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A presentation of the poet Ikkyu with translations from the Kyounshu "Mad Cloud Anthology". Arntzen, Sonja 1970

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A PRESENTATION OF THE POET IKKYU WITH TRANSLATIONS FROM THE KYOUNSHU  "MAD CLOUD ANTHOLOGY."  by SONJA AHNTZEN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Colombia, 1966  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.A. i n the Department of Asian Studies We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1970  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the L i b r a r y  shall  I  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  thesis at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  it  It  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  'bTUfolES Columbia  requirements I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  this  that copying or  not  for  that  study. thesis  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  f i n a n c i a l gain shall  -/\f^A h)  the  B r i t i s h Columbia,  is understood  permission.  Department  of  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  for  f u l f i l m e n t of  freely available for  that permission  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  ABSTRACT  This t h e s i s presents a resume of the t r a d i t i o n a l biography of the Japanese Zen poet, Ikkyu Sojun and t r a n s l a t i o n s w i t h commentaries of a s e l e c t e d number of poems from the Kyounshu, "Mad Cloud Anthology,", a The Ky5unshu consists of one  e o l l e c t i o n of Ikkyu's Chinese poems.  thousand and s i x t y Chinese poems, some w i t h prose i n t r o d u c t i o n s and d i a r y - l i k e d e s c r i p t i o n s of the circumstances surrounding t h e i r composition.  Thus, the Kyounshu,aside  from i t s wealth of poetry,  philosophy, and h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t , i s a l s o a v a l u a b l e source of b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the poet h i m s e l f . There are some d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n t h i s study. with  ?  To begin  i t i n v o l v e d research i n two languages, Japanese and c l a s s i c a l  Chinese.  Secondly, the subject range of Ikkyu's poetry i s very l a r g e ;  i t includes the whole of Zen l i t e r a t u r e , the Mahayana Sutras, the c l a s s i c s of Chinese poetry and Chinese h i s t o r y as w e l l .  Although  b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about Ikkyu i n Japanese i s f a i r l y s u b s t a n t i a l , t e x t u a l c r i t i c i s m and commentary f o r h i s poetry i s extremely l i m i t e d , thus, one i s sent often without a chart t o the maze of f i r s t sources seeking a l l u s i o n s .  This, coupled w i t h the very s u b j e c t i v e nature of the  poetry i t s e l f - w i t h Ikkyu, o r i g i n a l i t y tends to make f o r o b s c u r i t y makes the u n r a v e l i n g of sources a thorny problem sometimes.  Thus, i t i s  no wonder that few attempts have been made by scholars, even i n Japan,to w r i t e commentaries f o r these poems.  To my knowledge, t h i s i s the f i r s t  attempt to t r a n s l a t e i n t o E n g l i s h and give commentaries f o r t h i s large number of poems from the Kyounshu although,compared to the t o t a l number ?  of poems, t h i s i s s t i l l few indeed.  This t h e s i s t h e n j i s really-  preparatory work f o r a more complete t r a n s l a t i o n of the Kyonnshu which could well) and w i l l , I hope, c o n s t i t u t e the subject of a Ph.D.  thesis.  Having o u t l i n e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n the subject of t h i s t h e s i s , i t would be w e l l to p o i n t out i n what ways t h i s study i s of particular interest.  To begin w i t h , the f i e l d of kanbun, l i t e r a t u r e i n  Chinese w r i t t e n by Japanese w r i t e r s , has been r e l a t i v e l y untouched i n so f a r as t r a n s l a t i o n s i n t o E n g l i s h are concerned; thus, to some extent these t r a n s l a t i o n s are an opening up of new t e r r i t o r y i n Japanese L i t e r a t u r e . Secondly, Ikkyu's v o i c e i s an unusual one i n Japanese poetry.  Japanese  poetry has been so c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a contemplative a p p r e c i a t i o n of nature, d e l i c a t e and r e s t r a i n e d emotions, suggestion r a t h e r then statement, and a s u b t l e sense of nuance, q u a l i t i e s r a t h e r constant throughout the development of u t a , renga and haiku.  However, i t i s w i t h  some i n t e r e s t then, t h a t one greets a poet such as Ikkyu i n whose poetry these q u a l i t i e s are q u i t e absent.  Ikkyu's poetry seldom seems to be the  product of q u i e t r e f l e c t i o n ; r a t h e r h i s poems have the q u a l i t y of being w r i t t e n i n the heat of the moment; strong and sometimes v i o l e n t defiance, anger, passion, remorse, love, are b o l d l y expressed.  emotions,, Ikkyu's  poetry a l s o tends, because of h i s own eruditeness; to be q u i t e i n t e l l e c t u a l poetry which would lean toward the extremely a b s t r a c t were i t not f o r h i s strong personal v o i c e which i s ever-present.  In short, Ikkyu's poetry i s  very i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c i n a c u l t u r e which has never put a high store on individuality.  Thus i t i s , t h a t Ikkyu adds a new dimension to our  conception of Japanese poetry. OS )  Table of Contents  I.  Introduction  1  II.  H i s t o r i c a l Background  4  III.  B i o g r a p h i c a l Information & Comment  9  IV.  P h i l o s o p h i c a l Poems  25  V.  C r i t i c a l Poems  69  VI.  Love Poems  83  VII.  Footnotes  115  VIII.  Bibliography  120  (ill)  I.  Introduction  Ikkyu i s p r a c t i c a l l y unknown as a l i t e r a r y f i g u r e . Legends that grew up around him i n the Tokugawa period were passed on to succeeding generations of c h i l d r e n f o r entertainment's  sake^so Ikkyu i s well-known  by name i n Japan today, but as a poet, he i s t o t a l l y ignored.  Thus,it  i s not strange that i n the Vest he should h a r d l y be known at a l l .  The  greatest reason f o r h i s o b s c u r i t y as a poet, both i n Japan and the West, i s the f a c t that he wrote h i s most important work i n kanbun, t h a t i s Chinese. As Japan had no system of w r i t i n g before contact w i t h China, i t was only n a t u r a l that educated peopleAshould w r i t e i n Chinese;  indeed;  the a b i l i t y to read and w r i t e Chinese c o n s t i t u t e d the only l i t e r a t e education p o s s i b l e ,  Even a f t e r a phonetic system of w r i t i n g had  evolved  from the use of Chinese characters, s t i l l , a greater p a r t of any person's education c o n s i s t e d of l e a r n i n g to read and w r i t e Chinese.  This  was  true r i g h t up to the Tokugawa period, and no one thought i t strange.  Thus,  a great number of Japan's most g i f t e d and i n t e l l i g e n t men, i n c l u d i n g most of the great monks, wrote i n Chinese.  However, i n the Tokugawa Period  w i t h Motoori Norinaga, a movement against Chinese language and l e a r n i n g "took momentum. The great scholar Motoori Norfcaga was the f i r s t scholar i n Japan to apply himself to things purely Japanese, h i s great work being the e l u c i d a t i o n of the e a r l i e s t Japanese H i s t o r y , the K o . j i k i , on the b a s i s of which he drew conclusions about Japanese language and Japanese sensibility.  He too was the f i r s t to c l a i m the u t a , waka, and i t ' s  r e l a t e d forms as the only true Japanese poetry, a l l the poetry w r i t t e n i n Chinese being only i m i t a t i o n s . He a l s o c r i t i c i z e d Buddhism f o r being  2 a Chinese r e l i g i o n and, thus, not s u i t a b l e f o r the Japanese soul which found i t s true f u l f i l l m e n t i n Shinto.  These ideas caught on and spread  quickly, e s p e c i a l l y when Japanese i d e n t i t y was newly threatened from the outside by c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the West.  Thus, by the time Western  scholars became i n t e r e s t e d i n Japanese L i t e r a t u r e , i t was a f i r m l y entrenched idea t h a t the only Japanese Literature was l i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n i n Japanese, which i n poetry means the waka, u t a , renga and haiku.  So  i t i s that the overwhelming number of t r a n s l a t i o n s i n t o Western languages are of these forms.  This, coupled w i t h the decline among Japanese people  of the a b i l i t y t o read Chinese a f t e r the opening t o the West and the necessary rush t o acquire Western l e a r n i n g , has removed the enormous store of Japanese L i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n i n Chinese f a r t h e r and f a r t h e r away from the reach of most people i n Japan as w e l l as i n the West.  Western  i n t e r e s t i n Zen and other forms of Buddhism has, however, i n i t i a t e d some work i n the rediscovery of kawbun l i t e r a t u r e .  Such i s the case w i t h  t h i s t h e s i s , f o r i t was my own i n t e r e s t i n Zen and Buddhism i n general t h a t l e d me t o choose Ikkyu's poems as a subject f o r t r a n s l a t i o n . I t should be noted a t t h i s point that Ikkyu d i d not w r i t e a l l h i s work i n Chinese.  There i s a mass of m a t e r i a l i n Japanese which i s  a t t r i b u t e d t o him^but, of that, very l i t t l e i s considered t o be a c t u a l l y his.  A c o l l e c t i o n of Doka, "Poems of the Way," that i s , waka w r i t t e n on  common r e l i g i o u s themes, which has been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h by R. H. B l y t h , * i s perhaps the most surely Ikkyu's. Bukigun, a r e l i g i o u s a l l e g o r y which t e l l s of a b a t t l e between the forces of Heaven and H e l l ^ i s l e s s c e r t a i n l y Ikkyu's. A f t e r t h a t , a l l the r e s t has been a t t r i b u t e d t o one or more other monks as w e l l and so i s l i k e l y not Ikkyu's. The  3 Kyounshu i s r e a l l y the only work of Ikkyu which expresses h i s unique personality) and a l s o the only work which contains d e f i n i t e personal references, dates and d i a r y - l i k e d e s c r i p t i o n s of noteworthy events i n Ikkyu's l i f e .  I t i s , therefore, the most i n t e r e s t i n g .  The Kyounshu, "Had Cloud Anthology* i s a c o l l e c t i o n of 1060 poems 1  w r i t t e n i n Chinese.  Some of the poems have date a, but most of them do notj>  So i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to know during which period of Ikkyu's l i f e they were w r i t t e n . are  In the Kokuyaku Zenshu sosho and Ikkyu Osho z e n ^ h u they  d i v i d e d i n t o j o kan and ge k a n . " f i r s t s c r o l l ""second s c r o l l , " and i t  i s assumed t h a t these correspond to an e a r l y and a l a t e r i^eriod i n Ikkyu's life.  The Yamato Bunka[lfaikan e d i t i o n of the Kyounshu. the t e x t of which  I have used most e x t e n s i v e l y since i t i s the most recent and  comprehensive  e d i t i o n of the Kyounshu, does not maintain t h i s d i v i s i o n but keeps b a s i c a l l y the same order i n i t s arrangement of the poems.  A detailed  commentary t o the whole of the Kyounshu has never been done.  The Yamato  BunkejKaikan e d i t i o n concerns i t s e l f only w i t h the establishment of the text. least.  The commentary i n the Kokuyaku Zenshu sosho i s cursory to say the I am indebted, however, to P r o f e s s o r s Kaneko Matabee and N i s h i o k a 2  Skirt who have provided, i n the p e r i o d i c a l Kokubungaku d e t a i l e d commentaries y  f o r over a hundred poems of the Kyounshu.  II.  H i s t o r i c a l Background  Ikkyu was born i n 139^ and d i e d i n 1481, Thus,his l i f e was -witVim  one of the most r e s t l e s s and v i o l e n t periods i n Japanese  H i s t o r y , the rule,  of the Ashikaga Shogunate, b e t t e r known perhaps as  the Muromachi P e r i o d ; a f t e r the area i n Kyoto where the government of the Shogunate was centered.  I t was a time of almost incessant c i v i l  shot through w i t h sporadic desperate r e v o l t s among the a g r i c u l t u r a l population,,  war,  hard-pressed  Many of the b a t t l e s were fought r i g h t i n the  s t r e e t s of Kyoto. Thusj the " C a p i t a l of Peace" s u f f e r e d great damage during t h i s period; e s p e c i a l l y since f i r e was as popular a weapon as the sword.  Power struggles between the various clans of samurai were at the  root of these c o n f l i c t s ^ but, as i s so t y p i c a l of Japan, a l l f i g h t i n g done i n the name of the Emperor, succession disputes between the  was  two  i m p e r i a l l i n e s being the p e r s i s t a n t excuse f o r trouble during t h i s period. The samurai a t t i t u d e toward the o l d a r i s t o c r a c y of Kyoto was somewhat ambiguous.  U n l i k e Yo,t»itomo who regarded the court at Kyoto  as a c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e on the s t e r n v i r t u e of the w a r r i o r and, therefore, kept himself and h i s w a r r i o r s as f a r away as he could from t h e i r e f f e t e company, the Ashikaga Shoguns were only too f a s c i n a t e d w i t h the court's cultural allure.  They c u l t i v a t e d q u i t e c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y the l e a r n i n g  and a r t s of the c a p i t a l and, thus, were themselves t y p i c a l of a new k i n d of "aesthete w a r r i o r " .  On the other hand,there was never the shadow of  an i n t e n t i o n on the part of the Ashikaga Shoguns to allow the a r i s t o c r a t s to regain any of the p o l i t i c a l power they had once h e l d .  Thus^ the  a r i s t o c r a c y was paid nominal respect but kept poor; a r i s t o c r a t s were c u l t i v a t e d as f r i e n d s but denied any say i n important p o l i t i c a l decisions. However, as Karaki Junzo" i n h i s book Causei no bungaku points out, for  i t was not an unenviable p o s i t i o n t o be i n a t that time, since poor the a r i s t o c r a c y was never s t a r v i n g ; a l i t t l e money could always be  obtained by t u t o r i n g eager samurai i n the a r t s of c a l l i g r a p h y and poetry. The a r i s t o c r a c y were a t l e a s t i n a more s t a b l e p o s i t i o n than the samurai whose fortunes were precarious t o an extreme.  Having l i t t l e or no  p o l i t i c a l power was i n r e a l i t y the s a f e s t p o s i t i o n t o be i n , f o r those with p o l i t i c a l power were the immediate t a r g e t s f o r everyone around them. Ikkyu was born i n t o the a r i s t o c r a c y . The Tokugawa h i s t o r i a n s d i d not f i n d much worthy of praise when they cast t h e i r eyes on the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l disorder of the Muromach Period.  This s l i g h t l y p e r j o r a t i v e p o i n t of view of the Muromachi P e r i o d  was transmitted  t o the p o s t - M e i j i e r a and f u r t h e r augmented by the  influence of the conc«pt of the Middle or Dark Ages i n Western H i s t o r y . There were enough s i m i l a r i t i e s between the European feudal period and the Japanese feudal period t o make an equation of them easy.  Thus, the  Muromachi P e r i o d along with the Kamakura and Tokugawa periods came to be considered a k i n d of dark or unenlightened age. And at l e a s t i n so f a r as moral and s o c i a l order i s concerned, t h i s i s t o a c e r t a i n extent true of the Muromachi Period.  However, t o an A r t H i s t o r i a n i t i s exceedingly  d i f f i c u l t t o accept the Muromachi Period as a Dark Age; a glance through any o r i e n t a l a r t book a t the masterpieces of Sesshu, Sesson, the G i n k a k u j i , the K i n k a k u j i , or the S a i h o j i garden, not t o mention the  anonymous masterpieces i n the c r a f t of pottery, point to an age of artistic brilliancy.  As mentioned above, t h i s p e r j o r a t i v e view o f the  Muromachi Period i n Japan mirrors the Western view of the European Middle Ages that p r e v a i l e d from the Renaissance through the Age of Enlightenment i n t o q u i t e modern times.  Here i n the West, i t was a  rejuvenated  a p p r e c i a t i o n of Medieval A r t s t a r t i n g i n the 19th century that preceded a comprehensive r e - e v a l u a t i o n of the middle ages as a whole.  A similar  phenomenon seems to be o c c u r r i n g i n Japan, except that i t seems to be the e f f e c t of a cross i n f l u e n c e , that i s , i t i s Western i n t e r e s t i n Japanese Medieval A r t that has sparked Japanese scholars to re-examine t h a t period of t h e i r c u l t u r e from a d i f f e r e n t point of view.  Thus, we  see karaki Junzo quoting scholars who are of the opinion that there are s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e ^ I t a l i a n Renaissance i n so f a r as the growth of 2 i n d i v i d u a l i s m and a k i n d of humanism are concerned.  This shows the  trend that contemporary thought on the Medieval P e r i o d i n Japan i s t a k i n g . The overwhelming f l a v o r of the a r t of the Muromachi Period which has so caught the eye of the contemporary West i s without a doubt the f l a v o r of Zen.  I t i s a q u a l i t y which can only sound c l i c h e d when  described, e s p e c i a l l y when i t has been described so o f t e n .  Such words  as s i m p l i c i t y , naturalness, an " a c c i d e n t a l " f e e l i n g , are the most f r e q u e n t l y used i n d e s c r i p t i o n . e  In r e a l i t y , i t i s an i n e f f a b l e q u a l i t y  which i s however immediately recognizable upon c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h those objects i n which i t i s embodied.  I t i s not the purpose of t h i s paper to  analyse Zen a e s t h e t i c s i n the v i s u a l arts. A s u f f i c e to say  that Zen has  become so p o p u l a r l y i d e n t i f i e d with Japan and Japanese a r t here i n the West, that many Westerners forget or even do not know t h a t Zen i s an  7 imported r e l i g i o n t o Japan. Zen ( i n Chinese Ch'an) was imported from China.  Ch'an i n China  had become the sect of Buddhism w i t h the most d i s t i n c t i v e l y Chinese flavor.  I t had received the q u i e t i n f i l t r a t i o n of Taoism and,-thus,"  a cosmic sense of humor.  I t was a pared down v e r s i o n of Buddhism s t r i p p e d  of a l l the Indian baroque, ornamental i n t r i c a c i e s .  Something of these  q u a l i t i e s appealed t o the Japanese as well, f o r Ch'an was very s u c c e s s f u l l y transplanted t o Japan.  There were, however, some d i f f e r e n c e s between  Ch'an i n China and Zen i n Japan. For example, Ch'an was never as c l o s e l y associated w i t h the v i s u a l a r t s as Taoism was, while i n Japan i t was Zen which acquired an intimate connection w i t h a e s t h e t i c s . At any r a t e , from i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n during the Eamakura p e r i o d , the Zen sect of Buddhism s t e a d i l y grew i n numbers and i n f l u e n c e . The Muromachi P e r i o d marks the z e n i t h of Zen's power and i n f l u e n c e i n Japan. At t h i s time, Zen was h e a v i l y supported by the Shogunate and the court. The Gosan J i s s a t s u - " F i v e Mountains Ten Temples''were but a few of the great monasteries f l o u r i s h i n g a t t h a t time.  Yet another source of  p r o s p e r i t y was the p r o f i t a b l e trade w i t h Ming China c a r r i e d on under the auspices of the Zen s e c t .  Of the two major Zen sects i n Japan, Soto and  R i n z a i , B i n z a i was the more expansive, p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l a f f a i r s .  freely involving i t s e l f i n  Soto, on the other hand, f o r the most part  eschewed the busy "dusty" l i f e of the c a p i t a l p r e f e r r i n g t o remain " s i t t i n g q u i e t l y " i n the h i l l s , which, i t must be noted, was more i n keeping w i t h the usages of the great T'ang scViools..  Indeed, what the  R i n z a i sect gained i n wealth, p r e s t i g e , and i n f l u e n c e , seems t o have been detrimental t o the true s p i r i t of Zen.  8 There are many reasons f o r t h i s .  The sheer increase i n the  number of f o l l o w e r s made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r a r e l i g i o n which founds i t s e l f on something so nebulous as the "wordless transmission of mind" t o keep i t s l i n e s of transmission pure.  This increase i n numbers also tended t o  t u r n the temples i n t o large i n s t i t u t i o n s which demanded a numerous s t a f f of organizers and beaureaucrats rather than holy men t o keep them going. These large temples took over the f u n c t i o n of t r a i n i n g schools f o r young boys.  So, whereas Zen was o r i g i n a l l y a r e l i g i o n designed t o free the  mind of a mature man from the f e t t e r s of conventional t h i n k i n g , now B i n z a i temples were charged w i t h task of i n s t i l l i n g manners i n raw youths. However, perhaps the greatest s i n g l e reason f o r the s p i r i t u a l degeneration of the R i n z a i sect at t h i s time l i e s i n the o l d axiom, power and wealth i n e v i t a b l y corrupt.  Where power and wealth reach t h e i r z e n i t h , droves of  s e l f i s h people gather t o struggle f o r the s p o i l s .  Thus, the R i n z a i sect,  at i t s height of power and i n f l u e n c e , became f i l l e d w i t h people of i n s i n c e r e motives who propagated a double-standard m o r a l i t y and dabbled i n unsavory p r a c t i c e s .  The s i t u a t i o n of the R i n z a i sect i n Japan at t h i s  time was not u n l i k e the Roman C a t h o l i c Church before the reformation. I t was i n such a time, i n such a place, and i n such a m i l i e u that Ikkyu l i v e d .  III.  B i o g r a p h i c a l Information and Comment  I t i s always d i f f i c u l t when d e s c r i b i n g famous f i g u r e s of the past to d i s t i n g u i s h between the man and the myth about the man.  