Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Lucid madman in contemporary European drama : an analysis of four plays by Durrenmatt, Frisch and Camus Rosenbluth, Vera Anne 1971

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1971_A8 R68_4.pdf [ 5.37MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0093349.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0093349-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0093349-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0093349-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0093349-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0093349-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0093349-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0093349-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0093349.ris

Full Text

THE LUCID MADMAN IN CONTEMPORARY EUROPEAN DRAMA: An A n a l y s i s  o f Four P l a y s by DUrrenmatt,  F r i s c h and Camus  by VERA ANNE ROSENBLUTH B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 19&7  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Programme of Comparative  Literature  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  September,  I97I  In  presenting this  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library shall  fulfilment of  the requirements f o r  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  make i t  freely available  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  for  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  this  written  representatives. thesis  It  i s understood that  for financial  gain shall  not  permission.  £e£lx£f5  of  Comparative  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Literature  Columbia  that  study. thesis  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department  by h i s of  in p a r t i a l  or  copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  be allowed without my  Abstract  Although  the theme o f madness has been o f c o n c e r n  to w r i t e r s  o f a l l ages, t h e r e i s a p e r c e p t i b l e change i n t h e madness o f t h e dramatic  c h a r a c t e r o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y from t h a t o f the p a s t .  T h i s t h e s i s i s an attempt t o a n a l y s e  t h a t phenomenon as i t i s mani-  f e s t e d i n a number o f c h a r a c t e r s o f t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y drama. The  i n t r o d u c t i o n c o n t a i n s a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f the h i s t o r y o f  madness i n s o c i e t y , and a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n as t o how i t i s reflected i s found  i n literature,  from B i b l i c a l  t h a t w r i t e r s make l i t t l e  times  to the present.  It  attempt t o e x p l a i n t h e madness o f  a l i t e r a r y c h a r a c t e r , o t h e r than b y a t t r i b u t i n g t o him s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l reasons The  f o r h i s behaviour;  i . e . disappointment  c h a r a c t e r s o f t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y drama. however, a r e found  t o be n o t "mad" i n t h e same way; t h e i r madness i s l i n k e d r e l a t i o n s h i p with siders  i n love.  the r e s t o f s o c i e t y .  Thus, a c h a r a c t e r who con-  the r e s t o f s o c i e t y mad, and a c t s i n a way which  that s o c i e t y , the a u d i e n c e  to t h e i r  i s c o n s i d e r e d mad by those around him.  counteracts  However, t o  o r r e a d e r , who a r e made t o r e c o g n i z e the m o t i v e s f o r  h i s behaviour,  the c h a r a c t e r i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mad, and i n f a c t i t  may be, the p l a y w r i g h t i m p l i e s , t h a t t h e p e o p l e who a c c e p t t h e v a l u e s o f the s o c i e t y as a b s o l u t e who a r e "mad." By d i s c u s s i n g p r i n c i p a l l y  "madmen" o f f o u r r e c e n t dramas:  Romulus d e r Groge ( 1 9 5 6 ) and D i e P h y s i k e r  ( I 9 6 2 ) by F r i e d r i c h  iii  Dlirrenmatt, Graf Q d e r l a n d  ( f i n a l version 196l)  by Max  Frisch,  (lS>kk), as w e l l as making p e r i p h e r a l r e f e r e n c e s  A l b e r t Camus' C a l i g u l a  to o t h e r dramas i n the C o n c l u s i o n , d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n s of emerge.  The  "madman" i s judged  h i s contemporaries.  He  from o t h e r s .  cannot a c c e p t , he improving  p e r c e i v e d a t r u t h which  I n r e v o l t i n g a g a i n s t a s o c i e t y whose v a l u e s  the q u a l i t y of l i f e ,  as h a v i n g chosen to opt out.)  (in t h i s r e s p e c t he i s are  In each case the r e v o l t f a i l s ,  to chaos o r a r e i m p o s i t i o n of the old system.  i d e a l i s t o b l i v i o u s to the r e a l i t y around him breakdown of t r a d i t i o n a l l y a c c e p t e d  presented  leading  D e s p i t e the f a i l u r e  the r e v o l t to a c h i e v e permanent change, each hero i s found  to be  of an  r a t h e r than a "madman." norms such as  religion,  has meant t h a t i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y t h e r e a r e no a b s o l u t e s t a n dards  of b e h a v i o u r .  S a n i t y thus becomes a r e l a t i v e c o n c e p t .  t h e s i s attempts to e x p l o r e t h a t nebulous and madness and  he  c o n s i d e r s a p o s i t i v e s t e p towards  perhaps d i f f e r e n t from "madmen" of p r e v i o u s l i t e r a t u r e who  The  by  i s g e n e r a l l y more i n t e l l i g e n t , more p e r c e p t i v e  i s making what he  i n some way  behaviour  i n ways which are not understood  than the o t h e r members of h i s s o c i e t y , and has i s hidden  and  s a n i t y as i t i s r e f l e c t e d  This  s h i f t i n g a r e a between  i n modern drama.  iv  Table  1.  Introduction  2.  Romulus  3-  Die Physiker:  k.  Graf  5-  Caligula:  6.  Conclusion  Contents  2  d e r Grope:  C-derland:  of  t h e mask o f t h e f o o l  t h e mask o f m a d n e s s t h e mask o f a n a r c h y  t h e mask o f c r u e l t y  27 kO 57 77 93  -1-  The  L u c i d Madman i n C o n t e m p o r a r y E u r o p e a n Drama  Or p e r h a p s t h e y o r d e r e d m e - - d i s p a t c h e d m e - - f o r c e d me t o do s o m e t h i n g w h i c h I c o u l d n ' t b e a r . No, t h e r e i s n o t a s i n g l e t h i n g w h i c h m i g h t n o t h a v e h a p p e n e d t o me-e v e r y t h i n g and even more t h a n e v e r y t h i n g i s p o s s i b l e . B u t s u p p o s e I am n o t i n a h o s p i t a l a n d n o t h i n g a b n o r m a l h a s h a p p e n e d t o me. A l l r i g h t ... a n d y e t ... Oh, how many i n s a n i t i e s have I taken p a r t i n ? Ohhh ... E v e n t h o u g h I was t h e m o s t h e a l t h y . . . t h e m o s t The m o s t b a l a n c e d p e r s o n O t h e r s f o r c e d me t o c o m m i t A t r o c i o u s a c t s , murderous a c t s , I n s a n e , m o r o n i c , a n d y e s , l i c e n t i o u s a c t s ...  rational  This r a i s e s a simple question: I f i n the course o f s e v e r a l y e a r s a p e r s o n f u l f i l l s t h e f u n c t i o n o f a madman, i s h e n o t t h e n r e a l l y a madman? A n d w h a t d o e s i t m a t t e r t h a t I am h e a l t h y i f my a c t i o n s a r e s i c k - - e h , . J o h n n y ? B u t t h o s e who f o r c e d me t o c o m m i t t h e s e i n s a n i t i e s w e r e a l s o h e a l t h y And s e n s i b l e And b a l a n c e d . .. F r i e n d s , c o m p a n i o n s , b r o t h e r s — s o Health And s u c h s i c k b e h a v i o r ? So much s a n i t y And y e t s o much m a d n e s s ? So much h u m a n i t y  much  And y e t s o much i n h u m a n i t y ? And what does i t m a t t e r i f taken s e p a r a t e l y each o f us i s l u c i d , s e n s i b l e , balanced, w h e n t a k e n a l t o g e t h e r we a r e n o t h i n g b u t a g i g a n t i c madman... who f u r i o u s l y Writhes about, screams, bellows and b l i n d l y R u s h e s f o r w a r d , o v e r s t e p p i n g h i s own b o u n d s R i p p i n g h i m s e l f o u t o f h i m s e l f ... O u r m a d n e s s Is o u t s i d e ourselves, out t h e r e . . . There, there, out there. W i t h o l d Gombrowicz, The M a r r i a g e ,  Act I I  -2-  Chapter The  Introduction  man w h o s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s  that of  One:  does n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o  o f t h e m a j o r i t y i s a madman; a n d t h e o l d h a b i t  w o r s h i p p i n g madmen i s g i v i n g w a y t o t h e new  habit  of locking  them u p . G. B . Shaw  For ation,  centuries,  holding a special  fragility concept always and  t h e theme o f m a d n e s s h a s h a u n t e d fascination  and v u l n e r a b i l i t y  o f madness, relative  broadened  except  of the faculty i n cases  c o n s i d e r a b l y over  from  folly  Similarly,  attitudes  figures  i n literature  theme b y w r i t e r s  in  d e f i n e s i t , and has changed  t o extremism  a great deal.  reflects  trying  to arrive  at a conclusive definition  all  the gentle i n s a n i t y  reflections  characters what  i s accepted  concerned insights  with into  reflects  o f Don Q u i x o t e , of Ophelia,  the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h e term  the b l i n d  the rage  they have  as "normal"  a clinical  gone beyond  behaviour.  study,  "madness."  of Othello are These  the boundaries of  Their  but rather  involved  passion of  o f v a r i o u s f a c e s o f t h e p r i s m o f madness.  a r e a l l mad;  o f mad  and a l l ages.  of course also  Phedre,  range  the constant preoccupation with the  of a l l cultures  eccentricity  t h e image o f p e o p l e  The wide  diversity  idealistic  and  of any k i n d .  This  The  The  insanity, i s  t o madmen a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y  a s "mad" h a v e a l t e r e d  recognize the  the years, v a r y i n g i n degree  o r excess,  defined  imagin-  o f human r e a s o n .  of c l i n i c a l  to the s o c i e t y which  definition  f o r p e o p l e who  man's  c r e a t o r s were n o t  their  human b e h a v i o u r w e r e made w i t h o u t  sensitive  the a i dof  intuitive  psychological  apparatus,  impact  reader.  on  the  Abnormal no  clearcut  difficult and  behaviour  definition  because  the s o c i e t y ;  of  one's  of  insanity  and  p r o v i d e perhaps  i s almost of normal  concepts madness  impossible to define, or  Horst  in literature,  ideal  of normal  i s always  contemporaries.  a greater emotional  behaviour.  behaviour  relative  Geyer,  emphasizes  there i s  It is  change w i t h  to the  i n working this  as  times with  particular  especially time  and  the  conduct  problem  problem:  Zwecks L O s u n g u n s e r e s P r o b l e m s w i r d g e r n m i t dem B e g r i f f d e r Norm g e a r b e i t e t ; d a s h i l f t u n s a b e r n i c h t w e i t e r . Was i s t d e n n " n o r m a l " ? Der Durchschnitt e i n e r Bevblkerung oder besser i h r durchschnittliches Verhalten? Ein solcher M a p s t a b w i r d s i c h im Grunde a l s e i n e p e t i t i o p r i n c i p i i erweisen. Jaspers hat i n ahnlichen Zusammenhang d a s W i t z w o r t z i t i e r t : "Normal i s t l e i c h t e r Schwachsinn."1 Of  course  this  definition  from  the average,  statistical  well  as madness.  In  several  other c r i t e r i a  o f madness to which of  James an  C.  in literary  a person  normal  because  the  can  behaviour.  i t does n o t Coleman,  important  be  t o be crime  will  be  useful  However, into  or  in this  have  account  the r e s t  of psychology  as of  i n Los  as  suggested  definition  i s one  i t i s inadequate  deviation  genius  Personal adjustment,  cope w i t h h i s problems,  take  desired;  century, psychologists  characters.  a professor  point:  norm c o u l d  20th  which  l e a v e s much  a the  the  degree  indication definition community.  Angeles,  makes  -k-  A l a r g e p a r t of the n o r m a l i t y or a b n o r m a l i t y of a p e r s o n s b e h a v i o u r depends on whether i t f u r t h e r s or b l o c k s the needs and purposes of the s o c i e t y of which he i s a p a r t . The b e h a v i o u r o f the s u c c e s s f u l c r i m i n a l i s c o n s i d e r e d abnormal, s i n c e i t h u r t s the group. So our norms must i n c l u d e the f a c t o r of s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t : indiv i d u a l s s h o u l d f i t i n w i t h and c o n t r i b u t e to the v a l u e s , purposes, and a c t i v i t i e s of the group. 1  But what i f the group condones c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps, or s l a v e r y , or r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e ? With the i n c r e a s i n g knowledge of group b e h a v i o u r s u p p l i e d by the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , we have come to r e a l i z e t h a t a s o c i e t y can be as " s i c k " as an individual. But t h e r e s t i l l a r e d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n as to what c o n s t i t u t e s the most d e s i r a b l e form o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and what types o f i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o u r are^most c o n d u c i v e to group w e l l - b e i n g and progress. This  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate  c h a r a c t e r who way  judges the  contrary  others.  the r e a d e r and cannot be  and  opinions  those who  "mad"  are  audience, aware o f the  so q u i c k  a t t i t u d e s and  exceedingly  r e s t of s o c i e t y i n s a n e ,  acts  to t h a t s o c i e t y ' s i n t e r e s t s i s judged i n s a n e  But  motivation,  to t h i s d i s c u s s i o n .  to judge him.  As  A in a by  character's  commonly h e l d  change, so does the l i n e which s e p a r a t e s  from those who  are not;  a l i n e which i s o f t e n  fine.  I t i s e x a c t l y t h i s f i n e l i n e w i t h which t h i s e s s a y w i l l As a f i r s t  step  towards s e t t i n g the  must s t a t e t h a t I am mad.  I do not  schizophrenia,  not  intend  paranoia,  dramatic characters  l i m i t s of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n ,  concerned w i t h c h a r a c t e r s who  to d i s c u s s  deal.  are  I  clinically  p s y c h i a t r i c d e s c r i p t i o n s of mania,  h y s t e r i a , d e l i r i u m or the l i k e .  i n t h i s e s s a y a r e a l l mad  The  i n the eyes of  society.  But a c l o s e r  e x a m i n a t i o n of  clearly articulated, i n question  them r e v e a l s  a motivation that  is  and w i t h which the a u d i e n c e v i e w i n g the  generally feels  some measure of  sympathy.  plays  Hence  the  term " l u c i d madman." It  is  the q u e s t i o n of m o t i v a t i o n which i s  as I i n t e n d to approach i t ; to a c t as he does,  m o t i v a t i o n on the p a r t of the  and m o t i v a t i o n on the p a r t of  using that p a r t i c u l a r f i g u r e . offensive  or threatening  h i s madness  c e n t r a l to  What does the  to h i s  to what he says?  the a u t h o r i n  depressive,  views?  has  it  as mad r e c u r s a g a i n and a g a i n  There a r e t h o s e who a r e a t h r e a t  someone as b e i n g mad, i t  invalidates  his  to d e a l w i t h him as a v i a b l e f o r c e ;  society  renders  c r i t i c i s m and no hence,  longer  f o r example,  p o l i c y of  some d i c t a t o r i a l governments  opponents  by i m p r i s o n i n g them i n mental a s y l u m s .  of d i s p o s i n g of  most e f f e c t i v e ways of s i l e n c i n g an i n d i v i d u a l , as not c r i t i c i z e h i s  to  and awareness of what i s wrong w i t h  When s o c i e t y d e f i n e s  t h a t p e r s o n impotent;  defined  or other c l i n i c a l l y insane i n d i v i d u a l  by t h e i r v e r y p e r c e p t i v e n e s s society.  either  an i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n from the manic  schizophrenic,  of p s y c h i a t r i c s t u d i e s .  so  And why does the a u t h o r use him  or defines himself  This i s  is  What r e l a t i o n has  The image of a l u c i d and a r t i c u l a t e man who i s  in literature.  character  "madman" do t h a t  contemporaries?  r a t h e r than a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r to express h i s  as mad by s o c i e t y ,  the problem  the  political  This is  one of  the  those i n power do  i d e a s as s u c h , but r a t h e r a t t a c k h i s  competence  to  expound  Valery  them.  Tarsis  obviously The  Writers  such  ( P a v i l i o n #7),  conscious other  of this  as Anton  and Peter  Chekhov Weiss  coin  i s t h e c h a r a c t e r who d e f i n e s  as  mad i n some way, a n d f o r some p a r t i c u l a r  of  the court  this  character  dramatic plays of  The c o u r t  fool  could  fool act  of  o r madman,  might  thereby  gaining  would  be u s e f u l a t t h i s  literature. intend  madness,  to look  fully  briefly  a n d how t h i s  Passages Hebrews  While  the part  t o a c t as he wishes, The  self-denoted  and t h e r e f o r e  to sketch  c a n speak and  briefly  i n literature  t h e f i g u r e as i t a p p e a r s aware o f t h e p i t f a l l s a t t h e way v a r i o u s  r e l a t i o n s h i p found  t o madness; m e n t a l  plays  be p u n i s h e d .  point  i n the B i b l e r e f l e c t  I n t h e two  the hero  freedom  immune t o  It) i s a  character.  essay,  t h e f i g u r e o f t h e madman a s i t a p p e a r s further to define  completely  forh i sactions.  to obey any code, others  the t r u t h to h i s master  (As You L i k e  historic  i n this  responsible  i n ways f o r w h i c h  trying  I  held  of this  speak  and remain  Touchstone  discussed  i s not expected  It  criticism,  Shakespeare's  being  f o r centuries,  o f freedom by h i d i n g behind t h e  by Durrenmatt  without  extention  deal  representation  the fool  An  himself  a good  e v e n when i t e x p r e s s e d punishment.  purpose.  known i n h i s t o r y a n d l i t e r a t u r e  gains  mask o f m a d n e s s .  (Marat/Sade) a r e  problem.  side o f that  jester  ( P a v i l i o n #6),  the ancestry before  i n twentieth  century  of generalizations,  societies  expression  have  r e l a t e d to  i n works  of a r t .  the a t t i t u d e s of the ancient  d i s o r d e r s were a t t r i b u t e d t o p o s s e s s i o n  by  -7-  demons a n d how  evil  In Mark 5  C h r i s t h e a l e d a madman b y  inhabited and  h i s body  were drowned.  drawal  of  behaviour 10:  20,  "And  many o f  we  i n the  into  i n the  and  the  seats  man  should  of  judgement. the  work on  He  the  with  the d e v i l  animality  of  this  a  as  devil  and  reported  of view  s o c i e t y which genius  and  the  to the  doves,  through  the  f o r his actions concept  defines  ( i . e . with-  in  lived.  i s mad;  the  i s , Christ's In  did consider why  him  mad:  hear  by Mark, would  cast  out  tables and  o f madness  i t . As  of  temple"  now  them  would  of h i s contemporaries,  reasons  Clearly,  began  sold  lake  ye  the not  that  "And  sold  and  moneychangers s u f f e r that  any  l -l6).  (Mark 2:  h e was  him?"  today  a p s y c h i a t r i c examination:  overthrew  vessel  that  s o c i e t y i n w h i c h he Jews  that  into a  o f madness  discussion;  the  of  uncleanliness .  consideration  to  and  them t h a t  c a r r y any  the  and  and  story  spirits  associated  hath  temple  evil  rushed  some o f  temple,  temple,  the p o i n t  standing  that  i s the  then  r e s u l t i n h i s undergoing  J e s u s went  From  learn  them s a i d ,  behaviour  certainly  to the  there  which  important  in relation  John  bought  of pigs,  i s more r e l e v a n t  1-13>  :  t r a n s f e r r i n g the  M a d n e s s was  i s another  B i b l e which  His  to herd  God's p r o t e c t i o n ) ,  There  on  spirits.  y  mad;  an  under-  results in a different is relative,  Nedd W i l l a r d  depending  comments  madness:  Le g e n i e e t l a f o l i e s o n t des c o n c e p t s e t a b l i s p a r l a s o c i e t e e n v e r t u s e u l e m e n t de l a d e f i n i t i o n q u ' e l l e a d o n n e du c o m p o r t e m e n t de l ' i n d i v i d u vis-a-vis d'elle. E l l e p e u t en f a i r e des r o i s ,  in his  des  saints,  l a captivite  a  l a societe et a elle  Cependant, There and  des prophetes  a  Latin  possession otherwise  elle  are frequent literatures. by a higher  peut  seule  changer  references  spirit.  t o Pan, Hecate,  to serve  Rosen  leur  radicalement  role. d'attitude. i n t h e Greek  v i e w was t h a t m a d n e s s  meant what  as a p u n i s h m e n t b y t h e gods  i n Society,  H o w e v e r , m a d n e s s was a l s o god  toujours  I t was common t o a t t r i b u t e  them i n some w a y .  book Madness  Euripides  de f i x e r  would  be i n e x p l i c a b l e t o d i v i n e o r s u p e r n a t u r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n .  who h a d a n g e r e d his  l e s condamner  c'est  t o m a d n e s s a n d madmen  The g e n e r a l  M a d n e s s was g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d  in  ou b i e n  e t aux c h a i n e s ;  Cybele  Thus,  f o r those  as George Rosen p o i n t s o u t  Phaedra's madness  i s attributed  and t h e Corybantes  sometimes a s i g n o f b e i n g  under him, o r t o have p a r t i c u l a r  powers  by  i n Hippolytus. chosen by a denied  to o t h e r s .  explains: Where madness i s c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e most p a r t a s p o s s e s s i o n b y a d i v i n e power o r b e i n g , i t i s n o t surprising to find the mentally disordered linked with the s u p e r n a t u r a l world and viewed with the awe i n s p i r e d b y t h e m y s t e r i o u s a n d t h e i n e x p l i c a b l e . Because o f i t s l i n k with t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l , mental derangement s e t t h e s u f f e r e r a p a r t from h i s fellows. The m e n t a l l y a f f l i c t e d i n d i v i d u a l might b e c o n s i d e r e d i n a s e n s e a b o v e o r d i n a r y men, e v e n s a c r e d , f o r under a p p r o p r i a t e circumstances he might d i s p l a y e x t r a o r d i n a r y powers, i n c l u d i n g the g i f t o f prophecy. It  i s only  and  madness,  and  Latin  for  example,  i n this  light  of the relationship  t h a t one c a n a p p r e c i a t e  literature Plautus  i n their depicts  references  t r u e meaning. t h e comic  between  t o madness  t h e gods i n Greek  I n T h e Manaechmus  q u i p r o quos w h i c h  Twins,  result  when  identical town  (a s i t u a t i o n ,  A Servant the  t w i n s , unaware  o f Two  o f each  incidentally,  Masters  while  Syracuse  in  that  finally  case,  them a w a y . " Apollo  feigns  the best He  attitudes  f o r me  then proceeds  towards  differentiated. faults  leads people  t o do  But, p a r a d o x i c a l l y ,  himself  who  commented  e l s e mad.  of being  insane.  on Bacchus,  Well, and  madness i t was  lucidly  existed  and  t h e two w e r e n o t farces  included  often  on s o c i e t y .  of h i s t r u t h . ^  clearly  criticized  the unreason  was  i n popular  (i.e.  human  madness)  i n the h i e r a r c h y of  the f i g u r e  of the  I n t h e words  fool  of the French  I n f a r c e s a n d s o t i e s , t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e Madman, t h e F o o l , o r t h e S i m p l e t o n assumes more and more importance. He i s no l o n g e r s i m p l y a r i d i c u l o u s and f a m i l i a r s i l h o u e t t e i n the wings: he s t a n d s c e n t e r s t a g e as t h e g u a r d i a n o f t r u t h — p l a y i n g h e r e a r o l e w h i c h i s t h e complement and c o n v e r s e o f t h a t t a k e n b y madness i n t h e t a l e s and t h e satires. I f f o l l y l e a d s e a c h man i n t o a b l i n d n e s s w h e r e h e i s l o s t , t h e madman, o n t h e c o n t r a r y , e a c h man  scare  God o f W i n e ,  Michel Foucault:  reminds  In  Manaechmus  i s act the part  the medieval  by denouncing  astray;  i s accused  a c u r i o u s dichotomy  one hand,  i n a g e n e r a l way  twin  " T h e y s a y I'm  t h e Madman o r t h e F o o l ; On  by G o l d o n i i n  i n Twelfth Night) .  each  to c a l l  a r e i n t h e same  to take o r d e r s .  Ages,  vices.  critic  madness:  thing  the Middle  t o be u s e d  c o n s i d e r everyone  f r o m whom h e p r e t e n d s  During  which  identities,  they themselves  of  later  and Shakespeare  confusion of mistaken  mad,  other's existence,  -10-  The  medieval  court  fool  whose p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l ment,  and t h e C e l t i c h i s master,  he  Barbara  Swain p o i n t s  of  licentious  the fool  He h a d a b s o l u t e  out that  truth-telling  without  t h e Roman  merri-  license to  responsible  t h e "freedom  f o r what  to indulge i n  and t h e a d d i t i o n a l freedom  i n c u r r i n g b l a m e a r e t h e two  w h i c h made i t w o r t h  dwarf-fool,  t h e c a u s e o f s o much  s i n c e h e was n o t t h o u g h t  parody and unexpected wantonly  from both  d e f o r m i t i e s were  clairvoyant.  criticize said.  developed  the while  t o be  privileges  o f n o r m a l men t o  Q occasionally discussion  assume h i s r o l e . "  of those  characters  This w i l l  clearly  relate  to the  i n m o d e r n d r a m a who v o l u n t a r i l y d o n  t h e mask o f m a d n e s s . One  cannot  mentioning  the great  possibilities of  discuss  the figure of the fool  c o n t r i b u t i o n s made b y S h a k e s p e a r e .  of the fool  Touchstone,  Feste,  that and  are fully  and t h e F o o l  theme o f w i s e men p l a y i n g Jacques,  i n As You L i k e  realized i n King  the fool,  characters.  t o make h i m a n o f f i c i a l  To And  they  that  The  a r e most laugh.  why i s p l a i n  He t h a t  a fool  that  he asks  as t h e wind,  galled with  very  my  folly,  s i r , must  as way t o p a r i s h  doth  that  t h e Duke  f o r so f o o l s have:  A n d why,  figures  commentator on t h e a c t i o n  liberty  b l o w o n whom I p l e a s e ;  dramatic  f u n c t i o n as Touchstone, i n  I t i s significant  as l a r g e a c h a r t e r  T h e y most must  to note  fool:  I must h a v e Withal,  without  Regarding the  i ti s interesting  I t , has a s i m i l a r  The  i n the immortal  Lear.  he i s a l s o a s e n s i t i v e and p e r c e p t i v e the other  i n literature  church:  wisely h i t  they so?  -11-  Doth  very foolishly,  Not  t o seem  The  wise  Even by Invest To  the  comic  they w i l l  the  punishment  not  Acts  of  new  the  two  created  for folly.  false  by  the  end  of  the Middle  period,  the  There  was  feeling  that  shape  t h e new  the  cities  madmen; people.  Until  publically;  o f madmen c h a i n e d them,  stone  Ages  t a k e was  primarily  fee, to  them, o r  a excess  learning in  the  thyself;  Sebastian  make e x t e n s i v e u s e  and  still  much  Brant, of  the  the beginning of brought  responsibility to keep  the p u b l i c  the  ground.  disintegrating,  probl  chase  of  i n s a n e were  c o u l d come a n d  them o u t  of  see  sometimes  the  city;  of  but  the this  feeding "normal"  displayed the  easier  this  fore.  Sometimes  and  t h e way  the  During  of ways.  f o r housing  them o u t  I t was  to the  very unclear.  the n i n e t e e n t h century the  for a  e x p l a i n e d by  a r t beside  d e a l t w i t h madmen i n a v a r i e t y  was  sometimes  i s expressed  Erasmus and  t h e o l d w o r l d was  assumed m i n i m a l  this  madness  between madness and  t h e m e o f m a d n e s s was  order would  society  and  same i d e a  folly  through  world.  medicine.-'  "Paul, thou  of  and  f o l l y was  link  Both  fool.  learning.  Renaissance a  through infected  a vice,  the  2k:  exponents  t o o much  Towards  period,  Ages;  the  leave  r e c e i v e my  The  make t h e e mad."  best-known  the  Sometimes  learning.  to the Middle  doth  I will  f o l l y was  the A p o s t l e s XVII:  learning  and  i f not,  glances of g i v e me  body of  patiently  same t i m e ,  knowledge or was  foul  smart,  bob;  anatomiz'd  motley;  mind,  the  the  is  squandering  i n my  s p e a k my  If At  man's f o l l y  me  Cleanse  a l t h o u g h he  senseless of  was  spectacle to not  beat merely  -12-  a matter exile.  of social  convenience,  Madmen w e r e  Michel  b u t t h e enactment  the scapegoats  Foucault  writes  t h e madmen o n s h i p s  attracted  the imaginations  bound  ritualistic  of society.  a t l e n g t h about  embarking  of a  the significance of  for distant ports,  o f w r i t e r s and p a i n t e r s .  