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The promotion of public school adult education in the city of Port Coquitlam Angus , Monica Diane 1970

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T H E PROMOTION O F PUBLIC S C H O O L A D U L T E D U C A T I O N IN T H E CITY O F PORT C O Q U I T L A M  by  M O N I C A D I A N E ANGUS B . S N o , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 0  1958  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L M E N T OF T H E R E QUI R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F  M A S T E R O F ARTS I n the F a c u l t y of Education  We accept this thesis as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard:  T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH COLUMBIA MARCH,  1970  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the L i b r a r y  shall  I  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  thesis at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  tha  permission  of  It  permission.  Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Columbia  requirements I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  this  shall  that  not  copying  or  for  that  study. thesis  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  is understood  f i n a n c i a l gain  the  B r i t i s h Columbia,  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  for  fulfilment of  it freely available for  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  ABSTRACT  The purpose of the study was to determine factors essential to the effective promotion of public school adult education i n a suburban Canadian community,,  T h e city of Port Coquitlam, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was chosen.  A  map of the city was divided into block areas,, and a twenty per cent random sample was used to examine s e v e r a l aspects of the p r o b l e m .  F o u r a r e a s of  study were identified: 1.  the nature of the community  2.  participation i n adult education  3.  subject a r e a interest  4.  patterns of m a s s m e d i a use.  In a sample block the first and the fifth house was selected and the adult who answered the door at each was interviewed for a total of 112 r e s » pondents.  T h e structured interview technique was employed to gather data  f r o m respondents. The hypothesis tested i n this study was that no significant difference exists between males and females or between respondents l i v i n g i n u r b a n , s e r v i c e and r u r a l land zones and the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1.  m a r i t a l status  2.  employment  3.  adult kinship i n home  4.  s o c i a l participation  5. participation i n adult education 6. interest i n adult education 7. patterns of m e d i a u t i l i z a t i o n . The distributions within the groups were tested for significant differences using either the c h i * s q u a r e or the K o l m o g o r o v « S m i r n o v t w o « s a m p l e test while linear relationships were indicated by frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s .  F r o m the findings it appears that Port Coquitlam i s a v e r y homogeneous community.  M o s t occupations are at the l e v e l of s k i l l e d and s e m i s k i l l e d work  and the s o c i a l participation of respondents is low.  Except for employment status,  no statistically significant difference was found to exist between the factors studied for males and females and no statistically significant differences for the three residential pairs. T h e participation of respondents i n adult education is low and mainly in the a r e a of job*oriented and l e i s u r e - t i m e c l a s s e s .  T h e stated interests of r e s -  pondents indicate that participation w i l l l i k e l y continue to be focused i n these subject a r e a s .  T h e r e f o r e , job^oriented and l e i s u r e - t i m e courses offerred in Port  Coquitlam should have a p a r t i c u l a r appeal for r e s i d e n t s . Patterns of communication indicate that many m o r e women than m e n r e c e i v e door-to-door communications.  T h e most frequently listened to radio  stations were C K N W » « a metropolitan station*-and CJJC—located i n a r u r a l a r e a . M o s t respondents view Canadian television stations and m o r e of them subscribe to the l o c a l weekly newspaper than to either of the metropolitan d a i l i e s .  If the use  of m e d i a outlets l i s t e d here were utilized by the adult administrator c o m m u n i c a tions would have the best chance of r e a c h i n g Port Coquitlam r e s i d e n t s . A r e a s suggested for further r e s e a r c h include: m o r e extensive  investiga*  tion of the community to v e r i f y the apparent homogeneity of the population; investigation of how influence operates i n this community; and continuing investigation of changing patterns of interest and participation i n adult education so that communications can be p r o p e r l y a d d r e s s e d .  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE LI ST O F T A B L E S  0  LI S T O F FI GURES CHAPTER I A.  0  o o « o » o « o o o o « a o o o o o o o o « a o o « o o o « < i o o « o o o o o « < > o  0  * e * * o . > o » o o » o o o o . > o o o e . > o . > o « o o o o o e o o o o o « o o o » . >  INTRODUCTION  IV VII 1  Promotion as an A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T a s k  1  1.  T h e D i m e n s i o n s of Communication . . . . . . . . . . .  2  2.  L i m i t a t i o n s of Budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3  B.  Statement of the P r o b l e m  4  Co  HypOtllGSiS  o « o a o o o o o . » o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o  4  D  DefjLIlltiOIlS  o o o o o o o o o 0 o o o e o « « o o o o a o o o o e o o o o o a o o o * o  5  Stl-ldy o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o v o o o o o o o o o o o o o  5  o  E o  P l c t H Of the  I  o  2.  O  O  3 o 'I'he I3ata 4. F.  o»0000000000000000«0»OOOOQOOOt>00  T h 6 ScLHiplC  T h e Interview Schedule  . o o o . . o . o o o o . . o o o 4 . . . e o o o . .  Statistical Procedures  o.Aooe.o..ooo..o.eeo.oo  L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  C H A P T E R II  H I S T O R Y O F A D U L T E D U C A T I O N P R O G R A M S IN T H E PORT COQUITLAM A R E A  Ao  The A r e a  B0  T h e People  C.  Adult Education P r o g r a m s  D.  Promoting of the P r o g r a m s  E.  Cost of Paid Communications  CHAPTER in A.  . . . . . . .  .  o  e  o . o a o  0  Q o o o o e o « e e o o o e . e o . o o o e o o o o e . . . .  . a . a o e . . . . 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 . o « o . o . o . o . « o . . . . . . .  5 6 7 8 9 10 i0 i2 14  0  . . . . . . . . . . . .  16 17  REVIEW OF T H E R E L A T E D L I T E R A T U R E . . .  19  Introduction to Adult Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19  1.  T h e D i s c i p l i n e and the F i e l d  20  2.  Adult L e a r n i n g  21  3o  4.  Participation o o o 9 o Needs and Interests  5.  Community and Adult Education  0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 .  i  o . o . o o . o e . o o . o o o o o o o . . o . . e  22 25 28  PAGE B.  The T h e o r y of Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 o IlltXOClU.C_iOIl  29  o o o o a a o o o o o a O Q V a O o o o e o o o a o o o o o Q O  2.  T h e Communication P r o c e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31  3a  LJxt)3-Il RCSGcHTCll  32  a.  0 O O O O O O O O O B - ' O O O O O « O O « - ' O O O O O  O  Personal Influence and the £l-CyW  Two«step» 32  o o o o o o o « « o o o o o o o « o e o o « o o e a O - o o o o  b„  L i m i t a t i o n s of the " T w o - s t e p - f l o w "  c.  T h e o r y of Cognitive Dissonance . . . . . . .  . . . .  36 37  4o  R.U_Cal _^.GSG-i_rCll o o « o o o e a o e o « « o e o e o o o o e o o e « e o  40  So  IVIS-XlCGt R.GS6cl_*Ctl e  43  a.  e o o o - O O O o « o o o a o o e o o o * o o o o o  T h e C r i t i c i s m of Social C o m m e n t^-tOXS o o o o » o « o o o o o o o » o o o « o o o o o a o o o o o  43  The Reply of Businessmen . . . . . . . . . . . .  44  CHARACTERISTICS O F T H E POPULATION . . . . . . .  47  b. C H A P T E R IV  29  QOOOOOOOOOOOOOttOOOOOO-OOOOO-OOOOOOoOOO  A0  IHtXOdUCtlOU  Bo  _?63CSOri-1-1  Co  ElTiplOyiTlGITt o o » » O O O O O O O O O O e O O O O O O O 0 O O O O « O - O O O O O » O O  Xo  «o0000000000a000000000a«90  TllG BliSllCH S C3-lG  a  ooo o o  o « « Q  O  « O  O  47  9  o o o o o o « o o o o O * o o o o o o o e o o t t o «  JD o SoCi.3-1 o o « o o o « - o o o o c o o o o o o o e o o o o - o « e o o o o * o e o o o o o  CHAPTER V A0  Participation i n Adult Education  YCaiT  1e  Ttie  2  TllO YGa_CS 1.960 6 8  1967**68  50  56 56  o o o o o o o o o o e - o o o o o « . » o * o « o o o  56  <,«>,> o *  o .<>•  52  o „  o o o o o o o o a e o o o o o « o o o o o o o o o  57  3.  M a l e v e r s u s F e m a l e Participation . . . . . . . . . . . .  58  4.  Urban versus-Service versus Rural  o  s  _Pa_CtXCijpatiOn  B.  o v o o o o o o o o o a o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o  STUDY................  RESULTS OF THE  43  52  0 0  1 « TtlC Cll3-PlH S C c l l e  43  O  O  9  0  »  O  O  O  O  O  O  O  «  O  «  O  A  O  «  O  O  O  Q  O  »  O  -  '  O  O  O  O  Interest i n Adult Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.  62 63  Index of C o u r s e Satisfaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63  2.  A n Overview of Interest i n Adult Education . . . .  65  3.  Interest i n Adult Education of M a l e s v e r s u s  4.  Interest i n adult Education of Respondents i n T h r e e  Females  Q  O  O  O  O  O  O  O  Residential A.xeas  Q  O  O  O  *  O  »  O  O  O  O  O  O  O  O  O  O  O  «  O  «  O  O  O  O  O  O  a « e o o o o o o o o o o o o o o « o o o o o o o o  ii  70 71  PAGE Patterns of M a s s M e d i a Use  Co  A.  1.  Perceived Communication about Adult P r o g r a m s  73  'I'lie Prmted  74  ^\T03TCi  o o o o o o s o o o o o o o o o o e o e o o o o o  3-Q  TTTfie  JBdCOCilUX'e  i)o  i ^ G ^ V S p c l j p e JC S  o o o o o o o t o o o o o o o o o o o o o e  o o o o o o » o o o o o o o » 6 0 o o o « o *  Other Communications M e d i a  74  77  S U M M A R Y A N D IMPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  82  Xo  Erciployixient  2«  Social Participation  o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o O  B0  Participation and Interest  Co  Patterns of M a s s M e d i a Use  13o  Hypothesis Testxn^ 1.  00  o o o « o o o o « o o o « o e o o o  <>  0  0  •«<» o «  o o « «  e  « o  •  82 83 84 85  e o « o o o . o « o o o o o o o o o o o  86  o o o o o o o o o a o o o o e o « o o o o o o o o o o o o  88  Interpretation of Statistical Results . . . . . . . .  89  O  Suggestions for Future Promotion and R e s e a r c h . . . .  BIBI-iIOG'R.-A^Ptl^r  74  . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . .  Socio^E conomic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  E.  73  2o  30 C H A P T E R VI  00.0.0.0.000..0...0.00  10  PrOmOtiOn  2 o  B.e  89  o o o a o o o o o v o o o o e o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o  89  o o o o o o t t o o o o o o v o a o a o o o o o o o o o o o o o o  90  o o o o o a o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o e o o o o o o e o o o o o o o o o o o o o  91  S e ar  Ch  _\PPE 1M.DI5C I  « o o o o o o e o o o o o e o o o o a o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o « o o o o o o o o  APPENDI!5C II  e o o o o o o o o « « o e o o e o e o o « o o o « o a o o « o o o o o « o e o o e « a o o o o e o  110  a o o o o o o o o o o o o o O o o o a o o o o o o a o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o  I 12  A P P E N D I X IV o e * o o o o o o e o o e a e o o 4 o o 9 o e o o o o « o o t > o o e o o « « o o a « o o o o o o  114  APPENDIX! V  116  A.PPENJ3I5C Ill  o o o o o e o * o « o e o o o e e o e o e o o » e o o « o o e o 0 o o o e * o « o e o o » o o « e  iii  95  LIST OF T A B L E S  TABLE I  PAGE F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of Attendance F i g u r e s  at  Public School Adult C l a s s e s of Port Coquitlam _R.eS_Cie_TtS 1965**68 II  1965**68 •  ooooooooo*o*«oc'000*ooeoooooo  49  oooooooooooooooeooooooooooooooooooo  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Residential Zone and N u m b e r of Adults i n Household . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  V  54  o o e o o o o * o o o o o o a o o o o o o o o o o o o Q o o « o « o  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Residential Zone  and Social Participation VII  49  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Sex and Social  Participation VI  o e e e o o o o e » « o e o « « o o o o o o » o «  a  „  61  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of M a l e s 8 and F e m a l e s ' Stated Reasons for T a k i n g C o u r s e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  XLU  60  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of C o u r s e s T a k e n by M a l e s and F e m a l e s 1960-68  XII  59  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of C o u r s e s T a k e n by M a l e s and F e m a l e s i n 1968 . „ „ . . . .  XI  58  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of N u m b e r of Night School C o u r s e s T a k e n by Respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  X  57  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of T y p e of C o u r s e T a k e n i n 1960-68 and N u m b e r of Persons T a k i n g Course . „ . „  IX  55  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of T y p e of Course T a k e n in 1968 by N u m b e r of Persons T a k i n g C o u r s e . . . . . . . .  VIH  15  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Sex and E m p l o y "  IXient StatUS IV  15  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of Population of Port COC^tlitlclin  III  oooooeoooooeoooooooooooooooooo  62  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of C o u r s e s T a k e n i n 1960-68 by Respondents l i v i n g i n the T h r e e L a n d Zones . . . .  iv  63  PAGE  TABLE XIV  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of Reasons for T a k i n g C o u r s e s by Respondents L i v i n g i n the T h r e e L a n d •Zj OIl€S  XV  o o e e e o o e o e o o o o o o o o a o o o o o o o o o o o o o « o e o o a o o i  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents Who T o o k C o u r s e s i n 1968 by Sex and C o u r s e Satisfaction  XVI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ...........  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents Who T o o k C o u r s e s  St  o o o o o o o o o o  o o o a a o o e o o o o e o o o o o o o o o  PartXCXp3-tXOIX  o e o o o o o o o o o o o o o o  e o e o o o o o o  o o o e o o  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  70  71  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of Responses G i v e n by M a l e s and F e m a l e s for Not Attending C l a s s e s  XXIII  69  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents 1 Reasons for Not Attending Adult C l a s s e s  XXII  ooe » o o o  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by P r o g r a m A r e a Interest cHLCI  XXI  68  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents' P r o g r a m A r e a Illte  XX  68  1960-  68 by Residence and C o u r s e Satisfaction . . . . . . . . . . XIX  67  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents Who T o o k C o u r s e s i n 1968 by Residence and C o u r s e Satisfaction . . . . . . . .  XVIII  67  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents Who T o o k C o u r s e s 1960-68 by Sex and C o u r s e Satisfaction  XVII  64  . . . . . . . . . . .  72  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of Responses Given by Respondents L i v i n g i n T h r e e Residential Zones for Not Attending C l a s s e s  XXIV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I .O  o o o o o o e * o o o  o • o o o o  o  o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o e o o  o o o o o o o * o o o © o o o o o o o o o o * o o o O O  73  75  75  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of Radio Stations L i s t e n e d to by M a l e and F e m a l e Respondents  XXVIII  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of Newspapers by Residence and Newspaper . . . ,o  XXVII  72  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Sex and D i s p o s a l of Bl"OCllLl]Ce  XXVI  e o o o i  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r m of Communication R e c e i v e d About Adult P r o g r a m s  XXV  O O O O O  OQOOOOOOOOOQOOOt  79  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of Radio Station L i s t e n e d to by Respondents i n T h r e e L a n d Zones . . . . . V  OOOOOOOO  79  PAGE  TABLE XXIX  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of T e l e v i s i o n Station L i s t e n e d to by M a l e and F e m a l e Respondents  XXX  81  F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n of T e l e v i s i o n Station L i s t e n e d to by Respondents L i v i n g i n T h r e e L a n d Zones . . . . . . . . . .  vi  81  LIST O F FIGURES  FIGURE  PAGE  1  Plan of the City of Port Coquitlam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  i i  2  Personal Communication  33  3  M a s s Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33  4  C y c l e s of Influence  38  5  e Q a o o o o o o o o o . . o . . . . « o o e o . o o o o o o o o  D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Sample by E m p l o y m e n t Status of He 3-d s of Households  • o o o o o » * « o o  o.  O  O  O  _  O  O  Q  -  ©  &  O  O  _  O  O  O  O  O  6  D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Sample by S o c i a l Participation . . . . . .  7  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents Who T o o k Adult C o u r s e s by D e g r e e of Course Satisfaction  8  o o o o o o o o o o Q O O O O o « o o a e o o o « « o o o o _ o o  66  76  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Radio Station Most Frequently L i s t e n e d to  10  53  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Newspaper Subscriptions by D a i l y and "Weekly IMeWSpH-peX  9  51  « o e o e o « o a o o 9 o o o o o o a « o o o e o o o o o  78  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by T V Channel M o s t Frequently Viewed  0  o o o « * e o o » o Q o o o o e o o o e o o o o « - o o o o « e  vii  80  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  A.  P R O M O T I O N AS A N A D M I N I S T R A T I V E T A S K  Promotion of educational p r o g r a m s for adults is an important aspect of the w o r k of e v e r y administrator in adult education.  Without adequate  promotion persons who are interested i n adult education may not be informed of available c l a s s e s nor can those persons who are not presently interested be challenged to investigate the possibilities for self-improvement and pleasure that adult c l a s s e s hold.  Promotion then, which i s the p r o c e s s of enlarging or  adding to the adult education enterprise, must be considered to be one of the administrative tasks i n the p r o g r a m planning p r o c e s s .  Inherent i n this task  are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of investigating personal and m a s s , f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l means of communication within a community.  Once the investigation i s  complete,the adult administrator has the further r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of adjusting what is considered to be an effective promotional p r o g r a m to the limitations of a budget. If an adult education p r o g r a m i s to p r o s p e r , it must reflect the needs of the community it s e r v e s .  T o do t h i s , two-way communication between the  public and institution offering courses must be established.  1  F r o m the  2 institution informative and stimulating communications must go out to the p u b l i c . T h e institution must also i n s u r e that avenues of communication f r o m the public are open and a v a i l a b l e .  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to keep this two-way flow of i n f o r -  mation moving l i e s within the organization and i n the hands of the adult a d m i n i s * trator.  He d i r e c t s or guides the operation of the v a r i o u s types of c o m m u n i c a t i o n -  p e r s o n a l , m a s s , f o r m a l or i n f o r m a l .  1. T h e D i m e n s i o n s of Communication T h e p e r s o n a l d i m e n s i o n of communication is one that involves i n d i v i d u a l s . That i s , a single p e r s o n is responsible for sending a communication to another individual.  T h e audience is specific and the communication p a r t i c u l a r .  In the  m a s s d i m e n s i o n of communication, a single p e r s o n may send a communication but the r e c e i v e r is anonymous.  A m a s s communication is projected to a group and  c a r r i e s no guarantee of being r e c e i v e d by a specific i n d i v i d u a l , although its intention is to r e a c h m a n y .  Both p e r s o n a l and m a s s communications may be written or  spoken, and they may be either f o r m a l or i n f o r m a l . F o r m a l communication is planned and s t r u c t u r e d . zation such means as m e m o s , written r e p o r t s ,  Within the o r g a n i »  committee meetings,  educational  s e s s i o n s , o r any other planned, d i r e c t e d communication is considered to be formal.  Outside the organization, f o r m a l communication generally includes  speeches, structured interviews on r a d i o or t e l e v i s i o n , and advertising or "paid communications".  T h e adult education e n t e r p r i s e , because of its  sometimes  p r i v i l e g e d position with the news m e d i a , can often obtain advertising at reduced cost.  T h e p r e s s r e l e a s e i s a f o r m a l means of communication for which the  institution is not c h a r g e d .  H e r e , however, the institution has no guarantee  that the communication w i l l be presented i n the f o r m i n which it is i s s u e d .  The  flow of information f r o m the public to the institution along f o r m a l lines includes the written letter, the b r i e f or the r e p o r t .  T h e letter may be f r o m a f o r m e r  student, a prospective client, an i m p a r t i a l observer or f r o m an interested group i n the community.  T h e b r i e f or the report may come f r o m an individual or a  group and may be c o m m i s s i o n e d by the e n t e r p r i s e ,  or may be an entirely private  3  community endeavour.  When the organization sends out someone to do a survey  or study i n a community, the r e s u l t s are an interpretation of the community's point of view and the communication p r o c e s s is thereby enlarged as the bias of the individual r e s e a r c h e r enters the p i c t u r e . individual i n community  :  ^ :—>>  individual , researcher  >  enterprise  Informal communication is unplanned, random and h a p h a z a r d .  Within  the organization random comment, unstructured conversation o r interviews between persons working i n the institution is i n f o r m a l communication.  Outside  the enterprise conversations o r unstructured interviews between clients o r public and persons within the organization are i n f o r m a l means of communication. The dangers inherent i n the r e l i a n c e on i n f o r m a l communication as a means of promotion i s that ideas generated and feed-back r e c e i v e d may never r e a c h the administrative l e v e l where action could be taken on information r e c e i v e d .  2.  L i m i t a t i o n s of Budget A l l of the information gathered f r o m communication sent and r e c e i v e d  can be utilized to promote an institution's objectives.  H o w e v e r , part of any  plan of promotion l a i d down by an adult educator within an institution is going to be r e s t r i c t e d by the limitations of budget.  F o r the most part, these r e s t r i c -  tions w i l l apply to f o r m a l means of c o m m u n i c a t i o n « - t h e number and kinds of paid m a s s communications or advertisements that can be included i n a p l a n . F o r example, r a d i o and television advertising are expensive means of c o m m u n i cation (pp. 1 7 - 1 8 ) and the limitations of budget would r e s t r i c t their use.  Budget  l i m i t a t i o n s , however, should have little or no effect on i n f o r m a l communications for the effectiveness  of these depend not on money but on the inclination and  willingness of everyone engaged i n the adult p r o g r a m - - a d m i n i s t r a t o r , teachers and adult students—to t e l l others of their c o n c e r n .  adult  4  B.  S T A T E M E N T OF T H E PROBLEM  The purpose of this study i s to determine factors essential to the effective promotion of Public School adult education i n a suburban Canadian community--the City of Port C o q u i t l a m , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T o do this s e v e r a l aspects of the p r o b l e m w i l l need to be identified.  These are:  1.  the nature of the community;  2.  participation i n adult education by residents of Port Coquitlam;  3.  subject a r e a interest of residents of Port Coquitlam;  4.  