i s f i e d with the lo c a t i o n and the standards of t h e i r schools. An elementary school i s just one block away and a secondary school f i v e blocks away from the s i t e . 182 Although children have to cross the streets with busy t r a f f i c flows, there seems to be l i t t l e problem due to t r a f f i c l i g h t s f o r pedestrian crossings. At lunch time, most elementary school children who have a mother at home i n the daytime have lunch at home • TABLE 16 - Location and F a c i l i t i e s of School (N = 23) Good 14 fa m i l i e s Bad 0 fa m i l i e s No Attendance 9 f a m i l i e s 1 8 3 Unit Stage I Stage I I Stage I I I Stage IV Stage V Stage VI Stage VII Stage VIII Neighbourhood D i s t r i c t C i t y Figure 1 3 - Children's Playing 184 PLAYING The infant's play area should be free from danger and close to h i s mother's working area. Both outdoor and indoor spaces f o r the infant are necessary. Within the u n i t , the toddler requires the space (both indoor and outdoor) to run and jump around without any danger and damage to family possessions. The play area i s to be located close enough to the mother's working area f o r constant supervision. The communal playground i s to be provided within a short walking distance from the u n i t . Stage I I I PL-III - 1 An outdoor play area large enough f o r t r i c y c l e r i d i n g i s to be provided i n the neighbourhood. The l o c a t i o n should be close enough so that a mother can conveniently supervise. PL-III -2 A children's communal covered play area i s to be pro-vided which i s large enough to accommodate t r i c y c l e r i d i n g . Stage I PL-I-1 Stage I I PL-II -1 PL-II -2 185 Stage IV PL-IV-1 A communal outdoor play area large enough f o r b i c y c l e r i d i n g or b a l l games i s to be provided i n the neigh-bourhood. PL-IV-2 The communal indoor play area i s to be provided i n the neighbourhood. PL-IV-4 Access to nature available i n the neighbourhood i s desi r a b l e . CHILDREN'S PLAYING The t e r r i t o r y of children's playing expands according to t h e i r physical and mental developments. The infant's (Stage I) a c t i v i t i e s are mostly l i m i t e d within the dwelling u n i t . The toddler (Stage I I ) , under h i s mother's supervision, plays i n the pu b l i c playground i n the neighbourhood besides i n h i s u n i t . The outdoor play areas both i n the unit and i n the neighbourhood are es s e n t i a l f o r the fam i l i e s i n Stage II and Stage I I I . Children of Stages I I I and IV s t a r t to play more with friends i n the neighbourhood, independent from t h e i r family. The time spent outside of t h e i r u n i t without mother's supervision increases. In Stage IV, c h i l d r e n of d i f f e r e n t sexes often engage i n d i f f e r e n t play a c t i v i t i e s . A paved open space large enough for t h e i r active play i s necessary i n the neighbourhood. The indoor play areas (both public and priv a t e ) are also required to accommodate active play f o r f a m i l i e s i n Stages II to IV. 186 The t e r r i t o r y of c h i l d r e n i n Stage V expands beyond t h e i r neighbourhood. The place f o r meeting friends as well as f a c i l i -t i e s f o r various sports i s to be accessible e a s i l y from t h e i r units without depending on private cars. For the c h i l d r e n of Stage VI, means of easy access to the major c u l t u r a l and amusement centers i s necessary. The noise of children's play bothers f a m i l i e s i n the l a t e r stages. The consideration of noise segregation i s an e s s e n t i a l requirement f o r f a m i l i e s i n Stage VIII. The childrens' play area seems to hold a key to the success i n designing the family housing project as well as parking a v a i l a b i l i t y . I f adequate play areas are not provided f o r the c h i l d r e n of various age groups, childr e n occupy areas for playing which are not always safe or pleasant f o r other residents. Most sample f a m i l i e s expressed t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n about c h i l d -rens' playgrounds. (See Table 17.) Families i n d i f f e r e n t stages have d i f f e r e n t complaints. For the f a m i l i e s with toddlers and pre-school c h i l d r e n , the childrens' playground i s most important f o r t h e i r d a i l y use. Various complaints are heard from those family groups; poor maintenance, poor f a c i l i t i e s and landscaping, dominance of older c h i l d r e n i n the playground and the distance making the playgrounds too f a r away to supervise. Three out of f i v e sample fa m i l i e s i n Stage IV do not use the play-ground. School c h i l d r e n play most of the time on the driveway which they use f o r b i c y c l e r i d e s , playing soccer, hockey and 187 skipping rope. Boys i n t h i s age group expressed the need f o r a larger play area. Families i n Stages V to VIII do not use the playground at a l l . The two f a m i l i e s i n Stages VII and VIII complained of the noise from children playing on the roads. TABLE 17 - Children's Playground ( N = 2 3 ) I I I I I I IV V VI VII VIII TOTAL F a i r 1 0 0. 1 0 0 0 0 2 Poor 3 3 3 2 0 0 1* 1* 13 Not Using 0 0 0 3 2 1 1 1 8 * Complaint about noise as heard from two f a m i l i e s . Indoor play areas, e i t h e r communal or p r i v a t e , are wanted by many sample f a m i l i e s ; as are outdoor play areas f o r small c h i l d r e n . (See Table 21). Eight sample f a m i l i e s i n townhouse units use t h e i r front yard f o r children's play area, but only one family use t h e i r back yard (See Table 12). This i s due to the layout of the townhouse u n i t . The front yard i s easier f o r mothers to supervise t h e i r c h i l d r e n from the kitchen or family room where they are doing housework. The most popular children's play area i n the sample project i s the driveway. There have not been any serious t r a f f i c accidents 188 within the s i t e but some dangerous points about the driveway are heard from several sample f a m i l i e s . Those complaints are caused by the f a c t that the driveway i s the main play area f o r ch i l d r e n i n the Westview Garden Apartments. TABLE 18 - Driveway (N = 23) 15 dangerous 6 F a i r Poor 8 noisy 2 The swimming