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Short-term memory and judgement of personality-trait adjectives : a divided attention task. Barnes , Marc James 1970

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SHORT-TERM MEMORY AND JUDGEMENT OF P E R S O N A L I T Y - T R A I T A D J E C T I V E S : A DIVIDED ATTENTION TASK  by  MARC JAMES BARNES B.A.,  A THESIS  Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ,  SUBMITTED  THE REQUIREMENTS  1968  IN P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS i n the DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY  Vie a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s required standard  as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H April,  1970  COLUMBIA  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the L i b r a r y  shall  I  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  thesis at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  tha  it  written  for  of  A  P  p  i  1  2 2  >  1  9  7  0  Columbia  requirements  B r i t i s h Columbia,  is understood  Psychology  the  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  this  that  not  copying  for  that  study. thesis  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  f i n a n c i a l gain shall  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Date  It  permission.  Department  of  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  thesis  fulfilment of  freely available for  permission  representatives.  this  in p a r t i a l  or  or publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  11  Abstract  Three e x p e r i m e n t s e x p l o r e d materials. polated  t h e n a t u r e of p r o c e s s i n g  In the c o n t e x t of t h e s h o r t - t e r m memory paradigm, an  judgement t a s k was  5 - d i g i t numbers.  c r i t e r i o n (Ob)  t o - b e - r e c a I led items were  - were employed o v e r v a r i a t i o n s i n a d j e c t i v e  independent v e r s u s c u m u l a t i v e Judgements.  non-affective presentation  Experiments I and f l  female Ss on the  interpolated  In Experiment I I I , judgement l a t e n c y , judgement e x t r e m i t y ,  subsequent r e c a l l of t h e d i g i t s were a l l measured. t h e view of v e r b a l The  i d e a l date ( 0 ) ,  (,S); and an o s t e n s i b l y non-semantic,  e s t a b l i s h e d d i f f e r e n c e s between male and task.  The  Three c r i t e r i a - d e s i r e a b i I i t y i n an  d e s c r l p t i v e n e s s of s e l f  d i f f i c u l t y of  by p r e s e n t a t i o n criterion  The  r e s u l t s support  i n t e r p o l a t e d Ob  r a t e and  Judgements i s shown t o be r e a d i l y e f f e c t e d  judgement t y p e .  Moreover, r e c a l l  under the  i s c o n s i s t e n t l y a f u n c t i o n of the semantic content of  judgements of 0 a r e  i n c l o s e agreement w i t h t h e  categorization  a d j e c t i v e s and  Iikeableness  l a t e n c i e s a r e f a s t e s t f o r extreme  longer f o r moderate I i k e a b l e n e s s a d j e c t i v e s ,  :S judgements t a k e l o n g e r , are  l e s s extreme, and  r e c a l l than p_ judgements under a l l c o n d i t i o n s . extremity  0b_  the  A p r o c e s s of s e m a n t i c m o n i t o r i n g i s d i s c u s s e d  terms o f t h e a t t e n t i o n u t i l i z e d by s h i f t s of encoding c l a s s .  adjectives:  and  r e c a l l as a f u n c t i o n of the t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r r e h e a r s a l .  interpolated material.  r a t i n g s of  interpolated  r e s u l t i n p o o r e r subsequent  i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n t p r i n c i p l e s f o r g r a t i n g s of h i g h and  low  r e t r i e v a l and  These f i n d i n g s a r e d i s c u s s e d  differential  decision  the  Iikeableness  and  adjectives.  in  Interpolated  Judgement l a t e n c y  IIkeableness ential  inter-  employed by m a n i p u l a t i n g t h e c r i t e r i a by which  p e r s o n a l I t y - t r a i t a d j e c t i v e s were judged.  r a t e and  meaningful  difficulty.  i n terms of  differ-  Tab Ie o f C o n t e n t s Page Title  Page  i  Abstract  i i  Table of Contents  i i i  L i s t of Tables  iv  L i s t of Figures  v  Acknowledgement  vi  Experiments  I and  I I  I n t r o d u c t i on  1  Method  3  Results Experiment  and D i s c u s s i o n  4  II I  I n t r o d u c t i on  12  Method  16  ResuIts Independent Judgements Relation of Categorization Extremity to Likeableness Rating C u m u l a t i v e Judgements Post-Experimental Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data  20 29 32 40  Discussion  41  Bib I iography  51  Append i c e s A.  A d j e c t i v e Sequences Employed Exper iment I I I  B.  I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Ss  in  ^ 56  IV  L i s t o f Tab I e s Page Table  1  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r R e c a l l Experiments  Table 2  I and  in  II  5  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r R e c a l l  following  Independent Judgements Table 3  21  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r Latency  of  Independent Judgements Table 4  Mean L a t e n c i e s and and  Table 5  24  Deflections for  Independent  C u m u l a t i v e Judgements  A n a l y s i s of Variance  26  for Extremity of  Independent Judgements Table 6  30  A n a l y s i s of Variance f o r Recall  Following  C u m u l a t i v e Judgements Table 7  33  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r Latency  of  C u m u l a t i v e Judgements Table 8  36  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r E x t r e m i t y of C u m u l a t i v e Judgements  Table 9  Recall of  u n d e r t h e Ob  L i s t Composition  Conditions  Criterion  38 as a F u n c t i o n  under V a r i o u s E x p e r i m e n t a l 45  V  L i s t of  Figures Page  Figure  1  Retention Ss  Figure  2  P e r f o r m a n c e o f M a l e and  i n E x p e r i m e n t s I and  Retention  Female  II  7  Performance Following  Independent  Judgements Figure  3  Latencies  23 of  as a F u n c t i o n Figure 4  Retention Judgements  I n d e p e n d e n t S_ and 0_ J u d g e m e n t s of A d j e c t i v e LikeabIeness' ?  28  Performance Following Cumulative 34  vi  AcknowIedgement  This  r e s e a r c h was s u p p o r t e d  M. P e t r u s i c . term  Experiment  interference effects  III  by NRC G r a n t A P A - 0 2 3 8 t o D r .  was p r e s e n t e d as a p a p e r e n t i t l e d  in processing  at the Canadian P s y c h o l o g i c a l  of  p r o v i d e d me i n t h i s  project:  w i t h so d e v o t e d a p s c y h o l o g i s t . Humphreys of  Special  in Experiment  Coshow f o r h i s Thorngate  II  thanks  i n s p i r a t i o n which Dr.  been an h o n o u r t o be  I a l s o wish  t o thank Dr.  a r e owed t o P a t r i c i a  and h e r p r e p a r a t i o n o f  programming  assistance  f o r t h e i r k i n d use o f  Finally, making  W i n n i p e g , May,  1970.  Petrusic  associated  Michael  S.  f o r h i s many c o n t r i b u t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s e x c e l l e n t c r i t i c i s m s  the paper.  tance  i t has  "Short-  personality-trait adjectives",  Association Meetings,  I w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e s u p p o r t and has  William  I wish to d e d i c a t e t h i s  t h e s e t h e h a p p i e s t months o f  my  f o r her  the manuscript,  and t o D r .  recording  Woodland  to William  M i k i o M i y a k e and  Warren  equipment.  p a p e r t o my w i f e , life.  assis-  Hiroko,  for  1.  Experiments  I and  II Introduction  While  it  i s c e r t a i n l y one o f  problems,  the study  processing  i s one  And w h i l e  neutral  results  in the s t u d i e s  the stimulus  of  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y stimulus  Wickens of  processing  of  indications,  behavioural  have  Moreover, of  (STM),  and  i n common t h e  use  they suggest a  self-relevant  measures  For  self-relevant  i n s h o r t - t e r m memory  processing  however,  restrictive.  ( 1 9 6 1 ) on a t t e n t i o n f o r  i n STM,  nature  information  o f a t t e n t i o n and  memory.  Anderson  and H u b e r t  (1963) wrote t h a t t h e primacy e f f e c t s o r d i n a r i l y  observed  in r a p i d l y - f o r m e d  measures  of  or  theory.  large, a f f e c t i v e l y  There a r e  interesting stimuli.  d i r e c t i o n f o r the study  verbal  recall  a d j e c t i v e s and t h e  a view of  behind  information  m a t e r i a l s need n o t be s o  (1970) on s e m a n t i c e n c o d i n g c l a s s e s  short-term  lagged  b e e n , by and  uninteresting.  to t a k e , namely, the adoption of  trait  has  ( 1 9 6 8 ) on m o t i v a t i o n  p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y more  useful  clearly  information  p e r c e p t i o n , memory and a t t e n t i o n , t h e  e x a m p l e , d i v e r s e w o r k by T r e i s m a n messages, Weiner  has  h a v e been a c h i e v e d by  m a t e r i a l s employed  t h a t the choice of  psychological  s e l f - r e l e v a n t and s e l f - g e n e r a t e d  in which research  impressive  approaches of  of  t h e most f u n d a m e n t a l  impressions  and t h e  large  recency trend  s u g g e s t d i f f e r e n t memory s y s t e m s f o r impressions  they evoke.  l o n g - t e r m memory as a h i e r a r c h y o f  familiarity  concepts  ( O l d f i e l d , 1954;  i n t h i s scheme  involves  s e l e c t i o n of  personality-  Indirect evidence  ensembles  organized  B r i g g s and S w a n s o n ,  in  by  1969).  supports frequency Retrieval  t h e a p p r o p r i a t e e n s e m b l e and t h e n a  2.  search  until  a m a t c h b e t w e e n e n c o d e d and m e m o r i a l  It might  be s u p p o s e d t h e n , t h a t  searches  of  d i s t i n c t ensembles  among d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f mental  strategy  would  impression and  In t h i s  i n t e r p o l a t e the  a plausible  impression  task  experi-  between  t h e t o - b e - r e c a l l e d m a t e r i a l and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f t h e  to the d i f f i c u l t y memory e n s e m b l e s  of  the  the  of  the  t h e a d j e c t i v e s was v a r i e d impression  the neutral  under v a r i o u s initial  interpolated decision  interpolated  of  i.e., to divide attention  items  i n t e r p o l a t e d judgements  searched  was n o t t h e p u r p o s e of  Recall  items,  selection  rehearsal  adjectives.  neutral  case,  entail  involve  and  ality-trait  of  responses  occurs.  presentation of  recall  recall  retrieval decisions  alternatives.  be t o  and  representations  in order to assess several  (Ob);  the p e r s o n a l i t y - t r a i t  A second  of  purpose  of  syllables  possible  ideal  the persona I i t y - t r a i t with respect of  these  initial  e f f e c t s of  e x p e r i m e n t e r and s u b j e c t ' s  impression  task.  Accordingly,  experiments  to S  p a r a l l e l procedures  for  the  the  contained (0);  the  interpolated  were c a r r i e d o u t  by a  # m a l e and f e m a l e  E.  * .The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o t h a n k P a t r i c i a Woodland in c o l l e c t i n g data f o r Experiment II.  for  her  and  (S).  was t o d e t e r m i n e  s e x on p e r f o r m a n c e o f  nature  for  date  it  judged  uses  each a d j e c t i v e  i n an  of  Although  Three c a t e g o r i z a t i o n c r i t e r i a  t h e number o f  the descriptiveness  criteria.  t h e c r i t e r i o n by w h i c h Ss  a d j e c t i v e s were employed: the d e s i r e a b i I i t y  the sizes  r e p o r t e d here t o examine the  difficulty,  materials.  person-  assumed t o be r e l a t e d  in terms of  judgement  work  is  between  assistance  3.  Method  Subjects: courses  The Ss  a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of  participated  StimuIi: such and  in each of  Lenon,  the basis 12 w o r d s  1969). of  Interpolated  serial  composed o f  four  24 m a l e and 24 f e m a l e  for Experiments  (cf.  a I I positive  The d i g i t s seconds.  I and  II  Ss  (M+,  three  H), a i l  negative  Ss  were asked  (H, Mt, M-,  s e l e c t e d on  of  4,  8 and  extreme  L) a d j e c t i v e s  were  recall.  at a Stimuli  were r e c o r d e d  by  tasks:  containing  undesireable  i n an  1,  2 or  ideal  3 o r more  desireable,  syllables. not  date.  t o r a t e each a d j e c t i v e as a l w a y s ,  sometimes,  or  themselves.  The e x p e r i m e n t s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o g r o u p s o f were g i v e n  -  (M-,L),  in t h a t the s e r i e s  t o r a t e e a c h a d j e c t i v e as v e r y  important, o r very  Ss  Lists  were a l l o w e d f o r  interpolated  0:  All  Buschke  respectively.  j u d g e d each a d j e c t i v e as  never t r u e of  "IikeabIeness" 1968).  Ten s e c o n d s  d i f f e r e d only  were g i v e n  were asked  (cf.  arranged  p r e c e d e d t h e a d j e c t i v e s and w e r e s p o k e n  Ss  Ss  Ss  and t h e n t a p e - r e c o r d e d a t o n e a d j e c t i v e  Ob:  S_:  numbers  occurred  Anderson,  ( M + , M - ) , and c o m p r e h e n s i v e  male and f e m a l e v o i c e s ,  Procedure;  orderings  subranges of  into three d i f f e r e n t series seconds.  psychology  l i s t s w e r e drawn f r o m 128 p e r s o n a l i t y - t r a i t  high meaningfuIness  r a t e of one p e r 0.5  sex.  introductory  two e x p e r i m e n t s .  32 f r o m e a c h o f  L ) , moderate  p e r 2.0  in  B r i t i s h Columbia.  t h a t no r e p e a t s o r a d j a c e n t  formed  enrolled  The t o - b e - r e c a l l e d m a t e r i a l s w e r e random 5 - d i g i t  adjectives  (H,  w e r e 96 s t u d e n t s  9 -  i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k 0b_ f i r s t .  16 S s , Half  a l l of the of  t h e Ss  same then  4.  rated 0 before Ss  were  S_, whi l e t h e o r d e r was  instructed to  was p r e s e n t e d , mark  rating  l i s t e n t o t h e number,  to begin  categorizing  in the a p p r o p r i a t e l y  adjacent to the category scored  differed only  Recall  boxes f o l l o w i n g the  position.  f o r each  of  the d i g i t s  adjective  was  last adjective.  The p r o c e d u r e s  s e x was  an a n a l y s i s  and  Recall  was  point  for  in T a b l e  t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r as  of v a r i a n c e  with subjects  1,  reveal  order  reflects  interactions  for  and recall  II  the  list  involving  was  t o be b e s t  a nested  not s i g n i f i c a n t  E and S ' s  l o w e r mean r e c a l l  length.  as t h e e f f e c t o f factor  I and  II.  These  within The  results,  significant.  here  sex.  n o r w e r e any o f  The m a i n e f f e c t o f  w i t h a female E (61.66$ vs.  In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t  ment c r i t e r i a tendency  as  well  Experiments  1 about  t h e s e two f a c t o r s  substantially  n = 2160).  read  t h a t both main e f f e c t s a r e h.ighly  Insert Table  i n t e r a c t i o n of  respectively,  I and  Discussion  c a r r i e d o u t on t h e combined d a t a o f  summarized  f o r Experiments  written  task.  To t e s t t h e m a i n e f f e c t o f sex,  half.  i m m e d i a t e l y by p l a c i n g a p e n c i l  l a b e l l e d box.  Results  higher  b u t when t h e f i r s t  i n t h a t a m a l e E and a f e m a l e E,  instructions  The  f o r the other  f o r e a c h d i g i t c o r r e c t l y r e m e m b e r e d , w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l  each c o r r e c t s e r i a l  S's  it  reversed  i n t e r a c t i o n s of  interactions  correspond  to  u n d e r t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n w i t h a m a l e E,  E  67.09$,  E with i)  the  judge-  a while  5.  TABLE I Analysis For R e c a l l  Source  of  in Experiments  df_  Experimenter 1 Sex 1 Criterion 2 2 L i s t Length L i s t Composition 4 E x p e r i m e n t e r X Sex 1 2 Experimenter X C r i t e r i o n 2 Experimenter X Length Experimenter X Composition 4 2 Sex X C r i t e r i o n Sex X L e n g t h 2 4 Sex X C o m p o s i t i o n C r i t e r i o n X Length 4 C r i t e r i o n X Composition 8 Length X Composition 8 23 Subjects 3104 Error Total  Variance  4319  I and  SS_  II  MS  318.5 318.5 1 4 8 0 . 5 1480.5 99.2 49.6 2 9 2 6 . 8 1463.4 402.3 100.6 7.9 7.9 70.4 35.2 45.3 90.5 21 .6 5.4 44.5 89.0 41 .4 20.7 22.7 5.7 51 .8 12.9 299.4 37.4 170.4 21.3 2330.6 101.3 19692.0 6.3 49747.0  E r r o r MS (df_)  18.9 9.4 7.0  6.2 5.7 5.5  92 92 184  92 184 184  _F 50.20 233.37 2.63 155.57 14.34 1 .25 5.55 7.13 0.85 7.01 3.26 0.89 2.08 6.51 3.87  £ < 00 1 <.00l ns <.00l <.00l ns <.005  <• 00 1  ns <.005 <.05 ns ns <.00l <. 001  recall  u n d e r t h e 0 c r i t e r i o n was  r a p i d d e c l i n e of w i t h a ma Ie Table  recall  1 also  nearly  increases. the  reveals  sex.  is  increase  r e c a l l e d best  recall (F =  is evident  pooled over the 0 vs.  Figure  the e f f e c t of  occurred  for  1 about  list  Although  under  list  length  increasing  the  decrement S's  f o r m a l e and  sex  female the  t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n w h i l e  Subsequently,  S's  recall  (F = 3 . 