patterns of m e d i a use of Port Coquitlam r e s i d e n t s .  Two classifications w i l l be established for further analysis: entire sample w i l l be divided a c c o r d i n g to sex;  (2)  (1)  the  the entire sample w i l l be  divided into u r b a n , s e r v i c e and r u r a l population.  Co  HYPOTHESIS  The hypothesis to be tested is this one: there are no statistically significant differences at the .05 l e v e l between males and females and among urban, s e r v i c e and r u r a l people with r e s p e c t to selected s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and participation and interest i n adult education and patterns of mass media use.  Specifically, the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be  investigated: 1.  m a r i t a l status  2.  employment  3.  adult kinship i n home  4.  s o c i a l participation  5.  participation i n adult education  6.  interest i n adult education  7.  patterns of m e d i a u t i l i z a t i o n .  5  D.  1.  DEFINITIONS  " P r o m o t i o n " w i l l mean the p r o c e s s of enlarging or adding to the public  school adult education enterprise i n Port C o q u i t l a m .  It w i l l include a l l f o r m a l  and i n f o r m a l means of communication which flow between the adult education organization and the public of Port C o q u i t l a m . 2.  A d v e r t i s i n g w i l l mean the "paid use of mass c o m m u n i c a t i o n s " and w i l l  include a l l f o r m s of communication for which the school d i s t r i c t must accept some financial cost 0 30  U r b a n resident w i l l mean a person who l i v e s on land zoned for r e s i d e n -  tial use. 4.  S e r v i c e resident w i l l mean a p e r s o n who l i v e s on land zoned for i n d u s t r i a l  use. 5.  R u r a l resident w i l l mean a p e r s o n who lives on land zoned for a g r i c u l t u r a l  use.  E.  1.  PLAN O F T H E STUDY  T h e Sample T h e sample for this study was taken f r o m an a r e a survey of the City  of Port C o q u i t l a m .  U s i n g standard statistical p r o c e d u r e s 1 a twenty per cent  sample of blocks i n the City was selected and the first and the fifth house f r o m the south east c o r n e r » » m o v i n g w e s t - - i n each sample block was s u r v e y e d . adult was interviewed f r o m each house for a total of 112 respondents.  1  M . G . K e n d a l l and B. Babbington Smith, N o . X X I V , T a b l e of  Random N u m b e r s , Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951, p . 30.  One  6  Interviews were conducted i n the m o r n i n g , afternoon and evening so that both males and females could be questioned,,  T h e rationale for this was  that with interviews spaced so, and the possibility of both males and females being at home some assessment could be made of who r e c e i v e d door-to-door communications. If there was no response at a designated house, the interviewer returned.  If after three v i s i t s no contact was made, a further selection was  taken f r o m a l i s t of alternate block areas compiled to f i l l i n for blocks where interviews might be refused,  or blocks which contained either one house or no  houses.  2.  The Interview Schedule The Interview Schedule used i n this study is found i n Appendix  The i n i t i a l draft was pre-tested in A p r i l ,  1968.  I  .  Interviews were conducted by  the author d u r i n g the months of M a y and June, 1968.  E a c h interview r e q u i r e d  f r o m 20 to 30 minutes and the majority were completed on the f i r s t c a l l . F l a s h cards were developed for use i n providing respondents with a l i s t of possible answers to a p a r t i c u l a r question.  Blishen's " A Socio-economic  Index for Occupations i n C a n a d a " 2 was the guide used for determining s o c i o economic status.  3  Chapin's Social Participation s c a l e 3 widely used in  Bernard R. Blishen, " A Socio-economic Index for Occupations i n  C a n a d a " , T h e Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 4:41-53, (February,  1967).  Blishen's index for occupations in Canada ranks the  occupations which are l i s t e d i n census publications in t e r m s of socio-economic status.  D a t a on education and income c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of incumbents were used  in conjunction with occupations f r o m the P i n e o « P o r t e r s c a l e .  T h e 320 male  occupations were divided into d e c i l e s , with the highest decile denoting highest occupational r a n k . 3  S.S.  See Appendix II,  Chapin, " S o c i a l Participation S c a l e " , M i n n e a p o l i s , U n i v e r s i t y  of Minnesota P r e s s , 1937.  Reprinted i n F . Stuart Chapin, E x p e r i m e n t a l  Designs i n Sociological R e s e a r c h , ( r e v i s e d edition), New Y o r k : B r o t h e r s , 1955, pp. 276-278.  H a r p e r and  T h e extent of participation is m e a s u r e d by the  number of memberships held d u r i n g the previous y e a r and each m e m b e r s h i p counts as one point toward the total scale s c o r e . ment is m e a s u r e d by attendance at meetings, m e m b e r s h i p s and the holding of offices. rate of participation.  Intensity, or degree of i n v o l v e -  financial contribution, committee  A higher scale s c o r e reflects a higher  7  participation and adoption studies, was used to m e a s u r e the degree of group s o c i a l activity of respondents.  A t h i r d s c a l e , the " C o u r s e Satisfaction" scale  (Appendix III) designed by the author to measure the amount of benefit r e s pondents thought o r felt they r e c e i v e d f r o m the last adult education course they had taken, was also incorporated—after pre-testing—into the interview schedule.  In o r d e r to tabulate the many kinds of adult courses taken by r e s -  pondents a method of grouping was a d o p t e d . 4  3. T h e D a t a Data collected i n this study has been analyzed with respect to: a.  the total population;  b.  male and female population;  c.  u r b a n , s e r v i c e and r u r a l population.  T h e rationale for this w a s :  f i r s t , the r e s e a r c h on communication indicates  that attitudes, beliefs and interests do indeed v a r y f r o m community to community and any appreciation of what a given community w i l l be receptive to i n the way of a communication demands a knowledge of that community. Second, r e s e a r c h also indicates that the different r o l e s of males and females i n our culture and the r e s u l t i n g r o l e expectations of society lead to different patterns of participation and interest i n adult education of the two groups. T h e r e f o r e , p r o g r a m planners and promoters of p r o g r a m s must a s c e r t a i n whether patterns of communication to these two groups should be the same or different.  T h i r d , i n the review of the literature evidence i s presented  indicating that r u r a l people with little o r no education p r e f e r the personal communication whereas urban persons with a higher l e v e l of education are m o r e receptive to i m p e r s o n a l or m a s s communications.  T h e r e s e a r c h also  indicates that influence operates i n different ways with different groups of  4  Detailed definitions of the subject areas mentioned appear i n  Appendix I V .  8  people.  Since this study deals with communication r e g a r d i n g a specific enter-  p r i s e , and since Port Coquitlam is a r a p i d l y changing c o m m u n i t y » « f r o m r u r a l to suburban—it seems advisable to investigate the stated interests and p a r t i c i pation i n the subject of persons who l i v e on different types of zoned l a n d . T h e sample population used for the total and male-female  populations  are reasonably evident and easy to define but for the population used for the r e s i d e n t i a l category the reader w i l l need some explanation.  F o r this group a  map of Port Coquitlam was d i v i d e d , as the land is zoned, into urban or r e s i d e n t i a l , s e r v i c e and r u r a l a r e a s .  T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of residents l i v i n g i n these  zones were then compared to see i f any significant differences existed between the g r o u p s . T h e analysis of factors pertaining to the three categories outlined w i l l be presented i n two chapters.  Chapter I V w i l l deal with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  the people i n the sample and should give the r e a d e r a profile of the community. Chapter V w i l l deal with the r e s u l t s of the study with respect to participation and interest i n adult education and patterns of m a s s m e d i a use of the sample population.  4.  Statistical Procedures Responses to the interviews were coded and keypunched onto computer  cards.  Univariate and bivariate frequency tables were produced by the U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s IBM 360 computer, which also computed c h i « s q u a r e values for the bivariate contingency tables a c c o r d i n g to the f o r m u l a given i n the Multi«= variate Contingency Tabulations M a n u a l . 5  5  W . Dettwiler and A . Sokol, M u l t i v a r i a t e Contingency Tabulations,  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Computing C e n t e r , 1966, p . 29.  9 v Xs  =  u  1  S  I  L  n  j=l  C4  i=l  (n % j  « r  rjCjf  i  where n i s the number of subjects u  is the number of rows  v  is the number of columns  • , , , -th r^ is the sum of the i row Cj  is the sum of the j * * 1 column, and  fjj  is the entry i n the i ^ row and j1"*1 c o l u m n .  Z e r o responses were ignored i n the calculation of c h i « s q u a r e s . Since 1 of the groups m e a s u r e d ( s e r v i c e group) was so s m a l l that some of the expected frequencies i n bivariate tables i n v a r i a b l y fell below the r e q u i r e d m i n i m u m for chi-square tests, the K o l m o g o r o v » S m i r n o v two sample test, considered to be m o r e powerful than the c h i * s q u a r e t e s t , 6 was applied to this group i n o r d e r to establish whether the calculated rankings of the factors differed i n a statistically significant  F.  manner.  LIMITATIONS O F T H E STUDY  The limitations derive m a i n l y f r o m the inability to m e a s u r e the effect of any c o m m u n i c a t i o n « « p e r s o n a l or m a s s , f o r m a l o r i n f o r m a l .  Therefore,  the approach that is being taken is to study a reliable sample of the total population of the City with r e s p e c t to certain c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that might have a bearing on the kind of communication which would r e a c h the majority of r e s i d e n t s . A further l i m i t a t i o n , the creation of a somewhat a r t i f i c i a l category*** r u r a l resident—to d e s c r i b e those persons who live on r u r a l zoned land must be mentioned.  No attempt was made to determine whether these " r u r a l r e s i d e n t s "  were earning their l i v i n g off the l a n d .  Probably only a s m a l l proportion were  full-time f a r m e r s and the greater number part-time f a r m e r s , hobby f a r m e r s , and persons who d i d no f a r m i n g at a l l .  6  S. Siegel, N o n p a r a m e t r i c Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences,  M c G r a w - H i l l Book C o . , I n c . ,  1956, p. 51.  CHAPTER  II  HISTORY O F A D U L T E D U C A T I O N PROGRAMS I N T H E PORT C O Q U I T L A M  A.  AREA  THE AREA  Port Coquitlam, ( F i g u r e 1) population 1 2 , 5 0 0 1 is a city of some 9.5 square m i l e s , situated approximately twenty m i l e s east of the m e t r o « politan center of V a n c o u v e r , British C o l u m b i a .  Sitting between the Pitt and  Coquitlam R i v e r s and near the junction where these two join with the mighty F r a s e r R i v e r to empty into the s e a s the city forms part of the lower end of the giant F r a s e r V a l l e y which extends f r o m Port Coquitlam to Hope, B r i t i s h Columbia.  The whole v a l l e y is noted ibr its suitability for a g r i c u l t u r e .  In the e a r l y 1960*s the P r o v i n c i a l Government completed the Port M a n n F r e e w a y which extends f r o m the Vancouver city l i m i t s through the eastern municipalities and up the F r a s e r V a l l e y . t r a n s i t freeway, city i n c r e a s e d  1  A s a result of this r a p i d  commuter traffic between Port Coquitlam and Vancouver  greatly.  City of Port C o q u i t l a m « - b a s e d on 1966 Census and 1968 T a x R o l l s . 10  LI  12  P r i o r to 1958 and the proposed freeway s y s t e m , Port Coquitlam might be classified as a r u r a l a r e a since much of the land was zoned r u r a l and supported f a r m i n g .  After 1958, however, housing developments began to s p r i n g  up i n the h i l l y sections of the city and l a r g e blocks of land were r e - z o n e d residential.  In 1968 there is approximately a 1:1 ratio of urban v s . r u r a l land  utilization. A one-half m i l e wide stretch of land which forms the m a i n west coast y a r d s for the Canadian Pacific Railway divides the city of Port Coquitlam almost exactly i n half.  T h e r a i l w a y , which runs f r o m east to west, l i m i t s access f r o m  one side of town to the other to one underpass through the m a i n business part of town—on the west end—and a r o a d a c r o s s the t r a c k s at the west and east end of the c i t y .  T h i s p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r divides the r u r a l zoned land—which is p r a c t i c a l l y  a l l on the north s i d e — f r o m the newly built up and m o r e prosperous zoned and h i l l y south s i d e .  residential  T h e people who l i v e on the South slope called M a r y  H i l l l i t e r a l l y "look down" on residents of the north side of the c i t y .  B.  T H E PEOPLE  In 1958 the population of Port Coquitlam was reported to be seven thousand.  At this time only two r o a d routes—both with single lane t r a f f i c -  connected the city to V a n c o u v e r .  M o s t residents considered the h o u r - l o n g d r i v e  to the metropolitan a r e a too long for daily commuting.  Consequently, wage-  e a r n e r s l i v i n g i n the city worked either at the l a r g e P r o v i n c i a l M e n t a l Hospital located at Essondale—only a short d r i v e f r o m Port Coquitlam city center—or at the l a r g e Crown Z e l l e r b a c h " F r a s e r M i l l s " plant.  At one t i m e , this industry  was the l a r g e s t l u m b e r m i l l i n the w o r l d . L o n g - t i m e residents of the city report that even i n 1958 there was little full-time f a r m i n g , unless it was the older p e r s o n supplementing a pension, but that a good many residents worked at jobs during the day and farmed o r for a hobby.  part-time  The i m p r e s s i o n gained from talking to l o c a l doctors and other  13  long-time residents is that many of the people who owned acreage i n 1958 were people who had come f r o m the p r a i r i e f a r m i n g a r e a s d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n and later. F r o m 1958 to 1968 the population of Port Coquitlam i n c r e a s e d greatly and the community took on a distinctly suburban l o o k * « t h e people were on average younger and better d r e s s e d and the school population almost t r i p l e d . In 1968 many persons commuted to Vancouver to w o r k .  T h e mental hospital  and F r a s e r M i l l s are s t i l l employing many of the town's r e s i d e n t s , but it is obvious that the white c o l l a r w o r k e r has come to Port C o q u i t l a m .  T o the best  knowledge of the author—who has l i v e d i n Port Coquitlam for eleven y e a r s — and of persons who have lived i n the city much l o n g e r , there are no ethnic groups of any significance resident i n the c i t y .  A s of 1968, then, Port Coquitlam  i s an unusual community, because although it i s quite r a p i d l y becoming suburban i n aspect, parts of it are s t i l l inhabited by persons with essentially a f a r m i n g background. T h e geographical d i v i s i o n of the city into two parts is of significance i n this study because it indicates that a r i v a l r y e x i s t s .  F o r example, while  residents of the town often speak of the "other side of the t r a c k s " when r e f e r r i n g to locations i n the city, m o r e concrete examples of r e a l , not pretended r i v a l r y have been evidenced by voting patterns of residents both on l o c a l and provincial issues.  A specific instance of a r i v a l r y between the two sides of town  was evident i n 1967 when city planners moved to locate a sports arena on the south side of town.  Scheduled meetings to discuss the p r o p o s a l were n o i s y and  heated, and open conflict between the two sides of town was evident.  The result  was an overwhelming defeat of the by-law by the people on the north side of the city and since these v o t e r s c o m p r i s e d the majority of persons on the voters l i s t the sports arena was l o s t . of the c i t y .  Such i s s u e s are not easily forgotten by the residents  14  C.  A D U L T E D U C A T I O N PROGRAMS  Port Coquitlam is part of school d i s t r i c t 43 c o m p r i s i n g the m u n i c i p a l i ties of F r a s e r M i l l s and Coquitlam d i s t r i c t , the unorganized t e r r i t o r y of l o c o , and the cities of Port Moody and Port C o q u i t l a m .  Until 1963 adult classes had  never been offered to residents of Port Coquitlam and interested parties had to t r a v e l to the adjoining Coquitlam m u n i c i p a l i t y . In 1963, however, the school board decided to offer a l i m i t e d number of adult c l a s s e s i n the city and these were scheduled to be conducted at Port Coquitlam High School on the north side of town.  Residents were so disinterested i n course offerings that only two c l a s s e s  in typing and two c l a s s e s i n sewing managed to maintain the r e q u i r e d number of fifteen persons to stay viable throughout the y e a r .  T h e few people who signed up  for academic credit courses had to be t r a n s f e r r e d — e a r l y i n the year—to c l a s s e s in the d i s t r i c t of Coquitlam to complete their academic y e a r . Since 1963 persons interested i n the adult p r o g r a m have been d i r e c t e d to the d i s t r i c t of Coquitlam for a l l c l a s s e s other than sewing and typing.  School  board r e c o r d s show that the number of persons f r o m Port Coquitlam attending c l a s s e s i n Coquitlam's Centennial High School has been i n c r e a s i n g quite r a p i d l y over the last few y e a r s (Table I). In the s u m m e r of 1968, the school board decided to make another attempt to provide Port Coquitlam residents with c l a s s e s i n their own c i t y .  A citizens  advisory committee representative of citizens including people f r o m both sides of the a r t i f i c i a l geographic boundary was appointed by the d i r e c t o r of Adult Education (Table II).  Because he h i m s e l f did not l i v e i n Port Coquitlam the adult d i r e c t o r  asked a l o c a l resident with some t r a i n i n g i n adult education to determine the m e m b e r s h i p of the c o m m i t t e e .  T h i s was done and with the approval of the d i r e c t o r  three persons—two females and one male—were selected f r o m the north side of the city and three p e r s o n s — a l l f e m a l e — f r o m the south s i d e .  T h e committee was  brought to its full complement with the addition of three m a l e s :  the D i r e c t o r of  R e c r e a t i o n for Port C o q u i t l a m , the P r i n c i p a l of the Junior High School which was to be used as the adult center, and the D i r e c t o r of Adult Education for the d i s t r i c t .  15  TABLE I F R E Q U E N C Y DISTRIBUTION O F A T T E N D A N C E FIGURES A T PUBLIC SCHOOL A D U L T CLASSES O F PORT COQUITLAM R E S I D E N T S 1965*68  Attendance at Adult C l a s s e s Male  Year  Female  No.  %  1965 * 1966  52  31.0  1966 - 1967  168  188  .  No.  % .  Total  114  69.0  166  39.0  259  61.0  427  43.0  253  57.0  441  Per cent of growth •» 157 1967  68  Per cent of growth « 3.3  T A B L E II F R E Q U E N C Y DISTRIBUTION O F P O P U L A T I O N O F P O R T C O Q U I T L A M 1965*68  Year  Population  1965 • ' 1966  10,100  1966 * 1967  11,121  Per cent of growth *» 10.1 1967 • 1968 Per cent of growth • 12.4  12,500  16  T h r e e meetings of the advisory committee were held and a syllabus of twenty courses—non-credit and c r e d i t — c o n s i d e r e d by the committee to be acceptable to the community was drafted.  Approximately o n e « q u a r t e r of the  c o u r s e s offered were for high school academic c r e d i t .  D.  PROMOTING O F T H E PROGRAMS  In the past, school board authorities have allotted one d o l l a r per s t u d e n t » » b a s e d on the previous y e a r 8 s enrollment—for promotion of adult classes.  T h e d i r e c t o r of Adult Education has budgeted to use this amount i n  a v a r i e t y of w a y s .  F i r s t , he contributes fifty d o l l a r s to a fund for the  promotion of night school throughout the lower m a i n l a n d .  Coquitlam,  V a n c o u v e r , N o r t h and West V a n c o u v e r , Burnaby, R i c h m o n d , D e l t a , S u r r e y and New W e s t m i n s t e r contribute to this fund which is .used for spot thirty second announcements on metropolitan r a d i o stations CJOR, C K L G , CHQM,  CKNW,  and C F V R and television station C T V . Because this request for  a d v e r t i s i n g is sent i n as a public s e r v i c e advertisement,  the cost is m u c h  lower than it would be under n o r m a l advertising c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  Second, the  adult d i r e c t o r places newspaper advertisements i n r e g i o n a l newspapers; the daily New W e s t m i n s t e r Columbian and the weeklies Port Coquitlam H e r a l d , Coquitlam E n t e r p r i s e and, until it was d i s s o l v e d i n 1967, the Port Moody weekly. T h i r d , attempts are made to have p r e s s r e l e a s e s published i n the l o c a l newsp a p e r s , and i f such r e l e a s e s do not involve r e w r i t i n g they are generally p r i n t e d . F o u r t h , the l a r g e s t amount of money is spent on c o m p i l i n g and m a i l i n g a b r o c h u r e l i s t i n g c o u r s e s to every resident i n the school d i s t r i c t . brochures are m a i l e d both i n the fall and s p r i n g of each y e a r .  Such  Fifth,  notices  of the adult p r o g r a m are sent home with school c h i l d r e n both i n the fall and winter. In the y e a r 1968 to 1969, the D i r e c t o r of Adult Education budgeted $1,550 for the p r i n t i n g and m a i l i n g costs of the brochure and $1,550 for other  17  a d v e r t i s i n g costs as l i s t e d above. When the A d v i s o r y Council was established m e m b e r s agreed that they would handle a l l promotion except "paid c o m m u n i c a t i o n s " .  T h e s e were to be  handled i n the same manner by the adult d i r e c t o r as outlined above.  The  advisory committee then undertook to 1„  send speakers to meetings of l o c a l groups;  2.  sponsor an Adult Education Night at the adult center;  3.  put posters i n city supermarkets; and  4.  issue p r e s s r e l e a s e s to newspapers on the adult p r o g r a m .  Although a free hand was given to the committee r e g a r d i n g costs of m a t e r i a l s used^it was not expected that these would be great.  E.  C O S T O F PAID C O M M U N I C A T I O N S  If paid advertisements through the m a s s m e d i a are to be considered as effective means of communication with the p u b l i c , they w i l l have to be looked at i n r e l a t i o n to the cost.  C o m p a r i s o n figures indicate that a d v e r t i s e -  ments i n the Port Coquitlam weekly are v e r y much cheaper than advertisements in the metropolitan d a i l i e s . Port Coquitlam H e r a l d  $ 1 . 3 5 / c o l u m n inch  Coquitlam E n t e r p r i s e  $ 1 . 8 0 / c o l u m n inch  Vancouver Sun  $ 1 9 . 7 0 / c o l u m n inch  Vancouver Province . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  $11.20/column inch  F u r t h e r , p r e s s r e l e a s e s which do not r e q u i r e r e - w r i t i n g are gladly r e c e i v e d and published i n the l o c a l weekly newspapers^but this is not the case i n either of the metropolitan d a i l i e s which have a policy of only m i n i m a l coverage of suburban news.  T h i s latter statement was confirmed i n conversation with the  managing editor of the V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e . With respect to cost of paid advertisements t e l e v i s i o n stations, they are seen to be expensive.  on the two metropolitan F o r example, a c c o r d i n g to  18  the 1969 published rate cards of C B U T and C T V , a o n e « m i n u t e spot announcement i n the evening would be $165 and $225 r e s p e c t i v e l y for one advertisement. T h e rate is reduced depending on the volume of advertising done.  Television  advertising has not been used by the Adult D i r e c t o r of school d i s t r i c t 43 to promote his p r o g r a m s for he feels the cost is prohibitive for his budget.  