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An anti-episcopal drive and the beginning of the English revolution Bugler Jr. , Henry 1969

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THE ANTI-EPISCOPAL DRIVE AND THE BEGINNING OF THE ENGLISH REVOLUTION by HENRY BUGLER, JR. B. A., Providence College, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of History  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July 14, 1969  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the L i b r a r y  shall  I  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  thesis at  permission  written  thesis  for  f i n a n c i a l gain shall  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Date  Columbia  /fSjfegt, /fS?. t  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and this  that  not  for  that  study. thesis  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  is understood  permission.  Department  requirements  for extensive,copying of  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d It  the  B r i t i s h Columbia,  it freely available for  representatives..  this  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of  make  tha  in p a r t i a l  or  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  ABSTRACT The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l the f i r s t  d r i v e which took place  during  f i f t e e n months o f t h e L o n g P a r l i a m e n t h a s  b e e n i g n o r e d as  a problem worth studying for i t s  U s u a l l y the e p i s c o p a l be p a r t o f a l a r g e r  crisis  crisis  of  1640-1642 i s  since  long  own m e r i t s .  considered  the e x p u l s i o n of the  to  bishops  f r o m t h e House o f L o r d s was a p r e l u d e t o t h e E n g l i s h Revolution.  Yet the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  and s i g n i f i c a n c e the f i r s t  both i n i t s e l f  drive is  of great  and i n t h e f a c t  that  time i n E n g l i s h h i s t o r y t h a t a popular  interest it  was  outcry  changed the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h Government. It  is  difficult  political  to i s o l a t e  currents  this  of which i t i s  i n t e n d s t o do so as much as remains t h a t  s u b j e c t f r o m t h e many o t h e r a part,  possible.  i n f i f t e e n months,  t h e L o n g P a r l i a m e n t commenced,  but t h i s  However, the  t o 15 F e b r u a r y ,  were e x c l u d e d from t h e L o r d s ,  had a l r e a d y  taken  1642 when  a popular r e v o l u t i o n  place.  There were f o u r major a r e a s i n w h i c h the voice expressed i t s e l f  i n the p e r i o d under  There were a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  riots  i n London.  demanding t h a t t h e b i s h o p s  popular  discussion. Hundreds  came t o P a r l i a m e n t f r o m a l l o v e r t h e  jurisdictions.  fact  f r o m 3 N o v e m b e r , 1640 when  the bishops  petitions  study  of  country  be r e m o v e d f r o m t h e i r  temporal  A n t i - p r e l a t i c a l s e n t i m e n t was s p r e a d b y  means o f p a m p h l e t s  d u r i n g t h e g r e a t pamphlet war o f  In P a r l i a m e n t , the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  1641.  l e a d e r s h i p wedded t h e i r  own c a u s e o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m t o t h e p o p u l a r a g a i n s t the bishops.  In the end,  four  i n the s u c c e s s f u l  factors  resulted  needed t o d e p r i v e r i g h t to s i t  the combination of  the episcopate of  passage of  their  these  laws  constitutional  i n Parliament.  The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l i n the popular  antipathy  dri-ve of  towards  1640-1642 h a d i t s  the e p i s c o p a l  The b i s h o p s w e r e d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r v o i c e  roots  office.  i n Parliament  b e c a u s e t h e E n g l i s h p e o p l e w a n t e d them removed Lords.  cause  The E n g l i s h R e v o l u t i o n h a d a l r e a d y  from  begun.  the  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  •  PAGE  INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF THE A N T I EPISCOPAL DRIVE AND THE ENGLISH  I II III  REVOLUTION  i  A N T I - E P I S C O P A L RIOTS I N LONDON. . . . . . .  1  A N T I - E P I S C O P A L PETITIONS A N T I - E P I S C O P A L PROPAGANDA AND THE PAMPHLET WAR I N 1 6 4 1 .  IV V NOTES  27  ,  48  A N T I - E P I S C O P A L MANOEUVRING I N PARLIAMENT  75  CONCLUSION .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  115 • .  .  144  .  173  INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF THE A N T I - E P I S C O P A L DRIVE AND THE BEGINNING OF THE ENGLISH REVOLUTION On 13 F e b r u a r y , an a c t  1642,  King Charles  I signed  f o r d i s e n a b l i n g a l l persons i n Holy Orders  i n g any t e m p o r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o r a u t h o r i t y .  from  i n the s t r u c t u r e  exercis-  With a stroke  h i s pen t h e King, y i e l d e d t o o v e r w h e l m i n g p r e s s u r e , a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l change  i n t o law  and  of  enacted  o f t h e House o f  Lords  by d e p r i v i n g t h e L o r d s S p i r i t u a l o f t h e i r a n c i e n t p r i v i l e g e vote  i n t h a t House.  had a l r e a d y begun, the bishops episcopal  In actual  fact  to  the E n g l i s h R e v o l u t i o n  b e c a u s e t h e momentum g e n e r a t e d  constituted a popular r e v o l u t i o n .  against  The a n t i -  o p p o s i t i o n among t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s  could not  have c a r r i e d such a program o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m w i t h o u t the help of the people.  U l t i m a t e l y , the bishops  because p u b l i c a n t i p a t h y f o r the e p i s c o p a l  were  removed  had  reached  office  such a p i t c h t h a t t h e K i n g ' s p o s i t i o n w o u l d have been threatened  i f he d i d n o t c o n s e n t  he d e p r i v e t h e b i s h o p s  has  on t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e e p i s c o p a l i d e a o f p o p u l a r r e v o l u t i o n as d o w n f a l l was p r o p o s e d  t o h i s p e o p l e ' s demand  of t h e i r temporal  Nothing very s p e c i f i c  e v e r b e e n done by  crisis  of  1956)  however, concerned a l a r g e r  p o s i t i o n of the bishops the Long P a r l i a m e n t . o f E n g l i s h h i s t o r y has  d u r i n g the f i r s t  None o f traced  historians  1640-1642.  t h e fundament o f t h e  by B r i a n M a n n i n g .  that  power.  The bishops'  His a r t i c l e ,  N o b l e s , The P e o p l e , A n d t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n " i n P a s t (April,  seriously  "The  and  Present  p r o b l e m than- t h e f i f t e e n months  the h i s t o r i a n s  of t h i s  the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  of  period  drive  solely  for  its  own m e r i t s .  Gardiner's  H i s t o r y of England from the  A c c e s s i o n o f James I_ t o t h e O u t b r e a k o f t h e C i v i l War 1 6 0 3 - 1 6 4 2 i n c l u d e d an a c c o u n t part  of  a larger  of the e p i s c o p a l  crisis.  G o d f r e y Goodman a r e  crisis,  Trevor-Roper's  b u t o n l y as  L a u d , and G .  e x c e l l e n t w o r k s o n two o f t h e  the e p i s c o p a l  but i n a l i m i t e d way, s i n c e bishops, book,  not the e p i s c o p a l  o r d e r as  only i n a very general  the e p i s c o p a l  question.  of  t h e i r s u b j e c t s are  way s i n c e h i s  Masson's  These  1640-1642,  individual  a whole.  The R i s e o f P u r i t a n i s m , d e a l s w i t h t h e  crisis  His  crisis  W. H a l l e r ' s episcopal topic is  not  The L i f e o f J o h n M i l t o n  T i m e s and L a m o n t ' s M a r g i n a l P r y n n e h a v e t h e same  tions  f o r a study of the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  w o r k s o f T r e v o r - R o p e r and Soden s i n c e more w i t h t h e  d r i v e as  they too are  w h i c h began a t  examine  the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  episcopate. drive  t h e commencement o f t h e L o n g P a r l i a m e n t from the  An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e e p i s c o p a l  1640-1642  full  own m e r i t s  is  essential  crisis  i f one i s  was e v e r y w h e r e e v i d e n t d u r i n g t h e the Long P a r l i a m e n t .  constitutional structure  The m a j o r  sentiment  of  to appreciate  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  anti-prelatical  the  concerned  and ended w i t h t h e e x p u l s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s  its  and  limita-  have  l i v e s of t h e i r subjects than w i t h the  This study w i l l  Soden1s  most  c o n t r o v e r s i a l E n g l i s h p r e l a t e s of the XVII Century. s t u d i e s take i n t o account  a  Lords.  the  momentum w h i c h  f i r s t , f i f t e e n months  consequence of  d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was  change w h i c h a l t e r e d  of the E n g l i s h P a r l i a m e n t .  the  for  of  the,intense a  fundamental  The e p i s c o p a t e ,  as  L o r d s , S p i r i t u a l of the realm, the P e e r s . spiritual their  enjoyed  The b i s h o p s c l a i m e d t h a t  a r i g h t to vote they represented  i n t e r e s t s o f t h e K i n g d o m , and t h e K i n g  r i g h t to s i t  i n the L o r d s ,  since  with the  defended  he b e l i e v e d  it  his  m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n t o do so b e c a u s e o f h i s C o r o n a t i o n O a t h . Yet  his  popular  defense of the e p i s c o p a l as  petitions  e v i d e n c e d by t h e  riots of  flood of  to the Parliament  the bishops  The f a c t  that  but  anti-prelatical  fierce  showed t h a t  c o u l d change the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  of  anti-episcopal  the b i s h o p s were  t h e i r s e a t s i n t h e U p p e r House  English  anything  c a l l i n g f o r the e x p u l s i o n  f r o m t h e L o r d s , and t h e  i n London.  sentiment  deprived  popular  foundation  of  Government. It  is  v i r t u a l l y impossible  i s s u e from the c r o s s - c u r r e n t s i n England d u r i n g the e a r l y  those a c t i v i t i e s  1640's.  episcopal  upheaval  d r i v e and c o n c e n t r a t e  i n the bishops'  Lords.  The m a j o r  popular  r e v o l u t i o n which brought  change,  the  English history.  the  This study w i l l  e n g a g e d i n by t h e  forces which resulted  first  t o remove  of the p o l i t i c a l  to i s o l a t e the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l on  o r d e r was  expulsion  about a  from  the  of  the m a j o r i t y of  in  anti-prelatical  s u p p o r t e r s o u t s i d e t h e Houses were r e m a r k a b l e .  basic prejudices  of  constitutional  a b o u t i n t h i s manner  The p e r s e v e r a n c e o f  sense of p o l i t i c s ,  the  be t h e a s p e c t s  f o r c e s among t h e P u r i t a n members o f P a r l i a m e n t and  their masterful  only  anti-prelatical  theme o f t h e e s s a y w i l l  one e v e r b r o u g h t  try  their  Because  t h e i r knowledge t h e n a t i o n and  of  of  the  their  iv ability  t o r e m a i n u n d a u n t e d r e g a r d l e s s o f any  t h e i r program o f r e f o r m met, i n t h e Commons w e r e a b l e the bishops  the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  to sustain  from the L o r d s .  setbacks opposition  t h e i r drive to  The c l o s e  cooperation  them and t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y i n L o n d o n a t  Their basic  bishops.  between  the s t a r t of  L o n g P a r l i a m e n t b e s p o k e t h e r u d i m e n t s o f a modern party.  remove  the  political  a i m was t h e same, t h e e x c l u s i o n o f  A t t h a t p o i n t the reason  the p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s  t h e c l e r g y w o u l d have g i v e n f o r s u c h a p o l i c y were n o t i m p o r t a n t as  There i s  a reform could never take  enough e v i d e n c e  the e x p u l s i o n of the bishops  to support  as  of a popular r e v o l u t i o n .  of the supporters  of a l i m i t e d episcopacy  The b a s i c  the t h e s i s  thesis  as  i n t h e Commons.  t h e p r o b l e m as  of the  of anti-episcopal  m u s t h a v e b e e n much f e a r one,  one  pro-episcopal  legislation.  State There  t h a t t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n was  a  or e l s e the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l i a n presses would  n o t h a v e p r o d u c e d so many t r a c t s c o u l d be a d v a n c e d  that  refuting i t .  the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  the work of a d e d i c a t e d m i n o r i t y ,  h a v e some v a l i d i t y ,  Arguments  d r i v e was  or that popular  was s t r i c t l y managed by t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y a n d B o t h arguments  was  d i d many  w r i t e r s o f t h e p e r i o d was t h a t a n a r c h y i n C h u r c h and w o u l d be t h e r e s u l t  that  C l a r e n d o n and D ' E w e s  K i n g C h a r l e s most c e r t a i n l y l o o k e d a t of r e v o l u t i o n .  place.  f r o m t h e House o f L o r d s  both r e f e r r e d to t h i s aspect of the c r i s i s ,  plausible  or  t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n that without mutual  c o o p e r a t i o n so d r a s t i c  the r e s u l t  the  only  feeling  parliamentarians.  but behind the  anti-  V  episcopal base o f  l e g i s l a t i o n of  1 6 4 1 - 1 6 4 2 was a l a r g e  s u p p o r t w h i c h was  and t h e K i n g s .  impressive  enough t o t h e  The r e s u l t was d r a m a t i c :  the K i n g agreed to e x p e l the bishops  which together  presented  as  chapters.  The f i r s t  popular demonstrations anti-episcopal  riots  i n 1640  happened  t o go b e n e a t h  the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s  tumults are  the r i o t s  the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  These p e t i t i o n s  as  first  demonstrated  r e a c h i n g t h e Houses  worst  c o u l d be  This  essay  why t h e y examining the  themselves.  because they  f o r the bishops  a whole.  petitions  outcry a g a i n s t the bishops.  first  t o see  i n London and t h e L o n d o n e r s  being considered  The  grievances  between the P a r l i a m e n t ,  chronology f o r the c r i s i s  petitions  the  were v e r y deep.  the i n t e n s i t y of popular hatred  is  been  the  That the populace  and why t h e y t o o k t h e f o r m t h e y d i d ,  Puritan clergy  is  a n d 1641 w e r e among t h e  seen.  against the bishops  attempt  t h e y have  consideration  moved t o s u c h v i o l e n c e w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t  will  bishops  i n London a g a i n s t the b i s h o p s .  t u m u l t s t h e c i t y had e v e r  they bore  activity  to pry the  the study,  House,  place.  anti-episcopal  To f a c i l i t a t e  and  from the Upper  f o r m e d t h e wedge n e e d e d  out of the Lords.  Lords  the Lords  an a c t i o n t h e y h a d r e s o l v e d w o u l d n e v e r t a k e There were f o u r a r e a s o f  popular  The n e x t  demonstrate and g i v e  The number o f  country.  national  anti-episcopal  of Parliament during  f o u r months o f t h e L o n g P a r l i a m e n t was  a  consideration  from a l l over the  the depth of the  The  the  staggering.  vi T h a t t h e y came when t h e y w e r e n e e d e d showed t h a t  there  w e r e ways i n w h i c h t h e c o u n t i e s w e r e aware o f t h e of  t h e P a r l i a m e n t and c o u l d r e s p o n d t o t h o s e n e e d s i n an  effective  way.  T h e r e was a l a g  f o r almost  p e t i t i o n p r e s s u r e on t h e H o u s e . t h r e e months o f t h e c r i s i s .  be  t o keep a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  considered.  the pamphlet war o f  bishops.  Chapter F i v e ,  how p o p u l a r  feeling  show  i n the  t h r e e months o f t h e p e r i o d u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n ,  resulting  t h e K i n g ' s a s s e n t t o t h e p o p u l a r demand t h a t he remove  This  from the L o r d s . study i s  l i m i t e d to the f i r s t  the Long P a r l i a m e n t .  s e n t i m e n t demands  1640 t o 15 F e b r u a r y , were a b l e  The v o l u m e o f  f i f t e e n months  anti-episcopal  a t i m e r e s t r i c t i o n i f any s e n s e i s  made o u t o f t h e s t u d y .  of  the  b y way o f c o n c l u s i o n , w i l l  a l l f o u r of these elements worked t o g e t h e r  the bishops  of  The  area of i n v e s t i g a t i o n concerns the manoeuvring of  was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o p o p u l a r l e g i s l a t i o n a g a i n s t  last  potent  sentiment a l i v e .  t h e House o f Commons t o d e m o n s t r a t e  how  last  investiga-  The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p r e s s e s p o u r e d o u t  propaganda final  in  stage of the  petitions w i l l  Another area of c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s 1641-1642.  a year  I t began a g a i n i n t h e  At this  t i o n however, only the i n i t i a l  in  needs  1642,  the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  a s e e t h i n g n a t i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t and e f f e c t  Journals  be  I n t h i s time p e r i o d , 3 November, forces  t o b e g i n from v i r t u a l l y n o t h i n g , reap the  revolution.  to  The m a j o r s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s  fruits  a constitutional  used were  the  o f S i r Simonds D ' E w e s , C l a r e n d o n ' s H i s t o r y  of  vii t h e R e b e l l i o n , R u s h w o r t h ' s H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s , and and pamphlets  from the M c A l p i n C o l l e c t i o n at  T h e o l o g i c a l Seminary, concentrate  as much as  New Y o r k , N . Y . possible  Thus,  books  Union the essay  will  on w h a t t h o s e who w i t n e s s e d  t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l d r i v e t h o u g h t t h e y saw;  i t is  t h a t new i n s i g h t i n t o an o l d p r o b l e m w i l l  gained.  be  hoped  CHAPTER I A N T I - E P I S C O P A L RIOTS I N LONDON By t h e t i m e o f t h e commencement o f t h e L o n g P a r l i a m e n t on 3 N o v e m b e r , 1 6 4 0 , anti-episcopal  London had a l r e a d y  riots.  On 22 O c t o b e r a mob e n t e r e d t h e  C o u r t o f H i g h C o m m i s s i o n w h i l e i t was rupted the proceedings  s e e n two d e f i n i t e l y  of  i n s e s s i o n and  t h e c o u r t by s m a s h i n g  C a t h e d r a l and d e s t r o y e d  quantities  b e l i e v i n g them t o be r e c o r d s  Commission."'"  I t was i n t h i s t e n s e a t m o s p h e r e  a g i t a t i o n a g a i n s t the s e c u l a r  On t h e  Paul's  o f documents  i n an o f f i c e ,  they  of the of  High  Anglican  e p i s c o p a t e t h a t t h e P a r l i a m e n t met a n d , b e c a u s e o f v i o l e n c e o f t h e L o n d o n c i t i z e n r y , was a b l e  to  proceedings  power.  To c o n c l u d e t h a t for  the b i s h o p s '  these outbursts  t h e known e v i d e n c e .  of a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  sentiment.  initiate  spontaneous  Perhaps  city  the  most  crisis  were  Edmund C a l a m y , a f r i e n d o f t h e P u r i t a n  o f W a r w i c k , R i c h a r d R i c h , was r e c t o r o f  M a r y A l d e r m a n y ; H e n r y B u r t o n , whose a n t i - e p i s c o p a l c o s t him h i s e a r s i n 1636, Friday Street;  a  The c l e r g y o f t h e  important P u r i t a n d i v i n e s d u r i n g the e p i s c o p a l  second E a r l  hatred  L o n d o n was  w e r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be P u r i t a n .  London m i n i s t e r s :  the  of p u b l i c  r o l e i n t h e Government were  w o u l d be t o m i s r e a d centre  episcopal  found  public  employments o f t h e  necessary to destroy  dis-  everything  t h e y c o u l d and t h r o w i n g f u r n i t u r e i n t o t h e s t r e e t . f o l l o w i n g Sunday a n o t h e r mob r u s h e d i n t o S t .  hated  preached  at  St.  C o r n e l i u s B u r g e s s , who was  St. lectures  Matthew's, later  implicated  2  in inciting St.  the c i t y ' s  apprentices  Magnus, London B r i d g e ;  f o r the parliamentary  t o r i o t was r e c t o r  S t e p h e n M a r s h a l l , who  condidates  of the E a r l of  of  preached Warwick, 2  had a l e c t u r e s h i p  at  St.  Margaret's,  Westminster.  Many  o f t h e i n f l u e n t i a l l a i t y o f t h e c i t y were a l s o P u r i t a n . Two o f L o n d o n ' s  a l d e r m e n who s a t  i n the Long P a r l i a m e n t ,  I s a a c P e n n i n g t o n a n d J o h n V e n n , w e r e members d i s t i n c t i v e l y P u r i t a n parishes of St.  of  the  Stephen's,  Coleman 3  Street,  and A l l H a l l o w s , B r e a d S t r e e t ,  Men s u c h as  P e n n i n g t o n and Venn h a d l i t t l e  episcopacy. to increase  respectively.  For example, the t i t h e s  to  love  the attempts of Archbishops Laud  o f t h e c i t y were d e e p l y  His influence i n having his William Juxon,  reason  s u c c e s s o r t o t h e See  appointed Lord Treasurer  of the A r c h b i s h o p ' s i l l w i l l  resented.  since  was a  of London,  manifestation  " t h e peace and q u i e t  of  t h e c h u r c h d e p e n d e d much on t h e c o n f o r m i t y o f L o n d o n , and' L o n d o n d i d as  much d e p e n d i n t h e i r t r a d e t h e p a y m e n t s  t h e l o v e and j u s t i c e  of the L o r d T r e a s u r e r . "  upon  Therefore,  t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f J u x o n was t h e more l i k e l y way t o c o n f o r m t h e c i t i z e n s t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r B i s h o p , and t h e w h o l e K i n g d o m u n t o t h e m ; no s m a l l e n c o u r a g e m e n t b e i n g t h e r e b y g i v e n t o the London c l e r g y f o r the improving of t h e i r t i t h e s . F o r w i t h what c o n f i d e n c e c o u l d any o f t h e o l d c h e a t s a d v e n t u r e on a p u b l i c e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e C o u r t o f E s c h e q u e r . . . when a L o r d B i s h o p o f L o n d o n s a t e t h e r e i n as t h e p r i n c i p a l j u d g e ? The w o r d " P u r i t a n " t h e r e f o r e  i n 1640  d i d n o t mean m e r e l y  a  movement t o s t e e r t h e b o d y o f t h e E n g l i s h c h u r c h i n t o a more C a l v i n i s t i c s t r e a m w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e A n g l i c a n  3  Church.  The w o r d now h a d d e e p p o l i t i c a l  Laudian reforms to the  secular  i n t h e 1630's h e l p e d t o employments  Presbyterian divines' polity  of  episcopal  of  overtones. fuse  the bishops  o p p o s i t i o n to the  lay  with  opposition  the  ecclesiastical  the p r e l a t e s .  Thus,  movement a l i v e  i n London which l o o k e d t o  t h e r e was  an e f f e c t i v e  P a r l i a m e n t as  t h e happy v e h i c l e o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  Since  the w e a l t h i e r Londoners  some o f  salaries  of  the m i n i s t e r s ,  over the p u l p i t s ; anti-prelatical  the  sentiments  augmented  reform.  popular  support  meagre  some c o n t r o l  helped broadcast  the  e x p r e s s e d by t h e P u r i t a n members  o f t h e L o n g P a r l i a m e n t a l l o v e r L o n d o n i n an e f f o r t sustain  anti-  the  the  l a i t y exercised  P u r i t a n preachers  The  for  the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  to  program  of  5  t h e Commons  leadership.  The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p r e a c h e r  was n o t  b y t h o s e who v i e w e d t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l John Hacket, Restoration  later times,  parliamentary that  Bishop of L i t c h f i e l d wrote of  h e a d y o v e r many t h i n g s ,  it  1640-1642.  and C o v e n t r y i n  the cooperation  between  among them " t h e m u t i n e e s "preached  because  John  of  into disorder  T h i s he c o n s i d e r e d  frightened h i s mentor,  Archbishop of York,  He  o f t h e Long P a r l i a m e n t were  The mobs w e r e  Presbyterian Divines." and s a i d  of  o p p o s i t i o n and t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y .  t h e P u r i t a n members  and C o u n t r y . "  riots  underestimated  very  the felt rather the  City  by  dangerous,  Williams,  4 a muffled Zeal for R e l i g i o n hath a finger i n a l l Combustions . . . Churchmen a r e t h e most dangerous Instruments t o t u r n M a l e - c o n t e n t s i n t o Swordmen who b e i n g p r e p o s s e s s e d w i t h an i l l o p i n i o n o f t h e T i m e s , w i l l q u i c k l y humble t h e i r Judgment under t h e C o n s c i e n c e o f t h e i r m i n i s t e r s . ^ There i s  a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n t o the c o l l u s i o n between  the p a r l i a m e n t a r y of  opposition to episcopacy  t h e L o n d o n mob.  Interestingly  enough,  l e a d e r s had ready a c c e s s t o arms.  and t h e c o n t r o l some o f  The H o n o u r a b l e  Company b y 1639 h a d A l d e r m a n Thomas Soames as and C a p t a i n J o h n Venn as l a t e r M. P . ' s  By J a n u a r y  took complete There i s  London M . P . ' s  about  President  o f J o h n Pym i n  the c i t y ' s  command o f t h e c i t y ' s  a question  the support  the  was  by o r d e r o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l  imprisoned far  bands.  four  This  D u r i n g the Short P a r l i a m e n t ,  Samuel V a s s a l l ,  the  parliamentary trained  h a d among t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s .  to r i o t brigades. M. P . ' s ,  1642,  Artillery  B o t h t h e s e men w e r e  f o r London and s u p p o r t e r s  Long P a r l i a m e n t . Puritans  h i s deputy.  the  extended  one o f  the  from London  f o r s t i r r i n g up  "popular  8  a g i t a t i o n among t h e c i t i z e n s . " I s a a c P e n n i n g t o n once a n n o u n c e d t o t h e House t h a t he c o u l d r a i s e a c i t i z e n army 9 i n a day,  armed,  i f need b e ,  w i t h swords.  Pennington,  whose home was a h a v e n f o r t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e P u r i t a n movement, services  b o t h f o r L o n d o n a n d t h e n a t i o n , p r o v i d e d many f o r the people  o f L o n d o n , and i n t u r n t h e y  him and t h e cause o f t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y w h e n e v e r he n e e d e d  opposition  well  them.  The c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e  served  parliamentarian  5  o p p o s i t i o n a n d t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y was u n d e r s t a n d a b l e The s t a t u s o f e p i s c o p a c y parties;  its  alike.  was o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e t o  c o n t i n u a n c e was  structure which defeated  intolerable since  t h e aims  of  i n age  and p r e c e d e n t  layman and c l e r i c  so  p a r l i a m e n t a r y p o s i t i o n was c o n c e r n e d . between W e s t m i n s t e r and t h e p a r i s h e s anti-episcopal  apparent  far  as  Thus t h e  bishop1s  liaison  was e s s e n t i a l  a n d c l e r i c s w e r e aware o f  needs and t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i l l later  concerned,  the  institu-  if  the  f a c t i o n hoped t o g a i n p o p u l a r s u p p o r t .  a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l M. P . ' s other's  both  i t had a  G r e a t p r e s s u r e was n e e d e d t o b r i n g down an  t i o n venerable  enough.  i n t h i s essay.  as  each more  the r i o t s  are  of t h e i r fury, t h e i r  timing,  and t h e i r c o n t i n u e d p r e s s u r e a l l b e s p e a k a w e l l  ordered  plan,  the very nature  So f a r  become  The  only possible  t h r o u g h a g r e a t d e a l o f c o o p e r a t i o n on  the p a r t  o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t and t h e P u r i t a n l e a d e r s h i p  London.  A s has  been s e e n ,  c l e r g y were f r i e n d s . establishment bishops  forces  many o f t h e M . P . ' s  I n such an atmosphere  On t h a t day t h e  o p p o s i t i o n and t h e i r f r i e n d s their  ability  the combined a n t i -  of popular  d u r i n g t h e L o n g P a r l i a m e n t was  on 28 N o v e m b e r , 1 6 4 0 .  city  the  Lords.  The f i r s t p u b l i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n of episcopacy  and t h e  p r o v e d s t r o n g enough t o f o r c e  o u t o f t h e House o f  in  hatred  seen i n London  parliamentary  i n the London churches  to m o b i l i z e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  proved  demonstrations  among t h e c i t i z e n r y when W i l l i a m P r y n n e a n d H e n r y B u r t o n  6 r e t u r n e d t o t h e c i t y by o r d e r o f P a r l i a m e n t f r o m t h e i r long sojourn  in prision.  men, o r d e r e d by t h e S t a r some o f t h e b i s h o p s prelatical 6  *  i-  The c r u e l m u t i l a t i o n o f Chamber a t  who r e s e n t e d  sentiments,  these  the i n s t i g a t i o n of  t h e i r very l i v e l y  anti-  made P r y n n e a n d B u r t o n p o p u l a r  10  heroes. The o r g a n i z e d s t r e n g t h o f t h e P u r i t a n movement was r e v e a l e d by t h e c u r i o u s l y g o o d t i m i n g o f g i v e n P r y n n e and B u r t o n .  t h e p u b l i c welcome  Two d a y s b e f o r e  i n L o n d o n t h e two men met a t  their arrival  t h e same i n n .  The n e x t  day  t h e y came t o C o l n b r o o k e , w h e r e many o f t h e i r L o n d o n  friends  met t h e m , and g r e a t j o y a n d f e a s t i n g  of  the day. gathered  A t two, o ' c l o c k on 28 November a at Charing Cross,.where  tantamount people"  were t h e o r d e r  t o an " i n s u r r e c t i o n .  a joyous .  procession reception  . and f r e n z y o f  awaited them, t e n thousand s t r o n g . ^  the  The  common p e o p l e w e r e s t r e w i n g f l o w e r s a n d h e r b s i n t h e ways as t h e y p a s s e d , making g r e a t n o i s e and expressions of joy for t h e i r deliverance and r e t u r n , and i n t h o s e a c c l a m a t i o n s , m i n g l i n g l o u d and v i r u l e n t e x c l a m a t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s 'who h a d so c r u e l y persecuted such godly m e n . ' ^ ^ A s i m i l a r demonstration of a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  feeling  was  e v i d e n t when J o h n B a s t w i c k , a d o c t o r who h a d s h a r e d same f a t e as  the  P r y n n e a n d B u r t o n , came t o L o n d o n by o r d e r  o f P a r l i a m e n t the f o l l o w i n g week.  A similar  was g i v e n h i m i n L o n d o n f o l l o w i n g h i s  receptions  t r i u m p h a l passage  t h r o u g h K e n t , H a m p s h i r e a n d S u r r e y , w h e r e many o f t h e  people  from t h e s e c o u n t i e s welcomed h i m . c a u s e d by b i s h o p s ,  Deploring his  suffering  they u t t e r e d a n t i - e p i s c o p a l c r i e s  as  he p a s s e d b y . There i s  no d o u b t t h a t t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l E d w a r d  Hyde,  l a t e r Lord Clarendon, i n t e r p r e t e d these  tions  t o be r e b e l l i o n s a g a i n s t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t .  n o t e d t h a t no " m i n i s t e r o f State i t s e l f in  justice  assembly,  [had]  justice  demonstraHaving  or magistrate  c o u r a g e enough t o examine o r  any p e r s o n s who w e r e p a r t o f t h e  or  prosecute  riotous  w h e r e o f t h e r e w e r e many c i t i z e n s o f g o o d  he saw t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s r e p u t a t i o n h a d f a l l e n l o w i n t h e e y e s o f many t h a t t h e i r o r d e r s  the  estates so  would have  been  13  dxsobeyed  anyway.  The f o r c e o f t h i s p o p u l a r d e m o n s t r a t i o n t o o k P r i v y C o u n c i l and j u d g e s o f t h e K i n g ' s C o u n c i l b y  the  surprise  and t h e y were u n a b l e t o s t o p t h e g r o w i n g a n t i - e p i s c o p a l momentum.I4  T h i s would suggest t h a t the  elaborate  a p p a r a t u s A r c h b i s h o p Laud had c o n s t r u c t e d t o  silence  P u r i t a n o p p o s i t i o n t o h i s H i g h - C h u r c h p o l i c i e s had b r o k e n down.  Nothing c o u l d stop the growing p u b l i c demonstration  against episcopacy.  For Clarendon, noted that i n the  week a n d a h a l f o f December t h e p r e c i o u s of e p i s c o p a l dead.  prerogative  i m p r i m a t u r and l i c e n s i n g o f p r e a c h e r s  Instead,  first  was  .8 a l l p u l p i t s were f r e e l y d e l i v e r e d t o t h e s c h i s m a t i c a l a n d s i l e n c e d p r e a c h e r s , who t i l l t h e n had l u r k e d i n c o r n e r s o r l i v e d i n New E n g l a n d ; and t h e p r e s s e s w e r e a t l i b e r t y f o r the p u b l i s h i n g t h e most i n v e c t i v e , s e d i t i o u s , and s c u r r i l o u s p a m p h l e t s t h e i r w i t and m a l i c e c o u l d invent.15 Emboldened by t h e s e s u c c e s s f u l episcopal  sentiment,  exerting pressure  c o n s e r v a t i v e elements  They  a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s to  the  t h i s h a d on some o f t h e more  o f t h e House o f Commons was p r o f o u n d .  The " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n ,  Londoners.  anti-  t h e L o n d o n e r s f o u n d a new way o f  The e f f e c t  next chapter,  of  to further d i s c r e d i t episcopacy.  c o u l d accompany t h e i r Parliament.  expressions  t o be d i s c u s s e d  i n the  was b r o u g h t t o t h e House b y f i f t e e n h u n d r e d  That these people  s h o u l d have had t h e  t o v e n t u r e i n t o t h e p r e c i n c t s o f t h e House  audacity  scandalized  some o f t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e members o f t h e House o f Commons s u c h as  Sir Neville Poole.  h a d no r i g h t t o be a b o u t  Poole f e l t that the  people  t h e House and f o r t h a t  reason 16  a l o n e t h e p e t i t i o n s h o u l d be t h r o w n o u t a l t o g e t h e r . he v o i c e d t h e o p i n i o n o f a m i n o r i t y o f M . P . ' s L o n d o n c r o w d was t o become a f a c t o r  and  the  t o be r e c k o n e d w i t h ,  l u r k i n g about the P a r l i a m e n t whenever the success a n t i - e p i s c o p a l m e a s u r e s was a t  But  of  stake.  The b i s h o p s w e r e n o t b l i n d t o t h e p o r t e n t o f growing demonstrations.  