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An anti-episcopal drive and the beginning of the English revolution 1969

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THE ANTI-EPISCOPAL DRIVE AND THE BEGINNING OF THE ENGLISH REVOLUTION by HENRY BUGLER, JR. B. A., Providence College, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of History We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July 14, 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced deg ree a t t he U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r ee t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e , c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y pu rpo se s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co l umb i a Vancouve r 8, Canada Date /fSjfegt, t/fS?. ABSTRACT The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l d r i v e w h i c h t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h e f i r s t f i f t e e n months o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t has l o n g been i g n o r e d as a p r o b l e m w o r t h s t u d y i n g f o r i t s own m e r i t s . U s u a l l y t h e e p i s c o p a l c r i s i s o f 1640-1642 i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be p a r t o f a l a r g e r c r i s i s s i n c e t h e e x p u l s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s f rom t h e House o f L o r d s was a p r e l u d e t o t h e E n g l i s h R e v o l u t i o n . Y e t t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l d r i v e i s o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t and s i g n i f i c a n c e b o t h i n i t s e l f and i n t h e f a c t t h a t i t was t h e f i r s t t i m e i n E n g l i s h h i s t o r y t h a t a p o p u l a r o u t c r y changed t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h Government . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i s o l a t e t h i s s u b j e c t f rom t h e many o t h e r p o l i t i c a l c u r r e n t s o f w h i c h i t i s a p a r t , b u t t h i s s t u d y i n t e n d s t o do so as much as p o s s i b l e . However , t h e f a c t r e m a i n s t h a t i n f i f t e e n m o n t h s , f rom 3 November , 1640 when t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t commenced, t o 15 F e b r u a r y , 1642 when t h e b i s h o p s were e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e L o r d s , a p o p u l a r r e v o l u t i o n had a l r e a d y t a k e n p l a c e . T h e r e were f o u r m a j o r a r e a s i n w h i c h t h e p o p u l a r v o i c e e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f i n t h e p e r i o d under d i s c u s s i o n . T h e r e were a n t i - e p i s c o p a l r i o t s i n L o n d o n . Hundreds o f p e t i t i o n s came t o P a r l i a m e n t f rom a l l o v e r t h e c o u n t r y demanding t h a t t h e b i s h o p s be removed f rom t h e i r t e m p o r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s . A n t i - p r e l a t i c a l s e n t i m e n t was s p r e a d by means o f p a m p h l e t s d u r i n g t h e g r e a t p a m p h l e t war o f 1 6 4 1 . I n P a r l i a m e n t , t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l l e a d e r s h i p wedded t h e i r own cause o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m t o t h e p o p u l a r c ause a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s . I n t h e e n d , t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e f o u r f a c t o r s r e s u l t e d i n t h e s u c c e s s f u l pas sage o f l aws needed t o d e p r i v e t h e e p i s c o p a t e o f t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t t o s i t i n P a r l i a m e n t . The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l d r i - v e o f 1640-1642 had i t s r o o t s i n t h e p o p u l a r a n t i p a t h y t o w a r d s t h e e p i s c o p a l o f f i c e . The b i s h o p s were d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r v o i c e i n P a r l i a m e n t because t h e E n g l i s h p e o p l e wanted them removed f rom t h e L o r d s . The E n g l i s h R e v o l u t i o n had a l r e a d y b e g u n . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER • PAGE INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF THE A N T I - EPISCOPAL DRIVE AND THE ENGLISH REVOLUTION i I ANTI-EPISCOPAL RIOTS I N LONDON. . . . . . . 1 I I ANTI-EPISCOPAL PETITIONS 27 I I I ANTI-EPISCOPAL PROPAGANDA AND THE PAMPHLET WAR I N 1641 . , 48 I V ANTI-EPISCOPAL MANOEUVRING I N PARLIAMENT 75 V CONCLUSION 115 NOTES . • . . 144 BIBLIOGRAPHY . 173 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF THE ANTI-EPISCOPAL DRIVE AND THE BEGINNING OF THE ENGLISH REVOLUTION On 13 F e b r u a r y , 1642 , K i n g C h a r l e s I s i g n e d i n t o l a w an a c t f o r d i s e n a b l i n g a l l p e r s o n s i n H o l y O r d e r s f r o m e x e r c i s - i n g any t e m p o r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o r a u t h o r i t y . W i t h a s t r o k e o f h i s pen t h e King , y i e l d e d t o o v e r w h e l m i n g p r e s s u r e , and e n a c t e d a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l change i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e House o f L o r d s by d e p r i v i n g t h e L o r d s S p i r i t u a l o f t h e i r a n c i e n t p r i v i l e g e t o v o t e i n t h a t H o u s e . I n a c t u a l f a c t t h e E n g l i s h R e v o l u t i o n had a l r e a d y b e g u n , because t h e momentum g e n e r a t e d a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s c o n s t i t u t e d a p o p u l a r r e v o l u t i o n . The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l o p p o s i t i o n among t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s c o u l d n o t have c a r r i e d s u c h a p r o g r a m o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m w i t h o u t t h e h e l p o f t h e p e o p l e . U l t i m a t e l y , t h e b i s h o p s were removed because p u b l i c a n t i p a t h y f o r t h e e p i s c o p a l o f f i c e had r e a c h e d s u c h a p i t c h t h a t t h e K i n g ' s p o s i t i o n w o u l d have been s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n e d i f he d i d n o t c o n s e n t t o h i s p e o p l e ' s demand t h a t he d e p r i v e t h e b i s h o p s o f t h e i r t e m p o r a l p o w e r . N o t h i n g v e r y s p e c i f i c has e v e r been done by h i s t o r i a n s on t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e e p i s c o p a l c r i s i s o f 1640-1642 . The i d e a o f p o p u l a r r e v o l u t i o n as t h e fundament o f t h e b i s h o p s ' d o w n f a l l was p r o p o s e d by B r i a n M a n n i n g . H i s a r t i c l e , "The N o b l e s , The P e o p l e , And t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n " i n P a s t and P r e s e n t ( A p r i l , 1956) h o w e v e r , c o n c e r n e d a l a r g e r p r o b l e m than- t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t f i f t e e n months o f t h e L o n g P a r l i a m e n t . None o f t h e h i s t o r i a n s o f t h i s p e r i o d o f E n g l i s h h i s t o r y has t r a c e d t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l d r i v e s o l e l y f o r i t s own m e r i t s . G a r d i n e r ' s H i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d f rom t h e A c c e s s i o n o f James I_ t o t h e O u t b r e a k o f t h e C i v i l War 1603-1642 i n c l u d e d an a c c o u n t o f t h e e p i s c o p a l c r i s i s , b u t o n l y as a p a r t o f a l a r g e r c r i s i s . T r e v o r - R o p e r ' s L a u d , and G . S o d e n 1 s G o d f r e y Goodman a r e e x c e l l e n t w o r k s on two o f t h e most c o n t r o v e r s i a l E n g l i s h p r e l a t e s o f t h e X V I I C e n t u r y . These s t u d i e s t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e e p i s c o p a l c r i s i s o f 1640-1642 , b u t i n a l i m i t e d way , s i n c e t h e i r s u b j e c t s a r e i n d i v i d u a l b i s h o p s , n o t t h e e p i s c o p a l o r d e r as a w h o l e . W. H a l l e r ' s b o o k , The R i s e o f P u r i t a n i s m , d e a l s w i t h t h e e p i s c o p a l c r i s i s o n l y i n a v e r y g e n e r a l way s i n c e h i s t o p i c i s n o t t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n . M a s s o n ' s The L i f e o f J o h n M i l t o n and H i s T imes and L a m o n t ' s M a r g i n a l P r y n n e have t h e same l i m i t a - t i o n s f o r a s t u d y o f t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l d r i v e as have t h e w o r k s o f T r e v o r - R o p e r and Soden s i n c e t h e y t o o a r e c o n c e r n e d more w i t h t h e l i v e s o f t h e i r s u b j e c t s t h a n w i t h t h e e p i s c o p a t e . T h i s s t u d y w i l l examine t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l d r i v e w h i c h began a t t h e commencement o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t and ended w i t h t h e e x p u l s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s f r o m t h e L o r d s . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e e p i s c o p a l c r i s i s o f 1640-1642 f o r i t s own m e r i t s i s e s s e n t i a l i f one i s t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e f u l l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l momentum w h i c h was e v e r y w h e r e e v i d e n t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t , f i f t e e n months o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t . The m a j o r consequence o f t h e , i n t e n s e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l s e n t i m e n t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l change w h i c h a l t e r e d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e E n g l i s h P a r l i a m e n t . The e p i s c o p a t e , as L o r d s , S p i r i t u a l o f t h e r e a l m , e n j o y e d a r i g h t t o v o t e w i t h t h e P e e r s . The b i s h o p s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e s p i r i t u a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h e K i n g d o m , and t h e K i n g d e f e n d e d t h e i r r i g h t t o s i t i n t h e L o r d s , s i n c e he b e l i e v e d i t h i s m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n t o do so because o f h i s C o r o n a t i o n O a t h . Y e t h i s d e f e n s e o f t h e e p i s c o p a l o r d e r was a n y t h i n g b u t p o p u l a r as e v i d e n c e d by t h e f l o o d o f a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l p e t i t i o n s t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t c a l l i n g f o r t h e e x p u l s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s f rom t h e L o r d s , and t h e f i e r c e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l r i o t s i n L o n d o n . The f a c t t h a t t h e b i s h o p s were d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r s e a t s i n t h e Upper House showed t h a t p o p u l a r s e n t i m e n t c o u l d change t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n o f E n g l i s h Government . I t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o remove t h e e p i s c o p a l i s s u e f r o m t h e c r o s s - c u r r e n t s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l i n E n g l a n d d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1 6 4 0 ' s . T h i s s t u d y w i l l t r y t o i s o l a t e t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l d r i v e and c o n c e n t r a t e o n l y on t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l f o r c e s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n t h e b i s h o p s ' e x p u l s i o n f r o m t h e L o r d s . The m a j o r theme o f t h e e s s a y w i l l be t h e a s p e c t s o f p o p u l a r r e v o l u t i o n w h i c h b r o u g h t about a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a n g e , t h e f i r s t one e v e r b r o u g h t about i n t h i s manner i n E n g l i s h h i s t o r y . The p e r s e v e r a n c e o f t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l f o r c e s among t h e P u r i t a n members o f P a r l i a m e n t and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s o u t s i d e t h e Houses were r e m a r k a b l e . Because o f t h e i r m a s t e r f u l sense o f p o l i t i c s , t h e i r knowledge o f t h e b a s i c p r e j u d i c e s o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e n a t i o n and t h e i r i v a b i l i t y t o r e m a i n undaunted r e g a r d l e s s o f any s e t b a c k s t h e i r p rogram o f r e f o r m met , t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l o p p o s i t i o n i n t h e Commons were a b l e t o s u s t a i n t h e i r d r i v e t o remove t h e b i s h o p s f rom t h e L o r d s . The c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n between them and t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y i n London a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t bespoke t h e r u d i m e n t s o f a modern p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . T h e i r b a s i c a im was t h e same, t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s . A t t h a t p o i n t t h e r e a s o n t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s o r t h e c l e r g y w o u l d have g i v e n f o r s u c h a p o l i c y were n o t as i m p o r t a n t as t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t w i t h o u t m u t u a l c o o p e r a t i o n so d r a s t i c a r e f o r m c o u l d n e v e r t a k e p l a c e . T h e r e i s enough e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e t h e s i s t h a t t h e e x p u l s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s f rom t h e House o f L o r d s was t h e r e s u l t o f a p o p u l a r r e v o l u t i o n . C l a r e n d o n and D'Ewes b o t h r e f e r r e d t o t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e c r i s i s , as d i d many o f t h e s u p p o r t e r s o f a l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y i n t h e Commons. K i n g C h a r l e s most c e r t a i n l y l o o k e d a t t h e p r o b l e m as one o f r e v o l u t i o n . The b a s i c t h e s i s o f t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l w r i t e r s o f t h e p e r i o d was t h a t a n a r c h y i n C h u r c h and S t a t e w o u l d be t h e r e s u l t o f a n t i - e p i s c o p a l l e g i s l a t i o n . T h e r e must have been much f e a r t h a t t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n was a p l a u s i b l e o n e , o r e l s e t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l i a n p r e s s e s w o u l d n o t have p r o d u c e d so many t r a c t s r e f u t i n g i t . Arguments c o u l d be advanced t h a t t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l d r i v e was o n l y t h e work o f a d e d i c a t e d m i n o r i t y , o r t h a t p o p u l a r f e e l i n g was s t r i c t l y managed by t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y and p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s . B o t h arguments have some v a l i d i t y , b u t b e h i n d t h e a n t i - V e p i s c o p a l l e g i s l a t i o n o f 1641-1642 was a l a r g e p o p u l a r base o f s u p p o r t w h i c h was i m p r e s s i v e enough t o t h e L o r d s and t h e K i n g s . The r e s u l t was d r a m a t i c : t h e L o r d s and t h e K i n g a g r e e d t o e x p e l t h e b i s h o p s f rom t h e Upper H o u s e , an a c t i o n t h e y had r e s o l v e d w o u l d n e v e r t a k e p l a c e . T h e r e were f o u r a r e a s o f a n t i - e p i s c o p a l a c t i v i t y w h i c h t o g e t h e r formed t h e wedge needed t o p r y t h e b i s h o p s o u t o f t h e L o r d s . To f a c i l i t a t e t h e s t u d y , t h e y have been p r e s e n t e d as c h a p t e r s . The f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e p o p u l a r d e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n London a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s . The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l r i o t s i n 1640 and 1641 were among t h e w o r s t t u m u l t s t h e c i t y had e v e r s e e n . T h a t t h e p o p u l a c e c o u l d be moved t o s u c h v i o l e n c e w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e g r i e v a n c e s t h e y b o r e a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s were v e r y d e e p . T h i s e s s a y w i l l a t t e m p t t o go b e n e a t h t h e r i o t s t o see why t h e y happened and why t h e y t o o k t h e f o r m t h e y d i d , e x a m i n i n g t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e P a r l i a m e n t , t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y i n London and t h e L o n d o n e r s t h e m s e l v e s . The t u m u l t s a r e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f i r s t because t h e y d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i n t e n s i t y o f p o p u l a r h a t r e d f o r t h e b i s h o p s and g i v e a c h r o n o l o g y f o r t h e c r i s i s as a w h o l e . The n e x t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s f r o m a l l o v e r t h e c o u n t r y . These p e t i t i o n s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e d e p t h o f t h e n a t i o n a l o u t c r y a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s . The number o f a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s r e a c h i n g t h e Houses o f P a r l i a m e n t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t f o u r months o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t was s t a g g e r i n g . v i T h a t t h e y came when t h e y were needed showed t h a t t h e r e were ways i n w h i c h t h e c o u n t i e s were aware o f t h e needs o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t and c o u l d r e s p o n d t o t h o s e needs i n an e f f e c t i v e way . T h e r e was a l a g f o r a l m o s t a y e a r i n p e t i t i o n p r e s s u r e on t h e H o u s e . I t began a g a i n i n t h e l a s t t h r e e months o f t h e c r i s i s . A t t h i s s t a g e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a - t i o n h o w e v e r , o n l y t h e i n i t i a l p e t i t i o n s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . A n o t h e r a r e a o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e p a m p h l e t war o f 1641-1642 . The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p r e s s e s p o u r e d o u t p o t e n t p ropaganda t o keep a n t i - e p i s c o p a l s e n t i m e n t a l i v e . The f i n a l a r e a o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n c e r n s t h e m a n o e u v r i n g o f t h e House o f Commons t o d e m o n s t r a t e how p o p u l a r f e e l i n g was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o p o p u l a r l e g i s l a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s . C h a p t e r F i v e , by way o f c o n c l u s i o n , w i l l show how a l l f o u r o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s w o r k e d t o g e t h e r i n t h e l a s t t h r e e months o f t h e p e r i o d u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e K i n g ' s a s s e n t t o t h e p o p u l a r demand t h a t he remove t h e b i s h o p s f r o m t h e L o r d s . T h i s s t u d y i s l i m i t e d t o t h e f i r s t f i f t e e n months o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t . The volume o f a n t i - e p i s c o p a l s e n t i m e n t demands a t i m e r e s t r i c t i o n i f any sense i s t o be made o u t o f t h e s t u d y . I n t h i s t i m e p e r i o d , 3 November , 1640 t o 15 F e b r u a r y , 1642 , t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l f o r c e s were a b l e t o b e g i n f rom v i r t u a l l y n o t h i n g , r e a p t h e f r u i t s o f a s e e t h i n g n a t i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t and e f f e c t a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n . The m a j o r s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s u s e d were t h e J o u r n a l s o f S i r Simonds D ' E w e s , C l a r e n d o n ' s H i s t o r y o f v i i t h e R e b e l l i o n , R u s h w o r t h ' s H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s , and books and p a m p h l e t s f r o m t h e M c A l p i n C o l l e c t i o n a t U n i o n T h e o l o g i c a l S e m i n a r y , New Y o r k , N . Y . T h u s , t h e e s s a y w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e as much as p o s s i b l e on what t h o s e who w i t n e s s e d t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l d r i v e t h o u g h t t h e y saw; i t i s hoped t h a t new i n s i g h t i n t o an o l d p r o b l e m w i l l be g a i n e d . CHAPTER I ANTI-EPISCOPAL RIOTS I N LONDON By t h e t i m e o f t h e commencement o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t on 3 November , 1640 , London had a l r e a d y seen two d e f i n i t e l y a n t i - e p i s c o p a l r i o t s . On 22 O c t o b e r a mob e n t e r e d t h e h a t e d C o u r t o f H i g h C o m m i s s i o n w h i l e i t was i n s e s s i o n and d i s - r u p t e d t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e c o u r t by smash ing e v e r y t h i n g t h e y c o u l d and t h r o w i n g f u r n i t u r e i n t o t h e s t r e e t . On t h e f o l l o w i n g Sunday a n o t h e r mob r u s h e d i n t o S t . P a u l ' s C a t h e d r a l and d e s t r o y e d q u a n t i t i e s o f documents t h e y f o u n d i n an o f f i c e , b e l i e v i n g them t o be r e c o r d s o f t h e H i g h Commiss ion." ' " I t was i n t h i s t e n s e a tmosphere o f p u b l i c a g i t a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e s e c u l a r employments o f t h e A n g l i c a n e p i s c o p a t e t h a t t h e P a r l i a m e n t met a n d , because o f t h e v i o l e n c e o f t h e London c i t i z e n r y , was a b l e t o i n i t i a t e p r o c e e d i n g s n e c e s s a r y t o d e s t r o y e p i s c o p a l power . To c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e s e o u t b u r s t s o f p u b l i c h a t r e d f o r t h e b i s h o p s ' r o l e i n t h e Government were s p o n t a n e o u s w o u l d be t o m i s r e a d t h e known e v i d e n c e . London was a c e n t r e o f a n t i - e p i s c o p a l s e n t i m e n t . The c l e r g y o f t h e c i t y were g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be P u r i t a n . P e r h a p s t h e most i m p o r t a n t P u r i t a n d i v i n e s d u r i n g t h e e p i s c o p a l c r i s i s were London m i n i s t e r s : Edmund C a l a m y , a f r i e n d o f t h e P u r i t a n second E a r l o f W a r w i c k , R i c h a r d R i c h , was r e c t o r o f S t . Mary A l d e r m a n y ; Henry B u r t o n , whose a n t i - e p i s c o p a l l e c t u r e s c o s t h i m h i s e a r s i n 1636 , p r e a c h e d a t S t . M a t t h e w ' s , F r i d a y S t r e e t ; C o r n e l i u s B u r g e s s , who was l a t e r i m p l i c a t e d 2 i n i n c i t i n g t h e c i t y ' s a p p r e n t i c e s t o r i o t was r e c t o r o f S t . Magnus , London B r i d g e ; S t e p h e n M a r s h a l l , who p r e a c h e d f o r t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y c o n d i d a t e s o f t h e E a r l o f W a r w i c k , 2 had a l e c t u r e s h i p a t S t . M a r g a r e t ' s , W e s t m i n s t e r . Many o f t h e i n f l u e n t i a l l a i t y o f t h e c i t y were a l s o P u r i t a n . Two o f L o n d o n ' s a l d e r m e n who s a t i n t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t , I s a a c P e n n i n g t o n and J o h n V e n n , were members o f t h e d i s t i n c t i v e l y P u r i t a n p a r i s h e s o f S t . S t e p h e n ' s , Coleman 3 S t r e e t , and A l l H a l l o w s , B r e a d S t r e e t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Men s u c h as P e n n i n g t o n and Venn had l i t t l e r e a s o n t o l o v e e p i s c o p a c y . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e a t t e m p t s o f A r c h b i s h o p s Laud t o i n c r e a s e t h e t i t h e s o f t h e c i t y were d e e p l y r e s e n t e d . H i s i n f l u e n c e i n h a v i n g h i s s u c c e s s o r t o t h e See o f L o n d o n , W i l l i a m J u x o n , a p p o i n t e d L o r d T r e a s u r e r was a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e A r c h b i s h o p ' s i l l w i l l s i n c e " t h e peace and q u i e t o f t h e c h u r c h depended much on t h e c o n f o r m i t y o f L o n d o n , and' London d i d as much depend i n t h e i r t r a d e t h e payments upon t h e l o v e and j u s t i c e o f t h e L o r d T r e a s u r e r . " T h e r e f o r e , t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f J u x o n was t h e more l i k e l y way t o c o n f o r m t h e c i t i z e n s t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r B i s h o p , and t h e w h o l e Kingdom u n t o them; no s m a l l encouragement b e i n g t h e r e b y g i v e n t o t h e London c l e r g y f o r t h e i m p r o v i n g o f t h e i r t i t h e s . F o r w i t h what c o n f i d e n c e c o u l d any o f t h e o l d c h e a t s a d v e n t u r e on a p u b l i c e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e C o u r t o f E s c h e q u e r . . . when a L o r d B i s h o p o f London s a t e t h e r e i n as t h e p r i n c i p a l judge? The word " P u r i t a n " t h e r e f o r e i n 1640 d i d n o t mean m e r e l y a movement t o s t e e r t h e body o f t h e E n g l i s h c h u r c h i n t o a more C a l v i n i s t i c s t r e a m w i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e A n g l i c a n 3 C h u r c h . The word now had deep p o l i t i c a l o v e r t o n e s . The L a u d i a n r e f o r m s i n t h e 1630's h e l p e d t o fu se l a y o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e s e c u l a r employments o f t h e b i s h o p s w i t h t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n d i v i n e s ' o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p o l i t y o f t h e p r e l a t e s . T h u s , t h e r e was an e f f e c t i v e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l movement a l i v e i n London w h i c h l o o k e d t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t as t h e happy v e h i c l e o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l r e f o r m . S i n c e some o f t h e w e a l t h i e r L o n d o n e r s augmented t h e meagre s a l a r i e s o f t h e m i n i s t e r s , t h e l a i t y e x e r c i s e d some c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p u l p i t s ; P u r i t a n p r e a c h e r s h e l p e d b r o a d c a s t t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l s e n t i m e n t s e x p r e s s e d by t h e P u r i t a n members o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t a l l o v e r London i n an e f f o r t t o s u s t a i n p o p u l a r s u p p o r t f o r t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p r o g r a m o f 5 t h e Commons l e a d e r s h i p . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p r e a c h e r was n o t u n d e r e s t i m a t e d by t h o s e who v i e w e d t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l r i o t s o f 1640-1642. J o h n H a c k e t , l a t e r B i s h o p o f L i t c h f i e l d and C o v e n t r y i n R e s t o r a t i o n t i m e s , w r o t e o f t h e c o o p e r a t i o n between t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n and t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y . He f e l t t h a t t h e P u r i t a n members o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t were r a t h e r heady o v e r many t h i n g s , among them " t h e m u t i n e e s o f t h e C i t y and C o u n t r y . " The mobs were " p r e a c h e d i n t o d i s o r d e r by P r e s b y t e r i a n D i v i n e s . " T h i s he c o n s i d e r e d v e r y d a n g e r o u s , and s a i d i t f r i g h t e n e d h i s m e n t o r , J o h n W i l l i a m s , A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k , because 4 a m u f f l e d Z e a l f o r R e l i g i o n h a t h a f i n g e r i n a l l C o m b u s t i o n s . . . Churchmen a r e t h e most dangerous I n s t r u m e n t s t o t u r n M a l e - c o n t e n t s i n t o Swordmen who b e i n g p r e p o s s e s s e d w i t h an i l l o p i n i o n o f t h e T i m e s , w i l l q u i c k l y humble t h e i r Judgment under t h e C o n s c i e n c e o f t h e i r m i n i s t e r s . ^ T h e r e i s a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n t o t h e c o l l u s i o n between t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n t o e p i s c o p a c y and t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e London mob. I n t e r e s t i n g l y e n o u g h , some o f t h e l e a d e r s had r e a d y a c c e s s t o a rms . The H o n o u r a b l e A r t i l l e r y Company by 1639 had A l d e r m a n Thomas Soames as P r e s i d e n t and C a p t a i n J o h n Venn as h i s d e p u t y . B o t h t h e s e men were l a t e r M . P . ' s f o r London and s u p p o r t e r s o f J o h n Pym i n t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t . By J a n u a r y 1642 , t h e c i t y ' s p a r l i a m e n t a r y P u r i t a n s t o o k c o m p l e t e command o f t h e c i t y ' s t r a i n e d b a n d s . T h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n a b o u t t h e s u p p o r t t h e f o u r London M . P . ' s had among t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s . T h i s e x t e n d e d t o r i o t b r i g a d e s . D u r i n g t h e S h o r t P a r l i a m e n t , one o f t h e M . P . ' s , Samuel V a s s a l l , was i m p r i s o n e d f a r f rom London by o r d e r o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l f o r s t i r r i n g up " p o p u l a r 8 a g i t a t i o n among t h e c i t i z e n s . " I s a a c P e n n i n g t o n once announced t o t h e House t h a t he c o u l d r a i s e a c i t i z e n army 9 i n a d a y , a rmed , i f need b e , w i t h s w o r d s . P e n n i n g t o n , whose home was a haven f o r t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e P u r i t a n movement, b o t h f o r London and t h e n a t i o n , p r o v i d e d many s e r v i c e s f o r t h e p e o p l e o f L o n d o n , and i n t u r n t h e y s e r v e d h i m and t h e cause o f t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n w e l l whenever he needed them. The c o o p e r a t i o n between t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n 5 o p p o s i t i o n and t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y was u n d e r s t a n d a b l e enough . The s t a t u s o f e p i s c o p a c y was o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e t o b o t h p a r t i e s ; i t s c o n t i n u a n c e was i n t o l e r a b l e s i n c e i t had a s t r u c t u r e w h i c h d e f e a t e d t h e aims o f l ayman and c l e r i c a l i k e . G r e a t p r e s s u r e was needed t o b r i n g down an i n s t i t u - t i o n v e n e r a b l e i n age and p r e c e d e n t so f a r as t h e b i s h o p 1 s p a r l i a m e n t a r y p o s i t i o n was c o n c e r n e d . Thus t h e l i a i s o n between W e s t m i n s t e r and t h e p a r i s h e s was e s s e n t i a l i f t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l f a c t i o n hoped t o g a i n p o p u l a r s u p p o r t . The a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l M . P . ' s and c l e r i c s were aware o f e a c h o t h e r ' s needs and t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i l l become more a p p a r e n t l a t e r i n t h i s e s s a y . So f a r as t h e r i o t s a r e c o n c e r n e d , t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f t h e i r f u r y , t h e i r t i m i n g , and t h e i r c o n t i n u e d p r e s s u r e a l l bespeak a w e l l o r d e r e d p l a n , o n l y p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h a g r e a t d e a l o f c o o p e r a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t and t h e P u r i t a n l e a d e r s h i p i n L o n d o n . As has been s e e n , many o f t h e M . P . ' s and t h e c i t y c l e r g y were f r i e n d s . I n s u c h an a tmosphere t h e combined a n t i - e s t a b l i s h m e n t f o r c e s p r o v e d s t r o n g enough t o f o r c e t h e b i s h o p s o u t o f t h e House o f L o r d s . The f i r s t p u b l i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f p o p u l a r h a t r e d o f e p i s c o p a c y d u r i n g t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t was seen i n London on 28 November , 1640 . On t h a t day t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n and t h e i r f r i e n d s i n t h e London c h u r c h e s p r o v e d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o m o b i l i z e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n s among t h e c i t i z e n r y when W i l l i a m P r y n n e and H e n r y B u r t o n 6 r e t u r n e d t o t h e c i t y by o r d e r o f P a r l i a m e n t f rom t h e i r l o n g s o j o u r n i n p r i s i o n . The c r u e l m u t i l a t i o n o f t h e s e men, o r d e r e d by t h e S t a r Chamber a t t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f some o f t h e b i s h o p s who r e s e n t e d t h e i r v e r y l i v e l y a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l s e n t i m e n t s , made P r y n n e and B u r t o n p o p u l a r 6 i - 10 * h e r o e s . The o r g a n i z e d s t r e n g t h o f t h e P u r i t a n movement was r e v e a l e d by t h e c u r i o u s l y good t i m i n g o f t h e p u b l i c welcome g i v e n P r y n n e and B u r t o n . Two days b e f o r e t h e i r a r r i v a l i n London t h e two men met a t t h e same i n n . The n e x t day t h e y came t o C o l n b r o o k e , where many o f t h e i r London f r i e n d s met t h e m , and g r e a t j o y and f e a s t i n g were t h e o r d e r o f t h e d a y . A t two, o ' c l o c k on 28 November a p r o c e s s i o n g a t h e r e d a t C h a r i n g C r o s s , . w h e r e a j o y o u s r e c e p t i o n t a n t a m o u n t t o an " i n s u r r e c t i o n . . . and f r e n z y o f t h e p e o p l e " a w a i t e d t h e m , t e n t h o u s a n d s t r o n g . ^ The common p e o p l e were s t r e w i n g f l o w e r s and h e r b s i n t h e ways as t h e y p a s s e d , m a k i n g g r e a t n o i s e and e x p r e s s i o n s o f j o y f o r t h e i r d e l i v e r a n c e and r e t u r n , and i n t h o s e a c c l a m a t i o n s , m i n g l i n g l o u d and v i r u l e n t e x c l a m a t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s 'who had so c r u e l y p e r s e c u t e d s u c h g o d l y m e n . ' ^ ^ A s i m i l a r d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f a n t i - e p i s c o p a l f e e l i n g was e v i d e n t when J o h n B a s t w i c k , a d o c t o r who had s h a r e d t h e same f a t e as P r y n n e and B u r t o n , came t o London by o r d e r o f P a r l i a m e n t t h e f o l l o w i n g week . A s i m i l a r r e c e p t i o n s was g i v e n h i m i n London f o l l o w i n g h i s t r i u m p h a l pas sage t h r o u g h K e n t , Hampshi re and S u r r e y , where many o f t h e p e o p l e f rom t h e s e c o u n t i e s welcomed h i m . D e p l o r i n g h i s s u f f e r i n g caused by b i s h o p s , t h e y u t t e r e d a n t i - e p i s c o p a l c r i e s as he p a s s e d b y . T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l Edward H y d e , l a t e r L o r d C l a r e n d o n , i n t e r p r e t e d t h e s e d e m o n s t r a - t i o n s t o be r e b e l l i o n s a g a i n s t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t . H a v i n g n o t e d t h a t no " m i n i s t e r o f j u s t i c e o r m a g i s t r a t e o r t h e S t a t e i t s e l f [had] courage enough t o examine o r p r o s e c u t e i n j u s t i c e any p e r s o n s who were p a r t o f t h e r i o t o u s a s s e m b l y , w h e r e o f t h e r e were many c i t i z e n s o f good e s t a t e s he saw t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s r e p u t a t i o n had f a l l e n so low i n t h e eyes o f many t h a t t h e i r o r d e r s w o u l d have been 13 d x s o b e y e d anyway. The f o r c e o f t h i s p o p u l a r d e m o n s t r a t i o n t o o k t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l and j u d g e s o f t h e K i n g ' s C o u n c i l by s u r p r i s e and t h e y were u n a b l e t o s t o p t h e g r o w i n g a n t i - e p i s c o p a l momentum.I 4 T h i s w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e e l a b o r a t e a p p a r a t u s A r c h b i s h o p L a u d had c o n s t r u c t e d t o s i l e n c e P u r i t a n o p p o s i t i o n t o h i s H i g h - C h u r c h p o l i c i e s had b r o k e n down. N o t h i n g c o u l d s t o p t h e g r o w i n g p u b l i c d e m o n s t r a t i o n a g a i n s t e p i s c o p a c y . F o r C l a r e n d o n , n o t e d t h a t i n t h e f i r s t week and a h a l f o f December t h e p r e c i o u s p r e r o g a t i v e o f e p i s c o p a l i m p r i m a t u r and l i c e n s i n g o f p r e a c h e r s was d e a d . I n s t e a d , .8 a l l p u l p i t s were f r e e l y d e l i v e r e d t o t h e s c h i s m a t i c a l and s i l e n c e d p r e a c h e r s , who t i l l t h e n had l u r k e d i n c o r n e r s o r l i v e d i n New E n g l a n d ; and t h e p r e s s e s were a t l i b e r t y f o r t h e p u b l i s h i n g t h e most i n v e c t i v e , s e d i t i o u s , and s c u r r i l o u s p a m p h l e t s t h e i r w i t and m a l i c e c o u l d i n v e n t . 1 5 Emboldened by t h e s e s u c c e s s f u l e x p r e s s i o n s o f a n t i - e p i s c o p a l s e n t i m e n t , t h e L o n d o n e r s f o u n d a new way o f e x e r t i n g p r e s s u r e t o f u r t h e r d i s c r e d i t e p i s c o p a c y . They c o u l d accompany t h e i r a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t . The e f f e c t t h i s had on some o f t h e more c o n s e r v a t i v e e l e m e n t s o f t h e House o f Commons was p r o f o u n d . The " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n , t o be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , was b r o u g h t t o t h e House by f i f t e e n h u n d r e d L o n d o n e r s . T h a t t h e s e p e o p l e s h o u l d have had t h e a u d a c i t y t o v e n t u r e i n t o t h e p r e c i n c t s o f t h e House s c a n d a l i z e d some o f t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e members o f t h e House o f Commons s u c h as S i r N e v i l l e P o o l e . P o o l e f e l t t h a t t h e p e o p l e had no r i g h t t o be about t h e House and f o r t h a t r e a s o n 16 a l o n e t h e p e t i t i o n s h o u l d be t h r o w n o u t a l t o g e t h e r . B u t he v o i c e d t h e o p i n i o n o f a m i n o r i t y o f M . P . ' s and t h e London c rowd was t o become a f a c t o r t o be r e c k o n e d w i t h , l u r k i n g a b o u t t h e P a r l i a m e n t whenever t h e s u c c e s s o f a n t i - e p i s c o p a l measures was a t s t a k e . The b i s h o p s were n o t b l i n d t o t h e p o r t e n t o f t h e s e g r o w i n g d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . J o s e p h H a l l , B i s h o p o f N o r w i c h , l a t e r w r o t e o f t h e i n f l u e n c e mob t a c t i c s had on p r o g r e s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s t o d e s t r o y e p i s c o p a c y : 9 W i t h a l , t h e r a b b l e o f L o n d o n , a f t e r t h e i r p e t i t i o n s c u n n i n g l y and upon o t h e r p r e t e n c e s p r o c u r e d , were s t i r r e d up t o come t o t h e Houses p e r s o n a l l y t o c r a v e j u s t i c e . . . a g a i n s t t h e A r c h b i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y , and .. _ . . . l a s t l y a g a i n s t t h e w h o l e O r d e r o f B i s h o p s . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s i n t e r e s t i n g , because t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l i a n p e t i t i o n s , w h i c h n e v e r had p o p u l a r s u p p o r t f rom e i t h e r London o r t h e c o u n t i e s , were u s u a l l y d e f e r r e d by t h e H o u s e s . ° T h i s a s p e c t o f t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l d r i v e w i l l be more d e e p l y i n v e s t i g a t e d when p e t i t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d . A t any r a t e i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t r i o t p r e s s u r e c o u l d move t h e Commons t o choo:se t o r e a d a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s i n t h e H o u s e . One o f more s e r i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f r i o t p r e s s u r e o c c u r r e d when i n 1641 t h e London c i t i z e n r y a g i t a t e d f o r t h e d e a t h o f t h e E a r l o f S t r a f f o r d . I t i s n o t t h e p u r p o s e h e r e t o show t h e r e a s o n why t h e p o p u l a c e h a t e d h i m as much as t h e y d i d . What i s i m p o r t a n t t o us now i s h i s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c i e s o f A r c h b i s h o p L a u d . Even t h o u g h t h e L a u d i a n s y s t e m o f C h u r c h management was n o t e n d o r s e d by a l l t h e b i s h o p s , t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n t h o u g h t t h a t t h e e n t i r e e p i s c o p a t e was g u i l t y o f L a u d ' s c r i m e s . Thus a p e t i t i o n a g a i n s t S t r a f f o r d was one a g a i n s t L a u d , w h i c h i n t u r n was one a g a i n s t a l l t h e b i s h o p s . The same l o g i c a p p l i e d t o t h e 19 r i o t s , as H a l l so b i t t e r l y o b s e r v e d . Thus a p e t i t i o n t o t h e House on 21 A p r i l , 1641, by t e n t h o u s a n d c i t i z e n s u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h r e e c i t y c a p t a i n s o f t h e London 10 t r a i n e d bands (one o f whom was t h e f u t u r e member f o r t h e c i t y , J o h n Venn) c a l l i n g f o r t h e d e a t h o f " n o t o r i o u s o f f e n d e r s " and t h e r e f o r m o f t h e C h u r c h , had s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The c i t y wanted S t r a f f o r d ' s d e a t h a n d , by i m p l i c a t i o n , t h e b i s h o p s ' d e a t h s as w e l l . u P e r h a p s t h i s i s why t h e b i s h o p s so d i l i g e n t l y manoeuvred t h e i r way o u t o f S t r a f f o r d ' s b u s i n e s s b e f o r e t h e H o u s e , s a y i n g t h a t a l l m a t t e r s i n a g i t a t i o n e causae s a n g u i n i s were r e p u g n a n t t o 21 t h e i r o f f i c e . The r i o t s d u r i n g May o f 1641 demanding S t r a f f o r d ' s d e a t h f a r e x c e e d e d a n y t h i n g seen i n London b e f o r e t h a t t i m e , e x c e e d i n g even t h e mob a t t a c k on L a u d ' s c a r r i a g e when he was on h i s way t o t h e Tower o f London on 1 M a r c h , 1641 . The May r i o t s , by a l l t h e e v i d e n c e we h a v e , were c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d . The anonymous a u t h o r o f t h e p a m p h l e t P e r s e c u t i o Undecima gave an a c c o u n t o f t h e c o l l u s i o n between t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y and t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n . 2 2 He c l a i m e d t h a t t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y w o u l d meet i n Edmund C a l a m y ' s house t o d e v i s e ways o f p r o p a g a t i n g t h e g o d l y cause i n t h e House and t o h e l p t h e c i t i z e n s f u r t h e r t h e c a u s e . By way o f t h e i r sermons and l e c t u r e s t h e c i t i z e n s c o u l d l e a r n n o t o n l y what was done t h e week b e f o r e i n P a r l i a m e n t b u t a l s o what was t o be done t h e week f o l l o w i n g ; b e s i d e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , w h i c h ; t h e i r p u l p i t s gave t h e p e o p l e , f o r coming i n T u m u l t s t o t h e House f o r j u s t i c e . 2 3 Two London men, one a c l e r i c , t h e o t h e r an M . P . , s t a n d o u t as t h e p r o b a b l e l e a d e r s o f t h e a n t i - S t r a f f o r d r i o t s i n May: C h a r l e s O f f s p r i n g , r e c t o r o f S t . A n t h o l i n s , 11 and I s a a c P e n n i n g t o n . O f f s p r i n g , a f r i e n d and h o s t o f t h e S c o t t i s h C o m m i s s i o n e r s , was t h e p a s t o r o f a " m i s s i o n a r y " c h u r c h , where p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t e r s c o u l d t r a i n . He h i m s e l f was an i n d e f a t i g a b l e p r e a c h e r who n o t o n l y h u r l e d g o d l y b l a s t s f rom h i s p u l p i t , b u t a l s o c a r r i e d t h e good news i n t o t h e crowded s t r e e t s . He knew a l l t h e shops i n London s i n c e he was f o r e v e r c o l l e c t i n g money t o f i n a n c e t h e p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t r y . ^ P e n n i n g t o n ' s p o s i t i o n i n London has a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d ; i t can be s a i d t h a t he was t h e c i t y ' s c h i e f spokesman i n t h e H o u s e . H a c k e t spoke o f them when he w r o t e c o n c e r n i n g t h e May r i o t s : T h e r e i s no e q u a l t e m p e r a t u r e , o r c o u n t e r p o i s e o f power a g a i n s t t h e S t r o n g i n g r e d i e n t o f a M u l t i t u d e . I w i l l n o t s a y , b u t how many o f t h i s Scum i n v i t e d t h e m s e l v e s u n b i d d e n t o do a M i s c h i e f , b u t t h e r e was a L e a d e r , a P r e s b y t e r P u l p i t e e r t h a t bespoke them i n t o an U p r o a r f rom Shop t o Shop . . . I need n o t a t i m e - h o u n d t o draw a f t e r h i m t h a t was t h e c h i e f B u r g e s s o f t h e B o r r o u g h who g a t h e r e d t h i s v a i n P e o p l e t o a h e a d , t h a t had no h e a d : S i l l y M e c h a n i c k s ! 2 5 The r e a s o n f o r t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s was a p o p u l a r f e a r t h a t t h e K i n g w o u l d s p a r e S t r a f f o r d . The e a r l i e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n s f o r a b i l l o f a t t a i n d e r were p e a c e f u l enough c o n s i d e r i n g e v e n t s t o come. B e l l i g e r e n t c i t i z e n s , some w i t h p l a c a r d s c a l l i n g f o r h i s e x e c u t i o n , d e m o n s t r a t e d o u t s i d e W h i t e h a l l , b u t t h i n g s d e g e n e r a t e d when many o f t h e " m e c h a n i c k f o l k " f r o m Southwark a p p e a r e d w i t h swords and c l u b s . V i o l e n c e b r o k e o u t on 3 May; seamen and a p p r e n t i c e s j o i n e d t h e " m e c h a n i c k s " and c r i e d f o r j u s t i c e . ° The mob even t h r e a t e n e d t o p u l l t h e K i n g o u t o f W h i t e h a l l i f he d i d 12 not have S t r a f f o r d executed. From 7 May u n t i l 9 May angry crowds were t h i c k around W e s t m i n s t e r . 2 7 The s i t u a t i o n looked grave f o r the King. In conscience he c o u l d not condemn S t r a f f o r d and f i n a l l y , hoping f o r a S o l u t i o n , he c a l l e d i n f o u r b i s h o p s , Usher of Armagh, W i l l i a m s of L i n c o l n , Morton of Durham, and P o t t e r of C a r l i s l e . These bishops stood f o r no l o f t y p r i n c i p l e s i n t h i s matter; they c o u l d see t h a t g r e a t v i o l e n c e would be done i f the King would not g i v e i n . W i l l i a m s spoke of the King's p u b l i c conscience which would r e f l e c t the judgment of the judges i n law a g a i n s t S t r a f f o r d . In h i s p r i v a t e conscience he c o u l d f e e l as he would, but i n t h i s case the p u b l i c conscience should p r e v a i l . , f o r the t r u e q u e s t i o n was not whether he should save S t r a f f o r d ' s l i f e , but whether he should d i e w i t h him. ° Thus, mob v i o l e n c e had a dramatic e f f e c t on the h i e r a r c h y and the King.• C h a r l e s s i g n e d S t r a f f o r d ' s death warrant. On t h a t same day the King a l s o signed a b i l l which s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d h i s p r e r o g a t i v e : P a r l i a m e n t c o u l d be d i s s o l v e d o n l y when the M. P.'s wished i t t o be d i s s o l v e d . An argument c o u l d have been made t h a t due to c o e r c i o n the P a r l i a m e n t was not f r e e . Many of the Lords e s p e c i a l l y f e a r e d mob v i o l e n c e , and under the duress of the moment they s t r i p p e d the King o f a p r e c i o u s p r e r o g a t i v e . Yet P a r l i a m e n t was c o n s i d e r e d f r e e ; the o p p o s i t i o n had scored a major v i c t o r y . The f a c t t h a t no p r o t e s t was made over the freedom of P a r l i a m e n t a t the time o f t h e r i o t s was o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e f a t e o f t h e b i s h o p s . A v i o l e n t e x p r e s s i o n o f p u b l i c w i l l l o s t f o r t h e K i n g a f r i e n d and a v a l u a b l e p r e r o g a t i v e . W i t h t h i s s u c c e s s , p o p u l a r d e m o n s t r a t i o n s c o u l d hope t o d e s t r o y t h e p o l i t i c a l power o f t h e e p i s c o p a t e . I t was months b e f o r e t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e p o p u l a c e was a g a i n n e e d e d . The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e Commons t h o u g h t t h e L o n d o n e r s had d e m o n s t r a t e d p o t e n t l y enough i n t h e May r i o t s t h e d e p t h o f t h e p u b l i c r age a g a i n s t P a r l i a m e n t ' s e n e m i e s . The b i s h o p s , whom t h e s e l e a d e r s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e i r s p e c i a l e n e m i e s , were s t i l l s i t t i n g i n t h e House o f L o r d s a n d , w i t h S t r a f f o r d ' s b u s i n e s s c o m p l e t e d , t h e work a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s ' t e m p o r a l power began i n e a r n e s t . T h i s s u b j e c t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h i n C h a p t e r F o u r . S u f f i c e i t now t o s a y , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e K i n g , L o r d s , and p r o - e p i s c o p a l i a n members o f t h e Commons seemed t o have l e a r n e d n o t h i n g o f t h e p o p u l a r mood, because t h e y d i d e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e t o p r e v e n t a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l v i o l a t i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s ' r i g h t as P e e r s S p i r i t u a l t o v o t e i n t h e Upper H o u s e . The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l l e a d e r s h i p t r i e d and f a i l e d t o g e t t h e L o r d s ' a p p r o v a l o f two B i s h o p s ' E x c l u s i o n B i l l s , and one " R o o t and B r a n c h " B i l l ; The L o r d s and t h e K i n g f e l t t h e y had compromised by a c c e p t i n g t h e b i l l s i n J u l y w h i c h had a b o l i s h e d t h e C o u r t o f H i g h C o m m i s s i o n and t h e S t a r Chamber . The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l f a c t i o n i n t h e Lower House were n o t s a t i s f i e d . Because o f t h e u n c o o p e r a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e L o r d s , t h e Commons t r i e d t o 14 p r o d t h e L o r d s and t h e K i n g i n t o a c t i o n by i m p e a c h i n g t h i r t e e n b i s h o p s i n A u g u s t f o r a b r e a c h o f p r a e m u n i r e . B u t t h e s e impeached b i s h o p s c o n t i n u e d t o s i t i n t h e L o r d s . By November , when t h e news o f t h e I r i s h r e b e l l i o n f r i g h t e n e d a l l o f L o n d o n , t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f e p i s c o p a l power s t i l l seemed t o be f a r away. Because o f t h i s t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e Commons d e l i b e r a t e l y l i n k e d t h e i s s u e o f t h e I r i s h r e b e l l i o n and i t s p o p i s h t e r r o r w i t h t h e b i s h o p s and p o p i s h l o r d s i n a document p o p u l a r l y r e f e r r e d t o as t h e G r a n d R e m o n s t r a n c e . T h i s document a l s o a c c u s e d t h e b i s h o p s o f o b s t r u c t i n g e v e r y b i l l f o r r e f o r m w h i c h came up f r o m t h e Commons. I t was i m p e r a t i v e t h a t a b i l l f o r t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s be p a s s e d . 2 ^ The a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l members o f t h e Commons had w o r k e d on t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l f a c t i o n i n t h e Commons and L o r d s l o n g e n o u g h . A l l hope t h a t t h e two Houses w o u l d u n i t e a g a i n s t e p i s c o p a l t y r a n n y and e x p e l t h e b i s h o p s f r o m t h e L o r d s had f a i l e d . By t h e end o f November i t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h e London mobs w o u l d be n e e d e d . The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l r i o t s i n London f rom t h e end o f November , 1 6 4 1 , u n t i l t h e end o f December^ 1 6 4 1 , were o r g a n i z e d and i n s p i r e d by t h e P u r i t a n l e a d e r s h i p i n P a r l i a m e n t and i n t h e c i t y . J o h n Venn had s e n t h i s w i f e a l e t t e r s a y i n g t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l p a r t y i n t h e Commons was g e t t i n g " t h e b e t t e r o f t h e good p a r t y , a n d . t h e r e f o r e h e r husband d e s i r e d h i s f r i e n d s t o come w i t h t h e i r arms t o h e l p t h e good p a r t y . " 3 0 Some t h o u s a n d men came, a rmed , 15 31 t o h e l p i n w h a t e v e r way t h e y c o u l d . C l a r e n d o n n o t e d t h a t t h e p o p u l a c e w o u l d g a t h e r day o r n i g h t d u r i n g December "by t h e sound o f a b e l l o r o t h e r t o k e n , i n t h e f i e l d s , o r some c o n v e n i e n t p l a c e , t o c o n s u l t and r e c e i v e o r d e r s f rom t h o s e by whom t h e y were t o be d i s p o s e d . " 3 2 one s u c h ca se was n o t e d i n Southwark when a p r o - e p i s c o p a l c o n s t a b l e n o t i c e d c i t i z e n s a r m i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n a p l a c e where t h e i r arms and magaz ine f o r t h a t b o r o u g h was k e p t . . . t h e c o n s t a b l e . . . was no s o o n e r e s p i e d b u t he was r e p r o a c h e d w i t h d i s d a i n f u l w o r d s , b e a t e n , and d r a g g e d i n so b a r b a r o u s a manner t h a t he h a r d l y e s c a p e d w i t h h i s l i f e . 3 3 T h a t t h e man was t r y i n g t o p r e v e n t an armed i n s u r r e c t i o n was d e n i e d i n t h e Commons when an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s m a t t e r was made. The House was t o l d t h a t t h a t m e e t i n g i n Southwark had been by g o d l y and w e l l a f f e c t e d men, o n l y t o draw up and p r e p a r e C a p e t i t i o n a g a i n s t b i s h o p s , and t h a t t h e c o n s t a b l e , b e i n g a f r i e n d o f b i s h o p s , came amongst them t o h i n d e r men f r o m s u b s c r i b i n g t h a t wholesome p e t i t i o n . 3 4 The P u r i t a n c l e r g y a l s o h e l p e d t o keep t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l f e e l i n g a t a h i g h p i t c h , f o r "no c h u r c h e s c o u l d be f r e q u e n t e d b u t t h e r e [ the b i s h o p s ] were p r e a c h e d a g a i n s t as a n t i - 3 R C h r i s t i a n . " J J The L o n d o n e r s t h o u g h t t h e b i s h o p s were i m p l i c a t e d i n t h e I r i s h r e b e l l i o n , and i n t h e i r f e a r o f a C a t h o l i c u p r i s i n g were r e a d y t o t a k e t h e n e c e s s a r y means t o be r i d o f e p i s c o p a l p o w e r . The a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p d e s i r e d t h i s v e r y e f f e c t , f o r t h e y c o u l d see no o t h e r way t o be r i d o f b i s h o p s t h a n t o make t h e i r e x p u l s i o n f rom t h e 16 L o r d s a p o p u l a r c a u s e . T h i s c o u l d be s een by Pym' s r e s o l v e on 2 December , 1 6 4 1 , t h a t a c o m m i t t e e . . . r e v i e w what b i l l s we had p a s s e d and t h e l o r d s r e j e c t e d , and t h e r e a s o n s why , a n d , i f t h e l o r d s w o u l d n o t j o y n e w i t h u s , t h e n l e t us goe t o t h e K i n g , and make a d e c l a r a t i o n t o t h e p e o p l e , and l e t them see where t h e o b s t r u c t i o n s l i e . . . .36 Pym s t a t e d t h a t t h o s e l o r d s i n n o c e n t o f s u c h a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d so d e c l a r e t h e m s e l v e s , b u t i t was conceded t h a t t h e b i s h o p s w o u l d be j u d g e d g u i l t y by a l l . T h e r e were two d i s t i n c t phases o f t h e December r i o t s . The f i r s t p h a s e , a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e r i o t s o f l a t e November , was a imed a t t h r e e members o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t who were p r o - e p i s c o p a l . S i r J o h n S t rangeways was e s p e c i a l l y h a r a s s e d f o r s e v e r a l d a y s . On Monday e v e n i n g , 29 November , 1641 hee was encompassed w i t h above 200 sworded and s t a v e d , t o whom hee a s k i n g what was t h e m e a n i n g . They t o l d h i m t h a t t h e y came t o h i m f o r h i s v o t e f o r t h e p u t t i n g downe o f t h e B i s h o p s ; t o w h i c h hee t o l d them t h a t t h e y must d e s i r e i n a l e g a l l way what t h e y w o u l d have l e g a l l y d o n e ; and soe drew h i m s e l f e f rom them and i n h i s d e p a r t u r e hee c o u l d h e a r them s a y , do y o u know who y o u spoke t o ; i t was answered n o e ; why i t was S i r J o h n S t rangeways one o f f t h e g r e a t e s t ennimyes we h a v e . 3 7 I t was a g a i n r e c o r d e d t h a t S t r a n g e w a y s was s t o p p e d by one o o h u n d r e d p e o p l e , r e c e i v i n g o f f e n s i v e words f rom them. C l a r e n d o n n o t e d t h a t t h e mobs w o u l d f o r m o u t s i d e t h e P a r l i a m e n t , c h e e r i n g t h o s e whom t h e y l i k e d and r e a d i n g a l o u d t h e names o f t h o s e t h e y f e l t t o be d i s a f f e c t e d w i t h t h e K i n g d o m . Among t h o s e i n t h e l a t t e r c a t e g o r y f e l l S i r 17 J o h n S t r a n g e w a y s , Edward H y d e , L o r d F a l k l a n d , and S i r J o h n C u l p e p p e r , a l l o f whom opposed t h e e x p u l s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s . The crowds w o u l d g a t h e r a t t h e d o o r s o f b o t h Houses p r e v a i l i n g a l l o f t h e members t o e x p e l t h e b i s h o p s . To add f o r c e t o t h e i r demands t h e crown c r i e d a l o u d , " N o B i s h o p s . . . c a l l i n g them t h e l i m b s o f a n t i - C h r i s t . " 4 0 The mobs d i d a f f e c t t h e composure o f t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l i a n s . Edmund W a l l e r , a p r o - p r e l a t i c a l M . P.