3 0 ,  combined  forgetting  under  highly  significant.  s e x and j u d g e m e n t  p<.05), but not  for  to  criterion,  criterion significantly  under  The  d a t a f o r m a l e and f e m a l e  a p a i r e d mean t e s t  The d e c r e m e n t  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e . ' However,  female  f o r male r e c a l l  t h e S c r i t e r i o n was  Ss.  affected Ss  data,  l e n g t h , was c a r r i e d o u t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d i f f e r e n c e  the S c r i t e r i a .  for  here  short of  i n t e r a c t i o n of  f o r m a l e Ss  f e m a l e and m a l e Ss  l e n g t h was  r e v e a l e d t h a t the judgement  list  length  i n t e r a c t i o n of  from the p l o t s of  criterion falls  the s i g n i f i c a n t  ns).  The  accompanied  l o w e r u n d e r t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n t h a n u n d e r  a n a l y s e s w e r e p e r f o r m e d on t h e  I.97,  than  under the 0 c r i t e r i o n .  judgement  performance  the  of  As  These a n a l y s e s  as  double the magnitude  I and  main e f f e c t of  separate  a more  list  with  the r e t e n t i o n data  II.  f o r m a l e Ss  significant.  was  sex w i t h  decrement a s s o c i a t e d  1 presents  criteria,  investigate  nearly  f o r m a l e Ss  Insert  judgement  ii)  interactions  S's  from 4 t o 8 words.  recall  recall  significant  in r e c a l l  c r i t e r i o n was a l s o  0_ c r i t e r i o n , b e s t  Experiments  and  length with a female E  i n t e r a c t i o n of  the r e c a l l  12 w o r d s  with the  Figure  The  decrements  in both e x p e r i m e n t s ,  f e m a l e Ss  list  that several  female Ss,  l i s t from 8 t o  and j u d g e m e n t Ss  S's  equal  For  associated  increased  w i t h a f e m a l e . E;  E.  t h e main e f f e c t o f reflects  with  highest  between  shown  to  MALES  FEMALES  NO. OF INTERPOLATED ADJECTIVES  NO. OF INTERPOLATED ADJECTIVES FIGURE 1  RETENTION PERFORMANCE OF MALE AND FEMALE Ss  IN EXPERIMENTS  I and  II  8.  be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  (T = 0 . 8 4 ,  ns).  t h e s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t of markedly  superior  The r e s u l t s  recall  Thus  i t would appear t h a t f o r male  judgement c r i t e r i o n i s  u n d e r t h e Ob  with respect to  list  composition a r e a l s o of  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h judgement c r i t e r i o n .  following of  the various  p o s i t i v e words  criteria, Looking  at  recall  were  extreme  was  These  (64.86$), moderate  figures  task.  (67.64$)  f o r each  and n e g a t i v e  (62.12$)  of  a s s i g n e d a d j e c t i v e s may be r e g a r d e d a s some u n i t a r y d i m e n s i o n ,  this  in p a r a l l e l  o r s e r i a l l y as a f u n c t i o n o f  list  (68.65$) following  lists.  This  Such  non-semantic, s o r t of  the  non-affective  surplus  impression  with the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  If  the "IikeabIeness"  ratings  reflecting relative positions  i t c a n be s e e n t h a t r e c a l l  c o n t a i n i n g words  By c o m p a r i s o n ,  poorer r e c a l l  from both s i d e s of  the  into  t h e a v a i l a b l e t i m e between a d j e c t i v e s  along  u n d e r t h e 0 b _ c r i t e r i o n was  f o l l o w i n g i n t e r p o l a t e d l i s t s drawn f r o m o n l y o n e o r t h e o t h e r s i d e  the dimension.  864).  t h a t t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n r e q u i r e d o n l y  c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e p r e s e n t d a t a .  best  of  s u g g e s t t h a t some e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e m e a n i n g o f  Whether p r o c e s s i n g  composed  over a l l  s y l l a b l e s each a d j e c t i v e c o n t a i n e d .  c o n v e y e d by t h e a d j e c t i v e o c c u r r e d syllables  lists  (60.09$, n =  288  as  figures  recall n  a d j e c t i v e s was t a k i n g p l a c e d u r i n g t h e o s t e n s i b l y categorization  the r e c a l l  a r e compared w i t h r e c a l l  r e s u l t when o n e c o n s i d e r s  in r e c a l l  of  ( 6 3 . 9 2 $ ) and c o m p r e h e n s i v e  S c a t e g o r i z e t h e number o f  differences  w i t h an  The  c o m p o s i t i o n as w e l l  ( 6 9 . 1 2 $ , n = 864)  produced the poorest  b e s t when p o s i t i v e  interpolated.  interest.  interpolated l i s t s , reveals that  in the best r e c a l l  lists  list  Inspection  u n d e r t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n ,  recall  is a s u r p r i s i n g that  resulted  w h i l e moderate  composition, lists  types of  l a r g e l y due t o t h e i r  criterion.  c o m b i n e d d a t a show a s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t o f an  Ss,  resulted following  IikeabIeness  dimension.  lists  of  9.  It  is  possible  are encoded  that positive  in d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s  positive to negative capacity  than  lists  Clark  (1968)  shift  from t r i g r a m s  Iikeableness  have d e m o n s t r a t e d  a t one e x t r e m e o f  t h e same end o f  the dimension  s u b j e c t of  w h a t he  interpreting  is  proactive  of  items.  t i o n of  conscious  since  i n t e r f e r e n c e as  r e t r i e v a l demands  paradigm,  the results  sequence of hearsing  1970,  p.  enhanced  Wickens  perception or  for  recall.  rehearsal  the  of the  interpretaHowever,  in the is  favour  for  categories.  the p o s s i b i l i t y that a t t e n t i o n  feels  the  seems t o  in Wickens'  from  recovery  r e t r i e v a l cues  a f u n c t i o n of encoding  ( H , M+)  is that higher  lists.  recall  r e c a I I was  current  drawn t o  - a t the expense  of  All other  list  types  highest  f o l lowing  the  re-  extreme  The m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e  was o b t a i n e d  u n d e r t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n ( 6 0 . 7 6 $ , n = 288) n = 288).  drawn  one  digits.  L) and p o s i t i v e  criteria  12).  no e x p l i c i t r o l e  U n d e r b o t h t h e 0 and S_ c r i t e r i a , (H,  to  on t h e p a r t o f  on t h e s e m a n t i c m a t e r i a l a r e m i n i m a l  present  and  between them, Wickens  a d j e c t i v e s by t h e s h i f t o f c a t e g o r i e s  the  trigrams  are presented  awareness  in terms of  Thus, a t t e n t i o n plays  proactive  Wickens  inhibition following a  successive  and s h i f t s  (Wickens,  the release e f f e c t s  from  t h e Osgood e v a l u a t i v e d i m e n s i o n  a l t e r e d m a t e r i a l s , r a t h e r than e i t h e r enhanced novel  adjectives  greater attentional  the dimension.  the dimension  classes  little  doing"  L)  t y p i c a l l y d e c l i n e s , b u t shows a s h a r p  the encoding  achieved with very  end o f  recall  f r o m t h e o p p o s i t e end o f  The e x i s t e n c e o f "...are  is,  (M- o r  lists containing shifts  adjectives utilize  r e l e a s e of  That  and n e g a t i v e  such t h a t  drawn f r o m a s i n g l e  at the opposite extreme.  when w o r d s  (H o r M+)  showed  f o l l o w i n g moderate  (M+,  than under t h e 0 c r i t e r i o n poorer  recall  two M-)  lists  (55.59$,  u n d e r t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n .  10.  Recall  f o l l o w i n g moderate  any c o m b i n a t i o n o f moderate a d j e c t i v e s t o an  ideal  measure of  with  of  such d i f f e r e n c e s  observations  there  is  in  reason  initial  is  i n two  E and S ' s  While  experimental  the degree of  importance to s t u d i e s in r e c a l l  sex.  of  it  task.  First, employing  in the f i n d i n g s ,  particularly  p e r f o r m a n c e b e t w e e n Ss  A review of  even  large groups of  w i t h groups than w i t h  divided attention.  in  Ss  and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n :  t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to rehearsing  Ss.  achieve  individually i s of  data,  indicated different  recall  critical  large  strategies some the  Ss digits,  the a d j e c t i v e s , while the reverse  individual  though  employed  to  interpolated task  In t h e p r e s e n t  recall  i n t e r p o l a t i n g an  i s g e n e r a l l y more d i f f i c u l t  control  t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  t r u e f o r o t h e r Ss.  in  these  The s t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s  a t t e n t i o n u t i l i z e d by an  a p p e a r e d t o have d e v o t e d most of little  of  with respect to the c r i t e r i a  in " d i v i d i n g " a t t e n t i o n between r e h e a r s a l  and v e r y  independent  a r e l i a b l e index of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n d i f f i c u l t y ,  the a d j e c t i v e s .  variances  the r e s u l t s  s u g g e s t t h a t t h e method o f  in j u d g i n g  run Ss,  an  separate experiments  t o have c o n f i d e n c e  d i r e c t l y on t h e r e s u l t s  of  applied  w o u l d be d e s i r e a b l e  e x p e r i m e n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o r a t h e r  level  However,  interpolated impression  This bears  any g i v e n  when  that  recall.  the  i n t h e two e x p e r i m e n t s task  themselves.  of  would appear  the d i g i t s  may be made c o n c e r n i n g  r e s p e c t t o the e f f e c t of  impression  of  these categorizations  s i m i l a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d  obtained  these  i n t e r f e r e more w i t h r e c a l l  experiments employing  the paradigm,  It  c o m p o s i t i o n and j u d g e m e n t c r i t e r i o n .  the d i f f i c u l t y  Two f i n a l  since  u n d e r t h e 0_ c r i t e r i o n was t h e p o o r e s t  d a t e t h a n when a p p l i e d t o Ss  interpreting  initial  lists  s c o r e s under the  was  three  11.  criteria  revealed t h a t of  in e x c e s s  of  differences  95%  over a l l  in s t r a t e g y  t h e 96 S s ,  three tasks.  is  of  a divided attention task  of  the experiment.  polated Ss  impression  show,  paradigm.  S's  achieved  A plausible explanation  designed  to v e i l  f o r subsequent  Also,  s e x m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d  the  as t h e  components purpose inter-  v a r i a n c e by  results  discuss of  in f u r t h e r s t u d i e s  recall  such  work e m p l o y i n g t h e  i n s t r u c t i o n s which f r a n k l y  the task.  for  the " t r u e "  i s t o a t t e m p t t o reduce between-S  a t t e n t i o n nature of  experiments  12 m a l e s  s u s p e c t one o r t h e o t h e r o f  is a guise  i n d i v i d u a l l y and by e m p l o y i n g  divided  the  t h a t Ss  A c l e a r course task  14 f e m a l e s and  these  running  the initial  employing  12.  E x p e r i ment  I II I introduction  Following of  Experiment  the III  initial  task.  tion  b u t more t h a n  r e t e n t i o n of stores this of  scheme,  The p a r a d i g m  has  this,  for decisions  retention  is  t h e t o - b e - r e c a I Ied  capacity  (for  Shiffrin  (1968)).  attention  on t h e  as  in the  Ideally,  interpolated task  of c u r r e n t  (Posner  1969a,  b);  lated tasks  (Dillon  results,  is generally  it  i t e m s , t h e more p.  149).  agreed  resistant  An a s s u m p t i o n  until  of  they  search of  Peterson  atten-  between  long-term  recall  and p r e s e n t a t i o n required  longer  become t o any  is  rate  by t h e  cued.  operation. of  the  (e.g.  (1969b)  there  is  of  Pollack,  interpolated  has  interpo-  found  negative  to rehearse  previous  i n t e r f e r e n c e " (Ryan,  w o r k on m a n i p u l a t i o n  (1959)  e a s y and d i f f i c u l t  Ryan  and  interpolated activity  in the parameters  Although  that "the  limited  by A t k i n s o n  rapid numerical  of  In  maintenance  and P e t e r s o n  such t i m e as  been show  grouping  1969).  interpolated  alternating  b u f f e r proposed  1 9 6 5 ) ; and s e q u e n c e s  and R e i d ,  aim  a divided  s h o r t - t e r m memory o f  information-reduction  and R o s s m a n ,  as  p a r t i a l l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e  is a simple,  i n t e r e s t has  i n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y - temporal  task  h e r e as  i s c o n t r o l l e d by an  Typically,  this  as  rehearsal  the general  p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e  seen  in the well-known  attention  II,  i n t e r p o l a t e d a d j e c t i v e s t o be made.  rehearsal  to prevent  Ryan,  I and  been d e s c r i b e d  is  i n an a c o u s t i c  which f u n c t i o n s  1963;  already  regarded  items  example,  technique,  A good d e a l  Experiments  t h e t o - b e - r e c a l l e d m a t e r i a l s and memory  in o r d e r  distractor  of  was t o e x p l o r e t h e n a t u r e o f  impression task;  results  1969b,  interpolated task  w o u l d seem t o be t h a t t h e a t t e n t i o n u t i l i z e d by a more d i f f i c u l t  task  difficulty functions  13.  to reduce the time a v a i l a b l e f o r In a somewhat index of between  different context,  judgement response  i n t h e work of object-naming stimuli,  difficulty.  time.  Results  1963;  results  the overt  of  response  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the search stores  (1969)  and A v a n t ,  perceptual I and  t h e words  hypothesis,  as  this  III of  the s e r i a l l y - o r d e r e d alphabet.  the  interpolated  reduce d i f f e r e n c e s  in r e c a l l  as  as  response  a f u n c t i o n of  in p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e a c o u s t i c  response.  In t e r m s  contrast  a r e p l a c e d on The Ob  a f u n c t i o n of  increasing  the  the  task and array the  available  presentation  on t h e a d j e c t i v e s  should  If,  the adjectives occurs encoding,  be r e l a t i v e l y u n a f f e c t e d by  STM  of  evaluative In  l i s t composition.  the semantic content of  u n d e r t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n s h o u l d on t h e o v e r t  adjectives,  Thus, t o the e x t e n t t h a t  interval,  a more c o m p l e x o v e r t  of  whether  t h e a d j e c t i v e and s e a r c h t h e o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l  r a t e and r e q u i r i n g  o t h e r hand, encoding  of  the  negative occurred.  u n d e r t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n o c c u r s  during  (1952)  r e q u i r e d t h a t S a I so e n c o d e t h e a c o u s t i c  comprising  to  time.  regardless  t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n .  properties  s e r i a l l y or  t o response  no r e t r i e v a l demands under  size  likewise affirm Hick's  the judgement c r i t e r i a employed.  however,  present  psychophysical  long-term a f f e c t i v e or  structural  first  relationship  ensemble  employing  suggest t h a t ,  p o s i t i v e or  information  in Experiment  opportunities  studies  choices  implies that  under a l l  semantical Iy-encoded  encoding  a monotonic  d i f f i c u l t y w o u l d seem  1969)  II  as an e x p l i c i t  required u t i l i z i n g the semantic content of  t o t h e 0_ and S_ c r i t e r i a ,  semantic  of  r e l a t i n g memory  judgement  Experiments  are searched  employed  of  Bevan  i s employed  The a s s u m p t i o n  B r i g g s and Swanson  (Behar,  latency  l a t e n c y and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  Law r e l a t i n g t h e number o f The  rehearsal.  on  the  either  performance  increased  demands  14.  The s e a r c h  hypothesis  also  the encoded r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s to  long term ensembles  t h e c o n c e p t s of number o f  ideal  memorial  c o n t a i n i n g memorial o t h e r and s e l f .  will  recall.  This  a  equal  l a r g e r number o f  longer  An  and s h o u l d issue  information manifested  of  critical  with  is  will  lower r e c a l l  point along  it  lower r e c a l l  for  is predicted  that  reduce rehearsal of  the neutral  such p r o c e s s i n g  recall  for previously  l a r g e r and more c o m p l e x memory s t o r e s  is  decision  framed  process  self-judgements  differential difficulty the c r i t e r i a  dimensions  according  -  to  as  items -  related to self  subsequent  retrieval.  hypothesis,  These  displacements  is  or  it  which would a s c r i b e  process.  in terms of  self-relevant  presented  in terms of the search  to the decision  oppor-  items.  of  poorer  of  Similarly,  demonstrate  More g e n e r a l l y ,  number  is whether the comparative d i f f i c u l t y  of  any  rehearsal  t e s t e d m o s t d i r e c t l y by  be n o t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e a number o f a r g u m e n t s  of  available for  longer  latencies.  processing  in subsequently  the  have  of  i n h e r e n t l y more d i f f i c u l t  difficulty tions  t h e 0b_ j u d g e m e n t  reduce r e c a l l .  i n t e r p o l a t e d judgements  be a s s o c i a t e d  r e t r i e v a l under  P r e s e n t i n g an e q u a l  i n t e r v a l s should  interpolated items.  