a custom  He  which  observes  that t o h a n d a madman o v e r t o s a i l o r s was t o b e p e r m a n e n t l y s u r e he would n o t be p r o w l i n g b e n e a t h t h e c i t y w a l l s ; i t made s u r e t h a t h e w o u l d go f a r away; i t made h i m a p r i s o n e r o f h i s own d e p a r t u r e . B u t w a t e r a d d s t o t h i s t h e d a r k mass o f i t s own v a l u e s ; i t c a r r i e s o f f , b u t i t does more: i t p u r i f i e s . N a v i g a t i o n d e l i v e r s man t o t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f f a t e ; on water, each o f us i s i n t h e h a n d s o f h i s own d e s t i n y ; e v e r y e m b a r k a t i o n i s p o t e n t i a l l y t h e l a s t . . . . Confined on the ship, f r o m w h i c h t h e r e i s no e s c a p e , t h e madman i s d e l i v e r e d t o t h e r i v e r w i t h i t s t h o u s a n d arms, t h e sea w i t h i t s thousand roads, t o that g r e a t uncertainty external to everything. He i s a p r i s o n e r i n t h e m i d s t o f what i s t h e f r e e s t , t h e o p e n e s t o f r o u t e s : bound f a s t a t t h e i n f i n i t e crossroads. He i s t h e P a s s e n g e r p a r e x c e l l e n c e : that i s , the p r i s o n e r o f the passage . . . . water  and madness have  long been  10  linked  i n the  d r e a m s o f E u r o p e a n man. The  Ship  of Fools  became a v e r y paintings  image.  o f Hieronymus  Narrenschiff other  popular  (with  (lhyk),  artists.  Bosch  although  P a r t myth,  t h e t r e e o f knowledge as i t s masthead), I t s best-known  representations are  (1^50 t o 1510), a s w e l l i t was a t h e m e u s e d  part  reality,  as  Brant's  by innumerable  t h e s h i p was  typically  s a i l e d b y a c r e w o f s t e r e o t y p e d f i g u r e s i n s o c i e t y . T h e i r s was, o f c o u r s e , a s y m b o l i c v o y a g e i n s e a r c h o f t h e i r r e a s o n , o r some  -13-  basic  human For  truth.  Brant,  therefore  happiness  the  because on  earth  of  i s the  moralist; revered  he  and  question the  the  Stultitia, In  Praise  o f men life  great  leading of  of  Folly  i s emphasized  rhetoricians, different  i n tone  In  of  Praise  humanism and of and  the  fool  as  a  Folly  sinner,  herself,  are  forms  such of  by  seek as  folly;  of  morality,  but  i n the  Middle  has  Folly,  personified  human f a u l t s  in his  famous  the  i n the  vices  medieval  themselves of  somber,  and  merry-maker,  from  the  i n the  dressed  to  protected  work o f  person  Stultitia.  traditional  with  Very  work,  main of  qualities society  irony.  of  i n the  than  wisdom,  the  synthesis of  folly  foolishness  Brant's  critic  subtle  and  cap  in  poets,  of wit,  blend  Ages,  theologians.  mood o f  s e n s i t i v e combination  the  books  grammarians,  preaching  Erasmus managed  farces,  more w i t h  philosophers,  i n a magnificent  seriousness,  praise  of  caricatures  the  is a  irony arises  j o k i n g and  As  jurists,  tolerance.  truth-teller The  the  from  Folly  one  occupy  writers,  A l l sins  e x i s t i n g standards  dance of  (1512) .  by  is sailed  essentially a religious  Renaissance humanist,  l e a r n i n g who  was  accepted t r a d i t i o n s .  only  the  and  shortsightedness,  corruption  B r a n t was  law,  "Narrenschiff"  in salvation.  moral  W i c k e d Man.  defended  His  s t u p i d i t y and  than  pride,  d i d not  e r r i n g from D i v i n e  culpable. their  W h i l e m a d n e s s was Erasmus,  simply  rather  sensuality,  Fool  was  unequivocably  p e o p l e who,  riotous  folly  wisdom, By and  of  having bells,  -14-  Erasmus  p r e s e n t s h i s r e a d e r s w i t h what  problem, which Walter  Kaiser tries  to  seems  t o be  a very involved  untangle:  F o r t h e p r a i s e o f f o l l y , b e i n g a mock p r a i s e , i s i n f a c t the censure of f o l l y ; but i f F o l l y i s t h u s c e n s u r i n g f o l l y , Wisdom w o u l d p r e s u m a b l y praise folly. Or, t o l o o k a t i t f r o m a n o t h e r a n g l e , i f the p r a i s e of f o l l y i s , by i t s mock-encomiastic nature, a c t u a l l y the p r a i s e o f w i s d o m , F o l l y m u s t be p r a i s i n g w i s d o m . But i f F o l l y p r a i s e s wi|dom, t h e n w i s d o m w o u l d p r e s u m a b l y censure wisdom. For  Brant,  salvation;  w i s d o m was  therefore, living  established  social  more s u b t l e and logians than if  are  of  Nature, of  which,  According  reason,  madness;  the  Breughel  Foucault  by  are  those  foolish.  truth.  an  the  (1525  Elder  " W i s e " men  to  their  i t is foolish Brant  includes folly,  mad  are  faces  I560)  as  foolish  wise,  condemned  folly  together with  some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s paintings of  testify  to  their  t o be  nature. the  right  humanism.  i n the  theo-  rather  power o r  i n h e r e n t p a r t o f human  associated with and  such  petty ambition  Thus, w h i l e  i t as  the  i d e a s were f a r  " w i s e " men  i f they misuse  the b a s i s o f Erasmus'  closely  by  for  accord with  Erasmus'  educated  to S t u l t i t i a ,  grotesque  again:  But  are motivated  definition  form  order.  joy i n living,  o r g a n i z e d way  i n complete  for spiritual  Erasmus r e g a r d e d  D e a t h was  and  take  t r u l y wise  outright,  use  not  life  Even  i f they  search  a  divine  complex.  reason.  the  and  foolish  genuine  t h e y do  gift and  a  p r e p a r i n g i n an  that.  of  Bosch To  quote  -15-  Up  to  the  second  h a l f of  the  fifteenth  or  even a  little  beyond,  the  theme o f  alone.  The  face  p e s t i l e n c e and  of  existence which  this  in  years  the  last  it  was  only  In  dramas w h i c h  fool  played  insanity  role  Lear,  Ophelia,  only  relief  freedom;  the  life.  f o r over  seventeenth  reflected  I656,  of  considerably,  and  that  Stripped  m a d n e s s was founding  of  defined the  the  as  Hopital  a  characters.  lost  their to  their  reason;  name  only  reason  a t t i t u d e was  he  has  Don  imagination  literature  of  General  and  gentle,  culture.  concept  i t s mythical evil  and  that  and  Quixote  personified a  the  social  the  accepted,  immortal  centuries,  of  of  Shakespeare's  M a d n e s s was  years  i n many  death.  Renaissance  eighteenth  change.  have  appeal,  i n t o W e s t e r n man's  and  ^  death.  Lady Macbeth,  Cervantes' k^O  is  comedies,  f o r them i s the  was and  distraught  who  Othello,  . .  represented  or  the  to wander a b o u t .  i n s a n i t y woven  changed  insane  i s beyond  of  cap  skull  is later  .  because  itself  of  d e j a - l a of  involve characters  a l l aspects  this  life  squabble  i n some o f  T h e i r madness  The  anything  become a  involve  Then  enormous  i t s solemnity.  i s the  death  e s s e n t i a l aspect  significance, In  a  tragedies  obvious.  the  and  threatens  one.  this  longer  that w i l l  between madness  idealistic  d e a t h and  Madness  t h a t madmen h a d  typified  course  head  order that  fleshless  century  a  empty.  pervaded  is a  the  from  this  because  The  Another  it  of  and  presence  everything,  irretrievable.  freedom  world  the human  v a i n words,  f o r example,  most  The  reigns  time bear  What o v e r h a n g s  already  most p o w e r f u l  the  war.  of  futility,  Shakespeare's  thus,  end  conclusion  replaces  already  the  the  a n n i h i l a t i o n i s no  bells.  link  man,  escapes.  even w i t h i n  Death's  While  of  is this  nothing  uneasiness  This  end  century death  of  period  and  symbolic  t r e a t e d as  i n P a r i s marked  of  a  such.  decisive  -16-  change took  i n society's  madmen f r o m  fined  something  madmen w e r e people,  to insanity.  t o town; h o s p i t a l s i n one p l a c e .  t o be h i d d e n  cured.  Rather  a medical  centre,  the Hopital  people  a t the discretion  that  like  animals,  point p o l i t i c a l l y Clearly  society  of  the period.  the  poor  f o rgrouping  The tendency  themselves for  these  If it  them  to the social  t o work;  order,  them i n t h e e y e s  there  which  elsewhere  i s no l o n g e r b e c a u s e  the world  as s i c k with  out of society.  Far  to confine treated  away madmen was a t  v a r i o u s o u t c a s t segments  disorders arising  a n d i d l e n e s s was t h e y were  idleness  of society. madness,  widespread.  was t h e g r e a t  s i no f  and c o u l d n o t adapt justification  Foucault explains: something  and t o o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e madman comes  of the i r r a t i o n a l  from  c o n f i n e d and  t h e r e was a n e t h i c a l  is, i n classical  refers  that  t h e p h i l o s o p h y and m o r a l i t y  B e c a u s e t h e mad c o u l d n o t w o r k ,  confining  was  along  Madmen w e r e  t o blame s o c i a l  economic c o n d i t i o n s on begging  the p e r i o d .  imprisoned,  and subdued; h i d i n g  together has a l o t t o s a y about  made t o f o r c e  be emphasized  d e a l o f power  S i n c e madmen w e r e o b v i o u s l y u n p r o d u c t i v e , attempts  o r unreason  expedient.  the rationale  of  con-  G e n e r a l was a n a r m o f t h e  of i t sdirectors .  beaten  t h e y be  t o be t r e a t e d  t o be k e p t  and t h e monarchy, and h a d a g r e a t  exactly  I t must  t h e y were  courts  o f F o o l s no l o n g e r  insured that  t h e y were  unemployed and c r i m i n a l s ,  being  The S h i p  Thus madness  away.  confined n o t because  and perhaps  poor,  from  town  and o f t e n c h a i n e d  shameful,  the  attitude  and bears i t s  from  -17-  stigmata; r a t h e r , i t i s because he c r o s s e s t h e f r o n t i e r s o f b o u r g e o i s o r d e r o f h i s own a c c o r d and a l i e n a t e s h i m s e l f o u t s i d e t h e sacred l i m i t s o f i t s ethic.13 The  medieval  c u s t o m o f d i s p l a y i n g madmen f l o u r i s h e d i n t h e  so-called  Age o f R e a s o n .  replacing  the farces  famous p l a y s  who, age  most  by h i s  i n v o l v i n g the insane  were  i n w h i c h F o l l y was m e r e l y p o r t r a y e d .  The  common,  p u t on by t h e inmates o f Charenton were n o t t h e r a p e u t i c  psycho-dramas before The  Spectacles  their  time,  but r a t h e r pure sport  famous o f C h a r e n t o n ' s  life  and work,  s o c i e t y and p a r t i c u l a r l y  against  with  and l o v e  physical pleasures,  i n m a t e s was t h e M a r q u i s  illustrates  h a s i n d e c l a r i n g a man i n s a n e .  h i s w r i t i n g s , de Sade c l a i m s  f o r spectators.  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  that any  He w r o t e p a s s i o n a t e l y  religion. to cause  His characters  against a r e obsessed  s u f f e r i n g to others.  t h a t man i s b a s i c a l l y  by nature,  a n d t o t r y t o make h i m o b e y m o r a l  concern  f o rothers  i s t o go a g a i n s t  codes and t o have  Nedd W i l l a r d p u t s  follows: . . . s e s personnages sont completement fous, s i on l e s j u g e d ' a p r e s l e s c r i t e r e s de l e u r s o c i e t e e t de l e u r epoque ( l e s s e u l s c r i t e r e s p o s s i b l e s ) . I l s s o n t o u t r e s dans tous l e u r s a c t e s e t d e b r i d e s dans l e u r s e n s u a l i t e . I l s sont, pour l e moins, i n s o c i a b l e s , e t ne p a r t a g e n t n i l a m o r a l i t e n i l a c o n d u i t e de l a p l u p a r t de l e u r s con,citoyens . . . . A d e f a u t d'une s o c i e t e u n i v e r s e l l e , l e s moeurs l o c a l e s d e t e r m i n e n t l a f o l i e dans l e s actes des p a r t i c u l i e r s . Et s i l a societe f r a n c a i s e du X V I I I s i e c l e a v a i t eu c o n n a i s s a n c e des i d e e s e t des i n t e n t i o n s des p e r s o n n a g e s de S a d e , e l l e l e s a u r a i t f a i t e n f e r m e r comme f o u s e  In  e g o t i s t i c a l and  bestial  nature.  de Sade  i t as  -18-  dangereux. que  Ce ne s e r a i t  l a societe  qu'il . fous  n'est . . dans  pas f o u , mais  l e sens  faculte  hommes dans  "0  vulgaire  tres  trouver  ou de s e p e r d r e  societe  reprouve  thought  conclusions governed  ou p a r p e r t e de  Ce s o n t d e s  q u i ont perdu  l af o i  by h i s  de b i e n p r e s l " w r o t e  a very old idea.  very  a logical  such  simple:  process  Voltaire  Men who b e l i e v e d s o d e -  as V o l t a i r e ,  P a s c a l and  the genius  of reasoning;  i m a g i n a t i o n and p a s s i o n .  Despite  t h e theme, m o d e r n p s y c h o l o g y  t h e n o t i o n that genius  que l a  de f o l l e s .  se touchent  o f reason,  the matter  through  d a n s d e s ivress<=|3  et qualifie  et l a folie  fascination with proved  du terme, c ' e s t - a - d i r e  . . .  intelligents  i n the faculty  Diderot  . . .  de l a r e a l i t e  de r a i s o n n e r .  expressing succinctly  voutly  genial.  l a m o r a l i t e commune e t q u i e s s a i e n t d e s e  que l e g e n i e  thus  fois  n i Sade n i s e s p e r s o n n a g e s ne s o n t  p a r manque d u s e n s e la  pas l a premiere  e n f e r m e r a i t u n homme p r o t e s t a n t  and c r e a t i v i t y  arrived  at his  t h e madman i s  this  age-old  has s c i e n t i f i c a l l y are linked  with  dis-  mental  l6 illness. natural  Studies of gifted tendency  people  towards mental  h a v e shown t h a t t h e r e  illness.  P a s s i o n has l o n g been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h hate,  thirst  delirium  f o r revenge,  corresponds  are of  d r i v e n almost  comic  insane  "proper" behaviour.  these  victims of their  state  beyond  reason,  may l e a d  closely with  E v e n some o f M o l i e r e ' s  i s no  madness;  e v e n t u a l l y to d e l i r i u m . a classical  definition  c h a r a c t e r s , such  by t h e i r  passionate  obsession,  i n w h i c h what  both they  Indeed,  o f madness.  as Harpagon and A l c e s t e contravening  Because o f the intense, emotional own p a s s i o n ,  love,  a l l laws strain,  comic and t r a g i c , regard  reach a  a s t h e t r u t h may n o t  -19-  correspond dazzled French its  to r e a l i t y .  They are,  by the i n t e n s i t y Encyclopedie  and e x t e n t  typified  writers attributed  literally, of their  blinded to  reason,  emotions.  The famous  t h e c u r r e n t a t t i t u d e s t o madness  madness  to intense passion.  Nedd  when  Willard  writes: L a i s s e r l i b r e cours aux p a s s i o n s e s t d'autant p l u s g r a v e q u ' e l l e s r i s q u e n t de d e v e n i r d e s f o r m e s a h u r i s s a n t e s de l a f o l i e . I l faut t r a i t e r t o u t e p a s s i o n e x a g e r e e comme u n e f o r m e de f o l i e p l u s o u m o i n s a i g u e . ^ During Doctors to  the  were  protect  than  this  other.  t h e r e was no l i n k  involved i n the care  "normal" people  to cure areas  period  those  of evil  from  To q u o t e F o u c a u l t  of the insane,  the inmates  unfortunates. and m e n t a l  between madness and h e a l i n g .  It.was  illness  but their  role  o f the asylums,  not u n t i l  much  was  rather  later  that  were d i s t i n g u i s h e d one from t h e  again:  I t i s i n the realm o f the f a n t a s t i c and n o t w i t h i n the r i g o r o f medical thought t h a t unreason j o i n s i l l n e s s a n d draws c l o s e r t o i t . L o n g b e f o r e the problem o f d i s c o v e r i n g t o what d e g r e e t h e unreasonable i s p a t h o l o g i c a l was f o r m u l a t e d , there had formed, i n t h e space o f confinement and b y a n alchemy p e c u l i a r to i t , a melange combining t h e dread o f u n r e a s o n and t h e o l d s p e c t e r s o f d i s e a s e . From a g r e a t d i s t a n c e , t h e o l d c o n f u s i o n s about l e p r o s y f u n c t i o n e d once a g a i n and i t i s the v i g o r o f t h e s e f a n t a s t i c t h e m e s w h i c h was t h e f i r s t agent o f s y n t h e s i s between t h e w o r l d o f u n r e a s o n and t h e m e d i c a l u n i v e r s e . In  the nineteenth  century  outcry  against  the treatment  mental  illness  was  f o r the f i r s t  of the insane,  t r e a t e d as a crime  time  t h e r e was  against  r a t h e r than  the fact  as a  a  social that  disease.  -20-  Ironically, confined and of  with  a new a p p r o a c h  asylum.  than  problem  order. figure,  more f u l l y  course  developed  role  This  Again,  of the early  psychiatrists  which  Freud  t r y to understand  perpetuated  a  and  o f the s o c i a l very  developed  t o a modern  The f a t h e r o f p s y c h o a n a l y s i s ,  reflects  twentieth  he  by searching f o r  this  particularly  as such  parodied.  T h e Madman a n d t h e Nun  (1922),  childhood. medically  i n a number o f  the relationship  and D r . B i d e l l o ,  In P i r a n d e l l o ' s Henry IV  his  and d e a l t w i t h  development;  century,  the Freudian,  view  i n t h e p a t i e n t , and a n a l y s i n g  was r e c o g n i z e d  Stanislaw Witkiewicz'  person'  of the psychiatrist.  and p a t i e n t s i s e f f e c t i v e l y  between D r . Grlin,  the beginning  i . e . acceptance  of that patient's past,  literature  The p h y s i c i a n ,  T h i s was, h o w e v e r ,  and tendencies  illness  of the  l e d to t h e view o f t h e p h y s i c i a n as a  i s incalculable.  F i n a l l y mental  the beginnin  of a u t h o r i t y and o f j u s t i c e  t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n b y Sigmund F r e u d  them i n t h e l i g h t  humorous.  the confines  as a c u r e .  The p h y s i c i a n would  a concept  motives  Tuke  and the p a t i e n t s  a new m e t h o d o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n  unconscious  in  an important  being  as Samuel  removed,  freely within  specialist.  i n the person  insanity  dramas  were  o f t h e a s y l u m , was a f i g u r e a medical  such  resented  asylums w h i c h marked  and t r y to r e s t o r e h i s reason;  powerful  of  People  chains  relatively  psychiatry.  moral  Of  among p r i s o n e r s who  the mental  t o madness;  R e l i g i o n played  o f modern  and  started  t o wander  t h e head  rather  started  madmen a n d e p i l e p t i c s .  Scipion Pinel  permitted  at  the outcry  the  between  The d i s c u s s i o n s non-Freudian  (I923)  are particularl;  Dr. Dionysius  Genoni i s  -21-  a  somewhat  r i d i c u l o u s p s y c h i a t r i s t who  reconstructing The  Two  which  twentieth  w o r l d wars,  shook European  spiritual  and  century the  cultural  the  Theatre  of  s o c i e t y has  failure  life  to  s t a b i l i t y were undermined.  fostered  to  cure Henry  by  past.  madness o f  cliche. chaos,  his  attempts  the  to  almost  restore  order  i t s foundations; In  speaking  Absurd, M a r t i n  become  about  after  mental the  Esslin  a the and  society  writes:  The h a l l m a r k o f t h i s a t t i t u d e i s i t s s e n s e t h a t t h e c e r t i t u d e s and u n s h a k a b l e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s o f f o r m e r a g e s h a v e b e e n s w e p t away, t h a t t h e y have b e e n t e s t e d and f o u n d w a n t i n g , t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n d i s c r e d i t e d as c h e a p and somewhat c h i l d i s h i l l u s i o n s . The d e c l i n e o f r e l i g i o u s f a i t h was m a s k e d u n t i l t h e e n d o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War b y t h e s u b s t i t u t e r e l i g i o n s o f f a i t h i n p r o g r e s s , n a t i o n a l i s m and v a r i o u s totalitarian fallacies. A l l t h i s was s h a t t e r e d by t h e war. By 19^-2, A l b e r t Camus was calmly p u t t i n g the q u e s t i o n why, s i n c e l i f e had l o s t a l l meaning, man should not seek escape i n s u i c i d e . ' The  i n c r e d i b l e advances  previously centrated but no new on  who  i n the  have  longer  him  to  the  for  men.  and  t e c h n o l o g y have  i n atomic  and  nuclear  hands of  a  power  eliminate  the  conform,  submerged.  guide  power  to  feels in control  problems  often to  undreamed-of  i n science  to  few  of  men  his  individual: be  There  like seems  the to  who an  know n o t h i n g  weapons, about  This  there  tremendous  are  others, no  and  mass a g e  con-  has  Man created  pressures  individuals  unifying,  to  science,  entire civilisation.  destiny.  be  led  cohesive  are principle  -22-  In drawn and  such  to  the  a  s o c i e t y i t i s not  theme o f m a d n e s s , w h i c h he  illuminate.  presents The  readers  Chief,  judged  I n One  Flew Over  with  graphic  mad  a by  " n o r m a l " s o c i e t y when h e in  surprising  the  tries  emerges  to  the w r i t e r i s redefine,  Cuckoo's Nest,  image o f  society,  that  the  the  Kesey  a n o n y m i t y o f mass  makes o b s e r v a t i o n s from  Ken  assess,  asylum  about  f o r the  society.  so-called  first  time  years: A l l up t h e c o a s t I c o u l d s e e t h e s i g n s o f w h a t t h e Combine had a c c o m p l i s h e d s i n c e I was last through t h i s country, things l i k e , f o r e x a m p l e — a t r a i n s t o p p i n g a t a s t a t i o n and l a y i n g a s t r i n g o f f u l l - g r o w n men i n m i r r o r e d s u i t s and machined h a t s , l a y i n g them l i k e a h a t c h o f i d e n t i c a l i n s e c t s h a l f - l i f e t h i n g s coming pht-pht-pht out o f the l a s t car, t h e n h o o t i n g i t s e l e c t r i c w h i s t l e and m o v i n g o n down t h e s p o i l e d l a n d t o d e p o s i t a n o t h e r hatch. Or t h i n g s l i k e f i v e t h o u s a n d h o u s e s p u n c h e d o u t i d e n t i c a l by a m a c h i n e and s t r u n g a c r o s s t h e h i l l s o u t s i d e o f town, s o f r e s h f r o m t h e f a c t o r y t h e y ' r e s t i l l l i n k e d together l i k e sausages, a s i g n s a y i n g "NEST I N THE WEST H O M E S — N O DWN. PAYMENT FOR V E T S " , a p l a y g r o u n d down t h e h i l l f r o m t h e h o u s e s , b e h i n d a c h e k e r - w i r e f e n c e and a n o t h e r s i g n t h a t r e a d "ST. LUKE'S SCHOOL FOR B 0 Y S " - - t h e r e w e r e f i v e t h o u s a n d k i d s i n green c o r d u r o y pants and w h i t e s h i r t s under green p u l l o v e r sweaters p l a y i n g crack-the-whip a c r o s s an a c r e o f c r u s h e d g r a v e l . The l i n e popped and t w i s t e d and j e r k e d l i k e a s n a k e , and e v e r y c r a c k popped a l i t t l e k i d o f f t h e end, s e n t h i m r o l l i n g up a g a i n s t t h e f e n c e l i k e a t u m b l e weed. Every crack. A n d i t was a l w a y s t h e same l i t t l e k i d , o v e r and over  Like  Yossarian  accept as  i n Joseph H e l l e r ' s  that kind  of  society;  and  Catch i f you  22,  you  reject  have  t o be  mad  to  i t , society defines  you  mad. Various  schools  of  literature  i n the  twentieth  century,  such  as  -23-  Expressionism,  and  concerned  expressing  with  whose v a l u e s very  s t r u c t u r e seems  the  the  idealist  Dadaism and invalid,  writing, accept  tried  or  to  to  mad.  In a their  laws.  Andre  sense,  In Martin  senselessness  lost  of  thought,  words,  the  position  independent  Nadja,  society.  experience  definitions .  the  a r e mad;  The  of  characters  as aim  of  a l l logic  in  they  surrealistic cannot  values.  expresses  the  image o f  principle,  i s the message;  s t r u c t u r e , express  whose  Expressionism,  explored  artistic  Some o f  and  values,  f o r c e s of mechanized  new  i t s unifying  t h e medium  Esslin's  the  partly  in a society  foundation.  W o r l d War,  Breton's  the Absurd  having  very  logical  are  individual  individual's  create entirely pure  the Absurd,  the  a l l previous  express  of  of  of  to an  the F i r s t  aesthetical  Theatre  which,  by  of  s o c i e t y ' s conventions  world  plight  struggling against  f o r example,  The  Theatre  without  S u r r e a l i s m saw  and  moral  the  t o be  time  t h e movement was and  the  o f t e n seem c o u n t e r  coming about of  lately,  the  the  feeling  i t "strives  has  of  the  gone  themselves,  a world the  disintegrating  essentially  plays  to express  t h e human c o n d i t i o n b y  a  gone  sense  mad.  of  open abandonment  the of  21 rational Theatre the  devices of  Absurd  discursive has  thought."  renounced  arguing  human c o n d i t i o n ; i t m e r e l y p r e s e n t s  terms  of  concrete  essentially the  the  and  stage  visual.  philosophy which  images."  The  Artistically, S a r t r e and  the  And about  further, the  absurdity  i t i n being--that  Theatre  "the  is, in  of  the  Absurd  dramas o f  the  Absurd  Camus, among o t h e r s ,  of  express  is illustrate verbally.  -2k-  In  contrast  discussion ments,  I  European  the focus  to explore  i n which  power,  constructed,  f o rthis  they  live;  others  i n their  caused  character  arrive  century  to perceive  a t some c o n c l u s i o n s  literature.  to define about  century  o r by  i n the medical situation.  t h e b a s i c human u r g e s emerge a s  By examining  reality  central  madmen.  social  on t h e o t h e r ,  which  and  normal  characters,  o f the problem o f s a n i t y .  attempt  That  i n twentieth  y e t none a r e i n s a n e  a t the root  I will  Esslin  a s mad e i t h e r b y t h e m s e l v e s  on t h e one hand, and freedom,  h i s society,  and the argu-  discussion of lucid  being  in  i n this  about which  by one o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s .  the s i t u a t i o n s o f these  each  the plays  a variety of characters  Some a r e i n a s y l u m s ,  In a n a l y s i n g for  and l o g i c a l l y  d r a m a who a r e d e f i n e d  societies  o f t h e Absurd,  i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e dramas  provides  intend  sense.  lucidly  a r e made e x p l i c i t l y  character  the  a r e more  implicit  speaks,  to the Theatre  the factors  differently  from  others  t h e "madness" o f e a c h one,  the nature  o f madness  i n twentieth  -25-  Footnotes :  1  Horst  Geyer,  Dichter  C h a p t e r One  des Wahnsinns  (Gb'ttingen,  1955), p . 1 8 .  Q u o t e s f r o m F r e n c h a n d German w i l l b e g i v e n i n t h e o r i g i n a l language; quotes from P o l i s h and I t a l i a n w i l l be g i v e n i n English translation.  2 James C. C o l e m a n , A b n o r m a l  111., 196k), . 15  Psychology  and Modern L i f e  (Glenview,  P  3  Nedd W i l l a r d , L e G e n i e p . 7. George Rosen, Madness Rosen,  ^  et l a Folie  i n Society  au  l8  e  (Chicago,  Siecle  (Paris,  I963),  I 9 6 8 ) , p . 77.  p . 83 .  Plautus,  "The Manaechmus T w i n s , " S i x P l a y s  trans.  L i o n e l Casson  Michel  Foucault,  (New Y o r k ,  of Plautus,  e d . and  I963), p . 227.  7 in  Madness and C i v i l i z a t i o n :  t h e Age o f Reason,  t r a n s . R. H o w a r d  A History of Insanity  (New Y o r k ,  I965),  p~- lk •  Q Q  B a r b a r a Swain, F o o l s and F o l l y d u r i n g R e n a i s s a n c e (New Y o r k , I 9 3 2 ) , p . 6 3 . William P-  Shakespeare,  As You L i k e  It  ^  Walter Kaiser, p. 3 6 .  Praisers of Folly  (1926; r p t . C a m b r i d g e ,  (Cambridge,  12 15-  Foucault,  p.  Foucault,  p. 58.  1? W i l l a r d , p.  158.  15 Voltaire, ^  and t h e  p . 10.  Foucault,  ^  Ages  35-  ^  3  the Middle  Coleman,  quoted p . 13«  i n W i l l a r d , p . 56•  Mass.,  1955),  I965),  -26-  Willard,  p. 4  Foucault, One  Ken p. 2  0  5  .  principal  disappeared,  the  points  Esslin,  The  i n h i s book  leprosariums  madmen r e p l a c e d l e p e r s a s  Martin p. 5  p. 2  of Foucault's  leprosy and  5  Theatre  of  had  i s that  t o be  as  repopulated,  scapegoats . the  Absurd  (New  York,  I969),  Kesey, 0  Esslin,  3 p.  One . 6.  Flew  Over  the  Cuckoo's Nest  (New  York,  I 9 6 2 ) ,  -27-  C h a p t e r Two:  If  a man  does  not  Romulus d e r  keep  pace w i t h  perhaps  i t i s b e c a u s e he  Let  step  him  measured  or  to  the  Grope  hears  his  companions,  a different  m u s i c w h i c h he  hears,  drummer. however  f a r away. Thoreau  The Swiss It  first  dramatist,  the  an  i n the  emperors, less He  in  apparent  until  the  than  appears  t h a t he  do  that  Empire,  the  willing  to  whole  Romulus act.  He  of  should  the  Empire,  games w i t h by  When Z e n o ,  the  not  the doing  others, so.  proposes fugitive  first  the  to  flight  by  of  names  audience begins  setting  himself  send  Emperor  out  a  from  up  Julia  communique the  East  political  importance  of  the  Emperor as w e l l  patriotic  wife  is  quite  oblige,  . . . "alle  a t t i t u d e i s one  of  his drei  sitzen  cynicism.  