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Perception of cognitive distance : effects of physical environment on the perception Murata, Kazuyjuki 1975

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PERCEPTION OF COGNITIVE DISTANCE e f fec t s of physical environment on the perception by KAZUYUKI MURATA B.Arch. , Waseda Un i ve r s i t y , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE in the School o f A rch i tec tu re We accept th is thes i s as conforming to the required standard The Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia May, 1975 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s repre s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Kazuyuki Murata A rch i tec tu re Department of __________________ The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date May 1, 1975 i i ABSTRACT The lack o f knowledge concerning the re l a t i onsh ip s between the physical environment and people ' s behavior was discussed in r e l a t i o n to the inadequacy o f today 's a r ch i t ec tu ra l programming. Poss ib le app l i ca t ions o f man-environment studies w.ere suggested. Nature o f the environmental information was analyzed, and a term ' cogn i t i ve d i s tance ' was def ined. Essent ia l var iab les that a f f e c t the construct ion of the mental map and the perception o f d i s tance were derived pr imar i l y from previous s tud ies . The c i t y o f Vancouver was analyzed u t i l i z i n g methods o r i g ina ted by K. Lynch, and a survejr was conducted in the c i t y to examine re l a t i ons between the various var iab les and the perception o f d i s tance. The type of the distance examined was 'inward(toward downtown) 1, ' e g o - c e n t r i c ' , and urban scale(4 mile) ' cogn i t i ve d i s t a n c e ' . Resul ts : Fol lowing four var iab les seemed to have e f fec t s on the perception of d i s tance; sex, age, mode of t r an spor ta t i on , and the score on 'Th ing -o r ien ta t ion s c a l e ' . Male tended to be more accurate in t h e i r est imations (or to estimate the p a r t i c u l a r d istance of 4 mile as being shifter) than female Ss. Ss aged over 20, or car d r i v e r s , or Ss with higher T-scores were a lso more accurate than younger Ss, or bus r i de r s or car passengers, or Ss with lower T - scores , r e spec t i ve l y . Concerning the poss ib le e f f ec t s on perception by physical v a r i ab le s , our re su l t s were unclear mainly due to the d i f f e r i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Ss at the four l oca t i ons . Impl icat ions o f r e su l t s were d iscussed. CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT ' v i i i P A R T I 1-0 INTRODUCTION 1 1-1 problems in a r ch i t ec tu ra l programming 1 1-2 app l i c a t i on o f studies to environmental 4 design 2-0 PERCEPTION OF DISTANCE 6 2-1 d i r e c t i o n and d i s tance 6 2-2 environmental information: s ign & symbol 7 2- 3 ' v i sua l 1 and ' cogn i t i ve d i s tance ' 8 3- 0 COGNITIVE DISTANCE 11 3-1 var iab les and const ruct ion of the cogn i t i ve map 11 3-2 var iab les and perception of d i s tance 26 i v P A R T II 4-0 METHOD OF STUDY 34 4-1 a n a l y i i s o f Vancouver 34 4- 2 design of survey 37 5- 0 DATA 44 5-1 data c o l l e c t i o n 44 5-2 desc r ip t i on of sampled locat ions 46 5- 3 est imat ion of d i s tance 53 6- 0 ANALYSIS 63 6- 1 fur ther ana lys i s on physical v a r i ab le 79 7- 0 CONCLUSION 90 7-1 impl icat ions of re su l t s 91 BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX VITA 94 98 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 l oca t i on vs sex 47 Table 2 l oca t i on vs mean age 48 Table 2b age category vs assigned values 48 Table 3 l oca t i on vs education 49 Table 4 l oca t ion vs 'mean' educational 49 leve l Table 4b education category vs assigned 49 values on vs average T-P score 50 on vs length o f time l i v e d 51 Vancouver on vs length of time l i v e d 51 present address on vs mode of t ranspor ta t ion 52 on vs mean milage t r a v e l l e d 52 Table 5 l o ca t Table 6 l o ca t in Table 7 l oca t at Table 8 locat Table 9 locat Table 10 locat per day on vs mean time t r a v e l l e d 52 per day Table 11 l oca t i on vs estimated d i s tance 54, tab le 12 estimated d i s tance vs mode of 55 t ransportat ion Table 13 estimated d i s tance vs frequency 56 of v i s i t Table 14 estimated d istance vs years l i v e d 57 in Vancouver Table 15 estimated d i s tance vs years l i v e d 57 at the present address Table 16 estimated i i s t a n c e vs d i s tance 58 t r a v e l l e d a day Table 17 estimated d istance vs time 58 t r a v e l l e d a day Table 18 estimated d istance vs f a m i l i a r i t y 59 Table 19 estimated d i s tance vs .sex 60 Table 20 estimated d i s tance vs age 60 Table 21 estimated d i s tance vs education 61 Table 22 estimated d i s tance vs o r i en ta t i on 61 s k i l l Table 23 estimated d i s tance vs T-P typology 62 v i Table 24 mode of t ransportat ion vs time/ 65 d i s tance t r ave l l ed per day Table 25 mode of t ranspor ta t ion vs T- and 66 P-score Table 26 age vs estimated d istance 67 Table 26b age vs frequency of v i s i t 67 Table 27 age vs time l i v e e in Vancouver/ 67 at Ss ' addresses Table 28 age vs t ime/dis tance t r a v e l l e d 68 per day Table 29 age vs T- and P-score 68 Table 30 age vs T-P typology 68 Table 31 age vs mode of t ransportat ion 69 Table 32 sex vs mode of t ranspor ta t ion 70 Table 33 sex vs t ime/distance t r a v e l l e d 71 per day Table 34 T-score vs estimated d i s tance 72 Table 35 P-score vs estimated d istance 72 Table 36 sex vs T-score 73 Table 37 sex vs T-P typology 73 Table 38 l oca t i on vs sex, age, T - s co re , 77 and mode f f t ransportat ion Table 39 d e f i n i t i o n of group 81 Table 40 l oca t i on vs est imation 82 Table 41 ' rank ' vs l o ca t i on 84 Table 42 ' rank ' vs l o ca t i on 85 Table 43 d e f i n i t i o n of group 85 Table 44 l oca t i on vs est imation 86 Table 45 ' rank ' vs l o ca t i on 88 LIST OF FIGURES, MAPS Figure 1 mode of t ranspor ta t ion and 66 . est imation of d i s tance Figure 2,3,4 mode of t r anspor ta t i on , age, 69,70 and est imation of d i s tance Figure 5 sex and mode of t ranspor ta t ion 71 Figure 6,7,8 sex, mode of t r anspor ta t i on , and 71,12 est imation o f d i s tance Figure 9 sex, age, mode of t r an spor ta t i on , 72 and est imation of d i s tance Figure 10 Th ing - , Person-or ienta i ion s ca le , 73 and est imation of d i s tance Figure 11 sex, Th ing -or ienta t ion s ca le , and 74 est imation of d i s tance Figure 12 sex, mode of t r an spor ta t i on , Thing-74 or ienaat ion scales and est ima-t ion of d i s tance Figure 13 sex, age, mode of t ranspor ta t ion , 74 Th i ng-or i enta t i on sea 1e, a nd est imation of d istance Figure 14 var iab les that seemed to have e f fe -75 cts on the perception of d is tance Figure 15 i n t e r a c t i o n - , person-var iab les , 75 and est imation of d is tance F igure 16 var iab les that seemed to have no 76 e f fec t s on the perception of d is tance Figure 17 physical va r i ab le and est imation 78 of d i s tance Map 1 Map 2 Map 3 greater Vancouver image of Vancouver problems of the c i t y 41 42 43 ACKNOWLEDGMENT We wish to express our apprec ia t ion to Professor Wolfgang Gerson, Professor Br ian L i t t l e , Professor John Ga i tanak is , and others who f r e e l y gave of t h e i r time and provided valuable c r i t i c i s m and suggestions. However, they are not respons ib le fo r any errors or omissions whiqh are e n t i r e l y our own. In add i t i on we wish to thank the many ind i v idua l s who w i l l i n g l y responded to our questions and so made t h i s thes i s pos s ib le . 1 P A R T I 1-0 INTRODUCTION 1-]- Problems in a r c h i t e c t u r a l programming Unt i l r e c e n t l y , a r ch i t ec tu ra l design have been based p r imar i l y upon the ind iv idua l a r c h i t e c t ' s observations and experience. In some cases, however, t h i s now appears to be changing and recent trends ind ica te that a more studied approach in the form o f the a r ch i tec tu ra l program (b r i e f ) i s becoming increas ing ly common, However, the major i ty o f these a r ch i tec tu ra l programs have remained at a rather rudimentary l e v e l . They tend to funct ion in many ways as a kind o f 'shopping l i s t ' for a r ch i tec t s s ince they usua l ly contain r e l a t i v e l y concrete s p e c i f i c a t i o n s which the a r c h i t e c t then t rans l a tes into a phys ica l form. In add i t i on to these types o f programs, however, recent l y more comprehensive programs have begun to emerge and are being u t i l i z e d p a r t i c u l a r l y in cases when a s ing le f a c i l i t y must serve a complex set o f func t ion . Such factors as the goals o f the c l i e n t or i n s t i t u t i o n , the immediate funct ion o f the proposed f a c i l i t y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the f a c i l i t y to i t s surrounding environment, and suggested a l t e rna t i ve s fo r a t t a in ing the des i red object ives are included in th i s l a t t e r type of program. The content of these programs i s genera l ly presented in a rather non-quant i tat ive way and "the i n te rp re ta t i on is l e f t to the ind iv idua l a r c h i t e c t . In some respects th i s new type of program appears to be super ior 2 to the o lder type. This i s true p a r t i c u l a r l y in terms of i t s comprehensiveness for the information i t provides is e s p e c i a l l y u se fu l l in the design of bu i ld ings which must s a f i s f y unconventional purposes or a d d i t i o n a l , new ones. However, even i f a comprehensive program is prepared by a profess iona l program wr i t i ng f r i m , such as TEAG in Vancouver, i t may receive a re luc tant response from the a r c h i t e c t . While the a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i rm which can u t i l i z e th i s material may be bet ter equipped to create a design that w i l l s a t i s f y the c l i e n t ' s needs, a s t a f f equipped with a p r ac t i c a l knowledge of the soc io -psycho lo -g ica l and behavioral sc iences may be required as an intermediary in the i n te rp re ta t i on o f the program. Moreover, despi te the f ac t that these programs are voluminous and may be as much as 500 pages long, the abstract nature o f the contents and the non-quant i tat ive presentat ion may f a i l to provide the a r c h i t e c t with information that is d i r e c t l y re levant and u se fu l . Nevertheless , i f we look b r i e f l y at some of the re su l t s of the o lder method, the s i gn i f i c ance of a comprehensive program i s undeniable. Forms o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r ch i tec tu re such as ho te l s , dormi tor ies , apartments, housing fo r the aged have of ten been considered to be the same type o f b u i l d i n g . Thus, t h e i r f l o o r plans and design a re , im many cases, almost i d e n t i c a l . In f a c t , many co l lege dorms were designed by a r ch i t e c t s whose s p e c i a l i t y was hotel-apartment bu i l d i ng s , and the r e s u l t i n g designs c l o s e l y resemble those of hotels or apartments. One o f the main purposes of r e s i d e n t i a l a r ch i tec tu re i s to provide a place to stay. Though this i s true o f a l l types o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r c h i t e c t u r e , there are many important requirements unique to each of these types. Conscious programmers can point out prev ious ly ignored or unobserved purposes o f the bu i l d ing in some cases. Housing f o r the aged 3 ought to be d i f f e r e n t from a h o t e l . It should provide not merely a place to stay whi le wait ing to d i e , but should perhaps f o s te r int imate re l a t i on sh ip s among the res idents or encourage some a c t i v i t i e s from which they can der ive a f e e l i n g of meaning and purpose in t h e i r existence and even some sense of acccmplishment. These 'new' r e q u i r e -ments can no longer be overlooked. Undoubtedly, a c a r e f u l l y prepared 'comprehensive program' would contr ibute to the improvement of environmental design. The major problem l i e s in the gap between the conceptual , abs t ract statements o f ob jec t i ve and requirements that the programs conta in , and immediate useful fac t s which designers can u t i l i z e in r e a l i z i n g the stated object ives and requirements. By useful f a c t s , I r e f e r not to the type o f f ac t s to be found in the shopping l i s t , but to the type of information which is a useful a i d in helping to determing c r i t i c a l aspects o f the physical p lan , Undeniably, some aspects o f the object ives or requirements can only be expressed in a ra ther ambiguous fash ion, but i t has been found that thorough and systematic research and observations can produce much r e l i a b l e and un i ve r sa l l y app l i cab le data with regard to the r e l a t i o n between people and the physical environment. The amount and qua l i t y o f th i s data at the present date is by no means s u f f i c i e n t but i t is cons iderably greater than in the past when the a r c h i t e c t had only h is empir ica l observations and i n t u i t i o n to r e l y upon in determining a phys ica l des ign. Th;is study represents an attempt to provide data regarding the manner in which people perceive the i r environment and the e f f e c t o f environment on t h e i r behavior. I t i s hoped that th i s accumulation of data w i l l eventual ly f i l l part o f the gap that ex i s t s between today's a r ch i tec tua l program and the design process. 4 1-2 App l i c a t i on of studies to environmental design A designer sometimes encounters seemingly cont rad ic tory but re l a ted requirements in designing fo r d i f f e r e n t users o f a f a c i l i t y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between two departments wi th in a s ing le bu i l d ing is one example of t h i s . To ensure the independence and interna l cohesion of each department, the two departments should be phys i ca l l y separate but they may a lso need to be mutually acces s i b le . Although the designer may wish to locate the departments in d i f f e r e n t sect ions of the bu i l d ing with some d is tance between them, he may not have s u f f i c i e n t knowledge o f the degree of d istance necessary for t h i s purpose. He may know from his experience and observations that the magnitude of separat ional e f f e c t w i l l be much greater i f they are located at two d i f f e r e n t f l o o r l e ve l s than i f they are located on the same f l o o r , even i f the actual d i s tance - between the two remains equal . He may a l so be aware that such factors as v i s i b i l i t y from one department to another, and the number of corners one must turn on the way between them as opposed to a s t ra i gh t co r r i do r w i l l a f f e c t the leve l of communication between the two department. From previous studies i t appears that there is a d e f i n i t e point of d i s tance beyond which the amount of spontaneous interpersonal communication is r a d i c a l l y reduced. For example, Van der Ryn's study of a co l lege dormitory demonstrates that students form f r iendsh ips or re l a t i on sh ip s only with the students next door to them, across a ha l l or on each s ide of the student ' s own room.l Communication between s t u -- dents who l i v e two or three rooms away i s v i r t u a l l y non-ex i s tent . 1. Van der Ryn and S i l v e r s t e i n , Dorms at Berkeley, N.Y., Educational F a c i l i t i e s Laborator ies , 1967 5 Thus, in some cases the c r i t i c a l d i s tance is very minute. Users of a hospita l in C a l i f o r n i a reported that they f e l t the d is tance to be twice as great when they s tar ted t r i p from one bu i ld ing to another which was not phys i ca l l y connected as they did when the t r i p was within the same bu i ld ing (provided the actual distances were the same).1 A fu r ther accumulation o f data such as th i s would provide designers with re levent , useful reference mater i a l . An understanding of the way in which people perceive d is tance is obtainable and app l i cab le a lso with regard to a l a r ge - s ca le urban environment. In the s e l e c t i o n of a l ocat ion fo r a Shopping cen t re , a study of the movement patterns of potent ia l users, zoning, and s i t e a c q u i s i t i o n are a lready considered to be e s s e n t i a l . In add i t i on to th i s type of reaearch, in order to ensure the se lec t i on of a successful l o c a t i o n , an examination of whether the users perceive the l oca t i on to be near or fa r would a l so be h e l p f u l . Undesirable f a c i l i t i e s such as a garbage processing p lant should be- perceived by i t s users (those who produce garbage) to be as f a r away as poss ib le . However, the actual d istance to and from the plant should be short , and the plant should be e a s i l y acces s ib le from the standpoint of t ranspor ta t ion in order to keep operat ional costs low. These apparently contrad ic tory requirements can poss ib le be s a t i s f i e d i f we are equipped with a knowledge of what makes people fee l the d is tance between two points to be e i the r long or short . 1. G. Davis, "Personal Communication", c i t e d by D. S tea , e d . , Working papers in place percept ion, 1969, Worcester, Mass., Graduate School o f Geography, C lark Univ. , 1969 6 2-0 PERCEPTION OF DISTANCE 2-1 D i rec t i on and d istance With the development of an increas ing ly mobile s o c i e t y , more and more people are f ind ing themselves in completely unfami l ia r p laces. They may be t ry ing to reach a s p e c i f i c des t inat ion in order to accomplish a cer ta in task or perhaps they have merely set out to enjoy the experience o f being in a d i f f e r e n t environment. Nevertheless in order to achieve e i t he r o f the above object ives s u c c e s s f u l l y , people in an unfami l iar se t t ing need cer ta in types of informat ion. At l ea s t two bas ic kinds of independent information are neccessary: d i r ec t i on (o r i en ta t i on ) and d i s tance. Except f o r t r i p s wi th in a m u l t i -s to r ied bu i l d i n g , d i r ec t i ona l information i s almost always two-dimensional; e . g . , ' to the e a s t ' , ' t o your r i g h t ' . Information as to d is tance can be given by in common units such as a yard or a m i l e , and temporal units can be subs t i tu ted ; e . g . , 'a ten minutes walk ' . It i s also common to use other more f a m i l i a r terms such as the number o f b locks. This information on d i r e c t i o n and distance represents the minimum of information to be used in nav igat ion, and i s usua l ly not only neccessary but is genera l ly s u f f i c i e n t f o r reaching the des i red des t inat ion as w e l l . The lack of one or both makes i t immpossible to reach the de s t i na t i on , and the t r a v e l l e r may begin to su f fe r from anxiety and s t re s s . Although, " . . . t h e r e is some value in m y s t i f i c a t i o n , l a b y r i n t h , or surpr i se in the environment. . . . This i s however, only under two cond i t ions . F i r s t , there must be no danger of lo s ing bas ic form or o r i e n t a t i o n , o f never coming out. The surpr i se must occur in an o v e r - a l l framework; the confusions must be small regions in a v i s i b l e whole. Furthermore, the l abyr in th or mystery 7 must in i t s e l f have some form that can be explored and in time be apprehended. Complete chaos without h int o f connection i s never p l e a s u r a b l e . 