W h i l e the above d i s c u s s i o n should  rate.  larger  importance to the study  due t o s e a r c h o f t o an  retention  l a t e n c i e s on t h e  tunities  prediction  comprising  that a  u n d e r t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n s h o u l d  items a t a f a s t e r r a t e s h o u l d of  traits  t h a n u n d e r t h e 0_ c r i t e r i o n .  the o p p o r t u n i t i e s  manipulating adjective presentation  comparisons  searches  but not n e c e s s a r i l y  is p r e d i c t e d that reducing  interpolated  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of  are related to s e l f ,  i n t e r p o l a t e d judgements  reduce subsequent  t r a i t s are f u r t h e r r e l a t e d  Under t h e a s s u m p t i o n  r e q u i r e more p r o l o n g e d  l a t e n c i e s than 0 judgements, It  t h a t u n d e r t h e 0 and S_ c r i t e r i a ,  the p e r s o n a l i t y  representations  S_ c r i t e r i o n s h o u l d Accordingly,  of  suggests  the  include explanaof  the  to whether the d e c i s i o n  ideal concerns  15.  another or s e l f  (cf.  in terms of g r e a t e r While  it  is  Greenberg,  beyond t h e scope of  adjective presentation  an  independent and  analysis  judgements, decision  t h a n on  another. to  which c o n t r i b u t e t o the d i f f i c u l t y  of  it  is  hoped t h a t by  ( 1 / 1 . 5 s e c o n d s and  1/3.0  a continuous  response  i)  using  seconds); (C)  apparatus  ii)  two  judgement  which  condi-  permits  the  conditions  into the nature  are a v a i l a b l e to provide  insight  rates  employing  l a t e n c y and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n e x t r e m i t y d u r i n g  a continuous  a l l o w i n g assessment of were run  Because  explanations  interpolated of  difficulty.  Use o f  Ss  on s e l f  j u d g e m e n t c o n d i t i o n and a c u m u l a t i v e  i i i ) employing of  as more p r o s a i c  investigation  information,  of  tion,  well  the present e x p l o r a t o r y  the sources  self-relevant  (I)  as  r e l u c t a n c e t o make j u d g e m e n t s  d i s c r i m i n a t e among a l l processing  1963)  of  attention procedure.  has t h e a d d i t i o n a l  b e n e f i t of  i n t e r n e Iated  i n d i v i d u a l l y and p r a c t i c e d on t h e u s e o f  the response  apparatus.  o n l y m a l e Ss  were  interactions  discussing  task  individual  apparatus  p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e  the  Instructions  response  the  were employed  in E x p e r i m e n t s importance of  I and  II,  each component of  the  task.  The  used.  divided  in o r d e r t o reduce m i s - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of  the  16.  Method Subjects:  Ss  w e r e 48 m a l e u n d e r g r a d u a t e  psychology  courses a t the U n i v e r s i t y of  t h e e x p e r i m e n t was  StimuIi:  The  as employed  in Experiments  I and  three  list  II.  lengths  interpolated  a d j e c t i v e s was  tious or  (3,  halves  increased to  168.  were c o n s t r u c t e d .  list  To f i l l  list  The t h r e e s e r i e s  m e t r o n o m e w h i c h was  and 3 . 0  I ists  these  It  seconds.  h a l f - s p e e d and d i a - p i l o t s i g n a l s m a r k i n g  were spoken a t a r a t e o f list,  an empty  recall  signal  of  satisfying  the tape.  approximately  and t h e n e x t r e a d y s i g n a l  the  about  be n o t e d t h a t  t h e above  of  the  conscien* effects  constraints  in Appendix  A.  adjective presentation:  was p a c e d by a  distant  The t a p e s w e r e t h e n p l a y e d  the o n s e t of The 5 - d i g i t s  a p p r o x i m a t e l y one per 0.7  i n t e r v a l of  in  so a s t o p r o d u c e o r d e r  Recording  order  l i s t s , the pool  should  formed  contained  type appearing  employed are p r e s e n t e d  i n a u d i b l e upon p l a y b a c k .  p l a c e d on a n o t h e r c h a n n e l  In  was c o m p l e t e l y random and no  Three d i f f e r e n t s e r i e s  1.5  III.  l i s t s , each s e r i e s  were t h e n t a p e r e c o r d e d a t two r a t e s o f  one a d j e c t i v e p e r  d i g i ts.  in  compositions.  T h e r e w e r e 42 a d j e c t i v e s c e n t r e d  e f f o r t was made t o c o n s t r u c t t h e  response s h i f t s .  in Experiment  each  IikeabIeness.  a d j e c t i v e s w i t h i n each  t y p e s were  12 w o r d s ) and 4  t h e 3-word  of t h e s e r i e s .  the four subranges of  These s e r i e s  6 and  l i s t s w i t h one e x a m p l e o f  and s e c o n d  order of  introductory  Participation  Twelve d i f f e r e n t l i s t  t y p e was n o t e m p l o y e d  to counterbalance the composition of  each of  B r i t i s h Columbia.  in  i n t e r p o l a t e d and t o - b e - r e c a l l e d m a t e r i a l s w e r e o f t h e same t y p e  The " c o m p r e h e n s i v e "  first  enrolled  voluntary.  by t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f  24  students  at  each a d j e c t i v e were preceded each  seconds.  Following  10 s e c o n d s b e t w e e n t h e was a l l o w e d f o r Ss  list  and the  recorded  to recall  the  17.  Pesiqn:  Rate of  varied  a d j e c t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n and j u d g e m e n t t y p e  between g r o u p s .  The j u d g e m e n t c r i t e r i a  c o m p o s i t i o n were w i t h i n - g r o u p t h r e e judgement c r i t e r i a first, run  Order of  isolated  Ss  were run  room.  list  The t h r e e r a n d o m i z e d s e r i e s  that the criter'ron  were  length  p r e s e n t a t i o n of  and the  performed  were  always  l a t i n i z a t i o n overlayed the a c t u a l  phones.  individually.  Tape  recorded  preferences  for personality  t h e p r o c e d u r e common t o a l l Ss  were then read  o p e r a t i o n of  instructions  t h e p o i n t e r would  The p o i n t e r -  a metal  and  was  in the  h e a r d by  features  criteria.  d e s c r i b e d and  be r e p r o d u c e d  an  i t was e x p l a i n e d  by t h e p e n - r e c o r d e r  r o d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20  inches  had a r a d i a l  long  t r a v e l of  in r e s i s t a n c e  The  that in  the  supported 17.5  inches.  corresponding  deflections.  l i n e taped along the arc  the continuum.  "middle"  head-  appropriate for the f i r s t c r i t e r i o n .  A t t h e f i x e d end a p o t e n t i o m e t e r p r o d u c e d c h a n g e s  A scale  headphones  t r a i t s " and o u t l i n e d t h e  i n d i c a t o r end by a r o l l e r b e a r i n g -  to the pointer  a s e t of  i n an  " a new t e c h n i q u e f o r a s s e s s i n g  judgement types  the p o i n t e r apparatus  e a c h movement o f n e x t room.  seated a t a desk  i n s t r u c t i o n s were t h e n p l a y e d o v e r t h e  These d e s c r i b e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t as  individual's  at the  The S was  On t h e d e s k was t h e p o i n t e r a p p a r a t u s ,  and a m i c r o p h o n e .  Ss  C)  sequences.  Procedure:  of  S_),  vs.  l a t i n i z e d s u c h t h a t e a c h c r i t e r i o n was  s e c o n d o r t h i r d by f o u r S s .  i n t h e same o r d e r s c  Ii s t  of  was  manipulations.  (0b_, 0 ,  (I  F o r t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n ,  and " l a t e "  were p l a c e d  I c o n d i t i o n were t h e n locating  indicated only  its  first  3 index cards  in p o c k e t s  along  points  labelled "early",  behind the r e f e r e n c e  i n s t r u c t e d to respond  letter  t h e c e n t r e and end  points.  t o each a d j e c t i v e they  the continuum.  Ss  in t h e C c o n d i t i o n  18.  were asked first  to maintain a cumulative e s t i m a t e of  letters  position  -  in each  list.  in terms of  index cards  In  both c a s e s ,  f o r m e d t h e c e n t r e and b o u n d s o f asked  to  l i g h t of  C  condition  provided.  Ss  points  in t h e  I  i n d i c a t i n g how w e l l  tions  in the  C  desired.  Ss  in t h e  of  list  consider and  the  list  complete  i n s t r u c t i o n s employed  Appendix  B.  condition  i n an  ideal  "sometimes"  t o each a d j e c t i v e  while parallel  maintain a cumulative  slightly  i n a row w e r e  away f r o m t h e p o s i t i o n  intended to d i s t r i b u t e Ss' from i d e n t i c a l  and b a c k t o  In a d d i t i o n , Ss  were  i d e n t i c a l by m o v i n g i t again.  These  the  of  The  conditions are presented  in  position should instructed pointer  instructions  r e s p o n s e s and p e r m i t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f  long  were  latencies  responses.  The d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n n a t u r e o f e m p h a s i s was p l a c e d on t h e t h a t w h i l e they should as  instruc-  impression  t h e y c o u l d move t h e p o i n t e r t o any  spread t h e i r responses o v e r the whole s c a l e . i n d i c a t e i f two r e s p o n s e s  were  a s e a c h new a d j e c t i v e was p r e s e n t e d .  were t o l d t h a t , a l t h o u g h  the  impression.  and " n e v e r "  i n s t r u c t e d t o respond  in the v a r i o u s  were  date,  along the s c a l e they considered a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the a d j e c t i v e , they  to  criterion,  e a c h new a d j e c t i v e i n  t h e word d e s c r i b e d t h e m s e l v e s , t h a t Ss  I  relative  undesireabIe"  indicate a cumulative  labeled "always",  c o n d i t i o n were  For the 0  in t h e  the  tha.t o n l y  i m p o r t a n t " and " v e r y  the dimension.  c o n d i t i o n asked  the d e s c r i p t i v e n e s s  Ss  "not  r e q u i r e d t h a t Ss  t h e p r e c e d i n g words  F o r t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n ,  by  - was  i n d i c a t e how d e s i r e a b l e e a c h a d j e c t i v e w o u l d be  while the  p o s i t i o n of  i t was e m p h a s i z e d  the reference points  l a b e l e d '.'very d e s i r e a b I e " ,  the average  b e s t as t h e y c o u l d :  the task  interpolated task.  listen closely "you  should  was n o t d i s g u i s e d , In p a r t i c u l a r , Ss  to the d i g i t s  and t r y  b u t more were  to recall  not attempt p e r f e c t r e c a l l  instructed them  and a l l o w  that  19.  to hinder your c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the a d j e c t i v e s when p i l o t w o r k t a s k was o n l y  r e v e a l e d t h a t Ss  a hoax d e s i g n e d  still  to veil  suspected  t h e i r r e s p o n s e s as a t e s t o f  Following  the  on t h e f i r s t o f employed tion  instructions,  the c r i t e r i a  materials.  as  list  adequately.  difficulties. Four  Ss  They w e r e d i s m i s s e d  received  10 a d j e c t i v e  lists  for  but the r a t e of  If  lists,  practice Adjectives  presenta-  i t was d e t e r m i n e d  if  an  an S r e q u e s t e d more p r a c t i c e , p a r t o f  were u n a b l e t o p e r f o r m t h e following the p r a c t i c e  series  were t h e n run  interpolated  lists  and w e r e  in sequence w i t h  m a t e r i a l s were p r e s e n t e d  headphones  the  task replaced  to the S v i a  (UHER R o y a l  320).  t o one channel  of  Input from the p o i n t e r apparatus Ss'  aloud during  the  responses 10 s e c o n d  r e c o r d e d and u s e d as at the  Deluxe)  ( K o s s PRO 4 - A ) .  1.5  while the slower  second  provided  inter-list interval.  presentation  scoring  The  The  by c o n n e c t i n g t h e  a pen-recorder  in a second c h a n n e l .  a c h e c k on t h e E ' s  instructions  b e f o r e each s e r i e s .  s i g n a l s m a r k i n g e a c h word w e r e made p o s s i b l e  r e c o r d i n g of  series  later to  in the experiment.  were n o t u s e d ,  presented  Model  them  consistency.  a p p r o p r i a t e t o the judgement c r i t e r i a  recorder  were t o l d t h a t E  Ss.  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  pilot  addition,  l e n g t h and c o m p o s i t i o n w e r e s i m i l a r t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  t a p e was p l a y e d a g a i n .  by o t h e r  series  Ss  t h e t r a i t s and a s k  From p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e p r a c t i c e  S was e n c o u n t e r i n g  task,  they would e n c o u n t e r  in the experimental  as w e l l  Ss  In  t h a t the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  the r e c a l l  would note t h e i r responses t o s e l e c t e d of recall  i n any w a y . "  Ss  for the  during  recall  simultaneous  was  digits tape-  the session.  r a t e consumed a p p r o x i m a t e l y  r a t e r e q u i r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 m i n u t e s  per  tape  (Sanborn  r e c a l l e d the  Their  dia-  Each 15  series.  minutes  20.  Immediately  f o l l o w i n g t h e t a p e - r e c o r d e d s e g m e n t s , Ss  to a brief post-experimental adjectives  to  respond  q u e s t i o n n a i r e which t e s t e d f r e e r e c a l l  p r e s e n t e d o n t h e t a p e and e n q u i r e d  divided attention  were asked  into Ss'  approaches  of  to  the  the  task.  ResuIts  Independent  Ss'  Judgements  verbal  during the position  recall  10-second  was  s c o r e d one p o i n t f o r each d i g i t c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d  i n t e r v a l and an a d d i t i o n a l  - yielding a  10-point  independent judgement c r i t e r i a Figure  2.  An a n a l y s i s  o u t on t h e d a t a . highly tion  of  range.  The r e c a l l  curves  v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p l i c a t i o n as  The r e s u l t s  of  the a n a l y s i s ,  given  s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t s f o r t h e b e t w e e n Ss  r a t e and t h e w i t h i n Ss m a n i p u l a t i o n s  composition  and  mance b e t w e e n nature of  list  lists  length. 1 -  12 and  t h e main e f f e c t s of  r a t e , t h e p l o t s of  f o r each c o r r e c t s e r i a l under t h e  a r e shown f o r b o t h p r e s e n t a t i o n  of  Insert Table 2 about  tion  point  a f a c t o r was  in T a b l e 2,  in carried  reveal  m a n i p u l a t i o n of  presentalist  here  indicated  24 w i t h i n e a c h s e r i e s .  judgement c r i t e r i o n ,  (figure 2  rates  judgement c r i t e r i o n ,  No d i f f e r e n c e was 13 -  three  show t h a t r e c a l l  list  in r e c a l l  perfor-  Examining  l e n g t h and  the  presenta-  u n d e r t h e _S c r i t e r i o n  is  -21.  TABLE Analysis For R e c a l l  of  Following  Source  df  2 Variance  Independent  SS_  Judgements  MS_-  E r r o r . MS ( d f )  F  .  £.  270.93  <.00l <.00l  1  2014.3  2014.3  Criterion  2  555.5  277.7  8.2  (46)  33.85  List  Length  2  1244.7  622.4  8.6  (46)  7 2 . 5 9 <. 001  List  Composition  3  37.9  6.8  (69)  5.54  <.005  4.9  (23)  0.26  ns  0 . 14  ns  Presentation  Rate  1 13.6  Rep 1i c a t i o n  1  1 .3  1 .3  Rate X C r i t e r i o n  2  2.2  1 . !  Rate X  2  37.4  18.7  2.52  ns  Rate X Composition  3  21.8  7.3  0.98  ns  R a t e X Rep 1i c a t i on  1  0.2  0.2  0.03  ns  Criterion X  4  34.4  8.6  6.9  (92)  1 .25  ns  C r i t e r i o n X Composition  6  97. 1  16.2  7.6  (138)  2.13  ns  Criterion  2  8.3  4.2  5.3  (46)  0.79  ns  Length X Composition  6  34.4  5.7  7.6  ( 138)  0.75  ns  Length X R e p l i c a t i o n  2  16.8  8.4  5.0  (46)  1 .07  ns  Composition  3  53.5  17.8  6.5  (69)  2.75  ns  23  5844.6  254. 1  Error  909  6743.2  7.4  Tota I  1727  20215.0  Length  Subjects  Length  X Replication  X Replication  22.  poorest  at a l l  list  lengths.  This  decrement  Insert Figure  r a t e s even though Table 2 confirms  recall  list  In o r d e r t o o b t a i n zation  lists  estimates of  from p r e s e n t a t i o n of  from the p r e v i o u s  response  f o r each S  and  and t h e d a t a a r e  (in  the elapsed  ii)  the distance  the cumulative case,  bimodal  beginning  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of  w i t h 27 w o r d s  with the  l e t t e r s m-p,  beginning  pocrer. recall,  are about the  of  Ss'  same.  categori-  responses  in each of  time  (to the  the  were 72  nearest  greatest  (to the neaeest  0.1  deflection  0.5  mm.)  of  The same a d j e c t i v e s  t h e same t r i a d o f except  the f i r s t with the  and 29 w o r d s  list  adjectives)  length.  l e t t e r s of letters  beginning  With the  a-i,  with  the  r-z.  Insert Table 3 about  An a n a l y s i s  of  independent  variance  for  the  The  rate manipulation  of  records  relevant to a I I the manipulations  72 a d j e c t i v e s was  letters  i)  much  l a t e n c i e s and  the c r i t e r i o n dimension.  r e s p e c t t o t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n ,  16 w o r d s  criteria  the t h i r d a d j e c t i v e  for  presentation  e f f e c t on  the a d j e c t i v e to the point of  the p o i n t from the c e n t r e of were sampled  largest  categorization  the polygraph  in t h e f o l l o w i n g manner:  t h a t S h e a r d was m e a s u r e d  second)  of  is g e n e r a l l y  the  l e n g t h and j u d g e m e n t  extremities, portions  examined  r a t e has  both  here  under t h e f a s t e r r a t e  that presentation  w h i l e the e f f e c t s of  2 about  is evident for  judgement  judgement was  here  was p e r f o r m e d on t h e condition.  