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Lillooet phonology, texts and dictionary Swoboda, Leo John 1971

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LILLOOET PHONOLOGY, TEXTS AND DICTIONARY by LEO JOHN SWOBODA B.A., Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Lingui st i cs We accept th i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1971 In present ing th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i lmen t o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib ra ry sha l l make i t f r ee l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of th i s thes i s for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i c a t i on of th i s thes i s f o r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. The Un ivers i ty of Bri Vancouver 8, Canada Depa rtment i i ABSTRACT The reasons fo r w r i t i n g North American Indian s t o r i e s and legends are both numerous and obvious, e s p e c i a l l y in l i gh t of the fact that many Indian languages, which h i ther to have o r a l l y preserved such m a t e r i a l , are dying due to many complex, s oc i o -economic f a c t o r s . Less obvious is the manner in which such materia l should be preserved; however, few would dispute that to do so by ignoring the source language would be to ignore a fundamental means of transcending the ethn ic b a r r i e r to the Indian cogn i t i ve system from which the legends are der ived. While many such descr ip t ions of Indian mater ia l e x i s t , the l i n -g u i s t i c models used in these descr ip t ions render them u n i n t e l l -i g i b l e to both Indian and non-Indian a l i k e . The aim of th i s p r o j e c t , there fo re , has been to c o l l e c t a s i zeab le corpus of mater ia l in the L i l l o o e t language and not only to wr i te i t in a manner d i s c e r n i b l e to the layman as well as the language s p e c i a l i s t but a l so to present i t in a manner which could provide the basis fo r a more techn ica l l i n g u i s t i c study. Part One of the three parts comprising th is study presents the de s c r i p t i on of the phonological system used to t ranscr ibe the corpus given in Part Two and Part Three. This de sc r i p t i on is based on an ana lys i s of the e n t i r e corpus which was achieved by using the 360/67 I B M computer located at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Fur ther , th is de sc r i p t i on is governed by the c r i t e r i a of d e s c r i p t i v e and funct iona l adequacy def ined in Part One, and th is part concludes with s t a t i s t i c a l data supple-menting the phonological d e s c r i p t i o n . Part Two gives a t r a n s c r i p t i o n of e ight L i l l o o e t texts with a q u a s i - l i t e r a l , Eng l i sh t r an s l a t i on below each l i n e . Immediately fo l lowing each of the texts is a f ree Eng l i sh t r a n s l a t i o n . Part Three is a d i c t i ona ry of bas ic l e x i c a l and phrasal un i t s . In that the t ranscr ibed materia l of Part Two and Part Three was read with understanding by a nat ive speaker of L i l l o o e t and in that fur ther l i n g u i s t i c research based on th is materia l is now under way, the dual aim of th i s pro ject has been achieved. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF FIGURES. . vi PART ONE, PHONOLOGY I. Background, Purpose and Method 2 I I . Phonological Data 6 1. Segments 6 2. Stress 8 III. Phonetic Data 10 1. Consonants 10 2. Vowels and Semi-Vowels 20 IV. S t a t i s t i c a l Data 28 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . 28 2. Frequencies of Phonetic Occurren-ces 28 3. Frequencies of Consonant Segments and Consonantal C lusters 32 k. Frequencies of Vowel Segments and Vowel C lusters 55 PART TWO, TEXTS I. The Flood 63 II. The Last Raid of the Thompson Indians 75 V III. How Chief Hunter Jack Overcame the C h i l c o t i n Indians Singlehanded 99 IV. The Cure of Bapt i s te R i t ch ie 127 V. The Blanket That Almost Destroyed the Indians 1 kk VI. Death by the Dance Curse 165 VII. Burning Mountain Sides fo r Better Crops 182 VIII. How We Make Canoes 195 PART THREE, DICTIONARY I . Introduction 222 I I . D ict ionary 223 BIBLIOGRAPHY 28*t LIST OF FIGURES PAGE 1 . Table of Consonants and Semi-Vowels, 2. Vowel Matrix , PART ONE PHONOLOGY 2 I BACKGROUND, PURPOSE AND METHOD The L i l l o o e t language is a member of the i n t e r i o r d i v i s i o n of the Sa l i sh language family and can be considered in terms of two mutually comprehensible d i a l e c t s o f ten designated as O r i g i na l L i l l o o e t and L i l l o o e t . In so far as present ana lys i s has de-termined ,th i s d i a l e c t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n occurs s o l e l y on the l e x i c a l leve l and concerns a r e l a t i v e l y small number of items, most of which are contextua l l y d i s c e r n i b l e by speakers of e i t h e r d i a l e c t when hearing the other d i a l e c t spoken. The Or i g ina l L i l l o o e t d i a l e c t , centered p r imar i l y at Mount C u r r i e , B r i t i s h Columbia, is the d i a l e c t on which the fo l lowing work is based. The mater ia l comprising the corpus of th i s p ro jec t was c o l l e c t -ed during the summer and autumn of 1969 at Mount C u r r i e . The t rans l a t i ons of the texts were completed in the spr ing of 1970 and the f i n a l ana lys i s of the mater ia l was completed by the summer of 1971. The f i r s t and main informant, who suppl ied the e n t i r e corpus, was Mr. Bapt i s te W. R i t c h i e . Born at Bridge R iver , B.C. on August 25, 1895, Mr. R i t ch ie spent h i s ea r l y boyhood at Seche l t , B.C. From there he moved to Mount Curr ie where he was p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i ve fo r many years as a member of the Mount Cur r ie counc i l and l a te r as ch ie f of the Mount Cur r ie band. A po l yg l o t , 3 he i s v e r s a t i l e in bo th d i a l e c t s o f L i l l o o e t and has a knowledge o f S e c h e l t as w e l l as an e x c e l l e n t command o f E n g l i s h . T h i s t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s r e m a r k a b l e memory and p e r c e p t i o n e n a b l e d him not o n l y t o r e c a l l w i t h f a c i l i t y the d e t a i l s o f the t e x t s but a l s o to c o n t r i b u t e g r e a t l y t o the l e x i c a l e l i c i t a t i o n s and to the i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f the p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . M i s s P r i s c i l l a R i t c h i e , the y o u n g e s t d a u g h t e r o f B a p t i s t e R i t c h i e , s u p p l i e d the t r a n s l a t i o n s t o the t e x t s and c o n f i r m e d many o f the morpheme b o u n d a r i e s c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n . T h i s was done i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h h e r f a t h e r and w i t h o t h e r members o f the R i t c h i e f a m i l y . D u r i n g t h i s t ime M i s s R i t c h i e g a i n e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o the methods and prob lems o f phono -l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s and was thus a b l e to o f f e r v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e in d e t e r m i n i n g many d i f f i c u l t , p h o n e t i c a l l o c a t i o n s . The p h o n o l o g i c a l s t a t e m e n t d e r i v e d f rom t h i s p h o n e t i c a n a l y s i s was based on the e n t i r e c o r p u s . T h i s was a c h i e v e d by u s i n g the I B M 360/67 computer l o c a t e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A s p e c i a l l y t a i l o r e d program was used to d e t e r m i n e the e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s p r e d i c t i n g p h o n e t i c r e a l i -z a t i o n s , t o d e t e r m i n e the c l u s t e r i n g p a t t e r n s o f segments and t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g f r e q u e n c i e s , t o a r r a n g e in a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r on the p h o n o l o g i c a l l e v e l a l l un ique o c c u r r e n c e s o f l e x i c a l items together with t h e i r corresponding g losses , and to provide a quick c ros s - re ference of the locat ions in the o r i g i n a l texts and on the tapes of any items requ i r ing fu r ther study. This pro ject has a dual purpose; namely, to present the texts and bas ic d i c t i ona ry in a manner which is read i l y compre-hens ib le to the layman as well as to the language s p e c i a l i s t and to do so in such a way that i t could provide the basis fo r a more techn ica l l i n g u i s t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The a r ch i va l nature of th i s l a t t e r purpose has, t he re fo re , motivated the i nc lu s i on of data not immediately per t inent to the actua l pronunciat ion of the phono log ica l l y presented L i l l o o e t texts and d i c t i o n a r y . Two p r i n c i p a l c r i t e r i a were used to der ive the phonological statement; namely, d e s c r i p t i v e and funct iona l adequacy. The system was considered d e s c r i p t i v e l y adequate only inso far as a balance was achieved between two cond i t ions determining s i m p l i c i t y and only inso far as the de s c r i p t i on was complete. S i m p l i c i t y was obtained by having a minimum of phonological segments represent ing the speech sounds of the language and by having a minimum of en-vironmental f ac tor s e n t a i l e d in the rules determining t h e i r phonetic r e a l i z a t i o n . Completeness was achieved by having a minimum number of phonetic a r t i c u l a t i o n s unassigned to segmental representat i ons. These condi t ions of d e s c r i p t i v e adequacy extend th i s 5 phonological system beyond the usual phonemic level es tab-l i shed s t r u c t u r a l l y by morphophonemically determined minimal cont ra s t s . Although the l a t t e r were not d isregarded in th i s ana lys i s the p o l y s y l l a b i c nature of the L i l l o o e t language is such that only a r e l a t i v e l y small number of m i n i -mal pa i r s is a v a i l a b l e . Hence the i n i t i a l formulat ion of a phonological hypothesis was l a rge ly based on the frequency of occurrences of speech sounds wi th in phonet i ca l l y s i m i l a r environments. The speech sounds with the highest frequency of occurrences w i th in the range of these s i m i l a r environments were considered as pos s ib le segments and the remaining sounds were then examined as to t h e i r p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . F i n a l l y the phonological system was considered f u n c t i o n a l l y adequate only inso far as a nat ive speaker understanding the system could read the tex t s . This was accomplished by Miss R i t ch ie who not only read the texts but was able to supply much of the t r a n s l a t i o n from her readings of th i s m a t e r i a l . A tape recording of these readings s u c c e s s f u l l y compared with the o r i g i n a l recordings made by her fa ther and hence the d e s c r i p -t ion was considered f u n c t i o n a l l y adequate. 6 11 PHONOLOGICAL DATA 1 . SEGMENTS The phonological system used to present the mater ia l in this work is comprised of 29 consonants, 7 vowels, and 2 semi-vowels.^ The consonants, with the exception of voiced / z / , /I/, /m/ and / n / , occur vo ice les s although some of the l a t t e r have an add i t i ona l e j e c t i v e a t t r i b u t e re su l t i ng from a s imu l -taneous a r t i c u l a t i o n with a g l o t t a l stop. The consonants are categor ized into f i v e kinds of a r t i c u l a t i o n ; namely, p l o s i v e s , f r i c a t i v e s , l a t e r a l s , nasa ls , and a f f r i c a t e s . These categor ies are fu r ther c l a s s i f i e d by the fo l lowing points or locat ions of a r t i c u l a t i o n : b i - l a b i a l , a l v e o l a r , p a l a t o - a l v e o l a r , v e l a r , uvular , and g l o t t a l (see F i g .1 ) . The vowel ranges are assigned to f i v e areas of the vowel matrix (see F i g . 2 ) . /]/ and / u / are c l o sed , f ront and back vowels respect i ve ly whi le /ae/ and / a / are the i r open counterparts . The f i f t h area is the centra l nucleus contain ing / a / together with the ra i sed and f ronted centra l vowel A / and 2 the r a i sed , re t rac ted and s l i g h t l y l a b i a l i z e d / o / . The semi-vowels or f r i c t i o n l e s s continuants /w/ and / j / are voiced with b i - l a b i a l and pa la ta l points of a r t i c u l a t i o n respect i ve ly (see F i g . 1). FIGURE 1 B i - l a b i a l A lveo la r Pa la to -Al veo lar Pa la ta l Ve lar Uvular G l o t t a l Plos i ve P P' t k k ' kw ku> q q ' q w a w ' ? F r i c a t i v e z ! X xw X X w h Latera l A 1 Nasal m n A f f r i cate ts t s ' A A» t j t j ' Semi-vowel or F r i c t i o n l e s s Cont i nuant w j Each subcategory designat ing a point of a r t i c u l a t i o n is fu r ther subdivided to ind icate the d i s t i n c t i o n in manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n between vo i ce le s s and voice r e s p e c t i v e l y . 8 FIGURE 2 Roof of Mouth Front of Mouth VOWEL MATRIX 2. STRESS Two additional symbols ' and * written over vowels are used to designate three levels of stress. The symbol ' indicates a strong or primary stress in the articulation of the syllable containing the marked vowel and this stress is generally in contrast to a weakly stressed syllable, the latter being indicated by the absence of any stress mark. Less prominent than the primary stress but s t i l l in contrast to the 9 weakly s t ressed s y l l a b l e is a secondary leve l of s t ress ind icated by the symbol * over the vowel in the s y l l a b l e concerned. Although the frequency of th i s secondary s t ress is r e l a t i v e l y low - there are approximately e ight primary s tresses ind icated for every secondary s t res s in the corpus -i t s s t r u c t u r e , l i ke that of both primary and weak s t r e s s , is p o s i t i o n a l l y u n r e s t r i c t e d . Genera l ly i t occurs in po l y -s y l l a b i c words , e .g . ux w elmfx w meaning ' I n d i a n 1 ; however, as in Eng l i sh d i scourse the d i s t r i b u t i o n of th i s prosody is o f ten determined by the rhythm of the s yn tac t i c unit or even the d iscourse uni t rather than simple morphophonemic c r i t e r i a . Thus, the l e x i c a l item ux w a lmfx w may be rea l i zed as ux w e lm ix w or even u'xwelmfxw and the emphatic marker / k ' u / , u sua l l y weakly s t re s sed , may occur as both / k ' u / and / k ' u / . Vowel length is subordinate to these s t ress patterns with a l l vowels rece iv ing a r e l a t i v e l y longer durat ion in s y l l a b l e s having a stronger s t r e s s . (For the co l l ap se of weakly s t ressed vowels see Sect ion III.) 10 111 PHONETIC DATA 1. CONSONANTS The p l o s i v e s , so c a l l e d because they are formed by a sudden release of breath, cons t i tu te over f o r t y percent of the consonants in th is system. B i - l a b i a l / p / is formed by a sudden opening of the l ip s and is pronounced s i m i l a r l y to the i n i t i a l sound in the word ' p i l l ' . The c losures preceding the breath r e -lease which forms IXI and /k / re su l t from the tongue being pressed against the a lveo lus and velum r e s p e c t i v e l y . These sounds are very s i m i l a r to the i n i t i a l sounds in the words ' t i l l ' and ' k i l l ' . The L i l l o o e t language a l so contains the uvular p lo s i ve /q/, and the g l o t t a l / ? / . The former is the re su l t of re lax ing the c losure formed by press ing the tongue against the uvula and the l a t t e r , l i k e a vo ice les s cough or c l e a r i n g of the th roa t , is formed by f i r s t c l o s i ng the g l o t t i s and then by re lax ing i t a f t e r a s u f f i c i e n t amount of breath pressure has been obtained to achieve the des i red p lo s i ve e f f e c t . It is the sound which occurs between the e and the a in the Standard German nomina1, 1 (der) BeamteJ meaning ' o f f i c i a l ' . In a d d i t i o n , the p l o s i ve c lass contains the g l o t t a l ized segments /pV, / k ' / and /qV, which are the re su l t of the segments /p/, /k/ and 11 /q/ being a r t i c u l a t e d s imultaneously with a g l o t t a l stop and i t is th i s g l o t t a l i c feature which la rge ly charac ter i zes the L i l l o o e t phonology. (See Sect ion IV, Sub-sect ions 2 and h for i t s frequency of occurrence.) F i n a l l y the segments / k / , / k ' / , /q/ and /q'/ can be l a b i a l i z e d or pronounced with simultaneous l i p rounding r e s u l t i n g in the a d d i t i o n a l , p l o s i ve segments / k w / , / k w ' / , /q w/ and /q wV. Examples of the p los ives a re : / p / paSlae? one X^ptan q'emp west ( L i t . what ten brings us night) /pV p'ant return (v.) Jp 'aemj* f i rewood aep' wipe /XI t i k u crush (v.) p f t i n cover (n.) xaet ra i se /k/ k a ? A i f three t j i l k j t f i ve tsuk thigh / k ' / k ' u k w T l porcupi ne Jp 'aSk'em f1 owe r k' ika^k'k' thimbleberry / k w / k walut talk (v.) J"ndkwaeJ at t imes, somet imes t.fokw pu l l (v.) 12 / k w V k w'9zuj" im work k w ' f k w ' e l a&x w dream (v.) / q / qaexw break in two Jqd i t summi t zuq dead / q V q 'ut s i de J V i t day JozaSq! bread / q u / q we?up crabapple na§q waj\m complain wik 'a§q w food / q w V qw 'ael r i pe q'uq w , aSl t ache, hurt (v.) naeqw5 swindle (v.) /?/ l a s t qd?ez t i red f.faeu? chew The f r i c a t i v e s , so c a l l e d because they are formed as a re su l t of audib le f r i c t i o n caused by breath escaping through a near c l o s u r e , comprise the next group of consonants. The f i r s t of these is the segment Izl which is sometimes pronounced as 13 [ z ] resembling the i n i t i a l sound in ' z e r o ' or which is sometimes pronounced as [5] s i m i l a r to the i n i t i a l sound in ' t h e n 1 . [ z ] is a vo iced, a l veo l a r f r i c a t i v e and [6] is a vo i ced , dental f r i c a t i v e which is a r t i c u l a t e d with the t i p of the tongue l i g h t l y touching the back of the teeth . The rule p red i c t i n g the phonetic r e a l i z a t i o n of the segment I zl is as fo l lows : I zl is pronounced [ z ] i f preceded by loi , IvJ, I\l, / t s / , and / t s ' / or i f i t occurs in word i n i t i a l po s i t i on in a weakly s tressed s y l l a b l e . Izl is r ea l i zed as [S] i f i t is immediately preceded by III; otherwise, i t var ies f r e e l y be-tween [ z ] and [5] . Likewise the segment I \l has two phonetic r e a l i z a t i o n s ; namely as a v o i c e l e s s , a l veo l a r f r i c a t i v e [ s ] pronounced s i m i l a r to the i n i t i a l sound in ' s i p ' or as the vo i ce le s s p a l a t o - a l v e o l a r f r i c a t i v e [J*] pronounced l i k e the i n i t i a l sound in ' s h i p ' . The ru le governing the a r t i c u l a t i o n of I\f is that i t is pronounced as [ s ] i f i t is immediately preceded by the sequences / k w a / , / ? £ / , / e l / , /ae I / , and / a l / or i f i t precedes /ma/. Otherwise, I\f is pronounced [ f ] . P a r a l l e l i n g the p lo s i ve ser ie s are the ve l a r and uvular f r i c a t i v e s Ixl and lyj which, l i k e the p l o s i v e s , may occur l a b i a l i z e d thus producing the add i t i ona l segments lxul and ly^l'. A l l four of these segments may be a r t i c u l a t e d with and without vo i ce , / x / , occurr ing as vo i ce le s s [ x ] , is s i m i l a r to the f i n a l sound in the Standard German p repos i t i on 'nach ' meaning ' a f t e r ' or 1 towards 1 ,and occurr ing as voiced [ y ] , i t is l i k e the i n t e r v o c a l i c g in the Spanish word ' l a go ' meaning ' l a k e ' . Likewise when lyj is a r t i c u l a t e d [)(] w i t h -out vo ice i t resembles the f i n a l sound in the Arab ic word ' s h e i k h ' , o r when i t is vo i ced , [ y ] , i t is l i k e the i n t e r -v o c a l i c r in the French word ' a rabe ' meaning ' A r a b ' . The l a -b i a l i z e d f r i c a t i v e s are correspondingly / x w / which may be a r t i cu la ted as vo i ce le s s [ x w ] or vo iced [ y w ] and /xw/ which may be r e a l i z e d as vo i ce le s s Cxw] a r , d voiced [ y w ] . The environmental cond i t ions r e s t r i c t i n g the phonetic pronunciat ion of these a l t e rna te forms are as fo l l ows : /x / is pronounced as voiced [ y ] i f (a) i t is immediately preceded by / i / or i f i t is immediately fol lowed by / i p / (b) i t is immediately preceded or fol lowed by / l u / (c) i t is immediately fol lowed by /aep/, /ae?p/, /aelp/, / i p / , or (d) i t is in a s y l l a b l e having primary s t ress and which is fol lowed by /wa/. /x/ is pronounced as vo ice les s [ x ] in a l l other env i ron -ments except in the word xa lxe l meaning 'power' or ' s t r e n g t h ' where both f r i c a t i v e s are vo i ced . /%/ is pronounced as voiced ] i f (a) i t is immediately preceded by / a / , / z / , / ? e / , /mo/ or /rree/ (b) i t is immediately fol lowed by / o / or /aep/ (c) i t occurs in a s y l l a b l e having primary s t ress and which is immediately preceded by / z / lyj is pronounced as vo i ce le s s [ x l in a l l other environments / x w / is pronounced vo ice les s in a l l occurrences except in the word t j a x w d i meaning ' t o j o k e 1 where i t is vo iced [ y w ] / X w / is pronounced vo ice les s in a l l environments except in the word taexwo 11-nae meaning ' ge t t i ng u n t i e d ' , where i t is a r t i c u l a t e d as voiced [ y w ] . a sp i ra te / h / which is a r t i c u l a t e d l i ke the i n i t i a l sound in the word ' h o t ' . Examples of the f r i c a t i v e s are: A lso included in the f r i c a t i v e ser ie s is the / z / zae?xw az? az melt, thaw buy no, not HI Ju'tik mdlJem mamd.1 al u J wi nter cranberry raccoon /x/ xakx i l /AaextJ" t f ' l a x count (v.) dishes crawl (v.) / x w / x w f k t e n kni fe xwdxwelaem? l i gh t (adj.) ki laixw muskrat X u i t s leep (v.) moving a i r p»X scrape (v.) / X w / Xwelxa&! burn (v.) nuxwa? love (v.) Jqw'axw lean (adj .) / h / hffilaSu? eagle t ah fn t ju t show o f f (v.) kwffiluh dog salmon The l a t e r a l s , vo i ce le s s /A/ and voiced /I/ are produced by a i r f lowing l a t e r a l l y on each s ide of the tongue the t i p of which touches the a l veo l a r r idge. /A/ is a r t i c u -lated l i k e any double 1 in Welsh such as 1 11yn 1 meaning ' l a k e ' and /I/ is a r t i c u l a t e d as in the word ' l e t ' . Examples of the l a t e r a l s a re : /KI Aa§ut Jx w al^Ap t JelalA spine s p i r i t lake 17 / I / IdJ Jplaep f e p l f l break i n pieces buttocks f l o u r The voiced nasals /m/ and /n/ are produced by c l o s i n g the mouth at the po i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n thus a l l o w i n g i t to act as a resonance chamber f o r the sound which i s re-leased through the nasal c a v i t y . B i - l a b i a l /m/ corresponds to the i n i t i a l sound i n the word 'map' and the a l v e o l a r /n/ was found to be a r t i c u l a t e d l i k e the i n i t i a l sound i n the word 'nap' i n a l l cases except f o r the word xet Jpq'aeq' i nk ft meaning 'one-hundred', where i t occurred l i k e the v e l a r nasal [rj] pronounced i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n i n the word ' s i n g 1 . Examples are: /m/ mftjaeq' f?m»tj .fAek'am s i t g r a n d c h i l d grass /n/ naeqw' kmknaSp xel fn swindle (v.) thunder (n.) b e l l y The a f f r i c a t e s / t s / , /tJ7, and /A/ r e s u l t from a s i n g l e motion of the tongue j o i n i n g the p l o s i v e / t / to the f r i c a t i v e [ s ] and /JY and the l a t e r a l /A/ r e s p e c t i v e l y , / t s / i s pronounced s i m i l a r to the f i n a l sound i n the word 'cats' 18 and / t j / is l i k e both the i n i t i a l and f i n a l sounds in the word ' c h u r c h 1 . I hi represents the l \ l exploded l a t e r a l l y and v o i c e l e s s l y . This is accomplished by f i r s t p lac ing the t i p of the tongue on the a l veo l a r r idge thus causing the necessary c losure which precedes the a r t i c u l a t i o n of l \ l . However, un-l i k e l \ l the p l o s i ve re lease is achieved by keeping the t i p of the tongue on the a l veo l a r and a l lowing the breath to escape l a t e r a l l y and with f r i c t i o n on each s ide of the tongue thus pro-ducing I hi. A l l of the a f f r i c a t e s , l i k e the ve l a r and uvular p l o s i v e s , occur g l o t t a l i z e d re su l t i ng in the segments / t s ' / , / t f ' / , and /A'/. Examples of these a f f r i c a t e s are: / t s / tsumk'fn brai ns J?8tSxJ* take care of someone q w ' a t s q w e t s damp / t s ' / ts'a^q'an h i t a person t s ' u l t s ' u l sour u t s ' u t s ' absorb colour X Jaitaewaz cedar tree p i t / k i A leaf ta§xwffitj chest / t j * ' / t j ' ^ ? u bleed /A/ Axumf k'a§xwAae? q w 'aeq w 'aA to win ( i t ) preserved meat bone /AW A'aex xiA'a&qw JoA' sweet food ebb t ide Data concerning the c l u s t e r i n g of a l l consonants together with t h e i r l e x i c a l pos i t ions and r e l a t i v e frequencies are given in Sect ion IV. 2. VOWELS AND SEMI-VOWELS The c losed front vowel segment IM, r e su l t i ng from a r a i s i ng and f ron t ing of the tongue during a r t i c u l a t i o n , represents the set of a r t i c u l a t i o n s wi th in the range dep i c -ted in F igure 2. This range was d iv ided into four areas fo r purposes of the i n i t i a l phonetic ana lys i s but th i s over -d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was l a te r co l l apsed into two phonetic areas represented by [ i ] and [ e ] . [ i ] is a r t i c u l a t e d s l i g h t l y more opened than the vowel in ' t r e e ' and [ e ] the most opened occurrence of th i s segment, is a r t i c u l a t e d s l i g h t l y more c losed than the vowel in the Sco t t i sh pronunciat ion of ' day ' . Although i t is the former a r t i c u l a t i o n of IM which has the greater frequency of occurrence,both vary f r e e l y in most phonological environments and in many instances in i den t i ca l s yn tac t i c units uttered by the same speaker. Both a r t i c u l a t i o n s of IM occur with or without length depending on the s t ress pa t te rn ; however, th is segment re s i s t s co l l ap s i n g into the centra l nucleus in weakly s t ressed occurrences. A ru le determining the a r t i c u l a t i o n of / ] / can be given as fo i l ows : IM is pronounced as [ e ] i f (a) i t is immediately preceded by / j / or ly^l 21 (b) i t is immediately preceded or fol lowed by the voiced a r t i c u l a t i o n of Ixl. / i / can be pronounced in a l l other environments. Such a r u l e , however, does not d i s t i n g u i s h the env i ron -ments p r e d i c t i n g the [ i^  ] a r t i c u l a t i o n from those environments in which IM var ies f r e e l y between [ i ] and [ e ] and hence th is ru le is supplemented as fo l lows : IM is p red i c tab ly a r t i c u l a t e d [ i ] i f (a) i t is immediately preceded by lui, IQI, / p ' / , Ihl or the [5] a r t i c u l a t i o n of fzl (b) i t is immediately fol lowed by /ae/, lkul, / q w / , Iml, / t j " / , Ihl or by a s y l l a b l e having secondary s t r e s s . In a l l other environments l\l var ies f r e e l y except when i t occurs as l\\l where i t is a r t i c u l a t e d as [ e i ] with the [ e ] rece iv ing some lengthening r e l a -t i ve to the [ i ] . The open front vowel /ae/ represents the set of utterances which are w i th in the range depicted in Figure 2 and which are a r t i c u l a t e d by the f ron t ing and lowering of the tongue to a more open po s i t i on r e l a t i v e to that required in a r t i c u l a