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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Lillooet phonology, texts and dictionary Swoboda, Leo John 1971

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LILLOOET PHONOLOGY, TEXTS AND DICTIONARY  by LEO JOHN SWOBODA B.A.,  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL  1968  FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in the Department of L i n g u i st i cs  We a c c e p t t h i s required  thesis  as conforming to the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August,  1971  In  presenting  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y I  shall  f u r t h e r agree  for scholarly by h i s of  this  written  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  make  it  freely available  that permission  for  the requirements  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  It  for financial  permission.  Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f Bri Vancouver 8, Canada  i s understood that gain shall  not  copying o r  for  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  or  publication  be allowed without my  ii  ABSTRACT  The reasons  f o r w r i t i n g North American Indian s t o r i e s  legends a r e both numerous and o b v i o u s , the f a c t  that many  Indian  especially  in l i g h t  material  of  languages, which h i t h e r t o have o r a l l y  p r e s e r v e d such m a t e r i a l , are dying due to many complex, economic f a c t o r s .  and  Less obvious  is  the manner  socio-  in which such  s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d ; however, few would d i s p u t e  that  to do so by i g n o r i n g  the s o u r c e language would be to ignore a  fundamental means o f  transcending  the e t h n i c b a r r i e r to the  Indian c o g n i t i v e system from which the legends While many such d e s c r i p t i o n s o f guistic igible  Indian m a t e r i a l  models used i n these d e s c r i p t i o n s to both  this  the  lin-  render them u n i n t e l l -  p r o j e c t , t h e r e f o r e , has  s i z e a b l e corpus o f m a t e r i a l it  exist,  Indian and n o n - I n d i a n a l i k e .  The aim o f  to w r i t e  are d e r i v e d .  in the L i l l o o e t  been to c o l l e c t a language and not o n l y  in a manner d i s c e r n i b l e to the layman as w e l l  language s p e c i a l i s t  but a l s o  c o u l d p r o v i d e the b a s i s P a r t One o f  it  comprising  the p h o n o l o g i c a l  the  in a manner which  f o r a more t e c h n i c a l  the t h r e e p a r t s  the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the corpus g i v e n  to p r e s e n t  as  linguistic this  study  system used to  in Part Two and Part T h r e e .  This  study. presents  transcribe description  is based on an a n a l y s i s o f by using British  the e n t i r e corpus which was  the 360/67 I B M computer Columbia.  Further, this  l o c a t e d at  description  c r i t e r i a o f d e s c r i p t i v e and f u n c t i o n a l P a r t One, and t h i s menting  translation  Immediately  the t e x t s  following  each o f  P a r t Three is  data  in supple-  is  Lillooet  below each  texts line.  a free English  a dictionary of basic  lexical  and  the t r a n s c r i b e d m a t e r i a l o f P a r t Two and P a r t Three  read w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g  in that  governed by the  units.  In t h a t was  of  description.  with a q u a s i - l i t e r a l , English  phrasal  is  adequacy d e f i n e d  P a r t Two g i v e s a t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e i g h t  translation.  the U n i v e r s i t y  p a r t concludes w i t h s t a t i s t i c a l  the p h o n o l o g i c a l  achieved  further l i n g u i s t i c  now under way,  the dual  by a n a t i v e speaker of L i l l o o e t r e s e a r c h based on t h i s  aim o f  this  material  and is  p r o j e c t has been a c h i e v e d .  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST OF FIGURES. .  vi  PART ONE, PHONOLOGY I. I I.  III.  IV.  Background, Purpose and Method  2  Phonological  6  Data  1.  Segments  6  2.  Stress  8  P h o n e t i c Data  10  1.  Consonants  10  2.  Vowels and Semi-Vowels  20  Statistical  Data  28  1.  Introduction.....  2.  Frequencies of Phonetic Occurren-  28  28  ces 3.  F r e q u e n c i e s o f Consonant Segments Consonantal  k.  Clusters  F r e q u e n c i e s o f Vowel Segments Vowel  Clusters  and 32  and 55  PART TWO, TEXTS I. II.  The F l o o d The L a s t Raid o f  63 the Thompson Indians  75  V  III.  How C h i e f Hunter Jack Overcame the Chilcotin  IV. V.  VI. VII. VIII.  Indians Singlehanded  The Cure o f B a p t i s t e  Ritchie  99 127  The Blanket That Almost Destroyed the Indians  1 kk  Death by the Dance Curse  165  Burning Mountain Sides  182  How We Make Canoes  f o r B e t t e r Crops  195  PART THREE, DICTIONARY I . I I . BIBLIOGRAPHY  Introduction  222  Dictionary  223  28*t  LIST OF FIGURES PAGE 1.  T a b l e o f Consonants  2.  Vowel M a t r i x  and Semi-Vowels, ,  PART  ONE  PHONOLOGY  2  I  BACKGROUND,  The L i l l o o e t of  the S a l i s h  two m u t u a l l y Lillooet  language i s a member o f  the i n t e r i o r  comprehensible d i a l e c t s  and L i l l o o e t .  o f t e n d e s i g n a t e d as  In so f a r as p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s d i s t i n c t i o n occurs  and concerns a r e l a t i v e l y small  number o f  dialect, is  the o t h e r d i a l e c t spoken.  The m a t e r i a l ed d u r i n g  of  and the f i n a l 1971.  The f i r s t  on August 25, B.C.  politically council  lexical  Columbia,  based.  this  p r o j e c t was  1969 at Mount C u r r i e .  collect-  The 1970  o f the m a t e r i a l was completed by the summer  and main i n f o r m a n t , who s u p p l i e d  B a p t i s t e W. R i t c h i e .  1895,  of  Lillooet  the t e x t s were completed in the s p r i n g o f  analysis  c o r p u s , was Mr.  Sechelt,  the corpus o f  the summer and autumn o f  translations  of  comprising  de-  of e i t h e r d i a l e c t  c e n t e r e d p r i m a r i l y at Mount C u r r i e , B r i t i s h is  has  i t e m s , most  The O r i g i n a l  the d i a l e c t on which the f o l l o w i n g work  of  Original  s o l e l y on the  which are c o n t e x t u a l l y d i s c e r n i b l e by speakers when h e a r i n g  division  language f a m i l y and can be c o n s i d e r e d in terms  termined ,th i s d i a l e c t i c a l level  PURPOSE AND METHOD  Born at B r i d g e  Mr. R i t c h i e spent h i s  the e n t i r e River,  e a r l y boyhood  B.C.  at  From t h e r e he moved to Mount C u r r i e where he was  a c t i v e f o r many y e a r s  and l a t e r as c h i e f o f  as a member o f  the Mount  the Mount C u r r i e band.  A  Currie  polyglot,  3  he  is  versatile  of  Sechelt  as  together  with  not  to  only  also the  to  in both  well his  as  Miss Ritchie,  an  recall  with  of  Priscilla supplied  the  to  done  consultation  the  Ritchie  considerable logical in  family.  During  insight  analysis  determining  into  a n d was  many  using  was  the  British  their on  B M  on  360/67  Columbia.  determine zations,  I  based  thus  the e n t i r e  corpus.  the p h o n o l o g i c a l  located tailored  clustering  frequencies, level  all  him but  and  to  of  and  Baptiste  confirmed This  other  Ritchie  was  members gained  problems  of  valuable  of  a  phonoassistance  allocations.  derived  the  texts  therein.  to o f f e r  conditions  the  texts  and  phonetic  computer  of  This  enabled  daughter  Miss  statement  A specially  determine  corresponding  able  knowledge  English.  and w i t h  time  a  analysis.  contained  this  has  elicitations  the  the methods  the environmental to  to  father  difficult,  The p h o n o l o g i c a l analysis  her  of  details  the youngest  t h e morpheme b o u n d a r i e s  and  perception  lexical  translations  with  and  the  the  many o f in  command  phonological  Ritchie,  the  Lillooet  memory  facility  greatly  stages  of  excellent  remarkable  contribute  initial  dialects  from This at  this  phonetic  was  achieved  the U n i v e r s i t y  p r o g r a m was predicting  patterns  to arrange  in  of  used  of to  phonetic segments  realiand  alphabetical  unique occurrences  of  by  lexical  order  items  together with  t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g g l o s s e s , and to p r o v i d e  a quick c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e of and on the tapes o f any This  p r o j e c t has  and b a s i c d i c t i o n a r y  the l o c a t i o n s  items  a dual  in the o r i g i n a l  requiring further p u r p o s e ; namely,  i n a manner which  is  texts  study.  to p r e s e n t  the  r e a d i l y compre-  h e n s i b l e t o the layman as w e l l  as  to do so i n such a way t h a t  c o u l d p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r a  more t e c h n i c a l of t h i s  linguistic  The a r c h i v a l  t h e r e f o r e , m o t i v a t e d the  immediately p e r t i n e n t to the a c t u a l  the p h o n o l o g i c a l l y Two p r i n c i p a l statement;  to the language s p e c i a l i s t  investigation.  l a t t e r purpose h a s ,  o f data not  it  presented L i l l o o e t  texts  namely, d e s c r i p t i v e and f u n c t i o n a l  i n s o f a r as  o b t a i n e d by having  the speech sounds o f vironmental  factors  inclusion  phonological  adequacy.  The  i n s o f a r as a  determining  the d e s c r i p t i o n was c o m p l e t e . a minimum o f p h o n o l o g i c a l  nature  and d i c t i o n a r y .  c r i t e r i a were used t o d e r i v e the  b a l a n c e was a c h i e v e d between two c o n d i t i o n s  and  pronunciation of  system was c o n s i d e r e d d e s c r i p t i v e l y adequate o n l y  and o n l y  texts  simplicity  Simplicity  segments  was  representing  the language and by h a v i n g a minimum o f e n entailed  phonetic r e a l i z a t i o n .  in the r u l e s  determining  their  Completeness was a c h i e v e d by having a  minimum number o f p h o n e t i c a r t i c u l a t i o n s  unassigned to  segmental  r e p r e s e n t a t i ons. These c o n d i t i o n s  o f d e s c r i p t i v e adequacy extend  this  5  phonological  system beyond the usual  phonemic  lished structurally  by morphophonemically  minimal  contrasts.  Although  in t h i s  analysis  language is mal p a i r s  level  determined  the l a t t e r were not  the p o l y s y l l a b i c  nature o f  the  such t h a t o n l y a r e l a t i v e l y small  is  available.  phonological  hypothesis  Hence the i n i t i a l was  largely  disregarded Lillooet  number o f  based on the f r e q u e n c y  The speech sounds w i t h  occurrences within  were then examined as Finally adequate o n l y  frequency of  environments  segments and the remaining  the p h o n o l o g i c a l  system was c o n s i d e r e d  the t r a n s l a t i o n  r e c o r d i n g o f these recordings  sounds  functionally  i n s o f a r as a n a t i v e speaker u n d e r s t a n d i n g  R i t c h i e who not o n l y  original  similar  to t h e i r p r e d i c t a b i l i t y .  system c o u l d read the t e x t s .  of  the h i g h e s t  the range o f these s i m i l a r  were c o n s i d e r e d as p o s s i b l e  mini-  formulation of a  o f o c c u r r e n c e s o f speech sounds w i t h i n p h o n e t i c a l l y environments.  estab-  T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d by Miss  read the t e x t s  from her readings readings  the  but was a b l e of  successfully  this  to supply much  material.  compared w i t h  A tape the  made by her f a t h e r and hence the d e s c r i p -  t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d f u n c t i o n a l l y  adequate.  6  11  PHONOLOGICAL  1.  SEGMENTS The p h o n o l o g i c a l  this  work  vowels.^ /I/,  is  The c o n s o n a n t s ,  /m/  taneous  system used  and  /n/,  with  ejective attribute  a r t i c u l a t i o n with a g l o t t a l i n t o f i v e kinds  fricatives,  laterals,  are f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d articulation: uvular,  and g l o t t a l  The vowel (see  back vowels  although  stop.  The consonants  and a f f r i c a t e s .  alveolar,  These  points  or  are c l o s e d ,  respectively while  /ae/  and  counterparts.  The f i f t h area  together with  are  plosives, categories of  velar,  Fig.1).  /u/  /]/  latter  locations  palato-alveolar,  and  2).  the  from a s i m u l -  ranges are a s s i g n e d to f i v e areas  Fig.  in  and 2 s e m i -  some o f  resulting  by the f o l l o w i n g  (see  7 vowels,  of a r t i c u l a t i o n ; namely,  nasals,  bi-labial,  the m a t e r i a l  the e x c e p t i o n o f v o i c e d / z / ,  occur v o i c e l e s s  categorized  matrix  to p r e s e n t  comprised o f 29 c o n s o n a n t s ,  have an a d d i t i o n a l  /a/  DATA  is  /a/  the c e n t r a l  of  the vowel  front  and  are t h e i r nucleus  the r a i s e d and f r o n t e d c e n t r a l  open  containing  vowel  A/  and  2  the r a i s e d , vowels  or f r i c t i o n l e s s  bi-labial Fig.  r e t r a c t e d and s l i g h t l y  1).  and p a l a t a l  continuants points  labialized /w/  and  of a r t i c u l a t i o n  /o/. / j /  The s e m i are v o i c e d w i t h  respectively  (see  FIGURE 1  Bi-labial  Alveolar  PalatoAl v e o l a r  P P l o s i ve  t  P'  Velar  Palatal  k  q  k'  q'  k  k  z  Fricative  A  Lateral  Nasal  m  Semi-vowel or Frictionless Cont i nuant  the d i s t i n c t i o n  w  ?  w  a ' w  X X  w  h  1  tj tj'  w  j  Each subcategory to i n d i c a t e  x  q  Glottal  n ts ts' A A»  A f f r i cate  w u>  X  !  Uvular  designating  a point of a r t i c u l a t i o n  is  in manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n between v o i c e l e s s  further  subdivided  and v o i c e  respectively.  8  FIGURE 2 Roof of Mouth  Front of Mouth  VOWEL MATRIX  2.  STRESS Two additional symbols  ' and  * written over vowels  are used to designate three levels of stress.  The symbol  '  indicates a strong or primary stress in the articulation of the syllable containing the marked vowel and this stress is generally in contrast to a weakly stressed syllable, the latter being indicated by the absence of any stress mark. Less prominent than the primary stress but s t i l l  in contrast to the  9  weakly s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e  is  a secondary  i n d i c a t e d by the symbol  *  over the vowel  concerned. is  Although  r e l a t i v e l y low -  stresses its  the frequency o f  this  structure,  like  ux elmfx w  meaning  w  o f t e n determined by the rhythm o f  the l e x i c a l  ux elmix w  w  o r even  vowels  length  is  vowels  item  ux almfx w  u'x elmfx w  w  w  stress. III.)  -  is  in p o l y 1  this  however,  prosody  is  the s y n t a c t i c u n i t o r even criteria.  may be r e a l i z e d as  and the emphatic marker /k'u/  and  /k'u/, /k'u/.  to these s t r e s s p a t t e r n s w i t h  receiving a relatively  see S e c t i o n  i n the corpus  r a t h e r than s i m p l e morphophonemic  subordinate  having a s t r o n g e r  stress  primary  'Indian ;  u s u a l l y weakly s t r e s s e d , may o c c u r as both Vowel  secondary  Generally i t occurs  i n E n g l i s h d i s c o u r s e the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  Thus,  syllable  t h a t o f both primary and weak s t r e s s ,  unrestricted.  unit  stress  there are approximately eight  s y l l a b i c words , e . g .  the d i s c o u r s e  of  in the  i n d i c a t e d f o r e v e r y secondary s t r e s s  positionally  as  level  longer d u r a t i o n  in  all  syllables  (For the c o l l a p s e o f weakly  stressed  10  111  PHONETIC DATA  1.  CONSONANTS The p l o s i v e s ,  sudden  release of b r e a t h , c o n s t i t u t e over f o r t y percent of  consonants  in t h i s  opening o f  the  sound  in the word  pressed against  and is  'pill'.  Bi-labial  The c l o s u r e s  and  IXI  to the  The L i l l o o e t  /k/  initial  /?/.  like a voiceless  formed by f i r s t  closing  formed by a sudden  sounds  i n the words  contains  The former is  nomina1, (der) 1  plosive class and  /qV,  and the  BeamteJ meaning contains  a  It  is  relaxing  the t h r o a t ,  is  it  been o b t a i n e d  the sound which German  In a d d i t i o n ,  the g l o t t a l i z e d segments  which a r e the r e s u l t of  and  the uvula and  in the Standard  'official'.  sounds  plosive  and then by r e l a x i n g  to a c h i e v e the d e s i r e d p l o s i v e e f f e c t . e  'till'  the r e s u l t o f  cough o r c l e a r i n g o f  re-  being  These  the u v u l a r  the tongue a g a i n s t  the g l o t t i s  initial  from the tongue  a f t e r a s u f f i c i e n t amount of b r e a t h p r e s s u r e has  o c c u r s between the  to the  and velum r e s p e c t i v e l y .  the c l o s u r e formed by p r e s s i n g the l a t t e r ,  is  the  p r e c e d i n g the b r e a t h  result  language a l s o  and the g l o t t a l  /p/  pronounced s i m i l a r l y  the a l v e o l u s  a r e very s i m i l a r 'kill'.  system.  lips  l e a s e which forms  /q/,  so c a l l e d because they a r e formed by a  the segments  /pV, /p/,  the /k'/  /k/  and  11  being a r t i c u l a t e d simultaneously with a g l o t t a l  /q/ it  is  this  Lillooet its /q/ lip  /p/  /pV  f e a t u r e which l a r g e l y c h a r a c t e r i z e s the  phonology.  (See S e c t i o n  f r e q u e n c y of o c c u r r e n c e . ) and  /q / w  and  w  /k / w  F i n a l l y the segments  /k/,  Examples o f the p l o s i v e s  one  west ( L i t . what b r i n g s us n i g h t )  ten  p'ant  Jp 'aemj*  aep'  f i rewood  wipe  pftin  xaet  u  (v.)  cover  (n.)  /k /,  are:  q'emp  (v.)  /k'/,  simultaneous  X^ptan  crush  /k'/  2 and h f o r  paSlae?  tik  /k/  Sub-sections  in the a d d i t i o n a l , p l o s i v e segments  /q V.  return  /XI  IV,  can be l a b i a l i z e d o r pronounced w i t h  /q'/  rounding r e s u l t i n g  /k '/, w  glottalic  stop and  ra i se  ka?Aif  tjilkjt  tsuk  three  f i ve  thigh  k'uk Tl  Jp 'aSk'em  k' ika^k'k'  p o r c u p i ne  f1 owe r  thimbleberry  k alut  J"ndk aeJ  t.fok  talk (v.)  at t i m e s , somet imes  pull  w  w  w  w  (v.)  w  12  /k V w  /q/  k '9zuj"im  k 'fk 'ela&x  work  dream  qaex  Jqdit  zuq  summi t  dead  q'ut  JVit  JozaSq  s i de  day  bread  q e?up  na§q aj\m  wik'a§q  crabapple  complain  food  q 'ael  q'uq aSl t  naeq  r i pe  ache, hurt  w  w  break  /qV  /q / u  /q V w  in two  w  w  /?/ last  The  w  w  w  (v.)  w  w,  (v.)  !  w  w5  swindle  qd?ez  f.faeu?  t i red  chew  f r i c a t i v e s , so c a l l e d because they a r e formed  as a r e s u l t of a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n caused by b r e a t h e s c a p i n g a near c l o s u r e , comprise the next group o f c o n s o n a n t s . of  these i s  (v.)  the segment Izl  which is  sometimes  through  The  first  pronounced as  13  [z]  resembling  sometimes 'then .  pronounced as [z]  1  is  v o i c e d , dental of  the tongue  predicting follows: /ts/,  a voiced, alveolar  f r i c a t i v e which lightly  is  is  touching  pronounced  /ts'/  stressed  [z]  in  similar  [5]  or  if  and  Likewise  [5]  'zero'  to the i n i t i a l  f r i c a t i v e and  the back o f  has  I \l  two p h o n e t i c  alveolar  fricative  similar  sound  'sip'  is  in  to the i n i t i a l  that  'ship'. it  is  if  i t precedes Paralleling  fricatives occur  Ixl  fricative  in  [J*]  /k a/, w  /ma/.  [s]  as  , IvJ,  I\l,  position if  in it  is  f r e e l y be-  I\f  series  which,  l a b i a l i z e d thus p r o d u c i n g  it  /el/,  Otherwise,  lyj  o r as  [s] the  realizations; pronounced voiceless initial  the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f  if  /?£/,  the p l o s i v e and  is  I zl  pronounced l i k e the  The r u l e governing  pronounced as  by the sequences  The r u l e  [S]  it varies  namely as a v o i c e l e s s ,  sound  the t e e t h .  r e a l i z e d as  otherwise,  tip  .  the segment  palato-alveolar  the  the segment  in  is a  [6]  i n word i n i t i a l is  Izl  is  sound  i f preceded by loi  i t occurs  III;  or which  a r t i c u l a t e d with  [z]  syllable.  immediately preceded by tween  sound  the p h o n e t i c r e a l i z a t i o n o f  I zl  and  a weakly  the i n i t i a l  is  immediately preceded  /aeI/, is  I\f  and  /al/  pronounced  a r e the v e l a r and  l i k e the p l o s i v e s ,  the a d d i t i o n a l  [f]  or .  uvular may  segments  lx l u  and  ly^l'.  All  four of  w i t h and w i t h o u t similar 'nach' [y],  voice,  to the f i n a l meaning  it  meaning  is  'lake'.  out v o i c e  it  it  r  bialized  fricatives  is  pronunciation of  is  sound ,  articulated  'arabe'  is  Cx ]  a r ,  w  these a l t e r n a t e  /x / and  [y]  a r e as  w  . the p h o n e t i c follows:  if  it  is  is  immediately  (b)  it  is  immediately preceded o r f o l l o w e d by  (c)  it  is  immediately  /aelp/, (d)  it  is  immediately preceded by  /ip/,  f o l l o w e d by  is  / i /  or  if  /aep/,  f o l l o w e d by  primary /wa/.  /lu/  /ae?p/,  or having  it  /ip/  f o l l o w e d by  in a s y l l a b l e  and which  la-  which may  /x /  w  restricting  The  which may be a r t i  w  w  forms  with-  inter-  'Arab'.  d voiced [ y ]  conditions  [)(]  l i k e the  meaning  [y ]  w  'lago'  in the A r a b i c word it  [ x ] or voiced  is  voiced  in the Spanish word  lyj  voiced, [y]  pronounced as v o i c e d (a)  g  [x],  preposition  1  are c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y  voiceless  German  towards , a n d o c c u r r i n g as  i n the French word  The environmental  is  1  the f i n a l  be r e a l i z e d as v o i c e l e s s  /x/  in the Standard  L i k e w i s e when  vocalic  c u l a t e d as  or  o c c u r r i n g as v o i c e l e s s  the i n t e r v o c a l i c  resembles  ' s h e i k h ' , o r when  /x/,  sound  'after'  like  these segments may be a r t i c u l a t e d  stress  /x/  is  pronounced as v o i c e l e s s  [x]  ments except in the word 'strength' /%/  is  where both f r i c a t i v e s  it  is  (b)  it  immediately f o l l o w e d by  (c)  i t occurs  w  w  in a s y l l a b l e  w  meaning  taex o 11-nae w  [xl  'to joke in a l l  meaning  a r t i c u l a t e d as v o i c e d  or  the word  /z/  HI  which  /h/ 'hot'.  in a l l  and  o t h e r environments  o c c u r r e n c e s except in the 1  where i t  is v o i c e d  [y ] w  environments except in the  'getting  u n t i e d ' , where i t  is  [y ]. w  is  is a r t i c u l a t e d l i k e the i n i t i a l  Examples of  zae?x  /aep/  /z/  A l s o i n c l u d e d in the f r i c a t i v e s e r i e s aspirate  /?e/,  having primary s t r e s s  in a l l  is pronounced v o i c e l e s s word  /z/,  /o/  immediately preceded by  is pronounced v o i c e l e s s tjax di  /a/,  /rree/  pronounced as v o i c e l e s s  word /X /  is  or  if  or  is  'power'  are v o i c e d .  /mo/  is  /x /  ]  other environ-  meaning  immediately preceded by  which lyj  xalxel  pronounced as v o i c e d  (a)  in a l l  the f r i c a t i v e s  the sound  in  are:  az?  az  m e l t , thaw  buy  no, not  Ju'tik  mdlJem  mamd.1 al u J  wi n t e r  cranberry  raccoon  w  /x/  xakxil  /AaextJ"  tf'lax  dishes  crawl  x fkten  x dx elaem?  ki laix  kni f e  light  muskrat  count  /x /  (v.)  w  w  X  w X  /  moving  (v.)  X elxa&!  nux a?  burn  love  (v.)  show o f f  laterals /KI  voiceless  flowing  1  lean  (v.)  eagle  l i k e any double is  w  tahfntjut  the t i p o f which touches  /I/  scrape  (adj .)  w  (v.)  /A/  dog  in Welsh such as  salmon  and v o i c e d  ridge.  in the word  1  /A/ 11yn  'let'.  1  is  /I/ the  tongue  articu-  meaning  Examples  are: Aa§ut  Jx al^Ap  t JelalA  spine  spirit  lake  w  w  k ffiluh  l a t e r a l l y on each s i d e o f  the a l v e o l a r  a r t i c u l a t e d as  (v.)  Jq 'ax  hffilaSu?  a r e produced by a i r  and  air  w  The l a t e r a l s ,  lated  (adj.)  w  p»X  w  /h/  w  uit  sleep  /  w  (v.)  'lake' of  the  17  /I/  IdJ  Jplaep  feplfl  break i n p i e c e s  buttocks  flour  The v o i c e d n a s a l s  /m/  and  /n/  a r e produced  by c l o s i n g the mouth a t the p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n thus a l l o w i n g i t t o a c t as a resonance chamber f o r the sound w h i c h i s r e l e a s e d through t h e n a s a l c a v i t y . to t h e i n i t i a l was  found t o be a r t i c u l a t e d  'nap'  'map'  /m/  corresponds  and t h e a l v e o l a r  l i k e the i n i t i a l  i n a l l cases e x c e p t f o r the word  meaning [rj]  sound i n the word  Bi-labial  /n/  sound i n t h e word  xet Jpq'aeq' i nk ft  'one-hundred', where i t o c c u r r e d l i k e the v e l a r n a s a l  pronounced i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n i n the word  'sing .  Examples  1  are:  /m/  /n/  mftjaeq'  f?m»tj  .fAek'am  sit  grandchild  grass  naeq '  kmknaSp  x e l fn  s w i n d l e (v.)  thunder (n.)  belly  w  The a f f r i c a t e s  / t s / , /tJ7,  and  /A/  a s i n g l e motion o f the tongue j o i n i n g the p l o s i v e fricative /ts/  [s]  and  /JY  and the l a t e r a l  /A/  r e s u l t from / t / t o the  respectively,  i s pronounced s i m i l a r t o the f i n a l sound i n the word  'cats'  18  and  /tj/  is  l i k e both the i n i t i a l  word  'church .  and v o i c e l e s s l y . of  represents  I hi  1  This  is  and f i n a l  the  l \ l exploded  a c c o m p l i s h e d by f i r s t  the tongue on the a l v e o l a r  ridge  thus c a u s i n g  c l o s u r e which precedes  the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f  like  r e l e a s e is  l \ l the p l o s i v e  l\l.  plosives, /tf'/, /ts/  /ts'/  /tj*'/  All  of  the a f f r i c a t e s ,  occur g l o t t a l i z e d  and  /A'/.  like  resulting  Examples o f  laterally  placing the  the  necessary  However, u n -  the tongue  thus  the v e l a r and  in the segments  these a f f r i c a t e s  /ts'/,  are:  J?8tSxJ*  q 'atsq ets  b r a i ns  take c a r e o f someone  damp  ts'a^q'an  ts'ults'ul  uts'uts'  h i t a person  sour  absorb  X Jaitaewaz  pit/kiA  ta§x ffitj  cedar t r e e  leaf  chest  bleed  pro-  uvular  tsumk'fn  tj'^?u  tip  the b r e a t h to escape  l a t e r a l l y and w i t h f r i c t i o n on each s i d e o f I hi.  in the  a c h i e v e d by keeping the t i p o f  the tongue on the a l v e o l a r and a l l o w i n g  ducing  sounds  w  w  w  colour  /A/  Axumf  k'a§x Aae?  q 'aeq 'aA  p r e s e r v e d meat  bone  A'aex  xiA'a&q  JoA'  sweet  food  to win  /AW  w  (it)  w  Data c o n c e r n i n g the c l u s t e r i n g o f a l l with t h e i r in S e c t i o n  lexical IV.  positions  w  ebb  consonants  w  tide  together  and r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s are  given  VOWELS AND SEMI-VOWELS  2.  The c l o s e d f r o n t vowel segment a raising  and f r o n t i n g o f  represents  purposes  the tongue d u r i n g  the s e t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n s  ted in F i g u r e 2. of  This  r e p r e s e n t e d by  later collapsed  [i]  and  [e].  this  than the vowel it  is  in  segment,  segment  weakly  and  [e]  IM  in  (a)  slightly  in most  identical  Both a r t i c u l a t i o n s  more c l o s e d  'day'.  collapsing  phonological syntactic of  IM  i n t o the c e n t r a l  nucleus  occurrences.  pronounced as [ e ] it  Although  the g r e a t e r  /]/  can be  foilows: is  IM  areas  the most opened  which has  freely  for  over-  articulated  A r u l e d e t e r m i n i n g the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f g i v e n as  depic-  units occur  length depending on the s t r e s s p a t t e r n ; however,  resists  stressed  but t h i s  pronunciation of  and i n many i n s t a n c e s  u t t e r e d by the same s p e a k e r .  this  the range  is a r t i c u l a t e d s l i g h t l y  frequency o f o c c u r r e n c e , b o t h vary  with or without  is  'tree'  the former a r t i c u l a t i o n o f  environments  articulation,  i n t o two p h o n e t i c  [i]  in the S c o t t i s h  from  i n t o f o u r areas  phonetic analysis  more opened than the vowel occurrence of  within  range was d i v i d e d  the i n i t i a l  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was  resulting  IM,  is  if  immediately preceded by  / j /  or  ly^l  in  21  (b)  it  is  immediately preceded o r f o l l o w e d by  the v o i c e d a r t i c u l a t i o n o f /i/  can be pronounced  Ixl.  in a l l  other  environments.  Such a r u l e , however, does not d i s t i n g u i s h ments p r e d i c t i n g the  [ i^ ]  in which  f r e e l y between  IM  hence t h i s IM  varies  r u l e is is  (a)  supplemented as  it  is  it  Ihl  is  o r the  Iml,  /tj"/,  having  secondary  o t h e r environments  when i t o c c u r s as with  tive  to the  the  l\\l  [e]  environments  [e]  and  follows: [i]  if  IQI,  lui,  a r t i c u l a t i o n of  [5]  immediately f o l l o w e d by  /q /,  [ei]  and  immediately preceded by  w  In a l l  from those  [i]  predictably articulated  /p'/, (b)  articulation  the e n v i r o n -  Ihl  lk l, u  /ae/,  o r by a  fzl  syllable  stress. l\l  varies  where i t  is  f r e e l y except  articulated  r e c e i v i n g some l e n g t h e n i n g  as rela-  [ i ] .  The open f r o n t vowel u t t e r a n c e s which are w i t h i n  /ae/  represents  the s e t  of  the range d e p i c t e d in F i g u r e 2  and which are a r t i c u l a t e d by the f r o n t i n g and lowering the tongue  to a more open p o s i t i o n  in a r t i c u l a t i n g  IM.  All  r e l a t i v e to that  phonetic a l l o c a t i o n s  of  of  required /as/  22  were reduced to  [g]  as  in  'get'  the frequency o f  the l a t t e r being  phonetic a l l o c a t i o n s  of  [e]  lengthened  and  unlike  [a] /\f,  stressed of  occur the  /Q/  f&l  segment  /»/  was  than by  /as/  not o n l y  to a l l o w  f o r the l a t t e r  stressed  syllables  Again, as  as is  /a/  and  raised  is  [e]  IV).  