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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Short-term memory and judgement of personality-trait adjectives : a divided attention task. Barnes , Marc James 1970

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SHORT-TERM MEMORY AND JUDGEMENT OF PERSONALITY-TRAIT ADJECTIVES: A DIVIDED ATTENTION TASK by MARC JAMES BARNES B .A . , Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY Vie a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced deg ree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r ee t h a t t he L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t ha p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y pu rpo se s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f P s y c h o l o g y  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co l umb i a Vancouve r 8, Canada Date A P p i 1 2 2 > 1 9 7 0 1 1 A b s t r a c t Three experiments explored the nature of processing meaningful m a t e r i a l s . In the context of the short-term memory paradigm, an i n t e r -polated judgement task was employed by manipulating the c r i t e r i a by which p e r s o n a l I t y - t r a i t a d j e c t i v e s were judged. The to-be-recaI led items were 5 - d i g i t numbers. Three c r i t e r i a - d e s i r e a b i I i t y i n an ideal date ( 0 ) , d e s c r l p t i v e n e s s of s e l f (,S); and an o s t e n s i b l y non-semantic, n o n - a f f e c t i v e c r i t e r i o n (Ob) - were employed over v a r i a t i o n s in a d j e c t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e and independent versus cumulative Judgements. Experiments I and f l e s t a b l i s h e d d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female Ss on the i n t e r p o l a t e d task. In Experiment I I I , judgement latency, judgement ex t r e m i t y , and subsequent r e c a l l of the d i g i t s were a l l measured. The r e s u l t s support the view of verbal r e c a l l as a f u n c t i o n of the time a v a i l a b l e f o r r e h e a r s a l . The d i f f i c u l t y of i n t e r p o l a t e d Ob Judgements i s shown t o be r e a d i l y e f f e c t e d by p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e and judgement type. Moreover, r e c a l l under the 0b_ c r i t e r i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t l y a f u n c t i o n of the semantic content of the i n t e r p o l a t e d m a t e r i a l . A process of semantic monitoring i s discussed in terms of the a t t e n t i o n u t i l i z e d by s h i f t s of encoding c l a s s . Interpolated judgements of 0 are in c l o s e agreement with the Iikeableness r a t i n g s of the a d j e c t i v e s : c a t e g o r i z a t i o n l a t e n c i e s are f a s t e s t f o r extreme Iikeableness a d j e c t i v e s and longer f o r moderate Iikeableness a d j e c t i v e s , i n t e r p o l a t e d :S judgements take longer, are less extreme, and r e s u l t i n poorer subsequent r e c a l l than p_ judgements under a l l c o n d i t i o n s . Judgement latency and extremity i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n t p r i n c i p l e s f o r g r a t i n g s of high and low IIkeableness a d j e c t i v e s . These f i n d i n g s are discussed i n terms of d i f f e r -e n t i a l r e t r i e v a l and d i f f e r e n t i a l d e c i s i o n d i f f i c u l t y . Tab Ie o f C o n t e n t s Page T i t l e Page i A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i i i L i s t of T a b l e s i v L i s t of F i g u r e s v Acknowledgement v i E x p e r i m e n t s I and I I I n t r o d u c t i on 1 Method 3 R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n 4 E x p e r i m e n t I I I I n t r o d u c t i on 12 Method 16 R e s u I t s Independent Judgements 20 R e l a t i o n o f C a t e g o r i z a t i o n E x t r e m i t y t o L i k e a b l e n e s s R a t i n g 29 C u m u l a t i v e Judgements 32 P o s t - E x p e r i m e n t a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data 40 D i s c u s s i o n 41 B i b I i o g r a p h y 51 Append i c e s A. A d j e c t i v e Sequences Employed i n ^ Exper iment I I I B. I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Ss 56 I V L i s t of Tab Ies Page T a b l e 1 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r R e c a l l in E x p e r i m e n t s I and I I 5 T a b l e 2 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r R e c a l l f o l l o w i n g Independent Judgements 21 T a b l e 3 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r L a t e n c y of Independent Judgements 24 T a b l e 4 Mean L a t e n c i e s and D e f l e c t i o n s f o r Independent and C u m u l a t i v e Judgements 26 T a b l e 5 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r E x t r e m i t y o f Independent Judgements 30 T a b l e 6 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r R e c a l l F o l l o w i n g C u m u l a t i v e Judgements 33 T a b l e 7 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r L a t e n c y of C u m u l a t i v e Judgements 36 T a b l e 8 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r E x t r e m i t y o f C u m u l a t i v e Judgements 38 T a b l e 9 R e c a l l under t h e Ob C r i t e r i o n as a F u n c t i o n of L i s t C o m p o s i t i o n under V a r i o u s E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n d i t i o n s 45 V Page L i s t o f F i g u r e s F i g u r e 1 R e t e n t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e o f Male and Female Ss i n E x p e r i m e n t s I and II 7 F i g u r e 2 R e t e n t i o n Performance F o l l o w i n g Independent Judgements 23 F i g u r e 3 L a t e n c i e s of Independent S_ and 0_ Judgements as a F u n c t i o n o f A d j e c t i v e ? L i k e a b I e n e s s ' 28 F i g u r e 4 R e t e n t i o n Performance F o l l o w i n g C u m u l a t i v e Judgements 34 v i AcknowIedgement T h i s r e s e a r c h was s u p p o r t e d by NRC G r a n t APA-0238 t o D r . W i l l i a m M. P e t r u s i c . E x p e r i m e n t III was p r e s e n t e d as a pape r e n t i t l e d " S h o r t -t e rm i n t e r f e r e n c e e f f e c t s i n p r o c e s s i n g o f p e r s o n a l i t y - t r a i t a d j e c t i v e s " , a t t h e C a n a d i a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n M e e t i n g s , W i n n i p e g , May, 1970. I w i s h t o a cknow ledge t h e s u p p o r t and i n s p i r a t i o n wh i ch D r . P e t r u s i c has p r o v i d e d me i n t h i s p r o j e c t : i t has been an honour t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h so d e v o t e d a p s c y h o l o g i s t . I a l s o w i s h t o t h a n k D r . M i c h a e l S. Humphreys f o r h i s many c o n t r i b u t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s e x c e l l e n t c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e p a p e r . S p e c i a l t h a n k s a r e owed t o P a t r i c i a Woodland f o r he r a s s i s -t a n c e i n E x p e r i m e n t II and he r p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t , t o W i l l i a m Coshow f o r h i s programming a s s i s t a n c e and t o D r . M i k i o M i y a k e and Warren T h o r n g a t e f o r t h e i r k i n d use o f r e c o r d i n g equ i pmen t . F i n a l l y , I w i s h t o d e d i c a t e t h i s pape r t o my w i f e , H i r o k o , f o r mak ing t h e s e t h e h a p p i e s t months o f my l i f e . 1. E x p e r i m e n t s I and I I I n t r o d u c t i o n W h i l e i t i s c e r t a i n l y one o f t h e most f undamen ta l p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s , t h e s t u d y o f s e l f - r e l e v a n t and s e l f - g e n e r a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g i s one i n wh i ch r e s e a r c h has c l e a r l y lagged b e h i n d t h e o r y . And w h i l e i m p r e s s i v e r e s u l t s have been a c h i e v e d by i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g a p p r o a c h e s i n t h e s t u d i e s o f p e r c e p t i o n , memory and a t t e n t i o n , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l s employed has been , by and l a r g e , a f f e c t i v e l y n e u t r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y u n i n t e r e s t i n g . The re a r e i n d i c a t i o n s , however , t h a t t h e c h o i c e o f s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l s need not be so r e s t r i c t i v e . Fo r e xamp le , d i v e r s e work by T r e i s m a n (1961) on a t t e n t i o n f o r s e l f - r e l e v a n t mes sage s , We ine r (1968) on m o t i v a t i o n i n s h o r t - t e r m memory (STM), and W icken s (1970) on s e m a n t i c e n c o d i n g c l a s s e s in STM, have i n common t h e use o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y more i n t e r e s t i n g s t i m u l i . M o r e o v e r , t h e y s u g g e s t a u s e f u l d i r e c t i o n f o r t h e s t u d y o f p r o c e s s i n g o f s e l f - r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o t a k e , name l y , t h e a d o p t i o n o f b e h a v i o u r a l measures o f a t t e n t i o n and s h o r t - t e r m memory. Ande r son and H u b e r t (1963) w ro t e t h a t t h e p r i m a c y e f f e c t s o r d i n a r i l y o b s e r v e d i n r a p i d l y - f o r m e d i m p r e s s i o n s and t h e l a r g e r e c e n c y t r e n d i n measures o f v e r b a l r e c a l l s u g g e s t d i f f e r e n t memory s y s tems f o r p e r s o n a l i t y -t r a i t a d j e c t i v e s and t h e i m p r e s s i o n s t h e y e v o k e . I n d i r e c t e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t s a v i ew o f l o n g - t e r m memory as a h i e r a r c h y o f en semb le s o r g a n i z e d by f r e q u e n c y o r f a m i l i a r i t y c o n c e p t s ( O l d f i e l d , 1954; B r i g g s and Swanson, 1969) . R e t r i e v a l i n t h i s scheme i n v o l v e s s e l e c t i o n o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e ensemble and t h e n a 2. s e a r c h u n t i l a match between encoded and memor ia l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o c c u r s . I t m i g h t be supposed t h e n , t h a t i m p r e s s i o n and r e c a l l r e s p o n s e s i n v o l v e s e a r c h e s o f d i s t i n c t en semb le s and r e t r i e v a l d e c i s i o n s e n t a i l s e l e c t i o n among d i f f e r e n t s e t s of a l t e r n a t i v e s . In t h i s c a s e , a p l a u s i b l e e x p e r i -men ta l s t r a t e g y wou ld be t o i n t e r p o l a t e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t a s k between p r e s e n t a t i o n and r e c a l l o f n e u t r a l i t e m s , i . e . , t o d i v i d e a t t e n t i o n between r e h e a r s a l o f t h e t o - b e - r e c a l l e d m a t e r i a l and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n -a l i t y - t r a i t a d j e c t i v e s . R e c a l l o f t h e n e u t r a l i tems i s assumed t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d j udgement s i n te rms o f t h e s i z e s o f memory en semb le s s e a r c h e d under v a r i o u s judgement c r i t e r i a . A l t h o u g h i t was n o t t h e pu rpo se o f t h e i n i t i a l work r e p o r t e d he re t o examine t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d d e c i s i o n d i f f i c u l t y , t h e c r i t e r i o n by w h i c h Ss j udged t h e a d j e c t i v e s was v a r i e d i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e uses f o r i n t e r p o l a t e d i m p r e s s i o n m a t e r i a l s . T h r e e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r t h e a d j e c t i v e s were emp l o yed : t h e number o f s y l l a b l e s each a d j e c t i v e c o n t a i n e d (Ob ) ; t h e d e s i r e a b i I i t y o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y - t r a i t i n an i d e a l d a t e (0); and t h e d e s c r i p t i v e n e s s o f t h e p e r s o n a I i t y - t r a i t w i t h r e s p e c t t o S ( S ) . A s econd pu rpo se o f t h e s e i n i t i a l e x p e r i m e n t s was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f e x p e r i m e n t e r and s u b j e c t ' s s ex on p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d i m p r e s s i o n t a s k . A c c o r d i n g l y , p a r a l l e l p r o c e d u r e s were c a r r i e d o u t by a # male and f e m a l e E. * .The a u t h o r w i s he s t o t hank P a t r i c i a Woodland f o r he r a s s i s t a n c e i n c o l l e c t i n g d a t a f o r E x p e r i m e n t I I . 3. Method S u b j e c t s : The Ss were 96 s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d in i n t r o d u c t o r y p s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 24 ma le and 24 f e m a l e Ss p a r t i c i p a t e d in each o f two e x p e r i m e n t s . S t i m u I i : The t o - b e - r e c a l l e d m a t e r i a l s were random 5 - d i g i t numbers a r r a n g e d such t h a t no r e p e a t s o r a d j a c e n t s e r i a l o r d e r i n g s o c c u r r e d ( c f . Buschke and Lenon, 1969) . I n t e r p o l a t e d l i s t s were drawn f rom 128 p e r s o n a l i t y - t r a i t a d j e c t i v e s - 32 f r om each o f f o u r s ub range s o f " I i k e a b I e n e s s " - s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s of h i g h m e a n i n g f u I n e s s ( c f . A n d e r s o n , 1968) . L i s t s o f 4, 8 and 12 words composed o f a I I p o s i t i v e (M+, H ) , a i l n e g a t i v e ( M - , L ) , ex t reme (H , L ) , modera te (M+,M-), and c o m p r e h e n s i v e (H , Mt , M - , L) a d j e c t i v e s were formed i n t o t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s e r i e s and t h e n t a p e - r e c o r d e d a t one a d j e c t i v e pe r 2.0 s e c o n d s . The d i g i t s p r e c e d e d t h e a d j e c t i v e s and were spoken a t a r a t e o f one p e r 0.5 s e c o n d s . Ten seconds were a l l o w e d f o r r e c a l l . S t i m u l i f o r E x p e r i m e n t s I and II d i f f e r e d o n l y i n t h a t t h e s e r i e s were r e c o r d e d by ma le and f e m a l e v o i c e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . P r o c e d u r e ; Ss were g i v e n t h r e e i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k s : Ob: Ss j udged each a d j e c t i v e as c o n t a i n i n g 1, 2 o r 3 o r more s y l l a b l e s . 0: Ss were a sked t o r a t e each a d j e c t i v e as v e r y d e s i r e a b l e , no t i m p o r t a n t , o r v e r y u n d e s i r e a b l e i n an i d e a l d a t e . S_: Ss were a s ked t o r a t e each a d j e c t i v e as a l w a y s , s omet imes , o r n e v e r t r u e o f t h e m s e l v e s . The e x p e r i m e n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o g roups o f 9 - 16 S s , a l l o f t h e same s e x . A l l Ss were g i v e n i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k 0b_ f i r s t . H a l f of t h e Ss t h e n 4. r a t e d 0 b e f o r e r a t i n g S_, whi l e t h e o r d e r was r e v e r s e d f o r t h e o t h e r h a l f . Ss were i n s t r u c t e d t o l i s t e n t o t h e number, bu t when t h e f i r s t a d j e c t i v e was p r e s e n t e d , t o b e g i n c a t e g o r i z i n g i t i m m e d i a t e l y by p l a c i n g a p e n c i l mark i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l y l a b e l l e d box. R e c a l l o f t h e d i g i t s was w r i t t e n a d j a c e n t t o t h e c a t e g o r y boxes f o l l o w i n g t h e l a s t a d j e c t i v e . R e c a l l was s c o r e d f o r each d i g i t c o r r e c t l y remembered, w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t f o r each c o r r e c t s e r i a l p o s i t i o n . The p r o c e d u r e s f o r E x p e r i m e n t s I and II d i f f e r e d o n l y i n t h a t a ma le E and a f e m a l e E, r e s p e c t i v e l y , r ead t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r each t a s k . R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n To t e s t t h e main e f f e c t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r as w e l l as t h e e f f e c t o f S ' s s e x , an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h s u b j e c t s as a n e s t e d f a c t o r w i t h i n s ex was c a r r i e d o u t on t h e combined d a t a o f E x p e r i m e n t s I and I I . The r e s u l t s , summar ized in T a b l e 1, r e v e a l t h a t bo th main e f f e c t s a r e h. ighly s i g n i f i c a n t . I n s e r t T a b l e 1 abou t h e r e The i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e s e two f a c t o r s was no t s i g n i f i c a n t nor were any o f t h e h i g h e r o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g E and S ' s s e x . The main e f f e c t o f E r e f l e c t s s u b s t a n t i a l l y l ower mean r e c a l l w i t h a f e m a l e E (61 .66$ v s . 6 7 . 0 9 $ , n = 2160 ) . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s o f E w i t h j u d g e -ment c r i t e r i a and l i s t l e n g t h . These i n t e r a c t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d t o i ) a t e n d e n c y f o r r e c a l l t o be b e s t under t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n w i t h a male E, w h i l e 5. TABLE I A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Fo r R e c a l l i n E x p e r i m e n t s I and II S o u r c e df_ SS_ MS E r r o r MS (df_) _F £ E x p e r i m e n t e r 1 318.5 318.5 50 .20 < 00 1 Sex 1 1480.5 1480.5 233.37 <.00l C r i t e r i o n 2 99.2 49 .6 18.9 92 2.63 ns L i s t Leng th 2 2926.8 1463.4 9.4 92 155.57 <.00l L i s t C o m p o s i t i o n 4 402 .3 100.6 7.0 184 14.34 <.00l E x p e r i m e n t e r X Sex 1 7.9 7.9 1 .25 ns E x p e r i m e n t e r X C r i t e r i o n 2 70 .4 35.2 5.55 <.005 E x p e r i m e n t e r X Leng th 2 90 .5 45 .3 7.13 <• 00 1 E x p e r i m e n t e r X C o m p o s i t i o n 4 21 .6 5.4 0.85 ns Sex X C r i t e r i o n 2 89 .0 44.5 7.01 <.005 Sex X Length 2 41 .4 20.7 3.26 <.05 Sex X C o m p o s i t i o n 4 22.7 5.7 0.89 ns C r i t e r i o n X Leng th 4 51 .8 12.9 6.2 92 2.08 ns C r i t e r i o n X C o m p o s i t i o n 8 299.4 37.4 5.7 184 6.51 <.00l Leng th X C o m p o s i t i o n 8 170.4 21 .3 5.5 184 3.87 <. 001 S u b j e c t s 23 2330.6 101.3 E r r o r 3104 19692.0 6.3 T o t a l 4319 49747.0 r e c a l l under t h e 0 c r i t e r i o n was h i g h e s t w i t h a female. E; and i i ) a more r a p i d d e c l i n e o f r e c a l l w i t h i n c r e a s e d l i s t l e n g t h w i t h a f e m a l e E than w i t h a ma Ie E. T a b l e 1 a l s o r e v e a l s t h a t s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s accompan ied t h e main e f f e c t o f S ' s s e x . The i n t e r a c t i o n o f S ' s sex w i t h l i s t l e n g t h r e f l e c t s n e a r l y equa l dec rement s i n r e c a l l f o r male Ss a s t h e l i s t l e n g t h i n c r e a s e s . Fo r f e m a l e S s , t h e r e c a l l dec rement a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g t h e l i s t f rom 8 t o 12 words i s n e a r l y d o u b l e t h e magn i t ude o f t h e dec rement a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e f rom 4 t o 8 wo rd s . The i n t e r a c t i o n o f S ' s sex and judgement c r i t e r i o n was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t . A l t h o u g h f o r male and f e m a l e Ss in bo th e x p e r i m e n t s , r e c a l l was l ower under t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n t h a n under t h e 0_ c r i t e r i o n , b e s t r e c a l l f o r male Ss o c c u r r e d under t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n w h i l e f e m a l e Ss r e c a l l e d b e s t under t h e 0 c r i t e r i o n . F i g u r e 1 p r e s e n t s t h e r e t e n t i o n d a t a f o r f e m a l e and male Ss combined f o r E x p e r i m e n t s I and I I . As i s e v i d e n t f rom t h e p l o t s o f f o r g e t t i n g under t h e I n s e r t F i g u r e 1 abou t h e r e judgement c r i t e r i a , t h e e f f e c t o f l i s t l e n g t h was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The main e f f e c t o f judgement c r i t e r i o n f a l l s s h o r t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . ' However, t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n o f S ' s sex and judgement c r i t e r i o n , s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s were pe r f o rmed on t h e r e c a l l d a t a f o r male and f e m a l e S s . These a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e judgement c r i t e r i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d r e c a l l p e r f o r m a n c e f o r male Ss (F = 3 . 