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User evaluation of the Walter Gage student residence at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver,… Mallik, Devi Prosad 1975

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USER EVALUATION OF THE WALTER GAGE STUDENT RESIDENCE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, VANCOUVER, CANADA by' DEVI PROSAD MALLIK A r c h . ( 1 s t C l a s s ) , 1960 and D i p . Town & R e g i o n a l P i n g . , 19 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l c u t t a , I n d i a A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE i ; i n' t h e ^ S c h o o l . . t of Architecture We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1975  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  that  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l written  gain  permission.  Depa rtment The  University of British  Columbia  2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  AP*U,3CM?f5  shall  not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  iii  ABSTRACT:  This empirical study i s based on a broad premise of relationship between human behavior and the structured micro-environment within buildings.  It took the form of a survey to evaluate the design quality of  a student residence by means of personal observation and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of responses of a systematically selected sample of residents to a set of structured questionnaires.  The Walter Gage Residence,  a group of hewly-built h i g h r i s e , coed -  l i v i n g dormitories within the campus of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, serves as a case to i l l u s t r a t e a p p l i c a t i o n of behavioral premises and a r c h i t e c t u r a l design.  Research on i t was mainly based on four techniques:  (1) l i t e r a t u r e research, (2) systematic observation, (3) exploratory- interview, and  (4) d i s t r i b u t i o n of questionnaire among a systematically selected sample.  The information includes data on the residents' general biographic background, childhood r e s i d e n t i a l environment, just-previous residence, tenure of l i v i n g i n the Gage Residence,  p o t e n t i a l mobility and c r i t e r i a f o r  s e l e c t i n g the Walter Gage Residence to l i v e i n .  The students' perception and  s e l f - r a t i n g of the quality of a r c h i t e c t u r a l design of the Gage Residence as measured on a 7-point semantic scale s p e c i f i c a l l y developed  f o r the  purpose while residents' perception of the s o c i a l climate within t h e i r own s u i t e s were obtained on a standard environmental  scale.  An attempt was made  to assess residents' friendship patterns, mutual t r u s t , and helping behavior. Assessment of d a i l y a c t i v i t y patterns of students inside the residence also included information on t h e i r average d a i l y hours spent i n study and  iv i n other e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s within quads and common block lounges i n main floor.  A measure of residents' perception of personal space, privacy and  t e r r i t o r i a l i t y was  also attempted.  Part of t h i s study was  designed to determine  whether the r e s u l t s of some s i m i l a r studies previously conducted i n the could be r e p l i c a t e d .  USA  F i n a l l y , the users' o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n with l i v i n g  i n this residence was measured. The summary of conclusions were that: 1.  While the towers of the Gage Residence were observed to possess a  medium density, the emerging trend of i t s residents' perception and r a t i n g of i t s a r c h i t e c t u r a l design q u a l i t i e s conformed reasonably with the r e s u l t s of previous studies on low or low-medium density residences i n the  USA.  The Gage resident rated the design of his residence p o s i t i v e l y on convenience, uniqueness, safety and r e l a x a t i o n , and negatively on crampedness. Conversely, Gage residents' ratings were found to p a r a l l e l dimensions that would be considered desirable with high density residences eg. safety, convenience and well orderliness. Furthermore, the Gage residents' indicated a r e l a t i v e l y higher  degree of helping behavior, but a lower degree of s o c i a l ,  r e s p o n s i b l i t y motivation as compared to other studies on equivalent density student residences i n the  2.  (medium)  USA.  In the perception of t h e i r s o c i a l climate i n t h e i r respective quad  apartments, Gage residents rated high on the subscales of involvement, emotional support, academic achievement, i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y and independance, but low i n student  influence as compared to some previous studies.  Also,  users' perception of the s o c i a l environment of t h e i r quads p o s i t i v e l y correlated with t h e i r judgement about i t s a r c h i t e c t u r a l q u a l i t i e s .  V  3.  Residents' self-evaluation of the architectural design attributes of  their residence were influenced by their childhood housing, type of urban area, just previous residence, mobility, selection criteria for living in i t , friendship pattern, mutual trust stress/anxiety and overa l l satisfaction.  4.  Residents' overall satisfaction with living in the Gage Residence  was generally influenced by their biographic background.  In particular,  area of childhood living housing type, just previous residence before moving in the Gage Residence, degree of mobility, tenure i n this residence, living with more number of self-chosen mates, (degree of intimacy), and mutual trust have a l l influenced their satisfaction.  5.  Although living in this residence was found acceptable by the majority of  residents, their responses indicate that i t s design imposed limitation on  the desirable level of social interaction within i t . The self-sufficiently designs quads (suites) have severely limited students' involvement with adjacent quads.  Consequently, the stereotyped design has produced a monotonous, cold and  socially sterile living environment typically prevalent i n downtown apartment living.  In short, the design of this residence has embodied a l l the best  and worst features of apartment living.  v i  F i n a l l y  6.  student  it  was  concluded  residences  to  s u i t  that  type  arrangements  s u i t e  advantages  but  also  i n t e n s i f y  be  the  only  to  only  p e r s o n a l i t i e s design  those  who  s o l u t i o n desire  i t  w i t h i n  problems the  offered or  every  no  of  with  various  be  need  designed  with  can  the  residences  they  there  to  intend  k i n d  of  s u i t e d a l l to  but  l i v e  one of may  design  student  have  p o t e n t i a l  such,  should there  of  student;  adjustment As  s o l u t i o n  be  w i t h  many and  s u i t e s an  should  option  mutually  mates.  F a c u l t y  coordination  A d v i s o r  not  a v a i l a b l e chosen  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract T a b l e o f Contents L i s t of Tables L i s t of Figures L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s Acknowledgements  i i i v i i ix x x xi  Chapters I  INTRODUCTION Background o f t h e Study Study R a t i o n a l e J u s t i f i c a t i o n of S e l e c t i n g the Problem Review o f L i t e r a t u r e Review o f P r e v i o u s S t u d i e s r e l a t e d t o t h e P r e s e n t Study  I I REVIEW OF THE, DESIGN PROCESS H i s t o r i c a l Background o f t h e D e s i g n P r e l i m i n a r y Review o f t h e D e s i g n Design Philosophy Design d i f f e r e n c e with other student R e s i d e n c e s on-campus D e s i g n Layout Design A e s t h e t i c s D e s i g n M e r i t s as t h e Students and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s see Complaints from t h e R e s i d e n t s Organisation of I n v e s t i g a t i o n III  SURVEY METHODOLOGY Subjects Measures Procedures Sample S i z e Drawing t h e Sample Data A n a l y s i s  IV RESULTS Summary o f R e s u l t s Subjects' b i o g r a p h i c a l data Intimacy and F r i e n d s h i p D a t a S a t i s f a c t i o n and P r e f e r e n c e Data S u b j e c t s ' R a t i n g s on URES i n comparis o n w i t h G e r s t and Sweetwood's Study  2 11 12 13 17 22 27 27 30 30 31 .32 34 35 38 42 45 45 46 52 56 57 58 60 60 62 67 69  72  IV RESULTS  (Cont.)  Users' P e r c e p t i o n of A r c h i t e c t u r a l Atmosphere o f t h e R e s i d e n c e i n Comparison w i t h r e s u l t s o f Bickman's Study Factors I n f l u e n c i n g P e r c e p t i o n of A r c h i t e c t u r a l Atmosphere Satisfaction Students' A c t i v i t i e s : Results & Discussion V  DISCUSSIONS Comparison w i t h Bickman's Study Comparison w i t h t h e Study o f G e r s t & Sweetwood Impact of D e s i g n on B e h a v i o r and S o c i a l Network Design and F r i e n d s h i p P a t t e r n S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n R e s t r i c t e d Within the I n d i v i d u a l Quads Lack o f I n t t a - q u a d I n t e r a c t i o n Lack o f O p p o r t u n i t y o f L a r g e Group . Interaction D e s i g n and Student O r g a n i s a t i o n Effect of Structure Density Satisfaction Suites are not the Ultimate S o l u t i o n  VI EPILOGUE I m p l i c a t i o n o f D e s i g n on A r c h i t e c t u r a l Education L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study REFERENCES  76 90 90 100 114 114 115 118 119 120 122 124 125 126 130 137 139  139 142 145  APPENDICES A-  «' C«-  B  D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e W a l t e r Gage Residence with s i t e plan, tower-floor plans, p l a n o f common b u i l d i n g s , h o r i z o n t a l s e c t i o n , a r c h i t e c t ' s sketches 152 D e f i n i t i o n o f URES S u b s c a l e s 16 Sample Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 16  LIST OF Table 0 1 2 3 4a 4b 5 6a 6b 7 8 9  TABLES  Page  Sample and r e t u r n 58 Childhood Area 63 F a m i l y House L i v e d i n C h i l d h o o d 63 E x c l u s i v e Room as a c h i l d 64 Just previous Residence 64 P r e v i o u s off-campus R e s i d e n c e 65 R e s i d e n t s Length o f Stay i n Gage R e s i d e n c e 65 Mobility 66 Dependence on P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t 66 E l e c t r i c a l A p p l i a n c e s Owned 67 Trend o f s e l f - c h o s e n quad mates 68 R e s i d e n t s r a t i n g s o f importance o f reasons . f o r s e l e c t i n g Gage R e s i d e n c e 70 10 L i k e l y t o R e t u r n Next Year 11 L i k e l i h o o d of R e t u r n i n g t o same room o r quad 71 12 P r e f e r e n c e f o r Gage R e s i d e n c e as compared to other residence Previously l i v e d i n 72 13 O v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i v i n g i n Gage Residence 72 14 A r c h i t e c t u r a l P e r c e p t i o n as a f u n c t i o n o f low and h i g h URES s c o r e s i n Gage R e s i d e n c e 75 15 Mean R a t i n g s o f the Gage R e s i d e n c e by i t s own r e s i d e n t s as compared t o Bickman's Study 77 16 Measure o f T r u s t , H e l p i n g B e h a v i o r and S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f Gage R e s i d e n t s as compared to Bickman's Study 81 17 R e l a t i o n between b i o g r a p h i c background and t h e r e s i d e n t s ' n e g a t i v e r a t i n g on a r c h i t e c t u r a l atmosphere 18 R e l a t i o n between r e s i d e n t s ' s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a and t h e i r n e g a t i v e r a t i n g s on a r c h i t e c t u r a l atmosphere 85 19 R e l a t i o n between F r i e n d s h i p P a t t e r n and Architectural Perception 87 20 R e l a t i o n between s a t i s f a c t i o n and A r c h i t e c t u r a l 88 Perception 21 R e l a t i o n between D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and n e g a t i v e P e r c e p t i o n on A r c h i t e c t u r a l A t t r i b u t e s 90 22 A s p e c t s or f a c i l i t i e s m i s s e d by R e s i d e n t s 93 23 S a t i s f a c t i o n and p r e v i o u s p l a c e o f R e s i d e n c e 94 24 S a t i s f a c t i o n and C h i l d h o o d A r e a 94 25 S a t i s f a c t i o n and P o s s e s s i o n o f E l e c t r i c a l Appliances 95 26a S a t i s f a c t i o n and P e r s o n a l M o b i l i t y 96 26b S a t i s f a c t i o n and use o f P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t 96 27 S a t i s f a c t i o n and Tenure i n Gage R e s i d e n c e 97 28 S a t i s f a c t i o n and L i v i n g w i t h M u t u a l l y - c h o s e n quad mates 98 29 S a t i s f a c t i o n and F r i e n d s h i p w i t h i n quads 98 30 S a t i s f a c t i o n and F r i e n d s h i p w i t h o t h e r quad members 99  X  Table 31 S a t i s f a c t i o n and Mean URES Score 32a Average d a i l y time s p e n t by R e s i d e n t s i n P r i v a t e Study 32b Average d a i l y time spent i n s i d e i n d i v i d u a l Quads 32c Average d a i l y time spent i n s i d e quad lounges 32d Average d a i l y time s p e n t o u t s i d e quads b u t I n s i d e Residences . 32e Average d a i l y time s p e n t o u t s i d e R e s i d e n c e 33a S p a t i a l use o f Common Areas 33b Type o f use o f Common Areas 34 U s e r s ' P e r c e p t i o n o f P e r s o n a l Space and Territoriality  Page 100 ioi 102 102 103 105 105 108 109  LIST OF FIGURES Figures 1  2  Page  A G e n e r a l Model showing t h e r o l e o f Evaluation i n the Designing Process URES P r o f i l e s o f Gage R e s i d e n t s ' P e r c e p t i o n of S o c i a l C l i m a t e  9  74  3  Comparative P r o f i l e s o f Mean R a t i n g s on A r c h i t e c t u r a l Environment P e r c e p t i o n o f Gage R e s i d e n t s and t h a t o f Bickmans' Study 78  4  Average d a i l y time spent on v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s by a t y p i c a l Gage R e s i d e n t  104  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Illustration 1  2  Page  O u t s i d e view o f W a l t e r Gage R e s i d e n c e by day and n i g h t  34a  I n s i d e view o f Common Lounge, Main F l o o r , Common B l o c k  34b  3  I n s i d e view o f k i t c h e n - d i n i n g Lounge i n s i d e each quad 34c  4  I n s i d e view o f a t y p i c a l s i n g l e room  34d  xii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This research could not have been completed without the cooperation of many persons at the University of British Columbia who assisted me in various stages of this study.  I take this opportunity to acknowledge my  indebtedness and thanks to a l l of them.  At f i r s t , I wish to thank a l l the  residents in the Walter Gage Residence for their generous interest in and cooperation with this study.  The house advisors and the house staff of  the residence have a l l provided me with a wide range of ideas and suggestions while the staff of the offices of the Director of Residences of the University provided important s t a t i s t i c a l data for the study.  Both the members of my research advisory committee are deeply appreciated for their willingness to provide guidance.  Their keen  interest in my work and their sustained help and constructive criticism were most helpful.  Conceptual indebtedness i s due to Dr. Richard Seaton,  Associate Professor of the School of Architecture, University of British Columbia, from whom I learnt a great deal about the methods of this kind of survey research.  It was a pleasant and memorable experience to  work with him i n the design and planning of the survey.  I am grateful too  for his giving me every possible assistance and extending to me the financial support provided under Canada Council Research Grant // F74-0311 of which the Professor i s the principal investigator.  It covered the  expenses of this study just at the time when i t s v i a b i l i t y was most threatened due to my financial inadequacies.  My special thanks and gratitude are due to Mr. Wolfgang Gerson,  xiii  P r o f e s s o r i n Charge o f Graduate Program, S c h o o l . o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , UBC who h e l p e d me i n f o r m u l a t i n g the i n i t i a l  concept o f t h e study and gave i n v a l u -  a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s i n c l a r i f y i n g many i s s u e s w h i l e w r i t i n g the t e x t .  He  n u r t u r e d the v i s i o n and p h i l o s o p h i c a l a s p e c t o f my r e s e a r c h and gave l i b e r a l a c c e s s t o h i s busy s c h e d u l e .  Dr. John B. C o l l i n s m e r i t s  mention, f o r h i s v e r y v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s i n the i n i t i a l r e s e a r c h study. ing  Dr. B r i a n L i t t l e ' s e x t r e m e l y  special  s t a g e s o f my  c a p t i v a t i n g and b r a i n s t o r m -  l e c t u r e s on the course o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y were t h e f o u n d a t i o n  on which many concepts and measures o f my r e s e a r c h a r e based.  Over the y e a r s I g a i n e d c e r t a i n i d e a s and c o n c e p t s w h i c h have been i n f l u e n c i a l i n t h i s study.  That I have n o t g i v e n s p e c i f i c c r e d i t I s no  measure o f any major i n t e l l e c t u a l debts t o i t s o r i g i n a t o r . expressed here a r e those o f many promulgators  The views  of B e h a v i o r a l Science  such  as Roger B a r k e r , R. S t u d e r , C h r i s t o p h e r A l e x a n d e r , Rene Dubos, C h a r l e s B u r n e t t e , J o n Lang, G a r r y W i n k e l , Robert Gutman, S t a n l e y Milgram, Proshansky,  Edward H a l l , Leon F e s t i n g e r and Robert  Sommer.  and Sweetwood, R. Moos, Henry S a n o f f , Robert H e r s h b e r g e r ,  Harold  Marvin  Gerst,  L . Bickman,  J u d i t h C o r b e t t , M a r t i n H e i l w e i l , J . K l e i n and Henry S e a r s , Sim Van d e r Ryne and M. S i l v e r s t e i n a r e the o r i g i n a l s p r i n g s from which I have drawn much of  what I have t o say.  I n more ways than I can count, t h i s r e s e a r c h owes  more t o them than anyone e l s e .  I hope the p a r e n t s o f these  and words w i l l n o t mind t h a t I have adopted many o f t h e i r and i n c l u d e d them i n t o my  concepts  brainchildren  text.  G r a t e f u l acknowledgement i s made o f the f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t t h a t me t o s u s t a i n the study and the p r e p a r a t i o n o f the r e p o r t .  enabled  T h i s was  xiv  provided by the President's Award O f f i c e , UBC i n the form of Graduate Fellowship and Summer Research Grant.  I also take this opportunity  to express my indebtedness to Calcutta Metropolitan Planning Organisation (CMPO), Govt, of West Bengal, India who sponsored me with a Ford Foundation Grant f o r study/training abroad.  I thankfully acknowledge the assistance received from Mr. Jason Halm of Computing Centre UBC, i n preparing the s p e c i f i c a t i o n f o r the MVTAB Program.  My thanks are also due to Mr. Jim Anderson, Teaching Assistant  of the English Department, and Mr. Rod B o r r i e r , a Ph.D. candidate of the Psychology Department, both of t h i s University f o r reading my o r i g i n a l manuscripts and giving me many valuable suggestions on organising and presenting the survey r e s u l t s .  Miss Rosalind Bailey d i d miracles i n  ryping and retyping my o r i g i n a l manuscripts i n c l u d i n g the f i n a l report which she completed within a very b r i e f period.  In conclusion I may be allowed the personal p r i v i l e g e of extending a s p e c i a l note 6 f thanks to my wife, Sanghamitra and our c h i l d r e n , who bore p a t i e n t l y the years and months of the entire study programme i n this university that culminated i n preparation of this monograph.  She  welcomed a l l the odds and strains and equally shared with my personal s a c r i f i c e with an eager expectation to i t s s u c c e s s f u l completion, while my children very generously excused me from many outdoor play sessions. Without t h e i r support and personal encouragement, t h i s study program would never have been completed.  L a s t l y , the entire r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for i t s remaining errors and omissions must be mine.  XV  "Man -inhabits two worlds. animals j of soils  and airs  and artifacts  engines^ his science  The search for himself. believe  It  a part. he builds  and his  to human purpose and  the natural  world of plants  and waters which -preceded him by  of years and of which he is institutions  One is  The other is for himself3  dreams to fashion  billions  the world of using his  and  tools  an environment  social and  obedient  direction.  a better-managed  human society  is  as old as man  is rooted in the nature of human experience.  they can be happy.  They experience  comfort3  security3  mental vigour3  intellectual  peace of soul3  bodily  They seek to embody them in their human  3  poetic  joyful  participation3  rest.  discovery  Men  insight3  enviTonment . . . "  Barbara  Ward and Bene Dubos  in "Only One Earth - Care and Maintenance of a Small Planet." W. W. Norton & Co. Inc. 3 New Jork3 1972.  1.  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  INTRODUCTION  How man perceives his designed environment, how he adapts to i t i n the spatial context, and reciprocates i t on the basis of his environmental assessments are matters of increasing moment to scholars, researchers and decision-makers of the developed nations i n the Western World.  Writers,  artists, designers, composers and poets have a l l explored, i n their own way, this aspect of human ecology i n the study of man's interaction with his near environment.  Contributions to the understanding of environ-  mental perception and behavior have increased' rapidly in recent years. Nevertheless, the authorities i n this f i e l d themselves confess that the cumulative output of a l l the scholarly researches done so far has only begun to skim the surface of the complex relations which man has with his physical environment.  The term "environment"itself, has, as a result, taken on an added meaning:  i t i s now f e l t to incorporate every aspect of our physical and  social surroundings, from the dimensions of a room to the earth as a whole.  Man's near environment includes the architectural design of his own neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s , housing, home furnishing, household equipment, clothing and textiles, food and family.  The colours, forms, textures or  shapes, noises, odours, humidity, temperatures and pressures emanating from this physical environment may be viewed as environmental structures to which man as an organism reacts and reciprocates through his behavioral responses.  These responses may be physiological in nature or may involve  mental, social or emotional behavior.  Designers of physical environment  have only recently started recognizing the infinite variety of and complex  3.  relationship between  the processes of environmental behavior and the  concerns of architecture.  Although there is a growing awareness of the  relevance of the study of the behavioral sciences to architecture, crystallization of theories has yet to take place in order to apply the i l l defined concepts and research techniques of these sciences to actual design projects.  From the design professionals' viewpoint, research i n  this f i e l d has yet to prove i t s usefulness and applicability i n everyday design solution. (Lang, et a l , 1974 p. 223).  The motivation underlying the present investigation springs from the author's conviction that there exists a subtle inter-relationship between man's perception of his micro-environment and his behavior.  The author  also believes that architecturally-designed environment, throughout history has played a dominant role ( i f not determined) both i n facilitating, profoundly influencing and in some instances limiting behavioral  patterns.  As stated by Hans Blumenfeld (1971):  The man-made or-man-modified physical environment i s the effect rather than the cause of the quality of the l i f e of human society. But the physical environment reacts on the social, indirectly influencing i t by limiting or facilitating, human relations. In addition i t has a direct influence on health and may have through i t s aesthetic aspects, an influence on happiness (p- .505). Through conscious, rational architectural design, the "potential" architectural environment, by i t s symbolic content, can be a major soclocultural artifact or "effective" environment. (Gans,1968) Recoginising the part played by architecture i n the transformation of the environment, Lewis Mumford (1938) said:  "This arises . . . because architecture reflects and focusae  such a wide variety of social facts."  Conversely, i t can greatly inhibit  man's socio-cultural activities and hinder communication processes, that  4  form the basis of social l i f e .  The after-effects of the man-made environ-  ment and i t s design impact on man has been picturesquely expressed in Winston Churchill's statement that "We shape our buildings and afterwards our buildings shape us."  Buckminster Fuller has almost amplified the  same sssumpticn in his statement; (Fuller 1970). Man i s not unique i n having altered his environment. A l l living creatures alter environment in one way or another, and then altered environment alters them back. There i s a chain reaction that goes on, giving rise to what we c a l l evolution. And not only living creatures but every physical plant system gives off energies entropically, and thereby alters the environment (p. 4). Hence the functional goal of architecture i s to provide structured spaces through environmental layouts or design "forms" and objects which: 1) support the physiological states required by people to achieve their goals;  2) provide, and allow people to interact and perceive opportuni-  ties for the meaningful and beneficial behavior patterns and activities required by them to achieve their goals;  3) provide for the mental and  emotional states necessary for people to achieve their goals by f u l f i l l i n g certain symbolic, esthetic and ambient functions.  However,, the enlarged scope of environmental definition, in recent years, i s both a product and a cause of converging disciplinary interests - those of architects, designers, social psychologists, behaviora l scientists, planners and geographers.  A study of this nature, which  seeks to illuminate the interrelationship between man's behavior and his designed ambiance needs to be explored from a special vantage point.  A  multi-disciplinary approach, encompassing many converging academic fields, such as Space  and Behavioral Science, Biological Science, Physical Science  and Humanities, i s essential;  the emerging f i e l d of Environmental Psycho-  logy i s especially pertinent to a study of this kind.  It promises to  5  o r g a n i s e and c o o r d i n a t e the d i f f u s e s t u d i e s t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y understanding  f o r proper  o f complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a manner t h a t w i l l be o f  special interest  t o a r c h i t e c t s and d e s i g n e r s .  the p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l  Proshansky (1970) comments upon  psychology  f o r the d e s i g n  profession: The fundamental s i g n i f i c a n c e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l psychology f o r the d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n has i n i t s p o t e n t i a l c a p a c i t y to p r o v i d e a body o f knowledge - c o n c e p t u a l and e m p i r i c a l - f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between human b e h a v i o r and e x p e r i e n c e and the b u i l t environment (Lange, e t a l , pp. 74, 7 7 ) . G i v e n such a body o f knowledge, a r c h i t e c t s and d e s i g n e r s w i l l have some r e a s o n a b l e b a s i s f o r t h e i r d e s i g n d e c i s i o n s .  A s i d e from t h e i r b u i l d i n g and p r o v i s i o n o f a body o f knowledge, environmental  d e s i g n r e s e a r c h meets an i m p e r a t i v e need o f the d e s i g n  p r o f e s s i o n f o r the d e s i g n e v a l u a t i o n .  One o f the most common c r i t i c i s m s r a i s e d a g a i n s t t h e a r c h i t e c t s i s that  they have been e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y r e l u c t a n t t o welcome any s c i e n t i f i c  a n a l y s i s o r d e s i g n e v a l u a t i o n based on s y s t e m a t i c and d i s c i p l i n e d methodo l o g i e s , i n o r d e r t o t e s t the v a l i d i t y and e f f i c a c y o f t h e i r Many a r c h i t e c t s a p p a r e n t l y , s t i l l  designs.  c o n t i n u e t o remain r o m a n t i c a l l y -  i n c l i n e d a r t i s t s o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w o r l d o f f a n t a s y .  They f a v o r  c a s u a l p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n as a s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n p u t and f o l l o w unsystematic  d e s i g n approaches based on dubious and u n t e s t e d  about human b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s . castigate architects f o r relying  C l i e n t s and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s ,  wary o f e f f o r t s  (Broady,1968) o f t  too much on i n d i v i d u a l hunches, dubious  guesswork and p e r s o n a l i n t u i t i o n s . been extremely  assumptions  I t i s said  t h a t a r c h i t e c t s have always  t o a n a l y z e and understand  t h e i r methods o f  6  d e s i g n i n g - an u n e a s i n e s s  to a n a l y s e , stemming a p p a r e n t l y from a f e a r  t h a t s c i e n t i f i c and f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s w i l l hamper  creativity.  C o n v e r s e l y , we hear o f a r c h i t e c t s who ask about t h e i r c l i e n t s and u s e r s p a t e r n a l i s t i c a l l y and a r r o g a n t l y - "Why a r e p e o p l e so s t u b b o r n o r misguided  as n o t to use the p l a c e s and spaces we d e s i g n e i t h e r n o t a t  a l l o r i n the wrong way".  Although  i t i s difficult  to d e t e c t whose  f a u l t i t i s , we can s u r e l y say t h a t t h i s i s an u n f o r t u n a t e , though a common, example o f the communication gap w h i c h e x i s t s between t h e d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n and t h e u s e r s and/or c l i e n t s .  There seems to have been g r e a t  d i s p a r i t y between the f u n c t i o n a l s u c c e s s o f b u i l d i n g d e s i g n and t h e u s e r s ' acceptance  of s a t i s f a c t i o n with i t .  This i l l u s t r a t e s  the d i f f i c -  u l t y a r c h i t e c t s have had i n p r e d i c t i n g the outcome o f d e s i g n s - t h e i r impact  on p e o p l e - w i t h any r e a s o n a b l e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a c c u r a c y .  reasons  The  f o r t h i s a r e d i v e r s e , b u t have to do b a s i c a l l y w i t h the changing  n a t u r e o f the a r c h i t e c t u r a l c l i e n t .  The p r o b a b i l i t y o f s u c c e s s d e c l i n e s  w i t h the growing d i v e r s i t y o r h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f c l i e n t groups,  and t h e  s h i f t i n g o f needs over time from those r e l a t e d  shelter  to p h y s i o l o g y ,  and s e c u r i t y toward h i g h e r o r d e r needs o f s e l f - e s t e e m and s e l f - a c t u a l isation.  (Maslow,1943)  In an e r a o f r a p i d t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, man's r e l a t i o n s h i p t h i n g s i n an i n d u s t r i a l i s e d s o c i e t y i s h i g h l y temporary. architects  ( T o f f l e r , 1970) Even  know l e s s and l e s s about the ways i n which t h e i r  o r d e s i g n s o l u t i o n s w i l l be used i n the f u t u r e .  with  products  To quote Sommer: (1972)  L i k e a l l c r e a t i v e a r t s , a r c h i t e c t u r e i s p e r c e i v e d , e x p e r i e n c e d and e v a l u a t e d i n the f o u r t h dimension o f a changing time frame. Time has i t s own r e l e v a n c e and i s a major c o n s t i t u e n t o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e and b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n .  7  P e o p l e ' s r e a c t i o n to a p a r t i c u l a r b u i l d i n g i s i n f l u e n c e d by the p a s t , the p r e s e n t , and the f u t u r e as w e l l as by i t s p h y s i c a l dimension, c o l o u r , t e x t u r e , m a t e r i a l , form and s t y l e .  Whether o r n o t and  p l a c e may  be  a building i s perceived  as a p p r o p r i a t e  i m p o r t a n t to the u s e r ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n .  to the  time  Architectural  d e s i g n i s bound to have an a p p r e c i a b l e  impact - both p o s i t i v e and  The  a l l o w e d to be p e r p e t u a t e d i n  n e g a t i v e impact however, cannot be  future projects the  c a t e r i n g to s i m i l a r needs.  c l i e n t s , a r c h i t e c t s and  the  Hence i t i s i m p o r t a n t  u s e r s s h o u l d share the b e n e f i t of  something from the p r o c e s s o f e v a l u a t i o n . As of users'  I t has  c o n t r i b u t i o n towards the p o t e n t i a l e f f i c a c y o f the f u t u f e  necessity  follow-up studies between the  of  serious.  the b u i l d i n g i n a c t i o n may  c l i e n t ' s goals  and  design  those o f the  D e s i g n e r s , l i k e the p r e s c r i b i n g o f new  but  to c a t c h  In a r c h i t e c t u r e , r e v e a l any  been d e f i n e d by  criteria  adequacy and  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s a n i t a r y and  f i x t u r e s , s a f e t y from f i r e h a z a r d s and  the  d i s e a s e - f i g h t i n g drugs i n the  the  unintended  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the  h o u s i n g p r o j e c t adopted by  s t r a t i o n has  present  users.  consequences o f the b u i l t environments they d e s i g n . any  so  conflict  m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n , must i n v e s t i g a t e the i n t e n d e d as w e l l as  methods o f e v a l u a t i n g  the  check-up, which i s taken not  much to a s c e r t a i n the outcome o f a s u r g i c a l o p e r a t i o n problems i n time b e f o r e they become too  next  a positive  i t s o b j e c t i v e i s analogous to  of a p a t i e n t ' s p e r i o d i c h e a l t h  learning  promises t h a t the  p r o d u c t w i l l be more r e f i n e d towards p e r f e c t i o n .  A c c o r d i n g to him,  that  Sommer (1972) s a i d e v a l u a t i o n  s a t i s f a c t i o n adds to the knowledge and  programming.  negative.  the housing  admini-  such as degree o f d i l a p i d a t i o n , plumbing, h e a t i n g ,  the d e n s i t y  electrical  o r the degree o f  crowding.  8  However, i n the c o n t e x t o f the changed l e v e l o f u s e r s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n these c r i t e r i a a r e no l o n g e r  sufficient.  Purpose o f E v a l u a t i o n : The purpose o f s y s t e m a t i c e v a l u a t i o n i s to determine users' reaction  on the b a s i s o f  whether o r n o t a d e s i g n has s a t i s f a c t o r i l y met i t s  purpose o r s o l v e d t h e u s e r ' s needs, o v e r a p e r i o d o f time. feed-back  I t provides  t o the d e s i g n e r t o t e s t the v a l i d i t y o f h i s p r e v i o u s  assumptions and to a s s i s t him i n h i s f u t u r e d e s i g n . thus s e r v e s b o t h as a feed-back  design  Building evaluation  and f e e d - f o r w a r d mechanism.  i n c r e a s e s o u r knowledge o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems and t h e i r  It solutions.  E v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s compare i n t e n d e d use and f u n c t i o n w i t h a c t u a l use o f a facility,  the l e v e l o f u s e r ' s comfort  and a d a p t a t i o n , the f r u s t r a t i o n  o f a u s e r ' s d e s i r e d a c t i v i t i e s and t h e r e c o g n i s a b i l i t y o f the i n t e n d e d environemntal  The  image.  importance  when he s t a t e s :  o f d e s i g n e v a l u a t i o n i s a l s o emphasised by Henry S a n o f f  ( S a n o f f , 1968)  In a r c h i t e c t u r e today, e v a l u a t i o n i s the m i s s i n g l i n k i n the d e s i g n process. E v a l u a t i o n , programming and d e s i g n i n g a r e t h e l i n k e d a c t i v i t i e s drawing i n f o r m a t i o n from a s y s t e m a t i c l o o k a t how p e o p l e use e x i s t i n g environment. A n a l y s i n g e x i s t i n g environments l e a d s to programming. I t i s time, t h e r e f o r e t h a t the a r c h i t e c t conduct h i s own s u r v e y s i n t o how p e o p l e use t h e i r environment, what they l i k e and d i s l i k e about i t and what k i n d o f environment they would p r e f e r (p.  The  i m p o r t a n t p l a c e and the f u n c t i o n o f e v a l u a t i o n i n the g e n e r a l  model o f the e n t i r e d e s i g n i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1 . suggested  by many p r e v i o u s a u t h o r s  I t has been  t h a t the e v a l u a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s the  f i n a l phase o f the p r o c e s s o f d e s i g n i n g and s h o u l d be a s t a n d a r d p a r t o f the a r c h i t e c t ' s a c t i v i t i e s .  I f e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s a r e to be  worthwhile,  Figure  INTELLIGENCE  DESIGN  Sketching of Development of a r c h i t e c t u r a l ] alternative program -^solutions  1  CHOICE  IMPLEMENTATION  Selection of b e s t alternative!.  Working drawings,] specifications, contracting, construction  EVALUATION  jjEvaluation o f •building i n use 'and p r o c e s s o f (design used  Theory building f o r future designing  Correction of f a u l t s i n design  A G e n e r a l Model o f the D e s i g n i n g P r o c e s s  [Source:  A Model o f t h e D e s i g n i n g Programme by John Lang:  Designed  f o r Human B e h a v i o r pp. 45]  10  they must produce information that architects can use to improve their future work. theories.  They must also contribute to a r c h i t e c t u r a l design  Architecture being a stationary product and anchored to the  earth, i t s evaluation i s necessary a f t e r the building has been i n use f o r some time.  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y necessary f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l architecture  which (according to Sociologist Robert Somer, 1972) business - the consumer (user) i s not the purchaser  i s l i k e a pet food ( c l i e n t ) and unless  the consumer becomes i l l or b i t e s the purchaser, there i s n ' t going to be much change.  Nevertheless, the user's evaluation does not n e c e s s a r i l y  mean that the customer i s always r i g h t , or vox pbpuli, vox del;  some  e f f o r t should be made to see how s a t i s f a c t o r y a building i s from the standpoint of the d i f f e r e n t people involved.  The designers should be  s c e p t i c a l of design approaches that r e l y t o t a l l y on users' responses. Evaluation should suggest which decisions are best l e f t to building users and what p h y s i c a l framework w i l l best be decided by planners.  ?  User s a t i s -  f a c t i o n i s the most coveted reward to the a r c h i t e c t - i t should be cherished f a r more ardently than that which he might receive from the sophisticated judgement of a panel of h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l colleagues. Robert Gutman and B. Westerguard (1966)  have c l e a r l y summed up the  problems of b u i l d i n g evaluations.  D i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n evaluation  studies derive from the following:  the l e s s e r importance of the b u i l t -  environment r e l a t i v e to other factores;  the p r i m i t i v i s m of t h e o r e t i c a l  notions about man-environmental r e l a t i o n s ; v a r i a t i o n found i n response  to the b u i l t environment;  whose s a t i s f a c t i o n i s being talked about; at which evaluation i s made; evaluate.  the large degree of personal the need to specify  the need to specify the time  and the establishment of the proper unit to  11  Background o f the Study: The W a l t e r b u i l t on  Gage Residence i s a group of h i g h - r i s e coed d o r m i t o r i e s  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Campus.  i m a t e l y 1200  I t houses approx-  s i n g l e s t u d e n t s which i s more than a t h i r d of on-campus  student p o p u l a t i o n .  Opened i n 1972,  of n i n e m i l l i o n d o l l a r s .  I t has  the Residence was  b u i l t a t the c o s t  a p p a r e n t l y been r e c o g n i s e d as  s a t i s f a c t o r y outcome o f a f r e s h and u n c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o v i d e s s t u d e n t s w i t h an a l t e r n a t i v e  the  d e s i g n concept,  ( s u i t e type) l i f e - s t y l e .  