all  Both  syllables;  syllable.  such a  to  however,  reduced to an u n Such a  in s i m i l a r  shortening  /a/  rather  r u l e but  also  weakly  collapse.  the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f  [e]  if  it  is  /&/  immediately  can  it  is  it  is  vowel  f o l l o w e d by  o t h e r cases can be pronounced as / i /  this  the environment  r u l e can be i n which  [33] .  supplemented  /ae/  varies  and [33] .  p r e d i c t a b l y pronounced [33]  /ts/, (b)  stressed  resist  to  in a l l  f r e e l y between  (a)  is o f t e n  representation  which  to l i m i t  /aa/  (see S e c t i o n  in s t r e s s e d  with  relative  to e l i m i n a t e an a d d i t i o n a l  in the case o f  follows  'cat'  follows:  /as/  as  in  r e p r e s e n t e d in the data by  The r u l e d e t e r m i n i n g be s t a t e d  as  [ge]  the h i g h e s t  the vowels  in a weakly  the segment  or  immediately  preceded by  if / i / ,  /h/,  /t/V immediately  preceded by any  lengthened  .  23  (c)  it  is  immediately  /k/,  /k'/,  f o l l o w e d by  /x /,  /h/,  w  /ts'/,  the v o i c e d a r t i c u l a t i o n o f (d)  it  is  /oJ  /u/  is  as  in a l l  it  /u/  the tongue  was d i v i d e d collapsed  [u]  articulated slightly 'boot'  the  [o]  /]/  segment,  greatest  is  /z/.  retracted  r e a l i z e d as  and  i n the S c o t t i s h  follows  rounding  the range o f  produced by r e t r a c t i n g and  [o]  a  and  this  these were  the raising range  later  which r e p r e s e n t the two  articulations  [o]  Initially  but  more open than the  and the  lip  'far',  'pot'.  is  (see F i g u r e 2).  phonetically significant  c i a t i o n of  is  / i /  i n t o f o u r p h o n e t i c areas  into  It  However, when i t  i n the word  to the f r o n t  segment ,which  or c l o s i n g  the tongue  is a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h  pronounced l i k e the vowel  back  ,  /z/  Southern E n g l i s h p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f  u n l a b i a l i z e d environments.  Corresponding  and [ z ]  a r t i c u l a t i o n of  [5]  lowered p o s i t i o n .  i n the Standard  l a b i a l i z e d consonant is  o r the  a r t i c u l a t e d with  to a c o m p l e t e l y open o r [a],  /p/,  immediately preceded o r f o l l o w e d by  /ae/, The back vowel  /w/,  is  of  /u/. [u]  slightly  pronunciation of  the more open a r t i c u l a t i o n o f  [u]  is  i n the p r o n u n more open  'coat'. /u/  frequency o f o c c u r r e n c e and both p h o n e t i c  than  L i k e the has  the  articulations  2k  of  /u/  occur with or without  culations weakly  resist  stressed  collapsing  is  as  F u r t h e r , both  i n t o the c e n t r a l  nucleus  artiin  syllables.  A rule predicting /u/  length.  the p h o n e t i c  realization  of  follows: /u/  is  (a)  pronounced it  (b)  is  /ts/  and  it  immediately  is  it  is  if  immediately preceded by  /qV, (c)  [u]  / j / ,  /k /,  /w/,  /p/,  w  /k/  /A'/,  f o l l o w e d by  or  /as/  immediately preceded o r f o l l o w e d by  /a/.  /u/  is  pronounced  [o]  (a)  it  is  immediately preceded by  (b)  it  is  immediately  a r t i c u l a t i o n of of (c)  it  w  f o l l o w e d by the /z/  and the  and  /q /  /x / u  [5]  [y]  articulation  fx/ is  immediately preceded o r f o l l o w e d  In a l l  other phonological  environments  freely  between  [o]  articulated A/  if  [u]  and  /u/  by varies  but  is  usually  vowel,  is  articulated  [u]. t  the c l o s e d and f r o n t e d c e n t r a l  /x / w  25  slightly  more c e n t r a l i z e d than the vowel  the c l o s e d ,  r e t r a c t e d c o u n t e r p a r t to  lated s l i g h t l y in  'pull'.  stressed of  this  /a/  A/  o r as  The l a t t e r in  'up' of  the semi-vowels  and is  may c o l l a p s e  is  is  /a/,  occurring  but not as  /w/  the i n i t i a l  is  in  are n e c e s s a r y . stitute  and /w/,  sound  in Section  Clusters  / j /  are  vowels o c c u r r i n g  [a]  i n c l u d e d as  a r t i c u l a t e d as the  initial  of  in  /u/ sound  phonological but w i t h  in  'win , 1  / i / , is  and  pro-  'yellow'.  to the vowel and semi-vowel IV;  however, two f i n a l  two o r more vowel  the same number o f s y l l a b l e s  o f vowels  more c e n t r a l i z e d  c e n t r a l i z e d as  as  are a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h a smooth t r a n s i t i o n Clusters  stressed  d e s c r i p t i o n the p h o n e t i c o c c u r r e n c e s  pertaining  given  the c o r e  a r t i c u l a t e d e i t h e r as a  [A]  pronounced as  Information clusters  articu-  i n t o an u n -  syllables,  a r t i c u l a t e d as a h i g h e r o r more c l o s e d  nounced as  is  /ol  1  is a r t i c u l a t e d s l i g h t l y  this  Labialized  more c l o s u r e , /j/,  nucleus,  [e]  For purposes  segments.  /o/  in weakly s t r e s s e d  weakly s t r e s s e d  of  and  c e n t r a l vowel  than the vowel  A/  'bit ,  more l a b i a l i z e d and c e n t r a l i z e d than the vowel  Both  syllables.  in  remarks  segments c o n -  t h e r e are vowels  and  between them.  commencing w i t h a semi-vowel  or with  i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y a l s o comprise the same  semi-  26  number o f s y l l a b l e s are  syllabically  precede.  This  as  assigned  restricts  to t h a t of o n - g l i d e indicated the  t h e r e are  to the vowels  they  the f u n c t i o n o f  semi-vowels  immediately  both  /w/  and the f i v e o c c u r r e n c e s o f  in S e c t i o n  phonological  vowels, and the  and  /asw/  IV do not c o n s t i t u t e e x c e p t i o n s .  segment  /w/  was  used p h o n e t i c a l l y  i n d i c a t e the apparent m o n o s y l l a b i c  q u a l i t y of  / j /  these  Rather, to  marginal  cases. Examples o f  IM  /ae/  loj  /u/  the vowels  IQI  '  kukpi  fjez  JfAts'33?  enough  shoes  chief  aSn?wa3f  pa? I aa?  tdAae  two  one  tongue  dzuq am  fqcixae  revenge  dog  u?aln  k'ulm  w  have  A/  are:  (something)  gall  maiu (n.)  L j"zi3q  KJ"wi.t  corpse  slave  ox?i5n  x ?ox  cough  w  (v.)  smell  (n.)  u  (n.)  cat  27  /a/  /w/  ezu?i.f  k'alae?  nalaeka  pretty  liver  shoulder  walk'ak  ts'awa?n  vomit  /j/  (v.)  wash  (v.)  Jijagq'tjaa woman  28  IV STATISTICAL DATA  1.  INTRODUCTION The s t a t i s t i c a l  three s u b - s e c t i o n s corpus c o n s i s t i n g  is  i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d in the  d e r i v e d from an a n a l y s i s o f a s e l e c t e d  o f ^,315 d i f f e r e n t  were o b t a i n e d by s c a n n i n g  The narrow t r a n s c r i p t i o n s the s i m p l i c i t y  lexical  of  phonetically these  and completeness  the p h o n e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n g i v e n  transcribed  criteria  segments p r e s e n t e d  one  item.  and then  differentiations  in s u b - s e c t i o n  in s u b - s e c t i o n s  into  2 below.  these broad t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were c o l l a p s e d  phonological  These  items were a n a l y s e d on the  broadened by combining many unnecessary  Finally,  items.  the e n t i r e corpus and e x t r a c t i n g  o c c u r r e n c e o f every d i s t i n c t ,  basis of  following  into  the  3 and k which  f o 11 ow.  2.  FREQUENCIES OF PHONETIC OCCURRENCES In  this  designation, occurrences  analysis  the f i r s t  column s t a t e s  the second column g i v e s  the t o t a l  the p h o n e t i c number o f  i n the s e l e c t e d corpus and the t h i r d column g i v e s  the r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y .  This  latter  is  determined by  expressing  as a p e r c e n t a g e , c o r r e c t t o t h e n e a r e s t t h o u s a n d t h , t h e number o f o c c u r r e n c e s o f each p h o n e t i c d e s i g n a t i o n o u t o f t h e 22,844 phonetic occurrences.  (a)  Consonants  450  1.970  48  .210  t  997  4.364  k  801  3.506  k>  211  .924  w  173  .757  47  .206  p p'  k  q  hn  1.808  q'  195  .854  qw  295  1.291  88  .385  ?  892  3.905  z  323  1.415  5  93  .407  s  9  .039  J*  1693  7.411  X  572  2.504  Y  23  .101  q  w>  30  2.180  498  .004  1  .784  179  X  .096  22  y  x  .197  45  w  .OOU  1  yw  .372  h  85  I  1260  A  555  m  1095  n  1450 96  ts  5.516 2 .430 4. 793 6.3^7 .420 .797  182  ts'  652  tl  2.854 .031  7  tj'  .144  33  A  273  A'  (b)  5 e  Vowels  4.246  970 286 368 •snn  e  1.195  1  '  2 5 2  1.611  aa  2906  12.721  a  256  1.121  0  301  1.318  u  1079  4.724  1  950  4.159  o  94  .411  A  353  1.545  e  1092  4.780  w  407  1.782  j  25  .109  22,844  100.000  (c)  Semi-vowels  Totals of ( a ) , ( b ) , and (c)  32  3.  FREQUENCIES OF CONSONANT SEGMENTS AND CONSONANTAL  The f i r s t segmental of  column i n the a n a l y s i s  clusters  positions  the aggregate of total  the segments  and the next three columns  times each o c c u r s ,  and f i n a l  lists  in i n i t i a l , medial, The f i f t h  c l u s t e r and the s i x t h column g i v e s  nearest  It mation  This  latter  t h o u s a n d t h , of  the a g g r e g a t e  the r e l a t i v e frequency o f  is a p e r c e n t a g e , c o r r e c t to the  in t h i s  there is  the t o t a l  no a g g r e g a t i o n o f  data between l i n e s ;  to a g i v e n segment  alone and is not  that  is a p p l i c a b l e  is,  infora number  to that  However, the t o t a l  o c c u r r e n c e s o f any s p e c i f i c segment o r c l u s t e r  segment  number o f is o b t a i n a b l e  o c c u r r e n c e s a s s i g n e d to them i n a l l  The f o l l o w i n g  data  is  p r e s e n t e d in the same a l p h a b e t i c a l  in the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f P a r t  Three.  by  environments.  o r d e r which was used to compile the d i c t i o n a r y and which described  of  i n c l u d e d i n the number a s s i g n e d to a c l u s t e r e d  o c c u r r e n c e o f that segment.  all  the  columns.  implicit  totaling  is  segmental  19,161 o c c u r r e n c e s , being  must be noted that  corresponding  column,  the s e c o n d , t h i r d , and f o u r t h columns,  number o f o c c u r r e n c e s f o r each segment o r  each a g g r e g a t e .  and  r e p o r t the number  in the s e l e c t e d c o r p u s ,  w i t h i n word b o u n d a r i e s .  CLUSTERS  is  33  Initial  p pt  Medial  Fi na  1  Aggregate  Frequency  121  67  61  249  9  3  4  16  .084  1  .005  2  .010'  1  .005  5  .026  1 .300  pk  1  pq  1  pqjq  1  pqw  2  P?  3  3  .016  PZ  1  1  .005  2  5  .026  2  2  .010  1  .005  1  .005  pj"  3  PJt  pJV pfx  1  3  1 1  PX  6  6  .031  ph  4  4  .021  1  .005  12  29  .151  pm  5  5  .026  pn  3  3  .016  2  .010  2  .010  A  1  Pl  17  P  2  Ptj pA>  2  Initial  25  p'  Medial  7  Fi nal  3  Aggregate  Frequency  35  .183  p'x  1  1  .005  P'tj  1  1  .005  606  3.163  12  .063  2  .010  1  .005  1  .005  6  .031  4  .021  3  .016  8  .042  2  .010  210  t  245  tt  12  tp  1  tplz  1  6  w  1  tq  1  tq' tq t?  2  tx  1 w  3  2 6  u  tx  1  1  tkj tk  151  2  4  4  9  .047  7  7  14  .073  tx m  1  1  .005  w  1  1  .005  w  t x  ?  tm  4  3  7  • .037  tn  11  1  12  .063  258  152  478  2.495  k  68  kp  10  10  .052  kt  11  11  .057  1  1  .005  ktn  Initial  Medial  Fi nal  Aggregate  Frequency  2  2  .010  1  1  .005  k?  4  k  .021  kz  1  1  .005  kj  h  8  12  .063  kjt  6  5  11  .057  kjtq'  1  1  .005  kfk  1  1  .005  kx  8  8  .042  kl  5  5  .026  18  18  .094  kk kq  w  km  .021  kn ktj  k  k  .021  ktfh  1  1  .005  145  .757  k'  117  19  9  k'p  2  2  .010  k't  6  6  .031  k'k'  1  2  .010  k'k > w  1  1  .005  k'Jt  1  1  .005  k'x  3  3  .016  k'l  1  1  .005  1  36  Initial  Medial  F? nal  Aggregate  Frequency  k'm  6  6  .031  k'n  3  3  .016  130  .678  1  .005  k k  74  w  ww  42  14  1  k  k J"  3  3  .016  k A  3  3  .016  w  w  k l w  .005  1  .214  23  .005  k 'm w  42  224  1.169  qp  1  1  .005  qt  1  1  .005  q  3  63  qk  1  1  .005  q?  1  1  .005  qJ  2  21  .110  qjt  2  2  .010  qx  3  3  .016  4  8  .042  qm  8  8  .042  qn  8  8  .042  qtj  10  14  .073  2  .010  ql  qtj?  4  2  19  4  Initial  Medial  Fi nal  Aggregate  Frequency  qtjx  1  1  .005  q*>  2  2  .010  11  119  .621  1  1  .005  <!'  83  25  q'J q'Jt  1  1  .005  q'm  8  8  .042  q 'n  1  1  .005  q't/  4  1  5  .026  73  16  194  1  1  .005  2  .010  3  .016  qw  qw  105 p  1  q ? w  1 2  1 .012  q J*  1  q x  1  1  .005  q l  1  1  .005  q m  2  2  .010  q n  1  1  .005  6  63  .329  1  1  .005  w  w  w  w  w  q  w>  q  w j w>  41  16  q  q 'n  4  4  .021  q 'tj  2  2  .010  373  1.947  3  .016  w  u  ?  28  150  3  195  Initial  Medial  Fi na 1  Aggregate  Frequency  ?t  17  1  22  .115  ?k  8  1  9  .047  ?kjq»  1  1  .005  ?k'  1  1  .005  ?k  1  1  .005  4  .021  w  2  ?q  2  ?q>  1  1  .005  ?q  2  2  .010  w  1  ?z ?J  ? Jkl  ?x ?x  w  16  6  23  .120  17  33  50  .261  2  2  .010  1  1  .005  1  1  .005  15  2  17  .089  7  16  23  .120  2  .010  2  3  .016  1  1  .005  2  .010  12  .063  1  .005  26  .136  ?x m  2  ?X  1  w  ?w X  ?h  2  ?A  9  ?lk  1  ? 1  25  3  1  Initial  Medial  Fi nal  1  ?lt ? Ik  1  Aggregate  Frequency  1  .005  1  .005  ?l 1  1  1  .005  ?lm  4  4  .021  ? In  1  1  .005  24  24  .125  ?ml  1  1  .005  ?n  4  4  .021  2  2  .010  2  20  .104  1  .005  341  1.780  1  1  .005  2  2  .010  8  .042  1  .005  5  .026  2  .010  1  .005  1  1  .005  1  1  .005  ?m  ?ts ?tj  8  ?A> z  1 95  zk  w  zq  w  10  131  z?  4  zz  1  zj  2  zx  2  ZX z x  w  zh  1  115  4  3  Initial  Med ? a l  Flnal  Aggregate  Frequency  zm  5  5  .026  zts'  1  1  .005  J  246  137  437  820  4.280  8  2  2  12  .063  5  1  6  .031  Jpt  2  2  .010  jpl  7  7  .037  77  .402  1  .005  1  1  .005  1  51  .266  1  .005  1  .005  54  ft jtx  u  17  6  1  50  W  1  Jkl  1  Jk'  12  4  16  .084  Jk«  18  1  19  .099  2  .010  4  40  .209  1  1  .005  1  .005  28  .146  1  1  .005  1  35  .183  Jk«> Jq  2 36  JqJ Jql  1  JV  24  4  Jq't 31  3  Initial  Medial  Final  Aggregate  Frequency  Jq '  12  12  .063  J?  25  25  .130  2  8  .042  1  1  .005  11  32  .167  1  1  .005  20  24  .125  1  1  .005  16  .084  1  1  .005  8  8  .042  7  7  .037  1  1  .005  w  6  h  Jx Jx  w  fx  Jh Jl Jit Jm Jn Jts Its'  21  12  4  15  17  32  .167  37  10  k7  .245  k  .021  3  3  .016  1  1  .005  23  .120  1  1  .005  JA  1  1  .005  /Ax  1  1  .005  Jts'k*  JtJ Jtjm  13  2  8  Initial  10 J*'p  Medial  Fi nal  1  Aggregate  Frequency  11  .057  1  1  .005  1  1  .005 1.837  229  74  49  352  xt  5  6  11  .057  xts'  1  1  .005  xk  3  4  .021  xk'  1  1  .005  xq  1  2  .010  X  1  1  X?  4  2  6  .031  xz  1  2  3  .016  4  .021  1  .005  2  .010  3  1  XX  1  xA  1  xAt/  1  1  .005  x 1  6  6  .031  1  3  .016  xn  2  2  .010  xt;  3  1  4  .021  145  107  353  1.842  x p  1  1  2  .010  x qt  1  1  .005  xm  x  w  w  w  2  101  1  Initial  x ? w  26  Medial  Fi na 1 Aggregate  1 5  x J w  Frequency  27  .141  5  .026  x x w  1  1  .005  x h u  1  1  .005  x A  1  4  .021  2  .010  1  7  .037  3  3  .016  1  .005  w  x m w  1  1 6  x n w  3  x tj w  1  x A w  24  36  119  .621  xt  2  1  3  .016  xq  1  1  .005  xq'  1  1  .005  xq '  1  1  .005  X?  1  1  .005  xl  1  4  .021  xJV  1  1  .005  X><  4  X"  8  8  .042  Xm  8  8  .042  X"  2  2  .010  xtj  2  1  3  .016  19  5  35  .183  59  X  w  X  w  11  3  .021  Initial  Medial  xq w  X  1  w?  1  X x w  h  34  A  130  Ap  At w  3  4  .021  1  1  .005  22  1  57  85  146  361  1.884  2  5  7  .037  1  1  .005  1  6  .031  1  .005  1 48  Aq Aq>  2  Aq  1  w  2  2  .010  1  3  .016  1  .005  6  .031  1  .005  1  .005  9  .047  4  .021  1  .005  1  1  .005  8  9  .047  1  .005  1  Ax Ax  9 4  w  *X  1  AA Al Alx  1  .266  51  1  Aj*n  .297  3  6 Az  Frequency  .005  5  Atq '  Aggregate  1  *pj*  Ak  Fi nal  1  Initial  Medial  Fi nal  Aggregate  Frequency  17  17  .089  3  6  .031  Ats  1  1  .005  Ats'  10  10  .052  11  .057  1  .005  Am An  3  AtJ  3  AA'  1 121  1 lp  4  It  361  226  708  3.695  1  6  7  .037  19  16  39  .204  2  .010  27  .141  1  .005  2  Itm 1k  6  2  5  2  20  Ikp  1  1 kft  3 •  Ikfkft  1  2  lkjq»  .021  1 1  .005  2  .010 .021  Ik' 1 k  w  iq  1  3  .016  5  16  .084  6  6  .031  2 11  IqJ 1 qn  1  1  .005  * qtj*  2  2  .010  Iq'  2  2  .010  Initial  Medial  Fi nal  Aggregate  Frequency  2  15  .078  1  1  .005  1  .005  7  31  .162  1  1  .005  3  .016  1  5  .026  l?q  3  3  .016  l?q/  1  1  .005  l?J  3  3  .016  2  3  .016  1  1  .005  Iq  13  w  "q / w  1  1 q ' w  1?  24  I?p  1  1 ?t  k  1 ?k  1  I?x 1 ?x  2  w  l?h  5  5  .026  1 ?m  3  3  .016  1  2  .010  5  12  .063  !?tj  1  U  7  l/t  1  1  .005  1  1  .005  l/q  1  1  .005  1 Jm  3  3  .016  24  43  .224  1  1  .005  1  1  jv  X  Ixf  19  Initial  Medial  Fi nal  1  Ixm 1 x  4  w  4  Aggregate  Frequency  1  .005  8  .042  •x  7  7  .037  Ih  3  3  .016  1  1  .005  11  13  13  .068  Im  54  54  .282  1n  7  7  .037  Its  1  1  .005  1 tsk>  1  1  .005  Its?  1  1  .005  1 ts'  4  5  .026  Its'q  1  1  .005  Its'q?  1  1  .005  Its'q'  2  2  .010  Its'?  1  1  .005  33  .172  1  .005  IAx  w  It/  1  14  1  18  1  It/'  181  307  621  3.241  10  8  18  .094  mp-J  3  11  14  .073  mpt/x  1  1  .005  m mp  133  48  Ini t i a l  Medial  mt  8  mk  Fi na 1  Aggregate  1  Frequency  9  .047  3  3  .016  mk'  4  4  .021  mk  1  1  .005  mq  9  9  .047  mq?  1  1  .005  2  .010  u  2  mq/ mqm  1  1  .005  mq'  2  2  .010  mq  4  5  .026  1  .005  16  26  .136  1  1  .005  2  .010  1  1  .005  3  5  .026  2  .010  1  .005  w  mq ' w  m?  1 10  m?p 2  m?t m?q  w  m?J  2  m?x  2  m?  1  x  1  X  m?n  2  2  .010  m?tj  2  2  .010  28  .146  4  15  13  Initial  Medial  Fi nal  Aggregate  Frequency  mjt  3  3  .016  mjA>  2  2  .010  mx  7  5  12  .063  mxw  3  2  5  .026  1  1  .005  1  .005  mxwj m%w  1  .021  mh mAk  1  1  .005  m 1  7  7  .037  1  .005  1  mix mm  11  11  .057  mn  13  13  .068  mts  2  2  .010 .021  mts' 2  mtj mA mA» n  6  8  .042  1  1  .005  1  .005  1040  5.428  1  139  344  557  np  1  1  .005  np'  2  2  .010  27  .141  1  .005  nt ntx  18 1  9  nk nkf  Fi nal  Aggregate  Frequency  Initial  Medial  2  21  10  33  .172  1  1  2  .010  1  1  .005  nkft nkjq'  1  1  .005  nkx  1  1  .005  nkm  1  1  .005  n kn  1  1  -.005  nk'  5  5  .026  nk  3  3  .016  nk '  2  2  .010  nq  1  1  .005  1  1  .005  1  3  .016  2  .010  34  .177  w  w  nq/ nq'  2  nq  . 2  u  n?  20  14  n?t  1  1  .005  n?k  3  3  .016  5  5  .026  1  3  .016  n?J n?x  2  n?m  1  1  .005  n?tj  1  1  .005  nz  3  3  .016  Initial  Medial  17  nf njt  Fi na1  Aggregate  Frequency  33  50  .261  1  1  .005  n/k  1  1  .005  n/q  1  1  .005  n/q'  1  1  .005  nj?  2  2  .010  nx  1  1  2  .010  1  1  2  .010  1  .005  nx  u  nh  1  nA  4  4  .021  nAk  1  1  .005  n 1  1  1  .005  nm  8  8  .042  nn  9  9  .047  nts  2  2  .010  nts'  3  3  .016  35  .183  1  .005  ntj  25  10  1  ntjt ntjk  1  1  .005  nA  1  1  .005  8  7  47  .245  1  1  2  .010  ts tsp  32  Initial  tsk  Fi nal  Aggregate  Frequency  1  2  .010  tsk'  1  1  .005  tsq  2  2  .010  3  3  .016  1  .005  tsq  1  Medial  w  tsq ' w  1  ts?  2  2  .010  tsz  3  3  .016  tsx  6  6  .031  1  1  .005  tsx/ tsx  4  1  5  .026  tsx/  1  1  2  .010  tsh  1  2  3  .016  2  2  .010  1  .005  tsht tsm  1  ts'  90  26  120  .626  ts'p  6  6  .031  ts'p?  1  1  .005  ts'p'  3  3  .016  ts'q  3  3  .016  ts'q'  3  3  .016  ts'q  3  3  .016  1  1  .005  ts'z  w  Initial  ts'x ts'x  Medial  7 w  269  tj  Fi na  1 Aggregate  Frequency  1  8  .042  1  1  .005  76  2  345  1 .801  5  .026  1  .005  4  .021  tjp  3  tjpq-  1  tjt  3  t Jtn  3  3  .016  tjk  6  6  .031  1  .005  1  1  t/q t/qj  1  1  .005  t/q'  2  2  .010  1  .005  t J*q  w  1 3  1  76  80  .418  3  .016  3  3  .016  t/A  1  1  .005  tjl  1  5  6  .031  3  3  .016  1  1  .005  6  6  .031  22  .115  3  .016  3  .016  tj? t/x t Jx  3 w  tjm  tj'  15 Ax Am  3  3 3  4  54  Initial  A'  176  Medial  32  Fi nal  Aggregate  Frequency  225  1.174  1  .005  1  1  .005  3  4  .021  2  .010  1  .005  1  5  .026  A-'h  1  1  .005  A-'m  9  9  .047  IO898  56.836  A't  1  A-'k A'k' A'q  17  w  1 1  1 1  A-'x  Totals  4  3746  3948  3204  55  k.  FREQUENCIES OF VOWEL SEGMENTS AND VOWEL  This analysis semi-vowels  /w/  the consonant  o f the L i l l o o e t v o w e l s , which and  data  / j / ,  was  /wi/,  /u/  tabulated  and the c l u s t e r s  the vowel  /iwas/,  includes  However, one  segments  /wi/,  /vis/,  / i / , /we/  which o c c u r a l o n e between morpheme boundaries  in the c a t e g o r y  indicating  initial  the  i n the same manner as  i n the p r e c e d i n g a n a l y s i s .  d e p a r t u r e must be n o t e d ; namely, /a/,  CLUSTERS  position.  are  /&/,  and included  Initial  Medial  Final  Aggregate  70  757  125  952  4.968  ii  41  3  44  .230  iae  3  2  5  .026  fa  1  1  .005  iu  12  15  .078  ii  3  3  .016  ie  1  1  .005  2  3  .016  1  2  .010  i  iwee  1  3  Frequency  iwa  1  i Ji  2  2  .010  i j Iwffl  1  1  .005  I jas  2  4  .021  i ja  3  3  .016  ij9  2  2  .010  ' jt  2  2  .010  1  1  .005  2093  658  2894  15.104  33 I  3  1  4  .021  3333  1  1  .005  3333U  1  1  .005  92  .480  6  .031  'j© 33  33 U 33U33  9  69 6  2  14  57  Initial  Medial  Fi na  1  Aggregate  Frequency  aui  3  3  .016  33 ua  1  1  .005  a i  2  2  .010  sa  5  5  .026  4  5  .026  awi  2  2  .010  a wa  7  8  .042  awa  2  2  .010  1  .005  aw  1  33 wu  1  1  awi  1  1  .005  awo  1  1  .005  awa  1  1  .005  a  25  ai au  1  aja u ui U33  163  2  190  .992  47  2  49  .256  1  2  .010  1  1  .005  97  901  126  1124  5.866  1  12  13  26  .136  10  7  17  .089  uau  1  1  .005  uu  2  2  .010  Ul  2  1  3  .016  2  2  .010  ua  Initial  Medial  Fi nal  Aggregate  Frequency  uwi  1  1  .005  uwi u  3  3  .016  23  .120  18  u wa  5  UW33U  4  4  .021  u wa  1  1  .005  1  .005  1  uwu uwi  3  3  .016  u wa  2  2  .010  1  1  .005  4  895  4.671  u jae i  28  863  iwas  1  1  .005  i wasu  1  1  .005  86  .449  1403  7.322  o  2  84  a  60  1262  81  ai  5  5  .026  au  1  1  .005  11  11  .057  awaeu  3  3  .016  awa  2  2  .010  awuwu  1  1  .005  aw i  3  3  .016  ajo  1  1  .005  8W33  59  Initial  Medi a l  w  Fi nal  1  Aggregate  Frequency  1  .005  33  59  .308  wiae  2  2  .010  w iwu  2  2  .010  wi  wa  26  40  wau wa  1  86  12  138  .720  7  1  8  .042  3  .016  1  .005  2  wai wu  1 8  11  3  wuwua  1  .057  1  .005  wi  21  10  31  .162  wo  4  2  6  .031  wo  30  18  53  .277  5  JU  1  1  .005  j®  2  2  .010  ja  1  1  .005  ji  1  1  .005  J9  2  2  .010  8263  43.115  Totals  568  6615  1080  60  PART  ONE  FOOTNOTES  1.  These 38 segments o r any combination o f  are d e s i g n a t e d  in the f o l l o w i n g  p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g ments so d e s i g n a t e d which are e i t h e r environments  2.  discussion  the segment  these segments  by a  /  being d i s c u s s e d .  r e p r e s e n t ranges o f p h o n e t i c  Any  seg-  realizations  in f r e e v a r i a t i o n o r p r e d i c t a b l e from the  surrounding  them.  Considered s t r u c t u r a l l y  the c e n t r a l vowels  examination which would a s s i g n them as a l l o p h o n e s phoneme.  immediately  However, such a h y p o t h e s i s  morphophonemic e v i d e n c e o f minimal  invite of a  would not o n l y  contrast,  single  lack  the  but a l s o the  allo-  p h o n i c r e a l i z a t i o n s would be u n p r e d i c t a b l e from the usual environmental  considerations  - u n p r e d i c t a b l e in the sense  even e x t r e m e l y complex r u l e s would s t i l l  f u n c t i o n ad hoc and  l a c k the e l e g a n c e and power of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . p r e s e n t l y being  investigated  in terms o f f e a t u r e  to determine u n d e r l y i n g forms which such obvious allowed  it  o v e r - d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s as  in t h i s  description.  is the  that  The corpus  distribution  felt will A/  is  and  eliminate /o/  61  For purposes o f  3.  this  discussion alternate  articulations  o f a g i v e n segment are d e s i g n a t e d by square b r a c k e t s tinguish  them from t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g segmental  w r i t t e n between  dis-  representations  slashes.  The t o t a l o f  4.  to  is  19,161  the combined t o t a l o f  both  10,898, b e i n g the aggregate t o t a l of o c c u r r e n c e s o f the c o n s o n ants  (Part  total totals Final of for  of  IV,  3) and 8263, being the aggregate  sub-section  the vowels  (Part  of sub-sections  IV,  sub-section 4).  3 and 4 a r e : I n i t i a l  The combined  4314, Medial 10,563,  4284, Aggregate 19,161 and Frequency 99-951.  .049 must be added to t h i s the i n a c c u r a c i e s  frequency t o t a l  A correction  to compensate  i n c u r r e d in rounding o f f c o r r e c t to the  n e a r e s t thousandth p e r c e n t .  TEXTS  THE FLOOD  J?<ntM I am  'Baptiste  Ritchie'  tan  dx elmfx a  Baptiste  Ritchie.  My  Indian  w  w  an  Jk ait J i t J  an  tjfnamqan  nf  my  name  my  leader.  That  is  A'akaf  tjafi  tmix a  nlA  flooded  this  ground  those  t/'aina  an  w  Jk s5tj!tJ  kdk  name  when  w  iz  an  i  JkflkUa  al  were my f o r e b e a r s .  ntA  ti  wa  he was one  zwaetan  taSli  This  wa  they say  could foresee  kuj  who knows a l l  that happens  nf  waS?  That  A'u  JYf  is why  i  ti  ku  very  w  tjfnamqan  my l e a d e r  t/rfnim  ta£?maj"  A'u  tj"fx aluj"  nfA  w  zaiiten  a?xaSu  some h i g h e r power  ti  wa  he was one  i  kuk  ki'l?a  in the f u t u r e .  wa came  Aacj'  q alut w  to  talk  k'a§?  bh  /tali  k ij  to him  that  xu?  w  A'ak'  i t was  going  to f l o o d  ti  tmix a  k uj  this  ground.  It  w  Jx dzaJ  k dlum  Jk i.f  AaSulaq  i  he d o e s n ' t  make  it  raft  fallen  w  A'laSl  u  w  i  to remain f a s t e n e d  kml<JnaJ  k'ak  How long  zaSlxal to soak  J x ' naSuJe  en  branches  opposite  long  he f i n i s h e d  Aka?x  w  leather  zaSlal  nux  soap  it  tax  you do i t  w  maiij"  nux  fix  it  fA  tjunim  it.  He was  pdza  i  using  anything  w  tmfn  JtamaJ  A'a  xatja§nktan  xak  into a l a r i a t .  He  kinka6rwf  x ?itj  k'u l ? J  t Juk  was  told  how much  lots  make.  Finish  aA  t/tinim  b e f o r e he was  iA told  al  ?tfa&na  o v e r here  .fa.ftf?  tjal  A'aq  where  come  it  side.  told  kaSt f  around  xltam  w  twail  s i d e by  tjukjaj  good  trees  w  aA  is  Jazfka  fp'alq Qk  xfn?J  ama  w  65  i  ijtsuq az9 w  fish  t/un  Akaex  i  tell  your  people  w  ux almfx ae w  Jwae  w  your  k ij  kiftlml  k'aixael  I fku  k'rinae?  t.|*uk aef  that  fix  dry  some  salmon  only  w  kuk  k'ura?  AimaiuA  salmon  ku  kae  as  ?i  aek if w  put on r a f t you  on  AaSm?  tjamailt  kezm  cousins  nf  you  salmon egg.  Then you  your  then  A'uJ"  aekf  t/uwaa  his  with  h i s own  (proper noun)  Indian  w  laSti?  /ae  w  A'uJ"  Aam=£naex  w  load  ilrrrftf stayed  A'u.f  t.ferreSlt children  fk aetjitj  qejtftse?  we?  i.f  name  (proper noun)  had  a  w  Juq 'az  ku  an  t.ffnamqan  nf  son-in-law  the  my  leader.  Then  w  ij  there  J*aV?  w  x ?ft f many  k'unae?  nf  dx almfx  A'u  Jae?x ae  JvriS  qajtfts'ae?  t s ' f lasf  as much  w  load on  children  i  t.fu  A'u  w  A'u.f  .ftjutf he s a i d  66  X<Ji?  Akaen  k'lUlim  ku  en  I am  going to  make  my own  t/uW  Aa5uldq  A'u  raft  dz  k ij*  xfn  A'aA  tjukfkaan  taekem  not  very  long  then  I ' l l finish  everything  w  was?  zriq  kill  nf  A'uJ"  So  w  Jaen  Jipdz  kiA kune  me  skin  will  .Mm  xet/aSnasten  be my  anchor.  k»t1l?imj  Aa$ulaeq ffi  taSkim  k fnaeu?.f  made he  raft  all  kind  w  w  J"ipd?z  /Cm  na? J"  iz  mfij"  nae/ae  xetfalnaetan  skin  dried  it  those  made  by him  lariat.  a?xae  A'aeq  fA ku  Came  the smart  t/fx aelux w  tjdnim  foresee.  He was  k'ae* wae J"xek  JtaSli  one who f o r e s e e s  told  twe  the f u t u r e  the one  plaen  fA xu?  A'alk  now  it's  to f l o o d where  going  kCn  A'aekJ  iA t i  qi!i?ae  maSqae  iA  k'exem  A'aSk  flows  the  water.  Snow  it  wind blew  go  ke  67  ti  qu?8e  A'aSk  the  water  keep on f l o o d i n g .  Jtu  i  nf  Then  perished  u  k if  people  there  before  b e f o r e he l e f t  w  l?xae?  k'a?  iA  he was t o l d  by  smart  must  over t h e r e  tae  laiti?  J  there  you a n c h o r .  nf  w  Ju  nfA  l a r i a t anchor  your  then  t/fx J  ke  JuA'J  reach  when d r a i n s .  u  te  A'uJ  tu  entsexlaSkm  mountain peak  A'u  ft/  That i s why  xet JaSnaeten  k "J  tetiAa$?ae  the o t h e r  xetJaSn39maBx  is  w  a$ku  high v a l l e y on mountain  tsfla  q etj*33tj"  u  t/dnm  t/eqtjse  the way i t  Jx dit  ,fk(fl33?J  then  w  ni - A ' u  lalti  A'uJ"  m  A'a&V  ux aelmfx 33 w  the  A'u  zalxt  ku  long  your  ae?tu7  xe?wmaef  over there  below  xe?wm  keA  se?tu  Below  it will  over there easy  kee  so i t can get  Aa3?ae near  Aae?  \(\q kiA  fwal  alt I  you  on  68  tmfx 33  ni  ground.  So as  w  A'uJ"  we?  fzwitnaej"  en  he  know  my l e a d e r  Aen  kaS?ae J  x  from  where  he w i l l  ti  Juq 'i u  in-law  Weza3  T  xet Ja$n?33m  xetj"a$n?aem  t i e up.  T i e up  Jae  elti  q'utffi  naif  his  on the  other side.  Going  k in  Jq'ft  ni  many  days  that  u  A'uJ i s where  t J<T/p  leather  lariat  s t r e t c h e d then i t  A'uJ*  then they  ti  wuq 'f  tJ'aileA  drowned  because  w  qiftae  en  around the water  ti  jneqmae  aiku  the  snow  that  ts'ftem  going  Jtsftemeq is  along  soaked and s t r e t c h e d  xetjalnaeten  tu  a3?tu  k'utsiIwekft?  Jep'd?z  nf  tffnemqen  nf  ,f  A'uJ"  ,fA'ilq .f u  broke  A'u  x o\fx oj" w  w  strong  ae?ku  Ael  towards  where come from  q ae f  ti  where flowed  w  t/il  currents  qu?ae  the w a t e r .  