1 2-2 Environmental informat ion: sign and symbol There are a host o f c lues which enable us to understand our environment and a s s i s t us in navigat ing through i t . These clues may be c l a s s i f i e d into two categor ies : ' s i gn in format ion ' and 'symbol in format ion*. The names o f s t r e e t s , signs at bus stops or subway s t a t i o n s , the large questionmark that ind icates a source of in format ion, and the p ic tures o f man or woman ind i ca t ing restrooms are examples of ' s i gn i n f o r -mat ion ' . These are quite common and are essent ia l in a modern urban environment in p a r t i c u l a r . This information is heavi ly based upon language, thus, sign information r e l i e s exc lu s i ve l y upon v i sua l and semantic input , incontrast to 'symbol in format ion ' 'Symbol in format ion ' i s more i n e x p l i c i t and i n d i r e c t and r e l i e s upon non-visual as wel l as v isual input. Several steps leading to a large opening at the f ront o f a bu i ld ing symbol ize. ;an entrance, though modern bu i ld ings often deviate from th i s type ;of a r c h i t e c t u r a l symbol i -z a t i o n , and instead ind ica te an entrance by "sign informat ion(e.g. ,PULL). The smell of food ca r r i e s the information that one i s approaching a restaurant or bakery. A continuous flow of rock music may ind i ca te a co l lege dorm rather than an apartment bu i l d i n g . The s i l houe t te of sky-scrapers is i n d i c a t i v e of the locat ion of CBD. 1. Kevin Lynch, The images of the c i t i e s , p.6, Cambridge Mass., Technology Press, 1960 8 Lynch, in the images of c i t i e s , deals almost exc lu s i ve l y with the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and ana lys i s o f l a r ge - sca le 'symbol i n fo rmat ion ' . In th i s study we w i l l consider some of the major types of t h i s l a r ge -sca le symbol information in t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the perception of d i s tance. 2-3 ' V i s u a l - ' and ' cogn i t i ve d i s tance ' It i s obvious that the magnitude of d istance var ies cons iderab ly but i t i s somewhat less obvious that the manner in which we perceive d is tance a lso va r i e s . Distances which are e i t he r extremely la rge or extremely small are conceptua l , and we cannot experience them d i r e c t l y through O U P senses. In o^her words, we can not perceive them. However, we w i l l cons ider here only a rch i tec tu ra l and urban-scale d i s tances , which we fee l can be perceived. In terms of d is tance and the way in which we perceive i t , i t appears that there are two fundamental types: ' v i s u a l ' and ' c o g n i t i v e ' ( sequent ia l ) d i s tance. The magnitude o f both these types o f d is tance can vary, but the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based not on the degree of d is tance tyut on the process by which we perceive i t . For the purposes o f our study we w i l l r e f e r to the type o f d is tance in which the l oca t i on of two objects and the d is tance between them can be seen simultaneously as ' v i sua l d i s t a n c e ' . The distance between a book and a telephone on a desk, f o r example, i s c l a s s i f i e d as ' v i aua l d i s t a n c e ' * The d i s tance between the s t a r t i n g and f i n i s h i n g points o f a maze, however, i s an example o f what we w i l l be r e f e r to as ' cogn i t i ve d i s t a n c e ' . Because the way through a maze i s not d i r e c t , the s t a r t i n g and f i n i s h i n g points cannot be seen s imultaneously, and immediate v i sua l input alone i s 1. For studies on ' v i sua l d i s t a n c e ' , see b ib l iography. 9 not adequate fo r perce iv ing the distance between the two po ints . In progress ing through a maze one must r e l y upon a l i n e a r succession of perceived images and some amount of time i s required before the accumulated perception re su l t s in the a q u i s i t i o n of neccessary informat ion. The perception of ' v i s u a l d i s tance ' i s made by d i r e c t and immediate v i sua l contact with the world, whereas ' cogn i t i ve d i s tance ' requires a more extensive mental process and e n t a i l s cogn i t i ve a c t i v i t y . R. Hart, in his d e f i n i t i o n o f c o g n i t i o n , includes " a l l modes of knowing, i . e . , pe rce i v ing , t h ink ing , imagining, reasoning, judging, and remember ing. . . " 1 By th i s d e f i n i t i o n , the experience o f perce iv ing i s considered to be one means of generating the ' cogn i t i ve s t ruc tu re ' ? Werner fu r ther states that Cogni t ive s t ructure ava i l abe l to the organism inf luences percept ional s e l e c t i v i t y which leads to a reconstruct ion of the world through se lected f i e l d s of a t t e n t i o n . 3 The above statement suggests that perception i s not only a product o f the cogn i t ive s t ructure but i s a l so a f a c to r in generating the s t ruc ture . Thus, the existence o f a cogn i t i ve map is a necessary condi t ion f o r the perception o f ' c ogn i t i ve d i s t a n c e ' . A f t e r one has gone through a p a r t i c u l a r maze, he w i l l be ab le to estimate the d i s tance he has covered by r e f e r r i n g to the map he has created mental ly. Presumably, the perception of ' cogn i t i ve d i s tance ' w i l l vary to a greater extent than that o f ' v i sua l d i s tance ' which derives from the rather simple mechanism of seeing. Undoubtedly, the perception of d is tance w i l l r e f l e c t ind iv idua l d i f f e r e n c e s , such as per sona l i t y , degree of i n te rac t i on with the environment, and each ind iv idua l 's a b i l i t y to form a cogn i t i ve s t ruc ture . Since these var iab les are unique to each i n d i v i d u a l , i t i s assumed that each ind iv idua l constructs and maintains a d i f f e r e n t cogn i t i ve map. These ind iv idua l d i f fe rences are examples of the types 10 o f var iab les which may a f f e c t the perception of ' cogn i t i ve d i s tance ' and the construct ion of a cogn i t i ve map. Although the general term ' cogn i t i ve d i s tance ' includes distances of varying degrees of magnitude, here we w i l l examine those var iab les which seem to be re levant to the perception of cogn i t i ve d istance in a large sca le urban environment. 1. Roger Hart and Garry Moore, The development o f spat ia l cogn i t ion :  A review, Place perception research repor t s , Report #7, C lark Un iv . , Mass., 1971, p.7-4 2. The terms, mental map, images, cogn i t ive map, spa t i a l cogn i t i on , conceptual map or space, and spat ia l representat ion a l l r e f e r to what we have descr ibed as cogn i t i ve s t ruc ture . 3.Werner, c i t e d by Hart, p.7-4 11 3-0 COGNITIVE DISTANCE 3-1 Var iables a f f e c t i n g the construct ion of the cogn i t i ve map 3-1-1 Interact ion var iab les KINESTHETIC EXPERIENCE Ordinary ind iv idua l s appear to be equipped innate ly with a v isual sense o f spat ia l depth, but must go through a learn ing process o f ac t i ve i n te rac t i on with t h e i r physical surroundings in order to develop a normal perception o f space and d i s tance. It i s known that people who are born b l i nd and gain s ight cons iderably l a t e r must make a much greater e f f o r t to acquire th i s normal percept ion . * As he moves through space, man depends on the messages received from his body to s t a b i l i z e his v i sual wor ld. Without such body feed-back, a great many people lose contact with r e a l i t y and ha l l uc ina te . The importance of being able to integrate v isual and k ines thet i c experience has been demonstrated by two psycho log i s t s , Held and Heim, when they ca r r i ed k i t tens through a maze along the same track on which other k i t tens were allowed to walk. The k i t tens that were ca r r i ed f a i l e d to develop 'normal ' v i sua l spat ia l c a p a c i t i e s . 2 This experiment demonstrates the importance of t ac t i l e -moto r sensory experience in the d e v e l o p m e n t s spa t i a l perception in ca t s , but in add i t ion i t appears that t h i s typel.of experience i s es sent ia l in the formation of a cogn i i i ve s t ructure in human adults as w e l l . In an experiment in which a three dimensionaly d i s t o r ted room which appeared to be normal to a person viewing i t with a s ing le eye(e l iminat ing b inocular depth perception) was shown to subjects from a s t r a t e g i c a l l y determined point i t was found that the subjects acquired a mistaken image o f the space. However, a f t e r they were permitted to touch the ins ides o f the room with a s t i c k , the 1. R.L. Gregory, Eye and b ra in : the psychology o f see ing, N.Y., McGraw-Hi l l , 196F 2. E.T. H a l l , The hidden dimension, Garden C i t y , N.Y., Doubleday, 1966 p. 62 12 subjects were able to adjust and reconstruct t h e i r images of the space as a r e su l t of the t a c t i l e experience. This example, although extreme and unusual, i l l u s t r a t e s the importance of the accumulation o f t a c t i l e sensations in spat ia l cogn i t ion . The amount o f time the subject uses the s t i c k , the memory he s tores , his ind iv idua l s k i l l s in motor-sensory co rd ina t i on , and poss ib ly even the method of i n te rac t i on w i l l a l l a f f e c t his formation of a cogn i t ive s t ructure of the space in the room. MODE OF INTERACTION Walking barefoot w i l l generate the most d i r e c t and immediate sensations o f the surrounding environment, and the cogn i t i ve s t ructure of the space w i l l be formed accord ing ly . The r ichness o f de ta i l may also be an element in the perception and cogni t ion o f space. T r a v e l l i n g in a car reduces various kinds of sensat ions. R. Hal l has made the fo l lowing observations about automobile t rave l on American highways: The automobile not only sea ls i t s occupants in a metal and glass cocoon, cu t t i ng them o f f from the outs ide world, but i t has a way of a c t u a l l y decreasing the sense of movement through space. Loss o f the sense of movement comes not only from in su l a t i on from road surfaces and noise but i s v isual as w e l l . The d r i ve r on the freeway moves in a stream of t r a f f i c whi le v isual de ta i l at c l o se distances i s b lurred by speed. . . . i n . modern American cars the k ines the t i c sense of space is absent. . . . So f t spr ings , so f t cushions, so f t t i r e s , power s tee r i ng , and monotonously smooth pavements create an unreal experience o f the earth.1 Hall mentions only the reduction of sensat ion, but is i s also true that auto t r a v e l l i n g adds new dimensions to environmental percept ion and cogn i t ion . Lynch pointed out that high-speed auto t rave l "improves the c l a r i t y o f s lope, curves, and i n te rpene t ra t i on . . . ( l ead s to the)experience of motor para l lex and perspect ive . . . (enab les on to)maintain the consistency 1. H a l l , p.165 13 of direction or direction change...(and) makes visible the distance interval"1. The most unnatural experience of moving through space would be by a modern elevator. Usually no visual cues are available, the slight sounds indicating the speed with which the cage is moving are erased by continuous back ground music, and the kinesthetic sensation of acceleration are intentionally controlled and minimized as much as possible. The direction, location and speed of the cage can be determined only by the indicator. Subway riders experience a similar situation, although to a lesser degree. There is virtually no visual input besides the occasional scenes at stations. The sensation of a continuously moving monotonous concrete wall does not provide enough information for an estimation of spped. The unvarying noise level indicates only whether the car is moving or stopped. The subway is a rare mode of transportation on which riders experience an almost pure kinesthetic sensation of movement; i .e . , acceleration and deceleration of speed and change of direction. It would be interesting to see how their mental map compare with those of non-subway users. There are a number of studies illustrating the effects of the mode of transportation upon the formation of a cognitive structure. By asking the 'directions' to a well-know place, Bullock discovered that the estimation of distance and the description of the wjiys vary considerably depending upon the subjects' means of travel. 2 Appleyard made a similar observation with regard to bus riders and car drivers in a South American c i t y . 3 Lynch, in an investigation 1. Lynch, p.107 2. Roger Bullock, "Direction-giving and environmental perception", D. Stea» ed., Working papers in place perception, 1969, Worcester, Mass., Graduate School of Geography, Clark Univ., 1969 3. See section 3-2-1. 14 of the elements o f c i t i e s , u t i l i z e d both automobile and foot t r a v e l . He noted that in the f i e l d ana lys i s done on foot " ; . . a tendency to neglect minor elements important f o r automobile c i r c u l a t i o n . . . " 1 developed. FAMILIARITY Long exposure to an environment usua l ly re su l t s in a more complete, mature cogn i t i ve map of that environment. Greater i n te rac t i on with the environment leads not only to a more complete map but a l so to a map o f greater q u a l i t y . Lynch found that: Importance (of paths) var ied according to the degree o f f a m i l i a r i t y with the c i t y . People with l ea s t knowledge o f Boston tend to think o f the c i t y in terms of topography, large reg ions, genera l ized c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and broad d i r e c t i o n a l r e l a t i on sh ip s . Subjects who knew the c i t y bet ter had usua l ly mastered part of the path s t ruc tu re ; these people thought more in terms o f s p e c i f i c paths and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 2 Observers, as t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y increases , seem to depend less and less gross phys ica l con t i nu i t i e s to organize the whole, and to de l i gh t more and more in contrast and uniqueness which v i v i f y the scene.3 Distant landmarks, prominent points v i s i b l e from many po s i t i on s , were often well known, but only people unfami l ia with Boston seemed to use them to any great extent in organiz ing the c i t y and se lec t ing routes f o r t r i p s . 4 SCALE The mode of t rave l d i f f e r e n t i a t e s the modes o f i n te r ac t i on with the environment, which we mentioned prev ious ly . There is a another dimension, however, which i s rather c l o se l y re la ted to the mode o f t r a v e l : s ca le . Wshen a subject observes a c i t y from a t a l l b u i l d i n g , 1. Lynch, p.144 2 . Ib id . , p.49 3 . Ib id . , p.105 4 . I b i d . , p.81 15 from an a i r p l ane , or from any d i s t a n t ; p o i n t ( e . g . , a nearby mountain or a sh ip ) , he may perceive the whole c i t y as a s ing le en t i t y and w i l l not ice only the most conspicuous features such as major topography, l a rge , t a l l bu i l d i ng s , the predominant co lo r of the c i t y , and the general character of areas in the c i t y . On the other hand, a subject on a s t ree t in the midst o f the c i t y , surrounded by t a l l bu i l d ing s , cannot poss ib ly perceive a l l of the above-mentioned c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the c i t y . But by looking down on the c i t y from the top of a mountain, one cannot experience a stone-paved sidewalk or see the de ta i l in a wrough-iron door of a bu i l d i n g . This i n a b i l i t y to recognize cer ta in objects at d i f f e r e n t l eve l s o f sca le hampers one's perception of the con t i nu i t y o f the environment and consequently, a f f ec t s one's perception o f the c i t y . . . . i t imposes an extra burden of organ izat ion on the observer, e s p e c i a l l y , i f there i s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n between l e v e l s ( o f s c a l e ) . If a t a l l bu i ld ing i s unmistakable in the c i t y -w ide panorama yet unrecognizable from i t s base, then a chance has been l o s t to pin together the images at two d i f f e r e n t l e ve l s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . ! 