highly  c r i t e r i o n was a g a i n  The f i n d i n g s  e f f e c t i v e as highly  l a t e n c y measures  would  significant.  are given  in T a b l e  be e x p e c t e d . The mean  obtained 3.  The e f f e c t  latencies  23.  IOO-I  90-  PRESENTATION • o-  \  \  • o  RATE  1/3.0 SEC. 1/1.5 SEC.  N  204  10-  o { 0.0  ,  ,  4.5  9.0  .  ^  ,  18.0  RETENTION  36.0  INTERVAL (SEC.)  FIGURE 2 RETENTION PERFORMANCE FOLLOWING INDEPENDENT  JUDGEMENTS  24.-  TABLE Ana Iys i s o f For  Latency of  Variam  Independent J udgements  df_  Source  3  SS_  Error  MS_  MS ( d f )  F_ 626.70  < .001  (46)  57.50  < .001  20.0  (69)  3.43  < .025  22.0  (23)  4.40  < .05  294. 1  14.84  < .001  46.9  2.37  ns  21 .9  21 .9  1 . II  ns  189.5  31 .6  19. 1 ( 1 3 8 )  1 .66  ns  5.9  12.2  (46)  0.49  ns  36.7  12.2  15.7  (69)  0.78  ns  23  15341.0  667.0  Error  1 146  22670.0  19.8  Total  1727  52677.0  Presentation  Rate  1  12419.0  12419.0  Cri terion  2  3922.8  1961.4  34. 1  List  3  205.5  68.5  R e p l i c a t ion  1  96.9  96.9  Rate X C r i t e r i o n  2  588.2  Rate X  Composition  3  140.7  R a t e X Rep 1 i c a t i o n  1  Criterion  X  Composition  6  Criterion  X Replication  2  1 1 .9  3  Composition  Composition Subjects  X Replication  25.  under t h e t h r e e c r i t e r i a latencies  for  are presented  independent judgements  in T a b l e 4.  the mean  interval  Also,  the judgements  with the f a s t e r presentation includes the S's  movement o f  to the that  interval  rehearsal  However, able to  f o r the s i n g l e  as  i n t e r a c t i o n of  significant.  As  a  l a t e n c y measure  t h e t i m e consumed  in moving  t o 3.0  and m o t o r t i m e  the  u n d e r t h e 0_ ( 0 . 6 3  sec.)  (0.36  sec.)  and _S_ ( 0 . 6 0  is  small  sec.)  h a l f of  the s e r i e s .  This  in comparison  The m a i n e f f e c t o f obtain a closer  list  in  into the o r i g i n a l  latency is  Iikeableness  pointer.  also under  increases  roughly  from the f i r s t tp the t h e same f o r a l l  f a m i l i a r i t y with the  t h e 72 s a m p l e d  subranges.  prefer-  increased  to the  The  criteria  criteria.  c o m p o s i t i o n was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t .  look a t the e f f e c t ,  the  criteria.  d e c r e a s e was  and may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o g r e a t e r  pointer  components.  increase  L a t e n c i e s had a s i g n i f i c a n t t e n d e n c y t o d e c r e a s e second  of  conceivable  r a t e and j u d g e m e n t c r i t e r i o n was  look a t Table 4 c o n f i r m s ,  seconds  is  the  i t was c o n s i d e r e d  t h e 0 b _ c r i t e r i o n when t h e a v a i l a b l e t i m e b e t w e e n a d j e c t i v e s f r o m 1.5  It  movement o f  latency employed,  presentation  employed  t h e a d j e c t i v e and t h e b e g i n n i n g  the time p r i o r to S's  measure o f  the  between a d j e c t i v e s  appropriate for the a d j e c t i v e .  i n c l u d e both t h e pre-movement  The  interval  Note t h a t the  t h e p o i n t e r , as w e l l  occurred during  than  - to the extent that  the average  between t h e o n s e t of  location S considered  longer  u n d e r t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n r e q u i r e more o f  exceeds rate.  the  here  b e t w e e n a d j e c t i v e s t h a n 0_ j u d g e m e n t s  l a t e n c y f o r S_ j u d g e m e n t s  c a n be s e e n ,  u n d e r t h e 0_ c r i t e r i o n a r e  I n s e r t Table 4 about  Ob j u d g e m e n t s .  As  In o r d e r  a d j e c t i v e s were  to  grouped  10 b e s t e x a m p l e s o f e a c h  sub-  26.  Table 4 Mean L a t e n c i e s and D e f l e c t i o n s For  I n d e p e n d e n t and C u m u l a t i v e (n = 2 8 8 )  INDEPENDENT  Judgements  CUMULATIVE Rate  Rate 1/3.0  sec  1/1.5  sec  1/3.0 s e c  1/1.5  sec  JUDGEMENT CRITERION:  Ob  0  S  1.66 (17.78)^ +  2.00  2.14  (15.53)  (13.01)  1 .93 ( 1 5 . 3 8 )  1.28  1.37  1.54  1.39  (17.70)  (14.64)  (13.35)  (15.22)  +  Latency  £  Deflections  2.30  2.18  2.37  2.28  (9.38)  (13.23)  (10.86)  ( 1 1 . 16)  in seconds from c e n t r e  i n mm.  1.45  1.36  1.53  1.45  (10.98) 1 .67  (13.96)  1.73  (14.14)  1.89  (12.07)  (13.34)  (11.08)  (11.80)  27.  range  (e.g.,  t h e 10 m o s t  were t h e n measured obtained  highly  p o s i t i v e , t h e 10 m o s t m o d e r a t e l y  f o r latency of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n .  l a t e n c i e s as a f u n c t i o n of  criteria.  Since  likeableness  the latencies p l o t t e d in Figure  Figure  3 presents the  s u b r a n g e f o r t h e 0_ and S_ 3 r e p r e s e n t a s m a l l e r and  m o r e s e l e c t s a m p l e t h a n t h e d a t a on w h i c h t h e m a i n a n a l y s i s  Insert Figure  analyses tion  3 about  (F = 1 6 . 3 3 ,  These  analyses  again  f o r both  c o n f i r m e d main e f f e c t s o f judgement c r i t e r i o n  rate).  Under t h e f a s t  rate,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e l i k e a b l e n e s s  t h e a d j e c t i v e was d r a w n ,  both t h e s e terms a r e s i g n i f i c a n t  (F  , ., . subrange x c r i t e r i o n  significant  overall  results,  a series  different:  level.  presentation  The r e s u l t s  3.  p a i r e d mean t e s t s These  revealed  were that,  r a t e , t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n mean S_ r a t i n g s o f L a d j e c t i v e s was t h e o n l y  pair  of  signifi-  A p p l y i n g t h e same c r i t e r i o n t o t h e l a t e n c i e s rate, the following pairs  f o r t h e _S j u d g e m e n t s ,  f o r t h e 0_ j u d g e m e n t s ,  however,  H  o f Newman-Keuls  latencies p l o t t e d in Figure  M - a d j e c t i v e s a n d mean 0 r a t i n g s  under t h e slow  rate,  K  under t h e f a s t p r e s e n t a t i o n  c a n t beyond t h e .01  which  , = 5.28. df = 3,319, p<.001; subrange ' ' ' 5.84, df = 3,319, p<.001). Subsequent t o these ' ' ' h  c a r r i e d o u t on t h e mean  from  n o r i s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f judgement c r i t e r i o n and Under t h e s l o w e r p r e s e n t a t i o n  a  l a t e n c i e s do  subrange  a d j e c t i v e subrange s i g n i f i c a n t .  F  presenta-  d f = 1 , 3 1 2 , p<.001 f o r t h e f a s t p r e s e n t a t i o n , r a t e ; F = 8 . 7 5 ,  df = 1 , 3 1 2 , p<.001 f o r t h e s l o w e r not d i f f e r  was b a s e d ,  here  o f v a r i a n c e w e r e p e r f o r m e d on t h e d a t a s e p a r a t e l y  rates.  negative)  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  t h e M- d i f f e r e d f r o m t h e L and H a d j e c t i v e s ;  t h e H a d j e c t i v e s d i f f e r e d f r o m t h e M+.  o f an a n a l y s i s  o f v a r i a n c e p e r f o r m e d on t h e e x t r e m i t y d a t a  PRESENTATION •  c-  • H  r M+  RATE  •  1/3.0 SEC.  -o  1/ 1.5 SEC.  1  1  M-  L  "LIKEABLENESS" SUBRANGE FIGURE 3 LATENCIES OF INDEPENDENT.S  and 0 JUDGEMENTS AS A  FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVE " L I KEABLENE'SS" (n=40)  29.  are given  i n T a b l e 5.  N o t a b l e among t h e r e s u l t s  I n s e r t Table 5 about  d i d not a f f e c t the magnitude of apparatus.  The e f f e c t s o f  dent judgements  under t h e t h r e e c r i t e r i a .  the  T a b l e 4 g i v e s t h e mean d e f l e c t i o n s o f As  and f o r e v e n s m a l l e r movements  U n d e r t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n t h e b i m o d a l s a m p l e d w o r d s m u s t be t a k e n independent There  c a n be s e e n ,  there  list  indepen-  is a tendency  slightly  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  into account  is a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of  lists  t o be made u n d e r t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n .  r e p l i c a t i o n corresponding  i n c r e a s e by a b o u t o n e u n i t u n d e r a l l  in the s e r i e s .  the judgement c r i t e r i a generalization  is  As w i t h t h e g e n e r a l  on t h e  later  the s i g n i f i c a n t  corresponding  later positive  decrease  lists.  However,  i n t e r a c t i o n of  t o a decrease A l l other  l a s t h a l f of  list  the the  list each  i d e n t i c a l t c the judgements ( A n d e r s o n ' s Ss  were  in  running  with  the  latencies,  counter to  composition  types e l i c i t e d  Categorization Extremity to Likeableness t h e 0 c r i t e r i o n employed  to a tendency  criteria  in the e x t r e m i t y of  R e l a t i o n of  Although  the  lists.  during  a r e based  in  increased p r a c t i c e with  deflections  strictly  letters  in examining t h e magnitude of  l a r g e r d e f l e c t i o n s w o u l d seem t o r e f l e c t  replication  first  judgements.  deflections to  later  the  pointer  s m a l l e r d e f l e c t i o n s t o be made u n d e r t h e 0 c r i t e r i o n t h a n u n d e r t h e Ob  criterion,  for  on t h e  j u d g e m e n t c r i t e r i o n and c o m p o s i t i o n o f  significant.  rate  here  independent judgements  are both h i g h l y  for  is t h a t presentation  with  the ratings  slightly  larger  series.  Rating  in the p r e s e n t experiment  on w h i c h t h e  likeableness  i n s t r u c t e d t o ' ' t h i n k of  a person  is  not  ratings as  this  being  to  30.  TABLE 5 Analysis For Extremity of  Source  -  1  Rate  Variance  Independent  df.  Presentation  of  Judgements  SS_ 10. 9  Error  MS ( d f )  fi-  0 . 15  10.9  ns  Cri terion  2  6068. 7 3034.4  162.3  (46)  18.70  < .001  List  3  2625. 1  875.0  61.7  (69)  14.19  < .001  Replication  1  432. 5  432.5  58.6  (23)  7.38  < .025  Rate X C r i t e r i o n  2  80. 7  40.3  0.56  ns  3  199. 8  66.6  0.92  ns  R a t e X Rep 1 i c a t i o n  1  184. 9  184.9  2.56  ns  Criterion  X  Composition  6  794. 3  132.4  84.8  (138)  1 .56  ns  Criterion  X Replication  2  53. 7  26.8  48.0  (46)  0.56  ns  3  832. 9  284.3  46.6  (69)  6 . 1 1 < .005  23  4982. 9  216.7  Error  1 146  82692. 0  72.3  Total  1727  139400.0  Composition  Rate X  Composition  Composition Subjects  X Replication  .  31.  described of  an  by t h e a d j e c t i v e " ( A n d e r s o n ,  i d e a l companion  in the c r i t e r i a . 7-point  of  the opposite  The a s s o c i a t i o n  s c a l e of  favourabi i i t y  1968, sex),  p.272) there  r a t h e r than  i s a good d e a l  between t h e r a t i n g s  obtained  o r d e s i r e a b i I i t y employed  p o i n t e r d e f l e c t i o n s u n d e r t h e 0_ c r i t e r i o n p r o v i d e a b a s i s w i t h t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n .  The a s s o c i a t i o n  and t h e d e f l e c t i o n s o b t a i n e d of  between t h e  about each  for  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , 65 o f t h e 8 Ss  who c a t e g o r i z e d e a c h o f  Two r a n k - o r d e r  likeableness  ness a d j e c t i v e s criterion tively.  were  criterion, of  .781  and  .697  a  indication  draw on n o r m a t i v e  study,  l a r g e p o r t i o n of  l a t e n c y and  Accordingly,  likeableness  informa-  the  deflections separately  rating  for  .579  adjectives, respectively. association  the v a r i a n c e  beyond  The s i z e o f  the  and  .126  All .001  likeable-  were  but t h e level  respec-  obtained last  - the  coeflast  t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e 0_  likeableness  sample  size  s t r u c t u r e accounts  i n t h e 0_ c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s .  i s much p o o r e r  criterion;  adjectives,  r e s p o n s e f r e e d o m and s m a l l  suggest t h a t the  that  The o b t a i n e d c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e 0  c o e f f i c i e n t s of  increased  hand, the correspondence  extremity  and n e g a t i v e  f o r p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e  not s i g n i f i c a n t .  despite the  the present  ratings  The mean d e f l e c t i o n f o r e a c h a d j e c t i v e  ( M - and L s u b r a n g e s ) .  indicate significant is  the  comparison  c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed f o r each  F o r t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n ,  coefficient  for  likeableness  a d j e c t i v e s O H and M+ s u b r a n g e s ) ;  f o r p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e ficient  by A n d e r s o n and  t h e s e 65 a d j e c t i v e s w e r e  was t h e n c o m p a r e d w i t h A n d e r s o n ' s n o r m a t i v e  positive  for  t h e s e were u n i q u e .  t o t a l l e d f o r t h e 0_ and S_ c r i t e r i a .  adjective.  overlap  trait.  Of t h e 72 a d j e c t i v e s w h i c h w e r e s a m p l e d of  of  from the  i n t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n wi I I p r o v i d e an  the e x t e n t t o which the s e l f - c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s  tion  thinking  On t h e  f o r t h e _S_ c r i t e r i o n .  other  Moreover,  for  this  relationship  for negative adjectives  positive  adjectives.  response  to a personality  essentially  Cumulative  This  trait  judgements.  will  influence self-ratings  The r e s u l t s  i n T a b l e 6.  of  the  in F i g u r e  three c r i t e r i a .  Examining  the a n a l y s i s  4,  it  is  as  f o r the  cumulative recall  judgement c r i t e r i o n does not f o r the three  measure reach  criteria,  here  i s a p p a r e n t t h a t , e x c e p t f o r t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n rate,  recall  performance  At the f a s t presentation  follows:  Figure  Ob -  4 about  38.58$, 0 -  is  s i m i l a r under  r a t e , mean r e c a l l  by t h e c u m u l a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t . under t h i s  reduced  the three  here  38.06$,  S_ -  35.80$.  W h i l e mean r e c a l l  c r i t e r i o n dropped  u n d e r t h e 0_ c r i t e r i o n was  under  under t h e  In  i n d e p e n d e n t j u d g e m e n t c o n d i t i o n t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n a p p e a r s  conditions  recall  of v a r i a n c e  the r e t e n t i o n p l o t s  Insert  C  for  conditions  l a t e n c y , and e x t r e m i t y d a t a f o r  The e f f e c t o f  the slower presentation  effected  normative  differs  independent judgement  Insert Table 6 about  to the  for  traits.  p a r a l l e l i n g those of  significance.  criteria  less than  Judgements  w e r e c o n d u c t e d on t h e r e c a l l ,  shown  considerably  suggests t h a t the e x t e n t t o which the  p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e  Analyses  are given  is  most  for the  from 59.58$ t o 51.06$,  f r o m 5 0 . 9 2 $ t o 4 7 . 8 3 $ and  u n d e r t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n r e m a i n e d v i r t u a l l y t h e same, 4 5 . 8 3 $ v s .  comparison  I  vs.  mean recall  45.04$.  33.  TABLE 6 Analysis For R e c a l l  of  Variance  Following Cumulative df_  Source  SS  Judgements  MS  Error  MS ( d f )  IF  P_  2 5 7 . 7 2 < .001  1  1845.9  1845.9  Criterion  2  106.4  53.2  18.4  (46)  List  Length  2  2096.9  1048.5  15.2  (46)  List  Composition  3  18.9  6.3  5.7  (69)  1 .10  ns  Rep 1i c a t i o n  1  3.9  3.9  1 1. 1  (23)  0.35  ns  Rate X C r i t e r i o n  2  39.8  19.9  2.78  ns  Rate X  Length  2  88.2  44. 1  6 . 15 < .005  Rate X  Composition  3  4.9  Rate X R e p l i c a t ion  1  50.0  50.0  Criterion  Length  4  26.7  6.7  o.4  (92)  1 .04  ns  Composition  6  64.9  10.8  7.7  (138)  1 .40  ns  Criterion X Replication  2  19. 1  9.5  8.4  (46)  1 . 13  ns  Length X  Composition  6  63.7  10.6  6.5  (138)  1 .63  ns  Length X R e p l i c a t i o n  2  12.9  6.4  7.3  (46)  0.89  ns  Composition X R e p l i c a t i o n  3  22.6  7.5  6. 1  (69)  1 .24  ns  23  4366.8  189.9  Error  909  6510.9  7.2  Total  1727  19649.0  Presentation  X  Criterion X  Subjects  Rate  1 .6  ,t.. .  2.89  ns  6 8 . 9 3 < .001  0.23  ns  6.98  < .01  PRESENTATION 9CH  RATE  1/3.0 S E C 1/1.5 SEC.  80H  RETENTION INTERVAL (SEC.) FIGURE 4 RETENTION PERFORMANCE.FOLLOWING CUMULATIVE JUDGEMENTS  35.  As  is e v i d e n t  length are is  also  highly  rate.  significant.  while recall  Moreover,  F i n a l l y , the  of  the  i n T a b l e 7.  rate  l a t m c y measure Presentation  Mean  Judgement  l a t e n c i e s of  in T a b l e 4. ments  under  However,  it  judgements effected rate, no  c r i t e r i o n and  t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n w e r e is  clear  by t h e c u m u l a t i v e  than  substantial  independent  under  in  latency.  rate are constrained  as  they  t h e r e l a t i o n between  latencies  the slower  r a t e shows a s i m i l a r l y  later  fast  rate declined,  lists. is  highly  were a l s o  significant  significant.  the three c r i t e r i a l a t e n c i e s of  for  are  given  cumulative  both p r e s e n t a t i o n  Indeed,  only  While the  approach for  the f a s t  judge-  rates.  