30 , p< .05 ) , bu t no t f o r f e m a l e Ss (F = I .97, n s ) . S u b s e q u e n t l y , a p a i r e d mean t e s t f o r male r e c a l l d a t a , p o o l e d o v e r l i s t l e n g t h , was c a r r i e d o u t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e 0 v s . t h e S c r i t e r i a . The dec rement under t h e S c r i t e r i o n was shown t o MALES FEMALES NO. OF INTERPOLATED ADJECTIVES NO. OF INTERPOLATED ADJECTIVES FIGURE 1 RETENTION PERFORMANCE OF MALE AND FEMALE Ss IN EXPERIMENTS I and II 8. be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t (T = 0 . 84 , n s ) . Thus i t would appea r t h a t f o r ma le S s , t h e s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t o f judgement c r i t e r i o n i s l a r g e l y due t o t h e i r m a r k e d l y s u p e r i o r r e c a l l under t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n . The r e s u l t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o l i s t c o m p o s i t i o n a r e a l s o o f i n t e r e s t . The combined d a t a show a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t o f l i s t c o m p o s i t i o n as w e l l as an i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h judgement c r i t e r i o n . I n s p e c t i o n o f t h e r e c a l l f i g u r e s f o l l o w i n g t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f i n t e r p o l a t e d l i s t s , r e v e a l s t h a t l i s t s composed o f p o s i t i v e words r e s u l t e d i n t h e b e s t r e c a l l ( 6 9 . 1 2 $ , n = 864) o v e r a l l c r i t e r i a , w h i l e mode ra te l i s t s p roduced t h e p o o r e s t r e c a l l ( 6 0 . 0 9$ , n = 8 6 4 ) . L o o k i n g a t r e c a l l under t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n , w i t h an n o f 288 f o r each l i s t c o m p o s i t i o n , r e c a l l was b e s t when p o s i t i v e (67 .64$ ) and n e g a t i v e ( 68 .65$ ) l i s t s were i n t e r p o l a t e d . These f i g u r e s a r e compared w i t h r e c a l l f o l l o w i n g e x t r eme ( 6 4 . 8 6 $ ) , modera te (63 .92$ ) and c o m p r e h e n s i v e (62 .12$ ) l i s t s . T h i s i s a s u r p r i s i n g r e s u l t when one c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n r e q u i r e d o n l y t h a t S c a t e g o r i z e t h e number o f s y l l a b l e s each a d j e c t i v e c o n t a i n e d . Such d i f f e r e n c e s in r e c a l l s u g g e s t t h a t some e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e mean ing o f t h e a d j e c t i v e s was t a k i n g p l a c e d u r i n g t h e o s t e n s i b l y n o n - s e m a n t i c , n o n - a f f e c t i v e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n t a s k . Whether p r o c e s s i n g o f t h i s s o r t o f s u r p l u s i m p r e s s i o n conveyed by t h e a d j e c t i v e o c c u r r e d in p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i n t o s y l l a b l e s o r s e r i a l l y as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e a v a i l a b l e t i m e between a d j e c t i v e s c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d f rom t h e p r e s e n t d a t a . If t h e " I i k e a b I e n e s s " r a t i n g s a s s i g n e d a d j e c t i v e s may be r e ga rded as r e f l e c t i n g r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s a l o n g some u n i t a r y d i m e n s i o n , i t can be seen t h a t r e c a l l under t h e 0 b _ c r i t e r i o n was b e s t f o l l o w i n g i n t e r p o l a t e d l i s t s drawn f rom o n l y one o r t h e o t h e r s i d e of t h e d i m e n s i o n . By c o m p a r i s o n , p o o r e r r e c a l l r e s u l t e d f o l l o w i n g l i s t s c o n t a i n i n g words f rom bo th s i d e s o f t h e I i k e a b I e n e s s d i m e n s i o n . 9. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t p o s i t i v e (H o r M+) and n e g a t i v e (M- o r L) a d j e c t i v e s a r e encoded in d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s such t h a t l i s t s c o n t a i n i n g s h i f t s f rom p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e I i k e a b l e n e s s a d j e c t i v e s u t i l i z e g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n a l c a p a c i t y t han l i s t s drawn f rom a s i n g l e end o f t h e d i m e n s i o n . Wickens and C l a r k (1968) have d e m o n s t r a t e d r e l e a s e o f p r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n f o l l o w i n g a s h i f t f r om t r i g r a m s a t one ex t r eme o f t h e Osgood e v a l u a t i v e d i m e n s i o n t o one a t t h e o p p o s i t e e x t r e m e . T h a t i s , r e c a l l o f s u c c e s s i v e t r i g r a m s drawn f rom t h e same end o f t h e d i m e n s i o n t y p i c a l l y d e c l i n e s , b u t shows a s ha rp r e c o v e r y when words f rom t h e o p p o s i t e end o f t h e d i m e n s i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r r e c a l l . The e x i s t e n c e o f t h e e n c o d i n g c l a s s e s and s h i f t s between them, Wickens f e e l s " . . . a r e a c h i e v e d w i t h v e r y l i t t l e c o n s c i o u s awarenes s on t h e p a r t o f t h e s u b j e c t o f what he i s d o i n g " ( W i c k e n s , 1970, p. 12 ) . W ickens seems t o f a v o u r i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e r e l e a s e e f f e c t s i n t e rms o f enhanced r e t r i e v a l cue s f o r t h e a l t e r e d m a t e r i a l s , r a t h e r t h a n e i t h e r enhanced p e r c e p t i o n o r r e h e a r s a l o f t h e nove l i t e m s . Thu s , a t t e n t i o n p l a y s no e x p l i c i t r o l e i n W i c k e n s ' i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n o f p r o a c t i v e i n t e r f e r e n c e as a f u n c t i o n o f e n c o d i n g c a t e g o r i e s . However, s i n c e r e t r i e v a l demands on t h e s e m a n t i c m a t e r i a l a r e m i n i m a l i n t h e c u r r e n t p a r a d i g m , t h e r e s u l t s p r e s e n t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a t t e n t i o n i s drawn t o t h e sequence o f a d j e c t i v e s by t h e s h i f t o f c a t e g o r i e s - a t t h e expense o f r e -h e a r s i n g t h e d i g i t s . Under bo th t h e 0 and S_ c r i t e r i a , r e ca I I was h i g h e s t f o l l ow ing ex t r eme (H, L) and p o s i t i v e (H, M+) l i s t s . The m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two c r i t e r i a i s t h a t h i g h e r r e c a l l was o b t a i n e d f o l l o w i n g modera te (M+, M-) l i s t s under t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n ( 6 0 . 7 6$ , n = 288) t han under t h e 0 c r i t e r i o n ( 5 5 . 59$ , n = 2 8 8 ) . A l l o t h e r l i s t t y p e s showed p o o r e r r e c a l l under t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n . 10. R e c a l l f o l l o w i n g mode ra te l i s t s under t h e 0_ c r i t e r i o n was t h e p o o r e s t o f any c o m b i n a t i o n o f c o m p o s i t i o n and judgement c r i t e r i o n . I t wou ld appea r t h a t modera te a d j e c t i v e s i n t e r f e r e more w i t h r e c a l l o f t h e d i g i t s when a p p l i e d t o an i d e a l d a te t han when a p p l i e d t o Ss t h e m s e l v e s . However , an i ndependen t measure o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s would be d e s i r e a b l e i n i n t e r p r e t i n g such d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e c a l l . Two f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s may be made c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e i n i t i a l e x p e r i m e n t s e m p l o y i n g t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d i m p r e s s i o n t a s k . F i r s t , s i n c e s i m i l a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d i n two s e p a r a t e e x p e r i m e n t s e m p l o y i n g t h e p a r a d i g m , t h e r e i s r e a s on t o have c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e f i n d i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e e f f e c t o f E and S ' s s e x . The s t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s in r e c a l l o b t a i n e d in t h e two e x p e r i m e n t s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e method o f i n t e r p o l a t i n g an i m p r e s s i o n t a s k i s a r e l i a b l e i ndex o f c a t e g o r i z a t i o n d i f f i c u l t y , even though t h e s e i n i t i a l e x p e r i m e n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o r a t h e r l a r g e g r oup s o f S s . T h i s b e a r s d i r e c t l y on t h e r e s u l t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c r i t e r i a Ss employed in j u d g i n g t h e a d j e c t i v e s . W h i l e i t i s g e n e r a l l y more d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e any g i v e n l e v e l o f e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n t r o l w i t h g roups t han w i t h i n d i v i d u a l l y run S s , t h e deg ree o f a t t e n t i o n u t i l i z e d by an i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k i s o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e t o s t u d i e s o f d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n . In t h e p r e s e n t d a t a , l a r g e v a r i a n c e s in r e c a l l p e r f o r m a n c e between Ss i n d i c a t e d d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g i e s i n " d i v i d i n g " a t t e n t i o n between r e h e a r s a l and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n : some Ss appea red t o have d e v o t e d most o f t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o r e h e a r s i n g t h e d i g i t s , and v e r y l i t t l e t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e a d j e c t i v e s , w h i l e t h e r e v e r s e was t r u e f o r o t h e r S s . A r e v i e w o f i n d i v i d u a l r e c a l l s c o r e s under t h e t h r e e 11. c r i t e r i a r e v e a l e d t h a t o f t h e 96 S s , 14 f e m a l e s and 12 ma les a c h i e v e d r e c a l l in e x c e s s o f 95% o v e r a l l t h r e e t a s k s . A p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r s u ch d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t r a t e g y i s t h a t Ss s u s p e c t one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e components o f a d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n t a s k i s a g u i s e d e s i g n e d t o v e i l t h e " t r u e " pu rpo se o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . A c l e a r c o u r s e f o r s ub sequen t work e m p l o y i n g t h e i n t e r -p o l a t e d i m p r e s s i o n t a s k i s t o a t t e m p t t o r educe between-S v a r i a n c e by r u n n i n g Ss i n d i v i d u a l l y and by e m p l o y i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h f r a n k l y d i s c u s s t h e d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n n a t u r e o f t h e t a s k . A l s o , as t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e i n i t i a l e x p e r i m e n t s show, S ' s sex must be c o n s i d e r e d i n f u r t h e r s t u d i e s e m p l o y i n g t h e p a r a d i g m . 12. Expe r i ment I I I I i n t r o d u c t i o n F o l l o w i n g t h e i n i t i a l r e s u l t s o f E x p e r i m e n t s I and I I , t h e g e n e r a l a im of E x p e r i m e n t III was t o e x p l o r e t h e n a t u r e o f p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d i m p r e s s i o n t a s k . The pa rad i gm has a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d as a d i v i d e d a t t e n -t i o n t a s k ; bu t more than t h i s , a t t e n t i o n i s seen he re as a l t e r n a t i n g between r e t e n t i o n o f t h e t o - b e - r e c a l l e d m a t e r i a l s and memory s e a r c h o f l o n g - t e r m s t o r e s in o r d e r f o r d e c i s i o n s on t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d a d j e c t i v e s t o be made. In t h i s scheme, r e t e n t i o n i s r e g a r d e d as p a r t i a l l y dependent on t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e t o - b e - r e c a I Ied i tems in an a c o u s t i c s h o r t - t e r m memory o f l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y ( f o r examp le , as i n t h e r e h e a r s a l b u f f e r p r opo sed by A t k i n s o n and S h i f f r i n ( 1 9 6 8 ) ) . I d e a l l y , i n t h e w e l l - k n o w n P e t e r s o n and P e t e r s o n (1959) d i s t r a c t o r t e c h n i q u e , a t t e n t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d by an i n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y w h i c h f u n c t i o n s t o p r e v e n t r e h e a r s a l u n t i l such t i m e as r e c a l l i s c u e d . T y p i c a l l y , t h i s i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k i s a s i m p l e , r a p i d n u m e r i c a l o p e r a t i o n . A good dea l o f c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t has been show in t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y - t e m p o r a l g r o u p i n g and p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e ( e . g . P o l l a c k , 1963; Ryan , 1969a, b ) ; i n f o r m a t i o n - r e d u c t i o n r e q u i r e d by t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k ( P o s n e r and Rossman, 1965) ; and sequences o f easy and d i f f i c u l t i n t e r p o -l a t e d t a s k s ( D i l l o n and R e i d , 1969) . A l t h o u g h Ryan (1969b) has f ound n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s , i t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r eed t h a t " t h e l o n g e r t h e r e i s t o r e h e a r s e p r e v i o u s i t e m s , t h e more r e s i s t a n t t h e y become t o any i n t e r f e r e n c e " (Ryan , 1969b, p. 149) . An a s s u m p t i o n o f work on m a n i p u l a t i o n o f i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k d i f f i c u l t y wou ld seem t o be t h a t t h e a t t e n t i o n u t i l i z e d by a more d i f f i c u l t t a s k f u n c t i o n s 13. t o r e d u c e t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r r e h e a r s a l . In a somewhat d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t , l a t e n c y i s employed as an e x p l i c i t i ndex o f judgement d i f f i c u l t y . The a s s u m p t i o n o f a m o n o t o n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e spon se l a t e n c y and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n d i f f i c u l t y wou ld seem p r e s e n t i n t h e work o f B r i g g s and Swanson (1969) r e l a t i n g memory ensemb le s i z e t o o b j e c t - n a m i n g t i m e . R e s u l t s o f judgement s t u d i e s e m p l o y i n g p s y c h o p h y s i c a l s t i m u l i , ( B e h a r , 1963; Bevan and A v a n t , 1969) l i k e w i s e a f f i r m H i c k ' s (1952) Law r e l a t i n g t h e number o f p e r c e p t u a l c h o i c e s t o r e s p o n s e t i m e . The r e s u l t s o f E x p e r i m e n t s I and II s u g ge s t t h a t , r e g a r d l e s s o f whe the r t h e o v e r t r e s p o n s e r e q u i r e d u t i l i z i n g t h e s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t o f t h e a d j e c t i v e s , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e words as p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e o c c u r r e d . In t e rms o f t h e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s , t h i s i m p l i e s t h a t l o n g - t e r m a f f e c t i v e o r e v a l u a t i v e s t o r e s a r e s e a r c h e d under a l l t h e judgement c r i t e r i a emp l o yed . In c o n t r a s t t o t h e 0_ and S_ c r i t e r i a , however , no r e t r i e v a l demands a r e p l a c e d on t h e s e m a n t i c a l I y - encoded i n f o r m a t i o n under t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n . The Ob t a s k employed in E x p e r i m e n t III r e q u i r e d t h a t S a I so encode t h e a c o u s t i c and s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e a d j e c t i v e and s e a r c h t h e o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l a r r a y c o m p r i s i n g t h e s e r i a l l y - o r d e r e d a l p h a b e t . Thu s , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e s e m a n t i c e n c o d i n g under t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n o c c u r s as a f u n c t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s d u r i n g t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d i n t e r v a l , i n c r e a s i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e and r e q u i r i n g a more complex o v e r t r e s p o n s e on t h e a d j e c t i v e s s h o u l d r educe d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e c a l l a s a f u n c t i o n o f l i s t c o m p o s i t i o n . I f , on t h e o t h e r hand , e n c o d i n g o f t h e s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t o f t h e a d j e c t i v e s o c c u r s e i t h e r f i r s t s e r i a l l y o r in p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e a c o u s t i c e n c o d i n g , STM p e r f o r m a n c e under t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n s h o u l d be r e l a t i v e l y u n a f f e c t e d by i n c r e a s e d demands on t h e o v e r t r e s p o n s e . 