to  him.  Romulus b e l i e v e i n t h e as  his  more  the  When h i s w i f e  to  Grope.  become  at  calls  towards  der  manifests  the  the  "Anmerkung, "  appears  w h i c h he  more c r i t i c a l  he  Romulus  i n the  H o w e v e r , when h e  something,  c r e a t i o n of  i n c i d e n t s s u c h as  s t a t e of  and  hero  stated  chickens,  superior position  about h i s h e a l t h . pleads  his  i n the  to p l a y  taking  the  as  of  third  stride.  s t a t e of  sympathetic  a morally  demands  his  intention,  motivation  Minister in his  interest  feel  and  d i s c u s s i o n i s the  Dlirrenmatt:  urbane, w i t t y c y n i c ,  Finance  of  clear  character  completely  i n this  Friedrich  i s Dlirrenmatt's  that  be  character  Julia  g l a u b i g da"  (R 22)  Roman  But  -28-  The  others,  his  acute  the  audience  of course,  perception  believe  i s concerned.  o f Zeno,  pomposity  of h i sbrother  Despite  i ti s clear  that It  sie nicht"  same e g g , s a y i n g ,  i s demonstrated  more p e r c e p t i v e  with  Having  Kaiser.  (R 12),  again  and again  and q u i c k - w i t t e d  diesen that  than  Firstly,  indications, before  i ti s clear  particularly  court.  The f i r s t  egg-laying  Zukunft  mbchte  schon  finden,  um e i n e  that  Odoaker,  Romulus their  Steward, reaction  be  served (R ^3) .  i s actually far  Romulus  to a c t i n the characterizes or fear the  a s do t h e members o f  i s h i s reaction  o f t h e h e n named O d o a k e r .  to the "Und i n d e r  i c h d i e E i e r d e r Henne O d o a k e r a u f m e i n e m M o r g e n d i e meine v o i l e  erstaunliche  e i n m a l kommen"  so v i e l e r  recht"  does n o t h a t e  leader,  indication of this  prowesses  that  the principal discussion  Sympathie  besitzt.  Begabung h a n d e l n .  (R 1 3 ) . Julia  When h e d e f e n d s  accuses  him o f being  E s mu(3 s i c h  Man s o i l  G e r m a n e n nehmen, was s i e G u t e s h e r v o r b r i n g e n ,  His  legen  i r r e s p o n s i b l e a n d u n c o n c e r n e d manner w h i c h  amazing  High  commented  those around him.  i n A c t I I I , as t o what m o t i v a t e s  tische  Fall  sarcastic,  through the  h i s guest  Romulus  Julia  Teutons,  sees  lets  as f a r as  i fa l i t t l e  E r kann E i e r  Romulus  "Das i s t f l l r  this,  previously  are several  him.  hier  Romulus  There  seemingly  his  hispolite,  that  Emperor.  " D o m i t i a n war e i n s c h l e c h t e r i c hesse  he i s f e e b l e - m i n d e d , b u t  i n summing up p e o p l e b e l i e s  reception  will,  that  Xbius,  wenn s i e  von den schon  the Teutonic  Lord  "direkt germanophil"  t o t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f C'dsar R u p f ,  (R 1 5 ) •  the i n d u s t r i a l i s t ,  -29-  that  Odoaker  "Auch that be  i sw i l l i n g  er i s t kauflich?" he d i d n o t expect  ( R 27), a s k s that  deal,  Romulus  t h e Germanic  i s interesting.  rhetorically,  l e a d e r would  indicating  l e t himself  bought. Secondly,  the  R o m u l u s makes  Roman E m p i r e  this. "Wer  In his discussion with s o a u f dem l e t z t e n  philosophy dealer, mitten bist"  Loch  i n den allgemeinen ( R 2k) a s t h o u g h  finally  Rea a n d J u l i a  about  wiewir alle,  Of c o u r s e drama.  here  Zusammenbruch m e i n e s  t o s e e Romulus,  unconcerned by acting,  the antique  Apollyon, Reiches  dap  du  geraten  during a family  theover-zealous  t h e Emperor  he says,  kann n u r noch  To A p p o l l y o n ,  "Es t u t m i r l e i d ,  T i t u s Mamma,  that  he i s e x p r e s s i n g t h e  thed e a l e r had p a i d a c a l l  When S p u r i u s  manages  to the effect  totally  about  apologizes,  remarks  b u t h e seems  pfeift  (R 17)•  o f DUrrenmatt  Romulus  squabble.  with  frequent  i s decaying,  KomOdien v e r s t e h e n "  i stotally  messenger, unimpressed  h i s enthusiasm: Romulus:  S.T.M.: Romulus:  Clues in  t o make a f i n a n c i a l  Du b i s t  verwundet,  erschdpft.  Warum d i e s e u n m a p i g e A n s t r e n g u n g , S p u r i u s T i t u s Mamma? D a m i t Rom l e b e J Rom i s t l a n g s t g e s t o r b e n . Du o p f e r s t d i c h einem Toten, du kampfst f U r einem S c h a t t e n , du l e b s t f U r e i n z e r f a l l e n e s Grab. Geh s c h l a f e n , Prafekt, d i eheutige Zeit hat dein H e l d e n t u m i n e i n e P o s e v e r w a n d e l t . (R 30)  as t o what  discussions prior  Romulus  i sactually  t o t h e main  one w i t h  trying  t o do c a n be f o u n d  h i swife.  In ActI, J u l i a  -30-  asks  him,  "Was  willst  Weltgeschichte In and of  Act  makes  of and  t h a t he  is totally  in not  as  a way  dem  to  act  married nothing.  her  but  t o welcome  the  answer.  Rupf and  the  T a s s t , was  Rea,  implications  t u t , wenn e r  sein  zerbrechen  see  a man  who  than  the  others .  seems He  muss,  to  act  i s not  dull-  c o n t r a r y i s p e r h a p s more  events  are.  However, he  which  cause  to h i s .  Thus,  the  the  aware  accepts  others  to  differences  they perceive r e a l i t y ,  but  of  i n s a n e way.  f o r the course, Es  i n the  text,  i t i s not  e x p l a i n s p r e c i s e l y what has He  purpose has  r e v e a l s to  in  react are  their  des  Staates  Staates,  Notwendigkeit ist eine  the  motivated  him  Julia  that and  d i f f i c u l t y understanding  zu  Ich bezweifle n i c h t des  until  of becoming Emperor  i s t doch unmOglich,  keit Romulus:  of  we  they  numerous h i n t s  solely  Julia:  i s the  reality.  seemingly  Julia,  the  er  die  (R kk) .  the  than  i n which  that  on  opposed  t h a t Romulus  in a  reality  situation  diametrically  Despite  act  of  acts,  (R 29)  between CSsar  was  gehtirt"  two  suppose,  i n t h e manner  third  Tode  " I c h mbchte  conscious  wenn e r f a l l e n  first  level  they  seems  K a i s e r weip,  wirft,  political  responses  to  "Der  i n the  a different  even  Julia"  i t clear  z e r t r i t t , was  the  liebe  the marriage  ins Feuer  witted,  stbren,  forbids  Thus, on  denn e i g e n t l i c h ? "  Romulus  his actions.  Reich und  TI,  nicht  du  die  Notwendig-  bezweifeln. die  Notwendigkeit  i c h bezweifle'nur unseres  die  Staates.  e i n W e l t r e i c h geworden, und Einrichtung, die bffentlich  Er damit Mord,  he of  this:  doing  -31-  Pllinderung, schatzung betrieb, Julia:  Ich  Romulus:  Brand-  der andern  Vblker  b i s i c h gekommen b i n .  begreife  gerechnet du  U n t e r d r l i c k u n g , und  auf Kosten nicht,  warum d u d a n n a u s -  K a i s e r geworden b i s t ,  so liber  wenn  das rOmische W e l t r e i c h  denkst.  Das r O m i s c h e W e l t r e i c h b e s t e h t s e i t J a h r h u n d e r t e n n u r noch, w e i l es e i n e n Kaiser  gibt.  andere  MtSglichkeit  Es b l i e b  z u w e r d e n um  mir deshalb  a l s selbst  das Imperium  keine  Kaiser  liquidleren  z u kb'nnen. Entweder b i s t  Julia:  du w a h n s i n n i g  oder d i e  Welt. Romulus:  I c h habe mich entschieden.  According acting being  to Julia's  A  overrun by the Teutons,  e i n e Ader  considers  i n uns l e b t ,  the actions  the state,  Staat  gibt  and one's  Having himself,  response  him  a s mad;  both  and  h i s world  Casar  sein"  to that  "Solange  noch  B u t Romulus,  having  liquidated,  R u p f , who w a n t s t o  ( R 51) •  depending  the last  d e r den  r'dmischen  Insanity  i s thus  on one's p e r s p e c t i v e o f  reality.  t h e c h a r a c t e r and m o t i v a t i o n o f Romulus  be u s e f u l  to analyse  i n terms o f t h e p e o p l e  as a w h o l e .  ( R 18).  "Ein Hosenfabrikant,  concept,  investigated  i t might  to heart  t h e Roman E m p i r e m u s t b e like  Romulus i s  to the threat o f  be t o t a k e  k e i n e r nach"  mu|3 w a h n s i n n i g  shown t o b e a r e l a t i v e reality  response  would  o f a man  t o b e mad.  retten will,  o f sane behaviour,  g e n e r a l s when t h e y a r e d e f e a t e d :  come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t  save  "sane"  letztere  49)  definition  i n a n i n s a n e way.  w o r d s o f a l l Roman  f U r das (R  I t i s clear  the s o c i e t y which defines immediately from  around  him,  the outset that the  -32-  Roman E m p i r e h a s news b r o u g h t that  "das  plausible of  the  by  the  i n the  does  not  surprise Ich  the  lives  principal the  of  that the  of  the  former  at  a l l f o r what  capitalistic  can  be  two  bought  r e p o r t of Romulus  schlich  the moral the  durch  Titus  10), and  The  Mamma,  becomes physical  catastrophic state  i n the  loyalty  force. the  emperors they  The  antique as  totally decay  of  least:  zerstbrte  and  he  of  Stadte  Casar  Personal  would  any  Casar  profit  treats  the  to both  the  the  busts  no  respect  hard-headed aware o f  the Teutons  Achilles  t o be  place  o f f with  merchandise, with Rupf,  little  seems  M i n i s t e r runs  trousers, completely  o l d chamberlains, Rupf.  scruples have  dealer Apollyon  makes o f f e r s  faithful  moral  Finance  represent.  manufacturer  by  zusammen" (R of  Roman c i t i z e n s .  p o w e r h i s money h a s , the  in i t s existence.  cavalry captain, Spurius  evidence  love,  motivating  State Treasury,  Even  stage  und d u r c h r a u c h e n d e DtSrfer, i c h g i n g d u r c h z e r h a c k t e Walder und zog liber zerstampfte Xcker. Weiter. I c h sah d i e Manner h i n g e m e t z e l t , d i e F r a u e n g e s c h a n d e t und d i e K i n d e r verhungert. Weiter. I c h h d r t e das S c h r e i e n von V e r w u n d e t e n , das X c h z e n v o n G e f a n g e n e n , das Prassen d e r S c h i e b e r und das Gewieher d e r K r i e g s g e w i n n l e r . (R ^3)  Romulus: Xmilian:  appears  of  Xmilian's  Romulus: Xmilian:  in  critical  zealous  light  Xmilian:  It  a  r'dmische W e l t r e i c h k r a c h t  country.  affairs  reached  and  and  the the  Pyramus,  Romans.  -33-  The  p e o p l e who  motives. is  so  Julia,  indignant  rifice  her  ambition,  as  keit  gab, and  and  Rea  honour  out  lost,  as  outcome of  Romulus'  feigned  accomplished with t h a t he  tfcSten.  Geheimnis. This  certainly  vergossen,  of  so  who  are  sac-  out  of  ist  MOglich-  much a s  a  (R  48)  motivated  whom R o m u l u s  by  loves.  and  he  has  human  Rea  sacrifice  Xmilian  i s concerned,  events  i s important As  Romulus  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of be  killed  by  immer m i t  opfere  Rom  indem  enables  him  to  mtlssen  liebst  Smilian.  for  madness.  justice  nun  not  he  two  two  to  to  is  save  been  Rome,  shamed,  i s thus  motivated  revenge.  rationalize  sense  only  love  that His  only  Rupf,  f o r w h i c h he  can  the  who  her:  H e i r a t K a i s e r i n zu werden.  destruction he  to  fatherland,  is acting solely  du  the  I c h habe Ich  out  other  is willing  d i r die  of  will  Empire,  who  die  f a r as  the  busts,  Was  the  of  human f e e l i n g  The  the  f o r her  Staatsidee,  are  to marry Casar  the  love  Vaterland.  durch  thus are  his  mich  save  t o Rome g e n e r a l l y h a v e  such  s a l e of  to  abstrakte  ironically,  certain  the  kennst k e i n  but  of  professes  eine  feelings,  the  at  loyal  Romulous p o i n t s  Smilian  by  who  daughter  Du  willing  seem s o  the  the  Tod  i c h mich  c a r r y out  mit  dem  life's  work  "Die  gerechnet.  he  Germanen w e r d e n Das  selber opfere"  i s t mein  (R  despite  53)-  the  i s the  only  h a r m he  causes  others.  eigenen  "Wir  haben  being is  This  d i c t a t e s h i s moves. wir  understanding  Roman E m p i r e ,  his plan,  i s responsible. the  an  sees h i s  Teutons .  diesem  to h i m s e l f  to  way  fremdes  Blut  z u r l i c k z a h l e n " (R 59) •  - k3  When  Xmilian  they both have  Kaiser  mup  by  Teutons  the  uns  i n mind  Xmilian  reasons;  weg"  the  (R  toast  as  kk),  assassination  noch  But  he  court  Romulus  have been  necessary price that the in  price.  "21  Punkte  zu  pay,  Indeed, In h i s  den  the  "Zufall"  course  of  history.  das  Recht,  als  ein  parodies  room f u l l at  news  i s sure  of  that  that  that  death w i l l  everything But,  i h n das  Der  point  as  his  i t is be  to  family  a  part  seems  Zufall  Gegenteil  c a s e makes sees  of  point  DUrrenmatt  conclusion Romulus,  trifft ihres  Romulus'  that  the  he'must  Odoaker  sie  Ziel  to says  erreichen." absurd.  himself;  future t r y to  is in a  dann  sacrifice  a mirror-image of  t r e p i d a t i o n about  Like  sein  death  "Planmapig vorgehende Menschen  Romulus  the  noch  death  the  envisaged.  in this  whose to  as  his  design.  own  erreichen.  wenn s i e d u r c h  l e d him  his up  himself  "enemy," O d o a k e r ,  c o u n t r y has  builds  Ziel  his  emotion at  that  "dieser  scene which  finds his  grand  Physikern":  i n t e n s e l y humane man,  the  and  tension  e i n bestimmtes  schlimmsten,  he  in a  drowned, b e c a u s e he  d e n o u e m e n t w h i c h he  wollen am  The  to  shows no  accepts  R e c h t , mehr z u  f e a r when,  his  that  "Haben w i r  r e a l i z e s that  w o u l d h a v e made a m o c k e r y o f  and  das  Paradoxically,  for utterly different  conviction  just.  J u l i u s Caesar,  would-be murderers.  accepts.  Romulus b e c a u s e he  shows no  of  he  but  earlier  i n e v i t a b l e and  He  Likewise,  justice, death,  his  and  Haben w i r  59)•  to  Romulus'  because of (R  zu wehren?  Opfer?"  a  proposes  of  an  his  change  position  of  -35-  supreme power, "Ich  and  b i n n i c h t gekommen,  gekommen, m i c h m i t Romulus' pensive and  i s able  t o do  dich  meinem  zu  finally  futility  of  tbten,  Kaiser  "Das  desperate,  his  But  ganzen Volk  reaction is swift: and  this.  as  when h e  d i r zu  von  tells Rom.  Romulus: Ich  unterwerfen"  bin  (R  i s t doch Wahnsinn."  He  he  absurdity  suddenly  sees  the  is  69), gloomy,  sacrifice:  I c h l e g t e m e i n ganzes L e b e n a u f den Tag h i n an, da das r b m i s c h e Imperium zusammenbrechen w l l r d e . I c h gab m i r d a s R e c h t , Roms R i c h t e r z u s e i n , w e i l i c h b e r e i t war, zu s t e r b e n . Ich verlangte v o n meinem L a n d e e i n u n g e h e u r e s O p f e r , w e i l i c h mich s e l b s t a l s Opfer e i n s e t z t e . I c h lie(3 das B l u t m e i n e s V o l k e s f l i e p e n , indem i c h es w e h r l o s machte, w e i l i c h s e l b s t mein B l u t v e r g i e p e n w o l l t e . Und nun s o l i i c h l e b e n . Und n u n s o l i m e i n O p f e r n i c h t angenommen w e r d e n . Und n u n s o i l i c h a l s d e r dastehen, der s i c h a l l e i n r e t t e n konnte. Und n i c h t nur das. B e v o r du k a m s t , e r h i e l t i c h d i e N a c h r i c h t , dap d i e T o c h t e r , d i e i c h l e i b e , m i t i h r e m B r ' a u t i g a m umgekommen i s t . Samt m e i n e r F r a u u n d dem H o f e . Ich ertrug diese Nachricht mit L e i c h t i g k e i t , w e i l i c h zu s t e r b e n glaubte, nun t r i f f t s i e m i c h u n b a r m h e r z i g , nun w i d e r l e g t s i e mich unbarmherzig. Es i s t a l l e s absurd g e w o r d e n , was i c h g e t a n h a b e . Tate mich, O d o a k e r . (R 70) And before In  we  one  have  another,  desperation,  him  as  he  lessness Sinn  the  had of  kOnnte  vorgestellt  tragi-comic pleading  Romulus  tries  been wanting  that  gesture:  scene  t o be  of  allowed  t o awaken  t o do, "Dein  two  but Tod  leaders, kneelin  surrender  Spurius  out  ware s i n n l o s , denn  h a b e n , wenn d i e W e l t  hast.  Sie  (R  so w a r e , w i e 71)-  to  the  T i t u s Mamma t o  Odoaker p o i n t s  er nur  i s t nicht so"  to  world  du  the  other kill  sense-  einen sie dir  -36-  This has he  crucial  been based has  scorn  denied and  doing. even of  is a  on  himself of  those  who  task  r e v e a l s a t one  he  set  "Die  to  go  had  proposal  envisaged  (R  72).  But  through with  he  the  Man  sehe  ich  gezeichnet  gewip,  im  von  und  hat;  comedy.  As  Letzten  of  dying  says  Menschen der  mit  vor-  verlangen, auf  ein  den  Tod  Schreckliche dieses  als  dessen  Tragik  genau  Kombdie  heit  hat,  seines der  Endes,  akzeptieren.  und  Narren  der  dann aber--und  i h n grop--die E i n s i c h t auch s i e zu  in  hin  dieses  HUhnerzllchters,  macht  i n the  g e l B . s t , human  sich  enormity  nur  die  of  accept.  mir  Weltenrichters,  dies  to  z u r l l c k s c h r e c k t , auch der  right,  antithesis  was  futility  e i n Mensch,  i s t das  liegt,  the  i s the  verkleideten i n der  was  was  53)  kaiserlichen  Pensionierung  w h a t he  the  Ich  RUcksichtslosigkeit  Bursche,  suffered  Zeit  difficult  einen  goal,  i s t die  (R  Dtirrenmatt  fUr  his  Dinge  pensioned  habe, w i t z i g ,  das  Das  heutigen  the  of  life  advises:  Entsetzlichste,  andern A b s o l u t h e i t zu  angelegt  doing  Richtige tun.  be  das  n i c h t davor  gefahrlicher  he  d a r i n gelibt.  recognizes  Xuperster H S r t e u n d geht  lang  g e n a u h i n , was  doch  Rea,  therefore very  i s t wohl  was  Furchtlos die  t h a t he  and  has  never understand  i n der  f u r c h t l o s das  entire  In p u r s u i t of  l o v e and  besiegen.  betrachten,  Pensionierung  kbnnte"  To  zu  die wir  e i n Leben  on  t h a t what he  mlissen.  Odoaker's what he  could  beherrschen habe mich  reality.  based  for himself.  Kunst,  Romulus'  p o i n t h i s awareness  Dann l e r n e d i e F u r c h t einzige  drama.  of  a marriage  believed profoundly  t h o u g h he  the  i n the  his perception  contempt  He  point  Weis-  zustopen and  agrees  "Nachwort":  -37-  B o t h men that men  see  Odoaker and who  prize  bravery  and  seriously, a  patriotism. and  had  saw  a b o u t him;  not  be  freedom  carefully  power  sense  clusion,  do  that  George W e l l w a r t h arrives  at  They  the  take  the  forced  presence  to  pushes  i s not  a  discusses  some i n t e r e s t i n g  the  superficial  to  course  right that  of Theoderich, go as  as  on  as  in their notions  world; of  valour,  responsibility  of h i s t o r y .  Each  the wrongs w h i c h these  plans  Odoaker's  of  he  could  war-mongering  Rome g i v e s h i m  Rome's d o w n f a l l . argument  t o an  people  question  clear  before.  Emperor  most  i t is  individual  to a c c e p t  logical  fool,  " s a n e " men  their  plan  prevent a  society;  inevitable  things w i l l  nothing  he  only  above  t h a t Romulus has  t h a t he but  The  the whole  the  thought-out  e a c h was  ensures  to  are  t r y to a l t e r  realized .  The  the  Romulus  human v a l u e s  man  nephew,  the madness o f  of  He  i s mad  in  unacceptable  in his  Romulus'  court sanity,  conclusions:  As s o o n a s h e g a i n s a b s o l u t e p o w e r , becomes, s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , i n s a n e .  the  Romulus From t h e  b e s t and most r e a s o n a b l e m o t i v e s , he c a l m l y proposes to d e s t r o y a n a t i o n . Despite his kindliness i n his personal relations with his f a m i l y a n d t h e members o f h i s h o u s e h o l d , despite h i s s t r o n g sense of personal j u s t i c e , d e s p i t e his genuinely f e l t humanitarian impulses, Romulus s u f f e r s f r o m t h e d i s e a s e o f a l l m o r a l l y f e r v i d i d e a l i s t r e f o r m e r s ; h e l o s e s t h e human e l e m e n t when a p p l y i n g h i s t h e o r i e s . P e o p l e i n t h e mass a r e n o t i n d i v i d u a l i z e d f o r Romulus, a n d s o he c o n s i g n s t h e p e o p l e u n d e r h i s c a r e t o destruction. His proposed s a c r i f i c e of h i s own l i f e b e c o m e s s u d d e n l y r i d i c u l o u s when he comes f a c e t o f a c e w i t h t h e German c h i e f t a i n . Nor, we  con-  think. and  -38-  then r e a l i z e , would the s a c r i f i c e have been o f a n y s i g n i f i c a n c e a t a l l - - c e r t a i n l y n o t as an expiation. T h e l a u g h t e r o f t h e g o d s seems t o tinkle  faintly  through  the conversation  as  the  two o l d i d e a l i s t s , R o m u l u s a n d O d o a c e r , s i t d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r s i t u a t i o n amid t h e r u i n s o f o t h e i r grandiose plans.  -39-  Footnotes:  Chapter  Quotations  are  taken  der  and  page r e f e r e n c e s p r e f a c e d by  Grope,  G. W e l l w a r t h , (New  York,  The  1964),  from  Two  the Arche  Theatre of P r o t e s t p.  145 .  edition  and  of  Romulus  R.  Paradox  -kO-  Chapter Three:  Men  are  so  Die  i n e v i t a b l y mad  mean t o b e  mad  with  Physiker  that  not  to  some d i f f e r e n t  be  kind  mad of  would  madness.  Pascal Our  century  technological  has  seen an  incredible  knowledge which,  one  level,  has  of  scientific  been  general  to mankind.  applied  t o m a k i n g bombs a n d  w a g i n g more  efficient  war,  created  a new  question  the moral  responsibility  problem:  scientist.  This  among them B r e c h t Licht)  and  On basic  a  specific  connected?  r e a l l y mad,  Like  Romulus,  idealistic them b y  a  been  To  scientists  (Die  scientist  or  to a  what  really  the  i t one  physicist  heroes,  behaving  levels,  who  of  i n a way  faces  by  very  is  has  several  also of  authors,  (Das  important  l i e i n duty  Kalte  are  and  to h i m s e l f ,  group  to  represented  s c i e n c e and  politics  free?  and  raised  the  i n Die  i s another  fight as  Physiker,  recurring question  Dlirrenmatt's most  defined  this  Zuckmayer  certain  extent  MObius  t r y to  Carl  knowledge  Physiker) .  among t h e many q u e s t i o n s  makes  examined  Galilei),  responsibility  i n general,  whose c o n s t a n t l y s h i f t i n g is  des  level,  government?  Are  These are  Leben  Does h i s  to mankind  of  p r o b l e m has  Dlirrenmatt  individual  questions.  science, by  the  the  new  (Das  Friedrich  p a r t i c u l a r l y when s c i e n t i f i c  of  and  benefit  the  But  on  expansion  of  t h e madness insane  by  topical the of  of  who  plays.  author's  the world  others.  around  -kl-  Also  as  ticularly  i n the  case  his motivation In  long before  M'dbius makes h i s  cribes first  i n one  at  tightly  room o f  length  the  similar  of  one  constructed first  a mental  landscape  mention of MSbius  the murder  Romulus, Mbbius'  become a p p a r e n t  gradually.  entirely  this  of  of  to  asylum,  i n c i d e n t t h r e e months  by  the  par-  only  a c t i o n has  I t takes  although  very started  place  Dlirrenmatt  des-  institution.  police  another  and  audience  the  appearance.  surrounding  nurses  the  plot,  i s made when t h e  the  character  inspector  The  investigating  patient, following a  previously, enquires  about  the  third  patient. Inspektor: F r l . Doktor: Inspektor: F r l . Doktor:  Mbbius' arrives leave  with  of  her  background her  three  years  of  the  audience  to  be.  Nothing  rather years If  and  anything,  charitable  sons and  as  i n by  new  a student,  of marriage, that so  has  one  might  scientist, been  has  doctor.  things  that  had  There  former wife,  could be  him,  different  i n the  to  and  hospital  final  story  their  the  first  suspicions  they  t h a t MtSbius,  breakdown  who  take  of  f r o m what  impression  Lina,  i n her  possibly raise  a nervous  f o r the  husband  i s nothing  supporting  i n treatment  sympathy  his  missionary  f a r c o n t r a d i c t s the  b r i g h t young ago,  is filled  "Johann W i l h e l m l e i n . "  about meeting MBbius difficult  Der d r i t t e P a t i e n t ? Ebenfalls ein Physiker. . . . Name? Johann W i l h e l m MObius . . . . er i s t s e i t fllnfzehn Jahren h i e r , h a r m l o s und s e i n Z u s t a n d b l i e b unverSndert. (P 302)  appear a  fifteen  ever  long-suffering wife,  since. and  -42-  With this and  M'dbius'  entrance,  impression. be  cause  a  total  The  there i s s t i l l  patient  seems  to b a r e l y  s t r a n g e r to h i s sons.  of Mbbius'  to h i s youngest  "illness" son's  Das  that  darfst  du  recognize h i s wife  first  Kopf.  he w a n t s nicht,  Keinesfalls, dem  The  contradict  inkling  of  the  comes i n h i s u n e x p e c t e d l y v e h e m e n t  assertion  Mbbius:  nothing to  Das  t o become a  reply  physicist.  Jbrg-Lukas.  s c h l a g e d i r aus  Ich--ich  verbiete  es  dir. Jbrg-Lukas:  Aber  du  bist  geworden, Mbbius :  nicht  important  on  factor  sympathetic,  the a c t o r ' s i n this  as  a father  by  the p h y s i c i s t ' s  musical  and  rudeness  real  violent and  of King  horrified  and  perhaps  can  accuses  this  jetzt  310) of h i s l i n e s ,  appear  quite  impression i s quickly  reaction  (a v e r y  sane  h i m s e l f of being  and  inadequate shattered  to the demonstration of h i s recital  Solomon's p s a l m . the v i o l e n c e  pity  dlirfen,  The  of  but  extremely  audience  the images  There  f o r Mbbius,  o f an  i s complete no  grotesque  i s bound  and  Mbbius  sympathy  suspicion  y e t as  son's  to  be  1  with to  motives.  After  t h e h a s t y and  alone with h i s nurse a  Mbbius  h i s subsequent  by  ein Physiker  I c h ware  interpretation  i n dismissing his family.  the w i f e , his  But  Nie.  I r r e n h a u s . (P  play),  husband.  abilities,  interpretation shocked  im  e s p e c i a l l y when h e and  auch  I c h h a t t e es n i e werden Jbrg-Lukas.  Depending  doch  Papi—  r e a s o n a b l e manner  untidy exit  Schwester that  of h i s family,  Monika,  the audience  explains  Mbbius,  his actions  i s disarmed,  and  left in  doubts  such about  _4 3  his  insanity  Mb'bius  are raised  admits:  once  " I c h gebe  again.  es z u .  To t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Ich spielte  den Wahnsinnigen."  Schwester Monika:  Weshalb?  Mb'bius :  Um  von meiner Frau  zu  nehmen u n d v o n m e i n e n  Buben.  Abschied  Abschied  f U r immer.  Schwester Monika:  Auf diese s c h r e c k l i c h e  Mb'bius:  A u f d i e s e humane W e i s e . Vergangenheit besten  lbscht  Weise?  a u s , wenn man  am  sich  schon  im I r r e n h a u s  Meine  befindet:  F a m i l i e kann mich  gutem G e w i s s e n  Mein A u f t r i t t  sind  nun  vergessen.  hat i h rd i e Lust  genommen, m i c h aufzusuchen. seits  Die  man  m i t einem w a h n s i n n i g e n  Betragen  mit  Monika,  noch  einmal  Die Folgen  unwichtig,  L e b e n au|3erhalb  meiner-  n u r das  der Anstalt  zahlt. . Verrlicktsein kostet. (P With speaking  this about  financial him  last  comment,  the emotional  burden  one b e g i n s  and that  However,  to h i s m o t i v e s and i n t e n t i o n s . endured  by the p h y s i c i s t  to realize  t h a t Mbbius i s  c o s t to h i m s e l f , as w e l l  to h i s wife,  t o f e i g n madness.  315)  there  there  i s some r e a s o n f o r  is still  Evidence  as t h e  no i n d i c a t i o n a s  of the emotional  i s g i v e n when h e h e a r s  torture  that Monika  must  leave: Nun, in  auch d i e s e Z e i t  denen  Weil  i c h etwas  i c h durch  gefunden habe, Schicksal  i s t vortiber.  Zwei  Jahre,  g l U c k l i c h e r war a l s s o n s t .  S i e , Schwester Monika, meine  Abgeschlossenheit  a l s - - V e r r U c k t e r - - a u f mich  d e n Mut und mein  z u nehmen. ( P l 6 ) 3  -kh-  The in  this  theme o f scene.  institution. is  Her  action  this  Madman a n d  his  seduction of  t o what  The  much h e l p :  "Es  "Darum s i n d  Sie i n Gefahr:  vernUnftiger, "Mein "Mut he  Gott,  i s t tbdlich  Sie hielten  ich leibe  i s free  and  rejoicing,  the  situation;  The  murder  Walpurg,  trying  the  confusing love  from clues den  dafUr  i s quick, yet shocking;  v e r y much i n q u e s t i o n .  is  com-  "mad" by her  poet,  tearing  begins  o f f her  role.)  scene  b e t w e e n Mb'bius torment,  1  are  Salamo lieben"  (verrUckt).  i s t j a das  and  head  i n Mbbius'  Kbnig  to persuade  dim  her  since  e i n Verbrechen"  lights  the  leaving with her,  (P 321).  for their  her,  one the  speech zu (P  3I8);  Fliehen  and  At  (P  317);  (P  "Es  ware  Siel"  departure,  (P  320); that  Mbbius instead  the ominousness  sanity-of  he  t h e news  the audience,  is filled  yet  not  glauben"  Wahnsinnige"  i s made m o r e a n d m o r e a w a r e o f the  from  a w a r e o f Mb'bius  w e i l w i r uns mich  cap  and  strong  i n Stanislaw Witkiewicz'  within  everything i s arranged  seems t o g i v e u p of  an  S i e , das  i s t i n meinem F a l l e  nurse's  scene  is strongly  her.  profession  i s t o c u r e him,  and  is especially  gesture, incidentally,  similar  p r e v e n t s him  obviously loves  her  her  confinement  the anguished  puzzled  (This  who  of her  the audience  as  tearing  i n which  t h e nun  and M o n i k a  confinement  to escape  desire.  