1. I b i d . , p.86 16 3-1-2 Physical var iab les PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT It i s rare to f i nd a purely physical environment in the surroundings of d a i l y l i f e . Human a c t i v i t i e s are often c l o s e l y associated with the i n d i v i d u a l ' s perception of the physical environment and are an integra l part of the environmental scene. S ince the survey upon which th i s study is based was desinged to examine the e f f ec t s o f the phys ica l environment on the perception o f d i s tance, i t i s necessary to c l a r i f y the term 'phys ica l environment'. Wild mountains and oceans which contain r e l a t i v e l y small number of man-made objects appear to be examples o f purely physical environments, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i f they contain no s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l or r e l i g i o u s connotations provide a commom view to most who perceive them. On the other hand, man-made physical environments are usua l ly designed and constructed to contain cer ta in human a c t i v i t i e s or to f u l f i l l some s p e c i f i c purposes. Without shoppers with shopping~bags and businessmen with b r i e f c a s e s , the commercial and f i nanc i a l d i s t r i c t s o f a c i t y may appear to be s i m i l a r phys ica l environments. The a s soc ia t ion of s p e c i f i c def inab le a c t i v i t i e s with a p a r t i c u l a r l o ca le plays a v i t a l r o l e in determining the manner in which the physical environment w i l l be perceived. In add i t ion to the purely physical and the p a r t i c u l a r i z e d man-made types of environment, another type o f environment which i s both physical and conceptual can be observed. Certa in phys ica l s t ructures or aspects o f the surrounding environment w i l l be perceived d i f f e r e n t l y by a r e s t r i c t e d number of i nd iv idua l s who share ce r ta in kinds o f knowledge about t h e i r surroundings and are aware of t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l or 17 r e l i g i o u s imp l i ca t i ons . For example, a res ident in a c l o s e l y k n i t , s tab le neighborhood may perceive the area as h is own place or t e r r i t o r y , even i f i t s phys ica l appearance does not d i f f e r from that o f other areas. In The death and l i f e of American c i t i e s , Jacobs has descr ibed some o f the ways in which shared a c t i v i t i e s and memories d i f f e r e n t i a t e the meaning o f physical environment. What i s p r ide fu l and meaningfull to people in New York i s what they have accomplished - not necesa r i l y what they have b u i l t . It i s important to look at a park preserved from a highway and say, "I helped to do t h a t " . l The park would be perceived merely a park f o r ou t s i de r s , but f o r those who fought fo r i t s preservat ion i t may symbolize the unity and community consciousness o f the res idents or a sense o f shared accomplishment. This study w i l l focus upon the f i r s t two types o f physical environment; the r e l a t i v e l y pure physical environment, the man-made environment, and t h e i r e f f e c t s on percept ion. The perception of these types of environments tends to be more common and homogeneous than that of the t h i r d type where dev iat ions due to h i s t o r i c i t y may occur. IMAGEABILITY(LEGIBILITY) We know that some c i t i e s and parts of c i t i e s are e a s i l y understood, and with only s l i g h t degree of f a m i l i a r i t y , whihout using a map or u t i l i z i n g semantic ' s i gn - i n fo rmat ion ' ex tens i ve l y , we can recognize our whereabouts, in such l o c a t i o n s , our cogn i t i ve maps of the environment w i l l be constructed qu i ck l y , c l e a r l y , and perhaps f a i r l y accurate ly . Since the existence of a good cogn i t i ve s t ructure is a necessary p re requ i s i t e fo r acqu i r ing a sense of cogn i t i ve d i s tance, we w i l l discuss 1. J . Jacobs, The death and 1 i f e of American c i t i e s , N.Y., Random House, i g 6 1 18 the kinds o f form qua l i t y and the manner in which c i t i e s are s t ructured to encourage the development of a bet ter mental map. FORM QUALITY . . . (T )he greater the ambiguity of the sensory s t imulus, the more room and need there i s fo r i n te rp re ta t i on by the p e r c e i v e r . l Environmental ambiguity may be caused by a confusing or i r r e g u l a r s t ree t s t ruc tu re , the i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b i l i t y o f a place or bu i ld ings due to t h e i r i den t i ca l appearance, a low supply of environmental information due to r e s t r i c t e d v i s i o n , or lack of ' s i gn i n fo rmat i on ' , as i s the case when signs designat ing s t ree t names are removed. Any o f these s i tua t ions w i l l r e s u l t in a vague, inaccurate , disconnected cogn i t i ve map. Simple, c l e a r l y v i s i b l e forms, however, "are much more ea s i l y incorporated in the image(cognitive map)" 2 In order to f a c i l i t a t e the process o f r eg i s te r i ng ob jec t s , we tend to d i scard minor d e t a i l s and create a simple form. Complex features w i l l be a s s im i l a ted into a s impler, more f a m i l i a r form or pa t te rn , which is ea s i e r to remember. People. . . tend to perceive homogeneity in the in terna l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f f i gu re s . Within the boundaries o f a given f i g u r e , d i f ferences up to a point are ignored.3 S i n gu l a r i t y i s another aspect o f form qua l i t y and is considered to the improved l e g i b i l i t y o f the environment. Because o f i t s oneness, an ob jec t , such as a b u i l d i n g , and i t s l oca t i on w i l l be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d , and the r e s u l t i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i l l become a card ina l point on the cogn i t i ve map. 1. Bernard Berelson, Human behavior ;shorter ed i t i on ,N .Y . , Harcount, Brace and World, 1967, pTTSb 2. Lynch, p.106 3. Bere l son, p.155 19 . . . (T )he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a c l e a r l y def ined f i gure from surrounding f i gures or from the background tend to be accentuated. ! These e f f e c t t o f accentuat ion by contrast w i l l a lso be observed in s ingu lar forms. Exampees o f s i n g u l a r i t y a re : contrast o f sur face , form, i n t e n s i t y , complexity, s i z e , use, spa t i a l locat ion(as a s ing le tower, a r i ch decora t ion , a g la r ing s i gn ) , c losure(as an enclosed square), sharpness o f boundary(as an abrupt cessat ion o f c i t y development) 2 This d i f f e rence in i n ten s i t y is "a major determinant with regard to the st imulus" and may be compared to the s i t u a t i o n in which " . . . a shot o f f on a qu iet s t ree t or sudden s i l ence in the midst o f a din gets a t t e n t i o n . . . " 3 The perception of change caused by a rapid s h i f t in i n tens i t y bears a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n not only to auditory s t imu l i but to other sensual s t imu l i as w e l l . The d i f f i c u l t i e s involved in navigat ing through t r a c k l e s s , monotonous environment and the importance o f change, which serves as a landmark, has been mentioned by Brown, who conducted a human maze-learning experiment; objects which can be perceived (a rough spot or a t i l t i n g board) are able to serve as landmarks.. .objects about which are recognized in th i s way assume a cons iderable e f f e c t i v e value. The subject often expresses great s a t i s f a c t i o n in f ind ing them...the neucleus o f any l o c a l i t y i s an object^ In monotonous set te ins where the i n t e n s i t y o f s t imu l i i s held constant, only a s l i g h t change of i n ten s i t y awakens a t tent ion as descr ibed above. However, the same amount o f change in a r e a l , non-experimental se t te ing 1. Bere l son, p.155 2. Lynch, p. 3. Bere lson, p. 148 4. Hart , p.7-50 20 w i l l not be no t i ceab le . Thus, d i f f e r e n t i a l thresholds or "the minimal d i f f e rence that can be detected between s t imul i - Just Not iceable D i f f e -rence - ...depends upon the i n i t i a l i n t e n s i t y ; the stronger the i n i t i a l s t imulus, the greater the d i f f e rence needs to be"* STRUCTURE Lewis Mumford observes that the uniform g r id pattern o f our c i t i e s "makes strangers as much at home as the o ld i n h a b i t a n t s " . 2 The s t ruc tu ra l r e g u l a r i t y , in a geometric sense, of c i t i e s leads to an increased f a m i l i a r i t y with the environment and seems to be e a s i l y incorporated through cogn i t ion . The r e p e t i t i v e pattern of the s t ructure as a whole a l so enables us to estimate our locat ion f a i r l y accurate ly even in an unfami l iar part of a c i t y . However, the undefferent iated c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the g r i d system may also make i t d i f f i c u l t fo r res idents to d i s t ingu i sh one route from another. In cons ider ing th i s problem, Lynch discovered that d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g "width, block leng th , bu i l d ing frontage and naming" o f the s t reets solves the problem o f the i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b i l i t y and yet preserves the advantages o f the gr id p a t t e r n . 3 Environmental cues which ind ica te d i r e c t i o n a l information play an essent ia l r o l e in s t ruc tur ing spa t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . Names of p laces , such as North Vancouver or the West End serve as more than terms of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; they ind i ca te not only the l oca t ion of places but also suggest a d i r e c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p wi th in the overa l l reg ion . 1. Bere lson, p.146 2. H. Proshansky, and others , e d . , Environmental Psychology; man and his phys ica l s e t t i n g , N.Y., Ho l t , Rinehart and Winston, 1970, p.17 3. Lynch, p.61 21 As one moves up or down a street, rising street numbers usually indicate that he is moving away from the city centre. Numeralized street names or "the alphabetizing of a street series will slso facilitate the structuring of elements"1. These are examples of 'sign information', but 'symbol information' can also impart directional information. Topographical characteristics, such as " a path going uphill , away from the sea, and toward the centre"2 contain directional cues. An asymmetrical path in which one side of i t differs from the other side, as a path along the searhore or river, or "with buildings fronting a park" has the same effect. 3 1. Lynch, p.108 2,3. Ibid, p.106 22 3-1-3 Person var iab les We have of ten observed through purely personal experience that some people are good at o r i en t ing themselves in space whi le others are not. There appears to be a personal dimension that a f f e c t s one's perception of the environment and the a b i l i t y to construct a spa t i a l map. Orstein has c l a s s i f i e d such mental a c t i v i t i e s as a r t , i n t u i t i o n , music, s p i r i t u a l i t y , into one group and has suggested, i n t e r e s t i n g l y , that there may be a c l o s e a s soc i a t i on between p ro f i c i ency in these a c t i v i t i e s and o r i en ta t i on in space; l o g i c , s c ience , language, and a n a l y t i c a l th ink ing comprise another group. I t has been sa id that t h i s grouping corresponds to the two areas of the b r a i n , i . e . , the the r i g h t and l e f t hemispheres, where these groups o f a c t i v i e i e s are separate ly admin i s tered. ! Certa in studies have shown that d isorders o f ' s pa t i a l o r i en ta t i on and topographical memory may be caused by cerebral l e s i o n . The l o c a t i o n of the l e s i o n s , however, were r i g h t - s i d e d as well as l e f t - s i d e d . 2 Meyer, who observed pat ients a f fec ted by such d i so rder s , descr ibed a pat ient who suf fered from a vascular l e s i on on r i g h t hemisphere. . . . (he has) no obvious d i sorder of depth and d istance perception in centra l v i s i o n . . . .General memory was good fo r remote events but s l i g h t l y impaired f o r those that had taken place more recen t l y . Memory fo r topographical r e l a t i o n s h i p was gross ly impaired although geographical data as such could be r e c a l l e d c o r r e c t l y . Thus, the pat ient could always name c o r r e c t l y the s t reet s in which the p r inc ipa l bub l ic bu i ld ings of Bres lau(h is home town) were s i t ua ted . . . .But he was u t t e r l y unable to descr ibe, draw or represent in any way how he would reach these bu i ld ings from his home .(or from the c l i n i c ) . ...On one occa t i on , f o r example, the pat ient was asked by Meyer to lead the way from the c l i n i c to his home. When l ed out o f the c l i n i c ( w h i c h he had formerly known w e l l ) , the pat ient was very uncertain as to h is immediate whereabouts 1. R. O r s t e i n , Time, Ju ly 8, 1974, p.32 2.Andrew Paterson and 0. Zangwi l l , "A case of topographical d i sordentat ion associated by a un i l a t e r a l cerebra l l e s i o n " , B ra in , vol.68 par t3 , 1945,ppl88 23 and the d i r e c t i o n which should be taken. He eventua l ly recognized the sign or a ne i ghbour ing shop and th i s gave him a measure ot o r i e n t a t i o n . Very soon...became d i s -or iented and. . .anx ious ly sought the placards exh ib i t i ng the names o f the various s t r ee t s . Eventua l ly , he discovered his prec i se whereabouts by in ference from the numbers o f passing s t reet -car s . ..1 (under l ine mine) The pat ient appears to have l o s t h is cogn i t i ve memory or to have been unable to u t i l i z e i t to construct a new cogn i t i ve map.2 However, he reta ined his environmental memory very wel l and u t i l i z e d i t successful ly, with regard to ce r t a in kinds o f c lues , i . e . , "s ign in format ion" . This report suggests that the process or r e c a l l i n g and applying ' s i gn in format ion ' are somehow separated f o r the process o f r e c a l l i n g and u t i l i z i n g 'symbol i n fo rmat ion ' . This d i s junc t ion seems to be compatible with the c l a s s i f i -cat ion Orste in has suggested. Although the spa t i a l cogni t ion d i sorder mentioned above was extreme and is very uncommon, i t does suggest that i nd iv idua l d i f fe rences may determine, to an extent, which type o f information w i l l be used more extens ive ly . I f Orstein ' ; s f ind ings are c o r r e c t , we can assume that people who excel in a r t i s t i c mental a c t i v i t i e s tend to be good at spat ia l cogni t ion and are ab le to u t i l i z e 'symbol in format ion ' w e l l . On the other hand, the more l o g i c a l , ana l y t i c a l person may tend to u t i l i z e ' s ign in format ion 1 to a greater extent. Na tu ra l l y , some ind i v idua l s may be p r o f i c i e n t in only one type of a c t i v i t y , both types or ne i ther . However, we assume that moet people develop s k i l l s in both types to such an extent that they employ both the ' s i g n - ' and 'symbol in format ion ' in an integrated way, so that they supplement each other. 1. I b id . , p.189 2. I b id . , p.189 24 It i s known that the i n d i v i d u a l ' s perception s e l e c t i v i t y is in f luenced by in terna l f a c t o r s , e . g . , one's phys io log ica l needs or emotional s ta te . Certa in in terna l condit ions may be temporary; however, i f they continue to ex i s t throughout a long period of t ime, the cogn i t i ve map constructed during the time w i l l be a f f e c t e d by the s e l e c t i v i t y accord ing ly . With regard to motives, people look f o r things they need or want, and the stonger the need, the greater - the tendency to ignore i r r e l e v a n t e lements. ! Need and want vary considerably with such factors*as age, sex, occupat ion, i n t e r e s t , va lue, l i f e s t y l e , e t c . , For example, a teenager f inds places which may be overlooked and re:main unnoticed by subjects in other age groups. He w i l l re ta in a v i v i d memory o f t h e i r l o c a t i o n s , and they may be funct ion as focal points in his mental map. His cogn i t i ve map r e f l e c t s his i n teres t s and needs, a l t e r i n g as the importance o f ce r ta in f a c i l i t i e s increases or decreases. Indiv idual d i f ferences in perception and cogn i t ion are more pronounced when the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the world are ambiguous. (I)n an ambiguous i s t ua t i on (subject has) greater opportunity to s t ructure i t (percept ion or cognit ion) in his own unique fash ion. ...(however,) in a w e l l -s t ructured s i t u a t i o n perception i s determined e n t i r e l y by the character o f the f i e l d , with personal determinants p laying l i t t l e i f any ro le .2 Thus, in a s imple, geometric g r id s t ree t pat tern, sub jec t s ' images of the c i t y become f a i r l y homogeneous; but w i l l d i f f e r cons iderably against the background of a less s t ruc tured , less l e g i b l e environment such as one with an i r r e l u l a r , c u r v i l i n e a r s t ree t pat tern . 1. Bere lson, p.148 2. I b id . , p.146 25 The degree of ambiguity in environmental information and the magnitude o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s needs and wants appear to be two major var iab les which determine spa t i a l perception and cogn i t ion of each i n d i v i d u a l . Man is a cu l tu ra l being, and the brain is extremely adaptable to external cond i t ions . The unique, e leborate way in which Eskimos perceive snow and Arab see Camels i s es tab l i shed through the i n te rac t i on o f these var iab les and a s p e c i f i c cu l tu re - t h e i r l i f e s ty les .1 C e r t a i n l y , the Eskimo and Arab are not innate ly equipped with t h e i r unique percept ions. Individual d i f fe rences with regard to environmental perception and cogn i t ion are a t t r i b u t a b l e , to a large extent, to such aspects o f the sub jec t s ' h i s t o r i c i t y as the type o f environment in which he was r a i s e d , the amount and kind of h is i n te rac t i on with the environment, whether he enters into the environment a c t i v e l y or merely exposes himself to i t pas s i ve ly , e t c . In the survey to be considered in th i s study we included a measurement o f persona l i ty as one of the person var iab les in order to examine the r e l a t i o n between perceptual d i f ferences and persona l i ty types. This var i ab le was measured by "Thing-Person Or ienta t ion Sca le " which L i t t l e has developed in the f i e l d of persona l i ty assessment.2 The dimension o f the persona l i ty i s ind icated by two q u a n t i t a t i v e l y measured scores which are obtained through a t e s t . 3 E s s e n t i a l l y , these two sca les ind i ca te to what degree subjects are in teres ted in phys ic la objects as opposed to a c t i v i t i e s invo lv ing inter -persona l r e l a t i o n s . 1. H a l l , p.65 2. B. L i t t l e , Thing o r i e n t a t i o n ; a prov i s iona l manual fo r the T-P s ca le , National Foundation for Educational Research Publ i sh ing Co., Windsor, 1973 3. see Appendis, quest ionnaire sheet p.3 26 3-2 Var iab les and perception o f d istance Thus f a r , ;vie have discussed some of the major fac tors which are considered to a f f e c t perception and the cogn i t ion of the environment. Although several studies and pub l icat ions with regard to these factors and t h e i r e f f e c t on the more general area o f environmental perception are a v a i l a b l e , only a few studies have focused s p e c i f i c a l l y upon the perception o f d is tance and contain research and ana lys i s d i r e c t l y re levant to th i s subject . In the fo l lowing sect ion we w i l l examine the r e l a t i o n between these fac tors and distance percept ion. 3-2-1 Interact ion var iab les Appleyard has observed that the cogn i t ive map i s s t ructured d i f f e r e n t l y among d i f f e r e n t groups o f subjects as a r e s u l t of a survey conducted in Ciudad Guayama, Venezuela. This c i t y was " . . .un ique in that there was aba i l ab le no pub l i c map to a s s i s t ( o r contaminate) pub l i c perception o f the c i t y ' s s t r u c t u r e " ! . He found that the mode of i n t e r -a c t i o n ! t ransportat ion) had a profound e f f e c t on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the cogn i t i ve map o f the c i t y formed by the subjects . Of the subjects who t r a v e l l e d only by bus 80% were unable to draw a coherent map of the urban road system. A l l the maps found in th i s group were e i t he r scat tered or fragmented. . . . A l l the maps drawn by the se lec ted group o f car -on ly t r a v e l l e r s presented a coherent and continuous s y s tem. . . 2 Although Appleyard does not mention whether the perception o f d istance var ies in accordance with the mode of t r a v e l l i n g , i t may be assumed that 1. D. Appleyard, "S ty les and methofs o f s t ruc tur ing a c i t y " , Environment  and behavior, June 1970, p.101 2. I b id . , p.113 27 the a b i l i t y to draw a more comprehensive, accurate map re su l t s from a better knowledge of d istances between various points as well as an increased knowledge o f the s t ructure of the c i t y . Thus, i t seems safe to conclude that those who t r a v e l l e d only by car had developed a more accurate perception o f d is tance than those in the b u s - t r a v e l l i n g group. 