UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Alexander Solzhenitsyn's novel : The first circle McKay, John Nichol 1971

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ALEXANDER SOLZHENITSYN'S NOVEL THE FIRST CIRCLE by JOHN NICHOL McKAY B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 196£ A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1971 In presenting th i s thes i s in pa r t i a l f u l f i lment of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r ee l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes i s for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes i s f o r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date 15 September 1971 ERRATA p. 5> L i n e 13 from top: read " d i c t a t o r s h i p . " p. 8 Footnotes: An e r r o r has occu r r e d i n the f i n a l type-s c r i p t . The reader w i l l observe t h a t f o o t n o t e s have been numbered c o n s e c u t i v e l y from the beginning of the INTRODUCTION through CHAPTER I I . CHAPTER I I I and the CONCLUSION have f o o t n o t e s numbered i n separate s e r i e s . p. 12 F i n a l l i n e of t e x t : read " s t a b l e " f o r " s t a t i c . " p. 21+ In the q u o t a t i o n the word " chrezvychainykh" should be so s p e l l e d w i t h a s i n g l e "n". p. 33 Line 12 from top: read " c l a s s " f o r "category." p. 3° In the f i r s t q u o t a t i o n read " p r i s e l " f o r " p r i c e l . " p. 37 Line 1: read " v a r i a n t " f o r " v a r i a t i o n . " p. 39 L i n e 2: omit "spetsodezhda." p. 71 Line 7 from bottom: read "Marxian" f o r " M a r x i s t . " ABSTRACT The Russian novel V kruge pervom (The F i r s t C i r c l e ) shows i t s author, Alexander I s a y e v i c h S o l z h e n i t s y n , to be a s o c i a l l y conscious w r i t e r and a man who i s a c u t e l y aware of the s p i r i t u a l dilemmas of modern man. The e t h i c a l q u e s t i o n s to which he devotes h i m s e l f i n t h i s n o vel are p l a c e d w i t h i n the context of a moral p h i l o s o p h y which d e r i v e s i t s essence from the S l a v o p h i l e s of the n i n e t e e n t h century. As a c r i t i c of modern t e n d e n c i e s , S o l z h e n i t s y n i s a g i t a t e d about a l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n man as an i n d i v i d u a l . The e s s e n t i a l message conveyed by the n o v e l i s t h a t man i s i n a m a t e r i a l i s t i c im-passe, and the way out of t h a t impasse r e s i d e s i n a g r e a t e r understanding of h i s f u n c t i o n s as a human be i n g . The author deprecates any system of thought and organized mode of l i f e which tends to take a m e c h a n i s t i c view of man and to deper-s o n a l i z e the b a s i s of human r e l a t i o n s . As the symbolic con-sci e n c e of modern R u s s i a , he r e s t o r e s to Russian l i t e r a t u r e the humanism and moral u n i v e r s a l i s m which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the t r a d i t i o n of c r i t i c a l r e a l i s m of the p r e v i o u s century. F o r S o l z h e n i t s y n freedom i s a s p i r i t u a l matter. The r i g h t to speak f r e e l y and to p u b l i s h one's thoughts i s not, f o r him, j u s t as i t was not f o r the S l a v o p h i l e s before him, a p o l i t i c a l r i g h t , but a n a t u r a l endowment. H i s courageous defence o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e and h i s unwavering l o y a l t y t o and p u r s u i t of T r u t h have won him i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e s p e c t , w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d i n the award of the Nobel P r i z e i n 1970. I n i t s l i t e r a r y and p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u a l i t i e s , The F i r s t C i r c l e (and a l l h i s p u b l i s h e d work) d i s t i n g u i s h e s S o l z h e n i t s y n from h i s co n t e m p o r a r i e s as the l e a d i n g p r o s a i s t o f the S o v i e t U n i o n . The F i r s t C i r c l e i s genuine r e a l i s m , the v e r y a n t i t h e s i s of the c o n t r i v e d n o v e l s w h i c h dominate S o v i e t prose under t h a t r u i n o u s p r e s c r i p t i o n o f " s o c i a l i s t r e a l i s m . " T h i s t h e s i s i s p r e s e n t e d i n an i n t r o d u c t i o n , t h r e e c e n t r a l c h a p t e r s and a c o n c l u s i o n . The INTRODUCTION t r a c e s the background and s e t t i n g o f the n o v e l . CHAPTER I t u r n s t o i t s s t r u c t u r e and s t y l e . CHAPTER I I t r e a t s the language of the camps and p r i s o n s . The F i r s t C i r c l e i s a r a r e source of t h i s s l a n g d i c t i o n and i s t h e r e f o r e a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o l i n g u i s t i c s . CHAPTER I I I examines the problems of e t h i c s w h i c h d i s t u r b the a u t h o r and w h i c h are c o n s i d e r e d t o be the most i m p o r t a n t s i d e of h i s n o v e l . The CONCLUSION summarizes S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s s i g n i f i c a n c e as a modern auth o r and comments on h i s defence of freedom o f speech and the c r e a t i v e word. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter I . PROBLEMS OF STRUCTURE AND STYLE 9 I I . THE LANGUAGE OF THE CAMPS 30 I I I . THE ETHICAL PROBLEM £0 CONCLUSION 77 BIBLIOGRAPHY 83 APPENDIX 1 91 APPENDIX I I 92 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT To P r o f e s s o r V a l e r i a n D m i t r i y e v i c h Revutsky, whose i n t i m a t e knowledge of Russian l i t e r a t u r e was of i n e s t i m a b l e value to me i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s , I extend my s i n c e r e s t g r a t i t u d e . His c o u n s e l , a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement were a c o n t i n u a l source of i n s p i r a t i o n . I am much indebted a l s o to P r o f e s s o r Zbigniew F o l e -j e w s k i , who assumed w i t h good grace the t a s k of r e a d i n g the manuscript i n i t s f i n a l stages and suggested key r e v i s i o n s . I take t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y a l s o to r e c o r d p a r t i c u l a r l y my profound g r a t i t u d e to Dr C y r i l Bryner, Mr A l e c Wainman, Mrs. Irene Reed and Miss Irene R e b r i n , under whose guidance I r e c e i v e d my undergraduate and graduate courses i n v a r i o u s branches of S l a v o n i c s t u d i e s . F i n a l l y , I express my s i n c e r e thanks to the f a c u l t y and s t a f f of the Department of S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s at the U n i -v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e i r having made my p e r i o d of study there a f r u i t f u l and p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e . INTRODUCTION T h i s t h e s i s i s a study of the Russian novel V kruge  pervom (The F i r s t C i r c l e ) by Alexander I s a y e v i c h S o l z h e n i t -syn. T h i s n o v e l , and most of the author's work p u b l i s h e d to date, can only be a p p r e c i a t e d a g a i n s t the background o f the t r a g i c events which engendered i t , f o r S o l z h e n i t s y n 1 s works are i n t e n s e l y a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l . During the Konigsberg (now K a l i n i n g r a d ) h o s t i l i t i e s towards the end of the Second World War, S o l z h e n i t s y n , then an a r t i l l e r y c a p t a i n , was summoned by the commander of h i s d i v i s i o n , s t r i p p e d o f rank and d e c o r a t i o n s and a r r e s t e d . He e x p l a i n s : I was a r r e s t e d because of my naive and c h i l d i s h i d e a s . I knew th a t i t was f o r b i d d e n to w r i t e of m i l i t a r y matters i n l e t t e r s from the f r o n t , but I thought i t was permitted to t h i n k and r e f l e c t on events. For a long time I had been sending a f r i e n d l e t t e r s c l e a r l y c r i t i c i z i n g S t a l i n though without mentioning h i s name. I thought he had betrayed Leninism and was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the de f e a t s of the f i r s t phase of the war, that he was a weak t h e o r e t i c i a n and that h i s language was p r i m i t i v e . In my y o u t h f u l r e c k l e s s n e s s I put a l l these thoughts down on p a p e r . l The correspondence of which he speaks was i n t e r c e p t e d by an agency known as SMERSH, whose o p e r a t i v e s took him i n t o cus-1 L e o p o l d Labedz (ed.) , S o l z h e n i t s y n : A Documentary Record, London: A l l e n Lane The Penguin Press, 1970, p. $, t o d y . He was c o n f i n e d i n the Lubyanka p r i s o n i n Moscow and, i n J u l y 191^5, sentenced w i t h o u t t r i a l t o an e i g h t - y e a r term of imprisonment i n the c o r r e c t i v e - l a b o u r camps by the OSSO, S t a l i n ' s n o t o r i o u s t r i b u n a l a t t a c h e d t o the NKVD. At f i r s t he was employed on c o n s t r u c t i o n b u i l d i n g an apartment b l o c k f o r s e c r e t p o l i c e o f f i c i a l s . When i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t he h e l d a u n i v e r s i t y degree i n mathematics and p h y s i c s , he was sent t o a s p e c i a l s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e . I t was t h i s f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the h e l l i s h w o r l d o f GULAG- t h a t i n s p i r e d The F i r s t C i r c l e . The n o v e l was n i n e y e a r s i n the composing (1955-19614.) , but made i t s appearance i n the West o n l y i n 1968. The m a n u s c r i p t was c o n f i s c a t e d by the KGB i n 1965, w h i c h S o l z h e n i t s y n b o l d l y condemned i n h i s now famous l e t t e r t o the F o u r t h Congress of S o v i e t W r i t e r s . The a v a i l a b l e e d i t i o n s o f S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s n o v e l s The  F i r s t C i r c l e and Cancer Ward (Rakovyi korpus) were p r e p a r e d from c l a n d e s t i n e m a n u s c r i p t s r e c e i v e d t h r o u g h s a m i z d a t , the l i t e r a r y underground. These n o v e l s have n o t been p u b l i s h e d i n the S o v i e t U n i o n , where a ban on h i s work began i n 1966. Even h i s f i r s t p u b l i s h e d s t o r y , Odin den' I v a n a D e n i s o v i c h a (One Day i n the L i f e o f I v a n D e n i s o v i c h ) , w h i c h brought him i n t e r n a t i o n a l fame when i t appeared i n 1962, has been w i t h -drawn from S o v i e t l i b r a r i e s . S o v i e t r e a d e r s have acc e s s t o S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s works o n l y i n t y p e s c r i p t form as t h e y c i r c u -l a t e t h r o u g h o u t the underground. S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s works are no longer p u b l i s h e d i n h i s own country because they do not te a c h the Pa r t y l i n e . S ince they are c r i t i c a l of S o v i e t l i f e and governmental p o l i c i e s , too outspoken i n t h e i r a p p r a i s a l of the r e v o l u t i o n , and ask more probing q u e s t i o n s about the " e r r o r s " of the S t a l i n e r a than the present l e a d e r s h i p cares to answer, they draw f i r e from the conformist c r i t i c s . S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s v i g o r o u s b a t t l e f o r c r e a t i v e freedom i s now a matter of r e c o r d . F o l l o w i n g a s e r i e s of slanderous a t t a c k s on him by the S o v i e t p r e s s , he was e x p e l l e d from the W r i t e r s ' Union i n 1969. Comparing the s e t t i n g s of S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s works w i t h those of T o l s t o y and Dostoyevsky, the c r i t i c K. Pomerantsev observes: T o l s t o y ' s world i s the normal world of normal people. Dostoyevsky's world i s a l s o the normal world, but ab-normal people l i v e i n i t . The world of S o l z h e n i t s y n , however, i s an abnormal world i n which normal people must l i v e . 2 In The F i r s t C i r c l e t h i s abnormal world i s the sharashka at Mavrino. Here i n suburban Moscow the MG-B has e s t a b l i s h e d a c l a n d e s t i n e s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n a spetstyur'ma which accommodates 2 8 l inmates. One of these p r i s o n e r s remarks: " I f a war s t a r t s , t h e y ' l l mow us down en  masse or i n f e c t our kasha w i t h p l a g u e . " ( 3 : 9 2 ) ^ T h i s was not ^See h i s a r t i c l e : "Dobro i z l o u S o l z h e n i t s y n a , " i n Novyi Zhurnal (The New Review). No. 95 ( J u l y 1969), p. 1^9. -^The method of quoting i s exp l a i n e d below. - k -mere o s t e n t a t i o u s contempt f o r the S o v i e t government of the time. In 1914-7 S t a l i n p e r s o n a l l y ordered t h a t the p o l i t i c a l o f f e n d e r s be c o l l e c t e d i n t o o s o b l a g i i n order to f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r b e i n g put to death i n the event of another war.^ In The F i r s t C i r c l e S o l z h e n i t s y n has m e t a p h o r i c a l l y r e c a p t u r e d the a r t i s t i c v i s i o n of the I n f e r n o , wherein the souls of the p r e - C h r i s t i a n p h i l o s o p h e r s are doomed to e t e r -n a l o b l i v i o n i n Limbo, the F i r s t of the Nine C i r c l e s i n the c o n i c a l s t r u c t u r e of H e l l conceived by Dante. The a n a l o g i e s are s t r i k i n g . S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s conception of a paranoid, v i n -d i c t i v e , yet p a t h e t i c e v i l genius of penology ( S t a l i n ) i s a cunningly wrought r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s i n i s t e r and w r i t h -i n g Satan, the Emperor of Dante's Realm of Sorrow. The wise men of a n t i q u i t y were c o n f i n e d i n a "Noble C a s t l e , " and the e l i t e of S o v i e t s c i e n c e are e x p l o i t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n the "Enchanted C a s t l e , " the Mavrino I n s t i t u t e . Dante's Limbo i s a home f o r the u n s a n c t i f i e d , while Mavrino accommodates the i n i t i a t e s of the " c u l t of p e r s o n a l i t y . " The i n t e l l e c t u a l competence of the pagan s c i e n t i s t s may have i n f l u e n c e d Dante's e p i c judgment, f o r Limbo i s the most comfortable of h i s C i r c l e s . The b e t t e r treatment g i v e n the Mavrino p r i s o n e r s , however, i s motivated by expediency: ^See Max Hayward's " I n t r o d u c t i o n " to A n a t o l y Mar-chenko, My Testimony, t r a n s . M i c h a e l Scammell, London: P a l l M a l l Press, 1969, p. xv. - 5 -a sense of w e l l - b e i n g i s the sine qua non of a concentrated and s u s t a i n e d mental e f f o r t which, i n t u r n , i s v i t a l to the success of the l a b o r a t o r y p r o j e c t s at the I n s t i t u t e . Or, as the f a c e t i o u s Pryanchikov expresses i t , " I t has been proved t h a t a l a r g e wool c l i p depends upon the f e e d i n g and care of the sheep." (3:15) The s t a t u s of S o l z h e n i t s y n * s "ovine" c o l l e c t i v e may be l e s s humble than t h a t of Ivan D e n i s o v i c h Shukhov and h i s innocent labour-camp comrades, but as s o - c a l l e d "enemies of the people," they bear the same mark of d i s g r a c e imposed by A r t i c l e 58, the most n o t o r i o u s s t a t u t e i n the C r i m i n a l Code of the RSFSR, as t h a t code stood u n t i l r e pealed i n December 1958. These u n f o r t u n a t e v i c t i m s of the S t a l i n d i s t a t o r s h i p have been rounded up f o r the e n g i n e e r i n g tasks at hand from the lower c i r c l e s of the i n f e r n a l GULAG realm, whither most of them w i l l be d i s p a t c h e d when the job i s completed, which i n i t s e l f s i g n a l s t h e i r redundancy. Such i s the s e t t i n g . The u n d e r l y i n g theme i s human s u f f e r i n g , which runs through much Russian f i c t i o n of recent y e a r s . B o r i s P a s t e r -nak's Doctor Zhivago and L i d i y a Chukovskaya's O p u s t e l y i dom (The Deserted House) are eminent i l l u s t r a t i o n s . The b i t t e r -ness of s u f f e r i n g through i n j u s t i c e does not merely connect the n o v e l w i t h S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s p r i v a t e world; i t becomes the cornerstone of a s t r u c t u r a l l y complex work of a r t . T h i s a r t form permits the author to delve i n t o the p e r s o n a l world of - 6 -each of h i s c h a r a c t e r s . I t conforms t o the requirements of S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s f a v o u r i t e genre - the "polyphonic" n o v e l , i n which there are no heroes i n the t r a d i t i o n a l sense. F o r , as S o l z h e n i t s y n p o i n t s out, "Every c h a r a c t e r becomes main when the a c t i o n r e v e r t s to him."^ S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s e a r l y s t o r i e s were keenly c r i t i c i z e d f o r the alignment of the f o r c e s of good and e v i l which were rep r e s e n t e d by the c h a r a c t e r s . Although t h i s alignment of f o r c e s e x i s t s (and j u s t i f i a b l y ) i n The F i r s t C i r c l e , such a neat d i v i s i o n o f i t s completely " S t a l i n i z e d " world i n t o two a n t a g o n i s t i c groups would be a r b i t r a r y and s u p e r f i c i a l , f o r the c h a r a c t e r s are not simply e i t h e r " r i g h t e o u s " or " e v i l . " The d e u t e r a g o n i s t , Lev Rubin, i s p o r t r a y e d s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y , although h i s m a t e r i a l i s t i d e o l o g y i s a l i e n to S o l z h e n i t s y n . Moreover, the s i t u a t i o n s o f f r e e and u n f r e e , tormentors and tormented, manipulators and manipulated, guards and p r i s o n -"Kazda osoba sa sta v a hlavnou, ked sa j e j dotkne d e j . " See "Jedneho dfla u Alexandra I s a j e v i c a S o l z e n i c y n a , " i n K u l t u r n y g i v o t . 31 March 1967, p. 10. ^By V. Chalmayev i n " ' S a i n t s ' and ' D e v i l s ' , " t r a n s , i n P r i s c i l l a Johnson, Khrushchev and the A r t s : The P o l i t i c s  of S o v i e t C u l t u r e 1962-196!+., Cambridge, Massachusetts: The M.I.T. Press, 1965, p. 272. [The o r i g i n a l a r t i c l e appeared i n Russian i n Oktyabr, No. 10, 1963.] Chalmayev observes: "In the world of A. S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s c h a r a c t e r s two i d e o l o g i c a l and moral pol e s and two se t s of c h a r a c t e r s corresponding to these p o l e s stand out q u i t e d i s t i n c t -l y . In one of them the w r i t e r i n v a r i a b l y concentrates h u m i l i t y and meekness, right e o u s n e s s t h a t as a r u l e i s impotent i n p r a c t i c e , and i n the other he concentrates a l l - p o w e r f u l e v i l , o verbearing c r u e l t y , and b l i n d obedience." e r s , v i c t o r s and v i c t i m s , are t r u l y r e l a t i v e . ' T h i s i s the e f f e c t created by the s h i f t i n g scene: the a c t i o n o s c i l l a t e s between the sharashka and Moscow at l a r g e . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t S o l z h e n i t s y n c o n s i d e r s the d i f f e r e n c e between these two worlds one of degree, not of k i n d . T h i s t h e s i s does not en t e r i n t o d i s c u s s i o n of those elements of p o l i t i c a l c r i t i c i s m contained i n S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s works. Although t h i s aspect of h i s n o v e l s i s important i n a complete e x e g e s i s , the h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s which prompted i t w i l l a l t e r , and h i s work w i l l be judged i n the f u t u r e by l i t e r a r y c r i t e r i a alone. T h e r e f o r e t h i s essay concentrates on the l i t e r a r y q u a l i t i e s of The F i r s t C i r c l e . But i t t r i e s a l s o to assess S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o i n t of view. The t h e s i s i s presented i n three p r i n c i p a l chapters and a c o n c l u s i o n . CHAPTER I t r e a t s some of the problems of s t r u c t u r e and analyzes the dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of S o l -z h e n i t s y n ' s prose method. The emphasis i s on the s y n t a c t i c d e v i c e s and f i g u r a t i v e t urns of speech which are considered to be the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of h i s mode of ex-p r e s s i o n . CHAPTER I I c o l l e c t s and c l a s s i f i e s the slang d i c -t i o n of the c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps and p r i s o n s and comments on the problem of o b s c e n i t y . CHAPTER I I I approaches the moral p h i l o s o p h y which runs through the no v e l and which separates 7 H e i n r i c h B o l l , "Die v e r h a f t e t e Welt: In S o l s h e n i -zyns Erstem K r e i s der H o l l e , " Merkur, XXIII: $ (May 1969), p. 1+78. - 8 -S o l z h e n i t s y n from h i s S o v i e t contemporaries. The CONCLUSION summarizes S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s importance as a modern w r i t e r . There are two appendices. In APPENDIX I the t r a n s -l i t e r a t i o n system used i n t r a n s c r i b i n g the Russian i s g i v e n i n t a b u l a r form. APPENDIX I I i s a g l o s s a r y of words, terms and c o n t r a c t i o n s which have been used i n the t h e s i s without e x p l a n a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g those i n the INTRODUCTION. The f o o t n o t e s are numbered c o n s e c u t i v e l y throughout each chapter. F o r convenience the notes have been p l a c e d at the f o o t of the same page on which the s u p e r s c r i p t appears. The SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY l i s t s the most u s e f u l and r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l s f o r a study of S o l z h e n i t s y n . I t excludes the slanderous j o u r n a l i s t i c a r t i c l e s which are no more than i n v e c t i v e and which t h e r e f o r e have l i t t l e academic v a l u e . A l l q u o t a t i o n s are taken from the f o l l o w i n g e d i t i o n of S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s f i c t i o n : Sobraniye s o c h i n e n i i [ C o l l e c t e d  Works], 6 volumes, F r a n k f u r t / M a i n : Possev, 1970. F i c t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s are i n d i c a t e d p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y w i t h i n the t e x t of the t h e s i s thus: (3:92) r e f e r s to Volume 3, Page 92. C i t a -t i o n s of n o n f i c t i o n a l sources i n c l u d e d i n t h i s same e d i t i o n are g i v e n i n the f o o t n o t e s under the heading Works. A l l the q u o t a t i o n s are t r a n s c r i b e d i n the o r i g i n a l Russian i n those s e c t i o n s which t r e a t d i c t i o n and s t y l e . In the other p a r t s of the t h e s i s the e x c e r p t s have been rendered i n t o E n g l i s h . For the accuracy of t r a n s l a t i o n I bear f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . CHAPTER I PROBLEMS OP STRUCTURE AND STYLE 1 The a r t i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n of The F i r s t C i r c l e i s very-i m p r e s s i v e : i t works at many l e v e l s and ranges i n space and time. S u p e r f i c i a l l y , i t examines the p r i s o n experience and the r e a c t i o n s and adjustments of s e v e r a l men to i t s regime. T h i s i s the no v e l of a humanist and humanitarian. With the f o r c e of the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c r i t i c a l r e a l i s t s , i t seeks t r u t h , s o c i a l j u s t i c e and a p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o i n t of support, and evinces a profound sympathy w i t h the human c o n d i t i o n . A c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l of S o v i e t r e a l i t y i n the S t a l i n e r a con-s t i t u t e s yet another l e v e l . Such a v a s t u n d e r t a k i n g r a i s e s s e r i o u s a r t i s t i c d i f f i c u l t i e s : looseness of n a r r a t i v e , l a c k of p l o t u n i t y , and the g e n e r a l u n f i n i s h e d appearance of the form are some of the i m p e r f e c t i o n s which have been observed by c r i t i c s . U n l i k e Cancer Ward, which i s u n i f i e d by the c e n t r a l problem of the d i s e a s e i t s e l f , The F i r s t C i r c l e has no con-c e n t r a t e d p l o t to which e v e r y t h i n g i s c o n t r i b u t i v e and sub-o r d i n a t e . The only true p l o t i s to be found i n the separate - 10 -t h r e a d o f the n o v e l d e v o t e d t o I n n o k e n t i l V o l o d i n . But t h i s t h r e a d embraces o n l y n i n e c h a p t e r s and has the c h a r a c t e r o f a s h o r t s t o r y i n i t s e l f . F o r a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n o f The  F i r s t C i r c l e A r i s t o t e l i a n p r e j u d i c e s must be abandoned; the work i s b e s t examined w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o any f i x e d s t r u c -t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h might be thought t o c h a r a c t e r i z e the n o v e l as an i n d i v i d u a l l i t e r a r y g enre. S o l z h e n i t s y n compensates f o r the absence o f a major p l o t w i t h m u t u a l l y r e i n f o r c i n g themes which combine t o p r e -s e n t a comprehensive p i c t u r e of l i f e i n S t a l i n ' s R u s s i a . I n t h i s sense the p a r t s o f the n o v e l are c o n t r i b u t i v e and sub-o r d i n a t e t o the a u t h o r ' s i n t e n t i o n . O b v i o u s l y , i n The F i r s t  C i r c l e S o l z h e n i t s y n i s l e s s concerned w i t h d e s i g n t h a n w i t h c o n t e n t ( c o n c e r n i n g the i d e a s and emotions conveyed), w h i l e h i s s k i l f u l combining o f r e a l i s m and symbolism and language m a s t e r y are a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g a s p e c t s of the n o v e l . T h i s i s n o t t o say t h a t t h e r e i s a complete absence of a r t i s t i c d e s i g n , but t h a t The F i r s t C i r c l e i s fragmented i n s t r u c t u r e . There i s coherence, f o r the c e n t r a l m o t i v e i s never l o s t t o v i e w . There are elements o f u n i t y e x t e r n a l t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f p l o t : as Deming Brown p o i n t s o u t , s t r u c t -u r a l coherence r e s i d e s i n p a r t i n the c o n s i s t e n t l y downward i m p u l s e i n the f a t e of the p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s . There i s Deming Brown, "Cancer Ward and The F i r s t C i r c l e , " S l a v i c Review. X X V I I I : 2 ( J u l y 1969), pp. 311-12. - 11 -a r t i s t i c u n i t y a l s o i n the p o r t r a i t g a l l e r y which i s " c a r e -f u l l y designed and m e t i c u l o u s l y i n t e g r a t e d , " ^ although the s u r f e i t of d e t a i l s compressed i n t o a seventy-hour time span has the e f f e c t of c o m p l i c a t i n g the reader's p e r c e p t i o n , and the c h a r a c t e r s o c c a s i o n a l l y seem to have submerged i n t o the amorphous mass of sub-plot i n c i d e n t s . The v e r y magnitude of S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s s e l f - a p p o i n t e d t a s k prevents the f u s i n g of h i s heterogeneous themes i n t o a u n i f i e d whole. The more than f i f t y c h a r a c t e r s who comprise the dramatis personae r e p r e s e n t a wide v a r i e t y of p o i n t s of view. These cannot be examined i n d e t a i l i n t h i s fragmented s t r u c t u r e . Yet i n t h i s connection too the n o v e l i s redeemed i n p a r t by the f e r v o u r and the h i s t o r i c a l and human authen-t i c i t y of the n a r r a t i v e . The F i r s t C i r c l e may be compared to a cinematograph p r o j e c t i n g a sequence of " s t i l l s " i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n . T h i s technique i s an i n h e r e n t f e a t u r e of S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s l i t e r a r y method. The fragmentary p r e s e n t a t i o n to which i t g i v e s r i s e i n t h i s n o v e l c o n s i s t s of approximately seventy scenes. The s c e n i c e f f e c t does not allow f o r the complete p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l i l l u m i n a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r which i s one of the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s of Russian c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i n g e n e r a l and of T o l s t o y ' s method i n p a r t i c u l a r . And while I b i d . , p. 309. - 12 -S o l z h e n i t s y n r i v a l s h i s predecessor i n h i s a b i l i t y to apply the p s y c h o l o g i c a l method - and, on o c c a s i o n , even surpasses him, The F i r s t C i r c l e i s not a s u c c e s s f u l work i n t h i s way. The second n o v e l Cancer Ward i s again s u p e r i o r i n i t s exam-i n a t i o n of man i n c r i s i s . One important e x c e p t i o n i s S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s p o r t r a y a l of the simple Russian peasant: S p i r i d o n Yegorov i s a l i v i n g r e s u r r e c t i o n of P l a t o n Karatayev of T o l s t o y ' s n o v e l War and  Peace. Each i s a " j a c k of a l l t r a d e s " ( l i k e Ivan Shukhov i n the c o n c e n t r a t i o n camp), and r e a c t s to s i t u a t i o n s spontane-o u s l y ; each has an innocent and y o u t h f u l e x p r e s s i o n , and i s p o r t r a y e d i n the l i g h t of t h a t p e c u l i a r u n f a t h o m a b i l i t y and i n s t i n c t i v e behaviour which have always p u z z l e d the Russian i n t e l l e c t u a l and which have been at the same time the cause of h i s g r e a t a d m i r a t i o n . Platon's p r o v e r b i a l "Where th e r e ' s judgment, the re there's f alsehood,"- 1- 0 sounds l i k e S p i r i d o n ' s "That's why there's a d e v i l - to judge the priests."(3:189) And T o l s t o y ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of P l a t o n as an " e v e r l a s t i n g per-s o n i f i c a t i o n of the s p i r i t of s i m p l i c i t y and t r u t h " i s j u s t as a p p l i c a b l e to S p i r i d o n , and even to Ivan Shukhov."'""1" The F i r s t C i r c l e i s peopled by s t a t i c , c o n s i s t e n t l y lOcount Leo T o l s t o y , War and Peace,trans. Constance Garnett, New York: Random House (The Modern L i b r a r y ) , n.d., p. 902. 1 1 I b i d . , p. 906. - 13 -motivated i n d i v i d u a l s . Each one i s d e s c r i b e d p h y s i c a l l y and g i v e n a biography. The reader observes each one's behaviour i n the (predominantly male) c o l l e c t i v e and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s f e l l o w s . Yet i t i s o n l y the p r i n c i p a l s who are r e -v e a l e d f u l l y and r e a l i z e d as i n l i f e . The group of rounded c h a r a c t e r s i n c l u d e s N e r z h i n , h i s wife Nadya, Rubin, S t a l i n , V o l o d i n and Yegorov. Those who might be considered " f l a t , " were i t not f o r some i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g marks, i n c l u d e the two kumy or o p e r a t i v e s ( S h i k i n and Myshin), the Party S e c r e t a r y (Step anov), the Head of the P r i s o n ( K l i m e n t i e v ) , the J u n i o r Lieutenant (Nadelashin), the S e r b i a n M a r x i s t (Radovich),the Prosecutor (Makarygin), and the p r i s o n e r s Potapov, Adamson, Kondrashev-Ivanov and Kagan. Between these c a t e g o r i e s there i s a t h i r d group i n c l u d i n g the p r i s o n e r s S o l o g d i n , Doronin, and G-erasimovich, the Head and Deputy Head of the I n s t i t u t e Yakonov and Roitman, the w r i t e r Galakhov, the P r o s e c u t o r ' s daughter K l a r a Makarygin and the M i n i s t e r V i c t o r Abakumov. I f the secondary and t e r t i a r y c h a r a c t e r s o f t e n seem t r a n s i t o r y , as Brown has suggested, i t may be due i n p a r t to the l a c k of a prominent p l o t to which they could r e l a t e . But i t i s a l s o a t t r i b u t a b l e to the f a c t t h a t each c h a r a c t e r i s a thematic embodiment of an i d e o l o g i c a l or p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o i n t of view, and the space of a chapter (or p a r t t h e r e o f ) Brown, op. c i t . , p. 3 H » - 1 1 + -does not f a c i l i t a t e complete i l l u m i n a t i o n . Ivan D y r s i n , f o r example, i s assigned no f i c t i o n a l r o l e . His s o l e purpose i s to r e v e a l the a b s u r d i t i e s and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s of the e n t i r e e r a . (The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e q u ests him to w r i t e a " c h e e r f u l r e p l y " (bodryi otvet) to the p e s s i m i s t i c l e t t e r s o f h i s now despondent w i f e , and even to advise her to b e l i e v e i n God!) But t h i s looseness of s t r u c t u r e has one a r t i s t i c advantage: removal of one or another "character-theme" does not reduce the s t y l i s t i c e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the n o v e l . But the e f f e c t of the f i n i s h e d p i c t u r e o f S o v i e t l i f e presented by the author would have been markedly d i m i n i s h e d . In terms of s t r u c t u r e the most s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t s of the n o v e l are Chapter 1, Chapter 55 (approximately c e n t r a l ) and the conclu d i n g l i n e s of the e p i l o g u e . The f i r s t chapter i s a prologue which serves to set the atmosphere of s u s p i c i o n and f e a r which g r i p s Moscow and to i n i t i a t e the a c t i o n of the framework s t o r y of I n n o k e n t i i V o l o d i n . T h i s dramatic s t o r y c o n s t i t u t e s the n a r r a t i v e f a b r r i c of the n o v e l . In h i s o f f i c i a l c a p a c i t y as a diplomat i n the M i n i s t r y o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , V o l o d i n has l e a r n e d of the danger t h r e a t e n i n g h i s mother's former p h y s i c i a n , Dr Dobro-umov, who has c a r e l e s s l y promised to share a recent m e d i c a l d i s c o v e r y w i t h f o r e i g n c o l l e a g u e s . V o l o d i n warns him on the telephone, and the c a l l i s recorded on tape. (The doct o r i s under s u r v e i l l a n c e . ) V o l o d i n ' s act enhances the importance - 15 -o f the l a b o r a t o r y work a t M a v r i n o , where attem p t s are b e i n g made t o r a i s e phonoscopy t o the l e v e l o f a s c i e n c e w i t h the same r e l i a b i l i t y as d a c t y l o s c o p y . The substance o f the Mav-r i n o a c t i o n t r a c e s the e v o l u t i o n o f a v o i c e - e n c o d i n g d e v i c e w h i c h has been o r d e r e d by S t a l i n , and w h i c h i s brought i n t o p l a y i n the e f f o r t t o d i s t i n g u i s h the c a l l e r from the o t h e r s u s p e c t s . The s t o r y - l i n e i s a c t e d out i n about s e v e n t y h o u r s . The time i s the C h r i s t m a s p e r i o d o f 1914-9: from l4.:05 p.m. on S a t u r d a y (2I4. December) t o around noon on Tuesday (27 Decem-b e r ) . Prom the i n i t i a t i o n of the a c t i o n t o the c l i m a x w i t h V o l o d i n ' s a r r e s t , the i n c i d e n t s i n b r i e f are as f o l l o w s . At around l4_:l5 p.m. on C h r i s t m a s Eve V o l o d i n phones Dobroumov. The c a l l i s r e c o r d e d . At m i d n i g h t Abakumov meets w i t h Osko-l u p o v , Sevastyanov and Yakonov t o d i s c u s s the M a v r i n o work. At t e n o ' c l o c k on C h r i s t m a s Day R u b i n h e a r s the taped c a l l , and r e c e i v e s the l i s t o f f i v e s u s p e c t s . Around s i x o ' c l o c k V o l o d i n c a l l s M a k a r y g i n ' s apartment; s i n c e he i s one of the f i v e s u s p e c t s , h i s t e l e p h o n e i s b e i n g tapped. The r e c o r d i n g i s d e l i v e r e d t o R u b i n f o r comparison w i t h the f i r s t one. At 3:15 p.m. on 26 December R u b i n d e c l a r e s t h a t phonoscopy has a " r a t i o n a l c o r e , " and he e x c u l p a t e s t h r e e o f the s u s p e c t s . V o l o d i n i s a r r e s t e d around s i x o ' c l o c k . I t i s i n Chapter 55 t h a t V o l o d i n u s e s h i s t e l e p h o n e t o c a l l the M a k a r y g i n apartment. H i s s i s t e r - i n - l a w , K l a r a , - 16 -who i s a f r e e employee i n the vacuum l a b o r a t o r y at Mavrino, answers the telephone. At t h i s p o i n t , w i t h the c o i n c i d e n c e of Dickens, a few threads of the p l o t converge. K l a r a i s i n love w i t h the p r i s o n e r Ruska Doronin who, h a t i n g p r i v i l e g e , has aroused her s o c i a l consciousness and turned her a g a i n s t her own " c l a s s . " She r e a l i z e s t h a t her f a t h e r has c o n v i c t e d (on order) a number of innocent men. And, f i n a l l y , there i s the seemingly absurd " i n t e r f e r e n c e " of the c o n v i c t Rubin i n the l i f e of the diplomat. These " c o i n c i d e n c e s " are regarded by H e i n r i c h B o l l as the device of a mathematician. He c a l l s i t "a macabre t r i b u t e to the c l a s s i c a l novel."^3 The c l o s i n g l i n e s of the n o v e l provide some i n s i g h t i n t o S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s a t t i t u d e s . A F r e n c h correspondent, see-i n g a d e l i v e r y van i n s c r i b e d MEAT i n f o u r languages, remem-bers having seen o t h e r s throughout the day. He j o t s down i n h i s notebook t h a t Moscow i s w e l l p r o v i s i o n e d . The van i s a camouflaged B l a c k M a r i a i n which twenty p r i s o n e r s are being t r a n s p o r t e d from the sharashka back to the camps. I t seems s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t S o l z h e n i t s y n chose to end h i s n o v e l w i t h a "wholesale box on the ear f o r O c c i d e n t a l s t u p i d i t y . ..lij. T h l s "^He w r i t e s : "Nur i n d i e s e n beiden [ s i c ] K a p i t e l n , d i e genau i n der M i t t e des Romans l i e g e n , und das i s t b e i einem Mathematiker gewiB k e i n Z u f a l l , wird dem k l a s s i s c h e n Roman e i n makabrer Z o l l g e z a h l t , wird S c h i c k s a l 'zusammen-g e f u h r t ' . " B o l l , op. c i t . , p. 1+00. 1 [ j - I b i d . , p. bj6. - 17 -tongue-in-cheek i n c i d e n t a d v e r t i s e s the super-secrecy which enveloped S t a l i n ' s o p e r a t i o n s . But i t serves a second pur-pose: i t assembles the threads of the S l a v o p h i l e p h i l o s o p h y which courses through the n o v e l . 2 I f the n a r r a t i v e looseness of The F i r s t C i r c l e i s a source of a e s t h e t i c d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , the s t y l e of the n o v e l redeems i t . T h i s s e c t i o n examines S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c mode of expression,which has won him c r i t i c a l r e s p e c t as the l e a d i n g s t y l i s t of contemporary Russian prose. T h i s problem i s too complex to d e a l w i t h i t f u l l y . The aim here i s to survey the s y n t a c t i c d evices and f i g u r a t i v e system of h i s work. Though the fundamental p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e i s the novel.The F i r s t C i r c l e , the d i s c u s s i o n i s supplemented w i t h examples from other works. In t h i s way i t i s hoped to avoid s u p e r f i c i a l i t y . S e v e r a l s c h o l a r l y a r t i c l e s have been devoted to the problem at hand. These are a l l l i n g u i s t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d and mixed i n c h a r a c t e r , d e a l i n g w i t h problems of both s t y l e and d i c t i o n . I t i s u s e f u l to summarize v e r y b r i e f l y the content of each. The S o v i e t l i n g u i s t , T. G. Vinokur, i n h i s paper, "0 yazyke i s t i l e p o v e s t i A . I . S o l z h e n i t s y n a Odin den' Ivana  D e n i s o v i c h a , " has t r e a t e d the v a r i o u s speech l e v e l s of t h i s n o v e l l a and some of i t s skaz elements i n an attempt to show - 18 -I'D the I n n e r u n i t y o f i t s v e r b a l - f i g u r a t i v e c o m p o s i t i o n . The b r i e f r e v i e w a r t i c l e by L u d m i l a K o e h l e r , " A l e x a n d e r S o l z h e -n i t s y n and R u s s i a n L i t e r a r y T r a d i t i o n , " compares Leskov and S o l z h e n i t s y n and i n t r o d u c e s some of the l i n g u i s t i c and s yn-- i L t a c t i c d e v i c e s o f h i s e a r l y s t o r i e s . L e o n i d Rzhevsky has c o n t r i b u t e d two papers t o the d i s c u s s i o n . The f i r s t , "Obraz r a s s k a z c h i k a v p o v e s t i S o l z h e n i t s y n a H d i n den' I v a n a D e n i s -o v i c h a , " examines the language o f b o t h n a r r a t o r and c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r o f the s t o r y and shows where S o l z h e n i t s y n d e p a r t s 17 from the s k a z . The second, "Tvorcheskoye s l o v o u S o l z h e -n i t s y n a , " i s a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f some of S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s s u c c e s s e s and f a i l u r e s as he s e a r c h e s f o r e x p r e s s i v e forms. The a r t i c l e s t r e s s e s the R u s s i a n f o l k speech and c o l l o q u i a l s p o n t a n e i t y of h i s p r o s e . F i n a l l y , i n h i s paper " ' L a g e r -n y i yazyk' po p r o i z v e d e n i y a m A. I . S o l z h e n i t s y n a , " E. S h i l -yayev p r o v i d e s an i n t r o d u c t o r y d i s c u s s i o n of c e r t a i n morph-o l o g i c a l c a t e g o r i e s of camp language and c l a s s i f i e s v a r i o u s g r a m m a t i c a l forms. 7 W h i l e a l l these s t u d i e s have produced "'"-'in V o p r o sy k u l ' t u r y r e c h i , Vypusk 6, Moskva: I z d a t e l ' s t v o "Nauka," 1965, pp. 16-32. l 6 T h e R u s s i a n Review,XXVI: 2 ( A p r i l 1967), PP.I76-8I4.. 17 See S t u d i e s i n S l a v i c L i n g u i s t i c s and P o e t i c s i n  Honor of B o r i s 0. Unbegaun, ed. Robert M a g i d o f f e t . a l . , New York: New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968, pp. 165-78. l 8 N o v y i Z h u r n a l , No.96 (September 1969), pp. 76-90. 1 9 N o v y i Z h u r n a l , No.95 (June 1969), pp. 232-I4.7. - 19 -v a l u a b l e r e s u l t s , the q u e s t i o n of syntax and f i g u r a t i v e de-v i c e s r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e which d i s t i n g u i s h e s the prose under examination here i s i t s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d q u a l i t y . The labour-camp t a l e p a r t i c u l a r l y i s a c o n t r o l l e d , a s c e t i c a l l y -executed r e p o r t on human f o r t i t u d e i n a h o s t i l e m i l i e u . In S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s r e p r o d u c t i o n of the camp tragedy there i s no c r y of outraged d i g n i t y . The extremely s u b t l e i r o n y i s ev-i d e n t o n l y i n the t w i s t s and t u r n s of the f a t e of the cent-r a l c h a r a c t e r . In the l a t e r n o v e l s S o l z h e n i t s y n i s l e s s r e -s t r a i n e d : i r o n y abounds i n v a r i o u s shades of i n t e n s i t y , and 20 "the element of combative abusiveness" i s more marked. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r o p e r t y of the s y n t a c t i c d e s i g n i s l a c o n i c i s m . The conciseness which can be observed i n the chapters and paragraphs of The F i r s t C i r c l e i s a l s o t y p i c a l of i t s sentences. Each statement conveys only the e s s e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s procedure i s f o l l o w e d whether the comment renders a p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n on a l i f e phenomenon or a s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l judgment. S t r i c t avoidance of e l a b o r a t i o n and the s t r i v i n g f o r candor impose a search f o r s t y l i s t i c means whereby emotion can be communicated. Exclamations and verb-omissions, which are d i s t i n c t i v e marks of e l l i p t i c a l syntax, are commonly employed. Some examples are the f o l l o w i n g : Brown, op. c i t . , p. 307. - 20 -Summa summarum s t a l i n s k o g o p r a v o s u d i y a l (i+t512) Budushcheye obshchestvol 0 nyom g o v o r i l i tak l e g k o l ik'k3S) Eto b y l pocherk S t a l i n a J - to v e l i k o l e p n o y e uravneniye d r u z e i i vragov, kotoroye v y d e l y a l o yego i z o v s e i chelovecheskoi i s t o r i i l (3:223) T h i s e l l i p t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y adapt-able to the mental a c t i o n o f the characters,where i t serves i n the immediate t r a n s m i s s i o n o f a thought or an i d e a . F o r example: "Gospodii Svoimi nogami - da na v o l y u , a?" (1:52) In the f o l l o w i n g passage (from Cancer Ward), t h i s technique has f a c i l i t a t e d the author's compressing of s e v e r a l a c t i o n s i n t o one; the e f f e c t i s not s e r i o u s l y reduced by the i n t e r -posed p a r e n t h e s i s : " T e p e r ' t k l e i - devushke, meshok - v r u k i (on mezhdu nogami vsyo vremya, chtob ne u p e r l i ) , pis'ma - v yashc h i k , a samomu - begoml" (2:5^7) E l l i p s i s i s one of the p r o p e r t i e s which g i v e t o the prose of the labour-camp s t o r y i t s d i s t i n g u i s h e d c h a r a c t e r . To achieve the d e s i r e d a r t i s t i c e f f e c t s , the syntax must be subordinated to the p o p u l a r - f o l k o r i e n t a t i o n of the v i l l a g e speech of the main c h a r a c t e r . T h e r e f o r e d e v i a t i o n s from the PI normal syntax occ u r . The sentence may l o s e a c o n j u n c t i o n or g a i n an i n t e r j e c t i o n : V i d i t Shukhov - zametalsya T s e z a r ' , tyk-myk, da pozdno. (1:121+) These are t r e a t e d by L. Rzhevsky i n "Obraz r a s -ska z c h i k a . . . ," op. c i t . . p. 169. - 21 -Vosemnadtsatym i Shukhov v t i s n u l s y a . Da begom k svoyei vagonke, da na podporochku nogu z a k i n u l -s h a s t ' l - i uzh naverkhu. (1:132) Another d i s t i n c t i v e mark of S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s l a c o n i c -ism i s i t s p r o v e r b i a l bent. The concentration-camp s t o r y i s i n s p i r e d by the wisdom o f sayings and by-words which convey the rudimentary Weltanschauung of the u n p r e t e n t i o u s peasant and h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s on the c o n d i t i o n s of p r i s o n l i f e . Here the conciseness of the syntax has t h a t q u a l i t y which Burton 22 Rubin d e s c r i b e s as " s t a c c a t o b r e v i t y . " T h i s i s the e f f e c t produced by judgments d e l i v e r e d i n p a s s i n g . Since the p o i n t of view i s t h a t of a simple peasant, genuine p r o v e r b i a l i t y i s achieved by r e n d e r i n g the verb i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n . A f t e r the method of Rzhevsky, three fundamental c a t e g o r i e s may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d . ^ Two borrowings from V l a d i m i r Dai's Poslov- i t s y russkogo naroda (Moskva: G-IKhL, 1957) are i n the f i r s t c l a s s : K r y a k h t i da gnis'.A upryosh'sya - perelomish' sya. (1: ) Bryukho - z l o d e i , starogo dobra ne pomnit. • . .(1:112) The members of the second group are v a r i a t i o n s of types a l -ready e x i s t i n g i n the language: Ispytok ne ubytok. . . . (1:7) 2 2 " H i g h l i g h t s of the 1962-1963 Thaw," i n S o v i e t  L i t e r a t u r e i n the S i x t i e s : An I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium, ed. Max Hayward and Edward L. Crowley, New York: Praeger, 196I4-, p. 90. 23 Rzhevsky, op. c i t . , pp. 168-9. - 22 -T y o p l y i z y a b l o g o r a z v e kogda poimyot? (1:20) B i t o l sobake t o l ' k o p l e t ' p o k a z h i . d : i m Kto kogo smozhet, t o t togo i g l o z h e t . (1:56) Gretomu myorzlogo ne p o n y a t ' . (1:88) S t y l i s t i c a l l y , t h e t h i r d c a t e g o r y i s the most i m p o r t a n t , f o r i t s components t e s t i f y t o S o l z h e n i t s y n 1 s o r i g i n a l i t y i n the f i e l d o f p o p u l a r - f o l k p h r a s e o l o g y . The f o l l o w i n g a p h o r i s t i c judgments on the phenomena o f camp l i f e show t h a t the n a r r -a t o r has p e n e t r a t e d c o m p l e t e l y the mind o f the c e n t r a l f i g -u r e : V k a l y v a i na s o v e s t ' - odno s p a s e n i y e . (1:7) D l y a l y u d e i d e l a y e s h ' - k a c h e s t v o d a i , d l y a d u r a k a d e l a y e s h ' - d a i pokazukhu. (1:13) Ne v y k u s i s h ' - ne v y p r o s i s h ' . (1:[|_2) D v e s t i gramm z h i z n ' y u p r a v y a t . (1:1+7) Mi s k i n e s t i - ne rukavom t r y a s t i . (1:110) Khuzhe n e t , kak bryukho r a s t r a v i s h ' , da popustu.(1:117) Kak v o t b y s t r a y a v o s h k a vsegda p e r v a y a S o l z h e n i t s y n o c c a s i o n a l l y employs the p r o v e r b as a d i d a c t i c v e h i c l e . W h i l e the t r a n s p o r t from M a v r i n o i s g e t t i n g under way, Khorobrov's comment a f f i r m s the m o r a l Tightness o f the p r i s o n e r s ' r e f u s a l s t o c o o p e r a t e i n the l a b o r a t o r y schemes: "Net, r e b y a t a - l u c h s h e k h l e b s v o d o i , chem p i r o g s b e d o i . " (l+:803) And S p i r i d o n Yegorov's i n s t i n c t i v e r e a c t i o n t o the problem o f good and e v i l i s a r e p r o d u c t i o n o f the f o l k a t t -n  grebeshok popadayet. (1:122) - 23 -itu.de: "Volkodav - prav, a lyudoyed - n e t l " ( I 4 . S ^ 6 1 ) S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s chosen u n i t o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n The  F i r s t C i r c l e i s the sentence r a t h e r than the paragraph. The sentence i s designed to focus the reader's a t t e n t i o n on one t h i n g at a time. T h e r e f o r e a l l the nece s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n on the matter at hand i s g i v e n at the same time. I f a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d , i t i s u s u a l l y r e p o r t e d i n a paren-t h e s i s ; S o l z h e n i t s y n r a r e l y puts i t i n a separate sentence. The m u l t i p l i c i t y o f s i n g l e - s e n t e n c e paragraphs i n The F i r s t  C i r c l e may be a t t r i b u t e d to t h i s d e v i c e . To promote i n the paragraphs the l a c o n i c p r o p e r t i e s of the sentences, v a r i o u s techniques are used. F o r example, S o l z h e n i t s y n b r i l l i a n t l y e x p l o i t s the p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r par-t i c i p i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n c o l l o q u i a l speech. The f o l l o w i n g n o n p e r i o d i c sentence-paragraph drawn from the i n i t i a l scene of the n o v e l i s an e x c e l l e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n : Wezatumanennyye dvoinyye s t e k l a vysokogo okna, nachinayushchegosya ot samogo p o l a , o t k r y v a l i g l a z u gde-to v n i z u t o r o p l i v o y e snovaniye u l i t s y i d v o r n i -kov, sgrebavshikh t o l ' k o chto v y p a v s h i i , no uzhe o t y a z h e l e v s h i i , k o r i c h n e v o - g r y a z n y i sneg i z - p o d nog peshekhodov. (3*5>) Common f e a t u r e s o f the lo n g e r sentences are s t r i n g s of verb forms and r e p e t i t i o n s . These d e v i c e s a s s i s t i n the c h a r a c t e r i z i n g of An d r e i Potapov, where the r e p e t i t i o n s l a y s t r e s s on h i s morning h a b i t s : Potapov i z pervykh v s t a l , g u l y a l , i z pervykh po-z a v t r a k a l , uzhe p o p i l i chayu, uzhe z a p r a v i l k oiku v - 214. " z h y o s t k i i p a r a l l e l e p i p e d , s i d e l c h i t a l gazetu - no dushoi r v a l s y a na rabotu (yemu p r e d s t o y a l o segodnya g r a d u i r o v a t ' i n t e r e s n y i p r i b o r , im samim s d e l a n n y i ) . (1^:770) T h i s passage a l s o e x e m p l i f i e s S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s i n c l i n a t i o n to s u b s t i t u t e an independent p r o p o s i t i o n f o r a c a u s a l c l a u s e . The complex s y n t a c t i c p e r i o d i s f r e q u e n t l y a source of a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e . The p r o p e r t y which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the excerpt i n t r o d u c e d below i s i t s double i n t o n a t i o n , i n which the p a r e n t h e s i s does s e r v i c e as a rhythmic pause to balance the l o g i c a l l y s t r e s s e d members of the sentence. On d o l o z h i l , chto nochnoye dezhurstvo p r o s h l o v polnom poryadke, n a r u s h e n i i n i k a k i k h ne b y l o , chrez-vychainnykh zhe p r o i s s h e s t v i i dva: odno i z l o z h e n o v r a p o r t e (on p o l o z h i l pered Kliment'yevym r a p o r t na u g o l s t o l a , no r a p o r t t o t c h a s zhe s o r v a l s y a i po za-my s l o v a t o i k r i v o i s p l a n i r o v a l pod d a l ' n i i s t u l . Nade-l a s h i n k i n u l s y a za nim tuda i snova p r i n y o s na s t o l ) , vtoroye zhe s o s t o y a l o v vyzove zaklyuchyonnykh Bobi -n i n a i Pryanchikova k m i n i s t r u Gosbezopasnosti. (3:210) The scene has two l e v e l s of a c t i o n which operate simultane-o u s l y : while N a d e l a s h i n d e l i v e r s the r e p o r t , the author, as the omniscient n a r r a t o r , a t t r a c t s the reader's a t t e n t i o n by i n t e r j e c t i n g . The p a r e n t h e t i c humour does double duty: i t makes a show of Nadelashin's discomposure and u t t e r i n e p t i -tude i n the presence of h i s s u p e r i o r , and i t s u b t l y d e r i d e s the whole b u r e a u c r a t i c p r o c e e d i n g . S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s penchant f o r b r e v i t y guides the f i g -u r a t i v e system of h i s work. He does not experiment i n t h i s f i e l d , a n d as a r e s u l t h i s comparisons are o f t e n commanding. - 25 -L i k e T o l s t o y , he does not r e s o r t t o f i g u r a t i v e language f o r a e s t h e t i c e f f e c t s . I n s t e a d , these are c r e a t e d by eloquence. His metaphors are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by o r i g i n a l i t y , a n d the more ex p r e s s i v e of them are u n d e r l a i n by coarse humour. The camp s t o r y c o n t a i n s the f o l l o w i n g examples: namordnik d o r o z h n y i . In p r i s o n j a r g o n the namordnik i s a "muzzle," a s c r e e n p l a c e d over the c e l l window to conceal the view, yet admit l i g h t . In the combination here i t s i g -n i f i e s a b i t of rag to "muzzle" the p r i s o n e r ' s face a g a i n s t the b i t t e r c o l d as he goes out to work beyond the camp con-f i n e s : "Namordnik do r o z h n y i , tryapochka, za dorogu vsya o t -mokla ot dykhaniya i koi-gde morozom p r i k h v a t i l a s ' , k o r k o i s t a l a l e d y a n o i . " (1:35) b u s h l a t derevyannyi. T h i s e x p r e s s i o n , which comes from Ru s s i a n t h i e v e s ' cant, f i n d s i t s E n g l i s h counterpart i n the "wooden overcoat" of underworld s l a n g . "Doktora e t i v bush-l a t derevyannyi l e c h a t . " (1:93) A f i n a l example i s the f o l l o w i n g metonymical d e s c r i p t i o n of the lOl+th brigade as "bryukhi pustyye poyasami brezentovymi zatyanuty." (1:14-5) The Bolshaya Lubyanka p r i s o n i n Moscow i s d e s c r i b e d i n such a way as to c o n t r i b u t e to the atmosphere of impend-i n g doom which p r e v a i l s around V o l o d i n . The combination of v metaphor and s i m i l e imparts to i t a t h r e a t e n i n g aspect and, i t seems, pr e s e n t s i t as a symbol of S t a l i n ' s T e r r o r : " E t a - 26 -sero-chyornaya d e v y a t i e t a z h n a y a tusha b y l a l i n k o r , i vosem-na d t s a t ' p i l y a s t r o v kak vosemnadtsat' o r u d i i n y k h bashen vy-s i l i s ' po pravomu yeyo b o r t u . " (3:8) S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s metaphors are o f t e n employed f o r the purpose of i r o n y . The d e s c r i p t i o n of the n o v e l Far From Us i s s a r c a s t i c i n the extreme and has the e f f e c t of e x c l u d i n g s o c i a l i s t r e a l i s m from l i t e r a t u r e : " E t a k n i g a b y l a - p i r o g bez n a c h i n k i , y a i t s o s vytekshim soderzhimym, chuchelo ot u b i t o i p t i t s y . . . . " (3:3214.) S i m i l e s are much more numerous i n h i s works. These too are p r e c i s e and simple, and are p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l i n conveying the harshness of p r i s o n l i f e . In many of them S o l z h e n i t s y n e x p l o i t s pathos. The v i s u a l imagery and sense appeal are poignant i n the f o l l o w i n g examples: . . . kozha na l i t s e - kak kora dubovaya. (1:36) . . . o k r u z h i l i t u pechku, kak babu, vse obnimat' l e z u t . (1:51+-) . . . k a s h i t s u i . . . k n e i so svyashchen-nym trepetom pr i o b r a s h c h a y e s h ' s y a , p r i c h a -shchayesh'syal - kak k t o i prane i o g o v l (3:l+-9) S o l z h e n i t s y n has a keen s e n s i b i l i t y t o the o r d i n a r y phenomena of l i f e . His d e s c r i p t i o n of the young K l a r a Maka-r y g i n i n the hands of d e s t i n y r e v e a l t h a t d e l i c a c y of f e e l -i n g : "Ona ne b y l a v i n o v a t a , chto n a s t u p i l o yeyo posledneye predel'noye sozrevaniye i neumolimym zakonom p r i r o d y ona dolzhna b y l a , kak sentyabr'skoye yabloko, upast' v r u k i t o -- 27 -mu, kto yeyo p o d k h v a t i t . " ([).:528-9) S o v i e t o f f i c i a l s are t r e a t e d w i t h the contempt they deserve. At the beginning of The F i r s t C i r c l e the m i n i s t e r s of the government are s u i t a b l y d i m i n i s h e d f o r the amusement of the reader: "Znaya nochnyye povadki v l a d y k i , vse shest' desyatkov m i n i s t r o v , kak s h k o l ' n i k i , bdyat v o z h i d a n i i vy-zova." (3:6) The C h r i s t i a n resonance which u n d e r l i e s the f o l l o w -i n g s i m i l e from Cancer Ward i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g . Here S o l z h e n i t s y n mentions the ease w i t h which e x i l e s and former camp martyrs r e c o g n i z e each o t h e r : "Khotya ne b y l o im uch-rezhdeno s r e d i o s t a l ' n y k h n i pogon, n i yavnoi formy, n i na-rukavnoi p o v y a z k i , - a o n i legko o p o z n a v a l i drug druga: kak budto po kakomu-to svetyashchemusya znaku vo l b u ; kak budto po stigmatam na kostyakh l a d o n i i plyusny." (2:525) I t i s , perhaps, a t r i b u t e to the a r t i s t r y t h a t the symbolism needs no e l a b o r a t i o n . The rhythm of the l o n g e r passages i n The F i r s t C i r - c l e i s a t t r i b u t a b l e i n l a r g e p a r t to S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s f a c u l t y f o r f i n d i n g the c o r r e c t combination of words. T h i s f e l i c i t y can be seen i n h i s choice of e p i t h e t s . There i s nothing un-expected or s u r p r i s i n g i n h i s s e l e c t i o n of m e t a p h o r i c a l ad-j e c t i v e s i n the f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t ; indeed, t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r aptness r e s i d e s i n t h e i r v e r y usualness ( i f t h e i r frequency i n p o e t i c d i c t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d ) : ". . . m o s k v i c h i , p r i y e z -- 28 -zhayushchiye po voskresen'yam v roshchu, ne mogli by pred-s t a v i t ' , skol'ko nezauryadnikh z h i z n e i , rastoptannykh pory- vov, vzmetennykh s t r a s t e i i gosudarstvennykh t a i n b y l o sob-rano, s t i s n u t o , s p l e t e n o i dokrasna nakaleno v etom podgo-rodnem odinokom starinnom z d a n i i [My i t a l i c s ] . " (3:280) The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the f i r s t three elements i n the i t a l i c i z e d sequence above i s enhanced by t h e i r being p l a c e d s y n t a c t i c -a l l y p a r a l l e l w i t h the f o u r t h e x p r e s s i o n , the a n t i c l i m a c t i c "gosudarstvennyye t a i n y . " Passages of pure d e s c r i p t i o n o f t e n have the q u a l i t y of prose p o e t r y . The v i v i d imagery of the phrase " s h c h e d r y i t s a r s t v e n n y i i n e i " (3:183), f o r example, has the same f i n e -ness of p e r c e p t i o n which d i s t i n g u i s h e s the prose poems, the Krokhotnyye r a s s k a z y . And, whatever the purpose, the e p i t h -e t s a p p l i e d to the d e s c r i p t i o n o f Yakonov's o f f i c e have the d i s t i n c t i v e s i g n s of p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n : ". . . v b a r k h a t i s -t o i t i s h i n e i polirovannom uyute k a b i n e t a . . . . " (3:271) When the scene changes from the sanctuary of nature to the i n f e r n a l S i b e r i a n "underworld," the language of poe-t r y i s , a p p r o p r i a t e l y , f o r s a k e n . The e p i t h e t s , however, r e -main p e r t i n e n t . F o r example: "V etom ledyanom mire, k o t o r y i . . . otshtampoval Olegu dushu. . . ," (2:52!+) " v o l ' c h i za-kony GULAGa" (3:95) and many o t h e r s . S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s prose i s never formal or o r a t o r i c a l ; e m bellished language f i n d s no place i n h i s s t y l e . His prose - 29 -i s candid, s i n c e r e and honest; i t does not have the s o p h i s -t i c a t i o n of much Western l i t e r a t u r e . The s i n c e r i t y r e s i d e s i n h i s s t r i v i n g f o r the sp o n t a n e i t y of c o l l o q u i a l and popu-l a r phraseology. His s k i l f u l use of new grammatical forms, d i a l e c t a l and a r c h a i c e x p r e s s i o n s and neologisms ( i n c l u d i n g s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d borrowings from V l a d i m i r D a l ' , words and phrases used w i t h semantic change and others c o n s t r u c t e d by a f f i x a t i o n ) a c t s as a r e s t o r a t i v e and makes a v a l u a b l e con-t r i b u t i o n t o the contemporary l i t e r a r y language. I t has not been p o s s i b l e i n t h i s essay to d e a l w i t h a l l problems of s t y l e . Those q u e s t i o n s which s t i l l r e q u i r e i n v e s t i g a t i n g i n c l u d e d i a l o g u e s t r u c t u r e (which c o n t r i b u t e s i n important measure to the drama of the n o v e l ) , the use of symbol, the r e l a t e d problem of i r o n i c tone, and the e f f e c t s of v o c a b u l a r y and phraseology on s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e . CHAPTER I I THE LANGUAGE OF THE CAMPS The primary purpose of t h i s chapter i s to de a l w i t h the d i c t i o n of the p r i s o n s and c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps as i t i s set down by S o l z h e n i t s y n . His two works One Day i n the L i f e  of Ivan D e n i s o v i c h and The F i r s t C i r c l e are r i c h sources of the v o c a b u l a r y i n q u e s t i o n . The r e t i c e n c e of the government about the system of compulsory l a b o u r impedes i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s branch of l i n g u i s t i c s . Perhaps understandably, the censors do not p u b l i s h works t r e a t i n g p o l i t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e themes. E x c e p t i o n a l l y , a few s t o r i e s and a r t i c l e s appeared d u r i n g the s o - c a l l e d "thaw" of the e a r l y 1960s. These works ( i n c l u d i n g S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s f i r s t s tory) are an embarrassment to the present l e a d e r s of the S o v i e t Union. Since S o l z h e n i t s y n was imprisoned under A r t i c l e $8, he served h i s sentence i n s p e c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s r e s e r v e d f o r p o l i t i c a l o f f e n d e r s : f o u r years i n a s p e c i a l p r i s o n such as Mavrino, f o u r years i n a s p e c i a l camp. Therefore h i s n o v e l s do not f u r n i s h the l i n g u i s t w i t h a complete l e x i c o n of camp language. The w r i t t e n testimony of former inmates i n d i c a t e s t h a t word usage v a r i e d r e g i o n a l l y , and S o l z h e n i t s y n 1 s works do not i n c l u d e some of the v a r i a n t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , h i s con-- 31 -t r i b u t i o n i s of c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e . The i n h a b i t a n t s of the penal i n s t i t u t i o n s came from d i v e r s e s o c i a l environments and d i f f e r e n t walks of l i f e and were of v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s p e r s u a s i o n s and ed-u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the language of the camps developed i n t o a p e c u l i a r l i n g u i s t i c conglomerate which d e r i v e d i t s components from the j a r g o n of p r o f e s s i o n s and t r a d e s , o f f i c i a l nomenclature, the slang of the "under-world" (the t h i e v e s ' cant known as b l a t n a y a muzyka) and the s l a n g elements which evolved i n s i d e the barbed wire i t s e l f . Prison-camp slang proper and the p o p u l a r - v u l g a r elements of everyday speech are no doubt mobile and m u t u a l l y r e p l e n i s h -i n g c a t e g o r i e s ; t h e r e f o r e they cannot be d i s t i n g u i s h e d w i t h c e r t a i n t y . T h i s essay employs the method of c l a s s i f y i n g and e x e m p l i f y i n g S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s use of v a r i o u s word groups. !• Nouns and S u b s t a n t i v e s Camp j a r g o n has been h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e i n the f i e l d of noun f o r m a t i o n . The l a r g e number of neologisms t h a t have developed i n the e r a of the camps shows the tendency of the R u ssian language g e n e r a l l y to produce words by s u f f i x a t i o n . In p r i s o n usage many of these words have d i s p a r a g i n g conno-t a t i o n s , though the s u f f i x e s i n q u e s t i o n are not those which are u s u a l l y put to producing p e j o r a t i v e s . The s u f f i x - i s h k a (-ishko), f o r example, i s r a r e l y encountered. Instead, an-- 32 -imal imagery p l a y s a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t i n producing d i s d a i n or contempt. To t h i s category belong the f o l l o w i n g : shakal (cadger), popka ( s e n t r y i n the tower), and v o l k ( i n f o r m e r ) . The l a s t term i s ambiguous; i n the e x p r e s s i o n l a g e r n y i v o l k i t r e f e r s to a hardened p r i s o n e r . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s r e v e a l the ambiguity and c l a r i f y the usage: A Shukhovu krepko z a p o m n i l i s ' s l o v a yego pervogo b r i g a d i r a Kuzyomina - s t a r y i b y l l a g e r n y i v o l k , s i d e l k devyat'sot sorok tret'yemu godu uzhe dve-nad t s a t ' l e t . . . . (1:5-6) . . . i kogda N e r z h i n s t a l nakhazhivat' k S p i r i -donu - S p i r i d o n i yego sosedi po koikam druzhno o p r e d e l i l i , chto N e r z h i n - v o l k i rys k a y e t za do-by chei d l y a kuma. (1+: 5J+I4.) The abusive v o c a t i v e forms of the f i g u r a t i v e slang are a l s o u n d e r l a i n by animal imagery, but these are not neologisms. The process of s u f f i x a t i o n has produced a number of nouns which d i s t i n g u i s h the v a r i o u s ranks and l e v e l s of the p r i s o n s o c i e t y or name the items of penal p a r a p h e r n a l i a . I t i s convenient to group these nouns by s u f f i x . 1. Terminations i n - i k , - n i k , - c h i k . - s h c h i k are q u i t e common and f a l l i n t o two groups. Those which belong to the camp jar g o n proper, w i t h an approximate E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t , are:, l a g e r n i k (a camp inmate), b y t o v i k (a p r i s o n e r c o n v i c -te d f o r a domestic c r i m e ) . d v o i n i k ( i n S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s usage, a "double agent"), p o v t o r n i k ( r e c i d i v i s t ) , n amordnik(either a screen over the c e l l window or used synonymously w i t h the phrase po rogam - v. i n f r a ) , k r e s t i k (a person c o n v i c t e d on - 33 -r e l i g i o u s grounds), u k a z c h i k (a p r i s o n e r c o n v i c t e d f o r v i o -l a t i n g a government decree or u k a z ) , o t k a z c h i k (one who r e -f u s e s to work), predzonnik (the pre-zone a r e a ) . The second group c o n t a i n s the words i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the camp language. Those which are well-known beyond the p r i s o n s i n c l u d e : nor-m i r o v s h c h i k (norm-setter), d e s y a t n i k (job foreman), naryad-c h i k (work a s s i g n o r ) , b e z d e l ' n i k ( l o a f e r , i d l e r ) , b r i g a d n i k (a member of a brigade or work-gang), and n a c h a l ' n i k (boss, c h i e f , commander, e t c . ) . 2. Terminations i n -ka. -ovka, -yashka compose a l a r g e c l a s s . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e to separate the neologisms i n t h i s category from the terms i n use i n p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r i s o n s and f o r c e d - l a b o u r i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t i s reasonable to suggest t h a t vol'nyashka (a d e p r e c i a t o r y v a r i a n t of v o l ' n y i and the slang vol'nyaga, d e s i g n a t i n g a c i v i l i a n h i r e d by the p r i s o n a u t h o r i t i e s ) i s a neologism of the S t a l i n e r a . Zanachka (a "fence") i s c l e a r l y d e r i v e d from t h i e v e s ' cant. The o r i g i n of the neologism shalashovka (a woman p r i s o n e r of easy v i r -tue) has been e x p l a i n e d by S h i l y a y e v . 2 ^ " The word comes from shalash, a temporary s h e l t e r f o r such women. Popka (parrot) has been mentioned above. Pa i k a and p o l p a i k a are r e f e r e n c e s to the bread r a t i o n . The minimum guaranteed r a t i o n i s a l s o known as the g a r a n t i i k a . The p r i s o n bunks, made of p l a n k s , 2 ^ S h i l y a y e v , op. c i t . , p. 2I4.O - 3h -were arranged i n t i e r s of f o u r ; each was c a l l e d a vagonka. an e x p r e s s i o n which a l s o designates a group of f o u r p r i s o n -e r s . Other terms are: prozharka ( r o a s t e r - f o r d i s i n f e c t i n g c l o t h e s ) , zapretka ( f o r b i d d e n zone), r a z d a t k a ( d i s t r i b u t i o n p r e m i s e s ) , komandirovka (a p l a c e of temporary work - an ex-ample of semantic change from the m i l i t a r y usage), posadka (both a p r i s o n sentence and the act of i m p r i s o n i n g ) , kormu-shka (feeding s l o t i n a c e l l door - a semantic e x t e n s i o n o f "fe e d i n g t r o u g h " ) , shestyorka (a p r i s o n e r i n the s e r v i c e of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and attached to the s e r v i n g c l a s s i n the m e s s - h a l l ) , and desyatka (a ten-year term - probably a neo-lo g i s m of the S t a l i n e r a ) . Mostyrka ( s i m u l a t i o n or fak i n g ) i s one of many terms s i g n i f y i n g f a k e r y : " . . . Rus'ka . . . r a s s k a z y v a l . . . kak on do k h o d i l v s y r o i shakhte, kak s t a l d e l a t ' sebe mostyrku - yezhednevnuyu temperaturu, nagrevaya obe podmyshki kamnyami odinakovoi massy. . . ."(3:361) The word sharashka, the p r i s o n e r s ' d i s d a i n f u l name f o r the Mav-r i n o I n s t i t u t e , i s an i n s t a n c e of semantic change; the word d e r i v e s from a S o v i e t s l a n g e x p r e s s i o n s i g n i f y i n g a d e c e i t -f u l , s i n i s t e r e n t e r p r i s e . F i n a l l y , the word zechka (female p r i s o n e r ) i s the counterpart of zek. 3. Terminations i n -aga (-yaga) i n c l u d e a small number of words which, apart from b l a t y a g a ( c r i m i n a l a l s o known as b l a t a r ' and b l a t n o i who l i v e s by b l a t or " c o n n e c t i o n " ) , are a l l f i r m l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the camps and p r i s o n s . They are: - 35 -vol'nyaga (v. supra), bedolaga (the most unf o r t u n a t e or un-l u c k y of men), rabotyaga (an o r d i n a r y p r i s o n e r who i s doing g e n e r a l assignment hard l a b o u r i n the zone), and dokhodyaga (a rabotyaga i n the f i n a l stages of p h y s i c a l exhaustion who i s f a c i n g death). 1+.. C o l l e c t i v e s and p l u r a l s are r a r e . Among those which occur i n S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s works are the f o l l o w i n g : s i d k i i s a g e n e r a l p l u r a l f o r p r i s o n e r s s e r v i n g a sentence; i t d e r i v e s from the verb s i d e t ' (to s i t ) ; p e r e s i d k i are those who have "o v e r s a t , " t h a t i s , served more than the a l l o t t e d sentence j 'fc^ie p r i d u r n y a or p r i d u r k i are the " t r u s t i e s " who c o n s t i t u t e the s e r v i n g c l a s s . S o l z h e n i t s y n d e s c r i b e s them as f o l l o w s : No eto b y l i ne seryye z e k i , a tvyordyye lagernyye p r i d u r k i , pervyye s v o l o c h i , s i d e v s h i y e v zone. Lyu-dei e t i k h r a b o t y a g i s c h i t a l i n i z h e der'ma (kak i te s t a v i l i r a b o t y a g ) . No s p o r i t ' s nimi b y l o b e s p o l e z -no: u p r i d u r n i mezh soboi s p a i k a i s n a d z i r a t e l y a m i tozhe. (1:103) The s u b s t a n t i v e b l a t n y y e i s the p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s ' d e s i g -n a t i o n of the common c r i m i n a l s who c a l l themselves u r k i . 5. M i s c e l l a n e o u s t e r m i n a t i o n s . The s u f f i x - s tvo occurs i n the f a m i l i a r dezhurstvo (duty) and n a c h a l ' s t v o (adminis-t r a t i o n ) . A t h i r d , gadstvo (approximately e q u i v a l e n t to ga-d o s t ' ) , appears to be one of S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s neologisms. The d i s d a i n f u l s u f f i x -yak occurs i n dezhurnyak (dezhurnyi nad-z i r a t e l ' ) . A few nouns end i n -ok: p r i d u r o k i s the s i n g u l a r °f P r i d u r k i ; potok (wave of p r i s o n e r s ) ; g l a z o k (peephole i n - 36 -a c e l l d oor); and voronok (diminutive of voron, the R u s s i a n e q u i v a l e n t of B l a c k M a r i a ) . The t e r m i n a t i o n -ach appears i n the forms stukach (informer) and s t r o g a c h ( s t r i c t s o l i t a r y , a l s o d esignated by the a d j e c t i v e s t r o g i i ) . S e v e r a l nouns which are c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the concentration-camp p e r i o d cannot be c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s way. Three which have undergone semantic s h i f t are: shmon (body-search) , parasha (rumour), and kum (the p r i s o n e r s ' name f o r the s e c r e t p o l i c e o p e r a t i v e ) . Parasha continues to be used i n the meaning "slop-bucket," but a shmon i s much more than an obysk. The f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t s i l l u s t r a t e the usage: Krasnoguben'kii o t k r y l portsigar,tol»ko chto po-darennyi Potapovym, posmotrel mundshtuki vsekh p a p i -ros,ne zapryatano l i chto v n i k h , pokovyryalsya mezh spichek v korobke, net l i pod n i m i , p r o v e r i l r u b c h i k i nosovogo p l a t k a , ne z a s h i t o l i chto - i nichego dru-gogo v karmanakh ne o b n a r u z h i l . Togda, prosunuv r u k i mezhdu n i z h n e i rubashkoi i rasstyognutym pidzhakom, on obkhlopal ves' korpus Nerzhina, nashchupivaya,net l i chego zasunutogo pod rubashku i i i mezhdu rubash-k o i i manishkoi. Potom on p r i c e l na k o r t o c h k i i t e c -nym obkhvatom dvukh g o r s t e i p r o v y o l sverkhu v n i z po odnoi noge Nerzhina, potom po d r u g o i . (3:268) Chtob napugat' vsekh, nado bylo khot' chast' o t p r a -v i t ' . Po lageryam p o l z l i groznyye p a r a s h i o skorykh etapakh na Sever. (3:293) B y l kum - l a g e r n y i oper s t a r s h i i l e i t e n a n t Kamy-shan, o d i n n a d t s a t ' mesyatsev k r e s t i v s h i i yego na v t o r o i srok, na novuyu desyatku. (3:21+5) The p r i s o n jargon, has s e v e r a l methods of expressing f a k e r y . The nouns employed are: mostyrka (v. supra), chernukha, and tukhta. T h e i r meanings are shown i n the f o l l o w i n g examples: - 37 -A mezhdu tern vsyo eto by l a chernukha ( p u t a n i -tsa) , Nerzhin t e m n i l po vecheram na s l u c h a i za-khoda n a c h a l ' s t v a . (3:30) Potom on s i d e l , o t k r y v d l y a chernukhi spravoch-n i k i poglyadyvaya, chto d e l a y e t s y a s yego l i s t o r a d a i ' s h e . (i+:608) Pro sebya S p i r i d o n , yeshchyo kogda g o v o r i l o generale Yegorove, uzhe prekrasno dogadalsya, chto v y z v a l i yego ne i z - z a kakol Germanii, chto f o t o -g r a f i y a b y l a tukhta, kum t e m n l l , a v y z v a l iraenno i z - z a tokarnogo stanka. . . . (l+:676) E x t e r n a l evidence suggests t h a t t u k h t a i s a r e g i o n a l v a r i a -t i o n . In Unto P a r v i l a h t i ' s memoirs the meaning given to the word i s much wider. ^There i t i s a g e n e r a l term f o r f r a u d u -l e n c e . P a r v i l a h t i ' s e x p l a n a t i o n of t u k h t a corresponds pre-c i s e l y w i t h what E l i n o r L i p p e r c a l l s t u f t a . She w r i t e s : T u f t a i s f a k e r y of a l l k i n d s . . . . A man who understands the a r t of t u f t a can always t u r n out s a t i s f a c t o r y work, although i n r e a l i t y h i s work should not pass. In the evening, f o r example, two wood choppers show t h e i r p i l e of wood to the f r e e b r i g a d i e r . He checks i t and notes down: twelve cu-b i c y ards. That i s a r e s p e c t a b l e performance. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the two wood choppers are not n o t i c e * a b l y t i r e d . In a c t u a l i t y they have f e l l e d j u s t en-ough wood to camouflage a r t f u l l y a p i l e of brush. That i s t u f t a . 2 6 L i p p e r served her sentence i n Kolyma, P a r v i l a h t i h i s i n the Temnikovsky Camp i n the autonomous Mord v i n i a n R e p u b l i c , and 2^Unto P a r v i l a h t i , B e r i a ' s Gardens: Ten Years' Cap- t i v i t y i n R u s s i a and S i b e r i a , t r a n s , from F i n n i s h by A l a n B l a i r , London: Hutchinson, 1959. See pp. 99-100. E l i n o r L i p p e r , E l e v e n Years i n S o v i e t P r i s o n  Camps, t r a n s , from German by R i c h a r d and C l a r a Winston, London: H o l l i s and C a r t e r , 1951. See pp. 11+9-50. - 38 -hence c l o s e r to the scene of S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s imprisonment i n Kazakhstan. T h i s may account f o r the v a r i a n t s p e l l i n g . Other nouns i n t h i s c l a s s are v e r t u k h a i (camp over-seer) , s f i n k s (sphinx, a guard), f i t i l ' (a m o r a l l y and phy-s i c a l l y exhausted p r i s o n e r ) and f r a i e r (a t e n d e r f o o t - usu-a l l y a " p o l i t i c a l " and an o b j e c t of e x p l o i t a t i o n by the or-d i n a r y c r i m i n a l s ) • The neologism zek i s of i n t e r e s t . In s e v e r a l p l a c e s i n S o l z h e n i t s y n the word i s w r i t t e n i n the form ze-ka; t h i s i n d i c a t e s i t s o r i g i n . The o f f i c i a l d e s i g n a t i o n of p r i s o n e r (zaklyuchyonnyi) was i n s c r i b e d z/k (read: ze-ka). S o l z h e n i -tsyn's n o v e l s show t h a t by the time of h i s imprisonment the neologism had acquired both gender forms (zek, zechka), the p l u r a l z e k i , (and even an a d j e c t i v a l form z e k o v s k i i ) , which a l l f o l l o w the r e g u l a r d e c l e n s i o n a l paradigm f o r t h e i r r e s -p e c t i v e c l a s s e s . To a s p e c i a l category belong the nouns which d e r i v e from the process of c o n t r a c t i o n . The b u c o l i c - s o u n d i n g camp names are mostly complete s y l l a b i c c o n t r a c t i o n s . These are: Osoblag, Rechlag, Dubrovlag, O z e r l a g , S t e p l a g , and Peschan-l a g . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s L u g l a g , i n which the f i r s t s y l l -able i s a complete word. Other toponymies are d e r i v e d from the g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n o f the camps: S e v u r a l l a g , I v d e l ' -l a g , K a r g o p o l l a g . There are two kinds of combined co n t r a c -t i o n . The f i r s t f o l l o w s Luglag, the second r e v e r s e s the or-- 39 -der of word and s y l l a b l e . S e l e c t i o n s : k o n t s l a g e r . lagpunkt, vagonzak, spetsbarak, spetstyur'ma, spetsodezhda, spetstema (of Nadya's u n i v e r s i t y d i s s e r t a t i o n ) , spetszadaniye, and on trie r o o t oper the s u b s t a n t i v e operupolnomochennyi. The l i t -e r a l c o n t r a c t i o n s , l i k e the combined c o n t r a c t i o n s , are a l s o subordinated to the grammatical r u l e s . The common ones are: BUR, burovets; VOKhR, vokhrovets; URCh, u r c h e v t s y . In con-c l u s i o n , i t needs to be noted that S o l z h e n i t s y n uses o n l y a s m a l l number of s y l l a b i c c o n t r a c t i o n s ; most of the ones not l i s t e d above e x i s t beyond the camps and are w e l l known. 2. Verbs In t h i s s e c t i o n an attempt i s made to c l a s s i f y some of the slan g verbs which occur i n S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s usage. The l i s t i s supplemented i n the next s e c t i o n of the essay. Even so, i t remains incomplete; the number of verbs i s too great to g i v e a f u l l a n a l y s i s here. The o r i g i n of many of them i s obscure; t h e r e f o r e the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s t e n t a t i v e . Most of the q u o t a t i o n s below have been taken from The F i r s t C i r c l e . Of the f i v e passages which come from One Day i n the L i f e of  Ivan D e n i s o v i c h , one i s u n a v o i d a b l e , and the others p r e f e r -able . 1. " B l a t " v e r b s . The verbs z a n a c h i t ' (to f i l c h ) , s t u -c h a t ' ( t o denounce) and temnit' (to b l u f f ) can be c l a s s i f i e d w i t h c o n v i c t i o n . They t r a c e t h e i r o r i g i n to t h i e v e s ' cant, - 1+0 -and t h e i r meanings have been known f o r many y e a r s , even be-yond p r i s o n w a l l s . 2 7 Masterka tak p r o s t o b r o s i t ' n e l ' z y a . Mozhet, z a v t r a Shukhov ne vyidet,mozhet, b r i g a d u na Sotsgorodok za-t u r n u t , mozhet, syuda yeshchyo polgoda ne popadyosh' - masterok propadai? Z a n a c h i t ' tak z a n a c h i t ' I (1 :l83-l|.) V l a g e r e vot kto pogibayet: kto m i s k i l i z h e t , kto na sanchast' nadeyetsya da kto k kumu khodit s t u c h a t ' . (1:6) V A k u s t i c h e s k o i tern vremenem, khotya vse uzhe z n a l i o p r i y e z d e n a c h a l ' s t v o , r e s h i t e l ' n o ne m o g l i v sebe pre-o d o l e t ' m u c h i t e l ' n o i i n e r t s i i b e z d e i s t v i y a , poetomu t e m n i l i , l e n i v o k o p a l i s ' v yashchikakh s radiolampami, p r o d l y a d y v a l i skhemy v z h u r n a l a k h , z e v a l i v okno.(3:261) 2. Neologisms. The verbs s h e s t e r i t ' (to work as a camp servant, i . e . a s h e s t y o r k a ) , o s h a r a s h i t ' s y a (to become used to the l i f e of the sharashka), and r a s k u r o c h i t ' (to d e p r i v e someone of h i s property) have been newly coined i n the camp p e r i o d . Kto v zone o s t a y o t s y a , yeshchyo tak s h e s t e r y a t : p r o c h t u t na doshchechke, komu po s y l k a , v s t r e -chayut yego t u t , na l i n e i k e , s r a z u i nomer soob-shchayut. (1:100-1) Spasibo, s t a r i k , no t y tak o s h a r a s h i l s y a , chto z a b y l lagernyye p o r y a d k i . Kto zhe v l a g e r e dast mne b r i t ' s y a samomu? (L|.:785) . . . Orobintsev . . . v b o g a t o i shube i shapke, v kotorykh k h o d i l na v o l e (on ne pobyval dazhe na p e r e s y l k a k h , i yego ne u s p e l i yeshchyo r a s k u r o c h i t ' . (lj.: 652-3) 3. Verbs showing semantic change are e s p e c i a l l y numer-ous. To t h i s group belong: v k a l y v a t ' (to work i n t e n s i v e l y ) , z a l u p a t ' s y a (to tempt f a t e , to i n v i t e t r o u b l e ) , kapnut' (to See Vinokur, op. c i t . , p. 27. - kl -l e t f a l l I n f o r m a t i o n ) , z a k o s i t 1 (to get by ruse),razmenyat' (to put i n t i m e ) , zagnut'sya (to d i e ) , z a t s e p i t ' s y a (to get a good j o b ) , z a v a l i t ' (to i n f o r m ) . Tut kak: i i i vsem d o p o l n i t e l ' n o y e , i i i vsem pody-k h a i t e . Ty ne rabotayesh', gad, a ya i z - z a tebya golodnym s i d e t ' budu? Net, v k a l y v a i , p a d l o i (1:1+6) I l ' y a T e r e n t ' i c h l Zabyvayesh' vtoruyu arestantskuyu zapoved': ne z a l u p a i s y a . (3:229) No on sam o s t e r e g a l s y a s v o i k h sobstvennykh n a d z i r a -t e l e i i sobstvennykh zaklyuchyonnykh - inyye i z n i k h s o s t o y a l i na osvedomitel'noi sluzhbe i mogli na K l i -ment'yeva zhe kapnut'. (3:313) . . . vozmozhno dazhe, chto on z a k o s i l l i s h n i y e k h l o -pchatobumazhnyye b r y u c h k i . . . . (l+:77l+) No r e s h i t e l ' n o s t ' zeka tern boleye padayet, chem men'-she yemu o s t a y o t s y a do osvobozhdeniya. D y r s i n zhe razmenyal p o s l e d n i i god. (11:61+5) . . . on b y l dovolen i e t o i s v o y e i r a b o t o i v podvale, govorya, chto v l a g e r e davno by uzhe zagnulsya. . . . (1+:1+13) H i yemu p o s c h a s t l i v i t ' s y a d a t 1 l a p u , v s t r e t i t ' zna-komogo - iuon z a t s e p i t s y a dneval'nym, sanitarom i i i dazhe pomoshchnikom kaptyora? (l+:775) Ona d e r z h a l a s 1 s zekami p r e z r i t e l ' n o , v y s k a z y v a l a s ' , chto i k h nado p e r e s t r e l y a t * . . . i sama z a v a l i l a d voikh - odnogo na s v y a z i s devushkoi, drugogo - na i z g o t o v l e n i i chemodana i z kazennykh m a t e r i a l o v . (3:361+-5) The r o o t morpheme shmon i s the semantic v e h i c l e f o r a group of verbs which present a s p e c i a l problem. In V l a d i -m i r Dai's d i c t i o n a r y shmonit' means "to l o a f about." P r i s o n j a r g o n shows t h a t the word has now undergone a c o n s i d e r a b l e semantic s h i f t . The n e a r e s t synonym i s o b y s k i v a t ' , meaning - k2 -"to search." A more accurate r e n d e r i n g of the verb shmonit' i s " to f r i s k , " s i n c e the word d e r i v e s o r i g i n a l l y from b l a t . S o l z h e n i t s y n uses s e v e r a l v a r i a n t s : shmonat 1 and shmonyat' evidence a change i n thematic morpheme; proshmanivat', pro-shmonit' and doshmanivat' are the r e s u l t of p r e f i x a t i o n and i n f i x a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r usage: Uzh golovy kolonny shmonyali, kogda. • . . (1:96) Okolo o d i n n a d t s a t i chasov, kogda N e r z h i n , vyzvannyi i z A k u s t i c h e s k o i , p r i s h y o l na shmon, - shestero os-t a l ' n y k h , yekhavshikh na s v i d a n i y e , b y l i uzhe tarn. Odnikh doshmanivali, drugiye b y l i proshmoneny i o z h i d a l i . . . . (3:267) Po mere togo, kak etapiruyemykh a r e s t a n t o v sgo-n y a l i v shtab tyur'my,- i k h shmonali, a po mere t o -go,kak i k h p r o s h m a n i v a l i , - i k h p e r e g o n y a l i v zapas-nuyu pustuyu komnatu shtaba. . . . (I(.:791) As S h i l y a y e v suggests, the apparent l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n i n S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s use of these verbs cannot be e x p l a i n e d as an o v e r s i g h t on h i s p a r t . S h i l y a y e v reasons t h a t B o r i s Dyakov ( i n P o v e s t i o perezhitom) employs one form on l y - shmonat 1, because t h i s form was c u r r e n t usage i n the camps of E a s t e r n S i b e r i a d e s c r i b e d by Dyakov. He t h e r e f o r e argues the theory of r e g i o n a l variants. 2® In the case of the p r e f i x e d forms a d i f f e r e n t e x p l a n a t i o n seems p l a u s i b l e . Given the context of the second q u o t a t i o n above, i t i s c l e a r t h a t proshmonit' i s the p e r f e c t i v e aspect of a verb d e s i g n a t i n g a completed act (the p a s t p a s s i v e p a r t i c i p l e proshmonennyi- shor t form pro-S h i l y a y e v , op. c i t . . p. 2I4JL4. - 1+3 -shmoneny - i s i t s d e r i v a t i v e ) . Furthermore, the search had begun before Nerzhin's a r r i v a l ; the p r e f i x do- i s t h e r e f o r e used here i n one of i t s primary f u n c t i o n s , t h a t of p o i n t i n g out the c o n c l u d i n g of an i n t e r r u p t e d a c t i o n . The i m p e r f e c t -i v e aspect doshmanivat 1 i s s u i t a b l e to t h i s o c c a s i o n , s i n c e S o l z h e n i t s y n i s o b s e r v i n g the s e a r c h i n the process of com-p l e t i o n . In the t h i r d q u o t a t i o n the forms shmonat' and pro- shmanivat 1 are both being used i n a g e n e r a l i z i n g sense. I t i s one of the f u n c t i o n s of the past tense of the i m p e r f e c t -i v e aspect to communicate t h i s sense. Shmonat 1 conveys o n l y t h a t a search took p l a c e ; proshmanivat' p o i n t s out t h a t the act was being concluded. I n n e i t h e r case i s there s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to the beginning or end of the search. I f t h i s i s a s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the p r e f i x e d v e r b s , i t s t i l l does not d i s t i n g u i s h between the primary v a r i a n t s shmonyat 1 (used i n the f i r s t q u otation) and shmonat 1. In the absence of e x t e r n a l evidence, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to u n r a v e l the prob-lem at t h i s stage. 