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Lucid madman in contemporary European drama : an analysis of four plays by Durrenmatt, Frisch and Camus 1971

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THE LUCID MADMAN IN CONTEMPORARY EUROPEAN DRAMA: An Analysis of Four Plays by DUrrenmatt, F r i s c h and Camus by VERA ANNE ROSENBLUTH B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 19&7 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Programme of Comparative L i t e r a t u r e We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, I97I In present ing th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of t h i s thes i s fo r s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives . It i s understood that copying or pub l i c a t i on o f th i s thes i s f o r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. £e£lx£f5 of Comparative Literature The Un ivers i ty o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Abstract Although the theme of madness has been of concern to w r i t e r s of a l l ages, there i s a percept i b l e change i n the madness of the dramatic character of the twentieth century from that of the past. This thesis i s an attempt to analyse that phenomenon as i t i s mani- fes t e d i n a number of characters of twentieth century drama. The i n t r o d u c t i o n contains a b r i e f o u t l i n e of the h i s t o r y of madness i n society, and a general discussion as to how i t i s r e f l e c t e d i n l i t e r a t u r e , from B i b l i c a l times to the present. I t i s found that w r i t e r s make l i t t l e attempt to explain the madness of a l i t e r a r y character, other than by a t t r i b u t i n g to him s p e c i f i c personal reasons f o r h i s behaviour; i . e . disappointment i n love. The characters of twentieth century drama. however, are found to be not "mad" i n the same way; t h e i r madness i s lin k e d to t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the re s t of s o c i e t y . Thus, a character who con- sid e r s the re s t of s o c i e t y mad, and acts i n a way which counteracts that s o c i e t y , i s considered mad by those around him. However, to the audience or reader, who are made to recognize the motives f o r hi s behaviour, the character i s not n e c e s s a r i l y mad, and i n f a c t i t may be, the playwright implies, that the people who accept the values of the s o c i e t y as absolute who are "mad." By d i s c u s s i n g p r i n c i p a l l y "madmen" of four recent dramas: Romulus der Groge (1956) and Die Physiker (I962) by F r i e d r i c h i i i Dlirrenmatt, Graf Qderland ( f i n a l v ersion 1 9 6 l ) by Max F r i s c h , and A l b e r t Camus' C a l i g u l a (lS>kk), as well as making peri p h e r a l references to other dramas i n the Conclusion, d e f i n i t e patterns of behaviour emerge. The "madman" i s judged i n ways which are not understood by h i s contemporaries. He i s generally more i n t e l l i g e n t , more perceptive than the other members of h i s society, and has perceived a t r u t h which i s hidden from others. In r e v o l t i n g against a s o c i e t y whose values he cannot accept, he i s making what he considers a p o s i t i v e step towards improving i n some way the q u a l i t y of l i f e , (in t h i s respect he i s perhaps d i f f e r e n t from "madmen" of previous l i t e r a t u r e who are presented as having chosen to opt out.) In each case the r e v o l t f a i l s , leading to chaos or a reimposition of the old system. Despite the f a i l u r e of the r e v o l t to achieve permanent change, each hero i s found to be an i d e a l i s t o b l i v i o u s to the r e a l i t y around him rather than a "madman." The breakdown of t r a d i t i o n a l l y accepted norms such as r e l i g i o n , has meant that i n the twentieth century there are no absolute stan- dards of behaviour. Sanity thus becomes a r e l a t i v e concept. This thesis attempts to explore that nebulous and s h i f t i n g area between madness and s a n i t y as i t i s r e f l e c t e d i n modern drama. i v T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 2 2. Romulus d er Grope: the mask o f the f o o l 27 3- D i e P h y s i k e r : t h e mask o f madness kO k. G r a f C-derland: t h e mask of a n a r c h y 57 5- C a l i g u l a : the mask of c r u e l t y 77 6. C o n c l u s i o n 93 -1- The L u c i d Madman i n Con t e m p o r a r y European Drama Or p e r h a p s t h e y o r d e r e d m e - - d i s p a t c h e d m e - - f o r c e d me t o do s o m e t h i n g w h i c h I c o u l d n ' t b e a r . No, t h e r e i s n o t a s i n g l e t h i n g w h i c h m i g h t n o t have happened t o me-- e v e r y t h i n g and even more t h a n e v e r y t h i n g i s p o s s i b l e . But suppose I am n o t i n a h o s p i t a l and n o t h i n g a b n o rmal has happened t o me. A l l r i g h t ... and y e t ... Oh, how many i n s a n i t i e s have I t a k e n p a r t i n ? Ohhh ... Even though I was t h e most h e a l t h y . . . t h e most r a t i o n a l The most b a l a n c e d p e r s o n O t h e r s f o r c e d me t o commit A t r o c i o u s a c t s , murderous a c t s , I n s a n e , m o r o n i c , and y e s , l i c e n t i o u s a c t s ... T h i s r a i s e s a s i m p l e q u e s t i o n : I f i n t h e c o u r s e o f s e v e r a l y e a r s a p e r s o n f u l f i l l s t h e f u n c t i o n o f a madman, i s he n o t t h e n r e a l l y a madman? And what does i t m a t t e r t h a t I am h e a l t h y i f my a c t i o n s a r e s i c k - - e h , . Johnny? B u t t h o s e who f o r c e d me t o commit t h e s e i n s a n i t i e s were a l s o h e a l t h y And s e n s i b l e And b a l a n c e d . .. F r i e n d s , companions, b r o t h e r s — s o much H e a l t h And s u c h s i c k b e h a v i o r ? So much s a n i t y And y e t so much madness? So much h u m a n i t y And y e t so much i n h u m a n i t y ? And what does i t m a t t e r i f t a k e n s e p a r a t e l y each o f us i s l u c i d , s e n s i b l e , b a l a n c e d , when t a k e n a l t o g e t h e r we a r e n o t h i n g b u t a g i g a n t i c madman... who f u r i o u s l y W r i t h e s a b o u t , screams, b e l l o w s and b l i n d l y Rushes f o r w a r d , o v e r s t e p p i n g h i s own bounds R i p p i n g h i m s e l f o u t of h i m s e l f ... Our madness I s o u t s i d e o u r s e l v e s , o u t t h e r e . . . T h e r e , t h e r e , o u t t h e r e . W i t h o l d Gombrowicz, The M a r r i a g e , A c t I I -2- C h a p t e r One: I n t r o d u c t i o n The man whose c o n s c i o u s n e s s does not c o r r e s p o n d t o t h a t o f the m a j o r i t y i s a madman; and the o l d h a b i t o f w o r s h i p p i n g madmen i s g i v i n g way to t h e new h a b i t o f l o c k i n g them up. G. B. Shaw F o r c e n t u r i e s , t h e theme o f madness has haunted man's i m a g i n - a t i o n , h o l d i n g a s p e c i a l f a s c i n a t i o n f o r p e o p l e who r e c o g n i z e t h e f r a g i l i t y and v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f t h e f a c u l t y of human r e a s o n . The c o n c e p t of madness, e x c e p t i n cases o f c l i n i c a l i n s a n i t y , i s always r e l a t i v e t o t h e s o c i e t y w h i c h d e f i n e s i t , and has changed and broadened c o n s i d e r a b l y o v e r the y e a r s , v a r y i n g i n degree and d e f i n i t i o n from f o l l y o r e x c e s s , t o extremism o f any k i n d . S i m i l a r l y , a t t i t u d e s t o madmen and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e image o f p e o p l e d e f i n e d as "mad" have a l t e r e d a g r e a t d e a l . The wide range o f mad f i g u r e s i n l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t s t h e c o n s t a n t p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e theme by w r i t e r s o f a l l c u l t u r e s and a l l a g e s . T h i s d i v e r s i t y o f c o u r s e a l s o r e f l e c t s t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n t r y i n g t o a r r i v e a t a c o n c l u s i v e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e term "madness." The i d e a l i s t i c e c c e n t r i c i t y o f Don Q u i x o t e , the b l i n d p a s s i o n o f Phedre, the g e n t l e i n s a n i t y o f O p h e l i a , the rage o f O t h e l l o a r e a l l r e f l e c t i o n s o f v a r i o u s f a c e s o f the p r i s m o f madness. These c h a r a c t e r s a r e a l l mad; t h e y have gone beyond t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f what i s a c c e p t e d as "normal" b e h a v i o u r . T h e i r c r e a t o r s were n o t conc e r n e d w i t h a c l i n i c a l s t u d y , but r a t h e r t h e i r s e n s i t i v e i n t u i t i v e i n s i g h t s i n t o human b e h a v i o u r were made w i t h o u t the a i d o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l a p p a r a t u s , and p r o v i d e perhaps a g r e a t e r e m o t i o n a l impact on the r e a d e r . Abnormal b e h a v i o u r i s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e , as t h e r e i s no c l e a r c u t d e f i n i t i o n o f normal o r i d e a l b e h a v i o u r . I t i s e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t because c o n c e p t s o f normal b e h a v i o u r change w i t h time and the s o c i e t y ; madness i s always r e l a t i v e t o the times and conduct of one's c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . H o r s t Geyer, i n w o r k i n g w i t h t h e problem o f i n s a n i t y i n l i t e r a t u r e , emphasizes t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m : Zwecks LOsung u n s e r e s Problems w i r d g e r n m i t dem B e g r i f f d e r Norm g e a r b e i t e t ; das h i l f t uns a b e r n i c h t w e i t e r . Was i s t denn "normal"? Der D u r c h s c h n i t t e i n e r B e v b l k e r u n g o d e r b e s s e r i h r d u r c h s c h n i t t l i c h e s V e r h a l t e n ? E i n s o l c h e r Mapstab w i r d s i c h im Grunde a l s e i n e p e t i t i o p r i n c i p i i e r w e i s e n . J a s p e r s h a t i n a h n l i c h e n Zusammenhang das W i t z w o r t z i t i e r t : "Normal i s t l e i c h t e r Schwachsinn."1 Of c o u r s e t h i s d e f i n i t i o n l e a v e s much to be d e s i r e d ; d e v i a t i o n from the a v e r a g e , s t a t i s t i c a l norm c o u l d be c r i m e o r g e n i u s as w e l l as madness. I n the 20th c e n t u r y , p s y c h o l o g i s t s have s u g g e s t e d s e v e r a l o t h e r c r i t e r i a w h i c h w i l l be u s e f u l i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f madness i n l i t e r a r y c h a r a c t e r s . P e r s o n a l adjustment, the degree t o w h i c h a p e r s o n can cope w i t h h i s problems, i s one i n d i c a t i o n o f normal b e h a v i o u r . However, i t i s i n a d e q u a t e as a d e f i n i t i o n b ecause i t does n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t the r e s t o f the community. James C. Coleman, a p r o f e s s o r o f p s y c h o l o g y i n Los A n g e l e s , makes an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t : -k- A large part of the normality or abnormality of a person 1s behaviour depends on whether i t furthers or blocks the needs and purposes of the s o c i e t y of which he i s a part. The behaviour of the successful c r i m i n a l i s considered abnormal, since i t hurts the group. So our norms must include the f a c t o r of s o c i a l adjustment: i n d i - v iduals should f i t i n with and contribute to the values, purposes, and a c t i v i t i e s of the group. But what i f the group condones concentration camps, or slavery, or r a c i a l prejudice? With the increasing knowledge of group behaviour supplied by the s o c i a l sciences, we have come to r e a l i z e that a s o c i e t y can be as " s i c k " as an i n d i v i d u a l . But there s t i l l are d i f f e r e n c e s of opinion as to what const i t u t e s the most d e s i r a b l e form of s o c i a l organization and what types of i n d i v i d u a l behaviour are^most conducive to group well-being and progress. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate to t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . A character who judges the r e s t of s o c i e t y insane, and acts i n a way contrary to that society's i n t e r e s t s i s judged insane by others. But the reader and audience, aware of the character's motivation, cannot be so quick to judge him. As commonly held a t t i t u d e s and opinions change, so does the l i n e which separates those who are "mad" from those who are not; a l i n e which i s often exceedingly f i n e . I t i s exactly t h i s f i n e l i n e with which t h i s essay w i l l d e a l . As a f i r s t step towards s e t t i n g the l i m i t s of t h i s discussion, I must state that I am not concerned with characters who are c l i n i c a l l y mad. I do not intend to discuss p s y c h i a t r i c d e s c r i p t i o n s of mania, schizophrenia, paranoia, h y s t e r i a , d e l i r i u m or the l i k e . The dramatic characters i n t h i s essay are a l l mad i n the eyes of s o c i e t y . But a c l o s e r examination of them reveals a mot ivat ion that i s c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d , and wi th which the audience viewing the plays i n quest ion g e n e r a l l y f ee l s some measure of sympathy. Hence the term " l u c i d madman." I t i s the quest ion of mot iva t ion which i s c e n t r a l to the problem as I intend to approach i t ; mot ivat ion on the part of the character to act as he does, and mot ivat ion on the part of the author i n us ing that p a r t i c u l a r f i g u r e . What does the "madman" do that i s so o f f ens ive or threatening to h i s contemporaries? What r e l a t i o n has h i s madness to what he says? And why does the author use him ra ther than another character to express h i s views? The image of a l u c i d and a r t i c u l a t e man who i s e i t h e r def ined as mad by s o c i e t y , or defines h imsel f as mad recurs again and again i n l i t e r a t u r e . This i s an important d i s t i n c t i o n from the manic depress ive , s ch i zophren ic , or other c l i n i c a l l y insane i n d i v i d u a l of p s y c h i a t r i c s t u d i e s . There are those who are a threat to s o c i e t y by t h e i r very percept iveness and awareness of what i s wrong wi th s o c i e t y . When s o c i e t y def ines someone as being mad, i t renders that person impotent; i t i n v a l i d a t e s h i s c r i t i c i s m and no longer has to deal wi th him as a v i a b l e f o r c e ; hence, f o r example, the p o l i c y of some d i c t a t o r i a l governments of d i s p o s i n g of p o l i t i c a l opponents by imprisoning them i n mental asylums. This i s one of the most e f f e c t i v e ways of s i l e n c i n g an i n d i v i d u a l , as those i n power do not c r i t i c i z e h i s ideas as such, but rather at tack h i s competence to expound them. W r i t e r s such as Anton Chekhov ( P a v i l i o n #6), V a l e r y T a r s i s ( P a v i l i o n #7), and P e t e r Weiss (Marat/Sade) a r e o b v i o u s l y c o n s c i o u s o f t h i s p roblem. The o t h e r s i d e o f t h a t c o i n i s the c h a r a c t e r who d e f i n e s h i m s e l f as mad i n some way, and f o r some p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e . An e x t e n t i o n o f the c o u r t j e s t e r known i n h i s t o r y and l i t e r a t u r e f o r c e n t u r i e s , t h i s c h a r a c t e r g a i n s a good d e a l o f freedom by h i d i n g b e h i n d t h e mask o f madness. The c o u r t f o o l c o u l d speak the t r u t h t o h i s master even when i t e x p r e s s e d c r i t i c i s m , and remain c o m p l e t e l y immune t o punishment. Shakespeare's Touchstone (As You L i k e I t ) i s a d r a m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s h i s t o r i c c h a r a c t e r . I n the two p l a y s by Durrenmatt d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s essay, the hero p l a y s the p a r t of t h e f o o l o r madman, t h e r e b y g a i n i n g freedom t o a c t as he wishe s , w i t h o u t b e i n g h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s a c t i o n s . The s e l f - d e n o t e d f o o l i s not e x p e c t e d to obey any code, and t h e r e f o r e can speak and a c t i n ways f o r wh i c h o t h e r s would be p u n i s h e d . I t might be u s e f u l a t t h i s p o i n t to s k e t c h b r i e f l y t h e a n c e s t r y o f the f i g u r e o f the madman as i t appears i n l i t e r a t u r e b e f o r e t r y i n g f u r t h e r to d e f i n e the f i g u r e as i t appears i n t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y l i t e r a t u r e . W h i l e f u l l y aware o f t h e p i t f a l l s o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , I i n t e n d t o l o o k b r i e f l y a t t h e way v a r i o u s s o c i e t i e s have r e l a t e d to madness, and how t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p found e x p r e s s i o n i n works of a r t . Passages i n the B i b l e r e f l e c t the a t t i t u d e s o f the a n c i e n t Hebrews to madness; mental d i s o r d e r s were a t t r i b u t e d to p o s s e s s i o n by -7- demons and e v i l s p i r i t s . I n Mark 5 : 1-13> t h e r e i s the s t o r y o f how C h r i s t h e a l e d a madman by t r a n s f e r r i n g the e v i l s p i r i t s t h a t i n h a b i t e d h i s body to h e r d of p i g s , which then r u s h e d i n t o a l a k e and were drowned. Madness was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d e v i l ( i . e . w i t h - drawal of God's p r o t e c t i o n ) , a n i m a l i t y and u n c l e a n l i n e s s . T h e r e i s a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f madness i n t h e B i b l e w h i c h i s more r e l e v a n t t o t h i s d i s c u s s i o n ; t h a t i s , C h r i s t ' s b e h a v i o u r i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s o c i e t y i n w h i c h he l i v e d . I n John 10: 20, we l e a r n t h a t some o f the Jews d i d c o n s i d e r him mad: "And many of them s a i d , He h a t h a d e v i l and i s mad; why h e a r ye him?" H i s b e h a v i o u r i n the temple, as r e p o r t e d by Mark, would t o d a y c e r t a i n l y r e s u l t i n h i s u n d e r g o i n g a p s y c h i a t r i c e x a m i n a t i o n : "And J e s u s went i n t o the temple and began t o c a s t out them t h a t s o l d and bought i n the temple, and o v e r t h r e w the t a b l e s o f t h e moneychangers and t h e s e a t s o f them t h a t s o l d doves, and would n o t s u f f e r t h a t any man s h o u l d c a r r y any v e s s e l t h r o u g h the temple" (Mark 2: ly-l6). From the p o i n t o f view of h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , he was mad; an under- s t a n d i n g o f the r e a s o n s f o r h i s a c t i o n s now r e s u l t s i n a d i f f e r e n t judgement. C l e a r l y , t h e c o n c e p t o f madness i s r e l a t i v e , d e p e n d i n g on the s o c i e t y which d e f i n e s i t . As Nedd W i l l a r d comments i n h i s work on g e n i u s and madness: Le g e n i e e t l a f o l i e s o n t des c o n c e p t s e t a b l i s p ar l a s o c i e t e en v e r t u seulement de l a d e f i n i t i o n q u ' e l l e a donne du comportement de l ' i n d i v i d u v i s - a - v i s d ' e l l e . E l l e p e u t en f a i r e des r o i s , des s a i n t s , des p r o p h e t e s ou b i e n l e s condamner a l a c a p t i v i t e e t aux c h a i n e s ; c ' e s t t o u j o u r s a l a s o c i e t e e t a e l l e s e u l e de f i x e r l e u r r o l e . Cependant, e l l e peut changer r a d i c a l e m e n t d ' a t t i t u d e . There a r e f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s t o madness and madmen i n t h e Greek and L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e s . The g e n e r a l view was t h a t madness meant p o s s e s s i o n by a h i g h e r s p i r i t . I t was common to a t t r i b u t e what would o t h e r w i s e be i n e x p l i c a b l e t o d i v i n e o r s u p e r n a t u r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . Madness was g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as a punishment by t h e gods f o r th o s e who had angered them i n some way. Thus, as George Rosen p o i n t s o u t i n h i s book Madness i n S o c i e t y , Phaedra's madness i s a t t r i b u t e d by E u r i p i d e s t o Pan, Hecate, C y b e l e and the C o r y b a n t e s i n H i p p o l y t u s . However, madness was a l s o sometimes a s i g n o f b e i n g chosen by a god t o s e r v e under him, o r t o have p a r t i c u l a r powers d e n i e d to o t h e r s . Rosen e x p l a i n s : Where madness i s c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e most p a r t as p o s s e s s i o n by a d i v i n e power o r b e i n g , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h e m e n t a l l y d i s o r d e r e d l i n k e d w i t h the s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d and viewed w i t h the awe i n s p i r e d by the m y s t e r i o u s and t h e i n e x p l i c a b l e . Because o f i t s l i n k w i t h t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l , m e n t a l derangement s e t t h e s u f f e r e r a p a r t from h i s f e l l o w s . The m e n t a l l y a f f l i c t e d i n d i v i d u a l might be c o n s i d e r e d i n a sense above o r d i n a r y men, even s a c r e d , f o r under a p p r o p r i a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s he might d i s p l a y e x t r a o r d i n a r y powers, i n c l u d i n g t h e g i f t o f p r o p h e c y . I t i s o n l y i n t h i s l i g h t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e gods and madness, t h a t one can a p p r e c i a t e r e f e r e n c e s t o madness i n Greek and L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e i r t r u e meaning. In The Manaechmus Twins, f o r example, P l a u t u s d e p i c t s the comic q u i p r o quos which r e s u l t when i d e n t i c a l t w i n s , unaware o f each o t h e r ' s e x i s t e n c e , a r e i n t h e same town (a s i t u a t i o n , i n c i d e n t a l l y , l a t e r t o be used by G o l d o n i i n A S e r v a n t of Two M a s t e r s and Shakespeare i n T w e l f t h N i g h t ) . I n the c o n f u s i o n o f m i s t a k e n i d e n t i t i e s , each t w i n i s a c c u s e d o f b e i n g mad, w h i l e t h e y themselves c o n s i d e r everyone e l s e mad. Manaechmus of S y r a c u s e f i n a l l y f e i g n s madness: "They s a y I'm i n s a n e . W e l l , i n t h a t c a s e, the b e s t t h i n g f o r me to do i s a c t t h e p a r t and s c a r e them away." He th e n p r o c e e d s to c a l l on Bacchus, God o f Wine, and A p o l l o from whom he p r e t e n d s to t a k e o r d e r s . D u r i n g the M i d d l e Ages, a c u r i o u s dichotomy e x i s t e d i n p o p u l a r a t t i t u d e s towards t h e Madman o r the F o o l ; the two were n o t c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . On one hand, the m e d i e v a l f a r c e s c r i t i c i z e d human f a u l t s i n a g e n e r a l way by d e n o u n c i n g t h e u n r e a s o n ( i . e . madness) w h i c h l e a d s p e o p l e a s t r a y ; madness was i n c l u d e d i n the h i e r a r c h y o f v i c e s . But, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , i t was o f t e n t h e f i g u r e o f t h e f o o l h i m s e l f who commented l u c i d l y on s o c i e t y . I n t h e words o f t h e F r e n c h c r i t i c M i c h e l F o u c a u l t : I n f a r c e s and s o t i e s , the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e Madman, the F o o l , o r t h e S i m p l e t o n assumes more and more i m p o r t a n c e . He i s no l o n g e r s i m p l y a r i d i c u l o u s and f a m i l i a r s i l h o u e t t e i n the w i n g s : he s t a n d s c e n t e r s t a g e as t h e g u a r d i a n o f t r u t h — p l a y i n g h e r e a r o l e which i s t h e complement and c o n v e r s e o f t h a t t a ken by madness i n t h e t a l e s and t h e s a t i r e s . I f f o l l y l e a d s each man i n t o a b l i n d - ness where he i s l o s t , t h e madman, on the c o n t r a r y , reminds each man o f h i s t r u t h . ^ -10- The m e d i e v a l c o u r t f o o l d e v e l o p e d from b o t h t h e Roman d w a r f - f o o l , whose p h y s i c a l o r me n t a l d e f o r m i t i e s were t h e cause o f so much m e r r i - ment, and the C e l t i c c l a i r v o y a n t . He had a b s o l u t e l i c e n s e t o c r i t i c i z e h i s master, s i n c e he was n o t thought r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what he s a i d . B a r b a r a Swain p o i n t s o ut t h a t t h e "freedom t o i n d u l g e i n parody and un e x p e c t e d t r u t h - t e l l i n g and t h e a d d i t i o n a l freedom t o be w a n t o n l y l i c e n t i o u s w i t h o u t i n c u r r i n g blame a r e t h e two p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e f o o l w hich made i t w o r t h t h e w h i l e o f normal men t o Q o c c a s i o n a l l y assume h i s r o l e . " T h i s w i l l c l e a r l y r e l a t e t o the d i s c u s s i o n o f th o s e c h a r a c t e r s i n modern drama who v o l u n t a r i l y don the mask o f madness. One cannot d i s c u s s t h e f i g u r e o f t h e f o o l i n l i t e r a t u r e w i t h o u t m e n t i o n i n g t h e g r e a t c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by Shake s p e a r e . The d r a m a t i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e f o o l a r e f u l l y r e a l i z e d i n t h e immortal f i g u r e s o f T o u chstone, F e s t e , and t h e F o o l i n K i n g L e a r . R e g a r d i n g t h e theme o f w i s e men p l a y i n g t h e f o o l , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t J a c q u e s , i n As You L i k e I t , has a s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n as Touchstone, i n t h a t he i s a l s o a s e n s i t i v e and p e r c e p t i v e commentator on t h e a c t i o n and t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t he as k s t h e Duke to make him an o f f i c i a l f o o l : I must have l i b e r t y W i t h a l , as l a r g e a c h a r t e r as t h e wind, To blow on whom I p l e a s e ; f o r so f o o l s have: And t h e y t h a t a r e most g a l l e d w i t h my f o l l y , They most must l a u g h . And why, s i r , must t h e y so? The why i s p l a i n as way to p a r i s h c h u r c h : He t h a t a f o o l d o t h v e r y w i s e l y h i t -11- Doth v e r y f o o l i s h l y , a l t h o u g h he smart, Not t o seem s e n s e l e s s of the bob; i f not, The w i s e man's f o l l y i s a n a t o m i z ' d Even by the s q u a n d e r i n g g l a n c e s o f t h e f o o l . I n v e s t me i n my motley; g i v e me l e a v e To speak my mind, and I w i l l t hrough and t h r o u g h C l e a n s e the f o u l body o f the i n f e c t e d w o r l d . I f t h e y w i l l p a t i e n t l y r e c e i v e my medicine.-' A t the same time, f o l l y was a v i c e , and madness sometimes a comic punishment f o r f o l l y . Sometimes f o l l y was e x p l a i n e d by e x c e s s knowledge o r f a l s e l e a r n i n g . The l i n k between madness and l e a r n i n g was n o t new to t h e M i d d l e Ages; the same i d e a i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e A c t s o f the A p o s t l e s X V I I : 2k: " P a u l , thou a r t b e s i d e t h y s e l f ; much l e a r n i n g d o t h make thee mad." Both Erasmus and S e b a s t i a n B r a n t , t h e two best-known exponents of f o l l y make e x t e n s i v e use o f t h e p r o b l c r e a t e d by too much l e a r n i n g . Towards t h e end o f t h e M i d d l e Ages and th e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e p e r i o d , t h e theme o f madness was b r o u g h t t o t h e f o r e . T h e r e was a f e e l i n g t h a t t h e o l d w o r l d was d i s i n t e g r a t i n g , b u t t h e shape the new o r d e r would t a k e was s t i l l v e r y u n c l e a r . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , s o c i e t y d e a l t w i t h madmen i n a v a r i e t y o f ways. Sometimes the c i t i e s assumed m i n i m a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h o u s i n g and f e e d i n g madmen; t h i s was p r i m a r i l y t o keep them out of t h e way of "normal" p e o p l e . U n t i l t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e i n s a n e were d i s p l a y e d p u b l i c a l l y ; f o r a f e e , t h e p u b l i c c o u l d come and see t h e s p e c t a c l e o f madmen c h a i n e d to the ground. I t was sometimes e a s i e r t o b eat them, s t o n e them, o r chase them out of the c i t y ; t h i s was n o t m e r e l y -12- a m a t t e r o f s o c i a l c o n v e n i e n c e , but the enactment o f a r i t u a l i s t i c e x i l e . Madmen were t h e s c a p e g o a t s o f s o c i e t y . M i c h e l F o u c a u l t w r i t e s a t l e n g t h about t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f embarking the madmen on s h i p s bound f o r d i s t a n t p o r t s , a custom w h i c h a t t r a c t e d t h e i m a g i n a t i o n s o f w r i t e r s and p a i n t e r s . He o b s e r v e s t h a t t o hand a madman o v e r t o s a i l o r s was to be pe r m a n e n t l y s u r e he would n o t be p r o w l i n g b e n e a t h t h e c i t y w a l l s ; i t made s u r e t h a t he would go f a r away; i t made him a p r i s o n e r o f h i s own d e p a r t u r e . But water adds t o t h i s t h e dark mass o f i t s own v a l u e s ; i t c a r r i e s o f f , b u t i t does more: i t p u r i f i e s . N a v i g a t i o n d e l i v e r s man to t h e u n c e r - t a i n t y o f f a t e ; on water, each o f us i s i n t h e hands o f h i s own d e s t i n y ; e v e r y e m b a r k a t i o n i s p o t e n t i a l l y t h e l a s t . . . . C o n f i n e d on the s h i p , f r o m w h i c h t h e r e i s no escape, the madman i s de- l i v e r e d t o t h e r i v e r w i t h i t s thousand arms, t h e sea w i t h i t s thousand r o a d s , t o t h a t g r e a t u n c e r t a i n t y e x t e r n a l t o e v e r y t h i n g . He i s a p r i s o n e r i n t h e m i d s t o f what i s t h e f r e e s t , t h e open e s t o f r o u t e s : bound f a s t a t t h e i n f i n i t e c r o s s r o a d s . He i s the Pas s e n g e r p a r e x c e l l e n c e : t h a t i s , t h e p r i s o n e r o f t h e passage . . . . wat e r and madness have l o n g been l i n k e d i n t h e 10 dreams o f European man. The S h i p o f F o o l s ( w i t h t h e t r e e o f knowledge as i t s masthead), became a v e r y p o p u l a r image. I t s best-known r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a r e p a i n t i n g s o f Hieronymus Bosch (1^50 to 1510), as w e l l as B r a n t ' s N a r r e n s c h i f f (lhyk), a l t h o u g h i t was a theme used by i n n u m e r a b l e o t h e r a r t i s t s . P a r t myth, p a r t r e a l i t y , the s h i p was t y p i c a l l y s a i l e d by a crew o f s t e r e o t y p e d f i g u r e s i n s o c i e t y . T h e i r s was, o f c o u r s e , a s y m b o l i c voyage i n s e a r c h o f t h e i r r e a s o n , o r some -13- b a s i c human t r u t h . F o r B r a n t , f o l l y was s i m p l y e r r i n g from D i v i n e law, and was t h e r e f o r e u n e q u i v o c a b l y c u l p a b l e . H i s " N a r r e n s c h i f f " i s s a i l e d by p e o p l e who, because of t h e i r s t u p i d i t y and s h o r t s i g h t e d n e s s , seek h a p p i n e s s on e a r t h r a t h e r t h a n i n s a l v a t i o n . A l l s i n s such as r i o t o u s s e n s u a l i t y , p r i d e , m o r a l c o r r u p t i o n a r e forms of f o l l y ; the F o o l i s the Wicked Man. B r a n t was e s s e n t i a l l y a r e l i g i o u s m o r a l i s t ; he d i d not q u e s t i o n e x i s t i n g s t a n d a r d s o f m o r a l i t y , but r e v e r e d and defended the a c c e p t e d t r a d i t i o n s . W h i l e madness was o n l y one o f t h e v i c e s i n the M i d d l e Ages, Erasmus, the g r e a t R e n a i s s a n c e humanist, has F o l l y , p e r s o n i f i e d i n S t u l t i t i a , l e a d i n g the dance o f human f a u l t s i n h i s famous In P r a i s e of F o l l y (1512) . As i n t h e m e d i e v a l f a r c e s , the f o o l i s h n e s s o f men o f l e a r n i n g who occupy themselves more w i t h books t h a n w i t h l i f e i s emphasized by the c a r i c a t u r e s of grammarians, p o e t s , r h e t o r i c i a n s , w r i t e r s , j u r i s t s , p h i l o s o p h e r s , and t h e o l o g i a n s . V e r y d i f f e r e n t i n tone from t h e somber, p r e a c h i n g mood o f B r a n t ' s work, In P r a i s e o f F o l l y i s a s e n s i t i v e c o m b i n a t i o n o f w i t , wisdom, humanism and t o l e r a n c e . Erasmus managed to b l e n d t h e main q u a l i t i e s o f the f o o l as a s i n n e r , merry-maker, p r o t e c t e d c r i t i c o f s o c i e t y and t r u t h - t e l l e r i n a m a g n i f i c e n t work o f s u b t l e i r o n y . The i r o n y a r i s e s from the s y n t h e s i s o f f o l l y and wisdom, of j o k i n g and s e r i o u s n e s s , i n the p e r s o n of S t u l t i t i a . By h a v i n g F o l l y p r a i s e h e r s e l f , d r e s s e d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l cap and b e l l s , - 1 4 - Erasmus p r e s e n t s h i s r e a d e r s w i t h what seems to be a v e r y i n v o l v e d problem, w h i c h W a l t e r K a i s e r t r i e s to u n t a n g l e : F o r the p r a i s e o f f o l l y , b e i n g a mock p r a i s e , i s i n f a c t t h e c e n s u r e of f o l l y ; b u t i f F o l l y i s thus c e n s u r i n g f o l l y , Wisdom would presumably p r a i s e f o l l y . Or, t o l o o k a t i t from a n o t h e r a n g l e , i f the p r a i s e o f f o l l y i s , by i t s m o c k - e n c o m i a s t i c n a t u r e , a c t u a l l y the p r a i s e o f wisdom, F o l l y must be p r a i s i n g wisdom. But i f F o l l y p r a i s e s wi|dom, then wisdom would presumably c e n s u r e wisdom. F o r B r a n t , wisdom was p r e p a r i n g i n an o r g a n i z e d way f o r s a l v a t i o n ; t h e r e f o r e , l i v i n g a l i f e i n complete a c c o r d w i t h the e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l and d i v i n e o r d e r . But Erasmus' i d e a s were f a r more s u b t l e and complex. Even those e d u c a t e d "wise" men such as t h e o - l o g i a n s a r e f o o l i s h i f t h e y a r e m o t i v a t e d by p e t t y a m b i t i o n r a t h e r than a g e n u i n e s e a r c h f o r s p i r i t u a l t r u t h . "Wise" men a r e f o o l i s h i f t h e y do not t a k e j o y i n l i v i n g , i f t h e y misuse t h e i r power o r t h e i r g i f t o f r e a s o n . A c c o r d i n g to S t u l t i t i a , i t i s f o o l i s h t o be w i s e , and the t r u l y w i s e a r e f o o l i s h . Thus, w h i l e B r a n t condemned f o l l y o u t r i g h t , Erasmus r e g a r d e d i t as an i n h e r e n t p a r t o f human n a t u r e . N a t u r e , which, by d e f i n i t i o n i n c l u d e s f o l l y , t o g e t h e r w i t h the r i g h t use o f r e a s o n , form the b a s i s o f Erasmus' humanism. Death was c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f madness; the g r o t e s q u e and mad f a c e s i n the p a i n t i n g s o f Bosch and B r e u g h e l the E l d e r (1525 to I560) t e s t i f y t o t h a t . To quote F o u c a u l t a g a i n : -15- Up to the second h a l f of the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y o r even a l i t t l e beyond, the theme of d e a t h r e i g n s a l o n e . The end of man, t h e end o f time bear the f a c e o f p e s t i l e n c e and war. What overhangs human e x i s t e n c e i s t h i s c o n c l u s i o n and t h i s o r d e r from w h i c h n o t h i n g e s c a p e s . The p r e s e n c e t h a t t h r e a t e n s even w i t h i n t h i s w o r l d i s a f l e s h l e s s one. Then i n the l a s t y e a r s o f the c e n t u r y t h i s enormous u n e a s i n e s s r e p l a c e s d e a t h and i t s s o l e m n i t y . . . . Death's a n n i h i l a t i o n i s no l o n g e r a n y t h i n g because i t was a l r e a d y e v e r y t h i n g , because l i f e i t s e l f was o n l y f u t i l i t y , v a i n words, a s q u a b b l e of cap and b e l l s . The head t h a t w i l l become a s k u l l i s ^ a l r e a d y empty. Madness i s the d e j a - l a o f d e a t h . T h i s l i n k between madness and d e a t h i s l a t e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n many o f Shakespeare's dramas which i n v o l v e i n s a n e o r d i s t r a u g h t c h a r a c t e r s . W h i l e the f o o l p l a y e d a r o l e i n some o f the comedies, Shakespeare's most p o w e r f u l t r a g e d i e s i n v o l v e c h a r a c t e r s who have l o s t t h e i r r e a s o n ; t h u s , f o r example, L e a r , O p h e l i a , O t h e l l o , Lady Macbeth, to name o n l y th e most o b v i o u s . T h e i r madness i s beyond a p p e a l , t h e i r r e a s o n i r r e t r i e v a b l e . The o n l y r e l i e f f o r them i s d e a t h . A n o t h e r e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t o f the R e n a i s s a n c e a t t i t u d e was the freedom t h a t madmen had to wander a b o u t . Madness was a c c e p t e d , and i t p e r v a d e d a l l a s p e c t s o f l i f e . C e r v a n t e s ' immortal Don Q u i x o t e t y p i f i e d t h i s freedom; f o r o v e r k^O y e a r s he has p e r s o n i f i e d a g e n t l e , i d e a l i s t i c i n s a n i t y woven i n t o Western man's i m a g i n a t i o n and c u l t u r e . I n the s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , t h e c o n c e p t o f i n s a n i t y changed c o n s i d e r a b l y , and t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f t h a t p e r i o d o f c o u r s e r e f l e c t e d t h a t change. S t r i p p e d o f i t s m y t h i c a l and s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e , madness was d e f i n e d as a s o c i a l e v i l and t r e a t e d as s u c h . In I656, t h e f o u n d i n g o f the H o p i t a l G e n e r a l i n P a r i s marked a d e c i s i v e -16- change i n s o c i e t y ' s a t t i t u d e to i n s a n i t y . The Shi p o f F o o l s no l o n g e r took madmen from town to town; h o s p i t a l s i n s u r e d t h a t t h e y be con- f i n e d and o f t e n c h a i n e d i n one p l a c e . Thus madness o r unr e a s o n was shameful, something t o be h i d d e n away. I t must be emphasized t h a t madmen were c o n f i n e d n o t because t h e y were t o be t r e a t e d as s i c k p e o p l e , and perhaps c u r e d . R a t h e r t h e y were i m p r i s o n e d , a l o n g w i t h the poor, unemployed and c r i m i n a l s , t o be k e p t o ut o f s o c i e t y . F a r from b e i n g a m e d i c a l c e n t r e , t h e H o p i t a l G e n e r a l was an arm o f the c o u r t s and the monarchy, and had a g r e a t d e a l o f power to c o n f i n e p e o p l e a t the d i s c r e t i o n o f i t s d i r e c t o r s . Madmen were t r e a t e d e x a c t l y l i k e a n i m a l s , b e a t e n and subdued; h i d i n g away madmen was a t t h a t p o i n t p o l i t i c a l l y e x p e d i e n t . C l e a r l y t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r g r o u p i n g t h e s e v a r i o u s o u t c a s t segments o f s o c i e t y t o g e t h e r has a l o t t o say about t h e p h i l o s o p h y and m o r a l i t y o f the p e r i o d . The tendency t o blame s o c i a l d i s o r d e r s a r i s i n g from t h e poor economic c o n d i t i o n s on b e g g i n g and i d l e n e s s was w i d e s p r e a d . S i n c e madmen were o b v i o u s l y u n p r o d u c t i v e , t h e y were c o n f i n e d and attempts made to f o r c e them to work; i d l e n e s s was the g r e a t s i n o f the p e r i o d . Because t h e mad c o u l d n o t work, and c o u l d n ot adapt themselves t o t h e s o c i a l o r d e r , t h e r e was an e t h i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r c o n f i n i n g them i n the eyes o f s o c i e t y . F o u c a u l t e x p l a i n s : I f t h e r e i s , i n c l a s s i c a l madness, something w h i c h r e f e r s e l s e w h e r e and to o t h e r t h i n g s , i t i s no l o n g e r because t h e madman comes from th e w o r l d o f the i r r a t i o n a l and b e a r s i t s -17- s t i g m a t a ; r a t h e r , i t i s because he c r o s s e s the f r o n t i e r s o f b o u r g e o i s o r d e r o f h i s own a c c o r d and a l i e n a t e s h i m s e l f o u t s i d e the s a c r e d l i m i t s o f i t s e t h i c . 1 3 The m e d i e v a l custom o f d i s p l a y i n g madmen f l o u r i s h e d i n the s o - c a l l e d Age o f Reason. S p e c t a c l e s i n v o l v i n g t h e i n s a n e were common, r e p l a c i n g t h e f a r c e s i n which F o l l y was m e r e l y p o r t r a y e d . The famous p l a y s put on by t h e inmates o f Charen t o n were not t h e r a p e u t i c psycho-dramas b e f o r e t h e i r time, b u t r a t h e r pure s p o r t f o r s p e c t a t o r s . The most famous o f Charenton's inmates was t h e M a r q u i s de Sade who, by h i s l i f e and work, i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t any age has i n d e c l a r i n g a man i n s a n e . He w r o t e p a s s i o n a t e l y a g a i n s t s o c i e t y and p a r t i c u l a r l y a g a i n s t r e l i g i o n . H i s c h a r a c t e r s a r e o b s e s s e d w i t h p h y s i c a l p l e a s u r e s , and l o v e to cause s u f f e r i n g to o t h e r s . I n h i s w r i t i n g s , de Sade c l a i m s t h a t man i s b a s i c a l l y e g o t i s t i c a l and b e s t i a l by n a t u r e , and to t r y to make him obey m o r a l codes and to have c o n c e r n f o r o t h e r s i s t o go a g a i n s t n a t u r e . Nedd W i l l a r d p u t s i t as f o l l o w s : . . . ses personnages s o n t completement f o u s , s i on l e s juge d'apres l e s c r i t e r e s de l e u r s o c i e t e e t de l e u r epoque ( l e s s e u l s c r i t e r e s p o s s i b l e s ) . I l s s o n t o u t r e s dans tous l e u r s a c t e s e t d e b r i d e s dans l e u r s e n s u a l i t e . I l s s o n t , pour l e moins, i n s o c i a b l e s , e t ne p a r t a g e n t n i l a m o r a l i t e n i l a c o n d u i t e de l a p l u p a r t de l e u r s con,citoyens . . . . A d e f a u t d'une s o c i e t e u n i v e r s e l l e , l e s moeurs l o c a l e s d e t e r m i n e n t l a f o l i e dans l e s a c t e s des p a r t i c u l i e r s . E t s i l a s o c i e t e f r a n c a i s e du X V I I I e s i e c l e a v a i t eu c o n n a i s s a n c e des i d e e s e t des i n t e n t i o n s des personnages de Sade, e l l e l e s a u r a i t f a i t enfermer comme f o u s -18- dangereux. Ce ne s e r a i t pas l a p r e m i e r e f o i s que l a s o c i e t e e n f e r m e r a i t un homme p r o t e s t a n t q u ' i l n ' e s t pas f o u , mais g e n i a l . . . . . . . n i Sade n i ses personnages ne s o n t f o u s dans l e sens v u l g a i r e du terme, c ' e s t - a - d i r e p a r manque du sense de l a r e a l i t e ou par p e r t e de l a f a c u l t e de r a i s o n n e r . . . . Ce s o n t des hommes t r e s i n t e l l i g e n t s q u i ont perdu l a f o i dans l a m o r a l i t e commune e t q u i e s s a i e n t de se t r o u v e r ou de se p e r d r e dans des ivress<=|3 que l a s o c i e t e r e p r o u v e e t q u a l i f i e de f o l l e s . "0 que l e g e n i e e t l a f o l i e se t o u c h e n t de b i e n p r e s l " w rote V o l t a i r e thus e x p r e s s i n g s u c c i n c t l y a v e r y o l d i d e a . Men who b e l i e v e d so de- v o u t l y i n the f a c u l t y o f r e a s o n , such as V o l t a i r e , P a s c a l and D i d e r o t thought t h e m a t t e r v e r y s i m p l e : the ge n i u s a r r i v e d a t h i s c o n c l u s i o n s t h r o u g h a l o g i c a l p r o c e s s o f r e a s o n i n g ; the madman i s governed by h i s i m a g i n a t i o n and p a s s i o n . D e s p i t e t h i s a g e - o l d f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the theme, modern p s y c h o l o g y has s c i e n t i f i c a l l y d i s - p r o v e d t h e n o t i o n t h a t g e n i u s and c r e a t i v i t y a r e l i n k e d w i t h mental l 6 i l l n e s s . S t u d i e s o f g i f t e d p e o p l e have shown t h a t t h e r e i s no n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y towards m e n t a l i l l n e s s . P a s s i o n has l o n g been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h madness; p a s s i o n a t e l o v e , h a t e , t h i r s t f o r revenge, may l e a d e v e n t u a l l y to d e l i r i u m . Indeed, d e l i r i u m c o r r e s p o n d s c l o s e l y w i t h a c l a s s i c a l d e f i n i t i o n o f madness. Even some o f M o l i e r e ' s comic c h a r a c t e r s , such as Harpagon and A l c e s t e a r e d r i v e n a l m o s t i n s a n e by t h e i r o b s e s s i o n , c o n t r a v e n i n g a l l laws o f " p r o p e r " b e h a v i o u r . Because o f the i n t e n s e , e m o t i o n a l s t r a i n , t h e s e v i c t i m s o f t h e i r own p a s s i o n , b o t h comic and t r a g i c , r e a c h a s t a t e beyond r e a s o n , i n wh i c h what t h e y r e g a r d as t h e t r u t h may n o t -19- c o r r e s p o n d to r e a l i t y . They a r e , l i t e r a l l y , b l i n d e d to r e a s o n , d a z z l e d by the i n t e n s i t y and e x t e n t o f t h e i r e m o t i o n s . The famous F r e n c h E n c y c l o p e d i e t y p i f i e d the c u r r e n t a t t i t u d e s t o madness when i t s w r i t e r s a t t r i b u t e d madness t o i n t e n s e p a s s i o n . Nedd W i l l a r d w r i t e s : L a i s s e r l i b r e c o u r s aux p a s s i o n s e s t d ' a u t a n t p l u s grave q u ' e l l e s r i s q u e n t de d e v e n i r des formes a h u r i s s a n t e s de l a f o l i e . I l f a u t t r a i t e r t o u t e p a s s i o n exageree comme une forme de f o l i e p l u s ou moins a i g u e . ^ D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e r e was no l i n k between madness and h e a l i n g . D o c t o r s were i n v o l v e d i n the c a r e o f the i n s a n e , b u t t h e i r r o l e was to p r o t e c t "normal" p e o p l e from t h e inmates o f the asylums, r a t h e r t h a n t o c u r e those u n f o r t u n a t e s . It.was not u n t i l much l a t e r t h a t t h e a r e a s o f e v i l and m e n t a l i l l n e s s were d i s t i n g u i s h e d one from the o t h e r . To quote F o u c a u l t a g a i n : I t i s i n t h e r e a l m o f t h e f a n t a s t i c and n o t w i t h i n the r i g o r o f m e d i c a l thought t h a t u n r e a s o n j o i n s i l l n e s s and draws c l o s e r to i t . Long b e f o r e t h e problem o f d i s c o v e r i n g t o what degree the u n r e a s o n a b l e i s p a t h o l o g i c a l was f o r m u l a t e d , t h e r e had formed, i n t h e space o f confinement and by an alchemy p e c u l i a r to i t , a melange combining t h e d r e a d o f u n r e a s o n and t h e o l d s p e c t e r s o f d i s e a s e . From a g r e a t d i s t a n c e , t h e o l d c o n f u s i o n s about l e p r o s y f u n c t i o n e d once a g a i n and i t i s the v i g o r o f t h e s e f a n t a s t i c themes which was the f i r s t a g ent o f s y n t h e s i s between t h e w o r l d o f u n r e a s o n and t h e m e d i c a l u n i v e r s e . In t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y f o r t h e f i r s t time t h e r e was a s o c i a l o u t c r y a g a i n s t the t r e a t m e n t o f t h e i n s a n e , a g a i n s t t h e f a c t t h a t m e n t a l i l l n e s s was t r e a t e d as a c r i m e r a t h e r than as a d i s e a s e . -20- I r o n i c a l l y , the o u t c r y s t a r t e d among p r i s o n e r s who r e s e n t e d b e i n g c o n f i n e d w i t h madmen and e p i l e p t i c s . P e o p l e such as Samuel Tuke and S c i p i o n P i n e l s t a r t e d the men t a l asylums which marked t h e b e g i n n i n o f a new approach t o madness; c h a i n s were removed, and the p a t i e n t s p e r m i t t e d t o wander r e l a t i v e l y f r e e l y w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s o f the asylum. R e l i g i o n p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e as a c u r e . The p h y s i c i a n , a t the head o f the asylum, was a f i g u r e o f a u t h o r i t y and o f j u s t i c e r a t h e r t h a n a m e d i c a l s p e c i a l i s t . T h i s was, however, t h e b e g i n n i n g o f modern p s y c h i a t r y . The p h y s i c i a n would t r y t o u n d e r s t a n d a pe r s o n ' p roblem and t r y to r e s t o r e h i s r e a s o n ; i . e . a c c e p t a n c e o f the s o c i a l and m o r a l o r d e r . T h i s l e d to the view o f t h e p h y s i c i a n as a v e r y p o w e r f u l f i g u r e , a c o n c e p t w h i c h F r e u d p e r p e t u a t e d and d e v e l o p e d more f u l l y i n the p e r s o n o f t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t . Of c o u r s e t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n by Sigmund F r e u d t o a modern view o f i n s a n i t y i s i n c a l c u l a b l e . The f a t h e r o f p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , he d e v e l o p e d a new method o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n by s e a r c h i n g f o r u n c o n s c i o u s m o t i v e s and t e n d e n c i e s i n the p a t i e n t , and a n a l y s i n g them i n the l i g h t o f t h a t p a t i e n t ' s p a s t , p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s c h i l d h o o d . F i n a l l y m e n t a l i l l n e s s was r e c o g n i z e d as such and d e a l t w i t h m e d i c a l l y A g a i n , l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t s t h i s development; i n a number o f dramas o f t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p s y c h i a t r i s t s and p a t i e n t s i s e f f e c t i v e l y p a r o d i e d . The d i s c u s s i o n s between D r . Grlin, the F r e u d i a n , and Dr. B i d e l l o , the n o n - F r e u d i a n i n S t a n i s l a w W i t k i e w i c z ' The Madman and t h e Nun (I923) a r e p a r t i c u l a r l ; humorous. In P i r a n d e l l o ' s Henry IV (1922), D r . D i o n y s i u s Genoni i s -21- a somewhat r i d i c u l o u s p s y c h i a t r i s t who attempts t o c u r e Henry by r e c o n s t r u c t i n g h i s p a s t . The madness of t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y s o c i e t y has a l m o s t become a c l i c h e . Two w o r l d wars, and the f a i l u r e t o r e s t o r e o r d e r a f t e r t h e chaos, shook European c u l t u r a l l i f e t o i t s f o u n d a t i o n s ; m e n t a l and s p i r i t u a l s t a b i l i t y were undermined. In s p e a k i n g about t h e s o c i e t y w hich f o s t e r e d the T h e a t r e o f th e Absurd, M a r t i n E s s l i n w r i t e s : The h a l l m a r k o f t h i s a t t i t u d e i s i t s sense t h a t the c e r t i t u d e s and u n s h a k a b l e b a s i c assumptions o f f o r m e r ages have been swept away, t h a t t h e y have been t e s t e d and f o u nd w a n t i n g , t h a t t h e y have been d i s c r e d i t e d as cheap and somewhat c h i l d i s h i l l u s i o n s . The d e c l i n e o f r e l i g i o u s f a i t h was masked u n t i l t h e end o f the Second World War by the s u b s t i t u t e r e l i g i o n s o f f a i t h i n p r o g r e s s , n a t i o n a l i s m and v a r i o u s t o t a l i t a r i a n f a l l a c i e s . A l l t h i s was s h a t t e r e d by t h e war. By 19̂ -2, A l b e r t Camus was c a l m l y p u t t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n why, s i n c e l i f e had l o s t a l l meaning, man s h o u l d n o t seek escape i n s u i c i d e . ' The i n c r e d i b l e advances i n s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y have l e d to p r e v i o u s l y undreamed-of power i n a t o m i c and n u c l e a r weapons, con- c e n t r a t e d i n t h e hands of a few men who know n o t h i n g about s c i e n c e , b u t who have the power to e l i m i n a t e an e n t i r e c i v i l i s a t i o n . Man no l o n g e r f e e l s i n c o n t r o l o f h i s d e s t i n y . T h i s mass age has c r e a t e d new problems f o r th e i n d i v i d u a l : t h e r e a r e tremendous p r e s s u r e s on him to conform, to be l i k e t h e o t h e r s , and i n d i v i d u a l s a r e o f t e n submerged. There seems to be no u n i f y i n g , c o h e s i v e p r i n c i p l e to g u i d e men. -22- I n such a s o c i e t y i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e w r i t e r i s drawn to the theme o f madness, w h i c h he t r i e s t o r e d e f i n e , a s s e s s , and i l l u m i n a t e . In One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, Ken Kesey p r e s e n t s r e a d e r s w i t h a g r a p h i c image of the anonymity o f mass s o c i e t y . The C h i e f , judged mad by s o c i e t y , makes o b s e r v a t i o n s about s o - c a l l e d "normal" s o c i e t y when he emerges from the asylum f o r t h e f i r s t time i n y e a r s : A l l up the c o a s t I c o u l d see the s i g n s of what the Combine had a c c o m p l i s h e d s i n c e I was l a s t t h r o u g h t h i s c o u n t r y , t h i n g s l i k e , f o r e x a m p l e — a t r a i n s t o p p i n g a t a s t a t i o n and l a y i n g a s t r i n g o f f u l l - g r o w n men i n m i r r o r e d s u i t s and machined h a t s , l a y i n g them l i k e a h a t c h of i d e n t i c a l i n s e c t s h a l f - l i f e t h i n g s coming p h t - p h t - p h t out o f the l a s t c a r , t h e n h o o t i n g i t s e l e c t r i c w h i s t l e and moving on down the s p o i l e d l a n d to d e p o s i t a n o t h e r h a t c h . Or t h i n g s l i k e f i v e thousand houses punched out i d e n t i c a l by a machine and s t r u n g a c r o s s the h i l l s o u t s i d e of town, so f r e s h from the f a c t o r y t h e y ' r e s t i l l l i n k e d t o g e t h e r l i k e sausages, a s i g n s a y i n g "NEST IN THE WEST HOMES—NO DWN. PAYMENT FOR VETS", a p l a y g r o u n d down the h i l l from the houses, b e h i n d a c h e k e r - w i r e f e n c e and a n o t h e r s i g n t h a t r e a d "ST. LUKE'S SCHOOL FOR B0YS"--there were f i v e t housand k i d s i n green c o r d u r o y pants and w h i t e s h i r t s under gr e e n p u l l o v e r sweaters p l a y i n g c r a c k - t h e - w h i p a c r o s s an a c r e o f c r u s h e d g r a v e l . The l i n e popped and t w i s t e d and j e r k e d l i k e a snake, and e v e r y c r a c k popped a l i t t l e k i d o f f the end, s e n t him r o l l i n g up a g a i n s t the f e n c e l i k e a tumble- weed. E v e r y c r a c k . And i t was always the same l i t t l e k i d , o v e r and o v e r L i k e Y o s s a r i a n i n J o s e p h H e l l e r ' s C a t c h 22, you have to be mad to a c c e p t t h a t k i n d of s o c i e t y ; and i f you r e j e c t i t , s o c i e t y d e f i n e s you as mad. V a r i o u s s c h o o l s o f l i t e r a t u r e i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , such as -23- E x p r e s s i o n i s m , and l a t e l y , the T h e a t r e of t h e Absurd, a r e p a r t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h e x p r e s s i n g t h e p l i g h t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n a s o c i e t y whose v a l u e s o f t e n seem c o u n t e r to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s v a l u e s , whose v e r y s t r u c t u r e seems to be w i t h o u t l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n . E x p r e s s i o n i s m , coming about the time o f t h e F i r s t World War, e x p l o r e d the p o s i t i o n o f t h e i d e a l i s t s t r u g g l i n g a g a i n s t t h e f o r c e s of mechanized s o c i e t y . Dadaism and S u r r e a l i s m saw a l l p r e v i o u s a r t i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e as i n v a l i d , and t r i e d t o c r e a t e e n t i r e l y new d e f i n i t i o n s . The aim o f the movement was to e x p r e s s pure thought, i n d e p e n d e n t o f a l l l o g i c and m o r a l o r a e s t h e t i c a l laws. Some o f the c h a r a c t e r s i n s u r r e a l i s t i c w r i t i n g , f o r example, Andre B r e t o n ' s Nadja, a r e mad; t h e y cannot a c c e p t s o c i e t y ' s c o n v e n t i o n s and v a l u e s . The T h e a t r e of t h e Absurd e x p r e s s e s t h e image o f a d i s i n t e g r a t i n g w o r l d which, h a v i n g l o s t i t s u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e , has e s s e n t i a l l y gone mad. In a sense, the medium i s the message; the p l a y s t h e m s e l v e s , by t h e i r v e r y s t r u c t u r e , e x p r e s s t h e f e e l i n g o f a w o r l d gone mad. I n M a r t i n E s s l i n ' s words, i t " s t r i v e s to e x p r e s s the sense o f the s e n s e l e s s n e s s o f the human c o n d i t i o n by t h e open abandonment of 21 r a t i o n a l d e v i c e s and d i s c u r s i v e t h o u g h t . " And f u r t h e r , "the T h e a t r e o f t h e Absurd has renounced a r g u i n g about the a b s u r d i t y o f the human c o n d i t i o n ; i t m e r e l y p r e s e n t s i t i n b e i n g - - t h a t i s , i n terms o f c o n c r e t e s t a g e images." The T h e a t r e o f the Absurd i s e s s e n t i a l l y v i s u a l . A r t i s t i c a l l y , the dramas o f the Absurd i l l u s t r a t e t h e p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h S a r t r e and Camus, among o t h e r s , e x p r e s s v e r b a l l y . -2k- I n c o n t r a s t t o the T h e a t r e o f t h e Absurd, the p l a y s i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n a r e more l u c i d l y and l o g i c a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d , and the a r g u - ments, i m p l i c i t i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f the dramas about w h i c h E s s l i n speaks, a r e made e x p l i c i t l y by one o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . T h a t c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r p r o v i d e s the f o c u s f o r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f l u c i d madmen. I i n t e n d to e x p l o r e a v a r i e t y o f c h a r a c t e r s i n t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y European drama who a r e d e f i n e d as mad e i t h e r by themselves o r by the s o c i e t i e s i n which t h e y l i v e ; y e t none a r e i n s a n e i n the m e d i c a l s e n s e . Some a r e i n asylums, o t h e r s i n t h e i r normal s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . I n a n a l y s i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n s o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s , t h e b a s i c human u r g e s f o r power, on the one hand, and freedom, on the o t h e r , emerge as b e i n g a t the r o o t o f the problem o f s a n i t y . By examining t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h caused each c h a r a c t e r t o p e r c e i v e r e a l i t y d i f f e r e n t l y f rom o t h e r s i n h i s s o c i e t y , I w i l l a ttempt to d e f i n e t h e "madness" o f each one, and a r r i v e a t some c o n c l u s i o n s about the n a t u r e o f madness i n t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y l i t e r a t u r e . -25- F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r One 1 H o r s t Geyer, D i c h t e r des Wahnsinns (Gb'ttingen, 1955), p. 18. Quotes from F r e n c h and German w i l l be g i v e n i n t h e o r i g i n a l language; quotes from P o l i s h and I t a l i a n w i l l be g i v e n i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . 2 James C. Coleman, Abnormal P s y c h o l o g y and Modern L i f e ( G lenview, 111., 196k), P. 15 3 Nedd W i l l a r d , L e Genie e t l a F o l i e au l 8 e S i e c l e ( P a r i s , I 9 6 3 ) , p. 7. George Rosen, Madness i n S o c i e t y ( C h i c a g o , I968), p. 77. Rosen, p. 83 . ^ P l a u t u s , "The Manaechmus T w i n s , " S i x P l a y s o f P l a u t u s , ed. and t r a n s . L i o n e l Casson (New York, I963), p. 227 . 7 M i c h e l F o u c a u l t , Madness and C i v i l i z a t i o n : A H i s t o r y o f I n s a n i t y i n t h e Age o f Reason, t r a n s . R. Howard (New York, I965), p~- lk • Q B a r b a r a Swain, F o o l s and F o l l y d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages and t h e R e n a i s s a n c e (New York, I932), p. 6 3 . Q W i l l i a m Shakespeare, As You L i k e I t (1926; r p t . Cambridge, I 9 6 5 ) , P- 35- ^ F o u c a u l t , p. 10. ^ W a l t e r K a i s e r , P r a i s e r s o f F o l l y (Cambridge, Mass., 1955), p. 3 6 . 12 F o u c a u l t , p. 15- 1? 3 F o u c a u l t , p. 5 8 . ^ W i l l a r d , p. 158. 15 V o l t a i r e , quoted i n W i l l a r d , p . 