which  Its  d e s i g n program i s s a i d to have been drawn from the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups. announce t h a t t h e r e was aware) and  t h a t i t was  precedents  existed.  S e v e r a l news items  The U n i v e r s i t y a u t h o r i t y took p r i d e t o  n o t h i n g e l s e l i k e i t i n Canada (as f a r as they were a unique example o f s t u d e n t  i n the c i t y ' s two  r e s i d e n c e f o r which no  l o c a l newspapers have h e a d l i n e d  the q u a l i t y of l i v i n g i n the Gage R e s i d e n c e on  the UBC  campus.  The  papers r e p o r t e d the s t u d e n t s ' h i g h o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n i n l i v i n g i n the r e s i d e n c e and h a i l e d the a r c h i t e c t s ' d e s i g n and  the a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s honest  d e s i r e to s a t i s f y s t u d e n t s ' needs f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e d e s i g n  I n due student by  time i t has  a c t u a l l y p r o v e d to be  accommodation among a m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s .  the l o n g w a i t i n g - l i s t o f p r o s p e c t i v e student  w e l l have l e f t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f e e l i n g has  the most  sought-after This i s  complacent).  community, as w e l l as i n the s u r r o u n d i n g  have been c o m p l a i n t s  about some of i t s severe  evidenced  r e s i d e n t s , (which might However, the  a l s o taken note o f the b i t t e r r e a c t i o n s t h i s d e s i g n has  the s t u d e n t  concept.  author  c r e a t e d among  neighbourhood.  l i m i t a t i o n s and some  There  d i s c u s s i o n o f the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a s p e c t s o f l i v i n g  there.  Study R a t i o n a l e  The s t u d y i s b e i n g i n i t i a t e d o u t o f the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t s t u d e n t s ' residence p l a y a very important r o l e i n students' l i f e university.  and work a t the  As observed by K l i e n and S e a r s : (1969)  Students a r e a t u n i v e r s i t y f o r a v e r y s h o r t p e r i o d i n t h e i r l i v e s . I t i s a unique and c r i t i c a l time f o r them. I t i s not o n l y what they l e a r n t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t . The ways i n which they l e a r n , the ways i n which they mature, the ways i n which they a c q u i r e b o t h t h e i r wisdom and t h e i r s k i l l s , w i l l have a p r o f o u n d impact upon them and, as they move through l i f e and s o c i e t y , among the p o e p l e and community around them . . . How a s t u d e n t l i v e s i s important to h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l and e m o t i o n a l development. L i v i n g i s l e a r n i n g and housing p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n e n r i c h i n g the l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e , o r i n l i m i t i n g it . . . L e a r n i n g b e g i n s where we a r e - p h y s i c a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y (p. v ) . •  The  r a t i o n a l e o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e s e a r c h i s based on the r e s e a r c h e r ' s  c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e has been f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a l investment  and bonanza o f e n t h u s i a s m  b e h i n d b u i l d i n g t h e s e on-campus  student r e s i d e n c e s , l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been devoted the impact  the d e s i g n o f these b u i l d i n g s may  b e h a v i o r and a t t i t u d e s . members have appeared  financial  to i n v e s t i g a t e  have on the r e s i d e n t s '  A r c h i t e c t s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and u s e r s ' committee  t o be m a i n l y concerned w i t h the a e s t h e t i c s  economics o f the d e s i g n w i t h o u t g i v i n g any  c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the  and social  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l consequences the d e s i g n might have on i t s f u t u r e occupants.  The  a u t h o r b e l i e v e s t h a t the c l i e n t s o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s some-  times b r i n g f o r w a r d o n e - s i d e d o b j e c t i v e s - t h e i r d e s i r e to maximise such matters  as maintenance e f f i c i e n c y o r d o l l a r - r e t u r n on investment  s e c u r i t y , may  have caused  or  them to n e g l e c t o r d i s r e g a r d o t h e r o b j e c t i v e s  13.  which ought to have h i g h e r p r i o r i t y .  S a t i s f a c t i o n and complacency of  o c c u p a n t s must be r e c o g n i s e d to be as important  the  as economic c r i t e r i a i n  the development of d e s i g n programmes.  I t i s important  to study  the a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n w i l l  these r e s i d e n c e s because the i n f l u e n c e s o f l a s t a t l e a s t f i f t y y e a r s - the u s u a l  terms o f the b u i l d i n g mortgage - f a r l o n g e r than any a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s tenure. develops  F u r t h e r , the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c l i m a t e t h a t u s u a l l y i n a t y p i c a l student r e s i d e n c e must be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d  maximise the a r c h i t e c t u r a l p o t e n t i a l s f o r the s t u d e n t s ' and general goals.  The  to  the U n i v e r s i t y ' s  a l t e r n a t i v e i s to l e a v e t h i n g s to chance, and  to  c u s t o d i a l o r v i s u a l - r a t h e r than f u n c t i o n a l - c o n c e r n s .  As w i t h former r e s i d e n c e s on the campus, t h e r e i s e v e r y i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y might be d e s i g n concept needs. its  Any  i d e n t i c a l l y with  tempted to r e p e a t t h i s  contemporary  the i n t e n t i o n o f meeting f u t u r e h o u s i n g  s h o r t term e v a l u a t i o n o f a two  y e a r o l d r e s i d e n c e to  f u n c t i o n a l e f f i c a c y o r the s a t i s f a c t i o n i t generates  bound to be l i m i t e d i n e x t e n t and v a l i d i t y . e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h an a p p a r e n t l y imposing may  positive  b i a s the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' v i s i o n .  i n users i s  Nevertheless,  without  f a c a d e of s u c c e s s and p o p u l a r i t y  The U n i v e r s i t y a u t h o r i t y may  l o o k the f o l l i e s o r d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the d i s i g n which can o n l y be through  a rational evaluation.  test  detected  I f the U n i v e r s i t y a u t h o r i t y acknowledges  t h a t s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e s are e x p e c t e d  to f u l f i l l  some r o l e i n academic,  i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l development, then t h e r e i s an urgent need to a c l o s e r l o o k a t a l l the a s p e c t s o f the d e s i g n o f the e x i s t i n g and  over-  take  residence  to encourage a s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h and s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s b a s e d  on  u s e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n s to a s c e r t a i n how i t s proper  role,  The  there i s l i t t l e  f a r the d e s i g n has  been a b l e to  a u t h o r i t y s h o u l d be p r u d e n t enough to r e a l i s e  j u s t i f i c a t i o n for accepting  the d e s i g n b l i n d l y as  u l t i m a t e a r c h e t y p a l s o l u t i o n to the d e s i g n o f f u t u r e student As  C h r i s t o p h e r A l e x a n d e r has  t h a t man  fulfil  i s so a d a p t i v e  that  the  residences.  s u g g e s t e d , i t i s n o t w o r t h w h i l e to presume  and m a l l e a b l e  t h a t he  can accomodate h i m s e l f  any k i n d o f p h y s i c a l d e s i g n w i t h o u t  significant alteration i n either  s o c i a l and b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s , nor  can  t h e r e be any  guarantee  that  to  an  a r c h i t e c t ' s i n t u i t i o n and p r e d i c t i o n about s u i t a b i l i t y of space w i l l serve d i v e r s e r e s i d e n t s e q u a l l y w e l l a g a i n s t the background o f an s o c i a l m i l i e u and  changing customs. (Gerson,  There i s the p o s s i b i l i t y may  1970)  t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y campus, i n the f u t u r e ,  be exposed to changing s e t s o f s t u d e n t v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and  styles.  I t may  t r a d i t i o n a l design  Igoe low at  concepts may  and such events may  of the p r e s e n t  time.  be u n f o r s e e a b l e  to the b e s t  p r o j e c t i n S t . L o u i s , USA  M a s s a c h u s e t t s , Amherst - USA  and  - where s t u d e n t s  for  nondesigns  prognosticators Pruitt-  i n the s t u d e n t  housing  a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f n o t o n l y had  expressed  t h e i r h i g h d e n s i t y , h i g h - r i s e d o r m i t o r i e s , but were  moving out of them a t a r a t e t h a t t h r e a t e n e d housing  or  be adopted which make contemporary  the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y  d i s a t i s f a c t i o n with  New  T h i s i s what happened i n the i l l - f a t e d  income housing  the s t u d e n t  life-  a l s o be s u s c e p t i b l e to v i o l e n t demands from s t u d e n t s  e x t e n s i v e p h y s i c a l change i n the l i v i n g environment.  obsolete,  emerging  facility.  the f i n a n c i a l v i a b i l i t y  of  Justification of Selection of, .the Problem; The relative homogeneity of the student population makes any research on student residence worthwhile with relation to man-environment study. Variables such as age, educational background, nationality, and certain common socio-economic, cultural and subcultural characteristics of young student residents are roughly univariant with population.  This  helps i n a survey to reduce uncontrolled variables or wide variation i n responses of particular interest.  Any comprehensive examination of the problems inside a student residence i s bound to take the serious investigator into complex and larger environmental issues (e.g. the problem of youth unrest, student subcultures, the current problem of housing economics, the p o l i t i c s of students' organisation, or University administration, future housing programs and policies).  These are not directly related to, but can  profoundly influence, the design program and can influence, moreover, the outcome of architectural projects i n student housing.  However, these  larger environmental issues are beyond the scope of this study.  Nevertheless, the merit of this study l i e s i n the excellent opportunity to test without serious interruption, the behavioral implications of design of contemporary example of student residence, i n a micro-scale environment.  Furthermore, easy accessibility to a friendly and coopera-  tive fragment of the on-campus student community was considered to be an added asset.  This single study cannot claim to embrace a l l the possible aspects  of this student residence, nor does i t pose to provide the panacea to the design solution.  However, i t i s hoped that i t might provide some  useful information to the University administration and to the users' committee.  It may provide a basis for the evolution of design c r i t e r i a  to meet future needs i n student housing.  It might also provide some  useful groundwork upon which further research may be carried out that would help to clarify future design objectives.  Review of Literature  Science i s a cumulative endeavour.  If our knowledge i s to grow  rapidly, then we must incorporate i n our work the findings and procedures of other investigators.  In addition to providing substantive knowledge available on any given topic, a review of the scholarly literature relative to any research undertaking helps the researcher to get acquainted with the unique techniques and methodological procedures which have been used at other times.  It  i s interesting to know how other investigators have measured the key terms, what strategies or research designs they have employed, type and size of sample and questionnaire developed and what statistical techniques they have used to analyse the results.  Not only i s i t much more pleasant  to learn from other's errors than from one's own, i t i s also eminently sensible to profit from other's methodological successes.  Any close observation of the behavior of the inhabitants in physical setting demonstrates the fact that the place influences behavior.  The  designer, i f he i s aware of the kinds of spaces and setting he i s creating, can reinforce the conduct of the user of space either negatively or positively.  The way a design influences the behavior of the occupants  of space i s very complex, because the interactions of people and physical settings are d i f f i c u l t to measure.  The research methods and measurement  techniques used i n this kind of research are complex, but the pursuit of man-environment studies must be pursued both for i t s understanding of behavior and as a tool for environmental designers.  18.  P r o b a b l y Robert E z r a Park was b e h a v i o r i s m " and In 1916,  City:  t h e o r i s t of " e c o l o g i c a l  term " e n v i r o n m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y . "  Park suggested with h i s p r o p h e t i c  e n t i t l e d "The in  i n v e n t o r o f the  the f i r s t  i n s i g h t i n one  the environment as a s t i m u l u s  began to t h i n k i n terms o f  f o r b e h a v i o r and  environment upon the b e h a v i o r o f man.  to measure the e f f e c t s of  A p a r t from g r e a t  P a t r i c k Geddes (1917) and Lewis Mumford (1938) who  in  contributions  are r e g a r d e d as  of  two  i n the concept o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r m i n i s m " j L o u i s W i r t h ' s work  this subject  c e r t a i n l y d e s e r v e s mention.  The  s t r u c t u r e s s e t s the stage f o r man's s o c i a l l i f e t i o n was  of h i s essays,  Suggestions f o r the I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Human B e h a v i o r  the Urban Environment", t h a t p s y c h o l o g i s t s  pioneers  (Bell,1973)  e x p r e s s e d i n h i s works (1938).  p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g on human b e h a v i o r has  notion  and  t h a t the p h y s i c a l  psychological disposi-  However, the i n f l u e n c e of been b e s t u n d e r s t o o d and  the  studied  by Roger B a r k e r whose d e s c r i p t i o n o f the concept of e c o l o g i c a l p s y c h o l o g y , published  i n 1968,  has  been the b a s i s f o r e x t e n s i v e  recent  research.  L a t e r i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l as j o i n t work Raymond S t u d e r and (1966) for in and  c l a i m t h a t b e h a v i o r a l needs p r o v i d e  design,  and  behavioral  t h a t problems i n d e s i g n  terms.  They e v o l v e d  synthesising behavioral  the o n l y r e a s o n a b l e  are m e a n i n g f u l o n l y when  a program f o r s y m b o l i c a l l y  requirements i n t o a f o r m a l  Barkeri  Studer b e l i e v e s  b e h a v i o r s and He  of b e h a v i o r s e t t i n g s and  t h a t environment d e s i g n  system and  ments which are  t r e a t e d as  the and  stimuli. behavioral  proposed a methodology f o r d e s i g n i n g  conceptualised  illu-  i s the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f  a l s o o u t l i n e d the b a s i c i m p l i c a t i o n s of the u t i l i z a t i o n o f and  formulated  the l a t e r works o f A l e x a n d e r  t h a t p a r t s of the environment can be  s e t t i n g s i n the d e s i g n ,  basis  representing  s t r a t e d i t w i t h s e v e r a l examples which were r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o establishment  David  environ-  as dynamic systems c a p a b l e of moving toward  Stea  19.  more appropriate states.  He has outlined a process for design which  includes an information and control system as integral components.  Christopher Alexander and his colleagues have advocated several fascinating design concepts (1970) on the basis of behavioral setting which are to be augmented with participation by residents in the design process.  Alexander invented a vocabulary to identify the psychological,  cultural and social requirements of the environment. language which describes behavior i n design terms.  This i s a pattern The patterns are  design components which are defined analytically and which are combined and arranged into forms that f i t .  It can be used to describe a l l  possible designs for the environment.  Constance Perin's highly readable book (1970) about this important subject dealt with how concepts from behavioral sciences can bring a central concern for human behavior and development to environmental design. She has suggested the prospectus although not i n specifics that new theories of design need to encompass concepts developed in behavioral disciplines.  She considers the design program as central - as a set of  behavior criteria, as a representation of the values of the ultimate user and as a subject of research before the ultimate design i s undertaken. She also suggests post construction evaluations to assess the fulfilment of behavioral expectations.  The work of Wolfgang Preiser (1972) deserves mention in this context. As a part of his valuable contribution i n this f i e l d , he undertook several case studies to analyse how poeple react to and interact in specific spaces,  20.  observing the time, frequency, duration,, location of stationary and moving subjects, body postures, etc.  His concern was whether these  spaces facilitated a desirable diversity of behavior categories. studies concluded with useful suggestions to designers.  His  Among works of  several social psychologists who did individual survey research on the relationship between the works of Leon Festinger, William Whyte, Herbert Gans, William Michelson, Suzanne Keller deserve mention.  They  have a l l investigated the residential grouping as setting for social interactions.  Festinger and his colleagues studied the housing projects in  Massachussets Institute of Technology, Boston, inhabited by students and their families.  Basic concern in this study was building orientations  related to face to face groups function.  Their study reveals the  dependence of friendship formation cooperation and comradeship on the proximity and functional distance i.e. (layout), physical formation of houses.  They studied how membership in groups and their intercommuni-  cation affected people's attitudes and behaviors. technique i s simple, ingenious and original.  Their research  Leon Festinger elsewhere  concluded that architectural design has a decided effect on the formation of friendships among residents of projects.  Cases of satisfying and  dissatisfying involuntary group membership are cited as they relate to architectural features and group social standards.  William Whyte in his research (1956) has provided remarkable insights into social implications of suburbia - the new man-made environment.  The  author maintains a strong conviction that a community's design has a powerful effect on social interaction.  The results of his case study  concentrated on rental courts in I l l i n o i s suburb, shows that the uniqueness  21.  i s maintained  a l t h o u g h new p e o p l e move i n t o t h e u n i t s .  He i s a b l e t o  r e a c h some v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t t h e d e s i g n e r s can take as lessons.  But he seems t o be c a u t i o u s about the extreme a p p l i c a t i o n s o f  d e s i g n on s o c i o l o g i c a l  aspects.  Ms. K e l l e r ' s r e s e a r c h tion into  (1968) i s r e g a r d e d  as the p e n e t r a t i n g e x p l o r a -  the s o c i o l o g i c a l dimensions o f urban neighbourhood.  w i t h the a m b i g u i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n the concept  She d e a l s  o f neighbourhood and d e s c r i b e s  the a c t i v i t y o f n e i g h b o u r i n g  and the changing  r o l e o f neighbours i n  contemporary urban c e n t r e s .  Her book c i t e s  the n e c e s s i t y f o r a r e -  d e f i n i t i o n o f the neighbourhood as a s p a t i a l and s o c i a l e n t i t y  with  v a l u a b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g o u r urban environment.  H e r b e r t Gans has d e a l t w i t h g r e a t i n s i g h t and wisdom the s o c i o l o g i c a l dimensions o f American P l a n n i n g .  He has brought a l i v e through h i s  Study (1962) the p e e r group c u l t u r e o f the working c l a s s and shows how i t s v a l u e s a f f e c t the a m b i t i o u s  self-image of the people.  In his early  work (1961) he s t r e s s e d t h a t heterogeneous p o p u l a t i o n o f f e r s no r e a l advantages over homogeneous p o p u l a t i o n .  The p l a n n e r , d e v e l o p e r ,  e t c . should  attempt t o a c h i e v e a mix which w i l l b e s t s e r v e t h e community i n s o l v i n g the problems.  According  to him b o t h homogeneity and h e t e r o g e n e i t y a r e  e q u a l l y needed i n any community.  He has a l s o advocated  e x i s t i n g communities, p r o p i n q u i t y b r i n g s neighbours contact.  to v i s u a l o r s o c i a l  The i n t e n s i t y and/or q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p a r e based on  homogeneity o f i n t e r e s t , e.g. s i m i l a r p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s , methods.  t h a t i n new and  child rearing  While s i t e p l a n n i n g may, t o some degree encourage o r d i s c o u r a g e  s o c i a l p a t t e r n s , i t s h o u l d n o t be the u l t i m a t e g o a l o f a p l a n n e r , b u t to  22.  provide for a. maximum possibility of choice.  Works of I. Rosow, (1961), Robert Gutman (1966) and William Michelson (1970) on the social effects of the physical design, distance and environment are relevant to a comparatively larger neighbourhood setting.  Review of Previous Studies Related to the Present Research:  Focussing on the influence of the designed environment on human behavior at the small group particularly at the institutional level, the present study i s specifically designed to investigate satisfaction, perceptions and relation among residents i n student housing.  Several  articles published i n Vol. 5 No. 4 December 1973 issue of the Environment and' Behavior (specifically devoted to Student Housing;  Architecture and  Social Behavior) were consulted and reviewed with relevance to the present study.  The article by Marvin Gerst and Hervey Sweetwood entitled  "Correlates of Dormitory Social Climate (pp. 440-r469) sampled 198 students i n seven dormitories and 55 suites i n a Western State University in USA in an effort to elucidate  the relationships between the social  environment within the residence as perceived by the student residents friendship patterns as well as perception of the architecture of dormitories.  The results indicated a consistent pattern of relationship to  exist between these variables.  It was found that students who described  the social climate of their dormitories or suites as being highly involving, supportive, innovative and student controlled, tended to have a more positive set of subjective moods, had a more extended and intimate network of friendships and perceived their dormitory architecture as being  23.  more attractive and interesting.  Differences i n the social climate  between dormitories with or without suites was also assessed, with the results that dormitories with suites perceived as more involving and supportive, innovative, and student controlled than the dormitories without them.  In the present study, the scales used by Gerst and Sweetwood are applied to test residences with suite type dormitories.  Another part of the present study i s designed to investigate the probable impact of density on their  friendship pattern, trust and helping behavior, and on  evaluation of the architectural qualities of residence environment.  The objective of this part of the study i s to determine i f the results of a previous study  on student residences conducted i n the University of  Pennsylvania, USA by Leonard Bickman, Alan Tegar and others (1973) can be replicated i n the test residence studied.  The subjects of the study by  Bickman and others were drawn from 3526 male and female students living i n several dormitories with various types of densities at the University and off-campus town houses.  Two high-rise (25 storey) dormitories,  housing an average of 954 students and having an average of 39.8 students per floor, were considered the high-density dormitories. density dormitories housed an average of 233 students each.  The two mediumThese  buildings were four storeys high and averaged 58.2 students per floor. The low-density housing units were 64 town houses located close to the campus, averaging twelve persons per house.  The average height of these  buildings was three storeys with an average of four residents per floor. As compared with these examples the Walter Gage Residence at the UBC has  384 student residents in each of the three towers (16 storeys) with 24 residents per floor.  It has been defined in this study to possess  medium density as compared to the standards defined in Bickman's study density.  The study by Bickman et a l investigated the relationship between dormitory behavior and attitudes of student residents.  The question  asked by Bickman and his colleagues i s whether the structure density within a student residence influences the evaluation or ratings (on a semantic differential) that the subjects made of the architectural qualities of their own residence, as well as of their friendship patterns and socially responsive behavior (such as trust, responsibility and helping behavior).  The results of Bickman's study indicated that the higher the density, the less trust, cooperativeness and friendliness reported.  Moreover,  an observation of helping behavior indicated that students i n higher density dormitories behaved in a less socially responsible manner toward other dorm residents than the students i n the lower density dormitories. Students living in dormitories with higher densities also perceived their architectural qualities as comparatively more unfriendly, cold and impersonal.  The implications of these results for planners and architects  were discussed.  Student residence with suite arrangements have recently been advocated as a desirable design solution.  A simple but interesting study by  Judith Corbett (1973) was undertaken to test that assumption.  Corbett  stated that although suites offered students opportunity for close interaction  25.  and f o r privacy, they are not panacea f o r s o c i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l problems.  They i n t e n s i f y the problems of coordination, compatability  and communication among suite mates.  S a t i s f a c t i o n with suites also  increased considerably when s u i t e mates were allocated by choice rather than through random placement.  Other studies undertaken previously on student residences include that of (1) Evan H. Walker's University of Guelph Student Housing Study, November 1965 (2) V i c t o r Hsia's Master d i s s e r t a t i o n i n A r c h i t e c t u r a l Psychology at the University of Utah, 1967, e n t i t l e d "Residence H a l l Environment:  A comparative study i n A r c h i t e c t u r a l Psychology", and  (3) Dorms at Berkeley: An Environmental Analysis by Sim Van der Ryn and Murray S i l v e r s t e i n , University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1967. (4) Rooms to Learn - K l e i n and Sears (1969) Walker's study i s probably the f i r s t perceptive analysis i n Canada of the  student housing problems.  Although not based on o r i g i n a l research,  study draws together the best e x i s t i n g research as of 1965.  Some  of h i s conclusions make very sound and useful proposals.  Hsia used questionnaires to gauge the reaction of the resident stu-^ dents to the a r c h i t e c t u r a l environment of residence h a l l s at the University of Utah.  His study attempts to i d e n t i f y the a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements i n  each residence h a l l l i k e d or d i s l i k e d by students;  to learn how students  use their time and various spaces i n the residence h a l l s and to learn how t h e i r major needs are f u l f i l l e d by l i v i n g i n the residence h a l l s . able to i s o l a t e some s p e c i f i c problems and to suggest s p e c i f i c  He was  improvements  to document how students used the environment provided and where they  spent their time, Hsia then established a long l i s t of implications for student housing which flow naturally from the detailed study.  Some of  these are minor, like window shapes,: others have to do with the underuse of main lounges or i n the mix. of student characteristics.  In the present study, average weekly hours spent by the Gage residents inside their rooms and total weekly hours devoted i n studies are compared with Hsia s data. 1  The study by Van der Ryn and Silverstein focused on the qualitative aspects of student housing design and emphasised need for feedback studies to evaluate existing buildings. and develop data;  It advocated five methods to investigate  observation, interview, questionnaire, student's  diary or activity log and literature search.  Their report pinpoints  significant issues and comments very effectively on the limitations of the particular buildings they studied.  The present study on Gage  residence owes much to the study by Van der Ryn and Silverstein especially with respect to the survey techniques adopted for this study.  Other  aspects of similarity between the present study and that by Sim Van der Ryn and Silverstein are data on students' hourly usage of their rooms, total time devoted in studies, and differences among male and female residents in their perception of personal space and t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , privacy and behavioral adaption to a similar setting.  Many of these are related to  the original concepts of proximities advocated by Edward Hall (1966,1956) and Robert Sommer,(1969).  27  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF DESIGN PROCESS  I t i s imperative to study the entire process the b u i l d i n g has passed through from the planning stages through f i n a l construction, as some of the shortcomings apparent i n the design of the b u i l d i n g under evaluation might have resulted mostly from the d i r e c t i o n of budgetary decided on by the c l i e n t .  cutbacks  Hence i n the process of evaluation i t i s not  f a i r to c r i t i c i z e l i m i t a t i o n s of the designer i n order to defend the needs of the users or c l i e n t s , unless the actual nature of decisionmaking i n the design and b u i l d i n g i s thoroughly studied.  The a r c h i t e c t  oft en f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t to tackle the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of computing values and design c r i t e r i a . (Adelman, 1969)  H i s t o r i c a l Background of the Design  The r a p i d l y growing pressure of student population, coupled with inadequacies i n e x i s t i n g student accommodation within the campus, persuaded the U n i v e r s i t y authorities to consider the construction of new student residences.  An important factor influencing the unconventional design of  the residences had been the student's expressed discontent with the large, t r a d i t i o n a l l y - d e s i g n e d dormitories with the t y p i c a l " i n s t i t u t i o n a l syndrome  1  characterised namely by the long c e n t r a l and double-loaded corridors with i d e n t i c a l rooms on both sides, "gang washrooms" and f l o o r lounges with t h e i r appearance l i k e " f u r n i t u r e showrooms".  Students had expressed,  through various surveys previously conducted on this campus, a strong and p o s i t i v e opposition also to the " i n loco parentis" l i f e - s t y l e .  The trend  of s h i f t r e f l e c t e d the o s c i l l a t i o n i n l i f e - s t y l e s , with each swing  opening  up new  options f o r l i v i n g .  They e x p r e s s e d  group s e t t i n g s l i k e " i n s u i t e l i v i n g " . the a u t h o r i t i e s ' irksome  t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r smalls-  They asked f o r l i b e r a l i z a t i o n  r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s .  of  I n summary, t h e i r  demands r e f l e c t e d an abandonment from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e - ^ s t y l e ,  and  towards coed f l o o r l i v i n g , p r o x i m i t y t o the U n i v e r s i t y , more p r i v a c y , freedom of a c t i v i t i e s , more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f - i d e n t i t y , economic r e n t s t r u c t u r e , a m e n i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l f o o d p r e p a r a t i o n o r s e l f - c o o k i n g . •"Above a l l ,  they a r d e n t l y d e s i r e d a t o t a l e l i m i n a t i o n of the  overall  i n s t i t u t i o n a l l o o k o f the t r a d i t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ' d o r m i t o r i e s , i n exchange f o r p r o d u c i n g an i n c r e a s e d range of l i f e - s t y l e s t h a t w i l l a l l o w or even f o s t e r d i v e r s i t y i n i n d i v i d u a l development.  The  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia had  i t i o n a l l y met  s t u d e n t h o u s i n g needs through  t o s t u d e n t and community demand, w i t h o u t p o l i c y or philosophy.  a s e r i e s of sporadic  any  Responding t o the above demands, they now  Probably  the U n i v e r s i t y  what has been observed by M a r t i n H e i l w e i l  responses  c e n t r a l and o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g  i n w i t h the contemporary North American t r e n d of b u i l d i n g s t u d e n t arranged i n s u i t e s .  trad-  joined housing  a u t h o r i t y are motivated  (1973),  by  that:  The t r e n d toward s u i t e s i s a t r e n d toward c e r t a i n s o c i a l c l i m a t e s . . A p p a r e n t l y p e o p l e are moving c l o s e r to s m a l l n e s s , i n t i m a c y and s u p p o r t , and away from c o m p e t i t i o n , perhaps from independence, and perhaps from some f a c e t o f i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y .  I t appears was  welcomed by  t h a t s t u d e n t s ' p r e f e r e n c e f o r s m a l l n e s s of l i v i n g the U n i v e r s i t y Housing  Authority.  F o r the s m a l l e r t h e  s i z e , the more the f r a g m e n t a t i o n and the e a s i e r i t i s t o c o n t r o l identify.  Smallness  a l s o h e l p s t o ensure  i n m i n i m i z i n g p i l f e r a g e and damage - b o t h  unit  and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and as such h e l p s s e r i o u s problems.  S m a l l groups  entrusted with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f self-maintenance,  and replacement  worn o r damaged f i x t u r e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be e s s e n t i a l . u r a l program o f t h i s r e s i d e n c e must have been developed  of  The a r c h i t e c t bearing  these  f a c t o r s i n mind.  Presumably t h e u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e o f the d e s i g n o f t h i s r e s i d e n c e was to  c r e a t e a happy and harmonious academic community w i t h i n t h i s  by  p r o v i d i n g t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e b e s t combination  residence  o f a c o n v e n i e n t on-  campus r e s i d e n c e l i f e and a t the same time t h e freedoia o f h i g h d e n s i t y down town l i v i n g b o t h o f which were e q u a l l y needed i n a s t u d e n t s ' F u r t h e r , a d e l i b e r a t e attempt was made through  world.  t h e d e s i g n to reduce t h e  group s i z e t o a s m a l l e r l i v i n g u n i t as w e l l as t o p r o v i d e a s u i t a b l e forum o f m e a n i n g f u l The  s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h i n some h i e r a r c h i a l  order.  purpose was t o ensure maximum p r i v a c y and q u i e t u d e and minimum  i n t e r r u p t i o n t h a t were e s s e n t i a l l y students.  conducive  t o p r i v a t e study among s e n i o r  A l l these conform t o what Sim Van der Ryn  observed  (1967):  The most i n t e l l i g e n t c o l l e g e h o u s i n g p r o p o s a l s i n the l a s t few y e a r s have advanced t h e n o t i o n of " n a t u r a l " s o c i a l g r o u p i n g s as key determinants o f t h e h o u s i n g p l a n . The s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t t h e r e a r e optimum group s i z e s f o r v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , and t h a t c o l l e c t i o n s o f s m a l l groups make up ever l a r g e r groups. By manipu l a t i n g c i r c u l a t i o n r o u t e s , p a t t e r n s o f adjacency and room c l u s t e r s , d e s i g n e r s have sought t o p r o v i d e f o r the s t u d e n t an e x p l i c i t h i e r a r c h y o f s o c i a l groupings o r communities.. U l t i m a t e l y , t h e u s e r s ' committee a l o n g w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t i e s o f t h i s U n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n the program o f t h e s e r e s i d e n c e s d e c i d e d i t to  be " t h e f i r s t  a completely  design s p e c i f i c a l l y  f o r senior single students, taking  new approach away from t h e former i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement."  According t o t h i s  U n i v e r s i t y ' s Housing Information booklet  (1974-75):  Two y e a r s o f d e l i b e r a t i o n between a r c h i t e c t s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and s t u d e n t s who f o r t h e f i r s t time had a v e r y a c t i v e r o l e i n d e c i s i o n making, was the b a s e o f the d e s i g n o f f e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e l i f e - s t y l e s  30  i w i t h i n the same complex ... w i t h the f a c i l i t i e s more c o n d u c t i v e to p r i v a t e study. L t was  a l s o the f i r s t  facilities  s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e on campus t o p r o v i d e s e l f - c o o k i n g  f o r students to prepare  t h e i r own  meals ... and  finally  to  p r o v i d e the b e s t combination  o f r e s i d e n c e l i f e on campus as w e l l as  downtown h i g h - r i s e apartment  living.  P r e l i m i n a r y Review of the  Design Philosophy:  Design  I t was  e v i d e n t t h a t the r e s u l t o f  student-admin-  i s t r a t i o n c o l l a b o r a t i o n , i n the d e s i g n of the Gage Residence had embodied a number of i n n o v a t i o n s . recognized  the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  The D e s i g n Program  d u r i n g 1970-71,  specifically  c o m p l e x i t i e s o f s t u d e n t s ' l i v i n g and  P o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t e x i s t e d between the o r d e r and e f f i c i e n c y of the and  the s t u d e n t s ' d e s i r e t o r e t a i n t h e i r p r i v a c y and p e r s o n a l  learning. institution  identity.  R e c o g n i s i n g t h a t b o t h were n e c e s s a r y but b o t h must work, the program of t h i s new  s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e aimed a t r e s o l v i n g t h i s c o n f l i c t by " s c a l i n g down"  ( i n g r a d u a l and e a s i l y d e s c e r n i b l e s t e p s ) the s t u d e n t ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s i n d i v i d u a l u n i t and the s e r v i c e n e c e s s i t i e s and common b u i l d i n g s . as m a i n t a i n e d  An  s o c i a l c l i m a t e of h i s  i n d i v i d u a l student i s sure to experience t h i s  graduation  i n the d e s i g n when he moves from the " t o t a l i n v o l v e m e n t "  of t h e  common a r e a s t o h i s p a r t i c u l a r tower, by e l e v a t o r t o a s p e c i f i c f l o o r , i n t o s e m i - p r i v a c y of a s u i t e shared by o t h e r f i v e companions and p r i v a t e room - the u l t i m a t e p r i v i l e g e .  the  f i n a l l y into h i s  As the a r c h i t e c t ' s program e x p l a i n s ,  " p r i v a c y i s I n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d t o s i z e of group - but the u l t i m a t e p r i v a c y o f the i n d i v i d u a l room i s not a c h i e v e d a t the expense of i t s  31.  c o n v e n i e n c e t o the common c e n t r e .  