t.faS.f  churning  69  nf  A'uJ  tjukj  Then i t  xak  i  only  Jta"li  guiding  A'u.  tfwae  fx .M  the one  guided  i ijx almix a w  him  w  i wa  w  people  ux almfx a w  people  k tj w  s k  ones  x dz  k ij  w  ak CJ w  by the one  J?a§tsx  ftali  looking  after  ts'i'kj  w  so t h a t not  m  nf  finish.  A'u  Then  JukJ  laiti  an  tjfnamqan  tJamaSlt  Ja  uluf  finish  there  my  leader  children  his  along  tjenrflt  JaeJ"  children  of  zwaitan  qaxtfts'a? (proper noun).  kinkanaj  taSl i  xfn  k'a  dz  Long must have  iA  k ifxfn?J u  how long  knows  Jnuknuk 'a  niA  k'a  tu  My  friends  that was  the  q'cl?  k ij  floods  to eat  w  fAan  no one  J«&?  k'a  iA  before drained.  an  w  A'uk  fz those  ti  i  JkilatmJ  k ij  best  of  w  Jk'akal  k'una  dried  salmon eggs.  ku  with  t.fatjuk aj  tutaej*  i  That  is  all  they ate  mij  A'a  w  still  dz  dz  A'u  qa&xal  kaSti  they not  A'u  k i J w  not  k'una salmon eggs  t s f laa  k ij  qaSqj 11 i  seem  to have  trouble  w  tfit  ti  A'u  kila  hungry  even very  xfn? long  IA before  J"u"?A'aA  t i  qu?a  Akin  taikmaej  el  drai n  the  water.  This  over  over here  tmfx a  al  ground  there  w  aeku  JwaS?  k'u'A'a  aku  At the coast  nf  he d i d  they  ka  Those must  fwa  t.frx alu.f  was  the ones  forebears.  w  kfjma  ts'ila  at f u r t h e r i n l a n d  Jzftin  nfA  af  ha  iz  if as  an  JkOkila  have f o r e b e a r s  A'u  same as  zfitin did  ?t.fal  fan  aSt I what  t/fnnaqan  my l e a d e r .  J*eJ that  A'u is why  still  wai?  ti  an  Jk sltJitJ  Akun  JWnt/ffl  my  name  now.  I am  w  (a)n  tjfnamqan  En  Chinemqen.  72  THE FLOOD  I am B a p t i s t e meaning of  Ritchie.  'My L e a d e r . 1  That  My is  Indian name is  the very same name borne by one  those who were my a n c e s t o r s when t h i s That e a r l i e r  ground was f l o o d e d .  'My L e a d e r ' was one who, they s a y ,  f o r e s e e and know a l l  could  that would happen in the f u t u r e .  is why some h i g h e r power came to t a l k the ground would be f l o o d e d . but not o f  En Chinemqen,  He was  to him and s a i d  That that  t o l d to make a r a f t  -  f a l l e n t r e e s , f a s t e n e d s i d e by s i d e , by i n t e r t w i n e d  branches. A f t e r a long, told  long  time he f i n i s h e d h i s  to soak l e a t h e r , u s i n g  B e f o r e he was  "Tell  He was  f i n i s h e d making  your p e o p l e , those  He was  a n y t h i n g around f o r soap, and then  make the l e a t h e r i n t o a l a r i a t . it.  raft.  t o l d how long to make  the l a r i a t he was  told,  that know how, to come over here where  the f i s h are and dry some salmon, o n l y salmon, and load as many salmon eggs as you can onto the r a f t . on."  (At that  time h i s  cousin's  Then load the c h i l d r e n  c h i l d r e n were w i t h h i s  own  ch i 1 d r e n . ) The f a m i l y c a l l e d Stager today, whose Qeshtitsa',  had a s o n - i n - l a w  "I  to make my own r a f t .  am going  before  called It  Indian name was  'My L e a d e r . 1  will  He s a i d ,  not be very  I f i n i s h e v e r y t h i n g and prepare some s k i n s  long  to be my  73  anchor."  So he made a r a f t , d r i e d a l l  them i n t o a  kinds  of s k i n s and made  lariat.  Then came the smart one who c o u l d f o r e s e e the f u t u r e . was  the one who had been t o l d , " I t ' s  water f l o w s . " flooding. he was  It  going to f l o o d where the  snowed, the wind blew and the water kept on  Thus the people p e r i s h e d t h e r e b e f o r e he l e f t .  Then  t o l d by the smart one t h a t he must anchor on the o t h e r  peak over t h e r e in the high v a l l e y on the mountain. why the l a r i a t drained  i t would reach the ground.  would t i e up.  That was  anchor must be long so that when the water  f o r him to reach the ground. His  in-law  So,  Over t h e r e i t would be easy 'My L e a d e r '  knew where he  t i e d up on the o t h e r  side.  Many days passed and t h e r e the l e a t h e r l a r i a t  soaked  s t r e t c h e d and then i t broke and they drowned because the c u r r e n t s c h u r n i n g around  in the water made i t go back  where i t had come from the snow - t h a t Then t h e r e was o n l y  So Stager's  'My L e a d e r ' children.  towards flowed.  p e o p l e - who was  power.  stayed It  there t o g e t h e r with h i s  must have been a long  how l o n g , b e f o r e the water d r a i n e d . floods.  and strong  is where the water  the one - along w i t h h i s  guided by the g r e a t e r  best of  He  salmon eggs - but s t i l l  time, no-one knows  My f r i e n d s ,  Those d r i e d salmon eggs!  c h i l d r e n and  that was  That was a l l  they d i d not seem to have had  the  they a t e  trouble  -  74  and they were not hungry even though  i t was a very  long  time  b e f o r e the water d r a i n e d . On t h i s  ground over h e r e , t h e r e were my a n c e s t o r s .  At the coast  and f u r t h e r  did,  they d i d as  'My L e a d e r .  That  is why my name is  1  still  i n l a n d they d i d the same as he Those must have been my f o r e b e a r s . the same now.  I am En Chinemqen.  75  THE LAST RAID OF THE THOMPSON INDIANS  r\(K tjaa  en  Jqi!lq al  al  This  is  my  story  at  Jtk  an  w  tdmuAaeJ  i  f i g h t w i t h us  ti  a?ut  the  Aik3§pmax ae  plaint f  w  Thompson  Indian  _fnuq nu q ae  AkaeA  i  friends  our  those Thompson  w  f  >  wae  w  an  qal&Atsae  AU  tj'e  laSku  friends  our  from h e r e  over  tjuk  wi  rreeA  Stop i t  tf  na? Jt J"  bringing  wa  A'u Indians.  ku  they were t o l d so  AkaSA  I  waS?  Still  JYnnae?  aet  t o l d you so  At J there  by  wal?  was our  friend.  Jnuq nuq ae  AkaeA  il  my dear f r i e n d s  friends  those  are  I am  i  w  tuttwfwu?tae  young men  A'u  t h e r e were  tJUailqf  kaen  t s ' f laa  they were a l r e a d y  wft  Jnuq ae w  A'u  w  tsm  ulae  final  Ai la?pmix a  t.fun  bad tempered p e o p l e  tae a?ut  w  x&kksk bring  %  u  back  1  A'aSq  [turn  76  k tj  wfn<Bx  w  . A'u  w  ku  anything  el  i  there  wa  lfl?wat  A'u  o f them  twai  xumaSn? is enemy  dz  J(*na  it  isn't  k t J w  J?a3ma f  • /turns  w  the C r e e k s i d e  takam  that  k a£n  the t h i n g s  lalku  all  ka  get  we can  good  Jkomk^kmit  /mcSAIat/  children  girls  ama  J?(nt.fa  ts'fla  I am  it  good  Aap  tjdt  ku?  ti  your  he is  the one who s a i d  seems  dz  Jk aSt J i t J w  J*a  laku  remember  own  name  his  where a person  Stein  "Oh",  t/ut  ku  said  the  aSts'xan  X  see  a r e you g o i n g  i  u k  Jttitwfwu?ta  young men  ^kax  w  - ni J then  tan  k'a/aen?ka  zwa§?tan know-"  x ' u  x ' u  "l  ^kaA  we are going  ku*n  wa?  x '  stays  Akax  u  braves.  A'u  I don't  ni  6  Ai /  it  laXlaSxj  Xdina  things  w  " A r e you going  ^k  330  am g o i n g  A'aSk to  go."  k aSn w  take  77  nf  A'u  J  X 'ft s  Then over a mountain  k a5n  ni J  w  i  took  x&'  ins  Jtui  lajkuft  he d i d  from t h e r e  Jnuq nuq ae u  /ae  w  friends  ni  '  Stein  A'u  f  t.faefaef  then they came  lalku  A'aSq'  wit  ae?tJ"aS  en  from t h e r e .  Came  they d i d  here  Lillooet  ae*tq a?ae  we  river  they a r e w a i t i n g  w  i  k'a5?lem  pluk  en  smoke.  The o u t l e t  ti  k'em?  lfl?waetae  the L i 1looet  i  JjeqjdqtJ?ae  women  i  qeAmdemmaennae  old people.  t Jab  ts'flae  Ai f  it  there  ?tja3  seemed  ti  o f the  . tJwaeu?x river  AwailaeJ  iA  i  with  thei r c h i I d r e n  Fall  is  w  there  11/ten  ku  t Jwaeu?x a3  dluj  Awa§  kae  river  laSti  w  lfl?waet  left  Jt Jern^At fhae  mdtas also  ti?  nf  then.  Then  A'uJ  ants'ftem?J went t h a t way  78  i  ux almfx a w  w  Indians  naj  t'u  ankokt/ha  as?tu  fqalt i na  to  (proper  over  (proper  Jdi?xez  a?ttf  wft  iA  to c e l e b r a t e  have a p o t l a t c h .  wft  mdta  kl  kaA  then a g a i n  noun)  ku  some  k'ulam  They'll  fish  ?tj"8??win  k'aSxal  wit  Coho  dry  they  kiA  ?t/a1J  wit  kiA  fA  waV?  maA  will.  Come  they  will  before  they  were  la*ti  i  there  plain  tu  niA  men  when got  ki1 led  many o f  nu"k 'a  Ail  w  ta*kma  everything  *  w  temulim  other  i  tJ7x f  x ditan w  Already  niA  J"qdiqajox a w  JnfmuA  then us  there  plain us.  A'u  ta  q'diAila  the  runner.  tu  x 't u  Already  taken  J" jeqjaSqtJa?  fq omkukmi t  women  ch i l d r e n  A'u  x ?ft  i  just.  Lots  Thompson  u  noun)  Aikapmaxa Indians  w  A'sSq  min  came  to  79  tumuAaSJ  i  na$tx aej"  aeku  w  us y e s t e r d a y .  By way o f  an  wuq 'ilae  aiku  of  L i z z y Creek.  That  w  iA  Jx aza$?J" w  prepared  dit  ti  an  the  tu?  UAaV? fasti  they d i d  the o t h e r  people  AaSk  wftaej"  ni  went  they.  Then  k'aja§n?ka3  dluj  ki  lfl?waeta3  braves  come  the  Lillooet  is  A'u  ?mj"?di  Jajft)  (proper noun-name o f m e d i c i n e man)  (proper noun-name o f  Jwaet  keeptan  pa'I  naej  anyone  captain  Paul  going  i  J*nuq ndq ae w  w  friends  k fnasj  f  has  ni  theirs.  iA  How many days  was  then meet  an  ts'ftma  the oncoming  t h i s way  waited.  nftaej"  iA  them  A i kaSpmaxae to  them  .fk'afl?mf  pazaen  as?t JaSunae  nftaej  help  Then  k'ae  i  w  A'u  Jq'it  w  ridq 'a3n  Thompson.  asts'xan I  saw  prophet)  80  Akaen  ni?  tJ7x  Akaen  w  that.  I went  Jq a6tJitJ  ku  ni  A'u  still  where  b a t t l e was  Aika§pmex e  nfA  J"eJ"ftx  Thompson.  It was  t/tftj"  x ' u  he s a i d , " I ' m  Akdn  Jae  snow  this  very  JiJ  k C*J*  it  fell  i  w  Jxaipae  trees  "AhJ  is  Creek'  J"  laen  It  'Battle  rrce'qae?  d  myself.  ti  .feknt'mmae  Then  i  there  A'u  la*tt??J  w  with  waS?  Creek'  named  i  .f?t nt J  'Battle  w  k'ae  a5?ku  ku  wae  t.ffx aelu.f u  (proper noun-name o f  mfjen  k t f  xui  going  fix  that  it's  w  maSqae?  natnaetx  ni  night."  Snowed.  Morning  then  snow  from the  ki  q aSltJ  t.fae  branch  of  w  AiltJ  tjttxumf  hae  tjutj"  from where  camped  they.  S a i d the  I guess  going  J"ftJ"t  Ai I  w  prophet)  kten  maiqae?  Ia6k 'ae  Already  tl  A'aeqmi ntumel em here to g i v e  us."  we? "Go  the  ti  meA  A'u  nuk ae w  other  Au  ahead and  81  yut  kux  kafnem  sleep.""What  kiA  A'u  waS?  ael  k ffq w  a r e you doing?""Snow  "We are here  p'aSnt  win  ke  drops  11  tj'ae  A'fq  still  here  shelter.  k IJ  Come back then  (name o f prophet)  went  i  Ja  w  friends  el  his.  ?tri  Jwa  Over t h e r e  she  i  aj  little  el  children  tf  to g e t . "  That  J"t8X  w?ae  weapon  tJ*  Jq all? w  w  aj"  in  "Over t h e r e  she  is  woman.  ?td  ?td  laSta  fwa  k i J"  qdix  w  aj"  Aif  fx a  w  w  man  is  A'aq  min  come  us  A'e  kaSt 11  had no  on person  fx a  ku?J  Jx fk'ten  Jx dz  not even  a  knife  no  w  w  naj"  J i j d q t J" ?a  wa?  where  i  they a r e  w  drops."  J*wa  over t h e r e  timuA^Ja  w  told  over t h e r e . There  Jqamqcqm i t a  k fq ae  ?tti  el  is  tJ7x  snowing."  in  w  Only  w  a I  maSqa?  it's  tjuq  w  Jejftx  Jnokndk 'a3  we  w  w  82  t/it/Llk a3  A'u  tj.a  just only  that  he c o u l d t e l l  w  fA the  (](\  ni  morning  w  mfnem  i  zaSune  with f o r c e  them  these.  k ' l lainnintj  kailaep  A'u  L i s t e n to me  you j u s t . "  nftaej"  i  they d i d  the one a s l e e p  A'aik  k aen  Kept on t a k i n g  i  also  children  wa  Already  it  A'u  hae  Jaq i j d q t  is  daybreak.  tJfx  w  check  Ja?ae  i  Awae?  iA  they.  There  was  trias  tju  f  has  There a r e  Jtu  fA  x ait w  t h e i r . A l r e a d y when  wit  Afkin  nftaj  women.  laen  iA  going  when  them.  ui  ml?ax  iA  killed  i  X  ahead  plain  min  they d i d  tjurreel?tf  "Go  kinaSkas  nftaaJ  ^  u  Then  x^it  w  mijtae  nf  Aae  Coming  x'  said,  kfnaekae  A'u  the f u t u r e .  Jt Jut J  A'u  then  wa  tMJ  tjfx aeluj  did  qdqijit  tuae  ki I  ?f  scout  the one command them*  to  83  nf  A'u  J  tjurum  Then  J  fnuwae  someone s a i d ,  zfitan  I aSpae  did  " A r e you  J? t n t .fae  you?"  "I  . hae  ni  am."  Ai J  t.fae  the reason  A'u  J"  his  tjen  nftaj  \M\  the  weapon  his  said  to him,  "There  A's  ti  kifa&n?kae  ni  then  the  brave.  Then a g a i n s t  Jxapae  xu?  yaeA'  on the  tree.  Going  xftaej  to defend  tjaeunss  w  the  chief  tI  lfl?waBtae  Shoot  then  o v e r here  A'u?ae  alti  ta§x ®tj  tjae  ka  just  from  chest  his.  It  ka  Lillooet people.lt  stay."  J  Jae his.  ta§x  WaB  hung  k'ftta stuck  w  tax flx  Jkukpi  iA  w  i  A'u  ti  qujim  fwa?aex you  fA  Jlti  xit'taef  Then took  Ja  Appeared  happening  w  tdxa3tj  Auxwae  the  k a£n  ti  kaA  ts'fla  aSti (having  only penetrated a l i t t l e  i n t o the s h i e l d )  there  8k  i  quJmeSltJae  was  A'u  arrows  still  x e j x f Jaenae?  tjut  smiling.  Said  w  w  k ij  kae  t33x ae  we?  it  hung.  He was  w  Jefftx  w  k itk i't.f  quxit  "Throat h i s .  Shoot  w  the one  en  w  k ttk (tj  qrijxitem  U  talkem  JwaS  al t.f'ae  throat."  Shot him  then  all  them  there  w  w  qdqenae?  Jae  neck  his.  we  (throat)  8??x iA w  n  k'ae?  under  to be a b l e t o  dz for  then.  he  woven  t h i c k buckskin  there  fell  power  his  A'aeqae  fA  aef  keAuJfts'ae  kae  q'emfnnem  xelxel  ti  k ij w  A'uJ  fai  eSti  not  ef  he had  tjA'fpJ  If  fa*  Then  ti  There was  kiA  j  of  Jae  kiA  q'ep'  paftfaeTce  sticks  k ij  dz  w  so that no  ku  k aefmiltj w  go through the  arrows.  Jaejftx  k ij  xlmf  ts'flae  (proper noun)  that  right  away  w  85  k if  a§tsxen  na?J  saw  that was  xitftaj"  k'a?  w  JezaSm  he d i d  q&qena  .fa  nf  on h i s  throat  his  then  aA  died.  A l r e a d y they postponed  Thompson  t/fx  w  Went  Shot  a 11 f*  Ian  Aikaipmixa  quf  that the way he was.  zuqf  i  t s ' f las  aet I  A'aSlu  Ian  wft  aA  A'u  f  taeVam  a l r e a d y they a l l  zuq  we  ke  f 1 ae I  died.  There  was  crying  ats'xan  nftaj"  wa?  saw  they d i d  was  en  J"q <5q mi t a  ku a  w  w  child.  ts'a§lok  aet i  wrapped  with  q oq entfts'a  U?kdne  i l ta  zuwae*lts?a  Jaxapa  fur coat.  Where  in  hollow  tree  w  w  a6ku  ku?  k'a  there  I guess  JquA'aJ" hid it  the  t i JqcSqmita child  ents'ailk wrapped  al t f  q aq ant f t s ' a  q aSn  JtwfteJ  in  fur coat.  They o b t a i n  f o r t h e i r own  w  w  w  t i the  86  laSti  Jq (5q mitae  qWaan  fA  tu  there  child.  They got  the  zuq  JtwftaeJ*  nf  him.  Then  u  w  kill  w  JkakaSu?/  AiAj  you  from  t/fx  w  "Reach  A'u  Ail  Jt/dnim  kmkaSn  said  "How  to him,  A'u  r  t.fix  k i.f w  did  ,fu  w  reach  you?"  Akaen  Jx^P !  tj(5t  ku  aet I  At.fijq ffiJ  I will  when n i g h t , "  said  he.  "That  is  33  this  that  J"nuqni5qae  friends  to be  they  then  of  J"  commander.No  here  M\  km  A'u  ni  ts'fls  i  dz  tf'aSunaj  k if w  kOlae  happening  laip?s  aet i  your.  That  xmsSnam  il  enemies  with  p lain  wa?  Already  t h e r e are  i  wi f  Jaem?ae  w h i t e men  k t J"  zfitan  w  w  the end  JaS 1 aep  you d i d  At f>jq a3 J  k Haep  the end  wanting  w  w  is  nfmuA  ux aelmfx  us  Indian p e o p l e .  w  w  niA  iz  wa  those  are  ones  87  xam3?n?mi njsS  tjijnim  l33p  fight you,"  twae  said  wae"?ae  tjuk  remained  nii  only  A'uJ  Then  to him.  A'u  ti  the  home.  Do  I  that  or t h i r t y  twenty-five or t h i r t y  'Battle Battle  w  ux ael  go home.  He went  w  a&ts'xan  kinkaSnaJ  see.  It  is  kaSAt I  laSti  miles  from  here  reached  ti  ux 33lmfx a  tjix  the  Indian p e o p l e .  Got  he  Jnuk  W )  friend  k'aSti  miles'  aiku  Jtjfx«f  w  AkaSAae  w  estimated  before  k'a  hae  u?x ael?J  Creek  Went  at  k ij  niA  Jae  aet i  only  Creek'  jA'aek  A'u"  One  their.  that  ti  tf  leader  they asked him  Akan  A'u  nf  fA  wae?  pasplae*  f ki laiq ft en  JkiJnaS mm  fA  'twenty-five  ku  over  k'ae  over guess  w  that  'Fraser  River'  Fraser  River.  to the  w  ku  ae*ti  there  Aaek u  xaiA  from t h e r e ,  Hard  w  88  tj?intj  t.fx dz  f o r my because  I don't  tjae  w  k'e  X'J'  Akaan  his  I am going  k Uexl35x  J^n  fk aetft f  remember  now  name  w  w  ,fq allen  tumuA  en  tell  you  sometime  w  kai?a3 f  tdim  JwaStiJ"  prinen  k ij  k aitjitj'  ti  who i t was  when I f i n d  his  name  the past  w  J"ntfk ae  AkaiAae  AaSku  wai?  friends  ours  there.  Still  w  kafAlae  en  ours  just  i  ts'flae like  Jk alt J i t /  f  w  names  tJ7x  w  wi.f  hae  theirs  ku  JA  Got t h e r e  w  A'u  ni  aSnltaJ  i  have they  names  nfmuA  waS?  u?aSnim  us  still  we have  kiA  k'aen  .fk^t.fitj  nuk 'a5u?.f w  must we  friends.  wel  k'elem  ti  q eltinae  teq  was  making  the  cooking s t i c k s  the  w  qeAmfmnae  niA  J"?ulxJ"  wae?  tsemq'lnaej'  ti  o l d man.  Then  went i t  he was  sharpening  the  q 's§ I tenaa  A'aeq  kaex  "Come  you,"  w  cooking s t i c k s .  kaax"  alpae  you  c l o s e f r i e n d . " "Come  xdit  A'aiq  tu  Died  t/unim  w  said  ku  A'aSq  to him.  kaen  t Ju  I did  just  "Come  A'u  (nt.f me.  niA  Jt/maSaeltJ"  ka5?Aae  a1?hin  was?  the  children  our.  See  do  Akin  tjrfn  tjln  dz  kek  t/un  tfin  I  say  to y o u .  No  would  say  to you  aSrree  mftjaeq  good." " S i t  aex  u  you."  down  nalj  maeA  lalti  el  better  there.  Right here  xftem  Gave him  q'aSlqtfae  aej  the  chair  near  q'eAmC'mnae  we  kslim  ti  q 'aS 111 naa  o l d man  still  making  the  o l d man.  mfifnae/te Put f i n i s h i n g  touches on  Jmftjasq  t/'ae  ti  A'u  sit  Aae?  down  ael  ti  by  the  w  q'aeAmSBmnae  ti  q 'aSltinae  o l d man  the  cooking  w  sticks  90  Jae  ts'fmts'ammaqj  wa  iA  his  r e a l l y sharp.  Was  there  aSpae  x  u  Akaex  ka  you  must  w  f I ae I crying.  A'u  an  pdlltn  "Close  friend  niA  an  J"tJ*amaSl?ta  tjunim  ku  ?fA  those  my  children,"  said  he  then.  nf  A'uJ  Then he  going  lati  punished f o r the sake o f  t/aqaA  mfx naj  ati  q '^ltana  stabbed  i n t h r o a t him  by the  o l d man.  w  w  k ij  ts'flaj  A'u  xalxalx  ta  q'aAmt'mna  Amount  just  able  strength  the  o l d man  w  tJa&qaA  max naj  ?tu  qfA  stabbed  in t h r o a t  him.  Almost  A'uaSk  w  kil  went r i g h t  waf Ja through  nf die.  Then  A'u  his  ni body.  J  t^kam  did  all  A'u  A'u  ka did  J  Finished  ('die  lati.f there  i 1  understood)  ('people'  understood).  91  nf A  ti  .f?alut  That one  dl  last  AkaSAae  tux  iz  our  real  those  wa  wfna3x itj  do  speak same  A'u  .fikxaSl  Aaku  Ail  fnuk'nu^'aa  fight  there  from  friends  J"nuk'ndk 'ae  AkasA  taq'A  friends  our.  Almost  w  w  language  A'u  A'u  wft  wij"  nfmuA  Akunjae  they  as  us  now.  ts'flaj  Akae*A  ku  .fq a*zaezuf  iA  Just  like  me  as  brothers  including  nfA  ti  an  Jqdq i I  Jsewin  ?tJaS?laap  alt/'aSunae  That  is  my  story  asked me  you d i d  here  w  w  taekrrcet all.  Jq aq almfnaen  ku  ?a$?ut  A'aeq  mfn  tdmuAasf  speak about  of  last  come  to us  fight.  u  w  niA  iz  an  Jnuq ndq a3  AkalAae  aSut  A'aeq  Those  are  my  friends  our  last  came  mintdmuA to us  aej  w  w  astj'^unae  lfl?waetae  dz  here  Mt.  Not  Currie.  A'u  k £f w  kae do  q aSlae  ku  Jx dkoko?  AkaSA  wiA  kae  hurt  the  feelings  our  are  just  ij  quq ae|  w  A'u  waS?  w  w  still  J  story  AkaeA  i  Af?  us  long  ts'flae  k ij  just  doing  w  Jeq ez(zewCJ brothers  including  Jae  just  is  as  J  zfiten doings  naej  Akunjae  plaS n  az  ago.  Now  already  no happen  zfiten  iA  w  ts'flae  AkaeA  tjdk  A'u  JkaSAae  us j u s t  taSkmae us a l l .  ae"t i  that  n(A  ti  in  fnuqnuq ae  That  is  my  friends  w  en  Jq uq elt  JaSunae  tjaelim  A'u  aeA  my  story  asked  me  what  happened  w  el?ta5?nreej  w  ts'flae  k ij w  like  zfiten  ku  ?aSut  iii  happen  of  last  only  ts'flae  A'aeq  mintumulum  nfA  i  just  came  to u s .  Those  friends  like  kaSnmaet  fnuqnuq ae w  k i J w  AkaSAae  niA  ti  ours.  That is  Jq 5qlU  tumuAaen  J?il?aelqJ  story  to you  my c l o s e  w  J"?(ntJ"tn  tjinamqan  I am  Chinemqen.  friends.  THE LAST RAID OF THE THOMPSON INDIANS  This  is my s t o r y o f the f i n a l  fight  between us and the  Thompson people who were f o r m e r l y our f r i e n d s . Thompson  Indians  Still,  t h e r e were bad-tempered p e o p l e .  They were  t o l d so by our f r i e n d from here who was over t h e r e . my dear f r i e n d s .  those  "Stop  it  Look, the young men and I a r e going to b r i n g  back a n y t h i n g we can get from the c r e e k s i d e , from Mt. C u r r i e , any o f the good t h i n g s It  isn't  who s a i d  good t h a t it.  - the c h i l d r e n , the g i r l s ,  I seem to be your enemy."  I don't  a l l o f them.  (He is the one  remember h i s name but he s t a y e d w i t h  Stein.) "Oh," said  the b r a v e s .  " I ' m going t o take the young men and we are g o i n g t o g o . " Then S t e i n  took h i s f r i e n d s over a mountain and they came  from t h e r e t o h e r e .  At the L i l l o o e t R i v e r they w a i t e d ,  seems, where t h e r e was smoke. River  they l e f t  people. The  it  At the o u t l e t o f the L i l l o o e t  the women w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n and a l s o  the o l d  It was Autumn t h e n . Indians from Mt. C u r r i e had planned to go that way t o  Enkwekchha above S h q a t i n a  to c e l e b r a t e w i t h a p o t l a t c h .  f i s h e d a g a i n f o r coho and d r i e d i t .  They  B e f o r e they got t h e r e the  Thompson men a r r i v e d and had a l r e a d y k i l l e d many o f us when the runner came.  Already  they had taken o t h e r s ,  then our women and  95  children, just t h a t day. That  is  everything.  Lots o f Thompson came to r a i d  They went by way o f  the way  the o t h e r people o f  prepared f o r  the coming o f  medicine man, the p r o p h e t , e v e r y o n e , C a p t a i n f r i e n d s who were g o i n g to h e l p them. time they met them coming  I saw t h a t .  I went  p r e d i c t e d the f u t u r e ,  It of  In  Paul, a l l  It  is  still  the Thompson.  their After  named  Battle  The p r o p h e t , who  said:  the morning  very  night."  the snow f e l l  the t r e e s where they were camped.  from the  branches  The Thompson s a i d ,  guess they a r e h e r e to g i v e something "Go ahead and  Lillooet  t h i s way to the Thompson.  g o i n g to make i t snow t h i s  snowed.  the  Then they w a i t e d .  there myself.  Creek where the b a t t l e was w i t h  "I'm  L i z z y Creek.  they went.  Then the braves  a long  us  to  "Ah 1 I  us."  sleep."  "What are you d o i n g ? " "The snow is  falling.  "We are here s t i l l . "But  it  keeps  It's Here is  snowing." shelter."  snowing."  Then the prophet went back and t o l d h i s t h e r e a r e the women. children are.  They a r e over  They are come to get  any weapon on h i s  friends.  there where the us."  "Over little  That man d i d not  p e r s o n , no not even a k n i f e .  His o n l y  have  weapon  96  was  t h a t he c o u l d t e l l  he s a i d  the f u t u r e .  to go ahead and h i t  i t was daybreak.  The morning was coming,  the Thompson w i t h f o r c e .  " J u s t you l i s t e n  Already  to me," he s a i d .  Then they went and found the braves who were a s l e e p , they k i l l e d them. their children. scout  They took back the women.  and also  When they d i d these t h i n g s t h e r e was a l s o a  " A r e you the cause o f  these  Someone  said,  events?"  am," he s a i d .  Then they took h i s weapon and s a i d Then a brave appeared.  to him, "You s t a y  He was going  to defend h i s  the L i l l o o e t people shot a t him over t h e r e . hung from h i s kept s m i l i n g . shoot h i s he  There were  t h e r e , the one who commanded the r a i d e r s .  "I  and  chest.  They s t u c k  there.  Then the prophet S h e s h i t k h  throat."  All  there!"  chief.  The arrows  Still said,  Then  just  they hung. "His  He  throat,  o f them shot him in the t h r o a t .  Then  fell. The power he had was  b u c k s k i n so t h a t  that o f woven s t i c k s  the arrows were not a b l e to go through  i t had not been f o r  the prophet who r i g h t  t h i s way nobody would have known. then he d i e d .  After this  delay a l l  There was a baby c r y i n g . coat.  under h i s  away saw that  He was shot  thick it. it  was  i n the t h r o a t  and  the Thompson were now dead.  They found i t wrapped i n a f u r  I guess the c h i l d had been wrapped up in a f u r coat  then hidden t h e r e i n a h o l l o w t r e e . themselves.  If  They kept the c h i l d  and  for  97  They kept the commander and d i d not k i l l said  t o him, "How do you t h i n k y o u ' l l "I'll  us  Indian p e o p l e .  is  got  remember h i s  name now.  who i t was when I f i n d h i s there.  It  is e s t i m a t e d to be  I'm  It's  hard f o r me because  going to t e l l  you sometime  name from some former f r i e n d s  They must s t i l l  remember t h e i r s  remember our names j u s t  that were our  friends.  When he went in he was s h a r p e n i n g have come," he s a i d  have r e t u r n e d .  children, bad  to him.  have d i e d .  Just I saw  of  as we s t i l l  When he a r r i v e d the o l d man was making c o o k i n g  "I  across  He went away from us L i l l o o e t people and  t h e r e w i t h the h e l p o f a f r i e n d .  I don't  ours  I saw t h a t .  Only  Then they t o l d him  from h e r e , b e f o r e you reach B a t t l e C r e e k ,  the F r a s e r R i v e r .  those  Thus they spoke to him.  Only t h e i r l e a d e r .  He went home.  25 - 30 m i l e s  to be enemies w i t h  A l r e a d y t h e r e a r e many w h i t e men, and  them remained.  to go home.  s a i d he.  the end o f wanting  are the ones you s h o u l d f i g h t . " one of  Then they  get away from h e r e ? "  get away when n i g h t f a l l s , "  They answered, " T h i s  him.  sticks.  the cooking s t i c k s .  "You  "You have come, dear f r i e n d . " I alone.  The o t h e r o n e s , our  i t happen, I t e l l  you.  It  was a  business." "You'd better s i t  down r i g h t  here.  You s i t  down,"  the o l d man and gave him the c h a i r t h a t was nearby.  said  The o l d  98  man was p u t t i n g sticks  the f i n i s h i n g  and i t was  "I  was  really  touches  to one o f h i s  cooking  sharp.  t h e r e when you were u r g i n g your f r i e n d s t o go,  and  you must be punished f o r the sake o f those my dead c h i l d r e n , " he s a i d . Then he was stabbed j u s t enough s t r e n g t h his  body.  It was  raiders died.  to do i t .  That was  the l a s t  nothing  is j u s t  like this  the l a s t  fight  That is  am En Chinemqen.  l i k e me.  a n c e s t o r s who l a s t  You do not h u r t our long ago.  is my s t o r y .  r a i d was made on us.  the s t o r y  the  that you asked me t o  happens anymore; we a r e a l l  last  the  t h e r e was w i t h our  a s t o r y o f events  My f r i e n d s , t h a t  happened when that  Thus a l l  are b r o t h e r s j u s t  Currie.  through  Now they speak almost  Those were my f r i e n d s '  - this  b r o t h e r s do.  of ours.  All  is my s t o r y o f  to r a i d us here a t Mt. by a s k i n g  almost went r i g h t  fight  friends.  same language as we do.  speak about.  It  f i n i s h e d t h e r e and he d i e d .  f r i e n d s , w i t h our r e a l  That  in the t h r o a t by the o l d man who had  came  feelings Now  doing j u s t  as  You asked me what Those were f r i e n d s  t o l d f o r you my dear f r i e n d s .  I  99  HOW C H I E F HUNTER  JACK OVERCAME  THE CHILCOTIN  INDIANS  SINGLEHANDED  an  Jnuqnu"q ae  xrii  Akan  Jqaqalm  tumuA  My  friends  going  I am  tell  folks  w  Jzfitan  Jae  doing  his  AU  alt/'aS  ank<5kti?  (proper  an  ts'tfts'p'ae  my  uncle  kukpiae chief  wa  t/iin  ni taej  D'Arcy.  They  call  him  w  J"wi*tae  noun)  ni  ank 'a?tk ae w  from here  wa  an  you  what  is  his  name  'Chief  Hunter  Jack'  niA  Chief  Hunter  Jack  that  ti  an  ts'C*ts'p'ae?  niA  t i  t/'aq'JtaSli  was  my  uncle.  He  was  tamed  i  p i JxaSxanaema  Williams  Lake  A'u  pCplae  Ji5t  himself  only.  JqaViqarreeA  A i J wae?  paept  p3ex  kills  live  always.  Hunt  did  A i l k'u From  em  q'um  laeku  trap  there  100  Jqemma  tfa  fA  k'u  Jtitik  xem  A'u  at k i l l s .  This  new  very  winter  right  away  k t J  rnafqa?//  dz  it  snowed.  No (he)  w  kaeti  waS?  ku  xtim  around somebody.  knaej"  Ji/  A'u  w  if  w  J" p l u j  kiA  deep  xrit/in  if  ti  maSq?a  ni  the  snow.  Then  A'ail  t h e r e was no stop  ke  that  was  ti  maq?a  the  snow  Jq dxt  pSe?la.f  feet  one  w  A'u  ten/  k if  walking  person w i t h  w  ts'uts'exel snowshoes  ku  ix 33  ts'dts'exel  wa5?a  x iA  ka  and  without  snowshoes.  There  was  guess  w  laSti  i  t J i I i ktJt t na  there  (proper noun)  wal?  f  k a*tim w  k i.f w  know  four  JkL?rTnJ  A'u  A'uk  na/  maybe  snowfall  fx aj"  zwit  w  Right away  k'a  three  k ij  w  we  q'um  wi A  were  t r a p p i ng they  ki for  JqalaSwae  ni  water  animals  then  k ij  Jtf?amJ  ti  melt  that  w  A'uJ  ku  A M I-If  dz  stopped.  No d i d  unmelted s n o w f a l l .  muts again  maiqae?  tifytux  snow.  More snow f e l l  nf earlier,  A'u  A'uJ  Then d i d  A'u  mutae on an  miJaSl  tji  built  they  k'ulum  wit  ti  q aet JsSlt Jae  laeti  made  they  the  hut made o f branches  there  puwaeta  xazaSm  (proper noun)  somewhat  x ?it  laeti  lots  there  u  i  w  l a r g e but not huge  tiku  t Jt laSA  that  lake  JwaSulaemmae  aeti  k'ae?  aA  fish.  There  guess  they  tjfx itaej  kulim  ti  q a l t Ja§lt Jae  A'llpaeA  went  made  the  branch h u t .  Quietens  w  ts'flae  Jaziitn  down  happened  Jae  w  ti  tmfx ae  wae  iA  the  ground.  He  had  w  102  Jtsax&in  was  q'um  a private place for trapping  he  had  tj"ix  w  Went  aet i  puWtas  nf  to  (proper noun)  then  ti  Jp\6k &  dz  the  small.  No d i d  kaiti  ku  around  someone.  u  waelaSti It  is  there  'family' family  wsS?  k t J  en  w  nf  J"  Then  k i J"  we  w  was  A'aikf  tj"ix  went,  Arrived.  w  t i  xezume  q'as I t / s l t J  k 'fnuj  the  big  branch h u t .  