C H A P T E R III  REVIEW O F T H E R E L A T E D LITERATURE  A. I N T R O D U C T I O N T O A D U L T E D U C A T I O N  Because this study deals with the promotion of a specific product, public school adult education, a r e v i e w of the relevant m a t e r i a l for an introduction to adult education w i l l be presented to give the r e a d e r a frame of reference for looking at the data collected i n this study.  Only by knowing  something of the product that i s being promoted can effective promotion be determined. Because this chapter i s intended to serve p r i m a r i l y as an i n t r o duction to adult education for persons who are not f a m i l i a r with this e m e r g i n g d i s c i p l i n e , its content w i l l be b r i e f .  Included w i l l be definitions which h i g h -  light the distinction between the d i s c i p l i n e and the f i e l d , and some r e s e a r c h on adult l e a r n i n g , participation, needs and interest, and community and adult education. Some of the findings f r o m r e s e a r c h i n s o c i a l science d i s c i p l i n e s bear heavily on the development of a defensible theory of adult education. A n attempt w i l l be made here to include some of this r e s e a r c h .  19  20  1.  T h e D i s c i p l i n e and the F i e l d Nowhere is the distinction between the discipline and the field of adult  education m o r e c l e a r l y seen than in the definitions presented to the student of the subject.  F o r example,  on the one hand, V e r n e r whose definition has been  pretty c l e a r l y established as the definition for the discipline states, adult education i s 1 the action of an external educational agent in purposefully o r d e r i n g behavior into planned systematic experiences that can result i n l e a r n i n g for those for whom such activity is supplemental to their p r i m a r y r o l e i n society and which involves some continuity i n an exchange relationship between the agent and the l e a r n e r so that the educational p r o c e s s is under constant supervision and d i r e c t i o n .  •>  On the other hand, other adult educators define adult education in quite different ways—ways they find m o r e useful to the field (Appendix V ).  F o r example,  a group of C a l i f o r n i a adult administrators developed this definition: 3 Adult Education e m b r a c e s the l e a r n i n g achieved by adults during their mature y e a r s . T h e major purposes of adult education a r e ; f i r s t , to make adults i n the community aware of individual and community needs, and second, to give such education as w i l l enable them to meet problems that now e x i s t . Adult education stems d i r e c t l y f r o m the people. The c u r r i c u l u m is based on present needs and p r o b l e m s . E s s e n t i a l l y what V e r n e r ' s definition does is l i m i t the subject to manageable proportions so it can be investigated.  He does this by r e q u i r i n g a sustained  relationship between the l e a r n e r and an agent.  T h i s fact,of c o u r s e , sets adult  education apart f r o m societal l e a r n i n g « * w h i c h is what appears in a l l the definitions found useful for the f i e l d .  1  Coolie V e r n e r , A Conceptual Scheme for the Identification and  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of P r o c e s s e s for Adult Education, Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n of the U . S . A . , pp.  1225 19th Street, North W e s t , Washington, D . C . ,  1962,  2*3. 2  Burton R . C l a r k e , Adult Education i n T r a n s i t i o n : A Study of  Institutional Insecurity, Berkeley and L o s Angeles, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1956, p . 63.  21  20  Adult L e a r n i n g A m a j o r c o n c e r n of adult education has been to a s s e s s the ability of an  adult to l e a r n .  While there is a general belief prevalent i n our society that  intellectual ability declines with age, adult educators do not, as a group, hold to this belief and they look to the r e s e a r c h for support. In 1936, T h o r n d i k e 3 concluded that after man reached his l e a r n i n g peak there was a decline of approximately one per cent each y e a r up to about age 42 and then this rate i n c r e a s e d .  L o r g e 4 i n his work on adult l e a r n i n g  concludes that although man's ability to p e r f o r m intellectually does not d i m i n i s h with age, there is a decline i n speed and flexibility of comprehension. While r e s e a r c h e r s like T e r m a n 5 have found that adult intelligence d e c r e a s e s after sixteen y e a r s of age, Bradway and T h o m p s o n (1962),Owens (1953), Bayley (1955), and Jones (1958) have concluded that the r e v e r s e is t r u e . T h e latter five make it quite c l e a r that r e s e a r c h e r s should not present c o n elusions about the growth of intelligence unless one specifies what kinds of intelligence one means and how one is m e a s u r i n g t h i s . 6 Birren,speaking s p e c i f i c a l l y of intellectual performance states, "one gathers f r o m existing evidence that there is no gradual decline with age i n general mental a b i l i t y .  T h e only aspect of mental performance that seems to  change i n most persons is that of slowing speed of r e s p o n s e . " 7  He also suggests  3  E . L . T h o r n d i k e , Adult L e a r n i n g , New Y o r k :  The Macmillan C o . ,  4  Irving L o r g e , Adult Education T h e o r y and Method, Adult Education  1936. A s s o c i a t i o n of the U . S . A . ,  1225 19th Street, North W e s t , Washington, D . C ,  1963. 5  L . M . T e r m a n and M . H . Oden, T h e Gifted Group at M i d l i f e ,  C a l i f o r n i a , Stanford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 6  1959.  James E . B i r r e n , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s of A g i n g :  Intellectual  F u n c t i o n i n g " , T h e Gerontologist, V o l u m e 8, N o . 2, Part II, (Spring, 1968), p.  148. 7  B i r r e n , op. c i t . , p . 16-19.  22  that certain individuals given good health and freedom f r o m c e r e b r a l v a s c u l a r disease and senile dementia, can expect high l e v e l mental competence beyond the age of eighty. M c G e o c h and Irion (1952) 8 postulated the theory that l e a r n i n g as a s k i l l can itself be learnt and maintained by continued e x e r c i s e .  T h e y feel that  the difficulties of l e a r n i n g by older people are due to their having allowed this s k i l l to fall into d i s u s e .  In other w o r d s , the habits and the p h y s i c a l and  emotional conditions of the adult seem to play a major r o l e i n the ability to r e t a i n intellectual functioning at a high l e v e l .  3.  Participation Who participates i n adult education? is a question that has often been  studied by adult educators over the y e a r s .  H o w e v e r , the r e s e a r c h  indicates  that the way i n which data f r o m these studies has been collated does not lend i t s e l f to pooling of information.  F o r example, D i c k i n s o n , 9 r e v i e w i n g the  r e s e a r c h on participation, found that where one would expect to find common factors i n these studies, one found a v a r i e t y of classification s c h e m e s .  To  illustrate this point he cited five studies where a different classification for age was used;  Johnstone and R i v e r a (1965), D o m i n i o n Bureau of Statistics  (1963), M i z r u c h i and V a n a r i a (1960), Chapman (1959), and Davis (1960). M o s t of the r e s e a r c h available on participation has been conducted i n specific agencies or communities—there i s v e r y little information available of a national scope.  T h e factors that appear to be relevant to participation  contained in these studies can be stated i n a general w a y — i f one keeps i n m i n d the conclusion of B r u n n e r 1 0 which is that each agency offering p r o g r a m s tends  J . M c G e o c h and A . I r i o n , T h e Psychology of Human L e a r n i n g , (2nd edition), New Y o r k : L o n g m a n s , G r e e n and C o . , 1952, x x i i , p. 596. 9  G a r y D i c k i n s o n , "Patterns of Participation in a Public Adult Night  School P r o g r a m " , Unpublished m a s t e r s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966, pp. 7-13.' E d m u n d de S. Brunner, et. a l . , A n Overview of Adult Education, Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n of the U . S . A . , 743 N o r t h Wabash Avenue, Chicago 11, n i i n o i s , 1959, p . 92. 1 0  23  to attract a specific clientele. factors seem to be: participation.11  1  2  Accepting the latter statement the pertinent  f i r s t , f o r m a l education seems to be the best predictor of 1  3  1  4  That i s , the better educated a person the m o r e likely-  he w i l l be to participate i n adult education and v i c e v e r s a .  Second, age is  negatively related to participation and especially to vocational p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 1 5 ie 1 7 is Speaking specifically of public school adult education, V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y state that this institution attracts proportionately m o r e younger adults and fewer adults than there are in the population s e r v e d . 1 9  Third,  occupational status and income are positively related to adult education p a r ticipation.20  1 1  2  1  2  2  D i c k i n s o n 2 3 states that generalizations f r o m data on  J . W . C . Johnstone,  and R a m one J. R i v e r a , Volunteers for  L e a r n i n g , Chicago, Aldine Publishing Company, 1965, pp. 77-78. Jack L o n d o n , Robert W e n k e r t , and W a r r e n O . H a g s t r o m , Education and Social C l a s s , Berkeley: Survey R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , T h e U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1963, p . 42. 1 3  1 3  Coolie V e r n e r and John A . N e w b e r r y , J r .  " T h e Nature of  Adult P a r t i c i p a t i o n " , Adult Education, 8:208-222, (Summer, 1 4  1 5  1 6  Edmund de S. Brunner, op. c i t . , p . 92. Johnstone and R i v e r a , op. c i t . , p .  6-7.  L o n d o n , op. c i t . , p. 43.  1 7  V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y , op. c i t . , pp. 208-222.  1 8  Brunner, op. c i t . , p .  1 9  V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y , op. c i t . , p . 216.  2 0  Brunner, op. c i t . , p . 96.  2 1  London, op. c i t ; , p. 41.  2 2  3 3  105.  V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y , op. c i t . , D i c k i n s o n , op. c i t . , p. 8.  1958).  Adult  24  income and occupation are v e r y difficult because of lack of a classification scheme.  V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y 2 4 conclude that white c o l l a r w o r k e r s ,  house-  w i v e s , and professional people participate m o r e i n public school p r o g r a m s than their proportionate representation i n the population. pation is also a good p r e d i c t o r of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 2 5  Fourth, social p a r t i c i *  Brunner states that since  the work of V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y on s o c i a l participation indicates  sex,  education, occupation, income and age as important factors related to p a r t i c i « pation behaviour, the positive relationship noted between the two f o r m s of participation could be  expected.26  Other factors that do not appear to be major factors but about which there is some evidence i n the r e s e a r c h a r e : status and a c c e s s i b i l i t y to c e n t r e s .  length of r e s i d e n c e ,  marital  H o u l e 2 7 suggests participation is related  to length of r e s i d e n c e , and that m a r r i e d people participate m o r e than single. N e w b e r r y concluded there is some evidence that a c c e s s i b i l i t y to centres increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 2 8 One other aspect of adult education that must be mentioned i n any r e v i e w of participation i s the voluntary aspect. Marginality, "  2  9  Burton C l a r k e ' s " T h e o r y of  which outlines the nature of organization of adult education i n  N o r t h A m e r i c a , makes it quite c l e a r that permanency is not a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  2 4  V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y , op. c i t . , p. 216.  2 5  Brunner, op. c i t . , p . 102-104.  2 6  I b i d . , p . 95-98.  C O . Houle, The Inquiring M i n d , M a d i s o n : U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1961, p. 6. 2 7  2 8  2 9  N e w b e r r y , op. c i t . , p . 24. Burton R . C l a r k e , Adult Education i n T r a n s i t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of  C a l i f o r n i a , Publications i n Sociology and S o c i a l Institutions, V o l u m e 1, N o . 2, p p . 43*202, 1956.  A s u m m a r y and statement are contained i n " T h e  M a r g i n a l i t y of Adult E d u c a t i o n " , Notes and E s s a y s , N o . 20,  1958,  25  adult education but marginality i s .  Clarke states:30  Adult Education agencies have v e r y little freedom to develop on their own t e r m s .  T h e y are n e a r l y always  dependent rather than independent and located within large organizations that are mainly concerned with other tasks. Speaking specifically of public schools as an institution for adult education he further s t a t e s : 3 1 Organizationally adult education i n public schools is marginal.  Education for the young i s the p r i m e concern  of tax-supported institutions.  Adult students are older  than and differently motivated f r o m " r e g u l a r  students".  T h e i r purposes are additions to the m a i n purposes of the public schools and are i n many ways d i s s i m i l a r .  When  laymen and school officials consider p r i o r i t i e s i n budget, they rank adult p r o g r a m s as n o n - e s s e n t i a l . T h e tenuous situation of adult education i n the s o c i a l institutions of our society seems to be d i r e c t l y related^then, to the fact that adults are not obliged to attend p r o g r a m s .  F r i e d m a n says, " s i n c e participation i n adult  education is voluntary, we would expect it to v a r y a c c o r d i n g to the degree of compatibility which exists between the value orientations of the p r o g r a m and those of the i n d i v i d u a l " .  In other w o r d s , adult needs and interests are of  p r i m a r y concern to persons wishing to provide adult education for the p u b l i c .  4.  Needs and Interests T h e r e a r e ^ t seems^two major approaches to offering adult p r o g r a m s .  T h e one, assumes that adults w i l l participate i n p r o g r a m s they are interested in.  U s i n g this approach adult educators have made a concerted effort to  determine the needs of their clientele.  30 3 1  3 2  Questionnaires, adult councils and  I b i d . , p . 1. I b i d . , p . 3. E . A . F r i e d m a n , "Changing Value Orientations i n Adult L i f e " , i n  S o c i o l o g i c a l Backgrounds of Adult E d u c a t i o n , e d . Robert W , Burns, Chicago: Center for the study of L i b e r a l Education for A d u l t s , 1964, p. 44.  26  community group d i s c u s s i o n s have been used i n an attempt to identify needs and i n t e r e s t s .  One of the results of such a practise i s that the charge of  offering a " c a f e t e r i a " type education has been l e v e l l e d at adult educators. T h e second approach to offering adult p r o g r a m s assumes that adults seldom are able to c l e a r l y identify their needs without some assistance f r o m professional educators.  T h i s d i l e m m a between offering what the adult  educators think the adult should be interested i n and offering what the adult says he i s interested i n faces a l l p r o g r a m p l a n n e r s .  C o n s i d e r i n g the d i l e m m a  M i l l e r states, "the option seems to be that one can construct p r o g r a m s ,  about  which no u n i v e r s i t y p e r s o n needs to be defensive, by changing and adapting the a c a d e m i c tradition not to clientele demand but to some defensible theory of adult n e e d . " 3 3  T h e r e s e a r c h on adult human behaviour and motivation have  been of considerable importance to the solution of this d i l e m m a . While the work of adult educators l i k e Brunner on r e v i e w i n g adult motivation and behavioural scientists l i k e Havighurst (1968), Strong (1953), Bendig (1960), B i r r e n (1964), T o b i n and Neugarten (1961), Brehm (1968), Z o b o r o s k i and E y d e (1962), Videbeck and Knox (1965), and L o w a l (1964) has been of inestimable value to the development of adult education as an e m e r g i n g d i s c i p l i n e , space here does not p e r m i t an examination of their w o r k .  Rather  it is proposed to deal here only with the "Personality T h e o r y " of M a s l o w 3 4 for this theory seems to be p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant to a study of man's receptivity to ideas for it provides a basis f r o m which to design a p r o g r a m for meeting adult needs. Basically M a s l o w ' s "Personality T h e o r y " is an o r g a n i s m i c o n e « * t h e functions of the o r g a n i s m are mutually r e l a t e d and interdependent.  Maslow  believes that when the physiological needs of an individual are met, s t i l l higher needs emerge and dominate the o r g a n i s m .  3 3  3 4  When these needs are  satisfied,  H a r r y M i l l e r , Postscript to Burton R. C l a r k e . A b r a h a m H . M a s l o w , Motivation and Personality, H a r p e r and  B r o t h e r s , New Y o r k ,  1954.  27  s t i l l higher needs emerge and so o n .  F o r Maslow gratification becomes  as  important a concept i n motivational theory as deprivation, since it allows m o r e s o c i a l goals to exist as o r g a n i z e r s of behaviour,,  " T h e o r g a n i s m is dominated  and its behavior organized only by unsatisfied n e e d s . "  3  5  self actualization needs  esteem and self r e s p e c t needs  love and belongingness needs  safety needs  physiological needs—hunger, thirst,  etc.,  F r o m the figure it can be seen how once the p h y s i o l o g i c a l , safety and love and belongingness needs are met, the o r g a n i s m w i l l go on to the pursuit of esteem and self respect needs. A s r e g a r d s the higher needs, some explanation is n e c e s s a r y . identifies two subsidiary sets of esteem needs.  One, self respect needs,  include, the d e s i r e for strength, achievement, adequacy, competence, fidence, independence, and f r e e d o m .  Maslow  con-  T w o , esteem of others includes d e s i r e  for prestige, status, dominance, recognition, attention, i m p o r t a n c e , and appreciation.  The t e r m , s e l f « * a c t u a l i z a t i o n means man's ability to transcend  self. In c o m p a r i n g the higher and lower needs, Maslow believes that the o r g a n i s m itself dictates the h i e r a r c h y .  It does so i n this way;  1.  the higher the need, the m o r e specifically human it i s .  2.  the higher needs are later ontogenetic developments.  3.  the higher the need, the l e s s imperative it is for s u r v i v a l , the longer gratification can be postponed and the e a s i e r it is for it to disappear  3 5  completely.  D o r i s A . Geitgey, " T h e Personality T h e o r y of A b r a h a m A . M a s l o w " ,  M i m e o Paper, L o s A n g e l e s , U . C . L . A . ,  1965.  28  4.  l i v i n g at the higher need l e v e l means greater biological efficiency, greater longevity, l e s s d i s e a s e , better sleep, better appetite,  5.  higher needs are l e s s urgent subjectively,,  6.  higher need gratification leads to m o r e d e s i r a b l e  etc„  subjective  r e s u l t s , for example, greater happiness,, 7. pursuit of higher needs is a healthward t r e n d . 8.  higher needs have m o r e preconditions.  9.  higher needs r e q u i r e better outside conditions for implementation.  10.  higher needs are of greater v a l u e .  11.  higher needs involve a greater c i r c l e of love identification.  12.  pursuit of higher need gratification leads to desirable s o c i a l and civic results.  13.  the higher the n e e d « l e v e l , the c l o s e r one is to self "actualization.  14.  the gratification of higher needs leads to stronger,  truer  individuals.  5.  15.  the higher the l e v e l , the e a s i e r is psychotherapy.  16.  lower needs are m o r e l o c a l i z e d , tangible and l i m i t e d .  Community and Adult Education M a n e x p r e s s e s h i m s e l f through his community.  It is here that he l i v e s ,  that his interests are generated and his communication with other m e n r e s o l v e d . D e s c r i b i n g the importance of the community for adult education Hallenbeck, et. a l . state:36 F i r s t , a community generates the needs, interests and motivations for education of its adults.  Second, a  community depends upon adult education for c e r t a i n essential p r o c e s s e s i n its corporate l i f e .  Third, a c o m «  munity with its wide v a r i e t y of institutions, with their different specific purposes,  and their manifold r e s o u r c e s ,  makes a broad adult education p r o g r a m comprehensible,  3 6  W i l b u r C . Hallenbeck, et. a l .  Community and Adult E d u c a t i o n ,  Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n of the U . S . A . , Chicago 11, I l l i n o i s , 1962, p .  1.  29  feasible,  and p o s s i b l e .  F o u r t h , a community i s an ever  present l a b o r a t o r y , useful for many kinds of l e a r n i n g experiences i n adult education. If adult administrators are indeed attempting to reflect the needs and wants of m a n , they must go to the community and look at man i n his setting. When adult administrators turn to a study of community, what are the kinds of things they look for to guide them i n their decisions as to what to promote i n the way of c o u r s e s ? Hallenbeck states "the study of population s i z e , composition, and geographic distribution i s of major importance i n u n d e r » standing a community and its i n h a b i t a n t s . " 3  7  A n y change i n these three w i l l  have as the authors above state an extensive influence on the patterns of o r g a n * ization and the behaviour of the people.  F u r t h e r , " s u c h adult education m a t t e r s ,  as clientele, type of p r o g r a m , promotional p r o b l e m s , teacher or leader r e c r u i t m e n t , and the l i k e , are influenced by these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the population." 3  8  In other w o r d s , as r e g a r d s this study and any other study of  participation i n or promotion of adult education, what is studied cannot be d i v o r » ced f r o m the community i n which it i s operating.  B.  1.  T H E T H E O R Y OF COMMUNICATION  Introduction A s e a r l y as 1948 B e r e l s o n , cogitating on what was then known, came to  the accurate, if perhaps moody, conclusion that "some kinds of Communication on some kinds of i s s u e s , brought to the attention of some kinds of people under some kinds of conditions have some kinds of effects I" Berelson had to say i n 1948 is s t i l l true today.  3 9  E s s e n t i a l l y , what  E s t i m a t i n g the force of a given  3 7  I b i d . , p . 12.  3 9  Bernard Berelson and M o r r i s Janowitz, Reader i n Public Opinion  3  8  I b i d . , p . 12.  and C o m m u n i c a t i o n , Second edition, New Y o r k :  T h e F r e e P r e s s , ! 1966, p # 475,  30  communication entails a careful examination of the kind of people one is t r y i n g to r e a c h , the nature of the issue one is attempting to promote and the conditions n e c e s s a r y for bringing about an awareness of that communication.  Researchers,  disappointed and unhappy about studies which attempt to measure the effective* ness of a given communication without r e g a r d to a study of the aforementioned, have moved i n recent y e a r s to an examination of how a communication operates in a given community or setting. The new approach to communication r e s e a r c h , c a l l e d the "Phenomenistic A p p r o a c h " sets out to determine some of the c r i t i c a l factors i n v a r i o u s types of observed d e c i s i o n s , rather than to focus exclusively on whether m e d i a did or did not have effects.  T h e p r i n c i p l e s of this kind of r e s e a r c h are "that better judge*  ment can be s e c u r e d on the significant aspects of a situation by centering on one aspect at a t i m e , and a general o v e r a l l value can be approximated by a summation of the value of the p a r t s . " 4  0  The view is that the m e d i a are influences, working  amid other influences i n a total situation.  