t i n g IM. A l l phonetic a l l o c a t i o n s of /as/ 22 were reduced to [ g ] as in ' ge t ' or [ge] as in ' c a t ' with the frequency of the l a t t e r being the highest r e l a t i v e to a l l phonetic a l l o c a t i o n s of the vowels (see Sect ion IV). Both [ e ] and [ a ] occur lengthened in s t ressed s y l l a b l e s ; however, un l ike /\f, the f&l segment is o f ten reduced to an un-s t ressed / Q / in a weakly s t ressed s y l l a b l e . Such a shortening of the segment / » / was represented in the data by / a / rather than by /as/ not only to e l iminate an add i t i ona l ru le but a l so to al low for the l a t t e r representat ion in s i m i l a r weakly s t ressed s y l l a b l e s which r e s i s t such a c o l l a p s e . The rule determining the a r t i c u l a t i o n of /&/ can be stated as fo l l ows : /as/ is ra i sed to [ e ] i f i t is immediately fol lowed by / a / and in a l l other cases can be pronounced as [33] . Again, as in the case of / i / th i s ru le can be supplemented as fol lows to l i m i t the environment in which /ae/ va r ies . f r e e l y between [ e ] and [33] . /aa/ is p red i c tab l y pronounced [33] i f (a) i t is immediately preceded by / i / , / h / , / t s / , / t / V (b) i t is immediately preceded by any lengthened vowel 23 (c) i t is immediately fol lowed by /w/, / p / , / k / , / k ' / , / x w / , / h / , / t s ' / , and [ z ] , the voiced a r t i c u l a t i o n of / z / (d) i t is immediately preceded or fol lowed by /ae/, / u / or the [5] a r t i c u l a t i o n of / z / . The back vowel /oJ is a r t i c u l a t e d with the tongue ret racted to a completely open or lowered p o s i t i o n . It is r e a l i z e d as [ a ] , as in the Standard Southern Engl i sh pronunciat ion of ' f a r ' , in a l l u n l a b i a l i z e d environments. However, when i t fol lows a l a b i a l i z e d consonant i t is a r t i c u l a t e d with l i p rounding and is pronounced l i k e the vowel in the word ' p o t ' . Corresponding to the f ront / i / is the range of the back / u / segment ,which is produced by r e t r a c t i n g and r a i s i n g or c l o s ing the tongue (see Figure 2). I n i t i a l l y th i s range was d iv ided into four phonetic areas but these were l a te r co l l apsed into [ u ] and [ o ] which represent the two phonet i ca l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a r t i c u l a t i o n s of / u / . [ u ] is a r t i c u l a t e d s l i g h t l y more open than the [u ] in the pronun-c i a t i o n of 'boot ' and the [ o ] is s l i g h t l y more open than the [ o ] in the S co t t i sh pronunciat ion of ' c o a t ' . L ike the / ] / segment, the more open a r t i c u l a t i o n of / u / has the greatest frequency of occurrence and both phonetic a r t i c u l a t i o n s 2k of / u / occur with or without length. Fur ther , both a r t i -cu la t ions r e s i s t co l l ap s ing in to the centra l nucleus in weakly stressed s y l l a b l e s . A ru le p red i c t i ng the phonetic r e a l i z a t i o n of / u / is as fo l lows : / u / is pronounced [ u ] i f (a) i t is immediately preceded by / j / , / k w / , / t s / and /k/ (b) i t is immediately fol lowed by /w/, / p / , / q V , / A ' / , or /as/ (c) i t is immediately preceded or fol lowed by / a / . / u / is pronounced [ o ] i f (a) i t is immediately preceded by / q w / and / x u / (b) i t is immediately fol lowed by the [5] a r t i c u l a t i o n of / z / and the [ y ] a r t i c u l a t i o n of fx/ (c) i t is immediately preceded or fol lowed by /xw/ In a l l other phonological environments / u / var ies f r e e l y between [u ] and [ o ] but is usua l ly a r t i c u l a t e d [ u ] . t A / the c losed and fronted cent ra l vowel, is a r t i c u l a t e d 25 s l i g h t l y more c e n t r a l i z e d than the vowel in ' b i t 1 , /ol is the c l o sed , ret racted counterpart to A / and is a r t i c u -lated s l i g h t l y more l a b i a l i z e d and c e n t r a l i z e d than the vowel in ' p u l l ' . Both A / and / o / may co l l apse into an un-s t ressed / a / in weakly s t ressed s y l l a b l e s , / a / , the core of th i s centra l vowel nucleus, is a r t i c u l a t e d e i t h e r as a weakly s t ressed [ e ] or as [A ] occur r ing in s t ressed s y l l a b l e s . The l a t t e r is a r t i c u l a t e d s l i g h t l y more c e n t r a l i z e d than the vowel in 'up ' but not as c e n t r a l i z e d as [ a ] For purposes of th i s de s c r i p t i on the phonetic occurrences of the semi-vowels /w/ and / j / are included as phonological segments. Lab i a l i zed /w/, a r t i c u l a t e d as / u / but with more c l o su re , is pronounced as the i n i t i a l sound in ' w i n 1 , and / j / , a r t i c u l a t e d as a higher or more c losed / i / , is pro -nounced as the i n i t i a l sound in ' y e l l o w ' . Information per ta in ing to the vowel and semi-vowel c lu s te r s is given in Sect ion IV; however, two f i n a l remarks are necessary. C lusters of two or more vowel segments con-s t i t u t e the same number of s y l l a b l e s as there are vowels and are a r t i c u l a t e d with a smooth t r a n s i t i o n between them. C lus ters o f vowels commencing with a semi-vowel or with semi-vowels occur r ing i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y a l so comprise the same 26 number of s y l l a b l e s as there are vowels, and the semi-vowels are s y l l a b i c a l l y assigned to the vowels they immediately precede. This r e s t r i c t s the funct ion of both /w/ and / j / to that of on -g l i de and the f i v e occurrences of /asw/ ind icated in Sect ion IV do not cons t i tu te except ions. Rather, the phonological segment /w/ was used phonet i ca l l y to ind i ca te the apparent monosyl labic q u a l i t y of these marginal cases. Examples of the vowels a re : IM f j e z J f A t s ' 3 3 ? ' kukpi enough shoes ch ie f /ae/ aSn?wa3f pa? I aa? tdAae two one tongue loj dzuqwam fqcixae revenge dog / u / u?aln k ' u l m maiu have (something) ga l l (n.) cat A/ L j"zi3q KJ"wi.t corpse s lave (n.) IQI ox?i5n x w ? o x u cough (v.) smell (n.) / a / ezu?i.f k'alae? pret ty l i v e r /w/ walk'ak ts'awa?n vomit (v.) wash (v.) / j / Jijagq'tjaa 27 nalaeka shoulder woman 28 IV STATISTICAL DATA 1. INTRODUCTION The s t a t i s t i c a l information presented in the fo l lowing three sub-sect ions is der ived from an ana ly s i s of a se lec ted corpus cons i s t i n g of ^,315 d i f f e r e n t l e x i c a l items. These were obtained by scanning the e n t i r e corpus and ex t rac t ing one occurrence of every d i s t i n c t , phonet i ca l l y t ranscr ibed item. The narrow t r an sc r i p t i on s of these items were analysed on the basis of the s i m p l i c i t y and completeness c r i t e r i a and then broadened by combining many unnecessary d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s into the phonetic representat ion given in sub-sect ion 2 below. F i n a l l y , these broad t r an s c r i p t i on s were co l lapsed into the phonological segments presented in sub-sect ions 3 and k which f o 11 ow. 2. FREQUENCIES OF PHONETIC OCCURRENCES In th i s ana lys i s the f i r s t column states the phonetic des i gnat ion , the second column gives the to ta l number of occurrences in the se lec ted corpus and the t h i r d column gives the r e l a t i v e frequency. This l a t t e r is determined by express ing as a percentage, c o r r e c t to the nearest thousandth, the number of occurrences of each phonetic d e s i g n a t i o n out of the 22,844 phonetic occurrences. (a) Consonants p 450 1.970 p' 48 .210 t 997 4.364 k 801 3.506 k> 211 .924 k w 173 .757 47 .206 q hn 1.808 q ' 195 .854 qw 295 1.291 q w > 88 .385 ? 892 3.905 z 323 1.415 5 93 .407 s 9 .039 J* 1693 7.411 X 572 2.504 Y 23 .101 30 X y xw yw h I A m n t s t s ' t l t j ' A A' 498 1 179 22 45 1 85 1260 555 1095 1450 96 182 652 7 33 273 2.180 .004 .784 .096 .197 .OOU .372 5.516 2 .430 4. 793 6.3^7 .420 .797 2.854 .031 .144 1.195 (b) Vowels 4.246 286 1 ' 2 5 2 368 5 970 e 1.611 •snn e aa 2906 12.721 a 256 1.121 0 301 1.318 u 1079 4.724 1 950 4.159 o 94 .411 A 353 1.545 e 1092 4.780 (c) Semi-vowels w 407 1.782 j 25 .109 Totals of (a), (b), and (c) 22,844 100.000 32 3. FREQUENCIES OF CONSONANT SEGMENTS AND CONSONANTAL CLUSTERS The f i r s t column in the ana lys i s l i s t s the segments and segmental c l u s te r s and the next three columns report the number of times each occurs , in the se lec ted corpus, in i n i t i a l , media l , and f i n a l pos i t i ons w i th in word boundaries. The f i f t h column, the aggregate of the second, t h i r d , and fourth columns, is the to ta l number of occurrences for each segment or segmental c l u s t e r and the s i x t h column gives the r e l a t i v e frequency of each aggregate. This l a t t e r is a percentage, co r rec t to the nearest thousandth, of 19,161 occurrences, being the to ta l of the aggregate columns. It must be noted that there is no aggregation of i n f o r -mation i m p l i c i t in this data between l i n e s ; that i s , a number corresponding to a given segment is app l i c ab le to that segment alone and is not included in the number assigned to a c lu s te red occurrence of that segment. However, the to ta l number of occurrences of any s p e c i f i c segment or c l u s t e r is obta inab le by t o t a l i n g a l l occurrences assigned to them in a l l environments. The fo l lowing data is presented in the same a lphabet i ca l order which was used to compile the d i c t i ona ry and which is descr ibed in the in t roduct ion of Part Three. 33 I n i t i a l Medial Fi na 1 Aggregate Frequency p 121 67 61 249 1 .300 pt 9 3 4 16 .084 pk 1 1 .005 pq 1 1 2 .010 ' pqjq 1 1 .005 pqw 2 3 5 .026 P ? 3 3 . 0 16 PZ 1 1 .005 pj" 3 2 5 .026 PJt 2 2 . 010 pJV 1 1 .005 pfx 1 1 .005 PX 6 6 .031 ph 4 4 .021 P A 1 1 . 005 Pl 17 12 29 .151 pm 5 5 .026 pn 3 3 . 0 16 P t j 2 2 . 010 pA> 2 2 . 010 I n i t i a l Medial Fi nal Aggregate Frequency p' 25 7 3 35 .183 p'x 1 1 .005 P ' t j 1 1 .005 t 210 245 151 606 3.163 t t 12 12 .063 tp 1 1 2 .010 t p l z 1 1 .005 t k j 1 1 .005 t k w 6 6 .031 t q 1 3 4 .021 t q ' 1 2 3 .016 t q u 6 2 8 .042 t ? 2 2 .010 tx 1 4 4 9 .047 t x w 7 7 14 .073 tx wm 1 1 .005 t x w ? 1 1 .005 tm 4 3 7 • .037 tn 11 1 12 .063 k 258 152 68 478 2.495 kp 10 10 .052 kt 11 11 .057 ktn 1 1 .005 I n i t i a l Medial Fi nal Aggregate Frequency kk 2 2 .010 kq w 1 1 .005 k? 4 k .021 kz 1 1 .005 k j h 8 12 .063 kjt 6 5 11 .057 k j t q ' 1 1 .005 kfk 1 1 .005 kx 8 8 .042 kl 5 5 .026 km 18 18 .094 kn .021 k t j k k .021 ktfh 1 1 .005 k ' 117 19 9 145 .757 k'p 2 2 .010 k 't 6 6 .031 k ' k ' 1 1 2 .010 k'kw> 1 1 .005 k 'J t 1 1 .005 k ' x 3 3 .016 k ' l 1 1 .005 36 I n i t i a l Medial k'm 6 k'n 3 k w 74 42 kwkw 1 k wJ" k wA k w l 1 k w'm q qp qt qk q? qJ q j t qx ql qm qn q t j q t j ? F? nal Aggregate Frequency 6 .031 3 .016 14 130 .678 1 .005 3 3 .016 3 3 .016 .005 .214 .005 1.169 .005 .005 .005 .005 .110 .010 .016 .042 .042 .042 .073 .010 23 3 63 42 224 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 19 21 2 2 3 3 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 10 4 14 2 2 I n i t i a l Medial Fi nal Aggregate Frequency q t j x 1 1 .005 q*> 2 2 .010 <!' 83 25 11 119 .621 q'J 1 1 .005 q ' J t 1 1 .005 q'm 8 8 .042 q 'n 1 1 .005 q ' t / 4 1 5 .026 qw 105 73 16 194 1 .012 qw p 1 1 .005 q w ? 1 1 2 .010 q w J* 1 2 3 .016 q w x 1 1 .005 q w l 1 1 .005 q w m 2 2 .010 q w n 1 1 .005 qw> 41 16 6 63 .329 qw jqw> 1 1 .005 q w ' n 4 4 .021 q u ' t j 2 2 .010 ? 28 150 195 373 1.947 3 3 .016 I n i t i a l Medial Fi na 1 Aggregate Frequency ?t 17 1 22 .115 ?k 8 1 9 .047 ?kjq» 1 1 .005 ?k' 1 1 .005 ? k w 1 1 .005 ?q 2 2 4 .021 ?q> 1 1 .005 ? q w 2 2 .010 ?z 1 16 6 23 .120 ?J 17 33 50 .261 2 2 .010 ? Jkl 1 1 .005 1 1 .005 ?x 15 2 17 .089 ?x w 7 16 23 .120 ?x wm 2 2 .010 ?X 1 2 3 .016 ? Xw 1 1 .005 ?h 2 2 .010 ?A 9 3 12 .063 ?lk 1 1 .005 ? 1 25 1 26 .136 I n i t i a l Medial Fi nal Aggregate Frequency ? l t 1 1 .005 ? Ik 1 1 .005 ?l 1 1 1 .005 ?lm 4 4 .021 ? In 1 1 .005 ?m 24 24 .125 ?ml 1 1 .005 ?n 4 4 .021 ?ts 2 2 .010 ? t j 8 10 2 20 .104 ?A> 1 1 .005 z 95 131 115 341 1.780 zk w 1 1 .005 z q w 2 2 .010 z? 4 4 8 .042 zz 1 1 .005 z j 2 3 5 .026 zx 2 2 .010 ZX 1 1 .005 z x w 1 1 .005 zh 1 1 .005 I n i t i a l Med ? al F lna l Aggregate Frequency zm 5 zt s ' 1 J 246 137 8 2 5 1 Jpt 2 j p l 7 ft 54 17 j t x u 1 1 50 1 W J k l 1 Jk' 12 4 Jk« 18 1 Jk«> 2 Jq 36 4 JqJ 1 Jq l 1 JV 24 4 Jq't 31 3 5 .026 1 .005 437 820 4.280 2 12 .063 6 .031 2 .010 7 .037 6 77 .402 1 .005 1 .005 51 .266 1 1 .005 1 .005 16 .084 19 .099 2 .010 40 .209 1 .005 1 .005 28 .146 1 1 .005 1 35 .183 I n i t i a l Medial F ina l Aggregate Frequency J q w ' 12 12 .063 J? 25 25 .130 h 6 2 8 .042 1 1 .005 Jx 21 11 32 .167 1 1 .005 J x w 20 24 .125 1 1 .005 fx 12 4 16 .084 Jh 1 1 .005 8 8 .042 Jl 7 7 .037 Jit 1 1 .005 Jm 15 17 32 .167 Jn 37 10 k7 .245 Jts k .021 Its' 3 3 .016 J t s ' k * 1 1 .005 JtJ 13 2 8 23 .120 Jtjm 1 1 .005 JA 1 1 .005 /Ax 1 1 .005 I n i t i a l Medial Fi nal Aggregate Frequency 10 1 11 .057 J * ' p 1 1 .005 1 1 .005 X 229 74 49 352 1.837 xt 5 6 11 .057 x t s ' 1 1 .005 xk 3 1 4 .021 xk ' 1 1 .005 xq 1 1 2 .010 X ? 4 2 6 .031 xz 1 2 3 .016 3 1 4 .021 X X 1 1 .005 xA 1 1 2 .010 xAt/ 1 1 .005 x 1 6 6 .031 xm 2 1 3 .016 xn 2 2 .010 x t ; 3 1 4 .021 x w 101 145 107 353 1.842 x w p 1 1 2 .010 x w qt 1 1 .005 I n i t i a l Medial Fi na 1 Aggregate Frequency x w ? 26 1 27 .141 x w J 5 5 .026 x w x 1 1 .005 x u h 1 1 .005 x w A 1 3 4 .021 x w m 1 1 2 .010 x w n 6 1 7 .037 x w t j 3 3 .016 x w A 1 1 .005 X 59 24 36 119 .621 xt 2 1 3 .016 xq 1 1 .005 xq' 1 1 .005 xq w ' 1 1 .005 X? 1 1 .005 x l 1 3 4 .021 xJV 1 1 .005 X>< 4 .021 X" 8 8 .042 Xm 8 8 .042 X" 2 2 .010 xtj 2 1 3 .016 Xw 11 19 5 35 .183 I n i t i a l Med i a l F i na l A g g r e g a t e F requency xwq 1 1 .005 X w ? 1 3 4 .021 X w x 1 1 .005 h 34 22 1 57 .297 A 130 85 146 361 1.884 Ap 2 5 7 .037 * p j * 1 1 .005 At 5 1 6 .031 A t q w ' 1 1 .005 Ak 48 3 51 .266 Aq 2 2 .010 Aq> 2 1 3 .016 A q w 1 1 .005 6 6 .031 Az 1 1 .005 Aj*n 1 1 .005 Ax 9 9 .047 A x w 4 4 .021 * X 1 1 .005 AA 1 1 .005 A l 1 8 9 .047 A l x 1 1 .005 I n i t i a l Medial Fi nal Aggregate Frequency Am 17 17 .089 An 3 3 6 .031 Ats 1 1 .005 A t s ' 10 10 .052 A t J 3 2 6 11 .057 AA' 1 1 .005 1 121 361 226 708 3.695 lp 1 6 7 .037 It 4 19 16 39 .204 Itm 2 2 .010 1 k 5 20 2 27 .141 Ikp 1 1 .005 1 k f t 3 1 .021 Ikfkft • 1 1 .005 lk jq» 2 2 .010 Ik' .021 1 k w 1 2 3 .016 i q 11 5 16 .084 IqJ 6 6 .031 1 qn 1 1 .005 * qtj* 2 2 .010 Iq ' 2 2 .010 I n i t i a l Medial Fi nal Aggregate Frequency Iq w 13 2 15 .078 " q w / 1 1 .005 1 q w ' 1 1 .005 1? 24 7 31 .162 I?p 1 1 .005 1 ?t 1 2 3 .016 1 ?k k 1 5 .026 l ?q 3 3 .016 l ? q / 1 1 .005 l ?J 3 3 .016 I?x 1 2 3 .016 1 ?x w 1 1 .005 l?h 5 5 .026 1 ?m 3 3 .016 ! ? t j 1 1 2 .010 U 7 5 12 .063 l/t 1 1 .005 1 j v 1 1 .005 l/q 1 1 .005 1 Jm 3 3 .016 1 X 19 24 43 .224 Ixf 1 1 .005 I n i t i a l Medial Fi nal Aggregate Frequency Ixm 1 1 .005 1 x w 4 4 8 .042 •x 7 7 .037 Ih 3 3 .016 IAxw 1 1 .005 11 13 13 .068 Im 54 54 .282 1 n 7 7 .037 Its 1 1 .005 1 tsk> 1 1 .005 Its? 1 1 .005 1 t s ' 4 1 5 .026 I t s 'q 1 1 .005 I t s 'q? 1 1 .005 I t s ' q ' 2 2 .010 I t s ' ? 1 1 .005 It/ 1 14 18 33 .172 I t / ' 1 1 .005 m 133 181 307 621 3.241 mp 10 8 18 .094 mp-J 3 11 14 .073 mpt/x 1 1 .005 48 Ini t i a l Medial Fi na 1 Aggregate Frequency mt 8 1 9 .047 mk 3 3 .016 mk' 4 4 .021 mku 1 1 .005 mq 9 9 .047 mq? 1 1 .005 mq/ 2 2 .010 mqm 1 1 .005 mq' 2 2 .010 mq w 4 1 5 .026 m q w ' 1 1 .005 m? 10 16 26 .136 m?p 1 1 .005 m?t 2 x 2 .010 m?qw 1 1 .005 m?J 2 3 5 .026 m?x 2 2 .010 m ? X 1 1 .005 m?n 2 2 .010 m?tj 2 2 .010 4 15 13 28 .146 I n i t i a l Medial Fi nal Aggregate Frequency mjt 3 3 .016 mjA> 2 2 .010 mx 7 5 12 .063 mxw 3 2 5 .026 mxwj 1 1 .005 m%w 1 1 .005 mh .021 mAk 1 1 .005 m 1 7 7 .037 mix 1 1 .005 mm 11 11 .057 mn 13 13 .068 mts 2 2 .010 mts' .021 mt j 2 6 8 .042 mA 1 1 .005 mA» 1 1 .005 n 139 344 557 1040 5.428 np 1 1 .005 np' 2 2 .010 nt 18 9 27 .141 ntx 1 1 .005 I n i t i a l Medial Fi nal Aggregate Frequency nk 2 21 10 33 .172 nkf 1 1 2 .010 nkft 1 1 .005 nk jq ' 1 1 .005 nkx 1 1 .005 nkm 1 1 .005 n kn 1 1 -.005 nk' 5 5 .026 nk w 3 3 .016 n k w ' 2 2 .010 nq 1 1 .005 nq/ 1 1 .005 n q ' 2 1 3 .016 n q u . 2 2 .010 n? 20 14 34 .177 n?t 1 1 .005 n?k 3 3 .016 n?J 5 5 .026 n?x 2 1 3 .016 n?m 1 1 .005 n ? t j 1 1 .005 n z 3 3 .016 I n i t i a l Medial Fi na1 Aggregate Frequency nf 17 njt n/k 1 n/q 1 n / q ' 1 nj? 2 nx 1 nx u 1 nh 1 nA 4 nAk 1 n 1 1 nm 8 nn 9 nts 2 n t s ' 3 n t j 25 n t j t 1 n t j k nA ts 32 8 tsp 1 33 50 .261 1 1 .005 1 .005 1 .005 1 .005 2 .010 1 2 .010 1 2 .010 1 .005 4 .021 1 .005 1 .005 8 .042 9 .047 2 .010 3 .016 10 35 .183 1 .005 1 1 .005 1 1 .005 7 47 .245 1 2 .010 I n i t i a l Medial tsk 1 1 ts k ' 1 tsq 2 t s q w 3 t s q w ' 1 ts? 2 t s z 3 t s x 6 tsx/ tsx 4 tsx/ 1 tsh 1 tsh t tsm 1 t s ' 90 26 ts'p 6 ts'p? 1 ts'p' 3 ts'q 3 ts'q' 3 t s ' q w 3 ts'z 1 Fi nal Aggregate Frequency 2 .010 1 .005 2 .010 3 .016 1 .005 2 .010 3 .016 6 .031 1 1 .005 1 5 .026 1 2 .010 2 3 .016 2 2 .010 1 .005 120 .626 6 .031 1 .005 3 .016 3 .016 3 .016 3 .016 1 .005 I n i t i a l Medial Fi na 1 Aggregate Frequency t s ' x 7 1 8 .042 t s ' x w 1 1 .005 t j 269 76 345 1 .801 t jp 3 2 5 .026 t j p q - 1 1 .005 t j t 3 1 4 .021 t J tn 3 3 .016 t j k 6 6 .031 t / q 1 1 .005 t / q j 1 1 .005 t / q ' 2 2 .010 t J*qw 1 1 .005 t j ? 3 1 76 80 .418 t /x 3 3 .016 t J x w 3 3 .016 t/A 1 1 .005 t j l 1 5 6 .031 tjm 3 3 .016 1 1 .005 t j ' 6 6 .031 15 3 4 22 .115 Ax 3 3 .016 Am 3 3 .016 54 I n i t i a l Medial A' 176 32 A't 1 A-'k A'k ' 1 A 'q w 1 1 A-'x 4 1 A-'h 1 A-'m 9 Fi nal Aggregate Frequency 17 225 1.174 1 .005 1 1 .005 3 4 .021 2 .010 1 1 .005 5 .026 1 .005 9 .047 Tota l s 3746 3948 3204 IO898 56.836 55 k. FREQUENCIES OF VOWEL SEGMENTS AND VOWEL CLUSTERS This ana ly s i s of the L i l l o o e t vowels, which includes the semi-vowels /w/ and / j / , was tabulated in the same manner as the consonant data in the preceding a n a l y s i s . However, one departure must be noted; namely, the vowel segments / i / , /&/, / a / , / u / and the c l u s te r s /iwas/, / w i / , /vis/, /we/ and / w i / , which occur alone between morpheme boundaries are included in the category i nd i ca t i n g i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n . I n i t i a l Medial F ina l Aggregate Frequency i 70 757 125 952 4.968 i i 41 3 44 .230 iae 3 2 5 .026 fa 1 1 .005 iu 12 3 15 .078 i i 3 3 .016 ie 1 1 .005 iwee 1 2 3 .016 iwa 1 1 2 .010 i J i 2 2 .010 i j Iwffl 1 1 .005 I jas 2 2 4 .021 i j a 3 3 .016 i j 9 2 2 .010 ' j t 2 2 .010 ' j© 1 1 .005 33 2093 658 2894 15.104 33 I 3 1 4 .021 3333 1 1 .005 3333U 1 1 .005 33 U 9 69 14 92 .480 33U33 6 6 .031 57 I n i t i a l Medial Fi na 1 Aggregate Frequency aui 3 3 .016 33 ua 1 1 .005 a i 2 2 .010 s a 5 5 .026 aw 1 4 5 .026 awi 2 2 .010 a wa 7 1 8 .042 awa 2 2 .010 33 wu 1 1 .005 awi 1 1 .005 awo 1 1 .005 awa 1 1 .005 a 25 163 2 190 .992 a i 47 2 49 .256 au 1 1 2 .010 a j a 1 1 .005 u 97 901 126 1124 5.866 ui 1 12 13 26 .136 U33 10 7 17 .089 uau 1 1 .005 uu 2 2 .010 Ul 2 1 3 .016 ua 2 2 .010 I n i t i a l Medial Fi nal Aggregate Frequency uwi 1 1 .005 uwi u 3 3 .016 u wa 18 5 23 .120 UW33U 4 4 .021 u wa 1 1 .005 uwu 1 1 .005 uwi 3 3 .016 u wa 2 2 .010 u jae 1 1 .005 i 28 863 4 895 4.671 iwas 1 1 .005 i wasu 1 1 .005 o 2 84 86 .449 a 60 1262 81 1403 7.322 ai 5 5 .026 au 1 1 .005 8W33 11 11 .057 awaeu 3 3 .016 awa 2 2 .010 awuwu 1 1 .005 aw i 3 3 .016 ajo 1 1 .005 59 I n i t i a l Medi al Fi nal Aggregate Frequency w 1 1 .005 wi 26 33 59 .308 wiae 2 2 .010 w iwu 2 2 .010 wa 40 86 12 138 .720 wau 7 1 8 .042 wa 1 2 3 .016 wai 1 1 .005 w u 8 3 11 .057 wuwua 1 1 .005 wi 21 10 31 .162 wo 4 2 6 .031 wo 30 18 5 53 .277 J U 1 1 .005 j® 2 2 .010 j a 1 1 .005 j i 1 1 .005 J9 2 2 .010 T o t a l s 568 6615 1080 8263 43.115 60 PART ONE FOOTNOTES 1. These 38 segments or any combination of these segments are designated in the fo l lowing d i scuss ion by a / immediately preceding and fo l lowing the segment being d i scussed. Any seg-ments so designated represent ranges of phonetic r e a l i z a t i o n s which are e i t h e r in f ree v a r i a t i o n or p red i c t ab le from the environments surrounding them. 2. Considered s t r u c t u r a l l y the centra l vowels i n v i t e examination which would ass ign them as al lophones of a s i n g l e phoneme. However, such a hypothesis would not only lack the morphophonemic evidence of minimal con t ra s t , but a l so the a l l o -phonic r e a l i z a t i o n s would be unpred ictab le from the usual environmental cons iderat ions - unpredictab le in the sense that even extremely complex rules would s t i l l funct ion ad hoc and lack the elegance and power of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . The corpus is present ly being invest igated in terms of feature d i s t r i b u t i o n to determine underly ing forms which i t is f e l t w i l l e l im inate such obvious o v e r - d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s as the A/ and / o / allowed in th i s d e s c r i p t i o n . 61 3. For purposes of th is d i scuss ion a l t e rna te a r t i c u l a t i o n s of a given segment are designated by square brackets to d i s -t ingu i sh them from t h e i r corresponding segmental representat ions wr i t ten between s la shes . 4. The to ta l o f 19,161 is the combined to ta l o f both 10,898, being the aggregate to ta l of occurrences of the conson-ants (Part IV, sub- sect ion 3) and 8263, being the aggregate to ta l of the vowels (Part IV, sub- sect ion 4). The combined to ta l s of sub-sect ions 3 and 4 a re : I n i t i a l 4314, Medial 10,563, Fina l 4284, Aggregate 19,161 and Frequency 99-951. A c o r r e c t i o n of .049 must be added to th i s frequency to ta l to compensate for the inaccurac ies incurred in rounding o f f co r rec t to the nearest thousandth percent. TEXTS THE FLOOD J?<ntM I am 'Bapt i s te R i t c h i e ' Bapt i s te R i t c h i e . tan dx w elmfx w a My Indian an Jkwait J i t J an tjfnamqan my name my leader. nf A 'u t i ku That is very Jkws5tj!tJ kdk i A 'akaf tjafi tmix w a nlA k'a§? name when f looded th i s ground those iz an J k f l k U a al t/ 'aina were my forebears . This an tjfnamqan my leader ntA t i wa t/rfnim wa tj " fx w aluj" nfA t i wa he was one they say could foresee he was one zwaetan taSli ta£?maj" kuj zaiiten i kuk ki ' l?a who knows a l l that happens in the fu ture . nf A'u JYf waS? i a?xaSu wa Aacj' q w a lu t That is why some higher power came to ta lk bh / t a l i k w i j xu? A ' ak ' t i tmix w a k w u j ama to him that i t was going to f lood th is ground. It is good Jx w dzaJ k udlum Jk w i . f AaSulaq i Jazfka he doesn ' t make i t r a f t f a l l e n trees A'laSl i Jx ' naSuJe en f p ' a l q w Q k tmfn twail to remain fastened branches oppos i te s ide by s i d e . kml<JnaJ k'ak xfn?J aA t j u k j a j fA tjunim How long long he f i n i s hed i t . He was to ld zaSlxal Aka?xw tax pdza i JtamaJ A ' a kaSt f to soak leather you do i t using anything around zaSlal nuxw maiij" nuxw xatja§nktan soap i t f i x i t xak into a l a r i a t . He xltam kinka6rwf x w ? i t j k'u l ?J t Juk .fa.ftf? was to ld how much lots make. F i n i sh i t aA t/tinim iA al ?tfa&na t j a l A'aq before he was to ld over here where come 65 i i j t s u q w a z 9 t/un Akaexw i uxwalmfxwae Jwae f i s h t e l l your people your k w i j kiftlml k'aixael I fku k'rinae? t.|*ukwaef A 'u that f i x dry some salmon only kuk k'ura? AimaiuA t.fu aek w if t s ' f lasf A 'u x w ? f t f salmon put on r a f t you as much many ku kae on AaSm? Jae?xwae k'unae? nf A'uJ" Aam=£naexw as load on you salmon egg. Then you load ?i tjamailt JvriS nf A'uJ" laSti? i j i lrrrftf ch i l d ren your then there stayed i kezm J*aV? aekf t/uwaa /ae A'u.f t.ferreSlt cousins his with h i s own ch i l d ren qajtfts 'ae? dx w a lmfx w f k w a e t j i t j q e j t f t s e ? we? i.f (proper noun) Indian name (proper noun) had a J u q w ' a z ku son- in- law the an t.ffnamqan my leader. nf A'u.f . f t jut f Then he sa id 66 X<Ji? Akaen k'lUlim ku en t / u W A 'u Aa5uldqw I am going to make my own r a f t dz k w i j * xfn A'aA tjukfkaan taekem .Mm not very long then I ' l l f i n i s h everyth ing was? zriq Jaen J ipdz kiA kune xet/aSnasten k i l l me sk in w i l l be my anchor. nf A'uJ" k»t1l?imj Aa$ulaeqwffi taSkim kwfnaeu?.f So made he ra f t a l l kind J"ipd?z /Cm na? J" i z mfij" nae/ae xetfalnaetan skin dr ied i t those made by him l a r i a t . A'aeq fA ku a?xae k'ae* wae J"xek JtaSli twe Came the smart one who foresees the future the one t/fx waelux tjdnim plaen fA xu? A'alk kCn ke foresee. He was to ld now i t ' s going to f l ood where A'aekJ iA t i qi!i?ae maSqae flows the water. Snow iA i t k'exem A'aSk wind blew go 67 t i qu?8e A'aSk A 'u A'a&V ni - A 'u J x u d i t the water keep on f l ood ing . Then perished Jtu i uxwaelmfxw33 the people lalti ,fk(fl33?J k u i f qwetj*33tj" there before before he l e f t nf A'uJ" t / d n m then a$ku he was to ld by l?xae? k'a? smart must iA tu over there m t/eqtjse tae tetiAa$?ae te entsexlaSkm high va l l ey on mountain the other mountain peak laiti? J xetJaSn39maBxw nf A 'u f t / zalxt ku there you anchor. That is why long your xet JaSnaeten Ju nfA A 'uJ ae?tu7 xe?wmaef l a r i a t anchor your then over there below t / f x w J ke JuA 'J xe?wm keA se?tu \(\q kiA reach when dra ins . Below i t w i l l over there easy t s f l a k u " J kee Aa3?ae Aae? fwal alt I the way i t is so i t can get near you on 68 tmfxw33 ni A ' uJ " we? fzwitnaej" en tffnemqen ground. So as he know my leader Aen kaS?ae J x W e z a 3T xet Ja$n?33m xetj"a$n?aem from where he w i l l t i e up. T ie up t i J u q u ' i Jae e l t i q'utffi naif a3?tu in- law h i s on the other s i de . Going along k u i n J q ' f t ni A ' u J k 'uts i Iwekft? many days that is where soaked and s tretched Jep 'd?z xetjalnaeten t J<T/p nf A ' uJ " , fA ' i lq u . f leather l a r i a t s t retched then i t broke nf tu A ' uJ* wuq w ' f tJ 'a i leA ,f A'u x wo\fx woj" then they drowned because strong currents churning t i qiftae en t s ' f t e m ae?ku Ael t / i l t.faS.f around the water going towards where come from t i jneqmae aiku Jtsftemeq qwae f t i qu?ae the snow that is where flowed the water. 69 nf A ' u J t j u k j A 'u . tfwae f x s k . M m a k w CJ Then i t only the one guided by the one xak Jta"l i i i jx w almix w a i wa J?a§tsx f t a l i guiding him people ones looking a f t e r i ux w almfx w a k w t j x w dz k w i j t s ' i ' k j nf A'u people so that not f i n i s h . Then JukJ laiti an tjfnamqan tJamaSlt Ja u lu f f i n i s h there my leader c h i l d r e n his along with t jenrf l t JaeJ" qaxtfts'a? xfn k 'a dz A'uk ku c h i l d r e n of (proper noun). Long must have no one zwaitan taSl i knows an Jnuknuk w ' a My f r iends kinkanaj k u i f x f n ? J how long niA k 'a tu t i that was the iA J«&? k 'a i A before dra ined. J k i l a t m J k w i j best of q'cl? k w i j fAan f loods to eat fz i Jk 'aka l those d r ied k'una salmon eggs. t . fa t juk w a j tutaej* i qa&xal That is a l l they ate k'una salmon eggs mij A ' a dz A'u kaSti ts f laa s t i l l they not seem k w i j qaSqj 11 i to have t roub le dz A ' u k w i J t f i t t i A ' u k i l a xfn? I A not hungry even very long before J"u"?A'aA drai n t i qu?a the water. Akin taikmaej el ?t.fal This over over here tmfx w a al JwaS? a f fwa t . f rx w alu . f ground there was the ones forebears . aeku k ' u ' A ' a aku kfjma t s ' i l a A'u aSt I At the coast at fu r ther inland same as what J z f t i n nf ha i f z f i t i n he did they as did fan t/fnnaqan my leader. nfA ka iz an J k O k i l a J*eJ A'u wai? t i Those must have forebears that is why s t i l l an J k w s l t J i t J Akun JWnt/ffl my name now. I am (a)n tjfnamqan En Chinemqen. 