t h e Nun,  the symbol  During  very  of  reminiscent of a  The  wimple,  versus  Monika wants  symbolic of  pellingly  freedom  of  with foreboding. Mbbius  i s again  319);  -45-  Despite quite the at the  the grotesqueness  a powerful  interest  emotional  questions  the  help  At by  in  the existence  a c t , Mbbius  commanded b y S o l o m o n .  t h a t he d e f e r r e d  h i s own;  i n asking  nicht weiter.  h i s family,  ("Ihr habt  den ganzen Marianen  t o Solomon's w i s h e s h i s boys  Bitte.  Salomo  den Kbnig  e x p l a i n i n g t o M o n i k a why h e m u s t  DafUr  lapt  killing  Clearly, "insane"  i c h habe  e r mich blipen.  Monika,  way;  ("Kbnig  these that  to stop  stay  a r e the instances  mad b y o t h e r s ,  is  caught  to  a r r e s t him and i s t o l d  explains  and o p i n i o n s ,  [P 3 1 2 ] ) ;  [P 3 1 ^ ] ) j  nicht  t r a p when h e a s k s that  that  verschwiegen.  and f i n a l l y  in  328]).  an a c t which  he a t t r i b u t e s i t t o t h e w i s h o f K i n g  i n h i s own  ("Ich habe  i n w h i c h he behaves  t i m e he commits  i n shouting  Ihr sollt  i n t h e asylum,  [P 3 1 9 ] ) ;  even  the recorder,  versaufenl"  e s " [P  h i s deed  He h a s p r e v i o u s l y  Salomos E r s c h e i n e n  Salomo b e f a h l  as  rather  insane.  Salomo b e l e i d i g t l  Lebenslanglich"  i s , each  discussed  b e c a u s e one  playing  zuliebe"  im Marianengraben  mein Geheimnis v e r r a t e n ,  by  o f some u n k n o w n n e c e s s i t y f o r  o f t h e second  i t was  I have  e v e n when h e m u r d e r s ,  the beginning that  partly  He i s a t o r t u r e d ,  he i s c l e a r l y  ("Spielt  mit  character  murder has  a t t i t u d e towards him and  i s no m o t i v e ,  maintained  at  i n the audience's  I f there  claiming  against  i s achieved  r a i s e d as t o h i s m o t i v e s .  but feel  action.  this  this  o f Mb'bius h a s a r o u s e d .  t h e changes  than unsympathetic cannot  impact;  the character  some l e n g t h  of the s i t u a t i o n ,  the Inspector  i s impossible:  i n an is  regarded  Solomon.  He  i n desperation  -k6-  Nach  ihrem  Befehl ich  den  frei. Just  how  the  fall  fellow  in  a  physics,  sent to  events,  declares  government The  on  his  leave  the  gives  too  the  the  is a  appearances  perfection.  now  the  appearances  asserts  of  that not  r e a l i z e s was  to  and  he  time  to  E i n s t e i n and  Newton's  the  on  by  an  Newton h a v e the  (who  than an  audience  Einstein's  t r a n c e l i k e entrances with  when E i n s t e i n i n t e r r u p t s M b b i u s  famous  that  appears,  genius  this and  turn calmly  opposing  as  his  the  as  violin,  played  Inspector, to  in  be  E i n s t e i n ) , which  elaborate well  they  pretends  plays  unsuspicious.  and  given  contrary,  exchange w i t h  Ernesti,  equally  a  Mbbius'  government.  i s a c t u a l l y E i n s t e i n , but  more  of  assimilate  patient  of  Solomon  one  is in fact,  that  pieces  King  events,  work f o r  disguise;  nothing  aufgewacht," are  of  of  the  pre-  Newton.  enough  bin  i n which  persuade Mbbius,  third  as  confuse  fool  that  convincing  "Ich  to  to  of  their  he  turn  audience  same m i s s i o n  to  one  and  principal  famous p h y s i c i s t , s e n t  their  i n order  drama,  asylum  idea  Newton  Sie  the  government  no  w h i c h he  bleiben  auf lange  i s , becomes h i s  unexpected  practically roles  So  of  " E i n s t e i n , " the  he  brief  Sie  "Newton," r e v e a l s by  when  that  place,  totally  DUrrenmatt b a r e l y in  haben  gehandelt. kann,  really  denouement  into  patients,  scientist,  verhaften  f r e e Mbbius  In  Gestandnis Salomo  33O)  i n the  explained.  Kbnigs  nicht  (P  occupation puzzle  eigenen  des  game,  the and  was  Inspector. his  There  Monika, which might  dazed,  i s one  passage,  possibly  -4 T  be  acted  i n s u c h a way Einstein:  as  to  Dabei die  give  geige  Pfeife  schmeckt  on  Dann l a s s e n  Kann i c h doch n i c h t .  language  Sie  acts  are  explained  the  of  Instead  their  und Sie  sein.  little  Als  Albert  preparation  of  men  has  the  c l i p p e d phrases  speech before men  logically.  to b e l i e v e  a l l to  staff The  changed  this  speak a t  of  the  spies  which have discovery  that  discover spent  the  to  three  their  for  these  sur-  length,  their  scientists  nurses  ermbglicht,  die  suchung  i n d i e H'ande d e r  their  and  to  of  t o be  and  Mbbius-  lucidly.  their  killed  mad  questions  i n the  rationally  had  sanity  ironic  (except  audience  secondly  amazement  asylum,  he  a l l over  insanity when  after a l l ;  reassure  that  has  during  solved  the  the world,  jeder Fantasie Menschen  the  the  rest  problems  fiele"  falls  ( P 338) .  the  However,  wUrden f r e i g e s e t z t spottet,  fifteen  including  a l l possible inventions."  "Neue, u n v e r s t e l l b a r e E n e r g i e n  Technik  the  that  insanity.  i n the  "system of  scene  so  p a t i e n t s were not  nurses,  physicists'  occupied of  The  s i l e n c e the  Mb'bius h a s  warns,  es  which have p r e v i o u s l y assured  began  years  gem, nicht.  318)  been  a l l three  scene) a l l three  The  first  of  doubted.  have marked  they  has  clue:  developments.  c a n n o t be  Monika  there  a  scheuplich.  Einstein:  The  that  nicht  i c h auch  Mb'bius :  the whole,  prising  audience  i c h gar liebe  E i n s t e i n . (P But  the  und  meine  he  eine Unter-  of  -48-  The lie?  question  F o r "Newton," a l i a s  belongs which that  to the world  guarantees  where does  Alec  Jasper  and a s c i e n t i s t  h i s freedom  i s to science  versteht,  only:  den w i r i h n bahnen,  Kilton,  scientific available that  scientific  knowledge  s h o u l d work f o r t h e c o u n t r y  t o do r e s e a r c h .  He d o e s n o t b e l i e v e  or rather,  h i s respon-  "Ob d i e M e n s c h e n d e n Weg i s t ihre  Sache,  alias  knowledge  Joseph E i s l e r ,  nicht  i s dangerous  to the world,  power.  a scientist  i t becomes a v a i l a b l e  s e e s more  z u gehen  d i e unsrige"  that  i n fact  a scientist  to the "right"  dependence on s c i e n c e ; Wissenschaft For  Mb'bius  machine feign  (P  Therefore public  sind"  (P  3 3  "Wir mlissen  8).  politicians  He  gun t o p l a y w i t h .  madness and t o e n t e r  This  their  S y s t e m mu|3 d e r  of the s c i e n t i s t  to believe  that  irresponsible  the world  like  giving  i s why h e d e c i d e d fifteen  to hide will  misuse  and i n c a p a b l e o f  by s c i e n t i s t s ,  be r a t h e r  the asylum  claims  recognize  particularly  a s c i e n t i s t m u s t n o t make t h e r e s u l t s  a t a l l ; i t would  to see  339)•  the s u p e r i o r knowledge p r o v i d e d  bomb.  research  itself  that  i t m u s t b e made  government.  politisches  i t i s the responsibility  S o c i e t y has proved  handling  fressen"  i f he has reason  While  because  "Auch u n s e r  a u s d e r Hand  discoveries  them.  i s free,  clearly  has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  M a c h t p o l i t i k e r werden, w e i l w i r P h y s i k e r  the  scientist  338). "Einstein,"  his  the duty o f a  the s c i e n t i s t has any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ;  sibility  (P  then a r i s e s ,  of h i s  a child  voluntarily  years  a to  a g o , why h e  -k9-  sacrificed  his  with Monika. Industrie  und  "Ich  fallen  wShlte die mir,  personal liep  und  Uberliep  schon sperrte  of  their positions.  and  humane d e c i s i o n  to  became m e r e l y a  to  carry  up  his  out  violin, [P  that in  to  both  place  themselves research  Irrenhaus"  each u n c o n s c i o u s l y machinery of  and  to k i l l  to  and  free  what  and  his  to  country  or  his  freedom  In  order  mad,  to  give  cared  for  him.  learn  to  unmusikalischen the  i n d i v i d u a l s , nor  they are  irony  rational  try  society. t o be  to  .  a  g a v e up  r e a l i z a t i o n , with  longer  3^2)  r e a l i z e the  n u r s e who  E i n s t e i n had  the  his  pretend  the  einen v b l l i g  (P  in politics, of  Ich  erscheine  considered  good  die  Schicksal.  Kb'nig S a l o m o  the  then  play  the  Menschen" a i d of are  Mbbius,  the s c i e n t i s t s  o f f e r i n g Mbbius  i s merely  prison.  Mbbius only  for  family,  fahren,  " E i n s t e i n " come t o  each had  come t o  free,  der  i n einem  world  German a n d fUr  vor,  himself  i n the  i n f a c t no  their countries  own  ihrem  them made w h a t he  this,  freedom,  learn  Yet  they are  another  do  cog  ("Eine T o r t u r  3^0]).  the  this mission,  physical  Newton had  mich  involve  mankind.  order  gab  Each of  into  with his  meine F a m i l i e  "Newton" and  e n t i c e Mb'bius b a c k In  Ich man  to  first  meine akademische K a r r i e r e  Narrenkappe.  However, b o t h  and  happiness,  as  also where and a  shows them they are  true  that  free  to  to humanity.  solution  to h i s  paradoxically, be  scientists,  He  does not  dilemma,  nor  the  asylum  t o be  .suggest  is  true  to  giving  does DUrrenmatt  the  up  answer  -50-  th e q u e s t i o n whether the  o t h e r two  haben w i r  bleiben wir  eines .  forever  But  DUrrenmatt  revelation maintains  that  oder  die Menschheit (ifa  little  sacrificing  and  their  The  Doktor M a t h i l d e von  K i n g Solomon  chose h e r  and  to top  i t a l l o f f , has  secretly  falling remain that the  the f i f t e e n  f o r naught,  i n the asylum  floodlights that  their  The  critic  after  a l l :  has  h a v e no on  hands.  been  to  remain but  Arnold  case i s the  is really  mad,  the earth, three  set  nurses,  notes, came. seem  not p r e v e n t e d h i s knowledge The  decision  freedom whatsoever. t h e armed  a s y l u m - r e f u g e has  the  i n harmony  spent i n the asylum  made e q u a l l y  the grounds,  Armin  agree  them when t h e p o l i c e  years Mbbius has  over of  end  p h o t o c o p i e d Mbbius'  to burn  as he  irresponsible  they w i l l  clear  mad  absurd h i s d e c i s i o n  into  3^3)  freedom,  in this  Zahnd  to r u l e  l e d to the deaths  have been  (P  physical  "Zufall"  i n motion which  to  erlischt.  c o n t e n t t o l e t t h e drama  planning.  FrSulein  than that,  d i e Welt im Ged'dchtnis  unbelievably)  wheels  More  i t to  gemordet.  the  rendering  puts  freedom.  i s not  wishes  that  Mbbius  Irrenhaus oder  l b s c h e n w i r uns  oder  thus  t h e i r mental  w i t h Mbbius'  im  ceremoniously,  i n the asylum,  retaining  geopfert  Entweder  Menschen aus  spies  or wrong.  way:  Entweder der two  i s right  Entweder wird  The  this  Mb'bius  of  absurd, The  t h e o t h e r two as  grills  g u a r d s make  i t is on  to  clear  the windows,  i t abundantly  become a maximum s e c u r i t y  suggests that  from  the"doctor i s not  prison. really  Ist  die Xrztih,  verrlickt? Verhaltnis es  ernst,  und  ist  zu Kbnig  formuliert;  Salomo  i s t s i e verrlickt. Mb'bius, d a n n  Vorfahren--um  willen  bereit,  natilrlich  d i e Welt  wie  alle  diese It  i s t raf f i n i e r t e r .  befinden  nur d r e i  sich  i s an i n t e r e s t i n g  Solomon.  zugrunde  zu r i c h t e n .  normal  d i e zweite  S i e i s t so v e r r l i c k t  sind  normal, und  b u t i t c a n be d i s p u t e d ,  the doctor's  when  previous  the m i s s i o n a r y  on  the "traurige,  beklagenswerte Verirrung"  in  believing  Solomon a p p e a r s  that  Es  zum  im Irrenhaus.2  thesis,  F o r example,  sich  dap d i e V e r r l t c k t e n  when o n e e x a m i n e s m o r e c l o s e l y King  und d e r Macht  verrlickt i s t , aber  Menschen,  meint s i e  s i e ironisch  i s t s i e so normal wie  e i n T h e a t e r c o u p , wenn  die Srztin  Mbglichkeit  Spricht  des Geldes  Schlu(3 h e r a u s s t e l l t , und  wirklich  an, w i e s i e i h r  parodiert  ihre  D r . Ma'thilde v o n Zahnd,  E s kommt d a r a u f  especially  references to  Oskar Rose  comments  under which Mbbius  to' h i m , t h e d o c t o r  suffers  says  significantly: I h r strammes U r t e i l e r s t a u n t m i c h e i n w e n i g , Herr M i s s i o n a r Rose. A l s T h e o l o g e mllssen S i e doch immerhin m i t d e r M b g l i c h k e i t e i n e s W u n d e r s r e c h n e n . ( P 06) 3  And  when M b b i u s  explains  order  to King  setzt  sich wieder.  incidents believed In leave with  Solomon,  suggest  h i s murder o f t h e nurse by a t t r i b u t i n g t h e  Dlirrenmatt's  some d o u b t s  directions  Schwerfallig,  Bleich"  an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  that  i n the existence addition,  stage  there  of King  These  the doctor has, i n f a c t , f o r some  r e a l meaning.  she assures  him:  "Sie  two  time.  a r e two comments b y t h e d o c t o r w h i c h  as t o t h e i r  I n s p e c t o r Voss,  Solomon  ( P 328).  specify:  First,  " F U r wen  i n her  s i c h meine  might discussion  Patienten  -52-  halten, selber  bestimme kennen"  ich.  (P  299)  F r ' d u l e i n D o k t o r had "Sie In  selbst  Peppard  •  kenne s i e weitaus  Further,  given  both  these  connection with  als  Sie,  for his erklSrte  comments a r e  the  besser  when M o n i k a  permission  sei verrllckter  retrospect, In  Ich  als  tells  sie  Mb'bius  release, s i e und  she  sich that  adds,  lachte"  (P  321) .  ominous.  madness o f  the  doctor,  the  critic  Murray  writes: I t was a t h e a t r i c a l i n s p i r a t i o n t o a r r a n g e t h a t , a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e p l a y , t h e mad o l d maid, F r ' d u l e i n D o k t o r M a t h i l d e von Zahnd, e x p l o i t s the d i s c o v e r i e s w h i c h the p h y s i c i s t Mbbius has sacrif i c e d h i s l i f e , w i f e and h a p p i n e s s t o k e e p f r o m the w o r l d . The e f f e c t o f t h i s s e e m i n g l y a b r u p t and g r i m l y c o m i c a l t u r n i s t h a t o f t h e g r o t e s q u e i n i t s f i n e s t form. But the g e n e r a l sense of the p l a y l e a d s i n e v i t a b l y t o j u s t some s u c h conclusion, s i n c e the a c t i o n i s b a s e d , t h r o u g h o u t , on the f u t i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n , the c o n v i c t i o n that i d e a s c a n n o t be h i d d e n o r r e v o k e d , t h a t p r o g r e s s , even i f i t i s p r o g r e s s to u l t i m a t e d i s a s t e r , i s i n e v i t a b l e , a n d t h a t man, that f r a i l creature, i s n o t e q u a l t o t h e t a s k o f m a s t e r i n g h i s own ideas. T h e l a s t c o n v i c t i o n , n a m e l y t h a t man i s not as l a r g e as t h e t h o u g h t o f w h i c h h e i s c a p a b l e , and t h a t he f a l l s m o r a l l y b e h i n d h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l achievements, i s the c e n t r a l concern of the p l a y . . . .  These reality very  constantly  and  illusion  reminiscent Die  of  Frage  verrlickt?" mehr  ganz  selden am  are,  as  identities,  the  C h r i s t i a n Markus  shifting  des  Inspektors:  lspt los,  den  "Bin  der  der  Physiker.  zusammenbrechen,  ahnlich  ich eigentlich  Zuschauer a l l e r d i n g s  angesichts  tragischen  standig Wenn  geschieht  line  Jauslin points  Pirandello:  Identitat  Schlup  einer  changing  nicht  wechdiese dies  Konstellation,  unter  wie  sie  between out,  -53-  Pirandellos nur  plbtzlich Newton and But  Mb'bius, who takes  pointed  out  for  "insane"  probably the  IV  eigen  ist:  Was  e i n z i g e M'dglichkeit  on  the  now  has  means a f i n a l the  claiming  of King  used  behaviour;  with  been  identity  above, Mbbius  familiar  der  E i n s t e i n resume t h e i r masks,  p h y s i c i s t , and  most the  die  until  to him,  his  Heinrich  bisher  a l s Maske v o r g e g e b e n wurde, b l e i b t  the  his  this that  time  for  Solomon  Solomon h i m s e l f .  h i s assumption  of  ^  Existenz .  appearances  r e j e c t i o n of end  nun  his  of  of this  r o l e as  research  appears As  the  King  new  ever.  has  been  to  account  identity  Johann Wilhelm  work.  One  of  the  critics  DUrrenmatt's work, E l i s a b e t h B r o c k - S u l z e r ,  i m p o s s i b i l i t y of  t r y i n g to  resolve  the  Mbbius,  realizes  ending:  Irre? EndgUltig i h r e r Person E n t f a l l e n e ? Die Frage b l e i b t o f f e n . Sie i s t k e i n e r Antwort mehr w e r t . Vorhang. Die schlimmstmbgliche Wendung i s t e i n g e t r o f f e n , d i e G e s c h i c h t e i s t zu Ende. Das P a r a d o x v o l l h e r g e s t e l l t . 5 It is  i s p e r h a p s more t h a n a  equally  appropriate  having  examined  Mbbius  i n some d e t a i l ,  the  two  about  the  and  that  out  one  Each  Is  is barbaric the w o r l d  his  i t must plan:  and  cannot not  coincidence  ending of and  can  s o c i e t y i n w h i c h he  therefore  carry  the  character  characters.  Roman E m p i r e thinks  the  to  chance  Romulus  motivation  see  of  der  lives; decadent  comment  Groge.  Indeed,  b o t h Romulus  by  an  all-consuming  Romulus b e l i e v e s and  must  fall,  handle a l l s c i e n t i f i c  Romulus has  this  interesting similarities  possessed  obtain  that  i t .  E a c h man  political  between idea  that and  and  the  Mbbius  knowledge,  is in a position  power, a n d  Mbbius  has  to the  -5h-  power this  that  comes f r o m  power i n the the  generally  mad  by  man  plays h i s adopted  respect and As  he an  rest  Romulus  i t becomes  and  sacrifice Peppard  During  role,  of  too  knowledge.  he  has  to  would  not  understand  the death sees  of  makes  this  ironic  As  twist  thus  a  without  considered  the  love  his vision he  before  they  really  failure of  of  loves.  his  the o u t s i d e  their  each  case,  empire  Mb'bius s e e s reach  each  and  i n any  to d e s t r o y the  scientist,  The  are  use  during which  the o n l y beings  become d a n g e r o u s w e a p o n s . the  live  his obligation  dangerous.  r e f u s e to  t h e many y e a r s  to d e s t r o y h i s manuscripts  becomes  Both  a c c e p t e d manner and  society.  cause  emperor,  obligation world  of  o f h i s w i f e , who i s the  before  scientific  at  the  end  c o n n e c t i o n between  the  two c h a r a c t e r s :  personal  play.  Murray  Romulus i s a p r e d e c e s s o r o f t h e p h y s i c i s t M b b i u s , who r e s e m b l e s h i m e v e n i n d e t a i l s . In both c a s e s , s o m e o n e e l s e t a k e s o v e r who continues t h e v e r y madness t h e y t r i e d t o w a r d o f f . Further  on,  Peppard,  speaking  interesting  parallel  between  about the  two  Die  P h y s i k e r , draws  another  men:  The l a r g e r meaning o f t h e p l a y l i e s i n t h e demonstration of the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of Mbbius' f a i l u r e to impose h i s w i l l on the c o u r s e o f the w o r l d , f o r no i n d i v i d u a l c a n s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e w o r l d o r c h a n g e the course of h i s t o r y . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , M b b i u s i s a k i n t o Romulus and a l s o resembles him i n the f u t i l i t y o f h i s end. The  two  c h a r a c t e r s , Romulus  to  g i v e them t h e f r e e d o m  by  o t h e r human f o r c e s ,  and  to achieve  and  their  Mbbius, their  don  aim.  sacrifices  t h e mask o f Both  rendered  are  madness  thwarted  absurd.  But  -55-  their  radical  audience;  i d e a l i s m i s n o t condemned  the question  unanswerable.  as  by Dlirrenmatt o r the  to whether they  are right  o r wrong  remains  -56-  Footnotes:  Quotations plays, and  Murray p.  ^  a r e taken from  Komb-dien I I u n d  page r e f e r e n c e s  Armin  Arnold,  B.  Chapter  Peppard,  the Arche  FrUhe  prefaced  Friedrich  Three  Stlicke by  of Dlirrenmatt  (1959; r p t . Z u r i c h ,  1  s  I963)  P.  Dlirrenmatt  Friedrich  collection  (Berlin,  Dlirrenmatt  I969),  (New  York,  p.  80.  I969),  68.  Christian p. 116.  ^ Elisabeth seines  Markus J a u s l i n ,  Brock-Sulzer,  Werkes  (ZUrich,  6 43-  Peppard,  p.  Peppard,  p. 6 6 .  Friedrich  Friedrich  1964), p .  Dlirrenmatt  Dlirrenmatt;  119.  (ZUrich,  Stationen  1964),  -57-  Chapter Four:  Either  you a r e crazy,  humanity,  Graf  like  (jderland  the rest  of c i v i l i z e d  o r you a r e sane and h e a l t h y .  And  i f you a r e sane and h e a l t h y  and  throw  bombs. Henry  The  mystery  and dream-like  Graf  ( j d e r l a n d imbue  from  that  reality and  countrymen  and i l l u s i o n ,  space,  both  i t with  a q u a l i t y of strangeness  total  I t i s a work which,  the author's  interpreted  Unlike  i s suspended with  disregard i nUlrich  audiences  quite  Dlirrenmatt's  between  " L i e b l i n g " and h i s  by theatre  Miller  a t m o s p h e r e o f Max F r i s c h ' s  i n Dlirrenmatt' s p l a y s .  work o f h i s  . . .  you a r e an a n a r c h i s t  different  plays,  this  the changing  levels of  to the u n i t i e s  o f time  Weissstein's  words, i s  "Sorgenkind,having  and c r i t i c s ,  been  m o s t o f whom  mis-  saw i n  2 it  a drama a b o u t H i t l e r .  because  of h i s evident  The  final  I t was r e w r i t t e n b y F r i s c h  f a s c i n a t i o n and d i f f i c u l t y  (ora t least  latest)  on which  this  can  be found  i n F r i s c h ' s d i a r y o f the years  newspaper a  discussion will  clippings preceding  p r o f e s s o r who m y s t e r i o u s l y  clairvoyant, "saw" the  called  the professor professor,  position.  i n after lying  be based.  outline.  disappeared  i n I96I,  19^6-19^9>  a  The f i r s t  the  of the plot n  a  i n  t  w  o  a trace.  A  cabaret  to locate him had f a i l e d ,  was i n d e e d  incident i s reported  is  one c o n c e r n s  t h e s u r f a c e .of w a t e r .  himself,  times  t h e theme.  The s k e t c h  without  police efforts  beneath  who h a d s h o t  The second  this  with  version, written  one  three  just  found prior  The body o f  i n that to Frisch's  -58-  first  seven-scene  sketch  E i n Mann, d e r schon weckt;  i n der auf  es,  "Vielleicht  kommt.  of  the  (the be  main  cashier  seems that  l e d up  Schweiger  very  one  bank w h e r e he  Tat,  eine  vor--.  Unterschlagung, einmal  auf  die  Spur  can  the  to  developed role  is also really In  at  of  understand sharp the  all.  at  the  film; worked  a  he  f o r the  h i s wont,  the  that  to  and  Public to  murderer,  could  Prosecutor,  the  acts  the  evening,  fourteen  discover  an  of  bank  the  events  explain i t .  non-alcoholic past  must  game; d e p r e s s e d  came b a c k w i t h  A l l attempts  the  r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of  i n the a  professor  important  distinction  football  had  the  n i g h t watchman a t A  cinema  from  Schweiger,  extremely  reveal nothing  afternoon  had  n i g h t watchiuan.  play  the murder of  went  was  ."  but  motivation  the  as  .  i n the  diary),  i n t e r e s t e d i n the  t h e washroom,  .  philosophy.  he  und  ungeheuerliche  Trinker."  eine  es.  the murder  spent  team's d e f e a t ,  the  wir  Mb'bius,  to  die  i  i n the  t o h a v e no  Axt,  seine  n i c h t angeben;  ein  spater  clipping,  F r i s c h ' s own  Romulus and  the  erst  examined b e f o r e  and  eine  hat,  ihn  . . . " doch  character  newspaper  er  erschlagt  nicht  er  11  "Hoffen  Kassier  erledigt  ein Bedllrfnis  seine  T'dter  liege war  'Oder i s t e s man  getreuer  Daseins  und  flir  kbnne der  "Vielleicht  uderland":  i n b e g r i f f e n Gro(3eltern  Grund  Unterschlagung  der  von  RUckweg e r b l i c k t  gesamte F a m i l i e , heipt  und  Nacht, w e i l  dem  einen  Graf  seines  e i n e r Ecke b l i n k t ,  Enkel;  The  "Der  als braver  zwei D r i t t e l  erwacht aus  of  but  was  drink, years,  axe  and  a motive  or  by  his  not  went went  to to  murdered even  -59-  justification defense  fail,  and  attorney i s Doktor  of and  Frisch's one  are  Hahn:  the  So w a r ' s a b e r . 5 certainly  be  and  tempted  that  to see  inaccurate interpretation  the p r i s o n e r ' s  reasons, the  the absurd";  in this  p r o b a b l y an  prove  unconscious  and  the  the p u b l i c  the  bourgeois  a c t , as  because  t h e o n l y one  though  t h e y were, routine,  situation  i n Camus L ' E t r a n g e r , Carol  Peterson But  has,  this  t h e r e were reasons  p r o s e c u t o r , whose  was  s o many l i k e  between  "acte g r a t u i t . " ^  guilt,  e x p l a n a t i o n i n the drab,  bank employee,  unimaginative,  18)  of Meursault  "act of  Ironically,  (GO*  strong similarities  a prototype  the murder.  rather  Ich weip n i c h t , wie i c h S i e v e r teidigen s o i l . S o l i i c h dem G e r i c h t v i e l l e i c h t sagen, S i e haben es g e t a n , b l o p w e i l S i e g e r a d e e i n e Axt hatten, blop w e i l k e i n andrer z u g e g e n war a l s K a r l A n t o n Hofmeier?  Schweiger,  might  Hahn,  baffled:  Mbrder: There  Dr.  j o b i t was  to understand  f o r the murder. dehumanizing  life  He  H o f f n u n g a u f den F e i e r a b e n d , H o f f n u n g a u f das Wochenende, a l l d i e s e l e b e n s l a n g l i c h e H o f f n u n g auf E r s a t z , i n b e g r i f f e n d i e jSmmerliche Hoffnung a u f d a s J e n s e i t s , v i e l l e i c h t g e n l i g t e es s c h o n , wenn man d e n M i l l i o n e n a n g e s t e l l t e r S e e l e n , d i e Tag f U r Tag an i h r e n P u l t e n hocken, d i e s e A r t v o n H o f f n u n g nehmen w l l r d e : - - g r o s s w a r e d a s Entsetzen, gross d i e Verwandlung. Wer w e i p l D i e T a t , d i e w i r V e r b r e c h e n n e n n e n , am E n d e i s t s i e n i c h t s anderes a l s eine b l u t i g e Klage, d i e das L e b e n s e l b s t e r h e b t . Gegen d i e H o f f n u n g , j a , gegen den E r s a t z , gegen den A u f s c h u b ... (GO* 11)  for to  the sees  style  him:  is  of  the  -6o-  Without himself has  connecting  i s only  been  very  his  dimly  life  with  aware o f  the  the  murder a t  a l l , Schweiger  devitalizing  life  Wenn i c h m e h r v e r s t a n d e n Geld, ich  meine  mich  Jahre Doktor  Hahn:  Doktor  h'dtte  ich, vielleicht  nicht  so  gelangweilt  vierzehn  lang.  Klar. Hahn:  Wollen  Sie  sagen,  dass  erschlagen  dem  Gericht  Sie  den  vielleicht  alten  h a b e n aus  Hauswirt  purer  Langeweile?  (GO His  w o r k was  and  had  no  Kaiser's  dull  criminal  an  Love,  sometimes  and  life,  girlfriend  his  freedom  play,  Von  having  the  left  expresses  i n a bourgeois  expression Like  the  the  of  his  cashier  of  his  cog  i n the  routine  life  the, f o r c e w h i c h F r i s c h a n d restore  19)  human e l e m e n t plays  him  no  part  many y e a r s  emptiness  to  of  by  an in  was,  of  the  roots o f  speaking of Graf  the  otherwise  Oderland,  incidents  Helmuth Karasek  i n the  In  life,  a the  revealing lack  d i a r y which were  refutes  the  de-  Schweiger's  world:  two  bank  committing  S i e kbnnen s i c h n i c h t v o r s t e l l e n , Doktor, wie vert r a u t m i r d i e s e r A n b l i c k i s t : Immer d i e s e sieben S t a b e , d a h i n t e r d i e W e l t , so war es a u c h h i n t e r dem S c h a l t e r , a l s i c h n o c h f r e i . war ... (GO' 20) In  until  Expressionists  ago.  his  Georg he  wheel  the  humanity,  in  Morgens b i s M i t t e r n a c h t s ,  a l i e n a t i n g existence,  Schweiger  no  hard working  s u d d e n l y broke out  act.  can  i t was  whatsoever.  unspectacular,  humanized  passage,  routine;  Expressionist  m a c h i n e r y , who  believe  and  meaning f o r him  point,  vom  hatte  Gelangweilt?  MBrder:  a  he  living: Mbrder  this  which  idea  of  the  the  of  -61-  "acte  gratuit": F r i s c h r e i z t e b e i den b e i d e n V o r f ' a l l e n g e r a d e d i e u n e r k l S r l i c h e , d i e z w e c k f r e i e T a t , Aber s i e i n t e r e s s i e r t e i h n n i c h t , w i e s i e etwa d i e f r a n z f c S s i s c h e L i t e r a t u r ( G i d e , Camus) b e s c h a f t i g t e : a l s A k t d e r S e l b s t b e s t i m m u n g d e s Menschen, a l s Antwort auf d i e B e d r S n g n i s der unausweichl i c h e n K a u s a l i t a t , d e r man im A k t g r a t u i z u entkommen sucht. V i e l m e h r g e h t e s b e i F r i s c h darum, da(3 g e r a d e d i e Ode, g l e i c h m a p i g e p e n e t r a n t e Ordnung z w e i e r Leben i n Mord o d e r S e l b s t m o r d e x p l o d i e r t . . . . Es i s t d i e ErkTarung p o l i t i s c h e r G e w a l t , d i e s c h e i n b a r a u s dem Nichts kommend, i n W a h r h e i t i n d e r E n g e w o h l b e h l l t e t e r k l e i n b l l r g e r l i c h e r Existenzen i h r e Wurzel hat.