How many needed  t  11 k u t i nas  laiti  f  there  (proper noun)  mm  JenfA  grandmother  saw  him  himself  then  past  saw  JuteenwasJ"  asts'xen  J  Jaitsxen  he t h i n k  A'u  Jack'  Hunter J a c k .  A'u  q'amazae  ni  'Hunter  uAuf  ftu  went back i n .  dz Not  A'u  w  k'as  was?  uts'q'aS t i  there.  Come out  nil  J"  iA'uxJsem?/ screamed  xfnj  uts'q'as  long  come out  103  ti  qeAmi'mnaeJ"  Jqdix  the  old  man  J"  w  All  lalku?  ni  JxaStae  from  there.  Then  lift  ts'ets'aex  utsqae  (proper noun)  came out  nsj up r i f l e  in a g e s t u r e o f  friendship  ti  en  ts'its'p'aS  ti  tfix'stj  jae  we  the  my  grand-uncle  the  weapon  his  we  t/tinnim  Jwiilumfnq'  call  (sort o f weapon).  rreSq?ae  nij"  snow  they d i d go towards  i  t/ilikdtanae  (proper noun).  kaSj  Then  t/ut  dz  Said,  "No  twael  do a n y t h i n g  nf  ts'item  A'u  J  to each o t h e r  kit  enalj  il  ti  Pierced  did  in  the  mfnaej"  ae I  them  where  k t / w  huz  kaeA  to  us  A'u  t/'aSunae was  kaeA  huz  going  to  nuq 'aSuJ w  be f r i e n d s . "  qanfmtf  tuwij"  ts'ets'aex  l^n  J"  understood  one c a l l e d  (proper noun)  already  ka*  A'u  we  must  Jkul  studied  mfnajti  en  kai  himself  some  ?ae J  ti  where  the  tjinrfktjae  q elq elUt  Jtwal  wit  Iit I  Chinook.  Talked  between  did  there.  jA'aSq  mlnum  I ux  someone came  f o r him.  Brought  w  q 111Ja§ftJ*  wa5?  branch h u t .  Was  w  Ait J  11  t J'ai  piled  there  lafti  four  there  ni  shoot.  Then  Jtilm  lalku  xezumae  to  the  big  him  sitting  kil?aSnkJas  A'u  i  Then  ti  Jmltjiq  in there  ni  aiku  i  f r o n t her  Xaxutjin  qiUJim  w  ti  Jteqtja  down the  women  q aJmaMt Ja  en  weapons.  Was  w  Jqdiqix a  we  Jk fl  k ij  men  were  ready  to  w  w  jA'a?lan  naj  ts'ets'alx  stopped  then  (proper  noun)  i JnuV'ae  Ja  qalut  JaeJ  iz  qalut  friends  his.  Talked  him  them  talked  w  w  w  Jaef him  A'  105  t j i I ikiJtnitJ in C h i l c o t i n  q aliJt  JaaJ  ti  kukpija  Talked  him  the  their chief  w  language.  tjindk itj  wa?  in Chinook.  The was  w  axwfA  kaA  mfj"  aku  a s e c r e t escape f i x e d at  kijamqdltj"  tJa  back o f house.  Were g o i n g  A>4k  x el w  At J  ati  when  that  wfnax is  same  ku  Jezflten  k ij"  xulil  wit  x H  that  happens  able  escape  them.  Escaped  u  u  tu  w  laHi  JtqJfaqtJeTA  Jk'umk'uk'mita  xuli  wit  aku?  there  women  ch i 1 d r e n  escaped  they  from  kfjma  x(n  A'u  back.  Long  into  ku  Jft/t  AiA  xaAxaSA  wit  night  before  willing  they  fA  k i J  t/aSf  tJaSJ"  then  to  come  come.  w  1  nf  A'u  Then  laStl  t.f  there  where  XiSit  taj  k m  kfkti  uIu/  ki  slept  the  one  (proper noun)  with  the  w  106  pa/x^X  9nrrBB  w f f i  (proper noun).  ^  q aelq ael t*lt w  Still  talking  ts'ets'aex  kinkain  (proper noun)  how long guess  dz  ku  him?  A'uk  w  No d i d n ' t a b l e  wit  w  naej  them  k'ai  A'u  k e  Jftjt  into  night.  x^'tj*  ti  kupiae  dz  slept  the  chief  no.  k ij  xaSA'min  naef  No  didn't  want  to be a b l e  t j i I ikutenae  k if w  pjfl  niA  Morning  then  f  and  w  az  w  mutae  A'u  x^'t  pa5q emin  sleep  a f r a i d of  w  raj  i  he was  Chilcotin.  xu*i  naef  ku  paSplae  "Going  he is  the  one from  AiJ  m?a1n?wejej  aiku  tj'tx a3  we  maybe  two o f you  to  house.  Able  A'aeqa  niA  JaxaSpaef  ku  naSJ  niA  iA  come back  before  nightfall  the  one.  Then  did  u/nfmuA  f  tjutf he s a i d  Ail  w  Jam  nulaSp  among  you  A'u  ka?  folks  107  A'aekJ  UXHBI  tjix  go  home.  Arrived  w  ?3$ti  t Juwaejae  t.fitx  at  his  house  uimi (n)  naej"  i  gave  he d i d  (proper noun)  i  qaAlijiUhae  big  fishing  kt las  iA  ki J*  /wait  w  good  feeling  him.  ku  A'u  Just  as  has  ki  qaqaeqA'axae  some  small  Jt1kae  Japlfn  salt  sugar  flour  w  t/ae?x  they had.  w  mfnitasj*  Happy  greatful  tjiitj  ti  qaAmaSmnae  dz  Said  the  o l d man,  "Never a g a i n  qalflmin  twall  going  fight  amongst from  k iA w  if  hooks  'salt'  hu?  anyone  tjdk  nets  Jx a§kuki  tprinae  towards  Jaxaina  fooks  ?a?rree  really  p/x^xreerrBB  own  w  kaeA  fA  we a r e now  Ail  k'ae  A'u  J"  mutae  nfmuA us.  ts'flae  ku  Jeq ez(zwif  like  as  brothers.  gll  JkabXae  paiqu  mfn  twael  Bad  because we a r e  afraid  o f each o t h e r  w  A'u  AkaeA  A'u  r e a l l y we a r e  108  ts'flae  wae  x aJ"tJent J" t  k 'a?ih  kukjtum  like  are  t r y i n g hard  see  thank you f o r  muA  kaix  u  u  what you have done f o r us.  wae?  w  u  niA  mutae  Aast  If  again  we  enwat^nwaej  A'u  tj"rfk  k i f w  no l o n g e r any doubt about f r i e n d s h i p .  Just  tja6?x  pizS&n  tarn  meet  you  min  w  be happy  taem  with  AkaSlaep  At J"  you f o l k s when  AkaSlaep  Ai I  JwaftaeJ  Ail  folks  from  now  from  fxftx maef  i  spent w i n t e r  Williams  laSfU J" there  A'u  A'u is  zwaStan  w  J"  that  tJ*'aSunae  n  here."  p i JyaSxnaemae Lake.  Akalafp  Do  you  twae  know  the one  (proper noun)  the one they  'Gun Lake'  x ?ft  i  Many  any  Gun Lake?  w  fish  u  wa?  ptfwaet  J"ts'C*ts'q azffl  ^> r  Then  tua  w  f  (we)  tj'fntaej" call  Jwaeu laSmae smal1 type o f  fish.  109  xatq  aSnitaeJ  jVmaeltJe  nf  Make  h o l e they  ice  then  wa?  wftaej"  niA  stayed  there  those  A'u  an  'till  aA  fz  were  eating  they  spring.  Finished  Then s p r i n g  w  then home  lalti  ni  A'u  that  then  fA  k  w  u J L  q  >  j  u m  |gg  trapping  wit  .f  there  nftaef  k  u*x ael  last I  ts'aeq ae  tj*u w  an  J  wae  ilts'q'se?  an?uts'qae?  A'u  tu  fA  tI  there.  JwaSt .f  d i d go t h e n .  After  AiJ"  laiti  x ael  do  from  go o v e r a mountain  w  p'a5?lk  wit  A'alq  wit  a?ti  kiwa  ux aelm?x ae  wij  they.  Arrived  they  are  with  Indians  with  tj*ftx  w  houses  w  w  Aa?uja  laiti  t / t lalAaa  <et?u  JaSA'a?  f a c i n g near  the  river  over  (proper  laiti  iA  Jxuz  ae/  tjaq'  mfnitaej"  There  then  really  did  no longer a f r a i d o f each o t h e r  noun).  110  i  /A'aeA' i ju*mx ae w  Williams  Lake.  /wait  ni  people.  That is  A'u  tjukf  fA  JpaiquJ"  ku  ta&kam  Finished  then  afraid  the  all  f  'Hunter Jack' Hunter J a c k .  zfitenj"  ti  kukpijae  doings  the  their chief  A'aSl  laen  Stopped  he d i d  paSqu  ku  taikem  /wait  afraid  that  everybody.  rcej*  nfA  ti  That  is  ts'flae  k iJ  like  able  w  f  zfitonf  what d i d the my  ts'its'paiu  wae  AkaSlaep  zwalton  nf  uncle  do  you  know  the v e r y  laX'^X  &z  smart.  Not  klflae  kael  A'u  really  I guess  k W l  J*  ku  fqdix  ts'flae  t.fae  like  as  aeki  Jaem?ae  k if  k izfin?xum  said  by  w h i t e man  that  jealous  x ?az  ts'flae  no.  Like j u s t  w  A'u  aSti that  w  f  w  man  tjunim about him  nin  w  zfiten  Jae  I if  what d i d  he  when  Ill  piinaef  laSku  found  over t h e r e  A'uael  laan  Stopped  i  gold  i  they d i d  w h i t e men  tjuk  Chinamen.  i  Only j u s t  aiku  licence  to  laSku  il  there  at  J*sSm?ae  A'u  'licence'  some  33  nftej  tJaSnminae  ku  gold  I  river.  dz  that  no go  u  Jairrtfae  will  get  to go  naf  w  'Bridge  River'  hae  Bridge  River  to  q eq ema3  q ' d i Ix  i  (proper noun).  Escaped  other  wit  A'u  aSti  Jxdltae  they  just  at  (proper  noun)  plain  Jwae  p/fl  mB?tq  wit  tsSkem  already  i t was  morning.  Walked  they  all  w  w  tinem  wit  them  fft ni ght  J"  nuk a  w  kae*m  res/  w  k i J  x ez w  k ij able  u  k ij"  w h i t e men  (be)  t.fwalu?x 33  w  t/sSnmin  A'aSq  Chinamen.  Arrived  ni  te  Jazalxin  the  pack on back  J"  they  caught up  w  J"  pezaSn  wftaej"  k U lae  they  really  xamaink  J"x fp?iA  heavy.  Dogmatic  i  u  J"am?a  p'aent  J  white man  brought  taSnem  wit  them  atu"  Iflwote  qaSnem  ti  kukpi?a  k t f  \(A  over to  Lillooet.  Heard  the  chief their  that  did  turn  a?ti  them  that way  nf  A'u  J  Then  mitt I  i  and  zfitm  J"  i  w  t Jalnami nae  tjfx aj  atu  tduna  Chinamen.  He went  to  town.  w  q alut  jaj*  la&ti  talked  to  there  w  plf/mena  dz  policemen.  "Don't  twftaj*  i  do  to the  kmkanaj"  ku  how  from f a r  kakaiu? J"  k ij  i  'judge' judge  ts'fla  w  aSt i  do l i k e  muzmit  dz  one  poor.  No j u s t  ku  tj'aji  from came  ts'fla  ktfka  nuk a  like  could  help  w  J"  tanam  wft  them by us  k i.f w  that  wa  Ail  a  a/a  A'u  k i f w  zuat  know  iz  dz  them.  No  al here  A'u  tj'a&unal  113  tjas  ?fx a  wit  w  because have no  they have  ndk 33n  t Jtlt  witas  help  themselves.  w  JtaSm  wit  they  nuk'nak 'ae  11  mij  A'u  A'u  wal?  if  A'ael  are  stopped  abkl  Jairrtfae  xaeA'  min  by  w h i t e man.  Want  I do  no  d o n ' t do a n y t h i n g  w  kaSftJ"  i  t/aSnminae  ts'flas  A'u  ask f o r  same  as y o u r s e l v e s  k t J  Ajnu  dz  more  not more than your f e e . "  w  p'alx"  zfitonj  ti  kukpijae  nf  did  the  chief.  Then  k ij w  that  If  laep  x ?ft  AkaSn  Awae?  Chinamen.  X^A'min  wa  Just  Still  k aelep  w  wai  friends.  x ?az w  '  w  JaSma  ai laep  (you)  dz  going  k i f w  white man not  ts'flae  ?aSti  Just  that  A'u  like  f  J  JtJutJ said  krikpija  tJaSnamm  tj"i5naej"  xui  Akffix  naSCxal  the c h i e f  Chinamen  said  "Going  you  bring  to,  w  114  ae"ku  ku  over  we  iA  ts'uxmen  k if  ts'flasj"  A'u  tool  any  size  of  sharpener  kslA  ku  xftjm  ku  11 p I d.,f  fix  you  some  board  JI ij/t J*  you a  we?  s l u i c e b o x . Do  you  use  my own  'South F o r k '  claim  over  South Fork  Akalx  at.  Use  you  w  maSqas  Awael  xftjkaex  that  one  year.  Leave  me  you  I will  ts'fla?/  sit I  way i t was  that  a?J  mi t i t  i t was w i n t e r  t.fu"?ae  q fin  paSlae  kiA  en  ae  ti  u  hi  w  k 'ez(jfem w  work  ku  q ezin  taSli  nf  to  use  them.  That  w  A'u  J"  is  Jae  iz  az  did  they  them.  No j u s t  taSm?  tfla?  AiJ  q alut  ku  anything  just  when  spoken  a  like  w  lafka  tools  zfiten  !  k'ulim make  ti  lalku  (ntjae  w  k ezen w  p&ip  k t /  Aks&V  'claim'  Jwae  ku pipe  mf I /  I will  Ju  w  A'u  k i J" w  that  115  t JaSnmi n  ts'flae  A'u  Chinaman  just  1i ke an  ku  ux aelmix w  dz A'u  w  k ij w  doesn 1  Indian  1  qaex en  nftaej"  AiJ  fnwaet  wft  t.fix  break  they  when  say a n y t h i n g  they.  Arrived  w  1  1 i me  ku  1  t i me  J  his  q utjaitj  J  that  leave  Chi namen  then  AkaSlaep  zwaStm  lalti  left.  Do  you  know  there  iA  where  panning  ts'sSuxaBl  i  'Hunter  f o r gold  nftaej"  hydraulic  call  them  ke  melqae  iA  many  years  he s t a y e d  Jae his  k ij w  'claim' claim.  Jack  1  that  iJ  he had  hydrau1i c  1  hydraulic  w5?j  AiJ  we?  1  Hunter Jack  tjun  ts'uxmin  own  nf  we  w  at  t Jag nmi ne  q etjaitj  wae?  t Jtfwae  i  w  af t i  w  k fnaef w  How  Ail  ts'fkf  iA  ti  before  finished  then  the  zaSmaeJ  A'u  Still  i t is  we  Ms'x seen  dn  the  A'u  116  aAkellaep  a I ki  pfphae  k ij  tz  qfx in  naej  you do  in the  papers  that  those  chased  by  'Hunter Jack'  k ij  Hunter J a c k .  That  k i J  w  i  kilkaSlnaeJ  w  t h a t chased them  Aim?  naej  stingy  he was  dz  aeti  Not  kae?  w  kaza?a1naej  k ij  lied  t h a t shot  tJaSnnunae  Chinamen  qamqamae  tja  kills  k ij w  that  w  u  qujitaj  Islku  Jae  over there  because  tjut  k ij  A'u  tJuWj  w  because s a i d  that  h i s own.  ts'flae  q 3$ltan  Jx a5k'k'ae  like.  Hurt my  feelings  w  them  i  w  J  aSts'xan  naena  al t i  pfphae  tae  ts'flhae  saw  this subject  i n the  paper  the  like  sSti  niA  miitae  Am  Jwe?  quq aelUt  JtumuA  that.  That  i s why  I  am  telling  you  Am  Jwae"  Jq al?lin  ttimuA  nulalp  wa  zwaStan  I am  doing  telling  you  you  who  know  w  w  117  taSli  p'a?x  w  more  qemqema Bridge  Ail  fintf  laku  oAkai  haSl?hana  than  I.  Over t h e r e  I was  born  niA River.  That  is  dz  ts'fla  k in  J"we  zwaten  not  like  have  do  know  w  kmksSnaJ"  k ij*  zfitenf  en  ts'its'pe?a  kila  what  that  was done by  my  grand-uncle  before  Ail  ttfuna  I was  f  w  born.  waj  when  tjfx  w  Ake  ha§l?halria  There  I was  born in  w  Went  J  J  qumqema Bridge  River  laSku  we  ts'a§u?xal  nin  t s ' C*ts'pe?pa  over  there  panning  deceased  my u n c l e  ndk 'a  mm  nin  en  help  him  deceased  my  w  went  tjfx  leSku  f  wit  wiJ  they  did  nfA  ti  en  That  is  my f r i e n d s  1  Cadwalader  w  J"  zfitm did  qdts'e?e father.  tikmailx  1  Cadwalader  Jnoqnijq a  J"  w  the whole  J"  family,  ni  hm  my  past  118  en  ts'i'ts'pe  we  great-uncle.  ts'flae  w  very  tffx  This  came  kaSti  ku  zwseten  k ij  kfnqj  smart  perfectionist  w  JtJaeJ  tj'ae  how  ku  ux elmix  that  Indian.  w  ux ael  dz A ' u  home  didn't  u  time come t o  make i t  kinkaSnaef  know  lex'QX  A'u  w  tu?  You do  k tJ  A'u  Akellp  A'aSqeJ*  niAj  k'ezaSkem  mfnem  here  then  k i l l e d someone  Jae  J t j i laeAae  k'ezaSkem  mfnem  other  side of  river.  Killed  someone  tjwae  a l r e a d y he was  k'u  kae  I guess  dz  k ij w  Never came  'Hunter J a c k ' Hunter Jack  tjaej  ux el  we?  tjut  q'ump  coming  home.  He  said  ten  w  maSqe  k 33*?ej  kaSku  years  remained  around  A'aeq  laSti over  Jx^t?  laSn  w  J  w  qemqemae Bridge  River.  ijx ael  tJ'aSJ  zaem  uxael  dz  home.  Coming  then  home  d i d not  w  A ' u ke  119  A'aSq  nf  tfae  make i t  J"  A'u  f  then  k'azaSke  mfnem  set i  k i l l e d him  someone.  There f o r now  tjfx aj  ku  q aqaltj  ends  the  talk  w  tumuAffin  I  w  ku  I gave you f o r  paSlae?  ijx almix  one  Indian  tumuA  ts'flae  ku  pt ta5k tA  ts'flae  aetj'^  you  like  the  folk-tale  just  as  wina6x ae w  w  J*  real  k ij  ts'flae  that  like  w  twftaj they d i d  i  w  Akaen  I  will  be  mutae  |"q aq alin  again  telling  w  zfitan  gal  happening.  F u l l y do I  J  J  wae?  A'u  ait!  td»  that  do t o  k m w  w  Jwa  w  tae  his  zw^tan know  J  x^ ts°  J  k  treated  kC*lkilae?ae  ts'flae  k i J  zfitanj  forebears  like  that  did  ankt'kti Indian name f o r Hunter Jack  'Hunter J a c k ' Hunter J a c k .  w  nf That  ti is  ka  Jquq Un  tumuAan  KntJaeJ"  telling  you.  I am  w  'Baptiste  Ritchie'  from  Baptiste  Ritchie  from  Mount C u r r i e  wa  Akalap  zwaitan  Mount C u r r i e .  Do  you  know  tfe  an  the one En  tjfnaqan  n(A  Chinemqen.  That  ti? is a l l .  JYntJae I am  121  HOW CHIEF HUNTER JACK OVERCAME THE CHILCOTIN INDIANS SINGLEHANDED.  My f r i e n d s ,  I am going to t e l l  who was c h i e f o f D ' A r c y ,  B. C ,  did.  you f o l k s what my u n c l e , They c a l l e d him We  Enkekti'  o r C h i e f Hunter J a c k .  He subdued the p e o p l e o f  Lake a l l  by h i m s e l f .  l i v e d from the k i l l s  and  He always  of  Williams hunting  trapping. Now t h i s one w i n t e r i t snowed very e a r l y .  somebody was a r o u n d .  He knew that  Right away the snow was very deep, t h r e e  o r maybe f o u r f e e t in one s n o w f a l l . f o r people w i t h o u t snowshoes  Then t h e r e was no w a l k i n g  - o n l y w i t h snowshoes.  t h a t t h e r e had been some C h i l c o t i n s  He guessed  t h e r e t r a p p i n g f o r beaver and  then they had s t o p p e d . That snow d i d not melt and more snow f e l l Then they made a hut out o f branches lake  t h e r e a t Powata.  is q u i t e l a r g e and t h e r e were l o t s  they went and made a branch h u t . Hunter Jack had h i s  on top o f  of f i s h  in i t .  it.  That There  The land q u i e t e n e d down.  own p l a c e f o r t r a p p i n g .  Powata and looked around a l i t t l e .  He d i d n ' t  He went  think  to  that anyone  was around but then when he a r r i v e d t h e r e was a b i g hut made o f branches.  A great  deal o f  room was needed by the C h i l c o t i n  family there. The grandmother came out of screamed, and went back i n . Ts'ats'ikh  came o u t .  Not  the h u t , saw my g r e a t - u n c l e , long a f t e r  Then my g r a n d - u n c l e  the o l d man c a l l e d  l i f t e d up h i s  rifle  122  in a g e s t u r e o f shwuluminq  1  friendliness.  he s t u c k  C h i l c o t i n were. we are j u s t  His weapon that we c a l l e d a  in the snow and then went towards where the  He s a i d , "We a r e not going to harm each o t h e r ,  going to be f r i e n d s . "  understood.  Then the one c a l l e d  Somewhere he must h i m s e l f have s t u d i e d  Ts'ats'ikh  Chinook.  They t a l k e d between t h e m s e l v e s .  Then someone came f o r my u n c l e  and brought him to the b i g h u t .  Sitting  the women and p i l e d  in f r o n t o f  down i n t h e r e were  them were weapons.  f o u r men t h e r e ready to shoot but T s ' a t s ' i k h He t a l k e d to them.  He t a l k e d  t a l k e d to t h e i r c h i e f the back o f  the house.  were a b l e to get away. back.  It  return.  was  long  from W i l l i a m s  d i d n ' t want  language.  He  There was a s e c r e t escape t h i s was  taking  place  they  b e f o r e they were w i l l i n g  They and T s ' a t s ' i k h  were s t i l l  The c h i e f was not a b l e to s l e e p .  to s l e e p because he was a f r a i d o f "I  fishing  No, no he  the C h i l c o t i n .  some b i g  fishing  You  He went home.  own house he gave the p e o p l e of W i l l i a m s hooks,  long  am going to leave you  would be a b l e to get back b e f o r e n i g h t f a l l . "  some small  to  talking  and maybe one o r two of you would come to my house.  he a r r i v e d at h i s  at  The women and c h i l d r e n escaped from the  Then in the morning he s a i d , folks  friends.  t h e r e t h a t Hunter Jack s l e p t among the people  Lake.  i n t o the n i g h t .  While a l l  i n t o the n i g h t  So i t was  stopped h i s  in the C h i l c o t i n  i n Chinook.  There were  hooks,  When Lake  some n e t s ,  salt,  123  sugar and f l o u r and they had r e a l l y good f e e l i n g s They were happy and g r a t e f u l  Now i t  is j u s t  as  is  us.  We w i l l  We w i l l  just  like.  anyone from amongst us  i f we are b r o t h e r s .  because we are a f r a i d of each o t h e r . what we are r e a l l y  him.  to him.  S a i d the o l d man, "Never a g a i n going to f i g h t .  towards  It  is  bad  We are t r y i n g hard to see  Thank you f o r what you have done f o r  no l o n g e r have any doubt about  friendship  again.  be happy w i t h your f o l k s when we meet them from  now o n . " Then the people o f W i l l i a m s Do you know Puwat? are many small there.  It  fish.  is  there.  the p l a c e they c a l l  those f i s h  Then i n the s p r i n g  then they went over a mountain. Indians  l i v e w i t h t h e i r houses  Shatl'a. Then a l l  until  there.  Gun Lake. i c e and  spring.  stayed  They  they went home.  There  finished  After  that  They a r r i v e d at a p l a c e where facing  near the r i v e r above  Then they were r e a l l y no longer a f r a i d o f each o t h e r . the people stopped b e i n g a f r a i d .  t h e i r c h i e f , Hunter J a c k . a f r a i d o f each o t h e r . You know, not as  the w i n t e r  They made a h o l e i n the  They were e a t i n g  trapping  Lake spent  I guess  That  That was  the doing  He stopped everybody from being is what my u n c l e d i d .  that man was  r e a l l y very smart.  the w h i t e men say who a r e j e a l o u s  o f him.  Nol  l i k e what he d i d when they found g o l d o v e r t h e r e at  the  It's Just river.  of  124  The w h i t e men stopped the Chinamen from going t h e r e . white men were a b l e River,  Only  to get a l i c e n s e to be a b l e to go to  Bridge  to Qumqema.  The o t h e r Chinamen e s c a p e d .  They had j u s t  S h k h a l t a when they caught  them.  had walked a l l  r e a l l y heavy packs on t h e i r  night with  and then the w h i t e man brought  Already  a r r i v e d at  i t was morning.  They  backs,  them over to L i l l o o e t .  Then the c h i e f heard what they had done to the Chinamen. He went to town.  Then he t a l k e d t h e r e to the judge and  the  p o l i cemen. " D o n ' t do l i k e t h a t  to the poor ones.  how f a r away they have come. have no f r i e n d s  here.  We should h e l p them because  They j u s t  look a f t e r t h e m s e l v e s .  they a r e stopped by the w h i t e men. men h a v e n ' t ask  done a n y t h i n g .  the same f e e as  No one knows from  If  I want to h e l p .  you a r e going to ask  they Still  The C h i n a for a fee,  f o r y o u r s e l v e s , Whitemen, not more than  your f e e . " Just  l i k e t h a t d i d the c h i e f speak.  to the Chinamen, "You b r i n g me a t o o l pipe.  I will  f i x you some boards  That  is  the way  I will  i t was.  That  said  sharpener and any s i z e  and make you a s l u i c e  You use my own c l a i m over at South F o r k . Leave me your work t o o l s .  Then the c h i e f  Use i t  box.  for a year.  use them." i s what they d i d .  There  of  125  w a s n ' t a n y t h i n g w r i t t e n down. Chinaman, j u s t a r r i v e d at  When something  l i k e an I n d i a n , d o e s n ' t  is  spoken a  break h i s word.  He  the agreed time and then the Chinamen l e f t .  Do  you know t h a t where he was panning a h y d r a u l i c pump? own c l a i m was But s t i l l  He stayed  f o r g o l d Hunter Jack had  t h e r e f o r many y e a r s  before  his  finished. you see i t  i n the papers  that  they were chased  by Hunter J a c k , t h a t he l i e d and chased the Chinamen over t h e r e and shot them because he was s t i n g y and k i l l e d them because he said  t h a t was h i s  own c l a i m .  It  was not  my f e e l i n g s  when I saw the s t o r y w r i t t e n  That  I am t e l l i n g y o u .  than  is why  like that.  It  i n the paper  hurt  like  that.  I am t e l l i n g you who know more  I. I was born over t h e r e at B r i d g e  River.  It was not  that.  I know what was done by my g r e a t - u n c l e b e f o r e  born.  I was born t h e r e i n B r i d g e  panning o v e r t h e r e . whole Cadwalader great-uncle.  I was  R i v e r when my l a t e u n c l e was  My l a t e f a t h e r went to help him.  f a m i l y went.  like  The  They were the f r i e n d s o f my l a t e  You know what a p e r f e c t i o n i s t  that man was.  When i t came time to come home he d i d n ' t make i t because someone k i l l e d him on the o t h e r s i d e o f  the  here  river.  Someone k i l l e d Hunter Jack when he was coming home. I guess he s t a y e d f o r about ten y e a r s  around B r i d g e  River  126  but he never came home. it  because somebody  He was coming home but he never made  k i l l e d him.  There f o r now ends Indian. they  I will  the t a l k  a g a i n be t e l l i n g you people s t o r i e s  r e a l l y happened.  I know e x a c t l y  t r e a t e d my f o r e b e a r s , as  Leader'  You s t i l l  - En Chinemqen.  the way  they d i d Hunter  The one t e l l i n g you t h i s Mount C u r r i e .  I am g i v i n g you about  story  know t h a t That  is  is  just  in which  as  they  Jack.  Baptiste  Ritchie  I am the one c a l l e d  all.  one  from 'My  127  THE CURE OF BAPTISTE RITCHIE an  J  My  zfitsnae doings  Akin  tjfx  I was  near  fA  f  dz  w  k tn w  couldn't  q aenux  dz  sick.  Wasn't  w  nf  A'u  J  Then  wan  Jk'ukmit  was  child  k'ak  1908  the  year1908  J  kfix  sickly.  nf  A'uJ  an  w  almost  kae  maStqae  dz  myself  could  walk.  Wasn't  w  Jtex 9  then  Jwalu  k m  w  k m  Jwa  w  I  Jwa  dlsam  k'f?ux  AkaSn  I  ill,  despondent,! was  tjun  tjej  tfn  ts'al?miq ae  tjun  said  to me  my  grandfather  said  w  mj  lalfltmae  A'u  x aen  my  parents  going  make w e l l  fA  tin  Jwae  waS?  where  my p l a c e  wa  tjijnim  wij  what  call  we  J  w  A'u  'till  rifmuA  afpae  naej  A'u only.  nasf  kiA  c l o s e person.Go w i l l  Aa?x  kiA  gets  b e t t e r . That  w  nf  A'uJ is  kalkikla?  k'f?ux  older generation  despondent.  128  A 'a  ki'Aae  AaSku  i  Taken from t h e r e  J"  wa  that  dlfam  J"  sick  If Item/  k'alpa  grow up  that c l o s e person.  niA  him makes  then o n l y  tfu'naej" Said  an  J l i I f Itrra  nfA  ti  wa  my  parents.  That  is  they  'Old Louie'  taSl i  aI  tu  ki  A'u  aekuj  q'aiq'ai  that  (proper noun)  nitaej"  tjun cal1  name  J\J"aS?Aae  nfA  A'u  Sechelt.  Then  Jk aSn w  Old L o u i e .  Over to  took  t M  in  ts'fts'pa  la*tl  III  tit.fftx  me  my  grandfather.  There  at  the house  w  Jae  k'dA  ftmae  laSti  Ait  wae?  mii.fxit.fi/  his  made  f o r him  there  were  we.  Made me  fA  kutaSkam  Jwfnae?uJ  then  all  medicine  i  kinds  A ' i k 'aSmlaex ae  roots  w  w  i  kall?waet  i  pC't/kiAlae leaves  mdlxae  pallae  sticks.  One  ka  kaSnaef maybe  129  kae  X^Jp^JVt  k i w  one week  that  t/aej  t/ae  he d i d .  Specified  we  J  t.fu  en  ts'exa&Ats'aen  my  f l u s h i n g out the  k ae  A'u  i  that  only  f i s h heads  w  ts'eq aenaen  ts'il(ae)  w  I ate.  a§ti  Like  ts'exaeAts'aem cleaning  J*X q u m  J"  ptfAxael  fA  ins i d e s . B o i l e d  we  ? a B  k m w  long  mutae  ki  again  some  leaves  ka6l?waet  waS?  some  roots  medicine.  Was  t.fun  nitaej"  q'em.fa&uq  name  part of  k aen w  (he)  naej" took  kait T  i  the one  call  Akaen  pit.fkaeAae  A'eq a£mlasx ae w  fwe  I was  ki  w  puA  boiled  xi'nf  that  insides  A'u  f?a5tsx.f  I  watched  w  tree  zaSxt  tftxe  q'emja§uq  w  k'i'tx aen  naef  la$ti  long  thin  part of  tree.  He cut  he d i d  there  x ?ijtjin  en  four.  Then wrapped  w  ts'aelTkaenaaJ  w  it  kait i around  ti the  plifaikae with  sack.  130  ti  we  puAi A  nf  that  was  boiling  then  J u s t when  naej  3§ti  he d i d  there  A'u  i  w  tree part.  Stayed  'till  almost  blue  ne§J"  ti?  nf  he d i d  that  then  naej  tjalkae  he d i d  c o o l e d i t he d i d  k in  Jwe  able  I was  w  i old  tu  ke to  fashioned  w  if  A'u  J  f?ez just  in  last i  puAiA  there  boil  qu?ae  xalA'en  the w a t e r .  naej  kilkikkelae  ti  tiqa&A  w  k'emq 'a5n dropped  we?  w  w  J  q'emfa5uq e  q ezq dzetq 33?e  ke  A'u  Took i t  out  Jp 'almaenae J  xaSA'  qaSn  burnt  Took  off  it.  A'u  k i J  en  that  heat  w  enough  qempf  q ' em fas  en  A'a5k ae  naifae  kalt T  swallow.  It  filled  he d i d  that  w  lepdt  we  tjunim  zewaSkften  pot  we  cal1  dipper.  Xexzezim  fz  en  A'a5k as  naejae  qij|  xui  Large  those  it  filled  he d i d  full.  "Go  w  heat  131  maeA  tj*ae  uq aenf,  aSpae  dz  better  this  drink  dear p e r s o n .  Don't  w  t/aSJtJ  mfn  k (Air\  f e e l w i t h tongue  it.  Pour  nf  A'u  J"  w  kern  A'u  fu  w  you  q'anunf  i t down.  ta&kam  Swallow  it  ti  ts'flae  A'u  aeA  swallowed  it.  Like  just  a  i np'ae?qi5 lmux  w  red hot  tnp'aem/tan  ku  stove  that  q'ami n fain swallowed  tjaeft infante  ti  kmtaSkam  A'u  fA  the way f e l t  it  all  in  my i n n e r  at J"'ae*Ats'ae  J  body.  over  aellaSnm  kinkaSnaeJ"  ts'flae  I felt  how much  like  ti  it  aeku  ti  A'alkae  uq aenj"aen  dz  burnt  went  the  down  drank  Not  lae*ti  ku  xfntj  ni  there  very  long  then  A'u  w  J"  dz  it.  k m u  couldn't  in  ku  q 'aApf w  all."  q'aminJaSn  Then  k in  u,  k i f  A'u  t.ffx aeluj w  see.  wl  Akaen  txtfj  A'u  dz  Was  I  looking  but  couldn't  k ij  tarn  w  nfl  anything.  tjfx  Then  Akan  w  Went  i  wa  A'u  slku  k'a  atu*  i  I did  there  others.  there  others.  I  see  aSku  aSlts'q'a  I  went  over to  outside.  waj  alk'rfn  Akeln  i  aSts'xan  .fAaSk  A'u  fA  J  A'akaJ  ni3k a  ntfk a w  went  atJaSAts'a  wait/  mm  i ns i des,  Bowel  movement  i n me  a6tu  fwa  Both ways  la§ka  that were  w  in  tf  there.  k .in  waA'k'  min  Vomited  I  q'almfnm  w  I  t/aSlim  fainted •  did  nf  fell  A'u  tin  ts'fts'pa  said  to my  grandfather,  plaen  dz  k m  Jwa  aSma  Ian  Already  no  can  I  good  a l r e a d y no can  "Kill  f wa  Then  tjun  w  zdq  AkaSn  Jtumx  w  me  maSA  A'u  just.  dz  k in w  Jwa I  133  tjfx 33luj  p'aeV  see.  More b e t t e r  w  A'u  tju'n  Akasn  nf  I  to him.  Then  said  defecation  i  n k im  wa  the  ae'iref  J"  A'u  j  Akaex  x a*x w  "Good  you  AfkinaeJ"  aetilinae  inspected  over t h e r e  aaepae Spae  w  ones nes  .ftum  w  ki 11  a emae aimae  /  Jzuq  c l o s e pe person.  kiAnfm  nf  A''uu A  want o u t . "  Then  i  my  laen  uts'qa  Already  come out  J"  hae laexf t j a j " showed me  fz  i t j 'ae*  tm  ^zumakae'Tae  ti  k'amqf  t.fae  those.  He re e  my  b i g thumbs thumbs  the  end  of  t s ' f 133  A'u  like  that.  ka  afti  It  q aS?ae  still  kae  q aS?ae w  was  kUae  w  i t was g r e e n .  Really  green  A'u  an  it  paqmf n ft almost  white  wats'wats'am  ti  q'ljtae  soft  one  s i de  ts'amts'amaqj"  ti  q'tftae  nfA  iz  a£?han  aipae  tough  one  side.  There  are  see  dear p e r s o n .  kiAnim  wij  take out  us  qeAmimnux  nfmiA  nfA  w  old.  i zaS  Ju  Aix  suckle  you  when  laeku  k'^Ap  there  congest  AL J  wae  stays  does  w  in  la&kuAiJ"  nfA  forebears  Then  in  These a r e  Jq'aem  kilkiklae  tj"fx  u  u  calcified  J"  A'u  J  kiA grow  we  k'a?  tu  the ones  guess  k'uk'umit  A'aelaSl  we  child.  Stopped  those  aet JaSAts.'a?  Jwae  niA  i n your stomach  your  then  laek  there.  we  iz  fx ae  Have  those  none  w  A'u  manual  f  life.  we  iz  qelwdlx  laSti  nfA  ti  Jx dz  Do  those  spoil  there.  That  is  why not  J"  w  k i laap  almae  k ij"  x^P  you a r e  good  that  grow up  you.  t/fx  iz  i  those  suckled  w  w  ,a3  i?ae?ft/ut  en  think g r e a t l y of o n e s e l f .  Calcified  w  fz  P  Jntllaep  J"  You ones  Jq'aSm  135  Jwae  Aux  you  when  J  w  teqfA  child.  Almost  didn't  i a5n?weje  At laSku  kae I (m?ae  t i  break a p a r t  the  k ij w  J*i nt J"  xdi  Akex  from  me.  "Going  you  tjdt  xtfi  he  said.  " G o i n g you  ts'flae  wij  like  us.  dz  A'u  Akaex  w  fAin  i  food  ka5t i  ku  around  some  J  w  grow o l d  w  grow o l d ,  nfmiA  lalti There  I couldn't  J"  qeAmimnux  w  uts'qe  from those came out  qeAminnux  w  Jwae  k tn  A'u  two  AU  we  •  dz  k'ljktfuit  en  f?maetj"  my  nephew,"  xui  Akex  going  you  Amtjae  kC las  qf?ux  the time  first  get  ke  ts'aeq  able  eat  fae i aSmhae  w  the good  almhae  Jq'di?  tjuk aej  k'a&A'u  good  food.  