Strict  adherence t o a s c a l e o f p r i o r i -  t i e s i s the means by which maximum f a c i l i t y t o t h e l i v i n g / l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s is and  achieved'.'  The' d e s i g n has thus c r e a t e d  an u n u s u a l c h a l l e n g e  psychological.  • Almost a l l the U n i v e r s i t i e s a r e p r e s e n t l y constructing  housing.  influence  Limitations  an i m p o r t a n t r o l e  f i n a l d e c i s i o n a about t h e Gage Towers.  High o p e r a t i o n a l  c o s t was another key f a c t o r ;  certain features  of high-rise l i v i n g  example, r e s i d e n t s  . h i g h - r i s e student  on a v a i l a b l e l a n d p r o b a b l y p l a y e d  campus s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e  whirlpool of  Many o t h e r f a c t o r s ,  the d e c i s i o n t o b u i l d  i n determing the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s '  i n t o outside  caught i n a  c o s t l y h i g h - r i s e student residences.  of c o u r s e , !'  one might a l s o c o n s i d e r  that  as an a l t e r n a t i v e l i f e - s t y l e i n  c o u l d be a t t r a c t i v e t o a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .  For  i n a h i g h - r i s e cannot e a s i l y d r i f t from t h e i r rooms  as can r e s i d e n t s  lawns and paved c o u r t y a r d s  i n low-rise buildings.  or plazas  i s , the harder i t i s to leave  it;  therefore,  door space as w e l l as f a c i l i t i e s a r e p l a c e d ment by t h e s t u d e n t r e s i d e n t s  Open-air-landscaped-  a r e t h e r b y l e s s a c c e s s i b l e even i n  f a i r , weather and. c o n s e q u e n t l y more e a s i l y m a i n t a i n e d . ing  - physical  The h i g h e r a b u i l d -  fewer demands f o r o u t -  upon t h e s u r r o u n d i n g  i n their leisurely pursuits.  at l e a s t , a h i g h - r i s e s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e  environ-  I n one sense  i s an a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s  dream.  O v e r a l l economy o f t h e e n t i r e p r o j e c t was o f paramount importance because t h e a l l o t ed d o l l a r  . amount p e r s t u d e n t had t o account f o r g e n e r a l  w e l l as a c t u a l l i v i n g  f a c i l i t i e s as  accommodation.  D e s i g n D i f f e r e n c e s w i t h Other Student R e s i d e n c e s on-campus  The  major d i f f e r e n c e s o b s e r v e d between the Gage Residence and o t h e r  32.  on-campus residences l i e s i n i t s exclusive allotment to senior students of l e g a l age.  I t i s also meant f o r senior students desiring to l i v e i n  clusters with coed -living dorms i n s u i t e arrangements each-accommodating s i x students with self-cooking and other necessary l i v i n g f a c i l i t i e s . While the Gage Residence  consists of a group of three e s s e n t i a l l y look-  a l i k e 17 storey towers, other on-campus residences (Totem Park, 6 buildings of 6 storeys each;and Place Vanier, eight buildings of 4 storeys each) are low-rise.  This means that there are more students l i v i n g within a  comparatively small s i t e (1386 people i n a s i t e of 7.6 acres).  This  amounts to an increase i n the project density (180 persons per acre) as w e l l as i n o v e r a l l structure density.  Again, since towers of Gage Residences are composed of v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s , upper f l o o r s are accessible only by elevators.  Each f l o o r has  four independent quads accommodating 24 students i n a l l i n each f l o o r .  Six  students, with i n d i v i d u a l single rooms, form a separate, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t quadrant, sharing a common wash-room, lounge and kitchenette.  The  students' s o c i a l behavior and d a i l y a c i t i v i t i e s are thus profoundly i n f l u enced by the design layout.  Design layout was  The a r c h i t e c t u r a l layout of .Gage Residents  developed by the architect:  i n the following manner.  The three 17-  storey residence towers - are..tied together with a spoke-like connections with  a common b u i l d i n g  as i t s hub, i n a pinwheel  juxta-relationships.  Each of the three i d e n t i c a l towers has 6,000 Sq. F t . per storey, with the exception of main f l o o r s .  Each i d e n t i c a l s u i t e consists of a front  door and hallway, s i x single rooms, the occupants of which share washroom f a c i l i t i e s , lounge and kitchenette. (See Plan,Appendix) Elimination of long, formal central  33. i  c o r r i d o r s w i t h rooms s t r u n g on i t s two  a i d e s succeeded i n e l i m i n a t i n g  the t y p i c a l appearance of the " i n s t i t u t i o n a l syndrome". Facilities  i n Common B l o c k :  The  Gage R e s i d e n c e i s d e s i g n e d  to f u n c t i o n  d u r i n g t h e summer months s i m i l a r to a h o t e l o p e r a t i o n f o r l a r g e group conventions Although  - and  conference  the c o n v e n t i o n  months, they  are  o f f i c e s are o r i e n t e d t o promote t h i s  facilities  designed  a r e revenue magnets d u r i n g the summer  t o become s t u d e n t  ground f l o o r space which can be  o r i e n t e d d u r i n g the academic year.The  s u b d i v i d e d i n t o areas  usages by means o f f o l d i n g , sound-proof doors of  30 t o 200  a r e a and  The  persons.  S f from 2-5  space/  . accommodate groups  They open d i r e c t l y out i n t o  are conveniently adjacent  operation.  to the d i n i n g  .  c e n t r a l lounge  facilities.  common b l o c k b u i l d i n g , which i s the s o c i a l and  s e r v i c e centre of  the complex, i s d i r e c t l y i n t e r c o n n e c t e d h o r i z o n t a l l y to the towers and v e r t i c a l l y t o the p a r k i n g / s e r v i c e a r e a s .  residence  I t i s conceived  by  the a r c h i t e c t s as the f r e e f l o w i n g space o f s o c i a l exchange and s e r v i c e convenience. The  The  o v e r a l l atmosphere one  of movement and  t o t a l movement:  common b l o c k i n c l u d e s many f u n c t i o n s such as k i t c h e n , snack b a r ,  cafeteria,  food pick-up  areas, delicatessen, administration, c e n t r a l  lBunge, house-keeping o f f i c e , small conference  D e c i d i n g on  conference  rooms, L o a d i n g  Dock.  the m o s t - a p p r o p r i a t e  r e s i d e n c e towers d i a g o n a l l y a c c e s s e d surrounded by  two  s t a i r w a y s and  o f f i c e s , l a r g e seminar room,  two  d e s i g n l a y o u t f o r s u i t e s , i n the from a c e n t r a l c o r e of a f l o o r  e l e v a t o r s , must have posed a " C h i n e s e  P u z z l e " f o r the a r c h i t e c t s . A compact, square, form, r e s o l v e d a  solution.  lobby  symmetrical  and  formal  geometrical  34  This made each tower on a l l i t s four facades.  take an i d e n t i c a l exterior elevation Optimum use of space was  necessary to avoid  excessive dead area i n the core of the b u i l d i n g and a l l the s i x bedrooms and the lounge i n each s u i t e were to have a large window and a small triangular open balcony. Though remarkable f o r i t s c l a r i t y and s i m p l i c i t y i n a l l o c a t i n g f l o o r space, project design a r c h i t e c t Wally Moroz's (of M/S  Reno Negrin,  Associate A r c h i t e c t s  layout created  of Vancouver) unconventional  constructional challenges f o r the contractors.  and  The four sides of each  tower generate ten faces, each having eight r i g h t angles and a balcony w a l l at 45°  to the core centre - a multi-faceted facading that resulted  i n the perimeter walls being proportionately greater i n area than i s usual for apartment b u i l d i n g s .  Contractor Frank Stanzl tackled t h i s  job  by adopting a s p e c i a l construction technique.  engineers  also s p e c i f i e d s t e e l staircases f o r greater economy.  and treads were of concrete.  The s t r u c t u r a l  A l l materials used were simple  a r c h i t e c t u r a l surfaces were sandblasted.  complicated  Landings and  The record shows that the  contractor could complete one storey every f i v e days and the e n t i r e b u i l d i n g complex took two years to complete.  Design Aesthetics, Internal and External Functional i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of various elements of the design of this residence have dictated the b u i l d i n g form.  The a r c h i t e c t s ' ingenious  design of a compact, symmetrical f l o o r plan has succeeded i n creating an i n t e r e s t i n g c l u s t e r of four quads on each f l o o r with admirable c l a r i t y simplicity.  and  They e s t a b l i s h a strong and e a s i l y perceptible pattern,  v i s u a l order and form.  The v i s u a l impact of the buildings i n t e r i o r  design  EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE WALTER GAGE RESIDENCE  BY NIGHT  I n t e r i o r  View  Common  Block,  (Comparable  of  w i t h  the  Main  Common  Lounge,  F l o o r .  A r c h i t e c t ' s  tUUST*A.TI<JNJ  Drawing  i n  Appendix  A)  INTERIOR VIEW OF THE STUDENT LOUNGE INSIDE EACH QUAD WALTER GAGE TOWERS (Comparable w i t h A r c h i t e c t ' s Drawing i n Appendix A )  35.  and  f u r n i s h i n g , a r e p l e a s i n g , c h e e r f u l , warm, s i m p l e and  functionally  they are  c o n v e n i e n t and  orderly, while  safe.  However, the a p p r e c i a t i o n of the e x t e r n a l appearnace of the "drab f a c e l e s s , grey c o n c r e t e " controversy. and  and  f a c a d e s o f s u p e r b l o c k - t o w e r s might a r o u s e some  From an urban d e s i g n  context,  the a r c h i t e c t u r a l massing  g r o u p i n g o f the h i g h - r i s e towers around the common b l o c k  o v e r a l l compactness, c o h e s i v e n e s s and  unity.  The  creates  Gage towers a r e  an a  dominant a r c h i t e c t u r a l landmarks i n the e n t i r e campus r i s i n g i n harmony w i t h the m a g n i f i c e n t  backdrop of the N o r t h Shore m o u n t a i n s . ( I l l u s t r a t i o n l ) T h e V i s t  l o o k i n g from south through the Gage towers of tower of the Vancouver S c h o o l o f T h e o l o g y , ( r o m a n t i c a l l y .designed, i n G o t h i c  s t y l e and  dramatically  i l l u m i n a t e d at n i g h t ) have been c a r e f u l l y r e t a i n e d and w e l l a l i d  out.  T h i s group of r e s i d e n c e s  compared  to other  forms a d i s t i n c t  examples o f on-campus r e s i d e n c e s ,  s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n the  campus. The  e n t i t y o f t h e i r own being  the  dark sky  t h e i r flame ( g o l d e n y e l l o w  Design Merits  as the  and and  are n o t i c e a b l e saffron)  windows g l i t t e r  like  from a l o n g d i s t a n c e  coloured  Students and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s  T h i s b u i l d i n g complex i s c o n s t r u c t e d students.  group of  Gage Towers l o o k more a t t r a c t i v e and  d r a m a t i c at n i g h t when t h e i r thousand w a m l y - l i t jewels against  the t a l l e s t  as  drapes. (See  with  Illustration  see-  f o r s i n g l e occupancy by  They a r e a r r a n g e d i n c l u s t e r s o f s i x rooms.  senior  W h i l e maximum  p r i v a c y i s thus ensured, each group of rooms e n c i r c l e d a number o f common facilities  ( s u c h as a quadrant lounge, k i t c h e n e t t e ,  e n j o y e d by  the r e s i d e n t s  i n t h e i r gregarious  etc.)  moments.  t h a t may  Consequently,  chances o f f e e l i n g i s o l a t e d w h i l e l i v i n g i n a h i g h - r i s e apartment  be the  2)  (e.g. may In  flat  n e u r o s i s ) a r e reduced.  Every amenity f o r l i v i n g  facility  be needed f o r s t u d e n t s i s a v a i l a b l e , i n s i d e the b u i l d i n g f a c t , w i t h a good o r g a n i s a t i o n , a s t u d e n t can p r o b a b l y  tower f o r y e a r s w i t h o u t  ever going o u t s i d e .  complex.  l i v e i n this  Tower . r e s i d e n t s seem to  a c c e p t s h o r t a g e s and o r g a n i s a t i o n a l problems s t o i c a l l y . problems " f a c t s o f t h i s r e s i d e n c e - l i v i n g a t UBC".  They c a l l  l i v i n g on-campus w i t h the fredom of l i v i n g off-campus. this researcher:  "You  observed was  d i s t a n c e of almost  everything."  t h a t the f a v o u r a b l e image t h i s r e s i d e n c e had  built  around i t s convenience  and  economy.  The  furnishings, i t s relative privacy;  and  The  researcher  to i t s r e s i d e n t s is  comfortable  I t s main f l o o r oounges a r e  f u r n i s h e d w i t h f i r e p l a c e and t h i c k r e d p l u s h c a r p e t (shag  l u x u r i o u s l i g h t i n g f i x t u r e s , and c a r p e t e d from w a l l to w a l l . modern f a c i l i t i e s ,  the e n t i r e f l o o r s u r f a c e s a r e  A l l the quad lounges  inside.  rug)  comfortably  are provided with a l l  c o m f o r t a b l e f u r n i t u r e and f i x t u r e s ;  a l l of i t s l a r g e  windowed ( w a l l - t o - w a l l ) , rooms a r e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r , and with f l e x i b l e  well-designed  f u r n i t u r e , p l e a s i n g f u r n i s h i n g and enough s t o r a g e  space  They are l e s s s t e r i l e - l o o k i n g as compared to o t h e r o l d e r on-campus  residences.  And  l a s t but not l e a s t , every window of every tower  promises  g r e e t one's eyes w i t h a s p e c t a c u l a r view of the mountains, water  l u s h green l a n d i n and a s s e t can c e r t a i n l y downtown. rent.  said  the d e s i g n i s a p p r e c i a t e d , i n a d d i t i o n ,  f o r b e i n g s a f e , o r d e r l y and w e l l - m a i n t a i n e d .  to  student  Gage R e s i d e n c e  p r a i s e d f o r i t s w e l l l a i d - o u t d e s i g n , I t s t a s t e f u l and  lavishly  One  worlds:  can p r e t t y much do what you want t o do  you're w i t h i n easy w a l k i n g  these  A c c o r d i n g to the  m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s , t h i s r e s i d e n c e combines t h e b e s t o f b o t h  to  that  around the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands.  compete w i t h any  first  T h i s added  c l a s s apartment o r h o t e l i n  A l l t h e s e f e a t u r e s are a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s a t a v e r y  Students  and  p r e s e n t l y ( u n t i l A p r i l 1975)  cheap  pay r e n t ( f o r room only) of  37.  $282.22 f o r t h e w i n t e r term and $315.10 f o r t h e S p r i n g Term, ( i . e . a t o t a l of  $597.32 based  comparison,  on 218 days o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y $85.00 p e r month).  In  the t o t a l c o s t o f s t a y i n the o l d e r r e s i d e n c e s where meals a r e  p r o v i d e d i s about  $55 t o $67 more.  Even i n these days o f h i g h  living  c o s t a s t u d e n t r e s i d i n g i n i t can l i v e w i t h i n $120 and $150 a month, so he does save money by c h o s i n g t h i s r e s i d e n c e o v e r o t h e r s . r e s i d e n t o u t l i n e d i t s advantages  One male  realistically:  I f one c o n s i d e r s the s i x people a r e each p a y i n g $90 a month, f o r r e n t i n g a quad, i t s t a r t s t o sound a l i t t l e more e x p e n s i v e . The c r u c i a l thing i s a v a i l a b i l i t y . S i x people could e a s i l y rent a house f o r l e s s than $90 a month each i f they c o u l d get i t . There i s a h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i n Vancouver ( p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e t o t h e University). Convenience i s a major r e a s o n f o r l i v i n g on campds. The W a l t e r Gage R e s i d e n c e i s r i g h t on t h e campus and f o r the most p a r t h a s almost e v e r y t h i n g t h e s t u d e n t s need. As an a l t e r n a t i v e t o o t h e r on-campus r e s i d e n c e s ( l i k e Totem Park and P l a c e V a n i e r ) i t has a l o t going f o r i t . As an a l t e r n a t i v e t o l i v i n g off-campus i n a s l e e p i n g room i n E a s t 41st i t has a l o t g o i n g f o r i t . Now i f the r e s t o f us c o u l d o n l y see the mountains! To be a r e s i d e n t i n the W a l t e r Gage r e s i d e n c e , a s t u d e n t has t o be of  minimum l e g a l age (19 y e a r s ) .  of  R e s i d e n c e s , UBC s t u d e n t s h e r e a r e t r e a t e d as mature, r e s p o n s i b l e ,  adult persons.  According to L e s l i e Rohringer,  A c c o r d i n g t o him: (Vancouver  Director  Sun, A p r i l 20,1972)  Any s t u d e n t o f l e g a l age s h o u l d be a b l e t o r e a l i s e h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y enough t o l e a d h i s own l i f e . They make t h e i r own r u l e s , behave i n a r e s p o n s i b l e way, and l o o k a f t e r t h e i r own b u i l d i n g . There i s , i n f a c t no r e s t r i c t i o n on v i s i t o r s o r l i m i t a t i o n s o f v i s i t i n g hours i n this residence. The W a l t e r Gage R e s i d e n c e  runs l i k e a downtown h o t e l and, a c c o r d i n g t o the  h o u s i n g o f f i c e , p r o v i d e s more t r o u b l e - f r e e o p e r a t i o n than o t h e r r e s i d e n c e s . Vandalism to  and damage had dropped  a t one time from $5 p e r s t u d e n t p e r y e a r  50(? i n s p i t e o f the s p i r a l l i n g o p e r a t i o n a l c o s t .  A b u s i n e s s manager f o r the UBC Housing  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n once remarked,(Sun,Oct'7  "When the c r y has been f o r more and more l i b e r a l i z a t i o n our e x p e r i e n c e has been that s m a l l s t e p s t a k e n i n that d i r e c t i o n have met w i t h a b a c k l a s h " .  38.  Commenting on t h e ; g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n to t h i s coed r e s i d e n c e and sex p a s s i o n which i t might provoke, he s a i d : "Male and i n s e p a r a t e quads on each f l o o r of the new  buildings.  w i l l not i n t e r f e r e s h o u l d t h e y w i s h t o v i s i t t h e i r rooms i n t o l o v e n e s t s " . I n s t r u c t i o n Booklet o r g u e s t s t h a t : "The f a c i l i t i e s but l i f e he  the u n b r i d l e d  female s t u d e n t s But  live  the U n i v e r s i t y  each o t h e r ' s rooms o r t u r n  I t has been p o i n t e d i n the Student  as the s t a n d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n f o r o v e r n i g h t  Housing  visitors  U n i v e r s i t y r e c o g n i s e s the b e n e f i t of c o - e d u c a t i o n a l  does not a c c e p t c o h a b i t a t i o n .  a l s o remarked elsewhere t h a t "We  On  a r e not  t h i s a s p e c t of r e s i d e n c e concerned  morals or s e x u a l h a b i t s once they a r e o f l e g a l age;  with  their  I don't t h i n k anyone  b e l i e v e s i t i s the U n i v e r s i t y ' s j o b to go around p i n n i n g c h a s t i t y  belts  on p e o p l e " .  was  The  prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n , however, a c c o r d i n g t o him,  i n d u c e t h o u g h t f u l n e s s towards n e i g h b o u r s . statement  I n o t h e r words, he  to  echoed  the  of Edward Eddy, P r e s i d e n t of Chatham C o l l e g e as he s a i d : (Van der Ryn,'67  I do not b e l i e v e t h a t any problem o f i m m o r a l i t y on a c o l l e g e campus i s s o l v e d by p u b l i c , p r e s i d e n t i a l p r o c l a m a t i o n s . Too many c o l l e g e s l e a n on such p r o f e s s e d s t a n d a r d s i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e i r own good name, w i t h o u t f i r s t p l a c i n g emphasis on the i n d i v i d u a l human b e i n g . (pp.68)  Complaints  from the  However, l i v i n g  Residents: i n the Gage Residence  i s not a l l wine and r o s e s .  t a k i n g a c l o s e r l o o k w i t h i n i t s l i v i n g q u a l i t i e s one might f i n d i t t o be p l a g u e d w i t h s e v e r a l s p e c i a l problems. had full  complained  about how  In v a r i o u s contexts  the U n i v e r s i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n had been t a k i n g  advantage of i t s monopoly s i t u a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d to s t u d e n t  As r e g a r d s  the e x t e r i o r appearance of t h i s group of r e s i d e n c e s ,  o f t e n d e s c r i b e d i t as a "drab, "ugly, hideous,  students  a monsterous  housing. students  f a c e l e s s , grey c o n c r e t e matchbox" o r as  superblock".  By  Although the early prediction about "the claustrophobia", "red light areas" and provoking "unbridled sex passion" have a l l proved unfounded, there have however, been frequent complaints by the student community about the sterile l i f e s t y l e within this residence.  Some  have described i t as "a cold and impersonal, emotionally-depressing and socially suffocating place to live".  Possibly the most common criticism  against this residence was that i t had within i t an extremely restricted social interaction due to the suite-type arrangements encouraging independent, individualistic life-styles within a vertically stratified structure.  Among other innumerable but minor complaints expressed by the respondents includes those about the daily hassle with overcrowded elevators, problems with overheating of the rooms, poor lighting layout within the quads, particularly about light fittings at the back of the kitchen counter, lounge and individual rooms, cramped kitchen space, . inadequacies of car parking, insufficient sanitary fixtures inside washrooms, absence of indoor games f a c i l i t i e s , jammed garbage shutes, inadequate shelving and storage spaces i n kitchens, not enough chairs i n the quads' dining areas (for example 3 chairs for 6 people), inconvenient telephone arrangements.  Again out of six, two rooms i n every quad have windows of  lesser width.  As one woman resident wrote, "the fridge i s too small for  six peopl;  the cupboards in the kitchen are really too high for people  5 ' 5 " and under.  Lighting i n kitchen i s terrible, you can't see what you're  cooking because the light i s behind you;  the same for dish washing;  cannot read magazines on couch with l i t t l e light in corner. bathroom i s not good when you're having a shower.  Lighting in  L i t t l e lights i n the  bedrooms are terrible for studying - you couldn't read i n bed because of  40.  poor l i g h t i n g ;  balconies are also a waste - nobody uses them except f o r  storage of beer b o t t l e s . make-ups.  There i s very l i t t l e space i n bathroom to put  Bedroom i s a l r i g h t and f u r n i t u r e i s good."  by some, "why  do we have to rent a d d i t i o n a l 'fridge;  chairs i n dining area f o r dinner."  One  complaints with f a i r amount of c l a r i t y :  Question raised also not enough  female resident summed up  the  "Kitchen cupboards are too narrow  for doors to close with dinner plates on the shelves - many f i n d i t impossible  to store food f o r s i x i n the narrow cupboards.  i n bulk w i l l force one bathroom sink". Administrations  To buy  food  to store food i n bedroom cupboards or even under  Cramped kitchen storage space and University Housing p r o v i s i o n of a s o l i d a r y small 'fridge' i n each quad compelled  every group of quad members to rent a second the majority of the balconies attached a d d i t i o n a l kitchen cold storage space.  fridge while  to quad lounges were used as an I t was  a p i t y that these b e a u t i f u l  and costly outdoor spaces had to be so misused.  Noise seemed to be another major complaint among the residents. threatened ation.  It  the privacy and quiet necessary f o r e f f e c t i v e study and relax-  As a student observed:  "the s i t u a t i o n of the Towers causes  noises to carry a great distance, and parties and stereos tend to cause noise, even though kept as quiet as possible.  The noise does not help  the rather uncertain r e l a t i o n s h i p between the inhabitants of the otwers and the surrounding community, a r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s not helped by  the  unfortunate tendency of the community to believe the very worst of a coed residence".  Many respondents also complained a b o u t t h e poor sound  i n s u l a t i o n that permits the sound (from stereos, slamming of doors, garbage shutes etc.) to penetrate privacy.  inside rooms and hamper the auditory  Excessive heating sometimes compels  residents to keep their  41.  windows open which i n turn invites external noise to come in.  However,  residents (particularly women) were not aware of any visual invasion of privacy.  Although the author f e l t that the two hollow stair wells i n a l l towers functioned as capillary tubes to carry noise upwards, however, he did not quite agree with these students views on the severity of the problem.  Many residents thought there was a tolerable observation of  "quiet hours".  This view was confirmed by the researcher's frequent and  informal check-ins, i n "quiet hours", i n late evenings particularly before examinations.  It was obvious that many of the resident's complaints might have sprung from inefficient programming and maintenance, while few '.were from their peculiar idiosyncracies and maladjustments with their own personality traits.  However, some suggestions received from the residents that were  genuinely constructive.  As one female respondent suggested:  If anyone was going to design similar residences I would suggest planning tower lounges on the top floor so that everyone could enjoy the view. Another male respondent suggest that "The Social Committee could do much better i f i t had more student participation". remarked that the foyer area  Several female respondents  between bedrooms was a waste and that the  bedrooms could be made bigger i n size instead of that wasted space.  Never-  theless, the author observed that these foyers were being well-used i n many quads i n activities ranging from ironing, tailoring, telephone conversations, copying and light tracing.  Finally, although proximity to University i s a major locational merit  42.  of t h i s residence, t h i s did not appear to be advantageous i n every context. More than 50% of the residents do not possess any personal vehicle.and obviously they had to depend on p u b l i c transport.  According to several  female students, s i x people l i v i n g together i n a quad have many and v a r i e d shopping needs.  The l o c a t i o n of this group of residences was  considered to be quite f a r from the bus route, as i t might compet many of the residents to take a long, strenuous walk from the bus-stop  particularly  from the nearest shopping areas carrying heavy bags of groceries.  Organisation of Investigation: On the basis of the preliminary review of the design of the Gage . Residence,  the present research i s designed to investigate following issues  which are stated i n question form. 1.  How  does the occupancy-density  within this p a r t i c u l a r example of stu-  dent residence compare with the study by Bickman et a l i n a f f e c t i n g , a) Users' perception and evaluation of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l q u a l i t i e s of t h e i r residence environment? b) Users' s o c i a l behavior such as mutual t r u s t , s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and helping behavior? 2.  a) How  does student rating of s o c i a l climate measured on the same  standard scale compare with Gerst and Sweetwood's study? b) How  f a r i s the student's r a t i n g s of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l design  t  q u a l i t i e s of t h i s residence environment related to t h e i r psychol o g i c a l perception of the s o c i a l climate existing i n t h e i r residence as compared to the study by Gerst and Sweetowood, (measured on the same standard environmental 3.  How  scale?)  are the residents' perception and s e l f ratings on their a r c h i t e c t -  u r a l l y designed environment related to t h e i r biographic background,  childhood home environment, quality or type of previous residence, friendship patterns, trust and incidence of theft, crime and overall satisfaction. 4. To what extent i s a students' overall satisfaction with living i n this specific residence influenced by: a) His childhood residential environment? b) Potential for mobility?  (Possession of personal vehicles and  dependability on public transport)? c) Type of residence lived i n previously and tenure of present living?. d) Predetermined  criteria for selection to live i n this particular  residence? e) Interpersonal involvement, living with self-chosen quad mates, degree of intimacy and friendship pattern with other members i n same quadrant or same floor? f) Perception of social climate prevailing within their living unit (as measured on a standard environmental scale)? 5.  How does the architectural design of this residence foster or  inhibit satisfactory social interaction between the student residents inside the quads or floors? 6.  Are the suites (quads) the most satisfactory solution to the design  of student residence?  The author further informally investigated and discussed other aspects of the design on the basis of some careful observations and with the help of analysis of the questionnaire responses: These are as follows: 1.  How inducive i s the designed environment to private study?  How  does design relate to the time that the students spend daily i n studies  44.  i n s i d e t h e i r rooms and i n other a c t i v i t i e s i n rooms, quads, f l o o r s and other areas i n the residence? 2.  How  do the students  territoriality?  perceive personal space, privacy and range of  Does the personal space concept of men  d i f f e r from that of women i n a s i m i l a r 3. the 4.  significantly  setting?  To what extent do the residents personalise t h e i r own space or adapt l i v i n g environment i n t h e i r quadrants? Are the expensively-designed lounges i n the main f l o o r e f f e c t i v e l y  used by the residents and are they l i k e l y the scene f o r spontaneous a c t i v i t y without formal programming of i n t e r e s t i n g  activities?  group  CHAPTER I I I  45.  SURVEY METHODOLOGY  A.  SUBJECTS The  1165 s i n g l e s t u d e n t s  p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s o f t h i s study  (n=96) were among t h e  (male and female) o f t h i s U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia r e s i d i n g i n the t h r e e h i g h r i s e  towers o f t h e W a l t e r  Gage R e s i -  dence, a group o f h i g h and l o w - r i s e d o r m i t o r i e s newly b u i l t w i t h i n t h e campus.  The s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d i n g i n i t c o n s t i t u t e a l i t t l e  more than a t h i r d o f t h e t o t a l on-campus  s i n g l e student population of  3454 (December 1974).  At t h e time when t h i s r e s e a r c h was conducted w i t h i n Gage  Residence,  (between December 1974 and January 1975) t h e r e were 1165 s i n g l e l i v i n g i n these  students  t h r e e towers out o f which 600 (51.5%) were men w h i l e 565  (48%) were women.  The breakdown o f accommodation o f s t u d e n t s  i n the  e n t i r e r e s i d e n c e a c c o r d i n g t o s e x and academic y e a r was as f o l l o w s : Academic Y e a r ... I  II  III  IV  Male  7  92  205  200  74  76  Female  35  134  219  157  26  Total  42  226  424  357 100  [Source:  V  Grad  Total i n Residence  Total i n 3 towers  =  654  600  48  =  619  565  124  =  1273  1165  O f f i c e o f t h e D i r e c t o r o f Residence UBC].  46.  A sample of 96 residents was approached i n this survey.  Forty-  s i x male subjects received questionnaires, 43 responded, 41 (89%) were provided usable data.  Among 50 female subjects approached, 42 (82%)  responded, out of which one was rejected .  Among the respondents, 65  (80%), 33 men, 32 women, were native-born Canadians, 7 (8.5%) were from the UK, 1 was from the USA, 2 were from West-European countries, 5 were from Asian countries and 1 was from A u s t r a l i a (see Table 1). As many as 62 (76%) declared t h e i r permanent home address to be i n BC (including 7 from Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t ) , 3 from other rpovinces i n Canada, 4 from A s i a , 1 from USA, 1 from West Europe while 11 did not answer (see t a b l e ) .  The average declared age of the male  respondents was tabulated to be 21.5 years while that of female was 20.5 years. was 21 years.  Hence the mean age o f a l l the respondents  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of subjects i n d i f f e r e n t academic  years i s represented as follows: 29;  taken together  4th year 25;  5th year 9.  1st year 1;  2nd year 16; 3rd year  The major f a c u l t i e s to which the  majority of the subjects of this residence belonged were as follows: 19 belonged to the Faculty of A r t s , 16 to Science, 14 to Education, 12 to Applied Science, and others were d i s t r i b u t e d to various schools or departments mainly under remaining 8 f a c u l t i e s .  B.  MEASURES A structured self-administered questionnaire (a copy attached at  Appendix) including a standardised Environmental Scale (short form of URES) was u t i l i s e d with minor modification,to investigate the s p e c i f i c aspects of the residence and i t s users' l i f e s t y l e s . examined i n t h i s survey are described as follows.  The major variables  47.  1.  B i o g r a p h i c a l Information:  on s u b j e c t s ' sex, age,  Q u e s t i o n s were d e s i g n e d  to tap i n f o r m a t i o n  f a c u l t y , academic y e a r , country o f o r i g i n ,  hood r e s i d e n t i a l environment ( i . e . r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y and  type o f house  l i v e d , degree o f m o b i l i t y , p o s s e s s i o n of e l e c t r o n i c equipment communication f a c i l i t i e s )  t e n u r e of l i v i n g i n Gage Residence  and and  and type of d w e l l i n g j u s t p r i o r to coming to Gage Residence.  2.  S u b j e c t s ' C r i t e r i a f o r Choosing  p o i n t s c a l e , s t u d e n t s were asked  residence-choice c r i t e r i a before choosing  to l i v e i n  they  3.  [a]  respondant  questions  developed  quad mates who  (Q.17).  each  quad o r w i t h  i n the same f l o o r were attempted.  The  f o r t h i s p a r t of t h e study measured the number o f  chose each o t h e r m u t u a l l y b e f o r e moving to t h i s  p r o x i m i t y of m a j o r i t y o f the f r i e n d s  residence;  ( i . e . whether they had most  l i v i n g i n s i d e the dorm o r o u t s i d e i t ) a n d number o f sex of b e s t The  proximity,  Measurement o f the degree of i n t i m a c y  m a i n t a i n s w i t h o t h e r members o f h i s / h e r own  members o f o t h e r quadrants  5-  Gage R e s i d e n c e .  s t y l e , p e r s o n a l i t y and d e s i g n a s p e c t s .  Friendship Pattern:  On a  gave t o  These 16 c r i t e r i a were s e l e c t e d under f i v e headings i n c l u d i n g economy, l i f e  area  ( Q . l - 11, 15,  to L i v e i n t h i s R e s i d e n c e :  to r a t e the p r i o r i t y  child-  friends  friends.  degree of i n t i m a c y among quad mates and w i t h members of o t h e r quads  i n the same f l o o r s were measured i n s c a l e s r a n g i n g from c a s u a l l y a c q u a i n t e d t o v e r y good f r i e n d s .  Ib]  (Q.22).  Mutual T r u s t , H e l p i n g B e h a v i o r  of q u e s t i o n s were d e s i g n e d f o r each o t h e r .  and  Social Responsibility:  t o measure the degree of t r u s t s t u d e n t s  A number had  They were asked whether they u s u a l l y l o c k the doors  t h e i r rooms o r q u a d r a n t s ,  whether they were aware of i n c i d e n t s o f  of  theft,  16).  48.  intrusion felt  o r p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e committed on t h e i r f l o o r , and whether they  that security  measures s h o u l d be i n t e n s i f i e d w i t h i n t h e i r r e s i d e n c e .  A q u e s t i o n was asked  t o a s s e s s how much they would be w i l l i n g t o  h e l p a s t r a n g e r wandering through precisely  The  t h e main f l o o r lounge.  I t asked  whether they would i g n o r e o r h e i p o r r e p o r t her/him.  (Q.23, 2 4 ) .  l a s t q u e s t i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n on mutual t r u s t was d e s i g n e d t o  measure how much s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y environment.  s t u d e n t s have f o r t h e i r p h y s i c a l  Respondants were asked what they would do i f they n o t i c e d  a b r o k e n window i n t h e i r tower, (not w i t h i n t h e i r own quad) and whether they do i g n o r e o r r e p o r t i t .  4.  Satisfaction:  An i m p o r t a n t  "  dependent v a r i a b l e was t h e u s e r s '  l e v e l s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i v i n g i n Gage R e s i d e n c e ,  how many i n t e n d t o  come back n e x t y e a r , and whether occupants l i k e d Gage R e s i d e n c e  better  than the p l a c e s where they l a s t l i v e d .  R e s i d e n t s were f u r t h e r asked t o  mention the t h i n g s they were most missed  i n Gage as compared t o t h e i r  previous residences.  T h i s gave t h e r e s e a r c h e r some o p p o r t u n i t y t o make  a comparison between t h e p r e s e n t r e s i d e n c e and t h e o t h e r o l d e r on-campus s t u d e n t accommodation.  5.  (Q.12, 13, 14, 2 5 ) .  E v a l u a t i o n : A second i m p o r t a n t  Residence ensions.  measured on a semantic User's  response  v a r i a b l e was u s e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n o f Gage  d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e o f 17 a r c h i t e c t u r a l  t o a l l t h e s e q u e s t i o n s were f i r s t  compared  w i t h t h a t o f Bickman's study on s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e s w i t h v a r i o u s The  trend of conformity of the r e s u l t s  densities.  o f t h i s study was t e s t e d a g a i n s t  those group d e n s i t i e s w i t h which i t more o r l e s s  coincided.  dim-  (Q.20).  49.  6.  S o c i a l Climate' The s o c i a l climate of (the quadrants  of) this r e s i -  dence as perceived by residents was measured by applying a short form of University Residence Environment Scale (URES) which was  adopted from the  URES Manual developed and prepared by Rudolf Moos and Marvin Gerst, Social E c o l o g i c a l Laboratory (July, 1973), USA. mental scale was  This standard environ-  developed to evaluate ''the on-campus l i v i n g residence  where students spend the majority of t h e i r non-classroom time and i n which a large, proportion of interpersonal learning and peer influence occurs".  I t was assumed that the students' immediate l i v i n g environment  (college residence) might have a s i g n i f i c a n t influence p6 students' s a t i s f a c t i o n with u n i v e r s i t y l i f e as w e l l as an i n t e l l e c t u a l and academic productivity. who  The attempt was made to investigate whether the students  described the s o c i a l climate of t h e i r f l o o r or quads as being highly  involving, supportive, innovative and student-controlled also perceived t h e i r residence a r c h i t e c t u r e i n a p o s i t i v e  way.  In the present study, a standardized Short Form (Form S) applied to serve the researcher's purpose.  was  I t i s used tb obtain a  r e l a t i v e l y rapid assessment of the l i v i n g group's s o c i a l climate. The form contains a b r i e f 40-item, t r u e / f a l s e scale which provides a p r o f i l e of a residence environment along ten subscale dimensions. items each of the ten URES subscales described i n (Appendix C).  Four Mean,  standard deviations and standard scores were calculated f o r these ten four-items subscales f o r the present sample, and shown i n Result section.  A sample of Form S of the URES i s attached i n the Appendix C. positively-loaded item checked as "true" scores 1 point. item scores 1 point i f marked " f a l s e " .  The t o t a l  A  A negatively loaded  50.  subscale score (highest  w i l l be 4 and lowest w i l l be zero) i s simply the  number of items answered i n the scored d i r e c t i o n . scale d e f i n i t i o n s ) .  (See Appendix C f o r sub-  URES subscales with scoring items are described as follows:  Interpersonal Relationships: (1)  Involvement (items 10+,  (2)  Emotional Support  16-, 26+,  (1+, 11-, 14+,  32+) 37+)  Personal Growth: (3)  Independence (17-, 19+,  22+,  24+)  (4)  T r a d i t i o n a l Social Orientation (13+, 18+,  25-,  29+)  I n t e l l e c t u a l Growth: (5)  Competition (7-, 20+, 33-,  35+)  (6)  Academic Achievement (8-, 23-, 27+,  (7)  I n t e l l e c t u a l i t y (4+, 6+, 28-,  (8)  Order and Organisation (9-, 12-, 31+,  (9)  Innovation (3+, 5-, 34-,  38-) 40+)  39-)  (10) Student Influence (2-, 15-, 21+,  7.  