72 THE FLOOD I am Bapt i s te R i t c h i e . My Indian name is En Chinemqen, meaning 'My Leader 1 . That is the very same name borne by one of those who were my ancestors when th is ground was f looded. That e a r l i e r 'My Leader' was one who, they say, could foresee and know a l l that would happen in the fu ture . That is why some higher power came to ta lk to him and sa id that the ground would be f looded. He was to ld to make a r a f t -but not of f a l l e n t rees , fastened s ide by s i de , by intertwined branches. A f te r a long, long time he f i n i shed his r a f t . He was to ld to soak l ea ther , using anything around for soap, and then make the leather into a l a r i a t . He was to ld how long to make i t . Before he was f i n i shed making the l a r i a t he was t o l d , " T e l l your people, those that know how, to come over here where the f i s h are and dry some salmon, only salmon, and load as many salmon eggs as you can onto the r a f t . Then load the ch i l d ren o n . " (At that time his cous in ' s ch i l d ren were with his own ch i1dren.) The family c a l l e d Stager today, whose Indian name was Q e s h t i t s a ' , had a son- in- law c a l l e d 'My Leader 1 . He s a i d , "I am going to make my own r a f t . It w i l l not be very long before I f i n i s h everything and prepare some skins to be my 73 anchor. " So he made a r a f t , d r ied a l l kinds of skins and made them into a l a r i a t . Then came the smart one who could foresee the fu tu re . He was the one who had been t o l d , " I t ' s going to f lood where the water f l ows . " It snowed, the wind blew and the water kept on f l ood ing . Thus the people perished there before he l e f t . Then he was to ld by the smart one that he must anchor on the other peak over there in the high va l l ey on the mountain. That was why the l a r i a t anchor must be long so that when the water drained i t would reach the ground. Over there i t would be easy for him to reach the ground. So, 'My Leader' knew where he would t i e up. His in-law t ied up on the other s ide . Many days passed and there the leather l a r i a t soaked and s tretched and then i t broke and they drowned because the strong currents churning around in the water made i t go back towards where i t had come from the snow - that is where the water f lowed. Then there was only the one - along with his people - who was guided by the greater power. So 'My Leader' stayed there together with his ch i l d ren and Stager ' s c h i l d r e n . It must have been a long time, no-one knows how long, before the water dra ined. My f r i e n d s , that was the best of f loods . Those dr ied salmon eggs! That was a l l they ate -salmon eggs - but s t i l l they did not seem to have had trouble 74 and they were not hungry even though i t was a very long time before the water dra ined. On th i s ground over here, there were my ancestors . At the coast and fur ther inland they d id the same as he d i d , they did as 'My Leader 1 . Those must have been my forebears . That is why my name is s t i l l the same now. I am En Chinemqen. 75 THE LAST RAID OF THE THOMPSON INDIANS r\(K tjaa en Jqi!lqwal al t i a?ut tae a?ut ulae t s ' f laa This is my s tory at the f i n a l J tk an tdmuAaeJ i Aik3§pmaxwae plaint f A 'u wa f i gh t with us Thompson Indian they were a lready _fnuqwnu>qwae AkaeA i Ai la?pmixwa A 'u waS? A'u f r iends our those Thompson Indians. S t i l l there were f wae an qal&Atsae t.fun tsm wft ku JYnnae? aet bad tempered people they were t o l d so I to ld you so by Jnuqwae AkaSA A U t j ' e laSku At J wal? f r iends our from here over there was our f r i e n d . t juk wi rreeA t J U a i l q f Jnuqwnuqwae AkaeA i l Stop i t my dear f r iends f r iends those are t f na? Jt J" kaen i tuttwfwu?tae x&kksk % u 1 A'aSq [turn br ing ing I am young men br ing back 76 k w t j wfn<Bxw . A 'u ku ka kwa£n • /turns J?a3ma f anything the things get we can good things el lalku i wa lf l?wat Jkomk^kmit /mcSAIat/ there the Creekside c h i l d r e n g i r l s takam A'u dz J(*na k wt J ama J?(nt.fa t s ' f l a a l l of them i t i s n ' t good I am i t seems twai xumaSn? Aap t j d t ku? t i dz A 'u ku*n that is enemy your he is the one who sa id i t I don ' t laXlaSxj ni JkwaSt Ji t J J*a laku Ai / wa? remember own name his where a person stays Xdina 6 t /ut ku tan k'a/aen?ka x u ' Akax w Ste in "Oh " , sa id the braves. "Are you going aSts'xan X u k ^kax w zwa§?tan x u ' ^k 3 3 0 kwaSn see are you going know-" " l am going take i Jttitwfwu?ta - ni J x u ' ^kaA A'aSk young men then we are going to go." 77 nf A 'u J X s ' f t J tu i lajkuft ' x&'ins Then over a mountain he d id from there Ste in kwa5n ni J i Jnuqunuqwae /ae ni A 'u f t.faefaef took f r iends then they came lalku A'aSq' wit ae?tJ"aS en lfl?waet from there. Came they did here L i l l o o e t ae*tqwa?ae we i k'a5?lem ts ' f lae Ai f kae ku r i v e r they are wai t ing i t seemed there is pluk en k'em? t Jab ?tja3 t i t Jwaeu?xwa3 smoke. The ou t l e t of the r i v e r t i lfl?waetae . tJwaeu?xw the Li 1looet r i v e r i JjeqjdqtJ?ae d l u j women with laSti iA AwailaeJ there l e f t i Jt Jern^At fhae mdtas thei r ch i Idren a l so i qeAmdemmaennae o ld people. Awa§ 11/ten F a l l t i ? nf A ' uJ then. Then ants ' f tem?J went that way 78 i ux w a lmfx w a t ' u ankokt/ha as?tu Indians to (proper noun) over fqalt i na (proper noun) naj a?ttf Jdi?xez wft iA k'ulam to ce lebrate have a po t l a t ch . T h e y ' l l f i s h wft kl kaA mdta ku then again some ?tj"8??win k'aSxal wit Coho dry they kiA ?t/a1J wit kiA w i l l . Come they w i l l fA waV? maA A'u before they were la*ti i J"qdiqajox wa there men niA tJ7x w f when got there ta q ' d i A i l a the runner. plain tu x w d i t a n Already ki1 led temulim plain tu x u ' t many of us. Already taken niA nu"kw 'a A i l JnfmuA other then us J" jeqjaSqtJa? women fqwomkukmi t ch i l d ren i ta*kma A'u x u ? f t i Aikapmaxa A'sSq min everything j u s t . Lots Thompson Indians came to * 79 tumuAaSJ i na$txwaej" aeku d i t tu? UAaV? fasti us yesterday. By way of they did the other people an wuq w ' i lae aiku AaSk wftaej" ni A 'u of L izzy Creek. That is went they. Then iA Jxwaza$?J" t i an k'aja§n?ka3 d l u j ki lf l?waeta3 prepared the braves come the L i l l o o e t ?mj"?di Ja j f t ) (proper noun-name of medicine man) (proper noun-name of prophet) Jwaet keeptan pa'I naej ridqw'a3n nftaej anyone capta in Paul going help them i J*nuqwndqwae f has ni A 'u .fk'afl?mf f r iends t h e i r s . Then waited. kwfnasj J q ' i t k'ae iA pazaen nftaej" iA How many days was then meet them i an t s ' f tma the oncoming as?t JaSunae th is way to A i kaSpmaxae Thompson. asts'xan I saw 80 Akaen ni? tJ7x w Akaen a5?ku .f?t nt J waS? A'u t i that. I went there myself. It is s t i l l J q wa6tJitJ ku ' B a t t l e Creek' la*tt??J .feknt'mmae named ' Ba t t l e Creek' where b a t t l e was k'ae i Aika§pmexwe nfA t l J"eJ"ftx wae t.ffxuaelu.f with Thompson. It was (proper noun-name of prophet) ni A 'u J" t/tftj" x u ' kten mfjen k wt f xui Then he s a i d , " I 'm going f i x that i t ' s going rrce'qae? Akdn Jae ku J"ftJ"t maSqae? natnaetx ni A 'u snow th i s very n i gh t . " Snowed. Morning then JiJ kwC*J* i maiqae? Ai I ki q waSltJ t.fae i t f e l l snow from the branch of the i Jxaipae A i l t J t j ttxumf hae t jut j " t i nukwae trees from where camped they. Said the other d laen Ia6kw'ae A'aeqmi ntumel em we? meA Au "AhJ Already I guess here to give us. " "Go ahead and 81 yut kux kafnem win k w f f q w we maSqa? s leep.""What are you doing?""Snow drops i t ' s snowing." kiA A'u waS? 11 tj'ae A ' f q w t j u q w in kwfqwae "We are here s t i l l here s h e l t e r . Only drops . " p'aSnt ael ke J e j f t x k w IJ tJ7x w Jq wall? naj" Come back then (name of prophet) went to ld i Jnokndkw'a3 Ja a I ?tti J*wa aj" in Ji jdqt J" ?a f r iends h i s . "Over there she is woman. el ?tri Jwa a j el ?td laSta A i f wa? Over there she is over there. There where is i Jqamqcqm i ta el ?td fwa aj" i A 'aq min l i t t l e ch i l d ren over there they are come us timuA^Ja t f k w i J" q d i x w fx w a A 'e kaSt 11 to g e t . " That man had no on person J " t8X w ? a e tJ* fx w a ku?J J x w f k ' t e n Jx w dz weapon not even a kn i fe no 82 t/it/Llkwa3 A 'u tj.a t j fx w ae lu j tMJ Aae ju s t only that he could t e l l the fu tu re . Coming fA (]( \ ni A 'u Jt Jut J x u' ^ X u i iA the morning then s a i d , "Go ahead going to kfnaekae mfnem i zaSune plain wa ml?ax with force them these. Already i t is daybreak. k ' l lainnintj kailaep A'u nf A 'u iA tJfxw A fk in L i s ten to me you j u s t . " Then when check nftaej" i wa x^it kinaSkas min n f t a j they did the one asleep k i l l e d them. A'aik A'u kwaen nftaaJ i Jaq i jdqt Ja?ae i t j u f has Kept on taking they d id women. There are mijtae i tjurreel?tf hae laen Jtu fA x w a i t a l so ch i l d ren t h e i r . Already when did wit they. Awae? iA trias q d q i j i t tuae ki I ?f There was scout the one command them* 83 nf A'u J tjurum fnuwae . hae Ai J t.fae t s ' f l a Then someone s a i d , "Are you the reason the happening J z f i t a n I aSpae J? t n t .fae ni A 'u J" kwa£n x i t ' taef d id you?" "I am." Then took his t i tdxa3tj Ja t j en n f t a j \M\ A ' s fwa?aexw the weapon his sa id to him, "There you s t a y . " kaA Auxwae fA t i kifa&n?kae ni A 'u t a x w f l x J Appeared then the brave. Then against J l t i Jxapae xu? yaeA' xftaej t i Jkukpi Jae on the t ree . Going to defend the ch ie f h i s . qujim iA t I tjaeunss i lfl?waBtae ka ta§xW a B Shoot then over here L i l l o o e t p e o p l e . l t hung A'u?ae a l t i ta§x w ®tj tjae ka ju s t from chest h i s . It k ' f t t a aSti stuck (having only penetrated a l i t t l e into the sh ie ld ) there 8k i quJmeSltJae was A'u kae t33xwae we? en arrows s t i l l i t hung. He was x w e j x w f Jaenae? t j u t k w i j J e f f t x k w i t k w i ' t . f quxi t sm i l i ng . Said the one "Throat h i s . Shoot k w t t k w ( t j qrijxitem U talkem JwaS al t.f'ae t h r o a t . " Shot him then a l l of them there qdqenae? Jae n j fa* A ' uJ q'emfnnem fA neck (throat) h i s . Then f e l l he then. we 8??xwiA k'ae? t i ef xe lxe l aef q ' e p ' paftfaeTce There was he had power woven s t i ck s t j A ' f p J fai t i keAuJfts'ae Jae kiA k w i j dz under his th ick buckskin so that no eSti k w i j kae A'aeqae ku k w aefmiltj there to be able to go through the arrows. kiA dz If not fo r Jaejftx k w i j (proper noun) that xlmf ts ' f lae r ight away 85 a§tsxen na?J k w i f k'a? aet I t s ' f las quf saw that was that the way he was. Shot x i t f t a j " JezaSm a 11 f* q&qena .fa nf A'u f he d id on his throat his then zuqf Ian aA A'aSlu wft Ian aA taeVam died. Already they postponed a lready they a l l i Aikaipmixa zuq we ke f 1 ae I ku J"qw<5qwmi t a Thompson d i e d . There was c ry ing a c h i l d . t / f x w ats'xan nftaj" wa? en ts'a§lok aet i Went saw they did was wrapped with q w o q w e n t f t s ' a U?kdne i l t a zuwae*lts?a Jaxapa f u r coat. Where in the hollow t r e e a6ku ku? k'a JquA'aJ" t i JqcSqmita ents'ailk there I guess h i d i t c h i l d wrapped al t f q w a q want f t s ' a qwaSn J t w f t e J t i in fur coat . They o b t a i n for t h e i r own the 86 laSti Jqu(5qwmitae qWaan fA tu kOlae dz A'u k w i . f there c h i l d . They got the commander.No they d id zuq w JtwftaeJ* nf A'u Jt/dnim kmkaSn k i l l him. Then said to him, "How JkakaSu?/ A iA j A i l tf'aSunaj ni A 'u r t . f i x w ,fu you from here then reach you?" t / f x w Akaen Jx^P 3 3! tj(5t ku aet I At.fijqwffiJ "Reach I w i l l when n i g h t , " sa id he. "That is the end k w i f t s ' f l s M\ k wt J" z f i t a n JaS 1 aep of th i s happening that you d id i J"nuqni5qae laip?s aet i At f>jqwa3 J kwHaep f r iends your. That is the end wanting k m J" xmsSnam i l wi f nfmuA uxwaelmfxw to be enemies with us Indian people. p lain wa? i Jaem?ae niA iz wa Already there are white men those are ones 87 xam3?n?mi njsS l 3 3 p tjijnim ku pasplae* A 'u t f f i gh t y o u , " sa id to him. One only twae wae"?ae t juk A'u t i f ki laiq ft en nf hae remained only the leader t h e i r . i A ' uJ JkiJnaS ni Then mm fA kw i j u?xwael?J uxwael they asked him that go home. He went fA wae? Akan t i a&ts'xan home. Do I that see. kinkaSnaJ k'aSti ku It is estimated that ' twenty - f i ve or t h i r t y m i le s ' twenty- f ive or t h i r t y miles kaSAt I laSti from here ' B a t t l e Creek' Ba t t l e Creek niA J t j f x « f before reached aiku ' F ra ser R i ver ' over to the Fraser R iver . jA'aek Jae k'a Went he t i u x w 3 3 l m f x w a t j i x w ae*ti the Indian people. Got there A'u" aet i at Jnuk W ) f r i e n d AkaSAae k'ae over guess Aaekwu from there, xaiA Hard 88 t j ? i n t j t.fx wdz tjae kwUexl35x J^n fkwaetft f for my because I don ' t remember now name k'e X'J' Akaan ,fqwallen tumuA en kai?a3 f tdim his I am going t e l l you sometime JwaStiJ" prinen k w i j k w a i t j i t j ' t i ni who i t was when I f i nd his name the past J"ntfkwae AkaiAae AaSku wai? A'u aSnltaJ i . f k ^ t . f i t j f r iends ours there. S t i l l have they names kafAlae en ts ' f lae wi.f nfmuA waS? u?aSnim ours ju s t l i k e us s t i l l we have i Jkwalt J i t / f hae kiA k'aen nukw'a5u?.f names the i r s must we f r i e n d s . tJ7x w ku JA wel k'elem t i q weltinae teq Got there was making the cooking s t i c k s the qeAmfmnae niA J"?ulxJ" wae? tsemq'lnaej' t i o ld man. Then went i t he was sharpening the q w 's§ I tenaa A'aeq kaexw t/unim ku A'aSq cooking s t i c k s . "Come you , " sa id to him. "Come kaax" alpae A'aiq kaen t J u A 'u (nt.f you c lose f r i e n d . " "Come I d id jus t me. xd i t tu niA Jt/maSaeltJ" ka5?Aae a1?hin was? Died the c h i l d r e n our. See do Akin tjrfn t j l n dz kek t /un t f i n A 'u I say to you. No would say to you aSrree mftjaeq maeA lalti el t/'ae Jmftjasq good." " S i t down bet ter there. Right here s i t down aexu nalj xftem you . " Gave him t i q'aSlqtfae aej Aae? ael t i the cha i r near by the q'eAmC'mnae we ks l im t i q w 'aS 111 naa o ld man s t i l l making the o l d man. mfifnae/te q'aeAmSBmnae t i qw'aSltinae Put f i n i s h i n g touches on o ld man the cooking s t i c k s 90 Jae ts 'fmts'ammaqj wa iA l a t i f I ae I his r e a l l y sharp. Was there c r y i n g . aSpae x u Akaexw ka A 'u an p d l l t n "C lose f r i e n d going you must punished fo r the sake of niA an J"tJ*amaSl?ta t junim ku ?fA those my c h i l d r e n , " sa id he then. nf A ' u J t/aqaA mfx w naj a t i q w ' ^ l t a n a Then he stabbed in throat him by the o ld man. k w i j t s ' f l a j A 'u xa lxa lx ta q'aAmt'mna Amount ju s t able strength the o ld man tJa&qaA max wnaj ?tu q f A A'u ka stabbed in throat him. Almost d id A'uaSk k i l waf Ja ni A 'u J lati.f went r ight through his body. F in i shed there d i e . nf A'u Then J t^kam i d id a l l ( ' d i e 1 understood) ( 'people ' understood). 91 nf A t i .f?alut dl .fikxaSl Aaku A i l fnuk'nu^'aa That one la s t f i gh t there from f r iends AkaSAae tux iz A'u J"nuk'ndkw'ae AkasA taq 'A A 'u our real those f r iends our. Almost wa wfna3x witj wft wij" nfmuA Akunjae do speak same language they as us now. t s ' f l a j Akae*A A'u ku .fqwa*zaezuf iA taekrrcet Just l i k e me as brothers inc lud ing a l l . nfA t i an Jqdq w i I Jsewin ?tJaS?laap alt/'aSunae That is my s tory asked me you did here Jq uaqwalmfnaen ku ?a$?ut A'aeq mfn tdmuAasf speak about of las t come to us f i g h t . niA iz an Jnuqwndqwa3 AkalAae aSut A'aeq Those are my f r iends our l a s t came mintdmuA aej astj'^unae lfl?waetae dz A'u k w £ f kae to us here Mt. C u r r i e . Not do qwaSlae ku Jx wdkoko? AkaSA wiA kae hurt the fee l ings our are j u s t A'u waS? i j quqwae| J ts ' f lae Jae J z f i t e n s t i l l s tory ju s t as is doings AkaeA i Af? naej Akunjae plaS n az ae"t i k w i J us long ago. Now already no happen ts ' f lae k w i j z f i t e n AkaeA t jdk A'u JkaSAae ju s t doing us ju s t that Jeq w ez(zewCJ iA taSkmae n(A t i in fnuqnuqwae brothers inc lud ing us a l l . That is my f r iends en J q w u q w e l t JaSunae tjaelim A'u aeA kaSnmaet my story asked me what happened el?ta5?nreej ts ' f lae k w i j z f i t e n ku ?aSut iii l i k e happen of las t only ts ' f lae A'aeq mintumulum nfA i fnuqnuqwae jus t l i k e came to us. Those f r iends AkaSAae niA t i J q w 5 q l U tumuAaen J?i l?aelqJ ours. That is s tory to you my c lose f r i e n d s . J"?(ntJ"tn tjinamqan I am Chinemqen. THE LAST RAID OF THE THOMPSON INDIANS This is my s tory of the f i n a l f i gh t between us and the Thompson people who were formerly our f r i e n d s . S t i l l , those Thompson Indians there were bad-tempered people. They were t o l d so by our f r i end from here who was over there. "Stop i t my dear f r i e n d s . Look, the young men and I are going to br ing back anything we can get from the c reeks ide , from Mt. C u r r i e , any of the good things - the c h i l d r e n , the g i r l s , a l l of them. It i s n ' t good that I seem to be your enemy." (He is the one who sa id i t . I don ' t remember h is name but he stayed with S te in . ) " O h , " sa id the braves. " I 'm going to take the young men and we are going to go. " Then Ste in took h is f r iends over a mountain and they came from there to here. At the L i l l o o e t River they wai ted, i t seems, where there was smoke. At the o u t l e t of the L i l l o o e t River they l e f t the women with t h e i r c h i l d r e n and a lso the o ld people. It was Autumn then. The Indians from Mt. Curr ie had planned to go that way to Enkwekchha above Shqatina to ce lebrate with a po t l a t ch . They f i shed again f o r coho and dr ied i t . Before they got there the Thompson men a r r i ved and had already k i l l e d many of us when the runner came. Already they had taken o thers , then our women and 95 c h i l d r e n , ju s t everyth ing . Lots of Thompson came to ra id us that day. They went by way of the other people of L izzy Creek. That is the way they went. Then the braves prepared for the coming of the L i l l o o e t medicine man, the prophet, everyone, Captain Pau l , a l l t h e i r f r iends who were going to help them. Then they waited. A f t e r a long time they met them coming th i s way to the Thompson. I saw that . I went there myself. It is s t i l l named Ba t t l e Creek where the b a t t l e was with the Thompson. The prophet, who pred ic ted the f u tu re , s a i d : " I 'm going to make i t snow th i s very n i g h t . " It snowed. In the morning the snow f e l l from the branches of the trees where they were camped. The Thompson s a i d , "Ah 1 I guess they are here to g ive something to u s . " "Go ahead and s l e e p . " "What are you doing?" "The snow is f a l l i n g . I t ' s snowing." "We are here s t i l l . Here is s h e l t e r . " "But i t keeps snowing." Then the prophet went back and to ld his f r i e n d s . "Over there are the women. They are over there where the l i t t l e ch i l d ren are. They are come to get u s . " That man did not have any weapon on his person, no not even a k n i f e . His only weapon 96 was that he could t e l l the fu tu re . The morning was coming, and he sa id to go ahead and h i t the Thompson with f o r ce . Already i t was daybreak. " Ju s t you l i s t e n to me," he s a i d . Then they went and found the braves who were as leep, and they k i l l e d them. They took back the women. There were a l so t h e i r c h i l d r e n . When they did these things there was a l so a scout there, the one who commanded the r a i de r s . Someone s a i d , "Are you the cause of these events?" "I am," he s a i d . Then they took his weapon and sa id to him, "You stay t h e r e ! " Then a brave appeared. He was going to defend his c h i e f . Then the L i l l o o e t people shot at him over there. The arrows j u s t hung from his chest . They stuck there. S t i l l they hung. He kept sm i l i n g . Then the prophet Sheshitkh s a i d , "His th roa t , shoot his t h r o a t . " A l l of them shot him in the throat . Then he f e l l . The power he had was that of woven s t i ck s under his th ick buckskin so that the arrows were not able to go through i t . If i t had not been for the prophet who r ight away saw that i t was th is way nobody would have known. He was shot in the throat and then he d ied . A f t e r th is delay a l l the Thompson were now dead. There was a baby c r y i n g . They found i t wrapped in a fur coat. I guess the c h i l d had been wrapped up in a fur coat and then hidden there in a hollow t ree . They kept the c h i l d fo r themselves. 97 They kept the commander and did not k i l l him. Then they sa id to him, "How do you think y o u ' l l get away from here?" " I ' l l get away when night f a l l s , " sa id he. They answered, "Th i s is the end of wanting to be enemies with us Indian people. Already there are many white men, and those are the ones you should f i g h t . " Thus they spoke to him. Only one of them remained. Only t h e i r leader . Then they to ld him to go home. He went home. I saw that . It is estimated to be 25 - 30 miles from here, before you reach Ba t t l e Creek, across the Fraser R iver. He went away from us L i l l o o e t people and got there with the help of a f r i e n d . I t ' s hard for me because I don ' t remember his name now. I'm going to t e l l you sometime who i t was when I f i nd his name from some former f r iends of ours there. They must s t i l l remember our names j u s t as we s t i l l remember the i r s that were our f r i e n d s . When he a r r i ved the o ld man was making cooking s t i c k s . When he went in he was sharpening the cooking s t i c k s . "You have come," he sa id to him. "You have come, dear f r i e n d . " "I have returned. Just I a lone. The other ones, our c h i l d r e n , have d ied . I saw i t happen, I t e l l you. It was a bad bus ines s . " "You 'd bet ter s i t down r ight here. You s i t down," sa id the o ld man and gave him the cha i r that was nearby. The o ld 98 man was putt ing the f i n i s h i n g touches to one of his cooking s t i c k s and i t was r e a l l y sharp. "I was there when you were urging your f r iends to go, and you must be punished fo r the sake of those my dead c h i l d r e n , " he s a i d . Then he was stabbed in the throat by the o ld man who had ju s t enough strength to do i t . It almost went r ight through his body. It was f i n i s hed there and he d ied . Thus a l l the ra iders d ied . That was the las t f i gh t there was with our f r i e n d s , with our real f r i e n d s . Now they speak almost the same language as we do. A l l are brothers j u s t l i k e me. That is my story of the la s t f i gh t that you asked me to speak about. Those were my f r i e n d s ' ancestors who las t came to ra id us here at Mt. C u r r i e . You do not hurt our f ee l i n g s by asking - th i s is j u s t a story of events long ago. Now nothing l i k e th i s happens anymore; we are a l l doing ju s t as brothers do. My f r i e n d s , that is my s t o ry . You asked me what happened when that l a s t ra id was made on us. Those were f r i ends of ours. That is the story to ld for you my dear f r i e n d s . I am En Chinemqen. 99 HOW CHIEF HUNTER JACK OVERCAME THE CHILCOTIN INDIANS SINGLEHANDED an Jnuqnu"qwae xrii Akan J q a q a l m tumuA My f r i e n d s g o i n g I am t e l l you f o l k s J z f i t a n Jae an an ts'tfts ' p'ae ni kukpiae d o i n g h i s my u n c l e c h i e f AU alt/'aS ank w'a?tk wae wa t / i i n ni taej f rom h e r e D ' A r c y . They c a l l h im wa ank<5kti? J"wi*tae ' C h i e f Hunter J a c k ' n iA ( p r o p e r noun) what i s h i s name C h i e f Hunter J a c k t h a t t i an ts 'C*ts 'p'ae? n iA t i t/'aq'JtaSli was my u n c l e . He was tamed d i d i p i JxaSxanaema pCplae Ji5t A ' u A i l k ' u W i l l i a m s Lake h i m s e l f o n l y . From JqaViqarreeA A i J wae? paept p3ex e m q'um laeku k i l l s l i v e always. Hunt trap there 100 Jqemma t f a fA k'u Jtit ik xem A'u at k i l l s . This new very winter r ight away k w t J rnafqa?// dz k w i j zwit na/ k wi.f ke wal? i t snowed. No (he) know that was kaeti ku waS? xtim A 'uk w J" p l u j t i maq?a around somebody. Right away deep the snow knaej" J i / k 'a kiA xr i t / in i f Jqwdxt pSe?la.f three maybe four feet one A'u JkL?rTnJ t i maSq?a ni A 'u f snowfall the snow. Then fx waj" A 'u i f A'ail kwa*tim t e n / k w i f t s ' u t s ' e x e l there was no stop walking person with snowshoes ku ix w 3 3 t s ' d t s ' e x e l wa5?a x w i A ka and without snowshoes. There was guess laSti i t J i I i ktJt t na we there (proper noun) were q'um trappi wi A ng they ki fo r JqalaSwae water animals ni A ' u J then A M I-If dz A'u muts stopped. No d id again k w i j Jtf?amJ t i ku maiqae? t i f y tux A 'u mutae melt that snow. More snow f e l l on an nf A ' u J miJaSl t j i e a r l i e r , unmelted snowfa l l . Then d id b u i l t they k'ulum wit t i qwaet JsSlt Jae laeti made they the hut made of branches there puwaeta xazaSm t i ku t Jt laSA (proper noun) somewhat large but not huge that lake x u ? i t laeti i JwaSulaemmae aeti k'ae? aA lots there f i s h . There guess they t j f x w i t a e j kulim t i q w a l t Ja§lt Jae A'llpaeA went made the branch hut. Quietens ts ' f lae J a z i i t n Jae t i tmfxwae wae iA down happened the ground. He had 102 Jtsax& i n was q'um 'Hunter Jack ' a p r i va te p lace fo r trapping he had Hunter Jack. t j " i x w aet i puWtas nf A'u Jaitsxen Went to (proper noun) then saw past t i Jp\6ku& dz k wt J en JuteenwasJ" k w i J" we the sma l l . No d id he think was kaiti ku wsS? nf A'u J" A'aikf t j " i x w around someone. Then went, A r r i v e d . waelaSti t i xezume q'as I t / s l t J k w ' f n u j k' as It is there the b ig branch hut. How many needed ' f a m i l y ' l a i t i f t 11 kuti nas was? uts'q'aS t i fa m i l y there (proper noun) there. Come out q'amazae asts 'xen mm JenfA n i l J" iA'uxJsem?