^ There  that is  possibility  out  that  i s never  of  this  the  occur  suggestion to  the  that  Schweiger  audience.  i s o n l y aware  proportion to  the  factors  murder has  the  Public Prosecutor  main a c t i o n of  the  on  play.  I n an  which  One  i s insane,  triggered i t .  a n a l y s i s of  forms  the  nor  that his  The basis  F r i s c h ' s dramas,  act  effect for  the  Adelheid  Weise w r i t e s : In e i n e r absurden Welt e r h a l t der scheinbar s i n n l o s e Mord e i n e n S i n n : e r v e r n e i n t d i e s e s L e b e n , w e i l es k e i n e n Wert h a t . Wahrend s i c h d e r B a n k a n g e s t e l l t e d a m i t b e g n l i g t , " n e i n " zum L e b e n z u s a g e n , e r k e n n t der S t a a t s a n w a l t , dap d i e R e v o l t e n u r d a n n e i n e n S i n n h a b e n k a n n , wenn a u s d e r A n k l a g e g e g e n d i e G e s e l l s c h a f t e i n e Selbstbefreiung entsteht. D i e unbewupte T a t das K a s s i e r e r s w i r d v o n ihm i n s B e w u p t s e i n s g e h o b e n : er v e r s t e h t d e n M b r d e r und w i r d s i c h s e i n e r e i g e n e n , paradoxen S i t u a t i o n bewupt. A l s Staatsanwalt hat er d i e P f l i c h t , K l a g e g e g e n den Mord zu e r h e b e n und das L e b e n i m Namen d e s S t a a t e s z u s c h l l t z e n . . Da es a b e r d i e G e s e t z e s i n d , d i e das L e b e n t b t e n , w i r d e r a l s Anwalt d i e s e r Gesetze i n d i r e k t s e l b s t zumMdrder. Der a b s u r d e Mord k l a g t i h n an; indem e r s e i n e s t a a t l i c h e P f l i c h t t u t , versaumt er s e i n e menschliche Pflicht: I c h k a n n t e t u n , was immer m e i n e P f l i c h t war, und i c h w u r d e es d e n n o c h n i e l o s , d a s G e f U h l , dap i c h m e i n e P f l i c h t v e r s a u m e m i t j e d e m A t e m z u g . (GO 26) -  does  - 6 2 -  There the It  constant  he never had a  of having  this  being  Prosecutor  Ziel  but i n passing  a time  a significant erwacht  ship which  GefUhl,  (GO 2 8 ) ;  t h a t he  Later,  mental Elsa  To Inge,  to Doktor  vergessen.  Gef U h l .  erwartet  etwas e r l e d i g e n mtipte"  d i s t u r b i n g i t , and which  the p e r f e c t order  t h e maid  dusted  Immer  werde.  Immer  (GC- 2 6 ) . A s a  c a p t a i n of a ship, which  into  Das  the Public  i c h dieses  dap i c h anderswo  and p h y s i c a l ,  says  e r habe etwas  schon h a t t e  Martin--  (GO 9)  sailed  b u t as he grew o l d e r , h e s e t t l e d  c o u l d be p l a c e d  to Mario,  in his life.  scene,  mehr j u n g ,  o f freedom,  comment.  "Frliher  Und d a p i c h j e t z t  und Z e i t "  nicht  e r und m e i n t ,  he h a d dreams o f b e i n g  explains  i n the f i r s t  w i r u n s k e n n e n " (Gij 3 5 ) •  confesses:  important  childhood:  essentially  So e i n h o h l e s  anderswo . youth  something  . . . du b i s t  er, seit  schon.  missed  I c h b i n es n i e g e w e s e n .  "Plbtzlich  meint  the P u b l i c Prosecutor has  Staatsanwalt:  i s clearly  Hahn:  that  Elsa:  Childhood  to  feeling  indications  i s stated explicitly,  feels  out  are other  "ohne  f o r a model  of h i s office  every  so o f t e n .  t h e c l a i r v o y a n t , t h a t h e r husband  with-  Elsa  never had a  chance  travel:  These  Elsa:  E i n Mann i n s e i n e r S t e l l u n g - -  Mario: Elsa: Mario: Elsa: Mario:  Kommt n i c h t d a z u . Verstehe. A l s w i r h e i r a t e t e n , begann-der Verstehe. A l l e Grenzen g e s p e r r t - Verstehe, verstehe.  Elsa:  Manchmal m u 3 e r nach London o d e r  feelings  of restlessness, disquiet  Krieg—  and general  Paris.  (GO 3 7 )  "Angst" help t o  -6 3  explain  the  It  abrupt  metamorphosis  is interesting  m u r d e r e r and  the  Public Prosecutor,  life,  both  thought,  at  directions window a t seen "  For men  the  stand,  that  snow; of  the  bread,  es  i s the  a  with  a c t i o n s , but  the  hands  first  the murderer  and  s m a l l window Stabe"  served  the  not  be  only  struck  has in  the  by  pockets,  lost  scenes.  Stage  l o o k i n g out  i n the  27).  (G<3  would  second  stands  Frisch  i n more s u b t l e , p h y s i c a l  in their  f o l l o w i n g scene,  fare  parallels  theatre audience their  of  i n the  . Uberall gibt  soup and  violent  beginning  l o o k i n g out  . .  and  example,  specify the  Prosecutor.  intentional  their  t h e way  Public  the  the  resemblances.  the  to note  drawn between view of  of  of  the  in  barred  Public Prosecutor  cottage,  saying:  Schweiger's  dinner,  Public Prosecutor  in  is  bean the  cottage. Although which w i l l larities Also,  be  are  they  there  are major  d i f f e r e n c e s between  d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y of  course  provide  important  the k i n d  of  later,  t o an  links  these  between  scenes  the  further  characters.  are of  identification  a l l played the  both  the  love element.  antagonists the  by  i n the  Gendarme h a v e are  bored  of  other  same a c t r e s s a n d Dr.  two  lives  similar  in their  Hahn and of  roles:  play.  This  represent  of  the  which is  p r o f e s s i o n , and  are to  each  of  drama.  create  Inge and  different the  guardians  simi-  to  accomplished  of  them,  Coco  aspects  Interior  Public Prosecutor.  both  characters,  visual  Hilde,  the M i n i s t e r of  the  two  small  understanding  some e x t e n t the d r e a m a t m o s p h e r e o f by  the  are  The  Guard  law  and  the  and  order,  Public  -6k-  Prosecutor him.  The  comments Public  that  the p r o f e s s i o n  Prosecutor  of bee-keeper  i s aware o f  would  the r e p e t i t i o n  suit  of h i s  ex-  periences : Am  Ende,  oder  wenn i c h m i c h  drei  wenn man da  Gesichter, ans  gehen  Gendarm da, His  sudden  the P u b l i c  life,  and,  files,  for  the freedom  and  home i s t h u s a law  and  absolute  Prosecutor  order  abandons and  imposed  physical  ment  i n a new  very  lucid  about  or might  against by  zwei  ein Kind.  wohin  und  immer  ...  27)  (GO  t h e man  he  clearer  understanding of h i s  own  a  burns  n o t be  i s supposed  and  o f h i s home a n d  freedom. by  an He  to p r o s e c u t e  dream s e q u e n c e ,  h i s w o r l d as he  unconstrained  Und von  woher  o f t h e woods .  society,  und  Immer i s t  i s t eine A r t  the s e c u r i t y  and m e n t a l  life,  to a  uncertainty  revolt  es  stapfte.  deine,  immer  d e r w i s s e n mug  i n what m i g h t  his  das  will,  understanding of  leads  sind  d i e immer w i e d e r k e h r e n ,  Ende d e r W e l t  e i n Gesicht wie  wenn man  erinnere,  profession  His f l i g h t sees  idealistic thinks  he  time or space.  the a l i e n a t i n g wasteland which  he  he  it,  from h i s  bound by  the  yearning f o r can f i n d He feels  fulfill-  later he  becomes  has  Ich kenne eure Ordnung. Ich b i n i n Oderland geboren. Wo d e r M e n s c h n i c h t h i n g e h b r t , wo e r n i e g e d e i h t . Wo man a u s T r o t z l e b t T a g f l l r T a g , n i c h t a u s F r e u d e . Aus T r o t z , a u s T u g e n d . Wo man d i e S c h b p f u n g bek'dmpfen mup, d a m i t man n i c h t e r f r i e r t u n d verhungert. F r l i c h t e d e r A r b e i t , das s i n d d i e e i n z i g e n , d i e es i n O d e r l a n d g i b t . Es wMchst uns d i e Mupe n i c h t a n BSumen, d i e h e i t e r e , a n g s t l o s e , f r e i e , d i e d e r A n f a n g i s t v o n a l l e m , was M e n s c h heipt. N i c h t s i s t Geschenk, a l l e s b l e i b t Lohn. Und a l l e s i s t P f l i c h t . Und U b e r w i n d u n g i s t d a s H b c h s t e , was man s i c h d e n k e n k a n n , d o r t wo i c h g e b o r e n b i n . Uberwindung und V e r z i c h t . Man  left:  -6 5  macht  s i c h e i n Gewissen daraus,  jeder  sucht  Freude, Sommer  nach  d i e im Nebel i s t kurz,  der  Lust  sie  Sonne n i c h t  e r g i b t , wo  Dammerung kommt,  sees  this  The  concept  for  Frisch a state realize  in  order  and  that  der Verantwortung, erstickt--oder  self,  human b e i n g . a l l these  view,  signifies i s able  evolution  i s , to  of h i s personality  into a  thoroughly  "Ordnung," on t h e o t h e r forces  i n modern  class  such  civilisation  s o c i e t y , which i n  a development by  of behaviour  leading  to the  o f h i s e s s e n t i a l humanity.-'  Barlow points i n to help  Leben"  writes:  t h e i n d i v i d u a l a r e s t r i c t i v e and  pattern  suppression  "Ordnung" and t h e  to a t t a i n , that  i n middle  hinders  between  i n w h i c h man  h e may d e v e l o p  particularly  artificial  called  und  to a l l o f F r i s c h ' s works,  of being  h i s true  i m p o s i n g upon  Further,  vergraut,  b i s man  o f "das w i r k l i c h e  implies  Frisch's  weil  i s t , unwirklich,  conflict  and harmonious  integrated hand,  unser  der sich  • . . (GO' 57)  L e b e n " t o be c e n t r a l  full  fUr die  Denn  ausreicht,  o h n e Map  das Gewissen,  D. B a r l o w , who  the  l e b t , und  Wehe'. wenn w i e d e r  es kommen d i e G e s p e n s t e r  ausbricht  to  gedeiht.  wenn a l l e s  wenn a l l e s  wuchert  d a p man  nach E r s a t z  s i enicht  Nebel,  "wirkliche  nicht  ausreicht.  der es  Sinn,  u n d wehe dem M e n s c h e n ,  die und  is  einem  out that Mario,  i n the search,  the cabaret  realizes  clairvoyant  who  that  the roots o f the Staatsanwalt's "Angst"are t o be s o u g h t i n " Z i v i l i s a t i o n , " f o r i t i s " Z i v i l i s a t i o n " with a l l the d e v i t a l i z i n g influences i t e x e r c i s e s u p o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l , w h i c h seems t o t h e S t a a t s a n w a l t t o be p a r a d o x i c a l l y d e p r i v i n g h i m o f h i s h u m a n i t y , t o be t r a n s f o r m i n g h i s l i f e i n t o an e n d l e s s r o u n d o f " A r b e i t und P f l i c h t e r f U l l u n g . " This  may b e a r a t h e r  simplistic  which F r i s c h i s s t r u g g l i n g . Weise,  quoted  above,  sees  Clearly,  approach this  to the problem  critic,  as w e l l  no e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n  as  with Adelheid  the lives of  -66-  the  murderer  and  differentiation question not  the P u b l i c  i n h i s judgement  i s not,  arrive  i t seems,  a t any  Schweiger  definite  obviously  and  thus h i s r e v o l t ,  But  the P u b l i c  and  socially,  chooses  suggest is for  deadening,  order;  characters .  showing  there and  had  little  as  h i s hero's  Life,  life of  of order,  society,  whether  control  o v e r h i s own  position  influences  extreme  does  dull  which  routine  to control in it.  life  life,  valid. economically  his life,  However,  Schweiger's  monotonous  Frisch  of  or  one  seems  routine,  can  t h e woods,  to  which degree  deal requires  some  i t i s not necessary f o r i t to  to such a degree  as  the P u b l i c Prosecutor  imagines . For woods  is really  engaged of  her  the hero, no  perceiving escape,  f o r he  i n m e a n i n g l e s s work, desperation:  life  just  to  he  i s n e c e s s a r y t o some  and w i t h w h i c h  But  position:  position,  between a  i n the c i t y  o t h e r w i s e i t i s chaos .  become a d e a d e n i n g  the  f o r t h e a u t h o r , who  a mirror-image of  i s a difference a  But  conclusions.  i s i n a much b e t t e r  the f u n c t i o n i n g  effectively.  clear-cut  w i t h the o p p r e s s i v e  By  that  two  no  a l t h o u g h s e e m i n g l y w i t h o u t m o t i v e , was  to see h i s l i f e  existence.  that  of the  t h u s makes  Prosecutor i s i n a very different he  come t o t e r m s  P r o s e c u t o r , and  as he only  does,  sees  to s t a y  h i s escape  into  t h e same t h i n g :  alive.  Inge  too,  the  people sings  -6 7  So  i s tunser  Tag  wlirde und But  Leben  f U r Tag, und es s e i n ,  so  b i s i c h a l tb i n  sterbe--  s h e a l s o has a dream  of  escaping:  Da s t e h t e r im Zimmer plBtzlich der Graf von C-derland. Da s t e h t e r und  hat eine  A x t i n d e r Hand.  The P u b l i c P r o s e c u t o r The axe, w h i c h h e n c e f o r t h briefcase  i s suggested  he  a x e , a n d h i s own  wants  smash:  21)  her long-awaited  carries  with  by Schweiger's  burner's to  becomes  (GO*  Graf  him i n h i s  axe, Inge's  image o f t h e b a r r i e r s  the Public Prosecutor  becomes  the mythical  whoever  or whatever  hears  on  Graf stands  who  Oderland,  who  between him and complete  "Es i s t a n z u n e h m e n ,  einen Geisteskranken The is  explanation  the e a s i e s t  handelt" that  dap  o n e f o r D r . Hahn  ist  b e i diesem  with  policemen  b e i dem  h i s axe, Dr.  who  Hahn  were  announcer  Tater  . . . um  .  and  Just before meeting with  " g e w i s s e n h a f t,"  freedom.  The r a d i o  the P u b l i c Prosecutor  t o make. alles  count.  es s i c h  (GO' ko)  country  he  28)  ruthlessly k i l l s  t h e r a d i o o f t h e murder o f t h r e e  the charcoal  to freedom which  was " o r d e n t l i c h " a n d  b r u t a l l y murdered by the a x e - w i e l d i n g surmises:  everpresent  rhyme,  S t a b e . . . w i e d i e Stamme i m W a l d , d i e man f a l l e n m b c h t e , wenn man e i n e A x t h a t t e . (GO' Thus,  O'derland.  has  simply  gone  the P u b l i c Prosecutor's him,  Geisteszustand"  D r . Hahn w a r n s  (GO' 55),  Elsa:  mad  wife  Elsa  "Mb'glich  a n d when t h e P u b l i c  -68-  Prosecutor "Er  calmly  i s t verrUcktl" Although  Public of  takes h i s axe from h i s b r i e f c a s e ,  Schweiger s 1  t h e same g e n e r a l  with guilt  but lucid  the problem  a c t was u n p l a n n e d  acts.  at a l l f o rit.  these  are clearly  with which problem,  Frisch  Frisch  of judging  motivation  seems  lives;  t o have  in  a letter  And i n s a n i t y  experimented,  indicate  to arrive  clear  the Public  to Frisch,  t h e murders a r e  great  difficulties question of  An a c t i s a n i n s a n e a c t i f t h e r e releases  But  to the play  h i spreoccupation with the  a t any conclusion. reasons, which  Prosecutor i s not r e a l l y  DUrrenmatt  i s no  one from g u i l t .  T h e many e n d i n g s  There a r e comprehensible and a c c e p t a b l e the audience that  B o t h men a c t o u t  these crimes; the e t h i c a l  not insane acts.  and h i s i n a b i l i t y  and unreasoned, t h e  aware o f h i s a c t i o n s .  desperation with their  i s f a r from s o l v e d .  acts  screams,  (Gt) 58).  P r o s e c u t o r was f u l l y  criminal  Elsa  claims  that  satisfy  a madman, b u t  the motivation  enough f o r h i m : D i e z w e i t e grb"(3ere S c h w i e r i g k e i t i s t n u n , dap d e r Z u s c h a u e r O d e r l a n d b e g r e i f e n tnup, um dem S t U c k f o l g e n z u k b n n e n ; d e n n was b e i m Mb'rder e i n u n b e g r e i f l i c h e r A u g e n b l i c k war, e i n Mord, um s o u n h e i m l i c h e r , w e i l i h n n i e m a n d v e r s t e h t , a b e r doch a h n t , dap e r n i c h t ohne S i n n s e i n kann, d a s i s t n u n b e i O d e r l a n d n i c h t mehr e i n A u g e n b l i c k sondern e i nLeben. U n d d a s mup d e r Zuschauer verstehen, sonst wird Oderland e i n b l o p W a h n s i n n i g e r , e i n A m o k l a u f e r , w i e i h n Hahn nennt. E r s o l l t e d i e s e s Leben so sehr v e r s t e h e n , dap e r d i e s e r L o g i k n i c h t s e n t g e g e n s e t z e n k a n n . D i e GrUnde O d e r l a n d s s o l l t e n i n jedem F a l l e s t a r k e r a l s d i e des Zuschauers s e i n . . . O d e r l a n d s o l l t e U b e r z e u g e n . . . . A b e r es genUgte n i c h t , dap e r w i e e i n W a h n s i n n i g e r e r s c h e i n t ( e r s c h e i n t , e r i s t es n i c h t ) .  i s not  - 6  It clear  seems  that  enough what  this  -  i s a short-sighted criticism;  the Public Prosecutor's  no  ideology,  no programme,  by  violently  breaking  He i s a n i d e a l i s t ,  9  b u t seeks  t h e bonds  reasons  to attain  that  are.  i t is  He comes  a Utopia  with  o f freedom  that confine him to bourgeois  u n w i l l i n g t o make e v e n b a s i c c o m p r o m i s e s  society.  with  reality. His the  Utopia  i s the island  Public Prosecutor  of Santorin, described by Mario  and  as  e i n a l t e r e r l o s c h e n e r Vulkan, versunken e i n e I n s e l i n den Zykladen. S e h r wei(3, grell,(Gu 37)  im Meer, sehr  Und h o c h l i b e r d e n r a u s c h e n d e n B r a n d u n g : Die Stadt. Hoch liber d e r schaumenden B r a n d u n g . Eine Stadt wie aus K r e i d e , so weiB, so g r e l l , emporgetlirmt i n den Wind und i n s L i c h t , e i n s a m und f r e i , trotz i g , h e i t e r und klihn, emporgetlirmt i n e i n e n H i m m e l o h n e D u n s t , o h n e Dammerung, o h n e H o f f n u n g auf J e n s e i t s , r i n g s u m das Meer, n i c h t s a l s d i e b l a u e F i n s t e r n i s d e s M e e r e s ... (Gij 55) This  i s what  according  the Public Prosecutor  to Adelheid  Weise,  i s striving  " d i e 'Idee'  for; this i s ,  des Lebens,  eine  Allgegenwart 12  des it  MSglichen,  must be s t r e s s e d t h a t F r i s c h  anarchic of  s t a t e as an i d e a l .  confinement  reality, The  finds  absolute  that  himself  wants  the middle  But he f e e l s  to avoid  impossible  Again,  class  feeling  t h a t one c a n cope  with  does n o t even t r y .  responsibility, but  Inge depends on h i m .  freedom  hindert."  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s e e t h i s  the Public Prosecutor  Public Prosecutor finds  a n Raum u n d Z e i t  He a p p r e c i a t e s  and s u p p r e s s i o n .  something which  immediately he  d i e das S e i n n i c h t  Thus,  to attain.  from  the beginning,  Not o n l y  Inge, b u t  -70-  an  entire  the is  rebel  band  system which  oppresses  the i m p l i c a t i o n  their ask  routine  of people  that  lives,  dissatisfied  them,  most  like  the courage;  i s drawn  life  and opposed  to him f o r l e a d e r s h i p .  people would  but lack  f o r O'derland's p a p e r s ,  looks  with  into  to break  t h e Gendarme,  free  to  There from  afraid  to  t h e dream o f f r e e d o m :  Wenn man s o d e n k t , was man a n f a n g e n k b n n t e m i t diesem segeln, The  sign  revolt  Leben,  um d i e g a n z e  u n d was man h i e r  o f t h e axe on l a p e l  against  But  a society,  the anarchistic  turns  o u t t o b e t h e damp,  sick,  and there  despair  that  Welt  i n Wirklichkeit  b u t t o n s becomes  whose laws revolt  leads  stinking  i s generally  k O n n t e man  "nicht only  the widespread lebbar  sind"  of sewers.  of fear,  symbol  of  (GO' 5 6 ) .  t o more m i s e r y .  underworld  an atmosphere  t u t . (GO' 5 3 )  Santorin Inge  mistrust  becomes  and t h e  Inge e x p r e s s e s :  S a g n i c h t immer G r a f i n , d a s i s t d o c h U n s i n n . Grafin'. und d a b e i l e b e n w i r i n e i n e r K l o a k e , und s o b a l d e i n e r d i e Tlir aufmacht, s t i n k t es nach A b w a s s e r ... U n d d a s n e n n t man S a n t o r i n ' . • • • W i r s i n d v e r l o r e n , g l a u b e i c h . (GO' 6 5 ) There the  i s tight  rebels  had sought,  give himself a  r e g i m e n t a t i o n and s t r i c t  startling  and t h e P u b l i c  accepted  conclusion the revolt  to h i s s i t u a t i o n .  followers  "Man T a B t m i r k e i n e W a h l .  a n d e r n A u s w e g mehr, K i n d , a l s d i e M a c h t This  rather  i s startling of the Public  than the freedom  Prosecutor, having refused to  u p a s h i s own d i s i l l u s i o n e d decision:  order,  demanded,  comes t o  I c h habe k e i n e n  zu e r g r e i f e n "  (GO' 6 8 ) .  t o t h e audience which  never  P r o s e c u t o r as b e i n g t h e o n l y  D l i r r e n m a t t was c o n c e r n e d  that  really response  the character of  -71-  the  Public  that  P r o s e c u t o r s h o u l d be s t r o n g enough  his revolt  in  Frisch's  to  take  eyes,  power  The  i s inevitable  (see DUrrenmatt's  the revolt  i s a betrayal  unexpected  of h i s ideals  at which a l l the p o l i t i c i a n s , like  other,  brings the action  has to  turned  mannikens w i t h  into  ein  onto  the balcony,  i s actually The  the  study  Public whole  the  structure  i n the l a s t  After  s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s was t h e empty c i g a r  and the death time  A t t h e same t i m e ,  to whether  t h e s e q u e n c e was  both  the audience  an i m a g i n a t i v e nightmare. box, H i l d e ' s r e p o r t this  the audience dream o r  "Es w a r e  proves  back t o  t h e atmosphere o f u n r e a l i t y and  the president enters, the Public  confused.  alliance  Prosecutor  o f t h e crowd  a t the sudden p o s s i b i l i t y  o f t h e dog b e l i e  an  force.  of violence,  Prosecutor are relieved  freedom  refused;  When t h e P u b l i c  reaction  i n the  dream o f  of the play brings the setting  scene.  and t h e t h r e a t  muddy b o o t s ,  i s contemptuously  the frenetic  stand  and a g l a s s  Prosecutor offers  (Gu 77)•  But  h i s decision  men a n d j o u r n a l i s t s  The P u b l i c offer  and thus  The U t o p i a n  the stronger p o l i t i c a l  circular  excitement,  city  but this  above).  Prosecutor at the party  i n one hand  to a climax.  B U n d n i s m i t dem V e r b r e c h e n "  steps who  a plate  the audience  of freedom.  of the Public military  a nightmare.  t h e government,  quote  i s not inevitable,  appearance  around  to convince  simple  and the that the  But the  of shooting i n the explanation.  By  Prosecutor i s thoroughly shares  reality.  this  c o n f u s i o n as  -72-  To him  the horror  to form  mdchte  the next  werden,  "Sind  oder  But the President  zu b i l d e n ? "  uses  remain  i n the asylum:  (GC- 92) •  i n Die Physiker  Weisstein  nicht  This  to persuade  asks  d i e Machtl  Ich  puts him i n t o an a l s Mbrder  i s exactly the other  impossible  g e r i c h t e t zu  S i e e s v o r , um Ruhe u n d O r d n u n g w i e d e r  Mtfbius  As  the President  "Ich w i l l  S i e b e r e i t , Herr Doktor,  ziehep  Regierung  Prosecutor,  government.  l e b e n l " (GC- 91)-  situation:  die  of the Public  herzustellen,  t h e argument  that  two p h y s i c i s t s t o  "Entweder haben w i r g e o p f e r t  oder  gemordet."  says:  The d i a l e c t i c o f f r e e d o m and power p o s e s a dilemma f r o m w h i c h C-derland i s u n a b l e t o e x t r i c a t e h i m s e l f . A t t h e e n d o f t h e p l a y , h e i s c o r n e r e d a n d h a s no c h o i c e b u t t o wake u p - - i f i n d e e d t h i s h a s b e e n a n i g h t m a r e . 13 The within  r e v o l t f o r freedom  a new o r d e r ,  president,  as w e l l  turns  into  i t s opposite:  not necessarily better as F r i s c h , i s w e l l  than  imprisonment  the o l d one.  aware o f t h i s  The  paradox:  Wer, um f r e i z u s e i n , d i e M a c h t s t U r z t , U b e r n i m m t das G e g e n t e i l d e r F r e i h e i t , d i e Macht, und i c h v e r s t e h e I h r e n p e r s b n l i c h e n S c h r e c k v o l l a u f . (GO 92) In revolt  the f i r s t has been  another kind Das  version,  senseless,  Leben  i s t e i n Spuk,  Wande g e h t ,  In  this  that  Prosecutor  recognizes  i t has l e d n o t to freedom,  that h i s but to  of prison:  Wiederholung, da  the Public  hilft  version,  langsam b e g r e i f e  d a s i s t e s , u n d wenn man  das i s t d e r F l u c h ,  keine  Axt dagegen.  the P u b l i c  Prosecutor  i c h es--  durch d i e  das i s t die^G-renze,  Wiederholungl tries  unsuccessfully  to murder  -73-  his  wife  and  element); At and  D o k t o r Hahn  and  the  he  end  b e c a u s e he  guilty  and  commits of  the  by  in a  die  Axt  Siegl  Die  Ohnmacht d e r  sind. dap The  Public  the  Murderer  Geisteskranken,  that  der  appearance of  play  vor  the  k r a n k e r l " (GO  77)*  that  der  a  dream  window.  the  power, he  eins . das  use  of  judges  force,  himself  Was  f lir  i s t meine  Gewalt.  Fluch  beschreitenl  immer  alle,  ihn  die  geht,  ihn  d i | D i e n e r des  he  insane,  er  gegangen Wahns,  es  nicht  referring  to  the  Minister  "geflihrt  zurlickschreckt"  Prosecutor  ich  despite  i s ; the  rebellion is  nichts  Again,  of  Gewalt  wer  i s not  the  Habe  of  typical  befreie'.  Public  Irrsinnigerl  a  condemns  sind wir  als  e u c h an, uns  out  m e i n e n Weg  und  sein  Prosecutor  assumption within the  sie  Gewalt  die  Weg,  anders  Seht  die  nun  Lacherlichkeit  i s t kein  nicht  und  alle,  off:  death:  watilte  die  he  position  to  go  jumping  version,  Ich  D e n n es  "ein  is  does not  ein  wird  as  suicide  condemns h i m s e l f  l i b e r m i c h und  the  gun  second  himself  Erfahrung,  tells  (the  at  the  immer  of  von  (GC-  common the einem  62)  party,  and  later,  refers  gesagt?  Dlirrenmatt's  Interior  Ein letter  to  after him  Geistesto  Frisch:  Oderland i s t auch k e i n Narr. K e i n N a r r und kein Genie. N i e m a n d m a c h t es dem Zuschauer l e i c h t e r a l s d i e N a r r e n und d i e G e n i e s ; d i e e i n e n b e w u n d e r n s i e , und l i b e r d i e a n d e r n k a n n man lachen. Oderland i s t e i n g e w b h n l i c h e r M e n s c h , d e r das V e r r l i c k t e s t e tut. Wenn e r r i c h t i g e r f a p t w i r d , e i n e d e r schrecklichsten Gestalten, e i n e der bedrohlichsten; wenn man ihn nicht versteht, ein^gahnsinniger, und Wahnsinnige i n t e r e s s i e r e n n i c h t . There the  rest  of  are  several  the  world  as  indications mad;  that  the  Public  p r i n c i p a l l y when h e  Prosecutor  refers  to  regards  society  as  -7 k  an  "Irrenhaus der Ordnung"  t o wake up (G<j 8 6 ) ;  unsinnige Welt"  when p u t  as  he  futile  " S i e w o l l e n mich  he has  woken up:  i n t h e c a s e o f Mb'bius  into  does  thinks  I n h i s s t u d y , when h e  action,  not  though  turns  Frisch  totally  i t seems,  back  that  and  the attempt  revolt against  society  losing  the s o c i e t y  i n the end.  i s n e c e s s a r y , and  one's  machen"  getraumt  humanity.  the hero's  freedom  of  the Public  He  society,  involves  suggests that  that  one  In Karasek's  can  is  also  criminal a  learn  illusory, Prosecutor,  Although  he  in  Frisch  shows  acts,  c e r t a i n amount  Frisch  definite  thus poses  answers,  and  the problem  of  no  solutions.  sees  order  t o cope w i t h i t , w i t h o u t  words:  as he  how  and i s  O d e r l a n d w i r d j e t z t das StUck von den g e t r S u m t e n SehnsUchten, d i e s i c h i n W i r k l i c h k e i t umsetzen. A b e r n i c h t m e h r i s t d e r T r a u m n u r d e r W u n s c h , dem e n g u m g r e n z t e n , v o n d e r O r d n u n g w i e v o n Wanden umgebenem A l l t a g z u entkommen, s o n d e r n e r w i r d auch, i n d i e W i r k l i c h k e i t umgesetzt, zur c h a o t i s c h e n Gef'ahrdung, zum U r s p r u n g d e s B b s e n i n d e r W e l t . 17 Max  eine  idealism,  i s unsuccessful  to break out of h i s r o u t i n e .  a  in  he  absolute  t h e d e a d e n i n g a s p e c t s o f modern  self-defeating  "Ich habe  Romulus,  on him,  shows  condemn  and  indicates violent  irrsinnig  tries  (GO* 89) .  reaching h i s goal. but  57);  from the nightmare:  a n d when h e  Just  (GO  i t , but  presents  no  -75-  Footnotes :  1  Ulrich  Weisstein,  Max F r i s c h  Hans B S n z i g e r , F r i s c h  ^ Max F r i s c h ,  Chapter Four  Tagebuch  (New Y o r k ,  und DUrrenmatt  1946-19^9  1967),  I962),  p . 7^*  am M a i n ,  i960),  (Bern,  (Frankfurt  p - 13& •  P- 2 3 -  k p. 70.  Frisch, ^  Quotations a r e taken from references  ^  Carol  t h e Suhrkamp e d i t i o n ,  P e t e r s o n , Max F r i s c h  Helmuth  and page  a r e p r e c e d e d b y GC-.  Karasek, F r i s c h  (Berlin,  I966),  p. 39-  ( V e l b e r b e i Hannover,  I966), p . 4 7 -  8 A d e l h e i d Weise,  Untersuchungen  z u r Thematik  I969),  Dramen v o n Max F r i s c h  (Gb'ppingen,  D. B a r l o w ,  a n d 'Das w i r k l i c h e  und S t r u k t u r d e r  p • 72 •  Q of  "'Ordnung'  Max F r i s c h " ,  German L i f e  P- 5 2 . p• 55•  1  0  Barlow,  1  1  quoted  i n BSnziger, p.  Weise,  p. 74.  12 13 Weisstein,  p. I 3 2 .  15 B S n z i g e r , p . 7 0 Karasek,  p. 5^.  211.  and L e t t e r s ,  Leben'  i n t h e work  v o l . XIX  I965-I966,  ^  B'dnziger,  p . 215  17 ' Karasek,  p . 49-  -77-  Chapter  Five:  Caligula  I n o u r t i m e t h e r e a r e o n l y two p l a c e s f o r m e t a p h y s i c a l i n d i v i d u a l s , p r i s o n or the insane asylum. Witkiewicz The  Roman  emperor C a l i g u l a  i s one o f h i s t o r y ' s  many o f t h e a c t u a l  details  Suetonius'  Caesarum have been adopted  great  De V i t a  drama,  emperor's  Caligula.  