> on 2 December "much i n v e i g h e d a g a i n s t t h e L o n d o n e r s i n coming down a f t e r soe t u m u l t u o u s a manner , and c r y i n g 41 o p e n l y 'Noe B i s h o p p , Noe B i s h o p p 1 . " S i r Simonds D ' E w e s , an a n t i - e p i s c o p a l i a n answered h i m t h a t t h e L o n d o n e r s were n o t c a u s i n g t u m u l t s i n e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s , e x p l a i n i n g t h a t t h e i r demands c o n c e r n i n g b i s h o p s m i g h t r e l a t e t o t h e r s i t t i n g and h a v i n g v o t e s i n t h e L o r d s h o u s e ; a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e r i s a b i l l p a s t t h i s house and s e n t upp t o t h e L o r d s ; and t h e w h o l e c i t t i e i n one c o l l e c t i v e b o d i e d i d c o m p l a i n e o f t h i s t o t h o s e g e n t l e m e n whom wee s e n t u n t o them t o b o r r o w t h e l a s t 5 0 , 0 0 0 £ o f t h e m , t h a t t h e y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t many good A c t s and m o t i o n s w h i c h had p a s t t h e v o t e o f t h i s house were s t o p p e d i n t h e L o r d s house by r e a s o n o f t h e B i s h o p p s h a v i n g v o t e s and v o i c e s t h e r . 4 2 The s i t u a t i o n d e t e r i o r a t e d so much t h a t on 9 December , 1 6 4 1 , t h e K i n g s e n t an o r d e r t o t h e L o r d Mayor o f London demanding t h a t he s u p p r e s s t h e r i o t s , r o u t s , and u n l a w f u l a s s e m b l i e s w h i c h were u p s e t t i n g t h e peace o f t h e c i t y . He f u r t h e r commanded t h a t a l l j u s t i c e s o f t h e 18 peace and s h e r i f f s were t o c h a r g e e v e r y h o u s e h o l d e r h e n c e f o r t h n o t t o p e r m i t any o f t h e i r A p p r e n t i c e s o r s e r v a n t s t o have t h e l i b e r t y o f g o i n g a b r o a d t o make any T u m u l t s o r u n l a w f u l m e e t i n g s and a s s e m b l i e s w i t h i n t h e C i t y o r e l s e w h e r e upon any p r e t e n c e w h a t s o e v e r . ^ The K i n g r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n was becoming d e s p e r a t e . On 12 December he o r d e r e d a l l members who were a b s e n t i n g t h e m s e l v e s f rom t h e Commons t o r e t u r n . The Commons s t r u c k back by p r i n t i n g t h e Grand Remons t rance on 15 December . E n r a g e d , C h a r l e s r e p l i e d on 23 December t h a t t h e b i s h o p s ' p r e s e n c e i n t h e House o f L o r d s was j u s t i f i e d by t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l aws o f t h e r e a l m , and t h a t he i n t e n d e d t o d e f e n d 44 t h e C h u r c h w i t h c o n s t a n c y so l o n g as he s h o u l d l i v e . .To t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p i n P a r l i a m e n t and i n London t h i s was t a n t a m o u n t t o a d e c l a r a t i o n o f w a r . T h e r e was o n l y one c o u r s e open t o them. S i n c e t h e L o r d s and t h e K i n g w o u l d n o t l i s t e n t o t h e p e o p l e ' s demands, t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s w o u l d keep t h e b i s h o p s o u t o f P a r l i a m e n t . T h a t t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l f a c t i o n i n t h e House had some p a r t t o p l a y i n t h e s e c o n d s t a g e o f t h e December r i o t s , 2 7 December t o 30 December , was shown when C l a r e n d o n w r o t e And when c o m p l a i n t was made t o t h e House o f Commons f o r t h i s d i s o r d e r and b r e a c h o f p r i v i l e g e , i t was t u r n e d i n t o m e r t h , and t h e names o f t h e p e r s o n s r e q u i r e d o f t h o s e who c o m p l a i n e d , and who c o u l d n o t be supposed t o know any o f t h a t r a b b l e ; w h i c h made v e r y many o f t h e members o f t h e Houses f o r b e a r t o g i v e t h e i r a t t e n d a n c e there?> p u t o f r e a l a p p r e h e n s i o n o f danger t o t h e i r p e r s o n s . 4 5 T h i s w o u l d work t o t h e advantage o f t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l i a n 19 f a c t i o n i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t . Because i t was C h r i s t m a s t i d e , many o f t h e n o n - P u r i t a n members o f t h e House w o u l d be o u t o f t h e c i t y f o r t h e h o l i d a y . . I f t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n c o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y m a n i p u l a t e t h e mob, t h e r e was a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e b i s h o p s c o u l d l o s e v o t e s i n P a r l i a m e n t a f t e r a l l . I f t h e b i s h o p s c o u l d be e x p e l l e d , t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l M . P . ' s hoped t h a t t h e way w o u l d be c l e a r e d f o r more d r a s t i c r e f o r m s w h i c h had h i t h e r t o been i m p o s s i b l e t o e f f e c t because t h e b i s h o p s ' v o t e s so o f t e n c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e K i n g . The b i s h o p s had been warned by some o f t h e i r f r i e n d s i n t h e c i t y t h a t t h e y s h o u l d a b s e n t t h e m s e l v e s " i n t h i s l i c e n t i o u s t i m e o f C h r i s t m a s , t h o u g h t h e y had n o t t h e h a p p i n e s s t o make use o f t h e a d v i c e . T h e f i r s t i n k l i n g t h e b i s h o p s may have had t h a t t h e r e e t r o u b l e a f o o t was when A r c h b i s h o p J o h n W i l l i a m s o f Y o r k n o t i c e d on 26 December t h a t h i s h o u s e , t h e Deanery a t t a c h e d t o W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y , was b e i n g s u r r o u n d e d by some o f t h e a p p r e n t i c e s and c i t i z e n s who were " m a k i n g a g r e a t n o t i s e and h u b u b . " ^ 7 From t h i s v a n t a g e p o i n t t h e y c o u l d b e t t e r w a t c h t h e b i s iops coming t o P a r l i a m e n t and g a t h e r up s t o n e s t o h u r l a t them on t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y . When t h e b i s h o p s s e t o u t f o r P a r l i a m e n t on Monday, 27 December , t h e y were met by one o f t h e u g l i e s t mobs e v e r seen i n L o n d o n . A c c o r d i n g t o H a c k e t , " a l l s e c t a r i e s and d e s p e r a t e V a r l e t s i n C i t y and S u b u r b s , f l o c k e d by t h o u s a n d s t o P a r l i a m e n t . . . e v e r y T i n k e r and T a p s t e r 20 4 8 c a l l e d f o r j u s t i c e . " I f t h e p r e l a t e s hoped t o e scape t h e crowds by w a t e r t h e y were s o r e l y m i s t a k e n . On coming i n t o d o c k , t h e i r b a r g e s were p e l t e d w i t h s t o n e s . These r i o t s c o n t i n u e d f o r two d a y s . Duppa o f S a l i s b u r y t r i e d t o dock on one o f t h o s e d a y s , b u t was g r e e t e d by companies o f a p p r e n t i c e s and o t h e r s s t a n d i n g on t h e s h o r e c r y i n g "no b i s h o p s . " 4 9 C u r l l o f W i n c h e s t e r a l s o t r i e d t o d o c k , b u t was met by swarms o f a p p r e n t i c e s who s h o u t e d t h e now a l l t o f a m i l i a r "No b i s h o p s " , and was a d v i s e d n o t t o l a n d . I n s t e a d , he t u r n e d back and e s c a p e d by c o a c h . ^ The b i s h o p s were v i s i b l y u p s e t by t h e v i o l e n c e o f t h e mob. W i l l i a m s o f Y o r k went i n t o a r age when t h e crowds i n s u l t e d h i m and h i s b r e t h r e n by j e e r i n g a t them. The r i o t e r s formed two l i n e s w h i c h t h e b i s h o p s had t o pa s s t h r o u g h on t h e i r way i n t o t h e H o u s e . The A r c h b i s h o p t o o k h o l d o f one o f t h e r i o t e r s . Some o f t h e r i o t e r s r e t a l i a t e d by t e a r i n g o f f h i s e p i s c o p a l gown f rom h i s b a c k . M o r t o n o f Durham, a r a t h e r p o p u l a r b i s h o p , was a l m o s t d r a g g e d o u t o f h i s c a r r i a g e . H a l l o f N o r w i c h r e c a l l e d t h e i n c i d e n t s w i t h a sense o f h o r r o r . He was a d v i s e d by t h e M a r q u i s o f H e r t f o r d t o spend t h e n i g h t i n t h e H o u s e , o r e l s e he and t h e o t h e r b i s h o p s m i g h t be t o r n t o p i e c e s by t h e mob, s i n c e t h e r i o t e r s w o u l d s e a r c h e v e r y c o a c h by t o r c h l i g h t . A l l managed t o e s c a p e . Many, l i k e H a l l , went t o W i l l i a m s ' h o u s e . O n l y two had t h e courage t o go t o t h e House on t h e 2 8 t h , Goodman o f G l o u c e s t e r and P i e r c e o f B a t h and W e l l s . The absence o f t h e o t h e r b i s h o p s was due t o t h e i r " r e s o l v e d 21 f o r b e a r a n c e n o t t o v e n t u r e any more t o t h e House w i t h o u t c i b e t t e r a s s u r a n c e . " B e t t e r a s s u r a n c e was n o t f o r t h c o m i n g . The L o r d s t r i e d t o a l l e v i a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n by a s k i n g t h e Commons t o j o i n w i t h them i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e mob. The mood o f t h e Commons was shown by Pym' s r e m a r k , "God f o r b i d t h e House o f Commons s h o u l d p r o c e e d i n any way t o d i s h e a r t e n p e o p l e t o 52 o b t a i n t h e i r j u s t d e s i r e s i n s u c h a w a y . " B u t t h e t u m u l t s had r e a c h e d s u c h a s t a g e t h a t t h e y were now beyond t h e c o n t r o l o f any f a c t i o n . E p i s c o p a l i a n s and a n t i - e p i s c o p a l i a n s b lamed one o t h e r f o r t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e d i s t u r b a n c e s . The r i o t s r e d u c e d t h e b i s h o p s t o s u c h a s t a t e o f p a n i c , t h e L o r d s t o s u c h a s t a t e o f f e a r , and t h e K i n g t o s u c h a s t a t e o f s h o c k , t h a t i t was becoming c l e a r t h a t t u m u l t s w o u l d c o n t i n u e u n t i l t h e L o r d s c o o p e r a t e d w i t h t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p a r l i a m e n t a r y f o r c e d , and e x c l u d e d t h e b i s h o p s f r o m t h e Upper H o u s e . A l l o t h e r a t t e m p t s made by t h e P e e r s t o have t h e Commons j o i n w i t h them i n s u p r e s s - i n g t h e r i o t s had f a i l e d . On t h e 2 8 t h w h i l e A r c h b i s h o p W i l l i a m s , who was h o s t i n g s e v e r a l b e l e a q u e r e d b i s h o p s , and h i s s e r v a n t s were r e p e l l i n g an a t t a c k on W e s t m i n s t e r Abbey f rom "Wat T y l e r s and Round R o b i n s b e i n g d r i v e n o r p e r s u a d e d o u t o f W h i t e - h a l l , 1 1 3 t h e q u e s t i o n a r o s e i n t h e Commons w h e t h e r o r n o t an armed band s h o u l d p r o t e c t t h e H o u s e , and D'Ewes w r o t e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n had been a r g u e d f o r o v e r two h o u r s . I n t h e e n d , t h e m a j o r i t y d e c i d e d " i t [was] u n r e a s o n a b l e t o make any d e c l a r a t i o n a t t h i s t i m e t o d i s c o n t e n t t h e C i t t i z e n s o f L o n d o n , o u r s u r e s t f r i e n d s . . . From what has been s a i d b e f o r e , we can c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e i r " s u r e s t f r i e n d s " w e r e , i n d e e d , t h e P u r i t a n London c l e r g y , g i v i n g c r e d e n c e t o t h e p e r s i s t e n t r o y a l i s t rumour t h a t t h e l e a d e r o f t h e a p p r e n t i c e s i n t h e r e c e n t t u m u l t s was C a l a m y ' b r o t h e r d i v i n e , C o r n e l i u s B u r g e s s , who c o n t i n u e d t o s t i r up 55 t h e a p p r e n t i c e s i n December , 1641. The r e s u l t s o f t h e i r c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t s were n o t l o n g i n c o m i n g . I n t h e L o r d s on t h e 2 8V .December, a m o t i o n was made t o d e c l a r e t h e P a r l i a m e n t n o t f r e e because o f t h e r i o t s . 56 ~~ The m o t i o n l o s t by f o u r v o t e s . The absence o f a l l b u t two o f t h e b i s h o p s most c e r t a i n l y a f f e c t e d t h e outcome o f t h i s v o t e . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t s i n c e , i f t h e L o r d s had d e c i d e d n o t t o s i t , t h e Commons w o u l d have been u n a b l e t o do a n y t h i n g . B u t P a r l i a m e n t was d e c l a r e d f r e e , and b u s i n e s s went on as u s u a l . W i l l i a m s o f Y o r k was f u r i o u s o v e r t h i s v o t e i n t h e L o r d s , and g i v e n h i s s t a t e o f mind a f t e r he had been mobbed one c o u l d say he was i n d i g n a n t beyond t h e p o i n t o f c o o l r e a s o n i n g . As A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k , he was s e n i o r t o a l l t h e h i e r a r c h y , s i n c e Laud was i n pr i son^ : . . W i l l i a m s had been p o p u l a r w i t h t h e Commons because he had been h i m s e l f i m p r i s o n e d by Laud i n 1637. B u t he had d i s a p p o i n t e d t h e P u r i t a n f a c t i o n because o f h i s e x c e s s i v e p r i d e and h i s r e c e n t d e f e n c e o f t h e " L o r d l y j u r i s d i c t i o n and s e c u l a r a u t h o r i t y o f o u r P r e l a t e s , w i t h o u t t h e l e a s t d i m i n u t i o n o r r e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e i r e x c e s s e s w h i c h h a t h much e c c l i p s e d a l l 23 the honour and reputation he had gained from his former 57 sufferings." The Archbishop sent for the eleven other bishops then residing i n the c i t y on 29 December, and t o l d them they must send a protestation to the House, stating that they were staying away from the Parliament because of force, and that a l l actions done there during t h e i r absence 58 should be considered n u l l and void. Not to do t h i s , he t o l d the bishops, "would shamefully betray and abdicate 59 the due r i g h t both of ourselves and of our successors." H a l l signed the document with the understanding that further conferences would be had on the manner of presenta- t i o n , assuming that Williams would have enough sense to know what to do since he had been at one time the Keeper fi 0 of the Great Seal. But Williams was i n a very agitated state. Of a l l the bishops he had been the most severely treated by the mobs, and with an a i r of outraged dignity he presented the protestation, signed by himself and the eleven others, to the King. The Archbishop asked that the King himself send down the protestation, since the bishops themselves could not safely go to Parliament. The fact that t h i s might seem l i k e gross c o l l u s i o n between the King and the bishops to destroy the freedom of the Commons, and that i t might look even more suspicious since the matters treated on those days concerned the repression of the I r i s h r e b e l l i o n for which the bishops and popish lords were blamed, 24 d i d n o t o c c u r t o e i t h e r t h e b i s h o p s o r t h e K i n g . The K i n g p r o b a b l y knew t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e p r o t e s t a t i o n ; he w o u l d have been i n agreement w i t h t h e argument t h a t because o f t h e r i o t s t h e P a r l i a m e n t was n o t f r e e . I n any e v e n t , ft 1 w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e K i n g r e a d t h e document , i t was g i v e n t o t h e L o r d Keeper. , t h e L o r d L i t t l e t o n , t h e S p e a k e r o f t h e House o f L o r d s . B u t t h i s man w i l l i n g enough t o t a k e t h i s advantage o f i n g r a t i a t i n g h i m s e l f w i t h t h e House o f Commons and t h e F a c t i o n , to ; ?which he knew h i m s e l f s u f f i c i e n t l y o b n o x i o u s , f i n d i n g what use m i g h t be made o f i t by p r e j u d i c a t e minds r e a d t h e same o p e n l y i n t h e House o f L o r d s ; and when he found some o f t h e F a c t i o n a p p r e h e n s i v e enough o f m i s c o n s t r u c t i o n , a g g r a v a t e d t h e m a t t e r as h i g h l y o f f e n s i v e and o f dangerous c o n s e q u e n c e ; and t h e r e u p o n , n o t w i t h o u t much head and vehemence, and w i t h an i l l p r e f a c e , i t was s e n t down t o t h e House o f Commons: where i t was e n t e r t a i n e d h e i n o u s l y . The r e s u l t was t h a t t h e t w e l v e b i s h o p s were a c c u s e d o f h i g h t r e a s o n , and were a r r e s t e d t h a t v e r y d a y . 63 C l a r e n d o n f e l t t h e impeachments were u n j u s t . However , t h e L o r d s were f r i g h t e n e d . S i n c e t h e mob e v e n s i n g l e d o u t t h o s e l o r d s whom t h e y c o n s i d e r e d f r i e n d l y t o t h e P u r i t a n c a u s e , s u c h as t h e E a r l o f Warwick and L o r d B r o o k e , and b u l l i e d t h o s e who were n o t , t h e L o r d s bowed t o t h e p o p u l a r p r e s s u r e and j o i n e d t h e Commons i n t h e impeachment o f t h e t w e l v e . The L o r d s had a l r e a d y d e c l a r e d t h e m s e l v e s f r e e on 28 December . However , had s e v e n b i s h o p s been a b l e t o a t t e n d P a r l i a m e n t on t h a t day i n s t e a d o f t h e two who d i d manage t o e scape t h e mobs and were p r e s e n t , t h e v o t e w o u l d have been d i f f e r e n t . A c c o r d i n g 25 t o t h e b i s h o p s ' p r o t e s t a t i o n t h i s v o t e was n u l l and v o i d . The p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s f e a r e d t h a t t h e K i n g m i g h t c o n s i d e r n u l l and v o i d h i s s i g n i n g i n May t h e a c t a g a i n s t d i s s o l v i n g t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t w i t h o u t i t s own c o n s e n t . C h a r l e s c o n c e i v a b l y c o u l d a rgue t h a t t h e t u m u l t s a b o u t t h e House o v e r S t r a f f o r d ' s f a t e d i d n o t l e a v e t h e P a r l i a m e n t f r e e . I n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h a t December , i t w o u l d a l s o mean t h a t more P r o t e s t a n t s c o u l d be k i l l e d by t h e C a t h o l i c I r i s h , and t h e E n g l i s h C a t h o l i c s w o u l d be emboldened t o t r y t h e same c o u r s e . Thus t h e impeachments were n e c e s s a r y and t h i s work had t o be done q u i c k l y . The b i s h o p s ' t i m i n g had been d i s a s t r o u s . C l a r e n d o n p u t most o f t h e blame on t h e " p r i d e and i n s o l e n c e o f t h a t 65 a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l A r c h b i s h o p W i l l i a m s . " He i m p l i e d t h a t t h e r i o t i n g and t h e b l e s s i n g s be s towed upon t h e s e t u m u l t s by t h e Commons s h o u l d have warned t h e b i s h o p s about t h e danger o f h a s t y and r a s h a c t i o n s , s i n c e " t h e power o f t h e i r a d v e r s a r i e s was t o o g r e a t t h a t t h e l aws t h e m s e l v e s 66 s u b m i t t e d t o t h e i r o p p r e s s i o n . " I n o t h e r w o r d s , a p o p u l a r r e v o l u t i o n had h e l p e d t o o v e r t u r n an e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n . A n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s and p a m p h l e t s h e l p e d t o i n c r e a s e p o p u l a r , h a t r e d o f t h e b i s h o p s . The s k i l l f u l management o f t h i s p ropaganda by t h e P u r i t a n f a c t i o n who were a i d e d by t h e London mobs e v e n t u a l l y b r o u g h t an end t o t h e b i s h o p s ' v o t e s i n P a r l i a m e n t . T h a t c o n t e m p o r a r i e s saw a l l t h i s as a dangerous r e v o l u t i o n 26 t h r e a t e n i n g t h e v e r y f a b r i c o f E n g l i s h l a w and Government w i l l be made more e v i d e n t l a t e r . T h i s much i s c l e a r : t h e K i n g had s a i d he c o u l d n o t i n c o n s c i e n c e e x e c u t e S t r a f f o r d ; t h e n , because o f t h e r i o t s , he p e r m i t t e d t h e e x e c u t i o n o f h i s l o y a l s e r v a n t t o t a k e p l a c e . The K i n g a l s o s a i d t h a t he w o u l d d e f e n d t o t h e d e a t h t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t o f t h e b i s h o p s t o s i t i n t h e House o f L o r d s . The s e v e r i t y o f t h e t u m u l t s so u n n e r v e d t h e b i s h o p s t h a t t h e y r u s h e d i n t o an a c t i o n w h i c h c a u s e d t h e L o r d s t o abandon them. The L o r d s ' a c t i o n f r i g h t e n e d t h e K i n g who c o m m i t t e d a s e r i o u s b l u n d e r when he a t t e m p t e d t o a r r e s t f i v e members o f t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l o p p o s i t i o n . - Y e t t h e p e o p l e w o u l d n o t r e l e n t i n t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o be r i d o f b i s h o p s , so t h e K i n g gave way once a g a i n by s i g n i n g t h e B i s h o p s - E x c l u s i o n B i l l on 13 F e b r u a r y , 1642 . C l e a r l y , he was f a c e d w i t h a r e v o l u t i o n , f o r n e v e r b e f o r e had t h e K i n g g i v e n i n so much on m a t t e r s so v i t a l t o h i s p r e r o g a t i v e and c o n s c i e n c e as he d i d because o f r i o t p r e s s u r e . H a c k e t r e a l l y p o i n t e d t o t h e h e a r t o f t h e m a t t e r when he w r o t e " t h e K i n g ' s arm was t o o weak t o h o l d t h e b a l a n c e o f J u s t i c e . . . . " 6 7 what t h e P u r i t a n a n t i - e p i s c o p a l f a c t i o n t h e n c o u l d n o t w i n by argument . . . t h e y w o u l d p r e v a i l by f o r c e . . . . And t h u s began t h e d o w n f a l l o f E p i s c o p a c y w h i c h was n e v e r h e a r d , n e v e r s u f f e r ' d t o p l e a d a t t h e B a r o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t i n i t s own C a u s e , b u t as one s ays p e r t i n e n t l y , ' I t was s m o t h e r ' d i n a c r o w d ' . ^ 8 CHAPTER I I ANTI-EPISCOPAL PETITIONS The most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e o f t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s was t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i v e n them by t h e P u r i t a n l e a d e r s o f t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n i n t h e House o f Commons. The p e t i t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d by J o h n Pym t o be " t h e v o i c e o r r a t h e r t h e c r y o f a l l E n g l a n d . " " ' " S i n c e t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l p e t i t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be an e x p r e s s i o n o f n a t i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t w i t h t h e e p i s c o p a l o f f i c e , t h e y were u s e d by t h e o p p o s i t i o n as an i n d i c a t i o n o f p o p u l a r s u p p o r t f o r t h e l e g i s l a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o e f f e c t a c o n s t i t u t i o n - a l change i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e House o f L o r d s . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h e London o r " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n and t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n and Remonst rance a r e e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t because t h e y v o i c e d t h e g e n e r a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p o p u l a r h a t r e d o f t h e e p i s c o p a l o f f i c e . These two p e t i t i o n s a l s o i n f l u e n c e d t h e c o u n t y p e t i t i o n s y e t t o come t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t , a l l o f w h i c h demanded a q u i c k s o l u t i o n t o t h e e p i s c o p a l p r o b l e m . U l t i m a t e l y , t h e London and M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n s were t h e b a s i s f o r t h e l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h was u sed t o t a k e away t h e b i s h o p s ' v o t e s i n P a r l i a m e n t . Where t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n and t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n and Remonst rance were an e x p r e s s i o n o f London g r i e v a n c e s , t h e c o u n t y p e t i t i o n s i n d i c a t e d a n a t i o n a l o u t c r y a g a i n s t t h e e p i s c o p a t e . However , i t was t h e town and p a r i s h p e t i t i o n s w h i c h u s u a l l y s i n g l e d o u t t h e 28 l o c a l b i s h o p and c a t a l o g u e d h i s c r i m e s . P e t i t i o n s f rom i n d i v i d u a l s were u s u a l l y n o t as i n f l u e n t i a l as t h e l a r g e r p e t i t i o n s save i n t h e cases o f W i l l i a m P r y n n e , Henry B u r t o n and J o h n B a s t w i c k . Because t h e s e men had a t t a i n e d t h e s t a t u s o f p o p u l a r h e r o e s , t h e p u b l i c welcomed t h e i r a c c o u n t s o f t h e b l o o d y p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e b i s h o p s i n t h e S t a r Chamber and c o p i e s o f t h e i r p e t i t i o n s were c i r c u l a t e d f a r 2 and w i d e . The m a j o r i t y o f a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s u s u a l l y had f o u r m a j o r a r e a s o f c o n c e r n . These w e r e : e p i s c o p a l c r i m e s c o m m i t t e d by v i r t u e o f t h e b i s h o p s ' e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p o l i t y a g a i n s t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l aw o f t h e r e a l m ; ^ e p i s c o p a l a t t e m p t s t o " R o m a n i z e " t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d ; t h e p e r s o n a l c r i m e s and a b o m i n a t i o n s o f t h e e p i s c o p a t e ; and t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e b i s h o p s ' p o l i c y t o b r i n g u t t e r r u i n t o E n g l a n d . A l l o f t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s were g r a c i o u s l y r e c e i v e d by t h e P a r l i a m e n t s i n c e t h e r i g h t o f e v e r y man t o ask r e d r e s s f o r h i s g r i e v a n c e s was u p h e l d . The manner o f p r o c u r i n g s i g n a t u r e s had a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I f i t c o u l d be p r o v e n t h a t t h e s i g n a t u r e s on any p e t i t i o n were f a l s e , t h e p e t i t i o n c o u l d be t h r o w n o u t . T h u s , as much as was p o s s i b l e , t h e P a r l i a m e n t t r i e d t o i n s u r e t h a t a l l l e g i t i m a t e p e t i t i o n s w o u l d be r e c e i v e d and w o u l d be used t o h e l p i t i n i t s e f f o r t s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m . A c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e London o r " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t t o o u r s t u d y s i n c e i t was t h e p r o t o t y p e o f many p e t i t i o n s w h i c h were t o f o l l o w i t 29 t o t h e Commons. Even more i m p o r t a n t , h o w e v e r , i s t h e b i a s t h e London P e t i t i o n e x h i b i t e d . S i n c e so many p e t i t i o n s f o l l o w i n g i t were s i m i l a r t o t h e o r i g i n a l " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n , t h i s b i a s c a n n o t be o v e r l o o k e d . T h e r e i s no doubt t h a t t h e London P e t i t i o n was t h e work o f c l e r i c s . As Edmund C a l a m y ' s g r a n d s o n n o t e d , h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ' s house "was a r e c e p t a c l e f o r a l l P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r s , and t h e p l a c e i n w h i c h t h e Remonst rance was 4 f ramed a g a i n s t t h e p r e l a t e s . " T h e r e f o r e , t h i s p e t i t i o n had a d i s t i n c t l y c l e r i c a l b i a s . I t w o u l d be h a s t y , h o w e v e r , t o c o n c l u d e t h a t because o f i t s v i o l e n t a n t i - e p i s c o p a l n a t u r e and i t s r a d i c a l s o l u t i o n t o e p i s c o p a c y t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n e x h i b i t e d a b i a s o f t h e I n d e p e n d e n t s , f o r as B a i l l i e o f t e n n o t e d , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e London c l e r g y were a n x i o u s n o t t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e I n d e p e n d e n t s . One m a j o r f e a r t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y had was t h a t I n d e p e n d e n t s i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t w o u l d f r u s t r a t e t h e i r h o p e s , f o r as B a i l l i e n o t e d : . Sey and B r o o k i n t h e H i g h e r H o u s e , and t h e s e a l o n e , and some l e a d i n g men i n t h e l o w e r , were s u s p e c t e d by t h e i r i n c l i n a t i o n t o t h e S e p a r a t i s t s , w o u l d d i v i d e f r o m t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n s , and so weaken t h e p a r t y o p p o s i t e t h e B i s h o p s . 5 Y e t P u r i t a n s and I n d e p e n d e n t s were u n i t e d on t h e i s s u e o f e p i s c o p a c y , and by 15 M a r c h , 1 6 4 1 , b o t h f a c t i o n s a g r e e d n o t t o f i g h t amongst t h e m s e l v e s u n t i l e p i s c o p a c y was d e s t r o y e d . I n a l e t t e r d a t e d t h a t d a y , B a i l l i e w r o t e : 30 As f o r B r o w n i s t s and S e p a r a t i s t s o f many k y n d s , have t h e y [ the London c l e r g y ] m i s l y k e them w e e l l n e a r as much as wee : o f t h e s e t h e r e i s no c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t i e . A n e n t p r i v a t e m e e t i n g s , we know h e r e no d i f f e r e n c e we have w i t h a n i e : Our q u e s t i o n s w i t h them o f t h e new way , we hope t o g e t d e t e r m i n e d t o o u r m u t u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , i f we were r i d d o f B i s h o p s ; and t i l l t h e n , we have a g r e e d t o speak n o t h i n g o f any t h i n g w h e r e i n we d i f f e r . The p l a i n f a c t was t h a t t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y wanted t h e e p i s c o p a l o f f i c e e x t i r p a t e d f rom E n g l i s h l i f e , and c o n s i d e r i n g t h e e n t h u s i a s m t h e L o n d o n e r s showed i n s i g n - i n g t h e p e t i t i o n , i t c a n be assumed t h a t s u c h was t h e w i s h o f many o u t s i d e t h e c l e r i c a l r a n k s . I n t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n t h e b i s h o p s were a c c u s e d o f s u b v e r t i n g t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l aws o f t h e Kingdom because "They have c l a i m e d t h e i r c a l l i n g i m m e d i a t e l y 7 f rom t h e L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t . " Because o f t h i s e p i s c o p a l c l a i m t h e h i e r a r c h y c o n t r o l l e d t h e c l e r g y t o t h e p o i n t o f e x e m p t i n g them f rom t h e s a f e g u a r d o f t h e t e m p o r a l l a w . They were e n c o u r a g i n g t h e c l e r g y " t o d e s p i s e t h e t e m p o r a l m a g i s t r y , t h e n o b l e s and g e n t r y o f t h e l a n d ; t o abuse t h e s u b j e c t s , and l i v e c o n t e n t i o u s l y w i t h t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s , k n o w i n g t h a t t h e y , b e i n g t h e b i s h o p s c r e a t u r e s , s h a l l be Q s u p p o r t e d . " 0 The p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t r y was b e i n g d e s t r o y e d because t h e b i s h o p s were t h r u s t i n g o u t g o d l y and a b l e men f rom t h e i r c o n g r e g a t i o n s . F u r t h e r , t h e y d i s b a n d e d t h e F e o f e e s o f I m p r o p r i a t i o n s , . who a t l e a s t e n d e a v o u r e d t o s e c u r e a b l e m i n i s t e r s t o m a i n t a i n l e c t u r e s and f r e e s c h o o l s ; t h e b i s h o p s f e a r e d t h e i r g l o r y w o u l d be d a r k e n e d 31 and t h a t m i n i s t e r w o u l d no l o n g e r be dependent on t h e e p i s c o p a t e i f t h e F e o f e e s were a l l o w e d t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r 9 good w o r k . By v i r t u e o f t h e l a s t C o n v o c a t i o n h e l d d u r i n g t h e S h o r t P a r l i a m e n t , t h e b i s h o p s t r i e d t o t h w a r t P a r l i a m e n t by h o l d i n g s e s s i o n s a f t e r P a r l i a m e n t was d i s s o l v e d . They f o r m u l a t e d a m u l t i t u d e o f new canons t o advance C a t h o l i c i s m and s p o i l G o d ' s p e o p l e , " e n s n a r e m i n i s t e r s , and o t h e r s t u d e n t s , and so t o draw a l l i n t o an a b s o l u t e s u b j e c t i o n and t h r a l d o m t o them and t h e i r g o v e r n m e n t , s p o i l i n g b o t h t h e K i n g and t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f t h e i r P o w e r . B e c a u s e t h e p r e l a t e s had t h e i r own c o u r t s , t h e y were c i r c u m v e n t i n g t h e common l a w , e s p e c i a l l y by a p p o i n t i n g m i n i s t e r s t o p a r i s h e s w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e p a r i s h o n e r s . 1 1 They e x e r c i s e d t h e ex - o f f i c i o o a t h t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f t h e 12 s u b j e c t and i g n o r e d habeas c o r p u s . They j u s t i f i e d a l l o f t h e s e t h i n g s by c l a i m i n g t o have t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n j u r e d i v i n o , a l l t h e b e t t e r t o r e f u s e t o s u b m i t t o men o r t h e i r l a w s . The " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n a c c u s e d t h e b i s h o p s o f t r y i n g t o b r i n g p o p e r y back t o E n g l a n d . They were p u b l i s h i n g p o p i s h t e n e t s , s t a t i n g s u c h t h i n g s as t h e C h u r c h o f Rome was a t r u e C h u r c h w h i c h n e v e r e r r e d i n f u n d a m e n t a l s . C a t h o l i c i s m was i n c r e a s i n g i n s t r e n g t h as e v i d e n c e d by t h e m u l t i t u d e o f J e s u i t s and p r i e s t s e v e r y w h e r e b u t e s p e c i a l l y a b o u t L o n d o n . The b i s h o p s impeded t h e R e f o r m a t i o n s i n c e t h e h i e r a r c h i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e C h u r c h had r e m a i n e d t h e same as i t d i d i n C a t h o l i c t i m e s . 32 A l l o t h e r Reformed C h u r c h e s had t h r o w n o u t t h e p r e l a t e s as members o f t h e Roman b e a s t , w h i l e t h e E n g l i s h b i s h o p s , a l t h o u g h f o r m a l l y n o t u n d e r t h e P o p e , s a i d he was n o t t h e a n t i - C h r i s t . L i t u r g i c a l p r a c t i c e s were i n c r e a s i n g l y C a t h o l i c i n n a t u r e , s u c h as s t a n d i n g f o r t h e G l o r i a P a t r i , k n e e l i n g f o r Communion, c o n s e c r a t i n g c h u r c h e s and s a c r e d v e s s e l s . The l i t u r g y i t s e l f was f a s h i o n e d o u t o f t h e Roman b r e v i a r y , r i t u a l , m i s s a l , and t h e Book o f O r d i n a t i o n s was f ramed o u t o f t h e Roman p o n t i f i c a l . The p r e l a t e s were a l s o a c c u s e d o f f o r c i n g p e o p l e t o p r o f a n e t h e L o r d ' s Day and t o o b s e r v e t h e h o l y d a y s , c a u s i n g men t o l o s e g r e a t sums o f money f rom l o s s o f w o r k , and o f a b u s i n g t h e i r use o f e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n f o r t h e s o l e p u r p o s e o f s i l e n c i n g t h e i r o p p o n e n t s . 1 3 T h a t t h e b i s h o p s were c r i m i n a l c o u l d be s een by t h e i r g r e e d . They s e c u r e d m o n o p o l i e s and p a t e n t s by p e r j u r y , and t h e y p l o t t e d t o i n c r e a s e customs d u t i e s and s h i p money. I n t h e i r c o u r t s , t h e b i s h o p s f a v o u r e d whores and a d u l t e r e r s by t a k i n g t h e i r b r i b e s . 1 ^ The m a j o r r e s u l t s o f a l l t h e s e e n o r m i t i e s were t h e d i s c o u r a g e m e n t and l o s s o f good m i n i s t e r s and s u b j e c t s who l e f t E n g l a n d , damage t o t r a d e , and an i n c r e a s e o f i g n o r a n c e and s u p e r s t i t i o n . I n d e e d , t h e d r e g s o f s o c i e t y were e n t e r i n g t h e r a n k s o f t h e c l e r g y . These men, because o f t h e i r i g n o r a n c e , c o u l d n o t p r e a c h . C o r r u p t i o n was i n c r e a s i n g i n t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s . P a r e n t s were d i s c o u r a g e d f rom s e n d i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l because o f t h i s . 33 U n g o d l y books and p a m p h l e t s were p r i n t e d . W o r s t o f a l l , E n g l a n d and Wales were l o s i n g t h e i r p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t r y t o a l l manner o f p r o f a n e n e s s . ^ The remedy o f t h e London P e t i t i o n t o a l l t h e s e i l l s was s i m p l e and d i r e c t : i t a s k e d t h a t t h e P a r l i a m e n t a b o l i s h " t h e s a i d g o v e r n m e n t , w i t h a l l i t s d e p e n d e n c i e s , r o o t s and b r a n c h e s . " B e s i d e s t h e London P e t i t i o n ' s c o n c e r n a b o u t t h e p r e a c h - i n g m i n i s t r y , t h e use o f t h e Roman b r e v i a r y , m i s s a l l , r i t u a l and p o n t i f i c a l , f u r t h e r p r o o f o f i t s c l e r i c a l a u t h o r s h i p i s seen when we n o t i c e t h e document s t a t e s t h a t m i n i s t e r s were f a i n t h e a r t e d t o p r e a c h t h e t r u t h o f G o d , l e s t t h e y s h o u l d d i s p l e a s e t h e p r e l a t e s ; as namely t h e d o c t r i n e o f p r e d e s t i n a t i o n , o f f r e e g r a c e , o f p e r s e r v e r a n c e , o f o r i g i n a l s i n r e m a i n i n g a f t e r B a p t i s m ; o f t h e s a b b a t h , t h e d o c t r i n e a g a i n s t u n i v e r s a l g r a c e , e l e c t i o n f o r f a i t h f o r s e e n , f r e e - w i l l a g a i n s t a n t i - C h r i s t , n o n - r e s i d e n t s , human i n v e n t i o n s i n G o d ' s w o r s h i p ; a l l w h i c h a r e w i t h h e l d f r o m t h e p e o p l e ' s knowledge because n o t r e l i s h i n g t o t h e b i s h o p s . 1 7 The c o n t e n t o f t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , was o f a s o p h i s t i c a t e d t h e o l o g i c a l n a t u r e . The l i b e r t y o f s u b j e c t was i m p o r t a n t , b u t t h e c r u x o f t h e m a t t e r was t h a t g o d l y m i n i s t e r s were b e i n g p e r s e c u t e d f o r p r e a c h i n g G o d ' s w o r d . I t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t , h o w e v e r , t o see why t h e p e t i t i o n w o u l d have s u c h g r e a t p o p u l a r a p p e a l . The p e t i t i o n c o n s t a n t l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t o t h e a v e r a g e man t h e v a r i o u s ways i n w h i c h he was b e i n g c h e a t e d by t h e b i s h o p s . W o r s t o f a l l , d e n i e d a p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t r y w h i c h c o u l d e x p l a i n t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f C a l v i n i s t i c t h e o l o g y , one c o u l d h a r d l y hope 34 t o be s a v e d . Thousands were l e a v i n g t h e c o u n t r y , t r a d e was d e c l i n i n g , m o n o p o l i e s and s h i p - m o n e y were i n c r e a s i n g . The p e t i t i o n was a v e r i t a b l e c a t c h a l l , so t h a t a l m o s t any- one w i t h a g r i e v a n c e a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s c o u l d i d e n t i f y w i t h some i n j u s t i c e done h i m by t h e s e w i c k e d men. B a i l l i e n o t e d on 28 December , 1640 , t h a t a s h o r t p e t i t i o n a g a i n s t e p i s c o p a c y was b e i n g p r e p a r e d by some o f t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y , and he e x p e c t e d i t t o be r e a d y i n two 1 p weeks t i m e . ° T h i s was t h e famous M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n and R e m o n s t r a n c e . T h i s p e t i t i o n was an i n s u r a n c e m e a s u r e , s h o u l d t h e London P e t i t i o n f a i l . By t h e end o f December , t h e n , t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n was h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y . B u t t h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t t h e a u t h o r s o f t h i s m i l d e r p e t i t i o n , w h i c h a s k e d t h a t t h e b i s h o p s be r e l i e v e d o f a l l t h e i r t e m p o r a l c a r e s , were s t i l l i n t e n t on a f u l l " R o o t and B r a n c h " s o l u t i o n t o t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n . F o r one t h i n g , i t w o u l d be h a r d t o b e l i e v e t h a t Edmund Calamy had a sudden change o f r e s o l v e , y e t he was one o f t h e m i n i s t e r s who, a l o n g w i t h S t e p h e n M a r s h a l l and o t h e r s , d e l i v e r e d t h e p e t i t i o n on 23 J a n u a r y , 1 6 4 1 , t h e day t h e K i n g p r o m i s e d t o u p h o l d t h e b i s h o p s ' c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t t o s i t i n t h e 19 L o r d s . F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e i s g i v e n by Smectymnus i n t h e book A n Answer To A Book E n t i t l e d An Humble R e m o n s t r a n c e . The f i r s t f o u r l e t t e r s o f t h e a u t h o r s ' name s t a n d f o r S t e p h e n M a r s h a l l and Edmund C a l a m y , who, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e o t h e r t h r e e a u t h o r s , a d d r e s s e d t h e P a r l i a m e n t w i t h t h e e x h o r t a t i o n " L e t e p i s c o p a c y be f o r e v e r abandoned o u t o f t h e C h u r c h . " 2 0 35 The i n t e n t o f t h e M i n i s t e r s 1 P e t i t i o n and Remonst rance f o l l o w e d i t s t i t l e . D e l i v e r e d by s i x o r s e v e n m i n i s t e r s on t h e day K i n g C h a r l e s announced h i s r e s o l v e t o keep t h e b i s h o p s i n t h e House o f L o r d s , 23 J a n u a r y , 1 6 4 1 , t h e p e t i t i o n p r a y e d f o r a " r e d r e s s o f c e r t a i n i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n t h e government o f t h e C h u r c h . . . . " 2 1 The Remons t rance s e t o u t t h e g r i e v a n c e s , n i n e t e e n i n number , d e a l i n g w i t h t h e a c t u a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e d i o c e s a n i n E n g l i s h l i f e . I t a c c u s e d t h e b i s h o p s o f c o n t r o l l i n g l a r g e d i o c e s e s and d e l e g a t i n g t h e i r power t o d e p u t i e s . I t c l a i m e d t h e b i s h o p s were encumbered w i t h t e m p o r a l a f f a i r s , f o r " t h e y e n g r a f t 22 t h e m s e l v e s i n t o c i v i l c o r p o r a t i o n s . " T h i s e n c o u r a g e d t h e e p i s c o p a t e t o e x e r c i s e a l l o f t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h e i r own names and n o t i n t h e K i n g ' s . C o u n t r a r y t o l a w , t h e p r e l a t e s imposed o a t h s o f c a n o n i c a l o b e d i e n c e and d e p r i v e d m i n i s t e r s f o r n o t s u b s c r i b i n g t o t h e i r c a n o n s . 2 ^ The b i s h o p s were engaged i n a R o m a n i z i n g campaign s i n c e t h e y c l a i m e d t h a t t h e power o f t h e k e y s was g i v e n o n l y t o t h e m i n i s t e r s o f t h e g o s p e l , and t h e r e - f o r e "noe layman i s 24 c a p a b l e o f a c h a n c e l l o r s h i p , e t c . " They a d m i n i s t e r e d c o n f i r m a t i o n a l o n e , f o r b a d e m a r r i a g e d u r i n g d i f f e r e n t t i m e s o f t h e l i t u r g i c a l y e a r , and i n s i s t e d t h a t i f a c h u r c h had 25 n o t been c o n s e c r a t e d , i t was n o t h o l y . The b i s h o p s 1 b e h a v i o u r was s c a n d a l o u s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e y c l a i m e d t h e s o l e r i g h t t o p r o b a t e w i l l s ; i n s t e a d o f c a r r y i n g o u t t h e w i s h e s o f t h e d e c e a s e d , t h e p r e l a t e s o f t e n d i v e r t e d money t o t h e i r own p u r p o s e s . ° A l s o t h e y gave s c a n d a l o u s example 36 i n d r i n k i n g h e a l t h s , f o r t h e B i s h o p s o f C o v e n t r y and L i t c h f i e l d , b e i n g i n v i t e d t o D r . W a r n e r ' s now b i s h o p p o f R o c h e s t e r , t h e r e were 4 h e a l t h s b e g a n , and M r . Rawlenson was p r e s s e d t o d r i n k t h e m , and D r . Warner . . . , r i s i n g e and s t a n d i n g e i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e t a b l e s a y d e , E t s t a n s i n medio d i x i t , pax v o b i s , and soe he began t h e K i n g e s h e a l t h . B a y l e y b i s h o p p o f Banger s a y e d t o t h e b i s h o p p o f E l i , ' E l i , E l i , Lama s a b a c t h a n i , h e e r e i s t o t h e e a h e a l t h . ' B i s h o p p o f 27 G l o c e s t e r s men swere and daunee on S u n d a y e s . The M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n was d e l i b e r a t e l y made l e s s r a d i c a l t h a n t h e London P e t i t i o n t o e n s u r e t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e movement t o e x p e l t h e b i s h o p s f rom t h e Upper H o u s e . I t was hoped t h a t t h e p r o - p r e l a t i c a l f a c t i o n i n t h e House w o u l d a t t a c h t h e m s e l v e s t o i t . T h i s d i d h a p p e n , f o r on 8 F e b r u a r y , 1 6 4 1 , when t h e g r e a t d e b a t e s were c e n t e r i n g a r o u n d t h e commitment o f t h e two p e t i t i o n s , G e o r g e , L o r d D i g b y , a s t a u n c h e p i s c o p a l i a n , d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n was much more s e n s i b l e because i t gave a b e t t e r i n d e x " w i t h o u t t h o s e m i x t u r e s o f t h i n g s c o n t e m p t a b l e , i r r a t i o n a l , and p r e s u m p t i o u s w h e r e i n t h i s [London] P e t i t i o n a b o u n d s . " 2 ^ On 9 F e b r u a r y , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f e p i s c o p a c y w o u l d be r e s e r v e d t o t h e House i t s e l f b u t t h a t t h e m a j o r p a r t s o f t h e London and M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n s and a l l p e t i t i o n s o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e were t o be r e f e r r e d t o t h e Commit tee o f T w e n t y - f o u r . On t h a t day t h i s body became t h e Commit tee o f t h e T h i r t y . T h r e e men o p p o s i n g " R o o t and B r a n c h " were a p p o i n t e d t o i t , R o e , P a l m e r and H o l b o u r n e , w h i l e t h e f o r e f r o n t o f t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n was r e p r e s e n t e d by D e n z i l H o l l i s , N a t h a n i e l F i e n n e s and S i r H e n r y V a n e , J r . J o h n Crew was t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h i s c o m m i t t e e . C o r n e l i u s B u r g e s s was s e n t f o r as a p e r i t u s , and w e l l he s h o u l d have b e e n , s i n c e by h i s own a d m i s s i o n , he had been one o f t h e f r a m e r s o f t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n . He e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a i l t h e m i n i s t e r s ' r e a s o n s i n b r i n g i n g t h e s e c h a r g e s a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s . Those a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e b i s h o p s ' s o l e power o f o r d i n a t i o n and j u r i s d i c t i o n , t h e l a r g e n e s s o f t h e i r d i o c e s e s , t h e i r d e l e g a t i o n o f power t o d e p u t i e s , t h e i r t e m p o r a l power and t h e i r p r e t e n d e d s u p p o r t o f t h e b i s h o p s ' p r e r o g a t i v e , as w e l l as t h e i r c l a i m t o j u r e d i v i n o s t a t u s , were a l l v o t e d t o be m a t e r i a l f i t t o be c o n s i d e r e d by t h e House by 17 31 F e b r u a r y , 1641 . B u r g e s s and t h e o p p o s i t i o n d i d t h e i r work w e l l because by 9 M a r c h , 1 6 4 1 , Crew announced t h a t t h e b i s h o p s ' s e c u l a r employments were t o be d i s c u s s e d "by w h i c h i s i n t e n d e d t h e i r l e g i s l a t i v e and j u d i c i a l power i n P a r l i a m e n t . . . . " 3 1 The n e x t d a y , t h e s e m a t t e r s were l o o k e d i n t o and i t was r e s o l v e d upon t h e q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e j u r i d i c a l Power o f B i s h o p s i n t h e House o f P e e r s i n P a r l i a m e n t i s a g r e a t H i n d e r a n c e t o t h e D i s c h a r g e o f t h e i r S p i r i t u a l F u n c t i o n , p r e j u d i c a l t o t h e Commonwealth, and f i t t o be t a k e n away by B i l l : and t h a t a B i l l be drawn f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . B a i l l i e w r o t e t h a t B u r g e s s had g i v e n t h e Commit tee " f u l l c o n t e n t m e n t " and t h a t " M r . Crew made a f a v o u r a b l e r e p o r t t o t h e H o u s e . " 3 3 B a i l l i e t h e n went on t o say t h a t t h e y w o u l d f i r s t t a k e o f f t h e r o o f , t h e n k n o c k down t h e w a l l s , and f i n a l l y r i p up t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f e p i s c o p a c y . To show 38 t h a t he knew what he was t a l k i n g a b o u t , t h e S c o t t i s h d i v i n e gave t h e I r v i n e P r e s b y t e r y an o u t l i n e o f t h e p r o g r e s s o f a n t i - e p i s c o p a l a c t i v i t y . On 9 M a r c h , C r e w ' s recommendat ion was made i n P a r l i a m e n t . The n i x t day t h e y d i d t h e same t o t h e S t a r Chamber , H i g h C o m m i s s i o n , C o u n s e l l , and a l l o t h e r s e c u l a r c o u r t s . One o f t h e s e days t h e y a r e t o c a s t down t h e i r c a t h e d r a l - d e a n e r i e s , and p r e b e n d a r i e s ; a l s o t o s p o y l l them and t h e i r u s u r p e d o r d i n a t i o n and j u r i s d i c t i o n , t o e r e c t p r e s b y t e r i e s a l l o v e r t h e l a n d , and d i s - t r i b u t e a t t i n one e q u a l l p r o p o r t i o n , t h e r e n t s among a l l o f t h e p a r o c h e s f o r p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t e r s . - * 4 T h e r e i s no doubt t h a t t h i s was t h e i n t e n t i o n o f h i s f r i e n d s , t h e London P u r i t a n c l e r g y , a l l a l o n g . The " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n d i d n o t r e m a i n i n t h e Commons a l o n e ; c o p i e s o f i t were s e n t i n t o t h e c o u n t i e s . D'Ewes had g i v e n h i s w i f e p e r m i s s i o n t o l e n d any p e t i t i o n s he s e n t h e r t o any o f t h e i r f r i e n d s . T h i s she p r o b a b l y d i d w i t h t h e London P e t i t i o n , as she had done w i t h t h e p e t i t i o n s o f P r y n n e , B u r t o n , and B a s t w i c k . 3 5 NO- doubt o t h e r s i n t h e Commons s e n t c o p i e s o f t h e London P e t i t i o n i n t o t h e c o u n t r y . T h a t i t was w i d e l y c i r c u l a t e d was d e m o n s t r a t e d t o S i r Edward D e r i n g when he r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r f r o m one o f h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s , R o b e r t R o b s o n . Robson w r o t e t h a t he had r e c e i v e d a copy o f "the p e t i t i o n t h r o u g h t h e h e l p o f some f r i e n d s . W r i t i n g i n t h e name o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e W e a l d , Robson m e n t i o n e d t h a t he and o t h e r s had made t h e p e t i t i o n known " t h e same i n t h i s c o u n t y o f K e n t , t o t h e 3 6 i n h a b i t a n t s t h e r e o f . " The r e s u l t was t h e P e t i t i o n o f t h e 39 C o u n t y o f K e n t , p r e s e n t e d on 13 J a n u a r y , 1 6 4 1 , w h i c h D e r i n g a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d as " t h e Spawne o f t h e London P e t i t i o n , y e t f i n d i n g i t a P a r a t t a u g h t t o speak t h e s y l l a b l e s o f t h a t , and by r o a t e c a l l i n g f o r ' R o o t and B r a n c h ' . " 3 7 rp^e t w o p e t i t i o n s a r e i d e n t i c a l . A l l o f t h i s i s t h e more i n t e r e s t i n g when i t i s n o t e d t h a t R o b s o n ' s l e t t e r was d a t e d 1 December , 1640 , t e n d a y s . b e f o r e t h e London P e t i t i o n was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Commons. T h i s w o u l d a rgue t h a t t h e London P e t i t i o n was p u b l i s h e d w e l l b e f o r e i t s d e l i v e r y . I t s s u c c e s s f u l and d r a m a t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e House w o u l d e x p l a i n why so many p e t i t i o n s o f a h l i k e n a t u r e were r e c e i v e d and p r e s e n t e d en b l o c i n m i d - J a n u a r y , 1 6 4 1 , when t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l o p p o s i t i o n needed more n a t i o n a l s u p p o r t i f t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n was g o i n g t o have any s u c c e s s i n b r i n g i n g f o r t h t h e n e c e s s a r y l e g i s l a t i o n t o e x p e l t h e b i s h o p s . A c c o r d i n g l y , a f t e r K i n g C h a r l e s had made a speech on 23 J a n u a r y , 1 6 4 1 , d e c l a r i n g t h a t he w o u l d n o t t a k e away t h e b i s h o p s ' v o t e s i n P a r l i a m e n t , many p e t i t i o n s o f a " R o o t and B r a n c h " n a t u r e were d e l i v e r e d on Monday, 25 J a n u a r y : H e r t f o r d s h i r e ( r e a d by M r . C a p e l l , 2 ,800 s i g n a t u r e s ) , B e d f o r d s h i r e ( r ead by S i r O l i v e r L u k e ) , S u s s e x , S u r r e y , C h e s h i r e , W a r w i c k , S u f f o l k ( r ead by S i r P h i l i p P a r k e r , 4 ,400 s i g n a t u r e s ) , C a m b r i d g e s h i r e ( r e a d by M r . C h i c k e l i e , 1,000 s i g n a t u r e s ) , G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e ( r e a d by a K n i g h t o f t h e S h i r e , 1,000 s i g n a t u r e s ) and N o r f o l k ( r e a d by M r . 3 8 P o t t s , 2 ,000 s i g n a t u r e s ) . D ' E w e s , who r e c o r d e d w i t h g r e a t 40 d e t a i l t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s f rom c i t i e s , towns and p a r i s h e s , n o t e d i n h i s d i a r y on 25 J a n u a r y , 1 6 4 1 , t h a t a l l t h e p e t i t i o n s r e c e i v e d t h a t day " t e n d t o t h e a b o l i s h i n g o f t h e B i s h o p s w i t h t h e r h i e r a r c h i c a l l g o v e r n m e n t . " ^ 9 i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , t h e y t o o were i d e n t i c a l o r v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e London and K e n t p e t i t i o n s ; o t h e r w i s e D'Ewes w o u l d have f o l l o w e d h i s u s u a l p r a c t i c e o f n o t i n g t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e p e t i t i o n s . T h u s , t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l c o u n t y p e t i t i o n s o f 1641 w e r e , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , t h e same as o r v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e London P e t i t i o n . ^ The s c o r e s o f a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s p o u r i n g i n t o London f rom t h e c o u n t r y makes any d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f them i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h i s e s s a y . However , t r e n d s can be n o t e d , and u s i n g t h e f o u r p o i n t s o f v i e w e a r l i e r e m p l o y e d , an a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o show t h e m a j o r a r e a s o f n a t i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t . The b i s h o p s were d e s t r o y i n g t h e f u n d a m e n t a l , b a s i c l aws o f t h e l a n d i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s . As p r o o f o f t h i s , t h e p e t i o n f rom Y o r k s h i r e m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e b i s h o p s e n a c t e d t h e "New Canons " w i t h o u t P a r l i a m e n t ' s c o n s e n t . 4 1 Many g o d l y m i n i s t e r s were b e i n g d r i v e n o u t o f t h e c o u n t r y because o f t h e e x e r t i o n s o f t h e b i s h o p s i n t h e H i g h C o m m i s s i o n s C o u r t . F o r e x a m p l e , T i m o t h y D a l t o n , M i n i s t e r o f W o l v e r s t o n e , N o r f o l k , was suspended and had t o go t o New E n g l a n d because he r e f u s e d t o r e a d t h e Book o f 42 S p o r t s . M i n i s t e r s f rom S u f f o l k c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e i r b i s h o p , Mat thew W r e n , had f o r c e d them t o t a k e o a t h s o f c a n o n i c a l o b e d i e n c e and was e x c o m m u n i c a t i n g many f o r f r i v o l o u s r e a s o n s . The b i s h o p s were d e s t r o y i n g t h e p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t r y . The c i t y o f G l o u c e s t e r c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e y had o n l y one p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t e r f o r e l e v e n c h u r c h e s 44 u n d e r t h e e p i s c o p a t e o f G o d f r e y Goodman. I s a a c K n i g h t , a P u r i t a n m e r c h a n t , p e t i t i o n e d t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t c o n c e r n i n g h i s s u f f e r i n g s a t t h e hands o f t h e b i s h o p s . He r e f u s e d t o t a k e t h e h a t e d e x o f f i c i o o a t h and was p r o m p t l y p u t i n i r o n s . When l a t e r r e l e a s e d i n 1626 on bond f o r £ 5 0 0 , he f l e d t o H o l l a n d " t o t h e u t t e r u n d o i n g o f h i m s e l f , h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n ; and t h e bonds s t i l l r e m a i n e s i n f o r c e . A p e t i t i o n f rom C h e s h i r e summed up t h e s e e t h i n g n a t i o n a l a n t i p a t h y f o r b i s h o p s when i t a c c u s e d t h e p r e l a t e s o f h a v i n g abused t h e i r p o w e r , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e i r c o u r t s , d o c t r i n e , * ^ • • T 4 6 and d i s c i p l i n e . The most common a n t i - e p i s c o p a l c o m p l a i n t e x p r e s s e d i n t h e p e t i t i o n s d e a l t w i t h " p o p i s h " i n n o v a t i o n s . A p e t i t i o n f rom N o t t i n g h a m a c c u s e d t h e b i s h o p s o f f o s t e r i n g a p o p i s h h i e r a r c h y as w e l l as e n c o u r a g i n g p a p i s t s . ^ 7 The town and p a r i s h of•^Beck ington i n i T S o m e r s e t s h i r e ' c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e p a r i s h c h u r c h w a r d e n s were excommunica ted because t h e y r e f u s e d t o s e t t h e communion t a b l e a l t a r - w i s e . ^ A p e t i t i o n f rom t h e m i n i s t e r s o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d s e n t i n Sep tember , 1 6 4 1 , d e c r i e d t h e use o f v e s t m e n t s , c r u c i f i x e s , and r i n g s 49 i n m a r r i a g e . The town and p a r i s h o f T i v e t e s h a l e , N o r f o l k c a s t i g a t e d B i s h o p Wren f o r s u s p e n d i n g t h e i r m i n i s t e r , M r . H e r e m i a h B u r r o u g h , because he w o u l d n o t bow h i s head a t t h e Name o f J e s u s . 