With Ikkyu t h i s  i s no easy task, e s p e c i a l l y since Tokugawa w r i t e r s e n e r g e t i c a l l y created an elaborate myth f o r Ikkyu by which he i s g e n e r a l l y known i n Japan today. The mythical Ikkyu i s a l i g h t - h e a r t e d carefree f e l l o w , e x c e p t i o n a l l y c l e v e r and w i t t y as a c h i l d , an e v a n g e l i s t i c s a v i o r of courtesan's souls as a monk, i n general a j o y f u l , f i s h - e a t i n g , sake-drinking, love-making, prank-playing, Zen p r e l a t e .  Yet when one turns and examines Ikkyu's  own  poems of the Kyounshu, how d i f f e r e n t i s the impression one gets of h i s character.  Whereas the mythical Ikkyu was c l e v e r , the author of the  Kyounshu i s learned and erudite to a f i n e extreme* V h i l e the m y t h i c a l Ikkyu, the c l e r i c a l Don Juan, abandoned himself to pleasure, Ikkyu of Kyounshu explores a l l the p h i l o s o p h i c a l and metaphysical l e v e l s of love. "Whereas the mythical Ikkyu was happy and c a r e f r e e , the Kyounshu shows a man who knows sorrow and indeed a l l the darker depths of the s o u l .  Somewhere  between the popular biographies and Ikkyu's own poems l i e s the t r a d i t i o n a l biography of Ikkyu which has been handed down f o r many years w i t h i n the Zen church and a small c i r c l e of s c h o l a r s .  This t r a d i t i o n a l  biography i s a mixture undoubtedly of f a c t and myth, but i t i s as close to h i s t o r i c a l l y objective as can be obtained so f a r as Ikkyu i s concerned. The Tokugawa popular biographies of Ikkyu t e l l more about the Tokugawa p e r i o d and those w r i t e r s themselves than about Ikkyu and so I have l a r g e l y disregarded them i n forming my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Ikkyu's character.  I have r a t h e r concentrated on studying the man through h i s  own poems.  Xn f i n d i n g an approach to both the man and h i s poems, the  t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l has, of course, been very h e l p f u l .  Thus,  I would l i k e t o begin t h i s s e c t i o n w i t h a resume of the t r a d i t i o n a l biography of Ikkyu.* Ikkyu was born i n 139** i n Kyoto.  He i s s a i d to have been the  i l l e g i t i m a t e son of the Emperor Go-Komatsu.  I t i s q u i t e probable t h a t  he a c t u a l l y was, since i t i s recorded i n a l l the t r a d i t i o n a l biographies^ and h i s l a t e r c l o s e connections w i t h the court i n d i c a t e t h a t h i s b i r t h must have been very high.  H i s mother was of the Fujiwara c l a n , but  during the dispute between the Northern and Southern c o u r t s , she was accused of having treasonous i n t e n t i o n s toward the emperor and so was banished t o a l e s s e r d w e l l i n g i n Kyoto where Ikkyu was born. I n the t r a d i t i o n a l biography, there i s a l a s t testament -  supposedly  2  w r i t t e n by Ikkyu's mother  i n which she sounds l i k e a very i c o n o c l a s t i c  woman h e r s e l f ; she urges Ikkyu to make "servants of the Buddha and Dharma" and warns t h a t people who s t i c k t o are " j u s t worms".  hoben '  "expedient means,"  However, the a u t h e n t i c i t y of t h i s document i s very  questionable, and i t could w e l l be the f a b r i c a t i o n of people i n a l a t e r time who f e l t t h a t s i n c e Ikkyu was such an e c c e n t r i c person he must have had an e c c e n t r i c mother.  At any r a t e , Ikkyu was separated from h i s  mother q u i t e e a r l y , being sent t o the Zen monastery Ankokuji i n Kyoto 3 at the age of s i x . At the age of twelve he was supposed t o have amazed  -that  KBCI  a gatheringAcome t o hear Master S e i s o n i n l e c t u r e by d i s p l a y i n g a wisdom 4 very much beyond h i s years. composition of Chinese Poems.  At t h i r t e e n he began studying the Thus, i t can be seen t h a t i t was not  strange f o r Ikkyu to have w r i t t e n most of h i s poems i n Chinese, f o r i t was  11 a genre t h a t he had studied and p r a c t i s e d since boyhood. he took h i s f i r s t r e a l master, Keno  At seventeen  and l i v e d and s t u d i e d w i t h him f o r  f i v e years u n t i l t h a t master's death.  Keno i t seems, had not r e c e i v e d  h i s t r a n s m i s s i o n of Zen i n an orthodox way since he had no s e a l (the s i g n of c o r r e c t transmission) to pass on to Ikkyu.  However, he i s  reputed to have t o l d Ikkyu t h a t Ikkyu had advanced to the p o i n t where Keno had no more to teach him.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between Ikkyu and Keno  seems to have been a very warm one; the t r a d i t i o n a l biographies speak glowingly of the s i m p l i c i t y and pure poverty of t h e i r l i f e i n r e t r e a t . Keno d i e d when Ikkyu was twenty-one and he was very saddened indeed by the l o s s .  Ikkyu wandered about i n a d i s t r a c t e d f a s h i o n and  prayed f o r seventeen days before the Ishiyama Kannon but could not f i n d any c o n s o l a t i o n and so r e s o l v e d to drown himself i n Lake Biwa.^  However,  he was stopped from c a r r y i n g out t h i s d r e a d f u l e n t e r p r i s e by a v i s i o n of h i s mother which appeared and admonished him and t o l d him to perservere i n the path toward enlightenment.  Versions of t h i s s t o r y vary s l i g h t l y  but there seems t o be a consensus that he d i d attempt s u i c i d e and t h a t h i s s a l v a t i o n had something to do w i t h the memory of h i s mother. Thus rescued from s e l f - a n n i l a t i o n he set out f o r the master Kaso's hermitage at Katada.  Kaso was somewhat famous f o r being a severe master  and c e r t a i n l y the s t o r y of Ikkyu's acceptance there bears t h i s out. Ikkyu a r r i v e d at Katada and waited outside Kaso's gate f o r f i v e days during which time Kaso d i d not deign even t o n o t i c e h i s presence.  Finally,  one day on h i s way to a ceremony i n the v i l l a g e , he looked at Ikkyu and s a i d "Is t h i s monk s t i l l here?  Throw some water on h i s head and chase  him away." which was duly c a r r i e d out.  However, a f t e r the ceremony was  12  f i n i s h e d Kaso returned and saw Ikkyu s t i l l standing t a l l and making no 7  move t o go away.  So Kaso r e l e n t e d and agreed t o take him as a d i s c i p l e .  Kaso's d i s c i p l i n e was very r i g o r o u s and kept Ikkyu occupied n i g h t and day.  Again, the standard of l i v i n g i n the temple was very poor, very  l i t t l e t o eat.and no warm c l o t h e s t o wear i n the w i n t e r . Under such hardships Ikkyu s t u d i e d f o r some y e a r s .  E v e n t u a l l y Ikkyu came t o be  w e l l loved by Kaso who was even supposed t o have s a i d once of Ikkyu, 8 "This boy i s smarter than me." Wien  1  Ikkyu was t w e n t y - f i v e he heard someone p l a y i n g a song from  the Heike monogatari on the Biwa and suddenly grasped a koan of Unmon's. At t h i s p o i n t Kaso gave Ikkyu h i s name; p r i o r t o t h i s Ikkyu had been known as Shuken.  Ikkyu composed an u t a w i t h h i s new name e x p l o r i n g i t s  philosophical implications; from.the realm of i l l u s i o n s ,  uroji yori  Ve r e t u r n t o the realm of no i l l u s i o n s ,  muroji e kaeru  One restt,  hitoyasumi  I f i t rains, l e t i t rain.  ame furaba fure  I f the wind blows, l e t Ikkyu's name  i t blow  0  kaze fukaba fuke  hitoyasumi i n Japanese r e a d i n g , means one r e s t ,  one slumber; here, i t i s a metaphor f o r our short human l i f e  0  The  i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t i f one a r r i v e s a t the s t a t e of mind where i t i s evident t h a t from b i r t h t o death i s r e a l l y only a moment, then g r i e f s and cares i n t h i s l i f e seem s m a l l t h i n g s indeed. Then, two years l a t e r , one s p r i n g n i g h t i n May, Ikkyu was m e d i t a t i n g , f l o a t i n g i n a boat on a l a k e , when;hearing a crow c a l l out through the n i g h t , he was immediately enlightened. He h u r r i e d t o Kaso  13  to witness h i s enlightenment, but Kaso s a i d , "This i s j u s t the enlightenment of an arhat, you are not a r e a l master y e t . " happy to be an arhat, I j u s t detest masters." - 10 s a i d Kaso.  Ikkyu s a i d , "Then I am "Now you are a r e a l master,"  At t h i s time, Ikkyu was twenty-seven years o l d and had  been consciously seeking enlightenment f o r ten years.  The poem he i s  s a i d to have w r i t t e n recording t h i s important event i s the f o l l o w i n g : Since ten years ago a mind longing f o r knowledge: Raging and angry, the time i s nowl The crow laughs, I leave the dust and end up an arhat: B r i l l i a n t s h i n i n g sun, i n the shadow ^'Jeweled, face sings. (2vJt w V/awato Bunk* Kail<atr\ Edi-fcion o? KyouvisViOTi This marks the d i v i s i o n between what i n the t r a d i t i o n a l b i o g r a p h y is calleJIkkyu's e a r l y l i f e and l a t e r l i f e .  As we can see, the e a r l y p a r t of  Ikkyu's l i f e was spent almost e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the confines of the various monasteries and master's hermitages he s t u d i e d a t .  I t was only a f t e r h i s  enlightenment t h a t Ikkyu began to move away from such an austere and s o l i t a r y environment and venture i n t o the outside world.  I t i s recorded  t h a t Ikkyu stayed at Kaso's hermitage long enough to attend to some of the i l l n e s s e s t h a t accompanied Kaso's o l d age; but he began to come and 11 go. This marks the beginning of h i s long companionship w i t h the "straw r a i n hat and bamboo walking s t i c k " t h a t are mentioned so o f t e n i n the Kyounshu.  There i s no d e t a i l e d record of h i s t r a v e l s because he  seems to have t r a v e l e d by whim and almost always u n o f f i c i a l l y .  His few  o f f i c i a l v i s i t s to places other than temples, were mainly to the court. For example, i t i s known t h a t i n the year 1428, Ikkyu was i n v i t e d to the court, and h i s b i r t h r i g h t s A o f f i c i a l l y recognized by the Emperor AKbmatsu.  14 A f t e r t h a t time, he became q u i t e a frequent and welcome v i s i t o r to the court; the emperor himself was supposed to have been very fond of Ikkyu's 13 manner of e x p l a i n i n g Zen. His  u n o f f i c i a l t r a v e l i n g must have brought him i n t o contact w i t h  the b r o t h e l s and sakejshops that are another frequent theme i n the Kyounshu, although about t h i s the t r a d i t i o n a l biographies have very l i t t l e to say. , T h i s i s not to imply t h a t b r o t h e l s and sakeshops were the only items on Ikkyu's u n o f f i c i a l i t i n e r a r i e s .  One recorded i n c i d e n t gives a  good i d e a of the other a c t i v i t i e s Ikkyu must have indulged i n during h i s travels.  I t i s recorded t h a t i n the year 1436, Ikkyu was n o t i c e d wandering  through the s t r e e t s of Sakai wearing a wooden sword, p l a y i n g a shakuhachi and r e g a l i n g passers-by w i t h s a t i r i c a l accounts of the behavior of 14 present-day monks.  Thus, i t seems t h a t during h i s t r a v e l s , Ikkyu some-  times assumed the r o l e of " s t r e e t p l a y e r " i n order to i n s t r u c t l a y people i n the ways of Zen and the i l l s of the church. Ikkyu was not always t r a v e l i n g .  He spent a great p o r t i o n  of h i s time i n temples as w e l l , mainly D a i t o k u j i which was h i s "base" temple f o r the l a t t e r h a l f of h i s l i f e .  Not f a r from D a i t o k u j i i n the  Muromachi s e c t i o n of Kyoto he had a personal hermitage c a l l e d Katsuroan, " B l i n d Donkey Hermitage"  and he spent much time there as w e l l .  I t seems  t h a t a p a t t e r n of movement f o r Ikkyu during the middle part of h i s l i f e was t o stay at D a i t o k u j i and i n s t r u c t student monks u n t i l he could bear the atmosphere of the temple no longer. At tVefc point, he would e i t h e r go off  t r a v e l i n g among the "people" or else r e t r e a t i n t o the s e c l u s i o n of the  mountains u n t i l he could bear to come back. Apart from the general degeneration of s p i r i t w i t h i n the temple,  15  one of the reasons why D a i t o k u j i was unbearable to Ikkyu was the presence of one p r e l a t e c a l l e d Yoso. been a student of Kaso's.  Yoso, twenty years Ikkyu's s e n i o r had a l s o Thus, the two had a very c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p  i n common. However, they seem t o have been as compatible as f i r e and ice.  For Ikkyu, Yoso became the concrete embodiment of a l l t h a t was  evil in « t n  church.  I f we accept Ikkyu's d e s c r i p t i o n of Yoso, Yoso  was a monk who craved power and p r e s t i g e , was arrogant to an greedy f o r wealth, and h y p o c r i t i c a l .  extreme,  He was the epitome of the f a l s e  monk parading as holy and duping the l a i t y .  A l l the most venemous  i n v e c t i v e s i n the Kyounshu are reserved f o r Yoso. The t r a d i t i o n a l biographies r e c o r d one i n c i d e n t which t y p i f i e s the nature of the enmity between them.  The o c c a s i o n was the t h i r t e e n t h  anniversary of t h e i r master Kaso"s death, h e l d on the 27th of J u l y i n 1343.  A week p r e v i o u s l y Ikkyu, upon the request of temple elders, had  taken up residence at Nyoian i n D a i t o k u j i .  Yoso, o f f i c i a l l y head of the  temple, arranged the ceremony and had e s p e c i a l l y i n v i t e d c e r t a i n wealthy merchants from Sakai. They came and were n o i s y and u n r u l y , but each gave Yoso r i c h presents afterwards.  Two days l a t e r , Ikkyu wrote t h i s poem  on the w a l l of Yoso'a house: Let  us put some necessary t h i n g s i n a cottage.  L i k e wooden l a d l e s , bamboo baskets, hanging on the east w a l l , I don't have a l o t of f u r n i t u r e l i k e you do. R i v e r s and seas, many y e a r s , t r a v e l i n g w i t h straw r a i n coat, straw r a i n hat. Bunka Ka'ikavx e < M W T J and then l e f t another poem addressed t o Yoso p e r s o n a l l y which s t a t e s h i s Yamato  f e e l i n g s more d i r e c t l y :  16 Dwelling  i n the temple t e n days, my mind i s spinning" 15  Under my f e e t the r e d thread  i s very l o n g .  I f you come tomorrow and ask a f t e r me  ;  I ' l l he im the f i s h and sake shops or e l s e a b r o t h e l . L"vio.85 "Vamato Buwka Ka.ikav\ ecSMooCJ] ^ With t h a t Ikkyu gathered up h i s r a i n coat and hat and l e f t . Such was the h o s t i l i t y between Yoso and Ikkyu. Ikkyu was once even d r i v e n by the s t a t e of things a t D a i t o k u j i to the p o i n t o f r e s o l v i n g t o starve himself t o death. discussed  The event which i s  i n d e t a i l i n the commentaries t o poems/involved slanderous  accusations on the p a r t of f a l s e monks and temple i n t r i g u e .  Ikkyu i n a  f i t of despair f l e d t o Mount Jo-u's S h i d a j i , one of h i s f a v o r i t e r e t r e a t s , and decided t o commit s u i c i d e by s t a r v i n g t o death.  News of t h i s came t o  the court,however, and an i m p e r i a l e d i c t was issued t o dissuade him from c a r r y i n g out h i s r e s o l v e .  The e d i c t s a i d :  " I f the honourable monk  does t h i s , Buddha's way, the King's way w i l l be caused t o p e r i s h .  How  can the master cast us aside l i k e t h i s , how can the master f o r g e t h i s 17 country l i k e t h i s . "  From the wording of t h i s e d i c t we can see how  high an esteem the emperor h e l d f o r Ikkyu,and a l s o how personal the connection between Ikkyu and the court was. T h i s e d i c t from the emperor combined w i t h f r i e n d ' s e n t r e a t i e s gradually moved Ikkyu t o change h i s mind.  He f i n a l l y came back t o Kyoto^ and from t h a t time u n t i l he was  made Bishop^ he dwelt only i n Katsuroan and not w i t h i n the D a i t o k u j i A 18 grounds. Another i n c i d e n t of i n t e r e s t during t h i s middle period of Ikkyu's l i f e which was h i s r e c e i v i n g of Kaso's s e a l of c o r r e c t  transmission.  17 Kaso had decided on the occassion of Ikkyu's enlightenment to make him his  sole successor; the document stated s p e c i f i c a l l y , "This i s my only  son/'  and was dated A p r i l of the year 1421, the same year as the a f o r e 19  mentioned did  enlightenment.  However, f o r what reasons we know not, he  not give t h i s document to Ikkyu himself but r a t h e r entrusted i t to  a lady of the court named S o k i t s u to keep u n t i l a f t e r h i s death at which time she was t o t r a n s f e r i t to Ikkyu.  She, i n t u r n , however, entrusted i t  to Prime M i n i s t e r Minamoto who kept i t f o r some years.  F i n a l l y i n the  year 1438, when Ikkyu was f o r t y - f o u r years o l d , Ikkyu p a i d the Prime M i n i s t e r a v i s i t , a n d the Prime M i n i s t e r gave him the s e a l . supposed t o have s a i d on t h i s occassion:  Ikkyu i s  "How w e l l we can see today's con-  d i t i o n s , Buddha's great dharma s c a t t e r e d and r u i n e d , jewels and stones, good and bad, mixed and confused.  Those who have understood the true  v i s i o n f i n d t h a t p r i e s t s who resemble p r i e s t s but are not p r i e s t s are l i t t l e by l i t t l e presumptuously trampling the true dharma more and more 20 to the ground."  Me then burnt the s e a l .  This act d i d not i n any  way represent d i s r e s p e c t f o r h i s o l d master but r a t h e r a profound respect for  the phenomenenof "wordless t r a n s m i s s i o n " t h a t i s at the foundation  of Zen.  A l l around him he could see f a l s e monks l i k e Yoso w i t h scraps  of paper c l a i m i n g t r u e t r a n s m i s s i o n ; Ikkyu himself needed no such papers to prove h i s enlightenment. In  l a t e r years, Ikkyu's l i f e moderated somewhat; at l e a s t the  tone of the episodes is . not so extreme.  He found i n the temple Shuonan  i n T a k i g i a q u i e t r e t r e a t , not so remote and w i l d as Mount Jo-u and yet far  enough removed from the confusion of Kyoto and D a i t o k u j i to be a  18 s u i t a b l e p l a c e f o r r e s t and renewal.  However, as Ikkyu's l i f e became  more calm, t h e p o l i t i c a l s t a t e of the n a t i o n rose t o a f e v e r p i t c h . Onin d i s o r d e r broke out i n 1468.  The  Ikkyu was seventy-four years o l d .  He was f o r c e d t o f l e e from Kyoto as f i g h t i n g broke out i n the s t r e e t s , and indeed, during the c o n f l a g r a t i o n t h a t f o l l o w e d , Ikkyu's Katsuroan 21 was burned t o t h e ground. peaceful f o r some time.  Ikkyu escaped t o T a k i g i which  remained  Ikkyu was able t o h o l d the hundredth anniversary  of Reizan Osho t h e r e , and the people who gathered t o hear him on t h a t 22 occassion were many. A year l a t e r , m i l i t a r y s t r i f e spread t o T a k i g i as w e l l , and Ikkyu f l e d t o the Izumi r e g i o n t h i s time, s t a y i n g i n various 23 places u n t i l t h e f i g h t i n g had abated. Seven y e a r s l a t e r , a t the age of eighty-one Ikkyu was c a l l e d t o become Bishop of D a i t o k u j i .  The poem he wrote on the day he assumed "tfoe -  post e l o q u e n t l y d e s c r i b e s h i s f e e l i n g s toward the r e c e i v i n g of t h i s honor: Daito's s c h o o l destroyed h i s remaining l i g h t  D  D i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n s i n g i n g i n the heart,one n i g h t ' s e t e r n i t y . For f i f t y years a f e l l o w of straw r a i n hat and coat, 24 Shameful today, a purple-robed monk. tjno. 514 Yamato Bunka Kaikan edition^] Having been & renegade f o r most of h i s l i f e , t a k i n g up such a d i g n i f i e d and l o f t y p o s i t i o n i n an i n s t i t u t i o n he had c r i t i c i s e d f o r so many years must have been odd f o r Ikkyu.  However, i t was a time of d i f f i c u l t y f o r  D a i t o k u j i s i n c e i t had been l a r g e l y destroyed by f i r e i n the preceding wars and was i n need of a strong and j u s t man t o l e a d the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Thus, i t was not j u s t a p o s i t i o n of eminence Ikkyu acceeded to,but a l s o an o p p o r t u n i t y t o be of great h e l p .  I n the next few years he i s supposed  to have exhausted h i m s e l f w i t h a i d i n g i n the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  25  19 Ikkyu apparently s u f f e r e d g r e a t l y from the heat i n h i s l a s t years and took every opportunity he could t o r e t r e a t t o T a k i g i and h i s beloved Shuonan.  He f i n a l l y died there i n 1482 at the age of e i g h t y - e i g h t and  was a l s o buried there.  H i s death poem i s recorded as being:  South of Mount Sumeru, Who meets my Zen ? Even i f Kido comes, 26 He's not worth h a l f a penny.  Cnot vn Ysvnato BuWka Ka'ikaw ecTrtiovnTJ  Even from the d e s c r i p t i o n i n the t r a d i t i o n a l biography, i t i s obvious that Ikkyu was q u i t e an e c c e n t r i c f i g u r e .  Ikkyu too seems t o  have had t h i s sense of himself; since the name he gave himself was Kyoun, "Mad Cloud".  This does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean, however, that he considered  himself crazy.  Ikkyu was simply aware that t o the r e s t of the world  assuming the v a l i d i t y of mundane r e a l i t y , he appeared t o be crazy, while at a transcendental l e v e l of r e a l i t y he was not crazy a t a l l ; but r a t h e r q u i t e sane, more sane perhaps than any one e l s e .  Thus, he was not a f r a i d  to c a l l himself crazy f o r i t was a way of p o i n t i n g at h i s supra-mundane r e a l i t y sanity. One of Ikkyu's e c c e n t r i c i t i e s which i s almost completely l e f t out of the t r a d i t i o n a l biographies i s h i s love of making love and i n general a s o f t spot f o r women.  One of the reasons why the t r a d i t i o n a l  biographies  have so l i t t l e to say of Ikkyu's propensity f o r love, i s that t h e i r main i n t e r e s t was i n preserving Ikkyu's r e p u t a t i o n as a great Zen monk. Thus, they found i t embarrassing t o deal w i t h t h i s aspect of h i s character. More recent researchers i n t o Ikkyu l i k e K a r a k i Junzo f i n d i t impossible to ignore t h i s information but s t i l l f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o harmonize w i t h  20 Ikkyu'8 r e p u t a t i o n as a great monk i t was unfortunate that Ikkyu, who  0  Sfaraki Junzo f i n a l l y concludes  that  had no t r o u b l e r i d d i n g himself of  attachment t o "name and profit," was so h o p e l e s s l y a d d i c t e d to the weakest 27 ness of the f l e s h but/lin s p i t e of i t a l l he was s t i l l a great monk. However, apologies and excuses are not r e a l l y  necessary.  