time required  at the  t h e 0_ and S_ c r i t e r i a  judgements:  increase  under t h e  for  cumulative  t h a t t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n was t h e m o s t  requirement.  c u m u l a t i v e judgements  under  the a d d i t i o n a l  the c r i t e r i a  terms  here  composition  longest  t h e s e two  f o r c u m u l a t i v e judgements  judgements,  in comparing  under each of  longer  list  independent  under  list  r e p l i c a t i o n was  r a t e had t h e e x p e c t e d  c u m u l a t i v e judgements  As w i t h  recall  r a t e and  i m p r o v e d on t h e  I n s e r t Table 7 about  effect.  d e c l i n e of  recall  r a t e and  i n t e r a c t i o n of  i n t e r a c t i o n of  indicated that  under t h e slower  the e f f e c t s of  the  i n d i c a t i n g more r a p i d  This  The a n a l y s i s summarized  retention plots,  significant.  significant,  presentation also  from the  faster appear  presentation to  require  t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n shows a latencies at t h i s  the average  interval  presentation  between  adjectives,  i n d e p e n d e n t and c u m u l a t i v e j u d g e m e n t s disproportionate  increase  at  u n d e r t h e 0b_  cri terion. As T a b l e 7 i n d i c a t e s , The mean  latency  the e f f e c t of  in response t o n e g a t i v e  list  composition  adjectives  (1.89  was sec.)  significant. was  about  36.  TABLE 7 Analysis For  Variance  Latency of Cumulative  Source  df.  Presentation  of  Rate  1  SS  Judgements  MS  Error  MS ( d f )  29942.0 29942.0  F_  £.  1359.25  < .001  Criterion  2  961 .5  480.7  31 .6  (46)  15.23  < .001  List  3  367.0  122.3  18. 1  (69)  6.78  < .001  Rep 1 i c a t i o n  1  120.9  120.9  24.5  (23)  4.94  < .05  Rate X C r i t e r i o n  2  7.4  3.7  0.17  ns  Rate X  3  92.9  31 .0  1 .41  ns  R a t e X Rep 1 i c a t i o n  1  259.0  259.0  1 1.76  Criterion X  Composition  6  204.9  34.2  28. 1  (138)  1.22  Criterion X Replication  2  256.0  128.0  31 .5  (46)  4.07  < .025  C o m p o s i t i o n X Repl i c a t i o n  3  252. 1  84.0  21 .7  (69)  3.88  < .025  23  38669.0  1681.3  Error  1 146  25244.0  22.0  Tota 1  1727  78484.0  Composition  Composition  Subjects  < .001 ns  37.  equal  t o t h e mean  latency of  a d j e c t i v e s were c a t e g o r i z e d lists  produced  the  A significant similar  to the  by s e v e r a l while 1.83 In  longest  lists  later positive  sec).  1.76  sec)  _S ( 1 . 9 5  interactions  indicate that,  l a t e n c i e s of  cumulative  The a n a l y s i s summarized  with  of  (1.92  With  rate,  later  lists  presentation of  the  The  This  judgements to  under  was  list  faster  showed  composition,  little  latencies  criteria.  are  to  accompanied  latencies  the slow  series,  (2.01  Taken  r a t e were  under  rate  less s t a b l e over  in  produced response  (1.95  vs.  the 0  (1.77  together,  independent  vs.  difference.  F i n a l l y , much f a s t e r  e f f e c t on  b e t w e e n Ss  manipulation  these  measures.  presentation  rate.  less  is  rate  here  under  the  fast  In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e  c u m u l a t i v e judgements  judgement  of  vs.  judgements, repeated  l a r g e r mean d e f l e c t i o n s  under the slow  r a t e a r e more e x t r e m e and t a k e  in T a b l e 4.  in each  u n d e r t h e 0p_ c r i t e r i o n  in comparison  reflects  latency a n a l y s i s ,  are given  lists  lists  sec.)  moderate  v a r i a n c e on t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n e x t r e m i t y m e a s u r e  r a t e than  The e f f e c t o f  later  lists.  judgements  i n T a b l e 8.  significant.  while  later  I n s e r t Table 8 about  was  Positive  r e p l i c a t i o n , w h i l e the f a s t  little  1.96  sec),  respect  latencies  sec).  sec).  independent  and n e g a t i v e  had  vs.  (1.79  l a t e n c y on t h e  l a t e n c i e s on t h e  Replication or  in  e f f e c t of  t i m e s w e r e o b t a i n e d on t h e 1.72  latency  (1.85  showed s u b s t a n t i a l l y  presentation  longer  faster  interactions.  accord with the o v e r a l l slightly  mean  result obtained  l a t e r moderate  the case of  somewhat  reduction  significant  sec),  extreme a d j e c t i v e s  under  the  fast  findings  presentation  time.  c r i t e r i o n was  At both p r e s e n t a t i o n  significant. rates,  The mean  d e f l e c t i o n s are  extremities greatest  38.  TABLE 8 Analysis For  of Variance  E x t r e m i t y of Cumulative Judgements  SS  MS  1  180.2  180.2  Criterion  2  3000.2  1500.1  109.1  List  3  2289.8  763.3  Rep 1 i c a t i o n  1  144.7  144.7  Rate X C r i t e r i o n  2  197.8  Rate X Composition  3  104.4  Rate X Rep 1 i c a t i o n  1  Criterion  X Composition  6  2768.0  461 .3  Criterion X Replication  2  72.5  Composition X R e p l i c a t i o n  3  194.2  23  7328.7  Source  df.  Presentation  Rate  Composition  Subjects  1 .7  Error  1 146 45728.0  Total  1727  87795.0  Error  MS ( d f )  f_  £.  4.52  <  .05  (46)  13.75  <  .001  51.5  (69)  14.81  <  .001  41 .2  (23)  3.51  ns  98.9  2.48  ns  34.8  0.87  ns  0.04  ns  1 .7  <  47.5 (138)  9.71  36.3  35.7  (46)  1 .02  ns  64.7  30.4  (69)  2.13  ns  318.64 39.9  .001  39.  u n d e r t h e 0_ c r i t e r i o n , Ob j u d g e m e n t s .  As  distribution  first  considering  of  w h i l e S j u d g e m e n t s a r e s l i g h t l y more e x t r e m e t h a n  in the case of  l e t t e r s f o r t h e sampled words must  the magnitude of  cumuI a t i v e 0b_ j u d g e m e n t s .  r e s p e c t t o t h e 0 and S_ c r i t e r i a , ranges  for self-ratings  The r e s u l t s provide the  independent judgements,  however,  i n d i c a t e somewhat  Since  the  independent judgements in g e n e r a l  accord with the  smaIler  list  Iikeableness  magnitude  l i s t s which should  f o r p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e t o e x t r e m e and m o d e r a t e  and m o d e r a t e deflections positive  response  composition  -  positive  l i s t s should,  15.40;  16.02;  negative - 9.97;  s m a l l e r r a n g e o f means  judgement c r i t e r i o n w i t h  U n d e r t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n , extreme -  10.10;  list  analysis  list  11.60;  equal than  The mean  compositions  moderate -  are:  10.12.  f o r t h e 0b_ c r i t e r i o n a r e a s  composition  moderate -  in the a n a l y s i s  t h e e x t r e m i t y means a r e : moderate - 9.63.  Iikeableness  larger  of  10.06.  follows: This  r e f l e c t e d in t h e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n  the magnitude of c u m u l a t i v e judgements b a s e d on t h e  be  s i m i l a r magnitude.  e x t r e m e -- 1 0 . 9 3 ; is  to  Cumulative d e f l e c t i o n s t o extreme  extreme -  t h e r e l e v a n t e x t r e m i t y means  - 9.76;  relatively  lists.  l i k e w i s e , be o f  negative -  ratings  produce d e f l e c t i o n s of  u n d e r t h e 0. c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e v a r i o u s  By c o n t r a s t ,  tional  with  under the 0 c r i t e r i o n i n d i c a t e d  should  deflections  in  under both judgement c o n d i t i o n s .  the a d j e c t i v e s , the cumulative task  tion  The f i n d i n g s  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h Ss made c u m u l a t i v e r e s p o n s e s  lists.  10.57;  be a c k n o w l e d g e d  p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of  t h a t e x t r e m i t i e s were  of  the bimodal  variance.  13.58;  negative  The p o o r e r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  -  between  u n d e r t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n and t h e e x p e c t a -  structure  o f 0 and S_ d e f l e c t i o n s  positive -  of  is  in agreement w i t h t h e c o r r e l a -  in t h e  independent judgement c o n d i t i o n .  In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e e x t r e m i t y mean f o r cumu l a t i v e S_ j u d g e -  40.  ments  of  positive  lists,  recalls  the  i n d e p e n d e n t _S j u d g e m e n t s  and t h e  likeableness  Post-Experimental  Following in which as  they  Questionnaire  the three tape-recorded  recall.  tives  three times.  mental  conditions  was  f r o m 3.6  condition. could  from 23.7  e i t h e r as  had u s e d t o j u d g e  Ss  to 26.2.  In o r d e r  to obtain  three c r i t e r i a , tasks  had  33 o f  t h e 48 Ss  Ss  (I  vs.  been t h e e a s i e s t described  Ss  between adjectives.  t o 9.8  five  minutes  in the  each of  experiment  the  168  the various  range of  standard  following  rate  adjec-  experi-  deviations  t h e C,  1.5  adjectives  (1.5  vs.  free  recall  Ss  3.0),  C ) , o r t h e most r e c e n t c r i t e r i o n following  the Ss  fast  erratic. of  the subjective  t o s t a t e which of  and w h i c h  had  difficulty  the a d j e c t i v e  t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n as e a s i e s t , easiest.  On t h e o t h e r  described  t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n as  t h e most d i f f i c u l t ;  5 f o r t h e 0 and 7 f o r t h e Ob c r i t e r i a . subjective  difficulty  of  cumulative  judgements  on t h e a d j e c t i v e s :  of  It  is  the  interesting  only  t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n was e a s i e s t  (vs.  11 o f 22  Ss  36 o f t h e  Ss  Ss  divided  to note that  increased t h e 24 Ss  in t h e  perform.  3  remaining  t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n was g r e a t l y  to  whi l e o n l y  hand,  the  categorization  been t h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t  t h e S_ c r i t e r i o n as  felt  employed  means f o r  described  condition  were g i v e n  presentation  However,  impressions  were asked  positive  i n t h e mean number o f  a f u n c t i o n of  was more  of  had h e a r d  The  condition  the a d j e c t i v e s .  judgements  Ss  free recall  3.0  had made  series,  all  T h e r e w e r e no d i f f e r e n c e s  judgement  cumulative  was  ratings  the a d j e c t i v e s  point  range of  f o l l o w i n g t h e C,  recall,  type of  At t h i s  The  high correspondence  Data  t o w r i t e down as many o f could  relatively  I  by in  the  requiring this  condition),  41.  w h i l e 6 Ss I  described  condition).  (vs.  only  2  in the  felt  I  in both  tives  to consider  Ss  of  as  d i d Ss  Ss  the  easiest  in the  second  1.5  presentation  second  rate  condition:  w o u l d have p r e f e r r e d more t i m e b e t w e e n a d j e c -  reported that categorizing the  such  loss,  t h e memory o f  the d i g i t s " .  and f r e q u e n c y o f  (8$).  The p e r c e n t a g e s  reporting thoughts  "experimental  24$ o f t h e c o n t r o l  given  adjectives Conditions  m e n t i o n a r e as  0 c r i t e r i o n ( 5 0 $ ) , Ob c r i t e r i o n ( 2 1 $ ) ,  quite closely with figures  percentage of a study  t h e Ss  composition  correspond  rushed  "seemed t o e r a s e  S_ c r i t e r i o n (66%), list  1 in  them.  the o c c u r r e n c e of  and  only  d e s c r i b e d t h e 0 c r i t e r i o n as  who had e n c o u n t e r e d t h e 3.0  rate conditions  98$ o f  occasionally  10 Ss  c r i t e r i o n (vs.  condition).  j u s t as  18 Ss  Finally,  t h e most d i f f i c u l t  Correspondingly,  Surprisingly, apparently  i t as  by D ' Z u r i l l a  follows:  long  f o r t h e S_ and Ob  lists  5  (21$),  criteria  ( 1 9 6 5 ) on  r e l a t e d t o an e g o - t h r e a t e n i n g  repression' :  for  62$ o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  Ss  the task vs.  in only  Ss.  Di s c u s s i o n  The r e s u l t s Experiments  of  I and  Experiment  II.  As  Ml  support  in t h e p r e v i o u s  and e x t e n d t h e f i n d i n g s  studies,  on p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y  i n t e r e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s produced  of  The c r i t e r i a  neutral  items.  items a r e judged task.  interpolated differences  by w h i c h s e m a n t i c o r  a c t as m a n i p u l a t i o n s  of  of  judgements in  recall  potentially affective  the d i f f i c u l t y  of  the  interpolated  42.  Three of  response  interpolated  judgement measure  measures  impression  performance  of  difficulty:  of  the  response.  assumed t o be m o n o t o n i c a I l y f u n c t i o n of  psychological  which p r e d i c t s  made more r e m o t e has of  also the  been  inversely  e x t r a amount o f centre of "strong"  related  t i m e needed  and/or that  greater  retrieval  longer,  from  l a r g e r ensembles  considerably response.  required  and  It  i n more large  plausible  the stimulus  related  is  commonly  as  reflect long  of  a  data  being  supporting judged  t i m e as  a f u n c t i o n of  (Briggs  and S w a n s o n ,  data.  That  is,  less  time.  This  retrieval  latency  In t h i s  been  in s p i t e of from  suggests  alternatives  response numbers  errors. of  errors  apparatus  be  not o n l y  In t h e i r w o r k , in r e t r i e v a l  p r a c t i c e on t h e i r in the p r e s e n t  that  searches noted take Briggs  from  the  members. experiment  to overt  response  u n c e r t a i n t y than  then t h a t  response  uncertainty  is  the  alternative  i t should  should  the  the  from  i n d i c a t e prolonged  regard,  size  1969).  have  from fewer  is  latency  the  r a p i d p o i n t e r d e f l e c t i o n s away  additional  response  more s e n s i t i v e is  of  numbers  by p r o v i d i n g  the continuous  nonverbal  difficulty  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n performance  competition.  and Swanson s o u g h t t o a v o i d  interpolated  t o move t h e p o i n t e r , l a r g e d e f l e c t i o n s  movements  result  The  (1963) p r e s e n t s  as  in the p r e s e n t  (large  larger  of  nature  In a d d i t i o n , c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  searched  of  dimensions  response  but should  However,  point.  the c r i t e r i o n dimension)  responses while small  measure.  the  l a t e n c y measure  Greenberg  difficulty  "ensemble"  categorizations  c e n t r e of  ideal  measures  the c r i t e r i a  measures  related to categorization  related d i r e c t l y to retrieval  l o n g - t e r m memory  t o be  The n o n v e r b a l  decreasing  The two n o n v e r b a l found  recall  of  i s assumed t o be m o n o t o n i c a I Iy  distance.  from t h e  in the study  two n o n v e r b a l  as we I I as a v e r b a l  categorization amplitude  to the strength  a model  h a v e been e m p l o y e d  is  a verbal  manifested  43.  i n s m a l l e r movements hypothesis  offers  on e x t r e m e  ideal  as w e l l  as  longer  the e x p l a n a t i o n positions  reflect a central  idoal  l o c a t i o n of  the  hypotheses,  two s t r o n g  be a s s u r e d  under  that  ideal  secondly,  conditions points  psychophysical case  n e i t h e r of  replications rates  and  stimuli  ideal  has  the  interpolated categorizations  considerable  implications  semantic m a t e r i a l s  since  for  measures  also  p r e d i c t subsequent  further studies  recall.  employing that  cumbersome  be u s e d  t o employ  lated task  d i f f i c u l t y and  as  l a t e n c y as  in c u r r e n t STM.  is that  searched  fn  the  Multiple error  indicate that  experimentally  that could  in  employing  in o r d e r t o e s t i m a t e both  i t suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y  t h e use o f  errors  ensembles  a priori.  i n f e r t h e a t t e n t i o n u t i l i z e d by j u d g e m e n t s  suggests  must  judgement  differences  may be u s e d t o  finding  it  points.  The d a t a f r o m t h e t h r e e r e s p o n s e of  may be a s s u r e d  to  search  in c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  and p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t i v e m a t e r i a l  the  in o r d e r  different  t h e memory  is  displacing  in the d a t a :  then could obtained  w o u l d t h e n seem n e c e s s a r y  l o c a t i o n s of  under  based  i m p l i c a t i o n here  r e s u l t of  be s a t i s f i e d  conditions  are  latencies  The m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n  these  difficulty  d i f f i c u l t y and memory  be no d i f f e r e n c e s Only  criteria.  The the  are not d i s p l a c e d  t h e r e must  long  In c o n c l u s i o n ,  be a t t r i b u t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e s i z e o f  under the judgement  latter  d i f f i c u l t y is  must  with  points.  between t h e d e c i s i o n  the d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a .  latency  ideal  The d e c i s i o n  categorizations  movements  p o i n t on t h e c r i t e r i a d i m e n s i o n s .  discriminate c r i t i c a l l y  criteria;  that "strong"  while small  that differential categorization the  latencies.  an  investigations  of  obtained  This  finding  judgements  latency  be  Moreover,  common  the parameters  of  measures  which would  interpolated task.  an e a s i l y  latencies  of  the  measure interpo-  44.  