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Perception of cognitive distance : effects of physical environment on the perception Murata, Kazuyjuki 1975

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PERCEPTION OF COGNITIVE DISTANCE e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l environment on the p e r c e p t i o n by  KAZUYUKI MURATA B . A r c h . , Waseda U n i v e r s i t y ,  1973  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE  i n the School of Architecture  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s r e q u i r e d standard  as conforming to t h e  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h May, 1975  Columbia  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l written  gain  shall  not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Kazuyuki Murata  Architecture  Department o f __________________ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  May 1, 1975  ii  ABSTRACT The l a c k o f knowledge c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s the p h y s i c a l  between  environment and p e o p l e ' s b e h a v i o r was d i s c u s s e d  to the inadequacy o f t o d a y ' s  a r c h i t e c t u r a l programming.  a p p l i c a t i o n s o f man-environment s t u d i e s w.ere Nature o f the environmental term ' c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e '  in  relation  Possible  suggested.  i n f o r m a t i o n was a n a l y z e d , and a  was d e f i n e d .  Essential  variables  that  affect  the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the mental map and the p e r c e p t i o n o f d i s t a n c e were d e r i v e d p r i m a r i l y from p r e v i o u s  studies.  The c i t y o f Vancouver was analyzed u t i l i z i n g methods  originated  by K. L y n c h , and a survejr was conducted in the c i t y to examine between the v a r i o u s  variables  and the p e r c e p t i o n o f  The type o f the d i s t a n c e examined was ' e g o - c e n t r i c ' , and urban s c a l e ( 4 m i l e )  distance.  'inward(toward  'cognitive  relations  downtown) , 1  distance'.  Results: Following four variables of distance;  seemed to have e f f e c t s on the p e r c e p t i o n  sex, age, mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and the s c o r e on  'Thing-orientation  scale'.  Male tended to be more a c c u r a t e i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n s ( o r to e s t i m a t e the p a r t i c u l a r d i s t a n c e o f 4 m i l e as being shifter) than female Ss. Ss aged over 20, or c a r d r i v e r s , or Ss w i t h h i g h e r T - s c o r e s were a l s o more a c c u r a t e than younger Ss, o r bus r i d e r s or c a r p a s s e n g e r s , or Ss with lower T - s c o r e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Concerning the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s on p e r c e p t i o n by p h y s i c a l v a r i a b l e s , our r e s u l t s were u n c l e a r mainly due to the d i f f e r i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Ss  at the f o u r  locations.  I m p l i c a t i o n s o f r e s u l t s were d i s c u s s e d .  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGMENT  P A R T  1-0  '  ii iii v vii vi i i  I  INTRODUCTION  1  1-1 problems in a r c h i t e c t u r a l programming 1-2 a p p l i c a t i o n o f s t u d i e s t o environmental design  1 4  2-0 PERCEPTION OF DISTANCE  6  2-1 d i r e c t i o n and d i s t a n c e 2-2 environmental i n f o r m a t i o n : s i g n & symbol 2- 3 ' v i s u a l and ' c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e '  6 7 8  1  3- 0 COGNITIVE DISTANCE  11  3-1 v a r i a b l e s and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the c o g n i t i v e map 3-2 v a r i a b l e s and p e r c e p t i o n o f d i s t a n c e  11 26  iv  P A R T  II  4-0 METHOD OF STUDY  34  4-1 a n a l y i i s o f Vancouver 4- 2 d e s i g n o f survey  34 37  5- 0 DATA  44  5-1 data c o l l e c t i o n 5-2 d e s c r i p t i o n o f sampled l o c a t i o n s 5- 3 e s t i m a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e  44 46 53  6- 0 ANALYSIS  63  6- 1 f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s  on p h y s i c a l  variable  79  7- 0 CONCLUSION  90  7-1  91  implications of results  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX VITA  94 98  LIST OF TABLES  Table Table Table Table Table  1 2 2b 3 4  T a b l e 4b Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 T a b l e 10 T a b l e 11 t a b l e 12 T a b l e 13 T a b l e 14 T a b l e 15 T a b l e 16 T a b l e 17 Table Table Table Table Table  18 19 20 21 22  T a b l e 23  l o c a t i o n vs sex l o c a t i o n vs mean age age c a t e g o r y vs a s s i g n e d v a l u e s l o c a t i o n vs e d u c a t i o n l o c a t i o n vs 'mean' e d u c a t i o n a l level e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r y vs a s s i g n e d values l o c a t on vs average T-P s c o r e l o c a t on vs l e n g t h o f time l i v e d i n Vancouver l o c a t on vs l e n g t h o f time l i v e d a t present address l o c a t on vs mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l o c a t on vs mean m i l a g e t r a v e l l e d per day l o c a t on vs mean time t r a v e l l e d per day l o c a t i o n vs estimated d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs mode of transportation e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs frequency of v i s i t e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs y e a r s l i v e d i n Vancouver estimated d i s t a n c e vs y e a r s l i v e d a t t h e p r e s e n t address e s t i m a t e d i i s t a n c e vs d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d a day e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs time t r a v e l l e d a day e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs f a m i l i a r i t y e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs .sex estimated d i s t a n c e vs age estimated d i s t a n c e vs e d u c a t i o n e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs o r i e n t a t i o n skill estimated d i s t a n c e vs T-P t y p o l o g y  47 48 48 49 49 49 50 51 51 52 52 52 54, 55 56 57 57 58 58 59 60 60 61 61 62  vi  T a b l e 24 T a b l e 25 T a b l e 26 T a b l e 26b T a b l e 27 T a b l e 28 Table Table Table Table Table  29 30 31 32 33  Table Table Table Table Table  34 35 36 37 38  Table Table Table Table Table Table Table  39 40 41 42 43 44 45  mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n vs time/ d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d per day mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n vs T - and P-score age vs estimated d i s t a n c e age vs frequency o f v i s i t age vs time l i v e e in Vancouver/ at Ss' addresses age vs t i m e / d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d per day age vs T - and P - s c o r e age vs T-P t y p o l o g y age vs mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n sex vs mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n sex vs t i m e / d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d per day T - s c o r e vs estimated d i s t a n c e P - s c o r e vs estimated d i s t a n c e sex vs T - s c o r e sex vs T-P t y p o l o g y l o c a t i o n vs sex, age, T - s c o r e , and mode f f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d e f i n i t i o n of group l o c a t i o n vs e s t i m a t i o n ' r a n k ' vs l o c a t i o n ' r a n k ' vs l o c a t i o n d e f i n i t i o n o f group l o c a t i o n vs e s t i m a t i o n ' r a n k ' vs l o c a t i o n  65 66 67 67 67 68 68 68 69 70 71 72 72 73 73 77  81 82 84 85 85 86 88  LIST OF FIGURES, MAPS  Figure 1 F i g u r e 2,3,4 Figure 5 F i g u r e 6,7,8 Figure 9 F i g u r e 10 F i g u r e 11 F i g u r e 12  F i g u r e 13  F i g u r e 14  F i g u r e 15 F i g u r e 16  F i g u r e 17  Map 1 Map 2 Map 3  mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and 66 . e s t i m a t i o n of d i s t a n c e mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , age, 69,70 and e s t i m a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e sex and mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 71 sex, mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and 71,12 estimation of distance sex, age, mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , 72 and e s t i m a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e Thing-, Person-orientaiion scale, 73 and e s t i m a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e sex, T h i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n s c a l e , and 74 estimation of distance sex, mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , Thing-74 o r i e n a a t i o n s c a l e s and e s t i m a tion of distance sex, age, mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , 74 Th i ng-or i enta t i on sea 1e, a nd estimation of distance v a r i a b l e s t h a t seemed to have e f f e - 7 5 c t s on the p e r c e p t i o n o f distance interaction-, person-variables, 75 and e s t i m a t i o n of d i s t a n c e v a r i a b l e s that seemed t o have no 76 e f f e c t s on the p e r c e p t i o n o f distance p h y s i c a l v a r i a b l e and e s t i m a t i o n 78 of d i s t a n c e  g r e a t e r Vancouver image o f Vancouver problems o f the c i t y  41 42 43  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  We wish to express our a p p r e c i a t i o n t o  Professor  Wolfgang Gerson, P r o f e s s o r B r i a n L i t t l e ,  Professor  John G a i t a n a k i s , and o t h e r s who f r e e l y gave of t h e i r time and p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e c r i t i c i s m and s u g g e s t i o n s . However, they a r e not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any e r r o r s o r o m i s s i o n s whiqh a r e e n t i r e l y our own. In a d d i t i o n we wish to thank the many i n d i v i d u a l s who w i l l i n g l y  responded to our q u e s t i o n s and so  made t h i s t h e s i s  possible.  1 P A R T I  1-0 INTRODUCTION  1-]- Problems Until  in a r c h i t e c t u r a l  r e c e n t l y , a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n have been based  upon the i n d i v i d u a l cases,  programming  however,  a r c h i t e c t ' s observations  and e x p e r i e n c e .  some  is  s t u d i e d approach i n the form o f the a r c h i t e c t u r a l  becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y  common,  However, the m a j o r i t y  o f these a r c h i t e c t u r a l programs have remained a t a r a t h e r level.  In  t h i s now appears to be changing and r e c e n t t r e n d s  i n d i c a t e t h a t a more program ( b r i e f )  primarily  They tend to f u n c t i o n i n many ways as a kind o f  rudimentary  'shopping  list'  f o r a r c h i t e c t s s i n c e they u s u a l l y c o n t a i n r e l a t i v e l y c o n c r e t e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s which the a r c h i t e c t then t r a n s l a t e s In a d d i t i o n to these types o f programs,  into a physical  however, r e c e n t l y more  comprehensive programs have begun to emerge and a r e being particularly of function.  i n cases when a s i n g l e  form.  utilized  f a c i l i t y must serve a complex  Such f a c t o r s as the g o a l s o f the c l i e n t o r  set  institution,  the immediate f u n c t i o n o f the proposed f a c i l i t y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the facility  to i t s  s u r r o u n d i n g environment, and suggested a l t e r n a t i v e s  attaining  the d e s i r e d o b j e c t i v e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s  program.  The content o f t h e s e programs i s  In  l a t t e r type o f  g e n e r a l l y presented in a  r a t h e r n o n - q u a n t i t a t i v e way and "the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s individual  for  l e f t to the  architect. some r e s p e c t s t h i s  new type o f program appears t o be s u p e r i o r  2 to the o l d e r t y p e . comprehensiveness  This  is  f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n i t p r o v i d e s  in the d e s i g n o f b u i l d i n g s o r a d d i t i o n a l , new ones.  which must s a f i s f y  especially  unconventional  usefull  purposes  i t may r e c e i v e a r e l u c t a n t response from t h e a r c h i t e c t . f i r m which can u t i l i z e t h i s m a t e r i a l  be b e t t e r equipped to c r e a t e a d e s i g n t h a t w i l l needs, a s t a f f  equipped w i t h a p r a c t i c a l  and b e h a v i o r a l  satisfy  the c l i e n t ' s  knowledge o f the  socio-psycholo-  Moreover, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t  these  programs are voluminous and may be as much as 500 pages l o n g , the nature o f the c o n t e n t s and the n o n - q u a n t i t a t i v e to p r o v i d e the a r c h i t e c t with i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t Nevertheless,  p r e s e n t a t i o n may is  i f we look b r i e f l y a t some o f t h e r e s u l t s  Forms o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r c h i t e c t u r e such as h o t e l s ,  almost  fail  o f the  undeniable.  dormitories,  f o r the aged have o f t e n been c o n s i d e r e d to be the  same type o f b u i l d i n g . cases,  abstract  d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t and  o l d e r method, the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a comprehensive program i s  apartments, housing  may  s c i e n c e s may be r e q u i r e d as an i n t e r m e d i a r y i n the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the program.  useful.  is  program w r i t i n g f r i m , such as TEAG in  While the a r c h i t e c t u r a l  gical  is  its  However, even i f a comprehensive program  prepared by a p r o f e s s i o n a l Vancouver,  t r u e p a r t i c u l a r l y in terms o f  identical.  Thus, t h e i r f l o o r plans In  and d e s i g n a r e , im many  f a c t , many c o l l e g e dorms were designed  a r c h i t e c t s whose s p e c i a l i t y was h o t e l - a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g s , r e s u l t i n g d e s i g n s c l o s e l y resemble those o f h o t e l s o r One o f the main purposes of r e s i d e n t i a l provide a place to stay.  Though t h i s  is  and the  apartments.  architecture is  true of a l l  by  to  types o f r e s i d e n t i a l  a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h e r e are many important requirements unique to each o f these t y p e s .  Conscious  programmers  unobserved purposes o f t h e b u i l d i n g  can p o i n t out p r e v i o u s l y i n some c a s e s .  Housing  ignored o r f o r the aged  3 ought to be d i f f e r e n t from a h o t e l . p l a c e to s t a y w h i l e w a i t i n g relationships  It  should p r o v i d e not merely a  to d i e , but should perhaps f o s t e r  intimate  among the r e s i d e n t s or encourage some a c t i v i t i e s  which they can d e r i v e a f e e l i n g o f meaning and purpose i n e x i s t e n c e and even some sense o f acccmplishment. ments can no l o n g e r be o v e r l o o k e d .  from  their  These 'new' r e q u i r e -  Undoubtedly, a c a r e f u l l y prepared  'comprehensive program' would c o n t r i b u t e to the improvement o f environmental design. The major problem l i e s statements  i n the gap between the c o n c e p t u a l ,  abstract  o f o b j e c t i v e and requirements that t h e programs c o n t a i n , and  immediate u s e f u l  f a c t s which d e s i g n e r s  s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s and r e q u i r e m e n t s . type o f f a c t s  can u t i l i z e i n r e a l i z i n g the  By u s e f u l  facts,  to be found in the shopping l i s t ,  I r e f e r not to the  but to t h e type o f  i n f o r m a t i o n which i s a useful a i d i n h e l p i n g to determing c r i t i c a l o f the physical  plan,  U n d e n i a b l y , some a s p e c t s  o f the o b j e c t i v e s  requirements can o n l y be expressed i n a r a t h e r ambiguous f a s h i o n , i t has been found t h a t thorough and s y s t e m a t i c  r e s e a r c h and  aspects or but  observations  can produce much r e l i a b l e and u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e data with r e g a r d the r e l a t i o n between people and the p h y s i c a l  to  environment.  The amount and q u a l i t y o f t h i s data a t the p r e s e n t date i s by no means s u f f i c i e n t but i t  is  the a r c h i t e c t had o n l y h i s  c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r than i n the p a s t when empirical observations  r e l y upon i n d e t e r m i n i n g a p h y s i c a l attempt to p r o v i d e data r e g a r d i n g  design.  and i n t u i t i o n to  Th;is study r e p r e s e n t s  an  the manner i n which people p e r c e i v e  t h e i r environment and the e f f e c t o f environment on t h e i r b e h a v i o r . is  hoped t h a t t h i s  the gap t h a t e x i s t s process.  accumulation o f data w i l l between t o d a y ' s  eventually f i l l  architectual  part  It of  program and the d e s i g n  4  1-2  A p p l i c a t i o n of studies  to environmental  design  A d e s i g n e r sometimes encounters seemingly c o n t r a d i c t o r y but r e l a t e d requirements i n d e s i g n i n g  f o r d i f f e r e n t users o f a f a c i l i t y .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between two departments w i t h i n a s i n g l e b u i l d i n g one example o f t h i s .  To ensure the independence and i n t e r n a l  o f each department, the two departments  may wish to l o c a t e the departments  cohesion  should be p h y s i c a l l y  but they may a l s o need t o be m u t u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e .  Although  is  separate the  designer  i n d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f the b u i l d i n g  w i t h some d i s t a n c e between them, he may not have s u f f i c i e n t knowledge the degree o f d i s t a n c e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h i s his will  e x p e r i e n c e and o b s e r v a t i o n s be much g r e a t e r  purpose.  He may know from  t h a t the magnitude o f s e p a r a t i o n a l  i f they are l o c a t e d a t  two d i f f e r e n t f l o o r  than i f they a r e l o c a t e d on the same f l o o r , even i f the a c t u a l - between the two remains e q u a l . visibility  from one department to a n o t h e r , and the number o f  a f f e c t the l e v e l  i t appears  that there is  of d i s t a n c e beyond which the amount o f spontaneous r a d i c a l l y reduced.  o f a c o l l e g e d o r m i t o r y demonstrates relationships  o n l y w i t h the s t u d e n t s  or on each s i d e o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s -  levels distance as  corners corridor  o f communication between the two department.  From p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s  communication i s  effect  He may a l s o be aware that such f a c t o r s  one must t u r n on t h e way between them as opposed to a s t r a i g h t will  of  a definite  interpersonal  For example, Van der Ryn's t h a t students  dents who l i v e two or t h r e e rooms away i s  study  form f r i e n d s h i p s  next door to them, a c r o s s  own r o o m . l  point  or  a hall  Communication between s t u -  virtually  non-existent.  1. Van der Ryn and S i l v e r s t e i n , Dorms a t B e r k e l e y , N.Y., F a c i l i t i e s L a b o r a t o r i e s , 1967  Educational  5 Thus, i n some cases the c r i t i c a l Users o f a h o s p i t a l d i s t a n c e to be twice as  distance is  very minute.  in C a l i f o r n i a r e p o r t e d t h a t they f e l t the  g r e a t when they s t a r t e d t r i p from one b u i l d i n g  to another which was not p h y s i c a l l y connected as they d i d when the was w i t h i n the same b u i l d i n g  ( p r o v i d e d the a c t u a l  trip  d i s t a n c e s were the  same).1 A f u r t h e r accumulation o f data such as with r e l e v e n t , useful  t h i s would p r o v i d e  designers  reference material.  An understanding o f the way in which people p e r c e i v e d i s t a n c e o b t a i n a b l e and a p p l i c a b l e a l s o w i t h r e g a r d to a l a r g e - s c a l e environment.  is  urban  In the s e l e c t i o n o f a l o c a t i o n f o r a Shopping c e n t r e , a  study o f the movement p a t t e r n s o f p o t e n t i a l  u s e r s , z o n i n g , and  a c q u i s i t i o n a r e a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r e d to be e s s e n t i a l .  In a d d i t i o n to  type o f r e a e a r c h , i n order to ensure the s e l e c t i o n o f a l o c a t i o n , an examination of whether the users  site this  successful  p e r c e i v e the l o c a t i o n  to  be near or f a r would a l s o be h e l p f u l . Undesirable f a c i l i t i e s be-  perceived by i t s  as p o s s i b l e .  users  such as a garbage p r o c e s s i n g  plant  ( t h o s e who produce garbage) t o be as  However, t h e a c t u a l  in order t o keep o p e r a t i o n a l  c o s t s low.  a r e equipped w i t h a knowledge o f what makes people f e e l to be e i t h e r long o r  the  should  standpoint These  a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y requirements can p o s s i b l e be s a t i s f i e d  between two p o i n t s  f a r away  d i s t a n c e to and from the p l a n t  be s h o r t , and the p l a n t should be e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e from t h e of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  should  i f we  distance  short.  1. G. D a v i s , " P e r s o n a l Communication", c i t e d by D. S t e a , e d . , Working papers in p l a c e p e r c e p t i o n , 1969, W o r c e s t e r , Mass., Graduate School o f Geography, C l a r k U n i v . , 1969  6  2-0  PERCEPTION OF DISTANCE  2-1 D i r e c t i o n and d i s t a n c e With the development o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y mobile s o c i e t y , more and more people a r e f i n d i n g themselves  in completely u n f a m i l i a r  They may be t r y i n g t o reach a s p e c i f i c d e s t i n a t i o n  in o r d e r t o  places. accomplish  a c e r t a i n t a s k o r perhaps they have merely s e t out t o enjoy the e x p e r i e n c e o f being in a d i f f e r e n t environment.  Nevertheless  to a c h i e v e e i t h e r o f the above o b j e c t i v e s s u c c e s s f u l l y , unfamiliar setting  need c e r t a i n types o f  A t l e a s t two b a s i c direction(orientation)  'to the e a s t ' ,  and d i s t a n c e .  be s u b s t i t u t e d ; e . g . ,  information. neccessary:  Except f o r t r i p s w i t h i n a m u l t i -  information is  ' t o your r i g h t ' .  given by i n common u n i t s  people i n an  kinds o f independent i n f o r m a t i o n are  storied building, directional e.g.,  in o r d e r  almost  Information  always  two-dimensional;  as to d i s t a n c e can be  such as a y a r d o r a m i l e , and temporal  ' a ten minutes w a l k ' .  It  is  more f a m i l i a r terms such as the number o f b l o c k s .  units  can  a l s o common to use o t h e r T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n on  d i r e c t i o n and d i s t a n c e r e p r e s e n t s the minimum o f i n f o r m a t i o n to be used in n a v i g a t i o n ,  and i s  u s u a l l y not o n l y n e c c e s s a r y but i s  s u f f i c i e n t f o r r e a c h i n g the d e s i r e d d e s t i n a t i o n as w e l l . o r both makes i t  immpossible  generally The l a c k o f one  to reach the d e s t i n a t i o n , and the t r a v e l l e r  may begin to s u f f e r from a n x i e t y and  stress.  