I n p o i n t of f a c t , as the t r a n s l a t e d poems w i l l show, Ikkyu himself almost never f e l t any shame f o r h i s actions<, due t o the temper of the times.  This may have been p a r t l y  As has already been mentioned, t h i s  not a time of p a r t i c u l a r l y s t e r n v i r t u e w i t h i n the Zen church. the monks kept concubines s e c r e t l y and homosexuality  was  Many of  was a l s o r i f e .  For  Ikkyu t o do openly what other monks kept h a l f hidden was c e r t a i n l y an expression of honesty i f nothing e l s e and a l s o a k i n d of p r o t e s t . However, more importantly, the nature of Zen enlightenment does not n e c e s s a r i l y condemn experience of the senses.  Zen,as a branch of  Mahayana Buddhism, i n s i s t s on the e s s e n t i a l u n i t y of nirvana and samsara "the sphere of b i r t h and death",  "enlightenment'  Suzuki, i n h i s book on  Mahayana Buddhism, presents the formula which i s at the core of Mahayana Buddhism, "Yas klec^as so \bodhi, yas samsaras t a t nirvananaj'  "What i s  s i n or passion, t h a t i s I n t e l l i g e n c e , what i s b i r t h and death — 28 i s Nirvana".  that  . — This means that there i s no n i r v a n a t o be sought outside  this worldly l i f e .  Or as t h i s passage from the V i m a l a k i r t i Sutra  expresses i t : "Just as the l o t u s flowers do not grow i n the dry-land, but i n the dark c o l o r e d watery mire, 0 son of good f a m i l y , i t i s even so [ w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e (prajna or b o d h i ) J . I n n o n - a c t i v i t y and e t e r n a l a n n i h i l a t i o n which are cherished by the Cravakas and Pratyekabuddhas there i s no opportunity f o r the seeds and sprouts of Buddhahood t o grow. I n t e l l i g e n c e can grow only i n the mire and d i r t of passion  1  21 and s i n . I t i s by v i r t u e of passion and s i n t h a t the seeds and sprouts of buddhahood are able to grow,"29 Suzuki himself i s very eloquent i n the e l u c i d a t i o n of t h i s most s u b t l e point: "Nirvana i s not to be sought i n the heavens nor a f t e r a departure from t h i s e a r t h l y l i f e nor i n the a n n i h i l a t i o n of human passions and a s p i r a t i o n s o On the contrary, i t must be sought i n the midst of w o r l d l i n e s s , as l i f e w i t h a l l i t s t h r i l l s of p a i n and pleasure i s no more than Nirvana i t s e l f . " 3 0 This conception has inherent i n i t a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the phenomenal world.  This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Mahayana Buddhism c o n t r a s t s  q u i t e s t r i k i n g l y w i t h the more austere and w o r l d - d i s d a i n i n g tendencies of Hinayana Buddhism, This conception of the e s s e n t i a l u n i t y and voidness of the universe led  to a great p r o l i f e r a t i o n i n the ways and means of a t t a i n i n g e n l i g h t e n -  ment or s a l v a t i o n , <Dne of the most astounding, at l e a s t from a t r a d i t i o n a l  Western r e l i g i o u s viewpoint, being t h a t form of T a n t r i c Buddhism which saw the b l i s s of p h y s i c a l union as the profound experience of the non31 dual nature of the universe and c e l e b r a t e d i t as such.  This i s not t o  suggest t h a t Ikkyu was i n f l u e n c e d by t h i s form of Buddhism f o r he c e r t a i n l y was not, but only to make c l e a r t h a t Ikkyu's f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the act of love was not c o n t r a d i c t o r y to the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of Mahayana Buddhism. Perhaps a u s e f u l comparison to make here would be one w i t h the E n g l i s h poet John Donne, who  i s a l s o known equally as an amourous  adventurer and devout p r e l a t e .  Donne i s often spoken of as having a  " s p l i t personality." I n h i s youth, he i s depicted as a debauched p r o f l i g a t e chasing f u g i t i v e pleasures one a f t e r another.  Then l a t e r i n l i f e , he  i s supposed to have renounced and repented h i s previous l i f e of s i n and pursued h i s redemption w i t h a l l the powers of body and s o u l .  However,  22 there seems t o have been more u n i t y t o h i s p e r s o n a l i t y than t h a t * C e r t a i n l y , the same s p i r i t runs through a l l h i s poems whether s e c u l a r or religious.  There are passages i n h i s love poems t h a t d i s p l a y a pro-  foundly m y s t i c a l or r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e toward the a c t of love. For example i n the "Canonization": "So, t o one n e u t r a l t h i n g both sexes f i t wee dye and r i s e the same, and prove 32 Mysterious by t h i s l o v e . " And then l a t e r , i n h i s r e l i g i o u s poems he o f t e n e n t r e a t s God as though God were a powerful m i s t r e s s ; W  Y e t d e a r l y I love you and would be l o v ' d f a i n e , But am b e t r o t h ' d unto your enemie, Divorce mee, u n t i e , or break t h a t knot againe, Take me t o you, imprison me, f o r I Except you e n t h r a l l me, never s h a l l be f r e e , Nor ever chast, except you r a v i s h mee. I t seems that John Donne was seeking f o r something throughout  h i s whole l i f e , i n h i s youth through union w i t h women and i n h i s maturity through union w i t h God. This same seeking i s at the root of a l l r e l i g i o n s .  With Ikkyu, the i n t e g r a t i o n of r e l i g i o n and love,  or love of God and love of women i s more complete.  This may be  p a r t l y due t o the f a c t that he experienced union w i t h God or the v o i d before he experienced union w i t h women.  I t w i l l be remembered  that Ikkyu spent h i s youth i n s t r i c t r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g , and only a f t e r he had a t t a i n e d enlightenment d i d he d i s c o v e r women.  I t was  e x a c t l y the opposite w i t h John Donne, and, moreover, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o  23 speak of enlightenment with John Donne. ceased i n h i s mind.  The doubts never seemed to have  One gets the impression t h a t he was never r e a l l y sure  that he had found what he was l o o k i n g f o r , whereas Ikkyu a f t e r h i s enlightenment; never doubted h i s own grasp of Zen.  Thus, he could say t h i n g s  l i k e "once enter a b r o t h e l , then great wisdom happens " a b s o l u t e l y sure of h i s r i g h t n e s s i n saying i t .  and be  So i t i s t h a t a f r e e r  s p i r i t breathes through the poems of Ikkyu,and one i s not tempted to speak of a " s p l i t p e r s o n a l i t y . "  24  Translations: 1 have roughly d i v i d e d the t r a n s l a t e d poems i n t o the categories of p h i l o s o p h i c a l , c r i t i c a l , and love, simply t o introduce some o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t o the presentation.  These categories, however, are only  l o o s e l y a p p l i c a b l e since i n many poems these themes overlap.  I have  t r i e d t o place the poems according t o which theme predominates.  N.B.  I t should be noted that the number i n brackets before each poem  r e f e r s t o i t s number i n the Yamato Bunka]Kaikan e d i t i o n of the Kyounshu since i t was that t e x t which I took as f i n a l a u t h o r i t y .  IV.  P h i l o s o p h i c a l Poems  Ikkyu's p h i l o s o p h i c a l poems are almost e x c l u s i v e l y concerned w i t h p o i n t s of Zen philosophy.  Ikkyu, i n some poems, explores the various  s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p h i l o s o p h i e s of the former great masters and i n other poems presents h i s own thought; but they are a l l l i n k e d by t h e i r common b a s i s i n Zen thought and i t s u l t i m a t e g o a l , enlightenment. The phenomenon of enlightenment i s the t o p i c of many of these poems. Perhaps the word p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s misleading because of i t s a n a l y t i c a l connotations^and these poems are c e r t a i n l y not a n a l y t i c a l .  However,  I h e s i t a t e d to c a l l them r e l i g i o u s because of t h e i r a b s t r a c t content; something  between p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s would have been the  proper word.  r i n z a i shiryoken Hinzai's a.  a  Four P o i n t s of View  b  R i n z a i Gigen ( L i n - c h i I-hsiian) $u  fit  hi  (? - 850) was a great  T'ang master, founder of the H i n z a i Sect of Zen to which Ikkyu b.  The "Four P o i n t s of View"  belonged.  shiryoken; are among H i n z a i * s teachings  recorded i n the R i n z a i roku ( L i n - c h i l u )  7^" ^ I I .  1  Although i t i s  not known whether R i n z a i himself r e f e r e d to them as "Points of View" or 2  not, they were c e r t a i n l y known to l a t e r generations as such.  I n essense,  they represent four ways of conceiving the r e l a t i o n s h i p between subject and object,which are a l s o four ways of conceiving r e a l i t y .  Ikkyu takes  these "Four P o i n t s of View" as t i t l e s f o r four poems which are then  26 comments on them.  if  f*\ |  f  f  4-  #  <L &  & *  -  t  &  datsu n i n fudatsu kyo Hyakujo I s a n na imada kyu sezu yako no mi t o suikogyu t o zenctvono k o j i so no j u suru nashi koyoshufu tomo n i i c h i r o  Taking away the subject, not taking away the object Hyakujo,  a  I s a n , ^ names not yet s t i l l :  Wild fox body  c  and water b u f f a l o b u l l .  d  No monks dwell i n the former dynasty's o l d temples; Yellow leaves and autumn wind share the p a v i l i o n .  a. ^Hyakujo "was a Zen monk of the T'ang Dynasty, born 720, died 814; h i s f u l l name i s Hyakujo Ekai (Po-chang Huai-hai) studied Zen w i t h Baso Doitsu (Ma-tsu Dao-i)  He He i s  most famous f o r drawing up a set of r u l e s f o r the organization of Zen  27 communities, one of the most b a s i c miles being "a day of no working i s a 3 day of no e a t i n g " . b. °Isan"is another monk of the T'ang dynasty, d i e d 813.  H i s f u l l name  i s Isan Reiyu (Wei-shan Mng-yu) /fe] ^' $L He was a student of _ 4 Hyakujo and co-founder of the Igyo (Wei-yangj sect of Zen i n China. s  c. "Wild fox body"is an a l l u s i o n t o a s t o r y concerning Hyakujo. s t o r y goes as f o l l o w s : "There was an o l d man who  l i s t e n e d everyday to  Hyakujo expounding the law and afterwards l e f t w i t h the crowd. stayed behind.  Hyakujo asked him who he was.  The  One day he  The o l d man r e p l i e d saying,  'Once i n the time of Eashobutsu (a Buddha before ShakyameniJ there was teacher named Boko [a M i s t e r So and So] l i v i n g on t h i s mountain. student of h i s asked him, 'Can a man of Karma or not?' Karma."  Boko s a i d , No, l  a  A  of great t r a i n i n g f a l l i n t o the c h a i n  he does not f a l l i n t o the chains of  Then,after t h i s Boko died;he was r e i n c a r n a t e d f i v e hundred times  as a f o x .  Now,  I ask you f o r the sake of t h i s Boko, say the word of  enlightenment t h a t he may be l i b e r a t e d from h i s fox body.' s a i d , 'The man  of great t r a i n i n g does not ignore Karma.' -  man was immediately enlightened and revered Hyakujo.  Hyakujo  At t h i s the o l d  «5  ...  d. *'Water b u f f a l o " r e f e r s t o a koan of Isan's i n which he confronts h i s students w i t h the problem:  "Suppose, a hundred years a f t e r I d i e , a water  b u f f a l o comes t o the p a r o c h i a l houses w i t h an i n s c r i p t i o n on h i s l e f t f l a n k saying 'Monk Isan'.  Then, i f you say 'This i s Isan,' i t i s s t i l l a  water b u f f a l o , i f you say ' I t i s a water b u f f a l o . ' then i t i s s t i l l Monk Isan. e.  I f you say, 'What k i n d of a t h i n g i s t h i s ? ' , then you  understand."^  R i n z a i , when asked f o r f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n of h i s "Four P o i n t s of  View" provided comments f o r each one and these are given at the end of  each of Ikkyu's poems for the sake of comparison, Kudu's cotwnenHW Os): 9  &  %  q  The shining sun, breaking forth, the earth is spread with a brocade of flowers,* On the child hangs hair as white as thread.  w f  *  >i  %  $ if  if  •  A .  l |  * ftfl *L*^ *  *  i.  &  4  Mfif.  datsu kyo fudatsu nin Rinzai no jison tare ka tekiden shufu mekkyaku su katsuro hen boai chikujo furyu no tomo kyokuroku Ssokuvjo myori no zen Taking away the object, not taking away the subject  Who, among Rinzai's descendents received the true transmission? 4  My teaching w i l l be lost in the hands of blind donkeys I  a  Straw sandals, bamboo walking stick, I ' l l be a friend of wind and stream*  29 Monk's c h a i r s , wooden beds,  you can have your Zen of name and ... c.d. profit.  a,  "My t e a c h i n g w i l l be l o s t i n the hands of b l i n d donkeys" i s a quote  from the R i n z a i o»oku. At the occasion of t h i s remark, R i n z a i was and c l o s e t o death.  sick  Re had c a l l e d h i s f a v o r i t e d i s c i p l e t o h i s bedside  and asked what he would say a f t e r R i n z a i was dead to someone who  came and  asked,"\rfhat was R i n z a i ' s teaching?" The d i s c i p l e shouted, whereupon R i n z a i 7  s a i d , "You see my teaching w i l l be l o s t i n the hands of b l i n d donkeys." This i s one of the paradoxes of R i n z a i Zen., f o r according t o t r a d i t i o n , R i n z a i ' s Zen was t r a n s m i t t e d to t h a t p u p i l , y e t the s t o r y seems t o i n d i c a t e otherwise. b. "Monk's c h a i r s , wooden beds" - These pieces of f u r n i t u r e are associated w i t h high-ranking monks.  The p o r t r a i t s of famous monks  u s u a l l y show them seated i n a c h a i r .  Wooden beds were considered  more l u x u r i o u s than t r a d i t i o n a l rope ones because they were u s u a l l y ornate. c. "Name and p r o f i t " i s a c l a s s i c expression which denotes a l l d e s i r e a f t e r personal aggrandizement and wealth.  The word r i or " p r o f i t " has had a  d e c i d e d l y p e j o r a t i v e connotation ever s i n c e Mencius i n the opening passage of h i s book so soundly berated the K i n g of Wei f o r even mentioning it d.  0  I t c e r t a i n l y has t h a t sense here. R i n z a i ' 8 comment f o r the same "Ppint of View":  n  l  i  ^  it  4  /l  The King's commands already c a r r i e d out a l l over the country, The general outside the f r o n t i e r brings an end to smoke and dust.  30  U5J  If t *. I il it # A.  ifc tt'ii ft /$ L  A  if  if & a ninkyo  itf  K  £  <9  & M  gudatsu  e h i e i kisho mi  chanten  Hei)Fun s h i n o zetsu s h i t e wato madoka n a r i y a r a i mekkyaku su s h i j i n no kyo k e i wa oru shufu hakuro no  mae  Taking away both subject and object The pheasant takes f o r cover,  a  the t o r t o i s e i s scorched,  b  one i s  obstructed. R e v o l t s i n P i n and Fen, b e l i e f i s cut o f f  yet people c h a t t e r .  Night comes and the poet's i n s p i r a t i o n dies avay. Before white f r o s t , the cinnamon t r e e l i e s broken, autumn wind.  a.  Q  "The pheasant takes f o r cover" r e f e r s to a story about a f o r e s t f i r e g  i n which a pheasant plays a h e r o i c but desperate p a r t .  I t i s a metaphor  for a distressing s i t u a t i o n . b.  "The t o r t o i s e i s scorched" r e f e r s to the ancient custom of o b t a i n i n g  31 oracles by p a t t i n g a hot i r o n t o a t o r t o i s e s h e l l and then i n t e r p r e t i n g the cracks thereby produced.  I n times of d i s t r e s s , oracles are f r e q u e n t l y  sought. c.  "One i s obstructed" means the o r a c l e i s bad; one cannot do what one  wants t o do. The l i n e as a whole i s suggesting d.  "Revolts i n P i n and Fen b e l i e f i s cut o f f " .  from R i n z a i ' s comment on the same opinion,  a time of misfortune. This i s a d i r e c t quote  (see f o l l o w i n g ) . The  commentary t o the R i n z a i ' s Roku says that P i n and Fen were two provinces of the T'ang empire who r e v o l t e d against the dynasty under the leadership of Go Gensai (Wu Yuan-chi)  %  L  lw .  9  The meaning of R i n z a i ' s  comment seems t o be t h a t b e l i e f or t r u s t i n humanity i s extinguished by the treacherous r e v o l t of Pin and F a n .  That i s , i t i s no longer p o s s i b l e  to b e l i e v e t h a t human order can p r e v a i l f o r e v e r .  This i s an i r o n i c  c o n t r a s t t o the previous prose poem of R i n z a i ' s where human order, the King's way, looked t o be permanent. e.  R i n z a i ' s comment f o r the t h i r d "Point of View".  # ft ifc ft if k - * The r e v o l t s of Ron and Fan cut o f f b e l i e f , He i s alone, s t a y i n g i n one corner.  (16)  |  A. A A r- 4  i t H  it ^ & tf i  to  ii  &* ^%  ninkyo gufudatsu i u nakare s a i r a i sen hanmon t o inbo shushi n i kokun a r i tada h i t o no Sojo ga katsu o wa su n i y o t t e chodan su k i n d a i nippo no kumo  Not t a k i n g away subject or object Don't say b r i n g on some more moneyI B r o t h e l s and sake-shops have t h e i r own m e r i t . I t ' s j u s t f o r that people t a l k of S o j o ' s  a  thirst:  Breathtaking, music from the koto stand, clouds at sunset.^  a.  Sojo's t h i r s t - Sojo i s a famous character of the Han dynasty. H i s  f u l l name i s Shiba Sojo (Ssu-ma Hsiang-ju)  He was  a man of high rank and served as an o f f i c i a l from time t o time, but he -tVius, was extremely fond of reading books and d r i n k i n g wine and' never kept a 1  p o s i t i o n f o r long and was always poor. l o r d ' s daughter Bunkun ^Wen-chun)  ^-  One day he f e l l i n love w i t h a . He won her love by p l a y i n g  to her n i g h t a f t e r n i g h t on h i s Koto, ^hence the reference t o the Koto i n the f o u r t h l i n e ) .  However, he was s t i l l too poor t o support h i s newly-  won w i f e , so he s o l d h i s c a r r i a g e , one of h i s few remaining possessions and bought a wine shop.  The wine shop was a f i n a n c i a l success and  content w i t h h i s wife and h i s !koto, Sojo never had t o want f o r wine again. b.  R i n z a i ' s comment f o r the f o u r t h "Point of View."  £ f f if  it  Jt i& i !  33 The King goes up to h i s treasure house In the f i e l d an o l d man  sings  " R i n z a i ' s Four P o i n t s of View"  can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n two ways,  e i t h e r as f o u r ways of conceiving r e a l i t y or four stages of attainment the course of enlightenmento  in  Suzuki i s of the o p i n i o n t h a t they are four  ways of s t a t i n g r e a l i t y which are at the same time independent from one 11  another and connected to one another. understanding  of the word n i n A  Suzuki l a y s emphasis on the  ; he maintains t h a t i t i s not  "man"  i n any absolute sense nor an i n d i v i d u a l man but r a t h e r "subject" i n i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h and o p p o s i t i o n to "object" kyo the terms datsu  and fudatsu ~&  ^  correspond to 12  " t a k i n g away", and " a f f i r m i n g " , "not t a k i n g away".  \ while "negating",  Suzuki a l s o says  t h a t since R i n z a i l e f t these four phrases with only the four sets of oblique comments f o r e x p l a n a t i o n , i t always has been and i s very unclear what R i n z a i himself e x a c t l y meant by these "Four P o i n t s of View."  He  concludes t h a t i t i s f o r each person who undertakes to study the "Four 13  P o i n t s of View" to make hxs own commentary as Suzuki himself has done. Thus, w i t h encouragement and a i d from Suzuki D a i s e t s u , I have humbly attempted a commentary of my own  f o r these evasive "Four P o i n t s of View"  and Ikkyu's poems, which are no more s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . The f i r s t of the "Four P o i n t s of View", "Taking away the s u b j e c t , not t a k i n g away the o b j e c t " denotes a s t a t e i n which the object i s a f f i r m e d and the subject i s negated.  This r e a l l y amounts to the a f f i r m a t i o n  of the substance or r e a l i t y of the object as opposed to the non-substance and u n r e a l i t y of the subject,,  In the human world, the subject i s always  34 " I " or the e g o - s e l f , while the object i s the world at l a r g e , the o b j e c t i v e universe.  Here t h e n , i t i s a case where the " I " has no r e a l substance to  i t w h i l e the world at l a r g e does.  Thus, i n R i n z a i ' s comments the f i e l d  brocaded w i t h flowers represents the o b j e c t i v e world or nature which w i t h i t s ever-renewing c y c l e s i s f u l l of substance and r e a l i t y ^ w h i l e the image of the c h i l d w i t h white h a i r denotes the " I " , the e g o - s e l f , which when i t d i e s i s gone and so has no r e a l substance.  I n Ikkyu's poem, Hyakujo and  Isan represent two " I s who have c e r t a i n l y passed away? t h e i r names l i v e , M  by the s t o r i e s connected w i t h them, but i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t no monks are d w e l l i n g i n the temples where they used t o l i v e . There i s only the y e l l o w leaves and autumn wind, Ikkyu's images f o r the o b j e c t i v e world of complement  nature,win  B i n z a i ' s s p r i n g f i e l d of f l o w e r s .  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that although the view that objects possess r e a l substance i s a f a l s e view i n Buddhism, i n t h i s context i t leads toward the negation of ego.  That i s , the idea of the absolute r e a l i t y of the  o b j e c t i v e universe leads to a r e a l i z a t i o n of how small and ephemeral the ego i s i n comparison, and t h i s tends towards a sense of egolessness which i s a step i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n so f a r as Buddhism i s concerned. t h i s point of view can be looked on as a stage i n a t t a i n i n g  Thus,  enlightenment.  