The m a j o r f i n d i n g s r a t e and t y p e o f interpolated  of  Experiment  judgement  impression  Ml  show t h a t a d j e c t i v e  required also  task.  The  presentation  e f f e c t the d i f f i c u l t y  results  for a l l  of  combinations  the  of  judgement  i  t y p e and j u d g e m e n t  criterion  l e n g t h and c o m p o s i t i o n  produce  p r e s e n t e d more r a p i d l y . all is  criteria  at comparable  these  tion  reduces  that  recall  depends  the  strongly  from t h i s  recall  show d i v e r g e n c e .  under  (i.e.  rehearsal.  way,  9.0  and  faster  for  are  recall 18.0  under sees.)  Taken  r a t e of  This supports  available  comparable  when t h e y  interpolated adjectives.  i n d i c a t e that the  position  the  under  faster  t h a t as  presenta-  the  rehearsal  t h e number o f  rate should  t h e two r a t e s ,  The s i g n i f i c a n t  c u m u l a t i v e judgement  position during  the  d e c l i n e more s h a r p l y .  shown  i n t e r a c t i o n of  condition provides  interpolated  partial  in Figures r a t e and support  2 and 4, list  items Thus  should  length  for divergence  in  the  with  I i sts.  Still e f f e c t of recall  intervals  t h e number o f  recall  2 and 4 a n o t h e r  on t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s  retention curves  Ionger  retention  poorer  l i s t s of  interval.  follows  increases,  Figures  the time a v a i l a b l e for  interpolated It  results  interpolated  substantially  Viewing  c l e a r l y a f u n c t i o n of  together,  indicate that  r e f e r r i n g to Figures  2 and 4 ,  the c u m u l a t i v e judgement  among t h e j u d g e m e n t showed,  adjectives  were a c c u m u l a t i n g .  are capable of  is  maintaining  T a b l e 9 summarizes composition.  there  reason  at  is apparent  c o n d i t i o n was  criteria.  judgements  it  As  the e x t r e m i t y of  these  to believe that Ss'responses  There  is  further evidence to  l e a s t a p o r t i o n of  f e a t u r e of  these  major  t o reduce d i f f e r e n c e s  the p r i o r  r e c a I I u n d e r t h e Ob c r i t e r i o n as  The s t r i k i n g  that the  results  cumulative to  successive  indicate that  Ss  adjectives:  a function is that  in  of  under  I ist a variety  TABLE 9 R e c a l l Under t h e Ob C r i t e r i o n as a F u n c t i o n o f L i s t C o m p o s i t i o n Under V a r i o u s E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n d i t i o n s EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS  LIST COMPOSITION:  EX  POS  EXP. 1 (Male E) Task: Syllables Rate: 1/2.0 s e c . Judgement: Indep. (n=44)  .699  .758  EXP. 2 (Female E) Task: Sy11ab1es Rate: 1/2.0 s e c . Judgement: Indep. (n=44)  .599  .595  EXP. 3 (Male E) Task: A l p h a b e t Loc. Rate: 1/3.0 s e c . Judgement: Indep. (n=72)  .697  .743'  EXP. 3 Task: A l p h a b e t Loc. Rate: 1/3.0 s e c . Judgement: Cumu1. (n=72)  .631  .639  EXP. 3 Task: A l p h a b e t Loc. Rate: 1/1.5 s e c . Judgement: Indep. (n=72)  .454  .554  1  EXP. 3 Task: A l p h a b e t Loc. Rate: 1/1.5 s e c . Judgement: Cumu1. (n=72)  .349  .424  1  1  2  i  COMP  NEG  MOD  .671  .712  .572  .656  2  .654  2  1  .624  -  .701  -  .647  -  2 .5I4  .439  -  • 390  .381  2  .662  .625 '  1  Z  2  46. I n s e r t T ^ b l e 9 n b o u t here  of  adjective randomizations,  types,  recall  superior extends work,  list  the  the  Iikeableness  syllable  imposed  From t h e s e  structural  trait  it  is  results  also  previous  of  the  consistent  midpoint  that while  required processing  location task of  could  the  the  to obtain at  no  t o t h e word as a w h o l e .  as  the a c o u s t i c  response.  Moreover,  i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y  least the j u s t previous In  short,  but about 0.05  It would appear  It  bears  adjective according  repeating that  neither  processing.  indicate that  seconds of  the  indicate that  individually  extraneous rate  and  a d j e c t i v e be  the results  the a d j e c t i v e s  of  in o r d e r  that  the semantic or a f f e c t i v e c o n t e n t of  non-affective criterion.  full  be e c o n o m i c a l l y  the a d j e c t i v e s with  as w e l l  nor the procedure encouraged  between a d j e c t i v e s . the a d j e c t i v e s  be o b s e r v e d  studies  e a c h new w o r d .  required a l l  in the  on b o t h s i d e s  l a t e n c i e s under the f a s t e r p r e s e n t a t i o n  Ob j u d g e m e n t s  considerably  c l e a r that semantic or a f f e c t i v e content  in a d d i t i o n t o p r o c e s s i n g  instructions  fell  should  initial  semantic c o n t e n t of  to the non-semantic  mean  list  required f o r the overt  in p r o c e s s i n g  As  is  as a f u n c t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e a d j e c -  t h e f i r s t phonemes  were c o v e r t l y p r o c e s s i n g  the  studies.  III  n o n - a f f e c t i v e c r i t e r i o n produced  a d j e c t i v e s was p r o c e s s e d  properties  a f f e c t i v e or  sequences,  initial  judgement  interpolated adjectives  by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t o r e s p o n d  such a p a t t e r n of  available  It  in t h e  only  findings,  personality  Ss  ratings.  r a t e s , and  Thus E x p e r i m e n t  the a d j e c t i v e , the alphabet  performed employing necessity  recall  interpolated  t a s k employed  length of  for  non-semantic,  in subsequent  comprising  in t h e  presentation  negative  compositions.  the e f f e c t observed  an o s t e n s i b l y  tives of  f o l l o w i n g p o s i t i v e or  to other  differences  0b_ t a s k s ,  cumulative  the average  time  then t h a t the semantic m o n i t o r i n g  i s an a u t o m a t i c r e s p o n s e  Indeed,  r a t h e r than a f u n c t i o n of  of  surplus  47.  opportunities available for I t was ableness of  interest,  opportunities.  separate  encoding  shifts  c o n s t r u c t e d s o as  classes  M - and  in W i c k e n s '  between c l a s s e s .  t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y vary  subrange to another,  instances  The H and Mt v s .  t h e n , t o examine whether decrements  i n t h e number o f  a review of  where c o m p a r i s o n  sons of  3-word  12-word  lists.  increase  Nine of  the  four of  6-word  the f i v e 6-word latter  was  is.of an  were  shifts  increase  not  from one  possible:  decrement  shifts:  o n l y one s h i f t . affect  of  accompanying  both of  f i v e of  In  13  2 compari-  the  and t h r e e o f  however,  adjec-  afforded  l i s t s and 6 c o m p a r i s o n s  comparisons,  t h e p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e  It  sequences  a recall  instances,  involved a d i f f e r e n c e of  of m o n i t o r i n g of  shifts  p o s i t i v e to negative  In t h e  lists  expense  presumably  accompany  the  the randomized  of  sense.  in r e c a l l  I Ike—  at the  L subranges  t h e number o f  t h e number o f  list  (1970)  Although  13 c a s e s showed  i n t h e number o f  comparisons.  comparisons  of  l i s t s , 5 comparisons  word c o m p a r i s o n s , 12-word  from p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e  a d j e c t i v e s may draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e a d j e c t i v e  constitute  an  occur.  suggested e a r l i e r t h a t a s h i f t  rehearsal  tive  i t to  the  the  summary,  3-  a  in the a d j e c t i v e s  six  available process is  sup-  p o r t e d by t h e d a t a f r o m Ob. j u d g e m e n t s . It of  appears  proactive  e f f e c t of  l i s t s which would presumably  i n t e r f e r e n c e ( i . e . , c o n t a i n a s h i f t of  the e f f e c t of  speculative.  This  this is  process  due,  on r e c a l l  Wickens'  release e f f e c t w i t h a s h i f t of encoding  attention.  The W i c k e n s  paradigm,  of  by r e q u i r i n g  items.  the neutral  (1970)  class  in  encoding c l a s s )  in p a r t , t o c o n f u s i o n  term " a t t e n t i o n " in comparable t a s k s . the  result  i n t e r f e r i n g r e t r o a c t i v e l y on t h e t o - b e - r e c a I Ied  the nature of remains  that those  release have  the  However, items  i n t h e use o f  the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  makes  retrieval  no e x p l i c i t use following  each  of  48.  trigram .  serves  ;  study.  t o make t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  On t h e o t h e r  serial  presentation of  t h e p r e s e n t work. (1968)  f o r S:  model o f  uniformly throughout  that the process  of  neither recall  impression-formation  t h e same s t i m u I us. m a t e r i a Is  A t t e n t i o n serves  linear serial  decrease is  hand, A n d e r s o n ' s  more d i s c r e t e t h a n  as  as w e r e  the weighting  the process,  but  a  import of  list.  The  semantic encoding nor o v e r t  is  is  term  usually  in the  present  parddigm  employs  interpolated in  Anderson's  assumed  the present  to findings  i n c i d e n t a l t o the task  u t i l i z a t i o n of  in  posed  the semantic content  is  requ i r e d . The s t r e n g t h  of  the findings  the semantic m a t e r i a l s r o l e of a t t e n t i o n The a n a l y s e s quantitative adjectives tative  in t h e o r d e r e f f e c t s observed  in  of  in Experiment  less  ties Ss'  judged  s t r u c t u r e of  of  the  the high  are well  l a t e n c i e s of  of  described  of  and on  with respect to self recall ideal  of  the  formation. III  indicate  personality-trait The  quanti-  consistently  take  the neutral material  date.  In  addition,  in t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  to  the  the a d j e c t i v e s . c o r r e l a t i o n s between likeableness  support  t h e des i reab i I i t y of  independent  ratings  these judgements,  c u m u l a t i v e 0_ j u d g e m e n t s ,  judgements  impression  in p r o c e s s i n g  i n r e f e r e n c e t o an  t h e 0_ c r i t e r i o n and t h e of  interpolating  i d e a l i z e d other or to S himself.  show c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e s  Specifically,  analysis  employed  e x t r e m e , and p r o d u c e p o o r e r  t h e two c r i t e r i a likeableness  measures  show t h a t j u d g e m e n t s  t h a n t h e same w o r d s  under  response  when a p p l i e d t o an  are  the technique of  f o r f u t u r e w o r k b o t h on e n c o d i n g c l a s s e s  and q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s  results  longer,  recommends  the a d j e c t i v e s ,  as w e l l  the a s s e r t i o n  personality  by A n d e r s o n ' s o r i g i n a l  of  ratings.  judgements  as  The  t h e mean e x t r e m i -  that,  traits  the  by and  i n an  ideal  large, date-  latencies plotted  49.  i n F i g u r e 3 f o r 0. j u d g e m e n t s the p a t t e r n obtained and A v a n t middle of of  1969)  ;  in judgements  with  long  the stimulus  the range.  This  of  psychophysical  l a t e n c i e s f o r judgements  range  and d e c l i n i n g  hand,  in judging  the r e s u l t s  association adjectives  than  in Figure  subranges than the tive  adjectives,  negative  expectation  likeableness rapidly question alities  ratings  whether  for positive or  from t h e two n o n v e r b a l an  index of  measure in o r d e r  i s much more  individuals negative measures  l a t e n c i e s of  pattern for the  in r a t i n g s  of  self.  likely  in s e l f - r a t i n g s  ratings  closer  traits.  in g r e a t e r  traits  Nonetheless,  f o r the a d j e c t i v e s .  of  i t as  nega-  moderately  Conversely,  accord with  the  the  w e r e more  t h e i r own  the  person-  indications  The s e n s i t i v i t y o f  favours  of  P u t a n o t h e r way,  receives opposite  employed.  positive  from  to " r e j e c t "  have a b e t t e r n o t i o n of  to evaluate the correspondence  likeableness  the  negative  Thus w h i l e d e p a r t u r e  m o d e r a t e l y p o s i t i v e words  categorization difficulty  of  breaks  independent  the  c a t e g o r i z e d than e x t r e m e l y p o s i t i v e words. of  Anderson  However,  a more o r t h o d o x  the words,  extremes  of  p o s i t i v e a d j e c t i v e s were of  the  s t r u c t u r e and S_ j u d g e m e n t s  t r a i t s than t o " a c c e p t " e x t r e m e l y n e g a t i v e of  the  i n d i c a t e much  i t w o u l d a p p e a r t o be more d i f f i c u l t  w h i l e S_ j u d g e m e n t s  near  F i r s t , the analyses  f o r the p o s i t i v e a d j e c t i v e s .  likeableness  stimuli  Bevan  i n d i c a t e t h a t the correspondence  lists.  3 portray  (e.g.  others.  likeableness  for negative  resemble  i d e n t i f i e d by  i n d e p e n d e n t and c u m u l a t i v e S. j u d g e m e n t s between t h e  S_ j u d g e m e n t s  of  l a t e n c i e s towards  down d i f f e r e n t i a l l y u n d e r t h e S _ c r i t e r i o n . e x t r e m i t y of  rate  stimuli  suggests t h a t the four subranges  define a v i a b l e dimension On t h e o t h e r  under t h e s l o w e r p r e s e n t a t i o n  latency  as  interpretative  the a m p l i t u d e measure the judgements  to the  is  necessary  available  50.  A l a c k of relevant  available stimulus  information  is,  materials  in p a r t ,  the t o p i c .  The m a i n  impetus  information  has  indirectly -  "repression". 1969; tion  Even  Berquist, processing  methodology  come  has  though  Lewinsohn, terms,  due t o t h e n a r r o w  for experimental  several et a l .  as W e i n e r  been t o c o m p a r e  1968) (1968)  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s are  that  traits.  finer discriminations  d i f f e r e n c e s are and m e a s u r e s thinking  about  ourselves.  of  has  items.  (e.g.  re-cast observed,  The p r e s e n t involved  w i t h any  single  in e x p l o r i n g  Holmes  and  a fundamental  Schallow,  in  or  informa-  "threatening" indicate  i n r a t i n g one s e l f  measure,  of  prevailing  findings  In a d d i t i o n , t h e m e a s u r e s  on  self-relevant  the  "dangerous"  self-  studies  the problem  occur w i t h i n each c a t e g o r y .  not apparent  are c a l l e d for  have  r e t e n t i o n of  different  likeableness  processing  range of  studies  recent studies  t o presumably  low  neutral  of  from attempts t o t e s t the notion  materials  and  for studies  employed Since  on  that high  suggest  these  a v a r i e t y of phenomenon:  finer methods  51 B i bI  iography  A n d e r s o n , N. L i k e a b l e n e s s r a t i n g s o f 555 p e r s o n a l i t y - t r a i t J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1968, 9 , A n d e r s e n , N. 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P e r c e p t u a l Motor S k i l l s , 1963,  2,  r e a c t i o n time 16, 5 9 5 - 5 9 6 .  B e r g q u i s t , W., L e w i n s o h n , P . , S u e , D., and F l i p p o , J . S h o r t and l o n g t e r m memory f o r v a r i o u s t y p e s o f s t i m u l i a s a f u n c t i o n o f r e p r e s s i o n sens i t i z a t ion . J o u r n a l of Experiment Research in P e r s o n a l i t y , 1968, 3, 2 8 - 3 8 . B e v a n , W. and A v a n t , L. Response l a t e n c y , response u n c e r t a i n t y , i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s m i t t e d and t h e number o f a v a i l a b l e j u d g e m e n t a l c a t e g o r i e s . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1968, 7 6 , 3 9 4 - 3 9 7 . B r i g g s , G. and S w a n s o n , J . Retrieval ensemble s i z e . Quarterly Journal 21, 185-191.  t i m e as a f u n c t i o n o f memory of Experimental Psychology, 1969,  B u s c h k e , H. a n d L e n o n , R. P e r c e p t u a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and P e r c e p t i o n and P s y c h o p h y s i c s , 1969, 5, 3 3 8 - 3 4 0 . D i l l o n , R. and R e i d , L. S h o r t - t e r m memory as processing during the r e t e n t i o n i n t e r v a l . P s y c h o l o g y , 1969, 8 1 , 2 6 1 - 2 6 9 .  encoding.  a f u n c t i o n of information Journal of Experimental  D ' Z u r i l l a , T. R e c a l l e f f i c i e n c y and m e d i a t i n g c o g n i t i v e e v e n t s i n "experimental repression." J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1965, 1, 2 5 3 - 2 5 7 . Greenberg, 1963, Hick,  M. 28,  J - s c a l e models 265-271.  for preference behaviour.  W. On t h e r a t e o f g a i n o f i n f o r m a t i o n . E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1952, 4 , 1 1 - 2 6 .  Psychometri ka,  Quarterly Journal  of  52.  H o l m e s , D, and S c h a l l o w , J . 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W i l e y and S o n s ,  Monographs,  repression.  1966,  JournaI  Encoding c a t e g o r i e s of words: an e m p i r i c a l a p p r o a c h P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 1970, 7 7 , 1-15.  W i c k e n s , D. and C l a r k , S. Osgood d i m e n s i o n s a s an e n c o d i n g c l a s s s h o r t - t e r m memory. J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1968, 580-584.  