A l t h o u g h , " . . . t h e r e i s some v a l u e in m y s t i f i c a t i o n , l a b y r i n t h , o r s u r p r i s e i n the environment. ... T h i s i s however, o n l y under two c o n d i t i o n s . F i r s t , there must be no danger o f l o s i n g b a s i c form o r o r i e n t a t i o n , o f never coming o u t . The s u r p r i s e must o c c u r in an o v e r - a l l framework; the c o n f u s i o n s must be small r e g i o n s i n a v i s i b l e whole. Furthermore, the l a b y r i n t h o r mystery  7 must i n i t s e l f have some form t h a t can be e x p l o r e d and i n time be apprehended. Complete chaos w i t h o u t h i n t o f c o n n e c t i o n i s never p l e a s u r a b l e . 1  2-2 Environmental  i n f o r m a t i o n : s i g n and symbol  There are a host o f c l u e s which enable us to understand our environment and a s s i s t us i n n a v i g a t i n g classified  i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s :  through  it.  These c l u e s may be  ' s i g n i n f o r m a t i o n ' and 'symbol  information*.  The names o f s t r e e t s , s i g n s at bus stops o r subway s t a t i o n s , l a r g e questionmark  that indicates  a source o f i n f o r m a t i o n , and the  p i c t u r e s o f man o r woman i n d i c a t i n g restrooms mation'.  thus,  are examples o f  These a r e q u i t e common and are e s s e n t i a l  environment i n p a r t i c u l a r .  This  information is  'symbol  'Symbol  infor-  h e a v i l y based upon l a n g u a g e , and semantic  input,  information'  information'  upon n o n - v i s u a l  'sign  i n a modern urban  s i g n i n f o r m a t i o n r e l i e s e x c l u s i v e l y upon v i s u a l  i n c o n t r a s t to  the  as w e l l as  i s more i n e x p l i c i t and i n d i r e c t and r e l i e s visual  input.  Several  steps  leading to a  l a r g e opening a t the f r o n t o f a b u i l d i n g symbol ize. ;an e n t r a n c e , though modern b u i l d i n g s  o f t e n d e v i a t e from t h i s  type ;of a r c h i t e c t u r a l  z a t i o n , and i n s t e a d i n d i c a t e an e n t r a n c e by " s i g n The smell  information(e.g.,PULL).  o f food c a r r i e s the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t one i s approaching a  r e s t a u r a n t or b a k e r y .  A continuous  flow o f rock music may i n d i c a t e a  c o l l e g e dorm r a t h e r than an apartment b u i l d i n g . scrapers  symboli-  is  The s i l h o u e t t e o f  i n d i c a t i v e o f the l o c a t i o n o f CBD.  1. Kevin L y n c h , The images o f the c i t i e s , p . 6 , Cambridge Technology P r e s s , 1960  Mass.,  sky-  Lynch,  in the images o f c i t i e s , d e a l s almost e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n In t h i s  study we w i l l  s c a l e symbol  2-3  and a n a l y s i s o f l a r g e - s c a l e  but i t i s  c o n s i d e r some o f the major types o f t h i s  and ' c o g n i t i v e  i s obvious  somewhat l e s s obvious  extremely small  However, we w i l l which we f e e l  distance.  considerably  t h a t the manner in which we p e r c e i v e  Distances  which are e i t h e r extremely l a r g e  In o^her words, we can not p e r c e i v e them.  c o n s i d e r here o n l y a r c h i t e c t u r a l and u r b a n - s c a l e  distances,  can be p e r c e i v e d .  terms o f d i s t a n c e and the way i n which we p e r c e i v e i t ,  t h a t t h e r e a r e two fundamental  (sequential)  or  are c o n c e p t u a l , and we cannot e x p e r i e n c e them d i r e c t l y  through O U P s e n s e s .  appears  large-  distance'  t h a t the magnitude o f d i s t a n c e v a r i e s  distance also varies.  In  information'.  i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the p e r c e p t i o n o f  'Visual-' It  'symbol  8  distance.  types:  'visual'  and  it  'cognitive'  The magnitude o f both these types o f d i s t a n c e  v a r y , but the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  can  i s based not on the degree o f d i s t a n c e tyut  on the process by which we p e r c e i v e i t . For the purposes o f our study we w i l l  r e f e r to the type o f  distance  in which the l o c a t i o n o f two o b j e c t s and the d i s t a n c e between them can be seen s i m u l t a n e o u s l y as  'visual  distance'.  and a telephone on a desk, f o r example, i s The d i s t a n c e between the s t a r t i n g however, i s an example o f what we w i l l  The d i s t a n c e between a book  c l a s s i f i e d as  and f i n i s h i n g  be r e f e r to as  'viaual  distance'*  p o i n t s o f a maze, 'cognitive  distance'.  Because the way through a maze i s not d i r e c t , the s t a r t i n g  and  p o i n t s cannot be seen s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , and immediate v i s u a l  input alone  1.  For s t u d i e s  on ' v i s u a l  d i s t a n c e ' , see  bibliography.  finishing is  9 not adequate f o r p e r c e i v i n g t h e d i s t a n c e between the two p o i n t s .  In  progressing  of  through a maze one must r e l y upon a l i n e a r s u c c e s s i o n  p e r c e i v e d images and some amount o f time i s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e the accumulated perception results  i n the a q u i s i t i o n o f n e c c e s s a r y  The p e r c e p t i o n o f visual  'visual  distance'  c o n t a c t w i t h the w o r l d , whereas  perceiving, thinking,  i s made by d i r e c t and immediate  'cognitive distance'  more e x t e n s i v e mental process and e n t a i l s in his d e f i n i t i o n o f c o g n i t i o n ,  R.  modes o f knowing,  Hart,  i.e.,  r e a s o n i n g , j u d g i n g , and r e m e m b e r i n g . . . "  By t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , the e x p e r i e n c e o f p e r c e i v i n g i s means o f g e n e r a t i n g the  requires a  cognitive a c t i v i t y .  includes " a l l  imagining,  information.  'cognitive structure'?  1  c o n s i d e r e d t o be one  Werner f u r t h e r s t a t e s  that  C o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e a v a i l a b e l to the organism i n f l u e n c e s p e r c e p t i o n a l s e l e c t i v i t y which leads to a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the w o r l d through s e l e c t e d f i e l d s o f a t t e n t i o n . 3  The above statement suggests t h a t p e r c e p t i o n i s not o n l y a product o f the c o g n i t i v e  s t r u c t u r e but i s  a l s o a f a c t o r in g e n e r a t i n g  T h u s , the e x i s t e n c e o f a c o g n i t i v e map i s  the s t r u c t u r e .  a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r the  perception of  'cognitive distance'.  A f t e r one has gone through a p a r t i c u l a r  maze, he w i l l  be a b l e to e s t i m a t e the d i s t a n c e he has c o v e r e d by r e f e r r i n g  to the map he has c r e a t e d m e n t a l l y . Presumably, the p e r c e p t i o n o f to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than t h a t o f  'visual  r a t h e r simple mechanism o f s e e i n g . will  reflect individual  'cognitive  distance' will  d i s t a n c e ' which d e r i v e s from the  Undoubtedly, the p e r c e p t i o n o f  d i f f e r e n c e s , such as p e r s o n a l i t y ,  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the environment, and each i n d i v i d u a l a cognitive it  is  structure.  These i n d i v i d u a l  constructs  distance  degree o f  's a b i l i t y  S i n c e these v a r i a b l e s a r e unique to each  assumed t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l  c o g n i t i v e map.  vary  and maintains  to form individual,  a different  d i f f e r e n c e s are examples o f the  types  10  o f v a r i a b l e s which may a f f e c t t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f and the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a c o g n i t i v e map. 'cognitive distance' here we w i l l  includes distances  'cognitive  distance'  Although the general o f v a r y i n g degrees o f  term magnitude,  examine those v a r i a b l e s which seem to be r e l e v a n t to the  perception of c o g n i t i v e distance in a large  s c a l e urban environment.  1. Roger Hart and Garry Moore, The development o f s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n : A r e v i e w , P l a c e p e r c e p t i o n r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s , Report #7, C l a r k U n i v . , Mass., 1971, p.7-4 2. The terms, mental map, images, c o g n i t i v e map, s p a t i a l conceptual map or s p a c e , and s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l l we have d e s c r i b e d as c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e . 3.Werner,  c i t e d by H a r t ,  p.7-4  cognition, r e f e r to what  11 3-0 COGNITIVE DISTANCE  3-1 V a r i a b l e s 3-1-1  a f f e c t i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c o g n i t i v e map  Interaction  variables  KINESTHETIC EXPERIENCE Ordinary i n d i v i d u a l s visual  sense o f s p a t i a l  appear to be equipped i n n a t e l y w i t h a  d e p t h , but must go through a l e a r n i n g  o f a c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n with t h e i r p h y s i c a l develop a normal  surroundings  p e r c e p t i o n o f space and d i s t a n c e .  It  process  in o r d e r to is  known t h a t  people who a r e born b l i n d and gain s i g h t c o n s i d e r a b l y l a t e r must make a much g r e a t e r e f f o r t to a c q u i r e t h i s  normal p e r c e p t i o n . *  As he moves through space, man depends on the messages r e c e i v e d from h i s body to s t a b i l i z e h i s v i s u a l w o r l d . Without such body f e e d - b a c k , a great many people l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h r e a l i t y and h a l l u c i n a t e . The importance o f being a b l e to i n t e g r a t e v i s u a l and k i n e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e has been demonstrated by two p s y c h o l o g i s t s , Held and Heim, when they c a r r i e d k i t t e n s through a maze along the same t r a c k on which o t h e r k i t t e n s were allowed to walk. The k i t t e n s t h a t were c a r r i e d f a i l e d to develop ' n o r m a l ' visual spatial c a p a c i t i e s . 2  T h i s experiment demonstrates  the importance o f t a c t i l e - m o t o r  e x p e r i e n c e in the d e v e l o p m e n t s s p a t i a l i t appears t h a t t h i s a cogniiive  p e r c e p t i o n in c a t s , but in  typel.of e x p e r i e n c e i s e s s e n t i a l  s t r u c t u r e in human a d u l t s  as w e l l .  In  i t with a s i n g l e  shown to s u b j e c t s the s u b j e c t s  eye(eliminating  from a s t r a t e g i c a l l y  a c q u i r e d a mistaken  addition  i n the f o r m a t i o n  of  an experiment in which  a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l y d i s t o r t e d room which appeared to viewing  sensory  be normal  to a person  b i n o c u l a r depth p e r c e p t i o n )  was  determined p o i n t i t was found t h a t  image o f the space.  However,  after  they were p e r m i t t e d to touch the i n s i d e s o f the room w i t h a s t i c k ,  1. R.L. Gregory, Eye and b r a i n : the psychology M c G r a w - H i l l , 196F  of seeing,  2. E . T . H a l l , The hidden d i m e n s i o n , Garden C i t y , N.Y., p. 62  the  N.Y.,  Doubleday,  1966  12 s u b j e c t s were a b l e to a d j u s t and r e c o n s t r u c t t h e i r images o f the as a r e s u l t o f the t a c t i l e e x p e r i e n c e . and u n u s u a l , sensations stick,  illustrates  in s p a t i a l  his  T h i s example, a l t h o u g h  extreme  the importance o f the accumulation o f  tactile  cognition.  the memory he s t o r e s ,  c o r d i n a t i o n , and p o s s i b l y  space  his  The amount o f time the s u b j e c t uses the individual  skills  in  motor-sensory  even the method o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i l l  formation o f a c o g n i t i v e  all  affect  s t r u c t u r e o f the space in the room.  MODE OF INTERACTION Walking sensations  barefoot w i l l  o f the s u r r o u n d i n g  o f the space w i l l  generate the most d i r e c t and immediate environment, and the c o g n i t i v e  be formed a c c o r d i n g l y .  The r i c h n e s s o f d e t a i l  be an element i n the p e r c e p t i o n and c o g n i t i o n o f space. a c a r reduces v a r i o u s observations  structure  kinds o f s e n s a t i o n s .  R.  Hall  may a l s o  Travelling  has made the  in  following  about automobile t r a v e l on American highways: The automobile not o n l y s e a l s i t s occupants in a metal and g l a s s cocoon, c u t t i n g them o f f from the o u t s i d e w o r l d , but i t has a way o f a c t u a l l y d e c r e a s i n g the sense o f movement through space. Loss o f the sense o f movement comes not o n l y from i n s u l a t i o n from road s u r f a c e s and n o i s e but i s v i s u a l as w e l l . The d r i v e r on the freeway moves in a stream o f t r a f f i c w h i l e v i s u a l d e t a i l at c l o s e d i s t a n c e s i s b l u r r e d by speed. . . . i n . modern American c a r s the k i n e s t h e t i c sense o f space i s absent. . . . S o f t s p r i n g s , s o f t c u s h i o n s , s o f t t i r e s , power s t e e r i n g , and monotonously smooth pavements c r e a t e an unreal e x p e r i e n c e o f the e a r t h . 1  Hall  mentions o n l y the r e d u c t i o n o f s e n s a t i o n , but i s  auto t r a v e l l i n g adds new dimensions cognition.  t o environmental  is  Lynch p o i n t e d out t h a t h i g h - s p e e d auto t r a v e l  o f motor p a r a l l e x and p e r s p e c t i v e . . . ( e n a b l e s  p.165  that  p e r c e p t i o n and  c l a r i t y o f s l o p e , c u r v e s , and i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n . . . ( l e a d s  1. H a l l ,  also true  "improves  the  to t h e ) e x p e r i e n c e  on t o ) m a i n t a i n  the  consistency  13 of direction or direction change...(and) makes visible the distance interval"1. The most unnatural experience of moving through space would be by a modern elevator.  Usually no visual cues are available, the slight  sounds indicating the speed with which the cage is moving are erased by continuous back ground music, and the kinesthetic sensation of acceleration are intentionally controlled and minimized as much as possible. The direction, location and speed of the cage can be determined only by the indicator.  Subway riders experience a similar situation, although  to a lesser degree.  There is virtually no visual input besides the  occasional scenes at stations.  The sensation of a continuously moving  monotonous concrete wall does not provide enough information for an estimation of spped.  The unvarying noise level indicates only whether  the car is moving or stopped.  The subway is a rare mode of transportation  on which riders experience an almost pure kinesthetic sensation of movement; i . e . , acceleration and deceleration of speed and change of direction.  It would be interesting to see how their mental map compare  with those of non-subway users. There are a number of studies illustrating the effects of the mode of transportation upon the formation of a cognitive structure. By asking the 'directions' to a well-know place, Bullock discovered that the estimation of distance and the description of the wjiys vary considerably depending upon the subjects' means of t r a v e l .  2  Appleyard made a similar observation with regard to bus riders and car drivers in a South American c i t y .  3  Lynch, in an investigation  1. Lynch, p.107 2. Roger Bullock, "Direction-giving and environmental perception", D. Stea» ed., Working papers in place perception, 1969, Worcester, Mass., Graduate School of Geography, Clark Univ., 1969 3. See section 3-2-1.  14 o f the elements o f c i t i e s , u t i l i z e d both automobile and f o o t He noted t h a t  in t h e f i e l d a n a l y s i s done on f o o t  travel.  " ; . . a tendency to  neglect  minor elements important f o r automobile c i r c u l a t i o n . . . " 1 d e v e l o p e d . FAMILIARITY Long exposure to an environment u s u a l l y mature c o g n i t i v e map o f t h a t environment.  results  i n a more c o m p l e t e ,  G r e a t e r i n t e r a c t i o n with  the  environment l e a d s not o n l y to a more complete map but a l s o t o a map o f greater quality.  Lynch found  that:  Importance ( o f paths) v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to the degree o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the c i t y . People w i t h l e a s t knowledge o f Boston tend to t h i n k o f the c i t y in terms o f topography, l a r g e r e g i o n s , g e n e r a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and broad directional relationships. S u b j e c t s who knew the c i t y b e t t e r had u s u a l l y mastered p a r t o f the path s t r u c t u r e ; these people thought more i n terms o f s p e c i f i c paths and their inter relationships. 2  O b s e r v e r s , as t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y i n c r e a s e s , seem to depend l e s s and l e s s gross p h y s i c a l c o n t i n u i t i e s to o r g a n i z e the whole, and t o d e l i g h t more and more i n c o n t r a s t and uniqueness which v i v i f y the s c e n e . 3 D i s t a n t landmarks, prominent p o i n t s v i s i b l e from many p o s i t i o n s , were o f t e n w e l l known, but o n l y people u n f a m i l i a with Boston seemed to use them t o any g r e a t e x t e n t in o r g a n i z i n g the c i t y and s e l e c t i n g r o u t e s f o r t r i p s . 4  SCALE The mode o f t r a v e l d i f f e r e n t i a t e s the modes o f i n t e r a c t i o n with the environment, which we mentioned p r e v i o u s l y . d i m e n s i o n , however, which i s travel:  scale.  1. Lynch,  p.144  2.Ibid.,  p.49  3.Ibid.,  p.105  4.Ibid.,  p.81  There i s  a another  r a t h e r c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the mode o f  Wshen a s u b j e c t observes  a c i t y from a t a l l  building,  15 from an a i r p l a n e , or from any d i s t a n t ; p o i n t ( e . g . , a ship),  he may p e r c e i v e the whole c i t y as a s i n g l e  n o t i c e o n l y the most conspicuous large,  a nearby mountain  tall  buildings,  character of areas  or  e n t i t y and w i l l  f e a t u r e s such as major  topography,  the predominant c o l o r o f the c i t y , and the general  i n the c i t y .  On the o t h e r hand, a s u b j e c t on a s t r e e t in the midst o f the c i t y , surrounded by t a l l  buildings,  cannot p o s s i b l y  mentioned c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the c i t y .  perceive a l l  o f the above-  But by l o o k i n g down on the c i t y  from the top o f a mountain, one cannot e x p e r i e n c e a stone-paved or see the d e t a i l This  sidewalk  in a wrough-iron door o f a b u i l d i n g .  i n a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e c e r t a i n o b j e c t s a t d i f f e r e n t  o f s c a l e hampers o n e ' s  levels  p e r c e p t i o n o f the c o n t i n u i t y o f the environment  and c o n s e q u e n t l y , a f f e c t s o n e ' s  p e r c e p t i o n o f the c i t y .  . . . i t imposes an e x t r a burden o f o r g a n i z a t i o n on the o b s e r v e r , e s p e c i a l l y , i f t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n between levels(of scale). I f a t a l l b u i l d i n g i s unmistakable in the c i t y - w i d e panorama y e t u n r e c o g n i z a b l e from i t s b a s e , then a chance has been l o s t t o p i n t o g e t h e r the images at two d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . !  1.  Ibid.,  p.86  16 3-1-2  Physical  variables  PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT It  is  surroundings  r a r e to f i n d a p u r e l y p h y s i c a l of d a i l y l i f e .  Human a c t i v i t i e s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s and are an i n t e g r a l upon which t h i s physical  study  are o f t e n  closely  p e r c e p t i o n o f the p h y s i c a l  p a r t o f the environmental  scene.  environment  S i n c e the survey  i s based was desinged to examine the e f f e c t s o f the  environment on the p e r c e p t i o n o f d i s t a n c e ,  c l a r i f y the term ' p h y s i c a l  environment'.  which c o n t a i n r e l a t i v e l y small examples o f p u r e l y p h y s i c a l  it  is  W i l d mountains  necessary  to  and oceans  number of man-made o b j e c t s appear t o be  environments, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i f  c o n t a i n no s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l  or religious  commom view t o most who p e r c e i v e them. physical  environment i n the  connotations  provide a  On the o t h e r hand, man-made  environments are u s u a l l y designed and c o n s t r u c t e d t o  c e r t a i n human a c t i v i t i e s o r to f u l f i l l  they  contain  some s p e c i f i c purposes.  Without  shoppers w i t h shopping~bags and businessmen with b r i e f c a s e s , the commercial and f i n a n c i a l environments.  districts  o f a c i t y may appear t o be s i m i l a r  The a s s o c i a t i o n  o f s p e c i f i c d e f i n a b l e a c t i v i t i e s with a  p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l e plays a v i t a l the p h y s i c a l  environment w i l l  physical  r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the manner in which  be p e r c e i v e d .  In a d d i t i o n to the p u r e l y p h y s i c a l  and the p a r t i c u l a r i z e d man-  made types o f environment, a n o t h e r type o f environment which i s physical  and conceptual  can be o b s e r v e d .  Certain physical  o r a s p e c t s o f the s u r r o u n d i n g environment w i l l  both  structures  be p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t l y  by a r e s t r i c t e d number o f i n d i v i d u a l s who share c e r t a i n kinds o f knowledge about t h e i r surroundings  and a r e aware o f t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l  or  17 religious  implications.  For example, a r e s i d e n t i n a c l o s e l y  knit,  s t a b l e neighborhood may p e r c e i v e the area as h i s own p l a c e o r t e r r i t o r y , even i f  its  physical  appearance does not d i f f e r from t h a t o f o t h e r  areas.  In The death and l i f e  o f American c i t i e s , Jacobs has  some o f the ways i n which shared a c t i v i t i e s the meaning o f p h y s i c a l  described  and memories d i f f e r e n t i a t e  environment.  What i s p r i d e f u l and m e a n i n g f u l l to people i n New York i s what they have accomplished - not n e c e s a r i l y what they have b u i l t . It i s important t o l o o k a t a park p r e s e r v e d from a highway and s a y , "I helped to do t h a t " . l The park would be p e r c e i v e d merely a park f o r o u t s i d e r s , but f o r those who fought f o r i t s consciousness  p r e s e r v a t i o n i t may symbolize the u n i t y and community  o f the r e s i d e n t s or a sense o f shared  T h i s study w i l l  focus  upon the f i r s t  environment; the r e l a t i v e l y pure p h y s i c a l  accomplishment.  two types o f  physical  environment, the man-made  environment, and t h e i r e f f e c t s on p e r c e p t i o n .  