erratic  the acts  Caligula of  the author's Graf  the public  political The to  o f t h e emperor  thought  and c r i t i c s  tyranny. problem  approach  than  either  to e p i l e p s y o r a potion to explore  a n d v e r y much a p a r t  Interestingly honour  as an a l l e g o r i c a l  the motives  philosophically.  i n Camus' p l a y ,  the dubious  in his first  attributes the  a n d t o e x p l a i n them  figure  f a m o u s madmen;  as r e c o r d e d i n  b y Camus  Camus a t t e m p t s  and w r i t i n g s .  Oderland  reign,  Suetonius  behaviour  Caesonia,  i s a v e r y modern  shares with by  But whereas  and c r u e l  given him by h i s w i f e for  of h i s brutal  most  enough,  this  play  of being misinterpreted p l a y about H i t l e r and  1  of Caligula's  madness  t h e same p r o b l e m  i s more complex  i n the other  plays  and  difficult  already  examined.  2 Some c r i t i c s others  accept  the analysis  have a d i f f e r e n t  is  F r a n c i s Ambriere,  un  dement,  advisable  interpretation.  who w r i t e s ,  . . . mais to reexamine  that Caligula  un e s p r i t  One o f t h e s e  "Le C a l i g u l a hante  the concept  i s c l e a r l y mad, latter  and  critics  d e M. Camus n ' e s t p a s  d'absolu."  I t i s therefore  o f madness a n d p e r h a p s  to redefine  - 87  it  when d e a l i n g w i t h In  the  case  of  this each  drama  resented  i n the  the main  c h a r a c t e r , based  in not  society. f i t the  promise  p l a y has  In  each  many-layered  case  image o f  continue  his  mysterious  respect  these  to c a r r y out  recalls  him  expectations  and  to continue  famous  h i s d u t i e s as  disappearance,  Caligula's  expectations  as  to  are  w e l l - l o v e d by  as  ideals  C a l i g u l a was  before.  at  that  The  or  not  on  his  emperor  his friends, sensitive  does  the does  Before with  and  poet  position  Oderland  Prosecutor.  a model  of  Romulus  fulfill  and  rep-  behaviour  met;  not  physicist, Public  society  the  past  a Roman e m p e r o r , M t i b i u s d o e s  t o h i s s u b j e c t s and  expected  d i s c u s s i o n , the  h i s a c t i o n s i n the  t o become a b r i l l i a n t  not  in this  certain on  drama.  people  Scipion  time:  I l me d i s a i t que l a v i e n ' e s t p a s f a c i l e , m a i s q u ' i l y a v a i t l a r e l i g i o n , l ' a r t , l'amour qu'on nous p o r t e . I I r e p e t a i t s o u v e n t que f a i r e s o u f f r i r e t a i t l a s e u l e f a c o n de s e t r o m p e r . I l voulait e t r e u n homme j u s t e . (C 31) In  the  first  scene,  disappearance, de  c o n t i n u e r " (C  continue  as  sense  any  friend  dispose?"  of  ideal  So  (C  19),  even before  says  are  be the  discussing Caligula's  confidently,  t h a t o n c e he  "Je n'aime pas parfait"  patricians  patrician  a l l would  t h r e a t to t h i s  etait  the  assuming  and  longtime  disappearance. empereur  first  19),  before  Cherea,  mai  the  i n which  "Rien  returned,  ne  things  l'empeche would  well. emperor's,  state,  anything  cela.  Mais  and  suggests  Caligula  i s the ominous  tout a l l a i t later,  appears  o n l y one about  to  Caligula's  trop bien.  Cet  "et s ' i l r e v i e n t  f o r the  first  time,  -79-  the of  audience classical  bodings  i s absorbed tragedy  of a f a l l ,  the  any  return,  changes.  described that  Caligula's  to the former  Public  w h a t h e was "Je between  reveal  One i s r e m i n d e d  i t was" ( A c t I I , sister  his first  state  he has  o f Hamlet's  "nor t h e e x t e r i o r nor scene  and m i s t r e s s  his life  that  i i ).  The  has sparked  s t y l e completely,  totally  a  a n d make  impossible.  Like  C a l i g u l a h a s become t h e o p p o s i t e  of  before.  voulais  l a lune"  ( C 2k),  Caligula  t h e moon a n d m a d n e s s h a s a l w a y s  imagination; meaning.  slave,  by the King:  peaceful  Prosecutor,  and exhausted,  a former  o f thought which w i l l a l t e r  Frisch's  and f o r e -  dirty  transformation,  return  young emperor  does  undergone profound  death of D r u s i l l a ,  a strong,  change i n t h e i d e a l s i t u a t i o n .  inward man/resembles  chain  i t :  to h i s f r i e n d Helicon,  certainly sudden  about  feeling  or a drastic  When C a l i g u l a comments  i n a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h has a vague  both  linguistically  Webster's  "originally  New W o r l d  intermittant  intensity with  the phases  says.  been v e r y  (lunar-lunacy)  Dictionary  insanity,  defines  formerly  o f t h e moon."  The r e l a t i o n s h i p close  i n man's  and i n symbolic " l u n a c y " as  supposed  Literature  follows  t o change i n is full  of  5 references clearly that  t o t h e moon a n d m a d n e s s ,  also  i n Camus' m i n d .  h e i s n o t mad:  a n d t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was  Caligula  immediately has to a s s e r t  -8o-  Mais  j e ne s u i s  aussi tout  p a s f o u e t meme j e n ' a i  raisonnable.  Simplement,  d'un coup un b e s o i n  telles  q u ' e l l e s sont, n'est  de  l a lune,  de  quelque  qui  Caligula's from  than  significance  man h a s c l e a r l y but  retains  that  Camus  The phrase  " e t r e dans  lune,  l a marche  i n the light  f o r something of recent  The c r i t i c  l e s moments h o r s  t u temps  sig-  l a l u n e " means  i n a c c e s s i b l e to  space e x p l o r a t i o n ,  C a r i n a Gadourek,  du t e m p s .  serait  maintains  Si Caligula  avait  T  A  la  borrowed  f o r Camus t h e moon h a s f u r t h e r  o f t h e moon a s a s y m b o l  symbolise  which  l a l u n e " means t o d e s i r e t h e i m p o s s i b l e .  poetic significance.  " l a lune  mais  26)  t h e moon i s a d e t a i l  And " d e s i r e r  diminished  besoin  1'immortalite,  dement p e u t ' e t r e ,  madness.  choses,  tel qu'il est  ou de  But c l e a r l y ,  to suggest  Les  J ' a i done  p a s d e c e m o n d e . (C  obsession with  be d i s t r a c t e d .  The  chose q u i s o i t  Suetonius'work.  nificance to  ou du bonheur,  senti  semblent pas  pas s u p p o r t a b l e .  ne s o i t  jamais e t e  suis  d'impossible.  n e me  s a t i s f a i s a n t e s . . . . Ce monde, fait,  j e me  a r r e t e e , l a mort  abolie."  Raymond  8 Gay-Crosier regards all,  this  force  the to  t h e moon a s r e p r e s e n t i n g " s a s o i f  as p a r t o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f N i e t z s c h e  t h e moon i s a v e r y Totally  that  sees  a p p r o p r i a t e symbol  new r e a l i z a t i o n s  and d e v a s t a t i n g r e s u l t s . nothing  first  lasts,  time.  occur  have  to him with  of the absurdity of l i f e ,  and  to themselves.  Caligula  o n Camus.  Allin  situation.  of death,  a l l their  H i s d i s c o v e r y t h a t men  awareness  and  struck Caligula with  The f i n a l i t y  h i m t o make a m o c k e r y o f l i f e .  lying  i n this  d'absolu"  the f e e l i n g  implications f o r  d i e and a r e not happy  I f men they  astounding  l i v e without are living  c a n no l o n g e r  seems  the constant  hypocritical  lives,  i d e n t i f y with the  -81-  natural,  repetitious  rhythm o f l i f e ,  o m n i p r e s e n c e a n d imminence ness  of death  s i n c e h e i s a w a r e now o f and thus  t h e seeming  the  senseless-  of l i f e . In  L e Mythe  de S i s y p h e ,  unconsciousness, lives  which  of thePublic  Oderland  before  Camus w r i t e s  i s , incidentally,  Prosecutor  their  about  this  state of  strongly reminiscent of the  and the murderer  i nF r i s c h ' s  Graf  acts of revolt:  A v a n t d e r e n c o n t r e r l ' a b s u r d e , 1'homme q u o t i d i e n v i t avec des b u t s , un s o u c i d ' a v e n i r ou de justification. I I e v a l u e s e s c h a n c e s , i l compte sur l e plus tard, s u rsa r e t r a i t e ou l e t r a v a i l de s e s f i l s . I l c r o i t e n c o r e que q u e l q u e chose dans s a v i e peut s e d i r i g e r . Au v r a i , i l a g i t comme s ' i l e t a i t l i b r e meme s i t o u s l e s f a i t s s e c h a r g e n t de c o n t r e d i r e c e t t e l i b e r t e . Apres l'absurde, tout se trouve ebranle. Having faced he  with  recognized  case,  Hisreaction  b y Camus),  murder.  hope,  Free  from  man  t h i n k s shape h i s  the  individual  a  frightening A  with  sort  La  liberty  o f freedom  excerpt  seule  liberte  from  to i t o r  of suicide,  rejects),  (a solution  o r , as i n t h i s  the "unconscious"  t u r n o u t t o be mere  illusions,  t o c r e a t e h i s own b e i n g .  I t i s  i n many w a y s . theCarnets  indicates  comes f r o m  Camus'  understanding:  p o s s i b l e e s t une l i b e r t e a  de l a mort.  celui  t h e form  Camus a l s o  but which  an i n d i v i d u a l i s  resign himself  guiding i n f l u e n c e s which  theme o f f r e e d o m w h i c h  l'egard est  can take  (which  life,  has t o t a l  revealing  this  o f t h eabsurd,  s e v e r a l c h o i c e s ; he c a n e i t h e r  can rebel.  rejected  t h epresence  L'homme v r a i m e n t  qui, acceptant  l a mort  comme  libre telle,  preoccupation  -82-  en  accepte  d u meme c o u p  c'est-a-dire valeurs Caligula all  does  the qualities  demonstrate h i s freedom by t h e negation o f which,  according  most h i g h l y : the last  part  souvent  que f a i r e  souffrir  etait  voulait  e t r e u n homme j u s t e . "  suffer.  decrees  famine  confiscates his  people's  l a seule  property  subjects .  follows  he has reached,  traditionally  accepted  justice,  avais  jusqu'ou a  he sees  itself. that  cela  decoration  d'etre  logique,  idiot.  Ils'agit  i r a " (C 109), C a l i g u l a s a y s f o r t h e man who v i s i t s  h e r e w a r d s a s l a v e who d i d n o t a d m i t  had  committed  the  antithesis of a just  In rewarding both ruler.  t o be a n a b s u r d , logical  way f r o m  In reversing  but l o g i c a l .  seulement  to himself.  thepublic brothel  and  i t .  t o death  cruelty i s the opposite  and thus h i s c r u e l t y i s n o t c h a o t i c  decide  and puts  t o make men s e e t h e a b s u r d i t y a n d  and a r b i t r a r i n e s s o f l i f e  of  seems  executions,  of the patricians,  tortures  i n a grotesquely  irrationality  values,  arbitrary  thewives  i n what  I l  o u t d e l i b e r a t e l y t o make  and p e r s o n a l l y  He a c t s  "II repetait  de s e tromper.  orders  with  quote  and j u s t i c e .  statement:  facon  them u n m e r c i f u l l y ,  way, b u t w h i c h  conclusions  of Scipion's  sleeps  (see Scipion's  a r t , love  C a l i g u l a sets  i n t h e empire,  defenseless  illogical the  He t a u n t s  to Scipion,  religion,  with  men  us s t a r t  de t o u t e s l e s  traditionelles.  above) he valued Let  l e s consequences--  l e renvers|ment  de s a v o i r He o f f e r s most  to a t h e f t even  social  apd moral  "Tu  often,  though he  crimes,  he i s  -8 3  The Venus  scene  i n which  is particularly  religious. dramatic  striking  H e l i c o n , who  acts, Une de  attraction (LES  sans  destin  Caesonia  grotesque  divine  Les  ramenes  de  sur  sa marche  contemplezl of  the  (C  terre,  obsequious  the  ever-faithful  audience  at  first,  but  becomes d e a d l y  Caligula  makes  the  t o an  of  l a foudre le  CAILLOUX),  triomphale.  p r a y e r by  Caesonia  the  frightened  i s humourous  to  the  serious i n i t s implications.  arbitrary,  goddess  une  92)  l e d by  them p r a y  une  majestueux  FEUX GREGEOIS),  patricians,  Venus,  of  in a l l his  verite,  decors  TONNEAU P L E I N DE  lui-meme dans et  parody  a l l things  aids Caligula  impressionnante  precedent.  ROULE UN  repetition  ironically,  a  s e n s a t i o n n e l l e e t demesuree,  (ON  Approchez  as  i n i t s blasphemy of  E S C L A V E S ALLUMENT DES  tonnerre  solemn  appears  the p r e s e n t a t i o n :  reconstitution l a puissance  le  with  announces  realisation  The  Caligula  unfeeling  and  cruel  goddess;  love:  Comble-nous de t e s dons, r e p a n d s s u r nos v i s a g e s ton impartiale cruaute, ta haine tout objective; o u v r e a u - d e s s u s de n o s y e u x t e s m a i n s p l e i n e s de f l e u r s e t de m e u r t r e s . (C 9*0 To  complete  financial  sacrilege,  contribution  mais  enrichir,  role  of  in  the  the  into  he  the  c"est mieux").  church  J'ai  prouve a  s'il  en  ces  This  dieux  ("Adorer,  whimsical  by  the  comment  non-believer  qu'il  q u ' u n e f a c o n de  d'etre aussi  sans  on  cruel  s ' e g a l e r aux  qu'eux.  (C  98)  compris  dieux:  i l  the  Caligula  apprentissage,  . . . J ' a i simplement  a  c'est bien,  q u ' u n homme,  exercer,  ridicule.  suffit  almost  illusoires  l a v o l o n t e , peut a  box  they a l l deposit  Scipion:  leur metier n'y  that  collection  i s made m o r e e x p l i c i t  his conversation with  a  insists  -84-  Years de  after  l'incroyant  seems  it  completion  very well  referring  particularly t o be  a  empereur a r t i s t e , Caligula  Again  he  a brief, his  stages  their  reaction The makes a  cela  Cherea garcon  n'est  a drama  openly.  aimait  pas  degrades by  Again  that  used  (C 2 1 ) .  same way central he  insisting  the  to  quote  as  love a r t  and  he  felt  . . .  True  Un  to h i s i s of  figure,  and  religion. performs  demands o b e i s s a n c e that  they  They a l l l a c k the  mocks  a r t form  admire  courage  itself  and to  and  from  defy  the  public  to a r t . other  "artistic  event"  complete mockery of  i s the  is  reduced  s p o r t , each  to a  poem b e f o r e  slapstick, emperor  indifferent  Caligula  i f i t weren't f o r t h e poems  poets,  meaning o f  crude  which  death,  poetry  breath  and  finer  poet  blows h i s w h i s t l e . f o r the  fact  i s Death.  show a  total  spirit  trying  art. of  This  a l l knowledge,"  scene  the  topic  After  the  cliche  in a  S c i p i o n ' s poem i s s u r g i n g w i t h  a  finish  might  assigned  be  pure  by  lamentations  l a c k of understanding Recited  again  Poetry,  d e s p e r a t e l y to  that  i t i s Scipion's turn.  manner,  competition, which  serious a p p r e c i a t i o n of  "the  the hack  i s the  dance.  Wordsworth's words  the  and  la litterature.  convenable"  in  his  1  situation  that quality,  trop  of a r t i n the  Thus he  1  Caligula  recognized  i n w h i c h he  grotesque  whom h e  la folie"  "La  play.  "emotion a r t i s t i q u e . "  emperor  Camus w r o t e :  S c i p i o n ' s comments,  "Ce  extremely  this  Caligula,  this  is irreverant  patricians  praise  to  to  poetry.  danger.  plan,  of  moderne e s t p r o v i s o i r e m e n t  to a p p l y Again  and  the  of  the  real  completely joy of  of  life,  -8 5  emanating  from  a consciousness  delire  sans  spirit  C a l i g u l a to endure.  As  put to  play with  love  The the at  "L'amour, C a e s o n i a ' . Caesonia,  concept  some l e n g t h  that  vivre, love  C a l i g u l a does  He h a s S c i p i o n ' s sensitivity  totally  life  que c e n ' e t a i t  comes d i r e c t l y  i s considerable  Le Theatre  d Albert 1  opposed  with  l e c o n t r a i r e d'aimer"  o n Camus  t o be a  i n r e t u r n and t e s t i n g h e r  i n an e a r l y c o n v e r s a t i o n  negates  father  and l o v e  Caesonia  to h i s behaviour,  c'est  1  ("mon  f o rh i s kindred  He f o r c e s  J ' a i appris  i n Gay-Crosier s  rien, k2).  (C  from  Nietzsche;  and i s d i s c u s s e d Camus.  In this  words: Caligula  n'est  application reaction leurs Caligula's and  A clue  i s given  influence of Nietzsche  author's  a yoyo.  of death  himself,  feelings.  giving her l i t t l e  Camus b e l i e v e s ,  . . Vivre,  loved  advantage o f S c i p i o n ' s  f o r him to t h e l i m i t .  what  those  his feelings like  to h i s actions,  Caesonia: .  and takes  too powerful  and b e i n g  p o s s i b l e to negate  to death  party  to  e s p o i r " ) , and i s even  f o r loving others,  everything  o f t h e imminence  totally Cherea  t o what  really  views  to Caligula.  understands  m a i s une  extremes e t  absurdes.  view o f love  expresses  who  leurs formules  consequences  opposed  opposition  p a r l e r une  des canons n i e t z s c h e e n s ,  contre  negative  his  pas, a proprement  as a l i f e  Camus h i m s e l f  force  believed.  c l o s e r to those Apart  t h e emperor,  from  i s anti-Christian  o f Camus when h e  explains  S c i p i o n , he i s t h e o n l y one  and f o r that  reason,  sees  that  -86-  he  has t o be s t o p p e d .  revenge, for  Cherea  self-aggrandizement  J'ai  l e gout  plus bizarre  la  realite.  1'autre  but simply a  desire  Je crois  born  o f deep u n d e r s t a n d i n g  playing  madness new  to force  recorded  directions  debut  then. acting;  b u t i t i s a madness  about  t h e human  decides  reminded  people's  and that  he i s p u t t i n g  h i s subjects to fear  of gambling,  when C a l i g u l a  de l a p i e c e , " i m p l y i n g t h a t  He i s c o n s t a n t l y u s i n g i . e . "Couvrons-nous  of Caligula,  with  l a premiere  he has been a c t i n g  language  as  The s t a g e  i n A c t I I I , scene pour  have  i t s various  and r o l e - p l a y i n g .  i l semble,  Caligula  c o n s t a n t l y and thus  "Le J o u e u r , "  r e c e i v e s Cherea  be " n a t u r e l ,  that  o n a mask o f c r u e l t y a n d  subtitle  game-playing  orthe  of the f r a g i l i t y and  death  The o r i g i n a l was  condition.  destinies.  However, o n e i s c o n s t a n t l y aware  f o rl i f e .  t h e emperor  toutes ses  i s to replace nature,  i t i s that  i n Camus' C a r n e t s ,  connotations  n i l'un n i  o f madness,  i n h i s campaign  t o be continually  a role,  et d'etre  etre  dans  and l u c i d i t y  o r whatever  of l i f e .  reverence  that  goal  people  tenuousness  l'absurde  a good d e f i n i t i o n  Caligula's  e n t r e r dans  de v i v r e  (C 113)  i s perhaps  wants  en une seconde  q u ' o n ne p e u t  en poussant  La  I l s sont  dans u n u n i v e r s o u l a p e n s e e  peut  This  or fate,  comme m o i .  . . . J ' a i envie  consequences.  gods,  sont  de v i v r e  la  heureux.  le  hatred,  e t l e b e s o i n de l a s e c u r i t e .  d e s hommes  incapables  is  o r pure  by a desire f o r  happiness:  plupart  He  i s not motivated  which- s u g g e s t s  vi, insist fois  a role  depuis until  h i s conscious  d o n e d e m a s q u e s " ( C 111), " J ' a i j o u e "  (C85).  -8 7  His  theatrical  representations  discussed  above a r e p a r t  of  this  elaborate role-playing. Just Caligula social  as Mbbius too wears  reasons  sophical becomes  plays  t h e madman a n d R o m u l u s  a mask.  But whereas Mbbius  f o r a c t i n g as they  and i d e o l o g i c a l . the reverse  o f what  One i s i n e v i t a b l y with to  those  affairs  Treasury, Caligula  less  scene between the  nature  d e r Grope  with  around  details  t h e Roman  Romulus  games  him, h i s t o t a l i n d i f f e r e n c e  (Romulus  raises  the State chickens,  and h i s complete  E m p i r e f o r i t s own  sake.  h a v e come s t r a i g h t  and X m i l i a n  and i n d i c a t e s both  o f t h e emperor's  Caligula  h i s remarks about  and S c i p i o n c o u l d  between  are philo-  i n t h e way h e p l a y s  i n painting h i s toenails),  Caligula  conversation  Romulus  people  have  before.  o f s t a t e and i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  f o rmaintaining  a n d Romulus  the Public Prosecutor,  r e m i n d e d o f Romulus  h i s preoccupation  the f o o l ,  do, C a l i g u l a ' s m o t i v e s  h e was  intelligent  i s absorbed  unconcern  Like  plays  This  from  i n A c t I I Io f  the l o g i c a l  and p a r a d o x i c a l  thought:  Caligula:  S a i s - t u c o m b i e n de g u e r r e s j ' a i  Scipion:  Non.  Caligula:  Trois.  refusees?  ai Scipion:  Et sais-tu  pourquoi  jel e s  refusees?  Parce  que t u f a i s  f l de l a g r a n d e u r  de  Rome. Caligula:  Non, p a r c e humaine.  However,  while  Caligula  acts  Romulus  vjanted  on t h e b a s i s  que j e r e s p e c t e  la vie  ( C 100) to destroy  a warring  civilization,  of h i s abstract, philosophical ideas.  -88-  Romulus'  q u a r r e l was w i t h men,  Like of  Romulus,  Caligula  Both  men c o u n t  on t h e i r  Romulus b y O d o a k e r . Caligula  wants  t h e gods.  pensioned was  wrong,  because, Near  deaths;  t o make h i s d e a t h The t w i s t  of fate  Caligula  and he savours  life  Romulus a n d C a l i g u l a quite simply,  has taken Scipion:  Caligula:  later,  nizes  that  h i m a n d who Caligula  plot  the hatred  to assassinate  by h i s s u b j e c t s , and  t o buy peace w i t h  h i s death;  rather that  a t t h e end r e a l i z e s  of fate  that  h i s campaign  with  their  to the b i t t e r end. can follow  to confiscate  through  o f Rome, Scipion  each  has u n l i m i t e d power.  i s aghast  a t the steps  goods a n d t o e x e c u t e  people:  c ' e s t un j e u q u i n'a pas de  emperor  that  does  Caligula  i s serious,  give Caligula  complete  Cherea  recog-  freedom  to use  power a s he w a n t s : Les  empereurs  celui-ci en  lui,  doute,  plans  l i m i t e s . C ' e s t l a r e c r e a t i o n d'un f ou. Non, S c i p i o n , c ' e s t l a v e r t u d ' u n empereur. J e v i e n s de c o m p r e n d r e e n f i n l ' u t i l i t e du p o u v o i r . I I donne s e s chances a 1'impossible. Aujourd'hui e t p o u r t o u t l e temps q u i v a v e n i r , ma l i b e r t e n ' a p l u s d e f r o n t i e r e s . ( C 36)  when i t i s c l e a r being  t h e gods.  a way a s t o e a r n  h i s decision,  as emperor  Mais  with  i n D l i r r e n m a t t ' s p l a y h a s Romulus  t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e drama,  Caligula  his  i n such  Romulus wants  off, while  Both  And  acts  h i s s u b j e c t s who do n o t u n d e r s t a n d  him.  or  Caligula's  f o u s , nous  n'est  pas assez  c'est qu'il ce n'est  sait  connaissons fou.  ce q u ' i l  pas l a premiere  cela.  Mais  E t c e que j e d e t e s t e veut.  fois  . . . Sans  que, chez  -89-  nous, mais  u n homme d i s p o s e c'est  limites, Closely has  connected  i s free  absurdity to  jusqu'a  nier  of l i f e ,  conquiert  romain,  t h a t madness? such  of  53)  i s the freedom  having  illusions;  Caligula  freedom,  recognized the  he i s i n f a c t  The o t h e r s ,  still  forced  living  without  et qui l e reconnait  seul  hais  tout  libre. venu un  l a liberte.  Yes, b u t i t i s madness  a label  j e vous  Dans  est enfin  enseigner  (C  38)  i n the sense  d i s c u s s e d i n C-derland,  a well-known  p i n n i n g such  sense;  E t justement,  i l vous  as h a s been  Germaine Bree,  power  pas l i b r e s .  me v o i c i  empereur pour vous  idealism  sans  e t l e monde. (C  importance,  sa l i b e r t e .  Rejouissez-vous,  Is  limites,  are not free:  que vous n ' e t e s  1'Empire  from  sans  s'en s e r t  that kind of physical  consciously.  monde e s t s a n s  parce  l'homme  Besides  he i s f r e e  consciousness, Ce  qu'il  i n a philosophical  c r e a t e h i s own l i f e  that  fois  to h i s absolute  t o behave as he w a n t s .  Caligula  d'un p o u v o i r  l a premifere  Romulus  Camus s c h o l a r , a n a l y s e s  of fanatic  a n d Mb'bius.  the d i f f i c u l t y  on him:  C a l i g u l a , C h e r e a w a r n s , i s a man moved b y t h e h i g h e s t and most m o r t a l p a s s i o n , a " p h i l o s o p h y w i t h o u t o b j e c t i o n s " , n e g a t i n g man a n d t h e w o r l d . A n d C a l i g u l a i s " t h e o n l y a r t i s t who h a s b r o u g h t his thought and h i s a c t i o n i n t o harmony." Therein l i e s h i s p o w e r , t h e a t t r a c t i o n w h i c h emmanates from him and h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e . He i s t h e mad e m p e r o r who, i n Camus' e y e s , h o l d s s w a y o v e r a t i m e - our time--which tends t o c o n s i d e r an i n d i v i d u a l l i f e a s n o t h i n g c o m p a r e d t o t h e moon, t h a t s y m b o l of a n y i d e a l s t a t e l y i n g beyond t h e l i m i t s o f o u r present lives.^3 After Caesonia,  his first "Caius  encounter  with  e s t un i d e a l i s t e ,  Caligula, toute  H e l i c o n remarks t o  l e monde  le sait"  ( C 29),  -90-  and  Caesonia's  Cherea  and S c i p i o n ,  kindred him.  spirit  both  i s that  C a l i g u l a has "trop  idealists,  and t h e r e f o r e  recognize  are the only  d'ame"  "on n e p e u t a i m e r  s o i " ( C 112) .  nous b r u l e Scipion,  celui  de c e s  Similarly, Scipion  l e coeur"  theartist,  ( C 12 ) . 3  ones  really  visages  that  B u t whereas Cherea  between C a l i g u l a , Cherea and S c i p i o n  3  to understand I n Cherea's  qu'on e s s a i e  recognizes  cannot have any p a r t  (C 1 8) •  i n t h e emperor a  T h e y u n d e r s t a n d him, a n d r e j e c t what he h a s done.  words, en  diagnosis  of i t .  de m a s q u e r  " l a meme  leads  flamme  the assassins,  The d i f f e r e n c e s  are explained  by  Gay-Crosier:  E v i d e m m e n t , o n n e p e u t i d e n t i f i e r Camus a u n d e s p e r s o n n a g e s de l a p i e c e . C a l i g u l a n'est pas l ' a u t e u r , m a i s u n e t e n t i o n q u i menace a une c e r t a i n e epoque de p r e n d r e l e d e s s u s . Scipion et C h e r e a s y m b o l i s e n t l e s d e u x p e n c h a n t s d e l'ame camusienne. S c i p i o n e s t 1 ' a r t i s t e q u i c e d e d e temps a a u t r e a l a g r i s e r i e l i t t e r a i r e e t q u i ne s a i t s ' e l a n c e r que v e r s un a c t e v e r b a l . Cherea apparait e n homme d ' a c t i o n q u i n e g l i g e q u e l q u e f o i s s e s s c r u p u l e s pour s ' a p p r o c h e r un peu de ce q u ' i l a p p e l l e bonheur.^3 Each o f t h e characters almost  f a n a t i c sense,  bitter  end, each n e g l e c t s  l a r g e l y what of  i nthis  discussion  but i n the course of pursuing r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to those  c o n s t i t u t e s h i s "madness."  h i s e n t i r e empire and s p e c i f i c a l l y  family; rebel  Mb'bius k i l l s  band,  humiliates, suffering,  puts  the kind  and k i l l s .  b u t t h e one l u c i d  Each  h i s idea  i n an to the  around him; t h i s i s  Romulus p e r m i t s  theavoidable  nurse Monika;  them i n a n u n t e n a b l e  tortures  i s an i d e a l i s t  the suffering  death o f h i s  Oderland,  as head  of a  s i t u a t i o n , and C a l i g u l a i s i n a p o s i t i o n to prevent the  and l o g i c a l  idea  behind  the actions of  -91-  each  "madman" b l i n d s  most  repugnant,  je  n ' a i pas  toujours normal"  him  i s the  least  t e l l e m e n t de  libre  au  to r e a l i t y .  depens  blind  faeons de  Caligula,  t o what he  de  prouver  quelqu'un.  i s doing:  que  C'est  whose a c t s  je suis  are  the  "Apres  tout,  libre.  ennuyeux, mais  On  est  c'est  68).  (C  Camus h i m s e l f saw that motivated h i s  more c l e a r l y  than any  critic  the  "tragic  error"  hero:  S i ( l a ) v e r i t e ( d e C a l i g u l a ) e s t de s e r e v o l t e r c o n t r e l e d e s t i n , s o n e r r e u r e s t de n i e r l e s hommes. On n e p e u t t o u t d e t r u i r e s a n s s e d e t r u i r e s o i - m e m e . C ' e s t p o u r q u o i C a l i g u l a d e p e u p l e l e monde a u t o u r d e l u i e t , f i d e l e a sa l o g i q u e , f a i t ce q u ' i l f a u t p o u r armer c o n t r e l u i ceux q u i f i n i r o n t p a r l e t u e r . C a l i g u l a e s t 1 ' h i s t o i r e d'un s u i c i d e s u p e r i e u r . C ' e s t 1 ' h i s t o i r e de l a p l u s h u m a i n e e t de l a p l u s t r a g i q u e d e s e r r e u r s . I n f i d e l e a l'homme, p a r f i d e l i t e a lui-meme, C a l i g u l a c o n s e n t a m o u r i r p o u r a v o i r c o m p r i s q u ' a u c u n e t r e ne p e u t se s a u v e r t o u t s e u l e t q u ' o n ne p e u t £ t r e l i b r e c o n t r e l e s a u t r e s hommes. I I s ' a g i t d o n e d ' u n e t r a g e d i e de 1'intelligence. As on  Camus p o i n t s  i t i n much  spiracy  comes,  and  Caligula  t h e same way  against  Romulus,  out,  his life,  dreams  Caligula  about  as  Romulus  even  t h e way  n'ai  l a voie  n'est of  l a bonne"  fate- has  life he  pas  negated  objectively  had  planned.  does.  he  will  s u d d e n l y becomes aware o f  before h i s death,  pris  qu'il  (C  15*0  their  and That  Just  be the  He  h i s death;  knows a b o u t  tells  him,  attacked. tragic  as  that  je n'aboutis a Romulus so  and  h i s t r a g e d y and  the does  When t h e moment  rien.  