56• ^ Coleman, p. 13« - 2 6 - W i l l a r d , p. 4 5 F o u c a u l t , p. 2 0 5 . One o f F o u c a u l t ' s p r i n c i p a l p o i n t s i n h i s book i s t h a t as l e p r o s y d i s a p p e a r e d , the l e p r o s a r i u m s had to be r e p o p u l a t e d , and madmen r e p l a c e d l e p e r s as s c a p e g o a t s . M a r t i n E s s l i n , The T h e a t r e o f t h e Absurd (New York, I969), p. 5 - Ken Kesey, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (New York, I 9 6 2 ) , p. 2 0 3 . E s s l i n , p. 6 . -27- C h a p t e r Two: Romulus der Grope I f a man does not keep pace w i t h h i s companions, perhaps i t i s because he h e a r s a d i f f e r e n t drummer. L e t him s t e p t o the music which he h e a r s , however measured o r f a r away. Thoreau The f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e Swiss d r a m a t i s t , F r i e d r i c h D l i r r e n m a t t : the h e r o o f Romulus d e r Grope. I t i s D l i r r e n m a t t ' s c l e a r i n t e n t i o n , as s t a t e d i n the "Anmerkung, " t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r and m o t i v a t i o n of Romulus s h o u l d n o t become c o m p l e t e l y a p p a r e n t u n t i l t h e t h i r d a c t . He appears a t f i r s t t o be an urbane, w i t t y c y n i c , t a k i n g i n c i d e n t s s uch as th e f l i g h t o f h i s F i n a n c e M i n i s t e r i n h i s s t r i d e . However, when he m a n i f e s t s more i n t e r e s t i n the s t a t e o f h i s c h i c k e n s , which he c a l l s by t h e names of emperors, than i n the s t a t e o f t h e Empire, the a u d i e n c e b e g i n s to f e e l l e s s s y m p a t h e t i c and more c r i t i c a l towards him. He a ppears to p l a y games w i t h th e o t h e r s , s e t t i n g h i m s e l f up i n a m o r a l l y s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n by d o i n g s o . When h i s w i f e J u l i a demands t h a t he do something, he p r oposes to send o u t a communique about h i s h e a l t h . When Zeno, the f u g i t i v e Emperor from the E a s t p l e a d s t h a t Romulus b e l i e v e i n the p o l i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e of the Roman Empire, the Emperor as w e l l as h i s p a t r i o t i c w i f e J u l i a i s q u i t e w i l l i n g t o o b l i g e , . . . " a l l e d r e i s i t z e n g l a u b i g d a " (R 22) But h i s whole a t t i t u d e i s one of c y n i c i s m . -28- The o t h e r s , o f c o u r s e , b e l i e v e t h a t he i s f e e b l e - m i n d e d , but h i s a c u t e p e r c e p t i o n i n summing up p e o p l e b e l i e s t h i s , as f a r as the a u d i e n c e i s c o n c e r n e d . D e s p i t e h i s p o l i t e , i f a l i t t l e s a r c a s t i c , r e c e p t i o n o f Zeno, i t i s c l e a r t h a t Romulus sees t h r o u g h t h e pomposity o f h i s b r o t h e r Emperor. Having p r e v i o u s l y commented t h a t " D o m i t i a n war e i n s c h l e c h t e r K a i s e r . E r kann E i e r l e g e n so v i e l e r w i l l , i c h es s e s i e n i c h t " (R 12), Romulus l e t s h i s g u e s t be s e r v e d t h a t same egg, s a y i n g , "Das i s t f l l r d i e s e n F a l l schon r e c h t " (R ^3) . I t i s demonstrated a g a i n and a g a i n t h a t Romulus i s a c t u a l l y f a r more p e r c e p t i v e and q u i c k - w i t t e d t h a n t h o s e around him. There a r e s e v e r a l i n d i c a t i o n s , b e f o r e t h e p r i n c i p a l d i s c u s s i o n w i t h J u l i a i n A c t I I I , as t o what m o t i v a t e s Romulus to a c t i n t h e s e e m i n g l y i r r e s p o n s i b l e and unconcerned manner which c h a r a c t e r i z e s him. F i r s t l y , i t i s c l e a r t h a t Romulus does n o t h a t e o r f e a r t h e Teutons, p a r t i c u l a r l y Odoaker, t h e i r l e a d e r , as do the members o f h i s c o u r t . The f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s i s h i s r e a c t i o n t o t h e amazing e g g - l a y i n g prowesses o f the hen named Odoaker. "Und i n der Z u k u n f t mbchte i c h d i e E i e r d e r Henne Odoaker auf meinem Morgen- t i s c h e f i n d e n , d i e meine v o i l e Sympathie b e s i t z t . Es mu(3 s i c h h i e r um e i n e e r s t a u n l i c h e Begabung h a n d e l n . Man s o i l von den Germanen nehmen, was s i e Gutes h e r v o r b r i n g e n , wenn s i e schon e i n m a l kommen" (R 1 3 ) . When he defends Xbius, the T e u t o n i c L o r d High Steward, J u l i a a c c u s e s him o f b e i n g " d i r e k t g e r m a n o p h i l " (R 15)• H i s r e a c t i o n to the d e c l a r a t i o n o f C'dsar Rupf, t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t , -29- t h a t Odoaker i s w i l l i n g t o make a f i n a n c i a l d e a l , i s i n t e r e s t i n g . "Auch e r i s t k a u f l i c h ? " (R 27), asks Romulus r h e t o r i c a l l y , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t he d i d n o t expe c t t h a t t h e Germanic l e a d e r would l e t h i m s e l f be bought. Secondly, Romulus makes f r e q u e n t remarks t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t the Roman Empire i s d e c a y i n g , but he seems t o t a l l y u n c o n c e r n e d by t h i s . I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i t h Rea and J u l i a about a c t i n g , he s a y s , "Wer so auf dem l e t z t e n L o c h p f e i f t w i e w i r a l l e , kann nur noch KomOdien v e r s t e h e n " (R 17)• Of c o u r s e h e r e he i s e x p r e s s i n g t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f DUrrenmatt about drama. To A p p o l l y o n , the a n t i q u e d e a l e r , Romulus a p o l o g i z e s , "Es t u t m i r l e i d , A p o l l y o n , dap du m i t t e n i n den a l l g e m e i n e n Zusammenbruch meines R e i c h e s g e r a t e n b i s t " (R 2k) as though t h e d e a l e r had p a i d a c a l l d u r i n g a f a m i l y s q u a b b l e . When S p u r i u s T i t u s Mamma, t h e o v e r - z e a l o u s messenger, f i n a l l y manages t o see Romulus, t h e Emperor i s t o t a l l y u n i m p r e s s e d w i t h h i s e n t h u s i a s m : Romulus: Du b i s t verwundet, e r s c h d p f t . Warum d i e s e unmapige Anstrengung, S p u r i u s T i t u s Mamma? S.T.M.: Damit Rom lebe J Romulus: Rom i s t l a n g s t g e s t o r b e n . Du o p f e r s t d i c h einem To t e n , du kampfst f U r einem S c h a t t e n , du l e b s t f U r e i n z e r f a l l e n e s Grab. Geh s c h l a f e n , P r a f e k t , d i e h e u t i g e Z e i t h a t d e i n Heldentum i n e i n e Pose v e r w a n d e l t . (R 30) C l u e s as to what Romulus i s a c t u a l l y t r y i n g t o do can be found i n d i s c u s s i o n s p r i o r t o the main one w i t h h i s w i f e . I n A c t I, J u l i a -30- a s k s him, "Was w i l l s t du denn e i g e n t l i c h ? " " I c h mbchte d i e W e l t g e s c h i c h t e n i c h t s t b r e n , l i e b e J u l i a " (R 29) i s the answer. In A c t T I , Romulus f o r b i d s the m a r r i a g e between CS s a r Rupf and Rea, and makes i t c l e a r t h a t he i s t o t a l l y c o n s c i o u s of t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h i s a c t i o n s . "Der K a i s e r weip, was e r t u t , wenn e r s e i n R e i c h i n s F e u e r w i r f t , wenn er f a l l e n T a s s t , was z e r b r e c h e n muss, und z e r t r i t t , was dem Tode g e h t i r t " (R kk) . Thus, i n the f i r s t two a c t s , we see a man who seems to a c t on a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l o f r e a l i t y t h a n t h e o t h e r s . He i s not d u l l - w i t t e d , as t h e y suppose, but on the c o n t r a r y i s perhaps more aware of the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n than t h e y a r e . However, he a c c e p t s and even seems to welcome the events which cause the o t h e r s to r e a c t i n a way d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed to h i s . Thus, the d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t i n t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e y p e r c e i v e r e a l i t y , b u t i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h a t r e a l i t y . D e s p i t e the numerous h i n t s i n t h e t e x t , i t i s not u n t i l t h e t h i r d a c t t h a t Romulus e x p l a i n s p r e c i s e l y what has m o t i v a t e d him t o a c t i n a s e e m i n g l y i n s a n e way. He r e v e a l s to J u l i a t h a t he m a r r i e d h e r s o l e l y f o r t h e purpose of becoming Emperor and o f d o i n g n o t h i n g . J u l i a , o f c o u r s e , has d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h i s : J u l i a : Es i s t doch unmOglich, d i e Notwendig- k e i t des S t a a t e s zu b e z w e i f e l n . Romulus: I c h b e z w e i f l e n i c h t d i e N o t w e n d i g k e i t des S t a a t e s , i c h b e z w e i f l e ' n u r d i e N o t w e n d i g k e i t u n s e r e s S t a a t e s . E r i s t e i n W e l t r e i c h geworden, und damit e i n e E i n r i c h t u n g , d i e b f f e n t l i c h Mord, -31- J u l i a : Romulus: Pl l i n d e r u n g , U n t e r d r l i c k u n g , und Brand- s c h a t z u n g auf K o s t e n d e r ande r n V b l k e r b e t r i e b , b i s i c h gekommen b i n . Ic h b e g r e i f e n i c h t , warum du dann aus- g e r e c h n e t K a i s e r geworden b i s t , wenn du so liber das rOmische W e l t r e i c h d e n k s t . Das rOmische W e l t r e i c h b e s t e h t s e i t J a h r h u n d e r t e n nur noch, w e i l es e i n e n K a i s e r g i b t . Es b l i e b m i r d e s h a l b k e i n e andere M t S g l i c h k e i t a l s s e l b s t K a i s e r zu werden um das Imperium l i q u i d l e r e n zu kb'nnen. W e l t . Romulus: I c h habe mich f U r das l e t z t e r e e n t s c h i e d e n . (R 49) A c c o r d i n g t o J u l i a ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f sane b e h a v i o u r , Romulus i s a c t i n g i n an i n s a n e way. A "sane" r e s p o n s e to t h e t h r e a t o f b e i n g o v e r r u n by the Te u t o n s , would be to t a k e t o h e a r t t h e l a s t words o f a l l Roman g e n e r a l s when t h e y a r e d e f e a t e d : "Solange noch e i n e Ader i n uns l e b t , g i b t k e i n e r n a c h " (R 18). But Romulus, h a v i n g come t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the Roman Empire must be l i q u i d a t e d , c o n s i d e r s t h e a c t i o n s o f a man l i k e C a s a r Rupf, who wants t o save the s t a t e , t o be mad. " E i n H o s e n f a b r i k a n t , d e r den r'dmischen S t a a t r e t t e n w i l l , mu|3 w a h n s i n n i g s e i n " (R 51) • I n s a n i t y i s thus shown t o be a r e l a t i v e c o n c e p t , depending on one's p e r s p e c t i v e o f r e a l i t y and one's r e s p o n s e to t h a t r e a l i t y . H a v i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e c h a r a c t e r and m o t i v a t i o n o f Romulus h i m s e l f , i t might be u s e f u l t o a n a l y s e the s o c i e t y w hich d e f i n e s him as mad; b o t h i n terms o f the p e o p l e i m m e d i a t e l y around him, and h i s w o r l d as a whole. I t i s c l e a r from the o u t s e t t h a t t h e J u l i a : Entweder b i s t du w a h n s i n n i g oder d i e -32- Roman Empire has r e a c h e d a c r i t i c a l s t a g e i n i t s e x i s t e n c e . The news b r o u g h t by t h e z e a l o u s c a v a l r y c a p t a i n , S p u r i u s T i t u s Mamma, t h a t "das r'dmische W e l t r e i c h k r a c h t zusammen" (R 10), becomes t o t a l l y p l a u s i b l e i n the l i g h t o f e v i d e n c e o f the m o r a l and p h y s i c a l d e c a y o f t h e c o u n t r y . X m i l i a n ' s r e p o r t of the c a t a s t r o p h i c s t a t e o f a f f a i r s does not s u r p r i s e Romulus i n the l e a s t : X m i l i a n : I c h s c h l i c h d u r c h z e r s t b r t e Stadte und d u r c h rauchende DtSrfer, i c h g i n g d u r c h z e r h a c k t e Walder und zog liber z e r s t a m p f t e X c k e r . Romulus: W e i t e r . X m i l i a n : I c h sah d i e Manner h i n g e m e t z e l t , d i e F r a u e n geschandet und d i e K i n d e r v e r h u n g e r t . Romulus: W e i t e r . X m i l i a n : I c h h d r t e das S c h r e i e n von Verwundeten, das Xchzen von Gefangenen, das P r a s s e n d e r S c h i e b e r und das Gewieher d e r K r i e g s g e w i n n l e r . (R ^3) I t a p pears t h a t l o v e , l o y a l t y and m o r a l s c r u p l e s have l i t t l e p l a c e i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e Roman c i t i z e n s . P e r s o n a l p r o f i t seems to be the p r i n c i p a l m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e . The F i n a n c e M i n i s t e r runs o f f w i t h the S t a t e T r e a s u r y , the a n t i q u e d e a l e r A p o l l y o n t r e a t s the b u s t s of t h e f o r m e r emperors as he would any m e r c h a n d i s e , w i t h no r e s p e c t a t a l l f o r what t h e y r e p r e s e n t . C a s a r Rupf, the hard-headed c a p i t a l i s t i c m a n u f a c t u r e r o f t r o u s e r s , c o m p l e t e l y aware o f t h e power h i s money has, makes o f f e r s t o b o t h t h e Teutons and t h e Romans. Even the two f a i t h f u l o l d c h a m b e r l a i n s , A c h i l l e s and Pyramus, can be bought by C a s a r Rupf. -33- The p e o p l e who seem so l o y a l to Rome g e n e r a l l y have o t h e r m o t i v e s . J u l i a , who p r o f e s s e s such l o v e f o r h e r f a t h e r l a n d , who is so i n d i g n a n t a t the s a l e of the b u s t s , who i s w i l l i n g t o s a c - r i f i c e h e r d a u g h t e r to save the Empire, i s a c t i n g s o l e l y out of a m b i t i o n , as Romulous p o i n t s out t o h e r : Du k e n n s t k e i n V a t e r l a n d . Was du l i e b s t i s t e i n e a b s t r a k t e S t a a t s i d e e , d i e d i r d i e M O g l i c h - k e i t gab, d u r c h H e i r a t K a i s e r i n zu werden. (R 48) Smilian and Rea a r e the o n l y two who a r e m o t i v a t e d by human f e e l i n g s , and thus a r e t h e o n l y two whom Romulus l o v e s . Rea i s w i l l i n g t o marry C a s a r Rupf, not so much as a s a c r i f i c e t o save Rome, bu t i r o n i c a l l y , out o f l o v e f o r Smilian. Xmilian has been shamed, h i s honour l o s t , as f a r as he i s c o n c e r n e d , and he i s thus m o t i v a t e d by t h e human f e e l i n g o f r e v e n g e . The outcome of t h e e v e n t s i s i m p o r t a n t to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Romulus' f e i g n e d madness. As Romulus sees h i s l i f e ' s work b e i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e Roman Empire, he i s c e r t a i n t h a t he w i l l be k i l l e d by t h e Teutons . "Die Germanen werden mich tfcSten. I c h habe immer m i t diesem Tod g e r e c h n e t . Das i s t mein Ge h e i m n i s . I c h o p f e r e Rom indem i c h mich s e l b e r o p f e r e " (R 53)- T h i s c e r t a i n l y e n a b l e s him to c a r r y o u t h i s p l a n , d e s p i t e t h e d e s t r u c t i o n f o r w h i c h he i s r e s p o n s i b l e . T h i s i s the o n l y way t h a t he can r a t i o n a l i z e t o h i m s e l f t h e harm he causes o t h e r s . H i s sense of j u s t i c e d i c t a t e s h i s moves. "Wir haben fremdes B l u t v e r g o s s e n , nun mtlssen w i r m i t dem e i g e n e n z u r l i c k z a h l e n " (R 59) • -3k- When Xmilian proposes a t o a s t to j u s t i c e , he a c c e p t s . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h e y b o t h have i n mind Romulus' de a t h , but f o r u t t e r l y d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s ; Xmilian because o f h i s e a r l i e r c o n v i c t i o n t h a t " d i e s e r K a i s e r mup weg" (R kk), and Romulus because he a c c e p t s h i s d e a t h by the Teutons as i n e v i t a b l e and j u s t . "Haben w i r noch das Recht, uns zu wehren? Haben w i r noch das Recht, mehr zu s e i n a l s e i n O p f e r ? " (R 59)• He shows no f e a r when, i n a scene w h i c h p a r o d i e s t h e a s s a s s i n a t i o n of J u l i u s C aesar, he f i n d s h i s room f u l l o f would-be m u r d e r e r s . But he r e a l i z e s t h a t h i s d e a t h a t t h a t p o i n t would have made a mockery of h i s grand d e s i g n . L i k e w i s e , Romulus shows no emotion a t t h e news t h a t h i s f a m i l y and c o u r t have been drowned, because he i s s u r e t h a t i t i s a n e c e s s a r y p r i c e to pay, and t h a t h i s own d e a t h w i l l be p a r t o f t h a t p r i c e . The t e n s i o n b u i l d s up as e v e r y t h i n g seems to p o i n t t o the denouement which he h i m s e l f e n v i s a g e d . But, as DUrrenmatt says i n "21 Punkte zu den P h y s i k e r n " : "Planmapig vorgehende Menschen w o l l e n e i n bestimmtes Z i e l e r r e i c h e n . Der Z u f a l l t r i f f t s i e dann am s chlimmsten, wenn s i e d u r c h i h n das G e g e n t e i l i h r e s Z i e l e r r e i c h e n . " Indeed, the " Z u f a l l " i n t h i s c a s e makes Romulus' s a c r i f i c e a b s u r d . In h i s "enemy," Odoaker, Romulus sees a m i r r o r - i m a g e o f h i m s e l f ; an i n t e n s e l y humane man, whose t r e p i d a t i o n about the f u t u r e o f h i s c o u n t r y has l e d him to t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t he'must t r y to change the c o u r s e o f h i s t o r y . L i k e Romulus, Odoaker i s i n a p o s i t i o n o f -35- supreme power, and i s a b l e to do t h i s . But when he t e l l s Romulus: "Ich b i n n i c h t gekommen, d i c h zu t b t e n , K a i s e r von Rom. I c h b i n gekommen, mich m i t meinem ganzen V o l k d i r zu u n t e r w e r f e n " (R 69), Romulus' r e a c t i o n i s s w i f t : "Das i s t doch Wahnsinn." He i s gloomy, p e n s i v e and f i n a l l y d e s p e r a t e , as he s u d d e n l y s ees the a b s u r d i t y and f u t i l i t y o f h i s s a c r i f i c e : I c h l e g t e mein ganzes Leben auf den Tag h i n an, da das rbmische Imperium zusammenbrechen wllrde. I c h gab m i r das Recht, Roms R i c h t e r zu s e i n , w e i l i c h b e r e i t war, zu s t e r b e n . I c h v e r l a n g t e von meinem Lande e i n ungeheures O p f e r , w e i l i c h m ich s e l b s t a l s O p f e r e i n s e t z t e . I c h lie(3 das B l u t meines V o l k e s f l i e p e n , indem i c h es w e h r l o s machte, w e i l i c h s e l b s t mein B l u t v e r g i e p e n w o l l t e . Und nun s o l i i c h l e b e n . Und nun s o l i mein O p f e r n i c h t angenommen werden. Und nun s o i l i c h a l s der d astehen, d e r s i c h a l l e i n r e t t e n k o n n t e . Und n i c h t nur d a s . Bevor du kamst, e r h i e l t i c h d i e N a c h r i c h t , dap d i e T o c h t e r , d i e i c h l e i b e , m i t i h r e m Br'autigam umgekommen i s t . Samt meiner F r a u und dem H o f e . I c h e r t r u g d i e s e N a c h r i c h t m i t L e i c h t i g k e i t , w e i l i c h z u s t e r b e n g l a u b t e , nun t r i f f t s i e mich unbarmherzig, nun w i d e r - l e g t s i e mich u n b a r m h e r z i g . Es i s t a l l e s a b s u r d geworden, was i c h g e t a n habe. T a t e mich, Odoaker. (R 70) And we have the t r a g i - c o m i c scene o f two w o r l d l e a d e r s , k n e e l i n b e f o r e one a n o t h e r , p l e a d i n g to be a l l o w e d to s u r r e n d e r to the o t h e r In d e s p e r a t i o n , Romulus t r i e s to awaken S p u r i u s T i t u s Mamma to k i l l him as he had been w a n t i n g to do, but Odoaker p o i n t s o u t t h e s e n s e - l e s s n e s s o f t h a t g e s t u r e : "Dein Tod ware s i n n l o s , denn e i n e n S i n n kOnnte e r nur haben, wenn d i e W e l t so ware, w i e du s i e d i r v o r g e s t e l l t h a s t . S i e i s t n i c h t s o " (R 71)- -36- T h i s i s a c r u c i a l p o i n t i n t h e drama. Romulus' e n t i r e l i f e has been based on h i s p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y . In p u r s u i t o f h i s g o a l , he has d e n i e d h i m s e l f a m a r r i a g e based on l o v e and has s u f f e r e d t h e s c o r n and contempt o f those who c o u l d n e v e r u n d e r s t a n d what he was d o i n g . He b e l i e v e d p r o f o u n d l y t h a t what he was d o i n g was r i g h t , even though he r e v e a l s a t one p o i n t h i s awareness of the e n o r m i t y o f the t a s k he s e t f o r h i m s e l f . To Rea, he a d v i s e s : Dann l e r n e d i e F u r c h t z u b e s i e g e n . Das i s t d i e e i n z i g e Kunst, d i e w i r i n der h e u t i g e n Z e i t b e h e r r s c h e n mlissen. F u r c h t l o s d i e Dinge b e t r a c h t e n , f u r c h t l o s das R i c h t i g e t u n . I c h habe mich e i n Leben l a n g d a r i n g e l i b t . (R 53) Odoaker's p r o p o s a l t h a t he be p e n s i o n e d i s the a n t i t h e s i s o f what he had e n v i s a g e d and t h e r e f o r e v e r y d i f f i c u l t to a c c e p t . "Die P e n s i o n i e r u n g i s t wohl das E n t s e t z l i c h s t e , was m i r z u s t o p e n k b n n t e " (R 72). But he r e c o g n i z e s t h e f u t i l i t y o f d y i n g and a g r e e s to go t h r o u g h w i t h t h e comedy. As Dtirrenmatt says i n the "Nachwort": Man sehe genau h i n , was f U r e i n e n Menschen i c h g e z e i c h n e t habe, w i t z i g , gelB.st, human gewip, doch im L e t z t e n e i n Mensch, d e r m i t Xuperster H S r t e und R U c k s i c h t s l o s i g k e i t v o r - geht und n i c h t davor z u r l l c k s c h r e c k t , auch von andern A b s o l u t h e i t zu v e r l a n g e n , e i n g e f a h r l i c h e r Bursche, der s i c h auf den Tod h i n a n g e l e g t h a t ; das i s t das S c h r e c k l i c h e d i e s e s k a i s e r l i c h e n H U h n e r z l l c h t e r s , d i e s e s a l s N a r r e n v e r k l e i d e t e n W e l t e n r i c h t e r s , d e s s e n T r a g i k genau i n der Kombdie s e i n e s Endes, i n der P e n s i o n i e r u n g l i e g t , d e r dann aber--und nur d i e s macht i h n grop--die E i n s i c h t und d i e Weis- h e i t h a t , auch s i e zu a k z e p t i e r e n . -37- Both men see the madness of the whole s o c i e t y ; i t i s c l e a r t h a t Odoaker and Romulus a r e the o n l y "sane" men i n t h e i r w o r l d ; men who p r i z e human v a l u e s above the s u p e r f i c i a l n o t i o n s o f v a l o u r , b r a v e r y and p a t r i o t i s m . They take t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s e r i o u s l y , and t r y t o a l t e r the i n e v i t a b l e c o u r s e of h i s t o r y . Each man had a c a r e f u l l y t h o u g h t - o u t p l a n to r i g h t the wrongs w h i c h he saw about him; each was f o r c e d to a c c e p t t h a t t h e s e p l a n s c o u l d not be r e a l i z e d . The p r e s e n c e o f T h e o d e r i c h , Odoaker's war-mongering nephew, e n s u r e s t h a t t h i n g s w i l l go on as b e f o r e . The power t h a t Romulus has as Emperor o f Rome g i v e s him t h e freedom to do n o t h i n g to p r e v e n t Rome's d o w n f a l l . He i s mad i n t h e sense t h a t he pushes a l o g i c a l argument to an u n a c c e p t a b l e con- c l u s i o n , b u t he i s n o t a f o o l , as most p e o p l e i n h i s c o u r t t h i n k . George W e l l w a r t h d i s c u s s e s the q u e s t i o n o f Romulus' s a n i t y , and a r r i v e s a t some i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : As soon as he g a i n s a b s o l u t e power, Romulus becomes, s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , i n s a n e . From t h e b e s t and most r e a s o n a b l e m o t i v e s , he c a l m l y p r o p o s e s to d e s t r o y a n a t i o n . D e s p i t e h i s k i n d l i n e s s i n h i s p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s f a m i l y and the members of h i s h o u s e h o l d , d e s p i t e h i s s t r o n g sense of p e r s o n a l j u s t i c e , d e s p i t e h i s g e n u i n e l y f e l t h u m a n i t a r i a n i m p u l s e s , Romulus s u f f e r s from the d i s e a s e of a l l m o r a l l y f e r v i d i d e a l i s t r e f o r m e r s ; he l o s e s the human element when a p p l y i n g h i s t h e o r i e s . P e o p l e i n t h e mass a r e n o t i n d i v i d u a l i z e d f o r Romulus, and so he c o n s i g n s t h e p e o p l e under h i s c a r e to d e s t r u c t i o n . H i s p r oposed s a c r i f i c e o f h i s own l i f e becomes s u d d e n l y r i d i c u l o u s when he comes f a c e to f a c e w i t h the German c h i e f t a i n . Nor, we -38- then r e a l i z e , would the s a c r i f i c e have been o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e a t a l l - - c e r t a i n l y n ot as an e x p i a t i o n . The l a u g h t e r o f the gods seems to t i n k l e f a i n t l y t h r o u g h t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n as t h e two o l d i d e a l i s t s , Romulus and Odoacer, s i t d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r s i t u a t i o n amid t h e r u i n s o f o t h e i r g r a n d i o s e p l a n s . -39 - F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r Two Q u o t a t i o n s a r e t a k e n from t h e A r c h e e d i t i o n o f Romulus d e r Grope, and page r e f e r e n c e s p r e f a c e d by R. G. W e l l w a r t h , The T h e a t r e of P r o t e s t and Paradox (New York, 1964), p. 145 . -kO- C h a p t e r T h r e e : D i e P h y s i k e r Men a r e so i n e v i t a b l y mad t h a t n o t t o be mad would mean to be mad w i t h some d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f madness. P a s c a l Our c e n t u r y has seen an i n c r e d i b l e e x p a n s i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l knowledge which, on one l e v e l , has been of g e n e r a l b e n e f i t t o mankind. But p a r t i c u l a r l y when s c i e n t i f i c knowledge i s a p p l i e d to making bombs and waging more e f f i c i e n t war, t h i s has a l s o c r e a t e d a new p r o b l e m : the q u e s t i o n of t h e m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the s c i e n t i s t . T h i s new problem has been examined by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s , among them B r e c h t (Das Leben des G a l i l e i ) , C a r l Zuckmayer (Das K a l t e L i c h t ) and F r i e d r i c h Dlirrenmatt ( D i e P h y s i k e r ) . On t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , a s c i e n t i s t f a c e s v e r y i m p o r t a n t and b a s i c q u e s t i o n s . Does h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l i e i n d u t y to h i m s e l f , to s c i e n c e , to mankind i n g e n e r a l , o r to a c e r t a i n group r e p r e s e n t e d by a s p e c i f i c government? To what e x t e n t a r e s c i e n c e and p o l i t i c s c o n n ected? A r e s c i e n t i s t s r e a l l y f r e e ? These a r e among t h e many q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n D i e P h y s i k e r , whose c o n s t a n t l y s h i f t i n g l e v e l s , and the r e c u r r i n g q u e s t i o n o f who i s r e a l l y mad, makes i t one o f D l i r r e n m a t t ' s most t o p i c a l p l a y s . L i k e Romulus, the p h y s i c i s t MObius i s a n o t h e r o f the a u t h o r ' s i d e a l i s t i c h e r o e s , who t r y to f i g h t t h e madness o f the w o r l d around them by b e h a v i n g i n a way d e f i n e d as i n s a n e by o t h e r s . -kl- A l s o as i n t h e case o f Romulus, Mbbius' c h a r a c t e r and p a r - t i c u l a r l y h i s m o t i v a t i o n become a p p a r e n t to the a u d i e n c e o n l y v e r y g r a d u a l l y . I n t h i s t i g h t l y c o n s t r u c t e d p l o t , t h e a c t i o n has s t a r t e d l o n g b e f o r e M'dbius makes h i s f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e . I t t a k e s p l a c e e n t i r e l y i n one room o f a mental asylum, a l t h o u g h Dlirrenmatt des- c r i b e s a t l e n g t h the l a n d s c a p e s u r r o u n d i n g t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . The f i r s t m e n t i o n o f MSbius i s made when the p o l i c e i n s p e c t o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e murder o f one of the n u r s e s by a n o t h e r p a t i e n t , f o l l o w i n g a s i m i l a r i n c i d e n t t h r e e months p r e v i o u s l y , e n q u i r e s about the t h i r d p a t i e n t . Mbbius' background i s f i l l e d i n by h i s f ormer w i f e , L i n a , who a r r i v e s w i t h h e r t h r e e sons and new m i s s i o n a r y husband to t a k e f i n a l l e a v e o f h e r "Johann W i l h e l m l e i n . " T h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n h e r s t o r y about m e e t i n g MBbius as a s t u d e n t , s u p p o r t i n g him, and of t h e i r f i r s t d i f f i c u l t y e a r s o f m a r r i a g e , t h a t c o u l d p o s s i b l y r a i s e the s u s p i c i o n s of t h e a u d i e n c e t h a t t h i n g s might be d i f f e r e n t from what t h e y appear to be. N o t h i n g so f a r c o n t r a d i c t s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t MtSbius, a r a t h e r b r i g h t young s c i e n t i s t , had a nervous breakdown f i f t e e n y e a r s ago, and has been i n t r e a t m e n t i n t h e h o s p i t a l e v e r s i n c e . I f a n y t h i n g , one has sympathy f o r the l o n g - s u f f e r i n g w i f e , and c h a r i t a b l e d o c t o r . I n s p e k t o r : F r l . D o k t o r : I n s p e k t o r : F r l . D o k t o r : Der d r i t t e P a t i e n t ? E b e n f a l l s e i n P h y s i k e r . . . . Name? Johann W i l h e l m MObius . . . . e r i s t s e i t f l l n f z e h n J a h r e n h i e r , harmlos und s e i n Z u stand b l i e b u n v e r S n d e r t . (P 302) -42- W i t h M'dbius' e n t r a n c e , t h e r e i s s t i l l n o t h i n g t o c o n t r a d i c t t h i s i m p r e s s i o n . The p a t i e n t seems to b a r e l y r e c o g n i z e h i s w i f e and be a t o t a l s t r a n g e r to h i s s o n s . The f i r s t i n k l i n g o f the cause of Mbbius' " i l l n e s s " comes i n h i s u n e x p e c t e d l y vehement r e p l y t o h i s youngest son's a s s e r t i o n t h a t he wants t o become a p h y s i c i s t . Depending on t h e a c t o r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s l i n e s , ( a v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h i s p l a y ) , Mbbius can appear q u i t e sane and s y m p a t h e t i c , e s p e c i a l l y when he a c c u s e s h i m s e l f of b e i n g i n a d e q u a t e as a f a t h e r and husband. But t h i s i m p r e s s i o n i s q u i c k l y s h a t t e r e d by t h e p h y s i c i s t ' s v i o l e n t r e a c t i o n t o the d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f h i s son's m u s i c a l a b i l i t i e s , and h i s subsequent r e c i t a l o f an e x t r e m e l y g r o t e s q u e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f K i n g Solomon's psalm. The a u d i e n c e i s bound to be shocked and h o r r i f i e d by the v i o l e n c e o f the images and Mbbius 1 rudeness i n d i s m i s s i n g h i s f a m i l y . T h e re i s complete sympathy w i t h the w i f e , and perhaps p i t y f o r Mbbius, but no s u s p i c i o n y e t as to h i s r e a l m o t i v e s . A f t e r t h e h a s t y and u n t i d y e x i t o f h i s f a m i l y , Mbbius, l e f t a l o n e w i t h h i s n u r s e Schwester Monika, e x p l a i n s h i s a c t i o n s i n such a r e a s o n a b l e manner t h a t t h e a u d i e n c e i s d i s a r m e d , and doubts about Mbbius: Das d a r f s t du n i c h t , J b r g - L u k a s . K e i n e s f a l l s , Das s c h l a g e d i r aus dem Kopf. I c h - - i c h v e r b i e t e es d i r . Aber du b i s t doch auch e i n P h y s i k e r geworden, P a p i — I c h h a t t e es n i e werden d l i r f e n , J b r g - L u k a s . N i e . I c h ware j e t z t n i c h t im I r r e n h a u s . (P 310) J b r g - L u k a s : Mbbius : _4 3- h i s i n s a n i t y a r e r a i s e d once a g a i n . To t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g Monika, Mb'bius a d m i t s : " Ich gebe es z u . I c h s p i e l t e den Wahnsinnigen." Schwester Monika: Weshalb? Mb'bius : Um von meiner F r a u A b s c h i e d zu nehmen und von meinen Buben. A b s c h i e d f U r immer. Schwester Monika: Auf d i e s e s c h r e c k l i c h e Weise? Mb'bius: Auf d i e s e humane Weise. D i e V e r g a n g e n h e i t l b s c h t man am b e s t e n m i t einem w a h n s i n n i g e n B e t r a g e n aus, wenn man s i c h s chon im I r r e n h a u s b e f i n d e t : Meine F a m i l i e kann mich nun m i t gutem Gewissen v e r g e s s e n . M e i n A u f t r i t t h a t i h r d i e L u s t genommen, mich noch e i n m a l a u f z u s u c h e n . D i e F o l g e n m e i n e r - s e i t s s i n d u n w i c h t i g , n u r das Leben au|3erhalb d e r A n s t a l t z a h l t . . V e r r l i c k t s e i n k o s t e t . (P 315) W i t h t h i s l a s t comment, one b e g i n s t o r e a l i z e t h a t Mbbius i s s p e a k i n g about the e m o t i o n a l c o s t to h i m s e l f , as w e l l as t h e f i n a n c i a l burden t o h i s w i f e , and t h a t t h e r e i s some r e a s o n f o r him to f e i g n madness. However, t h e r e i s s t i l l no i n d i c a t i o n as t o h i s m o t i v e s and i n t e n t i o n s . E v i d e n c e o f the e m o t i o n a l t o r t u r e endured by t h e p h y s i c i s t i s g i v e n when he h e a r s t h a t Monika must l e a v e : Nun, auch d i e s e Z e i t i s t v o r t i b e r . Zwei J a h r e , i n denen i c h etwas g l U c k l i c h e r war a l s s o n s t . W e i l i c h d u r c h S i e , Schwester Monika, den Mut gefunden habe, meine A b g e s c h l o s s e n h e i t und mein S c h i c k s a l a l s - - V e r r U c k t e r - - a u f mich zu nehmen. (P 3 l 6 ) -kh- The theme of freedom v e r s u s confinement i s e s p e c i a l l y s t r o n g i n t h i s s c e n e . Monika wants to escape h e r p r o f e s s i o n and the i n s t i t u t i o n . Her a c t i o n o f t e a r i n g h e r n u r s e ' s cap from h e r head i s s y m b o l i c o f t h i s d e s i r e . ( T h i s g e s t u r e , i n c i d e n t a l l y , i s com- p e l l i n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f a s i m i l a r scene i n S t a n i s l a w W i t k i e w i c z ' The Madman and the Nun, i n w h i c h Walpurg, the "mad" poet, b e g i n s h i s s e d u c t i o n o f the nun who i s to c u r e him, by t e a r i n g o f f h e r wimple, the symbol of h e r confinement w i t h i n h e r r o l e . ) D u r i n g the a n g u i s h e d and c o n f u s i n g l o v e scene between Mb'bius and Monika the a u d i e n c e i s s t r o n g l y aware o f Mb'bius 1 torment, y e t p u z z l e d as to what p r e v e n t s him from l e a v i n g w i t h h e r , s i n c e he v e r y o b v i o u s l y l o v e s h e r . The c l u e s i n Mbbius' speech a r e n o t much h e l p : "Es i s t t b d l i c h an den K b n i g Salamo zu g l a u b e n " (P 3 1 7 ) ; "Darum s i n d S i e i n G e f a h r : w e i l w i r uns l i e b e n " (P 3 I 8 ) ; "Es ware v e r n U n f t i g e r , S i e h i e l t e n mich d a f U r ( v e r r U c k t ) . F l i e h e n S i e l " (P 3 1 9 ) ; "Mein G o t t , i c h l e i b e S i e , das i s t j a das W a h n s i n n i g e " (P 3 2 0 ) ; "Mut i s t i n meinem F a l l e e i n V e r b r e c h e n " (P 3 2 1 ). A t t h e news t h a t he i s f r e e and e v e r y t h i n g i s a r r a n g e d f o r t h e i r d e p a r t u r e , Mbbius seems t o g i v e up t r y i n g t o p e r s u a d e h e r , and t h e a u d i e n c e , i n s t e a d o f r e j o i c i n g , i s made more and more aware of t h e ominousness o f the s i t u a t i o n ; the l i g h t s dim and one i s f i l l e d w i t h f o r e b o d i n g . The murder i s q u i c k , y e t s h o c k i n g ; the s a n i t y - o f Mbbius i s a g a i n v e r y much i n q u e s t i o n . -45- D e s p i t e the g r o t e s q u e n e s s o f the s i t u a t i o n , t h i s murder has q u i t e a p o w e r f u l e m o t i o n a l impact; t h i s i s a c h i e v e d p a r t l y by the i n t e r e s t t h e c h a r a c t e r of Mb'bius has a r o u s e d . I have d i s c u s s e d a t some l e n g t h t h e changes i n t h e a u d i e n c e ' s a t t i t u d e towards him and the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d as t o h i s m o t i v e s . He i s a t o r t u r e d , r a t h e r than u n s y m p a t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r even when he murders, because one cannot h e l p b u t f e e l the e x i s t e n c e o f some unknown n e c e s s i t y f o r the a c t i o n . I f t h e r e i s no m o t i v e , he i s c l e a r l y i n s a n e . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e second a c t , Mbbius e x p l a i n s h i s deed by c l a i m i n g t h a t i t was commanded by Solomon. He has p r e v i o u s l y m a i n t a i n e d t h a t he d e f e r r e d t o Solomon's wi s h e s and o p i n i o n s , even a g a i n s t h i s own; i n a s k i n g h i s boys t o s t o p p l a y i n g t h e r e c o r d e r , ( " S p i e l t n i c h t w e i t e r . B i t t e . Salomo z u l i e b e " [P 3 1 2 ] ) ; i n s h o u t i n g a t h i s f a m i l y , ("Ihr h a b t den K b n i g Salomo b e l e i d i g t l I h r s o l l t m i t den ganzen M a r i a n e n im M a r i a n e n g r a b e n v e r s a u f e n l " [P 3 1 ^ ] ) j i n e x p l a i n i n g to Monika why he must s t a y i n t h e asylum, ("Ich habe mein Geheimnis v e r r a t e n , i c h habe Salomos E r s c h e i n e n n i c h t v e r s c h w i e g e n . DafUr l a p t e r mich blipen. L e b e n s l a n g l i c h " [P 31 9 ] ) ; and f i n a l l y i n k i l l i n g Monika, ("Kbnig Salomo b e f a h l e s " [P 3 2 8 ] ) . C l e a r l y , t h e s e a r e the i n s t a n c e s i n which he behaves i n an " i n s a n e " way; t h a t i s , each time he commits an a c t which i s r e g a r d e d as mad by o t h e r s , he a t t r i b u t e s i t t o t h e w i s h o f K i n g Solomon. He i s caught i n h i s own t r a p when he as k s the I n s p e c t o r i n d e s p e r a t i o n to a r r e s t him and i s t o l d t h a t t h a t i s i m p o s s i b l e : -k6- Nach ihrem e i g e n e n G e s t a n d n i s haben S i e auf B e f e h l des Kbnigs Salomo g e h a n d e l t . So l a n g e i c h den n i c h t v e r h a f t e n kann, b l e i b e n S i e f r e i . (P 3 3 O ) J u s t how f r e e Mbbius r e a l l y i s , becomes h i s p r i n c i p a l p r e - o c c u p a t i o n i n the denouement o f the drama, i n which the p i e c e s o f the p u z z l e f a l l i n t o p l a c e , and the appearances o f K i n g Solomon e x p l a i n e d . In a t o t a l l y u n e xpected t u r n o f e v e n t s , one of Mbbius' f e l l o w p a t i e n t s , "Newton," r e v e a l s t h a t he i s i n f a c t , a famous s c i e n t i s t , s e n t by h i s government t o p ersuade Mbbius, t h a t g e n i u s i n p h y s i c s , to l e a v e t h e asylum and work f o r t h a t government. DUrrenmatt b a r e l y g i v e s t h e a u d i e n c e time to a s s i m i l a t e t h i s t u r n i n e v e n t s , when " E i n s t e i n , " the t h i r d p a t i e n t a p p e a r s , and c a l m l y d e c l a r e s t h a t he too i s a famous p h y s i c i s t , s e n t by an o p p o s i n g government on the same m i s s i o n as Newton. The b r i e f appearances o f E i n s t e i n and Newton have g i v e n p r a c t i c a l l y no i d e a o f t h e i r d i s g u i s e ; on the c o n t r a r y , t h e y p l a y e d t h e i r r o l e s to p e r f e c t i o n . Newton's exchange w i t h the I n s p e c t o r , i n w h i c h he a s s e r t s t h a t he i s a c t u a l l y E i n s t e i n , but p r e t e n d s to be Newton i n o r d e r not to c o n f u s e E r n e s t i , (who p l a y s E i n s t e i n ) , w h i c h one now r e a l i z e s was n o t h i n g more than an e l a b o r a t e game, was c o n v i n c i n g enough to f o o l t h e a u d i e n c e as w e l l as t h e I n s p e c t o r . E i n s t e i n ' s t r a n c e l i k e e n t r a n c e s w i t h h i s v i o l i n , and h i s dazed, "Ich b i n aufgewacht," a r e e q u a l l y u n s u s p i c i o u s . T h e r e i s one passage, when E i n s t e i n i n t e r r u p t s Mbbius and Monika, which might p o s s i b l y -4T- be a c t e d i n such a way as to g i v e the a u d i e n c e a c l u e : E i n s t e i n : D a b e i g e i g e i c h gar n i c h t gem, und d i e P f e i f e l i e b e i c h auch n i c h t . S i e schmeckt s c h e u p l i c h . Dann l a s s e n S i e es s e i n . Kann i c h doch n i c h t . A l s A l b e r t E i n s t e i n . (P 318) Mb'bius : E i n s t e i n : But on the whole, t h e r e has been l i t t l e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e s e s u r - p r i s i n g d evelopments. The language of a l l t h r e e men has changed so t h a t t h e i r s a n i t y cannot be doubted. I n s t e a d o f the c l i p p e d p h r a s e s and i r o n i c q u e s t i o n s t h a t have marked t h e i r speech b e f o r e t h i s scene ( e x c e p t i n t h e Mbbius- Monika scene) a l l t h r e e men speak a t l e n g t h , r a t i o n a l l y and l u c i d l y . The a c t s which have p r e v i o u s l y a s s u r e d t h e a u d i e n c e o f t h e i r i n s a n i t y a r e e x p l a i n e d l o g i c a l l y . The t h r e e n u r s e s had to be k i l l e d when t h e y began t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r p a t i e n t s were not mad a f t e r a l l ; f i r s t o f a l l to s i l e n c e t h e n u r s e s , s e c o n d l y to r e a s s u r e t h e r e s t o f t h e s t a f f o f t h e p h y s i c i s t s ' i n s a n i t y . The s p i e s d i s c o v e r to t h e i r amazement t h a t d u r i n g t h e f i f t e e n y e a r s Mb'bius has s p e n t i n t h e asylum, he has s o l v e d t h e problems which have o c c u p i e d s c i e n t i s t s a l l o v e r the w o r l d , i n c l u d i n g t h e d i s c o v e r y o f the "system o f a l l p o s s i b l e i n v e n t i o n s . " However, he warns, "Neue, u n v e r s t e l l b a r e E n e r g i e n wUrden f r e i g e s e t z t und e i n e T e c h n i k e r m b g l i c h t , d i e j e d e r F a n t a s i e s p o t t e t , f a l l s meine U n t e r - suchung i n d i e H'ande der Menschen f i e l e " (P 338) . -48- The q u e s t i o n t h e n a r i s e s , where does the d u t y o f a s c i e n t i s t l i e ? F o r "Newton," a l i a s A l e c J a s p e r K i l t o n , s c i e n t i f i c knowledge b e l o n g s t o t h e w o r l d and a s c i e n t i s t s h o u l d work f o r the c o u n t r y w h i c h g u a r a n t e e s h i s freedom to do r e s e a r c h . He does n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s c i e n t i s t has any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; o r r a t h e r , h i s r e s p o n - s i b i l i t y i s t o s c i e n c e o n l y : "Ob d i e Menschen den Weg z u gehen v e r s t e h t , den w i r i h n bahnen, i s t i h r e Sache, n i c h t d i e u n s r i g e " (P 338). " E i n s t e i n , " a l i a s J o s e p h E i s l e r , sees more c l e a r l y t h a t s c i e n t i f i c knowledge i s dangerous power. W h i l e i t must be made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e w o r l d , a s c i e n t i s t has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o see t h a t i t becomes a v a i l a b l e t o t h e " r i g h t " government. "Wir mlissen M a c h t p o l i t i k e r werden, w e i l w i r P h y s i k e r s i n d " (P 3 3 8 ) . He c l a i m s t h a t i n f a c t a s c i e n t i s t i s f r e e , because p o l i t i c i a n s r e c o g n i z e t h e i r dependence on s c i e n c e ; "Auch u n s e r p o l i t i s c h e s System mu|3 der W i s s e n s c h a f t aus d e r Hand f r e s s e n " (P 339)• F o r Mb'bius i t i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the s c i e n t i s t t o h i d e h i s d i s c o v e r i e s i f he has r e a s o n to b e l i e v e t h a t t h e w o r l d w i l l m isuse them. S o c i e t y has p r o v e d i t s e l f i r r e s p o n s i b l e and i n c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g the s u p e r i o r knowledge p r o v i d e d by s c i e n t i s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e bomb. T h e r e f o r e a s c i e n t i s t must n o t make the r e s u l t s o f h i s r e s e a r c h p u b l i c a t a l l ; i t would be r a t h e r l i k e g i v i n g a c h i l d a machine gun to p l a y w i t h . T h i s i s why he d e c i d e d v o l u n t a r i l y t o f e i g n madness and to e n t e r the asylum f i f t e e n y e a r s ago, why he -k9- s a c r i f i c e d h i s p e r s o n a l h a p p i n e s s , f i r s t w i t h h i s own f a m i l y , t h e n w i t h M o n i k a . "Ich l i e p meine akademische K a r r i e r e f a h r e n , d i e I n d u s t r i e f a l l e n und U b e r l i e p meine F a m i l i e ihrem S c h i c k s a l . I c h w S h l t e d i e Narrenkappe. I c h gab v o r , der Kb'nig Salomo e r s c h e i n e m i r , und s c h o n s p e r r t e man mich i n einem I r r e n h a u s " (P 3̂ 2) . However, b o t h "Newton" and " E i n s t e i n " come to r e a l i z e t h e i r o n y of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . Each of them made what he c o n s i d e r e d a r a t i o n a l and humane d e c i s i o n to i n v o l v e h i m s e l f i n p o l i t i c s , and t r y to e n t i c e Mb'bius back i n t o th e w o r l d f o r the good o f h i s c o u n t r y o r mankind. In o r d e r to do t h i s , each u n c o n s c i o u s l y gave up h i s freedom and became m e r e l y a cog i n t h e m a c h i n e r y o f h i s s o c i e t y . I n o r d e r to c a r r y o u t t h i s m i s s i o n , each had to p r e t e n d to be mad, to g i v e up h i s p h y s i c a l freedom, and to k i l l the n u r s e who c a r e d f o r him. Newton had t o l e a r n German and E i n s t e i n had t o l e a r n to p l a y t h e v i o l i n , ("Eine T o r t u r f U r e i n e n v b l l i g u n m u s i k a l i s c h e n Menschen" [P 3^0]). Y e t b o t h come to the r e a l i z a t i o n , w i t h the a i d o f Mbbius, t h a t t h e y a r e i n f a c t no l o n g e r f r e e i n d i v i d u a l s , nor a r e t h e s c i e n t i s t s i n t h e i r c o u n t r i e s f r e e , and what t h e y a r e o f f e r i n g Mbbius i s m e r e l y a n o t h e r p r i s o n . Mbbius a l s o shows them t h a t p a r a d o x i c a l l y , the asylum i s the o n l y p l a c e where t h e y a r e f r e e to be s c i e n t i s t s , t o be t r u e t o t hemselves and t r u e to humanity. He does not .suggest g i v i n g up r e s e a r c h as a s o l u t i o n to h i s dilemma, nor does DUrrenmatt answer -50- t h e q u e s t i o n whether Mb'bius i s r i g h t o r wrong. Mbbius p u t s i t to the o t h e r two t h i s way: Entweder haben w i r g e o p f e r t oder gemordet. Entweder b l e i b e n w i r im I r r e n h a u s oder d i e W e l t w i r d e i n e s . Entweder l b s c h e n w i r uns im Ged'dchtnis der Menschen aus o d e r d i e M e n s c h h e i t e r l i s c h t . (P 3^3) The two s p i e s c e r e m o n i o u s l y , ( i f a l i t t l e u n b e l i e v a b l y ) a g r e e to remain f o r e v e r i n t h e asylum, thus s a c r i f i c i n g t h e i r p h y s i c a l freedom, but r e t a i n i n g t h e i r m e n t a l freedom. But DUrrenmatt i s not c o n t e n t t o l e t t h e drama end i n harmony w i t h Mbbius' w i s h e s and p l a n n i n g . The " Z u f a l l " i n t h i s c ase i s t h e r e v e l a t i o n t h a t F r S u l e i n D o k t o r M a t h i l d e von Zahnd i s r e a l l y mad, m a i n t a i n s t h a t K i n g Solomon chose h e r to r u l e o v e r the e a r t h , s e t the wheels i n m o t i o n which l e d to t h e deaths of the t h r e e n u r s e s , and to top i t a l l o f f , has s e c r e t l y p h o t o c o p i e d Mbbius' n o t e s , r e n d e r i n g a b s u r d h i s d e c i s i o n t o b u r n them when the p o l i c e came. More t h a n t h a t , the f i f t e e n y e a r s Mbbius spent i n the asylum seem to have been f o r naught, as he has n o t p r e v e n t e d h i s knowledge from f a l l i n g i n t o i r r e s p o n s i b l e hands. The d e c i s i o n o f t h e o t h e r two t o remain i n the asylum has been made e q u a l l y a b s u r d , as i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e y w i l l have no freedom w h a t s o e v e r . The g r i l l s on the windows, the f l o o d l i g h t s on the grounds, the armed guards make i t a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r t h a t t h e i r a s y l u m - r e f u g e has become a maximum s e c u r i t y p r i s o n . The c r i t i c Armin A r n o l d s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e " d o c t o r i s not r e a l l y mad a f t e r a l l : I s t d i e X r z t i h , D r . Ma'thilde von Zahnd, w i r k l i c h v e r r l i c k t ? Es kommt d a r a u f an, wie s i e i h r V e r h a l t n i s zu K b n i g Salomo f o r m u l i e r t ; m e i n t s i e es e r n s t , i s t s i e v e r r l i c k t . S p r i c h t s i e i r o n i s c h und p a r o d i e r t Mb'bius, dann i s t s i e so normal wie i h r e Vorfahren--um des Geldes und der Macht w i l l e n b e r e i t , d i e Welt zugrunde zu r i c h t e n . Es i s t n a t i l r l i c h e i n T h e a t e r c o u p , wenn s i c h zum Schlu(3 h e r a u s s t e l l t , dap d i e V e r r l t c k t e n normal und d i e S r z t i n v e r r l i c k t i s t , a b er d i e z w e i t e M b g l i c h k e i t i s t r a f f i n i e r t e r . S i e i s t so v e r r l i c k t wie a l l e Menschen, nur d r e i s i n d normal, und d i e s e b e f i n d e n s i c h im Irrenhaus.2 I t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g t h e s i s , but i t can be d i s p u t e d , e s p e c i a l l y when one examines more c l o s e l y the d o c t o r ' s p r e v i o u s r e f e r e n c e s to K i n g Solomon. F o r example, when the m i s s i o n a r y Oskar Rose comments on the " t r a u r i g e , b e k l a g e n s w e r t e V e r i r r u n g " under w h i c h Mbbius s u f f e r s i n b e l i e v i n g t h a t Solomon appears to' him, the d o c t o r says s i g n i f i c a n t l y : I h r strammes U r t e i l e r s t a u n t mich e i n wenig, H e r r M i s s i o n a r Rose. A l s T h e o l o g e mllssen S i e doch immerhin m i t d e r M b g l i c h k e i t e i n e s Wunders r e c h n e n . (P 306) And when Mbbius e x p l a i n s h i s murder o f t h e n u r s e by a t t r i b u t i n g t h e o r d e r t o K i n g Solomon, Dl i r r e n m a t t ' s s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s s p e c i f y : " S i e s e t z t s i c h w i e d e r . Schwerf a l l i g , B l e i c h " (P 328). These two i n c i d e n t s s u g g e s t an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t the d o c t o r has, i n f a c t , b e l i e v e d i n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f K i n g Solomon f o r some t i m e . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e two comments by the d o c t o r w h i c h might l e a v e some doubts as to t h e i r r e a l meaning. F i r s t , i n h e r d i s c u s s i o n w i t h I n s p e c t o r Voss, she a s s u r e s him: "FUr wen s i c h meine P a t i e n t e n -52- h a l t e n , bestimme i c h . I c h kenne s i e w e i t a u s b e s s e r a l s s i e s i c h s e l b e r kennen" (P 299) • F u r t h e r , when Monika t e l l s Mb'bius t h a t F r ' d u l e i n D o k t o r had g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n f o r h i s r e l e a s e , she adds, " S i e s e l b s t s e i v e r r l l c k t e r a l s S i e , e r k l S r t e s i e und l a c h t e " (P 321) . I n r e t r o s p e c t , b o t h t h e s e comments a r e ominous. In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the madness of the d o c t o r , t h e c r i t i c M u rray Peppard w r i t e s : I t was a t h e a t r i c a l i n s p i r a t i o n to a r r a n g e t h a t , a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e p l a y , the mad o l d maid, F r ' d u l e i n D o k t o r M a t h i l d e von Zahnd, e x p l o i t s t h e d i s c o v e r i e s which the p h y s i c i s t Mbbius has s a c r i - f i c e d h i s l i f e , w i f e and h a p p i n e s s to keep from the w o r l d . The e f f e c t o f t h i s s e e m i n g l y a b r u p t and g r i m l y c o m i c a l t u r n i s t h a t of the g r o t e s q u e i n i t s f i n e s t form. But th e g e n e r a l sense of t h e p l a y l e a d s i n e v i t a b l y t o j u s t some such c o n c l u s i o n , s i n c e the a c t i o n i s based, throughout, on the f u t i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n , t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t i d e a s cannot be h i d d e n o r revoked, t h a t p r o g r e s s , even i f i t i s p r o g r e s s to u l t i m a t e d i s a s t e r , i s i n e v i t a b l e , and t h a t man, t h a t f r a i l c r e a t u r e , i s n o t e q u a l to the t a s k of m a s t e r i n g h i s own i d e a s . The l a s t c o n v i c t i o n , namely t h a t man i s n o t as l a r g e as the thought o f w h i c h he i s c a p a b l e , and t h a t he f a l l s m o r a l l y b e h i n d h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l a c h i e v e m e n t s , i s the c e n t r a l c o n c e r n o f the p l a y . . . . These c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g i d e n t i t i e s , the s h i f t i n g l i n e between r e a l i t y and i l l u s i o n a r e , as C h r i s t i a n Markus J a u s l i n p o i n t s o u t , v e r y r e m i n i s c e n t o f P i r a n d e l l o : D i e F r a g e des I n s p e k t o r s : " B i n i c h e i g e n t l i c h v e r r l i c k t ? " l s p t den Zuschauer a l l e r d i n g s n i c h t mehr ganz l o s , a n g e s i c h t s d e r s t a n d i g wech- s e l d e n I d e n t i t a t der P h y s i k e r . Wenn d i e s e am S c h l u p zusammenbrechen, g e s c h i e h t d i e s u n t e r e i n e r a h n l i c h t r a g i s c h e n K o n s t e l l a t i o n , w i e s i e -53- P i r a n d e l l o s H e i n r i c h IV e i g e n i s t : Was b i s h e r nur a l s Maske vorgegeben wurde, b l e i b t nun ^ p l b t z l i c h d i e e i n z i g e M ' d g l i c h k e i t d e r E x i s t e n z . Newton and E i n s t e i n resume t h e i r masks, t h i s time f o r e v e r . But Mb'bius, who u n t i l now has been c l a i m i n g t h a t Solomon appears to him, t a k e s on t h e i d e n t i t y o f K i n g Solomon h i m s e l f . As has been p o i n t e d o u t above, Mbbius used the appearances o f the K i n g to a c c o u n t f o r h i s " i n s a n e " b e h a v i o u r ; h i s a s s u m p t i o n o f t h i s new i d e n t i t y p r o b a b l y means a f i n a l r e j e c t i o n o f h i s r o l e as Johann W i l h e l m Mbbius, the p h y s i c i s t , and t h e end of h i s r e s e a r c h work. One of the c r i t i c s most f a m i l i a r w i t h DUrrenmatt's work, E l i s a b e t h B r o c k - S u l z e r , r e a l i z e s the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f t r y i n g t o r e s o l v e the e n d i n g : I r r e ? E n d g U l t i g i h r e r P e r s o n E n t f a l l e n e ? D i e F r a g e b l e i b t o f f e n . S i e i s t k e i n e r Antwort mehr w e r t . Vorhang. D i e s c h l i m m s t m b g l i c h e Wendung i s t e i n g e t r o f f e n , d i e G e s c h i c h t e i s t zu Ende. Das Paradox v o l l h e r g e s t e l l t . 5 I t i s perhaps more t h a n a chance c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t t h i s comment i s e q u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e to the e n d i n g of Romulus der Groge. Indeed, h a v i n g examined t h e c h a r a c t e r and m o t i v a t i o n of b o t h Romulus and Mbbius i n some d e t a i l , one can see i n t e r e s t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two c h a r a c t e r s . Each Is p o s s e s s e d by an a l l - c o n s u m i n g i d e a about the s o c i e t y i n which he l i v e s ; Romulus b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e Roman Empire i s b a r b a r i c and decadent and must f a l l , and Mbbius t h i n k s t h a t the w o r l d cannot h a n d l e a l l s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, and t h e r e f o r e i t must not o b t a i n i t . Each man i s i n a p o s i t i o n to c a r r y out h i s p l a n : Romulus has p o l i t i c a l power, and Mbbius has the -5h- power t h a t comes from s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. Both r e f u s e to use t h i s power i n the g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d manner and thus a r e c o n s i d e r e d mad by t h e r e s t of s o c i e t y . D u r i n g t h e many y e a r s d u r i n g w h i c h each man p l a y s h i s adopted r o l e , he has to l i v e w i t h o u t t h e l o v e and r e s p e c t o f h i s w i f e , who would n o t u n d e r s t a n d h i s v i s i o n i n any case, and he i s the cause of the d e a t h o f t h e o n l y b e i n g s he r e a l l y l o v e s . As an emperor, Romulus sees h i s o b l i g a t i o n t o d e s t r o y t h e empire b e f o r e i t becomes too dangerous. As a s c i e n t i s t , Mb'bius sees h i s o b l i g a t i o n t o d e s t r o y h i s m a n u s c r i p t s b e f o r e t h e y r e a c h t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d and become dangerous weapons. The f a i l u r e o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l s a c r i f i c e becomes the i r o n i c t w i s t a t t h e end o f each p l a y . M u r r a y Peppard makes t h i s c o n n e c t i o n between the two c h a r a c t e r s : Romulus i s a p r e d e c e s s o r o f the p h y s i c i s t Mbbius, who resembles him even i n d e t a i l s . In b o t h c a s e s , someone e l s e t a kes o v e r who c o n t i n u e s t h e v e r y madness t h e y t r i e d t o ward o f f . F u r t h e r on, Peppard, s p e a k i n g about D i e P h y s i k e r , draws a n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l between the two men: The l a r g e r meaning o f t h e p l a y l i e s i n t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n of the i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f Mbbius' f a i l u r e to impose h i s w i l l on t h e c o u r s e o f the w o r l d , f o r no i n d i v i d u a l can s o l v e the problems o f the w o r l d o r change the c o u r s e o f h i s t o r y . In t h i s r e s p e c t , Mbbius i s a k i n to Romulus and a l s o resembles him i n the f u t i l i t y o f h i s end. The two c h a r a c t e r s , Romulus and Mbbius, don t h e mask of madness to g i v e them the freedom to a c h i e v e t h e i r aim. Both a r e thwarted by o t h e r human f o r c e s , and t h e i r s a c r i f i c e s r e n d e r e d a b s u r d . But -55- t h e i r r a d i c a l i d e a l i s m i s not condemned by Dlirrenmatt o r the a u d i e n c e ; the q u e s t i o n as to whether t h e y a r e r i g h t o r wrong remains u n a n s w e r a b l e . - 5 6 - F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r Three Q u o t a t i o n s a r e t a k e n from the Arche c o l l e c t i o n o f D l i r r e n m a t t 1 s p l a y s , Komb-dien I I und FrUhe S t l i c k e (1959; r p t . Z u r i c h , I963) and page r e f e r e n c e s p r e f a c e d by P. Armin A r n o l d , F r i e d r i c h Dlirrenmatt ( B e r l i n , I969), p. 8 0 . Murray B. Peppard, F r i e d r i c h Dlirrenmatt (New York, I 9 6 9 ) , p. 6 8 . ^ C h r i s t i a n Markus J a u s l i n , F r i e d r i c h Dlirrenmatt ( Z U r i c h , 1964), p. 116. ^ E l i s a b e t h B r o c k - S u l z e r , F r i e d r i c h Dlirrenmatt; S t a t i o n e n s e i n e s Werkes ( Z U r i c h , 1964), p. 119. 6 Peppard, p. 43- Peppard, p. 6 6 . -57- C h a p t e r F o u r : Graf ( j d e r l a n d E i t h e r you a r e c r a z y , l i k e t h e r e s t o f c i v i l i z e d humanity, o r you a r e sane and h e a l t h y . . . . And i f you a r e sane and h e a l t h y you a r e an a n a r c h i s t and throw bombs. Henry M i l l e r The m y s t e r y and d r e a m - l i k e atmosphere o f Max F r i s c h ' s Graf ( j d e r l a n d imbue i t w i t h a q u a l i t y o f s t r a n g e n e s s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n Dlirrenmatt' s p l a y s . U n l i k e D l i r r e n m a t t ' s p l a y s , t h i s work o f h i s countrymen i s suspended between t h e c h a n g i n g l e v e l s o f r e a l i t y and i l l u s i o n , w i t h t o t a l d i s r e g a r d to t h e u n i t i e s o f tim e and space, I t i s a work which, i n U l r i c h W e i s s s t e i n ' s words, i s b o t h t h e a u t h o r ' s " L i e b l i n g " and h i s " S o r g e n k i n d , h a v i n g been m i s - i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e a t r e a u d i e n c e s and c r i t i c s , most o f whom saw i n 2 i t a drama about H i t l e r . I t was r e w r i t t e n b y F r i s c h t h r e e times because o f h i s e v i d e n t f a s c i n a t i o n and d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the theme. The f i n a l ( o r a t l e a s t l a t e s t ) v e r s i o n , w r i t t e n i n I96I, i s the one on wh i c h t h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be b a s e d . The s k e t c h o f t h e p l o t can be f o u n d i n F r i s c h ' s d i a r y o f t h e y e a r s 19^6-19^9> a n a i n t w o newspaper c l i p p i n g s p r e c e d i n g t h i s o u t l i n e . The f i r s t one co n c e r n s a p r o f e s s o r who m y s t e r i o u s l y d i s a p p e a r e d w i t h o u t a t r a c e . A c a b a r e t c l a i r v o y a n t , c a l l e d i n a f t e r p o l i c e e f f o r t s t o l o c a t e him had f a i l e d , "saw" the p r o f e s s o r l y i n g b eneath t h e s u r f a c e .of w a t e r . The body o f the p r o f e s s o r , who had s h o t h i m s e l f , was i n d e e d f o u n d i n t h a t p o s i t i o n . The second i n c i d e n t i s r e p o r t e d j u s t p r i o r t o F r i s c h ' s -58- f i r s t s e ven-scene s k e t c h o f "Der Graf von u d e r l a n d " : E i n Mann, der a l s b r a v e r und g e t r e u e r K a s s i e r schon zwei D r i t t e l s e i n e s D a s e i n s e r l e d i g t h a t , erwacht i n der Nacht, w e i l e i n B e d l l r f n i s i h n weckt; auf dem RUckweg e r b l i c k t e r e i n e Axt, d i e aus e i n e r Ecke b l i n k t , und e r s c h l a g t s e i n e gesamte F a m i l i e , i n b e g r i f f e n Gro(3eltern und E n k e l ; e i n e n Grund f l i r s e i n e u n g e h e u e r l i c h e T a t , h e i p t es, kbnne d e r T'dter n i c h t angeben; e i n e U n t e r s c h l a g u n g l i e g e n i c h t v o r - - . " V i e l l e i c h t war e r e i n T r i n k e r . " " V i e l l e i c h t . . . " 'Oder i s t es doch e i n e U n t e r s c h l a g u n g , der man e r s t s p a t e r e i n m a l a u f d i e Spur kommt. 1 1 i " H o f f e n w i r e s . . . ." The main c h a r a c t e r i n the p l a y d e v e l o p e d from the p r o f e s s o r o f t h e newspaper c l i p p i n g , b u t t h e r o l e o f Schweiger, the murderer, ( t h e c a s h i e r i n t h e d i a r y ) , i s a l s o e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t and must be examined b e f o r e one can r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r , and F r i s c h ' s own p h i l o s o p h y . In sharp d i s t i n c t i o n to t h e a c t s of Romulus and Mb'bius, the murder of the n i g h t watchman a t the bank seems to have no m o t i v a t i o n a t a l l . A r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f t h e events t h a t l e d up to t h e murder r e v e a l n o t h i n g t h a t c o u l d e x p l a i n i t . Schweiger spent t h e a f t e r n o o n a t a f o o t b a l l game; d e p r e s s e d by h i s team's d e f e a t , he went to the cinema i n t h e e v e n i n g , but was n o t v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n the f i l m ; he had a n o n - a l c o h o l i c d r i n k , went to the bank where he had worked f o r th e p a s t f o u r t e e n y e a r s , went to the washroom, as was h i s wont, came back w i t h an axe and murdered the n i g h t watchiuan. A l l attempts to d i s c o v e r a m o t i v e o r even -59- j u s t i f i c a t i o n f a i l , and Dr. Hahn, the r a t h e r u n i m a g i n a t i v e , b o u r g e o i s d e f e n s e a t t o r n e y i s b a f f l e d : D o k t o r Hahn: I c h weip n i c h t , w i e i c h S i e v e r - t e i d i g e n s o i l . S o l i i c h dem G e r i c h t v i e l l e i c h t sagen, S i e haben es getan, b l o p w e i l S i e gerade e i n e A x t h a t t e n , b l o p w e i l k e i n a n d r e r zugegen war a l s K a r l Anton Hofmeier? Mbrder: So war's aber . 