Joseph H a l l ,  Bishop of  l a t e r w r o t e o f t h e i n f l u e n c e mob t a c t i c s activities  to destroy  episcopacy:  h a d on  these  Norwich, progressive  9 W i t h a l , the rabble of London, a f t e r t h e i r p e t i t i o n s c u n n i n g l y and upon o t h e r p r e t e n c e s p r o c u r e d , w e r e s t i r r e d up t o come t o t h e Houses p e r s o n a l l y t o c r a v e j u s t i c e . . . a g a i n s t t h e A r c h b i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y , and .. _ . . . l a s t l y a g a i n s t the whole Order of B i s h o p s . This observation i s petitions,  i n t e r e s t i n g , because the  w h i c h n e v e r had p o p u l a r s u p p o r t  or the c o u n t i e s ,  pro-episcopalian  from e i t h e r London  were u s u a l l y d e f e r r e d by t h e H o u s e s .  This aspect of the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l d r i v e w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e d when p e t i t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d . is  evident that r i o t pressure  o c c u r r e d when i n 1641  be more  deeply  A t any r a t e  it  c o u l d move t h e Commons t o  choo:se t o r e a d a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s One o f more s e r i o u s  °  i n the  manifestations  House.  of r i o t  pressure  the London c i t i z e n r y a g i t a t e d  the death of the E a r l of S t r a f f o r d .  It  is  not the  for purpose  h e r e t o show t h e r e a s o n why t h e p o p u l a c e h a t e d h i m as much as  they d i d .  What i s  i m p o r t a n t t o us now i s  his  connection w i t h the implementation of the p o l i c i e s Archbishop Laud.  Even though the L a u d i a n system of  management was n o t e n d o r s e d b y a l l t h e b i s h o p s ,  was g u i l t y o f L a u d ' s  crimes.  episcopate  Thus a p e t i t i o n a g a i n s t  was one a g a i n s t L a u d , w h i c h i n t u r n was  against a l l the bishops.  Church  the  parliamentary o p p o s i t i o n thought t h a t the e n t i r e  Strafford  of  The same l o g i c a p p l i e d t o  one the  19 riots,  as  Hall  so b i t t e r l y o b s e r v e d .  t o t h e House on 21 A p r i l ,  1641,  Thus a p e t i t i o n  by t e n thousand  under the l e a d e r s h i p of t h r e e c i t y  captains  citizens  o f the London  10 t r a i n e d bands city,  (one o f whom was t h e f u t u r e member f o r  J o h n Venn) c a l l i n g  offenders"  "notorious  and t h e r e f o r m o f t h e C h u r c h , h a d  significance. implication,  The c i t y w a n t e d S t r a f f o r d ' s the bishops'  why t h e b i s h o p s Strafford's matters  f o r the death of  d e a t h s as w e l l .  the  special  d e a t h a n d , by u  Perhaps  this  so d i l i g e n t l y m a n o e u v r e d t h e i r way o u t  business  i n agitatione  before  the House, s a y i n g t h a t  is  of  all  causae s a n g u i n i s were repugnant  to  21  their office. Strafford's  The r i o t s d u r i n g May o f  death f a r exceeded  1641  demanding  a n y t h i n g seen i n London b e f o r e  t h a t t i m e , e x c e e d i n g e v e n t h e mob a t t a c k  on L a u d ' s  carriage  when he was on h i s way t o t h e Tower o f L o n d o n on 1 M a r c h , 1641.  The May r i o t s , b y a l l t h e e v i d e n c e we h a v e ,  carefully  were  planned.  The anonymous a u t h o r o f t h e p a m p h l e t  Persecutio  U n d e c i m a g a v e an a c c o u n t o f t h e c o l l u s i o n b e t w e e n P u r i t a n c l e r g y and t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n . 2 2  the He  c l a i m e d t h a t t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y w o u l d meet i n Edmund C a l a m y ' s house  t o d e v i s e ways o f p r o p a g a t i n g  the godly cause i n the  House a n d t o h e l p t h e c i t i z e n s f u r t h e r t h e c a u s e .  By way  o f t h e i r s e r m o n s and l e c t u r e s t h e c i t i z e n s c o u l d l e a r n n o t o n l y w h a t was done t h e week b e f o r e i n P a r l i a m e n t b u t a l s o w h a t was t o be done t h e week f o l l o w i n g ; b e s i d e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , w h i c h ; t h e i r p u l p i t s gave the p e o p l e , f o r coming i n Tumults t o t h e House f o r j u s t i c e . 2 3 Two L o n d o n men, one a c l e r i c , s t a n d o u t as riots  i n May:  the probable  leaders  t h e o t h e r an M . P . ,  of the  anti-Strafford  Charles O f f s p r i n g , r e c t o r of St.  Antholins,  11 and I s a a c P e n n i n g t o n .  O f f s p r i n g , a f r i e n d and h o s t  S c o t t i s h C o m m i s s i o n e r s , was t h e p a s t o r c h u r c h , where p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t e r s was a n i n d e f a t i g a b l e blasts  the  "missionary"  could t r a i n .  He h i m s e l f  p r e a c h e r who n o t o n l y h u r l e d g o d l y  f r o m h i s p u l p i t , b u t a l s o c a r r i e d t h e good news  the crowded s t r e e t s . he was  He knew a l l t h e s h o p s i n L o n d o n  f o r e v e r c o l l e c t i n g money t o f i n a n c e t h e  ministry.^  spokesman  i t c a n be s a i d  i n the House.  into since  preaching  P e n n i n g t o n ' s p o s i t i o n i n London has  been e s t a b l i s h e d ; chief  of a  of  t h a t he was t h e  already city's  H a c k e t s p o k e o f them when  he w r o t e c o n c e r n i n g t h e May r i o t s : T h e r e i s no e q u a l t e m p e r a t u r e , o r c o u n t e r p o i s e o f power a g a i n s t t h e S t r o n g i n g r e d i e n t o f a Multitude. I w i l l n o t s a y , b u t how many o f t h i s Scum i n v i t e d t h e m s e l v e s u n b i d d e n t o do a M i s c h i e f , b u t t h e r e was a L e a d e r , a P r e s b y t e r P u l p i t e e r t h a t b e s p o k e them i n t o an U p r o a r f r o m Shop t o Shop . . . I need n o t a t i m e - h o u n d t o d r a w a f t e r h i m t h a t was t h e c h i e f B u r g e s s o f t h e B o r r o u g h who g a t h e r e d t h i s v a i n P e o p l e t o a h e a d , t h a t h a d no h e a d : S i l l y Mechanicks!25 The r e a s o n fear  that  the King would spare S t r a f f o r d .  demonstrations  for a b i l l  c o n s i d e r i n g events with placards outside  f o r the demonstrations  t o come.  earlier  Belligerent citizens,  but things degenerated  "mechanick f o l k " from Southwark appeared clubs.  The  o f a t t a i n d e r were p e a c e f u l  c a l l i n g for his execution,  Whitehall,  was a p o p u l a r  when many o f w i t h swords  " m e c h a n i c k s " and c r i e d f o r j u s t i c e .  even t h r e a t e n e d  to p u l l  some  demonstrated  V i o l e n c e b r o k e o u t o n 3 M a y ; seamen a n d  j o i n e d the  enough  the  and  apprentices °  The mob  t h e K i n g o u t o f W h i t e h a l l i f he d i d  12 not  have S t r a f f o r d e x e c u t e d .  From 7 May  crowds were t h i c k a r o u n d W e s t m i n s t e r . looked  grave f o r the  King.  condemn S t r a f f o r d and called  In  finally,  i n four bishops,  could  stood  see  give  conscience law  could  lofty  that great  would not  in  f o r no  in.  feel  as  hoping  Potter  Williams  spoke o f t h e the  in this  should  save S t r a f f o r d ' s l i f e ,  on  the  Strafford's signed  it due  t o be  and  death warrant.  a bill  Parliament  f o r the  T h u s , mob  hierarchy  the  An  King.• that  Yet  o p p o s i t i o n had  Parliament  p r o t e s t was  his  was  not  was  King  made o v e r t h e  was  not  a  he  dramatic  signed  the  King  also  M.  P.'s  wished  have b e e n made  that  free.  the  Many o f  under the  of a  considered  a major v i c t o r y .  he  prerogative:  v i o l e n c e , and  Parliament  scored  judges  whether  Charles  same day  limited  moment t h e y s t r i p p e d t h e  prerogative.  King  public  v i o l e n c e had  argument c o u l d  L o r d s e s p e c i a l l y f e a r e d mob of the  but  they  public  true question  d i s s o l v e d o n l y when t h e  dissolved.  to coercion  the On  which s e v e r e l y  c o u l d be  King's  case the  w h e t h e r he  effect  These  judgment o f t h e  prevail.,  °  he  of  In h i s p r i v a t e conscience  would, but  him.  not  done i f t h e  should  die with  could  of C a r l i s l e .  conscience  should  he  situation  for a Solution,  v i o l e n c e w o u l d be  Strafford. he  conscience  angry  p r i n c i p l e s i n t h i s matter;  which would r e f l e c t  against  The  2 7  9 May  U s h e r o f Armagh, W i l l i a m s  L i n c o l n , M o r t o n o f Durham, and bishops  until  The  duress  precious free; fact  freedom o f P a r l i a m e n t  the that  a t the  no time  of  t h e r i o t s was o f v i t a l  bishops.  importance to the fate of  A v i o l e n t expression  K i n g a f r i e n d and a v a l u a b l e popular demonstrations power o f t h e  of p u b l i c w i l l  prerogative.  lost  the  The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  enough i n t h e May r i o t s  leadership  enemies.  The b i s h o p s ,  greater  enemies,  This subject w i l l  that the K i n g ,  Lords,  t h e Commons seemed t o h a v e  Suffice  leadership of  Bill;  t e m p o r a l power  i n the Upper House.  Exclusion B i l l s ,  i t now t o  say, members  a c c e p t i n g the b i l l s  of  H i g h C o m m i s s i o n and t h e S t a r  popular  to prevent  r i g h t as  The  a  Peers  anti-episcopal  the L o r d s '  approval  a n d one " R o o t and B r a n c h "  The L o r d s a n d t h e K i n g f e l t  t h e y had  compromised  i n J u l y w h i c h had a b o l i s h e d t h e C o u r t Chamber.  The  i n t h e L o w e r House w e r e n o t s a t i s f i e d .  the uncooperative  at  learned nothing of the  by  faction  sitting  and p r o - e p i s c o p a l i a n  t r i e d and f a i l e d t o g e t  two B i s h o p s '  against  leaders  be d i s c u s s e d  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l v i o l a t i o n of the bishops' to vote  potently  business  mood, b e c a u s e t h e y d i d e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e  Spiritual  i n the  were s t i l l  t h e work a g a i n s t the b i s h o p s '  length i n Chapter Four.  however, of  whom t h e s e  t h e House o f L o r d s a n d , w i t h S t r a f f o r d ' s  i n earnest.  populace  the depth of the p u b l i c rage  c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e i r s p e c i a l  began  success,  political  the a s s i s t a n c e of the  Commons t h o u g h t t h e L o n d o n e r s h a d d e m o n s t r a t e d  completed,  the  episcopate.  was a g a i n n e e d e d .  in  for  With t h i s  c o u l d hope t o d e s t r o y  I t was months b e f o r e  Parliament's  the  nature of the L o r d s ,  anti-episcopal Because of  t h e Commons t r i e d  to  14 p r o d t h e L o r d s and t h e K i n g i n t o a c t i o n by i m p e a c h i n g t h i r t e e n bishops But  i n August f o r a breach of  t h e s e impeached b i s h o p s  praemunire.  continued to s i t  i n the  Lords.  By N o v e m b e r , when t h e news o f t h e I r i s h r e b e l l i o n f r i g h t e n e d all  of London, the d e s t r u c t i o n of e p i s c o p a l  seemed t o be f a r leadership of  away.  Because o f t h i s  t o as  still  anti-episcopal  i n t h e Commons d e l i b e r a t e l y l i n k e d t h e  t h e I r i s h r e b e l l i o n and i t s  bishops  the  power  and p o p i s h l o r d s  i n a document p o p u l a r l y  the Grand Remonstrance.  the bishops  popish t e r r o r with  the referred  T h i s document a l s o  of o b s t r u c t i n g every b i l l  up f r o m t h e Commons.  issue  accused  f o r r e f o r m w h i c h came  I t was i m p e r a t i v e t h a t a b i l l  e x c l u s i o n of the bishops  be p a s s e d . 2 ^  for  the  The a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l  members  o f t h e Commons h a d w o r k e d on t h e  pro-episcopal  faction  i n t h e Commons a n d L o r d s l o n g e n o u g h .  A l l hope  t h a t t h e two H o u s e s w o u l d u n i t e a g a i n s t e p i s c o p a l  tyranny  and e x p e l the b i s h o p s  By t h e  end be  from the L o r d s had f a i l e d .  o f November i t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h e L o n d o n mobs w o u l d needed. The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  November,  1641,  until  riots  i n London from t h e end o f  t h e e n d o f December^  1641,  o r g a n i z e d and i n s p i r e d by t h e P u r i t a n l e a d e r s h i p P a r l i a m e n t and i n t h e c i t y . letter getting  husband d e s i r e d h i s  p a r t y i n t h e Commons was  o f t h e good p a r t y , friends  h e l p t h e good p a r t y . " 3 0  in  J o h n Venn had s e n t h i s w i f e  saying the p r o - e p i s c o p a l "the better  were  and.therefore  t o come w i t h t h e i r arms  Some t h o u s a n d men c a m e ,  her to  armed,  a  15 t o h e l p i n w h a t e v e r way t h e y c o u l d . the populace would gather t h e sound o f a b e l l convenient place,  31  Clarendon noted  day o r n i g h t d u r i n g December  or other t o k e n , i n the f i e l d s ,  t o c o n s u l t and r e c e i v e o r d e r s  by whom t h e y w e r e t o be d i s p o s e d . " 3 2  arming  "by  o r some  from  those  one s u c h c a s e was  n o t e d i n S o u t h w a r k when a p r o - e p i s c o p a l c o n s t a b l e citizens  that  noticed  themselves  i n a p l a c e w h e r e t h e i r arms and m a g a z i n e f o r t h a t b o r o u g h was k e p t . . . t h e c o n s t a b l e . . . was no s o o n e r e s p i e d b u t he was r e p r o a c h e d w i t h d i s d a i n f u l w o r d s , b e a t e n , a n d d r a g g e d i n so b a r b a r o u s a manner t h a t he h a r d l y e s c a p e d w i t h h i s life.33 T h a t t h e man was t r y i n g t o p r e v e n t an armed i n s u r r e c t i o n was d e n i e d i n t h e Commons when an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s was made.  The House was t o l d  matter  that  t h a t m e e t i n g i n Southwark had been by g o d l y a n d w e l l a f f e c t e d men, o n l y t o draw up and p r e p a r e C a p e t i t i o n a g a i n s t b i s h o p s , and t h a t the c o n s t a b l e , being a f r i e n d of b i s h o p s , came amongst t h e m t o h i n d e r men from s u b s c r i b i n g t h a t wholesome p e t i t i o n . 3 4 The P u r i t a n c l e r g y a l s o h e l p e d t o k e e p t h e f e e l i n g at but there  a high p i t c h , [the b i s h o p s ]  for  anti-episcopal  " n o c h u r c h e s c o u l d be  w e r e p r e a c h e d a g a i n s t as  frequented  anti-  3R  Christian."JJ  The L o n d o n e r s t h o u g h t t h e b i s h o p s  i m p l i c a t e d i n the I r i s h r e b e l l i o n ,  and i n t h e i r  were fear  C a t h o l i c u p r i s i n g were r e a d y t o t a k e t h e n e c e s s a r y be r i d o f e p i s c o p a l p o w e r . desired this very effect, t o be r i d o f b i s h o p s  The a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l f o r t h e y c o u l d see  of  a  means  to  leadership  no o t h e r way  t h a n t o make t h e i r e x p u l s i o n f r o m t h e  16 Lords a popular cause. resolve  on 2 D e c e m b e r ,  T h i s c o u l d be s e e n b y P y m ' s 1641,  that  a c o m m i t t e e . . . r e v i e w w h a t b i l l s we h a d p a s s e d a n d t h e l o r d s r e j e c t e d , and t h e reasons why, and, i f the l o r d s would not j o y n e w i t h u s , t h e n l e t us goe t o t h e K i n g , a n d make a d e c l a r a t i o n t o t h e p e o p l e , and l e t them see w h e r e t h e o b s t r u c t i o n s l i e . . . .36 Pym s t a t e d  t h a t those  lords  so d e c l a r e  themselves,  i n n o c e n t o f such a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d  b u t i t was c o n c e d e d t h a t t h e  bishops  w o u l d be j u d g e d g u i l t y b y a l l . T h e r e w e r e two d i s t i n c t p h a s e s o f t h e December The f i r s t p h a s e ,  a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the r i o t s of  N o v e m b e r , was a i m e d a t  riots.  late  t h r e e members o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t who  were p r o - e p i s c o p a l .  S i r John Strangeways  harassed for several  days.  was  especially  On Monday e v e n i n g , 29 N o v e m b e r ,  1641 hee was e n c o m p a s s e d w i t h above 200 s w o r d e d a n d s t a v e d , t o whom hee a s k i n g w h a t was t h e meaning. T h e y t o l d h i m t h a t t h e y came t o h i m f o r h i s v o t e f o r t h e p u t t i n g downe o f t h e B i s h o p s ; t o w h i c h hee t o l d them t h a t t h e y m u s t d e s i r e i n a l e g a l l way w h a t t h e y w o u l d h a v e l e g a l l y d o n e ; a n d soe d r e w h i m s e l f e f r o m them a n d i n h i s d e p a r t u r e hee c o u l d h e a r them s a y , do y o u know who y o u s p o k e t o ; i t was a n s w e r e d n o e ; why i t was S i r J o h n S t r a n g e w a y s one o f f t h e g r e a t e s t e n n i m y e s we h a v e . 3 7 I t was a g a i n r e c o r d e d t h a t S t r a n g e w a y s  was s t o p p e d by one  oo hundred people,  receiving offensive  words from them.  C l a r e n d o n n o t e d t h a t t h e mobs w o u l d f o r m o u t s i d e Parliament,  c h e e r i n g t h o s e whom t h e y l i k e d and r e a d i n g  a l o u d t h e names o f t h o s e the Kingdom.  the  Among t h o s e  they f e l t  t o be d i s a f f e c t e d  i n the l a t t e r category  fell  with Sir  17 John Strangeways,  E d w a r d H y d e , L o r d F a l k l a n d , and S i r  J o h n C u l p e p p e r , a l l o f whom o p p o s e d  the e x p u l s i o n of  bishops.  at  The c r o w d s w o u l d g a t h e r  the doors  of  b o t h H o u s e s p r e v a i l i n g a l l o f t h e members t o e x p e l bishops.  To a d d f o r c e t o t h e i r demands  aloud,"No Bishops  .  .  . calling  the  the  the crown c r i e d  them t h e l i m b s o f  anti-  Christ."40 The mobs d i d a f f e c t episcopalians.  t h e composure o f the  Edmund W a l l e r ,  pro-  a p r o - p r e l a t i c a l M . P.>  o n 2 December "much i n v e i g h e d a g a i n s t t h e L o n d o n e r s i n c o m i n g down a f t e r  soe  t u m u l t u o u s a m a n n e r , and  crying  41 openly  'Noe B i s h o p p , Noe B i s h o p p 1 . "  S i r Simonds D ' E w e s ,  an a n t i - e p i s c o p a l i a n a n s w e r e d h i m t h a t t h e L o n d o n e r s w e r e not causing tumults i n expressing  their  grievances,  e x p l a i n i n g t h a t t h e i r demands c o n c e r n i n g b i s h o p s m i g h t r e l a t e t o t h e r s i t t i n g and h a v i n g votes i n the Lords house; a g a i n s t which t h e r i s a b i l l p a s t t h i s h o u s e and s e n t upp t o t h e L o r d s ; a n d t h e w h o l e c i t t i e i n one c o l l e c t i v e b o d i e d i d c o m p l a i n e o f t h i s t o t h o s e g e n t l e m e n whom wee s e n t u n t o them t o b o r r o w t h e l a s t 5 0 , 0 0 0 £ o f t h e m , t h a t t h e y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t many good A c t s and m o t i o n s w h i c h h a d p a s t t h e v o t e o f t h i s house were s t o p p e d i n t h e L o r d s house by r e a s o n o f t h e B i s h o p p s h a v i n g v o t e s and v o i c e s t h e r . 4 2 The s i t u a t i o n d e t e r i o r a t e d so much t h a t o n 9 December,  1641,  the King sent  an o r d e r t o t h e L o r d M a y o r  o f L o n d o n d e m a n d i n g t h a t he s u p p r e s s t h e r i o t s , and u n l a w f u l the c i t y .  routs,  a s s e m b l i e s w h i c h were u p s e t t i n g t h e peace  He f u r t h e r commanded t h a t a l l j u s t i c e s  of  of  the  18 peace and s h e r i f f s  were t o charge  every householder henceforth  n o t t o p e r m i t any o f t h e i r A p p r e n t i c e s o r s e r v a n t s t o have t h e l i b e r t y o f g o i n g a b r o a d t o make any T u m u l t s o r u n l a w f u l meetings and a s s e m b l i e s w i t h i n t h e C i t y o r e l s e w h e r e upon any p r e t e n c e w h a t s o e v e r . ^ The K i n g r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n was b e c o m i n g d e s p e r a t e . On 12 December he o r d e r e d a l l members who w e r e themselves  f r o m t h e Commons t o r e t u r n .  absenting  The Commons s t r u c k  b a c k b y p r i n t i n g t h e G r a n d R e m o n s t r a n c e o n 15 D e c e m b e r . E n r a g e d , C h a r l e s r e p l i e d o n 23 December t h a t t h e presence  bishops'  i n t h e House o f L o r d s was j u s t i f i e d b y t h e  fundamental  l a w s o f t h e r e a l m , a n d t h a t he i n t e n d e d t o  defend  44  t h e C h u r c h w i t h c o n s t a n c y so l o n g as .To t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p  he s h o u l d  live.  i n P a r l i a m e n t and i n  L o n d o n t h i s was t a n t a m o u n t t o a d e c l a r a t i o n o f w a r . was o n l y one c o u r s e o p e n t o t h e m .  S i n c e t h e L o r d s and  King would not l i s t e n to the people's themselves  would keep the b i s h o p s  That the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l some p a r t  There  demands,  the  the  people  out of P a r l i a m e n t .  f a c t i o n i n t h e House h a d  t o p l a y i n t h e s e c o n d s t a g e o f t h e December  riots,  2 7 December t o 30 D e c e m b e r , was shown when C l a r e n d o n w r o t e A n d when c o m p l a i n t was made t o t h e House o f Commons f o r t h i s d i s o r d e r a n d b r e a c h o f p r i v i l e g e , i t was t u r n e d i n t o m e r t h , a n d t h e names o f t h e p e r s o n s r e q u i r e d o f t h o s e who c o m p l a i n e d , a n d who c o u l d n o t be s u p p o s e d t o know any o f t h a t r a b b l e ; w h i c h made v e r y many o f t h e members o f t h e Houses f o r b e a r t o g i v e t h e i r a t t e n d a n c e there?> p u t o f r e a l a p p r e h e n s i o n o f d a n g e r to t h e i r persons.45 T h i s w o u l d work t o t h e advantage o f t h e  anti-episcopalian  19  faction  i n the P a r l i a m e n t .  B e c a u s e i t was  many o f  t h e n o n - P u r i t a n members o f t h e House w o u l d be  of the c i t y f o r the h o l i d a y . . I f opposition  could successfully  the  Christmastide,  anti-prelatical  manipulate  t h e mob,  there  was a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t  the bishops c o u l d lose votes  Parliament after  If  all.  the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l cleared  t h e b i s h o p s c o u l d be  M. P . ' s  f o r more d r a s t i c  impossible  to e f f e c t  hoped t h a t  reforms  v o t e s so  h a d b e e n w a r n e d b y some o f t h e i r f r i e n d s  of  "in this  first  thereetrouble  the Deanery a t t a c h e d  were  i n the c i t y  by some o f  that  time  of  use  i n k l i n g t h e b i s h o p s may h a v e  a f o o t was when A r c h b i s h o p J o h n that  his  t o W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y , was the apprentices  "making a great n o t i s e  house,  being  and c i t i z e n s  and h u b u b . " ^ 7  vantage p o i n t they c o u l d b e t t e r  who  From t h i s  watch the bisiops  t o P a r l i a m e n t and g a t h e r up s t o n e s t o h u r l the  often  The b i s h o p s  licentious  W i l l i a m s o f Y o r k n o t i c e d on 26 December  surrounded  been  t h o u g h t h e y h a d n o t t h e h a p p i n e s s t o make  the a d v i c e . T h e  had t h a t  expelled,  w h i c h had h i t h e r t o  c o i n c i d e d w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of the K i n g .  Christmas,  in  t h e way w o u l d be  because the b i s h o p s '  they should absent themselves  out  at  coming  them on  f o l l o w i n g day. When t h e b i s h o p s s e t  27 D e c e m b e r ,  out  f o r P a r l i a m e n t on M o n d a y ,  t h e y w e r e met by one o f t h e u g l i e s t  seen i n London. desperate V a r l e t s  According to Hacket, i n C i t y and S u b u r b s ,  thousands to Parliament  .  .  mobs  " a l l sectaries  ever and  f l o c k e d by  . e v e r y T i n k e r and T a p s t e r  20 called  for  justice."  48  If  the p r e l a t e s  hoped t o  t h e c r o w d s by w a t e r t h e y w e r e s o r e l y m i s t a k e n . i n t o dock, riots  of apprentices  and o t h e r s  "no b i s h o p s . " 4 9  Curll  b u t was g r e e t e d  s t a n d i n g on t h e s h o r e  apprentices  now a l l t o f a m i l i a r "No b i s h o p s " ,  crying  and was a d v i s e d  dock,  the not  to  coach.^  were v i s i b l y u p s e t by t h e v i o l e n c e o f  W i l l i a m s o f Y o r k w e n t i n t o a r a g e when t h e  i n s u l t e d h i m a n d h i s b r e t h r e n by j e e r i n g a t rioters  companies  who s h o u t e d  he t u r n e d b a c k a n d e s c a p e d by  The b i s h o p s  by  tried  of Winchester also t r i e d to  b u t was met by swarms o f  Instead,  These  Duppa o f S a l i s b u r y  t o d o c k on one o f t h o s e d a y s ,  t h e mob.  On c o m i n g  t h e i r b a r g e s were p e l t e d w i t h s t o n e s .  c o n t i n u e d f o r two d a y s .  land.  escape  f o r m e d two l i n e s w h i c h t h e b i s h o p s  t h r o u g h o n t h e i r way i n t o t h e H o u s e .  them.  The  had t o  pass  The A r c h b i s h o p t o o k  h o l d o f one o f t h e r i o t e r s .  Some o f t h e r i o t e r s  by t e a r i n g o f f  gown f r o m h i s b a c k .  his episcopal  crowds  retaliated Morton  o f D u r h a m , a r a t h e r p o p u l a r b i s h o p , was a l m o s t  dragged  of h i s c a r r i a g e .  incidents  H a l l of Norwich r e c a l l e d the  w i t h a sense of h o r r o r .  out  He was a d v i s e d by t h e M a r q u i s o f  H e r t f o r d t o s p e n d t h e n i g h t i n t h e H o u s e , o r e l s e he and the o t h e r bishops since All  the r i o t e r s would search  managed  house. 28th,  m i g h t be t o r n t o p i e c e s by t h e mob,  to escape.  e v e r y c o a c h by t o r c h l i g h t .  Many, l i k e H a l l ,  went t o  Williams'  O n l y two h a d t h e c o u r a g e t o go t o t h e House o n t h e Goodman o f G l o u c e s t e r a n d P i e r c e o f B a t h a n d W e l l s .  The a b s e n c e o f t h e o t h e r b i s h o p s  was due t o t h e i r  "resolved  21 forbearance  not to venture  any more t o t h e House w i t h o u t  c i  better  assurance." Better  a s s u r a n c e was n o t f o r t h c o m i n g .  t r i e d to a l l e v i a t e  The  Lords  t h e s i t u a t i o n by a s k i n g t h e Commons  j o i n w i t h them i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e mob. Commons was shown by P y m ' s r e m a r k , Commons s h o u l d p r o c e e d  The mood o f  to  the  " G o d f o r b i d t h e House  i n any way t o d i s h e a r t e n  people  of  to  52  obtain their  just desires  t u m u l t s had r e a c h e d  i n such a way."  such a stage t h a t  t h e c o n t r o l o f any f a c t i o n . episcopalians  state of panic, the King to clear  that  The r i o t s  w i t h the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  reduced the bishops  shock,  ing the r i o t s  fear,  i t was  had f a i l e d .  and  beleaquered  the question  the question  In the end,  unreasonable  supress-  bishops,  and  on W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y persuaded  a r o s e i n t h e Commons  w h e t h e r o r n o t an armed b a n d s h o u l d p r o t e c t  hours.  excluded  On t h e 2 8 t h w h i l e A r c h b i s h o p  f r o m " W a t T y l e r s a n d Round R o b i n s b e i n g d r i v e n o r  D'Ewes w r o t e t h a t  cooperated  A l l o t h e r a t t e m p t s made  s e r v a n t s w e r e r e p e l l i n g an a t t a c k  out of W h i t e - h a l l , 1 1 3  and  becoming  the Lords  forced,  of  to such a  t o h a v e t h e Commons j o i n w i t h them i n  W i l l i a m s , who was h o s t i n g s e v e r a l his  that  parliamentary  from the Upper House.  by t h e P e e r s  anti-  f o r the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  tumults would continue u n t i l  the bishops  and  the Lords to such a s t a t e of  such a s t a t e of  the  t h e y w e r e now b e y o n d  Episcopalians  b l a m e d one o t h e r  the d i s t u r b a n c e s .  But  the House,  had been argued  the m a j o r i t y decided  t o make any d e c l a r a t i o n  at  "it  for over [was]  t h i s time  to  and two  discontent  the C i t t i z e n s o f London, our s u r e s t  From what has "surest  been s a i d  friends"  g i v i n g credence leader  of  were,  before, indeed,  we c a n c o n c l u d e t h a t the P u r i t a n London  to the p e r s i s t e n t  the apprentices  friends.  royalist  i n the recent  .  .  their  clergy,  rumour t h a t  t u m u l t s was  the  Calamy'  b r o t h e r d i v i n e , C o r n e l i u s B u r g e s s , who c o n t i n u e d t o s t i r  up  55 the apprentices  i n December,  concerted efforts  The r e s u l t s  1641.  of  their  were n o t l o n g i n c o m i n g .  In the Lords  on t h e  2 8V.December, a m o t i o n was made  to declare  the P a r l i a m e n t not f r e e because of the r i o t s . 56 ~~ The m o t i o n l o s t b y f o u r v o t e s . The a b s e n c e o f a l l b u t two o f  the bishops  this vote.  most c e r t a i n l y a f f e c t e d  This is  decided not to s i t , do a n y t h i n g .  important since,  he was  furious  and  since  over t h i s vote  s t a t e o f mind a f t e r  L a u d was  he was  i n prison^:..  senior  Puritan recent  defence of the  "Lordly  a u t h o r i t y of our P r e l a t e s , reformation of  cool all  Williams  had  himself  B u t he h a d d i s a p p o i n t e d  f a c t i o n because of h i s  excessive pride j u r i s d i c t i o n and  without the  and  the  mobbed  to  b e e n p o p u l a r w i t h t h e Commons b e c a u s e he h a d b e e n i m p r i s o n e d b y L a u d i n 1637.  in  he h a d b e e n  i n d i g n a n t beyond the p o i n t o f  As A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k ,  the h i e r a r c h y ,  to  usual.  and g i v e n h i s  one c o u l d s a y  free,  of  had  t h e Commons w o u l d h a v e b e e n u n a b l e  W i l l i a m s o f Y o r k was  reasoning.  the Lords  B u t P a r l i a m e n t was d e c l a r e d  b u s i n e s s w e n t on as  Lords,  if  t h e outcome  the  his  secular  l e a s t diminution or  t h e i r e x c e s s e s w h i c h h a t h much e c c l i p s e d  all  23 the honour and r e p u t a t i o n he had gained from h i s former 57 sufferings." The Archbishop  sent f o r the eleven other  bishops  then r e s i d i n g i n the c i t y on 29 December, and t o l d them they must send a p r o t e s t a t i o n to the House, s t a t i n g t h a t they were s t a y i n g away from the Parliament because of f o r c e , and t h a t a l l a c t i o n s done there d u r i n g t h e i r absence 58 should be c o n s i d e r e d n u l l and v o i d . Not to do t h i s , he t o l d the b i s h o p s , "would shamefully b e t r a y and a b d i c a t e 59 the due  r i g h t both o f o u r s e l v e s and of our  successors."  H a l l signed t h e document w i t h the understanding  that  f u r t h e r conferences would be had on the manner of p r e s e n t a t i o n , assuming t h a t W i l l i a m s would have enough sense t o know what to do s i n c e he had been a t one  time the Keeper  fi 0  of the Great S e a l . state.  But W i l l i a m s was  i n a very a g i t a t e d  Of a l l the bishops he had been the most s e v e r e l y  t r e a t e d by the mobs, and w i t h an a i r of outraged  dignity  presented the p r o t e s t a t i o n , signed by h i m s e l f and e l e v e n o t h e r s , to the King.  The Archbishop  he  the  asked t h a t the  King h i m s e l f send down the p r o t e s t a t i o n , s i n c e the  bishops  themselves c o u l d not s a f e l y go t o P a r l i a m e n t .  fact that  The  t h i s might seem l i k e gross c o l l u s i o n between the King  and  the bishops to d e s t r o y the freedom of the Commons, and t h a t i t might look even more s u s p i c i o u s s i n c e the t r e a t e d on those days concerned  matters  the r e p r e s s i o n of the  Irish  r e b e l l i o n f o r which the bishops and p o p i s h l o r d s were blamed,  24 d i d not occur to e i t h e r the bishops  or the K i n g .  p r o b a b l y knew t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e p r o t e s t a t i o n ; have been i n agreement  The K i n g he w o u l d  w i t h t h e argument t h a t because o f  t h e r i o t s t h e P a r l i a m e n t was n o t f r e e .  I n any ft  1  whether o r not the K i n g r e a d the document, t o t h e L o r d Keeper., t h e L o r d L i t t l e t o n ,  event,  i t was  given  the Speaker  of  the  House o f L o r d s . B u t t h i s man w i l l i n g enough t o t a k e t h i s advantage o f i n g r a t i a t i n g h i m s e l f w i t h t h e House o f Commons a n d t h e F a c t i o n , t o ; ? w h i c h he knew h i m s e l f s u f f i c i e n t l y o b n o x i o u s , f i n d i n g what u s e m i g h t be made o f i t b y p r e j u d i c a t e m i n d s r e a d t h e same o p e n l y i n t h e House o f L o r d s ; a n d when he f o u n d some o f t h e F a c t i o n a p p r e h e n s i v e enough o f m i s c o n s t r u c t i o n , a g g r a v a t e d t h e m a t t e r as h i g h l y o f f e n s i v e a n d o f d a n g e r o u s c o n s e q u e n c e ; and t h e r e u p o n , n o t w i t h o u t much head and vehemence, and w i t h an i l l p r e f a c e , i t was s e n t down t o t h e House o f Commons: w h e r e i t was e n t e r t a i n e d h e i n o u s l y . The r e s u l t was t h a t t h e t w e l v e b i s h o p s w e r e a c c u s e d high treason,  and w e r e a r r e s t e d  that very  of  day. 63  Clarendon f e l t However,  the L o r d s were f r i g h t e n e d .  s i n g l e d out those  S i n c e t h e mob e v e n  s u c h as  bowed t o t h e p o p u l a r p r e s s u r e t h e impeachment o f the t w e l v e . d e c l a r e d themselves  free  the  Lords  and j o i n e d t h e Commons i n The L o r d s h a d  on 28 D e c e m b e r .  already  However, had  t o a t t e n d P a r l i a m e n t on t h a t  day  i n s t e a d o f t h e two who d i d manage t o e s c a p e t h e mobs  and  were p r e s e n t ,  been a b l e  to  t h e E a r l o f Warwick and L o r d  and b u l l i e d t h o s e who w e r e n o t ,  seven bishops  unjust.  l o r d s whom t h e y c o n s i d e r e d f r i e n d l y  the P u r i t a n cause, Brooke,  t h e impeachments were  t h e v o t e w o u l d have been d i f f e r e n t .  According  25  to the bishops'  p r o t e s t a t i o n t h i s v o t e was n u l l  The p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s null  feared  and  void.  t h a t the King might c o n s i d e r  a n d v o i d h i s s i g n i n g i n May t h e a c t  the Long P a r l i a m e n t w i t h o u t i t s  against  own c o n s e n t .  dissolving  Charles  c o n c e i v a b l y c o u l d argue t h a t the tumults about the  House  over S t r a f f o r d ' s  free.  fate d i d not leave  I n the c o n t e x t o f t h a t December, more P r o t e s t a n t s  the Parliament  i t w o u l d a l s o mean  that  c o u l d be k i l l e d b y t h e C a t h o l i c I r i s h ,  a n d t h e E n g l i s h C a t h o l i c s w o u l d be e m b o l d e n e d t o t r y same c o u r s e .  