The second "Point of View" designates the s i t u a t i o n where the subject i s a f f i r m e d and the object i s negated, t h a t i s , subject i s regarded as r e a l and object i s regarded as u n r e a l .  This conception approaches a  k i n d of absolute i d e a l i s m ; indeed, U i describes t h i s "Point of View" as the opinion "that the e n t i r e world i s merely a r e f l e c t i o n of one's  own  consciousness. K i n z a i ' s comment f o r t h i s one seems to r e f e r t o Confucianism.  His  35  meaning i s hard to grasp here, but perhaps he i s p o i n t i n g at the Confucian tendency t o regard ideas l i k e j e n \z~ "Benevolence," i_ wang-tao  %-  "Justice," and  "the Way of the King,"as more r e a l or having more  substance than the o b j e c t i v e world.  C e r t a i n l y the a t t e n t i o n of the  Confucians was centered on ideas, and t h i s q u i t e a l t e r e d t h e i r perception of the o b j e c t i v e world.  Ikkyu, i n h i s poem, on the other hand, takes the  opportunity t o brandish f o r t h h i s own s e l f - c o n f i d e n t ego, by a s s e r t i n g , as he does o f t e n , t h a t he w i t h h i s simple h a b i t s has i n h e r i t e d the t r u e transmission while other monks bewitched by the fame and gain of the o b j e c t i v e world go t h e i r way t o p e r d i t i o n .  Ikkyu a s s e r t s h i m s e l f , h i s  " o r i g i n a l nature" and,thus, sees through the i l l u s i o n s of the o b j e c t i v e world. Although i t i s not e s s e n t i a l to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Ikkyu's poem, i t should be noted here that t h i s "Point of View", too, corresponds to a stage i n enlightenment because i t implys an awareness of the intimate connection between subject and o b j e c t .  The subject i s i n a sense c r e a t i n g  the object^and, thus, the two are i n the end one. The t h i r d "Point of View" presents the s i t u a t i o n where both subject and object are negated.  I n the language of the Lankavatara s u t r a t h i s  s t a t e i s known as pudgaladharmanairatmya  (here ho  has the same meaning as kyo i f j ) "the egol essness of both the i n d i v i d u a l 15 soul and e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s " .  I n other words, there i s "no self-substance  l6 i n anything."  This i s regarded as a s t a t e of t r u e enlightenment because  d u a l i t y i s f i n a l l y transcended, and a l l things are r e a l i z e d to be v o i d . This i s the p o i n t of view which has p o p u l a r l y gained Buddhism a r e p u t a t i o n for nihilism.  This negative statement of the non-dual t r u t h of the  36 universe presupposes, however, that the opposite p o s i t i v e statement i s a l s o true since nothing can be absolute not even negation. However, c e r t a i n l y both R i n z a i ' s comment and Ikkyu's poem have a gloomy aspect about them.  R i n z a i ' 8 comment f o r t h i s "Point of View"  seems to be i n i r o n i c contrast to the l a s t one where the King's way  was  followed and a l l was i n peace; here, r e v o l t s i n Pin and Fan cut o f f b e l i e f i n a l l t h i n g s , the subject ceases to a c t .  Ikkyu makes a c o l l a g e of images  of d i s t r e s s and s u f f e r i n g i n the human, animal, and p l a n t worlds, luck f o r the pheasant and everyone; men  aren't dependable, but no  bad one  l e a r n s ; even the poets i n s p i r a t i o n i s ephemeral; autumn brings death, d e s t r u c t i o n and c o l d .  Under such circumstances,who wouldn't welcome the  e x t i n c t i o n of subject and object. The f o u r t h "Point of View" h a p p i l y presents the p o s i t i v e expression of the non-dual t r u t h ' subject and object are both affirmed as r e a l . As was mentioned i n the previous d i s c u s s i o n of the t h i r d "Point of View", the negative expression presupposes that the p o s i t i v e expression i s a l s o true°. unreal and r e a l , when d u a l i t y i s transcended^are the same.  This  i s the f i n a l goal of Mahayana Buddhism, to come back to the world  and  act i n the world but cleansed of f a l s e notions by the process described. R i n z a i ' s comment describes a s i t u a t i o n where a l l seems as i t should, the k i n g i n h i s treasure house and the o l d man  s i n g i n g i n the f i e l d .  Ikkyu's  poem emphasizes the f a c t that from t h i s enlightened p o i n t of view there i s merit i n b r o t h e l s and sake-shops too.  He a l s o advocates l i v i n g at  each moment and not worrying f o r the future. So, i f you have only a l i t t l e money now,  don't worry about spending i t on wine f o r who knows what t o -  morrow may b r i n g , luck l i k e Sojo's perhaps.  This i s Ikkyu's way  of saying  37  "Live i n the e t e r n a l now."  (7)  *  A t  * On -f ii  Kido Osho o san su Ikuo no j u i n yo mina somuku hoe o hoge s h i t e haai no gotoshi R i n z a i no shoden i t t e n nashi i t t e n no fugetsu g i n k a i n i mitsu  P r a i s i n g Monk Kido b The master of YH-wang  r e v o l t e d i n every way against the world,  Abandoning h i s h a b i t as though i t were a broken sandal, R i n z a i ' s c o r r e c t transmission, not a s i n g l e p o i n t . Whole sky, wind w h i s t l i n g moon, f i l l s a s i n g i n g heart. a.  ,' H<mk< Kido - Kido Chigu  (Hsu-t'ang Chih-yu)  it ^  monk of the Sung i>ynasty; he died i n 1269 a t the age of e i g h t y - f i v e . received h i s teaching from Renan  (&V«n-an)  |f_ ^  was a He  , a master of the R i n z a i  38 line.  He was noted f o r being a wanderer, never long i n one place and  very unpredictable,,  H i s death poem, recorded i n the Kido @)sho ^oroku,  i s as f o l l o w s : E i g h t y - f i v e years Not even knowing the P a t r i a r c h s , Rowing w i t h elbow, s e r v i n g , going, 17 Erasing my t r a c k s i n the Great V o i d . be "Yu-wang"- This i s one of the many mountain temples t h a t Kido served at.  He was supposed to have been the Master of Yu-wang f o r a three year 18  p e r i o d s t a r t i n g i n 1258. Ikkyu o f t e n found encouragement and c o n s o l a t i o n i n studying the teachings and e x p l o i t s of the great Zen masters of the T'ang and Sung periods.  He f e l t p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e t o Kido Osho since there was some  similarities i n their l i f e styles.  Ikkyu sometimes signed himself as,  "Ikkyu Sojun, the seventh generation of Kido." t h a t he mentioned Kido i n h i s death poem, h a l f a penny."  I t w i l l a l s o be remembered  " i f Kido comes, he's not worth  This sounds d i s r e s p e c t f u l , b u t i t i s r e a l l y l i k e a joke  between soulmates.  K i d o , only wanting to obscure h i s t r a c k s i n the v o i d  had no i n t e n t i o n whatsoever to be remembered as worthy. Thus, Ikkyu's poem i s a c t u a l l y a k i n d of backhand  compliment.  This poem p r a i s i n g Kido i s more s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d .  Ikkyu p r a i s e s  him f o r being such an "homme r e v o l t e " and so marvelously detached from h i s s t a t u s as a monk. He could d i s c a r d h i s h a b i t as i f i t were a broken sandal.  Kido didn't even know about the P a t r i a r c h s , how much l e s s  concerned must he have been w i t h the f i n e p o i n t s of the c o r r e c t t r a n s m i s s i o n  39 of R i n z a i , something which was probably debated at great length i n the temples that Ikkyu was accustomed t o .  Ikkyu f i n i s h e s the poem w i t h an image  from nature, the moon on a windy night which symbolizes the f r e e s p i r i t of Kido.  Thinking of him,Ikkyu i s f i l l e d w i t h poems.  (9)  *> #[ I ^  ;f f f  £  &  $  3  * A ?$ %  I - °% & @ Ik  hi  f IL  4  |  *  i k a n a m ka kore R i n z a i ka no j i ,  . QoSo en iwaku gogyaku r a i o k i k u  k i s e n no i k k a t s u t e t s u c h i kuzuru gogyaku ganrai noso n i a r i t o r i shun^pu seien no yube hansei hahsui shu j o no gotoshi  What i s i t l i k e , the R i n z a i sect? Ihe F i f t h P a t r i a r c h "the  lecturing said,  f i v e s i n s , and one hears thunder."  J u s t a t the t h r e s h o l d ^ one shout and the i r o n cage crumbles. The f i v e s i n s are i n monks since the beginning. Peach and plum, s p r i n g wind, a b e a u t i f u l f e a s t a t evening: H a l f sober, h a l f drunk, sake's l i k e a rope.  40 a. "The F i f t h P a t r i a r c h " - Gunin  (Hung-jen)  >1«  i s the F i f t h  P a t r i a r c h of the Zen sect and l i v e d during the T'ang dynasty i n China. A l l the p a t r i a r c h s before the S i x t h P a t r i a r c h have a somewhat legendary existence and t h e r e f o r e d e f i n i t e dates are not a v a i l a b l e .  He was reported  to be the f i r s t Zen p a t r i a r c h to have a very large following,, However, his  fame i s somewhat overshadowed by the pre-eminence of the S i x t h  Patriarch. „  \i  b.  anJ one.  ,,  The F i v e SinsAhears thunder - These are a l i s t of f i v e crimes against  Buddhism which are supposed to without f a i l send one to i n f e r n a l punishment.  I n order of ascending seriousness they are:  to k i l l one's f a t h e r ,  to k i l l one's mother, to k i l l an arhat (an enlightened man), t o draw blood 19  from a Buddha, and to cause d i s s e n s i o n w i t h i n the Order.  I think,  however, t h a t here the F i v e Sins are not to be taken too l i t e r a l l y r a t h e r as a metaphor f o r man's propensity to do e v i l .  but  "To hear thunder"  i s to be shocked i n t o an awareness of the nature of s i n . Ikkyu seems t o equate i t w i t h R i n z a i * s shouting. c  0  "The t h r e s h o l d " r e f e r s to the p o i n t i n time which i s r i g h t f o r  a t t a i n i n g enlightenment. R i n z a i was famous f o r shouting at the r i g h t time to push h i s students to sudden enlightenment.  At the breaking p o i n t , a l l d i s t i n c t i o n s  between good and e v i l , s i n and v i r t u e , are d i s p e l l e d and the i r o n cage that such d u a l i s t i c t h i n k i n g produces c o l l a p s e s .  A l l monks are chained  by the n o t i o n of s i n . R i n z a i ' s katsu has a l s o been compared to "Vajra's 20 precious sword",  t h u s ^ i t i s capable of c u t t i n g the rope of attachment  to the s p r i n g evening f e a s t s and over-indulgence i n wine.  Above a l l , the  s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of R i n z a i ' s Zen i s complete l i b e r a t i o n .  (10)  f  +• n L «  A. c  -V + *  t  ?? &  a i-  «.  g  i n $ n  - f i ? M *  i*« «? $  •%  i  ^ i»  4.  i k a n a m ka kore Vomon shu, en iwaku k o k i senjaku k a k i kaze atataka n i s h i t e shundai n i ugoku hachiju j o i n s h i seki hiraku i c h i j i kan, sankutai ikubaku h i t o k a g a n r i n i koai o tsuku  What i s i t l i k e , Unmon's  sect?  He l e c t u r i n g s a i d ,  "The r e d f l a g  sparkles and flashes"** The f i n e f l a g i n the warm wind moves above the spring d a i s , E i g h t y people or more, the master begins h i s l e c t u r e . c d One word b a r r i e r , three phrase body of knowledge : How many people have r e d specks i n t h e i r eyes?  a.  Unmon Bunen (Yun-men Wen-yen)  Late T'ang dynasty ( d i e d 9^9).  ^  fl  Seppo Gizon  was a monk of the (Hsueh-feng I-ts'un)  42 ^  was h i s master.  Seppo broke Unmon's l e g by c l o s i n g a 21  door on i t , and the r e s u l t i n g p a i n enlightened him.  He was founder of  the Unmon sect which,however, was never brought t o Japan. b„  The r e d f l a g sparkles and f l a s h e s i s a koan of Unmon's about the 22  nature of enlightenment. c. ''One word b a r r i e r " - This r e f e r s t o a s t o r y i n which Unmon i s i n v o l v e d . I t goes, "At the end of the summer, Suigan s a i d t o a gathering, 'For one gammer now, I have been e x p l a i n i n g the Dharma t o you students„ s t i l l have eyebrows?'  See, do I  \People who f a l s i f y the Dharma are supposed t o get  leprosy, one of the f i r s t signs of which i s the l o s s of eyebrowsTj Hofuku s a i d , 'Robbers have f a l s e hearts.*  Chokei s a i d , ' y o u r eyebrows  are  0  growing.'  Unmon s a i d ,  l!l  "Unmon's one word b a r r i e r . "  kan  tl  (barrier).  This came t o be known as,  I t i s b e l i e v e d Unmon meant something l i k e  "There's a t r a p here." d. "Three phrase body of Knowledge"refers t o three famous phrases of Unmon's. The f i r s t being kangai kenkon, earth;  l^l  the second, setsudan shuryu,  "box and l i d , heaven and (5v  everything flows;" and the t h i r d , zuiha chikuro,  >«Ll / ^ c u t t i n g o f f , ft.  it  ii.  >L  ''following waves, chasing waves." A c l e a r explanation of these phrases which i n themselves are koans i s a thorny problem indeed.  I have decided  to f o l l o w the lead of l/umoulin and take as a guide h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  commentary on these three phrases by Engo Kokugon.  Accordingly, the  meaning of the f i r s t i s "True R e a l i t y , True Emptiness i s the marvelous existence i n each perception, each c o g n i t i o n , completely evident and unequivocal."  The second phrase means,  or expression i n words.  "True R e a l i t y d e f i e s understanding  When a l l appearances suddenly come to a r e s t , the  passions are destroyed."  And the t h i r d means, "The knowledge of r e a l i t y  gained through outside objects i s s a i d t o be l i k e the c h a r a c t e r i z i n g and knowing of the earth from i t s germs or a man from h i s words.  (That i s ,  24 appearances are completely r e l a t i v e ;  ....)"  Many of Ikkyu's poems seem t o be composed l i k e c o l l a g e s ; the connection, s between the l i n e s are not based on any l o g i c a l or r a t i o n a l k i n d of c o n t i n u i t y .  One l i n e simply evokes the next, sometimes by way  of complement, sometimes by way of c o n t r a s t , sometimes by way of random association.  This i s a poem of t h i s type.  The subject of the poem,  "What i s i t l i k e Unmon's s e c t ? , " u n i f i e s the poem, the content of the poem being b i t s and pieces of what Ikkyu knows about Unmon.  The r e d f l a g c a l l s  i n t o Ikkyu's mind the image of a s p r i n g meeting of monks under banners, Unmon p r e s i d i n g , e n l i g h t e n i n g the gathering w i t h h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y l a c o n i c teaching.  Since t h i s i s not R i n z a i , however, Ikkyu f e e l s moved  to c r i t i c i z e t h i s s e c t , so the l a s t l i n e , "How many people have r e d specks i n t h e i r eyes?" has a p e j o r a t i v e sense, meaning how many people have r e c e i v e d t h i s teaching and s t i l l remain unenlightened.  (11)  •h w L <h W t :  \L *  t Jdf  ft  fa «L * i , #j  1 >t %r  )$ *  H #f ft i  44 Ika n a m ka kore Igyo shu, en iwaku danbi koro n i yokotau Ejaku wa shaka Reiyu wa u s h i himo sabutsu mata furyu kohi michi tayu chokei no kaku bansei no seimei koyv> no a k i  ••ft  What i s i t l i k e , t h i s Igyo  sect? He l e c t u r i n g s a i d , "a c u t down stone  marker l y i n g on i t s side on the o l d road." Ejaku  b  —c became a monk, Heiyu became a cow;  A Buddha covered w i t h hsdr £$ Also d e l i g h t f u l . Old  stone marker, the road stops, man of the long valley.**  10,000 generations of names, autumn's y e l l o w leaves.  a.  Igyo  (Wei-yang) sect - During the T'ang dynasty the Zen sect was  s p l i t i n t o North and South. the  Southern branch.  Ling-yu)  i*  %_  The Igyo sect was one of the Five houses, of  The sect was co-founded by Isan Reiyu and Ryozan Ejaku  (Wei-shan  (Yang-shan H u i - c h i )  $f  <b  between the years 806 t o 820. The Igyo sect was not l o n g - l i v e d however, and by the beginning of the Sung dynasty, i n 960, i t was 25 amalgamated i n t o the R i n z a i sect. b.  Ejaku-The aforementioned Ryozan Ejaku was born i n 814 and died i n 890.  As a youth of f i f t e e n he wanted t o leave h i s f a m i l y home and become a monk but he was denied permission from h i s parents. A t the age of seventeen he cut o f f two f i n g e r s t o impress h i s parents w i t h the earnestness of h i s i n t e n t i o n and was f i n a l l y allowed t o g o . ^ c.  Isan Reiyu (see poem 13 f o r b i o g r a p h i c a l information and the s t o r y of  45 the  cow.)  d. ''man  of the long v a l l e y " - i n the Sotei j i e n )tj  (Tsu-t'ing shih-yuan)  Isan i s described as having been "born i n the long 27  v a l l e y of Fukushu  (Fu-chou)"  This poem i s another c o l l a g e poem, t h i s time the subject being the Igyo sect.  This sect was already long e x t i n c t by Ikkyu's time and  the second part of the t i t l e about the o l d stone marker l y i n g on the road r e f e r s to t h i s f a c t .  Whenever Ikkyu mentions Isan, the next reference i s  to a cow, since Ikkyu's f a v o r i t e s t o r y i n connection w i t h Isan seems to have been the s t o r y of the water b u f f a l o r e i n c a r n a t i o n . Here again, Ikkyu expresses h i s amusement at the idea of a Buddha covered w i t h h a i r . The t h i r d l i n e harks back t o the f a c t that the Igyo sect i s no more.  The  f o u r t h l i n e i s very s i m i l a r to the l a s t l i n e of poem 13, the image being autumn leaves expressing the r e l e n t l e s s passing away of generations of people and leaves, the c l a s s i c Buddhist theme of impermanence.  (12)  I  %  - $  A  t  h  L  #  # #-  £  *  iSL A  H  46  i k a nam  ka kore Hogen shu  en iwaku j u n n i n yo o okasu i t t e k i no Sogen, i t t e k i fukashi j u n n i n nyonyo yo c h i n c h i n s e i z a n manmoku kore nan no ho zo kashu nao hoshin o manabu ga gotoshi  What i s i t l i k e t h i s Hogen sect , he l e c t u r i n g s a i d , "The watchman breaks i n t o the n i g h t . " One drop a t the source of the Ts'ao,** one drop deep. The watchman r a i s e s a row,but the n i g h t i s s i l e n t and deep. Verdant mountains f i l l everyone's eyes, what k i n d of law i s t h i s ? I t i s l i k e the ugly women studying to frown.  a.  The Hogen  (Fa-yen) sect was a sect of the l a t e T'ang dynasty and  F i v e Dynastj^js p e r i o d . jC-  I t was founded by the Hogen Buneki  (Fa-yen Wen-i)  885-958, a very learned man who brought Zen c l o s e r to  a form of s u t r a Buddhism than any other of the great T'ang Zen masters b. "One drop at the source of the Ts'ao r i v e r " - There i s a s t o r y about Hogen i n the Sha s h i t s u k i n (Shin s h i h t'ung chien) $ f  ^  ifL -4f«.  which  goes as f o l l o w s : "Master Shokoku asked Hogen, 'What i s i t l i k e , one drop of water from the Ts'ao r i v e r ? ' Hogen s a i d , ' I t i s one drop of water from the Ts'ao r i v e r . '  -  Shokoku hearing t h i s was immediately enlightened. ..."  29  The  other s t o r y which helps t o e l u c i d a t e the meaning of t h i s reference, i s one from the Dento Roku, (Ch'uan teng l u )  which records that "In  the year 502, there was a monk named Chih-yao who s a i l e d i n a boat u n t i l he  47 VIM - cVlot> reached issssfea and the waters of the Ts'ao r i v e r .  Ue had heard of the  e x c e l l e n t t a s t e of t h i s water and s a i d that a t the upper reaches of t h i s r i v e r there was f i n e land.  Accordingly, he b u i l t a mountain temple there  and c a l l e d i t P a o - l i n . Many years a f t e r , the S i x t h P a t r i a r c h Eno ( H u i nengj  l i v e d and taught there.  Thus, water from the r i v e r Ts'ao i s a l s o  a metaphor f o r the Zen teachings of the S i x t h P a t r i a r c h  c  ^  In t h i s poem, the watchman represents the unenlightened person. This i s made c l e a r i n the second l i n e by the contrast between the watchman, b l i n d l y c l a t t e r i n g about i n the night and the night i t s e l f which i s i n f i n i t e l y deep  and calm and would appear so t o the watchman i f he  could only s t i l l himself f o r a moment. shan)  "/vc i*  One i s reminded of Tokusan  (T&»  who a t t a i n e d sudden enlightenment when h i s master blew 31  out the candle, and Tokusan experienced the deepness of the n i g h t .  It  w i l l be remembered that Ikkyu a l s o experienced h i s enlightenment a t n i g h t . Hogen's words of enlightenment t o Shokoku make up the f i r s t l i n e of the poem.  The meaning of t h i s l i n e i s s i m i l a r t o Blake's  "to see the world  i n a g r a i n of sand," or the passage from the Lankavatara s u t r a which says t h a t knowing one dharma i s t o know the 10,000 dharmas.  I n essence^ i t  means t h a t by thoroughly penetrating one t h i n g , one can understand a l l things.  The l a s t three l i n e s , however, seem t o c r i t i c i z e Hogen. I t  appears that Ikkyu f e e l s e i t h e r Hogen or h i s f o l l o w e r s couldn't perceive e s s e n t i a l t r u t h s f o r making too much noise.  I t w i l l be remembered that  Hogen brought Zen c l o s e s t t o a form of Sutra Buddhism,and i t may be t o t h i s t h a t Ikkyu i s r e f e r i n g .  The t h i r d l i n e contrasts w i t h the second  by being an image of day rather than night; ihtke-dayi-b^such people do not  48 understand.  The f o u r t h l i n e r e f e r s to the s t o r y of the ugly woman who  copied a famous beauty's frown, only to make h e r s e l f more u g l y .  The  i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t Hogen mimics true Zen but only makes himself r i d i c u l o u s .  (8)  &  <  *$ ® ft q  M k '<' M 4 •f  *  f& >t  M f U  A  £.  fL  ?i f &  It  jfi  it*  Daito Kokushi gyojo no sue n i d a i s u «laito o kakage okoshite i t t e n n i kagayaku iranyo homare o k i s o u hodo no  mae  •fusan suishuku h i to no k i s u r u nashi Daigo kyohen n i n i j u  nen  Inscri-p-tion {or the s t o r y of the behavior of Daito K o k u s h i a  Raise up high the great lamp,  0  b  l e t i t l i g h t the whole sky,  The phoenix carriages'* compete to p r a i s e before the Dharma H a l l , e Wind-eating, water-dwelling , no one remembers The twenty years he spent around Gojo Bridge.  a.  s t o r y - The character i s matsu  f  "the end", but here i t i s an  49 abbrieviation for b.  jt£ j^.  Daito Myocho Kokushi  Daitokuji.  beginning and end, meaning a s t o r y . A  it  #  ti  D  if  was the founder of  He died at the age of f i f t y - s i x i n 1337.  c. "The great lamp"is a l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n of Daito's name.  