14. The s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t under t h e 0 and S_ c r i t e r i a , t h e encoded r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s a r e f u r t h e r r e l a t e d t o long t e r m ensemb le s c o n t a i n i n g memor ia l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t r a i t s c o m p r i s i n g t h e c o n c e p t s o f i d e a l o t h e r and s e l f . Under t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a l a r g e r number o f memor ia l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a r e r e l a t e d t o s e l f , r e t r i e v a l under t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n s h o u l d r e q u i r e more p r o l o n g e d s e a r c h e s t h a n under t h e 0_ c r i t e r i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , i n t e r p o l a t e d judgement s under t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n s h o u l d have l o n g e r l a t e n c i e s t h a n 0 j u d g e m e n t s , bu t no t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e 0b_ judgement l a t e n c i e s . I t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t r e d u c i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r r e h e a r s a l w i l l r e d u c e s u b s e q u e n t r e c a l l . T h i s p r e d i c t i o n i s t e s t e d most d i r e c t l y by m a n i p u l a t i n g a d j e c t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e . P r e s e n t i n g an equa l number o f i n t e r p o l a t e d i tems a t a f a s t e r r a t e s h o u l d r e d u c e r e c a l l . S i m i l a r l y , c o m p a r i s o n s o f equa l r e t e n t i o n i n t e r v a l s s h o u l d d e m o n s t r a t e lower r e c a l l f o r a l a r g e r number o f i n t e r p o l a t e d i t e m s . More g e n e r a l l y , i t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t l o n g e r l a t e n c i e s on t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d judgement s w i l l r educe r e h e a r s a l o p p o r -t u n i t i e s and s h o u l d be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h lower r e c a l l o f t h e n e u t r a l i t e m s . An i s s u e o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e s t u d y o f p r o c e s s i n g s e l f - r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s w h e t h e r t h e c o m p a r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y o f such p r o c e s s i n g - as m a n i f e s t e d i n s u b s e q u e n t l y p o o r e r r e c a l l f o r p r e v i o u s l y p r e s e n t e d i tems - i s due t o s e a r c h o f l a r g e r and more comp lex memory s t o r e s r e l a t e d t o s e l f o r t o an i n h e r e n t l y more d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s s ub sequen t t o r e t r i e v a l . W h i l e t he above d i s c u s s i o n i s f ramed i n t e rms o f t h e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s , i t s h o u l d be no ted t h a t t h e r e a r e a number o f a rguments wh i ch wou ld a s c r i b e t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f s e l f - j u d g e m e n t s t o t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . These i n c l u d e e x p l a n a -t i o n s o f any d i f f e r e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t y i n te rms o f d i s p l a c e m e n t s o f t h e i d e a l p o i n t a l o n g t h e c r i t e r i a d i m e n s i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o whe the r t h e d e c i s i o n c o n c e r n s 15. a n o t h e r o r s e l f ( c f . G r e e n b e r g , 1963) as w e l l as more p r o s a i c e x p l a n a t i o n s i n t e rms o f g r e a t e r r e l u c t a n c e t o make judgements on s e l f t h a n on a n o t h e r . W h i l e i t i s beyond t h e s cope o f t he p r e s e n t e x p l o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o d i s c r i m i n a t e among a l l t h e s o u r c e s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f p r o c e s s i n g s e l f - r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , i t i s hoped t h a t by i ) u s i n g two r a t e s o f a d j e c t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n (1/1 .5 seconds and 1/3.0 s e c o n d s ) ; i i ) e m p l o y i n g an i ndependen t ( I ) j udgement c o n d i t i o n and a c u m u l a t i v e (C) j udgement c o n d i -t i o n , and i i i ) e m p l o y i n g a c o n t i n u o u s r e spon se a p p a r a t u s wh i ch p e r m i t s a n a l y s i s o f l a t e n c y and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n e x t r e m i t y d u r i n g t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d j u d g e m e n t s , c o n d i t i o n s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f d e c i s i o n d i f f i c u l t y . Use o f a c o n t i n u o u s r e s p o n s e a p p a r a t u s has t h e a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t o f a l l o w i n g a s s e s smen t o f i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e i n t e r n e I a t ed t a s k . The Ss were run i n d i v i d u a l l y and p r a c t i c e d on t h e use o f t h e r e s p o n s e a p p a r a t u s . Becau se o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s in E x p e r i m e n t s I and I I , o n l y male Ss were u s ed . I n s t r u c t i o n s d i s c u s s i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f each component o f t h e d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n t a s k were employed i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e m i s - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e p r o c e d u r e . 16. Method S u b j e c t s : Ss were 48 ma le u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n i n t r o d u c t o r y p s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t was v o l u n t a r y . S t i m u I i : The i n t e r p o l a t e d and t o - b e - r e c a l l e d m a t e r i a l s were o f t h e same t y p e as employed i n E x p e r i m e n t s I and I I . Twe l ve d i f f e r e n t l i s t t y p e s were formed by t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h r e e l e n g t h s ( 3 , 6 and 12 words ) and 4 c o m p o s i t i o n s . The " c o m p r e h e n s i v e " l i s t t y p e was no t employed i n E x p e r i m e n t I I I . In o r d e r t o c o u n t e r b a l a n c e t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e 3-word l i s t s , each s e r i e s c o n t a i n e d 24 i n t e r p o l a t e d l i s t s w i t h one example of each l i s t t y p e a p p e a r i n g i n t h e f i r s t and second h a l v e s o f t h e s e r i e s . To f i l l t h e s e l i s t s , t h e poo l o f a d j e c t i v e s was i n c r e a s e d t o 168. The re were 42 a d j e c t i v e s c e n t r e d abou t each o f t h e f o u r s ub range s o f I i k e a b I e n e s s . I t s h o u l d be no ted t h a t t h e o r d e r o f a d j e c t i v e s w i t h i n each l i s t was c o m p l e t e l y random and no c o n s c i e n * t i o u s e f f o r t was made t o c o n s t r u c t t h e I i s t s so as t o p r oduce o r d e r e f f e c t s o r r e s p o n s e s h i f t s . Th ree d i f f e r e n t s e r i e s s a t i s f y i n g t h e above c o n s t r a i n t s were c o n s t r u c t e d . The t h r e e s e r i e s employed a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Append i x A. These s e r i e s were t hen t a p e r e c o r d e d a t two r a t e s o f a d j e c t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n : one a d j e c t i v e p e r 1.5 and 3.0 s e c o n d s . R e c o r d i n g was paced by a d i s t a n t metronome w h i c h was i n a u d i b l e upon p l a y b a c k . The t a p e s were t h e n p l a y e d a t h a l f - s p e e d and d i a - p i l o t s i g n a l s m a r k i n g t h e o n s e t o f each a d j e c t i v e were p l a c e d on a n o t h e r c hanne l o f t h e t a p e . The 5 - d i g i t s p r e c e d e d each l i s t and were spoken a t a r a t e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y one pe r 0.7 s e c o n d s . F o l l o w i n g t h e l i s t , an empty i n t e r v a l o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 seconds between t h e r e c o r d e d r e c a l l s i g n a l and t h e n e x t r e a d y s i g n a l was a l l o w e d f o r Ss t o r e c a l l t h e d i g i t s . 17. P e s i q n : Ra te o f a d j e c t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n and judgement t y p e (I v s . C) were v a r i e d between g r o u p s . The judgement c r i t e r i a (0b_, 0 , S_), l i s t l e n g t h and c o m p o s i t i o n were w i t h i n - g r o u p m a n i p u l a t i o n s . O r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e t h r e e judgement c r i t e r i a was l a t i n i z e d such t h a t each c r i t e r i o n was p e r f o r m e d f i r s t , s econd o r t h i r d by f o u r S s . The t h r e e r andomized s e r i e s were a lway s r un in t h e same o r d e r s c t h a t t h e c r i t e r ' r o n l a t i n i z a t i o n o v e r l a y e d t h e a c t u a l I i s t s e q u e n c e s . P r o c e d u r e : Ss were run i n d i v i d u a l l y . The S was s e a t e d a t a desk in an i s o l a t e d room. On t h e desk was t h e p o i n t e r a p p a r a t u s , a s e t o f headphones and a m i c r o p h o n e . Tape r e c o r d e d i n s t r u c t i o n s were t h e n p l a y e d o v e r t h e h e a d -phones . These d e s c r i b e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t as " a new t e c h n i q u e f o r a s s e s s i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s " and o u t l i n e d t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e p r o c e d u r e common t o a l l judgement t y p e s and c r i t e r i a . Ss were t hen r ead i n s t r u c t i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e f i r s t c r i t e r i o n . The o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p o i n t e r a p p a r a t u s was d e s c r i b e d and i t was e x p l a i n e d t h a t each movement o f t h e p o i n t e r would be r e p r o d u c e d by t h e p e n - r e c o r d e r in t h e n e x t room. The p o i n t e r - a meta l rod a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 i n c h e s long s u p p o r t e d a t t h e i n d i c a t o r end by a r o l l e r b e a r i n g - had a r a d i a l t r a v e l o f 17.5 i n c h e s . A t t h e f i x e d end a p o t e n t i o m e t e r p r oduced changes i n r e s i s t a n c e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e p o i n t e r d e f l e c t i o n s . A s c a l e l i n e t aped a l o n g t h e a r c i n d i c a t e d o n l y t h e c e n t r e and end p o i n t s o f t h e c o n t i n u u m . Fo r t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n , 3 i ndex c a r d s l a b e l l e d " e a r l y " , " m i d d l e " and " l a t e " were p l a c e d in p o c k e t s b e h i n d t h e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s . Ss i n t h e I c o n d i t i o n were t h e n i n s t r u c t e d t o r e spond t o each a d j e c t i v e t h e y hea rd by l o c a t i n g i t s f i r s t l e t t e r a l o n g t h e c o n t i n u u m . Ss in t h e C c o n d i t i o n 18. were a sked t o m a i n t a i n a c u m u l a t i v e e s t i m a t e o f t h e a v e r a g e p o s i t i o n o f t h e f i r s t l e t t e r s i n each l i s t . In bo th c a s e s , i t was emphas i zed tha.t o n l y r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n - i n te rms o f t h e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s - was d e s i r e d . Fo r t h e 0 c r i t e r i o n , i ndex c a r d s l a b e l e d '. 'very d e s i reab I e " , " n o t i m p o r t a n t " and " v e r y u n d e s i r e a b I e " formed t h e c e n t r e and bounds o f t h e d i m e n s i o n . Ss in t h e I c o n d i t i o n were a sked t o i n d i c a t e how d e s i r e a b l e each a d j e c t i v e would be in an i d e a l d a t e , w h i l e t h e C c o n d i t i o n r e q u i r e d t h a t Ss c o n s i d e r each new a d j e c t i v e i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e p r e c e d i n g words in t h e l i s t and i n d i c a t e a c u m u l a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n . Fo r t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n , p o i n t s l a b e l e d " a l w a y s " , " s o m e t i m e s " and " n e v e r " were p r o v i d e d . Ss in t h e I c o n d i t i o n were i n s t r u c t e d t o r e spond t o each a d j e c t i v e by i n d i c a t i n g how w e l l t h e word d e s c r i b e d t h e m s e l v e s , w h i l e p a r a l l e l i n s t r u c -t i o n s i n t h e C c o n d i t i o n a sked t h a t Ss m a i n t a i n a c u m u l a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e d e s c r i p t i v e n e s s o f t h e l i s t as each new a d j e c t i v e was p r e s e n t e d . The c o m p l e t e i n s t r u c t i o n s employed i n t h e v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x B. Ss were t o l d t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e y c o u l d move t h e p o i n t e r t o any p o s i t i o n a l o n g t h e s c a l e t h e y c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e a d j e c t i v e , t hey s h o u l d s p r e a d t h e i r r e s pon se s o v e r t h e who le s c a l e . In a d d i t i o n , Ss were i n s t r u c t e d t o i n d i c a t e i f two r e s p o n s e s i n a row were i d e n t i c a l by mov ing t h e p o i n t e r s l i g h t l y away f rom t h e p o s i t i o n and back t o i t a g a i n . These i n s t r u c t i o n s were i n t e n d e d t o d i s t r i b u t e S s ' r e spon se s and p e r m i t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f long l a t e n c i e s f rom i d e n t i c a l r e s p o n s e s . The d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n n a t u r e o f t h e t a s k was no t d i s g u i s e d , bu t more emphas i s was p l a c e d on t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k . In p a r t i c u l a r , Ss were i n s t r u c t e d t h a t w h i l e t h e y s h o u l d l i s t e n c l o s e l y t o t h e d i g i t s and t r y t o r e c a l l them as b e s t as t h e y c o u l d : " y o u s h o u l d no t a t t e m p t p e r f e c t r e c a l l and a l l o w t h a t 19. t o h i n d e r y o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e a d j e c t i v e s i n any w a y . " In a d d i t i o n , when p i l o t work r e v e a l e d t h a t Ss s t i l l s u s p e c t e d t h a t t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n t a s k was o n l y a hoax d e s i g n e d t o v e i l t h e r e c a l l t a s k , Ss were t o l d t h a t E wou ld n o t e t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o s e l e c t e d o f t h e t r a i t s and ask them l a t e r t o r e c a l l t h e i r r e s p o n s e s as a t e s t o f c o n s i s t e n c y . F o l l o w i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s , Ss r e c e i v e d 10 a d j e c t i v e l i s t s f o r p r a c t i c e on t h e f i r s t o f t h e c r i t e r i a t h e y would e n c o u n t e r i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t . A d j e c t i v e s employed i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s e r i e s were n o t u s e d , bu t t h e r a t e o f p r e s e n t a -t i o n as w e l l as l i s t l e n g t h and c o m p o s i t i o n were s i m i l a r t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l m a t e r i a l s . From p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e p r a c t i c e l i s t s , i t was d e t e r m i n e d i f an S was e n c o u n t e r i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . If an S r e q u e s t e d more p r a c t i c e , p a r t o f t he t a p e was p l a y e d a g a i n . Four Ss were u n a b l e t o p e r f o r m t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k a d e q u a t e l y . They were d i s m i s s e d f o l l o w i n g t h e p r a c t i c e l i s t s and were r e p l a c e d by o t h e r S s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l s e r i e s were t h e n run i n s equence w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e judgement c r i t e r i a p r e s e n t e d b e f o r e each s e r i e s . The m a t e r i a l s were p r e s e n t e d t o t h e S v i a headphones (Koss PRO 4 - A ) . The d i a -p i l o t s i g n a l s m a r k i n g each word were made p o s s i b l e by c o n n e c t i n g t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r (UHER Roya l De l u xe ) t o one channe l o f a p e n - r e c o r d e r ( Sanborn Model 3 2 0 ) . I nput f rom t h e p o i n t e r a p p a r a t u s p r o v i d e d f o r t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s r e c o r d i n g o f S s ' r e s pon se s i n a second c h a n n e l . Ss r e c a l l e d t h e d i g i t s a l o u d d u r i n g t h e 10 second i n t e r - l i s t i n t e r v a l . T h e i r r e c a l l was t a p e -r e c o r d e d and used as a c h e c k on t h e E ' s s c o r i n g d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n . Each s e r i e s a t t h e 1.5 second p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e consumed a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 m i n u t e s w h i l e t h e s l o w e r r a t e r e q u i r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 m i n u t e s pe r s e r i e s . 20. Immed i a te l y f o l l o w i n g t h e t a p e - r e c o r d e d segment s , Ss were a sked t o re spond t o a b r i e f p o s t - e x p e r i m e n t a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e wh i ch t e s t e d f r e e r e c a l l o f t h e a d j e c t i v e s p r e s e n t e d on t h e t a p e and e n q u i r e d i n t o S s ' a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n t a s k . R e s u I t s I ndependent Judgements S s ' v e r b a l r e c a l l was s c o r e d one p o i n t f o r each d i g i t c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d d u r i n g t h e 10 - second i n t e r v a l and an a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t f o r each c o r r e c t s e r i a l p o s i t i o n - y i e l d i n g a 1 0 - p o i n t r a n g e . The r e c a l l c u r v e s under t h e t h r e e i ndependen t judgement c r i t e r i a a r e shown f o r both p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e s i n F i g u r e 2. An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p l i c a t i o n as a f a c t o r was c a r r i e d o u t on t h e d a t a . The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s , g i v e n in T a b l e 2, r e v e a l h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s f o r t h e between Ss m a n i p u l a t i o n o f p r e s e n t a -t i o n r a t e and t h e w i t h i n Ss m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f judgement c r i t e r i o n , l i s t I n s e r t T a b l e 2 abou t he re c o m p o s i t i o n and l i s t l e n g t h . No d i f f e r e n c e was i n d i c a t e d i n r e c a l l p e r f o r -mance between l i s t s 1 - 12 and 13 - 24 w i t h i n each s e r i e s . E x a m i n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e main e f f e c t s o f judgement c r i t e r i o n , l i s t l e n g t h and p r e s e n t a -t i o n r a t e , t h e p l o t s o f ( f i g u r e 2 show t h a t r e c a l l under t h e _S c r i t e r i o n i s - 2 1 . TABLE 2 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Fo r R e c a l l F o l l o w i n g Independent Judgements S o u r c e df SS_ MS_- E r r o r . MS ( d f ) F . £. P r e s e n t a t i o n Ra te 1 2014.3 2014.3 270.93 <.00l C r i t e r i o n 2 555.5 277.7 8.2 (46) 33.85 <.00l L i s t Length 2 1244.7 622.4 8.6 (46) 72 .59 <. 001 L i s t C o m p o s i t i o n 3 1 13.6 37.9 6 .8 (69) 5.54 <.005 Rep 1i c a t i o n 1 1 .3 1 .3 4.9 (23) 0.26 ns Ra te X C r i t e r i o n 2 2.2 1 . ! 0. 14 ns Ra te X Length 2 37 .4 18.7 2 .52 ns Ra te X C o m p o s i t i o n 3 21 . 8 7.3 0 .98 ns Rate X Rep 1i c a t i on 1 0 .2 0.2 0 .03 ns C r i t e r i o n X Leng th 4 34.4 8.6 6 .9 (92) 1 .25 ns C r i t e r i o n X C o m p o s i t i o n 6 97. 1 16.2 7.6 (138) 2.13 ns C r i t e r i o n X R e p l i c a t i o n 2 8.3 4.2 5.3 (46) 0 .79 ns Leng th X C o m p o s i t i o n 6 34 .4 5.7 7.6 ( 138) 0.75 ns Leng th X R e p l i c a t i o n 2 16.8 8.4 5.0 (46) 1 .07 ns C o m p o s i t i o n X R e p l i c a t i o n 3 53.5 17.8 6 .5 (69) 2.75 ns S u b j e c t s 23 5844.6 254. 1 E r r o r 909 6743.2 7.4 T o t a I 1727 20215.0 22. p o o r e s t a t a l l l i s t l e n g t h s . T h i s dec rement i s e v i d e n t f o r bo th p r e s e n t a t i o n I n s e r t F i g u r e 2 abou t h e r e r a t e s even though r e c a l l under t h e f a s t e r r a t e i s g e n e r a l l y much p o c r e r . T a b l e 2 c o n f i r m s t h a t p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e has t h e l a r g e s t e f f e c t on r e c a l l , w h i l e t h e e f f e c t s o f l i s t l e n g t h and judgement c r i t e r i a a r e a b o u t t h e same. In o r d e r t o o b t a i n e s t i m a t e s o f c a t e g o r i z a t i o n l a t e n c i e s and c a t e g o r i -z a t i o n e x t r e m i t i e s , p o r t i o n s o f t h e p o l y g r a p h r e c o r d s o f S s ' r e s pon se s were examined i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: t h e t h i r d a d j e c t i v e i n each o f t h e 72 l i s t s t h a t S h e a r d was measured f o r i ) t h e e l a p s e d t i m e ( t o t h e n e a r e s t 0.1 second ) f r om p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e a d j e c t i v e t o t h e p o i n t o f g r e a t e s t d e f l e c t i o n f rom t h e p r e v i o u s r e spon se and i i ) t h e d i s t a n c e ( t o t h e n e a e e s t 0 .5 mm.) o f t h e p o i n t f r om t h e c e n t r e o f t h e c r i t e r i o n d i m e n s i o n . The same a d j e c t i v e s were sampled f o r each S ( i n t h e c u m u l a t i v e c a s e , t h e same t r i a d o f a d j e c t i v e s ) and t h e d a t a a r e r e l e v a n t t o a I I t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n s e x c e p t l i s t l e n g t h . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e f i r s t l e t t e r s o f t h e 72 a d j e c t i v e s was b imoda l w i t h 27 words b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e l e t t e r s a - i , 16 words b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e l e t t e r s m-p, and 29 words b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e l e t t e r s r - z . I n s e r t T a b l e 3 abou t he re An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d on t h e l a t e n c y measures o b t a i n e d f o r t h e i ndependen t judgement c o n d i t i o n . The f i n d i n g s a r e g i v e n in T a b l e 3. The r a t e m a n i p u l a t i o n was h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e as would be e x p e c t e d . The e f f e c t of j udgement c r i t e r i o n was a g a i n h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The mean l a t e n c i e s 23. IOO-I 90- PRESENTATION RATE • • 1/3.0 SEC. o- o 1/1.5 SEC. \ \ N 204 10-o { , , . ^ , 0.0 4.5 9.0 18.0 36.0 RETENTION INTERVAL (SEC.) FIGURE 2 RETENTION PERFORMANCE FOLLOWING INDEPENDENT JUDGEMENTS 24.-TABLE 3 Ana Iys i s o f V a r i a m Fo r L a t e n c y o f Independent S o u r c e df_ SS_ P r e s e n t a t i o n Ra te 1 12419.0 C r i t e r i o n 2 3922.8 L i s t C o m p o s i t i o n 3 205 .5 R e p l i c a t i on 1 96 .9 Rate X C r i t e r i o n 2 588.2 Rate X C o m p o s i t i o n 3 140.7 Ra te X Rep 1 i c a t i on 1 21 .9 C r i t e r i o n X C o m p o s i t i o n 6 189.5 C r i t e r i o n X R e p l i c a t i o n 2 1 1 .9 C o m p o s i t i o n X R e p l i c a t i o n 3 36.7 S u b j e c t s 23 15341.0 E r r o r 1 146 22670.0 T o t a l 1727 52677.0 J udgements MS_ E r r o r MS ( d f ) F_ 12419.0 626 .70 < .001 1961.4 34. 1 (46) 57.50 < .001 68 .5 20 .0 (69) 3.43 < .025 96 .9 22.0 (23) 4 .40 < .05 294. 1 14.84 < .001 46 .9 2.37 ns 21 .9 1 . II ns 31 .6 19. 1 (138) 1 .66 ns 5.9 12.2 (46) 0 .49 ns 12.2 15.7 (69) 0.78 ns 667 .0 19.8 25. under t h e t h r e e c r i t e r i a a r e p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 4 . As can be s e e n , t h e l a t e n c i e s f o r i ndependen t judgement s under t h e 0_ c r i t e r i o n a r e l o n g e r t han I n s e r t T a b l e 4 about h e r e Ob j u d g e m e n t s . A l s o , t h e judgement s under t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n r e q u i r e more o f t h e i n t e r v a l between a d j e c t i v e s t h a n 0_ judgement s - t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e mean l a t e n c y f o r S_ judgement s exceed s t h e a ve r a ge i n t e r v a l between a d j e c t i v e s w i t h t h e f a s t e r p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e . Note t h a t t h e l a t e n c y measure employed i n c l u d e s t h e i n t e r v a l between t h e o n s e t o f t h e a d j e c t i v e and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f S ' s movement o f t h e p o i n t e r , as w e l l as t h e t i m e consumed i n mov ing t h e p o i n t e r t o t h e l o c a t i o n S c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e a d j e c t i v e . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t r e h e a r s a l o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e t i m e p r i o r t o S ' s movement o f t h e p o i n t e r . However , f o r t h e s i n g l e measure o f l a t e n c y e m p l o y e d , i t was c o n s i d e r e d p r e f e r -a b l e t o i n c l u d e bo th t h e pre-movement and motor t i m e component s . The i n t e r a c t i o n o f p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e and judgement c r i t e r i o n was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t . As a l ook a t T a b l e 4 c o n f i r m s , t h e i n c r e a s e i n l a t e n c y under t h e 0 b _ c r i t e r i o n when t h e a v a i l a b l e t i m e between a d j e c t i v e s i s i n c r e a s e d f rom 1.5 t o 3.0 seconds ( 0 . 36 s e c . ) i s s m a l l in c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e i n c r e a s e s under t h e 0_ ( 0 . 63 s e c . ) and _S_ ( 0 . 60 s e c . ) c r i t e r i a . L a t e n c i e s had a s i g n i f i c a n t t endency t o d e c r e a s e f rom t h e f i r s t t p t h e second h a l f o f t h e s e r i e s . T h i s d e c r e a s e was r o u g h l y t h e same f o r a l l c r i t e r i a and may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o g r e a t e r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e c r i t e r i a . The main e f f e c t o f l i s t c o m p o s i t i o n was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t . In o r d e r t o o b t a i n a c l o s e r l ook a t t h e e f f e c t , t h e 72 sampled a d j e c t i v e s were g rouped i n t o t h e o r i g i n a l I i k e a b l e n e s s s u b r a n g e s . The 10 b e s t examp le s o f each s u b -26. T a b l e 4 Mean L a t e n c i e s and D e f l e c t i o n s For I ndependent and C u m u l a t i v e Judgements (n = 288) INDEPENDENT R a t e 1/3.0 s e c 1/1.5 sec JUDGEMENT CRITERION: Ob 1 . 6 6 + ( 1 7 . 7 8 ) ^ 1.28 (17 .70 ) 0 2.00 (15 .53 ) 1.37 (14 .64 ) S 2.14 (13 .01 ) 1.54 (13 .35 ) 1 .93 (15 .38 ) 1.39 (15 .22 ) CUMULATIVE Ra te 1/3.0 s e c 1/1.5 s e c 2.30 (9 .38 ) 1.45 ( 10 .98 ) 2.18 (13 .23 ) 1.36 (13 .34 ) 2.37 (10 .86 ) 1.53 (11 .08 ) 2.28 ( 11 . 16) 1.45 (11 .80 ) 1 .67 ( 13 .96 ) 1.73 (14 .14 ) 1.89 (12 .07 ) + L a t e n c y in seconds £ D e f l e c t i o n s f rom c e n t r e i n mm. 27 . range ( e . g . , t h e 10 most h i g h l y p o s i t i v e , t h e 10 most m o d e r a t e l y n e g a t i v e ) were t h e n measured f o r l a t e n c y o f c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . F i g u r e 3 p r e s e n t s t h e o b t a i n e d l a t e n c i e s a s a f u n c t i o n o f l i k e a b l e n e s s s ub range f o r t h e 0_ and S_ c r i t e r i a . S i n c e t h e l a t e n c i e s p l o t t e d i n F i g u r e 3 r e p r e s e n t a s m a l l e r and more s e l e c t sample than t h e d a t a on wh i ch t h e main a n a l y s i s was b a s e d , I n s e r t F i g u r e 3 abou t h e r e a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were p e r f o r m e d on t h e d a t a s e p a r a t e l y f o r both p r e s e n t a -t i o n r a t e s . These a n a l y s e s a g a i n c o n f i r m e d main e f f e c t s o f judgement c r i t e r i o n (F = 16 .33 , df = 1,312, p<.001 f o r t h e f a s t p r e s e n t a t i o n , r a t e ; F = 8 . 7 5 , df = 1,312, p<.001 f o r t h e s l o w e r r a t e ) . Under t h e f a s t r a t e , l a t e n c i e s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e l i k e a b l e n e s s subrange from wh i ch t h e a d j e c t i v e was d rawn, nor i s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f judgement c r i t e r i o n and a d j e c t i v e s ub range s i g n i f i c a n t . Under t h e s l o w e r p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e , however , both t h e s e t e rms a r e s i g n i f i c a n t (F , = 5 .28 . d f = 3 , 319 , p<.001; a s ub range ' ' ' K F , ., . 5 .84 , df = 3 ,319 , p< .001) . Subsequent t o t h e s e sub range x c r i t e r i o n ' ' ' h H s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r a l l r e s u l t s , a s e r i e s o f Newman-Keuls p a i r e d mean t e s t s were c a r r i e d o u t on t h e mean l a t e n c i e s p l o t t e d i n F i g u r e 3. These r e v e a l e d t h a t , under t h e f a s t p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e , t h e d i f f e r e n c e between mean S_ r a t i n g s o f M- a d j e c t i v e s and mean 0 r a t i n g s o f L a d j e c t i v e s was t h e o n l y p a i r s i g n i f i -c a n t beyond t h e .01 l e v e l . A p p l y i n g t h e same c r i t e r i o n t o t h e l a t e n c i e s under t h e s low p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e , t h e f o l l o w i n g p a i r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t : f o r t h e _S j u d g e m e n t s , t h e M- d i f f e r e d f rom t h e L and H a d j e c t i v e s ; f o r t h e 0_ j u d g e m e n t s , t h e H a d j e c t i v e s d i f f e r e d f rom t h e M+. The r e s u l t s o f an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e pe r f o rmed on t h e e x t r e m i t y d a t a PRESENTATION RATE • • 1/3.0 SEC. c- -o 1/ 1.5 SEC. • r 1 1 H M+ M - L "LIKEABLENESS" SUBRANGE FIGURE 3 LATENCIES OF INDEPENDENT.S and 0 JUDGEMENTS AS A FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVE "LI KEABLENE'SS" (n=40) 29. a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 5. N o t a b l e among t h e r e s u l t s i s t h a t p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e I n s e r t T a b l e 5 a bou t h e r e d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e magn i t ude o f i ndependen t judgements on t h e p o i n t e r a p p a r a t u s . The e f f e c t s o f judgement c r i t e r i o n and c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e l i s t a r e bo th h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . T a b l e 4 g i v e s t h e mean d e f l e c t i o n s o f i n d e p e n -d e n t judgements under t h e t h r e e c r i t e r i a . As can be s e e n , t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y f o r s m a l l e r d e f l e c t i o n s t o be made under t h e 0 c r i t e r i o n t h a n under t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n , and f o r even s m a l l e r movements t o be made under t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n . Under t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n t h e b imoda l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f i r s t l e t t e r s in t h e sampled words must be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n e x a m i n i n g t h e magn i t ude o f t h e i ndependen t j udgemen t s . The re i s a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f r e p l i c a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a t endency f o r d e f l e c t i o n s t o i n c r e a s e by abou t one u n i t under a l l c r i t e r i a w i t h t h e l a t e r l i s t s i n t h e s e r i e s . As w i t h t h e g e n e r a l d e c r e a s e i n l a t e n c i e s , s l i g h t l y l a r g e r d e f l e c t i o n s would seem t o r e f l e c t i n c r e a s e d p r a c t i c e w i t h t h e judgement c r i t e r i a on t h e l a t e r l i s t s . However, r u n n i n g c o u n t e r t o t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s t he s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n o f l i s t c o m p o s i t i o n w i t h r e p l i c a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a d e c r e a s e i n t h e e x t r e m i t y o f t h e r a t i n g s t o t h e l a t e r p o s i t i v e l i s t s . A l l o t h e r l i s t t y p e s e l i c i t e d s l i g h t l y l a r g e r d e f l e c t i o n s d u r i n g t h e l a s t h a l f o f each s e r i e s . R e l a t i o n o f C a t e g o r i z a t i o n E x t r e m i t y t o L i k e a b l e n e s s R a t i n g A l t h o u g h t h e 0 c r i t e r i o n employed i n t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t i s n o t s t r i c t l y i d e n t i c a l t c t h e judgement s on wh i ch t h e l i k e a b l e n e s s r a t i n g s a r e based ( A n d e r s o n ' s Ss were i n s t r u c t e d t o ' ' t h i n k o f a pe r son as b e i n g 30. TABLE 5 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e F o r E x t r e m i t y o f I ndependent Judgements Sou r ce - df. SS_ E r r o r MS ( d f ) fi-P r e s e n t a t i o n R a t e 1 10. 9 10.9 0. 15 ns C r i t e r i o n 2 6068. 7 3034.4 162.3 (46) 18.70 < .001 L i s t C o m p o s i t i o n 3 2625. 1 875.0 61 .7 (69) 14.19 < .001 R e p l i c a t i o n 1 432 . 5 432 .5 58.6 (23) 7.38 < .025 Ra te X C r i t e r i o n 2 80 . 7 40 .3 0.56 ns Ra te X C o m p o s i t i o n . 3 199. 8 66 .6 0.92 ns Rate X Rep 1 i c a t i o n 1 184. 9 184.9 2.56 ns C r i t e r i o n X C o m p o s i t i o n 6 794. 3 132.4 84 .8 (138) 1 .56 ns C r i t e r i o n X R e p l i c a t i o n 2 53. 7 26 .8 48 .0 (46) 0 .56 ns C o m p o s i t i o n X R e p l i c a t i o n 3 832. 9 284.3 46 .6 (69) 6. 1 1 < .005 S u b j e c t s 23 4982. 9 216.7 E r r o r 1 146 82692. 0 72 .3 T o t a l 1727 139400.0 31 . d e s c r i b e d by t h e a d j e c t i v e " ( A n d e r s o n , 1968, p.272) r a t h e r t han t h i n k i n g o f an i d e a l companion o f t h e o p p o s i t e s e x ) , t h e r e i s a good dea l o f o v e r l a p i n t h e c r i t e r i a . The a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e r a t i n g s o b t a i n e d f rom t h e 7 - p o i n t s c a l e o f f a v o u r a b i i i t y o r d e s i r e a b i I i t y employed by Ander son and t h e p o i n t e r d e f l e c t i o n s under t h e 0_ c r i t e r i o n p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r c ompa r i s on w i t h t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n . The a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e l i k e a b l e n e s s r a t i n g s and t h e d e f l e c t i o n s o b t a i n e d i n t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n wi I I p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e x t e n t t o wh i ch t h e s e l f - c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s draw on n o r m a t i v e i n f o r m a -t i o n about each t r a i t . Of t h e 72 a d j e c t i v e s wh i ch were sampled f o r l a t e n c y and e x t r e m i t y o f c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , 65 o f t h e s e were u n i q u e . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e d e f l e c t i o n s f o r t h e 8 Ss who c a t e g o r i z e d each o f t h e s e 65 a d j e c t i v e s were s e p a r a t e l y t o t a l l ed f o r t h e 0_ and S_ c r i t e r i a . The mean d e f l e c t i o n f o r each a d j e c t i v e was t hen compared w i t h A n d e r s o n ' s n o r m a t i v e l i k e a b l e n e s s r a t i n g f o r t h a t a d j e c t i v e . Two r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed f o r each c r i t e r i o n ; p o s i t i v e l i k e a b l e n e s s a d j e c t i v e s O H and M+ s u b r a n g e s ) ; and n e g a t i v e l i k e a b l e -nes s a d j e c t i v e s (M- and L s u b r a n g e s ) . The o b t a i n e d c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e 0 c r i t e r i o n were .781 and .697 f o r p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s , r e s p e c -t i v e l y . F o r t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n , c o e f f i c i e n t s o f .579 and .126 were o b t a i n e d f o r p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l l bu t t h e l a s t c o e f -f i c i e n t i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n beyond t h e .001 l e v e l - t h e l a s t c o e f f i c i e n t i s no t s i g n i f i c a n t . The s i z e o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e 0_ c r i t e r i o n , d e s p i t e t h e i n c r e a s e d r e spon se f reedom and s m a l l sample s i z e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , s u g ge s t t h a t t h e l i k e a b l e n e s s s t r u c t u r e a c c o u n t s f o r a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n t h e 0_ c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s . On t h e o t h e r hand , t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i s much p o o r e r f o r t h e _S_ c r i t e r i o n . M o r e o v e r , t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r n e g a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s t han f o r p o s i t i v e a d j e c t i v e s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e e x t e n t t o wh i ch t h e n o r m a t i v e r e s p o n s e t o a p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t w i l l i n f l u e n c e s e l f - r a t i n g s d i f f e r s f o r e s s e n t i a l l y p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e t r a i t s . C u m u l a t i v e Judgements A n a l y s e s p a r a l l e l i n g t h o s e o f t h e i ndependen t judgement c o n d i t i o n s were c o n d u c t e d on t h e r e c a l l , l a t e n c y , and e x t r e m i t y d a t a f o r c u m u l a t i v e j u d g e m e n t s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r t h e r e c a l l measure a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 6. The e f f e c t o f judgement c r i t e r i o n does no t r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e . E x a m i n i n g t h e r e t e n t i o n p l o t s f o r t h e t h r e e c r i t e r i a , I n s e r t T a b l e 6 abou t he re shown in F i g u r e 4, i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t , e x c e p t f o r t h e 0b_ c r i t e r ion under t h e s l o w e r p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e , r e c a l l p e r f o r m a n c e i s s i m i l a r under t h e t h r e e c r i t e r i a . A t t h e f a s t p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e , mean r e c a l l under t h e t h r e e I n s e r t F i g u r e 4 about he re c r i t e r i a i s as f o l l o w s : Ob - 3 8 . 5 8 $ , 0 - 3 8 . 06$ , S_ - 3 5 . 80$ . In c ompa r i s on t o t h e i ndependen t judgement c o n d i t i o n t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n appea r s most e f f e c t e d by t h e c u m u l a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t . W h i l e mean r e c a l l f o r t h e I v s . C c o n d i t i o n s under t h i s c r i t e r i o n d ropped f rom 59.58$ t o 51 .06$ , mean r e c a l l under t h e 0_ c r i t e r i o n was reduced f rom 50.92$ t o 47.83$ and r e c a l l under t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n rema ined v i r t u a l l y t h e same, 45 .83$ v s . 45 .04$ . 33. TABLE 6 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e F o r R e c a l l F o l l o w i n g C u m u l a t i v e Judgements S ou r ce df_ SS MS E r r o r MS ( d f ) IF P_ P r e s e n t a t i o n Rate 1 1845.9 1845.9 257.72 < .001 C r i t e r i o n 2 106.4 53.2 18.4 (46) 2.89 ns L i s t Leng th 2 2096.9 1048.5 15.2 (46) 68.93 < .001 L i s t C o m p o s i t i o n 3 18.9 6.3 5.7 (69) 1 .10 ns Rep 1i c a t i o n 1 3.9 3.9 1 1. 1 (23) 0.35 ns Ra te X C r i t e r i o n 2 39 .8 19.9 2 .78 ns Ra te X Leng th 2 88.2 44 . 1 6. 15 < .005 Ra te X C o m p o s i t i o n 3 4 . 9 1 .6 0.23 ns Ra te X R e p l i c a t ion 1 50 .0 50 .0 6.98 < .01 C r i t e r i o n X Leng th 4 26.7 6.7 ,t.. . o.4 (92) 1 .04 ns C r i t e r i o n X C o m p o s i t i o n 6 64 .9 10.8 7.7 (138) 1 .40 ns C r i t e r i o n X R e p l i c a t i o n 2 19. 1 9.5 8 .4 (46) 1 . 13 ns Leng th X C o m p o s i t i o n 6 63.7 10.6 6.5 (138) 1 .63 ns Leng th X R e p l i c a t i o n 2 12.9 6.4 7 .3 (46) 0 .89 ns C o m p o s i t i o n X R e p l i c a t i o n 3 22 .6 7.5 6 . 1 (69) 1 .24 ns S u b j e c t s 23 4366.8 189.9 E r r o r 909 6510.9 7.2 T o t a l 1727 19649.0 9 C H PRESENTATION RATE 1/3.0 S E C 1/1.5 SEC. 80H RETENTION INTERVAL (SEC.) FIGURE 4 RETENTION PERFORMANCE.FOLLOWING CUMULATIVE JUDGEMENTS 35. As i s e v i d e n t f rom t h e r e t e n t i o n p l o t s , t h e e f f e c t s o f r a t e and l i s t l e n g t h a r e h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . M o r e o v e r , t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e s e two t e rms i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t , i n d i c a t i n g more r a p i d d e c l i n e o f r e c a l l under t h e f a s t p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e . F i n a l l y , t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f r a t e and r e p l i c a t i o n was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e c a l l under t h e f a s t r a t e d e c l i n e d , w h i l e r e c a l l under t h e s l o w e r r a t e improved on t h e l a t e r l i s t s . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e l a t m c y measure f o r c u m u l a t i v e judgement s i s summar ized in T a b l e 7. P r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e had t h e e x p e c t e d h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t I n s e r t T a b l e 7 about he re e f f e c t . Judgement c r i t e r i o n and l i s t c o m p o s i t i o n were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t . Mean l a t e n c i e s o f c u m u l a t i v e judgement s under t h e t h r e e c r i t e r i a a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 4. As w i t h i ndependen t j u d g e m e n t s , l a t e n c i e s o f c u m u l a t i v e j u d g e -ments under t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n were l o n g e s t f o r bo th p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e s . However , i t i s c l e a r i n compa r i n g t h e a d d i t i o n a l t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r c u m u l a t i v e judgements under each o f t h e c r i t e r i a t h a t t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n was t h e most e f f e c t e d by t h e c u m u l a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t . I ndeed, a t t h e f a s t e r p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e , c u m u l a t i v e judgements under t h e 0_ and S_ c r i t e r i a appea r t o r e q u i r e no l onge r t han i ndependen t j u d g e m e n t s : o n l y t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n shows a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n l a t e n c y . W h i l e t h e l a t e n c i e s a t t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e a r e c o n s t r a i n e d as t hey app roach t h e a v e r a g e i n t e r v a l between a d j e c t i v e s , t h e r e l a t i o n between l a t e n c i e s f o r i ndependen t and c u m u l a t i v e judgement s a t t h e s l o w e r r a t e shows a s i m i l a r l y d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e i n c r e a s e under t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n . As T a b l e 7 i n d i c a t e s , t h e e f f e c t o f l i s t c o m p o s i t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t . The mean l a t e n c y i n r e s p o n s e t o n e g a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s ( 1 .89 s e c . ) was about 36 . TABLE 7 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Fo r L a t e n c y o f C u m u l a t i v e Judgements S ou r ce df. SS MS E r r o r MS ( d f ) F_ £. P r e s e n t a t i o n R a t e 1 29942.0 29942.0 1359.25 < .001 C r i t e r i o n 2 961 .5 480.7 31 .6 (46) 15.23 < .001 L i s t C o m p o s i t i o n 3 367 .0 122.3 18. 1 (69) 6.78 < .001 Rep 1 i c a t i on 1 120.9 120.9 24.5 (23) 4.94 < .05 Ra te X C r i t e r i o n 2 7.4 3.7 0.17 ns Ra te X C o m p o s i t i o n 3 92.9 31 .0 1 .41 ns Rate X Rep 1 i c a t i o n 1 259 .0 259.0 1 1.76 < .001 C r i t e r i o n X C o m p o s i t i o n 6 204 .9 34.2 28 . 1 (138) 1.22 ns C r i t e r i o n X R e p l i c a t i o n 2 256 .0 128.0 31 .5 (46) 4.07 < .025 C o m p o s i t i o n X Repl i c a t i o n 3 252 . 1 84 .0 21 .7 (69) 3.88 < .025 S u b j e c t s 23 38669.0 1681.3 E r r o r 1 146 25244.0 22 .0 T o t a 1 1727 78484.0 37. equa l t o t h e mean l a t e n c y o f e x t r eme a d j e c t i v e s ( 1 .85 s e c ) . P o s i t i v e a d j e c t i v e s were c a t e g o r i z e d somewhat f a s t e r ( 1 .79 s e c ) , w h i l e modera te l i s t s p roduced t h e l o n g e s t mean l a t e n c y (1 .92 s e c ) . A s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n in l a t e n c y on t h e l a t e r l i s t s in each s e r i e s , s i m i l a r t o t h e r e s u l t o b t a i n e d w i t h i ndependen t j udgement s was accompan ied by s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s . W i th r e s p e c t t o l i s t c o m p o s i t i o n , w h i l e l a t e r modera te l i s t s showed s u b s t a n t i a l l y f a s t e r l a t e n c i e s (2.01 v s . 1.83 s e c ) , l a t e r p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e l i s t s showed l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e . In t h e c a s e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e , l a t e n c i e s under t h e s low r a t e were in a c c o r d w i t h t h e o v e r a l l e f f e c t o f r e p l i c a t i o n , w h i l e t h e f a s t r a t e p roduced s l i g h t l y l o n g e r l a t e n c i e s on t h e l a t e r l i s t s . F i n a l l y , much f a s t e r r e spon se t i m e s were o b t a i n e d on t h e l a t e r l i s t s under t h e 0p_ c r i t e r i o n ( 1 .95 v s . 1.72 s e c ) . R e p l i c a t i o n had l i t t l e e f f e c t on l a t e n c i e s under t h e 0 ( 1 .77 v s . 1.76 s e c ) o r _S ( 1 .95 v s . 1.96 s e c . ) c r i t e r i a . Taken t o g e t h e r , t h e s e i n t e r a c t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t , in c o m p a r i s o n t o i ndependen t j u d g e m e n t s , l a t e n c i e s o f c u m u l a t i v e judgement s a r e l e s s s t a b l e o v e r r e p e a t e d measu re s . The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n e x t r e m i t y measure i s summar ized in T a b l e 8. The between Ss m a n i p u l a t i o n o f p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e I n s e r t T a b l e 8 abou t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s r e f l e c t s l a r g e r mean d e f l e c t i o n s under t h e f a s t p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e t han under t h e s low r a t e . In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e l a t e n c y a n a l y s i s , c u m u l a t i v e j udgement s under t h e f a s t p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e a r e more ex t r eme and t a k e l e s s t i m e . The e f f e c t o f judgement c r i t e r i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t . The mean e x t r e m i t i e s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 4. A t bo th p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e s , d e f l e c t i o n s a r e g r e a t e s t 38. TABLE 8 Analysis of Variance For Extremity of Cumulative Judgements Source df. SS MS Error MS (df) f_ £. Presentation Rate 1 180.2 180.2 4.52 < .05 C r i t e r i o n 2 3000.2 1500.1 109.1 (46) 13.75 < .001 L i s t Composition 3 2289.8 763.3 51.5 (69) 14.81 < .001 Rep 1ication 1 144.7 144.7 41 .2 (23) 3.51 ns Rate X C r i t e r i o n 2 197.8 98.9 2.48 ns Rate X Composition 3 104.4 34.8 0.87 ns Rate X Rep 1ication 1 1 .7 1 .7 0.04 ns C r i t e r i o n X Composition 6 2768.0 461 .3 47.5 (138) 9.71 < .001 C r i t e r i o n X Replication 2 72.5 36.3 35.7 (46) 1 .02 ns Composition X Replication 3 194.2 64.7 30.4 (69) 2.13 ns Subjects 23 7328.7 318.64 Error 1 146 45728.0 39.9 Total 1727 87795.0 39. under t h e 0_ c r i t e r i o n , w h i l e S j udgement s a r e s l i g h t l y more e x t r eme than Ob j u d g e m e n t s . As i n t h e c a s e o f i ndependen t j u d g e m e n t s , t h e b imoda l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f i r s t l e t t e r s f o r t h e sampled words must be acknow ledged in c o n s i d e r i n g t h e magn i t ude o f cumuI a t i v e 0b_ j u d g e m e n t s . The f i n d i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e 0 and S_ c r i t e r i a , however , i n d i c a t e somewhat s m a I l e r r e s p o n s e ranges f o r s e l f - r a t i n g s under bo th judgement c o n d i t i o n s . The r e s u l t s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f l i s t c o m p o s i t i o n p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e deg ree t o wh i ch Ss made c u m u l a t i v e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e l i s t s . S i n c e t h e i n d e p e n d e n t judgement s under t h e 0 c r i t e r i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t e x t r e m i t i e s were in g e n e r a l a c c o r d w i t h t h e I i k e a b l e n e s s r a t i n g s o f t h e a d j e c t i v e s , t h e c u m u l a t i v e t a s k s h o u l d p r oduce d e f l e c t i o n s o f equa l magn i t ude f o r p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e l i s t s wh i ch s h o u l d be l a r g e r t han d e f l e c t i o n s t o e x t r eme and moderate l i s t s . C u m u l a t i v e d e f l e c t i o n s t o e x t r eme and modera te l i s t s s h o u l d , l i k e w i s e , be o f s i m i l a r m a g n i t u d e . The mean d e f l e c t i o n s under t h e 0. c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e v a r i o u s l i s t c o m p o s i t i o n s a r e : p o s i t i v e - 15.40; n e g a t i v e - 16.02; e x t r eme - 11.60; modera te - 10 .12. By c o n t r a s t , t h e r e l e v a n t e x t r e m i t y means f o r t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n a r e as f o l l o w s : p o s i t i v e - 9 .76 ; n e g a t i v e - 9 . 97 ; e x t r eme -- 10 .93 ; modera te - 10.06. T h i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e r range o f means i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n o f judgement c r i t e r i o n w i t h l i s t c o m p o s i t i o n i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . Under t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n , t h e e x t r e m i t y means a r e : p o s i t i v e - 13.58; n e g a t i v e -10 .57; e x t r eme - 10 .10; modera te - 9 . 6 3 . The p o o r e r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h e magn i t ude o f c u m u l a t i v e judgements under t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n and t h e e x p e c t a -t i o n based on t h e I i k e a b l e n e s s s t r u c t u r e i s in ag reement w i t h t h e c o r r e l a -t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f 0 and S_ def l e c t i o n s in t h e i ndependen t judgement c o n d i t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e e x t r e m i t y mean f o r cumu l a t i ve S_ j u d g e -40. ments o f p o s i t i v e l i s t s , r e c a l l s t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i gh c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between i n d e p e n d e n t _S j udgement s and t h e l i k e a b l e n e s s r a t i n g s o f p o s i t i v e a d j e c t i v e s . P o s t - E x p e r i m e n t a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data F o l l o w i n g t h e t h r e e t a p e - r e c o r d e d s e r i e s , Ss were g i v e n f i v e m i n u t e s i n wh i ch t o w r i t e down as many o f t h e a d j e c t i v e s employed in t h e e x p e r i m e n t as t h e y c o u l d r e c a l l . A t t h i s p o i n t a l l Ss had heard each o f t h e 168 a d j e c -t i v e s t h r e e t i m e s . The range o f f r e e r e c a l l means f o r t h e v a r i o u s e x p e r i -menta l c o n d i t i o n s was f rom 23 .7 t o 2 6 . 2 . The range o f s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s was f rom 3.6 f o l l o w i n g t h e C, 3.0 c o n d i t i o n t o 9.8 f o l l o w i n g t h e C, 1.5 c o n d i t i o n . T h e r e were no d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e mean number o f a d j e c t i v e s Ss c o u l d r e c a l l , e i t h e r as a f u n c t i o n o f p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e ( 1 . 5 v s . 3 . 0 ) , t h e t y p e o f judgement Ss had made (I v s . C ) , o r t h e most r e c e n t c r i t e r i o n Ss had used t o j u d g e t h e a d j e c t i v e s . However, f r e e r e c a l l f o l l o w i n g f a s t c u m u l a t i v e judgement s was more e r r a t i c . In o r d e r t o o b t a i n i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e t h r e e c r i t e r i a , Ss were a sked t o s t a t e wh i ch o f t h e a d j e c t i v e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n t a s k s had been t h e e a s i e s t and wh i ch had been t h e most d i f f i c u l t t o p e r f o r m . 33 o f t h e 48 Ss d e s c r i b e d t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n as e a s i e s t , whi l e o n l y 3 Ss d e s c r i b e d t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n as e a s i e s t . On t h e o t h e r hand , 36 o f t h e Ss d e s c r i b e d t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n as t h e most d i f f i c u l t ; t h e r e m a i n i n g Ss d i v i d e d 5 f o r t h e 0 and 7 f o r t h e Ob c r i t e r i a . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t i v e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n was g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d by r e q u i r i n g c u m u l a t i v e judgement s on t h e a d j e c t i v e s : o n l y 11 o f t h e 24 Ss in t h i s c o n d i t i o n f e l t t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n was e a s i e s t ( v s . 22 in t h e I c o n d i t i o n ) , 41 . w h i l e 6 Ss d e s c r i b e d i t as t h e most d i f f i c u l t c r i t e r i o n ( v s . o n l y 1 i n t h e I c o n d i t i o n ) . C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , 10 Ss d e s c r i b e d t h e 0 c r i t e r i o n as e a s i e s t ( v s . o n l y 2 i n t h e I c o n d i t i o n ) . S u r p r i s i n g l y , Ss who had e n c o u n t e r e d t h e 3.0 second p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e a p p a r e n t l y f e l t j u s t as ru shed as d i d Ss i n t h e 1.5 second c o n d i t i o n : 18 Ss i n both r a t e c o n d i t i o n s would have p r e f e r r e d more t i m e between a d j e c -t i v e s t o c o n s i d e r them. F i n a l l y , 98$ o f t h e Ss r e p o r t e d t h a t c a t e g o r i z i n g t h e a d j e c t i v e s o c c a s i o n a l l y " seemed t o e r a s e t h e memory o f t h e d i g i t s " . C o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f such l o s s , and f r e q u e n c y o f men t i on a r e as f o l l o w s : S_ c r i t e r i o n (66%), 0 c r i t e r i o n ( 5 0 $ ) , Ob c r i t e r i o n ( 2 1 $ ) , long l i s t s ( 2 1 $ ) , and l i s t c o m p o s i t i o n ( 8 $ ) . The p e r c e n t a g e s f o r t h e S_ and Ob c r i t e r i a c o r r e s p o n d q u i t e c l o s e l y w i t h f i g u r e s g i v e n by D ' Z u r i l l a (1965) on t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f Ss r e p o r t i n g t h o u g h t s r e l a t e d t o an e g o - t h r e a t e n i n g t a s k i n a s t u d y o f " e x p e r i m e n t a l r e p r e s s i o n ' 5 : 62$ o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l Ss v s . o n l y 24$ o f t h e c o n t r o l S s . Di s c u s s ion The r e s u l t s o f E x p e r i m e n t M l s u p p o r t and e x t e n d t h e f i n d i n g s o f E x p e r i m e n t s I and I I . As in t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , i n t e r p o l a t e d judgement s on p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s p roduced d i f f e r e n c e s in r e c a l l o f n e u t r a l i t e m s . The c r i t e r i a by wh i ch s e m a n t i c o r p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t i v e i tems a r e j udged a c t as m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k . 42 . Th ree r e spon se measures have been employed i n t h e s t u d y of t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e r p o l a t e d i m p r e s s i o n d i f f i c u l t y : two n o n v e r b a l measures o f i n t e r p o l a t e d judgement p e r f o r m a n c e as we I I as a v e r b a l r e c a l l mea su re . The n o n v e r b a l measure o f c a t e g o r i z a t i o n a m p l i t u d e i s assumed t o be mono ton i ca I Iy r e l a t e d t o t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e r e s p o n s e . The n o n v e r b a l l a t e n c y measure i s commonly assumed t o be m o n o t o n i c a I l y r e l a t e d t o c a t e g o r i z a t i o n d i f f i c u l t y as a f u n c t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e . G r e e n b e r g (1963) p r e s e n t s d a t a s u p p o r t i n g a model wh i ch p r e d i c t s d e c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y as t h e s t i m u l u s b e i n g j udged i s made more remote f rom t h e i d e a l p o i n t . In a d d i t i o n , c a t e g o r i z a t i o n l a t e n c y has a l s o been r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o r e t r i e v a l t i m e as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e s i z e o f t h e l o n g - t e r m memory " e n s e m b l e " s e a r c h e d ( B r i g g s and Swanson, 1969) . The two n o n v e r b a l measures o f c a t e g o r i z a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e have been found t o be i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t d a t a . T h a t i s , i n s p i t e o f t h e e x t r a amount o f t i m e needed t o move t h e p o i n t e r , l a r g e d e f l e c t i o n s f r om t h e c e n t r e o f t h e c r i t e r i a d i m e n s i o n s r e q u i r e d l e s s t i m e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t " s t r o n g " c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s ( l a r g e and r a p i d p o i n t e r d e f l e c t i o n s away f rom the c e n t r e o f t h e c r i t e r i o n d i m e n s i o n ) r e f l e c t r e t r i e v a l f rom f ewe r a l t e r n a t i v e r e s pon se s w h i l e s m a l l movements o f long l a t e n c y i n d i c a t e p r o l o n g e d s e a r c h e s and/o r g r e a t e r r e s p o n s e c o m p e t i t i o n . In t h i s r e g a r d , i t s h o u l d be no ted t h a t r e t r i e v a l f rom l a r g e r numbers o f a l t e r n a t i v e s s h o u l d no t o n l y t a k e l o n g e r , bu t s h o u l d r e s u l t i n more r e s p o n s e e r r o r s . In t h e i r work , B r i g g s and Swanson s ough t t o a v o i d l a r g e numbers o f e r r o r s in r e t r i e v a l f rom t h e l a r g e r ensembles by p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e on t h e i r members. However, t h e c o n t i n u o u s r e spon se a p p a r a t u s i n t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more s e n s i t i v e t o o v e r t r e s p o n s e u n c e r t a i n t y t h a n a v e r b a l r e s p o n s e . I t i s p l a u s i b l e then t h a t r e spon se u n c e r t a i n t y i s m a n i f e s t e d 43. i n s m a l l e r movements as w e l l as l o n g e r l a t e n c i e s . The d e c i s i o n d i f f i c u l t y h y p o t h e s i s o f f e r s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t " s t r o n g " c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s a r e based on e x t r eme i d e a l p o s i t i o n s w h i l e s m a l l movements w i t h long l a t e n c i e s r e f l e c t a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e i d e a l p o i n t s . The i m p l i c a t i o n he re i s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a l c a t e g o r i z a t i o n d i f f i c u l t y i s t h e r e s u l t o f d i s p l a c i n g t h e i d o a l p o i n t on t he c r i t e r i a d i m e n s i o n s . In c o n c l u s i o n , in o r d e r t o d i s c r i m i n a t e c r i t i c a l l y between t h e d e c i s i o n d i f f i c u l t y and memory s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s , two s t r o n g c o n d i t i o n s must be s a t i s f i e d i n t h e d a t a : i t must be a s s u r e d t h a t i d e a l p o i n t s a r e no t d i s p l a c e d under d i f f e r e n t judgement c r i t e r i a ; s e c o n d l y , t h e r e must be no d i f f e r e n c e s i n c a t e g o r i z a t i o n e r r o r s under t h e d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a . On l y t h e n c o u l d o b t a i n e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n l a t e n c y be a t t r i b u t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e s i z e o f t h e memory ensembles s e a r c h e d under t h e judgement c r i t e r i a . The ma jo r d i f f e r e n c e between e m p l o y i n g p s y c h o p h y s i c a l s t i m u l i and p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t i v e m a t e r i a l i s t h a t fn t h e l a t t e r c a s e n e i t h e r o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s may be a s s u r e d a p r i o r i . M u l t i p l e r e p l i c a t i o n s wou ld t hen seem n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o e s t i m a t e bo th e r r o r r a t e s and l o c a t i o n s o f t h e i d e a l p o i n t s . The d a t a f rom t h e t h r e e r e s p o n s e measures a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t l a t e n c i e s o f t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s p r e d i c t s ub sequen t r e c a l l . T h i s f i n d i n g has c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s e m p l o y i n g judgements o f s e m a n t i c m a t e r i a l s s i n c e i t s u g g e s t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t l a t e n c y measures may be used t o i n f e r t h e a t t e n t i o n u t i l i z e d by j udgement s wh i ch wou ld be e x p e r i m e n t a l l y cumbersome t o employ as an i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k . M o r e o v e r , t he f i n d i n g s u g g e s t s t h e use o f l a t e n c y as an e a s i l y o b t a i n e d common measure t h a t c o u l d be used i n c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f i n t e r p o -l a t e d t a s k d i f f i c u l t y and STM. 44. The ma jo r f i n d i n g s o f E x p e r i m e n t M l show t h a t a d j e c t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e and t y p e o f judgement r e q u i r e d a l s o e f f e c t t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d i m p r e s s i o n t a s k . The r e s u l t s f o r a l l c o m b i n a t i o n s o f judgement i t y p e and judgement c r i t e r i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t i n t e r p o l a t e d l i s t s o f c o m p a r a b l e l e n g t h and c o m p o s i t i o n p r oduce s u b s t a n t i a l l y p o o r e r r e c a l l when t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d more r a p i d l y . V i e w i n g F i g u r e s 2 and 4 a n o t h e r way, r e c a l l under a l l c r i t e r i a a t c o m p a r a b l e r e t e n t i o n i n t e r v a l s ( i . e . 