Thus t h e i m p e a c h m e n t s w e r e n e c e s s a r y  w o r k h a d t o be done  the  and  this  quickly.  The b i s h o p s '  t i m i n g had been d i s a s t r o u s .  Clarendon  p u t most o f t h e b l a m e on t h e " p r i d e a n d i n s o l e n c e o f  that  65  a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l Archbishop Williams." t h e r i o t i n g and t h e b l e s s i n g s  He i m p l i e d  b e s t o w e d upon t h e s e  by t h e Commons s h o u l d h a v e w a r n e d t h e b i s h o p s danger o f h a s t y  and r a s h a c t i o n s ,  their adversaries  since  that  tumults  about  the  " t h e power o f  was t o o g r e a t t h a t t h e l a w s  themselves  66  submitted to t h e i r oppression."  In other words,  p o p u l a r r e v o l u t i o n h a d h e l p e d t o o v e r t u r n an institution.  A n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s and  helped to increase skillful  management  established  pamphlets  popular, hatred of the bishops. o f t h i s propaganda  a  by t h e  The  Puritan  f a c t i o n who w e r e a i d e d b y t h e L o n d o n mobs e v e n t u a l l y b r o u g h t an end t o t h e b i s h o p s '  votes  contemporaries  a dangerous  saw a l l t h i s as  i n Parliament. revolution  That  26 threatening the very f a b r i c will  be made more e v i d e n t  t h e K i n g had s a i d Strafford;  T h i s much i s  he c o u l d n o t i n c o n s c i e n c e  loyal  servant  t h a t he w o u l d d e f e n d  r i g h t of the bishops severity  later.  t h e n , because of the r i o t s ,  execution of h i s also said  o f E n g l i s h l a w and Government  to s i t  of the tumults  clear:  execute  he p e r m i t t e d  to take place. to the death  The K i n g  the  constitutional  i n t h e House o f L o r d s .  so u n n e r v e d t h e b i s h o p s  The L o r d s '  of the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  abandon  opposition.-  to a r r e s t f i v e Yet the people  members would not  i n t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o be r i d o f b i s h o p s ,  K i n g g a v e way o n c e a g a i n b y s i g n i n g t h e Bill  on 13 F e b r u a r y ,  revolution, on m a t t e r s  1642.  for never before so v i t a l  faced w i t h  a  and c o n s c i e n c e  as  Hacket r e a l l y pointed  o f t h e m a t t e r when he w r o t e  the P u r i t a n a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  the  h a d t h e K i n g g i v e n i n so much  to his prerogative  t o o weak t o h o l d t h e b a l a n c e  so  Bishops-Exclusion  C l e a r l y , he was  he d i d b e c a u s e o f r i o t p r e s s u r e . the heart  they  a c t i o n f r i g h t e n e d t h e K i n g who c o m m i t t e d  a s e r i o u s b l u n d e r when he a t t e m p t e d  relent  The  that  r u s h e d i n t o an a c t i o n w h i c h c a u s e d t h e L o r d s t o them.  the  to  " t h e K i n g ' s arm was  of J u s t i c e .  .  .  ."67  what  f a c t i o n t h e n c o u l d n o t w i n by  argument . . . t h e y w o u l d p r e v a i l by f o r c e . . . . A n d t h u s b e g a n t h e d o w n f a l l o f E p i s c o p a c y w h i c h was never heard, never s u f f e r ' d to plead at the Bar o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t i n i t s own C a u s e , b u t as one s a y s p e r t i n e n t l y , ' I t was s m o t h e r ' d i n a c r o w d ' . ^ 8  CHAPTER  II  ANTI-EPISCOPAL PETITIONS The m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t petitions  feature of the  anti-episcopal  was t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i v e n them b y t h e P u r i t a n  l e a d e r s o f t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n i n t h e House  of  Commons.  be  The p e t i t i o n s  "the voice or rather  were c o n s i d e r e d  by J o h n Pym t o  the c r y of a l l England.""'"  the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l p e t i t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d expression  of national discontent  al  t o be  office,  an i n d i c a t i o n o f  f o r the l e g i s l a t i o n necessary to e f f e c t  change i n the s t r u c t u r e  an  w i t h the e p i s c o p a l  t h e y w e r e u s e d b y t h e o p p o s i t i o n as support  Since  popular  a constitution-  o f t h e House o f L o r d s .  In  this  c o n n e c t i o n t h e L o n d o n o r " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n and t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n and Remonstrance  are  important because they v o i c e d the g e n e r a l popular hatred of the e p i s c o p a l  office.  a l s o i n f l u e n c e d the county p e t i t i o n s Parliament, episcopal  a l l o f w h i c h demanded  problem.  petitions  y e t t o come t o  the  a quick s o l u t i o n to  the  votes i n Parliament.  " R o o t a n d B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n and  P e t i t i o n and R e m o n s t r a n c e  London g r i e v a n c e s ,  T h e s e two  of  f o r t h e l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h was  u s e d t o t a k e away t h e b i s h o p s '  Ministers'  expressions  U l t i m a t e l y , t h e London and M i n i s t e r s '  P e t i t i o n s were t h e b a s i s  Where t h e  extremely  w e r e an e x p r e s s i o n  the county p e t i t i o n s  n a t i o n a l o u t c r y a g a i n s t the e p i s c o p a t e . t h e t o w n and p a r i s h p e t i t i o n s  the  indicated  a  However, i t  which u s u a l l y  of  was  s i n g l e d out  the  28 l o c a l b i s h o p and c a t a l o g u e d  his crimes.  i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e u s u a l l y n o t as petitions  Petitions  influential  as  from  the  larger  s a v e i n t h e cases o f W i l l i a m P r y n n e , H e n r y B u r t o n  and J o h n B a s t w i c k .  B e c a u s e t h e s e men h a d a t t a i n e d  the  status of popular heroes,  t h e p u b l i c welcomed t h e i r  of  of the bishops  the bloody proceedings  Chamber a n d c o p i e s  i n the  accounts  Star  o f t h e i r p e t i t i o n s were c i r c u l a t e d  far  2 and w i d e .  The m a j o r i t y o f  anti-episcopal  u s u a l l y had f o u r major a r e a s o f c o n c e r n . episcopal  These  c r i m e s c o m m i t t e d by v i r t u e o f t h e  ecclesiastical  attempts to  the personal  episcopate;  utter ruin to England.  law o f  of the bishops'  of  A l l of the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  redress for his grievances  The manner o f p r o c u r i n g s i g n a t u r e s If  all  the  right  upheld.  significance.  on any p e t i t i o n  t h e p e t i t i o n c o u l d be t h r o w n o u t .  much as was p o s s i b l e ,  petitions  was  had a s p e c i a l  i t c o u l d be p r o v e n t h a t t h e s i g n a t u r e s  were f a l s e ,  the  p o l i c y to bring  w e r e g r a c i o u s l y r e c e i v e d by t h e P a r l i a m e n t s i n c e o f e v e r y man t o a s k  the  "Romanize" the Church of  c r i m e s and a b o m i n a t i o n s  and t h e r e s u l t s  were:  bishops'  p o l i t y a g a i n s t the fundamental  realm;^ episcopal England;  petitions  Thus,  the P a r l i a m e n t t r i e d to i n s u r e  as that  l e g i t i m a t e p e t i t i o n s w o u l d be r e c e i v e d and w o u l d be  used t o h e l p i t i n i t s A close  efforts  of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reform.  e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e London o r " R o o t and  Branch" P e t i t i o n i s  important to our study since  it  t h e p r o t o t y p e o f many p e t i t i o n s w h i c h w e r e t o f o l l o w  was it  29 t o t h e Commons. is  the bias  petitions  E v e n more i m p o r t a n t , h o w e v e r ,  the London P e t i t i o n e x h i b i t e d .  following  i t were s i m i l a r t o t h e o r i g i n a l  and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n , There i s of  this bias  "Root  c a n n o t be o v e r l o o k e d .  no d o u b t t h a t t h e L o n d o n P e t i t i o n was t h e w o r k  clerics.  A s Edmund C a l a m y ' s g r a n d s o n n o t e d ,  grandfather's ministers,  house  "was a r e c e p t a c l e  and t h e p l a c e  had a d i s t i n c t l y  clerical  bias.  of the  the  "Root  Independents,  the m a j o r i t y o f the London  One m a j o r f e a r  t h a t Independents  however,  violent anti-episcopal  c l e r g y w e r e a n x i o u s n o t t o be a s s o c i a t e d Independents.  this petition  r a d i c a l s o l u t i o n to episcopacy  often noted,  was  I t w o u l d be h a s t y ,  and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n e x h i b i t e d a b i a s Baillie  for a l l Presbyterian  Therefore,  to conclude t h a t because of i t s n a t u r e and i t s  his  i n which the Remonstrance 4  framed a g a i n s t t h e p r e l a t e s . "  f o r as  S i n c e so many  with  the  t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y h a d was  i n the P a r l i a m e n t would f r u s t r a t e  their  h o p e s , f o r as B a i l l i e n o t e d : . Sey a n d B r o o k i n t h e H i g h e r H o u s e , a n d t h e s e a l o n e , and some l e a d i n g men i n t h e l o w e r , were s u s p e c t e d by t h e i r i n c l i n a t i o n to the S e p a r a t i s t s , would d i v i d e f r o m t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n s , a n d so weaken t h e p a r t y o p p o s i t e t h e B i s h o p s . 5 Y e t P u r i t a n s and I n d e p e n d e n t s episcopacy,  a n d b y 15 M a r c h ,  t o f i g h t amongst  themselves  In a l e t t e r dated that day,  w e r e u n i t e d on t h e i s s u e 1641, both f a c t i o n s  until  e p i s c o p a c y was  Baillie  wrote:  agreed  of not  destroyed.  30 As f o r B r o w n i s t s and S e p a r a t i s t s o f many k y n d s , have t h e y [the London c l e r g y ] m i s l y k e them w e e l l n e a r as much as w e e : of these t h e r e i s no c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t i e . Anent p r i v a t e m e e t i n g s , we know h e r e no d i f f e r e n c e we h a v e w i t h a n i e : Our q u e s t i o n s w i t h them o f t h e new w a y , we hope t o g e t d e t e r m i n e d t o o u r m u t u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , i f we w e r e r i d d o f B i s h o p s ; a n d t i l l t h e n , we h a v e a g r e e d t o s p e a k n o t h i n g o f any t h i n g w h e r e i n we d i f f e r . The p l a i n  fact  was t h a t  episcopal  office  the P u r i t a n c l e r g y wanted  extirpated  from E n g l i s h l i f e ,  the  and  c o n s i d e r i n g the enthusiasm the Londoners  showed i n  i n g t h e p e t i t i o n , i t c a n be assumed t h a t  s u c h was  w i s h o f many o u t s i d e In the accused  of  signthe  the c l e r i c a l ranks.  " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n t h e b i s h o p s  s u b v e r t i n g the fundamental  were  laws of the Kingdom  because "They have c l a i m e d t h e i r c a l l i n g i m m e d i a t e l y 7 from the L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t . "  Because of t h i s  episcopal  c l a i m the h i e r a r c h y c o n t r o l l e d the c l e r g y to the p o i n t e x e m p t i n g them from t h e s a f e g u a r d o f t h e t e m p o r a l They w e r e e n c o u r a g i n g t h e c l e r g y magistry,  the nobles  subjects,  and l i v e  knowing t h a t  " t o despise the  law. temporal  and g e n t r y o f t h e l a n d ; t o a b u s e  contentiously with their  t h e y , being the bishops  of  the  neighbours,  creatures,  shall  be  Q supported."0  The p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t r y was b e i n g  because the bishops  w e r e t h r u s t i n g o u t g o d l y a n d a b l e men  from t h e i r c o n g r e g a t i o n s .  F u r t h e r , they disbanded  F e o f e e s o f I m p r o p r i a t i o n s , . who a t secure able m i n i s t e r s schools;  the bishops  destroyed  l e a s t endeavoured  to maintain lectures feared  and  the to  free  t h e i r g l o r y w o u l d be  darkened  31  a n d t h a t m i n i s t e r w o u l d no l o n g e r be d e p e n d e n t  on t h e  e p i s c o p a t e i f t h e F e o f e e s were a l l o w e d t o c o n t i n u e  their  9  good w o r k .  By v i r t u e o f t h e l a s t C o n v o c a t i o n h e l d d u r i n g  the Short P a r l i a m e n t , the bishops by h o l d i n g s e s s i o n s a f t e r  t r i e d to thwart Parliament  P a r l i a m e n t was d i s s o l v e d .  f o r m u l a t e d a m u l t i t u d e o f new c a n o n s and s p o i l G o d ' s p e o p l e , students,  t o advance C a t h o l i c i s m  "ensnare m i n i s t e r s ,  a n d t h r a l d o m t o them a n d t h e i r g o v e r n m e n t , t h e K i n g and t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f t h e i r h a d t h e i r own c o u r t s ,  t h e common l a w , e s p e c i a l l y parishes  and o t h e r  and so t o draw a l l i n t o a n a b s o l u t e  the p r e l a t e s  subjection  s p o i l i n g both  Power.Because  t h e y were c i r c u m v e n t i n g  by a p p o i n t i n g m i n i s t e r s  w i t h o u t the consent  exercised  They  to  of the p a r i s h o n e r s . 1 1  They  t h e ex - o f f i c i o o a t h t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f  the  12  s u b j e c t and i g n o r e d habeas c o r p u s . of  They j u s t i f i e d  all  t h e s e t h i n g s by c l a i m i n g t o h a v e t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n  jure divino,  a l l the b e t t e r  their  The " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n  laws.  bishops  of  to refuse  t o s u b m i t t o men o r accused  the  t r y i n g t o b r i n g popery back to E n g l a n d .  were p u b l i s h i n g p o p i s h t e n e t s ,  stating  such t h i n g s  t h e C h u r c h o f Rome was a t r u e C h u r c h w h i c h n e v e r C a t h o l i c i s m was  in  fundamentals.  as  e v i d e n c e d by t h e m u l t i t u d e o f J e s u i t s  everywhere but e s p e c i a l l y the Reformation since  increasing i n  about London.  and  as  erred strength  priests  The b i s h o p s  the h i e r a r c h i a l s t r u c t u r e  C h u r c h h a d r e m a i n e d t h e same as  They  of  i t did in Catholic  impeded  the times.  32 All  o t h e r Reformed Churches had thrown o u t t h e p r e l a t e s  members  o f t h e Roman b e a s t , w h i l e t h e E n g l i s h  although f o r m a l l y not under the Pope, anti-Christ.  Liturgical practices  Catholic i n nature,  s u c h as  standing  k n e e l i n g f o r Communion, c o n s e c r a t i n g vessels.  The l i t u r g y i t s e l f was  Roman b r e v i a r y , r i t u a l , was  missal,  of  Day and t o o b s e r v e  c h u r c h e s and  the holy days,  The  prelates  to profane  abusing  That the bishops  and p a t e n t s b y p e r j u r y ,  customs  the bishops  duties  They  and s h i p money.  The m a j o r r e s u l t s  were t h e d i s c o u r a g e m e n t  were secured  In t h e i r  courts,  of a l l these  enormities  and l o s s o f good m i n i s t e r s  and s u p e r s t i t i o n .  Indeed,  s o c i e t y were e n t e r i n g the ranks of because of t h e i r i g n o r a n c e ,  a n d an  the dregs  the c l e r g y .  could not preach.  was i n c r e a s i n g i n t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s .  to  by t a k i n g  s u b j e c t s who l e f t E n g l a n d , damage t o t r a d e , ignorance  of  and t h e y p l o t t e d  f a v o u r e d w h o r e s and a d u l t e r e r s  their bribes.1^  Lord's  lose  of excommunication f o r the s o l e purpose  monopolies  of  the  c a u s i n g men t o  c r i m i n a l c o u l d be s e e n by t h e i r g r e e d .  increase  the  and t h e Book o f O r d i n a t i o n s  f o r c i n g people  s i l e n c i n g t h e i r opponents.13  Patri, sacred  fashioned out of  g r e a t sums o f money f r o m l o s s o f w o r k , and o f t h e i r use  the  increasingly  f o r the G l o r i a  f r a m e d o u t o f t h e Roman p o n t i f i c a l .  were a l s o accused  bishops,  s a i d he was n o t  were  as  Parents  and increase of  These  men,  Corruption were  from s e n d i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l because of  discouraged this.  33  Ungodly books  and p a m p h l e t s  were p r i n t e d .  Worst of  all,  E n g l a n d and Wales were l o s i n g t h e i r p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t r y t o all  manner o f p r o f a n e n e s s . ^  P e t i t i o n to a l l these i l l s that all  the Parliament a b o l i s h its  dependencies,  roots  The remedy o f t h e L o n d o n  was  s i m p l e and d i r e c t :  "the and  said  with  concern about  the  o f t h e Roman b r e v i a r y , m i s s a l l ,  and p o n t i f i c a l , f u r t h e r p r o o f  asked  branches."  B e s i d e s the London P e t i t i o n ' s i n g m i n i s t r y , t h e use  government,  it  of i t s  preach-  ritual  c l e r i c a l authorship  s e e n when we n o t i c e t h e document s t a t e s t h a t m i n i s t e r s  is  were  fainthearted t o preach the t r u t h of God, l e s t they should d i s p l e a s e t h e p r e l a t e s ; as n a m e l y t h e d o c t r i n e o f p r e d e s t i n a t i o n , of free grace, of perserverance, of o r i g i n a l s i n remaining a f t e r Baptism; of the sabbath, the d o c t r i n e a g a i n s t u n i v e r s a l g r a c e , election for f a i t h forseen, f r e e - w i l l against a n t i - C h r i s t , n o n - r e s i d e n t s , human i n v e n t i o n s i n God's w o r s h i p ; a l l which are w i t h h e l d from the p e o p l e ' s knowledge because not r e l i s h i n g t o the bishops.17 The c o n t e n t o f t h e  " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n ,  therefore,  was o f a s o p h i s t i c a t e d  theological nature.  s u b j e c t was i m p o r t a n t ,  b u t t h e c r u x o f t h e m a t t e r was  g o d l y m i n i s t e r s were b e i n g p e r s e c u t e d word.  It  is  for preaching  n o t d i f f i c u l t , h o w e v e r , t o see  would have  such g r e a t p o p u l a r  constantly  demonstrated  appeal.  The l i b e r t y o f  why t h e  that  God's petition  The p e t i t i o n  t o t h e a v e r a g e man t h e v a r i o u s  i n w h i c h he was b e i n g c h e a t e d  by t h e b i s h o p s .  denied a preaching m i n i s t r y which could e x p l a i n i n t r i c a c i e s of C a l v i n i s t i c theology,  ways  Worst of  all,  the  one c o u l d h a r d l y  hope  34 t o be s a v e d . declining,  Thousands were l e a v i n g t h e c o u n t r y , t r a d e  was  m o n o p o l i e s and ship-money were i n c r e a s i n g .  The p e t i t i o n was a v e r i t a b l e c a t c h a l l , so t h a t a l m o s t one w i t h a g r i e v a n c e a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s  any-  could i d e n t i f y  with  some i n j u s t i c e done h i m b y t h e s e w i c k e d men. Baillie petition  n o t e d on 28 D e c e m b e r , 1 6 4 0 ,  that a  short  a g a i n s t e p i s c o p a c y was b e i n g p r e p a r e d b y some o f  t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y , a n d he e x p e c t e d i t t o be r e a d y i n two 1 p weeks t i m e . °  T h i s was t h e famous M i n i s t e r s '  Petition  Remonstrance.  T h i s p e t i t i o n was an i n s u r a n c e  measure,  s h o u l d the London P e t i t i o n then,  petition,  December,  no d o u b t t h a t t h e a u t h o r s o f t h i s  difficulty. milder  w h i c h a s k e d t h a t t h e b i s h o p s be r e l i e v e d o f  t e m p o r a l c a r e s , were s t i l l  and B r a n c h " thing,  By t h e e n d o f  t h e " R o o t a n d B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n was h a v i n g  But t h e r e i s  their  fail.  and  i n t e n t on a f u l l  s o l u t i o n to the e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n .  all  "Root F o r one  i t w o u l d be h a r d t o b e l i e v e t h a t Edmund C a l a m y h a d  a sudden change o f r e s o l v e ,  y e t he was one o f t h e m i n i s t e r s  w h o , a l o n g w i t h S t e p h e n M a r s h a l l and o t h e r s , p e t i t i o n on 23 J a n u a r y , uphold the bishops'  d e l i v e r e d the  1 6 4 1 , t h e day t h e K i n g p r o m i s e d  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t to s i t  to  i n the  19 Lords.  Further evidence i s  g i v e n b y Smectymnus i n t h e b o o k  A n A n s w e r To A Book E n t i t l e d A n Humble R e m o n s t r a n c e . first  four l e t t e r s  Marshall  of the authors'  name s t a n d f o r  and Edmund C a l a m y , w h o , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e  three authors,  The  Stephen other  addressed the P a r l i a m e n t w i t h the e x h o r t a t i o n  " L e t e p i s c o p a c y be f o r e v e r a b a n d o n e d o u t o f t h e  Church."20  35 The i n t e n t o f t h e M i n i s t e r s 1 followed i t s  title.  P e t i t i o n and R e m o n s t r a n c e  D e l i v e r e d by s i x o r s e v e n m i n i s t e r s on  the day K i n g C h a r l e s announced h i s r e s o l v e  t o keep  bishops  1641,  i n t h e House o f L o r d s , 23 J a n u a r y ,  the  the  p e t i t i o n prayed f o r a "redress of c e r t a i n i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the government o f the C h u r c h . set  out the g r i e v a n c e s ,  actual  function  the bishops  .  large  into c i v i l  I t claimed the bishops  law,  for "they 22  corporations."  to exercise  This  a l l of t h e i r  own names and n o t i n t h e K i n g ' s . the p r e l a t e s  imposed oaths  It  the  accused  d i o c e s e s and d e l e g a t i n g  encumbered w i t h t e m p o r a l a f f a i r s ,  their  The R e m o n s t r a n c e  of the diocesan i n E n g l i s h l i f e .  of c o n t r o l l i n g  the episcopate  ."21  n i n e t e e n i n number, d e a l i n g w i t h  t h e i r power t o d e p u t i e s .  themselves  .  were  engraft encouraged  jurisdiction  in  Countrary to  of c a n o n i c a l obedience  and  deprived m i n i s t e r s for not s u b s c r i b i n g to t h e i r canons.2^ b i s h o p s were engaged i n a R o m a n i z i n g campaign s i n c e  they  c l a i m e d t h a t t h e power o f t h e k e y s was g i v e n o n l y t o m i n i s t e r s of the gospel, capable  and there-fore 24  of a c h a n c e l l o r s h i p , e t c . "  confirmation  alone,  of the l i t u r g i c a l  is  They a d m i n i s t e r e d  forbade marriage during d i f f e r e n t  year,  not been c o n s e c r a t e d ,  i t was n o t h o l y . For example,  r i g h t to probate w i l l s ;  wishes o f the deceased, t o t h e i r own p u r p o s e s .  times  and i n s i s t e d t h a t i f a c h u r c h had 25  b e h a v i o u r was s c a n d a l o u s . sole  "noe layman  the  1  they claimed the  i n s t e a d of c a r r y i n g out  the p r e l a t e s °  The b i s h o p s  the  o f t e n d i v e r t e d money  A l s o t h e y gave s c a n d a l o u s  example  The  36 in drinking healths,  for  t h e B i s h o p s o f C o v e n t r y and L i t c h f i e l d , b e i n g i n v i t e d t o D r . W a r n e r ' s now b i s h o p p o f R o c h e s t e r , t h e r e w e r e 4 h e a l t h s b e g a n , and M r . R a w l e n s o n was p r e s s e d t o d r i n k t h e m , a n d D r . Warner . . . , r i s i n g e and s t a n d i n g e i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e t a b l e s a y d e , E t s t a n s i n medio d i x i t , p a x v o b i s , and soe he b e g a n t h e K i n g e s health. B a y l e y bishopp of Banger sayed t o the b i s h o p p o f E l i , ' E l i , E l i , Lama s a b a c t h a n i , heere i s to thee a h e a l t h . ' Bishopp of 27 G l o c e s t e r s men s w e r e a n d daunee on S u n d a y e s . The M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n was d e l i b e r a t e l y made radical  t h a n the London P e t i t i o n  to ensure  t h e movement t o e x p e l t h e b i s h o p s  less  the success  of  from the Upper House.  I t was h o p e d t h a t t h e p r o - p r e l a t i c a l f a c t i o n i n t h e House would a t t a c h themselves February,  to i t .  T h i s d i d happen,  f o r on 8  1 6 4 1 , when t h e g r e a t d e b a t e s w e r e c e n t e r i n g  a r o u n d t h e commitment o f t h e two p e t i t i o n s , G e o r g e , Digby,  a staunch e p i s c o p a l i a n ,  P e t i t i o n was much more s e n s i b l e  d e c l a r e d t h a t the M i n i s t e r s ' b e c a u s e i t gave a  index " w i t h o u t those mixtures of t h i n g s irrational, abounds."2^  question of episcopacy itself  Petitions  [London]  i t was d e c i d e d t h a t  w o u l d be r e s e r v e d  but t h a t the major p a r t s  better  contemptable,  and p r e s u m p t i o u s w h e r e i n t h i s On 9 F e b r u a r y ,  Lord  Petition  the  to the  House  o f t h e London and M i n i s t e r s '  and a l l p e t i t i o n s o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e were t o  r e f e r r e d t o the Committee o f T w e n t y - f o u r . t h i s b o d y became  On t h a t  the Committee of the T h i r t y .  day  T h r e e men  o p p o s i n g " R o o t and B r a n c h " were a p p o i n t e d t o i t ,  Roe,  P a l m e r and H o l b o u r n e , w h i l e t h e f o r e f r o n t o f t h e  anti-  prelatical  o p p o s i t i o n was r e p r e s e n t e d  by D e n z i l  Hollis,  be  N a t h a n i e l F i e n n e s and S i r H e n r y V a n e , J r . the chairman of t h i s committee. a peritus,  J o h n Crew was  C o r n e l i u s B u r g e s s was  for  as  his  own a d m i s s i o n , he h a d b e e n one o f t h e f r a m e r s  Ministers'  a n d w e l l he s h o u l d h a v e b e e n ,  Petition.  since of  by the  He e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a i l t h e m i n i s t e r s '  reasons i n b r i n g i n g these charges a g a i n s t the  bishops.  Those a r t i c l e s  power o f  d e a l i n g w i t h the b i s h o p s '  sole  o r d i n a t i o n and j u r i s d i c t i o n , t h e l a r g e n e s s o f t h e i r t h e i r d e l e g a t i o n o f power t o d e p u t i e s , and  their  t h e i r pretended support of the bishops'  as w e l l  as  their  sent  dioceses,  t e m p o r a l power prerogative,  c l a i m t o j u r e d i v i n o s t a t u s , were a l l v o t e d  t o be m a t e r i a l f i t t o be c o n s i d e r e d b y t h e House b y 17 31 February,  1641.  B u r g e s s and t h e o p p o s i t i o n d i d  work w e l l b e c a u s e by 9 M a r c h , the b i s h o p s ' which i s  secular  .  .  Crew a n n o u n c e d  that  e m p l o y m e n t s w e r e t o be d i s c u s s e d  intended t h e i r  in Parliament.  1641,  their  legislative  ."31  and j u d i c i a l  The n e x t d a y ,  "by  power  these matters  were  l o o k e d i n t o and i t was r e s o l v e d upon t h e q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e j u r i d i c a l Power o f B i s h o p s i n t h e House o f P e e r s i n Parliament i s a great Hinderance to the Discharge of t h e i r S p i r i t u a l Function, p r e j u d i c a l t o t h e C o m m o n w e a l t h , and f i t t o be t a k e n away b y B i l l : a n d t h a t a B i l l be d r a w n for that purpose. B a i l l i e w r o t e t h a t B u r g e s s had g i v e n t h e Committee c o n t e n t m e n t " and t h a t to the House."33  " M r . Crew made a f a v o u r a b l e  Baillie  t h e n w e n t on t o s a y  would f i r s t  take off  and  r i p up t h e f o u n d a t i o n s  finally  the r o o f ,  that  "full report they  t h e n k n o c k down t h e w a l l s , of episcopacy.  To show  38 t h a t he knew w h a t he was  t a l k i n g about,  the S c o t t i s h  divine  g a v e t h e I r v i n e P r e s b y t e r y an o u t l i n e o f t h e p r o g r e s s anti-episcopal  activity.  On 9 M a r c h , C r e w ' s  of  recommendation  was made in Parliament. The n i x t day t h e y d i d t h e same t o t h e S t a r C h a m b e r , H i g h C o m m i s s i o n , C o u n s e l l , and a l l o t h e r s e c u l a r c o u r t s . One o f t h e s e d a y s t h e y a r e t o c a s t down their cathedral-deaneries, and p r e b e n d a r i e s ; a l s o t o s p o y l l them a n d t h e i r u s u r p e d o r d i n a t i o n and j u r i s d i c t i o n , t o e r e c t p r e s b y t e r i e s a l l o v e r t h e l a n d , and d i s t r i b u t e a t t i n one e q u a l l p r o p o r t i o n , t h e r e n t s among a l l o f t h e p a r o c h e s f o r preaching ministers.-*4 There i s  no d o u b t t h a t  t h i s was t h e i n t e n t i o n o f h i s  the London P u r i t a n c l e r g y ,  all  friends,  along.  The " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n d i d n o t r e m a i n i n Commons a l o n e ;  copies  o f i t were s e n t i n t o the  D'Ewes had g i v e n h i s w i f e p e r m i s s i o n t o he s e n t h e r t o any o f t h e i r f r i e n d s . d i d w i t h t h e L o n d o n P e t i t i o n , as petitions others  i n t o the country. demonstrated  probably  NO- d o u b t  o f the London P e t i t i o n  t o S i r E d w a r d D e r i n g when he r e c e i v e d a  w r o t e t h a t he h a d r e c e i v e d some f r i e n d s .  Robert Robson.  a c o p y o f "the p e t i t i o n t h r o u g h  W r i t i n g i n t h e name o f t h e  t h e p e t i t i o n known " t h e thereof."  36  letter  Robson  o f t h e W e a l d , R o b s o n m e n t i o n e d t h a t he and o t h e r s  inhabitants  the  T h a t i t was w i d e l y c i r c u l a t e d was  f r o m one o f h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s ,  help of  petitions  she h a d done w i t h  o f P r y n n e , B u r t o n , and B a s t w i c k . 3 5  i n t h e Commons s e n t c o p i e s  counties.  l e n d any  T h i s she  the  same i n t h i s  the  inhabitants h a d made  county of K e n t , to  the  The r e s u l t was t h e P e t i t i o n o f  the  39 County o f K e n t , presented a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d as yet finding  when i t 1640,  calling  are  is  for  t o speak t h e s y l l a b l e s  ' R o o t and B r a n c h ' . " 3 7  identical.  A l l of t h i s  noted that Robson's  ten days.before  t h e Commons.  1641, which D e r i n g  " t h e Spawne o f t h e L o n d o n P e t i t i o n ,  i t a Parat taught  and by r o a t e petitions  on 13 J a n u a r y ,  is  rp^e  of t  w  that,  o  t h e more i n t e r e s t i n g  l e t t e r was d a t e d  1 December,  t h e L o n d o n P e t i t i o n was p r e s e n t e d  to  T h i s would argue t h a t the London P e t i t i o n  published w e l l before  its  delivery.  Its  successful  was  and  d r a m a t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e House w o u l d e x p l a i n why so many p e t i t i o n s o f a h l i k e n a t u r e were r e c e i v e d and en b l o c i n m i d - J a n u a r y ,  1 6 4 1 , when t h e  presented  anti-episcopal  o p p o s i t i o n n e e d e d more n a t i o n a l s u p p o r t i f t h e  " R o o t and  B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n was g o i n g t o h a v e any s u c c e s s i n b r i n g i n g f o r t h the necessary Accordingly,  after  l e g i s l a t i o n to expel the  bishops.  K i n g C h a r l e s h a d made a s p e e c h on 23  January,  1641,  d e c l a r i n g t h a t he w o u l d n o t t a k e away  bishops'  votes  i n P a r l i a m e n t , many p e t i t i o n s o f a " R o o t and  B r a n c h " n a t u r e w e r e d e l i v e r e d o n M o n d a y , 25 Hertfordshire Bedfordshire  (read by M r . C a p e l l ,  Suffolk  4,400 s i g n a t u r e s ) ,  Cambridgeshire  1,000  Gloucestershire  Potts,  January:  signatures),  (read by S i r O l i v e r L u k e ) , S u s s e x ,  C h e s h i r e , Warwick,  signatures),  the S h i r e ,  2,800  1,000  signatures)  2,000 s i g n a t u r e s ) .  38  the  (read by S i r P h i l i p  Surrey, Parker,  ( r e a d by M r . C h i c k e l i e , (read by a K n i g h t  and N o r f o l k  of  ( r e a d by M r .  D ' E w e s , who r e c o r d e d w i t h  great  40 detail  the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  parishes,  petitions  from c i t i e s ,  n o t e d i n h i s d i a r y o n 25 J a n u a r y ,  the p e t i t i o n s  received  towns  and  that  all  1641,  t h a t day " t e n d t o t h e a b o l i s h i n g  the Bishops w i t h ther h i e r a r c h i c a l l government."^9 likelihood,  petitions.  Thus,  the  o t h e r w i s e D ' E w e s w o u l d have  followed his usual practice  1641 w e r e ,  in all  t h e y t o o were i d e n t i c a l o r v e r y s i m i l a r t o  L o n d o n and K e n t p e t i t i o n s ;  of  of n o t i n g the contents  the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  of  the  county p e t i t i o n s  i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , t h e same as  or very  of  similar  t o the London P e t i t i o n . ^ The s c o r e s o f a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  petitions  L o n d o n f r o m t h e c o u n t r y makes any d e t a i l e d impossible  for this  essay.  and u s i n g t h e f o u r p o i n t s attempt  will  discontent.  b a s i c laws of the this,  them  c a n be  noted,  of view e a r l i e r employed, areas of  were d e s t r o y i n g  the  the  land i n a v a r i e t y of ways.  "New C a n o n s " w i t h o u t P a r l i a m e n t ' s  national  As p r o o f the  Commissions  Court.  of the bishops  For example,  i n the  bishops  country  High  Timothy D a l t o n ,  Minister  o f W o l v e r s t o n e , N o r f o l k , was s u s p e n d e d and h a d t o go New E n g l a n d b e c a u s e he r e f u s e d  to  t o r e a d t h e Book o f  42 Sports. bishop,  M i n i s t e r s from S u f f o l k  complained that  their  M a t t h e w W r e n , h a d f o r c e d them t o t a k e o a t h s  c a n o n i c a l obedience  of  consent.41  Many g o d l y m i n i s t e r s w e r e b e i n g d r i v e n o u t o f t h e because of the e x e r t i o n s  an  fundamental,  the p e t i o n from Y o r k s h i r e mentioned t h a t  enacted  into  study of  However, t r e n d s  be made t o show t h e m a j o r The b i s h o p s  pouring  and was e x c o m m u n i c a t i n g many  for  of  frivolous  reasons.  The b i s h o p s  preaching m i n i s t r y .  were d e s t r o y i n g  The c i t y o f G l o u c e s t e r  the  complained  t h e y h a d o n l y one p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t e r f o r e l e v e n  that  churches  44 u n d e r t h e e p i s c o p a t e o f G o d f r e y Goodman. a P u r i t a n merchant, his  sufferings  Isaac Knight,  p e t i t i o n e d the Long P a r l i a m e n t  a t t h e hands  of the bishops.  concerning  He r e f u s e d  t a k e t h e h a t e d e x o f f i c i o o a t h a n d was p r o m p t l y p u t irons.  When l a t e r  and c h i l d r e n ; and t h e bonds  still  remaines  in  for bishops  abused t h e i r pow er, 4 ^ • a n d* d i s c i•p lT i n e . 6  especially  dealt  with  i n their courts,  "popish"  from Nottingham accused the b i s h o p s h i e r a r c h y as w e l l  as  encouraging  complaint  fostering  papists.^7  having  doctrine, expressed  innovations. of  wife  national  when i t a c c u s e d t h e p r e l a t e s o f  The m o s t common a n t i - e p i s c o p a l i n the p e t i t i o n s  his  he  force.  