to  in 78,  APPENDIX A d j e c t i v e Sequences  Series  Employed  A in Experiment  III  1  12609 lonely excitable noi sy thrifty conf i dent fearfuI  50496 c o o p e r a t i ve he 1pfu1 thoughtfu1 impo1i t e se1f-centered vuIgar  70158 ungratefu1 i r r i tab 1 e capab le i ns i nee r e i m a g i n a t i ve eff ici ent  45839 modest i nteI Ii gent neat proud f o r g i v i ng witty systemati c logica1 unpredi c t a b l e s e 1 f - c r i t i ca 1 po1i t e qu i e t  31074 impracticaI c o w a r d Iy i n d e c i s i ve care I ess unreIi able o v e r s e n s i t i ve unhappy jealous u n a p p r e c i a t i ve b o r i ng con f o r m i s t clumsy  40738 patient stud ious s e 1 f - c o n f i dent  92614 I azy unski I led d i sagreeabIe i nsecure a b s e n t - m i nded i rrationaI  09754 a lert u n f r i e n d 1y we 1 1 - m a n n e r e d  35904 cons i d e r a t e s e n t i mentaI prompt 21365 warm greedy punctua1 d i scourteous humourous unse1f i sh di s t r u s t f u 1 c r e a t i ve enthus i a s t i c e g o t i s t i ca1 p r e j u d i ced obnoxious 72459 outgo!ng moody• worrier  84706 mora 1 i dea1i s t i c i ndi f f e r e n t c r i t i ca1 unhea1 t h y p r a c t i ca1 m a t e r i a 1i s t i c popu1ar obed i e n t tidy demand i n g op i n i o n a t e d 54927 p1easant to lerant se1f-assured i nqu i s i t i v e happy a g g r e s s i ve 29136 co 1 d superstitious i ncompetent  95372 d e c p t i ve concei ted dependent stubborn sad i rritating 69571 rebeI 1ious c a Im nonconformi ng 86329 courteous c lever dependab1e quarrelsome b r o a d - m i nded 1oud-mouthed trustfu1 hostile s e n s i b1e comp1 a i n i ng i rrespons i b l e nosey 34108 p e r s u a s i ve s o c i ab1e c u r i ous ambi t i o u s trustworthy ta lented 93847 i mpu1s i ve gu1 1 i b l e d a r i ng nervous timid  possess!ve exci ted unemotiona1 unobservant perfection isti c carefu1 shy 41925 boastfu 1 reckless se1f-conscious 03814 unconventionaI u n t i dy e a s y g o i ng temperamenta1 forgetfu1 o r d e r 1y 27431 gossipy s i1ent argumentat i ve i1 1-mannered sarcasti c un imag i n a t i ve se 1 f i sh i neons i s t e n t n a r r o w - m i nded rude unpuntuca1 g1oomy 67053 unpleasant d i sobed i e n t truthful 18397 r e 1 i ab l e s e r i ous pers i s t e n t cheerfu1 t a 1 k a t i ve humble bold kind cautious responsi b l e observant f r i e n d 1v  5A.  APPENDIX A d j e c t We^Sequences Series  Emp I o y e d  A  i n Experiment  III  2  04718 capabIe d a r i ng trustworthy pers i s t e n t o u t g o i ng cautious a lert bold logicaI eff i ci ent re I i abIe seIf-assured 61807 r e b e I I i ous unhappy s e r i ous c a Im s t u d i ous stubborn 36972 n a r r o w - m i nded c r i t i caI unobservant 85179 conce i t e d prompt u n a p p r e c i a t i ve i mag i n a t i ve we I I - m a n n e r e d Ioud-mouthed 10853 a r g u m e n t a t i ve un i mag i n a t i v e nosey vu1gar sarcasti c unski I led nervous u n p r a c t i caI i ncompetent greedy g o s s i py 65280 modest popuIar sensi ble  27549 truthfuI care I ess w i tty observant i r r i t a t i ng unp I e a s a n t unse I f i sh courteous h o s t i Ie j e a I ous e g o t i s t i caI  73058 cheerf uI cold f o r g i v i ng humorous ungratefuI seIf-centered  72056 poIi te i nqu i s i t i v e respons i b l e cI e v e r thrifty s e I f - c o n f i dent  31596 p r a c t i caI e r e a t i ve c o o p e r a t i ve warm i n t e I Ii g e n t he I p f u 1 enthus i a s t i c sentimenta1 obed i e n t carefu1 a g g r e s i ve  09514 unpunctua1 i nsecure p e r f e c t i on i s t i c  95407 i dea1i s t i c .temperamenta 1 t i dy  69704 c1umsy o v e r s e n s i t i ve i ndi f f e r e n t s e 1 f i sh g1oomy boastfu1  18572 un r e 1 i ab 1 e si lent worrier i rrationa1 se1f-conscious comp1 a i n i ng lone 1 y rude i r r i t a b 1e moody u n t i dy d i scourteous  18394 b r o a d - m i nded unf r i e n d Iy cons i d e r a t e 48926 humbIe e a s y g o i ng p o s s e s s i ve s o c i abIe dependent unconventionaI unhea I t h y exci ted supersti tious i n d e c i s i ve timid p e r s u a s i ve  57386 friendly e x c i t a b 1e p1easant 23708 c u r i ous t a 1 k a t i ve conform i s t mora 1 m a t e r i a 1i s t i c qu i e t reck 1 ess  systemati c i neons i s t e n t fearfu1 p roud gu1 1 i b 1 e 53280 noi sy disobedient i1 1 - m a n n e r e d 81354 n o n c o n f o r m i ng a b s e n t - m i nded unemot i o n a I shy unpred i c t a b I e forgetfuI 40537 i rrespons i bIe neat happy p r e j u d i ced b o r i ng taIented thoughtfu I q u a r r e I some impoIi t e punctuaI kind d i strustfuI 96305 I azy op i n i o n a t e d sad c o w a r d Iy di s a g r e e a b l e demand i ng 72586 i ns i n c e r e to Ierant o b n o x i ous 85349 dependabIe patient s e I f - c r i t i caI trustfuI o r d e r ly  APPENDIX A d j e c t i ve Seauences Series  A  Employed in E x p e r i m e n t  III  3  71026 amb i t i ous gossipy b o r i ng  36908 mora I i deaIisti c timid  28735 systemati c happy courteous  05931 unpred i ctab i e i nte11i gent bo 1 d dependab l e f o r g i v i ng humb1e  67053 unemotionaI a b s e n t - m i nded di s c o u r t e o u s b o r i ng seIf-conscious n a r r o w - m i nded  51472 a r g u m e n t a t i ve nervous serious obed i e n t unobservant perfection isti c shy s t u d i ous c r i t i caI e a s y g o i ng conform!st impracticaI  25389 t a I k a t i ve cons i d e r a t e a lert neat re I i a b I e excited i mag i n a t i ve unconvent i onaI t i dy observant orderly i nqu i s i t i ve  62950 carefuI conf i dent c a Im soc i abIe i neons i s t e n t no i sy se I f - a s s u r e d reck I ess un i m a g i n a t i ve o u t g o i ng demand i ng forgetfuI  95780 I azy i rrespons i b I e cIumsy  58274 d i sobed i e n t enthus i a s t i c i mpoIi t e cheerfu I we I I - m a n n e r e d co I d  07438 proud d a r i ng n o n c o n f o r m i ng s u p e r s t i t i ous unhea I t h y u n t i dy 80927 unp I e a s a n t u n s e I f i sh conce i ted c r e a t i ve po I i t e I eg i caI boastfuI w i tty deceptive • c o o p e r a t i vo q u a r r o I some gIoomy  14039 curious e x c i t a b Ie punctuaI 97056 i nd i f f e r e n t nosey m a t e r i a Ii s t i c i I l-mannered worri er dependent r e b e I Ii o u s moody e g o t i s t i caI greedy i rritating h o s t i Ie  31574 thoughtfuI i r r i t a b Ie rude prompt respons i bIe p r e j u d i ced f r i endly taIented eff i cient c o w a r d Iy compI a i n i n g jealous 74625 fearfuI p o s s e s s i ve unfriendly  32089 i ncompetent ungratefuI tolerant c I eve r vu I g a r sens i bIe  50362 i nsecure p r a c t i caI sad sarcasti c modest popuIar  19634 s i I ent s e I f - c o n f i dent sutbbcrn  08752 Ioudmouthed he I p f u I patient  49302 pIeasant capabIe thri fty i m p u s I i ve b r o a d - m i nded a g g r e s s i ve p e r s u a s i ve cautious k i nd qu i e t trustfuI humorous  85962 warm trustworthy s e I f - c r i t i caI sentimentaI truthful pers i s t e n t  63714 i n d e c i s i ve unappreciative un r e I i ab I e I one Iy unhappy s e I f i sh  46375 guI I i b I e obnoxious unpunctuaI o v e r s e n s i t i ve op i n i o n a t e d care less se I f - c e n t e r e d unskiI led temperamentaI d i sagreeabIe i rrationa1 i ns i nee r e  APPENDIX  TAPE RECORDED T h a n k you p a r t o f my to  the  master's degree r e s e a r c h  preferences  procedure  i n v o l v e s a new  sincere  specific  as  You  may  your a t t e n t i o n f o r you  will  be  may  be  i t as a n a l o g o u s  The  major f e a t u r e s of  s u m m a r i z e d as f o l l o w s - you  t a s k s as we  reach  them  in the  i n c o m p u t e r d a t i n g t e c h n i q u e s , we  impressions.  no w r o n g o r  F o r most o f t h e t a s k s you  right  responses.  individual's  regard  of computer d a t i n g .  in the experiment  First,  You  will  the be  procedure.  are  interested  will  m u s t be t h e  to  perform,  in  your  there  will  judge of the accuracy  of  responses. Second,, t h i s  compatibility  experiment  i s concerned  leading to p o s i t i v e questions matters  concerning  religious  your  a t i o n one perform  task  you  priate  f o r the  The  experimenter  be  asked other  the  items  rate.  from t h e  with a small  t o any  will  usual  are presented  Secondly,  you  f o r your  will  number o f a l t e r n a t i v e  along  the  consider-  be a s k e d  impressions.  have g r e a t e r r e s p o n s e  position  questionnaire  to  Thirdly, responses  f r e e d o m by  s c a l e you  moving  consider  appro-  item.  experiment  receive verbal  is divided into 3 tape-recorded  instructions  as w e l l  sequence of events further  Firsts  t o s e l e c t among, you  the p o i n t e r apparatus  not  nature.  in a d d i t i o n to g i v i n g your  i n s t e a d o f p r o v i d i n g you  will  factors  impressions of v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s ,  at a time, at a fixed  a recall  Thus you  a r e employed which d i f f e r  in computer d a t i n g .  with other  in the  preference, e t h n i c background, or  o r economic  T h i r d , to assess techniques  which are compatible  f e e l i n g s of a t t r a c t i o n .  of a s o c i a l  several  only with the psychological  of p r o s p e c t i v e dating p a r t n e r s , t h a t i s , f a c t o r s  p e r s o n a l i t y make-up o f p e r s o n s  for  and  represents  m e t h o d f o r a s s e s s i n g an  for personality-traits.  i n s t r u c t e d on  used  in psychology  t o t h e t a s k s which a r e posed  the well-known techniques  your  This study  appreciated.  This experiment  be  INSTRUCTIONS  f o r coming t o the experiment.  i n s t r u c t i o n s and  greatly  56.  B  on  instructions.  as  f o r the  first  several practice  the tape.  Please  segments.  p a r t of the procedure items  t o a c q u a i n t you  remove t h e  You  will  from with  h e a d p h o n e s now  and  the the await  57. APPENDIX  COMMON  my c o n c e r n  compatibility feeling  r a t h e r than  t h a t because  questonnaires first just  in a l i t t l e  of a l l , of determining  do n o t t e l l  is of h i s  the question  very  c a r e f u l l y before replying.  computer d a t i n g done of  techniques  o r "weak"  item.  We  a d i r e c t question, the has  i t c o u l d be an his  I t was w i t h t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s o f  i n mind t h a t  I devised  F o r example, t h e words " s i n c e r e " ,  are a d j e c t i v e s which t e l l  l i s t s of d i f f e r e n t lengths.  them  into  terms.  you s o m e t h i n g  arranged  this  task.  What  I  have  pointer  according  to the i n s t r u c t i o n s  i n f r o n t o f you t o a p o s i t i o n  side.  I will  along  The p o i n t e r a p p a r a t u s  Each movement o f t h e p o i n t e r only  t h e end p o i n t s  place verbal it will should  This  is your  centre of the s c a l e . spoken.  This  like  t h e s e and  P a r t of your task  lists will  points  the s c a l e .  As t h e w o r d s  along  t h e s c a l e you f e e l  i s r e p r o d u c e d on t h e p o l y g r a p h .  to correspond  is arranged  Shortly  is followed  rough b o u n d a r i e s task,  As y o u I  will But  t h e words  l e t me  F i r s t you w i l l  Position  hear a  the pointer at the  the buzzer, a 5 - d i g i t  i m m e d i a t e l y by t h e f i r s t  out-  t o the i n s t r u c t i o n s .  on t h e t a p e .  t o get ready. after  in t h e  i s c o n n e c t e d t o a pen r e c o r d e r  To e x p l a i n t h e o t h e r p a r t o f y o u r  signal  be  g i v e y o u by m o v i n g t h e  be up t o y o u t o d e c i d e w h e r e w i t h i n t h e s e  d e s c r i b e t h e way t h e l i s t buzzer.  a b o u t t h e p e r s o n who  and t h e c e n t r e o f t h e s c a l e a r e p r o v i d e d .  labels at these  be c a t e g o r i z e d .  5  A number o f t h e s e  a r e s D o k e n , y o u move t h e p o i n t e r t o p o s i t i o n s  are appropriate.  " f o o l i s h ' , "respectab I e",  I have t a k e n words  be p r e s e n t e d t o y o u o v e r t h e h e a d p h o n e s .  respond  see,  addition  i m p o r t a n t t h a t he c o n s i d e r s  in t h e s e  list  In  I t c o u l d be t h a t t h e p e r s o n  w o u l d be d e s c r i b e d  to  are.  i s t o s e l e c t a number o f a d j e c t i v e s w h i c h d e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e s  personality.  will  from  i s no w a y ,  i n q u i t e t h i s way b e f o r e , o r i s so  in  i t i s my  s p e n t on e a c h  t o answer  reply.  have  answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  us how l o n g t h e p e r s o n i t takes  I  information  feels s p e c i f i c questions  i r r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n , o r one w h i c h reply  Secondly,  leisure there  from t h e p e r s o n ' s  in g e n e r a l , t h a t the longer  As  involved  schemes g e t t h e i r  : :  out at t h e i r  how i m p o r t a n t t h e i n d i v i d u a l  never considered  factors  socioeconomic matters.  "computer dating  less c e r t a i n t h e person  more d e t a i l .  is with psychological  which people f i l l  questionnaires know  here  (cont'd)  INSTRUCTIONS  L e t me e x p l a i n t h e p r o c e d u r e indicated,  B  number w i l l  a d j e c t i v e in t h e  be list.  APPENDIX  You s h o u l d spoken,  categorizing  appropriate position. regular succession.  it  b u t when t h e f i r s t a d j e c t i v e  i m m e d i a t e l y by m o v i n g  The o t h e r a d j e c t i v e s A t t h e end o f  You m u s t t h e n a t t e m p t t o r e c a l l You w i l l  58.  (cont'd)  l i s t e n c l o s e l y t o t h e number,  begin  you c a n .  B  have a b o u t  the  list  in the  voice. up a l l  aloud the d i g i t s  of  10 s e c o n d s t o r e c a l l  10 s e c o n d s t h e b u z z e r w i l l  attempts to r e c a l l the s c a l e ,  the previous  and p r e p a r e t o  gorize  the next group of  events  you w i l l  h e a r on t h e t a p e  a d j e c t i v e s presented  the d i g i t s ,  a 10 s e c o n d  recall  best  which  the d i g i t s  sound.  aloud  p i c k up  At t h i s  to summarize,  a ready  in r e g u l a r  signal,  point,  succession,  p e r i o d and t h e n a n o t h e r  give the  cate-  the sequence  a 5-digit  in  your  n u m b e r , move t h e p o i n t e r b a c k t o  So,  is:  as  preceded  l i s t e n t o t h e n e x t number and t o  adjectives.  a number o f  sequence  the d i g i t s  in  buzzer.  t h e number as  Recall  the  follow  hear another  t h e y were s p o k e n . . . . t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r w i l l  A t t h e end o f  c e n t r e of  list will  you w i l l  t h e a d j e c t i v e s b e f o r e t h e n e x t b u z z e r comes o n . t h e same o r d e r as  the p o i n t e r to  is  of  number,  a signal  to  recall  ready s i g n a l .  Is  this  clear?  I h a v e n o t y e t e x p l a i n e d what t a s k you a r e t o p e r f o r m w i t h t h e a d j e c t i v e s . To p r o v i d e you w i t h some p r a c t i c e on t h i s  task  and t o a c q u a i n t y o u w i t h  rate at which the a d j e c t i v e s are presented, w e ' l l tives  for practice.  Independent I would of  t h a t word  word,  For each of  l i k e you t o r e s p o n d in the s e r i a l  c o n s i d e r where  letters a,  I,  its  o r d e r of  first  l a t e end c f  letter  falls  - early, middle,  the s c a l e .  As you  be as  That  is,  in t h e a l p h a b e t . late.  Thus words  adjec-  follows:  as  letter  you h e a r Three  between them.  p o i n t and b a c k t o  indicate this  i t again.  and " w e a k  ,;  would  If  the f i r s t  response  by m o v i n g  of  pointer  letter  t o one word  in  the must  i s t h e same  t h e p o i n t e r away f r o m t h e  T h u s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e words r e q u i r e you t o f i r s t  with  y and z f o r m t h e  a r e t h e e x t r e m e s and t h a t you your  each  points  beginning  h e a r e a c h w o r d , move t h e  t o the p l a c e of  Remember t h a t t h e end p o i n t s  t h e one j u s t p r e v i o u s ,  "foolish"  the alphabet.  m o r n a r e n e a r t h e m i d d l e and x ,  locate the p o s i t i o n s as  will  t o e a c h word by p l a c i n g t h e f i r s t  t o the p o s i t i o n which corresponds alphabet.  task  b o r c w o u l d be c a t e g o r i z e d a t t h e e x t r e m e l y e a r l y end  the s c a l e , w h i l e extremely  l i s t s , your  l i s t s of  J u d g e m e n t C o n d i t i o n , 0_b C r i t e r i o n .  on t h e s c a l e a r e p r o v i d e d the  the  do s e v e r a l  the  "sincere",  l o c a t e the s of  sincere  59. APPENDIX  b e t w e e n t h e m i d d l e and  [3 ( c o n t ' d )  l a t e e x t r e m e , and t h e f o f  foolish  between t h e  and m i d d l e , and t h e n t h e w o f  weak b a c k b e t w e e n m i d d l e and  Do t h i s  in the  stop  f o r each of  and  signal  recall  t h e words  the d i g i t s  comes o n ,  a l o u d as  list  b e s t as  you c a n .  I would  When t h e n e x t  return the p o i n t e r to the middle p o s i t i o n  l i k e you t o c o n s i d e r  in a companion o f  d e s i r e a b l e each of are of  course  sions.  But  the opposite  the p e r s o n a l i t y  no r i g h t o r wrong  remember t h a t you  Three p o i n t s  important, very  sex.  