R e s e a r c h now, then, tends to look at  and study the s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a communication situation and make generalizations only on the basis of what the isolated c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  reveal,  Although ; as the foregoing paragraph suggests, to a s s e s s accurately the impact of any m a s s communication is almost i m p o s s i b l e , some r e s e a r c h e r s and scholars studying the m a s s m e d i a a r e making v e r y broad generalizations the effects of m a s s communications and these would be as w e l l to note.  about Wright  s a y s , "the artful use of Communications m e d i a can manipulate to an e x t e n t * « a n d m o r e than advertising gives e v i d e n c e . " 4 1  In 1958 the Educational Policies  C o m m i s s i o n stated, "there is a c l e a r consensus that communication works most effectively when it builds on existing attitudes and can p r o p e l into action latent impulse.  T h e r e is also r e a s o n to b e l i e v e , although the evidence is neither so  abundant nor convincing, that m a s s communication can sometimes change attitudes  4 0  Progress, 4 1  E . F . Graff, " A d v i s o r y Methods i n the United States", A g r i c u l t u r a l V o l u m e 37, 1962, p . 35. C h a r l e s W r i g h t , M a s s C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , New Y o r k :  C a l i f o r n i a , Random H o u s e , 1965, p . 53.  U n i v e r s i t y of  31  i f they are v e r y lightly h e l d , " 4  2  Berelson and J a n o w i t z 4 3 suggest that there i s  a m p l e , though u n c l e a r , evidence to suggest that the m e d i a do e x e r c i s e extensive s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l effects and that the danger i n the new emphasis i n doing r e s e a r c h is to m i n i m i z e these effects.  T h e y say,  " i n reaping the fruits of the  d i s c o v e r y that m a s s m e d i a function amid a nexus of other influences, we must not forget that the influences nevertheless  differ."44  The following r e s e a r c h studies w i l l demonstrate that communication as a p r o c e s s is not a simple but a complex m a t t e r .  T h e many v a r i a b l e s present in  c o m m u n i c a t i o n « * m a n y of which evade c o n t r o l * » * a r e always present to hamper the r e s e a r c h e r who attempts to a r r i v e at definitive statements of fact.  2.  T h e Communication Process The communication p r o c e s s operates both on a f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l  level.  On the one hand, f o r m a l channels of communication are generally c o n »  s i d e r e d to be r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n , newspapers or any other written communications that go f r o m a sender to a r e c e i v e r without benefit of any immediate human feedback.  On the other hand, i n f o r m a l communications involve human beings  d i r e c t l y for they t r a v e l f r o m one person to another and i m p l y some immediate response or feedback to an intended m e s s a g e .  In the promotion of an idea to a  public both f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l means of communication are u s e d . T o explain how the p r o c e s s of communication operates i n our society S c h r a m m 4 5 uses a s e r i e s of communication models (Appendix V ). that^put s i m p l y , any c o m m u n i c a t i o n * - f o r m a l or i n f o r m a l » « r e q u i r e s e l e m e n t s , a s o u r c e , a m e s s a g e , and a destination.  He says three  F o r the i n f o r m a l or personal  communication these three elements are present and how the message f r o m the sender is perceived^ or as S c h r a m m c a l l s i t , "decoded^ 1 has a bearing on how the  4 2  Educational Policies C o m m i s s i o n , M a s s Communication and  E d u c a t i o n , Washington, D . C . : N E A U S , 4  3  4 4  4 5  1958.  Bernard Berelson and M o r r i s Janowitz, op. c i t . Ibid.,  p.'479.  W i l b u r S c h r a m m , "Effects of M a s s C o m m u n i c a t i o n " , N S S E  Y e a r b o o k on the M a s s M e d i a , 1954, pp.  114«133.  32  r e t u r n communication is formulated or^again^s S c h r a m m c a l l s i t , " e n c o d e d " . In applying this model to the p e r s o n a l l e v e l S c h r a m m points out the need to incorporate the field of experience of each participant ( F i g u r e 1). The m a s s communication operates i n a different way f r o m the personal communication.  H e r e the m e d i a is the sender of the message and the i n d i v i d u a l - *  with his field of experience—the r e c e i v e r .  Instead of the immediate feedback  that is demanded i n p e r s o n a l communication, the communication p r o c e s s is delayed i n the hands of the r e c e i v e r .  S c h r a m m suggests that a m a s s c o m m u n i «  cation goes to an audience, is decoded by individuals and then reinterpreted by further communicating with friends using the personal d i m e n s i o n . S c h r a m m , " i t may w e l l be that the chief influence  T h u s , says  of m a s s communication on  individuals is r e a l l y a kind of secondary influence reflected to the group and back again."  4  T h e feedback to the m e d i a of m a s s communication is f r o m the group  6  or organization to the m e d i a .  T h i s , of c o u r s e , means that communications  through the m e d i a w i l l not be d i r e c t e d to any one i n d i v i d u a l , as i n our previous models of persons i n conversation, but to the m a s s audience c o m p r i s e d of many individuals^ each with different fields of experience and therefore different decoding or interpretation s y s t e m s ; ( F i g u r e 2).  3.  Urban Research a0  Personal Influence and the T w o * s t e p « f l o w  Personal Influence, as reported i n the literature^ is regarded by most experts as being m o r e important than the m a s s communication i n its effects upon the changing attitudes or opinions of i n d i v i d u a l s .  A s e a r l y as 1948,  Lazarsfeld  postulated that "ideas often flow f r o m r a d i o and print to the opinion l e a d e r s and f r o m them to the l e s s active sections of the population. " 4  4 6  4  7  Ibid., p.  What these  130.  Paul F . L a z a r s f e l d , Bernard Berelson, and H a z e l Gaudet,  T h e People's C h o i c e , (second edition), New Y o r k : 1948.  7  F i r s t edition, 1944, p . 151.  Columbia University Press,  33  FIGURE PERSONAL  2  COMMUNICATION  /  The "Mass audience": many r e c e i v e r s each decoding, interpreting, encoding--each connected with a group, where m e s s a g e is reinterpreted and often acted  Input f r o m news s o u r c e s , art s o u r c e s ,  etc  Inferential  upon.  feedback  FIGURE  3  MASS C O M M U N I C A T I O N  34  r e s e a r c h e r s were pointing out was the "two~step*fLow" of communication f r o m the m e d i a to an influential p e r s o n « * o p i n i o n l e a d e r s - « t o the individual i n a community,,  Once the t w o * s t e p « f l o w was identified by these r e s e a r c h e r s it  was hailed by communication experts as the definitive statement on the way i n which the m a s s communication r e a l l y operated.  That i s , through the influential  person. In 1955 Katz and L a z a r s f e l d published their extensive study on p e r sonal influence, 4  8  using the p r i n c i p l e of the two-step-flow i n which they  examined four a r e a s ; fashions, m a r k e t i n g , movies and public a f f a i r s .  They  were interested i n determining how persons are influenced i n their decisions about such matters as the foregoing.  In this study K a t z and L a z a r s f e l d were  asking two b a s i c questions; f i r s t , what are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of opinion l e a d e r s i n each influence a r e a and two, what is the flow of influence ? T h e answer to t h e i r f i r s t question was that the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of opinion l e a d e r s are not consistent.  F o r example, younger women are generally opinion leaders  i n fashion, mothers with l a r g e families i n marketing and m e n i n public a f f a i r s . T h e y found that the influence any one p e r s o n wields is generated m o r e by his c e n t r a l position i n r e l a t i o n to those he influences rather than by his p a r t i c u l a r expertise i n that given a r e a .  F o r example, the influential r o l e bestowed on an  individual by a p a r t i c u l a r culture was seen to be v e r y evident.  T h e authors say  i n this r e g a r d , "In our e s t i m a t i o n , culture not only a s c r i b e s influentiality to c e r t a i n r o l e s but p r e s c r i b e s the substantive spheres of influence i n which that influentiality may be e x e r t e d , "  4  9  In answer to their second question about the  flow of influence, they found that influence i n m o d e r n society stems not only f r o m other people but also f r o m r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n , newspapers and other m e d i a . The matter of culture a s c r i b e d hrfluentialityeereferred to i n the previous r e s e a r c h » - h a s been v e r i f i e d and supported i n the w o r k of S t r o d b e c k . 5 0 E l i h u K a t z and Paul F „ L a z a r s f e l d , Personal Influence:  4 8  T h e Part  Played by People i n the F l o w of M a s s C o m m u n i c a t i o n , G l e n c o e , Illinois: Press,  Free  1955, 4 9  I b i d , , p , 115,  F r e d L , Strodbeck, "Husband and Wife Interaction over Revealed D i f f e r e n c e s " , A m e r i c a n Sociological R e v i e w , V o l u m e 16, pp. 468*477 (1951). Reprinted i n H a r e , Borgatta and Bales (1955). 5 0  35  Strodbeck selected a number of m a r r i e d couples r e p r e s e n t i n g three different c u l t u r a l groups and asked each spouse privately to name the f a m i l y he ( or she) considered to be the a l l round best he knew.  T h e n he brought the spouses  together and asked them to agree on the " b e s t " family of the two they had independently chosen.  He found that cultural differences had a m a r k e d b e a r i n g  on which spouse was l i k e l y to " w i n " , that i s , which spouse was able to influence the other to change his opinion. A m o n g the Navaho where women are quite independent and men go to l i v e with their wives* f a m i l y , wives won; M o r m o n s , where husbands r e i g n s u p r e m e , husbands won; T e x a s P r e s b y t e r i a n s , who have an egalitarian n o r m « * a s many decisions were won by m e n as w o m e n . M e r t o n , 5 1 studying the influence of persons on community groups found two c a t e g o r i e s « * o r l e v e l s « » o f influential people which he called " l o c a l s " and "cosmopolitans".  Merton*s " l o c a l s " were people who were community o r i e n t e d * -  taking their news and cues f r o m m e d i a within the community.  "Cosmopolitans"  were persons m o r e concerned with national r a t h e r than l o c a l a f f a i r s . were people who subscribed to national newspapers and m a g a z i n e s .  The latter Although  they l i v e d i n a community they did not participate i n it to the extent of holding l o c a l office or doing community b u s y « w o r k „  Consequently, their influence was  felt most i n the a r e a of innovation whereas the influence of " l o c a l s " was felt to be greater when it came to community adoption of a particular i d e a . Goldner, 5  2  using M e r t o n ' s definition of " l o c a l s " and " c o s m o p o l i t a n s "  and applying it to p r o f e s s o r s i n an educational organization i n order to study their degree of influencej found a tendency for influence to i n c r e a s e steadily as one moves f r o m cosmos to l o c a l s , until the extreme locals manifest a sharp decline i n influence.  He suggests the latter effect may be due to the advanced  age of most extreme l o c a l s .  5 1  Robert K . M e r t o n , "Patterns of Influence, L o c a l and Cosmopolitan  InfLuentials," i n M e r t o n , S o c i a l T h e o r y and S o c i a l Structure, G l e n c o e , 1957,  pp. 415-420. 5 2  A l v i n W o G o u l d n e r , "Cosmopolitans and Locals.- T o w a r d A n  A n a l y s i s of Latent Social R o l e s , " Volume n  » No. •  Part I, A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Science Q u a r t e r l y ,  , p p . 281«305.  36  b.  L i m i t a t i o n s of the  "Two*step«flow"  The t w o » s t e p « f l o w theory of Katz and L a z a r s f e l d was generally accepted as the definitive statement on the way i n which the m a s s communication operated until 1962 when six studies by Deutschmann and Danielson were published.  The  r e s e a r c h of these two m e n concluded that "the t w o » s t a g e flow hypothesis, as a d e s c r i p t i o n of the initial information p r o c e s s , be applied to m a s s communication with caution and q u a l i f i c a t i o n " . 5 3  T h e findings of these six studies suggested  that m a s s m e d i a information on important events goes d i r e c t l y to people on the whole and is not r e l a y e d to any great extent.  That i s , major news stories go  d i r e c t l y f r o m m e d i a to the individual and are not transmitted m o r e by p e r s o n a l contact than by m e d i a e x p o s u r e .  T h e y conclude that opinions or at least some  m i n i m a l comprehension of an event or idea takes place i n a o n e « s t e p flow of c o m m u n i c a t i o n « * d i r e c t f r o m m e d i a to m e m b e r s of the s o c i a l s y s t e m .  The  suggestion is that the two-step flow hypothesis seems m o r e adequate as a d e s « c r i p t i o n of the flow of m e d i a influence on beliefs and behaviour.  That i s , the  second step i n the two-step-flow might never o c c u r « « u n l e s s d i s c u s s i o n i s s t i m ulated. The two-step^flow hypothesis has again been questioned i n the r e s e a r c h r e c e n t l y done by T r o l d a h l . He suggests that the view presented i n the e a r l y studies on the t w o « s t e p « f l o w concerning opinion l e a d e r s initiating the d i s c u s s i o n which r e s u l t s i n change of opinion is inconsistent with the findings of his r e s e a r c h » - t h a t opinion l e a d e r s were asked for a d v i c e .  T r o l d a h l ' s study, using  a f a i r l y s m a l l scale communication campaign about lawn c a r e i n a s p e c i a l i z e d county a g r i c u l t u r a l newspaper^ did not generally conform to predictions of the p r e v i o u s l y cited t w o « s t e p » f l o w 0  U s i n g his findings and believing that with m a s s  communication there is a one*step*fl.ow of information and a t w o * s t e p « f l . o w of information on b e l i e f s , attitudes and behaviour, T r o l d a h l built a conceptual model  5 3  Paul J . Deutschmann and Wayne A . D a n i e l s o n , "Diffusion of  Knowledge of the M a j o r News S t o r y " , J o u r n a l i s m Quarterly, V o l u m e 37, pp. 335*355.  1969,  37  of t h e communication p r o c e s s using the " b a l a n c e " theory  which i s "people are  mot ivated to keep an apparent consi stency among the facts and beliefs they possess".55  That i s , i f the m a s s communication is not consistent with his  beliefs a m a n may change his beliefs without reference to o t h e r s - » i f he is an opinion l e a d e r — o r he may ask for advice on the message topic i f he i s a f o l l o w e r . O p i n i o n l e a d e r s i n T r o l d a h l ' s model do not often seek advice but when they do they seek it f r o m professionals or experts while f o l l o w e r s seek a d v i c e f r o m either professionals o r opinion l e a d e r s .  T r o l d a h l concludes that those persons  who ask f o r advice on a p a r t i c u l a r mediated communication w i l l exhibit m o r e b e l i e f change than those who do not seek advi c e .  The two-step f l o w , i n h i s  v i e w , operates only when a p e r s o n i s exposed to a m a s s communication that i s inconsistent w i t h his present dispositions.  T r o l d a h l r e a d i l y admits to l i m i t a -  tions i n his study and suggests that further investigation is n e c e s s a r y before the two-step-flow m o d e l developed out of e a r l i e r findings by Katz and L a z a r s f e l d and others can be r e j e c t e d .  He suggests that " i f the beliefs he studied had been  m o r e general ones, or were general attitudes or v a l u e s , the influence of faceto-face communication might have been s t r o n g e r " 5 6 ( F i g u r e 3 ) .  c.  T h e o r y of C o g ni ti v e Dissonance  Because T r o l d a h l ' s model includes a consideration of the "Balance t h e o r y " wherein an individual's psyche is upset when a communication that is contrary to his established beliefs or values i s presented, some b r i e f d i s cussion of F e s t i n g e r ' s T h e o r y of Cognitive Dissonance should be included here to indicate support for the "balance t h e o r y " as used i n T r o l d a h l ' s conceptualization.  F e s t i n g e r , who published his theory i n 1957-ten y e a r s before T r o l d a h l  5 4  F o r an excellent general explanation of the s e v e r a l " b a l a n c e "  theories developed by psychologists and sociologists, "Cognitive Conduct of Human A f f a i r s , "  see C h a r l e s E . Osgood,  Public Opinion Quarterly, V o l u m e 24,  1960, p p . 341-365. 5 5  V e r l i n g C . T r o l d a h l , " A F i e l d T e s t of a Modified Two-Step F l o w of  Communication M o d e l " , Public Opinion Quarterly, W i n t e r , 1966-67, pp. 609-623. 5 6  I b i d . , p . 623.  38  The F i r s t Cycle of Influence PROFESSIONAL INTERMEDIARIES  awareness, comprehension advice-seeking  a w a r e n e s s  v  V \ fa  MEDIATED COMMUNICATION  v  \  c o m p r e h e n s i o n  OPINION LEADERS  The Second Cycle of Influence | MEDIATED COMMUNICATION  awareness, comprehension  FIGURE 4 C Y C L E S OF I N F L U E N C E  FOLLOWERS  39 produced his model—was concerned with man's ability to adapt o r modify his beliefs to suit the p r e v a i l i n g conditions of fact i n l i f e .  H i s theory is that when  a p e r s o n i s presented with a communication that i s contrary to one he h o l d s , dissonance o r imbalance o c c u r s i n the p e r s o n ' s p s y c h e .  He suggests that when  dissonance o c c u r s the individual sets to w o r k righting the imbalance i n one of two ways; one, he may r e a f f i r m his o r i g i n a l belief^or two, he may modify or change his belief.  That i s , i f the individual comes i n contact with a p e r s o n who  w i l l r e a s s u r e and r e a f f i r m his o r i g i n a l belief the dissonance i s r e s o l v e d . not, the dissonance continues and m a y r e s u l t i n belief change.  If  T h u s says  Fe s t i n g e r , 5 7 The d i r e c t impact on a p e r s o n of a persuasive c o m m u n i cation v i a the m a s s m e d i a i s probably seldom strong enough to cause a complete about face on an opinion which he h o l d s .  M o r e often the d i r e c t impact i s to create some  doubts i n the mind of the p e r s o n .  T o the extent that this  p e r s o n talks about the matter to selected others following his exposure to the m a s s m e d i a , it i s quite l i k e l y that his doubts w i l l be e r a s e d .  T h e m a s s m e d i a m a y be expected to  be most effective under c i r c u m s t a n c e s where there i s something to prevent the ready reduction of the dissonance which i s created by the exposure to these m e d i a .  Thus for  example, one would expect the m a s s m e d i a to be m o r e effective with r e s p e c t to content about which people do not talk r e a d i l y than with r e s p e c t to content which i s frequently the subject of d i s c u s s i o n .  S i m i l a r l y , one would expect the  m a s s m e d i a to be m o r e effective with persons who are r e l a t i v e l y isolated s o c i a l l y than with those who have many s o c i a l contacts. T h e m a j o r difference i n F e s t i n g e r ' s approach to the effects of m a s s c o m m u n i cations and that of T r o l d a h l ' s i s one of e m p h a s i s .  In T r o l d a h l ' s m o d e l , the  p e r s o n with the dissonance actively seeks advice to r e s o l v e the dissonance.  In  F e s t i n g e r ' s theory no mention is made of the p e r s o n with imbalance seeking advice.  On the c o n t r a r y , F e s t i n g e r suggests that on certain topics where d i s -  cussion does not r e a d i l y take place or a r i s e dissonance w i l l continue and m o r e l i k e l y give r i s e to a change i n belief.  L e o n F e s t i n g e r , A T h e o r y of Cognitive D i s s o n a n c e , Stanford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Stanford, C a l i f o r n i a , 1957, p . 231. 5 7  40  4.  Rural Research In the field of R u r a l Sociology, a number of studies on the effects of  m a s s and personal communications have attempted to examine the p r o b l e m of how best to communicate with f a r m e r s so that i m p r o v e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s can be instituted.  S m i t h 5 8 r e v i e w i n g the l i t e r a t u r e f r o m North A m e r i c a and  E u r o p e on the subject of adoption of f a r m p r a c t i c e s suggests that communication to a p a r t i c u l a r f a r m e r can only be effective when the p r o p e r channels of communication for that f a r m e r are u s e d 0  He notes that " i n n e a r l y every aspect  of the improvement of f a r m practices i n a l l countries where investigations have been c a r r i e d out, the s m a l l f a r m e r compares unfavourably with the l a r g e i n his rate of adoption of i m p r o v e m e n t s " . 5 9 Smith suggests that the r e a s o n for this is that m a s s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s « » t h e means most often used to disseminate i n f o r * mation to f a r m e r s « ~ h a v e little o r no effect on the s m a l l , poorly educated f a r m e r and the greatest effect on the l a r g e , better educated f a r m e r .  T o support  this v i e w , Smith includes i n his review information f r o m a study conducted i n 1957 i n C a m b r i d g e s h i r e , United States, which indicates that when asked their opinions, f a r m e r s r e p o r t e d that "the use of m a s s approach t e c h n i q u e s « - l e a f l . e t , roadside demonstration, and p r e s s a r t i c l e » » w e r e important, e s p e c i a l l y with large farmers.  T h e i n f o r m a l sources of a d v i c e « » m e r c h a n t and another f a r m e r « «  w e r e l e s s important, but much m o r e so with the s m a l l f a r m e r . " 6 0 Speaking m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y of the difficulties encountered i n getting f a r m e r s to accept a totally new as opposed to an i m p r o v e d p r a c t i c e , Smith w r i t e s , "the adoption of an entirely new p r a c t i c e . . . does not involve the difficult d e c i s i o n to repudiate what may be a f i r m l y held belief on the *best* way to do a job.  It is therefore probably m o r e difficult to advise f a r m e r s about an i m p r o v e *  ment to an existing practice than it i s to advise them about an entirely new one. "  5 8  H.T.E.  Smith, " T h e Communication of Ideas to F a r m e r s " ,  Agricultural Progress,  V o l u m e 33, N u m b e r 51, 1958, p . 53.  5 9  I b i d . , p . 53.  6 0  I b i d . , p . 54.  6 1  I b i d . , p . 56.  6  1  41  I n this statement of S m i t h ' s there is support for the view e x p r e s s e d by the Education Policies C o m m i s s i o n ( 1 9 5 8 ) 6 2 that m a s s communications may have an influence on attitudes and b e l i e f s « « i f they are v e r y lightly h e l d . M o v i n g to the personal d i m e n s i o n , Smith's findings indicate that p e r s o n a l influence is m o r e effective as a means of changing f a r m e r s ' attitudes than is m a s s c o m m u n i c a t i o n . In his own study on adoption of a new c e r e a l v a r i e t y , Smith attempted to correlate f a r m e r s * adoption of a p r a c t i s e with the degree of influence of a p a r t i c u l a r kind of communication. In the two y e a r s p r i o r to his inquiry r e g a r d i n g adoption he found that 118 f a r m v i s i t s had been made on 96 f a r m s concerning the subject of c e r e a l v a r i e t y while i n the same p e r i o d about 4,000 advisory leaflets were r e c e i v e d by these f a r m e r s .  Smith* s  findings r e g a r d i n g f a r m e r s * stated reasons for a change i n p r a c t i s e leads h i m to conclude that the effect of an individual v i s i t was greater than the effect of a single m a s s c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Studying this trend of the low rate of adoption of s m a l l f a r m e r s found i n the r e s e a r c h , A k i n b o d e 6 3 suggests that the low rate of adoption is due to ineffective communication.  He found that the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t made  fewer v i s i t s to s m a l l farms than to l a r g e f a r m s .  C o n s i d e r i n g that d i r e c t p e r «  sonal communication has been found i n the r e s e a r c h to be the p r e f e r r e d means of communicating with a s m a l l f a r m e r , Akinbode feels that the s m a l l f a r m e r shows a low rate of adoption because this p r e f e r r e d method i s not used. Dodd and O s b o r n e 6 4 r e p o r t i n g on a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h found that there appear to be differences i n the effectiveness p r o m o t i n g the adoption of a single i d e a .  T h e i r r e s e a r c h , like Smith's^ deals  with f a r m e r * s choice of a c e r t a i n c e r e a l v a r i e t y .  