3. E x p r e s s i o n s S o l z h e n i t s y n uses a number of apt e x p r e s s i o n s which are e i t h e r h i s o r i g i n a l s or are borrowed from the corpus of standard p r i s o n by-words - neologisms of camp j a r g o n . Those which have m e t a p h o r i c a l connotations have been d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s chapter i n the s e c t i o n on f i g u r a t i v e language. - kh -The aim here i s to exemplify the use of c e r t a i n e x p r e s s i o n s which have become c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the p r i s o n v o c a b u l a r y . ot puza. In p r i s o n j a r g o n the e x p r e s s i o n means "to your h e a r t ' s content," " a - p l e n t y " : "Doshla kasha - s e i c h a s san-i n s t r u k t o r u : yesh' ot puza. I sam - ot puza." (1:56) Again, i n The F i r s t C i r c l e : "Rubaite ot puza, t o l ' k o ne l o p n i t e j " (3:13) In view of the c o n d i t i o n s of hunger which e x i s t e d i n the camps, the use of such an e x p r e s s i o n i n connection w i t h food i s not s u r p r i s i n g , but i t has another use: "Chem v ka-torzhnom l a g e r e khorosho - svobody zdes' ot puza." (1:116) po rogam. The use of the word "roga" i n t h i s phrase i s an example of semantic s h i f t . The saying means " d e p r i v a t i o n of r i g h t s . " Under S t a l i n i t was customary f o r " p o l i t i c a l s " to l o s e t h e i r c i v i l r i g h t s f o r the f i v e years f o l l o w i n g the p r i s o n sentence. "Bud' eto chelovek postoronnii,yemu by da-l i chetvertnuyu i pyat' po rogam. . . . " (3:68) And again: ". . . v i n o v a t , ne v i n o v a t - desyat' v zuby, pyat' po rogam - i v l a g e r ' . " (3:322) S o l z h e n i t s y n o f t e n e x p l a i n s the un-u s u a l e x p r e s s i o n s he us e s : " . . . Potapov b y l nakazan vsego l i s h ' desyat'yu godami z a k l y u c h e n i y a i pyat'yu godami l i s h -e n i y a prav, chto na arestantskom yazyke n a z y v a l o s ' desyat' i pyat' po rogam." (3:221) kachat' prava. In g e n e r a l use t h i s e x p r e s s i o n means i n S o v i e t p r i s o n s " t o demand one's r i g h t s as guaranteed by the c o n s t i t u t i o n . " The phrase i s a f u r t h e r example of semantic change. " . . . t a k s e i c h a s o n i v p o k h v a l u N e r z h i n u vspomni-l i , kakim l y u b i t e l e m k a c h a t ' p r a v a on b y l . . . • ** (Lj_s 78I4-) I n One Day i n the L i f e o f I v a n D e n i s o v i c h the s a y i n g o c c u r s i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h the v e r b shumet' i n i t s c o l l o q u i a l meaning " t o k i c k up a row": ". . . i k h o t ' shumet' i k a c h a t ' p r a v a on, kak c h e l o v e k r o b k i i , n e smel. . . . " (1:21) p a y a t ' s r o k . T h i s p h r a s e o l o g i s m , meaning " t o e x t e n d the sen t e n c e , " shows an a r t f u l s emantic s h i f t from the o r i g i n a l meaning o f the v e r b , " t o sweat" (by s o l d e r i n g ) . " G o v o r i l i v torn s m y s l e , c h t o p a y a t ' yemu s r o k a uzhe nekuda - no ne p e r e -k v a l i f i t s i r o v a l i b yemu d v a d t s a t ' p y a t ' ITL na d v a d t s a t ' p y a t ' odinochnogo. . . ." (i+s771) The p e r f e c t i v e a s p e c t i s p r i p a y a t ' : " V t o r o i s r o k p r i p a y a y u t , - v z d o k h n u l D y r s i n . " (I|.:6l4.5) A n o t h e r phrase has the same meaning: s o v a t ' novuyu  d e s y a t k u , " t o shove on an o t h e r t e n - y e a r s t r e t c h . " o t b u k h a t ' d e s y a t k u . The l i t e r a l sense i s " t o knock o f f a t e n - y e a r term": "Odni . . . z h i z n e r a d o s t n o dokazyvayut v t a k i k h s l u c h a y a k h , c h t o l u c h s h e s e s t ' v molodyye gody: zdes' uspevayesh' p o n y a t ' , chto z n a c h i t z h i z n ' , c h t o v z h i z n i do-r o g o , a chto der'mo, i u z h l e t s t r i d t s a t i p y a t i , otbukhav d e s y a t k u , c h e l o v e k s t r o i t z h i z n ' n a razumnykh o s n o v a n i y a k h . " s o v a t ' na l a p u . T h i s r e f e r s t o b r i b e r y i n the camps. I n o r d e r t o s u r v i v e , a p r i s o n e r had t o d i s t r i b u t e the c o n t e n t s of a p a r c e l , and b r i b e r y had t o be p r a c t i s e d by the b r i g a d e - b.6 -l e a d e r s i n order to get the norm-setters to " f i x " the work-r e p o r t . T h i s e x p r e s s i o n , then, i s an e x t e n s i o n of the mean-in g of n a l o z h i t ' svoyu l a p u na kogo-nibud' (to spread one's i n f l u e n c e over somebody). I t i s perhaps best t r a n s l a t e d by "to grease a palm": "Dlya n i k h [kovrov - J.M.] razvyaznost' nuzhna, n a k h a l ' s t v o , komu-to l a p u sovat'." (1:3!+) A r e l a t e d phrase i s dat' l a p u i n the meaning "to g i v e someone a h e l p -i n g hand." tyanut' r e z i n u . R e l a t e d to the verb temnit'. t h i s neo-lo g i s m means l i t e r a l l y " t o s t r e t c h the e l a s t i c . " Hence the f i g u r a t i v e sense "to p r e tend": "Akh, mozhno b y l o smolchat'. Mozhno b y l o temnit'. Kak zavedeno u zekov, mozhno by l o p r i -nyat' zadaniye, a potom tyanut' r e z i n u , ne d e l a t ' . " (L(.:696) protsentovku z a k r y t ' . "To conceal the percentage of the labour-norm f u l f i l l e d , " t h a t i s , to f a l s i f y the work-report i n favour of the p r i s o n e r s . T h i s p r a c t i c e i s a l s o known as t u k h t a (v. s u p r a ) . "Ty o s t a v a i s y a t u t , d e r z h i krepko. Mne s e i c h a s protsentovku z a k r y v a t ' i d t i . " (l:l|_7) d l y a ponta. T h i s i s the camp jar g o n e q u i v a l e n t f o r the u s u a l Russian d l y a v i d i m o s t i , " f o r outward show or e f f e c t . " "Lupa b y l a yemu absolyutno ne nuzhna, tak kak VTR d a v a l za-p i s i samyye r a z l y a p i s t y y e , no d e l a l o s ' e t o , po lagernomu v y r a z h e n i y u , d l y a ponta, i N e r z h i n vnutrenne khokhotal...." (3:265) dokhodit' na obshchikh. General-assignment heavy labou r - U.7 -i s obshchaya r a b o t a . The phraseologism above means "to per-i s h " g r a d u a l l y at such work. "Mezhdu prochim, odnu i z devo-chek ya potom na Pechore o t b l a g o d a r i l : ona v t r i d t s a t ' pya-tom v Kirovskom potoke popala, d o k h o d i l a na obshchikh, ya yeyo v portnyazhnuyu u s t r o i l . " (1:68-9) [(.. Obscenity Obscenity p r e s e n t s the modern Russian w r i t e r w i t h a s e r i o u s problem. The demands o f the p r u d i s h S o v i e t censor-s h i p must be met. In h i s foreword to One Day i n the L i f e of  Ivan D e n i s o v i c h Alexander Tvardovsky a n t i c i p a t e d the c r i t i -c a l r e a c t i o n the s t o r y was bound to evoke when he mentioned t h a t "the author's use - however s p a r i n g and to the p o i n t -of c e r t a i n words and e x p r e s s i o n s t y p i c a l of the s e t t i n g i n which the hero l i v e d and worked w i l l o f f e n d a p a r t i c u l a r l y f a s t i d i o u s t a s t e . " 2 < ^ S h i l y a y e v has the f o l l o w i n g to say, to which some credence must be g i v e n : I t i s important to note t h a t A. S o l z h e n i t s y n wrote h i s works f o r the S o v i e t reader, counting on having them p u b l i s h e d i n the S o v i e t Union. Knowing the s t r i c t n e s s of the censorship and the d i r e c t i o n s of the communist a u t h o r i t i e s , i t must be thought he was r a t h e r moderate i n h i s use of camp vo c a b u l a r y and s l a n g expressions.30 But i f the demands of c e n s o r s h i p must be met, so must those 29 See Labedz, op. c i t . , p. 10. 30 S h i l y a y e v , op. c i t . . p. 233• - h.8 -of r e a l i s m , and t h a t S o l z h e n i t s y n i n c l u d e d t h i s language i n h i s n o v e l s i s a t r i b u t e to h i s s t a t u s as a w r i t e r of t r u t h . From the standpoint of l i t e r a t u r e , the o b j e c t i o n s r a i s e d by S o v i e t c r i t i c s are g r o u n d l e s s . C o n s i d e r i n g the m i l l i o n s who passed through S t a l i n ' s camps, no doubt the jargon has l o n g s i n c e been absorbed permanently i n t o the R u ssian language. The coarse slang of the p r i s o n s i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a wide v a r i e t y of oaths, o b s c e n i t i e s and e x p l e t i v e s . A l l of these are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r o p e r t i e s of the speech of bosses and p r i s o n e r s a l i k e . S h i l y a y e v argues t h a t the s u p e r v i s o r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f r e s o r t to v u l g a r speech more o f t e n than the p r i s o n e r s . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e to see the f o r c e of t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . In view of S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s r e p o r t e d speech, S h i l y a y e v stands c o r r e c t e d . He i s on f i r m ground, however, when he observes t h a t the opprobrious forms of address used by the p r i s o n custodians e f f e c t i v e l y promoted the "dehuman-i z a t i o n " of t h e i r charges.-^ 2 In terms of s o c i a l a c c e p t i b i l i t y , the v i l e s t speech i n the R u ssian language i s known as mat. T h i s i s a c o l l e c t -i v e noun which r e f e r s to t h a t body of words and e x p r e s s i o n s grouped around mat' (mother). The word mat i t s e l f i s a pop-u l a r - c o l l o q u i a l term. The act of r e s o r t i n g to mother oaths i s s i g n i f i e d i n S o l z h e n i t s y n by the verbs matyugat'sya, ma-31 32 I b i d . , p. 2I4.5. Loc. c i t . - U3 -t e r i t ' sya and mater-nut'. I t i s c l e a r t h a t the use of mat i s an important element i n the speech of the c r i m i n a l and p o l -i t i c a l p r i s o n e r a l i k e , and i t has a p p a r e n t l y developed i n t o a f i n e a r t . S o l z h e n i t s y n says of N e r z h i n as he prepares f o r the t r a n s p o r t : Razve izyskannymi slovami v y r a z i t 1 v o i ushchemlen-nogo? Imenno s e i c h a s , oblachayas' v lagernoye i ye-duchi v l a g e r ' , N e r z h i n i sam oshchushchal,chto voz-vr a s h c h a y e t s y a k vazhnomu elementu muzhskoi svobody: kazhdoye pyatoye s l o v o s t a v i t ' maternoye. (l|_:796) E v i d e n t l y S o l z h e n i t s y n was s u r p r i s e d to encounter i n p r i s o n someone who r e f r a i n e d from e x p r e s s i n g h i s annoyance i n such terms. T h i s e x c e p t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s the J u n i o r L i e u t e n a n t N a d e l a s h i n , of whom S o l z h e n i t s y n w r i t e s : N a d e l a s h i n b y l chelovekom i s k l y u c h i t e l ' n y m ne t o l ' k o s r e d i tyuremshchikov . . . no i voobshche s r e d i svo-i k h yedinoplemennikov. V s t r a n e , gde kazhdyi v t o r o i p r o s h y o l lagernuyu i i i frontovuyu akademiyu r u g a n i , gde maternyye r u g a t e l ' s t v a zaprosto u p o t r e b l y a l i s ' ne t o l ' k o p'yanymi v o k r u z h e n i i d e t e i (a det'mi - v mladencheskikh I g r a k h ) , ne t o l ' k o p r i posadke na za-gorodnyi avtobus, no inogda i v zadushevnykh besedakh (osobenno - na s l e d s t v i y a k h ) , N a d e l a s h i n ne umel n i m a t e r i t ' s y a , n i dazhe u p o t r e b l y a t ' t a k i y e s l o v a , kak " c h y o r t " i " s v o l o c h ' " . (3:199) The d e v i c e s employed by S o l z h e n i t s y n i n t o n i n g down the o b s c e n i t y are v a r i o u s . He changes the i n i t i a l l e t t e r of a word or adds a l e t t e r or two to the beginning of an oath. Elsewhere he i n t r o d u c e s e l l i p s i s at the b e g i n n i n g , the end or w i t h i n a word, or omits a complete word. Such techniques e f f e c t i v e l y obscure meanings, and the u n i n i t i a t e d reader i s u n f a v o u r a b l y impressed by a number of seeming m i s p r i n t s . CHAPTER I I I THE ETHICAL PROBLEM Dostoyevsky wrote h i s b r o t h e r i n 1806: " B e l i e v e me, th a t having been i n as much t u r m o i l as I, i n the end y o u ' l l e x t r a c t from l i f e a l i t t l e p h i l o s o p h y , a word which you can i n t e r p r e t as you l i k e . " T h i s " t u r m o i l " had been a profound r e l i g i o u s c r i s i s occasioned by f o u r years at katorga (penal s e r v i t u d e ) which he completed i n 185U-- In 1953 S o l z h e n i t s y n was r e l e a s e d i n t o e x i l e f o l l o w i n g an e i g h t - y e a r sentence i n S t a l i n ' s camps. F o r S o l z h e n i t s y n too imprisonment had been a s p i r i t u a l c r u c i b l e . His ph i l o s o p h y , e x t r a c t e d "from human biographies,"(3^50) i s r e v e a l e d i n the search f o r moral and s p i r i t u a l f u l f i l m e n t which p r o v i d e s the key to the i d i o s y n -c r a s y o f the p r o t a g o n i s t o f The F i r s t C i r c l e (G-leb Nerzhin) and motivates the e n t i r e novel i n the s p i r i t of Dostoyevsky and T o l s t o y . The s u f f e r i n g i n p r i s o n has a p o s i t i v e consequence: i t i s an o c c a s i o n f o r moral development and s p i r i t u a l s e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n . A man denied i s a f r e e man, and h e r e i n r e s i d e s •^Quoted by K o n s t a n t i n Mochulsky i n Dostoevsky: His  L i f e and Work, t r a n s . M i c h a e l A. Minihan, P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e -ton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1967, p. 197. - 51 -the r e i g n i n g paradox of the n o v e l : i n S t a l i n i s t R u s s i a o n l y a p r i s o n e r was f r e e to d e a l h o n e s t l y w i t h h i s f e l l o w s ; o n l y a p r i s o n e r could withstand the encroachments of the h a t e f u l 2 regime. Courage horn of t r i b u l a t i o n f i n d s i t s most sublime e x p r e s s i o n i n an exchange between Bobynin and Abakumov, the M i n i s t e r of S t a t e S e c u r i t y , who attempts to i n t i m i d a t e him. But as a seasoned v e t e r a n of the GULAG o r b i t Bobynin enjoys immunity to Abakumov's t h r e a t s . He d e c l a r e s : As a r u l e , understand and pass on to anyone above who needs to know t h a t you're strong o n l y as long as you don't deprive people of e v e r y t h i n g . For a man you've taken e v e r y t h i n g from i s no l o n g e r i n your power. He's f r e e a l l over again. (3:119) Hence, by a c u r i o u s i r o n y , the martyrs of the system become 3 i t s conquerors. There i s an awareness of e t e r n i t y i n S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s works which imbues them w i t h h i s sense of m i s s i o n and t h e i r fundamental themes w i t h a u n i v e r s a l v a l i d i t y . His treatment of c onscience, good and e v i l , l i f e and death, and man's r e -l a t i o n to s o c i e t y r e f l e c t s the moral p a s s i o n w i t h which the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c r i t i c a l r e a l i s t s ( T o l s t o y and Dostoyev-sky i n p a r t i c u l a r ) approached the s p i r i t u a l dilemmas of the human c o n d i t i o n , which p l a c e s him f i r m l y i n the main stream 2 [ A r k a d y B e l i n k o v ] , "The W r i t e r as Russia's Con-s c i e n c e , " Time. XCII: 13 (27 September 1968), p. 3I4.. •^Horst Bienek, " L i t e r a t u r des I n f e r n o s : Alexander S o l s c h e n i z y n und der neue k r i t i s c h e Realismus," Neue Rund-schau, LXXX: 1 (1969), p. 157. - 52 -of R ussian l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . The Nobel P r i z e c i t a t i o n f o r S o l z h e n i t s y n i s t h e r e f o r e s i n g u l a r l y a p t . ^ I f the f u l l e s t meaning of s p i r i t u a l i t y i s expounded as the most sublime moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l q u a l i t i e s of man apropos h i s r e l a t i o n to God and n a t u r e , to h i m s e l f and h i s f e l l o w men, ' then i t does not seem extravagant to d e s c r i b e S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s work as "the Renaissance of R u s s i a n s p i r i t u -a l l i f e . " k Indeed, judging by contents and themes,his w r i -t i n g s may be c o n f i d e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a s p i r i t u a l o a s i s i n the moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l d e s e r t t h a t s o c i a l i s t r e a l i s m i s today.' His w r i t i n g i s genuine r e a l i s m p r e c i s e l y because i t r e p r e s e n t s r e a l i t y i n i t s e n t i r e t y : the world i t c r e a t e s embraces bo t h the m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l phenomena of l i f e . As the n a r r a t o r , S o l z h e n i t s y n does not s p e c i f i c a l l y comment upon s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e s ; r a t h e r , h i s s p i r i t u a l i t y i s r e -f l e c t e d i n the thoughts and c o n v e r s a t i o n s of h i s c h a r a c t e r s ^"For the e t h i c a l f o r c e w i t h which he has pursued the i n d i s p e n s a b l e t r a d i t i o n s of R ussian l i t e r a t u r e . " See Labedz, op. c i t . , , p. 175. " T h i s i s G. P. Pedotov's d e f i n i t i o n . See A T r e a s u r y  of R u s s i a n S p i r i t u a l i t y , London: Sheed and Ward, 1952, p. v i n the P r e f a c e . Arkady B e l i n k o v ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i n "Obsuzhdeniye p e r v o i c h a s t i p o v e s t i Rakovyi korpus na z a s e d a n i i s e k t s i i prozy moskovskoi p i s a t e l ' s k o i o r g a n i z a t s i i 17 noyabrya 1968 goda." See Aleksandr S o l z h e n i t s y n , Works, V o l . 6, p. 182. 7 ' S o l z h e n i t s y n h i m s e l f d e s c r i b e s contemporary S o v i e t l i t e r a t u r e as "cosmetics." See Labedz, op. c i t . , p. 8. - 53 -and i n those themes which occupy the centre of h i s a r t i s t i c v i s i o n of human l i f e . The c r i t i c Arkady B e l i n k o v adheres to the view t h a t " S o l z h e n i t s y n stands at the moral center of the movement to cleanse R u s s i a of the s p i r i t of Stalinism."® T h i s formula-t i o n shares the p o p u l a r i t y of i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c judgments; i t g a i n s i n p r e c i s i o n i f the s p i r i t of S t a l i n i s m i s understood as the s p i r i t of p o l i t i c a l despotism and s o c i a l o p p r e s s i o n . I t i s r e a d i l y acknowledged t h a t S o l z h e n i t s y n has become the symbolic conscience of modern R u s s i a , but the c o n t e n t i o n of h i s c r i t i c s t h a t h i s work m a n i f e s t s a l l e g i a n c e to some s o r t of p o l i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n i n h i s own country i s untenable. He formulates h i s own a r t i s t i c m i s s i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: A w r i t e r ' s t a s k s concern the more u n i v e r s a l and e t e r n a l themes. They t r e a t the m y s t e r i e s of the human heart and conscience, the c o n f r o n t a t i o n of l i f e and death, the overcoming of the anguish of the s o u l , and those laws of c o n t i n u i n g humanity t h a t were born i n the depths of time immemorial and t h a t w i l l cease to be o n l y when the sun i s extinguished.° Hence, S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s m i s s i o n i s to arouse the con-sci e n c e and consciousness o f a l l mankind, to i n s t i l i n t o i t an unwavering l o v e of t r u t h and p a s s i o n f o r j u s t i c e , and to evoke a compassionate understanding of man as an i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l b e i n g . S o v i e t man i s a microcosm of a u n i v e r s a l 8 , "The W r i t e r as Russia's Conscience," op. c i t . , P. 32. o " Z a p i s ' zasedaniya s e k r e t a r i a t a soyuza p i s a t e l e i SSSR 22 sentyabrya 1967," Works, V o l . 6, p. 53. - $h -human c o n d i t i o n . For S o l z h e n i t s y n modern l i f e i s the capt-i v e of technology, the i n f l u e n c e of r e l i g i o n i s waning, and man i s engrossed i n the p u r s u i t of m a t e r i a l p r o s p e r i t y . The w r i t e r must f i l l up "the empty s p a c e s . " 1 ^ The p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n of S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s work i s pravda, the concept which suggests to the Russian mind a harmonious compound of t r u t h and j u s t i c e . T h i s ambiguity i s s t r i k i n g l y caught by the o l d e x p r e s s i o n z h i t ' po pravde (to l i v e by t r u t h ) , meaning to l i v e i n accordance w i t h j u s t i c e . The concept of pravda i s i m p e r f e c t l y apprehended when taken as an embracement o f two independent though c o e x i s t i n g con-s t i t u e n t s . The e s s e n t i a l p o i n t i s made by M i k h a i l o v s k y . He says the f o l l o w i n g , which may be taken as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Russian views: Every time the word "pravda" comes Into my mind, I cannot help admiring i t s a s t o n i s h i n g i n n e r beauty . . . o n l y i n R u s s i a n , i t seems, are " t r u t h " and " j u s t i c e " d e s i g n a t e d by the same word, f u s i n g as i t were i n t o one g r e a t whole. "Pravda" - i n t h i s v a s t meaning of the word T-,has always been the g o a l of my s e a r c h i n g s . . . . To S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s mind pravda i s the a b s o l u t e ; i t i s a r u l e f o r l i v i n g which t o l e r a t e s no compromise. There i s no need to rehearse the rampant i n j u s t i c e s 1 0"uprazdnene miesto." See "Jedneho dna u Alexandra I s a j e v i c a S o l z e n i c y n a , " op. c i t . , p. 10. 