pool i n the neighbourhood i s a strong a t t r a c t i o n f o r both adults and ch i l d r e n of a l l stages. The year round operation of such f a c i l i t i e s i s wanted by many sample f a m i l i e s . TABLE 19 - Swimming Pool (N = 23) Stage of Family L i f e Cycle I II I I I IV V VI VII VIII TOTAL Using 4 2 2 5 2 1 1 1 18 Not using 0 1 1 1* 0 0 1 1 5 * One family has not yet experienced summer i n the sample project. Stage 1 Stage I I Stage I I I Stage IV Stage V Stage VI Stage VII Stage VIII Figure 14 - Evening S i t t i n g 190 EVENING SITTING - Requirements Stages I, II and III ES-I-1 The family s i t t i n g areas should be located so as not E 3 - I I - 1 ES-III-1 to disturb the children's sleep. Stage IV ES-IV-1 Separate s i t t i n g areas f o r parents and c h i l d r e n are required by some f a m i l i e s . Stage V ES-V-1 Two separate s i t t i n g areas independent from each other's sound and sight are required f o r parents and c h i l d r e n . Stages V and VI ES-V-2 The c h i l d needs a quiet space independent from the sight ES-VT-1 and sound of other family members. Stage VIII ES-VIII-1 The s i t t i n g area f o r the e l d e r l y should be w e l l -protected from the noise - daytime and at night. ES-VIII-2 Outdoor s i t t i n g areas, both private and pub l i c , are to be provided where people can s i t i n the sun or enjoy gardening. Requirements which apply to a l l stages. SS-G-1 For the family who want active a c t i v i t i e s i n the evening, 191 an a d d i t i o n a l space i s necessary besides the family s i t t i n g area which i s used f o r passive evening a c t i v i -t i e s . Such space should be located so as not to disturb other family members' a c t i v i t i e s . EVENING SITTING The dominant family evening a c t i v i t y through a l l the stages i s watching T.V. A f t e r dinner, father and childr e n s i t i n front of the T.V. set, and mother joins them a f t e r washing the dishes; father with newspaper and mother with k n i t t i n g or i r o n i n g . This i s the most popular family scene i n the evening. Up to Stage IV, T.V.-watching i s a whole family a c t i v i t y , but i n Stage V, parents and childr e n s t a r t to watch d i f f e r e n t T.V. programs on d i f f e r e n t sets. Children from late Stage IV s t a r t to have t h e i r own evening a c t i v i t i e s and want to leave the separate s i t t i n g area independent from parents. They also go out often i n the evening f o r sports or meeting f r i e n d s . Parents stay together mostly i n the evening. Each i s engaged i n t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s (mostly passive type) yet are able to com-municate to each other v i s u a l l y and v o c a l l y . The space f o r active hobby or exercise i s wanted ei t h e r i n the unit or i n the neighbour-hood by many sample fa m i l i e s regardless of t h e i r stage. Most sample families showed t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n of t h e i r l i v i n g room size and arrangement. 192 TABLE 20 - L i v i n g Room (N = 23) F a i r 22 Too small 1 TABLE 21 - Space Wanted Basement (Rec. Room or Workshop) 10 Children's playroom 4-Indoor play area 3 Guest room 3 Private yard f o r gardening 3 None 2 193 Neighbourhood Stage I Stage I I Stage I I I Stage IV Stage V Stage VI Stage VII Stage VIII Figure 15 - S o c i a l A c t i v i t y C i t y fnrrnVy 194 SOCIAL ACTIVITY - Neighbours Stage I 30N-I-1 A public open space free from the t r a f f i c noise, danger and bad weather should be provided i n the neighbourhood. Easy access from each unit and v i s u a l connection be-tween such space and the public walkway i s necessary. Stages I I and I I I SON-II-1 The place f o r the mothers' neighbourhood contacts i s SON-III-1 to be considered together with that of the children's play area. Stage VIII SON-VIII-1 The outdoor and indoor communal s i t t i n g areas are to be provided within a short walking distance f o r d a i l y neighbourhood contacts. SON-G-1 A part of each dwelling u n i t (either indoor or outdoor) should have v i s u a l connection to the pu b l i c walkway which neighbours use most commonly on such occasions as shopping. SON-G-2 The sound protection between units should be considered not only at party walls and f l o o r s but also at the access to the unit f o r such occasions as late night p a r t i e s . 195 SOCIAL ACTIVITY - Friends and Relatives Stages V and VI SOF-V-1 The space f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s should be located so as not to disturb other a c t i v i t i e s of other family members, SOF-VT-1 The c h i l d wants to have a space which has v i s u a l and sound privacy from parents and s i b l i n g s , to bring friends t o . Stage VIII SOF-VIII-1 E l d e r l y people's residences are preferred to be located close to t h e i r children's residence. SOF-VIII-2 The extra sleeping place f o r grandchildren's over-night v i s i t s i s to be considered i n the un i t of some of the e l d e r l y people. Requirements apply to a l l stages. 30F-G-1 Larger dining space f o r occasional dinner p a r t i e s i s wanted by some f a m i l i e s , although many fam i l i e s do not strongly f e e l that need. SOF-G-2 The space f o r occasional p a r t i e s and overnight v i s i t o r s i s to be considered. 196 SOCIAL ACTIVITY The pattern of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y varies among f a m i l i e s according to family member's s o c i a b i l i t y as well as the stage of the family l i f e c y c l e . S o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s with friends and r e l a t i v e s are observed through a l l the stages. Families i n Stages I to I I I exchange informal v i s i t s u s u a l l y with c h i l d r e n . In the l a t e r stages, parent's and children's s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s tend to be separated. The privacy f o r children's (or parent's) s o c i a l a c t i v i t y from t h e i r parents (or children) i s required i n the u n i t . The close attachment to children's family i s observed among couples i n Stages VII and VIII. The proximity between parent's and children's units i s wanted. The active s o c i a l meeting with friends i s also common f o r fam i l