Just only  I guess  taem anything  we I  w  w  aSmae  Jaen  1 iked  i  a?mhae good  despondent  136  JV&?  dz  food  couldn't  nf  A'u  then  A'u  k in  fae  w  to eat  them  waiA'k'  tju'kf  'laiti  k ij  I  vomit.  Finished  there  to  tm  cure  me  my  tji5tj  kiA  said,  "If  x dzej  umm  becoming  (l)  would  w  . ts'i'ts'pe?ae  nf  grandfather.  ku  w  i t wasn't  wflx  Because  tsaiq  Jin  tjej  J  ke  be a b l e  kaelwaetain  n)  Jwae  w  plain  already  A'u  J  Then  laip  we  faSmae  you  were  as a w h i t e man  tjin  Akaen  kal  ku  q aenaiAp  give.  you  again  some  leaves.  Jaimae  w  plain  laipae  we  already  you a r e  becoming as a w h i t e man  JtumimA  kait i  ku  qll  we might  something  that  q'f?ux  Ju  ai?xa3  him  despondent  you.  Strong  that one  is  wil?x  nf  bad  meq 'fl w  k(iA)  A'u  then a g a i n  ti  fill  you  J  mutaej  you w i l l  iJtJ  tiAiJ  not  it  is  become  137  ka$l?waet  nfA  medication.  That  fz  i  Those  leaves  is  him  ti  wa  q firum w  wij"  what  it  me  use  us.  q anaiApa w  (used f o r medicine)  waAkaelaep  zwaitan  you  know  wa  zuq xael w  wa  iz  uq ?aen  ability  to k i l l  do  they  drink  i  J"  kflkikilae  AkalAae  wa  A'u  forebears  ours.  They  still  kaej"  twftaej"  nf  to do  with  Then t h a t  kae  zfitan  J"  it.  nfhae  to do .  umin  tJ'aSj  Just  A'u  nf  Aif is  A'u  twftaef it  wl  zwaetan  nfta.f  knew  aiti  twae  like  that  able  J"  x dz  A'u  didn't  around d i d  w  ti  an  ts'fts'pae  ku  it  my  grandfather  some  keSti  ku"  q aena§Ap w  leaves.  ti  q'amjae*lq ae  aSut J  AaSti  nf  the  tree part.  After  that  then  w  Ai f what  ts'flae  Then  give  t/uk  A'u  J"  w  nfmuA  A'u  138  J  A'u  Ai/taSkam  A'u  Jtaem  we  ts'aeq aenaem  talkem  was a l l  just everything  do  eat.  All  Jtaim  we  things  A'e  aimae  dz  were good.  Akun  A'u  eat now.  A'u  w  ke  qel Jain  Nothing  couldn't  nfA  ti  AaSx en  tjaij*  ti  en  That  is  cured  me  the  my  w  ts'fts'p?®  XfAtum  x aej"  grandfather.  Did to me  as done  u  aS  k ij  ke  w  ts'flae  like  k t J  zwaetinnae  nftaef  aSk if  k'ae  ?aemae  wit  that  know  they  as done  best  for  them.  w  11 k t J  xfiptan  As they  grow up  w  we?  Akae'laep  Do  you  taikem all  wit  them  i  w  il  k tJ w  as  A'u  they  zwalten  i  know  A'u  qeAmimnux"  wft  grow o l d  they.  an my  J*  kilkfkalae forebears  qeAmaemanux  qaAmaimun  wft  grew o l d .  Grew o l d  they d i d  w  A'u  aeA  tjtmp  did die  wft they  niA  kaSt I  we  That  i s around they  J  Affix aen  nf  did  get  That  cured.  maSuael  Jkiinjae  al ive  now.  did  ae I t f ' s l  zfi  A'u is  •  here  temfx ae w  on e a r t h .  i  did  M  w  aiA  kekfkelae  laSti  forebears.  There  ti  Jin  the  reason  wae? still  fA  THE CURE OF BAPTISTE RITCHIE  As a c h i l d I almost ill!  I was s i c k l y .  It was about  c o u l d n ' t walk by m y s e l f .  I was  really  Wasn't  the year 1908, and  I sick!  Wasn't  despondent.  Then my g r a n d f a t h e r s a i d to make that dear boy w e l l .  to me and my p a r e n t s , "I He w i l l  am going  go to my p l a c e u n t i l  well.  He is what we of  I will  take from him that which makes him s i c k and o n l y  will  the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n c a l l  that dear boy grow u p . "  parents.  He was  I  Old Q ' a i q ' a i  the one they c a l l e d  said 1  is  despondent.  that  'Old L o u i e .  he  then  to my  My g r a n d f a t h e r  then took me over to S e c h e l t to the house that was made f o r him and there we were. from l e a v e s ,  Then he made a l l  r o o t s , and s t i c k s .  kinds o f medicine f o r me  It was maybe one week that he  spent f l u s h i n g out my i n s i d e s .  He s p e c i f i e d that  only  In t h i s way, f o r a long  the heads o f b o i l e d f i s h .  was c l e a n i n g out my  I should  eat  time I  insides.  Then he b o i l e d some leaves and roots a g a i n f o r m e d i c i n e . While  I watched he took t h a t  they c a l l  q'emshauqw.  took  it off  them t h e r e and wrapped  J u s t when that medicine was b o i l i n g he  dropped in the t r e e p a r t . blue.  t h i n p a r t o f a t r e e which  He cut f o u r of  them around w i t h a s a c k .  water was almost  long,  It  stayed  Then he took  there b o i l i n g  until  i t out and burnt  the heat and c o o l e d i t j u s t  the  it.  enough f o r me to be  He  141  a b l e to swallow  it.  c a l l e d a dipper. will  He f i l l e d up that o l d - f a s h i o n e d pot we  It was  l a r g e and he f i l l e d i t  go b e t t e r i f you d r i n k t h i s , my dear boy.  w i t h your tongue, but pour i t down and swallow So  I swallowed  red hot stove  it.  the way  it  It was j u s t felt all  i t burn g r e a t l y when I drank  ways.  I was  it  it  all."  I had swallowed a  l o o k i n g but  I  felt  I  couldn't  I went t h e r e both  I vomited t h e r e .  to my g r a n d f a t h e r , " K i l l  good.  I cannot s e e .  I said  to him.  It  I f a i n t e d and me now.  I did fell.  I can be no  would be b e t t e r i f you would k i l l  Then he i n s p e c t e d my f e c e s .  me,"  "Good f o r y o u , my  the t h i n g s we want out o f you have a l r e a d y come o u t . "  Then he showed me one of those t h i n g s . big  feel  t h a t were in my i n s i d e s went both ways.  a bowel movement t h e r e . Then I s a i d  Don't  It was not t h e r e v e r y  Then I had to go o u t s i d e .  The t h i n g s  dear boy,  if  "It  through my i n s i d e s .  i t down.  long when I found I c o u l d n ' t s e e . see a n y t h i n g .  as  full.  thumb, the end o f  w h i t e , but s t i l l  it  -  like that.  i t was g r e e n .  It  was  It was It  the s i z e o f my  was g r e e n ,  almost  r e a l l y s o f t on one s i d e  and tough on the o t h e r . " S e e , my dear boy, forebears.  these are t h i n g s which we get  Then we grow up.  I guess that  from our  these t h i n g s  are  calcified  from the m i l k of those who s u c k l e d you when you were  a child.  These t h i n g s stopped  in your stomach, congested  there  142  and then s t a y e d t h e r e . there.  That  They have no l i f e .  Now  Your t r o u b l e was  that c a l c i f i e d i n s i d e you from the m i l k of  s u c k l e d you as a  those  the that  child."  The two t h i n g s which came out o f me almost apart.  rotten  is why you are not h e a l t h y as you grow up.  you can t h i n k more h i g h l y o f y o u r s e l f . things  They go  "You are going  to grow o l d .  didn't  break  You are g o i n g to be  like  me." There, that  is  the s t o r y o f  the f i r s t  time I got  despon-  d e n t , when I w a s n ' t a b l e to eat the good f o o d , to enjoy the good things  to e a t .  good food and  I guess  I j u s t o n l y a t e around t h i n g s .  I w a s n ' t a b l e t o eat  it.  I just  you w e r e n ' t a l r e a d y becoming  you some leaves  He s a i d ,  l i k e a white man I would  f o r medicine a g a i n ,  bad and you would become despondent a g a i n . is  not s t r o n g .  Those leaves the a b i l i t y  This  is what we w i l l  t h a t our a n c e s t o r s  to k i l l  leaves  thing.  This  that's  is a m e d i c a t i o n  use."  used f o r m e d i c a t i o n had  when they drank the f l u i d from them, you  know, but they knew what to do w i t h them. the r i g h t  give  but because you are becoming  l i k e a w h i t e man we might be f i l l i n g you w i t h something  that  liked  vomited.  Then my g r a n d f a t h e r began to f i n i s h c u r i n g me. "If  I  They were a b l e to do  Then my g r a n d f a t h e r d i d n ' t g i v e me any o f  that were a r o u n d , o n l y  the t r e e p a r t .  A f t e r that  the  I could  eat j u s t  everything.  anything  I couldn't  That  is  All  eat a f t e r  for  cured me.  them as  He d i d to me what  they grew up and as  they  They grew o l d b e f o r e they d i e d here on e a r t h .  was around here my a n c e s t o r s  lived.  that  now.  is why  There w a s n ' t  that.  how my g r a n d f a t h e r  they knew had been best grew o l d .  t h i n g s were good.  I am s t i l l  alive  Here  I got  c u r e d , and  It  144  THE BLANKET THAT ALMOST DESTROYED THE INDIANS  xii  Aaen  Jqdq t lae  I  am  talk  i  min  w  x ditaej  i  w  when p e r i s h e d  about  u  w  Indians  teej  i  Feel by s p e c i a l  force  ti  xu  A'aSq  that  is  going  here  tja  two kinds  i  mjk ae w  others  we  plaSk  At I  from  the  tjix eluj  to  'smallpox'  i  w  k tj w  Jx tna!?m33 w  Indian d o c t o r  d l sem  t.fut  wit  disease.  Said  they  dlsrree  At Jp  xexesum  AtJp  disease  rash  very b i g  pimple-like  niA  i  then  the  aSleJael really  Atjp  niA  fz  Jtu  rash.  Then  those  real  X  we  as  smallpox.  prophets  k tj  aen?wejdjtm  fas  happened  ux aelmfx ae  kenllni  w  zfiten  ts'fls  k ek fk J  like  small  w  w  w  ztjq xa5l w  i t does k i l l  one p e r s o n .  rashes  145  km  taikam  All  over  kiA  nf  comes.  Then  JxuleJ  A'aek  to be  go  A'u  Jxek  nftasj"  ku  xaz  Aaix  what  exactly w i l l  ku  xul  exactly w i l l  save  ts'fla?/ that  kuk  J  i s what  ts'aiuna?  A'a?q  a?f  here  when  It  wij"  named they  JtaimeJ'  /talma J"  km  niA  wa  t J " f x a l uJ w  themselves  prophets  ftainem  wftasf  cure  them  what  Jtainem  wf taj*  nf  w  them.  A'u  J"  Then  zfitan  f  ha?  was done  they  AiJ  A'seqJ"  when  came  tjdlsme  ti?  tjdlsma?  a?ku  t/ilkutna?  Aki laSJ"  sickness.  That  sickness  that  Chilcotin  first  t/ix  w  started  i all  taikmaa  J"  twftaj  i  they d i d  w h i t e man. There  ftaim? things  we  Jaime  laikuA  k ainnij w  got  by means o f t r a p  aim  ha?/  were good  i  ux elmix e w  Indians  w  146  wa  q'rim  they t h a t  i  nf trap.  'Hudson Bay  A'u  has  1  ux almix ae u  k'a  w  Indians.  i  (Hudson Bay)  ux aelmix 33  Indians.  i  dz?  nftoj"  i  Buy  they  were  nf  A'u  w  J"  i  w  Indians  thought  destroy  they  J"  t u ft t J  i  they  wan  did  j"d?zamxf t i taej  trade with  wa  Jk a6mtm  i  Ail  tj'ae  do  trapped  they  from  when  w  they.  First  quantity  Those  did  they  trap  blankets.  patfnuj" mi  that  x Jt  J  ka  nftaf  kUae  fz  w  got  w  wit  w  k almj  J"  x dita6n  q'rfm  leq dz  wa  xuz  Brought  ux almfx ae  w  k i f  A'aeq  w  tffx  that go t h e r e  w  w  At J  May then  hae they  a&ku  Then that  Hudson Bay.  i  At J  A'aeAaeq" sealed  i  u  »  iz wi th  tjdn  nitaej  call  they  X0X uma3  Xat.fim  big  boxes  9Z  'Hudson Hudson  Bay' Bay  147  iA  inAaW?Je  xu?  wilq a!n  nftaej"  nf  where  contained.  Proceed to  open  they  then  At J  Aum  mun  nftaej"  put on  w  i  their  hiwekeVa  taiumi  nftej"  gloves.  Still  they  A'u  fA  kilae  Jq'ijx  k a$nim  tu  then  real  cheap.  Obtain  those then  fz  laStiA  k'u?llaej  IsStiA  Autsq aJ"  ti  those.  From t h e r e  started  from t h e r e  spread  the  'smallpox'  a  smallpox  i  x inaS?ma  u  laiti  Ail  from  the  i  w  Indian d o c t o r  A'u  winafx  w  ?i  truly  A'u  i  kf  fA  i  ux almfx a u  Indians  w  leqdza  kiA  blanket.  If  we  tjfx eluj  tsfk  did  foresee  no more  u  w  1  xdzaj i t wasn't  for  ka  ilx almfx a  mdzmit  JtaSnim  wit  Indians.  Pity  them  I guess  w  w  Ja&ts'x" h i g h power watching o v e r us  J  k'aS  tumuAaJ  k i.f  us.  That  w  148  X^k  xl  told  nf  A'u  J  taSnim  wit  kaSnim  wftasj  them  they  what  to do  Aaix  i  w  they  get cure  1 kf Jmae  ux aelmix  interior  Indi ans  waS?  there  found  ta§ I i  11  w  p6n  /  tj'u?f own  kaSlwaet  < ?ft  x i naVrmae  medication.  Quantity  Indian d o c t o r  w  w  nftaef  k'aS  JtaSmaeJ  ku  they  guess  what  overcome  11  s i ckness.  Here  w  k'ae  wonder  q a3lni5x ®  that  ku  t h e y . What  w  laStiwae  JtaSmaeJ*  kiA  w  tJ'aS  A'axdn  wij  nfmuA  with  us  wa?  A'aiA'?mx itJ  t Jun  temtfUm  ku  did  speak our own language.  Told  us  the  i  u  Jpldnta  skunk  i  niA  ti  kaSl?waetJ*  'smallpox'  that  is  medicine  smallpox  a the  Jipdzjaeu  iA  Jqalxd/min  JY?nun  AkaSx"  skin  you  wear around neck.  Dry the s k i n  you  149  ni  A'u  qa|qu"Jmin  nf  you  wear around neck  then  w  then  x dz  Jaex  k ij  w  Ju  w  k aSni.nJ w  you get  not  it.  nfAtJ  tjqd?33tj  Jae  the  fat  it  k a5ninj  nf  If  got  then  J  w  A'ipa$?Jae  fat  marrow  x aSJ  Ailxmfnaex"  niA  that  is  wash  yourself  then  Ju  tjdn  tumulim  al  you.  Said  t o us  here,  tjdk  D'Arcy p e o p l e  j u s t only  w  w  lalti  i  there  A'u  k(A  t J'ai  tjuk  fx ae  ij  w  no  Told only  tjfxkalu  ffit'd  ability  you go  i  medicine."  our  summer camp  A'u  tji*ntm  forebears  the  w  kaSlTwast  wa  laip  Jtlaex  "Just  AkaeAee  AnaSJae  A'u  J  cure  JkalkfkUae  Jpalnkit Jtnae  it  A'u  mfk'iltjae  ti  ink 'altk 9rree  J  plalnaexu  niA  w  A'u  foresee.  "Over  tjalj  t Jaq aeniJxkae  At Jp  comes  sickness  rash.  w  A'u  150  x  a z m  X dit w  talkem  Jwait  k aenif  taili  tu  Die  every  one  gets  it.  Slope  aettftj"  paenkft Jtnae  aetu  Anainjae  laep  x dz  over  summer camp  over  go you  there.  No  xui  w  aetd  k if  over t h e r e  going to go by way o f .  w  ki*A  A'u  kin  k if w  A'aSk  A'aSk  Jfu Bypass  nf  when i t  does go.  wa  t fx eluj"  tjfx  told  does  prophets.  Near  A'aSk  t Jeq aenux  go by  sickness,  Jq aSltJ  i  w  w  r  Wa3  w  xi3 i "Let's  kaeA  aetdj  are  going to summer camp.  nf  A'u  they w i l l  xui die  x diA w  Then  IA J  w  A'u  [xui  the  tjae  time  Jtuf  JelailqJ  naef  depart  friends.  We  ku  paenkft J"tna  m l n k a B  A'u  w  kaSti  o n l y go by way o f  ^  x dz w  The one not  aiku  k i-rtSJt J  there  go  A'alkaeJ  tjAf/pa  nf  comes  rash."  Then  A'u  w  J  there  151  A'aSkJ"  i  ux 33lmfx 33 w  went  i  w  Indians  uJ"  nf  like  us  muA  dz  k i J w  not  kiA  kaSnim  kaSku  "Why  do  around t h e r e  wa  xdilim  kalt i?  did  like  anyone  nixnum  talli  believe  in  At J  kif  .("wast  tim  anything.  naif  ka?kaiu?  dz  go  far?"  "No  taS?tux  ku  k'aelal?min  tail!  tjdn  nitae/  right  to  listen  them,"  said  they  i  wa  tjfx 33luj u  did foresee.  A'u  i  t/aSq'uq'uA  kaS  Half  around  the p o p u l a t i o n  dx 33lmfx 33  tjfx  Indians  went  w  u  ankaakal  w  ktnkaSnaeJ"  k'a  Indian d o c t o r .  How long  guess  ku  w  ku? there  f  taili  follow  t J"x inaV?ma3 w  A'u  k ij"  himself  xfnj  lajku  long  over  ku there  se?uj  t J i p E l n k i t JUnae  laiti  in  k 'aftk ffi  tjfit  stayed  summer camp  there  in  D'Arcy.  Said  w  w  152  ku  fA  t x irc£?ma r  then the  lain  w  Indian d o c t o r , " I t  pitaik  na/  gone.  We go now put away  nf  A'u  Then  tJuAaekai?  fA  qeA  J"ux ael  they  homeward  mile  ti  miles  that  wit  plain  Got t h e r e  they  already  f?waej"  wmaix  w  A'u  go w i t h .  Really  they  w  fz  ni  those  then  i  A'u  k'uA'mexe  Coast  Indians  tj"e?q  lain  time  it  i  i  w  a?/  is  naim  iA  seven  tjfx  iA  we is  did  Jnuqndq a5  kaila?  friends  ours."  w  A'aiq'mAkJt  taifka  kiA  six  probably  maybe  we  t/fin call  we  nftaej"  t/ipainkit/ten  they  summer camp.  JkitJkftJ  kaSt I  lying  around  zuq  wit  died  true.  A'u  they  aiku  stay  they.  However  there  all  over  seems  i  d i d not  Bury  k'aimaeAae  ts'fla  w  nftef  i  A'u  q 'dza3  qeA  Jw5  ki ntaikmaej"  1  ux almfx a w  I ndians  w  153  wa  zwaSten  nftaej*  / telrrfiej*  Au  did  know  they  what  they  wit  lk ij* w  able  JtwftaeJ"  wit  I k t J*  to watch  said  them  able  Jae"  i  wae  Indians.  There must  w  w  nf  some  prophets  then  w  A'uJ  tjdnim  m&lamjA'f?a  Jipdzja  did  call  wolf  skin of  wear around neck  JnfAtJ  i  the  fz  wae  the ones you  laiku  tjdntaem said  J?a?ts' watch  kae  wa  w  kae  w  ux ffilmfx ih3  tjfx aluj  minaex  good  t Jdt  k iA  qalqdj  almae  w  aSts'xsn  they  w  k ij  there  wit  Jq'aiuarra  to them  wolf  nfA it  that  waB you  Jplinaex"  k ainmj  ti  if  might  then  Jq'dq 'aetJ  Jae  fat  of  w  x^J  Aax  wash  yourself  w  i  be s i c k  Jipd?  Jae  i t marrow  mfnaex  w  nfA then  of  kiA  A'u  niA it  that  A'u  AaSx cure  Ju  nf  A'u  you.  Then  . ts'flaej"  Ml  f a z i itenjae  that way  k'dA'max Coast  J"  taikam  nf  Indian a l l .  A'u  Jwdz  Then  not  ku  many  q 3§?m  die  there.  Myself  you see a l r e a d y  laen  Akaln  wa  I am  did  t/tiAaekae'?  Jq'ampJ"  md6zae?  aits'xan  AkaSn  seven  tens  snows.  See  I did  qaAqaAmi*mminae  o l d people  q aenux w  disease.  9  "  Akaen  them  I did  Afk c o u l d be seen  w  tall i  k'aS  got  that  around t h e r e  9  My  taSni  k aininj  J" J"f J x ? 9  3 3  relatives  i  kdkae  tu  lalku  k'u  over  t h e r e saw  AaSti  ku  w  jTfnt/'a  w  did  x ftj  laSku  i  wa  t h e i r way  k dit w  i  wa  A'u  A'ae  ti  k tJ w  aSts'xan  J"  s u r v i v e d from t h a t  i  Aijp rash  f  hae  kaStu  them  got  i the d i s e a s e  J  155  k iA'u7  ,f  w  face  nf  A'u  J  When  nf  ha?  Jmizaetja  wal  them  body  still  A'aSk went  A'u  That  q aenux  by  that  very  disease.  Jtl  not  that  story  without  AkaSn  alts'xan  e I ki  I do  see  in the paper  facts,  dz  him  Not  them  Real  pfphae  A'aekf  tu  that  went  that  w  w h i t e man  w  k ij*  k if w  pitslk A  dz  ti  fairy tale  not  that  winaix"  A'u  J"  real  it  justifiable,  tux  wa  fq alkamf  ni tse/  did  tell  them  w  ti  k if  of  q gfnux  w  w  very  disease.  tjut  wit  k ij  A'aSq  .ftwftajj  say  they  that  brought  them  w  x dz  A'aeq  /twftasj  hi*m  no.  Brought  them  t h a t very  w  w  w  W  winax  w  w  k LJ  qaq ilul  JamTffl  seen.  k if  k ij"  i  could  tu t i  w  w  hai? las  ij"  if  x dz  is  A'u  A'u  ti  pael?um one  wa  156  A'u  temfx  w  very p l a c e  k'a  that  disappear  not a l l  land  tuna  them  Haida  A'u  ka"tik  no  w  there  laitti  wsi  there.  A'u  Still  Iki  'book'  i n the  ?i  k ij*  taikem  w  Haida  i  Indians  paSla  laeta?  JwsS?iJ  one  there  way  maSual  taikem  lived  all  ti that  pi laipele?a  those  'Haida'  i  dz  Ja  ni t a j  i  ts'ttke  xfn?waf  inner  dz  ta  we  tjijn  did  say  i  ux almfx a w  I ndians  A'u  x dit  wit  die  they  w  sSts'xan  nftaj"  Iki  see  it  in the paper  a  aiti  book  ku  pfpha  'reservation'  that very  Iti  reservation  aSts'xan  Akan  /mtj  laSku  Indians.  Saw  I did  myself  there  Aets'  plain  down  already  w  tjitx sl  k'a  houses  that were  w  tu  plain  we  already  M?.f  where  ux almfx a w  w  we  lived  xf?ip grow  157  i  x X e  e z u , r r B e l c  l  W a 3  big  AUtJ  xdit  Ja"  from  die  did  ku that  JexaSp  Jazaha?u?tJ  tja  trees  between  the houses  k'a  tu  k iA  AA'ikaJ  w  Indians  went  tij  Jq'iuam  wa  tjunim  smallpox.  It's  the  wolf  we  call  Aax  wolf  that  is  cure  q 33nu"x  l^tf  ^ku  sickness  then  that  still  w  nfA  ti  wa  tjftk a  'smallpox'  nfA  A'u  w  some  maldmjA't?aB  u  ux almfx  u  i  ts'fla  the same  J  w  'time'  til!  ti  that  very  JkaSnaeJ  time.  k ij w  I wonder  kiA  Jk(jk sSJ  now.  Maybe  only  w  x^'X ' 3  3 3  if  A'u  tinim  wit  given  them  a  JzfitmJ  an  Jnuqnuq a  JkUkila  AkaSAa  the way  my  friends  forefathers  ours.  strong  win  because  tj?d?mm  w  w  k'ae  Akdnja  ita?  k ij  ka§?lua  nfA  ti  medicine.  That's  158  dz  A'u  lo  xfA  tjae  1 ink  to  do  it  w  Couldn't  u"lj  k i J*  i  xdit die  f  i  Jainrtfae  ku  nfAt/ae  wai?  Ind i a n s .  Because  t h e r e was  winaix  nunim  tumuAaef  wai?  A'u  us  we s t i 11  talkem  wh? t e man that  uxeelmfx"®  w  ku  al I  wa  J"  nfA  ti  11 was  tj"i I ikutnae  x ftin|  ku  pel?u/im  ux aelmix  Chi 1 c o t in  largest  of  its  Indian  w  was?  Akailaep  now  you  know  Akfinja?  nfA  J?aikuJ  now.  Because o v e r t h e r e  tjq a3ni3x ae  nfA  sickness.  That's  w  J*  JzfitanJ  winaix  my  friends.  True  w  w  w  niA  Jk 'fk 'in  they  fewest  w  w  A'aiq  ti  first  went  that  Jkflkila  AkaiAas  forebears  ours  A'u  ti  Xu?ts  that  is.  Were  .fine going  naitinfaa  i n number  ki laij"  i  the way  Jnuqni!iq a  kind  zwaitan  JaS  ti  an  w  A'u  aits'ax  watch o v e r  beiieve  Akdnjae  w  i  x ditaen  tumuA  destroy  us  w  tu t i  ku  that  aej*  i  J"aem?ae  wi'J  w h i t e man.  A'aSq  That came  xelxal  Jq aenu*x  nfA  strong  sickness.  That's  tumuAeen  JYntJae  you.  I am  w  w  J*  (a)n  tjfnamqan  En  Chinemqen.  ti  J"q 'un w  tell  160  THE BLANKET THAT ALMOST DESTROYED THE INDIANS  I am going to t a l k about what happened when many o f Indian p e o p l e p e r i s h e d from s m a l l p o x . the  Indian prophet and d o c t o r t o l d my a n c e s t o r s  was g o i n g to happen. disease.  He s a i d  that  One would be a r e a l l y  o t h e r would be a r e a l l y small person s i c k and would k i l l . it  By some s p e c i a l that  the  power  the  disease  t h e r e would be two kinds  large,  rash.  of  p i m p l e - l i k e rash and the  It  would r e a l l y make a  It was g o i n g to be a l l  o v e r when  came. Then the prophets named what t h i n g s e x a c t l y would cure  them; what e x a c t l y would save them when the s i c k n e s s The s i c k n e s s cotin.  It  first  them.  That  came.  first  started  started with  in t h a t p l a c e c a l l e d the C h i l -  the w h i t e men.  good t h i n g s g o t t e n t h e r e by t r a p p i n g . Then the employees o f p l a c e bought what  They brought first  the Hudson's  that  There were many  The Indians  trapped.  Bay Company who were a t  the Indians g o t .  Bay Company - thought  is what was done by  Then they - the  they would d e s t r o y  to t r a d e w i t h the  the  Hudson's  Indians.  Indians f o r what  they  a q u a n t i t y of what they c a l l e d Hudson Bay b l a n k e t s .  were c o n t a i n e d i n b i g ,  s e a l e d boxes.  open them, they put on g l o v e s .  that  trapped They  B e f o r e they proceeded to  Then they s o l d  them r e a l l y cheap,  161  and the  Indians a c q u i r e d them.  to spread from the If disease  i t hadn't  been f o r the Indian d o c t o r s who foresaw  f o r the  Indians,  He t o l d them what  Indian d o c t o r s  come that s i c k n e s s . for smallpox. skin  the s m a l l p o x .  If  They s a i d  that,  Indians' medication!  t h e r e who found out what would o v e r -  They t o l d us  that  the skunk was  the m e d i c i n e You dry  i t around your neck and then you w i l l you do get  it,  to us h e r e , " J u s t  then you wash y o u r s e l f  the D'Arcy  Everyone who gets  the mountain s l o p e at over t h e r e . t o l d what It  i t would  it will  It  "Let's  die.  get  i n the  told  is  sickness  You go over  to  not going to go  bypass t h e r e . "  The prophets  do.  was near the time when the s i c k n e s s  They s a i d , camp.  When i t comes  not  people need no  to f o r e s e e ,  it will  the summer camp.  the  cure y o u .  The ones, who had the a b i l i t y  come h e r e .  What  There were  o n l y our f o r e b e a r s , "Go o v e r to the summer camp f o r the will  over  they would be c u r e d .  f a t and the marrow, and t h a t w i l l  medicine".  I guess  You wear the s k i n around your neck.  then you wear  skunk's  Indians.  the  the high power was watching  to do so t h a t  a wonder was our own I n t e r i o r a number o f  started  blankets.  t h e r e t r u l y would be no more  through p i t y us.  From t h e r e the smallpox  d e p a r t , my f r i e n d s .  was  to come a l o n g .  We are g o i n g to the summer  The ones who do not go t h e r e w i l l  d i e when the rash  comes."  162  Then the  I n d i a n s , who, u n l i k e the r e s t o f u s , d i d not b e l i e v e  in a n y t h i n g , to l i s t e n those  s a i d , "Why go so f a r over t h e r e ? "  to them," s a i d  Half  Indians around t h e r e f o l l o w e d the They s t a y e d a long  D'Arcy. is  the p r o p h e t s .  gone.  time a t  Indian d o c t o r  "It  We w i l l  go now and bury our  friends."  is  They had r e a l l y d i e d a f t e r a l l .  It  that  those  power was a b l e to watch over them. prophets who s a i d  d i f f e r e n t name - m o l o m s h t l i ' a )  the s i c k n e s s that w i l l  them were  lying  Indians a l l  over  There must have been some  "Wear  (which we c a l l the s k i n o f  t h e r e i s any p o s s i b i l i t y  then wash y o u r s e l f  cure y o u . "  disease  Indians knew t h a t some good  to them, "The w o l f ! "  around your neck, and i f  The  in  Those they b u r i e d and  However, t h e r e were Coast seems  himself.  they c a l l e d the summer camp.  When they a r r i v e d those who had not gone w i t h  who s u r v i v e d .  time.  of  It was p r o b a b l y s i x o r maybe  from the p l a c e t h a t  then they s t a y e d .  right  the summer camp o v e r t h e r e  Indian d o c t o r s a i d ,  seven m i l e s  not  the p o p u l a t i o n  Then the  Then they went homewards.  around.  "It's  by a  the w o l f that you have  in the f a t and marrow o f  So the Coast  it  Indians f o l l o w e d t h a t  and  advice  and not many d i e d t h e r e . Myself,  you s e e , a l r e a d y  and I a c t u a l l y  I am more than seventy years  saw people around t h e r e that had had the  I saw my r e l a t i v e s o v e r at  the Coast who had s u r v i v e d  old  disease.  the  163  disease,  and on t h e i r f a c e s and bodies  could s t i l l This real,  it  the marks of  be seen from when that d i s e a s e passed is  is  not a f a i r y  verifiable.  that  i t was  that very d i s e a s e . in t h a t  t a l e , not a s t o r y w i t h o u t f a c t s . I saw a r e p o r t in the paper t h a t  naturally.  Indian way.  No!  is  told  they  They brought  We s t i l l  that  they have p r e s e r v e d  No, t h e r e they l i v e d and d i e d  see i n papers and i n books those very Indians d i e d .  reser-  I m y s e l f saw t h e r e those  t h a t were a l r e a d y down, and a l r e a d y  growing between the houses o f those the  it.  but  It  One p l a c e where not everyone d i s a p p e a r e d was  v a t i o n s where o t h e r houses  they who brought  remote land where the Haida say  the one and o n l y  rash  by.  o f those w h i t e men who d i e d from t h a t very d i s e a s e , d i d n ' t say  the  t h e r e were b i g  trees  Indians who had d i e d from  smallpox. It  is  the w o l f  for that sickness same now.  Maybe  t h a t we c a l l  in those t i m e s .  I wonder i f  t h a t was it  is  the c u r e  still  i t was o n l y because a s t r o n g m e d i c i n e was  to them by a h i g h e r power. forefathers.  molomshtli'a  That was  the given  the way, my f r i e n d s , o f o u r  The w h i t e men c o u l d n ' t succeed in making a l l  the  Indians d i e but because t h e r e was c a r e taken o f us we s t i l l believe  i t happened t h i s  way.  T h i s C h i l c o t i n used to be the l a r g e s t you know t h a t now they are the s m a l l e s t  tribe of  because the  I n d i a n s , and sickness  164  first  passed  through  there.  T h a t , my f r i e n d s , was really  true.  why t h a t  the way o f our f o r e f a t h e r s .  The w h i t e men were going  t e r r i b l e sickness  I am En Chinemqen.  came.  That  to d e s t r o y i s what  us.  It That  I am t e l l i n g  is is you.  165  DEATH BY THE DANCE CURSE  en  Jnuqnuq 33  we  JaSuin  My  friends  they  ask  w  i  k a  tu  w  me  Jzfltinf  the ways  J k f I ki lae  AkaiAa  we  t/unitaj"  we  Jx inai?em  forebears  ours  did  call  they  Indian  JkaSnaeJ"  k in w  Whether  wi naSx nun  winaix  beiieve.  True  w  AkaiAae ours  tu t h a t were.  J"wa  zwaiten  JkaSnaeJ"  if  know  whether  get  it  Akan did  we  i  t h e r e were  dz  tf'a  No  this  from anywhere  A'u  A'u  w  tjtftin  I  tjazim  k in w  w  fwa  k in w  if  Jx iriaS?m8e  JkOkila  w  Indian Doctors  forebears  fwa  q alnin  myself  hear  w  Jae  k i J  Jq uq U  ats'xen  this  very  story  saw  w  w  Doctor  w  ts'C*ts'pa  AkaiAa  aSts'xen  AkaSn  great-uncle  ours  saw  I  did  166  A'u  i  ka q l i l  when  Jae  . minse  anger  ftum  Talked  t o me  w  at.  ts'flae  q elq elilt  Aaek  fz  k ij  about  those  the way he was ruled and d i r e c t e d by a power  w  other than h i s own.  k tj  w  w  zfiten  dz  A'u k L /  No  couldn't  p'sSmsen  Aksln  tu  it.  " I burnt  I did  already  tin/  ke  because I  /turn  kae  w  JaSJae  p'a&nt bring back  A'u  i  Jmdeuael  fhae  life  theirs  qlfilae  t/<Jt  Itunae  leqmitjae  became angry,"  said,  Over at  hay beach  pipalp11a?sS  Jijfq'tjae  person  young woman  tjutjuwsljtj  A'u  same age  as her.  we t i  ti  zualtenaej"  her  kiA  S  know o f  teWae  Whatever  k'ae  ku  /turn xejae  tf  anger at  me  that one. Then  nf A'uJ  ti one  n  J imafmae  my  wi f e  kae  wonder about  ql fmin  33  xix  q'aSuq f cursed  167  mfrej  x ?ut/in  k'aiti  w  the p e r s o n . Four  min  tw®?l  nf  A'u  then  I guess  mif  between.  A'u  waS?  Still  At J*  q 'ezflx  distance  where  w  ti  that  x ?utj"in  'mile'  mif  A'u  w  A'u then  miles.  alt i  Still  At /  q 'ezflx  begin  Indian dance. J u s t when  w  At/uk  stop s i n g i n g  that  Indian d o c t o r  ceases.  w  fA'emti  J"x inaS?mae  sing  that  Indian d o c t o r a l r e a d y  k if  kae  able  Indian d o c t o r  that  Jx tn^?mae  plaen  XIJA'  t/utae  we  help  self.  That  alA  A'u  t Juk  xui  dz  shoes.  A'u  A'u  Just  xtnin  takes o f f  nuk aen w  sing  w  like  ti  w  t . f x i nae?mi  over  A'(k?aejae  w  'A'em  Indian dance t h a t  four  nf  take o f f shoes  Aka3x  distance  ts'flae  wa'TtJa  xtnaSm  miles  laiku  w  that  At J  JkskaSu?  over there  ti  JkekaSu?/  xu*A'  'mile'  begin  A'u  No  M'\  xdilim  what  did  Akae  168  A'u  zdq  A'u  qeqazalm  death.  tu  ts'flae  Got t i r e d  alti  him  A'u  zuq  Indian d o c t o r .  