11 Quoted i n V. V. Zenkovsky, A H i s t o r y of Russian  Philosophy, t r a n s . George L. K l i n e , London: Routledge and Kegan Paul L t d , 1953, V o l . 2, p. 7. - 55 -of the S t a l i n e r a o r , indeed, of Russian h i s t o r y g e n e r a l l y ; i t i s r e p l e t e w i t h i n s t a n c e s of v i g o r o u s s u p p r e s s i o n of the t r u t h . As N e r z h i n says, there was always something t o stop those "who might scream the t r u t h or seek j u s t i c e . " (3:270) I t i s r e a d i l y understandable t h a t S t a l i n i s t i n j u s t i c e would d r i v e some S o v i e t c i t i z e n s i n t o a l i f e of i l l e g a l i t y . Such i s Ruska Doronin, who has been a l i e n a t e d by the s o c i a l sys-tem. "Circumstances make d e v i l s of us," he says. "I myself am a l l f o r an honest l i f e , but f o r everyone . . . f o r every s i n g l e p e r s o n i " (3:32l|.) His "mischievous innocence" induces the reader t o concur w i t h J e r i Laber t h a t he would be prone to f l o u t the law i n any s o c i e t y ; i n S t a l i n i s t s o c i e t y , " h i s 12 d e s t r u c t i o n i s preordained." But the q u e s t i o n has a more important s i d e : Doronin f i n d s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r h i s a c t i o n s i n the lawles s n e s s which p r e v a i l s around him. The u n i v e r s a l s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e i n t e n s i f i e s h i s pe r v e r s e n e s s . For him the honest l i f e does not demand obedience to s t a t e law; i t i s a l i f e of j u s t i c e and e q u a l i t y . He pronounces against s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: What d i d the r e v o l u t i o n r i s e against? A g a i n s t p r i v -i l e g e s ! What was i t th a t d i s g u s t e d the Russian peo-ple? P r i v i l e g e s . Some were dressed i n o v e r a l l s , and others i n s a b l e s , some went about on f o o t - others i n phaetons, some waited f o r the f a c t o r y hooter and others f e d t h e i r f a c e s i n r e s t a u r a n t s . (3:32l+-5) l 2 J e r i Laber, "Indictment of S o v i e t T e r r o r , " The  New R e p u b l i c . CLIX: 16, Issue 2 8 l l (19 October 1968), p.33. - 56 -The Russian has had contempt f o r the law throughout h i s t o r y . The r a d i c a l i n t e l l e c t u a l Alexander Herzen, who was h i m s e l f a seeker of freedom and s o c i a l j u s t i c e , comments on the cause of t h i s a t t i t u d e : The l a c k of l e g a l o r d e r , which has from the ear-l i e s t times hung l i k e a cloud over the people, has at the same time been something i n the nature of a s c h o o l i n g . The c r y i n g i n j u s t i c e of one h a l f of i t s laws has taught the Russian people to hate the oth-er as w e l l : the Russian submits to the law from f o r c e alone. Complete i n e q u a l i t y before the c o u r t s has k i l l e d i n him a l l r e s p e c t f o r l e g a l i t y . A Russ-i a n , whatever h i s c a l l i n g , evades or v i o l a t e s the law whenever he can do so w i t h impunity, and the government does e x a c t l y the same.1-3 I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t S o l z h e n i t s y n , w i t h the i n t e l l e c t u a l s of the p r e v i o u s century, s u b s c r i b e s to a " v i s i o n of anarchy engendered by d e s p a i r . " 1 ^ " F o r i t shows t h a t the r e v o l u t i o n has f a i l e d to meet i t s primary o b l i g a t i o n : R u s s i a n humanity i s not y e t f r e e of the shackles of o p p r e s s i o n . S o l z h e n i t s y n was t r a i n e d i n t h i s m i s t r u s t of the l e g a l order i n a school of agony without e q u a l . "The law can be stood on i t s head," he observes. "When one ten-year s t r e t c h ends, t h e y ' l l say: here's another one f o r you. Or e x i l e you." (1:52) There i s no doubt t h a t a l l f e e l i n g f o r l e g a l i t y and hope f o r j u s t i c e was i r r e v o c a b l y suppressed by the minions of S t a l i n ' s penal •^Quoted by Leonard Schapiro i n "The Pre-Revolu-t i o n a r y I n t e l l i g e n t s i a and the L e g a l Order," i n The Russian  I n t e l l i g e n t s i a , ed. R i c h a r d P i p e s , New York: Columbia Univ-e r s i t y P r ess, 1961. See p. 20. •^Loc. c i t . - 57 -a p p a r a t u s , w h i c h was d e l i b e r a t e l y c a l c u l a t e d t o t h a t e n d . 1 ^ S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s l a c k of c o n f i d e n c e i n l e g a l i n s t i t u -t i o n s and i n s i s t e n c e on the m o r a l p r i n c i p l e as the g u i d e t o the honest l i f e r e v e a l s h i s a f f i n i t y w i t h the " c o n s e r v a t i v e a n a r c h i s m " o f the S l a v o p h i l e s . As i t appeared by the m i d d l e of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the d e v e l o p e d c r e e d o f the S l a v -o p h i l e s embraced two fundamental t e n e t s : the f i r s t i n s i s t e d on the pre-eminence o f the m o r a l and r e l i g i o u s l a w over the w r i t t e n s t a t e l a w ; the second a v e r r e d t h a t t h e u n r e f l e c t i n g r e a s o n e x c e l l e d the l o w e r d i s s e c t i n g r e a s o n . The S l a v o p h i l e system combined i n t u i t i o n and i n s t i n c t , w h i c h were found i n O l d R u s s i a , a n c e s t r a l t r a d i t i o n and the Orthodox Church,not i n t he Roman Church o r Western European i n s t i t u t i o n s . K o n s t a n t i n Aksakov, one o f the more r o m a n t i c o f the s e c o n d - g e n e r a t i o n S l a v o p h i l e s , made a comparative s t u d y o f the o r i g i n s o f the R u s s i a n and Western European s t a t e s . The f o u n d a t i o n o f the l a t t e r , he w r o t e , was " f o r c e , s l a v e r y and h o s t i l i t y , " o f the former " f r e e w i l l , l i b e r t y and p e a c e . " 1 7 He went on t o expound the t h e o r y t h a t R u s s i a had an i n t e l l -•^See V. L a k s h i n , " I v a n D e n i s o v i c h , yego d r u z y a i n e d r u g i , " i n Works, V o l . 6, pp. 270-1. -i L D. S. M i r s k y , A H i s t o r y o f R u s s i a n L i t e r a t u r e , ed. F r a n c i s J . W h i t f i e l d , New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1961;, P. 162. 17 Quoted by M i c h a e l C h e r n i a v s k y i n T s a r and P e o p l e : S t u d i e s i n R u s s i a n Myths, 2d ed., New Yo r k : Random House, 1969, P. 180. - 58 -e c t u a l and r e l i g i o u s m i s s i o n t o f u l f i l i n Europe. A s i m i l a r b e l i e f i n the power o f E a s t e r n European l i t e r a t u r e t o p o i n t the way out o f the w o r l d ' s m a t e r i a l i s t i c impasse i s h e l d by S o l z h e n i t s y n . Western European l i t e r a t u r e would n o t be a b l e t o c a r r y out t h i s t a s k , he c o n t e nds, f o r Western Europe has 18 not e x p e r i e n c e d any c a t a c l y s m s i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The h i s t o r i a n B e r n a r d Pares has o b s e r v e d t h a t e v e r y R u s s i a n has i n him l a t e n t l y two s e t s o f i n s t i n c t s : t hose of 19 the S l a v o p h i l e and those o f the W e s t e r n i z e r . 7 S o l z h e n i t s y n seems t o c o n f i r m t h i s c o n v i c t i o n . There i s a passage i n the n o v e l where he a d v o c a t e s a compromise between the two v i e w s o f R u s s i a n a f f a i r s . Two p r i s o n e r s are d i s c u s s i n g P e t e r the G r e a t : One o f them s c o l d e d him . . . f o r h a v i n g d i s t o r t e d and removed R u s s i a n f o l k d r e s s , t h e r e b y d e p r i v i n g h i s p e o p l e of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y . . . . He argued t h a t even now i t was not too l a t e t o r e v i v e c e r t a i n p a r t s o f t h a t d r e s s w h i c h c o u l d be c o n v e n i e n t l y and c o m f o r t a b l y combined w i t h modern c l o t h i n g , and t h a t P a r i s s h o u l d not be c o p i e d b l i n d l y . (3:208) The l a y t h e o l o g i a n and p h i l o s o p h e r A l e x e i Khomyakov h e l d t o h i s b e l i e f t h a t R u s s i a was i n the p r o c e s s o f becoming "Holy R u s s i a . " The Moscow S l a v o p h i l e s o f the time i n s i s t e d on the observance o f r i t u a l and custom,anddthe f a n a t i c a l d e s i r e t o l 8 S e e "A V i s i t t o S o l z h e n i t s y n by the Czech W r i t e r , P a v e l L i c k o , " The L i s t e n e r . LXXXI: 2086 (20 March 1 9 6 9 ) , P. 372. 19 B e r n a r d P a r e s , A H i s t o r y of R u s s i a . New Y ork: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1961+, p. 31+8. - 59 -20 be t r u l y Russian induced Khomyakov to wear f o l k d r e s s . The S l a v o p h i l e t e a c h i n g subordinates r a t i o n a l l o g i c to s p o n t a n e i t y . T h e r e f o r e , i n the S l a v o p h i l e ' s o p i n i o n , the l o g i c a l process of reasoned t h i n k i n g to which the Westerner was g i v e n rendered him i n c a p a b l e of judging a c c u r a t e l y , and t h i s deprived him of the e s s e n t i a l experience of l i f e which i n v o l u n t a r y responses p r o v i d e d . T h i s submitting, to the de-mands of the h e a r t and conscience d i s t i n g u i s h e s the heroine of S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s charming s t o r y Matryonin dvor (Matryona's  Home). The o l d l a d y i s a model of supreme e x c e l l e n c e : . . . she i s t h a t v e r y r i g h t e o u s one, without whom, according to the proverb, the v i l l a g e cannot stand. Nor any town. Nor our whole l a n d . (1:231) The F i r s t C i r c l e c o n t a i n s i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e evidence t h a t S o l z h e n i t s y n c o n s i d e r s Westerners to be e a s i l y seduced by r a t i o n a l l o g i c . The Butyrskaya P r i s o n i s the scene of a "Potemkin v i l l a g e " s i t u a t i o n . Here a c e l l has been g i v e n an e n t i r e l y f r a u d u l e n t appearance to work a d e c e i t upon a cer-t a i n Mrs. R- (Mrs. Roosevelt) who has come on an i n s p e c t i o n t o u r as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of UNRRA. She l e a v e s the " m a g n i f i -cent p r i s o n , " f u l l y "convinced of the f a l s i t y of the i n s i n -u a t i o n s being spread by h o s t i l e people i n the West," (l+: 1+71) and s a t i s f i e d t h a t c o n d i t i o n s i n S o v i e t p r i s o n s are conduc-i v e to the reforming of i t s d e l i n q u e n t c i t i z e n s . Cherniavsky, op. c i t . , p. 167. - 60 -Since appearances can be m i s l e a d i n g , r a t i o n a l l o g i c i s not t r u s t w o r t h y . Instead, S o l z h e n i t s y n b e l i e v e s that one must obey h i s i n n e r f e e l i n g s . A human being's r e a d i n e s s t o s u f f e r f o r h i s c o n s c i e n t i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s i s the supreme t e s t of n o b i l i t y . The e x a c t i t u d e of the code of honour set down i n the no v e l i s m a n i f e s t i n the case of Gerasimovich. When the a u t h o r i t i e s o f f e r him freedom i n exchange f o r engineer-in g s p e c i a l cameras t o be used f o r s u r v e i l l a n c e by n i g h t (a task a l l e g e d to be i n h i s f i e l d ) , he d e c l i n e s i n s t i n c t i v e l y and e m p h a t i c a l l y . "Nol That's not i n my f i e l d l " he i n s i s t s . "I don't s p e c i a l i z e i n i m p r i s o n i n g people! I'm not a f i s h e r of meni I t ' s enough t h a t we were imprisoned." (lj.:696) In a s i m i l a r circumstance N e r z h i n g i v e s up "the food of the gods f o r l e n t i l soup" (326I4.) when he r e f u s e s t o cooperate i n the cryptography work. In S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s view these men make the c o r r e c t choice i n s t i n c t i v e l y , out of repugnance a g a i n s t the moral consequences which would f l o w from cooperating i n the schemes of the a u t h o r i t i e s . The extremely important p l a c e occupied by pravda i n S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s conception o f the world i s made known i n the extant p a r t of a l e t t e r w r i t t e n to three s t u d e n t s . What he says there i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of h i s i d e o l o g i c a l m i l i t a n c y : There i s no t h i n g r e l a t i v e about j u s t i c e , as there i s nothing r e l a t i v e about conscience. I n d e e d , j u s t i c e ijs conscience, not a p e r s o n a l conscience but the consc-ience of the whole of humanity.Those who c l e a r l y r e -cognize the v o i c e of t h e i r own conscience u s u a l l y re-cognize a l s o the v o i c e of j u s t i c e . . . . They can - 61 -shout, they can take you by the t h r o a t , they can t e a r your b r e a s t , but c o n v i c t i o n s based on con-s c i e n c e are as i n f a l l i b l e as the i n t e r n a l rhythm of the heart (and one knows t h a t i n p r i v a t e l i f e i t i s the v o i c e of conscience which we o f t e n t r y to s u p p r e s s ) . 2 1 The diplomat V o l o d i n embodies t h i s s t r u g g l e w i t h conscience i n p r i v a t e l i f e . His d e c i s i o n to c a l l Dobroumov i s preceded by an a g o n i z i n g mental c o n f r o n t a t i o n between conscience and expediency t h a t suggests the t u r p i t u d e of the times. In the atmosphere of s u s p i c i o n and f e a r c r e a t e d by S t a l i n ' s t e r r o r the o p e r a t i n g b e h a v i o u r a l word was " c a u t i o n . " S o l z h e n i t s y n asks a momentous q u e s t i o n : " I f we are always c a u t i o u s , can we remain human being s ? " (3:8) T h i s i r r e s o l u t i o n emphasizes the u n f o r t u n a t e tendency of a l l people to suppress the con-s c i e n c e . And i f the diplomat's u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n i s a v i c -t o r y f o r m o r a l i t y , i t i s a l s o the e x c e p t i o n that proves the r u l e . S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s f a i t h i n the i n f a l l i b i l i t y of judge-ments of conscience and h i s d e n i a l of any r e l a t i v i t y toward them i s an e s s e n t i a l l y a n a c h r o n i s t i c p o i n t of view. On t h a t account i t would a t t r a c t few adherents among modern p h i l o s -ophers. I n t u i t i v e l y , conscience i s commonly understood as a k i n d of i n t e r i o r judge which possesses the m y s t i c a l a b i l i t y to a r b i t r a t e i n the e t h i c a l d i s p u t e s imposed on the mind of man and to i n d i c a t e (perhaps by d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n ) m o r a l l y T r a n s l a t e d i n Labedz, op. c i t . , p. 101 acceptable courses of a c t i o n . T h i s conception embraces two d i s t i n c t senses: a r e t r o s p e c t i v e one which can be t r a c e d t o a p r e - S o c r a t i c antecedent (which i s invoked i n the examina-t i o n o f the S o v i e t Union's S t a l i n i s t p a s t ) , and a pro s p e c t -i v e one which was f i r s t mentioned i n a Paul i n e e p i s t l e (and to which V o l o d i n makes h i s a p p e a l ) . 2 2 Conscience as a p h i l -osophic concept thus has a long h i s t o r y . The most important a n a l y s i s of conscience seems to have been made by St Thomas Aquinas who e x p l a i n e d i t i n the medieval f a s h i o n . He argued t h a t the reason was endowed w i t h both t h e o r e t i c a l and moral p r i n c i p l e s . As the f a c u l t y of apprehending fundamental mor-a l p r i n c i p l e s , reason was c a l l e d s y n t e r e s i s . The s y n t e r e s i s f u r n i s h e s the major premise of a s y l l o g i s m : a l l e v i l should be avoided; an i n f e r i o r reason p r o v i d e s the minor premise: a s s i s t i n g the s e c r e t p o l i c e i s e v i l ; c o n s c i e n c e ( s y n e i d e s i s ) draws the c o n c l u s i o n : a s s i s t i n g the s e c r e t p o l i c e should be 2"3 avoided. J The d o c t r i n e that the conscience i s s u s c e p t i b l e to e r r o r has been g i v e n p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e c o g n i t i o n since the time of St Pa u l . Modern t h e o l o g i a n s acknowledge that there i s scope f o r s e l f - d e c e p t i o n , and t h i s a p p l i e s both to man's 2 2 F o r t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n I am indebted to Dr Ilmar Tammello i n "Conscience, a l i e n a t i o n and v i o l e n c e , " from The  Sydney Morning Her a l d , 12 June 1971, p. 6. 2 3 See Frank T h . i l l y and Ledger Wood, A H i s t o r y of  Philosophy, 3d ed., New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1958, P. 23b,. - 63 -understanding of what c o n s t i t u t e s the good and the goodness of a p a r t i c u l a r intended a c t , while modern s e c u l a r t h i n k e r s i n t e r p r e t conscience as a r e f l e c t i o n of the s o c i e t a l f o r c e s w i t h which man must contend. But t h i s says t h a t conscience i s a r e l a t i v e phenomenon: i t i s as good (or bad) and strong (or weak) as the i n f l u e n c e s which a man's s o c i a l environment e x e r t s upon him. Thus i n d i v i d u a l conscience may be s i l e n c e d or deformed i n p r o p o r t i o n to the number of c o r r u p t i n g i d e a s which p r e v a i l i n s o c i e t y . I f credence i s g i v e n to the modern p o i n t of view, then c o n v i c t i o n s founded on the judgments of an i n t e r i o r a r b i t r a t o r , however d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d , are ren-dered suspect. Because of the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n s c i e n t i o u s e r r o r , spontaneous responses might prove l e s s r e l i a b l e than c o n s c i e n t i o u s judgements based on an o b j e c t i v e a p p r a i s a l of a l l the f a c t s i n any s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . The f o r e g o i n g commentary has an a p p r o p r i a t e connec-t i o n w i t h the tragedy of Rubin, whose d e l u s i o n i s a symptom of c o n s c i e n t i o u s e r r o r . Rubin i s a b r i l l i a n t p h i l o l o g i s t , a man of l a t e n t unimpeachable moral r e c t i t u d e , but the v i c t i m of h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y z e a l . His s e l f - d e c e p t i o n proceeds from h i s a l l e g i a n c e to an i d e o l o g y a l i e n to the R u ssian n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r (Russian communism i s a Western i m p o r t ) . I n Rubin the author shows t h a t s u b t l e process of s e l f - i n d o c t r i n a t i o n by which a man b e l i e v e s t h a t " s o c i a l i s t t r u t h at times pro-gresses i n a roundabout d i s t o r t e d way." (3:20) On t h i s pre-- 61+ -mise he e x p l a i n s away the S t a l i n i s t a b e r r a t i o n and f a i l s to make an o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s of the f a c t t h a t the country was " p r e s s i n g on and on i n the wrong d i r e c t i o n . " 707) B l i n d e d by h i s f a i t h i n the cause - "Despite e v e r y t h i n g . . . w e ' l l triumph" (l+.t707) - he i s convinced t h a t he i s bound by duty to p l a c e h i s s c i e n t i f i c knowledge at the d i s p o s i t i o n of the a u t h o r i t i e s and to h e l p t r a p V o l o d i n . The tragedy c o n s i s t s i n t h i s s u b o r d i n a t i n g of p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s to the i n t e r e s t s of the s t a t e . S o l z h e n i t s y n a p p r e c i a t e s Rubin's motives, and the s c o l d i n g of h i s d e u t e r a g o n i s t as "the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of p r o g r e s s i v e i d e o l o g y i n the sharashka" (l+:532) i s intended l e s s as a rebuke of the man h i m s e l f than as an i n d i r e c t r e -p u d i a t i o n of a d o c t r i n e t h a t causes a man to s u s t a i n such a moral paradox. As Horst Bienek says, S o l z h e n i t s y n d e s t r o y s the "communist dream" and damages "the d e l i c a t e e q u i l i b r i u m o f r e a l i t y and dream which i s being p r e s e r v e d d i l i g e n t l y by the P a r t y even a f t e r S t a l i n and Khrushchev." 2^ - And i n doing so S o l z h e n i t s y n i m p l i e s t h a t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Rubin's c o n d i t i o n l i e s w i t h the P a r t y . In S l a v o p h i l i s t i c manner, he i n t i m a t e s t h a t communism has superimposed on R u s s i a a f a l s e i d e a l i s m which has c o r r u p t e d i t s adherents and rendered the Rubins i n c a p a b l e of seeing t h a t t h e i r a c t i o n s do not accord (| 2^-"Denn S o l s c h e n i z y n i s t der e r s t e , der r a d i k a l und g r u n d l i c h den Kommunistischen Traum z e r s t o r t und das emp-f i n d l i c h e G l e i c h g e w i c h t von R e a l i t a t und V i s i o n , das von der P a r t e i auch nach S t a l i n und Chruschtschow muhsam auf-r e c h t e r h a l t e n w i r d , v e r l e t z t . " Bienek, op. c i t . t pp. 11+7-8. - 65 -w i t h m o r a l i t y . 