6 2  of v a r i o u s m e d i a when  While they allowed that each  Education Policies C o m m i s s i o n , M a s s Communication and E d u c a t i o n ,  N . E . A . U . S . , Washington, D . C . , 1958. 6  3  Isaac Akinbode, " T h e Relationship Between the S o c i o e c o n o m i c  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of F a r m e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and T h e i r Contacts with D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s " , Unpublished M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1969. G . B u r m a n , W „ R . B „ C a r t e r , and J 0 K i n g s m i l l , J . A . C h a l l a n s , " T h e U s e of M a s s Communication i n an A d v i s o r y P r o g r a m m e i n D e r b y s h i r e " , A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o g r e s s , V o l u m e 38, 1963. 6 4  42  of the m e d i a of communication may have s o m e « * a n d perhaps a d i f f e r e n t « « p a r t to play i n influencing the individual to make his choice, they concluded that some kind of personal contact was essential before the individual could be convinced he could make a p a r t i c u l a r c h o i c e .  In this study findings indicate that seventy  p e r cent of the sample of f a r m e r s indicated that personal influence was the most important factor i n influencing their d e c i s i o n of a particular c e r e a l v a r i e t y . D e n t , 6 5 studying f a r m e r s * s o u r c e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l information found that the most highly regarded s o u r c e s (by f a r m e r s ) were personal contact.  His  r e s e a r c h r e v e a l e d that 113 f a r m e r s (72,3 per cent) found p e r s o n a l contact valuable as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n .  After p e r s o n a l contact, the m a s s m e d i a  i n the o r d e r of f a r m p a p e r s , f a r m magazines,  television, radio broadcasts,  extension bulletins, daily newspapers and extension bulletins f r o m other p r o v * inces and countries were considered by respondents to be useful sources of information.  T h e limitations inherent i n this p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y « « a s r e v e a l e d by  Smith i n his s t u d y » » i s that Dent did not identify the rate of exposure to a p a r t i c u l a r m e d i a and therefore could not a s s e s s the p a r t i c u l a r impact of an information s o u r c e . W o r k i n g i n r u r a l a r e a s , s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have found that one method of i m p a r t i n g information may be highly successful at one stage of a c c e p t tance of an i d e a , but be l e s s successful at another.  Smith, r e f e r r i n g to the  adoption p r o c e s s w r i t e s , "broadly speaking, m a s s m e d i a such as newspaper and r a d i o are most successful at an e a r l y stage of awareness and i n t e r e s t . When m o r e detailed information i s sought the m o r e f o r m a l s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a * tion such as the advisory s e r v i c e are looked to and these continue to play a part i n b r i n g i n g about a t r i a l r u n and then final acceptance.  But at these latter stages  the influence of i n f o r m a l s o u r c e s , such as friends and neighbors i s v e r y important i n d e e d , " 6 6  6 5  T o support this last statement Smith produces this data  W i l l i a m Dent, " T h e Sources of A g r i c u l t u r a l Information Used By  F a r m e r s of D i f f e r i n g S o c i o e c o n o m i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " , Unpublished M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1968, 6 6  H . T . E . S m i t h , op, c i t , , pp. 51*57.  43  f r o m a study of Iowa f a r m e r s * opinions, " f i r s t knowledge about hybrid seed c o r n i n Iowa reached 21 per cent of the f a r m e r s f r o m f a r m journals and r a d i o together and 14.6 per cent f r o m neighbours.  On the other hand, the most  influential source of information leading to adoption was stated by only 2 . 3 p e r cent of the f a r m e r s to be the f a r m journals or radio and 45.5 per cent stated it to be neighbours. "  5.  6 7  Market Research In market r e s e a r c h , advertising has been seen by the m e n who work  i n the field as only one part of a total promotion p i c t u r e — a part that cannot be r e a d i l y evaluated for there is no known way to m e a s u r e the persuasive force of a given advertisement.  Notwithstanding the fact that a d v e r t i s e r s are unable to  provide their clients with statistical proof of advertising's ability to s e l l products, there i s a strong belief held by businessmen i n our society that advertising does i n c r e a s e s a l e s .  F u r t h e r , e v e r y businessman believes that  without advertising a new or i m p r o v e d product cannot be placed before the p u b l i c . T h e r e s u l t of these f i r m l y held beliefs of businessmen can be seen i n our truly a d v e r t i s i n g oriented W e s t e r n w o r l d — a w o r l d where constant and repeated exposure to advertising has become a way of life—one that has been s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d by some of our m o r e prominent c i t i z e n s .  a.  T h e C r i t i c i s m of Social Commentators  A d v e r t i s i n g has been s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d by prominent s o c i a l c o m m e n tators of the A m e r i c a n scene like G a l b r a i t h , Toynbee, Schlesinger, J r . , McLuhan.  and  T h e s e m e n c l a i m that m o d e r n man's needs and wants are not  dictated by individual choice any longer, but by the a l l persuasive and m a n i p u l ative advertising p o l i c i e s of those who want to market consumer goods.  6 7  I b i d . , p . 52.  44  GaLbraith d e s c r i b e s advertising as "the management of those who buy g o o d s " .  8  Toynbee supporting this view w r i t e s , " A d v e r t i s i n g is an instrument of m o r a l , as w e l l as intellectual, m i s - e d u c a t i o n .  Insofar as it succeeds i n influencing  people's m i n d s , it conditions them not to think for themselves—not to choose for t h e m s e l v e s .  It is intentionally hypnotic i n its effect.  suggestible and d o c i l e .  It makes people  In fact, it p r e p a r e s them for a totalitarian r e g i m e . "  6  9  S c h l e s i n g e r , J r . w r i t e s , "the badge of our self indulgence has been the c o n t e m p o r a r y orgy of consumer g o o d s . " 7 0  Canada's M c L u h a n , u s i n g h u m o r to  make the same points about advertising as the other c r i t i c s mentioned, developed a b o o k 7 1 filled with m o d e r n day type ads through which the r e a d e r may laugh but nevertheless find the denouement c h i l l i n g when he recognizes M c L u h a n ' s message—our Industrial Folklore—what our generation is leaving to posterity—is the sham w o r l d of a d v e r t i s i n g .  And it is this distaste for the  c o m m e r c i a l p r o c e s s of advertising, as d e s c r i b e d by these s o c i a l commentators, that has influenced the views of most educators as to how much advertising— o r what kind of advertising—should f o r m a part of the promotion of educational programs.  b.  The Reply of Businessmen  While the c r i e s and comments of s o c i a l commentators may have caused educators and like persons to shy away f r o m a concern for p r o m o t i o n , they have failed to convince N o r t h A m e r i c a n b u s i n e s s m e n , who continue to spend billions (fifteen b i l l i o n i n the United States i n 1965) of d o l l a r s per annum  8  John Kenneth G a l b r a i t h , The New Industrial State, Boston:  Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1963, p . 82. 6 9  Cited i n F a i r f a x M . Cone, " T h e Good L i f e Just Didn't H a p p e n " ,  A d v e r t i s i n g T o d a y / Y e s t e r d a y / T o m o r r o w , New Y o r k :  M c G r a w - H i l l Book C o . ,  1963, p. 434. 7 0  A r t h u r M . Schlesinger, J r .  T h e Politics of Hope, Boston:  Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1963, p . 82. 7 1  1951.  M a r s h a l l M c L u h a n , The M e c h a n i c a l B r i d e , Boston: Beacon P r e s s ,  45  a d v e r t i s i n g consumer goods, that advertising " A m e r i c a n s t y l e " is i m m o r a l or evil. In the United States and Canada, Associations of A d v e r t i s e r s , bent on demonstrating t h e i r goodwill and d e s i r e to give the A m e r i c a n people what is best i n advertising have paid l a r g e sums out i n r e s e a r c h g r a n t s .  In Canada the  economist O . J . F i r e s t o n e p r e p a r e d a b r i e f on behalf of the Canadian A d v e r t i s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n for presentation to the Joint Senate-House Committee on Consumer Credit ( P r i c e s ) . 7 2  In the United States, s c h o l a r s « » B a u e r and F r e y s e r 7 3 f r o m  the H a r v a r d Business S c h o o l « * > s t u d i e d what A m e r i c a n s r e a l l y think and feel about present day a d v e r t i s i n g .  T h i s r e s e a r c h based on the attitudes and behaviour of  a c r o s s « s e c t i o n of adult A m e r i c a n people and those people to whom advertising is most important or of most c o n c e r n indicates that most people are m i x e d i n their feelings about i t .  That i s , many people who accept that advertisements  are  informative^ and therefore good, w i l l also show a concern over the advertising of some products, and over certain advertisements  shown to c h i l d r e n .  Generally,  the r e s e a r c h shows that opinions toward advertising are favourable but that a s m a l l proportion of unfavourable ads can be sufficient to generate great concern and public r e a c t i o n .  While a l a r g e proportion of people surveyed i n the study  indicated they found many ads entertaining, twenty-five per cent said they thought advertising was untruthful.  A n interesting finding was that most persons are v e r y  selective i n what they relate to i n a d v e r t i s i n g .  F o r e x a m p l e , when respondents  were.asked to note carefully the number and kind of ads they saw o r h e a r d on a p a r t i c u l a r m e d i a d u r i n g a set time of exposure it was found that a low proportion of ads tend to make an impact on the consciousness of the person exposed.  The  r e s e a r c h e r s conclude that the consumer i s "no h e l p l e s s , passive target of communication; he is an active defender of his t i m e , energy, attention, and  7 2  O . J . F i r e s t o n e , Brief presented on behalf of Institute of Canadian  A d v e r t i s e r s , Submission to the Special Joint-Senate House Committee on C o n s u m e r C r e d i t ( P r i c e s ) , January, 7 3  1967.  Raymond A . Bauer and Stephen A . F r e y s e r , A d v e r t i s i n g i n  A m e r i c a , Boston,  1968.  46  interestso  Reviewing the Borden study (1938 to 1939) and the 1942 study by  the A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n of Advertisers—'both of which undertook to study what the public i s liiinMng about a d v e r t i s i n g « « B a u e r and F r e y s e r conclude that A m e r i c a n attitudes toward advertising are m a i n l y stable and not of deep concern to people.  I b i d . , p . 357.  C H A P T E R IV  CHARACTERISTICS O F T H E POPULATION  A.  INTRODUCTION  A factor that i s perhaps important to the study of communication i n the city of Port Coquitlam i s the general attitude of the people with respect to being approached and interviewed for the s u r v e y .  Adults answering the door  at six of the designated houses for the study refused to be interviewed and many m o r e were reluctant and suspicious at a request for i n f o r m a t i o n . When interviewing it was d i s c o v e r e d that just p r i o r to this s u r v e y , a group of magazine salesmen had been canvassing i n Port Coquitlam and gaining entry to an individual's home on the pretext of conducting an e d u c a t « ional s u r v e y .  Consequently, the p r e v a i l i n g climate toward the author made  it difficult to establish a satisfactory relationship with prospective respondents. T h o s e who d i d participate however, seemed to believe that adult education was a good tiling--though not n e c e s s a r i l y for t h e m .  47  48  B.  PERSONAL  CHARACTERISTICS The total number of persons surveyed for this study was 112 and of these 23 (21 per cent) were m e n and 89 (79 per cent) were w o m e n .  T h e r e was  no attempt to interview equal numbers of males and females but rather to interview any adult who answered the d o o r .  A random attempt to interview  both sexes was undertaken by scheduling interviews to r u n throughout the day— m o r n i n g , afternoon and evening.  T h e findings indicate that personal c o m *  munications—or c a l l s * - t o the home are m u c h m o r e often r e c e i v e d by women than by m e n .  While it is true that most women answering the door were house*  wives (72)e-three of whom were widows—more females than males w o r k i n g full " t i m e outside the home responded to the c a l l . women interviewed worked  Mistime  Seventeen per cent of the  outside the h o m e .  T h e r e was a s t a t i s *  t i c a l l y significant difference at the . 05 l e v e l for occupations of males and females i n the sample (Table III). Seventy (62 per cent) of the sample population l i v e d i n areas zoned r e s i d e n t i a l ; 15 (14 per cent) on land zoned service and 27 (24 per cent) on land zoned r u r a l . A l l but 12 (10 per cent) of the sample population were m a r r i e d and l i v i n g with spouses.  In 89 (80 per cent) of the households surveyed only two  adults were l i v i n g i n the home.  Nine (8 per cent) of the households surveyed  had three adults l i v i n g i n the home and 6 ( 5 per cent) had a total of m o r e than three adults l i v i n g i n one household.  Applying the K o l m o g o r o v » S m i r n o v two-  sample test to the urban, s e r v i c e and r u r a l group, there was no statistically significant difference found at the . 05 l e v e l of confidence (Table I V ) .  C.  EMPLOYMENT  Because it i s important to know both the employment status of the community i n which you are offering p r o g r a m s so that courses can be offered  49  TABLE  III  D I S T R I B U T I O N O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY S E X A N D E M P L O Y M E N T STATUS  Male  F u l l - t i m e job outside the home  Female No.  Total  No.  %  %  No.  %  15  65.0  17  19.0  32  28.0  8  35.0  72  81.0  80  72.0  23  100.0  89  100.0  112  100.0  Unemployed ( including housewives) Total  T h e r e is a statistically significant difference at the .05 l e v e l of confidence.  TABLE IV D I S T R I B U T I O N O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY R E S I D E N T I A L Z O N E A N D N U M B E R O F A D U L T S IN H O U S E H O L D  Urban  Service  No.  Np.  Rural %...  Total  No.  %  No.  %  8  12.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  8  7.0  2 adults  54  74.0  13  87.0  22  82.0  89  80.0  3 adults  6  9.0  1  7.0  2  7.0  9  8.0  M o r e than 3 adults  2  5.0.  1  6.0  3  10.0  6  5.0  70  100.0  15  100.0  27  100.0  112  100.0  1 adult  Total  Kolmogorov-Smirnov Two-sample Test: D Max Urban-Rural  . 12, not significant at the .05 l e v e l  D M a x Urban-Service  . 12, not significant at the .05 l e v e l  D Max Rural-Service  . 04, not significant at the . 05 l e v e l  50  which w i l l reflect the educational needs and economic considerations of the community, the Blishen occupational scale was used and an index for the sample was  1,  calculated.  T h e Blishen Scale Blishen's " A S o c i o » e c o n o m i c Index for Occupations i n Canada" l i s t s  320 occupations c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of m a l e s i n the Canadian labour f o r c e . occupations are ranked on the basis of educational l e v e l and i n c o m e .  These Each  respondent was rated on this scale a c c o r d i n g to the stated job that he h e l d , or i f a woman, a c c o r d i n g to the job that her husband h e l d .  T h e highest r a t i n g  r e c o r d e d was 7 6 . 6 9 * - C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r * - a n d the lowest 2 5 . 3 6 — T r a p p e r  and  Hunter. In over half of the households interviewed, the occupation of the head of the household fell below the m i d - l i n e on the Blishen index.  T h e mean s o c i o -  economic index calculated for respondents was at the 38.03 l e v e l which is l i s t e d on the scale as "foreman",.  The respondent with the highest r a t i n g on the scale  was a M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r and the lowest r e c o r d e d index was that of a L o g g e r . The occupation mentioned most often by r e s p o n d e n t s * > « e i g h t t i m e s » « w a s that of Psychiatric Nurse,  Only one male i n the sample population was found to be  looking for work and therefore unemployed and he and the r e t i r e d and widowed respondents were not included i n the r a t i n g of the index. For  convenience i n using a graph presentation of data collected on  occupational status of respondents, the Blishen scale was d i v i d e d , by Blishen, into approximately ten point indices and occupational groupings become evident. F i g u r e 5 i l l u s t r a t e s that the l a r g e s t number of per sons—2 3 (21 per c e n t ) * - i n any one group i n the sample appear i n the second lowest group.  In other w o r d s ,  the l a r g e s t group of workers, using this m e a s u r e on the Blishen scale, are i n occupations at the l e v e l of unskilled and s e m i - s k i l l e d w o r k e r s .  T h e two top  groups had only four and three persons r e s p e c t i v e l y i n them and the bottom group had  four.  51  24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 »  cl CD  -a  B  a,  15 14 13 12  CO CD  11  « -Q  10  s 7 6 5 4 3 2 1  76  69  6 7 ^ 55  62  47  95  Tl" 4 3  37  75  33  14  30  52  S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Index  FIGURE 5 D I S T R I B U T I O N O F T H E S A M P L E BY E M P L O Y M E N T STATUS O F HEADS O F  HOUSEHOLDS  1 2 2 8  25  36  52  C o m p a r i n g the average index on the Blishen scale of the people l i v i n g in each of the three zoned land a r e a s , indications are that persons l i v i n g on urban or r e s i d e n t i a l zoned land have a slightly higher r a t i n g on the index than do persons l i v i n g i n either of the other two a r e a s .  T h e average socio-economic  index for respondents was 40.17; for s e r v i c e areas 37,11; and for r u r a l land 36.81.  D.  1.  SOCIAL  T h e Chapin Scale The Chapin S o c i a l Participation Scale was used to determine the rate  of s o c i a l participation by the respondents.  T h e y were asked to name the  o r g a n i z a t i o n s « « e x c e p t c h u r c h a t t e n d a n c e ° « t o which they had belonged i n the past y e a r and what their attendance had been at r e g u l a r meetings.  In addition  they were asked i f they had made a financial contribution to these organizations or held office i n any or a l l .  A high s c o r e reflects a high degree of p a r t i c i p a »  tion i n group activity and a low s c o r e the r e v e r s e ( F i g u r e 6). F o r those who d i d belong to an organization, the one mentioned most often by respondents was the " T r a d e U n i o n " .  Of the twenty persons who belonged  to a trade union, only eight admitted to r e g u l a r attendance at meetings.  The  "bowling league" was the second most popular organization to which respondents belonged.  T h i r t e e n women and one m a n belonged to a r e g u l a r l y scheduled  bowling league. i n the past y e a r .  Only twelve respondents had held an office i n an organization A s i d e f r o m the two mentioned s o c i a l groups to which m o r e than  one p e r s o n i n the sample belonged, the s o c i a l participation of adults i n the sample i s s m a l l (Table V ) . Data collected on the Chapin scale as r e g a r d s the ratings of males and females indicate  that females have a slightly higher participation i n group  activities than do m e n .  Applying the K o l m o g o r o v - S m i r n o v two-sample test to  the male and female s o c i a l participation s c o r e s there was no statistically nificant difference found at the „ 05 l e v e l and the hypothesis was upheld.  sig-  53  45  -  40  35 to  a  30  T3  o a CO  25  J-l CI) Xi  20  a  15  10  2  3  4  5  S o c i a l Participation Scale  FIGURE 6 D I S T R I B U T I O N O F T H E S A M P L E BY SOCIAL PARTICIPATI ON  6  54  TABLE V D I S T R I B U T I O N O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY S E X A N D SOCIAL PARTICIPATION  Male Participation Score  No.  Female %.  No.  Total %  No.  %  0  1  4.0  2  2.0  3  3.0  1 « 5  6  25.0  42.0  8  34.0  7.0  43 14  38.0  6-10  37 6  11 - 15  4  21.0  26  29.0  30  27.0  16 •» 20  2  8.0  8  9.0  10  9.0  21 - 25  1  4.0  2  2.0  0  0.0  1 6  1.0  26 « 30  7.0  6  5.0  31 «* 35  1  4.0  3  3.0  4  4.0  O v e r 35  0  0.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  23  100.0  89  100.0  112  100.0  Total  12.0  K o l m o g o r o v - S m i r n o v two-sample test: D M a x = . 15, not significant at the . 05 l e v e l  T h e information with r e g a r d to persons l i v i n g on land zoned urban v e r s u s s e r v i c e v e r s u s r u r a l and s o c i a l participation is contained i n T a b l e V I . Applying the K o l m o g o r o v - S m i r n o v two-sample test to a l l three p a i r i n g s — u r b a n , s e r v i c e and r u r a l groups—no significant difference was found at the .05 l e v e l and once again the hypothesis was upheld.  55  T A B L E VI D I S T R I B U T I O N O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY R E S I D E N T I A L Z O N E AND SOCIAL PARTICIPATION  Participation Score  Urban  2  0 1-5  Service  Rural  Total  %.  No.  %  3.0 40.0  0 4  0.0  1  3.0  3  3.0  27.0  10  42.0  43  38.0  No.  .  No.  %  No.  %.  6-10  29 10  15.0  1  7.0  3  10.0  14  12.0  11 - 15  20  29.0  5  32,0  5  18.0  30  27.0  6.0 1.0  2 1  13.0  4  14.0  10  9.0  3.0  0 3  0.0 10.0  2 6  2.0 5.0  16 « 20  4  21 - 25 26 - 30  1 2  1  7.0 7.0  31 - 35 O v e r 35  2  3.0  1  7.0  4  4.0  0.0  0  0.0  1 0  3.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  70  100.0  15  100.0  27  100.0  112  100.0  Total  K o l m o g o r o v - S m i r n o v two-sample test: D M a x Urban-Service  . 24, not significant at the . 05 l e v e l  D Max Rural-Service  . 2 1 , not significant at the .05 l e v e l  D Max Urban - Rural  . 14, not significant at the . 05 l e v e l  CHAPTER V  RESULTS OF T H E STUDY  A.  1.  P A R T I CI P A T I O N I N A D U L T E D U C A T I O N  T h e Y e a r 1967*68 Participation i n t h e 1967*68 adult education p r o g r a m by individuals  interviewed for this study was not h i g h .  Only fourteen people i n the survey  had taken an adult night school c l a s s i n 1967.  In addition, one p e r s o n had  attended an adult day school i n Coquitlam d i s t r i c t . Of those fourteen adults who d i d take a night school c l a s s i n 1967*68, eight ( 57 per cent) took l e i s u r e « t i m e c l a s s e s .  F o u r ( 29 per cent) took a j o b «  oriented c o u r s e ; one (7 per cent) took a Home and F a m i l y L i f e class and one ( 7 per cent) a c u r r e n t events p r o g r a m ( T a b l e V I I ) .  None of these adults  took a l i b e r a l education o f f e r i n g . 1 F o u r of the fourteen respondents reported that they had taken m o r e than one night school course d u r i n g the 1967*68 y e a r .  T w o of this group were  e n r o l l e d i n Coquitlam d i s t r i c t ; one attended c l a s s e s i n Port Coquitlam and the other in V a n c o u v e r .  1  F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of the classification of courses see Appendix I V .  56  57  T A B L E VII F R E Q U E N C Y D I S T R I B U T I O N O F T Y P E O F C O U R S E T A K E N IN 1968 BY N U M B E R O F PERSONS T A K I N G C O U R S E  No.  %  P r o f e s s i o n a l , T e c h n i c a l and Vocational  4  29.0  Leisure»time  8  57.0 0.0  Course Taken  L i b e r a l Education  0  Personal Development  0  0.0  Home and F a m i l y L i f e  1  7.0  C u r r e n t Events  1  7.0  14  100.0  Total  Half of the fourteen respondents reported enrollment i n c l a s s e s which extended over the full academic y e a r .  T h e other seven r e p o r t e d an enrollment  i n h a l f - y e a r courses and the latter were l e i s u r e - t i m e  2.  courses.  T h e Y e a r s 1960*68 I n o r d e r to obtain a broader view of participation i n adult c l a s s e s by  the respondents, individuals interviewed were asked the number and type of adult c l a s s e s they had attended i n the past eight y e a r s .  Seventy-five (68 per  cent) r e p l i e d they had not taken an adult c l a s s d u r i n g this p e r i o d .  Of the t h i r t y -  seven (32 per cent) who d i d , the m a j o r i t y took job-oriented and l e i s u r e - t i m e c l a s s e s (Table VIII).  