/ grandmother saw him himself screamed ni J then uAuf f tu dz A 'u went back i n . Not x f n j long uts'q'as come out 103 t i qeAmi'mnaeJ" Jqd i x w J" ts 'ets 'aex utsqae the o ld man (proper noun) came out A l l lalku? ni JxaStae nsj from there. Then l i f t up r i f l e in a gesture of f r i endsh ip t i en t s ' i t s ' p ' a S t i tf ix'stj jae we the my grand-uncle the weapon his we t/tinnim Jwiilumfnq' k i t enalj i l t i c a l l (sort of weapon). P ierced d id in the rreSq?ae nij" t s ' i t e m mfnaej" ae I t/'aSunae snow they did go towards them where was i t / i l ikdtanae t /ut dz k wt / kaeA huz (proper noun). Sa id , "No going to kaSj twael huz kaeA A 'u nuqw'aSuJ do anything to each other to us be f r i e n d s . " nf A'u J qanfmtf tuwij" ts 'ets ' aex l^n J" Then understood one c a l l e d (proper noun) a lready ka* A'u we Jkul mfnajt i en kai ?ae J t i must studied himself some where the tjinrfktjae q w e l q w e l U t Jtwal wit I i t I ni A' Chinook. Talked between did there. Then jA'aSq mlnum I ux Jtilm aiku t i xezumae someone came for him. Brought him to the b ig qw111Ja§ftJ* wa5? lalku J m l t j i q t i J t e q t j a branch hut. Was in there s i t t i n g down the women A i t J 11 t J'ai kil?aSnkJas i qwaJmaMt Ja en p i l e d there f ront her weapons. Was Xaxut j in lafti i J q d i q i x w a we J k w f l k w i j four there men were ready to qiUJim ni A 'u jA 'a?lan naj t s ' e t s ' a l x shoot. Then stopped then (proper noun) i JnuV'ae Ja qwalut JaeJ i z qwalut Jaef f r iends h i s . Talked him them ta lked him 105 t j i I i k i J tn i tJ q w a l i J t JaaJ t i kukpija in C h i l c o t i n language. Talked him the t h e i r ch i e f t j i n d k w i t j wa? axwfA kaA mfj" aku in Chinook. The was a secret escape f i xed at kijamqdltj" t J a x w e l A>4k At J a t i wfnax u back of house. Were going when that is same ku J e z f l t e n k u i j " x u l i l wit x w H tu that happens able escape them. Escaped laHi JtqJfaqtJeTA Jk 'umk'uk 'mita xu l i wit aku? there women ch i1dren escaped they from kfjma x(n A'u ku J f t / t back. Long into night AiA xaAxaSA wit before w i l l i n g they fA k w i J t/aSf tJaSJ" 1 nf A 'u laStl t.f then to come come. Then there where XiSit t a j k w m k fk t i u I u / ki s lept the one (proper noun) with the 106 pa/x^X 9 n r r B B w f f i ^ qwaelqwael t*lt wit mutae f (proper noun). S t i l l t a l k ing them and ts 'ets ' aex kinkain naej k 'ai A 'u k w e J f t j t (proper noun) how long guess into n ight . dz ku him? A 'uk w x^'t j* t i kupiae dz A'u No d i d n ' t able s l ep t the ch ie f no. az k w i j xaSA'min naef k w i f x^'t pa5qwemin No d i d n ' t want to be able s leep a f r a i d of r a j i t j i I ikutenae p j f l niA f t j u t f he was C h i l c o t i n . Morning then he sa id xu*i naef ku paSplae u/nfmuA A i l Jam nulaSp "Going he is the one from among you fo lks A i J m?a1n?wejej aiku t j ' t x wa3 we A 'u ka? maybe two of you to house. Able A'aeqa niA JaxaSpaef ku naSJ niA iA come back before n i g h t f a l l the one. Then did 107 A'aekJ U X H B I t j i x w ?3$ti t Juwaejae t . f i t x w go home. A r r i ved at h is own house uimi (n) naej" i p/x^xreerrBB ki qaqaeqA'axae gave he did (proper noun) some small hooks i qaAlijiUhae ki J* Jaxaina ' s a l t ' Jt1kwae Jap l fn b ig f i s h i n g fooks nets s a l t sugar f l o u r kt las ?a?rree Jx w a§kuki has t/ae?x w mfnitasj* r e a l l y good f e e l i n g they had. Happy g rea t fu l iA tprinae t j i i t j t i qaAmaSmnae dz k 'ae A 'u mutae towards him. Said the o ld man, "Never again /wait ku hu? qa l f lm in twall A i l J" nfmuA anyone going f i gh t amongst from us. t jdk A'u k w iA kaeA fA ts ' f lae ku Jeq w ez(zwi f Just as i f we are now l i k e as brothers . g l l JkabXae paiqu mfn twael A 'u AkaeA A 'u Bad because we are a f r a i d of each other r e a l l y we are 108 ts ' f lae wae xuaJ"tJent J"ut k w ' a ? i h kukjtum l i ke are t ry ing hard see thank you fo r muA kaixu niA mutae Aast what you have done fo r us. If again we wae? enwat^nwaej tj"rfk A 'u k w i f no longer any doubt about f r i e n d s h i p . Just that (we) tja6?xw min taem AkaSlaep At J" pizS&n tarn be happy with you fo lks when meet you AkaSlaep Ai I JwaftaeJ A i l J" tJ*'aSunae n f ^>ur fo lks from now from h e r e . " Then laSfU J" A 'u fxftxwmaef i p i JyaSxnaemae wa? Akalafp there is spent winter Wil l iams Lake. Do you A'u zwaStan tua ptfwaet twae tj 'fntaej" know the one (proper noun) the one they c a l l 'Gun Lake' Gun Lake? x w ? f t Many i J"ts'C*ts'qwazffl any f i s h Jwaeu laSmae smal1 type of f i s h . 109 xatq aSnitaeJ jVmaeltJe nf A'u J last I .f Make hole they ice then there wa? wftaej" niA fz wae ts'aeqwae nftaef stayed there those were eat ing they A'u an ilts'q'se? tj*u kw k u L J q > u m j |ggtI ' t i l l sp r ing . F in i shed trapping there . aA an?uts'qae? an u*xwael wit tu fA JwaSt .f Then spr ing then home did go then. A f t e r lalti ni A 'u fA AiJ" laiti xwael p'a5?lk that then do from go over a mountain wit A'alq wit a?ti kiwa uxwaelm?xwae w i j they. A r r i ved they are with Indians with t j * f tx w Aa?uja laiti t / t lalAaa <et?u JaSA'a? houses fac ing near the r i v e r over (proper noun). laiti iA Jxuz ae/ t j a q ' mfnitaej" There then r e a l l y d id no longer a f r a i d of each other 110 i /A'aeA' i ju*mxwae t j u k f fA JpaiquJ" ku ta&kam Wil l iams Lake. F in i shed then a f r a i d the a l l /wait ni A 'u f z f i ten j " t i kukpijae people. That is doings the t h e i r ch i e f 'Hunter Jack ' A'aSl laen rcej* ts ' f lae k w i J Hunter Jack. Stopped he did l i k e able paSqu ku taikem /wait nfA t i f z f i t o n f nin a f r a i d that everybody. That is what did the my t s ' i t s ' p a i u wae AkaSlaep zwalton nf ku f q d i x w uncle do you know the very man klflae kael A'u laX'^X &z k W l J * ts ' f lae t.fae r e a l l y I guess smart. Not l i k e as t junim aeki Jaem?ae k w i f k w i z f in?xum said about him by white man that jea lous x w ?az ts ' f lae A 'u aSti f z f i t e n Jae I i f no. Like ju s t that what d id he when I l l piinaef laSku I gold 33 laSku i l t.fwalu?xu33 found over there gold there at r i v e r . A'uael laan n f t e j i J*sSm?ae k u i j " dz k w i J naf Stopped they d id white men that no go i tJaSnminae t juk A'u i Jairrtfae x w ez kwae*m Chinamen. Only ju s t white men w i l l get ku ' l i c e n c e ' aiku k w i j res/ 'Br idge R iver ' hae some l i cence to (be) able to go Bridge River to qweqwema3 q ' d i Ix i nuk wa t/sSnmin A'aSq (proper noun). Escaped other Chinamen. Ar r i ved wit A'u aSti Jxdltae ni J" pezaSn they j u s t at (proper noun) they caught up tinem wit plain Jwae p / f l mB?tqw wit tsSkem them already i t was morning. Walked they a l l f f t ni ght J" te Jazalxin J" the pack on back wftaej" they k U lae r e a l l y xamaink J"x ufp?iA i J"am?a p'aent J taSnem wit heavy. Dogmatic white man brought them atu" If lwote qaSnem t i kukpi?a k wt f \(A over to L i l l o o e t . Heard the c h i e f t h e i r that d id turn a?ti i t Jalnami nae t j f x w a j atu tduna them that way Chinamen. He went to town. nf A'u J q w a l u t jaj* la&ti i ' judge ' a Then ta lked to there judge mitt I i plf/mena dz k w i j t s ' f l a aSt i k wi.f and policemen. "Don ' t do l i k e that z f i t m J" twftaj* i wa muzmit dz A'u k w i f zuat do to the one poor. No j u s t know kmkanaj" ku kakaiu? J" A i l ku t j ' a j i iz dz A 'u how from fa r from came them. No t s ' f l a ktfka nuk wa J" tanam wft a/a a l tj'a&unal l i ke could help them by us here 113 tjas ? f x w a wit 11 nuk'nakw 'ae ' wai A'u wa because have no they have f r i e n d s . Just ndkw33n t Jtlt witas mij A'u wal? i f A'ael help themselves. S t i l l are stopped JtaSm wit abkl Jairrtfae xaeA' min AkaSn k w i j they by white man. Want I do that x w ?az kwaelep kaSftJ" i t/aSnminae Awae? ai laep no don ' t do anything Chinamen. If (you) going X^A'min ts ' f las A'u Ajnu laep JaSma dz k w i f ask f o r same as yourselves white man not x w ? f t dz k wt J p'alx" ts ' f lae ?aSti J more not more than your f e e . " Just l i ke that z f i t o n j t i kukpijae nf A 'u f J t J u t J did the c h i e f . Then sa id krikpija tJaSnamm tj"i5naej" xui Akffixw naSCxal the ch ie f Chinamen sa id to , "Going you br ing 114 ae"ku ku ts'uxmen k w i f ts 'f lasj" A 'u ku p&ip over tool sharpener any s i z e of pipe we iA kslA mf I / x f t j m ku 11 p I d.,f k wt / k 'u l im I w i l l f i x you some board make Ju ku JI ij/t J* we? Aks&V k w ezen t i en t.fu"?ae you a s lu i cebox. Do you use my own ' c l a i m ' lalku 'South Fork ' ae q w f i n Akalxw c la im over South Fork a t . Use you t i paSlae maSqas Awael xftjkaex u hi k w 'ez(jfem lafka that one year . Leave me work tools Jwae (ntjae kiA ku q w e z i n taSli nf A'u J" you I w i l l to use them. That is t s ' f l a ? / sit I ! z f i t e n Jae iz az A 'u k w i J" way i t was that did they them. No ju s t that a?J mi t i t taSm? tfla? A i J q w a lu t ku i t was winter anything ju s t l i k e when spoken a 115 t JaSnmi n ts'flae A'u ku ux waelmix w dz A'u k w i j Chinaman ju s t 1i ke an Indian doesn 1 1 qaexwen nftaej" A i J fnwaet wft t . f ix w af t i break they when say anything they. A r r i ved at the 1 1 i me1 t i me his ku that J q w ut ja i t j i t Jag leave nmi ne Chi namen nf A 'u then J q w e t j a i t j we AkaSlaep zwaStm lalti A i J l e f t . Do you know there that wae? iA ts'sSuxaBl 'Hunter Jack 1 where panning f o r gold Hunter Jack we? i J he had ts 'uxmin hydrau l i c i tjun c a l l nftaej" them 1 hydrau1i c 1 hydrau l i c kwfnaef How ke melqae iA k w i j w5?j A i l t s ' f k f iA t i many years he stayed before f i n i shed then the t Jtfwae Jae own his ' c l a i m ' zaSmaeJ A 'u we Ms'xdn c la im. S t i l l i t is seen 116 aAkellaep a I ki pfphae k w i j tz q f x w i n naej you do in the papers that those chased by 'Hunter Jack ' k w i j kae? kaza?a1naej k u i j q u j i t a j Hunter Jack. That l i e d that shot them k w i J kilkaSlnaeJ that chased them i tJaSnnunae Islku Jae A 'u Chinamen over there because Aim? naej qamqamae st ingy he was k i l l s t j a t j u t k w i j t J u W j because sa id that h is own. dz aeti k w i j Not that ts ' f lae qw3$ltan Jxwa5k'k'ae i J l i k e . Hurt my fee l i ng s aSts'xan naena a l t i pfphae saw t h i s s u b j e c t i n the paper tae ts'flhae the l i k e sSti niA miitae A m Jwe? quq w aelUt JtumuA that. That i s why I am t e l l i n g you A m Jwae" Jq w al? l in ttimuA nulalp I am doing t e l l i n g you you wa zwaStan who know 117 taSli p 'a?x w A i l more than f i n t f laku oAkai haSl?hana f I. Over there I was born qemqema niA dz t s ' f l a k w i n J"we zwaten Bridge River. That is not l i k e have do know kmksSnaJ" k w i j * z f i t e n f en what that was done by my t s ' i t s ' p e ? a k i l a J grand-uncle before A i l ttfuna leSku Ake ha§l?halria J qumqema I was born. There I was born in Bridge River f waj laSku we t s ' a§u?xa l when over there panning nin t s ' C*ts'pe?pa deceased my uncle t j f x w ndk w ' a mm nin en J" qdt s 'e?e went help him deceased my f a ther . t j f x w Went wit wiJ they did 1Cadwalader 1 Cadwalader tikmailx w the whole fami ly, nfA t i en Jnoqnijqwa J" z f i t m J" ni h m That is my f r iends d id my past 118 en t s ' i ' t s ' p e we Akel lp tu? zwseten kinkaSnaef g reat -unc le . You do know how ts ' f lae k wt J lex'QX k w i j kfnqj ku ux w e lmix w very smart p e r f e c t i o n i s t that Indian. A ' u t f f x w A ' u JtJaeJ tj'ae uxuael dz A ' u This came time come to home d i d n ' t kaSti ku A'aSqeJ* n iA j k'ezaSkem mfnem laSti make i t here then k i l l e d someone over Jx^t? Jae J t j i laeAae k'ezaSkem mfnem 'Hunter Jack ' other s ide of r i v e r . K i l l e d someone Hunter Jack laSn tjwae tjaej uxwel we? t j u t q'ump already he was coming home. He sa id ten k'u kae maSqe kw33*?ej kaSku J qemqemae I guess years remained around Bridge R iver . dz k w i j A'aeq ijxwael tJ'aSJ zaem uxael dz A ' u ke Never came home. Coming then home did not 119 A'aSq tfae nf A 'u f k'azaSke mfnem set i ka make i t then k i l l e d him someone. There fo r now J" t j f x w a j ku q w a q a l t j I tumuAffin ku ends the t a l k I gave you f o r paSlae? i jx w a lmix w wae? Akaen mutae |"q waq walin one Indian I w i l l be again t e l l i n g tumuA ts ' f lae ku pt ta5kwtA ts'flae aetj'^ tae you l i k e the f o l k - t a l e j u s t as his wina6xwae J* z f i t a n gal A 'u k w m Jwa zw^tan real happening. F u l l y do I know k w i j t s ' f lae J ait! t d » J x ^ k t s ° J that l i k e that do to tr e a t e d tw f ta j i J kC*lkilae?ae t s'flae k w i J z f i t a n j they d id forebears l i k e that d id ankt'kti 'Hunter Jack ' Indian name for Hunter Jack Hunter Jack. nf t i That is JquqwUn tumuAan KntJaeJ" ' Bap t i s te R i t c h i e ' from t e l l i n g you. I am Bapt i s te R i t ch ie from Mount Curr ie wa Akalap zwaitan JYntJae Mount C u r r i e . Do you know I am tfe an t j fnaqan n(A ti? the one En Chinemqen. That is a l l . 121 HOW CHIEF HUNTER JACK OVERCAME THE CHILCOTIN INDIANS SINGLEHANDED. My f r i e n d s , I am going to t e l l you fo lks what my unc le, who was ch i e f o f D'Arcy, B. C , d i d . They c a l l e d him We Enkekt i ' or Chief Hunter Jack. He subdued the people of Wil l iams Lake a l l by h imse l f . He always l i ved from the k i l l s of hunting and trapping. Now th is one winter i t snowed very e a r l y . He knew that somebody was around. Right away the snow was very deep, three or maybe four feet in one snowfa l l . Then there was no walking for people without snowshoes - only with snowshoes. He guessed that there had been some Ch i l co t i n s there trapping for beaver and then they had stopped. That snow did not melt and more snow f e l l on top of i t . Then they made a hut out of branches there at Powata. That lake is qu i te large and there were lots of f i s h in i t . There they went and made a branch hut. The land quietened down. Hunter Jack had his own p lace for t rapping. He went to Powata and looked around a l i t t l e . He d i d n ' t think that anyone was around but then when he a r r i ved there was a big hut made of branches. A great deal of room was needed by the C h i l c o t i n family there. The grandmother came out of the hut, saw my g rea t -unc le , screamed, and went back i n . Not long a f t e r the o ld man c a l l e d T s ' a t s ' i k h came out. Then my grand-uncle l i f t e d up his r i f l e 122 in a gesture of f r i e n d l i n e s s . His weapon that we c a l l e d a shwuluminq 1 he stuck in the snow and then went towards where the C h i l c o t i n were. He s a i d , "We are not going to harm each o ther , we are ju s t going to be f r i e n d s . " Then the one c a l l e d T s ' a t s ' i k h understood. Somewhere he must himself have studied Chinook. They talked between themselves. Then someone came for my uncle and brought him to the b ig hut. S i t t i n g down in there were the women and p i l e d in f ront o f them were weapons. There were four men there ready to shoot but T s ' a t s ' i k h stopped his f r i e n d s . He ta lked to them. He talked in the C h i l c o t i n language. He ta lked to t h e i r ch i e f in Chinook. There was a secret escape at the back of the house. While a l l th i s was taking place they were able to get away. The women and ch i l d ren escaped from the back. It was long into the night before they were w i l l i n g to return. So i t was there that Hunter Jack s lept among the people from Wil l iams Lake. They and T s ' a t s ' i k h were s t i l l t a l k ing long into the n ight . The ch ie f was not able to s leep. No, no he d i d n ' t want to s leep because he was a f r a i d of the C h i l c o t i n . Then in the morning he s a i d , "I am going to leave you fo lks and maybe one or two of you would come to my house. You would be able to get back before n i g h t f a l l . " He went home. When he a r r i ved at his own house he gave the people of Wil l iams Lake some small f i s h i n g hooks, some big f i s h i n g hooks, some nets, s a l t , 123 sugar and f l o u r and they had r e a l l y good fee l ings towards him. They were happy and g ra te fu l to him. Said the o ld man, "Never again is anyone from amongst us going to f i g h t . Now i t is j u s t as i f we are brothers . It is bad because we are a f r a i d of each other . We are t ry ing hard to see what we are r e a l l y l i k e . Thank you for what you have done fo r us. We w i l l no longer have any doubt about f r i endsh ip again. We w i l l ju s t be happy with your fo lks when we meet them from now o n . " Then the people of Wil l iams Lake spent the winter there. Do you know Puwat? It is the p lace they c a l l Gun Lake. There are many small f i s h . They made a hole in the ice and stayed there. They were eat ing those f i s h u n t i l spr ing . They f i n i shed trapping there. Then in the spr ing they went home. A f t e r that then they went over a mountain. They a r r i ved at a p lace where Indians l i v e with t h e i r houses fac ing near the r i v e r above S h a t l ' a . Then they were r e a l l y no longer a f r a i d of each o ther . Then a l l the people stopped being a f r a i d . That was the doing of t h e i r c h i e f , Hunter Jack. He stopped everybody from being a f r a i d of each other . That is what my uncle d i d . You know, I guess that man was r e a l l y very smart. I t ' s not as the white men say who are jea lous of him. Nol Just l i k e what he did when they found gold over there at the r i v e r . 124 The white men stopped the Chinamen from going there. Only white men were able to get a l i cense to be able to go to Bridge R iver , to Qumqema. The other Chinamen escaped. They had j u s t a r r i ved at Shkhalta when they caught them. Already i t was morning. They had walked a l l night with r e a l l y heavy packs on t h e i r backs, and then the white man brought them over to L i l l o o e t . Then the ch ie f heard what they had done to the Chinamen. He went to town. Then he ta lked there to the judge and the po l i cemen. "Don ' t do l i k e that to the poor ones. No one knows from how fa r away they have come. We should help them because they have no f r iends here. They jus t look a f t e r themselves. S t i l l they are stopped by the white men. I want to he lp . The China-men haven't done anything. If you are going to ask for a f ee , ask the same fee as for your se lves , Whitemen, not more than your f e e . " Just l i k e that did the ch ie f speak. Then the ch ie f sa id to the Chinamen, "You br ing me a tool sharpener and any s i z e of p ipe. I w i l l f i x you some boards and make you a s l u i c e box. You use my own c la im over at South Fork. Use i t fo r a year. Leave me your work t o o l s . I w i l l use them." That is the way i t was. That is what they d i d . There 125 wasn't anything wr i t ten down. When something is spoken a Chinaman, ju s t l i k e an Indian, doesn ' t break his word. He a r r i ved at the agreed time and then the Chinamen l e f t . Do you know that where he was panning fo r gold Hunter Jack had a hydrau l i c pump? He stayed there fo r many years before his own c la im was f i n i s h e d . But s t i l l you see i t in the papers that they were chased by Hunter Jack, that he l i e d and chased the Chinamen over there and shot them because he was st ingy and k i l l e d them because he sa id that was his own c la im. It was not l i k e that . It hurt my fee l ings when I saw the story wr i t ten in the paper l i k e that . That is why I am t e l l i n g you. I am t e l l i n g you who know more than I. I was born over there at Bridge R iver. It was not l i k e that . I know what was done by my great -unc le before I was born. I was born there in Bridge River when my la te uncle was panning over there. My la te fa ther went to help him. The whole Cadwalader family went. They were the f r iends of my la te g reat -unc le . You know what a p e r f e c t i o n i s t that man was. When i t came time to come home he d i d n ' t make i t here because someone k i l l e d him on the other s ide of the r i v e r . Someone k i l l e d Hunter Jack when he was coming home. I guess he stayed fo r about ten years around Bridge River 126 but he never came home. He was coming home but he never made i t because somebody k i l l e d him. There fo r now ends the ta lk I am g iv ing you about one Indian. I w i l l again be t e l l i n g you people s t o r i e s j u s t as they r e a l l y happened. I know exact ly the way in which they treated my forebears , as they did Hunter Jack. The one t e l l i n g you th i s story is Bapt i s te R i t ch ie from Mount Cu r r i e . You s t i l l know that I am the one c a l l e d 'My Leader' - En Chinemqen. That is a l l . 127 THE CURE OF BAPTISTE RITCHIE an J zfitsnae f wan Jk'ukmit J k f i x w My doings was c h i l d s i c k l y . Akin t j f x w k'ak 1908 nf A ' uJ an J tex w 9 I was near the year1908 then almost fA dz k w tn Jwalu kae maStqae dz k w m Jwa cou ldn ' t myself could walk. Wasn't I qwaenux dz k w m Jwa dlsam k ' f?ux AkaSn A 'u s i c k . Wasn't I i l l , despondent,! was only. nf A 'u J t jun t j e j t f n ts'al?miqwae t jun nasf Then sa id to me my grandfather sa id m j lalfltmae A'u xwaen J afpae naej kiA my parents going make wel l c lose person.Go w i l l fA t i n Jwae waS? A'u Aa?xw kiA nf A ' u J where my p lace ' t i l l gets be t te r . That is wa tjijnim w i j rifmuA ka lk i k l a ? k 'f?ux what c a l l we o lder generation despondent. 128 A ' a ki'Aae AaSku i wa dlfam Taken from there that s i ck J" taSl i niA ki A 'u him makes then only J" If Item/ k'alpa tfu'naej" grow up that c lose person. Said q ' a i q ' a i aekuj that (proper noun) an my J l i I f Itrra parents. nfA t i That is wa t jun they cal1 nitaej" name 'Old Lou ie ' Old Louie. a I tu J\J"aS?Aae nfA A'u JkwaSn Over to Seche l t . Then took t M me in t s ' f t s ' p a la*tl III t i t . f f t x w my grandfather. There at the house Jae k'dA ftmae laSti his made fo r him there A i t wae? mi i . fx i t . f i / were we. Made me fA kutaSkam Jwfnae?uJ kall?waet i pC't/kiAlae then a l l kinds medicine leaves i A' i kw'aSmlaexwae i mdlxae pallae ka kaSnaef roots s t i c k s . One maybe 129 kae X ^ J p ^ J V t k w i J en ts'exa&Ats'aen one week that my f lu sh ing out the ins ides t/aej t/ae t.fu kwae A'u i J *X u m q ? a B we puA he d id . Spec i f i ed that only f i s h heads bo i led we ts'eqwaenaen t s ' i l ( ae) a§ti J" xi'nf k w m fwe I a te. L ike that long I was ts'exaeAts'aem ptfAxael fA mutae ki pit.fkaeAae c leaning ins ides .Bo i led again some leaves ki A'eqwa£mlasxwae ka6l?waet waS? Akaen A'u f?a5tsx.f some roots medicine. Was I watched kwaen naej" kait T i t.fun nitaej" q'em.fa&uqw (he) took the one c a l l name part of tree zaSxt t f t x e q'emja§uq w k'i'txwaen naef la$ti long th in part of t ree . He cut i t he did there x w ? i j t j i n en ts'aelTkaenaaJ kait i t i plifaikae four. Then wrapped around the with sack. 130 t i we puAi A nf A'u J Just when that was b o i l i n g then k'emqw'a5n dropped in naej 3§ t i i he did there q'emfa5uqwe we? i f last i puAiA tree par t . Stayed there bo i l A 'u ke ' t i l l q w ezq w dzetq w 33?e tiqa&A almost blue t i qu?ae xalA'en the water. Took i t out ne§J" t i ? nf tu A'u J Jp 'almaenae J xaSA' qaSn he did that then burnt i t . Took o f f heat naej tjalkae naej f?ez A'u he did cooled i t he did ju s t enough k w i J that en qempf heat k w i n Jwe ke q ' em fas en A'a5kwae able I was to swallow. It f i l l e d naifae kalt T he did that i ki lkikkelae lepdt we o ld fashioned pot we tjunim zewaSkften cal1 d ipper. Xexzezim fz en A'a5kwas naejae qij| xui Large those i t f i l l e d he did f u l l . "Go 131 maeA tj*ae uqwaenf, aSpae dz k w i f fu bet ter this dr ink dear person. Don't you t/aSJtJ mfn fee l with tongue i t . ku,(Air\ A 'u q'anunf ta&kam Pour i t down. Swallow i t a l l . " nf A 'u J" q'aminJaSn t i t s ' f lae A'u aeA Then swallowed i t . L ike ju s t a k w i n kern i np'ae?qi5 lmuxw tnp'aem/tan red hot stove ku q'ami n fain that swallowed tjaeft infante t i kmtaSkam A'u fA t i in the way f e l t i t a l l over in my inner at J"'ae*Ats'ae J aellaSnm kinkaSnaeJ" ts ' f lae ku body. I f e l t how much l i k e i t q w ' aAp f aeku t i burnt went the A'alkae uqwaenj"aen dz A'u down drank i t . Not lae*ti ku x f n t j there very long ni A'u J" dz k u m t.ffx waeluj then cou ldn ' t see. wl Akaen txtfj A 'u dz kw.in fwa aSts 'xan Was I looking but cou ldn ' t I see k w i j tarn nf l A 'u in .fAaSk aSku aS l t s 'q 'a anything. Then I went over to ou t s ide . t j f x w Akan slku t f waj A 'u fA J A 'akaJ Went there. Both ways went i wa k 'a la§ka alk'rfn atJaSAts'a wait/ that were i n me i ns i des, mm Bowel movement Akeln atu* i ntfkwa waA'k' min AkaSn I d id there o thers . Vomited I d id a6tu i ni3kwa q ' a lmfnm t/aSlim nf A'u f there o thers . I f a in ted • f e l l Then wa t jun t i n t s ' f t s ' p a zdq Jtumxw maSA A'u sa id to my grandfather, " K i l l me j u s t . plaen dz k w m Jwa aSma Ian dz k w i n Jwa Already no can I good already no can I 133 .ftum xwa*xw Akasn nf A'u j AfkinaeJ" aetilinae i an to him. Then inspected over there my t j f x w 3 3 l u j see. tju'n I sa id defecat ion i wa the fz t j those. He t s ' f 133 l i k e ts'amts'amaqj" tough p'aeV A'u J" More bet ter ae'iref Jzuq ki 11 paqmf n ft almost white q'ljtae s i de aipae dear person. aimae Akaexw aepae laen u t s ' q a "Good you c lose person. Already come out k m / kiAnfm nf A'u J" hae laexf tjaj" ones want o u t . " Then showed me 'ae* t m ^zumakae'Tae t i k'amqf t.fae re my big thumbs the end of i t e aSpa   in '  i 't s A'u afti kae qwaS?ae that. It was green ka qwaS?ae kUae A 'u wats'wats'am t i s t i l l i t was green. Real ly so f t one t i q'tftae nfA iz a£?han one s i de . There are see kiAnim wi j nfmiA ki lkiklae take out us forebears nfA A'u J kiA Then grow qeAmimnuxw nfA i zaS in t j " fx u o l d . These are c a l c i f i e d u we k'a? tu the ones guess Jq'aem Ju A i x w J" k 'uk 'umit suckle you when c h i l d . A'aelaSl we fz Stopped those laeku k'^Ap in aet JaSAts.'a? Jwae niA A'u there congest in your stomach your then AL J wae la&kuAiJ" laek we iz fxwae f manual stays does there. Have those none l i f e . we iz qelwdlx laSti nfA t i Jx w dz Do those spo i l there. That is why not J" k w i laap almae k w i j " x^P , a 3P Jntllaep J" you are good that grow up you. You ones i?ae?ft/ut en t / f x w i z i Jq'aSm think great ly of onese l f . C a l c i f i e d those suckled 135 Jwae Aux w J k'ljktfuit teqfA • A'u dz you when c h i l d . Almost d i d n ' t k w i j kae I (m?ae t i i a5n?weje At laSku u t s ' qe break apart the two from those came out AU J*i nt J" xdi Akex w qeAmimnuxw en f?maetj" from me. "Going you grow o ld my nephew," we t j d t xtfi Akaexw qeAminnuxw xui Akexw he s a i d . "Going you grow o l d , going you ts'flae w i j nfmiA lalti Amtjae kC las qf?ux l i k e us. There the time f i r s t get despondent dz A 'u k w tn Jwae ke ts'aeqw fae i aSmhae I cou ldn ' t able eat the good J" fAin i almhae Jq'di? tjuk waej k'a&A'u food good food. Just only I guess ka5t i ku J around some taem we anything I aSmae Jaen 1 iked i a?mhae good 136 JV&? dz A'u k w i n Jwae ke tsaiq w fae food cou ldn ' t be able to eat them nf A'u J i n waiA'k' tju'kf 'laiti k w i j then I vomit. F in i shed there to kaelwaetain t j e j t m . ts ' i 'ts 'pe?ae nf A'u J cure me my grandfather. Then t j i5 t j kiA x w d z e j ku plain laip we faSmae s a i d , " I f i t wasn't already you were as a white man wflx umm t j i n Akaen kal ku qwaenaiAp becoming ( l ) would give. you again some leaves. n) J plain laipae we Jaimae wi l?x meq w ' f l Because a lready you are becoming as a white man f i l l you JtumimA kait i ku q l l nf k(iA) A 'u J mutaej we might something that is bad then again you w i l l become q ' f ?ux Ju ai?xa3 him t i iJtJ t i A i J despondent you. Strong that one not i t is 137 ka$l?waet nfA him t i wa q w f i rum wij" nfmuA medicat ion. That is what i t me use us. fz i qwanaiApa waAkaelaep zwaitan Those leaves (used fo r medicine) you know wa zuqwxael wa iz uqw?aen J" twftaef a b i l i t y to k i l l do they dr ink i t i J" k f lk ik i lae AkalAae wa A'u wl zwaetan nfta.f Ai f forebears ours . They s t i l l knew what kaej" twftaej" nf A'u A i f ts ' f lae aiti twae to do with i t . Then that is l i k e that able kae J" z f i t a n nfhae nf A'u J" x w dz A'u keSti ku" to do . Then d i d n ' t around d id umin tJ'aSj t i an t s ' f t s 'pae ku qwaena§Ap give i t my grandfather some leaves. t/uk A 'u t i q'amjae*lqwae aSut J AaSti nf A'u Just the tree pa r t . A f t e r that then 138 J Ai/taSkam A'u Jtaem we ts'aeqwaenaem talkem was a l l j u s t everything do ea t . A l l A 'u Jtaim we aimae dz A 'u things were good. Nothing ke qel Jain cou ldn ' t A 'e Akun A'u nfA t i AaSxwen tjaij* t i en eat now. That is cured me the my t s ' f t s ' p ? ® grandfather. XfAtum xuaej" aS k w i j ke ts ' f lae Did to me as done l i k e k wt J zwaetinnae nftaef aSk wif k'ae ?aemae wit that know they as done best fo r them. 11 k w t J x f i p t an i i l k w t J qeAmimnux" wft As they grow up as they grow o ld they. we? Akae'laep A 'u zwalten i an J* kilkfkalae Do you know my forebears taikem wit a l l them A'u qeAmaemanuxw grew o l d . qaAmaimun Grew o ld wft they d id A'u aeA tjtmp wft aiA did die they d id niA kaSt I we J z f i That is around they did M Affixwaen nf A 'u did get cured. That is ae I t f ' s l • temfxwae here on ea r th . i kekfkelae laSti forebears . There t i J i n wae? fA the reason s t i l l maSuael al ive Jkiinjae now. THE CURE OF BAPTISTE RITCHIE As a c h i l d I was s i c k l y . It was about the year 1908, and I almost cou ldn ' t walk by myself. Wasn't I s i ck ! Wasn't I i l l ! I was r ea l l y despondent. Then my grandfather sa id to me and my