i e s i n Stages VI and VII to f i l l the loneliness a f t e r children's leaving home. Sp a t i a l requirements of the unit f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s are not as strong as other d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . The infrequency of such occasions, the p o s s i b i l i t y of having such meetings i n other places and the f l e x i b l e nature of such a c t i v i t i e s are consider-ations. The neighbourhood contacts are observed to be most active among mothers i n Stages I to I I I . Their c h i l d r e n are the main medium f o r the informal afternoon v i s i t s . Children's play areas and 197 mother's s i t t i n g areas i n the unit should be well connected. Public outdoor s i t t i n g areas beside young children's playgrounds encourage the informal s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n among mothers. When children reach the stage of playing by themselves, the frequency of parent's neighbourhood contacts decreases. The longer period of occupancy, the place f o r neighbours to pursue a common i n t e r e s t , the proximity to the neighbours with a common c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l background and chances f o r frequent i n c i d e n t a l meeting are major factors f o r the further neighbourhood i n t e r -actions. Sample f a m i l i e s ' opinions about t h e i r neighbours are f a i r l y good and no strong complaints are c i t e d . Two out of 15 f a m i l i e s who mentioned p o s i t i v e opinions about t h e i r neighbours expressed very good neighbourhood r e l a t i o n s . Those two are i n the same townhouse block and i n Stages I and I I . Five f a m i l i e s i n stages up to III c i t e d f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s based on t h e i r children's playing t o -gether and exchanging b a b y s i t t i n g . Two fa m i l i e s c i t e d occasional drinks with neighbours. When fa m i l i e s i n s i m i l a r stages of t h e i r l i f e cycle are l i v i n g i n the same block, t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n about neighbours i s us u a l l y high. Eight f a m i l i e s mentioned no frequent i n t e r a c t i o n s with neighbours. Most of them "say 'hello' to neighbours and that's a l l . " Many fami l i e s l i s t e d the short period of occupancy as the reason f o r not having strong contacts with t h e i r neighbours. 198 TABLE 22 - Neighbourhood Relations (N = 23) Stage I II I I I IV V VI VII VIII TOTAL Good 4- 2 3 3 1 0 2 0 15 Bad 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 No Contact 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 2 8 Several f a m i l i e s mentioned that they had deeper contacts with t h e i r neighbours when l i v i n g i n detached houses. One family also mentioned that c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s were not always good. "Neighbours came into our house any time and we f e l t no privacy at a l l . " A family i n Stage VIII who are l i v i n g i n a townhouse unit c i t e d , "Ve are l i v i n g too close to s o c i a l i z e . " To adapt to the high density l i v i n g , each family i n a townhouse or an apartment unit seems to protect t h e i r privacy more con-s c i o u s l y than f a m i l i e s i n detached houses. The privacy between neighbours i s the key f a c t o r f o r residents* s a t i s f a c t i o n i n higher density l i v i n g . The poor sound-proofing between neigh-bouring units i s the top " d i s l i k e " of sample f a m i l i e s . Families* comments: "We can hear an old lady coughing." "We know whether our neighbour i s doing laundry or vacuum cleaning." "Our former neighbour used to f i g h t often but now we have a quiet neighbour." In apartment blocks, sound proofing of f l o o r s i s worse than walls, 199 e s p e c i a l l y when there are no carpets on the f l o o r . "We just knock each other on the c e i l i n g or f l o o r by a broom s t i c k when-ever the noise becomes too much." "We can trace a l i t t l e boy above us pushing a d o l l s t r o l l e r i n h i s s u i t e . " Also i n apartment blocks, the noise of people walking up and down bothers f a m i l i e s i n bed since the ext e r i o r s t a i r s are made of wood and located beside the bedrooms. Such occasions as guests leaving late a f t e r a party are unbearable to fa m i l i e s l i v i n g below. TABLE 23 - What Do You D i s l i k e About L i v i n g Here? Noise 9 Space too small 8 Parking 5 No freedom 4-Poor maintenance 3 None 2 Other 5 "No freedom to do what we want." i s a complaint voiced by pros-pective renovators and gardeners. Some fam i l i e s complain about the rules f o r communal l i v i n g . 200 Stage I Stage I I Stage I I I Stage IV Stage V Stage VI Stage VII Stage VIII Figure 16 - Weekend A c t i v i t y 201 WEEKEND ACTIVITY Requirement which applies to a l l stages. WA-G-1 Easy access to public family r e c r e a t i o n a l spots of various kinds i s to be considered. Up to the e a r l y Stage IV, the family spends weekends mostly to-gether. A f t e r t h i s period, parents and c h i l d r e n s t a r t to pursue weekend a c t i v i t i e s separately. Shopping i s one of the most popular patterns of weekend family outings i n Stages I I and I I I . The shopping area should be con-sidered as a family r e c r e a t i o n a l spot, providing various children's a t t r a c t i o n s and family eating spots. The family's r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s v a r i e s i n a wide range according to each family's i n t e r e s t s . Variety of sports, c u l t u r a l and amusement f a c i l i t i e s are to be e a s i l y accessible to a l l family members. Gardening i s a strong a t t r a c t i o n f o r many families and the private yard f o r gardening i s to be a resident's possible option. Attending church i s not a popular Sunday a c t i v i t y among sample f a m i l i e s . Only two out of 22 f a m i l i e s mentioned regular attend-ance at church. Two Hindu f a m i l i e s are attending the weekly r e l i g i o u s meetings which are held at school i n the evening. One family c i t e d occasional attendance at the church and one c i t e d only t h e i r children's attendance. Sixteen f a m i l i e s 202 mentioned no