The p e r c e p t i o n o f these  types o f environments tends to be more common and homogeneous o f the t h i r d type where d e v i a t i o n s  than  that  due to h i s t o r i c i t y may o c c u r .  IMAGEABILITY(LEGIBILITY) We know t h a t some c i t i e s  and p a r t s o f c i t i e s  are e a s i l y  understood,  and with o n l y s l i g h t degree o f f a m i l i a r i t y , whihout using a map or semantic  'sign-information'  e x t e n s i v e l y , we can r e c o g n i z e our whereabouts,  in such l o c a t i o n s , our c o g n i t i v e maps o f the environment w i l l q u i c k l y , c l e a r l y , and perhaps f a i r l y  be c o n s t r u c t e d  accurately.  S i n c e the e x i s t e n c e o f a good c o g n i t i v e  structure is  a necessary  p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a c q u i r i n g a sense o f c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e , we w i l l  1. J . J a c o b s , The death and 1 i f e o f American c i t i e s , N.Y., i  g  6  1  utilizing  discuss  Random House,  18  the kinds o f form q u a l i t y and the manner i n which c i t i e s  are s t r u c t u r e d  to encourage the development o f a b e t t e r mental map.  FORM QUALITY . . . ( T ) h e g r e a t e r the ambiguity o f the sensory s t i m u l u s , the more room and need t h e r e i s f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by the p e r c e i v e r . l Environmental ambiguity may be caused by a c o n f u s i n g or s t r e e t s t r u c t u r e , the i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b i l i t y to t h e i r i d e n t i c a l  case when s i g n s d e s i g n a t i n g situations  will  o f a p l a c e o r b u i l d i n g s due  appearance, a low supply o f environmental  due to r e s t r i c t e d v i s i o n , or l a c k o f  result  irregular  ' s i g n i n f o r m a t i o n ' , as  s t r e e t names a r e removed.  information is  Any o f  the these  i n a vague, i n a c c u r a t e , d i s c o n n e c t e d c o g n i t i v e map.  S i m p l e , c l e a r l y v i s i b l e forms, i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the i m a g e ( c o g n i t i v e  however, " a r e much more  map)"  2  easily  In o r d e r to f a c i l i t a t e  process o f r e g i s t e r i n g  o b j e c t s , we tend to d i s c a r d minor d e t a i l s  c r e a t e a s i m p l e form.  Complex f e a t u r e s w i l l  be a s s i m i l a t e d  s i m p l e r , more f a m i l i a r form o r p a t t e r n , which i s  the  and  into a  e a s i e r t o remember.  P e o p l e . . . t e n d to p e r c e i v e homogeneity i n the i n t e r n a l characteristics of figures. W i t h i n the boundaries o f a given f i g u r e , d i f f e r e n c e s up to a p o i n t a r e i g n o r e d . 3 Singularity  i s a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f form q u a l i t y and i s  t o the improved l e g i b i l i t y o f the environment. an o b j e c t , such as a b u i l d i n g , and i t s i d e n t i f i e d , and the r e s u l t i n g  considered  Because o f i t s  location will  identification will  oneness,  be c l e a r l y  become a c a r d i n a l  p o i n t on the c o g n i t i v e map.  1. Bernard B e r e l s o n , Human b e h a v i o r ; s h o r t e r e d i t i o n , N . Y . , H a r c o u n t , and World, 1967, pTTSb 2. Lynch,  p.106  3. B e r e l s o n ,  p.155  Brace  19 ...(T)he characteristics differentiating a clearly d e f i n e d f i g u r e from surrounding f i g u r e s o r from the background tend to be a c c e n t u a t e d . ! These e f f e c t t o f a c c e n t u a t i o n by c o n t r a s t w i l l singular  forms.  Exampees o f s i n g u l a r i t y  a l s o be observed  in  are:  c o n t r a s t o f s u r f a c e , form, i n t e n s i t y , c o m p l e x i t y , s i z e , use, s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n ( a s a s i n g l e tower, a r i c h d e c o r a t i o n , a glaring sign), c l o s u r e ( a s an e n c l o s e d s q u a r e ) , sharpness o f boundary(as an abrupt c e s s a t i o n o f c i t y d e v e l o p m e n t ) 2  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e in i n t e n s i t y to the s t i m u l u s "  is  "a major determinant with  and may be compared t o the s i t u a t i o n  i n which  regard  "...a  shot o f f on a q u i e t s t r e e t o r sudden s i l e n c e i n the midst o f a d i n gets a t t e n t i o n . . . "  3  The p e r c e p t i o n o f change caused by a r a p i d s h i f t  i n t e n s i t y bears a s i g n i f i c a n t to o t h e r sensual  s t i m u l i as w e l l .  through t r a c k l e s s , monotonous which serves as  r e l a t i o n not o n l y to a u d i t o r y s t i m u l i  a landmark,  The d i f f i c u l t i e s  involved in  environment and the importance o f  in  but  navigating change,  has been mentioned by Brown, who conducted  a human m a z e - l e a r n i n g e x p e r i m e n t ; o b j e c t s which can be p e r c e i v e d (a rough spot o r a t i l t i n g board) a r e a b l e to s e r v e as l a n d m a r k s . . . o b j e c t s about which a r e r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s way assume a c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t i v e value. The s u b j e c t o f t e n expresses g r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n in f i n d i n g t h e m . . . t h e n e u c l e u s o f any l o c a l i t y i s an o b j e c t ^ In monotonous  setteins  where the i n t e n s i t y o f s t i m u l i  is  held  constant,  o n l y a s l i g h t change o f i n t e n s i t y awakens a t t e n t i o n as d e s c r i b e d above. However, the same amount o f change i n a r e a l ,  1. B e r e l s o n ,  p.155  2. Lynch, p. 3. B e r e l s o n , p. 148 4. H a r t ,  p.7-50  non-experimental  setteing  20  will  not be n o t i c e a b l e .  Thus, d i f f e r e n t i a l t h r e s h o l d s  d i f f e r e n c e t h a t can be d e t e c t e d between s t i m u l i rence -  ...depends  stimulus,  upon the i n i t i a l  intensity;  o r " t h e minimal  - Just Noticeable the s t r o n g e r  the  Diffe-  initial  the g r e a t e r the d i f f e r e n c e needs to b e " *  STRUCTURE Lewis Mumford observes t h a t the uniform g r i d p a t t e r n o f our c i t i e s "makes s t r a n g e r s as much a t home as the o l d inhabitants". 2  The s t r u c t u r a l  regularity,  i n a geometric s e n s e , o f c i t i e s  to an i n c r e a s e d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the environment and seems to be i n c o r p o r a t e d through c o g n i t i o n . as  a whole a l s o enables  leads easily  The r e p e t i t i v e p a t t e r n o f the s t r u c t u r e  us to e s t i m a t e our l o c a t i o n f a i r l y  accurately  even i n an u n f a m i l i a r p a r t o f a c i t y . However, the u n d e f f e r e n t i a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the g r i d may a l s o make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r r e s i d e n t s another.  In  considering this  to d i s t i n g u i s h  system  one r o u t e from  problem, Lynch d i s c o v e r e d t h a t  differentiating  " w i d t h , b l o c k l e n g t h , b u i l d i n g f r o n t a g e and naming" o f the s t r e e t s the problem o f the i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b i l i t y o f the g r i d  pattern.  and y e t p r e s e r v e s the advantages  3  Environmental cues which i n d i c a t e d i r e c t i o n a l essential  solves  r o l e in s t r u c t u r i n g s p a t i a l  relationship.  information play Names o f  an  places,  such as North Vancouver o r the West End s e r v e as more than terms  of  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; they i n d i c a t e not o n l y the l o c a t i o n o f p l a c e s but a l s o suggest a d i r e c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i n the o v e r a l l  1. B e r e l s o n ,  region.  p.146  2. H. Proshansky, and o t h e r s , e d . , Environmental P s y c h o l o g y ; man and p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , N.Y., H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1970, p.17 3. Lynch,  p.61  his  21 As one moves up or down a street, rising street numbers usually indicate that he is moving away from the city centre.  Numeralized  street names or "the alphabetizing of a street series will slso facilitate the structuring of elements" .  These are examples of 'sign information',  1  but 'symbol information' can also impart directional information. Topographical characteristics, such as " a path going u p h i l l , away from the sea, and toward the centre" contain directional cues. 2  An asymmetrical  path in which one side of i t differs from the other side, as a path along the searhore or river, or "with buildings fronting a park" has the same effect.  3  1. Lynch, p.108 2,3. Ibid, p.106  22  3-1-3  Person  variables  We have o f t e n observed through p u r e l y personal some people a r e good a t o r i e n t i n g themselves not.  There appears  to be a personal  experience that  i n space w h i l e o t h e r s  dimension t h a t a f f e c t s  are  one's  p e r c e p t i o n of the environment and the a b i l i t y to c o n s t r u c t a s p a t i a l O r s t e i n has c l a s s i f i e d music,  spirituality,  such mental a c t i v i t i e s  i n t o one group and has s u g g e s t e d ,  t h a t t h e r e may be a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n  t h i n k i n g comprise a n o t h e r group.  It  has  intuition,  interestingly,  between p r o f i c i e n c y i n  a c t i v i t i e s and o r i e n t a t i o n i n s p a c e ; l o g i c ,  corresponds  as a r t ,  these  s c i e n c e , language, and a n a l y t i c a l  been s a i d t h a t t h i s  grouping  to the two areas o f the b r a i n , i . e . , the the r i g h t  hemispheres, where these groups o f a c t i v i e i e s are s e p a r a t e l y Certain studies and t o p o g r a p h i c a l o f the l e s i o n s ,  have shown t h a t d i s o r d e r s o f  memory  'spatial  may be caused by c e r e b r a l l e s i o n .  however, were r i g h t - s i d e d as w e l l  Meyer, who observed p a t i e n t s  map.  as  and  left  administered.! orientation The l o c a t i o n  left-sided.  2  a f f e c t e d by such d i s o r d e r s , d e s c r i b e d a  p a t i e n t who s u f f e r e d from a v a s c u l a r l e s i o n on r i g h t  hemisphere.  . . . ( h e has) no obvious d i s o r d e r o f depth and d i s t a n c e p e r c e p t i o n in c e n t r a l v i s i o n . . . . G e n e r a l memory was good f o r remote events but s l i g h t l y impaired f o r those t h a t had taken p l a c e more r e c e n t l y . Memory f o r t o p o g r a p h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p was g r o s s l y impaired although g e o g r a p h i c a l data as such could be r e c a l l e d c o r r e c t l y . Thus, the p a t i e n t c o u l d always name c o r r e c t l y the s t r e e t s i n which the p r i n c i p a l b u b l i c b u i l d i n g s o f B r e s l a u ( h i s home town) were s i t u a t e d . . . . B u t he was u t t e r l y unable to d e s c r i b e , draw o r r e p r e s e n t in any way how he would reach t h e s e b u i l d i n g s from h i s home .(or from the c l i n i c ) . ...On one o c c a t i o n , f o r example, the p a t i e n t was asked by Meyer to l e a d the way from the c l i n i c to h i s home. When l e d out o f the c l i n i c ( w h i c h he had f o r m e r l y known w e l l ) , the p a t i e n t was very u n c e r t a i n as to h i s immediate whereabouts  1. R. O r s t e i n , Time, J u l y 8,  1974,  2.Andrew Paterson and 0. Z a n g w i l l ,  p.32 "A case o f t o p o g r a p h i c a l  disordentation  a s s o c i a t e d by a u n i l a t e r a l c e r e b r a l l e s i o n " , B r a i n , v o l . 6 8 p a r t 3 ,  1945,ppl88  23 and the d i r e c t i o n which should be t a k e n . He e v e n t u a l l y r e c o g n i z e d the s i g n or a n e i g h b o u r i n g shop and t h i s gave him a measure o t o r i e n t a t i o n . Very soon...became d i s o r i e n t e d a n d . . . a n x i o u s l y sought the p l a c a r d s e x h i b i t i n g the names o f the v a r i o u s s t r e e t s . E v e n t u a l l y , he d i s c o v e r e d h i s p r e c i s e whereabouts by i n f e r e n c e from the numbers o f p a s s i n g s t r e e t - c a r s . . . 1 ( u n d e r l i n e mine) The p a t i e n t appears to have l o s t h i s c o g n i t i v e memory o r to have been unable to u t i l i z e i t to c o n s t r u c t a new c o g n i t i v e map.2  However, he  r e t a i n e d h i s environmental memory very w e l l and u t i l i z e d i t  successfully,  with r e g a r d t o c e r t a i n kinds o f c l u e s , i . e . , " s i g n i n f o r m a t i o n " . r e p o r t suggests t h a t the process or r e c a l l i n g and a p p l y i n g  'sign information'  a r e somehow separated f o r the process o f r e c a l l i n g and u t i l i z i n g information'.  This  'symbol  T h i s d i s j u n c t i o n seems t o be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the c l a s s i f i -  c a t i o n O r s t e i n has  suggested.  Although the s p a t i a l extreme and i s  c o g n i t i o n d i s o r d e r mentioned above was  very uncommon, i t does suggest t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s  may d e t e r m i n e , to an e x t e n t , which type o f i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be used more extensively.  If  Orstein' s ;  findings  a r e c o r r e c t , we can assume t h a t people  who e x c e l i n a r t i s t i c mental a c t i v i t i e s tend to be good a t c o g n i t i o n and a r e a b l e t o u t i l i z e 'symbol  spatial  information' w e l l .  On the o t h e r  hand, the more l o g i c a l , a n a l y t i c a l  person may tend t o u t i l i z e  information  N a t u r a l l y , some i n d i v i d u a l s may be  1  to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t .  'sign  p r o f i c i e n t i n o n l y one type o f a c t i v i t y , both types o r n e i t h e r . we assume t h a t moet people develop s k i l l s t h a t they employ both the ' s i g n - '  1. I b i d . , 2.  Ibid.,  p.189 p.189  in both types t o such an e x t e n t  and 'symbol  way, so t h a t they supplement each o t h e r .  However,  information'  in an i n t e g r a t e d  24  It  is  known t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  i n f l u e n c e d by i n t e r n a l emotional  state.  factors, e.g.,  Certain internal  perception s e l e c t i v i t y  one's  physiological  is  needs o r  c o n d i t i o n s may be temporary; however,  i f they c o n t i n u e to e x i s t throughout a long p e r i o d o f t i m e , the c o g n i t i v e map c o n s t r u c t e d d u r i n g the time w i l l selectivity  be a f f e c t e d by the  accordingly.  -  With regard to m o t i v e s , people look f o r t h i n g s they need or want, and the s t o n g e r the need, the g r e a t e r the tendency to i g n o r e i r r e l e v a n t e l e m e n t s . !  Need and want vary c o n s i d e r a b l y with such f a c t o r s * a s interest,  value, l i f e s t y l e , e t c . ,  age,  For example, a teenager f i n d s  which may be o v e r l o o k e d and re:main u n n o t i c e d by s u b j e c t s groups.  He w i l l  places  i n o t h e r age  r e t a i n a v i v i d memory o f t h e i r l o c a t i o n s , and they may  be f u n c t i o n as f o c a l his  sex, o c c u p a t i o n ,  points  in h i s mental map.  His  c o g n i t i v e map r e f l e c t s  i n t e r e s t s and needs, a l t e r i n g as the importance o f c e r t a i n  facilities  increases or decreases. Individual  d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n and c o g n i t i o n a r e more  pronounced when the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the world a r e  ambiguous.  (I)n an ambiguous i s t u a t i o n ( s u b j e c t has) g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y to s t r u c t u r e i t ( p e r c e p t i o n or c o g n i t i o n ) i n h i s own unique f a s h i o n . . . . ( h o w e v e r , ) i n a w e l l s t r u c t u r e d s i t u a t i o n p e r c e p t i o n i s determined e n t i r e l y by the c h a r a c t e r o f the f i e l d , w i t h personal determinants p l a y i n g l i t t l e i f any r o l e . 2  Thus, i n a s i m p l e , geometric g r i d s t r e e t p a t t e r n , s u b j e c t s ' o f the c i t y become f a i r l y homogeneous;  but w i l l  differ  considerably  a g a i n s t the background o f a l e s s s t r u c t u r e d , l e s s l e g i b l e such as one w i t h an i r r e l u l a r , c u r v i l i n e a r s t r e e t p a t t e r n .  1. B e r e l s o n , 2.  Ibid.,  p.148  p.146  images  environment  25  The degree o f ambiguity magnitude o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  i n environmental  i n f o r m a t i o n and the  needs and wants appear to be two major  v a r i a b l e s which determine s p a t i a l  p e r c e p t i o n and c o g n i t i o n o f each  individual. Man i s external  a c u l t u r a l b e i n g , and the b r a i n i s  conditions.  to  The u n i q u e , e l e b o r a t e way i n which Eskimos p e r c e i v e  snow and Arab see Camels variables  extremely a d a p t a b l e  is  e s t a b l i s h e d through the i n t e r a c t i o n o f  and a s p e c i f i c c u l t u r e - t h e i r l i f e  styles.1  these  C e r t a i n l y , the  Eskimo and Arab are not i n n a t e l y equipped w i t h t h e i r unique p e r c e p t i o n s . Individual  d i f f e r e n c e s with r e g a r d to environmental  p e r c e p t i o n and  c o g n i t i o n a r e a t t r i b u t a b l e , to a l a r g e e x t e n t , to such a s p e c t s subjects'  h i s t o r i c i t y as the type o f environment in which he was  the amount and kind o f h i s enters  In  raised,  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the environment, whether he  i n t o t h e environment a c t i v e l y o r merely exposes  passively,  of the  himself to  it  etc.  the survey to be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s  study we i n c l u d e d a  measurement o f p e r s o n a l i t y as one o f the person v a r i a b l e s  in o r d e r to  examine the r e l a t i o n between p e r c e p t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and p e r s o n a l i t y T h i s v a r i a b l e was measured by " T h i n g - P e r s o n O r i e n t a t i o n S c a l e "  which  L i t t l e has developed in the f i e l d o f p e r s o n a l i t y assessment.2  The  dimension o f the p e r s o n a l i t y  is  i n d i c a t e d by two q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  scores which a r e o b t a i n e d through a t e s t .  3  Essentially,  measured  these two s c a l e s  i n d i c a t e to what degree s u b j e c t s a r e i n t e r e s t e d in p h y s i c l a o b j e c t s opposed to a c t i v i t i e s  1. H a l l ,  involving  inter-personal  types.  as  relations.  p.65  2. B. L i t t l e , Thing o r i e n t a t i o n ; a p r o v i s i o n a l manual f o r the T-P s c a l e , N a t i o n a l Foundation f o r E d u c a t i o n a l Research P u b l i s h i n g C o . , Windsor, 3. see A p p e n d i s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h e e t  p.3  1973  26  3-2 V a r i a b l e s  and p e r c e p t i o n o f  distance  Thus f a r , ;vie have d i s c u s s e d  some o f the major f a c t o r s which are  c o n s i d e r e d to a f f e c t p e r c e p t i o n and the c o g n i t i o n o f the environment. Although s e v e r a l  studies  and p u b l i c a t i o n s with r e g a r d to t h e s e  and t h e i r e f f e c t on the more general a r e a v a i l a b l e , o n l y a few s t u d i e s  area o f environmental  factors  perception  have focused s p e c i f i c a l l y upon the  p e r c e p t i o n o f d i s t a n c e and c o n t a i n r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t to t h i s  subject.  In the f o l l o w i n g  s e c t i o n we w i l l  examine the r e l a t i o n  between these f a c t o r s and d i s t a n c e p e r c e p t i o n .  3-2-1  Interaction  variables  A p p l e y a r d has observed t h a t the c o g n i t i v e map i s  structured  d i f f e r e n t l y among d i f f e r e n t groups o f s u b j e c t s as a r e s u l t o f a survey conducted i n Ciudad Guayama, V e n e z u e l a .  T h i s c i t y was " . . . u n i q u e  in  t h a t t h e r e was a b a i l a b l e no p u b l i c map to a s s i s t ( o r contaminate)  public  p e r c e p t i o n o f the c i t y ' s  inter-  action! transportation)  structure"!.  He found t h a t the mode o f  had a profound e f f e c t on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  the c o g n i t i v e map o f the c i t y formed by the  of  subjects.  Of the s u b j e c t s who t r a v e l l e d o n l y by bus 80% were unable to draw a coherent map o f the urban road system. A l l the maps found i n t h i s group were e i t h e r s c a t t e r e d o r fragmented. . . . A l l the maps drawn by the s e l e c t e d group o f c a r - o n l y t r a v e l l e r s presented a coherent and continuous s y s t e m . . . 2  Although A p p l e y a r d does not mention whether the p e r c e p t i o n o f varies  in accordance with the mode of t r a v e l l i n g ,  i t may be assumed  1. D. A p p l e y a r d , " S t y l e s and methofs o f s t r u c t u r i n g a c i t y " , and b e h a v i o r , June 1970, p.101 2.  Ibid.,  p.113  distance that  Environment  27 the a b i l i t y to draw a more comprehensive, a c c u r a t e map r e s u l t s a b e t t e r knowledge o f d i s t a n c e s  between v a r i o u s  from  p o i n t s as w e l l as  i n c r e a s e d knowledge o f the s t r u c t u r e o f the c i t y .  Thus, i t  seems  an safe  to conclude t h a t t h o s e who t r a v e l l e d o n l y by c a r had developed a more a c c u r a t e p e r c e p t i o n o f d i s t a n c e than those i n the b u s - t r a v e l l i n g  group.  28  3-2-2  Physical  variables  LEGIBILITY V i r t u a l l y everyone appears to have n o t i c e d t h a t the  distance  seems much g r e a t e r d u r i n g a f i r s t t r i p to an u n f a m i l i a r p l a c e and s h r i n k s c o n s i d e r a b l y on the second t r i p and l a t e r o c c a s i o n s reaches f a i r l y r e a s o n a b l e , s t a b l e l e n g t h .  T h e r e a f t e r , one  until  it  usually  does not e x p e r i e n c e any g r e a t f l u c t u a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e p e r c e p t i o n . This  phenomenon presumably r e s u l t s  from a p a r t i c u l a r mental  brought on by a n x i e t y and c u r i o s i t y In the f o l l o w i n g its  i n an u n f a m i l i a r  s e c t i o n , we w i l l  e f f e c t on p e r c e p t i o n o f d i s t a n c e .  It  state,  situation.  considenl;the mental appears  state  t h a t both the  positive  mental c o n d i t i o n o f c u r i o s i t y and the n e g a t i v e c o n d i t i o n o f a n x i e t y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the t o t a l place.  l a c k o f a c o g n i t i v e map o f t h e  Consciously or unconsciously  each i n d i v i d u a l  and  are  unfamiliar  engages i n  the  mental a c t i v i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a new c o g n i t i v e map when t r a v e l l i n g through an u n f a m i l i a r p l a c e f o r the f i r s t  time and c o n t i n u e s to d o ,  though to a much l e s s e r e x t e n t a f t e r an a c c e p t a b l e map has been established.  