I think i t  i s i n t h i s sense t h a t Ikkyu meant i t to be taken here. d. "Phoenix carriages"means "important" people. e. V i n d - e a t i n g , water-dwelling'-'is a conventional phrase f o r d e s c r i b i n g u  the l i f e of a very poor person or beggar. f. "Gojo B r i d g e " i s a bridge over the Kamogawa i n Kyoto.  Daito l i v e d  i n a temple c l o s e to there named U n k o j i and begged a t the bridge during 33 t h a t time.  T  "  So i t i s w i t h men who become famous, people often forget the time they spent i n o b s c u r i t y .  I n Ikkyu's time, D a i t o k u j i was such a large  and wealthy temple, the c e l e b r a t i o n s f o r i t s founder were l a v i s h and a t t r a c t e d many of the most powerful people i n the country. However, few of these people bothered to remember that part of Daito's greatness was due to the f a c t that he had spent twenty years begging around J Bridge. Ikkyu remembers i t .  (311, 312, 313, and 314) prose i n t r o d u c t i o n :  i  l  k  f  &  t  % i  M  h h  f « # %  f  Gojo  50  %  &  h  &  ^  *q  H  t  i  %  1 4  ±  il  /A  ft  L  M  *1 h  /§  %  JL  &  fL L  )k  >L  %  1 &  Good and e v i l have never been confused.  I n t h i s world, those  who do good are a l l f r i e n d s of Shun, and those who do e v i l are a l l f r i e n d s of C h i e h o ^  The pheasant i s always attacked by the hawk, the r a t i s  always b i t t e n by the c a t , t h i s i s innate i n them and decided beforehand. The way i n which a l l l i v i n g creatures take refuge i n Buddha's V i r t u e and escape s i n k i n g i n t o b i r t h and death i s also l i k e t h a t .  0  Therefore, I  made poems and i n s t r u c t e d a gathering with them.  a.  Shun = The legendary Emperor Shun, one of the t r i u m v i r a t e of model  r u l e r s , Yu, Yao and Shun. b.  Chieh - the c r u e l l a s t r u l e r of the H s i a Dynasty who was as infamous  f o r e v i l as Shun was famous f o r good. c.  They a l s o have t h i s c a p a c i t y f o r goodness innate i n them.  1311)  |  Hi  to  ft % H) £  L * IB  I f >$ % !J 1 18. A  &  0  ifc.  k  A  % i\  yochi somyo moto j i n e n i o n g o r a i kyu  innen  t e r a s h i miru B a s e l zangetsu no a k a t s u k i  Meiko no kikan Bakai no mae  Eagle and pheasant, r a t and c a t , are o r i g i n a l l y so of  themselves;  Since time immemorial the ancient l a v of karma. To see the moon remaining at dawn at Hua-ch'ing, — b c Was Genso's reminder of what happened at Ma-wei.  a. "Hua-ch ing"was a palace b u i l t by the T'ang Emperor Genso 1  (Hsuan-tsung)  "Kin.  f o r h i s f a v o r i t e concubine Y o k i h i ( Y a n g - k u e i - f e i ) . whole seems to a l l u d e to the l i n e i n PbjChu-i's poem  iJ  *  h h %  K  The l i n e as a "The Long G r i e f " ;  &  35 "At the temporary palace, see the moon, c o l o r of a wounded heart," This l i n e describes Genso s t i l l i n e x i l e a t a temporary palace a f t e r Y o k i h i i s dead, l o o k i n g at the moon. b. "Genso's reminder"- The T'ang Emperor Genso was so i n f a t u a t e d w i t h the concubine Y o k i h i t h a t he shamefully neglected the a f f a i r s of s t a t e . Because of t h i s neglect and a l s o the l a v i s h amounts of money Genso spent i n b u i l d i n g palaces and gardens f o r Y o k i h i , the country was c l o s e to f i n a n c i a l r u i n .  An o f f i c e r of high rank i n the army, Anrokuzan  l u - s h a n j , seeing h i s opportunity s t a r t e d a r e v o l t which at f i r s t very s u c c e s s f u l and swept him i n t o the c a p i t a l .  (Anwas  The Emperor and h i s  court were f o r c e d t o f l e e w i t h the remnants of the Imperial army.  At  Ma-wei, however, the army refused to defend the Emperor u n t i l he k i l l e d  Y o k i h i whom they considered as p r i m a r i l y responsible f o r the d e c l i n e of the country.  Thus, to save the dynasty, Genso was forced to k i l l  Y o k i h i himself.  This p a c i f i e d h i s troops.  His son then set himself  up as Emperor i n another part of the country and g r a d u a l l y won back their losses.  Genso was eventually c a l l e d back to the c a p i t a l  and  l i v e d the r e s t of h i s l i f e i n l o n e l y retirement with only the memories of the former happy times w i t h Y o k i h i to comfort him. c.  As mentioned above, Ma-wei was the place where Y o k i h i was  killed.  (312;  A t />'L>  I it A : t & i % 1 * t t- & >f  kagen^mi t a r e b i t o ka ryodatsu  su  akunin wa c h i n r i n s h i zensha wa datsu su furyu a i s u b e s h i koan madokanari Tokusan no bo Rinzai no katsu  P a s t , present, and f u t u r e , who  comprehends i t ?  Bad people s i n k , good people are r e l e a s e d ; Pleasure i s l o v a b l e , the koan i s complete: Tokusan's s t i c k ,  a  H i n z a i ' s shout.  b  a. "Tokusan's s t i c k " - The Zen master Tokusan Senkan chien)  ifL-  teaching,  b  2  WL  (Te-shan Hsiian-  was noted f o r h i s use of the s t i c k i n Zen  He i s recorded as saying t o a group of h i s f o l l o w e r s ,  "Whether a person can e x p l a i n or not, he r e c e i v e s t h i r t y blows w i t h the stick,"  This gives some idea of the extent t o which Tokusan used h i s  stick. b. " R i n z a i ' s shout"- The Zen master R i n z a i Gigen was e q u a l l y famous f o r shouting a t the r i g h t occassions.  (313)  & A %4  *ii  k  ^  it  \\ *  iL  k  M  k  ^  i l  f u r y u no s h i f u n mata kosho Tomyo no Nyorai dancho o ikansen shinnu kore Bakaisen ka no haku r i k o n no senjo fuso n i takuseraru  Elegant i n her powder and rouge; Even a Supremely Enlightened Buddha would be touched. See she i s the s p i r i t from the s p r i n g of Ma-wei: The beauty's departed soul was banished t o Japan, perhaps.  54  1 £.' at 2 f £  I  %-  t  *  f  %  ft  s h i n j i n sadamarazu ka t o s h i n t o yokkai no shujo kushin n i shizumu shumu sansho r o k u j i k k o gokku raushiki Bakai no kami  i  Body and mind cannot be separated i n t o temporary or r e a l . I n the world of d e s i r e , everyone s i n k s i n t o s u f f e r i n g . B i t t e r s w e e t dream, past, present and f u t u r e , s i x t y k a l p a s ,  a  The kalpas are v o i d and formless, the s p i r i t of Ma-wei.  a.  k a l p a - a Buddhist measurement of time, q u a l i f i e d i n such p o e t i c ways  as,  "The p e r i o d r e q u i r e d f o r a c e l e s t i a l woman t o wear away a ten-mile  cubic stone i f she touched i t w i t h her garments once every three years^" which means t h a t i t i s a very long p e r i o d of time.  •30  Ikkyu i n these poems and prose passage r e f l e c t s on the nature of karma, the Buddhist concept of cause and e f f e c t .  In the beginning i t seems  q u i t e simple: good acts b r i n g good e f f e c t s , bad acts b r i n g bad e f f e c t s , and c e r t a i n t h i n g s are s e t ; the eagle always a t t a c k s the pheasant, the cat always b i t e s the r a t . Nothing leads one to r e f l e c t on the laws of  55 karma so much as examples of people i n l o f t y p o s i t i o n s f a l l i n g grace at a s i n g l e blow,,  from  So, i n the f i r s t poem Ikkyu t h i n k s of Y o k i h i ,  who had r i s e n so high i n the world t h a t the mothers and f a t h e r s of China began to wish f o r g i r l babies r a t h e r than boy babies so t h a t they c o u l d f o l l o w her example.  However, no sooner was she at her z e n i t h than by  f a t e i n the guise of the Anrokuzan r e b e l l i o n , she was cut down.  Genso  too, was i n the same p o s i t i o n , having found a woman who pleased him more than anything i n the world, he was f o r c e d t o k i l l her the next moment. The second poem b r i n g s the r e s o l u t i o n t o t h i s seemingly  untenable  s i t u a t i o n ; a l l i s as i t should be, only f a l s e t h i n k i n g makes i t seem otherwise and there i s always Tokusan's s t i c k and R i n z a i ' s shout t o j o l t one out of t h a t .  The t h i r d and f o u r t h poem present a p o s i t i v e and  negative a t t i t u d e towards the world and,more p a r t i c u l a r l y , the s i t u a t i o n ©f Genso and Y o k i h i .  They correspond roughly t o the l a s t two of H i n z a i * s  "Four P o i n t s of View", the p o s i t i v e and negative way of s t a t i n g the t r u t h of the u n i v e r s e .  The t h i r d poem presents the p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e .  Ikkyu d e l i g h t s i n beauty and i s o p t i m i s t i c f o r since great beauties l i k e everyone e l s e are r e i n c a r n a t e d time and time again i n t o the world; maybe Y o k i h i w i l l be r e i n c a r n a t e d i n Japan next time. This a t t i t u d e i s one t h a t sees the whole world as a stage and p l a y e r s , p l a y i n g out dramas f o r e v e r , t h a t i f they are not r e a l , are b e a u t i f u l .  The f o u r t h poem  presents a negative a t t i t u d e t o the same s i t u a t i o n , a l l the world i s a dream, not r e a l , and no one can escape s u f f e r i n g unless they escape the dream a l t o g e t h e r .  I n essense, the universe i s v o i d and  you w i l l f i n d the s p i r i t of MarwaJ.  ..fQfinless; there  56  (73)  I ft <5 f I * f lb tfC *  A  4  * ^ ^ if i f.  fli  *  *f  iii  &  4  ii-  *v  ft  ushi i r u i kochu kore waga so no wa kyo n i y o r i mata kyo wa no n i yoru shussho bokyaku su r a i j i no michi s h i r a z u tonen t a ga u j i no so  The  Cow  Come amohg the beasts to teach,  t h i s i s what I have done.  The p e r c e i v e r depends on the perceived; the perceived depends on p e r c e i v e r . We are born and f o r g e t the path which we came; No one knows i n those times what monk's name I had.  a.  Iruikochu  ^  ^§ 1  J  <t*  j  i s a s p e c i f i c Buddhist term f o r a 39  teacher's being born as an animal i n order to e x p l i c a t e the dharma. b.  " p e r c e i v e r " - The character no  w i t h the idea of teacher.  i n t h i s context i s almost equatable  In t h i s sense, i t i s often p a i r e d with sho  Thus, noke ht> iLi i s the teacher who transforms and shoke  ft\.  i s the  student who i s transformed.  Another way of conceiving t h i s i s i n the terms  of subject and object, no  being the subject and kyo t% being the o b j e c t .  57 Here,I chose p e r c e i v e r and perceived because i t i s a case of Ikkyu's seeing the cow which occassions t h i s poem.  In t h i s poem, Ikkyu again embellishes the theme of Isan's koan about coming back as a cow. e n d l e s s l y amusing.  I t seems t o have been a koan he found  I n t h i s poem the cow speaks i n the f i r s t person.  The circumstances surrounding t h i s poem w i l l e x p l a i n why.  The s t o r y  goes t h a t Ikkyu one day v i s i t e d the house of a l a y temple supporter. I n an enclosure he n o t i c e d an o l d cow and wrote the preceding poem which he then hung on the end of the cow's horn,  j u s t as though i t was a poem  the cow might say. . The next day the cow d i e d and when the owner of the cow saw Ikkyu,he teased him, saying "Your poem k i l l e d my cow." and Ikkyu l a u g h e d . ^ The second l i n e r e f e r s t o the f a c t t h a t t o the farmer the cow was j u s t a cow but t o Ikkyu i t was a memory of Isan and a v e h i c l e f o r r e f l e c t i n g on the nature of karma. Hence,what was seen depended on the seer, and the seer,Adepended on what was seen f o r h i s i n s p i r a t i o n .  (18)  i  ($ >  fk  n. ff  >% <»-  ff  %  )%  :*  V) H  1  i  'ft  %  t c  t  i  58  Ganto senkyo no zu, nisha Esho igo sogyo o yaburu i c h i d a n no furyu k a j i s e i to o mawashite imada i n i n no t e t o nasu o omowazu token t s u k i n i sakende yo san ko  This i s the f i r s t of two poems e n t i t l e d : P i c t u r e of Ganto  l i v i n g on a boat  ^two poems)  A f t e r Hui-ch angk, monks were abolished. 1  A l i t t l e more g r a c e f u l , how about i t . S c u l l i n g the oar, you wouldn't b e l i e v e i t was by human hand; A cuckoo c r i e s a t the moon, midnight.  a.  Ganto Zenkatsu  ^Yen-t'ou Ch'uan-huo)  master of the T'ang dynasty, died i n 887 a t the age of s i x t y .  He was  eighteen at the time of the great persecution of Buddhism and became a 41 ferryboat man u n t i l the persecution was over. b.  The persecution of Buddhism was s t a r t e d i n the f i f t h year of the  42 Hui-ch'ang era, 845.  One would expect a Buddhist monk t o f i n d any persecution of Buddhism unfortunate.  This was not so with Ikkyu however, who found  many pompous robed p r i e s t s j u s t as odious as the T'ang Emperor d i d .  •  "What could be a more d e l i g h t f u l and appropriate occupation f o r a Buddhist monk than t h a t of a ferryman.  I t w i l l be remembered that Buddha's law i s  often r e f e r e d to as a ferryboat f o r c r o s s i n g t o the shore of enlightenment.  59  The cuckoo c a l l i n g through the moonlit night over the water, i s reminiscent of the c o n d i t i o n s surrounding Ikkyu's own enlightenment.  (362)  & *  ^ f$ H h i  i  f  i  «  H % h L  K  Honen Shonin o sansu Honen t s u t a e k i k u katsu Wyorai anza su renge jobon d a i c h i s h a o s h i t e ninyudo no gotoku narashimu i c h i m a i no k i s h o mottomo k i naru kana  *•*  ft  P r a i s i n g S a i n t Honen Honen, I heard, was a l i v i n g Buddha; P e a c e f u l l y s i t t i n g on the highest rank of the Lotus d a i s , Teaching learned men as though they were nuns and l a y followers.** — c Honen's One Sheet Document, how marvelous!  a.  Honen 1133 - 1212 was the founder of the Jodoshu, Pure Land s e c t , of  Buddhism i n Japan.  I t i s a form of Buddhism which focuses i t s a t t e n t i o n  on the most compassionate of the Buddhas, Amida„  60 b.  That i s , a t l e a s t i n the case of the nuns, as though they were  illiterate. C o "Honen's One Sheet Document"contains the essence of h i s d o c t r i n e . "The method of f i n a l s a l v a t i o n t h a t I have propounded i s n e i t h e r a s o r t of m e d i t a t i o n , such as has been p r a c t i s e d by many s c h o l a r s i n China and Japan, nor i s i t a r e p e t i t i o n of the Buddha's name by those who have s t u d i e d and understood the deep meaning of i t .  I t i s nothing but the  mere r e p e t i t i o n of the "Namu Amida Butsu" without a doubt i n h i s mercy, whereby one may be born i n t o the Land of P e r f e c t B l i s s . . . .  Those who  b e l i e v e t h i s , though they c l e a r l y understand a l l the teachings Shaka taught throughout h i s whole l i f e , should behave themselves l i k e simpleminded f o l k , who know not a s i n g l e l e t t e r , or l i k e ignorant nuns or monks whose f a i t h i s i m p l i c i t l y simple.  Thus,without pedantic a i r s , they should 43 f e r v e n t l y p r a c t i s e the r e p e t i t i o n of the name of Amida, and t h a t alone."  I t may seem strange t o read a poem w r i t t e n by a Zen monk p r a i s i n g the Pure Land sect founder, since Zen and the Pure Land Sect are u s u a l l y considered t o be opposed i n d o c t r i n e .  A c t u a l l y , the Pure Land Sect and  Zen have a common p o i n t i n t h e i r d i s t r u s t of the s c h o l a s t i c or i n t e l l e c t u a l approach t o Buddhism; Zen i s always emphasizing the inadequacy of words t o convey the d o c t r i n e w h i l e the Pure Land sect merely considers i n t e l l e c t u a l knowledge misleading.  H i s t o r i c a l l y as  w e l l , there have been i n c i d e n t s i n which Zen and the Pure Land sect have been l i n k e d .  One of the candidates f o r S i x t h P a t r i a r c h , Chih-  h s i e n , had a d i s c i p l e Ch'u-chi who leaned toward the Amidist t r a d i t i o n , and h i s d i s c i p l e i n t u r n became a prominent teacher i n the Pure Land  61 school. However, i t i s not that Ikkyu i s p r a i s i n g Honen's doctrine here, but r a t h e r Honen's overwhelming genuineness, as compared w i t h some of the phoney Zen monks w i t h whom Ikkyu was acquainted.  (20)  u  M  &f  &.  n it fa  #  ^ ' f  h ft  ft  Ni So o sansu Taito konko zenji  nashi  danpi no kyoden hito s h i r a z u tada yurusu nanzan dosen ga fude atakamo tsu^sho n i s h i n s u i o orosu ga gotoshi  P r a i s i n g the Second P a t r i a r c h From China, now and since o l d times, there are no Zen masters. No one knows the legend of Danpi; c Only Nanzan Dosen's story i s allowed: J u s t as i f a needle had been a p p l i e d to a p a i n f u l spot.  a.  The Second P a t r i a r c h Keika  (Hui-k'o)  C- $L  %  *\  was  supposed  62 to have been born i n 487 and d i e d at the age of a hundred and seven i n 593.  He r e c e i v e d h i s t r a n s m i s s i o n at the age of t h i r t y - t w o from the 45  F i r s t P a t r i a r c h Bodhidharma.  (see f o l l o w i n g s t o r y )  b. "Danpi"is a nickname f o r the Second P a t r i a r c h and means "cut o f f  arm".  The s t o r y of how he got h i s arm cut o f f which i s a l s o the s t o r y of h i s enlightenment,  according to the Humonkan  (Wu-men-kuan), i s as f o l l o w s :  "Daruma sat s t a r i n g at the w a l l , the second P a t r i a r c h stood i n the snow and  [ f i n a l l y a f t e r a long time, t o prove h i s earnestnessj cut o f f h i s  arm,  saying, 'My mind i s not yet p a c i f i e d , please master p a c i f y my mind.' Daruma s a i d , 'Then b r i n g out your mind and show i t t o me.'  The Second  P a t r i a r c h s a i d , 'Whenever 1 look f o r my mind I can't f i n d i t . '  'There,'  46  s a i d Daruma, 'I have p a c i f i e d your mind.'" was immediately c.  Nanzan Dos en  and the Second P a t r i a r c h  enlightened. (Nan-shan Tao-hsuan)  ^  J-i  the founder of the Nanzan E i s s h u sect i n China.  jjL  i  596-667, was  He rewrote the s t o r y of  how the Second P a t r i a r c h l o s t h i s arm i n the Zokukosoden  (Hsu-kao s«*\^ c-U'oan)  and apparently, at l e a s t as f a r as we can t e l l from the poem, i t was q u i t e current i n Japan at Ikkyu's time.  H i s v e r s i o n of the s t o r y i s as  follows: "The Great P a t r i a r c h Keika met robbers and had h i s arm cut o f f . C o n t r o l l i n g h i s mind w i t h Buddha's law, he didn't f e e l any pain; with f i r e he burned the wound, and bound i t up w i t h c l o t h . had been on h i s way begging, he didn't t e l l anyone.  As though he Later, a priest  named E i n ( L i n ) a l s o met robbers and had h i s arm cut o f f .  He shouted  through the n i g h t ; Keika came and tended h i s wounds, and begged food t o give to him.  K i n got angry w i t h Keika's clumsiness.  Keika s a i d  'You  63 have r i c e cakes i n f r o n t of you, -why don't you wrap them up?' s a i d , 'I've l o s t an arm, don't you know?  1  Rin  E e i k a s a i d , '1 don't have an 47  arm e i t h e r , what i s there t o get angry about?'" ' Ikkyu obviously p r e f e r s the t r a d i t i o n a l Danpi s t o r y , because i t i s the c l o s e s t t o the t r u t h of Zen.  Nanzan Dosen's v e r s i o n i s  t y p i c a l of the glowing accounts of famous monks i n the face of hardship; i t i s an e d i f y i n g story i n the conventional sense of the word, but not condusive to pushing the mind beyond i t s conventional l i m i t s .  Yet, i t  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t h i s k i n d of s t o r y which people p r e f e r ; the idea of a monk going so f a r as t o cut o f f h i s arm f o r the sake of a few words of enlightenment, s t r i k e s a p a i n f u l spot i n most people. The metaphor of the needle i n the l a s t l i n e must r e f e r to the technique of acupuncture. Thus, the Danpi s t o r y i s l i k e the acupuncture needle which, though i t h u r t s , cures.  Danpi's a c t , i t s e l f , though  p a i n f u l cured him of h i s uneasy mind. There i s a l s o a c e r t a i n amount of s c h o l a r l y evidence t o support the o p i n i o n t h a t the legend which t e l l s of the Second P a t r i a r c h c u t t i n g ©ff h i s arm  i s perhaps the true s t o r y .  U i Hakuju argues t h i s  way,  f i r s t by c i t i n g an i n s c r i p t i o n recorded by H o r i n ( F a - l i n )  m  572-640, which has t h i s v e r s i o n of the s t o r y and d e f i n i t e l y pre-dates / 48 Nansan JDosen's v e r s i o n .  Then he quotes two manuscripts from Tun-Huang,  the P ' u - t ' i - t a - m o - n a n - t a ' u n - t ' i n g - s h i h - f e i - l u n ^ $?> fL  !_ iLS  f  ife  %  and the Leng-ch" i e h - s h i h - t s u - c h i ^  ^ M»  £f  which both record the v e r s i o n where the Second P a t r i a r c h cuts  o f f h i s own arm. Thus the t e x t u a l evidence f o r t h i s s t o r y i s s u b s t a n t i a l . S u z u k i , t o o , i s of the o p i n i o n t h a t t h i s s t o r y i s the t r u e one, and  64 he backs up h i s argument w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l reasoning.  He maintains  t h a t , as t h i s was the culmination f o r K e i k a of many years of seeking f o r enlightenment through s c h o l a s t i c s u t r a Buddhism which had always l e f t him u n s a t i s f i e d , even such a d r a s t i c act was understandable.  In  amother place, Suzuki, again r e f l e c t i n g on the s t o r y of Danpi, f e e l s t h a t maybe i t i s too much that Keika should be standing i n the snow as w e l l at the time, and perhaps t h i s d e t a i l was added to make i t a good 52. s t o r y . However, h i s e s s e n t i a l acceptance of the s t o r y remains unchanged. U i , a l s o provides a p s y c h o l o g i c a l argument to support h i s view t h a t the Danf>i s t o r y i s the true one.  I t i s r e a l l y an argument against those who  cannot accept the s t o r y on the b a s i s of common sense.  He says people  l i k e t h a t , modern s c h o l a r s , simply cannot imagine what such a "desire 55 to seek the way" i s l i k e because they do not f e e l i t themselves. This i s c l o s e to what Ikkyu meant when he s a i d t h a t the Danpi s t o r y h i t s a 54-  p a i n f u l spot i n people. '  (25, 26, and 27)  f  P  '>  %  £  K i d o Osho santibengo  Monk Kido's three sayings of enlightenment  "Three sayings of enlightenment" words")  ( l i t e r a l l y "three turn-around  have been recorded f o r many of the great Zen monks.  Ikkyu  wrote poems f o r the sancfcengo of the masters, Joshu, D a i t o , Shogen, and  These of Kido, I found the most i n t e r e s t i n g .  Kido.  The three sayings  of Kido are t i t l e s f o r the three poems.  (25)  6 Ik t  ]|: t  A i$  fl *  0  i  J »  i  t ft  f #I  < t & i- *  ft  * 4 *  kogan imada a k i r a k a narazaru t e i , nani n i y o t t e ka koku o motte fuko t o n a s h i t e tsuku ga^_byo r e i cho ue imada mitazu nyojo nojkogan mite mo no gotoshi kando i c h i y a koromo o amou i r a k i senju an n i genjo  One's own eyes not yet c l e a r , how w i t h empty space make cotton breeches t o wear? a P a i n t e d r i c e - c a k e s , c o l d stomach hungry, never f u l l ; Born from woman w i t h eyes of f l e s h seeing as though b l i n d . In the c o l d h a l l s , one n i g h t , t h i n k of c l o t h e s : Figured gauze, a thousand f o l d s , i n the darkness  appears.*'  66 a.  A metaphor f o r unreal things which b r i n g no s a t i s f a c t i o n .  b.  I t was impossible to render the double sense of t h i s i n t r a n s l a t i o n ,  Genjo a l s o means h i r v a n a , the sudden appearance of things as they are.55  (26)  i-j  JL e  ih h  ¥  k  it. * i  & i  %  ii  L L %r & 5  k- %• chi n i  JtL i  *  f  "kakushite, ro to nasu t e i , nani n i y o t t e ka shako o t o r i sugizaru  nanigoto zo shunjyu kyo imada kiwamarazu j i n s h i n wa mottomo kore kakuhai no kyu tendo j o j u s h i , j i k o k u metsusu h i wa nagashi rakuka h i j o no u c h i  Divide the earth, make a cage, how i s i t that you penetrate but do not pass through? How i s i t that i n s p r i n g - r e v e l r y , my i n t e r e s t i s never exhausted? People's minds are j u s t l i k e the bow i n the guest's cup. Heaven a t t a i n e d , H e l l i s destroyed. Long day amid f a l l i n g f l o w e r s , w i l l o w f l u f f .  a.  There i s a s t o r y about a man who went to v i s i t a f r i e n d and took a  cup of wine. wine.  In the cup, he saw a snake but s a i d nothing and drank the  When he l e f t he f e l t very i l l and a t t r i b u t e d i t to the snake  i n the cup.  He didn't v i s i t that f r i e n d f o r a long time.  had occassion to go again. so long.  F i n a l l y he  H i s f r i e n d asked him why he had stayed away  He t o l d the f r i e n d about the snake i n h i s cup and h i s i l l n e s s .  The f r i e n d gave him another cup of wine; saw another snake i n h i s eup„  he sat i n the same place and  He t o l d h i s f r i e n d who pointed to a bow  on the w a l l that was decorated w i t h a snake design and was r e f l e c t e d i n his  cup.^The snake was not r e a l , and yet the man had become i l l .  xV  The  bow i n the guest's cup"is a metaphor f o r the i l l u s i o n s that man's mind i s prey t o .  (27)  x # ^ *  %  fe  it %  AS  i  $  ft  i  if If- ft  X  k  L  *f ii  s.«.  >t  k a i n i i r i t e isago o kazouru t e i , nani n i y o t t e ka shinbo t o j o n i ashi o tsumadatsu do o s a t s u s h i isago o kazoete fukaku ko o t a t s u shinpo n i ashi o tsumadatete j i n z u o genzu  sanzo ga s h a r i rau^no no kan  tokai no j i s o n Tentaku no kaze  Go t o the sea and count the sand, how do you stand t i p t o e on the  head of a needle? S c a t t e r the e a r t h and count the sand, i t b u i l d s up great m e r i t , Stand t i p t o e on the p o i n t of a needle and paranormal powers appear, Among the mountain monks, there i s no one of a b i l i t y , The son of the Eastern Sea i s of Kido's s t y l e .  a.  The son of the Eastern Sea means Ikkyu.  ¥.  Poems of C r i t i c i s m about other monks  I f there seems t o be a rather large number of poems c r i t i c i s i n g the c l e r i c a l society, i t should be remembered that the E i n z a i sect was i n a s t a t e of severe decline.. Ikkyu, although from the standpoint of conventional m o r a l i t y he appeared to be a prime example of moral decadence, was a c t u a l l y the only one who had the s p i r i t of the ancient masters, true Zen. This was f i r s t and foremost, Ikkyu's own opinion, so deeply convinced was he of the rightness of h i s own perception.  From t h i s  f i r m base of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , a q u a l i t y much i n evidence among the masters of o l d as w e l l , he attacks the monks f o r t h e i r petty concerns and petty quarrels brought about by narrow egotism, and t h e i r  preoccupation  with the propagation of the "name" of Zen - i t s power of influence i n secular a f f a i r s - and the " p r o f i t " of the Zen, When we consider that Ikkyu was involved with the Zen as an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r p r a c t i c a l l y h i s whole l i f e , i t i s no wonder that he should be moved quite often t o pen off v i o l e n t t i r a d e s , i f only t o somehow ease h i s own mind. presented here are some of the milder t i r a d e s .  (74)  •ft 4? % .fe * - 4 & ^  K  if *>k $  f/f 1  A  # /f  ft fa ft  f  it  -ft  %  L *  %  The poems  70 a keigei o t s u r u n i narete warai i c h i j o deisha n i ho o k i s h i r i t e hanahada hobo awaremubeshi s e i t e i n i sondai to shosu tenka no noso mina Shiyo  The  frog  a  Accustomed t o f i s h i n g f o r whales, I had to laugh £At the frog,1 t h r a s h i n g through the mud so b u s i l y . They are p i t i a b l e , those at the bottom of w e l l s , c a l l i n g themselves great; A l l the patch-cloaked monks under heaven are j u s t l i k e Shiyo^.  a. f r o g " - The f r o g at the bottom of the w e l l i s w e l l known i n China u  and Japan as an aphorism f o r narrow-minded people;  people who  boast  and c o n s i d e r themselves important simply because they are b l i n d to the r e s t of the w o r l d . b.  Shiyo  (Tzu-yang) whose o f f i c i a l name was Koson J u t s u Mi  sun Shu)  ib  ( ? - 36)  (Kung-  was a f i g u r e of the Han Dynasty.  He  became King of Szechwan and r a t h e r p r e t e n t i o u s l y c a l l e d himself emperor.  He spent much money b u i l d i n g palaces but h i s r e i g n was short;  i n the end, he was assassinated. Ma-Yuan, i n a H i s t o r y of the L a t e r Han Dynasty, says of him "Shiyo was j u s t a f r o g at the bottom of the well".  1  This i s one of the famous i n c i d e n t s of the use of t h i s  expression.  Ikkyu always keeps h i s mind on the great t r u t h , which i s here l i k e n e d to a whale while a l l the other monks occupy themselves w i t h the s u p e r f i c i a l aspects of the d o c t r i n e , busy l i k e f r o g s t h r a s h i n g through mud.  One i s reminded of the Toba Sojo animal s c r o l l which parodies  monks by p a i n t i n g them i n the forms of f r o g s , r a b b i t s , and monkeys.  (75)  A. ^ ii *- /V tf. < x « p% fr  # n *  ft  &  it  shakuhachi i s s h i no shakuhachi urami tae gatashi f u i t e koka s a i j o no g i n n i i r u j u j i g a i t o t a ga u j i no kyoku zo Shorin mooka c h i i n o zessu  Shakuhachi* Music from the shakuhachi, sorrow d i f f i c u l t t o bear. Blowing i n t o the b a r b a r i a n flute,** a song a t the f r o n t i e r ; At the crossroads, whose piece does he play? Among the students of Zen , I have few f r i e n d s .  72 a.  Shakuhachi - This i s a bamboo f l u t e w i t h f i n g e r i n g holes which has  a very s h r i l l sound.  There was a k i n d of wandering,mendicant monk  c a l l e d komuso who played the shakuhachi  as he  went about begging.  It  i s perhaps one of these monks that Ikkyu hears go by. b.  Barbarian f l u t e - koka i s a w h i s t l e made out of a reed w i t h no holes  for fingering.  This i s a p r i m i t i v e instrument that was used among the  barbarians on the borders of China. c.  The expression here i s "the students of Shorin"  ( S h a - l i n ) , Shorin  waa the temple of BohdhijDharma, thus i t means students of Zen.  This i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of Ikkyu's l o n e l i n e s s . umfamiliar song played on a shakuhachi  He hears an  at the crossroads, and he imagines  t h a t he i s a t some f r o n t i e r post i n China hearing the strange music of the barbarians.  The poem as a whole i s reminiscent of many T'ang poems  on the subject of l o n e l y duties a t f r o n t i e r outposts.  A further  i m p l i c a t i o n i s that the people who occupy the temples, l i k e Yoso and h i s company, are l i t t l e more than barbarians so f a r as Ikkyu i s concerned.  (76)  & % $fai i Affi. 1 #fi A.  73  kairai ippo t o j o n i genshin o genzu aruiwa oko-to ka-shi aruiwa shomin moknzen s h i n no mokuketsu o hokyakn s h i t e c h i j i n wa yonde honrai no h i t o to nasu  Puppets On the s h e l f , appear whole bodies, Sometimes they are transformed i n t o kings and nobles, sometimes commoners, F o r g e t t i n g t h a t before t h e i r eyes there are r e a l l y only wooden s t i c k s , I d i o t s c a l l them r e a l people.  The p o i n t of t h i s poem i s t h a t j u s t as the audience at a puppet theater are t r i c k e d i n t o t a k i n g puppets f o r r e a l people, so the l a i t y of the Zen church were deceived i n t o accepting fake monks as r e a l monks.  (101,108) Prose i n t r o d u c t i o n :  i\  f  i  t  &  $  L h  I f1  *  i -  #  <f  8  %  L  ta A  f  L  it i i if i _ f  t %*  f  $ A •!  it * f  4 4  Ii M  M  i^  74 i i  f  h  t  i  t % A ftt 1  *k  IL  t  # ih i  ±  %  q  ti  L $  q  if t  f  1$  % *  &  I n the sutumn of the year 1447, there was a monk a t Daitoku temple who,for no reason, committed s u i c i d e . slanderous r e p o r t s t o the o f f i c i a l s .  S c a n d a l - l o v i n g monks made  So, i n connection w i t h t h i s c a l a m i t y  f i v e or seven of my f e l l o w monks were imprisoned. t o cause great t r o u b l e w i t h i n my s c h o o l .  This was s u f f i c i e n t  A t t h a t time, people were  n o i s i l y spreading rumours about i t .  I l i s t e n e d t o them and t h a t very  day disappeared i n t o the mountains.  The reason f o r my l e a v i n g was t h a t  I simply couldn't bear i t .  I t chanced that a s c h o l a r should come by  here, himself j u s t from Kyoto, and he has informed me of the various things going on at the temple. bear my g r i e f .  I found i t a l l the more impossible t o  I made poems expressing my g r i e f .  As t h i s happened t o  occur on the n i n t h day of the n i n t h month, I made nine poems.  £l have  chosen t o t r a n s l a t e two of these poems, the second and the ninth.}  (101) tff  &  |if  f  i  * 1 &  U l l f  75  %t  J% 1 t  L%  hazu ware seimei nao imada tsutsumazu sanZen gakudo j i n r o o chozu Ryozan no shobo chi o h a r a t ^ t e metsusu omowazariki Kao no jujo takakaran to wa  I am ashamed my name and fame are not yet obscured; P r a c t i s i n g Zen, studying the way, dusty troubles grow long; The true doctrine of Ryozan Unexpecte3]y/,  a.  i s swept from the earth and destroyed:  the King"of Demons^ has grown a hundred feet high.  Ryozan i s an abbreviation for Rycjusan "Holy Eagle Mountain" which  i s a t r a n s l a t i o n of the Sanskrit name of the mountain Grdhrakuta. mountain i s located i n Rajgirof modern B i h a r . fact that i t has the shape of an eagle.  This  I t gets i t s name from the  Shakymuni i s said to have  preached there and ? hence, i t s connection with the "true d o c t r i n e . " ^ b0  The  king of Demons here means something l i k e the d e v i l i n C h r i s t i a n i t y ,  but, since Buddhism i s e s s e n t i a l l y a non-dualistic philosophy, that one which emphasizes a transcendent truth evil,  is,  encompassing both good and  the King of Demons does not have the unique character of being i n  absolute opposition to  good as does the C h r i s t i a n d e v i l .  Ui's  d i c t i o n a r y says of him "The kind of d e v i l who i s the l o r d of the s i x heavens i n the world of d e s i r e .  Together with his followers, he hinders  people from adhering to the Buddhist r e l i g i o n . "  76 (108)  % A i| *  fa k) iL  K {  * H  US * f  A., 4  #  #  -  I  i  *  *  *f  (fit.  fugai no shosan midarete kumo n i i r u shoho wa shu o uagokashi mata gun o odorokasu liinkyo k i k a n ware e sezu dakuro i s s a n y o t t e kunkun.  The wind outside, pines and cedars i n confusion enter clouds. Elsewhere, everywhere, crowds move and people are suprised i n groups. The workings of humanity I do not understand; One cup of cloudy sake  a.  and I'm drunk.  Cloudy sake means u n r e f i n e d sake, poor q u a l i t y and perhaps even  home-made.  These poems and the prose passage record the i n c i d e n t over which Ikkyu i s supposed t o have resolved t o starve himself t o death i n p r o t e s t . As can be seen, Ikkyu himself makes no d i r e c t reference t o the idea of s u i c i d e . However, i t i s obvious i n these poems that i t was a deeply depressing s i t u a t i o n f o r him.  The poems g r a p h i c a l l y express h i s f e e l i n g  of helplessness before such overwhelming manifestations of e v i l and  77 c o r r u p t i o n w i t h i n the church.  I n the f i r s t poem, he uses the image of a  d e v i l a hundred f e e t high t o express the magnitude of the e v i l he sees. In the second poem, a storm i n nature symbolizes the p o l i t i c a l storm a t Daitokuji.  (130)  f t * 1k t h if n t $ -  V  $  fa #  &  iiihfi >tj^  jisan Kaso no j i s o n Zen o s h i r a z u Kyoun menzen t a r e ka Zen o toku sanju nenrai kenjo omoshi i c h i n i n katansu Shogen no Zen  Self-praise The descendents  of Kaso  don't know Zen,  Before Mad Cloud's face, who would e x p l a i n Z e n ? For t h i r t y y e a r s , heavy on my s h o u l d e r s , — b I have c a r r i e d the burden of Shogen s Zeno 1  78 a.  Kaso - I t w i l l be remembered that Kaso was Ikkyu's master, (see  introduction) b.  Shogen' - Shogen Sogaku  (Sung-yuan Ch'ung-yo)  ^  |t  was a E m z a i master of the Sung Dynasty A died 1209 at the age of seventy4 one.  This poem i s d i r e c t e d p r i n c i p a l y a t Yoso who was the senior descendant of Kaso w i t h whom Ikkyu was i n b i t t e r c o n f l i c t f o r many years.  (134,  135 and 136)  E r i no t o n i shimesu san shu  Three poems t o show t o a meeting of monks  (134)  4 1  f  t  »  *  **  M  jL  0  A  ix  - it. n  -  *  I  i  °t  rakuchu ku a r i Ikkyu no mon koko u arasou s e i t e i no son chuya kokoro n i oku genjikyaku  79 zehi ninga issho  kamabisushi  I n the midst of harmony there i s t r o u b l e i n Ikkyu's school. Each f r o ga f i g h t i n g f o r respect at the bottom of the w e l l ; Day and night,busy t h i n k i n g about d e t a i l s of the s c r i p t u r e s ; Right and wrong, myself and other**, f u s s i n g away a whole l i f e .  a.  See poem 7k The Frog.  b.  Myself and others - D o r the enlightened monk the d i s t i n c t i o n between  r i g h t and wrong, myself and other, i s extinguished.  U35)  koan s a n j i k i t a t t e mei r e k i r e k i kyokin kanpa sureba an konkon onzo s h i s h i n i i t a r u made bokyakushi  gatashi  doban no chugen j i kon n i sakarau  Involved i n the koan, i t comes d i s t i n c t and c l e a r . Breaking i n t o the heart, blackness i s dark,  dark.  There are resentments that u n t i l death are d i f f i c u l t t o f o r g e t : The sincere reproofs of f e l l o w monks grates the ears.  80 (136)  4 4  «  ft  f-  if  i  A.  |,  it  ^ 9  * 55  i t a z u r a n i soshi no gonku o gakutokushite s b i k i j o wa Tozan ge va kenju miyo, miyo, h i n p i n t a no h i o kosuru o c h i o fukunde h i t o n i haku sono kuchi kegaru  I n v a i n do you l e a r n the words and phrases of the o l d masters. Knowledge i s l i k e the tusks of Tozan,** sown swords. See them, f o l l o w i n g one upon another, b r i n g i n g up the f a u l t s of others. Whoever holds blood i n h i s mouth to spout out at others, h i s mouth i s polluted.  a. "words and phrases of the o l d masters"- Most of the teachings of the T'ang and Sung Zen masters are recorded i n l a c o n i c saying and anecdotes such as one one f i n d s i n the Mumonkan.  These verbal teachings c o n s i s t  mainly of key words and phrases which serve as touchstones f o r a c e r t a i n k i n d of conciousness  which wo,s  not meant to be i n t e l l e c t u a l l y  rationalized. b. "Tusks of Tozan' - Tozan i s a mythical mountain i n h e l l , a mountain 5 of sharp edges. 7  81 These three poems are i n t e r e s t i n g because they are examples of the k i n d of lessons Ikkyu gave t o h i s f o l l o w e r s . A l l three poems are q u i t e severe i n tone, but perhaps the t h i r d one e s p e c i a l l y so.  The  f i r s t poem i s simple enough; i t admonishes preoccupation w i t h the l e t t e r off the s c r i p t u r e s which only leads t o occasion f o r dispute. poem i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the f a u l t y understanding  of a koan.  The second Intellectual-  l y i t may appear c l e a r , but,deep i n the heart, resentments that are d i f f i c u l t t o root out remain.  When t h i s i s the case, then even the  well-meant c o u n c i l of f r i e n d s i s annoying.  The strong imagery i n the  t h i r d poem emphasizes the dangers of purely v e r b a l knowledge which i s turned as a sword against others. A k i z u k i Ryumin i s of the opinion that these c r i t i c i s m s were l e v e l e d p a r t i c u l a r l y a t Yoso's handling of koan i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i n d  Daitokuji.  —  —  Apparently Yoso was a l l o w i n g students t o get by w i t h mere  i n t e l l e c t u a l understanding  of the koana and i n f a c t s e t t i n g up a k i n d of  "koan m i l l " much as we c a l l some of our educational i n s t i t u t i o n s mills." (179)  M f  * >*-  { 1 M 4  4  f  1  I If if £. t if i t  ft ii  )%  <.  "diploma  82  Yoso no Daiyuan n i daisu s a n r i n wa f u k i (jjosan wa otorou tada j a s h i nomi a r i t e , shoshi nashi i k k a n o t o t t e gyokaku t o naran t o hossureba koko k i n d a i gyaku f u fuku  An i n s c r i p t i o n f o r the hermitage of Yoso Daiyu  (the second of two  poems on the s u b j e c t ) The temples are wealthy, but the Five Mountains are degenerating, There are only f a l s e masters, there are no t r u e masters? 1 would l i k e t o take a f i s h i n g r o d and go f i s h i n g : But these days, on the r i v e r s and l a k e s , a c o n t r a r y wind blows.  a. The F i v e Mountains"are the f i v e primary temples of the R i n z a i s e c t . vV  Here, they symbolize the R i n z a i sect i n g e n e r a l .  T h i s poem i s very s i m i l a r t o the two poems d i r e c t e d against Yoso t h a t were c i t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n .  Before Yoso, Ikkyu always emphasizes  "simple t h i n g s " , straw sandals, bamboo walking s t i c k , a l i f e of p l a i n p l e a s u r e s , as compared t o the l i f e of wealth and o s t e n t a t i o n t h a t Yoso pursued i n the temple.  Here the f i s h i n g r o d and going f i s h i n g symbolize  the simple l i f e t h a t Ikkyu i s so fond o f , w h i l e the c o n t r a r y wind represents the t i d e of the times toward degeneration other monks are swept up i n .  which Yoso and  VI.  Ikkyu's Love Poems  Among Ikkyu's poems t h a t deal predominantly w i t h l o v e , two kinds can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d .  There are those poems t h a t concern love i n general,  ranging from simple longing f o r the company of the b r o t h e l s , t o p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e f l e c t i o n s on eros i n a l a r g e sense.  And,there are those  poems addressed t o Lady Mori which deal w i t h h i s p a r t i c u l a r and personal love f o r her.  (89  and 90)  These two poems come under the t i t l e : j*  % =- n  Sankyo n i shu Dwelling i n the mountains  (89)  M  1  A  &  t  ilL £  &i  inbo j i s s a i kyo kiwame gatashi s h i i t e kuzan yu^koku no u c h i n i j u su kokyo kumo saegiru sanman r i chosho mimi n i sakarau okuto no kaze  VI.  Ikkyu *s Love Poems  Among Ikkyu's poems that deal predominantly v i t h l o v e , two kinds can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d .  There are those poems t h a t concern love i n general,  ranging from simple longing f o r the company of the b r o t h e l s , t o p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e f l e c t i o n s on eros i n a large sense.  And there are those  poems addressed t o Lady Mori which deal with h i s p a r t i c u l a r and personal l o v e f o r her.  (89  and 90)  These two poems come under the t i t l e :  Sankyo n i shu Dwelling i n the mountains  (89)  ii M  Jf  f ft £  %%  1  id  &  £ f  l l  £  $  t' # £ f 1  t  i% )%  Inbo j t l s s a i kyo kiwame gatashi s h i i t e kuzan yu^koku no uchi n i j u su kokyo kumo saegiru sanman r i chosho mimi n i sakarau okuto no kaze  84 Ten years spent i n b r o t h e l s , e l a t i o n d i f f i c u l t t o exhaust. Now, f o r c e d t o l i v e amid empty mountains, gloomy v a l l e y s , 30,000 m i l e s of cloud  spread between here and those d e l i g h t f u l p l a c e s ;  The wind i n the t a l l pines around the house grates upon my ears.  a.  a r h e t o r i c a l exaggeration  (90)  H  L  L  Ifyoun wa s h i n n i kore Daito no mago k i k u t s u kokuzan natazo son t o shosen Omou mukashi soka unu no yube f u r y u no netasho kinson 0 t o s e s h i koto 0  Mad cloud i s t r u l y the descendant of D a i t o .  8  Demon caves, b l a c k mountains, what i s there t o revere here? I remember a former time's songs on the pan pipe, evenings of cloud-rain,  b  Youthful pleasures, d r a i n i n g the golden cask.  a.  c  Daito Myocho Zenshi, a E i n z a i p r i e s t , founder of D a i t o k u j i .  See poem 8.  85 b. "cloud-rain ' - One of Ikkyu's most frequent metaphors f o r lovemaking 1  i s " c l o u d - r a i n " , a metaphor which comes from a Chinese s t o r y about the King of Ch'u. The King of Ch'u^while t r a v e l i n g i n Kao T'ang, dreamed he met and made love w i t h the s p i r i t of Wushan(Sorceress's Mountain),  He  pleaded w i t h her to stay w i t h him;but she i n s i s t e d on l e a v i n g saying t h a t i n the morning she became a cloud on the south side of the mountain,, and i n the evening she became the r a i n .  I n the morning, the King saw  t h a t t h i s was so and b u i l t a shrine f o r her t h e r e . the phrases,  "the dream of Wushan",  T h e r e a f t e r i n China,  "the cloud ofWuslian",  "the r a i n of  WusJnart" or " c l o u d - r a i n " , a l l came to be metaphors f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p 1 between men and women. e„  a p o l i t e expression'for d r i n k i n g a l o t of sake.  