Ma  Mb'bius f i n d suddenly  were not  h i s madness.  counts  con-  he  h i s death.  does C a l i g u l a  his ideals  as  he  e r r o r which  desperately fears  sacrifice,  understand is  and  fallait, •  towards  before Helicon  made, m i n u t e s pas  d i d work  has  "Je  liberte a  twist see h i s  realized  as  -92-  Footnotes :  1  Germaine Bree,  Carina  Camus  Chapter  (New  Five  Brunswick,  Gadourek, Les I n n o c e n t s  1959)>  N.J.,  et l e s Coupables  1^9-  P-  (The  Hague,  1963), P- 39Francis  Ambriere,  "La G a l e r i e  Societfe d ' H i s t o i r e  du T h e a t r e ,  d r a m a t i q u e , " Revue  i960,  IV,  de l a  8l.  p.  4 Quotations Caligula,  are taken and page  from  the L i v r e  references  de P o c h e  are preceded  edition  by  of  C.  5 For  example: It  i s the very error  She  o f t h e moon.  comes m o r e n e a r e r e a r t h  A n d makes men  than  s h e was  wont  mad. Othello,  A c t V,  scene i i  Demoniac f r e n z y , moping m e l a n c h o l y , And m o o n - s t r u c k madness. Paradise ^  Ilona  Coombs,  ^  Gadourek,  p.  Lost,  Camus, Homme d e T h e a t r e  Book  XI  (Paris,  line  485  I968),  p.  42.  8 Gay-Crosier,  9 ^ 1  1  p.  72-  Albert  Camus, L e M y t h e  quoted  i n Gadourek, p .  quoted  i n Gadourek, p.  de S i s y p h e  3  5•  227-  12 13 14  Gay-Crosier,  p.  6l.  Bree, p. 166. quoted i n Gay-Crosier, p.  57-  (Paris,  1942),  p.  80.  7 . 3  -93-  Chapter  Six:  Conclusion  Much madness i s d i v i n e s t To a d i s c e r n i n g e y e ;  sense  Much s e n s e t h e s t a r k e s t m a d n e s s . 'Tis the m a j o r i t y I n t h i s , as a l l , p r e v a i l s . A s s e n t , and you a r e s a n e : Demur,--you're  In an French  And  handled  essay  about  critic  R.  straightway  with  the  Trousson  dangerous,  a chain. Emily Dickinson  study  of  themes  in literature,  the  writes:  t o u t e e t u d e composee d'une j u x t a p o s i t i o n d ' o e u v r e s , t o u t e e t u d e q u i n ' e s t qu'un a s s e m b l a g e de m o n o g r a p h i e s s a n s r e l i e f , s a n s a r r i e r e - p l a n e t sans l i e n , q u i groupe des o e u v r e s s u r l a s e u l e p a r e n t e a r t i f i c i e l l e de l e u r s t i t r e s s a n s c h e r c h e r a decouvrir les realites multiples qu'ils r e c o u v r e n t , ne s a u r a i t e t r e a d m i s e comme u n e enquete thematologique bien comprise n i b i e n menee.l Although  the  previous  chapters  madman i n d r a m a m o r e o r and  only  will  proceed  emerged to  the most  the  century  from  obvious  isolate  the  dramas  and  a b o u t men  the v e i n which  the  theme o f  Trousson  p a r a l l e l s h a v e b e e n drawn,  as w e l l  observations  drama.  in  analyse the  f o u r dramas.  f o u r dramas  revealing modern  to  less  have d e a l t w i t h  as  who  can  be  By  principal  making r e f e r e n c e s are  considered  made a b o u t  mad,  indicates,  the  themes  d i s c u s s i n g these  themes  to other  conclusion as in  of  they relation  twentieth  i t i s hoped  the. n a t u r e  the  that  some  "madness" i n  One insists  o f t h e most that  obvious  h e i s someone e l s e .  a man f e i g n i n g m a d n e s s assume an e n t i r e l y  identity in  even  pageant  obtain  of their device  IV.  A man f a l l s  madness.  costumes  After  I  that  he r e a l l y  years,  fantasy.  The  consciously  selves being  madness  twelve  who c a l l  elderly  i n Die Physiker  have  La Folle  their  great  true  effectiveness  his horse  to permit  playing mad.  i na  historical  After the  him to l i v e  out h i s  h i s memory b u t  t h e r o l e o f Henry IV, w i t h o u t  As he  it--this  explains:  I found  f o rthis  new  everything  exquisite  madness o f m i n e - -  consciousness.  themselves  Newton a n d E i n s t e i n d i s g u i s e  they can pursue  i s a refuge,  difficulty  is_ H e n r y IV, a n d h i s f r i e n d s  I n the case o f Henry  years  Giraudoux'  live  lucid  a s madmen s o t h a t  given), which  I would  suspected.  from  t o r e m a i n mad, s i n c e  t h e most  scientists  T h e two s p i e s  he i n e x p l i c a b l y regains  r e a d y a n d a t my d i s p o s a l with  h e i s mad i s t o  the r o l e of Henry IV.  h e i s no l o n g e r  preferred  that  i s used with  and f u r n i s h i n g s  twelve  to continue  revealing  that  he  o n e o f t h e e a s i e s t ways f o r  insanity until  This  i n which he i s p l a y i n g  period  chooses  Enrico  he i n s i s t s  Thus,  o f N e w t o n a n d E i n s t e i n , a n d h a v e no  i s revealed.  accident  someone i s mad i s t h a t  identity.  the audience  Pirandello's  that  to persuade others  ludicrous  assume t h e i d e n t i t i e s persuading  signs  their  p a r t i c u l a r aims  I V (whose r e a l  because he cannot  bear  themwithout  name i s n e v e r  to face  t h e changes  i n e v i t a b l y wrought. de C h a i l l o t  introduces  four  l a d i e s who a r e c e r t a i n l y "mad" i n t h e e y e s  charming  of the world.  -95-  But  t h e i r madness,  the  reality  of  life  that he she  that  still  o f Henry,  t h e y do n o t l i k e . lover  dearly.  accompanied  ago.  Thus,  we r e a l i z e t h a t conscious For is  also  h e r everywhere.  the scientist a refuge,  i n her life,  she chose  lover  In the case  does  although  to pretend  a mild  form  which  that  talks  he  toher  seem e c c e n t r i c ,  of these  Mb'bius i n D U r r e n m a t t ' s  of a slightly  King  Solomon a p p e a r s  characters,  a t the however,  of insanity, but  different nature.  t o him, i s he f r e e  without  By  h i sdiscoveries  hiding  Die Physiker,  O n l y b y f e i g n i n g madness,  research,  having  t o answer from  to carry  to the world  the world,  It i sa  madness refuge  by maintaining  that  out h i s s c i e n t i f i c f o rh i s d i s c o v e r i e s .  he p r o t e c t s  i tfrom  des-  itself .  Madness  as a r e f u g e  for  the behaviour  The  eldest  his  pretends  pretense.  responsibility.  from  is still  from  the aspects  Aurelia  A n o l d woman who  i ti s not delusion,  from  troying  to ignore  f o r example,  When t h e d o g d i e d ,  l e a s t , p r o b a b l y mad.  escape  C o n s t a n c e h a d a d o g named D i c k i e ,  i m a g i n a r y dog, o r to an i m a g i n a r y very  i s a conscious  They choose  Adolphe Bertaut  h e r many y e a r s  loved  that  o f t h e modern w o r l d .  h e r former  left  like  of Frantz  son o f a powerful  childhood capacity  retelling  from  responsibility i s also  i n Sartre's  as l i e u t e n a n t ,  the story  Les Sequestres  German i n d u s t r i a l i s t ,  to succeed h i s f a t h e r . captured  the  explanation  d'Altona.  Frantz  was  groomed  When t h e w a r came, F r a n t z , i n peasants  and t o r t u r e d  them.  t o h i s s i s t e r - i n - l a w Johanna as he would  have  In  -96-  liked  i t t o have happened,  nothing he  t o prevent  locked  thirteen He  years,  makes d a i l y  tribunal of  himself  je verrai  the world It  that  which,  either  c'etait  there f o r  succeed  an  defeat.  imaginary  man a s to face  mon r e f u g e ;  que  he does n o t want  t o s e e how D l i r r e n m a t t ' s  he does  refrain  seeing his  Johanna,  avez  rulers reality.  deviendre-je  t o answer t o  This  By doing  reacts  have  says  liked  t o Johanna:  a l l untrue.  Innocence  Neither d i d  i n t h e w a r , n o r was G e r m a n y  per-  o f R o m u l u s , who, a s E m p e r o r  o f t h e madman b y n o t f u l f i l l i n g  nothing,  t o have  J ' a i tue l'Allemagne par  i s o f course  But i t i s t h e case  to a  grow b a r b a r i c a n d  a f f a i r e a un puceau.  b i e n me s o u r i r e .  from p a r t i c i p a t i n g  the part  would  A t one p o i n t , F r a n t z vous  Romulus  country  e x a c t l y what F r a n t z  ( S d ' A 301)-  Rome, p l a y e d  So  will  before  t h a t he r e f u s e s  L i k e Mbbius,  Faced with  manently destroyed.  overrun  t h e war,  t h e r i s e o f Germany f r o m  of h i s "testimony"  Johanna,  l e jour?"  r e t u r n from  and has remained  he i s convinced,  se delabre;  Vous p o u v i e z  sensiblerie"  Emperor.  tapes  i s , nothing.  "Rassurez-vous  of  a n u p s t a i r s room,  recorded  situation.  garantie.  On h i s  for his actions.  imperialistic,  Frantz  into  i s interesting  similar  done:  Germany's d e f e a t .  He i s mad i n t h e s e n s e  " D e j a ma f o l i e quand  t h a t h i s e r r o r was i n d o i n g  so as n o t t o w i t n e s s  of crabs  the earth.  he c l a i m s  he d e s t r o y e d  the role of  Rome b y p e r m i t t i n g  i t t o be  by the Teutons. f a r , we h a v e  discussed  c h a r a c t e r s who h a v e  by assuming an i m p o s s i b l e  identity  (Newton,  feigned  madness  Einstein,  Henry I V ) ,  -97-  or  by  p r e t e n d i n g to b e l i e v e  does not Aurelia  exist. has  Constance  her Adolphe  Solomon d i c t a t e s Romulus w e a r s enables The  him  idea  certainly and  has  La  de  t o him;  F r a n t z makes  Chaillot  pretends  daily  the  image o f a  fool  has  central  assumed  i s an  the  Chaillot  i n the  are  (everyone  to b e l i e v e  and  dressed  as  on  of  superficial  significance.  dancer,  wears  stage  and  Caligula  figure),  those and  two her  a mask o f m a d n e s s a n d  on  the  the  world.  costume  Die  Physiker  scientists)  but  In  and  costumes i s  and  friends  playacting, puts  that  i s i n period  old-fashioned elegance.  costumes  while  motives  o r a madman t o  on  simply  c o n f e s s i o n s to h i s Crabs .  of a h i s t o r i c a l  i n which A u r e l i a  style  emphasis  and  IV  identity  "Einstein"  de  deliberately  to Henry  which  Dickie,  t h e c h a r a c t e r s c o n s c i o u s l y a s s u m i n g masks o r  Folie  there  Folie  something  a mask w h i c h h i d e s h i s t r u e f e e l i n g s  ("Newton" a n d as  of La  existence of  B e r t a u t ; Mbbius  to present  of  i n the  as  dress  well  very  Caligula  o f a much  costume o f  cruelty  to f r i g h t e n  in identity  i s somewhat  a  less  ballet his  subjects. The i n Max the  concept  Frisch s  convincing  of  sudden  change The  Public  the m y t h i c a l Graf Oderland  people  opposite,  thus  he  i s not  the  it  i s the abrupt  other  a  Graf ijderland.  1  identity  of  that  he  i s mad.  radically  changing  same p e r s o n  h e was  change  characters that  he  Rather,  P r o s e c u t o r does not f o r the he  Again  i n h i s c h a r a c t e r and is  mad.  express  switches  his life-style, before.  different  as  and  purpose  over so  into  of  his  fundamentally  i n the other  activities  assume  that  plays,  convinces  -98-  Roles Ermordung Hospizes  a n d p l a y a c t i n g make P e t e r Jean Paul  Marats  dargestellt  zu Charenton unter  Anleitung  complex  contemporary dramas.  inmates  o f an insane  rather  than  playing  The a c t o r s  asylum;  personality,  priest  as he i s a l s o  they  Charlotte  Corday,  by  s u f f e r i n g from melancholia  Closely which  Mirrors  the idea  an important  lore.  From  Glass,  t h e theme h a s u n d e r g o n e  the  emperor  despair mirror. Henry  Snow W h i t e  that  him face  part  countless  o f Marat  beliefs.  i s played The  roles to very  of himself  the paintings  i s the idea  to face with fairy  to A l i c e  variations.  good  motif  of mirrors,  himself.  tales  Through  and f o l k the Looking  I t i s not  i n Camus' C a l i g u l a ;  and a t t h e end, i n a g e s t u r e o f  a n d what h e h a s done, h e smashes t h e  i s particularly well  When t h e new c o u r t i e r " B e r t h o l d "  rooms, h e s e e s  suited to h i s  sickness; ( i . e .  i n legends,  i s an important  T h e theme o f m i r r o r s  IV.  of identity  talks to h i s r e f l e c t i o n ,  and r e j e c t i o n  one p a t i e n t ,  and s l e e p i n g s i c k n e s s ) .  and t h e Seven Dwarfs  the mirror  " s a n e " men,  political  their  are a l l  drama.  the viewer and brings  have p l a y e d  surprising  for his  o f madmen p l a y i n g o t h e r  many-layered  play  At least  completely  sharply with  r e l a t e d t o the concept  reflect  de Sade o n e o f t h e most  the Joan of A r c - l i k e murderess  has used  i n this  des  o f madmen.  i n the asylum  r o l e s which  effect  d i e Schauspielgruppe  i n the Marquis'  Roux, h a s a r o l e  contrast  und  a r e t h u s madmen a c t i n g  Some p l a y  dramatist  durch  drama, D i e V e r f o l g u n g  des H e r r n  " s a n e " men a c t i n g t h e r o l e  the radical  a girl  Weiss'  o f Henry  developed i n  i s being  shown a r o u n d t h e  I V a n d Donna M a t i l d a  twenty  years  -99-  ago,  and  is told  by L a n d o l p h , Well,  Landolph:  to Berthold:  I  which  midst  see,  say,  doctor's  d r e s s i n g F r i d a as  as  his  we  have  uncle,  The relevant  the  Henry  idea  critic to  her IV,  valets:  have  two  living  which,  lived  mirrors  images  as  with  you us,  in  will comes  too. look  mother  here  .  desire  .  to  . I've go  mad  no here.  i s t o make t h e  i n the  e x a c t l y as  of mirrored  p i c t u r e , and  (H 1*1-5)  pictures Charles  they were twenty years  "come de  ago.  alive"  Nolli Again  images.  Thomas B i s h o p w r i t e s  a l l the  back  a world  scheme f o r c u r i n g H e n r y  by  other  i f t h e r e were  w h e n you  life  the  cast  of  particular The  of  i t ' s as  there, the  one  characters  we  about Henry  IV  h a v e m e n t i o n e d , who  i n a way  which  h a v e assumed  is new  identities : The p r o b l e m o f p e r s o n a l i t y i s c o m p l i c a t e d b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e to h i m s e l f . O f t e n as a r e s u l t of s h a t t e r i n g experiences i n the world, a p e r s o n i s so d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h h i m s e l f t h a t he c a n no l o n g e r b e a r t o l i v e w i t h t h e i m a g e t h a t he sees o f h i m s e l f . A t t h i s p o i n t he begins a p r o c e s s t h a t P i r a n d e l l o terms " c o n s t r u i r s i , " to c o n s t r u c t o n e s e l f . This process involves a d o p t i o n o f a new p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t h e n c e f o r t h w i l l be p r e s e n t e d n o t o n l y t o s o c i e t y b u t t o the i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f , t h e r e b y e n a b l i n g him to l i v e with himself. I t i s pure deception, yet a v e r y n e c e s s a r y one, f o r no one who considers h i m s e l f too base can endure l i f e . Thus p e o p l e don masks whose d u a l f u n c t i o n i s t o o f f e r a p l e a s i n g a s p e c t t o o t h e r s a n d t o g i v e -a m e r c i f u l l y d e l u d i n g r e f l e c t i o n to t h e m i r r o r t h a t the w e a r e r must o f t e n h o l d t o h i s f a c e . Of (i.e.  course,  Caligula),  some o f do  not  the  masks a d o p t e d  present  "a  by  characters  pleasing aspect"  in this  to others,  study but  -100-  rather that  a hideous  remain  Thus,  at  the  of  insanity.  their  Doktor  forced  King  act those  Solomon.  Zahnd  and  "Now, (H  f a t e which  and  the hero i s forced  we'll  have  to  that  lives  and  assumed  retain  into  surrounds  ... h e r e we  per-  Fraulein  t h e y would  the  the  have  "Einstein" identity  i s f o l l o w e d i n Henry acting  agree  to convince others that  assumes  to r e t r e a t  become  three physicists  "Newton" and now  instances  t h e masks  reveals  i s merely  He  i n several  means t h a t  case.  Mbbius  h i s masquerade f o r e v e r .  yes  their  merely  t h e same p a t t e r n  he  his rival,  of  i s a c t u a l l y mad,  characters,  Exactly  least  P h y s i k e r , the  t h e y had of  i t happens  or at  of Die  t h e r e i n any  that  continue  end  twist  When i t i s r e v e a l e d kills  reality;  that  The  to remain  case,  f o r the r e s t  identities  M a t h i l d e von  always  the  i n the asylum  manently  been  In either  t h e m a s k s become t h e  permanent. to  one.  role  of  IV. of  Henry,  his insanity  and  himself with his  are... together  will  ...  valets:  foreverl"  208). The  Justice  borderline decrees  certi.fiably  that  insane.  the  author  and  committed  that  between crime  of  a man  I t seems  the crime in total  the person  i s not that  i s judged lucid  responsible  and  madness  responsible i f a crime insane.  be  punished.  The  has  by  artist  to conform  t o an to  asylum  i t s rigid  but  he  i f he  is  unconsciously,  i s motivated  same p r o b l e m  the.Nun.  has  clear.  courts generally  a s o c i e t y which  laws,  crime  i s committed  consciousness, the  Madman a n d  committed  for a  always  I f the crime  S t a n i s l a w W i t k i e w i c z ' drama The been  i s not  The forces  been  arises  poet even  decree in  Walpurg a  creative  " c u r e d " ( i f he  -101-  e v e r was his on  sick)  by  straitjacket  he  the head w i t h  exclaims:  "You  the  tender  kills  an  care of  Sister  h i s o l d enemy, D r .  a pencil. are  loving  Sister  utter  Anna's  madman.  Anna.  Bidello,  superior,  And  i f not,  Freed  by  tapping  Sister  you  from him  Barbara,  a r e an o r d i n a r y  5 criminal!  I f W a l p u r g was  sick  not  responsible for his actions.  But  the  him. for I  c l e v e r Walpurg  "That  b l o w on  the murder,  do  i n the  nurse,  the  skull  from  now  rather  than  face a  the  consequences  the  world. Both  partly  because  in  plays,  the  c u r e d me.  cured,  I will  be  t h e n he  t h e n he  T h a t ' s why  is  Bidello  I'm  is  responsible. cured  not r e s p o n s i b l e  responsible for everything  three p h y s i c i s t s ,  of  of  their  and  acts,  Frisch's  the murders  these murders  insane acts . idealism  atrocities  insanity.  they  atrocities.  Romulus  Roman E m p i r e  by  the  But  or  And  Henry IV  they  seem e n t i r e l y  of both  men  and  commit, w i t h o u t too,  i s held  To  Either  sick  face of  considered  mad  and  thus  the u n d e r l y i n g  understand  the  condoning  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s i n the  they  i n the eyes  unmotivated,  necessarily  and  the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s  i s aware o f can  murdered  resumes h i s madness  Prosecutor are  commit.  the audience  each  gemordet,"  charge.  they remain  Public  having  g e o p f e r t oder  t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y murder  Caligula  h u m a n i t y and  was  Bidello,  the act of k i l l i n g  r e c o g n i z e "entweder haben w i r  to continue f e i g n i n g  totally  that  on  DUrrenmatt's  decide  the  I f he  murdered  future."  Similarly, a  but  claims  when h e  d r a m a who  reasons  for  those  defeat of cannot  the  understand  -102-  his  reasons.  with and  him,  Again,  at  least  acknowledge A  vokes  the audience,  sees  them  the p r i n c i p l e s  t o be  somewhat s i m i l a r an  entirely  presents insane  by h e r  destroy  case,  i n which  sympathetic support.  But  character,  Rather  than  this  and  i . e . her  self-important unlikely  ever  The  and  to  primarily  has  and  committed  life, his  about  F r a n t z as  solutely  and  her  of  crime  about  So  out  to her  a  author or  scheme  a  to  totally  unequivocal on  destroying  oppress  calmly ushers from which  pro-  n o t i o n of  created  i s bent  s t r u c t u r e who she  Chaillot  the  is in gleeful,  crimes,  i n Les  In w r i t i n g  i n the  essentially  cannot  madness  F r e n c h war  the N a z i s  sequestration  room a n d  and  to d i s c u s s .  unambiguously war  carries  Aurelia  i s not.  feeble-minded  the a u t h o r has  social  friends.  and  de  Again  dangerous  the audience  the  Folle  uses  the  little  those  they  are  emerge.  much m o r e d i f f i c u l t  depicts  time  La  judged  o p p r e s s o r s down a d e e p h o l e  duality  secondarily  judges  behaviour  i f t h e method he  person,  initiates  sympathising  guide h i s  response.  t h e Roman E m p i r e ,  t h o s e p o w e r f u l members o f  talking  one  contemporaries,  humanity.  even  audience  totally  which  i n Giraudoux'  a l l t h e p e o p l e whom s h e  civilised  people,  humane,  different  a situation  w h i l e not  the p l a y ,  crimes  in Algeria,  Second  World  a sympathetic  opposed  Sequestres  to  and  War.^  to  i t , he  takes  the  was  only  Although Sartre  is  Therefore, since  i t i s impossible for.him to  i s the o n l y s o l u t i o n .  return  Sartre  character,  torture.  d'Altona i s  live  When h e final  a  does  escape:  he abFrantz  normal emerge  from  suicide.  -103-  Closely  allied  Frantz  began h i s  points  out:  351)•  He  Polish  rabbi,  be  "une  refers  r e s t r a i n e d and  the  career  as  fois  dans  to  his  with  the  father watch  idea  ta vie,  fact  that  the  Nazis  V o u s m'avez  Le  Oui.  Par  incident, vocation.  i s the  tu  as  the  connu  prisoner,  Prince,  q u i m'a  power; as his  1'impuissance"  Frantz'  disembowel  fait  theme o f  Smolensk" because,  despite  denounced  Et savez-vous Hitler.  Pere:  crime  " b o u c h e r de  Frantz:  Frantz:  of  efforts and  to  Frantz  father (Sd'A  save had  a  to  him: mon  fait  l a honte.  Apres  l e pouvoir . .  est  pere. Roi?  cet  ...  devenu  ma  . . . l e r a b b i n s a i g n a i t et je decouvrais, a u c o e u r de mon i . n p u i s s a n c e , j e ne s a i s quel assentiment. J ' a i l e pouvoir supreme. H i t l e r m'a f a i t un Autre, implacable et sacre: lui-meme. Je s u i s H i t l e r e t j e me s u r p a s s e r a i . P l u s de v i v r e s ; mes s o l d a t s r o d a i e n t a u t o u r de l a grange. Q u a t r e bons Allemands m'ecrase r o n t c o n t r e l e s o l e t mes s o l d a t s a moi saigneront les prisonniers a blanc. Nonl J e ne r e t o m b e r a i j a m a i s d a n s l ' a b j e c t e impuissance. Je l e j u r e . I l fait noir. L ' h o r r e u r e s t e n c o r e e n c h a i n e e ... j e l e s p r e n d r a i de v i t e s s e : s i quelqu'un l a d e c h a i n e , ce s e r a moi. Je revendiquerai l e mai, j e m a n i f e s t e r a i mon pouvoir p a r l a s i n g u l a r i t y d'un a c t e i n o u b l i a b l e : c h a n g e r l'homme e n v e r m i n e de s o n v i v a n t ; j e m ' o c c u p e r a i s e u l des p r i s o n n i e r s , j e l e s p r e c i p i t e r a i dans 1 ' a b j e c t i o n : i l s parleront. L e p o u v o i r e s t un a b i m e d o n t j e v o i s l e f o n d ; c e l a ne s u f f i t pas de c h o i s i r l e s m o r t s f u t u r s ; p a r u n c a n i f e t u n b r i q u e t , j e d e c i d e r a i du r e g n e h u m a i n . (Sd'A 5l) 3  This "j'irai  whole  situation,  jusqu'au bout.  Au  including Frantz' bout  du  pouvoir"  passionate (Sd'A  3  50)>  statement: is  remarkably  -104-  similar  to  Caligula's position.  d e c i s i o n s were p r a c t i c a l l y create his entirely in  the  e l d e s t son  his  face  own. of  found himself too, But  decided while  wants  Death: impotent  to  image, w h i l e  the  sister  to  stop  of his  men  to  that  power he  of  the  at h i s  Drusilla,  own  as  Emperor p o s s e s s e d of  impotence Frantz  Caligula  to  p o w e r o v e r men's  to  are  while  from behaving b r u t a l l y .  i s t h i n k i n g i n terms  power e q u a l  tried  Caligula's decisions  devastated  death  Frantz'  h i s f a t h e r , who  C a l i g u l a t o o was  c a r r y the  Frantz  d i f f e r e n c e i s that  p r e d e t e r m i n e d by  in his  But  A main  the  extreme.  lives,  Caligula  gods:  de q u o i me s e r t c e p o u v o i r s i e t o n n a n t s i j e ne p u i s p a s c h a n g e r 1 ' o r d r e d e s c h o s e s , s i j e ne p u i s f a i r e que l e s o l e i l s e c o u c h e a l ' e s t , que l a s o u f f r a n c e d e c r o i s s e e t que l e s e t r e s n e m e u r e n t p a s ? (C 41) As teases as  well and  to  fear death has  things  Caligula's as  subjects  Rome, h e  has  i s merely being  w h i c h he do  t o r t u r i n g p e o p l e p h y s i c a l l y , as  mocks h i s  Emperor o f  Romulus  as  w h i c h he demand  Venus has  courtiers  that  that  and  the  also  as  power.  the  i n much t h e  their  heads  Henry's  by  to  the  floor  subjects truth  making as  them  Henry  IV.  before  him  that h i s before  because,  whereas  wants h i s  same way  demand  does,  But  p a t r i c i a n s p r o s t r a t e themselves as  Caligula  devastating  t o r t u r e s them m e n t a l l y , mad,  does,  Romulus  Caligula desperately  same e f f e c t  touch  beliefs  t o become a w a r e o f  knows t o be  much t h e  kneel  He  their  all-encompassing  cynical,  c o n s t a n t l y and learned.  and  Frantz  four  him:  -105-  Down, down!  That's  b e f o r e madmen! HUMILIATION)  The is  didn't  you?  o n me.  (H  boys  G e t u p , sheep'. You m i g h t  over  them  a title,  and  i n La Folie  basic  belief  h i s power  i n freedom. comes  discussing  aspects  to this  Mb'bius,  by feigning  retains  impossible  also  uses  to h i s power  h e r power n o t f r o m w e a l t h  Similarly,  view o f humanity  respect  i n the basic  h e r and obey h e r  goodness  t h e mob  because  from p h y s i c a l  of humanity,  i n Graf Oderland  the people share h i s  force  than from  opposition  the f a c t  that  freedom. freedom,  concept:  there  madness,  h a d he been  freedom, "free"  h i spersonal  and i n t e g r i t y ,  i n a conventional  to gain  by the fact  different  but related  freedom and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  sacrifices  to ensure that  than Mbbius  are several  physical  In another asylum, Walpurg confined  succumb  G r a n t e d , he uses h i s axe t o q u e l l  t h e mask o f m a d n e s s  act, i n order  really  Henry has that  superior  Her f r i e n d s  i t s leader  h i spsychological  been  to  less  stands f o rt o t a l In  her.  Prosecutor  gets  a naturally  f o rthe i n d i v i d u a l .  the Public  but  de C h a i l l o t ,  of h e r fundamental b e l i e f  freedom  o r n o t he  patricians,  As t h e i r m a s t e r ,  b u t from an i d e a ,  makes  he  put the s t r a i t j a c k e t  obey.  w h i c h makes p e o p l e f o l l o w because  me,  and c o n f u s e d as t o whether  out of fear.  t o make t h e m  Aurelia,  he  have  FACILE  You obeyed  mad, b u t , a s i n t h e c a s e o f C a l i g u l a ' s orders  g o t t o be  190)  are terrified  sadistic  or  t h e way y o u ' v e  ( T H E N ANNOYED WITH T H E I R  a freedom  a certain  chain  freedom.  freedom. But  which would sense.  Romulus  to act, or rather not o f e v e n t s be  followed.  o f T h e Madman a n d t h e Nun i s e v e n that  have  more  h e i s i n a s t r a i t j a c k e t , i n a sma  -io6-  cell to  with  b a r r e d windows.  conform;  his refusal  His  personal  the  fact  only  and  "benevolent" ularly which  i s an  do  so  artist,  i s to escape  society  concerned enforces  feels  t e r r i f i c pressure  i s the  reason  p s y c h o l o g i c a l confinement  t h a t he  d e s i r e now  to  He  and  with  accustomed  to mental  its stifling  the  role  c o n f o r m i t y by  of  and  the  declaring  further  total  committed.  aggravated  freedom.  physical  rules .  society  for his being  are to  from  Walpurg's  freedom  Witkiewicz  creative  artist  insane  t h o s e who  from  was  in a  by  the  particsociety  presume  to  7 disagree with i t . Physical are  at  the  director  French  and  be  Les  the  chants  The  kept  i n mind  constant  a g a i n s t him  particularly asylum  under  asylum  i n the  treats  the are  the  the  social of  guise of oppressed  the enacting as  the  theme i n a l l t h e  oppression  social  freedom  Coulmier,  threat that  i s a dominant  p o i n t out  and  and  order.  subject of  of  the  However, i t  freedom w i t h  a  irony.  theme o f  Sequestres  the  Freedom  that Weiss  political  interruptions  madmen i n t h e  Revolution. which  repeated  emphasize  revolution  i n the mental  deal of The  a  Revolution.  both  The  the asylum,  stage  before  actors  great  of  will  the French  must  p s y c h o l o g i c a l as w e l l a s  i s s u e i n Marat/Sade.  players  songs  and  physical  d'Altona.  loss  of  physical  does  not  from  responsibility  confinement As  f r e e d o m on  gain mental  i n the  case  even  o f Mb'bius,  the p a r t of F r a n t z •  freedom. for his  is clear  The  former  f r e e d o m he actions.  