2 5 Prom a p u r e l y R u s s i a n s t a n d p o i n t , Rubin's e r r o r may be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of p r a v d a . F o r R u b i n the t r u t h i s the u l t i m a t e t r i u m p h of communism, y e t S o v i e t r e a l i t y i n d i c a t e s t h a t the M a r x i s t r e v o l u t i o n has been b e t r a y e d . A Western a n t h r o p o l o g i s t made the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n about p r a v d a . w h i c h s e r v e s t o e x p l a i n why Rubin's f e l l o w p r i s o n e r s do n o t share h i s c o n v i c t i o n s : A l l men o f good w i l l must r e c o g n i z e the T r u t h when i t i s p o i n t e d out t o them. . . . To a c c e p t the de-c i s i o n o f the m a j o r i t y , w i t h o u t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r n a l c o n v i c t i o n s , i s f o r G r e a t R u s s i a n s the abandonment o f a l l honour and s e l f - r e s p e c t ; t o sub-m i t w i l l i n g l y t o those you are c o n v i n c e d do n o t po s s e s s the T r u t h i s an a c t o f baseness.27 R u b i n c o n s i d e r s m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s i n the system e v i d e n c e o f a s u p e r i o r p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l y i n g the S o v i e t s t a t e ; t h e r e f o r e he defends S t a l i n ' s p e n a l system, s a n c t i o n s the b a r b a r i t i e s o f the e x i s t i n g o r d e r as a n e c e s s a r y a d j u n c t t o the a c h i e v -i n g o f i t s g o a l , and d e f e r s t o the P a r t y as h i s c o n s c i e n c e . p S e e K y r i l F i t z l y o n ' s r e v i e w of The F i r s t C i r c l e i n London Magazine, V I I I : 10 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 69), p. 101. Edward Crankshaw w r i t e s : "Today when we compare the r e a l i t y o f S o v i e t R u s s i a w i t h L e n i n ' s dream i t i s a l l t o o easy t o see what has gone wrong. What i s n o t so easy t o see, because the r o u t e t r a c e d by the march of p r o g r e s s i s obscured i n i t s own d u s t , i s t h a t the dream had been aband-oned l o n g b e f o r e S t a l i n took o v e r from L e n i n . " See R u s s i a  by D a y l i g h t , London: M i c h a e l J o s e p h , 1951, P» 80. ^ G e o f f r e y G o r e r and John Rickman, The People o f  Great R u s s i a : A P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t u d y , London: The C r e s s e t P r e s s , 1914-9, p. 187. - 66 -What Rubin f a i l s to understand c l e a r l y i s t h a t the achieve-ments of the S o v i e t Union i n the S t a l i n e r a are not a t t r i b -u t a b l e to the s u p e r i o r i t y which he c o n s i d e r s to be i n h e r e n t i n communism or to the i m p l i c i t v a l i d i t y of d i a l e c t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m ; r a t h e r , they are sound testimony to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of o r g a n i z e d compulsion and c o e r c i o n . The remarks of N e r z h i n to the s e m i - l i t e r a t e peasant Yegorov are a comment on Rubin's d e l u s i o n and,by e x t e n s i o n , on the i l l -examined motives of a l l Soviet:ncommunists: Perhaps a l l people d e s i r e the good, or t h i n k they do, but not everyone i s g u i l t l e s s or f r e e from mis-takes - some are even q u i t e c o n s c i e n c e l e s s , a n d they cause each other so much harm. They convince them-s e l v e s they are doing good, but i n f a c t i t turns out to be e v i l . Or, as your proverb has i t , they sow rye and i t comes up weeds. (L|_t^60) T h i s a l s o suggests t h a t S o l z h e n i t s y n i n v i t e s the l e a d e r s h i p and, perhaps, the e n t i r e S o v i e t p o p u l a t i o n , to examine i t s conscience. By 19I+9 S t a l i n had long s i n c e become the undisputed master of the Kremlin. P r a c t i c a l l y , he was the Party, hence the conscience of men l i k e Rubin. Perhaps S t a l i n c o u l d not a f f o r d a d e l i c a t e conscience; the r e a l reason f o r h i s e a r l y b i d f o r absolute c o n t r o l of the P a r t y was to save a country 28 d r i v e n to the verge of economic c o l l a p s e . That aim would be u n i v e r s a l l y approved. C r i t i c i s m of S t a l i n ' s a c t i o n s i n -^ Hellmut A n d i c s , Rule of T e r r o r , t r a n s . Alexander L i e v e n , London: Constable, 1969, p. H 3 « - 67 -v a r i a b l y centres on h i s methods. As i s o f t e n suggested, the t e r r o r may have been the unavoidable concomitant of r e v o l u -t i o n , but t e r r o r on the S t a l i n i s t s c a l e cannot be approved by any normal moral standard. For S t a l i n was concerned l e s s w i t h r e v o l u t i o n than w i t h p r o t e c t i n g h i s e x c l u s i v e c o n t r o l of the P a r t y . I t i s not a c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t when the Yezhov-shchina had e x p i r e d S t a l i n was the sole s u r v i v o r of Lenin's o r i g i n a l p o l i t b u r o . A c c o r d i n g l y , any i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the m o r a l i t y of the r e v o l u t i o n must g i v e due weight to S t a l i n ' s p e r s o n a l motives. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the " v i o l a t i o n s of s o c i a l i s t l e g a l i t y " (as S t a l i n ' s crimes are e u p h e m i s t i c a l l y c a l l e d i n o f f i c i a l S o v i e t j a r g o n ) , however, cannot be borne by him alone; as the n o v e l shows, the g u i l t i s c o l l e c t i v e . S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s concern w i t h the moral imperative i s almost an o b s e s s i o n . There i s a scene i n Cancer Ward where Shu l u b i n formulates a theory of e t h i c a l s o c i a l i s m which, i n the absence of e x t e r n a l evidence, throws t e n t a t i v e l i g h t on S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s conception of s o c i e t y and forms a complement to the e t h i c a l theme of The F i r s t C i r c l e : We have to show the world a s o c i e t y where a l l r e -l a t i o n s h i p s , fundamental p r i n c i p l e s and laws have t h e i r source i n e t h i c s - and o n l y i n i t I A l l con-s i d e r a t i o n s must be determined o n l y by the demands of e t h i c s : how to r a i s e c h i l d r e n , what to t r a i n them f o r , to what end the work of a d u l t s i s to be d i r e c t e d , and how t h e i r l e i s u r e time i s to be oc-cupied. In s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h o n l y t h a t would be p e r m i t t e d which i s not d e t r i m e n t a l to m o r a l i t y -and, i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , to the r e s e a r c h e r s themselves. The same goes f o r f o r e i g n p o l i c y l On - 68 -the q u e s t i o n o f f r o n t i e r s , we should not be motiva-ted by how much a c e r t a i n move w i l l e n r i c h or strengthen us or enhance our p r e s t i g e , but by one t h i n g o n l y : to what extent i s i t e t h i c a l ? (2:I(.89-90) T h i s system i s not founded on happiness, but on "mutual a f f -e c t i o n " (vzaimnoye raspolozheniye) which, i n S o l z h e n i t s y n 1 s o p i n i o n , i s the w o r t h i e s t of human a s p i r a t i o n s . I n the manner of T o l s t o y i n the n i n e t e e n t h century, and Pasternak i n the t w e n t i e t h , S o l z h e n i t s y n g i v e s thematic e x p r e s s i o n to h i s i m p l i c i t v a l u e s i n what Henry G i f f o r d has c a l l e d "the s e l f - d e c e i t and mutual t o r t u r e s of men.''^*7 His a p p r a i s a l of the motives, c h a r a c t e r and meaning of the rev-o l u t i o n i n a l l i t s p r o f u n d i t y and c o n t r a d i c t o r i n e s s f o l l o w s the l i t e r a r y precedent e s t a b l i s h e d by such w r i t e r s as Babel, P i l n y a k and Pasternak. He endorses Pasternak i n h i s defense of man a g a i n s t the i n t r u s i o n s of syst e m a t i c thought, and he presents h i s e t h i c a l s o c i a l i s m as a c o n s c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t i o n to the expedient p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h i e s which have obtained currency i n the t w e n t i e t h century. In the present-day world, where both i n t e r n a t i o n a l and domestic r e l a t i o n s are being i n f l u e n c e d i n c r e a s i n g l y by p o l i t i c a l i d e a s , and e s p e c i a l l y i n a country where p o l i t i c s has been viewed o f f i c i a l l y f o r over f i f t y years as the s o l e panacea of the human c o n d i t i o n , S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s scheme f o r a The Novel i n R u s s i a : From Pushkin to Pasternak, New York: Harper and Row (Colophon Books), 1965, P. 187. - 6 9 -s o c i e t y founded on e t h i c s w i l l be taken as the quintessence of i d e a l i s m or e c c e n t r i c i t y . Whether or not t h i s p r o p o s a l c o n t a i n s the seeds of p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y , i t i s an i n c i s i v e c r i t i c i s m of t h a t " d i s e a s e d " s o c i e t y symbolized by the can-cer ward. And that t h i s s o c i e t y stands i n need of regenera-t i o n i s a t t r i b u t a b l e at l e a s t i n p a r t to the i n d i s c r i m i n a t e use (or abuse) of the end-means p r i n c i p l e . The f a m i l i a r and complex q u e s t i o n of ends and means i s the c e n t r a l i d e o l o g i c a l i s s u e of The F i r s t C i r c l e . Rubin contends: "In the e n t i r e h i s t o r y of mankind our aim i s the f i r s t t h a t i s so h i g h we can say i t j u s t i f i e s the means em-ployed to achieve i t . " ( I 4 . : 5 6 I 4 . ) Rubin n e a t l y d i v o r c e s p r i v a t e from s o c i a l m o r a l i t y , i n s i s t i n g t h a t they are q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t , and a f f i r m s the m o r a l i t y of r e v o l u t i o n a r y means. His opponent, S o l o g d i n , m a i n t a i n s t h a t "the h i g h e r the aim, the h i g h e r must be the means I P e r f i d i o u s means de s t r o y the aim i t s e l f ! " R e j e c t i n g Rubin's M a c h i a v e l l i a n double standard as " f i l t h " (gadstvo), he d e c l a r e s : M o r a l i t y shouldn't l o s e i t s f o r c e as i t widens i t s scope I Otherwise, i f you p e r s o n a l l y k i l l or b e t r a y 3 ° M a n y a H a r a r i noted S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s deep a b i d i n g humanism, but i n v i t e d the S o v i e t d i s s i d e n t s c o l l e c t i v e l y to g i v e more thought to the l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n of p o l i t i c s to s o c i e t y i n order to a v o i d "perpetuating the e x i s t i n g con-f u s i o n " which r e s u l t s from a l l o w i n g p o l i t i c s (or e t h i c s as a s u b s t i t u t e ) to become a r e l i g i o n . See " S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s Cancer Ward - Part I I , " Survey. No. 6 9 (October 1 9 6 8 ) , p. I I 4 . 8 . Deming Brown has c a l l e d S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s e t h i c a l so-c i a l i s m an ingenuous p o l i t i c a l n o t i o n . See Brown, op. c i t . , p. 3 0 6 . - 7 0 -someone, t h a t ' s v i l l a i n y . But i f the One-and-Only and I n f a l l i b l e bumps o f f a mere f i v e or ten m i l l i o n , then t h a t accords w i t h n a t u r a l law and ought to be understood i n a p r o g r e s s i v e sense, I suppose? ( 1 + : 5 6 5 ) F o r Rubin m o r a l i t y i s r e l a t i v e : what i s p e r m i t t e d the s t a t e i s not p e r m i t t e d the i n d i v i d u a l i n p r i v a t e l i f e ; f o r Solog-d i n m o r a l i t y i s a b s o l u t e : there e x i s t s some u n i v e r s a l moral p r i n c i p l e , i n the l i g h t of which a l l e x t e r n a l a c t s must be examined. The a u t h o r i t y of the Greco-Roman-Christian t r a d i -t i o n , w i t h i t s i n s i s t e n c e on the primacy of the i n d i v i d u a l c o n s cience, stands behind the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t good ends are not wrought by e v i l means. Yet h i s t o r y r e c o r d s c o n t r a r y cases. Adequate moral grounds cannot be adduced f o r the Norman Conquest, which i s not t h e r e f o r e condemned by h i s t o r i a n s , because i t b e n e f i t e d England to the utmost.-^ But the H e g e l i a n d i a l e c t i c , which h o l d s the h i s t o r i c a l process to be r a t i o n a l l y predetermined, does not admit of h i s t o r i c a l a c c i d e n t . Although Marx denied predeterminism, he agreed t h a t events were more than chance o c c u r r e n c e s . He developed a theory of determinism. These d e t e r m i n i s t i c views do not admit of a m o r a l i t y d e c l a r e d un-i v e r s a l l y v a l i d . Kant's c a t e g o r i c a l i m p e r a t i v e s subordinate the group to the i n d i v i d u a l ; Hegel t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d them, ^R. N. Carew Hunt, The Theory and P r a c t i c e of  Communism, London: P e l i c a n Books, 1 9 5 0 , p. 1 1 1 . 3 2 S i d n e y Hook, From Hegel to Marx: S t u d i e s i n the  I n t e l l e c t u a l Development of K a r l Marx, Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press (Paperback e d . ) , 1 9 6 2 , p. 3 8 . - 71 -because he c o n s i d e r e d the process of h i s t o r y to be founded on a higher e t h i c s . Hegel i n s i s t e d t h a t s o c i a l t i e s precede e t h i c a l commands; t h e r e f o r e the purpose of the l a t t e r i s to enforce the f o r m e r . M a r x saw the d i a l e c t i c of h i s t o r y at work i n the c l a s s s t r u g g l e ; f o r him, then, the group i s the c l a s s , and i t produces i t s own e t h i c s . Thus both Hegel and Marx r e p u d i a t e d a b s t r a c t e t h i c a l i d e a l i s m . I f S o l z h e n i t s y n i s i m p l y i n g t h a t l i f e i n the S o v i e t Union has been b r u t a l i z e d because t h e o r e t i c a l communism has been i n t e r p r e t e d d i s t o r t e d l y , and that t h i s has drained the d o c t r i n e of i t s true message to humanity, then the e t h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n of communism i n v i t e s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . - ^ F o r i t i s g e n e r a l l y advanced by S o v i e t communists t h a t t h e i r b a r b a r i c s t y l e accords w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of Marxism-Leninism. T h i s movement has induced Rubin to a s s i s t i n causing d e s t r u c t i o n and death dur i n g the c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n of the peasantry; yet he s t i l l stands f i r m on the m o r a l i t y of r e v o l u t i o n a r y means. Thus, the M a r x i s t e t h i c must be c h a l l e n g e d . S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s o p i n i o n of L e n i n i s not c o n s i s t e n t l y set f o r t h i n h i s n o v e l s : he e x t o l s some of Lenin's v i r t u e s , but does not c r i t i c i z e a l l h i s f a u l t s . Yet i t was L e n i n who i n t e r p r e t e d the Marxian e t h i c i n one of i t s standard formu-l a t i o n s . I n h i s Address to the 3 r d Congress of the R ussian  Young Communist League (2 October 1920) L e n i n disavowed the 3 3 i b i d . , p. 1+8. ^ i t z i y o n , °P« c i t . , p. 99. - 72 -e t h i c s of the b o u r g e o i s i e and d e f i n e d communist m o r a l i t y as that which serves to d e s t r o y c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y and create p r o l e t a r i a n s o c i e t y . The M a r x i s t ' s conception of m o r a l i t y w i l l not w i t h -stand s e v e r a l primary o b j e c t i o n s . F i r s t l y , i f the e t h i c s of a s o c i e t y r e f l e c t o n l y the i n t e r e s t s of the dominant c l a s s , then p r o l e t a r i a n s o c i e t y w i l l r e f l e c t the i n t e r e s t s of the working c l a s s , but no standards e x i s t to e s t a b l i s h the sup-e r i o r i t y of p r o l e t a r i a n over bourgeois morals. Secondly, to p r e f e r the former because the d i a l e c t i c ensures the triumph of the workers does not accord w i t h any e t h i c a l system; the u n a v o i d a b i l i t y of a t h i n g need not imply i t s d e s i r a b i l i t y . T h i r d l y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to accept the Marxian a n t i p a t h y to a b s t r a c t e t h i c a l i d e a l i s m ; t h i s i s a d e n i a l of t h a t innate sense of r i g h t and wrong which seems to have i n f l u e n c e d the moral judgments of men throughout h i s t o r y . F i n a l l y , i n the name of the c l a s s s t r u g g l e the worker i s exhorted to employ v i o l e n c e ; the Communist M a n i f e s t o i s t h e r e f o r e l i t t l e more than a p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r murder, and k i l l i n g contravenes a l l codes of e t h i c a l behaviour. Despite Lenin's p r o t e s t a t i o n to the c o n t r a r y , h i s f o r m u l a t i o n of communist e t h i c s i s a repu-d i a t i o n of a l l e t h i c a l systems; indeed, "communist e t h i c s " i s v i r t u a l l y a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n terms. I t might be argued, -^See David Shub, L e n i n ; A Biography, Penguin Books, 1966, pp. I4.50-I. - 73 -then, t h a t the f e r v o u r w i t h which the M a r x i s t s pursue t h e i r communist i d e a l merely emphasizes the i n h e r e n t amoralism of the Russian r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement.-^6 The i d e o l o g u e s of compulsion, who f i n d a convenient endorsement of t h e i r i d e a s i n the a u t h o r i t y of M a c h i a v e l l i , argue p e r s i s t e n t l y t h a t p o l i t i c a l l i f e f o l l o w s i t s own laws and l o g i c , independent o f e t h i c s . But M a c h i a v e l l i proposed an absolute despotism to r e a l i z e h i s i d e a l of a s t r o n g , i n -dependent s t a t e ; i t was to t h i s end t h a t h i s p r i n c e was i n -v e s t e d w i t h the power to invoke the end-means p r i n c i p l e . I n view of the a n a r c h i c a l and c o r r u p t c o n d i t i o n of Renaissance I t a l y , h i s pessimism i s , i f not pardonable, at l e a s t under-sta n d a b l e . But the modern a p o l o g i s t who expounds h i s theory o f p o l i t i c a l expediency i n the absence of these c o n d i t i o n s i s undoubtedly i n s p i r e d w i t h an excess of pragmatism. There i s an e q u a l l y popular view t h a t the h o l d e r of p u b l i c o f f i c e i s o b l i g e d t o invoke the end-means p r i n c i p l e because absolute moral standards to guide him cannot be de-f i n e d . The o b j e c t i o n s to t h i s c o n t e n t i o n are obvious. At no time i n h i s t o r y has the g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e of any government been tender c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r i t s s u b j e c t s , but the govern-ment which g a i n s power and subsequently runs i t s e l f on the understanding t h a t anything i s j u s t i f i e d i f i t c o n t r i b u t e s The problem of the Marxian e t h i c has been n e a t l y u n r a v e l l e d by Garew Hunt, to whom the f o r e g o i n g paragraph i s deeply i n d e b t e d . See Hunt, op. c i t . , pp. 109-22. - 71+ -to the e s t a b l i s h i n g of a communist s o c i e t y must i n e v i t a b l y i n v i t e c r i t i c i s m . Since no true communist s o c i e t y e x i s t s i n the w o r l d , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to know whether i t would b e n e f i t humanity. And the M a r x i s t ' s c l a i m to omniscience c e r t a i n l y does not help to decide the i s s u e . The h i s t o r y of p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y w i l l perhaps always o s c i l l a t e between the p o l e s of the e t h i c a l and the r u t h l e s s l y r e a l i s t i c , but to imbibe M a c h i a v e l l i a n pessimism and apply i t o u t r i g h t i s to concede the arena to the o p p o r t u n i s t s of h i s t o r y , l i k e the f a n a t i c s of Marxism-Leninism, that p a r t y of Russians who had got h o l d of a German p h i l -osophy of h i s t o r y which p r o v i d e d the more i n t e l l i g e n t of them w i t h an i n t e l l e c t u a l armoury and the l e s s i n -t e l l i g e n t w i t h an excuse to conduct themselves l i k e p e d a n t i c thugs and c a l l the r e s u l t h i s t o r i c a l necess-i t y . 3 ? S o l o g d i n i s a d i s c i p l e of Dostoyevsky,and the p o i n t f o r which he contends i n h i s a l t e r c a t i o n w i t h Rubin i s the l e s s o n of Crime and Punishment. There Dostoyevsky d e c l a r e d human l i f e to be i n v i o l a b l e by unmasking, i n the wording of Mochulsky, the " b l a t a n t l i e " of the "humane u t i l i t a r i a n i s m " which seduces Raskolnikov, and by showing that "the 'econ-omic p r i n c i p l e ' does not l e a d to u n i v e r s a l p r o s p e r i t y , but  r a t h e r t o mutual a n n i h i l a t i o n . " - ^ I t i s d i f f i c u l t to support by l o g i c a l argumentation Crankshaw, op. c i t . , p. 19. Mochulsky, op. c i t . , p. 275. - 75 -the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the B o l s h e v i k s c o n s c i o u s l y d e s i r e d e v i l , but S o l z h e n i t s y n shows t h a t no e f f o r t was made to a v o i d the endemic wastage of human l i f e t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e d the S t a l i n e r a . Edward Crankshaw argues a cogent case a g a i n s t L e n i n as the fountainhead of B o l s h e v i k e v i l , but r e c o g n i z e s t h a t the source of the e v i l l a y i n Lenin's being a Ru s s i a n . "To be a c o n s p i r a t o r i a l Russian," he says,"and a n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l i s t i n t o the b a r g a i n o f f e r s u n p a r a l l e l e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c h i -canery of every k i n d . " 3 9 Crankshaw set about demonstrating that S t a l i n ' s achievement was merely to take Lenin's p o l i c -i e s to t h e i r l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n . M i l o v a n D j i l a s holds t h a t communists have e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , but they have been cor-r u p t e d by t h e i r m e t hods.