attendance at any r e l i g i o u s gatherings. For the most part, r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s occupy l i t t l e of the d a i l y l i v e s of the sample f a m i l i e s . TABLE 24 - Location of Church (N = 22*) I II I I I IV V VI VII VIII TOTAL Good 1 0 1 3 0 0 0 1 6 Bad 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 No Attendance 3 3 3 2 1 2 2 0 16 * One sample unusable. Findings indicate that some a c t i v i t y patterns are f a i r l y consistent, but most a c t i v i t y patterns vary through the family l i f e c y c l e . Quantity and q u a l i t y of housing space and f a c i l i t i e s have to follow changing family needs. When the space of the dwelling u n i t and neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s cannot accommodate the family's a c t i v i t i e s , the family moves to a more congruent place or adjusts t h e i r residence to better f u l f i l l t h e i r needs. Families who, with l i m i t e d funds a v a i l a b l e , can neither move nor adjust t h e i r residence, are forced to adjust t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s to l i v e i n an incongruent environment. We do not often recognize many such adjustments i n d a i l y l i f e , but the serious long-range e f f e c t on our family l i f e and person-a l i t y i s considerable. PART IV - CONCLUSION From the findings of t h i s family a c t i v i t y survey, two d i r e c t i o n s fo r better family housing are drawn:-1. The adaptable housing system which can accommodate the family's ever-changing needs should be developed. 2. The space d i s t r i b u t i o n of various d a i l y family a c t i v i t i e s i n our r e s i d e n t i a l environment i s to be reconsidered. The space and f a c i l i t i e s of the neighbourhood should be given more p r i o r i t y i n family housing design. 9. ADAPTABLE HOUSING SYSTEM : INDIVIDUALITY IN HOUSING Half of a l l Canadian f a m i l i e s have l i v e d i n t h e i r present r e s i -dence f o r less than f i v e years. The duration of occupancy i s less than two years f o r 35 percent of a l l f a m i l i e s . In the sample housing project, family's average duration i s around p two years. The high m o b i l i t y of the family i s a t y p i c a l character of the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y . People move to other c i t i e s or even to other countries f o r better job opportunities. Many moves are also caused by the present housing system which cannot accommodate the family's changing needs. The dominant family pattern of a 1971 Census of Canada Verbal information from the resident manager of the sample housing. 204 contemporary society, the nuclear family, i s congruent to the s o c i a l system which requires higher mobility. I t i s an emotion-a l l y h i g hly charged system based on unique i n t e n s i t y and emotional import of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between husband-wife and parent-child-ren. By the sickness or departure of i t s members, i t i s h i g h l y vulnerable to d i s r u p t i o n , while i n the extended family, someone can carry the nursing r o l e . In the small town community i n the p r e - i n d u s t r i a l i z e d era, a kind of s o l i d a r i t y between people existed to help each other whenever necessary. The family's high m o b i l i t y i n the present s o c i e t y creates many is o l a t e d nuclear f a m i l i e s , cut o f f from close r e l a t i o n s h i p s with either t h e i r kins or neighbouring f r i e n d s . The prevalence of mental disorders i s related to the length of residence. The evidence shows the highest incidence of mental disorders i s found i n persons with the least length of occupancy i n the same p dwelling u n i t . The present housing system helps to create such an unfortunate s i t u a t i o n . A f t e r l i v i n g i n a dwelling unit f o r a c e r t a i n period of time, the family's needs change and a m i s f i t between family l i f e and t h e i r unit occurs. The adjustment of t h i s m i s f i t , when the resource i s a v a i l a b l e , i s u s u a l l y made by people moving to a more suitable u n i t , rather than changing the previous u n i t . T a l c o t t , Parson and Rene G. Fox. " I l l n e s s , Therapy and the Modern American Family," P.H. & L.N. Atasser (eds.) Family i n  C r i s i s , 1970. p L. T i e t z e , P. Lankan, M. Cooper. "Personality Disorder and S p a t i a l M o b i l i t y , " American Journal of Sociology, V o l . XL VIII 1 9 7 4 . 205 This choice i s n a t u r a l l y based on the cost-reward judgment. The a d d i t i o n to or a l t e r a t i o n of the house i s c o s t l y and some-times impossible because housing i s not designed f o r such a d j u s t -ments. With the same c a p i t a l expenditure, we can u s u a l l y get more by moving to another u n i t . A f a m i l y buying t h e i r f i r s t house according to t h e i r f i n a n c i a l resources a v a i l a b l e , o f t e n have a p l a n t o move t o the l a r g e r one according to f a m i l y members and/or income i n c r e a s e . T h i s trend i s a c c e l e r a t e d by the specu-l a t i v e housing market because of the steep r i s e of housing p r i c e s . Many f a m i l i e s move h a p p i l y when i t i s an upward move toward a house w i t h more space, h i g h e r market value and neighbourhood of higher socio-economic s t a t u s . But every time they move they are paying the other cost of c u t t i n g o f f t h e i r r o o t s from the com-munity. Real concern about the community cannot be expected from f a m i l i e s who are p l a n n i n g to move out of the area soon. Thus, the frequent moves create many i s o l a t e d f a m i l i e s through t h e i r constant withdrawal from the community. This becomes a tragedy when e l d e r l y couples are f o r c e d to move out of t h e i r long-occupied house. Because of l i m i t e d income and p h y s i c a l d e c l i n e a f t e r r e t i r e m e n t , they cannot m a i n t a i n t h e i r l a r g e empty nest when a l l c h i l d r e n have l e f t home. We have t o seek an a l t e r n a t e housing system which i n c r e a s e s each f a m i l y ' s c o n t r o l over shaping t h e i r own u n i t to r e f l e c t t h e i r changing needs. Every f a m i l y should be able to adjust t h e i r own d w e l l i n g u n i t to accommodate t h e i r ever-changing needs i n s t e a d of moving to another u n i t . 