parents, "I am going to make that dear boy w e l l . He w i l l go to my place u n t i l he is w e l l . He is what we of the o lder generation c a l l despondent. I w i l l take from him that which makes him s i ck and only then w i l l that dear boy grow up . " Old Q ' a i q ' a i sa id that to my parents. He was the one they c a l l e d 'Old L o u i e 1 . My grandfather then took me over to Sechelt to the house that was made for him and there we were. Then he made a l l kinds of medicine fo r me from leaves, roots , and s t i c k s . It was maybe one week that he spent f l u sh ing out my in s ides . He s p e c i f i e d that I should eat only the heads of bo i l ed f i s h . In th i s way, for a long time I was c leaning out my in s ides . Then he bo i l ed some leaves and roots again for medicine. While I watched he took that long, th in part of a tree which they c a l l q'emshauqw. He cut four of them there and wrapped them around with a sack. Just when that medicine was b o i l i n g he dropped in the tree part . It stayed there b o i l i n g un t i l the water was almost b lue. Then he took i t out and burnt i t . He took i t o f f the heat and cooled i t j u s t enough for me to be 141 able to swallow i t . He f i l l e d up that o ld - fash ioned pot we c a l l e d a d ipper. It was large and he f i l l e d i t f u l l . " I t w i l l go better i f you dr ink t h i s , my dear boy. Don't feel i t with your tongue, but pour i t down and swallow i t a l l . " So I swallowed i t . It was j u s t as i f I had swallowed a red hot stove the way i t f e l t a l l through my in s ides . I f e l t i t burn great ly when I drank i t down. It was not there very long when I found I cou ldn ' t see. I was looking but I cou ldn ' t see anything. Then I had to go out s ide . I went there both ways. The things that were in my ins ides went both ways. I d id a bowel movement there. I vomited there. I f a in ted and f e l l . Then I sa id to my grandfather, " K i l l me now. I can be no good. I cannot see. It would be bet ter i f you would k i l l me," I s a id to him. Then he inspected my feces . "Good for you, my dear boy, the things we want out of you have already come o u t . " Then he showed me one of those things. It was the s i z e of my big thumb, the end of i t - l i k e that. It was green, almost white, but s t i l l i t was green. It was r e a l l y so f t on one s ide and tough on the other . "See, my dear boy, these are things which we get from our forebears . Then we grow up. I guess that these things are c a l c i f i e d from the milk of those who suckled you when you were a c h i l d . These things stopped in your stomach, congested there 142 and then stayed there. They have no l i f e . They go rotten there. That is why you are not healthy as you grow up. Now you can think more h ighly of y o u r s e l f . Your t rouble was the things that c a l c i f i e d ins ide you from the milk of those that suckled you as a c h i l d . " The two things which came out of me almost d i d n ' t break apart. "You are going to grow o l d . You are going to be l i k e me." There, that is the story of the f i r s t time I got despon-dent, when I wasn't able to eat the good food, to enjoy the good things to eat . I guess I j u s t only ate around th ings . I l i ked good food and I wasn't able to eat i t . I ju s t vomited. Then my grandfather began to f i n i s h cur ing me. He s a i d , " I f you weren't a lready becoming l i ke a white man I would give you some leaves fo r medicine aga in, but because you are becoming l i ke a white man we might be f i l l i n g you with something tha t ' s bad and you would become despondent again. This is a medication that is not s t rong. This is what we w i l l u se . " Those leaves that our ancestors used fo r medication had the a b i l i t y to k i l l when they drank the f l u i d from them, you know, but they knew what to do with them. They were able to do the r ight th ing. Then my grandfather d i d n ' t give me any of the leaves that were around, only the tree pa r t . A f te r that I could eat ju s t everyth ing . A l l things were good. There wasn't anything I cou ldn ' t eat a f t e r that . That is how my grandfather cured me. He d id to me what they knew had been best fo r them as they grew up and as they grew o l d . They grew o ld before they died here on ea r th . It was around here my ancestors l i v e d . Here I got cured, and that is why I am s t i l l a l i v e now. 144 THE BLANKET THAT ALMOST DESTROYED THE INDIANS xii Aaen Jqdqwt lae min I am ta lk about z f i t e n fas happened to i x w ditaej i uxuaelmfxwae plaSk At I ' smal lpox ' as when per ished Indians from the smallpox. kenllni teej i we t j i x w e l u j i Jxwtna!?m33 Feel by spec ia l fo rce prophets Indian doctor k w t j that t i i s xu A'aSq k w t j going here dl sem t.fut disease. Said wit they aen?wejdjtm t j a dlsrree At Jp two kinds disease rash xexesum AtJp very big p imp le - l i ke rashes i mjkwae niA i aSleJael others then the r e a l l y t s ' f l s k w e k w f k w J l i k e small Atjp rash. niA Then fz J t u X those real we ztjqwxa5l i t does k i l l one person. 145 km taikam Jxu leJ A'aek k m ts'aiuna? A'a?q a?f A l l over to be go here when It kiA nf A'u Jxek nftasj" wij" niA wa t J"fx wal uJ comes. Then named they themselves prophets JtaimeJ' ku xaz Aaixw ftainem wftasf what exact l y w i l l cure them what /talma J" ku xul kuk Jtainem wf taj* nf A'u J" exact ly w i l l save them. Then t s ' f l a ? / J z f i t a n f ha? A i J A'seqJ" that is what was done they when came tjdlsme t i ? tjdlsma? a?ku t/ilkutna? Aki laSJ" s i ckness . That s ickness that C h i l c o t i n f i r s t t / i x w J" tw f t a j i Jaime laikuA aim ha?/ s ta r ted they did white man. There were good i taikmaa ftaim? we k wainnij i ux w e lm ix w e a l l things got by means of trap Indians 146 wa q'rim nf A 'u At J a&ku At J t f f x w they that t rap. Then that that go there i 'Hudson Bay 1 has dz? nftoj" i wa J" kwalmj Hudson Bay. Buy they were got i ux ualmixwae k 'a nf A'u J" ka patfnuj" mi Indians. May then did thought hae k w i f xuz xwdita6n n f t a f they (Hudson Bay) that they destroy they d id i uxwaelmixw33 A'aeq J" tu ft t J i wan j"d?zamxf t i taej Indians. Brought they trade with i uxwalmfxwae i wa Jkwa6mtm i A i l tj'ae Indians do trapped they from when q'rfm wit kUae x u J t i t jdn nitaej 'Hudson Bay' trap they. F i r s t quant i ty c a l l they Hudson Bay leq w dz fz J A'aeAaeq" b lankets . Those sealed » i z wi th X0X9Zuma3 big Xat.fim boxes 147 iA inAaW?Je xu? wilqwa!n nftaej" nf A 'u where contained. Proceed to open they then At J Aum mun nftaej" i hiwekeVa taiumi nftej" put on t h e i r g loves. S t i l l they fA kilae Jq'ijx kua$nim tu fA i ux u a lmfx w a then real cheap. Obtain those then Indians 1 fz laStiA k'u?llaej IsStiA Autsq waJ" t i those. From there s ta r ted from there spread the ' smal lpox ' a laiti A i l kf leqdza kiA xdzaj smallpox from the b lanket . If i t wasn't f o r i xwinaS?ma i we t j f x u e l u j t s f k ka Indian doctor did foresee no more A 'u winafxw ? i i lx w almfx w a mdzmit JtaSnim wit k'aS t r u l y Indians. P i t y them I guess A'u i Ja&ts'x" J tumuAaJ k wi.f high power watching over us us. That 148 X^k xl taSnim wit kaSnim wftasj kiA to ld them they what to do nf A 'u J Aaixw i JtaSmaeJ* ku k'ae they get cure they. What wonder t j ' u ? f own 1 kf Jmae i n t e r i o r uxwaelmixw Indi ans kaSlwaet <w?ft x w i naVrmae medicat ion. Quantity Indian doctor laStiwae waS? p6n nftaef there found they k'aS JtaSmaeJ guess what ku A'axdn overcome ta§ I i 11 that / qwa3lni5xw® s i ckness. 11 tJ'aS w i j nfmuA Here with us wa? A 'a iA ' ?mx u i tJ t Jun temtfUm ku did speak our own language. Told us the i Jp ldnta niA t i kaSl?waetJ* skunk that is medicine 'smal lpox' a smallpox the i Jipdzjaeu iA Jqalxd/min JY?nun AkaSx" sk in you wear around neck. Dry the sk in you 149 ni A 'u Jaexw qa|qu"Jmin nf A 'u J then you wear around neck then x w dz k w i j Ju kwaSni.nJ plalnaexu k wa5ninj nf A'u J not you get i t . If got i t then nfAtJ tjqd?33tj Jae J mfk ' i l t jae A'ipa$?Jae the f a t i t f a t marrow niA t i xwaSJ Ailxmfnaex" niA k(A A 'u Jtlaex w that is wash your se l f then cure Ju t j dn tumulim al t J'ai t juk A 'u i you. Said to us here, "Just ink w 'a l tk w 9rree t j dk A 'u fxwae i j kaSlTwast t j i * n t m A'u D'Arcy people j u s t only no medic ine. " To ld only lalti i JkalkfkUae AkaeAee wa t j f x k a l u ffit'd there forebears our a b i l i t y foresee. "Over Jpalnkit Jtnae AnaSJae laip tjalj t JaqwaeniJxkae At Jp the summer camp you go comes s ickness rash. 150 X w d i t talkem Jwait kwaenif tail i tu x a z m ^ m l n k a B Die every one gets i t . Slope aettftj" paenkft Jtnae aetu Anainjae laep x w dz A 'u over summer camp over go you there. No aetd k w i f xui A'aSk Jfu over there going to go by way o f . Bypass A'aSk kaSti nf A'u when i t does go. Then ki*A A 'u kin k w i f only go by way of Jq waSltJ i wa to ld does A'aSk go by kaeA are nf A 'u xui x w d iA they w i l l d ie t r f x w e l u j " t j f x w prophets. Near A'alkaeJ t j A f / p a comes r a s h . " IA J [xui tjae the time kwi-rtSJt J go there nf A'u J Then t JeqwaenuxW a 3 xi3 i s i cknes s , " L e t ' s aetdj paenkft J"tna going to summer camp. Jtuf JelailqJ naef depart f r i e n d s . We ku x w dz aiku The one not there 151 A'aSkJ" i uxw33lmfxw33 i wa xd i l im kalt i? .("wast went Indians did l i k e anyone uJ" nf muA dz k w i J nixnum tall i k i f t im l i k e us not be l i eve in anything. kiA kaSnim kaSku At J naif ka?kaiu? dz k w i j " "Why do around there go f a r ? " "No taS?tux ku k'aelal?min tai l ! t jdn nitae/ r ight to l i s t e n them," sa id they i wa t j fx u 33 lu j t/aSq'uq'uA kaS A 'u ku? did foresee. Half the populat ion around there A'u i dxw33lmfxu33 t j f x w ankaakal f tai l i Indians went fo l low himself t J"xwinaV?ma3 ktnkaSnaeJ" k 'a ku x f n j lajku ku Indian doctor . How long guess long over there se?uj t J i pE l n k i t JUnae laiti in k w 'aftk wffi t j f i t stayed summer camp there in D'Arcy. Said 152 ku fA t r x w i r c £ ? m a lain iA tj"e?q lain we then the Indian doctor , " I t is time i t is d id pitaik na/ fA qeA naim i Jnuqndqwa5 kaila? gone. We go now put away f r iends o u r s . " nf A 'u iA J"uxwael i A'aiq'mAkJt taifka kiA Then they homeward s i x probably maybe tJuAaekai? a?/ mi le t i we t/fin nftaej" t / ipa ink i t / ten seven miles that c a l l they summer camp. t j f x w wit plain we J k i t J k f t J kaSt I 1 qw'dza3 Got there they already ly ing around d id not f?waej" wmaixw A 'u zuq wit A 'u qeA n f t e f go w i th . Real ly they died t rue . Bury they fz ni A'u Jw5 i k'aimaeAae aiku those then stay they. However there i k'uA'mexe Coast Indians ki ntaikmaej" A 'u a l l over t s ' f l a seems i ux w a lmfx w a I ndians 153 wa zwaSten nftaej* / telrrfiej* Au k w i j almae did know they what they good wit l k w i j * aSts'xsn t Jdt wit I k wt J* kae J?a?ts' able to watch said them able watch JtwftaeJ" Jae" i uxwffilmfxwih3 wae kae laiku they Indians. There must there k w iA t j f x w a l u j nf A ' uJ tjdntaem wit Jq'aiuarra some prophets then sa id to them wolf wa tjdnim m&lamjA'f?a J i p d z j a nfA waB did c a l l wolf sk in of i t that you qa lqd j minaexw Jplinaex" k w ainmj t i A 'u wear around neck i f might be s i ck then JnfAtJ i Jq 'dq w ' aetJ Jae i Jipd? Jae niA the fat of i t marrow of i t that fz wae x ^ J Aax mfnaexw nfA kiA A 'u AaSx the ones you wash your se l f then cure Ju nf A 'u J" . ts 'f laej" Ml f az i itenjae i wa you. Then that way t h e i r way did k'dA'max taikam nf A'u Jwdz ku x w f t j ku Coast Indian a l l . Then not many k w d i t laSku jTfnt/'a q w 3 § ? m laen Akaln wa d ie there. Myself you see a lready I am d id t/tiAaekae'? Jq'ampJ" md6zae? aits 'xan AkaSn seven tens snows. See I d id i qaAqaAmi*mminae k w aininj tall i k'aS tu t i k w t J o ld people got that around there qwaenux 9 " J"9J"f J x 9 ? 3 3 lalku k'u A'ae aSts'xan d isease. My r e l a t i v e s over there saw taSni Akaen i kdkae AaSti wa A'u J" them I d id surv ived from that Afk i A i j p f hae kaStu i J could be seen rash them got the disease 155 k w iA'u7 face ,f ha? them Jmizaetja body wal A 'u ij" s t i l l could hai? las seen. nf A 'u J A'aSk i f tu t i k w i f When went by that very qwaenux d i sease. nf A 'u That is x w dz J t l k W L J pitslk wA dz t i not that f a i r y ta le not that k w i j " q a q w i l u l s tory without fac t s , winax w winaix" A'u J" tux wa Real real i t j u s t i f i a b l e , AkaSn I do alts 'xan see e I ki pfphae in the paper wa fq w alkamf ni tse/ did t e l l of them i JamTffl k w i j * A'aekf tu t i k w i f qwgfnux white man that went that very disease. dz him k w i f t j u t Not them say wit k w i j they that A'aSq .ftwftajj brought them x w dz A'aeq /twftasj hi*m A 'u t i pael?um no. Brought them that very one 156 A'u temfx w ta t s ' t t k e dz k w i j * taikem t i very place that disappear not a l l that k'a xfn?waf Ja tuna ?i pi laipele?a i we tj i jn inner land those Haida Indians did say ni t a j 'Ha ida ' paSla laeta? JwsS?iJ i ux w a lmfx w a them Haida one there way I ndians dz A 'u ka"tik w maSual taikem A'u x w d i t wit no there l i ved a l l d ie they laitti wsi A 'u sSts'xan nftaj" Iki pfpha there. S t i l l see i t in the paper Iki 'book' in the book a aiti ku ' r e s e r v a t i o n ' that very reservat ion It i M?.f where l i ved i ux w almfx w a Indians. aSts'xan Akan / m t j laSku Saw I d id myself there i t j i t x w s l k 'a tu plain we A e t s ' plain we x f ? ip houses that were already down a lready grow 157 i x e X e z u , r r B e l c l W a 3 JexaSp Jazaha?u?tJ t j a i t j f t k w a big trees between the houses A U t J xd i t Ja" k 'a tu k u i A ux w almfx w AA ' i kaJ from die d id some Indians went ku ' smal lpox ' nfA t i j Jq ' iuam wa tjunim that smallpox. I t ' s the wolf we c a l l maldmjA't?aB nfA t i Aax w J t i l ! t i k w i j wolf that is cure that very qu33nu"x l^tf ^ku ' t ime ' JkaSnaeJ k 'ae k w i j s ickness then that time. I wonder i f A 'u wa t s ' f l a Akdnja kiA Jk(jkwsSJ A 'u win s t i l l the same now. Maybe only because tj?d?mm t in im wit i t a ? x ^ ' X 3 ' 3 3 ka§?lua nfA t i given them a strong medicine. Tha t ' s J z f i t m J an Jnuqnuq wa J k U k i l a AkaSAa the way my f r iends fo re fa ther s ours . 158 dz A'u k w i J* lo xfA tjae i Jainrtfae ku talk em Couldn ' t 1 ink to do i t wh? te man that al I u"lj xd i t d ie i uxeelmfx"® Ind ians. nfAt/ae wai? ku wa J" a its ' ax Because there was watch over f tumuAaef wai? A'u winaixw nunim nfA t i us we s t i 11 be i i eve 11 was i tj"i I ikutnae x w f t i n | ku pel?u/im uxwaelmixw Chi 1 cot in largest of i t s kind Indian Akdnjae was? Akailaep A 'u zwaitan niA J k w ' f k w ' i n naitinfaa you know they fewest in number now Akfinja? nfA J?aikuJ JaS J* ki laij" A'aiq t i now. Because over there f i r s t went that tjqwa3ni3xwae nfA t i J z f i t a n J i J k f l k i l a AkaiAas s ickness . Tha t ' s the way forebears ours an Jnuqni!iqwa winaixw A 'u t i my f r i e n d s . True that i s . Xu?ts .fine Were going xwditaen tumuA aej* i J"aem?ae wi'J A'aSq J* destroy us white man. That came tu t i ku xe lxa l Jqwaenu*xw nfA t i J"q w 'un that strong s i ckness . That ' s t e l l tumuAeen JYntJae (a)n tjfnamqan you. I am En Chinemqen. 160 THE BLANKET THAT ALMOST DESTROYED THE INDIANS I am going to ta lk about what happened when many of the Indian people perished from smallpox. By some spec ia l power the Indian prophet and doctor to ld my ancestors that the disease was going to happen. He sa id that there would be two kinds of d i sease. One would be a r e a l l y l a rge , p imp le - l i ke rash and the other would be a r e a l l y small rash. It would r e a l l y make a person s i c k and would k i l l . It was going to be a l l over when i t came. Then the prophets named what things exact ly would cure them; what exact ly would save them. That is what was done by them when the s ickness came. The s ickness f i r s t s t a r ted in that p lace c a l l e d the C h i l -c o t i n . It f i r s t s t a r ted with the white men. There were many good things gotten there by t rapp ing. The Indians trapped. Then the employees of the Hudson's Bay Company who were at that p lace bought what the Indians got. Then they - the Hudson's Bay Company - thought that they would destroy the Indians. They brought to trade with the Indians fo r what they trapped f i r s t a quant i ty of what they c a l l e d Hudson Bay b lankets . They were contained in b i g , sealed boxes. Before they proceeded to open them, they put on g loves. Then they so ld them r e a l l y cheap, 161 and the Indians acquired them. From there the smallpox s ta r ted to spread from the b lankets . If i t hadn't been fo r the Indian doctors who foresaw the disease there t ru l y would be no more Indians. I guess that , through p i t y fo r the Indians, the high power was watching over us. He to ld them what to do so that they would be cured. What a wonder was our own In ter ior Indians' medicat ion! There were a number of Indian doctors there who found out what would over -come that s i ckness . They to ld us that the skunk was the medicine for smallpox. You wear the sk in around your neck. You dry the sk in then you wear i t around your neck and then you w i l l not get the smallpox. If you do get i t , then you wash your se l f in the skunk's fat and the marrow, and that w i l l cure you. They sa id to us here, "Jus t the D'Arcy people need no medic ine" . The ones, who had the a b i l i t y to fo resee , t o l d only our forebears , "Go over to the summer camp for the s ickness w i l l come here. Everyone who gets i t w i l l d i e . You go over to the mountain s lope at the summer camp. It is not going to go over there. When i t comes i t w i l l bypass t h e r e . " The prophets to ld what i t would do. It was near the time when the s ickness was to come a long. They s a i d , " L e t ' s depart , my f r i e n d s . We are going to the summer camp. The ones who do not go there w i l l d ie when the rash comes." 162 Then the Indians, who, un l ike the rest of us, d id not be l ieve in anything, s a i d , "Why go so far over there? " " I t ' s not r ight to l i s t e n to them," sa id the prophets. Half the populat ion of those Indians around there fol lowed the Indian doctor h imse l f . They stayed a long time at the summer camp over there in D'Arcy. Then the Indian doctor s a i d , " It is time. The disease is gone. We w i l l go now and bury our f r i e n d s . " Then they went homewards. It was probably s i x or maybe seven miles from the p lace that they c a l l e d the summer camp. When they a r r i ved those who had not gone with them were l y ing around. They had r e a l l y died a f t e r a l l . Those they bur ied and then they stayed. However, there were Coast Indians a l l over who surv i ved . It seems that those Indians knew that some good power was able to watch over them. There must have been some prophets who sa id to them, "The w o l f ! " (which we c a l l by a d i f f e r e n t name - molomshtl i 'a) "Wear the skin of the wolf around your neck, and i f there is any p o s s i b i l i t y that you have the s ickness then wash your se l f in the fa t and marrow of i t and that w i l l cure y o u . " So the Coast Indians fol lowed that advice and not many died there. Mysel f , you see, a lready I am more than seventy years o ld and I a c t u a l l y saw people around there that had had the d i sease. I saw my r e l a t i v e s over at the Coast who had survived the 163 d i sease, and on t h e i r faces and bodies the marks of the rash could s t i l l be seen from when that disease passed by. This is not a f a i r y t a l e , not a story without f a c t s . It i s r e a l , i t is v e r i f i a b l e . I saw a report in the paper that t o l d of those white men who died from that very d i sease, but they d i d n ' t say that i t was they who brought i t . No! They brought that very d i sease. One place where not everyone disappeared was in that remote land where the Haida say that they have preserved the one and only Indian way. No, there they l i ved and died n a t u r a l l y . We s t i l l see in papers and in books those very re se r -vat ions where other Indians d ied . I myself saw there those houses that were already down, and already there were big trees growing between the houses of those Indians who had died from the smallpox. It is the wolf that we c a l l molomsht l i 'a that was the cure for that s ickness in those times. I wonder i f i t is s t i l l the same now. Maybe i t was only because a strong medicine was given to them by a higher power. That was the way, my f r i e n d s , of our f o re f a the r s . The white men cou ldn ' t succeed in making a l l the Indians die but because there was care taken of us we s t i l l be l ieve i t happened th is way. This C h i l c o t i n used to be the largest t r i b e of Indians, and you know that now they are the smal lest because the s ickness 164 f i r s t passed through there. That, my f r i e n d s , was the way of our f o r e f a t h e r s . It is r e a l l y t rue. The white men were going to destroy us. That is why that t e r r i b l e s ickness came. That is what I am t e l l i n g you. I am En Chinemqen. 165 DEATH BY THE DANCE CURSE en Jnuqnuqw33 we JaSuin t jaz im My f r iends they ask me k w a tu J z f l t i n f the ways i Jkf I ki lae AkaiAa forebears ours we t /un i ta j " d id c a l l we Jxwinai?em they Indian Doctor JkaSnaeJ" Whether k w i n J"wa i f zwaiten know JkaSnaeJ" whether k w i n fwa i f wi naSxwnun winaixw A 'u we be i i e ve . True i JxwiriaS?m8e J k O k i l a there were Indian Doctors forebears AkaiAae tu dz ours that were. No t f ' a k w i n fwa qwalnin th i s myself hear t j t f t i n Jae k w i J J q w u q w U a t s ' x e n get i t from anywhere th i s very s tory saw Akan I d id A'u ts 'C*ts 'pa AkaiAa g reat -unc le ours aSts'xen AkaSn saw I d id 166 A'u i ka q l i l . minse Jae q w e l q w e l i l t ftum xix when anger at. Talked to me Aaek fz k w i j ts'flae k w t j z f i t e n /turn about those the way he was ruled and directed by a power dz A'u k w L / kae p'a&nt other than his own. No couldn't bring back JaSJae p'sSmsen Aksln tu A'u i Jmdeuael fhae i t . "I burnt I d id already l i f e the i r s t i n / ke qlfilae t/<Jt because I became angry," said, Itunae leqmitjae t i Over at hay beach one pipalp11a?sS Jijfq'tjae we t i person young woman her zualtenaej" S n J imafmae know of my wi fe t jut juws l j t j A 'u t i kiA teWae k'ae ku kae same age as her. Whatever wonder about ql fmin /turn xejae anger at me t f 33 nf A'uJ that one. Then q'aSuq f cursed 167 mfrej x w ? u t / i n k'aiti ' m i l e ' JkskaSu? the person. Four I guess miles d i s tance min tw®?l mif A ' u waS? Aka3xw 'A'em t.fx w i nae?mi between. S t i l l over there s ing Indian doctor nf A ' u At J* t i q w ' e z f l x t i laiku ts ' f lae alt i then that Indian dance that over l i k e that JkekaSu?/ At J wa'TtJa x w ?utj " in ' m i l e ' mif A ' u d i s tance where four mi les . S t i l l xu*A' xtnaSm nf A ' u At / q w ' e z f l x t Juk A ' u Akae take o f f shoes that then begin Indian dance. Just when A'(k?aejae t i Jxwtn^?mae At/uk alA xui A ' u stop s ing ing that Indian doctor ceases. Just begin fA'emti J"xwinaS?mae plaen X I J A ' x tn in dz A ' u s ing that Indian doctor a lready takes o f f shoes. No k w i f kae nukwaen t/utae we A ' u M'\ xd i l im able help s e l f . That what d id 168 A'u zdq A 'u qeqazalm A 'u ts ' f lae tjae xdiA death. Got t i r e d l i k e do to by curse tu alti Jxwina5?mae zuq tu en fqwejal?a him that Indian doctor . Died my nephew 'Peter Wi l l i ams ' dz k w i j ka qwa&la k w i j * xw3?kuk Peter Wi11iams. Don't l e t hurt f e e l i n g laep k m A 'u waS? nsihm t m Jqejae"?a t j f x w your I am naming my nephew. Went t i jkul aeku 'Mi s s i o n ' A ' i q el laiku plain/ him school at M iss ion. Came from the when fA we tuwfu? nf A ' uJ J t J f x w i J aku kw(ft J?a young man. Then went over p l ace . a&ku A i J we?J t i Jxwma&?ma t j f x w neq wdz Over where stay the Indian doctor . Went s tea l d?aim x f t a j i ki l a lx^ kwaln naj tu trade with beaver. Took that (which he s to le ) 169 i kila$xw33 x^Jpfn ! t> qaAmfmna naif beaver. Trapped by the o ld man. Going mutaa k ^ n a / i J q ' u q w ' a i j uluj" ki X 9 t J V n again get trapped along with trapped animals Ja? t i qaAmfmna t J?x w muta lain tu x w dz t i the o ld man. Went again already no the A'u auz t j ' s t i qeAmfmnae lalntu J"ax boat belong the o ld man. Already d id move Ail AaSti pun naej nfA t i A 'u tua zualtin from there. Found i t that very one know nabj k w i j t j f x w nfA t i kwa?n taelf t i him does goes there. That one had the A 'dza nf A 'u J t j f x w j t Jd naej axaip boat. Then went sa id to him, " A l a s , kaln qaikiA k w i J" paqtjan would fee l g u i 1 t , " t j u t sa i d wa? his A ' f A ' q w a n over doing 170 t /ut dz k w m Jwa qa l f lm in k w i f JwaSt s a i d , "No I don't anger at with anyone mij kain A'u xuz qa l f lm in t / i n xui? Akax u s t i l l I am going anger at you. Going you zdaSten q'ujae*nk mfnum ku? J"qwal11 n tjaej" know." Laughed at him d i d . Told me t i Jxwinai?mae az A 'u k w m ka ksej" t j a that Indian doctor , "I cou ldn ' t do anything about i t , " t/i3t Jku"za lap qaA A 'u J a z f i t a n fa q a l f l s a i d , "Your c h i l d bad was d i d . Make angry Akain A'u kiA x w dz a j ku p 'aWn nanti I was. If not d id burn I the JmaSual fa laSxw Jkain ka md?ta p'aSman Akain s o u l . Cure myself aga in. Burn I d id tu A 'u nf A 'u J" x w dz k wi.f ka kaSja wa j u s t then nothing could be done," he 171 t ju t Jx w dz A'u k wt J kae kae fae s a id . "Not ju s t could be done dz no A'u k wi.f cou ldn 1 t kae nukw'ae ni A 'u f xdi I imj" be he lped . " Then d id A 'u t i mu?tae another again wa fA'am did s ing t i .fx wi na6?mae ni A 'u At, f the Indian doctor then begin q u ' a z f l x laiku A 'u laqnutjae q w ' a z f l x x u x w i A ' x i n Indian dance from grass beach. Indian dance without shoes, wa A 'u q w a z f l x A'u qaqazaem A'u qwafnux A'u S t i l l Indian dance ' t i l t i r e s out . S ick ni J" zuqj* t j d t A 'u J" then d ied . Said xwinaS?mae k w i f kae Indian doctor that d id xa?n?t/39 wi.f xaSA t/aeJaSti trfnae qaiuq.f very angered that did to that person that one.Cursed mfnaej" dz A'u k w i f zuaetan mm wij* nfmuA AiJ" kimm him. No know us what did 172 a t i A i J kae x fA wftae w i j nfmuA reason t o them the ones (he worked h i s power on) wae q w o z u f min t a i l i ts'flae k w i J J"ina d i d work on f o r l i k e t h a t he s h o u l d do aemae k w i j " x fA t u f t a j i uxwaelmfx wae A ' u q l f l good towards I n d i a n s . Anger k'ae laSti tjaeutfua guess t h e r e the one to whom someth ing u n p l e a s a n t has happened . iA A ' u A ' u ztfq ' J o h n S k y 1 nfA t i aSut Over t h e r e d i e d John Sky. T h a t ' s l a s t t s ' f l a x w i n a ? e m AaSk A i l tfaSuna 1930 v e r y Ind ian d o c t o r our s from h e r e 1930 haSJ k ' a kalti kaStu ku ' y e a r ' was in during around t h e r e t h a t y e a r z u z w a j t i winaSxw when d i e d him r e a l l y A'u t i t h a t ' s J i l a S l ? q f an?we| my c l o s e f r i e n d s . Two 1 7 3 ts ' f lae t i Ja z f i t e n Jae dz A'u k w m Jwae things did he. Don't I zuaiten t i kil?ae q'aiuqj mi naej we him A'u know the f i r s t one cursed he. Does s t i l l zuaSten aej t f an Jimaemee nukwae Jua§?J ku?ti know him my wi fe ju s t same age he was t i q w ezf lx u ae A 'u J k f t j al tj'afurae 331 that Indian dance death. Here on the Jqummae tdae t j dn nitaej t s e z f l la?ti mountain they c a l l they do (proper noun) there A i J laSk t i t jdn nitaej we 'John Sky' is where is they c a l l they do John Sky. wai A'u ts ' f l a e J k w i A ' d J tjae wa? A' u n(mqw It seems i t has face his wearing war bonnet Jae lalti we t j d t wit k w i ' J A 'u waS? his do say they s t i l l does 174 i f q w f x i f a5ts ' q w a f f » f i ux w a lm 'x w a a l e r t to protect is watching Indians. A'u f a3ts ' q w a f ten f A'u But that is how i t looks na tu ra l l y t i fqummae that mountain k w i f t s ' f l a ku ux w a lmfx w lafitl tua f k i t f l e x that looks as Indian that is l y ing down. dz him k w i f winax w fnfA t i x w dz nf A 'u t fa ? Not that real him that no. Just that t s ' f l a t i a t i aA X^ ' X 9 ' f x w i na ? im fnfA l i k e that that is and powerful Indian doctor h imsel f nf A'u l i f t fdn n i t a f ^ku that is why c a l l that which they c a l l i t k w i f nfA t f a twa t fdn n i t a f wa 'Mount C u r r i e ' that is c a l l they do Mount C u r r i e . laStf A i f IsiR tiie tf i ln n i t a f 'John Sky' There is where is c a l l they do John Sky. 175 nfA t i J a z f i t e n J J"noqnuqwae fA al t/'alunae That is doings f r iends r i ght here. dz A 'u k w L J quqw33l Jut wina5xw A 'u t f Not that s tory u n v e r i f i a b l e , real that i s . aSts'xen AkaSn A 'u quqw33lUt /turn xaSJ t i Saw I d id talked to me has that JxwinaS?m33 nfA tjae /as k m f zwaetsn n f taaj* Indian doctor. Because do want know they do fA tjae i wa JaSutn tjaej* AkinaeJ k w i.f fz here do ask me i f that those winaSxw ntin ntm fz kiA x w dz aej" ku be l ieve we do those. If not d i d n ' t afts 'xsri naen aSti ku ts ' f lae kiA x w dz aej" see j u s t that happen i f not q w d l q u e l t l t ta lked Jae*n kiA x w dz to him i f not ae J qanfnun heard Ja?n him. 176 dz ka? A'u k w i n J"wae xinaixw nun qanfmin Jka5n A 'u Wouldn't be l i eve i t . Heard I d id zaSm wa AkalaSp qanfminj" ftumx AkaSrceJ" that . Do you fo lks hear me. Maybe (A ku ' t apes ' kalt i ' r e c o r d e r ' A'aSk f kafntu on the tapes which record. Told I d id J"nl?am fa? en ts ' f ts 'apae nfA t i Jquqal in chant h is my g reat -unc le . That is s tory tumuAaem Ja?laSlqJ dz k w i J kae qwaSlas ku t e l l you my c lose f r i e n d s . Don't l e t hurt of Jxq w aq w laSp nfA A 'u k w i j wa I axlaix fee l ings your. Just that does s t i l l remember /turn Jk i nkaSnasJ" ku ka J z f i t a n Jae i wa us how much could be done by do tjijnim J"xwinaS?am a l k i Jk<Tki las AkalAae nfA t i c a l l Indian doctor from forebears before. That is a l l JYntJas e(n) tjfnemqan. I am En Chinemqen. 