28 3-2-2 Physical var iab les LEGIBILITY V i r t u a l l y everyone appears to have not iced that the d i s tance seems much greater during a f i r s t t r i p to an unfami l i a r place and shrinks cons iderably on the second t r i p and l a t e r occasions un t i l i t reaches f a i r l y reasonable, s tab le length. Therea f te r , one usua l ly does not experience any great f l u c t u a t i o n of d is tance percept ion. This phenomenon presumably resu l t s from a p a r t i c u l a r mental s t a t e , brought on by anxiety and c u r i o s i t y in an unfami l iar s i t u a t i o n . In the fo l lowing s e c t i o n , we w i l l considenl;the mental s ta te and i t s e f f e c t on perception of d i s tance. I t appears that both the po s i t i ve mental condi t ion of c u r i o s i t y and the negative cond i t ion o f anxiety are a t t r i b u t a b l e to the to ta l lack of a cogn i t i ve map of the unfami l i a r p lace . Conscious ly or unconsciously each ind iv idua l engages in the mental a c t i v i t y o f construct ing a new cogn i t i ve map when t r a v e l l i n g through an unfami l iar p lace fo r the f i r s t time and continues to do, though to a much l e s se r extent a f t e r an acceptable map has been e s tab l i shed . Thus, the absents o f a prev ious ly constructed mental map combined with a p a r t i c u l a r mental s ta te leads to a percept ion of d i s tance that i s greater than in r e a l i t y , whi le a cqu i s i t i on o f a map reduces and neutra l i zes the e f f e c t of the mental s i t ua t i on s i g n i f i c a n t l y . In add i t i on , the completeness and perhaps the compactness o f the mental map are also considered to e f f e c t a reduct ion o f the perceived d i s tance. The a cqu i s i t i on of an accurate, comprehensive mental map is l a r ge l y a t t r i bu ted to the l e g i b i l i t y o f the actual phys ica l environment: Subjects , when asked which c i t y they f e l t to be a wel l or iented one, mentioned s e v e r a l , but New York (Manhattan) was unanimously c i t e d . And th i s c i t y was c i t e d not so much f o r i t s g r i d , which Los Angeles has as w e l l , but 29 because i t has a number of we l l - de f ined c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s t r i c t s , set in an ordered frame o f r i v e r s and s t r e e t s . Two LA subjects even re fe r red to Manhattan as being " sma l l " in comparison to 'their centra l area>r Concept of s i ze may depend in part on how well s t r ac tu re can be grasped.1 As a s t ree t becomes wider and t r a f f i c volume inceeases, penetrat ion from one s ide of the s t ree t to the other decreases. Beyond a ce r ta in point in the s i z e of a s t r e e t , i t becomes v i r t u a l l y impossible to cross i t . Freeways are an example of t h i s , s ince they p roh ib i t most c ross -sect iona l movement by pedestr ians at a l l points other than the s p e c i a l l y constructed overpasses and underpasses. . . . t h e freeway in the c i t y has been a great destroyer o f neighborhood values. Freeways have tended to devide neighborhoods in two, d ivorc ing w e l l - b u i l t sect ions from another and d r i v i n g wedges through cohesive neighborhoods. 2 The " l i n e a r elements not used or considered as paths by the observers " , such as r a i l r o a d , cu t s , w a l l s , and shores are def ined as "edges" by Lynch. He notes that edges funct ion in e f f e c t as "boundaries between two phases, l i n e a r breaks in con t inu i t y " . However, he also points to the ex is tence o f edges which do not funct ion as b a r r i e r s but as "seam - l i ne s along which two regions are re l a ted and j o i n t e d together "3. Charles S t ree t . . . con ta in s the l oca l serv ice stores and spec ia l a c t i v i t i e s associated with the H i l l . I t pu l l s the res idents together by a t t r ac t i n g them to i t s e l f . It acts ambiguously e i t he r as l i n e a r nodes, edges, or path, f o r various people at various time.4 1. Lynch, p.67 2. L. H a l p r i n , Freeway, N.Y., Reinhold Pub l i ca t ion Co . , 1966, p.24 3. Lynch, p.47 4. I b id . , p.65 30 Again, the re su l t s o f these studies do not contain d i r e c t statements concerning the r e l a t i o n between the factors considered and the perception o f d i s tance , but we fee l i t is not accurate to assume that the distance between two regions separated by a ' b a r r i e r edge' w i l l be perceived as being greater than the d is tance between regions in which 'seam edge' seems to draw people together rather than separate them. A statement by Lynch i n d i r e c t l y supports th i s assumption: Most observers seems to group t h e i r elements into i n t e r -mediate o r g a n i z a t i o n . . . c a l l e d complexes. The observer senses the complex as a whole whose parts are interdepen-dent and are r e l a t i v e l y f i xed in r e l a t i o n to each other. . . . t h i s whole area. . .has become one l o c a l i t y . . . .The psychological d istance between two l o c a l i t i e s may be much greater, or more d i f f i c u l t to surmount, than mere phys ica l separat ion seems to warrant.1 Thus, when a l o c a l i t y i s surrounded or def ined by ' b a r r i e r edges' the cohesion of the l o c a l i t y may be increased by 'seam edges' located with in the l o c a l i t y . Lynch's d e f i n i t i o n of an ' o r gan i za t i on ' is based upon the phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the l o c a l i t y which d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t from i t s surroundings. On the other hand, Appleyard emphasizes the soccial c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the l o c a l i t i e s : ...She(an interviewee) i n s i s t ed on a s soc ia t ing her neighborhood with the more pres t i g ious but d i s tant Puerto Ordaz, than with the phys i ca l l y adjacent but less prest ig ious rancho settlement o f C a s t i l l i t o . Perceptual d i s tance from a s im i l a r s oc i a l area i s apparently l e s s than actual d i s tance, whi le perceptual d istance from a lower soc i a l group is greater than actual d is tance.2 Lee observes that " there i s a lawfulness in the r e l a t i o n s h i p 1. I b id . , p.85 2. Appleyard, p.115 31 between phys ica l and perceived d istance in c i t i e s " . In his survey, d i r e c t i o n (inward toward the c i t y centre or outward away from i t ) has been chosen to represent phys ica l v a r i a b l e . The degree o f d i s tance he examined ranged from 300 yards to one mi le . The average e r ro r ( in est imation of distance) f o r in- journey i s +14,35%, and f o r out- journey is +35.9%. This d i f f e rence is in the predicted d i r e c t i o n and the ana lys i s of var iance shows i t to be highly s i g n i f i c a n t . ! S im i l a r r e su l t s may be observed in Brennan's survey of shopping behavior which c l e a r l y demonstrates that shoppers prefer to come down toward the centre fo r t h e i r shopping. The i r choice of stores located inward - from the.ir homes may have re su l ted in part from a foreshortening of the perceived d i s t a n c e . 2 l .T. Lee, "Perceived d i s tance as a funct ion o f d i r e c t i o n in the c i t y " , Environment and behavior, June 1970, p.45 2. T. Brennan, Midland c i t y , London, Cobson, 1948 32 3-2-3 Person var iab les Such var iab les as sex, age, per sona l i t y , h i s t o r i c i t y , occupat ion, and mental s tate w i l l be considered as person va r i ab le s . Undeniably, these var iab les are c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d with other i n te r ac t i on va r i ab le s . Apparent co r re l a t i on s between sex or age d i f fe rences and perception have been found, but i t i s poss ib le that they r e s u l t as much from in te rac t i ona l d i f ferences as from sex and age d i f f e r e n c e s . However, some r e l a t i v e l y independent person var iab les do seem to e x i s t . Buckman shhyothesizes that : the conceptual ( subject ive) d is tance from a less preferred to a more preferred c i t y is less than the conceptual distance in the oppos i te d i r ec t i on .1 In his s tud ie s , f o r t y students were asked to rank s i x New England c i t i e s in order of preference and to estimate d i s tances. The f ind ings were in l i n e with his hypothesis. B ra t f i s ch has made studies o f the r e l a t i o n between subject ive d is tance and "emotional involvement". Subjects were asked to estimate various i n t e r - c i t y distances with Stockholm as the cent re . . . .The subjects estimated the degree of emotional i nvo lve -ment which they would experience in things happening in the various c i t i e s . Emotional involvement was fuund to be inverse ly proport ional to the square root o f subject ive distance.2 B ra t f i sh had a lso obtained s im i l a r re su l t s from an e a r l i e r s t u d y . 3 1. I. Buckman, "Mhe metrics o f psychological space; an experiment", (unpublished manuscript, Brown Univ . , 1966) c i t e d by S tea, D., in Working papers in place percept ion, 1969 2. B r a t f i s h , 0 . , "A fu r ther study of the r e l a t i o n between subject i ve distance and emotional involvement", Acta Psycholog ica, 29, 1969, pp.244-3. 0. B r a t f i s h and G. Ekman, "Subject ive distance and emotional involvement; a psychologica l mechanism? Acta Psycho lo i i ca ,24, 1965, pp.430-37 33 The ' s t a te of the organism' was p a r t i c u l a r l y emphasized in a study dea l ing with perception conducted by Werner and Wapner. They examined the " e f f e c t o f re levant emotional s t imul i on psychological d i s tance " : Subjects had to walk, whi le b l i n d f o l d e d , toward a s p e c i f i e d marker whose loca t ion var ied in regard to proximity o f the prec ip i tons edge of a theatre stage. The sub jec t ' s behavior under th i s condi t inn was compared with his behavior in a neutral s i t u a t i o n when danger was omitted. . . . i t i s i n fe r red that psychological d is tance shrinks under condi t ions o f danger.1 1. H. Werner and S. Wapner, "Changes in psychological d is tance under condit ions of danger", Journal o f Per sona l i t y , 24, 1955 pp.167 34 P A R T II 4-0 METHOD OF STUDY The survey was designed to inves t i ga te the e f f e c t s of the phys ica l environment upon the perception o f ' cogn i t i ve d i s tance ' as well as to examine the in f luence o f other factors such as person and, i n te rac t i on var iab les upon d istance percept ion. Rather than u t i l i z i n g the experimental se t t ing of a l abora tory , the survey was conducted in a genuine urban environment, that o f the c i t y o f Vancouver. 4-1 Analys is o f the c i t y o f Vancouver Vancouver i s a r e l a t i v e l y new c i t y as compared to c i t i e s in Eastern Canada. Most o f Vancouver's bu i ld ings were constructed in th i s century, and there are no bu i ld ings or places which have strong assoc ia t ions with h i s to ry or major h i s t o r i c a l events, that are well-known by the major i ty o f the pub l i c . Thus, Vancouver has no p a r t i c u l a r phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which could p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t the perception of the environment as a re su l t o f s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l impl icat ions and connotat ions. In terms o f i t s supreme l e g i b i l i t y , Vancouver has very unique physical environment due p r imar i l y to i t s geography and c e r t a i n features of i t s topography. The north end o f the c i t y i s def ined by a number of mountains, which frorm an almost p e r f e c t l y s t r a i gh t l i n e from west to east , and can be seen from almost any place in the c i t y . These extremely powerful! lankmarks serves as an unmistakable o r i en t a t i ona l c l u e . When one goes - toward the mountain, i t s means that he hea'ding to the nor th ; i f the mountains are on one's l e f t , he i s going eas t . During the winter because of the 35 i l l umina t i on provided the s k i - slopes located on the mountain, one can f i n d this d i r e c t i o n f a i r l y e a s i l y even at n ight . The s i z e o f the mountains contain d istance cues, as w e l l . P a r t i c u l a r l y when one approaches from the tsouth, the mountains become v i s i b l e a t points more than 30 miles away from the c i t y centre. As one nears the centre o f the c i t y the mountains n a t u r a l l y loom la rger and l a rger in one's view. Since the res idents o f the c i t y are f a m i l i a r with the s i z e of them from various points wi th in the c i t y , the r e l a t i v e smallness of the mountains gives them a rough est imation of d i s tance. The west end o f the c i t y faces the sea. Since most o f the water-f ront land has been recovered by the c i t y and preserved as a pub l i c park and/or beach, an unobstructed view of the sea i s a v a i l a b l e to a l l . The continuous v i s i b i l i t y o f the water along the shore l i n e contr ibutes tremendously to the formation of a c l e r l y and v i v i d l y def ined 'edge ' . Normally the water would be v i s i b l e only to those in i t s proximity due to i t s low- leve l and the presence of bu i ld ings which obstruct the view. However, because the c i t y :is s i tuated on h i l l s with numerous s lopes , the water can be seen from fu r the r points as w e l l . In add i t ion o f f ront ing the sea, the c i t y possesses a l so a number o f i n l e t s and creeks which provide innumerable water-def ined edges. Most of Vancouver's major s t reets run south to north and west to east, generating a r i ght -ang led g r id pa t tern . This type o f pattern i s known to be very e f f e c t i v e in f a c i l i t a t i n g a c i t y ' s ' l e g i b i l i t y ' . 1 In the downtown area(CBD), the s t ree t pattern is twisted 45 degree. 1. see sect ion 3-1-2, 3-2-2. 36 However, because o f the detachment of the area , which i s connected to the re s t of the c i t y by only two bridges (Burrard, G ranv i l l e ) and a few s t reets (Hast ings) , the i r r e g u l a r i t y o f the pattern does not seem to pose any s i g n i f i c a n t o r i en ta t i ona l problems to the res ident s . Although cons iderable dev iat ions from the g r id -pa t te rn do occur in North Vancouver and the east s ide of the c i t y , our survey d id not include these areas. Consequently, the e f f e c t of the i r r e g u l a r s t ree t pattern upon the perception of idstance in these areas w i l l not be considered here. Another o f Vancouver's assets is the topographical undulation which contr ibutes to the high l e g i b i l i t y o f the c i t y . The a l t i t u d e may vary as much as 300 feet within a r e l a t i v e l y small a rea , and th i s va r i a t i on has resu l ted in a number of l ocat ions from which a panoramic view of the whole c i t y can be obtained. The v i s i b i l i t y of the environment on a l a r ge - s ca l e enables the observer l i t e r a l l y to v i s u a l i z e and understand the c i t y . l 1. see sect ion 3-1-1 SCALE. 37 4-2 Design o f survey In order to invest i gate the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and the environment, we conducted a survey, the object ives o f which were to determine what kinds o f v a r i ab l e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y physical v a r i ab l e s , a f f e c t environmental perception and the perception of d i s tance. The sca le of d i s tacce employed f o r the survey was urban-scale: foitir m i le s . The d istance examined was that which we re fe r red to e a r l i e r as ' cogn i t i ve d i s t a n c e ' 2 questions regarding the sub jec t ' s est imation of ' domi -centr i c d i s tance ' (the d i s tance between two points when the subject i s not located at e i t he r p i i n t ) were o r i g i n a l l y included in the quest ionnaire but were not tabulated f o r use in th i s study. Only ' ego -cent r i c d i s tance ' (d istance between two points when the subject i s located at one of the points) was examined. A well known landmark, Hotel Vancouver, which i s s i tua ted in the core o f downtwon Vancouver was chosen as the des t inat ion or target point fo r the est imation of d i s tance. This hotel was the most conspicuous bu i l d ing in the c i t y un t i l recent ly when bu i ld ings o f the same s i z e and l a r g e r , t a l l e r bu i ld ings came to be constructed in the v i i c in i ty of the h o t e l . Nevertheless, Hotel Vancouver's unique, stone masonry facade provides a strong contras t to the modern bu i ld ings o f glass and concrete which surround i t , and Hotel Vancouver is the only bu i ld ing in the downtown area which has a l a rge , t r i angu l a r roof painted a l i g h t green. Consequently, i t s s ingu lar shape and co l o r are h igh ly v i s i b l e . 1. see sect ion 2-3. 38 The hotel stands out when viewed from i t s base as well as when viewed from d i s tant po int s . Because i t i s s i tuated at the corner of two wide s t reets with an open space on i t s east s i de , the whole b u i l d i n g , from bottom to top, can be seen from i t s base. Thus, there i s no 'bottomless ' e f f e c t . (The EMpire State Bu i ld ing in NYC can not be recognized at i t s bottom, desp i te i t s rather high n o t i c e a b i l i t y from distanc p o i n t s , ) ! This r e c o g n i z a b i l i t y o f the prec i se l oca t i on o f the landmark i s e s p e c i a l l y important when the est imation of d i s tance i s c r i t i c a l . Since the bu i ld ing accomodates a hotel and contains p r imar i l y those f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s which are c l o se l y associated with the funct ion of a ho te l , the name 'Hotel Vancouver' i s cons i s ten t l y associated with the bu i l d i n g . Because the major i ty o f the other bu i ld ings in the area contain numerous companies and o f f i c e s , the name o f an o f f i c e bui ld ing does not usua l ly represent the nature of the b u i l d i n g . Consequently, we assume that those o f f i c e bu i l d ing remain rather anonymous s t ructures to most res idents other than the l i m i t e d number of buisnessmen and workers who frequent them. Thus, they were re jec ted as poss ib le des t inat ion po ints . Hotel Vancouver, however, appears to be a straightfoward landmark, and we fee l i t i s the most appropriate one for the purposes of th i s studyy. "^yr Four d i f f e r e n t ' l o c a t i o n s ' s i tuated on the major routes to t h i core of downtown Vancouver and the dest inat ion point were se l ec ted . Since the survey was designed to focus on ' ego -cent r i c d i s t a n c e ' , the 1. see sect ion 3-1-1, SCALE. 