Died  w  'Peter Williams' P e t e r Wi11iams.  laep  km  your  I am  dz  k ij  Don't  let  waS?  nsihm  A'u  xdiA  l i k e do to by c u r s e  Jx ina5?mae  that  tjae  w  tu  ka  en  fq ejal?a  my  nephew  q a&la  k ij*  hurt  feeling  w  naming  w  x 3?kuk  w  w  tm  Jqejae"?a  tjfx  my  nephew.  Went  w  ti  jkul  aeku  'Mi s s i o n '  A'iq  el laiku  plain/  him  school  at  Mission.  Came  from the  when  fA  we  tuwfu?  nf  young man.  A'uJ  JtJfx iJ w  Then went  aku  k (ft J?a  over  place.  w  a&ku  AiJ  we?J  ti  Jx ma&?ma  tjfx  Over  where  stay  the  Indian d o c t o r .  Went  d?aim  xftaj  trade  with  i  w  ki l a l x ^  k aln  beaver.  Took  w  naj  w  neq dz w  steal  tu that  (which he  stole)  169  i  kila$x 33  x^Jpfn ! t>  qaAmfmna  naif  beaver.  Trapped  o l d man.  Going  w  mutaa  k^na/  again  get  by the  Jq'uq 'a  ij  trapped  along with  w  i  Ja? t i  qaAmfmna  t J?x  the  o l d man.  Went  A'u  auz  tj's  boat b e l o n g  w  uluj"  again  already  qeAmfmnae  lalntu  the  o l d man.  Already did  from  there.  Found i t  that very  one  nabj  k ij  tjfx  nfA  k a?n  him  does  goes t h e r e .  boat.  Then  kaln  qaikiA  would f e e l  A'u  k i J" w  gui1t,"  tu  ti  pun  nf  trapped  lain  AaSti  A'dza  9  muta  Ail  w  X tJVn  ki  naej  w  J  paqtjan  nfA  ti  A'u  ti  w  ti  no the  J"ax move  tua  zualtin know  taelf  w  That one  x dz  animals  ti  had  the  tjfx j  t Jd  naej  axaip  went  said  to him,  "Alas,  w  tjut  wa?  A'fA'q an  sa i d  his  over  w  doing  170  t/ut  dz  k m  Jwa  qalflmin  k if  JwaSt  said,  "No  I  don't  anger at  with  anyone  w  mij  kain  A'u  still  I am  w  xuz  qalflmin  t/ in  xui?  Akax  going  anger a t  you.  Going  you  zdaSten  q'ujae*nk  mfnum  ku?  J"q al11 n  tjaej"  know."  Laughed  at him  did.  Told  me  ti  Jx inai?mae  az  that  Indian d o c t o r ,  "I  w  t/i3t  Jku"za  said,  "Your c h i l d  Akain  A'u  kiA  I was.  JmaSual  If  fa  just  A'u  A'u  not  Jkain  Cure  myself  then  A'u  J"  ksej"  tja  fa  Make  ku  p'aWn  nanti  did  burn  I the  ka  x dz w  it,"  qalfl  did.  aj  laSx  nf  ka  w  Jazfitan  bad was  w  k m  c o u l d n ' t do a n y t h i n g about  qaA  x dz  w  soul.  tu  lap  A'u  w  md?ta  p'aSman  Akain  again.  Burn  I did  k i.f w  angry  ka  kaSja  n o t h i n g c o u l d be d o n e , "  wa he  u  171  tjut  Jx dz  said.  "Not  A'u  w  just  k t J  kae  w  kae fae  dz  A'u  no  couldn t  c o u l d be done  kae  nuk 'ae  ni  be  helped."  Then  wa  fA'am  ti  .fx i na6?mae  ni  did  sing  the  Indian d o c t o r  then  w  q 'azflx  laiku  u  A'u  f  Indian dance from  wa  A'u  1  A'u  ti  mu?tae  did  another  again  A'u  laqnutjae  q 'azflx  grass beach.  Indian dance  qaqazaem  Indian dance  'til  tires out.  ni J"  zuqj*  tjdt  then  died.  Said  A'u  J"  A'u  w  without  q afnux w  Sick  k i f  kae  Indian d o c t o r  that  did  w  wi.f  xaSA  t/aeJaSti  very angered  that  did  to that  mfnaej"  dz A'u k i f  zuaetan  mm  him.  No  know  us  w  trfnae person  wij*  shoes,  A'u  x inaS?mae  xa?n?t/39  w  xux iA'xin  w  A'u  Still  At, f begin  q azflx w  w  xdi I imj"  w  A'u  k i.f  that  nfmuA  qaiuq.f one.Cursed  AiJ" kimm what d i d  172  ati  Ai J  xfA  kae  reason  to  wae  q ozuf  min  did  work  for  w  on  aemae  k ij"  good  towards  xfA  w  k'ae  laSti  guess  iA Over  wij  them  the ones  taili  tuftaj  nfmuA (he w o r k e d  ts'flae  k iJ  like  that  i  he s h o u l d  ux aelmfx ae  A'u  w  Indians.  the one  A'u  t o whom s o m e t h i n g  ztfq  there  Anger  'John Sky  died  John  unpleasant  t i  nfA  1  Sky.  has  That's  happened.  aSut last  x ina?em  AaSk  Ail  tfaSuna  1930  very  Indian  ours  from  here  1930  w  doctor  haSJ  k'a  in during  zuz aj w  when  ti  died  do  qlfl  ts'fla  was  power on)  J"ina  w  w  his  tjaeutfua  there  A'u  wftae  kaStu  ku  around t h e r e  winaSx him  kalti  w  really  A'u that's  ti  that  'year'  year  an?we|  JilaSl?qf my  close  friends.  Two  173  ts'flae  ti  Ja  things  zfiten  Jae  dz  A'u  did  he.  Don't  k m I  zuaiten  ti  kil?ae  q'aiuqj  mi naej  we  know  the  first  one c u r s e d  he.  Does  zuaSten  aej t f  know  him my  ti  q ezflx ae  that  Indian dance  w  an  Jimaemee  nuk ae  wife  just  A'u  u  J  kftj  him  same age  al  death.  A'u  still  ku?ti  Jua§?J  w  Jwae  w  he was  tj'afurae  331  Here  on the  Jqummae  tdae  tjdn  nitaej  tsezfl  la?ti  mountain  they  call  they do  (proper noun)  there  AiJ  laSk  ti  tjdn  nitaej  is  where i s  they  call  they do  we  wai  A'u  ts'flae  Jk iA'dJ  tjae  wa?  It  seems  i t has  face  his  wearing  Jae  lalti  his  do  w  we  tjdt  wit  k i'J  say  they  still  w  A' u  A'u  'John  Sky'  John  Sky.  n(mq war  waS? does  w  bonnet  174  if  q fx  if  w  alert  A'u But  f  to p r o t e c t  looks  ts'fla  ku  ux almfx  that  looks  as  Indian  dz  him  Not  ts'fla  winax  that  real  ti  ati  l i k e that  nf  A'u  that  k if w  that  that  lif  is why  nfA  w  k if w  is  fnfA  There  is  tua  9  fkitflex  is  lying  down.  x dz  nf  no.  Just  w  A'u that  fx ina?im  fnfA  Indian d o c t o r  himself  w  ^ku that which they c a l l  twa  IsiR  mountain  ti  X^'X '  nitaf  w  that  lafitl  w  and powerful  is  Aif  w  fqummae  that  w  call  laStf  ux alm'x a  t i  him t h a t  aA  tfdn  tfa  i  Indians.  naturally  k if w  f»f  A'u  w  i s how i t  w  is watching  a3ts'q aftenf  that  a5ts'q af  tfdn  nitaf  wa  call  they do  tiie  tfiln  nitaf  where is  call  they do  it  'Mount C u r r i e ' Mount C u r r i e .  'John  Sky'  John  Sky.  tfa?  175  nfA  ti  JazfitenJ  J"noqnuq ae  fA  That  is  doings  friends  right  dz  A'u  Not  that  w  k L J  quq 33l  Jut  story  unverifiable,  w  aSts'xen  AkaSn  Saw  I did  w  A'u  nfA  Indian d o c t o r .  Because  fA  tjae  i  here  A'u  w  real  that  is.  ti  talked  to me  has  that  tjae  /as  km  f  zwaetsn  n f taaj*  do want know  wa  JaSutn  tjaej*  AkinaeJ  do  ask  me  i f that  ntm  tf  xaSJ  believe  we do  afts'xsri  naen  aSti  ku  see  just  that  happen  they do  k i.f w  kiA  x dz  aej" ku  those.  If  not  didn't  w  ts'flae  Jae*n  kiA  x dz  talked  to him  if  not  w  kiA  x dz w  aej"  i f not  ae J  qanfnun heard  fz those  fz  q dlq eltlt u  here.  /turn  ntin  w  t/'alunae  quq 33lUt  winaSx  w  wina5x  w  Jx inaS?m33 w  al  Ja?n him.  176  dz ka?  A'u  Wouldn't  k in w  J"wae  xinaix  believe  nun  w  it.  qanfmin  Jka5n  Heard  I did  zaSm  wa  AkalaSp  qanfminj"  ftumx  that.  Do  you f o l k s  hear  me.  (A  ku  'tapes'  kalt i  on the  tapes  which  J"nl?am  fa?  en  ts'fts'apae  chant  his  my  great-uncle.  dz  tell  my c l o s e f r i e n d s .  Don't  you  Jxq aq w  w  feelings  laSp  nfA  your.  Just  A'u  ka  Indian d o c t o r from  That  is  story  kae  did  q aSlas  ku  w  l e t hurt  I axlaix  that  does  still  Jzfitan  Jae  c o u l d be done  call  Jquqalin  wa  how much  alki  ti  w  us  J"x inaS?am  nfA  k ij  ku  kafntu I  w  J k i nkaSnasJ"  tjijnim  f  Told  k i J  /turn  w  A'aSk  record.  Ja?laSlqJ  AkaSrceJ" Maybe  'recorder'  tumuAaem  A'u  by  i  of  remember  wa do  Jk<Tki las  AkalAae  nfA  ti  forebears  before.  That is  all  JYntJas  e(n)  tjfnemqan.  I am  En  Chinemqen.  178  DEATH BY THE DANCE CURSE  My f r i e n d s , they ask me about the ways of our f o r e f a t h e r s , of those they c a l l  the Indian d o c t o r s .  I d i d not hear t h i s  story  from j u s t  anywhere, I saw  myself.  I saw our g r e a t - u n c l e when he was a n g r y .  me about  those t h i n g s ,  about  the way he was  by a power o t h e r than h i m s e l f . back.  "I  He t a l k e d  to  r u l e d and handled  No, he c o u l d not b r i n g  burnt out t h e i r l i f e because  this  I got a n g r y , "  things  he s a i d .  Over at the haybeach t h e r e was a p e r s o n , a young woman who knew my w i f e , and was about  the same age as she was.  whatever t h a t woman c o u l d be angry at me f o r . cursed.  I wondered  Then she was  I guess t h e r e was about f o u r m i l e s d i s t a n c e between  woman and the d o c t o r .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , when over t h e r e the  d o c t o r s a n g , then t h a t  Indian woman, who was f o u r m i l e s  danced.  F i r s t she took her shoes o f f and then she began  dance.  Only when the  cease.  When the Indian d o c t o r began to s i n g ,  took o f f her  Indian d o c t o r stopped s i n g i n g  she d i e d .  who d i e d as doctor.  Indian away, to  d i d she away she  shoes.  No, she was not a b l e to h e l p h e r s e l f . until  right  this  She got  tired just  T h a t ' s what she d i d  l i k e my nephew P e t e r  the r e s u l t o f a c u r s e put on him by the same  Don't  l e t your f e e l i n g s  be h u r t .  Williams Indian  I am naming my nephew.  179  He went to school young man.  at M i s s i o n .  He came from t h e r e when he was a  Then he went o v e r to t h a t p l a c e , over to where the  Indian d o c t o r s t a y e d , went to s t e a l  the t r a d e w i t h  the b e a v e r .  He s t o l e a beaver t h a t had been trapped by the o l d man. The o l d man went out to get When he came back a g a i n , moved from t h e r e . stolen  it.  No,  you must f e e l  guilty.  I am not u s u a l l y  Then P e t e r W i l l i a m s  it."  This  and r i g h t  to  time you have gone  angry w i t h anyone.  Still  You know I am going  too  I am  to be  angry."  laughed at him.  He s a i d , "Your c h i l d was bad. soul  had been  Then he went and s a i d  Indian d o c t o r t o l d me, "I  not burn h i s  It  He found i t and knew the very one who had  going to be angry w i t h you.  That  that were t r a p p e d .  boat was m i s s i n g .  That one had the b o a t .  him, " A l a s , far.  his  the animals  c o u l d n ' t do a n y t h i n g I was angered.  I would never cure myself a g a i n .  then n o t h i n g c o u l d be d o n e . "  If  about I  did  I burnt  He s a i d , " N o t h i n g  it  else  c o u l d be done, i t c o u l d n ' t be h e l p e d . " The young g r a s s y beach.  Indian began to dance w i t h o u t h i s He kept dancing u n t i l  s i c k and then he d i e d . that  he was  t i r e d out.  The Indian d o c t o r s a i d  to a person who had made him r e a l l y a n g r y .  We do not know f o r what  reason he worked h i s  shoes on the He got  that he had to do He c u r s e d him.  power on those he  c u r s e d f o r we wished that he would do good towards  the  Indians.  180  I guess the anger  rises  in the one to whom something  unpleasant  has been done. Over t h e r e is where John Sky d i e d . Indian d o c t o r s  from h e r e .  It was d u r i n g  t i m e , when the Indian d o c t o r d i e d . friends.  He d i d two t h i n g s ,  cursed. as  My w i f e s t i l l  that  That  1 don't  John Sky.  It  seems as  though  not  powerful  looks  they c a l l John Sky  Those a r e events  Mt.  No,  still is  He  is  watching  how i t  Indian it  face.  looks  l y i n g down.  is j u s t  like  is why they c a l l  Currie.  from r i g h t  it  that that.  That is where the  h e r e , my f r i e n d s .  I saw i t and that  That  story  Indian d o c t o r  Because people want to know what happened here  they ask me i f we b e l i e v e those t a l e s . if  his  is.  r e a l and not u n v e r i f i a b l e .  t a l k e d to me.  i t has  l i k e an  Indian d o c t o r h i m s e l f and t h a t  is p a r t of what  happen,  the same age  t h e r e is a p a r t which  But that  r e a l l y him in t h a t mountain.  mountain they c a l l  is  that  r e a l l y s o , my dear  that he is  a l e r t t o p r o t e c t the I n d i a n s .  by n a t u r e , that mountain that  It  is  remembers h e r ; she was j u s t  wearing h i s war bonnet and they say  is  1930, o r around  Indian who danced h e r s e l f to d e a t h .  they c a l l  It  the l a s t o f our  know the f i r s t one he  Here on the mountain c a l l e d T s e z i l  and is  He was  I hadn't  t a l k e d to him, i f  w o u l d n ' t have b e l i e v e d i t .  If  I h a d n ' t seen  that  I h a d n ' t heard him, I  I heard i t j u s t as you f o l k s  hear  me maybe on the tapes which  I record.  I have brought  you the  chant o f my g r e a t - u n c l e . That  is  your f e e l i n g s  the s t o r y be h u r t .  I tell It's  y o u , my dear f r i e n d s . just  t h a t we s t i l l  Don't  let  remember how  many t h i n g s c o u l d be done by those o f our f o r e f a t h e r s whom we call  Indian That  is  doctors. all.  I am En Chinemqen.  182  BURNING MOUNTAIN SIDES FOR BETTER CROPS  we?  Akaen  Jq ae?un  tu  Doing  I am  telling  the  AiJ  w  A'u  why  wal?p'aept  almae  kc*n  do always  good  where  k'(5lt/33n  t/dt  p i c k f o r purpose o f  i  ij  taSkmae  A'u  all  i  food they  ts'flae  that  zfitenj  i  doi ngs  forebears  tjae  tjfx  kilk(fkele?ae  wit  w  go  Jq 'ailffi  the  I  w  the b e r r i e s  Jk'alm?tjae  roots  we  ts'aeq aSn  nftaej"  do  eat  they.  w  like  x ael  nftaej  ti  pall?ae  Jqem  wai?  q i i  Burn  they do  the  one  hill.  Do  use  w  nftaej  ti  ndk ae  mi J  they do  the  other.  When  lalti  i  there  sticks  i  w  milmdlxae  Jq alllae w  the r i p e b e r r i e s  nf  A'u  A'u  ke  x az w  disappear  lalti  x ft  already  there  a  does  i  Jk'elmtjae  root  w  plain  AfJ  then  potatoes  ke  u  lot  y?6.ZB disappear  i  Jk ink fnae  l i k e potato plant  w  u  (unidentified)  183  i  tikmae  A'u  all  i  plant  Jk|?mutas (unidentified)  x ft  dl  ts'flae  much  too  like  w  nf  A'u  f  do  grow  bushes.  they do.  It  i s marked  there  wa  Jkak  burnings.  That  is  do  'til  go  h e r e go t h e r e  Watches  sitae  ku  ni/  sitae  k'ultjaem pick  JiJ  k ij  /tax  x al  he does  that  really  burn i t .  milmfnlaxae  bushes  w  w  nij  (berries).  kae  kUae  Taken  away  tikam  x?ip  fA  mutae  i  all.  Grow  then  again  b e r r y bushes,  i  J k f mutae  Jkimt/a like  litI  ti  that  its'  Afk  nfA  w  w  ij  Jx alxil  tjfx  Grow root  malmulx"  burn  ku  i  x?fp  do  /tin  x?fp  wa  wif  Jtjdwae  At J  W a z a B  d i s a p p e a r when  nftajj*  w  the one does own  i  do  x al  wa  aej*  ka- x  /if  Then  ti  wa  potato  plant  (unidentified)  q aldzae w  I  Jk tnkwfnaB  i  w  plant  wa  (unindentified)  taSkrra  all  ts'dq anim w  do eat by us  k 'fn  there  where  grows.  A few  years  seems  around  i  wa  really  w  rarely  t/rfk  A'u  kiAaSJ"  t Jaa  mafqae  three  almost  years  iA  k'alil  laiti  again  come  then  grow  there  ni  A'u  aezaem  i  fertile  all  AwaS  Don't  just  I guess  J  Then  A'u  k tj"  tu  tj'aij  do grow.  dz  k'se  w  mutas  k'ulil  tax/  like  x?lfp  naij  b e f o r e then  that  Ai J  ts'flae  fA  ts'flae  •  la$ti  maSqae  Awa  A'u  i  taikmae  x^'P  k ik fk w  w  small  w  A'u  really  do  A'u  J"  wa  x ft w  lots  taem everything.  '  burn  i  taxi  xaxazfimae  JaX^P  big  trees  Jae  A'u  keSti  ones  around  milmftnlx bushes  185  we  x elp  ts'flae  ti  nuk 83'  fq em  ts'flae  do  burn.  Some  the  other  hill  some  ti  nuk 33  nfA  ti  Iif  wae?  aits'xan  num  the  other.  That is  why  do  see  we  wtj"  w  w  nfmuA  us  plain  ux aelmi'x  already  Indians  Jpai?x33lp  taikem  burnt  all  tjae  xalA  u  i  tsftaej  do  f  they do  nftasj"  nfA  k if  they do  so t h a t  w  w  w  k ij  w  tu  w  ts'flae  that  seems  Jqtimqmae  nfAae  x fA  hills.  Because  k'ae  w  aiti that  wej  tjuwae  x 5lx el  do  own.  Burn  w  w  q a?num  wft  laiti  k t J*  gets  they  there  some  w  almae  wae?  Jxek  JtwaS I  good.  Do  tell  each o t h e r  naif  xail im  ku  go.  Do same  other.  r\6k  e?wit  /wait  w  taej  aetd  who  xailim  ku  nuk  Do same  other.  ku  there  ts'flae Just  A'u  like  186  tf  ku  I ipxail  tin  that  a  garden  t h e i r.  Ja  Jtex  kai  because  real  does  i  Jalntfa  az  w h i t e man  kae  kanum  realize  wai  don't  us  Akalaip  we  burn a n y t h i n g .  Do  know  tu  ka§  already  did  x dza  ts'fla  disappear  seems  wa  x al  nftaf  do  burn  they d i d .  w  forebears  there  from  ki  i  ts'alq anin u  eat by  w  ts'fla  ts'ik'fz  taSkam  Jtaem  seems  almost  all  everything  x dza  alA  ni  disappear.  Maybe  because  i  k ij  all  watch  ^  by our  takmee  JtumulaJ  9  Ail  w  ats'atsxa  x" '*^'  lalti  Already  J"  kaeA  kilkilaA  A'u  Jkun now  do  a&ki  plain  iA  zaSm But  A'u  k(j  lain  i  w  kinds  AaSJ  wfnax  tja  i  xi?pijf  i t weedy.  w  ,fa?dz don't  ku  ka did  fxip Grow  x alxal  x  burn.  Going  w  u ?  *  s  187  Akae  x els3il  nf  you  burn  then  w  t Ja?  him  Because  A'u  nfA  A'u  wa  they do  A'u  zAntJ  naek'  /aimmae  f  ha?  f  f o r us  do eat  him  i  Jae  food  for  /kfmutae (unidentified)  i  ts'a?q a3 w  num us  fix  then  mm  k(\lae  him  tu  first  ones  the  f o r g e t us  good  the way  w h i t e men  do  i  ts'flae  nf  already  1/  wae  trees.  Jk'dl  Aaip  Jq'al?  fxaSpae  /aim?ae  wae  aimae  i  w h i t e man  nftae/  /tumuAal/  /plain/  plant  i  into trouble.  changed they d i d  theirs  i  get  want they  a?ma3  t/u  you  nftae/  do good  i  xaiA'iA'  xalAmin  Because  i  Ju  i  kilkfkalae  i  forebears  roots  A'u  /k'almt/ae like  tikmee  A'u  i  all  just  plant  potato  Jk ink fn w  w  (unidentified)  188  talkam  A'u  fz  aSrree  Jq 'a5?  plain  all  just  those  good  to eat  already  ka  x dzae  nfA  w  disappear  k ij*  because  aSts'x  w  watch  i  tin  wae  kirn  did  x?ip  puj"  grow  weedy.  JtaSli  dz  them  no d i d  tu  k ij"  t Jae  ij  w  tu gone  dz  ts'flae  No one seems  ts'ax  Jtaeli  clear  there  almae  J"tae*li  nfA  ki I ki kalae  good  the  our  forebears.  do  nfA  ti  Jquqlm  tumuAaen  k ij"  kaSnim  ts'flae  That  is  story  you f o l k s .  What  did  seems  AiJ  x alxael  i  why  burnt  forebears.  w  w  kalklfkalae  wai?  A k L laSp  A'u  Do  you  must  iA  mdtae  zwaltan  AkiUnJae  plain  A'lA  now  again  know  now  already  did  x dzae w  disappear  i  tsSkmae  A'u  Jtaem  wa  all  everything did  tu  J*Aal?  was near  ka  km here  tja$  ael  wij"  nfmuA  il  was.  kin  td  Ait  tu  tj"fx  kin  berry p i c k i n g .  There we d i d  q 'aelae?um  xenf?zae  plain  long ago.  Already  w  J"  w  berry picking  plain  tu  tu*  t/ix  now  already  That e v e r y t h i n g  Aaltu  t.fix  tu  tu  JaS  A'u  does  seems  x dz  i  w  ke  all  Disappeared.  gone.  ts'fla  xfp  anything  does  grow.  kin  Bushes  did  all  over.  Where used  do  kUaa  x"?^  p i c k b e r r i e s . Oh r e a l l y  Akunjas  fA  tjae  now  where  lalk  ti  tu  w  we  taikem  u  x dzae  Jtalm?  km  w  foods  ts'l*k  wal?  q 'aelaipaem  J*?ainq'ae  nothing  milmfmlex  we  w  go  plain  Jtalkem  kaiA  w  x ?dz w  already  f  w  There we d i d go  q a|aSpaem  niA  tae  t/'al  tu  ael  wal do  tpaS  p l e n t i f u l here  tjftx a3 w  s i t u a t e d the house  AkalAae  alti  tu  our  that  is  Ait  A'aix  q ?aim  Ait  qW'aelaVrum  ti  from  come  get  when  pick b e r r i e s  some  w  Jxinf?z33  plain  kaSt i  gooseberries.  Already  none  Jxmfz  aeA  gooseberry  around  i  JqWaslaipa}  lain  berries.  hi  33/  nt1k a3  tamfx  other  grounds  i  wa  'picking  xailam  us.  Already  doing  k ij w  ko  x dzae w  nai?  Do  called  kin  al  ours  around  here.  tpaiunae  Jna3?  nfm  t .fas  do  named  us  where go  az  pick b e r r i e s .  Don't  pdn  wai?/  kaiA  q 'alaips3n  J"u  some  wai?  w  do  Jtaim  place'  ku  around  lain  w  w  wai?  w  nfmuA  tu  q 'aelaipa3mae is  k ij*  w  Already a l l disappear.  w  It  you  wif  x dz  ku  kaSt i  pa3l?uj"ae  f i n d one s i n g l e  tj*fx  laiti  k ij"  there  anything  w  J q 'ae lalp  AkiUnJae  berry  now.  w  w  191  nfA  ti  Jquqlm  tumuAan  AH  That  is  my s t o r y  to you  about  Jkax dz  Je  disappeared  they d i d  w  nfA  ti  That  is  td  all.  wae  t h a t do  i  wae  tu  Aalk  Akaelelp  Do  you s t i l l  how  ts'a1q aenim  ki  kilkC'kalae  e a t by  the  forebears.  w  wai?  ts'fla)  A'u  zw^ten  al  know  here  JlsX'^X  ftummu'Aaen  ts'fla  reminding  you f o l k s  like  i  tj'aiuna  taSkma all  «  i  kalklfkala  old-fashioned  al here  tj'auna  Jwai?  JYntJaJ"  ways.  I am  'Baptiste  Ritchie'  Baptiste  Ritchie  lf?lwata  en  tjfnamqan  AkaSn  nfA  ti  Mount C u r r i e .  En  Chinemqen  I am.  Finished.  192  BURNING MOUNTAIN SIDES FOR BETTER CROPS.  I am t e l l i n g you about  the doings o f our f o r e f a t h e r s , why  they always d i d w e l l wherever they went f o r picking  all  the b e r r i e s and roots  They used to burn one h i l l a l o t of bushes l i k e potatoes bushes  the purpose  l i k e potatoes  and use the o t h e r .  disappeared.  grew too much.  When t h e r e were  All  the p l a n t s  Then they burned.  own b u r n i n g .  That  really burnt.  Then the b e r r y bushes the s h k i m u t a , eaten by u s ,  All  It  was marked out and  is what  they d i d so  grew a g a i n .  is where they  It was a few y e a r s ,  The roots  lots  of b e r r i e s .  I guess  trees.  around the bushes was burned. as w i t h a n o t h e r .  That  Indians, that a l l  the h i l l s  what  l i k e potatoes  grew,  that were  grew. i t was almost  E v e r y t h i n g was a l l  They r a r e l y burnt the b i g  Each one watched  the p l a n t s  y e a r s , b e f o r e those t h i n g s grew t h e r e a g a i n . really  that  the o t h e r bushes were removed.  the shkwenkwina, a l l that  roots  d i s a p p e a r e d when the  they c o u l d go here and t h e r e to p i c k b e r r i e s . i t was  they a t e .  then the r i p e b e r r i e s d i s a p p e a r e d and the  t h e r e one d i d h i s  that  that  of  around t h r e e Then t h e r e were  really  Only the small  It was  fertile.  ones,  the same w i t h one  is why we s e e , we who are  only hill  grown-up  seem to be b u r n t , because that  they d i d to t h e i r own h i l l s .  They burned them so  that  was  they would get good crops  there.  They t o l d o t h e r s who went  t h e r e , "Do the same at your p l a c e , do the same at your p l a c e . " T h e i r own h i l l s  were j u s t  l i k e a garden.  But now, because the w h i t e man r e a l l y watches burn a n y t h i n g .  We r e a l i z e a l r e a d y ,  us, we d o n ' t  i t seems the t h i n g s  that  were eaten by our f o r e f a t h e r s have d i s a p p e a r e d from the p l a c e s where they burned.  It  seems  disappeared.  it  is  Maybe  t h a t a l r e a d y almost e v e r y t h i n g has  because  t h i n g s grow and they d o n ' t b u r n .  it's If  weedy.  All  kinds  of  you go to burn then you get  i n t o t r o u b l e because the w h i t e men want  to grow t r e e s .  Because  they changed our ways they do good f o r us and we eat the food that  the w h i t e men use.  earliest  forefathers.  the shkwenkwina, a l l  Then we f o r g e t The roots  of  the good food o f our  l i k e potatoes,  those were good to e a t .  Now they have d i s a p p e a r e d because the h i l l s no-one seems d i d so  the s h k i m u t a ,  to tend them, no-one c l e a r s  grew weedy and  t h e r e as our f o r e f a t h e r s  thoroughly.  That burnt.  is  another s t o r y  f o r you f o l k s .  Now you must do i t a g a i n .  that was near here j u s t berry p i c k i n g . nothing. appeared.  Now you know why e v e r y t h i n g  disappeared.  There we used to go  There we went b e r r y p i c k i n g  The food p l a n t s It  Why our f o r e f a t h e r s  seems  have now a l l  gone.  long ago. They have  Now dis-  that e v e r y t h i n g and a n y t h i n g grows on the  194  hills.  It  has become covered w i t h bushes  all  over.  Where we used to p i c k b e r r i e s , o h , they were r e a l l y ful.'  Right here where our house  is  we used to come to p i c k b e r r i e s , are no g o o s e b e r r i e s They have a l l  near us.  disappeared.  around h e r e ; c a l l e d  berry  That  is  forefathers  now, t h a t  like gooseberries.  Now the o t h e r b e r r i e s  them 'The P i c k i n g  Places'  Now you w i l l  is  where  Now t h e r e are the  We named o t h e r grounds o f  where we went to p i c k b e r r i e s . single  situated  plenti-  because  same.  ours that  is  not f i n d one  there. my s t o r y  to you about how those  a t e have d i s a p p e a r e d .  know, now t h a t ways were l i k e .  That  is  t h i n g s which our  all.  You w i l l  I am reminding you f o l k s , what the o l d I am B a p t i s t e  I am En Chinemqen.  That  R i t c h i e here i n Mt. is  all.  still  fashioned  Currie.  195  HOW WE MAKE CANOES•  en  Jnoqnuq a3  waiA  My  friends  doing  w  kan I am  xdiA  turn  AiJ"  mfi/num  done  us  when  fixing  wij"  nfmuA  w i t h us  telling  you  how  i  A'dza  as I  boats  here  k t J  not  know  t h a t hard  tjfik  A'u  a  canoe.  Just  that  zwaiten  mm  tja  km  know we  how  how much  i  I  make  xaS  w  aiA  kut Jaa  tja  Akunjae  A'dz  J  tumuA  az  k i w  fquqelin  kuA'  ku  kulim make  to  x dz  tja  k i.f  not  we  that  w  kalnaj"  tj'ai  ts'ala  w  k t J*  J?a?msJ  w  like.  How good  kilklfkel a  A'u  we  fx a  forebears.  But  did  nothing  wft  if  q ezujem  they  have  work t o o l s  w  lalka  w  ts'fla  ki I  Au  like.  Real  long  xfn?f time  196  q'ezujmi  f  weA  iA  tj*uk  JtwftaJ  before  finished  they do  work  k'sS  masA  But  A'd?za3 canoe.  JYnaa  Akunfaa  wij  nfmuA  kf lasf  now  a days  with  us  first  zwaitnanAi J  kaSJ"  knev/ how  handle them.  tu(m)  as I t J 'aa  wif  nfmuA  Here  with  us  waS?  AkaaA  Jkunjae  k'ulim  ki  t h a t do copy.  Do  we  now  fix  some canoes,  aa I t p i u n f f i  as I t/aSnas  Here  here at  we  A'dz  i  q ezuftm w  work  as I tfainaa  q'ezrijim  k'Jem  qiAAas  here  work a t  backyard o f my  A'd?zae  'work shop'  as  work shop  the  Ja§tin  tjftx as w  house.  asnasJd I uJ"  lalti  plain?e  we  xuz  mfi/nasn  Two  there  already  do  going  fix  tf  k ij  ?zik  J"?u1mt nt JalJ  It  that  log  given  w  to me  i  faeWas w h i t e men  I am.  197  i  tj"aetewd?zae  cedar t r e e s .  tuqfAA'u  x ?ut in  Jq dxit  Almost  four  feet  xelumsluq"  fae  nf  diameter  it.  Then  w  r  J"  A'u  w  A'&q  xf  tjaej"  i  brought  f o r there  en  J'tjimae'tae  uAIxe  JtwftaeJ"  agten  tj"ftx ae  my  children  into  they d i d  i n my  house.  ts'flae Just  A'u  like  Jq'd?z  dz  roof.  Doesn't  a$ti  if  zfk  waS?  that  was  log.  Does r e a l  k ij" w  ti  u  ki'lae?  almae good  pdj  \M'\  waS  Akin  kae  get wet  there.  Do  I could  lalti  if  ts'alk  k'cSAin  xaSA'min  k ij*  ftaim  there  have  light  if  wanted  that  brightness,  Jeqi I  walji n  Split  i n two  imhaSlq  AkaSn  ti?  I did that  I  ti  tjaetewd?zs  dz  kVif  that  cedar.  Not  really  w  good m a t e r i a l  w  f o r purpose o f making a boat  A'u  nftuf  only  because  a&laej"  xlmae I q big  in diameter  Jeqael  wi/in  Split  i n two  it  waS?  mf i fan  I t h a t ' s why  do  make use o f .  Akasn  nf  I did  then  JuluwiA  lain  boats.  Already half  xtfi  Akasn  Going  I am  kiAaS  A'u  Ain  w  JaSquA  fA  an  A'u  you see  that  finished  the o t h e r .  ti  fnfk'mm saws  tjiin  ni  saws  do  call  they do  kaiti  Do I  tuxtux  an  around i t  x flx  accurately  w  ti that  u  nClk a3  tja  w  Because  aski  x^'X '  t h a t are  powerful  9  'power  wa  Akaen  nuk 33  the o t h e r .  nfk'min  wal  two  ti  t/fwasujin  do  going to be  tjukf  w  was/  w  a5n?wa|  k if  measure  k 'al?in  xuzj  3 3  saw'  power saw  tjuwiu? J \ n  A'aSliA  A'u  k i,f  measuring.  Precisely  I do  it  kftjlaspae saw-horse.  w  lit  At J  intjaqtj*  There  where  upright  199  ti  A'd?za  A'u  tux  the canoe  really  k'ulti  f?azik  fix  the  iA  AiJ  in  on that  Jae  ti  of  the  Awae  is  upright.  Then  A'u it  x (tp  A'u  w  a&tu  i t measured  all  naet i  ts'flae  boat.  How  like  xu?z  How  it will  w  laSti  as I  then.  Then  be  tj'alnae  Jts'ix  i  I told  nfkm  AaS?mAae? I amain  you cut  w  pointed.  tjun  dz  ham  marked.  Do not  k i J w  edge  k ij  (will  be)  wide.  mfitaen  Akaen  Marked  I did  fA  Jt Ji'mae? I tae  wae?  my  children,  "Do  A'u  laSti  i I  that  kae  AaqaSlqf  u  an  near  Jmftjae  k'amtj  around the  kinkaSnaeJ  k i.f  There  J  A'd?zae  iA  Aaeti  r i g h t around.  tjawaiu?/  kinkaSnaeJ  AkaSlaep  antjeqtj  Ja  middle o f  in  wa?  (5lAx ae w  go i n s i d e  tae  where  il  tae  fmftjae  where  the markers.  200 wai?  Akaln  Do as  kirn  A'u  I do  fA  AeAUnim  then  ream i t . "  nftaej"  elkf  'power saw'  they do  with  power saw  •  hae  ts'flae  the.  Same  mt*tjen  Akaln  t/u1k  inside.  Marked  I did  finished.  f?ez  A'u  kt J  x  w  where  Akun  Ja  Now  do  not  J"  w  k ij" w  9m  it  wft  close  they  ts'fla  Axu?zaln  him  like  I'm  to ream.  k i  already  did  finish  using  w  going  J"  w  A'u  aA  kun  only  that  I do  q iinaSn  wa?  axes  I  there are  w  use  Ac*? I i n  q 4z w  ti the  q ' f Jq i na w  in the  Aae?Aaem3lm  tfrfk"/  Just  ti  they d i d .  we  one.  all  Cut  plain  tj"u"k  nfkm  nftaj  I am  ha  AiJ  nfkcn  going  power saw  i  that  ui  'power saw'  wa?  dz  w  J u s t enough  all  k ij"  A'u  Then do cut  J?ulx ae w  nf  i  Ja  AC*?lmina adzes  A^lin ream  201  w4?  i  AC^Iminae  there are  'tool  i  A'u  reamers  adze'  nfA  fz  adze.  Those  do  we  tfun  nitaej"  do  call  they do  we  q i i naSn  waS?  w  use  I.  Do  t J f t Jek a3  Aeq'aSlp  x fk'ten  we  q ena5n  pulling  wide  knife  do  use  a$n?wejae  t/f?tjuk  two  pulling  w  tool  Awe? Still  i there  X ?dt/in  kae  four  guess  w  w  'inch' inch  w  tools  w  tftxae  u?  narrow.  Oh  Aq'aSlaepJ"  twae  nuk^  wide  the  other  A'alq'mokjt  kae  twae  nuk ae  ai lae J*  six  guess  the  other.  Really  w  k'clrrceAae  q alq J  A'u  one.  But  just  l i t t l e rounded  w  k i  A'u  pa6l?ae  w  I.  zC*nk.f  w  zmku  ti  rounded  the  ti  ni5k ae w  the o t h e r .  nfA  iz  we  tjun  nitaej"  wae?  t/(?tj"uk  w  Those  are  do  call  they  do  pulling  tool.  202  paixminja  waS? It  is  shaver  ti  A'dza  aA  .  f o r the  canoe.  Then  ti  waS?  do have  the  kalkfkala  Attlmin  tftxHae  ti?  x fk'tan  xan&nk  antique  gouge.  Narrow  that  knife  heavy.  