A p e t i t i o n f r o m C h e s h i r e summed up t h e s e e t h i n g antipathy  in  r e l e a s e d i n 1626 on b o n d f o r £ 5 0 0 ,  f l e d to H o l l a n d "to the u t t e r undoing of h i m s e l f ,  to  A petition a  popish  The t o w n a n d  p a r i s h of•^Beckington iniTSomersetshire' complained t h a t  the  p a r i s h churchwardens were excommunicated because t h e y  refused  to set  t h e communion t a b l e  the m i n i s t e r s 1641,  altar-wise.^  A p e t i t i o n from  of the Church of England sent i n  d e c r i e d t h e use  of vestments,  crucifixes,  September, and  rings  49 i n marriage.  The town a n d p a r i s h o f T i v e t e s h a l e ,  c a s t i g a t e d B i s h o p Wren f o r s u s p e n d i n g  Norfolk  their minister, Mr.  H e r e m i a h B u r r o u g h , b e c a u s e he w o u l d n o t bow h i s h e a d a t Name o f J e s u s . 5 ^  The l o n g l i s t o f  liturgical  grievances  the  42 implied that  the Laudian bishops  b a c k t o t h e Roman  were t r y i n g t o b r i n g E n g l a n d  fold.  A major crime imputed to the bishops greed.  The N o t t i n g h a m P e t i t i o n s a i d  exorbitant  fees f o r  licences,  was t h a t  the e p i s c o p a t e  and t h a t  of  had  church taxes  were  51 high. C h u r c h e s w h i c h w e r e n o t p o p i s h enough w e r e f i n e d . The C i t y o f N o r w i c h s a i d B i s h o p Wren k e p t r e n t m o n i e s w h i c h 52  s h o u l d have been u s e d t o pay h i s m i n i s t e r s . held prebends,  Many  p a r s o n a g e s and v i c a r a g e s a l o n g w i t h  bishops their  d i o c e s e s t o the detriment of the preaching m i n i s t r y , t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i o n o f September  1641 c h a r g e d . 5 - * T W O  men f r o m I p s w i c h a c c u s e d B i s h o p P i e r c e o f d e m a n d i n g fees table  f o r the p r o b a t i n g of w i l l s . of  fees.  He w o u l d n o t p u b l i s h a  He a l s o b r o u g h t t h i n g s  which belonged  elsewhere.54  into his  The r e s u l t s  the other excesses of the bishops  court  o f t h e s e and a l l  indicated that  e p i s c o p a t e was r e d u c i n g t h e n a t i o n t o a s t a t e o f The b i s h o p s '  c l a i m to jure  the other c r i m e s .  the misery.  d i v i n o status generated a l l  They e x c e e d e d t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f  l a w by w i e l d i n g g r e a t p o w e r i n t h e i r own c o u r t s . episcopal  excessive  h a b i t of s i l e n c i n g preachers,  i m p r i s o n i n g them, or f o r t h a t matter  fining  P e t i t i o n also claimed.  the  The  d o i n g t h e same  to  was  " R o o t and B r a n c h "  A l t h o u g h most o f the  attacking p a r t i c u l a r bishops  the  them,  a n y o n e who o p p o s e d t h e i r l i t u r g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s , d r i v i n g t h o u s a n d s f r o m E n g l a n d as  of  petitions  were c o n f i n e d m a i n l y t o  the  43 obnoxious still of  Laudian  p r e l a t e s , Wren and P i e r c e ,  complaints  were coming i n from a l l o v e r the n a t i o n .  these p e t i t i o n s  lay i n their b r i l l i a n t  d e s c r i b e i n some d e t a i l how  t h e i r work o f s t i f l i n g m i n i s t e r s who  The  genius  facility  t h e a v e r a g e man  under the tyranny of the b i s h o p s .  The  was  to  suffering  prelates continued  g o d l y p r e a c h i n g by p e r s e c u t i n g  o b j e c t e d t o w h a t was  c l e a r l y believed to  a r e a c t i o n a r y e c c l e s i a s t i c a l program.  P e r h a p s i t was  s t r i k i n g coincidence that these p e t i t i o n s ,  like  bias; i t  c o u l d be  a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e g e n e r a l mass o f t h e E n g l i s h  populace  was  the p e t i t i o n s  as d e v o t e d  to a preaching ministry  s u g g e s t , b u t one  t h e a v e r a g e man  t h i n g cannot  be  as  questioned:  i n the p a r i s h resented e p i s c o p a l i n t e r -  f e r e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y when g o o d men  were f o r c e d i n t o  e x i l e and u n q u e s t i o n a b l y e v i l  r e p l a c e d t h e m , as  men  h a p p e n e d i n t h e town o f W o l v e r s t o n e . Mr.  a  the London  and M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n s , a l s o e x h i b i t e d a c l e r i c a l  really  be  As h a s  D a l t o n , t h e o r i g i n a l m i n i s t e r , was  p a r i s h of twenty  y e a r s and  emigrated  Wren s e n t a s h i s r e p l a c e m e n t t h e S a c r a m e n t and  a Mr.  been m e n t i o n e d ,  f o r c e d out of h i s  t o New  England.  S k y n n e r who  bowed t o  c a l l e d h i s p a r i s h o n e r s "hogs".  b e a t one woman t o d e a t h and was  self-  the cause  He  of'^another 55  woman's d e a t h all  s i n c e he h a d  of these charges  accurate account rife  i n England  excommunicated her.  a g a i n s t e p i s c o p a c y may  of the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  That  have g i v e n  an  dissatisfaction  must be w e i g h e d a g a i n s t t a ^ v e r y  striking  44 factor.  T h e r e were v e r y few p r o - e p i s c o p a l  such p e t i t i o n from C h e s h i r e , February,  argued  that  petitions.  r e c e i v e d by t h e Commons on 27  a C h u r c h a d m i n i s t e r e d by t w e n t y - s i x  d i o c e a s a n s , who w e r e l i m i t e d by c a n o n and c i v i l were r e s p o n s i b l e  latter  to  up f o r t y t h o u s a n d C h u r c h  who w o u l d n o t be r e s p o n s i b l e  to Parliament.  The  s y s t e m was n o t i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f  monarchy,  and w o u l d l e a d t o a n a r c h y w i t h t h e  of the n o b i l i t y , Significantly of  law and  t o P a r l i a m e n t , was a much s a n e r way  govern the Church than to set governors  One  gentry,  enough,  a g a i n . T h i s  o r d e r and r e l i g i o n  disappearance itself.  t h i s p e t i t i o n was r e a d a n d n e v e r  seems t o h a v e b e e n t h e f a t e o f a l l  heard  pro-  57 episcopal  petitions.  P e t i t i o n s w o u l d have been w o r t h l e s s had p e o p l e signed  them; and t h e ^ m o r e a s i g n a t u r e s ,  the p e t i t i o n would be. w o u l d be p r e p a r e d petitions  t h e more  Clarendon wrote that  by a t t a c h i n g names s i g n e d  t o a new p e t i t i o n , t h e c o n t e n t s 58  "subscribers"  h a d no k n o w l e d g e .  e a r l y as  said  October,  to  other  of which  the  T h i s w o u l d n o t seem t o circulating  One A l d e r m a n ' s d e p u t y  is  t o h a v e summoned a l l f r o m h i s p a r i s h t o h i s h o u s e  s i g n the p e t i t i o n . as  1640.  impressive  petitions  be t h e c a s e w i t h t h e L o n d o n P e t i t i o n w h i c h was as  d i d the c i t y ' s  on t h e i r c o u n t e r s people,  T a v e r n C l u b s a l s o had c o p i e s s h o p s whose k e e p e r s k e p t t h i s 59 f o r people  to sign.  t h e n , i n s u c h an o r g a n i z e d  s i g n the London P e t i t i o n . ^  not  Fifteen  campaign,  to  to  sign  petition thousand  probably  did  45  C l a r e n d o n h a d a c a s e so f a r Ministers'  P e t i t i o n was c o n c e r n e d .  as  the framing of  He n o t e d t h a t many  m i n i s t e r s had s i g n e d p e t i t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e o n l y t o f i n d t h e i r names s e t  "New C a n o n s "  to a "monster"  f o r an a l t e r a t i o n i n C h u r c h G o v e r n m e n t .  petition  Many  b u t were urged t o keep s i l e n t "by  and p r o m i s e s  .  fraud.  t h e Commons b y t h e p r o -  f a c t i o n , who h o p e d t o p r o v e t h e P e t i t i o n was  D ' E w e s seemed t o be amused by a l l o f t h i s f o r  s a i d he knew " t h a t  t h e hands  n o t w r i t t e n by the p a r t i e s several  threats  . and t o p a s s by t h a t i n d i r e c t p r o c e e d i n g . " 1  The m a t t e r was b r o u g h t b e f o r e episcopal  calling  protested  to Marshall,  .  the  sitt  s i x others petitions  themselves,  but taken out sent  of  from  However, M a r s h a l l t e s t i f i e d a l o n g  with  t h a t they had k e p t the c o n t e x t o f a l l the i n the l a r g e r ,  he  t o t h i s p e t i t i o n were  autographicall or o r i g i n a l p e t i t i o n s  each c o u n t i e . " ^ 2  a  and t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n  smaller was  accepted. T h e r e i s no d o u b t c o n c e r n i n g t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the s m a l l e r p e t i t i o n s  f r o m t h e town and p a r i s h e s .  g r a v e d o u b t s w e r e c a s t on t h e  "monster"  petitions  However, from the  c o u n t i e s . : b y a p a m p h l e t e e r who s t y l e d h i m s e l f " W . I . "  in a  work e n t i t l e d P e t i t i o n s a g a i n s t B i s h o p s And t h e i r  Votes  in Parliament.  He w r o t e t h a t t h e r e  were  c l a n d e s t i n e and s u r r e p t i t i o u s a c t i o n s , g o i n g about from house t o house by n i g h t and w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t and c o m m i s s i o n o f a u t h o r i t y , t o engage p e o p l e t o t h e b r e a c h o f t h e i r P r o t e s t a t i o n and t o make i t as an a c t o f a C o u n t i e o r T o w n e , a n d i n a manner t o f o r c e men t h e r e u n t o , a r e b u t  u n l a w f u l l workes o f d a r k n e s s e and w i l l n o t endure the l i g h t . . . . I t i s j u s t l y t o be f e a r e d t h a t t h e s e wayes a r e s i n i s t e r i n t h e U n d e r t a k e r s b e i n g v e r y p r o b a b l e t h a t some o f t h e m doe i t o u t o f i l l w i l l , h a t r e d and m a l i c e , as w e l l as t h e G o v e r n m e n t and t h e g o v e r n o r s . . .  .  The a u t h o r saw i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l  petitions  seeds of a r e v o l u t i o n .  counties  signed p e t i t i o n s for  fear  of  He a s s e r t e d t h a t many i n t h e  for p r o f i t ,  losing business,  for fear  of t h e i r  and t h r o u g h f e a r  and i n t i m i d a t i o n s ,  U s i n g such t a c t i c s ,  and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s  were encouraged  society ; since sophisticated  ways  of blackmail  anti-episcopal  riots  among t h e h u m b l e r s e g m e n t s  o b v i o u s l y t h e i r b e t t e r s were p r o v i d i n g means t o c o e r c e  t h e y w a n t e d them t o d o . episcopal  landlords,  petitions  o t h e r men o f means t o do w h a t  Thus t h e a u t h o r s  of the  anti-  and t h e t u m u l t u o u s m u l t i t u d e s were  "without•legal1 allegations  and p r o b a t i o n s ,  to  using  compass  64  t h a t by w i l l ,  w h i c h y o u c a n n o t o b t a i n e by r e a s o n . "  a c t i v i t i e s were v e r y dangerous s i n c e  Such  they threatened  s u b v e r s i o n o f a l l Lawe, Government and G o v e r n o r s , w h i c h o f t h e m , bee  t h e y n e v e r so g o o d , people  contrary."65  was c o n c e r n e d , t h e  attack  as W. I .  on t h e b i s h o p s  occasioned  for  s h a l l be s e c u r e  the M u l t i t u d e s of distempered go f a r  "the  please to w i l l  if  the  general  by c o u n t y p e t i t i o n s  was  a means o f b r e a k i n g up t h e u n i t y o f t h e n a t i o n , and w o u l d l e a d t o a breakdown o f the text of w e l l before  law.  However, the f a c t  remains  that  t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n was c i r c u l a t i n g i t was d e l i v e r e d .  P r o b a b l y most o f t h e  petitions  47  had t h e s i g n a t u r e s  they claimed.  The v e r y f a c t  p e t i t i o n s of such a nature a r r i v e d at  that  t h e House a t a l l w o u l d  a r g u e t h a t t h e L a u d i a n s y s t e m was q u i e t d e a d a n d P u r i t a n preachers  were i n t h e a s c e n d a n c y .  w o u l d w r i t e on b e h a l f o f t h e i r  that  That p a r i s h i o n e r s  e x - p a s t o r s w o u l d show t h a t  they had p r o b a b l y e x p e l l e d the L a u d i a n i n c u m b e n t s . m i g h t w e l l h a v e b e e n j u s t as e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s as  satisfied  t o s i g n two  up c o m m i t t e e s  episcopal proceedings which e v e n t u a l l y  o r g a n i z e d t h e mass o f e d i t e d g r i e v a n c e s legal  anti-  one.  The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s h e l p e d s e t to investigate  They  action.^6  into  effective  Because t h e London P e t i t i o n and M i n i s t e r s '  P e t i t i o n w e r e so f a v o u r a b l y r e c e i v e d , t h e y p a v e d t h e way f o r the e n t i r e n a t i o n to take courage this matter.  and e x p r e s s i t s e l f o n  The e n t h u s i a s m o f e a r l y 1641 c a r r i e d i n t o  1642,  when o n c e a g a i n m a s s e s o f p e t i t i o n s w e r e n e e d e d by t h e Commons l e a d e r s h i p t o p r o v e t o t h e K i n g a n d L o r d s t h a t was t h e w i l l the L o r d s . petitions,  o f t h e p e o p l e t h a t t h e b i s h o p s be b a r r e d W i t h o u t t h e i r v o i c e as  the bishops'  expressed  was t h e " c r y o f E n g l a n d " t h a t was  heard.  from  through the  e x c l u s i o n w o u l d h a v e seemed  h a v e b e e n t h e w i s h o f t h e L o n d o n mob o n l y .  it  Instead,  to it  CHAPTER  III  A N T I - E P I S C O P A L PROPAGANDA AND THE PAMPHLET WAR I N 1641 A major f a c t o r revolution is  f o r the success of a popular  an i n t e l l i g e n t and e f f e c t i v e  use o f t h e  The p o p u l a r a n t i p a t h y t o t h e e p i s c o p a l  o f f i c e was  e v e r f r e s h and a l i v e b y t h e t e c h n i q u e s  used by t h e  enemies  side.  to win p u b l i c opinion to t h e i r  phenomenon o f t h e p a m p h l e t w a r o f propaganda as  barrage.  if  Thus t h e  great  campaign  waged f o r  the  E a c h s i d e i n s t i n c t i v e l y knew t h a t  p o s i t i o n was t o r e m a i n v i a b l e , t h e p e o p l e w o u l d  t o be b e h i n d i t .  For the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l p a r t y ,  w a r p r e s e n t e d many c h a l l e n g e s ,  a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l change  the  have  pamphlet  s i n c e t h e y were c h a m p i o n i n g  a c a u s e w h i c h was c l e a r l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y .  Lords,  bishops'  1641 was r e a l l y a  the pro-and a n t i - e p i s c o p a l i a n f a c t i o n s  its  kept  E n g l a n d had n e v e r seen such a  support of the p u b l i c .  press.  They were  seeking  i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e House o f  a n o t i o n o p p o s e d b y t h e K i n g and t h e m a j o r i t y o f  L o r d s as w e l l  as  the bishops.  Indeed,  the s u f f e r i n g s  P r y n n e , B u r t o n and B a s t w i c k w e r e e v i d e n c e e n o u g h o f bishops'  o p p o s i t i o n t o t h o s e who s o u g h t  jurisdiction  i n temporal a f f a i r s  to the P r e l a t e s .  to destroy  by p r i n t i n g works  of the  episcopal damaging  Y e t t h e b i s h o p s were e x p e l l e d from t h e  Upper House, which demonstrated c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p r e s s had  that  i n 1641  the  episcopal  ceased.  The e x t r a o r d i n a r y number o f w o r k s p u b l i s h e d i n  49 1641 shows t h a t t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l t r a c t s audience.  If  t h e y had n o t ,  episcopal  to refute  therefore,  pro-episcopal  to appreciate  f a c t i o n e x p e n d e d so much e n e r g y i f t h e  p o s i t i o n i n 1641 w e r e n o t e s t a b l i s h e d . important pro-episcopal Bishop of Exeter Norwich  By f a r  (1627-1641), who was  far  as  late  the then to at  be  than L a u d , Wren,  championing a  e p i s c o p a l C h u r c h g o v e r n m e n t was  c o n c e r n e d , was d e f i n i t e l y H i g h - C h u r c h . 1 1641, d i s t u r b e d " l e s t  most  Although considered to  o r P i e r c e , i n 1641 H a l l was n e v e r t h e l e s s  anti-  episcopal  later translated  more P u r i t a n a n d L o w - C h u r c h i n h i s l e a n i n g s  as  arguments.  B o r n i n 1574, he h a d b e e n a F e l l o w  (1641-1656).  position which,  would  why t h e  the  a u t h o r was J o s e p h H a l l ,  Emmanuel C o l l e g e , C a m b r i d g e .  of  considerable  the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l authors  n e v e r h a v e gone t o s u c h p a i n s I t w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e ,  had a  Thus i n  January,  t h e w o r l d s h o u l d t h i n k t h e p r e s s had  t o s p e a k any l a n g u a g e o t h e r t h a n l i b e l l o u s , "  t o o k up h i s p e n t o d e f e n d t h e t r u t h w i t h t h e r e s u l t " t h i s honest paper hath broken through the t h r o n g .  Hall that  .  .  . "  2  The w o r k , e n t i t l e d An Humble R e m o n s t r a n c e To The H i g h C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t By a D u t i f u l series of  Son o f t h e C h u r c h , b e g a n a l o n g  s i m i l a r works t r y i n g to prove t h a t  episcopacy  was c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e l a w o f God and t h e l a w o f t h e Though e i g h t p a g e s w e r e d e v o t e d t o l i t u r g i c a l Hall  matters,  showed h i s g r a s p o f t h e r e a l s i t u a t i o n a t  d e v o t i n g t w e n t y - f i v e pages t o the defence Everywhere i n p r i n t , t r y i n g t o wound " t h a t  he d e c l a r e d , sacred  of  realm.  s t a k e by  episcopacy.  t h e r e w e r e t h o s e who were  government approved of by  the  50  reformers  and t h e A p o s t l e s  a g e . " "* A " F a t h e r work,  them" a t t i t u d e  and,, i n the main, H a l l  episcopacy entity.  the e p i s c o p a l  It  is  office  God t h a t makes t h e B i s h o p . " ^ insisted  was n o t an e x p r e s s l a w o f G o d . t h e C h u r c h d i d n o t mean t h a t But H a l l  is  Apostolic same  from God; "the is  place  exercised  t h e K i n g who g i v e s t h e  Reformed C h u r c h e s , H a l l  the whole  w e r e one and t h e  and power w h e r e i n t h a t o f f i c e  from the K i n g . is  pervaded  present  t r i e d to maintain that  and A n g l i c a n e p i s c o p a c y  Thus,  and s t a t i o n  it  forgive  u n i n t e r r u p t e d unto t h i s  Bishopricke;  Concerning other  that  episcopacy  jure  divino  The a b s e n c e o f e p i s c o p a c y  t h e y were not t r u e  stated emphatically that  episcopacy  was a d i v i n e  retained.  and t h e r e f o r e  in,  continued  so i s  saying  least  to  by C h r i s t i n  its  form had t o  up t h e  arguments  evident  the bishops  collegues  had t o c o n t e n d .  f r o m t h e p a n i c he l a t e r  That  found h i m s e l f  w e r e now b e t w e e n two m i l l s t o n e s ,  t h e Pope o f Rome, t h e o t h e r t h e pope o f t h e p a r i s h . complained that destroy bishops.  these a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l t r a c t s  episcopacy  be  the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l f o r c e s w i t h which  he and h i s p r o - e p i s c o p a l is  at  He r e a l l y c o u l d n o t m u s t e r  n e c e s s a r y t o combat  this  Hall  t h a t p r e l a c y was d i v i n e l y e s t a b l i s h e d  primitive times,  and  had.*"5  Throughout the c o n t r o v e r s y , insist  in  Churches.  i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h C h r i s t w i s h e d t o r e m a i n where i t i s r e q u i r i n g i t w h e r e i t may be  is  by d e s t r o y i n g  He  intended  the r e p u t a t i o n of the  H a l l h a d no i l l u s i o n s as  to the spectre  r e v o l u t i o n contained i n the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  one  of  propaganda  to martyr  51 pouring off of  the p r e s s e s .  He a c c u s e d  the enemies  episcopacy  i n t r o d u c i n g anarchy which would lead a l l to r u i n  confusion. pamphlets,  Hall  felt  the enemies  the p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s  They  told  t h a t t h e y were d o i n g God's w o r k ,  "and  statesmen  the pamphleteers,  their  o f e p i s c o p a c y were h o p i n g t h a t the face of the Church.  s h a l l n o t t h i s a m b i t i o n b l o w up t h e u n c o n s t a n t these grave  and  that with a l l their braying i n  P a r l i a m e n t w o u l d change  If  of  bulgar.  w o u l d be s t u p i d e n o u g h t o  a l l would lead to chaos,  a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s was t o e x e c u t e  for to  believe rail  Satan's strategy  by  8  deceiving the people words,  i n t o r e j e c t i n g the K i n g .  In other  t h e y were i n v i t i n g p o p u l a r r e v o l u t i o n .  The c r u x o f  H a l l ' s a r g u m e n t was t h a t r e l i g o u s forms p r e s c r i b e d by t h e C h u r c h were e s s e n t i a l not to s a l v a t i o n but to the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f C h u r c h and S t a t e . S i n c e t h e y were i n e s s e n t i a l t o s a l v a t i o n he h e l d t h a t no c o n s c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t i o n o r d i s o b e d i e n c e m i g h t be p r o p e r l y r a i s e d a g a i n s t t h e m , and i f i t were r a i s e d , i t m i g h t be p u n i s h e d b y t h e m a g i s t r a t e a s • s e d i t i o n and rebellion.^ F u r t h e r p r o - e p i s c o p a l arguments by G e o r g e M o r l e y ,  were s e t  future Bishop of Winchester.  forth B o r n i n 159 7 ,  he r e c e i v e d h i s e d u c a t i o n a t C h r i s t C h u r c h , O x f o r d . Puritan leanings, ism,  but i n 1641,  he w r o t e a d i s p a s s i o n a t e  He h a d  t h o u g h no f r i e n d o f L a u d i a n work c a l l e d A Modest A d v e r t i s m e n t  c o n c e r n i n g the P r e s e n t C o n t r o v e r s i e about Church Government.1^ M o r l e y was c a l m e r a b o u t t h e i s s u e t h a n was H a l l . C o n c e r n i n g a " R o o t a n d B r a n c h " s o l u t i o n t o C h u r c h p r o b l e m s , he w r o t e t h a t i t was t r u e t h a t i t was e a s i e r to lop off branches.  to p u l l  Y e t i t was a l s o e a s i e r  up t r e e s to p u l l  than down a  52 house t h a n t o r e p a i r i t . what i s  easiest,  thinking,  For a l l t h a t ,  "wee c o n s i d e r  b u t w h a t i s b e s t t o doe.""'"''"  government o f b i s h o p s  not  To h i s way o f  was most u s e f u l  for  kings  a n d k i n g d o m s f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p e a c e and p i e t y . . Trying to refute  a l l arguments  against episcopacy,  Morley  c o n c l u d e d t h a t a b u s e s s h o u l d be t a k e n away a n d g o o d  things  s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o c o n t i n u e .  however,  three  Concerning bishops,  t h i n g s h a d t o be c o n s i d e r e d :  jurisdiction,  and t h e i r p e r s o n s .  their order,  their  Accordingly,  t h e f i r s t i s a n t i e n t and u n i v e r s a l a l m o s t t o a l l C h r i s t i a n s , t h e second where i t i s e x t r a v a g a n t may be l i m i t e d b y g o o d a n d p r u d e n t L a w s , and t h e i r p e r s o n s a r e n o t so g r e a t b u t t h e o f f e n d e r may be c o r r e c t e d by a h i g h e r A u t h o r i t y . 1 2 Bishops  therefore  were r e f o r m a b l e ,  had t o r e m a i n unchanged. moderate  than,  Hall,  f o r example,  structure  M o r l e y c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  i n the c o n t r o v e r s y ,  o r b e l i e f as  but the b a s i c  but f a r  n o t as  closer  structured i n  a  argument  to a High-Church p o s i t i o n  was t h e v e r y p o p u l a r I r i s h d i v i n e , James  U s h e r , A r c h b i s h o p o f Armagh. Usher, born i n D u b l i n i n 1581, Trinity College, Dublin, of  i n 1600.  graduated  from  C a u g h t up i n t h e  events  1641 w h i l e i n E n g l a n d , he was b e g g e d by B i s h o p H a l l  to  13 w r i t e a pamphlet defending E p i s c o p a c y .  His views  Low-Church compared w i t h t h e L a u d i a n s .  Usher d i d not  i n the absolute essentially  d i v i n e r i g h t of episcopacy  He m a i n t a i n e d t h a t  believe  or "even of  A p o s t o l i c a l o r i g i n s , but only i t s  and a d v a n t a g e s . " 1 4  were  its  h i g h convenience  i n the p r i m i t i v e  C h u r c h t h e r e was no d i s t i n c t i o n , o r n e x t t o none  between  53  presbyters  and b i s h o p s .  be m o s t d e s i r a b l e  He f e l t  where b i s h o p s  a i d e d by c o u n c i l s o f p r e s b y t e r s synods  o f t h e same.  of Doctor Reignolds  Episcopacy,  would preside  he was s t i l l  Using Reignolds  Usher s a i d n o t h i n g about  the n e c e s s i t y  i n the Church.  t h a t any v e s t i g e o f t h e o f f i c e  controversy, attempt  in antiquity  "chose of  as  his  that  the  their give  guide,  of episcopal  The s i t u a t i o n was d e t e r i o r a t i n g so  Bishops,  The  t o whom t h e y d i d e s p e c i a l l y  the t i t l e of b i s h o p . " 1 ^  jurisdiction quickly  c o u l d be s a l v a g e d was  on t h e r u n f r o m t h e g r e a t a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l  i n t h e i r h a s t e used meaningless  arguments  to counter the p r i n t e d works of the  faction;  t h e y had n o t h i n g s u b s t a n t i a l  the b a r r a g e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l arguments of  bishop,  touching the o r i g i n a l of  i t was t o t e a c h ,  company one i n e v e r y c i t y ,  prelatical  a  i n M a y , 1641 e n t i t l e d The  o f t h e w o r k was t o p r o v e t h a t  m i n i s t e r s , whose o f f i c e  their  assemblies  more l a r g e l y c o n f i r m e d o u t o f A n t i q u i t y . 1 5  major t h e s i s  sought.  over  would  a n d e v e n c o n t r o l l e d by  For a l l of t h a t ,  and he e d i t e d a p a m p h l e t l a t e Judgment  a l i m i t e d episcopacy  in  antito  refute  d e s t r o y i n g the n o t i o n  s p i r i t u a l o r t e m p o r a l need f o r the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f  prelacy. The most r e m a r k a b l e  feature  of the P u r i t a n response  to the p r o - p r e l a t i c a l defense of the e p i s c o p a l the u n i t y of purpose  among t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l  Regardless of t h e i r s t a t i o n Baillie, minister,  office  in life,  Robert G r e v i l l e ,  pamphleteers.  men s u c h as  a S c o t t i s h d i v i n e , Stephen M a r s h a l l ,  was  Robert  an E n g l i s h  Lord Brooke, a peer,  and  54 W i l l i a m P r y n n e , a l a w y e r h a d one t h i n g i n common, a detestation grievances  of episcopacy  and a d e s i r e  by d e s t r o y i n g the o f f i c e ,  Thus t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e b i s h o p s ultimately  to s e t t l e  " R o o t and B r a n c h " .  f r o m t h e House o f L o r d s  from the Church of England i t s e l f  common c a u s e . pamphleteers  There i s  no d o u b t t h a t  resistance  by t h e e n d o f J a n u a r y ,  a l i m i t e d episcopacy.  I t was  about  were.  evident  question  a " R o o t and B r a n c h " and w e r e r e a d y t o  believed  t h e e n t i r e o f f i c e was n o t c o r r u p t b e c a u s e a few A return to episcopacy  Apostles  as  and e a r l y C h u r c h F a t h e r s  men s u c h as  i t existed  at  f a c t i o n as much as  d i d not worry  t h e one r a i s e d  episcopalians  conservative  A n g l i c a n p o s i t i o n w h i c h had been abandoned  or l i m i t e d episcopacy.lo"  Hall  history  the moderate  most o f the i n f l u e n t i a l  did.  very  bishops,  C r a m n e r , L a t i m e r , R i d l e y and H o o p e r , p l a y e d i n t h e H a l l ' s challenge  represented  The l a y e p i s c o p a l i a n  was t h e c l e r i c a l .  by  a  A n g l i c a n s who now f a v o u r e d a  t o t h e p r e l a t i c a l q u e s t i o n was by no means as  the  Also,  entertained  romantic notions concerning the r o l e the martyr  of the E n g l i s h e p i s c o p a t e .  bishops  the time of  was d e s i r a b l e . I 7  D i g b y , F a l k l a n d and P l y d e l l  the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l i a n  propose  I n o t h e r w o r d s , men s u c h as G e o r g e ,  L o r d D i g b y , L o r d F a l k l a n d and W i l l i a m P l y d e l l that  the  t h a t many members o f t h e L o w e r  House h a d s t r o n g r e s e r v a t i o n s s o l u t i o n to the e p i s c o p a l  became t h e i r  and a n t i c i p a t e d  i n t h e Commons.  1641,  and  the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l  knew e a c h o t h e r v e r y w e l l  pro-prelatical  their  by  moderate  response t r i u m p h a l as  The L a u d i a n e p i s c o p a t e h a d done much t o  55 discredit  the o f f i c e  keep t h i n g s  at  episcopacy.  a n d , w h e r e men s u c h as  In January,  the moderate  1641,  episcopalians,  strong,  the  to refute  the  but those S c o t t i s h prepared.  A n t i c i p a t i n g moderate  fate of the bishops  had t o e x e r t  was c o n c e r n e d ,  arguments  Commissioners  Presbyterian their  speeches so f a r  as  the P u r i t a n d i v i n e s  e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e t o champion t h e i r  i n the p r e s s .  a limited  f o r t h e S c o t s came t o t h e a i d o f  English brethren.  to  the m a j o r i t y of the E n g l i s h  who w e r e m i n i s t e r s w e r e v e r y w e l l u n i t y was  tried  s t a t u s quo, most laymen a d v o c a t e d  P u r i t a n d i v i n e s were n o t y e t p r e p a r e d of  Hall  cause  A c c o r d i n g l y , they e n l i s t e d the help of  the  S c o t s , who w e r e o n l y t o o h a p p y t o o b l i g e .  The w o r k s w r i t t e n  left  of  no d o u b t as  Branch",  as  to the absolute n e c e s s i t y  "Root  and  the t i t l e of Alexander Henderson's  book The  and Danger o f L i m i t e d P r e l a c y o r  Perpetual  Unlawfulness  19  P r e s i d e n c y i n the Church a t t e s t s . Literary a c t i v i t y increased  i n F e b r u a r y when t h e  speeches o f L o r d D i g b y and V i s c o u n t F a l k l a n d c a l l i n g f o r l i m i t e d episcopacy to counteract  were p u b l i s h e d .  S o m e t h i n g h a d t o be  the advantage these p r i n t e d speeches  Canterburians'  To t h i s  end B a i l l i e a d a p t e d  Self-Conviction for English  H e n d e r s o n w r o t e a much n e e d e d of  the' P r e s b y t e r i a n K i r k  a  his  readers.  s h o r t e r w o r k on The D i s c i p l i n e  of S c o t l a n d .  the S c o t t i s h Commissioners,  done  were  h a v i n g among t h e r e a d i n g p u b l i c i n a d v a n c i n g v i e w s o f l i m i t e d episcopacy.  a  Two o t h e r members  George G i l l e s p i e and  Robert  of  56  Blair,  j o i n e d i n the work.  G i l l e s p i e wrote a pamphlet  The G r o u n d s o f P r e s b y t e r a l  Government and B l a i r w r o t e  r e p l y t o H a l l ' s Humble R e m o n s t r a n c e .  of B a i l l i e ' s p r i n t e d before  Limited Prelacy, B a i l l i e wasted  t h e end o f J a n u a r y ,  The U n l a w f u l n e s s  t h i s new w o r k was  a  "  The t o n e o f t h e s e w o r k s c a n be g a t h e r e d  t o complement H e n d e r s o n ' s  on  f r o m a book 1641.  Meant  and Danger o f  a  i d e n t i c a l l y worded.  no t i m e i n a n n o u n c i n g " t h a t  t h i s P r e l a c y may  be r e m o v e d ,  r o o t and b r a n c h and t h e M i n i s t r y o f C h r i s t be  established  i n p u r i t y and power i s  the purpose of  this  21 paper.  . . . "  no p l a c e  E p i s c o p a c y was o f human i n s t i t u t i o n , h a d  i n the e a r l y Church,  episcopacy  was u n l a w f u l .  and t h e r e f o r e  For,  l i m i t a t i o n s were p u t on b i s h o p s "yet s t i l l  he i s  a p l a n t as  i n t r u t h , no m a t t e r t o k e e p them i n  i n the  the b l e s s e d P a r l i a m e n t i n t o f a c t i o n s , b y h i s power w i t h p r i n c e a n d p e e r ,  people  making C i v i l  what  bounds,  God n e v e r p l a n t e d . " ^  would c o n t i n u e t o cause schisms  tyranny over people,  even l i m i t e d  Prelacy  l a n d and w o u l d b r e a k because the  and b e c a u s e o f  prelate, his  d i v i d e d " b e t w i x t t h e R u l e r s and Government h e a v y . " 2 - *  The w o r k e n d s  by e c h o i n g p h r a s e s b e i n g used i n t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y "we a r e  z e a l o u s o f o u r own l i b e r t i e s ,  l e t us be  debates:  more  z e a l o u s o f the l i b e r t i e s o f the Kingdom o f C h r i s t , b o t h we o u r s e l v e s  a n d t h e P o s t e r i t y may h a v e  and b l e s s e d P e a c e . " 2 ^  The e f f o r t s  that  a well  o f B a i l l i e and  of the  grounded  his  S c o t t i s h brethren helped the E n g l i s h P u r i t a n d i v i n e s a c r u c i a l stage i n the development  the  at  anti-episcopal  57  drive.  The f a c t  worked t o g e t h e r  that the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l i n such c l o s e  pamphleteers  harmony s u g g e s t s t h a t  they  u n d e r s t o o d t h e a d v a n t a g e o f a p o p u l a r p l a t f o r m and i n t h e i r efforts  to win popular support  ecclesiastical  r e f o r m t h e y w e r e u s i n g some o f t h e  common t o a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . the people. evils  What t h e p e o p l e  of episcopacy,  i t would take Lords, about  f o r t h e i r program of  They b r o u g h t t h e i r c a s e  the pamphlets would t e l l  some t i m e t o remove t h e b i s h o p s  the t r u e nature of episcopacy. the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  a t t a c k i n g the e p i s c o p a l  them.  from the  of three of  informed  To do t h i s  pamphleteers  Since  most  p r i n t e d works  bench.  The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l the s e r v i c e s  to  d i d n o t know c o n c e r n i n g t h e  i t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d be  effectively,  techniques  f a c t i o n was  fortunate  t h e most a r t i c u l a t e  i n having  laymen!  in  the c o u n t r y , the afore-mentioned W i l l i a m Prynne, John Milton,  and R o b e r t G r e v i l l e ,  previously stated,  i t s e l f but a l s o to the incumbents of  from d i f f e r e n t  sources.  the deepest respect the martyr bishops  Their hatred  were the f u l l  he h a d s u f f e r e d  to  the stemmed  A t one t i m e P r y n n e h a d n o t h i n g b u t  for the e p i s c o p a l  h o p e d t o make t h e m .  t h a t he f i n a l l y  been  which extended not only  t w e n t y - s i x E n g l i s h and Welsh s e e s .  after  A s has  t h e s e t h r e e men h a d one t h i n g i n common,  an extreme h a t r e d o f b i s h o p s the o f f i c e  Lord Brooke.  