178 DEATH BY THE DANCE CURSE My f r i e n d s , they ask me about the ways of our f o r e f a t h e r s , of those they c a l l the Indian doctors . I d id not hear th i s story from jus t anywhere, I saw th i s myself. I saw our great -unc le when he was angry. He ta lked to me about those th ings , about the way he was ruled and handled by a power other than h imse l f . No, he could not br ing things back. "I burnt out t h e i r l i f e because I got angry, " he s a i d . Over at the haybeach there was a person, a young woman who knew my w i f e , and was about the same age as she was. I wondered whatever that woman could be angry at me f o r . Then she was cursed. I guess there was about four miles d i s tance between th i s woman and the doctor . Nevertheless , when over there the Indian doctor sang, then that Indian woman, who was four miles away, danced. F i r s t she took her shoes o f f and then she began to dance. Only when the Indian doctor stopped s ing ing did she cease. When the Indian doctor began to s ing , r i ght away she took o f f her shoes. No, she was not able to help h e r s e l f . That ' s what she did u n t i l she d i ed . She got t i r e d jus t l i k e my nephew Peter Wi l l iams who died as the re su l t of a curse put on him by the same Indian doctor. Don't let your fee l ings be hurt . I am naming my nephew. 179 He went to school at Miss ion. He came from there when he was a young man. Then he went over to that p l ace , over to where the Indian doctor s tayed, went to s tea l the trade with the beaver. He s t o l e a beaver that had been trapped by the o ld man. The o ld man went out to get the animals that were trapped. When he came back aga in, his boat was miss ing. It had been moved from there. He found i t and knew the very one who had s to len i t . That one had the boat. Then he went and sa id to him, " A l a s , you must fee l g u i l t y . This time you have gone too f a r . No, I am not usua l ly angry with anyone. S t i l l I am going to be angry with you. You know I am going to be angry. " Then Peter Wil l iams laughed at him. That Indian doctor to ld me, "I cou ldn ' t do anything about i t . " He s a i d , "Your c h i l d was bad. I was angered. If I d id not burn his soul I would never cure myself again. I burnt i t and r ight then nothing could be done." He s a i d , "Nothing e l se could be done, i t cou ldn ' t be he lped . " The young Indian began to dance without his shoes on the grassy beach. He kept dancing u n t i l he was t i r e d out. He got s i ck and then he d ied . The Indian doctor sa id that he had to do that to a person who had made him r e a l l y angry. He cursed him. We do not know for what reason he worked his power on those he cursed fo r we wished that he would do good towards the Indians. 180 I guess the anger r i ses in the one to whom something unpleasant has been done. Over there is where John Sky d ied . He was the la s t of our Indian doctors from here. It was during 1930, or around that time, when the Indian doctor d ied . That is r e a l l y so, my dear f r i e n d s . He did two th ings , 1 don't know the f i r s t one he cursed. My wife s t i l l remembers her; she was j u s t the same age as that Indian who danced he r se l f to death. Here on the mountain c a l l e d T s e z i l there is a part which they c a l l John Sky. It seems as though i t has his f ace . He is wearing his war bonnet and they say that he is s t i l l watching and is a l e r t to protect the Indians. But that is how i t looks by nature, that mountain that looks l i k e an Indian ly ing down. It is not r e a l l y him in that mountain. No, i t is j u s t l i k e that powerful Indian doctor himself and that is why they c a l l i t that . It is part of what they c a l l Mt. Cu r r i e . That is where the mountain they c a l l John Sky i s . Those are events from r ight here, my f r i e n d s . That s tory is real and not u n v e r i f i a b l e . I saw i t and that Indian doctor ta lked to me. Because people want to know what happened here they ask me i f we be l ieve those t a l e s . If I hadn't seen that happen, i f I hadn't ta lked to him, i f I hadn't heard him, I wouldn't have be l ieved i t . I heard i t ju s t as you fo lks hear me maybe on the tapes which I record. I have brought you the chant of my g reat -unc le . That is the s tory I t e l l you, my dear f r i e n d s . Don't le t your fee l ings be hurt . I t ' s j u s t that we s t i l l remember how many things could be done by those of our fore fa thers whom we c a l l Indian doctors . That is a l l . I am En Chinemqen. 182 BURNING MOUNTAIN SIDES FOR BETTER CROPS we? Akaen Jqwae?un tu i j z f i t e n j i kilk(fkele?ae Doing I am t e l l i n g the doi ngs forebears A i J A'u wal?p'aept almae kc*n tjae t j f x w wit why do always good where go the k'(5lt/33n t /d t i Jqw 'ailffi I Jk'alm?tjae pick fo r purpose of food they the ber r i e s roots l i k e potatoes i taSkmae A'u ts ' f lae we ts'aeqwaSn nftaej" a l l that do eat they. xwael nftaej t i pall?ae Jqem wai? Burn they do the one h i l l . Do q w i i use nftaej t i ndkwae mi J A 'u plain lalti x u f t they do the other . When a lready there a l o t lalti i milmdlxae nf A'u A fJ ke y?6.ZB there s t i c k s then does disappear i Jqwalllae ke x w az i Jk'elmtjae i Jk w ink u fnae the r ipe ber r i e s disappear root l i k e potato p lant (un ident i f ied ) 183 i tikmae A 'u i Jk|?mutas wa ka- x W a z a B At J a l l p lant (un ident i f i ed ) do disappear when x w f t dl ts ' f lae f wa x?fp malmulx" much too l i k e do grow bushes. nf A 'u / i f x w a l nftajj* wif i j Afk l i t I Then do burn they do. It is marked there t i wa Jtjdwae J x w a l x i l nfA t i wa Jkak the one does own burnings. That is do ' t i l / t i n ku t j f x w sitae ku n i / sitae k'ultjaem that go here go there p ick ( b e r r i e s ) . aej* i t s ' J i J k w i j /tax x w a l n i j kae kUae Watches he does that r e a l l y burn i t . Taken away i milmfnlaxae tikam x?ip fA mutae i qwaldzae bushes a l l . Grow then again berry bushes, x?fp i Jk imt/a Grow root l i k e potato i Jkf mutae plant (un ident i f ied ) I Jk w tnk w f n a B i taSkrra A 'u • t s ' f l a e plant (un indent i f ied) a l l that l i k e wa t s 'dq w an im la$ti Ai J x?lfp k w ' f n do eat by us there where grows. A few maSqae ts ' f lae naij k'se tu kiAaSJ" t Jaa mafqae years seems around I guess three almost years Awa fA mutas t j ' a i j iA k ' a l i l laiti before then again come then grow there i wa k ' u l i l ni A 'u J t a x i A 'u wa x w f t do grow. Then r e a l l y do lots tax/ A 'u aezaem i taikmae A 'u J" taem rea l l y f e r t i l e a l l everyth ing . dz k w t j " AwaS i x^'P ' xaxazfimae JaX^P Don't rare ly burn big trees t/rfk A 'u i k w i k w f k w Jae A 'u keSti milmftnlx jus t small ones around bushes 185 we x w e l p ts ' f lae t i nukw83' fq wem ts ' f lae do burn. Some the other h i l l some t i nukw33 nfA t i I i f wae? aits'xan num the o ther . That is why do see we wtj" nfmuA plain uxuaelmi'xw k w i j tu t s ' f lae us a lready Indians that seems Jpai?x33lp taikem i Jqtimqmae nfAae x w fA k'ae aiti burnt a l l h i l l s . Because that tjae xalA tsftaej f wej tjuwae x w 5 l x w e l do they do do own. Burn nftasj" nfA k w i f qwa?num wft laiti k wt J* they do so that gets they there some almae wae? Jxek JtwaS I e?wit /wait taej aetd ku good. Do t e l l each other who there naif go. xail im Do same ku r\6k xailim ku nuk ts ' f lae A 'u other. Do same other . Just l i k e 186 t f that a ku I ipxail garden t i n thei r. i zaSm But iA Jkun now Ja Jtex kai A 'u wai J" a t s ' a t s x a JtumulaJ because real does do watch us i Jalntfa az k(j kaeA x " 9 ' * ^ ' ^ Akalaip white man don ' t we burn anything. Do know kae kanum r e a l i z e lain tu ka§ already did x w dza t s ' f l a i t s ' a lq u an in disappear seems eat by a&ki k i l k i l a A lalti A i l ki by our forebears there from wa x w a l do burn nftaf they d id . plain A 'u t s ' f l a t s ' i k ' f z taSkam Jtaem ka Already seems almost a l l everyth ing d id x w dza alA ni AaSJ t j a i xi?pijf fxip disappear. Maybe because i t weedy. Grow i takmee k w i j wfnax w ,fa?dz ku x w a l xa l x u ? * s a l l kinds don ' t burn. Going 187 Akae x w e l s 3 i l nf A 'u Ju xaiA'iA' you burn then you get into t roub le . t Ja? him xalAmin nftae/ i /aimmae i fxaSpae Because want they they do white man t ree s . A'u nfA A'u zAntJ naek' nftae/ Jae ts ' f lae Because changed they did the way i wa a?ma3 /tumuAal/ f wae ts'a?qwa3 num do good for us do eat us i t /u f ha? him i /aim?ae J k ' d l nf A'u the i r s white men f i x then /plain/ wae Aaip mm i k(\lae him tu already do forget us f i r s t ones the aimae Jq'al? 1/ i kilkfkalae i /k'almt/ae good food f o r forebears roots l i k e potato i /kfmutae i tikmee A'u i J k w i n k w f n p lant (un ident i f ied ) a l l j u s t plant (un ident i f i ed ) 188 talkam A'u fz aSrree Jq 'a5? plain tu a l l j u s t those good to eat a lready gone ka xwdzae nfA t i n x?ip puj" t Jae dz ts ' f lae disappear because grow weedy. No one seems k w i j * aSts 'x JtaSli watch them dz k w i j " i j ts ' ax Jtaeli no did c l e a r there i wae kirn tu almae J"tae*li d id do good the nfA our ki I ki kalae forebears. nfA t i J q u q l m tumuAaen k w i j " kaSnim That is s tory you f o l k s . What d id ts ' f lae seems A i J xwalxael i kalklfkalae wai ? A k L laSp A 'u why burnt forebears . Do you must iA mdtae zwaltan AkiUnJae now again know now plain A ' l A ka a lready d id xwdzae i tsSkmae A'u Jtaem wa tu J*Aal? km tja$ disappear a l l everything did was near here ael wij" nfmuA i l k in td A i t tae tu t j " fx w was. There we did go qwa|aSpaem kin tu* t / i x w kaiA Aaltu t . f ix w berry p i c k i n g . There we did go qw'aelae?um J" xenf?zae plain tu x w dz i J*?ainq'ae berry p i ck ing long ago. Already nothing foods plain tu x w ?dz plain tu ts ' l *k ke xwdzae tu already now already a l l gone. Disappeared. niA Jtalkem JaS A 'u t s ' f l a Jtalm? we xfp That everything does seems anything does grow. milmfmlex wal? k m taikem kin t/ 'a l tu wal Bushes d id a l l over . Where used do f we qw'aelaipaem u kUaa x " ? ^ ael tpaS do p ick b e r r i e s . Oh r e a l l y p l e n t i f u l here Akunjas fA tjae lalk t i t j f tx wa3 AkalAae alti tu now where s i tua ted the house our that is Ait A ' a i x from come qw?aim get Ai t qW'aelaVrum t i when pick ber r ie s some Jxinf ?z33 plain kaSt i x w dz k w i j * wai? ku gooseberr ies. Already none around J x m f z aeA wif nfmuA lain xailam gooseberry around us. Already doing some i JqWaslaipa} lain tu ko xwdzae wai?/ nai? b e r r i e s . Already a l l d isappear. Do c a l l e d hi nt1kwa3 tamfx w kaiA k in al tpaiunae other grounds ours around here. 33/ qw'aelaipa3mae wai? Jna3? nfm t .fas t j* fx w It is ' p i ck ing p l ace ' do named us where go i wa qw'alaips3n az kaSt i laiti k w i j " do pick b e r r i e s . Don't there anything Jtaim k w i j J"u pdn ku pa3l?uj"ae J q w 'ae lalp AkiUnJae you f i nd one s ing le berry now. 191 nfA t i J q u q l m tumuAan A H Aalk t s ' f l a ) That is my story to you about how Jkax w dz Je i wae tu ts'a1qwaenim ki kilkC'kalae disappeared they did eat by the forebears . nfA t i wai? Akaelelp A 'u zw^ten al tj 'aiuna That is a l l . Do you s t i l l know here td wae J l sX '^X ftummu'Aaen t s ' f l a i taSkma that do reminding you fo lks l i k e a l l « i kalklfkala Jwai? JYntJaJ" ' Bap t i s te R i t c h i e ' o ld - fash ioned ways. I am Bapt i s te R i t ch ie a l t j ' a u n a l f ? lwata en tjfnamqan AkaSn nfA t i here Mount C u r r i e . En Chinemqen I am. F in i shed. 192 BURNING MOUNTAIN SIDES FOR BETTER CROPS. I am t e l l i n g you about the doings of our f o r e f a t h e r s , why they always d id well wherever they went for the purpose of p i ck ing a l l the ber r ie s and roots l i k e potatoes that they a te . They used to burn one h i l l and use the other . When there were a lo t of bushes then the r ipe ber r ie s disappeared and the roots l i k e potatoes disappeared. A l l the plants disappeared when the bushes grew too much. Then they burned. It was marked out and there one did his own burning. That is what they did so that they could go here and there to p ick b e r r i e s . Each one watched that i t was r ea l l y burnt. A l l the other bushes were removed. Then the berry bushes grew again. The roots l i ke potatoes grew, the shkimuta, the shkwenkwina, a l l the plants that were eaten by us, that is where they grew. It was a few years , I guess i t was almost around three years , before those things grew there aga in. Then there were r e a l l y lots of b e r r i e s . Everything was a l l r e a l l y f e r t i l e . They rare ly burnt the big t rees . Only the small ones, only around the bushes was burned. It was the same with one h i l l as with another. That is why we see, we who are grown-up Indians, that a l l the h i l l s seem to be burnt, because that was what they did to t h e i r own h i l l s . They burned them so that they would get good crops there. They to ld others who went there, "Do the same at your p l a ce , do the same at your p l a c e . " The i r own h i l l s were j u s t l i k e a garden. But now, because the white man r e a l l y watches us, we don ' t burn anything. We r e a l i z e a l ready , i t seems the things that were eaten by our fore fa thers have disappeared from the places where they burned. It seems that a lready almost everything has disappeared. Maybe i t is because i t ' s weedy. A l l kinds of things grow and they don ' t burn. If you go to burn then you get into t rouble because the white men want to grow t rees . Because they changed our ways they do good fo r us and we eat the food that the white men use. Then we forget the good food of our e a r l i e s t f o re f a the r s . The roots l i k e potatoes, the shkimuta, the shkwenkwina, a l l of those were good to eat. Now they have disappeared because the h i l l s grew weedy and no-one seems to tend them, no-one c lea r s there as our fore fa thers did so thoroughly. That is another story f o r you f o l k s . Why our fore fa thers burnt. Now you must do i t again. Now you know why everything that was near here ju s t disappeared. There we used to go berry p i ck ing . There we went berry p ick ing long ago. Now nothing. The food plants have now a l l gone. They have d i s -appeared. It seems that everything and anything grows on the 194 h i l l s . It has become covered with bushes a l l over. Where we used to p ick b e r r i e s , oh, they were r e a l l y p l e n t i -ful. ' Right here where our house is s i tua ted now, that is where we used to come to pick b e r r i e s , l i ke gooseberr ies . Now there are no gooseberries near us. Now the other ber r ie s are the same. They have a l l d isappeared. We named other grounds of ours around here; c a l l e d them 'The P ick ing P laces ' because that is where we went to p ick b e r r i e s . Now you w i l l not f i nd one s i ng le berry there. That is my story to you about how those things which our fore fa thers ate have disappeared. That is a l l . You w i l l s t i l l know, now that I am reminding you f o l k s , what the o ld fashioned ways were l i k e . I am Bapt i s te R i t ch ie here in Mt. C u r r i e . I am En Chinemqen. That is a l l . 195 HOW WE MAKE CANOES• en Jnoqnuqwa3 waiA kan fquqel in tumuA t j a My f r iends doing I am t e l l i n g you how xdiA turn AiJ" mfi/num i A 'dza as I t j ' a i done us when f i x i n g boats here wij" nfmuA az Akunjae k wt J xaS kuA' ku kulim with us not know that hard to make k w i A 'dz tjf ik A'u t j a x w dz t j a k w i.f a canoe. Just that not we that zwaiten mm aiA k m kalnaj" t s ' a l a k wt J* J?a?msJ know we how how much l i k e . How good i J kut Jaa I k i lk l fkel a A'u we f x w a make forebears . But did nothing wft i f q wezujem lalka t s ' f l a ki I Au xfn?f they have work tools l i k e . Real long time 196 q'ezujmi f weA iA tj*uk JtwftaJ i A'd?za3 work before f i n i shed they do canoe. k'sS masA JYnaa Akunfaa w i j nfmuA kf lasf But now a days with us f i r s t zwaitnanAi J kaSJ" tu(m) as I t J 'aa wif nfmuA knev/ how handle them. Here with us we A 'dz waS? AkaaA Jkunjae k 'u l im ki A'd?zae that do copy. Do we now f i x some canoes, aa I tpiunff i as I t/aSnas q w ezuftm 'work shop' as Here here at work work shop the as I tfainaa q 'ezrij im k'Jem qiAAas Ja§tin t j f tx w as here work at backyard of my house. asnasJd I uJ" lalti Two there plain?e we xuz mfi/nasn already do going f i x I am. t f k w i j ? z i k It that log J"?u1mt nt JalJ given to me i faeWas white men 197 i tj"aetewd?zae t u q f A A ' u x w ? u t r i n Jq w dx i t cedar t rees . Almost four feet xelumsluq" fae nf A'u diameter i t . Then J" A'&q xf tjaej" i brought for there en J'tjimae'tae uAIxe JtwftaeJ" agten tj"ftx uae my c h i l d r e n into they d id in my house. ts ' f lae A'u a$ti i f z fk waS? t i ki'lae? almae Just l i k e that was log. Does real good Jq 'd?z dz k w i j " pdj \M'\ waS Akin kae roof. Doesn't get wet there. Do I could lalti i f ts'alk k'cSAin xaSA'min there have l i gh t i f I wanted k w i j * ftaim that br ightness, Jeqi I walji n S p l i t in two AkaSn t i ? t i tjaetewd?zs dz kVi f a&laej" I did that that cedar. Not r e a l l y imhaSlqw A 'u n f tu f good material for purpose of making a boat only because xlmae I q w Ain A'u b ig in diameter i t waS? I t ha t ' s why do mf i fan make use of. Jeqael w i / i n Akasn nf A'u S p l i t in two I did then xuzj going to be a5n?wa| two JuluwiA lain JaSquA k w i f boats. Already ha l f that t j u k f t i nuku33 f i n i s hed the other. xtfi Akasn fA an t/fwasujin t i nClkwa3 t j a Going I am measure the other. Because kiAaS k w 'a l? in was/ fnfk 'mm you see do saws aski x ^ ' X 9 ' 3 3 that are powerful nfk 'min saws 'power saw' wa tj i in ni do c a l l they do power saw wal Akaen kaiti an tjuwiu? J \ n A'aSliA A 'u k wi,f Do I around i t measuring. P rec i se l y I do i t t u x t u x x w f l x accurate ly t i kftjlaspae that saw-horse. l i t At J int jaqt j * There where upright 199 t i A 'd?za tux A 'u wa? a n t j e q t j Awae iA the canoe r e a l l y is upr ight . Then k ' u l t i in f ?az ik Ja A'u x w ( t p A'u Aaeti f i x the middle of i t r i ght around. There iA A i J in tjawaiu?/ a&tu naet i J k 'amtj on that i t measured a l l around the edge Jae t i A'd?zae kinkaSnaeJ ts ' f lae k u i j AaqaSlqf of the boat. How l i k e (w i l l be) wide. kinkaSnaeJ k w i.f xu?z J t s ' i x w mfitaen Akaen fA How i t w i l l be po inted. Marked I d id laSti as I tj'alnae t jun i an Jt Ji'mae? I tae wae? then. Then I to ld my c h i l d r e n , "Do AkaSlaep n f k m AaS?mAae? I amain A 'u laSti i I tae you cut near that where Jmftjae dz ham k w i J kae (5lAxwae i l tae fmftjae marked. Do not go ins ide where the markers. 200 wai? Akaln kirn A'u fA AeAUnim • nf A'u A i J n f k m Do as I do then ream i t . " Then do cut nftaej" e l k f 'power saw' hae ts ' f lae all t i they do with power saw the. Same in the J?ulxwae mt*tjen Akaln t/u1kw nfkcn n f t a j i n s ide . Marked I d id f i n i s h e d . Cut i t they d i d . f?ez A 'u k w i j " dz k w i j " Aae?Aaem3lm wft Just enough that not c lose they all kwt J x u i J"9 m t s ' f l a Axu?zaln him Ac*? I in where going I am l i k e I'm going to ream. Akun Ja plain we t f r fk " / k w i J" q w4z t i Now already did f i n i s h using the 'power saw' ha tj"u"kw A 'u aA kun Ja A ^ l i n power saw one. Just only that I do ream wa? i q w ' f Jq i na do axes qwiinaSn wa? i AC*?lmina I use there are adzes 201 w4? i AC^Iminae A'u we t fun nitaej" there are reamers do c a l l they do ' t oo l adze' nfA fz we q w i i naSn waS? adze. Those do use I. Do i t Jf t Jekwa3 Aeq'aSlp x w f k ' t e n we qwena5n p u l l i n g tool wide kn i f e do use I. Awe? i a$n?wejae t / f ? t j u k w tftxae u? S t i l l there two p u l l i n g tools narrow. Oh X w ? d t / i n kae ' i n c h ' Aq'aSlaepJ" twae n u k ^ four guess inch wide the other A'alq'mokjt kae twae nukwae ai lae J* A 'u zmku t i s i x guess the other . Rea l ly rounded the pa6l?ae k'clrrceAae q w alq w J A'u k w i zC*nk.f t i ni5kwae one. But j u s t l i t t l e rounded the other . nfA iz we t jun nitaej" wae? t/ (?tj "uk w Those are do c a l l they do p u l l i n g t o o l . 202 waS? paixminja t i A 'dza aA . waS? t i It is shaver fo r the canoe. Then do have the ka lk fka la At t lmin tftxHae t i ? x w f k ' t a n xan&nk antique gouge. Narrow that kn i fe heavy. nfA t i wae? q w az That is do use i A j x w dz where no a k w i J ka cou ldn 1 t q w l z a use i ni!lkwa other i ' c h i s e l ' a i Jtima chi sel kat i anything around dz k w i j ka q w dzza lalti k'imaA Isit i t i that cou ldn ' t used there. But there the AUmina i j m f i j t s ' f l a t i xwalafka Jwa gouge i t ' s f i xed jus t l i k e the f inger your t s ' f l a A'u in m i l k ' u j t i twa t jun n i t a j ju s t l i k e that . It i s that c a l l e d they do Jlfkmin nfA t i wa qwiinaSn Jan J f k m kin h i t t e r . That is do use I h i t i t 203 Jxwdz Ja k wt J kwa1? ka nfk'xala ku xkdz where I that able to cut where /as ku ka dxxala nf A 'u J nfltj* t i you cou ldn ' t w h i t t l e . Then that is the JYkmina nfA t i wa q w i inaSn wa muta h i t t e r that i t do use I. S t i l l again t i xfxaka sSn?waJ i xf?xaka dxman Jkwa5k/t p laner. Two of planers reamers hand iz A 'u k w i J kdl dz A 'u kaSti ku those that made none made by JaSma i dxmina i xt*?xaka dxmin aln?waj" white man. Reamers planing reamer two fz i wfna?xwa t/uwaj k'aS? iz ku ka lk fka la? those same kind belong to ( l ) guess forebears . niA fz A 'u U n Jwa kwa5ninj J m f i t J Those because I get made I ki lkfkalae nfA A ' u aSA Ain JwaS? A ' i i n forebears . That is why I do copy taSnihaen k w m Jwa wal? k 'a q walin lain A ' I A them to do s t i l l use a lready k w ' f n A ' d z x w ftuJCm A ' t A A ' d z ts ' f lae a few canoes many more small canoes seems i en Jkiftlae waS Akaen A ' u waS? q w f i n f i n i s h e d . Do I s t i l l do use i q w a l u j i m likae Jae i k i l k£ka l ?ae as I tj 'afuna work too ls belong forebears here t f wae mfijnaen Akiinjae A ' d z nfA t i twae one do f i x i n g boat that is do t jun nitaaj A ' d z ? 4 l a tjuwae J t i t i c a l l they do real canoe. Belongs that to the tjuwa?u?xae tjuwasj tJuwaSuxae A ' d z t i nukwae r i v e r . Belongs to r i v e r canoe. The other 205 mutae A 'az?u lu A 'u . t s ' f lae A 'u ku tjtfn again small boat ju s t l i k e the c a l l nitaej i Jalm?ae 'boat ' Jtx w al lx A 'u i k'fm? they do white man boat. S t ra ight j u s t ends tjae k'almeeAae t i A'az?u?ilae t i tjuwae?j Jae i t . But the b ig canoe the one for k w i j tjdaeux" i j tjaxtjafx i j t s ' f m q j nfA htm the r i v e r i t is po in ted. That is t i wa wa w u q w ' i l alltas xzijmaej one d id go down do go up on the big tjuwai?ux t i k w i A 'dz x w ? f t tu Jam ts ' f lae r i v e r that canoe. Many i t seems x w ? f t tu J4m?i Jk w aStJ i tJ Ja5 i A'd?zae lain many i t seems names i t canoes. Already ts ' f lae JalqwaA ku t juk Jaen a I t j ' a l t i wa ha l f f i n i s h e d I here the do 206 mfifnaen wai? Akaen A'u \A mi t JWtJ" an t i f i x I. Do I s t i l l marking the nukwa3 milt® kinkaSnaeJ" ku xinj" nf A'u A m other again. Depends how long a v a i l a b l e then Au?uJ nf A'u aSti Am tj*fx w A i l ?xa§ l t.fuA I make able then there I go ream. F in i shed k w i j dxwaen naen nf A ' uJ J m f i J t J ku reaming that then f i x some k'epwfl qaS? x w dz dz k wt J* k'apwfl c ro s s -p iece on canoe. No.' Not that c ro s s -p iece . we? mtftae in a5n?waejae i was? xlfpael Do again my ' V rest for a boat do erec t a§l t i tamfxwae q ' f x i?aSz A 'u k w i J ka3 on the ground f i rm ly ju s t enough that able q'flae k u i j " kae paxae alt i i k'l'mj" t .fa§ put on that able f i l l e d there ends i t 207 t l A'dzae nf A 'u fA At J in Aim qae en the canoe. Then able It upright i t A ' i q l i t ! t i qu?ae J iq ' uq 'uA paeqiltj" f i l l there the water h a l f - f u l l . Made red hot fA i kfA'hae paeqiltj" i kfA 'hs put A 'u then stones. Made red hot rocks j u s t when pa3?qs§ltj i kfA'hae aeA enAim i A 11 t i red hot rocks before put in to the A'dzae J i q ' uq ' uA t i qu'?ae pdAiA fA canoe h a l f - f u l l the water. Boi l then. I i n ? i j xdin Already an external frame which r e s t r i c t s the swel l ing of el tu the canoe caused by the b o i l i n g water at the enit/qjae kinkinaej" k wt / ke q'ixae kw(J" kiA back end how much able to spread able to make 208 kae X UJ" J"33 t i A'dz33 ^ t i . Jt . f fx u i . f to f l o a t i t the boat on the r i v e r . xiAminaen k w i j " se I as f q'axq'aex t i an A'dzae If I want that r e a l l y rounded the my boat wae laSti t i a/iinae k w i j k f t j i t j do there the frame that w i l l i t f a l l kiA an Aim IA aet I i kiA'hae l i t i k w i J* in to . In there then there rocks there as t s ' i l a e j A'u Jx w ?ft . f nfAj puAiA t i qu?ae many as needed before bo i l the water q ' apq w fA q ' apq w wi? i f A 'u covered them covered. Remain l i t ? i j there with q»apq w cover A'u t j f x w A 'u ku qumpulu ' t i l time that hot wfAt.f t i enough the A'dzae k m ku i l t s 'q?ae alts'?aS wfAtJ t i canoe. At the outs ides outs ides the 209 A'dza Ian aka A'a?k ts ' f lae k wi.f qamp canoe already there going seems enough hot. nfA'u J i n ? a q J t s ' f l a k w i j Ju ka u t s ' i Then easy seems that you can f i x Ja fA wa??aj" a6ku Jwa x u xdiAtJ" i t i f there is you going f i x i t . kaAfn pa6?uana nax wa a A wa? Maybe i t blow ( l i k e blowing g lass) you do maybe do ax w ha u t s ' d t s ' z a n ku dz k w i j t f ? t ax A'aek kaex A'u you do r e f i x that i s n ' t r i gh t . Keep on A ' i k ?an an t Jawa!u?J"i n A 'u t j f x w A 'u xd&A'minaexw mold ( i t ) measure ' t i l reaches what you want k w t j J t^xJ t s ' f l a wa? Akax w x w d t s ' a n t a that r e a l l y l i k e . Do you dampen the aSlts' q 'u lwiA t j a ait i an q'ampa qri? outs ide of i t with hot water. 