5 (GO* 18) T h e r e a r e c e r t a i n l y s t r o n g s i m i l a r i t i e s between the s i t u a t i o n of F r i s c h ' s Schweiger, and t h a t o f M e u r s a u l t i n Camus L ' E t r a n g e r , and one might be tempted to see i n t h i s a c t , as C a r o l P e t e r s o n has, a p r o t o t y p e " a c t o f t h e a b s u r d " ; the " a c t e g r a t u i t . " ^ But t h i s i s p r o b a b l y an i n a c c u r a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n because t h e r e were r e a s o n s f o r t h e murder. I r o n i c a l l y , the p u b l i c p r o s e c u t o r , whose job i t was to p r o v e t h e p r i s o n e r ' s g u i l t , was the o n l y one t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e a s o n s , u n c o n s c i o u s though t h e y were, f o r the murder. He sees the e x p l a n a t i o n i n the drab, r o u t i n e , dehumanizing l i f e s t y l e o f the bank employee, and so many l i k e him: H o f f n u n g a u f den F e i e r a b e n d , H o f f n u n g a u f das Wochenende, a l l d i e s e l e b e n s l a n g l i c h e H o f f n u n g a u f E r s a t z , i n b e g r i f f e n d i e jSmmerliche H o f f n u n g a u f das J e n s e i t s , v i e l l e i c h t genligte es schon, wenn man den M i l l i o n e n a n g e s t e l l t e r S e e l e n , d i e Tag f U r Tag an i h r e n P u l t e n hocken, d i e s e A r t von H o f f n u n g nehmen wllrde: - - g r o s s ware das E n t s e t z e n , g r o s s d i e Verwandlung. Wer w e i p l D i e T a t , d i e w i r V e r b r e c h e n nennen, am Ende i s t s i e n i c h t s anderes a l s e i n e b l u t i g e K l a g e , d i e das Leben s e l b s t e r h e b t . Gegen d i e Hoffnung, j a , gegen den E r s a t z , gegen den Aufschub ... (GO* 11) -6o- W i t h o u t c o n n e c t i n g h i s l i f e w i t h the murder a t a l l , Schweiger h i m s e l f i s o n l y v e r y d i m l y aware of the d e v i t a l i z i n g l i f e w h ich he has been l i v i n g : H i s work was d u l l and r o u t i n e ; i t was no e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s humanity, and had no meaning f o r him w h a t s o e v e r . L i k e the c a s h i e r i n Georg K a i s e r ' s E x p r e s s i o n i s t p l a y , Von Morgens b i s M i t t e r n a c h t s , he was, u n t i l t h i s p o i n t , an u n s p e c t a c u l a r , h a r d w o r k i n g cog i n the wheel of the bank machinery, who s u d d e n l y broke out of h i s r o u t i n e l i f e by c o m m i t t i n g a c r i m i n a l a c t . Love, the, f o r c e w h i c h F r i s c h and the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s b e l i e v e can sometimes r e s t o r e t h e human element t o an o t h e r w i s e de- humanized and a l i e n a t i n g e x i s t e n c e , p l a y s no p a r t i n Schweiger's l i f e , h i s g i r l f r i e n d h a v i n g l e f t him many y e a r s ago. In a r e v e a l i n g passage, Schweiger e x p r e s s e s the emptiness of h i s l i f e , the l a c k o f freedom i n a b o u r g e o i s w o r l d : Mbrder Wenn i c h mehr v e r s t a n d e n h'dtte vom G e l d , meine i c h , v i e l l e i c h t h a t t e i c h mich n i c h t so g e l a n g w e i l t v i e r z e h n J a h r e l a n g . G e l a n g w e i l t ? K l a r . W o l l e n S i e dem G e r i c h t v i e l l e i c h t sagen, dass S i e den a l t e n H a u s w i r t e r s c h l a g e n haben aus p u r e r L a n g e w e i l e ? D o k t o r Hahn: MBrder: Do k t o r Hahn: (GO 19) S i e kbnnen s i c h n i c h t v o r s t e l l e n , Doktor, wie v e r - t r a u t m i r d i e s e r A n b l i c k i s t : Immer d i e s e s i e b e n Stabe, d a h i n t e r d i e Welt, so war es auch h i n t e r dem S c h a l t e r , a l s i c h noch f r e i . war ... (GO' 20) I n s p e a k i n g o f th e two i n c i d e n t s i n the d i a r y w h i c h were the roots of Graf O d e r l a n d , Helmuth Karasek r e f u t e s the i d e a o f the - 6 1 - " a c t e g r a t u i t " : F r i s c h r e i z t e b e i den b e i d e n V o r f ' a l l e n gerade d i e u n e r k l S r l i c h e , d i e z w e c k f r e i e T a t , Aber s i e i n t e r e s s i e r t e i h n n i c h t , wie s i e etwa d i e franzfcSsische L i t e r a t u r ( G i d e , Camus) b e s c h a f t i g t e : a l s Akt der Selbstbestimmung des Menschen, a l s Antwort auf d i e B e d r S n g n i s der unausweich- l i c h e n K a u s a l i t a t , d e r man im Akt g r a t u i zu entkommen s u c h t . V i e l m e h r geht es b e i F r i s c h darum, da(3 gerade d i e Ode, g l e i c h m a p i g e p e n e t r a n t e Ordnung z w e i e r Leben i n Mord o d e r S e l b s t m o r d e x p l o d i e r t . . . . Es i s t d i e E r k T a r u n g p o l i t i s c h e r Gewalt, d i e s c h e i n b a r aus dem N i c h t s kommend, i n Wahrheit i n d e r Enge w o h l b e h l l t e t e r k l e i n - b l l r g e r l i c h e r E x i s t e n z e n i h r e Wurzel h a t . ^ There i s never the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t Schweiger i s i n s a n e , nor does t h a t p o s s i b i l i t y o c c u r to t h e a u d i e n c e . One i s o n l y aware t h a t h i s a c t i s o u t o f p r o p o r t i o n t o the f a c t o r s w hich t r i g g e r e d i t . The e f f e c t t h a t t h i s murder has on the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r forms the b a s i s f o r t h e main a c t i o n o f the p l a y . I n an a n a l y s i s o f F r i s c h ' s dramas, A d e l h e i d Weise w r i t e s : I n e i n e r a b s u r d e n Welt e r h a l t d e r s c h e i n b a r s i n n l o s e Mord e i n e n S i n n : e r v e r n e i n t d i e s e s Leben, w e i l es k e i n e n Wert h a t . Wahrend s i c h der B a n k a n g e s t e l l t e damit begnligt, " n e i n " zum Leben zu sagen, e r k e n n t d e r S t a a t s a n w a l t , dap d i e R e v o l t e nur dann e i n e n S i n n haben kann, wenn aus d e r A n klage gegen d i e G e s e l l s c h a f t e i n e S e l b s t b e f r e i u n g e n t s t e h t . D i e unbewupte T a t das K a s s i e r e r s w i r d von ihm i n s Bewuptseins gehoben: e r v e r s t e h t den Mbrder und w i r d s i c h s e i n e r e i g e n e n , paradoxen S i t u a t i o n bewupt. A l s S t a a t s a n w a l t h a t e r d i e P f l i c h t , K l a g e gegen den Mord zu erheben und das Leben im Namen des S t a a t e s zu s c h l l t z e n . . Da es aber d i e Gesetze s i n d , d i e das Leben t b t e n , w i r d e r a l s Anwalt d i e s e r Gesetze i n d i r e k t s e l b s t z u m M drder. Der absurde Mord k l a g t i h n an; indem e r s e i n e s t a a t l i c h e P f l i c h t t u t , versaumt e r s e i n e m e n s c h l i c h e P f l i c h t : I c h kannte tun, was immer meine P f l i c h t war, und i c h wurde es dennoch n i e l o s , das G e f U h l , dap i c h meine P f l i c h t versaume m i t jedem Atemzug. (GO- 26) - 6 2 - T h e r e a r e o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r has the c o n s t a n t f e e l i n g o f h a v i n g m i s s e d something i m p o r t a n t i n h i s l i f e . I t i s s t a t e d e x p l i c i t l y , but i n p a s s i n g i n the f i r s t scene, t h a t he f e e l s he n e v e r had a c h i l d h o o d : E l s a : . . . du b i s t n i c h t mehr jung, M a r t i n - - S t a a t s a n w a l t : I c h b i n es n i e gewesen. (GO 9) C h i l d h o o d b e i n g e s s e n t i a l l y a time o f freedom, mental and p h y s i c a l , t h i s i s c l e a r l y a s i g n i f i c a n t comment. L a t e r , E l s a says t o D o k t o r Hahn: " P l b t z l i c h erwacht e r und meint, e r habe etwas v e r g e s s e n . Das mein t e r , s e i t w i r uns kennen" (Gij 3 5 ) • To Inge, the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r c o n f e s s e s : " F r l i h e r schon h a t t e i c h d i e s e s Gef U h l . Immer sc h o n . So e i n h o h l e s G e f U h l , dap i c h anderswo e r w a r t e t werde. Immer anderswo . Und dap i c h j e t z t etwas e r l e d i g e n mtipte" (GC- 2 6 ) . As a yout h he had dreams o f b e i n g c a p t a i n o f a s h i p , which s a i l e d "ohne Z i e l und Z e i t " (GO 2 8 ) ; but as he grew o l d e r , he s e t t l e d f o r a model s h i p which c o u l d be p l a c e d i n t o the p e r f e c t o r d e r o f h i s o f f i c e w i t h - out d i s t u r b i n g i t , and wh i c h t h e maid d u s t e d e v e r y so o f t e n . E l s a e x p l a i n s t o M a r i o , t h e c l a i r v o y a n t , t h a t h e r husband never had a chance to t r a v e l : E l s a : E i n Mann i n s e i n e r S t e l l u n g - - M a r i o : Kommt n i c h t d a z u . V e r s t e h e . E l s a : A l s w i r h e i r a t e t e n , begann-der K r i e g — M a r i o : V e r s t e h e . E l s a : A l l e Grenzen g e s p e r r t - - M a r i o : V e r s t e h e , v e r s t e h e . E l s a : Manchmal m u 3 e r nach London o d e r P a r i s . (GO 3 7 ) These f e e l i n g s o f r e s t l e s s n e s s , d i s q u i e t and g e n e r a l "Angst" h e l p t o -6 3- e x p l a i n t h e a b r u p t metamorphosis of the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e the i n t e n t i o n a l p a r a l l e l s F r i s c h has drawn between the murderer and the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r , not o n l y i n t h e i r view of l i f e , and v i o l e n t a c t i o n s , but i n more s u b t l e , p h y s i c a l r e s e m b l a n c e s . F o r example, a t h e a t r e a u d i e n c e would be s t r u c k by t h e way b o t h men s t a n d , w i t h t h e i r hands i n t h e i r p o c k e t s , l o s t i n thought, a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the f i r s t and second s c e n e s . Stage d i r e c t i o n s s p e c i f y t h a t the murderer s t a n d s l o o k i n g out o f t h e b a r r e d window a t the snow; i n the f o l l o w i n g scene, the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r i s seen l o o k i n g out of the s m a l l window i n the c o t t a g e , s a y i n g : " . . . U b e r a l l g i b t es S t a b e " (G<3 2 7 ) . Schweiger's d i n n e r , bean soup and b r e a d , i s the f a r e s e r v e d t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r i n the c o t t a g e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e major d i f f e r e n c e s between the two c h a r a c t e r s , which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y l a t e r , t h e s e s m a l l v i s u a l s i m i - l a r i t i e s a r e o f c o u r s e i m p o r t a n t to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e drama. A l s o , t h e y p r o v i d e t h e k i n d of l i n k s between scenes w h i c h c r e a t e to some e x t e n t the dream atmosphere of the p l a y . T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d f u r t h e r by i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s . H i l d e , Inge and Coco a r e a l l p l a y e d by the same a c t r e s s and r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of t h e l o v e element. D r . Hahn and the M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r a r e a n t a g o n i s t s i n the two l i v e s o f the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r . The Guard and the Gendarme have s i m i l a r r o l e s : b o t h a r e g u a r d i a n s o f law and o r d e r , b o t h a r e b o r e d i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n , and to each of them, the P u b l i c -6k- P r o s e c u t o r comments t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n of bee-keeper would s u i t him. The P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r i s aware of t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f h i s ex- p e r i e n c e s : Am Ende, wenn i c h mich e r i n n e r e , s i n d es zwei o d e r d r e i G e s i c h t e r , d i e immer w i e d e r k e h r e n , und wenn man ans Ende d e r Welt s t a p f t e . Immer i s t da e i n G e s i c h t wie das d e i n e , e i n K i n d . Und immer wenn man gehen w i l l , immer i s t e i n e A r t von Gendarm da, d e r w i s s e n mug wohin und woher ... (GO 27) H i s sudden u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the man he i s supposed to p r o s e c u t e l e a d s the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r t o a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s own l i f e , and, i n what might o r might not be a dream sequence, he b u r n s h i s f i l e s , and abandons the s e c u r i t y o f h i s home and p r o f e s s i o n f o r the freedom and u n c e r t a i n t y o f the woods . H i s f l i g h t f rom h i s home i s thus a r e v o l t a g a i n s t h i s w o r l d as he sees i t , bound by th e law and o r d e r imposed by s o c i e t y , and an i d e a l i s t i c y e a r n i n g f o r a b s o l u t e p h y s i c a l and mental freedom. He t h i n k s he can f i n d f u l f i l l - ment i n a new l i f e , u n c o n s t r a i n e d by time o r s p a c e . He l a t e r becomes v e r y l u c i d about t h e a l i e n a t i n g w a s t e l a n d w h i c h he f e e l s he has l e f t : I c h kenne e u r e Ordnung. I c h b i n i n O d e r l a n d g e b o r e n . Wo d e r Mensch n i c h t h i n g e h b r t , wo e r n i e g e d e i h t . Wo man aus T r o t z l e b t Tag f l l r Tag, n i c h t aus F r e u d e . Aus T r o t z , aus Tugend. Wo man d i e Schbpfung bek'dmpfen mup, damit man n i c h t e r f r i e r t und v e r h u n g e r t . F r l i c h t e d e r A r b e i t , das s i n d d i e e i n z i g e n , d i e es i n O d e r l a n d g i b t . Es wMchst uns d i e Mupe n i c h t an BSumen, d i e h e i t e r e , a n g s t l o s e , f r e i e , d i e der Anfang i s t von a l l e m , was Mensch h e i p t . N i c h t s i s t Geschenk, a l l e s b l e i b t Lohn. Und a l l e s i s t P f l i c h t . Und Uberwindung i s t das Hbchste, was man s i c h denken kann, d o r t wo i c h geboren b i n . Uberwindung und V e r z i c h t . Man -6 5- macht s i c h e i n Gewissen dara u s , dap man l e b t , und j e d e r s u c h t nach einem S i n n , nach E r s a t z f U r d i e Freude, d i e im Nebel n i c h t g e d e i h t . Denn u n s e r Sommer i s t k u r z , und wehe dem Menschen, d e r s i c h d e r L u s t e r g i b t , wo s i e n i c h t a u s r e i c h t , w e i l s i e Sonne n i c h t a u s r e i c h t . Wehe'. wenn w i e d e r d i e Dammerung kommt, wenn a l l e s v e r g r a u t , und de r N e b e l , wenn a l l e s ohne Map i s t , u n w i r k l i c h , und es kommen d i e G e s p e n s t e r d e r Verantwortung, es wuchert das Gewissen, b i s man e r s t i c k t - - o d e r a u s b r i c h t • . . (GO' 57) D. Barlow, who sees t h i s c o n f l i c t between "Ordnung" and t h e " w i r k l i c h e L e ben" to be c e n t r a l to a l l o f F r i s c h ' s works, w r i t e s : The c o n c e p t o f "das w i r k l i c h e Leben" s i g n i f i e s f o r F r i s c h a s t a t e o f b e i n g i n w h i c h man i s a b l e to r e a l i z e h i s t r u e s e l f , t o a t t a i n , t h a t i s , t o the f u l l and harmonious e v o l u t i o n o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y i n o r d e r t h a t he may d e v e l o p i n t o a t h o r o u g h l y i n t e g r a t e d human b e i n g . "Ordnung," on t h e o t h e r hand, i m p l i e s a l l t h e s e f o r c e s i n modern c i v i l i s a t i o n and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n m i d d l e c l a s s s o c i e t y , which i n F r i s c h ' s view, h i n d e r s such a development by i m p o s i n g upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l a r e s t r i c t i v e and a r t i f i c i a l p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o u r l e a d i n g t o t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f h i s e s s e n t i a l humanity.-' F u r t h e r , Barlow p o i n t s o ut t h a t M a r i o , t h e c a b a r e t c l a i r v o y a n t who i s c a l l e d i n to h e l p i n t h e s e a r c h , r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e r o o t s o f the S t a a t s a n w a l t ' s " A n g s t " a r e t o be sought i n " Z i v i l i s a t i o n , " f o r i t i s " Z i v i l i s a t i o n " w i t h a l l the d e v i t a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s i t e x e r c i s e s upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l , which seems t o the S t a a t s a n w a l t t o be p a r a d o x i c a l l y d e p r i v i n g him o f h i s humanity, t o be t r a n s f o r m i n g h i s l i f e i n t o an e n d l e s s round o f " A r b e i t und P f l i c h t e r f U l l u n g . " T h i s may be a r a t h e r s i m p l i s t i c a p p r oach t o t h e pr o b l e m w i t h which F r i s c h i s s t r u g g l i n g . C l e a r l y , t h i s c r i t i c , as w e l l as A d e l h e i d Weise, quoted above, sees no e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e l i v e s o f -66- t h e murderer and the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r , and thus makes no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n h i s judgement of the two c h a r a c t e r s . But the q u e s t i o n i s not, i t seems, t h a t c l e a r - c u t f o r t h e a u t h o r , who does no t a r r i v e a t any d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s . Schweiger o b v i o u s l y had l i t t l e c o n t r o l o v e r h i s own d u l l l i f e , and thus h i s r e v o l t , a l t h o u g h s e e m i n g l y w i t h o u t m o t i v e , was v a l i d . But t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r i s i n a v e r y d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n : e c o n o m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y , he i s i n a much b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o c o n t r o l h i s l i f e , to come to terms w i t h the o p p r e s s i v e i n f l u e n c e s i n i t . However, he chooses to see h i s l i f e as a m i r r o r - i m a g e o f Schweiger's monotonous e x i s t e n c e . By showing h i s h e r o ' s extreme p o s i t i o n , F r i s c h seems to s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between a l i f e o f r o u t i n e , which i s d e a d e n i n g , and a l i f e o f o r d e r , which i s n e c e s s a r y to some degree f o r the f u n c t i o n i n g o f s o c i e t y , and w i t h which one can d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y . L i f e , whether i n t h e c i t y o r the woods, r e q u i r e s some o r d e r ; o t h e r w i s e i t i s chaos . But i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r i t to become a d e a d e n i n g r o u t i n e t o such a degree as t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r imagines . F o r the h e r o , p e r c e i v i n g l i f e as he does, h i s escape i n t o t h e woods i s r e a l l y no escape, f o r he o n l y sees t h e same t h i n g : p e o p l e engaged i n m e a n i n g l e s s work, j u s t to s t a y a l i v e . Inge too, s i n g s o f h e r d e s p e r a t i o n : -6 7- So i s t u n s e r Leben Tag f U r Tag, und so wlirde es s e i n , b i s i c h a l t b i n und s t e r b e - - But she a l s o has a dream of e s c a p i n g : Da s t e h t e r im Zimmer p l B t z l i c h d e r Graf von C-derland. Da s t e h t e r und h a t e i n e A x t i n d e r Hand. (GO* 21) The P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r becomes h e r l o n g - a w a i t e d G r a f O'derland. The axe, w h i c h h e n c e f o r t h he c a r r i e s w i t h him i n h i s e v e r p r e s e n t b r i e f c a s e i s s u g g e s t e d by Schweiger's axe, Inge's rhyme, the c h a r c o a l b u r n e r ' s axe, and h i s own image o f t h e b a r r i e r s to freedom w h i c h he wants to smash: Stabe . . . wie d i e Stamme im Wald, d i e man f a l l e n mbchte, wenn man e i n e Axt h a t t e . (GO' 28) Thus, t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r who was " o r d e n t l i c h " and "gewissenhaf t," becomes the m y t h i c a l Graf O d e r l a n d , who r u t h l e s s l y k i l l s w i t h h i s axe, whoever o r whatever s t a n d s between him and complete freedom. Dr. Hahn h e a r s on t h e r a d i o o f t h e murder o f t h r e e c o u n t r y p o l i c e m e n who were b r u t a l l y murdered by t h e a x e - w i e l d i n g c o u n t . The r a d i o announcer s u r m i s e s : "Es i s t anzunehmen, dap es s i c h b e i dem T a t e r . . . um e i n e n Geisteskranken h a n d e l t " (GO' ko) . The e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r has s i m p l y gone mad i s the e a s i e s t one f o r Dr. Hahn and the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r ' s w i f e E l s a to make. J u s t b e f o r e m e e t i n g w i t h him, Dr. Hahn warns E l s a : "Mb'glich i s t a l l e s b e i diesem G e i s t e s z u s t a n d " (GO' 55), and when the P u b l i c -68- P r o s e c u t o r c a l m l y t akes h i s axe from h i s b r i e f c a s e , E l s a screams, "Er i s t v e r r U c k t l " (Gt) 58). A l t h o u g h S c h w e i g e r 1 s a c t was unplanned and unreasoned, t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r was f u l l y aware o f h i s a c t i o n s . Both men a c t out o f t h e same g e n e r a l d e s p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e i r l i v e s ; the murders a r e c r i m i n a l b u t l u c i d a c t s . F r i s c h seems t o have g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e problem o f j u d g i n g t h e s e c r i m e s ; the e t h i c a l q u e s t i o n o f g u i l t i s f a r from s o l v e d . An a c t i s an i n s a n e a c t i f t h e r e i s no m o t i v a t i o n a t a l l f o r i t . And i n s a n i t y r e l e a s e s one from g u i l t . But t h e s e a c t s a r e c l e a r l y n o t i n s a n e a c t s . The many endings to the p l a y w i t h w h i c h F r i s c h experimented, i n d i c a t e h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e problem, and h i s i n a b i l i t y t o a r r i v e a t any c o n c l u s i o n . T h e r e a r e c o m p r e h e n s i b l e and a c c e p t a b l e r e a s o n s , which s a t i s f y t h e a u d i e n c e t h a t the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r i s not r e a l l y a madman, b u t i n a l e t t e r t o F r i s c h , DUrrenmatt c l a i m s t h a t the m o t i v a t i o n i s not c l e a r enough f o r him: D i e z w e i t e grb"(3ere S c h w i e r i g k e i t i s t nun, dap d e r Zuschauer O d e r l a n d b e g r e i f e n tnup, um dem StUck f o l g e n zu kbnnen; denn was beim Mb'rder e i n u n b e g r e i f l i c h e r A u g e n b l i c k war, e i n Mord, um so u n h e i m l i c h e r , w e i l i h n niemand v e r s t e h t , a b e r doch ahnt, dap e r n i c h t ohne S i n n s e i n kann, das i s t nun b e i O d e r l a n d n i c h t mehr e i n Augen- b l i c k sondern e i n Leben. Und das mup d e r Zuschauer v e r s t e h e n , s o n s t w i r d O d e r l a n d e i n b l o p W a h n s i n n i g e r , e i n Amoklaufer, wie i h n Hahn nenn t . E r s o l l t e d i e s e s Leben so s e h r v e r s t e h e n , dap e r d i e s e r L o g i k n i c h t s e n t g e g e n s e t z e n kann. D i e GrUnde O d e r l a n d s s o l l t e n i n jedem F a l l e s t a r k e r a l s d i e des Zuschauers s e i n . . . O d e r l a n d s o l l t e Uberzeugen. . . . Aber es genUgte n i c h t , dap e r w i e e i n W a h n s i n n i g e r e r s c h e i n t ( e r s c h e i n t , e r i s t es n i c h t ) . - 6 9 - I t seems t h a t t h i s i s a s h o r t - s i g h t e d c r i t i c i s m ; t h a t i t i s c l e a r enough what t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r ' s r e a s o n s a r e . He comes w i t h no i d e o l o g y , no programme, b u t seeks t o a t t a i n a U t o p i a o f freedom by v i o l e n t l y b r e a k i n g the bonds t h a t c o n f i n e him to b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y . He i s an i d e a l i s t , u n w i l l i n g to make even b a s i c compromises w i t h r e a l i t y . H i s U t o p i a i s t h e i s l a n d o f S a n t o r i n , d e s c r i b e d by M a r i o and the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r as e i n a l t e r e r l o s c h e n e r V u l k a n , v e r s u n k e n im Meer, e i n e I n s e l i n den Z y k l a d e n . Sehr wei(3, s e h r g r e l l , ( G u 3 7 ) Und hoch liber den rauschenden Brandung: D i e S t a d t . Hoch li b e r d e r schaumenden Brandung. E i n e S t a d t w i e aus K r e i d e , so weiB, so g r e l l , emporgetlirmt i n den Wind und i n s L i c h t , einsam und f r e i , t r o t - z i g , h e i t e r und klihn, emporgetlirmt i n e i n e n Himmel ohne Dunst, ohne Dammerung, ohne H o f f n u n g auf J e n s e i t s , ringsum das Meer, n i c h t s a l s d i e b l a u e F i n s t e r n i s des Meeres ... (Gij 55) T h i s i s what t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r i s s t r i v i n g f o r ; t h i s i s , a c c o r d i n g t o A d e l h e i d Weise, " d i e 'Idee' des Lebens, e i n e A l l g e g e n w a r t 12 des M S g l i c h e n , d i e das S e i n n i c h t an Raum und Z e i t h i n d e r t . " A g a i n , i t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t F r i s c h h i m s e l f does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y see t h i s a n a r c h i c s t a t e as an i d e a l . He a p p r e c i a t e s the m i d d l e c l a s s f e e l i n g o f c o n f i n e m e n t and s u p p r e s s i o n . But he f e e l s t h a t one can cope w i t h r e a l i t y , something which t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r does not even t r y . The P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r wants t o a v o i d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , b u t i m m e d i a t e l y f i n d s t h a t Inge depends on him. Thus, from t h e b e g i n n i n g , he f i n d s a b s o l u t e freedom i m p o s s i b l e t o a t t a i n . Not o n l y Inge, b u t -70- an e n t i r e r e b e l band o f p e o p l e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h l i f e and opposed to the system which o p p r e s s e s them, l o o k s to him f o r l e a d e r s h i p . There i s the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t most p e o p l e would l i k e t o break f r e e from t h e i r r o u t i n e l i v e s , b u t l a c k the courage; t h e Gendarme, a f r a i d to ask f o r O'derland's p a p e r s , i s drawn i n t o t h e dream o f freedom: Wenn man so denkt, was man anfangen kbnnte m i t diesem Leben, um d i e ganze Welt kOnnte man s e g e l n , und was man h i e r i n W i r k l i c h k e i t t u t . (GO' 53) The s i g n o f the axe on l a p e l b u t t o n s becomes t h e w i d e s p r e a d symbol o f r e v o l t a g a i n s t a s o c i e t y , whose laws " n i c h t l e b b a r s i n d " (GO' 56) . But t h e a n a r c h i s t i c r e v o l t l e a d s o n l y t o more m i s e r y . S a n t o r i n t u r n s o u t to be the damp, s t i n k i n g u n d e r w o r l d o f sewers. Inge becomes s i c k , and t h e r e i s g e n e r a l l y an atmosphere o f f e a r , m i s t r u s t and the d e s p a i r t h a t Inge e x p r e s s e s : Sag n i c h t immer G r a f i n , das i s t doch U n s i n n . Grafin'. und d a b e i l e b e n w i r i n e i n e r K l o a k e , und s o b a l d e i n e r d i e Tl i r aufmacht, s t i n k t es nach Abwasser ... Und das nennt man Santorin'. • • • Wir s i n d v e r l o r e n , g l a u b e i c h . (GO' 65) There i s t i g h t r e g i m e n t a t i o n and s t r i c t o r d e r , r a t h e r than the freedom t h e r e b e l s had sought, and the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r , h a v i n g r e f u s e d t o g i v e h i m s e l f up as h i s own d i s i l l u s i o n e d f o l l o w e r s demanded, comes t o a s t a r t l i n g d e c i s i o n : "Man TaBt m i r k e i n e Wahl. I c h habe k e i n e n a n d e r n Ausweg mehr, K i n d , a l s d i e Macht zu e r g r e i f e n " (GO' 68) . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s s t a r t l i n g t o t h e a u d i e n c e which never r e a l l y a c c e p t e d the r e v o l t o f the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r as b e i n g the o n l y r e s p o n s e to h i s s i t u a t i o n . Dlirrenmatt was c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r o f -71- the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r s h o u l d be s t r o n g enough t o c o n v i n c e t h e a u d i e n c e t h a t h i s r e v o l t i s i n e v i t a b l e ( s e e DUrrenmatt's quote a b o v e ) . But i n F r i s c h ' s eyes, the r e v o l t i s n o t i n e v i t a b l e , and thus h i s d e c i s i o n t o t a k e power i s a b e t r a y a l o f h i s i d e a l s o f freedom. The unexpected appearance o f t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r a t t h e p a r t y a t which a l l the p o l i t i c i a n s , m i l i t a r y men and j o u r n a l i s t s s t a n d around l i k e mannikens w i t h a p l a t e i n one hand and a g l a s s i n the o t h e r , b r i n g s the a c t i o n t o a c l i m a x . The U t o p i a n dream o f freedom has t u r n e d i n t o a n i g h t m a r e . The P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r o f f e r s an a l l i a n c e to the government, b u t t h i s o f f e r i s co n t e m p t u o u s l y r e f u s e d ; "Es ware e i n BUndnis m i t dem V e r b r e c h e n " (Gu 77)• When the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r s t e p s onto the b a l c o n y , t h e f r e n e t i c r e a c t i o n o f the crowd p r o v e s who i s a c t u a l l y t h e s t r o n g e r p o l i t i c a l f o r c e . The c i r c u l a r s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p l a y b r i n g s t h e s e t t i n g back t o the s t u d y i n the l a s t s c e n e . A f t e r the atmosphere o f u n r e a l i t y and e x c i t e m e n t , and the t h r e a t o f v i o l e n c e , b o t h the a u d i e n c e and the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r a r e r e l i e v e d a t the sudden p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e whole sequence o f events was an i m a g i n a t i v e n i g h t m a r e . But t h e muddy b o o t s , t h e empty c i g a r box, H i l d e ' s r e p o r t o f s h o o t i n g i n t h e c i t y and t h e d e a t h o f t h e dog b e l i e t h i s s i m p l e e x p l a n a t i o n . By the t i m e t h e p r e s i d e n t e n t e r s , t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r i s t h o r o u g h l y c o n f u s e d . A t the same time, t h e a u d i e n c e s h a r e s t h i s c o n f u s i o n as to whether t h e sequence was dream o r r e a l i t y . -72- To the h o r r o r o f the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r , the P r e s i d e n t asks him to f o r m t h e next government. " I c h w i l l n i c h t d i e Machtl I c h mdchte l e b e n l " (GC- 91)- But t h e P r e s i d e n t puts him i n t o an i m p o s s i b l e s i t u a t i o n : " S i n d S i e b e r e i t , H e r r D oktor, a l s Mbrder g e r i c h t e t zu werden, oder z i e h e p S i e es v o r , um Ruhe und Ordnung w i e d e r h e r z u s t e l l e n , d i e R e g i e r u n g zu b i l d e n ? " (GC- 92) • T h i s i s e x a c t l y t h e argument t h a t Mtfbius uses i n D i e P h y s i k e r to persuade the o t h e r two p h y s i c i s t s t o remain i n t h e asylum : "Entweder haben w i r g e o p f e r t oder gemordet." As W e i s s t e i n s a y s : The d i a l e c t i c o f freedom and power poses a dilemma from w h i c h C-derland i s u n a b l e to e x t r i c a t e h i m s e l f . A t t h e end of t h e p l a y , he i s c o r n e r e d and has no c h o i c e b u t to wake u p - - i f i n d e e d t h i s has been a ni g h t m a r e . 13 The r e v o l t f o r freedom t u r n s i n t o i t s o p p o s i t e : imprisonment w i t h i n a new o r d e r , n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e o l d one. The p r e s i d e n t , as w e l l as F r i s c h , i s w e l l aware o f t h i s p a radox: Wer, um f r e i zu s e i n , d i e Macht s t U r z t , Ubernimmt das G e g e n t e i l d e r F r e i h e i t , d i e Macht, und i c h v e r s t e h e I h r e n p e r s b n l i c h e n S chreck v o l l a u f . (GO 92) In the f i r s t v e r s i o n , the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r r e c o g n i z e s t h a t h i s r e v o l t has been s e n s e l e s s , t h a t i t has l e d n o t to freedom, b u t t o a n o t h e r k i n d o f p r i s o n : Das Leben i s t e i n Spuk, langsam b e g r e i f e i c h e s - - Wiederholung, das i s t es, und wenn man d u r c h d i e Wande geht, das i s t der F l u c h , das i s t die^G-renze, da h i l f t k e i n e Axt dagegen. W i e d e r h o l u n g l In t h i s v e r s i o n , the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r t r i e s u n s u c c e s s f u l l y to murder -73- h i s w i f e and D o k t o r Hahn ( t h e gun does n o t go o f f : a t y p i c a l dream e l e m e n t ) ; and he commits s u i c i d e by jumping out of a window. At the end o f the second v e r s i o n , he condemns the use o f f o r c e , and because he h i m s e l f i s i n a p o s i t i o n o f power, he judges h i m s e l f g u i l t y and condemns h i m s e l f to d e a t h : I c h wa t i l t e d i e A x t und nun s i n d w i r e i n s . Was f l i r e i n S i e g l D i e Ohnmacht d e r Gewalt das i s t meine E r f a h r u n g , d i e L a c h e r l i c h k e i t d e r Gewalt. F l u c h l i b e r mich und a l l e , d i e meinen Weg b e s c h r e i t e n l Denn es i s t k e i n Weg, und wer immer i h n geht, e r w i r d n i c h t a n d e r s s e i n a l s a l l e , d i e i h n gegangen s i n d . Seht s i e euch an, d i | D i e n e r des Wahns, dap d i e Gewalt uns b e f r e i e ' . The P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r i s n o t i n s a n e , d e s p i t e t h e common ass u m p t i o n w i t h i n t h e p l a y t h a t he i s ; t h e M i n i s t e r o f the I n t e r i o r t e l l s t h e M u r d e r e r t h a t the r e b e l l i o n i s " g e f l i h r t von einem G e i s t e s k r a n k e n , der v o r n i c h t s z u r l i c k s c h r e c k t " (GC- 62) and l a t e r , a f t e r t h e a ppearance of the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r a t the p a r t y , r e f e r s to him as " e i n I r r s i n n i g e r l Habe i c h es n i c h t immer g e s a g t ? E i n G e i s t e s - k r a n k e r l " (GO 77)* A g a i n , r e f e r r i n g t o D l i r r e n m a t t ' s l e t t e r t o F r i s c h : O d e r l a n d i s t auch k e i n N a r r . K e i n N a r r und k e i n G e n i e . Niemand macht es dem Z u s c hauer l e i c h t e r a l s d i e N a r r e n und d i e G e n i e s ; d i e e i n e n bewundern s i e , und liber d i e a n d e r n kann man l a c h e n . O d e r l a n d i s t e i n g e w b h n l i c h e r Mensch, d e r das V e r r l i c k t e s t e t u t . Wenn e r r i c h t i g e r f a p t w i r d , e i n e d e r s c h r e c k l i c h s t e n G e s t a l t e n , e i n e d e r b e d r o h l i c h s t e n ; wenn man i h n n i c h t v e r s t e h t , e i n ^ g a h n s i n n i g e r , und Wahnsinnige i n t e r e s s i e r e n n i c h t . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r r e g a r d s the r e s t o f t h e w o r l d as mad; p r i n c i p a l l y when he r e f e r s to s o c i e t y as -7k- an " I r r e n h a u s d e r Ordnung" (GO 5 7 ) ; In h i s s t u d y , when he t r i e s t o wake up from t h e n i g h t m a r e : " S i e w o l l e n mich i r r s i n n i g machen" (G<j 8 6 ) ; and when he t h i n k s he has woken up: "Ich habe getraumt e i n e u n s i n n i g e W e l t " (GO* 89) . J u s t as i n the c a s e o f Mb'bius and Romulus, the h e r o ' s i d e a l i s m , when put i n t o a c t i o n , t u r n s back on him, and he i s u n s u c c e s s f u l i n r e a c h i n g h i s g o a l . F r i s c h shows t h a t a b s o l u t e freedom i s i l l u s o r y , b u t he does not t o t a l l y condemn the attempt of t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r , f u t i l e though i t seems, to break out of h i s r o u t i n e . A l t h o u g h F r i s c h i n d i c a t e s t h e d e a d e n i n g a s p e c t s o f modern s o c i e t y , he a l s o shows how a v i o l e n t r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e s o c i e t y i n v o l v e s c r i m i n a l a c t s , and i s s e l f - d e f e a t i n g i n t h e end. He s u g g e s t s t h a t a c e r t a i n amount of o r d e r i n s o c i e t y i s n e c e s s a r y , and t h a t one can l e a r n t o cope w i t h i t , w i t h o u t l o s i n g one's humanity. I n K a r a s e k ' s words: O d e r l a n d w i r d j e t z t das StUck von den getrSumten SehnsUchten, d i e s i c h i n W i r k l i c h k e i t umsetzen. Aber n i c h t mehr i s t d e r Traum nur d e r Wunsch, dem eng umgrenzten, von der Ordnung wie von Wanden umgebenem A l l t a g z u entkommen, sond e r n e r w i r d auch, i n d i e W i r k l i c h k e i t umgesetzt, z u r c h a o t i s c h e n Gef'ahrdung, zum U r s p r u n g des Bbsen i n d e r W e l t . 17 Max F r i s c h thus poses t h e problem as he sees i t , but p r e s e n t s no d e f i n i t e answers, and no s o l u t i o n s . -75- F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r F o u r 1 U l r i c h W e i s s t e i n , Max F r i s c h (New York, 1 9 6 7 ) , p- 13& • Hans B S n z i g e r , F r i s c h und DUrrenmatt (Bern, I 9 6 2 ), p. 7^* ^ Max F r i s c h , Tagebuch 1 9 4 6 - 1 9 ^ 9 ( F r a n k f u r t am Main, i 9 6 0 ) , P- 2 3 - k F r i s c h , p . 7 0 . ^ Q u o t a t i o n s a r e t a k e n from t h e Suhrkamp e d i t i o n , and page r e f e r e n c e s a r e p r e c e d e d by GC-. ^ C a r o l P e t e r s o n , Max F r i s c h ( B e r l i n , I966), p. 3 9 - Helmuth K a r a s e k , F r i s c h ( V e l b e r b e i Hannover, I966), p. 4 7 - 8 A d e l h e i d Weise, Untersuchungen z u r Thematik und S t r u k t u r d e r Dramen von Max F r i s c h (Gb'ppingen, I969), p • 72 • Q D. Barlow, "'Ordnung' and 'Das w i r k l i c h e Leben' i n the work o f Max F r i s c h " , German L i f e and L e t t e r s , v o l . XIX I965-I966, P- 5 2 . 1 0 Barlow, p• 5 5 • 1 1 quoted i n B S n z i g e r , p . 2 1 1 . 12 Weise, p. 7 4 . 13 W e i s s t e i n , p. I 3 2 . B S n z i g e r , p . 7 0 -15 Karasek, p. 5 ^ . ^ B'dnziger, p . 215 17 ' Karasek, p. 49- -77- C h a p t e r F i v e : C a l i g u l a In our time t h e r e a r e o n l y two p l a c e s f o r m e t a p h y s i c a l i n d i v i d u a l s , p r i s o n o r the i n s a n e asylum. W i t k i e w i c z The Roman emperor C a l i g u l a i s one o f h i s t o r y ' s most famous madmen; many o f the a c t u a l d e t a i l s o f h i s b r u t a l r e i g n , as r e c o r d e d i n S u e t o n i u s ' De V i t a Caesarum have been adopted by Camus i n h i s f i r s t g r e a t drama, C a l i g u l a . But whereas S u e t o n i u s a t t r i b u t e s the emperor's e r r a t i c and c r u e l b e h a v i o u r e i t h e r to e p i l e p s y o r a p o t i o n g i v e n him by h i s w i f e C a e s o n i a , Camus attempts t o e x p l o r e the m o t i v e s f o r the a c t s o f t h e emperor and to e x p l a i n them p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y . C a l i g u l a i s a v e r y modern f i g u r e i n Camus' p l a y , and v e r y much a p a r t o f the a u t h o r ' s thought and w r i t i n g s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, t h i s p l a y s h a r e s w i t h Graf O d e r l a n d the dubious honour o f b e i n g m i s i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e p u b l i c and c r i t i c s as an a l l e g o r i c a l p l a y about H i t l e r and p o l i t i c a l t y r a n n y . 1 The problem o f C a l i g u l a ' s madness i s more complex and d i f f i c u l t to a p p r o a c h than t h e same problem i n the o t h e r p l a y s a l r e a d y examined. 2 Some c r i t i c s a c c e p t t h e a n a l y s i s t h a t C a l i g u l a i s c l e a r l y mad, and o t h e r s have a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . One o f t h e s e l a t t e r c r i t i c s i s F r a n c i s Ambriere, who w r i t e s , "Le C a l i g u l a de M. Camus n ' e s t pas un dement, . . . mais un e s p r i t h a n t e d ' a b s o l u . " I t i s t h e r e f o r e a d v i s a b l e to reexamine the concept o f madness and perhaps to r e d e f i n e - 7 8 - i t when d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s m a n y - l a y e r e d drama. I n t h e c a s e of each drama i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , the s o c i e t y r e p - r e s e n t e d i n the p l a y has c e r t a i n e x p e c t a t i o n s as to t h e b e h a v i o u r o f the main c h a r a c t e r , based on h i s a c t i o n s i n the p a s t o r on h i s p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y . I n each case these e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e n o t met; Romulus does not f i t t h e image of a Roman emperor, Mtibius does not f u l f i l l the promise to become a b r i l l i a n t and famous p h y s i c i s t , and O d e r l a n d does n o t c o n t i n u e to c a r r y out h i s d u t i e s as P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r . B e f o r e h i s m y s t e r i o u s d i s a p p e a r a n c e , C a l i g u l a was a model emperor w i t h r e s p e c t t o h i s s u b j e c t s and w e l l - l o v e d by h i s f r i e n d s , and p e o p l e e x p e c t e d him to c o n t i n u e as b e f o r e . The s e n s i t i v e p o e t S c i p i o n r e c a l l s C a l i g u l a ' s i d e a l s a t t h a t t i m e : I l me d i s a i t que l a v i e n ' e s t pas f a c i l e , mais q u ' i l y a v a i t l a r e l i g i o n , l ' a r t , l'amour qu'on nous p o r t e . I I r e p e t a i t s ouvent que f a i r e s o u f f r i r e t a i t l a s e u l e f a c o n de se tromper. I l v o u l a i t e t r e un homme j u s t e . (C 31) I n t h e f i r s t scene, i n which the p a t r i c i a n s a r e d i s c u s s i n g C a l i g u l a ' s d i s a p p e a r a n c e , the f i r s t p a t r i c i a n says c o n f i d e n t l y , " R i e n ne l'empeche de c o n t i n u e r " (C 19), assuming t h a t once he r e t u r n e d , t h i n g s would c o n t i n u e as b e f o r e and a l l would be w e l l . Cherea, l o n g t i m e f r i e n d o f t h e emperor's, i s the o n l y one to sense any t h r e a t to t h i s i d e a l s t a t e , a n y t h i n g ominous about C a l i g u l a ' s d i s a p p e a r a n c e . "Je n'aime pas c e l a . Mais t o u t a l l a i t t r o p b i e n . C e t empereur e t a i t p a r f a i t " (C 19), and s u g g e s t s l a t e r , " e t s ' i l r e v i e n t mai d i s p o s e ? " So even b e f o r e C a l i g u l a appears f o r the f i r s t time, -79- the a u d i e n c e i s absorbed i n a s i t u a t i o n which has a vague f e e l i n g of c l a s s i c a l t r a g e d y about i t : a s t r o n g , young emperor and f o r e - b o d i n g s o f a f a l l , o r a d r a s t i c change i n the i d e a l s i t u a t i o n . When C a l i g u l a does r e t u r n , d i r t y and exhausted, h i s f i r s t comments to h i s f r i e n d H e l i c o n , a f o r m e r s l a v e , r e v e a l t h a t he has c e r t a i n l y undergone p r o f o u n d changes. One i s reminded o f Hamlet's sudden t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , d e s c r i b e d by t h e K i n g : "nor t h e e x t e r i o r n or the inward man/resembles t h a t i t was" ( A c t I I , scene i i ) . The d e a t h o f D r u s i l l a , C a l i g u l a ' s s i s t e r and m i s t r e s s has s p a r k e d a c h a i n o f thought which w i l l a l t e r h i s l i f e s t y l e c o m p l e t e l y , and make any r e t u r n to the former p e a c e f u l s t a t e t o t a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . L i k e F r i s c h ' s P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r , C a l i g u l a has become t h e o p p o s i t e o f what he was b e f o r e . "Je v o u l a i s l a l u n e " (C 2k), C a l i g u l a s a y s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e moon and madness has always been v e r y c l o s e i n man's i m a g i n a t i o n ; b o t h l i n g u i s t i c a l l y ( l u n a r - l u n a c y ) and i n s y m b o l i c meaning. Webster's New World D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s " l u n a c y " as f o l l o w s " o r i g i n a l l y i n t e r m i t t a n t i n s a n i t y , f o r m e r l y supposed to change i n i n t e n s i t y w i t h the phases o f the moon." L i t e r a t u r e i s f u l l o f 5 r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e moon and madness, and t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was c l e a r l y a l s o i n Camus' mind. C a l i g u l a i m m e d i a t e l y has to a s s e r t t h a t he i s not mad: -8o- Mais j e ne s u i s pas f o u et meme j e n ' a i jamais e t e a u s s i r a i s o n n a b l e . Simplement, j e me s u i s s e n t i t o u t d'un coup un b e s o i n d ' i m p o s s i b l e . Les choses, t e l l e s q u ' e l l e s s o n t , ne me semblent pas s a t i s f a i s a n t e s . . . . Ce monde, t e l q u ' i l e s t f a i t , n ' e s t pas s u p p o r t a b l e . J ' a i done b e s o i n de l a l u n e , ou du bonheur, ou de 1 ' i m m o r t a l i t e , de quelque chose q u i s o i t dement p e u t ' e t r e , mais q u i ne s o i t pas de ce monde. (C 26) C a l i g u l a ' s o b s e s s i o n w i t h t h e moon i s a d e t a i l w h i c h Camus borrowed from S u e t o n i u s ' w o r k . But c l e a r l y , f o r Camus t h e moon has f u r t h e r s i g - n i f i c a n c e than t o sug g e s t madness. The ph r a s e " e t r e dans l a l u n e " means to be d i s t r a c t e d . And " d e s i r e r l a l u n e " means to d e s i r e t h e i m p o s s i b l e . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e moon as a symbol f o r something i n a c c e s s i b l e to man has c l e a r l y d i m i n i s h e d i n t h e l i g h t o f r e c e n t space e x p l o r a t i o n , but r e t a i n s p o e t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . The c r i t i c C a r i n a Gadourek, m a i n t a i n s t h a t " l a l u n e s y m b o l i s e l e s moments ho r s du temps. S i C a l i g u l a a v a i t A T l a l u n e , l a marche t u temps s e r a i t a r r e t e e , l a mort a b o l i e . " Raymond 8 G a y - C r o s i e r sees t h e moon as r e p r e s e n t i n g "sa s o i f d ' a b s o l u " and r e g a r d s t h i s as p a r t o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f N i e t z s c h e on Camus. A l l i n a l l , t h e moon i s a v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e symbol i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . T o t a l l y new r e a l i z a t i o n s have s t r u c k C a l i g u l a w i t h a s t o u n d i n g f o r c e and d e v a s t a t i n g r e s u l t s . The f i n a l i t y o f dea t h , the f e e l i n g t h a t n o t h i n g l a s t s , o c c u r to him w i t h a l l t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f i r s t t i m e . H i s d i s c o v e r y t h a t men d i e and a r e not happy seems to him to make a mockery o f l i f e . I f men l i v e w i t h o u t the c o n s t a n t awareness o f the a b s u r d i t y o f l i f e , t h e y a r e l i v i n g h y p o c r i t i c a l l i v e s , and l y i n g to t h e m s e l v e s . C a l i g u l a can no l o n g e r i d e n t i f y w i t h the -81- n a t u r a l , r e p e t i t i o u s rhythm o f l i f e , s i n c e he i s aware now o f the omnipresence and imminence of de a t h and thus t h e seeming s e n s e l e s s - ness o f l i f e . I n Le Mythe de S i s y p h e , Camus w r i t e s about t h i s s t a t e o f u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s , w h i c h i s , i n c i d e n t a l l y , s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e l i v e s o f t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r and the murderer i n F r i s c h ' s Graf O d e r l a n d b e f o r e t h e i r a c t s o f r e v o l t : Avant de r e n c o n t r e r l ' a b s u r d e , 1'homme q u o t i d i e n v i t avec des b u t s , un s o u c i d ' a v e n i r ou de j u s t i f i c a t i o n . I I e v a l u e ses chances, i l compte su r l e p l u s t a r d , s u r sa r e t r a i t e ou l e t r a v a i l de ses f i l s . I l c r o i t encore que quelque chose dans sa v i e peut se d i r i g e r . Au v r a i , i l a g i t comme s ' i l e t a i t l i b r e meme s i tous l e s f a i t s se ch a r g e n t de c o n t r e d i r e c e t t e l i b e r t e . Apres l ' a b s u r d e , t o u t se t r o u v e e b r a n l e . H a v i n g r e c o g n i z e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e abs u r d , an i n d i v i d u a l i s f a c e d w i t h s e v e r a l c h o i c e s ; he c an e i t h e r r e s i g n h i m s e l f to i t o r he can r e b e l . H i s r e a c t i o n can ta k e the form o f s u i c i d e , (a s o l u t i o n r e j e c t e d by Camus), hope, (which Camus a l s o r e j e c t s ) , o r , as i n t h i s c a s e , murder. F r e e from g u i d i n g i n f l u e n c e s which the " u n c o n s c i o u s " man t h i n k s shape h i s l i f e , b u t wh i c h t u r n o u t to be mere i l l u s i o n s , the i n d i v i d u a l has t o t a l l i b e r t y t o c r e a t e h i s own b e i n g . I t i s a f r i g h t e n i n g s o r t o f freedom i n many ways. A r e v e a l i n g e x c e r p t from the C a r n e t s i n d i c a t e s Camus' p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h i s theme o f freedom which comes from u n d e r s t a n d i n g : La s e u l e l i b e r t e p o s s i b l e e s t une l i b e r t e a l ' e g a r d de l a mort. L'homme v r a i m e n t l i b r e e s t c e l u i q u i , a c c e p t a n t l a mort comme t e l l e , -82- en a c c e p t e du meme coup l e s consequences-- c ' e s t - a - d i r e l e renvers|ment de t o u t e s l e s v a l e u r s t r a d i t i o n e l l e s . C a l i g u l a does demonstrate h i s freedom by the n e g a t i o n o f a l l the q u a l i t i e s which, a c c o r d i n g t o S c i p i o n , ( s e e S c i p i o n ' s quote above) he v a l u e d most h i g h l y : r e l i g i o n , a r t , l o v e and j u s t i c e . L e t us s t a r t w i t h t h e l a s t p a r t o f S c i p i o n ' s s t a t e m e n t : " I I r e p e t a i t s o uvent que f a i r e s o u f f r i r e t a i t l a s e u l e f a c o n de se tromper. I l v o u l a i t e t r e un homme j u s t e . " C a l i g u l a s e t s o ut d e l i b e r a t e l y t o make men s u f f e r . He t a u n t s them u n m e r c i f u l l y , o r d e r s a r b i t r a r y e x e c u t i o n s , d e c r e e s famine i n the empire, s l e e p s w i t h the wive s o f the p a t r i c i a n s , c o n f i s c a t e s p e o p l e ' s p r o p e r t y and p e r s o n a l l y t o r t u r e s and pu t s t o d e a t h h i s d e f e n s e l e s s s u b j e c t s . He a c t s i n what seems t o be an a b s u r d , i l l o g i c a l way, but which f o l l o w s i n a g r o t e s q u e l y l o g i c a l way from the c o n c l u s i o n s he has reach e d , to make men see the a b s u r d i t y and i r r a t i o n a l i t y and a r b i t r a r i n e s s o f l i f e i t s e l f . I n r e v e r s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l l y a c c e p t e d v a l u e s , he sees t h a t c r u e l t y i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f j u s t i c e , and thus h i s c r u e l t y i s not c h a o t i c but l o g i c a l . "Tu a v a i s d e c i d e d ' e t r e l o g i q u e , i d i o t . I l s ' a g i t seulement de s a v o i r j u squ'ou c e l a i r a " (C 109), C a l i g u l a says to h i m s e l f . He o f f e r s a d e c o r a t i o n f o r the man who v i s i t s t h e p u b l i c b r o t h e l most o f t e n , and he rewards a s l a v e who d i d not admit to a t h e f t even though he had committed i t . I n r e w a r d i n g b o t h s o c i a l apd moral c r i m e s , he i s the a n t i t h e s i s o f a j u s t r u l e r . - 8 3 - The scene i n which C a l i g u l a appears as a g r o t e s q u e p a r o d y o f Venus i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g i n i t s blasphemy of a l l t h i n g s r e l i g i o u s . H e l i c o n , who w i t h C a e s o n i a a i d s C a l i g u l a i n a l l h i s d r a m a t i c a c t s , announces the p r e s e n t a t i o n : Une r e c o n s t i t u t i o n i m p r e s s i o n n a n t e de v e r i t e , une r e a l i s a t i o n sans p r e c e d e n t . Les d e c o r s majestueux de l a p u i s s a n c e d i v i n e ramenes s u r t e r r e , une a t t r a c t i o n s e n s a t i o n n e l l e e t demesuree, l a f o u d r e (LES ESCLAVES ALLUMENT DES FEUX GREGEOIS), l e t o n n e r r e (ON ROULE UN TONNEAU PLEIN DE CAILLOUX), l e d e s t i n lui-meme dans s a marche t r i o m p h a l e . Approchez e t contemplezl (C 92) The solemn r e p e t i t i o n o f the o b s e q u i o u s p r a y e r by t h e f r i g h t e n e d p a t r i c i a n s , l e d by t h e e v e r - f a i t h f u l C a e s o n i a i s humourous to the a u d i e n c e a t f i r s t , b u t becomes d e a d l y s e r i o u s i n i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s . C a l i g u l a makes them p r a y to an a r b i t r a r y , u n f e e l i n g and c r u e l goddess; i r o n i c a l l y , Venus, the goddess of l o v e : Comble-nous de t e s dons, repands s u r nos v i s a g e s t o n i m p a r t i a l e c r u a u t e , t a h a i n e t o u t o b j e c t i v e ; ouvre au-dessus de nos yeux t e s mains p l e i n e s de f l e u r s e t de m e u r t r e s . (C 9*0 To complete the s a c r i l e g e , he i n s i s t s t h a t t h e y a l l d e p o s i t a f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n i n t o the c o l l e c t i o n box ("Adorer, c ' e s t b i e n , mais e n r i c h i r , c " e s t m i e u x " ) . T h i s a l m o s t w h i m s i c a l comment on the r o l e of t h e c h u r c h i s made more e x p l i c i t by the n o n - b e l i e v e r C a l i g u l a i n h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h S c i p i o n : J ' a i prouve a ces d i e u x i l l u s o i r e s qu'un homme, s ' i l en a l a v o l o n t e , peut e x e r c e r , sans a p p r e n t i s s a g e , l e u r m e t i e r r i d i c u l e . . . . J ' a i simplement compris q u ' i l n'y a qu'une f a c o n de s ' e g a l e r aux d i e u x : i l s u f f i t d ' e t r e a u s s i c r u e l qu'eux. (C 98) -84- Years a f t e r the c o m p l e t i o n o f C a l i g u l a , Camus w r o t e : "La s i t u a t i o n de l ' i n c r o y a n t moderne e s t p r o v i s o i r e m e n t l a f o l i e " 1 1 and t h a t quote seems to a p p l y v e r y w e l l to t h i s p l a y . A g a i n r e f e r r i n g to S c i p i o n ' s comments, C a l i g u l a used to l o v e a r t and p a r t i c u l a r l y p o e t r y . Cherea r e c o g n i z e d t h a t q u a l i t y , and f e l t i t t o be a danger. "Ce g a r c o n a i m a i t t r o p l a l i t t e r a t u r e . . . . Un empereur a r t i s t e , c e l a n ' e s t pas c o n v e n a b l e " (C 2 1 ) . T r u e t o h i s p l a n , C a l i g u l a i s i r r e v e r a n t o f a r t i n t h e same way as he i s o f r e l i g i o n . A g a i n he s t a g e s a drama i n which he i s the c e n t r a l f i g u r e , and performs a b r i e f , e x t r e m e l y g r o t e s q u e dance. A g a i n he demands o b e i s s a n c e from h i s p a t r i c i a n s whom he degrades by i n s i s t i n g t h a t t h e y admire and p r a i s e t h i s "emotion a r t i s t i q u e . " They a l l l a c k t h e courage to d e f y t h e i r emperor o p e n l y . Thus he mocks the a r t form i t s e l f and the p u b l i c r e a c t i o n t o a r t . The o t h e r " a r t i s t i c e v e n t " i s the p o e t r y c o m p e t i t i o n , which a g a i n makes a complete mockery o f s e r i o u s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a r t . P o e t r y , i n Wordsworth's words "the b r e a t h and f i n e r s p i r i t o f a l l knowledge," i s r e d u c e d to a c r u d e s p o r t , each poet t r y i n g d e s p e r a t e l y to f i n i s h h i s poem b e f o r e C a l i g u l a blows h i s w h i s t l e . T h i s scene might be pure s l a p s t i c k , i f i t weren't f o r the f a c t t h a t t h e t o p i c a s s i g n e d b y t h e emperor f o r the poems i s Death. A f t e r the c l i c h e l a m e n t a t i o n s of the hack p o e t s , which show a t o t a l l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r e a l meaning o f d e a t h , i t i s S c i p i o n ' s t u r n . R e c i t e d i n a c o m p l e t e l y i n d i f f e r e n t manner, S c i p i o n ' s poem i s s u r g i n g w i t h a j o y o f l i f e , -8 5- emanating from a c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f the imminence o f death ("mon d e l i r e sans e s p o i r " ) , and i s even too p o w e r f u l f o r h i s k i n d r e d s p i r i t C a l i g u l a t o endure. As f o r l o v i n g o t h e r s , and b e i n g l o v e d h i m s e l f , C a l i g u l a does e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e to negate those f e e l i n g s . He has S c i p i o n ' s f a t h e r put to d e a t h and takes advantage o f S c i p i o n ' s s e n s i t i v i t y and l o v e to p l a y w i t h h i s f e e l i n g s l i k e a yoyo. He f o r c e s C a e s o n i a to be a p a r t y to h i s a c t i o n s , g i v i n g h e r l i t t l e i n r e t u r n and t e s t i n g h e r l o v e f o r him to t h e l i m i t . A c l u e t o h i s b e h a v i o u r , t o t a l l y opposed to what Camus b e l i e v e s , i s g i v e n i n an e a r l y c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h C a e s o n i a : "L'amour, Caesonia'. J ' a i a p p r i s que ce n ' e t a i t r i e n , . . . V i v r e , C a e s o n i a , v i v r e , c ' e s t l e c o n t r a i r e d 'aimer" (C k2). The c o ncept t h a t l o v e negates l i f e comes d i r e c t l y from N i e t z s c h e ; the i n f l u e n c e o f N i e t z s c h e on Camus i s c o n s i d e r a b l e and i s d i s c u s s e d a t some l e n g t h i n G a y - C r o s i e r 1 s Le T h e a t r e d 1 A l b e r t Camus. In t h i s a u t h o r ' s words: C a l i g u l a n ' e s t pas, a proprement p a r l e r une a p p l i c a t i o n des canons n i e t z s c h e e n s , mais une r e a c t i o n c o n t r e l e u r s f o r m u l e s extremes e t l e u r s consequences a b s u r d e s . C a l i g u l a ' s n e g a t i v e view o f l o v e as a l i f e f o r c e i s a n t i - C h r i s t i a n and t o t a l l y opposed to what Camus h i m s e l f b e l i e v e d . C herea e x p r e s s e s views c l o s e r to those o f Camus when he e x p l a i n s h i s o p p o s i t i o n t o C a l i g u l a . A p a r t from S c i p i o n , he i s the o n l y one who r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d s the emperor, and f o r t h a t r e a s o n , sees t h a t -86- he has to be s t o p p e d . Cherea i s not m o t i v a t e d by a d e s i r e f o r revenge, s e l f - a g g r a n d i z e m e n t o r pure h a t r e d , but s i m p l y a d e s i r e f o r h a p p i n e s s : J ' a i l e gout e t l e b e s o i n de l a s e c u r i t e . L a p l u p a r t des hommes son t comme moi. I l s s o n t i n c a p a b l e s de v i v r e dans un u n i v e r s ou l a pensee l a p l u s b i z a r r e peut en une seconde e n t r e r dans l a r e a l i t e . . . . J ' a i e n v i e de v i v r e e t d ' e t r e heureux. J e c r o i s qu'on ne peut e t r e n i l ' u n n i 1'autre en po u s s a n t l ' a b s u r d e dans t o u t e s ses consequences. (C 113) T h i s i s perhaps a good d e f i n i t i o n o f madness, but i t i s a madness b o r n o f deep u n d e r s t a n d i n g and l u c i d i t y about the human c o n d i t i o n . C a l i g u l a ' s g o a l i n h i s campaign i s to r e p l a c e n a t u r e , o r t h e gods, o r f a t e , o r whatever i t i s t h a t d e c i d e s p e o p l e ' s d e s t i n i e s . He wants p e o p l e to be c o n t i n u a l l y reminded o f t h e f r a g i l i t y and tenuousness o f l i f e . However, one i s c o n s t a n t l y aware t h a t C a l i g u l a i s p l a y i n g a r o l e , and t h a t he i s p u t t i n g on a mask o f c r u e l t y and madness t o f o r c e h i s s u b j e c t s to f e a r d e a t h c o n s t a n t l y and thus have new r e v e r e n c e f o r l i f e . The o r i g i n a l s u b t i t l e o f C a l i g u l a , as r e c o r d e d i n Camus' C a r n e t s , was "Le J o u e u r , " w i t h i t s v a r i o u s c o n n o t a t i o n s of gambling, game-playing and r o l e - p l a y i n g . The s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s when C a l i g u l a r e c e i v e s Cherea i n A c t I I I , scene v i , i n s i s t t h a t t h e emperor be " n a t u r e l , i l semble, pour l a p r e m i e r e f o i s d e p u i s l e debut de l a p i e c e , " i m p l y i n g t h a t he has been a c t i n g a r o l e u n t i l t h e n . He i s c o n s t a n t l y u s i n g language which- s u g g e s t s h i s c o n s c i o u s a c t i n g ; i . e . "Couvrons-nous done de masques" (C 111), " J ' a i j o u e " (C85). -8 7- H i s t h e a t r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d above a r e p a r t o f t h i s e l a b o r a t e r o l e - p l a y i n g . J u s t as Mbbius p l a y s the madman and Romulus p l a y s the f o o l , C a l i g u l a too wears a mask. But whereas Mbbius and Romulus have s o c i a l r e a s o n s f o r a c t i n g as th e y do, C a l i g u l a ' s m o t i v e s a r e p h i l o - s o p h i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l . L i k e the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r , C a l i g u l a becomes the r e v e r s e o f what he was b e f o r e . One i s i n e v i t a b l y reminded o f Romulus i n the way he p l a y s games w i t h t h o s e l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t p e o p l e around him, h i s t o t a l i n d i f f e r e n c e to a f f a i r s o f s t a t e and i n p a r t i c u l a r , h i s remarks about t h e S t a t e T r e a s u r y , h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h d e t a i l s (Romulus r a i s e s c h i c k e n s , C a l i g u l a i s abs o r b e d i n p a i n t i n g h i s t o e n a i l s ) , and h i s complete u n c o n c e r n f o r m a i n t a i n i n g the Roman Empire f o r i t s own sak e . T h i s scene between C a l i g u l a and S c i p i o n c o u l d have come s t r a i g h t from the c o n v e r s a t i o n between Romulus and X m i l i a n i n A c t I I I o f Romulus d e r Grope and i n d i c a t e s b o t h the l o g i c a l and p a r a d o x i c a l n a t u r e o f the emperor's t h o u g h t : C a l i g u l a : S a i s - t u combien de g u e r r e s j ' a i r e f u s e e s ? S c i p i o n : Non. C a l i g u l a : T r o i s . E t s a i s - t u p o u r q u o i j e l e s a i r e f u s e e s ? S c i p i o n : P a r c e que t u f a i s f l de l a grandeur de Rome. C a l i g u l a : Non, p a r c e que j e r e s p e c t e l a v i e humaine. (C 100) However, w h i l e Romulus vjanted to d e s t r o y a w a r r i n g c i v i l i z a t i o n , C a l i g u l a a c t s on t h e b a s i s o f h i s a b s t r a c t , p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a s . -88- Romulus' q u a r r e l was w i t h men, C a l i g u l a ' s w i t h t h e gods. L i k e Romulus, C a l i g u l a a c t s i n such a way as to e a r n the h a t r e d o f h i s s u b j e c t s who do not u n d e r s t a n d him and who p l o t t o a s s a s s i n a t e him. Both men count on t h e i r d e a t h s ; C a l i g u l a by h i s s u b j e c t s , and Romulus by Odoaker. Romulus wants t o buy peace w i t h h i s death ; C a l i g u l a wants t o make h i s de a t h h i s d e c i s i o n , r a t h e r t h a t o f f a t e o r t h e gods. The t w i s t o f f a t e i n Dlirre n m a t t ' s p l a y has Romulus p e n s i o n e d o f f , w h i l e C a l i g u l a a t t h e end r e a l i z e s t h a t h i s campaign was wrong, and he s a v o u r s l i f e t o t h e b i t t e r end. Both Romulus and C a l i g u l a can f o l l o w through w i t h t h e i r p l a n s because, q u i t e s i m p l y , as emperor o f Rome, each has u n l i m i t e d power. Near the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e drama, S c i p i o n i s ag h a s t a t t h e s t e p s C a l i g u l a has taken t o c o n f i s c a t e goods and to e x e c u t e p e o p l e : S c i p i o n : Mais c ' e s t un j e u q u i n'a pas de l i m i t e s . C ' e s t l a r e c r e a t i o n d'un f ou. C a l i g u l a : Non, S c i p i o n , c ' e s t l a v e r t u d'un empereur. Je v i e n s de comprendre e n f i n l ' u t i l i t e du p o u v o i r . I I donne ses chances a 1 ' i m p o s s i b l e . A u j o u r d ' h u i e t pour t o u t l e temps q u i va v e n i r , ma l i b e r t e n'a p l u s de f r o n t i e r e s . (C 36) And l a t e r , when i t i s c l e a r t h a t C a l i g u l a i s s e r i o u s , Cherea r e c o g - n i z e s t h a t b e i n g emperor does g i v e C a l i g u l a complete freedom to use h i s power as he wants: Les empereurs f o u s , nous c o n n a i s s o n s c e l a . M a i s c e l u i - c i n ' e s t pas a s s e z f o u . E t ce que j e d e t e s t e en l u i , c ' e s t q u ' i l s a i t ce q u ' i l v e u t . . . . Sans doute, ce n ' e s t pas l a p r e m i e r e f o i s que, chez -89- nous, un homme d i s p o s e d'un p o u v o i r sans l i m i t e s , mais c ' e s t l a premifere f o i s q u ' i l s'en s e r t sans l i m i t e s , j u s q u ' a n i e r l'homme e t l e monde. (C 53) C l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d to h i s a b s o l u t e power i s the freedom C a l i g u l a has to behave as he wants. B e s i d e s t h a t k i n d o f p h y s i c a l freedom, C a l i g u l a i s f r e e i n a p h i l o s o p h i c a l sense; h a v i n g r e c o g n i z e d t h e a b s u r d i t y o f l i f e , he i s f r e e from i l l u s i o n s ; he i s i n f a c t f o r c e d to c r e a t e h i s own l i f e c o n s c i o u s l y . The o t h e r s , s t i l l l i v i n g w i t h o u t t h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a r e n o t f r e e : Ce monde e s t sans im p o r t a n c e , e t q u i l e r e c o n n a i t c o n q u i e r t sa l i b e r t e . E t justem e n t , j e vous h a i s p a r c e que vous n ' e t e s pas l i b r e s . Dans t o u t 1'Empire romain, me v o i c i s e u l l i b r e . R e j o u i s s e z - v o u s , i l vous e s t e n f i n venu un empereur pour vous e n s e i g n e r l a l i b e r t e . (C 38) Is t h a t madness? Yes, but i t i s madness i n the sense o f f a n a t i c i d e a l i s m such as has been d i s c u s s e d i n C-derland, Romulus and Mb'bius. Germaine Bree, a well-known Camus s c h o l a r , a n a l y s e s the d i f f i c u l t y o f p i n n i n g such a l a b e l on him: C a l i g u l a , Cherea warns, i s a man moved by t h e h i g h e s t and most m o r t a l p a s s i o n , a " p h i l o s o p h y w i t h o u t o b j e c t i o n s " , n e g a t i n g man and t h e w o r l d . And C a l i g u l a i s "the o n l y a r t i s t who has b r o u g h t h i s thought and h i s a c t i o n i n t o harmony." T h e r e i n l i e s h i s power, t h e a t t r a c t i o n w h i c h emmanates from him and h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e . He i s t h e mad emperor who, i n Camus' eyes, h o l d s sway ov e r a t i m e - - our time--which tends t o c o n s i d e r an i n d i v i d u a l l i f e as n o t h i n g compared t o t h e moon, that symbol of any i d e a l s t a t e l y i n g beyond the l i m i t s o f our p r e s e n t l i v e s . ^ 3 A f t e r h i s f i r s t e n c o u n t e r w i t h C a l i g u l a , H e l i c o n remarks to C a e s o n i a , "Caius e s t un i d e a l i s t e , t o u t e l e monde l e s a i t " (C 29), -90- and C a e s o n i a ' s d i a g n o s i s i s t h a t C a l i g u l a has " t r o p d'ame" (C 138) • Cherea and S c i p i o n , b o t h i d e a l i s t s , r e c o g n i z e i n t h e emperor a k i n d r e d s p i r i t and t h e r e f o r e a r e the o n l y ones r e a l l y to u n d e r s t a n d him. They u n d e r s t a n d him, and r e j e c t what he has done. I n Cherea's words, "on ne peut aimer c e l u i de ces v i s a g e s qu'on e s s a i e de masquer en s o i " (C 112) . S i m i l a r l y , S c i p i o n r e c o g n i z e s t h a t " l a meme flamme nous b r u l e l e c o e u r " (C 12 3) . But whereas Cherea l e a d s t h e a s s a s s i n s , S c i p i o n , t h e a r t i s t , cannot have any p a r t o f i t . The d i f f e r e n c e s between C a l i g u l a , Cherea and S c i p i o n a r e e x p l a i n e d b y G a y - C r o s i e r : Evidemment, on ne peut i d e n t i f i e r Camus a un des personnages de l a p i e c e . C a l i g u l a n ' e s t pas l ' a u t e u r , mais une t e n t i o n q u i menace a une c e r t a i n e epoque de p r e n d r e l e dessus . S c i p i o n e t Cherea s y m b o l i s e n t l e s deux penchants de l'ame camusienne. S c i p i o n e s t 1 ' a r t i s t e q u i cede de temps a a u t r e a l a g r i s e r i e l i t t e r a i r e e t q u i ne s a i t s ' e l a n c e r que v e r s un a c t e v e r b a l . Cherea a p p a r a i t en homme d ' a c t i o n q u i n e g l i g e q u e l q u e f o i s ses s c r u p u l e s pour s ' a p p r o c h e r un peu de ce q u ' i l a p p e l l e bonheur.