5 ^ The l o n g l i s t o f l i t u r g i c a l g r i e v a n c e s 42 i m p l i e d t h a t t h e L a u d i a n b i s h o p s were t r y i n g t o b r i n g E n g l a n d back t o t h e Roman f o l d . A m a j o r c r i m e i m p u t e d t o t h e b i s h o p s was t h a t o f g r e e d . The N o t t i n g h a m P e t i t i o n s a i d t h e e p i s c o p a t e had e x o r b i t a n t f e e s f o r l i c e n c e s , and t h a t c h u r c h t a x e s were 51 h i g h . C h u r c h e s w h i c h were n o t p o p i s h enough were f i n e d . The C i t y o f N o r w i c h s a i d B i s h o p Wren k e p t r e n t monies w h i c h 52 s h o u l d have been u sed t o pay h i s m i n i s t e r s . Many b i s h o p s h e l d p r e b e n d s , p a r s o n a g e s and v i c a r a g e s a l o n g w i t h t h e i r d i o c e s e s t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f t h e p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t r y , t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i o n o f September 1641 c h a r g e d . 5 - * T W O men f rom I p s w i c h a c c u s e d B i s h o p P i e r c e o f demanding e x c e s s i v e f e e s f o r t h e p r o b a t i n g o f w i l l s . He w o u l d n o t p u b l i s h a t a b l e o f fees. He a l s o b r o u g h t t h i n g s i n t o h i s c o u r t w h i c h b e l o n g e d e l s e w h e r e . 5 4 The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e and a l l t h e o t h e r e x c e s s e s o f t h e b i s h o p s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e e p i s c o p a t e was r e d u c i n g t h e n a t i o n t o a s t a t e o f m i s e r y . The b i s h o p s ' c l a i m t o j u r e d i v i n o s t a t u s g e n e r a t e d a l l o f t h e o t h e r c r i m e s . They e x c e e d e d t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e l a w by w i e l d i n g g r e a t power i n t h e i r own c o u r t s . The e p i s c o p a l h a b i t o f s i l e n c i n g p r e a c h e r s , f i n i n g t h e m , i m p r i s o n i n g t h e m , o r f o r t h a t m a t t e r d o i n g t h e same t o anyone who opposed t h e i r l i t u r g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s , was d r i v i n g t h o u s a n d s f rom E n g l a n d as t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n a l s o c l a i m e d . A l t h o u g h most o f t h e p e t i t i o n s a t t a c k i n g p a r t i c u l a r b i s h o p s were c o n f i n e d m a i n l y t o t h e 43 obnoxious L a u d i a n p r e l a t e s , Wren and P i e r c e , c o m p l a i n t s s t i l l were coming i n from a l l o v e r t h e n a t i o n . The g e n i u s o f t h e s e p e t i t i o n s l a y i n t h e i r b r i l l i a n t f a c i l i t y t o d e s c r i b e i n some d e t a i l how t h e average man was s u f f e r i n g under th e t y r a n n y o f t h e b i s h o p s . The p r e l a t e s c o n t i n u e d t h e i r work o f s t i f l i n g g o d l y p r e a c h i n g by p e r s e c u t i n g m i n i s t e r s who o b j e c t e d t o what was c l e a r l y b e l i e v e d t o be a r e a c t i o n a r y e c c l e s i a s t i c a l program. Perhaps i t was a s t r i k i n g c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t t h e s e p e t i t i o n s , l i k e t h e London and M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n s , a l s o e x h i b i t e d a c l e r i c a l b i a s ; i t c o u l d be asked whether t h e g e n e r a l mass o f t h e E n g l i s h p o p u l a c e was r e a l l y as d e v o t e d t o a p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t r y as t h e p e t i t i o n s s u g g e s t , b u t one t h i n g cannot be q u e s t i o n e d : t h e average man i n t h e p a r i s h r e s e n t e d e p i s c o p a l i n t e r - f e r e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y when good men were f o r c e d i n t o s e l f - e x i l e and u n q u e s t i o n a b l y e v i l men r e p l a c e d them, as happened i n t h e town o f W o l v e r s t o n e . As has been mentioned, Mr. D a l t o n , t h e o r i g i n a l m i n i s t e r , was f o r c e d out o f h i s p a r i s h o f twenty y e a r s and e m i g r a t e d t o New E n g l a n d . Wren s e n t as h i s r e p l a c e m e n t a Mr. Skynner who bowed t o the Sacrament and c a l l e d h i s p a r i s h o n e r s "hogs". He b e a t one woman t o d e a t h and was the cause of'^another 55 woman's d e a t h s i n c e he had excommunicated h e r . That a l l o f t h e s e charges a g a i n s t e p i s c o p a c y may have g i v e n an a c c u r a t e a c c o u n t o f t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n r i f e i n E n g l a n d must be weighed a g a i n s t t a ^ v e r y s t r i k i n g 44 f a c t o r . T h e r e were v e r y few p r o - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s . One s u c h p e t i t i o n f rom C h e s h i r e , r e c e i v e d by t h e Commons on 27 F e b r u a r y , a r g u e d t h a t a C h u r c h a d m i n i s t e r e d by t w e n t y - s i x d i o c e a s a n s , who were l i m i t e d by canon and c i v i l l a w and were r e s p o n s i b l e t o P a r l i a m e n t , was a much s a n e r way t o g o v e r n t h e C h u r c h t h a n t o s e t up f o r t y t h o u s a n d C h u r c h g o v e r n o r s who w o u l d n o t be r e s p o n s i b l e t o P a r l i a m e n t . The l a t t e r s y s t e m was n o t i n agreement w i t h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f m o n a r c h y , and w o u l d l e a d t o a n a r c h y w i t h t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e n o b i l i t y , g e n t r y , o r d e r and r e l i g i o n i t s e l f . S i g n i f i c a n t l y e n o u g h , t h i s p e t i t i o n was r e a d and n e v e r h e a r d o f a g a i n . T h i s seems t o have been t h e f a t e o f a l l p r o - 57 e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s . P e t i t i o n s w o u l d have been w o r t h l e s s had p e o p l e n o t s i g n e d t h e m ; and t h e ^ m o r e a s i g n a t u r e s , t h e more i m p r e s s i v e t h e p e t i t i o n w o u l d b e . C l a r e n d o n w r o t e t h a t p e t i t i o n s w o u l d be p r e p a r e d by a t t a c h i n g names s i g n e d t o o t h e r p e t i t i o n s t o a new p e t i t i o n , t h e c o n t e n t s o f w h i c h t h e 5 8 " s u b s c r i b e r s " had no k n o w l e d g e . T h i s w o u l d n o t seem t o be t h e c a se w i t h t h e London P e t i t i o n w h i c h was c i r c u l a t i n g as e a r l y as O c t o b e r , 1640 . One A l d e r m a n ' s d e p u t y i s s a i d t o have summoned a l l f rom h i s p a r i s h t o h i s house t o s i g n t h e p e t i t i o n . T a v e r n C l u b s a l s o had c o p i e s t o s i g n as d i d t h e c i t y ' s shops whose k e e p e r s k e p t t h i s p e t i t i o n 59 on t h e i r c o u n t e r s f o r p e o p l e t o s i g n . F i f t e e n t h o u s a n d p e o p l e , t h e n , i n s u c h an o r g a n i z e d c a m p a i g n , p r o b a b l y d i d s i g n t h e London P e t i t i o n . ^ 45 C l a r e n d o n had a c a s e so f a r as t h e f r a m i n g o f t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n was c o n c e r n e d . He n o t e d t h a t many m i n i s t e r s had s i g n e d p e t i t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e "New Canons " o n l y t o f i n d t h e i r names s e t t o a " m o n s t e r " p e t i t i o n c a l l i n g f o r an a l t e r a t i o n i n C h u r c h Government . Many p r o t e s t e d t o M a r s h a l l , b u t were u r g e d t o keep s i l e n t " b y t h r e a t s and p r o m i s e s . . . and t o pa s s by t h a t i n d i r e c t p r o c e e d i n g . " 1 The m a t t e r was b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e Commons by t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l f a c t i o n , who hoped t o p r o v e t h e P e t i t i o n was a f r a u d . D'Ewes seemed t o be amused by a l l o f t h i s f o r he s a i d he knew " t h a t t h e hands s i t t t o t h i s p e t i t i o n were n o t w r i t t e n by t h e p a r t i e s t h e m s e l v e s , b u t t a k e n o u t o f s e v e r a l a u t o g r a p h i c a l l o r o r i g i n a l p e t i t i o n s s e n t f rom e a c h c o u n t i e . " ^ 2 However , M a r s h a l l t e s t i f i e d a l o n g w i t h s i x o t h e r s t h a t t h e y had k e p t t h e c o n t e x t o f a l l t h e s m a l l e r p e t i t i o n s i n t h e l a r g e r , and t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n was a c c e p t e d . T h e r e i s no doubt c o n c e r n i n g t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f t h e s m a l l e r p e t i t i o n s f r o m t h e town and p a r i s h e s . However , g r a v e d o u b t s were c a s t on t h e " m o n s t e r " p e t i t i o n s f r o m t h e c o u n t i e s . : b y a p a m p h l e t e e r who s t y l e d h i m s e l f " W . I . " i n a work e n t i t l e d P e t i t i o n s a g a i n s t B i s h o p s And t h e i r V o t e s i n P a r l i a m e n t . He w r o t e t h a t t h e r e were c l a n d e s t i n e and s u r r e p t i t i o u s a c t i o n s , g o i n g a b o u t f rom house t o house by n i g h t and w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t and c o m m i s s i o n o f a u t h o r i t y , t o engage p e o p l e t o t h e b r e a c h o f t h e i r P r o t e s t a t i o n and t o make i t as an a c t o f a C o u n t i e o r Towne, and i n a manner t o f o r c e men t h e r e u n t o , a r e b u t u n l a w f u l l workes o f d a r k n e s s e and w i l l n o t e n d u r e t h e l i g h t . . . . I t i s j u s t l y t o be f e a r e d t h a t t h e s e wayes a r e s i n i s t e r i n t h e U n d e r t a k e r s b e i n g v e r y p r o b a b l e t h a t some o f them doe i t o u t o f i l l w i l l , h a t r e d and m a l i c e , as w e l l as t h e Government and t h e g o v e r n o r s . . . . The a u t h o r saw i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l p e t i t i o n s seeds o f a r e v o l u t i o n . He a s s e r t e d t h a t many i n t h e c o u n t i e s s i g n e d p e t i t i o n s f o r p r o f i t , f o r f e a r o f t h e i r l a n d l o r d s , f o r f e a r o f l o s i n g b u s i n e s s , and t h r o u g h f e a r o f b l a c k m a i l and i n t i m i d a t i o n s , U s i n g s u c h t a c t i c s , a n t i - e p i s c o p a l r i o t s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s were e n c o u r a g e d among t h e h u m b l e r segments s o c i e t y ; s i n c e o b v i o u s l y t h e i r b e t t e r s were p r o v i d i n g s o p h i s t i c a t e d means t o c o e r c e o t h e r men o f means t o do what t h e y wanted them t o d o . Thus t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s and t h e t u m u l t u o u s m u l t i t u d e s were u s i n g ways " w i t h o u t • l e g a l 1 a l l e g a t i o n s and p r o b a t i o n s , t o compass 6 4 t h a t by w i l l , w h i c h y o u c a n n o t o b t a i n e by r e a s o n . " Such a c t i v i t i e s were v e r y dangerous s i n c e t h e y t h r e a t e n e d " t h e s u b v e r s i o n o f a l l Lawe, Government and G o v e r n o r s , f o r w h i c h o f them, bee t h e y n e v e r so g o o d , s h a l l be s e c u r e i f t h e M u l t i t u d e s o f d i s t e m p e r e d p e o p l e p l e a s e t o w i l l t h e c o n t r a r y . " 6 5 go f a r as W. I . was c o n c e r n e d , t h e g e n e r a l a t t a c k on t h e b i s h o p s o c c a s i o n e d by c o u n t y p e t i t i o n s was a means o f b r e a k i n g up t h e u n i t y o f t h e n a t i o n , and w o u l d l e a d t o a breakdown o f l a w . However , t h e f a c t r e m a i n s t h a t t h e t e x t o f t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n was c i r c u l a t i n g w e l l b e f o r e i t was d e l i v e r e d . P r o b a b l y most o f t h e p e t i t i o n s 4 7 had t h e s i g n a t u r e s t h e y c l a i m e d . The v e r y f a c t t h a t p e t i t i o n s o f s u c h a n a t u r e a r r i v e d a t t h e House a t a l l w o u l d a rgue t h a t t h e L a u d i a n s y s t e m was q u i e t dead and t h a t P u r i t a n p r e a c h e r s were i n t h e a s c e n d a n c y . T h a t p a r i s h i o n e r s w o u l d w r i t e on b e h a l f o f t h e i r e x - p a s t o r s w o u l d show t h a t t h e y had p r o b a b l y e x p e l l e d t h e L a u d i a n i n c u m b e n t s . They m i g h t w e l l have been j u s t as s a t i s f i e d t o s i g n two a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s as o n e . The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s h e l p e d s e t up c o m m i t t e e s t o i n v e s t i g a t e e p i s c o p a l p r o c e e d i n g s w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y o r g a n i z e d t h e mass o f e d i t e d g r i e v a n c e s i n t o e f f e c t i v e l e g a l a c t i o n . ^ 6 Because t h e London P e t i t i o n and M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n were so f a v o u r a b l y r e c e i v e d , t h e y paved t h e way f o r t h e e n t i r e n a t i o n t o t a k e courage and e x p r e s s i t s e l f on t h i s m a t t e r . The e n t h u s i a s m o f e a r l y 1641 c a r r i e d i n t o 1642 , when once a g a i n masses o f p e t i t i o n s were needed by t h e Commons l e a d e r s h i p t o p r o v e t o t h e K i n g and L o r d s t h a t i t was t h e w i l l o f t h e p e o p l e t h a t t h e b i s h o p s be b a r r e d f rom t h e L o r d s . W i t h o u t t h e i r v o i c e as e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e p e t i t i o n s , t h e b i s h o p s ' e x c l u s i o n w o u l d have seemed t o have been t h e w i s h o f t h e London mob o n l y . I n s t e a d , i t was t h e " c r y o f E n g l a n d " t h a t was h e a r d . CHAPTER I I I ANTI-EPISCOPAL PROPAGANDA AND THE PAMPHLET WAR I N 1641 A m a j o r f a c t o r f o r t h e s u c c e s s o f a p o p u l a r r e v o l u t i o n i s an i n t e l l i g e n t and e f f e c t i v e use o f t h e p r e s s . The p o p u l a r a n t i p a t h y t o t h e e p i s c o p a l o f f i c e was k e p t e v e r f r e s h and a l i v e by t h e t e c h n i q u e s used by t h e b i s h o p s ' enemies t o w i n p u b l i c o p i n i o n t o t h e i r s i d e . Thus t h e g r e a t phenomenon o f t h e p a m p h l e t war o f 1641 was r e a l l y a propaganda b a r r a g e . E n g l a n d had n e v e r seen s u c h a campaign as t h e p r o - a n d a n t i - e p i s c o p a l i a n f a c t i o n s waged f o r t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e p u b l i c . E a c h s i d e i n s t i n c t i v e l y knew t h a t i f i t s p o s i t i o n was t o r e m a i n v i a b l e , t h e p e o p l e w o u l d have t o be b e h i n d i t . F o r t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p a r t y , t h e p a m p h l e t war p r e s e n t e d many c h a l l e n g e s , s i n c e t h e y were c h a m p i o n i n g a cause w h i c h was c l e a r l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y . They were s e e k i n g a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l change i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e House o f L o r d s , a n o t i o n opposed by t h e K i n g and t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e L o r d s as w e l l as t h e b i s h o p s . I n d e e d , t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f P r y n n e , B u r t o n and B a s t w i c k were e v i d e n c e enough o f t h e b i s h o p s ' o p p o s i t i o n t o t h o s e who s o u g h t t o d e s t r o y e p i s c o p a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t e m p o r a l a f f a i r s by p r i n t i n g w o r k s damaging t o t h e P r e l a t e s . Y e t t h e b i s h o p s were e x p e l l e d f rom t h e Upper H o u s e , w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t i n 1641 e p i s c o p a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p r e s s had c e a s e d . The e x t r a o r d i n a r y number o f works p u b l i s h e d i n 49 1641 shows t h a t t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l t r a c t s had a c o n s i d e r a b l e a u d i e n c e . I f t h e y had n o t , t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l a u t h o r s w o u l d n e v e r have gone t o s u c h p a i n s t o r e f u t e p r o - e p i s c o p a l a r g u m e n t s . I t w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t o a p p r e c i a t e why t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l f a c t i o n expended so much e n e r g y i f t h e e p i s c o p a l p o s i t i o n i n 1641 were n o t e s t a b l i s h e d . By f a r t h e most i m p o r t a n t p r o - e p i s c o p a l a u t h o r was J o s e p h H a l l , t h e t h e n B i s h o p o f E x e t e r (1627-1641), who was l a t e r t r a n s l a t e d t o N o r w i c h (1641-1656). B o r n i n 1574, he had been a F e l l o w a t Emmanuel C o l l e g e , C a m b r i d g e . A l t h o u g h c o n s i d e r e d t o be more P u r i t a n and L o w - C h u r c h i n h i s l e a n i n g s t h a n L a u d , W r e n , o r P i e r c e , i n 1641 H a l l was n e v e r t h e l e s s c h a m p i o n i n g a p o s i t i o n w h i c h , as f a r as e p i s c o p a l C h u r c h government was c o n c e r n e d , was d e f i n i t e l y H i g h - C h u r c h . 1 Thus i n J a n u a r y , 1641, d i s t u r b e d " l e s t t h e w o r l d s h o u l d t h i n k t h e p r e s s had o f l a t e t o speak any l anguage o t h e r t h a n l i b e l l o u s , " H a l l t o o k up h i s pen t o d e f e n d t h e t r u t h w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t " t h i s h o n e s t p a p e r h a t h b r o k e n t h r o u g h t h e t h r o n g . . . . " 2 The w o r k , e n t i t l e d An Humble Remonst rance To The H i g h C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t By a D u t i f u l Son o f t h e C h u r c h , began a l o n g s e r i e s o f s i m i l a r works t r y i n g t o p r o v e t h a t e p i s c o p a c y was c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e l aw o f God and t h e l a w o f t h e r e a l m . Though e i g h t pages were d e v o t e d t o l i t u r g i c a l m a t t e r s , H a l l showed h i s g r a s p o f t h e r e a l s i t u a t i o n a t s t a k e by d e v o t i n g t w e n t y - f i v e pages t o t h e d e f e n c e o f e p i s c o p a c y . E v e r y w h e r e i n p r i n t , he d e c l a r e d , t h e r e were t h o s e who were t r y i n g t o wound " t h a t s a c r e d government a p p r o v e d of by t h e 50 r e f o r m e r s and t h e A p o s t l e s u n i n t e r r u p t e d u n t o t h i s p r e s e n t age ." "* A " F a t h e r f o r g i v e them" a t t i t u d e p e r v a d e d t h e w h o l e w o r k , a n d , , i n t h e m a i n , H a l l t r i e d t o m a i n t a i n t h a t A p o s t o l i c e p i s c o p a c y and A n g l i c a n e p i s c o p a c y were one and t h e same e n t i t y . T h u s , t h e e p i s c o p a l o f f i c e i s f r o m G o d ; " t h e p l a c e and s t a t i o n and power w h e r e i n t h a t o f f i c e i s e x e r c i s e d i s f rom t h e K i n g . I t i s t h e K i n g who g i v e s t h e B i s h o p r i c k e ; i t i s God t h a t makes t h e B i s h o p . " ^ C o n c e r n i n g o t h e r Reformed C h u r c h e s , H a l l i n s i s t e d t h a t e p i s c o p a c y j u r e d i v i n o was n o t an e x p r e s s l a w o f God . The absence o f e p i s c o p a c y i n t h e C h u r c h d i d n o t mean t h a t t h e y were n o t t r u e C h u r c h e s . B u t H a l l s t a t e d e m p h a t i c a l l y t h a t e p i s c o p a c y was a d i v i n e i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h C h r i s t w i s h e d t o r e m a i n where i t i s and r e q u i r i n g i t where i t may be h a d . * " 5 T h r o u g h o u t t h e c o n t r o v e r s y , H a l l c o n t i n u e d t o i n s i s t t h a t p r e l a c y was d i v i n e l y e s t a b l i s h e d by C h r i s t i n p r i m i t i v e t i m e s , and t h e r e f o r e a t l e a s t i t s f o r m had t o be r e t a i n e d . He r e a l l y c o u l d n o t m u s t e r up t h e arguments n e c e s s a r y t o combat t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l f o r c e s w i t h w h i c h he and h i s p r o - e p i s c o p a l c o l l e g u e s had t o c o n t e n d . T h a t t h i s i s so i s e v i d e n t f rom t h e p a n i c he l a t e r f o u n d h i m s e l f i n , s a y i n g t h e b i s h o p s were now between two m i l l s t o n e s , one t h e Pope o f Rome, t h e o t h e r t h e pope o f t h e p a r i s h . He c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e s e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l t r a c t s i n t e n d e d t o d e s t r o y e p i s c o p a c y by d e s t r o y i n g t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f t h e m a r t y r b i s h o p s . H a l l had no i l l u s i o n s as t o t h e s p e c t r e o f r e v o l u t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p ropaganda 51 p o u r i n g o f f t h e p r e s s e s . He a c c u s e d t h e enemies o f e p i s c o p a c y o f i n t r o d u c i n g a n a r c h y w h i c h w o u l d l e a d a l l t o r u i n and c o n f u s i o n . H a l l f e l t t h a t w i t h a l l t h e i r b r a y i n g i n t h e i r p a m p h l e t s , t h e enemies o f e p i s c o p a c y were h o p i n g t h a t P a r l i a m e n t w o u l d change t h e f a c e o f t h e C h u r c h . They t o l d t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s t h a t t h e y were d o i n g G o d ' s w o r k , " and s h a l l n o t t h i s a m b i t i o n b l o w up t h e u n c o n s t a n t b u l g a r . I f t h e s e g r a v e s t a t e s m e n w o u l d be s t u p i d enough t o b e l i e v e t h e p a m p h l e t e e r s , a l l w o u l d l e a d t o c h a o s , f o r t o r a i l a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s was t o e x e c u t e S a t a n ' s s t r a t e g y by 8 d e c e i v i n g t h e p e o p l e i n t o r e j e c t i n g t h e K i n g . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e y were i n v i t i n g p o p u l a r r e v o l u t i o n . The c r u x o f H a l l ' s argument was t h a t r e l i g o u s forms p r e s c r i b e d by t h e C h u r c h were e s s e n t i a l n o t t o s a l v a t i o n b u t t o t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f C h u r c h and S t a t e . S i n c e t h e y were i n e s s e n t i a l t o s a l v a t i o n he h e l d t h a t no c o n s c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t i o n o r d i s o b e d i e n c e m i g h t be p r o p e r l y r a i s e d a g a i n s t t h e m , and i f i t were r a i s e d , i t m i g h t be p u n i s h e d by t h e m a g i s t r a t e a s • s e d i t i o n and r e b e l l i o n . ^ F u r t h e r p r o - e p i s c o p a l arguments were s e t f o r t h by George M o r l e y , f u t u r e B i s h o p o f W i n c h e s t e r . B o r n i n 159 7 , he r e c e i v e d h i s e d u c a t i o n a t C h r i s t C h u r c h , O x f o r d . He had P u r i t a n l e a n i n g s , b u t i n 1 6 4 1 , t h o u g h no f r i e n d o f L a u d i a n - i s m , he w r o t e a d i s p a s s i o n a t e work c a l l e d A Modes t A d v e r t i s m e n t c o n c e r n i n g t h e P r e s e n t C o n t r o v e r s i e a b o u t C h u r c h G o v e r n m e n t . 1 ^ M o r l e y was c a l m e r about t h e i s s u e t h a n was H a l l . C o n c e r n i n g a " R o o t and B r a n c h " s o l u t i o n t o C h u r c h p r o b l e m s , he w r o t e t h a t i t was t r u e t h a t i t was e a s i e r t o p u l l up t r e e s t h a n t o l o p o f f b r a n c h e s . Y e t i t was a l s o e a s i e r t o p u l l down a 52 house t h a n t o r e p a i r i t . F o r a l l t h a t , "wee c o n s i d e r n o t what i s e a s i e s t , b u t what i s b e s t t o doe.""'"''" To h i s way o f t h i n k i n g , government o f b i s h o p s was most u s e f u l f o r k i n g s and k ingdoms f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f peace and p i e t y . . T r y i n g t o r e f u t e a l l arguments a g a i n s t e p i s c o p a c y , M o r l e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t abuses s h o u l d be t a k e n away and good t h i n g s s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o c o n t i n u e . C o n c e r n i n g b i s h o p s , h o w e v e r , t h r e e t h i n g s had t o be c o n s i d e r e d : t h e i r o r d e r , t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n , and t h e i r p e r s o n s . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e f i r s t i s a n t i e n t and u n i v e r s a l a l m o s t t o a l l C h r i s t i a n s , t h e second where i t i s e x t r a v a g a n t may be l i m i t e d by good and p r u d e n t L a w s , and t h e i r p e r s o n s a r e n o t so g r e a t b u t t h e o f f e n d e r may be c o r r e c t e d by a h i g h e r A u t h o r i t y . 1 2 B i s h o p s t h e r e f o r e were r e f o r m a b l e , b u t t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e had t o r e m a i n u n c h a n g e d . M o r l e y c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a moderate i n t h e c o n t r o v e r s y , n o t as s t r u c t u r e d i n argument o r b e l i e f as H a l l , b u t f a r c l o s e r t o a H i g h - C h u r c h p o s i t i o n t h a n , f o r e x a m p l e , was t h e v e r y p o p u l a r I r i s h d i v i n e , James U s h e r , A r c h b i s h o p o f Armagh . U s h e r , b o r n i n D u b l i n i n 1 5 8 1 , g r a d u a t e d f rom T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , D u b l i n , i n 1600 . Caught up i n t h e e v e n t s o f 1641 w h i l e i n E n g l a n d , he was begged by B i s h o p H a l l t o 13 w r i t e a p a m p h l e t d e f e n d i n g E p i s c o p a c y . H i s v i e w s were L o w - C h u r c h compared w i t h t h e L a u d i a n s . U s h e r d i d n o t b e l i e v e i n t h e a b s o l u t e d i v i n e r i g h t o f e p i s c o p a c y o r " e v e n o f i t s e s s e n t i a l l y A p o s t o l i c a l o r i g i n s , b u t o n l y i t s h i g h c o n v e n i e n c e and a d v a n t a g e s . " 1 4 He m a i n t a i n e d t h a t i n t h e p r i m i t i v e C h u r c h t h e r e was no d i s t i n c t i o n , o r n e x t t o none between 53 p r e s b y t e r s and b i s h o p s . He f e l t a l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y w o u l d be most d e s i r a b l e where b i s h o p s w o u l d p r e s i d e o v e r a s s e m b l i e s a i d e d by c o u n c i l s o f p r e s b y t e r s and even c o n t r o l l e d by synods o f t h e same. F o r a l l o f t h a t , he was s t i l l a b i s h o p , and he e d i t e d a p a m p h l e t l a t e i n May , 1641 e n t i t l e d The Judgment o f D o c t o r R e i g n o l d s t o u c h i n g t h e o r i g i n a l o f E p i s c o p a c y , more l a r g e l y c o n f i r m e d o u t o f A n t i q u i t y . 1 5 The m a j o r t h e s i s o f t h e work was t o p r o v e t h a t i n a n t i q u i t y t h e m i n i s t e r s , whose o f f i c e i t was t o t e a c h , " c h o s e o f t h e i r company one i n e v e r y c i t y , t o whom t h e y d i d e s p e c i a l l y g i v e t h e t i t l e o f b i s h o p . " 1 ^ U s i n g R e i g n o l d s as h i s g u i d e , U s h e r s a i d n o t h i n g about t h e n e c e s s i t y o f e p i s c o p a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h e C h u r c h . The s i t u a t i o n was d e t e r i o r a t i n g so q u i c k l y t h a t any v e s t i g e o f t h e o f f i c e t h a t c o u l d be s a l v a g e d was s o u g h t . B i s h o p s , on t h e r u n f rom t h e g r e a t a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l c o n t r o v e r s y , i n t h e i r h a s t e used m e a n i n g l e s s arguments i n t h e i r a t t e m p t t o c o u n t e r t h e p r i n t e d w o r k s o f t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l f a c t i o n ; t h e y had n o t h i n g s u b s t a n t i a l t o r e f u t e t h e b a r r a g e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l arguments d e s t r o y i n g t h e n o t i o n o f s p i r i t u a l o r t e m p o r a l need f o r t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f p r e l a c y . The most r e m a r k a b l e f e a t u r e o f t h e P u r i t a n r e s p o n s e t o t h e p r o - p r e l a t i c a l d e f e n s e o f t h e e p i s c o p a l o f f i c e was t h e u n i t y o f p u r p o s e among t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l p a m p h l e t e e r s . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r s t a t i o n i n l i f e , men s u c h as R o b e r t B a i l l i e , a S c o t t i s h d i v i n e , S t e p h e n M a r s h a l l , an E n g l i s h m i n i s t e r , R o b e r t G r e v i l l e , L o r d B r o o k e , a p e e r , and 54 W i l l i a m P r y n n e , a l a w y e r had one t h i n g i n common, a d e t e s t a t i o n o f e p i s c o p a c y and a d e s i r e t o s e t t l e t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s by d e s t r o y i n g t h e o f f i c e , " R o o t and B r a n c h " . Thus t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e b i s h o p s f r o m t h e House o f L o r d s and u l t i m a t e l y f r o m t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d i t s e l f became t h e i r common c a u s e . T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l p a m p h l e t e e r s knew each o t h e r v e r y w e l l and a n t i c i p a t e d t h e p r o - p r e l a t i c a l r e s i s t a n c e i n t h e Commons. I t was e v i d e n t by t h e end o f J a n u a r y , 1 6 4 1 , t h a t many members o f t h e Lower House had s t r o n g r e s e r v a t i o n s about a " R o o t and B r a n c h " s o l u t i o n t o t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n and were r e a d y t o p r o p o s e a l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y . I n o t h e r w o r d s , men s u c h as G e o r g e , L o r d D i g b y , L o r d F a l k l a n d and W i l l i a m P l y d e l l b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e e n t i r e o f f i c e was n o t c o r r u p t because a few b i s h o p s w e r e . A r e t u r n t o e p i s c o p a c y as i t e x i s t e d a t t h e t i m e o f t h e A p o s t l e s and e a r l y C h u r c h F a t h e r s was d e s i r a b l e . I 7 A l s o , men s u c h as D i g b y , F a l k l a n d and P l y d e l l e n t e r t a i n e d v e r y r o m a n t i c n o t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r o l e t h e m a r t y r b i s h o p s , C r a m n e r , L a t i m e r , R i d l e y and H o o p e r , p l a y e d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e E n g l i s h e p i s c o p a t e . H a l l ' s c h a l l e n g e d i d n o t w o r r y t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l i a n f a c t i o n as much as t h e one r a i s e d by t h e moderate e p i s c o p a l i a n s d i d . H a l l r e p r e s e n t e d a c o n s e r v a t i v e A n g l i c a n p o s i t i o n w h i c h had been abandoned by most o f t h e i n f l u e n t i a l A n g l i c a n s who now f a v o u r e d a modera te o r l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y . l o " The l a y e p i s c o p a l i a n r e s p o n s e t o t h e p r e l a t i c a l q u e s t i o n was by no means as t r i u m p h a l as was t h e c l e r i c a l . The L a u d i a n e p i s c o p a t e had done much t o 55 d i s c r e d i t t h e o f f i c e a n d , where men s u c h as H a l l t r i e d t o keep t h i n g s a t s t a t u s q u o , most laymen a d v o c a t e d a l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y . I n J a n u a r y , 1 6 4 1 , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e E n g l i s h P u r i t a n d i v i n e s were n o t y e t p r e p a r e d t o r e f u t e t h e arguments o f t h e moderate e p i s c o p a l i a n s , b u t t h o s e S c o t t i s h C o m m i s s i o n e r s who were m i n i s t e r s were v e r y w e l l p r e p a r e d . P r e s b y t e r i a n u n i t y was s t r o n g , f o r t h e S c o t s came t o t h e a i d o f t h e i r E n g l i s h b r e t h r e n . A n t i c i p a t i n g modera te speeches so f a r as t h e f a t e o f t h e b i s h o p s was c o n c e r n e d , t h e P u r i t a n d i v i n e s had t o e x e r t e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e t o champion t h e i r cause i n t h e p r e s s . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e y e n l i s t e d t h e h e l p o f t h e S c o t s , who were o n l y t o o happy t o o b l i g e . The works w r i t t e n l e f t no doubt as t o t h e a b s o l u t e n e c e s s i t y o f " R o o t and B r a n c h " , as t h e t i t l e o f A l e x a n d e r H e n d e r s o n ' s book The U n l a w f u l n e s s and Danger o f L i m i t e d P r e l a c y o r P e r p e t u a l 19 P r e s i d e n c y i n t h e C h u r c h a t t e s t s . L i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e d i n F e b r u a r y when t h e speeches o f L o r d D i g b y and V i s c o u n t F a l k l a n d c a l l i n g f o r a l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y were p u b l i s h e d . S o m e t h i n g had t o be done t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e advantage t h e s e p r i n t e d speeches were h a v i n g among t h e r e a d i n g p u b l i c i n a d v a n c i n g v i e w s o f a l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y . To t h i s end B a i l l i e a d a p t e d h i s C a n t e r b u r i a n s ' S e l f - C o n v i c t i o n f o r E n g l i s h r e a d e r s . H e n d e r s o n w r o t e a much needed s h o r t e r work on The D i s c i p l i n e o f the ' P r e s b y t e r i a n K i r k o f S c o t l a n d . Two o t h e r members o f t h e S c o t t i s h C o m m i s s i o n e r s , George G i l l e s p i e and R o b e r t 56 B l a i r , j o i n e d i n t h e w o r k . G i l l e s p i e w r o t e a p a m p h l e t on The Grounds o f P r e s b y t e r a l Government and B l a i r w r o t e a r e p l y t o H a l l ' s Humble R e m o n s t r a n c e . " The t o n e o f t h e s e w o r k s can be g a t h e r e d f rom a book o f B a i l l i e ' s p r i n t e d b e f o r e t h e end o f J a n u a r y , 1641 . Meant t o complement H e n d e r s o n ' s The U n l a w f u l n e s s and Danger o f a L i m i t e d P r e l a c y , t h i s new work was i d e n t i c a l l y w o r d e d . B a i l l i e w a s t e d no t i m e i n a n n o u n c i n g " t h a t t h i s P r e l a c y may be removed , r o o t and b r a n c h and t h e M i n i s t r y o f C h r i s t be e s t a b l i s h e d i n p u r i t y and power i s t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s 21 p a p e r . . . . " E p i s c o p a c y was o f human i n s t i t u t i o n , had no p l a c e i n t h e e a r l y C h u r c h , and t h e r e f o r e even l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y was u n l a w f u l . F o r , i n t r u t h , no m a t t e r what l i m i t a t i o n s were p u t on b i s h o p s t o keep them i n b o u n d s , " y e t s t i l l he i s a p l a n t as God n e v e r p l a n t e d . " ^ P r e l a c y w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o cause s c h i s m s i n t h e l a n d and w o u l d b r e a k t h e b l e s s e d P a r l i a m e n t i n t o f a c t i o n s , because t h e p r e l a t e , by h i s power w i t h p r i n c e and p e e r , and because o f h i s t y r a n n y o v e r p e o p l e , d i v i d e d " b e t w i x t t h e R u l e r s and t h e p e o p l e m a k i n g C i v i l Government h e a v y . " 2 - * The work ends by e c h o i n g p h r a s e s b e i n g u s e d i n t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y d e b a t e s : "we a r e z e a l o u s o f o u r own l i b e r t i e s , l e t us be more z e a l o u s o f t h e l i b e r t i e s o f t h e Kingdom o f C h r i s t , t h a t b o t h we o u r s e l v e s and t h e P o s t e r i t y may have a w e l l g r o u n d e d and b l e s s e d P e a c e . " 2 ^ The e f f o r t s o f B a i l l i e and h i s S c o t t i s h b r e t h r e n h e l p e d t h e E n g l i s h P u r i t a n d i v i n e s a t a c r u c i a l s t a g e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l 57 d r i v e . The f a c t t h a t t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l p a m p h l e t e e r s w o r k e d t o g e t h e r i n s u c h c l o s e harmony s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y u n d e r s t o o d t h e advantage o f a p o p u l a r p l a t f o r m and i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o w i n p o p u l a r s u p p o r t f o r t h e i r p rogram o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l r e f o r m t h e y were u s i n g some o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s common t o a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . They b r o u g h t t h e i r c a se t o t h e p e o p l e . What t h e p e o p l e d i d n o t know c o n c e r n i n g t h e e v i l s o f e p i s c o p a c y , t h e p a m p h l e t s w o u l d t e l l them. S i n c e i t w o u l d t a k e some t i m e t o remove t h e b i s h o p s f rom t h e L o r d s , i t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d be i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f e p i s c o p a c y . To do t h i s most e f f e c t i v e l y , t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p a m p h l e t e e r s p r i n t e d works a t t a c k i n g t h e e p i s c o p a l b e n c h . The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l f a c t i o n was f o r t u n a t e i n h a v i n g t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h r e e o f t h e most a r t i c u l a t e l aymen! i n t h e c o u n t r y , t h e a f o r e - m e n t i o n e d W i l l i a m P r y n n e , J o h n M i l t o n , and R o b e r t G r e v i l l e , L o r d B r o o k e . As has been p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , t h e s e t h r e e men had one t h i n g i n common, an ex t reme h a t r e d o f b i s h o p s w h i c h e x t e n d e d n o t o n l y t o t h e o f f i c e i t s e l f b u t a l s o t o t h e i n c u m b e n t s o f t h e t w e n t y - s i x E n g l i s h and W e l s h s e e s . T h e i r h a t r e d stemmed f rom d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . A t one t i m e P r y n n e had n o t h i n g b u t t h e d e e p e s t r e s p e c t f o r t h e e p i s c o p a l o f f i c e , f o r t o h i m t h e m a r t y r b i s h o p s were t h e f u l l f o l k h e r o e s t h a t Foxe had hoped t o make them. I t was n o t u n t i l 1641, s e v e r a l y e a r s a f t e r he had s u f f e r e d so c r u e l l y a t t h e hands o f t h e b i s h o p s , t h a t he f i n a l l y became c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e o f f i c e and t h e 58 i n c u m b e n t s w o u l d a l w a y s be c o r r u p t , and t h e r e f o r e he d e v o t e d 25 a l l o f h i s e n e r g i e s t o t h e t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r p o w e r . H i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e g r o w i n g a n t i p a t h y t o w a r d s t h e b i s h o p s r e s t e d on two f a c t s : he was a n a t i o n a l c e l e b r i t y due t o h i s m i s f o r t u n e s , and he had a modern newspaperman' s knack o f m a k i n g t h e e v e n t s o f t h e day e x c i t i n g and s e n s a t i o n a l . I n 1641 he p r o d u c e d t h r e e books o f a v i o l e n t l y a n t i - e p i s c o p a l 2 6 n a t u r e . The f i r s t , A C a t a l o g u e , went so f a r as t o p r a i s e t h r e e Roman C a t h o l i c s a i n t s f o r t h e i r d i s d a i n o f t h e e p i s c o p a l o f f i c e w h i l e he l a m e n t e d t h a t t h e supposed l e a d e r s o f t h e r e f o r m a t i o n i n E n g l a n d i n 1641 were i n t o l e r a b l e t y r a n t s who c o v e t e d h o n o u r s and power and who were a c t u a l l y r u l e d by S a t a n . 2 7 I n h i s s econd b o o k , A New D i s c o v e r y , P r y n n e d e s c r i b e d h i s s u f f e r i n g s i n most v i v i d d e t a i l l e s t anyone f o r g e t what b i s h o p s c o u l d do when t h w a r t e d . H i s t h i r d w o r k , The A n t i p a t h y , i s a v e r i t a b l e c a t a l o g u e o f h o r r o r s , i n w h i c h P r y n n e t r i e d t o p r o v e t h a t t h e b i s h o p s were t h e o r i g i n o f a l l t h a t was base i n E n g l a n d a n d , as l o n g as t h e y r e m a i n e d , t h e c o u n t r y w o u l d n e v e r be a t p e a c e . To b r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n f rom t h e a b s t r a c t t o t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e d a y , he a c t u a l l y i n c l u d e d a s c a n d a l s h e e t , g i v i n g d e t a i l e d r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e c r i m e s o f a l l t h e i n c u m b e n t s o f E n g l i s h sees i n 1 6 4 1 . T h u s , f o r e x a m p l e , W i l l i a m J u x o n o f London was d e s c r i b e d as a c r e a t u r e o f L a u d who was t h e " f i r s t P r e l a t e i n o u r memory, who r e l i n q u i s h e d t h e c u r e o f s o u l s and p r e a c h i n g o f Gods Word t o become a L o r d T r e a s u r e r and s i t as a P u b l i c a n a t t h e r e c e i t o f C u s t o m s . " 5 9 R o b e r t S k i n n e r o f B r i s t o l was B i s h o p o f t h a t d i o c e s e by g r a c e and f a v o u r o f t h e A r c h b i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y . B e s i d e s b e i n g p o p i s h i n h i s l i t u r g y , S k i n n e r c a l l e d t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e s a i n t s t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e d e v i l . He had t h r e a t e n e d a c h u r c h w a r d e n who d i d n o t r e p o r t a man who p r e a c h e d t w i c e on Sunday . The b i s h o p c a l l e d m i n i s t e r s t r a i t o r s , d o g s , " S c o t t i s h - h e a r t e d r a s k a l l s " f o r t e a c h i n g o r t h o d o x d o c t r i n e . He h a t e d p a r l i a m e n t s , f o r c e d h i s m i n i s t e r s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d s t h e c l e r g y ' s b e n e v o l e n c e t o t h e K i n g and e x c o m m u n i c a t - 2 9 ed many f o r n o t h a v i n g t a k e n t h e ex o f f i c i o o a t h . ^ The B i s h o p o f L l a n d a f f , Morgan Owen, was n o t o r i o u s l y p e c c a n t and t h e a f f a i r s o f W i l l i a m R o b e r t s o f Bangor were t o o t e d i o u s f o r P r y n n e t o go i n t o . 3 0 He d i s c r e d i t e d t h e memory o f t h e m a r t y r b i s h o p s as w e l l , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f h i s book was t o show t h a t a t no t i m e i n E n g l i s h h i s t o r y d i d t h e b i s h o p s have a s t r o n g f i d e l i t y , . s i n c e r i t y , o r p i e t y t o t h e K i n g o r t h e C h u r c h . As l o n g as b i s h o p s r e m a i n e d , t h e n a t i o n w o u l d have no s e c u r i t y o r t r a n q u i l i t y . The A n t i p a t h y was t h e t e s t a m e n t o f a p e r s o n a d v o c a t i n g a " R o o t and B r a n c h " s o l u t i o n t o t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n . P r y n n e ' s w o r k s c o u l d n o t f a i l t o a f f e c t many i n ' t h e n a t i o n s i n c e he documented t h e c r i m e s of 31 e v e r y b i s h o p he c o u l d who e v e r h e l d an E n g l i s h s e e . H i s own e y e - w i t n e s s a c c o u n t o f e p i s c o p a l t y r a n n y c o u l d n o t f a i l t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e g r o w i n g a n t i - e p i s c o p a l f e e l i n g s o f t h e n a t i o n . M i l t o n h a t e d b i s h o p s f o r a n o t h e r r e a s o n . He w a s , i n 1 6 4 1 , an a n g r y young man. He f e l t i t was h i s v o c a t i o n t o be a p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t e r , and f o r t h i s he was t r a i n e d . However , s u c h a c a l l i n g i n t h e L a u d i a n C h u r c h was i m p o s s i b l e and he b e l i e v e d t h a t he had been C h u r c h - o u t e d by t h e p r e l a t e s . He t h e r e f o r e l a s h e d o u t w i t h a l l t h e b r i l l i a n t g i f t s a t h i s command, w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f h e l p i n g i n t h e cause o f t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s , " R o o t and B r a n c h " . He d e f i n i t e l y h u r t t h e e p i s c o p a l c a u s e . H a c k e t remembered h i m w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r l o a t h i n g f o r as he l a t e r w r o t e : What a venemous S p i r i t i s i n t h a t S e r p e n t M i l t o n , t h a t b l a c k mouthed Z o i l u s , t h a t b l o w s h i s V i p e r s B r e a t h upon t h o s e I m m o r t a l D e v o t i o n s f rom b e g i n n i n g t o e n d . T h i s i s he t h a t w r o t e w i t h a l l I r r e v e r e n c e a g a i n s t t h e F a t h e r s o f o u r C h u r c h . I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y M i l t o n had a hand i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Smectymnus 1 f i r s t answer t o H a l l . Thomas Y o u n g , one o f t h e Smectymnans, had been h i s t u t o r , and M i l t o n c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h h i m by c o n t r i b u t i n g r o u g h n o t e s and m a t e r i a l f o r a b o u t 33 t w e n t y - p a g e s o f t h e w o r k . B u t M i l t o n had a m i n d o f h i s own, and i n 1641 he w r o t e f o u r t r a c t s o f ex t reme i m p o r t a n c e - t o t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l p ropaganda t h e n p r e s e n t i n E n g l a n d . H i s f i r s t book was p u b l i s h e d i n J u n e , 1 6 4 1 , when t h e Commons was h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e f i r s t B i s h o p s ' E x c l u s i o n B i l l w h i c h had been r e j e c t e d by t h e L o r d s . He d e s t r o y e d any n o t i o n t h a t t h e m a r t y r b i s h o p s were t o be h o n o u r e d when he w r o t e t h a t t h e names o f C r a m n e r , L a t i m e r , R i d l e y and Hooper s h o u l d be " u t t e r l y a b o l i s h e d , l i k e t h e b r a z e n S e r p e n t ; t h a n t h a t mens f o n d o p i n i o n s h o u l d t h u s i d o l i z e them, and t h e H e a v e n l y T r u t h be t h e r e c a p t i v a t e d . " 3 4 Those h e l p i n g t h e 61 b i s h o p s t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e i r t y r a n n y a r e t h e a n t i q u a r i a n s who t r y t o e x h a u s t h i s t o r y t o p r o v e t h a t w h i c h c a n n o t be p r o v e d , t h e l i b e r t i n e s who s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l o s s o f e p i s c o p a c y w i l l mean a pope i n e v e r y p a r i s h , and t h e p o l i t i c i a n s who t r y t o p r o v e t h a t e p i s c o p a l government conforms w i t h c i v i l p o l i t y . Y e t t h e most u n f o r t u n a t e a s p e c t o f a l l t h i s was t h a t t h e p r o m o t e r s o f e p i s c o p a c y were mak ing t h e n a t i o n r i p e f o r r e b e l l i o n , s i n c e t h e c h i e f f u n c t i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s was 35 t o d e s t r o y l i b e r t y . M i l t o n . c o n t i n u e d h i s a t t a c k t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r , and he was v e r y s e r i o u s when he a d v o c a t e d a " R o o t and B r a n c h " s o l u t i o n t o t h e e p i s c o p a l i s s u e . I n h i s s e c o n d and t h i r d p a m p h l e t s , he t r i e d t o d e s t r o y t h e a r g u - ments o f U s h e r and H a l l . I n H a l l ' s c a s e , he a t t a c k e d t h e man more t h a n t h e man ' s a r g u m e n t s , a c c u s i n g H a l l o f d e l i b e r a t e - l y v i o l a t i n g t h e sense o f S c r i p t u r e . 3 f i To H a l l ' s s t a t e m e n t t h a t no n a t i o n had c l e r g y t h a t y i e l d e d up " so many s c h o l a r s , l e a r n e d p r e a c h e r s , h o l y and a c c o m p l i s h e d D i v i n e s as t h i s C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d , " M i l t o n a n s w e r e d : " H a , h a , h a , " 3 7 The n i c e t i e s o f argument were o v e r : t h e s t r e n g t h o f h i s a t t a c k was t o o d e f t and f a t a l . He had t h e c o n v i c t i o n o f one who was c e r t a i n he was r i g h t , and he c a r e d n o t f o r t h e c o n - sequences o f h i s a n t i - e p i s c o p a l s e n t i m e n t s , f o r he knew t h a t t h e n , i n 1 6 4 1 , t h e r e w o u l d n o t be any r e p r i s a l s . He was n o t g o i n g t o s u f f e r as d i d P r y n n e , B a s t w i c k and B u r t o n . U n w i t t i n g l y he was a l s o t e l l i n g t h e n a t i o n and t h e b i s h o p s t h a t t h e days o f e p i s c o p a c y i n t h e E n g l i s h C h u r c h were f a s t 3 8 coming t o an e n d . 62 T h a t M i l t o n made a deep c u t i n t o e p i s c o p a l s e n s i b i l i t i e s t h e r e c a n be no d o u b t , as i s e v i d e n t f rom t h e vehemence o f on B i s h o p H a l l ' s r e p l y t o h i m i n 1642 . ^ B u t t h e one work w h i c h above a l l v i s i b l y moved t h e e n t i r e e p i s c o p a t e t o a n g e r , d i s t r e s s a n d , t o , s o m e d e g r e e , p a n i c , was A D i s c o u r s e O p e n i n g The N a t u r e o f T h a t E p i s c o p a c y W h i c h I s E x e r c i s e d I n E n g l a n d , by R o b e r t G r e v i l l e , L o r d B r o o k e . T h a t a c o l l e a g u e i n t h e House o f L o r d s s h o u l d a t t a c k them was bad e n o u g h , b u t t h e manner i n w h i c h i t was done was c l e a r l y a c a l c u l a t e d i n s u l t , and t h e b i s h o p s ' r e a c t i o n t o t h e work was v i o l e n t . B r o o k e was no o r d i n a r y p e e r . A l e a d e r o f t h e P u r i t a n o p p o s i t i o n i n t h e Upper H o u s e , he d i f f e r e d f r o m t h e b i s h o p s n o t o n l y i n r e g a r d t o C h u r c h p r a c t i c e , b u t f a r more s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e n a t i o n a l C h u r c h . F o r , as he saw i t , t h e b i s h o p s who had a s u s p i c i o n o f and a contempt f o r t h e h e r e d i t a r y a r i s t o c r a t c o u l d c o n c e i v e s o c i e t y o n l y as an i n c l u s i v e u n i t e d C h u r c h whereas B r o o k e . . . had as h i s o b j e c t i v e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a n a t i o n w i t h i n w h i c h r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s , so l o n g as t h e y d i d n o t d i s t u r b p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y , were t o be t r e a t e d as m a t t e r s w i t h o u t p u b l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t was now o n l y t o o e v i d e n t t h a t t h e p r e l a t e s were t h e " p a r e n t s and p a t r o n s o f most E r r o r s , H e r e s i e s , S e c t s and 45 S c h i s m e s , t h a t now d i s t u r b e t h i s C h u r c h and S t a t e . " C h u r c h government had t o be c h a n g e d . I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s a l l t h e b i s h o p s were g u i l t y o f t h e s e c r i m e s ; t h e r e were no e x c e p t i o n s . The arguments o f t h o s e f a v o u r i n g a l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y were f a l s e o n e s . R o b e r t B a i l l i e summar ized t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " f a c t i o n when he w r o t e : 63 Those o f t h e P r e l a t e s who c o u n t t h e m s e l v e s most o r t h o d o x and i n n o c e n t , c a n n o t be e x c u s e d o f t h e s e c r i m e s , w h i c h by t h e i r c o n n i v a n c e t h e y d i d f o s t e r , and w e l l n e e r e as much promoove by t h e i r s u f f e r i n g , as t h e o t h e r s who were es teemed more g u i l t e e by t h e i r d o i n g . 4 f i The t r a c t s o f P r y n n e , M i l t o n and B r o o k e d i d much t o d i s - c r e d i t e p i s c o p a c y . I n 1 6 4 1 , P r y n n e and M i l t o n , n e i t h e r o f whom were i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t , were c a l l i n g f o r a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n and t h e y c o n t i n u e d t o w r i t e u n m o l e s t e d . And y e t , f o u r y e a r s b e f o r e , P r y n n e had s u f f e r e d m u t i l a t i o n f o r d o i n g l e s s damage t h a n he was d o i n g i n 1641 . L o r d B r o o k e ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n i s even more e x c i t i n g s i n c e h e , a P e e r o f t h e R e a l m , a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e common p e o p l e had r i g h t s , and had r e a s o n t o d e s p i s e h i s own c o l l e a g u e s . The b i s h o p s , he d e c l a r e d , came f rom t h e e x c r e m e n t o f t h e n a t i o n . He made a n t i - e p i s c o p a c y as much a p o p u l a r cause as i t was t h e cause o f t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p i n P a r l i a m e n t . The b i s h o p s knew t h a t t h i s l a t e s t b r o a d s i d e a t t h e i r p o s i t i o n was dangerous because t h e y a l l f e l t o b l i g e d t o r e p l y t o h i s a c c u s a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r meaness o f b i r t h . ^ 7 P r y n n e , M i l t o n and B r o o k e knew t h e p r e j u d i c e s o f t h e i r c o u n t r y m e n and e x p l o i t e d them, much t o t h e d i s t r e s s o f t h e e p i s c o p a t e , who knew t h a t t h e i r p o s i t i o n had been weakened , f o r 48 t h e L o r d s were i n s u l t i n g them i n t h e H o u s e . The p e r s o n s o f t h e b i s h o p s were a l s o d i s c r e d i t e d i n poems and s o n g s . Anonymous p o e t s were n o t above c o n t r i b u t i n g c r u d e v e r s e s 1 l a m p o o n i n g t h e b i s h o p s , some o f w h i c h were v e r y amus ing and some v e r y dangerous and e f f e c t i v e . O b v i o u s l y 6 4 w r i t t e n f o r a f a r more p o p u l a r a u d i e n c e t h a n any o f t h e t r a c t s we have h e r e t o f o r e c o n s i d e r e d , t h e rhymes were ea sy t o memorise and t h e i r a n t i - e p i s c o p a l i m p o r t was d e a d l y . P e r h a p s t h e b e s t example o f t h i s t y p e o f l i t e r a t u r e was a poem c a l l e d Lambeth F a i r e w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n t h e London book s t a l l s i n ' J u n e o f 1 6 4 1 . The poem t e l l s o f t h e i m p e n d i n g doom o f t h e b i s h o p s , and t h e i r h a s t e t o s e l l t h e i r wares b e f o r e t h e y f l y t o Rome: Come buy lawne s l e e v e s I have no money t o o k Here t r y them o n , y o u ' l l l i k e a B i s h o p l o o k e And may g e t honour b o t h g r e a t and s m a l l ^ n And L o r d i t o r e y o u r f e l l o w B r e t h r e n a l l . . . . One b i s h o p t r y i n g t o s e l l a gown c h i r p e d " I n t h i s same gown d i d C a n t e r b u r i e s G r a c e , A t H i g h C o m m i s s i o n show h i s g r a c e - l e s s f a c e . " S p e c i a l l i n e s were s a v e d f o r t h e B i s h o p o f E l y : Then a f t e r t h a t u n t o t h i s J o l l y F a i r e A l i t t l e W r e n , came f l y i n g t h r o u g h t h e a y r e And on h i s back b e t w i x t h i s w i n g s he b o r e A M i n i s t e r s t u f t w i t h C r o s s e s , A l t a r s s t o r e W i t h S a c r e d F o n t s , and r a r e g u i l t Cherub ims And b e l l o w i n g O r g a n s , c h a n t i n g c u r i o u s Hymnes The H a l l o w ' d H o s t , dum P r i e s t s and s i n g i n g boyes W i t h A n t i c k C r i n g e r s , and a t h o u s a n d t o y e s . . . . The " t o y e s " were t h e "New C a n o n s " , t h e e t c e t e r a o a t h , and o t h e r o b n o x i o u s t h i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e p i s c o p a l g o v e r n m e n t . B u t t h e p s e u d o - p o p e ' s h o l i d a y i n E n g l a n d was soon t o e n d , f o r a messenger b r o u g h t t h e p r e l a t e s t h i s ominous message : Away t o Rome o r T i b u r n chuse y o u w h e t h e r I know y o u r shoes a r e made o f r u n n i n g l e a t h e r , F o r a l l o f t h e Lawes o t h ' L a n d y o u have o u t r u n And I come h e r e t t o t e l l y o u what i s done The P a r l i a m e n t h a t h p u l l e d y o u r p r i d e t o t h 1 g r o u n d And by t h e House t h r e e t i m e s y 1 a r e v o t e d down Y o u r w a r ' s n o t w o r t h a . . . , f o r a l l y o u r c o g g i n g _ 2 See where t h e Hangman comes, away, be j o g g i n g . . . . 65 A l l t h e a n i m o s i t y a n t i - e p i s c o p a l i a n s h e l d f o r t h e p r e l a t e s were c o n t a i n e d i n t h e v e r s e s o f Lambeth F a i r e . By J u n e , an e x c l u s i o n b i l l had p a s s e d t h e Commons, b u t had been t h r o w n o u t o f t h e House o f L o r d s . The lampoon was s i g n i f i c a n t ina smuch as i t v o i c e d an e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e t h a t t h e " p o p i s h " h i e r a r c h y w o u l d be d e s t r o y e d by t h e g o o d , r e f o r m i n g g r a c e s o f P a r l i a m e n t , and t h a t t h e b i s h o p s w o u l d be p u n i s h e d e i t h e r by e x i l e o r e x e c u t i o n . The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l s e n t i m e n t s i n songs were u n m i s t a k a b - l y l i n k e d t o t h e L a u d i a n R e f o r m . One s u c h song c a l l e d "The S c h o l a r ' s C o m p l a i n t " b r o u g h t some o f t h e more s e r i o u s g r i e v a n c e s t h e p u b l i c had a g a i n s t b i s h o p s t o l i g h t : . . . I bowed, I have bended And a l l i n hope One day t o be b e f r i e n d e d I p r e a c h ' t , • [ IE-printed What e r e I h i n t e d To p l e a s e o u r E n g l i s h P o p e . . . . . . . I n t o some c o u n t r y v i l l a g e Nowe I must goe Where n e i t h e r t i t h e n o r t i l l a g e The g r e e d y p a t r o n And c o a c h e d m a t r o n Swears t o t h e C h u r c h t h e y owe. B u t i f I p r e a c h and p r a y t o o on t h e s u d d a i n e And c o n j u r e t h e Pope t o o , ex tempre w i t h o u t s t u d y i n g , I ' v e t e e n e poundes a y e e r e , b e s i d e s my Sunday p u d d i n g , A l a s , p o r e s c h o l l e r ! W i t h e r w i l t t h o u g o e ? 