Thus, the a b s e n t s o f a p r e v i o u s l y c o n s t r u c t e d mental map  combined with a p a r t i c u l a r mental that  is  s t a t e leads  to a p e r c e p t i o n o f  distance  g r e a t e r than in r e a l i t y , w h i l e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a map reduces and  n e u t r a l i z e s the e f f e c t o f the mental In  situation  significantly.  a d d i t i o n , the completeness and perhaps the compactness o f  the  mental map a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d to e f f e c t a r e d u c t i o n o f the p e r c e i v e d distance. largely  The a c q u i s i t i o n o f an a c c u r a t e , comprehensive mental map  a t t r i b u t e d to t h e l e g i b i l i t y o f t h e a c t u a l  physical  is  environment:  S u b j e c t s , when asked which c i t y they f e l t to be a w e l l o r i e n t e d one, mentioned s e v e r a l , but New York (Manhattan) was unanimously c i t e d . And t h i s c i t y was c i t e d not so much f o r i t s g r i d , which Los Angeles has as w e l l , but  29  because i t has a number o f w e l l - d e f i n e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s t r i c t s , s e t i n an o r d e r e d frame o f r i v e r s and s t r e e t s . Two LA s u b j e c t s even r e f e r r e d to Manhattan as being " s m a l l " in comparison to ' t h e i r c e n t r a l area>r Concept o f s i z e may depend i n p a r t on how w e l l s t r a c t u r e can be grasped.1  As a s t r e e t becomes wider and t r a f f i c volume i n c e e a s e s , from one s i d e o f the s t r e e t to the o t h e r d e c r e a s e s . p o i n t in the s i z e o f a s t r e e t , it.  i t becomes v i r t u a l l y  Freeways a r e an example o f t h i s ,  sectional  movement by p e d e s t r i a n s  c o n s t r u c t e d overpasses  and  penetration  Beyond a c e r t a i n i m p o s s i b l e to  s i n c e they p r o h i b i t most  at a l l  p o i n t s o t h e r than the  cross  crossspecially  underpasses.  . . . t h e freeway i n the c i t y has been a g r e a t d e s t r o y e r o f neighborhood v a l u e s . Freeways have tended to d e v i d e neighborhoods i n two, d i v o r c i n g w e l l - b u i l t s e c t i o n s from another and d r i v i n g wedges through c o h e s i v e neighborhoods. 2  The " l i n e a r elements not used o r c o n s i d e r e d as paths by the observers", "edges"  such as r a i l r o a d , c u t s , w a l l s , and shores  by Lynch.  He notes t h a t edges f u n c t i o n in e f f e c t as  between two phases, points as  a r e d e f i n e d as  l i n e a r breaks  in c o n t i n u i t y " .  "boundaries  However, he a l s o  to the e x i s t e n c e o f edges which do not f u n c t i o n as b a r r i e r s  "seam - l i n e s  along which two r e g i o n s  but  are r e l a t e d and j o i n t e d  together"3. C h a r l e s S t r e e t . . . c o n t a i n s the l o c a l s e r v i c e s t o r e s and s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the H i l l . It pulls the r e s i d e n t s t o g e t h e r by a t t r a c t i n g them to i t s e l f . It a c t s ambiguously e i t h e r as l i n e a r nodes, edges, o r path, f o r v a r i o u s people a t v a r i o u s time.4  1. L y n c h , p.67 2. L. H a l p r i n , Freeway, N.Y., 3. L y n c h , p.47 4.  Ibid.,  p.65  R e i n h o l d P u b l i c a t i o n C o . , 1966,  p.24  30 A g a i n , the r e s u l t s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s statements  c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n between the f a c t o r s  the p e r c e p t i o n o f d i s t a n c e , but we f e e l t h a t the d i s t a n c e between two r e g i o n s will  do not c o n t a i n d i r e c t  it  is  c o n s i d e r e d and  not a c c u r a t e to assume  s e p a r a t e d by a ' b a r r i e r edge'  be p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g g r e a t e r than the d i s t a n c e between r e g i o n s  which  'seam edge'  in  seems to draw people t o g e t h e r r a t h e r than s e p a r a t e them.  A statement by Lynch i n d i r e c t l y supports  this  assumption:  Most o b s e r v e r s seems to group t h e i r elements i n t o i n t e r mediate o r g a n i z a t i o n . . . c a l l e d complexes. The o b s e r v e r senses the complex as a whole whose p a r t s are i n t e r d e p e n dent and are r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d in r e l a t i o n to each o t h e r . . . . t h i s whole a r e a . . . h a s become one l o c a l i t y . . . . T h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e between two l o c a l i t i e s may be much g r e a t e r , o r more d i f f i c u l t to surmount, than mere p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n seems to w a r r a n t . 1 Thus, when a l o c a l i t y i s  surrounded or d e f i n e d by  ' b a r r i e r edges'  c o h e s i o n o f the l o c a l i t y may be i n c r e a s e d by 'seam edges'  the  located within  the l o c a l i t y . L y n c h ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f an  'organization'  is  based upon the p h y s i c a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l o c a l i t y which d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t surroundings.  from  its  On the o t h e r hand, A p p l e y a r d emphasizes the soccial  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the  localities:  . . . S h e ( a n i n t e r v i e w e e ) i n s i s t e d on a s s o c i a t i n g her neighborhood w i t h the more p r e s t i g i o u s but d i s t a n t Puerto Ordaz, than with the p h y s i c a l l y a d j a c e n t but l e s s p r e s t i g i o u s rancho s e t t l e m e n t o f C a s t i l l i t o . P e r c e p t u a l d i s t a n c e from a s i m i l a r s o c i a l area i s a p p a r e n t l y l e s s than a c t u a l d i s t a n c e , w h i l e p e r c e p t u a l d i s t a n c e from a lower s o c i a l group i s g r e a t e r than actual distance.2  Lee observes  1.  Ibid.,  p.85  2. A p p l e y a r d ,  p.115  that  "there is a lawfulness  in the r e l a t i o n s h i p  31  between p h y s i c a l and p e r c e i v e d d i s t a n c e  in c i t i e s " .  In  his  survey,  d i r e c t i o n (inward toward the c i t y c e n t r e or outward away from i t ) been chosen to r e p r e s e n t p h y s i c a l  variable.  The degree o f  he examined ranged from 300 y a r d s  t o one m i l e .  has  distance  The average e r r o r ( i n e s t i m a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e ) f o r i n - j o u r n e y i s +14,35%, and f o r o u t - j o u r n e y i s +35.9%. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s i n the p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n and the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e shows i t to be h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . ! Similar  results  may be observed i n Brennan's  b e h a v i o r which c l e a r l y demonstrates  t h a t shoppers  toward the c e n t r e f o r t h e i r shopping. -  survey o f  shopping  p r e f e r to come down  Their choice of stores  located  from t h e . i r homes may have r e s u l t e d i n p a r t from a f o r e s h o r t e n i n g the p e r c e i v e d d i s t a n c e .  of  2  l . T . L e e , " P e r c e i v e d d i s t a n c e as a f u n c t i o n o f d i r e c t i o n i n the c i t y " , Environment and b e h a v i o r , June 1970, p.45 2. T. Brennan, Midland c i t y , London, Cobson,  1948  inward  32  3-2-3  Person  variables  Such v a r i a b l e s and mental  state w i l l  as  sex, age,  personality,  historicity,  be c o n s i d e r e d as person v a r i a b l e s .  these v a r i a b l e s a r e c l o s e l y  occupation,  Undeniably,  i n t e r r e l a t e d with o t h e r i n t e r a c t i o n  variables.  Apparent c o r r e l a t i o n s between sex o r age d i f f e r e n c e s and p e r c e p t i o n have been f o u n d , but i t d i f f e r e n c e s as  is  possible  t h a t they r e s u l t as much from i n t e r a c t i o n a l  from sex and age d i f f e r e n c e s .  However, some r e l a t i v e l y independent person v a r i a b l e s to e x i s t .  Buckman shhyothesizes  do seem  that:  the c o n c e p t u a l ( s u b j e c t i v e ) d i s t a n c e from a l e s s p r e f e r r e d to a more p r e f e r r e d c i t y i s l e s s than the conceptual d i s t a n c e in the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n . 1 In  his  studies,  f o r t y s t u d e n t s were asked to rank s i x New England  in o r d e r o f p r e f e r e n c e and to e s t i m a t e d i s t a n c e s . in l i n e w i t h h i s Bratfisch  were  hypothesis. has made s t u d i e s  d i s t a n c e and "emotional various  The f i n d i n g s  cities  o f the r e l a t i o n between s u b j e c t i v e  involvement".  S u b j e c t s were asked to  i n t e r - c i t y d i s t a n c e s w i t h Stockholm as  estimate  the c e n t r e .  . . . T h e s u b j e c t s e s t i m a t e d the degree o f emotional i n v o l v e ment which they would e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i n g s happening i n the v a r i o u s c i t i e s . Emotional involvement was fuund to be i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to the square r o o t o f subjective distance.2 Bratfish  1.  had a l s o o b t a i n e d s i m i l a r  results  from an e a r l i e r  study.  3  I. Buckman, "Mhe m e t r i c s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s p a c e ; an e x p e r i m e n t " , ( u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , Brown U n i v . , 1966) c i t e d by S t e a , D., i n Working papers i n p l a c e p e r c e p t i o n , 1969  2. B r a t f i s h , 0 . , "A f u r t h e r study o f the r e l a t i o n between s u b j e c t i v e d i s t a n c e and emotional i n v o l v e m e n t " , A c t a P s y c h o l o g i c a , 29, 1969, pp.2443. 0. B r a t f i s h and G. Ekman, " S u b j e c t i v e d i s t a n c e and emotional involvement; a p s y c h o l o g i c a l mechanism? Acta P s y c h o l o i i c a , 2 4 , 1965,  pp.430-37  33 The ' s t a t e o f the o r g a n i s m '  was p a r t i c u l a r l y emphasized i n a  study d e a l i n g with p e r c e p t i o n conducted by Werner and Wapner. examined the " e f f e c t o f r e l e v a n t emotional  s t i m u l i on  They  psychological  distance": S u b j e c t s had to w a l k , w h i l e b l i n d f o l d e d , toward a s p e c i f i e d marker whose l o c a t i o n v a r i e d i n r e g a r d to p r o x i m i t y o f t h e p r e c i p i t o n s edge o f a t h e a t r e s t a g e . The s u b j e c t ' s b e h a v i o r under t h i s c o n d i t i n n was compared with h i s b e h a v i o r i n a n e u t r a l s i t u a t i o n when danger was o m i t t e d . . . . i t i s i n f e r r e d t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e s h r i n k s under c o n d i t i o n s o f danger.1  1. H. Werner and S. Wapner, "Changes i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e under c o n d i t i o n s of d a n g e r " , J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y , 2 4 , 1955 pp.167  34  P A R T  II  4-0 METHOD OF STUDY The survey was designed t o i n v e s t i g a t e environment upon the p e r c e p t i o n o f the i n f l u e n c e o f o t h e r f a c t o r s distance perception.  the e f f e c t s o f the p h y s i c a l  'cognitive distance'  as w e l l  as to examine  such as person and, i n t e r a c t i o n v a r i a b l e s  Rather than u t i l i z i n g the experimental s e t t i n g  of a  l a b o r a t o r y , the survey was conducted i n a genuine urban environment,  that  o f the c i t y o f  4-1 A n a l y s i s  Vancouver.  o f the c i t y o f  Vancouver i s E a s t e r n Canada.  Most o f V a n c o u v e r ' s  buildings  in  were c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h i s  o r p l a c e s which have s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n s  h i s t o r y o r major h i s t o r i c a l the p u b l i c .  Vancouver  a r e l a t i v e l y new c i t y as compared t o c i t i e s  and t h e r e are no b u i l d i n g s  e v e n t s , t h a t are well-known by the m a j o r i t y  Thus, Vancouver has no p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l  specific historical In physical of i t s  implications  terms o f i t s  and  characteristics  geography and c e r t a i n  of  features  The n o r t h end o f the c i t y i s d e f i n e d by a number o f perfectly straight  and can be seen from almost any p l a c e i n the c i t y .  l i n e from west to  toward the mountain,  its  he i s  east,  These extremely p o w e r f u l !  s e r v e s as an unmistakable o r i e n t a t i o n a l c l u e .  a r e on o n e ' s l e f t ,  which  supreme l e g i b i l i t y , Vancouver has v e r y unique  mountains, which frorm an almost  lankmarks  of  connotations.  environment due p r i m a r i l y to i t s  topography.  century,  with  c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t the p e r c e p t i o n o f the environment as a r e s u l t  -  upon  When one goes  means t h a t he hea'ding t o the n o r t h ; i f the mountains going e a s t .  During t h e w i n t e r because o f the  35  i l l u m i n a t i o n p r o v i d e d the s k i -  slopes  l o c a t e d on the mountain, one can  f i n d this d i r e c t i o n f a i r l y e a s i l y even a t n i g h t . mountains  c o n t a i n d i s t a n c e c u e s , as w e l l .  The s i z e o f  the  P a r t i c u l a r l y when one  approaches from the tsouth, the mountains become v i s i b l e a t p o i n t s more than 30 m i l e s away from the c i t y c e n t r e .  As one nears the c e n t r e o f  c i t y the mountains n a t u r a l l y loom l a r g e r and l a r g e r  in one's  the  view.  S i n c e the r e s i d e n t s o f the c i t y a r e f a m i l i a r with the s i z e o f them from various  p o i n t s w i t h i n the c i t y , the r e l a t i v e s m a l l n e s s o f the  g i v e s them a rough e s t i m a t i o n o f  mountains  distance.  The west end o f the c i t y f a c e s the s e a .  S i n c e most o f the w a t e r -  f r o n t land has been r e c o v e r e d by the c i t y and p r e s e r v e d as a p u b l i c park a n d / o r b e a c h , an u n o b s t r u c t e d view o f the sea i s a v a i l a b l e to a l l . The c o n t i n u o u s  v i s i b i l i t y o f the water along the shore l i n e  contributes  tremendously to the f o r m a t i o n o f a c l e r l y and v i v i d l y d e f i n e d Normally the water would be v i s i b l e o n l y to those in i t s to i t s  l o w - l e v e l and the presence o f b u i l d i n g s  'edge'.  p r o x i m i t y due  which o b s t r u c t the view.  However, because the c i t y :is s i t u a t e d on h i l l s w i t h numerous the water can be seen from f u r t h e r p o i n t s as w e l l .  In  slopes,  addition  of  f r o n t i n g t h e s e a , the c i t y possesses a l s o a number o f i n l e t s and creeks which p r o v i d e innumerable w a t e r - d e f i n e d Most o f V a n c o u v e r ' s major s t r e e t s east,  generating a r i g h t - a n g l e d  edges. run south to n o r t h and west to  grid pattern.  T h i s type o f p a t t e r n  known t o be very e f f e c t i v e in f a c i l i t a t i n g a c i t y ' s In  'legibility'.  the downtown a r e a ( C B D ) , the s t r e e t p a t t e r n i s  1. see s e c t i o n 3 - 1 - 2 ,  3-2-2.  is  1  t w i s t e d 45 degree.  36  However, because o f the detachment o f the a r e a , which i s  connected to  the r e s t o f the c i t y by o n l y two b r i d g e s ( B u r r a r d , G r a n v i l l e ) streets  and a few  ( H a s t i n g s ) , the i r r e g u l a r i t y o f the p a t t e r n does not seem t o  pose any s i g n i f i c a n t Although  orientational  problems to the r e s i d e n t s .  considerable deviations  from the g r i d - p a t t e r n do  o c c u r in North Vancouver and the e a s t s i d e o f the c i t y , our survey not i n c l u d e these a r e a s .  did  C o n s e q u e n t l y , the e f f e c t o f the i r r e g u l a r  p a t t e r n upon the p e r c e p t i o n o f i d s t a n c e i n these a r e a s w i l l  street  not be  considered here. Another o f V a n c o u v e r ' s  assets is  the t o p o g r a p h i c a l  which c o n t r i b u t e s to the high l e g i b i l i t y o f t h e c i t y . vary as much as  300 f e e t w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y small  has r e s u l t e d in a number o f l o c a t i o n s whole c i t y can be o b t a i n e d . large-scale the  undulation  The a l t i t u d e may  a r e a , and t h i s  from which a panoramic view of  The v i s i b i l i t y  1. see s e c t i o n 3-1-1  SCALE.  the  o f the environment on a  enables the o b s e r v e r l i t e r a l l y to v i s u a l i z e and  city.l  variation  understand  37  4-2  Design o f  survey  In o r d e r to i n v e s t i g a t e  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and the  environment, we conducted a s u r v e y , the o b j e c t i v e s o f which were to determine what kinds o f v a r i a b l e s , a f f e c t environmental  p a r t i c u l a r l y physical  p e r c e p t i o n and the p e r c e p t i o n o f  variables,  distance.  The s c a l e o f d i s t a c c e employed f o r t h e survey was foitir m i l e s . as  The d i s t a n c e examined was t h a t which we r e f e r r e d to e a r l i e r  'cognitive  distance'  questions distance'  2  regarding  the s u b j e c t ' s  estimation of  'domi-centric  ( t h e d i s t a n c e between two p o i n t s when the s u b j e c t i s  l o c a t e d a t e i t h e r p i i n t ) were o r i g i n a l l y but were not t a b u l a t e d f o r use i n t h i s distance'  urban-scale:  i n c l u d e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  study.  Only  'ego-centric  ( d i s t a n c e between two p o i n t s when the s u b j e c t i s  one o f the p o i n t s ) A well  not  located  was examined.  known landmark,  Hotel Vancouver, which i s  situated  in  the c o r e o f downtwon Vancouver was chosen as the d e s t i n a t i o n o r p o i n t f o r the e s t i m a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e .  T h i s hotel was the most  conspicuous  r e c e n t l y when b u i l d i n g s  building  in the c i t y u n t i l  same s i z e and l a r g e r , v i i c i n i t y of the h o t e l .  t a l l e r buildings  target  of  N e v e r t h e l e s s , Hotel Vancouver's  unique,  g l a s s and c o n c r e t e which surround i t , and Hotel Vancouver i s i n the downtown area which has a l a r g e ,  painted a l i g h t highly  green.  visible.  1. see s e c t i o n  2-3.  the  came to be c o n s t r u c t e d in the stone  masonry facade p r o v i d e s a s t r o n g c o n t r a s t to the modern b u i l d i n g s  building  at  Consequently, i t s  triangular  singular  of  the o n l y roof  shape and c o l o r a r e  38  The h o t e l  stands out when viewed from i t s  viewed from d i s t a n t  points.  Because i t  is  two wide s t r e e t s with an open space on i t s from bottom to t o p , can be seen from i t s 'bottomless'  effect.  east s i d e , the whole b u i l d i n g ,  base.  Thus, t h e r e i s  no  in NYC can not be  r a t h e r high n o t i c e a b i l i t y from  T h i s r e c o g n i z a b i l i t y o f the p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n o f  the landmark i s e s p e c i a l l y important when the e s t i m a t i o n o f is  as when  s i t u a t e d a t the c o r n e r o f  (The EMpire S t a t e B u i l d i n g  r e c o g n i z e d a t i t s bottom, d e s p i t e i t s distanc p o i n t s , ) !  base as w e l l  distance  critical. S i n c e the b u i l d i n g accomodates a h o t e l and c o n t a i n s  primarily  those f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s which a r e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the function of a hotel,  the name ' H o t e l  a s s o c i a t e d with the b u i l d i n g . buildings  Vancouver'  is  consistently  Because the m a j o r i t y o f the o t h e r  in the area c o n t a i n numerous companies and o f f i c e s , the name  o f an o f f i c e b u i l d i n g does not u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t the n a t u r e o f building.  the  C o n s e q u e n t l y , we assume t h a t those o f f i c e b u i l d i n g remain  r a t h e r anonymous s t r u c t u r e s t o most r e s i d e n t s o t h e r than the l i m i t e d number o f buisnessmen and workers who f r e q u e n t them. r e j e c t e d as p o s s i b l e d e s t i n a t i o n p o i n t s . appears to be a s t r a i g h t f o w a r d  "^yr  Hotel Vancouver, however,  landmark, and we f e e l  a p p r o p r i a t e one f o r the purposes o f t h i s  Four d i f f e r e n t ' l o c a t i o n s '  Thus, they were  it  i s the most  studyy.  s i t u a t e d on the major r o u t e s to  thi  c o r e of downtown Vancouver and the d e s t i n a t i o n p o i n t were s e l e c t e d . S i n c e the survey was designed to focus on ' e g o - c e n t r i c d i s t a n c e ' , the  1. see s e c t i o n 3 - 1 - 1 ,  SCALE.  39  s u b j e c t s were asked to e s t i m a t e the d i s t a n c e to the landmark from the selected  'locations'.  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d to the  who l i f e  i n the v i c i n i t y o f the  p i c k e d up the next day.  'locations',  homes, and t h a t e s t i m a t i o n s  downtwwn) d i s t a n c e '  'locations'  was  of  to be answered  o f d i s t a n c e from t h e i r  ' e g o - c e n t r i c d i s t a n c e ' were o b t a i n e d .  o f the s u b j e c t s were e s t i m a t e  'inward(toward  the  in o r d e r to e l i m i n a t e the e f f e c t s o f d i r e c t i o n upon  perception (estimation) The a c t u a l  and l e f t o v e r n i g h t ,  T h e r e f o r e , we assume t h a t the s u b j e c t s  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and made t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n s  In a d d i t i o n , a l l  residents  of  disaance.l  d i s t a n c e between the d e s t i n a t i o n and the f o u r  kept e q u a l : f o u r m i l e s .  This uniformity of  enables us to a v o i d l a t e r adjestments and, more i m p o r t a n t l y ,  distance possible  e f f e c t s on p e r c e p t i o n t h a t might have r e s u l t e d from v a r y i n g magnitudes of  distance. The s e l e c t i o n o f t h e  differentiation  in the p h y s i c a l  Differentiation of The f o u r  ' l o c a t i o n s ' was based on the magnitude  of  environment on the way to the d e s t i n a t i o n .  environment  'locations'  will  be r e f e r r e d to h e r e a f t e r as  Vancouver, Alma, G r a n v i l l e , and H a s t i n g s .  North  They a r e s i t u a t e d around the  i n t e r s e c t i o n s o f Marine D r i v e and C a p i l a n o Road i n North Vancouver, Alma and West 10th Avenue, G r a n v i l l e and West 4 1 s t Avenue, and East H a s t i n g s and Reinfrew,  respectively.  1  We s p e c i f i c a l l y asked t h a t the s u b j e c t s e s t i m a t e the d i s t a n c e i from where they l i v e to Hotel Vancouver, and assume t h a t the s u b j e c t s '  1. see map  /  40  e s t i m a t i o n s were based on t h e s h o r t e s t and most convenient r o u t e s c o u l d be taken to t h e d e s t i n a t i o n from t h e i r homes.  From N.Vancouver  i s o n l y one way to the downtown a r e a : from Marine D r . , a c r o s s Gate B r i d g e ,  through S t a n l e y P a r k , and up West G e o r g i a .  a l t e r n a t i v e way e x i s t s  f o r N. Vancouver s u b j e c t s .  