36+)  A r c h i t e c t u r a l Atmosphere:  30+)  Part of this study was  designed to  determine i f the results of a s i m i l a r study by Bickman et a l . and the other one by Gerst and Sweetwood, (as mentioned e a r l i e r ) could be r e p l i c a t e d i n the Gage Residence. architectural  The students perception of the  atmosphere was measured using the semantic  differentials.  Respondants were asked to rate the a r c h i t e c t u r a l environment of t h e i r residence according to t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l perception alcng 17 a r c h i t e c t u r a l dimensions on a 7-point scale.  The semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , a general  measuring technique developed by Osgood, Suci and Tannenbaum (1957) to measure connotative meaning, was  incorporated by the researcher i n this  51.  study.  Briefly,  the s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l u t i l i s e s  a number o f s c a l e s  c o n s i s t i n g o f b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s o r nouns, (word- c o u p l e t s ) . are  The s c a l e s  d i v i d e d i n t o seven s t e p s as f o l l o w s f o r example:  (Cheerful  Depressing)  Each s u b j e c t was asked t o c o n s i d e r each o f the .17 c o u p l e t s and p l a c e a check i n the b l a n k which he o r she f e l t  applied.  From l e f t  to right  on t h e above example, a check i n one o f t h e b l a n k s would  indicate  (1) extremely c h e e r f u l ,  cheerful,  (2) q u i t e c h e e r f u l ,  (4) n e i t h e r c h e e r f u l n o r  (3) s l i g h t l y  d e p r e s s i n g , (5) s l i g h t l y d e p r e s s i n g (6) q u i t e  d e p r e s s i n g , and (7) extremely d e p r e s s i n g .  Since the midpoint of the  s c a l e (which i s 4 i n t h i s study) i s t a k e n as an i n d e x o f m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s , d e p a r t u r e from the m i d p o i n t .to any d i r e c t i o n may be r e f e r r e d as m e a n i n g f u l ness.  R e f e r e n c e s were made t o t h e e x t e n s i v e l i s t  of adjecti"vepairs  g e n e r a t e d i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s o f Kenneth C r a i k  (1971), Henry S a n o f f  Robert H e r s h b e r g e r  (1969).  (1972), and John B. C o l l i n s  The l i s t  (1968),  was reduced t o 17  items t o compare t h e r e s u l t s by Bickman e t a l as w e l l as G e r s t and Sweetwood with  this  study  and  for  grouped i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s :  simplification.  The items were m a i n l y  e.g. e v a l u a t i o n , potency and a c t i o n  orientation.  8.  A d d i t i o n a l items;  , Among o t h e r q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n the question-*  a i r e , which were not r e l a t e d t o any hypotheses a) s p e c i f i c areas r e s p o n d a n t s f e e l spaces".  (Q.18).  •  were:  as " p r i v a t e " " s e m i - p r i v a t e " o r " p u b l i c  52.  b) students' a l l o c a t i o n of daily or weekly hours i n studies, (Q.19), s o c i a l l i v i n g and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n h i s room, quad, elsewhere i n the Residence.  (Q.21).  Some of these r e s u l t s were compared with the previous  studies conducted by Sim Van der Ryne and S i l v e r s t e i n (1967) and the other by V i c t o r Hsia (1967). Results of other studies were obtained from H e i l w e i l (1974). C, PROCEDURE Before i n i t i a t i n g this survey, formal approval was obtained from the University Research Committee and the Director of Student Residence, UBC. The procedure was mainly based on following four techniques to c o l l e c t information f o r t h i s research study.  These are:  i ) L i t e r a t u r e search and review I i ) Systematic observation i i i ) Informal interview iv) Questionnaire response L i t e r a t u r e Search:  T r a d i t i o n a l method of l i t e r a t u r e search proved a v a l u -  able tool i n c o l l e c t i n g information on the Gage residence and also on gaining background information on relevant issues r e l a t i n g to the research. In addition to books, theses and monographs dealing with the aspect of student r e s i d e n t i a l l i f e , other sources of information r e l i e d on were l o c a l newspapers, housing administration o f f i c e information booklets, UBC student newsletters, a r c h i t e c t s ' program, professional journals r e l a ting to architecture, housing, psychology and sociology and environmental psychology.  Informal reconnaisance was a f i r s t step to include observations & anecdotal dialogue with some residents, s t a f f members i n residence, as w e l l as s t a f f belonging to the O f f i c e of University Housing Administration.  53.  Observation:  Some systematic  observations based on some predetermined  working hypotheses were conducted to record users' pattern of behavior i n the s p a t i a l context  of some s p e c i f i c areas i n s i d e the residence.  A c t i v i t i e s observed included the degree and v a r i e t i e s o f student-use of the main f l o o r lounges, tower lounges, quad lounges,, reception desk, mini shop, mail boxes telephone booth, kitchenettes, balconies, elevator lobbies, main f l o o r lobbies, open plaza, and car park.  The period of  observation was extended over a s p e c i f i c period of the day and night f o r a few weeks.  These helped the researcher to formulate the few hypotheses  for the research. Informal Interview:  At the i n i t i a l stage of the survey, interviewing i s  the most e f f i c i e n t technique to c o l l e c t information.  The objective was  to entertain feedback of information, determining the range of problems to f a c i l i t a t e broad o u t l i n e of the study p r e t e s t i n g the propositions and formulate a few hypotheses. suggestions,  cooperation  I t was further intended  to seek f o r  from students and house s t a f f i n d i s t r i b u t i n g  and c o l l e c t i n g the questionnaires.  Early interviews were anticipated to  reveal broad generalisations and class of variables f o r the study. These generalisations were l a t e r refined into a set of working hypotheses and tested systematically through questionnaire  responses.  Various persons interviewed include the architect responsible f o r the design of this residence, student advisor and some other s t a f f of the housing administration o f f i c e , house s t a f f a l l o t e d for duty i n s i d e the residence, resident attendant, house advisors  (Dons), s t a f f of P h y s i c a l  Plant O f f i c e and Totem Park Convention Centre i n addition to a few randomly selected student residents.  They a l l provided  a broad range of  54.  i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e r e s i d e n c e c o n c e n t r a t i n g on many s p e c i f i c This information helped  items.  t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o form v a r i a b l e s i n the d e s i g n o f  the f i a n l q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Questionnaire:  T h i s was f o l l o w e d by t h e development and d i s t r i b u t i o n  of a s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e amongst a s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s e l e c t e d sample o f 96 respondants.  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e q u i r e d l e s s than  minutes f o r the s u b j e c t s t o complete.  fifteen  Each 25-item q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  accompanied by a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r s o l i c i t i n g response and p a r t i c i p a t i o n from a l l t h e s u b j e c t s .  The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p r e t e s t e d on a s m a l l group, as a p i l o t - s t u d y  f o r d e t e r m i n i n g whether t h e w o r d i n g o f every q u e s t i o n was e a s i l y s t o o d , and would e l i c i t  the i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i r e d .  Every  attempt was made  t o e l i m i n a t e any c o n f u s i o n , m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r ambiguity o r weak w o r d i n g .  Many s u g g e s t i o n s  under-  due t o poor  from c o l l e a g u e s , house a d v i s o r s and  r e s i d e n t s f o r re-wording t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were c o n s i d e r e d and i n c o r p o r ated i n the f i n a l schedule.  I t was f e l t  necessary  a t t h i s stage t o  t h i n k w e l l ahead toward t h e s t a g e o f s t a t i s t i c a l t a b u l a t i o n and d a t a analysis.  Each o f t h e 96 s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s who r e c e i v e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was met  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r p e r s o n a l l y who e x p l a i n e d t o them the purpose and  usefulness of the survey. box  s p e c i a l l y kept  attendant  They were a l s o r e q u e s t e d  to return i t i n a  f o r t h i s purpose under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e r e s i d e n t  a t the r e c e p t i o n desk o f the main f l o o r common b l o c k .  In order t o e n l i s t  g r e a t e s t c o o p e r a t i o n and c a n d i d  response,  55. respondants were a s s u r e d o f c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and anonymity. has n o t exposed any response o r f i n d i n g s which p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s , though  report  c o u l d be t r a c e d back t o  a code had t o be put a t the back o f each  q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o i d e n t i f y each respondant.  The major problems  This  (Oppenheim, 1966).  c o n f r o n t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r were cases o f " n o t -  at-home", r e f u s a l s o r non-responses.  End-of-term examinations which k e p t most o f t h e respondants were assumed t o be t h e main o b s t r u c t i o n t o a h i g h e r response. s u b s t i t i o j i s were a l l o w e d .  busy, No  A v i g o r o u s c a l l back p r o c e s s was c a r r i e d out  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e s p i t e i n f r i n g e m e n t on r e s i d e n t s ' p r i v a c y and q u i e t d u r i n g the e x a m i n a t i o n . p e r i o d p r i o r t o Christmas h o l i d a y s . on t h i s f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e phase was 69 cases ( 7 2 % ) .  The r e s p o n s e  A second v i g o r o u s  f o l l o w - u p was i n i t i a t e d i n t h e second week a f t e r the resumption o f t h e s p r i n g term and t h e r e m a i n i n g 28% o f non-respondants were approached  again with fresh questionnaires.  i n the sampling p l a n ,  The a d d i t i o n a l  number o f responses a t t h e end o f t h e t h i r d day was 16, t h r e e o f which were c o n s i d e r e d u n a c c e p t a b l e thus making t h e t o t a l 82 ( 8 5 % ) . way t h e c r i t i c a l  In this  problem o f n o n - r e t u r n was t a c k e d and s u b s t a n t i a l l y  over-  come. i -  I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f female  respondants  took much c a r e t o r e t u r n t h e i r f i l l e d - i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n s e a l e d envelopes w i t h name and address o f the r e s e a r c h e r m e t i c u l o u s l y p r i n t e d on i t . pondants, ory  The survey c r e a t e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t among the s t u d e n t r e s p r o b a b l y because  o f t h e range o f items c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r d o r m i t -  e x p e r i e n c e was r a t h e r wide.  The m a j o r i t y o f respondants were v e r y  56.  cooperative  i n r e t u r n i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h many u n s o l i c i t e d , w i t t y  and s t i m u l a t i n g comments which were proved to be v a l i d . responses were c a l l o u s and  All  i n s i n c e r e , few were m a l i c i o u s and  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d on the same day  December 1974,  Time f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n of q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  s u p p e r t i m e (5 p.m. h i s / h e r room.  t o 7 p.m.)  derogatory.  i . e . 10 around  the  when everyone would be expected t o be  F o r t u n a t e l y , the ensuing  in  e n d - o f - t e r m examinations and i n -  clement weather (with r a i n accompanied by  c o l d , gusty wind) were b l e s s i n g s  i n d i s g u i s e and u n e x p e c t e d l y produced good r e s u l t s i n the f i r s t  case.  Almost a l l the s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d i n the sample were found t o be  present  and  a.  A l t h o u g h some  r e c e i v e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e from the r e s e a r c h e r  Sample  himself.  size:  Other t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , l a r g e samples a r e more a c c u r a t e s m a l l e r ones.  than  However, a s m a l l sample which i s sometimes r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of i t s p o p u l a t i o n i s more v a l u a b l e t h a n a l a r g e sample which i s n o t . Among o t h e r elemnets d e t e r m i n i n g  the s i z e of a smaple i s the e x t e n t  whcih the p o p u l a t i o n i s homogeneous.  Homogeniety h e r e may  as the degree t o which p e o p l e a r e a l i k e w i t h r e s p e c t t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s student  community b e i n g  studied.  be  defined  particular  The more the  p e o p l e i n a community are a l i k e , the s m a l l e r t h e sample can be. one  i s r a r e l y a l i k e but  i t takes  to  Every-  fewer p e o p l e t o produce a good sample  of a f a i r l y homogeneous p o p u l a t i o n than i t does to get a good sample o f a heterogeneous p o p u l a t i o n .  The  f a c t o r s considered  (Backstrom and  i n determining  Hursh, 1963).  the sample s i z e were:  degree  of p r e c i s i o n d e s i r e d , sampling method used, l e n g t h of time, amount of  57.  money, a s s i s t a n c e from p e r s o n n e l a v a i l a b l e t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n the f i e l d p r o c e s s i n g o r computing  as w e l l as t h e time c o s t i n v o l v e d i n t a b u l a t i n g , data.  The f i e l d  u n d e r t a k i n g s has t o be f e a s i b l e  (  and p r a c t i c a b l e i n t h e l i g h t sample s i z e  of the researcher's resources.  (96) w i t h h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n s e  A small  (85%) was b e l i e v e d t o  o f f e r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f an i n - d e p t h study and to make a g r e a t e r cont r i b u t i o n than a shallow study of a l a r g e r b.  group,  Drawing t h e Sample: Two o f t h e f o u r (6-person) quads on each o f 16 f l o o r s i n each o f t h e t h r e e h i g h - r i s e s were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y chosen as respondent a d d r e s s e s . the  One respondant was s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s e l e c t e d from among  6 s t u d e n t s i n each chosen quad.  from each  floor,  towers a t 96.  This generated 2 p o t e n t i a l  g i v i n g a t o t a l number o f s u b j e c t s c o v e r i n g the t h r e e The p r i n c i p l e o f s i m p l e random s y s t e m a t i c sampling p r o -  cedure was adopted i n the drawing up t h e sample p l a n r e s e a r c h . all of  t h e t h r e e towers  an e q u a l p r o b a b i l i t y o r chance  o f b e i n g i n c l u d e d as  T h i s method o f s a m p l i n g p r o v i d e d a s s u r a n c e t h a t members  t h e sample were g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i s p e r s e d among t h e p o p u l a t i o n .  A complete made a v a i l a b l e .  list  of a l l t h e q u a d r a n t s , f l o o r s and towers was  A s i m p l e "game" was p l a y e d w i t h the above l i s t  rooms, 4 quads, 16 f l o o r s and 3 towers t o o b t a i n a l l p o s s i b l e of  T h i s gave  p o s s i b l e combinations o f quadrants i n each o f t h e 16 f l o o r s i n each  a sample s o u r c e . of  respondants  p a i r s o f rooms i n each quad i n each f l o o r i n 3 towers.  p a i r s o f rooms i n each quad c o u l d be 1-2,  of 6  combinations  The p o s s i b l e  2r-3, 3-4, 4 - 5 , and 6 - 1 .  p o s s i b l e p a i r s o f quads s e l e c t e d were B-D, A-C, and CVD.  first  The  Each o f t h e s e  combinations was w r i t t e n on a s l i p o f paper, s l i p s were p l a c e d i n s i d e a  • ' '•  58.  can,  thoroughly  s t i r r e d and  s e l e c t e d by  the r o l l i n g o f d i c e .  numbers on the s t r i p s o f paper s e l e c t e d , r e p r e s e n t i n g two rooms and two  of the 4 quads c o n s t i t u t e d the s i m p l e  resident population.  The  systematic  i n t h i s s u r v e y have r e p r e s e n t e d  (50%)  quads i n the e n t i r e group o f r e s i d e n c e a l t h o u g h  sample and  two  of the s i x  random sample of  sample p l a n thus o b t a i n e d and  e x a c t l y 96  of the e n t i r e r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n .  The  The  the used  of the t o t a l number o f i t covered  o n l y about  8%  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i n d i c a t e s the  the r e t u r n s .  .. TABLE 0 SAMPLE AND  RETURN  Male Quads  Female Quads  Approached As Exists Responded  Gage Towers  As Approached Exists Responded  N o r t h Tower  34  22  19  30  10  9  East  "  32  14  13  32  18  16  South  "  31  10  9  33  22  16  97  46  41  95  50  41  Total:  TOTAL RESPONSE - N=82(85%) By  chance, the response from the towers (as the above t a b l e i n d i c a t e s )  achieved 11, c.  an exact  (12%) w h i l e  sex b a l a n c e  among respondants.  3 (3%) o f r e s p o n s e s were not  Non-responses were o n l y  acceptable.  Data A n a l y s i s : A p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n f o r a n a l y s i n g the d a t a was time the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a n a l y s i s , the a c c u r a c y prepared  designed,  of d a t a was  f o r a n a l y s i s by  coding.  made at  B e f o r e p r o c e s s i n g of d a t a f o r  carefully  ascertained.  The  d a t a were  Coding d e c i s i o n s were assembled  d u p l i c a t e d i n t o a manual f o r the use  the  of the coder  during a n a l y s i s ,  and  59. programming or job deck set-ups.  The coding manual provided  construction  of coding indexes f o r possible responses to each question and column by column i n s t r u c t i o n s (except f o r items on which the codes were s e l f evident) •  Data were punched and placed i n a f i l e i n the UBC  Computing Centre  and then run under M u l t i v a r i a t e Contingency Tabulations.  This p a r t i c u l a r  computer programme i s usually used f o r questionnaire analysis i n the s o c i a l sciences.  Considering one question (variable) at a time (uni-  v a r i a t e case) , i t counts the number of people (subjects) who response to the-question,  gave each  c a l c u l a t e the percentage of people who  gave each  response to the question, and compute the variate frequency table and univariate t o t a l percentage table.  Also considering two questions  at a  time ( b i v a r i a t e case) the programme constructs v a r i a t e frequency tables of each p a i r of responses:  i n the b i v a r i a t e case, the programme also  produces (upon request) tables of h o r i z o n t a l and/or v e r t i c a l and/or t o t a l percentages.  (UBC MVTAB Manual, June 19 74).  Data analysis involved r e l a t i v e l y straightforward presentation of computer output i n the form of some univariate tables tables to cross-tabulate two variables at a time.  and few b i v a r i a t e  CHAPTER IV  60.  RESULTS  The results are organised and presented in the following order: A. Summary of Results. B. Subjects' biographical data. C. Intimacy and Friendship Data. D. Satisfaction and preference data. E. Subjects' ratings on University Residence Environmental Score i n comparison with Gerst and Sweetwood's Study.  F. Students ratings on Architectural Atmosphere - in comparison to Bickman's studj G. Factors influencing perception of Architectural Atmosphere. H. Satisfaction.  I. Students' Activities:  A. 1.  Results and Discussion on Secondary Investigations.  SUMMARY OF RESULTS Situation:  The towers of Gage Residence accommodate 1165 of the  3454 UBC students (i.e. a third of on-campus student population.  A Gage  resident may consider himself to be in a very enviable position.  He is  paying one of the cheapest rents and at the same time having the opportunity to live in one of the finest examples of student residences with very modern, progressive design concepts in the whole world. 2.  Demography: From the questionnaire data one can outline a general  profile of the average Gage Resident as he/she was in 1974/75. resident may by equal chance be a male or female occupant.  A Gage  The resident  is probably in the second or third year at this university and the very  61. early twenties, unmarried, white, native-born Canadian, coming from a town or small city of the Province of BC.  The resident typically comes from  a middle or upper middle class family, grew up i n a small town or city i n a single-family detached home during childhood and had his own room as a child.  More than half the respondants lived off-campus before move-  ing here i n Gage Residence. 3.  Likes:  months.  The typical resident has lived i n Gage for less than four  He would l i k e to return* the next year to l i v e i n this residence  I f not, i n the same room and quad.  He likes l i v i n g i n Gage more than the  place last lived i n and overall he i s s a t i s f i e d with l i v i n g here.  He  does not possess any personal vehicle or at the most a bicycle and to some degree i s dependent on the public transport.  The more he must use public  transport the more s a t i s f i e d he i s with l i v i n g i n Gage.  He may possess  stereo or even share buying or renting a TV and Telephone i n his quad. He has given p r i o r i t y to the following c r i t e r i a i n choosing to l i v e i n this residence: proximity to University/library, amenities of self-cooking, low rent, privacy and condition of residence. 4.  Activity:  An average Gage resident spends less than 15 hours per  week i n studies inside his own room, about 12 hours daily inside his room, less than 3 hours daily i n the kitchen/lounge of his 6-person quad, less than one hour d a i l y , n o t i n the quad but inside the building, and about 6 hours daily outside Gage Residence.  He spends very l i t t l e time i n any  extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s organised inside the building, and loves to personalise the space around him. 5.  Friendship:  The Gage resident has chosen at least one of his/her  quad mates before coming to l i v e here, however, the majority of a residents' friends l i v e outside the residence.  Most residents have an equal number  of boy and g i r l friends;  most o f their quad-mates are their friends,  although a majority among the other 18 members residing  i n other three  quads i n the same floor are either unfamiliar o r only casually acquainted to respondents. 6.  Dorm  atmosphere and culture: The resident trusts other residents  and exhibits some measure o f social responsibility and helping behavior. In general, the resident has a positive perception o r high feeling towards involvement, emotional support, independence, academic achievement intellectuality and innovation within the quad social climate.  The  resident also exhibits a negative feeling towards traditional social orientation and competition.  With  regard t o perception of personal  space and t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , he perceives his own room as personal space; perceives the quad lounge and washroom as semi-public Space.  The  resident has further given positive rating for his perception o f the architecturally-designed atmosphere of his residential environment: convenient, unique, relaxed, safe, ordered (well-kept), friendly, cheerful and satisfying but felt i t rather cramped, separating and cold.  B. BIOGRAPHICAL DATA  The following results show basic biographical information that provides a general background o f the subjects. 1.  Family R e s i d e n t i a l Density:  Table  1  shows that 21 (26%) out of the  82 respondants grew up i n big cities o r i t s adjacent suburbs, 29 (33%) in small c i t i e s , 25 (31%) i n small towns, and only 6 grew up on farms.  63. TABLE 1 CHILDHOOD AREA  Farm  Small Town  City  Lg. City or Suburb  Total  i  Male Female  2.  3 3  11 14  17 12  10 11  41 41  6 (7%)  25 (31%)  29 (35%)  21 (25%)  82  Family House:  Table 2 shows that 79 (96%) l i v e d i n s i n g l e family  detached-type of residences during t h e i r childhood, 2 l i v e d i n semidetached town-house apartments and only 1 l i v e d i n a high r i s e apartment. Table 3 indicates that 45 persons (55%) had had t h e i r 'own exclusive room during childhood, while 9 d i d not answer.  ' TABLE 2 FAMILY HOUSE LIVED IN CHILDHOOD  Single family detached home  Male Female  High r i s e apt.  Semi detached duplex  Total  39 40  0 1  2 0  41 41  79 (96%)  1 (2%)  2 (1%)  82  64. TABLE 3 EXCLUSIVE ROOM  Yes  No  4 5  24 21  13 15  41 41  9 (11%)  45 (55%)  28 (34%)  82  No response Male Female  3.  Just Previous Residence:  Total  Table 4a indicates that a t o t a l of 39  (48%) persons l i v e d on-campus immediately before coming to l i v e i n Gage Residence.  Others s a i d that they were l i v i n g i n a v a r i e t y of off-campus  residences, (with parents, with r e l a t i v e s , with friends or alone . . . (See Table 4b) .  TABLE 4a JUST PREVIOUS RESIDENCE  On-campus  Male Female  22  Of f-camp us  Total  !?  19 24  41 41  39 (48%)  43 (52%)  82  65. TABLE 4b PREVIOUS OFF-CAMPUS RESIDENCES  No response  Male Female  4.  With parents  With relatives  With Friends  Alone  Total  1 0  6 13  2 2  5 6  5 3  19 24  1  19  4  11  8  43  Tenure i n Gage Residence:  Half of the respondants l i v e d i n Gage  Residence f o r less than 4 months at time of interview (See Table 5).  TABLE 5 RESIDENT'S LENGTH OF STAY IN. GAGE RESIDENCE  Length of Residence  Less than 4 months 4 months to 1 year 1 year to 2 years More than 2 years  5.  Mobility:  T o t a l (N 82)  41 10 22 9  (50%) (12%) (27%) (11%)  Male (41)  Female (41)  19 5 12 5  22 5 10 4  The degree of mobility p o t e n t i a l of the subjects was  found to be i n the following order (as shown i n Table 6a). Thirty-three (40%), 10 men, 23 women, d i d not possess any kind of personal vehicle.  Ten (12%) had t h e i r own bike;  16 (20%) had both car and bike.  23 (28%) had t h e i r own car, and  Thus, about h a l f the respondants  appear to be at least p a r t l y dependent on hitch-hiking or public transport  as contrasted with privately-owned vehicles transport.  (See Table 6b).  TABLE 6a MOBILITY  No personal vehicle Male Female  Only bike  10 23 33 (40%)  3 7  Only car  16 7  10 (12%)  Both  Total  12 4  41 41  23 (28%) 16 (20%)  82  TABLE 6b DEPENDENCE ON PUBLIC TRANSPORT  Always Male Female  6.  Frequently  Rarely  Never  7 10  5 17  20 11  9 3  17 (21%)  22 (27%)  31 (28%)  E l e c t r i c a l Appliances Owned:  Total  41 41  12 (14%)  82  The possession and use of e l e c t r o n i c  appliances f o r entertaining or communication purposes have got d i r e c t impact on the auditory privacy and quietude i n a student residence. The housing administration authority permits student residents to bring t h e i r personal radios, TV's, stereos and i n s t a l telephone  connections  i n i n d i v i d u a l rooms and leaves the question of l i s t e n i n g volume to the students' d i s c r e t i o n .  However, this becomes a problem when consideration  and r e s p e c t f o r the f e e l i n g s o f o t h e r s are not d i s p l a y e d . respondents  30 s a i d they have t h e i r own  s a i d they p o s s e s s e d t h e i r own  TV's,  Of  82  s t e r e o s , 27 owned t e l e p h o n e ,  22  7 persons s a i d they possess a l l  those i t e m s , w h i l e 31 (38%) s a i d they d i d not possess any  (See T a b l e 7 ) .  TABLE 7 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES OWNED  Nothing  Male Female  TV ( o n l y or o t h e r )  11 20  12 3  31  (38%) 15  C. INTIMACY AND  Stereo (only or o t h e r )  Telephone (only or other)  14 9  (18%)  23  11 9  (28%)  20  Total  4 3  41 41  7 (9%)  82  FRIENDSHIP DATA:  With r e s p e c t to the f r i e n d s h i p p a t t e r n and involvement  (24%)  All three  the i n t e n s i t y o f  social  the r e s i d e n t s had i n s i d e t h e i r r e s i d e n c e , T a b l e 8 i n d i c a t e s  t h a t i n a l l , 29  ( 3 5 % ) , 19 men,  10 women, of the respondants  d i d not  m u t u a l l y choose any quad-mate b e f o r e coming to t h i s r e s i d e n c e , w h i l e r e m a i n i n g 53 chose between one and f i v e o f t h e i r quad mates. r e s i d e n t s were found more to choose mates b e f o r e coming to l i v e However, 56  Women here.  (60%) s a i d t h a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r f r i e n d s were l i v i n g  s i d e t h e i r quad r e s i d e n c e . l i v i n g mainly  A n o t h e r 20  (24%)  the  out-  s a i d t h e i r f r i e n d s were  i n s i d e , w h i l e 5 s a i d t h a t they had t h e i r f r i e n d s e q u a l l y  d i s t r i b u t e d between i n s i d e and o u t s i d e o f the r e s i d e n c e .  TABLE 8 TREND OF SELF CHOSEN QUAD MATES  No. of chosen mates  0  1  2  3  4  5  Male Female  19 10  1 11  7 6  5 7  6 5  3 2  41 41  Total  29  12  13  12  11  5  82  Total  Out of the t o t a l sample, 26 (21 men, 5 women) ,had a majority of boyfriends, 19 (3 men, 16 women), had a majority of g i r l f r i e n d s , and a t h i r d (9 men, 18 women), had both i n equal numbers.  9 d i d not answer  and one admitted to having no friends.  In determining the friendship pattern developed within the quads i t was observed that a t h i r d (9 men and 18 women), of respondents  stated  that a l l the members of theirs were very good friends or most were very good friends, while the remaining two-thirds of respondants bed t h e i r quad-mates as a f a i r l y good friends.  descri-  The general trend, as  observed, was that the majority of quad mates i n women quads were at least f a i r l y good f r i e n d s , although 18 (21%), 9 men and 9 women, reported that a l l or a majority of quadrants were only casually acquainted.  Conversely, with respect to the friendship pattern developed among d i f f e r e n t quads on any single f l o o r , 14 persons (17%), 8 men and 6 women, reported that a l l the 18 of the other quad members were t o t a l l y unf a m i l i a r , with some casually acquainted or f a m i l i a r .  Only 16 (19%)  69. 6 men and 10 women, s a i d they had f a m i l i a r or good friends among other quads on the same f l o o r .  The researcher also noticed that t h i s trend  was more prevelant among the freshmen.  When asked where from d i d they entertain guests when they had f l o o r p a r t i e s , 15 (10 men 5 women), said that no party was held at a l l , 44 (19 men, 15 women), said the majority of t h e i r guests were from i n s i d e the b u i l d i n g , 21 said that most of t h e i r friends were from outside and only 2 s a i d to have guests from both i n s i d e and outside.  D. PREFERENCE AND SATISFACTION DATA:  1.  Individual Selection C r i t e r i a :  Subjects were asked to assign 16  given reasons f o r choosing to l i v e i n Gage Residence.  They were asked  to put the reasons according to t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s on a 5-point s c a l e . The r e s u l t s are presented i n the following Table 9.  TABLE 9 RESIDENTS' RATINGS OF IMPORTANCE OF REASONS FOR SELECTING GAGE RESIDENCE  4J  « {3  CJ 4J  "H  4J  rl  O  u I* 1. Proximity to University/library 2. Amenities ( s e l f cooking) 3. Rent/charges 4. Privacy 5. Condition of Residence 6. Extent of furnishing 7. Layout of residence 8. Freedom from some use and a c t i v i t i e s 9. Being close to action 10.Self-chosen roommates 11. Enjoy able natural setting 12.Coed f l o o r l i v i n g 13.Restriction on maximum age 14.Alternative l i f e style 15.High r i s e apt. living 16.Others  2.  §  4J  1-1  S> O  c CO  {3 4-> U O  a §* §•  4J O  H  u 0  rH rO  4-i  cd  0) rH  4J U  •H  Me  4J O 4-1 P<  I-*  CO O •H rH  4-1 PH O  P«  O  a <! H  O H  > M  38  29  14  81  1  0  22 17 24  39 25 32  18 32 15  79 74 71  3 8 8  0 0 3  17  25  28  70  8  4  11 9  24 17  29 32  64 58  16 19  2 5  10  19  24  53  13  16  9  16  28  53  23  6  14  15  19  48  20  14  6 6  15 13  26 27  47 46  24 30  11 6  6  11  17  34  39  9  3  5  15  23  32  27  2 5  2 3  10 2  14 10  56 5  12 67  Intention to Return:  M  4J  rH CO  Im  Selection C r i t e r i a  As many as 45 (55%) persons intended returning  to Gage Residence next year, 22 s a i d they preferred not to or were completing t h e i r study programme i n t h i s University, while 14 (17%) were not sure (See Table 10).  Among these returning, more than h a l f  (56%) indicated t h e i r preference to return to the same room, quad, f l o o r tower while the other 20 did not so specify. (Table 11).  71. 3.  Preference f o r Gage Residence;  A t o t a l of 61 (74%) persons  liked  l i v i n g i n t h i s residence more than the place l a s t l i v e d i n , 9 r e p l i e d negatively, while 10 were not sure (See Table 12).  4.  Overall Satisfaction:  When residents were asked whether they were  on the whole s a t i s f i e d with l i v i n g i n this residence i n terms of a v a i l able f a c i l i t i e s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l design, s o c i a l climate, l i f e s t y l e and the rent, as many as 62 (76%) agreed, 8 (10%) d i d not agree, while 12 (14%) s a i d they were not sure (See Table 13).  ,TABLE 10 LIKELY TO RETURN NEXT YEAR  Male Female  Yes  No  24 21  ~ 11 11  45 (54%)  Not sure  No response  5 9  22 (26%)  14 (17%)  Total  1 0  41 41  1  82  TABLE 11 LIKELIHOOD OF RETURNING TO SAME ROOM OR QUAD (given i n t e n t i o n to return at all)  Same tower, quad and f l o o r  Male Female  Not necessarily to same place  Does not matter  Total  13 12  11 5  0 4  24 21  25 (56%)  16 (36%)  4 (9%)  45  TABLE 12 PREFERENCE FOR GAGE RESIDENCE AS COMPARED TO OTHER RESIDENCE PREVIOUSLY LIVED IN  Male Female  Yes  No  Not sure  30 31  3 6  61 (75%)  9 (11%)  No answer  7 3 10 (12%)  Total  1 1  41 41  2 (2%)  82  TABLE 13 OVERALL SATISFIED IN LIVING IN GAGE RESIDENCE  No  Not sure  29 33  5 3  7 5  62 (76%)  8 (10%)  Yes Male Female  12 (14%)  Total  41 41  82  E. SUBJECTS' RATINGS ON UNIVERSITY RESIDENTS' ENVIRONMENTAL SCALE IN COMPARISON WITH GERST AND SWEETWOOD'S STUDY:  The residents' s o c i a l climate perception of their own quadrants were measured on the basis of a short form of the URES Scale as described earlier.  Figure 2 represents the URES p r o f i l e s f o r S o c i a l Climate  Perception of respective quadrants by Gage residents as compared to the s u i t e s i n Gerst and Sweetwood's study.  The mean environmental  scores obtained on each of the ten URES  subscales measured on a 5-point scale (4-10) were converted by a factor of 11  5  to make them equivalent to means obtained on the 11-point scale  (10-0) used i n the study by Gerst and Sweetwood.  As the figure indicates,  quadrants of the Gage Residence were seen by i t s residents as more Involving,  Supportive, Independent, Traditional, Social Oriented,  Competitive, Academic Achieving, Intellectual, Ordered and Organised and Innovative than the previous study.  The differences were observed to  be greatest i n academic achievement and intellectuality while the mean score on student influence i n Gage Residence was observed to be lower than that obtained in the previous study.  I t was interesting to note  that a comparatively higher percentage of female respondents  observed  their quadrants' social climate as more Involving (54:37), Emotionally Supportive (50%:44%), Academic Achieving (85:70), Intellectual (63:34), Ordered and Organised (56:31) and Innovative (44%:31%) than their male counterparts, while the latter observed i t more independent and competitive.  A further attempt was made to detect whether any consistent pattern of relationships exists between the user's perception of the social climate and architectural atmosphere.  The mean scores of the URES subscales were accordingly related to the subjects' rating on the 7-point scale of the adjective checklist (architectural atmosphere) used i n this study.  Responses to each URES  subscale were dichotomized into a high and low group by allocating the subjects who scored above and below subscale the median.  A bivariate  frequency taBle was specified i n the computer (MVTAB) programme on the  FIGURE 2  74.  URES P r o f i l e s f o r S o c i a l C l i m a t e P e r c e p t i o n As p e r c e i v e d by Gage r e s i d e n t s , UBC i n comparison w i t h G e r s t and Sweetwood.  the study by  URES SUBSCALES INVOLVEMENT  EMOTIONAL SUPPORT  INDEPENDENCE  TRADITIONAL SOCIAL ORIENTATION  J.  COMPETITION  4-  ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT  INTELLECTUALITX  4-  ORDER AND ORGANISATION  INNOVATION  STUDENT INFLUENCE  ii—h 2  0  0  4  +  +  \  5  6  8  Sub-Scale  Score  it  \  10  P e r c e p t i o n o f s u i t e by r e s i d e n t s i n G e r s t ' s Study,USA P e r c e p t i o n o f s u i t e by r e s i d e n t s i n Gage Residence,UBC  Table 14 Architectural Perception as a Function of low and High URES Scores in Gage Residence:  URES Subscales  Involvement  Semantic Differential Descriptors Frequently Indicated by Subjects: High Low  Cheerful, relaxed, unifying, satisfying, friendly " warm Separating, unrestrictive,< tense, frustrating  2,  Emotional Support  High Low  Relaxed, Unifying, Warm, Friendly Unrestrictive, separating, cold, unfriendly  3.  Independence  High Low  Unrestrictive, dynamic -  4. Traditional Social Orientation  High Low  Unique Common, ugly, static  Competition  High Low  :•Cheerful, beautiful, clarity, safe  6.  Academic Achievement  High Low  simple, unrestrictive -  7.  Intellectuality  High Warm Low Separating, ordered  8.  Order and Organisation  High Low  Simple, safe, cheerful Inconvenient  9.  Innovation  High Low  Dynamic, warm  High Low  Warm relaxed  10. Student Influence  N.B. The criteria for assigning descriptor to high or low groups were that at least 50% of the groups used the descriptor and that there was at least 20% difference between groups on the use of that descriptor. Because of the small range of URES Scores, perfect median splits were not possible. Groups were made as equal as the scale permitted. :  basis  o f t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s .  indicates  that  T a b l e 14 i s the summary o f r e s u l t s which  s u b j e c t s who p e r c e i v e d t h e i r r e s i d e n c e - q u a d r a n t  as h i g h on Involvement, E m o t i o n a l Support, T r a d i t i o n a l - S o c i a l  climate Orientations,  Academic Achievement, Order and O r g a n i s a t i o n and I n n o v a t i o n b u t low i n C o m p e t i t i o n tended a l s o relaxed, unifying,  t o d e s c r i b e t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l q u a l i t i e s as  dynamic, s i m p l e , s a f e ,  cheerful,  f r i e n d l y , warm and s a t i s f y i n g .  A l t h o u g h the o p p o s i t e i n d i c a t i o n was l e s s pronounced, y e t i t was r e c o r d e d that  those who o b s e r v e d t h e i r q u a d r a n t s ' c l i m a t e as low i n Involvement,  Emotional Support, T r a d i t i o n a l S o c i a l O r i e n t a t i o n , O r d e r and O r g a n i s a t i o n a l s o  I n t e l l e c t u a l i t y and  d e s c r i b e d t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l q u a l i t i e s as  s e p a r a t i n g , s t a t i c , common, t e n s e , u n r e s t r i c t i v e , i n c o n v e n i e n t ,  unfriendly,  c o l d , u g l y and f r u s t r a t i n g .  F. USERS' PERCEPTION OF ARCHITECTURAL ATMOSPHERE OF THE RESIDENCE IN COMPARISON WITH RESULTS OF BICKMAN'S STUDY:  An  attempt was made t o d e t e c t whether the p e r c e p t i o n of t h e a r c h i -  t e c t u r a l atmosphere i s i n f l u e n c e d The  by p e r c e p t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l  density.  r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s u r v e y was compared w i t h a s i m i l a r s t u d y on  student residence previously  done by Bickman e t a l .  The s u b j e c t ' s  own  judgements o f t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r a l atmosphere o f Gage R e s i d e n c e were r e c o r d e d on t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l a d j e c t i v e The were  means o f t h e s c o r e s on each o f t h e s e v e r a l  c h e c k l i s t mentioned above. architectural  criteria  calculated.  