206 For almost a thousand years i n Japan, by u s i n g a "tatami module" (approximately 3 feet; by 6 f e e t ) every f a m i l y has been able to l a y out t h e i r own house p l a n very e a s i l y . Today, w i t h our advanced technology, i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e f o r every f a m i l y not o n l y to design but to b u i l d t h e i r own house without h i g h c o s t s or much s k i l l . Ve can buy b u i l d i n g components l i k e buying f u r n i t u r e or appliances and assemble them to c r e a t e a house to meet each f a m i l y ' s p a r t i c u l a r needs. F o l l o w i n g a common s t r u c t u r a l and s e r v i c e system, we can add or s u b t r a c t any components according t o changing needs. This process should be simple enough f o r any layman, j u s t as p u t t i n g up a t e n t at a camp-ground w i t h the help of f r i e n d s and some t e c h n i c a l guidance would be. This s e l f - h e l p b u i l d i n g system has a great p o t e n t i a l i t y not o n l y , as p r e s e n t l y observed, i n developing c o u n t r i e s . I n h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s , w i t h t h e i r advanced technology, people can have maximum c o n t r o l i n b u i l d i n g or a d j u s t i n g t h e i r own d w e l l i n g u n i t s . Each d w e l l i n g u n i t becomes a genuine ex-p r e s s i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y ' s l i f e s t y l e . The goal i s not the f u l l i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of housing to cut the c o s t , but t o e s t a b l i s h a h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d system which allows people to create t h e i r own house to accommodate t h e i r unique way of l i f e . 207 10. NEIGHBOURHOOD FACILITY : COMMUNALITY IN HOUSING The family's d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s occur i n d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of t h e i r environment - a dwelling u n i t , a neighbourhood and a larger com-munity or d i s t r i c t , c i t y or country. The character of the boundary between a dwelling unit and the outside community i s the key factor i n forming a housing pattern which su i t s a p a r t i c u l a r way of l i f e . Where the boundary of each dwelling unit i s strong, the family l i f e i s segregated from the community and where the boundary i s not so s t r i c t , the community l i f e and the family l i f e are fused together. In a small medieval town, a strong boundary was achieved by a wall surrounding the whole town f o r protection against invasion from outsiders. Within the protection wall, the boundary be-tween private houses and the public space was not so d i s t i n c t . S o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s on the street often flowed into the private houses and the street was used as an extended part of the house. A s o l i d a r i t y between the people spontaneously developed. The space available i n the dwelling unit also helps to determine the boundary of d a i l y family a c t i v i t i e s . In Michel's study of French working-class f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n an apartment h o t e l , many family a c t i v i t i e s flowed into the public space or beyond the boundary of each u n i t . A. V. Michel, "Kinship r e l a t i o n s and re l a t i o n s h i p s of proximity i n French working-class households." i n N. B e l l and E.F. Vogels (eds.) A Modern Introduction to the Family, 1962. 208 Young c h i l d r e n p l a y mostly i n the p u b l i c hallway or courtyards under the common s u p e r v i s i o n of mothers. They o f t e n eat or even sleep i n other f a m i l y u n i t s . F a m i l i e s i n the apartment h o t e l l i v e l i k e a f a m i l y and t h a t i s caused by the shortage of space and f a c i l i t y i n each apartment u n i t . They l e a r n t o share the space a v a i l a b l e to overcome the shortage. Thus, the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the d a i l y f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o the c h a r a c t e r of the boundary t h a t each housing type has. Table 25 i n d i c a t e s what k i n d of a c t i v i t i e s are observed w i t h i n a d w e l l i n g u n i t of v a r i o u s d w e l l i n g types. S l e e p i n g and r e p r o d u c t i o n are observed through a l l housing ty p e s . The s h e l t e r f o r those a c t i v i t i e s i s the b a s i c f u n c t i o n of housing o f t e n found even i n animal's s e t t l e m e n t s . The p h y s i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t i e s are most c o n s t a n t l y seen i n the va r i o u s housing types and the amount of d i s c r e t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the u n i t v a r i e s most from the s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t palace to the communal l i v i n g . Where v a r i o u s d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s are accommodated i n the sample housing i s shown i n Table 26. Many f a m i l i e s ' needs are met every day i n the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of the community, d w e l l i n g u n i t , neighbourhood, d i s t r i c t and l a r g e r corrinunities of a c i t y or r e g i o n . Some needs are on l y f u l f i l l e d i n the p r i v a t e space w i t h i n the u n i t ( s l e e p i n g , washing, Educational ro Recreational § (passive) •H Recreational <D (active) o •H i-ceiie^xous Social r—i Laundry g Cook o Sewing +i Ironing % ChiIdcare g Productive o o Physiological* W M W 00 CD OJ X h-1 c t cn o'd ro C 4 4 o ro o *d c t Q< ro p: o c t H * O Activity I I i i i 1 O 1 O l O 1 1 O O Primitive Society (Cave Dwelling) o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Palace school park sport court church 0 1 o o o o o o o o o w Contemporary Detached House M o ol 1 1 O 1 1 O 1 II - • CD Ul c t PJ £ 1 O O O O Hotel 1 1 1 1 1 I I I II c t O o o Commune (Kibutz) 60S TABLE 26 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of D a i l y Family A c t i v i t i e s Daily-A c t i v i t y I n d i v i d u a l f Dwelling U n i t -Neighbour-hood D i s t r i c t C i t y Sleep Washing Eating Cooking Laundry Ironing Sewing Child Care Education Children's Play Recreational (Passive) Recreational (Active) S o c i a l Bedrooms Bathroom(s) Kitchen Dining Room Family Room U t i l i t y Room Bedroom/family room Whole Unit Whole Unit Whole Unit Liv.room, yard Fam. Rm.