that there  Lion's  No c o n v e n i e n t ,  From the H a s t i n g s  l o c a t i o n , we assume t h a t the s u b j e c t s would most probably go by way o f East H a s t i n g s Avenue f o r a t r i p downtown, s i n c e i t d i r e c t and perhaps the f a s t e s t way.  is  From G r a n v i l l e l o c a t i o n ,  S t r e e t would be the best r o u t e f o r the same r e a s o n s . location, several  the s h o r t e s t ,  hovever, t h e r e i s no s i n g l e  major a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e  most  Granville  From the Alma  d i r e c t way; l o g i c a l l y  there are  f o r the Alma s u b j e c t s .  They may go  by way o f W. Broadwya Avenue and B u r r a r d S t r e e t o r by Alma S t r e e t , 4th Avenue, and B u r r a r d S t r e e t , or by Alma S t r e e t , B u r r a r d S t r e e t , and so on f o r a t r i p downtown. s e l e c t i o n s o f routes right-angled  Though u n p r e d i c t a b l e  such as these do o c c u r i n areas  grid pattern, regardless  choose, t h e a c t u a l  P o i n t Grey Road and  d i s t a n c e remains  Based on these assumptions  o f which r o u t e s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the  subjects  v i r t u a l l y same i n t h i s  regarding  the ways to the  case: 4 m i l e s . destination  from each o f t h e f o u r l o c a t i o n s , we observed the nature o f the p h y s i c a l environment a l o n g the ways and the ways themselves.  We h y p o t h e s i z e d  that  the d i s t a n c e o f f o u r m i l e s would not n o r m a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d a p e d e s t r i a n (walking) d i s t a n c e , and as a r e s u l t , assumed t h a t t*be t r i p would be made p r i m a r i l y by bus or a u t o m o b i l e .  (First,  economical bus s e r v i c e  a v a i l a b l e a t each o f t h e s e f o u r l o c a t i o n s . )  T h e r e f o r e , minor  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which might be observed by p e d e s t r i a n s but a r e o v e r - l o o k e d by auto passengers  or bus r i d e r s w i l l  1. see s e c t i o n 3 - 1 - 1 , Mode o f i n t e r a c t i o n .  is physical easily  not be examined h e r e . l  Hotel Vancouver North Vancouver location A l m a location ©  Granville- location  ©  Hastings location  i i i \ 111 m 11111 i n t u i ns^&rmii 11 II 111111 m i M I II-S^S-I t i i i i i i i \ i i i i t i i i i i \ u i i i i u i i i i n i t i i i i  I I I I I IIII I I I I I I I  )  Map 3. Problems  of  d i r e c t i o n ambiguity c h a r a c t e r l e s s path lack of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n elastic intersection weak/absent boundary point o f confusion lack of r e l a t i o n isolation c h a o s t i c / c h a r a c t e r l e s s area bottomless tower incomplete broken path discontinuity d i s c o n n e c t e d , hidden waterfront  n o t a i i o n by K. Lynch  44  5-0 DATA  5-1  Data c o l l e c t i o n Data was c o l l e c t e d by the q u e s t i o n n a i r e sampling method.  variables  s e l e c t e d to c l a r i t y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the environment  and d i s t a n c e p e r c e p t i o n can be c l a s s i f i e d physical  and person  i n t o t h r e e groups:  orientational  skills,  and a p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t  (Thing-Person  see s e c t i o n 3-1-3) were i n c l u d e d i n the person  Questions  relevent to the i n t e r a c t i o n variables  to examine the amount and kinds o f  the number o f y e a r s the Ss  orientation  included qustions  designed  i n t e r a c t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d by s u b j e c t s ' ( S s ) v  These * e r e :  has l i v e d i n Vancouver, the number o f y e a r s  has l i v e d a t h i s / h e r p r e s e n t a d d r e s s ,  the amount o f time spent  of  variables.  i n the p a r t i c u l a r environment o f the c i t y o f Vancouver.  the Ss  interaction,  variables.  Sex, age, e d u c a t i o n , o c u u p a t i o n , s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n  scores,  The  the mode o f  transportation,  t r a v e l l i n g and l e n g t h o f d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d per  day, and a s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the c i t y by the No q u e s t i o n s  d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the p h y s i c a l  The e f f e c t s o f the p h y s i c a l  variables  variables  werevasked.  upon d i s t a n c e p e r c e p t i o n were  measured by a comparison o f the answers p r o v i d e d by the groups o f in the f o u r d i f f e r e n t  The c e n t r a l  Ss.  Ss  locations.  points  (four miles  from the Hotel Vancouver on the  r o u t e s ) were marked on a map, every house i n the v i c i n i t y o f the was v i s i t e d , and unless  absent,  points  the occupants were asked to answer  the  questionnaire. In o r d e r to i n c r e a s e the response r a t e o f v a l i d answers, the q u f t i o n n a i r e s were p e r s o n a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d and an e x p l a n a t i o n  all  of  given  45  t o the Ss  at t h a t t i m e ; they were informed t h a t the sheets would be  p e r s o n a l l y c o l l e c t e d the next day.  Prestamped preaddressed  were l e f t on the c o l l e c t i o n day when the Ss had not f i n i s h e d  envelops the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s o r were a b s e n t . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d on J u l y 31 and August 1974, and c o l l e c t e d on the f o l l o w i n g d a y s .  The f o l l o w i n g  1,  tab!enlists  the number o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s which were d i s t r i b u t e d f o r each o f the l o c a t i o n s and  collected.  location  # of questionnaire distributed collected  Granville Hastings Alma N.Vancouver  27 25 28 29  -  20 17 27 22  46  5-2 D e s c r i p t i o n  o f the sampled  The f o l l o w i n g observation.  locations  a r e our impressions of.- the l o c a t i o n s ,  The G r a n v i l l e l o c a t i o n , which i s  most p r e s t i g i o u s  residential  primarily residential  sections  f a i r l y near one o f  in Vancouver,  area w i t h o n l y a few s t o r e s  streets.  The houses  are r e l a t i v e l y large  contrast,  the m a j o r i t y o f houses  d e r i v e d by  is  situated  along t h e major  in the Hastings l o c a t i o n a r e  and a r e o f t e n i n a d e t e r i o r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n .  The p o p u l a t i o n o f  immigrated persons was l a r g e ;  d i d not a c c e p t  q u e s t i o n n a i r e due to i l l t e r a c y . unproportionately  large  in a  and w e l l - m a i n t a i n e d .  some r e s i d e n t s  the  In small, newly  the  The number o f c h i l d r e n and aged was  in comparison w i t h the o t h e r l o c a t i o n s .  In  the Alma l o c a t i o n , many students were o b s e r v e d , as may be expected from its  p r o x i m i t y to the UBC.  well  The area i t s e l f  m a i n t a i n e d , middle c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l  residences  such as apartments  houses  is  composed o f  fairly  area w i t h number o f r e n t a l  and d u p l e x e s .  No  special  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were immediately o b s e r v e b l e a t the N. Vancouver which i s  situated  in r e l a t i v e l y newer.;»middle c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l  These f o u r l o c a t i o n s  were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r p o s i t i o n s  r e l a t i o n to the d e s t i n a t i o n . characteristics  from the  themselves  study  'location'  w i t h the  *  distance  only s l i g h t l y .  5-1.  p o i n t ' * at i t s  the  locations.  centre.  from one a n o t h e r ,  For the purposes  may be l o o s e l y d e f i n e d as a small  'central  see s e c t i o n  varies  in  but on the nature o f  Though the n a t u r e o f the ways d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y the a c t u a l  area.  The s e l e c t i o n was based not upon the  o f the l o c a t i o n s  ways to the d e s t i n a t i o n  location,  of  geographical  this area  47  Note: The f o l l o w i n g data was c o l l e c t e d and computed from a l i m i t e d number o f r e t u r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . T h u s , i t does not r e p r e s e n t the whole p o p u l a t i o n o f each ' l o c a t i o n ' o r a r e a , but from each group o f Ss in the ' l o c a t i o n ' . T h e r e f o r e , when i t i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the mean age o f the H a s t i n g s l o c a t i o n i s 25 y e a r s , f o r example, i t does not n e c e e s s a r i l y mean t h a t the average age o f the p o p u l a t i o n in the area i s 2 5 , but t h a t the average age o f the Ss i n the ' l o c a t i o n ' was 25.  Number o f  Ss  The f o l l o w i n g  r e p r e s e n t s the number o f v a l i d  r e t u r e d from each o f the l o c a t i o n :  T a b l e 1. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f l o c a t i o n vs sex frequency t a b l e ( H o r i z o n t a l percentage) location Granville Hastings Alma N.Van.  5(29%) 13(48%) 14(64%)  all  40  locat'n  Male  Female  S(40%) '  12(60%) 12(71%) 13(48%) 7(32%)  N 20 17 27 22  44  86  questionnaires  48  5-2-1  Person  variables  Age The mean age o f a l l  Ss  in the f o u r l o c a t i o n s was a p p r o x i m a t e l y  33  ( S D : 1 7 ) * , and the lowest mean age among the l o c a t i o n s was found i n the H a s t i n g s : 2 5 ( S D : 1 0 ) ; the h i g h e s t was the N. Vancouver:  T a b l e 2. Bivariate  table of  l o c a t i o n vs mean age*  location Gaanville Hastings Alma N.Van  mean age* 36 25 31 40  SD 20 10 16 18  N 20 17 27 22  all  33  17  86  locat'n  T a b l e 2b. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f age c a t e g o r y category 0 to 9 y e a r 10 to 14 15 to 19 20 t o 29 30 to 39 40 to 49 50 to 59 60 -  40(SD:18)*.  vs a s s i g n e d  value  value 5 12 17 25 35 45 55 70  Education The Ss  i n the Alma possessed  the h i g h e s t  educaitonal  background;  22% o f them had a t t e n d e d o r were a t t e n d i n g some graduate s c h o o l , and 23% have some c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n o r a B a c h e l o r ' s  degree.  On the o t h e r hand,  * In o r d e r to s i m p l i f y data p r o c e s s i n g , the Ss were asked to l i s t t h e i r ages c a t e g o r i c a l l y , e . g . , 10 to 14 y e a r s o r 20 to 29 y e a r s . Thus, the exact age o f each S was not r e c o r d e d . For the computation o f means, the values l i s t e d in T A b l e 2b which are the mean age o f each g a t e g o r y , were used as s u b s t i t u t e s .  49  n e a r l y 80% o f the Ss i n Hastings have no e d u c a t i o n beyond s e n i o r school  level.  T a b l e 3. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e of l o c a t i o n vs ( h o r i z o n t a l percentage) location Granville Hastings Alma N.Van.  elementary DI 6% 0% 23%  education  j.high. TBT^ 12% 15% 5%  s.high. 3T5% 59% 26% 23%  For the sake o f s i m p l i c i t y , the f o l l o w i n g a s s i g n e d to c a t e g o r i e s level  high  of educational  values  college TBI 12% 33% 32%  grad. W 17% 22% 18%  (see T a b l e 4b) were  l e v e l , and the 'mean'  educational  was computed f o r each l o c a t i o n . *  T a b l e 4. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f l o c a t i o n vs location Granvi l i e Hastings Alma N.Van.  'mean'* 330 3.12 3.52 3.18  'mean'* e d u c a t i o n a l  level  SD TSS" .99 1.22 1.44  T a b l e 4b. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f c a t e g o r y vs a s s i g n e d v a l u e category elementary j.high s.high college graduate  value  1  2 3 4 5  Personality With regard to p e r s o n - t h i n g o r i e n t a t i o n , obvious all  variations  among  Ss drawn from t h e f o u r d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s were not apparent and the  * S i n c e the c a t e g o r y i s the ' o r d i n a l ' not the ' i n t e r v a l ' s c a l e , the given values a r e a r b i t r a r y . Thus, the 'mean' e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y u n j u s t i f i a b l e , but conveys a rough idea o f the way the groups compare.  50  Person-score,  i n p a r t i c u l a r , was o f v i r t u a l l y the same magnitude.  T a b l e 5. B i v a r i t a e t a b l e o f l o c a t i o n vs average T-P s c o r e location Granville Hastings Alma N.Van. all  T-score(SD) *  locat'n  19.8(7.7) 21.8(6.7) 16.6(8.6)  P-score(SD) 21.8(6.7) 22.0(7.5) 22.6(7.8) 20.0(6.6)  18.7(8.4)  21.6(7.1)  16.3(9.7)  51  5-2-2  Interaction  Number o f y e a r s  variables  l i v e d i n Vancouver/ a t p r e s e n t  The m a j o r i t y o f Ss(N:63 o r 72%) more than 5 y e a r s . Granville:  address  had been l i v i n g  i n Vancouver f o r  T h i s tendency was c o n s i s t e n t a t a l l  locations;  80%, H a s t i n g s : 67%, Alma: 67%, and N. Vancouver:  However, the l e n g t h o f time the Ss had l i v e d a t t h e i r addresses o f Ss  v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y from l o c a t i o n to l o c a t i o n .  77%. present  In Alma, 70%  havemoved to t h e i r p r e s e n t r e s i d e n c e s w i t h i n the past 5 y e a r s  as compared to 50% i n G r a n v i l l e .  T a b l e 6. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f l o c a t i o n vs l e n g t h of time l i v e d in Vancovver Frequency t a b l e l e s s than up to up to up to up to more than location 2-3 mo. 6 mo. a year 2-3 v r . 5 years 5 years Granville D 0 T* 2— O IT Hstings 0 2 1 1 2 12 Alma 0 0 1 6 2 18 N.Van. 0 0 0 3 2 17 all  locafn  0  .  2  4  12  6  63  T a b l e 7. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f l o c a t i o n vs l e n g t h o f time l i v e d a t - r e s e n t Frequency t a b l e l e s s than up to up to up to up to location 2-3 mo. 6 mo. a year 2-3 y r . 5 yrs Granville 2 1 1 3 3 2 Hastings 3 4 2 0 Alma 4 4 3 8 0 0 N.Van. 3 2 6 1  more than 5 yrs 10 6 8 10  all  35  locat'n  Mode o f  8  11  10  19  4  address  transportation At a l l  locations,  very few Ss  sampled (N:6 out o f 86 o r 7%)  t h a t they r e l y on f o o t , b i c y c l e , o r m o t o r c y c l e as t h e i r major means transportation  i n the c i t y .  A m a j o r i t y o f t h e Ss  stated of  (49%)' use a s e l f - d r i v e n  52  c a r , and the r e s t of the Ss s t a t e d they were bus o r c a r passengers  (25%,  17% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . T a b l e 8. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e of l o c a t i o n vs mode H o r i z o n t a l percentage car car self-dr'n passe'r location 50% Granville Hastings 38% 38% Alma 48-% 22% N.Van. 64% 9%  5o%  all  51%  locat'n  Length o f d i s t a n c e  16%  of  transportation-  bus  35* 19% 22% 27% 26%  (milage) t r a v e l l e d per day  The average d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d per dya a t a l l 10 m i l e s  (SD:  T a b l e 9. Bivariate  12)*.  f i g u r e was c o n s i s t e n t  t a b l e o f l o c a t i o n vs  location Granvile Hastings Al ma N.Van. all  This  locat'n  'mean' milage  'mean'(mile) 11 6 12 11  SD 12 6 15 11  10.2  12.0  Amount o f time (minute)  throughout  57)*.  This  f i g u r e d i i l not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y  'mean'  'mean' (minutes) 50 55 62 48  SD 54 57 62 39  all  54.1  53.4  53  same kind o f approach as  was employed.  per day was  56 minutes  among the f o u r  locations.  time t r a v e l l e d per day  location Granville Hastigs Alma N.Van.  * The  locations.  spent t r a v e l l e d per day  T a b l e 10. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f l o c a t i o n vs  locat'n  the  was  t r a v e l l e d per day  The average amount o f time spent t r a v e l l i n g (SD:  locations  i n the case o f  'mean' age i n s e c t i o n  5-2-1  53  5-3 E s t i m a t i o n o f 5-3-1  Physical  distance  variable  The f o u r sample l o c a i i o n s were s e l e c t e d a t determined p o i n t s  strategically  in o r d e r to generate d i f f e r e n t s e t s  a r e s u l t o f the d i f f e r i n g to the d e s t i n a t i o n .  i n a environmental a s p e c t s  of responses  a l o n g the r o u t e s  Thus, the v a r i a b l e o f l o c a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s  degree o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f the p h y s i c a l  as  the  environment.  As d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r ( s e c t i o n 4 - 2 ) , because o f the l a r g e number of  ' e d g e s ' which the Ss must c r o s s and the v a r i a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the  c o n t r a s t o f l a n d , s e a , f o r e s t , and c i t y environment, the North Vancouver (or more p r e c i s e l y the way between the d e s t i n a t i o n and the location)  r e p r e s e n t s the most d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p h y s i c a l  Alma and G r a n v i l l e f o l l o w ways.  environment.*  in the degree o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a l o n g  The way from the H a s t i n g s i s  c i a t e d , monotonous  N.Vancouver  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the most u n d e f f i r e n -  environment.  From T a b l e 11, a r a t h e r d i s t i n c t and c o n s i s t e n t  tendency may  be o b s e r v e d ; t h e degree o f t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l ment i s  the  environ-  i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d to the magnitude o f the p e r c e i v e d d i s t a n c e .  A p h y s i c a l l y d i v e r s i f i e d , heterogeneous way had a f o r e s h o r t e n i n g upon the p e r c e p t i o n o f the d i s t a n c e .  Monotonous p h y s i c a l  corresponded to the s u b j e c t s ^ p e r c e p t i o n o f the d i s t n a c e as  effect  surroundings being  relatively  longer. However, t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s  f i n d i n g c o u l d not be t e s t e d  o t h e r f a c t o r s were not kept e q u a l , (see s e c t i o n 6-0:  * s e e map  1,2.  Analysis)  since  T a b l e 11. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs  location  (C/B) location Granville Hastings Alma N.Van. all  locat'n  N  A. e s t i m a t i o n ( m i l e )  SD  84  distance C.deviation  O  D.%of  5.3 4.8 4.4  iTa"  1.9 1.8 1.5  O  4.0 4.0 4.0  1.3 0.8 0.4  +33% +20% +10%  4.87  1.7.7  4.0  (L87  +22%  213—571  15 27 . 22  B.actual  +2M  deviatio  55  5-3-2  Interaction  Mode o f  variables  transportation The Ss whose major means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was  (N;43) estimated the d i s t a n c e most a c c u r a t e l y . car(passenger)  (N:15) were l e s s  Bus r i d e r s ( N : 2 2 )  accurate in t h e i r  T a b l e 12. B i v a r i a g e t a b l e o f e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs mode o f  estimation (mile) car self-driven 4.6 5.0 car passenger 5.0 bus rider  SD  a l l modes  1.69  mode  4.81  car(self-driven)  estimations.  transprrtation  deviation (mi 1 e) 0.6  1.2 1.7 2.4  and  % of deviation +15*  1.0 1.0  +25% +25%  0.81  +20%  In comparing the t h r e e modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  i t may be t h a t  d r i v i n g a c a r onesel f r e q u i r e s t h e most e x t e n s i v e , a c t i v e  involvement  in  d e c i s i o n must  ravigating  through the environment.  Each n a v i g a t i o n a l  be made and executed in r e l a t i o n t o the s u r r o u n d i n g s .  In case o f  r i d i n g a bus, the amount o f the r e q u i r e d involvement l e s s e n s e x t e n t , y e t the passenger  still  to  large  must make c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n , such  as  which bus to take in which d i r e c t i o n , and where to t r a n s f e r o r get However, the person who r i d e s a driver, is It  i n a c a r as a passenger  u s J & l l y not a s s i g n e d  any a>ctive r o l e in  r a t h e r than as vavigation.  appears t h a t the magnitude o f involvement i n an a c t i v e  e x p e r i e n c e with environment through n a v i g a t i o n  positively affects  accuracy of the estimation o f d i s t a n c e .  This q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  finding  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y i n  3-2-1.  off.  i s compatible with other studies  the  supported section  56  Frequency o f v i s i t  t o the  destination  No c o n s i s t e n t t e n d e n c i e s with r e g a r d to the v a r i a b l e s  of  frequency o f v i s i t and e s t i m a t i o n o f the d i s t a n c e were found. words, the e s t i m a t i o n s  In  other  o f Ss who f r e q u e n t the v i c i n i t y o f the Hotel  Vancouver at l e a s t once a day i s as good/bad as those o f Ss who go the d e s t i n a t i o n or i t s  v i c i n i t y as  i n f r e q u e n t l y as a c o u p l e times  T a b l e 13. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs frequency o f  frequency 1/day 2-3/week 2-3/mo.  1/mo. 2-3/year  once never  N 8 14 22 21 17 1 1  estimation  SD 1.8 2.0 1.6 2.3 1.0  4.9 5.1 4.8 5.1 4.5  -  -  of a y e a r .  visit  deviation  % of deviation +23%  0.9 1.1 0.8 1.1 0.5  +28% +20% +28% +13%  -  -  -  Length o f time l i v e d i n Vancouver S i n c e most o f the Ss the number o f Ss  (72%) had l i v e d i n Vancouver more than 5 y e a r s ,  i n o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s was a c c o r d i n g l y s m a l l .  a comparison o f these c a t e g o r i e s  is  invalid.  As a r e s u l t ,  However, i t appears  i n the  s u r f a c e t h a t l o n g - t e r m f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the c i t y does not have any significant  e f f e c t on the a c c u r a c y o f the e s t i m a t i o n ; the average  t e s t i m a t i o n by r e s i d e n t s o f 5 or more y e a r s was +28% g r e a t e r actual +27%.  d i s t a n c e , whereas the average e s t i m a t i o n by a l l  Ss  than the  d e v i a t e d by  57  T a b l e 14. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs y e a r s l e n q t h of time N up t o 2-3mo. 0 -6months 1 -lyear 3 12 -2-3yrs -5yrs 6 62 5yrsall  "  84  estimation 5.2 4.2 4.8  -  4.87  Length o f time l i v e d a t S s '  present  Over 40% o f the Ss(N:35) f o r more than 5 y e a r s . (5 or more y e a r s ) those i n o t h e r  SD  1.2 2.5 1.2 1,7  deviation _ -  _  1.7 1.2 0.2 0.8  43% 30% 5% 20%  1.77  0.87  % of  deviation  +22%  addresses  had been l i v i n g  The r e s u l t  l i v e d in Vancouver  indicates  at t h e i r present  t h a t hte Ss o f t h i s  e s t i m a t e d the d i s t a n c e much more i n a c c u r a t e l y  addresses category than  categories.  T a b l e 15. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs y e a r s l e n g t h o f time N up to 2-3 mo. -6 mo. ii 9 -1 y r -2-3 yrs 19 -5yrs 4 5 yrs34  ;  estimation 4.7 4.6 4.4 5.0 4.3 5.1  SD 1.7 2.0 1.5 1.6 1.0 2.0  l i v e d a t the p r e s e n t address  deviation 0.7 0.6 0.4 1.0 0,3 1.1  %of d e v i a t i o n +18% +15% +10% +25% + 8% +28%  D i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d per day Although the average e s t i m a t i o n by Ss the a c t u r a l  in a l l  categories  exceeded  d i s t a n c e , Ss who t r a v e l l e d 3 to 5 m i l e s a day p r o v i d e d the  most a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t i o n s .  Ss who t r a v e l l e d s h o r t e r o r l o n g e r than  above e s t i m a t e d the d i s t a n c e as being much g r e a t e r .  the  58  T a b l e 16. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d a day distanee  estimation  U-1 mile b.2 1 to 2-3 miles 4.8 4.4 -5 miles 5.0 -10 miles 5.0 -30 miles 5.8 -50 miles  SD 1.1 2.1 2.1 1.9 1.2 1.5  deviation 1.2 0.8 0.4 1.0 1.0 1.8  5 of  +30%  deviation  +20% +10% +25% +25% +45%  Time t r a v e l l e d per day This estimations. -  v a r i a b l e had no c o n s i s t e n t e f f e c t on the a c c u r a c y o f the Regardless o f t h e amount o f time spent t r a v e l l i n g  Ss'  each  day, the Ss e s t i m a t e d the d i s t a n c e as being 20 t o 30% g r e a t e r than the actual  distance.  T a b l e 17. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs time t r a v e l l e d a day time U-b min. 5-15 min. 15-30 min. 30-60 min. 1-2 h r . 2-3 h r . 3 hr-  estimation 4.5 5.4 4.8 4.7 4.8 5.8 6.0  SD 0.6 1.5 2.2 1.8 1.3 1.5 1.4  "  * deviation 0.5 1.4 0.8 1.7 0.8 1.8 2.0  % of +13% +35% +20% +43% +20% +45% +50%  deviation  Familiarity The l e v e l s o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the c i t y were determined by the Ss  themselves on a p u r e l y s u b j e c t i v e b a s i s and they were given no a b s o l u t e  standard o f  'familiarity'  for reference.  They were simply asked  if  they knew the c i t y w e l l . The r e s u l t s 'well' city  or  i n d i c a t e t h a t the e s t i m a t i o n s  ' n o t so w e l l  'very w e l l ' .  1  o f Ss who know t h e c i t y  were as good as those made by Ss who know the  59  T a b l e 18. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f estimated famil i a r i t y very w e l l well not so w e l l not a t a l l  estimation  "o 4.8 5.0  distance  vs  SD  TX 1.8 2.2  familiarity deviation  "O 0.8 1.0  % of +2 +20% +25%  deviation  60  5-3-3  Person  variables  Sex Though both males'  and f e m a l e s '  e s t i m a t i o n t h e d i s t a n c e as  g r e a t e r than the a c t u a l , the males S s ' a c c u r a t e than the f e m a l e s . t i o n of females' made i n a c c u r a t e  estimations  In  estimations  tended to be more  a d d i t i o n , the r a t h e r l a r g e Standard  indicates  estimations was  being  Devia-  t h a t the number o f females who  greater.  T h i s tendency may stem from the r e l a t i v e i m m o b i l i t y o f women and the l e s s e n i n g  o f c o n t a c t with the p h y s i c a l  environment which o f t e n  results.  T a b l e 19. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e of e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs sex  N  M  40  F  42  estimation 4.5 5.3  sex  SD  1.3  2.1  deviation 0.5 1.3  % of  + 13%  deviation  +32%  Age Ss aged 19 and under seemed t o p e r c e i v e the d i s t a n c e c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r than d i d o l d e r  being  Ss.  T a b l e 20. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f estimated d i s t a n c e  vs age  age  estimation  SD  deviation  10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-  6.2 5.5 4.7 4.7 4.0 5.5 4.1  2.4 2.3 1.4 1.7 1.0 2.3 1.7  2.2 1.5 0.7 0.7 0.0 1.5 0.1  % of +55% +38% + 18% +18% + 0% +33% + 3%  deviation  61  Education Longer e d u c a t i o n tended to c o r r e s p o n d to more a c c u r a t e o f t h e d i s t a n c e , except f o r the c a t e g o r y o f elementary school the Ss made the most a c c u r a t e  estimations i n which  estimations.  Note: The S s ' e d u c a i t o n a l l e v e l means the f i n a l e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l a t t a i n e d as well as the l e v e l in which the Ss a r e c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d . Thus, a S who i n d i c a t e d h i s l e v e l was j u n i o r high may be 14 y e a r s or 47 y e a r s o l d . T a b l e 21. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs  education elementary junir high senior high college graduate  Orientation This  estimation O 5.3 4.8 5.3 4_  SD O 2.1 1.3 2.1 1.9  education  deviation O 1.3 0.8 1.3 0.4  % of deviation 551 +32% +20% +33% +10%  skill v a r i a b l e r e f e r s to #7 on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  in which the Ss  were asked to e v a l u a t e , on a p u r e l y s u b j e c t i v e b a s i s , t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n skilIs. The b e t t e r t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s t h e i r estimations  o f themselves, the more a c c u r a t e  o f the d i s t a n c e tended to be.  Note: The number o f Ss who e v a l u a t e d t h e i r s k i l l s as ' b a d ' or ' v e r y b a d ' was so small (N:3 and 1 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) t h a t they were excluded from c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T a b l e 22. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs o r i e n t a t i o n orientation VERY good good fair bad v e r y bad  estimation O 4.3 5.6 -  SD I7f 1.3 2.3 -  skill  deviation O 0.3 1.6 -  % of +2M +8% +40% -  deviation  62  Personal i t y A p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t , the  'Thing-Person O r i e n t a t i o n S c a l e '  s e c t i o n 3 - 1 - 3 ) , was u t i l i z e d as a means o f a s s e s s i n g predispositions  toward the p h y s i c a l  were o b t a i n e d f o r each S.  t h a t each S ' s  one o f f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : and G e n e r a l i s t .  Based upon the r e s u l t s  The Ss whose scores  were c l a s s i e d e d as N o n - S p e c i a l i s t ;  o f the two s e t s  Person-Specialist,  Thing-Specialist,  on both the T and P s c a l e s were low  whose w i t h a high s c o r e on T - s c a l e  and low on P - s c a l e as T h i n g - S p e c i a l i s t ;  a n d , those who o b W i n e d a high  as G e n e r a l i s t .  p o i n t between a ' h i g h '  and  'low'  For t h i s s c o r e at  study we have put 20*.  In g e n e r a l , Ss w i t h high s c o r e s on both T - and P - s c a l e s the d i s t a n c e more a c c u r a t e l y .  into  t h o s e w i t h a high s c o r e on P - s c a l e and  low on T - s c a l e as P e r s o n - S p e c i a l i s t ;  the d i v i d i n g  the method  answers s u p p l i e d , they were c l a s s i f i e d  Non-Specialist,  s c o r e on both o f the s c a l e s  individual  Two independent s c o r e s  F o r more c o n v e n i e n t comparison,  developed by L i t t l e was a p p l i e d . of T-P t e s t s  environment.  the S s '  (see  estimated  There was a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e  between Ss whose T - s c o r e s were ' l o w '  and  'high'.  The Ss with high  scores  on the T - s c a l e tended to e s t i m a t e the d i s t a n c e more a c c u r a t e l y (8 o r 15% deviation)  than the Ss w i t h a low s c o r e on the T - s c a l e ( 3 3  or 25% d e v o a t i o n ) .  T a b l e 23. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e vs T-P  typology  T-P v., Non-Specialist Person-Sp. Thing-Sp. General i s t  % of deviation 2W 33% 15% 8%  estimation b.O 5.3 4.6 4.3  SD 174" 2.2 1.0 1.6  N 72 20 12 25  *20 r e p r e s e n t s the approximate median on both s c a l e s . A s l i g h t adjustment was made t o ensure .a f a i r l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the number o f Ss among the f o u r c a t e g o r i e s .  63  6-0 ANALYSIS Thus f a r we have c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r i l y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Ss  i n each o f the l o c a t i o n s  (5-2)  and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  e s t i m a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e and such v a r i a b l e s transportation5-3). relationships  In t h e f o l l o w i n g  between the  as s e x , age, and more o f  s e c t i o n , we w i l l  a f f e c t the e s t i m a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  a t the S s '  do not appear t o The frequency o f  visits  1 3 ) , the l e n g t h o f time l i v e d i n Vancouver o r  present addresses(T.14,15),  time spent t r a v e l l i n g per d a y ( T . 1 6 , 1 7 ) ,  average d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d and the S s '  f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the c i , t y ( T . 1 8 ) , the e d u c a t i o n a l and t h e S s '  focus on the  variables.  We observed e a r l i e r t h a t c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s  t o the d e s t i n a t i o n ( t a b l e  between the  evaluation of t h e i r orientational  own e v a l u a t i o n o f level  o f the Ss(T.21),  skills(T.22)  bear l i t t l e or no r e l a t i o n to an a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t i o n o f  their  seem t o  distance.  Although Lynch has observed t h a t the q u a l i t y o f environmental p e r c e p t i o n and the s e l e c t i v i t y o f the p e r c e p t i o n changes as i n c r e a s e s , our f i n d i n g s w i t h r e g a r d to the p e r c e p t i o n o f 1  familiarity  distance  suggest t h a t the degree o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the envrionment i s influential This  i n d e t e r m i n i n g the a c c u r a c y o f the p e r c e p t i o n o f f i n d i n g c o n f i r m s our e a r l i e r assumption ( p 2 8 )  not  distance.  that  the  perception of distance fluctuates  o n l y a t the time the c o g n i t i v e map  o f the envrionment i n q u e s t i o n i s  i n the process o f being c o n s t r u c t e d .  A f t e r the i n i t i a l  exposure to an u n f a m i l i a r s e t t i n g ,  o b t a i n e d seems to remain f a i r l y S i n c e our f i n d i n g s  1. see 3-1,  Familiarity.  the mental map  stable.  i n d i c a t e that long-term f a m i l i a r i t y  i n terms  64  o f months o r y e a r s n e i t h e r improves nor l e s s e n s perception of distance, map alone i s  i t appears  t h a t the e x i s t e n c e o f s i m p l e mental  s u f f i c i e n t for estimating  the d i s t a n c e .  because i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g d i s t a n c e such  infromation is  where the emphasis  the a c c u r a c y o f the  is  It  fundamental  may be t h a t  in  travelling,  r a p i d l y processed and recorded m e n t a l l y i n i s on the a c q u i s i t i o n o f a mental map.  e x p l a i n why f o u r o f the v a r i a b l e s  (frequency o f v i s i t s  situations  This  would  to the d e s t i n a t i o n ,  the average d i s t a n c e / t i m e spent t r a v e l l i n g per day, and s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the c i t y )  seemed to have l i t t l e e f f e c t  on the p e r c e p t i o n o f d i s t a n c e , s i n c e t h e s e a r e i n t e r a c t i o n a l which e s s e n t i a l l y city.  examine the l e v e l  o f l o n g - t e r m f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the  The v a r i a b l e s which d i d appear to have some e f f e c t on the  o f the d i s t a n c e were: mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n age ( T . 2 0 ) , T h i n g s - o r i e n t a t i o n  Mode o f  variables  s c o r e (T.23)  ( T a b l e 12),  and p h y s i c a l  s  estimation  ex(T.19),  variable  (T.ll).  transportation We s t a t e d e a r l i e r t h a t the s t r u c t u r i n g o f the c o g n i t i v e map  v a r i e s w i t h the mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  used by the Ss  (section  3-2-1).  C o n s e q u e n t l y , we assumed t h a t the d i s t a n c e would a l s o be p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t l y asia  r e s u l t o f the e f f e c t s o f t h i s  were in l i n e with t h i s assumption.  v a r i a b l e , and our  The e s t i m a t i o n s  made by c a r  findings drivers  were most a c c u r a t e , and those by bus r i d e r s and c a r passengers were l e s s a c c u r a t e ( T a b l e 12 i n s e c t i o n  5-3-2).  The d i f f e r e n c e s in the a c c u r a c y o f the e s t i m a t i o n s  c o u l d be  a t t r i b u t e d s o l e l y to the d i f f e r e n c e s in mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , at this  p o i n t , such a c o n c l u s i o n i s  questionable.  but,  For i n s t a n c e , we  know t h a t most o f the c a r d r i v e r s were male, and our data  indicates  that  65  males tended t o be more a c c u r a t e i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n s than females  ( T a b l e 19).  o f the d i s t a n c e  T h e r e f o r e , the d i f f e r e n c e s e v i d e n t i n the  t h r e e mode c a t e g o r i e s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to the sex d i f f e r e n c e r a t h e r than to the mode d i f f e r e n c e s .  In o r d e r to c l a r i f y t h i s  f u r t h e r , we performed a d d i t i o n a l  tests  and o t h e r  points  to o b t a i n more i n f o r m a t i o n on the  r e l a t i o n between t h e mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . case o f sex and mode; the two v a r i a b l e s a r e The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s  the  interrelated.1  i n d i c a t e t h a t c a r d r i v e r s , on the whole t r a v e l l e d  the l o n g e s t d i s t a n c e per day as compared t o bus r i d e r s and c a r Car passengers  In  passengers.  spent the l e a s t amount o f time t r a v e l l i n g , a n d c a r  drivers  and bus r i d e r s spent about an hour per day t r a v e l l i n g i n the c i t y .  Table 24 M u l t i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n vs t i m e / d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d per day time distance mode N mean(min.) SD mean(mile) Sd CAR(self-dHven)43 61 52 T5 1* bus r i d e r 22 63 66 9 11 car( passenger) 14 23 25 3 3  Although these r e s u l t s would appear t o i n d i c a t e , when c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o T a b l e 12, t h a t the l o n g e r ( d i s t a n c e wise) t h e exposure to the environment per day the more a c c u r a t e the e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e d i s t a n c e , our p r e v i o u s data d i s p r o v e s time o f t r a v e l  this  conclusion.  The v a r i a b l e o f  distance/  per day d i d not have a c o n s i s t e n t e f f e c t on the a c c u r a c y  o f the e s t i m a t i o n o f the d i s t a n c e ( T a b l e s  16,17 i n 5 - 3 - 2 ) .  We have a l s o observed that Ss with high made more a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t i o n s  'Thing-orientation score'  o f the d i s t a n c e ( T . 23 i n 5 - 3 - 3 ) .  1. With regard t o the r e l a t i o n between sex and mode, see page 70.  66  -  Consequently, i f  f o r some reason the average T - s c o r e o f c a r d r i v e r s  our survey was h i g h e r than t h a t o f t h e bus r i d e r s and c a r  in  passengers,  the d i f f e r e n c e might a c t u a l l y be a t t r i b u t a b l e to the d i f f e r e n c e i n T - s c o r e r a t h e r than to the mode v a r i a b l e .  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows  the r e s u l t s o f a t e s t o f the r e l a t i o n between T - s c o r e and the mode o f transportation.  T a b l e 25 M u l t i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n vs T - and mode  N  car(self-dr.) bus r i d e r car(passenger)  T-score mean ia 17 20  43 21 11  SD  8 8 9  P-score  P-score mean 21 23 22  SD 8 7 5  The above t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t the average T - s c o r e o f the t h r e e groups o f Ss  in the mode c a t e g o r i e s were v i r t u a l l y same. Thus f a r , our data supports  the t h e o r y t h a t the mode o f  transporta  t i o n a f f e c t s t h e a c c u r a c y o f the e s t i m a t i o n o f the d i s t a n c e .  {Mode o t \ _ Vtransport'nj  Fig.  ( V  o  Estimation^ distance ) f  1  Age We noted p r e v i o u s l y t h a t Ss  under 19 y e a r s o f age seemed to  p e r c e i v e the d i s t a n c e as b e i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r than d i d the o l d e r Ss  ( T a b l e 20 in 5 - 3 - 3 ) .  Thus, we d i v i d e d the Ss  i n t o two  those aged 19 and under and those o v e r 20, and o b t a i n e d the results:  groups, following  67  T a b l e 26 B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f age vs e s t i m a t e d age under 19 over 20  N  estimation  SD  273  +*5I  65  4.6  1.6  +15%  IE  575  The above t a b l e c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s younger Ss  distance % of  deviation  ~  the same tendency: on the  average,  e s t i m a t e d the d i s t a n c e as being g r e a t e r than the o l d e r  ones.  A g a i n , we were u n c e r t a i n as to whether or not the d i f f e r e n c e (percentage o f e r r o r i n the d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t i o n : 45% vs 15%)  c o u l d be  a t t r i b u t e d s o l e l y t o the age d i f f e r e n c e .  tabulation  o f a n o t h e r s e t o f data i n v e s t i g a t i n g other variables  a r e as  The r e s u l t s  t h e r e a l t i o n s h i p between age and  follows:  T a b l e 26b B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f age vs frequency o f v i s i t age under 19 over 20  N  o f the  to the  destination  frequency*  IB"  37ST  65  3.6  T a b l e 27 M u l t i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f age vs time l i v e d i n Vancouver/at S s ' age _ under 19 over 20  N IB 65  time l i v e d i n mean* (mo.) 59 66  Van. SD 23 23  addresses  a t S s ' addresses mean* (mo.) *5 41  SD 33 32  Tables 26 and 27 i n d i c a t e t h a t both groups o f Ss  v i s i t e d o r passed near  by the d e s t i n a t i o n w i t h v i r t u a l l y the same l e v e l  o f f r e q u e n c y , and  Ss  aged 19 and under have l i v e d i n Vancouver o r at t h e i r present  adrresses  l o n g e r than the o l d e r  Ss.  * C e r t a i n processes were a p p l i e d f o r hhe sake o f s i m p l i c i t y , f . n . in section 5-2-1.  see  that  68  T a b l e 28 M u l t i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f age vs t i m e / d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d per day age  time  under 19 o v e r 20  distance SD 58 48  49 53  T a b l e 29 Multivariate  t a b l e o f age vs T - and  age under 19 o v e r 20  mean(T) 20 19  T a b l e 30 B i v a r i a t e t a v l e o f age vs TP ( H o r i z o n t a l percentage) age under 19 over 20 T*:  Non-Spcial't ~WT 22% X  SD 2.9 11.6  3.4 11.3  P-score SD 10 8  mena(P)  SD  6 7  19  23  typology  Person-Sp't IB 28%  Thing-Spe't 17* 12% V  Generalist m 31%  43%  Percentage o f Ss whose T - s c o r e s were h i g h e r than 20, i e . , percentage o f T h i n g - s p e c i a l i s t plus t h a t o f G e n e r a l i s t .  In a d d i t i o n , t a b l e s  29 and 30 show t h a t the average T - s c o r e s o f both  groups were p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l , and t h a t the perceptage o f Ss  whose  T - s c o r e s were high (T o v e r 20) was a l s o v i r t u a l l y the same i n both Ss  T* 435T  in both groups s p e n t , on the average, almost  t r a v e l l i n g per day, but Ss o l d e r Ss. as we have  However, t h i s  groups.  the same amount o f time  19 and under t r a v e l l e d l e s s d i s t a n c e than the d i f f e r e n c e has l i t t l e o r no s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  already shown, the amount o f t i m e / d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l i n g  since  per day  had no e f f e c t on the a c c u r a c y o f the e s t i m a t i o n . Thus f a r ,  the r e s u l t s  from T a b l e 26 to 30 support the  simple  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the age v a r i a b l e and the e s t i m a t i o n o f the d i s t a n c e . However, w i t h a t e s t o f t h e age and mode v a r i a b l e s more c o m p l i c a t e d as the f o l l o w i n g tabee  indicates:  the r e l a t i o n s h i p becomes  69  T a b l e 31 B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f age vs mode o f ( H o r i z o n t a l percentage) age under 19 o v e r 20  car(self-dr.) 12% 58%  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e o l d e r Ss  transportation  bus r i d e r m 28%  car(passenger)  TH 11%  (aged over 20) were c a r d r i v e r s  compared to o n l y 12% o f c a r d r i v e r s among the younger Ss.  as  S i n c e many o f  younger Ss  p r o b a b l y do not have a c c e s s to a c a r f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s ,  finding  reasonable.  is  We have observed t h a t the mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s  this  l i k e l y to  have an e f f e c t on d i s t a n c e p e r c e p t i o n ; c a r d r i v e r s made the more a c c u r a t e estimations.  S i n c e o n l y a r e l a t i v e l y small  a r e c a r d r i v e r s (12%)  percentage o f the younger  as compared to the o l d e r Ss  Ss  (58%), the mode v a r i a b l e  a l o n e c o u l d r e s u l t i n the lower degree o f a c c u r a c y o f e s t i m a t i o n by younger  Ss. L o g i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , we c o u l d say t h a t t h e r e i s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between the mode and age v a r i a b l e s , and t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i n the e s t i m a t i o n s o f the younger and the o l d e r Ss can be a t t r i b u t e d s o l e l y the mode v a r i a b l e ( F i g . 2 ) . e x a c t l y the o p p o s i t e i s  to  On the o t h e r hand, we c o u l d a l s o s a y t h a t  t r u e ; t h a t o n l y the S s '  age determines the  d i s t a n c e p e r c e p t i o n and mode o f t r a v e l l i n g has no e f f e c t on p e r c e p t i o n (Fig.3).  Fig.2 Key ( f o r F i g . l through F i g . 1 7 ) : definite relation : apparent r e l a t i o n : no r e l a t i o n  Fig.3  70  However, i t  is  u n l i k e l y t h a t e i t h e r o f t h e s e extreme  occur i n r e a l i t y . c o g n i t i v e map i s transportation is  relationships  As we noted e a r l i e r , A p p l e y a r d found t h a t  the  s t r u c t u r e d d i f f e r e n t l y a c c o r d i n g to t h e S s '  (3-2-1).  mode o f  Thus, we have concluded t h a t t h e r e d e f i n i t e l y  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the mode and t h e age v a r i a b l e s , and  both o f these v a r i a b l e s (Fig.  that  had an e f f e c t on the p e r c e p t i o n o f the d i s t a n c e  4).  Fig. 4  Sex The d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t i o n s  made by the male S s ,  much more a c c u r a t e than those made by female Ss  T a b l e 32 B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f sex vs mode o f sex fl F  on the w h o l e , were  (5-3-3).  transportation  car(slef-dr.)  bus  car(passenger)  m  35%  33%  In a d d i t i o n to the r e l a t i o n between sex and the  26%  estimatoon o f  ( T a b l e 1 9 ) , f u r t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and t h e o t h e r were s t u d i e d .  As e x p e c t e d , female Ss  passengers r:ather than c a r d r i v e r s . Ss were c a r d r i v e r s .  distance  variables  tended to be bus r i d e r s o r c a r In c o n t r a s t , n e a r l y 70% o f the male  C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the tendency i s  still  f o r more  men than women to work o u t s i d e the home and t h a t i n cases where both a husband and w i f e commute, the husband may have use o f a s i n g l e  family  car,  >71  this  finding  is within reason.  between the v a r i a b l e s  Sex  r  ~f  Thus, we can say t h a t a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n  o f sex and mode e x i s t .  (Fig.5)  Mode o f transportation]  Fig.5  T a b l e 33 Multivariate sex  t a b l e o f sex vs t i m e / d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d per day time mean*(min.)  m—r.  M F  45  The above i n d i c a t e s  r  n  33  •  >  58  7  SD  ~^—n— 7  t h a t , as a r e s u l t o f e i t h e r the mode o f  p r e f e r r e d by female Ss or t h e i r l i f e housewif a),  distance mean*(mile)  SD  the female Ss  styles  appear to l e s s  A g a i n , we f a c e a s i m i l a r  (particularly  that of the  mobile.  