office,  f o l k heroes  I t was n o t u n t i l 1641, so c r u e l l y a t  f o r to him t h a t Foxe  several  years  t h e hands o f t h e  became c o n v i n c e d t h a t  the o f f i c e  had  and  bishops, the  58 i n c u m b e n t s w o u l d a l w a y s be c o r r u p t , a n d t h e r e f o r e all  of his energies  on two f a c t s :  misfortunes,  power.  the  his  knack o f  o f t h e d a y e x c i t i n g and s e n s a t i o n a l .  1641 he p r o d u c e d t h r e e b o o k s o f a v i o l e n t l y  25  bishops  he was a n a t i o n a l c e l e b r i t y due t o  a n d he h a d a m o d e r n n e w s p a p e r m a n ' s  making the events  devoted  to the t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e i r  H i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the growing a n t i p a t h y towards rested  he  In  anti-episcopal  26 nature.  The f i r s t ,  A Catalogue,  t h r e e Roman C a t h o l i c s a i n t s  went so f a r  for their  as  to  praise  d i s d a i n of the  o f f i c e w h i l e he l a m e n t e d t h a t t h e s u p p o s e d  leaders  episcopal  of  the  r e f o r m a t i o n i n E n g l a n d i n 1641 w e r e i n t o l e r a b l e t y r a n t s who c o v e t e d h o n o u r s and power and who w e r e a c t u a l l y r u l e d b y Satan.27 his  sufferings  bishops is  In his  s e c o n d b o o k , A New D i s c o v e r y , P r y n n e d e s c r i b e d  i n most v i v i d d e t a i l l e s t  c o u l d do when t h w a r t e d .  a v e r i t a b l e catalogue  anyone f o r g e t  H i s t h i r d w o r k , The A n t i p a t h y ,  of h o r r o r s , i n which Prynne t r i e d  t o p r o v e t h a t the b i s h o p s were t h e o r i g i n o f a l l t h a t b a s e i n E n g l a n d a n d , as  l o n g as  w o u l d n e v e r be a t p e a c e . abstract scandal all  what  was  they remained, the country  To b r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n f r o m t h e  t o t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e d a y , he a c t u a l l y i n c l u d e d a sheet,  g i v i n g detailed references  of the crimes  the incumbents o f E n g l i s h sees i n 1641.  W i l l i a m J u x o n o f L o n d o n was d e s c r i b e d as who was t h e  Thus,  a creature  for of  of example, Laud  " f i r s t P r e l a t e i n o u r memory, who r e l i n q u i s h e d  the cure of souls Lord Treasurer  and p r e a c h i n g o f Gods Word t o become  and s i t  as  a Publican at  the r e c e i t of  a Customs."  59  R o b e r t S k i n n e r o f B r i s t o l was B i s h o p o f t h a t d i o c e s e by g r a c e and f a v o u r o f t h e A r c h b i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y . popish i n his  c h u r c h w a r d e n who d i d n o t r e p o r t  He h a d t h r e a t e n e d  a man who p r e a c h e d  The b i s h o p c a l l e d m i n i s t e r s  "Scottish-hearted  raskalls"  He h a t e d p a r l i a m e n t s , towards  being  l i t u r g y , Skinner c a l l e d the d o c t r i n e of  s a i n t s the d o c t r i n e of the d e v i l .  Sunday.  Besides  the c l e r g y ' s  traitors,  benevolence  to  a  t w i c e on  dogs,  for teaching orthodox  forced his ministers  the  doctrine.  contribute  t o t h e K i n g and  excommunicat29  e d many f o r n o t h a v i n g t a k e n t h e e x o f f i c i o o a t h . Bishop of L l a n d a f f , the a f f a i r s  f o r P r y n n e t o go i n t o . 3 0  show t h a t  at  have a s t r o n g the Church.  The  M o r g a n Owen, was n o t o r i o u s l y p e c c a n t  of W i l l i a m Roberts  martyr bishops  ^  as w e l l ,  o f Bangor were t o o  He d i s c r e d i t e d  tedious  t h e memory o f  f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f h i s b o o k was  no t i m e i n E n g l i s h h i s t o r y d i d t h e  bishops  h a v e no s e c u r i t y o r t r a n q u i l i t y . testament of a person to the e p i s c o p a l  advocating  question.  remained,  the to  bishops  f i d e l i t y , . s i n c e r i t y , or p i e t y to the King A s l o n g as  and  or  the n a t i o n would  The A n t i p a t h y was  the  a " R o o t and B r a n c h "  solution  P r y n n e ' s works c o u l d not f a i l  a f f e c t many i n ' t h e n a t i o n s i n c e  to  he d o c u m e n t e d t h e c r i m e s o f 31  e v e r y b i s h o p he c o u l d who e v e r h e l d an E n g l i s h s e e . own e y e - w i t n e s s  account  of episcopal  His  tyranny could not  to c o n t r i b u t e to the growing a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  feelings  of  fail the  nation. M i l t o n hated bishops i n 1641,  an a n g r y y o u n g man.  for another He f e l t  reason.  He w a s ,  i t was h i s v o c a t i o n  to  be a p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t e r , However,  and f o r t h i s he was  trained.  s u c h a c a l l i n g i n t h e L a u d i a n C h u r c h was  impossible  a n d he b e l i e v e d t h a t he h a d b e e n C h u r c h - o u t e d by t h e He t h e r e f o r e  lashed  out w i t h a l l the b r i l l i a n t  gifts  prelates. at  his  command, w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f h e l p i n g i n t h e c a u s e o f d e s t r u c t i o n of the bishops, definitely  " R o o t and B r a n c h " .  hurt the e p i s c o p a l  with a particular  cause.  l o a t h i n g f o r as  the  He  H a c k e t remembered h i m  he l a t e r  wrote:  What a venemous S p i r i t i s i n t h a t S e r p e n t M i l t o n , t h a t b l a c k mouthed Z o i l u s , t h a t blows h i s V i p e r s B r e a t h upon t h o s e Immortal Devotions from b e g i n n i n g t o end. T h i s i s he t h a t w r o t e w i t h a l l I r r e v e r e n c e a g a i n s t the Fathers of our Church. I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y M i l t o n had a hand i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n Smectymnus1  first  t h e Smectymnans,  answer  to H a l l .  Thomas Y o u n g , one  had been h i s t u t o r ,  and M i l t o n  of  of  collaborated  w i t h h i m by c o n t r i b u t i n g r o u g h n o t e s and m a t e r i a l  for  about  33 twenty-pages  of the work.  But M i l t o n had a mind o f  o w n , and i n 1641 he w r o t e f o u r t r a c t s  o f extreme  his  importance-  to the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l propaganda then p r e s e n t i n E n g l a n d . His f i r s t  book was p u b l i s h e d i n J u n e ,  1 6 4 1 , when t h e  was h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e f i r s t Bill  w h i c h had been r e j e c t e d  notion that wrote that  Bishops'  by t h e L o r d s .  the martyr bishops  Commons  Exclusion  He d e s t r o y e d  any  w e r e t o be h o n o u r e d when he  t h e names o f C r a m n e r , L a t i m e r , R i d l e y and H o o p e r  s h o u l d be " u t t e r l y a b o l i s h e d ,  l i k e the brazen  Serpent;  t h a n t h a t mens f o n d o p i n i o n s h o u l d t h u s  i d o l i z e them, and  H e a v e n l y T r u t h be t h e r e  Those h e l p i n g  captivated."34  the  the  61 bishops  to perpetuate  t r y to exhaust  t h e i r tyranny are  t h e a n t i q u a r i a n s who  h i s t o r y t o p r o v e t h a t w h i c h c a n n o t be p r o v e d ,  t h e l i b e r t i n e s who s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l o s s o f e p i s c o p a c y  will  mean a p o p e i n e v e r y p a r i s h , a n d t h e p o l i t i c i a n s who t r y to prove t h a t e p i s c o p a l polity.  government conforms w i t h  Y e t t h e most u n f o r t u n a t e a s p e c t o f a l l t h i s  t h a t the promoters of episcopacy for  civil  rebellion,  was  were making t h e n a t i o n r i p e  since the c h i e f f u n c t i o n of the bishops  was  35  to destroy the year,  liberty.  Milton.continued his attack  and he was v e r y s e r i o u s  when he a d v o c a t e d  " R o o t and B r a n c h " s o l u t i o n t o t h e e p i s c o p a l s e c o n d and t h i r d p a m p h l e t s , ments o f U s h e r and H a l l .  throughout a  issue.  he t r i e d t o d e s t r o y  In his  the  argu-  I n H a l l ' s c a s e , he a t t a c k e d  man more t h a n t h e m a n ' s a r g u m e n t s ,  accusing H a l l of  l y v i o l a t i n g the sense o f S c r i p t u r e . 3 f i  To H a l l ' s  deliberatestatement  t h a t no n a t i o n h a d c l e r g y t h a t y i e l d e d up " s o many learned preachers,  niceties  o f argument were o v e r :  was t o o d e f t  scholars,  h o l y a n d a c c o m p l i s h e d D i v i n e s as  Church of E n g l a n d , " M i l t o n answered:  and f a t a l .  "Ha, ha, h a , "  the  this The  3 7  the s t r e n g t h of h i s  attack  He h a d t h e c o n v i c t i o n o f one who  was c e r t a i n he was r i g h t , a n d he c a r e d n o t f o r t h e c o n sequences o f h i s a n t i - e p i s c o p a l s e n t i m e n t s , then,  i n 1641,  going to suffer  f o r he knew t h a t  t h e r e w o u l d n o t be any r e p r i s a l s . as d i d P r y n n e ,  U n w i t t i n g l y he was a l s o t e l l i n g t h a t the days o f e p i s c o p a c y c o m i n g t o an e n d .  38  He was  not  B a s t w i c k and B u r t o n . t h e n a t i o n and t h e  bishops  i n t h e E n g l i s h Church were  fast  62 T h a t M i l t o n made a d e e p c u t i n t o e p i s c o p a l there  c a n be no d o u b t ,  as  is  sensibilities  e v i d e n t f r o m t h e vehemence on  B i s h o p H a l l ' s r e p l y t o him i n 1642.  ^  of  B u t t h e one w o r k  w h i c h a b o v e a l l v i s i b l y moved t h e e n t i r e e p i s c o p a t e t o distress  and,  t o , s o m e d e g r e e , p a n i c , was A D i s c o u r s e  The N a t u r e o f T h a t E p i s c o p a c y by R o b e r t G r e v i l l e , House o f L o r d s  Which Is  Lord Brooke.  should attack  Opening  Exercised In England,  That a colleague  them was b a d e n o u g h ,  in  the  but  the  manner i n w h i c h i t was done was c l e a r l y a c a l c u l a t e d and t h e b i s h o p s '  r e a c t i o n t o t h e w o r k was v i o l e n t .  was no o r d i n a r y p e e r . i n the Upper House, i n regard  A leader  he d i f f e r e d  to Church p r a c t i c e ,  h i s conception of the nature as  he saw i t ,  the bishops  anger,  insult, Brooke  of the P u r i t a n o p p o s i t i o n from the bishops  but  not only  f a r more s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n  of the n a t i o n a l Church.  For,  who h a d a s u s p i c i o n o f a n d a  contempt f o r the h e r e d i t a r y a r i s t o c r a t c o u l d c o n c e i v e s o c i e t y o n l y as an i n c l u s i v e u n i t e d C h u r c h w h e r e a s B r o o k e . . . h a d as h i s o b j e c t i v e the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a n a t i o n w i t h i n w h i c h r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s , so l o n g as t h e y d i d n o t d i s t u r b p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y , were t o be t r e a t e d as m a t t e r s w i t h o u t p u b l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t was now o n l y t o o e v i d e n t " p a r e n t s and p a t r o n s  that  t h e p r e l a t e s were  o f most E r r o r s , H e r e s i e s ,  the  Sects  and  45 Schismes,  t h a t now d i s t u r b e  Church government all  the bishops  no e x c e p t i o n s . episcopacy the  h a d t o be c h a n g e d .  State."  In the f i n a l  were g u i l t y o f t h e s e c r i m e s ;  there  analysis were  The a r g u m e n t s o f t h o s e f a v o u r i n g a l i m i t e d  were f a l s e o n e s .  feelings  t h i s C h u r c h and  of the  Robert B a i l l i e  summarized  " R o o t and B r a n c h " f a c t i o n when he w r o t e :  63 T h o s e o f t h e P r e l a t e s who c o u n t t h e m s e l v e s m o s t o r t h o d o x a n d i n n o c e n t , c a n n o t be e x c u s e d o f t h e s e c r i m e s , w h i c h by t h e i r c o n n i v a n c e t h e y d i d f o s t e r , and w e l l neere as much promoove b y t h e i r s u f f e r i n g , as t h e o t h e r s who w e r e e s t e e m e d more g u i l t e e b y their doing.4fi The t r a c t s o f P r y n n e , M i l t o n a n d B r o o k e d i d much t o c r e d i t episcopacy.  In 1641,  P r y n n e and M i l t o n ,  dis-  neither  of  whom w e r e i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t , w e r e c a l l i n g f o r a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n and t h e y c o n t i n u e d t o w r i t e u n m o l e s t e d . four years before,  Prynne had s u f f e r e d  mutilation for  l e s s damage t h a n he was d o i n g i n 1 6 4 1 . contribution is  admitted that  reason  t o d e s p i s e h i s own c o l l e a g u e s .  declared,  t h e common p e o p l e  came f r o m t h e e x c r e m e n t  anti-episcopacy of  this  l a t e s t broadside  dangerous because they a l l f e l t accusation  at  a Peer of  He made  i n Parliament.  The  their position  cause bishops  was  obliged to reply to  his  Prynne,  of t h e i r countrymen  a n d e x p l o i t e d t h e m , much t o t h e d i s t r e s s who knew t h a t  he  i t was t h e  c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r meaness o f b i r t h . ^ 7  the  and h a d  The b i s h o p s ,  of the n a t i o n .  M i l t o n a n d B r o o k e knew t h e p r e j u d i c e s  doing  Brooke's  had r i g h t s ,  as much a p o p u l a r c a u s e as  the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p  knew t h a t  Lord  e v e n more e x c i t i n g s i n c e h e ,  Realm,  And y e t ,  of the  t h e i r p o s i t i o n had been weakened,  episcopate, for  48 t h e L o r d s w e r e i n s u l t i n g them i n t h e The p e r s o n s o f t h e b i s h o p s poems a n d s o n g s .  House.  were a l s o d i s c r e d i t e d  in  Anonymous p o e t s w e r e n o t a b o v e c o n t r i b u t i n g  crude verses1 lampooning the b i s h o p s ,  some o f w h i c h w e r e  a m u s i n g and some v e r y d a n g e r o u s a n d e f f e c t i v e .  very  Obviously  64 w r i t t e n f o r a f a r more p o p u l a r a u d i e n c e tracts  we h a v e h e r e t o f o r e  memorise  considered,  and t h e i r a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  t h e b e s t example  of t h i s  type of  in'June  of  1641.  doom o f t h e b i s h o p s , before  t h e rhymes w e r e e a s y  Perhaps  i n t h e London book  The poem t e l l s  of the impending  and t h e i r h a s t e t o s e l l t h e i r  wares  t h e y f l y t o Rome:  One b i s h o p t r y i n g t o s e l l a gown c h i r p e d " I n t h i s  less  to  l i t e r a t u r e was a poem  Come buy l a w n e s l e e v e s I h a v e no money t o o k H e r e t r y them o n , y o u ' l l l i k e a B i s h o p l o o k e A n d may g e t h o n o u r b o t h g r e a t a n d s m a l l And L o r d i t o r e y o u r f e l l o w B r e t h r e n a l l . . .  did  the  i m p o r t was d e a d l y .  c a l l e d Lambeth F a i r e w h i c h appeared stalls  t h a n any o f  Canterburies face."  .  same gown  G r a c e , A t H i g h C o m m i s s i o n show h i s  Special  ^n  grace-  l i n e s were saved f o r the B i s h o p  of  Ely: Then a f t e r t h a t u n t o t h i s J o l l y F a i r e A l i t t l e W r e n , came f l y i n g t h r o u g h t h e a y r e A n d on h i s b a c k b e t w i x t h i s w i n g s he b o r e A Minister stuft with Crosses, A l t a r s store W i t h S a c r e d F o n t s , and r a r e g u i l t C h e r u b i m s A n d b e l l o w i n g O r g a n s , c h a n t i n g c u r i o u s Hymnes The H a l l o w ' d H o s t , dum P r i e s t s a n d s i n g i n g b o y e s W i t h A n t i c k C r i n g e r s , and a t h o u s a n d t o y e s . . . . The " t o y e s "  w e r e t h e "New C a n o n s " ,  the et  cetera  other obnoxious things a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e p i s c o p a l  oath,  government.  But  t h e p s e u d o - p o p e ' s h o l i d a y i n E n g l a n d was s o o n t o  for  a messenger brought the p r e l a t e s  t h i s ominous  and  end,  message:  Away t o Rome o r T i b u r n c h u s e y o u w h e t h e r I know y o u r s h o e s a r e made o f r u n n i n g l e a t h e r , F o r a l l o f t h e Lawes o t h ' L a n d y o u h a v e o u t r u n A n d I come h e r e t t o t e l l y o u w h a t i s done The P a r l i a m e n t h a t h p u l l e d y o u r p r i d e t o t h 1 g r o u n d A n d b y t h e House t h r e e t i m e s y 1 a r e v o t e d down Your war's not worth a . . . , f o r a l l your cogging _2 See w h e r e t h e Hangman c o m e s , a w a y , be j o g g i n g . . . .  65  All  the animosity a n t i - e p i s c o p a l i a n s  h e l d f o r the  were c o n t a i n e d i n the v e r s e s o f Lambeth F a i r e . an e x c l u s i o n b i l l  By J u n e ,  h a d p a s s e d t h e Commons, b u t h a d b e e n  o u t o f t h e House o f L o r d s . i n a s m u c h as  prelates  The l a m p o o n was  thrown  significant  i t v o i c e d an e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e  that  " p o p i s h " h i e r a r c h y w o u l d be d e s t r o y e d b y t h e g o o d ,  the  reforming  g r a c e s o f P a r l i a m e n t , a n d t h a t t h e b i s h o p s w o u l d be p u n i s h e d e i t h e r by e x i l e o r e x e c u t i o n . The a n t i - e p i s c o p a l s e n t i m e n t s ly  l i n k e d to the Laudian Reform.  Scholar's grievances  i n songs were  One s u c h s o n g c a l l e d  C o m p l a i n t " b r o u g h t some o f t h e more t h e p u b l i c had a g a i n s t b i s h o p s  . . . I bowed, I have bended A n d a l l i n hope One d a y t o be b e f r i e n d e d I p r e a c h ' t , • [IE-printed What e r e I h i n t e d To p l e a s e o u r E n g l i s h P o p e . .  unmistakab-  .  to  "The  serious light:  .  . . . I n t o some c o u n t r y v i l l a g e Nowe I m u s t goe Where n e i t h e r t i t h e n o r t i l l a g e The g r e e d y p a t r o n And coached matron S w e a r s t o t h e C h u r c h t h e y owe. But i f I p r e a c h and p r a y t o o on t h e suddaine And c o n j u r e t h e Pope t o o , e x t e m p r e w i t h o u t s t u d y i n g , I ' v e t e e n e p o u n d e s a y e e r e , b e s i d e s my Sunday p u d d i n g , A l a s , pore s c h o l l e r ! Wither w i l t thou g o e ? 5 3 The most p o t e n t h e l p t h e b i s h o p s ' t h e Lambeth F a i r e t y p e o f Taylor,  cause had  against  l a m p o o n came f r o m t h e p e n o f  " t h e W a t e r P o e t " , who was a man o f t h e  h a v i n g been a waterman i n h i s y o u t h .  Taylor, a  at v e r s i f i c a t i o n .  John  people, staunch  royalist,  was a l s o d e f t  As f a r  as  works are  c o n c e r n e d , he d i d n o t seem t o be any g r e a t  his lover  66 of e p i s c o p a c y , • b u t  he f e a r e d mob v i o l e n c e , w h i c h he  was u p s e t t i n g t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e E s t a b l i s h e d W i s h i n g t h e C h u r c h w o u l d r e m a i n as  felt  Church.  t h e G o s p e l and  the  l a w s o f E n g l a n d o r d a i n e d i t , he r a i l e d a g a i n s t  malcontents  i n h i s poem A Swarme o f S e c t a r i e s ,  cobblers,  tinkers,  peddlers,  weavers,  saying that  sowgelders,  a n d c h i m n e y sweeps 54  were a l l f i n d i n g  a new v o c a t i o n , t h a t o f p r e a c h i n g .  was v e r y c a u s t i c  i n his appraisal  of the s i t u a t i o n ,  t h a t he b e l i e v e d s u c h a c t i v i t y t o be l i n k e d w i t h  He and  anti-  e p i s c o p a l f e e l i n g c a n be s e e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g v e r s e s : I f P r e l a t e s have by f r a u d , o r f r a i l t y s l i p ' d My P e n s h a l l n o t i n G a l l o f A s p e s be d i p ' d : I ' l e , p r a y we may h a v e b e t t e r i n t h e i r p l a c e s , Whom G r a c e may g u i d e , t o s h u n t h e l i k e d i s g r a c e s L e t t r a d e s m e n u s e t h e i r t r a d e s , l e t a l l men be I m p l o y ' d i n what i s f i t t i n g t h e i r d e g r e e . It  is  c l e a r t h a t T a y l o r saw t h e s p e c t r e  of a popular r e v o l u t i o n  i n w h a t he o b s e r v e d g o i n g o n i n L o n d o n , f o r he was n o t concerned about episcopacy  as  about  the consequences  p o p u l a r t a k e - o v e r o f t h e C h u r c h and i t s political works a r e ,  s t r u c t u r e of the n a t i o n . t h e y were h a r d l y a b l e  anti-prelatical  effect  of  so a  on t h e  Y e t i n t e r e s t i n g as  his  to counteract the f l o o d of  lampoons a p p e a r i n g  so  frequently.56  The t h e o l o g i c a l c l a i m s o f t h e e p i s c o p a t e  could not  be o v e r l o o k e d b y t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l p a m p h l e t e e r s .  The  m o s t i m p o r t a n t w o r k o f t h e e n t i r e c o n t r o v e r s y was t h e book e n t i t l e d A n A n s w e r To a Book E n t i t l e d A n Humble R e m o n s t r a n c e by Smectymnus  (Stephen M a r s h a l l ,  Edmund C a l a m y ,  Thomas  Y o u n g , M a t t h e w Newcome, W i l l i a m S p u r s t o w ) , w h i c h was r e a d y  for  s a l e a r o u n d 20~:March, 1 6 4 1 . on a j o i n t p r o j e c t The m a j o r  T h e s e f i v e men h a d  t o answer H a l l ' s d e f e n s e  decided  effectively.  author of the work, according to B a i l l i e ,  Thomas Y o u n g , t h e f o r m e r t u t o r o f J o h n M i l t o n . ^ 8 is  a product of i t s  Fathers  time:  endless quotations  to prove t h a t episcopacy  Apostolic times;  was n e v e r  endless syllogisims  The w o r k  from the  found i n  and c o p i o u s  the margins  to further elucidate  Smectymnans  denied the A p o s t o l i c a l o r i g i n s of  Episcopal  was  p o i n t s made.  notes  The episcopacy.  c l a i m s w e r e more r o o t e d i n t h e p a p a c y t h a n  Reformation.  The p r i m i t i v e b i s h o p s  episcopalians  always p r a i s e d  Laudian bishops.  that  the  in  intthe  moderate  h a d n o t h i n g i n common w i t h  To c l a i m t h a t  the e p i s c o p a l  order  the  was  o f A p o s t o l i c o r i g i n was t o c l a i m d i v i n e i n s t i t u t i o n . S c r i p t u r e proved that one and t h e same.  the e p i s c o p a l  The t h r e e  orders  and p r i e s t l y o f f i c e of bishop,  deacon were n e v e r g i v e n i n S c r i p t u r e . "bishops"  h a d no s p e c i f i c  who c l a i m s of  this  Bishope  duty to perform,  In the e a r l y Church, or President,  and  E l d e r s who w e r e "and  anyone  t o be h i e r a r c h y s h o u l d be e v e r h o o t e d  the Church."  chiefe  priest  was  t h e r e was  "not  b u t t h e P r e s i d e n c y was  out one  in  60 many."  Therefore  the A n g l i c a n episcopate d i d not  an A p o s t o l i c f o u n d a t i o n , b u t r a t h e r the bishops lie. rather  a Roman o n e ,  have  a n d when  c l a i m e d t h e f o r m e r t h e i r c l a i m was b a s e d o n a  The book was d i r e c t e d n o t so much a g a i n s t H a l l , a g a i n s t the p o s i t i o n o f moderate  episcopalians.  but  68 The b o o k a l s o s o u g h t  a popular audience;  c l e v e r enough t o t r a n s l a t e appeared  the authors  were  every L a t i n c i t a t i o n which  i n t h e book i n t o E n g l i s h .  The Smectymnans  turned  t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t , h o p i n g i t w o u l d be l i k e C o n s t a n t i n e  of  o l d and r o o t o u t e v e r y p l a n t i n t h e C h u r c h n o t p u t t h e r e God.  They p r a y e d t h a t  these usurpers,  called bishops,  be b r o u g h t t o open, a n d p u b l i c p u n i s h m e n t f o r c r i m e s f o r example,  t h e i r ungodly i n t e r e s t  t h e i r misuse  o f power i n t e m p o r a l o f f i c e s .  bishop's  crimes c r i e d out to the highest  The Smectymnans martyr bishops Latimer,  i n secular  as,  d i s c r e d i t e d popular veneration of  world.  the  b y s a y i n g i t was u s e l e s s t o c l a i m t h a t  t h e y were d e s t r o y i n g t h e moderate  and  the  c o u r t i n the  R i d l e y and H o o p e r w e r e g r e a t men.  would  affairs  A l l of  by  Cramne  Consequently,  episcopalians'  t o g e n e r a t e p o p u l a r sympathy f o r e p i s c o p a c y ,  a  attempts sympathy  w h i c h was b a s e d on t h e m a r t y d o m o f t h e s e men by t h e C a t h o l i c Queen,  Mary.  R i d l e y was a g a i n s t H o o p e r b e c a u s e t h e  l i k e d ceremonies.  R i d l e y and Cramner p e r m i t t e d  Mary t o keep t h e Mass. h a d no o r i g i n s  In the f i n a l  from C h r i s t .  analysis  The o f f i c e was  or s p i r i t u a l a f f a i r s  humble p r a y e r o f t h e a u t h o r s  Princess episcopacy  inconsistant  w i t h r e l i g i o n a n d monarchy and so h a d no p l a c e secular  former  i n the  of the n a t i o n .  I t was  the  that episcopacy  "should 63  f o r e v e r be a b a n d o n e d o u t o f t h e C h u r c h o f G o d . "  This  w o r k was t h e p r o t o t y p e o f many a n t i - e p i s c o p a l w o r k s w h i c h appeared  d u r i n g the  year.  The f a s t d a y sermons  of  1640-1642,  although not  a  69 regular  institution t i l l  late  i n the p e r i o d under  were a n o t h e r form o f propaganda  discussion,  o f an a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  nature.  As C l a r e n d o n n o t e d I t was a n o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h a t t i m e t h a t t h e f i r s t p u b l i s h i n g o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y news was f r o m t h e p u l p i t ; a n d by t h e p r e a c h e r ' s t e x t , and h i s manner o f d i s c o u r s e upon i t , t h e a u d i t o r s m i g h t j u d g e , a n d commonly f o r e s a w , w h a t was l i k e t o be n e x t done i n the P a r l i a m e n t or C o u n c i l of S t a t e . 6 4 The f a s t d a y sermons  of  1640-1642 were g e n e r a l l y p r i n t e d ,  t h a t t h e p u b l i c were always give at  conscious  of  the godly  t h e P a r l i a m e n t by t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  so  admonitions  divines.  Thus  the b e g i n n i n g o f the Long P a r l i a m e n t , C o r n e l i u s Burgess  gave t h e f i r s t  f a s t d a y sermon on t h e a n n i v e r s a r y o f  Elizabeth's accession  to the t h r o n e ,  Queen's  17 N o v e m b e r , 1 6 4 0 .  It  was n o t enough t h a t t h e P a r l i a m e n t p u n i s h t h o s e who w e r e s t r i v i n g to destroy  t h e l a w and l i b e r t i e s o f t h e n a t i o n .  T h e r e h a d t o be " a t h o r o u g h j o i n i n g o f t h e m s e l v e s by c o v e n a n t . " 6 5  j  n  t h e sermon B u r g e s s o u t l i n e d t h e t y p e  Parliament the leadership be.  of the o p p o s i t i o n expected  They were t o work t o g e t h e r  t o b r i n g about God's  a w a i t e d r e f o r m a t i o n o f C h u r c h and  and a s h a r e r  John's  d e l i v e r e d a s e r m o n t o t h e Commons on 20 J u n e ,  the Bishop i n h i s Diocese."^6 the "bondage" "bondage"  to the prayers  long  1637,  1641.  His  "the Archbishop i n h i s P r o v i n c e , The e n t i r e g o v e r n m e n t was  o f t h e h i e r a r c h y w h i c h was r e a l l y  of a n t i - C h r i s t .  to  College,  i n the f a t e of Prynne i n  t o p i c was E n g l a n d ' s B o n d a g e ,  it  of  State.  Henry B u r t o n , a graduate o f S t . Cambridge,  t o God  in  the  B u t t h e P a r l i a m e n t was t h e  o f a l l E n g l a n d , a n d i t was t h e hope o f  answer the  70  n a t i o n t h a t t h a t body w o u l d b r e a k o f f  the e p i s c o p a l  yoke  67  from G o d ' s p e o p l e and s e t  England  free.  Thomas C a s e , who g a v e a f a s t d a y s e r m o n i n J u l y , 1641,  detested episcopacy.  He h a d b e e n i n t r o u b l e  b e c a u s e o f h i s a n t i - e p i s c o p a l v i e w s and had been before  the e p i s c o p a l  courts  B r i d g e m a n f o r h i s sermons 68 N o r w i c h and C h e s t e r .  a t t a c k i n g Church d i s c i p l i n e i n  I n h i s J u l y s e r m o n , he  "in  preached  government i n  t h e C h u r c h , w h i c h he f e l t t h e e p i s c o p a l i a n s  bishops  brought  o f b o t h B i s h o p Wren and B i s h o p  a g a i n s t the m o n a r c h i c a l form of e p i s c o p a l  championed i n t h e i r  before  foolishly  "No B i s h o p , no K i n g " m a x i m .  Since  h a d a b a n d o n e d t h e r e f o r m a t i o n , i t was h i s hope  the that  f u t u r e a g e s t h i s may be c a l l e d t h e h a p p y P a r l i a m e n t ,  the h o l y P a r l i a m e n t , the P a r l i a m e n t of God, . 69 reformers  .  .  the  of the R e f o r m a t i o n . "  By D e c e m b e r ,  1641,  i t seemed t o t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y  a n t i - e p i s c o p a l o p p o s i t i o n t h a t the episcopate would never be e x p e l l e d f r o m t h e i r p l a c e  i n the L o r d s .  p o s i t i o n i n t h e c i t y , had s t r e n g t h e n e d .  If  The K i n g ' s the Parliament  w e r e t o s u r v i v e , t h e mobs w o u l d be n e e d e d .  Accordingly,  t h e d i v i n e s a p p o i n t e d t o p r e a c h on t h e f a s t day h e l d on 22 D e c e m b e r ,  1 6 4 1 , Edmund C a l a m y and S t e p h e n  p r e p a r e d the way.  M a r s h a l l t o l d h i s audience  Marshall, that England  h a d many s i n n e r s who w i s h e d t h e n a t i o n t o r e m a i n i n unreformed s t a t e .  He t h e r e f o r e  urged h i s hearers  K i n g J o s i a h who " m e t e d p u t t h e j u s t i c e  to  and v e n g e n c e  its remember o f God  w i t h z e a l and f e r v e n c y t o t h o s e who p l o t t e d t h e K i n g d o m s  ruin."  T h i s s e r m o n was p r i n t e d , a n d i t was no s m a l l w o n d e r  / u  t h a t v e r y many i n t h e c i t y  t u r n e d out i n such f u r y t o  attack  the persons  of the bishops  on 2 7 D e c e m b e r ,  fast  d a y sermons  then s p e l l e d out the program of the P a r l i a m e n t  1641.  The  a n d c o u l d be u s e d t o s t i r up p o p u l a r d e m o n s t r a t i o n s when 71 needed. P a r l i a m e n t a r y s p e e c h e s a l s o s e r v e d as a n t i - e p i s c o p a l propaganda.  I n d e e d , moderate  a v e h i c l e of episcopal  s p e e c h e s i n 1641 w e r e d e l i v e r e d a n d p r i n t e d , s u c h Falkland's  and P l y d e l l ' s i n F e b r u a r y a n d S i r ' B e n j a m i n  Rudyerd's i n June. Nathaniel Fiennes' Sele's June,  as  speech of  But a n t i - e p i s c o p a l speeches such speech  of  as  8 F e b r u a r y , L o r d S a y e and  27 May a n d H e n r y V a n e , J r . ' s  speech  a l l a d v o c a t i n g a " R o o t and B r a n c h " s o l u t i o n t o  of  11  the  e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n w e r e p r i n t e d w i t h more r e g u l a r i t y . H o w e v e r , as  t h e y e a r w o r e on n o t h i n g c o u l d u p s e t  the  p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s more t h a n u n a u t h o r i z e d p u b l i c a t i o n s the proceedings  of the House.  t h e P a r l i a m e n t was a c t i n g as and f i n a l l y  only those  The p l a i n t r u t h was its  own m i n i s t r y o f  speeches favourable  a m b i t i o n w e r e a l l o w e d t o be p r i n t e d .  to i t s  To be s u r e ,  b e g u n i n t h e House  S i r E d w a r d D e r i n g who d a r e d t o h a v e h i s  that  propaganda,  t r i e d to circumvent the usual process of o f f i c i a l b u t t h e impeachment p r o c e e d i n g s  of  image  and  many imprimatur, against  speeches p r i n t e d  w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n s e r v e d a s t r o n g n o t i c e t o any p r o e p i s c o p a l members t h a t  t h e y t o o c o u l d be d e p r i v e d o f  seats i f they should follow Dering's  example.72  their  72 It  t o o k some t i m e b e f o r e  took e f f e c t . calling  a c o n t r o l l e d press  The s p e e c h e s o f D i g b y , F a l k l a n d a n d  f o r a reformed episcopacy  the b e g i n n i n g of the bishops'  1641.  actually  others  were p r i n t e d e a s i l y  However, a f t e r  the i n d i s c r e t i o n of  P r o t e s t a t i o n o n 30 D e c e m b e r ,  1641,  the  p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n was most d e t e r m i n e d i n i t s to deprive the bishops  of t h e i r votes.  at  Virtually  p a r l i a m e n t a r y s p e e c h w h i c h was d e l i v e r e d o n t h e  efforts  every  episcopal  q u e s t i o n was o f a " R o o t and B r a n c h " n a t u r e  and many o f  t h e s e speeches were p r i n t e d .  the  For example,  anti-prelatical  s p e e c h e s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g members w e r e p r i n t e d by o r d e r the House: John White (Jan.  D'Ewes (Jan.  17),  25 a n d F e b .  episcopalians  (Jan.  Thomas Bagshaw  Oliver St.  8).  thus  11),  John  With the voices  silenced,  (Jan.  (Jan. 17),  of the  17),  J o h n Pym  pro-  the pressure against the  grew t o s u c h p r o p o r t i o n s t h a t t h e E x c l u s i o n B i l l ' s a s s e n t by t h e K i n g was In the f i n a l prepared  inevitable.  analysis,  the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l  framework o f t h e Government.  imprimatur d i d not entirely>stop but i t d i d severely had been a v a i l a b l e  tracts  limit  it.  literature,  What p r o - e p i s c o p a l  p r i o r to the e x c l u s i o n of the The  t e n d e d t o d w e l l more on t h e g l o r i e s  t h a n on t h e p o l i t i c s o f t h e p r e s e n t . any p r o g r a m o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  i n the  The p a r l i a m e n t a r y  pro-episcopal  h o w e v e r , was o f t e n s t o g y a n d p e d a n t i c . writers  bishops  p a s s a g e and  a r e a d i n g n a t i o n f o r a r e v o l u t i o n a r y change  constitutional  of  literature bishops,  pro-episcopal of the  They r a r e l y  past proposed  r e f o r m under episcopacy  which  73  would ensure a b e t t e r episcopalians  future  did consider  for England.  a b o u t monarchy w i t h o u t  t h a n t h e y were about e p i s c o p a c y  itself.  theme o f  the freedom e p i s c o p a c y  conscience;  freedom  realm, episcopacy  Theological  a r g u m e n t s on b o t h s i d e s w e r e cumbersome,  individual  pro-  e p i s c o p a c y ' s p l a c e i n the  b u t t h e y w e r e more c o n c e r n e d  d i d not s t r e s s  The  but the  episcopalians  could give  the  the P u r i t a n w r i t e r s d i d s t r e s s  and b e c a u s e o f  this  the  anti-prelatical  f a c t i o n had a p s y c h o l o g i c a l  advantage.  s p o k e o f r e v o l u t i o n and i t s  d i r e consequences, w h i l e  Puritans bliss. office  spoke of r e f o r m a t i o n In short,  the p r o - e p i s c o p a l  with negation;  i n desperate s t r a i t s . Parliament,  left  in their efforts the L o r d s .  and i t s  t h e y w r o t e as  The  and  though t h e i r cause confident  the S c o t t i s h  illusion  that  the  in  the year.  granted  L o r d Brooke  the Bishops,  s h o u l d be r e s p e c t e d .  and  the  in  They did  shattered  because they  were  T h e y h a d no d e g r e e .  The P a r l i a m e n t d i d t h e r e s t w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f  as  was  in  divines.  