In  the " i d e a l  short,  date"  t r a i t s w o u l d be  answers -  respond  by  If  your  Then s t o p ready  and  signal  listen  recall  the d i g i t s  l i k e you t o c o n s i d e r  is,  r i g h t o r wrong sincere  responses not  d e c i d e how d e s i r e a b l e  t h e same as  in the  list  it  is,  "foolish". i t to your  satis-  t h e one j u s t i t again.  until  b e s t as y o u c a n .  previous, Indicate  the buzzer When t h e  r e t u r n the p o i n t e r t o the m i d d l e of  a s you  sounds.  next  the scale  and  O.K.?  list.  how w e l l  hear each word,  you t h i n k t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y  trait  each of  I would  applies  like  to you.  the a d j e c t i v e s you t o  impressions.  B u t remember t h a t you Three p o i n t s  n e v e r - and you s h o u l d  describes  i n d i c a t e how much  There are of  answers except w i t h r e s p e c t t o y o u r s e l f .  responses over.  times,  a l o u d as  your  impres-  J u d g e m e n t C o n d i t i o n , S_ C r i t e r i o n .  I would  your  trait  f o r t h e n e x t number and a d j e c t i v e  That  is  There  sincere  desireable,  away f r o m t h e p o i n t and b a c k t o  each p e r s o n a l i t y  comes o n ,  Independent  you.  of  person.  with your  c a r e f u l l y and c a t e g o r i z e  r e s p o n s e t o one t r a i t  by m o v i n g  impression  trait  you  i n d i c a t i n g how  have t h e w h o l e s c a l e t o s p r e a d  u n d e s i r e a b l e - and y o u s h o u l d  hear  I am a s k i n g  in t h i s  a r e p r o v i d e d on t h e s c a l e - v e r y  each p e r s o n a l i t y  indicate this your  listen  O.K?  f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t a d a t e be " s i n c e r e " o r " r e s p e c t a b l e " o r  faction.  and  ready  how d e s i r e a b l e e a c h a d j e c t i v e you  t o d e s c r i b e w h a t you w o u l d c o n s i d e r  Consider  Then  J u d g e m e n t C o n d i t i o n , 0_ C r i t e r i o n .  Independent  over.  again.  until, the buzzer sounds.  f o r t h e n e x t number and a d j e c t i v e l i s t .  w o u l d be  late  early  So  course  respond  have t h e w h o l e s c a l e t o  with  f o r example,  your  spread  a r e p r o v i d e d on t h e s c a l e - a l w a y s ,  d e c i d e t o what d e g r e e ,  no  you  some  APPENDIX  consider yourself  t o be " w e a k  of  each p e r s o n a l i t y  you.  Consider  your  satisfaction.  just  previous,  again.  If  your  your  the buzzer sounds.  Then s t o p  When t h e n e x t r e a d y s i g n a l t h e s c a l e and  trait  of  and  -  how d e s c r i p t i v e t h a t word  c a r e f u l l y and c a t e g o r i z e  t o one t r a i t  by m o v i n g  impression  60.  (cont'd)  "sincere"  response  indicate this  Register  or  :i  B  away  is  t h e same as  comes o n ,  the  to one  f r o m t h e p o i n t and b a c k t o  each p e r s o n a l i t y  recall  it  the d i g i t s  trait as  in the  b e s t as  until  can.  return the p o i n t e r t o the middle  l i s t e n f o r t h e n e x t number and a d j e c t i v e l i s t .  it  list  you  is  of  O.K?  C u m u l a t i v e J u d g e m e n t C o n d i t i o n , Ob C r i t e r i o n . You w i l l of  be p r e s e n t e d w i t h a number o f  t h e e x p e r i m e n t you w i l l  words  in each  list.  where t h e  letter  very early and  list.  l e t t e r s has  Thus words I,  position  S i n c e you w i l l  beginning  letter  What  I would  in the a l p h a b e t of list  is  that only  very  general  r a t h e r than a c t u a l l y s p e c i f y i n g  some  letter  it  is  necessary  estimates  as we go t h r o u g h  t o numbered p o s i t i o n s  how you w i l l  The w o r d s w i l l listening up an  impression  to average  letter  in  t h e same s o r t  of  -  I want a g e n e r a l  not a numerical  e s t i m a t e the average  t h e words  and t h e n g i v i n g  as we go t h r o u g h  hear each word.  the p o s i t i o n  the  list  As you  of the f i r s t  and  the  the a word early the  along  are  the  general letters  estimate  in  average.  positions  of  these  your  impression,  letters.  instead  of  you w i l l  i n d i c a t e how y o u r  in the  l i g h t of  the  form  estimate  h e a r e a c h new word y o u r t a s k w i l l  letter  form  in  reference points positions  y  letters  these extremes -  be p r e s e n t e d o n e a t a t i m e a t a f i x e d r a t e , b u t  t o a l l of  c h a n g e s as y o u  late,  are  to  located  T h u s , do n o t t r y t o c o n v e r t  and t a k e an a v e r a g e  terms of e a r l y , m i d d l e o r Here's  lists.  first  is a s m a l l e r d i s t a n c e toward  t h a t you f o r m o n l y the  b or c  some d i s t a n c e t o w a r d t h e  other extreme.  s c a l e and  on  you t o do i s  a l l the  any  with "p"  provided  depending  with the p o i n t e r  the p o s i t i o n of  " d " f o r example  however,  the  alphabet  l e t t e r s a,  like  e x t r e m e w h i l e a word b e g i n n i n g Note,  part  l e t t e r s of  in the  late,  some d i s t a n c e t o w a r d o n e o r t h e o t h e r o f  with the  For t h i s  m and n a r e n e a r t h e m i d d l e and x ,  begin each  t h e s c a l e , you may r e g a r d  a l p h a b e t as  a position  s t a r t i n g with the  in the a l p h a b e t .  the average  lists.  with the f i r s t  r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y , middle or  falls.  late  an e s t i m a t e o f  c e n t r e of  as  these  in t h e a l p h a b e t , w h i l e  z are very  in t h e  be c o n c e r n e d o n l y  Each of  w h i c h may be r e g a r d e d  adjective  previous  be  APPENDIX  words. all  In o t h e r w o r d s ,  the f i r s t  step  letters  in the  by a d d i n g one word and  revising  "weak".  list, its  list  letter  t o be e v a l u a t e d  "s" by  relatively early  p o s i t i o n of  "s".  p r e s e n t e d , you  then average  late extreme.  The w o r d s  signal  "f"  lists  have  not  recall  comes on  the d i g i t s  has  is,  running is  with your  goal  presented.  been c a r e f u l l y c h o s e n  by  - the  late  into  slightly  is  the  back  and a r r a n g e d  at  in e s t i m a t i n g y o u r  average  there w i l l  list  the average  b e s t a s you c a n .  return the p o i n t e r to the middle of list.  one.  averaging  "w"  be  in a  positions.  been p r e s e n t e d , t h e b u z z e r w i l l as  of  list  When " w e a k "  late p o s i t i o n of  s h i f t i n g the average  by  in each  response  the m i d d l e .  an  and  respond  the average  previous  by  and  As  "foolish"  respond  of  step  average  t h e f i r s t word  in e f f e c t ,  consideration  aloud  t h e n e x t number and a d j e c t i v e  this  "sincere'',  Thus o n l y  know how many w o r d s  list  the p o s i t i o n s  p r e s e n t e d you w o u l d  keep an a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e o f  l a s t a d j e c t i v e in t h e and  is  it  y o u j u s t made,  in t h e s e  You w i l l  have t o  stop  as e a c h new word  the r e l a t i v e l y  random s o g i v e e a c h word e q u a l positions.  t o your  T h u s you w o u l d move t o w a r d s  towards  approach  p r e s e n t e d , you w o u l d t h e n  p o s i t i o n of  response  the  letter  c o n t a i n e d t h e words  is  accumulated  will  first  i t s e l f since  When t h e word ' ' f o o l i s h '  f o r m an e s t i m a t e o f  b u t you w i l l  on t h e s c a l e .  5  (cont'd)  to  As t h e f i r s t w o r d , s i n c e r e ,  locating the  the  is  your estimate a c c o r d i n g l y  example, suppose the  is  the goal  8  so  When t h e  sound.  When t h e n e x t t h e s c a l e and  you  Then ready  listen  for  O.K?  C u m u l a t i v e J u d g e m e n t C o n d i t i o n , 0_ C r i t e r i o n . You w i l l of  be p r e s e n t e d w i t h a number o f  t h e e x p e r i m e n t you w i l l  d e s i r e a b l e each opposite the  ideal  able, to  not  sex.  l i s t of In  d a t e by  short,  adjective lists.  be c o n c e r n e d w i t h g i v i n g  personality  t r a i t s would  I am a s k i n g  be  i n d i c a t e your o v e r a l l  undesireabIe.  impression  of  desire-  l i k e y o u t o do each  list  as  Thus you a r e t o r e g a r d  each  list  as  group of  personality  t r a i t s which d e s c r i b e a female.  i n t e r m s o f w h a t you f e e l  the  of  an  an  You a r e t o  ideal date should  be and  how  consider  t r a i t s are very  the desireabi I i t y  part  of  in a companion of  I would  f e a t u r e s of  lists  date.  What  possible  these  ideal  impressions  you t o d e s c r i b e what y o u w o u l d  i n d i c a t i n g whether the p e r s o n a l i t y  important, or very  your  For t h i s  is  a  evaluate indicate  6?. APPENDIX  how d e s i r e a b l e o v e r a l l t h i s ality  t r a i t s - would be.  (cont'd)  p a r t i c u l a r person  Of  course  except with respect to yourself I'll  B  -  n o t e how y o u a r e r e s p o n d i n g  -  d e s c r i b e d by t h e s e  t h e r e a r e no w r o n g o r  so  respond w i t h vour  Here's words  will  how you w i l l  give your o v e r a l l  task w i l l  be t o  i n d i c a t e your  the person  d e s c r i b e d by t h i s  her - t h a t  is  t h e goal  in terms of  word  traits  of  l i g h t of in the  impression of  in a s i n g l e  list,  the  as e a c h new word  is  presented.  it  is  spoken:  as w e l l  as  d a t e who i s w e a k , The w o r d s  The each  w h a t you a l r e a d y In o t h e r  words, all  approach t h i s goal  the step  f o o l i s h and  in t h e s e  lists  You w i l l  not  maintain  a truthful  if the  list  responses  how d e s i r e a b l e you  list  the d i g i t s  has  your o v e r a l l  impression of  have been c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d and a r r a n g e d consideration there w i l l  throughout  in f o r m i n g y o u r be  the  in a list.  been p r e s e n t e d , t h e b u z z e r w i l l  a l o u d as  is a  sincere.  know how many w o r d s impression  by  impression  f o r example,  impression of  of  know o f  y o u w o u l d h a v e t o make t h r e e  s i n c e r e ; and t h e n f i n a l l y  random s o g i v e e a c h word e q u a l  return  lists.  the d e s i r e a b i I i t y of  Thus,  your  how  i s t h a t a d a t e be s i n c e r e ; how d e s i r e a b l e a d a t e w o u l d be who  foolish  in the  later  of the d e s i r e a b i I i t y  list.  b u t you w i l l  was " s i n c e r e " , " f o o l i s h " , and " w e a k " , i n s e q u e n c e a s e a c h word  impressions.  As you h e a r  by c o n s i d e r i n g one new word a t a t i m e and r e v i s i n g y o u r  accordingly  feel  impression  in the  -  consistency.  impressions  t h e o t h e r words  i s t o f o r m an o v e r a l l  personality step  truthful  be p r e s e n t e d one a t a t i m e a t a f i x e d r a t e .  word y o u r  r i g h t answers  t o s e l e c t e d t r a i t s and a s k y o u  y o u c a t e g o r i z e d them i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e y o u r  person-  b e s t a s you c a n .  the p o i n t e r to the centre of  Iist  sound.  impressions.  s o you w i l l  When t h e  When t h e n e x t r e a d y s i g n a l  n e x t number and t o c a t e g o r i z e t h e n e x t  l i s t of  have  to  last adjective  Then s t o p  t h e s c a l e and p r e p a r e t o  at  to  recall  comes  on  listen to  the  In t h i s  part  adjectives.  C u m u l a t i v e J u d g e m e n t C o n d i t i o n , S_ C r i t e r i o n . You w i l l of  be p r e s e n t e d w i t h a number o f a d j e c t i v e l i s t s .  the experiment y o u ' w i l l  be a s k e d  to  l i s t e n to these  how a c c u r a t e l y t h e y d e s c r i b e y o u r own b e h a v i o u r . as  a d e s c r i p t i o n someone  make up t h e  list  l i s t s and t h i n k  You may r e g a r d e a c h  about list  has made o f you and t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s w h i c h  are going  t o be r e a d t o you f o r y o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f  just  63. APPENDIX  how a c c u r a t e t h e d e s c r i p t i o n feeling  is.  a b o u t how a c c u r a t e e a c h  B  (Cont'd)  I'd list  l i k e you t o is  by m o v i n g  r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s which are provided are list  is of  w h i c h make course, self  - so  You a r e t o c o n s i d e r e a c h  i t up  in terms of  respond  responding  words  up an of  give  t o a l l of  impression  describes  t h e words  the  later  in the  l i g h t of  the goal  traits  with respect to yourself,  by s t e p  is  list  d e s c r i p t i o n of  words,  I'll  which w i l l not a l t e r  yourare  how you c a t e g o r i z e d them  impression of  your  and  each  list.  in  i m p r e s s i o n , you w i l l  be t o  i n d i c a t e how w e l l  t h e p r e c e d i n g words  form  impression  you f e e l  in the  this In  other  j u d g e m e n t on t h e a c c u r a c y o f  these  b u t you w i l l  is presented -  a c c u m u l a t e t o an o v e r a l l  of  you c h a n g e s a s you h e a r e a c h w o r d .  t o a r r i v e a t an o v e r a l l  as e a c h new word  The  instead  i n d i c a t e how y o u r  approach t h i s  list.  judgement  judgement.  y o u r j u d g e m e n t a b o u t how a c c u r a t e t h e  If  you f e e l  list  step  opinion  you make a number o f  by m o v i n g t h e p o i n t e r s l i g h t l y away f r o m y o u r  it  Of  n o t e how you  by c o n s i d e r i n g o n e new word a t a t i m e and r e v i s i n g y o u r  accordingly  to  you  and t h e n g i v i n g  as we go t h r o u g h  you  traits  y o u r own p e r s o n a l i t y .  impressions.  your o v e r a l l  As you h e a r e a c h word y o u r t a s k w i l l  this  and t h e p e r s o n a l i t y  consistency.  how y o u w i l l  the accuracy of t h i s  list  how d e s c r i p t i v e t h e  wi I I be p r e s e n t e d one a t a t i m e a t a f i x e d r a t e , b u t  listening  The t h r e e  r i g h t answers - e x c e p t w i t h r e s p e c t t o  t o s e l e c t e d t r a i t s and a s k  Here's  list  the features of  with your t r u t h f u l  order t o determine your  the p o i n t e r .  in terms of  you.  t h e r e a r e no w r o n g o r  i n d i c a t e your o v e r a l l  responses  t h a t a word  describes  you,  does  indicate  l a s t j u d g e m e n t and  back  again. The w o r d s  in these  lists  have been c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d and a r r a n g e d  random s o c o n s i d e r e a c h word c a r e f u l l y i n f o r m i n g y o u r c u m u l a t i v e sions.  You w i l l  n o t know how many w o r d s  there will  h a v e t o m a i n t a i n a c o n s t a n t l y a c c u r a t e and t r u t h f u l through  the a d j e c t i v e s .  When t h e  presented, the buzzer w i l l b e s t as you c a n .  sound.  Then s t o p  t o c a t e g o r i z e the next  and r e c a l l comes o n ,  t h e s c a l e and p r e p a r e t o list  of  adjectives.  list  impres-  I i s t s o you  impression  l a s t a d j e c t i v e in t h e  When t h e n e x t r e a d y s i g n a l  back t o t h e c e n t r e of  be i n a  as  has  at  will  we go been  the d i g i t s  aloud  as  return the pointer  l i s t e n t o t h e n e x t number  and  64. APPENDIX  B  (cont'd)  COMMON F I N A L  B e f o r e we b e g i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t , your  performance.  recall  digits  Many s u b j e c t s  INSTRUCTIONS  l e t me s a y  a c o u p l e more t h i n g s  w a n t t o know why t h e y must a t t e m p t t o  in a d d i t i o n t o responding r e l a t e d purpose  of  to the personality the experiment  a second  and  effects  thinking  a b o u t t h e a d j e c t i v e s has on memory f o r n e u t r a l  b e l i e v e you can see t h e r e l a t i o n e a s i l y  important to you,  you w i l l  Thus t h e o b j e c t of you c a n how w e l l  he c a n  and he g i v e s  d e v o t e more o f  the experiment  remember n u m b e r s .  enough  is  in t h a t  he f i n d s  a h a l f - h e a r t e d performance  it  give  be o c c a s i o n s  be o c c a s i o n s  with attempting perfect recall  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  the a d j e c t i v e s  i n any  way.  error,  the a d j e c t i v e s .  h o w e v e r you a r e  remember a l l o f it.  how p e r f e c t l y  so m o t i v a t e d t o show  in c o n s i d e r i n g  when y o u may remember none o f  concern y o u r s e l f your  when you may  is  responding.  c o m p l e t e and s i n c e r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o e a c h a d j e c t i v e -  There w i l l  materials.  i n t o l e r a b l e t o make an  You a r e n o t e x p e c t e d t o remember a I I t h e n u m b e r s , to  is  is  if a question  attention to  a subject  This  t o d e t e r m i n e what  n o t f o r you t o d e m o n s t r a t e  Occasionally  r e t a i n numbers,that  your  is  traits.  because  I  about  is t h i s  t h e number;  In any c a s e ,  expected  there  clear? will  you a r e n o t  and a l l o w i n g t h a t t o  to  hinder  

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