s i t u a t i o n as  i n the case o f Age i n  we know a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sex and t h e mode exists.  However, the data a v a i l a b e l  is  transportation  variables  i n s u f f i c i e n t for determining  whether o n l y one o f the two v a r i a b l e ( i e . , sex and mode) a f f e c t s accuracy of the e s t i m a t i o n  (cf.  F i g . 6,7)  have an e f f e c t on the accuracy ( F i g . 8 ) . the mode and sex v a r i a b l e s  that  whether both i n  the  combination  In r e a l i t y , we can not c o n s i d e r  s e p a r a t e l y , and i t appears t h a t they  should  be c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r when d i s c u s s i n g the a c c u r a c y o f the e s t i m a t i o n .  72  To summarize the r e l a t i o n s h i p s and sex v a r i a b l e s distance.  all  c o n s i d e r e d thus f a r ,  the mode,  age,  seemed to have an e f f e c t on the p e r c e p t i o n o f the  In a d d i t i o n , both t h e sex and age v a r i a b l e s were found t o be  r e l a t e d to the mode v a r i a b l e , w h i l e the sex and age v a r i a b l e s relationships  to each o t h e r .  bore no  (Fig.9)  Fig.9  Thing-Person O r i e n t a t i o n  Scale  P r e v i o u s l y , we noted t h a t T-P t y p o l o g y was r e l a t e d to the o f the d i s t a n c e .  estimation  We h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t hhe v a r i a b l e which a c t u a l l y had an  e f f e c t on the e s t i m a t i o n was the T h i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n s c o r e r a t h e r than s c o r e , and our r e s u l t s  confirmed t h i s  (Table  34,35).  T a b l e 34 B i v a r i a t e t a b l e of T h i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n s c o r e vs e s t i m a t e d T.-score*. tmder zu o v e r 20  N_ 44 38  estimation  b.2  4.4  SD  1.8 1.4  T a b l e 35 Bivariate table  of Person-orientation  P-score under 20 over 20  N 32 47  We d i v i d e d the Ss  estimation 4.8 4.8  % of +30%  deviation  +10%  s c o r e vs estimated  SD 1.3 2.1  distance  distance  % of deviation ' +20% +20%  i n t o two groups a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r T or P s c o r e s .  Ss whose T - s c o r e s were h i g h e r (T over 20) were more a c c u r a t e i n rfcbeir  Person-  73  e s t i m a t i o n than the Ss w i t h a lower T - s c o r e (T under 2 0 ) . ( T a b l e 34) However, Ss w i t h high and low P-scores made, on the average, w i t h v i r t u a l l y the same degree of a c c u r a c y .  In o t h e r words, the P - s c a l e  was not r e l a t e d to the a c c u r a c y of the e s t i m a t i o n  Thus f a r ,  it  is  apparent t h a t a l l  estimations  (Fig.10).  t h r e e o f the v a r i a b l e s  of  sex,  age, and mode had an e f f e c t on the a c c u r a c y o f e s t i m a t i o n ( F i g . 9 ) .  The  r e l a t i o n between the T - v a r i a b l e and t h e s e v a r i a b l e s  T a b l e 36 B i v a r i t t e t a b l e o f sex vs T-score sex mean SD  fl  2D  F  17  Thing-scale  5 9  T a b l e 37 B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f sex vs T-P t y p o l o g y Sex  non-special't  person-sp't  F  20%  36%  M  These r e s u l t s  i s shown i n T a b l e 36,37.  m  (Horizontal  thing-spe't  2 0 * 9%  percentage) generalist  T over 20  30%  39%  m  i n d i c a t e t h a t the average T - s c o r e o f male Ss was  m  slightly  h i g h e r than t h a t o f the f e m a l e s , and t h a t the percentage o f male Ss whose T - s c o r e was higher was g r e a t e r than t h a t o f the female (49% vs  39%).  note: The r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex and T - s c o r e v a r i a b l e s seems to be r a t h e r weak, and the s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t was not performed. However, the s t u d i e s p r e v i o u s l y c a r r i e d out by L i t t l e showed the same tendency; males o b t a i n e d h i g h e r T-scores. Thus, we can c o n c l u d e t h a t a r e l a t i o n between the sex and T - s c o r e v a r i a b l e did e x i s t .  (Fig.11)  74  Fig.11  With regard to mode, about one h a l f o f the Ss (T over 20, T under 20)  i n each group  used a c a r ( s e l f - d r i v e n ) , whereas a p p r o x i m a t e l y  a q u a r t e r used the b u s , and the remainder were c a r passengers. both Ss whose T - s c o r e s were h i g h e r and lower had a s i m i l a r regard to the mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  Thus,  pattern with  T h e r e f o r e , the T - s c o r e and the  mode v a r i a b l e a r e independent ( F i g . 1 2 )  Fig.12  With r e g a r d to the r e l a t i o n between T - s c o r e and age,  -  the average  T - s c o r e o f the younger Ss was higher than t h a t o f o l d e r S s .  Since  these d i f f e r e n c e s were c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r with f a i r l y small  standard  d e v i a t i o n , we have concluded t h a t t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s were r e l a t e d to each o h t e r ( F i g . 1 3 )  Thus f a r , we have examined v a r i o u s  i n t e r a c t i o n and person v a r i a b l e s .  On the i n t e r a c t i o n v a r i a b l e s , o n l y t h e mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n seemed to have had an e f f e c t on the p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e d i s t a n c e .  Of the person  v a r i a b l e s , o n l y t h r e e o f them, sex, age, and T - s c o r e appear to have a f f e c t e d the p e r c e p t i o n .  75  With regard to the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  of these variables  t o each o t h e r ,  a l t h o u g h both the sex and age v a r i a b l e s were d e f i n i t e l y r e l a t e d t o the mode v a r i a b l e , the T - v a r i a b l e was not r e l a t e d to t h e mode.  The sex  v a r i a b l e was d e f i n i t e l y r e l a t i o n e d to the T - v a r i a b l e , and the age  variable:  a l s o appears  variables  to have been r e l a t e d to T - v a r i a b l e .  were not r e l a t e d to each o t h e r .  All  The sex and age  o f these v a r i a b l e s  seemed to  have  been r e l a t e d to the e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e d i s t a n c e or t o the p e r c e p t i o n o f (Fig.14,  15).  Fig.15  The P e r s o n - s c a l e  v a r i a b l e was added to the group o f  which were c o n s i d e r e d to have no e f f e c t on the p e r c e p t i o n  variables (Fig.16).  it  76  interaction Frequency of v i s i t to the destination Length of time/lived in Vancouver/at Ss'addresses Distance/time travelled per day Subjective evaluation of aamiliarity with city person Education level Subjective evaluation of orientation s k i l l s Person-score Fig. 16 Variables that seemed to have no effect on the perception of the distance  Physical variable Since the survey was designed to measure the possible effects of the physical characteristics of the environment on distance perception by means of sampling at the four different locations, we compared the four average estimations of the distance made by the four groups of Ss from the four location with the following results. Table 11 Bivariate table of estimated distance vs location location Granvilie Hastings Alma N. Van.  N 20 15 27 22  estimation b.l 5.3 4.8 4.4  SD 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.5  % of deviation +28% +33% +20% +10%  We tentatively concluded earlier that a physically diversified way had a foreshortening effect on the perception of the distance, provided that  ]  77  o t h e r f a c t o r e were kept We d i s c u s s e d  equal.(5-3-1)  p r e v i o u s l y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Ss a t  four d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s  the  ( 5 - 2 ) , and i n the preceding s e c t i o n (5-3)  the  v a r i a b l e s which d i d or d i d not a f f e c t the p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e d i s t a n c e . U t i l i z i n g these two s e t s o f d a t a , our i n t e n t i o n was to examine the v a l i d i t y of this  tentative conclusion.  There were f o u r c t i t i c a l  variables:  mode, sex, age, and T - s c o r e .  S i n c e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s were found t o be n e u t r a l with r e g a r d to the p e r c e p t i o n , an examination o f t h o s e v a r i a b l e s was unnecessary. f o l l o w i n g data  is  taken from t a b l e s  1,2,5  and 8 i n s e c t i o n  distance  The  5-2.  T a b l e 38 M u l t i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f l o c a t i o n vs sex, age, T - s c o r e , and mode location  sex M m—m 29% 48% 64%  Granville Hastings Alma N. Van.  These f i n d i n g s  F 71% 48% 32%  age mean % 25 31 40  T-score mean TS 20 22 17  mode car(self m 38% 48% 64%  dr.)  bus+car(pass.) 35* 57% 44% 36%  immediately i n v a l i d a t e our t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n  because  the important f a c t o r s o f sex, age, e t c . , were not kept equal a t  all  locations. Had a l l  four v a r i a b l e s  been the same a t a l l  p r o v i s i o n would have been s a t i s f i e d -  physical  v a r i a b l e was r e s - p n s i b l e  four l o c a t i o n s ,  the  and we c o u l d have concluded t h a t  fcr  the v a r i a t i o n s  in the  the  estimation  o f the d i s t a n c e a t  the f o u r l o c a t i o n s .  the f o u r  f l u c t u a t e d w h i l e the o t h e r s remained e q u a l , we might  'variables  have been a b l e to a p p l y adjustments  Or, had o n l y one or even two o f  i n o r d e r to n e u t r a l i z e these  fl uctuations.* * n o t e : " A n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e with m u l t i p l e c o v a r i a t e s " , UBC Computing C e n t r e .  UBC BMD04V,  78  Thus, a t t h i s  p o i n t we were f o r c e d to conclude t h a t our data  not t e s t whether t h e p h y s i c a l the d i s t a n c e or n o t .  Physical* variable/  Fig.17  v a r i a b l e had an e f f e c t on the p e r c e p t i o n o f  (Fig.17)  ? *  could  /Estimation ^of distance  79  6-1  F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s on p h y s i c a l  variable  Having c o n c l u d e d t h a t we c o u l d not t e s t the e f f e c t s o f physical stics  the  v a r i a b l e on the p e r c e p t i o n o f d i s t a n c e because the c h a r a c t e r i -  o f the f o u r groups o f Ss a t t h e f o u r l o c a t i o n s were c o n s i d e r a b l y  d i f f e r e n t , we came t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t ef-van i f the groups o f Ss the l o c a t i o n s d i f f e r : ' !  from each o t h e r as a whole, we c o u l d s e t a  standard and s e l e c t (those Ss who met t h a t s t a n d a r d . the same kind o f Ss  Thus, by choosing  from each o f the f o u r l o c a t i o n s , we c o u l d compare  the average e s t i m a t i o n o f the d i s t a n c e made by groups o f t h i s number o f  at  limited  ' q u a l i f i e d ' Ss a t each l o c a t i o n .  S i n c e our r e s u l t s  i n d i c a t e that only four o f the variables  a f f e c t e d the p e r c e p t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y , we based our s e l e c t i o n o f 'qualified'  Ss on the v a r i a b l e s o f sex, age, mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  and T h i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n s c o r e o n l y . O b v i o u s l y , the p o s s i b l e standards and can be very s t r i c t o r very l o o s e .  of  ' q u a l i f i c a t i o n ' can vary  In t h i s c a s e , s e t t i ng the  standards too s t r i c t l y would r e s u l t i n having o n l y few Ss  to r e p r e s e n t  each l o c a t i o n , an u n d e s i r a b l e s i t u a t i o n because the r e s u l t s would be s t a t i s t i c a l l y questionable.  On the o t h e r hand, s e t t i n g the  standards  too l o o s e l y would mean .that though each l o c a t i o n would be r e p r e s e n t e d by more Ss,  the n a t u r e o f the Ss a t each l o c a t i o n would vary w i d e l y ,  and we would be unable to judge whether r e s u l t was determined by the physical  v a r i a b l e or was a l s o a f f e c t e d by the o t h e r  Thus, our e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p o s s i b l e standards  variables. r e f l e c t s an  attempt to i d e n t i f y optimum standards which would both q u a l i f y largest  number o f Ss and, a t the same t i m e , ensure the s t r i c t e s t  standards. critical  the  We e s t a b l i s h e d our standards  variables.  on the b a s i s o f the f o u r  One p o s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n , f o r example, might  80  consist  o f Ss who were male, aged 15 to 19, bus r i d e r s , and with a  T h i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n s c o r e between 30 to 4 0 . * * n o t e : S e l e c t i o n of Ss based on t h e s e standards can be e a s i l y done by using IF and SET S p e c i f i c a t i o n s . For d e t a i l , see B j e r r i n g , J . and o t h e r s , UBC MVTAB, UBC Computing C e n t r e 1973, pp 4 1 , 5 1 . For the sex v a r i a b l e , u s u a l l y  t h e r e can be no a l t e r n a t i v e  - o t h e r than s p e c i f y i n g male o r f e m a l p a . t h e r e were s e v e r a l y e a r s of age,  alternatives;  on the e s t i m a t i o n of the d i s t a n c e  However, s i n c e our e a r l i e r  t h e r e were t h r e e p o s s i b l e ger.  over 20 ( T a b l e s 20, 2 6 ) ,  standard would be a d i v i s i o n o f the Ss  under 19 or over 20,  variable  findings  i n d i c a t e d t h a t Ss aged 19 and under  o v e r - e s t i m a t e d much more than the Ss  groups;  However, f o r t h e age  f o r example, those between 15 and 19  those over 40, e t c .  t h a t the most l o g i c a l  standard  For the mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  it  seemed  i n t o two variable,  l e v e l s ; c a r d r i v e r s , bus r i d e r s , and c a r  However, because c a r d r i v e r s made the most a c c u r a t e  o f the d i s t a n c e (+15% o f the a c t u a l  distance)  passen-  estimations  and the e s t i m a t i o n s  made by  bus r i d e r s and c a r passengers were very . s i m i l a r t o each o t h e r (both them estimated 25% above the a c t u a l combined the l a t t e r two c a t e g o r i e s  distance,  see T a b l e 12), we  i n t o one l e v e l  o f standard  to  a r r i v e a t two l e v e l s of standard f o r the mode v a r i a b l e .  Because o f  variations  in t h i s  in the T - s c o r e s o f the S s ,  were p o s s i b l e .  produced 16 c o m b i n a t i o n s . combination group,  unless  for a l l  area  possible,  o f the f o u r v a r i a b l e s , we  No Ss c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d  i n t o more than one  he/she answered, f o r i n s t a n c e , he/she was  Nearly a l l  the  T - s c o r e 20 and under and over 20.  With two l e v e l s of standards  male and female.  numerous standards  However, i n order to i n c l u d e as many Ss as  we s e t two l e v e l s o f s t a n d a r d s ;  of  Ss c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d  both  i n t o one o f the 16  81  groups,  unless  he f a i l e d to supply answer/(s)  f o r one o r more o f the  f o u r q u e s t i o n s which corresponded t o the f o u r v a r i a b l e s . he would not be c l a s s i f i e d  d e f sex 1:M 2:F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  A B. C D E F G H I J K L M  H 0 P  'group',  i n i t i o n age 1:under19 2:over20 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2  mode 1: c a r d r . 2: bus+c.p 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2  T-score 1:under 20 ,2:over 20 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2  any one o f the 16 groups would have a s i m i l a r experience.  case,  or  Thus, with ragard to the f o u r c t i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s , a l l  interactional  this  i n t o any o f the 16 groups.  T a b l e 39 D e f i n i t i o n ( ' q u a l i f i c a t i o n ' ) of nature o f Ss i n each ' g r o u p ' group  In  For i n s t a n c e , a l l  o f the Ss  in  personal back ground or of the Ss  in  ".  group A  would be male, aged 19 and under, c a r d r i v e r , and would have a T - s c o r e under 20 (see t a b l e a b o v e ) . The next step was to l o o k a t how t h e Ss -  who a r e i n the new groups o f S i n c e the Ss  ' q u a l i f i e d ' Ss,  form the f o u r  locations  e s t i m a t e d the d i s t a n c e .  in each o f t h e s e groups had c l o s e l y resembling c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  the d i f f e r e n c e in the e s t i m a t i o n can be a t t r i b u t e d s o l e l y to the p h y s i c a l variables.  82  The r e s u l t s  o f our t a b u l a t i o n o f the average e s t i m a t i o n by the Ss t.  in each group a g a i n s t the four l o c a t i o n s  a r e shown i n t a b l e 4 0 .  T a b l e 40 B i v a r i a t e t a b l e of l o c a t o o n vs e s t i m a t i o n o f the d i s t a n c e by each group l o c a t i o n group* G r a n v i l l e H a s t i n g s Alma N.V< N*,* 0 0 0 0 A  B  -  -  _  R**  -  -  N  0  0  0  0  L.  -  -  -  -  0  1 3.0  1 8.0  -  0  c  C  D  R N E R  -  -  _  0  N E R  2 4.5  0  0  -  -  E  N E R  2 6.0 1  1 5.0 3  2 5.5 2  6 4.3 4  F  N E R  1 4.0 2  2 6.0 1  6 3.3 4  4 3.8 3  G  N E R  0  -  0  1 5.0  3 3.7  H  N E R  1 5.0 1  I  N E R  0  N E R  -  N E R  1 10.0 1  J  K  cont...  -  -  _  -  -  -  -  0  2 4.5 2  1 5.0 1  -  0  -  0  -  1 4.0  1 5.0  -  0  1 6.0  0  -  -  2 7.0 2  -  0  1 5.0 3  -  83  L  N E R  0  -  -  M  N E R  6 4.5 3  N  N E R  0  0  P  1 3.0  -  1 7.0  0  2 6.0 1  0  -  2 5.5 2  -  -  1 5.0 2  2 5.5 1  1 3.0 3  N E R  3 5.3 2  1 5.0 3  3 4.3 4  2 6.5 1  N E R  1 3.0 2  2 4.0 1  5 4.0 1  0  -  _  * : c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Ss in each group were d e f i n e d in t a b l e 39. * * : N; number o f S s , E: e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e d i s t a n c e ( m i l e ) , R: 'rank . 1  As e x p e c t e d , o n l y a few Ss q u a l i f i e d f o r a g r o u p ; no Ss f o r group A , B , and the l a r g e s t  number o f Ss was 13 found i n group  We compared o n l y the average group.  estimations  made by the Ss  T h i s comparison must be made w i t h i n a gooup, and any  comparisons  a r e meaningless  qualified  because the  'qualifications'  F.  i n each cross-group  o f the Ss  vary  from one group to a n o t h e r . Naturally, a group (A and B ) ,  no comparisons  in  or i f one o r two l o c a t i o n s were r e p r e s e n t e d by the  Ss 9 C , D , G , I , J , and L ) . locations  c o u l d be made i f t h e r e were no Ss  Comparisons were made o n l y i f a l l  or t h r e e o f them were r e p r e s e n t e d by the Ss  H,K,M,N,P, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .  The r e s u l t s  o f the f o u r  (E,F,0,  and  a r e summarized i n T a b l e 4 1 , 42.  84  Table 41* Bivariate table of Frequency t a b l e  'rank'  vs  location  rank  l o c a t i o n (number o f times ranked) G r a n v i l l e H a s t i n g s Alma N.Van. largest est'n 3 2 2 2nd l a r g e s t e s t . 3 2 2 1 3rd a a r g e s t e s t . l 2 0 3 shortest est'n 0 0 2 1 * Ranking was made among t h r e e o r f o u r l o c a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d , i e . , group E,F,H,K,M,N,0 and P. a  T a b l e 42** Bivariate table of Frequency t a b l e  'rank'  vs  locatoon  rank  l o c a t i o n (number o f times ranked) G r a n v i l l e H a s t i n g s Alma N.Van. largest e s t ' n I I 13 I 2nd l a r g e s t " 2 0 1 0 3rd 0 2 0 1 shortest est'n 0 0 2 1 * * Ranking was made among f o u r l o c a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y , i e . , group E , F , and 0.  These t a b l e s  i n d i c a t e t h a t o f t h e comparisons made i n each group, the  e s t i m a t i o n s a t Alma and N. Vancouver l o c a t i o n s tended t o rank more f r e q u e n t l y than G r a n v i l l e or H a s t i n g s as t h e 'shortest  estimation'.  i  'third largest'  or  t-  However, the v a l i d i t y of these r e s u l t s  is  rather dubious.  D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t the comparisons were made among v e r y s i m i l a r where a l l  Ss  o f the f o u r v a r i a b l e s were c o n t r o l l e d , the number o f Ss Who  r e p r e s e n t e d a l o c a t i o n was so small  t h a t o f t e n o n l y one S r e p r e s e n t e d  a location.  The next step was to reduce number o f v a r i a b l e s c o n t r o l l e d , in order to i n c r e a s e the number o f Ss who r e p r e s e n t e d each l o c a t i o n .  85  This  t i m e , o n l y two of the f o u r v a r i a b l e s  were s i x  possible  sex-mode,  combinations  mode-T-score).  were c o n t r o l l e d .  f o r the two v a r i a b l e s  (eg.,  T h e r e f o r e , we had 24 combinations  instance, a l l  altogether.  or the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  o f the Ss  they may be e i t h e r  T a b l e 43  o f t h e Ss  'car d r i v e r ' ,  'bus r i d e r ' , or  t h e i r T - s c o r e may be e i t h e r under 20 or over 20.  T a b l e 43 Definition ("qualification") n a t u r e o f Ss i n each group  cont'd...  indicates  'car passenger' U n l i k e the  of  'group',  d e f i n i t i o n sex age 1:M 1:1-19 2:F 2:20j 1 2 1 2 2 1 * 1 * 2 * 2 * 1 * 1 * 2 * 2 * 8 1 * 1 * 2 * 2  or  mode T-score l : c a r d r . 1:1-19 2:bus+c.p.2:20« * * * * * * 1 * 2 * 1 * 2 * * 1 ' * 2 * 1 * 2 1 * 2 * 1 * 2 *  for but and  previous  appeared  s i n c e o n l y two o f the v a r i a b l e s  controlled.  2  variable.  in each group;  were c o n t r o l l e d , most o f the Ss  r e p e a t e d l y in d i f f e r e n t groups,  group AT~^ All AIII AIV BI BII Bill BIV CI CI I CI 11 CIV DI DII. Dili DIV  sex-age,  i n group A l were male aged 19 and under,  case where f o u r v a r i a b l e s  there  W i t h i n a c o m b i n a t i o n , t h e r e were f o u r  p o s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n s , s i n c e t h e r e were two l e v e l s o f each  'qualification'  Thus,  were  86  EI * 1 * EII * 1 * EIII * 2 * EIV * 2 * FI * * 1 FII * * 1 Fill * * 2 FIV * * 2 * : these v a r i a b l e s were not c o n t r o l l e d .  The r e s u l t s  1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2  of a t a b u l a t i o n o f the average e s t i m a t i o n s  against  location  ( T a b l e 4 4 ) , and a r e summarized i n T a b l e 45  T a b l e 44 B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f l o c a t i o n vs e s t i m a t i o n o f the d i s t n a c e by each group l o c a t i o n al  N* E* R*  3 4.3 2  All  N E R  A l II  1  N.Van.  0  3.0 3  1 8.0 1  -  4 5.3 1  4 5.0 2  11 4.1 3  14 4.1 3  N R R  2 7.5 1  4 6.8 2  2 6.5 3  2 4.5 4  AIV  N E R  10 4.6 4  6 5.0 2  11 4.9 3  5 5.4 1  BI  N E R  4 5.8 1  4 5.0 2  9 4.0 4  10 4.1 3  BII  N E R  3 4.7 2  1 3.0 4  4 5.5 1  4 4.0 3  Bill  N E R N E R  7 4.6 2 5 5.8 2  3 5.7 1 6 5.0 3  3 5.7 1 10 5.0 3  4 4.5 3 3 6.0 1  BIV  cont'd..,  CI  N E R  4 5.8 2  2 4.0 4  4 6.0 1  9 4.1 3  CII  N E R  4 4.5 2  2 6.0 1  9 3.8 4  5 4.0 3  N E R  10 5.3 3  5 6.2 1  3 4.3 4  6 5.5 2  CIV  N E R  2 4.0 3  5 5.2 1  9 4.8 2  1 3.0 4  DI  N E R  1 5.0 2  -  0  1 6.0 1  1 4.0 3  DII  N R R  3 6.3 2  4 5.0 3  2 7.5 1  2 4.5 4  Dili  N E R  9 4.8 2  7 5.3 1  10 4.2 3  13 4.2 3  DIV  N E R  5 4.8 1  3 4.3 2  12 4.8 1  6 4.8 1  DI  N E R  2 7.0 2  3 5.7 3  1 8.0 1  2 4.5 4  EI I  N E R  3 4.7 2  2 6.5 1  2 6.5 1  1 4.0 3  EI 11  N E R  11 5.0 2  4 5.5 1  6 4.8 3  13 4.7 4  EIV  N E R  3 4.0 2  5 5.0 1  15 4.0 2  6 3.8 3  FI  N E R  9 5.1 3  3 5.7 1  3 5.3 2  9 4.6 4  CI  II  continue...  