(work-shop. Rec. Room (workshop) L i v i n g room (Rec. rm.) |Playground Street »[Swimming Pool j \ Sample Project! Public Washroom Restaurant Coin Laundry Dry Cleaning Cloth Store Daycare Centre School Park Li b r a r y Park Recreational Centre Cafe Restaurant Hotel Health Spa Restaurant ( S p e c i a l i t y ) Diaper Service Dressmaker Cloth Stores College, Un i v e r s i t y Park Theatre, Park, Concert H a l l . Beach, Mountain Park Club Lounge 211 r e p r o d u c t i o n ) , while the others are met i n v a r i o u s l e v e l s from the i n d i v i d u a l u n i t t o the l a r g e r community. From t h i s space d i s t r i b u t i o n of d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , we r e a l i z e the l a c k of space and f a c i l i t y at the neighbourhood l e v e l . T h i s seems to be a t y p i c a l drawback of housing development today. We can h a r d l y see such a r e s i d e n t i a l environment, e i t h e r urban or suburban, which encourages neighbourhood a c t i v i t i e s i n everyday l i f e . Many f a m i l y ' s needs are met b e t t e r at the l e v e l o f the neighbour-hood than at the l e v e l of the i n d i v i d u a l u n i t or l a r g e r community. The r e s t a u r a n t i n the neighbourhood can be used more oft e n as an extension of each f a m i l y k i t c h e n . Hot meals (not i n s t a n t f r o z e n food) can be brought t o the d i n i n g room of each u n i t , not o n l y f o r p a r t i e s but f o r everyday f a m i l y d i n i n g . I t saves the cooking time of i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s and r e l i e v e s the heavy burden of the w i f e ' s housework. An e x t r a k i t c h e n space and cooking f a c i l i t i e s f o r once-a-year p a r t i e s i s not necessary i n each u n i t i f covered by the k i t c h e n of the neighbourhood r e s t a u r a n t . Afternoon t e a at the neighbourhood c a f e , not e x c l u s i v e l y i n the l i v i n g room, w i l l h e l p to develop i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n s between neighbours. Those f u n c t i o n s of a neighbourhood cafe and r e s t a u r a n t cannot be replaced by ones i n the downtown areas. Outdoor s i t t i n g areas, beside young c h i l d r e n ' s playground, are a l s o needed by mothers or the e l d e r l y , who want to have contact s w i t h people but are not able to t r a v e l v ery much. Communal 212 ironing services a v a i l a b l e i n the neighbourhood w i l l be appreci-ated by a l l mothers, e s p e c i a l l y ones with young ch i l d r e n . A daycare centre i n the neighbourhood i s a strong need of not only working mothers, but f o r a l l mothers. The replacement of the i n d i v i d u a l family's household work by the extensive usage of public service f a c i l i t i e s to save the house-wife's heavy d a i l y burden, i s best achieved at the neighbourhood l e v e l because of the convenience. A communal workshop f o r car r e p a i r or f o r use by weekend carpenters not only saves the cost of providing a workshop i n each dwelling uni t but also encourages neighbourhood i n t e r a c t i o n s between husbands based on t h e i r common in t e r e s t which could not be observed i n the sample housing. A swimming pool, which i s one of the major a t t r a c t i o n s of the sample f a m i l i e s , i s a good example of r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s supported by the neighbourhood community. The extensive usage observed i n nearly a l l f a m i l i e s regardless of t h e i r stage, i s not i n competition with the swimming pool serving the d i s t r i c t . Indoor sport f a c i l i t i e s are also wanted i n the neighbourhood for year-round operation which cannot be accommodated i n the i n d i v i d u a l u n i t . Such space can be used as a ballroom f o r large s o c i a l gatherings of f a m i l i e s . The important function of those communal f a c i l i t i e s i s not only to save costs, labor or space i n each family u n i t , but to encourage neighbourhood i n t e r -actions and rais e the s o l i d a r i t y between f a m i l i e s . Supporting such f a c i l i t i e s cannot be done without every resident's 213 v o l u n t a r y involvement and p a t i e n t co-operation. But through t h i s process, we form our community consciousness and s t a r t t o c o n t r o l our own neighbourhood. I n d i v i d u a l power r e f l e c t e d i n our d a i l y environment can be r e a l i z e d more d i r e c t l y i n the nei g h -bourhood than i n l a r g e r communities. By extending to the neigh-bourhood the power t o c o n t r o l t h e i r own d w e l l i n g u n i t , i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s take the i n i t i a t i v e i n c r e a t i n g a b e t t e r l i v i n g e n v i r o n -ment. When we consider the d i r e c t i o n of housing, we have t o have the v i s i o n of what k i n d of l i f e we want to l i v e . V/ithout t h i s c l e a r v i s i o n of our l i f e , the answer f o r b e t t e r housing w i l l never be found. I n d i v i d u a l i t y i n the d w e l l i n g u n i t and communality i n the nei g h -bourhood, which are both e s s e n t i a l i n our d a i l y l i f e , should be achieved i n our f u t u r e housing. 214 3IBLI0GRAPHY Alexander, Christopher and Poyner, Barry. "The Atoms of Environmental Structure," i n Moore, Gary J . Emerging  Methods i n Environmental Design and Planning. Proceedings of The Design Methods Group, F i r s t International Conference, Cambridge, Massachusets, 1968. Alexander, Christopher et a l . Houses Generated by Patterns. Centre f o r Environmental Structure, C a l i f o r n i a , 1970. A l l e n , Marjory. Planning f o r Play. London, Thames & Hudson, 1968. Aries, P h i l i p p e . Centuries of Childhood. Vintage Books, New York, 1962. Barker, Roger G . & H. F. Wright. One Boy's Day. New York, Harper, 1951. B e l l , N. W. and Vogel, E. F. A Modern Introduction to the  Family. New York^Free Press, 1968. Census of Canada 1971. Ottawa, 1972. Chapin, Francis S. Urban Land Use Planning. Urbana, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1965. Chapin, F. S. and B r a i l , R.K. "Human A c t i v i t y System," i n Environment and Behavior. December 1969. Dubos, Rene. So Human An Animal. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1968. Duvall, Evelyn M i l l i s . Family Development. J . B. Li p p i n c o t t , Philadelphia, 1962. Glasser, Paul H. and Glasser, L. N. (eds.) Families i n C r i s i s . New York, Harper and Row, 1970. 215 Gans, Herbert J . The Urban V i l l a g e r s . New York, The Free. Press of Glencoe, 1962. Helmrich, Robert. "Behavioral Observation i n an Undersea Habitat," i n Architecture f o r Human Behavior. I t t e l s o n , William H. et a l . "The Use of Behavioral Haps i n Environmental Psychology," i n H. M. Proshanski et a l (eds.) Environmental Psychology. Holt Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1970. Kon, Wajiro. L i v i n g . Sagami Shobo, Tokyo, 19^5. Kuper, Leo. "Neighbour on the Hearth," i n H. M. Proshanski et a l . (eds.) Environmental Psychology. New York, Holt Rinehart & Winston, 1970. Lansig, J . and Kish, L. D. "Family L i f e Cycle as an Independent Variable," i n American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. V o l . 22, 1957. Lewis, Oscar. Five Families. New York, Basic Books, 1959. Maas, Henry S. "Pre-Adolescent Peer Relations and Adult Intimacy," i n Psychiatry 31, May 1968. . "Children's Environment and Child Welfare," i n Chil d Welfare. V o l . L, Number 3, March 1971. Mead, Margaret. "Neighbourhoods and Human Needs," i n G. B e l l and J . Tyrwhitt (eds.) Human Ident i t y i n the Urban Environment. Penguin Books, Middlesex, England, 1972. Michelson, William. "Physical Environment as A t t r a c t i o n and Determinant: S o c i a l E f f e c t s i n Housing," Toronto, Centre f o r Urban & Community Study. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1969. Michelson, William and Reed, Paul. "The Th e o r e t i c a l Status and Operational Usage of L i f e Style i n Environmental Research," 1970. Toronto/ Centre f o r Urban & Community Study, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1970. 216 Michelson, William. Man and His Urban Environment. Addison Wesley, Massachusetts, 1970. P r e i s e r , W. "The Use of Ethnological Method i n Environmental Analysis," i n Environmental Design Research Association;  Proceedings of the Annual Conference, 1973* Raven, John. " S o c i o l o g i c a l Evidence on Housing," i n A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review. Ju l y and September, 1967. Rossi, Peter H. Why Families Move. Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , Free Press, 1955. Schorr, A l v i n L. "Housing and I t s E f f e c t s , " i n Proshansky, Harold M. et a l (eds.) Environmental Psychology. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970. Skolnick, A. S. and Skolnick, J . H. Family i n T r a n s i t i o n . Boston, L i t t l e , Brown, 1971• Smith, Dorothy E. "Household Space and Family Organization," i n P a c i f i c S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. January 1971. Z e i s e l , J . "Fundamental Values i n Planning With Non-Paying C l i e n t , " i n Architecture and Human Behavior; A Mini- Conference and E x h i b i t i o n . Philadelphia, The American I n s t i t u t e of A r c h i t e c t s , 1971. 217 APPENDIX I SOME PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS ON THE RESEARCH METHOD 218 Interview Procedure and Respondents The main source of data used i n t h i s study derives from a series of time-consuming interviews. A l l interviews were held by the author during the winter of 1973-1974. Respondents were asked f o r the interview at the entrance door without any previous notice. About h a l f . o f the residents who answered the door c a l l s accepted interviews at the f i r s t v i s i t . The r e s t of the interviews were done at the second v i s i t with appointment having been arranged. Two of the four f a m i l i e s who rejected the interview were e l d e r l y ladies who seemed to be very cautious about strangers and rejected the interview with-out giv i n g any reason. The other two were mothers with young children who said they were too busy to spare the time. Interviews were u s u a l l y held i n the respondents* l i v i n g room. Each interview took f o r t y minutes to one hour. At the town--houses, some wives answered the questionnaire i n the family room while they were doing housework. Wives were the main respondents and many interviews were done i n the afternoon when they were expected to be able to spare a short time. Some of the interviews, mainly f o r the working couples or single working mothers, were done i n the evening with husband and wife, mother and childr e n or the whole family. I f more than two people were available within a family and could be interviewed separately, the r e l i a b i l i t y of the data 219 could have been checked. However, t h i s idea was abandoned to keep the f a m i l i e s ' time expenditure to a minimum, '"/hen two or three respondents were present, they were interviewed together at the same time. Data about family d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s i s mostly based on one family member's d e s c r i p t i o n . The number of fa m i l i e s who were absent when v i s i t e d suggests that many people have a c t i v i t i e s out of the home, e i t h e r occu-pational or r e c r e a t i o n a l . "Freedom to be out," l i s t e d by a sample family as one of t h e i r strong " l i k e s " seems to be w e l l -appreciated by a large number of families l i v i n g i n t h i s project. TABLE 27 - Number of Families Interviewed Interviewed Interviewed Interview Absent When At F i r s t V i s i t A f t e r Appointment Rejected V i s i t e d 14 f a m i l i e s 9 f a m i l i e s 4 f a m i l i e s 50 f a m i l i e s Questionnaire The interview form was based on the previous study done i n the f a l l of 1973 hy the author and adjusted a f t e r pre-testing i n the sample area. (See Appendix I I f