39 subjects were asked to estimate the d i s tance to the landmark from the se lected ' l o c a t i o n s ' . Questionnaires were d i s t r i b u t e d to the res idents who l i f e in the v i c i n i t y of the ' l o c a t i o n s ' , and l e f t overn ight , to be picked up the next day. Therefore , we assume that the subjects answered the quest ionnaires and made t h e i r est imations of d istance from t h e i r homes, and that est imations of ' ego -centr i c d i s tance ' were obta ined. In add i t i on , a l l o f the subjects were estimate 'inward(toward the downtwwn) d i s tance ' in order to e l iminate the e f fec t s o f d i r e c t i o n upon perception (est imation) o f d i saance. l The actual d is tance between the des t ina t ion and the four ' l o c a t i o n s ' was kept equal: four mi les . This uni formity of d is tance enables us to avoid l a t e r adjestments and, more important ly, poss ib le e f f ec t s on percept ion that might have resu l ted from varying magnitudes of d i s tance. The s e l e c t i o n of the ' l o c a t i o n s ' was based on the magnitude o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n in the physical environment on the way to the de s t i na t i on . D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f environment The four ' l o c a t i o n s ' w i l l be re fe r red to hereaf ter as North Vancouver, Alma, G r a n v i l l e , and Hast ings. They are s i tuated around the in te r sec t ions of Marine Drive and Capilano Road in North Vancouver, Alma and West 10th Avenue, G r a n v i l l e and West 41st Avenue, and East Hastings and Reinfrew, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 1 We s p e c i f i c a l l y asked that the subjects estimate the d i s tance i from where they l i v e to Hotel Vancouver, and assume that the sub jec t s ' 1. see map / 40 est imations were based on the shortest and most convenient routes that could be taken to the des t ina t ion from t h e i r homes. From N.Vancouver there is only one way to the downtown area: from Marine Dr. , across L i on ' s Gate Br idge, through Stanley Park, and up West Georgia. No convenient, a l t e r n a t i v e way ex i s t s for N. Vancouver subjects . From the Hastings l o c a t i o n , we assume that the subjects would most probably go by way o f East Hastings Avenue for a t r i p downtown, s ince i t is the shor tes t , most d i r e c t and perhaps the f a s te s t way. From Granv i l l e l o c a t i o n , G ranv i l l e S t reet would be the best route for the same reasons. From the Alma l o c a t i o n , hovever, there i s no s i ng le d i r e c t way; l o g i c a l l y there are several major a l t e rna t i ve s a v a i l a b l e for the Alma subjects . They may go by way o f W. Broadwya Avenue and Burrard Street or by Alma S t ree t , 4th Avenue, and Burrard S t ree t , or by Alma S t ree t , Point Grey Road and Burrard S t ree t , and so on for a t r i p downtown. Though unpredictable se lec t ions o f routes such as these do occur in areas character ized by r i ght -ang led g r id pat tern, regardless o f which routes the subjects choose, the actual d is tance remains v i r t u a l l y same in th is case: 4 mi les . Based on these assumptions regarding the ways to the des t ina t ion from each o f the four l o ca t i on s , we observed the nature o f the physical environment along the ways and the ways themselves. We hypothesized that the distance o f four miles would not normally be considered a pedestr ian (walking) d i s tance, and as a r e s u l t , assumed that t*be t r i p would be made pr imar i l y by bus or automobile. ( F i r s t , economical bus se rv i ce i s a va i l ab l e at each of these four l oca t i ons . ) Therefore, minor phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which might be observed by pedestrians but are ea s i l y over- looked by auto passengers or bus r i d e r s w i l l not be examined h e r e . l 1. see sect ion 3-1-1, Mode of i n t e r a c t i o n . Hotel Vancouver North Vancouver location A l m a location © Granville- location © Hastings location i i i \ 111 m 11111 i n t u i ns^&rmii 11 II 111111 m i M I II-S^ S-I t i i i i i i i \ i i i i t i i i i i \ u i i i i u i i i i n i t i i i i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I J Map 3. Problems of ) d i r e c t i o n ambiguity character less path lack of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n e l a s t i c i n te r sec t i on weak/absent boundary point o f confusion lack of r e l a t i o n i s o l a t i o n chaost ic /character less area bottomless tower incomplete broken path d i s con t inu i t y disconnected, hidden waterfront nota i ion by K. Lynch 44 5-0 DATA 5-1 Data c o l l e c t i o n Data was c o l l e c t e d by the quest ionnaire sampling method. The var iab les se lected to c l a r i t y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the environment and d i s tance perception can be c l a s s i f i e d into three groups: i n t e r a c t i o n , physical and person va r i ab le s . Sex, age, educat ion, ocuupation, subject ive eva luat ion o f o r ien ta t i ona l s k i l l s , and a per sona l i t y te s t (Thing-Person o r i en ta t i on scores, see sect ion 3-1-3) were included in the person va r i ab l e s . Questions re levent to the i n te rac t i on var iab les included qustions designed to examine the amount and kinds o f i n te rac t i on experienced by subjects ' v (Ss) in the p a r t i c u l a r environment o f the c i t y o f Vancouver. These * e r e : the number of years the Ss has l i v e d in Vancouver, the number of years the Ss has l i v e d a t h i s /her present address, the mode of t r an spor ta t i on , the amount o f time spent t r a v e l l i n g and length o f d i s tance t r a v e l l e d per day, and a subject ive eva luat ion of f a m i l i a r i t y with the c i t y by the Ss. No questions d i r e c t l y re la ted to the phys ica l var iab les werevasked. The e f f ec t s o f the physical var iab les upon distance perception were measured by a comparison of the answers provided by the groups of Ss in the four d i f f e r e n t l o ca t i on s . The centra l points ( four miles from the Hotel Vancouver on the routes) were marked on a map, every house in the v i c i n i t y o f the points was v i s i t e d , and unless absent, the occupants were asked to answer the quest ionnaire. In order to increase the response ra te of v a l i d answers, a l l o f the quf t ionna i res were personal ly d i s t r i bu ted and an explanation given 45 to the Ss at that t ime; they were informed that the sheets would be personal ly c o l l e c t e d the next day. Prestamped preaddressed envelops were l e f t on the c o l l e c t i o n day when the Ss had not f i n i shed the quest ionnaires or were absent. The quest ionnaires were d i s t r i b u t e d on Ju l y 31 and August 1, 1974, and c o l l e c t e d on the fo l lowing days. The fo l lowing t a b ! e n l i s t s the number of quest ionnaires which were d i s t r i b u t e d f o r each of the locat ions and c o l l e c t e d . # of quest ionnaire l oca t i on d i s t r i b u t e d c o l l e c t e d  G ranv i l l e 27 - 20 Hastings 25 17 Alma 28 27 N.Vancouver 29 22 46 5-2 Descr ipt ion of the sampled locat ions The fo l lowing are our impressions of.- the l o c a t i o n s , derived by observat ion. The Granv i l l e l o c a t i o n , which is f a i r l y near one of the most pres t i g ious r e s i d e n t i a l sect ions in Vancouver, i s s i tuated in a p r imar i l y r e s i d e n t i a l area with only a few stores along the major s t ree t s . The houses are r e l a t i v e l y large and wel l -mainta ined. In cont ras t , the major i ty o f houses in the Hastings l oca t i on are smal l , and are of ten in a de te r i o ra t ing cond i t i on . The populat ion of newly immigrated persons was l a r ge ; some res idents did not accept the quest ionnaire due to i l l t e r a c y . The number of ch i l d ren and aged was unproport ionately large in comparison with the other l o c a t i o n s . In the Alma l o c a t i o n , many students were observed, as may be expected from i t s proximity to the UBC. The area i t s e l f is composed of f a i r l y well maintained, middle c lass r e s i d e n t i a l area with number of renta l residences such as apartments houses and duplexes. No spec ia l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were immediately observeble a t the N. Vancouver l o c a t i o n , which i s s i tuated in r e l a t i v e l y newer.;»middle c lass r e s i d e n t i a l area. These four locat ions were se lected for t h e i r pos i t ions in r e l a t i o n to the de s t i na t i on . The se lec t i on was based not upon the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the locat ions themselves but on the nature o f the ways to the des t ina t ion from the l oca t i on s . Though the nature of the ways d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y from one another, the actual d i s tance var ies only s l i g h t l y . For the purposes o f th i s study ' l o c a t i o n ' may be loose ly def ined as a small geographical area with the ' cent ra l p o i n t ' * at i t s centre. * see sect ion 5-1. 47 Note: The fo l lowing data was c o l l e c t e d and computed from a l i m i t e d number of retured quest ionna i res . Thus, i t does not represent the whole population of each ' l o c a t i o n ' or area, but from each group of Ss in the ' l o c a t i o n ' . Therefore, when i t i s ind icated that the mean age of the Hastings l oca t i on i s 25 years , fo r example, i t does not neceessar i l y mean that the average age of the populat ion in the area is 25, but that the average age o f the Ss in the ' l o c a t i o n ' was 25. Number of Ss The fo l lowing represents the number of v a l i d quest ionnaires retured from each of the l o ca t i on : Table 1. B i v a r i a t e tab le of l o ca t i on vs sex frequency tab le (Hor izonta l percentage) l oca t i on Male Female N G ranv i l l e S(40%) ' 12(60%) 20 Hastings 5(29%) 12(71%) 17 Alma 13(48%) 13(48%) 27 N.Van. 14(64%) 7(32%) 22 a l l l o c a t ' n 40 44 86 48 5-2-1 Person var iab les Age The mean age of a l l Ss in the four locat ions was approximately 33 (SD:17)*, and the lowest mean age among the locat ions was found in the Hastings :25(SD:10); the highest was the N. Vancouver: 40(SD:18)*. Table 2. B i va r i a te tab le of l o ca t i on vs mean age* l o ca t i on mean age* SD N Gaanv i l le 36 20 20 Hastings 25 10 17 Alma 31 16 27 N.Van 40 18 22 a l l l o c a t ' n 33 17 86 Table 2b. B i va r i a te tab le o f age category vs assigned value category value 0 to 9 year 5 10 to 14 12 15 to 19 17 20 to 29 25 30 to 39 35 40 to 49 45 50 to 59 55 60 - 70 Education The Ss in the Alma possessed the highest educaitonal background; 22% of them had attended or were attending some graduate schoo l , and 23% have some co l lege education or a Bache lor ' s degree. On the other hand, * In order to s imp l i f y data process ing, the Ss were asked to l i s t t h e i r ages c a t e g o r i c a l l y , e . g . , 10 to 14 years or 20 to 29 years . Thus, the exact age of each S was not recorded. For the computation of means, the values l i s t e d in TAble 2b which are the mean age o f each gategory, were used as subs t i tu te s . 49 near ly 80% of the Ss in Hastings have no education beyond senior high school l e v e l . Table 3. B i va r i a te tab le of l oca t i on vs education (hor izonta l percentage) l oca t ion elementary j . h i g h . s .h igh. co l lege grad. G ranv i l l e DI TBT^ 3T5% TBI W Hastings 6% 12% 59% 12% 17% Alma 0% 15% 26% 33% 22% N.Van. 23% 5% 23% 32% 18% For the sake of s i m p l i c i t y , the fo l lowing values (see Table 4b) were assigned to categories o f educational l e v e l , and the 'mean' educational leve l was computed f o r each l o c a t i o n . * Table 4. B i v a r i a te tab le of l oca t ion vs 'mean'* educational leve l l oca t i on 'mean'* SD Granvi l i e 330 TSS" Hastings 3.12 .99 Alma 3.52 1.22 N.Van. 3.18 1.44 Table 4b. B i va r i a te tab le of category vs assigned value category value elementary 1 j . h i g h 2 s.high 3 co l lege 4 graduate 5 Persona l i ty With regard to person-thing o r i e n t a t i o n , obvious va r i a t i ons among a l l Ss drawn from the four d i f f e r e n t locat ions were not apparent and the * S ince the category is the ' o r d i n a l ' not the ' i n t e r v a l ' s c a l e , the given values are a r b i t r a r y . Thus, the 'mean' educational leve l i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y u n j u s t i f i a b l e , but conveys a rough idea of the way the groups compare. 50 Person-score, in p a r t i c u l a r , was of v i r t u a l l y the same magnitude. Table 5. B i v a r i t a e tab le of l o ca t i on vs average T-P score l oca t i on T-score(SD) P-score(SD) G r a n v i l l e * 16.3(9.7) 21.8(6.7) Hastings 19.8(7.7) 22.0(7.5) Alma 21.8(6.7) 22.6(7.8) N.Van. 16.6(8.6) 20.0(6.6) a l l l o c a t ' n 18.7(8.4) 21.6(7.1) 51 5-2-2 Interact ion var iab les Number of years l i v e d in Vancouver/ at present address The major i ty o f Ss(N:63 or 72%) had been l i v i n g in Vancouver for more than 5 years . This tendency was cons i s tent a t a l l l o ca t i on s ; G r a n v i l l e : 80%, Hastings: 67%, Alma: 67%, and N. Vancouver: 77%. However, the length of time the Ss had l i v e d at t h e i r present addresses var ied cons iderably from loca t ion to l o c a t i o n . In Alma, 70% o f Ss havemoved to the i r present residences with in the past 5 years as compared to 50% in G r a n v i l l e . Table 6. B i va r i a te t ab le of l oca t i on vs length of time l i v e d in Vancovver Frequency tab le less than up to up to up to up to more than locat ion 2-3 mo. 6 mo. a year 2-3 v r . 5 years 5 years G ranv i l l e D 0 T* 2 — O IT Hstings 0 2 1 1 2 12 Alma 0 0 1 6 2 18 N.Van. 0 0 0 3 2 17 a l l l o c a f n 0 . 2 4 12 6 63 Table 7. B i va r i a te tab le of l o ca t i on vs length of time l i v e d at - r e s e n t address Frequency tab le less than up to up to up to up to more than l oca t i on 2-3 mo. 6 mo. a year 2-3 y r . 5 yr s 5 yrs G ranv i l l e 2 1 1 3 3 10 Hastings 2 3 4 2 0 6 Alma 4 4 3 8 0 8 N.Van. 0 3 2 6 1 10 a l l l o c a t ' n 8 11 10 19 4 35 Mode of t ransportat ion At a l l l o c a t i o n s , very few Ss sampled (N:6 out of 86 or 7%) stated that they r e l y on foot , b i c y c l e , or motorcycle as t h e i r major means of t ransportat ion in the c i t y . A major i ty o f the Ss (49%)' use a s e l f - d r i v e n 52 car , and the res t of the Ss s tated they were bus or car passengers (25%, 17% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Table 8. B i va r i a te tab le of l o ca t i on vs mode of t ranspor ta t ion -Horizontal percentage car car l oca t i on s e l f - d r ' n passe ' r bus G ranv i l l e 50% 5o% 35* Hastings 38% 38% 19% Alma 48-% 22% 22% N.Van. 64% 9% 27% a l l l o c a t ' n 51% 16% 26% Length of d i s tance (milage) t r a v e l l e d per day The average d is tance t r a v e l l e d per dya at a l l l ocat ions was 10 miles (SD: 12)*. This f i gu re was cons i s tent throughout the l oca t i ons . Table 9. B i va r i a te tab le of l oca t i on vs 'mean' milage t r a v e l l e d per day l oca t i on 'mean'(mile) SD Granv i le 11 12 Hastings 6 6 Al ma 12 15 N.Van. 11 11 a l l l o c a t ' n 10.2 12.0 Amount of time (minute) spent t r a v e l l e d per day The average amount of time spent t r a v e l l i n g per day was 56 minutes (SD: 57)*. This f i gure di i l not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y among the four l o ca t i on s . Table 10. B i va r i a te tab le of l o ca t i on vs 'mean' time t r a v e l l e d per day l oca t i on 'mean' (minutes) SD G ranv i l l e 50 54 Hastigs 55 57 Alma 62 62 N.Van. 48 39 a l l l o c a t ' n 54.1 53 53.4 * The same kind of approach as in the case o f 'mean' age in sect ion 5-2-1 was employed. 53 5-3 Estimation of d i s tance 5-3-1 Physical va r i ab le The four sample l oca i i ons were se lected at s t r a t e g i c a l l y determined points in order to generate d i f f e r e n t sets of responses as a re su l t o f the d i f f e r i n g in a environmental aspects along the routes to the des t i na t i on . Thus, the var i ab le of l oca t ion represents the degree of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the physical environment. As descr ibed e a r l i e r ( sec t ion 4 -2 ) , because of the l a rge number of 'edges' which the Ss must cross and the va r i a t i on provided by the contrast of l and, sea, f o r e s t , and c i t y environment, the North Vancouver (or more p rec i se l y the way between the des t ina t ion and the N.Vancouver locat ion) represents the most d i f f e r e n t i a t e d physical environment.* Alma and G r a n v i l l e fo l low in the degree of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n along the ways. The way from the Hastings i s character ized by the most unde f f i ren -c i a t e d , monotonous environment. From Table 11, a rather d i s t i n c t and cons i s tent tendency may be observed; the degree of the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the phys ica l env i ron-ment i s inverse ly re l a ted to the magnitude of the perceived d i s tance. A phys i ca l l y d i v e r s i f i e d , heterogeneous way had a foreshortening e f f e c t upon the perception of the d i s tance. Monotonous physical surroundings corresponded to the subjects^percept ion of the d is tnace as being r e l a t i v e l y longer. However, the v a l i d i t y o f t h i s f ind ing could not be tested s ince other factors were not kept equal , (see sect ion 6-0: Analys i s ) *see map 1,2. Table 11. B i v a r i a t e t ab le of estimated d i s tance vs l oca t ion (C/B) l o ca t i on N A. est imation(mile) SD B.actual d istance C.deviat ion D.%of dev ia t i o G r a n v i l l e 213—571 iTa" O O +2M Hastings 15 5.3 1.9 4.0 1.3 +33% Alma 27 4.8 1.8 4.0 0.8 +20% N.Van. . 22 4.4 1.5 4.0 0.4 +10% a l l l o c a t ' n 84 4.87 1.7.7 4.0 (L87 +22% 55 5-3-2 Interact ion var iab les Mode of t ranspor ta t ion The Ss whose major means of t ranspor ta t ion was c a r ( s e l f - d r i v e n ) (N;43) estimated the d is tance most accura te ly . Bus r iders(N:22) and car(passenger) (N:15) were less accurate in t h e i r est imat ions. Table 12. B ivar iage tab le of estimated distance vs mode of t r an sp r r t a t i on mode estimation (mile) SD deviation (mi 1 e) % of deviation car self-driven 4.6 1.2 0.6 +15* car passenger 5.0 1.7 1.0 +25% bus rider 5.0 2.4 1.0 +25% a l l modes 4.81 1.69 0.81 +20% In comparing the three modes of t r anspor ta t i on , i t may be that d r i v i ng a car onesel f requ i res the most extens ive, a c t i v e involvement in ravigating through the environment. Each navigat ional dec i s ion must be made and executed in r e l a t i o n to the surroundings. In case of r i d i n g a bus, the amount of the required involvement lessens to la rge extent, ye t the passenger s t i l l must make ce r t a i n d e c i s i o n , such as which bus to take in which d i r e c t i o n , and where to t r an s fe r or get o f f . However, the person who r ides in a car as a passenger rather than as a d r i v e r , i s usJ&l ly not assigned any a>ctive r o l e in vav iga t ion. It appears that the magnitude of involvement in an a c t i v e experience with environment through navigat ion p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t s the accuracy of the est imation o f d i s tance. This q u a n t i t a t i v e l y supported f ind ing i s compatible with other studies mentioned prev ious ly in sec t ion 3-2-1. 56 Frequency of v i s i t to the des t ina t ion No cons i s tent tendencies with regard to the var iab les o f frequency of v i s i t and est imation o f the d i s tance were found. In other words, the est imations of Ss who frequent the v i c i n i t y of the Hotel Vancouver at l ea s t once a day i s as good/bad as those o f Ss who go the dest inat ion or i t s v i c i n i t y as in f requent ly as a couple times of a year . Table 13. B i v a r i a te t ab le of estimated d istance vs frequency of v i s i t frequency N estimation SD deviation % of deviation 1/day 8 4.9 1.8 0.9 +23% 2-3/week 14 5.1 2.0 1.1 +28% 2-3/mo. 22 4.8 1.6 0.8 +20% 1/mo. 21 5.1 2.3 1.1 +28% 2-3/year 17 4.5 1.0 0.5 +13% once 1 - - - -never 1 - - - -Length of time l i v e d in Vancouver Since most of the Ss (72%) had l i v e d in Vancouver more than 5 year s , the number o f Ss in other categor ies was accord ing ly sma l l . As a r e s u l t , a comparison of these categories i s i n v a l i d . However, i t appears in the surface that long-term f a m i l i a r i t y with the c i t y does not have any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the accuracy o f the es t imat ion; the average t estimation by res idents o f 5 or more years was +28% greater than the actual d i s tance, whereas the average est imation by a l l Ss deviated by +27%. 