The  figure  3 shows t h e p r o f i l e s o f r e s i d e n c e p r e d i c t o r  means  alongside  thqse o f t h e study by Bickman e t a l w h i l e t h e T a b l e 15 compares t h e mean ratings  t h e s u b j e c t s gave f o r t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l atmosphere o f t h e Gage  TABLE 15 MEAN RATINGS OF THE GAGE RESIDENCE BY ITS OWN RESIDENTS AS COMPARED TO BICKMAN'S STUDY  Density of Bickman's Study Low Medium High  CHEERFUL Depressing FRIENDLY Unfriendly RELAXING Stressful UNIFYING Separating UNRESTRICTIVE Limiting DIVERSIFIED Uniform SPACIOUS Cramped CONVENIENT Inconvenient SAFE Dangerous WELL-KEPT Run-down WARM Cold UNIQUE Common DYNAMIC Static BEAUTIFUL Ugly SIMPLE Complex CLARITY Ambiguity SATISFYING Frustrating  *  Results of the Gage Residence  4.3  4, 2  3.4  3.0  4.7  3.7  2.8  2.9  3.5  3.6  2.5  2.8  5.5  4.3  4.3  3.7  4.7  4.0  2.4  3.0  5.8  5.6  2.1  3.0  3.2  4.5  4.7 2.2  3.3  3.1  2.2  3.1  3.2  5.2  2.7  3.1  3.0  5.0  2.8  5.2  4.3  2.7  3.7  —  —  —  2.6  —  —  —  3.8  -  —  —  3.7  -  -  3.2  —  —  —  3.5  —  -  3.3  The scale i s 1-7, with 1 corresponding to the word i n c a p i t a l l e t t e r s .  78. FIGURE 3 COMPARATIVE PROFILES OF MEAN RATINGS ON ARCHITECTURAL ENVIRONMENT PERCEPTION BETWEEN GAGE RESIDENTS AND OTHERS IN THE STUDY OF BICKMAN ET. AL  depressing  4 -€> -+ •-+-  5  6  ;  Gage R e s i d e n t s S u b j e c t o f Bichman's Low D e n s i t y Dorms •» " » High "  79.  Residence and those of Bickman's study.  Gage r e s i d e n t s  1  ratings on  most of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l dimensions nearly p a r a l l e d with the r e s u l t s of low or medium density dormitories of Bickman's study.  These were  p a r t i c u l a r l y evident as the Gage residents i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r a l atmosphere as c h e e r f u l , u n i f y i n g , relaxed, unrestricted, d i v e r s i f i e d , warm and f r i e n d l y .  Conversely  the mean ratings of the Gage residents  almost coincided with that of Bickman's high density r e s u l t s i n dimensions such as crampedness, convenience, safety and well-orderliness.  1.  Trust:  Parts of the study were designed to compare the degree of  t r u s t , s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and helping behavior of the residents of t h i s student residence with r e s u l t s of the Bickman et a l study on dorm i t o r i e s of various d e n s i t i e s .  The r e s u l t s are presented  i n Table 16.  When asked i f they kept t h e i r quad door or room door locked, 49 (60%) of Gage respondents said they did lock t h e i r room doors, as compated to Bickman's study where 82% of the subject i n medium density dorms d i d lock t h e i r room.  Further, only 23 (28%) of Gage residents were  aware of incidents of t h e f t , i n t r u s i o n or physical violence Inside t h e i r residence, as compated to Bickman's r e s u l t s i n low density dormitories of 75% and high density r e s u l t s of 97%.  80. Also 64 (78%) of the subjects of this study did not f e e l the necessity of security measure to be i n t e n s i f i e d although the remaining 18 (22%) f e l t i t should be increased, e s p e c i a l l y at the side entrance o f f the common rooms.  However, these measures suggesting high  trust and/or low anxiety about security i n Gage Residence may be an a r t i f a c t of c u l t u r a l differences between the sets of respondents compared.  2.  Social R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and Helping Behavior:  Questions were designed  to reveal how much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the residents f e l t they should have f o r t h e i r residence and how much they would be w i l l i n g to help t h e i r fellow residents.  Students were asked what they would do i f they saw a female  stranger wandering through t h e i r residence.  Table 16 indicates that 7  only (9%) s a i d they would ignore her (as compared to 23% i n Bickman's study on low density dorms.)  Gage residents expressed a higher degree  of helping behavior even higher than Bickman's low density  residents:  64 (78%) of the Gage residents s a i d they would help her and 11 would report her.  (14%)  Students were also asked what they would do i f they  noticed a broken window i n t h e i r residence but not i n a private room. Only 31 (38%) said they would report i t , as compared to Bickman's study where 83% of the subjects l i v i n g i n low density and 33% i n high density dorms said they would report. may  However, the apparent difference here  relate not to s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as much as to conformity of  behavior and anxiety about s e c u r i t y .  81 TABLE 16 MEASURE OF TRUST, HELPING BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF GAGE RESIDENTS AS COMPARED TO THAT OF BICKMAN'S STUDY  Aspects  Bickman's r e s u l t s on dormitories with Low Medium High  Study on Gage Residence  Densities Residents who keep t h e i r room doors locked (Trust)  48%  82%  97%  49 (60%)  Aware of incidents of t h e f t s , i n t r u sions, and p h y s i c a l violence inside residence  75%  95%  97%  23 (28%)  Did not want security measures inside residences to be i n t e n s i f i e d  -  -  -  64 (78%)  Did f e e l security measures be i n t e n s i f i e d (Tension/Anxiety)  -  -  18 (22%)  53%  7 (9%)  Would ignore a female stranger wandering through residence  23%  Would help her (Helping Behavior)  Would report a f t e r seeing a broken window i n s i d e t h e i r residence (Sense of Responsibility)  40% -  82%  60%  • -  33%  64 (78%)  31 (38%)  G. FACTORS' INFLUENCING PERCEPTION OF ARCHITECTURAL ATMOSPHERE:  Users' ratings of the atmosphere of t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r a l environment were related to the background a t t r i b u t e s e.g. childhood environment, type and q u a l i t y of previous residence, degree of mobility, i n t e n s i t y of friendship and mutual t r u s t , and to t h e i r o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n with Gage  82. Residence. (which was  The ratings were dichotomized. considered as mid-point)  Those who  scored below 4  on any of the 16 a r c h i t e c t u r a l atmos-  phere dimensions were considered as perceiving negatively on that item.  1.  Childhood housing:  (See Table 17).  The survey r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e  that out of 79 respondents, most perceived the atmosphere of t h e i r residence as cramped and l i m i t i n g .  However, 3 students who  used to  l i v e i n apartments (presumably i n high density urban areas) and who  did  not have rooms of t h e i r own during t h e i r childhood, did not give negat i v e ratings on any of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l design aspect.  2.  Type of Urban Area:  s i x respondents who  R e s i d e n t i a l Density Urban Grew Up:  Out of  grew up i n farms, 5 (83%) observed the design of  the residence as cramped, 4 (67%) as l i m i t i n g , 3 (50%) as f r u s t r a t i n g and complex, 2 (33%) as cold, s t a t i c and inconvenient. 25 residents who  Again, out of  grew up i n small towns, 13 (53%) perceived the design  as cramped, 7 (28%) each as cold, s t a t i c and f r u s t r a t i n g , 6 (24%) as separating, 5 dangerous.  Among 29 who  grew up i n small c i t i e s 14  (48%)  observed i t as cramped, 11 (38%) as ugly, 9 (31%) as separating, 8  (28%)  as cold, 7 (24%) as l i m i t i n g .  Out of 21 who  came from large c i t i e s ,  13 (62%) perceived the design as cramped, 7 (33%) each as diverse, separating while 6 (29%) f e l t i t l i m i t i n g .  3.  Previous Residence:  (See Table 17).  Out of 42 students who  used to l i v e i n o f f -  campus residence with t h e i r parents, or f r i e n d s , or r e l a t i v e s or alone, 26 rated the design as cramped, 14 each saw i t depressing, cold and ugly, 13 as separating, 12 as dangerous, 10 each as l i m i t i n g , complex, ambiguous and f r u s t r a t i n g (See Table 17).  Out of 39 students moving from other  TABLE 17 RELATION BETWEEN BIOGRAPHIC BACKGROUND AND THEIR NEGATIVE RATING ON ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN  Nationality Attributes  co  c cd  CU -H  > 13  •H cd  9  •S  No. of subjects  65  Depressing Tense Static Separating Limiting Ugly C ramped Ambiguous Inconvenient Dangerous Disordered Unfriendly Cold F rustrating Complex  7 7 15 20 14 16 38 9 6 9 9 10 17 13 14  *  co  H 0)  a00  •g CU  •H  rH  •H  01  P4  60  C  c c  8  9 9 18 23 19 20 45 9 9 12 11 12 22 17 17  5 3 6 12 11 12 26 2 6 6 7 8 16 ll 9  indicates number of times mentioned  B  C  4J  cd ft <!  o  4J •H  H H cd  H H cd  4-1  0)  O  16 . 79 43 7 1 3 3 4 3 6 0 3 2 2 1 4 3 2  Childhood residence  CU  Cd CH  or  Negative  Family hods e u  B  cd  s C/3  O  e c/>  Other res iderice u  •H O  CU 60 H cd  co  3  o h  ca 3  Mobility CU H CJ  •H  o I  o  > o S?5  >> rH  u cd o  Pi O  a cd  a)  cu  •H  pq  CU CO  H  4-1  Pi co CU 3  3  r*.  3  .a  H CU  M  fe  3  Pi  CT" CU cu 1-1 co  3  6  25  29  21  39  42  33  10  16  39  0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 2 1 4 2 5 1 2 1 1 1 2 3 3  3 4 7 6 2 5 13 1 2 5 4 4 7 7 5  4 2 6 9 7 11 14 5 1 2 3 6 8 5 5  2 3 4 7 6 2 13 2 4 4 3 1 5 2 4  1 3 8 10 8 6 19 2 4 7 4 7 9 7 8  14 6 11 13 10 14 26 10 5 12 6 5 14 10 10  5 7 6 8 8 9 19 5 3 5 2 4 6 6 0  1 1 4 3 2 3 5 1 0 1 2 1 3 1 3  3 1 9 8 8 8 10 3 8 6 5 7 8 10 6  4 6 9 10 7 8 23 4 2 6 4 3 11 8 9  t-i cd  CO  3  43 5 3 10 13 12 12 22 5 7 6 5 9 11 9 8  84.  oh-campus residence, 19 (48%) perceived i t as cramped, 22% as cold s t a t i c but only one s a i d depressing.  4.  Mobility:  Among the 33 subjects who did not possess any personal  vehicle of t h e i r own, 19 (58%) observed the design as cramped, 9 (27%) f e l t i t ugly, 8 (24%) each as separating and l i m i t i n g , but only 3 (9%) f e l t i t inconvenient, whereas out of 16 who did possess both cars and bikes (or i n other words who never have to depend on public transport) 10 (63%) observed i t as f r u s t r a t i n g and cramped, 9 as s t a t i c , 8 (50%) each as inconvenient separating, l i m i t i n g and cold and 4 (25%) as inconvenient (See Table 17).  While students moving from other on-campus older residences (e.g. Place Vanier and Totem Park) many remarked that they could meet more people and make new friends i n t h e i r previous residence through c e n t r a l dining h a l l .  Out of 39 of these students, 19 (48%) perceived the  design of t h i s residence as cramped, 10 (26%) as separating, 9 (23%) as cold, 8 (20%) each as s t a t i c , l i m i t i n g , complex and 7 as f r u s t r a t i n g and unfriendly but only 1 as depressing.  5.  Reasons f o r Choosing Gage Residence:  Residents' i n d i v i d u a l and  r e l a t i v e weightage assigned to various c r i t e r i a f o r choosing  this  residence s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a were analysed to determine whether any r e l a t i o n s h i p they have with subjects' negative ratings on the a r c h i t e c t u r a l perception of t h e i r residence.  The Table 18 presents subjects who  are divided according to the p r i o r i t i e s of the s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a they assigned, the number and percentage of subjects using each negative description.  TABLE 18 RELATION BETWEEN RESIDENTS' SELECTION CRITERIA AND THEIR NEGATIVE RATING ON ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN  Negative Attributes  H  C  •H  4J  .H  3 81 O  tH PM  No. of respondents (to whom i t was Tmnnrt-Ant-'*  Depressing Common Tense Diverse Static Separating Limiting Ugly C omplex Cramped Ambiguous Inconvenient Dangerous Disordered Unfriendly Cold Frustrating  -H C 3  81  * 10 3 10 16 19 23 19 20 17 44 11 9 9 11 12 22 17  * no. of times mentioned  •8 o o  w 79  8 2 10 14 18 22 18 18 15 44 9 9 2 11 11 23 15  o c a) o o  60  U co  CJ  I  rH CU  m  co  >  cu  iH (-1  •H C 4J OJ •H TJ  C  O  CJ  74  TJ  -H CO CU  H  71  70  10 8 3 3 10 8 14 12 16 18 19 21 16 18 17 17 15 14 40 38 11 10 7 8 10 11 10 9 10 10 20 21 15 15  6 2 8 14 13 19 17 16 12 32 10 8 9 11 9 19 15  TJ  60 MH 0 O •H  •U co  c cu  4-1  •H  a u  M UH  w  64  •H CO CU t-i <+H  O  cd  rH  58  4 6 2 2 6 5 10 9 15 11 19 15 12 13 15 11 13 7 33 28 10 7 4 5 10 5 8 7 9 10 17 16 11 10  4J  a cd o  e O  4-1  CU  co  TJ  a ) ri  53  CU  o  H  CO  H  CU CO  co  cc)  J3  a &c cu  4J  •H  CU CO  >o  •H rJ  O  4J  cfl C  CU rH  00  a  c  io  00  o •rt  CO rl 3  1 <+H te  o q cu  bO  c  •H 00  C >,•rl U o •<->4 J c 0) W CO  >  •H rH  TJ CU  o  u  o .  •H  U  4-1  co  0) M  CU 00  <  •rl rH  CU CO •H rl  60 •H  CC  53  48  47  46  5 2 2 1 6 5 9 11 9 12 12 16 8 14 10 9 11 10 29 28 8 4 5 5 8 9 9 7 6 5 19 13 9 7  A 10 6 5 10 14 11 12 7 25 9 2 6 7 8 11 11  5 2 5 9 7 12 8 8 8 21 6 5 6 7 5 11 9  2 3 0 1 1 0 1 3 2 9 7 2 12 8 2 10 9 3 7 10 2 10 8 3 1 8 4 22 18 9 7 5 2 3 2 . 0 6 3 5 6 5 3 1 3 6 6 13 3 3 8 1  34  CU  >4H  vi  cu  Selection C r i t e r i a  14  cu  >  •H  4-1  CO  c rl CU cu rH 4J rH  <  >>  4J  CO  co u  CU 4J  o  13  10  4 1 3 3 6 5 7 5 1 9 5 1 1 1 3 7 5  1 1 1 2 4 6 2 3 2 6 2 1 1 0 2 2 4  6.  Friendship Pattern:  The results in Table 19 indicate a relation  between the residents' intensity of friendship pattern within their respective quads and their perception architectural environment.  of the atmosphere of their  Students who came here with self-chosen mates  (i.e. with previously established  friendships), perceived architectural  environment more psoitiVely on a much higher percentage) than the students who came to l i v e here without any chosen mates.  Also a relation seems  to exist between the architectural perception of those who came with self-chosen mates and those without.  The more the -number of self-  chosen mates, the less likely were negative ratings on architectural atmosphere.  The results indicate that most of the 18 residents who said that a l l or most of their quad members were casually acquainted or unfamiliar (as compared to the other 63 who said a l l or most were good friends), perceived the architectural design of their residence more frustrating (33%-17%) unfriendly,  (17%-13%) tense, (22%-13%) dangerous, cramped,  cold, static, ugly, (39%-20%) and depressing (17%-9%) (See Table 19 ).  Results also indicate that foreign students generally spend less time outside their quads i n extracurricular activities, choose friends from their own home land and live within that chosen group.  They  generally gave higher ratings on most of the atmospheric attributes of their residence (See Table 19).  •7,  Trust:  As many as 23 were aware of incidents of theft, physical  violence or intrusion within their building.  About 49 preferred keeping  their room doors locked and 18 felt the necessity of intensifying the  TABLE 19 RELATION BETWEEN FRIENDSHIP PATTERN AND ARCHITECTURAL PERCEPTION  No. of s e l f chosen mates Negative Attributes  Relation w/own quad mates  Aware of theft or violence No Yes  Want secuirty measures intensified No Yes  1-2  3-4  5  Total  29  25  23  5  63  18  16  14  51  33  49  59  23  64  Tense Static Separating Limiting Ugly Complex Cramped Ambiguity Inconvenient Dangerous Disordered Unfriendly Cold Frustrating Depressing  6* 7 8 8 8 8 14 5 5 5 3 2 8 7 4  5 6 6 5 7 7 16 3 3 6 6 6 8 6 4  3 4 7 3 4 2 13 3 1 3 2 4 4 3 2  5 0 2 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  7 9 15 16 13 13 3A 7 7 6 8 0 6 6  .5. 9 8 3 9  2 2 4 4 3 3 10 0 2 1 2 0 2 2 2  2 3 5 3 7 3 10 3 2 4 3 3 5 5 4  4 13 14 12 10 11 24 6 5 7 4 14 13 11 2  2 7 11  10 12 12 12 12 11 27 5 7 11 ~8 8 15 9  8 15 19 13 12 11 32 5 4 8 6 6 i2 10 7  7 4 8 Ji. J. 8 13 4 5 8 5 6 6  6 7 17 13 13 15 37 8 9 8 6 8 15 13 9  7  Most casual  Lock room door No Yes  0  no. of times mentioned  All friendly  Relation w/other quadmates i n same floor Some Most Most f a m i l i a r fam. unfam.  11  2 2 5 1 4 8 6 7  7 9 6 18 4 2 3 1 6 7 6 2  JL 8  18  3 5 6 6  £5 8 2 .5 *3 4  £  6 "4  88. security measures within the residence.  An average of one third of them  perceived the design of the residence as unsafe or dangerous.  (See Table 19)  Reportedly they spent lesser time i n studies inside their rooms perhaps due to their feeling of insecurity and distress.  8.  Satisfaction:  A further attempt was made to examine how far users'  oVerall satisfaction might influence their rating on the architectural atmosphere on the semantic differential (adjective checklist) described earlier.  Table 20 presents the mean scores of ratings on each of the 17  architectural dimensions.  TABLE  20  R E L A T I O N BETWEEN S A T I S F A C T I O N AND A R C H I T E C T U R A L  Architectural attributes  Satisfied N=62  Cheerful Unique Relaxed/peaceful Uniform Dynamic Unifying Unrestrictive Beautiful Simple Spacious Clear C onvenient Safe Ordered Friendly Warm/int imat e Satisfying  5.2 5.5 5.2 4.9 4.2 4.5 5.5 4.5 5.1 3.7 4.9 6.1 5.4 5.0 5.4 4.4 5.0  Not sure N=12 3.9 4.8 3.8 3.9 4.3 8.1 5.2 3.3 4.3 2.8 4.2 5.4 5.3 4.7 4.7 4.1 3.9  PERCEPTION  Not satisfied N=8 3.9 5.5 5.5 4.9 3.9 3.4 2.9 3.6 4.0 2.9 4.5 4.9 4.4 4.7 4.4 3.4 3.6  Mean scores were measured on a 7-point scale e.g. 1-7 (with 4 as midpoint)  89.  It was i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the s a t i s f i e d respondents' mean score on as many as 12 out of 17 a r c h i t e c t u r a l dimensions were consistently higher than that of those who were not s a t i s f i e d or not sure. This was e s p e c i a l l y true f o r s o c i a l a t t r i b u t e s l i k e cheerful, unifying, u n r e s t r i c t i v e , safe, f r i e n d l y , convenient, warm and s a t i s f y i n g . Contrarywise, both s a t i s f i e d and other respondents roughly agreed on the extent that the design of the Gage Residence i s unique, uniform, ordered, clear and dynamic.  9.  D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with Residence:  Table 21 shows that among respondents  who do not intend to return to Gage Residence next year (including those who were not sure), more than 4 out of 5 (78%) rated i t as cramped, ugly and about one out of three as cold, common e t c .  Among those who were  not s a t i s f i e d (or not sure whether they were s a t i s f i e d ) with Gage Residence, two-thirds (68%) rated high on being cramped, 50% observed i t as f r u s t r a t i n g and ugly, 45% perceived i t as cold, 40% as separating and 30% as depressing.  90. TABLE 21 RELATION BETWEEN DISSATISFACTION AND NEGATIVE PERCEPTION ON ARCHITECTURAL ATTRIBUTES  Those who do not l i k e to return or not sure  Those who do not prefer l i v i n g here or not sure  Those who are o v e r a l l not s a t i s f i e d or not sure  (N=36)  (N-19)  (N-20)  8 (22%) 13 (36%) 6 4 8 12 (33%) 10 14 (39%) 10 (28%) 28 (78%) 7 6 6 6 7  4 (21%) 1 3 6 (32%) 4 5 (26%) 5 (26%) 6 (32%) 6 (32%) 11 (58%) 5 (26%) 3 4 4 4  6 (30%) 2 3 5 5 8 (40%) 6 (30%) 10 (50%) 7 (35%) 13 (65%) 4 4 4 4 5  eold  13  5  Frustrating  12(33%)  Depressing Common Tense Diverse Static Separating Limiting Ugly Complex Cramped Ambiguity Inconvenient Dangerous Disordered Unfriendly  (36%)  (26%)  5(26%)  9  (45%)  10(50%)  Users' O v e r a l l S a t i s f a c t i o n :  A few broad c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on a basis of the survey results can be drawn f o r the subject s a t i s f i e d with l i v i n g i n Gage Residence. majority of those who densities).  A  are s a t i s f i e d come from large c i t i e s (with urban  They t y p i c a l l y grew up i n single-family detached houses,  with rooms of t h e i r own as children.  They belonged to the group who  previously l i v e d i n other student residences at UBC before moving i n Gage Residence.  They do not possess any personal v e h i c l e and are  frequently, ( i f not always) dependent on p u b l i c transport. been l i v i n g i n Gage Residence f o r less than four months.  They have They came to  l i v e here together with at least one ( i f not more) mutually chosen quad mates.  Most of t h e i r respective mates are f a i r l y good friends.  They p o s i t i v e l y perceive the a r c h i t e c t u r a l design q u a l i t i e s of t h e i r residence and rate i t s design as more cheerful, unifying, u n r e s t r i c t i v e , simple, convenient, safe, f r i e n d l y , warm, and s a t i s f y i n g than do those who  are not s a t i s f i e d .  They also perceive the s o c i a l climate of this  residence as high on involvement, emotional support, i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y , innovation and low on independence, t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l orientation, competition, academic achievement order and organisation and student influence.  92,  H. SATISFACTION:  General:  After having lived in Gage resdience for four months i n  this year, three out of four of the students surveyed," expressed satisfaction with their accommodation.  ISee Tables 10, 11, 12, 13],  How-  ever, within this high level of acceptance and general satisfaction,  the  results uncovered a few features of the project that met with criticism and which should be given consideration i n the future design of future student residences.  2a.  Comparison with Previous Residence:  With a waiting l i s t of  applicants seeking accommodation in this residence, only about 5% students chose to move out of Gage Residence by the end of the Winter Term, 1974-75. rates;  The housing office cited three reasons for these vacancy 1) Students left the university because they completed studies  or interrupted study for personal reasons. housing elsewhere outside the campus. with their parents.  2) Students moved to cheaper  3) Students moved back to live  No information was available as to whether anyone  had moved out of the Gage Residence because he/she was disatisfied with specifics of the architectural atmosphere or with the s o c i a l climate which the design has fostered.  However, data i n Table 12 indicates that  only 19 Gage residents in 82 (23%) regards his residence as less preferable than previous residences.  Although 51 (6.2%) persons . reportedly  missed some things, which they enjoyed i n their previous residences (See Table 22) this did not devaluate their satisfaction with l i v i n g i n Gage Residence.  TABLE 22 ASPECTS OR FACILITIES MISSED BY RESIDENTS  No. o f times mentioned  P r e p a r e d meals B e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s (snack b a r , c o f f e e shop, i n d o o r games, p a r k i n g , dishwasher) S p i r i t ( b e t t e r s o c a i l c l i m a t e , more intense i n t e r a c t i o n , central dining h a l l s , f l o o r hockey, b e t t e r s t u d e n t organisation) More p r i v a c y and q u i e t e r s t u d y environment Smallness o f a p r o j e c t s c a l e t o a c h i e v e more t o g e t h e r n e s s , no t r o u b l e w i t h "imprisoned brotherhood" Q u i c k e r m a i l i n g and b e t t e r c l e a n i n g services More s p a c i o u s and c o m f o r t a b l e l i v i n g a r e a s ( e . g . quad loursge/kitchen) M i s s i n g home comfort (one s a i d " m i s s i n g my mother v e r y much")  Male  Female  7  2  9 (11%)  5  2  7 (9%)  6  10  4  2  6 (7%)  2  0  2 (2%)  1  0  1 (1%)  0  Total  16 (20%)  . 4  4 (5%)  0  6  Total No answer No c o m p l a i n t s  25 9 7  26 7 8  51 (62%) 16 (20%) 15 (18%)  Grand  41  41 .  82 (100%)  2b.  total  S a t i s f a c t i o n and P r e v i o u s R e s i d e n c e :  However, s t u d e n t r e s i d e n t s  who moved out from o l d e r on-campus r e s i d e n c e s appeared satisfied  with l i v i n g  campus r e s i d e n c e .  i n Gage R e s i d e n c e  6 (7%)  t o be more  than those who were l i v i n g i n  As T a b l e 23 shows t h a t among t h e 39 r e s p o n d e n t s  who  were l i v i n g p r e v i o u s l y i n o t h e r o l d e r on-campus r e s i d e n c e s b e f o r e moving to  l i v e here,  33 (82%) were s a t i s f i e d ,  w h i l e 29 (69%) out o f those  who were l i v i n g i n off-campus s a i d t o be  satisfied.  42  TABLE SATISFACTION  AND  23  PREVIOUS  PLACE  S a t i s f i e d  Other  o l d  Off-campus  33  Not  s a t i s f i e d  S a t i s f a c t i o n  grew  up  i n  large  who  (69%)  Childhood  A r e a :  c i t i e s  grew  s a t i s f a c t i o n  childhood  and  up  as  (N=21)  i n  a  were  farms.  function  2  (82%)  29  residences  3.  i n  RESIDENCE  on-campus  residences  students  OF  Table  more  the  '.'  sure  24  shows  s a t i s f i e d  appears  s i z e  or  to  s c a l e  t h a t  (81%) be  a  of  39  8  42  students  than  the  r e g u l a r the  T o t a l  4  5  There of  Not  who s i x  evidence  community  of  o r i g i n .  TABLE SATISFACTION  R e s i d e n t i a l  Density  AND  24 CHILDHOOD  S a t i s f i e d  Farm  3  Not  AREA  s a t i s f i e d  Not  sure  T o t a l  6  (50%)  1  2 5  25  Small  town  18  (72%)  2  Small  c i t y  23  (70%)  4  2  29  (81%)  1  3  21  12  81  Lg.  c i t y  and  adjacent  17  suburbs  61  Total  4.  S a t i s f a c t i o n  degree t h e i r  of  .  and  p o s s e s s i o n  s a t i s f a c t i o n  P o s s e s s i o n of of  w i t h  e l e c t r i c a l l i v i n g  i n  E l e c t r i c a l appliances  Gage  A p p l i a n c e s : did  Residence.  not  R e s i d e n t s '  appear  Table  25  to  i n f l u e n c e  i n d i c a t e s  95,  t h a t  as  many  whereas i t .  as  71% o f  (See  80%  of  those  Table  those  who  who  d i d  not  possess  a l l  these  SATISFACTION  AND POSSESSION  Possessing  nothing  Possessing  TV  arid  OF ELECTRICAL  other  P o s s e s s i n g  Stereo  P o s s e s s i n g  telephone  P o s s e s s i n g  a l l  of  between  was  people  own.  and  both  w i t h  s a t i s f i e d ,  l i v i n g  i n  to  e x i s t .  s a t i s f i e d  car  only and  out 10  b i k e .  Not  sure  (80%)  3  3  (80%)  1  2  .  T o t a l  31  (38%)  15  (18%)  16  (70%)  2  5  23  (28%)  (74%)  3  5  20  (24%)  5  (71%)  1  1  t h e i r As  959%)  s a t i s f i e d  25  With  of  Not  12  p o t e n t i a l of  APPLIANCES  14  M o b i l i t y :  that  C o n v e r s e l y ,  possessing  other  w i t h  found  were  other and  r e s i d e n t s '  transport)  r e l a t i o n  and  these  S a t i s f a c t i o n  p u b l i c  s a t i s f i e d  are  25  S a t i s f i e d  r e l a t i o n  are  e v e r y t h i n g  25).  TABLE  5.  possess  respect f o r  whether  m o b i l i t y  s a t i s f a c t i o n  t a b l e  the  to  26a  group  were  or some  shows,  a  and  of  was  any  dependency  on  i n t e r e s t i n g  g r e a t e r  p o s s e s s i n g no  s a t i s f i e d  t h e r e  t h e i r  (9%)  7  percentage  v e h i c l e s 17  who  of  were  t h e i r  TABLE 26a SATISFACTION AND PERSONAL MOBILITY  Own  vehicle  Satisfied  H a v i n g no v e h i c l e Bike only Car o n l y Car and b i k e  29 7 16 10  Not  (88%) (70%) (73%) (59%)  satisfied  Not  0 •2 3 3  sure  4 1 3 4  33 10 22 17  S i m i l a r l y , more t h e r e s p o n d e n t s used p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t , t h e more they t e n d to be w i t h l i v i n g i n Gage R e s i d e n c e  Total  ( T a b l e 26b).  ,  satisfied  The t a b l e  shows t h a t out o f 12 who never h a d t o use p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t o n l y h a l f were s a t i s f i e d w i t h Gage R e s i d e n c e whereas out o f 17 who used i t "always",  14  (82%) were s a t i s f i e d .  TABLE 26b SATISFACTION AND USE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT  Satisfied  Always Frequently Rarely Never  6.  14 18 24 6  Not s a t i s f i e d  (82%) (81%) (77%) (50%)  0 2 5 1  S a t i s f a c t i o n and l e n g t h o f s t a y :  Total  3 2 2 5  17 22 31 12  Users' s a t i s f a c t i o n  r e l a t e d t o t e n u r e o f s t a y i n Gage R e s i d e n c e .  themselves  was not  However, t h e T a b l e 27  i n d i c a t e s , a m a j o r i t y o f t h e respondents who l i v e d more than 2 y e a r s d i d not c l a s s i f y  Not s u r e  a t Gage R e s i d e n c e f o r  as o f s a t i s f i e d  category.  TABLE SATISFACTION  Less 4  than  RELATED  Between  months  T o t a l  &  12  41  S a t i s f i e d  27  .  TO  TENURE  4  months  (88%)  6  RESIDENCE  1-1.5  1.5-2  More  years  y e a r s  2  13  9  10  35  IN  (60%)  10  (77%)  8  (90%)  1  2  1  0  4  Not  sure  5  2  2  1  2  16  predetermined  t h e i r  emerge  could  out  of  quad  l i v i n g  i n  29  came  who  s a t i s f i e d chosen  were  f a i r l y  to  i n  t h i s  whether  However,  and  F r i e n d s :  l i v e  more  no  r e s i d e n c e  any  were  c o n s i s t a n t  82  ,  8 12  s e l e c t i o n  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  of 3  (See  25  and  f u r t h e r  friends  56%  Table  when  who 5  (90%)  51  of  (8%)  the  any  (See  c r i t e r i a  r e l a t e d  p a t t e r n  c l e a r  on  to of  p i c t u r e  respondents  the  number  of  h i s  i s  l i k e l y  to  be  student As  Gage  d i d  the  t a b l e  quad  strrjws,  mates,  Residence  w i t h  out  20  w i t h  s e l f -  (70%)  of were  mutually  s a t i s f i e d .  Table  friends  were  i s  chosen  to  were  t h e i r  more  28).  moved  i n d i c a t e  m a j o r i t y  The  s a t i s f i e d  in.Gage without  out  or  good to  Quad  the  between  most  reduced  i n v e s t i g a t e  Residence  r e s u l t s  that  l i v i n g  found.  mates,  whereas  s a i d  to  f o r  C r i t e r i a : •-. U s e r s '  (33%)  i t .  Gage  mates  The  was  be  S a t i s f a c t i o n  chosen  S e l e c t i o n  aspects  s a t i s f a c t i o n  r e l a t i o n  8.  w i t h  82  " 3  s a t i s f i e d  S a t i s f a c t i o n  T o t a l  9  Not  7.  than  y e a r s  29)  w e r e l i v i n g  s a t i s f i e d .  reported  that  that  out  63  i n s i d e  Whereas most  of  of  who  t h e i r  quad  s a t i s f a c t i o n t h e i r  quad  mates  :  98. were c a s u a l l y  acquainted.  r e l a t e d with residents'  However, s a t i s f a c t i o n seemed t o be i n v e r s e l y  degree o f i n t i m a c y w i t h members o f o t h e r quads  on same f l o o r (See T a b l e 3 0 ) .  TABLE 28 SATISFACTION AND LIVING WITH MUTUALLY CHOSEN QUAD MATES  No. of quad mates m u t u a l l y chosen p r i o r t o coming t o l i v e here  Satisfied  Not  satisfied  0 1-2 3-5  20 (70%) 17 (68%) 25 (90%)  3 4 1  Total  62 (76%)  8 (10%)  Unsure  6 4 2  Total  29 25 28  12 (14%) 82  TABLE 29 SATISFACTION AND FRIENDSHIP WITHIN QUADS  Satisfied  Most a t l e a s t f a i r l y good f r i e n d s Most o n l y c a s u a l l y acquainted  Not s a t i s f i e d  Unsure  Total  51 (81%)  5  7  63  10 (56%)  3  5  18  99.  TABLE SATISFACTION  AND RELATION  30  WITH  S a t i s f i e d  OTHERS  Not  IN  OTHER  s a t i s f i e d  QUADS  ON  Unsure  SAME  T o t a l  Most  f r i e n d l y  11  (69%)  2  3  16  Some  f a m i l i a r  13  (72%)  6  4  47  Most  u n f a m i l i a r  37  (79%)  6  4  47  9.  S a t i s f a c t i o n  did  10. was  not  appear  to  made  to  measured  on  l i v i n g  of  URES  i n  for  who  Table were  of  any  r e l a t i o n  whether the  not  the  s o c i a l  The 31  F r i e n d s :  P e r c e p t i o n  scale)  here.  presented those  and  examine  e f f e c t  sex  have  S a t i s f a c t i o n  p o s i t i v e  w i t h  and  was mean  for  .  w i t h  u s e r s '  who  the  r e: s p o n d e n t s r e s i d e n t s '  C l i m a t e :  favourable i n s i d e  influenced ratings  of  S o c i a l  climate  those  sure.  of  Sex  by  on were  each  of  o r  t h e i r  f u r t h e r  r e s i d e n c e  o v e r a l l ten  s a t i s f i e d ,  attempt  of  the  more  (as  s a t i s f a c t i o n  s u b s c a l e s not  f r i e n d s  s a t i s f a c t i o n .  p e r c e p t i o n  t h e i r  u s e r s '  A  FLOOR  are  s a t i s f i e d  and  100. TABLE SATISFACTION  31  AND MEAN  URES  SCORES  •  s c o r e on  Mean Not  S a t i s f i e d  Emotional  Support  Independence T r a d i t i o n a l  s o c i a l  5-point Not  sure  s c a l e  0-4  s a t i s f i e d  N=12  N=62 Involvement  a  N=8  1.7  1.2  0.5  2.6  2.2  1.2  2.0  2.8  2.4  1.6  1.7  1.9  1.6';  1.7  1.8  2.8  3.2  2.5  2.4  o r i e n t a t i o n Competition Academic  Achievement  I n t e l l e c t u a l i t y Order  and  O r g a n i s a t i o n  1.5  1.4 1.5 1.6  Innovation  2.4  Student  1.8  1.7  The  above  these  two  table  i n d i c a t e s  v a r i a b l e s  on  that  subscales  i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y ,  innovation  of  s a t i s f i e d  those  h i g h e r  who  than  opposite  are those  trend  o r i e n t a t i o n , subjects  H.  1.  S t u d i e s :  e f f o r t (Sim  i s an  was  h i g h  If  i t  yn  were  i s  not  p.  :  to  r e l a t i o n s h i p emotional  the  or  not  l i k e  competition  The  residence s u r e .  and  support,  mean are  URES  s c o r e s  p e r s i s t e n t l y  However,  t r a d i t i o n a l  between  the  s o c i a l  independence  i n  which  s a t i s f i e d  , assumed  48)  i n  subscales  RESULTS  r e l a t e d  1966  l i v i n g  achievment,  strong  i n f l u e n c e .  s a t i s f i e d  i n  a  involvement,  student  w i t h not  ACTIVITIES:  p a r t i a l l y der  are  e x i s t  l i k e  and  observed  academic  s o c r i n g  STUDENTS'  who  there  2.2  1.0 2.0  Influence  3.6 . ••  the  then  AND D I S C U S S I O N :  . that  the  environment one  may  (Secondary  q u a l i t y i n  expect  of ...intellectual.  which that  I n v e s t i g a t i o n )  the  the  work  i s  done  environment  101.  q u a l i t y  of  Gage  s t u d i e s  i n s i d e  respondents and i n  t h e i r  t h e i r  rooms,  of  1-3  hours  w h i l e  elsewhere  14% t h a t  i n  i n  spent  l e s s  hours  spend  24  i n  h i s  i n d i v i d u a l  be  80%.  t h e i r  high  t h e i r  i n  average  t h e i r  at  that  hours 70%  time  on  to  to  and  t h e i r  the  p r i v a t e  URES  academic  d e v o t i o n  found  25.9  but  they  Utah of  v a r y ,  are  d a i l y .  i n  Gage  i n  to  the  achievement p r i v a t e  s t u d i e s  a c t i v i t y  responses  f e l l  t h a t  of  a l l  der  rooms:  Ryn of  to  a  study  to per  be  i t  could some  t o t a l  an  i n  i n  time  hours  t h e i r (1958),  h i s  on  i n  h i s  (Heiwe11,  m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  i n d i c a t i v e  of  importance  of  to  study  e i t h e r  o r  Stoke.  spent  it  s t u d e n t s  average  1973).  was  noted  r e f l e c t i n g  the  w e l l  ( H e i w e l l ,  (1966)  The  on  3  study  B a i l e y  study  f i g u r e  week  hours  by  average  74%.  over  observed  waking  P a t t e r s o n  respondents  spent  devote  study  an  corresponding (1968)  the  (1967)  t h e i r  on  30%  Although  s t u d e n t s ' and  56%  Residence  study  Sommer  the  hours  f i g u r e s  hour  average  w h i l e  of  i n s i d e  According  week  an  32a)  study  o n e - t h i r d  day). per  room,  1  (Table  Sim Van  spent  of  U n i v e r s i t y  the  than  r e s i d i n g  per  H s i a  recorded  1973).  academic  adequate  c o n d i t i o n s .  The a l s o  that  V i c t o r  d i f f e r e n c e s study  as  p r i v a t e  research  found  assumed  Residence  l i b r a r i e s ) .  h i s 5-6  d a i l y  (1960)  s t u d i e s  response  i n d i c a t e d  students  ( e . g .  ( i . e .  students  i n  expressed  r e s u l t s  hours  assumed  students  devotion  Although  s u b s c a l e s ,  as  survey  spent  room  t h e i r  students'  e x p e c t a t i o n .  The  students  promotes  room.  p e r c e i v e d  i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y  short  be  Residence  s m a l l  recorded l a c k  of  study to  be  rooms very  proximity  provided  l i t t l e to  at  the  main  used.  T h i s  i n d i v i d u a l  rooms.  i s  f l o o r s a g a i n In  some  of  each  p r o b a b l y sense  i t  tower due i s  were to  It  1Q2.  TABLE 32a AVERAGE TIME SPENT BY GAGE RESIDENTS  Hours  0  1-5  6-10  Male ( 4 1 ) . Female (41)  3 1  1 0  9 8  T o t a l (82)  4 1 17 (5%) (1%) (21%)  IN PRIVATE STUDY INSIDE THEIR ROOMS  11-15  16-20  21-25  26-30  31-40  41-5(  12 11  2 4  5 6  0 9  3 5  1 2  23 (28%)  6 (7%)  11 (13%)  9 (11%)  8 (10%)  TABLE 32b AVERAGE TIME SPENT DAILY INSIDE INDIVIDUAL ROOMS  Hours  6-10  Male (41) Female (41)  11-15  16-20  13 8  27 32  1 1  21 (26%)  59 (72%)  2 (2%)  TABLE 32c AVERAGE TIME SPENT DAILY INSIDE QUAD LOUNGES  Hours  Male (41) <• Female (41)  1-2  2-4  23 12  15 17  3 11  0 1  35 (43%)  32 (39%)  14 (17%)  1 (1%)  4-6  More t h a n 6  3 (4%)  103.  d o u b t f u l q u i e t ,  p r i v a t e  p r i v a t e way  whether  study  to  the  quad  design  s t u d i e s .  area.  f o r  he  Quad  s o c i a l  study  In  If  lounge.  a t t r a c t i v e d i s t r a c t s  the  of  o l d e r  s o c i a l  lounges  j u s t  i n t e r a c t i o n , As  or  a c c e s s i b i l i t y  of  s o c i a l  i n t e r a c t i o n  to  be  i s  not  r e a d i l y  so  room  adjacent  to  Gage  as. s o c i a l  i s he  h i s has  and  t h i s  i n  other  a  l o n g  are  threatens  remarked, Such  over*tempting  a v a i l a b l e  go  rooms  dominates".  space  to  e x c l u s i v e to  p r i v a t e  respondent  l i f e  conducive  the  o r "It  p r o x i m i t y  r e s i d e n t s  student  r e s i d e n c e s  responses  i n d i c a t e  campus.  2.  A c t i v i t i e s  i n s i d e  that  as  59  hours  many  of  F i g u r e  4 ) .."  j u s t  a l o n e . "  and'3  hours  spend  l e s s  women,  of  men,  12  f r i e n d s ,  than  hours one  earth or  the It  i n  may  hours  t o t a l  women)  spend  (Table hour  a  i n  cards,, l i g h t 32c). day  can  As  outside  t h e i r  t h i n k s  achieve  to  be  than  2  hours  many  as  t h e i r  64  a  4 of  As  to  21  hours  and  s o c i a l  of  14  1967. to  spends  67  8  13 (82%)  average m i x i n g ;  (17%)  respondents  15  and p p . . 3 1 )  can  work  to  or  hours  i n  men,  8  38  men,  cut:.of;_these  their, d a i l y and  v i s u a l  (26%)  as  -  e x c l u s i v e ,  r e a d ,  he  11  (See  as  R y n ,  many  remaining  (78%0  room  der  Another  between  rooms.  t h i s - r o o m  cooking,, e a t i n g reading;,  h i s  t h i n k ,  rooms. than  own  (Van  to  a c t i v i t i e s . .  l e s s  spend  s a t i s f a c t o r y  i n s i d e  t h e i r  of  Trow  alone,  that  spend  l e s s  respondents  i n s i d e  M a r t i n  i n s i d e  sample  Gage  to  other  k i t c h e n / l o u n g e  p l a y i n g  he  assumed or  82  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  resident;  where  be  The  routine  Gage  opportunity  10  of  a c c o r d i n g  s t u d i e s  than the  r e s p e c t i v e  4-6  on  out  d a i l y  average  p r i v a c y  "enjoy  R e s i d e n c e :  (72%)  average  An  ;  realm  a u d i t o r y r e a l l y  as  t h e i r  p r i v a t e  23  room  one's  r e a l l y  involvement  one  i m p o s s i b l e  gregarious  i n  i s  entertainment  i s  on  study  Towers  dorms,  needs  c o n c e n t r a t i o n .  to  Gage  35  i n  be s l e e p i r  women, 29  (43%)  t h e i r  c h a t t i n g . w i t h  spend  between  spend, even  l e s s  FIGURE 4  AVERAGE DAILY TIME SPEND ON VARIOUS ACTIVITIES BY A TYPICAL GAGE RESIDENT  Extra-carricular Activities Laundry, M i n i Shopping, Mail Attending. Outside Quad but Inside Building!  c Cleansing i n Washroom Cooking, D i n i n g C h a t t i n g , or L i g h t Reading Playing, Watching TV & Entertaining] Intra-quad I [ Social Interaction i n Kitchen/Lounge & J  I— Non-Routine Leisure A c t i v i t i e s eg\: Communicating, Hobbies o r Othe' Past'times i n Lounge or Room /  105. own  quads  might  but  somewhere  i n c l u d e  laundry  or  to  of  at  the  m a i l  l e s s 6  than  men,  8  10  outside  quads  or  to  the  t o t a l  of  73  (89%),  f r o n t  s o c i a l  a c t i v i t i e s  i n s i d e  rooms  or  of  i n  own  residence.  v i s i t  the  The  time  amenities quads.  the  outside i n  i n s i d e  i n  one's  to  the  mini-shop 35  out  l e s s  of  the  38  4  16  hours  hours  c o l l e c t i o n  women,  t h e s e ,  than  spend  (20%),  per  day  (approx.  u n r o u t i n e d ,  b i o l o g i c a l  T h i s  basement  or  men,  remaining  l i g h t ,  or  3  p r i v a t e  n e c e s s i t i e s  i n  was  stay  of  s o c i a l  i n  the  they  spent  i n s i d e  or  way  absence  of  the  out.  shared of  any  i n  d a i l y the  was  time  or  may  be  when  almost  do  (Table  not  w i t h  the  other  than  those  only l a r g e  residence among  i s  the  students  c e n t r a l  quad,  d i n i n g  e i t h e r  w i t h i n time  the  i n  33a);  m o t i v a t i o n i n  of  g e n e r a l  f r e q u e n t l y  f l o o r s  Gage  b a s i s a  were  n e g l i g i b l e  i n  t o t a l  the  own  they  residence  spent  t h a t  t h e i r  own  and  on  observed  i n s i d e  o n e ' s  quad  c a l c u l a t e d  They  other  the  t o t a l  lounges  i n t e r a c t i o n  feature  cooperative  quad  going  same  were  to  s t u d i e s  o u t s i d e  It  a c t i v i t i e s  quads  but  study.  that  p r e f e r  i n  room,  r e s i d e n c e  t h e i r  would  unusual  Thus,  The  spent  residence  t h i s  reported  a  time  i n  the  They  c i r c l e  i n  spent  or  most  even  a c l e a n s i n g  d a i l y  room  d i f f e r e n t  expand  spent  Gage.;respondents  they  spent  presumably  average  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  apparently  have  v i s i t  r e s i d e n c e ;  32e).  