h i s homework o v e r t h e r e c e s s o f P a r l i a m e n t ,  its  the  the bishops of t h e i r votes  k e p t up t h e b a r r a g e t h r o u g h o u t  speeches of  spiritual  w r i t e r s defended  The p a m p h l e t e e r s h e l p e d t h e o p p o s i t i o n  of high degree,  the  n o t h i n g undone and t o o k n o t h i n g f o r  February w i t h the t r a c t s of  any p o p u l a r  episcopalians  temporal  But the o p p o s i t i o n ,  to deprive  the  members who d e m o n s t r a t e d  as  the  forcefully  t h e y c o u l d t o t h e n a t i o n how t h e b i s h o p s w e r e  destroying  l a w and i n t i m i d a t i n g a l l h o n e s t men w i t h t h e i r s w i p e s  of  74 their  croziers.  activities  Thus t h e t r a c t s  of the House.  complimented  Together w i t h tumults,  a n d t h e l e g i s l a t i o n o f t h e House i t s e l f , played t h e i r part the e p i s c o p a l  the  the  petitions,  pamphleteers  i n making the p o p u l a r r e v o l u t i o n a g a i n s t  office  a  success.  CHAPTER I V A N T I - E P I S C O P A L MANOEUVRING I N PARLIAMENT To t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l o p p o s t i o n Commons t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t was t h e a c t i v i t y s e t  o f t h e House o f L o r d s .  n e c e s s a r y c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m , men s u c h as  Jr.,  John, Denzil H o l l i s ,  and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s  question  a constitutional Because  t h e e p i s c o p a t e w e r e t h o u g h t t o o p p o s e any movement  Hampden, O l i v e r S t .  towards  J o h n Pym, John  S i r Henry Vane,  t r i e d to organize  an  effective  movement o f u n i t y i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t , b o t h among t h e of  t h e Commons i t s e l f  Houses, their  i n order to deprive  For a year  i n a l e g a l way t h e b i s h o p s as  (November,  Peers 1640  S p i r i t u a l of  t o November,  p l a n n e d a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l d r i v e w h i c h weakened  r i g h t to s i t  affairs  i n the  The f i r s t  the  carefully  their  Lords.  phase of t h i s  d r i v e took place  between  The many p e t i t i o n s  n a t i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t w i t h the e p i s c o p a l l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t was n e e d e d  from P a r l i a m e n t .  of  episcopal  but which d i d not a f f e c t  November and M a y , 1 6 4 0 - 1 6 4 1 .  form the  two  1641),  t h e L o n g P a r l i a m e n t saw f o u r d i s t i n c t p h a s e s o f a  power i n s e c u l a r  members  a n d more i m p o r t a n t l y , b e t w e e n t h e  ancient r i g h t to vote  Realm.  of  aspect of the episcopal  i n motion to effect  change i n the s t r u c t u r e  i n t h e House  office  expressing  were used  to expel the  bishops  The " R o o t a n d B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n was  i n t h e Commons on 8 a n d 9 F e b r u a r y ,  1641.  This  to  debated  solution  76 to the e p i s c o p a l many m o d e r a t e destroyed bishops of  q u e s t i o n was t o o d r a s t i c  episcopalians  the r e s o l v e  Accordingly, after  o p p o s i t i o n adopted  Petition,  since  Bishops  Bishop's  for  fundamental  February,  1641,  the  not from the C h u r c h .  Exclusion B i l l  reached  the  H o w e v e r , when  t h e L o r d s on 1  s o l u t i o n to  episcopal  i n t e m p o r a l m a t t e r s came toi an a b r u p t  the L o r d s ,  deeply resenting  t h e Commons'  halt,  presumption  to s e t t l e matters p e r t a i n i n g to the c o n s t i t u t i o n of House o f P e e r s ,  threw out the b i l l  the second phase of the c r i s i s .  House i n e x p e l l i n g t h e B i s h o p s ,  Even though the  office  this b i l l ,  Originally  refused  As a r e s u l t ,  w h i c h w o u l d have a b o l i s h e d  the  the  "Root episcopal  i n t r o d u c e d on 27 M a y ,  e n t i t l e d " A n A c t f o r t h e u t t e r A b o l i s h i n g and  T a k i n g away a l l A r c h b i s h o p s , B i s h o p s , and C o m m i s s a r i e s , " into accepting Instead,  still  g r e a t p r e s s u r e by i n t r o d u c i n g a  i n England.  Commons  j o i n i n g the Lower  the Lords  t o a c c e p t so r e v o l u t i o n a r y an a c t i o n .  and B r a n c h " b i l l  the  on 8 J u n e , i n i t i a t i n g  s e n t up t o t h e L o r d s n i n e r e a s o n s f o r  Commons e x e r t e d  laws  t h e aims o f t h e M i n i s t e r s '  t h e momentum f o r an e a r l y  interference  the  i t o n l y c a l l e d f o r an e x p u l s i o n o f  from the L o r d s ,  the f i r s t  of the  for  almost  o f t h e w h o l e House t o p u n i s h  episcopal  May,  i n t h e Commons a n d  f o r t h e i r many i n f r a c t i o n s  the realm.  an a c t i o n  Chancellors  was s u p p o s e d t o f r i g h t e n t h e  the l e s s d r a s t i c  i t stiffened  King to defend  their  Exclusion B i l l  the r e s o l v e  Lords of  o f t h e L o r d s and  the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t of the  1 May. the  episcopate  77  to vote  i n the Upper House.  t o send  f o r E d w a r d H y d e , an M . P . n o t e d f o r h i s d e f e n s e o f  moderate stall  episcopate,  K i n g C h a r l e s w e n t so f a r  as  a n d t o u r g e h i m t o do a l l he c o u l d  t h e d e b a t e i n t h e Commons on t h e  a  to  " R o o t and B r a n c h "  2 bill. was  A s C h a i r m a n o f t h e C o m m i t t e e o f t h e W h o l e , Hyde i n a p o s i t i o n t o do as  very e f f e c t i v e l y . did of  the King asked,  However,  b e a r some f r u i t .  " R o o t and B r a n c h " p r e s s u r e  I n an a t t e m p t  t h e Commons, who r e s e n t e d  Exclusion B i l l , a bill  the Peers  to p l a c a t e the  the L o r d s '  act  abolished  day,  Star Chamber.3  still  was sat  signed  for  severely  This  which abolished influence i n  the L o r d s '  t h e Commons became  Lords, who  seeming  indifference  The t h i r d c r i s i s  to defend r e l i g i o n ,  temporal as  to the  they  episcopal  came w h e n , on 29 J u l y ,  the K i n g ,  The Commons was  at  the  all in of  and t h e r i g h t s  furious  and impeachment p r o c e e d i n g s  had s i g n e d  the  increasingly  U p p e r House s h o u l d t a k e t h e Commons' P r o t e s t a t i o n  Parliament.  same  Lords.  L o r d s t h r e w o u t a p e t i t i o n o f t h e Commons t h a t  1641,  statute  d i m i n i s h e d , but not destroyed,  Throughout J u l y ,  proceedings.  episcopal  to  causes  on 5 J u l y .  another b i l l  As a r e s u l t ,  i n the  annoyed a t  no o b j e c t i o n s  t h e C o u r t o f H i g h C o m m i s s i o n , and on t h e  the King a l s o signed  affairs  the  of a branch of a  primo E l i z a b e t h concerning commissioners which Charles  feelings  r e j e c t i o n of  and K i n g r a i s e d  e n t i t l e d " A n Act==for r e p e a l  ecclesiastical,"  and he c o m p l i e d  the 5 May,  of  t h e snub f r o m t h e  against thirteen  t h e "New C a n o n s " w e r e a c c e l e r a t e d  bishops  so t h a t  by  78 4 A u g u s t a l l t h i r t e e n were i m p e a c h e d . hoped t o reduce  the e p i s c o p a l  In August,  1641,  Parliament adjourned Exclusion B i l l  Bill  was  was  thereby  Lords.  K i n g C h a r l e s went t o S c o t l a n d ,  d i d not f a l l  a g a i n s t the Bishops.  The Commons  v o i c e i n the  i n September,  reconvened i n October,  4  but the  out of  sight.  Bishops' When P a r l i a m e n t  Pym t r i e d a more m o d e r a t e  tactic  On 21 O c t o b e r a new B i s h o p s '  Exclusion  i n t r o d u c e d ; i t p a s s e d t h e Commons i n two d a y s  s e n t up t o t h e L o r d s . 5  and  However, the q u e s t i o n  and  reached  a p o i n t o f c r i s i s when t h e Commons l e a r n e d by 28 O c t o b e r that  t h e K i n g h a d no i n t e n t i o n o f c h a n g i n g t h e f o r m o f  Church government determination,  then e s t a b l i s h e d .  he p r o c e e d e d  tactlessness at could expect  as  this  to f i l l  t i m e was  f i v e vacant  sees.  no h e l p t o b l o c k t h i s move f r o m t h e a c t i o n and t h e  p l a n n i n g the Grand Remonstrance November's  of  Lords.  end, the bishops  i n November. were s t i l l  Throughout the e p i s c o p a l the f i r s t  crisis  year of the Long P a r l i a m e n t ,  leaders d i d a l l they could to e l i c i t t h e i r d r i v e a g a i n s t the Bishops. graciously  received,  Speeches damaging p r i n t e d f o r m , as  Such  Lords.  anti-prelatical  o f t h e Commons r e l i e v e d t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n s  by  his  i n c r e d i b l e , a n d t h e Commons  The s i t u a t i o n demanded d r a s t i c members  To e m p h a s i z e  However,  i n the  which the  by  House  overshadowed  anti-episcopal  popular  support  for  The L o n d o n P e t i t i o n was  as w e r e t h e p e t i t i o n s  the u n l i m i t e d episcopacy d i d t h e sermons p r e a c h e d  from the  counties.  appeared i n t o t h e House on  79  the s p e c i a l days d e s i g n a t e d propaganda  campaign t o p o r t r a y the b i s h o p s  light possible  affected  "A short p e t i t i o n i s clergie  A vast  i n the  was l a u n c h e d b y t h e Commons.  B a i l l i e wrote: weell  d u r i n g the year.  worst  As R o b e r t  formed by a l l  the  f o r the overthrow of Episcopacie  .  .  .  a g a i n s t the Bishops c o r r u p t i o n s i n d o c t r i n e , d i s c i p l i n e , life,  and a l l . "  clergy spared,  Nor were t h e b i s h o p s '  7  f o r as  Baillie  further wrote:  E p i s c o p a l c l e r g i e a r e made v i l e most s h a m e f u l p r a c t i c e s prophaneness."° people  friends  among  "The  i n the eyes o f a l l m a n i f o l d  of h a r l o t r i e , drunkeness,  and a l l  But the u l t i m a t e compliment p a i d  s t r i v i n g f o r a change  the  the  i n C h u r c h g o v e r n m e n t came  I s a a c P e n n i n g t o n and N a t h a n i e l F i e n n e s .  from  They defended  t h e r i g h t o f t h e common man t o come t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t t o demand t h e l a w s w h i c h w e r e u n j u s t ,  s u c h as  those  statutes q  upholding the establishment  of episcopacy,  be  changed.  Thus t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l members o f t h e Commons w e r e t u r n i n g t h e i r d r i v e i n t o a p o p u l a r movement as w e l l , their of  s u c c e s s w i t h t h e hopes  of the b e t t e r  affected  linking people  the n a t i o n . To a c h i e v e  s u c c e s s , h o w e v e r , meant t h a t t h e  h a d t o be u n i t e d i n i t s must be made.  resolve.  On t h i s p o i n t a d i s t i n c t i o n  Two k i n d s o f u n i t y w e r e s o u g h t ,  o f t h e members o f t h e House o f Commons, and t h e u n i t y of both Houses.  the  unity  essential  U n i t y among t h e members o f  Commons was i m p o r t a n t t o P y m , f o r ,  House  the  as he s a i d t o E d w a r d H y d e ,  80  t h e way t o b r i n g t h e c o u n t r y i n t o a s t a t e o f w e l l - b e i n g w o u l d be t o remove a l l g r i e v a n c e s by t h e r o o t s ,  a n d p u l l up " t h e c a u s e s o f  i f a l l men w o u l d do t h e i r d u t i e s . " 1 ^  The  theme o f u n i t y was s t r e s s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . preached about  the n e c e s s i t y  of the House's  c o v e n a n t w i t h God t o c o n t i n u e H i s w o r k o f 11 J u n e ,  1641,  split.in  t h e House o v e r t h e e p i s c o p a l  all  S i r Henry Vane, c o n s c i o u s  his colleagues  a very special  Burgess  entering into a r e f o r m . O n  of the  terrible  question,  reminded  t h a t God h a d c a l l e d them t o g e t h e r  purpose  and s a i d :  them  " L e t us n o t t h e n  for  halt  any l o n g e r b e t w e e n two o p i n i o n s , b u t w i t h one h e a r t ,  and  r e s o l u t i o n g i v e g l o r y t o God i n c o m p l y i n g w i t h H i s 12 Providence However, since ly,  . . .  we a r e  now u p o n . " important,  i t was a f o r m a l a n d i n s t i t u t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y .  were,  i n fact,  on t h e e p i s c o p a l  designed  question.  Pym  t o p r o v i d e a common  resolve  T h i s was v e r y e v i d e n t i n h i s 1641,  i n w h i c h he  t o j o i n t h e Commons i n t h e i m p e a c h m e n t  against t h i r t e e n bishops  and  The many c o n f e r e n c e s  t o t h e L o r d s o n 27 O c t o b e r ,  the Peers  According-  u r g e d t h e L o r d s and Commons t o u n i t e 13  the n a t i o n of bishops.  desired,  speech  this B i l l  t h e u n i t y o f b o t h H o u s e s was much more  Smectymnus  purge  by p a s s i n g  accused  on 4 A u g u s t ,  urged  proceedings  1641,  for 14  endeavouring to subvert Thus t h e c a l l  the fundamental  f o r harmony w e n t o u t a l l t h r o u g h t h e  urging both kinds of u n i t y . preachers  law of the Kingdom.  and p a m p h l e t e e r s ,  w o u l d n e v e r be r i d o f  T h i s was u r g e d by  year  parliamentarians,  for without s o l i d a r i t y England  episcopacy.  81 A t the b e g i n n i n g o f the Long P a r l i a m e n t , prelatical  forces  inside  planned very c a r e f u l l y bishops  and o u t s i d e o f t h e House  f o r the s w i f t  f r o m t h e House o f L o r d s .  strength  of popular hatred  Commons'  resolve  C a p i t a l i z i n g on  the  and t h e House  to redress the n a t i o n a l outrage  A barrage of  way f o r a t o t a l  had the  leaders  completion  of  s p e e c h e s i n November p r e p a r e d  the  condemnation of a l l the proceedings of  late Convocation.  Indeed,  of  against  the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l  any g r e a t o b s t a c l e t o a s w i f t  t h e i r work.  anti-  expulsion of  for episcopacy,  the highhanded Laudian system, d i d n o t see  the  t h e b i s h o p s and c l e r g y  the  i n t h e new  Convocation d i d n o t h i n g but worry about the consequences the sat  l a s t Convocation and, only t i l l  t h e end o f F e b r u a r y .  h i g h t r e a s o n i n December, Pierce,  Wren, Montague,  singled  out  that  a l l this  L a u d was a c c u s e d  There i s  is  that B a i l l i e clucked that  disturbed  g r e a t a p p e a r a n c e t h a t God w i l l 17 Baillie,  the  bishops among  learning, do h i s own who was  to a l l the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l manoeuvring both i n s i d e v o i c e d t h e common e x p e c t a t i o n  1640,  musket-men."±fi  not even  o r t h o s e famous f o r  work w i t h o u t t h e s e R a b b i e s h e l p . "  Parliament,  been  doubt  go t o C o n v o c a t i o n g u a r d e d w i t h  the U n i v e r s i t i e s  "there  no  of  Manwaring,  d i a r y o n 17 N o v e m b e r ,  c o u l d n o t e x p e c t any h e l p f r o m any c o r n e r ,  for  Bishops  activity greatly  Rous n o t e d i n h i s  T h i n g s were so b l e a k  those at  King,  B r i d g e m e n and J u x o n h a d a l l  anti-prelatical  "the Bishops  15  from the  and by F e b r u a r y ,  f o r t h e i r misdemeanors.  the Bishops. that  h a v i n g no w r i t  of  of the  and  anti-  privy outside  82 prelatical episcopal  leadership  of a f a i r l y s w i f t completion of  problem.  The t e m p o r a l L o r d s p o s e d a d i f f e r e n t t h e Commons.  T h i s House,  the K i n g ' s b u s i n e s s , Catholics  (20%)  all  issues,  major  tolerant. support  t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n sympathy  for with  h a d a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f Roman  since his attitude  t h e K i n g on  towards  them was  very  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e o t h e r p e e r s w o u l d l i k e w i s e  Commons h a d f a s t identified  as  but for d i f f e r e n t friends  reasons.  " a l l commonwealth m e n " . third Earl  These  the  John Digby, f i r s t  "friends"  of Essex,  eleventh E a r l of H e r t f o r d , Francis  E a r l of Bedford,  However,  i n t h e L o r d s whom B a i l l i e  i n c l u d e d Robert Devereux,  Fiennes,  problem  who w o u l d d e f i n i t e l y s u p p o r t  the K i n g ,  Seymour,  the  Earl  f i r s t V i s c o u n t Saye and S e l e ,  William  Russell,  of B r i s t o l ,  fourth William  Edward Montague,  L o r d K i m b o l t e n ( V i s c o u n t M a n d e v i l l e ) and Thomas  Savile,  18  first  Lord D a v i l e of Pomfret.  be added R o b e r t R i c h , Greville, Warwick,  second E a r l  Lord Brooke.19 S a y e and S e l e ,  anti-episcopal  Also to t h i s  list  o f W a r w i c k and  As t h e y e a r wore o n ,  should  Robert  Essex,  a n d B r o o k e showed t h e m s e l v e s  to  and w e r e i n s y m p a t h y a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Pym, i f n o t i n o p e n c o l l a b o r a t i o n , on t h e i s s u e o f  be  with  the  20  expulsion of the bishops  f r o m t h e House o f L o r d s .  w i t h p e e r s who w e r e c o n s i d e r e d opposition  (and t h e r e f o r e  the  friends  of the  "popular  lords")  Thus,  episcopal firmly  e n t r e n c h e d i n t h e U p p e r House and i n c o n s t a n t  communion w i t h  t h e l e a d e r s i n t h e Commons, i t was e x p e c t e d  they would 21 cause.  be a b l e t o h e l p g r e a t l y  that  i n the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  83  The K i n g ' s s t a n d on t h i s conservative,  i s s u e was e x p e c t e d  b u t t h e Commons knew he was i n a  protested for  that  A t the  s p e e c h e s i n t h e Commons  l o u d l y and c l e a r l y t h e d e v o t i o n t h e members  the person,  Majesty.  crisis,  the e s t a t e ,  The l e a d e r s h i p  and t h e p r e r o g a t i v e  i n the temporal a f f a i r s  of the S t a t e .  had  his doubt  t o do a l l i n h i s power  uphold the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t of the bishops active  of  i n t h e Commons h a d l i t t l e  the K i n g would s t r i v e  be  difficult  p o s i t i o n w i t h a S c o t t i s h army on E n g l i s h s o i l . beginning of the e p i s c o p a l  to  to  to  remain  However, i n  t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l s p e e c h e s g i v e n i n t h e e a r l y months t h e L o n g P a r l i a m e n t , t h e K i n g was e x o n e r a t e d t h e g u i l t s h a r e d by t h e b i s h o p s . 2 2  of  f r o m any o f  i t was h o p e d t h a t  the  K i n g w o u l d j o i n w i t h the P a r l i a m e n t i n t h e n o b l e work o f reformation. in  Thus,  in brief,  t h e Commons e x p e c t e d  great popular support  move t o d r i v e t h e b i s h o p s of  a great part  the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  in their  from the P a r l i a m e n t .  w e l d i n g o f p o p u l a r and p a r l i a m e n t a r y t o weaken t h e r e s i s t a n c e  excesses.  forces  of the bishops.  was  at  unity granted, The  expected  With friends  i t was h o p e d t h e y c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t h e r e s t  t h e House t o j o i n w i t h t h e Commons o n t h i s v e r y subject.  The  o f t h e Commons i t s e l f was t a k e n f o r  given the u n i v e r s a l hatred of e p i s c o p a l  the L o r d s ,  leadership  Finally,  i t was h o p e d t h a t  long l a s t to the advice of h i s  and r e c o g n i z e  t h e damage h i s  false  in of  delicate  the King would l i s t e n  true  friend,  friend,  the  the  Parliament,  episcopate,  h a d done h i m , a n d t h a t he w o u l d j o i n w i t h P a r l i a m e n t  to  84 remedy t h e  situation.  Actually,  the parliamentary a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  experienced nothing but f r u s t r a t i o n . popular support, impatient,  disintegrated  Although they maintained  they found t h a t the populace,  c o u l d be a l i a b i l i t y . i n February,  and a s p l i t o c c u r r e d ,  t h e r e l i g i o u s q u e s t i o n as  l e a v i n g the bishops settlement  i n the L o r d s ) ,  to r i s e back.  t h o s e who  " R o o t and  The b i s h o p s  from t h e dead i n t h e i r r e s i l i e n t a b i l i t y  had t e n d e r  sensibilities  so  far  The L o r d s , as  bullying tactics any i s s u e .  seemed fight  Exeter  o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e Commons'  their  it  transpired,  parliamentary  p r i v i l e g e s were c o n c e r n e d , and t h e y r e s e n t e d  t h e use  of  t o p e r s u a d e them t o j o i n t h e Commons on  Finally,  m e r c u r i a l as  K i n g C h a r l e s was  he may h a v e b e e n on m o s t  i n f l e x i b l e on one m a t t e r :  w o u l d n o t do a n y t h i n g t o remove t h e b i s h o p s  he  from the  House  Lords. C o m f o r t i n g as  of  to  J o h n W i l l i a m s o f L i n c o l n and J o s e p h H a l l o f  against t h e i r order.  moderate  temporal a u t h o r i t y but  T h i s r u p t u r e was n e v e r h e a l e d .  designed  of  (i.e.,  those seeking a  (destroying the bishops'  were the l e a d e r s i n the e p i s c o p a l  issued,  House  leaving  i t was  n o t t h e i r s p i r i t u a l ) , and t h o s e w o r k i n g f o r Branch".  when  The u n i t y o f t h e  t h e House d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e m a i n f a c t i o n s : wished to leave  leadership  popular support  t h e t e m p o r a l power o f t h e b i s h o p s  leadership,  for the was  for  destruction anti-prelatical  i t was q u i t e e v i d e n t by m i d - D e c e m b e r  that  popular impatience could upset c a r e f u l l y l a i d plans  and  85  jeopardize  t h e e n t i r e movement.  The j o y o u s  P r y n n e , B a s t w i c k , a n d B u r t o n on t h e i r did  greeting  r e t u r n from p r i s o n  much t o d r a m a t i z e t o b o t h H o u s e s o f P a r l i a m e n t L o n d o n ' s  hatred of the bishops. of  tumults  However, the p o p u l a r  demonstration  over a thousand people w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s  of Westminster  which accompanied the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the London P e t i t i o n on  11 December p r o v e d t o be v e r y e m b a r r a s s i n g .  o p p o s i t i o n had u r g e d t h e P u r i t a n  The p a r l i a m e n t a r y  l e a d e r s o f the London  c i t i z e n r y t o d e l a y t h e " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n ' s d e l i v e r y "till  first  t h e y had p u t t h e whole B i s h o p s and  Covocation i n t o a praemunire, for t h e i r t h e y a r e now a b o u t ; prime Bishops enough.  also t i l l  for private  as  The r e a s o n was  a s o l u t i o n to the e p i s c o p a l  Clarendon wrote;  "without doubt,  or  t o make any c o n s i d e r a b l e  of  Church or S t a t e . " 2 4  which  simple  b i s h o p s were s t i l l  never punish the bishops  But the P u r i t a n  they disregarded  at  the major p a r t  a l t e r a t i o n i n the  unpunished.  of  government  leaders of  Laud and o t h e r  the  obnoxious  F e a r f u l t h a t t h e House w o u l d  t h e i r present rate of  the advice of t h e i r  delibera-  friends  Commons a n d d e l i v e r e d t h e p e t i t i o n a n y w a y . t h i s h a s t y a c t w e r e t o damage a d e l i c a t e l y  time table  question,  the peace o f the kingdom,  London c i t i z e n r y were i m p a t i e n t .  of  Canons  t h e y h a d b r o u g h t down some  faults."  t h a t b o d y h a d no m i n d t o b r e a k  tions,  illegal  A t t h a t t i m e t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e House w e r e n o t  r e a d y f o r so d r a s t i c for,  their  The  i n the repercussions  fashioned  and c a u s e a s p l i t i n t h e u n i t y o f t h e  House.  86  H o w e v e r , t h e m a j o r l e s s o n l e a r n e d was t h a t t h e L o n d o n c i t i z e n r y c o u l d n o t be c o n t r o l l e d a s e a s i l y a s t h e House had  thought,  a s was t o become more "evident t o w a r d s t h e e n d  of the c r i s i s . A n o t h e r e m b a r r a s s m e n t t o t h e Commons c o n c e r n e d  the  P u r i t a n c l e r g y ' s s t a n d on t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e l a n d s o f b i s h o p s , deans and c h a p t e r s . Branch" these The  bill  As p a r t o f t h e "Root and  i n t r o d u c e d on 21 May, t h i s p r o v i s o t o a p p r o p r i a t e  l a n d s was n o t w e l l r e c e i v e d b y t h e P u r i t a n c l e r g y .  U n i v e r s i t i e s h a d an i n k l i n g o f w h a t was a f o o t i n e a r l y  May when t h e House r e c e i v e d p e t i t i o n s Cambridge.  The l a t t e r p e t i t i o n  were g i v e n t h e C h u r c h by b o t h  from O x f o r d and  s t a t e d that these  clerical  lands  and l a y b e n e f a c t o r s  f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e "Advancement o f L e a r n i n g , t h e Encouragement o f S t u d e n t s ,  the Preferment  The  " f o r the Continuance  Oxford  Petition called  pious Foundations and  revenues"  o f l e a r n e d men." ^ 2  of those  o f C a t h e d r a l Churches w i t h t h e i r  f o r much t h e same r e a s o n s  and g a v e , as w e l l  as a p l e a f o r t h o s e m i n i s t e r s , s c h o o l s , h o s p i t a l s , "and  lands  highways,  o t h e r p u b l i c a n d p i o u s w o r k s " w h i c h d e p e n d e d on t h e 27  revenues these  lands  provided.  T h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d major source  o f i n c o m e was u n d e r s t a n d a b l e  about a  enough.  What  e m b a r r a s s e d t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l f a c t i o n e v e n more was t h e Puritan clergy's opposition. of Bedford  John Hacket, then  and c h a p l a i n t o t h e B i s h o p  Archdeacon  of Lincoln,  t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l f a c t i o n on t h i s m a t t e r  represented  a t t h e b a r and  87 C o r n e l i u s Burgess were summoned on matter lands  the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l 12 May  i n question belonged of a l l ,  When t h e y  t o answer q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g  t o t h e House, H a c k e t  surprise  faction.  defended  the p r i n c i p l e  to the Church  by  law.  this  that To  the  the  Burgess  concluded w i t h the u t t e r unlawfulness to c o n v e r t s u c h endowments t o any p r i v a t e person's p r o f i t . So t h a t t h e same d o c t r i n e was d e l i v e r e d by b o t h t h e d o c t o r s , o n l y they d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n ; the former b e i n g f o r the c o n t i n u i n g such lands to t h e i r a n c i e n t - the l a t t e r f o r d i v e r t i n g them t o o t h e r - b u t n e i t h e r f o r a l i e n a t i n g them f r o m p u b l i c and p i o u s employments. °* 2  The  bill  was  searching. intent  on  i n t r o d u c e d anyway, b u t n o t w i t h o u t Clarendon noted  overthrowing  government b u t  that  the e n t i r e  the P u r i t a n structure  some  clergy of  soul were  episcopal  felt  t h a t i t was n o t l a w f u l t o a l i e n t h o s e l a n d s t o any p r o f a n e o r l a y u s e : w h i c h b e i n g so c o n t r a r y t o t h e i r ends who p r i n c i p a l l y p u r s u e d t h e e x t i r p a t i o n , c a u s e d them f o r a t i m e t o g i v e o v e r t h a t v i o l e n t p r o s e c u t i o n , and s u f f e r t h e b i l l to sleep. 9  The if  unanimity  t h a t Pym  his party f e l t  t h e House were t o e x p e l t h e b i s h o p s  deteriorated  r a t h e r q u i c k l y because  issue,  f o r as B a i l l i e  "their  [the b i s h o p s ' ] u t t e r  the q u e s t i o n . " members t h a t been; t h i s The  and  3 0  expulsion  There  was  abolition  revolution  t h e L o r d s was  necessary  Lords  "Root and  Branch"  Irvine:  . . . i s the k n o t t of  a deep r e s e n t m e n t  seemed t o e n c r o a c h  from  of the  wrote the P r e s b y t e r s o f  t h e L o n d o n P e t i t i o n was  constitutional  from the  so  delivered  among many as  i t had  upon t h e  freedom  involved  i n the bishops'  another  of Parliament.  consideration.  Perhaps  88 t h e most s e r i o u s  o b j e c t i o n to the whole i s s u e of  " R o o t and  B r a n c h " was t h e a n a r c h y s u c h a p o l i c y was s u r e t o b r i n g C h u r c h g o v e r n m e n t , by t h e P a r l i a m e n t ' s b e n d i n g t o t h e  to  popular  will. The manner o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e L o n d o n P e t i t i o n frightened  some members o f t h e House c o n s i d e r a b l y .  N e v i l l e Poole feared  Sir  t h a t some B r o w n i s t s h a d a l a r g e  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the P e t i t i o n , " h e e was a l s o s c a n d a l i z e d t h a t  hand  and e v e n w o r s e t h a n  s u c h a g r e a t number o f  that,  the 31  cittie  came i n t o W e s t m i n s t e r h a l l w i t h t h e same p e t i t i o n . "  S i r Edward D e r i n g r e g i s t e r e d  h i s d i s t a s t e o f t h e manner o f  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e L o n d o n P e t i t i o n when he p r e s e n t e d Petition.  On 13 J a n u a r y ,  Petitioners their  themselves  own h o u s e  .  .  the Kent  1 6 4 1 , he t o l d t h e House t h a t  are  "your  a l l o f them q u i e t and s i l e n t i n  . here i s  no n o y s e  - no numbers a t  your  3? door.  .  George, 1641,  .  .  B  u  t  t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l o b j e c t i o n came  L o r d D i g b y , when he r e m i n d e d t h e House on 8 F e b r u a r y ,  t h a t the present  Church Government had been  by P a r l i a m e n t , and esteemed  it  o r a government i n f o r c e . " 3 3  established  "an i r r e v e r e n c e and h i g h  pressumption i n any, to P e t i t i o n ,  else,  from  p o i n t blank a g a i n s t a law  However, worse than a n y t h i n g  t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e London p e t i t i o n by  enthusiastic  c i t i z e n s h a d - a l l the trappingsof  a popular r e v o l t .  said,.if  "countenance  P a r l i a m e n t were t o g i v e  tumultous Assemblies of people,  For,  he  t o i r r e g u l a r and  be i t n e v e r so good an e n d , "  89 the consequences f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s g i v e n such  a  precedent.  c o u l d be  drastic,  3 4  E a r l y i n the February  crisis,  S i r John Culpepper  did  not  endear h i m s e l f to the leaders of the P a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n when he  s t a t e d t h a t e p i s c o p a c y was  with lightly, pillar  t o be  s i n c e , c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y , episcopacy  of the r e a l m .  defender  not a matter  3 5  B u t H y d e , a l a w y e r , and  dealt  was  a  strong  of the bishops' c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t to s i t i n the  House o f L o r d s  summed up t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l p o s i t i o n when  he  said I t was c h a n g i n g t h e w h o l e f r a m e and c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e K i n g d o m and o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t i s t e l f , t h a t from t h e time t h a t P a r l i a m e n t began, t h e r e have n e v e r b e e n one P a r l i a m e n t when t h e B i s h o p s w e r e not p a r t of i t . ^ 3  Hyde i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e b i s h o p s made up one e s t a t e s o f the Kingdom. to  Having  r e p r e s e n t t h e c l e r g y w o u l d be  no one  of the  i n the  three  Parliament  an i n j u s t i c e , and w o u l d  leave  the Parliament i n a p o s i t i o n to l e g i s l a t e i n areas which d i d not  l i e i n i t s competence.  The  whereby, b e i n g out of the L o r d s , pretend  b i s h o p s w o u l d be " t h e r e was  i n a state  n o b o d y who  t o r e p r e s e n t t h e c l e r g y , and y e t t h e y m u s t be  by t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n . "  3 7  D e r i n g had  no  illusions  could bound  concerning  the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the o p p o s i t i o n to d r i v e the bishops of the Lords. t h e House was  He  b i t t e r l y d e c l a r e d on  20 N o v e m b e r , 1640,  g o i n g beyond t h e bounds o f i t s competency i n  t r y i n g t o e x p e l the bishops. d r i v e was  out  B e l i e v i n g the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  b e i n g waged w i t h a c r u s a d i n g z e a l , he  said:  that  90 "Mr.  S p e a k e r , Wee c a n n o t b r a g o f an u n e r r i n g  infallibility the  is  spirit;  no more t y e d t o y o u r C h a i r e t h a n i t  is  to  Popes."38 Anarchy i n Church Government, u l t i m a t e l y l e a d i n g  a n a r c h y i n t h e e n t i r e n a t i o n , was t h e m o s t d i s t u r b i n g of  the a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  momentum i n 1 6 4 1 .  shoemakers,  brazilers,  into public pulpits,  o f o t h e r members revolution  of the House.  i n the e n t i r e matter  of being part  of  and f e l t m a k e r s  and t h e o c c u r r e n c e  f a s t s being h e l d f o r the p r i v a t e  "that  baser elements  of  some a n d  slanders  nothing but  the bishops  were  In other words,  a g a i n s t the bishops  accused  society  William Plydell  t o outrartgeous  feared  removed from t h e i r o f f i c e s ,  that  the  was e n c o u r a g i n g  the  b o l d n e s s w h i c h had  l e d t o a t t a c k s a g a i n s t t h e K i n g ' s p o s i t i o n as Church.  irregular  v i s i b l e Church of a n t i - C h r i s t which d i d  make t h e K i n g Head o f t h e C h u r c h . " 3 9 Presbyterian attack  of  He c o u l d see  of  a l l climbing  of odd,  flatteries  since  aspect  S i r Edward D e r i n g  v o i c e d h i s c o n c e r n when he m e n t i o n e d t h e i n c r e a s e tailors,  to  head o f  i f the bishops  the  were  b o t h t e m p o r a l and s p i r i t u a l , 40  the barque of the Church would c r a s h  a g a i n s t the  B u t i t was S i r B e n j a m i n R u d y e r d who p a i n t e d t h e p i c t u r e o f an e m a s c u l a t e d  episcopacy.  lands,  and c o l l e g e s  for scholars,  before  he s a i d  were d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r t e m p o r a l o f f i c e s  d i o c e s e s w o u l d be a b o l i s h e d ,  churches  darkest  I n a speech  t h e Commons i n t h e h e i g h t o f t h e J u n e c r i s i s , the bishops  rocks.  and w i t h them  that  if  and cathedral  impoverishing the  clergy  91  and  opening the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  barbaric the  nation.^  concern  was s h e e r  o f c r e a t i n g an u n l e a r n e d  As f a r a s C l a r e n d o n was c o n c e r n e d , much o f  1  f o r the sequestration  greed  and  of e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  and n o t a z e a l f o r r e f o r m . ^ 2  summarized t h e f e a r s o f t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of anarchy.  