9.0 and 18.0 s e e s . ) i s c l e a r l y a f u n c t i o n o f t h e number o f i n t e r p o l a t e d a d j e c t i v e s . Taken t o g e t h e r , t h e s e r e s u l t s s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f a s t e r r a t e o f p r e s e n t a -t i o n r educe s t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r r e h e a r s a l . T h i s s u p p o r t s t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t r e c a l l depends on t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r r e h e a r s a l d u r i n g t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d i n t e r v a l . I t f o l l o w s f rom t h i s p o s i t i o n t h a t as t h e number o f i n t e r p o l a t e d i tems i n c r e a s e s , r e c a l l under t h e f a s t e r r a t e s h o u l d d e c l i n e more s h a r p l y . Thus t h e r e t e n t i o n c u r v e s under t h e two r a t e s , shown i n F i g u r e s 2 and 4, s h o u l d show d i v e r g e n c e . The s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n o f r a t e and l i s t l e n g t h in t h e c u m u l a t i v e judgement c o n d i t i o n p r o v i d e s p a r t i a l s u p p o r t f o r d i v e r g e n c e w i t h Ionger I i s t s . S t i l l r e f e r r i n g t o F i g u r e s 2 and 4, i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e ma jo r e f f e c t o f t h e c u m u l a t i v e judgement c o n d i t i o n was t o r educe d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e c a l l among t h e judgement c r i t e r i a . As t h e e x t r e m i t y o f t h e s e c u m u l a t i v e judgements showed, t h e r e i s rea son t o b e l i e v e t h a t S s ' r e s p o n s e s t o s u c c e s s i v e a d j e c t i v e s were a c c u m u l a t i n g . The re i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t Ss a r e c a p a b l e o f m a i n t a i n i n g a t l e a s t a p o r t i o n o f t h e p r i o r a d j e c t i v e s : T a b l e 9 summar i zes reca I I under t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n as a f u n c t i o n o f I i s t c o m p o s i t i o n . The s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e s e r e s u l t s i s t h a t under a v a r i e t y TABLE 9 Recall Under the Ob C r i t e r i o n as a Function of L i s t Composition Under Various Experimental Conditions EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS LIST COMPOSITION: EX POS COMP NEG MOD EXP. 1 (Male E) Task: S y l l a b l e s Rate: 1/2.0 sec. Judgement: Indep. (n=44) .699 .7581 .671 2 .712 .654 EXP. 2 (Female E) Task: Sy11ab1es Rate: 1/2.0 sec. Judgement: Indep. (n=44) .599 .595 .572 .6561 2 .624 EXP. 3 (Male E) Task: Alphabet Loc. Rate: 1/3.0 sec. Judgement: Indep. (n=72) .697 .743' - 2 .701 .662 EXP. 3 Task: Alphabet Loc. Rate: 1/3.0 sec. Judgement: Cumu1. (n=72) .631 2 .639 - .647 1 .625 ' EXP. 3 Task: Alphabet Loc. Rate: 1/1.5 sec. Judgement: Indep. (n=72) .454 .5541 - 2 .5I4 Z .439 EXP. 3 Task: Alphabet Loc. Rate: 1/1.5 sec. Judgement: Cumu1. (n=72) .349 .4241 i - • 390 2 .381 46. I n s e r t T ^ b l e 9 nbou t here o f a d j e c t i v e r a n d o m i z a t i o n s , 0b_ t a s k s , p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e s , and judgement t y p e s , r e c a l l f o l l o w i n g p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e i n t e r p o l a t e d a d j e c t i v e s i s s u p e r i o r t o o t h e r l i s t c o m p o s i t i o n s . Thus E x p e r i m e n t III c o n s i d e r a b l y e x t e n d s t h e e f f e c t o b s e r v e d in t h e i n i t i a l s t u d i e s . As i n t h e p r e v i o u s work , an o s t e n s i b l y n o n - s e m a n t i c , n o n - a f f e c t i v e c r i t e r i o n p roduced c o n s i s t e n t d i f f e r e n c e s in s ub sequen t r e c a l l as a f u n c t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r no t t h e a d j e c -t i v e s c o m p r i s i n g t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d l i s t f e l l on both s i d e s o f t h e m i d p o i n t o f t h e I i k e a b l e n e s s r a t i n g s . I t s h o u l d a l s o be o b s e r v e d t h a t w h i l e t he s y l l a b l e t a s k employed in t h e i n i t i a l s t u d i e s r e q u i r e d p r o c e s s i n g t h e f u l l l e n g t h o f t h e a d j e c t i v e , t h e a l p h a b e t l o c a t i o n t a s k c o u l d be e c o n o m i c a l l y pe r f o rmed e m p l o y i n g o n l y t h e f i r s t phonemes o f t h e a d j e c t i v e s w i t h no n e c e s s i t y imposed by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t o re spond t o t h e word as a w h o l e . From t h e s e f i n d i n g s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t s e m a n t i c o r a f f e c t i v e c o n t e n t o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t a d j e c t i v e s was p r o c e s s e d as w e l l as t h e a c o u s t i c and s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e o v e r t r e s p o n s e . M o r e o v e r , in o r d e r f o r such a p a t t e r n o f r e s u l t s t o o b t a i n i t would be n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e a f f e c t i v e o r s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t o f a t l e a s t t h e j u s t p r e v i o u s a d j e c t i v e be a v a i l a b l e in p r o c e s s i n g each new w o r d . In s h o r t , t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t Ss were c o v e r t l y p r o c e s s i n g t h e s e m a n t i c o r a f f e c t i v e c o n t e n t o f a d j e c t i v e s e q u e n c e s , in a d d i t i o n t o p r o c e s s i n g t h e a d j e c t i v e s i n d i v i d u a l l y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e n o n - s e m a n t i c n o n - a f f e c t i v e c r i t e r i o n . I t bea r s r e p e a t i n g t h a t n e i t h e r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s no r t h e p r o c e d u r e encou raged e x t r a n e o u s p r o c e s s i n g . I ndeed , mean l a t e n c i e s under t h e f a s t e r p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e i n d i c a t e t h a t c u m u l a t i v e Ob judgement s r e q u i r e d a l l bu t abou t 0.05 seconds o f t h e a v e r a g e t i m e between a d j e c t i v e s . I t wou ld appea r t hen t h a t t h e s e m a n t i c m o n i t o r i n g o f t h e a d j e c t i v e s i s an a u t o m a t i c r e s p o n s e r a t h e r t han a f u n c t i o n o f s u r p l u s 47 . o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r i t t o o c c u r . I t was s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r t h a t a s h i f t f rom p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e I Ike— a b l e n e s s a d j e c t i v e s may draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e a d j e c t i v e l i s t a t t h e expense o f r e h e a r s a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The H and Mt v s . M- and L s ub range s p re sumab l y c o n s t i t u t e s e p a r a t e e n c o d i n g c l a s s e s in W i c k e n s ' (1970) s e n s e . I t i s . o f i n t e r e s t , t h e n , t o examine whethe r dec remen t s i n r e c a l l accompany an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f s h i f t s between c l a s s e s . A l t h o u g h t h e l i s t s were no t c o n s t r u c t e d so as t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y v a r y t h e number o f s h i f t s f rom one a d j e c -t i v e s ub range t o a n o t h e r , a r e v i e w o f t he randomized sequences a f f o r d e d 13 i n s t a n c e s where c ompa r i s on o f t h e number o f s h i f t s was p o s s i b l e : 2 c o m p a r i -sons o f 3-word l i s t s , 5 c o m p a r i s o n s o f 6-word l i s t s and 6 c o m p a r i s o n s o f 12-word l i s t s . N i n e o f t h e 13 c a s e s showed a r e c a l l dec rement accompany ing an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e s h i f t s : bo th o f t h e 3 -word c o m p a r i s o n s , f o u r o f t h e f i v e 6-word c o m p a r i s o n s , and t h r e e o f t he s i x 12-word c o m p a r i s o n s . In t h e l a t t e r i n s t a n c e s , however , f i v e o f t he a v a i l a b l e c o m p a r i s o n s i n v o l v e d a d i f f e r e n c e o f o n l y one s h i f t . In summary, a p r o c e s s o f m o n i t o r i n g o f t h e p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a f f e c t i n t h e a d j e c t i v e s i s s u p -p o r t e d by t h e d a t a f rom Ob. j u d g e m e n t s . I t a ppea r s t h a t t h o s e l i s t s wh i ch would p re sumab l y r e s u l t in r e l e a s e o f p r o a c t i v e i n t e r f e r e n c e ( i . e . , c o n t a i n a s h i f t o f e n c o d i n g c l a s s ) have t h e e f f e c t o f i n t e r f e r i n g r e t r o a c t i v e l y on t h e t o - b e - r e c a I Ied i t e m s . However, t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s p r o c e s s on r e c a l l o f t h e n e u t r a l i tems rema in s s p e c u l a t i v e . T h i s i s due, i n p a r t , t o c o n f u s i o n in t h e use o f t h e t e rm " a t t e n t i o n " i n c o m p a r a b l e t a s k s . W i c k e n s ' (1970) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e l e a s e e f f e c t w i t h a s h i f t o f e n c o d i n g c l a s s makes no e x p l i c i t use o f a t t e n t i o n . The Wickens p a r a d i g m , by r e q u i r i n g r e t r i e v a l f o l l o w i n g each 48. t r i g r a m ; . s e r v e s t o make t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s more d i s c r e t e t h a n i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . On t h e o t h e r hand, A n d e r s o n ' s i m p r e s s i o n - f o r m a t i o n pa rdd igm employs s e r i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e same s t imu I us. m a t e r i a Is as were i n t e r p o l a t e d in t h e p r e s e n t work . A t t e n t i o n s e r v e s as t h e w e i g h t i n g te rm in A n d e r s o n ' s (1968) l i n e a r s e r i a l model o f t h e p r o c e s s , bu t i s u s u a l l y assumed t o d e c r e a s e u n i f o r m l y t h r o u g h o u t a l i s t . The impo r t o f t h e p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s i s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f s e m a n t i c e n c o d i n g i s i n c i d e n t a l t o t he t a s k posed f o r S: n e i t h e r r e c a l l nor o v e r t u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t i s requ i r e d . The s t r e n g t h of t h e f i n d i n g s recommends t h e t e c h n i q u e o f i n t e r p o l a t i n g t h e s e m a n t i c m a t e r i a l s f o r f u t u r e work bo th on e n c o d i n g c l a s s e s and on t h e r o l e o f a t t e n t i o n in t h e o r d e r e f f e c t s o b s e r v e d in i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n . The a n a l y s e s o f r e s p o n s e measures employed i n E x p e r i m e n t III i n d i c a t e q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o c e s s i n g o f p e r s o n a l i t y - t r a i t a d j e c t i v e s when a p p l i e d t o an i d e a l i z e d o t h e r o r t o S h i m s e l f . The q u a n t i -t a t i v e r e s u l t s show t h a t judgements w i t h r e s p e c t t o s e l f c o n s i s t e n t l y t a k e l o n g e r , a r e l e s s e x t r e m e , and p r oduce p o o r e r r e c a l l o f t h e n e u t r a l m a t e r i a l t han t h e same words j u d g e d in r e f e r e n c e t o an i d e a l d a t e . In a d d i t i o n , t h e two c r i t e r i a show c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t o t h e l i k e a b l e n e s s s t r u c t u r e o f t h e a d j e c t i v e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s between i ndependen t judgement s under t h e 0_ c r i t e r i o n and t h e l i k e a b l e n e s s r a t i n g s o f t h e a d j e c t i v e s , t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e l a t e n c i e s o f t h e s e j u d g e m e n t s , as w e l l as t h e mean e x t r e m i -t i e s o f c u m u l a t i v e 0_ j u d g e m e n t s , s u p p o r t t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t , by and l a r g e , S s ' j udgements o f t h e des i reab i I i t y o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s in an i d e a l date-a r e w e l l d e s c r i b e d by A n d e r s o n ' s o r i g i n a l r a t i n g s . The l a t e n c i e s p l o t t e d 49. i n F i g u r e 3 f o r 0. j udgement s under t h e s l o w e r p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e r e s emb le t h e p a t t e r n o b t a i n e d i n j udgement s o f p s y c h o p h y s i c a l s t i m u l i ( e . g . Bevan and A v a n t ; 1969) w i t h long l a t e n c i e s f o r j udgement s o f s t i m u l i nea r t h e m i d d l e o f t h e s t i m u l u s range and d e c l i n i n g l a t e n c i e s t o w a r d s t h e e x t r e m e s o f t h e r a n g e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t he f o u r s ub range s i d e n t i f i e d by Ande r son d e f i n e a v i a b l e d i m e n s i o n i n j u d g i n g o t h e r s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t he r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t he c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b r eak s down d i f f e r e n t i a l l y under t h e S _ c r i t e r i o n . F i r s t , t h e a n a l y s e s o f t he e x t r e m i t y o f i n d e p e n d e n t and c u m u l a t i v e S. j udgement s i n d i c a t e much c l o s e r a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e l i k e a b l e n e s s s t r u c t u r e and S_ j udgement s o f p o s i t i v e a d j e c t i v e s than f o r n e g a t i v e l i s t s . However, t h e l a t e n c i e s of i ndependen t S_ j udgement s i n F i g u r e 3 p o r t r a y a more o r t h o d o x p a t t e r n f o r t h e n e g a t i v e s ub range s t h a n f o r t h e p o s i t i v e a d j e c t i v e s . Thus w h i l e d e p a r t u r e f rom t h e l i k e a b l e n e s s e x p e c t a t i o n i s much more l i k e l y i n s e l f - r a t i n g s o f n e g a -t i v e a d j e c t i v e s , i t wou ld appear t o be more d i f f i c u l t t o " r e j e c t " m o d e r a t e l y n e g a t i v e t r a i t s than t o " a c c e p t " e x t r e m e l y n e g a t i v e t r a i t s . C o n v e r s e l y , w h i l e S_ j udgement s o f p o s i t i v e a d j e c t i v e s were in g r e a t e r a c c o r d w i t h t h e l i k e a b l e n e s s r a t i n g s o f t h e wo rd s , m o d e r a t e l y p o s i t i v e words were more r a p i d l y c a t e g o r i z e d t han e x t r e m e l y p o s i t i v e words . P u t a n o t h e r way, t h e q u e s t i o n o f whethe r i n d i v i d u a l s have a b e t t e r n o t i o n o f t h e i r own p e r s o n -a l i t i e s f o r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e t r a i t s r e c e i v e s o p p o s i t e i n d i c a t i o n s f rom t h e two n o n v e r b a l measures emp l o yed . The s e n s i t i v i t y o f l a t e n c y as an i ndex o f c a t e g o r i z a t i o n d i f f i c u l t y f a v o u r s i t as t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i v e measure in r a t i n g s o f s e l f . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e a m p l i t u d e measure i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f t h e j udgement s t o t h e a v a i l a b l e l i k e a b l e n e s s r a t i n g s f o r t h e a d j e c t i v e s . 50. A l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l s f o r s t u d i e s o f p r o c e s s i n g s e l f -r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s , in p a r t , due t o t h e nar row range o f s t u d i e s on t he t o p i c . The main impetus f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s o f s e l f - r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n has come i n d i r e c t l y - f r o m a t t e m p t s t o t e s t t h e n o t i o n o f " r e p r e s s i o n " . Even though s e v e r a l r e c e n t s t u d i e s ( e . g . Holmes and S c h a l l o w , 1969; B e r q u i s t , L e w i n s o h n , e t a l . 1968) have r e - c a s t t h e p r ob l em i n i n f o r m a -t i o n p r o c e s s i n g t e r m s , as We ine r (1968) has o b s e r v e d , t h e p r e v a i l i n g methodo logy has been t o compare r e t e n t i o n o f " d a n g e r o u s " o r " t h r e a t e n i n g " m a t e r i a l s t o p r e sumab l y n e u t r a l i t e m s . The p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i z a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s a r e i n v o l v e d in r a t i n g one s e l f on h i g h and low l i k e a b l e n e s s t r a i t s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e measures employed s u g g e s t t h a t f i n e r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s o c c u r w i t h i n each c a t e g o r y . S i n c e t h e s e f i n e r d i f f e r e n c e s a r e no t a p p a r e n t w i t h any s i n g l e mea su re , a v a r i e t y o f methods and measures a r e c a l l e d f o r i n e x p l o r i n g a f undamenta l phenomenon: t h i n k i n g abou t o u r s e l v e s . 51 B i bI i o g r aphy A n d e r s o n , N. L i k e a b l e n e s s r a t i n g s o f 555 p e r s o n a l i t y - t r a i t wo rd s . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1968, 9 , 272 -279 . A n d e r s e n , N. A p p l i c a t i o n o f l i n e a r - s e r i a l model t o a p e r s o n a l i t y -i m p r e s s i o n t a s k u s i n g s e r i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and  S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1968, 10, 354 -362 . A n d e r s o n , N. and H u b e r t , S. E f f e c t s o f c o n c o m i t a n t v e r b a l r e c a l l on o r d e r e f f e c t s i n p e r s o n a l i t y i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l  L e a r n i n g and V e r b a l B e h a v i o u r , 1963, 2, 3 79 - 391 . A t k i n s o n , R. and S h i f f r i n , R. Human memory: a p r opo sed s y s tem and i t s c o n t r o l p r o c e s s e s . The P s y c h o l o g y o f L e a r n i n g and M o t i v a t i o n , V o l . 2 , New Y o r k : Academic P r e s s , 1968, pp. 89 - 194. B e h a r , I. On t h e r e l a t i o n between r e s p o n s e u n c e r t a i n t y and r e a c t i o n t i m e i n c a t e g o r y j udgemen t . P e r c e p t u a l Moto r S k i l l s , 1963, 16, 595 -596 . B e r g q u i s t , W., L e w i n s o h n , P . , Sue, D., and F l i p p o , J . S h o r t and long te rm memory f o r v a r i o u s t y p e s o f s t i m u l i as a f u n c t i o n o f r e p r e s s i o n -sens i t i z a t ion . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t R e s e a r c h in P e r s o n a l i t y , 1968, 3, 28 - 38 . Bevan , W. and A v a n t , L. Response l a t e n c y , r e spon se u n c e r t a i n t y , i n f o r -m a t i o n t r a n s m i t t e d and t h e number o f a v a i l a b l e j udgemen ta l c a t e g o r i e s . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1968, 76 , 394 -397 . B r i g g s , G. and Swanson, J . R e t r i e v a l t i m e as a f u n c t i o n o f memory ensemb le s i z e . Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1969, 2 1 , 185 -191 . B u s c h k e , H. and Lenon, R. 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APPENDIX A A d j e c t i v e Sequences Employed in E x p e r i m e n t I I I S e r i e s 1 12609 50496 l o n e l y c o o p e r a t i ve e x c i t a b l e he 1pfu1 no i sy t h o u g h t f u 1 t h r i f t y impo1i t e c o n f i d e n t s e 1 f - c e n t e r e d f e a r f u I v u I g a r 45839 31074 modest i m p r a c t i c a I i n t e I I i g e n t coward Iy n e a t i n dec i s i ve p roud c a r e I e s s f o r g i v i ng u n r e I i a b l e w i t t y o v e r s e n s i t i ve s y s t e m a t i c unhappy l o g i c a 1 j e a l o u s unp red i c t a b l e u n a p p r e c i a t i ve s e 1 f - c r i t i ca 1 b o r i ng po1 i t e con f o rm i s t qu i e t c lumsy 92614 09754 I azy a l e r t un s k i I l ed u n f r i end 1y d i s a g r e e a b I e we 11-mannered i n s e c u r e ab sen t -m i nded 84706 i r r a t i o n a I mora 1 i dea1 i s t i c 35904 i nd i f f e r e n t cons i d e r a t e c r i t i ca1 s e n t i mentaI unhea1 t h y prompt p r a c t i ca1 m a t e r i a 1i s t i c 21365 popu1ar warm obed i e n t g reedy t i d y punctua1 demand ing d i s c o u r t e o u s op i n i o n a t e d humourous unse1f i sh 54927 d i s t r u s t f u 1 p 1 e a s a n t c r e a t i ve t o l e r a n t en t hu s i a s t i c s e 1 f - a s s u r e d e g o t i s t i ca1 i nqu i s i t i v e p r e j u d i ced happy o b n o x i o u s a g g r e s s i ve 72459 29136 o u t g o ! n g co 1 d moody• s u p e r s t i t i o u s w o r r i e r i n competen t 70158 u n g r a t e f u 1 p o s s e s s ! v e i r r i t ab 1 e e x c i t e d capab le unemot iona1 i ns i nee re u n o b s e r v a n t i m a g i n a t i ve p e r f e c t i o n i s t i c e f f i c i e n t c a r e f u 1 shy 40738 p a t i e n t 41925 s t u d i ous b o a s t f u 1 s e 1 f - c o n f i den t r e c k l e s s s e 1 f - c o n s c i o u s 95372 d e c p t i ve 03814 c o n c e i t e d u n c o n v e n t i o n a I dependent u n t i dy s t u b b o r n e a s y g o i ng sad temperamenta1 i r r i t a t i n g f o r g e t f u 1 o r d e r 1y 69571 rebeI 1 ious 27431 ca Im g o s s i p y noncon fo rm i ng s i 1 e n t a r gumenta t i ve 86329 i1 1-mannered c o u r t e o u s s a r c a s t i c c l e v e r un imag i n a t i ve dependab1e se 1 f i sh q u a r r e l s o m e i neons i s t e n t b road -mi nded nar row-mi nded 1oud-mouthed rude t r u s t f u 1 unpuntuca1 h o s t i l e g1oomy sens i b1e comp1 a i n i ng 67053 i r r e s p o n s i b l e u n p l e a s a n t nosey d i sobed i e n t t r u t h f u l 34108 p e r s u a s i ve 18397 s o c i ab1e re 1 i ab le c u r i ous s e r i ous ambi t i o u s p e r s i s t e n t t r u s t w o r t h y c h e e r f u 1 t a l e n t e d t a 1 k a t i ve humble 93847 b o l d i mpu1s i ve k i n d gu1 1 i b le c a u t i o u s dar i ng r e s p o n s i b l e ne r vou s o b s e r v a n t t i m i d f r i end 1v 5A. APPENDIX A A d j e c t We^Sequences Emp I oyed i n E x p e r i m e n t I I I S e r i e s 2 04718 27549 73058 c apab I e t r u t h f u I c h e e r f u I s y s t e m a t i c d a r i ng c a r e I e s s c o l d i neons i s t e n t t r u s t w o r t h y w i t t y f o r g i v i ng f e a r f u 1 pe r s i s t e n t o b s e r v a n t humorous p roud ou t go i ng i r r i t a t i ng u n g r a t e f u I gu1 1 i b 1 e c a u t i o u s unp I e a s a n t s e I f - c e n t e r e d a l e r t unse I f i sh 53280 b o l d c o u r t e o u s 31596 noi sy l o g i c a I h o s t i Ie p r a c t i ca I d i s o b e d i e n t e f f i c i e n t j e a I ous e r e a t i ve i1 1 -mannered re I i ab Ie e g o t i s t i ca I c o o p e r a t i ve s e I f - a s s u r e d warm 81354 72056 i n t e I I i g e n t noncon fo rm i ng 61807 p o I i t e he Ipfu1 a b s e n t - m i nded rebeI I i ous i nqu i s i t i ve en thu s i a s t i c unemot ionaI unhappy re spons i b l e s en t imen ta1 shy s e r i ous cI e v e r obed i e n t unpred i c t a b I e ca Im t h r i f t y c a r e f u 1 f o r g e t f u I s t u d i ous s e I f - c o n f i den t agg re s i ve s t u b b o r n 40537 36972 09514 95407 i r r e s p o n s i b Ie unpunctua1 i dea1 i s t i c n e a t na r row-mi nded i n s e c u r e .temperamenta 1 happy c r i t i ca I p e r f e c t i on i s t i c t i dy p r e j u d i ced u n o b s e r v a n t b o r i ng 69704 18572 t a I e n t e d 85179 c1umsy un re 1 i ab 1 e t h o u g h t f u I conce i t e d o v e r s e n s i t i ve s i l e n t q u a r r e I some prompt i nd i f f e r e n t w o r r i e r impo I i t e u n a p p r e c i a t i ve s e1 f i sh i r r a t i o n a 1 punctua I i mag i n a t i ve g1oomy s e 1 f - c o n s c i o u s k i n d we I I -mannered b o a s t f u 1 comp1 a i n i ng d i s t r u s t f u I Ioud-mouthed lone 1 y 18394 rude 96305 10853 b road -mi nded i r r i t a b 1e I azy a r gumen ta t i ve unf r i end Iy moody op i n i o na ted un i mag i n a t i ve cons i d e r a t e u n t i dy sad nosey d i s c o u r t e o u s coward Iy v u 1 g a r 48926 di s a g r e e a b l e s a r c a s t i c humbIe 57386 demand i ng u n s k i I l ed e a s y g o i ng f r i e n d l y ne r vou s po s s e s s i ve e x c i t ab 1e 72586 u n p r a c t i caI s o c i ab Ie p1ea san t i ns i n c e r e i n competen t dependent t o I e r a n t g reedy u n c o n v e n t i o n a I 23708 obnox i ous gos s i py unhea I t h y c u r i ous e x c i t e d t a 1 k a t i ve 85349 65280 s u p e r s t i t i o u s con fo rm i s t dependab Ie modest i n dec i s i ve mora 1 p a t i e n t p o p u I a r t i m i d m a t e r i a 1i s t i c s e I f - c r i t i caI s e n s i b l e p e r s u a s i ve qu i e t t r u s t f u I r e c k 1 es s o r d e r ly APPENDIX A A d j e c t i ve Seauences Employed in E x p e r i m e n t I I I S e r i e s 3 71026 36908 28735 31574 amb i t i ous mora I s y s t e m a t i c t h o u g h t f u I g o s s i p y i d e a I i s t i c happy i r r i t ab Ie b o r i ng t i m i d c o u r t e o u s rude 05931 prompt 67053 62950 re spons i b Ie unpred i c t a b i e unemot iona I c a r e f u I p r e j u d i ced i n t e 1 1 i g en t a b s e n t - m i nded conf i dent f r i e n d l y bo 1 d di s c o u r t e o u s ca Im t a I e n t e d dependab le b o r i ng soc i ab Ie e f f i c i e n t f o r g i v i ng s e I f - c o n s c i o u s i neons i s t e n t coward Iy humb1e narrow-m i nded no i sy compI a i n i n g se I f - a s s u r e d j e a l o u s 51472 25389 r e c k I e s s a r gumen ta t i ve t a I k a t i ve un imagi na t i ve 74625 ne r vou s cons i d e r a t e o u t g o i ng f e a r f u I s e r i o u s a l e r t demand i ng po s se s s i ve obed i e n t nea t f o r g e t f u I u n f r i e n d l y u n o b s e r v a n t re I i ab Ie p e r f e c t i o n i s t i c e x c i t e d 32089 50362 shy i mag i n a t i ve i ncompetent i n s e c u r e s t u d i ous unconvent i onaI u n g r a t e f u I p r a c t i ca I c r i t i caI t i dy t o l e r a n t sad ea s y go i ng o b s e r v a n t c I eve r s a r c a s t i c c o n f o r m ! s t o r d e r l y vu I g a r modest i m p r a c t i c a I i nqu i s i t i ve sens i b Ie p o p u I a r 95780 58274 19634 08752 I azy d i sobed i e n t s i I e n t Ioudmouthed i r r e s p o n s i b I e en t hu s i a s t i c s e I f - c o n f i den t he Ip fu I c Iumsy i mpoI i t e s u t b b c r n p a t i e n t c h e e r f u I 07438 we I I -mannered 49302 85962 p roud co I d p I e a s a n t warm d a r i ng capab I e t r u s t w o r t h y nonconfo rm i ng 14039 t h r i f t y s e I f - c r i t i caI s u p e r s t i t i ous c u r i o u s i mpus I i ve s e n t i m e n t a I unhea I thy e x c i t ab Ie b road -mi nded t r u t h f u l unt i dy punc tua I a g g r e s s i ve p e r s u a s i ve p e r s i s t e n t 80927 97056 c a u t i o u s 46375 unp I e a s a n t i nd i f f e r e n t k i nd guI I i b Ie un se I f i sh nosey qu i e t o b n o x i o u s conce i t e d m a t e r i a Ii s t i c t r u s t f u I unpunctua I c r e a t i ve i I l -mannered humorous o v e r s e n s i t i ve po I i t e w o r r i e r op i n i o n a t e d I eg i caI dependent 63714 c a r e l e s s b o a s t f u I rebeI I i ous i ndec i s i ve se I f - c e n t e r e d w i t t y moody u n a p p r e c i a t i v e u n s k i I l ed d e c e p t i v e • e g o t i s t i caI un re I i ab I e temperamenta I c o o p e r a t i vo g reedy I one Iy d i s a g r e e a b I e q u a r r o I some i r r i t a t i n g unhappy i r r a t i o n a 1 gIoomy h o s t i Ie s e I f i sh i ns i nee re APPENDIX B 56. TAPE RECORDED INSTRUCTIONS Thank you f o r coming t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t . T h i s s t u d y r e p r e s e n t s p a r t o f my m a s t e r ' s degree r e s e a r c h i n p s y c h o l o g y and y o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s and t o t h e t a s k s which a r e posed f o r you w i l l be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . T h i s e x p e r i m e n t i n v o l v e s a new method f o r a s s e s s i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p e r s o n a l i t y - t r a i t s . You may r e g a r d i t as a nalogous t o t h e well-known t e c h n i q u e s o f computer d a t i n g . The major f e a t u r e s of t h e p r o c e d u r e i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t may be summarized as f o l l o w s - you w i l l be i n s t r u c t e d on s p e c i f i c t a s k s as we reach them i n t h e p r o c e d u r e . F i r s t , as i n computer d a t i n g t e c h n i q u e s , we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n your s i n c e r e i m p r e s s i o n s . For most of t h e t a s k s you w i l l p e r f o r m , t h e r e w i l l be no wrong o r r i g h t r e s p o n s e s . You must be t h e judge of t h e a c c u r a c y of y o u r r e s p o n s e s . Second,, t h i s e x p e r i m e n t i s concerned o n l y w i t h t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f p r o s p e c t i v e d a t i n g p a r t n e r s , t h a t i s , f a c t o r s i n t h e p e r s o n a l i t y make-up of p e r s o n s which a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h o t h e r f a c t o r s l e a d i n g t o p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s o f a t t r a c t i o n . Thus you w i l l not be asked q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g r e l i g i o u s p r e f e r e n c e , e t h n i c background, o r o t h e r m a t t e r s o f a s o c i a l o r economic n a t u r e . T h i r d , t o a s s e s s your i m p r e s s i o n s of v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , s e v e r a l t e c h n i q u e s a r e employed which d i f f e r from t h e usual q u e s t i o n n a i r e used i n computer d a t i n g . F i r s t s t h e items a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r y o u r c o n s i d e r -a t i o n one a t a t i m e , a t a f i x e d r a t e . S e c o n d l y , you w i l l be asked t o p e r f o r m a r e c a l l t a s k i n a d d i t i o n t o g i v i n g y o u r i m p r e s s i o n s . T h i r d l y , i n s t e a d of p r o v i d i n g you w i t h a s m a l l number of a l t e r n a t i v e r e s p o n s e s f o r you t o s e l e c t among, you w i l l have g r e a t e r r e s p o n s e freedom by moving t h e p o i n t e r a p p a r a t u s t o any p o s i t i o n a l o n g t h e s c a l e you c o n s i d e r appro-p r i a t e f o r t h e i t e m . The e x p e r i m e n t i s d i v i d e d i n t o 3 t a p e - r e c o r d e d segments. You w i l l r e c e i v e v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e f i r s t p a r t of t h e p r o c e d u r e from t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r as w e l l as s e v e r a l p r a c t i c e items t o a c q u a i n t you w i t h t h e sequence o f e v e n t s on t h e t a p e . P l e a s e remove t h e headphones now and a w a i t f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s . APPENDIX B ( c o n t ' d ) 57. COMMON INSTRUCTIONS L e t me e x p l a i n t h e p r o c e d u r e i n a l i t t l e more d e t a i l . As I have i n d i c a t e d , my c o n c e r n he re i s w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y r a t h e r than s o c i o e c o n o m i c m a t t e r s . S e c o n d l y , i t i s my f e e l i n g t h a t because " c o m p u t e r d a t i n g : : schemes g e t t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n f rom q u e s t o n n a i r e s wh i ch p e o p l e f i l l o u t a t t h e i r l e i s u r e t h e r e i s no way, f i r s t o f a l l , o f d e t e r m i n i n g f rom t h e p e r s o n ' s answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e j u s t how i m p o r t a n t t h e i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s a r e . In a d d i t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s do no t t e l l us how long t h e pe r son s p e n t on each i t e m . We know in g e n e r a l , t h a t t h e l o n g e r i t t a k e s t o answer a d i r e c t q u e s t i o n , t h e l e s s c e r t a i n t h e pe r s on i s o f h i s r e p l y . I t c o u l d be t h a t t h e pe r s on has n e v e r c o n s i d e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n in q u i t e t h i s way b e f o r e , o r i t c o u l d be an i r r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n , o r one wh i ch i s so i m p o r t a n t t h a t he c o n s i d e r s h i s r e p l y v e r y c a r e f u l l y b e f o r e r e p l y i n g . I t was w i t h t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s of compute r d a t i n g t e c h n i q u e s i n mind t h a t I d e v i s e d t h i s t a s k . What I have done i s t o s e l e c t a number o f a d j e c t i v e s wh i ch d e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y . Fo r e x a m p l e , t h e words " s i n c e r e " , " f o o l i s h ' 5 , " r e s p e c t a b I e " , o r "weak " a r e a d j e c t i v e s wh i ch t e l l you s ometh i n g abou t t h e pe r s on who wou ld be d e s c r i b e d in t h e s e t e r m s . I have t a k e n words l i k e t h e s e and a r r a n g e d them i n t o l i s t s o f d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s . A number o f t h e s e l i s t s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d t o you o v e r t h e headphones . P a r t o f y o u r t a s k w i l l be t o re spond a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s I w i l l g i v e you by mov ing t h e p o i n t e r i n f r o n t o f you t o a p o s i t i o n a l o n g t he s c a l e . As t h e words in t h e l i s t a r e sDoken, you move t h e p o i n t e r t o p o s i t i o n s a l o n g t h e s c a l e you f e e l a r e a p p r o p r i a t e . The p o i n t e r a p p a r a t u s i s c o n n e c t e d t o a pen r e c o r d e r o u t -s i d e . Each movement o f t h e p o i n t e r i s r e p r o d u c e d on t h e p o l y g r a p h . As you s e e , o n l y t h e end p o i n t s and t h e c e n t r e o f t h e s c a l e a r e p r o v i d e d . I w i l l p l a c e v e r b a l l a b e l s a t t h e s e p o i n t s t o c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s . Bu t i t w i l l be up t o you t o d e c i d e where w i t h i n t h e s e rough b o u n d a r i e s t h e words s h o u l d be c a t e g o r i z e d . To e x p l a i n t h e o t h e r p a r t o f y ou r t a s k , l e t me d e s c r i b e t h e way t h e l i s t i s a r r a n g e d on t h e t a p e . F i r s t you w i l l hea r a b u z z e r . T h i s i s y o u r s i g n a l t o g e t r e a d y . P o s i t i o n t h e p o i n t e r a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e s c a l e . S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e b u z z e r , a 5 - d i g i t number w i l l be s p o k e n . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d i m m e d i a t e l y by t h e f i r s t a d j e c t i v e in t h e l i s t . APPENDIX B ( c o n t ' d ) 58. You s h o u l d l i s t e n c l o s e l y t o t h e number, but when t h e f i r s t a d j e c t i v e i s s p o k e n , beg i n c a t e g o r i z i n g i t i m m e d i a t e l y by mov ing t h e p o i n t e r t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p o s i t i o n . The o t h e r a d j e c t i v e s in t h e l i s t w i l l f o l l o w in r e g u l a r s u c c e s s i o n . A t t h e end o f t he l i s t you w i l l h ea r a n o t h e r b u z z e r . You must t hen a t t e m p t t o r e c a l l a l o u d t h e d i g i t s o f t h e number as b e s t as you c a n . You w i l l have abou t 10 seconds t o r e c a l l t h e d i g i t s w h i c h p r e ceded t h e a d j e c t i v e s b e f o r e t h e n e x t b u z z e r comes o n . R e c a l l t h e d i g i t s a l o u d i n t h e same o r d e r as t h e y were s p o k e n . . . . t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r w i l l p i c k up y o u r v o i c e . A t t h e end o f 10 seconds t h e b u z z e r w i l l s ound . A t t h i s p o i n t , g i v e up a l l a t t e m p t s t o r e c a l l t h e p r e v i o u s number, move t h e p o i n t e r back t o t h e c e n t r e o f t h e s c a l e , and p r e p a r e t o l i s t e n t o t h e nex t number and t o c a t e -g o r i z e t h e n e x t g roup o f a d j e c t i v e s . So, t o s ummar i ze , t h e sequence o f e v e n t s you w i l l h ea r on t h e t a p e i s : a ready s i g n a l , a 5 - d i g i t number, a number o f a d j e c t i v e s p r e s e n t e d in r e g u l a r s u c c e s s i o n , a s i g n a l t o r e c a l l t h e d i g i t s , a 10 second r e c a l l p e r i o d and t h e n a n o t h e r ready s i g n a l . Is t h i s sequence c l e a r ? I have no t y e t e x p l a i n e d what t a s k you a r e t o p e r f o r m w i t h t h e a d j e c t i v e s . To p r o v i d e you w i t h some p r a c t i c e on t h i s t a s k and t o a c q u a i n t you w i t h t h e r a t e a t w h i c h t h e a d j e c t i v e s a r e p r e s e n t e d , w e ' l l do s e v e r a l l i s t s o f a d j e c -t i v e s f o r p r a c t i c e . F o r each o f t h e l i s t s , y ou r t a s k w i l l be as f o l l o w s : I ndependent Judgement C o n d i t i o n , 0_b C r i t e r i o n . I wou ld l i k e you t o r e spond t o each word by p l a c i n g t h e f i r s t l e t t e r o f t h a t word i n t h e s e r i a l o r d e r o f t h e a l p h a b e t . Tha t i s , as you hea r each w o r d , c o n s i d e r where i t s f i r s t l e t t e r f a l l s in t h e a l p h a b e t . Th ree p o i n t s on t h e s c a l e a r e p r o v i d e d - e a r l y , m i d d l e , l a t e . Thus words b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e l e t t e r s a , b o r c wou ld be c a t e g o r i z e d a t t h e e x t r e m e l y e a r l y end o f t h e s c a l e , w h i l e I, m o r n a r e nea r t h e m i d d l e and x , y and z form t h e e x t r e m e l y l a t e end c f t h e s c a l e . As you hea r each w o r d , move t h e p o i n t e r t o t h e p o s i t i o n wh i ch c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e p l a c e o f t h e f i r s t l e t t e r in t h e a l p h a b e t . Remember t h a t t h e end p o i n t s a r e t he e x t r emes and t h a t you must l o c a t e t h e p o s i t i o n s between them. If y o u r r e spon se t o one word i s t h e same as t h e one j u s t p r e v i o u s , i n d i c a t e t h i s by moving t h e p o i n t e r away f rom t h e p o i n t and back t o i t a g a i n . Thu s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e words " s i n c e r e " , " f o o l i s h " and "weak , ; wou ld r e q u i r e you t o f i r s t l o c a t e t h e s o f s i n c e r e APPENDIX [3 ( c o n t ' d ) 59. between t h e m i d d l e and l a t e e x t r e m e , and t h e f o f f o o l i s h between t h e e a r l y and m i d d l e , and t h e n t h