57 Table 14. B i v a r i a te tab le of estimated d i s tance vs years l i ved in Vancouver lenqth of time N est imation SD dev ia t ion % o f dev ia t ion up to 2-3mo. 0 " - - - _ -6months 1 - - - _ - l y e a r 3 - 1.2 1.7 43% -2-3yrs 12 5.2 2.5 1.2 30% -5yrs 6 4.2 1.2 0.2 5% 5yrs- 62 4.8 1,7 0.8 20% a l l 84 4.87 1.77 0.87 +22% Length of time l i v e d at Ss ' present addresses Over 40% o f the Ss(N:35) had been l i v i n g at t h e i r present addresses for more than 5 years . The re su l t ind icates that hte Ss o f th i s category (5 or more years) estimated the distance much more inaccurate ly than those in other categor ies . Table 15. B i v a r i a te tab le of estimated d istance vs years l i v e d at the present address length of time N est imation SD dev iat ion %of dev ia t ion up to 2-3 mo. ; 4.7 1.7 0.7 +18% -6 mo. i i 4.6 2.0 0.6 +15% -1 y r 9 4.4 1.5 0.4 +10% -2-3 yrs 19 5.0 1.6 1.0 +25% -5yrs 4 4.3 1.0 0,3 + 8% 5 y r s - 34 5.1 2.0 1.1 +28% Distance t r a v e l l e d per day Although the average est imat ion by Ss in a l l categories exceeded the actura l d i s tance , Ss who t r a v e l l e d 3 to 5 miles a day provided the most accurate est imat ions. Ss who t r a v e l l e d shorter or longer than the above estimated the d i s tance as being much greater. 58 Table 16. B i va r i a te tab le o f estimated d i s tance vs d istance t r a v e l l e d a day distanee est imation SD dev iat ion 5 of dev ia t ion U-1 mile b.2 1.1 1.2 +30% 1 to 2-3 miles 4.8 2.1 0.8 +20% -5 miles 4.4 2.1 0.4 +10% -10 miles 5.0 1.9 1.0 +25% -30 miles 5.0 1.2 1.0 +25% -50 miles 5.8 1.5 1.8 +45% Time t r a v e l l e d per day This va r i ab le had no cons i s tent e f f e c t on the accuracy of the Ss ' est imat ions. Regardless of the amount o f time spent t r a v e l l i n g each - day, the Ss estimated the d is tance as being 20 to 30% greater than the actual d i s tance. Table 17. B i va r i a te tab le of estimated d istance vs time t r a v e l l e d a day time est imation SD * dev iat ion % of dev ia t ion U-b min. 4.5 0.6 " 0.5 +13% 5-15 min. 5.4 1.5 1.4 +35% 15-30 min. 4.8 2.2 0.8 +20% 30-60 min. 4.7 1.8 1.7 +43% 1-2 hr. 4.8 1.3 0.8 +20% 2-3 hr. 5.8 1.5 1.8 +45% 3 hr- 6.0 1.4 2.0 +50% F a m i l i a r i t y The l e ve l s o f f a m i l i a r i t y with the c i t y were determined by the Ss themselves on a purely subject ive basis and they were given no absolute standard of ' f a m i l i a r i t y ' for re ference. They were simply asked i f they knew the c i t y w e l l . The re su l t s ind ica te that the est imations of Ss who know the c i t y ' w e l l ' or 'not so w e l l 1 were as good as those made by Ss who know the c i t y 'very w e l l ' . 59 Table 18. B i va r i a te tab le of estimated d istance vs f a m i l i a r i t y famil i a r i t y very well well not so well not at a l l est imation " o 4.8 5.0 SD TX 1.8 2.2 dev iat ion "O 0.8 1.0 % of dev ia t ion +2 +20% +25% 60 5-3-3 Person var iab les Sex Though both males' and females' est imationthe d i s tance as being greater than the a c t u a l , the males Ss' estimations tended to be more accurate than the females. In add i t i on , the rather large Standard Devia-t i on of females' est imations ind icates that the number of females who made inaccurate estimations was greater. This tendency may stem from the r e l a t i v e immobil ity of women and the lessening of contact with the physical environment which often r e s u l t s . Table 19. B i va r i a te tab le of estimated distance vs sex sex N est imation SD dev iat ion % of dev ia t ion M 40 4.5 1.3 0.5 + 13% F 42 5.3 2.1 1.3 +32% Age Ss aged 19 and under seemed to perceive the d i s tance being cons iderably l a rger than did o lder Ss. Table 20. B i v a r i a te tab le of estimated d i s tance vs age age est imation SD dev iat ion % of dev ia t ion 10-14 6.2 2.4 2.2 +55% 15-19 5.5 2.3 1.5 +38% 20-29 4.7 1.4 0.7 + 18% 30-39 4.7 1.7 0.7 +18% 40-49 4.0 1.0 0.0 + 0% 50-59 5.5 2.3 1.5 +33% 60- 4.1 1.7 0.1 + 3% 61 Education Longer education tended to correspond to more accurate est imations of the d i s tance, except for the category o f elementary school in which the Ss made the most accurate est imat ions. Note: The Ss ' educaitonal leve l means the f i n a l educational leve l a t ta ined as well as the leve l in which the Ss are cu r ren t l y e n r o l l e d . Thus, a S who ind icated his l eve l was jun io r high may be 14 years or 47 years o l d . Table 21. B i va r i a te tab le of estimated distance vs education education estimation SD deviation % of deviation elementary O O O 551 junir high 5.3 2.1 1.3 +32% senior high 4.8 1.3 0.8 +20% college 5.3 2.1 1.3 +33% graduate 4 _ 1.9 0.4 +10%  Or ienta t ion s k i l l This va r i ab le re fe r s to #7 on the quest ionna i re, in which the Ss were asked to evaluate, on a purely sub jec t i ve bas i s , t h e i r o r i en ta t i on s k i l I s . The bet ter t h e i r evaluat ions o f themselves, the more accurate t h e i r estimations of the d i s tance tended to be. Note: The number of Ss who evaluated the i r s k i l l s as 'bad ' or 'very bad' was so small (N:3 and 1 re spec t i ve l y ) that they were excluded from cons idera t ion . Table 22. B i v a r i a te tab le of estimated distance vs o r i en t a t i on s k i l l o r i en ta t i on est imation SD dev ia t ion % o f dev ia t ion VERY good O I7f O +2M good 4.3 1.3 0.3 +8% f a i r 5.6 2.3 1.6 +40% bad -very bad - - - -62 Personal i t y A persona l i ty t e s t , the 'Thing-Person Or ienta t ion Sca le ' (see sect ion 3-1-3), was u t i l i z e d as a means o f assessing the Ss ' i nd iv idua l p red i spos i t ions toward the phys ica l environment. Two independent scores were obtained fo r each S. For more convenient comparison, the method developed by L i t t l e was app l i ed . Based upon the re su l t s of the two sets of T-P tests that each S 's answers supp l ied , they were c l a s s i f i e d into one of four categor ies : Non -Spec ia l i s t , Per son -Spec ia l i s t , T h i n g - S p e c i a l i s t , and Genera l i s t . The Ss whose scores on both the T and P sca les were low were c lass ieded as Non -Spec ia l i s t ; those with a high score on P-scale and low on T - s ca l e as Per son -Spec i a l i s t ; whose with a high score on T - s c a l e and low on P-scale as T h i n g - S p e c i a l i s t ; and, those who obWined a high score on both of the scales as Genera l i s t . For th i s study we have put the d i v i d i ng point between a ' h i gh ' and ' low' score at 20*. In genera l , Ss with high scores on both T- and P-scales estimated the d is tance more accura te ly . There was a cons iderable d i f f e r e n c e between Ss whose T-scores were ' low' and ' h i g h ' . The Ss with high scores on the T - sca le tended to estimate the d is tance more accurate ly (8 or 15% deviat ion) than the Ss with a low score on the T-scale(33 or 25% devoat ion). Table 23. B i v a r i a t e tab le of estimated d i s tance vs T-P typology T-P v., est imation SD % of dev iat ion N Non-Spec ia l i s t b.O 174" 2W 72 Person-Sp. 5.3 2.2 33% 20 Thing-Sp. 4.6 1.0 15% 12 General i s t 4.3 1.6 8% 25 *20 represents the approximate median on both sca les . A s l i g h t adjustment was made to ensure .a f a i r l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the number o f Ss among the four ca tegor ies . 63 6-0 ANALYSIS Thus f a r we have considered p r imar i l y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Ss in each of the locat ions (5-2) and the re la t ionsh ips between the est imation of d i s tance and such var iab les as sex, age, and more of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 5 - 3 ) . In the fo l lowing s ec t i on , we w i l l focus on the re l a t i onsh ip s between the va r i ab le s . We observed e a r l i e r that c e r t a i n var iab les do not appear to a f f e c t the est imation of d is tance s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The frequency o f v i s i t s to the des t ina t ion ( tab le 13), the length of time l i v e d in Vancouver or at the Ss ' present addresses(T.14,15), average distance t r a v e l l e d and time spent t r a v e l l i n g per day(T.16,17), the Ss ' own evaluat ion o f t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y with the ci ,ty(T.18), the educational l eve l o f the Ss(T.21), and the Ss' eva luat ion o f t h e i r o r i en ta t i ona l s k i l l s ( T . 2 2 ) seem to bear l i t t l e or no r e l a t i o n to an accurate est imation o f d i s tance . Although Lynch has observed that the qua l i t y of environmental perception and the s e l e c t i v i t y o f the perception changes as f a m i l i a r i t y i n c rea se s 1 , our f ind ings with regard to the perception o f d is tance suggest that the degree of f a m i l i a r i t y with the envrionment is not i n f l u e n t i a l in determining the accuracy o f the perception of d i s tance . This f ind ing confirms our e a r l i e r assumption ( p 2 8 ) that the perception of d is tance f luc tuates only at the time the cogn i t i ve map of the envrionment in question is in the process o f being const ructed. A f t e r the i n i t i a l exposure to an unfami l i a r s e t t i n g , the mental map obtained seems to remain f a i r l y s t ab le . Since our f ind ings ind i ca te that long-term f a m i l i a r i t y in terms 1. see 3-1, F a m i l i a r i t y . 64 of months or years ne i ther improves nor lessens the accuracy o f the perception of d i s tance, i t appears that the existence o f simple mental map alone is s u f f i c i e n t fo r est imating the d i s tance. It may be that because information concerning d i s tance is fundamental in t r a v e l l i n g , such infromation i s r ap id l y processed and recorded mental ly in s i tua t i ons where the emphasis i s on the a c q u i s i t i o n of a mental map. This would expla in why four of the var iab les (frequency o f v i s i t s to the de s t i na t i on , the average distance/t ime spent t r a v e l l i n g per day, and subject ive evaluat ion of f a m i l i a r i t y with the c i t y ) seemed to have l i t t l e e f f e c t on the perception of d i s tance , s ince these are i n te rac t i ona l var iab les which e s s e n t i a l l y examine the leve l o f long-term f a m i l i a r i t y with the c i t y . The var iab les which d id appear to have some e f f e c t on the est imation of the distance were: mode of t ranspor ta t ion (Table 12), s ex (T .19 ) , age (T.20), Things-orientation score (T.23) and phys ica l va r i ab le ( T . l l ) . Mode of t ranspor ta t ion We stated e a r l i e r that the s t ruc tur ing o f the cogn i t i ve map var ies with the mode of t ranspor ta t ion used by the Ss ( sect ion 3-2-1). Consequently, we assumed that the d is tance would a lso be perceived d i f f e r e n t l y as ia r e s u l t of the e f f e c t s of t h i s v a r i ab l e , and our f ind ings were in l i n e with th i s assumption. The estimations made by car d r i ve r s were most accurate, and those by bus r i de r s and car passengers were less accurate (Table 12 in sect ion 5-3-2). The d i f fe rences in the accuracy of the estimations could be a t t r i bu ted so l e l y to the d i f fe rences in mode of t r anspor ta t i on , but, a t th i s po in t , such a conclus ion is quest ionable. For instance, we know that most of the car d r i ve r s were male, and our data ind icates that 65 males tended to be more accurate in t h e i r estimations of the d i s tance than females (Table 19). Therefore, the d i f ferences evident in the three mode categor ies may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to the sex d i f f e r e n c e rather than to the mode d i f f e r e n c e s . In order to c l a r i f y th i s and other points f u r t h e r , we performed add i t iona l tests to obtain more information on the r e l a t i o n between the mode of t ransportat ion and other va r i ab le s . In the case of sex and mode; the two var iab les are i n te r re l a ted .1 The fo l lowing tables i nd i ca te that car d r i v e r s , on the whole t r a v e l l e d the longest d istance per day as compared to bus r i d e r s and car passengers. Car passengers spent the l ea s t amount of time t rave l l ing,and car d r i ver s and bus r i d e r s spent about an hour per day t r a v e l l i n g in the c i t y . Table 24 Mu l t i va r i a te tab le o f mode of t ranspor ta t ion vs t ime/distance t r a v e l l e d per day time d istance mode N mean(min.) SD mean(mile) Sd CAR(self-dHven)43 61 52 T5 1* bus r i d e r 22 63 66 9 11 car( passenger) 14 23 25 3 3 Although these re su l t s would appear to i nd i ca te , when considered in r e l a t i o n to Table 12, that the longer (d i s tance wise) the exposure to the environment per day the more accurate the est imation of the d i s tance, our previous data disproves th i s conc lus ion. The va r i ab le o f d i s tance/ time o f t rave l per day did not have a cons i s tent e f f e c t on the accuracy of the est imation o f the d i s tance (Tables 16,17 in 5-3-2). We have a l so observed that Ss with high ' Th ing -o r ien ta t i on score ' made more accurate estimations of the d is tance (T. 23 in 5-3-3). 1. With regard to the r e l a t i o n between sex and mode, see page 70. 66 - Consequently, i f for some reason the average T-score of car d r i ver s in our survey was higher than that o f the bus r i d e r s and car passengers, the d i f f e rence might a c t u a l l y be a t t r i b u t a b l e to the d i f f e rence in T-score rather than to the mode va r i ab le . The fo l lowing t ab le shows the re su l t s o f a te s t of the r e l a t i o n between T-score and the mode o f t ranspor ta t ion . Table 25 Mu l t i va r i a te tab le o f mode of t ranspor ta t ion vs T- and P-score mode N T-score P-score mean SD mean SD c a r ( s e l f - d r . ) 43 i a 8 21 8 bus r i d e r 21 17 8 23 7 car(passenger) 11 20 9 22 5 The above tab le ind icates that the average T-score of the three groups of Ss in the mode categories were v i r t u a l l y same. Thus f a r , our data supports the theory that the mode o f transporta t i on a f f ec t s the accuracy of the est imation of the d i s tance. {Mode o t \ _ ( E s t i m a t i o n ^ V t r a n s p o r t ' n j V o f d i s tance ) F i g . 1 Age We noted prev ious ly that Ss under 19 years o f age seemed to perceive the d i s tance as being cons iderably greater than d id the o lder Ss (Table 20 in 5-3-3). Thus, we d iv ided the Ss into two groups, those aged 19 and under and those over 20, and obtained the fo l lowing r e s u l t s : 67 Table 26 B i v a r i a te tab le o f age vs estimated d i s tance age N est imation SD % of dev ia t ion under 19 IE 575 273 +*5I ~ over 20 65 4.6 1.6 +15% The above tab le c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s the same tendency: on the average, younger Ss estimated the d is tance as being greater than the older ones. Again, we were uncertain as to whether or not the d i f f e rence (percentage o f er ror in the d is tance est imat ion: 45% vs 15%) could be a t t r i bu ted s o l e l y to the age d i f f e r e n c e . The re su l t s of the tabu la t ion of another set o f data i nves t i ga t i ng the r e a l t i o n s h i p between age and other var iab les are as fo l lows: Table 26b B i v a r i a t e tab le o f age vs frequency of v i s i t to the des t ina t ion age N frequency*  under 19 IB" 37ST over 20 65 3.6 Table 27 Mu l t i va r i a te tab le o f age vs time l i v e d in Vancouver/at Ss ' addresses age N time l i v e d in Van. at Ss ' addresses _ mean* (mo.) SD mean* (mo.) SD under 19 IB 59 23 *5 33 over 20 65 66 23 41 32 Tables 26 and 27 ind i ca te that both groups of Ss v i s i t e d or passed near by the des t inat ion with v i r t u a l l y the same level o f frequency, and that Ss aged 19 and under have l i v e d in Vancouver or at t h e i r present adrresses longer than the o lder Ss. * Certa in processes were appl ied fo r hhe sake of s i m p l i c i t y , see f . n . in sect ion 5-2-1. 68 Table 28 Mu l t i va r i a te tab le of age vs t ime/distance t r a v e l l e d per day age time d istance SD SD under 19 49 58 3.4 2.9 over 20 53 48 11.3 11.6 Table 29 Mu l t i va r i a te tab le of age vs T- and P-score age mean(T) SD mena(P) SD under 19 20 10 19 6 over 20 19 8 23 7 Table 30 B i v a r i a te t av l e of age vs TP typology (Horizontal percentage) age under 19 over 20 Non-Spc ia l ' t Person-Sp ' t Th ing-Spe ' t Genera l i s t T* ~WTX- IB 17* V m 435T 22% 28% 12% 31% 43% T*: Percentage o f Ss whose T-scores were higher than 20, i e . , percentage of T h i n g - s p e c i a l i s t plus that o f Genera l i s t . In add i t i on , tables 29 and 30 show that the average T-scores of both groups were p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l , and that the perceptage o f Ss whose T-scores were high (T over 20) was a l so v i r t u a l l y the same in both groups. Ss in both groups spent, on the average, almost the same amount of time t r a v e l l i n g per day, but Ss 19 and under t r a v e l l e d les s d i s tance than the o lder Ss. However, t h i s d i f f e rence has l i t t l e or no s i g n i f i c a n c e , s ince as we have already shown, the amount of t ime/distance t r a v e l l i n g per day had no e f f e c t on the accuracy o f the est imat ion. Thus f a r , the re su l t s from Table 26 to 30 support the simple r e l a t i on sh ip between the age va r i ab le and the est imation of the d i s tance. However, with a t e s t o f the age and mode var iab les the r e l a t i o n s h i p becomes more complicated as the fo l lowing tabee ind i ca tes : 69 Table 31 B i v a r i a te tab le of age vs mode o f t ransportat ion (Horizontal percentage) age c a r ( s e l f - d r . ) bus r i d e r under 19 12% m over 20 58% 28% TH 11% car(passenger) The major i ty o f the o lder Ss (aged over 20) were car d r i ve r s as compared to only 12% of car d r i ver s among the younger Ss. Since many o f younger Ss probably do not have access to a car fo r various reasons, th i s f i nd ing is reasonable. We have observed that the mode of t ranspor ta t ion is l i k e l y to have an e f f e c t on d i s tance percept ion; car d r i ver s made the more accurate est imat ions. Since only a r e l a t i v e l y small percentage o f the younger Ss are car d r i ver s (12%) as compared to the older Ss (58%), the mode va r i ab le alone could r e s u l t in the lower degree of accuracy of est imation by younger Ss. L o g i c a l l y speaking, we could say that there i s a strong r e l a t i o n -ship between the mode and age va r i ab l e s , and that the d i f f e rence in the est imations o f the younger and the o lder Ss can be a t t r i bu ted s o l e l y to the mode va r i ab le (F i g .2 ) . On the other hand, we could a lso say that exact ly the opposite i s t rue ; that only the Ss ' age determines the d i s tance perception and mode of t r a v e l l i n g has no e f f e c t on perception ( F i g .3 ) . F ig .2 F ig .3 Key ( fo r F i g . l through Fig.17) : d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n : apparent r e l a t i o n : no r e l a t i o n 70 However, i t i s un l i ke l y that e i the r of these extreme re l a t i onsh ip s occur in r e a l i t y . As we noted e a r l i e r , Appleyard found that the cogn i t i ve map i s s t ructured d i f f e r e n t l y according to the Ss ' mode o f t ransportat ion (3-2-1) . Thus, we have concluded that there d e f i n i t e l y i s a r e l a t i on sh ip between the mode and the age v a r i a b l e s , and that both o f these var iab les had an e f f e c t on the perception o f the d i s tance F i g . 