The s i t u a t i o n described i n these poems i s aelf-evidleht.; Ikkyu has been forced by what circumstances hermitage.  we know not, t o r e t r e a t t o a mountain  He has no romantic sentiments toward these' "gloomy v a l l e y s "  and "black mountains"j on the contrary, they only arouse i n him, an acute longing f o r the warm company, drink)and song of the b r o t h e l s .  One might  t h i n k that such shameless longing would be unworthy of a Zen monk and t h a t Ikkyu's Zen would seem more v a l i d i f he welcomed t h i s forced r e t r e a t to the mountains as an opportunity f o r r e s t and meditation away from the "dusty" world, but Ikkyu says no, j u s t as he i s , he i s the true i n h e r i t o r of Daito's Zen. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g how the treatment  of n a t u r a l images i n these  poems d i f f e r s from that of the more t r a d i t i o n a l genres of Japanese poetry, notably the waka or u t a .  What waka poet would dare t o say t h a t the wind  86 i n the pines grated, h i s ears.  Wind i n the pines i s always musical i n  the waka world, such extreme emotions were not encompassed within the gentle s e n s i b i l i t y of t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese poetry.  Not only was there  no place i n t r a d i t i o n a l genres for extreme and v i o l e n t emotions; p h i l o s o p h i c a l or i n t e l l e c t u a l thought did not come within that framework either.  ThiSj perhaps, was one of the basic reasons why Ikkyu chose to  express his most profound and intense subjective moods and thoughts i n Chinese forms rather than Japanese ones; the range of possible  emotions,  ideas^and subject matter was simply wider i n Chinese poetry. The reader w i l l perhaps bring up the case of the doka a t t r i b u t e d to Ikkyu which are i n waka form and which Buddhist themes.  deal e x c l u s i v e l y with  These poems, however, although they are i n basic t h i r t y -  one s y l l a b l e form, represent an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t genre.  They are not  r e a l l y poetic i n the same sense as the waka i n that they are not concerned at a l l with the expression of a subjective state of mind, nor with the poetic d e s c r i p t i o n of nature, nor even with the manipulation of of language.  subtleties  The basic concern of these <&oka i s to express i n as simple  and comprehensible a language as possible the fundamental tenets of Buddhism.  That i s ,  Buddhist f a i t h .  they are i n essence d i d a t i c , " o l d saws" of the  Blytb,  •'  i n the preface to his t r a n s l a t i o n of  Ikkyu's doka, states that doka i n general are of l i t t l e p o e t i c a l value and the Ikkyu's doka i n p a r t i c u l a r portray "a man of deep s i n c e r i t y , too  2 honest perhaps to be a great l y r i c a l poet." his  However,it i s p r e c i s e l y i n  Chinese poems that h i s genius as a l y r i c a l poet i s  revealed.  87 (94)  This poem has a prose i n t r o d u c t i o n which t e l l s the s t o r y that i s the background t o the poem: 4  1  3-  *  4-  it 4t # ^  1 £  n *$  %  it  %  4t  it if  Once a long time ago there was an o l d woman, who f o r twenty years supported the head of a hermitage.  U s u a l l y , she sent a s i x t e e n year o l d  g i r l t o b r i n g meals and serve him. One day, she t o l d the g i r l t o embrace him and ask him, "Right at t h i s moment, what i s i t l i k e ? "  She d i d so  and the monk s a i d , " I f e e l l i k e an o l d whithered t r e e leaning against c o l d stones, during the three months of winter when there i s no warm weather.  The g i r l returned and described what had happened'. The o l d  women s a i d , "For twenty years I have been supporting a phoney." she chased him out and burnt the hermitage down.  £  $  k  A  #  ;| >1 # fl H f U U ^.H U ih i t t I #  Then  88 robashin zoku no tame n i kakehashi o kasu shojo no shamon n i nyosai o atau konya b i j i n moshi ware n i yakuseba koyo. haru o i t e sara n i nikobae o shozu  The o l d woman's i n t e n t i o n was t o make a ladder f o r that r a s c a l ; So, t o the " c e l i b a t e " monk, she gave a g i r l b r i d e . Tonight, i f a b e a u t i f u l woman promised h e r s e l f t o me, Spring's w_ithered o l d w i l l o w t r e e would put f o r t h new shoots.  The issue here i s the a u t h e n t i c i t y of the monk's p u r i t y .  Ikkyu  obviously concurs w i t h the o l d woman's opinion t h a t the monk was probably seething i n s i d e with e r o t i c i n t e r e s t i n the young g i r l but because of s l a v e r y t o l i f e l e s s conventions,  denied h i s true f e e l i n g and gave the  stereotyped, expected v e r b a l response.  C l i n g i n g t o anything whatsoever,  even the laws of conventional m o r a l i t y i s contrary t o the p r a c t i s e of Zen; therefore, the monk was a phoney and a scoundrel. The "ladder" here i s a metaphor f o r the g i r l that the o l d woman wanted t o give the monk. The i m p l i c a t i o n i s that the g i r l  represented  a way by which the monk might r i s e t o new realms of awareness.  {lkk)  i  A  .  t  ®  t  >i  89  A  i  i & $ °t °b % g.  K % it  I  Inbo n i daisu b i j i n no unu aiga fukashi r o s h i rozen r o j o no g i n ware n i h o j i sofun no kyo a r i t s u i n i kajushashin no kokoro nashi  Inscription f o r a brothel A b e a u t i f u l women's c l o u d - r a i n , love's deep r i v e r : Up i n the p a v i l i o n , the p a v i l i o n g i r l and the o l d monk s i n g . I f i n d i n s p i r a t i o n i n embraces and k i s s e s , Thus, I don't t h i n k a t a l l of abandoning my body as though i t were a heap of f i r e .  a.  a  k a j u - The meaning f o r k a j u "accumulation  of f i r e " here, i s t o be  found i n the Nirvana Sutra 4 i n the l i n e , "Regarding one's body as though it  were an accumulation  of f i r e , t h i s i s c a l l e d s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s " TEhat i s , regarding  the body as though i t were a heap of f i r e , a dangerous t h i n g , i s the c o r r e c t view.  This regarding one's body as though i t were a heap of f i r e represents the orthodox p e j o r a t i v e view of sex i n Buddhism,,  The i d e a  behind t h i s p o i n t of view i s t h a t a man s t r i v i n g f o r s p i r i t u a l ment must harness a l l h i s energies toward t h a t end.  develop-  I n other words, i t  90  i s not that sex i s i n i t s e l f e v i l or s i n f u l but that the v i t a l energy which i s the essence of sex, once expended i n p h y s i c a l u n i o n , i s then l o s t to the man who would use i t t o s t r i v e upward f o r union with god.  Edward  Conze i n a d i s c u s s i o n of monastic c e l i b a c y says of t h i s : "Meditation and sexual intercourse have i n common the goal and the force t h a t they use.  For the simple reason that one cannot use the same force twice,  complete suppression of sexual behavior i s indispensable t o success i n meditation."  5  _ This point of view i s the most prevalent i n Hinayana  Buddhism and coupled there w i t h a d i s d a i n i n general f o r experiences of the phenomenal world', thus, sex came t o have darker and darker  connotations  there.  The s t o r y  This b e l i e f i s shared a l s o by some sects of Hinduism.  of the holy man who has amassed through years of a u s t e r i t i e s immense s p i r i t u a l powers and i s then t r i c k e d by some b e a u t i f u l women i n t o pouring f o r t h a l l h i s power i n one night's communion which leaves him wasted and f o r l o r n , an ordinary being again, i s very common i n I n d i a . This i s the k i n d of s i t u a t i o n that t h i s term i m p l i e s . However, t h i s i s not a u n i v e r s a l point of view i n Buddhism.  On  the contrary, the Mahayana doctrine of the "great d e l i g h t " , which has already been discussed i n Chapter I I I , sees i n the sexual experience a profound experience of the non-dual nature of the universe.  This more  a f f i r m a t i v e a t t i t u d e not only towards sex but towards a l l phenomena i s based on the equation of nirvana and samsara which i s close t o the core of Mahayana Buddhism.  Thus, i t was no c o n t r a d i c t i o n f o r Ikkyu t o a s s e r t  the d i g n i t y and v a l i d i t y of the sexual  experience.  However, i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r poem, Ikkyu's reason f o r defending sensual love i s not founded on any p h i l o s o p h i c a l r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n a t a l l  but r a t h e r on the q u a l i t y of the experience i t s e l f . his  I n p o i n t of f a c t ,  experience was e l a t i n g , energy-giving not exhaustingj therefore, he  c o u l d not see the sense of the o l d p o i n t of view.  (255)  The second of two poems d e p i c t i n g an arhat going to a b r o t h e l .  .S a A  A  >  % % i%  L  >*) & >  * J  £ <_ H  x A  y% 4  £  a  A  SL  £_ tf i f %b ?fc  f  rakan inbo n i asobu no zu s h u t s u j i n no rakan b u t s u j i n i tozakaru h i t o t a b i inbo n i i t t e d a i c h i o hatsusu  fukaku warau Honju Ryogon o tonauru o shikkyakusu shonen furyu no j i  P i c t u r e of an arhat  reveling i n a brothel  Emerging from the dust,* the arhat i s s t i l l far from Buddha; 1  E n t e r a b r o t h e l once and great wisdom happens. I laugh deeply at Manjusri chanting i n the Surahgama Sutra; L o s t and gone are h i s y o u t h f u l years of pleasure.  a. " A r h a t " o r i g i n a l l y meant simply a monk who had a t t a i n e d  enlightenment.  However, l a t e r , a3 the two schools of Hinayana and Mahayana diverged, i t came t o be more a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l enlightenment  attained  through t h e rigourous i m i t a t i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l Buddha,Shakyamuni, emphasized by the Hinayana s c h o o l .  Thus, i n Mahayana Buddhism the term  came t o have a s l i g h t l y p e j o r a t i v e meaning. b. " D u s t " i s the common Buddhist metaphor f o r the mundane world. c.  I n the Surangama S u t r a , Ananda, an arhat, while on h i s way begging,  i s l u r e d i n t o a b r o t h e l . This i s the occasion f o r the Buddha to give a s p e c i a l sermon and teach Manjusri a transcendental mantra to chant by which he can cure Ananda of h i s s e n s u a l i t y .  Im t h i s poem Ikkyu's equation of the a c t of love w i t h some k i n d of t r a n s c e n d e n t a l experience which generates wisdom i s made more e x p l i c i t . Ignorant of such experiences, the w o r l d - d i s d a i n i n g arhat has s t i l l a long way t o go before he a t t a i n s a t o t a l r e a l i z a t i o n of u l t i m a t e t r u t h .  (263) if  ii fh  0  £. # 1  It H %  ^  i  I £  i  93 Shi  n i iwaku  Inpu kakoku sobo no u r e i kimi miyo shokyu ka no su n i a r i r e i n i s h i t a g a t t e kyuga shuon no yube gyokuhai y a ya i k u shunju zo  The Book of Songs says c LasUvious ways, the sorrow of l o s i n g house and country. The l o r d sees the fishhawk on the other bank of the r i v e r ; Following example, the court lady receives her l o r d ' s favor i n the evening: A jeweled cup, night a f t e r n i g h t , how many springs and autumns. This poem a l l u d e s to the f i r s t poem i n the Book of songs, "Kuan c r i e s the F i s h Hawk"." This love song t e l l s of a l o r d ' s i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h a young g i r l .  The image of the g i r l haunts him night and day, and he i s  not s a t i s f i e d u n t i l he has her.  Ikkyu's poem superimposes upon t h i s  o r i g i n a l theme another theme common i n Chinese love s t o r i e s , that of a r u l e r n e g l e c t i n g and l o s i n g h i s country f o r the excessive love of a woman.  Perhaps the best known s t o r y of t h i s k i n d i s the legend of the  love between the Emperor Genso and h i s concubine Y o k i h i . which f a s c i n a t e d Ikkyu.  I t was a s t o r y  Ikkyu reading the f i r s t poem of the Book of  Songs was reminded of the f o l l y of over-ardent love among people i n responsible p o s i t i o n s . Yet, the predominant tone of the poem i s not a m o r a l i s t i c one. Rather, i t evokes a mood of p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e f l e c t i o n on the sadness inherent i n the transience of a l l w o r l d l y t h i n g s . excessive love can only run a short course.  Such  Yet, i t i s i t s very f l e e t i n g  94  q u a l i t y which i n some ways gives such a love i t s s p e c i a l charm, much as i t i s the f l e e t i n g q u a l i t y of the cherry blossoms which makes them so breathtakingly b e a u t i f u l .  (264)  4$  4 ii .#  J.  a  A  #.  ie-  *i fj  €. %  %- b.tt  i f  #  if  *  h i  '*$ $f  JU-  *l ft  1  i -it i 4 A <t z o k u j i n inbo monzen n i s h i o gi*\jite kaeru r o s h i mushin kare ushin s h i n i i n s u shikaku i r o nanzo i n s u shukuu n i s h i n i haru shoka no kure t a j o aisubeshi mon n i y o t t e  ginzu  A layman r e c i t i n g a poem before the gate of a b r o t h e l and then returning A g i r l i n the p a v i l i o n has no mind but he has mind. A poet overflowing  i n poems, how h i s desire overflows too.  A f t e r the long r a i n , c l e a r i n the west, a l i t t l e song at sunset; So much f e e l i n g , l o v a b l e , the man leaning on the gate and r e c i t i n g .  95 a.  T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n may seem a l i t t l e s t i l t e d , but the only way to h i n t  at the double sense of the l i n e was t o render i t as l i t e r a l l y as p o s s i b l e . On the one hand, the courtesan i s mindless i n the sense t h a t she has no thought or doesn't care about the man s i n g i n g at the gate, w h i l e he "has mind" i n the sense t h a t he has the courtesan and h i s own u n f u l f i l l e d d e s i r e s i n mind.  On the other hand, mushin,  •  , "no mind" comes  so o f t e n i n Zen w r i t i n g s as a d e s c r i p t i o n of the enlightened person t h a t i t i s h a r d t o ignore t h a t sense of the expression. Take f o r example Tokusan's statement,  Only when you have no t h i n g i n your mind and  6 no mind i n t h i n g s are you vacant and s p i r i t u a l , empty and marvelous." °  Ikkyu may be saying then, that the courtesan, by v i r t u e of the mindless performance of her dharma^is enlightened w h i l e the man a t the gate s t i l l has h i s mind muddled by words and ideas which pour c e a s e l e s s l y f o r t h i n poems.  However, I t h i n k t h i s should be taken as l i g h t and p l a y f u l i r o n y  6A the p a r t of Ikkyu.  This v i g n e t t e seems to be a scene witnessed by Ikkyu e i t h e r from i n s i d e a b r o t h e l or from the s t r e e t as a passer-by.  Ikkyu pokes fun  at the poet f o r r e c i t i n g poems about love outside the b r o t h e l .  Yet, i t  i s obvious that Ikkyu sympathizes very s t r o n g l y w i t h the poet;  Ikkyu,  a f t e r a l l , was as f u l l of poems as anyone.  The d e s c r i p t i o n of the evening  sky a f t e r the long r a i n adds a l y r i c a l touch which rounds out t h i s g r a c e f u l poem.  *  Love poems to Lady Mori  The love poems to and about the b l i n d g i r l Mori are q u i t e surprising.  They are witnesses to a tender love.  I t i s strange  enough t h a t i t should be a Zen monk w r i t i n g these poems, but that i t should be a p r o f l i g a t e Zen monk over seventy years of age experienced i n a l l the w i l e s of debauchery i s a l l the more i n c r e d i b l e .  It is  obvious that t h i s love preoccupied h i s heart f o r the l a s t years of his l i f e .  Even h i s f a r e w e l l to the world poem (death poem) r e f e r s to  Mori and h i s unforgotten love f o r her. There i s p r a c t i c a l l y no b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about Mori aside from t h a t i n Ikkyu's poems. He c a l l s her Lady Mori i n p l a c e s , but t h i s almost c e r t a i n l y does not correspond to any r e a l rank.  She  was most l i k e l y simply an attendant attached to the temple of Shuonan in Takigi.  She seems to have sung p r o f e s s i o n a l l y ; s i n g i n g was a  common p r o f e s s i o n f o r b l i n d people i n Japan.  There i s one p o r t r a i t  of her at the.Shuonan; the p a i n t i n g i s p r i m a r i l y a p o r t r a i t of Ikkyu, but she appears i n the lower h a l f k n e e l i n g on a mat w i t h a small hand drum.  (548) Prose i n t r o d u c t i o n :  it  4t 0 # 46  it  JL  97  I n the second year of Bunmei ^1470), during the eleventh month, the fourteenth day, I t r a v e l e d t o Yakushido and l i s t e n e d to the b l i n d g i r l ' s love songs.  So, I made a poem recording i t .  fate. I % % * f f I it I ft % % ftf % $ f f a & ^ k % t*.  %  1  yuyu katsu yorokobu yakushido dokuki benben kore waga harawata g i z a n kansezu sesso no b i n g i n j i tsukusu genkan shuten no nagaki o  I t r a v e l e d l e i s u r e l y t o Yakushido  and r e j o i c e d there;  S t i l l , a poisonous s p i r i t l i n g e r s i n my v i s c e r a ; Ashamed I am, not t o be concerned w i t h my hoary h a i r ; S i n g i n g t i l l exhaustion, severe c o l d , the melancholy note r i n g s long.*  a.  This i s Yakushido a t Sumiyoshi.9  b.  The character f o r melancholy should be  1  but i n a l l e d i t i o n s of  the Kyounshu^the character p r i n t e d i s Pf-, "autumn". However, i t i s explicitly  s t a t e d i n the prose passage t h a t the season i s w i n t e r ; thus,  i t obviously must stand f o r some other character.  The c l o s e s t character  i n sound and form t o i t i s melancholy which, moreover, occurs very  98  f r e q u e n t l y i n other poems of Ikkyu.  Ikkyu u s u a l l y uses i t t o express  moods of b i t t e r s w e e t sadness and that seems t o s u i t the tenor of t h i s poem as w e l l .  T h i s i s the f i r s t poem w i t h a d e f i n i t e date which makes reference to Mori.  I t i s reasonable  t o t h i n k that t h i s might be one of h i s f i r s t  encounters w i t h iAovi because the next poem dated 1471 records t h e i r f i r s t r e a l confession of love f o r one another.  I t seems Ikkyu was a b i t r e t i c e n t  at f i r s t t o act on h i s i n c l i n a t i o n ; he i s a l i t t l e ashamed t o f e e l the r i s i n g of d e s i r e s t h a t make a mockery of the wisdom and d i g n i t y which should accompany h i s white h a i r .  I t i s not c l e a r here whether "poisonous  s p i r i t " r e f e r s t o sexual desire or j u s t t o the various i l l s that an aging body i s subject t o .  (549)  Prose i n t r o d u c t i o n :  •  t  % %  D * £" *  f  &  ft %  W *  I lodged f o r some years i n a small d w e l l i n g i n T a k i g i .  1L t) &  The attendent  M o r i j h e a r i n g of my appearance and manner, already had f e e l i n g S o f longing toward me.  $  I too, knew of i t , but remained undecided u n t i l now, the  spring of Shinbo ( l 4 7 l ) , I have met her by chance i n Suniiyoshi and  questioned her about her previous f e e l i n g s . w i t h me.  So I made a small poem r e c o r d i n g i t .  & <t  #  $  i  *  f.  i  f- t - %  f  if  if! .*{/ Sf  •ii-  She agreed and complied  j f &  fi  omou mukashi Shinen kyoju no t o k i oson no b i y o k i i t e aiomou tanen kyuyaku sunawachi* b o j i t e nochi nao a i s u gyokukai shingetsu no sugata  I r e c a l l the o l d times l i v i n g a t T a k i g i , You heard of the renown of the king's descendent  a  we and^loved.' K.  A f t e r the o l d promise had been many years f o r g o t t e n , S t i l l a l l the more I love the form of the new moon on jeweled s t a i r s .  a.  T h i s r e f e r s t o Ikkyu's r o y a l b i r t h .  b.  New moon on the jeweled s t a i r s i s an a l l u s i o n t o a poem of L i Fo  "The j e w e l l e d s t a i r s r e p i n e " .  P  1L L if 1  ft & M  %  *. a  #  i  100  On the jeweled s t a i r s grows white dew A l l n i g h t long s i n k i n g . i n t o t h i n s i l k sheets. P u l l down the c r y s t a l c u r t a i n s , JO  The c l e a r n i g h t , look a t the autumn moon.  I n t h i s poem the autumn moon stands a l s o f o r a woman's face behind the c r y s t a l c u r t a i n ; thus, i n Ikkyu's poem the new moon r e f e r s t o Mori.  This poem seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t there were r e l a t i o n s between Mori and Ikkyu before t h i s time.  The prose passage i s not e x p l i c i t as  to the exact nature of these r e l a t i o n s , mentioning only t h a t they knew of one another and t h a t Ikkyu was i n d e c i s i v e i n h i s a c t i o n s . the " o l d promise" may r e f e r t o former r e l a t i o n s w i t h M o r i .  (54U)  §  f  it t  f  %& U %L I  ft  L ft-  fe.  However,  101  Shinko koshi n i noru .p-anyo no mo jo shibasliiba sliunyu su utsuutsu t a r u k y o k i n y o s h i u r e i o i s u r u n i samo araba are shujo no kyosen suru koto o' a i s h i miru Shin y a ga b i f u r y u  Lady Mori r i d e s i n a c a r t In the phoenix c a r t , the b l i n d g i r l o f t e n goes on s p r i n g outings. When my heart i s oppressed, she l i k e s t o comfort my melancholy. Even though most people make f u n of her, I love t o see M o r i , so f a i r a beauty she i s .  Perhaps Mori was c a l l e d on i n the s p r i n g - t o e n t e r t a i n a t wealthy people's hana mi "Flower-viewing" and so was brought there i n a c a r t . Ikkyu, a t any r a t e , embellishes the scene and makes i t a r o y a l phoenix cart.  There i s  a l s o an i n d i c a t i o n i n t h i s poem t h a t people d i d  laugh at the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i k k y u and M o r i , but, i f t h i s was s o i t ?  i s a l s o obvious by t h i s poem that Ikkyu wasn't perturbed.  (5k6)  >  ft  #  "jj  ft  A  %  &  \%  **, k  $  U  t  %. & ->& 1  i I-  The f i r s t day of the n i n t h month, my attendant Mori borrowed a paper Kimono from a v i l l a g e p r i e s t t o p r o t e c t h e r s e l f from the c o l d , so l i g h t  t  102  and p r e t t y , l o v a b l e .  it  f  i  d  I made a poem saying i t .  #  4i  « & * & |£ # §  *4 t  »  I  If  tt  &  jH'ftj  #  ryosho no fugetsu s h i n t o o midaru i k a n sen s o s h i s h i n j o no a k i shumu chonn h i t o r i  shosha t a r i  yaso ga shishu mata f u r y u  Fine evening, wind and moon, i n my heart confusion. How  w i l l our love f a r e as autumn comes over us?  