Fifteen (41 per cent) of these people had taken this course  within the past two y e a r s .  A l m o s t half of these took their course i n Vancouver  and the r e m a i n d e r were divided evenly between Port Coquitlam and C o q u i t l a m . Only twelve (10 per cent) of the respondents said they had taken m o r e than one adult course between 1960 and 1968 and these were predominately i n the subject a r e a of job-oriented and l e i s u r e - t i m e c l a s s e s .  Almost thirty-three  (60 per cent) of these courses were taken i n V a n c o u v e r and the r e m a i n d e r were evenly divided between Port Coquitlam and C o q u i t l a m .  58  T A B L E VIII F R E Q U E N C Y D I S T R I B U T I O N O F T Y P E O F C O U R S E T A K E N IN 1960*68 A N D N U M B E R O F PERSONS T A K I N G C O U R S E  Course Taken  No.  %  P r o f e s s i o n a l , T e c h n i c a l and Vocational  14  38.0  Leisure«time  13  34.0  L i b e r a l Education  4  11.0  P e r s o n a l Development  3  8.0  Home and F a m i l y L i f e  2  6.0  C u r r e n t Events  1  3.0  37  100.0  Total  T a b l e IX l i s t s the number and kinds of courses taken by residents of Port Coquitlam over the past eight y e a r s .  Of the seventy*three  courses  r e p o r t e d , the m a j o r i t y were either l e i s u r e » t i m e activities o r job-oriented classes. A l l respondents were asked i f any other adult i n the home had p a r t i c i pated i n adult c l a s s e s .  E i g h t y - f o u r (75 per cent) said " n o " .  r e l a t i v e s who had taken c l a s s e s were husbands (18).  M o s t of these  T h e r e m a i n d e r were  wives (2), sons (5), daughters (1), and other r e l a t i v e s (3).  T h e s e relatives  were taking, o r had taken, courses i n the following a r e a s : job-oriented courses (12), l e i s u r e - t i m e classes (5), l i b e r a l education subjects (4), personal develop* ment (2), and p u b l i c affairs c l a s s e s (2).  3.  M a l e v e r s u s F e m a l e Participation Of the eighty-nine women and t w e n t y » t h r e e m e n interviewed, a slightly  higher percentage of women participated i n adult c l a s s e s .  T h r e e men (12 per  cent) who were interviewed had attended an adult class i n 1968 while eleven (14 per cent) of the women participated i n adult education c l a s s e s .  T A B L E IX F R E Q U E N C Y DISTRIBUTION O F N U M B E R O F N I G H T S C H O O L C O U R S E S T A K E N BY R E S P O N D E N T S  1st course taken Courses  taken  1967 « 6 8 No.  2nd course  %  1st course taken p r i o r  1967«68  to 1967  No.  No.  2nd course  3rd course  taken p r i o r  taken p r i o r  to 1967 No.  %  to 1967 ..  No.  Total  %  No.  %  Professional, Technical and Vocational  4  29.0  1  25.0  14  39.0  5  42.0  2  29.0  26  36.0  Leisure*time  8  57.0  2  50.0  12  33.0  4  33.0  2  29.0  28  38.0  L i b e r a l Education  0  0.0  0  0.0  4  11.0  2  17.0  3  42.0  Development  0  0.0  1  3  9.0  1  8.0  0  0.0  Home and F a m i l y Life  1  7.0  0  25.0 0.0  9 5  12.0  Personal  2  6.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  3  4.0  1  7.0  0  0.0  1  2.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  2  3.0  14  100.0  4  100.0  36  100.0  12  100.0  7  100.0  73  Current Events,  Public  A f f a i r s and Citizenship Total  7.0  100.0  60  The pursuit of l e i s u r e - t i m e activities for both m a l e s and females was found to be the m a j o r p r o g r a m a r e a (Table X ) „ M o s t of the women who had taken n o n « c r e d i t c l a s s e s had e n r o l l e d i n either d r i v e r t r a i n i n g or sewing c l a s s e s and these were l i s t e d under l e i s u r e - t i m e .  T w o of the men interviewed e n r o l l e d  i n l e i s u r e - t i m e courses and the other one enrolled i n a job t r a i n i n g c o u r s e  For  the w o m e n , eleven of whom had taken a course i n the 1967-68 p e r i o d , over half had taken l e i s u r e - t i m e c l a s s e s .  Because only three men i n the sample took an  adult course i n 1967-68 it was not possible to statistically analyze the differences with respect to types of c o u r s e s taken and sex for this y e a r .  TABLE X F R E Q U E N C Y DISTRIBUTION O F C O U R S E S T A K E N BY M A L E S A N D F E M A L E S IN 1968 Male  Female  Total  No.  %  No.  %  No.  %  Vocational  1  33.0  3  27.0  4  28.0  Leisure-time  2  67.0  8  57.0  0 0  0.0 0.0  6 1  55.0  L i b e r a l Education P e r s o n a l Development  9.0  1  8.0  1  9.0  1  8.0  Home and F a m i l y L i f e C u r r e n t Events  0 0  0.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  0.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  Total  3  100.0  11  100.0  14  100.0  Courses Taken P r o f e s s i o n a l , T e c h n i c a l and  The three m a l e s e n r o l l e d i n c l a s s e s offered i n 1968 took them i n Vancouver while the eleven females took their courses i n Port Coquitlam and Coquitlam.  A l l three m e n took a full academic y e a r whereas a little l e s s than  one-half of the women d i d .  Only one male and three females took a second  course last y e a r . Of the t h i r t y » s e v e n persons who had taken adult courses between 1960 and 1968, thirty were women and seven were m e n .  T h i s means that thirty (33  per cent) of the sample group of women and seven (30 per cent) of the sample  61  group of m e n had taken an adult course between these y e a r s .  A l m o s t half of  these m e n had taken l i b e r a l education subjects and the r e m a i n d e r took l e i s u r e * time or job^training c o u r s e s .  Only one of the women had taken a l i b e r a l  education course but eleven (40 per cent) had taken some kind of j o b * t r a i n i n g c l a s s and ten (33 per cent) l e i s u r e » t i m e c l a s s e s ( T a b l e X I ) .  Once again,  so  few m e n ( seven) took c o u r s e s d u r i n g the y e a r s 1960 to 1968 that statistical analysis of the difference between m e n and women and types of courses taken was not p o s s i b l e ,  T A B L E XI F R E Q U E N C Y DISTRIBUTI O N O F C O U R S E S T A K E N BY M A L E S A N D F E M A L E S  1960«68  Male  Female  %  No.  2  26.0  Leisure«time L i b e r a l Education Personal Development  2  26,0  3 0  48,0 0o0  Home and F a m i l y L i f e C u r r e n t Events  0 0  Total  7  C o u r s e s taken  No.  Vocational  Total  %  No.  %  11 10 1 4  40.0  13  35.0  33,0 1.0 14,0  12  33,0 11.0 11.0  0.0 0,0  2  6.0 6.0  2 2  5.0  2  100,0  30  100.0  37  100.0  P r o f e s s i o n a l , T e c h n i c a l and  4 4  5.0  No m a l e s took c o u r s e s i n Port C o q u i t l a m » » p r a c t i c a l l y a l l were in V a n c o u v e r « * a n d of the w o m e n , almost o n e » h a l f of the c o u r s e s were taken i n Vancouver.  Many of these women stated their course was taken either before  they were m a r r i e d or when they were first m a r r i e d and l i v i n g i n V a n c o u v e r , The data indicated a definite trend to women taking m o r e courses as one moves through the y e a r s 1960 to 1968 until o n e « q u a r t e r of those taking c o u r s e s between these y e a r s were doing so i n 1967.  Only one male and three  females i n the total sample took m o r e than three c o u r s e s i n the past eight y e a r s studied.  M a l e s said they took courses predominately for job promotion and  62  females took courses mostly to help with the job they held at the time they took the course (Table XII),  T A B L E XII F R E Q U E N C Y DISTRIBUTION O F M A L E S ' A N D F E M A L E S * S T A T E D REASONS F O R T A K I N G COURSES  Male Reason  No.  Female  %.  No.  ...%  Total No.  %  T o help on job held at time  2  29.0  13  43.0  15  41.0  Prepare for new job  2  29.0  1  3.0  3  8.0  0  0.0  5  17.0  5  13.0  f r o m home  2  29.0  1  3.0  3  8.0  Spend spare time m o r e enjoyably  1  13.0  5  17.0  6  16.0  Meet new and interesting people  0  0.0  3  10.0  3  8.0  M y r e l i g i o u s life  0  0  0.0  2  7.0  Become better informed p e r s o n  0 0  0 2  0.0  Get away f r o m daily routine  0.0 0.0 0.0  0  0.0  None of these  0  0.0  0  7  100.0  30  H e l p i n c a r r y i n g out duties around home Help i n c a r r y i n g out duties away  Total  4.  6.0 0.0  0.0  0 0  100.0  37  100.0  0.0  U r b a n v e r s u s S e r v i c e v e r s u s R u r a l Participation Of the seventy persons l i v i n g on r e s i d e n t i a l zoned l a n d , d u r i n g the  1967-68 y e a r , twelve (17 per cent) attended adult c l a s s e s . little m o r e than half were r e p e a t e r s .  Of those twelve, a  Not one of the fifteen persons l i v i n g i n  the s e r v i c e zone took a c l a s s and only two (7 per cent) of the r u r a l respondents. In a l l three zones most people taking courses took either job oriented or l e i s u r e time c l a s s e s . The data on the y e a r s f r o m 1960-68 indicate that twenty*four urban persons took adult c l a s s e s , six s e r v i c e people and seven r u r a l persons (Table XLU)0  M o s t of these people took courses to "help on the job they held at the  63  T A B L E XLU FREQUENCY  DISTRIBUTION O F C O U R S E S T A K E N IN 1960*68  BY R E S P O N D E N T S L I V I N G IN T H E T H R E E L A N D Z O N E S Urban Course  No,  Professional, T e c h * n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l Leisure«time L i b e r a l Education  Service  %  .  Rural  Total  No.  %  No.  %  No.  %  9  38.0  3  50.0  2  29.0  14  38.0  7 3  29.0  1  17.0  4  33.0  1  17.0  1  57.0 14.0  12  13.0.  5  14 o 0 8.0  Personal D e v e l o p * ment  2  8.0  1  16.0  0  0.0  3  Home & F a m i l y L i f e  2  8.0'  0  0.0  0  0.0  2  5.0  C u r r e n t Events  1  4.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  1  2.0  24  100.0  6  100.0  7  100.0  37  100.0  Total  t i m e " (Table X I V ) . T h e s e c o u r s e s were taken almost equally i n the three areas designated i n the s t u d y « « P o r t C o q u i t l a m , Coquitlam and V a n c o u v e r . T h e r e does s e e m to be an i n c r e a s e i n both r u r a l and urban persons taking c o u r s e s over the y e a r s f r o m 1960*68 but not for the s e r v i c e g r o u p . D a t a on the numbers of persons having taken courses i n r u r a l and s e r v i c e areas is once again so s m a l l that it is doubtful whether this trend i s r e l i a b l e .  B.  1.  I N T E R E S T IN A D U L T E D U C A T I O N  Index of C o u r s e Satisfaction A f i v e « p o i n t scale was designed by the author to determine how m u c h  the participant i n adult c l a s s e s felt he had benefited f r o m courses taken over the past y e a r .  O f the fourteen persons taking a course i n 1967*68, six (39  p e r cent) said they benefited a v e r y l a r g e amount. benefited a l a r g e amount.  F o u r (29 per cent) said they  T h r e e (21 per cent) said a fair amount; no one said  a s m a l l amount and one (11 per cent) said he did not get anything f r o m the c o u r s e .  T A B L E XIV F R E Q U E N C Y DISTRIBUTION O F R E A S O N S F O R T A K I N G C O U R S E S BY R E S P O N D E N T S L I V I N G IN T H E T H R E E L A N D Z O N E S  Urban  Service  %  No.  9 2  38„0  5  83.0  8.0  0  0.0  Help c a r r y out duties around home  4  17o0  0  0.0  Help c a r r y out duties away f r o m home  2  8.0  0  0.0  Spend spare time m o r e enjoyably  3  13 0  1  Meet new people  2  0  Religious life Get away f r o m routine  0  8.0 0„0  2  Become better informed  0  None of these  0  Reason T o help on job T o p r e p a r e for new job  Total  Npo  24  .  Total  %  No.  %  1  14.0  15  40.0  1  14.0  3  8.0  1  14.0  5  13.0  1  14.0  3  8.0  17.0  2  30.0  6  0.0  1  14.0  3  16.0 8.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  8 0  0  0.0  0  0.0  0 2  6.0  0.0 0„0  0  0.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  37  100.0  o  o  100.0  6  .  %  Rural  100.0  . .No...  7  100.0  0.0  65  When the data collected on this scale included those persons who had taken an adult education course d u r i n g the past eight y e a r s , this information was revealed;  six (16 per cent) said they had-benefited a v e r y l a r g e amount;  (28 per cent) said a large amount; thirteen (35 per cent) a fair amount;  ten three  (8 per cent) a s m a l l amount and five (13 per cent) said they had not benefited at all  ( F i g u r e 7). T h e data with respect to the scale of course satisfaction was distributed  a c c o r d i n g to sex and amount of satisfaction gained f r o m c o u r s e s taken both i n 1968 and for the p e r i o d 1960-68 ( T a b l e s X V and X V I ) . While t h i r t y - f o u r (84 per cent) of the females rated t h e i r courses above the mid-point on the s c a l e , four (43 p e r cent) of the males said that the courses taken did not benefit them i n any way.  U s i n g the K o l m o g o r o v Smirnov two-sample test, these differences were  not found to be significant at the .05 l e v e l and the hypothesis was upheld. It i s interesting to note that while so many male respondents were negative about p r e v i o u s l y taken c o u r s e s , when asked i f they would take another, s i x of the seven who had taken courses between 1960 and 1968 said  "yes".  C o n v e r s e l y , m o r e women were satisfied with c o u r s e s , many highly satisfied, but fewer, twenty*three (76 p e r cent), said they would take another. Slightly m o r e r u r a l people were happy with the adult c l a s s e s taken than were urban people.  Persons l i v i n g i n the s e r v i c e a r e a were most unhappy with  c o u r s e s taken i n the past—half of them (three) saying they got little o r nothing f r o m the c o u r s e .  Once again the differences were not significant at the .05 l e v e l  of confidence and the hypothesis was upheld (Tables XVII and XVIII).  2.  A n Overview of Interest i n Adult Education When those respondents who had taken courses were asked what t h e i r  most important r e a s o n for taking their latest course was, the l a r g e s t percentage (40 p e r cent or fifteen i n number) r e p l i e d they did so to help on the job that they held at the t i m e . Respondents who had taken adult night c l a s s e s , were then asked i f they had r e c e n t l y thought that they might like to e n r o l l i n some other type of adult  Very large amount  Large amount  Fair amount  Small . amount  Not at all  FIGURE 7 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS WHO TOOK A D U L T COURSES BY D E G R E E OF COURSE SATISFACTION  67  TABLE X V DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S W H O T O O K  COURSES  IN 1968 BY S E X A N D C O U R S E S A T I S F A C T I O N  Male  Female  Total  No,  %  No.  %  No.  %  Not at a l l  1  33.0  0  0.0  1  11.0  S m a l l amount  0  0.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  Fair  1  33.0  2  18.0  3  21.0  L a r g e amount  0  0.0  4  37.0  4  29.0  V e r y l a r g e amount  1  33.0  5  45.0  6  39.0  3  100.0  11  100.0  14  100.0  Scale of Benefit  Amount  Total  K o l m o g o r o v - S m i r n o v t w o « s a m p l e test: difference is not significant at the .05 level.  D M a x = .49  TABLE XVI DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S W H O T O O K  COURSES  1960-68 BY S E X A N D C O U R S E S A T I S F A C T I O N  Male  Female  Total  No.  %  No.  %  No.  %  Not at a l l  3  43.0  2  7.0  5  13.0  S m a l l amount  0  0.0  3  10.0  3  8.0  F a i r amount  2  28.0  11  36.0  13  35.0  L a r g e amount  2  29.0  8  27.0  10  28.0  V e r y l a r g e amount  0  0.0  6  20.0  6  16.0  7  100.0  30  100.0  37  100.0  Scale o f Benefit  Total K o l m o g o r o v - S m i r n o v two-sample test:  difference is not significant at the . 05 level.  D M a x = .36  68  T A B L E XVII DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S W H O T O O K C O U R S E S IN 1968 BY R E S I D E N C E A N D C O U R S E S A T I S F A C T I O N  Urban  Rural  Total  No.  %  No.  %  No.  %  Not at a l l  1  9.0  1  33.0  2  13.0  S m a l l amount  0  0.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  F a i r amount  3  27.0  1  33.0  4  29.0  L a r g e amount  3  27.0  1  33.0  4  29.0  V e r y l a r g e amount  4  37.0  0  0.0  4  29.0  .11.  100.0  3  100.0  14  100.0  Scale of Benefit  Total  K o l m o g o r o v - S m i r n o v two*sample test: Difference is not significant at the .05 l e v e l . D M a x = . 58  T A B L E XVIII DISTRIBUTION O F RESPONDENTS W H O T O O K COURSES 1960-68 BY R E S I D E N C E A N D C O U R S E S A T I S F A C T I O N  Urban  Service  Rural  Total  No.  %.  No.  %  No.  %  No.  %  Not at a l l  3  12.0  1  17.0  1  13.0  5  14.0  S m a l l amount  1  4.0  2  32.0  0  0.0  3  8.0  10  42.0  1  17.0  2  29.0  13  35.0  L a r g e amount  7  30.0  1  17.0  2  29.0  10  27.0  V e r y l a r g e amount  3  12.0  1  17.0  2  29.0  6  16.0  24  100.0  6  100.0  7  100.0  37  100.0  Scale of Benefit  F a i r amount  Total  K o l m o g o r o v - S m i r n o v two-sample test: Difference is not significant at the .05 level.  69  education c l a s s , said " n o " .  Twenty*nine (78 per cent) said " y e s " and eight (22 per cent)  M o s t of the people interested wanted to take l e i s u r e time  a c t i v i t i e s « - e i g h t e e n (51 per cent).  A l l of these people who wanted courses  wanted them made available i n Port C o q u i t l a m . Respondents who had not taken any night school c l a s s e s were asked i f they had ever considered doing s o .  Fifty said " y e s " and twenty-five " n o " .  Once again the l a r g e s t percentage of persons wanting courses were interested in l e i s u r e time activities (Table X I X ) .  Of these fifty people wanting c o u r s e s ,  t h i r t y » n i n e (78 per cent) wanted them made available i n Port C o q u i t l a m ,  T A B L E XIX F R E Q U E N C Y DISTRIBUTION O F RESPONDENTS* PROGRAM A R E A INTEREST Respondents T y p e of C o u r s e  who have taken course  Respondents who have not taken course  Total  No.  %  No.  %  No.  %  6  16.0  13  16.0  18  19.0  P r o f e s s i o n a l , T e c h n i c a l and Vocational  18  51.0  23  31.0  41  L i b e r a l Education  Leisure»time  3  8.0  12.0  12  37.0 10.0  P e r s o n a l Development  2  5.0  0  0  5.0 0.0  6  Home and F a m i l y L i f e  5.0 0.0  9 4  0  0.0  C u r r e n t Events  0  0.0  1  1.0  1  1.0  Other Not interested  0 8  0.0 20.0  0 25  0.0 35.0  0 33  0.0 28.0  Total  37  100.0  75  100.0  112  100.0  The stated p r o g r a m interests of respondents were divided into two c a t e g o r i e s « « j o b » o r i e n t e d and individual oriented c o u r s e s .  The c h i « s q u a r e  computed for this distribution was not significant (Table X X ) . T h o s e persons i n the sample who had not taken any adult education c l a s s e s were presented with a p r e v i o u s l y drafted l i s t of possible reasons for not  70  TABLE XX D I S T R I B U T I O N O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY P R O G R A M A R E A I N T E R E S T AND PARTICIPATION  Respondents T y p e of C o u r s e  who have taken course  Respondents who have not taken course  Total  No.  %  No.  %  No.  %  23  64.0  37  50.0  60  54.0  Individual oriented  6  16.0  12  16.0  18  15.0  Not  interested  8  20.0  26  34.0  35  31.0  Total  37  100.0  75  100.0  112  100.0  Job~ oriented  X 2 = .90, d.f. =2,  not significant.  attending and were asked to state which statements applied to t h e m . p e r s o n s m a r k e d m o r e than one statement. were:  Many  The most commonly given answers  " I ' m too busy with other things and don't have the t i m e " , and " I ' m not  the bookish t y p e " .  A v a r i e t y of other answers and the number of respondents  suggesting these answers are listed i n T a b l e X X I . No one stated that a swing shift would be a b a r r i e r to attending c l a s s .  3.  Interest i n Adult Education of M a l e s v e r s u s F e m a l e s A s stated p r e v i o u s l y twenty-three out of thirty and six out of the seven  men said they would like to attend adult c l a s s e s again.  Those men who evinced  interest i n further adult p r o g r a m s said they would like to take future courses for job promotion o r l e i s u r e t i m e .  T h i s was an interest both for nine men who  had p r e v i o u s l y taken courses and the men who had not.  T h e women were  p r i m a r i l y interested i n l e i s u r e time c l a s s e s , job t r a i n i n g and l i b e r a l arts courses.  Both m a l e s and females said they would like to take these c o u r s e s i n  Port C o q u i t l a m .  71  TABLE XXI F R E Q U E N C Y DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S * R E A S O N S FOR N O T ATTENDING A D U L T CLASSES  Reason C o u r s e s not interesting  No.  %  8  7.0  Don't need c l a s s e s  11  10.0  T o o busy-  41  37.0  Too tired  18  16.0  4  4.0  Not bookish type  23  21.0  T o o old  14  13.0  Couldn't afford F a m i l y objects  17 2  15.0  F e e l childish  2.0  When respondents who d i d not attend c l a s s e s were asked their reasons for not doing so, the data indicates that a slightly l a r g e r percentage of females said they could not afford to attend c l a s s e s whereas a slightly l a r g e r percentage of m e n said they do not find the adult courses sound interesting (Table XXII).  4.  Interest i n Adult Education of Respondents i n T h r e e Residential A r e a s Twenty-one of the twenty-four urban people who had taken c l a s s e s  wanted to attend again and just over half of them wanted l e i s u r e - t i m e c l a s s e s . T w o of the three s e r v i c e people would like to take c l a s s e s again and a l l but one would like to take l i b e r a l arts c l a s s e s .  Six of the seven r u r a l people would like  to attend c l a s s e s again and four of these would be interested i n l e i s u r e - t i m e activities. When the reasons given by non-attenders at c l a s s were l i s t e d a c c o r d i n g to the three r e s i d e n t i a l areas identified i n this study, respondents i n each of the three groups gave " I ' m too busy with other things and just dnn't have the t i m e " and " I ' m not the bookish t y p e " as their most frequent answers (Table XXIII).  72  T A B L E XXII F R E Q U E N C Y D I S T R I B U T I O N O F R E S P O N S E S G I V E N BY M A L E S A N D F E M A L E S F O R N O T A T T E N D I N G CLASSES  Male Reasons  Female  Total  No,  %  No.  %  No.  %  3  11.0  5  4,0  8  6.0  9 31  8.0  11  8.0  28,0  41  30.0  17 3  15.0  18  13.0  3.0  4  3.0  17.0  23  17.0  Don't sound interesting Can l e a r n without c l a s s e s  2  7.0  T o o busy-  10  37o0  Too tired  4.0  F e e l childish  1 1  Not booki sh type  4  15,0  19  T o o old  4  15,0  10  9.0  14  10.0  Can't afford  2  7.0  14.0  0  0,0  2,0  17 2  12,0  F a m i l y Objects  15 2  Other  0  0.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  27  100.0  111  100.0  138  100,0  Total  TABLE  4„0  1,0  XXIII  F R E Q U E N C Y D I S T R I B U T I O N O F R E S P O N S E S G I V E N BY R E S P O N D E N T S L I V I N G IN T H R E E R E S I D E N T I A L Z O N E S F O R N O T A T T E N D I N G C L A S S E S Urban Reasons  Service  Rural  Total  No.  %  No.  %  No.  %  No.  %  5  6.0  3  11.0  0  0.0  8  6.0  Don't sound i n t e r e s ting Can l e a r n without classes  6  7.0  2  7.0  3  9.0  11  8.0  T o o busy  23  29,0  7  25.0  11  34,0  41  30.0  Too tired  10  13.0 4,0  4  14.0  4  13.0  18  13,0  0  0,0  1  3.0  4  3.0  23  17,0  F e e l childish Not bookish type T o o old  3 11  14.0  6  21.0  6  19.0  9  12,0  1  4,0  4  13.0  14  10.0  9.0  17  12,0  Can't afford  9  12.0  5  18.0  3  F a m i l y Objects  2  3.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  2  1.0  0.0  0  0.0  100.0  138  100.0  Other Total  0  0.0  0  0.0  0  78  100.0  28  100.0  32  73  C„  P A T T E R N S O F MASS M E D I A USE  In this section of the study,, an attempt was made to a s c e r t a i n what the patterns of m a s s m e d i a use of the sample population w e r e .  A s i n the previous  section, data w i l l be presented f i r s t with respect to the total population, then with respect to male v e r s u s female population and finally for the urban v e r s u s s e r v i c e v e r s u s r u r a l population,,  1.  P e r c e i v e d Communication About Adult P r o g r a m s A l l persons who had taken courses were asked how they had come to  hear about courses they had taken,  F m d i n g s indicate that friends and neighbours,  mentioned by eighteen (35 per cent) were the most often named source of i n f o r « mation.  Other sources are listed i n T a b l e X X I V ,  It i s interesting to note that  although one respondent mentioned r a d i o as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n , no advertisements r e g a r d i n g course content was given over the r a d i o * - o n l y spot announcements t e l l i n g of the enrollment for c l a s s e s i n the f a l l .  TABLE XXIV F R E Q U E N C Y DISTRIBUTION O F F O R M O F C O M M U N I C A T I O N R E C E I V E D ABOUT A D U L T PROGRAMS  F o r m of Communication  No,  F r i e n d s and neighbours  18  35,0  Mailed brochure  13  26.0  Notice sent home with school child  8  16,0  E m p l o y e r or s u p e r v i s o r at w o r k  7  14.0  Newspaper  4  7.0  Radio  1  2,0  Television  0  0.0  51  100.0  Total  74  2.  