responses  among  to  the  (Table  i n s i d e  spent  tendency  any  outside  i n c l u d i n g  d a i l y  subjects  i s  A  a  32d) .  washrooms.  k i t c h e n / l o u n g e ,  t h e i r  d a i l y  day  Estimates  the  desk.  r e s i d e n c e .  the  time  other  reported  of  d a i l y  i n  or  (Table  f r i e n d s  women  t o t a l  r e s i d e n c e .  a c t i v i t i e s  hours)  room,  t h e i r  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  hours  the  i n s i d e  t h e i r  seem  to  to own  quad.  s e l f - c o o k i n g of  r e s p e c t i v e  h a l l ,  canteen  106. TABLE 32d AVERAGE TIME SPENT DAILY OUTSIDE THE QUADS BUT INSIDE THE  0  HOurs  Male (41) Female (41)  •• W i t h i n 0.5  Between 0.5-1  10 11  12 7  8 16  21 (26%)  19 (23%)  24 (29%)  1-3  RESIDENCE  More t h a n 3  9 7  2 0  16 (20%)  2 (2%)  TABLE 32e AVERAGE TIME SPENT DAILY OUTSIDE  8-12  4-8  THE RESIDENCE  More t h a n 12  Hours  1-4  Male Female  6 10  29 28  6 2  0 1  16 (20%)  57 (70%)  8 (10%)  1 (1%)  TABLE 33a SPATIAL USE OF COMMON AREAS (MAIN FLOOR) BY GAGE RESIDENTS  Areas  Tower lounge Seminar/Ballrooms Main Lounge  Never used  46 (56%) 54 (66%) 33 (40%)  once/twice a week  23 (28%) 22 (27%) 29 (35%)  More t h a n once a week  9 (11%) 3 (4%) 11 (13%)  Quite Frequently  4 (5%) 3 (4%) 9 (11%)  107.  or c o f f e e b a r , opportunity  s e r v i n g the e n t i r e complex, p r a c t i c a l l y  f o r the  r e s i d e n t s t o see  through l a r g e s c a l e c o n g r e g a t i o n .  each o t h e r o r make new The  i n t h i s e n t i r e r e s i d e n c e seems to be  spontaneous s o c i a l  severaly r e s t r i c t e d  a c t i o n w i t h i n each quadj except f o r o c c a s i o n a l formal  t h e r e remains friends  intercourse  to only  If i t i s  t h a t the number o f meetings the r e s i d e n c e has  i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d to the d e n s i t y  inter-  centrally-programmed  s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s l i k e b e e r p a r t i e s , symposiums e t c .  taken f o r granted  little  is  (Bickman e t a l 1973), t h e n t h i s  desire  f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n among the respondents i n Gage R e s i d e n c e i n d i c a t e that  the r e s i d e n c e  dormitory.  As  p o s s e s s e s a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a low  f a r as  density  the r e c o r d goes t h e number of meetings and  beer  p a r t i e s t h a t were h e l d i n the F a l l term o f t h i s y e a r 1974-75 i n the main lounges o r seminar rooms was  f a i r l y h i g h , as was  them.  have i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t h a t  Most of the s t u d e n t s  r e s i d e n t s on occasions  t h e i r f l o o r got t o g e t h e r  and  they a l s o a t t e n d e d  in  the common b l o c k .  3.  Territoriality  space '(Sommer, 1969) respondents by quad and  and P r i v a c y : and  asking  f o r a f l o o r p a r t y h e l d on  several  other e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s  E x a m i n a t i o n of the c o n c e p t s o f  Territoriality  ( S t e a , 1965)  held  personal  were u n d e r t a k e n among Gagej  them to c l a s s i f y v a r i o u s s p a c e s i n s i d e t h e i r  f l o o r i n terms of p r i v a c y .  c l a s s i f i e d t h e i r own  also p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  Almost 76  (93%)  respondents  rooms as p e r s o n a l p r i v a t e space (See  Table  34).  108. TABLE 33b TYPE OF USE OF COMMON AREAS (MAIN FLOOR) BY GAGE RESIDENTS  Type o f use  Never used  Dating Informal Dropins F l o o r Meetings Study Extracurricular activities (Games, music e t c . ) Parties Waiting to receive friends Watching c a b l e v i s i o n / TV programmes C o n v e n t i o n s , Seminars Symposiums Others  77 75 74 68 68  Very seldom used  (94%) 3 (4%) (92%) 5 (6%) (90%) 5 (6%) (83%) 10 (12%) (23%) 7 (9%)  3C (37%) 21 (26%) 57 (70%) 10 (12%) 65 (79%) 11 (13%)  Occasionally used  2 2 2 4 6  Frequently  Quite Often  (2%) (2%) (2%) (5%) (7%)  1 (1%)  23 (28%) 11 (13%) .  7 (9%) 4 (5%)  1(1%)  2 (2%)  1(1%)  3 (4%)  76 (93%)  5 (6%)  1 (1%)  73 (89%)  5 (6%)  3 (4%)  -  -,  -  1 (1%)  1 (1%)  -  -• -  109.  TABLE 34 USERS' PERCEPTION OF PERSONAL SPACE, PRIVACY AND TERRITORIALITY  Semi p u b l i c  Private  Own rooms . Quad lounge Washrooms E l e v a t o r lobby  I t remains  0 0 8 8 6 7 31 25  5 1 32 29 32 26 10 16  36 40 1 4 3 8 0 0  M F M F M F M F  Public  a mystery why t h e 5 men and one women thought o f t h e i r rooms  as t h e s e m i - p r i v a t e s p a c e s .  P r o b a b l y t h e rooms f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e them  w i t h t o t a l and a b s o l u t e p r i v a c y a t t h e l e v e l o f e x p e c t a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r quadrant  lounges:  5 thought o f them as p r i v a t e  space;  61 (74%) thought o f t h e quad lounges as semi p u b l i c s p a c e s w h i l e 16 16 (20%) thought o f them as p u b l i c  space.  When respondents were asked about quad washrooms 11 (13%) thought o f washrooms  as p r i v a t e space  respondents were women),, ( K i r a , 58 (  (almost a l l t h e s e  1966).  11 %) thought o f i t as s e m i - p u b l i c s p a c e .  13 thought o f washrooms  as p u b l i c  L a s t l y when asked how they f e l t  space.  about t h e i r own f l o o r ' s e l e v a t o r l o b b y  26 (32%) thought o f i t as s e m i - p u b l i c space w h i l e 56 (68%) 31 men, 25 women thought of i t as p u b l i c s p a c e . •  110. In classifying floor and quad spaces on degrees of privacy, women respondents consistently tended more than men to classify the spaces as private rather than public or semi-public.  Students want spaces that  allow them privacy when i t i s needed as well as the opportunity for gregarioushess when the mood takes them.  They want to live on a  human scale instead of an impersonal residence, and they do not want their colleagues to be surrogate parents.  It was however interesting  to note that a few respondants seemed disturbed with entering their rooms through a semi-public quad lobby.  \  They commented about their  inability to maintain secrecy i n entering and leaving their private rooms directly from a public zone.  This was, to many, an advantage i n the  older residences where they could maintain secrecy while coming i n or going out of their own rooms directly to the common corridor without letting others be aware of their movements. 4.  Personalization:  -  The author further contends that no matter how pleasing an interior decor i s made by designers inside a residence, the occupant who lives with i t for a certain period of time wants to make .his own choices.  As  Michael Rossman has written, "there i s the need of human beings to shape their environment, to feel a sense of control and potency" (Van der Ryn, 1967, p. 31). Students i n Gage Residence are fortunate i n not having i t s furniture arrangement b u i l t - i n .  They were observed to take  liberty of this f l e x i b i l i t y i n the design by a variety of alternative arrangements, suited to their own needs and personal taste, potentialities and idiosyncracies.  In addition, amidst dull, monotonous sameness i n  the flcor design and drapes treatment of Gage Residence, a rich variety  111. of  t a s t e f u l ,  gay  c o l o u r f u l  g r e e t i n g s , w e l l  i n  author  and  cross  be  the  symbols f o i l s  r e c e p t i o n  The  of  part  of  f l o o r ,  w a l l s  and  impulse  r e s e a r c h e r  There own  i s  and  model  of  to  l e s s o n  to  and  s t i m u l a t i n g  declared  by  the  the  r e l i g i o u s  sunrays  as  w e l l  of  or  i n c i d e n t s  as  d i s p l a y s the  to  and  on  s i g n s  d i s p l a y e r s  sects)  may  coupled  p l a c e s  l e a d  conclude  be they  d e t a i l e d  by  learned . . .  to  to  s i l v e r  o b t a i n  b e t t e r  humanity  and  when an  a l i e n  footage i n  the  . . .  l i k e  measure  w i t h  s e v e r e  rooms,  t h e i r  quad to  ( I n f o r -  taken  on  l a c k  of  lounges, deface  main  the  spontaneous  and  i n d i v i d u a l i s a t i o n . Sommer:  (197-2)  c o l l e g e spaces  students  they  environment  a l l o c a t i o n s most  f u r n i s h i n g  r e s i d e n t s  s a t i s f y  quoting  People  r e j e c t  square  i n s i d e  f r u s t r a t e d  damages  room  p r o h i b i t o r y  p e r s o n a l i s a t i o n  to  impersonal  sort  s u i t a b l e  g r a f f i t i  over;  i n d i v i d u a l  a u t h o r i t y  c o s t l y  towards  make  according  i n  incur  draw  minor  were  s p e c i f i c  The  w a l l s  (which to  and  eyes.  n o t i c e d  This  lounges  wishes  a  w a l l s ,  the  some  as  r e s i d e n c e .  a r r e s t i n g  discourage  31).  areas  thereby  of  as  rooms  l o b b i e s ,  he  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  tower  e l e v a t o r  example,  a r r e s t  a u t h o r i t y  d i s p l a y  p e r s o n a l  deface  w e l l  t r a n s m i s s i o n .  page  the  area,  on  TV  to  the  i n  for  panes  to  .  as  ornamentation,  r e s e a r c h e r ' s  informed  i n s i d e  observed  towers;  a f f i l i a t i o n  designed the  the  .  the  motive  was  many  ,.  l o b b i e s ,  r e l i e v e d  he  occured  of  quad  was  d e c o r a t i o n s ,  g r a f f i t i  m a l i c i o u s  n o t i c e d  window  B o o k l e t ,  c r e a t i v e  also  housing  adequate  The  on  of  any  although  facades  the  and  and  posters  Christmas  lounges,  greeted  p i l f e r a g e  of  the  .  w i t t y  messages,  quad  n o t i c e d  author  e x t e r i o r  mation  of .  and  artwork,  f u r n i s h i n g s ,  damage  paper  .  nowhere  The the  w a l l s  w a l l s  i n t e r i o r  b r i g h t  p i c t u r e s ,  b u l l e t i n s ,  the  e l e v a t o r  of  humorous,  durable  f o r and  can  that a  hang  c a l l i s  p i c t u r e s t h e i r  b u i l t  standard  a n t i s e p t i c  112.  c o n d i t i o n .  The  environment  i s  man  of  tomorrow  reduced,  may  be  whose  capacity  excused  from  to  t h i s  respond  l e s s o n ,  to  the  but  we  are  not.  5. i n the  Use the  of  Main  Gage  F l o o r  Towers  b u i l d i n g s  Lounges:  spend  ( i . e .  l i t t l e  there  are  b u i l d i n g s  (See  T a b l e  33a).  i s  off,  w h i l e  the  too  f a r  s o c i o - c u l t u r a l no  reason  quads  to  which  use do  these  not  provide  mutually  p a r t i c i p a t e .  designed  f a c i l i t i e s  appears  to  be  landscaped and  seldom  outdoor  unprotected  s o c i a l i z e .  They  students)  "unseen  eyes"  above  F u n c t i o n a l ( F e s t i n g e r  1950  or  lounges.  to  common  Due  do  not  f a c i l i t i e s , l e a s t  on  t h i s i n  f e e l the  however  u t i l i z e  are  the main  and  to  the  k i n d  used  for  i s ,  main  urge.to f l o o r s and  f l o o r take to  open  by  the  a l l  designed  t e r r a c e s used  as  s i x t e e n  f l o o r s  i t  and  are  (as  formal to  s t a t e d  by  of  1970).  opportunity  i n  the  d i s t a n c e block  trouble  from of of  contact  h a l l w a y s ,  i n d i v i d u a l  the  coming  l a v i s h  they  may  The  a t t i t u d e  room  towers,  of  b e .  f o r  quads,  advantage  nonchalant  and  p l a c e s  f u l l  a  to  i t s  r e s i d e n t s  take  maintain  have  t h e i r  because  plus  meetings  the  thus  o c c a s i o n s  Freedman,  common  of  i n f o r m a l w i t h  the f l o o r  of  'sunning'  f u n c t i o n a l  main  from  l i t t l e  proximity  the  o v e r l a p p i n g  f l o o r  _  i n s i d e  detached  and  be  i n s i d e  R e s i d e n t s  among  s u r v e i l l a n c e  1963,and  large  to  i n  a t t r a c t i v e l y  p l a z a s  w h i l e  r e s i d e n t s  and  i n t e r e s t  seem  lounge  main  the  the  a c t i v i t i e s  r e s i d e n t s . off  that  quads  develop  far  spontaneous  glamorous  these  Gage  w i t h  and  that  the  common  l i t t l e  the  under  promotes to  do  entrance  (Goffman,  f a c i l i t i e s  common b l o c k s  to  )  formal  create  even  d i s t a n c e ,  t h e i r  F u r t h e r ,  " p u b l i c "  they  outside  Common B l o c k ' s  used.  arenot  time  spaces  not  spaces,  and  s e v e r a l  r e s i d e n t s  could  i n d i c a t e  The  them  The  do  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  among  formal  r e s u l t s  few  quads  functions  The  down  the  the to  other  residents  towards  the  the common seem  113. common f o r m a l a m e n i t i e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . d e s i g n e d lounges  The l a v i s h l y -  i n t h e main f l o o r s might s e r v e as good revenue magnet  f o r c o n v e n t i o n s d u r i n g summer s e s s i o n , b u t o t h e r w i s e t h e i r m e r i t may be q u e s t i o n e d .  They may appear e x t r a v a g a n t , c o s t l y and w a s t e f u l as  f a r as s t u d e n t ' s r e s i d e n c e a c t i v i t i e s  a r e concerned.  The main f l o o r sunken lounge termed ' c o n v e r s a t i o n p i t ' ,  along with  seven s e m i n a r / s t u d y  rooms and b a l l rooms i n the main f l o o r o f t h e common  b l o c k were o b s e r v e d  t o be l i t t l e used.  The l a v i s h l y d e s i g n e d  lounge w i t h f i r e p l a c e on one s i d e o f f e r s ("as  i f b e i n g observed  a too conspicuous  l i k e a g o l d f i s h i n a bowl");  l a y o u t i s i n h i b i t i n g t o c a s u a l s m a l l group use.  sunken  setting  the f o r m a l , i m p e r s o n a l  I t reminds t h e author  of t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f Sim Van der Ryn r e g a r d i n g t h e use of s i m i l a r i n a t y p i c a l student o u t l a y s a r e n o t used The  residence:  "Some spaces  involving large  e f f e c t i v e l y because o f i n c o r r e c t  l u x u r i o u s extravaganza  d i s p l a y e d i n main f l o o r  design  spaces  capital assumption".  lounge i n t h i s  r e s i d e n c e may s e r v e as t y p i c a l examples o f i n e f f e c t i v e o r i l l - f u n c t i o n e d design.  L a v i s h l y f u r n i s h e d w i t h p l u s h r e d shag r u g and l u x u r i o u s l y  decorated with l i g h t i n g f i x t u r e s , f i r e places,comfortable seats, a l l t h e s e appear t o s e r v e m a i n l y as a s e t t i n g t o impress parents. rooms".  The lounges  can r i g h t l y be r e f e r r e d t o as " f u r n i t u r e show  As observed by Van d e r Ryn, /  1  9  6  7  ^  t  n  e  by h i g h l i g h t i n g l e v e l s , b r o a d s p a t i a l expanses, l a y o u t , w i t h f u r n i t u r e arrangement emphasizing lounge  v i s i t i n g f r i e n d s and  s  e  showrooms a r e c h a r a c t e r i s e d  a large, cold,  neatness.  The l a r g e  i s an example o f a space t h a t i s d e s i g n e d t o b r i n g p e o p l e  b u t i t seldom meets t h i s purpose.  formal  together,  The common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s e  "showrooms" i s t h a t they d i s c o u r a g e c a s u a l and cosy s m a l l group use. The  s u r v e y r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t , p u b l i c a r e a s around  lounges i n t h e  main  f l o o r  l e a s t  of  used  f o r  respondents used  f o r  each  have  to  spontaneous  use  w i t h the  are  to  be  the  main and  seldom  lounge  i n  glamorous  and  s t u d e n t s '  bedrooms.  i t  makes Such  unless  Casual The  f o r  paying  i s  a  lounges  author a  forced  to  are  The reasonably  a u t h o r ' s  are  d e s i g n to  other  w e l l  -us  own  u s u a l l y  observed l a r g e  amount  i n of  main  conventions  and  seminars  the  dual  p i t y  are  It i n  i n  major  r e s i d e n t s  these  or  f a i l s  part  has  might  of  been appear  summer  s e s s i o n s ,  r e s i d e n t  as  w e l l  to  the  year  areas)  are  l y i n g  when  e l e c t r i c  and  c o n j u n c t i o n  of  unnecessary  cramped  reasons  d e s i g n  space  i n  i t s  energy  i n  v a i n , w h i l e  quad  s a t i s f y  when  l u x u r i o u s  spaces,  p o o r l y - l i t  j u s t  people  student  a l s o  space  i n  the  lounge  of  c i r c u l a t i o n  consuming  s u s t a i n  squeeze  t h a t  huge by  f u n c t i o n  b r i n g  occur  that  a  c o m p e l l i n g  the  r e j e c t e d  to  to  w h i l e  (with  f i x t u r e s rent  b l o c k  are  the  designed  meetings  seminar/convention.  almost  by  sense  there  p u b l i c  or  serve  l i t t l e spaces  c i r c u l a t i o n ;  It  main  lounges  confirmed  to  l i g h t i n g  are  a l s o  i n  c o n v e r s a t i o n .  f l o o r  f a i l e d  s p a c i o u s  are  i s  main  common b l o c k ,  s e t t i n g  needs.  u n u t i l i s e d  themselves  to  the  lounges  )•  space.  the  devoted  design has  students  group  e f f e c t i v e  a c t i v i t y .  f l o o r  s m a l l  s o c i a l i s i n g .  other  a  c a s u a l  that  some  extravagant  and  opines  the  a c t i v i t i e s the  33b  share  w a s t e f u l l y  and  This  or  main  rooms  i n d i c a t e d  (Table  author  together  only  p a r t i e s .  o b s e r v a t i o n .  f o r  seminar  spontaneous  beer  The  tower,  vacant and the they  k i t c h e n s  CHAPTER  DISCUSSIONS  ON P R I M A R Y  Comparison  w i t h  of  Study  a r c h i t e c t u r a l  c o n t r a s t e d  w i t h  on  residences w i t h  student  s i n c e to  the  Gage  d e n s i t y  would  standard  of  r a t i n g s  the  Gage  were  the  r e s i d e n t s  more  to  p e r c e i v e  h i g h  of  the  Gage  The  d e n s i t y . b e h a v i o r toward a l e n t  of  atmospheric  study  the  d e n s i t y  on  most  These  were  p a r t i c u l a r l y  w i t h  that  of  convenient, achieves  more,  r e s i d e n c e s .  A l l  d e n s i t y  to  medium  r e l a x e d ,  a t t r i b u t e s  safe  of  and  suggest  i n  the  a  d e n s i t y to  of  r e s u l t s  mutual They  but  t h e i r  f u r t h e r  t r u s t  were  a  r e s i d e n t i a l  r e s i d e n t i a l  p a r a l l e l  a l s o  strangely  group  i n d i c a t e w i t h  observed l e s s e r l i f e  as  d e n s i t y .  to  degree  that  the  Bickman's possess of  compared  Gage  r e s u l t s  h i g h e r  s o c i a l l y to  on  degree  low  or  three  -,.  low-medium of  Bickman's  study  on  the  conform e x c e l l e n c e  p o s s e s s e d  medium  r e s p o n s i b l e  of  i t s  design  of  t h e i r  summary,  w e l l - k e p t ,  r e s i d e n t s  r e -  u n r e s t r i c t e d ,  In  that  the  for  r e s u l t s  f a c t ,  p e r c e p t i o n  compared  a t t r i b u t e s  d e n s i t y  that  that  as  regard  atmospheric  be  a l  a t t r i b u t e s  w i t h  i n  et  r a t i n g s  recorded  low  d e n s i t y ,  convenient,  these  or  was  expected  w e l l - o r d e r e d .  r e s i d e n t ' s  a t t r i b u t e s  as  evident  of  and  medium  Bickman  R e s i d e n t ' s  B i c k m a n ' s . h i g h  atmosphere  Gage  Gage  u n i f y i n g ,  r a t i n g s  safe  the  medium  d e n s i t y  c h e e r f u l ,  mean  by  a r c h i t e c t u r a l  the  The  r e s i d e n t s  r e s e a r c h e r  u n i t s  l i k e  l i k e  low  Gage  study  the  more  a r c h i t e c t u r a l  Further  The  possess  medium  r a t i n g s  f r i e n d l y .  i t s  to  the  previous  d e n s i t i e s . s a i d  a t t r i b u t e s  Residence  the  of  Residence.  survey  degree  be  i n  Bickman's  users  cramped,  residence.,.  d e n s i t y  i n  c o i n c i d e d  be  Gage  favourable  to  to  and  be  r e s u l t s  study.  Residence  although  a  warm  observed  d e n s i t y  tended  atmospheric  d i v e r s i f i e d ,  v a r i o u s  could  However,  Bickman's on  the  atmosphere  included  defined  to  study.  Residence  s u l t s  r e s u l t s  Residence  correspond  p r e v i o u s Gage  the  1 1 5 .  INVESTIGATIONS  Bickman's  P e r c e p t i o n  V  h e l p i n g b e h a v i o r e q u i v -  116,  With r e g a r d s  to these measures s u g g e s t i n g  a n x i e t y about s e c u r i t y i n Gage R e s i d e n c e i t may  be an a r t i f a c t  d i f f e r e n c e s between the s e t s of respondents of two Campbell and  of  regards  as to c o n f o r m i t y  these may  of b e h a v i o r  r e l a t e not  and  c o u n t r i e s compared  t o s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as much ,  t h a t p e r c e p t i o n of d e n s i t y and i t s  i n f l u e n c e s on r e s i d e n t s i s i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the l e n g t h The  longer  the p e r i o d of r e s i d e n c e ,  r e s i d e n t i a l environment;  The  the o l d e r and  the more one  of  adapts t o  to the d e n s i t y of t h e  residence,  s e n i o r r e s i d e n t s were s u b j e c t t o a l o n g e r p e r i o d  e n v i r o n m e n t a l a d a p t a t i o n , who  the  freshmen l i v i n g h e r e l e s s t h a n f o u r months  were exposed to immediate a d a p t a t i o n  it  (Segall,  a n x i e t y about s e c u r i t y .  However, the author m a i n t a i n s  while  cultural  the apparent d i f f e r e n c e i n r e s u l t s on S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y  Helping Behavior  residence.  low  J e s k o v i t s , 1966).  As and  h i g h t r u s t and/or  might not p e r c e i v e any  adverse e f f e c t  of of  (Rosenberg, 1968).  Comparison With the Study of G e r s t The  and  Sweetwood  URES (quadrant) s u b s c a l e  were transformed  and  compared w i t h  (1973) d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r ,  s c o r e s g e n e r a t e d by Gage r e s p o n d e n t s  those  r e p o r t e d by G e r s t  and  Sweetwood  to determine whether s o c i a l c l i m a t e d i f f e r e n c e s ,  might be a t t r i b u t a b l e to d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Gage R e s i d e n c e . URES s c o r e s were d i c h o t o m i z e d to T a b l e  14  as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d .  i t can be seen t h a t the same p a t t e r n of s o c i a l  dimensions a r e o p e r a t i v e here as w i t h are g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f i e d with l i v i n g  s a t i s f a c t i o n scores.  i n Gage R e s i d e n c e .  quadrant c l i m a t e as h i g h on i n v o l v e m e n t , e m o t i o n a l  climate Most  They see  support,  Turning  subjects their  innovation  .  117.  and on  student  i n f l u e n c e ,  competition  i t s  and  a r c h i t e c t u r e  t r a d i t i o n a l  atmosphere  f r i e n d l y ,  convenient,  g e n e r a l l y  d e s c r i b e  i n c o n v e n i e n t , p e r c e i v e  s u i t e  s o c i a l  academic  sure)  found  are  n o t i c e d  to  i n  In  from  the  w i t h  c o n s i s t e n t  r e s i d e n c e  l i v e  w i t h i n  The at  on  the  i n t e r a c t  w i t h i n  an  p e r s o n a l  b e h a v i o r  a  agrees student  tend  i s  found  the  to  e x i s t  p e r c e i v e d  between  c l i m a t e  of  s a t i s f i e d  w i t h  l i v i n g  i n  i t  of  i n  are  s a t i s f i e d .  study  a  p a t t e r n  by  c l i m a t e  spaces  G e r s t ' s  e v a l u a t e  them  surrounding  s o c i a l  w i t h  the  o b s e r v a t i o n  by  that  i s  has  composed a  s t a t e s ,  v a r y i n g and  of  s c o r e d  the  d e s i g n  q u a l i t i e s  Students  d i f f e r e n t l y environment  Gerst  and  Sweetwood  i n d i v i d u a l s  impact  which  have  study.  the  dormitory  i s  Sweetwood  between  a r c h i t e c t u r a l  w i t h  not  .  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  and  (or  and  (suite) .  two  T h i s  Gerst  r e s i d e n c e  of  —  i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y ,  these  who  to  o r g a n i z a t i o n :  .  i n t r a p s y c h i c  tense  support,  of  environment and  or  s t a t i c ,  on  those  p h y s i c a l  u g l y ,  scores  conformity  p e r c e p t i o n  f u l l y  l e v e l  i n  who  mean  r e s u l t s  s o c i a l  much  same  t h e i r  author one  i s  of  more  warm,  The  l i v i n g  the  as  low  e v a l u a t e  r e s i d e n t s  u n f r i e n d l y  and  w i t h  a l s o  and  s a t i s f y i n g ,  involvement,  order  not  than  summary,  depending  that  are  subscales.  p e r c e p t i o n  on  compared  h i g h e r  s a t i s f i e d  c o l d ,  independence.  who  they  Conversely  r e l a t i o n s h i p  two  t h e i r  who  be  as  achievement  c h e e r f u l ,  atmosphere  low and  these  r e s i d e n t s ' of  to  opposite  students  h i g h e r  and  r e s i d e n t s  be  as  i n v e r s e  achievement of  where  an  as  s e p a r a t i n g ,  climate  academic  o r i e n t a t i o n ;  w e l l - k e p t .  a r c h i t e c t u r a l  s a t i s f a c t i o n  subscales  s o c i a l  o r i e n t a t i o n  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , r e s i d e n t i a l  s a f e ,  the  and  p o s i t i v e l y  f r u s t r a t i n g ,  t h e i r  t r a d i t i o n a l  i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y  on  t h e i r  channels  and  who i n t e r f o r c e s  -  t h e i r  b e h a v i o r  independent r u l e s  f o r  s o c i a l  but  system.  On  a  a l l  s i z e  important A  s o c i a l s o c i a l  p a t t e r n  s t r o n g  r o l e  v a r y i n g a  and  which played  by  the  has  s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  f r i e n d s h i p  hand,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  on  the  the  depicts  r e s i d e n t s ' i s  exert  i s  and bounded  c o l l e g e  space,  and  which  impose  of  s o c i a l  i n  C i r c u l a t i o n  p e r c e p t i o n  semi-  r e s t r a i n t s f l o w  p h y s i c a l  p a t t e r n ,  a e s t h e t i c s  the  d e s i g n  i n  r e s u l t s c r e a t i n g  e s t a b l i s h e d  p a t t e r n s ,  and  c l i m a t e  of  c l e a r l y  i n  the  the  s o c i a l  present  a r c h i t e c t u r a l quadrant  h i g h l i g h t s  as  the  environment. study  between  p e r c e p t i o n  measured  by  on  one  the  URES  other.  It  u n i t  system  p h y s i c a l w i t h  a  v a r i a b l e s .  from  been  a  i s  p a t t e r n s  l a r g e r  system.  a c c e s s i b i l i t y , ^ and  emerges  the  i n t e r a c t  s o c i a l  dorm  This  to  i s  a  behavior  conduct.  dormitory  the  l e v e l ,  normative  l i n k a g e s  i n t e r a c t i o n  r e l a t i o n s h i p  and  more  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  b e h a v i o r  and  another  p r e s c r i b e d  l e v e l ,  design  i n f l u e n c e  The  and  t h i r d  i n d i v i d u a l  On  system w i t h  maintains  a r c h i t e c t u r a l  group  a t t i t u d e s .  a c c e p t a b l e  p h y s i c a l l y  on,-  and  on  the  powerful  r e l a t i o n s h i p  comparatively one  another  and  and  p e r s o n a l  s m a l l e r with  a  important  and  more  as  i n f l u e n c e  growth such,  t o t a l  of  s u i t e  dimensions, the  more  involvement  climate  where  i n f l u e n c e demanded  of  the  on  l i v i n g  members each  member.  The  impact  of  s u i t e  w i t h  members  h a v i n g  less  compact  and  designed  l e s s  more  d o r m i t o r i e s .  environment opportunity  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d In  appears of  be  o v e r r i d i n g  m i l i e u  c o n c l u s i o n ,  to  i n  more it  other  s u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s  p e r v a s i v e as  i s  ( t o t a l )  p o s s i b l e  i n  t r a d i t i o n a l l y on  URES  c l e a r l y  e x e m p l i f i e s t h a t s t u d e n t s who i n v o l v i n g , i n n o v a t i v e and  l i v e i n environments which a r e s u p p o r t i v e ,  so on, f e e l more complacent and p e r c e i v e some  segments o f l i f e i n a more p o s i t i v e way.  I t also indicates that  d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l environment c o u l d be b u i l t by t a k i n g p r o p e r c a r e i n d e s i g n program on a r a t i o n a l b a s i s . i n d e s i g n and minimise  T h i s might i n c r e a s e those  the more d i s c o r d a n t  Impact of A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n  qualities  elements.  on I n d i v i d u a l B e h a v i o r and S o c i a l Network  With r e g a r d t o the o b j e c t i v e and  desirable role  the d e s i g n of  s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e s h o u l d p l a y , a r e f e r e n c e i s made to the o b s e r v a t i o n by Sim Van  der Ryn  e t a l (1967).  They s t a t e d t h a t :  Each s t u d e n t belongs t o many groups, each f u n c t i o n i n g d i f f e r e n t l y , and changing i n s t r u c t u r e , numbers and s t y l e . The f o r m a t i o n of such groups may be f a c i l i t a t e d by d e s i g n through p r o x i m i t y , and s h a r i n g c i r c u l a t i o n and o t h e r s p a c e s . But d e s i g n s h o u l d a l l o w r e s i d e n t s o p t i o n s as t o which groups they would l i k e t o b e l o n g . The a c t i v i t i e s t h a t generate groups tend t o o v e r l a p and u s u a l l y a r e not connected w i t h a s i n g l e space. Space f o r p e o p l e to get t o g e t h e r i n must be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h reasons f o r p e o p l e b e i n g t h e r e . Casual o r r o u t i n e a c t i v i t i e s a r e b e t t e r s o c i a l i n t e g r a t o r s than f o r m a l lounges which p e o p l e seldom use. Doing l a u n d r y , h a v i n g c o f f e e , p a r t i c u l a r l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n work p a r t i e s p r o v i d e the k i n d of i n f o r m a l o c c a s i o n s i n which p e o p l e can get t o know one another (p. 42).  I n the s p a t i a l  c o n t e x t , a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n and  l a y o u t can  foster  o r impose r e s t r a i n t s on i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r and s o c i a l system networks w i t h i n the r e s i d e n c e .  The  d e s i g n l a y o u t can, w i t h i t s c i r c u l a t i o n p a t t e r n  group s i z e , s o c i a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y  and p e r c e p t i o n of d e s i g n a e s t h e t i c s  i n f l u e n c e s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s , encourage f r e q u e n t i n v o l u n t a r y , p e r s o n a l , f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t s and can become a most important f o r m a t i o n - o f groups and  f a c t o r i n the  informal friendships.  However, f o r community l i v i n g  t o be  s u c c e s s f u l when people r e s i d e  120.  c l o s e l y It  together,  cannot  be  c o l l e c t i o n  are  F r i e n d s h i p  A g a i n ,  on  to  o r t a n t  the  b u i l d i n g .  some i n  to  i n  the  the  merely  i n c i d e n t or  undoubtedly,  also  meet  between marked  the  contacts  r e s i d e n t s  among  t h e i r  same  has  of  own  f l o o r .  i n  i n  and  have quad  a  major  been  mates  (1950)  m i s c e l l a n e o u s aims  -  w i l l  q u a l i t i e s  and  as  of  rooms i t  classrooms,  r e s u l t s  doubt  of  that  are  be  the  f r i e n d s h i p  more  f r i e n d l y l i v i n g  i n  the  i n  a  to  be f o r  movements or  i n  by  f a c i l i t i e s ,  other the  i n d i v i d u a l  group  imp-  l i k e l y  r e s i d e n t s  l i b r a r i e s ,  28 )  d i r e c t  s o c i a l  opportunity  Gage  of  others  more  has  that  most  f a c i l i t i e s ,  s e v e r a l  and  likely,  r e g u l a r  The  w i t h i n  layout  f r i e n d s h i p  common  (Table  w i t h i n  the  the  a f f e c t s  programs.  i n  of  i n f o r m a l  s h a r i n g  and  that  seems  one  communal  i n  w i t h  i s  i t  f r i e n d s h i p  i t  use  determinant  than  observed  contact  or  to  W i t h i n  through  network  observed  r e q u i r e d .  p e r s o n a l i t y  o c c u r ,  p a r t i e s  l i t t l e  a  common  i n f o r m a l  adjacent  s o c i a l  survey  s o c i a l  can be are  i n  of  proximity  another  the  have  groups  a t t r a c t i o n ,  one  some  F o s t e r e d  F e s t i n g e r  through  s t r u c t u r e d  as iobserved  there  and  c e n t r e s ,  e c o l o g i c a l  p a s s i v e Gage  sports  that  of  a l s o  consequences.  f a c e - t o - f a c e  b a s i s  are  r e s i d e n c e  have  maintenance of  i n  C e r t a i n  (1965)  r e s i d i n g  or  work  However,  Osmond  study  b u i l d i n g  or  gymnasium,  they  Design  and  b e h a v i o r  b e n e f i t .  formation  the  i f  F a c e - t o - f a c e meetings the  chance  on  even  the  H.  I n d i v i d u a l s  of  games  Which and  -  of  together  b e n e f i c i a l  i n v o l u n t a r y  encounters. out  p u t t i n g  mutual  formation  f a c t o r s  f r i e n d l y  t h e i r  Geddes  of  that  produce  according  frequency  and  to  P a t t e r n  Robert  s i m i l a r i t i e s  i n d i v i d u a l s  be  r e q u i r e d  bearing  assumed  of  n e c e s s a r i l y  c e r t a i n  auditoriums, campus  r e l a t i o n s h i p  quads  Gage and and  a c t i v i t i e s .  i s  so  very  Residence group  formation.  c l o s e l y  d i f f e r e n t  r e l a t e d  'quads  i n  121.  S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n among t h e Gage R e s i d e n t s  restricted  i n Individual  Quads As H e i l w e i l (1973) has Observed, The tendency t o s u i t e s w i t h common a r e a s , b u i l t around a common house lounge i s a new and needed i n t e r m e d i a t e s t e p i n s o c i a l r e l a t e d ness. The s u i t e a l l o w s f o r a two s t a g e p r o c e s s o f meeting new p e o p l e and c o n t r o l l i n g the degree o f s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n and demand. A g r a d u a l n e s s i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e i n t e n s i t y of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i s s u r e l y one p a r t o f t h e needs o f p e o p l e i n the f i r s t s t a g e s o f belonging. The t r e n d t o s u i t e s a l s o a l l o w s f o r d i f f e r e n t t a s k s which must be done, v a r i o u s forms of maintenance, w i t h d i f f e r i n g degrees o f c o o p e r a t i o n r e q u i r e d , w i t h room-mates, and then f l o o r - m a t e s . Inclusions of baths and k i t c h e n s i n c r e a s e s t h e areas f o r maintenance and i n c r e a s e the areas i n which t h e s t u d e n t can work t o be h i s own master (p. 408). In terms o f o n - f l o o r i n f o r m a l s o c i a l networks which may be t h e d i r e c t outcome of t h e p h y s i c a l d e s i g n , t h e i n d i v i d u a l quads dominate t h e major p o r t i o n s o f the s o c i a l l i v e s primary  s o c i a l unit  o f t h e Gage r e s i d e n t s .  The b a s i c and  i n t h i s s t u d e n t h a b i t a t i s t h e "quadrant",  " f l o o r " o r t h e "house".  In t h i s regard i t d i f f e r s  not t h e  from o t h e r o l d e r , on- ,  campus dorm i t o r i e s .  The  f u n c t i o n a l l y w e l l - d e f i n e d , s e l f - - s u f f i c i e n t quads each c o n t a i n i n g  s i x rooms c l u s t e r i n g around a common lounge a r e a form t h e s m a l l e s t communal l i v i n g u n i t .  Each quad p r o v i d e s d e m a r c a t i o n  of each group and possesses g i v e s them a d i s t i n c t self-sufficient quad  of the t e r r i t o r y  a strong i n t e r n a l cohesiveness.  identity  I t also  as o r g a n i s e d s o c i a l l i v i n g u n i t s .  The  d e s i g n o f each quad g i v e s t h e s i x r e s i d e n t s s h a r i n g each  the o p p o r t u n i t y o f f r e q u e n t f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r a c t i o n , i n t e n s e  s o c i a l involvement  and e m o t i o n a l  support  among themselves.  that they s t i c k t o g e t h e r f o r t h e mutual i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e the " i m p r i s o n e d b r o t h e r h o o d "  necessary  I t appears  i f not through  f o r cooperative l i v i n g .  The  i n d i v i d u a l r e s i d e n t i s o l a t e s o r withdraws h i m s e l f i n h i s own quad. quad s e r v e s as a p r o t e c t i v e d e v i c e and i n d u c e s  inter-group i s o l a t i o n  The  122.  i n s t e a d  The  of  the  involvements  students  d e s t i n a t i o n  w i t h i n  centered  congregate  to  make  own  or  meals.  snacks  w i t h the  a  common  groups  of  p u b l i c  space  Table  of  who  s m a l l e r  to  than  Residence  i s  be  drawn  on  b a s i s  f o r  a f f e c t the  four  the  l i v e of  make  the  that  b a s i s  work  formation  of  p a t t e r n  and  quad i n  one  f i r s t a  groups.  Both of  p a s s i v e  f r i e n d s h i p s  depends  A c c o r d i n g  to  C h r i s t o p h e r  Alexander  modern  t e c h n o l o g i c a l  contacts  to  s o c i e t i e s  upon  (1967)  s t i m u l a t e tend  to  i n  i n  (See  s t u d e n t  other  a  r e s i -  more  t h e i r  the  and  the  f u n c t i o n a l  of  The  It  e x p l a n a t i o n  any  n e i t h e r for  t h i s  e c o l o g i c a l . d i s t a n c e  community,  c o n t a c t s .  i n d i v i d u a l h e a l t h . the  of  quads  In  more  t o t a l  quads.  of  i n  quads.  i d e n t i t y ,  extent  i n c r e a s e  semi-  see  and  mental  a  lounges.  by  concept  an  as  g e n e r a l  c o n t a c t s . the  i t  .,  s m a l l  and  p o s s i b l e  (1950)  as  Thus  and  to  serves  u n i t .  w i t h  p h y s i c a l  of  intimate  A  f l o o r  r e s p e c t i v e  l a s t  members  l i v i n g  l i v i n g  t h e i r  whole.  formation  d a i l y  same  6  t h e i r  e n t e r t a i n i n g  populated  another  F e s t i n g e r ' s  number  i s  prepare  and  p e r c e i v e d  main  together  and  to  n a t u r a l  members  p r o v i d e s  mutually  Belongingness around  and  thus  most  the  i n t e r a c t i o n  or  the  c l o s e  on  only  as  room  and  where  t e a ,  have  i n d i v i d u a l s  exert  of  own  f r i e n d s  belong  other  or  and  s u b j e c t s  each  impact.  centered  the  of  complex.  i n e v i t a b l e  s o c i a l  d i n i n g  t h e i r  and  thus  t h e i r  coffee  t h e i r  any. o t h e r  if,-,residents nor  to  of  t h e i r  greater  f l o o r  have  b u i l d i n g  common k i t c h e n / l o u n g e  to  noted of  units  the  may  i s  e n t i r e  l o u n g e / k i t c h e n e t t e ,  m a j o r i t y  compared  and  the  locus  A  most  l i v i n g  appears,, as  The or  students  other  quad  the  c a s u a l meeting,  It  involvement Gage  as  have  quad,  each  around  f r i e n d s .  35 ) .  dents each  f o r  each  b r e a k f a s t ,  forum  ' n u c l e u s '  w i t h i n  number  r e q u i r e s Urban of  l i f e  three i n  secondary  to  123,  contacts. l i f e  On  are  other  elsewhere  i n  contacts.  numbers  p a r t i c i p a t i o n had  there  four  quads)  Lack  of Due  e i t h e r of  r e s p e c t i v e  that  a  i n  f l o o r  or  P h y s i c a l l y , w i t h  Every persons  a  f l o o r  In i n  e i t h e r  examples  of  i n  to  contacts  between  the  of  among  d i v e r s e  e i t h e r  r e s i d e n t ' s  i n  the  each  manner  members  r e s i d e n t s  groups  c o u l d  f l o o r of  (to  same  f l o o r  secondary  opportunity  encourage other  and  quads.  more  be  g r e a t l y  be  shared  i n t e n s e enhanced  by  a l l  the  l a y o u t .  i n  cases  other Totem  high  density  i n  quads  on  provide  complex of  the  a  or  common  had  a  f l o o r  probably  The  chance  r e t a r d  or  the  l a c k  l i v i n g  to of  and  of  w i t h i n r e l a t i o n s  i n f o r m a l  p r o t e c t i o n  lounge  to  i n t e r p e r s o n a l  f l o o r .  support,  never  due  r e s i d e n t s  e s t a b l i s h i n g same  s o c i a l  would  quad  the  of  u n i n t e r e s t e d  e n t i r e  the  most  quads  f a c i l i t i e s ,  p r o v i s i o n  f l o o r  other  intermediate  f a c i l i t i e s  of  (in  women). to  the  adequate  Gage  provide  perception  other  would  the  a t o m i z a t i o n  seem  of  encounters  a  members.  t y p i c a l  convenient  t h e i r  adequate  r e s i d e n t s  of  to  and  areas  contacts  I n t e r a c t i o n :  to  quads  are  contacts  l a r g e r  other  Intra-quad  p r o v i s i o n  w i t h  by  i n  f a i l e d  primary  common  or  has  primary  quad  r e s i d i n g  p a s s i v e  w i t h i n  been  own  r e s i d e n c e s  of of  most  h i s  members  design  opportunity  hand,  among  the  The  adequate The  other  r e s t r i c t e d  Meeting or  the  s o c i a l  c o n t r o l  on  develop. s e m i - p u b l i c  d i m i n i s h  the  spaces  e x i s t i n g  r e s i d e n t s .  towers  of  two  these  student Park  of  the  Gage are  r e s i d e n c e s ,  and  i n  P l a c e  R e s i d e n c e accommodates  a l l o t e d on  to  campus,  V a n i e r  there  men there are  and are 25.  