Autumn m i s t , morning c l o u d , alone so d e l i c a t e and  fair^  Even i n the paper sleeves of a country p r i e s t , charming.  Due t o t h e i r poor circumstances Mori i s f o r c e d to borrow a paper kimono from a country p r i e s t  i n order t o ward o f f the approaching c o l d .  Paper kimonos were the cheapest, coarsest  form of outer garment to be  obtained; thus, Ikkyu's p r a i s e of Mori's beauty i n t h i s humble garb i s  -a. tantamount t o someone p r a i s i n g the beauty o f / t g i r l i n blue jeans.  Yet,  there i s no doubt that the p r a i s e i s sincere, Ikkyu r e a l l y d i d f i n d Mori e n d l e s s l y charming i n no matter what costume.  The tone of  anxiousness  and u n c e r t a i n t y i n the f i r s t two l i n e s gives the poem a touching q u a l i t y .  103 (544)  * 9 % ft * 1  f H  A.  1 .if *t I . 1  %  %  Pi ^  &. % s. 4r  £4  *  Jfc  ?  .Miroku asan o yakusu mo S h i n yaya g i n s h i n n i tomonau h i t e i no eno shigo arata n a r i a r a t a n i yakusu Jison san'e no akatsuki honkyo kobutsubanpan no haru  Promise t o be born i n the time of Miroku B l i n d M o r i every n i g h t accompanies me s i n g i n g ; Under the covers, mandarin ducks,** intimate c h a t t e r i n g always new: Promise anew  t o meet  i n the dawn of Miroku.  Here a t the home of the o l d Buddha a l l things are i n s p r i n g .  a.  Miroku J i s o n - the Buddha of the future who i s supposed t o appear  5,670,000,000 years a f t e r Shakyamuni's d e a t h .  11  b. Mandarin ducks"who take only one mate f o r a l i f e t i m e are a common u  symbol f o r f i d e l i t y i n China and Japan. c.  The expression here i s r e a l l y "the dawn of Miroku's three meetings,"  104  which refers to the time of Miroku's future enlightenment when he w i l l speak three times to countless numbers.  I l e f t the "three meetings"  out for the sake of b r e v i t y .  Kokuyaku Zenshu sosho records a passage that describes "intimate chattering"  of Genso and Y o k i h i .  the  In the middle  of the night when no-one i s around they t a l k of r e b i r t h , " i f i n the a i r , 13  then as b i r d s , i f on the land, then as two branches of one t r e e . " Ikkyu and Mori likewise made promises for future (543)  € fa  ;* £ tr fl  A  &  i  £  H  waga te o yonde Shin shu to nasu waga te Shin no te n i izure zo mizukara shinzu ko wa furyu no shu hatsubyo gyokukei no ho o j i su katsu yorokobu waga e r i no shu  lives.  Here,  105  C a l l i n g my hand Mori's hand My hand, how i t ressembles Mori's hand. I b e l i e v e the lady i s the master of l o v e p l a y ; I f I get i l l  she can cure the jeweled stem:  And then they r e j o i c e , the monks a t my meetings,  a, A C h i n e s e metaphor f o r the male sexual organ.  I t appears Mori was of great help keeping Ikkyu i n good s p i r i t s w i t h other monks during h i s l a t e r years. This poem i s unusual i n the Kyounshu. because i t i s one of the few poems t h a t d e v i a t e from the seven c h a r a c t e r l i n e .  Here the s i x  character l i n e seems t o s u i t the l i g h t and whimsical mood of the poem.  (537)  11 %  t  $.  %  I  %  %  i f  Ift # i±-  b i j i n no i n s u i o suu R i n z a i j i s o n Zen o s h i r a z u shoden shinko katsuro hen unu sansho r o k u j i k k o go shufu i c h i y a hyakusen nen  106 This poem i s the t h i r d poem of three poems under the t i t l e : Sipping a b e a u t i f u l woman's l a s c i v i o u s f l u i d s R i n z a i ' s descendent's don't know Zen. Correct transmission of the t r u t h , t h i s i s t o a b l i n d donkey. C l o u d - r a i n , past, present and f u t u r e 60 kalpas, Autumn wind, one night a 100,000 years.  a.  An a l l u s i o n t o a saying of R i n z a i , see poe^  U4-)nste a.<•  R i n z a i ' s descendents don't know Zen, the t r u e teaching i s w i t h b l i n d donkeys; but Ikkyu i s a b l i n d donkey so he has the true teaching, yuch i s the a s s e r t i o n r e i t e r a t e d again and again throughout the Kyounshu.  Ikkyu's confidence was never shaken as regards h i s grasp  of Zen. The second h a l f of the poem deals w i t h love's a b i l i t y to make time r e l a t i v e .  While making l o v e , past, present and f u t u r e ,  s i x t y kalpas of time might seem instantaneous, y e t one night spent thus c o u l d seem a hundred thousand years longo  I n other words, while making  l o v e , i k k y u had the sense of " e t e r n i t y i n an instant;- a phenomenon which i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some m y s t i c a l s t a t e s .  So here again, i k k y u  makes e x p l i c i t the connection he p e r s o n a l l y f e l t between the enlightenment of Zen and the experience of l o v e .  (542)  i  && t t & f  107  A  >l u f i s  RJ  b i j i n no i n , snisenka no ka a r i  Sodai masa n i nozomubeshi sara n i masa n i yozubeshi hanya gyokusho shumu no a i d a hana wa hokorobu i k k e i b a i j u no moto ryoha no senshi yokan o meguru  A b e a u t i f u l woman's dark place  has the fragrance of a narcissus  KingCU'Ws h i l l , * * one must regard from a f a r and moreover climb. Middle of the n i g h t , on the jeweled bed amid b i t t e r s w e e t dreams, The flower opens under the branch of a plum t r e e , D e l i c a t e l y the narcissus revolves between t h i g h s .  a.  The Chinese character here i s simply y i n of yin-yang, the two  p r i n c i p l e s , female and male r e s p e c t i v e l y of the universe.  Extended from  t h i s cosmic meaning the character i s a l s o used t o denote the female sexual organ. b.  KingCWWs h i l l - r e f e r  to the f i r s t explanation of " c l o u d - r a i n "  poem 90.  This i s one of Ikkyu's more simply e r o t i c poems.  This elegant  and a l l u s i v e imagery must come from the vocabulary of Chinese e r o t i c i s m . However,A symbolic meaning of the reference to the Plum tree may be r e l a t e d  108  to t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese p o e t i c imagery,  The Plum t r e e i s u s u a l l y thought  of there as o l d , gnarled and enduring, so Ikkyu may have chosen i t p a r t i c u l a r l y to r e f e r t o h i m s e l f .  (538 and  539)  Prose i n t r o d u c t i o n :  t.  i  * k  t  #  4 * M  i  i  $  «f  ifc  t  #  The b l i n d g i r l Mori's f e e l i n g s of love are very strong.  t  fe  She i s  about t o d i e from not e a t i n g ; f u l l of sorrow, I made poems saying i t .  (538)  iL  ft  t  t  %  f  %  Hyakujo j o t o shinse sho su hansen Enro katte amasazu mojo ga enka r o s h i o warau Sodai no bo'u t e k i shosho t a r i  *  109  In Hyakujo's hoe, my t r u s t i s e x t i n g u i s h e d . R i c e money, the Old Man of H e l l i s never generous. The b l i n d g i r l ' s love songs laughed a t by the p a v i l i o n g i r l s . Chu's h i l l , evening r a i n d r i p s lonesomely.  (539)  L  ift.  ii  £  If « * ® ii i $i  #  k #  miyo, miyo, Kehando r i no Zen sekinen Hyakujo kakuto hen yayu r a n s u i su gabei no t e i Bnro menzen hansen o i k a n sen  See, see, the Zen i n s i c k n e s s .  a  Long ago there was nyakujo and h i s hoe. Night's i n t o x i c a t e d r e v e l r y beneath painted screens. Facing the Old Man of H e l l , how about some r i c e money.  a.  The expression i n Chinese i s "Nirvana h a l l " which i s the h o s p i t a l  i n Zen temples,but Ikkyu i s u s i n g i t here t o r e f e r t o s i c k n e s s .  15  The exact s i t u a t i o n surrounding these poems i s not known. I t must  110  be the t r i a l s of war t h a t have caused t h e i r d i s t r e s s .  I t i s c l e a r from  the prose passage t h a t the immediate problem i s Mori's nearness t o death from l a c k of food.  The phrase used here u s u a l l y means t o f a s t t o  death r a t h e r than starve t o death', thus, i t probably i n d i c a t e s t h a t due to a shortage of food Mori i s r e f u s i n g t o eat l e s t Ikkyu should s t a r v e . The poems are very e x p l i c i t about a l a c k of money t o buy food. In h i s a n x i e t y Ikkyu r e f l e c t s on two t h i n g s ; one, on Hyakujo, the T'ang master who was the f i r s t t o draw up a s e t of temple r u l e s f o r Zen monasteries, h i s most b a s i c r u l e being "a day of no work, i s a day of no e a t i n g " . Hyakujo - ;  " ' was supposed t o have r e f u s e d t o eat when  he got too o l d t o do a day's work.  Now, during t h i s p a r t i c u l a r time of  no e a t i n g , the r u l e no longer makes sense t o i k k y u ; there i s nothing f o r Ikkyu t o do w i t h a hoe. working.  No e a t i n g i s not always a r e s u l t of no  Then Ikkyu i s reminded, perhaps even a l i t t l e remorsefully^ o"f  the many previous years of pleasure and p l e n t y i n the b r o t h e l s . The t h i r d l i n e s of both poems conjure up p i c t u r e s of the b r o t h e l s ; i n the f i r s t poem  he imagines how the b r o t h e l h a r l o t s would laugh a t the  b l i n d g i r l s naive songs, and i n the second poem he remembers the drunken evenings i n gavtdy surroundings.  (550;  L  if.  1  k  &  >t  Ill k i shibomi ha ochite sara n i haru o kaesu ryoku o c h o j i ban a o s h o j i t e kyuyaku a r a t a n a r i Shin y a ga|shinon mo shi  bokyakuseba  muryo oku go chiknsho no mi  The t r e e budded leaves that f e l l but once more round comes springeGreen grows, flowers bloom, o l d promises are renewed. Mori, i f 1 ever f o r g e t my deep bond to you, Hundreds of thousands of kalpa_^s without measure, may I be born as a beast.  In t h i s poem Ikkyu simply asks to be reincarnated countless times as a beast i f he ever f o r g e t s h i s love f o r Mori. charming s i m p l i c i t y about i t .  The poem has a  Ikkyu i s l i k e an o l d t r e e which has  dropped i t s leaves,yet once more s p r i n g comes round, and he i s r e v i v e d . This could be a poem of reunion between Ikkyu and M o r i , " o l d promises" seems to i n d i c a t e t h i s .  (1049;  i & tm 4  iL  % &  it. & *jr %L  it I t- k  I t i s l a t e autumn, the season of g i v i n g winter c l o t h e s .  For t h i s  reason I had some new clothes cut and gave them to my l a t e b l i n d attendent Mori.  Thus, I aided u n f i n i s h e d t i e s i n the other l i f e and s a i d :  6  & & If  1  f  I « * C fl[ ft  haku hatsu zan so hachi j u nen g i n j i nozorau yoyo heki un no t e n t a j o no en zensai o tsugunawaseraru d a n j i s u sansho koen o yakusu  I remain, white h a i r e d o l d monk of eighty y e a r s . S i n g i n g , l o o k i n g up every n i g h t t o blue sky and clouds. Sad mandarin duck, redeeming former debts, Snap f i n g e r s at present and f u t u r e , the promise t o love again.  There i s no record of what happened t o Mori,but i t must be concluded from t h i s poem that she d i e d before Ikkyu. circumstances  Under what  or from what cause we know not; however, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t  the s i t u a t i o n described i n poems 538 and 539 a c t u a l l y l e a d t o her death. In t h i s poem, w r i t t e n when Ikkyu was eighty, she i s already dead,and he i s b r i n g i n g an o f f e r i n g of winter c l o t h e s t o her grave as a token of h i s unforgotten t i e s t o h e r .  113 (1060)  i  *f  fa * ft $ &  - 1 1 i i £. ft -ft  ** *j A 9 it * f n  * *  >  1  j i s e i no s h i junen hana no s h i t a hoiuei o osarau i c h i d a n no f u r y u mugen no j o sekibetsusu c h i n t o j i n y o no h i z a y o r u fukakushite unu sansho o yakusu  Farewell t o the world poem Ten years ago, under the f l o w e r s , I made a f r a g r a n t a l l i a n c e , One step more d e l i g h t , a f f e c t i o n without end. I r e g r e t t o leave p i l l o w i n g my head on a girl's l a p . Deep i n the n i g h t , c l o u d - r a i n , making the promise of past, present and future.  N e i t h e r of these two l a s t poems appear i n the Kokuyaku Zanshu Sosho or the Ikkyu Oaho genshu.  They appear only i n the Yamanto  Bunkakaikan e d i t i o n of the Kyounshu which, however, i s the most recent and comprehensive of the e d i t i o n s of the Kyounshu.  This poem,then, can  stand w i t h the "South of Mt. Sumeru, who meets my Zen" poem as a l e a v i n g  114  the world poem.  How d i f f e r e n t i n character the two poems are.  The  one has the r i n g of t r a d i t i o n a l Zen death poems, extremely confident, almost d e f i a n t ,  going to meet death i n a w a r r i o r s manner.  The second i s  so gentle and n o s t a l g i c , fondly remembering back r a t h e r than going forward z e a l o u s l y ; Ikkyu even expresses r e g r e t s to leave r a t h e r than a t o t a l break w i t h the t i e s of t h i s world.  Strangely enough, however, both  are t y p i c a l of Ikkyu at d i f f e r e n t times i n h i s l i f e .  To c a l l one more  true than the other would be i m p o s s i b l e , f o r i t would deny the man as a whole.  No man i s e n d l e s s l y strong; i t i s from these poems where Ikkyu  honestly, w i t h no thought as to whether i t was appropriate f o r a Zen monk or not, expresses h i s f e e l i n g s of attachment and longing that one can see a complete man composed of both weak and strong. And t h i s a b i l i t y , to without c r i t i c i s m accept whatever one f e e l s as r e a l and v a l i d , i s a mark of true enlightenment. nature.  I t i s i n f a c t , to t r u s t i n one's Buddha  VII.  Footnotes  Introduction 1. H. H. B l y t h , "Ikkyu's Doka," The Young East, I I . 2 t o I I I . 9, 1952-54. 2, Kaneko Matabee and N i s h i o k a Shin, "Kyounshu chukai," Kokubungaku, (Kansai Daigaku Eokubungaku K a i ) . no. 21-28, 1958-1960. II.  H i s t o r i c a l Background 1.  K a r a k i Junzo, Chusei no bungaku, pp. 233-34.  2.  I b i d . , pp. 227-28.  3. T h i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y apply t o a l l the T'ang masters; a d i f f e r e n c e may be n o t i c e d here between the Northern and Southern schools of Ch'an. The Southern schools t a k i n g Hui Neng (who h i m s e l f d e c l i n e d i n v i t a t i o n s t o the c a p i t a l ) as the S i x t h P a t r i a r c h , on the whole f o l l o w e d h i s example. The Northern schools on the other hand were q u i t e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c a p i t a l . Thus when the persecutions of Buddhism came, they were more v u l n e r a b l e to a t t a c k w h i l e the Southern schools s u r v i v e d b e t t e r simply by v i r t u e of being more out of the way. I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the Soto sect of Zen should choose t o f o l l o w the Southern school i n t h i s respect, while a l s o adopting the concept of gradual enlightenment, a concept associated with the Northern school.  III.  B i o g r a p h i c a l Information and Comment 1. This resume i s based p r i n c i p a l l y on the account i n Takashima Daien's Ikkyu Qsho den. 2.  Takashima Daien,  3.  I b i d . , P- 58.  4.  Ibid.  5o  I b i d . , P. 59.  6.  I b i d . , P- 60. I b i d . , PP<, 60-61.  7. 8. 9. 10.  I b i d . , P- 62. I b i d . , P- 64. I b i d . » P, < 67.  116 11.  I b i d . , p. 69.  12.  I b i d . , p. 72.  13.  Ibid.  14.  I b i d . , p. 80.  15. The r e d thread symbolizes attachment t o p h y s i c a l d e s i r e . Morohashi T e t s u j i , Daikanva j i t e n v. V I I I , p. 947. f  t  16.  Takashima, op_. c i t . pp. 82-83.  17.  I b i d . , p. 86.  18.  Ibid.  19.  I b i d . , p. 89.  20.  Ibid.  21.  I b i d . , p. 93-  22.  I b i d . , p. 95.  23.  I b i d . , p. 96.  24.  I b i d . , p. 100.  25.  I b i d . , p. 101.  26.  I b i d . , p. 103.  27.  K a r a k i Junzo, Chasei no bnngaku, p. 246.  28.  Suzuki Daisetsu, Outline of Mahayana Buddhism, p. 352.  29. As quoted by I b i d . , p. 351. See a l s o Etienne Lamotte, L'Enseignement de V i m a l a k i r t i , p. I l l and Shuo wu kuo ch'eng ching, Taisho shinshu daizokyo, v. XIV, p. 559a, I . 1.  IV.  30.  Suzuki, op. c i t . , p. 357.  31.  H e i n r i c h Zimmer, Philosophies of I n d i a , p. 555.  32.  John Shawcross, The Complete Poetry of John Donne, p. 97.  33.  I b i d . , p. 344.  P h i l o s o p h i c a l Poems 1.  R i n z a i roku, i n v. XI of Kokuyaku Zenshu sosho, Chinese p. 5.  2.  Suzuki Daisetsu, Zen shiso s h i kenkyu, v. I l l , p. 425.  3. Kaneko Matabee and N i s h i o k a Shin, "Kyounshu chukai," KoknTbungaku, no. 22, p. 60. 4.  Oda Tokuno, Bukkyo dai.jiten, p. 1472.  5.  Kaneko, op_ c i t . , pp. b 0 - 6 l . 0  117 6.  I b i d . , no. 27, p. 73.  7.  R i n z a i roku, i n v. XI of Kokuyaku genahu sosho, Chinese p. 29.  8.  Kaneko, op. c i t . , no. 22, p. 62.  9.  R i n z a i roku, op. c i t . , kokuyaku, p. lOn.  10.  Morohashi T e t s u j i , Paikanwa .jiten, v. V I I I , p. 175.  11.  Suzuki Daisetsu, Zen shiso s h i kenkyn, v. I l l , p. 424.  12.  I b i d . , pp. 424-25.  13.  I b i d . , p. 425.  14.  U i Hakuju, Japanese-English  15.  Suzuki Daisetsu, Studies i n the Lankavatara S u t r a , p. 419.  16.  I b i d . , p. 360.  Buddhist D i c t i o n a r y , p. 288.  17. Kaneko Matabee and N i s h i o k a Shin, "Kyounshu chukai," Kokubungaku, no. 21, p» 6 l . 18.  Ibid.  19.  Kaneko, op_. c i t . , p. 63.  20.  Suzuki Daisetsu, Zen shiso s h i kenkyn, v. I l l , p. 475.  21. H e i n r i c h Dumoulin, Ruth S a s a k i , The Development of Chinese Zen, p» 29. 22. Kaneko Matabee and N i s h i o k a Shin, "Kyounshu chukai," Kokubungaku, no. 21, p. 63. 23o  Hekigan roku, v. V I I of Kokuyaku Zenshu sosho, Chinese p. 30.  24.  Dumoulin, op_. c i t . , p. 30.  25. Kaneko Matabee and Nishioka Shin, "Kyounshu chukai," Kokubungaku, no. 21, p. 64. 26.  Ibid.  27.  Ibid.  28. I b i d . , p. 65. See a l s o P h i l i p Yamplosky, The Platform Sutra of the S i x t h P a t r i a r c h , p. 62. 29.  Dumoulin, op. c i t . , p. 31.  30.  Kaneko, op. c i t .  31.  Dumoulin, op_. c i t . , p. 8.  32.  Kaneko, op_. c i t . , no. 21, p. 62.  33.  Ibid.  34. Kyounshu, i n v, IX of Kokuyaku Zenshu sosho, kokuyaku p. 72n. 35. Takagi Masakazu (ed.), Haku kyo i (p*o-Ghii-i), v. X I I I of Chukoku shi.i i n senshu, p. 103.  118 36. A f t e r the d e s c r i p t i o n i n P'o Chu-i's aforementioned poem and more p a r t i c u l a r l y , Morohashi T e t s u j i , Daikanva j i t e n , v. X I , pp. 672-73. 37. H e i n r i c h Dumoulin, The Development of Chinese Zen, p. 47, c i t i n g Goto Egen, Bk. V I I , Dainihon zokuzokyo, p. 116. 38.  U i Hakuju, Japanese-English Buddhist D i c t i o n a r y , p. 175-  39-  Jimbo Nyoten, Zengaku j i t e n , p. 53.  40.  Mori K e i z o , Ikkyu Osho zenshu, p. 5.  41.  Kaneko, op_. c i t . , no. 22, p. 64.  42.  Ibid.  43. As t r a n s l a t e d by Eev. Coates and Eev. I s h i z u k a i n Honen, the Buddhist S a i n t , p. 728. 44. P h i l i p Yampolsky, The P l a t f o r m S u t r a of the S i x t h P a t r i a r c h , pp. 42-43. 45.  Kaneko, op_. c i t . , no. 23, p. 72.  46.  Mumonkan, i n v. XI of Kokuyaku Zenshu sosho, Chinese, p. 19.  47. Nanzan Dosen, To koso den, v. LXXVII of Kokuyaku i s s a i kyo, pp. 9-10. O r i g i n a l Chinese, Hsu kao seng ch^jian, Taisho shinshu daizokyo, v. L, p. 552b, 11. 22-2948.  U i Hakuju, Zenshu s h i kenkyu", p. 37.  49. For t h i s one see a l s o , Yanagida Seisan, Shoki Zenshu shisho no kenkyu, p. 10350.  U i , op. c i t . , p. 38.  51.  Suzuki D a i s e t s u , Zen shiso s h i kenkyu, v. IV, p. 215.  52.  I b i d . , v. X V I I I , p. 199.  53.  U i , op_. c i t . , p. 39..  54. There i s a l s o a s u t r a reference t o the c u t t i n g o f f of arms as an o f f e r i n g t o Buddha which may have been i n K e i k a s mind when he cut o f f h i s own arm. I t i s i n the Lotus S u t r a ; a B o d h i s a t t v a says t o a gathering, " I threw away both arms and n e c e s s a r i l y a t t a i n e d the Buddha's golden body." (MiftQ f a l i e n hua ching, Taisho shinshu daizokyo, v. IX, p. 262a, 11. 4-5.) 1  55.  Kyounshu, i n v. IX,of Kokuyaku Zenshu sosho, p. 6n.  56. Kaneko Matabee and N i s h i o k a Shin, "Kyounshu chukai," Kokubungaku, no. 23, pp. 76-77.  119 V.  VI.  C r i t i c a l Poems 1.  Morohashi T e t s u j i , Daikanwa j i t e n , v. I I I , p 797.  2.  Oda Tokuno, Bukkyo d a i j i t e n , p. 1794a.  3„  U i Hakuju, Japanese-English Buddhist D i c t i o n a r y , p« 195.  4.  Kaneko, op. c i t . , p. 74.  5.  Morohashi, op. c i t . , v. I I , p. 190.  6.  A k i z u k i Kyumin, Zefrmion no i r y u , p. 314.  0  Love Poems 1.  Morohashi T e t s u j i , Daikanwa j i t e n , v  0  X I I , p. 16.  2. B. H. B l y t h , "Ikkyu's Doka," The Young East, v. I I . 2, f i r s t page of the a r t i c l e . (Page numbers are missing from the xerox copies of the a r t i c l e s . ) 3.  Morohashi, op_. c i t . , v. V I I , p. 364.  4. Mochizuki does not record t h i s meaning f o r kaju but r a t h e r itB use as a metaphor f o r the i l l u s i v e nature of existence, a l a t a c a k r a , f i r e c i r c l e . (Mochizuki, Bukkyo d a i j i t e n , v. I l l , p. 2952bJ. However, I f e e l i t i s obvious t h a t t h i s i s not the meaning here. 5.  Edward Conze, Buddhism: i t s essence and development, p 59.  6.  Charles Luk, The Surafxgama Sutra, p. 2.  -j  Kuan-ying, Shih ching i chu, pp. 1=3.  8.  H e i n r i c h Dumoulin, The Development of Chinese Zen, p. 48,  D  c i t i n g Bento Eyo, Bk. XX: Dainihon zokuzokyo, p. 378. 9. Kyounshu, i n v. I X of Kokuyaku Zenshu sosho, kokuyaku, p. l l l n . 10. Takabe Toshio, Rihaku ( l i p'o), v. V I I I of Chugoku s h i n i n senshu, p. 97. See a l s o Pu-Tung-liua, L i ffeJ s h i h , p. 47. 11.  Oda Tokuno, Bukkyo d a i j i t e n , p. l689a.  12.  Mochizuki, Bukkyo d a i j i t e n , v. 5, p. 4990c.  13.  Kyounshu, i n v. IX of Kokuyaku Zenshu sosho, p. l l O n .  14. Ikkyu's comparison o f _ h i s hand t o Mori's hand may be an a l l u s i o n to the koan c a l l e d Oryu no sankan "Oryu's three b a r r i e r s , " the second question of which i s , "My hand how does i t ressemble Buddha's hand?" See Mochizuki, Bukkyo d a i j i t e n , v. I , p. 360c. 15.  Jimbo Nyoten, Zengaku j i t e n , p. 1128.  VIII.  Bibliography  E d i t i o n s of the Kyounshu used  I t o Toshiko (ed.)  Kyounshu shohon no kogo n i t s u i t e ,  U  f u k o i kyounshu-  k  ftf  It  I .  t  Kyoto:  t  %  tl  , jjo.  I  9  *  &  &  ">  *  ,  T  A  41 of the s e r i e s Yamato Bunka  Yamato Bunka Kaikan, 1964.  Kokuyaku Zenshu sosho kankokai (comp.) I n v o l . IX of Kokuyaku Zenshu sosho  13  ^  % . Tokyo:  >ft  .  Kokuyaku Zenshu Sosho  Kankokai, 1921.  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