e p i s c o p a l was t o be p o p u l a r ,  Lord  property Digby  p a r t y when he spoke  Admitting  t h a t t o be a n t i -  he s a i d :  I b e s e e c h y o u , G e n t l e m e n , l e t us n o t be l e d on by P a s s i o n t o p o p u l a r and v u l g a r t e r r o r s ; i t i s natural . . . to the multitude to f l y i n t o e x t r e m e s , t h a t seems e v e r t h e b e s t o f them, t h a t i s most o p p o s i t e t o t h e p r e s e n t object of this hate. 4 3  The  end r e s u l t  assemblies kings  c o u l d be a pope i n e a c h p a r i s h and a g r o u p o f  t h a t might take  and t h e r e b y  i t upon t h e m s e l v e s t o excommunicate  o v e r t h r o w them, b r i n g i n g t h e n a t i o n  to a  state of r u i n . ^ 4  The tactics place, the  pro-episcopal  t o stop  faction  i n t h e House u s e d i t s own  the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l  the parliamentary  drive.  In the f i r s t  l e a d e r s h i p was t a k e n o f f g u a r d by  s t r e n g t h o f t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l i a n members.  first  demonstrated during  parliamentary  leaders  the February c r i s i s .  expected  T h i s was The  a s w i f t commitment o f t h e  London P e t i t i o n ,  or i f that  failed,  However, B a i l l i e  n o t e d on t h e d a y o f t h e b e g i n n i n g  d e b a t e on t h e i s s u e , 8 F e b r u a r y ,  the Ministers'  that  My L o r d D i g b i e and V i s c o u n t F a u l k l a n d w i t h a p r e p a r e d companie a b o u t them l a b o u r e d by p r e p a r e d s p e e c h e s and h o t t d i s p u t e s , t o have t h a t p e t i t i o n c a s t o u t o f t h e House a s c r a v i n g t h e r o o t i n g o f E p i s c o p a c i e a g a i n s t s o many e s t a b l i s h e d lawes. The o t h e r p a r t y was n o t prepared. . . . 5 4  Petition. o f the  92 I t d i d not take rally  the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n long  a n d come b a c k i n f u l l  D i g b y and F a u l k l a n d caused compromise.  s t r e n g t h , b u t the arguments a temporary setback,  The " R o o t and B r a n c h " and t h e M i n i s t e r s '  episcopal  to discuss. strategy  i s s u e i t s e l f w o u l d be l e f t After  s l o w down p r o c e e d i n g s  asking  f o r t h e w h o l e House chief  was t o t r y d e l i b e r a t e l y  by c o n f u s i n g i s s u e s .  when Hyde was p u t i n t h e C h a i r ,  by  study.  t h a t t i m e , i t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h e  of the e p i s c o p a l i a n s  was b e f o r e  of  forcing a  P e i t i t o n s w o u l d be p u t i n t o c o m m i t t e e f o r f u r t h e r The  to  and t h e  Thus, i n  to June,  " R o o t and B r a n c h "  t h e H o u s e , Hyde d i d h i s b e s t t o c o n f u s e  Bill  things  questions  as t h a t when he r e p o r t e d t o t h e House t h e w o r k o f t h e d a y , he d i d f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t two o r t h r e e v o t e s d i r e c t l y c o n t r a r y to each o t h e r w h i c h , i n the heat of t h e i r d e b a t e , t h e y had unawares r u n i n t o . And a f t e r t w e n t y d a y s s p e n t i n t h a t manner t h e y f o u n d themselves v e r y l i t t l e advanced towards a c o n c l u s i o n , and t h a t t h e y m u s t r e v i e w a l l t h a t t h e y h a d d o n e , and t h e K i n g b e i n g r e s o l v e d t o b e g i n h i s j o u r n e y f o r S c o t l a n d , t h e y were f o r c e d t o d i s c o n t i n u e t h e i r b e l o v e d b i l l and l e t i t r e s t ; S i r A r t h u r H a s e l r i g g e d e c l a r i n g i n t h e House t h a t ' h e w o u l d n e v e r h e r e a f t e r p u t a n enemy i n t o t h e c h a i r ' n o r h a d t h e y t h e c o u r a g e t o resume t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e b i l l u n t i l l a f t e r t h e w a r was e n t e r e d i n t o . 4 ^ Delaying tactics  continued i n t o the c r i s i s  i n October.  At  t h e t i m e t h e s e c o n d E x c l u s i o n B i l l was p r e p a r e d ,  F a l k l a n d and  Hyde t r i e d t o p r o v e t o t h e Commons t h a t t h e b i l l  would never  pass the L o r d s . him  When Pym a t t e m p t e d  to get  i n an a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e new b i s h o p s ,  t r i e d to r e t a r d . t h e proceedings they themselves  the Lords to  join  S i r J o h n Hotham  b y r e m i n d i n g t h e House  that  m i g h t be g u i l t y o f a p r a e m u n i r e i n e n d e a v o u r i n g  t o impede t h e c r e a t i o n o f any b i s h o p s  after  the K i n g had  sent  t h e Conge de l i e r .  Yet for , a l l t h e i r  activity,  the p r o -  e p i s c o p a l i a n members o f t h e Commons r e m a i n e d a m i n o r i t y who l a c k e d t h e p o l i t i c a l p r e l a t i c a l momentum.  needed t o d e s t r o y the  Through t h e i r e f f o r t s ,  u n i t e d on t h i s p r o j e c t , r a t h e r t h a n an  skills  irritant  looked desperate  s u d d e n l y came t o l i f e  b e c a u s e o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f two o f t h e o f L i n c o l n and J o s e p h  was i n a s t r a n g e Laud,  not  obstacle.  i n December, 1640, e p i s c o p a l hopes  John W i l l i a m s  anti-  t h e House was  b u t t h e y p r o v e d t o be an  Where t h e f o r t u n e s o f t h e b i s h o p s  February,  group  position.  Hall  in  episcopate,  of Exeter.  Williams  H a v i n g b e e n a m o r t a l enemy o f  he became a h e r o t o t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l f a c t i o n .  They s e c u r e d h i s r e l e a s e from p r i s o n i n November,  1640,  h o p i n g t h a t he w o u l d be an a s s e t t o t h e i r d e s i g n s .  But  W i l l i a m s had d e s i g n s  of h i s own.  C l a r e n d o n , who  h i m , w r o t e t h a t the b i s h o p had a s s u r e d w o u l d do g r e a t from p r i s o n . 4 8 expected  things for his service  a most esteemed p r e l a t e prison,  as w e l l  t h e K i n g t h a t he i n t h e House i f  T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t g r e a t  from h i m , f o r ,  as  as  Oliver  St.  released  t h i n g s were  J o h n r e m a r k e d , he was  for his patient sufferings  f o r h i s endeavours  detested  in  t o check the abuses  of  49 his  fellow bishops.  When i n P a r l i a m e n t , he a g r e e d w i t h many  who c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e e x c e s s e s o f t h e b i s h o p s  and e v e n  l i s t e n e d to the idea of a r e g u l a t e d episcopacy, truth,  but,  in all  i f e v e r t h e r e w e r e a p r e l a t e who was a l o r d i n h e a r t  and s o u l , i t was t h e B i s h o p o f L i n c o l n . how t o s t a y  a l i v e , and he c a r e d l e s s  S i m p l y p u t , he knew  f o r the fate of  the  persons  of h i s brother bishops  h o n o u r due t o h i s o f f i c e .  t h a n he d i d f o r h i m s e l f a n d t h e  Accordingly,  he knew w o u l d p l e a s e t h e o p p o s i t i o n . bishops,  e g g i n g them on t o a b s t a i n  "terrifying for  them w i t h t h e c e n s u r e  making the  ingratiate before attempt  "New C a n o n s " t i l l  themselves  he d i d t h i n g s  He b u l l i e d t h e  from S t r a f f o r d ' s  he p e r s u a d e d  an o r d e r s h o u l d be made f o r t h e i r  t r u e c o l o u r s came t o l i g h t ,  business,  f o r as  inj that  absence."5^  Exclusion B i l l , Baillie  heads  them t o  of the proceedings  drafting of the f i r s t B i s h o p s '  other  t h a t hung o v e r t h e i r  b y d e s i r i n g t o be e x c u s e d  to b l u n t the e f f e c t  which  matter,  In his  concerning the however,  his  noted,  The B i s h o p s , t o s a v e t h e l i f e o f t h e i r . o f f i c e , h a v e i n v e n t e d a t r i c k w h i c h we t r u s t s h a l l i r r i t a t e t h e l o w e r House t h e more a g a i n s t t h e m : t h e y h a v e moved t h e H i g h House t o a p p o i n t a committee f o r r e l i g i o n , t o c o n s i d e r both of i n n o v a t i o n s , a n d w h a t o f t h e o l d i s meet t o be r e f o r m e d , c o n s i s t i n g o f e i g h t o f t e n E a r l e s , as many L o r d s , a n d as many B i s h o p s , w i t h p o w e r t o t h e B i s h o p s o f L i n c o l n e , who s h a l l s i t t i n the chyre of t h a t committee, t o summond . . . some o f t h e s e who a r e r e p u t e d t h e most a b l e and o r t h o d o x d i v i n e s o f t h e l a n d , to w i t t , the P r i m a t e of Armagh, P r i d e a u x , Ward, Prommerick [Brownrigge?] H o l s w o o r t h , F e a t l y , H a c k e t , and W e s t f i e l d ; and o f t h e R e m o n s t r a n t s , T u i s s e , B u r g e s s e , Young . . . Whyt, M a r s h a l l and H i l l , t o be p r e s e n t . a n d g i v e t h e i r a d v i c e . It is e x p e c t e d t h a t t h i s w i l l be a s p u r r t o t h e Commons, not by t h e i r accustomed s l o w n e s s t o s u f f e r t h e i r c o m m i t t e e s t o be p r e v e n t e d , and s o f r u s t r a t e , by t h i s new d e v i s e d o n e . 5 1 W i l l i a m s would not d i s c u s s  the r e g u l a t i n g o f Churgh government  s i n c e he s a i d he was p r e p a r i n g a d r a f t attempt  to avert a c r i s i s  o n l y deepened  w h i c h h a d b e g u n on 21 M a r c h , The  1641,  himself. it.  dragged  The  But  proceedings  on f o r two m o n t h s .  p r e l a t i c a l p a r t y p r o v e d t o be t h e m o s t u n b e n d i n g .  been p r e j u d i c e d a g a i n s t the P r e s b y t e r i a n s  this  Having  from the b e g i n n i n g ,  they feared that  one c o n c e s s i o n  would destroy  the  entire  52 episcopal his  position.  Finally,  on 2 J u l y ,  own s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m :  o n c e on S u n d a y ; except himself  no b i s h o p as  as  for  delivered  should  s h o u l d be j u s t i c e o f t h e  well  f o u r t o be c h o s e n by t h e K i n g , t h e Commons,  every bishop  Dean o f W e s t m i n s t e r ;  have t w e l v e a s s i s t a n t s  Williams  as  every  peace  bishopsshould  t h e d e a n and  chapter,  f o u r by t h e L o r d s ,  j u r i s d i c t i o n and o r d i n a t i o n ;  twelve should present a l i s t  preach  four  finally  these  o f names t o t h e K i n g when a  o c c u r r e d because of the b i s h o p ' s death.  I t was a p o o r  promise  party  at b e s t ,  n e e d l e s s t o s h a v e t h e i r b e a r d s whose h e a d s t h e y i n t e n d e d 53  to  was  at  this  importance  an u t t e r  time that of h i s  his  of Lords. listened  however,  ceased to e x i s t . l a y i n the  fact  for a l i m i t e d episcopacy.  although  t o by t h e P u r i t a n s  the Laudian Reform.  The that  His  a bishop,  because of h i s  opposition  o f d o n n i n g t h e armour o f  lordly prelates after  the  suggestion  c a u s e was h i s p e n .  Despite  i n p r i n t and on t h e  f l o o r o f t h e Commons,  was t h e m o s t o u t s p o k e n  House and  to his  opposition,  all.  Joseph H a l l ' s g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the  he h a d some f o l l o w i n g .  he  he was r e s p e c t e d  H o w e v e r , he w o u l d n o t s u r r e n d e r  and i n s t e a d  he f o u g h t w i t h t h e  that  It  i s s u e of the p o s i t i o n of the bishops i n the At f i r s t ,  dignities,  e x t i r p a t i o n of Bishops."  influence  tactics,  d i d h a v e an a l t e r n a t i v e avoided the  anti-episcopal  comit  designing  "the  vacancy  conceived  cut off,  for  by  episcopal  t h e a t t a c k made upon h i m b o t h  However, o f  i n the L o r d s ,  it  is  evident  a l l the bishops,  and was  i n no  small  he  96) way r e s p o n s i b l e The f i r s t  f o r the Upper House's  Bishops'  Composition of  Exclusion Act "strikes  t h i s House,  I beseech your Lordships n o t done us As  [sitting  did  at  the S t y l e  to consider  i n Parliament]  the L o r d s were the e l d e s t  responsibility  action of  to defend  not "the Misery w i l l  it,  at  1 May,  the  very  of a l l our Laws.  t h a t t h i s Honour but our  at  .  .  is  profession."5^  sons o f the C h u r c h , for i f ,  1641.  t h e y had a  t h a t moment,  they  be t h e C h u r c h ' s ; t h e D i s h o n o u r 55  and B l u r o f t h e A c t , i n f u t u r e A g e s , Indeed,  W i l l i a m too spoke about  will  be  yours."  the i l l e g a l i t y of the  b u t i t was H a l l w h o , l i k e o t h e r p r o - e p i s c o p a l i a n s projected  i n t o the  future,  and u l t i m a t e l y i n t h e  feared  bill  who  anarchy both i n the Church  nation.5^  The m a j o r d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e House o f L o r d s was deep r e s e n t m e n t considered  its  o f t h e Commons' own b u s i n e s s .  most o f t h e u n i t y i s s u e , they repeatedly  interference  w i t h what  it  Pym and h i s p a r t y made t h e  and a l l t h r o u g h t h e c r i s i s  t o l d the Lords  o f May,  "how much t h e House  of  Commons w h i c h knew b e s t t h e t e m p e r a n d e x p e c t a t i o n  of  the  n a t i o n w o u l d r e s e n t t h e i r n o t c o n c u r r i n g w i t h them i n a 57  remedy t h e y j u d g e d  so n e c e s s a r y . "  of  the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p  t h e two H o u s e s ,  would o b s t r u c t But  its  A split  i n the  the thorough r e f o r m a t i o n of the  unity  agreed,  nation.  the m a j o r i t y of the Lords i n v e i g h e d w i t h g r e a t s h a r p n e s s , and b l a m e d t h e House o f Commons f o r p r e s u m i n g t o m e d d l e w i t h an a f f a i r t h a t s o i m m e d i a t e l y c o n c e r n e d them: t h a t i f t h e y m i g h t s e n d up a b i l l t h i s d a y a t o n c e t o t a k e o u t one w h o l e b e n c h f r o m t h e H o u s e , as t h i s w o u l d do t h e B i s h o p s , t h e y m i g h t t o m o r r o w s e n d a n o t h e r t o t a k e away  ,9; 7  the barons, Accordingly, bishops'  o r some o t h e r d e g r e e o f t h e  nobility.5  t h e L o r d s t r i e d t o d e l a y a c t i o n on t h e  affairs,  a d d i n g t o t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f t h e Commons.  M a t t e r s w i t h the K i n g were i m p o s s i b l e .  Charles  h i s C o r o n a t i o n Oath t o defend the Church s e r i o u s l y , W i l l i a m s reminded the L o r d s , his obstinacy.  *  M o r e t o t h e p o i n t , he f e a r e d  defend h i s concept of absolute  away t h e power o f t h e b i s h o p s  for  the l o s s  i n h i s program  rule.  took  as  a n d t h a t was one r e a s o n  so many l o y a l v o t e s w h i c h he n e e d e d  to take  8  of  to  Thus he was  willing  i n the Star  Chamber  and H i g h C o m m i s s i o n s C o u r t , b u t he r e f u s e d  t o do any m o r e .  The b r e a k i n g p o i n t b e t w e e n t h e K i n g and t h e Commons on t h i s matter  came i n O c t o b e r w i t h C h a r l e s '  r e s o l u t i o n con-  c e r n i n g the government o f the Church o f E n g l a n d . was t h a t  i f twenty-six bishops  the present "strive  His  feeling  w e r e t o be s w e p t away by  P a r l i a m e n t , the next t r i e n n i a l P a r l i a m e n t would  t o sweep away f o u r - s c o r e  Temporall L o r d s . " 6 0  Lord  Car r e p o r t e d to the P a r l i a m e n t of S c o t l a n d t h a t the  King  would n o t r e f o r m t h e Church o f E n g l a n d on t h e l i n e s  of  the Church of S c o t l a n d ,  f o r he knew f o r c e r t a i n f a c t  C h a r l e s w o u l d keep t h e d i s c i p l i n e and d o c t r i n e by Queen E l i z a b e t h and h i s is  father:  established  "Nay more, H i s M a j e s t y  r e s o l v e d by t h e G r a c e o f God t o d y e i n t h e  of the  that  maintainance  same."61 G i v e n t h e s e many f r u s t r a t i o n s ,  leadership  the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l  l o s t no t i m e i n r e m e d y i n g t h e m .  was n e c e s s a r y ,  especially  the support  Popular  of London.  support  When t h e  98 L o n d o n P e t i t i o n was p r e m a t u r e l y d e l i v e r e d , i t was none less graciously received. populace,  the P u r i t a n m i n i s t e r s c o n s t a n t l y preached  the bishops, affairs  To k e e p up t h e f e r v o u r o f  and t h e e x c e s s e s o f t h e p r e l a t e s  of Prynne,  the against  i n the  B a s t w i c k and B u r t o n w e r e l o u d l y  c a s t to f u r t h e r malign the e p i s c o p a t e . 6 2  the  broad-  When F a l k l a n d  a n d D i g b y a n d o t h e r p r o - e p i s c o p a l members o f t h e Commons caught the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l l e a d e r s o f f 1641,  g u a r d on 8 F e b r u a r y ,  B a i l l i e wrote to the Presbytery of  Irvine that " a l l  n i g h t o u r p a r t y s o l i c i t e d as b e s t t h e y c o u l d . thousands  of the c i t i z e n s , but i n a very peaceably  w e n t down t o W e s t m i n s t e r H a l l  to countenance  Pennington d i d h i s constituents about  Today,  full  way,  their p e t i t i o n . "  justice.  the v a l i d i t y o f the London P e t i t i o n  Digby's  and i t s  them.  He p r o f e s s e d  petition,  as  episcopalian  humblest  t h a t men o f w o r t h h a d d e l i v e r e d t h e  q u i e t l y and r e s p e c t f u l l y .  stood outside  doubts  P e n n i n g t o n c o u n t e r e d by c o n g r a t u l a t i n g  t h e L o n d o n e r s a n d i d e n t i f y i n g h i s own a i m s w i t h t h e of  i f t o g i v e added  As t h e l a r g e  force to his  crowd  words,  P e n n i n g t o n d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e p e t i t i o n was n o t t o be  rejected  s i m p l y b e c a u s e p o o r , h a r d - w o r k i n g men h a d p r o m o t e d i t . "if  t h e r e w e r e mean mens h a n d s  to i t , yet i f there  h o n e s t men, t h e r e was no r e a s o n b u t t h e s e h a n d s received."64  6 3  manner  o f p r e s e n t a t i o n h a d become t h e p i v o t upon w h i c h t h e r e a c t i o n was s w i n g i n g .  some  For  were  s h o u l d be  He h i m s e l f h a d d e l i v e r e d t h e p e t i t i o n w i t h  people,  and had t h e y r e a l l y t r i e d ,  fifteen  times  t h e y c o u l d have  f i f t e e n thousand s i g n a t u r e s .  the  solicited  In a c t u a l  fact,  91?  P e n n i n g t o n was t e l l i n g thrown o u t ,  he t o o w o u l d h a v e t o be t h r o w n o u t i n t o  arms o f t h e t h o u s a n d s effect,  t h e House t h a t i f t h e p e t i t i o n w e r e  w a i t i n g f o r him i n the y a r d .  t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y c a u s e was wedded t o t h e  the In  popular  cause. The P u r i t a n d i v i n e s i n t h e c i t y w o r k e d h a n d i n g l o v e w i t h the p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n o p p o s i t i o n a l l through February, p r e p a r i n g pamphlets Hall, as  to refute  and t h e a r g u m e n t s  the arguments  of  Bishop  o f t h e members o f t h e H o u s e ,  such  F a l k l a n d and R u d y e r d , whose s p e e c h e s i n f a v o u r o f  episcopacy  had been p u b l i s h e d .  B e s i d e s r e v i v i n g h i s own  w o r k on t h e d a n g e r s o f a l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y , t o I r v i n e on 2 8 F e b r u a r y ,  limited  Baillie  wrote  1641:  T h i n k n o t we l i v e any o f us h e r e t o be i d l e ; M r . H e n d e r s o n has r e a d i e now a s h o r t t r e a t i s e much c a l l e d f o r on o u r C h u r c h d i s c i p l i n e ; M r . G i l l e s p i e has t h e g r o u n d s o f P r e s b y t e r i a l l government w e l l a s s e r t e d ; M r . B l a i r , a p e r t i n e n t answer t o H a l l ' s Remonstrance: all these are r e a d i e f o r the p r e s s e . The e f f o r t s episcopacy efforts  of the p r o - e p i s c o p a l p a r t y to  turned i n t o a fiasco.  save  The m a i n r e a s o n  its  f a i l e d was b e c a u s e i t l a c k e d a p o p u l a r b a s e upon  which to b u i l d .  The c o n t r o v e r s y was d e l i b e r a t e l y c h a n n e l e d  i n t o t h e s t r e a m o f t h e p u b l i c g o o d , n o t i n t o one o f and l a w .  F i e n n e s had s a i d t h a t p e o p l e  s h o u l d be h e a r d  l a w s u p h o l d i n g ' men o f t h e t y p e f o u n d on t h e p r e s e n t b e n c h w e r e t o be h o n o u r e d . The e p i s c o p a l i a n f a c t i o n ' s would suggest i t  precedent  S u c h l a w s s h o u l d be  if  episcopal  changed.  f a i l u r e to r a l l y p u b l i c  l a c k e d the dynamics of a p o l i t i c a l  support party.  10)0) The  episcopalians  d i d n o t have t h e m a c h i n e r y n e c e s s a r y  sustain a public policy;  t h e i r p o l i c y was p r i v a t e ,  to  which  was a n y t h i n g b u t t h e c a s e w i t h t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l f a c t i o n . H a l l ' s book a n d t h e m o d e r a t e e p i s c o p a l s p e e c h e s w e r e t a k e n s e r i o u s l y e n o u g h , b u t t h e y won f e w , i f a n y , c o n v e r t s t o bishops'  side.  Proof of t h i s i s  the pro-episcopalians  i n January,  g i v e n by t h e f a i l u r e o f  i n London t o p r e s e n t  favour of episcopacy.  the  a petition  in  A p e t i t i o n was c i r c u l a t e d l a t e r  1 6 4 1 , b u t i t was l a t e r a b a n d o n e d s i n c e no one fi fi  would s i g n i t .  Continual pressure  p e o p l e b y way o f s e r m o n s . in  t h e May r i o t s ,  as  was e x e r t e d on t h e  Their effectiveness  attested  was  evident  b y W h i t l o c k who i m p u t e d t h e  67  tumults to the p u l p i t s .  For the present,  p o p u l a c e was c o n t r o l l a b l e and h e l p f u l their efforts  against the  National petitions. day,  the  to the o p p o s i t i o n i n  bishops.  s u p p o r t was e n c o u r a g e d b y way o f  t h e e l e v e n r e c e i v e d on 25 J a n u a r y ,  shows t h a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n w e r e  p o p u l a r e x p r e s s i o n t o make i t seem as possible.  least,  the  T h a t so many w e r e d e l i v e r e d t o t h e House on one  s u c h as  definitely  at  Baillie  1641,  controlling  significant  as  c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h i s was so w h e n ,  a b o u t t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n a n d R e m o n s t r a n c e , he . . . i t i s now p o s t i n g t h r o u g h t h e l a n d f o r h a n d s t o make i t s t a r k ; a g a i n s t i t can come b a c k i t w i l l be a f o u r t n i g h t , a t w h i c h tyme a l a r g e R e m o n s t r a n c e , b y some d o z e n o f h a n d s c h o s e n o u t o f t h e w h o l e n u m b e r , w i l l be r e a d i e , a g a i n s t the Bishops corruptions i n d o c t r i n e , d i s c i p l i n e , l i f e , and a l l .  writing observed:  10$  The a b s e n c e o f any s i m i l a r a c t i v i t y on s u c h a g r a n d s c a l e shows t h a t political  the episcopalians  lacked the b a s i s of  In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r question,  p r o v e d t o be a m o r t a l l i a b i l i t y  the t h r e a t  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  T h e s e two p e t i t i o n s  solely  of  were o f v i t a l  The a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l  attributed  weapon i n t h e  importance  to the hatred  Before  substantial  these p e t i t i o n s  Pym's  The p e t i t i o n s  be leaders  were  and h a d p o p u l a r  were r e c e i v e d ,  t a l k of debarring  the  prepared support.  well  the b i s h o p s from the  There i s  destroy-  t h e r e was  for total extirpation,  a modified episcopacy.  but that  to  who w a n t e d t h e p o w e r o f t h e b i s h o p s  Now, one p e t i t i o n c a l l e d for  Remonstrance  the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l  t h e p e o p l e and t h e i r g o d l y s e r v a n t s , clergy,  the  d r i v e now c o u l d n o t  b y w e l l - k n o w n and r e s p e c t e d d i v i n e s  ed.  Parliament  the London P e t i t i o n .  i n t h e House h a d f o r t h e b i s h o p s .  affected  cause.  The M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n and  an e x t e n s i o n  for  lack  o f a "Root and B r a n c h " s o l u t i o n t o  p r e l a t i c a l problem.  program.  this  to the e p i s c o p a l  The p i v o t a l a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  I t was  a  apparatus necessary to e l i c i t p u b l i c support  their position.  was  national  absolutely  no  Lords.  the no  other doubt  the London P u r i t a n c l e r g y wanted n o t h i n g l e s s  a program of e x t i r p a t i o n . difficulties  which the  H o w e v e r , when t h e y saw  the  " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n was  encountering,  a m i l d e r s o l u t i o n was  Pym's p a r t y .  Its  more i m m e d i a t e  the b i s h o p s from the Lords the Church.  than  rather  offered  which  pleased  g o a l was e x p u l s i o n  of  than e x t i r p a t i o n  from  B a i l l i e , who was v e r y c l o s e t o t h e  divines  1022. behind the M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n ,  records  day o f  . for r o o t i n g out  "private humiliation  .  .  t h a t t h e y had a episcopacy."  Because of the b l u n d e r committed o v e r the London P e t i t i o n , t h e M i n i s t e r s h o p e d t h a t no h a s t y  a c t i o n w o u l d be t a k e n on  the M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t o n " f o r they fear house n o t s t r o n g enough t o p u l l Ministers' matter  their  friends  up t h a t o l d o a k . "  P e t i t i o n a n d R e m o n s t r a n c e was n o t a  i n the eyes of the London c l e r g y .  L o n d o n knew i t s  contents,  " t h e Remonstrance i s day o f f a s t i n g more p l a c e s ,  f o r as  i n the The  , y j  private  The p e o p l e  B a i l l i e wrote to  of  Irvine  a p p o i n t e d t o be r e a d on M o n d a y , a  in private,  a l l over the C i t i e  f o r t h a t day i s  a n d many  appointed to consider  the  71  hard question of Episcopacie.  The  parliamentarians  w e r e p l e a s e d w i t h t h e two p e t i t i o n s b e c a u s e t h e y t h e i r p u r p o s e s so w e l l . servedcas a barometer. p o l a r i z e d the House's At  f i r s t distressed  feeling, In  at  served  The "Root- and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n I t q u i c k l y and e f f e c t i v e l y  sentiments  on t h e m a t t e r o f  the s t r e n g t h of the  they q u i c k l y adopted t a c t i c s  episcopacy.  episcopal  t o meet t h e  situation.  F e b r u a r y a c o m p r o m i s e s o l u t i o n was made, b u t when t h e  Lords refused Act,  to countenance  the f i r s t Bishops' E x c l u s i o n  C l a r e n d o n n o t i c e d t h a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n had  a remedy p r e p a r e d :  already  t h e y i n t r o d u c e d a " R o o t and B r a n c h "  to k i n d l e those f i r e s  w h i c h m i g h t warm t h e P e e r s  t h e b i s h o p s m i g h t see  how l i t t l e  .  .  .  bill that  t h e y had g o t t e n by  o b s t r u c t i n g the other b i l l . "  7 2  The s t r a t e g y was  e n o u g h ; i t was a d e l i b e r a t e  act  to f r i g h t e n the  simple pro-episcopal  103 into settling  f o r the m i l d e r of the s o l u t i o n s .  anti-episcopal  parliamentary  of dealing with r e c a l c i t r a n t i n t i m i d a t e d them. of  colleagues.  They s i m p l y attainder  f o u n d t h e i r names p r i n t e d on a  h e a d e d by t h e i n s c r i p t i o n " T h e s e a r e  Betrayers  of t h e i r C o u n t r y . " 7 3  the  Straffordians,  The same m e t h o d was  t o e x p o s e a l l t h o s e members who w o u l d n o t t a k e Protestation.  the  l e a d e r s h a d t h e i r own way  T h o s e who v o t e d a g a i n s t t h e  the E a r l ; f o f S t r a f f o r d  poster,  But  planned  the  B u t l i f e was n o t p l e a s a n t f o r men s u c h  S i r E d w a r d D e r i n g who c h a n g e d h i s p o s i t i o n f r o m t h a t a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l member t o a d e f e n d e r Dering enjoyed being i n the centre horror,  he d i s c o v e r e d  leadership.  of a l i m i t e d  of things  w o u l d say  as  by "There goes S i r Edward D e r i n g ^ " " T h a t i s Dering,"  and " G o d b l e s s y o u r w o r s h i p , " t h e  h i m when he d e c i d e d t h a t conscience.7^  his  good as  f o r D e r i n g , who so d e s i r e d  judgment  his  speech  L o r d Brooke t h a t he h a d was n o t  Nathaniel  as  Fiennes Sir  t h e P r i m a t e o f I r e l a n d had  h i m and he h a d d r u n k h i s p o i s o n . 7 5 all  opposition  populacecreviled  accused him of going over to t h e i r a d v e r s a r i e s . t o l d him t h a t  his  S i r Edward  Thomas Coke d e c l a r e d  i t had been i n the b e g i n n i n g .  an  he p a s s e d them  f o r m e r honour and t h a t h i s c o n s c i e n c e  Haselrigge  to  t h e p o p u l a r c a u s e was a g a i n s t  on 21 J u n e , h i s w o r l d seemed t o c o l l a p s e .  lost  until,  When he d e l i v e r e d a p r o - e p i s c o p a l  c a l l e d h i m an a p o s t a t e .  of  episcopacy.  t h a t he was b e i n g u s e d by t h e  Where o n c e p e o p l e  as  Arthur infected  The s a d d e s t t h i n g o f  t o be p o p u l a r ,  was  the  g i v e n h i m by a s t r a n g e r , who t o l d S i r E d w a r d  io;4 t h a t b y h i s s p e e c h e s he h a d l o s t the c i t y .  7 fi  Hyde was t r e a t e d  the prayers  a little  of thousands  differently.  in  He was  known t o be an o u t s p o k e n o p p o n e n t o f t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l program.  When t h e r e was a s e c o n d r e a d i n g o f t h e  Branch" B i l l bill not  .  .  on 11 J u n e ,  " R o o t and  1641, " t h e y who w i s h e d w e l l  to  . r e s o l v e d t o p u t M r . Hyde i n t o t h e c h a i r , t h a t he m i g h t  g i y e them t r o u b l e b y f r e q u e n t s p e a k i n g , 77  and so t o o much  obstruct  the e x p e d i t i n g the b i l l . "  the b i l l  demanded t h a t t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l J o h n Crew be  put i n the C h a i r , the  T h o s e who w e r e  b u t Hyde was f i n a l l y  commanded t o  against  take  Chair. One  of  the  fear.  o f P y m ' s most s u c c e s s f u l  tactics  was t h e  use  When t h i n g s w o u l d s l a c k e n i n t h e H o u s e , he w o u l d  conveniently uncover p l o t s t o k e e p t h e House a t  a g a i n s t the P a r l i a m e n t i n order  fever p i t c h .  T h i s was most  effective  s i n c e t h e House was g i v e n " h e a t s a n d c o l d s by a p p l y i n g p a r t s of the  [plots]  t o them u p o n e m e r g e n t  I n May i t was t h e Army P l o t ; The  i n November t h e I r i s h  p o p i s h L o r d s and b i s h o p s w e r e a l w a y s  these proceedings.  occasions.  Thus s k i l l f u l  .  .  ."  Plot.  implicated i n  management  of  events,  t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e d e v o t e d a s s i s t a n c e o f c l e v e r men, h e l p e d k e e p t h e House a v e h i c l e o f a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l Concerning the bishops, tactics. committees  propaganda.  t h e Commons t r i e d  terror  W i t h so many p e t i t i o n s r e c e i v e d a g a i n s t t h e m , a n d set  up t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e m a t t e r s ,  one w o u l d  7 a  105 have ttiought impeachment p r o c e e d i n g s more s w i f t l y  than they d i d .  were accused  of abusing t h e i r  December, had  1640,  One b y one v a r i o u s office.  begun t o i n v e s t i g a t e  bishops  By t h e e n d o f  Laud had been i m p e a c h e d , and the a f f a i r s  P i e r c e o f B a t h and W S l l s , of  w o u l d h a v e moved  proceedings  of Juxon of London,  Manwaring of S t .  SjPotter  David1  C a r l i s l e , B r i d g e m a n o f C h e s t e r a n d Wren o f E l y .  But  t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n was p u r p o s e l y d e l a y i n g a n y drastic [he]  a c t i o n a f f e c t i n g Laud l e s t  were e x e c u t e ,  hopeful irritant  " g r i t men,  w o u l d be f r e e d o f t h e i r  of t h e i r place, Prince,  other  and d e s i r e o u s  fear  if  and  become  more t o p a c i f y  and comply w i t h h i s d e s y r e  the  i n k e e p i n g up  79  Bishops.  . . . "  However, the l e a d e r s h i p o f the  House  wanted t o c a p i t a l i z e on the f e a r s o f t h e p r o - p r e l a t i c a l faction "of  i n t h e Commons, s o t h a t t h e  purpose  l o n g as  keeps  [he]  [ t h i s man]  anti-episcopalians'-  a l i v e t o make t h e i r  l i v e s , a band t o k n i t t  feare,  a l l together  for  so the  80 common g o o d . " To  sustain  t h e momentum, a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l s p e e c h e s  became more p e r s o n a l and v i t r i o l i c the c r i s i s  of May, 1641,  as  1641 w e n t o n .  L o r d S a y e and S e l e a n s w e r e d  W i l l i a m s ' r e a s o n s f o r t h r o w i n g o u t t h e b i l l by The Q u e s t i o n t h a t w i l l l i e b e f o r e y o u r Lordships i n passing of t h i s B i l l , i s n o t , W h e t h e r E p i s c o p a c y (I mean t h i s H i e r a r c h i c a l Episcopacy which the W o r l d now h o l d s f o r t h t o us) s h a l l be t a k e n away R o o t a n d B r a n c h ; b u t w h e t h e r t h o s e e x u b e r a n t and s u p e r f l u o u s B r a n c h e s , w h i c h d r a w away t h e Sap f r o m t h e T r e e , and d i v e r t i t f r o m t h e r i g h t  During Bishop  saying:  10§ a n d p r o p e r Use w h e r e b y i t becomes u n f r u i t f u l , s h a l l be c u t o f f , as t h e y u s e t o p l u c k up Suckers from the Root. The o b j e c t i o n t h a t barons  i f the bishops  left  the L o r d s ,  the  a n d e a r l s w o u l d t h e n be r e m o v e d , S a y e and S e l e  t h o u g h t were p r e p o s t e r o u s ,  since  t h e n o b i l i t y had  the  h o n o u r i n v e s t e d i n t h e i r b l o o d and h e r e d i t y ; o n c e a K i n g had g r a n t e d  it,  bishops  by a b a r o n y w h i c h was d e p e n d e n t  sat  i t c o u l d n o t be t a k e n a w a y .  But  the  on an  office. 82  If  t h e o f f i c e were t a k e n away,  they could not  I n t h e Commons, t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  sit.  speeches t h r o u g h -  o u t t h e summer t e n d e d t o be o f a " R o o t and B r a n c h " S i r H e n r y Vane e x p r e s s e d t h e t o the e p i s c o p a l rotten: of  Lords  by t h e f r u i t .  was  The u n h a p p y c o n d i t i o n  s t a t e was due t o t h e b i s h o p s '  " b e i n g t h e r e as1sbnmany  Politike,  objections  q u e s t i o n by s a y i n g t h e w h o l e t r e e  one c o u l d t e l l  the c i v i l  " R o o t and B r a n c h "  nature.  