T h e Printed W o r d a.  T h e Brochure  The night school b r o c h u r e , which was sent through the public m a i l s to e v e r y resident of the school d i s t r i c t , was r e p o r t e d l y r e c e i v e d by only seventyeight (70 per cent) of the respondents.  A l m o s t half of these kept the b r o c h u r e  and the r e s t either threw it away or did not r e m e m b e r what they did with it (Table X X V ) . When the information collected on the m a i l e d brochure was r e l a t e d to m a l e s and females it was found that sixty-five (74 per cent) of the females r e c e i v e d the brochure whereas thirteen (57 per cent) of the m a l e s said they d i d (Table X X V I ) .  Applying the K o l m o g o r o v S m i r n o v two-sample test, no significant  difference was found at the .05 l e v e l , between m a l e s and f e m a l e s , and the hypothesis was upheld.  b.  Newspapers  Data on newspaper subscriptions to both d a i l i e s and weeklies r e v e a l that sixty-seven (60 per cent) of the sample population subscribe to the Vancouver Sun.,  eleven (10 per cent) to the Vancouver daily Province and seventeen (15 per  cent) to the daily New W e s t m i n s t e r C o l u m b i a n .  Sixteen (14 per cent) of the  sample did not take any newspaper, eleven (10 per cent) took two dailies and two (2 per cent) took the three d a i l i e s mentioned. T h e Port Coquitlam weekly H e r a l d had a l a r g e r c i r c u l a t i o n than any of the much l a r g e r d a t t i e s » * s i x t y * n i n e (64 per cent) r e c e i v e d this paper  (Figure 8  ).  Approximately the same percentage of subscriptions to the Vancouver Sun were r e c e i v e d by urban and r u r a l residents (sixty*five per cent). fifth of Sun subscriptions were r e c e i v e d i n s e r v i c e z o n e s .  Only one-  75  TABLE XXV D I S T R I B U T I O N O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY S E X A N D D I S P O S A L OF BROCHURE  Male D i s p o s a l of Brochure  Female  No.  %.  No.  Total  %  No.  %  K e e p it  8  61.0  46  68.0  54  69.0  Give it to somebody  1  8.0  2  3.0  3  4.0  T h r o w it away  3  23.0  16  28.0  19  24.0  Other  1  8.0  1  1.0  2  3.0  13  100.0  65  100.0  78  100.0  Total Kolmogorov-Smirnov  two-sample test: difference is not significant at the level.  .05  D M a x = . 07  TABLE XXVI F R E Q U E N C Y D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N E W S P A P E R S BY RESIDENCE AND NEWSPAPER  Urban Category  No.'  Service %  .  Rural  No.  %  No.  Total %  No.  %  Vancouver Sun daily  44  26.0  4  20.0  19  35.0  67  29.0  Vancouver Province daily  74  44.0  3  15.0  11  21.0  88  36.0  6  3.0  6  30.0  5  9.0  17  7.0  43  26.0  7  35.0  19  35.0  69  28.0  167  .100.0  20  100.0  54  100.0  241  100.0  New W e s t m i n s t e r Columbian daily Coquitlam H e r a l d weekly Total  Sun  Province  Columbian  Herald  J  |  I  i  i  i  |  5  10  15  20  25  30  35  Number of  I 40  i  i  I  |  |  45  50  55  60  65  Persons  FIGURE 8 D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N E W S P A P E R SUBSCRIPTIONS BY D A I L Y A N D W E E K L Y NEWSPAPER  | 70  77  3.  T h e Other Communications M e d i a Of the 112 persons i n the s a m p l e , one hundred and eight (97 per cent)  had r a d i o s 0  T h o s e persons with radios were asked what station they listened  to most frequently.  T h e r e p l i e s w e r e : fifty (45 per cent) C K N W and twenty-five  (22 per cent) CJJC ( F i g u r e 9 ).  E i g h t y » t w o (83 p e r cent) of the respondents  l i s t e n to their r a d i o s most frequently i n the m o r n i n g , eighteen (10 per cent) i n the afternoon and eight (7 per cent) i n the evening,,  F r e q u e n c y distributions of  both males*and females' favourite radio stations and urban, s e r v i c e , and r u r a l respondents' favourite r a d i o station are l i s t e d i n T a b l e s X X V I I and X X V I I I . One hundred and four respondents owned t e l e v i s i o n s .  Respondents  most frequently watched these stations: forty*five (40 per cent) watched C T V , thirty-one (28 per cent) watched C B U , and twenty-two (20 per cent) watched KVOS-CBS  ( F i g u r e 10 ).  F r e q u e n c y distributions of both males* and females*  favourite T V station and u r b a n , s e r v i c e , and r u r a l respondents* favourite T V station are l i s t e d i n T a b l e s X X I X and X X X .  A l l but four respondents with  televisions said they viewed most often i n the evening. Of the total sample population, four persons did not own a r a d i o and eight did not own a t e l e v i s i o n .  Investigation r e v e a l e d that i n a l l cases r e s p o n -  dents had either one m e d i a or the o t h e r .  That i s , no one i n the sample  population was without one of the m e d i a but a s m a l l percentage r e l i e d on the use of either t e l e v i s i o n or r a d i o to r e c e i v e instant m a s s communications.  78  55  r-  50  45  40  w  u  35  CD  a m O  n  2  25  20  15  10  CKNW  CKWX  CJOR  CHQM  CBC  CKLG  CJJC  Radio Station most frequently listened to  FIGURE 9 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY RADIO STATION MOST F R E Q U E N T L Y LISTENED TO  KIRO  79  TABLE  XXVII  F R E Q U E N C Y DISTRIBUTION O F R A D I O S T A T I O N L I S T E N E D T O BY M A L E A N D F E M A L E R E S P O N D E N T S Male Radio Station  Female No.  No.  Total No.  %  CKNW  11  50.0  39  43.0  50  45.0  CKWX  0  0.0  8  10.0  8  7.0  CJOR  1  4.0  4  4.0  5  4.0  CHQM  1  4.0  4  4.0  5  4.0  CBC  0  0.0  2  2.0  2  2.0  CKLG  3  12.0  6  7.0  9  8.0  CJJC  5  22.0  20  23.0  25  23.0  D i d not answer  2  8.0  6  7.0  8  7.0  23  100.0  89  100.0  112  100.0  Total  TABLE  XXVIII  F R E Q U E N C Y DISTRIBUTION O F RADIO STATION LISTENED T O BY R E S P O N D E N T S IN T H R E E L A N D Z O N E S Urban  Service  Rural  Total  No.  %  No.  . % .  53.0  13  48.0  50  45.0  0  0.0  3  10.0  8  7.0  3.0  3  20.0  0  0.0  5  4.0  4  6.0  0  0.0  1  3.0  5  4.0  CBC  2  3.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  2  2.0  CKLG  5  7.0  1  7.0  3  10.0  9  8.0  17  24.0  3  20.0  5  21.0  25  22.0  9.0  0  0.0  2  8.0  .8.  . 7,0  100.0  15  100.0  27  100.0  Radio Station  No.  CKNW  29  41.0  8  CKWX  5  7.0  CJOR  2  CHQM  CJJC D i d not answer Total  . 6 70  No.  112  100.0  80  50  45  40  35  w  u 30 <L)  25  20 3  15  10  2  4  CBU  COMO  KING  5  KIRO  ABC  NBC  CBS  T.V.  12  7 CTV  KVOS  Channel most frequently watched  F I G U R E 10 D I S T R I B U T I O N O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY T V CHANNEL MOST F R E Q U E N T L Y VIEWED  CBS  81  T A B L E XXIX F R E Q U E N C Y DISTRIBUTION O F T E L E V I S I O N S T A T I O N L I S T E N E D T O BY M A L E A N D F E M A L E  RESPONDENTS  Male T e l e v i s i o n Station  No.  Female . . % . . ..  No.  Total  ...%.  No.  %  2 * CBU  7  29.0  24  27.0  31  28.0  4 * COMO * ABC  0  0.0  4  4.0  4  4.0  5 » KING - NBC  0  0.0  1  1.0  1  1.0  7 « K I R O - CBS  0  0.0  1  1.0  1  1.0  10  46.0  35  39.0  45  40.0  12 - K V O S - CBS  4  17.0  18  21.0  22  19.0  D i d not answer  2  8.0  6  7.0  8  7.0  23  100.0  89  100.0  112  100.0  8 • CTV  Total  TABLE XXX F R E Q U E N C Y DISTRIBUTION O F T E L E V I S I O N S T A T I O N L I S T E N E D T O BY R E S P O N D E N T S L I V I N G IN T H R E E L A N D Z O N E S Urban T e l e v i s i o n Station  No..  2 - CBU  Service  Rural  Total  %  No.  %  No.  %  No.  25  35.0  5  34.0  2  7.0  31  28.0  4 * COMO - ABC  3  5.0  1  7.0  2  7.0  4  3.0  5 « K I N G «• N B C  1  1.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  1  1.0  7 ~ K I R O - CBS  1  1.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  1  1.0  8 • CTV  24  34.0  5  33.0  0  0.0  45  40.0  12 « K V O S * CBS  12  18.0  2  13.0  15  59.0  22  20.0  4  6.0  2  13.0  2  7.0  8  7.0  70  100.0  15  100.0  27  100.0  112  100.0  D i d not answer Total  %  C H A P T E R VI  SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS  I n t his study an attempt was made to study the community of Port Coquitlam and a s c e r t a i n effective patterns of communication to residents w i t h respect to adult education classes,, of a l l block areas i n the City was  T o do this a twenty per cent sample  selected at r a n d o m and a householder i n  the f i r s t and fifth house i n each of these blocks was interviewed., F i ndings indicate that the city of Port Coquitlam i s a v e r y h o m o * geneous community,. Not only are there few statistically significant differences between the factors studied for males and females i n the population but also there are no statistically significant differences between the groups of residents l i v i n g i n the three designated land zones and the s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s studied for these p a i r i n g s .  A.  SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS  M o s t of the 112 persons interviewed for this study were m a r r i e d and l i v i n g with spouses and c h i l d r e n .  Although a random attempt to interview  m e m b e r s of both sexes was made, many m o r e women (eighty*nine) than men  82  83  (twenty-three) answered the door to the interviewer*s c a l l so that the female pool i n the sample is much l a r g e r than the m a l e .  Unequal pools were also  revealed when the r a n d o m sampling of households i n the community designated that seventy respondents lived on r e s i d e n t i a l zoned land, fifteen on s e r v i c e zoned land and twenty-seven on land zoned r u r a l .  1.  Employment By occupation, which was calculated on the basis of male heads of  households, Port Coquitlam has been found to be a working class community. Although the only statistically significant difference found i n the study was related to occupations held by m a l e s and females—most women work full-time i n the home—there was evidence that the majority of wage e a r n e r s are w o r k i n g at the s e m i - s k i l l e d or unskilled l e v e l of w o r k .  T h e r e were no significant  differences i n the occupations of wage e a r n e r s l i v i n g i n the three land zones. Blishen's " A S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Index for Occupations i n Canada" revealed the presence of two sizeable groups of w o r k e r s , i . e . , P s y c h i a t r i c N u r s e , S e r v i c e station attendant.  In the m a i n , persons who work outside the home are neither  highly trained nor w e l l p a i d . population is r e a d i l y evident.  T h e need for upgrading and r e t r a i n i n g i n such a Just how this can best be accomplished—through  the public school s y s t e m or some other agency—is not the concern of this study. What i s of concern in. this study is to point out that communications r e g a r d i n g the availability of job-oriented courses through the public school system should be w e l l r e c e i v e d in this population. Some definite limitations i n the use of the Blishen scale were found i n this study.  F o r example, because the index l i s t s only occupations for m e n , no  account was taken of the occupations of women who were the sole support of their f a m i l i e s .  N o r was an index r e c o r d e d for women who were m a r r i e d , l i v i n g  with spouses and contributing to the economic status of the f a m i l y .  Although  Blishen*s rationale for l i s t i n g only occupations for m e n is that the s o c i a l status of the family is related to the occupation of the husband—or male—the author feels that the e a r n i n g power of a woman and her position in the labour force can  84  and does, influence the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c standing of a family i n the community. Another limitation was the complete absence of any index for r e t i r e d m a l e s or r e t i r e d and widowed f e m a l e s .  T h e opinion here is that to neglect to include  such factors as the above i n the total s c o r e f o r a community would r e s u l t i n a m i s l e a d i n g and inaccurate tally of the socio-economic index for that community. A p a r t , however, f r o m these limitations the scale did r e v e a l a number of occupations which suggest that many residents may be w o r k i n g a rotating shift. T h e extent of this factor would influence the appeal of communications r e g a r d i n g r e g u l a r l y scheduled c l a s s e s and should be further  2.  investigated.  S o c i a l Participation Chapin's S o c i a l Participation scale—used on respondents in this  study-  indicated that v e r y few people participated i n group activities either i n this community or i n adjoining ones.  No significant difference was found to exist  between s o c i a l participation of m a l e s and females o r between persons l i v i n g i n the three land zones.  T h e only s o c i a l group that e m e r g e d at a l l for women was  the l o c a l "housewives bowling league" and for m e n the "labour u n i o n " . The r e s e a r c h presented i n Chapter III which suggested that low p a r t i c i pation i n s o c i a l groups indicated low use of avenues of information w i l l have to be taken note of i n this study.  Perhaps the factors contributing to a low l e v e l of  s o c i a l participation i n the sample are lengthy commuter t r a v e l for people who work i n the c i t y , shift w o r k , or low l e v e l of i n c o m e .  Whatever the cause, it i s  not l i k e l y that using community groups as a means of communicating with the public w i l l result i n much i n c r e a s e d participation or interest i n adult education. T h e fifteen l o c a l organizations l i s t e d in the city d i r e c t o r y s i m p l y w i l l not h a v e a c c o r d i n g to projections f r o m this study—many m e m b e r s .  While these groups  might be useful to indicate to planners needs for p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e s ,  nevertheless,  on any p r i o r i t y scale for p r e f e r r e d means of communicating with the public they would have to rank l o w . With r e s p e c t to the use of the Chapin scale i n this study, it had definite limitations.  F o r instance, although attendance at church was excluded as a group  85  activity m e r i t i n g a s c o r e , there was no d i r e c t i v e to exclude the trade union as a s o c i a l group,,  Since the trade union i s a group to which most working persons  must belong, and church i s a voluntary organization to which persons belong by inclination and c h o i c e , the rationale for excluding attendance at church s e r v i c e and including the trade union i n a score of social participation seems m i s l e a d i n g — e s p e c i a l l y i n view of the fact that this scale was drafted for use i n 1938 when attending church was much m o r e a part of the average person's life than it i s today.  T h e number of employed persons i n this study who admitted to m e m b e r -  ship i n a union—and to paying m e m b e r s h i p dues—but who never attended meetings o r held office i s support for the view that the trade union cannot be considered a s o c i a l group.  B.  PARTICIPATION A N D I N T E R E S T  Participation i n adult education c l a s s e s i n Port Coquitlam was found to be low i n this study.  F u r t h e r , participation did not follow c l o s e l y the p a r t i c i p a -  tion found i n other adult education r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s 1 that indicate women participate predominately i n l e i s u r e - t i m e activities and m e n participate p r e dominately i n job-oriented c o u r s e s .  H o w e v e r , i n this study no statistical  analysis of this factor with respect to either males and females or persons l i v i n g in the three land zones was possible due to the s m a l l frequencies i n the p o o l s . A n interesting finding with r e g a r d to the kinds of l e i s u r e - t i m e that women have been taking was noted.  courses  F o r example, it was r e c o r d e d that a  l a r g e number of women who had taken n o n - c r e d i t c l a s s e s had taken d r i v e r o r sewing c l a s s e s .  teaming  While these courses were categorized as l e i s u r e - t i m e the  suggestion here i s that they are m o r e job-oriented than l e i s u r e - t i m e .  F o r many  of these women who l i v e i n an a r e a where there i s no public transportation the need to d r i v e to get household supplies and to f e r r y c h i l d r e n about can be c o n s i d e r e d a n e c e s s a r y part of a housewife's job.  T h e sewing course would come  J . G . D i c k i n s o n , "Patterns of Participation i n a Public Adult Night School P r o g r a m " , op. c i t . 1  86  into the same category for to p r o p e r l y clothe a number of c h i l d r e n on a l i m i t e d budget a woman needs to have d r e s s m a k i n g s k i l l s „  In a sense then these courses  for women are as job-oriented as are those of m e n who take an evening course for job i m p r o v e m e n t . Another finding with respect to female participation was the gradual but obvious t r e n d over the y e a r s f r o m 1960 to 1968 of i n c r e a s i n g numbers of women participating i n courses designed to prepare them for work outside the h o m e . Since there i s e v e r y r e a s o n to assume that this t r e n d w i l l continue, c o m m u n i c a « tion r e g a r d i n g courses i n typing, bookkeeping and other job-oriented courses w i l l l i k e l y have a p a r t i c u l a r appeal for women residents of Port C o q u i t l a m . When estimating interest of respondents i n adult education the c o n clusion must be that respondents are not only not participating to any great degree in adult education but that their l e v e l of interest i s also not v e r y h i g h .  While the  m a j o r i t y said they would be interested i n taking an adult education course a great many said they had not done so because "they were too busy and just did not have the t i m e " .  T h e difference between what these people say they would like to do and  what they actually do can conservatively be estimated to be the present p a r t i c i p a tion r a t e — w h i c h is l o w . A further indication of the fact that there i s probably not a high l e v e l of interest i n adult p r o g r a m s i n this city i s the rating on the " C o u r s e Satisfaction Scale".  When the l a r g e s t group of respondents feel they only benefited a fair  amount f r o m courses taken interest does not r u n h i g h .  C.  P A T T E R N S O F MASS M E D I A USE  The sources of information through which respondents i n this study had h e a r d about adult,night school c l a s s e s indicate that friends and neighbours are rated v e r y high as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n .  Communication through neighbours  and friends would at f i r s t appear to be a method of advertising for which the school d i s t r i c t would bear no financial cost and i f it i s so effective one might be tempted  87  to rate it extremely high as a " n o n - c o s t " type of c o m m u n i c a t i o n .  However, a  consideration of how these friends and neighbours themselves h e a r d about adult c o u r s e s might w e l l r e v e a l costs to the institution. A s indicated on the first page of this chapter, a r a n d o m attempt to d i s c o v e r who r e c e i v e d personal d o o r « t o « d o o r communications i n the study r e v e a l e d that women were p r i m a r i l y the r e c e i v e r s of these communications. Whether o r not women s i m p l y convey other d o o r « t o » d o o r communications into the home ( i , e , , newspapers,  magazines,  b r o c h u r e s and so on) or whether they  actually r e c e i v e the information contained i n many communications of this kind was not specifically investigated i n this study.  H o w e v e r , i f one were attempting  to a s s e s s how communication operated with r e s p e c t to m a i l drops instead of interviews at the d o o r , some further investigation would be n e c e s s a r y . The brochure rated high as a means of information about adult c l a s s e s for  seventy-eight (70 per cent) of the respondents acknowledged r e c e i p t and half  of these admitted to keeping i t .  While the costs of production are high the  b r o c h u r e is the only permanent r e c o r d of information about c l a s s e s distributed by the school b o a r d and therefore the costs seem justified.  It cannot be c o m -  p a r e d with other kinds of communications which give only m i n i m a l amounts of information (newspapers,notices) and i n the case of r a d i o and television are t r a n s i t o r y i n nature. For  communications through the newspaper, the l a r g e s t c i r c u l a t i o n  paper was the weekly Port Coquitlam H e r a l d .  Because advertising costs i n this  weekly are v e r y m u c h l e s s than they are i n any of the three dailies examined, the w i s d o m of u s i n g this newspaper for communications can r e a d i l y be seen.  The  fact that news coverage i n the s m a l l weekly is r e l a t i v e l y easy to obtain makes this avenue of communication once again, extremely attractive f r o m the senders point of v i e w . With r e s p e c t to r a d i o listening patterns,  stations C K N W and CJJC would  appear to be the most listened to i n this c o m m u n i t y . T h e most popular listening t i m e is the m o r n i n g .  T h e fact that one-quarter of the respondents i n this study  l i s t e n to a r a d i o station (CJJC) that the author—a resident of Port Coquitlam for  88  ten y e a r s — h a d not h e a r d of is of some i n t e r e s t .  Investigation r e v e a l e d the  content of this station to be mostly western m u s i c and l o c a l F r a s e r V a l l e y advertising.  H o w e v e r , the news broadcasts are v e r y s i m i l a r i n content to  those of the metropolitan stations.  T h e question to be posed here is that i f  one-quarter of this sample looks up the v a l l e y instead of to the metropolitan a r e a for t h e i r r a d i o l i s t e n i n g , are these p e r s o n s , r e s e a r c h 2 l o c a l s as opposed to cosmopolites?  i n the sense of M e r t o n * s  If this can be established by  further investigation it would certainly have implications for the way in which influence would operate on these people, and the way i n which communications should be sent.  F o r example, the r e s e a r c h ^ h i c h suggests that communication  on a personal l e v e l and not through the m a s s m e d i a i s the p r e f e r r e d method for use with r u r a l people might i n this community be meaningful. i f differences of a r u r a l - u r b a n kind are substantiated,  H o w e v e r , even  the question i n this  community, where s o c i a l participation i n groups is low, is how to get p e r s o n a l communications to individuals who are essentially isolated i n their h o m e s . T h e door-to-door v i s i t used i n this study is one method; the telephone, which was not used h e r e , although m o r e i m p e r s o n a l , might be another. T h e most viewed t e l e v i s i o n stations i n this study were channels C T V , C B U T and CBS.  T h e s e stations were most often watched i n the evening h o u r s .  A n investigation of the cost of advertising on these stations r e v e a l e d that they w e r e high and would not be r e c o m m e n d e d here due to the limitations of budget and the estimated effectiveness  D.  of other l e s s expensive means of communication.  HYPOTHESIS T E S T I N G  One of the objectives of this study involved the testing of a two-part hypothesis that no statistically significant differences existed between m a l e s and females o r between u r b a n , s e r v i c e and r u r a l residents with r e s p e c t to selected s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as m a r i t a l status, employment, adult kinship i n the h o m e , s o c i a l participation, participation i n adult education, 2  Robert K . M e r t o n , op. c i t . , pp. 415-420.  3  H . T . E . S m i t h , op. c i t . , p p . 53-56.  89  interest i n adult education, and m a s s m e d i a u s e .  T h e r e s u l t s of testing this  statement against twelve selected v a r i a b l e s for the m a l e » f e m a l e dichotomy, and against eleven v a r i a b l e s for the u r b a n , s e r v i c e and r u r a l dichotomy r e v e a l e d that i n a l l instances where it was possible to apply statistical  analysis*«except  for the employment variable—the hypothesis was found acceptable at the „ 0 5 l e v e l of confidence for the m a l e « f e m a l e dichotomy and acceptable for a l l urban, s e r v i c e and r u r a l d i c h o t o m i e s .  1.  Interpretation of Statistical Results G i v e n a population as s m a l l as the one studied, one may expect v e r y  little degree of true statistical relationship between two attributes to show up as significant i n a chi-square test.  Unfortunately, so few m a l e s e m e r g e d i n the  sample that frequently factors for m a l e s fell below the expected frequencies for computing c h i « s q u a r e s .  T h e same situation applied for respondents l i v i n g i n  s e r v i c e and r u r a l land z o n e s .  