nfA  ti  That  is  wae?  q lza  i  w  iAj  x dz  a  use  where  no  couldn t  i  ni!lk a w  use  dz  q az w  do  that  ka  w  k i J  ka  w  1  'chisel'  a  i  Jtima  kati  anything  around  q dzza  lalti  k'imaA  Isit i  ti  used  there.  But  there  the  w  couldn't  w  chi s e l  other  k ij  w  AUmina  ij  mfij  ts'fla  ti  x alafka  Jwa  gouge  it's  fixed  just  the  finger  your  ts'fla just  A'u  like  in  milk'uj  like  ti  is  w  twa  that  tjun  nitaj  called  they do  that.  It  Jlfkmin  nfA  ti  wa  q iinaSn  Jan  Jfkm  kin  hitter.  That  is  do  use  I  hit  it  w  203  Jx dz  Ja  k tJ  k a1?  where  I  that  a b l e to  w  w  /as  ku  ka  you  couldn't  ka  w  dxxala  nf  A'u  whittle.  Then  nfk'xala  ku  cut  where  J  nfltj* that  JYkmina  nfA  ti  wa  q i inaSn  wa  hitter  that  it  do  use I.  Still  ti  iz  xfxaka  sSn?waJ  planer.  Two o f  A'u  JaSma  fz  i  those  niA  fz  hand  kaSti  ku  made  by  none  Reamers  A'u  dxmin  aln?waj"  planing  reamer  two  t/uwaj  k'aS?  same k i n d  belong t o  (l)  A'u  Those because  Un I  Jwa  w  xt*?xaka  wfna?x a w  again  reamers  made  w h i t e man.  muta  planers  that  i  the  Jk a5k/t  dz  dxmina  is  dxman  kdl  i  ti  xf?xaka  k iJ w  those  w  i  xkdz  iz  ku  guess  forebears.  k a5ninj  JmfitJ  get  made  w  kalkfkala?  I  kilkfkalae  nfA  A'u  aSA  Ain  JwaS?  forebears.  That  is  why  I  do  taSnihaen  k m  Jwa  wal?  k'a  them  to  do  still  use  w  A'iin copy  q alin  lain A ' I A  w  already  k 'fn  A'dz  x ftuJCm  A't A  A'dz  ts'flae  a few  canoes  many more  small  canoes  seems  w  i  i  en  w  Jkiftlae  waS  finished.  Do I s t i l l  q alujim w  likae  Akaen  A'u  Jae  work t o o l s  i  belong  tf  wae  mfijnaen  Akiinjae  one  do  fixing  boat  waS?  q fin  do  use  w  kilk£kal?ae  as I  forebears  here  A'dz  tj'afuna  nfA  ti  twae  that  is  do  tjun  nitaaj  A'dz?4la  tjuwae  Jti  ti  call  they do  r e a l canoe.  Belongs  that  t o the  tjuwa?u?xae  tjuwasj  tJuwaSuxae  river.  Belongs to r i v e r  A'dz  ti  nuk ae  canoe.  The o t h e r  w  205  mutae  A'az?ulu  again  small  nitaej  i  A'u  .  boat  Jalm?ae  they do  ts'flae  A'u  ku  tjtfn  just  like  the  call  'boat'  w h i t e man  Jtx allx  A'u  Straight  just  w  boat.  i  ends  tjae  k'almeeAae  ti  A'az?u?ilae  ti  tjuwae?j  it.  But  the  b i g canoe  the  one f o r  k ij  tjdaeux"  ij  tjaxtjafx  ij  the  river  it  is  pointed.  w  ti  wa  one  did  go down  tjuwai?ux  ti  river  that  x ?ft w  tu  k i w  J4m?i  ts'flae half  Jalq aA w  wuq 'il  alltas  do  go up  on the  w  ku  Jae  nfA  htm  That  is  xzijmaej big  A'dz  x ?ft  tu  Jam  canoe.  Many  it  seems  w  Jk aStJitJ  Ja5  names  it  w  many i t seems  ts'fmqj  wa  k'fm?  tjuk  finished  i  Jaen  aI  I  here  ts'flae  A'd?zae  lain  canoes.  Already  tj'al  ti  wa  the  do  206  mfifnaen  wai?  Akaen  A'u  fix  I.  Do  I  still  nuk a3  milt®  kinkaSnaeJ"  ku  other  again.  Depends  how long  Au?uJ  nf  I make a b l e  then  w  k ij  dx aen  w  w  reaming  A'u  naen  nf  that  then  \A  mi t JWtJ" an  ti  marking  the  xinj"  nf  available  aSti  Am  there  I go ream.  A'uJ  k'epwfl  qaS?  c r o s s - p i e c e on canoe.  No.'  tj*fx  w  t.fuA Finished  ku  fix  some  w  dz  k t J*  k'apwfl  Not  that  cross-piece.  a5n?waejae  w  we?  mtftae  in  Do  again  my  a§l  ti  tamfx ae  q'fx  i?aSz  A'u  on  the  ground  firmly  just  enough that  'V  w  q'flae  k ij"  put on  that a b l e  u  kae  rest  i f o r a boat  paxae  alt i  filled  there  then  Ail?xa§l  JmfiJtJ  x dz  Am  A'u  i  was?  xlfpael  do  erect  k'l'mj" ends  k i J  ka3  w  t .fa§ it  able  207  tl  A'dzae  nf  the  canoe.  Then  A'u  fA  At J  able  in  Aim  qae  It  upright  en  it  A'iq  lit!  ti  qu?ae  Jiq'uq'uA  paeqiltj"  fill  there  the  water  half-full.  Made red hot  fA  i  then  pa3?qs§ltj  kfA'hae  paeqiltj"  stones.  Made red hot  i  red hot  i  kfA'hae  aeA  rocks  b e f o r e put  kfA'hs  put  rocks  j u s t when  enAim  iA  in  A'u  ti  11  to  the  A'dzae  Jiq'uq'uA  ti  qu'?ae  pdAiA  fA  canoe  half-full  the  water.  Boil  then.  Iin?ij  xdin  Already  an e x t e r n a l  frame which  restricts  the s w e l l i n g  the canoe caused by the b o i l i n g water  el  tu  at  the  of  enit/qjae  kinkinaej"  k t /  ke  q'ixae  k (J"  back end  how much  able  to  spread  a b l e t o make  w  w  kiA  208  kae  X J"  J"  to  float  U  ti  33  it  A  the  boat  xiAminaen  k ij"  se I as f  If  that  really  w  I want  ^ti.  'dz33  Jt.ffx i.f u  on the r i v e r .  q'axq'aex  ti  rounded  the  wae  laSti  ti  a/iinae  k ij  do  there  the  frame  that w i l l  kiA  an  Aim  into.  In  there  then t h e r e  ts'ilaej  A'u  many  as needed  q'apq  Jx ?ft.f w  fA  q'apq  covered  them  covered.  q»apq  A'u  tjfx  'til  time  w  w  cover  i  w  kftjitj it  fall  kiA'hae  liti  k i J*  rocks  there  as  w  puAiA  ti  qu?ae  before  boil  the  water  if  A'u  Remain  A'u  boat  nfAj  wi?  w  A'dzae  my  w  aet I  IA  an  ku that  qumpulu hot  A'dzae  km  ku  ilts'q?ae  alts'?aS  canoe.  At  the  outs ides  outs ides  lit?  ij  there  with  wfAt.f  ti  enough  the  wfAtJ  ti the  209 A'dza  Ian  aka  A'a?k  ts'flae  k i.f  qamp  canoe  already there  going  seems  enough  hot.  nfA'u  Jin?aqJ  ts'fla  k ij  Ju  ka  uts'i  Then  easy  seems  that  you  can  fix  w  w  Ja  fA  wa??aj"  a6ku  Jwa  x  xdiAtJ"  it  if  there  is  you  going  u  fix  kaAfn  pa6?uana  nax a  Maybe i t  blow  you do maybe do  ax ha  uts'dts'zan  ku  you do  refix  that  w  A'ik?an  an  mold ( i t )  w  ( l i k e blowing g l a s s )  dz  k ij w  isn't  t Jawa!u?J"i n  A'u  measure  'til  tjfx  ts'fla  wa?  Akax  that  really  like.  Do  you  tja  ait i  an  it  with  hot  aSlts'  q'ulwiA  outside of  A'aek  right.  Keep on  A'u  xd&A'minaex  reaches  Jt^xJ  wa?  tf?tax  w  k tj w  aA  it.  kaex  w  what you want  w  q'ampa  x dts'an  ta  dampen  the  w  qri? water.  A'u  210  dz  ti  kij*  That  is  alt I  k ij  is  not  aeA  w  all  xfA  w  tj"uk  completed  tjijk ffij  when p r e v i o u s  ku  A'dz  niA J  dzj  at  that  boat  then  won't  A'aq p  nfAj  plain  able  check c r a c k s  because  already  w  wfA  laSti  i  did  they  scorched  zfitin  k 'ai?x  doing  they  ti  pitch.  Scorch  now  the  ti  /uIx aaI  nfA  A'a  the  inside  that  is  boil  now  k t J  A'aq ap  is  nftaej  a?A  . alA  w  ilwftm  w  k a3j  w  outside  That  boiled.  Forebears  pijAiA  laiti  is  k aSJ"  ailts'qaej  not  puAiA  him  that  so as  it  wij*  wa  w  dz  Jae  kilkfkalae  k ij  I ft J  process  slti  k i / w  kiA  w  w  check  w  w  w  AiJ  tjuk  then  finished  u  i  did  A'd?zae canoes.  mutae  AiJ  kae  mfij"  Jae  aik i f  huz  again  where  can  fix  it  where  it  w  is  going  211  ts'fla  k ij  huz  like  that  ts'flae  k t J  q'dxtinj  Akunjae  zaem  wae  A'u  like  for  width.  Now  though  did  still  w  puAunim  Akunjae  boil  sometimes  i  (their)  .faex  mutae  f i x e d as  you  and how  is going  w  laSkaeJ*  mfljten  i  J"aem?ae  A'd?zae  nfA  canoes.  It  i  talkma  w h i t e men  lalti  AaS?  ham  use  on i t  'paint' paint  aSmae  dz  do  good.  Don't  k ij w  xu?az  A'u  work as h a r d .  But a r e a l  xfA  aeA  that way  it  ku  all  i  wai?  sfitl  w  ku  w  is  scorched  w  i  fq ezufim w  is  work  winalu?/  wa  kinds  did  ae  nf  A'u  the.  Then  tools  Aif able  A'flae  al  k iA  kalA  like  they  we  do  A'dz  wa  canoe  do  him  k ffifalxfA  him  k i.f  /tax  him  aeA. it  w  tjfrn is  burnt  ku  all ts'q'ae  on the o u t s i d e  212  kmtalkam  nfA  all  over.  That i s  waS?  A'u  I  ti  km  how done  xfn?J  no  matter how l o n g .  k'ulim  k'33  ti  A'a?za  others  made  guess  the  canoe  Ai/  tuwfut  when  young man. A l r e a d y o l d man  A'u  ku  nuk ae w  Still  kaSnaeJ"  lain  qaAmfmm  mij  A'u  still  q ast JaSt J  q in3SJ  A'u  did  use  ' t i l . went away and d i e d .  w  ti  A'd?za  Akun  ij  the  canoe  now.  It  ti  ku  the  A'dz  niA  boat.  That  wa  ham  ones  they  tu  priA  is  A'u  ti  is b o i l e d  alt 1  tu  did  waS?  w  wal?  zuq  wa??  w  Does  if  q 'al?a? w  that  burned  A'lJ"  ts'fla  k ij  why  seems  long  w  q 'az  mm  alki  Jkilkflla  used  by  the  forebears  alt i  k iA  k'aA  1ike  that.  w  Akalla  plain  Akun  dz  ours.  Already  now  a r e n 1 we 1  w  xfn?  ts'fla  213  mif  kaiA  wai?  Still  do  qe-AqeA  mfmrnin  o l d men  if  zfitin  e l s e do.  AkaA  n(m  A'u  us  still  w<ij  nfmuA  us  Akdnjae  ts'ezijj"  laiti  now  busy  that when n o t h i n g  k'tflim  ku  A'dz  x ft  Make  a  canoe.  Lots  Ait  fx ae w  A'IA  w  it  t s ' f laa  kaSti  A'eA'azez  was?  q inm  alki  seems  around  canoes  do  use  by  Jit/maiA  kaSAffi  nfA  children  our.  That a l l  tumuAain  aA  you f o l k s .  Still  k ij w  A'u  that  Aaip forget  mm we  wai?  ti  A'u  w  en  Jnuqn(jq a3  Jquqlin  my  friends  tell  w  miStae  xaiAminftiJ"  again  won't  i  they  Jaimmee w h i t e men  wai?  ndk aen  tumulftaj"  k ij"  dz  still  help  us they do  so  not  w  k i| u  tu  A'aik  mm  t h a t way the ways o f  us  AkaiA  w  k L J W  that  A'u  k ij w  214  q az w  u  s  e  mm  ti  an  q alutj  we  the  our  language  Jkrinjae  wae  nu"k  now  do  other  AkiAae  k ij  our  that  iku  w  83w?it  t h a t are younger.  Ain  ki?ae  some  day.  'book' book.  tin  w  AkiAae  nfA  ti  our.  That  is  in  Jk azujam  an  q ali!ltin  my  work  our  language  dz  kiA  k ij  Aip  mm  not  so  that  forget  they  u  w  w  wi?  Aki l i p  kuA  Do  you w i l l  hear  Jq'ft  Akalip  wi?  k'llin  kiA  'read'  q alutan  lipae  as t  With  language  your  here  Akun  fix  now.  Jae  nfA  ti  That  is  kiA  ku  t j ' i  a  i  wa do  Jquqlin  all  f o r now  ttfmuAaen  an  Jnuqnuq ae  Ail  tjae  to you  my  friends  from  here  w  J  read  i l tan  mfij  mfntJiI me  Do you w i l l  w  w  talk  'Lillooet' Lillooet.  JfntJaeJ I am  'Baptiste  Ritchie'  Baptiste  Ritchie  all  t f'ae  'Mount C u r r i e ' Mount C u r r i e .  on  tjfnemqen  Akaln  wae?  AkaelaSp  A'u  En  Chinemqen  I am  do  you  still  nfA  ti  Finished.  zwaften know.  216  HOW WE MAKE CANOES  My f r i e n d s , what canoes.  I am doing  is  t e l l i n g you how we make  Here nowadays we do not know how hard i t was  a canoe.  It's  just  that we d o n ' t  know what  i t was  how w e l l our f o r e f a t h e r s made them even though proper t o o l s .  It was a r e a l l y  f i n i s h e d a canoe.  to make  l i k e and  they had no  long p i e c e o f work b e f o r e they  But w i t h us nowadays we a r e the f i r s t  to  know how to handle t o o l s , we here t h a t copy. We a r e making some canoes now. in the backyard o f my house. I am going man.  It  brought  to make.  i s almost it  I split  f o u r f e e t in d i a m e t e r .  it.  there i f  It  in d i a m e t e r .  to be two b o a t s .  it  It  I  brightness.  It w a s n ' t  really  good  i t because  in two so then i t was  A l r e a d y one o f them i s h a l f  saws t h a t are p o w e r f u l , they c a l l  like that.  get wet t h e r e .  I o n l y made use o f  I split  t h e r e which  Then my c h i l d r e n  I wanted t h a t much  going to measure the o t h e r one.  around i t .  doesn't  it  to me by a w h i t e  The log was j u s t  the cedar in two p i e c e s .  f o r making a b o a t .  was so b i g  are already  The cedar log was g i v e n  r o o f over  c o u l d have a l i g h t  material  Two boats  to my house f o r me.  has a r e a l good  Here we a r e working at  finished.  it going  I am  Because, you s e e , t h e r e a r e them power saws.  I measure  I do i t p r e c i s e l y , a c c u r a t e l y on that saw h o r s e .  217  There where the canoe is middle o f all  it  right  it  around.  around f o r the edge o f  and how p o i n t e d i t ' s I  is  really upright.  Then I f i x  From t h e r e , from t h a t , the b o a t , how wide  going to be.  I mark  it  it  measured  going to be  it's  Don't go  it out.  Then they cut  i t w i t h the power saw on the i n s i d e .  finished  the marking.  They cut  they cut  Now a l r e a d y ream.  i t where I wanted  I had f i n i s h e d using  I a l s o use axes.  they c a l l  adzes.  Those  tool.  I use two p u l l i n g  wide,  I g u e s s , the o t h e r  I use.  the p u l l i n g  tools.  I use  i t where  whittle.  That  Then i t  are the p l a n e r s .  is  I only  to ream. had to  f o r h o l l o w i n g out  inches,  narrow - o h , f o u r I guess.  rounded a l i t t l e .  They a r e shavers  that  That k n i f e  One is  inches really  Those a r e  f o r the canoe. is  narrow,  it  Then  is  I c o u l d n ' t use the o t h e r c h i s e l s , when  the end o f your f i n g e r , j u s t 1  close  i t , where I was going  One is  n o t h i n g e l s e c o u l d be used t h e r e .  'the h i t t e r .  I  I use a wide k n i f e as a p u l l i n g  six  I have an o l d - f a s h i o n e d gouge. heavy and  it just  the power saw.  tools. is  I do, then h o l l o w  They cut  There are t o o l s  rounded but the o t h e r i s j u s t called  it.  Do as  l i n e where  marked.  enough,  the markers!  is  is  then.  t o l d my c h i l d r e n , "You cut c l o s e t o that inside  it  the  i s what  But  like that.  the gouge i s j u s t That  is what they c a l l  I use to cut w i t h where you  the h i t t e r that  There a r e two o f  I use.  like  Still  those p l a n e r s .  couldn't  again there They a r e hand  218  reamers and t h e r e are none made by white men. those  two p l a n i n g  belonged  reamers, are o f  to our f o r e f a t h e r s .  forefathers.  That  is why  I have a l r e a d y canoes.  I still  fathers. It  just It  just  river, the b i g names  boat, j u s t  is  r i v e r with  f o r those  marking  available.  is  a real  t h a t canoe.  canoe.  The o t h e r one  is  a boat.  But the b i g canoe, the one f o r  That i s  the  so that one can go up and down on It  seems  I am making here is the o t h e r one.  When I am a b l e  When I have f i n i s h e d p i e c e on the canoe. e r e c t a g a i n my 'V  that  t h e r e a r e many  rests  It  reaming  finished.  depends how much time  it  then I w i l l  fix a  Not that c r o s s - p i e c e !  f i r m l y on the ground, j u s t  put on the ends are a b l e  Then I am a b l e to keep i t  upright.  water and red hot s t o n e s ,  red hot  they are put  already h a l f  I  is  I go t h e r e and ream.  Oh no!  that when the canoe is  red hot  to our f o r e -  here they c a l l  a r i v e r canoe.  smaller  canoes.  The one that am s t i l l  tools.  l i k e what the w h i t e men c a l l  ends.  pointed.  t h a t belonged  I am f i x i n g It  they  I have were made by our  use the work t o o l s  has s t r a i g h t it  Those  I guess  I copy them and use t h e i r  to the r i v e r .  a small  the same k i n d .  reamers,  f i n i s h e d a few canoes and many more  The canoe t h a t  belongs  Those  Then i t rocks.  is  cross-  I will long  to r e s t  enough there.  h a l f - f i l l e d with  While  they a r e  in the canoe h a l f - f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r .  still It  219  boils  then.  swelling  of  A l r e a d y an e x t e r n a l mold which  restricts  the canoe from the b o i l i n g water  is  at  o f the canoe and determines how much the canoe w i l l spread  in o r d e r to make i t  really  rounded I put my boat  to.  In  t h e r e then I put  make the water b o i l . the c o v e r u n t i l the o u t s i d e o f seems  it  isn't  it  is  the canoe,  is  to be.  fill  Then it  i t and measuring  Then you dampen the  it  All  kinds  if  until  outside  be a b l e to c r a c k because  process it  s c o r c h e d the canoe.  has  They d i d  The o u t s i d e was s c o r c h e d and the i n s i d e was Then the canoes were f i n i s h e d .  and f o r how wide you wanted sometimes  On  it  i t again  a g a i n a time when i t c o u l d be f i x e d f o r where i t was  still  out  in a  not a l l , f o r when the p r e v i o u s  b o i l e d to a v o i d c r a c k i n g . is  it  hot enough.  i f you want to f i x  Then our f o r e f a t h e r s  that with p i t c h .  is  i t o u t , maybe you f i x  completed that canoe won't  been b o i l e d .  the canoe  You keep on molding  That  I want  to  They remain t h e r e w i t h  i t must seem hot enough.  it easily  the way you want i t  be a b l e  the r o c k s , as many as are needed to  Maybe you blow  right.  If  the back end  i n a rounded frame i t w i l l  the time comes t h a t  w i t h hot w a t e r . is  i n the r i v e r .  They a r e c o v e r e d .  t h a t you can f i x  s p e c i a l way.  float  the  boil  it.  the canoes  going  F i n a l l y , however, they d i d again.  o f w h i t e man's t o o l s were used on i t , and  and we were a b l e to do w e l 1 .  That  We d o n ' t work as  paints,  hard as our  fore-  220  fathers It  is  did.  But a r e a l canoe, to make that way,  burnt a l l  over the o u t s i d e .  matter how long  it  takes.  That is  is s c o r c h e d .  how i t  is  done no  Some p e o p l e made a canoe when they  were young men and s t i l l  used i t when they were o l d men, u n t i l  they d i e d .  now ready.  burned.  The canoe is  That boat  is  b o i l e d and  That is why the ones o f our f o r e f a t h e r s c o u l d be  used so  long.  it  t h a t now when we a r e n ' t busy, when we have n o t h i n g  like  Now we a r e n ' t  to do but make a canoe.  It  like that.  seems  around t h a t our c h i l d r e n use. have to t e l l  you.  Still,  that  That's  Still  we o l d men  there are  lots  a l l , my f r i e n d s ,  the w h i t e men t h a t h e l p us -  of  do else  canoes  that  I  they do  i t so that we do not f o r g e t our ways and the way we use our language.  That  is why now my o t h e r j o b  is  to work on our  guage so t h a t our younger g e n e r a t i o n do not f o r g e t hear me some day.  You w i l l  it.  lan-  You w i l l  be a b l e to read a book w i t h o u r  language t h a t you make f o r me now. That Mt.  is  Currie.  all  f o r now, f o l k s ,  I am B a p t i s t e  to you my f r i e n d s from here at  R i t c h i e here at Mt.  I am, you remember, En Chinemqen. That  is  all.  Currie.  PART THREE  DICTIONARY  222  I  INTRODUCTION  The l e x i c a l and p h r a s a l are d e r i v e d from a b a s i c items  and t h i s  within  is  the t e x t s .  dictionary  is as  list  units  comprising  this  of eighteen-hundred  supplemented by a d d i t i o n a l  items  The a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r i n g used  w  t  k  k'  q '  ?  z  !  X  1  m  n  ts  ts'  tj  tj'  A  as  a  u  i  o  0  w  j  w  lexical occurring in  this  follows:  p'  p  dictionary  k  x  w  q X  q»  q"  h  A  A'  1  ptf nu/mfnaej*  think about  pi paint JL k  ptfnujem  think (v.)  paspt  ptaSk A'u  where you are sup-  paiplae?  always; every alone  palp I a?  posed to go ptalkasj k i n xfpae  afternoon  summer  one person  pa1tk 8e  needle  w  (sewing)  pta9k A  fable  pasqallt.f  made red hot  ptfl33?  blood  paiquxael  threaten  w  ptakid?/  p J f ? I as I mi n pjiI  almost  morning  morni ng  p I f Jmanae  pol icemen  palq faaJ  watch (v.)  paiq amin u  a f r a i d of  pa3?qal 1 1 J  red hot  w  p laen  al ready; now  something  already  plain t J i x | t / f l k j t a w  pal? I a? J  paex  i t ' s i n the past  scrape i t hunt  palxam  plu/  deep  pas I ?u Jae  pAuA  thick  pallae?  person  inflate  paixaen  smoke  p 1 palpL la?ae  blow;  scrape  pluk  paper  one  i t i s paS?u33na3  5 o'clock  p fphaa  t i r e d o f doing  w  from  plaSnaeJ"  be a f r a i d ; fear  pa1?x A'u  plaek  plain?a  palqu  Monday  single one; 1 o'clock  pal I ae? J*zep f u f  one week  pallael t.fimx  v i s i t (v.)  224 pal I as A'u pail?upj"t  paenkitJtnae pa§tj"ae?ae  summer camp (n.)  pipe suitable;  just  right  puj  mouse  w  blow  puxt/alm? puA  meet Lake  morning  pi Ip  sold  pUlip  spend  pUlm  punished f o r the sake  (money);  sale  boiled  found found find  punan  when I  it  empty  find  by h i m s e l f  (v.)  papq aem  gray  papa6?Aa  bullfrog  w  patTnu/mf  thought spit  w  hemlock  something  leaf  pat^x an  pdnffij  pitfnufam  Indians  we are a l l  w  w  boiling;  puA'slnae?  Haida  pi laeAtq 'a3ut  p(5k in  boi1  ptfn n s /  pila6pala?ae  pftJkiA  it  tale  (n.)  Williams  e  folk  one people  boil  pdAiA  piplae  (v.)  boiled  puAunim  pun  (with mouth)  knock  pdAxael  pizaln  a story;  of  wet  pdxael  cover  piJYl  ptlt A ' u aSmae  pu?ia§x  pi'tin  pij)(aex  past  tell  w  eighty  sticks  gone;  ptta5k A  eight  p33l?upJVampJ'  pdip  pitaek  j u s t one  patftkf after paq  tjflk/ta  a  little  five white  t h i n k deeply about paqmfn/t pazaln  (v.)  almost  white  encounter ( v . ) ;  meet  pexae  filled  pemp  fast;  speed  /p'  p'ip'a5n?te p'fts'in  back and. f o r t h to press together  p'aSq'am  blossom ( v . )  p'aB?q'aSn  heat (v.)  p'aex  more  w  p'al?x  w  A'u  extreme  p'aimjim  make  p'aimjin  p u t f u e l on f i r e  p'ainraen  fire  burn  p'ant  b r o u g h t , b r i n g back;  r e t u r n , come, come back p'aSnt/tum p'aSntxael  send back  r e t u r n (an o b j e c t )  p'aen?  f o l d (v.)  p'aenain  bend i t  p'lj  vagina  p'Uk'ain  (someone)  turn (v.)  p'U?p  lost  p»axaS I  s t i ngy  IXI  almost  tq'fA A'u  taaj* taixwae  looking  txu\ tmfx ae  hung  talxwaatj  ground  w  force  chest  tftxae  narrow  taaxwelminae  tftxe  thin  talAlox  stand  talAlex  to be on o n e ' s  tftx ae?  narrow  w  tfku  that  taem?  t ik  crush  tainem  w  tfk in?  grind  talum  tf?tex  right  taiumi  w  t ix fIx  get  w  in the way  get (v.)  taiwaem?  t it J f t x  house  tdAae  tfjit  w  ta2tx 33lwaij w  midnight  (v.) feet  them sell still to s e t a t a b l e navel tongue  trfpun?  hungry  untied  anything  talexxsl  timuAaSJae  getting  h i t wi th f i s t  tuttwfwu?t33  young men  taikmee  everything; us a l l  tux m  add some more; mult  taikem  whole, e n t i r e , a l l  tuxtux  accurately  taikem Jwaet taikem A'u tai?tux tal?m33/A'u tal?wi n  everybody a l l of them  tuxw?altf turn  anything it  tumuAaen tuwidt  bow (weapon)  them  tumuA  right  to untie  w  folks you f o l k s boy: teen-age  228  tuwaSn  t l x A'u  J?utsaz  t l x A'u  xlwm  behind  t l x A'u  wae? x a l l m j t u m  stung  t l x A'u  wae JxtSmxom  energy  wi  grateful  salmon  tu kU?ae  berry  front  tu ?aeu?tae tipnfm  got  tit\"7M$  bow and arrow  ttkm3?lx  the whole  w  tiAa5?Jasti timfx  family  the o t h e r people territory  w  toktok ainae tox p to"x in  w  world  tak lpae  suffocate  w  handle  (v.)  teqaipasm  dam  ta?IJzae  squirrel  tax  (v.)  bitter exact  t l x A'u  q a?mq amit  ing  w  w  correct  berry  bow ( f o r against;  tax ^tj  gun  w  w  tahfnfut  tahfnaej  brag,  an  adult)  straight  boast  show o f f  (v.) (v.)  praise e a r t h , ground,  w  tamfx ae  on e a r t h  tamuIim  many o f  i n t e r e s t - tana? J i n  dirt  us  porpoise  t a Aai?a3 twaSl  something  (v.)  tax f*lx  w  t ax A'u w  tax ?aJtJ"  tamfx  agreeable  paralleling  salal  tahfntfut  a 1mos t  faithful  w  direct  s a i d wrongly w  important  willow  taxVt faunae J  more and more  tatmfxwae  t aq f A  taxdApaz  tax  w  taqj  wa ka xl?kae  w  i ncrease tox ox  t l x A'u  tax a1laq  add some more;  w  wan wfnae?x  w  purchase  w  nuk'f?A  t l x A'u  tax flx  deaf  w  humble u  ( f o r t l x A'u  a ch i 1 d)  firm  the o t h e r s i d e ;  amongst  beyond  229 /k/  ki?x  steelhead  kal?Aa  our  kfjmae  back  kaef twasl  kfjem  backyard  k3Sl?waet  kijemqd.lt/  back of house  do anything to each other medicine  kaelwaetaSn  cure  kilkaSlnaeJ  chased them  kaeAmf J aiku  kfnk'enit  dangerous  kainaej  kftjlaepae  saw horse 1ie down (v.)  kftjlex  a secret escape  maybe  kaSulex  safety  kaSexten  elbow  kftjin  put  kaSwom  kfix"  sickly  kaelfrrVrae  break apart  kaA<5xwaj  appear  kfwe  with  kaipten  captain  kaStik'ae  around ( r e f . to  place) kaiti  kasA'qwepae kdlin  the one  kaSkzae? kaeki IxaeI  around somebody  die follow  al 1 ki nds  kukpi  chief  kukpi?ffi  their chiefs  kukjtumx  thank (v.)  kijkJtumAkaex"  kalkezae?  tell a l i e  kukjtum  kaeq'uja  frighten  kfikjaj  lazy  burnt  candle  kutaSkem  kaeti ku waS?  kaVPkil  copulate  kukae  thank you  thanks save a person's survival  life  230  kilkwae?  mother's  father's ku?fk  mother  laex  kilAinJ  u  kilkikkalae kilkiklffi  ki'l?kalax  thunder  kil?q  kijlim  made  kC I I as  ku ?alutj J q ' i t  day  after  tomorrow above touch  kikilaimx kizanun kijain?k33  k f I I aa?  first  ki lalx  muskrat  w  ki laSx 33  beaver  kililaj"  as  ki I sa ?a?mae  elder  kC 133 J ? u t s a z  r e a l l y good in the r i g h t  admi r a b l e  brave  kintaikam  everywhere, a l l  kmknaSp  kiAnfm  take out  kinkaSnaeJ"  take away  thunder  k i n j A'axum  depart  kmtJaS A ' u  want to win around  divide  kfnakae  with  kiAaiu?wif  separated  ki na5ka3  ki 1 l e d  take away  kiA qaAmimnux"  k i n xipffi grow o l d  kiA'haj  force  noon rocks  (n.)  place  over  (n.)  how much; how  kiAaSu?Jan  kfAan  possible  kC 133 aimae  p a r t o f a whole  kiAaSu?/  soon as  doubtful  kiAxail  kiA  leader  pierced sibling  (v.)  future  w  (v.)  ago  backwards  kil?ae  enaej"  long  (v.)  borrow  kit  times;  forebears  krfAm  kfpin  old  fashioned  kUkikilae  lend me  ku xa?ae  old  dream  lend  kuAintJ  mother;  long  231  kt'A'he k(A>  k'lA'  k<5mkom kopu  kllkal  stones  kalaSl  dirty  dull  far,  kakdkpi  government  distant  three doubt  kajiftms  smell  eye  ka qaex ae  i t broke  w  kaxi?mae  ka xd?zae  kaxalae  it  ka xakae  sparked  kahaSl?hffi  be born  ka xl?q'ae  kaArrcSmaen  o l d man  ka y&A&  kaA Auywae  o l d woman  Wednesday buckskin appeared  kalkifkla?  older generation  kalkC'kalae  old fashioned,  ancient  go out o f  sight;  di sappear  ka xuittae  kaAu/fts'ae  to  lunch  kaAu / t a n  sister  kaAaffk'at  (applies  non-animate o b j e c t )  klxkax  kaArrorreenJ'ijdtJae  worn out  w  w  thirty  kazaendn  kalw£el?x  ago  kanix£*pnux ae  a l i t t l e further  ka?AaeJqampJ ka?Aa$J  officials  green  ka?k£*?ku?  p r e t t y soon; not  very long  kakaSu  w  soon  ke la? lae J  coat  kak aS?33  s c r a t c h e d up  h u r t someone p h y s i c a l l y fall obey reflect i t got  ka y&Aa A'u?ae ka X ' J w  8 3  ka x fAlae w  asleep  s  m  ' ^  finished by chance  e  the best way  ka ha&lhaeti J"n<5qmae w  ka A( I lae  keep s t i l l  possible  sunrise  232  /kV  k'fk'ta?  n e i g h b o u r i n g , near  k'f?ux  ice  k'fnk'anit  u  something harm-  grow  k'u?lim  make  k'u?Um?  cause o f a s i t u a t i o n  k'ul?J  t h a t c l o s e person  k'ikjiit  spider  k'aek'pitj k'ae?/  whisper  (n.)  carry  k'i?Um k'ae?  wait  for  k'aSxael k'ix Aae? w  k'ix* ' 3  k'aelsS?min  elect made  k'ul?imj  he made  k'ultjaem  pick gall  k'ulm k'dnae  salmon eggs  k'unae?  salmon  k'uA'  braves  ocean, s a l t Coast  k'liA'axa  dry p r e s e r v e d meat  k'l+ta  cut  w  k'lAq'inaeJ  listen  k'llinnfntj  guess  k'tm?  ends  k'dlse?  lungs  k'fAae  stone,  k'dilax  jump  k'apwf1  it  l i s t e n to me  k'iA'u  k'cSltfaen  Indian  pass c l o s e  needle (of  child  tree)  water  stuck, penetrated a l i t t l e  k'(tx aen  cooking  soaked and s t r e t c h e d  k'infBe?  k'uk'mit  (berries)  k'utsiIwakjti  guess  k'ae J i n ? ke  started  k'u?lil  f u l which might happen be-  k'ipa  porcup i ne  k ' u ? l laej  despondent  k'frreeltj  k'uk i1  rock  p i c k f o r purpose o f c r o s s - p i e c e on canoe  food  k'ak'xam k'a?  breeze  where  k'eza1k?a3m  murder ;ki 11  k'azafkam mfnaem  k i l l e d some-  one k a/ain?ks8  braves  !  k' axuj"  tears  k' exam  blow  k axon  wind blowing  !  k alk'al  (wind)  angry  !  k al  (n.)  s c r a t c h an o b j e c t  5  k ala?  liver  k alain  listen  k- l l i n  scratch  !  !  k' amf  end  k amq '33n s  (v.)  dropped  w  k am? !  outlet  k- amldz  maple ( b i g  k- amfnnan k amfnam :  k amdt k- amaqj"  in  fell fall hat end  (v.) over  leaf)  234 /k / w  k lfmj"em k fk J w  k fk enaV? k f?k ij w  k f?u w  slip  take something;  k a5ninj  might be s i c k  w  little  w  k ainffij w  few  w  take  w  small  w  w  k aen  pus  w  exploit  k a5naeq w  k alt  ,  yellow  w  k f n A'lA  what i s the time  k alut  k fna3j ke  how many  k ftk ftj  u  w  k fn33j" J q ' f t w  k aiti.m  how many days  walking  w  k al? kae  able to  w  k aS?eJ"  rema i ned  w  k a3 Jmai 11 J"  arrows  k aSJelwiA  scorched  w  w  dog salmon  k 33ldh w  k aelep kaSjtJ w  don't do  anythi ng  t a l k (v.)  w  w  throat  w  k (zk izem  smooth  k izfn?xum  jealous  w  w  w  k i j kfnqj  perfectionist  w  k ilaSp  wanting  w  k UijJem  shade over face from  w  light k ilexl3fx  remember  w  blunt  kwfmk irn w  k (tj?a  place face  w  k 33mj"  got  k iA'u7  k aem  get  k ot33mitJ  husband small  w  w  w  w  k 3?mim  receive  k ek fk J  k imin  obtain  k ezuz  dol1  k ezen  use  w  w  k aSnniJ w  of trap  gotten by means  w  w  w  w  k eju w  accept  w  pig  235  /k V w  k 'fk el33X w  u ,  dream  u  k alqaq  robin  k 'aS?x  pitch  w,  w  w  k ' e l ! J" w  (n.)  cave  k 'ae"lx33|  hire  w  k 'izaSpU  cheeks  k 'izufom  work  w  w  k (Am  pour i t  Ui  k  W J  e k ' fk 'Lnae? w  u  a time k ezi3Jim w,  work  l i t t l e at  236  /q/ qIfI  anger  qIfImi n  qdqenae?  anger a t  throat  qaq ili5l w  without  qlflae  became angry  qd?az  qi?x  run away  qd/Uiju'hae  qix  w  chase  w  qfx in qflqelt  qaij\!it  weary o f something  o r someone q fIx i n w  qafqiit  qaex  chase away  t roub 1 e  break i n two  w  qeSx aen?  break  qa?x ox  b roke  w  w  u  qa1x 9n w  qasnfmtf  it  break understand (v.)  quq ael  decorate  story  w  liquid  qtf?ae  water  qujxit  (n.)  shoot  qujxitam  shot him arrows  qiS/im qui  shoot full  qtflun?  fill  hear  qainem  heard  quA'  qaSuqJ  cursed  qoma5lx  full w  qaqt/ok  brother  qapqaip  qdqijit  scout  qapq aen  throat  father  man  u  qu?  hooks  ingratiate  qaenfm  qdqenae  big fishing  qdi/eten qdix  struggle  qaiq j 11 i  tired  qdts'a?a  chases  u  facts  o f food  dance house tender; soft  w  qaqaSqA-'axaa  put a l i d on (cover) small  hooks  237  qaqaezaim  got t i r e d  qeq £elUt  telling  w  qazxael  wave  something  qeXCtfx  wild  w  w  qaAxall  smells  qaAmimmaenriae qaAmalman  grew o l d  qaAmfmnaeJ  old  qaAnumnux bad  earring  q a l q u j mfna3x neck  qalqalnij  a table  o l d people  ruin,  qalqaltsaim  qal?tj  qanfm qanfmin  qalqalmimminas  qllqalam  qamp  spoi 1 ; o f f e n d  swear too much n o i s e noise  l e f t -overs  from  angry;  envy  fight severe  w  ugly  qalilmin  qanfmtj  wear around  w  self  tmfx  qampj  qalqalnae?  