4 Sex The d istance est imations made by the male Ss, on the whole, were much more accurate than those made by female Ss (5 -3-3) . Table 32 B i va r i a te t ab le o f sex vs mode o f t ranspor ta t ion sex c a r ( s l e f - d r . ) bus car(passenger) fl m  F 35% 33% 26% In add i t ion to the r e l a t i o n between sex and the estimatoon of d i s tance (Table 19), fur ther re l a t i on sh ip s between sex and the other va r i ab le s were s tud ied. As expected, female Ss tended to be bus r i d e r s or car passengers r:ather than car d r i v e r s . In cont ra s t , near ly 70% o f the male Ss were car d r i v e r s . Considering that the tendency is s t i l l for more men than women to work outs ide the home and that in cases where both a husband and wife commute, the husband may have use of a s ing le fami ly ca r , ( F i g . 4 ) . >71 th i s f ind ing is within reason. Thus, we can say that a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n between the var iab les o f sex and mode e x i s t . (F ig.5) Sex r ~f Mode of t ransportat ion] Fig.5 Table 33 Mu l t i va r i a te tab le of sex vs t ime/distance t r a v e l l e d per day sex time distance mean*(min.) SD mean*(mile) SD M m—r. • 33 n ~^—n— F 45 > 58 7 7 The above ind icates tha t , as a r e s u l t of e i ther the mode of t ranspor ta t ion preferred by female Ss or t h e i r l i f e s ty les ( p a r t i c u l a r l y that of the housewi f r a) , the female Ss appear to less mobile. Again, we face a s im i l a r s i t ua t i on as in the case of Age in that we know a d e f i n i t e re l a t i on sh ip between the sex and the mode var iab les e x i s t s . However, the data ava i labe l is i n s u f f i c i e n t for determining whether only one of the two va r i ab le ( i e . , sex and mode) a f f e c t s the accuracy of the est imation ( c f . F i g . 6,7) whether both in combination have an e f f e c t on the accuracy (F i g .8 ) . In r e a l i t y , we can not consider the mode and sex var iab les separate ly , and i t appears that they should be considered together when d i scuss ing the accuracy of the es t imat ion. 72 To summarize the re la t ionsh ips considered thus f a r , the mode, age, and sex var iab les a l l seemed to have an e f f e c t on the perception of the d i s tance. In a d d i t i o n , both the sex and age var iab les were found to be re l a ted to the mode va r i ab le , whi le the sex and age var iab les bore no re l a t i onsh ip s to each other. (Fig.9) F ig.9 Thing-Person Or ienta t ion Scale Prev ious ly , we noted that T-P typology was re l a ted to the est imation of the d i s tance. We hypothesized that hhe var iab le which a c t u a l l y had an e f f e c t on the est imation was the Th ing -or ienta t ion score rather than Person-score, and our r e su l t s confirmed th i s (Table 34,35). Table 34 B i va r i a te tab le of Th ing -or ienta t ion score vs estimated d istance T.-score*. N _ est imation SD % of dev ia t ion tmder zu 44 b.2 1.8 +30% over 20 38 4.4 1.4 +10% Table 35 B i v a r i a te tab le of Person-or ientat ion score vs estimated d istance P-score N est imation SD % of dev ia t ion under 20 32 4.8 1.3 ' +20% over 20 47 4.8 2.1 +20% We d iv ided the Ss in to two groups according to t h e i r T or P scores . Ss whose T-scores were higher (T over 20) were more accurate in rfcbeir 73 est imation than the Ss with a lower T-score (T under 20). (Table 34) However, Ss with high and low P-scores made, on the average, est imations with v i r t u a l l y the same degree of accuracy. In other words, the P-scale was not re l a ted to the accuracy of the est imation (F i g .10) . Thus f a r , i t i s apparent that a l l three of the var iab les of sex, age, and mode had an e f f e c t on the accuracy of est imation ( F i g .9 ) . The r e l a t i o n between the T - va r i ab l e and these var iab les i s shown in Table 36,37. Table 36 B i v a r i t t e tab le of sex vs Th ing - sca le T-score sex mean SD fl 2D 5 F 17 9 Table 37 B i v a r i a te tab le of sex vs T-P typology (Horizontal percentage) Sex n o n - s p e c i a l ' t person-sp ' t t h i ng - spe ' t genera l i s t T over 20 M m 2 0 * m m F 20% 36% 9% 30% 39% These re su l t s i nd i ca te that the average T-score of male Ss was s l i g h t l y higher than that of the females, and that the percentage of male Ss whose T-score was higher was greater than that o f the female (49% vs 39%). note: The r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex and T-score var iab les seems to be rather weak, and the s i gn i f i c ance tes t was not performed. However, the studies prev ious ly c a r r i e d out by L i t t l e showed the same tendency; males obtained higher T - scores . Thus, we can conclude that a r e l a t i o n between the sex and T-score va r i ab le did e x i s t . (Fig.11) 74 Fig.11 With regard to mode, about one h a l f o f the Ss in each group (T over 20, T under 20) used a c a r ( s e l f - d r i v e n ) , whereas approximately a quarter used the bus, and the remainder were car passengers. Thus, both Ss whose T-scores were higher and lower had a s im i l a r pattern with regard to the mode of t r an spor ta t i on . Therefore, the T-score and the mode var iab le are independent (Fig.12) Fig.12 With regard to the r e l a t i o n between T-score and age, the average T-score of the younger Ss was higher than that of o lder Ss. S ince these d i f fe rences were considerably l a rger with f a i r l y small standard - dev i a t i on , we have concluded that these two var iab les were re l a ted to each ohter (Fig.13) Thus f a r , we have examined various i n te rac t i on and person va r i ab l e s . On the i n te rac t i on va r i ab le s , only the mode of t ransportat ion seemed to have had an e f f e c t on the perception of the d i s tance. Of the person va r i ab le s , only three of them, sex, age, and T-score appear to have a f fec ted the percept ion. 75 With regard to the re l a t i onsh ip s of these var iab les to each o ther , although both the sex and age var iab les were d e f i n i t e l y re l a ted to the mode v a r i a b l e , the T - v a r i a b l e was not re l a ted to the mode. The sex va r i ab le was d e f i n i t e l y re la t ioned to the T - v a r i a b l e , and the age var iab le: a lso appears to have been re la ted to T - v a r i a b l e . The sex and age var iab les were not re l a ted to each other. A l l of these var iab les seemed to have been re la ted to the est imation of the d i s tance or to the perception of i t (F ig .14, 15). Fig.15 The Person-scale var i ab le was added to the group of va r i ab les which were considered to have no e f f e c t on the perception (F i g .16 ) . 76 interaction Frequency of visit to the destination Length of time/lived in Vancouver/at Ss'addresses Distance/time travelled per day Subjective evaluation of aamiliarity with city person Education level Subjective evaluation of orientation skil ls Person-score Fig. 16 Variables that seemed to have no effect on the perception of the distance Physical variable Since the survey was designed to measure the possible effects of the physical characteristics of the environment on distance perception by means of sampling at the four different locations, we compared the four average estimations of the distance made by the four groups of Ss from the four location with the following results. Table 11 Bivariate table of estimated distance vs location location N estimation SD % of deviation Granvilie 20 b. l 1.8 +28% Hastings 15 5.3 1.9 +33% Alma 27 4.8 1.8 +20% N. Van. 22 4.4 1.5 +10% We tentatively concluded earlier that a physically diversified way had a foreshortening effect on the perception of the distance, provided that ] 77 other fac tore were kept equal.(5-3-1) We discussed previous ly the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Ss a t the four d i f f e r e n t locat ions (5 -2) , and in the preceding sect ion (5-3) the var iab les which d id or d id not a f f e c t the perception o f the d i s tance. U t i l i z i n g these two sets o f data, our in tent ion was to examine the v a l i d i t y o f t h i s t en ta t i ve conc lus ion. There were four c t i t i c a l var iab les : mode, sex, age, and T - score . Since other var iab les were found to be neutral with regard to the d i s tance percept ion, an examination of those var iab les was unnecessary. The fo l lowing data is taken from tables 1,2,5 and 8 in sect ion 5-2. Table 38 Mu l t i v a r i a te tab le of l oca t i on vs sex, age, T - score , and mode l oca t i on sex age T-score mode M F mean mean c a r ( s e l f dr . ) bus+car(pass.) G r a n v i l l e m—m % TS m 35* Hastings 29% 71% 25 20 38% 57% Alma 48% 48% 31 22 48% 44% N. Van. 64% 32% 40 17 64% 36% These f ind ings immediately i nva l i da te our tenta t i ve conclus ion because the important factors of sex, age, e t c . , were not kept equal at a l l l o ca t i on s . Had a l l four var iab les been the same at a l l four l o ca t i on s , the prov i s ion would have been s a t i s f i e d and we could have concluded that the - physical va r i ab le was re s -pns ib l e fcr the var ia t ions in the est imation of the distance at the four l o c a t i o n s . Or, had only one or even two of the four 'variables f luctuated whi le the others remained equal , we might have been able to apply adjustments in order to neu t r a l i ze these f l uctuat ions . * *note: "Analys is o f covariance with mu l t ip le cova r i a te s " , UBC BMD04V, UBC Computing Centre. 78 Thus, at t h i s point we were forced to conclude that our data could not tes t whether the physical va r i ab le had an e f f e c t on the perception o f the d is tance or not. (Fig.17) Phys i ca l * ? /Es t imat ion va r i ab l e / * ^o f d i s tance Fig.17 79 6-1 Further ana lys i s on physical va r i ab le Having concluded that we could not tes t the e f fec t s o f the physical va r i ab le on the perception of d is tance because the c h a r a c t e r i -s t i c s of the four groups o f Ss at the four locat ions were cons iderably d i f f e r e n t , we came to the conclus ion that ef-van i f the groups of Ss at the locat ions differ: ' ! from each other as a whole, we could set a standard and se lec t (those Ss who met that standard. Thus, by choosing the same kind of Ss from each of the four l o ca t i on s , we could compare the average est imation of the d i s tance made by groups of th i s l im i ted number of ' q u a l i f i e d ' Ss at each l o c a t i o n . S ince our r e s u l t s i nd i ca te that only four o f the var iab les a f fec ted the perception s i g n i f i c a n t l y , we based our se lec t i on of ' q u a l i f i e d ' Ss on the var iab les of sex, age, mode o f t r anspor ta t i on , and Th ing -or ienta t ion score only. Obviously, the poss ib le standards of ' q u a l i f i c a t i o n ' can vary and can be very s t r i c t or very loose. In t h i s case, s e t t i ng the standards too s t r i c t l y would r e s u l t in having only few Ss to represent each l o c a t i o n , an undesirable s i t u a t i o n because the r e s u l t s would be s t a t i s t i c a l l y quest ionable. On the other hand, se t t ing the standards too loose ly would mean .that though each locat ion would be represented by more Ss, the nature of the Ss at each l oca t i on would vary wide ly , and we would be unable to judge whether r e s u l t was determined by the physical va r i ab le or was a lso a f fec ted by the other va r i ab le s . Thus, our establishment of poss ib le standards r e f l e c t s an attempt to i d e n t i f y optimum standards which would both q u a l i f y the la rges t number of Ss and, at the same t ime, ensure the s t r i c t e s t standards. We estab l i shed our standards on the basis of the four c r i t i c a l va r i ab le s . One poss ib le combination, for example, might 80 cons i s t of Ss who were male, aged 15 to 19, bus r i d e r s , and with a Th ing -or ienta t ion score between 30 to 40.* *note: Se lec t i on of Ss based on these standards can be e a s i l y done by using IF and SET S p e c i f i c a t i o n s . For d e t a i l , see B j e r r i n g , J . and others , UBC MVTAB, UBC Computing Centre 1973, pp 41,51. For the sex v a r i a b l e , usua l ly there can be no a l t e r n a t i v e standard - other than spec i fy ing male or femalpa. However, fo r the age var i ab le there were several a l t e r n a t i v e s ; for example, those between 15 and 19 years of age, those over 40, e t c . However, s ince our e a r l i e r f ind ings on the est imation of the distance ind icated that Ss aged 19 and under over-est imated much more than the Ss over 20 (Tables 20, 26), i t seemed that the most l o g i c a l standard would be a d i v i s i o n of the Ss in to two groups; under 19 or over 20, For the mode of t ranspor ta t ion va r i ab l e , there were three poss ib le l e v e l s ; car d r i v e r s , bus r i d e r s , and car passen-ger. However, because car d r i ve r s made the most accurate est imations of the d i s tance (+15% of the actual d istance) and the est imations made by bus r i de r s and car passengers were very .s imi lar to each other (both of them estimated 25% above the actual d i s tance, see Table 12), we combined the l a t t e r two categor ies in to one l eve l o f standard to a r r i v e at two l eve l s of standard for the mode va r i ab l e . Because of the var ia t ions in the T-scores of the Ss, numerous standards in t h i s area were pos s ib le . However, in order to inc lude as many Ss as pos s ib le , we set two l eve l s o f standards; T - score 20 and under and over 20. With two l e ve l s of standards for a l l o f the four v a r i ab l e s , we produced 16 combinations. No Ss could be c l a s s i f i e d into more than one combination group, unless he/she answered, for instance, he/she was both male and female. Nearly a l l Ss could be c l a s s i f i e d into one of the 16 81 groups, unless he f a i l e d to supply answer/(s) for one or more of the four questions which corresponded to the four va r i ab le s . In th i s case, he would not be c l a s s i f i e d into any of the 16 groups. Table 39 D e f i n i t i o n ( ' q u a l i f i c a t i o n ' ) of ' g roup ' , or nature of Ss in each 'group' group d e f i n i t i o n sex age mode T-score 1:M 1:under19 1: car d r . 1:under 20 2:F 2:over20 2: bus+c.p ,2:over 20 A 1 1 1 1 B. 1 1 1 2 C 1 1 2 1 D 1 1 2 2 E 1 2 1 1 F 1 2 1 2 G 1 2 2 1 H 1 2 2 2 I 2 1 1 1 J 2 1 1 2 K 2 1 2 1 L 2 1 2 2 M 2 2 1 1 H 2 2 1 2 0 2 2 2 1 P 2 2 2 2 Thus, with ragard to the four c t i t i c a l v a r i ab l e s , a l l o f the Ss in any one of the 16 groups would have a s im i l a r personal back ground or i n te rac t i ona l experience. For instance, a l l of the Ss in ". group A would be male, aged 19 and under, car d r i v e r , and would have a T-score under 20 (see tab le above). The next step was to look at how the Ss form the four locat ions - who are in the new groups of ' q u a l i f i e d ' Ss, estimated the d i s tance. Since the Ss in each of these groups had c l o se l y resembling c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the d i f f e rence in the est imation can be a t t r i bu ted so l e l y to the physical v a r i ab le s . 82 The re su l t s o f our t abu la t i on of the average est imation by the Ss t. in each group against the four locat ions are shown in tab le 40. Table 40 B i v a r i a te tab le of locatoon vs est imation of the distance by each group group* l o c a t i o n G ranv i l l e Hastings Alma N.V< A N*,* 0 0 0 0 - - _ _ R** - - - -B N c 0 0 0 0 L. R - - - -C N 0 1 1 0 E - 3.0 8.0 -R - - - -D N 2 0 0 0 E 4.5 - _ R - - - -E N 2 1 2 6 E 6.0 5.0 5.5 4.3 R 1 3 2 4 F N 1 2 6 4 E 4.0 6.0 3.3 3.8 R 2 1 4 3 G N 0 0 1 3 E - - 5.0 3.7 R - - - -H N 1 0 2 1 E 5.0 - 4.5 5.0 R 1 - 2 1 I N 0 0 0 1 E - - - 4.0 R - - - -J N 1 0 1 0 E 5.0 - 6.0 R - - - -K N 1 2 0 1 E 10.0 7.0 - 5.0 R 1 2 - 3 c o n t . . . 83 L N 0 1 1 0 E - 3.0 7.0 -R - - - -M N 6 2 0 2 E 4.5 6.0 - 5.5 R 3 1 - 2 N N 0 1 2 1 E - 5.0 5.5 3.0 R - 2 1 3 0 N 3 1 3 2 E 5.3 5.0 4.3 6.5 R 2 3 4 1 P N 1 2 5 0 E 3.0 4.0 4.0 -R 2 1 1 _ * : c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Ss in each group were defined in tab le 39. * * : N; number of Ss, E: est imation of the d i s tance (mi le ) , R: ' r a n k 1 . As expected, only a few Ss q u a l i f i e d for a group; no Ss q u a l i f i e d fo r group A,B, and the l a r ges t number of Ss was 13 found in group F. We compared only the average estimations made by the Ss in each group. This comparison must be made wi th in a gooup, and any cross-group comparisons are meaningless because the ' q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ' o f the Ss vary from one group to another. Natura l l y , no comparisons could be made i f there were no Ss in a group (A and B) , or i f one or two locat ions were represented by the Ss 9C,D,G, I ,J, and L ) . Comparisons were made only i f a l l of the four locat ions or three of them were represented by the Ss (E ,F ,0 , and H,K,M,N,P, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The re su l t s are summarized in Table 41, 42. 84 Table 41* B i va r i a te tab le of ' rank ' vs l oca t i on Frequency tab le rank l o c a t i o n (number of times ranked) G r a n v i l l e Hastings Alma N.Van. largest e s t ' n 3 a 2 2 2nd larges t es t .3 2 2 1 3rd aargest e s t . l 2 0 3 shortest e s t ' n 0 0 2 1  * Ranking was made among three or four locat ions represented, i e . , group E,F,H,K,M,N,0 and P. Table 42** B i va r i a te tab le of ' rank ' vs locatoon Frequency tab le rank l o c a t i o n (number of times ranked) G r a n v i l l e Hastings Alma N.Van. largest e s t ' n I I 13 I 2nd larges t " 2 0 1 0 3rd 0 2 0 1 shortest e s t ' n 0 0 2 1 * * Ranking was made among four locat ions represented o n l y , i e . , group E,F, and 0. These tables ind ica te that ofthe comparisons made in each group, the est imations at Alma and N. Vancouver l oca t ions tended to rank more frequent ly than G ranv i l l e or Hastings as the ' t h i r d l a r g e s t ' or i t-' shor tes t e s t ima t i on ' . However, the v a l i d i t y of these re su l t s is rather dubious. Despite the f a c t that the comparisons were made among very s i m i l a r Ss where a l l of the four var iab les were c o n t r o l l e d , the number of Ss Who represented a l o c a t i o n was so small that often only one S represented a l o c a t i o n . The next step was to reduce number of var iab les c o n t r o l l e d , in order to increase the number of Ss who represented each l o c a t i o n . 