other 34  24 two  to  persons  T h i s  '  comparatively  low  p l a n  proximity  i n  c l o s e  r e s i d e n t s  to  r e s i d e n t s  the  t h e i r  the  members  analogy  q u a l i t i e s appears  have  of  e x i s t  even  each  the  P o s s i b l y i n  the  of  members  keep  i n  same  the  s a i d  of a  of  some  female  t h a t  the  s t a b l e  sex  the  k i n d  quads  of  i s  the  degree  a  t h e i r  i m p l i c i t more  give on  of  t h e i r  intimacy Page  or  68  ) .  r e q u i r e s  four  th&t  quadrants whereas  f o s t e r s  and  r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  r e s i d i n g  i n  other  mechanism  i n t e n s e  three  s o c i o f u g a l i t y  r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  defence  f o r  occur.  The  q u a l i t y  members  a l s o  i n d i v i d u a l  i n t e r p e r s o n a l  the  to  (  f l o o r  e a s i e r  happening  of  " S o c i o p e t e l " . w i t h  i t  m a j o r i t y  quads. an  compact  should  appear  i n t e r p e r s o n a l  i n h i b i t s  make  what  or  .(1967)  f l o o r s  s t a b l e  among  of  a l l  more  It  not  s o c i o p e t a l i t y , of  should  i n d i v i d u a l  and  i n  f l o o r .  does  Osmond's  of  l i v i n g  aware  r e l a t i o n s ,  outside  design  e x i s t s  the  t h i s  " S o c i o f u g a l "  d i v e r s i t y  of  r e a l i t y  development  and  on  themselves  Humphrey  the  w i t h  r e s i d e n c e  other  s u b j e c t s  formation  f l o o r  this  f r i e n d l y  terms  the  the  i n  of  to  quadrant  enforces  each  alarmingly  drawn the  d i s c o u r a g i n g w i t h i n  to  good  drops  i s  to  know  m a j o r i t y  coupled  w i t h i n  However,  acquaintance An  to  chance  f l o o r .  Although quad  get  f l o o r - d e n s i t y  124.  quads  on  i n t r a - q u a d  the  part  s o c i a l  i n t e r a c t i o n .  A  second  l i m i t s f l o o r  of  p o s s i b l e  s i z e  lounge,  beyond  which  T h i r d ,  for  explanation  every  group  k i t c h e n e t t e , f r i e n d s h i p s  the  common  been  designed  and  f e e l  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  washroom, do  developed  hot  so  t h i s  (Osmond,  form  f a c i l i t i e s  and  to  that  1965)  e l e v a t o r  i n  e f f i c i e n t l y  probably  whether or  ( H e i l w e i l ,  shared  therefore  i s  any  there  they  are  common  are  sharing  f a c i l i t i e s  a etc.  1973).  the  i n d i v i d u a l  quad  may  have  and  adequately  that  the  residents  independent  of  need  f o r  s o c i a l  support  '  to  from  members  s u i t e  of  environment  uninvolved,  The the  and  Although  f l o o r or  Gage  t y p i c a l  i n  the  and  emotional  to  p a r t i c i p a t e  or  l i f e  s t y l e s .  own  T h i s It  d e s i r a b l e  h i s  may  i s thus  s o c i a l  Opportunity  of  The  respondants  have  missed  i n  canteens  the which  to  enable  or  floors,.  to  t h e i r  quads  Gage  p r o p o s i t i o n (medium  Group  f u r t h e r  Residenee are them  to  meet  new  Many  Gage  r e s i d e n t s  present  w i t h faces  monotonous  day-out  f o r  that  the  quad  or  large)  one  among  l i f e  sees  s c o r e d  quadrant  or  has  opportunity  s o c i a l l y  and  found  design  have  e i t h e r  t r e a t s  i n  w i t h as  apartment  g r e a t l y  i n h i b i t e d  r e s i d e n t s .  i n d i c a t e d  that  the  c e n t r a l . d i n i n g  l a r g e  l a r g e r and  group  make  would w i t h  whole  w i t h  the  s e t t i n g  I n t e r a c t i o n  be the  y e a r .  r e s i d e n t s  s i z e ,  the  the  themselves  that  i n  i n  1200  group  of  r e s i d e n t s  be  s a i d  as  r e s i d e n t s  apparently  quad  inward.  s m a l l  d e s i g n  i n v o l v e  he  unconcerned,  many  Gage  the  provide  whom  a  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  provide  them  d a y - i n  Large  the  as  t y p i c a l  i n t e r a c t i o n  of  not  s o c i a l l y  quad, a  support,  i n  independent  others.  look  w i t h  l i v i n g  h i g h l y  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  r e s i d e n t s  Although  does  s t r a n g e r s .  i a t e  members.  of  t y p i c a l  s h a r i n g  a  unaware,  f e e l i n g s  the  i s  that  remain  the  a c t u a l l y  Residence  mere  of  true  to  the  makes  Gage  outside  of  r e s i d e n t i s  a l s o  r e s i d e n t s  i t  he  s i x  involvement  neighbours  Lack  to  i s  design  that  r e s i d e n c e , only  It  c a l l o u s  the  a  m o t i v a t i o n  the  of i s  r e s t r i c t e d on  soc;p;what  Residence  e n t i r e  high  quads.  encourages  consequence  Gage  t h i s  other  badly  new  among  s e t t i n g s f r i e n d s  happy same  to  overlapping  h a l l s  from  of  confirms a  things  and  f i n d  group  This miss  the  common  f u n c t i o n s  an  and opportunity  o t h e r  an  most  quads  a l t e r n a t i v e  p e o p l e ,  i n  t h e i r  t h e . e a r l y a r e a and  of a  intermed-  choice  of  126  a m e n i t i e s to p r o v i d e  them a forum of a l t e r n a t i v e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n  supplemaitory to t h e i r own shop at the  common b l o c k  quads.  The  (which was  u n f o r t u n a t e c l o s u r e o f the  once the o n l y venue f o r l a r g e group  o r mass i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the r e s i d e n c e ) need o f some such f a c i l i t i e s . traffic  the  c o f f e e shop remained open.  missing  the p l e a s u r a b l e  D e s i g n and  ified  severely  Student  high  lively  The  s t u d e n t s who  q u i e t and  last lived  floor  hockey  to g e t t i n g t o know more pe.ople.  Organisation:  s t r u c t u r e - d e n s i t y and  the  design  layout  of v e r t i c a l l y  strat-  s t r u c t u r e s have i t s i m p l i c a t i o n f o r the R e s i d e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n  on campus s t u d e n t accommodations.  In other  Individual Council Floor representatives. each f l o o r i s c o n s i d e r e d responsibility  different student  o f one  itional  s t u d e n t c o u n c i l l i k e other  group of r e s i d e n c e s  entrusted  residences Council,  s t u d e n t s form 4  student residences  has  elected representatives  responsibilities.  from each tower, one  I t s f u n c t i o n i s to serve  the  distinct No  trad-  developed i n  except a Student L i a i s o n Committee who  w i t h some a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  members a t l a r g e .  from  as a s e p a r a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t under  floor representative,  or  In Gage R e s i d e n c e a l t h o u g h  i n d e p e n d e n t n o n - c o h e s i v e groups or c l u s t e r s on each f l o o r .  two  other  much t h e y were  on campus, s t u d e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s are governed by M a i n S t u d e n t  this  lifeless  in  e x p e r i e n c e s of common d i n i n g h a l l s , favourable  the  atmosphere used t o p r e v a i l when  s t u d e n t o r g a n i s a t i o n i t s e l f , which i s d i s t i n c t i v e l y other  emphasized  reminded o f t h e huge  mentioned i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s how  the k i n d of s o c i a l c l i m a t e  The  a u t h o r was  j o y f u l , busy and  on-campus r e s i d e n c e s  and  The  has  t h a t i t used t o generate around the p r e s e n t l y  main lobby and how  coffee  are  I t i s composed  from l o w - r i s e and  as a l i a i s o n between  4 the  of  127. a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  the s t u d e n t s .  Apart  from i t ,  there i s a S o c i a l  and  S p o r t s Committee which o r g a n i s e s a l l the r e c r e a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s . Leadership  and h e l p f u l a s s i s t a n c e are p r o v i d e d by  'dons' o r house a d v i s o r s (one male and  one  s i x appointed  single  female r e s i d e n c e s t a f f  to  each tower, w o r k i n g d i r e c t l y under t h e i r s i n g l e A r e a - C o o r d i n a t o r , a l l a p p o i n t e d by  the D i r e c t o r o f R e s i d e n c e s .  A l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e groups  f u n c t i o n i n g i n r e s i d e n c e meet on a s i n g l e s t u d e n t  residence  committee t o d i s c u s s the p a r t i c u l a r problems e n c o u n t e r e d  Effect  the p o p u l a t i o n on each f l o o r i s q u i t e low  o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n i s as h i g h as 388 T h i s i s much h i g h e r than i s 200  f o r any not  i n an  area.  of S t r u c t u r e Density:  Although  it  advisory  and  (N=24) the  (on an average) p e r tower s t r u c t u r e .  the o t h e r r e s i d e n c e s on campus ( i n Totem Park  i n P l a c e V a n i e r 100).  T h i s makes i t v i r t u a l l y  impossible  Gage r e s i d e n t to r e c o g n i s e everyone l i v i n g i n the same tower,  to speak of m a i n t a i n i n g f r i e n d s h i p w i t h  everyone.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the l a r g e r c a p a c i t y ^ s c a l e o f the p r o j e c t , may a f e e l i n g of crowdedness among the r e s i d e n t s and limit  consequently  create  severely  t h e i r urge o r m o t i v a t i o n o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n or i n t e r p e r s o n a l  relationships.  The  stimulation overload d e n s i t y urban l i v i n g . d i s cussion(1950)  r e s e a r c h e r draws an analogy (1970) i n s t i g a t i n g p e o p l e  to withdraw  p r i v a t i s m ' as a r e s p o n s e  altogether. emotional  t o mass  I n such a r e a c t i o n , s u r v i v a l depends n o t  commitment t o s o c i a l : i n v o l v e m e n t . i n s i d e r e s i d e n c e b u t  and upon  avoidance-of i t  However, r e s i d e n t s have s c o r e d h i g h on i n v o l v e m e n t  support  subscales  (or) URES).  of  during high-  T h i s i s a l s o analogous t o W i l l i a m Whyte's  of'tetreatist  alienating society.  t o M i l g r a m ' s concept  and  They have a l s o p e r c e i v e d a l l  128  the a r c h i t e c t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s s i m i l a r to the o t h e r student residences behavior.  As  the d e s i g n  i n USA,  s u c h , d e n s i t y does not  c o u l d be  s a i d to i n h i b i t  i n t e r a c t i o n among the  The  with higher  s t u d i e s on low  degree of mutual t r u s t and seem t o p l a y any  role.  the d e s i r a b l e degree of  social  residents.  o v e r a l l v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e - w i t h seventeen f l o o r s ,  each phys-  one  o v e r the o t h e r ,  windowless s t a i r w e l l s and  two  e l e v a t o r s ) — f u r t h e r imposes s e v e r e  ( c o n n e c t e d o n l y by  a t i o n s on i n t r a - f l o o r s o c i a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y o r i n t e r a c t i o n . author's i n f o r m a l observation Van  der Ryn  and  i n t h i s residence  Silverstein  (1967) t h a t the  to know each  do not  }  conforms w i t h t h a t  of  f l o o r d i v i s i o n s of  the  line  f e e l o b l i g e d t o exchange g r e e t i n g s  or  Space", (1972), Oscar Newman e x h i b i t e d  d r a m a t i c and  p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the h e i g h t  projects  crime.  can  limit-  get  other.  I n h i s book " D e f e n s i b l e  and  two  The  Gage R e s i d e n c e have i n f l u e n c e d i t s r e s i d e n t s t o m a i n t a i n a nod beyond which r e s i d e n t s  helping  Rather,  i c a l l y separated, stacked  Sim  density  observe and  According  to him,  a  of the p u b l i c h o u s i n g  persons i n l o w - d e n s i t y  f e e l more p r o t e c t i v e of t h e i r p r o p e r t y .  housing  Possibly,  l a c k of d e s i r a b l e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among Gage r e s i d e n t s i n d i r e c t l y help  f o s t e r i n g increased  crime i n f u t u r e .  The  the may  University  h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y d e c l i n e s t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e c u r i t y beyond normal p r o v i s i o n s security. not  alert  As  and  expects s t u d e n t s to assume p a r t  n o t e d i n the  " r e s u l t s " , Gage r e s i d e n t s r e p o r t e d l y  a u t h o r i t i e s i f they o b s e r v e d an i n s t a n c e  d e f i c i e n c y needing c o r r e c t i o n . held responsible  responsibility for  Conceivably  of vandalism-or  the d e s i g n  f o r such consequences t h a t may  would  itself  might  emerge i n f u t u r e .  be  129. In quads,  summary, which  r e s i d e n t s  1973).  f o s t e r  w i t h  It  the  drab the  warmth,  a l s o  does  complexity  not  of^unplanned  design  not  f a c i l i t a t e s o c i a l  and  are  or  of  i n  the  innumerable  i s o l a t e d  from  F i n d i n g s of  the  i n  of  As  f u n c t i o n a l  the  o b j e c t i v e to  e n t i r e  which  the  o f  J  t h e  complex,  then  the  of  rooms  per  s i m i l a r  each f o r  other.  r e s i d e n t s  o v e r l a p p i n g  i n d i v i d u a l  quads.  d e s i g n  meeting  of  w i t h i n  i n d i v i d u a l  very  s i m i l a r  -residence  grouping  to  the  i n  apartment  has  the  give  concept,  maintained  to  f o s t e r e d  substance as  the  may  the  be  no  author  to  student  c a s t i g a t e d  q u e s t i o n  e n t i r e  of  maintains  of  one  to  each  quads' l i v i n g .  c r i t i c i s m i n  d e s i g n  the of  t h i s  i n d i v i d u a l ^ s e l f -  w i l l  create  argue  a  about  s o c i a l  community  the that  to  c o n s i s t i n g  s a t i s f a c t i o n . -..^-But  as  ~  seems  s t y l e  pronounced  s t y l e  p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e s i g n was  members  apartment  The  i n f o r m a l  w i t h i n  communitites  i s  the  comfort  areas  quads'  nor  Although  environment  closed  provide  to  of  s o c i a l  and  homogeneous  regard  group-encounters  space  the  to  e n v i r o n m e n t , ( S e a t o n ,  w i t h  p h y s i c a l  f a i l e d  formal  s t e r i l e  design  quad)  defined  a l t e r n a t i v e  t y p i c a l  happy,  of  encounters  quads'  a r c h i t e c t u r a l a  s o c i a l  d i v e r s i t y  w i t h  has  i n d i v i d u a l  a  t h i s  or  of  i t ,  of  a l l  design  convenience  accommodate  no.  the  w i t h i n  d e s i g n  a c c e s s i b l e by  i n t e r a c t i o n  With ( i . e .  of  sterotyped  accommodate  any  This  s o c i a l  regards  l i v i n g  i t s  ment  the  s o c i a l  r e s i d e n c e . o r i e n t e d  i n  or  of  complex  study  the  t h e i r  e a s i l y  other:  the  weakness  h i e r a r c h y  w i t h  s e l f - o r i e n t e d , each  v a r i e t y  i n t e r g r a t e d  absence  Gage  and  s p e c i f i c a l l y  a c t i v i t i e s  them  s t y l e  meaningful  together  the  between  generate  any  complacent  convenience,  f l o o r  get  o c c a s i o n a l  students  but  of  l i f e  encourage  provide  s o c i a l  monotony  i d e n t i c a l  opportunity does  o v e r a l l  f a r  s i z e the  e n v i r o n -  w i t h i n  from  of  i f  the  s u c c e s s f u l .  the  u n i t  quad  s i z e  was  the outcome of economic compromise between the i d e a l ) and  the e i g h t  determined w i t h the the  operational  (most economic).  o b j e c t i v e to m i n i m i z e the  cost.  i n a d e q u a c i e s o f the be  roomed one  f o u r roomed s u i t e (most Probably i t  c a p i t a l c o s t as w e l l  as  Hence i n r e p l y t o the u s e r ' s c o m p l a i n t s t o  the  f i x t u r e s , i n k i t c h e n , lounge or washrooms i t c o u l d  s a i d t h a t a l l these were determined as a m a t t e r o f p o l i c y d e c i s i o n  and  that  a key  the a r c h i t e c t alone was  d e f i c i e n c y of the d e s i g n  not  to b e c r i t i c i s e d i ^ B u t s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  of the  f l o o r s i s the e n c a p s u l a t i o n  f l o o r lobby i n a windowless space r e l i e v e d o n l y by A s i d e from b e i n g It  was  the e l e v a t o r  a s t a g i n g a r e a , t h e lobby on each f l o o r has  no  as e l e v a t o r s  On  usually  function.  been d e s i g n e d as f u n c t i o n a l space i n a number o f ways;  sinks  f o r q u i e t s t u d y n i c h e s , by  allowing  f o r beverage s e r v i c e or (perhaps) by  c o u l d have  f o r instance,  a l l o w i n g f o r a s m a l l games  These and  c r e a t e d a second l e v e l of o r g a n i s a t i o n  to complement t h e quad,  facilities  other  the monopoly of the quad o v e r the s t u d e n t s ' and  to provide  a t i o n between quads and  devices  to  access to  support cooper-  floors.  T h i s argument would suggest t h a t r a t h e r than a q u a d r a n g l e , pentagon might be  could have  a b i t of common ground f o r exchange and  i n t e r a c t i o n between  by  f o r a r e f r i g e r a t o r and  a r e a and/or a'sunning'or porch a r e a .  alleviate  encounters  do.  c o n t r a s t , the l o b b y s e r v i n g the quads on each f l o o r  allowing  the  aperture.  f o r c e s r e s i d e n t s from the f o u r quads i n t o u n c o m f o r t a b l y l o u d  just  of  a  a more r e a s o n a b l e format f o r a f o u r - q u a d , h i g h - r i s e  tower, where the f i f t h  s i d e i s reserved  f o r a t t r a c t i v e floor-common space.  131.  SATISFACTION t  •  Homogeneity o f S u b j e c t s : . If  c l a s s , economic s t a t u s , age, o c c u p a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , f a m i l y b a c k -  ground, stage o f l i f e  c y c l e and m a r i t a l s t a t u s a r e commonly a c c e p t e d t o  be t h e s o c i a l o g i c a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s , then from t h e l i m i t e d d a t a on j h a n d . i t appears t o e x i s t a marked homogeneity among t h e Gage r e s i d e n t s . They i n g e n e r a l a l s o a r e h i g h l y homogeneous a l o n g t h e d i m e n s i o n s  of  ....  i n t e r e s t s , academic a s p i r a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s towards t h e community i n which they l i v e d .  As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e y a r e a l l o f l e g a l age, mature  and s e n i o r s t u d e n t s t h a n g e n e r a l r u n o f s t u d e n t s . l i v i n g i n o t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e s i g n e d s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e s on campus.  T h i s h i g h degree  o f homogeneity among t h e Gage r e s i d e n t s c o n t r i b u t i n g t h e p a t t e r n o f l i f e w i t h i n t h e r e s i d e n c e has h e l p e d t o promote a more o r l e s s s o c i a l atmosphere o f c o n j e n i a l community.  satisfied  The o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t o r y  s o c i a l - l i f e w i t h i n t h i s r e s i d e n c e i s e x p e c t e d t o be m a i n l y due t o t h i s o v e r a l l homogeneity among i t s s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n .  However, s a t i s f a c t i o n  w i t h l i v i n g seems t o a l a r g e e x t e n t a r e f l e c t i o n o f one's  socio-economic/  c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d , one's b e l i e f , v a l u e s , and s e n t i m e n t s , one's l e v e l o f a s p i r a t i o n , and one's e n v i r o n m e n t a l  d i s p o s i t i o n (McKenzie,  1970).  w i t h l o n e ' s degree o f i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h l a r g e r s o c i a l - ' o r d e r , s y s t e m w i t h b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s and r u l e s f o r a c c e p t a b l e and p r e s c r i b e d conduct out by t h e A u t h o r i t y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y .  I t has t o  normative laid  A c c o r d i n g t o W i l l i a m M i c h e l s o n (1970)  people evaluate housing w i t h d i f f e r e n t y a r d s t i c k s a c c o r d i n g t o the type I of h o u s i n g , whereas a c c o r d i n g t o Y i - F u Tuan ( 1 9 7 3 ) ; t h e way.a p e r s o n e v a l u a t e s j his  p h y s i c a l environment i s d e t e r m i n e s  c o n d i t i o n s and f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n  The  by t h e s o c i o e c o n o m i c  and p h y s i c a l  ( a l s o R a p o p o r t , 1969).  survey r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that student s a t i s f a c t i o n o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  -  132. w i t h any p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n o f t h i s s t u d e n t residence d i d not a f f e c t t h e . o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i v i n g i n t h i s residence.  Although  crampedness was i d e n t i f i e d  as t h e m o s t - o f t e n  quoted n e g a t i v e a s p e c t as i d e n t i f i e d by a m a j o r i t y o f r e s i d e n t s , no s i n g l e a r c h i t e c t u r a l aspect or group o f v a r i a b l e s s t o o d o u t as t h e p a r t i c u l a r cause o f r e s i d e n t s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n o r s o u r c e o f d i s c o n t e n t w i t h living  The  ~  i n this residence.  respondents  o f t h i s survey seem t o m a i n t a i n mixed f e e l i n g s w i t h  r e g a r d t o l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i v i n g i n Gage R e s i d e n c e . a majority of the subjects are s a t i s f i e d with i t , c o m p l a i n t s through t h e i r r e s p o n s e s .  they e x p r e s s e d many  A m a j o r i t y of respondents  have made a k i n d of t r a d e o f f w i t h many f a c t o r s moving i n t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e s i d e n c e .  Although  seem t o  of consideration before  They seem t o have welcomed  many odds i n r e t u r n o f p r o x i m i t y t o U n i v e r s i t y , convenience  and economy.  They were a l s o r e q u i r e d t o undergo a s u b s t a n t i a l degree  of environmental  a d a p t a t i o n a f t e r they a r r i v e d .  respondent  exemplified i t .  A remark by one female  clearly  She wrote:  The t r e n d h e r e I f e e l i s toward s h a l l o w r e l a t i o n s h i p s where most p e o p l e a r e t r y i n g t o impress o t h e r s and w i n arguments r a t h e r t h a n to c a r e about o t h e r p e o p l e ' s f e e l i n g s and r e s p e c t t h e i r d i f f e r e n t opinions. I t seems i m p o s s i b l e t o grow any s t r o n g f r i e n d s h i p s between p e o p l e (who weren't f r i e n d s to b e g i n w i t h ) . In s p i t e o f a l l t h i s  she c o n c l u d e d by s a y i n g t h a t , " a l t h o u g h some p e o p l e  around h e r e may appear t o be a l i t t l e  c o l d and u n f r i e n d l y and i n c o n s i d e r a t e  at t i m e s , I ' d r a t h e r l i v e h e r e , c l o s e t o f a c i l i t i e s and p e o p l e , than  live  off-campus i n an apartment away from o t h e r s t u d e n t s and where I ' d have t o r e l y on buses f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . "  The  a u t h o r m a i n t a i n s t h a t the q u a l i t y o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l  •  designed  environment i n  i t .  cannot  These  favourable  The  as  l i v e s  of  react  to)  W i l l i a m be  a  avoids these  f r u s t r a t i n g ,  of  are  ordered e x i s t s and  that  A  and  the  needs)  H a s l o w ' s  1.  P h y s i o l o g i c a l  2.  Safety  p h y s i c a l  and and  of  h i g h  f u l f i l l i n g  needs,  p h y s i o l o g i c a l  to  w i l l  (and'  f a c i l i t a t e s  occupants s o c i a l  to  ask  t h a t  i s  a  i s  He  i n  what  a s s e s s i n g a r e i  most  lower  -comprehensive of  l e v e l  human  needs  one.  p h y s i o l o g i c a l  needs  r e d u c e s  l i k e  order  i s  f a t i g u e , s e c u r i t y  or  and  needs  ( i . e .  In  b a s i c  other the  i n t e l l e c t u a l  as  c u r i o -  f o l l o w s :  t h i r s t and  the  n e e d - s a t i s f a c t i o n  h i e r a r c h y  a e s t h e t i c  or  whether  n a t u r e .  f a c t o r  viewing  which  needs,  i n  important  c o n s i d e r e d  l e v e l  hunger,  use  and  s e x .  p r o t e c t i o n  from  harm.  Belonging  the  people  environment  f u l f i l  descending  are  which r e l e v a n t  higher  needs.as  l i k e  are  norms  an  of  —  b e h a v i o r ,  i s  f o r  needs  Between  human  environment way  t h i s  l i v e s .  q u e s t i o n  to  as  people  " h a b i t a b i l i t y "  or  (1943)  the  f a r  the  system.  c u l t u r a l The  an  suggests  precedes  l e v e l  of  i t s  i s  motivated  needs  concern  of  framework  i n  and  which  l o g i c a l  h i e r a r c h y  S e c u r i t y  A f f i l i a t i o n  which  are  that  f r u s t r a t i o n such  to  s a t i s f a c t i o n a  s o c i a l  so  of  observable  d a i l y  that  l i k e  w i t h i n  i n  c u l t u r e  p h y s i c a l  t h e i r  Abraham Maslow  people  set  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  He  that  of  i n  h i e r a r c h i c a l by  a  s a t i s f a c t i o n  need  b e h a v i o r  and  t h e i r  the  l i v i n g  v a r i a b l e s ,  p r e v a i l i n g  s t r u c t u r e .  degree  t o . d a t e .  s i t y .  Those  the  i f  o f f e r e d  importance  3.  the  of  w i t h  t h a t :  to  system  observed  h a b i t a b i l i t y ,  stronger  words  (19 70)  argued  and  and  b i o l o g i c a l ,  man?  been  system  environment  network  i n t o  s a t i s f a c t i o n  w i t h . o t h e r  e m p i r i c a l l y  portions  t h i s  of  up  and  i n v o l v e d  Haythorn  needs  taken  s o c i a l  u s e r s '  r e l e v a n t  s o c i a l  people  environmental needs  a  r e f l e c t i o n  i d e n t i f i e d  i s  has  i s  the  evaluate  system  (1968)  environment  e x i s t s and  i t  of  incorporated  environment  p h y s i c a l  define  has  Gans  i n v o l v e d there  be  b a s i s  c u l t u r a l  a f f e c t s  o r  s o l e  must  and  Herbert  p h y s i c a l  the  environment the  to  needs  s o c i a l  b u i l d i n g .  be  needs,  such  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  of  as  a f f e c t i o n  responsive  or  and  b e l o n g i n g n e s s .  l o v e ,  a f f e c t i o n a t e  and authoritive needs. 4.  Esteem needs, or those desires  evaluation by s e l f and  of an i n d i v i d u a l to be h e l d i n high  others.  5. S e l f - a c t u a l i s a t i o n needs, representing the desire to f u l f i l l one's total 6.  capacities.  Cognitive and Aesthetic needs, such as the  t h i r s t f o r knowledge or  the desire f o r beauty. While t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a very s i m p l i f i e d modification which  may  vary considerably, according to i n d i v i d u a l person, or class i n a same community or country, i t does provide a basis f o r the sequence of need satisfaction.  It i s clear from Mas low's model that a l l people are  motivated to f u l f i l l a l l these needs, but  i n r e a l world, d i f f e r e n t people's  needs at any  p a r t i c u l a r time are focused at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s i n a  hierarchy.  Substitution may  s a c r i f i c i n g i n one lower l e v e l .  occur i n the middle l e v e l as people  domain i n order to excel i n another but  not at  the  It i s aJso, c l e a r from t h i s model that i t i s impossible  to state that a p a r t i c u l a r design meets a p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t group's needs, because as soon as one  l e v e l of needs i s f u l f i l l e d , the perception of  needs s h i f t s to a higher l e v e l .  However, i n view of the apparent  homogeniety of student population r e s i d i n g i n this residence the author r e a l i s e s that Maslow's theory could be tested i n t h i s research.  From  an architect's point-of-view, i t i s highly suggestive as to what  variables  might be p a r t i c u l a r l y important to a certain c l i e n t group, as a l l of these levels of motivation have some correlates needs.  Maslow's hierarchy may  of need f r u s t r a t i o n and The  be applied  i n terms of environmental  to i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l measures  sources of f r u s t r a t i o n among the Gage  residents.  i n d i v i d u a l i s the smallest i d e n t i f i a b l e unit r e l a t e d to need s a t i s -  faction.  The  physiological  and psychological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of  the  i n d i v i d u a l  s e l f  and  of  nature  the  s a t i s f a c t i o n i n d i v i d u a l 1.  l i v e s .  Safety  of  To  i n  needs  s p a t i a l and  Esteem needs  that  express  o n e ' s  d i f f e r e n t  l a r g e r  group  w i t h i n  concept  c o r r e l a t e d  i n  w i t h  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which  a r c h i t e c t u r e ,  needs  needs  f o r  of  an  presumably,  b a s i c  comfort  s h e l t e r . c o r r e l a t e d  w i t h  such  s t a b i l i t y / m o b i l i t y  things to  as  reduce  the  a b i l i t y  to  o p p o r t u n i t i e s  f o r  others.  that  among  are  of  immediate  Belonging  s e l f - i d e n t i t y )  strength  of  be  from  o r g a n i s a t i o n  the  l e v e l  M a s l o w ' s  may  r e t a i n  A f f i l i a t i o n a n d  part  Next  the  be  b e h a v i o r  i n  s a t i s f i e d .  imply  a-  may  o n e s e l f ,  t h r e a t e n i n g  4.  r e q u i r e d  that  convenience  protect  3.  i s  determine  P h y s i o l o g i c a l needs  and 2.  w i l l  needs  f o s t e r s members  c o r r e l a t e d i d e n t i t y  are  p o s i t i v e of  a  w i t h  and  c o r r e l a t e d  w i t h  the  i n t e r a c t i o n  types  ( l o v e ,  of  acceptance  group.  the  s o c i a l  types  of  environmental  p o s i t i o n  (status)  imagery  among  other  members. 5.  S e l f - A c t u a l i s a t i o n  m o t i v a t i o n ,  need,  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n 6.  A e s t h e t i c  enjoyment i t s  own  these  a f f e c t e d reason then i s can  i t  such  by  i s  simply  e i t h e r  be  and  group  be  extent  layout that  a  of i f  unused  then  c o r r e l a t e  i f  as  w i t h  the  i t  f e e l i n g i s  a l s o  o p p o r t u n i t i e s  e d u c a t i o n ,  that the  t h a t  t h e i r  i n f o r m a t i o n the  environment  s t r e s s f u l or  goal  and i s  users  s i t u a t i o n  of  u s e f u l n e s s ,  r e l a t e d  Dr.  or  l e a r n  to  r o l e ,  i s  w i l l  to  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  a be  symbolism. to  c h o i c e .  the  depending  on  (1956)  for  meet are The  human If  c r e a t e d .  Sclye  and  i n s t r u c t i o n s  design  i t s  have  Hans  to  unresponsive  p s y c h o l o g i c a l ,  Canadian p h y s i o l o g i s t  of  b e h a v i o r a l  environment  p o t e n t i a l  p h y s i o l o g i c a l  one's  i n t e r e s t s ;  argued  the  w i t h  members.  c o r r e l a t e  can  the  the  w i l l  f r u s t r a t e d .  the  things  It  to  a v a i l a b l e , be  w i t h  sake.  needs  a b i l i t i e s  needs,  of  needs  needs,  no  choice  T h i s  s t r e s s  the  need  suggests  b e i n g that  t h e r e a r e t h r e e s t a g e s i n an organism's response r e a c t i o n , r e s i s t a n c e and e x h a u s t i o n . of  to s t r e s s - the alarm  . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  a l a r m a r e anger and f e a r , o f r e s i s t a n c e i s c o p i n g p r o c e d u r e s  exhaustion, i s psychosis.  While there i s l i t t l e  a r c h i t e c t u r a l environment o f the Gage R e s i d e n c e such  evidence  t h a t the  i n i t s e l f has ever c r e a t e d  a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n t h a t r e s i d e n t s have reached  manifestations of the f i r s t  and o f  two types o f response  the exhaustion  a r e observed  stage,  relatively  more p r e v a l e n t .  Students'  p h y s i o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs a r e not, o f  course,  confined only to residence l i f e ,  s i n c e t h e y c a n be s a t i s f i e d  where;  but residences provide a s p e c i a l s e t t i n g f o r t h e i r  else-  expression.  Some o f t h e s e needs a r e met by the d e s i g n and equipment o f t h e b u i l d i n g , others are  met through  the s t r u c t u r e of s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n .  p r a c t i c e , t h e two s t r u c t u r e s a f f e c t one another separate. in  In  and a r e i m p o s s i b l e t o  The main l i m i t a t i o n t o t h e d e s i g n o f t h e Gage R e s i d e n c e  its inability  to provide i t s occupants with d i v e r s i t y  lies  o f r e s i d e n c e form  and a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s e t t i n g o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n o u t s i d e t h e quads. A l s o t h e d e s i g n program has not r e c o g n i s e d t h e a s p e c t o f m a j o r differences•.  individual  i n the way d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t r e s i d e n t s p e r c e i v e , s y m b o l i c a l l y  t h i n k about and s p a t i a l l y behave o r r e a c t i n a p h y s i c a l environment.  The  m o t i v a t i o n a l a s p e c t o f human b e h a v i o r i s a complex f u n c t i o n o f man's intentions. of  T h i s outcome i s l i k e l y  due t o o v e r emphasis on g e n e r a l i s a t i o n  u s e r s ' s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f t h e s u i t e concept  and s o c i a l l y s t e r i l e environment.  r e s u l t i n g i n a monotonous  T h i s has f u r t h e r r e s u l t e d i n an  e x t r a o r d i n a r y l a c k o f i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e f o r t h e r e s i d e n t s , and s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d s t u d e n t s ' d i g n i t y and p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y . if  t h e d e s i g n o f t h i s Gage R e s i d e n c e  Thus t h e a u t h o r  doubts  has been a b l e t o r e s o l v e s u c c e s s f u l l y  the  c o n f l i c t  the  student  between  the  r e s i d e n t s '  I m p l i c i t  i n  the  The  need  .  programme  that  e i t h e r .  Consequently,  n o t i o n  every  and  same  or  typed a l s o  that  The  r i g i d i t y  one  of  warning  uniformity C u l t u r a l the of  the  d i s c u s s i o n  p r o p h e t i c  may  to  shun  and  Richness  and  be  the  and  e x p l o i t a  threat of  tasks  to  s o c i a l  of  r a i s e d  i n  l i v i n g that  a  s o c i a l  the  c r i p p l e  e f f e c t  c u l t u r e ,  w i l l  much  make  i n  of to  to  a  the  s t e r e o -  d e s i g n as  has  s o c i a l  i n  t h i s  d e s i g n .  (1965)  from p a t t e r n s  p r o g r e s s i v e l y  r i c h n e s s  of  our  absolute  more  s p e c i e s We  conformity  and  must of  environments  c o n s t i t u t e s  p l a n n i n g  of  i n d i v i d u a l and  are  h i m :  as  to  under  s t a n d a r d i s a t i o n  c i v i l i s a t i o n .  of  rooms  r e s u l t i n g  i t  b e d d i n g s ,  Dubos'  of  the  room,  s t a n d a r i s e d  d i v e r s i f i e d  l i k e l y  them  Rene  A c c o r d i n g  environment  are  e x a m p l i f i e d  regimentation  d e s i g n  a c t i v i t i e s  d i v e r s i t y  quoting  adverse  management  f e a t u r e l e s s  1200  a l l  w e l l  environment  whether  e x p e r i e n c e s , w i l l  as  i n  as  by  the  l i n e n ,  a c t i v i t i e s  s u r v i v a l  create  of  student  are  s t a n d a r d i s -  designed  the  l i f e  and  supported  i n  the to  be  treatment  b i o l o g i c a l  f u n c t i o n a l i s m , or  of  i n  c o l o u r  t h e i r  the  surroundings s t r i v e  d i v e r s i t y  and  t e c h n o l o g i c a l  f u l l y  and  human  cannot  i d e n t i c a l l y  mass  h o u s i n g ,  adopted  student  d e s i g n .  communication  mass  d w e l l i n g s ,  d e p r i v a t i o n  longterm  the  been  adapt  concluded  and  design  of  aptly  modern  of  of  range  of  environmental  c r i t e r i o n people  r e g u l a t i o n  mass  o p t i o n s .  f i x t u r e s ,  students  and  i n  i s  design  monotony  uniformity  of  the  against  c o n s t i t u t e  b e h a v i o r  the  s u c c e s s f u l l y  homogenisation  education  a l l  dilemmas  the  gets  Modernity to  can  i n  creeping  d i f f i c u l t  can  and  have  t y p i c a l  l i g h t i n g  that  s o l u t i o n .  brought  b e h a v i o r ,  and  students  a  to  f u r n i s h i n g s ,  f u r n i t u r e ,  assumption  design  i s  everyone  rugs  apparent  v a r i a t i o n  appears  student  l o u n g e / k i t c h e n e t t e ,  consequent  s t a n d a r d i s a t i o n  t h a t  quad  the  for  p h y s i c a l  a t i o n .  c u r t a i n s ,  u n i f o r m i t y ,  l i f e  l i m i t e d  s u f f e r  i n t e l l e c t u a l l y  from and  an  e s s e n t i a l  c i t i e s , to a  . . .  the Young  a  narrow  k i n d  of  e m o t i o n a l l y .  138.  Student  Residence  Designed w i t h S u i t e s i s not the U l t i m a t e S o l u t i o n :  There i s no one k i n d of s o l u t i o n to s t u d e n t h o u s i n g , b e c a u s e t h e r e i s no one k i n d of s t u d e n t . housing  generated  There can be no s i n g l e i d e a l d e s i g n f o r  t o p l e a s e everyone.  There can be no s u c h  panacea f o r an o p t i m a l study and l i v i n g environment to s u i t  design a l l students.  D i f f e r e n t k i n d s of s t u d e n t s have d i f f e r e n t needs, v a l u e s , and  aspirations.—  ( M u l l i a n s and A l l e n ; 1971). 1  The  f a c t o r of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , between occupants  g i v e n prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the d e s i g n of d o r m i t o r y . graduate s t u d e n t s t e n d t o be habits.  must be  For  -,  example,  " l o n e r s " i n t h e i r study p a t t e r n s and work  The same i s t h e case w i t h f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s .  Conversely,  s t u d e n t s i n the j u n i o r y e a r s t e n d t o be more g r e g a r i o u s as t o them, emergence of f r i e n d s h i p or comradeship i s more i m p o r t a n t . t h i s , the same f a c i l i t i e s particularly  can not s a t i s f y  everyone.  Because o f  T h i s becomes  r e l e v a n t when the accommodation i s o f f e r e d t o s t u d e n t s  v a r i o u s k i n d s b e l o n g i n g to a v a r i e t y of academic d i s c i p l i n e s seniority.  The  needs through  and  s t u d e n t s h o u l d be g i v e n the chance t o meet h i s i n d i v i d u a l  a combination  of s e l e c t i o n and  adaptation.  The  want the chance to choose from a v a r i e t y of p o s s i b l e o p t i o n s . architect  The  t h i s i s not  the  •  system of s u i t e s p r o v i d e d i n the W a l t e r Gage R e s i d e n c e s  p o t e n t i a l advantages t o o f f e r t o s t u d e n t s .  While  students  s h o u l d p r o v i d e a range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s i n the program and  d e s i g n of s t u d e n t h o u s i n g .  The  of  has many  However, t h i s s u r v e y shows t h a t  a s o l u t i o n to every s t u d e n t ' s s o c i a l and  r e s i d e n t i a l problems.  the s u i t e s a f f o r d t h e i r r e s i d e n t s more s m a l l group s e t t i n g , p r i v a c y  and independence than t r a d i t i o n a l l y - d e s i g n e d d o r m i t o r i e s , they i n t e n s i f y the problems o f c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i n the s u i t e group.  also The  successful s u i t e - l i v i n g requires close cooperation, communication and consideration.  A most frequently mentioned problem i n l i v i n g i n suites  i s the d i f f i c u l t y of adjusting to f i v e d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s (Corbet 1973).  Several complaints have been received from the respondents that  they had gotten i n with the wrong set of quad-mates or that they did not get along at a l l with the other f i v e quad-mates and because of t h i s , were, of course, f e e l i n g very unhappy.  I t can w e l l be imagined how  oppresive  one might f e e l i f he or she was having some problems of adjustment h i s or her quad mates. with adjustment,  with  In the Gage Residence i f one r e a l l y faces trouble  f e e l s bored or i s fed up with seeing and c o - l i v i n g with  the same f i v e faces within a quad,day-in  and day-out for one academic year,  one i s l e f t with no other a l t e r n a t i v e , except withdrawing altogether from the residences.  