^ S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s t a s k has been t o show t h a t these methods d i s r u p t e d s o c i e t y by d i s t u r b i n g the d e l i c a t e e q u i l i b r i u m of good and e v i l , which d i s t o r t e d the moral foundations of human r e l a t i o n s . The B o l s h e v i k s taught t h a t " ' p i t y ' was a shameful f e e l i n g , 'goodness' was l u d i c -rous, and 'conscience' was a p r i e s t ' s e x p r e s s i o n . " ( 3 0&3) The F i r s t C i r c l e seeks, not to solve the problem of e v i l , but to expose the workings of e v i l i n r e a l l i f e . The l e n e e r of u n c e r t a i n t y which c e n t u r i e s of m e t a p h y s i c a l spec-u l a t i o n have p l a c e d over the problem i s thoroughly p e n e t r a -rankshaw, op. c i t . , p. 17. ^ M i l o v a n D j i l a s , The New C l a s s , London: Unwin Books, 1966, p. 137. - 76 -t e d , and a l l t h a t remains i s the source of e v i l : human mal-i c e and weakness. The essence of e v i l i s i d e n t i f i e d by the simple peasant, S p i r i d o n Yegorov: "The wolfhound i s r i g h t , and the c a n n i b a l i s wrong!" (lj.:5>6l) There i s no e v i l i n the r u s t l i n g of the cockroaches i n Matryona's d i l a p i d a t e d home; nor i s there e v i l i n the a c t i o n s of the dog. In t h i s there i s a r e a s s e r t i o n of the medieval t h e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n t h a t a t h i n g causes e v i l when i t contravenes the laws of i t s own na t u r e . Thus, e v i l comes w i t h the knock on the door at f o u r o ' c l o c k i n the morning. The e v i l c o n s c i o u s l y c r e a t e d i s the g r e a t e s t of a l l e v i l s . E v i l i s i n e r a d i c a b l e , but i t s f o r c e can be weakened by s t r i c t observance of the u n w r i t t e n moral laws and obedi-ence to the d i c t a t e s of he a r t and consc i e n c e . The s o l u t i o n to the modern dilemma l i e s i n Nerzhin's r e s o l u t i o n : "A man must s t r i v e to temper, to shape h i s s o u l i n order to become a human being." S o l z h e n i t s y n endured war, p r i s o n , c o n c e n t r a t i o n camp and cancer, yet remained a human b e i n g . I n t h i s there i s an example f o r a l l mankind. One can b u i l d the Empire State B u i l d i n g , d i s c i -p l i n e the P r u s s i a n Army, e l e v a t e the h i e r a r c h y of the s t a t e above the throne of the Almighty, yet f a i l to overcome t h a t unaccountable s p i r i t u a l sup-e r i o r i t y of c e r t a i n human b e i n g s . (3 : 7 6 ) CONCLUSION Apart from i t s a r t i s t i c value t o the world l i t e r a r y community, The F i r s t C i r c l e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t n o v e l i n other r e s p e c t s . At a time when l i t e r a t u r e as a propaganda medium has become r o u t i n e i n the S o v i e t Union, the novel commands s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n as a product of samizdat i n r e v e a l i n g how gr e a t l i t e r a t u r e i s being suppressed i n the i n t e r e s t of the Communist Pa r t y . The n o v e l p l a y s a double r o l e : i n t e r n a l l y , the p o r t r a y a l of the n o v e l i s t Galakhov exposes the s t r u g g l e between sycophancy and i n d i v i d u a l conscience and bears w i t -ness t o the unhappy f a t e of the many p o t e n t i a l l y g r e a t w r i -t e r s whom S t a l i n shaped i n t o "engineers of the human s o u l " ; e x t e r n a l l y , the n o v e l p r e s e n t s an i m p l i c i t challenge to the censorship by i n s i s t i n g on the r e c o r d i n g of t r u t h . Under a d e s p o t i c S t a l i n the t r u t h could not be t o l d completely, and a w r i t e r l i k e Galakhov who composed i n the p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s merely compromised h i s conscience and d i g n i t y . Inwardly Galakhov longs to set down the t r u t h , but as he w r i t e s , and a n t i c i p a t e s the r e a c t i o n s of h i s c r i t i c s , the words f a l l o b e d i e n t l y i n t o p l a c e to create yet one more monument to the p e r s o n a l g l o r y of S t a l i n . Through Galakhov, S o l z h e n i t s y n censures t h i s p r o s t i t u t i o n of l i t e r a r y t a l e n t , - 78 -which strengthens the a l r e a d y i n t o l e r a b l e c e n s o r s h i p . Although the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t sycophancy appears to have passed w i t h the d e c l i n e of one-man d i c t a t o r s h i p i n the p o s t - S t a l i n e r a , the p r e s c r i p t i o n s of s o c i a l i s t r e a l i s m r e -main. The method of " r e v o l u t i o n a r y romanticism" i n t r o d u c e d by S t a l i n continues to create a l i t e r a t u r e f o r w r i t e r s , not f o r r e a d e r s . Hence the importance of the works of samizdat. which keeps a l i v e the Great R u s s i a n l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , and the importance of The F i r s t C i r c l e , a work w r i t t e n f u l l y i n t h a t t r a d i t i o n . While the n o v e l i t s e l f i s an i m p l i c i t p l e a f o r c r e -a t i v e freedom, i t s author has been e x p l i c i t i n h i s demands. His l e t t e r to the F o u r t h Congress of S o v i e t W r i t e r s was ar-guably the most courageous act witnessed i n the S o v i e t Un-i o n In recent y e a r s . That l e t t e r demanded the a b o l i t i o n of c e n s o r s h i p , which i s i l l e g a l because the c o n s t i t u t i o n does not provide f o r i t , and i n s i s t e d that good works were being d i s t o r t e d and suppressed when they c o u l d , i f p u b l i s h e d , ex-e r t a d e s i r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on the development of the s o c i a l conscience and the human s p i r i t . The concluding remarks are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t : Of course, I am calmly c o n f i d e n t that I w i l l f u l f i l my w r i t e r ' s duty i n a l l circumstances, and from the grave even more s u c c e s s f u l l y and i n d i s p u t -a b l y than while a l i v e . No one can b a r r i c a d e the ways of t r u t h , and f o r i t s advancement I am prepared to accept even death. But perhaps many l e s s o n s w i l l t e a c h us, f i n a l l y , not to stop the w r i t e r ' s pen - 79 -while he l i v e s . Never has t h i s ennobled our h i s t o r y . S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s n o v e l s are eloquent testimony to h i s own courage and independent s p i r i t , and whatever r e p r i s a l s the a u t h o r i t i e s make ag a i n s t him, t h i s p e r s o n a l courage i s a l r e a d y a matter of h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d . The p r o t e s t begun by the twenty-seven-year-old c a p t a i n of a r t i l l e r y , whose r a s h a u d a c i t y cost him e i g h t years of l i f e i n the " i r o n p i p e " of S t a l i n ' s h e l l , resounds i n the works of the f i f t y - t w o - y e a r -o l d m i l i t a n t r e a l i s t who now f i n d s h i m s e l f "at the p a s s i o n -ate f o c a l p o i n t of the major i s s u e t h a t i n f l a m e s d i s s e n t and f r i g h t e n s the men i n the Kremlin today." In view of l a t t e r -day n e o - S t a l i n i s m , the s i g n i f i c a n c e of S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s work has i n c r e a s e d , and the regime i s f u l l y aware of the s e r i o u s t h r e a t i t r e p r e s e n t s . One of the conformist w r i t e r s , A l e x e i Surkov, has the f o l l o w i n g to say, which may be taken as r e -p r e s e n t a t i v e of o f f i c i a l views: . . . S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s works are more dangerous f o r us than those of Pasternak: Pasternak was a man detached from l i f e , but S o l z h e n i t s y n , w i t h h i s v i g o r o u s , m i l i - ^ t a n t , i d e o l o g i c a l temperament, i s a man of p r i n c i p l e . Surkov's statement i s a l s o an unintended compliment to S o l -z h e n i t s y n ' s s p i r i t u a l s t r e n g t h . The combination of l i t e r a r y "^See Works, V o l . 6, p. 13. 2 "The W r i t e r as Russia's Conscience," l o c . c i t . ^In Works, V o l . 6, p. I4.7. - 80 -t a l e n t and a c t i v e s o c i a l conscience makes him a troublesome adversary. The f a t e of the g r e a t e s t l i v i n g prose w r i t e r of the S o v i e t Union (as S o l z h e n i t s y n i s c a l l e d i n l i b e r a l l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s ) today hangs i n the b a l a n c e . He continues to w r i t e , i n d i c a t i n g that he has the courage of h i s c o n v i c t i o n s , but how long he w i l l be allowed to d e f y the e x i s t i n g order i s a matter of c o n j e c t u r e . The l a t e s t move made i n the campaign to d i s c r e d i t him o c c u r r e d i n November 1969, when he was ex-p e l l e d from the Union of S o v i e t W r i t e r s . His answer to the e x p u l s i o n was a f i e r y open l e t t e r to the S e c r e t a r i a t of the Union, from which i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e to repeat the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : Wipe the dust from your watches. They are cen-t u r i e s behind the times. . . . I t ' s time to remember t h a t we belong, f i r s t of a l l , to humanity. And humanity has d i s t i n g u i s h e d i t s e l f from the animal world by thought and speech. And these by nature must be f r e e . I f they are f e t -t e r e d , we become animals again. P u b l i c i t y , honest and complete p u b l i c i t y , i s the primary c o n d i t i o n f o r the h e a l t h of every s o c i -e t y , ours too. And whoever does not d e s i r e p u b l i c -i t y f o r our country i s i n d i f f e r e n t to h i s mother-l a n d and t h i n k s o n l y of h i s own s e l f i s h i n t e r e s t s . . . . does not d e s i r e to cleanse, i t of d i s e a s e , but to d r i v e i t i n s i d e to putrefy.^" Three p o i n t s must be s t r e s s e d here: f i r s t l y , S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s concern f o r the "motherland" shows him to be a l o y a l S o v i e t c i t i z e n and R u s s i a n p a t r i o t ; secondly, h i s a c c u s a t i o n t h a t ^Hforks. V o l . 6, pp. II4.8-50. - 81 -the a u t h o r i t i e s do not d e s i r e a cure f o r the s o c i a l i l l s of the S o v i e t Union suggests that he fa v o u r s the S o v i e t system of government, but not the a u t h o r i t a r i a n type of r u l e which has endured since the r e v o l u t i o n ; t h i r d l y , and most import-a n t l y , h i s p l e a on b e h a l f of humanity as a whole r e f l e c t s a d e s i r e , which has been growing among S o v i e t i n t e l l e c t u a l s , to see the n a t i o n s of the world "converge" i n the common i n -t e r e s t s of a l l mankind.-' In the meantime, S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s works have not been r e c e i v e d i n the s p i r i t i n which they were w r i t t e n . They are meant to urge Russians to face the past h o n e s t l y , t o confess that crimes, not " e r r o r s , " were committed i n the S t a l i n e r a and to set about making the necessary c o r r e c t i o n s . His ex-p u l s i o n from the W r i t e r s ' Union shows how much he i s f e a r e d and t e s t i f i e s to the government's d e s p a i r i n g defence of the r i g i d c e n s orship and i t s s u p p r e s s i o n of freedom of speech. V o l o d i n ' s remark i n The F i r s t C i r c l e i s f u l l y a p p l i c a b l e to S o l z h e n i t s y n h i m s e l f : "A g r e a t w r i t e r . . . i s , as i t were, a second government. Th e r e f o r e no regime has ever loved i t s g r e a t w r i t e r s , o n l y i t s minor ones." (I).:£03) When S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s profound sense of tragedy, and i n s i s t e n c e on human d i g n i t y , n o b i l i t y and kindness i n human ^See George Pismenny, "The E x c l u s i o n of Alexander S o l z h e n i t s y n from the W r i t e r s ' Union," B u l l e t i n : I n s t i t u t e f o r the Study of the USSR. XVII: 2 (February 1970), p. 23. - 82 -r e l a t i o n s , a l l of which pervade The F i r s t C i r c l e almost to the p o i n t of s u r f e i t , are considered i n the l i g h t of modern m a t e r i a l i s t i c p h i l o s o p h i e s , then i t becomes c l e a r t h a t f o r him the honest l i f e i s the apotheosis of the good. I t i s a l i f e of f i d e l i t y to the moral i m p e r a t i v e , t h a t i n d e f i n a b l e and immutable law of humanity, a c o n s t i t u e n t of the e t h i c a l continuum which reaches back to the embryonic moral p h i l o s -ophy of the a n c i e n t Greeks. L i k e Dostoyevsky before him, he has become the spokesman of the Russian people's s u f f e r i n g s and a s p i r a t i o n s , and he has taken i t upon h i m s e l f to t r y to combat the c o r r u p t i v e tendencies of the modern age. In view of the s u f f e r i n g and torment he has endured, h i s world could have become one of d e s p a i r and degradation; i n s t e a d , i t i s one of human grandeur, and t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s the essence of h i s e t e r n a l optimism. De s p i t e the slanderous d e n u n c i a t i o n by h i s hidebound d e t r a c t o r s , those c a p t i v e s of a c y n i c a l i d e o l o g y , S o l z h e n i t s y n * s f a i t h i n man w i l l be h i s l e g a c y to p o s t e r i t y . SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY I . PRIMARY SOURCES A. F i c t i o n Chukovskaya, L y d i a . The Deserted House. Trans. A l i n e Werth. London: Pan Books, 196b. Dostoyevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Trans. Constance G a r n e t t . New York: The Modern L i b r a r y , 19E>0. Gouzenko, Igor. The F a l l of a T i t a n . T rans. Mervyn B l a c k . London: C a s s e l l and Company, 195U-. K o e s t l e r , A r t h u r . Darkness at Noon. Trans. Daphne Hardy. 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" S o l z h e n i t s y n : A Candle i n the Wind." Time, XCV: 12 (23 March 1 9 7 0 ) , 23. - 89 -Taminelo, Ilmar. "Conscience, a l i e n a t i o n and v i o l e n c e . " The  Sydney Morning H e r a l d . 12 June 1971, 6. Vinokur, T. G-. "0 yazyke i s t i l e p o v e s t i A. I . S o l z h e n i t s y n a Odin den' Ivana D e n i s o v i c h a . " Voprosy k u l ' t u r y r e c h i , vypusk 6, Moskva: I z d a t e l ' s t v o "Nauka," 1965, 16-32. Weissbort, D a n i e l . " S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s Cancer Ward." Survey, No. 68 ( J u l y 1968), 179-185. Z a v a l i s h i n , V. " S o l z h e n i t s y n , Dostoevsky and Leshenkov-Klychkov." B u l l e t i n : I n s t i t u t e f o r the Study of the USSR. X: 11 (November 1 9 6 3 ) , 1+0-1+8. Z e k u l i n , Gleb. " S o l z h e n i t s y n 1 s Pour S t o r i e s . " S o v i e t S t u d i e s . XVI: 1 ( J u l y 1961+) , 1+5-62. Zissermann, N i c h o l a s . "The Righteous Ones: A Study i n Figur-a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " L a n d f a l l . X V I I I : 2 (June 1961+), 11+0-151. C. Reviews Auden, W. H. "Beyond P o l i t i c s . " The Reporter. XXVIII: 5 (28 February 1 9 6 3 ) , 52-56. Blake, P a t r i c i a . "A Diseased Body P o l i t i c . " New York Times  Book Review, 27 October 1968, 2, 50. Cousins, Norman. " L i s t e n i n g to Ivan D e n i s o v i c h . " Saturday  Review, 9 February 1963, 18, 63. F i e l d , Andrew. "A S o v i e t 'Eastern'." P a r t i s a n Review. XXX: 2 (Summer 1963), 297-299. F i t z l y o n , K y r i l . [Review of The F i r s t C i r c l e ] . London Maga-z i n e , V I I I : 10 (January 1969), 97-101. P l y n n , P r i t c h a r d . " S t a l i n ' s V i c t o r y . " Newsweek, LXXII: 11+ (30 September 1968), 108D-109. P r i e d b e r g , Maurice. " G a l l e r y of Comrades Embattled Abed." Saturday Review, 9 November 1968, 1+2-1+J+. . "The P a r t y Imposes I t s W i l l . " Saturday Review, TITSeptember 1968, 36-37, 116. - 90 -H i n g l e y , Ronald. " K i l l i n g Canker." S p e c t a t o r , CCXXII: 731*1 (7 March 1969), 311-312. . "The E v i l That Men Do." S p e c t a t o r . CCXXI: 7325 TlT~November 1968) , 698-699. Hood, S t u a r t . " L a s t Days." The L i s t e n e r . LXXX: 2060 (19 Sep-tember 1968) , 373-371+. . "The P i f t y - E i g h t e r s . " The L i s t e n e r . LXXX: 2068 (11+ November 1 9 6 8 ) , 61+7. Howe, I r v i n g . "Predicaments of S o v i e t W r i t i n g - I . " The New  R e p u b l i c . CXLVIII: 19 (11 May 1963), 19-21. Kondratovich, A l e x e i . "In the Name of T r u t h . " S o v i e t L i t e r a -ture Monthly. No. 1+ ( A p r i l 1963), 169-171. Kuznetsov, P e l i k s . "Den', r a v n y i z h i z n i . " Znamya. No. 1 (January 1963), 217-221. Laber, J e r i . "Indictment of S o v i e t T e r r o r . " The New Republics, CLIX: 16, Issue 2 8 l l (19 October 1968) , 32-3'+. Monas, Sidney. "Ehrenburg's L i f e , S o l z h e n i t s y n ' s Day." The  Hudson Review, XVI: 1 (Spring 1963), 112-121. "More M o r t a l C o i l s . " The Times L i t e r a r y Supplement, No. 31+9:8 (13 March 1969) , 2ET* "Mortal C o i l s . " The Times L i t e r a r y Supplement. No. 3I+73 (19 September 1968), 101+1. Pawel, E r n s t . "The Triumph of S u r v i v a l . " The N a t i o n . CXCVI:5 (2 February 1963), 100-102. P r i t c h e t t , V. S. " H e l l on E a r t h . " New York Review of Books. XI: 11 (19 December 1968), 3-5. Reavey, George. "Now I t Can Be T o l d i n Moscow." Saturday  Review, 9 February 1963, 27-29, 1+0. Reeve, F. D. "A Disease That Erodes What Is Human." Book  World. I I : 1+7 (21+ November 1968), 6-7. S i e g e l , George. "And We Are F r i g h t e n e d . " D i s s e n t , X: 2 (Spring 1963), 187-189. APPENDIX I T r a n s l i t e r a t i o n Table Russian E n g l i s h R u s s i a n E n g l i s h A a A a n n P P B d B b p P R r B B V V c c S s r r G- g T T T t R D d y y U u E e Ye y e 1 $ P f • • E e Yo yo X X Kh kh JK 3K Zh zh u Ts t s 3 3 Z z tj M Ch ch H H I i in in Sh sh M H I i m m Shch shch K K K k H y JI Jl L 1 9 3 E e M M M m K) JO Yu yu H H N n a Ya ya 0 o 0 o b LYe i s w r i t t e n i n i t i a l l y , a f t e r vowels or f o l l o w i n g the " s o f t s i g n . " Elsewhere i t i s r e p l a c e d by E e. APPENDIX I I o s o b l a g From o s o b y i l a g e r ' , s p e c i a l camp ( f o r p o l i t -i c a l p r i s o n e r s ) . s p e t s t y u r ' m a From s p e t s i a l ' n a y a . tyur'ma, s p e c i a l p r i s o n . The word " s p e c i a l " here has the c o n n o t a t i o n o f " s p e c i a l i s t " as a p p l i e d t o e n g i n e e r i n g or s c i e n t i f i c p roblems. samizdat T h i s i s a pun on G o s i z d a t from G o s u d a r s t v e n -noye i z d a t e l ' s t v o , S t a t e P u b l i s h i n g House. Samizdat d e r i v e s from Samoye i z d a t e l ' s t v o , " S e l f " P u b l i s h i n g House. T h i s i s the name of the l i t e r a r y underground i n the S o v i e t U n i o n . The organ o f s t a t e s e c u r i t y i n the S o v i e t U n i o n has been c a l l e d by v a r i o u s t i t l e s s i n c e i t was f i r s t i n s t i t u t e d i n December 1917j and has been known by the i n i t i a l s o f i t s R u s s i a n name. The c h r o n o l o g y w h i c h f o l l o w s s u p p l i e s the i n -i t i a l s , d a t e s , R u s s i a n and E n g l i s h t i t l e s f o r each stage i n the e v o l u t i o n of the s e c r e t p o l i c e organ. Gheka (1917-1922): C h r e z v y c h a i n a y a k o m i s s i y a po bor'be s k o n t r r e v o l y u t s i y e i i sabotazhem; E x t r a -o r d i n a r y Commission f o r the S t r u g g l e A g a i n s t C o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n and sabotage. ( A b o l i s h e d 8 F e b r u a r y 1922). GPU (1922): Gosudarstvennoye p o l i t i c h e s k o y e u p r a v l e n i y e ; S t a t e P o l i t i c a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ( F u n c t i o n e d as such from F e b r u a r y t o December 1922). OGPU (1922-1931+) : When the USSR was e s t a b l i s h e d i n December 1922, the word ob'edinyonnoye ( u n i t e d o r c o n s o l i d a t e d ) was p r e f i x e d to the t i t l e GPU t o g i v e the organ a l l - u n i o n f u n c t i o n s . NKVD (193I+-191+3): N a r o d n y i k o m i s s a r i a t v n u t r e n n i k h d e l ; the P e o p l e ' s C o m m i s s a r i a t o f I n t e r n a l A f f a i r s . - 93 -NKGB (19l+3-19i|.6) : In A p r i l 191+3 the s e c u r i t y f u n c t i o n s were d i v i d e d between the NKVD and the NKGB,the Narodnyi k o m i s s a r i a t gosudarstvennoi bez-o p a s n o s t i ; People's Commissariat of S t a t e S e c u r i t y . MGB (191+6-1953) • In 191+6 the commissariats were renamed as M i n i s t r i e s . The NKVD became the MVD, the M i n i s t e r s t v o v n u t r e n n i k h d e l , and the NKGB became the MGB, s i m i l a r l y named, the M i n i s t r y of S t a t e S e c u r i t y . MVD (1953-1951+) : I n 1953 the m i n i s t r i e s were r e u n i t e d w i t h the name MVD as above, under the j u r i s d i c -t i o n of B e r i a . KGB (1951+ - ) Komitet gosudarstvennoi b e z o p a s n o s t i , or Committee of S t a t e S e c u r i t y , i s the name of the organ at p r e s e n t . GULAG From Glavnoye u p r a v l e n i y e i s p r a v i t e l ' n o - t r u d o v y k h l a g e r e i : Main A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of C o r r e c t i v e - L a b o u r Camps. T h i s body has since been renamed GUITK: the K s i g n i f i e s K o l o n i i , C o l o n i e s . OSSO From Osoboye soveshchaniye, S p e c i a l C o l l e g i u m or T r i b u n a l . The body u s u a l l y c o n s i s t e d of three men and was c o l l o q u i a l l y known as the t r o i k a , the Rus-s i a n word f o r group of t h r e e . The OSSO was attached to the NKVD and handed down sentences without the t r o u b l e of a formal t r i a l . A r t i c l e 58 of the C r i m i n a l Code of the RSFSR (Russian S o c i a l -i s t F ederated S o v i e t Republic) covered p o l i t i c a l crimes, which came to be known under S t a l i n as c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n . The reader w i l l f i n d t h i s A r t i c l e l i s t e d i n f u l l i n Robert Conquest's book g i v e n i n the B i b l i o g r a p h y . A r t i c l e 58 was r e p e a l e d i n December 1958. SMERSH From the words smert' shpionam, l i t e r a l l y "Death to S p i e s . " SMERSH e x i s t e d d u r i n g World War I I as the Counter-espionage s e c t i o n of the NKVD. SMERSH was renamed i n 191+6 OKR - O t d e l k o n t r r a z v e d k i or C o u n t e r - i n t e l l i g e n c e S e c t i o n . SMERSH and OKR were su c c e s s i v e names f o r what had o r i g i n a l l y (1921) been e s t a b l i s h e d as Osobyye o t d e l y , S p e c i a l Sec-t i o n s of the I n t e r n a l A f f a i r s apparatus. 

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