85 This t ime, only two of the four var iab les were c o n t r o l l e d . Thus, there were s i x poss ib le combinations for the two var iab les (eg . , sex-age, sex-mode, mode-T-score). Within a combination, there were four poss ib le combinations, s ince there were two l e ve l s o f each v a r i a b l e . Therefore, we had 24 combinations a l together . Table 43 ind icates ' q u a l i f i c a t i o n ' or the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Ss in each group; fo r instance, a l l of the Ss in group Al were male aged 19 and under, but they may be e i ther 'car d r i v e r ' , 'bus r i d e r ' , or 'car passenger' and t h e i r T - score may be e i the r under 20 or over 20. Unl ike the previous case where four var iab les were c o n t r o l l e d , most o f the Ss appeared repeatedly in d i f f e r e n t groups, s ince only two of the var iab les were c o n t r o l l e d . Table 43 D e f i n i t i o n ( " q u a l i f i c a t i o n " ) of ' g roup ' , or nature of Ss in each group d e f i n i t i o n sex age mode T-score 1:M 1:1-19 l :car dr . 1:1-19 group 2:F 2:20- 2:bus+c.p.2:20-A T ~ ^ j « A l l 1 2 * * AIII 2 1 * * AIV 2 2 * * BI 1 * 1 * BII 1 * 2 * B i l l 2 * 1 * BIV 2 * 2 * CI 1 * * 1 ' CI I 1 * * 2 CI 11 2 * * 1 CIV 2 * * 2 DI 8 1 1 * DII. * 1 2 * D i l i * 2 1 * DIV * 2 2 * c o n t ' d . . . 86 EI * 1 * 1 EII * 1 * 2 EIII * 2 * 1 EIV * 2 * 2 FI * * 1 1 FII * * 1 2 F i l l * * 2 1 FIV * * 2 2 * : these var iab les were not c o n t r o l l e d . The r e s u l t s of a tabu la t ion of the average est imations against l o ca t i on (Table 44), and are summarized in Table 45 Table 44 B i v a r i a te tab le of l o ca t i on vs est imation of the d i s tnace by each group l o c a t i o n N.Van. a l N* 3 1 1 0 E* 4.3 3.0 8.0 R* 2 3 1 -A l l N 4 4 11 14 E 5.3 5.0 4.1 4.1 R 1 2 3 3 Al II N 2 4 2 2 R 7.5 6.8 6.5 4.5 R 1 2 3 4 AIV N 10 6 11 5 E 4.6 5.0 4.9 5.4 R 4 2 3 1 BI N 4 4 9 10 E 5.8 5.0 4.0 4.1 R 1 2 4 3 BII N 3 1 4 4 E 4.7 3.0 5.5 4.0 R 2 4 1 3 B i l l N 7 3 3 4 E 4.6 5.7 5.7 4.5 R 2 1 1 3 BIV N 5 6 10 3 E 5.8 5.0 5.0 6.0 R 2 3 3 1 c o n t ' d . . , CI N 4 2 4 9 E 5.8 4.0 6.0 4.1 R 2 4 1 3 CII N 4 2 9 5 E 4.5 6.0 3.8 4.0 R 2 1 4 3 CI II N 10 5 3 6 E 5.3 6.2 4.3 5.5 R 3 1 4 2 CIV N 2 5 9 1 E 4.0 5.2 4.8 3.0 R 3 1 2 4 DI N 1 0 1 1 E 5.0 - 6.0 4.0 R 2 - 1 3 DII N 3 4 2 2 R 6.3 5.0 7.5 4.5 R 2 3 1 4 D i l i N 9 7 10 13 E 4.8 5.3 4.2 4.2 R 2 1 3 3 DIV N 5 3 12 6 E 4.8 4.3 4.8 4.8 R 1 2 1 1 DI N 2 3 1 2 E 7.0 5.7 8.0 4.5 R 2 3 1 4 EI I N 3 2 2 1 E 4.7 6.5 6.5 4.0 R 2 1 1 3 EI 11 N 11 4 6 13 E 5.0 5.5 4.8 4.7 R 2 1 3 4 EIV N 3 5 15 6 E 4.0 5.0 4.0 3.8 R 2 1 2 3 FI N 9 3 3 9 E 5.1 5.7 5.3 4.6 R 3 1 2 4 continue. . . 88 FII N 2 3 10 5 E 4.5 5.7 4.2 3.6 R 2 1 3 4 F i l l N 4 4 5 6 E 6.5 5.5 5.2 4.8 R 1 2 3 4 FIV N 4 3 8 2 E 4.3 3.7 4.5 4.5 R 2 3 1 1  * : N: number o f Ss, E: est imation o f the d i s t ance (mi le ) , R: rank, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Ss in each group were defined in table43. ** Table 45 B i v a r i a te tab le of ' rank ' and l oca t i on Frequency tab le ( 'Ranking ' was made among three or four locat ions were represented) 1 o c a t i o n (number of times ranked) rank G r a n v i l l e Hastings Alma N.Van. largest e s t ' n b 10 10 4 2nd la rges t " 15 6 3 1 3rd 3 5 8 10 shortest e s t ' n 1 2 3 8 These tables i nd i ca te that the est imations by ' q u a l i f i e d ' Ss a t the N.Vancouver l oca t i on tended to rank more f requent ly as the ' t h i r d l a r g e s t ' or ' shor tes t est imation* than d id the estimations made' at the other three l oca t i on s . The tendency was apparently s trong; throughout the 24 comparisons of each group (Al to F IV), the estimations a t the N.Vancouver l oca t ion ranked 18 times as '3rd l a r g e s t ' or ' shor tes t e s t i m a t i o n 1 , whi le the est imations at G r a n v i l l e , Hast ings, and Alma ranked only 4, 7, and 11 t imes, r e s p e c t i v e l y , as '3rd l a r g e s t ' or ' s ho r te s t ' es t imat ion. We faced a dilemma with regard to the v a l i d i t y of the r e s u l t s . For our previous t e s t we set a s t r i c t standard ( ' q u a l i i f c a t i o n ) so that the comparisons of the est imations of the d i s tance were taken only from homogeneous Ss. In other words, a l l o f the four c r i t i c a l var iab les were 89 c o n t r o l l e d . However, because the standards were s t r i c t , only a few Ss represented a l oca t i on and the v a l i d i t y of the average estimations by such a small number of Ss was quest ionable. Our next step was to apply less s t r i c t standards so that the average estimations at a l o ca t i on might be made by a l a rger number of Ss. Due to the increased number of the Ss, the ' s t a t i s t i c a l ' v a l i d i t y o f the average est imations was increased, but at the same time the homogeneity of the Ss decreased. That means that we can not decide whether the r e s u l t s were a t t r i b u t a b l e to the physical v a r i ab le or to the other two uncontro l led v a r i a b l e s . In the event that fur ther studies are undertaken, we recommend that the number of Ss be l a r ge r in order to avoid the problem descr ibed i above. However, an increase of th i s nature w i l l a l so resu l t , in an increase in the s i z e (phys ica l area) of the ' l o c a t i o n s ' . In p a r t i c u l a r , the surveyor must c o l l e c t data from a l a r ger area i f i t i s one with a low populat ion dens i ty . Therefore, the distance from the nearest point of the l oca t i on to the des t ina t ion w i l l d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from that from the f a r t h e s t . This discrepancy may create a problem p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the actual d is tance i s r e l a t i v e l y shor t , eg . , 1 m i l e . I dea l l y , the l oca t ion should be p in -po in ted, as in the case o f a l a r g e . h i g h - r i s e apartment. 90 7-0 CONCLUSION In the course of our study, we determined that only four of the 13 var iab les examined seemed to (jwve 'fad any e f f e c t on the percept ion o f the d i s tance; i e . , sex, age, mode of t ransportatoon, and Th ing -o r i en ta -t ion score: Male tended to be more accurate in t h e i r estimations (or to estimate the p a r t i c u l a r d is tance of 4 miles as being shorter than female Ss.) Ss aged over 20, or car d r i v e r s , or Ss with higher T-scores were a lso more accurate than younger Ss, or bus or car passengers, or Ss with lower T - scores , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Our f ind ings with regard to the in terna l re l a t i onsh ip s of the four var iab les are i l l u s t r a t e d below. Fig.14 Var iab les that seemed to have an e f f e c t on the perception of the d i s tance With regard to the r e l a t i o n s h i p s , male Ss tended to be car d r i ve r s rather than bus r i d e r s or car passengers, and t h e i r T-scores tended to be higher than those of female Ss. Younger Ss tended to be bus r i d e r s or car passengers and t h e i r T-scores were higher than the o lder Ss. Mode and T - s c o r e var iab les were not r e l a t e d , as was t rue o f the r e l a t i o n between sexaand age va r i ab l e s . Concerning the poss ib le e f f e c t s o f the physical v a r i ab le on percept ion, our r e su l t s were unclear p r imar i l y as a r e s u l t o f the d i f f e r i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Ss a t the four l o ca t i on s . However, t h i s does not mean that our data ind icated the physical va r i ab le had no e f f e c t on the perception of the d i s tance. 91 7-1 Impl icat ion of Results Our study examined the perception of ' cogn i t i ve d i s t ance ' on an urban sca le with the idea that the data from th is type o f study along with other input may come to be useful in areas such as the determina-t i on of a f a c i l i t y ' s l o c a t i o n . We assume that i f a potent ia l user perceives the d i s tance to a hypothet ica l f a c i l i t y as being shor ter , he/she may use i t more f requent ly than would be the case were the d is tance perceived as being longer, provided that other extenuating fac tor s do not e x i s t . If th i s assumption proves to be accurate, we may be able to pred ic t users ' behavior to some extent, and thus contro l a f a c i l i t y ' s u t i l i z a -t i on rate by the s e l e c t i o n of i t s l o c a t i o n . By a l t e r i n g the s i t u a t i o n so that the users ' perception of the d is tance is a l t e r e d , t h e i r v i s i t s to a f a c i l i t y can then be encouraged or discouraged. If, for example, UBC wanted to reduce the attendance rate and were to stop i ssu ing parking s t i cke r s to students or to destroy student part ing l o t s , a s i g n i f i c a n t number of students would probably become bus r i de r s or car passengers. Consequently, t h e i r perception of the d i s tance from t h e i r residences to UBC would become greater and t h e i r t r i p s to UBC less frequent. We found that the youger Ss perceived the d is tance as being greater than did the o lder Ss. Thus, in the case o f a youth f a c i l i t y in order to encourage f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n , the d i s tance from the 'catchment a rea ' of the potent ia l users to the s i t e of the f a c i l i t y should be smal ler , hypothet i ca l l y speaking, than in the case of a f a c i l i t y fo r o lder people. It may even be necessary to construct p lura l f a c i l i t i e s rather than one large f a c i l i t y to reduce the 92 perceived d i s tance and to encourage use by more users more f requent l y . S im i l a r planning might a l so be appl ied in the s e l e c t i o n of the l o ca t i on of a f a c i l i t y fo r f i n a n c i a l l y deprived people who cannot a f fo rd to operate a car and maytend to be bus r i d e r s . As the problems o f the fue l shortage and a i r p o l l u t i o n deepen, use of pub l i c t ransportat ion has been encouraged with but l i t t l e success. One o f the reasons that might expla in people do not immediately become bus r i d e r s may be the re su l t i n g perception of an 'en larged ' d istance and the re luctance to make a t r i p as a consequence. Without compensating fo r the assumed benef i t s assoc iated with car d r i v i ng and the r e s u l t i n g psychologica l e f f ec t s of bus r i d i n g , publ ic t ransportat ion may continue to be unpopluar. Considerable a t tent ion has been paid to obvious fac tors such as sex, age, e t c . , in deal ing with environmental percept ion, but one o f the r e s u l t s we f e l t to be p a r t i c u l a r l y i n te re s t i ng was tha t a rather hidden dimension such as the 'Th ing -o r ien ta t ion s ca l e ' played such a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e in determining the perception of d i s tance . Since the perception of the ' cogn i t i ve d i s tance ' requires an a lready ex i s t i ng mental map of the environment in quest ion, d i f fe rences in the d i s tance percept ion are cons idered, at l ea s t in part , to r e s u l t from d i f fe rences in the mental map. The nature of the mental map has been demonstrated to be the r e s u l t of an accumulation of a ser ies o^ general environmental percept ions. Therefore, i t i s assumed that people with d i f f e r e n t l eve l s of T-scores w i l l a l so have d i f f e r e n t types of general environmental perceptions as wel l as a d e f f e r r n t perception of d i s tance. In other words, 93 what one perceives and the way and degree to which one r e c a l l s i t depend on the T-score to some extent. 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"Changes in psychological d i s tance under condit ions o f danger", Journal o f pe r sona l i t y , 24, 1 955 96 BIBLIOGRAPHY studies on ' v i sua l d i s t a n c e ' * B les s ing , W.W., and others , "The e f f e c t o f f a l so perspect ive cues on distance and size-judgments: an examination o f the invar iance hypothes i s " , American Journal of Psychology, vo l .80, June 1967, pp.250-Car l son , V.R., and Tassone, E.P., "Independent s i ze judgments at d i f f e r -ent d i s t ances " , Journal of experimental psychology, vol.73,No.4, A p r i l 1967, pp.491^ Crannel, C.W., and Peters , G. , "Monocular and b inocular est imations of d is tance when knowledge of the re levant space is absent" , The journal of psychology, 76, 1970, ppl57-167 Foley, J .M. , "B inocu lar d i s p a r i t y and perceived r e l a t i v e d i s tance: an examination o f two hypotheses", V i s ion Res., vo l . 7 , 1967 pp.655-670 F rank l i n , S.S., and Ross, H.E., " S i ze -d i s tance invar iance in perceptual adapta t ion " , Psychon. 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C , and McNish, R.D., "The human body as stimulus object : estimates o f distances between body landmarks", J . o f Exp ' l Psych., vol.95,no.1,1972, pp.20-24 Teghtsoonian, R., " Sca l ing apparent d is tance in a natural outdoor s e t t i n g " , Psychon. S c i . , vo l .21(4 ) , 1970, pp.215-Teghtsoonian, R. and M., " S c a l l i n g apparent d istance in natural indoor s e t t i n g s " , Psychon. S c i . , vo l .16(6) , 1969, pp.281-Thor, D.H., and others , "Eye e levat ion and v isual space in monocular regard " , J . o f Exp ' l Psych., vol.86,no.2,1970, pp.246-249 Weintraub, D .J . , :Emmert's laws: s i ze constancy vs. op t i c a l geometry", Am. J . Psych., vo l .83, 1970, pp40p 98 APPENDIX -CA . V"-' : Questinnnaire sheets The following questions were designed to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the environment and the perception of distance. It i s hoped that these basic studies of man and h i s environment r e s u l t i n the development of better c i t i e s i n the f u t u r e . I would appreciate very much your co-operation and assistance since the answers to these questions are v i t a l to a paper 1 am writing. A l l information w i l l be s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l , and there i s no need f o r your name to appear, anywhere on the questionnaire. Note: 1. The questionnaire must be answered by only ONE PERSON - e i t h e r yourself, your spouse, or your children. But a l l the answers must be made by only one i n d i v i d u a l ; please do not consult anyone e l s e . 2. U n t i l a l l the questions on the following pages have been completed, please do NOT look at a map of Vancouver. I am interested i n your images of Vancouver. The accuracy of the answers i s not as important as your estimation of c e r t a i n distances. Your assistance would be appreciated. Thank you. Kazuyuki Murata .' Graduate Studies, School of Architecture The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, B.C. If you are interested i n the res u l t of t h i s survey, they w i l l . be a v a i l a b l e i n the future on your request. Please read questions, and mark X in the appropriate box. 1 . What is your sex? 1 . pmale 2. • female 2. How old are you? 1 . 0 0 to 9 year 2 . Q 1 0 to 1 4 3-D 15 to 1 9 4 . 0 2 0 to 29 5. D 3 0 to 3 9 6 . D 4 0 to 4 9 7. D50 to 5 9 8. Dover 6 0 3. Education. 1. ] elementary 2. Q j u n i o r high 3. D senior high 4. Q c o l l e g e 5. Qgrad. school 4 . Occupation. Please specify: Does your job require you to travel around the city? 1 . d Y e s , more than 50 miles a day 2. rjYes, about 10 to 50 miles a day 3. Dies, less than 1 0 miles a day 4 . pNo, not at a l l . 99 page «•' *~ t7f\ * n n n ns.w the foHowine places? at l e a s t ' once a day 2-3 times a week 2-3 times a month once a month 2-3 times a year once before never 1.Hotel Vancouver o • Q a •a 2.University of B.C. D • • a • 3,Simon Fraser Univ. • • • • • D • 4. Lighthouse • n a p • n • 5, Cleveland Dam D P • D • D • 6. Oak ST. Bridge (between Van. and Ritchmond) • a a . • • • a 6. Please estimate distance from' where you l i v e to the following places. NOTE: do NOT look at a map of Vancouver, or do NOT consult anyone. 1. Hotel Vancouver 2. University of B.C. 3.Simon Fraser Univ. _miles j n i l e s miles 7. In g e n e r a l , a r e you goot a t o r i e n t i n g y o u r s e l f i n a c i t y , o r do you o f t e n g e t l o s t ? 1.0 v e r y good a t o r i e n t a t i o n 2. • good 3 . D f a i r 4. Q b a d 5. Q v e r y bad 8. How many y e a r s have y o u l i v e d i n Vancouver? . l . Q l e s s t h a n 2-3 months 2. £Dup t o 6 months 3 . D U P to a y e a r 4. Q u p t o 2-3 year,s 5. Q u p t o 5 y e a r s 6. Q m o r e t h a n 5 y e a r s 9. How long have you l i v e d a t the p r e s e n t a d d r e s s ? 1. D l e s s than 2-3 months 2. CDup t o 6 months 3. £3up t o a year 4.0 up t o 2-3 years 5. D u p t o 5 y e a r s 6. d m o r e tha n 5 y e a r s 10. In g e n e r a l , when y o u t r a v e l i n t h e c i t y , whi ch k i n d o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n do you use? l . Q foot : 2 . D b i c y c l e 3. D m o t o r c y c l e 4. D b u s 5 .D c a r ( s e l f - d r l v e n ) 6. d e a r (pas se nge r ) 4. Lighthouse 5. Cleveland Dam 6.oak St. Bridge miles miles miles 11. What i s the purpose o f the major portion of t r a v e l i n the c i t y ? 1. D g° to work 2. • go to s c h o o l 3 . D f o r shopping 4. C3 other - specify: 12. On the average, how many miles do you t r a v e l a day? 1. Q l e s s than a mile 2. P one to 2-3 m i l e s 3. Q up to 5 miles 4. D up to 10 miles 5. D up to 30 miles 6. O up to 50 miles 7. P more than 50 miles 13. On the average, how much time do you spend t r a v e l l i n g a day? 1. O l e s s than 5 minutes 2. • 5 to 15 min. 3 . O 1 5 to 30 min. • 30 to 60 min. • 1 to 2 hours 6. D 2 to 3 hours 7. D m o r e than 3. hours 14. Do you think you know the c i t y of Vancouver w e l l : 1. Q very w e l l 2. • w e l l 3. • not so well 4. • not at a l l 100 page 3 15. In this question, show how much you li k e to be i n situations where you might be doing the things l i s t e d . • Use following scale, and place the appropriate number in the space next to the sentence. Try, i f possible, to use the f u l l range of scale, from 0 - 4. o: not at a l l 1: slightly 2: moderately so 3: quite a lot 4: extremely so 1. Join i n and help out a disorganized children's game at a public park. 2. Take upon yourself the building of a stereo set or a ham radio. 3. Interview people for employment in a large hospital. 4. Explore the ocean floor i n a one-man sub. 5. Process computer cards in a large industrial centre. 6. Breed rare forms of tropical fish. 7. Climb a mountain on your own. 8. Stop to watch a piece of machinery at work on the street. 9. Listen in on a conversation between two people in a crowd. 10. Becorie proficient in the art of glass-blowing. 11. Interview people for a newspaper column. 12. Remove the back of a mechanical toy to see how i t worked. 13. Strike up a conversation with a begger on a street corner. 14 Attempt to fix your own watch, toaster, etc. 15. Observe the path of a comet through a telescope. 16. Listen with empathic interest to an old-timer who sits next to you on a bus. 17. Note the idiosyncracies o f people about you. 18. Make f i r s t attempts to get to know a new neighbor. 19. Attend an address given by a person whose character you admire, without being aware of the topic of the address. 20. Attempt to comfort a total stranger who has just met with tragedy. -21. Do sky-diving. 22. Gain a reputation for giving good advice for personal problems. 23. Make a hobby of photographing nature scenes and developing and printing the picture yourself. 24. Help a group of children plan a Halloween party. 

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