As Corbett observed:  It takes only one un-cooperative i n d i v i d u a l to make s u i t e - l i v i n g less than pleasant. I f one i s messy, (five) others must l i v e with the mess. I f one has a stereo and ten boisterous f r i e n d s , a l l (five) w i l l be subjected to the noise, i n t e r r u p t i o n and confusion, and ... they are i n t e n s i f i e d i n a suite where residents are l i v i n g i n closer proximity ... The degree of privacy achieved w i l l depend upon the kinds of customs that are established f o r use of the space. Some groups of students w i l l have success i n making a s u i t e l i v a b l e , others w i l l not (p. 416). Data on the present study supports the conclusion that i f students are l i v i n g i n a s u i t e because they chose that a l t e r n a t i v e or came to l i v e with mutually chosen suite mates, or have succeeded  i n adjusting with a  majority of suite mates, the chances of t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n i s l i k e l y to be high.  I t can also be concluded that while t h i s type of student  residence may be the desirable housing a l t e r n a t i v e f o r some, suites are not the only answer to every students' housing need but should be an option available only to those who best and worst of apartment l i v i n g .  desire i t .  Suites can b r i n g the  CHAPTER VI  140.  EPILOGUE  The  r e s e a r c h e r has made an e f f o r t  b e s e t the d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n a l ;  to i d e n t i f y  the major p i t f a l l s  that  the most common one i s p r o p e r l y i d e n t i f i e d  by Sim Van d e r Ryne and M. S i l v e r s t e i n  (1967):  There i s no feedback channel between p l a n n i n g assumptions and b u i l d i n g use. E x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s have n o t y e t been s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d t o determine whether they a r e e f f e c t i v e l y the k i n d o f environment s t u d e n t s want and need. Few a r c h i t e c t s have attempted to understand and i n t e r p r e t the p h y s i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f changing patterns o f student l i v i n g (p. 6 ) . T h i s study i s a p r e l i m i n a r y attempt t o f u l f i l a t i o n on the b a s i s o f u s e r s ' response o t h e r s w i l l r e c o g n i z e and respond studies.  the need o f d e s i g n e v a l u -  and s e l f assessment.  Hopefully,  t o the urgent need f o r such e v a l u a t i o n  A t l e a s t t h e r e s e a r c h s h o u l d make d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n a l s aware  about the importance o f p r e p a r i n g d e s i g n programs t a i l o r e d t o u s e r s ' needs and p r e f e r e n c e s .  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , u s e r s ' committee and d e s i g n  p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l s o might b e n e f i t from the l e s s o n s l e a r n e d through s i g h t , when c l a r i f y i n g any f u t u r e d e s i g n program on s t u d e n t A fairly  comprehensive r e v i e w  o f the U n i v e r s i t y ' s h o u s i n g  hind-  housing.  g o a l s and  o b j e c t i v e s needs t o be undertaken p e r i o d i c a l l y , and t h i s can o n l y  occur  a g a i n s t a background o f s y s t e m a t i c e v a l u a t i o n o f the e f f i c a c y o f p a s t h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s and p o l i c i e s .  An e s t a b l i s h e d feed-back channel between d e s i g n assumptions and b u i l d i n g use i s i m p e r a t i v e .  I n t h a t r e s p e c t t h i s study on d e s i g n  e v a l u a t i o n i s a humble b e g i n n i n g .  I m p l i c a t i o n f o r Design  on A r c h i t e c t u r a l  Education:  I f a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n of s t u d e n t housing  i s to be e f f e c t i v e , i t i s  141. essential that design goals should stem f i r s t from i d e n t i f y i n g the potent i a l users, then ascertain t h e i r needs, desires, and s p e c i f i c sets of behavior.  I t i s those who  are affected by the buildings who  should be  given saliency i n design programs.  Given t h e i r present t r a i n i n g and education, architects are the best professionals available to design the perceived portion of most of our b u i l t environment (Izumi, 1965). The remaining years of t h i s century w i l l see more new  construction than that e x i s t i n g on t h i s planet ir. 1975.  In order  to f u l f i l t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , architects must be well-acquainted with behavioral research methods, to develop s e n s i t i v i t y to users and be able to communicate i n the language of the users rather than i n the professionals' jargon.  To quote John C o l l i n s  (1969):  No j u s t i f i c a t i o n exists f o r the designer to discard his professional jargon, but c e r t a i n l y the need does e x i s t f o r the designer to maint a i n f a m i l i a r i t y with the vocabulary of the user. What does the user seek as the standards f o r the building? How should i t function? How s h a l l i t s function improve on e x i s t i n g structure . . .? There i s thus need to modify a r c h i t e c t u r a l education to f a c i l i t a t e the future a r c h i t e c t s ' understanding of users' knowledge and perception of the designed environment.  This has been urged by Robert Hershberger  (EDRA 1,  I f architects hope to u t i l i s e t h e i r media (architecture) to communicate intentions to laymen, they must . . . reorient the a r c h i t e c t u r a l education such that the a r c h i t e c t i s taught how forms, spaces and the l i k e are interpreted by laymen, as well as by architects so that he can consciously manipulate them i n such a way as to successfully communicate with both groups (P- 97)• The combination of architecture and behavioral science allows a r c h i t e c t u r a l design solutions that are responsive to behavior.  The a r c h i t e c t  controls some of the environmental factors which a f f e c t the human behavior; the behavioral s c i e n t i s t can help architects understand the psychological and s o c i o l o g i c a l impacts of buildings on the people who  use them.  1970  142.  There  i s  an  a r c h i t e c t u r a l the  should  acquaint  s o c i a l  l o g i c a l l y  Thus i t s  gap  u s e f u l r e s u l t s  the  himself  analyse  f i n d i n g s  understand  between  s c i e n t i s t s .  i f  i t  must  be  use.  r e s e a r c h the  data  for to  w i t h  i n  the  meaningful  r o l e  should  of  w i l l  i s  i n  the  take  of  have form  the  d e s i g n e r s , terms  r e s e a r c h  (Lang,  to  data  man  the  d e s i g n e r s  or  i n . order  to  r e s e a r c h e r  methods  used  impact  M o l e s k i  on  w i l l  an i n  e x t e n s i o n turn  three-dimensional  form,  can of  t r a n s l a t e d e s i g n .  and  & Vachon,  b u i l t  t h a t i p r o f e s s i o n a l s of  by  s c i e n t i f i c a l l y  B u r n e t t ,  any  form  who  middle  F i r s t ,  e x t r a c t  terms.  research  the  the  b e h a v i o r a l  he  design  This  r e s e a r c h - o r i e n t e d  d i s c i p l i n e s .  organized  to  e i t h e r  take  two  Then  b e h a v i o r a l  and  i n t o  need  p s y c h o l o g i s t s  bridge  the  urgent  1974)  then  r e a d i l y the these  143.  LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:  T h i s s i n g l e s t u d y does n o t c l a i m to embrace a l l the p o s s i b l e a s p e c t s o f problems  r e m a i n i n g w i t h i n t h i s s p e c i f i c example o f s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e .  I n s p i t e o f c a r e and p r e c a u t i o n , t h e study s u f f e r e d from s e v e r a l  limit-  ations.  Firstly, barrier.  as a f o r e i g n e r , t h e r e s e a r c h e r f a c e d some  A l t h o u g h generous  c o o p e r a t i o n was r e c e i v e d from the m a j o r i t y  of respondents, the author f e l t  t h a t some degree o f d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  might have been i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the r e s u l t . dependent  communication  bias  Success o f s u r v e y s i s  on the c o o p e r a t i o n o f the r e s p o n d e n t s .  Although the percentage  of response was h i g h , some responses were found t o be p u r p o s e l y i n s i n c e r e ; some r e f u s e d t o pay due r e g a r d t o t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h i s exercise.  academic  I n some c a s e s , the u n s o l i c i t e d comments were p r o v e d to be  u s e f u l and e n c o u r a g i n g ;  o t h e r s were d e r o g a t o r y and m a l i c i o u s .  o f c a r e l e s s n e s s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a t i g u e among respondents might  A degree have  a l s o been i n t r o d u c e d due t o t h e l e n g t h o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( a l t h o u g h i t would n o t have taken more than 15 minutes o f time to f i l l  out).  This  c o u l d have b i a s e d t h e answers as w e l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g December examinations i n t h i s  The wording  university.  and the format o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were d e v e l o p e d and  r e f i n e d through " p r e t e s t i n g " as w e l l as approved by the R e s e a r c h A d v i s o r . However, some r e s p o n d e n t s complained about some q u e s t i o n s and sometimes f a i l e d  the anonymity  and a m b i g u i t y o f  t o p r o v i d e s e n s i b l e answers.  r e s u l t e d i n some l o s s o f i n f o r m a t i o n .  I  This  1 4 4 .  The Scale  short  used  and  to  measure  p e r c e i v e d  by  i t  b a s i s  on  the  responded  of  the  every  on  c o n s i s t e n c y  m o d i f i e d  of  t h e i r i n  were  t e c t u r a l  f i l l i n g  s u b j e c t s '  i n  of  f l o o r  whole.  as  q u a l i t i e s on It  g i v e  a  t h e i r  s e l f - r a t i n g  dependent  the  p e r c e p t i o n  p e r c e p t i o n  u s e r s '  to  U n i v e r s i t y  uniformly.  q u a l i t i e s .  opportunity  of  respondent  a r c h i t e c t u r a l  r a t i n g s  form  how  of  would  as  own  the  t h e i r  as  c l i m a t e  quad  s o c i a l  might  the  about  have  been  not to  xjhile  d i f f e r e n t i a l  others  i n -  scale)  environment.  These  meaning  a r c h i -  d e s i r a b l e about  was  answered  climate  a l s o  semantic  beforehand w e l l  s o c i a l  respondents  r e s i d e n c e  been  Environmental  Some  i n t e r p r e t e d  have  i n s t r u c t i o n s  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  .  t h e i r  one  of  There  (on  Residence  to  of  have  the  the  had  exact  some  procedure  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of  each  r e l i a b l e  than  of  q u e s t i o n .  I n f o r m a t i o n trend  data  More  d e r i v e d  r e s e a r c h  and  s o c i a l  other  proved  However,  to  the  i n t e r e s t e d study  as  two  needed  to  a  or  of  rewarding  a  generous  nor  have  obvious to  the  The a l l  c l a r i f y  ground  and  made  u s e r s ' as  student  i s  l e s s by  the  same  p e r c e p t i o n  w e l l  as  of  methods. a r c h i t e c t u r a l  s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n  environment.  r e s i d e n c e s  on  S i m i l a r  campus  of s t u d i e s  would  have  u s e f u l .  of  has  p o s s i b l e  research  work.  how  r e s i d e n t i a l  amount data  survey  surveys  behavior  h i s  l i m i t a t i o n  f u r t h e r  s i n g l e  more  a f f e c t s  q u a l i t i e s  p r o j e c t .  techniques, due  from  t r a d i t i o n a l l y - d e s i g n e d  h i g h l y  research  i s  from  environment  a r c h i t e c t u r a l on  o b t a i n e d  of on  data  not  has  been  t h i s  and  c o l l e c t e d  analysed  hypotheses time  been  been  by  might  of  the  wish  t h i s  a v a i l a b l e  s t a t i s t i c a l l y  i n t e r e s t s  subject  a l l  f o r  t e s t e d ,  author. to  t r e a t ...j  Persons t h i s r  ,  145 REFERENCES Adelman, Howard, The Beds o f Academe: A Study of t h e R e l a t i o n o f Student R e s i d e n c e s and t h e U n i v e r s i t y , T o r o n t o : J . 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Research R e p o r t , D e s i g n R e s e a r c h L a b o r a t o r y , S c h o o l of D e s i g n , N o r t h C a r o l i n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1969.  Seaton, R i c h a r W.  " P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s o f the Urban R e g i o n - Beauty, N o i s e and Crowding," H a b i t a t (CMHC N e w s l e t t e r ) , V o l . 1 6 No. 5-6 19 73. ;.,  S t e a , D a v i d . " T e r r i t o r i a l i t y , the I n t e r i o r A s p e c t : Space, T e r r i t o r y Human Movements", Landscape, Autumn, 1965, 15 pp.  and 13-17.  S t u d e r , Raymond and S t e a D a v i d . " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Programming and Human B e h a v i o r " , J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s , V o l . 22, No. 4 October 1966.  127  Tuan, Y i - F u . " V i s u a l B l i g h t : . E x e r c i s e i n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n " , V i s u a l B l i g h t i n America: A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers, Resource Paper No. 23 Washington, B.C. . 1973, pp. 23-27.  REPORTS, INFORMATION BOOKLET, ; NEWSLETTERS , Alma Mater S o c i e t y , H o u s i n g Survey A Report P r e p a r e d by the "AMS, of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver, Nov. 4 1968. The Ubyssey  L e t t e r s t o the E d i t o r , i s s u e s d a t e d J a n 28, Nov. 5 1972.  1972  University  and  C h a r l e s , D. and Chen R.A. (ed.) "Sex on Campus", A R e p o r t . P r o c e e d i n g of a Symposium h e l d on Dec. 1967, B o s t o n U n i v e r s i t y Law S c h o o l A u d i t o r i u m , B o s t o n , Mass. 1969. :  E d u c a t i o n a l F a c i l i t i e s L a b o r a t o r i e s , Student H o u s i n g New  York  1972.  The Environment A n a l y s i s Group; (TEAG) A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e t e r m i n a n t s o f Student S a t i s f a c t i o n i n C o l l e g e R e s i d e n c e H a l l . U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , San D i e g o , L a J o l l a , C a l i f . , F i n a l r e p o r t , U.S. Dept. o f H e a l t h S e r v i c e and W e l f a r e P r o j e c t 7-1-075. Heavy C o n s t r u c t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , HCN  Report, Jan. 3  1972.  P a t t e r n s o f Human B e h a v i o r and A r c h i t e c t u r a l Environment; A Report: P r o c e e d i n g s o f the Tenth c o n f e r e n c e o f American A s s o c . o f H o u s i n g E d u c a t o r s . Urbana, I l l i n o i s : Univ. of I l l i n o i s , O c t . 1966.  150  U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C.  Student Housing: R e s i d e n c e I n f o r m a t i o n B o o k l e t and A p p l i c a t i o n Form, UBC, i s s u e s o f 1973-4, 1974-5 and 19 75-6.  NEWSPAPER ARTICLES The P r o v i n c e  (Vancouver) "Campus R e s i d e n c e s w i l l be c o - e d " by G r i f f i t h s A p r i l 5, 1972.  The Vancouver  Sun,  John  " P r e d i c t i o n o f doom misGaged" by P e t e r W i l s o n , A p r i l 20, 1972. "Fewer r u l e s the b e s t r u l e f o r s t u d e n t s " by Evan A t k i n s o n , Oct. 18, 1972.  UNPUBLISHED REPORTS, MONOGRAPHS C o l l i n s , John B u n t i n g . " P e r c e p t i o n a l Dimensions o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l Space Validated against Behavioral C r i t e r i a " Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , S a l t Lake C i t y , U n i v e r s i t y of Utah, 1969 H s i a , V i c t o r W.  "Residence H a l l Environment: A comparative s t u d y i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l psychology." (unpublished Master's D i s s e r t a t i o n , A r c h i t e c t u r a l Psychology, Univ. of Utah, S a l t Lake C i t y , USA).  OTHER SOURCES M/S  Reno C. N e g r i n , A r c h i t e c t s and A s s o c i a t e s , Vancouver, P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. W a l l y M o r o z , A s s o c i a t e A r c h i t e c t ( i n - C h a r g e o f t h e D e s i g n o f W a l t e r Gage R e s i d e n c e s UBC). O c t . 1974.  O f f i c e o f the D i r e c t o r of R e s i d e n c e UBC Personal Interview with Mrs. M a r i o Seto, Student A d v i s o r O c t o b e r , Nov.  1974.  House s t a f f - o n - d u t y w i t h i n the Gage R e s i d e n c e . Personal Interviews with House A d v i s o r s (Dons) and R e s i d e n t a t t e n d e n t a t the R e c e p t i o n Counter, W a l t e r Gage R e s i d e n c e . O f f i c e o f the P h y s i c a l P l a n t , UBC. UBC.  P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr.  Franz  O f f i c e o f Totem Park C o n v e n t i o n C e n t r e , UBC. P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. C r a i k , C o n v e n t i o n Manager.  Conrad  151.  APPENDIX  A.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e W a l t e r H. Gage R e s i d e n c e  The  W a l t e r H. Gage R e s i d e n c e i s i n t h e n o r t h  c e n t r a l p a r t o f t h e U.B.C.  campus near t h e L i b r a r y and t h e Student Union B u i l d i n g , and p r o v i d e s o n l y f o r 1274 s t u d e n t s .  The r e s i d e n c e c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e e s s e n t i a l l y  a l i k e 17 s t o r e y h i g h - r i s e towers accommodating 1166 s e n i o r s i n g l e and  room  one l o w - r i s e b u i l d i n g o f 3 f l o o r s  f o r 108 s t u d e n t s  (54 m a r r i e d  look-  students couples  i n double rooms) and a Common B l o c k , b u t t h e r e i s no common d i n i n g h a l l .  Each h i g h - r i s e tower accommodates 388 s t u d e n t s s i n g l e rooms o n l y . students  Each f l o o r  on an average, i n  ( e x c e p t i n g t h e main f l o o r ) houses 24  i n s i n g l e rooms and i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r " q u a d r a n t s " ,  s i x women s h a r e each q u a d r a n t . quadrant i s a l l o c a t e d t o s t u d e n t s each tower c o n t a i n s  two s e p a r a t e  The f l o o r s  a r e c o - e d u c a t i o n a l , b u t each  o f own s e x o n l y . self-sufficient  The main f l o o r o f  executive s u i t e s f o r  two  s e n i o r house a d v i s o r s o r dons (one male and one f e m a l e ) ,  and  s m a l l study  separate  room.  s i x men or  tower lounge  I n a d d i t i o n , one o f t h e towers c o n t a i n two  s u i t e s f o r student  r e s i d e n t s (4 male and 4 female) each c o n t a i n i n g  4 s i n g l e rooms b u t a l l s h a r i n g a common k i t c h e n / d i n i n g  lounge.  Each quadrant h a s s i x s i n g l e bedrooms, a bathroom, a k i t c h e n / l o u n g e  152  and  a  balcony.  which  i n c l u d e s  lamp,  c h a i r ,  The a  c l o s e t  i s  b u i l t  i n .  1 bedspread  and  p i l l o w s l i p ,  k i t c h e n  u t e n s i l s .  e n t e r t a i n i n g table  and  The bedroom two  deluxe  boards,  but  The i s  at  convention decorated  Common  Block  have  r i g h t -  movable  or  bookshelves  bedding  f u r n i t u r e  l e f t - h a n d e d and  i n c l u d e s  2  a  s t u d e n t s ) ,  waste  b a s k e t .  s h e e t s ,  1  p i l l o w  b l a n k e t s .  r e f r i g e r a t o r ,  s i n k ,  stove,  conducive' to  s m a l l  i n f o r m a l  two  arms-chairs-,  bedroom  and  two  arm i s  centre  a  of  and  a  f o r  The  equipped There  of  s m a l l  f i r e p l a c e ,  a  c o f f e e  of  some  cupboards,  g a t h e r i n g  t a b l e ,  three  a  a l s o  (named  table  s t o v e , a  as  towers  twin  a  and  d i n i n g  Student  has  seven  a  and  f a c i l i t i e s .  speakers.  The  tower.  The  accommodates  about  shag  laundry car 80  and  park c a r s .  and  i s  two  two  a  lounge  has  a  c h a i r s ,  and  a  h a l l  c e n t r a l  games  around rooms  the  cup-  c l o s e t .  B u i l d i n g )  M u s i c a l  at  c l o s e t s ,  s e m i n a r / s t u d y  a l l  one  r e f r i g e r a t o r ,  Union  covered  broadcasted  f u r n i s h e d  The  and  bathroom  a  54  b e d s ,  s i n k ,  b a l l r o o m , other  has  b o o k s h e l v e s .  d i n i n g  w i t h  i s  couples  contains  a  are-. constantly  each  married  s e t s  c h a i r s ,  Common B l o c k  channels  f l o o r  2  meant  u t e n s i l s .  concealed  basement  two  lounges,  radio  through  lamps  k i t c h e n  the  w i t h  s o f a ,  s u i t e s .  glamorous  l o c a t e d  l o c a l  no  a  b u i l d i n g  t a b l e ,  T h e  lounge  f o r  adjustable The  and  c h a i r s .  c h a i r s ,  coffee  small  The  l o w - r i s e  balcony.  a  contains  three  desks,  s o f a ,  has  carpeted  (adjustable  drawers,  and  no  desk  of  clothes  but  b e d ,  are  chest  The  The  bedrooms  which  rooms,  sunken  lounge  programmes  from  the  a r e a  are  basement  common i n of  the the  Food S e r v i c e s :  R e s i d e n t s may cook t h e i r own meals i n t h e k i t c h e n o f  t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l quadrant. in  A l i m i t e d number of meal p a s s e s  the o t h e r r e s i d e n c e d i n i n g a r e a s from  Office.  are available  t h e Food S e r v i c e s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  A d e l i c a t e s s e n , o r a m i n i shop i s l o c a t e d i n t h e Common B l o c k  and a v a r i e t y o f p r e p a r e d f o o d s may be purchased.  A student patronised  C o f f e e shop ( c a f e t e r i a - s t y l e ) i n the Common B l o c k which used  to offer  r e s i d e n t s t h e f a c i l i t i e s o f s h o r t - o r d e r meals w i t h c a s h / c o u n t e r is presently closed, sine die. facilities  service  P r e s e n t l y t h e r e a r e no c a n t e e n - s t y l e  a t t h i s r e s i d e n c e comparable t o those a t o t h e r o l d e r r e s i d e n c e s  Food vending machines s i t u a t e d i n Common B l o c k and each Tower Lounge main f l o o r s s e r v e packaged f o o d and d r i n k s . 24 h o u r s a day t o s t u d e n t r e s i d e n t s .  Such a r e a c c e s s i b l e f o r  They a l s o d i s p e n s e  toiletries,  l a u n d r y goods and o t h e r n o n - f f o d items.. Facilities  and S e r v i c e s .  A Residence  Attendant  i s on duty  throughout  the day at t h e R e c e p t i o n Desk l o c a t e d i n the Common B l o c k t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n , process admissions,  d e p a r t u r e s and p e r f o r m  t i v e duties w i t h i n the residence area. with  other administra-  The r e c e p t i o n desk i s equipped  a t e l e x machine t o i n c r e a s e t h e speed o f communication w i t h  other  s e r v i c e arms o f t h e department. J a n i t o r i a l Services.  I n Walter Gage h i g h - r i s e t h e c l e a n i n g s t a f f  c l e a n o n l y t h e i n t e r n a l lobby o f t h e quadrant,  bathroom and lounge  will on a  r o t a t i n g s c h e d u l e b u t w i l l not c l e a n the s t o v e and r e f r i g e r a t o r o r e n t e r the s t u d e n t s ' rooms.  The C h r i s t m a s b r e a k c l e a n i n g i n c l u d e s s t o v e s and  r e f r i g e r a t o r s which a r e n o t e x c e s s i v e l y d i r t y .  The the  stove  c l e a n i n g and the  o f  t h e s t u d e n t ' s  r e f r i g e r a t o r  room,  a r e the  d a i l y  maintenance  students'  o f  t h e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  bathroom,  Students  a r e u s u a l l y a d v i s e d b e f o r e h a n d when the c l e a n i n g s t a f f w i l l b e  entering their  quadrant.  To p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h  equipment, each f l o o r has a u t i l i t y  where such equipment i s l o c a t e d .  room  Vacuum c l e a n e r s . m y a be checked o u t from  the R e c e p t i o n  Desk.  T e l e p h o n e s.  Pay t e l e p h o n e s  residences.  A t W a l t e r H. Gage each s t u d e n t ' s Enterphone c a n be a d a p t e d  as a t e l e p h o n e  also.  a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e Common B l o c k  A l l n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r telephones  of t h e  a r e t o b e made  d i r e c t l y w i t h B.C. Telephone Company. Enterphone.  A t W a l t e r H. Gage o n l y an Enterphone i s p r o v i d e d as t h e  doors a r e l o c k e d 24 hours a day.  Guests c a n o n l y b e a d m i t t e d  by u s i n g  the Eriterphone. T e l e v i s i o n s and Antennae.  One c a b l e c o l o u r t e l e v i s i o n i s p r o v i d e d  the Common B l o c k by H o u s i n g , each house has an a d d i t i o n a l o u t l e t the Student C o u n c i l s w i s h t o p r o v i d e a t e l e v i s i o n . and s t e r e o s a r e a l l o w e d load occurs. they s e l e c t  Residents  Radios,  for  should  televisions  i n i n d i v i d u a l rooms, p r o v i d e d no e l e c t r i c a l are requested  t h e i r l i s t e n i n g volume;  over-  t o c o n s i d e r f e l l o w r e s i d e n t s when  earphones a r e recommended.  Individ-  u a l rooms a r e n o t ' s u p p l i e d w i t h  c a b l e v i s i o n outlets, since the extra cost  t o a l l s t u d e n t s would b e h i g h .  No o u t s i d e t e l e v i s i o n o r r a d i o antennae  are p e r m i t t e d . F i r s t A i d Boxes. Reception Sports  . These a r e a v a i l a b l e i n each Don's s u i t e a n d a t t h e  Desk.  Facilities.  The r e s i d e n c e has a v a r i e t y o f f a c i l i t i e s  such a s  games room, weight room, p o o l t a b l e s , t e n n i s c o u r t s and p l a y i n g " f i e l d s . Games equipment i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e R e s i d e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n i n each a r e a , and i s a v a i l a b l e from t h e R e c e p t i o n  Desk o n l y t o t h o s e who h a v e  p a i d  t h e i r  other  outdoor  Change Desk  and  i n  Other and  Residence A s s o c i a t i o n games  Stamp  the  l i b r a r y  P a r k i n g . about  Vending  spaces  on  normal  U n i v e r s i t y  Residence In work the  M a i l  e l e c t e d  beneath  a the  There  P a r k i n g  F e e ,  r e s i d e n c e s  c l o s e l y  to  there  achieve  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ,  Walter  H.  Gage,  and  the  at  f u n c t i o n  l a r g e .  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Committee  the  near  laundry,  e x t r a  of  the  R e c e p t i o n  r e f e r e n c e  reserved  b u i l d i n g  charge, at  the  a l s o  Residence  each  area  R e s i d e n c e s xriio  management  of  of  the  l i b r a r y  i n  p a r k i n g  and  about  a d d i t i o n  Gage  s p a c e s , 260  to  the  R e s i d e n c e .  in  the  best  the  appointed  each  as  types  i s  to  serve  the  i s  f o r  the  residence  Committee  one  There  o r g a n i z a t i o n s  r e s u l t s  L i a i s o n  tower,  of  composed  as  l i a i s o n  functions  Standards  i s  the  a l s o  a  r e s i d e n t  l o w - r i s e ,  the  and  of  and  between  S o c i a l  f o r  students  s t a f f .  from a  which  two four  the  Sports  a r e a .  The  Committee.  Staff i s  an  A r e a  r e s p o n s i b l e  a r e a ,  community  Dons  two  r e c r e a t i o n a l  acts  there i s  are  students.  organizes  Committee  are  Its  and  which  Appointed  there  number  spaces  Student  members  k i n d  an  f o r  from  the  and  common b l o c k  i s  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  of  l i n e n  l i m i t e d  e l e c t e d  In  l o c a t e d  O r g a n i z a t i o n  together  L i a i s o n  are  •  r e s i d e n c e .  s e r v i c e ,  Gage has  s u r f a c e .  student  At  H.  underground the  the  These  .  p i c k - u p .  Walter  80  of  organise  .  Machines.  Include:  book  Residence A s s o c i a t i o n  f a c i l i t i e s .  Common B l o c k  S e r v i c e s  f e e s .  each  and  house  f o r  a s s i s t s  e s s e n t i a l or  C o - o r d i n a t o r  i n  appointed  c o - o r d i n a t i o n , the  an  tower  students  academic who  are  i n  by  the  s u p e r v i s i o n r e s i d e n c e  s e t t i n g . appointed  In by  to a l l  the  D i r e c t o r and develop r e s i d e n c e s D i r e c t o r  156  of  Residences  year are  a on  handle  r e s i d e n t duty a l l  p r o v i d i n g l i k e  as  m a i l ,  s e r v i c e s  part may  f i n d  throughout routine  e t c .  the  Area  t h e i r  the  day  process  reference  C o - o r d i n a t o r ' s  a s s i s t a n c e i n  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  i n f o r m a t i o n , luggage,  of  a l l  h e l p f u l .  areas  matters  at  book  Throughout  R e s i d e n c e  the  w i t h i n  admissions, l i b r a r y ,  s t a f f .  R e c e p t i o n  the  departure p i c k - u p s ,  Attendants  Desk.  r e s i d e n c e and  a r e a ,  h a n d l e  l i n e n ,  the  They l i k e  s e r v i c e s  j a n i t o r i a l  162.  a P o  LU ' »  z Us-,, i,  I. 14  UL 1  __ _  r  I i  r  I  ii it  I I , i  1—T  CT  H  01  51  r  >-  1 »  f  <  APPENDIX B  UNIVERSITY RESIDENCE ENVIRONMENT SCALE: SUBSCALE DEFINITIONS Interpersonal  Relationships:  the emphasis on interpersonal relationships in the house.  (1) Involvement (10) -degree of commitment to the house and residents; amount of social interaction and feeling of friendship in the house. a  (2) Emotional Support (10)-extent of manifest concern for others in the house; efforts to aid one another with academic and personal problems; emphasis on open and honest communication. Personal  Growth:  of residents.  social pressure dimensions related to the psychosocial development  (3) Independence (10)-diversity of residents' behaviors allowed without social sanctions, versus socially proper and conformist behavior. (4) Traditional Social Orientation (9)—stress on dating, going to parties, and other traditional heterosexual interactions. (5) Competition (9)—(this subscale is a bridge between the Personal Growth and Intellectual Growth areas). The degree to which a wide variety of activities such as dating and grades are cast into a competitive framework. Growth: the emphasis placed on academic and intellectual activities related to cognitive development of residents.  Intellectual  (5) Competition—as above. (6) Academic Achievement (9)—extent to which strictly classroom accomplishments and concerns are prominent in the house. (7| Intellectuality (91—emphasis on cultural, artistic, and other scholarly intellectual activities in the house, as distinguished from strictly classroom achievement. ' , Change and Maintenance: the degree of stability versus the possibility for change.of the house environment from a system perspective.  System  (8) Order and Organization (10)—amount of formal structure or organization (e.g., rules, schedules, and following established procedures) in the house; neatness. , (9) Innovation (10)—organizational and individual spontaneity of behaviors and ideas; number and variety of activities; new activities. (10) Student Influence (10)—extent to which student residents (not staff or administration) perceive they control the running of the house; formulate and enforce the rules; control use of the money, selection of staff, food, roommates, and policies; and so forth. a. Number of Items in each subscale.  Source:  A r t i c l e by G e r s t & Sweetwood, V i d e R e f e r e n c e )  SAMPLE  QOESTIOHHAIRB  r- « iTower ! Floor <2u<*4 Date of D i s t r i b u t i o n Time & Date F i l l e d In  168  1  :  Collected On 1.  SEX  M  F." 2. AGE (Approx.) . 3. Academic Year ( c i r c l e ) 1 2 3 A 5 •. •• • •'''' .'• •' Grad. 4. Faculty (o* School) , 5. Place of b i r t h (Country) 6. Your permanent home address (sfeJX fvoyt'nce a'ci'fc/fot^ ar-l-Tl ; 7. Did you crow tip on a Farm _ , Small Town ' , Small City , Large City (or adjacent suburb) (please check). .... . . 8. Please check^type of house you l i v e d l n during childhood. Single family, home , Town House Apartr.ent , Duplex High Rise Apt. , Mobile iiome , Cottage .. . 9 . Did you have your own room as a.child? Yes. No. 10(a)Hhere did you'live j u s t before moving to Gane Residence: On Campus , Area ; Off Campus _••, 62~nft. * (b) I f Off Campus, had you been l i v i n g with: Parents ' , Relatives , Friends , Alone ? 11. How long have you been l i v i n g i n Gage. Residence . Months Years? 12(eJ Would you l i k e to l i v e i n this residence next year? Yes, Ho, Hot Sure. (fe) I f "yes", would you l i k e to l i v e In the same tower , 3ane floor , same quad. i : , sace room ? 13. Do you l i k e l i v i n g i n Gage residencefcore'thah the place you l a s t l i v e d ln? Yes, llo, Hot sure. 14. Can you think of any advantages your previous residence had which you miss here? ;  :  15. Please check i f you rent,or own a car , motor bike , bike , TV , Stereo system , telephone i n your room - > •' 16. Degree to which you have to depend on public transport:• Always , Frequently , Rarely , Kever ' 17. In selecting your present housing, how important were each of these following considerations: 4 3 5> 1 O C r i t i c a l Very L i t t l e Hot . . Import-. Import- Import-.._lEport-_ Appli.. ance ant ant ance able -" a. Co-ed floor l i v i n g b. High-rise apartment l i v i n g \ _ c. Proximity to University/Library • d. Being close to action _• ______ e. Unconventional l i f e style " " ; , .. f. Condition of residence •• ______ g. . Rent or charges • • '•' "•_ "•' h. Extent of furnishing "__ __• "• '•" 1. Layout-'of residence __" ______' • • ' J . Amenities (self-cooking,etc.) : • " • •• ______ . • k. Privacy . . __ _ 1. Restrictions on^age • m. Self-chosen room o t e s n. Freedota of some use. and activities O. Enjoyable natural setting p. Others ( i f any) :  |  :  l?  : V  18. How would you c l a s s i f y : ( c i r c l e ) ( l means personal space or private territory; ) (2 means semi-public spacej 3_ means public space.) a. Your own room 1 2 .3 b. Quad'Com—on Room . ' • 1 • 2' .3 c. Washrooms' '. ,' 1 2 3 d. Floor space .1'}.• X 3 .. . •• 19. libw" much time (hours) per week on an ^ f j ] : ^ ^2tk7,°y spend i n ( i ) studies inside your room , (jj) average daily time-'l!nsJ2e y6ur room • '•- ,(iii)average daily time i n kitchen/lounge ,(iv) average daily t i r e outside your quadrant but within • residence , (v) average daily time outside your residence ? 1  g  [summoXlon ej i i ,  i(J iii.V sWouU n»f  «xe«tl <24  W J  continued  - 2 20. i  V. Kow would you rate the overall architectural(designed)environnent of your r e s i 169. dence on a seven point scale on the following aspects: [e.g. l-Extreiaely cheerful; 2-quite cheerful; 3 - l i t t l e cheerful; 4-neutral, not sure, or not a p p l i cable; 5 - l i t t l e depressing; 6-quite depressinp; 7-extremely depressing].  i . CHEERFUL. •. - i i . Ui!IQU£ i i i . EEIJ^tDD/PEACEFI^ ' i v . TjiliFOkM/IiOMOGENEOUS V. DYNAtECC v i . - IKIIFYIMG ... W i i . UnRESTRICTIVE V i i i . BEAUTIFUL i x . SIMPLE '• x. SPACIOUS x i . CLARITY x i i . COiTVEIIEUT • X i i i , SAFE x i v . ORDERED xv. FRIENDLY x v i . •T'ABM / IliTIl'ATE . x v i i ; . SATISFYING  DEPRESSING COlttSOW TENSE/DISRUPTIVE DIVERSE STATIC  1  : X  21.  SEPARATING LIMITIIIC,, UGLY. ..'COMPLEX .,. 'CRAMPED' . AbOJlGUITY INCOHVEKIENt DANGEROUS DISORDERED UNFRIENDLY COLD / DISTANT : y FRUSTRATING  Please check how' many times i n this term you have used or v i s i t e d the Gage residence public areas: I I  B  ra g*  •rl  a  O  to  a  n) r - l  U *H  o -u o o  U  3  3| ^ . i  I . *3  q  N M KJ 19 r ,  p. &  4-1 •ri <U  O  «  a •«-!  u  a a  <D  c o  to O a). - H a )  6  c  > -a t o  to |  u o U T l> I H« vul CO  0)  •H "4-1  K)  I CO j  o o  )-j 1 J J CJ o ' H i (3 p, (-1 !  HI HI 1)  I  a) Tower Lounge on main floor b) Seminar Rooms (at Common blocks) c) Lounges or Conversation Pit  o <u  o.  rl  01  X.  •'I  22(5)How many (out of five) current quad-mates did you mutually choose Are most o| your friends l i v i n g inside this building_ _or outside this building (a) How many of your best friends are men women ,(d) How many of five. others sharing your quad are: casually acquainted f a i r l y good friends very good friends (fi) now nany of 16 others i n other quads on your f l o o r are: - unfamiliar , casually acquainted , f a i r l y familiar •.- •. good , very cood friends ? friends When you have a f l o o r party, are mostiof your guests from Gage or froc outside? ge , Outside , 23.  (a) -Do you usually lock the door to your bedroom? Yes Uo (b) Is tile door to your quadrant generally locked? Yes , Ho (c) nas there ever been any theft, intrusion or .physical violence committed on : ,. . your floor to your knowledge? "Yes,' "., E o j ' you f e e l that security measures need to be intensified? Yes , Ko  (£)tio  24(«> If you noticed a stranger wandering through you.qiexC- lounge, would you ignore^, hin/her , .lclp hin/her^ , report broken window i n your tower, (but not, l n your quae), would you ignore or report_ . -  ... .., ..  ;  ....  \  clinate, .  25. Judging from a l l the available ' f a c i l i t i e s , arcnitectural-enyirorJE^rit, s o c i a l ^ l l f e • style and the rent paid, you ard well s a t i s f i e d l i v i n g i n residence. True , ' -False , iiot Sure . ' '' ' '' .'' : .... ... "". ..' (  T  !j  f  : :  :  v  !  THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR COOPEPATIOII  Following are a number of statements about,Gage residence. I t w i l l take only between 5 and 10 minutes to conplete. Please answer every statetaent; do not leave any blank. Please use a p e n c i l for your responses and erase completely any changed responses. Please decide for each item whether the statement l a mostly True or mostly False ( c i r c l e T or F) f o r your house. _. •  1. 2. 3. 4.  5.  6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 25. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.  • •  •  .  I  I  I  -  . . i  ,  i  .  .  i  1• People here are concerned with helping and supporting one another. The s t a f f here decide whether and when the residents can have v i s i t o r s of the opposite sex i n their rooms. 2 Mew approaches to things are often t r i e d here. 3 People around here talk a l o t about p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l Issues. 4 Innovation ± 8 not considered inportant here. 5 There Is a good deal of concern about i n t e l l e c t u a l awareness In t h i s house. " 6 People don't try to impress each other here. 7 People around here hardly ever seen to be studying. 8 The StudentLlalaon Conaaittee function In a soiaewhat haphazard manner. 9 'There Is a feeling of unity and cohesion here. " 10 11 Around here people tend to hide t h e i r feelings from one another. The jobs of the Student Liaison Committee are not clearly defined. 12 In this residence dating i s not important. 13 Trying to understand the feelings of others i s considered Important by most people i n this house. 14 The s t a f f here have the l a s t say about student d i s c i p l i n e . 15 16 Very few things around here arouse much «xcitement or interest. People here tend to check on whether their behavior i s acceptable 17 to others i n the house. 18 Some people here spend a l o t of tine preparing f o r dates. People here pretty much act and think freely without too much 19 regard f o r s o c i a l opinion. 20 Around here discussions frequently turn into verbal duels. 21 The students formulate almost a l l the rules here. • Around here people are not interested In up-holding s o c i a l . 22 conventions. Around here studies are secondary to roost a c t i v i t i e s . 23 24 Behaving correctly i n public i s pretty unimportant i n this house. People here consider other t y p e 3 of s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s to be score 25 important than dating. In this residence there i s a strong feeling of belongingness. 26 People here work hard to get top grades. 27 People here very rarely discuss i n t e l l e c t u a l matters. 28 Dating i s a recurring topic of conversation around here. 29 Residence finances are handled exclusively by students here. 30 31 Residence procedures here are well established.: 32 Most people here have a strong sense of l o y a l t y toward the house. In this residence people tend not to compete with each other. 33 In this residence people often do unusual things. 34 People around here are always trying to win an argument. 35 36 Most people here consider studies as very inportant i n college. People here try to make others f e e l secure. 37 There i s not much appreciation here f o r c l a s s i c a l music, a r t , 38 l i t e r a t u r e , etc. 39 Doing things In a different way i s valued around here. 40 Residence a c t i v i t i e s are pretty carefully planned here.  SOURCE:  (Fona-S), university Residence Environment Scale (URES) Manual by R. Ii. Moos and H. S. Gerat, Social Ecological Laboratory,at Stanford University, U.S.A., (July, 1973).  I HO  p  F  x  F F  I X  F  X X X  F F  X  F  T X X  F F  F  T  F F  F  X X T  F  X X  F F  F  I •F F X X F •  ..  X '"' F F I I F F X X F F X X F F X F X X ' '" F X F X F F X F X F X X F I X X  F  F F  

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