210 dz t i kij* tj"uk w aeA tjijk wffij kiA That is not a l l when previous process alt I k w i j xfA slti ku A 'dz niA J d z j is completed at that boat then won't k w i / A 'aq w p nfAj plain Jae wij* puAiA able check cracks because a lready i t is b o i l e d . wfA i kilkfkalae wa him kwaSJ" i l w f t m nftaej Forebears d id they scorched they d id laSti k w i j z f i t i n k w 'a i?x w k wa3j a?A t i that doing p i t c h . Scorch now the ailts'qaej pijAiA . alA t i /uIxwaaI nfA A ' a outs ide b o i l now the ins ide that is I ft J dz k wt J A 'aq w ap A i J t j u k u i A'd?zae so as not check then f i n i s hed canoes. laiti mutae A i J kae mfij" Jae aik w i f huz That is again where can f i x i t where i t is going 211 t s ' f l a k w i j huz mf l j ten .faexw mutae k wi.f l i ke that is going f i xed as you and how t s ' f l ae k wt J q ' d x t i n j Akunjae zaem wae A 'u l i ke for width. Now though did s t i l l puAunim Akunjae i A'd?zae nfA him i fq w ezuf im bo i l sometimes canoes. It is work tools laSkaeJ* i J"aem?ae i talkma ku winalu?/ wa ( the i r ) white men a l l kinds did lalti AaS? ham i ' p a i n t ' ae nf A'u A i f use on i t pa int the. Then able wai? aSmae dz k w i j A'flae al k w iA kalA do good. Don't l i ke they we do xu?az A 'u ku him / t a x him A 'dz wa work as hard. But a real canoe do sfitl xfA that way aeA kwffifalxfA i t is scorched aeA. tjfrn i t is burnt ku all ts'q'ae on the outs ide 212 kmtalkam nfA t i k m kaSnaeJ" ku xfn?J a l l over. That is how done no matter how long. waS? A 'u I nukwae k 'u l im k'33 t i A 'a?za S t i l l others made guess the canoe A i / tuwfut lain qaAmfmm mi j A'u wal? when young man. Already o ld man s t i l l d id A'u waS? qwin3SJ A 'u qwast JaSt J tu A 'u zuq w wa?? did use ' t i l . went away and d ied . Does t i A 'd?za Akun i j priA t i i f qw 'al?a? the canoe now. It is bo i l ed that burned t i the ku A 'dz boat. niA alt 1 A'lJ" That is why t s ' f l a k w i j xfn? seems long wa ham tu q w ' a z mm ones they used by alki J k i l k f l l a the forebears Akalla plain Akun ours. Already now dz alt i k w iA k'aA t s ' f l a aren 11 we 1ike tha t . 213 mif kaiA wai? AkaA n(m A ' u w<ij nfmuA S t i l l do us s t i l l us qe-AqeA mfmrnin Akdnjae ts 'ezi j j " laiti A i t fxwae old men now busy that when nothing i f z f i t i n k'tflim ku A ' d z x w f t A'IA e l se do. Make a canoe. Lots i t t s ' f laa kaSti A ' eA ' a zez was? q w i n m alki seems around canoes do use by Jit/maiA kaSAffi nfA t i en Jnuqn(jqwa3 Jquq l in ch i l d ren our. That a l l my f r i ends t e l l tumuAain aA wai? A ' u miStae xaiAminftiJ" i Jaimmee you f o l k s . S t i l l again won't they white men k w i j A ' u wai? ndkwaen tumulftaj" k w i j " dz k w i j that s t i l l help us they do so not Aaip mm forget we k u i | tu A'aik mm AkaiA that way the ways of us k W L J A 'u that 214 q w az mm t i an q w a l u t j t i n AkiAae nfA t i u s e we the our language our. That is Jkrinjae wae nu"ku i n Jk wazujam an q w al i ! l t in now do other my work our language AkiAae k w i j dz kiA k w i j A ip mm our that not so that forget they i k u 83w?it wi? Aki l i p kuA k ' l l i n mfntJi I that are younger. Do you w i l l hear me Ain ki?ae J q ' f t wi? Aka l ip kiA ' r ead ' J ku some day. Do you w i l l read a 'book' i l tan q w a lu tan lipae as t t j ' i i wa book. With language your here do m f i j Akun Jae nfA t i kiA Jquql in f i x now. That is a l l f o r now ta lk ttfmuAaen an Jnuqnuqwae A i l tjae ' L i l l o o e t ' JfntJaeJ to you my f r iends from here L i l l o o e t . I am ' B ap t i s te R i t c h i e ' all t f'ae 'Mount C u r r i e ' Bapt i s te R i t ch ie Mount C u r r i e . on tjfnemqen Akaln wae? AkaelaSp A 'u zwaften En Chinemqen I am do you s t i l l know. nfA t i F in i shed . 216 HOW WE MAKE CANOES My f r i e n d s , what I am doing is t e l l i n g you how we make canoes. Here nowadays we do not know how hard i t was to make a canoe. I t ' s j u s t that we don't know what i t was l i k e and how well our fore fa thers made them even though they had no proper t oo l s . It was a r e a l l y long p iece of work before they f i n i shed a canoe. But with us nowadays we are the f i r s t to know how to handle t o o l s , we here that copy. We are making some canoes now. Here we are working at i t in the backyard of my house. Two boats are already there which I am going to make. The cedar log was given to me by a white man. It is almost four feet in diameter. Then my c h i l d r e n brought i t to my house fo r me. The log was j u s t l i k e that . It has a real good roof over i t . It doesn ' t get wet there. I could have a l i gh t there i f I wanted that much br ightness . I s p l i t the cedar in two p ieces . It wasn't r e a l l y good materia l fo r making a boat. I only made use of i t because i t was so b ig in diameter. I s p l i t i t in two so then i t was going to be two boats. Already one of them is ha l f f i n i s h e d . I am going to measure the other one. Because, you see, there are saws that are powerful , they c a l l them power saws. I measure around i t . I do i t p r e c i s e l y , accurate ly on that saw horse. 217 There where the canoe is i t is r e a l l y upr ight . Then I f i x the middle of i t r ight around. From there, from that , i t is measured a l l around for the edge of the boat, how wide i t is going to be and how pointed i t ' s going to be. I mark i t then. I to ld my c h i l d r e n , "You cut c lose to that l i ne where i t ' s marked. Don't go ins ide the markers! Do as I do, then hollow i t out. Then they cut i t with the power saw on the i n s i de . I f i n i shed the marking. They cut i t . They cut i t ju s t c l o se enough, they cut i t where I wanted i t , where I was going to ream. Now already I had f i n i s hed using the power saw. I only had to ream. I a l so use axes. There are tools for hollowing out that they c a l l adzes. Those I use. I use a wide kn i fe as a p u l l i n g t o o l . I use two p u l l i n g t oo l s . One is narrow - oh, four inches wide, I guess, the other is s i x inches, I guess. One is r e a l l y rounded but the other is j u s t rounded a l i t t l e . Those are c a l l e d the p u l l i n g t oo l s . They are shavers fo r the canoe. Then I have an o ld - fash ioned gouge. That kn i fe is narrow, i t is heavy and I use i t where I cou ldn ' t use the other c h i s e l s , when nothing e l se could be used there. But the gouge is j u s t l i ke the end of your f i n g e r , j u s t l i k e that . That is what they c a l l ' the h i t t e r 1 . That is what I use to cut with where you cou ldn ' t w h i t t l e . Then i t is the h i t t e r that I use. S t i l l again there are the p laners . There are two of those p laners . They are hand 218 reamers and there are none made by white men. Those reamers, those two planing reamers, are of the same k ind . I guess they belonged to our f o re f a the r s . Those I have were made by our f o re f a the r s . That is why I copy them and use t h e i r t oo l s . I have already f i n i shed a few canoes and many more smal ler canoes. I s t i l l use the work tools that belonged to our f o r e -f a ther s . The canoe that I am f i x i n g here they c a l l a real canoe. It belongs to the r i v e r . It is a r i v e r canoe. The other one is j u s t a small boat, j u s t l i k e what the white men c a l l a boat. It j u s t has s t r a i gh t ends. But the b ig canoe, the one fo r the r i v e r , i t is po inted. That is so that one can go up and down on the b ig r i v e r with that canoe. It seems that there are many names fo r those canoes. The one that I am making here is a lready h a l f f i n i s h e d . I am s t i l l marking the other one. It depends how much time is a v a i l a b l e . When I am able I go there and ream. When I have f i n i shed reaming i t then I w i l l f i x a c ro s s -p iece on the canoe. Oh no! Not that c ro s s - p i ece ! I w i l l e rect again my 'V rests f i rm ly on the ground, j u s t long enough that when the canoe is put on the ends are able to rest there. Then I am able to keep i t upr ight . Then i t is h a l f - f i l l e d with water and red hot stones, red hot rocks. While they are s t i l l red hot they are put in the canoe h a l f - f i l l e d with water. It 219 bo i l s then. Already an external mold which r e s t r i c t s the swel l ing of the canoe from the b o i l i n g water is at the back end of the canoe and determines how much the canoe w i l l be able to spread in order to make i t f l o a t in the r i v e r . If I want i t r e a l l y rounded I put my boat in a rounded frame i t w i l l f i l l out to. In there then I put the rocks, as many as are needed to make the water b o i l . They are covered. They remain there with the cover u n t i l the time comes that the canoe is hot enough. On the outs ide of the canoe, i t must seem hot enough. Then i t seems that you can f i x i t e a s i l y i f you want to f i x i t in a spec ia l way. Maybe you blow i t out , maybe you f i x i t again i f i t i s n ' t r i gh t . You keep on molding i t and measuring i t u n t i l i t is the way you want i t to be. Then you dampen the outs ide with hot water. That is not a l l , for when the previous process is completed that canoe won't be able to crack because i t has been b o i l e d . Then our forefathers scorched the canoe. They d id that with p i t c h . The outs ide was scorched and the ins ide was bo i l ed to avoid c rack ing . Then the canoes were f i n i s h e d . That is again a time when i t could be f i xed fo r where i t was going and for how wide you wanted i t . F i n a l l y , however, they did s t i l l sometimes bo i l the canoes again. A l l kinds of white man's tools were used on i t , and pa in t s , and we were able to do wel1. We don ' t work as hard as our f o r e -220 fathers d i d . But a real canoe, to make that way, is scorched. It is burnt a l l over the out s ide . That is how i t is done no matter how long i t takes. Some people made a canoe when they were young men and s t i l l used i t when they were o ld men, u n t i l they d i ed . The canoe is now ready. That boat is bo i led and burned. That is why the ones of our forefathers could be used so long. Now we a ren ' t l i k e that . S t i l l we o ld men do i t l i ke that now when we a ren ' t busy, when we have nothing e l se to do but make a canoe. It seems that there are lots of canoes around that our c h i l d r e n use. That ' s a l l , my f r i e n d s , that I have to t e l l you. S t i l l , the white men that help us - they do i t so that we do not forget our ways and the way we use our language. That is why now my other job is to work on our l an -guage so that our younger generat ion do not forget i t . You w i l l hear me some day. You w i l l be able to read a book with our language that you make fo r me now. That is a l l f o r now, f o l k s , to you my f r iends from here at Mt. Cu r r i e . I am Bapt i s te R i t ch ie here at Mt. C u r r i e . I am, you remember, En Chinemqen. That is a l l . PART THREE DICTIONARY 222 I INTRODUCTION The l e x i c a l and phrasal units comprising th i s d i c t i ona ry are der ived from a bas i c l i s t of eighteen-hundred l e x i c a l items and th is is supplemented by add i t i ona l items occur r ing w i th in the tex t s . The a lphabet i ca l order ing used in th i s d i c t i ona ry is as fo l l ows : p p' t k k' kw q q» q " q w ' ? z ! X xw X h A 1 m n ts t s ' t j t j ' A A' 1 as a u i o 0 w j ptf nu/mfnaej* think about ptfnujem think (v.) ptaSk A'u where you are sup-posed to go ptalkasj kin xfpae afternoon p t a 9 k w A fable ptfl33? blood ptakid?/ Monday p J f ? I as I mi n almost morning p j i I morni ng p I f Jmanae pol icemen plaek from p laen al ready; now plain?a already plain t J i x w | t / f l k j t a i t is 5 o'clock plaSnaeJ" i t ' s in the past pluk smoke plu/ deep pAuA thick p fphaa paper p 1 palpL la?ae person pi paint JL k summer paspt always; every paiplae? alone palp I a? one person pa1tkw8e needle (sewing) pasqallt.f made red hot paiquxael threaten palqu be a f r a i d ; fear palqw faaJ watch (v.) paiquamin afraid of pa3?qal 1 1J red hot pa1?xw A'u ti r e d of doing something pal? I a? J one paS?u33na3 blow; i n f l a t e paex scrape paixaen scrape i t palxam hunt pas I ?u Jae single pallae? one; 1 o'clock pal I ae? J*zep f u f one week pallael t.fimx v i s i t (v.) 224 pal I as A'u j u s t one pail?upj"t e ight p33l?upJVampJ' e ighty paenkitJtnae summer camp pa§tj"ae?ae s t i ck s (n.) pdip pipe ptlt A 'u aSmae s u i t a b l e ; j u s t r ight pu?ia§x w mouse puj wet pdxael blow (with mouth) puxt/alm? knock (v.) puA bo i l ed pdAxael bo i l i t puAunim boi1 pdAiA b o i l i n g ; bo i led pun found ptfn ns/ found i t pdnffij f i nd punan when I f i n d puA'slnae? hemlock piplae by himself p i t fnu fam think deeply about something pitaek gone; past ptta5kwA t e l l a s to ry ; f o l k t a l e p i ' t in cover (n.) pizaln meet pij)(aexe Wi l l iams Lake p iJY l morning pi Ip so ld p U l i p spend (money); s a le p U l m punished fo r the sake of pila6pala?ae Haida Indians pi laeAtqw'a3ut we are a l l one people p f t Jk iA leaf p(5kwin empty (v.) papqwaem gray papa6?Aa b u l l f r o g patTnu/mf thought pat^x wan sp i t (v.) p a t f t k f t j f l k / t a a l i t t l e a f t e r f i v e paq white paqmfn/t almost white pazaln encounter ( v . ) ; meet pexae f i l l e d pemp f a s t ; speed /p' p'ip 'a5n?te back and. f o r t h p ' f t s ' i n to press together p'aSq'am blossom (v.) p'aB?q'aSn heat (v.) p'aexw more p'al?x w A'u extreme p'aimjim make f i r e p'aimjin put f u e l on f i r e p'ainraen burn p'ant brought, b r i n g back; r e t u r n , come, come back p'aSnt/tum send back (someone) p'aSntxael return (an obje c t ) p'aen? f o l d (v.) p'aenain bend i t p ' l j vagina p'Uk'ain turn (v.) p'U?p l o s t p»axaS I s t i ngy IXI tq'fA A'u almost txu\ looking tmfxwae ground tftxae narrow tftxe thin tftx wae? narrow tfku that t ik w crush t fk w in? grind tf?tex right t i x w f I x get in the way timuAaSJae get (v.) t i t J f t x w house t f j i t hungry ta2txw33lwaij midnight taikmee everything; us a l l taikem whole, entire, a l l taikem Jwaet everybody taikem A'u a l l of them tai?tux right tal?m33/A'u anything tal?wi n to untie i t taaj* force taixwae hung talxwaatj chest taaxwelminae gett ing unt ied talAlox stand (v.) talAlex to be on one's feet taem? anything tainem them talum s e l l taiumi s t i l l talexxsl to set a table taiwaem? navel tdAae tongue trfpun? h i t wi th f i s t tuttwfwu?t33 young men t u x w m add some more; mult tuxtux accurate ly tuxw?altf bow (weapon) turn them tumuA fo lks tumuAaen you fo lks tuwidt boy: teen-age 228 tuwaSn salmon berry tu kU?ae f ront tu ?aeu?tae behind t ipnfm got stung tit\"7M$ bow and arrow (for a ch i 1 d) ttkm3?lxw the whole family tiAa5?Jasti the other people t imfx w t e r r i t o r y toktokwainae deaf tox w p purchase to"x win add some more; i ncrease tox w ox w more and more tatmfxwae world takwlpae su f focate t a q j handle (v.) t aq f A a 1mos t teqaipasm dam (v.) ta?IJzae s q u i r r e l tax b i t t e r t ax A 'u exact t l x A 'u qwa?mqwamit i n t e r e s t -ing t l x A 'u J?utsaz f i rm t l x A 'u x lwm humble t l x A 'u wae? x u a l lmjtum important t l x A 'u wae JxtSmxom energy t l x A 'u wi nuk'f?A g ra te fu l t l x A 'u wan wfnae?xw f a i t h f u l t l x A 'u wa ka xl?kae agreeable taxdApaz wi l low t a x w f l x d i r e c t tax w a1laq p a r a l l e l i n g taxVt faunae J cor rec t something sa id wrongly (v.) t ax w s a l a l berry taxw?aJtJ" bow (for an adult ) tax w f* lx aga ins t ; s t r a i gh t t a x w ^ t j gun tahfnfut brag, boast (v.) t ah fn t fu t show o f f (v.) tahfnaej p ra i se tamfx w e a r th , ground, d i r t tamfxwae on earth tamuIim many of us tana? J i n porpoise t a Aai?a3 the other s i d e ; beyond twaSl amongst 229 /k/ ki?x steelhead kfjmae back kfjem backyard kijemqd.lt/ back of house kilkaSlnaeJ chased them kfnk'enit dangerous kftjlaepae saw horse k f t j l e x 1ie down (v.) k f t j i n put k f i x " s i c k l y kfwe with kaipten captain kaStik'ae around (ref. to place) kaiti the one kaeti ku waS? around somebody kaSkzae? die kaeki IxaeI follow kalkezae? t e l l a l i e kaeq'uja frighten kaVPkil lazy kal?Aa our kaef twasl do anything to each other k3Sl?waet medicine kaelwaetaSn cure kaeAmf J aiku a secret escape kainaej maybe kaSulex safety kaSexten elbow kaSwom copulate kaelfrrVrae break apart kaA<5xwaj appear kasA'qwepae burnt kd l i n candle kutaSkem al 1 ki nds kukpi chief kukpi?ffi their chiefs kukjtumx thank (v.) kijkJtumAkaex" thank you kukjtum thanks kfikjaj save a person's l i f e kukae survival 230 kilkwae? mother's mother; f a t h e r ' s mother ku?fk laexu dream kilAinJ lend (v.) kuAintJ lend me krfAm borrow kijlim made ku ?alutj J q ' i t day a f t e r tomorrow ku xa?ae above k fp in touch (v.) k i t enaej" p ierced kikilaimx e lde r s i b l i n g kizanun doubtful kijain?k33 brave kiAxail part of a whole kiAnfm take out kiA take away kiAaSu?/ depart kiAaSu?Jan d i v i de kiAaiu?wif separated kfAan take away kiA qaAmimnux" grow o ld kilkikkalae o ld fashioned k i l k i k l f f i o ld times; long ago kUk ik i lae forebears k i ' l ? k a l a x thunder (v.) k i l ? q backwards kil?ae future kC I I as leader k f I I aa? f i r s t ki lalxw muskrat ki laSxw33 beaver k i l i l a j " as soon as pos s ib le ki I sa ?a?mae r e a l l y good kC 133 J?utsaz in the r i ght p lace kC 133 aimae admi rable kintaikam everywhere, a l l over kmknaSp thunder (n.) kinkaSnaeJ" how much; how long k i n j A'axum want to win kmtJaS A 'u around kfnakae with fo rce ki na5ka3 ki 1 led kin xipffi noon kiA'haj rocks (n.) 231 kt'A'he stones k(A> k ' l A ' d i r t y k<5mkom du l l kopu coat kakaSu f a r , d i s t an t kakdkpi government o f f i c i a l s kakwaS?33 green ka?k£*?ku? a l i t t l e fur ther ka?AaeJqampJ t h i r t y ka?Aa$J three kazaendn doubt kajiftms smell klxkax s i s t e r kaxalae i t sparked kahaSl?hffi be born kaArrcSmaen o ld man kaArrorreenJ'ijdtJae o ld woman kaAaffk'at Wednesday kaAu/fts'ae buckskin kaA Auywae appeared kalkifkla? o lder generat ion kalkC'kalae o ld fash ioned, ancient k l l k a l scratched up kalaSl soon ke la? lae J p ret ty soon; not very long ago kalw£el?x w worn out (appl ies to non-animate object) kanix£*pnuxwae lunch kaAu /tan eye ka qaexwae i t broke kaxi?mae go out of s i g h t ; di sappear ka xd?zae hurt someone p h y s i c a l l y ka xuittae f a l l as leep ka xakae obey ka xl?q'ae r e f l e c t ka y&A& i t got f i n i shed ka y&Aa A'u?ae by chance ka X w ' J 8 3 s m ' ^ e ka xwfAlae the best way poss ib le ka ha&lhaeti J"n<5qwmae sunr i se ka A( I lae keep s t i l l 232 / k V k ' f k ' t a ? neighbouring, near k 'uk u i1 porcup i ne k ' f?ux despondent k 'u?l laej s ta r ted k'frreeltj ice k ' u ? l i l grow k ' f n k ' a n i t something harm- k 'u? l im make fu l which might happen be- k'u?Um? e l e c t cause of a s i t u a t i o n k ' u l ? J made k' ipa that c lose person k 'u l ? imj he made k ' i k j i i t sp ider k'ultjaem pick (berr ies ) k 'aek 'p it j whisper (n.) k ' u l m g a l l k'ae?/ carry k'dnae salmon eggs k ' i ? U m wait fo r k'unae? salmon k'ae? guess k 'u t s i Iwakj t i soaked and s t retched k'ae J in? ke braves k 'uA' ocean, s a l t water k'aSxael dry k'liA'axa Coast Indian k'ixwAae? preserved meat k'l+ta stuck, penetrated a l i t t l e k ' i x * 3 ' cooking k'(txwaen cut i t k'aelsS?min l i s t e n k' lAq' inaeJ pass c lo se k'infBe? needle (of tree) k ' l l i n n f n t j l i s t e n to me k ' i A ' u guess k'tm? ends k'dlse? lungs k'fAae stone, rock k ' d i l a x jump k'cSltfaen p ick for purpose of food k 'uk 'mit c h i l d k'apwf1 c ros s -p iece on canoe k'ak'xam breeze k'a? where k'eza1k?a3m murder ;ki 11 k'azafkam mfnaem k i l l e d some-one k ! a/ain?ks8 braves k' axuj" tears (n.) k' exam blow (wind) k ! axon wind blowing k ! a l k ' a l angry k 5 al scratch an object k ! ala? l i v e r k ! alain l i s t e n k- l l i n scratch (v.) k' amf end ks amqw'33n dropped in k ! am? ou t l e t k- amldz maple (big leaf ) k- amfnnan f e l l (v.) k : amfnam f a l l over k amdt hat k- amaqj" end 234 /k w/ kwlfmj"em pus k w f k w J small kwfkwenaV? few k w f ? k w i j l i t t l e k wf?u s l i p , k u f n A'lA what is the time k wfna3j ke how many kwfn33j" Jq'ft how many days kwaiti.m walking kwal? kae able to kwaS?eJ" rema i ned kwa3 Jmai 11 J" arrows kwaSJelwiA scorched k w 33ldh dog salmon kwaelep kaSjtJ don't do anythi ng kw33mj" got kwaem get kw3?mim receive k wimin obtain kwaSnniJ gotten by means of trap kwaen take kwainffij take something; accept kwa5ninj might be sick kwa5naeq exploit k w a l t yellow k w a l u t talk (v.) k w f t k w f t j throat k w(zk wizem smooth k wizfn?xum jealous k w i j kfnqj p e r f e c t i o n i s t kwilaSp wanting k wUijJem shade over face from l i g h t kwilexl3fx remember kwfmkwirn blunt k w ( t j?a place kwiA'u7 face k wot33mitJ husband k w e k w f k w J small k wezuz dol1 k wezen use k weju pig 235 / k w V k w ' f k u , e l33X u dream kw ,alqaq robin kw'aS?xw p i t ch (n.) k w ' e l ! J" cave kw'ae"lx33| h i r e k w ' izaSpU cheeks k w ' i zu fom work kUi(Am pour i t k W J ek w ' fku'Lnae? l i t t l e at a time k w ,ezi3Jim work 236 qIfI anger qIf Imi n anger at qlflae became angry q i ? x w run away q i x w chase q f x u i n chases q f l q e l t weary of something or someone q f Ix w i n chase away qafqiit s t rugg le qaiq j 11 i t roub 1 e qaexw break in two qeSxwaen? break i t qa?xwoxu b roke qa1xw9n break qasnfmtf understand qaenfm hear (v.) qainem heard qaSuqJ cursed qaqt/ok brother q d q i j i t scout qdqenae throat / q / qdqenae? throat qaq w i l i5l without facts qd?az t i r e d qd/Uiju'hae b ig f i s h i n g hooks qdt s ' a ?a fa ther qaij\!it i n g ra t i a te qd i /e ten decorate q d i x u man quqwael s tory qu? l i q u i d qtf?ae water (n.) qu jx i t shoot qujxitam shot him arrows qiS/im shoot qui f u l l qtflun? f i l l quA' f u l l of food qoma5lxw dance house qapqaip tender; so f t qapqwaen put a l i d on (cover) qaqaSqA-'axaa small hooks 237 qaqaezaim got t i r e d q e q w £ e l U t t e l l i n g qazxael wave (v.) qexwai?|s something smells q e X C t f x w w i ld qaAxall save qaAmaSmnae o ld man qaAmimmaenriae o ld people qaAmalman grew o ld qaAm0emanuxw grew o ld qaAmfmnaeJ o ld qaAnumnuxw grow o l d qal bad qalqalnae? ear r ing qa lquj mfna3xw wear around neck qalqalmimminas o ld people q a l q a l n i j r u i n , spoi 1 ;offend qalqaltsaim swear q e l q a l i l too much noise q l lqa lam noise q a l ? t j l e f t -overs from a table q a l j hate (v.) qal J"qdixw mean person qal ja i j doesn ' t want i t qa lJut doesn't think mery much of s e l f q a l f l make angry, angry; envy q a l ' l m i n f i gh t qalael tmfx w severe ( re f . weather) q a l u j ugly ( ref . face) q a l i l m i n f i gh t qalwdlx spo i l qamp hot; warm qampj heat qanfmtj understood qanfm hear (v.) qanfmin heard 238 / q V q ' i x f i rmly q'i lqaemti Jnc5qwm33 sunset q 5 f AiI run q'ae? eat q 5a5xtJaen short q'afxae spread q 'aSxtJ c losed q'asx r i g i d q 'aflqtjae chai r q 'as l t fa i l t l branch hut q'afAi I run q'afuqj" cursed q ' d x t i n j width q 'd i I x escaped q ' d i l i x jump (v.) q ' d iA i I as runner q 'ut s ide q 'dtae other s ide q 'uq w 'aelt ache, hur t , be pa in fu l (v.) q'ujaink laughed q 'uxk ' f naekae f i n g e r n a i l q 'uAuts ashes q'um trap q ' apq w covered q ' a t q ' f t i t sob q'aq'maz g i r l : teen-age q ' a zq u dz blue q'azujmi work q'ajasnkmfnaej" laugh about some-one or something q'a/aSnk laugh (v.) q'aXq 'SBX rounded q'altwa?xw war q ' e l j hate (v.) q'amp ten q ' amps! I mi n nine q'ampaelminkjq'ampj ninety q'ampwipaSlae? eleven q'ampwip33l?upjt eighteen q'ampwiq'ampallmin nineteen q'ampwi ka?Aaef th i r teen q'ampwixw?u"t J"i n fourteen q'ampwi t j f l k f t f i f t e e n q'^mpwit JtlAaekae? seventeen q'empwiA'aiq'mekJt s ixteen q'empwiain?wa3j twelve q 'emq' in head q'emqw33n wind something (other than a watch) q'em?/ mushroom q'em/aSn gather (v.) q'emfnem f a i n t q'emazae grandmother q'emulqnaem feast (v.) q'errunj" swallow food q'eminjain swallowed 240 / q w / qw?aem get qwaenqwafnt poor q w i t r ing a b e l l qw33n obta in q w f q w J * small q waena5lp leaves qufqw9nae?33 minor i ty qwaenux s i c k ; s i ckness , di sease q w f ?u advance qwaetj"p journey qwinaS| use qw33tj fu r q w i t j r i ch qw33tJa? 1tJaa hut made of branches q w i inain use qwdqwamxael dare qwal?33 green q w aq w ant i ts'ae fur coat qWasJmsiltfas weapons q w a lu t spoken q wsblq wa3lUt t a l k i n g ; t e l l qwdmqwamit funny q w a f l q w t l t pain q watfaStJ go away qwael? Jpt i ndjim sad q w L JmsS 11J arrow q waSltf branch q u U u l ? a z o lder qw33la5p33m berry p i ck ing qu(1in pour out qwal las hurt q w e q w a l t j ta lk qwaa 1 ta lked q w a?q w a? swamp qW331 dtt t n language q wa?up crabapple qw33luttinja3 vo ice q w azq w dzatq w ai?a almost b 1 ue qwael Jptfnujamjae to fee l bad q w a z f l x Indian dance qwalmqwamit funny qwaz33 use qwaimji.naej des i re q wazujam work qwazuj"amlaekae tools q w ! z i n use q u a j f x w goose q w a l q w a l U t discuss q w s l q w a l U t u A soc iab le qWelt/aSltJae branch hut q w a l r ipe qwal&zae berry bushes q w a lu t ta lk (v.) q w a l u t i n language qweli!!Jim work tools qwam(fmik pregnant (with ch i l d ) q w ant i ts'ae fur coat q w a n f j whale qwanallpa leaves qwanaSn need qwanuxwael ts'ae sadness qwanuxwdz?aem pretend to be s i ck q w etja?tj leave, go q w a t j t n shake 242 / q u V q w > fq u ' inaettnj" at least q w ' a t s q w a t s damp q w ' f *Jq in axe q w ' e t / q ' u t j fa t q w ' f t s a n wash (laundry) q w ' a t Jail tj"in s t i r (something qw,a?tam stand on; step (v.) a lready mixed) qw'a??aej burned q u 'aex w reduce (get s l im) qw'a? I tens cooking s t i ck s q w ' a e l q w ' a l t pa in fu l qw'ael r ipe qW'aalaSpajmea p ick ing place qw'aelai?um berry p ick ing q w ' a t j q ' i j t j f a t q w ' d l a ? bluejay q w , uxkfnxan toena i l q w ' umk ' in s ku l l qW'aqW'aA bone q w , a z f l x Indian dance qU 'eXqW 'ax b lack q w , a A p f , burnt qw'alxae*l cook anything q w »e l fmaek mosquito q u ' anuA ' dolphin ?tja1?win coho ?tja5j come ?f?oz enough ?f?wo go along with ?f"Ain eat ?aS?ut las t ?slm3B best for ?aiut east ?az? buy ?uxwael f r i e d ?eJ7p bent, curved ?eltj"min tooth /z/ zy&lap grow z f i t o n happening zfitonj" was done; doings za£?zaz Jq ' i t every day zae?zuxfq'ft d a i l y zae?xw melt, thaw zal?mim rest (v.) zsS?u t i r e d of something zae? zu?x zapfu?f every week zaS? zu?x Jq'ft every day zae? zu?x A'alnaemtfn monthly zaext long zaSxtnJ carry piggyback zae*xwQltim rectangle zaexaelmfxwal pine zallxael soak leather zaSlael soap zaemaej s t i l l zae*una these zdq J"tumxw k i l l me zuq death zuqj die zuq'nux something that has been k i l l e d , k i l l (n.) zuqwxael k i l l (v.) ziljun bind zujunsej" t i e up zuxun move i t z u l k w m rub (v.) zumsk spring salmon zu^ton know zuwaetnaej lesson zuwffilts?a hollow zuwu slow zilwit cave zi I the flowing of a l i q u i d that shouldn't be flowing z i l m surround zihkuj" rounded zapiu?Jt Sunday zepfu?jffij last week zoq'uften grinding stone zoq'ufin sharpen ze?x w get used to zawaH i s known zewciten know zewaikjten dippe zwitnaej' knowled zw33?ten know 246 /// Jplasp buttocks; hip /taem? th ings ; anything /plain/ already /taium s e l l (v.) /p ldnte skunk /tutwfwu?tae young men /pluk smoke (n.) / tux real /plukw33 small /tunx s i s t e r ' s son / p i q u / a f r a i d / t u f depart /pai?xa3lp burnt /tomtftem c lothes /paV?xin foot /taq/al/ holding i t /painkit/tnae summer camp / t e q t / astonish /puAtem cloud / te? mother's s i s t e r /pepzijzae? b i rds / t e x / r e a l l y (going to /peztfzae? b i r d (gen.) /texs?aet/ weapon /pa/k/ nose /texwe almost /p'aik'em flower / t w f t a / for the i r own /p'aiq'maem bloom (v.) /twaSl between /p'aem/ f a l l /klaSu beaver /p 'asm/ f i rewood /kfmutae p lant /p'aimaena/ burnt i t /kfxzae mother /p'aen? bent /kfmaelt/e ice /tx w ai lx s t r a i gh t / k f n t / whisper (v.) /tf?am/ melt / k f t / l e x l y ing down /taikem everything /kaekaiu? d i s tance fkasnasf hardly J"kaeu sister-in-law Jkumit boy; pre-teen c h i l d , non-adult /ku? las finished Jkuzas? baby Jkuzas laep your chi Id J"kul school /kdnjae now JkiTrnJ snowfall Jki laStm/ best / k i t / k f t / lying Jkakaiu?