qelqalil  qalael  it  t h i n k mery  make angry,  qalwdlx  grow o l d  w  doesn't  qaluj  grew o l d  w  qalJut  qal'lmin  o l d people  qaAm0emanux  mean person  w  d o e s n ' t want  qalfl  o l d man  (v.)  qaljaij  much o f  save  qaAmaSmnae  hate  qal J"qdix  (v.)  qex ai?|s  qal  qalj  ( r e f . face)  fight spoil  h o t ; warm heat understood hear  ( r e f . weather)  (v.)  heard  238  /qV  q'ix  firmly  q'ilqaemti  Jnc5qm33 w  q f AiI  sunset  run  5  q'ae?  q'uAuts  q'apq  eat short  5  spread  q 'aSxtJ  covered  w  rigid  q 'aflqtjae  q'aq'maz  girl:  q'azq dz  blue  q'azujmi  work  q'ajasnkmfnaej"  chai r  q'asltfailtl  branch hut  one o r q'a/aSnk q'aXq'SBX  q'afuqj"  cursed  q'altwa?x  w  q'elj  hate  q'diIx  escaped  q'amp  ten  q'dilix  jump  q ' amps! I mi n  q'ut  runner  side  q 'dtae  q'uq 'aelt  a c h e , h u r t , be  w  painful q'ujaink  side  (v.)  q ' u x k ' f naekae  (v.)  nine  q'ampaelminkjq'ampj  fingernail  eighteen  q'ampwiq'ampallmin  q'ampwix ?u"t J"i n w  q'ampwi t j f l k f t  ninety  eleven  q'ampwip33l?upjt  q'ampwi ka?Aaef  laughed  (v.)  war  q'ampwipaSlae?  other  some-  rounded  width  q ' d i A i I as  laugh about  laugh  run  (v.)  teen-age  something  q'afAi I  q'dxtinj  sob  u  closed  q'asx  trap  q'atq'ftit  q a5xtJaen q'afxae  q'um  ashes  nineteen  thirteen fourteen fifteen  q'^mpwit JtlAaekae?  seventeen  q'empwiA'aiq'mekJt q'empwiain?wa3j  sixteen  twelve  q'emq'in  head  q'emq 33n  wind something  w  ( o t h e r than a watch) q'em?/  mushroom  q'em/aSn q'emfnem q'emazae q'emulqnaem q'errunj" q'eminjain  gather  (v.)  faint grandmother feast  (v.)  swallow food swallowed  240  /q / w  q ?aem q it  w  q fq J*  q fq 9nae?33 u  q f?u q inaS| q itj q iinain q al?33  qWasJmsiltfas q sblq a3lUt w  q aflq tlt w  weapons talking;tell  q al las  sad  q aa 1 q 331 d t t t n W  q 33luttinja3 w  w  q aimji.naej w  w  funny  w  go away  q L JmsS 11J  arrow  w  older pour out  q (1in u  w  w  voice  funny desire  talk  w  q a?q a?  language  w  w  q dmq amit  q eq altj  q ael Jptfnujamjae q almq amit  spoken  w  u  talked  w  q alut  q Uul?az  hurt  w  f u r coat  w  w  berry p i c k i n g  w  dare  w  q atfaStJ  branch  q 33la5p33m  q dq amxael w  w  w  hut made o f branches  q a q a n t i ts'ae  q ael? Jpt i ndjim q aSltf  fur  q 33tJa? 1tJaa w  pain  w  journey  w  green  w  q aetj"p w  use  w  sick;  w  q 33tj  rich  w  s i c k n e s s , di sease  q aenux w  use  w  leaves  w  advance  w  w  q aena5lp  minority  w  obtain  w  small  w  poor  w  q 33n  ring a bell  w  w  q aenq afnt  get  w  swamp  w  q a?up w  crabapple  q azq dzatq ai?a w  to f e e l bad  w  q azflx w  q az33 w  q azujam w  w  almost b 1 ue  Indian dance use work  q azuj"amlaekae  tools  w  q !zin  use  w  q ajfx u  goose  w  q alq alUt w  discuss  w  q slq alUtuA w  sociable  w  qWelt/aSltJae q al  branch hut  ripe  w  q al&zae  b e r r y bushes  w  q alut  talk  w  q alutin  (v.)  language  w  q eli!!Jim  work  q am(fmik  pregnant  w  w  q a n t i ts'ae w  q anallpa w  q anaSn w  (with  child)  fur coat  w  q anfj  tools  whale leaves need  q anux ael ts'ae  sadness  q anux dz?aem  p r e t e n d to be s i c k  w  w  w  w  q etja?tj w  q atjtn w  l e a v e , go shake  242  /q V u  q  w >  fq 'inaettnj"  at  u  least  q 'atsq ats  damp fat  w  w  q 'f*Jqin  axe  q 'et/q'utj  q 'ftsan  wash (laundry)  q ' a t Jail t j " i n  w  w  w  q a?tam  stand o n ; s t e p  q 'a??aej  burned  w,  w  q 'aex u  reduce (get  w  q 'a? I tens  cooking  w  q 'aelq 'alt w  w  slim) sticks  ripe picking  qW'aalaSpajmea q 'aelai?um  berry  w  q 'atjq'ijtj w  q 'dla? w  w ,  place  picking  fat  bluejay  q uxkfnxan  toenail  q 'umk'in  skull  qW'aqW'aA  bone  q  Indian dance  w  w ,  azflx  qU'eXqW'ax q aApf , w ,  black burnt  q 'alxae*l  cook  q » e l fmaek  mosquito  w  w  q 'anuA' u  (v.)  painful  w  q 'ael  w  anything  dolphin  already  mixed)  stir  (something  ?tja1?win  coho  ?tja5j  come  ?f?oz  enough  ?f?wo  go a l o n g w i t h  ?f"Ain  eat  ?aS?ut  last  ?slm3B  best  ?aiut  east  ?az?  buy  ?ux ael w  ?eJ7p ?eltj"min  for  fried b e n t , curved tooth  /z/ zuq'nux  zy&lap  grow  zfiton  happening  zfitonj"  k i l l e d , k i l l (n.)  was done; doings  zuq xael  every day  ziljun  zae?zuxfq'ft  daily  zujunsej"  w  melt, thaw  zal?mim zsS?u  every day monthly  long  zaSxtnJ  rectangle  w  zaexaelmfx al w  zallxael  pine  soak leather  rub (v.)  zumsk  spring salmon  zu^ton  know  zuwaetnaej  lesson  zuwffilts?a zuwu  carry piggyback  zae*x Qltim  move i t  w  every week  zae? zu?x A'alnaemtfn zaext  t i e up  zulk m  t i r e d of something  zaS? zu?x Jq'ft  bind  zuxun  rest (v.)  zae? zu?x zapfu?f  k i l l (v.)  w  za£?zaz J q ' i t  zae?x  something that has been  hollow  slow  zilwit ziI  cave the flowing of a l i q u i d that  shouldn't be flowing zilm  surround  zaSlael  soap  zihkuj"  zaemaej  still  zapiu?Jt  zae*una  these  zepfu?jffij  last week  zoq'uften  g r i n d i n g stone  zoq'ufin  sharpen  zdq J"tumx  w  zuq zuqj  death die  k i l l me  ze?x  w  rounded Sunday  get used to  zawaH  i s known  zewciten zewaikjten  know dippe  zwitnaej'  knowled  zw33?ten  know  246  /// Jplasp  buttocks;  hip  /taem?  things; sell  /plain/  already  /taium  /pldnte  skunk  /tutwfwu?tae  /pluk  smoke  /pluk 33 w  /piqu/  /pepzijzae? /peztfzae? /pa/k/ /p'aik'em /p'aiq'maem  /tuf  burnt  cloud birds bird nose  bloom  (v.)  /twaSl /klaSu  /p 'asm/  f i rewood  /kfmutae  /p'aen?  it  bent  beaver  /kfxzae /kfmaelt/e /kfnt/  /tf?am/  melt  /kft/lex  everything  /kaekaiu?  to  t h e i r own  between  straight  /taikem  (going  weapon  for  /tx ailx w  sister  almost  /twfta/  fall  burnt  really  /texs?aet/  /p'aem/  /p'aimaena/  mother's  /texwe  flower  it  astonish  /tex/  (gen.)  clothes holding  /teqt/ /te?  son  depart  /taq/al/ summer camp  young men  sister's  /tomtftem  foot  (v.)  real  /tunx  afraid  /painkit/tnae /puAtem  /tux  small  /pai?xa3lp /paV?xin  (n.)  anything  plant mother ice whisper  (v.)  lying  down  distance  fkasnasf J"kaeu  hardly sister-in-law  Jkumit  boy; pre-teen  c h i l d , non-adult /ku? las  finished  Jkuzas?  baby  name  Jk il?  the sun i s shining  w  Jk azuJ"am  work  w  f k ' i k ' i n nastinfas w  w  fqlulaexin  hoof South wind  school  Jqaeut/  potato  now  fqdq il  story  /kdnjae  your chi Id  JkiTrnJ  u  snowfall  J q d q i las  best  Jqdxas  /kit/kft/  lying  Jq&tszas  Jkakaiu?/  distance  Jk'SekasI  dried  Jk'seVpas?  Jk'ae I u las? Jk il? w  father summit (of a mountain) man  u  Jquqwal  sand  Jqu?  owl  /quiiI  ready  dog  fqdit J"qdix  mud  t a l k (v.)  w  J k i laStm/  JkaAt  story bay  fqumqmas  fog hills  Jk iA'uJ  face  Jqummas  mountain  Jk 33t f t /  name  JquA'aeJ  hid i t  /k aik/t  hand  Jqapq  w  W  w  Jk a1mim w  trapped  fewest  in number  Jqaapt/  Jkuzas laep J"kul  /k^t/lt/  J"qa Ja??a3  covered nephew  248  Jqe I aSu  money  Jqelalwae  water  Jqam  hill  Jq'it  day  J"q' i I as  animals  Jq 'elaSp w  top  food  Jq'am  woman's  food  Jq'uq '33tJ"  fat  w  Jq'u  cheap  Jq'em?x  round  Jq rjtq 33m w  Jq ai?Un Jq af5lla3  ripe  u  Jq a31aSxkt n Jq ulmox w  berries  horn  w  J " q a q a l mfnan  speak  w  J"q 5z33zuJ" w  animal)  about  w  Jq 'a3?dp133?  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Jts'ix  w  J"tJ"fx i J" u  Jt Jijwae  jAxum  daughter-in-law  JafiqaA p L talk J t j ' l k f a e horse  JaSq'uq'uA  river  JaSq'uA  jA'pf?wan  fly  w  winnings shirt  Jaex om Jalxxinaem? Jimae? [a$ts'x  jA'aeqt  sky  JaluAm  Jipd?  marrow  Jdi?Jez  Jipdz  skin,  toy game  Jup'um  Jf?Jaz  play a game  Jup'om  beach moccassin  JukJ  JfAts'ae?  shoes  Juk 33  Jimap'aSnt Jit/t  night  J i j f q ' t Jse  W  w  come back  young women  step  high power question  Ju?mun Ju?A'aeA Jujpae?  (v.)  have a pot l a t c h scratch oneself  Juq 'az  come  (v.)  ask,  Jutik  / i Atsaad 1  Jfmae?  half-breed  scratch with n a i l s  Jf?Jiz  JfJxatJ  w  Juplax Jup  full  w h i t e man  prize  Jf?/i t L n  is  bathe  w  jA'xum  hide  half half;  Jaeq >  river  it  f i v e - t h i rty  pointed  own  JtJiliAae  JaSpm  or  freeze breathe  (v.)  w i n t e r ; North wind finished sugar son-in-law smell  it  drain tail  (v.)  o f animal  claws  Juxtim  recogni ze descend  Jezaeq' (v.)  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(v.)  currents  (v.)  (v.)  ignored  w  x a j x i faenae?  smiling  x alxsll  burn  (v.)  x alfn  stomach  x alaekae  finger  u  w  look f o r  dress  x azdzamin w  painting  w  smells  w  x azaf? salmon  strong  w  w  (n.)  preserved  Indian d o c t o r  w  largest  w  w  x aKp w  fast  store  w  x tnae?mae w  (v.)  turned around  x ftmj w  smokehouse  w  expensive  year  w  w  ( i n weight)  dampen  w  four  u  light  w  x dts'sen  plentiful  x ?ox  go o v e r a mountain  disappear  w  forbid  (v.)  mountain goat  x dzae w  w  w  p'ae?lk  x dz alaem?  x ?ut finjq'ampj" x ?utjin  x ael w  deny  w  wash  w  x 33A'dl  shallow  w  x a3j w  surface  x ?fu?Jam  erase  w  many p e o p l e  u  owe  w  x 33?zwflx  costly  w  x ijfwaet  fire  churning  x el w  nij  x 4mA'u w  right  x 8ts'flx w  x ets'an w  it  sudden  w  x em  burn  away trying  force  very  /x/ XaSpten  what  brings  us n i g h t ; west Xaep  Xafpaelmin  y&A*  evening  xftaej"  Xu/iJ Xuit  defend  foam  (n.)  sleep  (v.)  X u i t J mfnaej Xe?e§?e  tonight  tomorrow e v e n i n g  w  insult  loose  (v.)  XezmEemi nkae  slope  Xezumekai?a3  big  Xexzaezim  Xoxfik  X^lp  thumbs  large  crab  Xexut/in  four  burn  Xolx 'Jk'exem 9  X^lx ' Xe I X 1 s  Xelft  s t r o n g wind  powerful  3  83  trapped  Xet/pae/q't  at n i g h t ;  ya^pae/ na5tx  heavy  Xetjpfn  night  XaSpaaJ  Xemaink  strange over a mountain  one  X^t/im  box  Xltjm  trying  X a?? 11 m w  X dz83  rope disappear  w  X ^mx om  in a hurry  X 4zx ez  sharp  w  w  w  w  X elxa3l w  X sUn w  burn a n y t h i n g light  it  (v.)  hiweke?ae  haVPIae  gloves  seen  hai?u  hot  h3$l?haen  show born  haSl?ha3nae  haeliu?  eagle  haSnik  humpback salmon  halwin?  gopher; r a t  hu?  going  hin  past  hezhdziz heza5?x  w  heA  hesitate melt  cold  /A/  AksSx  you  At*? I nun  reamer  AkaSAas  ours  AL?Iin  ream  w  AkaSlaep  you  AIJp  rash  Akunfae  now; p r e s e n t  Aim?  stingy  AitJ  heap  Aq'aSlaep  width  Aq a6?luJ  weave  w  Andk a3j  seldom  w  AtJ<jq a?J  is  w  Afkin  the end  examine  AaepasnaSj"  extinguish  Aafpin  forget  Aaektnaim  depend upon  Aaaqtlt  Aaix aen  A<5kmin Aok 'm Aak'  wide  AaqaSlqJ"  wide  Aaq flx  ride  w  Aa?aelq flx  close  AaxAux  dense  Aaxfn  AaSut  spine  Aam3?ka3?tin  Auq'entjut  undress  near forest  hang  w  raft  (v.)  scatter  Aax paen  w  (v.)  lean  w  facing  cured  bird  pierce  w  mend  Aa!ula3q ce  a  beak o f  Aa?x  w  f n  Aa?uja  get  w  Aiwaeltftan  (v.)  bow  Aae?Aaema$m  (n.)  pocket  AamaSlae  bottle  Aamae'uA  load  (v.)  AuxlaqJ  snot  Aawil  Auxujam  put a mask on  AwilnaeJ  l e f t a person  AuAaq '  naked  Awaeltjtan  autumn  w  leave  261  Ittlnae  over  1f1tamj"  lum  grow up  1 iIq  L i l l o o e t people  1 fu?tjaen  open  1 L JwaS?  laeqae?  blame  luts  easy  1 fl?waeta3  last i  at  (v.)  inhabitant  delicate  plant  lipid/  board punish  1 ipnitaSJ"  puni shment  lcSx alxin  toe  1ix fIx  church  laS 1 u jae laam  seagull  whiskey  (v.)  1 ip'xai 1 p l a n t i n g 1 ip 'aen  lasAx"  (v.)  1 ipnitaSJ"  elk  w  tight  11 pxa? 1  l3$x aelxin w  (n.)  w  bury hide  Ii l?q  easy  lapdt  pot  lataem  table lack  (v.)  (v.)  IsSmxal  pray  lakl i  laftratu?  sheep  1aklfhin  home  laln?ij  already  1akdltan  gamble wi th  lalax winaej" laewaen?  destroy  hang  ( a person)  1aq dz  blanket  laxlaex  memo ry  w  laewa?  sockeye  1 ax 1 ax wi se  i ajaSm  dev i 1  laXlalx  luq dz  blanket  w  1uJ  break  luxluxam  in pieces secret  clear;  pure (  remember laXlaX  smart  lahftsp  otter  /m/  mfk'iltjae  fat  mijaeltf  mae I ernpt Jxae I  build  mfjan  fix  mslm?teq  walk  ma5n?xim  smoke  mfrrtfJV?  thin  ma? i f  mfnitaej"  grateful  maSu  mfnaejti  himself  maiwael  mfnaej"  them  mfn twael  sit  mftjaeq  sit  mftjaeq  sit  down  down  (v.) (v.)  wildcat;  live; alive;  maiwaen  criticise  mdzmit/sej"  sympathize  mdzmit  pity  maxmaSx  light  (n.)  mdljtan  poison  mfi/ten  fixed  mdljem  cranberry  mfijaen maetq  marked walk;  travel  maldJ"A'i?ae  wolf  matsulaenkm mdts'ulam  kidneys infect  iraqfn  hair  mutae  mslq33?  snow  mdzmit  poor  mujmuj  cow  mujmij  cattle  raSqae  year  mac^aeA  black  bear  rreeI i f  married  mijlxael  life  revive  sit  made me  (tobacco)  cat  mftjaeq'  mii J x f t J i J  (v.)  fix  maewaelwfl?x  o f each o t h e r  mft/aqmaeA  poison  again;  also  dipping  mulxffi  sticks  mi I?mfI?  distribute  mi ImijIxaa  sticks  mi I mi ml ex mix  bushes  .Ml writing  mitJWtJen mt5km meq' me?ex  louse full  (after  body huckleberry;blueberry  mexeAaSnkxin mex J" w  eating)  daybreak  mezaltj mexdz  marching  bear  maggot  mexmix memdleluj"  daybreak raccoon  foot  264 /n/  nf/qfaam  blow  ni la? I imaet  (one's  nose)  neck  nainatx  morning  na3*nastx tan  what b r i n g s  w  nfAtJae  because  naSna9tax  nfA  ti  finished  nuk aen  niA  td  that one  nuk 'aemf n fas J"  na?tx  tomorrow morning  w  n£\x &$  tomorrow  u  naikxael  replace  naeku I i ? nask'  butterfly change  (v.)  nask'aslwiTnim naiq oJim u  naeq ' w  naf/p'aent  rusty  complain steal;  go back  naS/xael  bring;  naSftf  bring  nae/ ae?ttl nslxnum naexan nasx^Xt najxwlit haihin  swindle  send it  celebrate believe name  (v.)  wo rm snake name  help going w i t h me;accompany  w  nuk antj"  help me  w5  nuVantJasJ" nuk 'aen  help  nuk a?u?J nuq asn  help  nuxwa?  love  (v.)  nuwipki I umae? nikekufnit ti?  eyebrow, e y e l a s h star  that  is  nimxae*!  row  naqnuq  mild  naq dz  steal  nax ft  snake  nalaeka  shoulder  w  w  (v.)  friends  w,  niA  (v.)  d e f e n d ; help  w  w  east  morning  w  w  us morning;  (v.)  all  /ts/  tskaeltax"  rib  tsqw'elp  spruce  tsfkten  antler  tsi?l8§mx f  nature  w  tsi?  deer  tsflae  the way i t  tsflae  seem  tsflae A'u tsaext  suppose  brother-in-law  tsaStsmiqJ tsdktae  great-grandparent  medical  tsuk  doctor  thigh  tsumk'fn  brain(s)  tsutsxol  snow  tsik'k 'in tsizuj"  busy  tsftspae?  grandfather  tseq'mfntwael tsezdj" tsezu/naej" tsszujin  shoes  cone  w  teaman  is  stick  together  busy i n t e r f e r e with bother lick  (v.)  tsemun  suck  tsewain  dry  f  266 /ts'/  ts'ip  Jk'axem  t s ' f laej  cold  t s ' i I t s ' f lae  way i t was  t s ' f laejae  t s ' 1 1 t s ' f lae A ' u  the way i t  ts'flae  like  ts'aeq'  soil hit  ts'aeq aln  eat  w  is  (v.)  ts'aeq'an  the person  ts'imtsamaeqJ"  pointed  ts'i*mts'ammaqJ"  ts'ae?A  be c h i l l y  t s ' i"ts'pa?ae  ts'dtan  ts'uqumf?u?Jt  Saturday  ts'uq az  fish  ts'dzts'uz  k'lt  ts'uxman  t o o l sharpener  w  ts'uts'axael ts'ipaz ts'tkj* ts'ik'fz ts'ik a§kae w  ts'^ka  scary  snow shoes  nipple of  breast  finished almost l e f t hand disappear  ts'ok '3lkae  great  ts'azuj"  grandfather  sore on hand  w  ashamed o f  busy  ts'axts'axam  clean  ts'alts'ul  sour  ts'amts'um  rough  ts'amts'amaqj"  tough  ts'andz  1i t t l e  ts'awin  wash  ts'waen  sharp  uncle  t s ' a ? xujmin  r a t t l e snake  really  grandfather  ts'its'paSu  panning  p o i n t ; sharp end  ts'imts'imaqJ"  shame  ts'aeu?xael  the same time  triangle  ts'its'pae  grasshopper  at  ts'fmtsamaq'.f  ts'ae?x  ts'aents'an  similar  dry  fish  (v.)  fish  267  /tj7 tjqu?aetj tjA^Jpa  rash  tjla5xin  pack  tjA'fpJ  under  tjitxumf tjftx  tjfkan  strap  tJaSkae  stabbed  t.fa3?x  pl e a s u r e ;  t.fa5?u tfaVPwin  tjaeunae  tjfx aluj  foresee  tjaeeqin  tjilkft  five  t j i I k/taS/k'at  t j i lkJq'ampJwika?Ae3j fi fty-three tjflax  tjutae  (v.)  tjinuk itj  Chinook  tjuk  t J* f "t J* 11  f r e s h ; new  were going  self s o n - i n-law think,  imagine;  g u e s s ; hope tjukj  leader  fingers  sickness  t JutaeA  leader  tjfnamqan  A'aSk  tjdljma  tjfnnaqan w  h i t with pointed  tjutinwaef  crawl  salmon  here  w  fifty  something  Chinamen  tjae x a l Friday  t J i I k J*q' amp /  silver  tfaannunae  went  w  happy about  w  feel  t J f x i tas J w  happiness  bleed  tjaej  arrived  w  tfaeqaA  chicken tools  red cedar  cooled  t fae?tJV?a§x  pulling  tool  cedar t r e e ,  w  reach  w  tjix  t faHaewaz  house  w  tjfx j  pulling  w  camped  w  tjf?tjuk  tjftjak ae  fat  tjuk'  finished complete, f i n i s h A'u  tjukwaef  only just  only  (v.)  268  tjuqunaej tjuq  extend an o b j e c t finish  w  tju?xael tju?x  kick  tju?f  tjuwe?j (v.)  kick  (v.)  tJuAxael  i n d i c a t e by  t J"uA33kae?kJ"q'emp J*  tjumal?tf  t Jdnas/  w  tJutJin  tJutJwaSJ  tjilkutnae  children  tjim?p  finished  mention  tJotJok itJ  somebody  mouth same age even  tjuae?  own  t Juae?J  owner  cunning  w  tJok  pull  w  tJo?xa5l  kicking  tjeqtjae  high v a l l e y on a mountain  t Jaq aenux 33 w  sickness  w  tjaq 'tja?q ' w  (v.)  (n.)  Chilcotin lake  correct  tjutjuwafjtj  desire  tJilaeA  warm  tJunaSm?xael  summer camp  dissolve  pointing tjijutae  seven  basket  cool  tjf?wex  seventy  to  cradle  tfiktfaek  tjd?en  tJunAkaex  belongs  tjipa1nki.tjti.na3  own  tJuAaekal?  measuring  tJtpas 1 fn  melt  u  tjuwffiu?jin  red  w  tje?q  tame  tje?x mfn w  (v.) careless  tjuw33?j  belong  to  tjex di  joke  tjuw33?j  belonging  tjemaelt  children  t Juwae?  own (adj .)  tjawuwux  creek compare  w  (v.)  t Juwae"? ux  river  tjwaljaen  t Juwae Jem  make a bet  tjwa1u?jaen  measure  tjwaeu?x ae  river  w  (v.)  /tjv tj'saj  expect someone to a r r i v e  tj'afjxasl  bring  t J'ai I aA J A'u tJ'e-q'/tail i  something because, due to  was  tamed  270  A/ Axum  deserve  AxumJ" Axun  win  it  beat  (v.)  AseJ" z a p f u ? / Aaex  w  t h r e e weeks  mink  ^^3n^mflx  try  (v.)  Ae£u?J"an  separate  AuAaeJam  grizzly  Aaq a5mla3x w  w  root  (v.) bear  ago  271  /AV  A'xum  reward;  success; A'xumJ"  victory  win  A'ikaeVk'  (v.) thimbleberry  A' iq 33ml33x w  root  w  nail  A'aeq'mokJtq'ampJ  s ixty-five A'aeq'mokjt A'aax  six  sweet  A'alxil  attack  (v.)  A'i?tJ*  repeat  A'aeAnun  glue  A'fmin  sinue  A'aAaeq"  sealed  A ' faqxael  take away  A'ijalq'aen A'ask  snail  A'aSk 33 W  A'aq A-'aSqae A-'aSquJ" A'iqa A'iqeJ A'asq'  A'al  bridge flood  (v.)  filled c r o s s o v e r ; come go  through  pale came back here go  across  (v.)  salt stop  A'aelu  comes  A'eSk'mm A'aak'  A'iAaem  A'aSI lax  go  A'aSkaeJ  sixty  5  shelter  w  A'aeq'nun  A'aeq mo kjtq'ampJwi t J ' I k ft  wages  A'xun  A'iq  winnings;  (v.)  stopped postponed  A'aereemtin  month; moon  A'inamnaaf  tast  A'anaemflx  attempt;  A'aSnae  risk  (v.)  ear  A'aSnaemin  try  A'anamflx  it  practise  A'anwfn A'aSA'imx  (v.)  bat  (n.  Douglas  w  A'iA'1mx itJ w  (v.)  animate) (Lillooet)  language  speak our own language  272  A aSut  avoid  A'ik'ae?U  (v.)  A  ae A ' u q e ? f u  A  d?z33  A  a z ? u ? i 133 b i g  A  az  boa t  A  al  bite  make  w  progress A ' l A p  canoe  quietens  A'Uq'aln  tear  A'<5x in  brush  w  (v.)  flea  A  upun  A  uk'xael  A  uqxael  A  uqtjaen  kiss  A  uquxae'l  sew  A  utj"  A  utjxael  A  uA'uk  A  uA'ox em  hard  A  u J* samaSj  better  A  u x f?lnup  A  I'pA'ipem  A  i. pal? Jas  A  i paem  deep  A  (fke?  s u p p o r t ; mold  embrace suck  A'exum A'eAfmen A'alail  it  A'eA'alksa  dark marrow  (v.)  dark  weasel  sew by hand slap  (on  face)  wing beat  (v.)  spoon remain f a s t e n e d c o n t i n u e ; always,  A'aA'aeks A ' u  sweep  w  short  A'eq'aV?i I  (v.)  separate  w  A'ak'aSk'at  A'equjm  (v.)  chop cut  it's  A'equ?  (v.)  (v.)  A'epA'spem  A'oqA'iA'aq  twist  w  tremble  A'dpasA  canoe  A- u p l a z  feather  always  repeatedly  IM ikfjmae fq 'tjasm  shove  w  i?33? f t Jut of  i nuk ae  interior  w  think  greatly  oneself  f?ez  enough, s u f f i c i e n t  f?ez A ' u  middle o f just  f?emB3tJ  grandchild w i t h someone  f?waaj  go wi th  f?wij  fish  (v.)  izu?iJ  beautiful  i JaSkmae  everything  fjaau?  chew  fJwaeA  loon  fxip w  foreign  have none; need  fx ae? j A ' f ? x a n u  bare  fx ae  move  fAin  food  flael  crying,weep  w  (ref.  grow  ix Aulmox fx ae?  it  enough  f?wa3?  foot  say  i A'uxJa3m?J fA'omt i  f ? s z s k Jo  u  f nwaet  (v.)  moreover; o t h e r  person)  anything screamed  sing  that  274  /a/  afpa  close  33p'  wi pe  friend  aims Jae/ ama  atutj" panki't/tne  go  w  cedar  w  a*k i J  where  33?tuJ  over  w  aS?ku  ar5?x33  root  there  good  33*n?waeJ"  power  strong  'v  f o r a boat  twenty  two  anjaij'k'et  aitsxen  ixnu n  digging  aaxaip  alas  stick  youngest really here feed  (v.)  kinds  look o v e r , check  altsxonaej  sees  a5ts'q aj"  watching  aits'q ejtanf w  aits'xsmtin aits'xsn aits'xsnsej at/aixan  aimha  good  at/aiAts'a  a/mas  good  stomach  twenty-two  see  w  outside  twenty-one  Tuesday  fertile  aV?tJaen  rest  a5n?wejq'emp fwian?waf  aezffim  3311 .falunae  1  33n?weJ"q'9mpJ*  aets?aitsxen  ai 1 a Ja 1  well  two  here  alUna?  people feel  aenTwaJij/im  see  i l t s ' q 'as  f e r t i l e ground  aSn?weJq'empJwipaila3?  higher  aS?hin  almawit  a?n?waejae  there  8B?xa5u  Upxaflten  aims wa?33mae  summer camp ik 33lmix  to  satisfied  it  how i t  looks  naturally  binoculars n o t i c e ; watch; saw  see  it  armpit insides;  inside a  a t Jdeujxi n  knee  33ut?iJl  last  aeu?tae.f  at  last  aSuxael  choose  aSutJ  after  a/utj" A'u t.fsS  soon  276  /a/  az  no  az kaSti dz  k i n A'aem  k L J taxtax  unjust  W  dz k i j taxtex w  not dz  empty  w  ! t  '  k i j ka q aeluta3  k i/ w  can't  w  k i j * t fut Juwae|  dz  k i j " fnwset  ka xa?k33  doesn't  k iJ k'fnk'mit  dz  k i J ?3fmaeJ  safe  w  badly  w  zazawaSt  silent  w  not  dz  k L J uluj"  dz  k i j wae?  sober  good  false  buy  az J x f n ? J  lately  az Akunjaa  not now  to i t ;  nothing happened  intact  dz  k i j JilkpuJ  dz  k i j " xfn?  soon  dz A ' u kae*ti  dz  k i j * kfnA  no  dz A ' u kaSlaa/tJ" q 'aSI  dz  k uJ xalxal  w  w  w  longer  not  w  strong;  feeble dz  k t J lalk w  it  doesn't  dz A ' u  never not at a l 1  c o m p l e t e l y cooked dz A ' u k m  kaS?  dzuq am  revenge  w  foolish  dxmm  reamer  dz  don't  dljam  sick,  k i J maewaem w  about people  talk  nowhere (n.)  whittle  dz k i j lax'^X w  not  w  dxxaalae  matter  person)  absent  w  az?  (ref.  no one e l s e  w  dz A ' u k kaanamf  unknown  uneven  w  w  dz  w  unhappy  u  az k i j winsSx"  1 i s t e n or obey  dz k i j  dz  u  w  talk dz  k t.f tjde?x  az k i j aSrrae  s  right w  dz  disease  i l l ; get  sick;  /u/  dq ae?  drink  w  (v.)  dlox  uq 35?lmin  thirsty  dmni?A  uq a5l?min  thirst  dmik  go home  dmin  w  w  d?x ael?J w  d?min  give  i/?minaej djtjae  get  uJ tJab/  rid of  threw i t away  dx aelmix w  Indian p e o p l e  w  ux 33lmix ae*ltj" p u b l i c w  w  ux aelmix w  dx ae1  w  tmfx  w  building  Indian  land  home  w  ux elmfx tj w  w  any  Indian  dywaeA  go home  uxwael  homeward bound go  w  inside  u* Au J J t u dl  went back  in  only  dluj*  gone die  dtsqaB  came out  dtsqae?  go out  dtszaen  f i x ; correct  uts  zalnaej  uts'q'eS  fix  dts'q'33?  come  dlujin  add t o ; mix  dlujan  gather  (v.)  dts'elex  it  (v.)  (revise)  come out  uts'dts'zaen  language  uAx  gift upstream  uts  offer  enter  w  Spring refix absorb  colour  L Jta?A lox  standing  ij*q aq am w  hill  w  i/zuq  corpse  iJ7q dxt  feet  w  if  tok itJ  ignorant  w  ij" hi?l33  distinct  iA talk meet U?kdna  everyth  where  i11f'33  o v e r here  inp'sm/tan ink '33tk arri33 w  including  w  i n?3$n?waj"aj" i n a5u?t11/  stove D'Arcy two o f  people you  translate  loi  Qx?un <5lAx 33 W  cough go i n s i d e  /a/  a?xaxxae"l  confess  a3?u?Ja3j  anpslu  egg  azu?ij*  an p'ukmin  pretty  a/qcSqozffi?  ankalkal  give  aJaSinae  birth  c a r r y an  object  in arms  a j k'sexj" i n a rms ax?un  al?tja?una3 alafntj" alaSn  here  touch  a I tu al  (sense  (sense  of)  of)  over there  k'u  wh i1e  a  little  ago  amha1lq am w  beautiful  (ref.  ank 'a?tk ae w  smoke-hole  train  coyote sweathouse D'Arcy  w  anqaxqaxk  chipmunk  anq'diIix  swim  an?uts'qa3?  (v.)  spring  anzsl?x ffil  dip  w  (v.)  pack  right  (v.)  basket  hand  anza5w?xa3l  scoop out  anfkdza?  proud  side liquid  my c h i Id  an xdzaektan an x d i ? t i n  give  an pIulktan  lizzard  anfquzae  non-human) amnfA  ankUqtJae  anzalhaekae  this  tjaei kil?aej  railroad;  an zafxintan  there  a I tjeinae al  (v.)  taste  ankdhaeu?/  ank'aAaSnaetan "  cough  gun powder  where  ank' faep  c a r r y a person  up  follow  anksl?  frame  aj taqj  swell  hornet's bed  an xakmin  law  an x a ? f I q  opposite  nest  281  enx f?tem  semen  w  enhael haetj"  groan  enAs§m?ten  container  en A e p l e q f  turkey  entsek 33k33?  l e f t hand s i d e  entsexISBkm  mountain peak  w  ent|d?33  my own  ent/lqtj  upright  enutsk'33 enwSeq  springtime hole  etJaSAts'ae  body  282  NI w f tae J  wae en qeldAts'ae  what  wix qtln  wuq 'f  comb  w  wfnae?x  u  wuq 'il  resemble  wu?in  wfnae?x  w  drowned  w  same  bad tempered people  downstream  w  have i t with you  wfnas?x ae  same kind  wu?inaej"  wine§x tj  aloud  wu?iu  shout  wuxwA  sucker ( f i s h )  wi?in  keep  w  w  wfnaex itj"  speak same  w  language wi  nix nun  believe  w  wikm was?  wagon still;  wi?  paept  wi?  pixminjae  wij"x£?w  group  wiIq in  open  wmix  r e a l ; true  w  exist  winix nun  believe in  i t i s shaver  wiA'k'ilten  paddle  can be done  wiA'ilten  ke xe?kae  wae? zwit  wae A'xdm wiA'ek  reasonable  i t i s known  wae? Akunjae  wiA'k'  stop something from  mov i ng  1 i ke1y  wae? fA  w  w  do always  wae? ke xdiAae  wi?  keep  it's  now  still vomit (n.) win (v.) vomit (v.)  wi  J"tex  wi  nuk'aem  have to avoid  w  friendly  wopqjqdxae wox tJ w  dog saliva  we ptTnu/im we plrik wet i k i lae?  think about i t  smoking (ref. noble (adj.)  a fire)  283  wa i f i t weq  hunger split  (n.)  we xezomjut  (v.)  honour  we x ? d z x i t e m  forbidden  w  we q I f I  angry  we x d i Jae J  weq'en  shine  we x e/taSnt/ut  d o e s n ' t want  w  bright  we hsl?h33nsj  we? kinaSje  f r e e to go  we l u l i m ?  w  interest  w  weq 'eq'em  show  something  jealously  we ?f?we  to accompany  welwelujim  lightning  we? alms  f e e l wel 1  we mfi fnsj*  improvement  we?a$u  call  we? d l j e m  loudly  be s i c k it  wexaS?J"kla3u?  mountain beaver  show  written  afraid  to  w  blind flight  we Jims w i l ? x  we t s e q  drip sinking  w  we t j f x s l u f  prophet  becoming  we Aixwxsl  as  w  we f l s l  longtime system  an  substance  concern  (of a b i r d )  transferring  we x d i A t J s J  into a  soft  Indian power we x f n ?  sticky  someone  w^ts'wets'em  a w h i t e man we x f l t  we tseqp  we t s ' d z s k '  wej*nc'm?nim wejsq '  cheat  theft  we tsem?q  fear  falling  we n s q ' u  arrest  we J t e q ' t J  snow  we mets'ujem  we? e j m i ' t j  we zrijunim  is  we msqs?  (v.)  it  cure  (n.)  weep  we i nt JotinweJ*  i d e a ; thought  (n.)  284 SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY  B a r n e t t , Homer G. The Coast S a l i s h o f B r i t i s h U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon P r e s s : 1955.  Columbia.  "The Coast S a l i s h o f Canada", American kO: 118-141 (1938) '  Anthropologist,  Boas, F r a n z . " S a l i s h a n T e x t s " , Proceedings o f the American P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y 34: 31-48 (1895).  "A C h e h a l i s T e x t " ,  IJA1 8: 103-110 (1934).  Boas, Franz and Herman H a e b e r l i n .  "Sound S h i f t s  in  Salishan  D i a l e c t s " , U A L 4: 117-136 (1927). E d e l , May M.  "The T i l l a m o o k Language",  Elmendorf, W. W.  10: 1-57  UAL  "Word Taboo and L e x i c a l Change  in  (1939).  Coast  S a l i s h " , U A l 17: 205-208 (1951). H a e b e r l i n , Herman K.  "Types o f R e d u p l i c a t i o n  in the S a l i s h  D i a l e c t s " , U A L 1: 154-174 (1918) . Kinkade, M. Dale  UAl  "Phonology  and Morphology  29: 181-195, 345-356;  "Vowel A l t e r n a t i o n  o f Upper  U A L 32: 343~349  in Upper C h e h a l i s " ,  (1966). "Uvular-Pharyngeal  Resonants  Chehalis",  30: 32-61, 251-260 (1963-64).  in  Interior  Salish",  UAL  33:  228-234 (1967). Kuipers, Aert  Newman, S t a n l e y  The Squamish  Language.  " B e l l a Coola  I:  Mouton:  Phonology",  1967.  UAL  13: 129-134 (1947).  285  Ransom, Jay E l l i s "Notes on Duwamish Phonology and Morphology", UAL 11: 204-210 (1945).  R e i c h a r d , Gladys A. "Coeur d ' A l e n e " , Handbook o f American Indian Languages 3 (1938). " C o m p o s i t i o n and Symbolism o f Coeur d ' A l e n e V e r b Stems", U A L 11: 47-63 (1945). "A Comparison o f F i v e S a l i s h 293-295 (1958).  Languages:I",  U A L 24:  "A Comparison o f F i v e S a l i s h Languages: II, III, and V " , U A L 25: 8-15, 90-96, 154-167, 239-253 "A Comparison o f F i v e S a l i s h 50-61 (1960).  Languages:  VI",  IV, (1959).  U A L 26:  Snyder, Warren A. Southern Puget Sound S a l i s h : T e x t s , P l a c e Names, and D i c t i o n a r y . The Sacramento A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y : 1968. v  Southern Puget Sound S a l i s h : Phonology and Morphology. The Sacramento A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y : 1968.  Swadesh, M. "Salish (1950). "Salish  Internal  Relationships",  U A L 16: 157-167  P h o n o l o g i c Geography", L £ 28: 232-248 (1952).  "Mosan I, A Problem o f Remote Common O r i g i n " , 26-44 (1953). -  "Mosan II,  Comparative V o c a b u l a r y " ,  UAL  UAL  19:  19: 223-236  (1953).  Tweddell, Colin E l l i d g e The Snoqualmie-Duwamish D i a l e c t s o f Puget Sound Coast S a l i s h . U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington P r e s s , 1950.  Vogt, H.  The K a l i s p e l  Language. Oslo  (1941).  

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