5 3 The most p o t e n t h e l p t h e b i s h o p s ' cause had a g a i n s t t h e Lambeth F a i r e t y p e o f lampoon came f r o m t h e pen o f J o h n T a y l o r , " t h e Water P o e t " , who was a man o f t h e p e o p l e , h a v i n g been a waterman i n h i s y o u t h . T a y l o r , a s t a u n c h r o y a l i s t , was a l s o d e f t a t v e r s i f i c a t i o n . As f a r as h i s w o r k s a r e c o n c e r n e d , he d i d n o t seem t o be any g r e a t l o v e r 66 o f e p i s c o p a c y , • b u t he f e a r e d mob v i o l e n c e , w h i c h he f e l t was u p s e t t i n g t h e government o f t h e E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h . W i s h i n g t h e C h u r c h w o u l d r e m a i n as t h e G o s p e l and t h e l aws o f E n g l a n d o r d a i n e d i t , he r a i l e d a g a i n s t m a l c o n t e n t s i n h i s poem A Swarme o f S e c t a r i e s , s a y i n g t h a t c o b b l e r s , t i n k e r s , p e d d l e r s , w e a v e r s , s o w g e l d e r s , and chimney sweeps 54 were a l l f i n d i n g a new v o c a t i o n , t h a t o f p r e a c h i n g . He was v e r y c a u s t i c i n h i s a p p r a i s a l o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , and t h a t he b e l i e v e d s u c h a c t i v i t y t o be l i n k e d w i t h a n t i - e p i s c o p a l f e e l i n g can be seen i n t h e f o l l o w i n g v e r s e s : I f P r e l a t e s have by f r a u d , o r f r a i l t y s l i p ' d My Pen s h a l l n o t i n G a l l o f Aspes be d i p ' d : I ' l e , p r a y we may have b e t t e r i n t h e i r p l a c e s , Whom G r a c e may g u i d e , t o shun t h e l i k e d i s g r a c e s L e t t r a d e s m e n use t h e i r t r a d e s , l e t a l l men be I m p l o y ' d i n what i s f i t t i n g t h e i r d e g r e e . I t i s c l e a r t h a t T a y l o r saw t h e s p e c t r e o f a p o p u l a r r e v o l u t i o n i n what he o b s e r v e d g o i n g on i n L o n d o n , f o r he was n o t so c o n c e r n e d a b o u t e p i s c o p a c y as about t h e consequences o f a p o p u l a r t a k e - o v e r o f t h e C h u r c h and i t s e f f e c t on t h e p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e n a t i o n . Y e t i n t e r e s t i n g as h i s w o r k s a r e , t h e y were h a r d l y a b l e t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e f l o o d o f a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l lampoons a p p e a r i n g so f r e q u e n t l y . 5 6 The t h e o l o g i c a l c l a i m s o f t h e e p i s c o p a t e c o u l d n o t be o v e r l o o k e d by t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l p a m p h l e t e e r s . The most i m p o r t a n t work o f t h e e n t i r e c o n t r o v e r s y was t h e book e n t i t l e d An Answer To a Book E n t i t l e d An Humble Remonst rance by Smectymnus (S tephen M a r s h a l l , Edmund C a l a m y , Thomas Y o u n g , Mat thew Newcome, W i l l i a m S p u r s t o w ) , w h i c h was r e a d y f o r s a l e a r o u n d 20~:March, 1 6 4 1 . These f i v e men had d e c i d e d on a j o i n t p r o j e c t t o answer H a l l ' s d e f e n s e e f f e c t i v e l y . The m a j o r a u t h o r o f t h e w o r k , a c c o r d i n g t o B a i l l i e , was Thomas Y o u n g , t h e f o r m e r t u t o r o f J o h n M i l t o n . ^ 8 The work i s a p r o d u c t o f i t s t i m e : e n d l e s s q u o t a t i o n s f rom t h e F a t h e r s t o p r o v e t h a t e p i s c o p a c y was n e v e r found i n A p o s t o l i c t i m e s ; e n d l e s s s y l l o g i s i m s and c o p i o u s n o t e s i n t h e m a r g i n s t o f u r t h e r e l u c i d a t e p o i n t s made. The Smectymnans d e n i e d t h e A p o s t o l i c a l o r i g i n s o f e p i s c o p a c y . E p i s c o p a l c l a i m s were more r o o t e d i n t h e papacy t h a n i n t t h e R e f o r m a t i o n . The p r i m i t i v e b i s h o p s t h a t t h e modera te e p i s c o p a l i a n s a l w a y s p r a i s e d had n o t h i n g i n common w i t h t h e L a u d i a n b i s h o p s . To c l a i m t h a t t h e e p i s c o p a l o r d e r was o f A p o s t o l i c o r i g i n was t o c l a i m d i v i n e i n s t i t u t i o n . S c r i p t u r e p r o v e d t h a t t h e e p i s c o p a l and p r i e s t l y o f f i c e was one and t h e same. The t h r e e o r d e r s o f b i s h o p , p r i e s t and deacon were n e v e r g i v e n i n S c r i p t u r e . E l d e r s who were " b i s h o p s " had no s p e c i f i c d u t y t o p e r f o r m , " a n d anyone who c l a i m s t h i s t o be h i e r a r c h y s h o u l d be e v e r h o o t e d o u t o f t h e C h u r c h . " I n t h e e a r l y C h u r c h , t h e r e was " n o t one c h i e f e B i s h o p e o r P r e s i d e n t , b u t t h e P r e s i d e n c y was i n 6 0 m a n y . " T h e r e f o r e t h e A n g l i c a n e p i s c o p a t e d i d n o t have an A p o s t o l i c f o u n d a t i o n , b u t r a t h e r a Roman o n e , and when t h e b i s h o p s c l a i m e d t h e f o r m e r t h e i r c l a i m was ba sed on a l i e . The book was d i r e c t e d n o t so much a g a i n s t H a l l , b u t r a t h e r a g a i n s t t h e p o s i t i o n o f moderate e p i s c o p a l i a n s . 68 The book a l s o sought a p o p u l a r a u d i e n c e ; t h e a u t h o r s were c l e v e r enough t o t r a n s l a t e e v e r y L a t i n c i t a t i o n w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n t h e book i n t o E n g l i s h . The Smectymnans t u r n e d t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t , h o p i n g i t w o u l d be l i k e C o n s t a n t i n e o f o l d and r o o t o u t e v e r y p l a n t i n t h e C h u r c h n o t p u t t h e r e by God . They p r a y e d t h a t t h e s e u s u r p e r s , c a l l e d b i s h o p s , w o u l d be b r o u g h t t o open, and p u b l i c p u n i s h m e n t f o r c r i m e s a s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e i r u n g o d l y i n t e r e s t i n s e c u l a r a f f a i r s and t h e i r m i s u s e o f power i n t e m p o r a l o f f i c e s . A l l o f t h e b i s h o p ' s c r i m e s c r i e d o u t t o t h e h i g h e s t c o u r t i n t h e w o r l d . The Smectymnans d i s c r e d i t e d p o p u l a r v e n e r a t i o n o f t h e m a r t y r b i s h o p s by s a y i n g i t was u s e l e s s t o c l a i m t h a t Cramne L a t i m e r , R i d l e y and Hooper were g r e a t men. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y were d e s t r o y i n g t h e modera te e p i s c o p a l i a n s ' a t t e m p t s t o g e n e r a t e p o p u l a r sympathy f o r e p i s c o p a c y , a sympathy w h i c h was b a s e d on t h e martydom o f t h e s e men by t h e C a t h o l i c Queen, M a r y . R i d l e y was a g a i n s t Hooper because t h e f o r m e r l i k e d c e r e m o n i e s . R i d l e y and Cramner p e r m i t t e d P r i n c e s s Mary t o keep t h e M a s s . I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s e p i s c o p a c y had no o r i g i n s f rom C h r i s t . The o f f i c e was i n c o n s i s t a n t w i t h r e l i g i o n and monarchy and so had no p l a c e i n t h e s e c u l a r o r s p i r i t u a l a f f a i r s o f t h e n a t i o n . I t was t h e humble p r a y e r o f t h e a u t h o r s t h a t e p i s c o p a c y " s h o u l d 6 3 f o r e v e r be abandoned o u t o f t h e C h u r c h o f G o d . " T h i s work was t h e p r o t o t y p e o f many a n t i - e p i s c o p a l w o r k s w h i c h a p p e a r e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r . The f a s t day sermons o f 1640-1642 , a l t h o u g h n o t a 69 r e g u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n t i l l l a t e i n t h e p e r i o d u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n , were a n o t h e r f o r m o f p ropaganda o f an a n t i - e p i s c o p a l n a t u r e . As C l a r e n d o n n o t e d I t was an o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h a t t i m e t h a t t h e f i r s t p u b l i s h i n g o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y news was f rom t h e p u l p i t ; and by t h e p r e a c h e r ' s t e x t , and h i s manner o f d i s c o u r s e upon i t , t h e a u d i t o r s m i g h t j u d g e , and commonly f o r e s a w , what was l i k e t o be n e x t done i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t o r C o u n c i l o f S t a t e . 6 4 The f a s t day sermons o f 1640-1642 were g e n e r a l l y p r i n t e d , so t h a t t h e p u b l i c were a l w a y s c o n s c i o u s o f t h e g o d l y a d m o n i t i o n s g i v e t h e P a r l i a m e n t by t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l d i v i n e s . Thus a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t , C o r n e l i u s B u r g e s s gave t h e f i r s t f a s t day sermon on t h e a n n i v e r s a r y o f Queen's E l i z a b e t h ' s a c c e s s i o n t o t h e t h r o n e , 17 November , 1640 . I t was n o t enough t h a t t h e P a r l i a m e n t p u n i s h t h o s e who were s t r i v i n g t o d e s t r o y t h e l a w and l i b e r t i e s o f t h e n a t i o n . T h e r e had t o be " a t h o r o u g h j o i n i n g o f t h e m s e l v e s t o God by c o v e n a n t . " 6 5 j n t h e sermon B u r g e s s o u t l i n e d t h e t y p e o f P a r l i a m e n t t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n e x p e c t e d i t t o b e . They were t o work t o g e t h e r t o b r i n g about G o d ' s l o n g a w a i t e d r e f o r m a t i o n o f C h u r c h and S t a t e . H e n r y B u r t o n , a g r a d u a t e o f S t . J o h n ' s C o l l e g e , C a m b r i d g e , and a s h a r e r i n t h e f a t e o f P r y n n e i n 1637 , d e l i v e r e d a sermon t o t h e Commons on 20 J u n e , 1 6 4 1 . H i s t o p i c was E n g l a n d ' s Bondage , " t h e A r c h b i s h o p i n h i s P r o v i n c e , t h e B i s h o p i n h i s D i o c e s e . " ^ 6 The e n t i r e government was i n t h e "bondage" o f t h e h i e r a r c h y w h i c h was r e a l l y t h e "bondage" o f a n t i - C h r i s t . B u t t h e P a r l i a m e n t was t h e answer t o t h e p r a y e r s o f a l l E n g l a n d , and i t was t h e hope o f t h e 70 n a t i o n t h a t t h a t body w o u l d b r e a k o f f t h e e p i s c o p a l yoke 6 7 f r o m G o d ' s p e o p l e and s e t E n g l a n d f r e e . Thomas C a s e , who gave a f a s t day sermon i n J u l y , 1 6 4 1 , d e t e s t e d e p i s c o p a c y . He had been i n t r o u b l e b e f o r e because o f h i s a n t i - e p i s c o p a l v i e w s and had been b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e e p i s c o p a l c o u r t s o f b o t h B i s h o p Wren and B i s h o p Br idgeman f o r h i s sermons a t t a c k i n g C h u r c h d i s c i p l i n e i n 6 8 N o r w i c h and C h e s t e r . I n h i s J u l y s e r m o n , he p r e a c h e d a g a i n s t t h e m o n a r c h i c a l f o r m o f e p i s c o p a l government i n t h e C h u r c h , w h i c h he f e l t t h e e p i s c o p a l i a n s f o o l i s h l y championed i n t h e i r "No B i s h o p , no K i n g " maxim. S i n c e t h e b i s h o p s had abandoned t h e r e f o r m a t i o n , i t was h i s hope t h a t " i n f u t u r e ages t h i s may be c a l l e d t h e happy P a r l i a m e n t , t h e h o l y P a r l i a m e n t , t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f G o d , . . . t h e 6 9 r e f o r m e r s o f t h e R e f o r m a t i o n . " By December , 1 6 4 1 , i t seemed t o t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y a n t i - e p i s c o p a l o p p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e e p i s c o p a t e w o u l d n e v e r be e x p e l l e d f r o m t h e i r p l a c e i n t h e L o r d s . The K i n g ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h e c i t y , had s t r e n g t h e n e d . I f t h e P a r l i a m e n t were t o s u r v i v e , t h e mobs w o u l d be n e e d e d . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e d i v i n e s a p p o i n t e d t o p r e a c h on t h e f a s t day h e l d on 22 December , 1 6 4 1 , Edmund Calamy and S t e p h e n M a r s h a l l , p r e p a r e d t h e way . M a r s h a l l t o l d h i s a u d i e n c e t h a t E n g l a n d had many s i n n e r s who w i s h e d t h e n a t i o n t o r e m a i n i n i t s u n r e f o r m e d s t a t e . He t h e r e f o r e u r g e d h i s h e a r e r s t o remember K i n g J o s i a h who "meted p u t t h e j u s t i c e and vengence o f God w i t h z e a l and f e r v e n c y t o t h o s e who p l o t t e d t h e Kingdoms r u i n . " / u T h i s sermon was p r i n t e d , and i t was no s m a l l wonder t h a t v e r y many i n t h e c i t y t u r n e d o u t i n s u c h f u r y t o a t t a c k t h e p e r s o n s o f t h e b i s h o p s on 2 7 December , 1 6 4 1 . The f a s t day sermons t h e n s p e l l e d o u t t h e p rogram o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t and c o u l d be u s e d t o s t i r up p o p u l a r d e m o n s t r a t i o n s when 71 n e e d e d . P a r l i a m e n t a r y speeches a l s o s e r v e d as a v e h i c l e o f a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p r o p a g a n d a . I n d e e d , moderate e p i s c o p a l speeches i n 1641 were d e l i v e r e d and p r i n t e d , s u c h as F a l k l a n d ' s and P l y d e l l ' s i n F e b r u a r y and S i r ' B e n j a m i n R u d y e r d ' s i n J u n e . B u t a n t i - e p i s c o p a l speeches s u c h as N a t h a n i e l F i e n n e s ' s p e e c h o f 8 F e b r u a r y , L o r d Saye and S e l e ' s s p e e c h o f 27 May and H e n r y V a n e , J r . ' s s p e e c h o f 11 J u n e , a l l a d v o c a t i n g a " R o o t and B r a n c h " s o l u t i o n t o t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n were p r i n t e d w i t h more r e g u l a r i t y . However , as t h e y e a r wore on n o t h i n g c o u l d u p s e t t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s more t h a n u n a u t h o r i z e d p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e H o u s e . The p l a i n t r u t h was t h a t t h e P a r l i a m e n t was a c t i n g as i t s own m i n i s t r y o f p r o p a g a n d a , and f i n a l l y o n l y t h o s e speeches f a v o u r a b l e t o i t s image and a m b i t i o n were a l l o w e d t o be p r i n t e d . To be s u r e , many t r i e d t o c i r c u m v e n t t h e u s u a l p r o c e s s o f o f f i c i a l i m p r i m a t u r , b u t t h e impeachment p r o c e e d i n g s begun i n t h e House a g a i n s t S i r Edward D e r i n g who d a r e d t o have h i s speeches p r i n t e d w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n s e r v e d a s t r o n g n o t i c e t o any p r o - e p i s c o p a l members t h a t t h e y t o o c o u l d be d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r s e a t s i f t h e y s h o u l d f o l l o w D e r i n g ' s e x a m p l e . 7 2 72 I t t o o k some t i m e b e f o r e a c o n t r o l l e d p r e s s a c t u a l l y t o o k e f f e c t . The speeches o f D i g b y , F a l k l a n d and o t h e r s c a l l i n g f o r a r e f o r m e d e p i s c o p a c y were p r i n t e d e a s i l y a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1641 . However , a f t e r t h e i n d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s ' P r o t e s t a t i o n on 30 December , 1 6 4 1 , t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n was most d e t e r m i n e d i n i t s e f f o r t s t o d e p r i v e t h e b i s h o p s o f t h e i r v o t e s . V i r t u a l l y e v e r y p a r l i a m e n t a r y s p e e c h w h i c h was d e l i v e r e d on t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n was o f a " R o o t and B r a n c h " n a t u r e and many o f t h e s e speeches were p r i n t e d . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l speeches o f t h e f o l l o w i n g members were p r i n t e d by o r d e r o f t h e H o u s e : D'Ewes ( J a n . 1 1 ) , Thomas Bagshaw ( J a n . 1 7 ) , J o h n W h i t e ( J a n . 1 7 ) , O l i v e r S t . J o h n ( J a n . 1 7 ) , J o h n Pym ( J a n . 25 and F e b . 8 ) . W i t h t h e v o i c e s o f t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l i a n s t h u s s i l e n c e d , t h e p r e s s u r e a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s grew t o s u c h p r o p o r t i o n s t h a t t h e E x c l u s i o n B i l l ' s pas sage and a s s e n t by t h e K i n g was i n e v i t a b l e . I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l t r a c t s p r e p a r e d a r e a d i n g n a t i o n f o r a r e v o l u t i o n a r y change i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f ramework o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t . The p a r l i a m e n t a r y i m p r i m a t u r d i d n o t e n t i r e l y > s t o p p r o - e p i s c o p a l l i t e r a t u r e , b u t i t d i d s e v e r e l y l i m i t i t . What p r o - e p i s c o p a l l i t e r a t u r e had been a v a i l a b l e p r i o r t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s , h o w e v e r , was o f t e n s t o g y and p e d a n t i c . The p r o - e p i s c o p a l w r i t e r s t e n d e d t o d w e l l more on t h e g l o r i e s o f t h e p a s t t h a n on t h e p o l i t i c s o f t h e p r e s e n t . They r a r e l y p r o p o s e d any program o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l r e f o r m under e p i s c o p a c y w h i c h 73 w o u l d e n s u r e a b e t t e r f u t u r e f o r E n g l a n d . The p r o - e p i s c o p a l i a n s d i d c o n s i d e r e p i s c o p a c y ' s p l a c e i n t h e r e a l m , b u t t h e y were more c o n c e r n e d a b o u t monarchy w i t h o u t e p i s c o p a c y t h a n t h e y were about e p i s c o p a c y i t s e l f . T h e o l o g i c a l a rguments on b o t h s i d e s were cumbersome, b u t t h e e p i s c o p a l i a n s d i d n o t s t r e s s t h e f reedom e p i s c o p a c y c o u l d g i v e t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i e n c e ; t h e P u r i t a n w r i t e r s d i d s t r e s s t h e theme o f f reedom and because o f t h i s t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l f a c t i o n had a p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d v a n t a g e . The e p i s c o p a l i a n s spoke o f r e v o l u t i o n and i t s d i r e c o n s e q u e n c e s , w h i l e t h e P u r i t a n s spoke o f r e f o r m a t i o n and i t s t e m p o r a l and s p i r i t u a l b l i s s . I n s h o r t , t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l w r i t e r s d e f e n d e d t h e o f f i c e w i t h n e g a t i o n ; t h e y w r o t e as t h o u g h t h e i r cause was i n d e s p e r a t e s t r a i t s . B u t t h e o p p o s i t i o n , c o n f i d e n t i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t , l e f t n o t h i n g undone and t o o k n o t h i n g f o r g r a n t e d i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o d e p r i v e t h e b i s h o p s o f t h e i r v o t e s i n t h e L o r d s . The p a m p h l e t e e r s h e l p e d t h e o p p o s i t i o n i n F e b r u a r y w i t h t h e t r a c t s o f t h e S c o t t i s h d i v i n e s . They k e p t up t h e b a r r a g e t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . L o r d B r o o k e d i d h i s homework o v e r t h e r e c e s s o f P a r l i a m e n t , and s h a t t e r e d any p o p u l a r i l l u s i o n t h a t t h e B i s h o p s , because t h e y were o f h i g h d e g r e e , s h o u l d be r e s p e c t e d . They had no d e g r e e . The P a r l i a m e n t d i d t h e r e s t w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e speeches o f i t s members who d e m o n s t r a t e d as f o r c e f u l l y as t h e y c o u l d t o t h e n a t i o n how t h e b i s h o p s were d e s t r o y i n g t h e l aw and i n t i m i d a t i n g a l l h o n e s t men w i t h t h e i r s w i p e s o f 74 t h e i r c r o z i e r s . Thus t h e t r a c t s c o m p l i m e n t e d t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e H o u s e . T o g e t h e r w i t h t u m u l t s , p e t i t i o n s , and t h e l e g i s l a t i o n o f t h e House i t s e l f , t h e p a m p h l e t e e r s p l a y e d t h e i r p a r t i n m a k i n g t h e p o p u l a r r e v o l u t i o n a g a i n s t t h e e p i s c o p a l o f f i c e a s u c c e s s . CHAPTER I V ANTI-EPISCOPAL MANOEUVRING I N PARLIAMENT To t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l o p p o s t i o n i n t h e House o f Commons t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n was t h e a c t i v i t y s e t i n m o t i o n t o e f f e c t a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l change i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e House o f L o r d s . Because t h e e p i s c o p a t e were t h o u g h t t o oppose any movement t o w a r d s n e c e s s a r y c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m , men s u c h as J o h n Pym, J o h n Hampden, O l i v e r S t . J o h n , D e n z i l H o l l i s , S i r Henry V a n e , J r . , and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s t r i e d t o o r g a n i z e an e f f e c t i v e movement o f u n i t y i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t , b o t h among t h e members o f t h e Commons i t s e l f and more i m p o r t a n t l y , be tween t h e two H o u s e s , i n o r d e r t o d e p r i v e i n a l e g a l way t h e b i s h o p s o f t h e i r a n c i e n t r i g h t t o v o t e as P e e r s S p i r i t u a l o f t h e R e a l m . F o r a y e a r (November, 1640 t o November , 1 6 4 1 ) , t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t saw f o u r d i s t i n c t phases o f a c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l d r i v e w h i c h weakened e p i s c o p a l power i n s e c u l a r a f f a i r s b u t w h i c h d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e i r r i g h t t o s i t i n t h e L o r d s . The f i r s t phase o f t h i s d r i v e t o o k p l a c e be tween November and M a y , 1 6 4 0 - 1 6 4 1 . The many p e t i t i o n s e x p r e s s i n g n a t i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t w i t h t h e e p i s c o p a l o f f i c e were u s e d t o f o r m t h e l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t was needed t o e x p e l t h e b i s h o p s f r o m P a r l i a m e n t . The " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n was d e b a t e d i n t h e Commons on 8 and 9 F e b r u a r y , 1 6 4 1 . T h i s s o l u t i o n 76 t o t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n was t o o d r a s t i c an a c t i o n f o r many modera te e p i s c o p a l i a n s i n t h e Commons and a l m o s t d e s t r o y e d t h e r e s o l v e o f t h e w h o l e House t o p u n i s h t h e b i s h o p s f o r t h e i r many i n f r a c t i o n s o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l aws o f t h e r e a l m . A c c o r d i n g l y , a f t e r F e b r u a r y , 1 6 4 1 , t h e e p i s c o p a l o p p o s i t i o n a d o p t e d t h e a ims o f t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n , s i n c e i t o n l y c a l l e d f o r an e x p u l s i o n o f t h e B i s h o p s f rom t h e L o r d s , n o t f rom t h e C h u r c h . However , when t h e f i r s t B i s h o p ' s E x c l u s i o n B i l l r e a c h e d t h e L o r d s on 1 May, t h e momentum f o r an e a r l y s o l u t i o n t o e p i s c o p a l i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t e m p o r a l m a t t e r s came toi an a b r u p t h a l t , f o r t h e L o r d s , d e e p l y r e s e n t i n g t h e Commons' p r e s u m p t i o n t o s e t t l e m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e House o f P e e r s , t h r e w o u t t h e b i l l on 8 J u n e , i n i t i a t i n g t h e s e c o n d phase o f t h e c r i s i s . Even t h o u g h t h e Commons s e n t up t o t h e L o r d s n i n e r e a s o n s f o r j o i n i n g t h e Lower House i n e x p e l l i n g t h e B i s h o p s , t h e L o r d s s t i l l r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t so r e v o l u t i o n a r y an a c t i o n . As a r e s u l t , t h e Commons e x e r t e d g r e a t p r e s s u r e by i n t r o d u c i n g a " R o o t and B r a n c h " b i l l w h i c h w o u l d have a b o l i s h e d t h e e p i s c o p a l o f f i c e i n E n g l a n d . O r i g i n a l l y i n t r o d u c e d on 27 May , t h i s b i l l , e n t i t l e d " A n A c t f o r t h e u t t e r A b o l i s h i n g and T a k i n g away a l l A r c h b i s h o p s , B i s h o p s , t h e i r C h a n c e l l o r s and C o m m i s s a r i e s , " was supposed t o f r i g h t e n t h e L o r d s i n t o a c c e p t i n g t h e l e s s d r a s t i c E x c l u s i o n B i l l o f 1 May. I n s t e a d , i t s t i f f e n e d t h e r e s o l v e o f t h e L o r d s and t h e K i n g t o d e f e n d t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t o f t h e e p i s c o p a t e 77 t o v o t e i n t h e Upper House . K i n g C h a r l e s went so f a r as t o send f o r Edward Hyde , an M . P . n o t e d f o r h i s d e f e n s e o f a modera te e p i s c o p a t e , and t o u r g e h i m t o do a l l he c o u l d t o s t a l l t h e deba te i n t h e Commons on t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " 2 b i l l . As C h a i r m a n o f t h e Commit tee o f t h e W h o l e , Hyde was i n a p o s i t i o n t o do as t h e K i n g a s k e d , and he c o m p l i e d v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y . However , " R o o t and B r a n c h " p r e s s u r e d i d b e a r some f r u i t . I n an a t t e m p t t o p l a c a t e t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e Commons, who r e s e n t e d t h e L o r d s ' r e j e c t i o n o f t h e E x c l u s i o n B i l l , t h e P e e r s and K i n g r a i s e d no o b j e c t i o n s t o a b i l l e n t i t l e d " A n Act==for r e p e a l o f a b r a n c h o f a s t a t u t e p r i m o E l i z a b e t h c o n c e r n i n g c o m m i s s i o n e r s f o r c ause s e c c l e s i a s t i c a l , " w h i c h C h a r l e s s i g n e d on 5 J u l y . T h i s a c t a b o l i s h e d t h e C o u r t o f H i g h C o m m i s s i o n , and on t h e same d a y , t h e K i n g a l s o s i g n e d a n o t h e r b i l l w h i c h a b o l i s h e d t h e S t a r C h a m b e r . 3 As a r e s u l t , e p i s c o p a l i n f l u e n c e i n t e m p o r a l a f f a i r s was s e v e r e l y d i m i n i s h e d , b u t n o t d e s t r o y e d , as t h e y s t i l l s a t i n t h e L o r d s . T h r o u g h o u t J u l y , t h e Commons became i n c r e a s i n g l y annoyed a t t h e L o r d s ' s eeming i n d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e e p i s c o p a l p r o c e e d i n g s . The t h i r d c r i s i s came when , on 29 J u l y , t h e L o r d s t h r e w o u t a p e t i t i o n o f t h e Commons t h a t a l l i n t h e Upper House s h o u l d t a k e t h e Commons' P r o t e s t a t i o n o f 5 May, 1 6 4 1 , t o d e f e n d r e l i g i o n , t h e K i n g , and t h e r i g h t s o f P a r l i a m e n t . The Commons was f u r i o u s a t t h e snub f rom t h e L o r d s , and impeachment p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t t h i r t e e n b i s h o p s who had s i g n e d t h e "New Canons " were a c c e l e r a t e d so t h a t by 78 4 4 A u g u s t a l l t h i r t e e n were i m p e a c h e d . The Commons t h e r e b y hoped t o r e d u c e t h e e p i s c o p a l v o i c e i n t h e L o r d s . I n A u g u s t , 1 6 4 1 , K i n g C h a r l e s went t o S c o t l a n d , and P a r l i a m e n t a d j o u r n e d i n S e p t e m b e r , b u t t h e B i s h o p s ' E x c l u s i o n B i l l d i d n o t f a l l o u t o f s i g h t . When P a r l i a m e n t r e c o n v e n e d i n O c t o b e r , Pym t r i e d a more modera te t a c t i c a g a i n s t t h e B i s h o p s . On 21 O c t o b e r a new B i s h o p s ' E x c l u s i o n B i l l was i n t r o d u c e d ; i t p a s s e d t h e Commons i n two days and was s e n t up t o t h e L o r d s . 5 However , t h e q u e s t i o n r e a c h e d a p o i n t o f c r i s i s when t h e Commons l e a r n e d by 28 O c t o b e r t h a t t h e K i n g had no i n t e n t i o n o f c h a n g i n g t h e f o r m o f C h u r c h government as t h e n e s t a b l i s h e d . To emphas i ze h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n , he p r o c e e d e d t o f i l l f i v e v a c a n t s e e s . Such t a c t l e s s n e s s a t t h i s t i m e was i n c r e d i b l e , and t h e Commons c o u l d e x p e c t no h e l p t o b l o c k t h i s move f r o m t h e L o r d s . The s i t u a t i o n demanded d r a s t i c a c t i o n and t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l members o f t h e Commons r e l i e v e d t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n s by p l a n n i n g t h e Grand Remons t rance i n November . However , by N o v e m b e r ' s e n d , t h e b i s h o p s were s t i l l i n t h e House o f L o r d s . T h r o u g h o u t t h e e p i s c o p a l c r i s i s w h i c h over shadowed t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e L o n g P a r l i a m e n t , t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l l e a d e r s d i d a l l t h e y c o u l d t o e l i c i t p o p u l a r s u p p o r t f o r t h e i r d r i v e a g a i n s t t h e B i s h o p s . The London P e t i t i o n was g r a c i o u s l y r e c e i v e d , as were t h e p e t i t i o n s f rom t h e c o u n t i e s . Speeches damaging t h e u n l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y a p p e a r e d i n p r i n t e d f o r m , as d i d t h e sermons p r e a c h e d t o t h e House on 79 t h e s p e c i a l days d e s i g n a t e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r . A v a s t p ropaganda campaign t o p o r t r a y t h e b i s h o p s i n t h e w o r s t l i g h t p o s s i b l e was l a u n c h e d by t h e Commons. As R o b e r t B a i l l i e w r o t e : " A s h o r t p e t i t i o n i s formed by a l l t h e w e e l l a f f e c t e d c l e r g i e f o r t h e o v e r t h r o w o f E p i s c o p a c i e . . . a g a i n s t t h e B i s h o p s c o r r u p t i o n s i n d o c t r i n e , d i s c i p l i n e , l i f e , and a l l . " 7 N o r were t h e b i s h o p s ' f r i e n d s among t h e c l e r g y s p a r e d , f o r as B a i l l i e f u r t h e r w r o t e : "The E p i s c o p a l c l e r g i e a r e made v i l e i n t h e eyes o f a l l m a n i f o l d most s h a m e f u l p r a c t i c e s o f h a r l o t r i e , d r u n k e n e s s , and a l l p r o p h a n e n e s s . " ° B u t t h e u l t i m a t e c o m p l i m e n t p a i d t h e p e o p l e s t r i v i n g f o r a change i n C h u r c h government came f r o m I s a a c P e n n i n g t o n and N a t h a n i e l F i e n n e s . They d e f e n d e d t h e r i g h t o f t h e common man t o come t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t t o demand t h e l aws w h i c h were u n j u s t , s u c h as t h o s e s t a t u t e s q u p h o l d i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f e p i s c o p a c y , be c h a n g e d . Thus t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l members o f t h e Commons were t u r n i n g t h e i r d r i v e i n t o a p o p u l a r movement as w e l l , l i n k i n g t h e i r s u c c e s s w i t h t h e hopes o f t h e b e t t e r a f f e c t e d p e o p l e o f t h e n a t i o n . To a c h i e v e s u c c e s s , h o w e v e r , meant t h a t t h e House had t o be u n i t e d i n i t s r e s o l v e . On t h i s p o i n t a d i s t i n c t i o n must be made. Two k i n d s o f u n i t y were s o u g h t , t h e u n i t y o f t h e members o f t h e House o f Commons, and t h e e s s e n t i a l u n i t y o f b o t h H o u s e s . U n i t y among t h e members o f t h e Commons was i m p o r t a n t t o Pym, f o r , as he s a i d t o Edward H y d e , 80 t h e way t o b r i n g t h e c o u n t r y i n t o a s t a t e o f w e l l - b e i n g w o u l d be t o remove a l l g r i e v a n c e s and p u l l up " t h e cause s o f them by t h e r o o t s , i f a l l men w o u l d do t h e i r d u t i e s . " 1 ^ The theme o f u n i t y was s t r e s s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . B u r g e s s p r e a c h e d a b o u t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f t h e H o u s e ' s e n t e r i n g i n t o a c o v e n a n t w i t h God t o c o n t i n u e H i s work o f r e f o r m . O n 11 J u n e , 1 6 4 1 , S i r Henry V a n e , c o n s c i o u s o f t h e t e r r i b l e s p l i t . i n t h e House o v e r t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n , r e m i n d e d a l l h i s c o l l e a g u e s t h a t God had c a l l e d them t o g e t h e r f o r a v e r y s p e c i a l p u r p o s e and s a i d : " L e t us n o t t h e n h a l t any l o n g e r between two o p i n i o n s , b u t w i t h one h e a r t , and r e s o l u t i o n g i v e g l o r y t o God i n c o m p l y i n g w i t h H i s 12 P r o v i d e n c e . . . by p a s s i n g t h i s B i l l we a r e now u p o n . " However , t h e u n i t y o f b o t h Houses was much more i m p o r t a n t , s i n c e i t was a f o r m a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y . A c c o r d i n g - l y , Smectymnus u r g e d t h e L o r d s and Commons t o u n i t e and 13 purge t h e n a t i o n o f b i s h o p s . The many c o n f e r e n c e s Pym d e s i r e d , w e r e , i n f a c t , d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e a common r e s o l v e on t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n . T h i s was v e r y e v i d e n t i n h i s speech t o t h e L o r d s on 27 O c t o b e r , 1 6 4 1 , i n w h i c h he u r g e d t h e P e e r s t o j o i n t h e Commons i n t h e impeachment p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t t h i r t e e n b i s h o p s a c c u s e d on 4 A u g u s t , 1 6 4 1 , f o r 14 e n d e a v o u r i n g t o s u b v e r t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w o f t h e K i n g d o m . Thus t h e c a l l f o r harmony went o u t a l l t h r o u g h t h e y e a r u r g i n g b o t h k i n d s o f u n i t y . T h i s was u r g e d by p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s , p r e a c h e r s and p a m p h l e t e e r s , f o r w i t h o u t s o l i d a r i t y E n g l a n d w o u l d n e v e r be r i d o f e p i s c o p a c y . 81 A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t , t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l f o r c e s i n s i d e and o u t s i d e o f t h e House had p l a n n e d v e r y c a r e f u l l y f o r t h e s w i f t e x p u l s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s f rom t h e House o f L o r d s . C a p i t a l i z i n g on t h e s t r e n g t h o f p o p u l a r h a t r e d f o r e p i s c o p a c y , and t h e House o f Commons' r e s o l v e t o r e d r e s s t h e n a t i o n a l o u t r a g e a g a i n s t t h e h i g h h a n d e d L a u d i a n s y s t e m , t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l l e a d e r s d i d n o t see any g r e a t o b s t a c l e t o a s w i f t c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i r w o r k . A b a r r a g e o f speeches i n November p r e p a r e d t h e way f o r a t o t a l c o n d e m n a t i o n o f a l l t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e l a t e C o n v o c a t i o n . I n d e e d , t h e b i s h o p s and c l e r g y i n t h e new C o n v o c a t i o n d i d n o t h i n g b u t w o r r y a b o u t t h e consequences o f t h e l a s t C o n v o c a t i o n a n d , h a v i n g no w r i t f rom t h e K i n g , 15 s a t o n l y t i l l t h e end o f F e b r u a r y . Laud was a c c u s e d o f h i g h t r e a s o n i n December , and by F e b r u a r y , B i s h o p s M a n w a r i n g , P i e r c e , W r e n , M o n t a g u e , B r i d g e m e n and J u x o n had a l l been s i n g l e d o u t f o r t h e i r m i s d e m e a n o r s . T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t a l l t h i s a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l a c t i v i t y g r e a t l y d i s t u r b e d t h e B i s h o p s . Rous n o t e d i n h i s d i a r y on 17 November , 1640 , t h a t " t h e B i s h o p s go t o C o n v o c a t i o n g u a r d e d w i t h m u s k e t - m e n . " ± f i T h i n g s were so b l e a k t h a t B a i l l i e c l u c k e d t h a t t h e b i s h o p s c o u l d n o t e x p e c t any h e l p f rom any c o r n e r , n o t even among t h o s e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s o r t h o s e famous f o r l e a r n i n g , f o r " t h e r e i s g r e a t a p p e a r a n c e t h a t God w i l l do h i s own 17 work w i t h o u t t h e s e R a b b i e s h e l p . " B a i l l i e , who was p r i v y t o a l l t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l m a n o e u v r i n g b o t h i n s i d e and o u t s i d e P a r l i a m e n t , v o i c e d t h e common e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h e a n t i - 82 p r e l a t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p o f a f a i r l y s w i f t c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e e p i s c o p a l p r o b l e m . The t e m p o r a l L o r d s po sed a d i f f e r e n t p r o b l e m f o r t h e Commons. T h i s H o u s e , t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n sympathy w i t h t h e K i n g ' s b u s i n e s s , had a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f Roman C a t h o l i c s (20%) who w o u l d d e f i n i t e l y s u p p o r t t h e K i n g on a l l m a j o r i s s u e s , s i n c e h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s them was v e r y t o l e r a n t . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e o t h e r p e e r s w o u l d l i k e w i s e s u p p o r t t h e K i n g , b u t f o r d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s . However , t h e Commons had f a s t f r i e n d s i n t h e L o r d s whom B a i l l i e i d e n t i f i e d as " a l l commonwealth m e n " . These " f r i e n d s " i n c l u d e d R o b e r t D e v e r e u x , t h i r d E a r l o f E s s e x , W i l l i a m Seymour, e l e v e n t h E a r l o f H e r t f o r d , F r a n c i s R u s s e l l , f o u r t h E a r l o f B e d f o r d , J o h n D i g b y , f i r s t E a r l o f B r i s t o l , W i l l i a m F i e n n e s , f i r s t V i s c o u n t Saye and S e l e , Edward M o n t a g u e , L o r d K i m b o l t e n ( V i s c o u n t M a n d e v i l l e ) and Thomas S a v i l e , 1 8 f i r s t L o r d D a v i l e o f P o m f r e t . A l s o t o t h i s l i s t s h o u l d be added R o b e r t R i c h , s e c o n d E a r l o f Warwick and R o b e r t G r e v i l l e , L o r d B r o o k e . 1 9 As t h e y e a r wore o n , E s s e x , W a r w i c k , Saye and S e l e , and B r o o k e showed t h e m s e l v e s t o be a n t i - e p i s c o p a l and were i n sympathy and u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h Pym, i f n o t i n open c o l l a b o r a t i o n , on t h e i s s u e o f t h e 20 e x p u l s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s f r o m t h e House o f L o r d s . T h u s , w i t h p e e r s who were c o n s i d e r e d f r i e n d s o f t h e e p i s c o p a l o p p o s i t i o n (and t h e r e f o r e t h e " p o p u l a r l o r d s " ) f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d i n t h e Upper House and i n c o n s t a n t communion w i t h t h e l e a d e r s i n t h e Commons, i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d 21 be a b l e t o h e l p g r e a t l y i n t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l c a u s e . 83 The K i n g ' s s t a n d on t h i s i s s u e was e x p e c t e d t o be c o n s e r v a t i v e , b u t t h e Commons knew he was i n a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n w i t h a S c o t t i s h army on E n g l i s h s o i l . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e p i s c o p a l c r i s i s , speeches i n t h e Commons p r o t e s t e d l o u d l y and c l e a r l y t h e d e v o t i o n t h e members had f o r t h e p e r s o n , t h e e s t a t e , and t h e p r e r o g a t i v e o f h i s M a j e s t y . The l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e Commons had l i t t l e doubt t h a t t h e K i n g w o u l d s t r i v e t o do a l l i n h i s power t o u p h o l d t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t o f t h e b i s h o p s t o r e m a i n a c t i v e i n t h e t e m p o r a l a f f a i r s o f t h e S t a t e . However , i n t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l speeches g i v e n i n t h e e a r l y months o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t , t h e K i n g was e x o n e r a t e d f rom any o f t h e g u i l t s h a r e d by t h e b i s h o p s .22 i t was hoped t h a t t h e K i n g w o u l d j o i n w i t h t h e P a r l i a m e n t i n t h e n o b l e work o f r e f o r m a t i o n . T h u s , i n b r i e f , t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e Commons e x p e c t e d g r e a t p o p u l a r s u p p o r t i n t h e i r move t o d r i v e t h e b i s h o p s f r o m t h e P a r l i a m e n t . The u n i t y o f a g r e a t p a r t o f t h e Commons i t s e l f was t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d , g i v e n t h e u n i v e r s a l h a t r e d o f e p i s c o p a l e x c e s s e s . The w e l d i n g o f p o p u l a r and p a r l i a m e n t a r y f o r c e s was e x p e c t e d t o weaken t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e b i s h o p s . W i t h f r i e n d s i n t h e L o r d s , i t was hoped t h e y c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t h e r e s t o f t h e House t o j o i n w i t h t h e Commons on t h i s v e r y d e l i c a t e s u b j e c t . F i n a l l y , i t was hoped t h a t t h e K i n g w o u l d l i s t e n a t l o n g l a s t t o t h e a d v i c e o f h i s t r u e f r i e n d , t h e P a r l i a m e n t , and r e c o g n i z e t h e damage h i s f a l s e f r i e n d , t h e e p i s c o p a t e , had done h i m , and t h a t he w o u l d j o i n w i t h P a r l i a m e n t t o 84 remedy t h e s i t u a t i o n . A c t u a l l y , t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y a n t i - e p i s c o p a l l e a d e r s h i p e x p e r i e n c e d n o t h i n g b u t f r u s t r a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e y m a i n t a i n e d p o p u l a r s u p p o r t , t h e y f o u n d t h a t t h e p o p u l a c e , when i m p a t i e n t , c o u l d be a l i a b i l i t y . The u n i t y o f t h e House d i s i n t e g r a t e d i n F e b r u a r y , and a s p l i t o c c u r r e d , l e a v i n g t h e House d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e ma in f a c t i o n s : t h o s e who w i s h e d t o l e a v e t h e r e l i g i o u s q u e s t i o n as i t was ( i . e . , l e a v i n g t h e b i s h o p s i n t h e L o r d s ) , t h o s e s e e k i n g a modera te s e t t l e m e n t ( d e s t r o y i n g t h e b i s h o p s ' t e m p o r a l a u t h o r i t y b u t n o t t h e i r s p i r i t u a l ) , and t h o s e w o r k i n g f o r " R o o t and B r a n c h " . T h i s r u p t u r e was n e v e r h e a l e d . The b i s h o p s seemed t o r i s e f rom t h e dead i n t h e i r r e s i l i e n t a b i l i t y t o f i g h t b a c k . J o h n W i l l i a m s o f L i n c o l n and J o s e p h H a l l o f E x e t e r were t h e l e a d e r s i n t h e e p i s c o p a l o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e Commons' d e s i g n e d a g a i n s t t h e i r o r d e r . The L o r d s , i t t r a n s p i r e d , had t e n d e r s e n s i b i l i t i e s so f a r as t h e i r p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r i v i l e g e s were c o n c e r n e d , and t h e y r e s e n t e d t h e use o f b u l l y i n g t a c t i c s t o p e r s u a d e them t o j o i n t h e Commons on any i s s u e . F i n a l l y , m e r c u r i a l as he may have been on most i s s u e d , K i n g C h a r l e s was i n f l e x i b l e on one m a t t e r : he w o u l d n o t do a n y t h i n g t o remove t h e b i s h o p s f rom t h e House o f L o r d s . C o m f o r t i n g as p o p u l a r s u p p o r t f o r t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t e m p o r a l power o f t h e b i s h o p s was f o r a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p , i t was q u i t e e v i d e n t by mid-December t h a t p o p u l a r i m p a t i e n c e c o u l d u p s e t c a r e f u l l y l a i d p l a n s and 85 j e o p a r d i z e t h e e n t i r e movement. The j o y o u s t u m u l t s g r e e t i n g P r y n n e , B a s t w i c k , and B u r t o n on t h e i r r e t u r n f rom p r i s o n d i d much t o d r a m a t i z e t o b o t h Houses o f P a r l i a m e n t L o n d o n ' s h a t r e d o f t h e b i s h o p s . However , t h e p o p u l a r d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f o v e r a t h o u s a n d p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f W e s t m i n s t e r w h i c h accompanied t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e London P e t i t i o n on 11 December p r o v e d t o be v e r y e m b a r r a s s i n g . The p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n had u r g e d t h e P u r i t a n l e a d e r s o f t h e London c i t i z e n r y t o d e l a y t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n ' s d e l i v e r y " t i l l f i r s t t h e y had p u t t h e w h o l e B i s h o p s and t h e i r C o v o c a t i o n i n t o a p r a e m u n i r e , f o r t h e i r i l l e g a l Canons w h i c h t h e y a r e now a b o u t ; a l s o t i l l t h e y had b r o u g h t down some p r i m e B i s h o p s f o r p r i v a t e f a u l t s . " The r e a s o n was s i m p l e enough . A t t h a t t i m e t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e House were n o t r e a d y f o r so d r a s t i c a s o l u t i o n t o t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n , f o r , as C l a r e n d o n w r o t e ; " w i t h o u t d o u b t , t h e m a j o r p a r t o f t h a t body had no mind t o b r e a k t h e peace o f t h e k i n g d o m , o r t o make any c o n s i d e r a b l e a l t e r a t i o n i n t h e government o f C h u r c h o r S t a t e . " 2 4 B u t t h e P u r i t a n l e a d e r s o f t h e London c i t i z e n r y were i m p a t i e n t . L a u d and o t h e r o b n o x i o u s b i s h o p s were s t i l l u n p u n i s h e d . F e a r f u l t h a t t h e House w o u l d n e v e r p u n i s h t h e b i s h o p s a t t h e i r p r e s e n t r a t e o f d e l i b e r a - t i o n s , t h e y d i s r e g a r d e d t h e a d v i c e o f t h e i r f r i e n d s i n t h e Commons and d e l i v e r e d t h e p e t i t i o n anyway. The r e p e r c u s s i o n s o f t h i s h a s t y a c t were t o damage a d e l i c a t e l y f a s h i o n e d t i m e t a b l e and cause a s p l i t i n t h e u n i t y o f t h e H o u s e . 86 However, t h e major l e s s o n l e a r n e d was t h a t the London c i t i z e n r y c o u l d n o t be c o n t r o l l e d as e a s i l y as the House had t h o u g h t , as was t o become more "evident towards t h e end o f t h e c r i s i s . A n o t h e r embarrassment t o t h e Commons concerned t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y ' s s t a n d on t h e problem o f t h e l a n d s o f b i s h o p s , deans and c h a p t e r s . As p a r t o f t h e "Root and Branch" b i l l i n t r o d u c e d on 21 May, t h i s p r o v i s o t o a p p r o p r i a t e t h e s e l a n d s was n o t w e l l r e c e i v e d by the P u r i t a n c l e r g y . The U n i v e r s i t i e s had an i n k l i n g o f what was a f o o t i n e a r l y May when t h e House r e c e i v e d p e t i t i o n s from O x f o r d and Cambridge. The l a t t e r p e t i t i o n s t a t e d t h a t t h e s e l a n d s were g i v e n t h e Church by b o t h c l e r i c a l and l a y b e n e f a c t o r s f o r t h e purposes o f t h e "Advancement o f L e a r n i n g , t h e Encouragement o f S t u d e n t s , t h e P r e f e r m e n t o f l e a r n e d men." 2^ The O x f o r d P e t i t i o n c a l l e d " f o r t h e Co n t i n u a n c e o f t h o s e p i o u s F o u n d a t i o n s o f C a t h e d r a l Churches w i t h t h e i r l a n d s and revenues" f o r much the same reaso n s and gave, as w e l l as a p l e a f o r t h o s e m i n i s t e r s , s c h o o l s , h o s p i t a l s , highways, "and o t h e r p u b l i c and p i o u s works" which depended on t h e 2 7 revenues t h e s e l a n d s p r o v i d e d . That the U n i v e r s i t i e s s h o u l d be concerned about a major s o u r c e o f income was u n d e r s t a n d a b l e enough. What embarrassed t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l f a c t i o n even more was t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y ' s o p p o s i t i o n . John H a c k e t , then Archdeacon o f B e d f o r d and c h a p l a i n t o t h e B i s h o p o f L i n c o l n , r e p r e s e n t e d the p r o - e p i s c o p a l f a c t i o n on t h i s m a t t e r a t t h e b a r and 87 C o r n e l i u s Burgess the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l f a c t i o n . When they were summoned on 12 May to answer q u e s t i o n s concerning t h i s matter to the House, Hacket defended the p r i n c i p l e t h a t the lands i n q u e s t i o n belonged to the Church by law. To the s u r p r i s e of a l l , Burgess concluded w i t h the u t t e r unlawfulness to convert such endowments to any p r i v a t e person's p r o f i t . So t h a t the same d o c t r i n e was d e l i v e r e d by both the d o c t o r s , o n l y they d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n ; the former being f o r the c o n t i n u i n g such lands to t h e i r a n c i e n t - the l a t t e r f o r d i v e r t i n g them to other - but n e i t h e r f o r a l i e n a t i n g them from p u b l i c and pious employments. 2°* The b i l l was i n t r o d u c e d anyway, but not without some s o u l s e a r c h i n g . Clarendon noted t h a t the P u r i t a n c l e r g y were i n t e n t on overthrowing the e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e of e p i s c o p a l government but f e l t t h a t i t was not l a w f u l t o a l i e n those lands to any profane or l a y use: which being so c o n t r a r y t o t h e i r ends who p r i n c i p a l l y pursued the e x t i r p a t i o n , caused them f o r a time t o g i v e over t h a t v i o l e n t p r o s e c u t i o n , and s u f f e r the b i l l to s l e e p . 9 The unanimity t h a t Pym and h i s p a r t y f e l t so necessary i f the House were to e x p e l the bishops from the Lords d e t e r i o r a t e d r a t h e r q u i c k l y because of the "Root and Branch" i s s u e , f o r as B a i l l i e wrote the P r e s b y t e r s of I r v i n e : " t h e i r [the bishops'] u t t e r a b o l i t i o n . . . i s the k n o t t of the q u e s t i o n . " 3 0 There was a deep resentment among many members t h a t the London P e t i t i o n was d e l i v e r e d as i t had been; t h i s seemed to encroach upon the freedom of P a r l i a m e n t . The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n i n v o l v e d i n the bishops' e x p u l s i o n from the Lords was another c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Perhaps 88 t h e most s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n t o t h e w h o l e i s s u e o f " R o o t and B r a n c h " was t h e a n a r c h y s u c h a p o l i c y was s u r e t o b r i n g t o C h u r c h g o v e r n m e n t , by t h e P a r l i a m e n t ' s b e n d i n g t o t h e p o p u l a r w i l l . The manner o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e London P e t i t i o n f r i g h t e n e d some members o f t h e House c o n s i d e r a b l y . S i r N e v i l l e P o o l e f e a r e d t h a t some B r o w n i s t s had a l a r g e hand i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e P e t i t i o n , and even wor se t h a n t h a t , "hee was a l s o s c a n d a l i z e d t h a t s u c h a g r e a t number o f t h e 31 c i t t i e came i n t o W e s t m i n s t e r h a l l w i t h t h e same p e t i t i o n . " S i r Edward D e r i n g r e g i s t e r e d h i s d i s t a s t e o f t h e manner o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e London P e t i t i o n when he p r e s e n t e d t h e K e n t P e t i t i o n . On 13 J a n u a r y , 1 6 4 1 , he t o l d t h e House t h a t " y o u r P e t i t i o n e r s t h e m s e l v e s a r e a l l o f them q u i e t and s i l e n t i n t h e i r own house . . . h e r e i s no noyse - no numbers a t y o u r 3 ? d o o r . . . . B u t t h e most p o w e r f u l o b j e c t i o n came f rom G e o r g e , L o r d D i g b y , when he r e m i n d e d t h e House on 8 F e b r u a r y , 1 6 4 1 , t h a t t h e p r e s e n t C h u r c h Government had been e s t a b l i s h e d by P a r l i a m e n t , and es teemed i t " a n i r r e v e r e n c e and h i g h p r e s s u m p t i o n i n a n y , t o P e t i t i o n , p o i n t b l a n k a g a i n s t a l a w o r a government i n f o r c e . " 3 3 However , wor se t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e , t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e London p e t i t i o n by e n t h u s i a s t i c c i t i z e n s h a d - a l l t h e t r a p p i n g s o f a p o p u l a r r e v o l t . F o r , he s a i d , . i f P a r l i a m e n t were t o g i v e " c o u n t e n a n c e t o i r r e g u l a r and t u m u l t o u s A s s e m b l i e s o f p e o p l e , be i t n e v e r so good an e n d , " 89 the consequences f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s c o u l d be d r a s t i c , g i v e n such a p r e c e d e n t . 3 4 E a r l y i n t h e F e b r u a r y c r i s i s , S i r John C u l p e p p e r d i d n o t endear h i m s e l f t o t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n when he s t a t e d t h a t e p i s c o p a c y was n o t a m a t t e r t o be d e a l t w i t h l i g h t l y , s i n c e , c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y , e p i s c o p a c y was a p i l l a r o f t h e r e a l m . 3 5 But Hyde, a l a w y e r , and s t r o n g d e f e n d e r o f the b i s h o p s ' c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t t o s i t i n t h e House o f L o r d s summed up t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l p o s i t i o n when he s a i d I t was c h a n g i n g the whole frame and c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e Kingdom and o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t i s t e l f , t h a t from t h e time t h a t P a r l i a m e n t began, t h e r e have never been one P a r l i a m e n t when the B i s h o p s were no t p a r t o f i t . 3 ^ Hyde i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e b i s h o p s made up one o f t h e t h r e e e s t a t e s o f the Kingdom. Ha v i n g no one i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t t o r e p r e s e n t t h e c l e r g y would be an i n j u s t i c e , and would l e a v e t h e P a r l i a m e n t i n a p o s i t i o n t o l e g i s l a t e i n a r e a s w h i c h d i d not l i e i n i t s competence. The b i s h o p s would be i n a s t a t e whereby, b e i n g o u t o f the L o r d s , " t h e r e was nobody who c o u l d p r e t e n d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e c l e r g y , and y e t t h e y must be bound by t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n . " 3 7 D e r i n g had no i l l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the o p p o s i t i o n t o d r i v e t h e b i s h o p s o u t o f the L o r d s . He b i t t e r l y d e c l a r e d on 20 November, 1640, t h a t t h e House was g o i n g beyond th e bounds o f i t s competency i n t r y i n g t o e x p e l the b i s h o p s . B e l i e v i n g the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l d r i v e was b e i n g waged w i t h a c r u s a d i n g z e a l , he s a i d : 90 " M r . S p e a k e r , Wee c a n n o t b r a g o f an u n e r r i n g s p i r i t ; i n f a l l i b i l i t y i s no more t y e d t o y o u r C h a i r e t h a n i t i s t o t h e P o p e s . " 3 8 A n a r c h y i n C h u r c h Government , u l t i m a t e l y l e a d i n g t o a n a r c h y i n t h e e n t i r e n a t i o n , was t h e most d i s t u r b i n g a s p e c t o f t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l momentum i n 1 6 4 1 . S i r Edward D e r i n g v o i c e d h i s c o n c e r n when he m e n t i o n e d t h e i n c r e a s e o f t a i l o r s , s h o e m a k e r s , b r a z i l e r s , and f e l t m a k e r s a l l c l i m b i n g i n t o p u b l i c p u l p i t s , and t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f o d d , i r r e g u l a r f a s t s b e i n g h e l d f o r t h e p r i v a t e f l a t t e r i e s o f some and s l a n d e r s o f o t h e r members o f t h e H o u s e . He c o u l d see n o t h i n g b u t r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e e n t i r e m a t t e r s i n c e t h e b i s h o p s were a c c u s e d o f b e i n g p a r t o f " t h a t v i s i b l e C h u r c h o f a n t i - C h r i s t w h i c h d i d make t h e K i n g Head o f t h e C h u r c h . " 3 9 I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n a t t a c k a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s was e n c o u r a g i n g t h e b a s e r e l e m e n t s o f s o c i e t y t o outrar tgeous b o l d n e s s w h i c h had l e d t o a t t a c k s a g a i n s t t h e K i n g ' s p o s i t i o n as head o f t h e C h u r c h . W i l l i a m P l y d e l l f e a r e d t h a t i f t h e b i s h o p s were removed f r o m t h e i r o f f i c e s , b o t h t e m p o r a l and s p i r i t u a l , 40 t h e barque o f t h e C h u r c h w o u l d c r a s h a g a i n s t t h e r o c k s . B u t i t was S i r B e n j a m i n R u d y e r d who p a i n t e d t h e d a r k e s t p i c t u r e o f an e m a s c u l a t e d e p i s c o p a c y . I n a s p e e c h b e f o r e t h e Commons i n t h e h e i g h t o f t h e June c r i s i s , he s a i d t h a t i f t h e b i s h o p s were d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r t e m p o r a l o f f i c e s and l a n d s , d i o c e s e s w o u l d be a b o l i s h e d , and w i t h them c a t h e d r a l c h u r c h e s and c o l l e g e s f o r s c h o l a r s , i m p o v e r i s h i n g t h e c l e r g y 91 and opening the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of c r e a t i n g an unlearned and b a r b a r i c n a t i o n . ^ 1 As f a r as Clarendon was concerned, much of the concern f o r the s e q u e s t r a t i o n of e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r o p e r t y was sheer greed and not a z e a l f o r reform.^2 Lord Digby summarized the f e a r s of the p r o - e p i s c o p a l p a r t y when he spoke of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of anarchy. A d m i t t i n g t h a t t o be a n t i - e p i s c o p a l was to be pop u l a r , he s a i d : I beseech you, Gentlemen, l e t us not be l e d on by P a s s i o n to popular and v u l g a r t e r r o r s ; i t i s n a t u r a l . . . to the m u l t i t u d e t o f l y i n t o extremes, t h a t seems ever the bes t o f them, t h a t i s most o p p o s i t e t o the pr e s e n t o b j e c t o f t h i s h a t e . 