/ distance JkaAt mud Jk'SekasI dried Jk'seVpas? sand Jk'ae I u las? owl J k w i l ? ready Jk wiA'uJ face JkW33t f t / name /k waik/t hand Jkwa1mim trapped / k ^ t / l t / name J k w i l ? the sun is shining JkwazuJ"am work f k w ' i k w ' i n nastinfas fewest in number fqlulaexin hoof Jqaapt/ South wind Jqaeut/ potato f q d q u i l story Jqdq wi las talk (v.) Jqdxas dog Jq&tszas father fqdit summit (of a mountain) J"qdixu man Jquqwal story Jqu? bay / q u i i I fog fqumqmas h i l l s Jqummas mountain JquA'aeJ hid i t Jqapq covered J"qa Ja??a3 nephew 248 Jqe I aSu money Jqelalwae water animals Jqam h i l l J q ' i t day J"q' i I as on top J"q '33? food Jq 'am woman's breast Jq'aluaam wolf Jq ' a? food Jq 'uq w'33tJ" fat Jq 'u cheap Jq'em?x round J q w r j t q w33m w a t e r f a l l Jq w ai?Un t e l l i n g Jquaf5lla3 r ipe ber r ie s Jqwa31aSxkt n horn (of animal) Jq w ulmox w b lackberry J"q waq wal mfnan speak about J"q w5z33zuJ" brothers J q w a f t J rabbi t Jq w ' a i ? luJ basket Jqw'a3?dp133? sword fern lean Jq w '33lf f ip berry ,fq w 'axt leg Jqw 'elaSp strawberry f ? i x w A di f f e ren t J"? f At n meal J?fA'am song J?3?kuJ over there J ?33 lqJ ki nd .f?a1maBj good things J?ainq'33 foods J?atsxf take care of someone .r?aetsx looking J?s6tsxJ watched J?3lut l a s t J"?ulXw33 ins ide J?umnfA f ree J ? m t J myself J z i i t a n f the way J z f i t a n doi ng Jx in?J ancient fx in save Jxut gravel J"xe?tJ* upper l i p Jxol steep Jxenfz gooseberry J x w i k ' t o n kn i fe J x w d i t perished Jxwtna5?ma3 Indian doctor Jxwezai?J prepared Jxwemdz f l y J*Xi naSuf e branches Jxf*u n o t cooked J.X*P?L1I f ' r Jx^P® t rees $ y&q duck jytimqiai f i s h heads Jxstq hole J x ^ w i n k i t J chin fx©I? other J*X 9itsk5n back JA33? second /AaextJ" dishes jAuxq trousers /Aux bunched up c lothes JAQXw wear J/\oV Isk' em meadow, f i e l d jAek 'am grass Jlalx" cure s l u i c e box J1uwaz cedar bark /1 ipxael p lanted J l U f Itrra parents Jmftjaq s i t down Jmftjaq seated JmaeWl? 1 i f e Jmdt 11n J super ior Jmd?qw33 crane JmizaSt Je body Jmc'tj33 marked Jm<5Al33tJ g i r l s JnuqwasJ at t imes; usual Jnuq w nuq w 33 f r iends Jnuqw33? f r i endsh ip Jn<5qwam sun Jnlqmae snow J t s f p i z reed ftst*tsq w at trout 250 Jtsexdjn a p r i va te place JaSpm daughter- in- law for trapping JafiqaA p L talk J t j ' l k fae i t is J t s ' k ' d t a ? horse f i v e - t h i rty J t s ' i x w pointed JaSq'uq'uA ha l f f u l l J"tJ"fx ui J" r i v e r JaSq'uA h a l f ; ha l f -b reed Jt Jijwae own Jaeqw> f l y (v.) JtJi l iAae r i v e r Jaexwom bathe jAxum winnings Jalxxinaem? step jA'pf?wan s h i r t Jimae? white man jA'xum p r i z e [a$ts'xw high power jA'aeqt sky JaluAm ask, quest ion (v.) Jipd? marrow Jd i?Jez have a pot latch J ipdz s k in , hide Juplax scratch onese l f J f ? / i t L n toy Jup scratch with na i l s or claws J f ? J i z game Jup'um f reeze J f?Jaz play a game Jup'om breathe (v.) J f J x a t J beach Ju t i k w inter ; North wind / i Atsaad 1 moccassin JukJ f i n i shed JfAts'ae? shoes JukW33 sugar Jfmae? come J u q w ' a z son- in- law Jimap'aSnt come back Ju?mun smell i t J i t / t night Ju?A'aeA dra in (v.) Ji j f q ' t Jse young women Jujpae? t a i l of animal Juxtim recogni ze Jezaeq' bread descend (v.) JezaSxt n pack on back Ju X W 33 l homeward JQJ'JX 9? 3 3 r e l a t i ve s Ju 1 X W S 1 i ns ide JsX^P trees J"ljm?XSl smel1 (n.) sense of Jexapsf night fa 11 J*i kqw33n club (v.) J e X d i ne nets J i kxarS 1 f i gh t (v.) anything standing \(kmins hi t t e r Jelwfk bark (of trees) J i k naif h i t (v.) Jema5n?x tobacco JYjqWez youngest brother fewaex&n upper arm or s i s ter /wait em compli cated J i IkpuJ drunk Jwaeq w 'q w ' heart JintfaSm wi fe Jws? ways JitJrrfieA ch i l d ren JvatJ excrement Joxjoxnfm i nsane Jwaat Je defecat ion Jep'd?z leather Jws stay Jeqel wa§J in s p l i t in two Jwaulima small f i s h Jeq ' va11ey Jwux w iz ant f e q w e z ( z w i j brothers Jwuwus cougar Je?xs in-law Jwil?q open Je?a5?s? crow JwoptJ beard Jezfks f a l l e n trees JwoldkJ mountain sheep J e z f i t m task 252 /x / x?fAa3 across x?ut J i naljk'et Thursday xziSmasJ" b ig xmaen oppose (v.) xmsfnem enemies x ik push (v.) x i ?pu j weedy x f ? ip grow x in la t x i n ? long x fn?w33j long time xfAilqam kneel (v.) x f i p ten grow up xat ra i se xsitaenaej p ick up xaeq' pay (v.) X33? height xaS?ap grow xaexA abuse xaexA+JaeJ" i r r i t a t e xsAxalA w i l l i n g xa?n?tja3 very angry xaiA'min love; d e s i r e ; want; l i k e xaeA'iA' get into trouble xs£A! em go up, c l i mb, ascend xaeA' JwaS? unfortunate happening xaBu?naln lower (v.) xdzae disappear xd i t died xditJaW? spec ia l xupf lx r i s e (v.) xukun pu l l out xdqleqj" snore xu?z k wfJ* i t is going to ra in xu?z Jkwita1m-tJ take a husband xu?z Jinnelm take a wife xu?maeA good-bye xuz i t ' s going to be xuz A'aeeq i t is going to be here x u j x w i j t v i o l en t xux welem play ( a musical instrument) xulaekae f i nge r xui 33? raven xu i i I run away, f l e e ; escape xumt oar xuma$tqW33 rapids xumaSn? enemy xum A 'uk w r i ght away x u t j i n four xui? going x6\ A'u ce r t a i n xuai I x w fox xipxail br ing up a c h i l d xt'peel erect x(?xeke plan (v.) xiAxaeAtJ" al low x^AxiA w i l l i n g xinj" long xomaltqwa3? fas t water xetq make xekxft t e l l how xlkmm rule (regulat ion) xeknalj p r e d i c t ; desc r ibe , exp la in xekt jae?na3.f name a p r i c e xekili .fasten p r i ce x l k i n show (v.) xeqtjaem? make an o f f e r xeqtjsen? o f f e r (n.) xeq ' pay xe? high xePaekukpi God xe?dzaeq bee xe?wm down; low; below xazaSm somewhat large xezumjtum think highly of xezumjffij respect (v.) xezum enormous; large xexezum very big xeA co ld (adj.) x e l q ' i I x roi1 over xe lxe l s t rong; power xelxelaetqwae? rapid xe litnaej" i nvi te xe l \ Ix try hard xe l f n b e l l y xelumeluqw diame (ter x e l i n congratu late x e l m burn i t xeleq r o l l xalaq'ae r o l l e r xarrce'tem stup id xamae^ naem protest . xamaink heavy xema5n?mi njaSlaep f i gh t you xamaSn? enemy xam A ' u r ight away xanf?z33 long ago xatJpq'aeq' inkjt one hundred xatjxail t i e (v.) xatj" knot xatja1l?k t e s t i c l e s xat/aSn?33m t i e up xatjainasten anchor xat Jalnaamaex" anchor xa t j imj ka ziiq c o f f i n xau?winflx receive pardon xlwinkit j " lower l i p 255 x w ? i t numerous, many x w?itauJW? co s t l y x u ? f t w i t many people xw?fj"aej" refusal x w ? f Ja31 k surface x w?fu?Jam shallow xw?aez deny x w ?dz aej f o rb id x w ?ut finjq'ampj" f o r ty x w ? u t j i n four yuMi p l e n t i f u l x u ? o x u smell of xwm33n? enemy x u f t u j a ? expensive x w f t m j largest x uiknaSlq iron (n.) x w i k ' t a n kn i fe x w fk 'am preserved salmon x w i q w pa int ing x u i ? l i n look for xwftsxael give (v.) x w f l JaeJ refuse (v.) / x w / xwijfwaet owe x w33?zwflx erase (v.) x w a3j wash xwael p'ae?lk go over a mountain xw33A'dl mountain goat xwdzae disappear xwdzwalaem? l i gh t ( in weight) x wdts'sen dampen x w i t p i I za5noxw year x wtkmellx w smokehouse x w i I p turn (v.) x w U U p turned around fas t xwimina3Axw s tore xwtnae?mae Indian doctor xw<5/xwoJ strong currents churning x w a?ox w smells (v.) xwazaf? dress (v.) x wazdzamin ignored x w a j x u i faenae? smi l ing x w alxs l l burn (v.) x w a l f n stomach xwalaekae f inger x w a K p f i r e x wel n i j burn i t x w 4mA'u sudden xwem r i ght away x w 8 t s'flx t ry ing very x wets ' a n force /x/ XaSpten what brings us n ight ; west Xaep night XaSpaaJ at n ight ; tonight ya^ pae/ na5txw tomorrow evening Xafpaelmin evening y&A* xftaej" defend X u / i J foam (n.) Xuit s leep (v.) X u i t J mfnaej i n su l t Xe?e§?e loose (v.) XezmEemi nkae s lope Xezumekai?a3 big thumbs Xexzaezim large Xoxfik crab Xexut/in four X^lp burn Xo l x 9 'Jk 'exem strong wind X ^ l x 3 ' powerful Xe I X s 183 strange X e l f t over a mountain Xemaink heavy Xet jp fn trapped Xet/pae/q't one X^t/im box X l t j m t ry ing Xwa?? 11 m rope Xwdz83 disappear Xw^mxwom in a hurry X w 4zx wez sharp X w elxa3l burn anything X w s U n l i gh t i t (v.) hiweke?ae gloves haVPIae seen hai?u hot h3$l?haen show haSl?ha3nae born haeliu? eagle haSnik humpback salmon halwin? gopher; rat hu? going hin past hezhdziz hesitate heza5?xw melt heA cold /A/ AksSxw you AkaSAas ours AkaSlaep you Akunfae now; present Aq'aSlaep width Aqwa6?luJ weave Andkwa3j seldom AtJ<jqwa?J is the end Afk in examine AaepasnaSj" ext ingu ish Aafpin forget Aaektnaim depend upon Aaaqtlt bow (v.) Aae?Aaema$m c lose Aaixwaen get cured Aa?xw mend AaSut spine Aa!ula3qwce r a f t Auq'entjut undress AuxlaqJ snot Auxujam put a mask on AuAaq w ' naked At*? I nun reamer A L ? I i n ream A I J p rash Aim? st ingy A i t J heap (n.) Aiwaeltftan f a n A<5kmin beak of b i rd A o k w ' m p ie rce Aak' wide AaqaSlqJ" wide A a q w f l x r ide (v.) Aa?aelq wflx lean (v.) Aa?uja fac ing near AaxAux dense fores t Aaxfn s ca t te r Aaxwpaen hang Aam3?ka3?tin pocket AamaSlae b o t t l e Aamae'uA load (v.) Aawil leave AwilnaeJ l e f t a person Awaeltjtan autumn 261 Ittlnae over at lum blame (n.) 1f1tamj" grow up luts t i ght 1 iIq easy 11 pxa? 1 plant (v.) 1 fl?waeta3 L i l l o o e t people l i p i d / board 1 fu?tjaen open (v.) 1 ipnitaSJ" punish (v.) last i 1 L JwaS? inhabitant 1 ipnitaSJ" puni shment laeqae? d e l i c a t e 1 ip'xai 1 p lant ing l3$xwaelxin e lk 1 ip 'aen bury lcSx walxin toe 1 ix w f I x hide (v.) lasAx" church Ii l?q easy laS 1 u jae seagul l lapdt pot laam whiskey lataem tab le IsSmxal pray lakl i lack (v.) laftratu? sheep 1akl fhin home laln?ij a lready 1akdltan gamble wi th lalax winaej" destroy 1aqwdz blanket laewaen? hang ( a person) laxlaex memo ry laewa? sockeye 1 ax 1 ax wi se i ajaSm dev i 1 laXlalx c l e a r ; pure ( luq w dz blanket remember 1uJ break in pieces laXlaX smart luxluxam secret lahftsp o t t e r mfk' i l t jae fat mijaeltf bu i ld mfjan f i x mfrrtfJV? th in mfnitaej" g ra te fu l mfnaejti h imself mfnaej" them mfn twael of each other mft/aqmaeA s i t down mftjaeq s i t down mftjaeq s i t mftjaeq' s i t mf i / ten f ixed mii J x f t J i J made me mfijaen marked maetq walk; t rave l iraqfn ha i r mslq33? snow raSqae year mac^ aeA black bear rreeI i f married /m/ mae I ernpt Jxae I poison (v.) mslm?teq walk (v.) ma5n?xim smoke (v.) (tobacco) ma? i f f i x maSu w i l dca t ; cat maiwael l i v e ; a l i v e ; l i f e maewaelwfl?x revive maiwaen c r i t i c i s e mdzmit/sej" sympathize mdzmit p i t y maxmaSx l i gh t (n.) mdljtan poison mdljem cranberry maldJ"A'i?ae wolf matsulaenkm kidneys mdts'ulam in fect mutae aga in; a l so mdzmit poor mujmuj cow mujmij c a t t l e mijlxael d ipping mulxffi s t i ck s mi I?mfI? d i s t r i b u t e mi ImijIxaa s t i ck s mi I mi ml ex bushes mix .Ml wr i t i n g mi tJWtJen marching mt5km louse meq' f u l l ( a f ter eating) me?ex daybreak mezaltj body mexdz huck leberry;b lueberry mexeAaSnkxin bear foot mexwJ" maggot mexmix daybreak memdleluj" raccoon 264 nf/qfaam blow (one's nose) ni la? I imaet neck nfAtJae because nfA t i f i n i shed niA td that one na?txw tomorrow morning n£\xu&$ tomorrow naikxael replace naeku I i ? b u t t e r f l y nask' change (v.) nask'aslwiTnim rusty naiquoJim complain naeqw' s t e a l ; swindle naf/p'aent go back naS/xael b r ing ; send naSftf br ing i t nae/ ae?ttl ce lebrate nslxnum be l ieve naexan name (v.) nasx^Xt wo rm najxwlit snake haihin name / n / nainatx morning na3*nastxwtan what brings us morning; east naSna9taxw morning nukwaen help nukw'aemf n fas J" going with me;accompany nuk w 5 antj" help me (v.) nuVantJasJ" help (v.) nukw'aen defend; help nukw ,a?u?J f r iends nuqwasn help nuxwa? love (v.) nuwipki I umae? eyebrow, eyelash n ikekufn i t s tar niA t i ? that is a l l nimxae*! row (v.) naqnuq mild naq wdz s tea l nax w f t snake nalaeka shoulder / t s / tskaeltax" r ib tsemun suck tsqw'elp spruce tsewain dry f t s fk ten an t l e r t s i ? l 8 §mx w f nature t s i ? deer tsflae the way i t is tsflae seem tsflae A'u suppose tsaext brother - in - l aw tsaStsmiqJ great-grandparent tsdktae medical doctor tsuk thigh tsumk'fn bra in(s ) t sutsxo l snow shoes t s i k ' k w ' i n cone ts izuj" busy tsftspae? grandfather tseq'mfntwael s t i c k together tsezdj" busy tsezu/naej" i n t e r f e r e with t s s z u j i n bother teaman l i c k (v.) t s ' i p Jk'axem cold t s ' f laej way i t was t s ' f laejae the way i t is ts ' f lae l i ke ts'aeq' s o i l (v.) ts'aeq'an h i t the person ts'aeqwaln eat ts'ae?x shame ts'ae?A be c h i l l y ts 'aents'an grasshopper ts'aeu?xael panning t s ' d t an r a t t l e snake ts'uqumf?u?Jt Saturday t s ' u q w a z f i s h t s ' d z t s ' u z k ' l t scary ts'uxman tool sharpener ts 'uts 'axael snow shoes t s ' i p a z n ipple of breast t s ' tk j * f i n i shed t s ' i k ' f z almost ts ' ik wa§kae l e f t hand t s ' ^ k a disappear 266 / t s ' / t s ' i I t s ' f lae s im i l a r ts '11 t s ' f lae A'u at the same time ts'imtsamaeqJ" po in t ; sharp end ts'fmtsamaq'.f t r i ang le ts ' imts ' imaqJ" pointed ts'i*mts'ammaqJ" r ea l l y sharp t s ' i t s ' pae grandfather ts ' i t s 'paSu uncle t s ' i"ts'pa?ae great grandfather ts 'ok w ' 3 lkae sore on hand t s ' a ? xujmin ashamed of t s 'azuj " busy t s ' ax t s ' axam clean t s ' a l t s ' u l sour ts 'amts 'um rough ts'amts'amaqj" tough t s ' andz 1i t t l e f i s h t s ' awin wash (v.) ts'waen dry f i s h 267 /tj7 tjqu?aetj fa t t jA^Jpa rash t j l a5x in pack strap t j A ' f p J under t j i txumf camped t j f t x w house t j f kan chicken t j f ? t j u k w p u l l i n g tools t j f x w j reach t j i x w a r r i ved t J f x w i tas J went t j f x w a l u j foresee t j i l k f t f i v e t j i I k/taS/k'at Fr iday t J i I k J*q' amp / f i f t y t j i lkJq'ampJwika?Ae3j f i f t y - t h r e e t j f l a x crawl (v.) tjfnnaqan leader t j i n u k w i t j Chinook tjfnamqan leader t J* f "t J* 11 fresh ; new t j f t jak w ae p u l l i n g tool t faHaewaz cedar t ree , red cedar tJaSkae cooled tfaeqaA stabbed t.fa3?xw pl easure; happiness t fae?tJV?a§xw happy about something t.fa5?u bleed tfaVPwin s i l v e r salmon tjaej fee l tfaannunae Chinamen tjaeunae here tjaeeqin h i t with pointed f ingers tjae x w a l A'aSk were going t jd l jma s ickness tjutae s e l f t JutaeA son-i n-law tjutinwaef th ink, imagine; guess; hope t j u k j f i n i shed t juk complete, f i n i s h (v.) t j u k ' A 'u only tjukwaef j u s t only 268 tjuqunaej extend an object tjuwffiu?jin measuring t j u q w f i n i s h tjuwe?j belongs to tju?xael k ick (v.) tJtpas 1 fn c rad le basket t j u ? x u melt tjipa1nki.tjti.na3 summer camp t ju? f own tfiktfaek cool tjd?en kick (v.) tjf?wex d i s so l ve tJuAxael ind icate by po int ing tj i jutae des i re (n.) t J"uA33kae?kJ"q'emp J* seventy tj i lkutnae C h i l c o t i n tJuAaekal? seven tJilaeA lake t jumal?t f ch i l d ren tj im?p f i n i shed tJunAkaexw mention t J o t J o k w i t J cunning t Jdnas/ warm tJok w pu l l tJunaSm?xael cor rec t somebody tJo?xa5l k i ck ing t J u t J i n mouth tjeqtjae high va l l ey on a mountain tjutjuwafjtj same age t Jaqwaenuxw33 s ickness tJutJwaSJ even t j a q w ' t j a ? q w ' red tjuae? own (v.) t je?q tame (v.) t Juae?J owner t je?x w mfn care less tjuw33?j belong to t j e x w d i joke (v.) tjuw33?j belonging tjemaelt ch i l d ren t Juwae? own (adj .) tjawuwux creek t Juwae"? ux r i v e r tjwaljaen compare t Juwae Jem make a bet tjwa1u?jaen measure (v.) tjwaeu?xwae r i v e r / t j v t j ' saj expect someone to a r r i v e tj'afjxasl br ing something t J'ai I aA J A'u because, due to tJ 'e-q ' /ta i l i was tamed 270 A/ Axum deserve AxumJ" win i t Axun beat (v.) AseJ" za pfu?/ three weeks ago Aaexw mink ^^3n^mflx try (v.) Ae£u?J"an separate (v.) AuAaeJam g r i z z l y bear Aaqwa5mla3xw root 271 A'xum reward; winnings; success; v i c t o r y A'xumJ" wages A'xun win (v.) A ' ikaeVk ' thimbleberry A ' i q w she l te r A' iqw33ml33xw root A ' i ? tJ* repeat A ' fmin sinue A' faqxael take away A'ijalq'aen sna i l A'ask go A'aSkaeJ comes A'eSk'mm bridge A'aak' f lood (v.) A'aSkW33 f i l l e d A'aq cross over ; come A-'aSqae go through A-'aSquJ" pale A ' i q a came back A ' i q e J here A'asq' go across / A V A'aeq'nun na i l A'aeq'mokJtq'ampJ s i x t y A'aeq5 mo kjtq'ampJwi t J ' I k ft s i x t y - f i v e A'aeq'mokjt s i x A'aax sweet A ' a l x i l a t tack (v.) A'aeAnun glue (v.) A'aAaeq" sealed A'iAaem s a l t A ' a l stop (v.) A'aSI lax stopped A'aelu postponed A'aereemtin month; moon A'inamnaaf tast (v.) A'anaemflx attempt; r i s k (v.) A'aSnae ear A'aSnaemin try i t A'anamflx p rac t i s e (v.) A'anwfn bat (n. animate) A'aSA'imxw Douglas ( L i l l o o e t ) language A ' i A '1m x w i t J speak our own language 272 A A A A A A A-A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A aSut avoid (v.) ae A'u q w e?fu make progress d?z33 canoe az?u?i 133 big canoe az boa t a l b i t e (v.) uplaz f l e a upun twist uk'xael embrace (v.) uqxael suck (v.) uqtjaen k iss (v.) uquxae'l sew utj" chop utjxael cut i t uA'uk w separate uA'oxwem hard u J* samaSj bet ter u x w f ? lnup sweep I'pA'ipem dark i. pal? Jas marrow i paem deep (fke? support; mold (v.) A ' ik 'ae?U feather A ' lAp tremble A'dpasA quietens A 'Uq ' a l n tear (v.) A'<5xwin brush A'epA'spem i t ' s dark A'ak'aSk'at short A ' o q A ' i A ' a q weasel A'equ? sew by hand A ' e q u j m slap (on face) A'eq'aV?i I wing A'exum beat (v.) A'eAfmen spoon A'alai l remain fastened A'eA'alksa cont inue; always, repeatedly A'aA'aeks A'u always IM ikfjmae i n t e r i o r i nukwae moreover; other fqw 'tjasm shove (v.) i?33? ft Jut think great ly f nwaet say anything i A'uxJa3m?J screamed of onese l f fA'omt i s ing that f?ez enough, s u f f i c i e n t f?szsk Jo middle of i t f?ez A'u ju s t enough f?emB3tJ grandchi ld f?wa3? with someone f?waaj go wi th f?wij f i s h (v.) i z u ? i J beaut i fu l ( ref . person) i JaSkmae everything fjaau? chew fJwaeA loon fxip grow ixwAulmox fore ign fxuae? have none; need fxuae? jA ' f ?xan bare foot fxwae move fAin food flael crying,weep 274 / a / afpa c lose f r i end aims Jae/ s a t i s f i e d 33p' wi pe ama Upxaflten f e r t i l e ground atutj" panki 't/tne go to almawit good people summer camp aims wa?33mae fee l well i k w 3 3 l m i x w cedar root 33*n?waeJ" two a*kwi J where a?n?waejae ' v 1 rest for a boat 33?tuJ over there 33n?weJ"q'9mpJ* twenty aS?ku there aSn?weJq'empJwipaila3? twenty-one 8B?xa5u higher power a5n?wejq'emp fwian?waf twenty-two ar5?x33 strong aenTwaJij/im two kinds aS?hin see anjaij'k'et Tuesday here aets?aitsxen look over, check aezffim f e r t i l e aitsxen see ixnu n digging s t i c k altsxonaej sees i t aaxaip alas a5ts'qwaj" watching i l t s ' q 'as outs ide a i t s ' q w e j t a n f how i t looks na tu ra l l y a l U n a ? youngest aits 'xsmtin b inoculars ai 1 a Ja 1 rea l l y aits 'xsn no t i ce ; watch; see 3311 .falunae here aits'xsnsej saw i t aV?tJaen feed (v.) at/aixan armpit aimha good at/a iAts 'a i n s i des ; ins ide a a/mas good stomach at Jdeujxi n knee 33ut?iJl last aeu?tae.f at las t aSuxael choose aSutJ a f t e r a/utj" A'u t.fsS soon 276 az no az kaSti k w i n A'aem empty dz k WL J taxtax unjust dz k w i j taxtex ! t ' s not r ight dz k w i j ka qwaeluta3 can ' t ta lk dz k w i / ka xa?k33 doesn't 1isten or obey dz k w i J k ' f n k ' m i t safe dz k w i J ?3fmaeJ badly dz k w i j zazawaSt unknown dz k w i j J i l k p u J sober dz k w i j " xfn? soon dz k w i j* kfnA no longer dz k w uJ xa lxa l not s t rong; feeble dz k w t J lalk i t doesn ' t matter dz k w i j lax'^X f o o l i s h dz k w i J maewaem don't ta lk about people / a / dz k ut.f tjde?x u unhappy dz k w i j * t fut Juwae| uneven dz k w i j " fnwset s i l e n t ( ref . person) az k w i j aSrrae not good dz k wLJ uluj" no one e l se dz k w i j wae? absent az k w i j winsSx" f a l s e az? buy az Jxfn?J l a t e l y az Akunjaa not now dz A'uk kaanamf nothing happened to i t ; in tac t dz A 'u never dz A 'u kae*ti not at al 1 dz A 'u kaSlaa/tJ" qw'aSI not completely cooked dz A 'u k m kaS? nowhere dzuqwam revenge (n.) dxxaalae w h i t t l e dxmm reamer dljam s i c k , i l l ; get s i c k ; d isease / u / dqwae? drink (v.) uqw35?lmin t h i r s t y uqwa5l?min t h i r s t d?xwael?J go home d?min give i/?minaej o f f e r djtjae get r i d of uJ tJab/ threw i t away dxwaelmixw Indian people uxw33lmixwae*ltj" pub l i c bu i l d ing uxwaelmixw tmfx w Indian land dxwae1 home u x w e l m f x w t j any Indian language dywaeA go home uxwael homeward bound uAxw go ins ide u* Au J Jtu went back in dl only dluj* come d l u j i n add to ; mix (v.) dlujan gather d l o x w enter dmni?A g i f t dmik upstream dmin gone uts d ie dtsqaB came out dtsqae? go out dtszaen f i x ; cor rec t (v.) uts zalnaej f i x i t ( rev ise) uts'q'eS come out dts'q'33? Spring uts 'dts 'zaen r e f i x d t s ' e l e x absorb co lour L Jta?A lox standing ij*qwaqwam h i l l i /zuq corpse iJ7q w dxt feet i f t o k w i t J ignorant ij" hi?l33 d i s t i n c t iA talk meet inc lud ing everyth U?kdna where i11f'33 over here inp'sm/tan stove inkw'33tkwarri33 D'Arcy people i n?3$n?waj"aj" two of you in a5u?t11/ t rans l a te loi Qx?un cough <5lAxW33 go ins ide a?xaxxae"l confess a3?u?Ja3j egg azu?ij* pretty a/qcSqozffi? give b i r t h aJaSinae frame a j taq j carry an object in arms a j k'sexj" carry a person i n a rms " ax?un cough (v.) al?tja?una3 here alafntj" taste (sense of) alaSn touch (sense of) a I tu over there al k'u there a I tjeinae th i s al tjaei kil?aej a l i t t l e wh i1e ago amha1lqwam beaut i fu l ( re f . non-human) amnfA give an pIulktan smoke-hole /a/ anpslu swell up an p'ukmin gun powder ankalkal fo l low anksl? where ankdhaeu?/ r a i l r o a d ; t r a i n ankUqtJae l i z z a r d ank' faep coyote ank'aAaSnaetan sweathouse ankw'a?tkwae D'Arcy anqaxqaxk chipmunk a n q ' d i I i x swim (v.) an?uts'qa3? spr ing (v.) anzsl?xwffil dip (v.) an zafxintan pack basket anzalhaekae r i ght hand s ide anza5w?xa3l scoop out l i q u i d anfkdza? proud anfquzae my chi Id an xdzaektan hornet ' s nest an x d i ? t i n bed an xakmin law an xa?fIq opposite 281 enx w f?tem semen enhael haetj" groan enAs§m?ten container en Aepleqf turkey entsekw33k33? l e f t hand s ide entsexISBkm mountain peak ent|d?33 my own e n t / l q t j upright enutsk'33 springtime enwSeq hole etJaSAts'ae body 282 w f tae J what wix w q t l n comb wfnae?xu same wfnae?xw resemble wfnas?xwae same kind wine§xwtj aloud wfnaexwitj" speak same language wi nix wnun believe wikm wagon was? s t i l l ; e xist wi? paept do always wi? pixminjae i t is shaver wae? ke xdiAae can be done 1 i ke1y wi? ke xe?kae reasonable wae? zwit i t is known wae? Akunjae i t ' s now wae? fA s t i l l wiA'k' vomit (n.) wae A'xdm win (v.) wiA'ek vomit (v.) NI wae en qeldAts'ae bad tempered people wuqw'f drowned wuq w'il downstream wu?in have i t with you wu?inaej" keep wu?iu shout wuxwA sucker (fish) wi?in keep wij"x£?w group w i I q w i n open wmix w r e a l ; true winix wnun believe in wiA'k'ilten paddle wiA'ilten stop something from mov i ng wi J"texw have to avoid wi nuk'aem friendl y wopqjqdxae dog wox wtJ s a l i v a we ptTnu/im think about i t we plrik smoking (ref. a f i r e ) wet i k i lae? noble (adj.) 283 wa i f i t hunger (n.) weq s p l i t (v.) we qIfI angry weq'en shine weq w 'eq'em br ight we? kinaSje free to go we ?f?we to accompany we? alms fee l wel 1 we?a$u c a l l loudly we? dljem be s i ck (v.) we? ejmi 'tj i t is wr i t ten wexaS?J"kla3u? mountain beaver we zrijunim a r re s t we J t e q ' t J a f r a i d to show fear wej*nc'm?nim b l i n d wej sq w ' f l i g h t (of a b i rd) we Jims wi l?x becoming as a white man we x f l t t r an s fe r r i n g an Indian power we xfn? longtime we xd iA tJ sJ system we xezomjut honour we x w ?dzxitem forbidden we x w d i Jae J doesn ' t want i t we x we/taSnt/ut in teres t we hsl?h33nsj show something we lulim? j e a l o u s l y welwelujim l i gh tn ing we mfi fnsj* improvement we msqs? snow f a l l i n g we mets'ujem cheat someone we n s q u ' thef t we tseqp s t i cky we tseq dr ip we tsem?q w s ink ing into a substance we t s ' d z s k ' concern w^ts'wets'em soft we t j f x w s l u f prophet we Aixwxsl cure (n.) we f l s l weep we i nt JotinweJ* idea; thought (n.) 284 SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY Barnett, Homer G. The Coast Sa l i sh of B r i t i s h Columbia. Un ivers i ty of Oregon Press: 1955. "The Coast Sa l i sh of Canada", American Anthropo log i s t , kO: 118-141 (1938) ' Boas, Franz. " Sa l i shan Tex t s " , Proceedings of the American  Ph i losoph ica l Society 34: 31-48 (1895). "A Chehalis Tex t " , IJA1 8: 103-110 (1934). Boas, Franz and Herman Haeber l in . "Sound Sh i f t s in Sa l i shan D i a l e c t s " , UAL 4: 117-136 (1927). Ede l , May M. "The Ti l lamook Language", UAL 10: 1-57 (1939). Elmendorf, W. W. "Word Taboo and Lex ica l Change in Coast S a l i s h " , U A l 17: 205-208 (1951). Haeber l in , Herman K. "Types of Redupl icat ion in the Sa l i sh D i a l e c t s " , UAL 1: 154-174 (1918) . Kinkade, M. Dale "Phonology and Morphology of Upper Cheha l i s " , U A l 29: 181-195, 345-356; 30: 32-61, 251-260 (1963-64). "Vowel A l te rna t i on in Upper Cheha l i s " , UAL 32: 343~349 (1966). "Uvular-Pharyngeal Resonants in In ter ior S a l i s h " , UAL 33: 228-234 (1967). Kuipers, Aert The Squamish Language. Mouton: 1967. Newman, Stanley " B e l l a Coola I: Phonology", UAL 13: 129-134 (1947). 285 Ransom, Jay E l l i s "Notes on Duwamish Phonology and Morphology", UAL 11: 204-210 (1945). Reichard, Gladys A. "Coeur d 'A l ene " , Handbook of American  Indian Languages 3 (1938). "Composition and Symbolism of Coeur d 'Alene Verb-Stems", UAL 11: 47-63 (1945). "A Comparison of Five Sa l i sh Languages:I", UAL 24: 293-295 (1958). "A Comparison of Five Sa l i sh Languages: II, III, IV, and V" , UAL 25: 8-15, 90-96, 154-167, 239-253 (1959). "A Comparison of F ive Sa l i sh Languages: VI " , UAL 26: 50-61 (1960). Snyder, Warren A. Southern Puget Sound Sa l i s h : Texts , Place  Names, and D ic t ionary . The Sacramento Anthropolog ica l Soc iety : 1968. v Southern Puget Sound S a l i s h : Phonology and Morphology. The Sacramento Anthropolog ica l Soc iety : 1968. Swadesh, M. " S a l i s h Internal Re l a t i onsh ip s " , UAL 16: 157-167 (1950). " S a l i s h Phonologic Geography", L £ 28: 232-248 (1952). "Mosan I, A Problem of Remote Common O r i g i n " , UAL 19: 26-44 (1953). - "Mosan II, Comparative Vocabulary", UAL 19: 223-236 (1953). Tweddel l , Co l in E l l i d g e The Snoqualmie-Duwamish D ia lects of Puget Sound Coast S a l i s h . Un ivers i ty of Washington Press, 1950. Vogt, H. The Ka l i spe l Language. Oslo (1941). 

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