has  But  i n the i t is a  title  voluntary  i n exchange,  i s merely  It transpires  of  he  freedom that  Frantz  -107-  has  never  been  free  own d e c i s i o n s , life. ma  i n the i d e a l i s t i c  since  h i s father  had determined  As h e e x p l a i n s p e r c e p t i v e l y  pauvre  amiel  Both  Caligula  make t h e i r Yet both trolled  i n total  find  that  and manipulated s e t wheels  Prosecutor  illusions  Caligula  about  this  freedom  which  i s illusory,  they  the idea  of l i f e  o f freedom with  t h e o p p o s i t e o f freedom,  In the  the course  Ma  own a c t i o n s :  liberte  of following  c h a r a c t e r s which have been  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which merely  because  of  Romulus,  in  lives  the Public  Both  r o u t i n e and from  myths a n d  a r e defeated by Prosecutor i s forced  and C a l i g u l a  they have  discussed here by v i r t u e  realizes:  "je  each o f  of h i s position, The f a n a t i c  a n d Mb'bius  they a r e r e s p o n s i b l e and which  of their  chosen,  has n e g l e c t e d a  o f t h e human r a c e .  Prosecutor, Caligula  they i g n o r e t h e consequences  The P u b l i c  p a s l a b o n n e " ( C 15^-) •  B u t when t h e y c o n s i d e r t h e i r  a l l mad.  from  the Public  the paths  i s h i s either  h e i s a member  f o r which  prevented.  are  n'est  taken.  control.  freedom  and death.  to  a rien.  cannot  freedom.  as t h e y a r e con-  they have a l r e a d y  of their  n'aboutis  j e ne c h o i s i s p a s ,  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  the consequences assume power,  "Mais  of Frantz'  P r o s e c u t o r , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , do  i s more c o n c e r n e d  the nature  t o make h i s  (Sd'A l 8 l ) .  by the a c t i o n s  with  sense,  the course  t o Johanna,  physical  i n motion  i s obsessed  duty;  choisi"  and t h e P u b l i c  decisions  finally  They, h a v e  social  Je suis  existential  or idealism  leads to loss  they could  motivating idea  actions,  certain  have  i n a vacuum,  and i n that  sense  they  x  -108-  However, do  there  have, w h i c h  certain  distinguishes  aspects  of l i f e  them p e r s o n a l l y . not  just  i s another  on  themselves.  to  prevent  rest  The change first he  Public  developments  personal,  sees  how  Chaillot,  of society.  ideas, of  mad  and e x p l o i t  A notable  these  they  reality  men  perceive  not  just  f o r everyone,  f o r changing  reality, exception  place:  society  things  The P u b l i c  is.  consider  from the  to  Prosecutor's  impose revolt  f o r others  Aurelia,  i s at  when  i n La F o l i e  to r i d s o c i e t y  of  de  those  others. than  their  of society,  own  particular  and t h e r e f o r e  a r e con-  idealists,  whose  a r e humane, b u t when p u t i n t h e c o n t e x t  are unrealistic to t h i s  personal .  which  act "normally."  actively  Similarly, to others  they  i n avacuum  do, t h e y m i g h t work  developments  which  They a r e a l l b a s i c a l l y  i n a vacuum,  madness w e r e p u r e l y  existing  themselves  the s t a t e  by the o t h e r s .  the e x i s t i n g  own  a l l see f u r t h e r  t r y to improve  considered  entire  on t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  h i s cause  These characters situation,  society,  and C a l i g u l a  b u t he t a k e s  oppress  their  taking  to t h e i r  sees h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  p e o p l e who  sidered  power  Prosecutor  popular  them:  that  from  a s s o many p e o p l e  f o r the r e s t  those around  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  I f they considered  of society,  which  i s , R o m u l u s a n d Mb'bius p u t o n t h e mask o f m a d n e s s  w o u l d h a v e g i v e n more untrustworthy.  to a l t e r  and t a k e  That  certain  them f r o m  as t h e y a f f e c t  They want  themselves,  sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  and e s s e n t i a l l y  unworkable.  i s H e n r y IV, whose m o t i v e s  The c r i t i c  Francis  in  J e a n s o n makes  feigning this  -109-  point  i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f Henry IV and C a l i g u l a : De H e n r i I V ( 1 9 2 2 ) a C a l i g u l a ( 1 9 4 5 ) , o n c o n v i e n d r a que l e s p r e o c c u p a t i o n s e t l e s themes e s s e n t i e l s ne s o n t pas devenus f o n c i e r e m e n t differents. C ' e s t b i e n l a meme d e n o n c i a t i o n d e c e monde q u i n ' e s t p a s c e q u ' i l d e v r a i t e t r e ; l e meme m e p r i s a l ' e g a r d d e c e u x q u i s ' e n a c c o m m o d e n t ; l e meme s e n t i m e n t d e l a s o l i t u d e ; l e meme p e s s i m i s m e ; l e meme r e c o u r s a u c h o i x d e l ' a b s u r d e c o n t r e l ' a b s u r d i t e meme d e 1 ' e x i s t e n c e ; l a meme f r e n e s i e de n i e r e t de d e t r u i r e , de f a i r e c h a v i r e r l e monde s o u s l e s p i e d s d e c e u x q u i o n t p r i s d e s assurances. "Se t r o u v e r d e v a n t u n f o u . .. c e l a veut d i r e : se t r o u v e r devant quelqu'un q u i e b r a n l e j u s q u e dans l e u r s a s s i s e s t o u t e s l e s c h o s e s que n o u s a v o n s c o n s t r u i t e s e n n o u s , a u t o u r d e nous..." C a l i g u l a j o u a i t de s o n p o u v o i r i m p e r i a l pour n i e r t o u t e v e r i t e - - m a i s l e s f o u s , ou du moins ceux dont on c r o i t q u ' i l s s o n t f o u s , d i s p o s e n t d'un p o u v o i r p e u t - e t r e s u p e r i e u r : "quand c e s hommes-la s e m e t t e n t a p a r l e r , i l s c a s s e n t t o u t , l e s c o n v e n t i o n s v o l e n t e n e c l a t s ... o n d e c i d e q u e j e s u i s f o u ; m a i s t o u t l e monde m ' e c o u t e p o u r t a n t avec epouvante ..." Une d i f f e r e n c e , q u i p a r a i t f o n d a m e n t a l e , risque t o u t e f o i s de c o n t e s t e r c e s f r a p p a n t e s a n a l o g i e s : e l l e e s t due a 1 ' i n t e r v e n t i o n dans C a l i g u l a d u theme d e l a r e s p o n s a b i l i t e , a b s e n t d e s p r e o c c u p a t i o n s d ' H e n r i I V . Ce dernier, en e f f e t , ne s e p o s e a a u c u n moment u n p r o b l e m e h u m a i n d'ordre p r a t i q u e : a p a r t i r d e l a v i s i o n d u monde q u i e s t l a s i e n n e , i l a a d o p t e e t i l m a n t i e n t une a t t i t u d e q u i ne c o n c e r n e que l u i - m e m e - - e t c ' e s t de f a c o n b i e n n e g l i g e n t e q u ' i l l u i a r r i v e de l a preconiser a ses quatre " c o n s e i l l e u r s " . Ce n ' e s t p a s p o u r q u e l e monde s o i t m e i l l e u r q u ' i l s e r e v o l t e , c ' e s t s i m p l e m e n t p a r c e q u e l e monde e s t mauvais; e t s ' i l en c o n t e s t e l a l o i , ce n'est pas dans l ' e s p o i r de l u i en s u b s t i t u e r une a u t r e , c ' e s t s e u l e m e n t en c h o i s i s s a n t de ne p l u s v i v r e d e s o r m a i s que sous l a s i e n n e p r o p r e . Ce q u i donne a c e t t e c o n t e s t a t i o n e t a c e t t e r e v o l t e un sens de p a s s i v i t e e t d e d e m i s s i o n q u ' e l l e s n ' o n t p o i n t chez C a l i g u l a .  -lic-  it this  i s interesting  study  have  sacrificed  Romulus m a r r i e d , marriage would his  daughter  validity asylum, rather his  in  Death He  ended h i s i n c e s t u o u s Caesonia  conversation being and  R.W.B. L e w i s  with  totally  finally  hope o f e v e r The  coming absolute  hero  outset. must  f o r the Public like  out the fact  Inge  i n the mirror,  that  only  Drusilla.  stops  the intimate  C h e r e a was n o t after  a l l impossible,  t o smash i t a n d t h e  with i t .  s o l i t u d e a r r i v e d a t i n the c l o s i n g d r a m a t i c a l l y speaking,  t h e end towards w h i c h  altogether  t h e p l a y and  moving  In pursuit of h i s negative the v a r i e t i e s  complex  that C a l i g u l a  a n o p e n d i s c u s s i o n was  himself  i n love  to h e r .  his sister  to r e a l i z e  have been d e t e r m i n e d l y  explore  falls  of relationships after  relationship with  t o terms w i t h  i s then,  appropriate: its  girl  i n , a l l types  himself  the  he s t r a n g l e s h e r  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s f a r more  Scipio, i s forced  confronts  instant  h i s nurse,  to the r e v o l u t i o n than  points  and t h a t  loves i s  and c h i l d r e n f o r t h e  t o o b e y h i s c r u e l whims, h a r s h l y  frank  goal.  d o e s n o t make h i m q u e s t i o n  a sacrifice  a n d human  or i s disappointed  forces  person he r e a l l y  a p r e t t y young time  ultimate  G i v i n g up h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  n o t as g r e a t  problem of love  rejects,  The o n l y  i n love with  b u t e v e n when  Caligula.  to t h e i r  but f o r the p o s i t i o n which the  g i v i n g up h i s p l a n . probably  a l l the characters i n  Mb'bius g a v e ' u p h i s w i f e  h i m , h e d e v o t e s more The  love  Rea, and e v e n h e r d e a t h  was  Prosecutor,  almost  personal  open f o r h i m .  a n d when h e f a l l s than  that  not f o r love,  of h i s plan.  wife  with  to note  from the  ideal,  of p o s s i b l e  Caligula  personal  -Ill-  relationships, i f only fragility  or  heterosexual mother-son incest); its for  relation relation  p o r t i o n of the  intellectual relation  perimented the of  psyche  utter  hero  last  isolation,  is totally  person  attackers  with  might have defended  faces him,  s o l i t u d e w h i c h makes h i m  disagrees  tout with  serait  the  further  love  (with for  replaces  murdered);  of  equals;  itself. and  the  the  and  the  A l l are  rejected;  itself--with  a burst  exand  of  established  fact  alienation.-'  and  failure  i n these  alone,  whom h e  come, he  suffisait,  to  permanent  create a better world  the  has  enthusiasm--in and  of  involvement,  undermined  action f u l f i l l s  Alienation, to  the  a hint  understandably  f a t h e r he  with,  horrified  but  the  them:  i t s portion of  and  companionship  of  a l l of  of masculine  father-son  curiously  Scipio  of  (with  involvement,  the  Caligula  to demonstrate  fraudulence  haying  dramas. just  c o u l d have  a  H e l i c o n , has  c h a n g e " (C  C a l i g u l a ' s method,  the  By  end  the  end  relationship. alone;  the  each  of  •  attempt  Caligula, the  When h i s  only person  been murdered.  " S i j ' a v a i s eu 15*0  of  strangled Caesonia,  them e n t i r e l y  realize,  mark  It is  l a lune,  who  this  si  l'amour  Camus o b v i o u s l y s t r o n g l y  although  he  sympathises with  his  awareness. Before few  the  arrival  of  Odoaker  i n Romulus  moments when R o m u l u s a l s o i s s i t t i n g  expected rest  of  death;  the  Empire  the household  is i n ruins,  drowned,  have abandoned him  f o r more  of  subsequent  Odoaker and  the  and  alone  two  positions.  conversation  Groge  and  his wife  even h i s  lucrative  der  comes  there  awaiting  and  child  faithful With the  are  a  his and  the  servants  the  appearance  realization  that  -112-  it  has  a l l been  i n vain;  Odoaker's  imperialistic  in  the  saving  Mb'bius, that his  world  sacrifice  scientific  seeking  power.  failure  of  external speaks  to  i n the  But  two  put  to  Odoaker,  results einen  of  Sinn  drama: The freedom  "Die  By  seems  of  the  er  Sie  already  the  of  their  the  so"  wisest  (R and  unsere  Public  at  their  to  the  in  failure  their  to  ware so  ware, wie  And  Romulus  gain  last  and  sinnlos,  important  a  idea  characters.  intentions  some l e n g t h .  including  Dlirrenmat  presumptuous  Ideen k o r r i g i e r t "  Prosecutor  been d i s c u s s e d  with which F r i s c h experimented,  most  something  i s evident  means o f  in his  71)•  keeping  people  which  sympathetic  h a b e n , wenn d i e W e l t  in  control.  they are  "Dein Tod  realizes  ultimate  from  of  recognize  very  fate,  Monika,  the  reformer  by  of  irresponsible that  be  succeeded  succeeded  resulted  the  Romulus  out,  not  "Zufall"  them b o t h  creates  W i r k l i c h k e i t hat the  of  plays  i s beyond  i s t nicht  i n some o f  has  existing reality  points  nur  sacrificed  realize  indicate that  not  similar twist  hands  to  inevitably  Romulus has  he  a t t i t u d e to  mirror-image  of  the  fate,  making to  a  i n vain;  of  H o w e v e r , he  hast.  failure has  out  ambiguous  actions,  kbnnte  same i d e a  been  twist  change  the  his  vorgestellt the  he  into action.  Thus  The  ruler will  having  i n Dlirrenmatt's  instances .  expecting  has  and  twenty-one p o i n t s  change t h i n g s , in  family  In  i t i s important  heroes  Dlirrenmatt's these  his  too  them.  next  nephew T h e o d e r i c h ,  discoveries  the  the  from barbarism.  abandoned by  his  because  the  denn du  sie dir  expresses  words (R  in  the  73)-  psychological In one,  a l l the the  endings  hero  is  -113-  totally  alienated  e x p e r i e n c e were to  towards h i s hero  i s ambivalent.  citizen  to escape  and anarchy,  before.  Like  a s a dream,  and h i s work.  However, he i n d i c a t e s chaos  Even  i s bound  the Public  Prosecutor  and then  Peter  Weiss,  DUrrenmatt,  He r e c o g n i z e s  from  i n this  Like  that  total  Frisch's  the desire  the constraints  play  i f t h e whole  the audience  aware o f t h e a l i e n a t i o n w h i c h  from h i s wife  bourgeois  the rest of society.  t o be i n t e r p r e t e d  be p r o f o u n d l y  feels  from  that  of the  p u t on him b y s o c i e t y .  freedom  leads  t o a p e r h a p s more s t r u c t u r e d he b e l i e v e s  attitude  first  to  society  new f r e e d o m b r i n g s  than  new  oppression. A  similar pattern  of isolation  and  Les Sequestres  and  the d i s t r e s s a t l o s i n g her,  first  place.  d'Altona.  F o r twenty  When s h e comes b a c k , killing  hisrival.  re-establishing protected  from  years  that  that  the world  the rest of society.  from  a l l human c o n t a c t  love  f o r Donna  out of pity,  her.  four  The l a s t  valets,  with  solitary  rejects  love.  him.  But Johanna  The o n l y  i n the  life.  any chance o f  image i s o f Henry,  permanently has shut  hissister  alienated  himself o f f  f o rthirteen  one hope he has o f r e j o i n i n g s o c i e t y i s , as i n Henry's  a woman's  Matilda  he gets h i s revenge b y  he d e s t r o y s  Similarly, Frantz that  i n Henry I V  l e d h i m to f e i g n madness  gesture,  by his  except  i s followed  he has l e d a f a i r l y  a friendship with  from  The  I t i s Henry's  i n h i s eyes With  and defeat  i s r e p e l l e d by h i s  past  way o u t f o r h i m i s s u i c i d e .  years.  case, i n  a c t i o n s and  -11k-  From writers  this  s e e a s "madmen."  illogical, However, idea, This  discussion  a l l a r e possessed;  idea,  and l o g i c a l l y  i f considered  "madness" c o n s i s t s  fit  each  deep  is  idealistic; i n each  cases  insane.  expressed,  to r e a l i t y .  which  blinds  i s positive.  not taking  other  people  them  But the f a n a t i c ' s and f a c t o r s o f t h e  t r y i n g t o change humanity t o  t h e "madness" o f t h e m a i n  of that  society.  he wants  case,  tried  character  of h i s situation i n society,  to bring  about  the revolt f a i l s ,  T h e "madman" b r i n g s  a new, m o r e m e a n i n g f u l  leading  e i t h e r t o chaos  about  ( i n the cases the precise  from  rejection  the social  or to a reimposition form  results  and h i s  His revolt against  i n a new, m o r e d a n g e r o u s  Mbbius) .  order world.  ( i n the  of the o l d  o f Romulus a n d  s i t u a t i o n w h i c h he  to avoid. Despite  ideals  contrasted  the  of the medically  but by an  o f C a l i g u l a and Oderland)  system  of  i n the  not by the p r o v e r b i a l D e v i l ,  i n t o a c c o u n t when  awareness  the values  the  i s typical  i n itself,  i n his  case,  of  But  that  behave  whom m o d e r n  his vision. In  his  reality  emerges o f c h a r a c t e r s  None o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s  u n r e a s o n e d manner  lucidly  existing  a pattern  the f a i l u r e  espoused with  the dramatists  radical  change,  b y t h e "madmen" a r e p o s i t i v e , e s p e c i a l l y when  t h o s e o f t h e " s a n e " members o f s o c i e t y . explicitly  "mad" who a r e s a n e ,  order,  of the r e v o l t to bring  indicates  the p o s s i b i l i t y  Indeed, that  a n d t h e " s a n e " who, i n a c c e p t i n g  a r e a c t u a l l y mad.  each  i t i s  the t r a d i t i o n a l  -115-  Th e  twentieth century writer  than w r i t e r s  o f p a s t ages  been  a period  With  the  absence  absolutes  and  relative. that  i n which  that  It  a  i n love.  fully  and  which  But  dream,  oblivious  fool  likely  and  pure  they w i l l the  they are  dichotomy  and  the  so  the main  that  to  social  form:  less to  society.  faithfully  reflects  and,  political  relevant  to  on  the  a  broader  community.  of  to our  ideals  freedom,  by  time. by  happiness,  Idealists  c o n s i d e r e d mad  the  espoused  impossibility try.  any  performance.  to recognize that  t h o s e who  the  of  fulfilling  who  are  society  reform.  "madman" a n d  e s t a b l i s h m e n t , ^ between  man's  most  r e c o g n i z e the  be  with  sanity.  bound  d e s p e r a t e l y to the  being  d o e s man's  and  ideals  reasons  so  i t s audience,  sympathetic  always  between  reason  no  becomes  personal  are concerned  extremely  "madness" o f  trying  The  are  also  to r e a l i t y w i l l  there are  S a n i t y too  tenuous,  are inevitably that  down.  i t i s intended f o r public  entire  t o be  "madmen" i n t h e i r  humanity.  because  to the  completely broken  generally  writers  idea never  more w i t h h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p  only in relation  audiences  They are a l s o  that  now  becomes more  "madmen" f a c e p r o b l e m s  the  and  situation,  i n relation  Readers  But  this  t h e r e has  standard,  relative. i t was  with  reason:  so  ethical  i s p r o b a b l y the a r t form  social  scale,  an  c h a r a c t e r t o become mad;  relationship  exists  as  literature,  relationships,  Drama given  religion  principal  norms h a v e  e v e r y t h i n g becomes  disappointment  As  f o r one  ethical  In previous  caused  personal  of  i s more c o n c e r n e d  the  society,  radical  and  between  the  t h o s e who  wish  -116-  to  preserve the e x i s t i n g order i s summed up by the Polish philosopher  Leszek Kolakowski i n the metaphor of the p r i e s t and the j e s t e r . The p r i e s t i s the guardian of the absolute who upholds the c u l t of the f i n a l and the obvious contained i n the t r a d i t i o n . The j e s t e r i s he who, although a habitue of good society, does not belong to i t and makes i t the object of h i s i n q u i s i t i v e impertinence—he who questions what appears to be s e l f - e v i d e n t . . . . The philosophy of the j e s t e r i s a philosophy which i n every epoch denounces as doubtful what appears as unshakable; i t points out the contradictions i n what seems evident and incontestable; i t r i d i cules common sense and reads sense into the absurd .H This i s p r e c i s e l y the s i t u a t i o n of the four "mad" in  dramatic characters  t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . The magnitude of this problem f o r the modern  c r e a t i v e mind i s evidenced by the f a c t that a philosopher such as Kolakowski i s as concerned with i t as are dramatists of the twentieth century.  The philosopher expresses i n t h e o r e t i c a l terms the same  problems that the dramatist develops i n the characters and a c t i o n of a play.  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to recognize that s i m i l a r conclusions are  reached by both paths . We declare ourselves i n favour of the philosophy of the j e s t e r , that i s , f o r an a t t i t u d e of negative v i g i l a n c e i n the face of any absolute. This we do not because we want to argue; i n these matters, a choice i s an a p p r a i s a l . We declare ourselves i n favour of the n o n i n t e l l e c t u a l values inherent i n an a t t i t u d e the p e r i l s and a b s u r d i t i e s of which we know. I t i s the option f o r a v i s i o n of the world that provides prospects f o r a slow and d i f f i c u l t realignment of the elements i n our human a c t i o n that are most d i f f i c u l t to a l i g n : goodness without u n i v e r s a l t o l e r a t i o n , courage without fanaticism, i n t e l l i g e n c e without apathy, and hope without blindness. A l l other f r u i t s of philosophy are of l i t t l e importance.12  -117-  Footnotes:  1  R.  Trousson,  Les  Etudes  Chapter  de  Six  Themes  (Paris,  I965),  p.  30.  2 L . P i r a n d e l l o , "Henry I V , " i n Naked Masks, e d . t r a n s . E d w a r d S t o r e r (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 2 ) , p . 20k. c i t e d a s H. ^  J.P.  Sartre,  Hereafter  Les  cited  Sequestres as  d'Altona  (Paris,  E r i c Bentley, Hereafter  i960),  Thomas B i s h o p , i 9 6 0 ) , p . 28.  ^  279-  .  li  ^  p.  Sd'A.  Pirandello  and  S. W i tt kk ii eewwiicczz , T h e Madman a n d and ed. D a n i e l C G e r o u l d and Oreste Review,  Pucciani, V,3  the French  Theatre  196l),  p.  York,  t h e Nun and O t h e r P l a y^_ s, trans C.S. D u r e r ( S e a t t l e , I968), p .  "Interview with Jean-Paul  (March  (New  S a r t r e , " Tulane  2k<  Drama  13.  7 W i t k i e w i c z b e l o n g e d t o t h e Dada g e n e r a t i o n , w h i c h had awareness o f the c r i s i s i n o c c i d e n t a l l i t e r a t u r e .  a  deep  Q F r a n c i s J e a n s o n , " P i r a n d e l l o e t Camus a t r a v e r s H e n r i I V e t C a l i g u l a , " L e s Temps M o d e r n e s , n o . 6 l ( N o v e m b r e 1 9 5 0 ) , p . 9 5 2 .  o R.W.B. L e w i s , " C a l i g u l a : o r t h e Realm o f Y a l e F r e n c h S t u d i e s No. 25, p . 5 7 .  the  Impossible,"  ^  The t i t l e o f a f o r t h c o m i n g book b y t h e c r i t i c J a n K o t t i s t o be A F o o l A g a i n s t t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t , i n w h i c h he a r g u e s t h a t Greek h e r o e s w e r e "mad" i n t h e s e n s e o f n o t a c c e p t i n g t h e norms o f their society.  ^  L e s z e k K o l a k o w s k i , "The P r i e s t a n d Mind, ed. M a r i a Kuncewicz (Boston,  12  Kolakowski,  p.  326.  t h e J e s t e r , " The I962), p . 3 2 3 .  Modern  Polish  -118-  List  o f Works  Consulted  General  Bishop,  Thomas. New Y o r k  Coleman,  James C. 111.:  Dietrich, Esslin,  Pirandello University Abnormal  Scott,  Margret.  Martin.  Esslin,  Martin.  New Foucault,  Geyer,  Michel. York:  Horst.  Theatre of  New  York:  and M o d e r n L i f e .  Glenview,  1964.  Co.,  Moderne Drama.  Stuttgart:  KrSner,  I96I:  the Absurd.  r p t . New  l$6h. York:  I969.  Reflections:  York:  New  Psychology  Foresman and  Das  The  Doubleday,  and t h e F r e n c h T h e a t r e . Press, i960.  Doubleday,  Essays  Madness and  Civilization,  Random H o u s e ,  Dichter  des  on Modern T h e a t r e .  Garden  City,  I969. trans.  R.  Howard.  I965•  Wahnsinns.  GSttingen*.  Musterschmidt,  1965. Giraudoux, Heller,  Jean.  de  C a t c h 22-  Joseph.  1955;  Walter.  Praisers  Paris:  r p t . New  of F o l l y .  U n i v e r s i t y Press, Kesey,  Chaillot.  Grasset,  York:  Dell  19^6.  Publishing  I963.  Co., Kaiser,  La F o l l e  Ken.  One  Press,  Flew  Over  Cambridge,  Mass.:  Harvard  I963. the Cuckoo's N e s t .  New  York:  Viking  I962.  Kolakowski, Leszek. "The P r i e s t a n d Mind, ed. M a r i a Kuncewicz.  the J e s t e r , " The Boston: Little,  Modern P o l i s h B r o w n a n d Co.,  1962. Kott,  Jan. New  Pirandello,  S h a k e s p e a r e , Our C o n t e m p o r a r y , York: Doubleday, 1964. Luigi.  Edward  "Henry IV."  Storer.  New  York:  trans.  Naked Masks, Dutton,  Boleslaw Taborski.  ed. E r i c  1952.  Bentley,  trans.  -119-  Plautus.  "The  Manaechmus T w i n s . "  trans. Lionel Pucciani,  Oreste.  Review, Rosen,  George.  Casson.  Six Plays of Plautus, ed.  New  "Interview with  Vol.  5,  Madness  no.  3  York:  Jean-Paul  (March  i n Society.  I961),  Sartre." pp.  London:  and  I963•  Doubleday,  Tulane  Drama  12-18.  Routledge  and  K.  Paul,  1968. Sartre,  Jean-Paul.  Les  Se'questre's d ' A l t o n a .  Paris:  S h a k e s p e a r e , W i l l i a m . As You L i k e I t • 1926; Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. Swain,  Barbara.  F o o l s and  Renaissance. Stone,  New  Folly York:  Gallimard,  r p t . Cambridge:  d u r i n g the M i d d l e Ages and Columbia  University  R.  Un  Themes;  P r o b l e m e de L i t t e r a t u r e essai  de m e t h o d o l o g i e .  Comparee: Paris:  the 1932-  Press,  A l a n A. a n d S t o n e , Sue S m a r t , e d s . T h e A b n o r m a l Through L i t e r a t u r e . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , I966.  Trousson,  i960.  Les  Lettres  Personality  Etudes  de  Modernes,  1965. Weiss,  Peter. D i e V e r f o l g u n g und E r m o r d u n g J e a n P a u l M a r a t s d a r g e s t e l l t d u r c h d i e S c h a u s p i e l g r u p p e des H o s p i z e s zu C h a r e n t o n u n t e r A n l e i t u n g d e s H e r r n de S a d e . F r a n k f u r t  am  Main:Suhrkamp,1964.  Witkiewicz, Stanislaw Ignacy. T h e Madman a n d t h e Nun a n d t r a n s , and e d . D a n i e l C. G e r o u l d a n d C.S. D u r e r . U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , I968. Willard,  Nedd. L e G e n i e e t l a F o l i e au l 8 U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1963-  e  Siecle.  Other P l a y s , Seattle:  Paris:  Presses  -120-  Camus  Bree,  Germaine.  Camus.  New B r u n s w i c k ,  N.J.:  Rutgers  University  P r e s s , 1959Brisville,  Jean-Claude.  Camus, A l b e r t . Coombs,  Ilona,  Camus.  Paris:  L e Mythe de S i s y p h e . Camus:  Jeanson,  Lewis,  "Pirandello  Paris:  Nizet,  d ' A l b e r t Camus.  e t Camus  no..6l  a travers  (Novembre  1942.  I968.  T h e Hague:  Paris:  Minard,  I967.  Henri IV e t C a l i g u l a . "  1950),  pp. 9^-953 •  "'Caligula': o r t h eRealm o f t h e I m p o s s i b l e . " S t u d i e s , No. 2 5 , p p . 5 2 - 5 8 .  W a l t e r A. "Albert Modern P a r a l l e l s . " pp.  Gallimard,  e t l e s Coupables .  Le Theatre  Temps M o d e r n e s ,  R.W.B. French  Strauss, v  Raymond.  Francis. Les  Paris:  Homme d e T h e a t r e .  Gadourek, C a r i n a . Les Innocents M o u t o n , I963 . Gay-Crosier,  G a l l i m a r d , 1959*  Yale  Camus' ' C a l i g u l a ' : A n c i e n t S o u r c e s a n d C o m p a r a t i v e L i t e r a t u r e ( S p r i n g 1951),  I6O-I73.  DUrrenmatt  Arnold,  Armin.  Banziger,  Hans.  Verlag, Bienek,  Horst. C  Friedrich Frisch  und DUrrenmatt.  Werkstattgesprache  Hanser,  Edward.  Berlin:  i960;  Colloquium Verlag, r p t . Bern:  Francke  1962. mitSchriftstellern.  MUnchen:  I962.  Brock-Sulzer, Elisabeth. Werkes . ZUrich: Diller,  DUrrenmatt.  F r i e d r i c h DUrrenmatt: Arche, 1964.  "Despair and t h eParadox:  Drama S u r v e y  V  (I966),  pp.  I3I-I36.  Stationen Seines  Friedrich  DUrrenmatt."  1969-  -121-  Grimm,  Reinhold,  e d . D e r Unbequeme  Christian  Markus.  s e i n e r Dramen . Holzapfel,  Robert.  Friedrich  ZUrich :  "The D i v i n e  DUrrenmatt." P e p p a r d , M u r r a y B.  Stuttgart:  I962.  Basilius-Presse, Jauslin,  DUrrenmatt.  DUrrenmatt:  Juris, Plan  Behind the Plays  (I965),  M o d e r n Drama, V I I I Friedrich  zur Struktur  l$6k.  DUrrenmatt.  New  of  Friedrich  p p . 237-246.  York:  Twayne  Publishers  I n c . , I969. Syerberg,  Hans-JUrgen.  Zum  Drama F r i e d r i c h  DUrrenmatt.  MUnich:  I963.  UNI-Druck,  Frisch  BSnziger, Hans. Verlag, Barlow,  D. Max  Frisch  und DUrrenmatt.  I96O;  r p t . Bern:  Francke  I962.  " ' O r d n u n g ' a n d 'Das W i r k l i c h e L e b e n ' i n t h e Works o f Frisch." German L i f e a n d L e t t e r s , v o . X I X ( 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 ) ,  pp. 52-60. Bienek,  Horst. C  Frisch,  Werkstattgesprache mit S c h r i f t s t e l l e r n .  1946-1949-  Max. Tagebuch Verlag, i960.  JUrgensen, Manfred. Hans Karasek,  Erpf,  Helmuth.  MUnchen :  I962.  Hanser,  Max  Frankfurt-am-Main:  Frisch:  D i e Dramen.  Bern:  Suhrkamp  Lukianos-Verlag,  I968. Frisch.  Velber  b e i Hannover:  Friedrich  Verlag,  1966. Peterson, Weise,  Carol.  Max  Frisch.  Berlin:  Colloquium  Verlag,  I966.  Adelheid. U n t e r s u c h u n g e n z u r T h e m a t i k und S t r u k t u r d e r Dramen v o n Max F r i s c h . G S p p i n g e n : V e r l a g A l f r e d KUmmerle, I967.  Weisstein,  Ulrich.  I967.  Max  Frisch.  New  York:  Twayne  Publishers, Inc.,  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0093349/manifest

Comment

Related Items