4 3 The end r e s u l t c o u l d be a pope i n each p a r i s h and a group of assemblies t h a t might take i t upon themselves t o excommunicate kings and thereby overthrow them, b r i n g i n g the n a t i o n to a s t a t e of r u i n . 4 ^ The p r o - e p i s c o p a l f a c t i o n i n the House used i t s own t a c t i c s t o stop the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l d r i v e . In the f i r s t p l a c e , the p a r l i a m e n t a r y l e a d e r s h i p was taken o f f guard by the s t r e n g t h o f the p r o - e p i s c o p a l i a n members. T h i s was f i r s t demonstrated d u r i n g the February c r i s i s . The pa r l i a m e n t a r y l e a d e r s expected a s w i f t commitment of the London P e t i t i o n , o r i f t h a t f a i l e d , the M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n . However, B a i l l i e noted on t h e day o f the begin n i n g o f the debate on the i s s u e , 8 February, t h a t My Lord D i g b i e and V i s c o u n t F a u l k l a n d w i t h a prepared companie about them laboured by prepared speeches and h o t t d i s p u t e s , to have t h a t p e t i t i o n c a s t out of the House as c r a v i n g the r o o t i n g of E p i s c o p a c i e a g a i n s t so many e s t a b l i s h e d lawes. The other p a r t y was not prepared. . . . 4 5 92 I t d i d n o t t a k e t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n l o n g t o r a l l y and come back i n f u l l s t r e n g t h , b u t t h e arguments o f D i g b y and F a u l k l a n d caused a t e m p o r a r y s e t b a c k , f o r c i n g a c o m p r o m i s e . The " R o o t and B r a n c h " and t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e i t i t o n s w o u l d be p u t i n t o c o m m i t t e e f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . The e p i s c o p a l i s s u e i t s e l f w o u l d be l e f t f o r t h e w h o l e House t o d i s c u s s . A f t e r t h a t t i m e , i t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h e c h i e f s t r a t e g y o f t h e e p i s c o p a l i a n s was t o t r y d e l i b e r a t e l y t o s l o w down p r o c e e d i n g s by c o n f u s i n g i s s u e s . T h u s , i n J u n e , when Hyde was p u t i n t h e C h a i r , and t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " B i l l was b e f o r e t h e H o u s e , Hyde d i d h i s b e s t t o c o n f u s e t h i n g s by a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s as t h a t when he r e p o r t e d t o t h e House t h e work o f t h e d a y , he d i d f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t two o r t h r e e v o t e s d i r e c t l y c o n t r a r y t o e a c h o t h e r w h i c h , i n t h e h e a t o f t h e i r d e b a t e , t h e y had unawares r u n i n t o . And a f t e r t w e n t y days s p e n t i n t h a t manner t h e y f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s v e r y l i t t l e a d v a n c e d t o w a r d s a c o n c l u s i o n , and t h a t t h e y must r e v i e w a l l t h a t t h e y had d o n e , and t h e K i n g b e i n g r e s o l v e d t o b e g i n h i s j o u r n e y f o r S c o t l a n d , t h e y were f o r c e d t o d i s c o n t i n u e t h e i r b e l o v e d b i l l and l e t i t r e s t ; S i r A r t h u r H a s e l r i g g e d e c l a r i n g i n t h e House t h a t 'he w o u l d n e v e r h e r e a f t e r p u t an enemy i n t o t h e c h a i r ' n o r had t h e y t h e courage t o resume t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e b i l l u n t i l l a f t e r t h e war was e n t e r e d i n t o . 4 ^ D e l a y i n g t a c t i c s c o n t i n u e d i n t o t h e c r i s i s i n O c t o b e r . A t t h e t i m e t h e s e c o n d E x c l u s i o n B i l l was p r e p a r e d , F a l k l a n d and Hyde t r i e d t o p r o v e t o t h e Commons t h a t t h e b i l l w o u l d n e v e r pa s s t h e L o r d s . When Pym a t t e m p t e d t o g e t t h e L o r d s t o j o i n h i m i n an a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e new b i s h o p s , S i r J o h n Hotham t r i e d t o r e t a r d . t h e p r o c e e d i n g s by r e m i n d i n g t h e House t h a t t h e y t h e m s e l v e s m i g h t be g u i l t y o f a p r a e m u n i r e i n e n d e a v o u r i n g t o impede t h e c r e a t i o n o f any b i s h o p s a f t e r t h e K i n g had s e n t t h e Conge de l i e r . Y e t f o r , a l l t h e i r a c t i v i t y , t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l i a n members o f t h e Commons r e m a i n e d a m i n o r i t y g roup who l a c k e d t h e p o l i t i c a l s k i l l s needed t o d e s t r o y t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l momentum. Through t h e i r e f f o r t s , t h e House was n o t u n i t e d on t h i s p r o j e c t , b u t t h e y p r o v e d t o be an i r r i t a n t r a t h e r t h a n an o b s t a c l e . Where t h e f o r t u n e s o f t h e b i s h o p s l o o k e d d e s p e r a t e i n December , 1640 , e p i s c o p a l hopes s u d d e n l y came t o l i f e i n F e b r u a r y , because o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f two o f t h e e p i s c o p a t e , J o h n W i l l i a m s o f L i n c o l n and J o s e p h H a l l o f E x e t e r . W i l l i a m s was i n a s t r a n g e p o s i t i o n . H a v i n g been a m o r t a l enemy o f L a u d , he became a h e r o t o t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l f a c t i o n . They s e c u r e d h i s r e l e a s e f rom p r i s o n i n November , 1640 , h o p i n g t h a t he w o u l d be an a s s e t t o t h e i r d e s i g n s . B u t W i l l i a m s had d e s i g n s o f h i s own. C l a r e n d o n , who d e t e s t e d h i m , w r o t e t h a t t h e b i s h o p had a s s u r e d t h e K i n g t h a t he w o u l d do g r e a t t h i n g s f o r h i s s e r v i c e i n t h e House i f r e l e a s e d f rom p r i s o n . 4 8 T h e r e i s no doubt t h a t g r e a t t h i n g s were e x p e c t e d f r o m h i m , f o r , as O l i v e r S t . J o h n r e m a r k e d , he was a most e s teemed p r e l a t e f o r h i s p a t i e n t s u f f e r i n g s i n p r i s o n , as w e l l as f o r h i s e n d e a v o u r s t o check t h e abuses o f 49 h i s f e l l o w b i s h o p s . When i n P a r l i a m e n t , he a g r e e d w i t h many who c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e e x c e s s e s o f t h e b i s h o p s and even l i s t e n e d t o t h e i d e a o f a r e g u l a t e d e p i s c o p a c y , b u t , i n a l l t r u t h , i f e v e r t h e r e were a p r e l a t e who was a l o r d i n h e a r t and s o u l , i t was t h e B i s h o p o f L i n c o l n . S i m p l y p u t , he knew how t o s t a y a l i v e , and he c a r e d l e s s f o r t h e f a t e o f t h e p e r s o n s o f h i s b r o t h e r b i s h o p s t h a n he d i d f o r h i m s e l f and t h e h o n o u r due t o h i s o f f i c e . A c c o r d i n g l y , he d i d t h i n g s w h i c h he knew w o u l d p l e a s e t h e o p p o s i t i o n . He b u l l i e d t h e o t h e r b i s h o p s , e g g i n g them on t o a b s t a i n f rom S t r a f f o r d ' s b u s i n e s s , " t e r r i f y i n g them w i t h t h e c e n s u r e t h a t hung o v e r t h e i r heads f o r m a k i n g t h e "New C a n o n s " t i l l he p e r s u a d e d them t o i n g r a t i a t e t h e m s e l v e s by d e s i r i n g t o be e x c u s e d i n j t h a t m a t t e r , b e f o r e an o r d e r s h o u l d be made f o r t h e i r a b s e n c e . " 5 ^ I n h i s a t t e m p t t o b l u n t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g t h e d r a f t i n g o f t h e f i r s t B i s h o p s ' E x c l u s i o n B i l l , h o w e v e r , h i s t r u e c o l o u r s came t o l i g h t , f o r as B a i l l i e n o t e d , The B i s h o p s , t o save t h e l i f e o f t h e i r . o f f i c e , have i n v e n t e d a t r i c k w h i c h we t r u s t s h a l l i r r i t a t e t h e l o w e r House t h e more a g a i n s t t h e m : t h e y have moved t h e H i g h House t o a p p o i n t a c o m m i t t e e f o r r e l i g i o n , t o c o n s i d e r b o t h o f i n n o v a t i o n s , and what o f t h e o l d i s meet t o be r e f o r m e d , c o n s i s t i n g o f e i g h t o f t e n E a r l e s , as many L o r d s , and as many B i s h o p s , w i t h power t o t h e B i s h o p s o f L i n c o l n e , who s h a l l s i t t i n t h e c h y r e o f t h a t c o m m i t t e e , t o summond . . . some o f t h e s e who a r e r e p u t e d t h e most a b l e and o r t h o d o x d i v i n e s o f t h e l a n d , t o w i t t , t h e P r i m a t e o f Armagh , P r i d e a u x , W a r d , P r o m m e r i c k [ B r o w n r i g g e ? ] H o l s w o o r t h , F e a t l y , H a c k e t , and W e s t f i e l d ; and o f t h e R e m o n s t r a n t s , T u i s s e , B u r g e s s e , Young . . . W h y t , M a r s h a l l and H i l l , t o be p r e s e n t . a n d g i v e t h e i r a d v i c e . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h i s w i l l be a s p u r r t o t h e Commons, n o t by t h e i r accus tomed s l o w n e s s t o s u f f e r t h e i r c o m m i t t e e s t o be p r e v e n t e d , and so f r u s t r a t e , by t h i s new d e v i s e d o n e . 5 1 W i l l i a m s w o u l d n o t d i s c u s s t h e r e g u l a t i n g o f Churgh government s i n c e he s a i d he was p r e p a r i n g a d r a f t h i m s e l f . B u t t h i s a t t e m p t t o a v e r t a c r i s i s o n l y deepened i t . The p r o c e e d i n g s w h i c h had begun on 21 M a r c h , 1 6 4 1 , d r a g g e d on f o r two m o n t h s . The p r e l a t i c a l p a r t y p r o v e d t o be t h e most u n b e n d i n g . H a v i n g been p r e j u d i c e d a g a i n s t t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n s f rom t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h e y f e a r e d t h a t one c o n c e s s i o n w o u l d d e s t r o y t h e e n t i r e 52 e p i s c o p a l p o s i t i o n . F i n a l l y , on 2 J u l y , W i l l i a m s d e l i v e r e d h i s own s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m : e v e r y b i s h o p s h o u l d p r e a c h once on Sunday ; no b i s h o p s h o u l d be j u s t i c e o f t h e peace e x c e p t h i m s e l f as Dean o f W e s t m i n s t e r ; e v e r y b i s h o p s s h o u l d have t w e l v e a s s i s t a n t s as w e l l as t h e dean and c h a p t e r , f o u r t o be c h o s e n by t h e K i n g , f o u r by t h e L o r d s , f o u r by t h e Commons, f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n and o r d i n a t i o n ; f i n a l l y t h e s e t w e l v e s h o u l d p r e s e n t a l i s t o f names t o t h e K i n g when a v a c a n c y o c c u r r e d because o f t h e b i s h o p ' s d e a t h . I t was a p o o r com- p r o m i s e a t b e s t , f o r " t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p a r t y c o n c e i v e d i t n e e d l e s s t o shave t h e i r b e a r d s whose heads t h e y i n t e n d e d t o 53 c u t o f f , d e s i g n i n g an u t t e r e x t i r p a t i o n o f B i s h o p s . " I t was a t t h i s t i m e t h a t h i s i n f l u e n c e c e a s e d t o e x i s t . The i m p o r t a n c e o f h i s t a c t i c s , h o w e v e r , l a y i n t h e f a c t t h a t he d i d have an a l t e r n a t i v e f o r a l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y . H i s s u g g e s t i o n a v o i d e d t h e i s s u e o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s i n t h e House o f L o r d s . A t f i r s t , a l t h o u g h a b i s h o p , he was r e s p e c t e d and l i s t e n e d t o by t h e P u r i t a n s because o f h i s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e L a u d i a n R e f o r m . However , he w o u l d n o t s u r r e n d e r h i s d i g n i t i e s , and i n s t e a d o f d o n n i n g t h e armour o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n , he f o u g h t w i t h t h e l o r d l y p r e l a t e s a f t e r a l l . J o s e p h H a l l ' s g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e e p i s c o p a l cause was h i s p e n . D e s p i t e t h e a t t a c k made upon h i m b o t h i n p r i n t and on t h e f l o o r o f t h e Commons, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t he had some f o l l o w i n g . However , o f a l l t h e b i s h o p s , he was t h e most o u t s p o k e n i n t h e L o r d s , and was i n no s m a l l 96) way r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e Upper H o u s e ' s a c t i o n o f 1 May, 1641 . The f i r s t B i s h o p s ' E x c l u s i o n A c t " s t r i k e s a t t h e v e r y C o m p o s i t i o n o f t h i s H o u s e , a t t h e S t y l e o f a l l o u r L a w s . . . I b e s e e c h y o u r L o r d s h i p s t o c o n s i d e r t h a t t h i s Honour i s n o t done us [ s i t t i n g i n P a r l i a m e n t ] b u t o u r p r o f e s s i o n . " 5 ^ As t h e L o r d s were t h e e l d e s t sons o f t h e C h u r c h , t h e y had a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o d e f e n d i t , f o r i f , a t t h a t moment, t h e y d i d n o t " t h e M i s e r y w i l l be t h e C h u r c h ' s ; t h e D i s h o n o u r 55 and B l u r o f t h e A c t , i n f u t u r e A g e s , w i l l be y o u r s . " I n d e e d , W i l l i a m t o o spoke about t h e i l l e g a l i t y o f t h e b i l l b u t i t was H a l l who, l i k e o t h e r p r o - e p i s c o p a l i a n s who p r o j e c t e d i n t o t h e f u t u r e , f e a r e d a n a r c h y b o t h i n t h e C h u r c h and u l t i m a t e l y i n t h e n a t i o n . 5 ^ The m a j o r d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e House o f L o r d s was i t s deep r e s e n t m e n t o f t h e Commons' i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h what i t c o n s i d e r e d i t s own b u s i n e s s . Pym and h i s p a r t y made t h e most o f t h e u n i t y i s s u e , and a l l t h r o u g h t h e c r i s i s o f May , t h e y r e p e a t e d l y t o l d t h e L o r d s "how much t h e House o f Commons w h i c h knew b e s t t h e temper and e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n w o u l d r e s e n t t h e i r n o t c o n c u r r i n g w i t h them i n a 57 remedy t h e y j u d g e d so n e c e s s a r y . " A s p l i t i n t h e u n i t y o f t h e two H o u s e s , t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p a g r e e d , w o u l d o b s t r u c t t h e t h o r o u g h r e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n . B u t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e L o r d s i n v e i g h e d w i t h g r e a t s h a r p n e s s , and b lamed t h e House o f Commons f o r p r e s u m i n g t o meddle w i t h an a f f a i r t h a t so i m m e d i a t e l y c o n c e r n e d t h e m : t h a t i f t h e y m i g h t send up a b i l l t h i s day a t once t o t a k e o u t one w h o l e bench f rom t h e H o u s e , as t h i s w o u l d do t h e B i s h o p s , t h e y m i g h t tomorrow send a n o t h e r t o t a k e away ,97; t h e b a r o n s , o r some o t h e r degree o f t h e n o b i l i t y . 5 8 A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e L o r d s t r i e d t o d e l a y a c t i o n on t h e b i s h o p s ' a f f a i r s , a d d i n g t o t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f t h e Commons. M a t t e r s w i t h t h e K i n g were i m p o s s i b l e . C h a r l e s t o o k h i s C o r o n a t i o n Oath t o d e f e n d t h e C h u r c h s e r i o u s l y , as W i l l i a m s r e m i n d e d t h e L o r d s , and t h a t was one r e a s o n f o r h i s o b s t i n a c y . * More t o t h e p o i n t , he f e a r e d t h e l o s s o f so many l o y a l v o t e s w h i c h he needed i n h i s p rogram t o d e f e n d h i s c o n c e p t o f a b s o l u t e r u l e . Thus he was w i l l i n g t o t a k e away t h e power o f t h e b i s h o p s i n t h e S t a r Chamber and H i g h Commis s ions C o u r t , b u t he r e f u s e d t o do any more . The b r e a k i n g p o i n t between t h e K i n g and t h e Commons on t h i s m a t t e r came i n O c t o b e r w i t h C h a r l e s ' r e s o l u t i o n c o n - c e r n i n g t h e government o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d . H i s f e e l i n g was t h a t i f t w e n t y - s i x b i s h o p s were t o be swept away by t h e p r e s e n t P a r l i a m e n t , t h e n e x t t r i e n n i a l P a r l i a m e n t w o u l d " s t r i v e t o sweep away f o u r - s c o r e T e m p o r a l l L o r d s . " 6 0 L o r d C a r r e p o r t e d t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f S c o t l a n d t h a t t h e K i n g w o u l d n o t r e f o r m t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d on t h e l i n e s o f t h e C h u r c h o f S c o t l a n d , f o r he knew f o r c e r t a i n f a c t t h a t C h a r l e s w o u l d keep t h e d i s c i p l i n e and d o c t r i n e e s t a b l i s h e d by Queen E l i z a b e t h and h i s f a t h e r : "Nay m o r e , H i s M a j e s t y i s r e s o l v e d by t h e Grace o f God t o dye i n t h e m a i n t a i n a n c e o f t h e s a m e . " 6 1 G i v e n t h e s e many f r u s t r a t i o n s , t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p l o s t no t i m e i n r e m e d y i n g them. P o p u l a r s u p p o r t was n e c e s s a r y , e s p e c i a l l y t h e s u p p o r t o f L o n d o n . When t h e 9 8 London P e t i t i o n was p r e m a t u r e l y d e l i v e r e d , i t was none t h e l e s s g r a c i o u s l y r e c e i v e d . To keep up t h e f e r v o u r o f t h e p o p u l a c e , t h e P u r i t a n m i n i s t e r s c o n s t a n t l y p r e a c h e d a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s , and t h e e x c e s s e s o f t h e p r e l a t e s i n t h e a f f a i r s o f P r y n n e , B a s t w i c k and B u r t o n were l o u d l y b r o a d - c a s t t o f u r t h e r m a l i g n t h e e p i s c o p a t e . 6 2 When F a l k l a n d and D i g b y and o t h e r p r o - e p i s c o p a l members o f t h e Commons c a u g h t t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l l e a d e r s o f f g u a r d on 8 F e b r u a r y , 1 6 4 1 , B a i l l i e w r o t e t o t h e P r e s b y t e r y o f I r v i n e t h a t " a l l n i g h t o u r p a r t y s o l i c i t e d as b e s t t h e y c o u l d . T o d a y , some t h o u s a n d s o f t h e c i t i z e n s , b u t i n a v e r y p e a c e a b l y way , went down t o W e s t m i n s t e r H a l l t o c o u n t e n a n c e t h e i r p e t i t i o n . " 6 3 P e n n i n g t o n d i d h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s f u l l j u s t i c e . D i g b y ' s d o u b t s about t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e London P e t i t i o n and i t s manner o f p r e s e n t a t i o n had become t h e p i v o t upon w h i c h t h e e p i s c o p a l i a n r e a c t i o n was s w i n g i n g . P e n n i n g t o n c o u n t e r e d by c o n g r a t u l a t i n g t h e L o n d o n e r s and i d e n t i f y i n g h i s own aims w i t h t h e h u m b l e s t o f them. He p r o f e s s e d t h a t men o f w o r t h had d e l i v e r e d t h e p e t i t i o n , q u i e t l y and r e s p e c t f u l l y . As t h e l a r g e c rowd s t o o d o u t s i d e as i f t o g i v e added f o r c e t o h i s w o r d s , P e n n i n g t o n d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e p e t i t i o n was n o t t o be r e j e c t e d s i m p l y because p o o r , h a r d - w o r k i n g men had promoted i t . F o r " i f t h e r e were mean mens hands t o i t , y e t i f t h e r e were h o n e s t men, t h e r e was no r e a s o n b u t t h e s e hands s h o u l d be r e c e i v e d . " 6 4 He h i m s e l f had d e l i v e r e d t h e p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e p e o p l e , and had t h e y r e a l l y t r i e d , t h e y c o u l d have s o l i c i t e d f i f t e e n t i m e s f i f t e e n t h o u s a n d s i g n a t u r e s . I n a c t u a l f a c t , 91? P e n n i n g t o n was t e l l i n g t h e House t h a t i f t h e p e t i t i o n were t h r o w n o u t , he t o o w o u l d have t o be t h r o w n o u t i n t o t h e arms o f t h e t h o u s a n d s w a i t i n g f o r h i m i n t h e y a r d . I n e f f e c t , t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y cause was wedded t o t h e p o p u l a r c a u s e . The P u r i t a n d i v i n e s i n t h e c i t y w o r k e d hand i n g l o v e w i t h t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n o p p o s i t i o n a l l t h r o u g h F e b r u a r y , p r e p a r i n g p a m p h l e t s t o r e f u t e t h e arguments o f B i s h o p H a l l , and t h e arguments o f t h e members o f t h e H o u s e , s u c h as F a l k l a n d and R u d y e r d , whose speeches i n f a v o u r o f l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y had been p u b l i s h e d . B e s i d e s r e v i v i n g h i s own work on t h e d a n g e r s o f a l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y , B a i l l i e w r o t e t o I r v i n e on 2 8 F e b r u a r y , 1 6 4 1 : T h i n k n o t we l i v e any o f us h e r e t o be i d l e ; M r . H e n d e r s o n has r e a d i e now a s h o r t t r e a t i s e much c a l l e d f o r on o u r C h u r c h d i s c i p l i n e ; M r . G i l l e s p i e has t h e g rounds o f P r e s b y t e r i a l l government w e l l a s s e r t e d ; M r . B l a i r , a p e r t i n e n t answer t o H a l l ' s R e m o n s t r a n c e : a l l t h e s e a r e r e a d i e f o r t h e p r e s s e . The e f f o r t s o f t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l p a r t y t o save e p i s c o p a c y t u r n e d i n t o a f i a s c o . The m a i n r e a s o n i t s e f f o r t s f a i l e d was because i t l a c k e d a p o p u l a r base upon w h i c h t o b u i l d . The c o n t r o v e r s y was d e l i b e r a t e l y c h a n n e l e d i n t o t h e s t r e a m o f t h e p u b l i c g o o d , n o t i n t o one o f p r e c e d e n t and l a w . F i e n n e s had s a i d t h a t p e o p l e s h o u l d be h e a r d i f l aws u p h o l d i n g ' men o f t h e t y p e f o u n d on t h e p r e s e n t e p i s c o p a l bench were t o be h o n o u r e d . Such laws s h o u l d be c h a n g e d . The e p i s c o p a l i a n f a c t i o n ' s f a i l u r e t o r a l l y p u b l i c s u p p o r t w o u l d s u g g e s t i t l a c k e d t h e dynamic s o f a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . 10)0) The e p i s c o p a l i a n s d i d n o t have t h e m a c h i n e r y n e c e s s a r y t o s u s t a i n a p u b l i c p o l i c y ; t h e i r p o l i c y was p r i v a t e , w h i c h was a n y t h i n g b u t t h e case w i t h t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l f a c t i o n . H a l l ' s book and t h e moderate e p i s c o p a l speeches were t a k e n s e r i o u s l y e n o u g h , b u t t h e y won f e w , i f a n y , c o n v e r t s t o t h e b i s h o p s ' s i d e . P r o o f o f t h i s i s g i v e n by t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l i a n s i n London t o p r e s e n t a p e t i t i o n i n f a v o u r o f e p i s c o p a c y . A p e t i t i o n was c i r c u l a t e d l a t e r i n J a n u a r y , 1 6 4 1 , b u t i t was l a t e r abandoned s i n c e no one fi fi w o u l d s i g n i t . C o n t i n u a l p r e s s u r e was e x e r t e d on t h e p e o p l e by way o f s e rmons . T h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s was e v i d e n t i n t h e May r i o t s , as a t t e s t e d by W h i t l o c k who i m p u t e d t h e 6 7 t u m u l t s t o t h e p u l p i t s . F o r t h e p r e s e n t , a t l e a s t , t h e p o p u l a c e was c o n t r o l l a b l e and h e l p f u l t o t h e o p p o s i t i o n i n t h e i r e f f o r t s a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s . N a t i o n a l s u p p o r t was e n c o u r a g e d by way o f t h e p e t i t i o n s . T h a t so many were d e l i v e r e d t o t h e House on one d a y , s u c h as t h e e l e v e n r e c e i v e d on 25 J a n u a r y , 1 6 4 1 , d e f i n i t e l y shows t h a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n were c o n t r o l l i n g p o p u l a r e x p r e s s i o n t o make i t seem as s i g n i f i c a n t as p o s s i b l e . B a i l l i e c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h i s was so w h e n , w r i t i n g about t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n and R e m o n s t r a n c e , he o b s e r v e d : . . . i t i s now p o s t i n g t h r o u g h t h e l a n d f o r hands t o make i t s t a r k ; a g a i n s t i t can come back i t w i l l be a f o u r t n i g h t , a t w h i c h tyme a l a r g e R e m o n s t r a n c e , by some dozen o f hands c h o s e n o u t o f t h e w h o l e number , w i l l be r e a d i e , a g a i n s t t h e B i s h o p s c o r r u p t i o n s i n d o c t r i n e , d i s c i p l i n e , l i f e , and a l l . 10$ The absence o f any s i m i l a r a c t i v i t y on s u c h a g r a n d n a t i o n a l s c a l e shows t h a t t h e e p i s c o p a l i a n s l a c k e d t h e b a s i s o f a p o l i t i c a l a p p a r a t u s n e c e s s a r y t o e l i c i t p u b l i c s u p p o r t f o r t h e i r p o s i t i o n . I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n , t h i s l a c k p r o v e d t o be a m o r t a l l i a b i l i t y t o t h e e p i s c o p a l c a u s e . The p i v o t a l a n t i - e p i s c o p a l weapon i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t was t h e t h r e a t o f a " R o o t and B r a n c h " s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r e l a t i c a l p r o b l e m . The M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n and Remonst rance can be c o n s i d e r e d an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e London P e t i t i o n . These two p e t i t i o n s were o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e t o Pym' s p r o g r a m . The a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l d r i v e now c o u l d n o t be a t t r i b u t e d s o l e l y t o t h e h a t r e d t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l l e a d e r s i n t h e House had f o r t h e b i s h o p s . The p e t i t i o n s were p r e p a r e d by w e l l - k n o w n and r e s p e c t e d d i v i n e s and had p o p u l a r s u p p o r t . I t was t h e p e o p l e and t h e i r g o d l y s e r v a n t s , t h e w e l l a f f e c t e d c l e r g y , who w a n t e d t h e power o f t h e b i s h o p s d e s t r o y - e d . B e f o r e t h e s e p e t i t i o n s were r e c e i v e d , t h e r e was no s u b s t a n t i a l t a l k o f d e b a r r i n g t h e b i s h o p s f rom t h e L o r d s . Now, one p e t i t i o n c a l l e d f o r t o t a l e x t i r p a t i o n , t h e o t h e r f o r a m o d i f i e d e p i s c o p a c y . T h e r e i s a b s o l u t e l y no d o u b t b u t t h a t t h e London P u r i t a n c l e r g y wanted n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n a p rogram o f e x t i r p a t i o n . However , when t h e y saw t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n was e n c o u n t e r i n g , a m i l d e r s o l u t i o n was o f f e r e d w h i c h p l e a s e d Pym' s p a r t y . I t s more i m m e d i a t e g o a l was e x p u l s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s f rom t h e L o r d s r a t h e r t h a n e x t i r p a t i o n f rom t h e C h u r c h . B a i l l i e , who was v e r y c l o s e t o t h e d i v i n e s 1022. b e h i n d t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n , r e c o r d s t h a t t h e y had a day o f " p r i v a t e h u m i l i a t i o n . . . f o r r o o t i n g o u t e p i s c o p a c y . " Because o f t h e b l u n d e r c o m m i t t e d o v e r t h e London P e t i t i o n , t h e M i n i s t e r s hoped t h a t no h a s t y a c t i o n w o u l d be t a k e n on t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t o n " f o r t h e y f e a r t h e i r f r i e n d s i n t h e house n o t s t r o n g enough t o p u l l up t h a t o l d o a k . " , y j The M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n and Remonst rance was n o t a p r i v a t e m a t t e r i n t h e eyes o f t h e London c l e r g y . The p e o p l e o f London knew i t s c o n t e n t s , f o r as B a i l l i e w r o t e t o I r v i n e " t h e Remonst rance i s a p p o i n t e d t o be r e a d on Monday, a day o f f a s t i n g i n p r i v a t e , a l l o v e r t h e C i t i e and many more p l a c e s , f o r t h a t day i s a p p o i n t e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e 71 h a r d q u e s t i o n o f E p i s c o p a c i e . The p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s were p l e a s e d w i t h t h e two p e t i t i o n s because t h e y s e r v e d t h e i r p u r p o s e s so w e l l . The "Root- and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n s e r v e d c a s a b a r o m e t e r . I t q u i c k l y and e f f e c t i v e l y p o l a r i z e d t h e H o u s e ' s s e n t i m e n t s on t h e m a t t e r o f e p i s c o p a c y . A t f i r s t d i s t r e s s e d a t t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e e p i s c o p a l f e e l i n g , t h e y q u i c k l y a d o p t e d t a c t i c s t o meet t h e s i t u a t i o n . I n F e b r u a r y a compromise s o l u t i o n was made, b u t when t h e L o r d s r e f u s e d t o c o u n t e n a n c e t h e f i r s t B i s h o p s ' E x c l u s i o n A c t , C l a r e n d o n n o t i c e d t h a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n had a l r e a d y a remedy p r e p a r e d : t h e y i n t r o d u c e d a " R o o t and B r a n c h " b i l l t o k i n d l e t h o s e f i r e s w h i c h m i g h t warm t h e P e e r s . . . t h a t t h e b i s h o p s m i g h t see how l i t t l e t h e y had g o t t e n by o b s t r u c t i n g t h e o t h e r b i l l . " 7 2 The s t r a t e g y was s i m p l e enough ; i t was a d e l i b e r a t e a c t t o f r i g h t e n t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l 103 i n t o s e t t l i n g f o r t h e m i l d e r o f t h e s o l u t i o n s . B u t t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p a r l i a m e n t a r y l e a d e r s had t h e i r own way o f d e a l i n g w i t h r e c a l c i t r a n t c o l l e a g u e s . They s i m p l y i n t i m i d a t e d them. Those who v o t e d a g a i n s t t h e a t t a i n d e r o f t h e E a r l ; f o f S t r a f f o r d found t h e i r names p r i n t e d on a p o s t e r , headed by t h e i n s c r i p t i o n "These a r e t h e S t r a f f o r d i a n s , B e t r a y e r s o f t h e i r C o u n t r y . " 7 3 The same method was p l a n n e d t o expose a l l t h o s e members who w o u l d n o t t a k e t h e P r o t e s t a t i o n . But l i f e was n o t p l e a s a n t f o r men such as S i r Edward D e r i n g who changed h i s p o s i t i o n f rom t h a t o f an a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l member t o a d e f e n d e r o f a l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y . D e r i n g e n j o y e d b e i n g i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h i n g s u n t i l , t o h i s h o r r o r , he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t he was b e i n g u sed by t h e o p p o s i t i o n l e a d e r s h i p . Where once p e o p l e w o u l d say as he p a s s e d them by " T h e r e goes S i r Edward D e r i n g ^ " " T h a t i s S i r Edward D e r i n g , " and "God b l e s s y o u r w o r s h i p , " t h e p o p u l a c e c r e v i l e d h i m when he d e c i d e d t h a t t h e p o p u l a r cause was a g a i n s t h i s c o n s c i e n c e . 7 ^ When he d e l i v e r e d a p r o - e p i s c o p a l speech on 21 J u n e , h i s w o r l d seemed t o c o l l a p s e . L o r d B r o o k e c a l l e d h i m an a p o s t a t e . Thomas Coke d e c l a r e d t h a t he had l o s t h i s f o r m e r honour and t h a t h i s c o n s c i e n c e was n o t as good as i t had been i n t h e b e g i n n i n g . N a t h a n i e l F i e n n e s a c c u s e d h i m o f g o i n g o v e r t o t h e i r a d v e r s a r i e s . S i r A r t h u r H a s e l r i g g e t o l d h i m t h a t t h e P r i m a t e o f I r e l a n d had i n f e c t e d h i m and he had d r u n k h i s p o i s o n . 7 5 The s a d d e s t t h i n g o f a l l f o r D e r i n g , who so d e s i r e d t o be p o p u l a r , was t h e judgment g i v e n h i m by a s t r a n g e r , who t o l d S i r Edward io;4 t h a t by h i s speeches he had l o s t t h e p r a y e r s o f t h o u s a n d s i n 7 fi t h e c i t y . Hyde was t r e a t e d a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t l y . He was known t o be an o u t s p o k e n opponent o f t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l p r o g r a m . When t h e r e was a s e c o n d r e a d i n g o f t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " B i l l on 11 J u n e , 1641, " t h e y who w i s h e d w e l l t o t h e b i l l . . . r e s o l v e d t o p u t M r . Hyde i n t o t h e c h a i r , t h a t he m i g h t n o t g i y e them t r o u b l e by f r e q u e n t s p e a k i n g , and so t o o much 77 o b s t r u c t t h e e x p e d i t i n g t h e b i l l . " Those who were a g a i n s t t h e b i l l demanded t h a t t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l J o h n Crew be p u t i n t h e C h a i r , b u t Hyde was f i n a l l y commanded t o t a k e t h e C h a i r . One o f Pym's most s u c c e s s f u l t a c t i c s was t h e use o f f e a r . When t h i n g s w o u l d s l a c k e n i n t h e H o u s e , he w o u l d c o n v e n i e n t l y u n c o v e r p l o t s a g a i n s t t h e P a r l i a m e n t i n o r d e r t o keep t h e House a t f e v e r p i t c h . T h i s was most e f f e c t i v e s i n c e t h e House was g i v e n " h e a t s and c o l d s by a p p l y i n g p a r t s o f t h e [ p l o t s ] t o them upon emergent o c c a s i o n s . . . . " 7 a I n May i t was t h e Army P l o t ; i n November t h e I r i s h P l o t . The p o p i s h L o r d s and b i s h o p s were a l w a y s i m p l i c a t e d i n t h e s e p r o c e e d i n g s . Thus s k i l l f u l management o f e v e n t s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e d e v o t e d a s s i s t a n c e o f c l e v e r men, h e l p e d keep t h e House a v e h i c l e o f a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l p r o p a g a n d a . C o n c e r n i n g t h e b i s h o p s , t h e Commons t r i e d t e r r o r t a c t i c s . W i t h so many p e t i t i o n s r e c e i v e d a g a i n s t t h e m , and c o m m i t t e e s s e t up t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e m a t t e r s , one w o u l d 105 have t t i o u g h t impeachment p r o c e e d i n g s w o u l d have moved more s w i f t l y t h a n t h e y d i d . One by one v a r i o u s b i s h o p s were a c c u s e d o f a b u s i n g t h e i r o f f i c e . By t h e end o f December , 1640 , L a u d had been i m p e a c h e d , and p r o c e e d i n g s had begun t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e a f f a i r s o f J u x o n o f L o n d o n , P i e r c e o f B a t h and W S l l s , M a n w a r i n g o f S t . D a v i d 1 SjPotter o f C a r l i s l e , Br idgeman o f C h e s t e r and Wren o f E l y . B u t t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n was p u r p o s e l y d e l a y i n g any d r a s t i c a c t i o n a f f e c t i n g Laud l e s t o t h e r " g r i t men, i f [he] were e x e c u t e , w o u l d be f r e e d o f t h e i r f e a r and become h o p e f u l o f t h e i r p l a c e , and d e s i r e o u s more t o p a c i f y t h e i r r i t a n t P r i n c e , and comply w i t h h i s d e s y r e i n k e e p i n g up 79 B i s h o p s . . . . " However , t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e House wanted t o c a p i t a l i z e on t h e f e a r s o f t h e p r o - p r e l a t i c a l f a c t i o n i n t h e Commons, so t h a t t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l i a n s ' - "of p u r p o s e keeps [ t h i s man] a l i v e t o make t h e i r f e a r e , so l o n g as [he] l i v e s , a band t o k n i t t a l l t o g e t h e r f o r t h e 8 0 common g o o d . " To s u s t a i n t h e momentum, a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l speeches became more p e r s o n a l and v i t r i o l i c as 1641 went o n . D u r i n g t h e c r i s i s o f May , 1 6 4 1 , L o r d Saye and S e l e answered B i s h o p W i l l i a m s ' r e a s o n s f o r t h r o w i n g o u t t h e b i l l by s a y i n g : The Q u e s t i o n t h a t w i l l l i e b e f o r e y o u r L o r d s h i p s i n p a s s i n g o f t h i s B i l l , i s n o t , Whether E p i s c o p a c y (I mean t h i s H i e r a r c h i c a l E p i s c o p a c y w h i c h t h e W o r l d now h o l d s f o r t h t o us) s h a l l be t a k e n away Root and B r a n c h ; b u t w h e t h e r t h o s e e x u b e r a n t and s u p e r f l u o u s B r a n c h e s , w h i c h draw away t h e Sap f rom t h e T r e e , and d i v e r t i t f rom t h e r i g h t 10§ and p r o p e r Use whereby i t becomes u n f r u i t f u l , s h a l l be c u t o f f , as t h e y use t o p l u c k up S u c k e r s f rom t h e R o o t . The o b j e c t i o n t h a t i f t h e b i s h o p s l e f t t h e L o r d s , t h e b a r o n s and e a r l s w o u l d t h e n be removed , Saye and S e l e t h o u g h t were p r e p o s t e r o u s , s i n c e t h e n o b i l i t y had t h e honour i n v e s t e d i n t h e i r b l o o d and h e r e d i t y ; once a K i n g had g r a n t e d i t , i t c o u l d n o t be t a k e n away. B u t t h e b i s h o p s s a t by a b a r o n y w h i c h was dependent on an o f f i c e . 82 I f t h e o f f i c e were t a k e n away, t h e y c o u l d n o t s i t . I n t h e Commons, t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l speeches t h r o u g h - o u t t h e summer t e n d e d t o be o f a " R o o t and B r a n c h " n a t u r e . S i r Henry Vane e x p r e s s e d t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n by s a y i n g t h e w h o l e t r e e was r o t t e n : one c o u l d t e l l by t h e f r u i t . The unhappy c o n d i t i o n o f t h e c i v i l s t a t e was due t o t h e b i s h o p s ' v o t e s i n t h e L o r d s " b e i n g t h e r e a s 1 sbnmany o b s t r u c t i o n s , i n o u r body P o l i t i k e , t o a l l good arid wholesome Lawes t e n d i n g t o 8 3 s a l v a t i o n . " D i v i n e P r o v i d e n c e w o u l d be c h e c k e d i f t h e y d i d n o t d e s t r o y e p i s c o p a l i a n g o v e r n m e n t , f o r God c a l l e d t h e P a r l i a m e n t f o r p r e c i s e l y t h a t w o r k ; r o o t i n g them up was t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e c o u r s e . A f t e r t h e a r t i c l e s o f impeachment a g a i n s t t h i r t e e n b i s h o p s were p r e s e n t e d t o t h e L o r d s i n A u g u s t , 1 6 4 1 , t h e B i s h o p s were r u d e l y t r e a t e d i n t h e L o r d s , and c o u l d n e v e r be s u r e what t h e y w o u l d be a c c u s e d o f n e x t . W o r s t o f a l l , t h e y had so few f r i e n d s . T h i s was q u i t e c l e a r t o them i n J u n e . V e r y few o f t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l members o f t h e Commons c o u l d s t a n d t h e 105! t e d i o u s d e b a t e s on t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " i s s u e , and o f t e n many o f t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l i a n members w o u l d be a b s e n t when i m p o r t a n t v o t e s were t a k e n , f o r , as L o r d F a l k l a n d n o t e d , " t h a t t h e y t h a t h a t e d b i s h o p s h a t e d them worse t h a n t h e d e v i l , and t h a t t h e y t h a t l o v e d them d i d n o t l o v e them so 84 w e l l as t h e i r d i n n e r . " The e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l c l a i m s o f p r e l a t i c a l t y r a n n y c o u l d n o t be r e f u t e d by two b i s h o p s ; t h e y c o u l d n o t answer t h e hundreds o f l e g a l q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d a g a i n s t them. F a l k l a n d gave t h e r e a s o n why t h e o p p o s i t i o n s u c c e e d e d : t h e y t r i e d much h a r d e r and w o r k e d as a u n i t e d f r o n t c l a i m i n g t o r e p r e s e n t t h e hopes o f , t h e p e o p l e o f E n g l a n d , w h i l e t h o s e who f a v o u r e d e p i s c o p a l government r e p r e s e n t e d t h e m s e l v e s , so much so t h a t no u n i t y o r c o h e s i v e power was e v i d e n t . L a c k i n g a p o p u l a r base and u n i t y w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s , t h e e f f o r t s o f W i l l i a m s and H a l l c o u l d n o t s t o p t h e deep a p a t h y and f e a r w h i c h g r i p p e d most o f t h e b i s h o p s , a f e a r k e p t a l i v e by new moves t o u n s e a t them. The m a j o r means used by t h e Commons t o t h w a r t t h e L o r d s was q u e s t i o n i n g t h e i r sense o f l o y a l t y t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e n a t i o n , s i n c e t h e y were n o t c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h t h e Lower House i n P a r l i a m e n t . The a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l L o r d s h e l p e d c o n s i d e r a b l y by c o n s t a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s " t h a t t h e y s e l d o m c a r r y a n y t h i n g w h i c h d i r e c t l y opposed t h e K i n g ' s i n t e r e s t by [ r e a s o n o f ] t h e number o f t h e b i s h o p s , who f o r ' t h e most p a r t u n a n i m o u s l y c o n c u r r e d a g a i n s t i t , and opposed 10'8 many o f t h e i r o t h e r d e s i g n s . " 8 5 Pym b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e p o p i s h l o r d s and t h e b i s h o p s were an o b s t r u c t i o n t o h i s p r o g r a m . To name them w o u l d be no b r e a c h o f p r i v i l e g e s i n c e t h e Commons o f t e n c o m p l a i n e d " o f l o r d s b e i n g away, and l o r d s m i s c a r r a g e s . Pym most c e r t a i n l y wanted u n i t y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e r e m o v a l o f t h a t s p e c i a l c a s t e w h i c h c o n t i n u e d t h e i r p l o t t o d e s t r o y h i s p r o g r a m o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m a - t i o n . T h u s , " R o o t and B r a n c h " became a most e f f e c t i v e t o o l t o p r e s s u r e t h e L o r d s t o see t h i n g s h i s way so f a r as t h e t e m p o r a l employments o f t h e b i s h o p s were c o n c e r n e d . W i t h H a l l and W i l l i a m s r a i l i n g a g a i n s t t h e f i r s t B i s h o p s ' E x c l u s i o n A c t i n t h e L o r d s , t h e p e r s o n o f t h e v a i n and n e u t r a l S i r c E d w a r d D e r i n g became most u s e f u l . D e r i n g had had a good r e c o r d u n t i l t h e n i n t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t , b e i n g a man who f a v o u r e d a l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y , b u t one who c o u l d pepper h i s speech w i t h a n t i - e p i s c o p a l s e n t i m e n t s . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l advantage o f s u c h a man r e a d i n g a " R o o t and B r a n c h " b i l l was ' t o o much t o l o s e , so on 21 May S i r A r t h u r H a s e l r i g g e f l a t t e r e d t h e b a r o n e t f rom K e n t by g i v i n g h i m a copy o f a b i l l b r o u g h t t o H a s e l r i g g e by S i r Henry Vane and O l i v e r C r o m w e l l . D e r i n g l a t e r w r o t e t h a t H a s e l r i g g e " t o l d me hee was r e s o l v e d t h a t i t s h o u l d goe i n , b u t was e a r n e s t l y u r g e n t t h a t I s h o u l d p r e s e n t i t . " 8 7 A t t h a t moment, S i r Edward A i s c o u g h was r e a d i n g an a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n f r o m L i n c o l n s h i r e . D e r i n g , c a u g h t up w i t h t h e e m o t i o n o f t h e moment, r e a d t h e r a d i c a l a c t and r e g r e t t e d 109 i t f o r t h e r e s t o f h i s l i f e . 8 8 The i m p o r t t o t h e L o r d s was c l e a r enough . M o s t o f them were n o t P u r i t a n , and a l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y was b e t t e r t h a n n o n e . Even t h o u g h t h i s b i l l had t r o u b l e i n t h e Commons, i t w o u l d be r e s u r r e c t e d a g a i n when n e e d e d . W i l l i a m s w r o t e a p a m p h l e t r e p l y i n g t o t h e Commons' r e a s o n s why t h e b i s h o p s s h o u l d q u i t t h e L o r d s . T h i s r e p l y was p r i n t e d by 10 J u n e , and on 11 J u n e , D e r i n g ' s b i l l was b r o u g h t up a g a i n . So t h e b a t t e r i n g c o n t i n u e d ; c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e L o r d s were a l w a y s a s k e d f o r i n an e f f o r t t o h e l p t h e P e e r s t o speed up t h e b i s h o p s ' r e p l i e s t o t h e i r impeachment s . I t was hoped t h a t , t h r o u g h f e a r and e x h a u s t i o n t h e y w o u l d see i n l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y a b e t t e r p r o p o s i t i o n t h a n p u t t i n g t h e i r House i n danger by c o n s t a n t l y t h w a r t i n g t h e p o p u l a r l e a d e r s o f t h e Commons. U l t i m a t e l y , t h e p r e s s u r e s e x e r t e d on t h e L o r d s by t h e Lower House p r e p a r e d them t o a c c e p t a p r o p o s i t i o n o f an e p i s c o p a c y w h i c h l a c k e d t e m p o r a l p o w e r , b e c a u s e , l i k e many members o f t h e Commons i t s e l f , t h e y were p e r s u a d e d t h a t t h e r e were many good r e a s o n s t o s u p p o r t an e x c l u s i o n p o l i c y . Among t h e s e r e a s o n s were t h e g r e a t f o r c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e n a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e government o f t h e C h u r c h , s e e k i n g t o d e s t r o y i t a b s o l u t e l y , and t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e S c o t s , who r e f u s e d t o l e a v e E n g l i s h s o i l . The S c o t s w o u l d n e v e r agree t o a t r u e peace be tween t h e two n a t i o n s u n l e s s t h e b i s h o p s were f u l l y t a k e n away. y So t h e argument r a n , t h a t i f an e x c l u s i o n b i l l were p a s s e d a g r e a t e r number i n b o t h Houses w o u l d be so w e l l s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e v i o l e n t e r p a r t y w o u l d no: n e v e r be a b l e t o p r o s e c u t e t h e i r d e s i r e s . And t h i s r e a s o n d i d p r e v a i l o v e r many men o f e x c e l l e n t judgements and u n q u e s t i o n a b l e a f f e c t i o n s , who d i d i n t r u t h , a t t h a t t i m e b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p a s s i n g t h i s a c t was t h e o n l y e x p e d i e n t t o p r e s e r v e t h e C h u r c h . The n e c e s s a r y t a c t i c s needed t o move t h e K i n g were g o i n g t o be o f a v e r y d e l i c a t e n a t u r e . The m a t t e r w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t s i n c e , as B a i l l i e n o t e d , " t h e k e e p i n g up o f e p i s c o p a c i e w h i c h we s t r o v e t o have down, i s t h e v e r i e a p p l e o f h i s e y e . " 9 l The work was d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e o p p o s i t i o n because by t h a t t i m e i t was q u i t e e v i d e n t t h a t t h e K i n g needed c o n s t a n t b a d g e r i n g , because on m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g e p i s c o p a c y he w o u l d a l w a y s y i e l d w i t h r e l u c t a n c e , . w a i t i n g f o r a t i m e when he m i g h t r e v e r s e t h e t r e n d i f t h e p r e s s u r e were removed . When he was i n t h e c i t y , mobs and p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r e s s u r e c o u l d move h i m , as was e v i d e n t a t t h e t i m e o f S t r a f f o r d s ' t r i a l and e x e c u t i o n . The K i n g ' s o r i g i n a l r e s o l v e n o t t o tamper w i t h t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e C h u r c h was compromised somewhat by h i s c o n s e n t i n J u l y t o a b o l i s h t h e b i s h o p s ' power as j u d g e s . However , away f r o m London he showed a d i f f e r e n t s p i r i t and c o u r a g e , as s een by h i s r e s o l v e when i n S c o t l a n d t o a p p o i n t new b i s h o p s . The new b i s h o p s were " a l l o f g r e a t eminency i n t h e C h u r c h , f r e q u e n t p r e a c h e r s , and n o t a man t o whom t h e f a u l t s o f t h e n g o v e r n i n g c l e r g y were i m p u t e d , o r a g a i n s t whom t h e l e a s t o b j e c t i o n c o u l d be made . " Thus t h e K i n g t r i e d t o s o f t e n t h e b l o w by a p p o i n t i n g p o p u l a r , modera te c l e r i c s . The Commons was s t i l l a n n o y e d . D'Ewes spoke on t h e m a t t e r .111 and s a i d t h a t b o t h Houses s h o u l d send a j o i n t p e t i t i o n t o t h e K i n g i n S c o t l a n d a s k i n g h i s M a j e s t y t o s t a y any f u t u r e p r o c e e d i n g s on t h i s m a t t e r " f o r i f a t t h i s t i m e when t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l l r e f o r m a t i o n e x p e c t e d b e f o r e a n i e t h i n g bee amended i n C h u r c h m a t t e r s , t h e s e new B i s h o p p s s h a l l be c r e a t e d I know i n t o what d e s p e r a t i o n p e o p l e may be drawen 9 3 and what t u m u l t s may a r i s e . " B u t t h e K i n g was n o t i n a p l a c e where t h e P a r l i a m e n t ' s t u m u l t s c o u l d a f f e c t h i m as t h e y had b e f o r e . Nor were t u m u l t s any i n s u r a n c e t h a t t h e K i n g w o u l d e v e r accede t o t h e demands made upon h i m t h a t he be r i d o f t h e h a t e d b i s h o p s . The o n l y s o l u t i o n l e f t was t o i n f o r m t h e K i n g i n t h e s t r o n g e s t l anguage p o s s i b l e , t h a t i f h i s p o l i c i e s were t o c o n t i n u e , he w o u l d l o s e t h e o b e d i e n c e o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t and t h e p e o p l e . Such a t h r e a t , t r e a s o n a b l e i n n a t u r e , had t o be c a r e f u l l y p r e p a r e d , and t h e a t t e m p t was made i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e Grand R e m o n s t r a n c e . The Grand Remons t rance was an a c t o f t h e House o f Commons. The L o r d s w o u l d have opposed i t , so t h e Commons had t o p u r s u e t h e m a t t e r on i t s own. The d e b a t e s c o n c e r n i n g i t s c o n t e n t t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h e November r e b e l l i o n i n I r e l a n d . The document was supposed t o be f o r t h e K i n g ' s eyes a l o n e . F e a r s o f C a t h o l i c p l o t s a g a i n s t t h e P a r l i a m e n t abounded and were k e p t a l i v e by t h e o p p o s i t i o n l e a d e r s h i p . The p r e s e n t p o l i c y o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d was t o r e t u r n t o Rome, t h e y c l a i m e d , and t h u s t h e e n t i r e n a t i o n was b e i n g p u t i n t o a s t a t e o f m i s e r y . To remedy t h e s e m a n i f o l d i l l s i t w o u l d be b e s t t o purge t h e b i s h o p s f rom t h e G o v e r n - or A . ment . Debate r e a c h e d i t s c l i m a x on 22 November when t h e 112 e p i s c o p a l i a n s made an e f f o r t t o expunge t h e c l a u s e w h i c h spoke o f t h e B i s h o p s ' E x c l u s i o n B i l l . Hyde a f f i r m e d t h a t t h e n a r r a t i v e p a r t o f t h e Remons t rance was t r u e , b u t t h o u g h t i t f o o l i s h t o r e s u r r e c t so many t h i n g s done i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f C h a r l e s ' r e i g n . , F a l k l a n d t h o u g h t t h e measures d e a l t o u t t o t h e b i s h o p s were t o o h a r s h . D e r i n g o b j e c t e d t o t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t i d o l a t r y had c r e p t i n t o t h e C h u r c h , and C u l p e p p e r c a l l e d t h e Remons t rance i l l e g a l w i t h o u t t h e c o n c u r r e n c e o f t h e L o r d s and s a i d t h a t t o change t h e government o f t h e C h u r c h w o u l d o f f e n d t h e p e o p l e . By t h i s t i m e , h o w e v e r , Pym was i n no mood f o r t h e i r d e l a y i n g t a c t i c s . P l a y i n g on f e a r s he knew w o u l d be f e l t by a l l , he a l l u d e d t o p o p i s h p l o t s b e i n g n e a r t h e K i n g because t h e C o u r t was i n f e s t e d w i t h t h e p o p i s h p a r t y . P o p i s h l o r d s and t h e b i s h o p s were mov ing t h e K i n g , Pym c l a i m e d , and t h e P a r l i a m e n t was s u f f e r i n g as a r e s u l t , and he wondered why i t s h o u l d n o t be t h e P a r l i a m e n t t h a t i n f l u e n c e d t h e K i n g . I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h e d e c l a r a t i o n w o u l d " b i n d p e o p l e ' s h e a r t s t o u s , when t h e y see how we have been u s e d . " 9 5 These p r o c e e d i n g s had gone on f o r t w e l v e h o u r s , and a t m i d n i g h t t h e Remonst rance was p u t t o v o t e and was c a r r i e d , 159 v o t e s t o 148 , s h o w i n g a d e e p e r s p l i t t h a n m i g h t have been i m a g i n e d . However , Hampden i m m e d i a t e l y p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e Remonst rance s h o u l d be p r i n t e d and p u b l i s h e d . Hyde was f u r i o u s a t t h i s seeming b r e a c h o f f a i t h , s a y i n g t h e Commons had no r i g h t t o p u b l i s h any d e b a t e s o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n s o f t h e House w h i c h were n o t f i r s t t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e P e e r s . The Remonst rance was supposed t o be a 113 v i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r s o f t h e House ; i n s t e a d , now i t was t o beuused as a means t o e x c i t e t h e p e o p l e . I f t h e m o t i o n were c a r r i e d , he demanded t h e l i b e r t y t o e n t e r h i s 9 6 p r o t e s t a t i o n . I n t h e e n d , t h e K i n g and t h e n a t i o n r e a d i n t h e Remons t rance a hope t h a t h i s M a j e s t y w o u l d be . . . g r a c i o u s l y p l e a s e d t o c o n c u r w i t h t h e humble d e s i r e s o f y o u r p e o p l e i n a p a r l i a m e n t a r y way . . . f o r d e p r i v i n g • t h e B i s h o p s o f t h e i r v o t e s i n P a r l i a m e n t , and a b r i d g i n g t h e i r immoderate power u s u r p e d o v e r t h e c l e r g y and o t h e r y o u r good s u b j e c t s , w h i c h t h e y have p e r n i c i o u s l y abused t o t h e h a z a r d o f r e l i g i o n and g r e a t p r e j u d i c e and o p p r e s s i o n t o t h e l aws o f t h e Kingdom and j u s t l i b e r t y o f y o u r p e o p l e . . . . 9 7 A t t h e end o f November t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p a r l i a m e n t a r y l e a d e r s saw a l l o f t h e i r c a r e f u l work i n a s t a t e o f c o l l a p s e . The p e o p l e o f London r e c e i v e d t h e K i n g back w i t h g r e a t j o y . The House was b i t t e r l y d i v i d e d o v e r t h e m a t t e r o f t h e a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y c o u r s e o f a n a t i o n a l Remonstrance^ r e p r e s e n t i n g n a t i o n a l g r i e v a n c e s , p r e s e n t e d i n t h e name o f t h e House o f Commons r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e n a t i o n . T h i s Remons t rance needed t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e n a t i o n i f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m were t o be r e a l i z e d . The b i s h o p s were s t i l l s i t t i n g i n t h e L o r d s . On 12-^November, t h e Roman C a t h o l i c A n g l i c a n B i s h o p o f G l o u c e s t e r , G o d f r e y Goodman, p l e a d e d n o t g u i l t y modo e t forma t o t h e c h a r g e s a g a i n s t h i m , w h i l e t h e t w e l v e o t h e r impeached b i s h o p s answered w i t h a " p l e a and d e m u r r e r " . They answered t h a t t h e m a j o r p a r t o f t h e c l e r g y a t t h e C o n v o c a t i o n v o t e d f o r t h e b e n e v o l e n c e t o t h e K i n g . T w e l v e o u t o f an a s s e m b l y o f one h u n d r e d s i x t y members o f t h e C o n v o c a t i o n , a l l w i t h e q u a l v o i c e , c o u l d n o t c a r r y t h e 114 m o t i o n . The b i s h o p s a s k e d why a l l who v o t e d i n t h e C o n v o c a t i o n were n o t impeached as w e l l . The Commons had n o t g i v e n any r e a l e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e b i s h o p s had b r o k e n t h e l a w , t h a t t h e y had been w o r k i n g c o n t r a r y t o t h e K i n g ' s p r e r o g a t i v e , t h a t t h e y had endangered t h e l i b e r t y o f t h e s u b j e c t , o r t h a t t h e y were e n c o u r i n g s e d i t i o n . They a s k e d what l a w t h e y had b r o k e n by t h e b e n e v o l e n c e and what c o n s t i t u t i o n had been b r o k e n by t h e , "New C a n o n s " . S i n c e t h e s e a c t s had n e v e r been p r o m u l g a t e d , t h e b i s h o p s wondered what p e o p l e had been i n j u r e d . I n s u f f i c i e n c i e s and i m p e r f e c t i o n s abounded i n t h e a r t i c l e s o f i m p e a c h m e n t . 9 8 I t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h e e p i s c o p a t e had no c o n c e p t o f t h e b e t t e r i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e H o u s e , n o r had t h e L o r d s , l e a s t o f a l l t h e K i n g . I f r e f o r m had t o come, i t w o u l d have t o be done by a r e v o l u t i o n . I n December , 1 6 4 1 , t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n was a t l a s t s ea soned enough t o know how b e s t t o e x e r t p r e s s u r e , and what m i s t a k e s o f t h e p a s t had t o be a v o i d e d . Where p e r s u a s i o n had f a i l e d , b r u t e f o r c e , i t was h o p e d , w o u l d s u c c e e d . CHAPTER V CONCLUSION By 1 December i t seemed t o t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e i r momentum had d e c r e a s e d g r e a t l y . The most s e r i o u s f e a r was t h a t t h e y had l o s t t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e London p o p u l a c e . K i n g C h a r l e s had r e t u r n e d f rom S c o t l a n d a m i d s t t h e u n i v e r s a l j o y o f t h e c i t y on 25 November , 1 6 4 1 . The L o r d M a y o r , A l d e r m e n , R e c o r d e r and C i t y C o u n c i l had a l l gone o u t t o meet t h e K i n g " w i t h B e l l s r i n g i n g a t 121 p a r i s h C h u r c h e s , where t h e r e were no f a i l i n g s i n e x p r e s s i o n s o f l o v e and l o y a l t y b u t t h e p e o p l e as a p p e a r e d by t h e i r s h o u t s and a c c l a m a t i o n s . . The r e a c t i o n o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e Commons was n o t a happy o n e , f o r as C l a r e n d o n n o t e d , t h e welcome much t r o u b l e d them " a n d t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t g i v e n t o h i m by t h e C i t y o f L o n d o n , i n w h i c h t h e i r e n t i r e c o n f i d e n c e w a s , much d e j e c t e d t h e m , and made them a p p r e h e n d t h e i r f r i e n d s t h e r e were n o t so p o w e r f u l . a s t h e y e x p e c t e d . " 2 The Commons i t s e l f was s e r i o u s l y d i v i d e d o v e r t h e m a t t e r o f t h e Grand R e m o n s t r a n c e . The " p l e a and d e m u r r e r " o f t h e t h i r t e e n b i s h o p s impeached f o r t h e "New Canons " h a l t e d f u r t h e r p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t t h e i r o r d e r , and t h e L o r d s were most u n c o o p e r a t i v e on t h e e p i s c o p a l i s s u e . M o s t o f a l l , t h e K i n g was e x h i b i t i n g a c e r t a i n b o l d n e s s as a r e s u l t o f t h e r e c e p t i o n g i v e n t o h i m by t h e c i t y . C l e a r l y t h e n , new t a c t i c s had t o be d e v i s e d , and q u i c k l y , i f t h e r e f o r m i n g program o f t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l f a c t i o n was t o s u c c e e d . 