^3 Each o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s an i d e a l i s t i n an al m o s t f a n a t i c sense, b u t i n the c o u r s e o f p u r s u i n g h i s i d e a to the b i t t e r end, each n e g l e c t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to th o s e around him; t h i s i s l a r g e l y what c o n s t i t u t e s h i s "madness." Romulus p e r m i t s the s u f f e r i n g o f h i s e n t i r e empire and s p e c i f i c a l l y the a v o i d a b l e d e a t h o f h i s f a m i l y ; Mb'bius k i l l s the k i n d n u r s e Monika; O d e r l a n d , as head o f a r e b e l band, puts them i n an u n t e n a b l e s i t u a t i o n , and C a l i g u l a h u m i l i a t e s , t o r t u r e s and k i l l s . Each i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o p r e v e n t t h e s u f f e r i n g , b u t t h e one l u c i d and l o g i c a l i d e a b e h i n d the a c t i o n s o f -91- each "madman" b l i n d s him to r e a l i t y . C a l i g u l a , whose a c t s a r e the most repugnant, i s t h e l e a s t b l i n d to what he i s d o i n g : "Apres t o u t , j e n ' a i pas t e l l e m e n t de faeons de p r o u v e r que j e s u i s l i b r e . On e s t t o u j o u r s l i b r e au depens de quelqu'un. C ' e s t ennuyeux, mais c ' e s t n o r m a l " (C 68). Camus h i m s e l f saw more c l e a r l y t h a n any c r i t i c t h e " t r a g i c e r r o r " t h a t m o t i v a t e d h i s h e r o : S i ( l a ) v e r i t e (de C a l i g u l a ) e s t de se r e v o l t e r c o n t r e l e d e s t i n , son e r r e u r e s t de n i e r l e s hommes. On ne peut t o u t d e t r u i r e sans se d e t r u i r e soi-meme. C ' e s t p o u r q u o i C a l i g u l a d e p e u p l e l e monde a u t o u r de l u i e t , f i d e l e a sa l o g i q u e , f a i t ce q u ' i l f a u t pour armer c o n t r e l u i ceux q u i f i n i r o n t p a r l e t u e r . C a l i g u l a e s t 1 ' h i s t o i r e d'un s u i c i d e s u p e r i e u r . C ' e s t 1 ' h i s t o i r e de l a p l u s humaine e t de l a p l u s t r a g i q u e des e r r e u r s . I n f i d e l e a l'homme, p a r f i d e l i t e a lui-meme, C a l i g u l a c o n s e n t a m o u r i r pour a v o i r compris qu'aucun e t r e ne peut se s a u v e r t o u t s e u l e t qu'on ne peut £tre l i b r e c o n t r e l e s a u t r e s hommes. I I s ' a g i t done d'une t r a g e d i e de 1 ' i n t e l l i g e n c e . As Camus p o i n t s out, C a l i g u l a d i d work towards h i s death; he counts on i t i n much the same way as Romulus does. He knows about t h e con- s p i r a c y a g a i n s t h i s l i f e , even b e f o r e H e l i c o n t e l l s him, as does Romulus, and dreams about the way he w i l l be a t t a c k e d . When the moment comes, C a l i g u l a s u d d e n l y becomes aware o f the t r a g i c e r r o r which he has made, minutes b e f o r e h i s death, and d e s p e r a t e l y f e a r s h i s d e a t h . "Je n ' a i pas p r i s l a v o i e q u ' i l f a l l a i t , j e n ' a b o u t i s a r i e n . Ma l i b e r t e n ' e s t pas l a bonne" (C 15*0 • J u s t as Romulus and Mb'bius f i n d a t w i s t o f fate- has n e g a t e d t h e i r s a c r i f i c e , so does C a l i g u l a s u d d e n l y see h i s l i f e o b j e c t i v e l y and u n d e r s t a n d t h a t h i s i d e a l s were not r e a l i z e d as he had p l a n n e d . That i s h i s t r a g e d y and h i s madness. -92- F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r F i v e 1 Germaine Bree, Camus (New Brunswick, N.J., 1959)> P- 1^9- C a r i n a Gadourek, Les In n o c e n t s e t l e s Coupables (The Hague, 1963), P- 39- F r a n c i s Ambriere, "La G a l e r i e dramatique, " Revue de l a Societfe d ' H i s t o i r e du T h e a t r e , IV, i960, p. 8 l . 4 Q u o t a t i o n s a r e t a k e n from the L i v r e de Poche e d i t i o n o f C a l i g u l a , and page r e f e r e n c e s a r e p r e c e d e d by C. 5 F o r example: I t i s t h e v e r y e r r o r o f t h e moon. She comes more n e a r e r e a r t h t h a n she was wont And makes men mad. O t h e l l o , A c t V, scene i i Demoniac f r e n z y , moping m e l a n c h o l y , And moon-struck madness. P a r a d i s e L o s t , Book XI l i n e 485 ^ I l o n a Coombs, Camus, Homme de T h e a t r e ( P a r i s , I968), p. 7 3 . ^ Gadourek, p. 42. 8 G a y - C r o s i e r , p . 72- 9 A l b e r t Camus, Le Mythe de S i s y p h e ( P a r i s , 1942), p. 80. ^ q u o t e d i n Gadourek, p. 3 5 • 1 1 quoted i n Gadourek, p. 227- 12 G a y - C r o s i e r , p. 6 l . 13 Bree, p. 166. 14 quoted i n G a y - C r o s i e r , p. 57- -93- C h a p t e r S i x : C o n c l u s i o n Much madness i s d i v i n e s t sense To a d i s c e r n i n g eye; Much sense the s t a r k e s t madness. ' T i s the m a j o r i t y In t h i s , as a l l , p r e v a i l s . A s s e n t , and you a r e s a n e : Demur,--you're s t r a i g h t w a y dangerous, And h a n d l e d w i t h a c h a i n . E m i l y D i c k i n s o n In an e s s a y about the s t u d y of themes i n l i t e r a t u r e , t h e F r e n c h c r i t i c R. T r o u s s o n w r i t e s : t o u t e etude composee d'une j u x t a p o s i t i o n d'oeuvres, t o u t e e t u d e q u i n ' e s t qu'un assemblage de monographies sans r e l i e f , sans a r r i e r e - p l a n e t sans l i e n , q u i groupe des o euvres s u r l a s e u l e p a r e n t e a r t i f i c i e l l e de l e u r s t i t r e s sans c h e r c h e r a d e c o u v r i r l e s r e a l i t e s m u l t i p l e s q u ' i l s r e c o u v r e n t , ne s a u r a i t e t r e admise comme une enquete t h e m a t o l o g i q u e b i e n comprise n i b i e n menee.l A l t h o u g h t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s have madman i n drama more o r l e s s i n t h e and o n l y the most o b v i o u s p a r a l l e l s w i l l p r o c e e d to i s o l a t e and a n a l y s e d e a l t w i t h the theme o f the v e i n which T r o u s s o n i n d i c a t e s , have been drawn, the c o n c l u s i o n t h e p r i n c i p a l themes as t h e y emerged from the f o u r dramas. By d i s c u s s i n g t h e s e themes i n r e l a t i o n t o the f o u r dramas as w e l l as making r e f e r e n c e s to o t h e r t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y dramas about men who a r e c o n s i d e r e d mad, i t i s hoped t h a t some r e v e a l i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s can be made about the. n a t u r e o f "madness" i n modern drama. One o f the most o b v i o u s s i g n s t h a t someone i s mad i s t h a t he i n s i s t s t h a t he i s someone e l s e . Thus, one of the e a s i e s t ways f o r a man f e i g n i n g madness t o persuade o t h e r s t h a t he i s mad i s t o assume an e n t i r e l y l u d i c r o u s i d e n t i t y . The two s p i e s i n D i e P h y s i k e r assume t h e i d e n t i t i e s o f Newton and E i n s t e i n , and have no d i f f i c u l t y p e r s u a d i n g even the a u d i e n c e o f t h e i r i n s a n i t y u n t i l t h e i r t r u e i d e n t i t y i s r e v e a l e d . T h i s d e v i c e i s used w i t h g r e a t e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n P i r a n d e l l o ' s E n r i c o IV. A man f a l l s from h i s h o r s e i n a h i s t o r i c a l pageant i n wh i c h he i s p l a y i n g t h e r o l e o f Henry IV. A f t e r t h e a c c i d e n t he i n s i s t s t h a t he r e a l l y is_ Henry IV, and h i s f r i e n d s o b t a i n p e r i o d costumes and f u r n i s h i n g s to p e r m i t him to l i v e o ut h i s madness. A f t e r t w e l v e y e a r s , he i n e x p l i c a b l y r e g a i n s h i s memory b u t chooses t o c o n t i n u e c o n s c i o u s l y p l a y i n g t h e r o l e o f Henry IV, w i t h o u t r e v e a l i n g t h a t he i s no l o n g e r mad. As he e x p l a i n s : I p r e f e r r e d t o remain mad, s i n c e I found e v e r y t h i n g r e a d y and a t my d i s p o s a l f o r t h i s new e x q u i s i t e f a n t a s y . I would l i v e i t - - t h i s madness of mine-- w i t h t h e most l u c i d c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The s c i e n t i s t s who c a l l t hemselves Newton and E i n s t e i n d i s g u i s e them- s e l v e s as madmen so t h a t t h e y can pursue t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r aims w i t h o u t b e i n g s u s p e c t e d . I n the ca s e o f Henry IV (whose r e a l name i s n e v e r g i v e n ) , madness i s a r e f u g e , because he cannot b e a r to f a c e the changes which t w e l v e y e a r s have i n e v i t a b l y wrought. Giraudoux' La F o l l e de C h a i l l o t i n t r o d u c e s f o u r charming e l d e r l y l a d i e s who a r e c e r t a i n l y "mad" i n the eyes o f t h e w o r l d . - 9 5 - But t h e i r madness, l i k e t h a t o f Henry, i s a c o n s c i o u s escape from the r e a l i t y o f t h e modern w o r l d . They choose to i g n o r e the a s p e c t s of l i f e t h a t t h e y do not l i k e . Thus, f o r example, A u r e l i a p r e t e n d s t h a t h e r former l o v e r Adolphe B e r t a u t i s s t i l l i n h e r l i f e , a l t h o u g h he l e f t h e r many y e a r s ago. Constance had a dog named D i c k i e , which she l o v e d d e a r l y . When the dog d i e d , she chose to p r e t e n d t h a t he s t i l l accompanied h e r everywhere. An o l d woman who t a l k s t o h e r i m a g i n a r y dog, o r to an i m a g i n a r y l o v e r does seem e c c e n t r i c , a t the v e r y l e a s t , p r o b a b l y mad. In t h e ca s e o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s , however, we r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s not d e l u s i o n , a m i l d form o f i n s a n i t y , b u t c o n s c i o u s p r e t e n s e . F o r t h e s c i e n t i s t Mb'bius i n DUrrenmatt's D i e P h y s i k e r , madness i s a l s o a r e f u g e , o f a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e . I t i s a r e f u g e from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . O n l y by f e i g n i n g madness, by m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t K i n g Solomon appears to him, i s he f r e e to c a r r y o ut h i s s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h , w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o answer t o t h e w o r l d f o r h i s d i s c o v e r i e s . By h i d i n g h i s d i s c o v e r i e s from the w o r l d , he p r o t e c t s i t from des- t r o y i n g i t s e l f . Madness as a r e f u g e from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s a l s o t h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e b e h a v i o u r o f F r a n t z i n S a r t r e ' s Les S e q u e s t r e s d ' A l t o n a . The e l d e s t son o f a p o w e r f u l German i n d u s t r i a l i s t , F r a n t z was groomed from c h i l d h o o d to s u c c e e d h i s f a t h e r . When the war came, F r a n t z , i n h i s c a p a c i t y as l i e u t e n a n t , c a p t u r e d p e a s a n t s and t o r t u r e d them. I n r e t e l l i n g the s t o r y to h i s s i s t e r - i n - l a w Johanna as he would have -96- l i k e d i t t o have happened, he c l a i m s t h a t h i s e r r o r was i n d o i n g n o t h i n g t o p r e v e n t Germany's d e f e a t . On h i s r e t u r n from t h e war, he l o c k e d h i m s e l f i n t o an u p s t a i r s room, and has remained t h e r e f o r t h i r t e e n y e a r s , so as n o t to w i t n e s s the r i s e o f Germany from d e f e a t . He makes d a i l y r e c o r d e d tapes o f h i s " t e s t i m o n y " b e f o r e an i m a g i n a r y t r i b u n a l o f c r a b s which, he i s c o n v i n c e d , w i l l s u c c e e d man as r u l e r s of t h e e a r t h . He i s mad i n the sense t h a t he r e f u s e s to f a c e r e a l i t y . "Deja ma f o l i e se d e l a b r e ; Johanna, c ' e t a i t mon r e f u g e ; que d e v i e n d r e - j e quand j e v e r r a i l e j o u r ? " L i k e Mbbius, he does not want to answer t o the w o r l d f o r h i s a c t i o n s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o see how Dlirre n m a t t ' s Romulus r e a c t s t o a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n . F a c e d w i t h s e e i n g h i s c o u n t r y grow b a r b a r i c and i m p e r i a l i s t i c , he does e x a c t l y what F r a n t z would have l i k e d t o have done: t h a t i s , n o t h i n g . A t one p o i n t , F r a n t z says t o Johanna: "Rassurez-vous Johanna, vous avez a f f a i r e a un puceau. Innocence g a r a n t i e . Vous p o u v i e z b i e n me s o u r i r e . J ' a i tue l ' A l l e m a g n e p a r s e n s i b l e r i e " (Sd'A 301)- T h i s i s o f c o u r s e a l l u n t r u e . N e i t h e r d i d F r a n t z r e f r a i n from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e war, nor was Germany p e r - m a n e n t l y d e s t r o y e d . But i t i s t h e case o f Romulus, who, as Emperor of Rome, p l a y e d t h e p a r t o f the madman by n o t f u l f i l l i n g the r o l e o f Emperor. By d o i n g n o t h i n g , he d e s t r o y e d Rome by p e r m i t t i n g i t to be o v e r r u n by t h e T e u t o n s . So f a r , we have d i s c u s s e d c h a r a c t e r s who have f e i g n e d madness e i t h e r by assuming an i m p o s s i b l e i d e n t i t y (Newton, E i n s t e i n , Henry I V ) , -97- o r by p r e t e n d i n g to b e l i e v e i n the e x i s t e n c e o f something which s i m p l y does not e x i s t . C o n s t a n c e of La F o l i e de C h a i l l o t has D i c k i e , w h i l e A u r e l i a has h e r Adolphe B e r t a u t ; Mbbius p r e t e n d s to b e l i e v e t h a t Solomon d i c t a t e s to him; F r a n t z makes d a i l y c o n f e s s i o n s to h i s Crabs . Romulus wears a mask which h i d e s h i s t r u e f e e l i n g s and m o t i v e s and e n a b l e s him t o p r e s e n t the image of a f o o l o r a madman to the w o r l d . The i d e a o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s c o n s c i o u s l y assuming masks o r costumes i s c e r t a i n l y c e n t r a l t o Henry IV ( e v e r y o n e on s t a g e i s i n p e r i o d costume and has assumed the i d e n t i t y o f a h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e ) , and D i e P h y s i k e r ("Newton" and " E i n s t e i n " a r e d r e s s e d as t h o s e two s c i e n t i s t s ) as w e l l as L a F o l i e de C h a i l l o t i n which A u r e l i a and h e r f r i e n d s d r e s s v e r y d e l i b e r a t e l y i n the s t y l e o f o l d - f a s h i o n e d e l e g a n c e . I n C a l i g u l a t h e r e i s an emphasis on costumes and p l a y a c t i n g , b u t o f a much l e s s s u p e r f i c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . C a l i g u l a p u t s on t h e costume o f a b a l l e t d ancer, and wears a mask of madness and c r u e l t y to f r i g h t e n h i s s u b j e c t s . The c o n c e p t of a sudden change i n i d e n t i t y i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t i n Max F r i s c h 1 s Graf i j d e r l a n d . The P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r does n o t assume the i d e n t i t y o f the m y t h i c a l Graf O d e r l a n d f o r the e x p r e s s purpose of c o n v i n c i n g p e o p l e t h a t he i s mad. Rather, he s w i t c h e s o v e r i n t o h i s o p p o s i t e , thus r a d i c a l l y c h a n g i n g h i s l i f e - s t y l e , and so f u n d a m e n t a l l y he i s n o t the same p e r s o n he was b e f o r e . A g a i n as i n t h e o t h e r p l a y s , i t i s the a b r u p t change i n h i s c h a r a c t e r and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t c o n v i n c e s o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s t h a t he i s mad. -98- R o l e s and p l a y a c t i n g make P e t e r Weiss' drama, D i e V e r f o l g u n g und Ermordung J e a n P a u l M a r a t s d a r g e s t e l l t d u r c h d i e S c h a u s p i e l g r u p p e des H o s p i z e s zu Charen t o n u n t e r A n l e i t u n g des H e r r n de Sade one o f the most complex contemporary dramas. The a c t o r s i n t h e M a r q u i s ' p l a y a r e a l l inmates o f an i n s a n e asylum; t h e y a r e thus madmen a c t i n g "sane" men, r a t h e r t h a n "sane" men a c t i n g the r o l e o f madmen. A t l e a s t one p a t i e n t , p l a y i n g the r a d i c a l p r i e s t Roux, has a r o l e c o m p l e t e l y s u i t e d t o h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , as he i s a l s o i n the asylum f o r h i s p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s . Some p l a y r o l e s w h i c h c o n t r a s t s h a r p l y w i t h t h e i r s i c k n e s s ; ( i . e . C h a r l o t t e Corday, the Joan of A r c - l i k e murderess o f Marat i s p l a y e d by a g i r l s u f f e r i n g from m e l a n c h o l i a and s l e e p i n g s i c k n e s s ) . The d r a m a t i s t has used the i d e a o f madmen p l a y i n g o t h e r r o l e s t o v e r y good e f f e c t i n t h i s m any-layered drama. C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the co n c e p t o f i d e n t i t y i s the i d e a o f m i r r o r s , w h i c h r e f l e c t the vi e w e r and b r i n g s him f a c e t o f a c e w i t h h i m s e l f . M i r r o r s have p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n l e g e n d s , f a i r y t a l e s and f o l k - l o r e . From Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs to A l i c e Through the L o o k i n g G l a s s , t h e theme has undergone c o u n t l e s s v a r i a t i o n s . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the m i r r o r i s an i m p o r t a n t m o t i f i n Camus' C a l i g u l a ; the emperor t a l k s to h i s r e f l e c t i o n , and a t the end, i n a g e s t u r e o f d e s p a i r and r e j e c t i o n o f h i m s e l f and what he has done, he smashes the m i r r o r . The theme o f m i r r o r s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l d e v e l o p e d i n Henry IV. When the new c o u r t i e r " B e r t h o l d " i s b e i n g shown around t h e rooms, he sees the p a i n t i n g s o f Henry IV and Donna M a t i l d a twenty y e a r s -99- ago, and i s t o l d by L a n d o l p h , one of the o t h e r v a l e t s : L a n d o l p h : W e l l , i t ' s as i f t h e r e were two m i r r o r s t h e r e , w h i c h c a s t back l i v i n g images i n the m i d s t of a w o r l d which, as you w i l l see, when you have l i v e d w i t h us, comes to l i f e t o o . B e r t h o l d : I say, l o o k h e r e . . . I've no p a r t i c u l a r d e s i r e to go mad h e r e . (H 1*1-5) The d o c t o r ' s scheme f o r c u r i n g Henry i s to make the p i c t u r e s "come a l i v e " by d r e s s i n g F r i d a as h e r mother i n the p i c t u r e , and C h a r l e s de N o l l i as h i s u n c l e , Henry IV, e x a c t l y as t h e y were twenty y e a r s ago. A g a i n we have the i d e a o f m i r r o r e d images. The c r i t i c Thomas B i s h o p w r i t e s about Henry IV i n a way which i s r e l e v a n t to a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s we have mentioned, who have assumed new i d e n t i t i e s : The p roblem o f p e r s o n a l i t y i s c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e to h i m s e l f . O f t e n as a r e s u l t o f s h a t t e r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i n the w o r l d , a p e r s o n i s so d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h h i m s e l f t h a t he can no l o n g e r b e a r to l i v e w i t h t h e image t h a t he sees of h i m s e l f . A t t h i s p o i n t he b e g i n s a p r o c e s s t h a t P i r a n d e l l o terms " c o n s t r u i r s i , " to c o n s t r u c t o n e s e l f . T h i s p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s a d o p t i o n o f a new p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t h e n c e f o r t h w i l l be p r e s e n t e d n o t o n l y to s o c i e t y but to the i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f , t h e r e b y e n a b l i n g him to l i v e w i t h h i m s e l f . I t i s p u r e d e c e p t i o n , y e t a v e r y n e c e s s a r y one, f o r no one who c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f too base can endure l i f e . Thus p e o p l e don masks whose d u a l f u n c t i o n i s to o f f e r a p l e a s i n g a s p e c t to o t h e r s and to g i v e -a m e r c i f u l l y d e l u d i n g r e f l e c t i o n to t h e m i r r o r t h a t t h e w e a r e r must o f t e n h o l d to h i s f a c e . Of c o u r s e , some o f the masks adopted by c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s s t u d y ( i . e . C a l i g u l a ) , do not p r e s e n t "a p l e a s i n g a s p e c t " to o t h e r s , but -100- r a t h e r a h i d e o u s one. I n e i t h e r case, i t happens i n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s t h a t t h e masks become the r e a l i t y ; o r a t l e a s t t h a t the masks become permanent. Thus, a t the end of D i e P h y s i k e r , the t h r e e p h y s i c i s t s a g r e e to remain i n t h e asylum f o r the r e s t o f t h e i r l i v e s and r e t a i n p e r - m a n e n t l y t h e i d e n t i t i e s t h a t t h e y had m e r e l y assumed to c o n v i n c e o t h e r s o f t h e i r i n s a n i t y . The t w i s t o f f a t e which r e v e a l s t h a t F r a u l e i n D o k t o r M a t h i l d e von Zahnd i s a c t u a l l y mad, means t h a t t h e y would have been f o r c e d t o remain t h e r e i n any c a s e . "Newton" and " E i n s t e i n " w i l l always a c t t h o s e c h a r a c t e r s , and Mbbius now assumes the i d e n t i t y o f K i n g Solomon. E x a c t l y t h e same p a t t e r n i s f o l l o w e d i n Henry IV. When i t i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e hero i s m e r e l y a c t i n g the r o l e o f Henry, he k i l l s h i s r i v a l , and i s f o r c e d to r e t r e a t i n t o h i s i n s a n i t y and c o n t i n u e h i s masquerade f o r e v e r . He s u r r o u n d s h i m s e l f w i t h h i s v a l e t s : "Now, yes w e ' l l have t o ... h e r e we a r e . . . t o g e t h e r ... f o r e v e r l " (H 208). The b o r d e r l i n e between crime and madness i s n o t always c l e a r . J u s t i c e d e c r e e s t h a t a man i s n o t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c r i m e i f he i s c e r t i . f i a b l y i n s a n e . I t seems t h a t i f a c r i m e i s committed u n c o n s c i o u s l y , the a u t h o r of the c r i m e i s judged i n s a n e . I f t h e c r i m e i s m o t i v a t e d and committed i n t o t a l l u c i d c o n s c i o u s n e s s , the c o u r t s g e n e r a l l y d e c r e e t h a t t h e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e be p u n i s h e d . The same problem a r i s e s i n S t a n i s l a w W i t k i e w i c z ' drama The Madman and the.Nun. The poet Walpurg has been committed t o an asylum by a s o c i e t y which f o r c e s even a c r e a t i v e a r t i s t t o conform to i t s r i g i d laws, but he has been " c u r e d " ( i f he -101- e v e r was s i c k ) by t h e t e n d e r l o v i n g c a r e of S i s t e r Anna. F r e e d from h i s s t r a i t j a c k e t he k i l l s h i s o l d enemy, Dr. B i d e l l o , by t a p p i n g him on the head w i t h a p e n c i l . S i s t e r Anna's s u p e r i o r , S i s t e r B a r b a r a , e x c l a i m s : "You a r e an u t t e r madman. And i f not, you a r e an o r d i n a r y 5 c r i m i n a l ! I f Walpurg was s i c k when he murdered B i d e l l o , t h e n he i s n o t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s a c t i o n s . I f he was c u r e d , t h e n he i s r e s p o n s i b l e . But the c l e v e r Walpurg c l a i m s t h a t t h e a c t o f k i l l i n g B i d e l l o c u r e d him. "That blow on the s k u l l c u r e d me. T h a t ' s why I'm n o t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e murder, but from now on I w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e v e r y t h i n g I do i n the f u t u r e . " S i m i l a r l y , DUrrenmatt's t h r e e p h y s i c i s t s , h a v i n g each murdered a n u r s e , r e c o g n i z e "entweder haben w i r g e o p f e r t oder gemordet," and d e c i d e to c o n t i n u e f e i g n i n g i n s a n i t y . And Henry IV resumes h i s madness r a t h e r t h a n f a c e a t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y murder c h a r g e . E i t h e r t h e y f a c e t h e consequences o f t h e i r a c t s , o r t h e y remain s i c k i n t h e eyes of the w o r l d . Both C a l i g u l a and F r i s c h ' s P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r a r e c o n s i d e r e d mad p a r t l y because of the murders t h e y commit. To the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s i n the p l a y s , t h ese murders seem e n t i r e l y u n m o t i v a t e d , and thus t o t a l l y i n s a n e a c t s . But t h e a u d i e n c e i s aware of the u n d e r l y i n g humanity and i d e a l i s m o f b o t h men and can u n d e r s t a n d the reasons f o r the a t r o c i t i e s t h e y commit, w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y c ondoning t h o s e a t r o c i t i e s . Romulus too, i s h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d e f e a t o f the Roman Empire by the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s i n the drama who cannot u n d e r s t a n d -102- h i s r e a s o n s . A g a i n , the a u d i e n c e , w h i l e not t o t a l l y s y m p a t h i s i n g w i t h him, a t l e a s t sees the p r i n c i p l e s which g u i d e h i s b e h a v i o u r and acknowledge them to be humane, even i f t h e method he uses i s n o t . A somewhat s i m i l a r case, i n Giraudoux' La F o l l e de C h a i l l o t p r o - vokes an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t a u d i e n c e r e s p o n s e . A g a i n the a u t h o r p r e s e n t s a s i t u a t i o n i n which one p e r s o n , judged f e e b l e - m i n d e d o r i n s a n e by h e r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , i n i t i a t e s and c a r r i e s out a scheme to d e s t r o y a l l the p e o p l e whom she judges dangerous to h e r n o t i o n of c i v i l i s e d humanity. But t h i s time t h e a u t h o r has c r e a t e d a t o t a l l y s y m p a t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r , and t h e a u d i e n c e i s i n g l e e f u l , u n e q u i v o c a l s u p p o r t . R a t h e r t h a n the Roman Empire, A u r e l i a i s b e n t on d e s t r o y i n g t h o s e p o w e r f u l members of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e who o p p r e s s t h e l i t t l e p e o p l e , i . e . h e r and h e r f r i e n d s . So she c a l m l y u s h e r s t h o s e s e l f - i m p o r t a n t o p p r e s s o r s down a deep h o l e from w h i c h t h e y a r e u n l i k e l y e v e r to emerge. The d u a l i t y o f crime and madness i n Les S e q u e s t r e s d ' A l t o n a i s much more d i f f i c u l t to d i s c u s s . In w r i t i n g the p l a y , S a r t r e was t a l k i n g p r i m a r i l y about F r e n c h war crimes i n A l g e r i a , and o n l y s e c o n d a r i l y about the N a z i s i n t h e Second World War.