o r a questionnaire form.) In preliminary i n q u i r i e s , to get each respondent's maximum response to h i s l i v i n g environment, questions were asked inform-a l l y . No pre-coded responses, such as (very good - good - f a i r -220 bad) or ( s m a l l - f a i r - l a r g e ) were used. I n s t e a d , the respond-ent's own expression to the sample p r o j e c t was expected. The i n t e r v i e w method was a l s o chosen (not m a i l i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o the respondents) t o draw the maximum personal o p i n i o n from the i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s . During the i n t e r v i e w s , a great care was r e q u i r e d to c o l l e c t the data w i t h the same d e n s i t y without o f f e n d i n g a smooth flow of response. I t was p o s s i b l e f o r the l i m i t e d s c a l e of t h i s study t o c o l l e c t and handle t h i s raw data i n the ways d e s c r i b e d . I f the s c a l e of research had been l a r g e r , a more systematic q u e s t i o n n a i r e would have had t o be i n t r o d u c e d . One e l d e r l y couple claimed d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w t h a t the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e went too much i n t o t h e i r p r i v a t e l i f e when asked about t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . Another f a m i l y complained to the r e s i -dent manager a f t e r the i n t e r v i e w about the nature of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 3 o t h turned out to be concerned about the pos-s i b i l i t y of t h e f t . Those two complaints are the o n l y ones known to the author among the 23 i n t e r v i e w s . P a r t i c i p a n t Observation By our l i v i n g i n a u n i t of the sample p r o j e c t , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was p o s s i b l e through my f a m i l y ' s i n f o r m a l contact w i t h neigh-bours. Some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y about mothers with young c h i l d r e n , was obtained through my wife who i s a mother of a one-and-a-half year old g i r l . 221 Analysis of Data In analysis of the family a c t i v i t i e s , a l l family members' a c t i v i t i e s do not always belong to the stage i n which the family i s categorized. A c t i v i t i e s of a family with three c h i l d r e n , i n f a n t , toddler and school c h i l d , span three stages. In such a case, family a c t i v i t i e s are b a s i c a l l y analyzed according to the youngest c h i l d ' s age. But older children's independent a c t i v i t i e s were used f o r the other stages f o r analysis where each c h i l d belongs. The a c t i v i t y patterns generalized i n each stage of the family l i f e cycle were based on the l i m i t e d size and q u a l i t y of the data from 23 interviews and my own observation. I could not prove to what extent those a c t i v i t y patterns apply more generally. Most a c t i v i t y patterns were generalized during and a f t e r the data c o l l e c t i o n and could not be tested by a further systematic observation. They are a s e r i e s of hypotheses to be tested by the r e s u l t of s c i e n t i f i c research. Among the stages of the family l i f e c ycle, besides the young married couple without c h i l d r e n , the sample of a single e l d e r l y widow or widower, was not a v a i l a b l e . This i s another important stage to be studied since t h e i r housing needs would be much d i f -ferent from e l d e r l y couples. Besides the family l i f e c ycle, housing needs are to be studied according to other variables such as family structure, socio-222 economic status, l i f e - s t y l e and c u l t u r a l background. Only knowledge about the t o t a l scope of family needs w i l l give us the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n f o r the search of better housing. APPENDIX II INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE FORM FAMILf ACTIVITT SUHVfif ~~ ~ ~~ 224 hems i n t e r v i e w form date? _^ d w e l l i n g typos 1) Whan d i d you move i n t o t h i s oni'?? 2 ) In what, type of d w e l l i n g u n i t d i d you l i v e before? 3) Why d i d you move cut? 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ . „ _ „_ 2 , _ _ _ ; 3 . _ _ _ ... 4) Do you p l a n t o move i n the near f u t u r e ? ^ I f y e s , why? 1, _ 5) What do you l i k e about l i v i n g here? _________________ 2, 6) What do you d i s l i k e about l i v i n g here? 1. _ ™ . 2. 3. __ , . 7) Who i s p r e s e n t l y l i v i n g i n your s u i t e ? r e l a t i o n sex age I occupation * 1 ! 8) Could you show me y c u r f u r n i t u r e layout? 225 9} Ir. s p e c i a l occasions hew do ycu yt..w ,ycur ?i. : :•»? aj F o r t i e s ( if hat k i n d of pai-Hos « Ixcw many peoole b" v i s i t o r s ( ever night; s t a y , " onger stay ) c j f?.raily member ? 3 sioknesa d; any other occasions 10) ;.;.b.at k i n d c f f a c i l i t i e s or spaces do ycu want? . x , . . _ . 2_. _ , h . . _ . . 1 1 ) I would l i k e to know j o u r c p i n i o n about J a) l o c a t i o n and s e r v i c e s { sno uses, how o f t e n ) 1 p u b l i c trans portat icn 2. h o s p i t a l arid c l i n i c 3. sc h o o l and nurser y 4 , r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e and amassment f a c i l i t i e s 5 - church 6, shopping I..' neighbours ( or you have rrssquen* sontact \;5'.'a neighbours? c) outdoor s "PH.ce 1. driveway and 3i.dewe.lk ( safety,, convenience ) 2. parking space - guest parking 3. children's play area ( who uses, when, where, how ) 4 . swimming pool ( who, when ) 5. landscaped garden ( who, when, hew ) 6. front yard ( who, when, how ) 7. hack yard ( who, when, how ) 8 . garbage can storage ( convenience ) d) indoor spaco 1. number of rooms and arrangement of rooms ( convenience 2. l i v ing room 3. dining room ( other usage - when, how, who ) 4. kitchen ( other usage, who ) 5» bedrooms ( other usage - who, when, how ) 6. entrance hal l ( other usage ) 7. ba'chroom(s) ( who uses ) 3.. u t i l i t y room and storage Sow,I would l ike to ask you about, your daily activit ies in. d nvranr what doing whore with whom a l t e r n a t e 228 i ! 

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