11.6 By 1 J a n u a r y , 1642 , t h e s i t u a t i o n had d r a s t i c a l l y c h a n g e d . The " R o o t and B r a n c h " i s s u e had been s e t a s i d e f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g . . The I r i s h r e b e l l i o n was a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i l l w i l l o f t h e p o p i s h l o r d s and t h e b i s h o p s . P o p u l a r f e a r was p l a y e d u p o n , and t h e d e v a s t a t i n g r i o t s o f December had t h e i r p a r t i n w e a k e n i n g t h e e p i s c o p a l s t r u c t u r e . L o n d o n e r s a g a i n b r o u g h t t h e i r p e t i t i o n s t o t h e House o f Commons. E x t i r p a t i o n was no l o n g e r t h e k e y i s s u e ; t o o much t i m e had been w a s t e d on t h a t . I n s t e a d , t h e p o p u l a r b e l i e f was t h a t t h e b e s t s o l u t i o n t o t h e n a t i o n ' s i l l s was t h e s w i f t r e m o v a l o f t h e e p i s c o p a t e and t h e Roman C a t h o l i c p e e r s f rom t h e House o f L o r d s . The p a n i c o v e r I r e l a n d , and t h e r i o t o u s mood o f L o n d o n , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e absence o f many members f o r t h e C h r i s t m a s h o l i d a y s , gave t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l f a c t i o n an advantage w h i c h t h e y u s e d t o d e s t r o y e p i s c o p a l p o w e r . The A r c h b i s h o p o f Y p r k ' s b l u n d e r , c o m m i t t e d no doubt f rom t h e s h e e r f r i g h t o f t h e mob's a t t a c k on h i s p e r s o n , u n n e r v e d t h e e n t i r e e p i s c o p a t e and s e v e r e l y s p l i t t h e i r common f r o n t . The L o r d s ' a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s who had s i g n e d t h e P r o t e s t a t i o n o f 30 December , 1 6 4 1 , had so s h o c k e d t h e K i n g t h a t C h a r l e s c o m m i t t e d an even more s e r i o u s b l u n d e r t h a n had t h o s e b i s h o p s . On J a n u a r y 4 , 1642 , he i n v a d e d t h e House o f Commons because he f e l t h i s own p o s i t i o n was i n j e o p a r d y . By 15 F e b r u a r y , 1642 , t h e ^ b i s h o p s had l o s t t h e i r s e a t s i n t h e L o r d s . P o p u l a r s e n t i m e n t a g a i n s t t h e K i n g was 117 s e a l e d by h i s i l l - f a t e d a t t e m p t t o a r r e s t Pym, H o l l i s , S t . J o h n , S t r o d e and H a s e l r i g g e , a l l o f whom e s c a p e d a r r e s t and became p o p u l a r h e r o e s . On 11 J a n u a r y , 1642 , t h e K i n g l e f t t h e c i t y , f e a r i n g f o r h i s own s a f e t y and t h a t o f t h e Queen. When t h e f i v e members r e t u r n e d t o t h e H o u s e , t h e y were j o y o u s l y welcomed by t h e p o p u l a c e . P r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s moved s w i f t l y . Group p e t i t i o n s f rom t h e c o u n t i e s p o u r e d i n t o London a g a i n , as t h e y had a y e a r b e f o r e . Pym u s e d t h e s e t o t h e g r e a t e s t a d v a n t a g e . The b i s h o p s impeached i n December were r e f u s e d b a i l and answered t h e i r c h a r g e s o f t r e a s o n on 17 J a n u a r y . I n t h e meant ime , Pym p r e p a r e d h i s ca se a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s and b r o u g h t t h e e v i d e n c e o f n a t i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t t o t h e L o r d s oh 25 J a n u a r y . The Upper H o u s e , weary o f a l l t h e abuse i t was r e c e i v i n g , f i n a l l y p a s s e d t h e s e c o n d B i s h o p s ' E x c l u s i o n B i l l on 5 F e b r u a r y , 1642 . A l l e l s e r e s t e d w i t h t h e K i n g who, u n d e r t h e s e v e r e s t p r e s s u r e , f i n a l l y c o n s e n t e d t o t h e b i l l . The i m p o s s i b l e o f 1 D e c e m b e r , " 1 6 4 1 , was made p o s s i b l e . I t was q u i t e e v i d e n t t h a t Pym had l e a r n e d f r o m p a s t m i s t a k e s . H i s p a s s i o n f o r u n i t y o f p u r p o s e was b e g i n n i n g t o b e a r f r u i t . ' F e a r was a p o t e n t t a c t i c a n d , as news f i l t e r e d i n t o t h e c i t y c o n c e r n i n g I r i s h a t t r o c i t i e s a g a i n s t t h e P r o t e s t a n t s t h e r e , t h e London c i t i z e n r y was g i v e n t h e f u l l d e t a i l s o f t h e r e b e l l i o n ' s p r o g r e s s . As i f t o c a n o n i z e t h i s f e a r , t h e G r a n d Remonst rance was p r i n t e d f o r p u b l i c c o n s u m p t i o n on 15 December , 1 6 4 1 , when i t was 118 b e c o m i n g c l e a r t h a t t h e K i n g w o u l d n o t be moved on t h e e p i s c o p a l i s s u e . S u m m a r i z i n g e v e r y c o m p l a i n t made a g a i n s t e p i s c o p a l government d u r i n g t h e y e a r , t h e Grand Remons t rance p r e s e n t e d t o t h e p e o p l e a new way t o v i e w t h e a b o m i n a b l e t y r a n n y o f t h e e p i s c o p a t e . The b i s h o p s and t h e p o p i s h l o r d s i n t h e Upper House had d e l a y e d t h e p r o s e c u - t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n t s and h i n d e r e d t h e p r o g r e s s o f "good B i l s p a s s e d i n t h e Commons h o u s e , c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e f o r m a t i o n o f s u n d r y g r e a t abuses and c o r r u p t i o n s b o t h i n C h u r c h and 4 S t a t e . " H a v i n g l a b o u r e d t o seduce and c o r r u p t some o f t h e members o f t h e House o f Commons and h o p i n g t h a t t h e members m i g h t s abotage t h e l i b e r t y o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t , t h e y even t r i e d t o w i n t h e K i n g ' s army o v e r t o t h e i r w i c k e d d e s i g n s . T h e i r p l a n was s i m p l e e n o u g h : t o keep up t h e e p i s c o p a l v o t e s and f u n c t i o n s " a n d by f o r c e t o c o m p e l l t h e P a r l i a m e n t t o o r d e r , l i m i t and d i s p o s e t h e i r p r o c e e d i n g s i n s u c h manner as m i g h t b e s t c o n c u r w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n s o f t h i s dangerous and p o t e n t f a c t i o n . " 5 They c o u l d n o t make t h e S c o t s army n e u t r a l , so i t was t h e hope o f t h e b i s h o p s and t h e r e c u s a n t p e e r s t o e n t i c e t h e E n g l i s h army t o j o i n i n t h e i r p l a n s t o s u b v e r t t h e P r o t e s t a n t r e l i g i o n and t o d e s t r o y t h e Government . T h e i r p l o t s were e v e r y w h e r e , and I r e l a n d was t h e b e s t e x a m p l e . The b i s h o p s l i e d about t h e a n a r c h y t o come i n C h u r c h and S t a t e i f t h e i r t e m p o r a l power were t a k e n away; t h e " g o l d e n r e i n s d i s c i p l i n e a n d . government i n t h e C h u r c h " w o u l d n o t be f o r s a k e n . B u t i n 119 t h e work o f r e f o r m a t i o n t h e Lower House was a l w a y s t h w a r t e d f o r what can we, t h e Commons w i t h o u t t h e c o n j u n c t i o n o f t h e House o f L o r d s , and what c o n j u n c t i o n can we e x p e c t t h e r e , when t h e B i s h o p s and R e c u s a n t L o r d s a r e so numerous and p r e v a l e n t , t h a t t h e y a r e a b l e t o c r o s s e and i n t e r r u p t o u t b e s t e n d e a v o u r s f o r R e f o r m a t i o n , and by t h a t means g i v e advantage t o t h i s m a l i g n a n t p a r t y t o t r a d u c e o u r p r o c e e d i n g s . ' I t i s l i t t l e w o n d e r , t h e n , t h a t d u r i n g t h e December r i o t s t h e c r i e s "Noe B i s h o p s , noe m a g p i e s , noe P o p i s h L o r d s . . . " p were o f t e n h e a r d . However , i t was t h e b i s h o p s whom t h e o p p o s i t i o n wanted e x p e l l e d a t t h i s t i m e . L i n k i n g them w i t h t h e P a p i s t s was a c o n v e n i e n t t a c t i c f o r k e e p i n g a l i v e t h e p a n i c o v e r t h e I r i s h r e b e l l i o n . The same s u c c e s s f u l t a c t i c s o f t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r were once a g a i n employed by t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l f a c t i o n . On t h e a n n i v e r s a r y o f t h e d e l i v e r y o f t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n , P e n n i n g t o n i n f o r m e d t h e House t h a t t h e r e were d i v e r s g r a v e c i t i z i n e s o f London a t t e n d i n g w i t h o u t t h e p r e s e n t t h i s howse , w i t h t h e f o r m e d a b l e p e t i t i o n wee had been t o l d e o f f t h a t s h o u l d be b r o u g h t us by 1,000 p e r s o n s : b u t hee s a i d t h a t a s m a l l number were come o u t w i t h i t , and t h a t i n a p e a c e a b l e and humble m a n n e r . 9 The l e a d e r s were so a n x i o u s t o a v o i d any r i o t o u s a s s e m b l y o f a f r i g h t e n e d London t h a t t h e h o u r o f t h e d e l i v e r y o f t h i s new p e t i t i o n was c o n s t a n t l y changed so t h a t i t c o u l d be p r e s e n t e d i n an o r d e r l y way . W r i t t e n i n t h e name o f t h e A l d e r m e n , Common-Counci lmen and o t h e r i n h a b i t a n t s o f L o n d o n , and c o n t a i n i n g some f i f t e e n t h o u s a n d names, i t w o u l d have had more s i g n a t u r e s had n o t t h e L o r d M a y o r , S i r 120 R i c h a r d Gurney and o t h e r s opposed i t . I n d e e d Gurney and t h e C i t y R e c o r d e r , S i r Thomas G a r d i n e r , h e l d a d i m v i e w o f t h i s p e t i t i o n . To them i t was a f a l l a c y t o remove t h e b i s h o p s ; s u c h a p o l i c y was f r a u g h t w i t h d a n g e r s . I g n o r a n t and i d l e p e r s o n s , t h e y c l a i m e d , ; had p u t t h e i r hands t o t h e p e t i t i o n ! Those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t d e s e r v e d t o be d i s f r a n c h i s e d because what t h e y w a n t e d t e n d e d t o s e d i t i o n , and t h e d r a w i n g o f p e o p l e t o g e t h e r t o s i g n amounted t o a t u m u l t . I t d i d n o t seek peace b u t r a t h e r " i t i s f o r b l o o d and c u t t i n g o f t h r o a t s , and i f i t cam t o c u t t i n g o f t h r o a t s , t h a n k e y o u r s e l v e s , and y o u r b l o o d bee on y o u r owne heades . "- ' - 0 I n t h e p e t i t i o n a c o m p l i m e n t was p a i d t h e House f o r t h e many good l aws i t had p a s s e d , b u t t h e p e t i t i o n e r s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e r e were o t h e r good l aws p a s s e d by t h e H o u s e , w h i c h by r e a s o n t h a t t h e B i s h o p s and t h e P o p i s h L o r d s had v o t e s i n t h e P e e r s House were s t o p p e d t h e r e , and t h e r e f o r e t h e y h u m b l i e b e s o u g h t t h i s house t o be S u t e r s t o h i s M a j e s t i e f o r t h e t a k i n g away o f t h e i r v o t e s o u t o f t h e s a i d h o u s e . Once a g a i n , t h e c r u e l t i e s i n I r e l a n d were c i t e d i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e b i s h o p s and C a t h o l i c l o r d s seemed t o be b e h i n d s u c h p r o c e e d i n g s . Immediate a c t i o n had t o be t a k e n a g a i n s t t h i s f a c t i o n b e f o r e a l l E n g l a n d w o u l d be e n g u l f e d i n b l o o d y p l o t s a g a i n s t t h e l i b e r t i e s o f t h e s u b j e c t . * The same theme was b e h i n d a l l o t h e r p e t i t i o n s a r r i v i n g a t t h e P a r l i a m e n t f rom a r o u n d t h e c o u n t r y . G u r n e y ' 120. f e a r o f a v i o l e n t s o l u t i o n t o t h e e p i s c o p a l p r o b l e m d i d n o t d i s c o n c e r t t h e l e a d e r s h i p . I n s t e a d , t h e y e n c o u r a g e d p e t i t i o n s , as was e v i d e n t by t h e way t h e y r e c e i v e d them. On 4 F e b r u a r y , "The Humble P e t i t i o n o f t h e Gent l ewomen , T r a d e s m e n ' s W i v e s , and many o t h e r s o f t h e Female S e x , a l l I n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e C i t y o f London and t h e Suburbs t h e r e o f " was r e c e i v e d . The women c o m p l i m e n t e d t h e members f o r t h e i r c o u r a g e i n b r i n g i n g C h u r c h and S t a t e t o s a f e t y n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h a t many w o r t h y Deeds have .been done by y o u , g r e a t Danger and F e a r do s t i l l a t t e n d u s , and w i l l , as l o n g as P o p i s h L o r d s and s u p e r s t i t i o u s B i s h o p s a r e s u f f e r e d t o have t h e i r V o i c e i n t h e House o f P e e r s . . 13 R e c a l l i n g e p i s c o p a l c r u e l t i e s i n t h e p a s t , t h e Women's P e t i t i o n s p e l l e d o u t most e x p l i c i t l y t h e f e a r o f t h e common p e r s o n i n t h e c i t y : . . . we humbly s i g n i f y t h a t o u r p r e s e n t f e a r s a r e , t h a t u n l e s s t h e b l o o d - t h i r s t y a r e h i n d e r e d i n t h e i r D e s i g n e s , o u r s e l v e s i n E n g l a n d , as w e l l as t h e y i n I r e l a n d , s h a l l be e x p o s e d t o t h a t M i s e r y w h i c h i s more i n t o l l e r a b l e t h a n t h a t w h i c h i s a l r e a d y p a s t ; as n a m e l y , t o t h e R a g e s , _ n o t of , men a l o n e , b u t o f D e v i l s i n c a r n a t e . . . . • Pym f e l t c o n s t r a i n e d t o answer t h e women a f t e r t h e i r P e t i t i o n had been r e a d i n t h e H o u s e . He t h a n k e d them f o r b r i n g i n g t h e P e t i t i o n a t so s e a s o n a b l e a t i m e , and a s s u r e d t h e women t h a t t h e House w o u l d g i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n t o t h e i r j u s t d e s i r e s . I d e n t i f y i n g w i t h t h e p o p u l a r movement, h e . d e c l a r e d : r 122 f o r we have b e e n , a r e , and s h a l l be r e a d y t o r e l i e v e y o u , y o u r h u s b a n d s , and C h i l d r e n ; and t o p e r f o r m t h e T r u s t c o m m i t t e d u n t o u s , t o w a r d s G o d , o u r K i n g and C o u n t r y , as becometh f a i t h f u l C h r i s t i a n s and l o y a l S u b j e c t s . The London M i n i s t e r s were s t i l l a c t i v e w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t . On 20 December , 1 6 4 1 , C a p t a i n : Venn p r e s e n t e d a p e t i t i o n on b e h a l f o f c e r t a i n m i n i s t e r s , p r o t e s t i n g an o r d e r f rom t h e K i n g t h a t t h e l aw o f t h e C h u r c h s h o u l d be obeyed u n t i l a l t e r e d . 1 6 The p e t i t i o n a r g u e d t h a t s i n c e P a r l i a m e n t a g r e e d w i t h t h e i r p rogram o f r e f o r m , i t s h o u l d be e n a c t e d . 'They c a l l e d f o r a N a t i o n a l Synod t o g i v e a d v i c e t o P a r l i a m e n t ; C o n v o c a t i o n r e a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e b i s h o p s , and no one e l s e . C o r n e l i u s B u r g e s s d e l i v e r e d t h e p e t i t i o n , and s a i d he c o u l d have o b t a i n e d 17 many more s i g n a t u r e s had he wanted t o . ; By t h i s t i m e i n t h e c r i s i s i t had been p r o v e n t h a t t h e most e f f i c a c i o u s w a y y t o use p e t i t i o n p r e s s u r e was t o have g r o u p s o f p e o p l e d e l i v e r t h e p e t i t i o n s and t h e n have t h e Commons commit them en b l o c . A c c o r d i n g l y , on 11 J a n u a r y , 1642 , some f i v e t h o u s a n d p e t i t i o n e r s f r o m B u c k i n g h a m s h i r e rode i n t o London and p r e s e n t e d p e t i t i o n s t o t h e L o r d s and Commons a s k i n g t h a t B i s h o p s and p o p i s h l o r d s l o s e t h e i r v o t e s . 1 8 The Commons were d e l i g h t e d by t h e i r r e s o l v e t o " l i v e by y o u , o r t o d i e a t y o u r f e e t , a g a i n s t whomsoever s h a l l i n any s o r t , i l l e g a l y a t t e m p t upon y o u . " 1 9 P e t i t i o n e r s f r o m Warwick and C o v e n t r y had a s i m i l a r p l a n i n mind f o r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e i r p e t i t i o n s , when, en r o u t e , t h e y h e a r d t h a t t h e L o r d s had p a s s e d t h e 123 s e c o n d E x c l u s i o n B i l l . The s u b s t a n c e o f t h e i r p e t i t i o n s had t o be c h a n g e d , and now t h e y u r g e d t h e Houses t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r happy c o o p e r a t i o n i n r e f o r m i n g t h e C h u r c h and S t a t e . On 11 F e b r u a r y , t h e y rode i n t o London as a b o d y , and on t h e n e x t d a y , met a t a f i x e d p l a c e , and " t h e n c e went on f o o t e , two i n a r a n k e t o W e s t m i n s t e r , where t h e s a i d P e t i t i o n s were most t h a n k f u l l y a c c e p t e d by b o t h H o u s e s . They went home i n a happy frame o f m i n d , s i n c e t h e y had been a s s u r e d t h a t t h e i r r e q u e s t w o u l d be t a k e n i n t o speedy c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and t h e i r d e s i r e s f u l f i l l e d . The en b l o c t e c h n i q u e was c l e v e r l y u sed by Pym on 25 J a n u a r y , 1642 , when he a s k e d f o r a c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t h e L o r d s . The o c c a s i o n was t h e r e c e i p t o f t h e p e t i t i o n s f rom t h e C i t y o f L o n d o n , f r o m M i d d l e s e x , H e r t f o r d and E s s e x , a l l e x p r e s s i n g f e a r o f t h e I r i s h r e b e l l i o n , and demanding t h a t t h e b i s h o p s and p o p i s h l o r d s be c a s t f rom t h e Upper H o u s e . Pym d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e s e p e t i t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e v o i c e and c r y o f a l l E n g l a n d . R i o t s c o u l d ensue i f a c t i o n were n o t s p e e d i l y t a k e n . P a r l i a m e n t had done i t s b e s t t o ease t h e s e t e n s i o n s , b u t as l o n g as t h e b i s h o p s c o n t i n u e d t o o b s t r u c t good b i l l s t h u s damaging any hope o f f r e e d o m , e v i l s w o u l d e n d u r e . W h a t s o e v e r m i s c h i e f t h e b i s h o p s ' o b s t r u c t i o n s w o u l d p r o d u c e , t h e Commons were f r e e f rom i t ? "we may have o u r p a r t o f t h e M i s e r i e , we can have no p a r t i n t h e g u i l t o f d i s h o n o u r . " 2 - ' - The w i l l o f t h e p e o p l e demanded t h e e x p u l s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s ; o n l y t h e L o r d s c o u l d h e l p by h e a r i n g t h e i r c r y . A p p r e n t i c e s , m a r i n e r s and 124 seamen, London women, A l d e r m e n and Common-Counci lmen, c i t i e s and c o u n t i e s , a l l c a l l e d f o r t h e same t h i n g , t h e ' e x p u l s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s f r o m t h e L o r d s . I t was a n a t i o n a l o u t c r y . The war o f t h e p r e s s e s c o n t i n u e d . A n t i - p r e l a t i c a l speeches were p r i n t e d , and D e r i n g was impeached f o r p u b l i s h - i n g h i s own speeches w i t h o u t t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f P a r l i a m e n t . The p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t t h e t w e l v e b i s h o p s impeached i n 22 December were p u b l i s h e d . P r y n n e 1 s books were i n c i r c u l a t i o n , and M i l t o n was p u b l i s h i n g h i s f o u r t h a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l t r a c t , The Reason o f C h u r c h Government u r g ' d a g a i n s t ' P r e l a t y . 2 3 Many anonymous w o r k s a g a i n s t t h e B i s h o p s were p o u r i n g o f f t h e p r e s s e s : C o n s p i r a c y o f 12 B i s h o p s i n The T o w e r , J a n u a r y , 1642 ; A p p r e n t i c e s A d v i c e t o 12 B i s h o p s , J a n u a r y , 1642 ; B i s h o p s ' L a s t V o t e , F e b r u a r y , 1642 ; B i s h o p s ' L a s t Good N i g h t , F e b r u a r y , 1 6 4 2 . 2 4 The most i m p o r t a n t p e t i t i o n s a l s o were i n p r i n t . The p r o - e p i s c o p a l p r e s s e s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f D e r i n g ' s p u b l i c a t i o n , were s i l e n t . The s y m p a t h i e s o f t h e L o n d o n e r s were on t h e s i d e o f t h o s e who were b e n t on t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f b i s h o p s and t h e i r p a r t y . They r i o t e d a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s , and a l l o w e d men f rom t h e c o u n t i e s t o r i d e u n m o l e s t e d t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s on t h e i r way t o p r e s e n t p e t i t i o n s . T h e r e were no p r o - e p i s c o p a l i a n d e l e g a t i o n s f r o m L o n d o n . The o p t i m i s m o f t h e K i n g o v e r ' h i s t r i u m p h a l e n t r y i n t o t h e c i t y was a f a l s e o n e . He e n r a g e d t h e p o p u l a c e by h i s a t t e m p t s t o a r r e s t t h e 125 f i v e members. Thus he was h e l p l e s s t o d e f e n d t h e b i s h o p s . Pym h a d , i n f a c t , become a k i n g i n h i s own f a s h i o n f o r , as S i r Edward D e r i n g w r o t e t o h i s w i f e , " I f I c o u l d be 25 Pym, w i t h h o n e s t y , I had r a t h e r be Pym t h a n K i n g C h a r l e s . " The p e t i t i o n s had w i d e s p r e a d s u p p o r t i n t h e c i t y a n d , g i v e n t h e a l a c r i t y e v i d e n c e d by t h e a t t a c k on t h e p e r s o n s o f t h e b i s h o p s who t r i e d t o go t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t on 2 7 , 28 and 2 9 December , 1 6 4 1 , t h e movement was n o t o n l y p o p u l a r , b u t c o u l d be a t t i m e s s p o n t a n e o u s i n i t s e x p r e s s i o n . Bramston summed up t h e m a j o r i s s u e , p o i n t i n g t o t h e momentum o f a p o p u l a r r e v o l u t i o n , when he w r o t e t h a t t h e a t t a c k on t h e b i s h o p s ' p e r s o n s was made knowne t o t h e L o r d s and Commons by s e v e r a l members, and by t h e K i n g t o o ; b u t noe c o u r s e t a k e n t o s u p p r e s s o r p u n i s h any o f them, soe t h a t t h e K i n g m i g h t j u s t l y f e a r e d a i n g e r t o h i s p e r s o n i f he s t a y e d l o n g e r , as d i d t h e B i s h o p s , whoe, h a v e i n g made knowne t o t h e L o r d s t h e d a i n g e r t h e y r u n n i n comeinge t o t h e H o u s e , and y e t c o u l d n o t o b t a i n e any r e m e d i e , f o r b e a r e t o come. . . . 2 6 U l t i m a t e l y t h e K i n g was u n a b l e t o i g n o r e t h e p o p u l a r demand t o send t h e b i s h o p s down f rom t h e L o r d s s i n c e h i s own p o s i t i o n and f reedom w o u l d have been endangered had he n o t s i g n e d t h e second E x c l u s i o n B i l l . The g e n i u s o f t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l f a c t i o n i n t h e Commons l a y i n t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e p o p u l a c e , whose h a t r e d o f b i s h o p s was so h e l p f u l i n t h e i r own campaign a g a i n s t e p i s c o p a c y . The p r o - e p i s c o p a l i a n members o f t h e Commons were e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y s t o p p e d and s u r r o u n d e d by t h e mob, as was S i r J o h n •f 12 6 S t r a n g e w a y s , o r v e r b a l l y a b u s e d , as were Edward H y d e , L o r d 2 7 F a l k l a n d , and S i r J o h n C u l p e p p e r . ' B u t t h i s was t h e p e o p l e ' s f i g h t a n d , as has been seen b e f o r e , Pym f e l t i t an o b l i g a t i o n o f t h e House n o t t o d i s h e a r t e n t h e p o p u l a c e , who were o b t a i n i n g t h e i r j u s t d e s i r e s i n t h e i r own manner . Thus t h e arguments assumed t h a t t h e b i s h o p s were i n t e n t on d e s t r o y i n g t h e good r e l a t i o n s between t h e K i n g and h i s p e o p l e . D e n z i l H o l l i s warned t h a t i f t h e t w e l v e b i s h o p s impeached f o r t h e i r December P r o t e s t a t i o n were n o t p u n i s h e d , a d i v i s i o n between t h e K i n g and h i s p e o p l e w o u l d be t h e r e s u l t , c a u s i n g g r e a t u p r o a r s and t u m u l t s i n t h e C i t y and about W e s t m i n s t e r o f t h o s e c i t i z e n s who so h a t e d t h e b i s h o p s . Such a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s was a g a i n s t the i n t e r e s t s o f peace i n t h e c o u n t r y and w o u l d h i n d e r t h e r e f o r m i n g work o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t . I t was n o t t h e p e o p l e who were a t f a u l t , b u t , r a t h e r , t h e b i s h o p s and t h e i r a r b i t r a r y g o v e r n m e n t . ° S i r Simonds D'Ewes a r g u e d t h a t i f t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h e impeached b i s h o p s d i d n o t p r o c e e d i m m e d i a t e l y , u t t e r r u i n and d e s t r u c - t i o n c o u l d e n v e l o p t h e S t a t e , because t h e b i s h o p s were i n c e n d i a r i e s , and t h e London c i t i z e n s and i n d e e d a l l p e o p l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e Kingdom wanted them b r o u g h t t o j u s t i c e . To D ' E w e s , t h e t u m u l t s were r e a l l y t h e work o f t h e b i s h o p s , b u t h i s message was c l e a r enough ; u n l e s s t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n were s e t t l e d s o o n , t u m u l t s and u p r o a r s m i g h t d e s t r o y t h e P a r l i a m e n t , f o r t h e e p i s c o p a l p a r t y was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e impeachment o f t h e f i v e members by t h e K i n g . 2 9 J o h n W h i t e l i k e n e d t h e t i m e s t o t h e days o f t h e Wars o f t h e R o s e s . The b i s h o p s were i m p o s i n g t y r a n n y on 127 t h e s a i n t s o f God f o r t h e y were r e a d y t o s t r i k e c i t i e s and towns w i t h powder p l o t s . W h i t e f u r t h e r c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p r e l a t e s had a l w a y s been enemies o f b o t h K i n g and p e o p l e . 3 0 The K i n g ' s a t t e m p t t o a r r e s t Pyimy. H o l l i s , S t . J o h n , H a s e l r i g g e and . Stroud*, c1 on 4 J a n u a r y , 1642 , s t r e n g h t e n e d t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e p o p u l a r c a u s e . When t h e K i n g l e f t t h e c i t y on 10 J a n u a r y , 1642 , t h e f i v e came o u t o f h i d i n g t h e n e x t day a d m i d s t c h e e r i n g c r o w d s . As t h e f i v e a c c u s e d members p a s s e d by W h i t e h a l l , t h e crowds c r i e d o u t "What has become o f t h e K i n g and h i s c a v a l i e r s . . . where i s he g o n e ? " 3 1 I n t h e i r own d e f e n c e , some o f t h e members gave s t r o n g speeches i n t h e House u p h o l d i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . To t h e c h a r g e t h a t he had " c a s t a s p e r s i o n s upon h i s M a j e s t y and h i s Government , t o a l i e n a t e t h e A f f e c t i o n s o f h i s p e o p l e , and o p t o make h i s M a j e s t y o d i o u s u n t o t h e m " , Pym answered t h a t i f by p u b l i s h i n g a Remonstrance i d e n t i f y i n g t h o s e who were l a b o u r i n g t o d i s a f f e c t t h e K i n g f rom P a r l i a m e n t , namely t h o s e i l l - a f f e c t e d B i s h o p s t h a t have i n n o v a t e d o u r R e l i g i o n ; o p p r e s s e d p a i n f u l l e a r n e d , and g o d l y M i n i s t e r s , w i t h v e x a t i o u s S u i t s and M o l e s t a t i o n s i n t h e i r u n j u s t C o u r t s ; by c r u e l S e n t e n c e s o f P i l l o r y and c u t t i n g o f f t h e i r E a r s , by g r e a t F i n e s , B a n i s h m e n t s , and p o p e t i c a l I m p r i s o n m e n t ; i f t h i s . . . be t h e c a s t A s p e r s i o n s upon h i s M a j e s t y and h i s Government , and t o a l i e n a t e t h e H e a r t s o f h i s l o y a l S u b j e c t s , good P r o t e s t a n t s and w e l l - a f f e c t e d i n R e l i g i o n , f r o m t h e i r due O b e d i e n c e t o h i s R o y a l M a j e s t y ; Then I am g u i l t y o f t h i s a r t i c l e . 3 3 128: H a s e l r i g g e d e c l a r e d t h a t he had never encouraged or countenanc- ed tumults and r i o t s about the House, but had always c o n s i d e r - ed these i l l e g a l and had voted f o r t h e i r s u p p r e s s i o n . At t h i s p o i n t , S i r A r t h u r completely r e v e r s e d d i r e c t i o n to show t h a t , i n h i s mind at l e a s t , tumults were spontaneous ex p r e s s i o n s of popular h a t r e d , and behind them l a y a l e g i t i m a t e r i g h t of the populace to p e t i t i o n the P a r l i a m e n t . He s a i d "I have assented to a l l Orders f o r t h e i r appeasing; agreed w i t h the Parliament, i n a l l Things, concerning t h e i r P e t i t i o n s and Requests.""* 4 These people, a c c o r d i n g to H a s e l r i g g e , d i d not break any laws, f o r they came unarmed, humbly, by p e t i t i o n , a s k i n g f o r r e d r e s s of t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s "which i s one P r i v i l e g e , and one of the g r e a t e s t , to make t h e i r G r i e f s known to a P a r l i a m e n t , and by them to be r e l i e v e d . " 3 5 indeed they o f f e r e d no A s s a u l t , but being a s s a u l t e d , p r e s e r v e d themselves and departed . . . the matter of t h e i r Clamour was not a g a i n s t the King, nor any of h i s C o u n c i l , i t was not a g a i n s t the Lords, nor the House of Commons; i t was o n l y a g a i n s t D e l i n q u e n t s , a g a i n s t such as had been the g r e a t e s t Oppressors of them. 6 Strode p l a c e d the blame f o r the impeachment of the f i v e members s q u a r e l y on the heads of the bishops impeached i n December. He argued t h a t these bishops wished the f i v e members to be accused of t r e a s o n , o n l y t o procure our Absence from t h i s Honourable House, t h a t we may not have our f r e e Votes i n the T r i a l of the twelve Bishops accused; by whom I v e r i l y b e l i e v e , these A r t i c l e s were drawn, and o n l y by t h e i r A d v i c e , and such as favour t h e i r Cause, e x h i b i t e d . 3 7 12 9 One t h i n g a l l o f t h e s e s p e a k e r s d e n i e d was t h e K i n g ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e y were f o m e n t i n g a r e v o l u t i o n by t u r n i n g h i s p e o p l e away f rom h i m , t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h an a r b i t r a r y g o v e r n m e n t . They a l l a f f i r m e d t h a t t h e y were p r e s e r v i n g t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l aws o f t h e l a n d a g a i n s t t h o s e who w o u l d e n s l a v e t h e n a t i o n . The f i v e l e a d e r s o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n r e a l l y d r a m a t i z e d t h e i r c o n c e r n f o r t h e p o p u l a r s e n t i m e n t when t h e y went i n t o h i d i n g i n t h e c i t y , where t h e r e was no f e a r f o r t h e i r s e c u r i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o C l a r e n d o n , t h i s was d e l i b e r a t e l y p l a n n e d so " t h a t the ' c i t y m i g h t see t h a t t h e y r e l i e d on t h a t p l a c e f o r a s a n c t u a r y o f t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s a g a i n s t v i o l e n c e and o p p r e s s i o n , and so m i g h t p u t on an e a r l y concernment f o r t h e m . " 3 8 I t t o o k t h e K i n g l i t t l e t i m e t o r e a l i z e he had l o s t t h e c i t y . By 7 J a n u a r y , " t h e i r s e d i t i o u s m i n i s t e r s were d e s p a t c h e d t o i n f l a m e t h e n e i g h b o u r c o u n t i e s " , ^ and t o be s u r e , i t was no h a p p y • a c c i d e n t t h a t t h e B u c k i n g h a m s h i r e men a r r i v e d , f i v e t h o u s a n d s t r o n g , t o o f f e r t h e i r l i v e s f o r t h e f reedom o f P a r l i a m e n t on t h e day t h e f i v e members 40 came o u t o f h i d i n g . The p o p u l a c e o f t h e c i t y and t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g c o u n t i e s was t h e i r s , and work a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s c o u l d b e g i n i n e a r n e s t . The e p i s c o p a l p o s i t i o n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f December seemed s e c u r e enough . The " p l e a and d e m u r r e r " t a c t i c o f t h e b i s h o p s impeached i n A u g u s t w o u l d d e l a y any l e g a l p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t them f o r some t i m e , and t h e L o r d s were 130 i n no mood t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e Commons on t h i s m a t t e r . Where l e n g t h y l e g a l ha rangues had f a i l e d , t e r r o r w o u l d n o t . The p h y s i c a l a t t a c k s a g a i n s t t h e p e r s o n s o f t h e b i s h o p s t h e n r e s i d e n t i n London s h o c k e d them o u t o f t h e i r w i t s . The impeachment p r o c e e d i n g s c o m p l e t e l y u n n e r v e d them. On 30 December , 1 6 4 1 , t h e t w e l v e who had s i g n e d t h e P r o t e s t a - t i o n f a s h i o n e d by t h e A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k were c a l l e d t o t h e B a r . 4 1 W i l l i a m s r e f u s e d t o answer a t t h a t t i m e . M o r t o n o f Durham c o n s i d e r e d t h e impeachment t h e g r e a t e s t m i s e r y t h a t had e v e r b e f a l l e n h i m . He-'had gone t o W i l l i a m s ' house two days p r e v i o u s l y and had seen t h e P r o t e s t a t i o n a l r e a d y s i g n e d by many b i s h o p s . He had r e a d i t o v e r s i n c e he was a s k e d t o s i g n i t , and t o o k some e x c e p t i o n s t o i t , " b u t was drawn i n by I n d u c e m e n t s , o r r a t h e r Seducements , and1' t h a t he d i d s u b s c r i b e i t o n l y t o p r e s e r v e h i s r i g h t o f 42 v o t i n g i n P a r l i a m e n t . J o s e p h H a l l o f N o r w i c h was n e x t c a l l e d i n , and s a i d t h a t t h e c h a r g e was t h e h e a v i e s t a f f l i c t i o n e v e r g i v e n h i m s i n c e he w o u l d n o t have c o m m i t t e d an o f f e n c e o f so g r e a t a n a t u r e . He m e n t i o n e d t h a t he had c a u t i o n e d t h e r e s t o f t h e b i s h o p s t o d w e l l on t h e . p e t i t i o n a l i t t l e l o n g e r b e f o r e i t was p r e s e n t e d . R o b e r t W r i g h t o f C o v e n t r y and L i t c h f i e l d p r o f e s s e d t h a t he had n o t i n t e n d e d t o commit t r e a s o n . The o t h e r b i s h o p s answered i n s i m i l a r , ,. 43 f a s h i o n . W a l t e r C u r l l , B i s h o p o f W i n c h e s t e r , who had n o t s i g n e d t h e P r o t e s t a t i o n , was a s k e d had he a l s o been p a r t o f W i l l i a m s ' p r o c e e d i n g s . He u t t e r l y d i s c l a i m e d t h e 130. 44 P r o t e s t a t i o n , and was a l l o w e d t o s i t i n t h e L o r d s . W i t h t h e f a t a l b l u n d e r o f t h e A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k , t h e l a s t b a t t l e a g a i n s t e p i s c o p a l v o t e s b e g a n . T h e i r s t r e n g t h i n t h e L o r d s was d e v a s t a t e d . The f i v e new b i s h o p s f e l t t h e y s h o u l d l i s t e n b e f o r e t h e y began t o s p e a k , s o , i n e f f e c t , t h e i r v o t e s were a l r e a d y l o s t . Of t h o s e b i s h o p s who c o u l d s i t , o n l y J o h n Warner o f R o c h e s t e r went t o t h e House w i t h any f r e q u e n c y , and i t was he who gave t h e " l a s t 45 g r o a n " f o r h i s o r d e r i n F e b r u a r y , 1642 . The K i n g ' s n a i v e hope t h a t p o p u l a r d i v i n e s as b i s h o p s w o u l d s o o t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s t h e e p i s c o p a l bench was s h a t t e r e d on 30 December , 1641 . On t h a t d a t e J o h n Rous r e m i n d e d t h e House t h a t t o accede t o t h e m a k i n g o f new b i s h o p s w o u l d be t o d e f y t h e w i l l o f t h e good p e o p l e who were s e n d i n g i n p e t i t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e e p i s c o p a t e , s h o w i n g t h a t t h e l a t t e r , b e s i d e s t h e i r e x a c t i o n s o u t s i d e o f P a r l i a - ment , were t r y i n g t o d e s t r o y t h e good work o f P a r l i a m e n t by t h e i r v o t e s i n t h e L o r d s . 4 6 I n J a n u a r y , a n t i - e p i s c o p a l speeches c o n t i n u e d . D'Ewes gave s u c h a speech on t h e 1 1 t h , and on t h e 1 7 t h ( the day t h e t w e l v e b i s h o p s were t o e n t e r t h e i r p l e a t o t h e December i m p e a c h m e n t s ) , t h e members o f t h e Commons were r e m i n d e d o f t h e b i s h o p s ' c r i m e s i n speeches g i v e n by Thomas Bagshaw, J o h n W h i t e and O l i v e r S t . J o h n , a l l o f whom demanded t h a t j u s t i c e be d o n e . The impeached b i s h o p s d e n i e d t h a t t h e y were g u i l t y o f t h e t r e a s o n c h a r g e d i n t h e impeachment , and a s k e d t h a t b a i l be s e t f o r them and a speedy t r i a l be h a d . B o t h 132 47 r e q u e s t s were d e n i e d . F e e l i n g a g a i n s t them was v e r y h i g h , and a c l u e as t o why t h e i r r e q u e s t s were d e n i e d i s f ound i n an anonymous p a m p h l e t p u b l i s h e d t h a t d a y . The p a m p h l e t c l a i m e d t h a t b o t h Houses had f o u n d t h e t w e l v e " v e h e m e n t l y p e c c a n t and i n t o l l e r a b l y d e l i n q u e n t . " 4 8 The r e a s o n s were t h e u s u a l : d i s r e g a r d i n g t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t , d e n y i n g t h e l i b e r t y o f t h e s u b j e c t a n d , w o r s t o f a l l , e n d e a v o u r i n g t o a l i e n a t e t h e K i n g f rom P a r l i a m e n t . The i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g i s t h a t t h e p a m p h l e t r e j o i c e s i n t h e n e w - f o u n d harmony o f t h e two Houses i n t h e i r r e s o l v e t o p u n i s h t h e d e l i n q u e n t s . 4 9 The t r i a l was d e l a y e d and n o t h e l d u n t i l a f t e r t h e K i n g had s i g n e d t h e b i l l f o r t h e e x c l u s i o n o f a l l b i s h o p s f r o m t h e L o r d s . No d o u b t b a i l was r e f u s e d and t h e t r i a l d e l a y e d t o i n s u r e t h a t W i l l i a m s o r H a l l , o r any o f t h e o t h e r s , w o u l d n o t g e t n e a r t h e K i n g t o i n f l u e n c e h i m w h i l e b o t h Houses were w o r k i n g f o r t h e e x c l u s i o n . B e s i d e s , i t w o u l d be w i s e n o t t o r u s h p r o c e e d i n g s a t t h a t p o i n t , f o r , i f t h e s e n t e n c e a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s was t o o h a r s h , t h e K i n g m i g h t be a n g e r e d and moved t o s t a y a l l a n t i - e p i s c o p a l l e g i s l a t i o n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f i t were t o o l e n i e n t , he m i g h t t h i n k i t s a f e t o f u r t h e r c o u n t e n a n c e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . As i t w a s , t h e t r i a l began on 17 F e b r u a r y . T h a t W i l l i a m s and t h e o t h e r s had p r e s e n t e d " a n humble p e t i t i o n and p r o t e s t a t i o n o f a l l t h e B i s h o p s and P r e l a t e s p r e s e n t a r o u n d L o n d o n " was b l a s t e d t o s h r e d s by t h e t e s t i m o n i e s o f B r i a n Duppa o f Durham, W a l t e r C u r l l o f 133 W i n c h e s t e r , and W i l l i a m J u x o n o f L o n d o n . Duppa s a i d t h a t he was a b s e n t f rom t h e L o r d s , n o t because o f t h e r i o t s , b u t because he was i n a t t e n d a n c e o f P r i n c e C h a r l e s , and t h a t he knew n o t h i n g about t h e P r o t e s t a t i o n and n e v e r c o n s e n t e d t o i t . C u r l l a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e t u m u l t s had k e p t h i m away one d a y , b u t on 29 December , when he had l a n d e d n e a r t h e P a r l i a m e n t s t a i r s , t h e E a r l o f Newport t o l d h i m t h a t none o f t h e b i s h o p s were i n t h e House t h a t d a y , so he went home. He had seen a d r a f t o f t h e P r o t e s t a t i o n b u t d i d n o t s i g n i t . J u x o n s i m p l y s a i d t h e f r o s t had k e p t h i m o u t o f L o n d o n , and t h a t he had n o t seen t h e P r o t e s t a t i o n t i l l a f t e r i t had 'been d e l i v e r e d . F o r a l l o f t h e i r f e a r , i t was n o t e d t h a t Goodman o f G l o u c e s t e r and P i e r c e o f B a t h and WeTls managed t o g e t t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t i n t h e h e a t o f t h e t u m u l t s , so t h e p e t i t i o n was f a r f rom en t e l l i n g t h e t r u t h o f t h e m a t t e r . u F a r more s e r i o u s , h o w e v e r , were t h e o f f e n c e s G l y n n t h e n a c c u s e d t h e d e l i n q u e n t b i s h o p s o f h a v i n g c o m m i t t e d . On t h e days t h e b i s h o p s were a b s e n t , t h o s e days on w h i c h t h e y s a i d no f r e e P a r l i a m e n t had t a k e n p l a c e , t h e r e was a g r e a t R e b e l l i o n i n I r e l a n d ; and t h e Remedy t o subdue t h a t Kingdom t o O b e d i e n c e was A i d s and S u p p l i e s , as t h e Wisdom and Power o f P a r l i a m e n t s h o u l d p r o v i d e , w h i c h was w e l l known t o t h e B i s h o p s ; t h e r e f o r e t h e i r P e t i t i o n and P r o t e s t a t i o n was a d i r e c t A c t t o endeavour t h e L o s s o f t h a t K i n g d o m . 5 1 T h u s , f o r p o p u l a r c o n s u m p t i o n , t h e b i s h o p s were i n l e a g u e w i t h 134 t h e enemies o f t h e P r o t e s t a n t r e l i g i o n , and t h e t r i a l o n l y c o n f i r m e d t h e g r e a t wisdom o f t h e K i n g ' s a s s e n t s t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e e p i s c o p a t e f rom t h e L o r d s . The L o r d s ' c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e Commons on m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g e p i s c o p a c y was p r e d i c t a b l e . : Tb',-demonstrate t h i s i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f December t h e House o f L o r d s was as a w h o l e s e t a g a i n s t t h e e x p u l s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s . However , t h e December r i o t s p r o d u c e d a d r a m a t i c abandonment o f t h e m a j o r i t y ' s r e s o l v e t o u p h o l d t h e b i s h o p s ' c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t t o d e l i b e r a t e w i t h t h e m . R i o t p r e s s u r e , i t was h o p e d , w o u l d i n s u r e t h e n e c e s s a r y c o o p e r a t i o n e s s e n t i a l i f a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l change was t o be e f f e c t e d . The A u g u s t impeachment p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t t h e t h i r t e e n a c c u s e d o f h i g h t r e a s o n had d r a g g e d on i n t o t h e e a r l y w i n t e r . On 6 December , J o h n G l y n n gave a r e p o r t on t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e c a s e , and r e s o l v e d t h a t a " p l e a and d e m u r r e r " s h o u l d n o t be a c c e p t e d , t h a t t h e b i s h o p s s h o u l d appear b e f o r e t h e Commons, t h a t t h e Lower House s h o u l d be c a l l e d i n on t h e c a s e , and t h a t t h e L o r d s t h e m s e l v e s s h o u l d t a k e c a r e t o see t h a t a m a t t e r o f f a c t , n o t a " p l e a and a d e m u r r e r " , s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d by t h e b i s h o p s . The L o r d s r e p l i e d on 13 December t h a t t h e " p l e a and d e m u r r e r " s t i l l s t o o d , s i n c e t h e impeachment was an a c t o f t h e Commit tee and n o t o f t h e H o u s e . G l y n n r e p l i e d 5 2 t o t h e L o r d s t h a t i t was a v o t e o f t h e H o u s e . By t h e n i t was c l e a r t h a t t h e Upper House had no mind t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e Commons on t h i s p r o j e c t , s i n c e t h e o p p o s i t i o n 136 i n t h e L o r d s was t o o f o r m i d a b l e . C l a r e n d o n n o t e d t h a t t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l o p p o s i t i o n i n t h e Commons were t o t h e i r w i t s ' e n d , so t h a t , b e i n g w i t h o u t any o t h e r h o p e , t h e y r e s o r t e d t o t h e i r l a s t remedy, w h i c h had once b e f o r e s e r v e d t h e i r t u r n i n t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e E a r l o f S t a f f o r d . And t h e r a b b l e o f p r e n t i c e s and i n f e r i o r p e o p l e o f t h e c i t y f l o c k e d i n g r e a t m u l t i t u d e s about t h e House o f P e e r s c r y i n g o u t even a t t h e d o o r s o f t h e House t h a t t h e y w o u l d have no b i s h o p s . . . And t h o s e w i t h whom t h e y were d i s p l e a s e d , . w h e n t h e y c o u l d s e v e r them f rom t h e r e s t , t h e y c r o w d e d , and p r e s s e d , and t r o d u p o n . . . . 5 3 B e s i d e s t h e c r i e s o f "Noe b i s h o p s , noe p o p i s h l o r d s , " many p e e r s were now g r e e t e d as " f a l s e , e v i l , and r o t t e n - h e a r t e d l o r d s . " 5 4 T h i n g s f i n a l l y r e a c h e d t h e s t a g e where "no man c o u l d pa s s b u t whom t h e r a b b l e gave l e a v e t o c r y i n g ' A good L o r d , ' o r " A good m a n — l e t h i m p a s s ' . " 5 5 N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , t h e L o r d s c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r p r o c e e d i n g s t o be f r e e i n t h e h e i g h t o f t h e t u m u l t s , on 28 December , a l b e i t by a m a j o r i t y o f f o u r . 5 6 B u t t h e y had s u f f e r e d so much o v e r t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n t h a t when t h e b i s h o p s ' P r o t e s t a t i o n came on 30 December , t h e y s u d d e n l y l o s t a l l p a t i e n c e w i t h t h e m a t t e r , a n d , a t l o n g l a s t , showed t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e Commons. They even c o n s e n t e d , on 31 December , t o c o n s i d e r t h e second E x c l u s i o n 57 B i l l " a t some c o n v e n i e n t t i m e . " To be s u r e , t h e r e were s t i l l many i n t h e L o r d s who were f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e b i s h o p s ' p l a c e i n t h e Upper H o u s e , among them t h e M a r q u i s o f H e r t f o r d , t h e E a r l o f S o u t h - hampton , t h e E a r l o f B r i s t o l , t h e E a r l o f B a t h and L o r d 136 D i g b y . B r i s t o l t r i e d t o do t h e b i s h o p s a s e r v i c e by r e m i n d i n g , t h e House t h a t once a b i l l had been once c a s t o u t , i t c o u l d n o t be b r o u g h t i n a g a i n d u r i n g t h e same s e s s i o n . S i n c e t h e p r e v i o u s • v o t e a g a i n s t e x c l u s i o n had been c a r r i e d by so many d e c i s i v e v o t e s , i t was c l e a r l y a g a i n s t p a r l i a m e n t a r y r u l e s t o t r y and r e i n t r o d u c e i t . B u t t h e t i m e o f s u c h n i c e t i e s was o v e r . Pym t o o k advantage o f t h e new s i t u a t i o n by c a l l i n g f o r a c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t h e L o r d s on 31 December , 1641. L o r d D i g b y had g i v e n o u t a r e p o r t t h a t t h e p r e s e n t P a r l i a m e n t had been a f o r c e d o n e , and any a c t s o r l aws p a s s e d w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e b i s h o p s ' v o t e s were n u l l and v o i d . T h i s r e p o r t was a c l e a r b r e a c h o f P a r l i a m e n t , s i n c e i t was a p r i v i l e g e o f P a r l i a m e n t t o r e d r e s s t h e g r i e v a n c e s o f t h e n a t i o n . B u t so l o n g as t h e b i s h o p s r e m a i n e d u n p u n i s h e d , t h e K i n g ' s l o y a l s u b j e c t s w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o be o p p r e s s e d , s i n c e i f no Laws can be b i n d i n g t o t h e S u b j e c t / b u t s u c h as a r e v o t e d and a s s e n t e d t o by t h e B i s h o p s , t h e n none can be e x p e c t e d b u t s u c h as a r e d e s t r u c t i v e t o t h e S t a t e ; t h e i r A f f e c t i o n s b e i n g a l t o g e t h e r a v e r t e d f r o m f r e e P a r l i a m e n t a r y P r o c e e d i n g s , and t h e i r D e s i g n s o n l y a g i t a t e d f o r t h e o p p o s i n g t h e Government t h e r e o f ; and we c a n n o t b u t d a i l y f e a r t h e u t t e r C o n f u s i o n o f t h e same t h e r e b y . • I n h i s c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t h e L o r d s on 25 J a n u a r y , Pym s t r e s s e d t h e f a c t t h a t a l l t h e p e o p l e o f E n g l a n d demanded t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e b i s h o p s . The p r o p o s i t i o n was one o f s a v i n g t h e K i n g d o m , and Pym a s k e d t h a t t h e y a c t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r c o n s c i e n c e s . 6 0 P e t i t i o n s were s t r e s s i n g t h e need o f c o o p e r a t i o n between t h e two H o u s e s , as c o u l d be seen i n a 137 p e t i t i o n f rom S u r r e y w h i c h b e s o u g h t them t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r u n i t y w i t h t h e Commons by e x p e l l i n g t h e b i s h o p s "who a r e 61 o b s t r u c t i n g good b i l l s . " B u t , f a r more t o t h e p o i n t , t h e L o n d o n e r s were r e a l l y a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s , and i n t h e i r p e t i t i o n s t o t h e Commons, p l e d g e d t h e i r s o l i d a r i t y w i t h them i n t h e work a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s . One s u c h p e t i t i o n was t h a t o f t h e M a r i n e r s and Seamen, s u b s c r i b e d t o " b y many t h o u s a n d s and p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Commit tee o f t h e H o n o u r a b l e House o f Commons a t G r o c e r s - H a l l , 8 fi o J a n u a r y , 1 6 4 1 - 1 6 4 2 . " The p e t i t i o n e r s p u t t h e blame f o r t h e s lump i n t r a d e and g e n e r a l unemployment o f t h e t i m e on t h e p o p i s h l o r d s and b i s h o p s , whom t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o be f o s t e r i n g t h e C a t h o l i c p«Lots t o o v e r t h r o w t h e f u n d a - m e n t a l l aws o f t h e l a n d by r e a s o n o f t h e i r v o t e s i n P a r l i a m e n t . They r e a l l y f e a r e d a p l o t a g a i n s t t h e i r l i v e s i f t h e p o p i s h p a r t y and b i s h o p s r e m a i n e d u n c h e c k e d , so t h e y a s k e d t h a t t h e Commons be a means t o t h e K i n g ' s M a j e s t y and t h e House o f P e e r s , t h a t l i f e m i g h t be g i v e n t o y o u r good e n d e a v o u r s by t h e i r c o n c u r r e n c e w i t h y o u i n t h e p u n i s h m e n t o f d e l i n q u e n t s and r e d r e s s i n g t h e p r e s s u r e s and g r i e v a n c e s i n t h e C h u r c h and Commonwealth: And f o r t h e b e t t e r e f f e c t i n g t h e r e o f , t h a t t h e P o p i s h L o r d s and B i s h o p s , may be removed o u t o f h i s House o f P e e r s . 6 3 The Women's P e t i t i o n o f 4 F e b r u a r y a l s o c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e h a r d t i m e s , and i t was e v i d e n t enough t h a t r i o t s c o u l d commence a g a i n . G i v e n a l l t h e s e p r e s s u r e s , t h e L o r d s on 5 F e b r u a r y f i n a l l y p a s s e d t h e s e c o n d B i s h o p s ' E x c l u s i o n B i l l ; The o n l y d i s s e n t i n g v o t e s were c a s t by t h e B i s h o p s 138 o f W i n c h e s t e r , R o c h e s t e r and W o r c e s t e r . The Commons was j u b i l a n t , and S i r R o b e r t H a r l e y on 7 F e b r u a r y d e c l a r e d t o t h e L o r d s t h a t t h e House o f Commons d i d much r e j o i c e i n t h a t c l e a r C o n c u r r e n c e and C o r r e s p o n d e n c y between b o t h H o u s e s ; t h a t t h e y d e s i r e d t h e i r L o r d s h i p s w o u l d send some L o r d s t o t h e K i n g humbly t o r e q u e s t , T h a t he w o u l d be p l e a s e d t o c rown t h i s B i l l w i t h h i s R o y a l l A s s e n t , as one o f t h e c h i e f e s t Means o f G i v i n g S a t i s f a c t i o n t o M e n ' s M i n d s , and e x c e e d i n g l y c o n d u c t i n g t o w a r d s s e t t l i n g t h e D i s t r a c t i o n s o f t h e K i n g d o m ; w h i c h was t h e r a t h e r d e s i r e d , because t h e B i l l was t o commence, and be o f F o r c e , on t h e 1 5 t h o f t h i s I n s t a n t F e b r u a r y . 6 4 C o n c e r n i n g t h e p r e s s u r e s e x e r t e d a g a i n s t K i n g C h a r l e s , i t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o d i v o r c e h i s a c t i o n s f rom t h e g r e a t p e r s o n a l danger he f e l t h i m s e l f and h i s f a m i l y t o be i n f r o m t h e d i s o r d e r s i n London f rom 7 December , 1 6 4 1 , t i l l t h e t i m e he l e f t t h e c i t y on 11 J a n u a r y , 1642 . H i s a t t e m p t e d a r r e s t o f t h e f i v e members r e s o l v e d a r o u n d h i s p e r s o n a l c r i s i s . When t h e L o r d s had abandoned t h e b i s h o p s , C h a r l e s had p a n i c k e d and h i s r a s h b e h a v i o u r i n e n t e r i n g t h e Commons had made h i m more u n p o p u l a r t h a n e v e r . However , t h i s e s s a y i s l i m i t i n g i t s e l f t o t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n and t h e K i n g ' s l a s t - d i t c h e f f o r t s t o save t h e e p i s c o p a l o f f i c e . He d e f i n i t e l y l i n k e d h i s own p e r s o n a l f o r t u n e t o t h e b i s h o p s ' f a t e and i n s a v i n g them was h o p i n g t o save h i m s e l f . B u t C l a r e n d o n i n s i s t e d t h a t one r e a s o n why t h e s e c o n d E x c l u s i o n B i l l p a s s e d t h e Commons i n O c t o b e r was t h e " f a t a l n e g l i g e n c e o f t h o s e who c o u l d n e v e r be i n d u c e d t o a t t e n d t h e s e r v i c e 139 w h i c h t h e i r c o u n t r y had t r u s t e d t h e m , and t o w h i c h , i n a l l t r u t h a l l t h e c a l a m a t i e s t h a t a f t e r w a r d s b e f e l l t h e fi c Kingdom a r e t o be i m p u t e d . . . The K i n g f e l t t h i s t o b e . t h e c a s e , . f o r on 12 December , 1 6 4 1 , he i s s u e d a p r o c l a m a t i o n o r d e r i n g t h e numjierous members a b s e n t i n g t h e m s e l v e s f r o m t h e Commons t o r e t u r n t o t h e H o u s e . 6 fi However , as C l a r e n d o n n o t e d , i t was t o no a v a i l . The s t r e n g t h o f t h e K i n g ' s p o s i t i o n on t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n l a y i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e i s s u e . H i s answer t o t h e G r a n d Remonst rance p r o v e d t h i s . F u r i o u s t h a t t h e Commons s h o u l d have p u b l i s h e d i t b e f o r e he had s e n t an a n s w e r , t h e K i n g , a f t e r c h i d i n g t h e Commons f o r t h e i r d i s r e s p e c t , s a i d i t was h i s i n t e n t i o n t o g i v e a l l h i s p e o p l e s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r t h e i r d e s i r e s i n a p a r l i a m e n t a r y way. He s a i d t h a t he was n o t aware o f any w i c k e d and m a l i g n a n t p a r t y i n h i s Government , i n t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l , o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s c h i l d r e n ; i f s u c h had been t h e c a s e , he w o u l d have d i s m i s s e d them. C h a r l e s f e l t t h a t he was d o i n g a l l he c o u l d t o save t h e Kingdom f r o m t h e p o p i s h p a r t y , b u t as f a r as t h e b i s h o p s ' v o t e s were c o n c e r n e d , " t h e i r r i g h t i s g rounded upon t h e F u n d a m e n t a l Law o f t h e Kingdom and C o n s t i t u t i o n s o f P a r l i a m e n t . " 6 7 He showed h i s contempt f o r t h e P a r l i a m e n t by d e c l a r i n g t h a t he w o u l d c a l l whom he w i l l e d t o h i s c o u n c i l t a b l e , and h i s contempt f o r t h e c i t y by s a y i n g he w o u l d d e f e n d so l o n g as he l i v e d t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d , n o t o n l y a g a i n s t p o p e r y , " b u t a l s o f rom t h e i r r e v e r e n c e o f t h o s e many S c h i s m a t i c k s and S e p a r a t i s t s w h e r e w i t h o f l a t e t h i s Kingdom and t h i s C i t y abounds t o t h e g r e a t d i s h o n o u r and h a z a r d o f b o t h C h u r c h and S t a t e , " e x p r e s s i n g t h e hope t h a t P a r l i a m e n t w o u l d j o i n h i m i n s u p p r e s s i n g t h e m . 