88  FII  N E R  2 4.5 2  3 5.7 1  10 4.2 3  5 3.6 4  Fill  N E R  4 6.5 1  4 5.5 2  5 5.2 3  6 4.8 4  FIV  *:  **  N 4 3 8 2 E 4.3 3.7 4.5 4.5 R 2 3 1 1 N: number o f S s , E: e s t i m a t i o n o f the d i s t a n c e ( m i l e ) , R: r a n k , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Ss i n each group were d e f i n e d i n t a b l e 4 3 .  T a b l e 45 B i v a r i a t e t a b l e o f ' r a n k ' and l o c a t i o n Frequency t a b l e ( ' R a n k i n g ' was made among t h r e e o r f o u r l o c a t i o n s were r e p r e s e n t e d ) 1 o c a t i o n (number o f times ranked) G r a n v i l l e H a s t i n g s Alma  rank largest e s t ' n b 2nd l a r g e s t " 15 3rd 3 shortest est'n 1  These t a b l e s N.Vancouver or  'shortest  locations. comparisons  10  N.Van. 4 1 10 8  10  6 5 2  3 8 3  i n d i c a t e t h a t the e s t i m a t i o n s  by  ' q u a l i f i e d ' Ss a t  l o c a t i o n tended to rank more f r e q u e n t l y as estimation*  than d i d the e s t i m a t i o n s  The tendency was a p p a r e n t l y s t r o n g ; o f each group ( A l  l o c a t i o n ranked 18 times as the estimations  to F I V ) ,  or  'third  throughout  'shortest  a t the  '3rd l a r g e s t '  F o r our p r e v i o u s t e s t we s e t a s t r i c t  Ss.  N.Vancouver  e s t i m a t i o n , while 1  or  'shortest'  estimation.  We f a c e d a dilemma with regard t o the v a l i d i t y o f the  homogeneous  the 24  a t G r a n v i l l e , H a s t i n g s , and Alma ranked o n l y 4, 7, and  11 t i m e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , as  the comparisons  largest'  made' at t h e o t h e r t h r e e  the e s t i m a t i o n s  '3rd l a r g e s t '  the  the  o f the e s t i m a t i o n s  so  that  o f the d i s t a n c e were taken o n l y  from  In o t h e r words, a l l  standard  results.  ('qualiifcation)  o f the f o u r c r i t i c a l  v a r i a b l e s were  89  controlled.  However, because the standards were s t r i c t , o n l y a few Ss  r e p r e s e n t e d a l o c a t i o n and the v a l i d i t y o f the average e s t i m a t i o n s a small  number of Ss was  questionable.  Our next step was to a p p l y l e s s s t r i c t standards average e s t i m a t i o n s  Due t o the i n c r e a s e d number o f the S s ,  of the Ss  so t h a t the  at a l o c a t i o n might be made by a l a r g e r  average e s t i m a t i o n s was decreased.  by such  the  'statistical'  number of  Ss.  v a l i d i t y o f the  i n c r e a s e d , but a t the same time the homogeneity  That means t h a t we can not d e c i d e whether t h e  were a t t r i b u t a b l e to t h e p h y s i c a l  results  v a r i a b l e or t o t h e o t h e r two u n c o n t r o l l e d  variables.  In  the event t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d i e s  t h a t the number o f Ss be l a r g e r  a r e u n d e r t a k e n , we recommend  in order to a v o i d the problem d e s c r i b e d  i above.  However, an i n c r e a s e o f t h i s  i n c r e a s e i n the s i z e ( p h y s i c a l  area)  nature w i l l o f the  a l s o r e s u l t , i n an  'locations'.  the surveyor must c o l l e c t data from a l a r g e r area i f low p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y .  the a c t u a l  i s one w i t h a  differ significantly  point  from t h a t  T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y may c r e a t e a problem p a r t i c u l a r l y  distance is  r e l a t i v e l y short,  eg.,  1 mile.  I d e a l l y , the l o c a t i o n should be p i n - p o i n t e d , as large.high-rise  particular,  T h e r e f o r e , the d i s t a n c e from t h e n e a r e s t  o f the l o c a t i o n to the d e s t i n a t i o n w i l l from the f a r t h e s t .  it  In  apartment.  i n the case o f a  if  90  7-0 CONCLUSION In  the c o u r s e o f our s t u d y , we determined t h a t o n l y f o u r o f  13 v a r i a b l e s  examined seemed to jwve 'fad any e f f e c t on the p e r c e p t i o n o f (  the d i s t a n c e ; tion  the  i e . , sex, age, mode of t r a n s p o r t a t o o n , and T h i n g - o r i e n t a -  score: Male tended to be more a c c u r a t e i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n s ( o r to e s t i m a t e the p a r t i c u l a r d i s t a n c e o f 4 m i l e s as being s h o r t e r than female Ss.) Ss aged over 20, o r c a r d r i v e r s , or Ss w i t h h i g h e r T - s c o r e s were a l s o more a c c u r a t e than younger S s , o r bus or c a r p a s s e n g e r s , o r Ss w i t h lower T-scores, respectively.  Our f i n d i n g s variables  with r e g a r d  to the i n t e r n a l  are i l l u s t r a t e d  relationships  o f the f o u r  below.  Fig.14 V a r i a b l e s t h a t seemed to have an e f f e c t on the perception of the distance With r e g a r d to the r e l a t i o n s h i p s , male Ss tended t o be c a r d r i v e r s r a t h e r than bus r i d e r s or c a r p a s s e n g e r s , and t h e i r T - s c o r e s tended to be h i g h e r than those o f female S s . Younger Ss tended t o be bus r i d e r s o r c a r passengers and t h e i r T - s c o r e s were h i g h e r than the o l d e r S s . Mode and T - s c o r e v a r i a b l e s were not r e l a t e d , as was t r u e o f the r e l a t i o n between sexaand age v a r i a b l e s .  Concerning t h e p o s s i b l e  e f f e c t s o f the p h y s i c a l  v a r i a b l e on  p e r c e p t i o n , our r e s u l t s were u n c l e a r p r i m a r i l y as a r e s u l t o f the differing characteristics this  o f the Ss a t the f o u r l o c a t i o n s .  does not mean t h a t our data  e f f e c t on t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f the  i n d i c a t e d the p h y s i c a l distance.  However,  v a r i a b l e had no  91  7-1  Implication  of  Results  Our study examined the p e r c e p t i o n of  'cognitive distance'  urban s c a l e w i t h the idea t h a t the data from t h i s w i t h o t h e r input may come to be u s e f u l t i o n of a f a c i l i t y ' s  location.  i n areas  type o f study  along  such as t h e d e t e r m i n a -  We assume t h a t i f a p o t e n t i a l  p e r c e i v e s the d i s t a n c e t o a h y p o t h e t i c a l  on an  f a c i l i t y as being  user  shorter,  he/she may use i t more f r e q u e n t l y than would be the case were the p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g l o n g e r , not  distance  provided that other extenuating f a c t o r s  do  exist. If  users'  this  assumption  proves to be a c c u r a t e , we may be a b l e to p r e d i c t  b e h a v i o r to some e x t e n t , and thus c o n t r o l a f a c i l i t y ' s  t i o n r a t e by the s e l e c t i o n o f i t s so t h a t the u s e r s '  location.  By a l t e r i n g t h e  situation  perception of the distance is a l t e r e d , t h e i r  to a f a c i l i t y can then be encouraged o r d i s c o u r a g e d .  If,  UBC wanted to reduce the a t t e n d a n c e r a t e and were to stop stickers  utiliza-  to s t u d e n t s  for  visits  example,  issuing  parking  or to d e s t r o y s t u d e n t p a r t i n g l o t s , a  significant  number o f s t u d e n t s would probably become bus r i d e r s or c a r  passengers.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f the d i s t a n c e from t h e i r r e s i d e n c e s UBC would become g r e a t e r and t h e i r t r i p s We found t h a t the youger Ss g r e a t e r than d i d t h e o l d e r Ss. i n order to encourage f u l l  plural  facilities  p e r c e i v e d the d i s t a n c e as  being facility  u t i l i z a t i o n , the d i s t a n c e from the users  to the s i t e o f t h e f a c i l i t y  h y p o t h e t i c a l l y speaking,  f a c i l i t y f o r older people.  frequent.  Thus, i n the case o f a youth  'catchment a r e a ' of the p o t e n t i a l should be s m a l l e r ,  to UBC l e s s  It  than i n the case o f a  may even be n e c e s s a r y to c o n s t r u c t  r a t h e r than one l a r g e f a c i l i t y to reduce the  to  92  p e r c e i v e d d i s t a n c e and t o encourage use by more users more f r e q u e n t l y . Similar  p l a n n i n g might a l s o be a p p l i e d in the s e l e c t i o n o f the  location  o f a f a c i l i t y f o r f i n a n c i a l l y d e p r i v e d people who cannot a f f o r d o p e r a t e a car and maytend to be bus  to  riders.  As t h e problems o f t h e f u e l s h o r t a g e and a i r  p o l l u t i o n deepen, use  of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has been encouraged with but l i t t l e  success.  One o f the reasons t h a t might e x p l a i n people do not immediately become bus r i d e r s may be the r e s u l t i n g  p e r c e p t i o n o f an  'enlarged'  and the r e l u c t a n c e to make a t r i p as a consequence.  distance  Without  compensating  f o r t h e assumed b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c a r d r i v i n g and the r e s u l t i n g psychological  e f f e c t s o f bus r i d i n g ,  p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n may c o n t i n u e  t o be unpopluar. C o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n has been paid to obvious as  sex, age,  e t c . , i n d e a l i n g w i t h environmental  factors  such  p e r c e p t i o n , but one o f  t h e r e s u l t s we f e l t t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g was t h a t a r a t h e r hidden dimension such as significant  the ' T h i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n  scale'  p l a y e d such a  r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the p e r c e p t i o n o f d i s t a n c e .  perception of the ' c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e '  r e q u i r e s an a l r e a d y  Since  the  existing  mental map o f the environment i n q u e s t i o n , d i f f e r e n c e s in the d i s t a n c e perception are considered, at l e a s t  i n p a r t , to r e s u l t from d i f f e r e n c e s  i n the mental map. The nature o f t h e mental  map has been demonstrated to be  the r e s u l t o f an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f a s e r i e s o ^ general perceptions.  Therefore, i t  of T-scores w i l l  is  environmental  assumed t h a t people w i t h d i f f e r e n t  a l s o have d i f f e r e n t types o f general  levels  environmental  p e r c e p t i o n s as w e l l as a d e f f e r r n t p e r c e p t i o n o f d i s t a n c e .  In  o t h e r words,  93  what one p e r c e i v e s and the way and degree to which one r e c a l l s depend on the T - s c o r e to some e x t e n t . variable will mental  provide s i g n i f i c a n t  perception.  Thus, we t h i n k t h a t  results  in other studies  it  the T on e n v i r o n -  94 BIBLIOGRAPHY  A p p l e y a r d , D., " S t y l e s and methods o f s t r u c t u r i n g a c i t y " , and b e h a v i o r , June 1970 B e r e l s o n , B e r n a r d , Human b e h a v i o r ; s h o r t e r e d i t i o n , N.Y., and w o r l d , 1967  Environment  Harcourt,  Brace  B r a t f i s h , 0 . , "A f u r t h e r study o f the r e l a t i o n between s u b j e c t i v e d i s t a n c e and emotional i n v o l v e m e n t " , A c t a P s y c h o l o g i c a , '29, 19 69, pp244. 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Educational  Werner, H. and Wapner, S. "Changes in p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e under c o n d i t i o n s o f d a n g e r " , J o u r n a l o f p e r s o n a l i t y , 2 4 , 1 955  his  Mass.,  96  BIBLIOGRAPHY s t u d i e s on ' v i s u a l  distance'*  B l e s s i n g , W.W., and o t h e r s , "The e f f e c t o f f a l s o p e r s p e c t i v e cues on d i s t a n c e and s i z e - j u d g m e n t s : an examination o f the i n v a r i a n c e h y p o t h e s i s " , American J o u r n a l o f Psychology, v o l . 8 0 , June 1967, pp.250C a r l s o n , V.R., and Tassone, E . P . , "Independent s i z e judgments a t d i f f e r ent d i s t a n c e s " , J o u r n a l o f experimental p s y c h o l o g y , v o l . 7 3 , N o . 4 , A p r i l 1967, pp.491^ C r a n n e l , C.W., and P e t e r s , G . , "Monocular and b i n o c u l a r e s t i m a t i o n s d i s t a n c e when knowledge o f the r e l e v a n t space i s a b s e n t " , The j o u r n a l o f p s y c h o l o g y , 76, 1970, ppl57-167  of  F o l e y , J . M . , " B i n o c u l a r d i s p a r i t y and p e r c e i v e d r e l a t i v e d i s t a n c e : an examination o f two h y p o t h e s e s " , V i s i o n R e s . , v o l . 7 , 1967 pp.655-670 F r a n k l i n , S.S., and Ross, H . E . , " S i z e - d i s t a n c e i n v a r i a n c e in p e r c e p t u a l adaptation", Psychon. S c i . , v o l . 2 1 ( 4 ) , 1970, pp.229G i b s o n , E . J . , and Bergman, R., " E f f e c t o f t r a i n i n g on a b s o l u t e e s t i m a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e over the g r o u n d " , J o u r n a l o f experimental p s y c h o l o g y , v o l . 4 8 , n o . 6 , 1954, pp.473G o g e l , W . C , and Mertens, H.W., " P e r c e i v e d s i z e and d i s t a n c e o f f a m i l i a r o b j e c t s " , P e r c e p t u a l and motor s k i l l s , 25, 1967, pp.213-225 G o g e l , W.C., "The a b s o l u t e and r e l a t i v e s i z e cues to d i s t a n c e " , American j o u r n a l o f p s y c h o l o g y , v o l . 8 2 , 1969, pp.228Gogel, W . C , "Equidistance e f f e c t s in visual p s y c h o l o g y , v o l . 8 2 , 1969, pp.342-  f i e l d s " , American j o u r n a l  of  Klinnapas, T . M . , " S c a l e s f o r s u b j e c t i v e d i s t a n c e " , Scand. J . P s y c h o l . , v o l . 1 , 1960, pp.187Kunnapas, T . , " D i s t a n c e p e r c e p t i o n as a f u n c t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e v i s u a l c u e s " , J o u r n a l o f experimental p s y c h o l o g y , v o l . 7 7 , n o . 4 , 1968, pp.523-29 L u r i a , S.M., and o t h e r s , " D i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e s w i t h ' f i l l e d ' and ' u n f i l l e d ' s p a c e " , P e r c e p t u a l and motor s k i l l s , 24, 1967, pp.1007-1010 McDermott, W.P., " S i z e p e r c e p t i o n in the presence o f i n d i v i d u a l cue f o r d i s t a n c e " , Tee j o u r n a l o f general p s y c h o l o g y , 8 1 , 1969, pp.189-202  *see section  2-3.  97  Merryman, C T . , and R e s t l e , F . , " P e r c e p t u a l d i s p l a c e m e t t o f a t e s t mark toward the l a r g e r o f two v i s u a l o b e e c t s " , J o u r n a l o f experimental p s y c h o l o g y , v o l . 8 4 , n o . 2 , 1970, pp.311-318 Naylor,  E . J . , and T o m l i n s o n , A . , " R e t i n a l images from d i s t a n t o b j e c t s : the premises f o r an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " , N a t u r e , v o l . 2 2 4 , Dec. 13, 1969, pp.1129-  Newman, C V . , " F a m i l i a r and r e l a t i v e s i z e cues and s u r f a c e t e x t u r e as determinnats o f r e l a t i v e d i s t a n c e judgments", J . o f E x p e r . P s y c h . , v o l . 96, n o . l , pp.37-42 Ono, H., "Apparent d i s t a n c e as a f u n c t i o n o f f a m i l i a r s i z e " , J . o f E x p ' l Psych, v o l . 7 9 , n o . l , 1969, pp.109-115 Posner, M.I., and o t h e r s , " P e r c e i v e d d i s t n a c e and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f d i s t o r t e d p a t t e r n s " , J . o f E x p ' l P s y c h . , v o l . 7 3 , n o . l , 1967, pp.28-38 Restly,  F. and M e r r y m a n , C , " D i s t a n c e and an i l l u s i o n o f l e n g t h o f J . o f E x p ' l P s y c h . , v o l . 8 1 , n o . 2 , 1969, pp.297-302  Ross, H . E . , "Water, f o g , and the s i z e - d i s t a n c e i n v a r i a n c e B r . J . P s y c h o l . , 58, 3and4, pp.301-313, 1967 Shontz,  line",  hypothesis",  F . C , and McNish, R.D., "The human body as s t i m u l u s o b j e c t : e s t i m a t e s o f d i s t a n c e s between body l a n d m a r k s " , J . o f E x p ' l P s y c h . , v o l . 9 5 , n o . 1 , 1 9 7 2 , pp.20-24  T e g h t s o o n i a n , R., " S c a l i n g apparent d i s t a n c e in a n a t u r a l s e t t i n g " , Psychon. S c i . , v o l . 2 1 ( 4 ) , 1970, pp.215-  outdoor  T e g h t s o o n i a n , R. and M., " S c a l l i n g apparent d i s t a n c e in n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s " , Psychon. S c i . , v o l . 1 6 ( 6 ) , 1969, pp.281-  indoor  T h o r , D.H., and o t h e r s , "Eye e l e v a t i o n and v i s u a l space i n monocular r e g a r d " , J . o f E x p ' l P s y c h . , v o l . 8 6 , n o . 2 , 1 9 7 0 , pp.246-249 Weintraub, D . J . , :Emmert's laws: s i z e constancy vs. o p t i c a l Am. J . P s y c h . , v o l . 8 3 , 1970, pp40p  geometry",  98  APPENDIX  -CA  Questinnnaire  . V"-'  :  sheets  The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s were designed to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the environment and the p e r c e p t i o n o f d i s t a n c e . I t i s hoped t h a t these b a s i c s t u d i e s o f man and h i s environment r e s u l t i n the development o f b e t t e r c i t i e s i n the f u t u r e . I would a p p r e c i a t e very much your c o - o p e r a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e s i n c e the answers t o these q u e s t i o n s are v i t a l to a paper 1 am w r i t i n g . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l , and there i s no need f o r y o u r name to appear, anywhere on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Note: 1. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e must be answered by only ONE PERSON - e i t h e r y o u r s e l f , your spouse, or y o u r c h i l d r e n . But a l l the answers must be made by o n l y one i n d i v i d u a l ; p l e a s e do not c o n s u l t anyone e l s e . 2. U n t i l a l l the questions on the f o l l o w i n g pages have been completed, please do NOT l o o k a t a map of Vancouver. I am i n t e r e s t e d i n your images o f Vancouver. The a c c u r a c y o f the answers i s n o t a s important as y o u r e s t i m a t i o n of c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e s . Your a s s i s t a n c e would be a p p r e c i a t e d . Thank you. Kazuyuki Murata .' Graduate S t u d i e s , School o f A r c h i t e c t u r e The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, B.C. I f you are i n t e r e s t e d i n the r e s u l t o f t h i s survey, they w i l l . be a v a i l a b l e i n the f u t u r e on your r e q u e s t .  Please read questions, and mark X i n the appropriate box. 1.  3.  What i s your sex?  1 . pmale 2. • female 2. How o l d are you? 1 . 0 0 to 9 year 2 . Q 1 0 to 1 4 3-D 15 to 1 9 4.020  5. D 3 0  to  29  to 3 9 to 4 9 7. D50 to 5 9 8. Dover 6 0  6. D 4 0  4.  Education. 1. ] elementary 2. Q j u n i o r h i g h 3. D s e n i o r high 4. Q c o l l e g e 5. Q g r a d . s c h o o l Occupation. Please s p e c i f y :  Does your job require you to travel around the city? 1 . d Y e s , more than 5 0 miles a day 2. rjYes, about 10 to 50 miles a day 3. D i e s , less than 1 0 miles a day 4. pNo, not at a l l .  99  page  «•'  *~  ' 1.Hotel  t7f\ * n n n s . w the f o H o w i n e p l a c e s ? at l e a s t 2-3 times 2-3 times once a month a month once a day a week n  2.University of  4. Lighthouse 5, C l e v e l a n d  • •  •  • •  n  a  D  P  •  a  D  B.C.  3,Simon F r a s e r Univ.  Dam  6. Oak ST. B r i d g e (between Van. and Ritchmond) 6.  o  Vancouver  • •  2-3 times once before a year  never  • Q  a  a  •  •  D n  • •  D  •  •  a  •  p D  • •  a .  •  •  •a  Please estimate d i s t a n c e from' where you l i v e to the f o l l o w i n g p l a c e s . NOTE: do NOT l o o k a t a map of Vancouver, o r do NOT c o n s u l t anyone.  1. Hotel Vancouver  _miles  4. L i g h t h o u s e  2. U n i v e r s i t y o f  B.C.  jniles  5. C l e v e l a n d  3.Simon F r a s e r Univ.  miles  7. I n g e n e r a l , a r e y o u g o o t a t o r i e n t i n g y o u r s e l f i n a c i t y , o r do y o u o f t e n get l o s t ? 1.0 v e r y good a t o r i e n t a t i o n 2. • good 3. D f a i r 4. Q b a d 5. Q v e r y b a d 8. How many y e a r s h a v e y o u l i v e d i n Vancouver? . l . Q l e s s t h a n 2-3 m o n t h s 2. £Dup t o 6 m o n t h s 3. D P to a y e a r 4. Q u p t o 2-3 year,s 5. Q u p t o 5 y e a r s 6. Q m o r e t h a n 5 y e a r s 9. How l o n g h a v e y o u l i v e d a t t h e present address? 1. D l e s s than 2-3 months 2. CDup t o 6 m o n t h s U  3. £3up t o a year  10.  4.0 up t o 2-3 y e a r s 5. D u p t o 5 y e a r s 6. d m o r e t h a n 5 y e a r s In g e n e r a l , when y o u t r a v e l i n t h e c i t y , w h i ch k i n d o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n do y o u u s e ? l . Q foot : 2.Dbicycle 3. D m o t o r c y c l e 4. D b u s 5 .D c a r ( s e l f - d r l v e n ) 6. d e a r ( p a s se nge r )  miles Dam  6.oak S t . Bridge  miles miles  11. What i s the purpose o f the m a j o r p o r t i o n of t r a v e l i n the c i t y ? 1. D g° t o work 2. • go to s c h o o l 3 . D f o r shopping 4. C3 other - s p e c i f y : 12. On t h e average, how many m i l e s do you t r a v e l a day? 1. Q l e s s than a m i l e 2. P one t o 2-3 m i l e s 3. Q up t o 5 m i l e s 4. D up t o 10 m i l e s 5. D up t o 30 m i l e s 6. O up to 50 m i l e s 7. P more than 50 m i l e s 13. On the average, how much t i m e do you s p e n d t r a v e l l i n g a day? 1. O l e s s than 5 minutes 2. • 5 t o 15 min. 3. O15 to 30 min. • 30 to 60 min. • 1 t o 2 hours 6. D 2 to 3 hours 7. D m o r e than 3. hours 14. Do you t h i n k you know the c i t y o f Vancouver w e l l : 1. Q very w e l l 2. • w e l l 3. • not so w e l l 4. • not a t a l l  100  page 3  15. In this question, show how much you l i k e to be i n situations where you might be doing the things l i s t e d . • Use following scale, and place the appropriate number i n the space next to the sentence. Try, i f possible, to use the f u l l range of scale, from 0 - 4. o: not at a l l 1: s l i g h t l y 2: moderately so 3: quite a l o t 4: extremely so  1. J o i n i n and help out a disorganized children's game at a public park. 2. Take upon yourself the building of a stereo set or a ham radio.  10.  Becorie proficient i n the art of glass-blowing.  11. Interview people for a newspaper column. 12. Remove the back of a mechanical toy to see how i t worked. 13. Strike up a conversation with a begger on a street corner. 14 Attempt to f i x your own watch, toaster, etc. 15. Observe the path of a comet through a telescope. 16. Listen with empathic interest to an old-timer who sits next to you on a bus. 17. Note the idiosyncracies o f people about you. 18. Make f i r s t attempts to get to know a new neighbor.  3. Interview people for employment i n a large hospital.  19. Attend an address given by a person whose character you admire, without being aware of the topic of the address.  4. Explore the ocean f l o o r i n a one-man sub.  20. Attempt to comfort a total stranger who has just met with tragedy. -  5. Process computer cards in a large industrial centre.  21. Do sky-diving.  6. Breed rare forms of tropical f i s h .  22. Gain a reputation for giving good advice for personal problems.  7. Climb a mountain on your own. 8. Stop to watch a piece o f machinery at work on the street. 9. Listen i n on a conversation between two people i n a crowd.  23. Make a hobby of photographing nature scenes and developing and printing the picture yourself. 24. Help a group of children plan a Halloween party.  

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