^ A l t h o u g h he d e p i c t s F r a n t z as e s s e n t i a l l y a s y m p a t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r , S a r t r e i s ab- s o l u t e l y and unambiguously opposed to t o r t u r e . T h e r e f o r e , s i n c e F r a n t z has committed war c r i m e s , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r . h i m to l i v e a normal l i f e , and s e q u e s t r a t i o n i s the o n l y s o l u t i o n . When he does emerge from h i s room and cannot r e t u r n t o i t , he t a k e s the f i n a l e s c a p e : s u i c i d e . -103- C l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h the i d e a of crime i s the theme o f power; F r a n t z began h i s c a r e e r as "boucher de Smolensk" because, as his f a t h e r p o i n t s o u t : "une f o i s dans t a v i e , t u as connu 1 ' i m p u i s s a n c e " (Sd'A 351)• He r e f e r s to t h e f a c t t h a t d e s p i t e F r a n t z ' e f f o r t s to save a P o l i s h r a b b i , h i s f a t h e r denounced the p r i s o n e r , and F r a n t z had to be r e s t r a i n e d and watch t h e N a z i s disembowel him: F r a n t z : Vous m'avez f a i t P r i n c e , mon p e r e . E t savez-vous q u i m'a f a i t R o i ? Le P e r e : H i t l e r . F r a n t z : O u i . Par l a h o n t e . Apres c e t ... i n c i d e n t , l e p o u v o i r e s t devenu ma v o c a t i o n . . . . . . l e r a b b i n s a i g n a i t e t j e d e c o u v r a i s , au c o eur de mon i.npuissance, j e ne s a i s q u e l a s s e n t i m e n t . J ' a i l e p o u v o i r supreme. H i t l e r m'a f a i t un A u t r e , i m p l a c a b l e e t s a c r e : lui-meme. Je s u i s H i t l e r e t j e me s u r p a s s e r a i . P l u s de v i v r e s ; mes s o l d a t s r o d a i e n t a u t o u r de l a grange. Quatre bons Allemands m'ecras- e r o n t c o n t r e l e s o l e t mes s o l d a t s a moi s a i g n e r o n t l e s p r i s o n n i e r s a b l a n c . Nonl J e ne r e t o m b e r a i jamais dans l ' a b j e c t e i m p u i s s a n c e . Je l e j u r e . I l f a i t n o i r . L ' h o r r e u r e s t e n c o r e e n c h a i n e e ... j e l e s p r e n d r a i de v i t e s s e : s i quelqu'un l a d e c h a i n e , ce s e r a moi. J e r e v e n d i q u e r a i l e mai, j e m a n i f e s t e r a i mon p o u v o i r p a r l a s i n g u l a r i t y d'un a c t e i n o u b l i a b l e : changer l'homme en vermine de son v i v a n t ; j e m ' o c c u p e r a i s e u l des p r i s o n n i e r s , j e l e s p r e c i p i t e r a i dans 1 ' a b j e c t i o n : i l s p a r l e r o n t . Le p o u v o i r e s t un abime dont j e v o i s l e f o n d ; c e l a ne s u f f i t pas de c h o i s i r l e s morts f u t u r s ; p a r un c a n i f e t un b r i q u e t , j e d e c i d e r a i du regne humain. (Sd'A 3 5 l ) T h i s whole s i t u a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g F r a n t z ' p a s s i o n a t e s t a t e m e n t : " j ' i r a i j u s q u ' a u b o u t . Au bout du p o u v o i r " (Sd'A 350)> i s r e m a r k a b l y -104- s i m i l a r to C a l i g u l a ' s p o s i t i o n . A main d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t F r a n t z ' d e c i s i o n s were p r a c t i c a l l y p r e d e t e r m i n e d by h i s f a t h e r , who t r i e d t o c r e a t e h i s e l d e s t son i n h i s image, w h i l e C a l i g u l a ' s d e c i s i o n s a r e e n t i r e l y h i s own. But C a l i g u l a too was d e v a s t a t e d a t h i s own impotence i n the f a c e of Death: the death o f h i s s i s t e r D r u s i l l a , w h i l e F r a n t z found h i m s e l f impotent to s t o p men from b e h a v i n g b r u t a l l y . C a l i g u l a t o o , d e c i d e d to c a r r y t h e power he as Emperor p o s s e s s e d to t h e extreme. But w h i l e F r a n t z i s t h i n k i n g i n terms of power ov e r men's l i v e s , C a l i g u l a wants power e q u a l to t h a t of t h e gods: de q u o i me s e r t ce p o u v o i r s i etonnant s i j e ne p u i s pas changer 1'ordre des choses, s i j e ne p u i s f a i r e que l e s o l e i l se couche a l ' e s t , que l a s o u f f r a n c e d e c r o i s s e e t que l e s e t r e s ne meurent pas? (C 41) As w e l l as t o r t u r i n g p e o p l e p h y s i c a l l y , as F r a n t z does, C a l i g u l a t e a s e s and mocks h i s s u b j e c t s and t h e i r b e l i e f s as Romulus does, because, as Emperor o f Rome, he has t h a t a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g power. But whereas Romulus i s m e r e l y b e i n g c y n i c a l , C a l i g u l a d e s p e r a t e l y wants h i s s u b j e c t s to f e a r d e a t h c o n s t a n t l y and to become aware of the d e v a s t a t i n g t r u t h w hich he has l e a r n e d . He a l s o t o r t u r e s them m e n t a l l y , by making them do t h i n g s w h i c h he knows to be mad, i n much the same way as Henry IV. C a l i g u l a ' s demand t h a t the p a t r i c i a n s p r o s t r a t e themselves b e f o r e him as Venus has much the same e f f e c t as Henry's demand t h a t h i s f o u r c o u r t i e r s k n e e l and touch t h e i r heads to the f l o o r b e f o r e him: -105- Down, down! T h a t ' s t h e way you've got to be b e f o r e madmen! (THEN ANNOYED WITH THEIR FACILE HUMILIATION) Get up, sheep'. You obeyed me, d i d n ' t you? You might have put t h e s t r a i t j a c k e t on me. (H 190) The boys a r e t e r r i f i e d and c o n f u s e d as to whether o r n o t he r e a l l y i s mad, but, as i n the c a s e o f C a l i g u l a ' s p a t r i c i a n s , succumb t o h i s s a d i s t i c o r d e r s o ut o f f e a r . As t h e i r master, Henry has t h a t power o v e r them t o make them obey. A u r e l i a , i n L a F o l i e de C h a i l l o t , g ets h e r power not from w e a l t h o r a t i t l e , b u t from an i d e a , a n a t u r a l l y s u p e r i o r view o f humanity which makes p e o p l e f o l l o w h e r . Her f r i e n d s r e s p e c t h e r and obey h e r because o f h e r fundamental b e l i e f i n t h e b a s i c goodness of humanity, and freedom f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l . S i m i l a r l y , t h e mob i n Gr a f O d e r l a n d makes t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r i t s l e a d e r because the p e o p l e s h a r e h i s b a s i c b e l i e f i n freedom. Granted, he uses h i s axe to q u e l l o p p o s i t i o n b u t h i s power comes l e s s from p h y s i c a l f o r c e t h a n from the f a c t t h a t he s t a n d s f o r t o t a l freedom. I n d i s c u s s i n g freedom, t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t b u t r e l a t e d a s p e c t s t o t h i s c o n c e p t : p h y s i c a l freedom and p s y c h o l o g i c a l freedom. Mb'bius, by f e i g n i n g madness, s a c r i f i c e s h i s p e r s o n a l freedom. But he r e t a i n s h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l freedom, and i n t e g r i t y , w h i c h would have been i m p o s s i b l e had he been " f r e e " i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l s e n s e . Romulus a l s o uses the mask o f madness t o g a i n a freedom to a c t , o r r a t h e r n ot to a c t , i n o r d e r to e n s u r e t h a t a c e r t a i n c h a i n o f ev e n t s be f o l l o w e d . I n a n o t h e r asylum, Walpurg o f The Madman and the Nun i s even more c o n f i n e d than Mbbius by the f a c t t h a t he i s i n a s t r a i t j a c k e t , i n a sma -io6- c e l l w i t h b a r r e d windows. He f e e l s t e r r i f i c p r e s s u r e from s o c i e t y t o conform; h i s r e f u s a l to do so i s the r e a s o n f o r h i s b e i n g committed. H i s p e r s o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l confinement a r e f u r t h e r a g g r a v a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t he i s an a r t i s t , accustomed to t o t a l freedom. Walpurg's o n l y d e s i r e now i s to escape to m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l freedom from the " b e n e v o l e n t " s o c i e t y and i t s s t i f l i n g r u l e s . W i t k i e w i c z was p a r t i c - u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r o l e o f the c r e a t i v e a r t i s t i n a s o c i e t y w h ich e n f o r c e s c o n f o r m i t y by d e c l a r i n g i n s a n e t h o s e who presume to 7 d i s a g r e e w i t h i t . P h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l as w e l l as p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l freedom a r e a t i s s u e i n Marat/Sade. The r e p e a t e d i n t e r r u p t i o n s o f C o u l m i e r , the d i r e c t o r o f the asylum, emphasize the c o n s t a n t t h r e a t t h a t the p l a y e r s w i l l s t a g e a r e v o l u t i o n a g a i n s t him under the g u i s e o f e n a c t i n g t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . The madmen i n the asylum a r e o p p r e s s e d as the F r e n c h b e f o r e t h e R e v o l u t i o n . Freedom i s a dominant theme i n a l l the songs and chants which p a r t i c u l a r l y p o i n t out the o p p r e s s i o n of the a c t o r s b o t h i n the mental asylum and i n the s o c i a l o r d e r . However, i t must be k e p t i n mind t h a t Weiss t r e a t s t h e s u b j e c t o f freedom w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f i r o n y . The theme o f p h y s i c a l c o n f i n e m e n t i s c l e a r even i n the t i t l e o f Les S e q u e s t r e s d ' A l t o n a . As i n the c a s e o f Mb'bius, i t i s a v o l u n t a r y l o s s o f p h y s i c a l freedom on the p a r t o f F r a n t z • But i n exchange, he does not g a i n mental freedom. The freedom he has i s m e r e l y freedom from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s former a c t i o n s . I t t r a n s p i r e s t h a t F r a n t z -107- has n e v e r been f r e e i n the i d e a l i s t i c e x i s t e n t i a l sense, t o make h i s own d e c i s i o n s , s i n c e h i s f a t h e r had de t e r m i n e d t h e c o u r s e o f F r a n t z ' l i f e . As he e x p l a i n s p e r c e p t i v e l y t o Johanna, "Mais j e ne c h o i s i s pas, ma pauvre amiel J e s u i s c h o i s i " (Sd'A l 8 l ) . B o th C a l i g u l a and the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r , on t h e o t h e r hand, do make t h e i r d e c i s i o n s i n t o t a l p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l freedom. Yet b o t h f i n a l l y f i n d t h a t t h i s freedom i s i l l u s o r y , as t h e y a r e con- t r o l l e d and m a n i p u l a t e d by the a c t i o n s t h e y have a l r e a d y t a k e n . They, have s e t wheels i n motion which t h e y cannot c o n t r o l . The P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r i s o b s e s s e d w i t h the i d e a o f freedom from r o u t i n e and s o c i a l duty; C a l i g u l a i s more con c e r n e d w i t h freedom from myths and i l l u s i o n s about the n a t u r e o f l i f e and d e a t h . Both a r e d e f e a t e d by the consequences o f t h e i r own a c t i o n s : the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r i s f o r c e d to assume power, the o p p o s i t e o f freedom, and C a l i g u l a r e a l i z e s : " j e x n ' a b o u t i s a r i e n . Ma l i b e r t e n ' e s t pas l a bonne" (C 15̂ -) • In the c o u r s e o f f o l l o w i n g t h e pa t h s t h e y have chosen, each o f the c h a r a c t e r s which have been d i s c u s s e d h e r e has n e g l e c t e d a c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w hich i s h i s e i t h e r by v i r t u e o f h i s p o s i t i o n , o r m e r e l y because he i s a member o f t h e human r a c e . The f a n a t i c i d e a l i s m o f Romulus, t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r , C a l i g u l a and Mb'bius l e a d s to l o s s i n l i v e s f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e r e s p o n s i b l e and which t h e y c o u l d have p r e v e n t e d . But when t h e y c o n s i d e r t h e i r m o t i v a t i n g i d e a i n a vacuum, t h e y i g n o r e t h e consequences o f t h e i r a c t i o n s , and i n that sense t h e y a r e a l l mad. -108- However, t h e r e i s a n o t h e r sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w h i c h t h e s e men do have, w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s them from those around them: t h e y p e r c e i v e c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f l i f e as t h e y a f f e c t t h e i r e n t i r e s o c i e t y , not j u s t them p e r s o n a l l y . They want to a l t e r t h a t e x i s t i n g r e a l i t y f o r everyone, no t j u s t t h e m selves, and t a k e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h a n g i n g t h i n g s on t h e m s e l v e s . That i s , Romulus and Mb'bius put on the mask o f madness to p r e v e n t c e r t a i n developments from t a k i n g p l a c e : developments which would have g i v e n more power to t h e i r own s o c i e t y w h i c h t h e y c o n s i d e r u n t r u s t w o r t h y . I f t h e y c o n s i d e r e d themselves i n avacuum from t h e r e s t o f s o c i e t y , as so many p e o p l e do, t h e y might a c t " n o r m a l l y . " The P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r and C a l i g u l a work a c t i v e l y t o impose change f o r the r e s t o f s o c i e t y . The P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r ' s r e v o l t i s a t f i r s t p e r s o n a l , but he t a k e s on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o t h e r s when he sees how p o p u l a r h i s cause i s . S i m i l a r l y , A u r e l i a , i n L a F o l i e de C h a i l l o t , sees h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o o t h e r s to r i d s o c i e t y o f t h o s e p e o p l e who o p p r e s s and e x p l o i t o t h e r s . These c h a r a c t e r s a l l see f u r t h e r t h a n t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n , t r y to improve the s t a t e o f s o c i e t y , and t h e r e f o r e a r e con- s i d e r e d mad by the o t h e r s . They a r e a l l b a s i c a l l y i d e a l i s t s , whose i d e a s , c o n s i d e r e d i n a vacuum, a r e humane, but when put i n the c o n t e x t o f t h e e x i s t i n g r e a l i t y , a r e u n r e a l i s t i c and e s s e n t i a l l y unworkable. A n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n to t h i s i s Henry IV, whose m o t i v e s i n f e i g n i n g madness were p u r e l y p e r s o n a l . The c r i t i c F r a n c i s Jeanson makes t h i s -109- p o i n t i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f Henry IV and C a l i g u l a : De H e n r i IV (1922) a C a l i g u l a (1945), on c o n v i e n d r a que l e s p r e o c c u p a t i o n s e t l e s themes e s s e n t i e l s ne s o n t pas devenus f o n c i e r e m e n t d i f f e r e n t s . C ' e s t b i e n l a meme d e n o n c i a t i o n de ce monde q u i n ' e s t pas ce q u ' i l d e v r a i t e t r e ; l e meme mepris a l ' e g a r d de ceux q u i s'en accommodent; l e meme s e n t i m e n t de l a s o l i t u d e ; l e meme pessimisme; l e meme r e c o u r s au c h o i x de l ' a b s u r d e c o n t r e l ' a b s u r d i t e meme de 1 ' e x i s t e n c e ; l a meme f r e n e s i e de n i e r e t de d e t r u i r e , de f a i r e c h a v i r e r l e monde sous l e s p i e d s de ceux q u i ont p r i s des a s s u r a n c e s . "Se t r o u v e r devant un f o u . .. c e l a v e u t d i r e : se t r o u v e r d e v a n t quelqu'un q u i e b r a n l e jusque dans l e u r s a s s i s e s t o u t e s l e s choses que nous avons c o n s t r u i t e s en nous, a u t o u r de nous..." C a l i g u l a j o u a i t de son p o u v o i r i m p e r i a l pour n i e r t o u t e v e r i t e - - m a i s l e s f o u s , ou du moins ceux dont on c r o i t q u ' i l s s o n t f o u s , d i s p o s e n t d'un p o u v o i r p e u t - e t r e s u p e r i e u r : "quand ces hommes-la se me t t e n t a p a r l e r , i l s c a s s e n t t o u t , l e s c o n v e n t i o n s v o l e n t en e c l a t s ... on d e c i d e que j e s u i s f o u ; mais t o u t l e monde m'ecoute p o u r t a n t avec epouvante ..." Une d i f f e r e n c e , q u i p a r a i t fondamentale, r i s q u e t o u t e f o i s de c o n t e s t e r ces f r a p p a n t e s a n a l o g i e s : e l l e e s t due a 1 ' i n t e r v e n t i o n dans C a l i g u l a du theme de l a r e s p o n s a b i l i t e , a b s e n t des p r e - o c c u p a t i o n s d ' H e n r i IV. Ce dernier, en e f f e t , ne se pose a aucun moment un probleme humain d' o r d r e p r a t i q u e : a p a r t i r de l a v i s i o n du monde q u i e s t l a s i e n n e , i l a adopte e t i l m a n t i e n t une a t t i t u d e q u i ne co n c e r n e que lui-meme--et c ' e s t de f a c o n b i e n n e g l i g e n t e q u ' i l l u i a r r i v e de l a p r e c o n i s e r a ses q u a t r e " c o n s e i l l e u r s " . Ce n ' e s t pas pour que l e monde s o i t m e i l l e u r q u ' i l se r e v o l t e , c ' e s t simplement p a r c e que l e monde e s t mauvais; e t s ' i l en c o n t e s t e l a l o i , ce n ' e s t pas dans l ' e s p o i r de l u i en s u b s t i t u e r une a u t r e , c ' e s t seulement en c h o i s i s s a n t de ne p l u s v i v r e d esormais que sous l a s i e n n e p r o p r e . Ce q u i donne a c e t t e c o n t e s t a t i o n e t a c e t t e r e v o l t e un sens de p a s s i v i t e e t de d e m i s s i o n q u ' e l l e s n'ont p o i n t chez C a l i g u l a . - l i c - i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t a l m o s t a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s s t u d y have s a c r i f i c e d p e r s o n a l l o v e to t h e i r u l t i m a t e g o a l . Romulus m a r r i e d , n ot f o r l o v e , but f o r the p o s i t i o n w h i c h the m a r r i a g e would open f o r him. The o n l y p e r s o n he r e a l l y l o v e s i s h i s d a u g h t e r Rea, and even h e r d e a t h does not make him q u e s t i o n the v a l i d i t y o f h i s p l a n . Mb'bius gave'up h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n f o r the asylum, and when he f a l l s i n l o v e w i t h h i s n u r s e , he s t r a n g l e s h e r r a t h e r than g i v i n g up h i s p l a n . G i v i n g up h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s w i f e was p r o b a b l y n o t as g r e a t a s a c r i f i c e f o r t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r , b u t even when a p r e t t y young g i r l l i k e Inge f a l l s i n l o v e w i t h him, he d e v o t e s more time t o t h e r e v o l u t i o n t h a n to h e r . The problem o f l o v e and human r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s f a r more complex i n C a l i g u l a . R.W.B. Lewis p o i n t s o ut t h e f a c t t h a t C a l i g u l a r e j e c t s , o r i s d i s a p p o i n t e d i n , a l l t y p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s a f t e r Death ended h i s i n c e s t u o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s s i s t e r D r u s i l l a . He f o r c e s C a e s o n i a to obey h i s c r u e l whims, h a r s h l y s t o p s the i n t i m a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h S c i p i o , i s f o r c e d t o r e a l i z e t h a t Cherea was n o t b e i n g t o t a l l y f r a n k and t h a t an open d i s c u s s i o n was a f t e r a l l i m p o s s i b l e , and f i n a l l y c o n f r o n t s h i m s e l f i n the m i r r o r , o n l y to smash i t and the hope o f e v e r coming to terms w i t h h i m s e l f w i t h i t . The a b s o l u t e s o l i t u d e a r r i v e d a t i n the c l o s i n g i n s t a n t i s then, d r a m a t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , a l t o g e t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e : the end towards which t h e p l a y and i t s h ero have been d e t e r m i n e d l y moving from the o u t s e t . I n p u r s u i t o f h i s n e g a t i v e i d e a l , C a l i g u l a must e x p l o r e the v a r i e t i e s of p o s s i b l e p e r s o n a l - I l l - r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i f o n l y to d e monstrate the f r a g i l i t y o r f r a u d u l e n c e of a l l of them: the h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n ( w i t h i t s p o r t i o n o f mother-son i n v o l v e m e n t , and a h i n t o f f u r t h e r i n c e s t ) ; t h e r e l a t i o n o f m a s c u l i n e l o v e ( w i t h i t s p o r t i o n o f f a t h e r - s o n i n v o l v e m e n t , f o r C a l i g u l a c u r i o u s l y but u n d e r s t a n d a b l y r e p l a c e s f o r S c i p i o t h e f a t h e r he has murdered); the i n t e l l e c t u a l companionship of e q u a l s ; and the r e l a t i o n o f the psyche to i t s e l f . A l l a r e ex- p e r i m e n t e d w i t h , undermined and r e j e c t e d ; and the a c t i o n f u l f i l l s i t s e l f - - w i t h a b u r s t o f h o r r i f i e d e n t h u s i a s m - - i n the e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t o f u t t e r and permanent a l i e n a t i o n . - ' A l i e n a t i o n , i s o l a t i o n , and f a i l u r e mark the end o f each attempt to c r e a t e a b e t t e r w o r l d i n t h e s e dramas. By the end o f C a l i g u l a , the h e r o i s t o t a l l y a l o n e , h a y i n g j u s t s t r a n g l e d C a e s o n i a , the l a s t p e r s o n w i t h whom he c o u l d have a r e l a t i o n s h i p . When h i s a t t a c k e r s come, he f a c e s them e n t i r e l y a l o n e ; the o n l y p e r s o n who might have defended him, H e l i c o n , has been murdered. I t i s t h i s s o l i t u d e which makes him r e a l i z e , " S i j ' a v a i s eu l a l u n e , s i l'amour s u f f i s a i t , t o u t s e r a i t change" (C 15*0 • Camus o b v i o u s l y s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e s w i t h C a l i g u l a ' s method, a l t h o u g h he sympathises w i t h h i s awareness. B e f o r e t h e a r r i v a l o f Odoaker i n Romulus der Groge t h e r e a r e a few moments when Romulus a l s o i s s i t t i n g a l o n e and a w a i t i n g h i s e x p e c t e d death; the Empire i s i n r u i n s , h i s w i f e and c h i l d and the r e s t o f t h e h o u s e h o l d drowned, and even h i s two f a i t h f u l s e r v a n t s have abandoned him f o r more l u c r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s . With the appearance o f Odoaker and the subsequent c o n v e r s a t i o n comes the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t -112- i t has a l l been i n v a i n ; because the next r u l e r w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be Odoaker's i m p e r i a l i s t i c nephew T h e o d e r i c h , Romulus has not s ucceeded i n s a v i n g t h e w o r l d from b a r b a r i s m . In a s i m i l a r t w i s t of f a t e , Mb'bius, abandoned by h i s f a m i l y and h a v i n g s a c r i f i c e d Monika, r e a l i z e s t h a t h i s s a c r i f i c e too has been i n v a i n ; he has n o t s u c c e e d e d i n k e e p i n g h i s s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s out o f t h e hands o f i r r e s p o n s i b l e p e o p l e s e e k i n g power. But i t i s i m p o r t a n t to r e a l i z e t h a t the u l t i m a t e f a i l u r e o f t h e h e r o es i n Dl i r r e n m a t t ' s p l a y s r e s u l t e d from something e x t e r n a l to them. The t w i s t o f f a t e , the " Z u f a l l " o f which Dlirrenmat speaks i n the twenty-one p o i n t s i s beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l . D l i r r e n m a t t ' s ambiguous a t t i t u d e to the r e f o r m e r i s e v i d e n t i n t h e s e two i n s t a n c e s . By making them b o t h r e c o g n i z e t h e i r f a i l u r e t o change t h i n g s , he seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y a r e presumptuous i n e x p e c t i n g to change the e x i s t i n g r e a l i t y by means o f t h e i r i d e a put i n t o a c t i o n . However, he c r e a t e s v e r y s y m p a t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r s . Thus Odoaker, the m i r r o r - i m a g e o f Romulus i n h i s i n t e n t i o n s and the r e s u l t s o f h i s a c t i o n s , p o i n t s out, "Dein Tod ware s i n n l o s , denn e i n e n S i n n kbnnte er nur haben, wenn d i e Welt so ware, wie du s i e d i r v o r g e s t e l l t h a s t . S i e i s t n i c h t s o " (R 71)• And Romulus e x p r e s s e s the same i d e a i n some o f the w i s e s t and most i m p o r t a n t words i n the drama: "Die W i r k l i c h k e i t h a t u n s e r e Ideen k o r r i g i e r t " (R 73)- The f a i l u r e o f the P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r to g a i n a p s y c h o l o g i c a l freedom has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d a t some l e n g t h . I n a l l the endings w i t h w h i c h F r i s c h e xperimented, i n c l u d i n g the l a s t one, the h e r o i s -113- t o t a l l y a l i e n a t e d from t h e r e s t o f s o c i e t y . Even i f t h e whole e x p e r i e n c e were to be i n t e r p r e t e d as a dream, t h e a u d i e n c e i s bound to be p r o f o u n d l y aware o f the a l i e n a t i o n w h i c h t h e P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r f e e l s from h i s w i f e and h i s work. L i k e DUrrenmatt, F r i s c h ' s a t t i t u d e towards h i s hero i s a m b i v a l e n t . He r e c o g n i z e s the d e s i r e o f the b o u r g e o i s c i t i z e n t o escape from the c o n s t r a i n t s put on him by s o c i e t y . However, he i n d i c a t e s i n t h i s p l a y t h a t t o t a l freedom l e a d s f i r s t t o chaos and anarchy, and then to a perhaps more s t r u c t u r e d s o c i e t y t h a n b e f o r e . L i k e P e t e r Weiss, he b e l i e v e s t h a t new freedom b r i n g s new o p p r e s s i o n . A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o f i s o l a t i o n and d e f e a t i s f o l l o w e d i n Henry IV and Les S e q u e s t r e s d ' A l t o n a . I t i s Henry's l o v e f o r Donna M a t i l d a and t h e d i s t r e s s a t l o s i n g h e r , t h a t l e d him to f e i g n madness i n the f i r s t p l a c e . F o r twenty y e a r s he has l e d a f a i r l y s o l i t a r y l i f e . When she comes back, i n h i s eyes out o f p i t y , he gets h i s revenge by k i l l i n g h i s r i v a l . W i t h t h a t g e s t u r e , he d e s t r o y s any chance o f r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g a f r i e n d s h i p w i t h h e r . The l a s t image i s o f Henry, p r o t e c t e d from the w o r l d by h i s f o u r v a l e t s , p e r m a n e n t l y a l i e n a t e d from the r e s t o f s o c i e t y . S i m i l a r l y , F r a n t z has s h u t h i m s e l f o f f from a l l human c o n t a c t e x c e p t t h a t w i t h h i s s i s t e r f o r t h i r t e e n y e a r s . The one hope he has o f r e j o i n i n g s o c i e t y i s , as i n Henry's c a s e , i n a woman's l o v e . But Johanna i s r e p e l l e d by h i s p a s t a c t i o n s and r e j e c t s him. The o n l y way out f o r him i s s u i c i d e . -11k- From t h i s d i s c u s s i o n a p a t t e r n emerges o f c h a r a c t e r s whom modern w r i t e r s see as "madmen." None o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s behave i n the i l l o g i c a l , unreasoned manner t h a t i s t y p i c a l o f the m e d i c a l l y i n s a n e . However, a l l a r e p o s s e s s e d ; n ot by t h e p r o v e r b i a l D e v i l , b u t by an i d e a , l u c i d l y and l o g i c a l l y e x p r e s s e d , which b l i n d s them t o r e a l i t y . T h i s i d e a , i f c o n s i d e r e d i n i t s e l f , i s p o s i t i v e . But t h e f a n a t i c ' s "madness" c o n s i s t s i n h i s n o t t a k i n g o t h e r p e o p l e and f a c t o r s o f the e x i s t i n g r e a l i t y i n t o a c c o u n t when t r y i n g t o change humanity to f i t h i s v i s i o n . In each case, t h e "madness" o f t h e main c h a r a c t e r r e s u l t s from h i s deep awareness o f h i s s i t u a t i o n i n s o c i e t y , and h i s r e j e c t i o n o f t h e v a l u e s o f t h a t s o c i e t y . H i s r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e s o c i a l o r d e r i s i d e a l i s t i c ; he wants t o b r i n g about a new, more m e a n i n g f u l w o r l d . But i n each case, the r e v o l t f a i l s , l e a d i n g e i t h e r t o chaos ( i n the cases o f C a l i g u l a and Oderland) o r t o a r e i m p o s i t i o n o f the o l d system i n a new, more dangerous form ( i n the cases o f Romulus and Mbbius) . The "madman" b r i n g s about t h e p r e c i s e s i t u a t i o n which he t r i e d to a v o i d . D e s p i t e the f a i l u r e o f the r e v o l t t o b r i n g r a d i c a l change, the i d e a l s espoused by t h e "madmen" a r e p o s i t i v e , e s p e c i a l l y when c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h o s e o f t h e "sane" members o f s o c i e t y . Indeed, each of t h e d r a m a t i s t s e x p l i c i t l y i n d i c a t e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i t i s the "mad" who a r e sane, and the "sane" who, i n a c c e p t i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l o r d e r , a r e a c t u a l l y mad. -115- Th e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y w r i t e r i s more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h i s i d e a t h a n w r i t e r s o f p a s t ages f o r one p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n : t h e r e has n e v e r been a p e r i o d i n which e t h i c a l norms have so c o m p l e t e l y broken down. With the absence o f r e l i g i o n as an e t h i c a l s t a n d a r d , t h e r e a r e no a b s o l u t e s and e v e r y t h i n g becomes r e l a t i v e . S a n i t y too becomes r e l a t i v e . I n p r e v i o u s l i t e r a t u r e , i t was g e n e r a l l y p e r s o n a l reasons t h a t caused a c h a r a c t e r to become mad; the main r e a s o n b e i n g d i s a p p o i n t m e n t i n l o v e . But now w r i t e r s a r e c o n c e r n e d l e s s w i t h man's p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and more w i t h h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s o c i e t y . As t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p becomes more tenuous, so does man's s a n i t y . Drama i s p r o b a b l y t h e a r t form t h a t most f a i t h f u l l y r e f l e c t s any g i v e n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , because i t i s i n t e n d e d f o r p u b l i c p e r f o r m a n c e . I t e x i s t s f u l l y o n l y i n r e l a t i o n to i t s a u d i e n c e , and, on a b r o a d e r s c a l e , i n r e l a t i o n t o the e n t i r e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l community. Readers and a u d i e n c e s a r e i n e v i t a b l y bound to r e c o g n i z e t h a t the "madmen" f a c e problems t h a t a r e e x t r e m e l y r e l e v a n t t o our t i m e . They a r e a l s o l i k e l y t o be s y m p a t h e t i c to the i d e a l s espoused by the "madmen" i n t h e i r pure form: i d e a l s o f freedom, h a p p i n e s s , humanity. But t h e y w i l l a l s o r e c o g n i z e the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f f u l f i l l i n g t h a t dream, and the "madness" o f t h o s e who t r y . I d e a l i s t s who a r e o b l i v i o u s t o r e a l i t y w i l l always be c o n s i d e r e d mad by the s o c i e t y w h ich t h e y a r e t r y i n g so d e s p e r a t e l y to r e f o r m . The dichotomy between the "madman" and s o c i e t y , between the f o o l and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , ^ between the r a d i c a l and t h o s e who w i s h -116- to preserve the existing order is summed up by the Polish philosopher Leszek Kolakowski in the metaphor of the priest and the jester. The priest i s the guardian of the absolute who upholds the cult of the f i n a l and the obvious contained in the tradition. The jester is he who, although a habitue of good society, does not belong to i t and makes i t the object of his inquisitive impertinence—he who questions what appears to be self-evident. . . . The philosophy of the jester is a philosophy which in every epoch denounces as doubtful what appears as un- shakable; i t points out the contradictions in what seems evident and incontestable; i t r i d i - cules common sense and reads sense into the absurd .H This is precisely the situation of the four "mad" dramatic characters in this discussion. The magnitude of this problem for the modern creative mind is evidenced by the fact that a philosopher such as Kolakowski is as concerned with i t as are dramatists of the twentieth century. The philosopher expresses in theoretical terms the same problems that the dramatist develops in the characters and action of a play. It is significant to recognize that similar conclusions are reached by both paths . We declare ourselves in favour of the philosophy of the jester, that i s , for an attitude of negative vigilance in the face of any absolute. This we do not because we want to argue; in these matters, a choice is an appraisal. We declare ourselves in favour of the nonintellectual values inherent in an attitude the perils and absurdities of which we know. It is the option for a vision of the world that provides prospects for a slow and d i f f i - cult realignment of the elements in our human action that are most d i f f i c u l t to align: goodness without universal toleration, courage without fanaticism, intelligence without apathy, and hope without blindness. A l l other fruits of philosophy are of l i t t l e importance.12 -117- F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r S i x 1 R. T r o u s s o n , Les Etudes de Themes ( P a r i s , I 965), p. 30. 2 L . P i r a n d e l l o , "Henry IV," i n Naked Masks, ed. E r i c B e n t l e y , t r a n s . Edward S t o r e r (New York, 1952), p. 20k. H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as H. ^ J.P. S a r t r e , Les S e q u e s t r e s d ' A l t o n a ( P a r i s , i 9 6 0 ) , p. 279- H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Sd'A. l i . Thomas B i s h o p , P i r a n d e l l o and the F r e n c h T h e a t r e (New York, i 9 6 0 ) , p. 28. S. W i t k i e w i c z ^_ and ed. D a n i e l C G e r o u l d and C.S. Durer ( S e a t t l e , I968), p. 2k< ^ w i c z , The Madman and the Nun and Other P l a y s , t r a n s ^ O r e s t e P u c c i a n i , " I n t e r v i e w w i t h J e a n - P a u l S a r t r e , " T u l a n e Drama Review, V,3 (March 1 9 6 l ) , p. 13. 7 W i t k i e w i c z b e l o n g e d to the Dada g e n e r a t i o n , w h i c h had a deep awareness o f th e c r i s i s i n o c c i d e n t a l l i t e r a t u r e . Q F r a n c i s Jeanson, " P i r a n d e l l o e t Camus a t r a v e r s H e n r i IV e t C a l i g u l a , " Les Temps Modernes, no. 6 l (Novembre 1950), p. 952. o R.W.B. Lewis, " C a l i g u l a : o r t h e Realm of the I m p o s s i b l e , " Y a l e F r e n c h S t u d i e s No. 25, p. 57. ^ The t i t l e o f a f o r t h c o m i n g book by the c r i t i c J a n K o t t i s to be A F o o l A g a i n s t t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t , i n w h i c h he argues t h a t Greek h e r o e s were "mad" i n t h e sense o f not a c c e p t i n g the norms o f t h e i r s o c i e t y . ^ L e s z e k K o l a k o w s k i , "The P r i e s t and the J e s t e r , " The Modern P o l i s h Mind, ed. M a r i a Kuncewicz (Boston, I962), p. 323. 12 K o l a k o w s k i , p. 326. -118- L i s t o f Works C o n s u l t e d G e n e r a l B i s h o p , Thomas. P i r a n d e l l o and t h e F r e n c h T h e a t r e . New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , i 9 6 0 . Coleman, James C. Abnormal P s y c h o l o g y and Modern L i f e . Glenview, 111 . : S c o t t , Foresman and Co., 1964. D i e t r i c h , M a r g r e t . Das Moderne Drama. 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