6 8 Such was n o t t h e w i l l o f P a r l i a m e n t . The t u m u l t s were u sed t o u n n e r v e t h e K i n g as w e l l as t h e f r i e n d s and members o f t h e e p i s c o p a t e . As o f 10 December , t h e K i n g was unmoved, f o r he i s s u e d " A P r o c l a m a t i o n f o r O b e d i e n c e t o t h e Lawes o r d a i n e d f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g o f t h e t r u e R e l i g i o n i n t h i s Kingdom o f E n g l a n d . " 6 9 The p u b l i s h i n g o f t h e Grand Remonst rance was u sed t o c o u n t e r t h i s , s h o w i n g i n d e t a i l how t h e K i n g ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h was i n g r e a t f a s h i o n h e l p i n g t o d e s t r o y t h e S t a t e . H i s r e s p o n s e was e x p e c t e d . N o t q u i t e e x p e c t e d was h i s own a p o l o g i a " t o a l l h i s l o v i n g s u b j e c t s . " 7 0 By now i t was e v i d e n t t h a t C h a r l e s f e l t he had been pushed f a r e n o u g h . I n g o i n g t o t h e p e o p l e , he was a d m i t t i n g t h a t t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l d r i v e had as i t s base a b r o a d p o p u l a r r e j e c t i o n o f t h e e p i s c o p a l o f f i c e . He had t a k e n c a r e o f c i v i l l i b e r t i e s , as was e v i d e n t i n t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l l e g i s l a t i o n he had s i g n e d i n J u l y , 1641 . He was w i l l i n g t o j o i n w i t h t h e P a r l i a m e n t i n a l t e r i n g c e r e m o n i e s . B u t he c o u l d n o t s t a n d by and c o u n t e n a n c e t h e b o l d L i c e n c e o f some men i n P r i n t i n g o f P a m p h l e t s , i n P r e a c h i n g and P r i n t i n g o f Sermons , f u l l o f b i t t e r n e s s and m a l i c e a g a i n s t t h e p r e s e n t Government , a g a i n s t t h e Lawes e s t a b l i s h e d , so f u l l o f s e d i t i o n a g a i n s t o u r - S e l f e and t h e peace o f t h e K i n g d o m . 141 He a s k e d t h e p e o p l e t o j o i n w i t h h i m and h i s m i n i s t e r s t o p u n i s h t h o s e l i b e l l i n g h i m and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o r , i n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n . As i n h i s r e p l y t o t h e Grand R e m o n s t r a n c e , C h a r l e s d e c l a r e d he w o u l d d e a l w i t h u n j u s t c e r e m o n i e s b u t he w o u l d u p h o l d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f e p i s c o p a c y . The d e f e c t i o n o f t h e L o r d s , t h e K i n g ' s f e a r s f o r h i s w i f e and f a m i l y , and h i s l o s s o f p o p u l a r i t y i n London because o f h i s e n t r y i n t o t h e House o f Commons, p u t u n b e a r a b l e p r e s s u r e on t h e K i n g a f t e r he had l e f t L o n d o n . The s i § n s were e v e r y w h e r e e v i d e n t ; t h e p e o p l e wanted t h e b i s h o p s o u t o f t h e House o f L o r d s . Even t h o u g h i t was becoming e v i d e n t t h a t i f C h a r l e s w o u l d n o t accede t o t h e w i s h e s o f t h e p e o p l e as e x p r e s s e d i n P a r l i a m e n t , he m i g h t l o s e h i s c r o w n , t h e K i n g was r e l u c t a n t t o change h i s p o s i t i o n . He had sworn a t h i s c o r o n a t i o n t o u p h o l d t h e E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h . To c o n s e n t t o t h e e x p u l s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s f rom t h e House o f L o r d s w o u l d be t o a c t a g a i n s t t h e d i c t a t e s o f h i s c o n s c i e n c e . S i r J o h n C u l p e p p e r u r g e d t h e K i n g t o s i g n t h e s e c o n d B i s h o p s ' E x c l u s i o n B i l l , w h i c h was s e n t t o t h e K i n g a l o n g , w i t h t h e B i l l c o n c e r n i n g t h e M i l i t i a . No one e x p e c t e d C h a r l e s t o s i g n e i t h e r , b u t C u l p e p p e r , f u l l y aware o f t h e K i n g ' s d e f l a t e d p o p u l a r i t y u r g e d t h a t he do t h i s because t h e M i l i t i a B i l l was f a r more dangerous t h a n t h e f o r m e r b i l l , and h i s a c q u i e s c e n c e t o t h e E x c l u s i o n B i l l w o u l d show h i s good w i l l t o a l l . The K i n g w o u l d n o t g i v e i n , and when he h e a r d t h a t Hyde 142. a g r e e d w i t h h i s r e s o l v e , he became even more o b d u r a t e . 72 I n d e s p e r a t i o n , C u l p e p p e r t u r n e d t o t h e Queen. C u l p e p p e r t e r r i f i e d t h e Queen by t e l l i n g h e r t h a t i f h e r husband d i d n o t g i v e i n , h e r j o u r n e y t o F r a n c e m i g h t be s t o p p e d . The K i n g wanted h e r o u t o f t h e C o u n t r y , m a i n l y so t h a t she c o u l d be o u t o f t h e r e a c h o f h i s enemies who wanted t o impeach h e r . The Queen, no l o v e r o f t h e h i e r a r c h y o f a r e l i g i o n she c o n s i d e r e d t o be h e r e t i c a l , r e f u s e d t o b o a r d t h e s h i p a t Dover u n t i ' M C h a r l e s had s i g n e d t h e b i l l 73 a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s . C u l p e p p e r had a s s u r e d h e r t h a t t h i s a c t i o n w o u l d r e d o u n d t o h e r a d v a n t a g e . What e f f e c t a l l t h i s p r e s s u r e had on t h e K i n g ' s s c r u p l e s c o n c e r n i n g h i s C o r o n a t i o n O a t h no one knows . B r a m s t o n a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e K i n g s i g n e d t h e b i l l because he was " w i l l i n g e t o p l e a s e h i s p e o p l e and t o p r e u e n t [ s i c ] i f p o s s i b l e any o c c a s s i o n o f 74 b r e a c h . . . . " However , by m i d - F e b r u a r y , one can be s u r e t h a t C h a r l e s was worn down by t h e n e v e r - e n d i n g a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l p r e s s u r e w h i c h was c l e a r l y now a p o p u l a r movement. F e a r f u l f o r t h e s a f e t y o f t h e one he l o v e d and t r u s t e d more t h a n anyone on e a r t h , and b e l i e v i n g C u l p e p p e r ' s a s s u r a n c e s t h a t t h e Commons and L o r d s w o u l d n e v e r a g a i n send h i m a b i l l o f so u n p l e a s a n t a n a t u r e , t h e K i n g f i n a l l y s i g n e d on 13 F e b r u a r y " A n A c t f o r d i s e n a b i l i n g a l l P e r s o n s i n H o l y O r d e r s t o e x e r c i s e t h e i r T e m p o r a l J u r i s d i c t i o n o r A u t h o r i t y , " s t a t i n g t h a t i t was h i s w i l l t o d e s i r e n o t h i n g more t h a n t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h i s K i n g d o m . 7 5 When t h e news 143 reached London, Hacket s a d l y observed t h a t the people " f e l l to B e l l s and B o n f i r e s , and prophaned the Name of God, t h a t He had heard them, whose G l o r y was not i n t h e i r thoughts from beginning to end." The i m p l i c a t i o n s of the e x c l u s i o n of the bishops from the a f f a i r s of the E n g l i s h Government were v a s t . Never before i n E n g l i s h h i s t o r y had the popular w i l l changed, i n a s u b s t a n t i a l way, the i n s t i t u t i o n of Government. The e n t i r e order was c a s t i n t o d i s g r a c e because of the e x e r t i o n s of a few people. The l e s s o n s l e a r n e d were important ones. Those who, because of t h e i r o f f i c e , seemed answerable only to God and the King, found themselves answerable to the n a t i o n . Through c a r e f u l m a n i p u l a t i o n by the management of the House, popular sentiment brought enough p r e s s u r e to remove the o b s t r u c t i o n of these, the most mi s e r a b l e of the King's s u p p o r t e r s . Without h i s bishops, popular c r i t i c i s m c o u l d f a l l on no one other than the King. I f bishops c o u l d be removed, so c o u l d t h e i r head. In t r u t h , the E n g l i s h R e v o l u t i o n had a l r e a d y begun. NOTES CHAPTER I 1 S . R. G a r d i n e r , H i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d f r o m . t h e A c c e s s i o n o f James I t o t h e O u t b r e a k o f t h e C i v i l War 1603-1642 , (10 v o l s . ; L o n d o n : Longmans, G r e e n , and C o . , 1 8 8 4 ) , I X , 2 1 5 . ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as G a r d i n e r , H i s t o r y , I X ) . 2 V . P e a r l , London and t h e O u t b r e a k o f t h e P u r i t a n R e v o l u t i o n , ( O x f o r d : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961) , p . 166 ; ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as P e a r l , L o n d o n ) . H . R. T r e v o r - R o p e r , "The F a s t Day Sermons o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t , " i n E s s a y s f o r B r i t i s h H i s t o r y , e d . by H . R. T r e v o r - R o p e r , (London : M a c m i l l a n & C o . , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 89 . 3 P e a r l , L o n d o n , p . 1 6 3 . 4 C . H i l l , Economic P r o b l e m s o f t h e C h u r c h f rom A r c h b i s h o p W h i t g i f t . t o t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t , ( O x f o r d : The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1956) p . 2 8 2 , c i t i n g P . H e y l i n , C y p r i a n u s A n g I l e u s (1668) p p . 2 8 4 - 5 ; 304. ( H e r e a f t e r H i l l ' s book c i t e d as Economic P r o b l e m s ) . 5 P e a r l , L o n d o n , pp.- 165 ; 232 . 6 j . H a c k e t , S c r i n i a R e s e r a t a : A M e m o r i a l O f f e r ' d t o t h e G r e a t D e s e r v i n g s o f J o h n W i l l i a m s , D . P . , (London : Edward J o n e s , 1693) p . 1 3 2 : 1 3 9 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as H a c k e t , S c r i n i a . R e s e r a t a ) . 7 P e a r l , L o n d o n , p p . 1 7 1 - 1 7 3 . R P e a r l , L o n d o n , p . 1 9 3 . 9 w. N o t e s t e i n ( e d . ) , The J o u r n a l s o f S i r S imonds D'Ewes f r o m t h e B e g i n n i n g o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t t o t h e O p e n i n g o f t h e T r i a l o f the" E a r l o f S t r a f f o r d , (New H a v e n , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 2 2 ) , p . 3 1 . ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s ) • 1 ° F o r an a c c o u n t o f t h e b i s h o p s ' p e r s e c u t i o n o f P r y n n e , B a s t w i c k , and B u r t o n , see W. M . Lamont , M a r g i n a l P r y n n e , ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p p . 2 8 - 4 8 . H Edward H y d e , E a r l o f C l a r e n d o n , The H i s t o r y o f t h e R e b e l l i o n and C i v i l Wars i n . E n g l a n d , e d . W. Dunn M a c r a y , (16 v o l s . O x f o r d : The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s ) , I , 270 . ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I ) . 12 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 269 . 1 3 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 2 6 5 , n . l . 14 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 2 6 5 , n . l . 145 1 5 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 269 . 1 6 N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 140 1 7 J . H a l l , " H i s H a r d M e a s u r e , " C o n t e m p l a t i o n s upon t h e H i s t o r i c a l Pa s sage s o f t h e O l d and New Tes t ament s w i t h Some A c c o u n t , o f h i s L i f e . a n d S u f f e r i n g s , M o s t l y W r i t t e n by H i m s e l f , (New E d i t i o n , O x f o r d : D . A . T a l b o y s , 1887) , V o l . I , x l v . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as " H a r d M e a s u r e " , C o n t e m p l a t i o n s , I ) . l o * G . I . Soden , G o d f r e y Goodman B i s h o p o f . G l o u c e s t e r 1583-1656 , (London : S o c i e t y f o r t h e P r o m o t i o n ' o f C h r i s t i a n K n o w l e d g e , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 330 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as S o d e n , Goodman). 1 9 H a l l , " H a r d M e a s u r e " , C o n t e m p l a t i o n s , I , x l v . 2 0 L o c . c i t . 21 G r e a t B r i t a i n , P . R. 0 . , J o u r n a l s o f t h e House o f L o r d s , ( L o n d o n ) , V o l . I V , 1 6 5 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d L . " J . I V ) . 22 P e a r l , L o n d o n , p . 2 3 2 , c i t i n g P e r s e c u t i o U n d e c i m a , The C h u r c h e s E l e v e n t h P e r s e c u t i o n . . . , 1 6 4 8 , p . 262 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d P e r s e c u t i o U n d e c i m a ) . 2 3 P e a r l , L o n d o n , p . 2 3 2 , q u o t i n g P e r s e c u t i o U n d e c i m a , p . 57 . 2 4 P e a r l , L o n d o n , p p . 176-184 . H a c k e t , S c r i n i a . R e s e r a t a , p . 1 4 0 : 1 4 9 . 2 6 P e n n i n g t o n was a f r i e n d w i t h seamen h a v i n g been s e c r e t a r y t o h i s u n c l e , C a p t a i n J o h n P e n n i n g t o n . See P e a r l , L o n d o n , p . 178 . 2 7 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I . 337 . 2 8 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 338 . 2 9 " A Remonst rance o f t h e S t a t e o f t h e K i n g d o m , 15 December , 1 6 4 1 , " i n An E x a c t C o l l e c t i o n o f A l l R e m o n s t r a n c e s , D e c l a r a t i o n s , V o t e s , O r d e r s , O r d i n a n c e s , P r o c l a m a t i o n s T P e t i t i o n s , M e s s a g e s , A n s w e r s , and o t h e r Remarkab le Pa s sage s betweene t h e K i n g ' s Mos t E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y , and h i s H i g h C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t b e g i n n i n g a t h i s M a j e s t i e s r e t u r n f rom S c o t l a n d , b e i n g i n December , 1 6 4 1 , and c o n t i n u e d u n t i l l . M a r c h 2 1 , 1643 , (London : E . Husbands , I . W a r r e n , R. B e s t , 1 6 4 3 ) , p . 2 0 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as " R e m o n s t r a n c e , " An E xact.-.C o 11 ec t i on) . A l l w o r k s f r o m t h e m a j o r work w i l l be c i t e d by t h e t i t l e o f t h e document , f o l l o w e d by An E x a c t C o l l e c t i o n ) . 14!6 30 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 4 5 5 . 3 1 W. H . C o a t e s ( e d . ) , The J o u r n a l o f S i r Simonds D'Ewes f r o m t h e F i r s t Reces s o f , t h e . Long P a r l i a m e n t t o t h e W i t h d r a w a l o f K i n g C h a r l e s f r o m L o n d o n , (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 2 ) , p . 215 , n . 7 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as C o a t e s , D ' E w e s ) . See a l s o J o h n B r u c e ( e d . ) , V e r n e y P a p e r s - N o t e s o f P r o c e e d i n g s . i n t h e Long..Parliament7 (London : Camden S o c i e t y , 1st S e r i e s N o . X X X I , 1 8 4 5 ) , p . 128 . H e r e a f t e r c i t e d B r u c e , V e r n e y Papers) , . V e r n e y n o t e d on T u e s d a y , 30 November , 1641 "One s a i d hee was n e w l y come f rom W e s t m i n s t e r armed and t h a t 1 ,000 more were r e a d y t h e r e . He s a i d t h e P a r l i a m e n t men s e n t f o r t h e m . " 32 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 453 . 3 3 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I . 453 . 3 4 C l a r e n d o n , : H i s t o r y , I , 453-454 . 3 5 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 449 . 3 6 B r u c e , V e r n e y P a p e r s , p . 1 3 1 . 3 7 C o a t e s , D ' E w e s , p . 2 1 3 , n . 6 . 3 8 C h a r l e s I , K i n g , H i s M a j e s t i e s s p e c i a l ! Command t o t h e L o r d M a i o r o f . London f o r t h e S e n d i n g o f p r e c e p t s i n t o t h e . c i t y t o s u p p r e s s t h e t u m u l t u o u s a s s e m b l i e s . W i t h a r e l a t i o n o f t h e u p r o a r s made b y . B r o w n i s t s , and S e p a r a t i s t s w i t h i n t h e C i t y o f London a n d . W e s t m i n s t e r , ("London: J o h n Thomas, December 9 , 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 3 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d S p e c i a l l Command). 39 40 41 42 43 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y o f t h e R e b e l l i o n , I , 464 n , S p e c i a l l Command, p . 4 . C o a t e s , D ' E w e s , p . 2 2 5 . C o a t e s , D ' E w e s , p . 226 . S p e c i a l l Command, p . 2 . . 44 C h a r l e s I , K i n g , H i s M a j e s t i e s Answer To t h e P e t i t i o n w h i c h accompan ied t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e House o f Commons: P r e s e n t e d t o Him a t Hampton C o u r t , t h e f i r s t o f December , 1 6 4 1 , (London : R o b e r t B a r k e r and t h e A s s i g n e s o f J o h n B i l e , 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 7 , 4 5 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 464n . 147 46 T > F u l l e r , The C h u r c h H i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n , (3 v o l s . , L o n d o n : Thomas Tegg and S o n , 1 8 3 7 ) , I I I , 432 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as F u l l e r , C h u r c h H i s t o r y , I I I ) . 4 ? F u l l e r , C h u r c h H i s t o r y , I I I , 4 3 3 . 4 8 H a c k e t , S c r i n i a R e s e r a t a , p . 1 6 5 : 1 7 4 . 4 9 S o d e n , Goodman, p . 359 . 5 0 The P a r l i a m e n t a r y o r C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d ; f rom t h e E a r l i e s t Times t o t h e R e s t o r a t i o n o f K i n g C h a r l e s , . I I , Volume X , ( second e d i t i o n , L o n d o n : W i l l i a m Sandby , 1 7 6 2 ) , p . 3 0 1 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y , X ) . 5 1 H a l l , " H a r d M e a s u r e , " C o n t e m p l a t i o n s , I , x l v - x l v i . 5 2 C o a t e s , D ' E w e s , p . 356 , n . 4 . 5 3 H a c k e t , S c r i n i a R e s e r a t a , p . 1 6 7 : 1 7 8 . The A r c h b i s h o p and h i s s e r v a n t s r e p e l l e d t h e r i o t e r s wi-ffi3drawn s w o r d s , d r i v i n g them away " l i k e f e a r f u l H a r e s . " L o c . c i t . 5 4 C o a t e s , D ' E w e s , p . 356 . 5 5 P e a r l , L o n d o n , p . 2 3 2 , q u o t i n g P e r s e c u t i o U n d e c i m a , p . 6 2 . C l a r e n d o n w r o t e t h a t B u r g e s s and S t e p h e n M a r s h a l l had more i n f l u e n c e on b o t h Houses o f P a r l i a m e n t t h a n L a u d e v e r had on t h e C o u r t . See C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 4 0 1 . 5 6 L . J . , . I V , 495 . 5 7 W. P r y n n e , The F i r s t P a r t o f t h e A n t i p a t h i e o f t h e E n g l i s h L o r d l y P r e l a c i e , (London : 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 334. C l a r e n d o n was h a r d l y any more c h a r i t a b l e a b o u t t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e A r c h b i s h o p . See C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 4 6 4 - 4 7 0 . 58 ' • C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 467 . 5 9 H a l l , " H a r d M e a s u r e , " C o n t e m p l a t i o n s , I , x l v i . 6 0 L o c . cit- .- 6 1 H a l l s a i d t h a t t h e K i n d d i d n o t r e a d t h e P r o t e s t a t i o n . See H a l l , " H a r d M e a s u r e , " C o n t e m p l a t i o n s , I , x l v i . 6 2 H a l l , " H a r d M e a s u r e , " C o n t e m p l a t i o n s , I , x l v i - x l v i i . 6 3 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 475 . 64 S i r J o h n B r a m s t o n , A u t o b i o g r a p h y , (London : Camden S o c i e t y , 1 s t S e r i e s , N o . X X X I I , 1 8 4 5 ) , p . 82 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as B r a m s t o n , A u t o b i o g r a p h y ) . 148 6 5 Clarendon, History, I, 476. 66 clarendon, History, I, 476. 67 Hacket, S c r i n i a Reserata, p. 140:148. 68 Hacket, S c r i n i a Reserata, p. 140:148. NOTES CHAPTER I I J o h n Pym, A D e c l a r a t i o n P r e s e n t e d t o t h e H o n o u r a b l e House o f Commons. W i t h a Speech d e l i v e r e d a t a c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t h e L o r d s , J a n u a r y 2 5 , 1 6 4 1 / 4 2 . By o c c a s i o n o f t h e P e t i t i o n f r o m t h e C i t y o f L o n d o n , and t h e C o u n t i e s o f M i d d l e s e x , E s s e x , and H a r t f o r d . . . P u b l i s h e d by O r d e r o f t h e House o f ,Commons , (London : f o r R i c h a r d Lownes , 1641), p . 3 2 . 2 J . 0 . H a l l i w e l l , e d . The A u t o b i o g r a p h y and C o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f S i r . S i m o n d s D ' E w e s , 2 v o l s . , L o n d o n : R i c h a r d B e n t l e y , 1 8 4 5 ) , I I , 255 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as H a l l i w e l l , D ' E w e s ' A u t o b i o g r a p h y , I I ) . 3 I n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e f i r s t few y e a r s o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t , J . W. Gough t h o u g h t f u n d a m e n t a l l a w t o a p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n m i g h t mean " t h e c l a i m o f t h e p a r l i a m e n t t o g o v e r n , o r a t any r a t e t o c h e c k m i s g o v e r n m e n t , because i t r e p r e s e n t e d t h e n a t i o n . . . . C o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h i s demand, w h i c h however p h r a s e d , was i m p l i c i t l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y , t h e r o y a l i s t s c o u l d j u s t l y say t h a t i t was t h e y who s t o o d f o r a r b i t r a r y p o w e r , " J . W. Gough, F u n d a m e n t a l Law I n E n g l i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y , ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 78 . S e e a l s o S. E . P r a l l , The A g i t a t i o n f o r Law Reform d u r i n g t h e P u r i t a n R e v o l u t i o n 1640-1660 , (The Hague : M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 1 5 - 1 7 . 4 E . Calamy ( the Y o u n g e r ) , An H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t o f My Own L i f e w i t h some R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e Times I have L i v e d ( 1 6 7 1 - 1 7 3 1 . ) , e d . J . T . R u t t , (2 v o l s . , L o n d o n : Henry C o l b u r n and R i c h a r d B e n t l e y , 2nd E d i t i o n , 1 8 3 0 ) , I , 54 . I n t h e t h i r d f o o t n o t e on p . 54 , t h e e d i t o r n o t e d t h a t t h e Remonst rance was " t h e London P e t i t i o n a g a i n s t b i s h o p s , p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Commons, D e c . 1 1 , 1 6 4 0 . " T h i s n o t e was c i t e d by A . , H . D r y s d a l e , H i s t o r y , o f t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n s i n . E n g l a n d , ( L o n d o n : P u b l i c a t i o n Commit tee o f t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d , 1 8 8 9 ) , p . 266 , n . 1. R. B a i l l i e , The L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s o f R o b e r t . B a i l l i e , (3 v o l s . , E d i n b u r g h : Banna tyne C l u b , 1 8 4 1 ) , I , 2 7 5 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I ) . U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e n o t e d , a l l l e t t e r s o f B a i l l i e were s e n t t o t h e P r e s b y t e r y o f I r v i n e f r o m L o n d o n . The d a t e s o f a l l l e t t e r s when n e c e s s a r y w i l l be p l a c e d a f t e r t h e c i t a t i o n . The l e t t e r i n t h i s c i t a t i o n was s e n t on 2 D e c , 1640 . 6 I b i d . , I , 3 1 1 . 150 "To t h e R i g h t H o n o u r a b l e t h e Commons House o f P a r l i a m e n t . The Humble P e t i t i o n o f many o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s s u b j e c t s i n and a b o u t t h e C i t y o f L o n d o n , and s e v e r a l C o u n t i e s o f t h e K i n g d o m , " J . R u s h w o r t h , H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s . . . C o n t a i n i n g t h e P r i n c i p a l M a t t e r s W h i c h Happened From . . . N o v . 3 , 1640 t o Thomas C o k e r w i l l , 1 6 4 2 ) , V o l . I V , p . 9 3 . ( H e r e a f t e r t h e London P e t i t i o n w i l l be c i t e d " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n w i t h p a g i n a t i o n f rom R u s h w o r t h ' s w o r k . R u s h w o r t h ' s work w i l l be c i t e d as R u s h w o r t h , H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s I V ) . p " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n , p . 9 3 . 9 I b i d . , p p . 9 3 - 9 4 . 1 ° I b i d . , p . 19 . F o r an a c c o u n t o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e C o n v o c a t i o n h e l d f rom 14 A p r i l , 1640 t o 29 May , 1640 see F u l l e r , C h u r c h H i s t o r y , I I I , 4 0 5 - 4 0 9 . G a r d i n e r , H i s t o r y , I X , 1 4 2 - 1 4 8 . 1 1 " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n , p . 9 6 . T h e r e were two m a i n d i v i s i o n s o f E c c l e s i a s t i c a l C o u r t s , t h e C o u r t s o f H i g h C o m m i s s i o n and t h e o r d i n a r y d i o c e s a n c o u r t s . F o r an a c c o u n t o f t h e C o u r t s o f H i g h C o m m i s s i o n see R. G . U s h e r , "The R i s e and F a l l o f t h e H i g h C o m m i s i o n , ( O x f o r d : The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) t R. E . H e a d , R o y a l Supremacy and t h e T r i a l s o f B i s h o p s 1558-1725 , (London : S o c i e t y f o r t h e P r o m o t i o n o f 0 \ r i s t i a n K n o w l e d g e , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 1 2 , n . 2 . Some b i s h o p s a l s o , s a t as j u d g e s i n t h e S t a r Chamber w h i c h was s e p a r a t e f rom t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o u r t s . See J . P . Kenyon ( e d . ) , The S t u a r t C o n s t i t u t i o n 1603-1688 , ( C a m b r i d g e : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 118-119 . Thereafter c i t e d as K e n y o n , S t u a r t C o n s t i t u t i o n ) . 1 2 " R o o t and : B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n , p . 9 6 . The ex o f f i c i o o a t h was a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e C o u r t o f H i g h C o m m i s s i o n t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d e f e n d a n t on h i s r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s . The snag was t h a t t h e d e f e n d a n t was o b l i g e d t o answer any q u e s t i o n p u t t o h i m w i t h o u t p r i o r w a r n i n g . See K e n y o n , S t u a r t C o n s t i t u t i o n , p . 177 . 1 3 " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n , p . 9 4 - 9 5 . R i c h a r d C h i s w e l l and .14 I b i d p p . 9 4 - 9 5 . 15. I b i d . , p p . 9 4 - 9 6 . 16 I b i d . , p . 9 3 . i 7 L o c . c i t . 18 B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 286 . 19 N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 313 . 151 ^ u Smectymnus, An Answer To a Book E n t i t l e d An Humble. Remons t rance , ' (London : f o r I . R o t h w e l l , 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 3 2 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Smectymnus, An A n s w e r ) . p i B r u c e , V e r n e y P a p e r s , p . 4 . (Wherever a p p l i c a b l e , t h e page number and a r t i c l e s o f t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n and Remonst rance as c i t e d by B r u c e ' s e d i t i o n o f V e r n e y P a p e r s w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by p . ' a_ • ) • 22 I b i d . , p . 1 1 , a . 6 . 23 I b i d . , p p . 1 2 , a . 9 ; 14 , a a . 1 4 , 1 5 . 24 I b i d . , p . 1 1 , a . 5 . 25 I b i d . , p p . 12 , a . 9 ; 1 3 , a a . 1 2 , 1 1 . 26 . I b i d . , p . 1 2 , a . 10 27 o f t h e I b i d . , b i s h o p 1 p . 1 4 , a . s c r i m e s . . 1 8 . He V e r n e y ' s n o t e s gave a schema t h e n added t h e c h a r g e s i n f u l l and t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i v e n them by C o r n e l i u s B u r g e s s who s e r v e d as a p e r i t u s t o t h e Commit tee o f T h i r t y when i t was r e v i e w i n g t h e p e t i t i o n i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p o s i t i v e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l l e g i s l a t i o n . R u s h w o r t h , H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s I V , p . 1 7 1 . N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 314 . B r u c e , V e r n e y P a p e r s , p . 12 C o a t e s , D ' E w e s / p . 53 C . J . I I , 1 0 1 . B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 308 . (15 M a r c h , 1 6 4 1 ) . L o c . c i t . H a l l i w e l l V o D ' ' E w : e s A u t o b i o g r a p h y , I I , 254 . T h i s l e t t e r was s e n t on 14 D e c , 1640 . 3 6 " A d d r e s s t o S i r Edward D e r i n g f r o m t h e I n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e W e a l d , w i t h t h e K e n t p e t i t i o n a g a i n s t E p i s c o p a c y , s e n t t o h i m t h r o u g h M r . R i c h a r d R o b s o n , o f C r a n b r o o k , 1 D e c , 16 '41," P r o c e e d i n g s , P r i n c i p a l l y i n t h e C o u n t y o f K e n t , i n C o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e P a r l i a m e n t s . C a l l e d i n 1640 and E s p e c i a l l y w i t h t h e Commit tee o f R e l i g i o n A p p o i n t e d i n t h a t Y e a r ^ L . B . L a r k i n g , e d i t o r , ( W e s t m i n s t e r : Camden S o c i e t y , 1 s t S e r i e s , N o . L X X X , 1 8 6 2 ) , p . 2 5 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as L a r k i n g , P r o c e e d i n g s i n K e n t ) . 28 29 30 31 32 33 34, 35 152 37 S i r Edward D e r i n g , A C o l l e c t i o n o f Speeches Made by S i r Edward D e r i n g , i n M a t t e r s o f R e l i g i o n . Some f o r m e r l y P r i n t e d , and d i v e r s more now A d d e d ; A l l o f them R e v i v e d , f o r t h e V i n d i c a t i o n o f h i s Name, f r o m Weake and W i l f u l C a l u m n i e , (London : E . G . J . F . E g l e s f i e d and J . S t a f f o r d , 1642), p . 18. (13 J a n . , 1640). ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as D e r i n g , A C o l l e c t i o n o f S p e e c h e s ) . j 8 N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p p . 282-283. 3 9 I b i d . , p . 283. 40 I n my r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s s t u d y b o t h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and a t t h e L i b r a r y o f U n i o n T h e o l o g i c a l S e m i n a r y ( M c A l p i n C o l l e c t i o n ) , New Y o r k , N . Y . , I c o u l d f i n d no c o p i e s o f t h e c o u n t y p e t i t i o n s o f J a n u a r y , 1641. As a r e s u l t , my e v i d e n c e i s n o t as s t r o n g as I w o u l d have w i s h e d , and I am r e l y i n g on D'Ewes f o r my m a j o r s o u r c e . S i n c e he d i d m e t i c u l o u s l y r e c o r d t h e m a j o r c o n t e n t o f t h e p e t i t i o n s he saw, i n c l u d i n g t h e London P e t i t i o n , I f e e l t h a t h i s B r i e f m e n t i o n o f t h e c o u n t y p e t i t i o n as b e i n g " R o o t and B r a n c h " i n n a t u r e c a n l e a d one t o assume t h a t t h e c o u n t y p e t i t i o n s were v e r y s i m i l a r i f n o t t h e same. On 13 J a n u a r y , 1641, he w r o t e t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c e r n i n g t h e K e n t P e t i t i o n : "Then was a p e t i t i o n p r e f e r r e d by S i r Edward D e e r i n g i n t h e name o f t h e C o u n t i e o f K e n t f o r t h e i r ease and d e l i v e r e n c e f rom t h e t y r a n n i c a l l power o f t h e B i s h o p p s and t h e a b o l i s h i n g o f t h e v e r i e H i e r a r c h i e i t s e l f e , " N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 249. 41 N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 19 . 42 I b i d . , p p . 2 0 0 - 2 0 1 . 43 I b i d . , p . 97 . 44 I b i d . , p . 3 5 1 . 45 I b i d . . , p . 356 . 46 I b i d . , p . 375 . 47 A P e t i t i o n P r e s e n t e d To The o f N o t t i n g h a m . . . . , p . 1 5 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as N o t t i n g h a m P e t i t i o n ) . 48 N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 1 4 3 . 49 The humble P e t i t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t e r s o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d d e s i r i n g R e f o r m a t i o n o f C e r t a i n e Ceremonie s and abuses o f t h e , C h u r c h . . . . , p . 2 ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s September M i n i s t e r s . ' P e t i t i o n . T h i s p e t i t i o n was p u b l i s h e d i n Sep tember , 1 6 4 1 . No d a t e ' a p p e a r s on i t s t i t l e p a g e ) . 50 N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 2 2 1 . 51 N o t t i n g h a m P e t i t i o n , p . 4,. 153 5 2 N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 288. 5 3 September" M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n , p . 3. 54 55 56 N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 414. I b i d . , p p . 200-201. G a r d i n e r , H i s t o r y , I X , 2 85; S o d e n , Goodman, p . 330, 5 7 A t l e a s t e i g h t e e n p r o - E p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s were r e c e i v e d by t h e House f rom 3 N o v . , 1640 t o 15 F e b . , 1642 ( s i x o f them f rom W a l e s ) . S i h c e ^ t h e s t u d y was t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l d r i v e , no m a j o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n was made c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e p e t i t i o n s . However , t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s n e v e r had much p u b l i c i t y f o r , as S i r J o h n C o k e , J r . w r o t e t o h i s f a t h e r " a l l a r t i s u sed t o keepe p e t i t i o n s f o r e p i s c o p a c y f rom b e i n g p r e s e n t e d t o t h e H o u s e , s u c h b e i n g p r e p a r e d i n many p l a c e s . " See C o a t e s , D ' E w e s , p p . 290-291, n . 3 f o r q u o t e c i t e d and f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n o f p r o - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n p r o b l e m s . A f a c t o r f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between p r o and a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s . The f o r m e r t e n d e d t o be d e f e n s i v e , and o f t e n t o o l a v i s h i n t h e i r p r a i s e o f t h e e x c e l l e n c y o f e p i s c o p a c y . They g e n e r a l l y m i s s e d t h e p o i n t o f t h e w h o l e c o n t r o v e r s y , t h a t i s , t h e p e o p l e no l o n g e r w o u l d l o o k t o t h e m a r t y r e d b i s h o p s o f M a r y ' s r e i g n as examples o f t h e e x c e l l e n t men who were b i s h o p s . I n s t e a d t h e y were c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e L a u d i a n b i s h o p s who were w i c k e d men. A l s o , some p r o - p r e l a t i c a l p e t i t i o n s were v e r y l i t e r a r y , whereas p e t i t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s were " g u t " by c o m p a r i s o n . F o r examples o f p r o - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s , s e e . S o d e n , Goodman, p . 355, and S i r Thomas A s t o n , A Remonst rance A g a i n s t P r e s b y t e r y , 1641 p a s s i m . 5 8 , C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 271. 59 60 P e a r l , L o n d o n , p p . 233-234, C l a r e n d o n gave t h e number as 20,000, C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 270. D'Ewes t h o u g h t i t t o be 15,000, N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 138. 6 1 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , .272. 6 2 N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 313. 63 w. I . , P e t i t i o n s a g a i n s t B i s h o p s and t h e i r V o t e s i n P a r l i a m e n t s u b s c r i b e d u n t o a f t e r a C l a n d e s t i n e , d e l i v e r ' d a f t e r a t u m u l t u o u s manner , and f a l s l y g o i n g u n d e r t h e name o f a w h o l e C o u n t i e o r Towne, p r o v e d t o be b o t h c o n t r a r y t o o u r l a t e t a k e n p r o t e s t a t i o n , a s . a l s o u t t e r l y u n l a w f u l / b y many o t h e r c l e e r e and e v i d e n t R e a s o n s , (London : A . N . f o r R i c h a r d Lownds , 1642) , p . 2 154 6 4 . , _ I b i d . , p. 3. fi5 Loc. c i t . 66 Of s i x t e e n s e l e c t committees, three d e a l t with the proceedings of the f o l l o w i n g Bishops: Laud, P i e r c e and Wren. NOTES CHAPTER I I I s . v . D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l B i o g r a p h y . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as D . N . B . ) . See a l s o P. . M a s s o n , The L i f e o f J o h n M i l t o n ' , and H i s t o r y o f H i s T i m e , (7 v o l s . , London and New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n and C o . , 1 8 7 1 ) , I I , 214. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as M a s s o n , M i l t o n , I I ) . 2 J . H a l l , " A n Humble Remonst rance t o t h e H i g h C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t by a P u t i f u l Son o f t h e C h u r c h , " The Works o f t h e R t . R e v . . J o s e p h H a l l , D . P., A New E d i t i o n R e v i s e d and C o r r e c t e d w i t h Some A d d i t i o n s , e d . by P . W y n t e r , D . D . , (10 v o l s . , O x f o r d : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 8 6 3 ) , I X , 2 8 2 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as H a l l , " A n Humble R e m o n s t r a n c e " ) . 3 * I b i d . , p . 284 . 4 I b i d . , p . 290 . 5 I b i d . , p . 292 . C r a n m e r , L a t i m e r , R i d l e y and H o o p e r . 7 H a l l ( ? ) , A S u r v a y o f t h a t s e d i t i o u s L i b e l l , t h e P r o t e s t a t i o n P r o t e s t e d , (London : 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 1 2 . 8 I b i d . , p . 4 1 . q W. H a l l e r , The R i s e o f P u r i t a n i s m , (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 3 3 5 . s . v . D . N . B . T h i s work was an answer t o A l e x a n d e r H e n d e r s o n ' s b o o k , The U n l a w f u l n e s s and Danger o f L i m i t e d P r e l a c i e , 1 1 G . M o r l e y , A Modes t A d v e r t i s e m e n t C o n c e r n i n g t h e P r e s e n t C o n t r o v e r s i e . a b o u t C h u r c h G o v e r n m e n t ; W h e r e i n t h e M a i n e Grounds o f t h a t Booke I n t i t l e d t h e U n l a w f u l n e s s and Danger o f L i m i t e d E p i s c o p a c y a r e C a l m l y _ E x a m i n e d , (London : R o b e r t B o s t o c k , 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 1 2 . 12 I b i d . , p . 19 . M o r l e y a l s o t a l k e d about t h r e a t s made t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t i f t h e b i s h o p s were n o t p u t dow.n', b l o o d w o u l d be s h e d . He s t a t e d t h a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n u sed t h r e a t s , n o t p r o o f s t o r e a l i z e t h e i r d e s i g n s " w o r t h y o f a T u r k i s h D e r v i s e . " L o c . c i t . 1 3 M a s s o n , M i l t o n , I I , 248 . 1 4 I b i d . , I I , 198 . 156 1 c R e i g n o l d s , an E l i z a b e t h a n d i v i n e , w r o t e a work commenting on a sermon g i v e n by B a n c r o f t on 9 F e b r u a r y , 1 5 8 8 . 16 E . R e y n o l d s , The Judgment o f D o c t o r R e i g n o l d s C o n c e r n - i n g E p i s c o p a c y . I n . a L e t t e r t o S i r F r a n c i s K r i o w l e s , e d . by J . U s h e r , (London : Thomas P a i n e , 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 8 . 1 7 G e o r g e , L o r d D i g b y , " S p e e c h o f 8 F e b r u a r y , 1 6 4 1 , " J . R u s h w o r t h , ' H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s , I V , p p . 1 7 0 - 1 7 3 . L u c i u s C a r y , L o r d F a l k l a n d , A Speech made t o t h e House o f Commons C o n c e r n i n g E p i s c o p a c y , (London : f o r Thomas W a l k e l y , 1 6 4 1 ) , p p . 1 1 - 1 2 ; W. P l y d e l l , The Speech o f M a s t e r P l y d e l l E s q u i r e : C o n c e r n i n g t h e C h u r c h , F e b . 8 , 1 6 4 1 , (London : 1641) , p . 4 . . ^ ~ 18 W. M . Lamont , M a r g i n a l P r y n n e , ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p p . 5 2 - 5 4 . 1 9 M a s s o n , M i l t o n , I I , 2 1 8 . H e n d e r s o n ' s book a p p e a r e d on 29 J a n u a r y , 1 6 4 1 . 20 L o c . c i t . ?1 R. B a i l l i e , The U n l a w f u l n e s s and Danger o f L i m i t e d P r e l a c i e o r P e r p e t u a l P r e c i d e n c i e I n The C h u r c h B r i e f l y D i s c o v e r e d , (London : . 1 6 4 1 ) , p . A 2 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as B a i l l i e , The U n l a w f u l n e s s ) . 2 2 I b i d . , p . 8 . 2 3 I b i d . , p p . 1 0 - 1 5 . 2 4 I b i d . , p . 1 9 . 2 5 Lamont , M a r g i n a l P r y n n e , pp.. 4 9 - 8 4 . 2 6 The f u l l t i t l e s o f t h e book g i v e an adequate s a m p l i n g o f t h e i r c o n t e n t s : The f i r s t was e n t i t l e d A C a t a l o g u e o f Such T e s t i m o n i e s I n A l l Ages as P l a i n l y E v i d e n c e B i s h o p s and P r e s b y t e r s To Be One, E q u a l and t h e Same J u r i s d i c t i o n , O f f i c e , D i g n i t y , O r d e r and d e g r e e , by d i v i n e Law and i n s t i t u t i o n , and t h e i r d i s p a r i t y t o be a mere humane o r d i n a n c e l o n g a f t e r t h e A p o s t l e s t i m e s ; And t h a t t h e name o f a B i s h o p i s o n l y a T i t l e o f M i n i s t r a t i o n , n o t D o m i n a t i o n o f L a b o u r n o t . o f H o n o u r , o f H u m i l i t y , n o t o f P r e l a c y , o f p a i n f u l l n e s s e n o t o f L o r d l i r i e s s e , w i t h a B r i e f e Answer t o t h e O b j e c t i o n s o u t o f A n t i q u i t y , t h a t seeme t o t h e c o n t r a r y , (London : 1 6 4 1 ) . The s e c o n d work was e n t i t l e d A New D i s c o v e r y o f t h e P r e l a t e s T y r a n n y I n t h e i r , l a t e p r o s e c u t i o n s o f M r . W i l l i a m P r y n n e , an e m i n e n t L a w y e r , D r . J o h n B a s t w i c k , a l e a r n e d P h y s i t i a n , and M r . H e n r y B u r t o n , a r e v e r e n d . D i v i n e . W h e r e i n t h e s e p a r a t e and j p y n t . p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t them i n t h e H i g h 157 C o m m i s s i o n and S t a r Chamber; t h e i r P e t i t i o n s , S p e e c h e s , C a r i a g e "at t h e h e a r i n g and e x e c u t i o n o f t h e i r l a s t s e n t e n c e , and O r d e r s , L e t t e r s f o r and manner o f t h e i r removes t o , . a n d c l o s e i m p r i s o n m e n t s i n t h e C a s t l e s o f L a n c e s t o n , L a n c a s t e r , C a r n a r v a n , ; a n d I s l e s of" S y l l y , G a r n s e y , and J e r s e y . The p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t t h e C h e s t e r m e n , and o t h e r s b e f o r e t h e L o r d s and H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r s : a t Y o r k e f o r v i s i t i n g M r . P r y n n e ; The B i s h o p s o f . C h e s t e r s o r d e r , for . M i n i s t e r s t o p r e a c h a g a i n s t M r . P r y n n e , and t h e Y o r k e C o m m i s s i o n e r s d e c r e e t o d e f a c e and b u r n e h i s p c i t u r e s a t C h e s t e r h i g h C r o s s e , e t c . e t c . , (London : 1 6 4 1 ) . H i s t h i r d and most i m p o r t a n t " work was i n two p a r t s t h e f i r s t p a r t w r i t t e n i n t h e Summer o f 1 6 4 1 , t h e s e c o n d i n t h e W i n t e r o f 1641^42 was e n t i t l e d The F i r s t and Second P a r t o f A n t i p a t h y o f t h e E n g l i s h L o r d l y P r e l a c i e B o t h t o R e g a l l Monarchy and C i v i l U n i t y : Or An H i s t o r i c a l ! c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e s e v e r a l l e x e c r a b l e T r e a s o n s , C o n s p i r a c i e s , R e b e l l i o n s , S e d i t i o n s , S t a t e - s c h i s m s , C o n t u m a c i e s , o p p r e s s i o n s and A n t i - m o n a r c h i c a l l . p r a c t i c e s o f o u r E n g l i s h , B r i t t i s h , . F r e n c h , . S c o t i s h a n d . I r i s h L o r d l y P r e l a t e s , a g a i n s t o u r K i n g s , . K i n g d o m s , L a w s , L i b e r t i e s ; and, o f t h e s e v e r a l l W a r r e s , and C i v i l ! D i s s e n t i o n s o c c a s i o n e d by them i n o r a g a i n s t o u r Realms i n f o r m e r o r l a t t e r a g e s , e t c . , e t c . , (London : 1 6 4 1 ) . These w o r k s w i l l be c i t e d as P r y n n e , A C a t a l o g u e , A.New D i s c o v e r y , and The A n t i p a t h y , I o r I I , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 27 p r y n n e , A C a t a l o g u e , p a s s i m . The s a i n t s w e r e : V i n c e n t F e r r e r , 0 . P . , Thomas A q u i n a s , 0 . P . (bo th o f whom r e f u s e d b i s h o p r i c k s ) and A n t o n i n u s , 0 . P . P r y n n e r e c o u n t s how S t . A n t o n i n u s r e f u s e d t h e a r c h i e p i s c o p a l See o f F l o r e n c e even t h o u g h a b u l l o f Pope Eugene I V commanded h i m t o a c c e p t t h e o f f i c e . H a v i n g c o n s u l t e d t h e D o m i n i c a n s a t t h e P r i o r y o f San Marco (where he was P r i o r ) and t h e M a g i s t r a t e s o f F l o r e n c e ( a l l o f whom u r g e d h i m t o a c c e p t ) he r e l u c t a n t l y a c c e p t e d . However , he k e p t no g r e a t h o u s e h o l d , l i v e d i n a s t a t e o f e v a n g e l i c a l p o v e r t y , had S c r i p t u r e r e a d t o h i m d a i l y a t t a b l e , and s a i d t h e g r e a t e s t f a v o u r anyone c o u l d do f o r h i m w o u l d be t o f r e e h i m o f t h a t o f f i c e . What E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t b i s h o p c o u l d say t h e same? p p . i v ; 2 2 . 28 p r y n n e , The A n t i p a t h y I , 240 . 29 I b i d . , I , .304. 30 I b i d . , I , 300 . 31 I b i d . , I I , v i . 32 H a c k e t , S c r i n i a R e s e r a t a , p . 1 5 4 : 1 6 8 . 33 M a s s o n , M i l t o n , I I , 238 . 158 J . M i l t o n , Of - R e f o r m a t i o n T o u c h i n g C h u r c h D i s c i p l i n e i n E n g l a n d : And t h e Causes t h a t H i t h e r t o have H i n d e r e d i t , ( L o n d o n : Thomas U n d e r h i l l , 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 1 2 . 35 I b i d . , p . 65 3 6 j . M i l t o n , " A n i m a d v e r s i o n s upon t h e R e m o n s t r a n t s D e f e n c e , a g a i n s t Smectymnus , " W o r k s , e d . H . M . A y r e s , (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , V o l . I l l , P a r t I , 1 9 3 1 ) , p . 170 . 3 7 L o c . c i t . 3 8 F o r an e x c e l l e n t a n a l y s i s o f M i l t o n ' s a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l t r a c t s see M a s s o n , M i 1 t o n , I I , 2 3 7 - 2 6 2 ; 356-409 . M a s s o n , M i l t o n , I I , 3 9 1 . C h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , t h e g i v e and t a k e o f Smectymnus, M i l t o n and H a l l , was as f o l l o w s : J a n . , 1 6 4 1 , H a l l , Humble R e m o n s t r a n c e . M a r c h , 1640 , Smectymnus, Answer t o t h e . H u m b l e R e m o n s t r a n c e . A p r i l , 1 6 4 1 , H a l l , : De fence o f t h e Humble Remonst rance A g a i n s t Smectymnus. J u n e , 1 6 4 1 , Smectymnus, A V i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e Answer t o Humble R e m o n s t r a n c e . J u l y , 16 4 1 , M i l t o n , A n i m a d v e r s i o n s upon t h e Remonst rance , J u l y - A u g u s t , 1 6 4 1 , H a l l , A S h o r t Answer t o t h e T e d i o u s V i n d i c a t i o n o f Smectymnus. J a n . - F e b . , 1642 , H a l l , A Modes t C o n f u t a t i o n o f a S l a n d e r o u s and S c u r r i l o u s L i b e l l i n t i t l e d 40 A n i m a d v e r s i o n s u p o n . t h e R e m o n s t r a n t s De fence a g a i n s t Smectymnus. I b i d . . , I I , 391-394 . HaMer , f f i .ThevRi se o f P u r i t a n i s m , p p . 335-336 . ^1 R o b e r t , G r e v i l l e , L o r d B r o o k e , " A D i s c o u r s e O p e n i n g t h e N a t u r e o f t h a t E p i s c o p a c y W h i c h I s E x e r c i s e d i n E n g l a n d , " T r a c t s on L i b e r t y i n t h e P u r i t a n R e v o l u t i o n 1638%1647, e d . by W. H a l l e r , R e c o r d s o f C i v i l i z a t i o n - S o u r c e s and S t u d i e s , e d . by W. T . H . J a c k s o n , (New Y o r k : Oc tagon B o o k s , I n c . , 1965 [ 1 9 3 4 ] , p . 3 . I b i d . , p p . 3-4, I b i d . , p . 60 . 42 43 4 4 I b i d . , p . 95 45 L o c . b i t . 46 47 B a i l i e , The' U n l a w f u l n e s s , p . 4 3 . F u l l e r , C h u r c h , I I I , 428 . 159 48 I b i d . , I l l , 429 4 9 L a m b e t h . F a i r e , W h e r e i n y o u have a l l t h e B i s h o p s T r i n k e t s s e t , t o S a l e , (London : 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 3 . '50 L o c . c i t . 51 Lambeth F a i r e , p . 4 1 . 5 2 Lambeth F a i r e , p . 8 . 5 3 M . A . E . Green ( e d . ) , D i a r y o f J o h n R o u s , (London : Camden S o c i e t y , 1 s t S e r i e s , N o . L X V I , 1 8 5 6 ) , p p . 115-116 . ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as G r e e n , R o u s ) . 5 4 J . T a y l o r , " A Swarm o f S e c t a r i e s , and S c h i s m a t i q u e s , " W o r k s , . ( F i r s t C o l l e c t i o n , M a n c h e s t e r : The S p e n c e r S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 0 ) , p a s s i m . 55 56 I b i d . , p . 24, T a y l o r ' s own " a c c o u n t o f t h e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i n E n g l a n d i n 1641" i s c o n t a i n e d i n h i s p a m p h l e t , The L i a r . R e c o u n t i n g t h e t a l e s o f a l i a r ( w h i c h he l a t e r a s s e r t s a r e t r u e ) a r e t h e s e i n t e r e s t i n g , "man i n t h e s t r e e t " o b s e r v a t i o n s : . . . The B i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y was l i t t l e b e t t e r t h a n a p a p i s t , and t h a t he was c o m m i t t e d f o r t h a t o c c a s i o n t o t h e T o w e r , and t h a t he was n o t l i k e t o be f r e e d f rom t h e n c e t i l l he came w i t h h i s h e e l s f o r w a r d . •• . . . . . . T h e r e a r e a g r e a t many P u r i t a n s i n E n g l a n d , and t h a t t h e y d i d now so d i s t u r b t h e q u i e t n e s s e o f t h e Commonwealth t h a t i t was now a l m o s t T o p s i e - t u r v e y . A l l t h e women i n E n g l a n d a r e grown p r e c i s e and t u r n e d P r e a c h e r s . I t I s as common a t h i n g f o r S o w - g i l d e r s , T i n k e r s , F e l t - M a k e r s , But tonmakers . , W e a v e r s , and C o b l e r s , t o p r e a c h i n a t u b , a j o y n ' d s t o o l e ' , o r s u c h l i k e t h i n g , as f o r a man t o d r i n k e when he i s t h i r s t y . " I b i d . , p p . 4-6'. 5 7 Thomason d a t e s t h e p a m p h l e t (or r e a l l y t h e b o o k , 104 pages) as h a v i n g b e e m p r i n t e d i n F e b r u a r y , 1 6 4 1 . Masson h o w e v e r , n o t e d t h a t t h e book was r e g i s t e r e d a t S t a t i o n e r s ' H a l l as t h e p r o p e r t y o f M r . R o t h w e l l J r . ( the son o f ' t h e p u b l i s h e r ) and was l i c e n s e d " b y S i r Edward D e r i n g i n t h e name o f a Commit tee o f t h e Commons f o r l i c e n s i n g b o o k s . " T h i s w o u l d s e t t h e d a t e a r o u n d 20 M a r c h . C f . M a s s o n , M i l t o n , I I , . 2 1 9 n . 5 R B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 366 . See a l s o Smectymnus, A h A n s w e r , p p . 4 5 - 5 1 . However , many o f t h e h e a d i n g s t o w a r d s t h e end o f " A n A n s w e r . . . a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e a r t i c l e s i n t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n and R e m o n s t r a n c e : An A n s w e r , S e c t i o n X I I : S t a t e Employments a r e 160 r e p u g n a n t t o t h e o f f i c e o f B i s h o p (p . 4 5 ) ; S e c t i o n X I I I : B i s h o p s and p r e s b y t e r s w o r k e d i n a c e r t a i n a r e a o f G o d ' s p e o p l e , n o t i n a f i x e d p l a c e (p . 5 1 ) ; M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n and R e m o n s t r a n c e , A r t . 4 : B i s h o p s d i o c e s e a r e l a r g e and a r e i n c o n v e n i e n t t o t h e B i s h o p , A r t . 6 : B i s h o p s a r e i n c u m b e r e d w i t h t e m p o r a l power and s t a t e a f f a i r s , c f . B r u c e , V e r n e y P a p e r s , p . 1 1 . (Notes t a k e n 17 F e b . , 1 6 4 0 / 4 1 ) . 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 Smectymnus, A n , A n s w e r , p p . 2 1 - 2 2 . I b i d . , p . 22 I b i d . , p . 77 -104 . I b i d . , p . 103 . I b i d . , p . 3 2 . C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I V , 194 . C . B u r g e s s , The F i r s t Sermon P r e a c h e d t o t h e House o f Commons now A s s e m b l e d i n P a r l i a m e n t , (London : f o r B . S tephens and F . M e r e d i t h , 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 4 3 . 66 H . B u r t o n , E n g l a n d ' s Bondage and Hope o f D e l i v e r a n c e , (London : 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 2 3 . 6 7 I b i d - / PP- 1 9 - 3 2 . 6 8 s . v . D . N . B . 69 Thomas C a s e , Two Sermons L a t e l y P r e a c h e d a t W e s t m i n s t e r , ( F i r s t Sermon, L o n d o n : I . R o t h w e l l f o r Luke Fawne, 1 6 4 1 ) , p . v . 70 S. M a r s h a l l , R e f o r m a t i o n and D e s o l a t i o n , o r a Sermon T e n d i n g t o / t h e D i s c o v e r y o f t h e Symptomes o f a P e o p l e t o whom G o d , w i l l by no Means be R e c o n c i l e d , (London : f o r Samuel G i l l i b r a n d , 1 6 4 2 ) , p p . 1-38; 4 5 - 4 7 . 71 See H . R. T r e v o r - R o p e r , "The F a s t Sermons o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t , " E s s a y s i n B r i t i s h H i s t o r y , e d . H . R. T r e v o r - R o p e r , (London : M a c m i l l a n and C o . L t d . , 1 9 6 4 ) , p p . 8 9 - 9 7 , 72 C . J . , I I , 3 8 7 - 4 1 1 . F o r a f u l l a c c o u n t o f D e r i n g ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s , see L a r k i n g , P r o c e e d i n g s i n K e n t , p p . x l v - x l v i . See a l s o N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 4 1 3 r n . f o r a r e f e r e n c e on t h e Commit tee on Abuses o f P r i n t i n g B o o k s . Even J o h n T a y l o r had d i f f i c u l t y p r i n t i n g h i s p a m p h l e t , A Swarm o f S e c t a r i e s and S c h i s m a t i q u e s : ; : h i s b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n on t h e t i t l e page speaks e l o q u e n t l y e n o u g h : " P r i n t e d l u c k i l y , and may be r e a d u n h a p p i l y b e t w i x t hawke and b u z z a r d . " NOTES CHAPTER: I V 1 L . J . , I V , 269 . 2 Edward H y d e , . E a r l o f . C l a r e n d o n , The L i f e o f Edward E a r l .of C l a r e n d o n . . W r i t t e n by H i m s e l f , (3 v o l s . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r i n t i n g - H o u s e ; , 1 7 5 9 ) , I , 387-388 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as C l a r e n d o n , L i f e , I ) . 4 L . J . , I V , 296 : 298-299 . C . J . , I I , 2 3 5 . 5 I b i d . , I I , 2 9 1 . 6 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 2 9 1 . 7 B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 2 8 6 - 2 8 7 . (28 D e c , 1 6 4 0 ) . 8 _ . . . . . . . L o c . c i t . . 9 N a t h a n i e l F i e n n e s , A Speech . . . C o n c e r n i n g B i s h o p s and t h e C i t y o f London P e t i t i o n . . . 9 F e b r u a r y , 1 6 4 0 / 4 1 , p . 5 . N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 339 . C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 222 . 1 1 C o r n e l i u s B u r g e s s , The F i r s t Sermon P r e a c h e d t o t h e House Commons Now.Assembled i n P a r l i a m e n t , 17 November , 1 6 4 1 , (London : f o r P . S tephens and F . M e r e d i t h , 1 6 4 1 ) , passim"! 12 S i r Henry V a n e , H i s Speech I n t h e House o f Commons A t a Commit tee f o r , t h e . B i l l A g a i n s t E p i s c o p a l l Government , (London , F r a n c i s C o n s t a b l e , 1641)..., p . 97 . J Smectymnus, An A n s w e r , p . 9 3 . 14 The S u b s t a n c e o f a C o n f e r e n c e a t a Commit tee o f B o t h Houses i n t h e P a i n t e d Chamber , O c t o b e r 2 7 , 1 6 4 1 , Managed by J o h n Pirn . . . a n d O l i v e r S a i n t J o h n . . . C o n c e r n i n g t h e E x c l u d i n g The T h i r t e e r i e B i s h o p s Impeached by t h e Commons, (London : 1 6 4 1 ) , p a s s i m . B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s . a n d J o u r n a l s , I , p p . 2 8 2 ; 286 ; 303 . (12 D e c , 28 D e c , 28 F e b . r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . F u l l e r , C h u r c h H i s t o r y , I I I . , 4 1 1 - 4 1 2 . D . N e a l , The H i s t o r y o f t h e P u r i t a n s , (5 v o l s . , L o n d o n : W i l l i a m Baynes and S o n , 1 8 2 2 ) , I I , 321-323 ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as N e a l , H i s t o r y , I I ) . See M a s s o n , M i l t o n , I I , 150-151 on t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e e p i s c o p a t e i t s e l f . I n May , 1 6 4 1 , o n l y 18 o f a p o s s i b l e 26 b i s h o p s were s i t t i n g i n P a r l i a m e n t . 162 1 6 G r e e n , R o u s , p . 98 . 1 7 B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 2 7 5 . (2 D e c , 1640) 1 8 I b i d . , I , 304 ; 305 . (28 F e b . , 1641 ; 15 M a r c h , 1 6 4 1 ) . 1 9 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 309 . 2 ^ I b i d . , I , 241-244 . C l a r e n d o n g i v e s an a c c o u n t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c o l l a b o r a t i o n s between t h e s e L o r d s and Pym, Hampden, S t . J o h n , N a t h a n i e l F i e n n e s , S i r Henry V a n e , J r . , and D e n z i l H o l l i s , I b i d . , 1 , 2 4 1 - 2 4 8 . See a l s o I b i d . , I , 309 f o r i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e i n t e n s i t y o f f e e l i n g a g a i n s t t h e e p i s c o p a l government o f t h e C h u r c h on t h e p a r t s o f L o r d Saye and S e l e and L o r d B r o o k e . 2 1 I b i d . , I , 309 . 2 2 J o h n Pym, " A S p e e c h , 7 November , 1 6 4 1 , " The P a r l i a m e n t a r y o r C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d from' t h e E a r l i e s t Times t o t h e R e s t o r a t i o n o f K i n g C h a r l e s I I , (London : f o r J . and T . T b n s o n , A . M i l l a r , 1 7 6 3 ) , V o l . I X , . p p . 1 0 2 - 1 0 8 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y I X ) S i r B e n j a m i n R u d y e r d s a i d on 7 November , 1 6 4 1 : " H i s M a j e s t y h a t h c l e v e r l y and f r e e l y p u t h i m s e l f i n t o t h e hands o f t h i s P a r l i a m e n t and I presume t h e r e i s n o t a man i n t h i s House b u t f e e l s h i m s e l f advanced i n t h i s h i g h T r u s t : B u t i f he p r o s p e r no b e t t e r i n o u r Hands t h a n he h a t h done i n t h e i r s who have h i t h e r t o had t h e h a n d l i n g o f h i s A f f a i r s , we s h a l l , f o r e v e r , make o u r s e l v e s u n w o r t h y o f so g r a c i o u s a c o n f i d e n c e . " C o n t a i n e d i n S i r B e n j a m i n R u d y e r d , F i v e Speeches i n t h e H i g h and H o n o u r a b l e C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t , (London : H . D u d l e y and H . S e i l e , 1 6 4 1 ) , p p . 1 1 0 - 1 1 1 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as R u d y e r d , F i v e S p e e c h e s ) . 23 24 B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 275 . (@ D e c , 1640) C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 244 . 25 B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 280 . (12 D e c , 1640)!. 26 "To t h e H o n o u r a b l e t h e K n i g h t s , C i t i z e n s , and B u r g e s s e s o f the House o f Commons a s s e m b l e d i n P a r l i a m e n t , The Humble P e t i t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a m b r i d g e , " P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y I X , p . 