e w o f weak back between m i d d l e and l a t e a g a i n . Do t h i s f o r each o f t h e words in t h e l i s t u n t i l , t h e b u z z e r sounds . Then s t o p and r e c a l l t h e d i g i t s a l o u d as b e s t as you c a n . When t he n e x t ready s i g n a l comes o n , r e t u r n t h e p o i n t e r t o t h e m i d d l e p o s i t i o n and l i s t e n f o r t h e n e x t number and a d j e c t i v e l i s t . O.K? I ndependent Judgement C o n d i t i o n , 0_ C r i t e r i o n . I wou ld l i k e you t o c o n s i d e r how d e s i r e a b l e each a d j e c t i v e you hear wou ld be i n a companion o f t h e o p p o s i t e s e x . In s h o r t , I am a s k i n g you t o d e s c r i b e what you wou ld c o n s i d e r t h e " i d e a l d a t e " by i n d i c a t i n g how d e s i r e a b l e each o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s would be i n t h i s p e r s o n . The re a r e o f c o u r s e no r i g h t o r wrong answers - re spond w i t h y o u r s i n c e r e i m p r e s -s i o n s . But remember t h a t you have t h e who le s c a l e t o s p r e a d y o u r r e s pon se s o v e r . Th ree p o i n t s a r e p r o v i d e d on t h e s c a l e - v e r y d e s i r e a b l e , no t i m p o r t a n t , v e r y u n d e s i r e a b l e - and you s h o u l d d e c i d e how d e s i r e a b l e i t i s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t a d a t e be " s i n c e r e " o r " r e s p e c t a b l e " o r " f o o l i s h " . C o n s i d e r each p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t c a r e f u l l y and c a t e g o r i z e i t t o y o u r s a t i s -f a c t i o n . If y o u r r e spon se t o one t r a i t i s t h e same as t h e one j u s t p r e v i o u s , i n d i c a t e t h i s by mov ing away f rom the p o i n t and back t o i t a g a i n . I n d i c a t e y o u r i m p r e s s i o n o f each p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t i n t h e l i s t u n t i l t h e b u z z e r sounds . Then s t o p and r e c a l l t h e d i g i t s a l o u d as b e s t as you c a n . When t h e n e x t ready s i g n a l comes o n , r e t u r n t h e p o i n t e r t o t h e m i d d l e o f t h e s c a l e and l i s t e n f o r t h e n e x t number and a d j e c t i v e l i s t . O .K.? I ndependent Judgement C o n d i t i o n , S_ C r i t e r i o n . I wou ld l i k e you t o c o n s i d e r how w e l l each o f t h e a d j e c t i v e s d e s c r i b e s y o u . T h a t i s , as you hea r each w o r d , I wou ld l i k e you t o i n d i c a t e how much you t h i n k t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t a p p l i e s t o y o u . The re a r e o f c o u r s e no r i g h t o r wrong answers e x c e p t w i t h r e s p e c t t o y o u r s e l f . So re spond w i t h y o u r s i n c e r e i m p r e s s i o n s . Bu t remember t h a t you have t h e who le s c a l e t o s p r e a d y o u r r e s p o n s e s o v e r . Th ree p o i n t s a r e p r o v i d e d on t h e s c a l e - a l w a y s , some t i m e s , n e v e r - and you s h o u l d d e c i d e t o what d e g r e e , f o r e xamp le , you APPENDIX B ( c o n t ' d ) 60. c o n s i d e r y o u r s e l f t o be "weak : i o r " s i n c e r e " - how d e s c r i p t i v e t h a t word i s o f y o u . C o n s i d e r each p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t c a r e f u l l y and c a t e g o r i z e i t t o y o u r s a t i s f a c t i o n . If y o u r r e s p o n s e t o one t r a i t i s t h e same as t h e one j u s t p r e v i o u s , i n d i c a t e t h i s by mov ing away f rom t h e p o i n t and back t o i t a g a i n . R e g i s t e r y o u r i m p r e s s i o n o f each p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t i n t h e l i s t u n t i l t h e b u z z e r s ounds . Then s t o p and r e c a l l t h e d i g i t s as b e s t as you c a n . When t h e n e x t ready s i g n a l comes o n , r e t u r n t h e p o i n t e r t o t h e m i d d l e o f t h e s c a l e and l i s t e n f o r t h e n e x t number and a d j e c t i v e l i s t . O.K? C u m u l a t i v e Judgement C o n d i t i o n , Ob C r i t e r i o n . You w i l l be p r e s e n t e d w i t h a number o f a d j e c t i v e l i s t s . Fo r t h i s p a r t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t you w i l l be c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h t h e f i r s t l e t t e r s o f t h e words i n each l i s t . Each o f t h e s e l e t t e r s has a p o s i t i o n i n t he a l p h a b e t w h i c h may be r e g a r d e d as r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y , m i d d l e o r l a t e , depend i ng on where t h e l e t t e r f a l l s . Thus words s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e l e t t e r s a , b o r c a r e v e r y e a r l y in t h e a l p h a b e t , w h i l e I, m and n a r e nea r t h e m i d d l e and x , y and z a r e v e r y l a t e i n t he a l p h a b e t . What I wou ld l i k e you t o do i s t o form an e s t i m a t e o f t h e a v e r a g e p o s i t i o n in t h e a l p h a b e t o f a l l t h e f i r s t l e t t e r s in t h e l i s t . S i n c e you w i l l b e g i n each l i s t w i t h t h e p o i n t e r l o c a t e d in t h e c e n t r e of t h e s c a l e , you may r e g a r d t h e p o s i t i o n o f any l e t t e r in t h e a l p h a b e t as some d i s t a n c e t oward one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e s e e x t r emes - a word b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e l e t t e r " d " f o r example i s some d i s t a n c e t oward t h e e a r l y e x t r eme w h i l e a word b e g i n n i n g w i t h " p " i s a s m a l l e r d i s t a n c e t oward t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e . N o t e , however , t h a t o n l y v e r y g e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s a r e p r o v i d e d r a t h e r t han a c t u a l l y s p e c i f y i n g some l e t t e r p o s i t i o n s a l o n g t h e s c a l e and i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t you fo rm o n l y t h e same s o r t o f g e n e r a l e s t i m a t e s as we go t h r o u g h t h e l i s t s . Thu s , do no t t r y t o c o n v e r t l e t t e r s t o numbered p o s i t i o n s and t a k e an a ve r a ge - I want a g e n e r a l e s t i m a t e in te rms o f e a r l y , m i d d l e o r l a t e , no t a n u m e r i c a l a v e r a g e . H e r e ' s how you w i l l e s t i m a t e t h e a ve rage p o s i t i o n s o f t h e s e l e t t e r s . The words w i l l be p r e s e n t e d one a t a t i m e a t a f i x e d r a t e , bu t i n s t e a d o f l i s t e n i n g t o a l l o f t h e words and then g i v i n g y o u r i m p r e s s i o n , you w i l l f o rm up an i m p r e s s i o n as we go t h r o u g h t h e l i s t and i n d i c a t e how y o u r e s t i m a t e changes as you hea r each wo rd . As you hea r each new word y o u r t a s k w i l l be t o a v e r a g e t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e f i r s t l e t t e r i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e p r e v i o u s APPENDIX 8 ( c o n t ' d ) wo rd s . In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e goa l i s t o form an e s t i m a t e o f t h e p o s i t i o n s o f a l l t h e f i r s t l e t t e r s i n t h e l i s t , bu t you w i l l a pp roach t h i s goa l s t ep by s t e p by a d d i n g one word and i t s f i r s t l e t t e r t o you r r u n n i n g a v e r a g e and r e v i s i n g y o u r e s t i m a t e a c c o r d i n g l y as each new word i s p r e s e n t e d . As an e x a m p l e , suppose t h e l i s t c o n t a i n e d t h e words " s i n c e r e ' ' , " f o o l i s h " and " w e a k " . As t h e f i r s t w o r d , s i n c e r e , i s p r e s e n t e d you would re spond by l o c a t i n g t h e l e t t e r " s " on t h e s c a l e . Thus o n l y t h e f i r s t word i n each l i s t i s t o be e v a l u a t e d by i t s e l f s i n c e i t i s , in e f f e c t , t h e a v e r a g e of one . When t h e word ' ' f o o l i s h ' 5 i s p r e s e n t e d , you wou ld t hen re spond by a v e r a g i n g t h e r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y p o s i t i o n o f " f " w i t h you r p r e v i o u s r e spon se - t h e l a t e p o s i t i o n o f " s " . Thus you wou ld move t owa rd s t he m i d d l e . When "weak " i s p r e s e n t e d , you t hen a v e r a g e t h e r e l a t i v e l y l a t e p o s i t i o n o f " w " i n t o t h e a c c u m u l a t e d r e spon se you j u s t made, s h i f t i n g t h e a ve r a ge s l i g h t l y back t o w a r d s t h e l a t e e x t r e m e . The words in t h e s e l i s t s have been c a r e f u l l y chosen and a r r a n g e d a t random so g i v e each word equa l c o n s i d e r a t i o n in e s t i m a t i n g y o u r a v e r a g e p o s i t i o n s . You w i l l no t know how many words t h e r e w i l l be in a l i s t so you w i l l have t o keep an a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e o f t h e a v e r a g e p o s i t i o n s . When t he l a s t a d j e c t i v e in t h e l i s t has been p r e s e n t e d , t h e b u z z e r w i l l sound. Then s t o p and r e c a l l t h e d i g i t s a l o u d as b e s t as you c a n . When t h e nex t ready s i g n a l comes on r e t u r n t h e p o i n t e r t o t h e m i d d l e o f t h e s c a l e and l i s t e n f o r t h e n e x t number and a d j e c t i v e l i s t . O.K? C u m u l a t i v e Judgement C o n d i t i o n , 0_ C r i t e r i o n . You w i l l be p r e s e n t e d w i t h a number o f a d j e c t i v e l i s t s . Fo r t h i s p a r t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t you w i l l be c o n c e r n e d w i t h g i v i n g y o u r i m p r e s s i o n s o f how d e s i r e a b l e each l i s t o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s wou ld be in a companion o f t he o p p o s i t e s e x . In s h o r t , I am a s k i n g you t o d e s c r i b e what you wou ld c o n s i d e r t h e i d e a l d a t e by i n d i c a t i n g whe the r t he p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s a r e v e r y d e s i r e -a b l e , n o t i m p o r t a n t , o r v e r y u n d e s i r e a b I e . What I wou ld l i k e you t o do i s t o i n d i c a t e y o u r o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e d e s i r e a b i I i t y o f each l i s t as p o s s i b l e f e a t u r e s o f an i d e a l d a t e . Thus you a r e t o r e g a r d each l i s t as a g roup o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s wh i ch d e s c r i b e a f e m a l e . You a r e t o e v a l u a t e t h e s e l i s t s in te rms o f what you f e e l an i d e a l d a t e s h o u l d be and i n d i c a t e APPENDIX B ( c o n t ' d ) 6 ? . how d e s i r e a b l e o v e r a l l t h i s p a r t i c u l a r pe r son - d e s c r i b e d by t h e s e p e r s o n -a l i t y t r a i t s - wou ld be . Of c o u r s e t h e r e a r e no wrong o r r i g h t an swer s -e x c e p t w i t h r e s p e c t t o y o u r s e l f - so r e spond w i t h v o u r t r u t h f u l i m p r e s s i o n s . I ' l l n o t e how you a r e r e s p o n d i n g t o s e l e c t e d t r a i t s and ask you l a t e r how you c a t e g o r i z e d them i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e y o u r c o n s i s t e n c y . H e r e ' s how you w i l l g i v e y o u r o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e l i s t s . The words w i l l be p r e s e n t e d one a t a t i m e a t a f i x e d r a t e . As you hea r each word y o u r t a s k w i l l be t o i n d i c a t e y o u r i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e d e s i r e a b i I i t y o f t h e pe r son d e s c r i b e d by t h i s word i n t h e l i g h t o f what you a l r e a d y know o f h e r - t h a t i s in te rms o f t h e o t h e r words in t h e l i s t . In o t h e r wo rd s , t h e goa l i s t o fo rm an o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e d e s i r e a b i I i t y o f a l l t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s i n a s i n g l e l i s t , bu t you w i l l a pp r oach t h i s g o a l s t e p by s t e p by c o n s i d e r i n g one new word a t a t i m e and r e v i s i n g y o u r i m p r e s s i o n a c c o r d i n g l y as each new word i s p r e s e n t e d . Thu s , f o r e xamp le , i f t h e l i s t was " s i n c e r e " , " f o o l i s h " , and " w e a k " , you would have t o make t h r e e r e s pon se s in sequence as each word i s s p o k e n : y o u r i m p r e s s i o n o f how d e s i r e a b l e you f e e l i t i s t h a t a d a t e be s i n c e r e ; how d e s i r e a b l e a d a t e wou ld be who i s f o o l i s h as w e l l as s i n c e r e ; and t h e n f i n a l l y y ou r o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f a d a t e who i s weak, f o o l i s h and s i n c e r e . The words in t h e s e l i s t s have been c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d and a r r a n g e d a t random so g i v e each word equa l c o n s i d e r a t i o n in f o r m i n g you r i m p r e s s i o n s . You w i l l no t know how many words t h e r e w i l l be in a I i s t so you w i l l have t o m a i n t a i n a t r u t h f u l i m p r e s s i o n t h r o u g h o u t t he l i s t . When t h e l a s t a d j e c t i v e i n t h e l i s t has been p r e s e n t e d , t h e b u z z e r w i l l s ound. Then s t o p t o r e c a l l t h e d i g i t s a l o u d as b e s t as you c a n . When t h e n e x t ready s i g n a l comes on r e t u r n t h e p o i n t e r t o t h e c e n t r e o f t h e s c a l e and p r e p a r e t o l i s t e n t o t h e n e x t number and t o c a t e g o r i z e t h e n e x t l i s t o f a d j e c t i v e s . C u m u l a t i v e Judgement C o n d i t i o n , S_ C r i t e r i o n . You w i l l be p r e s e n t e d w i t h a number o f a d j e c t i v e l i s t s . In t h i s p a r t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t y o u ' w i l l be a sked t o l i s t e n t o t h e s e l i s t s and t h i n k abou t how a c c u r a t e l y t h e y d e s c r i b e y o u r own b e h a v i o u r . You may r e g a r d each l i s t as a d e s c r i p t i o n someone has made o f you and t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s wh i ch make up t h e l i s t a r e g o i n g t o be read t o you f o r y o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f j u s t 6 3 . APPENDIX B ( C o n t ' d ) how a c c u r a t e t h e d e s c r i p t i o n i s . I ' d l i k e you t o i n d i c a t e y o u r o v e r a l l f e e l i n g about how a c c u r a t e each l i s t i s by moving t h e p o i n t e r . The t h r e e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s wh i ch a r e p r o v i d e d a r e i n te rms o f how d e s c r i p t i v e t h e l i s t i s o f y o u . You a r e t o c o n s i d e r each l i s t and t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s wh i ch make i t up i n te rms o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f y o u r own p e r s o n a l i t y . Of c o u r s e , t h e r e a r e no wrong o r r i g h t answers - e x c e p t w i t h r e s p e c t t o y o u r -s e l f - so re spond w i t h you r t r u t h f u l i m p r e s s i o n s . I ' l l n o te how you a r e r e s p o n d i n g t o s e l e c t e d t r a i t s and ask you l a t e r how you c a t e g o r i z e d them in o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e y o u r c o n s i s t e n c y . H e r e ' s how you w i l l g i v e you r o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f each l i s t . The words wi I I be p r e s e n t e d one a t a t i m e a t a f i x e d r a t e , bu t i n s t e a d o f l i s t e n i n g t o a l l o f t h e words and t h e n g i v i n g y o u r i m p r e s s i o n , you w i l l f o rm up an i m p r e s s i o n as we go t h r o u g h t h e l i s t and i n d i c a t e how you r i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f you changes as you hear each word . As you hea r each word y o u r t a s k w i l l be t o i n d i c a t e how w e l l you f e e l t h i s l i s t d e s c r i b e s you i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e p r e c e d i n g words i n t h e l i s t . In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e g o a l i s t o a r r i v e a t an o v e r a l l j udgement on t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e s e t r a i t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o y o u r s e l f , bu t you w i l l a pp roach t h i s judgement s t e p by s t e p by c o n s i d e r i n g one new word a t a t i m e and r e v i s i n g y o u r o p i n i o n a c c o r d i n g l y as each new word i s p r e s e n t e d - you make a number o f r e s p o n s e s w h i c h w i l l a c c u m u l a t e t o an o v e r a l l j udgement . If you f e e l t h a t a word does no t a l t e r y o u r judgement about how a c c u r a t e t h e l i s t d e s c r i b e s y o u , i n d i c a t e t h i s by mov ing t h e p o i n t e r s l i g h t l y away f rom you r l a s t judgement and back t o i t a g a i n . The words i n t h e s e l i s t s have been c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d and a r r a n g e d a t random so c o n s i d e r each word c a r e f u l l y i n f o r m i n g y o u r c u m u l a t i v e i m p r e s -s i o n s . You w i l l no t know how many words t h e r e w i l l be i n a I i s t so you w i l l have t o m a i n t a i n a c o n s t a n t l y a c c u r a t e and t r u t h f u l i m p r e s s i o n as we go t h r o u g h t h e a d j e c t i v e s . When t h e l a s t a d j e c t i v e in t h e l i s t has been p r e s e n t e d , t h e b u z z e r w i l l s ound . Then s t o p and r e c a l l t h e d i g i t s a l o u d as b e s t as you c a n . When t h e n e x t ready s i g n a l comes o n , r e t u r n t h e p o i n t e r back t o t h e c e n t r e o f t h e s c a l e and p r e p a r e t o l i s t e n t o t he n e x t number and t o c a t e g o r i z e t h e n e x t l i s t of a d j e c t i v e s . 64. APPENDIX B ( c o n t ' d ) COMMON FINAL INSTRUCTIONS B e f o r e we b e g i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t , l e t me say a c o u p l e more t h i n g s abou t y o u r p e r f o r m a n c e . Many s u b j e c t s want t o know why t h e y must a t t e m p t t o r e c a l l d i g i t s i n a d d i t i o n t o r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . T h i s i s because a second and r e l a t e d pu rpo se o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t i s t o d e t e r m i n e what e f f e c t s t h i n k i n g abou t t h e a d j e c t i v e s has on memory f o r n e u t r a l m a t e r i a l s . I b e l i e v e you can see t h e r e l a t i o n e a s i l y enough in t h a t i f a q u e s t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t t o y o u , you w i l l d e v o t e more o f y ou r a t t e n t i o n t o r e s p o n d i n g . Thus t h e o b j e c t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t i s not f o r you t o d e m o n s t r a t e how p e r f e c t l y you can remember numbers. O c c a s i o n a l l y a s u b j e c t i s so m o t i v a t e d t o show how w e l l he can r e t a i n n u m b e r s , t h a t he f i n d s i t i n t o l e r a b l e t o make an e r r o r , and he g i v e s a h a l f - h e a r t e d p e r f o r m a n c e in c o n s i d e r i n g t h e a d j e c t i v e s . You a r e not e x p e c t e d t o remember a I I t h e numbers , however you a r e e x p e c t e d t o g i v e c o m p l e t e and s i n c e r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o each a d j e c t i v e - i s t h i s c l e a r ? T h e r e w i l l be o c c a s i o n s when you may remember a l l o f t h e number; t h e r e w i l l be o c c a s i o n s when you may remember none o f i t . In any c a s e , you a r e not t o c o n c e r n y o u r s e l f w i t h a t t e m p t i n g p e r f e c t r e c a l l and a l l o w i n g t h a t t o h i n d e r y o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e a d j e c t i v e s i n any way. 

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