Where p o s s i b l e , however, the K o l m o g o r o v -  S m i r n o v t w o « s a m p l e test and the c h i « s q u a r e test were u s e d .  E.  1.  SUGGESTIONS F O R F U T U R E PROMOTION AND R E S E A R C H  Promotion Although past attempts to establish adult c l a s s e s for residents of Port  Coquitlam have f a i l e d , indications are that the city should now be able to support a viable p r o g r a m of adult education.  Not only have numbers of persons l i v i n g  i n Port Coquitlam i n c r e a s e d greatly over the past few y e a r s but also participation i n adult c l a s s e s of residents has i n c r e a s e d . g r a m w i l l , however, depend on two things;  T h e establishment of a viable p r o « one, the promotion of courses for  which there are indications that a need exists and two, the utilization of the m o s t effective avenues of communication to the p u b l i c . A s i d e f r o m the avenues of communication used i n the past to residents— by m a i l , through school children and through the m a s s m e d i a on a l i m i t e d basis—  90  s e v e r a l avenues of communication to residents have been determined by this study.  Briefly they a r e : 10  Communication to occupational groups that have appeared i n the study.  2.  T h e use of l o c a l rather than metropolitan newspapers for a d v e r t i s i n g and other types of newspaper  coverage.  3.  Use of r a d i o stations C K N W and CJJC for r a d i o communications.  40  Use of adult advisory council—because of homogeneity of community.  The v e r y high costs involved i n purchasing p r i m e television time on the most l i s t e n e d to t e l e v i s i o n stations C T V and C B U T would not induce the author to r e c o m m e n d their use for paid communications. be approached for p r e s s r e l e a s e s and free time  2.  Rather they should  coverage.  Research The need for additional r e s e a r c h in s e v e r a l a r e a s of community  analysis has become obvious.  F i r s t , with r e s p e c t to the apparent homogeneity  of the population further investigation is needed to support this finding.  Such an  investigation might d e t e r m i n e : 1.  whether there is an ethnic factor present i n this community;  2.  age of respondents;  3.  educational background of the population;  4.  number and age of c h i l d r e n of respondents;  5. degree of mobility of the labour force; 6.  extent of shift-work i n the population.  Besides these f a c t o r s , some investigation of how influence operates i n this community might also help to a s s e s s further how homogeneous is the population. 1.  Such an examination might include information on:  shopping patterns;  patterns;  and  4.  2.  residence of friends and r e l a t i v e s ;  3.  entertainment  influence i n the home, i . e . , who makes choice regarding kinds  of communication which enter h o m e .  91  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Akinbode, I s a a c .  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"Cosmopolitans  Latent Social R o l e s , "  and L o c a l s :  T o w a r d an A n a l y s i s of  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Science Quarterly,  Volume 2,  P a r t i , ( 1957), pp. 281-306. Graff,  E.F.  " A d v i s o r y Methods i n the United S t a t e s , "  Agricultural Progress,  Volume 37, (1962) . H e n r y , N e l s o n B. ( e d . ) .  M a s s M e d i a and Education.  U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , Houle, C . O .  The Inquiring M i n d .  Chicago,  Illinois:  1954.  Madison:  U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n P r e s s ,  1961. Johnstone, J o h n W . C . and R i v e r a , Ramon J . Chicago:  Volunteers for L e a r n i n g .  Aldine Publishing Company,  1965.  93  K a t z , E l i h u and L a z a r s f e l d , Press,  Paul,  Personal I n f l u e n c e „  K e n d a l l , M . G . and Babbington Smith, B. University Press, Lazarsfeld,  New Y o r k : T h e F r e e  1964. Table of Random N u m b e r s .  1951.  Paul F . , B e r e l s o n , B e r n a r d , and Gaudet, H a z e l .  Choice,  (second edition)  New Y o r k :  Center, Lorge, Irving.  Berkeley:  T h e Peoples  Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  L o n d o n , Jack and Wenkert, Robert and H a g s t r o m , W a r r e n . and Social C l a s s .  Cambridge  1948.  Adult Education  U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Survey R e s e a r c h  1963. Adult Education T h e o r y and M e t h o d .  Education A s s o c i a t i o n of the U . S . A . , Maslow, Abraham H . Brothers,  1963.  Motivation and Personality.  New Y o r k : H a r p e r and  1954~  M c G e o c h , J . and I r i o n , A . New Y o r k : McLuhan, Marshall. M e r t o n , Robert K .  Washington, D . C . : Adult  T h e Psychology of Human L e a r n i n g ,  Longmans,  G r e e n and Company,  The Mechanical Bride. "Patterns of Influence,  Boston:  (second edition)  1952. Beacon P r e s s ,  1951.  L o c a l s and Cosmopolitan Influen-  t i a l s , " i n Social T h e o r y and Social Structure, Glencoe, 1957, pp.  415-  420. N . E . A . U . S . M a s s Communication and E d u c a t i o n . Educational P o l i c i e s C o m m i s s i o n , 1958. N e w b e r r y , John S . , J r .  Washington, D . C . :  "Participation and Adult E d u c a t i o n . "  A Review of  R e s e a r c h p r e p a r e d at F l o r i d a State U n i v e r s i t y for the Bureau of Applied Social R e s e a r c h , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr. P r e s s , 1963.  The Politics of Hope.  Massachusetts: The Riverside  S c h r a m m , W i l b u r . "Effects of M a s s C o m m u n i c a t i o n . " M a s s M e d i a , 1954. S i e g e l , S.  1958.  N S S E Yearbook on the  Nonpar am e t r i c Statistics for the Behavioral S c i e n c e s , M c G r a w - H i l l  Book Company, I n c . , Smith, H . T . E .  1956.  " T h e Communication of Ideas to F a r m e r s , "  Agricultural  P r o g r e s s , V o l u m e 33, Number 51, (1958), p p . 5 3 « 5 6 .  94  Steinberg, C h a r l e s S „ House,  M a s s M e d i a and Communication.  New Y o r k :  Hastings  1966.  Strodbeck, F r e d L .  "Husbands and Wife Interaction over Revealed  Differences,"  A m e r i c a n Sociological Review, V o l u m e 16 (1951), pp. 468-477. T e r m a n , L . M . and Oden, M . H . T h e Gifted Group at M i d - L i f e . Stanford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Thorndike, E . L .  Adult L e a r n i n g .  California:  1959. New Y o r k : T h e M a c m i l l a n Company,  1963.  Toynbee, Arnold J.  Change and Habit.  L o n d o n : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  Troldahl, Verling.  " A F i e l d T e s t of a Modified Two-step F l o w of C o m m u n i c a -  tion M o d e l . " Public Opinion Quarterly,  1966.  Volume 30, Number 4, (1966),  p p . 609-623. Verner, Coolie.  Adult E d u c a t i o n :  T h e o r y and M e t h o d .  Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n of the U . S . A . ,  Washington, D . C . :  1962.  V e r n e r , C o o l i e . A Conceptual Scheme for the Identification and Classification of P r o c e s s e s for Adult E d u c a t i o n . Washington, D . C : Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n of the U . S . A . , 1962. Wolert, J.  " A Regional Simulation M o d e l of Information D i f f u s i o n . "  Opinion Q u a r t e r l y ,  Public  V o l u m e 30, Number 4, (Winter, 1966-67),  pp. 597-608. Wright, Charles R.  M a s s Communication.  New Y o r k :  Random H o u s e ,  1965.  95  APPENDIX I  96  GUIDE T O T H E USE O F T H E INTERVIEW S C H E D U L E  T h e interview schedule was designed and pre-tested on friends and residents l i v i n g i n the a r e a where the study was conducted.  T h e first  section on the interview schedule contains common questions for those r e s pondents who had attended adult c l a s s e s , the second section l i s t s questions for respondents who had not attended adult c l a s s e s and the last section c o n tains common questions on individual patterns of m a s s m e d i a u s e .  Flash  cards were developed for use i n p r o v i d i n g respondents with a l i s t of possible answers to a p a r t i c u l a r question. When dealing with subject matter of night school c l a s s e s on the interview schedule, six broad categories have been developed for use; l i b e r a l education subjects, p r o f e s s i o n a l , vocational and technical c o u r s e s ,  leisure-  time a c t i v i t i e s , home and family life c l a s s e s , personal development c o u r s e s , and current events, public affairs and citizenship c l a s s e s . were defined to deal r e s p e c t i v e l y with;  T h e s e categories  courses that were taken for academic  c r e d i t , courses taken for job improvement or job t r a i n i n g , courses taken for r e c r e a t i o n , courses for t r a i n i n g i n home and family l i f e , courses for i m p r o v i n g the self p h y s i c a l l y and as r e g a r d s p e r s o n a l i t y , and courses taken to i m p r o v e one's knowledge of public a f f a i r s .  97  INTERVIEW SCHEDULE T h e Effectiveness of Promotion through the M a s s M e d i a of Public School Adult Education i n Port Coquitlam  Punch information i n square beside  1,2,3,  n  2  l  4,5,6,  Question  check m a r k  c.c.  n  1 1 i  i  2  l  P  Interview number  U  Section number  3  M a r i t a l Status 1„  Single  2,  Married  1 1  3.  Widowed  *i 1  4.  Divorced  * n 3  8,  A r e you a housewife and not otherwise  •  L~•  l  I  •  3  4  13,  •  employed ? Occupation of Husband o r head of household,  T o t a l number of Adults i n Household, 2  l 14,  ADDRESS  3  7,  9,10,11,12,  NAME  l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  3  4  5 W i l l you t e l l me the types or names of a l l organizations to which you have belonged i n the past y e a r ?  98  1„  2„  Organization  Attendance  3,  Financial  4.  M e m b e r of Committee  Contribution  5.  Offices held  1. 2. 30 4. 5. 6. 7, 80 9. .0. Total  (XI)  (X2)  T o t a l Participation Score  (X3)  (X4)  (X5)  Participation Score 0  1  1-5 6-10  2  11 - 15  4  16 - 20 21 « 25  5 6  26 - 30 31 - 35  7 8  O v e r 35  9  3  Punch information i n square beside Co C o  check m a r k  Question D i d you attend Adult Night School during  15,  this past y e a r ? 1 2 16,  1„ 2.  yes no  D i d you attend Adult Day School d u r i n g the past y e a r ? 1 2  10 2„  yes no  99  Punch information in square beside c„c„  check m a r k  Question ' I F A N S W E R T O QUESTIONS 15 A N D 16 IS N O , G O T O Q U E S T I O N 29 What course did you take and where did you  17,  take i t ? 1st 1st course  Course  a  1.  L i b e r a l education subjects  i—i  2„  Professional,  3  3„  L e i s u r e - t i m e activities  4  4.  Home and F a m i l y L i f e  5  5.,  Personal  6  6„  C u r r e n t events, public affairs  1 2  vocational and  technical courses  Development  and citizenship 7  D  7.  Other  Was this course taken  18, 1 2  1. 2„  Coquitlam Port Coquitlam  3  3.  Other  What semester was this course  19, 1  1.  Fall  2  2.  Spring  3  3,  Both  What time was this course  20, 1  1.  Day  2  2.  Night  ; 2nd Course 2nd course  1  10  2  2„  L i b e r a l education subjects Professional,  vocational and  technical courses  21, 3  3.  L e i s u r e » t i m e activities  4  4.  Home and F a m i l y L i f e  5  5.  Personal Development  6  6.  C u r r e n t events, public affairs and citizenship  7  7.  Other  100  Punch information i n square beside c„c0  check m a r k  22,  Question Was this course taken?  1  1o  Coquitlam  2  20  Port Coquitlam  3  3.  Both  23,  What semester was this c o u r s e ? 1.  Fall  1 2  2.  Spring  3  3.  Both  24,  What time was this course ? 1  1.  Day  2  2.  Night  3rd C o u r s e 3rd course  1 2  1„  L i b e r a l education subjects  2.  Professional, vocational and technical courses  3  3.  Leisure-time  4 5 6  4. 5.  Home and F a m i l y L i f e Personal Development  6.  C u r r e n t events, public affairs  7  7.  Other  25,  activities  and citizenship  Was this course taken?  26,  1o  Coquitlam  1 2  2„  Port Coquitlam  3  3.  Other  What s e m e s t e r was this c o u r s e ?  27, 1  1.  Fall  2  2.  Spring  3  3.  Both  What time was this course ?  28, 1  1.  Day  2  2.  Night  101  Punch information i n square beside c.c.  Question  check m a r k  Have you taken any Night School courses  29,  p r i o r to this year ? 1  1.  Yes  2  2.  No  I F A N S W E R T O 15, 16, and 29 IS N O , G O T O QUESTION  48.  What courses did you take and where did  30,  you take them ? F i r s t Course 1  1.  L i b e r a l education subjects  2  2.  P r o f e s s i o n a l , vocational and technical c o u r s e s  3  3.  Leisure-time  4 5 6  4. 5. 6.  Home and F a m i l y L i f e Personal Development C u r r e n t events, public affairs  activities  7  7.  and citizenship Other  Where did you take it ?  31, 1 2 3  1. 2.  Coquitlam Port Coquitlam  3.  Other  What y e a r did you take this course ?  32, 1  1.  1960  2  2.  1961  3 4 5  3. 4. 5.  1962 1963 1964  6  6.  1965  7  7.  1966  8  8.  1967  102  Punch information in square beside c.c.  Question  check m a r k 2nd Course  33, 1  1„  2  2„  L i b e r a l Education subjects Professional,  vocational and  technical courses 3  3„  Leisure-time  activities  4  4.  Home and F a m i l y L i f e  5  5„  Personal  6  6.  C u r r e n t events, public affairs  Development  and citizenship 7  7.  Other  Where did you take it ?  34, 1  1„  Coquitlam  2 3  2. 3.  Port Coquitlam Other  What y e a r did you take this c o u r s e ?  35, 1 2 3  10 2. 3.  1962  4  4.  1963  5  5.  1964  6  6„ 7.  1965 1966  8.  1967  7 8  1960 1961  3rd C o u r s e  36, 2  1. 2.  3 4  3. 4.  Leisure-time activities Home and F a m i l y life  1  L i b e r a l Education subjects Professional, vocational and technical courses  5  50  Personal Development  6  60  C u r r e n t events, public affairs  7  7.  and citizenship Other  Where did you take this course ?  37, 1  1„  Coquitlam  2 3  2„  Port Coquitlam  3.  Other  103  Punch information i n square beside check m a r k  Question What y e a r did you take this course ?  38, 1  1960  .2  1. 2.  1961  3  3.  1962  4  4.  1963  5  5. 6.  1964  6 7  7.  1966  8.  1967  1965  If you took m o r e than three courses i n the  39,  past seven y e a r s check h e r e . 40,  How did you hear about these c o u r s e s ? SHOW C A R D #1. 0.  Radio  1. T . V . 2.  Neighbours or friends  3.  L e t t e r s brought home by school child  4.  41,  1 2  Newspapers  5.  Poster displays i n the community  6.  E m p l o y e r or supervisor at work  7.  Other people at work  8.  Announcement r e c e i v e d i n m a i l  9.  Someone who had taken course before  1. 2.  Pamphlet or brochure Other  How m u c h do you feel you benefited f r o m the course you took most x e c e n t l y ? SHOW C A R D #2.  42,  •1  1,  a v e r y l a r g e amount  •2  2.  a large amount  3  3„  a fair amount  4  4.  a s m a l l amount  •5  5.  a negligible amount  104  Punch information i n square beside c.c.  check m a r k  43,  Question What was the most important r e a s o n for taking y o u r latest course ?  0  0.  T o help on the job that I held at the time  1  1.  Prepare for a new job or occupation  '2  2.  Help i n c a r r y i n g , out everyday duties around home  3  3.  H e l p i n c a r r y i n g out everyday duties away f r o m home  :4  . 4.  5  5. 6.  Meet new and interesting people M y r e l i g i o u s life  7 8  7.  Get away f r o m the daily routine  8.  Become a better informed person  9  9.  None of these  1  1.  Don't know  2  2.  Other  6  44,  Spend m y spare time m o r e enjoy ably  : Have you thought recently that you might  45,  like to e n r o l l i n some other type of adult  1 2  P •  education c o u r s e ? 1.  Yes  2.  No  What type of subject o r course have you  46,  thought you might like to take ? 1 2  1. 2.  L i b e r a l Education subjects Professional, vocational and technical courses  3  3.  Leisure»time  4 5  4. 5.  Home and F a m i l y L i f e Personal Development  6  6.  C u r r e n t events, public affairs  7  7.  Other  activities  and citizenship  Where would you like to study this course ?  47, 1  1.  Coquitlam  2  2.  Port Coquitlam  3  3.  Other  I F Q U E S T I O N 46 A N S W E R E D SKIP T O Q U E S T I O N 61.  105  Punch information i n square beside c.c.  check m a r k  48,  Question Have you ever thought you might like to e n r o l l i n an adult education course of some type?  1  1.  Yes  2  2,  No  49,  What type of subject o r course have you ; thought you might like to take ? 1  1.  2  2.  L i b e r a l education subjects Professional, vocational and technical courses  3  30  L e i s u r e « t i m e activities  4  4.  Home and F a m i l y L i f e  .5  5„  Personal Development  6  6,  C u r r e n t events, public affairs and citizenship  7,  Other  Where do you think you would like to attend courses ?  50, 1 2 3  1 o Coquitlam 2 „ Port Coquitlam 3„  Other SHOW C A R D #3  ; H e r e are some of the reasons people give for ,not taking adult c o u r s e s .  W i l l you please  ' r e a d each statement and t e l l me whether or not it applies to you? 51,  : T h e things I have heard about don't sound v e r y interesting,,  52,  1.  Yes  2,  No  I can l e a r n what I need to know without going out to c l a s s e s , 1,  Yes  2.  No  106  Punch information i n square beside c.c.  check m a r k  Question I'm too busy with other things and just  53,  don't have the t i m e . 1 2  1.  Yes  2.  No  I'm usually too t i r e d at night to go out to  54,  classes. 1 2  1.  Yes  2.  No  I'd feel kind of c h i l d i s h going out to  55,  c l a s s e s at night. 1  1.  Yes  2  2.  No  I'm not the bookish type.  56, 1 2  1.  Yes  2.  No  I'm probably too old to go back to s c h o o l .  57, 1  1.  Yes  2  2.  No  I couldn't afford the money it would probably  58,  cost. 1.  Yes  2.  No  M y family would probably object to my spending  59,  time i n c l a s s e s and studying.  60,  •  Other  1.  Yes  2.  No  107  iPunch information i n square beside c. c.  Question  : check m a r k  D i d any other adults l i v i n g i n the house  61,  attend night school? :i 2  lo  Yes  2.  No  I F A N S W E R IS N O M O V E T O Q U E S T I O N 65. 62,  What r e l a t i o n was this p e r s o n to you? 1  1.  Husband  2  2.  Wife  3  3.  Son  4  4.  Daughter  5  5.  Mother  6  6.  Father  7  7.  Other  What course did this person take?  63, 1  1.  L i b e r a l education subjects  2  2.  P r o f e s s i o n a l , vocational and technical c o u r s e s  3  3.  Leisure«time  4 5  4. 5.  Home and F a m i l y L i f e Personal Development  activities  .6  6.  C u r r e n t events, public affairs  7  7.  Other  and citizenship  Where was this course taken?  64, 1  1.  Coquitlam  2 3  2„  Port Coquitlam  3.  Other  D i d you r e c e i v e the night school b r o c h u r e ?  65, 1 2  1.  Yes  2.  No  I F A N S W E R IS N O M O V E T O Q U E S T I O N 67,  108  .Punch information in square beside c.c.  check m a r k  66,  Question What did you do with it ?  1  1.  Keep it  2  2.  T h r o w it away  3  3.  Give it to somebody  4  4.  Other  Have you a r a d i o ?  67, 1  1.  Yes  2  2.  No SHOW C A R D i  68,  What radio stations do you listen to most frequently? 1.  CKNW  2.  CKWX  3  3.  CJOR  4  4.  CHQM  5 6  5. 6.  CBC CKLG  T 2  Do you listen to your r a d i o most i n  69, 1 2  1.  Morning  2.  Afternoon  3  3.  Evening  :Do you have a T e l e v i s i o n ?  70, 1  2  :  1. 2.  Yes No SHOW C A R D #5  What channel do you watch most frequently ?  71,  1 •2  1. 2.  CBU ~ 2 ABC * 4  3  3.  NBC - 5  4  4.  CTV - 8  5  5. 6.  CTV - 6 CBS « 12  6  Do you watch T . V . most i n the  72, 1  1.  Morning  2 3  2.  Afternoon  3.  Evening  109  Punch information i n square beside c.c.  check m a r k  Question D o you r e c e i v e a daily newspaper?  73, 1 2  1.  Yes  2.  No  What daily newspaper do you r e c e i v e ?  74, 1  1.  2  2.  Vancouver Province  3.  New W e s t m i n s t e r  4.  Other  4  Vancouver Sun Columbian  Do you r e c e i v e a Weekly newspaper ?  75, 1  1.  Yes  2  2.  No  What Weekly newspaper do you r e c e i v e ?  76, 1 2 3  1. 2.  Coquitlam H e r a l d Haney Gazette  3.  Richmond Review  4  4. 5.  North Shore C i t i z e n Other  5  110  A P P E N D I X II  Ill  Bernard R „ Blishen, " A S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Index for Occupations i n C a n a d a " , T h e Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, V o l u m e 4, p p . 41 to 53, F e b r u a r y , 1967.  F o r the 1961 index, s c o r e s were calculated for only 320 occupations. Only occupations c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of m a l e s i n the labour force were included, on the assumption that the f a m i l y ' s s o c i a l status i s dependent upon the occupation of the husband r a t h e r than the wife when both a r e w o r k i n g . T h e r e f o r e , a number of female occupations, such as n u r s i n g , which were included i n the 1951 index, are found i n the 1961 v e r s i o n only i f they have male incumbents. T o construct the 1961 index, instead of s c o r e s based on mean income and mean education, the percentage of males i n each occupation whose income was r e p o r t e d to be $5,000 o r over d u r i n g the preceding 12 month p e r i o d and the percentage who had attended at least the fourth y e a r of high s c h o o l , were cal= culated.  T h u s , the income and education v a r i a b l e s were both expressed as a  per cent r a t h e r than as a function of a m e a n . The next step i n the construction of the s o c i o » e c o n o m i c index was the choice of occupations f r o m the Pineo-Porter scale which were comparable with the detailed l i s t used i n d e t e r m i n i n g income and l e v e l of education, 88 occupations proved to be c o m p a r a b l e .  A total of  T h e unstandardized r e g r e s s i o n weights  produced by the r e g r e s s i o n analysis were +.202 for income and +.347 for education.  T h e intercept was 2 4 . 6 2 .  Applying the equation to each of the 320 o c c u p a -  tions obtained f r o m the 1961 census produced a s o c i o - e c o n o m i c index s c o r e f o r each.  T h e occupations were then ranked on the basis of these s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  index v a l u e s .  112  APPENDIX EI  COURSE SATISFACTION  A five point scale was designed to determine what degree of benefit respondents felt they had gained f r o m attending their most recent adult c l a s s .  Respondents were asked to check one of the following:  1.  not at a l l  2.  s m a l l amount  3.  fair amount  4.  large amount  5. v e r y l a r g e amount  114  A P P E N D I X IV  115  SUBJECT AREAS  1.  L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n Subjects A l l college and general education subjects, (Geography, M a t h e m a t i c s ,  etc.)  including e c o n o m i c s , creative w r i t i n g , public speaking, language, l i t e r a t u r e , l o c a l h i s t o r y , study d i s c u s s i o n , t r a v e l , etc, but excluding a l l those listed under " 2 " . 2.  P r o f e s s i o n a l , vocational and technical courses Subjects and s k i l l s used i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l , technical and business s p h e r e s .  3.  Leisuree-time activities C l a s s e s dealing with the creative arts ( i . e . painting,, m u s i c ,  sculpture,  d r a m a e t c . ) c r a f t s , s k i l l s and interests for l e i s u r e » t i m e enjoyment. 4.  Home and F a m i l y L i f e T o p i c s pertaining to the establishment,  maintenance or improvement of a  h o m e , and to c a r r y i n g out household duties and family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects of parenthood, f a m i l y l i f e , child c a r e and development, e t c . 5.  Personal Development Subjects and s k i l l s a i m e d at helping people expand themselves i n the a r e a s of health, p h y s i c a l fitness, personality development, interpersonal s k i l l s , r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g .  A l s o those subjects concerned with the a r e a s of  s p i r i t u a l , m o r a l and ethical development. 6.  C u r r e n t events, public affairs and citizenship T o p i c s dealing with current s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic a f f a i r s .  Courses  for citizenship, i n c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , i n general p o l i t i c a l education, law for l a y m e n , e t c . 7.  Other (specify)  116  APPENDIX V  117  SCHRAMM'S COMMUNICATION MODELS  Substitute "microphone" for encoder, and "earphone" for "decoder", and you are talking about electronic communication. Consider that the "sender" and "encoder" are one person, "decoder" and " r e c e i v e r " are another, and the signal is language, and you are talking about human communication.  |  Interpreter \,  j  Encoder  We need now to add one more element to our description of the communication process. Consider what happens in a conversation between two people. Each is constantly communicating back to the other, thus:  T H E PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION Wilbur Schramm. "Effects of Mass Communication". N . S . S . E . Yearbook on.the-Mass Media, 1954, pp. 114-133.  

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