3 2 1 . z "To t h e H i g h and H o n o u r a b l e C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t , The Humble P e t i t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f O x f o r d , " P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y : i X , p p . 3 1 8 - 3 2 1 . P l a n s f o r t a k i n g away t h e l a n d s o f t h e C h u r c h were underway as e a r l y as t h e f i r s t week o f F e b r u a r y , f o r as B a i l l i e w r o t e t o h i s w i f e on 6 F e b . , 1641 " t h e deans and p r e b e n d s , and o t h e r n o t - p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t e r s r e n t s , w i l l be t a k e n away; f o r o t h e r w i s e t h e c o u n t r y 16 3 w i l l n e v e r be a b l e t o s u p p l i e t h e K i n g ' s n e c e s s i t y , and b e a r t h e i r o t h e r b u r d e n s ; b o t t h e s e s u p e r s t i t i o u s r e n t s w i l l doe a l l a b u n d a n t l i e . . . T h i s day M r . Hendersone had a v e r i e sweet c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t h e K i n g t h e i r a l o n e , f o r t h e h e l p i n g o f o u r U n i v e r s i t i e s f r o m t h e B i s h o p s r e n t s . I hope i t s h a l l be o b t a i n e d . " B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 299 . 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y . I X , p . 324. C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 358 . B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 303 . (28 F e b . , 1 6 4 1 ) . N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 140 . L a r k i n g , P r o c e e d i n g s i n K e n t , , p p . 2 7 - 2 8 . R u s h w o r t h , H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s I V , p . 1 7 1 . L o c . . c i t . 3 5 N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 314 . 3 6 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 3 1 1 . 37 T ... ' L o c . e x t . 3 8 S i r Edward D e r i n g , A C o l l e c t i o n o f S p e e c h e s . (Where n e c e s s a r y , t h e d a t e o f speeches w i l l f o l l o w t h e c i t a t i o n ) 39 I b i d . , p . 106 . 4 0 W. P l y d e l l , The "Speech o f M a s t e r P l y d e l l , E s q u i r e : C o n c e r n i n g t h e C h u r c h , F e b . 8 , 1 6 4 1 , (London : 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 2 . 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B . R u d y e r d , F i v e S p e e c h e s , p . 5 . C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 358 n . R u s h w o r t h , H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s I V , p . 1 7 3 . L o c . c i t . B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 302 . (28 F e b . , 1641) C l a r e n d o n , ; H i s t o r y , I , 363-364 . C o a t e s , p . 5 2 . 164 48 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 288 . " T h i s B i s h o p who had been by s e v e r a l c e n s u r e s i n t h e S t a r Chamber, i m p r i s o n e d i n t h e Tower ( J u l y 1 1 , 1 6 3 9 ) , where he r e m a i n e d t i l l a f t e r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s P a r l i a m e n t , and was t h e n s e t a t l i b e r t y upon t h e d e s i r e o f t h e L o r d s , who knew h i m t o be a m o r t a l and i r r e c o n c i l a b l e enemy t o t h e A r c h b i s h o p of C a n t e r b u r y , and i n d e e d had a l w a y s been a p u r i t a n so f a r as t o l o v e none o f t h e b i s h o p s and t o have used a l l l e a r n e d Churchmen w i t h g r e a t contempt and i n s o l e n c e . " L o c . c i t . H a c k e t ' s judgment o f W i l l i a m s i s r e a l l y an a p o l o g i a f o r W i l l i a m s . I n , , S c r i n i a R e s e r a t a we f i n d a d e v o t e d Churchman who t r i e d t o p l a y p o l i t i c s w i t h t h e a i m o f s a v i n g t h e C h u r c h f rom r u i n , b u t who c o u l d n o t manage t o do so a g a i n s t s u c h p o w e r f u l o d d s . See H a c k e t , S c r i n i a R e s e r a t a , p p . 1 3 3 : 1 4 1 ; 137 : 144 ; 137 : 145 ; 156 : 164 ; 156 : 1 6 5 . 49 O l i v e r S t . J o h n , H i s Speech i n P a r l i a m e n t on Monday t h e 1 7 t h C o n c e r n i n g t h e , C h a r g e , o f T r e a s o n Then E x h i b i t e d t o t h e B i s h o p s , " (London : F o r R. B . , 1 6 4 2 ) , p . 37 . 50 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 288 . The B i s h o p s o f L i n c o l n was v e r y c a u t i o u s i n t h i s b u s i n e s s •. • He s a i d t h a t n e i t h e r he n o r t h e o t h e r b i s h o p s d e s e r t e d t h e i r c l a i m t o s i t a t S t r a f f o r d ' s t r i a l . He knew what h i s w i t o f summons's t o P a r l i a m e n t e n j o i n e d h i m t o d o , " b u t h i s L o r d s h i p p e s a i d , t h a t by h i s m a j e s t i e s g r a c i o u s f a v o u r e and t h e f a v o u r e o f t h e i r L o r d s h i p p e s , he w o u l d f o r b e a r t o v o t e o r speak a n y t h i n g e t o t h e M e r i t o f t h i s Cause w h i c h was now p r o s e q u t e d a g a i n s t t h e E a r l o f S t r a f f o r d , and he c o n c e i v e d , h i s B r e t h r e n t h e B i s h o p p s , were a l s o e n c l i n e d soe t o d o , w h i c h was t a k e n by t h e H o u s e , t o be a modest e x p r e s s i o n t h e r e u p o n noe f u r t h e r p r o s e q u t e d , s h o u l d p u t i n h i s Answer i n w r i t i n g e , y e a o r n o e , b o t h t h e s a i d e B i s h o p p and t h e r e s t o f t h e b i s h o p p s , d i d f o r b e a r e t o v o t e a t a l l . " M a u r i c e Bond ( e d . ) , The M a n u s c r i p t s : o f t h e House o f L o r d s , V o l . X I , Addenda 1514-1714 , (London : H . M . S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 2 5 5 - 2 5 6 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as B o n d , M a n u s c r i p t s X I ) . 51 B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 308-309 . (15 M a r c h , 1 6 4 1 ) . 5 2 F u l l e r , C h u r c h H i s t o r y , I I I , 4 1 5 . 53 I b i d . , p . 426 . 5 4 P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y I X , p p . 283-284 . 5 5 I b i d . , p . 2 8 5 . 5 6 I b i d . , p p . 334-354 . (24 May, 1 6 4 1 ) . 57 c l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 313 . 5 8 I b i d . ,- I , 3 1 2 - 3 1 3 . 59 P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y I X , p . 334, 165 60 K i n g C h a r l e s h i s R e s o l u t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e Govenrment o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d b e i n g c o n t r a r y t o t h a t o f S c o t l a n d . W i t h a Speech spoken by t h e L o r d C a r i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f S c o t l a n d , (London : 1641) , p . T~. 6 1 I b i d . , p . 2. 6 2 B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , . I , 286; 294. (28 D e c , 1640, 29 J a n . , 1641, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . I b i d . , I , 302. (28 F e b . , 1641). 63 64 65 66 67 N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 339 . B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 302 . (28 F e b . , 1 6 4 1 ) . I b i d . - I , 296 . (29 J a n . , 1 6 4 1 ) . P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y I X , p . 287 , c i t i n g B . e , M e m o r i a l s , P • 4 3 . B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , . , ! , 286 . (28 D e c . I b i d . , I , 294 . (29 J a n . , 1 6 4 1 ) . 70 I b i d . , I , 299 . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was c o n t a i n e d i n a l e t t e r s e n t f r o m London on 6 F e b . , 1641 . 7 1 I b i d . , I , 292 . (29 J a n . , 1 6 4 1 ) . 72 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 3 1 4 - 3 1 5 . 73 P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y I X , p . 288 . 74 L a r k i n g , P r o c e e d i n g s i n K e n t , p . 47 c i t i n g S i r Edward D e r i n g ' s l e t t e r t o Lady D e r i n g , 20 May , 1 6 4 1 . • 75 D e r i n g , A C o l l e c t i o n o f S p e e c h e s , p . 163 . 76 77 78 79 80 81 I b i d . , p . 78 . C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 3 6 2 - 3 6 3 . I b i d . , I , 350 . B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 2 9 1 . (29 J a n . , 1 6 4 1 ) . L o c . c i t . W i l l i a m F i e n n e s , L o r d Saye and S e l e , Two Speeches o f t h e R i g h t , H o n o u r a b l e . . . . (London : T . U n d e r h i l l , 1641) , p . 1. 166 L o c . c i t . 8 3 S i r H e n r y V a n e , H i s Speech I n t h e House o f Commons, a t a Commit tee f o r t h e B i l l a g a i n s t E p i s c o p a l l G o v e r n m e n t , (London : F r a n c e s C o n s t a b l e , 16 4 1 ) , p . 8 . : " 84 85 86 87 88 89 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 3 6 3 . I b i d . , I , 309-310 . B r u c e , V e r n e y . P a p e r s , p . 12 3 . D e r i n g , A C o l l e c t i o n o f S p e e c h e s , p . 6 3 . (21 May , 1 6 4 1 ) . L o c . c i t . C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 310 ; B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 287 ; 305-306 . (18 D e c , 1640 and 15 M a r c h , 1641 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . 90 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 310 . y ± B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s , and J o u r n a l s , I , 306 . (15 M a r c h , 1 6 4 1 ) . 9 2 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 4 0 1 - 4 0 2 . 93 C o a t e s , D ' E w e s , p . 5 7 . I b i d . , p . 177 . B r u c e , V e r n e y . P a p e r s , p p . 1 2 1 - 1 2 3 . C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 420 . C o a t e s , D ' E w e s , p p . 1 8 6 - 1 8 7 . 94 95 96 97 "The P e t i t i o n o f t h e House o f Commons, w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e S t a t e o f t h e Kingdom when i t was p r e s e n t e d t o H i s M a j e s t y a t Hampton C o u r t , " An E x a c t C o l l e c t i o n , (London : f o r Edward H u s b a n d , T . W a r r e n , R. B e s t , 1642 [ s i c . ] ) , p . 2 . 9 8 B o n d , M a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e House o f L o r d s X I , p p . 2 8 9 - 2 9 1 NOTES CHAPTER V ^ J o h n T a y l o r , " E n g l a n d s C o n f o r t and L o n d o n ' s J o y , " W o r k s , ( F o u r t h C o l l e c t i o n , M a n c h e s t e r : The S p e n c e r S o c i e t y , 1 8 7 7 ) , p . 5 . 2 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 4 3 5 . 3 To t h e House o f Commons, t h e P e t i t i o n o f A l d e r m e n , ( e t c . ) . . . . o f L o n d o n . P r a y i n g t h a t measures s h o u l d b e . t a k e n a g a i n s t t h e R e b e l s i n I r e l a n d and t h a t Roman C a t h o l i c P e e r s a n d , t h e B i s h o p s s h o u l d be e x p e l l e d f rom t h e House o f L o r d s . " (London: 11 December , 1641) , passimT 4 5 6 7 8 " A R e m o n s t r a n c e , " An E x a c t C o l l e c t i o n , p . 17 . " A R e m o n s t r a n c e , " . " A n E x a c t C o l l e c t i o n , p . 17, L o c . c i t . L o c . c i t . B r a m s t o n , A u t o b i o g r a p h y , p . 8 1 . C o a t e s , D ' E w e s , p . 270 . See a l s o Samuel G a r d i n e r , H i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d f rom t h e A c c e s s i o n o f James I t o t h e O u t b r e a k o f t h e C i v i l W a r . 1 6 0 3 - 1 6 4 2 , (10 v o l s . > L o n d o n : Longmans, G r e e n l a n d C o . , 1 8 8 4 ) , X , 9 8 - 9 9 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as G a r d i n e r , H i s t o r y , X ) . Some f o u r h u n d r e d w e l l - t o - d o m e r c h a n t s and t r adesmen were b o r n e i n coaches t o W e s t m i n s t e r t o p r e s e n t t o t h e Commons a p e t i t i o n i n s u p p o r t o f Pym' s p o l i c y i n w h i c h t h e y a s k e d f o r t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e b i s h o p s and C a t h o l i c L o r d s f rom P a r l i a m e n t . They a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e p e t i t i o n was s i g n e d by 20 ,000 and t h a t many more s i g n a t u r e s c o u l d have been p r o c u r e d . B r u c e , V e r n e y P a p e r s , p p . 133-134 . V e r n e y d a t e s Gurney and G a r d i n e r t e s t i m o n y as h a v i n g been g i v e n on Monday , 13 December , 1641 . C o a t e s , D ' E w e s , p . 2 7 1 . L o c . c i t . 11 12 13 "To t h e H o n o u r a b l e K n i g h t s , C i t i z e n s , and B u r g e s s e s o f t h e House o f Commons a s s e m b l e d i n P a r l i a m e n t , The Humble P e t i t i o n o f t h e Gent lewoman, T r a d e s m e n ' s W i v e s , and many o t h e r s o f t h e Female S e x , a l l I n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e C i t y o f L o n d o n , and t h e Suburbs t h e r e o f , " P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y , X , p . 268 . 168 1 4 P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y , X , p . 268 ; 271-272 . 1 5 P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y X , p . 2 7 2 - 2 7 3 . "*"6 C h a r l e s I , K i n g , A P r o c l a m a t i o n f o r O b e d i e n c e t o t h e Lawes o r d a i n e d f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g o f t h e t r u e R e l i g i o n i n t h i s " Kingdom o f E n g l a n d , December 1 0 , 1 6 4 1 , p a s s i m . 17 C o a t e s , D ' E w e s , p . 325 . See a l s o G a r d i n e r , H i s t o r y , X , 1 0 1 . 1 p ° The Two P e t i t i o n s o f t h e C o u n t y o f Buck ingham as a l s o t h e . H u m b l e P e t i t i o n o f t h e M a r i n e r s and Sea-men, I n h a b i t a n t s i n and a b o u t t h e P a r t s o f L o n d o n , and t h e R i v e r Thames, (London : f o r F . C o l e s and T . B a n k s , 1 6 4 1 / 4 2 ) , p a s s i m , ( H e r e a f t e r , t h e C o u n t y ' s p e t i t i o n w i l l be c i t e d as Buck ingham P e t i t i o n and t h e o t h e r M a r i n e r s and Sea-men's P e t i t i o n ) . See a l s o L a r k i n g , P r o c e e d i n g s i n K e n t , p . 68 ; P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y X , p p . 1 9 5 - 1 9 6 ; G a r d i n e r , H i s t o r y , X , 154; C . J . I I , 369 ; L . J . I V , 504 . 19 Buck ingham P e t i t i o n , p . 1. 20 The Two P e t i t i o n s o f t h e C o u n t y o f Warwick and . C o v e n t r y as t h e y were p r e s e n t e d t o b o t h Houses by K n i g h t s , E s q u i r e s , G e n t l e m e n , and F r e e h o l d e r s , i n t h e b e h a l f o f t h e m s l e v e s , and many o t h e r s o f t h e s a i d C o u n t y , b e i n g t h e t r u e copy as i t was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e House o f P a r l i a m e n t , (London : 1 6 4 1 / 4 2 ) , p.. 6 . 21 J o h n Pym, A D e c l a r a t i o n . P r e s e n t e d t o t h e H o n o u r a b l e House o f Commons W i t h . a . S p e e c h d e l i v e r e d a t c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t h e L o r d s , J a n u a r y , 2 5 , 1641 . By o c c a s i o n o f t h e P e t i t i o n s f r o m t h e C i t y o f London and t h e C o u n t i e s o f M i d d l e s e x , E s s e x , and H a r t f o r d . . . P u b l i s h e d by O r d e r o f t h e House o f Commons . . . , (London : f o r R i c h a r d Lownes , 1 6 4 1 / 4 2 ) , p . 35 . ( H e r e a f t e r as Pym, Speech 25 J a n . , 1 6 4 2 ) . 2 2 The .Twelve B i s h o p s C a l l e d t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t , To answere t h e m a n i f o l d A r t i c l e s w h e r e o f t h e y were Impeached , J a n u a r y 1 7 , 1 6 4 1 / 4 2 . W i t h t h e v o t e s o f B o t h Houses t h a t P a s s e d upon a c o n f e r e n c e c o n c e r n i n g t h e a c c u s e d B i s h o p s . (London : f o r J o h n Hammond, 1 6 4 2 ) . 23 M a s s o n , M i l t o n , I I , 3 6 1 . 24 Thomason T r a c t s , B r i t i s h Museum, c o n t a i n e d i n S o d e n , Goodman B i b l i o g r a p h y , p . 489 . These w o r k s were n o t a v a i l a b l e a t U n i o n T h e o l o g i c a l S e m i n a r y , New Y o r k , N . Y . 25 L a r k i n g , P r o c e e d i n g s i n K e n t , p . 6 8 . 169 0 B r a m s t o n , A u t o b i o g r a p h y , p . 82. 27 F o r S i r J o h n S t r a n g e w a y ' s s u f f e r i n g s , see H i s M a j e s t i e s s p e c i a l l Command t o t h e L o r d M a j o r o f London f o r t h e s e n d i n g Of p r e c e p t s i n t o t h e c i t y . t o s u p p r e s s t h e t u m u l t u o u s a s s e m b l i e s , (London : 1641), p . 37. The o t h e r members were m e n t i o n e d by C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 464. 2 8 D e n z i l H o l l i s , H i s w o r t h y and L e a r n e d Speech i n P a r l i a m e n t . U p o n t h e R e a d i n g o f t h e P e t i t i o n and P r o t e s t a t i o n o f t h e T w e l v e B i s h o p s , (London : f o r J o h n Thomas and Thomas B a n k s , 1641), p p . 4-6. 29 S i r Simonds D ' E w e s , A Speech Made i n P a r l i a m e n t , 11 J a n u a r y , 1642, (London : f o r F . C o l e s and T . B a n k s , 1642) , pp . 1-5, 30 J o h n W h i t e , Speech i n P a r l i a m e n t , 17 J a n u a r y , 1641/42, (London: f o r F . C o l e s and T . B a n k s , 1642) , p p . 1-4. 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41, L a r k i n g , P r o c e e d i n g s i n K e n t , p . 6 4 n . P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y X , p . 169. I b i d . , p . 171. I b i d . , p . 175. , I b i d . , p p . 175-176. I b i d . , p . 176. I b i d . , p . 179. C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y . , I , 485. I b i d . , I , 496. I b i d . , I , 510. C l a r e n d o n s e t s t h e number a t 6,000 C o n c e r n i n g t h e a u t h o r s h i p o f t h e B i s h o p s ' . P r o t e s t a t i o n , G a r d i n e r w r o t e : "The i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e p l a n may, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , be t r a c e d t o D i g b y , t h e most i n d i s c r e e t o f C h a r l e s ' s p a r t i s a n s , " G a r d i n e r , H i s t o r y , X , 123. I f t h i s be t h e c a s e , i t seems odd t h a t n e i t h e r C l a r e n d o n n o r W i l l i a m s ' a p o l o g i s t J o h n H a c k e t m e n t i o n e d i t . C l a r e n d o n p u t s t h e b lame s q u a r e l y on W i l l i a m s ' h e a d . I n d e e d , s u c h a b l u n d e r as t h e A r c h b i s h o p c o m m i t t e d w o u l d n o t have seemed so damaging i f W i l l i a m s c o u l d have c o u n t e r e d t h a t he had r e c e i v e d bad a d v i c e b u t t h i s he d i d n o t d o , e i t h e r t o H a c k e t o r when he was on t r i a l . I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , W i l l i a m s h e a r d o f D i g b y ' s m o t i o n t o d e c l a r e t h e p a r l i a m e n t n o t f r e e on 28 December , 170 and i n h i s v e r y d i s t r a c t e d s t a t e , d e c i d e d t o g i v e t h e m o t i o n more f o r c e by p e r s u a d i n g t h o s e b i s h o p s who had a b s e n t e d t h e m s e l v e s f r o m t h e P a r l i a m e n t t o make a f o r m a l p r o t e s t a t i o n . H i s a c t i o n was f u l l o f a r r o g a n c e w h i c h was e n t i r e l y i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e man. See C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 4 6 2 - 4 7 6 ; H a c k e t , S c r i n i a R e s e r a t a , p p . 167 : 1 7 8 - 1 7 9 : 180 ; P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y X , p p . 1 4 2 : 2 9 9 . 42 43 44 P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y , X., - p . 142, I b i d . , p p . 1 4 2 - 1 4 5 . I b i d . , p . 1 4 5 . The r e a s o n s o n l y t w e l v e were i n t h e c i t y t o s i g n t h e P r o t e s t a t i o n were t h e s e : W i l l i a m L a u d o f C a n t e r b u r y was i n t h e Tower;, W i l l i a m J u x o n o f London was k e e p i n g C h r i s t m a s a t F u l h a m ; W a l t e r C u r l l o f W i n c h e s t e r was k e e p i n g C h r i s t m a s a t W i n c h e s t e r House and i t was c o n s i d e r e d u n s a f e t o c r o s s t h e Thames t o f e t c h h i m ; J o h n Warner o f R o c h e s t e r was e n t e r t a i n i n g f r i e n d s i n t h e c o u n t r y f o r C h r i s t m a s ; : J o h n Br idgeman o f C h e s t e r and W i l l i a m R o b e r t s o f Bangor were i n t h e i r s e e s ; Roger M a n w a r i n g o f S t . D a v i d ' s had been p r e v i o u s l y c e n s u r e d by t h e H o u s e , and c o u l d n o t s i t i n t h e L o r d s ; B r i a n Duppa o f S a l i s b u r y was w i t h h i s c h a r g e , P r i n c e C h a r l e s ; J o h n P r i d e a u x had n o t been c o n s e c r a t e d B i s h o p o f W o r c e s t e r ; Thomas W i n n i f e had n o t been c o n s e c r a t e d B i s h o p o f L i n c o l n ; R a l p h B r o w n r i g g e was y e t t o be c o n s e c r a t e d B i s h o p o f E x e t e r ; H e n r y K i n g had n o t been c o n s e c r a t e d B i s h o p o f C h i c h e s t e r ; J o h n W e s t f i e l d was y e t t o be c o n s e c r a t e d B i s h o p o f B r i s t o l ; C a r l i s l e was h e l d i n commendam by James U s h e r o f Armagh , c f . F u l l e r , C h u r c h H i s t o r y , I I I , 4 3 1 - 4 3 2 . See a l s o C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 4 0 1 . A c c o r d i n g t o M a c r a y , P r i d e a u x was c o n s e c r a t e d on 19 D e c , 1641 . He had n o t t a k e n h i s p l a c e i n P a r l i a m e n t as o f y e t . A c c o r d i n g to- F u l l e r , some o f t h e b i s h o p s had been warned by w e l l - w i s h e r s t o q u i t t h e c i t y " i n t h i s l i c e n t i o u s t i m e o f C h r i s t m a s , t h o u g h t h e y had n o t t h e h a p p i n e s s t o make use o f t h e a d v i c e . The o t h e r t w e l v e b i s h o p s , b e i n g n o t y e t f u l l y r e c o v e r e d f rom t h e i r f o r m e r f e a r , g r i e f and anger ( w h i c h a r e c o n f e s s e d t o be had c o u n s e l l o r s i n ca se s o f i m p o r t a n c e ) , drew up i n h a s t e and d i s t u r b a n c e . . . a P r o t e s t a t i o n . . . >" F u l l e r , C h u r c h H i s t o r y , I I I , 432 . 45 F u l l e r , C h u r c h H i s t o r y , I I I , 4 4 1 - 4 4 2 . 46 P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y X , p p . 1 4 6 - 1 4 9 . F o r t h e K i n g ' s hope on t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e new b i s h o p s , see C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 401-402 . 4 7 P a r l i a m e n t a r y . H i s t o r y X> p p . 215-216 . ' 4 8 The Twelve B i s h o p s ' C a l l e d f o r t h e P a r l i a m e n t , To Answere t h e m a n i f o l d A r t i c l e s w h e r e o f t h e y were I m p e a c h e d , ( L o n d o n : " J o h n Hammond, 17 J a n u a r y , 16 4 2 ) , p . 5~7 171 4 9 Loc. c i t . 5 0 L. J . IV, 598; Parliamentary History X , p p . 299-302. 51 L . J . IV, 598-599. Parliamentary History X , p .303. See also Coates, D'Ewes for confirmation of Glynne's accusation, Dec. 27, 28 and 29, 1641, p p . 349-364. 5 2 C. J . I I , 314; 319; 329; 5 3 Clarendon, History, I, 463n-464n. 54 55 56 57 I b i d . , 1 , 454. B r a m s t o n , A u t o b i o g r a p h y , p . 82. L . J . I V , 495. P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y X , p . 149. 5 8 F u l l e r , C h u r c h H i s t o r y , I I I , 440-442. 59 P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y X , p . 154. D i g b y was a c c u s e d o f H i g h T r e a s o n by b o t h Houses f o r g a t h e r i n g an army a t K i n g s t o n - o n - T h a m e s t o wage war a g a i n s t t h e P a r l i a m e n t ] ; ; , and was o r d e r e d a r r e s t e d by b o t h Houses on 13 J a n u a r y , 1642. He was c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most o d i o u s man i n t h e K i n g d o m . See C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 519-520. 60 Pym, S p e e c h , 25 J a n . , 1642, p . 3. 61 "To t h e R i g h t H o n o u r a b l e t h e L o r d s , a s s e m b l e d i n t h e House o f P e e r s , The Humble P e t i t i o n o f t h e C o u n t y o f S u r r e y , 4 F e b . , 1642," L . J . I v , 563-564. 6 2 The humble P e t i t i o n o f t h e M a r i n e r s and Sea-men, I n h a b i t a n t s i n and' about t h e p o r t s o f London and t h e R i v e r Thames', (London : F . C o l e s and T . B a n k s , 1641/42) , p . 6. 6 3 L o c . c i t . 6 4 P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y . X , p p . 273-274. T h a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n a c h i e v e d more t h a n t h e y had e x p e c t e d can be seen i n t h e l e t t e r o f B r i l l i a h a , Lady H a r l e y t o h e r h u s b a n d , S i r R o b e r t H a r l e y , 11 F e b . , 1642: " I t h a n k God y o u were employed i n t h a t good work t o c a r r y up t h e b i l l a g a i n s t b i s h o p s , and I b l e s s God t h a t t h e b i l l d i d pa s s t h e L o r d s H o u s e . I t r u s t t h e L o r d w i l l f i n i s h h i s own work w h i c h he has c a r r i e d on so beyond o u r e x p e c t a t i o n s . . . . , " c o n t a i n e d i n W a r d , R i c h a r d (ed . ) , M a n u s c r i p t s o f H i s Grace The Duke o f P o r t l a n d , V o l . I l l , ( G r e a t B r i t a i n , H i s t o r i c a l M a n u s c r i p t s C o m m i s s i o n , F o u r t e e n t h R e p o r t , A p p e n d i x , P a r t I I , L o n d o n : H . M . S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1894), p . 84. 172 65 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 463n . 66 G a r d i n e r , H i s t o r y , X , 9 9 ; C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 4 6 3 n . 67 C h a r l e s I , K i n g , H i s M a j e s t i e s Answer t o t h e P e t i t i o n w h i c h accompan ied t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e House o f Commons; P r e s e n t e d t o Him a t Hampton C o u r t , t h e f i r s t o f December , 1 6 4 1 . (London : R o b e r t B a r k e r , 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 5 . ( A c t u a l l y , t h i s was t h e answer t o t h e Grand R e m o n s t r a n c e . See C o a t e s , D ' E w e s , p . 335 , n . 7 ) . 6 8 I b i d . , p p . 7 - 8 . 69 C h a r l e s I , K i n g , A P r o c l a m a t i o n f o r O b i e n c e t o t h e Lawes o r d a i n e d f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g o f t h e t r u e R e l i g i o n i n t h i s Kingdom o f E n g l a n d , p a s s i m . 70 C h a r l e s I , K i n g , H i s M a j e s t i e s D e c l a r a t i o n t o a l l H i s l o v i n g S u b j e c t s . P u b l i s h e d w i t h t h e a d v i c e o f h i s P r i v i e C o u n c e l l . T h i s was p r o b a b l y p r i n t e d a r o u n d 20 D e c , 1 6 4 1 . 71 72 73 74 I b i d . , p . 2 . C l a r e n d o n , L i f e , I , 9 0 - 1 0 0 . Hacket> S c r i n i a R e s e r a t a , p . 1 7 0 : 8 0 . B r a m s t o n , A u t o b i o g r a p h y , p . 8 2 . 75 idoi 76 C h a r l e s I , K i n g , B i l l s f o r t a k i n g Away B i s h o p s V o t e s (Lon n : f o r J o h n W r i g h t , 1 6 4 1 / 4 2 ) , p p . 1 - 2 - H a c k e t , S c r i n i a R e s e r a t a , p p . 1 7 0 : 1 8 1 . BIBLIOGRAPHY U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d a l l i t e m s i n t h e B i b l i o g r a p h y a r e a v a i l a b l e i n The U n i v e r s i t y o f . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b r a r y . I . PRIMARY SOURCES A . CONTEMPORARY WORKS F u l l e r , Thomas. The C h u r c h H i s t o r y o f B r i t i a n . 3 v o l s . L o n d o n : Thomas Tegg and S o n , 1837 . G r e v i l l e , R o b e r t , L o r d B r o o k e . " A D i s c o u r s e * O p e n i n g The N a t u r e o f t h a t E p i s c o p a c i e , w h i c h i s E x e r c i s e d i n E n g l a n d , 1 6 4 1 . " T r a c t s on L i b e r t y i n t h e P u r i t a n R e v o l u t i o n . 1 6 3 8 - 1 6 4 7 . , V o l . I I . W i l l i a m H a l l e r , e d i t o r . R e c o r d s o f C i v i l i z a t i o n - S o u r c e s a n d . S t u d i e s . W. T . H . J a c k s o n , e d i t o r . New Y o r k : Oc tagon B o o k s , I n c . , 1965 ( 1 9 3 4 ) . M i l t o n , J o h n . W o r k s . V o l . I l l , P a r t I . New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1931 . O l d y s , W i l l i a m and Thomas P a r k ( e d s . ) . The H a r l e i a n M i s c e l l a n y : A C o l l e c t i o n o f S c a r c e , C u r i o u s and E n t e r t a i n i n g P a m p h l e t s and T r a c t s S e l e c t e d f rom t h e L i b r a r y o f Edward H a r l e y , Second E a r l o f O x f o r d . V o l . V I . L o n d o n : W h i t e and C o . , J o h n M u r r a y , and J o h n H a r d i n g , 1819 . ( R e p r i n t e d : New Y o r k : AMS P r e s s , I n c . , 1 9 6 5 ) . B . STATE PAPERS AND DOCUMENTS B o n d , M a u r i c e F . ( e d . ) . The M a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e House o f L o r d s . V o l . 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V o l . I X , 1640-1641. Second E d i t i o n . L o n d o n : J . and R. T o n s o n , A . M i l l a r , 1763. D. PRIVATE CORRESPONDENCE, D I A R I E S , MEMOIRS B a i l l i e , R o b e r t . The L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s o f R o b e r t B a i l l i e , A . M . V o l . I , 1637-1662 . E d i n b u r g h : Banna tyne C l u b , 1841 . B r a m s t o n , S i r . J o h n . A u t o b i o g r a p h y . L o n d o n : The Camden S o c i e t y , 1 s t S e r i e s , N o . X X X I I , 1845 . B r u c e , J o h n ( e d . ) . V e r n e y . P a p e r s - N o t e s o f P r o c e e d i n g s i n t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t . L o n d o n : The Camden S o c i e t y , 1 s t S e r i e s , N o . X X X I , 1845 . C a l a m y , Edmund ( the Y o u n g e r ) . An H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t o f My Own L i f e w i t h s o m e . R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e Times I have l i v e d , 1 6 7 1 - 1 7 3 1 , e d . J . T . R u t t . 2 v o l s . 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H a l l , J o s e p h . " H i s H a r d M e a s u r e . " C o n t e m p l a t i o n s Upon t h e H i s t o r i c a l Pa s sages o f t h e .Old and New T e s t a m e n t s w i t h S o m e . A c c o u n t o f H i s . L i f e and S u f f e r i n g s , M o s t l y W r i t t e n by H i m s e l f . New E d i t i o n . O x f o r d : D . A . T a l b o y s , 1887, V o l . I , p p . x l i v - l v i . H a l l i w e l l , James O r c h a r d ( e d . ) . The A u t o b i o g r a p h y and C o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f S i r S imohds D ' E w e s . L o n d o n : R i c h a r d B e n t l e y , V o l . I I , 1845 . N o t e s t e i n , W. ( e d . ) . The J o u r n a l o f S i r S imonds D'Ewes f rom t h e B e g i n n i n g o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t t o t h e O p e n i n g o f t h e , T r i a l o f t h e E a r l o f S t r a f f o r d . New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1922 . R u s h w o r t h , J o h n . H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n . . . C o n t a i n i n g . t h e P r i n c i p a l M a t t e r s w h i c h Happened f r o m t h e M e e t i n g o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t , N o v . , 3 , 1640 t o t h e End o f t h e Y e a r 1644. L o n d o n : R i c h a r d C h i s w e l l and Thomas C o c k e r w i l l , V o l . I V , 1692 . W a r n e r , George F . ( e d . ) . . The N i c h o l a s P a p e r s - . C o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f S i r E d w a r d . N i c h o l s . V o l . I . 1641-1652 . W e s t m i n s t e r : The Camden S o c i e t y , 2nd S e r i e s , V o l . X L , 18 86 . E . CONTEMPORARY SHORT PAMPHLETS T a y l o r , J o h n . W o r k s . F i r s t C o l l e c t i o n . ' M a n c h e s t e r : The S p e n s e r S o c i e t y , 1870. T a y l o r , J o h n . Works." F o u r t h C o l l e c t i o n . M a n c h e s t e r : The S p e n s e r S o c i e t y , 1877. F . BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS FROM THE McALPIN COLLECTION, LIBRARY OF UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, NEW YORK, N . Y . A l m o n i , P e l o n i , C o s m o p o l i t e s . A Compendious D i s c o u r s e P r o v i n g E p i s c o p a c y t o b e . o f A p o s t o l i c a l l . . . I n s t i t u t i o n . L o n d o n : R i c h a r d W h i t t a k e r , 1641 . The A n a t o n y o f e t c e t e r a o r . t h e U n f o l d i n g o f t h a t Dangerous Oa th . i n t h e C l o s e o f t h e S i x t h C a n o n . As1 i t was c o n t r i v e d . b y t h e B i s h o p s and some o f t h e C l e r g i e i n t h e i r L a t e . O a t h . . . . L o n d o n : 1641 . 176 An A p o l o g y f o r B i s h o p s , o r a P l e a f o r L e a r n i n g . . . . L o n d o n : 1641. An A p p e a l , o f t h e O r t h o d o x M i n i s t e r s o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d , a g a i n s t R i c h a r d Montague . . . To t h e H i g h C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t . E d i n b u r g h : 1641. The A p p r e n t i c e s o f L o n d o n ' s P e t i t i o n P r e s e n t e d t o t h e H o n o u r a b l e C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t . . . L o n d o n : F o r J o h n G r e e n s m i t h , 1641. A r t i c l e ' s o f A c c u s a t i o n and . Impeachment a g a i n s t W i l l i a m P i e r c e , B i s h o p o f B a t h and W e l l s . L o n d o n : 1641. The A r t i c l e s o f Impeachment . . . a g a i n s t Matthew W r e n , . .. . Now B i s h o p o f E l y , F o r S e v e r a l l C r i m e s and Misdemeanours Commit ted by Him when He was. B i s h o p o f NorwichT" L o n d o n : 1641. " ~ — The A r t i c l e s o f Charge s E x h i b i t e d i n P a r l i a m e n t a g a i n s t Mat thew W r e n , Now B i s h o p o f E l y . L o n d o n : 1641. A s t o n , . S i r Thomas. A Remonst rance a g a i n s t P r e s b i t e r y . E x h i b i t e d by D i v e r s o f t h e N o b i l i t i e , G e n t r i e , M i n i s t e r s and I n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e C o u n t y P a l a t i n e o f C h e s t e r , w i t h t h e M o t i v e s o f t h a t R e m o n s t r a n c e . Bagshaw, E d w a r d . H i s . S p e e c h i n P a r l i a m e n t , F e b . 9, 1640. C o n c e r n i n g E p i s c o p a c y and t h e London P e t i t i o n . L o n d o n : F r a n c i s C o n s t a b l e , 1641. Bagshaw, Edward. , Two Arguments i n P a r l i a m e n t , t h e f i r s t C o n c e r n i n g t h e C a n n o n s , t h e Second C o n c e r n i n g t h e P r e m u n i r e . U p o n t h e s e C a n n o n s . L o n d o n : George M i l l e r , 1 6 4 1 . Bagshaw, Thomas. A Speech ". . . I n P a r l i a m e n t C o n c e r n i n g t h e T r i a l l o f t h e T w e l v e : B i s h o p s . L o n d o n : F o r T . T . , 1642. B a i l l i e , R o b e r t . The U n l a w f u l n e s s and Danger o f L i m i t e d P r e l a c i e o r P e r p e t u a l P r e c i d e n c i e i n t h e C h u r c h B r i e f l y D i s c o v e r e d . L o n d o n : 1641. B a y n e s , P a u l . The D i o c e s a n s T r y a l l W h e r e i n a l l t h e S inews o f DY Downhams De fence a r e B r o u g h t u n t o Three H e a d s , and o r d e r l y D i s s o l v e d . L o n d o n : 1641. B e r n a r d , R i c h a r d . A S h o r t V i e w o f t h e P r a e l a t i c a l l .Church o f E n g l a n d . W h e r e i n i s S e t F o r t h t h e H o r r i b l e Abuses i n D i s c i p l i n e and Government . . . . L o n d o n : 1641. B u r g e s s , C o r n e l i u s . The F i r s t Sermon P r e a c h e d t o t h e . H o u s e o f Commons now A s s e m b l e d i n P a r l i a m e n t . L o n d o n : F o r P . S tephens and F . M e r e d i t h , 1641. 177 B u r g e s s , C o r n e l i u s . An Humble E x a m i n a t i o n o f a P r i n t e d A b s t r a c t o f t h e . N i n e Reasons o f t h e House o f Commons, a g a i n s t . t h e V o t e s o f B i s h o p s i n P a r l i a m e n t . L o n d o n : S tephens and C . M e r e d i t h , by t h e O r d e r o f t h e House o f Commons, 1641 . B u r t o n , H e n r y . E n g l a n d ' s . B o n d a g e and Hope o f D e l i v e r a n c e - A Sermon P r e a c h e d b e f o r e t h e H o n o u r a b l e House o f P a r l i a m e n t . L o n d o n : 1641 . B u r t o n , H e n r y . The P r o t e s t a t i o n P r o t e s t e d . . . What i s R e q u i r e d o f a l l t h o s e t h a t have o r do t a k e t h e L a s t P a r l i a m e n t a r y P r o t e s t a t i o n . L o n d o n : 1641 . C a r y , L u c i u s , V i s c o u n t F a l k l a n d . A Speech made t o t h e House o f Commons C o n c e r n i n g • . E p i s c o p a c y . L o n d o n : F o r Thomas W a l k e r l y , 1641 . C a s e , Thomas. Two Sermons L a t e l y P r e a c h e d " a t W e s t m i n s t e r b e f o r e Sundry o f t h e H o n o u r a b l e House o f Commons. L o n d o n : I . R a w o r t h F o r Luke Fawne, 1 6 4 1 . C e r t a i h e R e a s o n s . T e n d i n g t o P r o v e . the U r i l a w f u l n e s s e and I n e x p e d i e n c i e o f a l l D i o c e s a n E p i s c o p a c y . L o n d o n : 1641 . C h a r l e s I , Kin.§,. B i l l s f o r Tak ing ' . away B i s h o p ' s V o t e s . L o n d o n : F o r J o h n W r i g h t , 1 6 4 1 . C h a r l e s I , K i n g . H i s M a j e s t i e s Answer t o t h e P e t i t i o n w h i c h A c c o m p a n i e d t h e D e c l a r a t i o n . o f t h e House, o f Commons: P r e s e n t e d t o Him a t Hampton C o u r t , , t h e F i r s t o f December , . 1 6 4 1 . L o n d o n : R o b e r t B a r k e r and t h e A s s i g n e s o f J o h n B i l l , 1 6 4 1 . ' C h a r l e s I , K i n g . H i s M a j e s t i e s D e c l a r a t i o n t o A l l H i s L o v i n g S u b j e c t s . C h a r l e s I , K i n g . H i s M a j e s t i e s G r a c i o u s Message t o B o t h Houses o f P a r l i a m e n t . . . W h e r e i n . He a s s e n t e d t o t h e B i l l a g a i n s t B i s h o p s T h e i r V o t e s i n P a r l i a m e n t , and t h a t no Man i n H o l y . O r d e r s h a l l Meddle w i t h any T e m p o r a l l J u r i s d i c t i o n . L o n d o n : F o r J o h n W r i g h t , 1642 . C h a r l e s I , K i n g . H i s M a j e s t i e s S p e c i a l l Command t o t h e L o r d M a j o r o f London f o r . t h e . S e n d i n g o f P r e c e p t s i n t o t h e C i t y t o S u p r e s s t h e " T u m u l t u o u s A s s e m b l i e s . W i t h a R e l a t i o n o f , t h e U p r o a r made by B r o w n i s t s , and S e p a r a t i s t s w i t h i n t h e C i t y o f London and W e s t m i n s t e r . L o n d o n : J o h n Thomas, 1641 . [ ! ~ C h a r l e s I , K i n g . H i s M a j e s t i e s Speech t o B o t h Houses o f P a r l i a m e n t , December 2 , 1 6 4 1 . 178 C h a r l e s I , K i n g . H i s R e s o l u t i o n C o n c e r n i n g t h e 'Government o f . t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d b e i n g . C o n t r a r y t o t h a t o f S c o t l a n d w i t h a Speech Spoken by t h e L o r d C a r i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f S c o t l a n d . L o n d o n : 1 6 4 1 . C h a r l e s I , K i n g . A P r o c l a m a t i o n f o r Obed ience t o t h e " L a w e s o r d a i n e d f o r E s t a b l i s h i n g o f t h e T r u e R e l i g i o n i n t h i s Kingdom "of E n g l a n d . 1 6 4 1 . C h a r l e s I , K i n g . Speech a t t h e P a r l i a m e n t Begun a t W e s t m i n s t e r , The T h i r d Day o f N o v e m b e r / 1640 . L o n d o n : R o b e r t B a r k e r and t h e A s s i g n e s o f J o h n B e l l , 1641 . C o o k e , Thomas. E p i s c o p a c i e A s s e r t e d : As i t now S tands E s t a b l i s h e d . . . . L o n d o n : Thomas Fawcet f o r N a t h a n i e l B u t t e r , 1641 . A G o p p i e o f t h e B i l l ' a g a i n s t t h e X I I I B i s h o p s , ' P r e s e n t e d t o t h e L o r d s by. t h e Commons w i t h t h e Names o f t h e B i s h o p s , O c t . 2 5 , 1641 ; L o n d o n : F o r J o h n Thomas, 1 6 4 1 . C u l p e p p e r , S i r J o h n . H i s Speech i n P a r l i a m e n t C o n c e r n i n g t h e G r i e v a n c e s o f . t h e C h u r c h and Commonwealth. L o n d o n : 1641 . D e r i n g , S i r E d w a r d . A - C o l l e c t i o n o f Speeches made by S i r Edward D e r i n g , i n M a t t e r . o f R e l i g i o n . Some f o r m e r l y p r i n t e d , , and D i v e r s more ..now a d d e d : A l l o f them R e v i v e d , f o r t h e V i n d i c a t i o n o f . H i s Name, f rom Weake a n d . W i l f u l l C a l u m h i e . L o n d o n : E . G . J . F . E g l e s f i e l d and J . S t a f f o r d , 1642 . D e r i n g , S i r E d w a r d . A C o n s i d e r a t i o n and a R e s o l u t i o n , f i r s t C o n c e r n i n g t h e R i g h t . o f . t h e L a i t y i n N a t i o n a l l C o u n c e l l s , S e c o n d l y C o n c e r n i n g . t h e Power o f t h e B i s h o p s i n A f f a i r s S e c u l a r . L o n d o n : Thomas P a i n e f o r J o h n S t a f f o r d , 1 6 4 1 . D ' E w e s , S i r S i m o n d s . A Speech made i n P a r l i a m e n t . C o n c e r n i n g .Proceed ings : : a g a i n s t t h e T w e l v e B i s h o p s a c c u s e d o f H i g h T r e a s o n , t o b r i n g them t o t h e i r T r i a l l . L o n d o n : F o r F . C o l e s and T . B a n k s , 1642 . D o w n i n g , C a l y b u t e . A D i s c o u r s i v e C o n j e c t u r e upon t h e Reasons . t h a t P r o d u c e a D e s i r e d E v e n t o f t h e P r e s e n t T r o u b l e s o f G r e a t B r i t a i n , d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e o f Lower G e r m a n i e • . . . An E x a c t C o l l e c t i o n o f . A l l R e m o n s t r a n c e s , D e c l a r a t i o n s , ( e t c . ) . . . December 1 6 4 1 , and c o n t i n u e d u n t i l M a r c h t h e 2 1 , 1643 . L o n d o n : Edward H u s b a n d s , T . W a r r e n , and R. B e s t , 1642 . 179 F i e n n e s , N a t h a n i e l . A Speech . . . I n Answer t o t h e T h i r d Speech o f t h e L o r d George D i g b y C o n c e r n i n g B i s h o p s and t h e C i t y o f L o n d b n s P e t i t i o n . B o t h o f w h i c h . were made t h e 9 t h . o f F e b r u a r y , 1640 i n t h e House o f Commons. L o n d o n : 1641 . F i e n n e s , N a t h a n i e l . U n p a r r a l l e l ' d Reasons f o r A b o l i s h i n g E p i s c o p a c y . L o n d o n : 164 . F i e n n e s , W i l l i a m , L o r d Saye and S e l e . Two Speeches . . . The . f i r s t upon t h e B i l l a g a i n s t t h e B i s h o p s , t h e o t h e r a D e c l a r a t i o n o f H i m s e l f T o u c h i n g t h e L i t u r g i e . L o n d o n : Thomas U n d e r h i l l , 1 6 4 1 . H a l e s , J o h n . The Way t o w a r d t h e F i n d i n g o f a D e c i s i o n o f t h e C h i e f e C o n t r o v e r s i e now Deba ted C o n c e r n i n g C h u r c h Government . L o n d o n : 1 6 4 1 . H a l l , J o s e p h . " A n Humble Remons t rance t o t h e H i g h C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t , J a n u a r y 1 6 4 1 . " The Works o f t h e R i g h t R e v e r e n d J o s e p h H a l l , P h i l i p W y n t e r , E d i t o r . 10 V o l s . O x f o r d : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s 1863 , v o l . I X , p p . 2 8 2 - 2 9 6 . H a l l , J o s e p h . A L e t t e r s e n t t o an H o n o u r a b l e G e n t l e m a n , i n Way, o f S a t i s f a c t i o n , C o n c e r n i n g some S l a n d e r o u s . . . R e p o r t s l a t e l y r a i s e d a g a i n s t t h e B i s h o p s , and t h e R e s t o f t h e C l e r g i e Of . t h i s K i n g d o m . H a l l , J o s e p h (?) A S u r v e y o f t h a t F o o l i s h , S e d i t i o u s L i b e l l , t h e P r o t e s t a t i o n P r o t e s t e d . L o n d o n : 1 6 4 1 . H a c k e t t , J o h n . S c r i n i a R e s e r a t a , A M e m o r i a l O f f e r ' d t o t h e G r e a t D e s e r v i n g s ..of J o h n W i l l i a m s , P . P . . . . L o n d o n : Edward J o n e s , 1692 . H o l l i s , P e n z l l , E s q . ., . . H i s W o r t h y and L e a r n e d Speech i n P a r l i a m e n t upon t h e R e a d i n g o f t h e P e t i t i o n and P r o t e s t a t i o n o f t h e T w e l v e B i s h o p p e s . L o n d o n : F o r J o h n Thomas and Thomas B a n k s , 1 6 4 1 . The H u m b l e . P e t i t i o n o f t h e . M i n i s t e r s o f t h e " C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d P e s i r i n g R e f o r m a t i o n o f C e r t a i n Ceremonie s and Abuses o f t h e C h u r c h w i t h t h e Answer o f . . . The Heads o f H o u s e s , , i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f O x f o r d . L o n d o n : 1641 . I . , W. P e t i t i o n s a g a i n s t B i s h o p s and T h e i r V o t e s i n P a r l i a m e n t . . . . L o n d o n : A . N . f o r Richardl3>Eownds, 1642 . The I m p e a c h m e n t . a g a i n s t t h e B i s h o p s s e n t up by S e r j e a n t . W y l d e , and P e l i v e r e d . a t : t h e B a r r i n t h e L o r d s House by O r d e r o f t h e House, . A u g u s t 4 , 1641 . L o n d o n : H e n r y T w y f o r d , 1641 . 180 K i n g C h a r l e s H i s . . R e s o l u t i o n C o n c e r n i n g t h e Government o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d b e i n g C o n t r a r y t o t h a t o f S c o t l a n d . . W i t h a Speech spoken by t h e L o r d C a r i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t i n S c o t l a n d . L o n d o n : 1 6 4 1 . Lambeth F a i r e , W h e r e i n y o u h a v e . a l l t h e B i s h o p s T r i n k e t s s e t t o S a l e . L o n d o n : 1641 . L a n g b a i n e , G e r a r d . E p i s c o p a l l I n h e r i t a n c e o r a R e p l y t o t h e Humble E x a m i n a t i o n o f a P r i n t e d A b s t r a c t o f t h e Answers t o N i n e Reasons o f . t h e House o f Commons a g a i n s t t h e V o t e s o f B i s h o p s i n P a r l i a m e n t . L o n d o n : L e o n a r d L i c h f i e l d , 1 6 4 1 . The-Manner o f t h e Impeachment o f t h e T w e l v e B i s h o p s o f H i g h . T r e a s o n , _ f o r P r e f e r r i n g a P e t i t i o n , and M a k i n g a P r o t e s t a t i o n , t o . t h e S u b v e r t i n g t h e F u n d a m e n t a l ! Laws and B e i n g o f P a r l i a m e n t . L o n d o n : F o r J o s e p h H u n s c o t t , 1642 . M a r s h a l l , S t e p h e n . R e f o r m a t i o n and D e s o l a t i o n . , or" a Sermon T e n d i n g t o . t h e D i s c o v e r y o f t h e Symptomes o f a P e o p l e t o whom God w i l l by no Meanes be R e c o n c i l e d . L o n d o n : F o r Samuel G i l l i b r a n d , 1642 . M i l t o n , J o h n . Of R e f o r m a t i o n T o u c h i n g C h u r c h D i s c i p l i n e i n E n g l a n d : . . A n d t h e Causes , t h a t H i t h e r t o have H l n d e r e d . i t . L o n d o n : .Thomas U n d e r h i l l , 1 6 4 1 . M o r l e y , G e o r g e . A Modes t A d v e r t i s e m e n t C o n c e r n i n g t h e P r e s e n t C o n t r o v e r s i e about C h u r c h Government ; W h e r e i n " t h e - M a i n e Grounds o f , t h a t Booke I n t i t l e d t h e U n l a w f u l n e s s , and Danger o f L i m i t e d P r e l a c i e a r e C a l m l y E x a m i n e d . L o n d o n : R o b e r t B o s t o c k , 1641 . M o u l i n , L o u i s D u . M o t i o n s , t o t h i s P r e s e n t P a r l i a m e n t f o r R e f o r m i n g t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d . 1 6 4 1 . P a r k e r , Henry, . The Q u e s t i o n " C o n c e r n i n g t h e D i v i n e R i g h t , o f E p i s c o p a c i e T r u l y . S t a t e d . L o n d o n : R o b e r t B o s t o c k , 1 6 4 2 . P a r k e r , H e n r y . , The T r u e Grounds o f E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Reg iment S e t F o r t h i n a B r i e f D i s s e r t a t i o n . M a i n t a i n i n g t h e K i n g s S p i r i t u a l l S u p r e m a c i e a g a i n s t t h e P r e t e n d e d Independence o f t h e P r e l a t e s , e t c . " L o n d o n : F o r R o b e r t B o s t o c k , 1 6 4 1 . P a r k i n , S i r W i l l i a n u . . . Speech t o t h e House o f Commons. i n P a r l i a m e n t , C o n c e r n i n g t h e P r e s e n t E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f C h u r c h Government , J u l y 5 , 1541 . L o n d o n : 1641 . 181 P e r c y , Thomas. . . . H i s Speech Upon t h a t C l a u s e o f t h e B i l l a g a i n s t E p i s c o p a c y , i n w h i c h C o n c e r n s Deanes , and. C h a p t e r s . . . . L o n d o n : 1641. The P e t i t i o n f o r t h e P r e l a t e s b r i e f l y E x a m i n e d . The P e t i t i o n o f t h e House o f Commons w h i c h A c c o m p a n i e d t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e S t a t e o f t h e .Kingdom when i t was p r e s e n t e d t o H i s M a j e s t y a t Hampton C o u r t . L o n d o n : 1641. A P e t i t i o n . . P r e s e n t e d t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t f rom t h e C o u n t i e o f N o t t i n g h a m C o m p l a i n i n g o f . G r i e v a n c e s u n d e r t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l Government by A r c h b i s h o p s , B i s h o p s , e t c . P l y d e l l , W i l l i a m . T h e r S p e e c h o f M a s t e r P l y d e l l , E s q u i r e : C o n c e r n i n g t h e C h u r c h , F e b . 8, 1641. L o n d o n : 1641. P r y n n e , W i l l i a m . : . T h e A n t i p a t h y o f t h e E n g l i s h L o r d l y P r e l a c i e b o t h ! t o R e g a l1 M o n a r c h y , and C i v i l l U n i t y . L o n d o n : 1641. P r y n n e , W i l l i a m . " A. C a t a l o g u e o f s u c h T e s t i m o n i e s i n a l l Ages as P l a i n l y E v i d e n c e B i s h o p s and P r e s b y t e r s t o be B o t h O n e / . E q u a l l and t h e Same. . . . L o n d o n : 16 41. P r y n n e , W i l l i a m . A New D i s c o v e r y o f t h e P r e l a t e s . T y r a n n y , i n T h e i r Late . . P r o s e c u t i o n s o f M r . W i l l i a m P r y n . L o n d o n : 1641. P r y n n e , W i l l i a m . The Second P a r t o f t h e A n t i p a t h y o f t h e E n g l i s h L o r d l y P r e l a c i e B o t h . t o R e g a l l M o n a r c h , and C i v i l l U n i t y . L o n d o n : 1641. P u r y , Thomas. M r , Thomas P u r y , A l d e r m a n o f G l o u c e s t e r , H i s " S p e e c h Upon t h a t C l a u s e o f t h e B i l l a g a i n s t E p i s c o p a c y . -. . . 16 41. Pym, J o h n ( ? ) . A D e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e G r i e v a n c e s o f t h e Kingdom D e l i v e r e d i n P a r l i a m e n t . . " . L o n d o n : 1641. Pym, J o h n . A D e c l a r a t i o n P r e s e n t e d t o t h e H o n o u r a b l e House o f Commons. L o n d o n : F o r R i c h a r d Lownes , 1641. P y m , : J o h n . A D e c l a r a t i o n t o t h e House o f Commons w i t h a Speech D e l i v e r e d a t . C o n f e r e n c e w i t h t h e L o r d s . By. O c c a s i o n o f t h e P e t i t i o n s f rom t h e C i t y o f London and t h e C o u n t i e s o f M i d d l e s e x , E s s e x , and H a r t f o r d . . . By O r d e r " o f t h e House . o f .Commons L o n d o n : F o r R i c h a r d Lownes , 1641. Pym, J o h n . H i s Speech on Tuesday t h e 8th o f F e b r u a r y t o t h e L o r d s , a t . a C o n f e r e n c e o f B o t h H o u s e s . L o n d o n : J o h n Hammond, 1641. 182 Pym, J o h n . M a s t e r Pym, H i s Speech t o the . L o r d s , a t a C o n f e r e n c e o f B o t h H o u s e s , C o n c e r n i n g t h e P e t i t i o n o f . t h e K n i g h t s and ..Gents o f t h e C o u n t y o f K e n t . L o n d o n : F o r J o h n Hammond, 1642 . The R e c a n t a t i o n . o f t h e P r e l a t e o f C a n t e r b u r y b e i n g H i s L a s t A d v i c e t o H i s B r e t h r e n t h e B i s h o p s o f E n g l a n d . L o n d o n : 1641 . A Remonst rance o f t h e S t a t e o f t h e K i n g d o m , 15 December , 1 6 4 1 . R e y n o l d s , - E d w a r d . The Judgment o f D o c t o r R e i g n o l d s . C o n c e r n i n g E p i s c o p a c y , ; I n a L e t t e r - t o S i r F r a n c i s K n o w l e s . " L o n d o n : Thomas P a i n e , 1 6 4 1 . R o u s , F r a n c i s . M r . R o u s e , H i s S p e e c h , 1 6 4 1 . R u d y e r d , S i r B e n j a m i n . . F i v e - Speeches i n t h e H i g h and" H o n o u r a b l e C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t by B e n j a m i n : R u d y e r d K n i g h t , S u r v e i g h o u r o f H i s M a j e s t i e s C o u r t o f Wards and L i v e r i e s . L o n d o n : H . " D u d l e y and H . S e i l e , 1 6 4 1 . R u d y e r d , S i r B e n j a m i n . . . . Speech C o n c e r n i n g B i s h o p s , Deanes , . . and C h a p t e r s . . . S t . J o h n O l i v e r . H i s Speech i n P a r l i a m e n t on Monday t h e 1 7 t h o f J a n u a r y C o n c e r n i n g t h e Charge o f T r e a s o n t h e n E x h i b i t e d t o t h e B i s h o p s . L o n d o n : F o r R. B . , 1642 . A S h o r t T r e a t i s e o f A r c h b i s h o p s and B i s h o p s , L o r d s S p i r i t u a l ! . Whether t h e y be i n L e s s F u l l n e s s L o r d s t h a n t h e T e m p o r a l : W i t h B r i e f e N o t e s P r o E t C o n t r a , t a k e n F o r t h o f t h e S t a t u t e s , Y e a r e - B o o k s , R e p o r t s and A p p r o v e d A u t h o r i t i e s . L o n d o n : 1 6 4 1 . Smectymnus. An Answer t o a Book E n t i t l e d An Humble R e m o n s t r a n c e . L o n d o n : I . R o t h w e l l , 1641 . S m i t h , P h i l i p . M r . S m i t h ' s Speech i n P a r l i a m e n t . L o n d o n : 1 6 4 1 . A Speech when M a s t e r Hyde was i n t h e C h a y r e upon t h e B i l l C o n c e r n i n g E p i s c o p a c y . L o n d o n : 1641 . The Substance" o f a C o n f e r e n c e a t a Commit tee o f B o t h Houses John. P i r n . - . . and O l i v e r S a i n t J o h n . . i C o n c e r n i n g t h e E x c l u d i n g t h e . T h i r t e e n e B i s h o p s Impeached by t h e Commons. L o n d o n : 1641. T a y l o r , J o h n . Rare P h y s i c k f o r t h e C h u r c h S i c k o f A n . A g u e . L o n d o n : 1642 . 183 Thomas, W i l l i a m © A Speech . . . I n P a r l i a m e n t i n May 1641. B e i n g a S h o r t V i e w and E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e A c t i o n s o f . B i s h o p s i n P a r l i a m e n t , f r o m Anno Dom. 1116 t o t h e P r e s e n t . o f 1641 . . . A p p e a r t h a t t h e y have been most O b n o x i o u s . t o P r i n c e and P e o p l e . . . . L o n d o n : Thomas H a r p e r , 1 6 4 1 . Thomas, W i l l i a m . A Speech o f W i l l i a m Thomas E'sq. C o n c e r n i n g , t h e R i g h t o f B i s h o p s S i t t i n g and V o t i n g i n P a r l i a m e n t . L o n d o n : Thomas H o o p e r , 1642 . T o - t h e H i g h and H o n o u r a b l e C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t , The Humble " P e t i t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f O x f o r d , i n B e h a l f o f E p i s c o p a c y and C a t h e d r a l l s . O x f o r d : L e o n a r d L i c h f i e l d , . 1 6 4 1 . ' To t h e H o n o u r a b l e t h e K n i g h t s , C i t i z e n s , and B u r g e s s e s o f — t h e House o f Commons a s s e m b l e d i n P a r l i a m e n t , t h e Humble P e t i t i o n o f K n i g h t s , G e n t s , F r e e h o l d e r s , and O t h e r s , I n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e C o u n t y o f H e r t f o r d . L o n d o n : • 1642 . To t h e House o f Commons, the , P e t i t i o n o f A l d e r m e n , ( e t c . ) . . . o f L o n d o n . . P r a y i n g t h a t measures s h o u l d be t a k e n a g a i n s t t h e R e b e l s i n I r e l a n d , and t h a t Roman C a t h o l i c P e e r s and t h e B i s h o p s s h o u l d be e x p e l l e d f rom t h e House o f Lords. L o n d o n : 1641 . To t h e R i g h t - H o n o u r a b l e t h e House o f P e e r s , now a s s e m b l e d i n P a r l i a m e n t . The Humble P i t i t i o n o f K n i g h t s , . G e n t l e m e n , F r e e h o l d e r s , and o t h e r I n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e C o u n t y o f H e r t f o r d . L o n d o n : Edward G r i f f i n f o r J o h n R o t h w e l l , 1641 . The T r u e C h a r a c t e r o f an U n t r u e B i s h o p . W i t h a R e c i p e a t t h e E n d , how t o R e c o v e r a B i s h o p i f Hee were Losfe. L o n d o n : 1641 . The T w e l v e B i s h o p s c a l l e d to; t h e P a r l i a m e n t , t o Answere t h e M a n i f o l d A r t i c l e s w h e r e o f t h e y were Impeached , J a n u a r y 1 7 , 1 6 4 1 / 4 2 . W i t h t h e V o t e s o f B o t h Houses t h a t P a s s e d upon a C o n f e r e n c e C o n c e r n i n g t h e A c c u s e d B i s h o p s . L o n d o n : F o r J o h n Hammond, 1642 . Two A c t s , o f t h e K n i g h t s , G e n t s . , F r e e h o l d e r s , and S u b s i d y Men o f t h e B e s t Ranke and Q u a l i t y , i n t h e C o u n t y o f O x f o r d . L o n d o n : J o h n W r i g h t , 1642 . The Two P e t i t i o n s o f t h e C o u n t y o f Buck ingham . . A s a l s o t h e Humble P e t i t i o n o f t h e M a r i n e r s and S e a - M e n , I n h a b i t a n t s i n and a b o u t t h e P o r t s o f L o n d o n , and t h e R i v e r Thames. L o n d o n : f o r F . . C o l e s , and T . B a n k s , 1 6 4 1 / 4 2 . 184 T h e . T w o - P e t i t i o n s .of t h e C o u n t i e s o f Warwick and C o v e n t r y , as t h e y were P r e s e n t e d t o B o t h H o u s e s . L o n d o n : 1642 . Two P e t i t i o n s " o f t h e . K n i g h t s , F r e e h o l d e r s , and S u b s i d y Men o f t h e . .Best Ranke and Q u a l i t y , i n t h e C o u n t y o f O x f o r d . L o n d o n : F o r J o h n W r i g h t , 1 6 4 1 . U s h e r , James . D i r e c t i o n s Propounded and Humbly P r e s e n t e d t o t h e H i g h C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t . O x f o r d : 1642 . V a n e , S i r H e n r y . S i r Henry V a n e , H i s Speech i n t h e House o f . Commons a t a Commit tee f o r t h e B i l l a g a i n s t E p i s c d p a l l Government , M r . H i d e S i t t i n g i n t h e C h a i r . 1 6 4 1 . W a l l e r , Edmund. An H o n o u r a b l e . , and L e a r n e d Speech . . . A g a i n s t t h e P r e l a t e s I n n o v a t i o n s , F a l s e D o c t r i n , and D i s c i p l i n e . . . . L o n d o n : F o r R i c h a r d S m i t h e r s , 1 6 4 1 . W h i t e , J o h n . Speech i n P a r l i a m e n t C o n c e r n i n g t h e T r i a l l o f t h e T w e l v e B i s h o p s on Monday t h e 17 o f J a n u a r y . L o n d o n : F o r F . C o u l e s and T . B a n c k s , 1 6 4 1 . W h i t e , J o h n . A Speech . . Made i n t h e Common House o f P a r l i a m e n t C o n c e r n i n g E p i s c o p a c y . L o n d o n : F o r Thomas N i c k o l e s , 1641 . W i d d r i n g t o n , S i r Thomas. Speech a t a C o n f e r e n c e between B o t h Houses . on T u e s d a y , t h e 20 t h o f J u l y , . 1.641 a t t h e T r a n s m i s s i o n o f t h e Impeachment a g a i n s t Mat thew W r e n . L o n d o n : E . G. f o r R. B e s t , 1 6 4 1 . W i l l i a m s , J o h n . An A b s t r a c t o f t h o s e Answers w h i c h were g i v e n i n t h e A s s e m b l y o f t h e L o r d s i n t h e H i g h C o u r t o f , P a r l i a m e n t u n t o t h e N i n e R e a s o n s , sent up f rom t h e House o f Commons, a g a i n s t t h e V o t i n g o f B i s h o p s i n P a r l i a m e n t . L o n d o n : N . B u t t e r , 1 6 4 1 . W o r t l e y , S i r F r a n c i s . T r u t h A s s i s t e d by t h e D o c t r i n e and P r a c t i c e o f ..the. A p o s t l e s . L o n d o n : 16 4 1 . W r a y , S i r J o h n . A S p e e c h , D e l i v e r e d i n P a r l i a m e n t ; November 1 3 , 1641 . By S i r J o h n W r a y , A . W o r t h y Member o f t h a t . 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