obstructions,  votes i n the i n o u r body  t o a l l good arid w h o l e s o m e Lawes t e n d i n g  to  83 salvation."  D i v i n e P r o v i d e n c e w o u l d be c h e c k e d  they d i d not destroy  episcopalian  government,  if  f o r God c a l l e d  t h e P a r l i a m e n t f o r p r e c i s e l y t h a t w o r k ; r o o t i n g them up was t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e  course.  After  impeachment a g a i n s t t h i r t e e n b i s h o p s the Lords i n August, i n the L o r d s , accused  1641,  of  were p r e s e n t e d  the B i s h o p s were r u d e l y  to treated  and c o u l d n e v e r be s u r e w h a t t h e y w o u l d be  of next.  W o r s t o f a l l , t h e y h a d so few  T h i s was q u i t e c l e a r t o them i n J u n e . pro-episcopal  the a r t i c l e s  friends.  V e r y few o f  members o f t h e Commons c o u l d s t a n d  the  the  105! tedious  d e b a t e s on t h e  " R o o t and B r a n c h " i s s u e ,  many o f t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l i a n i m p o r t a n t v o t e s were t a k e n , "that  and t h a t  they that  often  members w o u l d be a b s e n t when for,  they that hated bishops  devil,  and  as  Lord Falkland noted,  hated  them w o r s e  than  the  l o v e d them d i d n o t l o v e them  so  84  well  as  their dinner."  episcopal  The e v i d e n c e  questions  t h e y c o u l d n o t answer  raised  a g a i n s t them.  why t h e o p p o s i t i o n s u c c e e d e d : w o r k e d as  the hundreds  F a l k l a n d gave t h e  government  u n i t y or cohesive  themselves,  b a s e and u n i t y w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s ,  the  Lacking a  the e f f o r t s  c o u l d n o t s t o p t h e deep apathy  to unseat  legal  reason  a fear  and  hopes episcopal  so much so t h a t  p o w e r was e v i d e n t .  g r i p p e d most o f t h e b i s h o p s ,  refuted of  o f E n g l a n d , w h i l e t h o s e who f a v o u r e d  represented  anti-  t h e y t r i e d much h a r d e r  a united front claiming to represent  people  and H a l l  the  c l a i m s o f p r e l a t i c a l t y r a n n y c o u l d n o t be  by two b i s h o p s ;  of,the  supporting  no  popular of  and f e a r  Williams which  k e p t a l i v e by new moves  them.  The m a j o r means u s e d b y t h e Commons t o t h w a r t L o r d s was q u e s t i o n i n g of  the n a t i o n , since  t h e i r sense of  t h e y were n o t c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h  L o w e r House i n P a r l i a m e n t . helped considerably  l o y a l t y to the  The a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l  by c o n s t a n t  observations  by  [reason of]  t h e most p a r t  "that  the  they  King's  t h e number o f t h e b i s h o p s ,  unanimously concurred a g a i n s t i t ,  interests  Lords  seldom c a r r y a n y t h i n g which d i r e c t l y opposed the interest  the  who  for'  and opposed  10'8 many o f t h e i r o t h e r d e s i g n s . " 8 5 lords  and t h e b i s h o p s  Pym b e l i e v e d t h a t  w e r e an o b s t r u c t i o n t o h i s  the  popish  program.  To name them w o u l d be no b r e a c h o f p r i v i l e g e s i n c e  the  Commons o f t e n c o m p l a i n e d " o f  lords  miscarrages. regard  tool  to the removal of t h a t  Thus,  special  caste which continued  " R o o t a n d B r a n c h " became a most  and W i l l i a m s r a i l i n g  E x c l u s i o n A c t i n the L o r d s ,  effective  were  against the f i r s t  speech w i t h a n t i - e p i s c o p a l  Branch" b i l l Haselrigge  a copy o f a b i l l  the baronet  urgent  sentiments.  i t s h o u l d goe  that I should present  from L i n c o l n s h i r e .  and  Arthur  b y S i r H e n r y Vane  it."  moment, S i r E d w a r d A i s c o u g h was r e a d i n g an petition  The  f r o m K e n t by g i v i n g h i m  Dering l a t e r wrote that  " t o l d me hee was r e s o l v e d t h a t earnestly  being  b u t one who c o u l d  so on 21 May S i r  brought to Haselrigge  and O l i v e r C r o m w e l l .  D e r i n g had  s u c h a man r e a d i n g a " R o o t  was ' t o o much t o l o s e ,  flattered  Bishops'  t h e n i n the Long P a r l i a m e n t ,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l advantage of  as  t h e p e r s o n o f t h e v a i n and  a man who f a v o u r e d a l i m i t e d e p i s c o p a c y , his  far  concerned.  n e u t r a l S i r c E d w a r d D e r i n g became most u s e f u l . h a d a good r e c o r d u n t i l  reforma-  t h i n g s h i s way so  t h e t e m p o r a l employments o f the b i s h o p s  pepper  with  h i s program of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  t o p r e s s u r e t h e L o r d s t o see  With H a l l  and  Pym m o s t c e r t a i n l y w a n t e d u n i t y  t h e i r p l o t to destroy tion.  l o r d s b e i n g away,  Haselrigge i n , but  8 7  At  that  anti-episcopal  D e r i n g , c a u g h t up w i t h  e m o t i o n o f t h e moment, r e a d t h e r a d i c a l a c t  was  and  the  regretted  109 it  f o r the r e s t  c l e a r enough.  of h i s l i f e .  The i m p o r t t o t h e L o r d s was  8 8  M o s t o f them w e r e n o t P u r i t a n ,  e p i s c o p a c y was b e t t e r t h a n n o n e . had  Even though t h i s  limited bill  t r o u b l e i n t h e Commons, i t w o u l d be r e s u r r e c t e d  when n e e d e d .  was b r o u g h t up a g a i n .  conferences effort  a n d on 11 J u n e ,  Dering's  So t h e b a t t e r i n g c o n t i n u e d ;  w i t h t h e L o r d s w e r e a l w a y s a s k e d f o r i n an  to help the Peers  to their  the  should q u i t the Lords.  T h i s r e p l y was p r i n t e d b y 10 J u n e , bill  again  W i l l i a m s wrote a pamphlet r e p l y i n g to  Commons' r e a s o n s why t h e b i s h o p s  and  and a  impeachments.  t o s p e e d up t h e b i s h o p s ' I t was h o p e d t h a t ,  e x h a u s t i o n t h e y w o u l d see  replies  through  fear  i n l i m i t e d episcopacy a  better  p r o p o s i t i o n t h a n p u t t i n g t h e i r House i n d a n g e r by c o n s t a n t l y t h w a r t i n g the popular leaders  o f t h e Commons.  Ultimately,  t h e p r e s s u r e s e x e r t e d on t h e L o r d s b y t h e L o w e r House p r e p a r e d them t o a c c e p t  a p r o p o s i t i o n o f an  which l a c k e d temporal power, because, of  t h e Commons i t s e l f ,  episcopacy  l i k e many members  t h e y were persuaded  t h a t t h e r e were  many g o o d r e a s o n s t o s u p p o r t an e x c l u s i o n p o l i c y . t h e s e r e a s o n s were t h e g r e a t against  forces  and t h e p r e s e n c e  leave English s o i l .  t a k e n away.  exclusion b i l l  y  seeking to destroy  of the Scots,  who r e f u s e d  The S c o t s w o u l d n e v e r a g r e e t o a  p e a c e b e t w e e n t h e two n a t i o n s u n l e s s fully  throughout the n a t i o n  the government o f the C h u r c h ,  absolutely,  Among  the bishops  So t h e a r g u m e n t r a n , t h a t i f  were an  were p a s s e d  a g r e a t e r number i n b o t h H o u s e s w o u l d be so w e l l s a t i s f i e d t h a t the v i o l e n t e r p a r t y would  it  to true  no: n e v e r be a b l e t o p r o s e c u t e t h e i r d e s i r e s . And t h i s r e a s o n d i d p r e v a i l o v e r many men o f e x c e l l e n t judgements and u n q u e s t i o n a b l e a f f e c t i o n s , who d i d i n t r u t h , a t t h a t t i m e b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p a s s i n g t h i s a c t was t h e o n l y e x p e d i e n t t o preserve the Church. The n e c e s s a r y  tactics  n e e d e d t o move t h e K i n g w e r e  g o i n g t o be o f a v e r y d e l i c a t e n a t u r e . difficult  since,  as B a i l l i e  e p i s c o p a c i e w h i c h we s t r o v e apple of h i s e y e . " 9 l  The m a t t e r w o u l d be  n o t e d , " t h e k e e p i n g up o f t o have down, i s  the  verie  The w o r k was d i f f i c u l t  for  the  o p p o s i t i o n b e c a u s e b y t h a t t i m e i t was q u i t e e v i d e n t  that  t h e K i n g n e e d e d c o n s t a n t b a d g e r i n g , b e c a u s e on m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g e p i s c o p a c y he w o u l d a l w a y s y i e l d w i t h w a i t i n g f o r a t i m e when he m i g h t r e v e r s e pressure  were removed.  time of S t r a f f o r d s ' original  the t r e n d i f  When he was i n t h e c i t y ,  parliamentary pressure  reluctance,. the  mobs a n d  c o u l d move h i m , as was e v i d e n t a t  trial  and e x e c u t i o n .  the  The K i n g ' s  r e s o l v e not t o tamper w i t h the c o n s t i t u t i o n o f  t h e C h u r c h was c o m p r o m i s e d somewhat b y h i s c o n s e n t i n J u l y to a b o l i s h the b i s h o p s '  p o w e r as  judges.  H o w e v e r , away  f r o m L o n d o n he showed a d i f f e r e n t s p i r i t a n d c o u r a g e ,  as  s e e n by h i s r e s o l v e when i n S c o t l a n d t o a p p o i n t new b i s h o p s . The new b i s h o p s w e r e " a l l o f g r e a t e m i n e n c y i n t h e frequent preachers,  Church,  a n d n o t a man t o whom t h e f a u l t s  of  t h e n g o v e r n i n g c l e r g y w e r e i m p u t e d , o r a g a i n s t whom t h e l e a s t o b j e c t i o n c o u l d be m a d e . " soften  Thus t h e K i n g t r i e d  the blow by a p p o i n t i n g p o p u l a r , moderate  The Commons was s t i l l  annoyed.  to  clerics.  D ' E w e s s p o k e on t h e  matter  .111 and s a i d t h a t b o t h Houses  s h o u l d send a j o i n t p e t i t i o n t o  the King i n Scotland asking h i s Majesty to stay proceedings is  on t h i s m a t t e r  " f o r i f at  created  future  t h i s t i m e when t h e r e  a g e n e r a l l reformation expected before  amended i n C h u r c h m a t t e r s ,  any  anie thing  t h e s e new B i s h o p p s  bee  s h a l l be  I know i n t o w h a t d e s p e r a t i o n p e o p l e may be d r a w e n 93  a n d w h a t t u m u l t s may a r i s e . "  B u t t h e K i n g was n o t i n  a p l a c e where the P a r l i a m e n t ' s t u m u l t s c o u l d a f f e c t  him  as  that  t h e y had b e f o r e .  N o r w e r e t u m u l t s any i n s u r a n c e  t h e K i n g w o u l d e v e r a c c e d e t o t h e demands made u p o n h i m t h a t he be r i d o f t h e h a t e d b i s h o p s .  The o n l y s o l u t i o n  was t o i n f o r m t h e K i n g i n t h e s t r o n g e s t  language  possible,  t h a t i f h i s p o l i c i e s w e r e t o c o n t i n u e , he w o u l d l o s e obedience  o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t and t h e p e o p l e .  treasonable  left  Such a  the threat,  i n n a t u r e , h a d t o be c a r e f u l l y p r e p a r e d ,  and t h e  a t t e m p t was made i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e G r a n d R e m o n s t r a n c e . The G r a n d R e m o n s t r a n c e was a n a c t o f t h e House o f Commons.  The L o r d s w o u l d h a v e o p p o s e d  had t o pursue its  t h e m a t t e r on i t s  own.  it,  so t h e Commons  The d e b a t e s c o n c e r n i n g  c o n t e n t t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h e November r e b e l l i o n i n  Ireland.  The document was s u p p o s e d  eyes a l o n e .  t o be f o r t h e  Fears of C a t h o l i c p l o t s  a g a i n s t the P a r l i a m e n t  a b o u n d e d a n d w e r e k e p t a l i v e by t h e o p p o s i t i o n The p r e s e n t  King's  leadership.  p o l i c y o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d was t o r e t u r n  t o Rome, t h e y c l a i m e d , a n d t h u s t h e e n t i r e n a t i o n was being put i n t o a s t a t e of misery. ills  i t w o u l d be b e s t t o p u r g e or  ment.  To remedy t h e s e m a n i f o l d  the bishops  from the Govern-  A.  Debate  reached i t s  c l i m a x on 22 November when t h e  112 episcopalians  made an e f f o r t  spoke of the B i s h o p s ' the n a r r a t i v e it  part  Exclusion B i l l .  of the Remonstrance  f o o l i s h to resurrect  part  of Charles'  dealt  t o expunge the c l a u s e  so many t h i n g s  reign.,  to the statement that  government time,  was t r u e ,  thought  o f t h e L o r d s and s a i d  objected  i n t o the  Church,  t o change  the  the  the people.  By t h i s  delaying  P l a y i n g on f e a r s he knew w o u l d be f e l t by a l l ,  C o u r t was i n f e s t e d and t h e b i s h o p s  being near  the K i n g because  w i t h the popish p a r t y .  were moving t h e K i n g ,  P a r l i a m e n t was s u f f e r i n g  as  a result,  King.  I n the  analysis,  people's hearts to us, used."95  m i g h t have been i m a g i n e d . that  published.  how we h a v e  the  been  was p u t t o v o t e  hours,  a n d was  showing a deeper s p l i t  than  H o w e v e r , Hampden i m m e d i a t e l y  the Remonstrance  Hyde was  influenced  h a d gone on f o r t w e l v e  and a t m i d n i g h t t h e Remonstrance 159 v o t e s t o 1 4 8 ,  the  the d e c l a r a t i o n would " b i n d  when t h e y see  These p r o c e e d i n g s  lords  a n d he w o n d e r e d  s h o u l d n o t be t h e P a r l i a m e n t t h a t final  Popish  the  Pym c l a i m e d , a n d  why i t  proposed  measures  Dering  i n no mood f o r t h e i r  he a l l u d e d t o p o p i s h p l o t s  carried,  early  i l l e g a l without  that  of the Church would offend  but  done i n t h e  i d o l a t r y had c r e p t  h o w e v e r , Pym was  tactics.  that  were t o o h a r s h .  and C u l p e p p e r c a l l e d t h e Remonstrance concurrence  Hyde a f f i r m e d  F a l k l a n d thought the  out to the bishops  which  furious  at  s h o u l d be p r i n t e d and this  seeming breach o f  s a y i n g t h e Commons h a d no r i g h t t o p u b l i s h any d e b a t e s determinations  o f t h e House w h i c h w e r e n o t f i r s t  to the Peers.  The R e m o n s t r a n c e  was  faith, or  transmitted  s u p p o s e d t o be  a  113 v i n d i c a t i o n of the labours was t o b e u u s e d  as  of the House;  a means t o e x c i t e  instead,  the p e o p l e .  now i t If  the  m o t i o n w e r e c a r r i e d , he demanded t h e l i b e r t y t o e n t e r  his  96  protestation. I n t h e e n d , t h e K i n g and t h e n a t i o n r e a d i n t h e R e m o n s t r a n c e a hope t h a t h i s M a j e s t y w o u l d be . . . g r a c i o u s l y pleased to concur w i t h the humble d e s i r e s o f y o u r p e o p l e i n a p a r l i a m e n t a r y way . . . f o r d e p r i v i n g • t h e B i s h o p s o f t h e i r v o t e s i n P a r l i a m e n t , and a b r i d g i n g t h e i r immoderate power u s u r p e d o v e r t h e c l e r g y and o t h e r y o u r good s u b j e c t s , w h i c h t h e y h a v e p e r n i c i o u s l y abused t o the h a z a r d o f r e l i g i o n and g r e a t p r e j u d i c e and o p p r e s s i o n t o t h e laws o f t h e Kingdom and j u s t l i b e r t y o f y o u r p e o p l e . . . . 9 7 A t t h e e n d o f November t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l leaders  parliamentary  saw a l l o f t h e i r c a r e f u l w o r k i n a s t a t e o f  The p e o p l e  collapse.  o f London r e c e i v e d the K i n g back w i t h g r e a t  The House was b i t t e r l y absolutely necessary  d i v i d e d over the matter of  course  joy.  the  o f a n a t i o n a l Remonstrance^  representing national grievances,  presented  i n t h e name o f  t h e House o f Commons r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e n a t i o n .  This  Remonstrance needed the s u p p o r t o f t h e n a t i o n i f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m w e r e t o be r e a l i z e d . i n the L o r d s .  G o d f r e y Goodman, p l e a d e d n o t g u i l t y  forma t o the charges a g a i n s t h i m , w h i l e the  o t h e r impeached b i s h o p s  Convocation voted f o r the benevolence to the K i n g . o u t o f an assembly  twelve  answered w i t h a " p l e a and d e m u r r e r " .  They answered t h a t t h e m a j o r p a r t o f t h e c l e r g y a t  Convocation,  sitting  On 12-^November, t h e Roman C a t h o l i c A n g l i c a n  Bishop of Gloucester, modo e t  The b i s h o p s w e r e s t i l l  the Twelve  o f one h u n d r e d s i x t y members o f  the  a l l w i t h equal v o i c e , could not c a r r y  the  114 motion.  The b i s h o p s  a s k e d why a l l who v o t e d i n t h e  C o n v o c a t i o n w e r e n o t i m p e a c h e d as w e l l . had  The Commons  n o t g i v e n any r e a l e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e b i s h o p s  had b r o k e n  t h e l a w , t h a t t h e y had been w o r k i n g c o n t r a r y t o t h e K i n g ' s prerogative, subject,  t h a t t h e y had endangered  the l i b e r t y of  o r t h a t t h e y were e n c o u r i n g s e d i t i o n .  the  They  a s k e d w h a t l a w t h e y h a d b r o k e n b y t h e b e n e v o l e n c e and w h a t c o n s t i t u t i o n h a d b e e n b r o k e n b y t h e , "New C a n o n s " .  Since  t h e s e a c t s had n e v e r been p r o m u l g a t e d , the b i s h o p s  wondered  what p e o p l e had been i n j u r e d . abounded i n t h e a r t i c l e s  Insufficiencies  of impeachment.98  and i m p e r f e c t i o n s  I t was  t h a t t h e e p i s c o p a t e h a d no c o n c e p t o f t h e b e t t e r  evident  intentions  of  the House, nor had the L o r d s ,  If  r e f o r m h a d t o come, i t w o u l d h a v e t o be done b y a  revolution. was a t  last  pressure,  I n December,  and w h a t m i s t a k e s  succeed.  King.  the P a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n  s e a s o n e d e n o u g h t o know how b e s t t o  Where p e r s u a s i o n would  1641,  l e a s t of a l l the  exert  o f t h e p a s t h a d t o be  had f a i l e d , b r u t e  force,  i t was  avoided. hoped,  CHAPTER V CONCLUSION By 1 December i t seemed t o t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y prelatical greatly. support  anti-  o p p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e i r momentum h a d d e c r e a s e d The m o s t s e r i o u s  fear  o f the London p o p u l a c e .  from S c o t l a n d amidst November, 1641.  was t h a t t h e y h a d l o s t  K i n g C h a r l e s had r e t u r n e d  t h e u n i v e r s a l j o y o f t h e c i t y o n 25  The L o r d M a y o r , A l d e r m e n , R e c o r d e r  and  C i t y C o u n c i l h a d a l l gone o u t t o meet t h e K i n g " w i t h r i n g i n g at  appeared  of  l o v e and l o y a l t y b u t t h e p e o p l e  by t h e i r s h o u t s  and a c c l a m a t i o n s .  r e a c t i o n of the l e a d e r s h i p one,  Bells  121 p a r i s h C h u r c h e s , w h e r e t h e r e w e r e no  i n expressions  f o r as  failings  as  .  The  o f t h e Commons was n o t a h a p p y  Clarendon noted,  t h e welcome much t r o u b l e d  them " a n d t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t g i v e n t o h i m by t h e C i t y London,  i n which t h e i r e n t i r e confidence was,  t h e m , a n d made them a p p r e h e n d t h e i r f r i e n d s so p o w e r f u l . a s  the  they e x p e c t e d . " 2  much  of dejected  t h e r e were  The Commons i t s e l f  s e r i o u s l y d i v i d e d over the matter of the Grand  not  was  Remonstrance.  The " p l e a a n d d e m u r r e r " o f t h e t h i r t e e n b i s h o p s  impeached  for the  against  their  "New C a n o n s " h a l t e d f u r t h e r p r o c e e d i n g s  order,  episcopal  and t h e L o r d s w e r e most u n c o o p e r a t i v e  issue.  c e r t a i n boldness h i m by t h e c i t y . devised,  M o s t o f a l l , t h e K i n g was e x h i b i t i n g a as  a result  of the r e c e p t i o n given  C l e a r l y t h e n , new t a c t i c s  and q u i c k l y ,  anti-prelatical  on t h e  had t o  i f the r e f o r m i n g program o f  f a c t i o n was t o  succeed.  to be  the  11.6  By 1 J a n u a r y , changed.  1642,  t h e s i t u a t i o n had  drastically  The " R o o t a n d B r a n c h " i s s u e h a d b e e n s e t  f o r the time b e i n g . . to the i l l w i l l Popular fear  The I r i s h r e b e l l i o n was  of the p o p i s h l o r d s  and t h e  aside  attributed bishops.  was p l a y e d u p o n , a n d t h e d e v a s t a t i n g  December h a d t h e i r p a r t  riots  i n weakening the e p i s c o p a l  structure.  Londoners  again brought t h e i r p e t i t i o n s  Commons.  E x t i r p a t i o n was no l o n g e r t h e k e y i s s u e ;  much t i m e h a d b e e n w a s t e d belief  was t h a t  on t h a t .  t o t h e House  Instead,  the  of  of  too  popular  the best s o l u t i o n to the n a t i o n ' s  ills  was  t h e s w i f t r e m o v a l o f t h e e p i s c o p a t e and t h e Roman C a t h o l i c p e e r s f r o m t h e House o f L o r d s .  The p a n i c o v e r  Ireland,  and t h e r i o t o u s mood o f L o n d o n , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e  absence  o f many members  the  anti-episcopal destroy  f o r the Christmas  power.  c o m m i t t e d no d o u b t  split  1641,  from the sheer f r i g h t o f the mob's  u n n e r v e d t h e e n t i r e e p i s c o p a t e and  who h a d s i g n e d  The L o r d s '  the P r o t e s t a t i o n  of  30  1642,  the  December,  c o m m i t t e d an  e v e n more s e r i o u s b l u n d e r t h a n h a d t h o s e b i s h o p s . 4,  attack  severely  action against  h a d so s h o c k e d t h e K i n g t h a t C h a r l e s  January  to  The A r c h b i s h o p o f Y p r k ' s b l u n d e r ,  t h e i r common f r o n t .  bishops  gave  f a c t i o n an a d v a n t a g e w h i c h t h e y u s e d  episcopal  on h i s p e r s o n ,  holidays,  On  he i n v a d e d t h e House o f Commons b e c a u s e  he f e l t h i s own p o s i t i o n was i n By 15 F e b r u a r y , seats i n the Lords.  1642,  jeopardy.  the ^bishops  Popular sentiment  had l o s t  their  a g a i n s t the King  was  117 sealed John,  by h i s Strode  i l l - f a t e d attempt and H a s e l r i g g e ,  a n d became p o p u l a r h e r o e s . left  the c i t y ,  Queen.  to arrest  a l l o f whom e s c a p e d On 11 J a n u a r y ,  f e a r i n g f o r h i s own s a f e t y  1642,  t h e b i s h o p s moved s w i f t l y .  the  King  and t h a t o f  before.  as  t h e y had a y e a r  i m p e a c h e d i n December w e r e r e f u s e d  charges of treason  against  from the  Pym u s e d t h e s e t o t h e g r e a t e s t a d v a n t a g e .  bishops  the they  Proceedings  Group p e t i t i o n s  c o u n t i e s poured i n t o London a g a i n ,  St.  arrest  When t h e f i v e members r e t u r n e d t o t h e H o u s e ,  were j o y o u s l y welcomed by t h e p o p u l a c e .  their  Pym, H o l l i s ,  on 17 J a n u a r y .  Pym p r e p a r e d h i s c a s e a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s  bail  The  and  answered  In the meantime, and b r o u g h t  the  e v i d e n c e o f n a t i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t t o t h e L o r d s oh 25 January.  The U p p e r H o u s e , w e a r y o f a l l t h e a b u s e i t  receiving, Bill  finally  on 5 F e b r u a r y ,  passed the second B i s h o p s ' E x c l u s i o n 1642.  A l l e l s e rested w i t h the  who, under t h e s e v e r e s t p r e s s u r e , bill.  was  The i m p o s s i b l e o f  finally  King  consented to  1 D e c e m b e r , " 1 6 4 1 , was  the  made  possible. I t was q u i t e e v i d e n t t h a t Pym h a d l e a r n e d f r o m p a s t mistakes. to bear filtered  His passion  f r u i t . ' F e a r was a p o t e n t t a c t i c a n d , as  news  i n t o the c i t y c o n c e r n i n g I r i s h a t t r o c i t i e s  the P r o t e s t a n t s the f u l l  f o r u n i t y o f p u r p o s e was b e g i n n i n g  details  canonize t h i s  there,  t h e L o n d o n c i t i z e n r y was  of the r e b e l l i o n ' s progress.  fear,  against  given As i f  to  t h e G r a n d R e m o n s t r a n c e was p r i n t e d f o r  p u b l i c c o n s u m p t i o n on 15 D e c e m b e r ,  1 6 4 1 , when i t  was  118 b e c o m i n g c l e a r t h a t t h e K i n g w o u l d n o t be moved on t h e episcopal  issue.  S u m m a r i z i n g e v e r y c o m p l a i n t made  against episcopal  government d u r i n g the y e a r ,  Remonstrance p r e s e n t e d  to the people  the Grand  a new way t o v i e w  abominable tyranny of the e p i s c o p a t e .  The b i s h o p s  and  t h e p o p i s h l o r d s i n t h e U p p e r House h a d d e l a y e d t h e t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n t s and h i n d e r e d t h e p r o g r e s s o f Bils of  p a s s e d i n t h e Commons h o u s e ,  the  prosecu-  "good  concerning the reformation  s u n d r y g r e a t a b u s e s and c o r r u p t i o n s b o t h i n C h u r c h and 4  State."  H a v i n g l a b o u r e d t o s e d u c e a n d c o r r u p t some o f  t h e members o f t h e House o f Commons a n d h o p i n g t h a t  the  members m i g h t s a b o t a g e t h e l i b e r t y o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t , t h e y e v e n t r i e d t o w i n t h e K i n g ' s army o v e r t o t h e i r designs.  T h e i r p l a n was s i m p l e e n o u g h :  episcopal votes  and f u n c t i o n s  the Parliament to o r d e r , in  t o k e e p up t h e  " a n d by f o r c e t o c o m p e l l  limit  and d i s p o s e t h e i r  s u c h manner as m i g h t b e s t c o n c u r w i t h t h e  o f t h i s dangerous  and p o t e n t  faction."5  proceedings  intentions  They c o u l d n o t  make t h e S c o t s army n e u t r a l , so i t was t h e hope o f bishops  and t h e r e c u s a n t  to j o i n i n t h e i r plans and t o d e s t r o y  the  p e e r s t o e n t i c e t h e E n g l i s h army  to subvert the P r o t e s t a n t  the Government.  religion  T h e i r p l o t s were e v e r y w h e r e ,  a n d I r e l a n d was t h e b e s t e x a m p l e .  The b i s h o p s  lied  t h e a n a r c h y t o come i n C h u r c h and S t a t e i f t h e i r p o w e r w e r e t a k e n away;  wicked  about  temporal  the "golden r e i n s d i s c i p l i n e and.  g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e C h u r c h " w o u l d n o t be f o r s a k e n .  But i n  119 t h e w o r k o f r e f o r m a t i o n t h e L o w e r House was a l w a y s  thwarted  for w h a t c a n w e , t h e Commons w i t h o u t t h e c o n j u n c t i o n o f t h e House o f L o r d s , a n d w h a t c o n j u n c t i o n c a n we e x p e c t t h e r e , when t h e B i s h o p s a n d R e c u s a n t L o r d s a r e so numerous a n d p r e v a l e n t , t h a t t h e y a r e a b l e t o c r o s s e and i n t e r r u p t out b e s t endeavours f o r R e f o r m a t i o n , a n d by t h a t means g i v e advantage to t h i s malignant p a r t y to traduce our p r o c e e d i n g s . ' It  is  l i t t l e wonder,  the c r i e s  t h e n , t h a t d u r i n g t h e December  "Noe B i s h o p s ,  riots  noe m a g p i e s , noe P o p i s h L o r d s  .  .  ."  p  were o f t e n h e a r d .  H o w e v e r , i t was t h e b i s h o p s  o p p o s i t i o n wanted e x p e l l e d a t the P a p i s t s  this  was a c o n v e n i e n t t a c t i c  time.  whom t h e  L i n k i n g them w i t h  for keeping a l i v e  the  panic over the I r i s h r e b e l l i o n . The same s u c c e s s f u l  tactics  of the previous  year  o n c e a g a i n e m p l o y e d by t h e a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l f a c t i o n . the anniversary of the d e l i v e r y of the  were On  " R o o t and B r a n c h "  P e t i t i o n , P e n n i n g t o n i n f o r m e d t h e House t h a t t h e r e d i v e r s grave c i t i z i n e s o f London a t t e n d i n g w i t h o u t the p r e s e n t t h i s howse, w i t h the f o r m e d a b l e p e t i t i o n wee h a d b e e n t o l d e o f f t h a t s h o u l d be b r o u g h t us by 1,000 p e r s o n s : b u t hee s a i d t h a t a s m a l l number w e r e come o u t w i t h i t , and t h a t i n a p e a c e a b l e a n d humble m a n n e r . 9  were  The l e a d e r s w e r e so a n x i o u s  t o a v o i d any r i o t o u s  of  the hour of the d e l i v e r y of  a f r i g h t e n e d London t h a t  t h i s new p e t i t i o n was c o n s t a n t l y c o u l d be p r e s e n t e d of  changed  i n an o r d e r l y w a y .  so t h a t  it  W r i t t e n i n t h e name  t h e A l d e r m e n , C o m m o n - C o u n c i l m e n and o t h e r  o f L o n d o n , a n d c o n t a i n i n g some f i f t e e n  assembly  inhabitants  thousand names,  w o u l d h a v e h a d more s i g n a t u r e s h a d n o t t h e L o r d M a y o r ,  it Sir  120 R i c h a r d Gurney and o t h e r s  opposed  it.  I n d e e d G u r n e y and  t h e C i t y R e c o r d e r , S i r Thomas G a r d i n e r , h e l d a d i m v i e w of  this petition.  the bishops;  To them i t was a f a l l a c y t o  s u c h a p o l i c y was  I g n o r a n t and i d l e p e r s o n s , hands t o t h e p e t i t i o n !  fraught with  remove  dangers.  t h e y c l a i m e d , ;had p u t  Those r e s p o n s i b l e  their  for i t  deserved  t o be d i s f r a n c h i s e d b e c a u s e w h a t t h e y w a n t e d t e n d e d sedition,  and t h e d r a w i n g o f p e o p l e  amounted t o a t u m u l t . "it  is  I t d i d not  together  thanke y o u r s e l v e s ,  bee o n y o u r owne h e a d e s . " - ' - 0  sign  seek p e a c e b u t  f o r b l o o d and c u t t i n g o f t h r o a t s ,  to c u t t i n g of throats,  to  to  rather  and i f i t  cam  and y o u r b l o o d  I n the p e t i t i o n a compliment  was p a i d t h e House f o r t h e many good l a w s i t h a d p a s s e d , b u t t h e p e t i t i o n e r s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e r e were good l a w s p a s s e d b y t h e  other  House,  w h i c h by r e a s o n t h a t t h e B i s h o p s and t h e P o p i s h L o r d s h a d v o t e s i n t h e P e e r s House were s t o p p e d t h e r e , and t h e r e f o r e t h e y h u m b l i e b e s o u g h t t h i s h o u s e t o be S u t e r s t o h i s M a j e s t i e f o r t h e t a k i n g away o f t h e i r votes out of the s a i d house. Once a g a i n ,  the c r u e l t i e s  a way t h a t t h e b i s h o p s  i n I r e l a n d were c i t e d i n such  a n d C a t h o l i c l o r d s seemed t o  behind such proceedings.  Immediate a c t i o n had t o  taken against t h i s f a c t i o n before engulfed i n bloody plots subject.  be  a l l England would  against the l i b e r t i e s of  be  be  the  * The same theme was b e h i n d a l l o t h e r  a r r i v i n g at  petitions  the P a r l i a m e n t from around the c o u n t r y .  Gurney'  120. fear  of a v i o l e n t s o l u t i o n to the e p i s c o p a l problem d i d not  d i s c o n c e r t the l e a d e r s h i p . petitions,  Instead,  they  encouraged  as was e v i d e n t by t h e way t h e y r e c e i v e d t h e m .  On 4 F e b r u a r y ,  " T h e Humble P e t i t i o n  Tradesmen's  Wives,  Inhabitants  o f t h e C i t y o f L o n d o n and t h e S u b u r b s  was r e c e i v e d . courage  and many o t h e r s  of the Gentlewomen, o f t h e Female Sex,  The women c o m p l i m e n t e d t h e members  i n b r i n g i n g C h u r c h and S t a t e t o  thereof" for  Petition  i n the p a s t ,  s p e l l e d o u t most e x p l i c i t l y  person i n the  their  safety  n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h a t many w o r t h y Deeds h a v e .been done b y y o u , g r e a t D a n g e r and F e a r do s t i l l a t t e n d u s , a n d w i l l , as l o n g as P o p i s h L o r d s and s u p e r s t i t i o u s B i s h o p s a r e s u f f e r e d t o h a v e t h e i r V o i c e i n t h e House o f P e e r s . . Recalling episcopal cruelties  all  13  t h e Women's  the fear  o f t h e common  city:  . . . we h u m b l y s i g n i f y t h a t o u r p r e s e n t f e a r s a r e , t h a t unless the b l o o d - t h i r s t y are hindered i n t h e i r D e s i g n e s , o u r s e l v e s i n E n g l a n d , as w e l l as t h e y i n I r e l a n d , s h a l l be e x p o s e d t o t h a t M i s e r y w h i c h i s more i n t o l l e r a b l e t h a n t h a t w h i c h i s a l r e a d y p a s t ; as n a m e l y , t o t h e R a g e s , _ n o t o f , men a l o n e , b u t o f D e v i l s i n c a r n a t e . . . . • Pym f e l t c o n s t r a i n e d t o a n s w e r t h e women a f t e r P e t i t i o n had been r e a d i n t h e House. b r i n g i n g the P e t i t i o n at  He t h a n k e d them f o r  so s e a s o n a b l e a t i m e ,  a s s u r e d t h e women t h a t t h e House w o u l d g i v e to t h e i r movement,  just desires. he.declared:  their  I d e n t i f y i n g w i t h the  and  satisfaction popular  r  122  f o r we h a v e b e e n , a r e , a n d s h a l l be r e a d y t o r e l i e v e y o u , y o u r h u s b a n d s , and C h i l d r e n ; a n d t o perform the T r u s t committed unto u s , towards G o d , o u r K i n g a n d C o u n t r y , as b e c o m e t h f a i t h f u l C h r i s t i a n s and l o y a l S u b j e c t s . The L o n d o n M i n i s t e r s w e r e s t i l l friends  i n the P a r l i a m e n t .  Venn p r e s e n t e d protesting  On 20 D e c e m b e r ,  a p e t i t i o n on b e h a l f  an o r d e r  that  reform,  it  1641,  of c e r t a i n  from the K i n g t h a t  C h u r c h s h o u l d be o b e y e d u n t i l argued  active with  the  altered.16  their  Captain  ministers,  law of  the  The p e t i t i o n  s i n c e P a r l i a m e n t agreed w i t h t h e i r program s h o u l d be e n a c t e d .  Synod t o g i v e represented  advice  of  'They c a l l e d f o r a N a t i o n a l  to Parliament;  the bishops,  :  Convocation r e a l l y  and no one e l s e .  Cornelius  d e l i v e r e d t h e p e t i t i o n , a n d s a i d he c o u l d h a v e  Burgess  obtained  17 many more s i g n a t u r e s h a d he w a n t e d t o . By t h i s t i m e i n t h e c r i s i s t h e most e f f i c a c i o u s  wayyto use  have groups o f p e o p l e  1642,  i t had been p r o v e n  some f i v e  and t h e n  A c c o r d i n g l y , on  thousand p e t i t i o n e r s  lords  and Commons a s k i n g t h a t B i s h o p s  lose their v o t e s . 1 8  by t h e i r r e s o l v e  to  a g a i n s t whomsoever upon y o u . " 1 9  The Commons w e r e  Petitioners  petitions  and  popish  delighted  illegaly  feet,  attempt  from Warwick and C o v e n t r y had a  s i m i l a r p l a n i n mind f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n when, en r o u t e ,  have  11  " l i v e by y o u , o r t o d i e a t y o u r s h a l l i n any s o r t ,  to  from  B u c k i n g h a m s h i r e rode i n t o London and p r e s e n t e d to the Lords  that  p e t i t i o n p r e s s u r e was  d e l i v e r the p e t i t i o n s  t h e Commons commit them e n b l o c . January,  ;  they heard that  of t h e i r  petitions,  the L o r d s had p a s s e d  the  123 second E x c l u s i o n B i l l . t o be c h a n g e d ,  The s u b s t a n c e o f t h e i r p e t i t i o n s  and now t h e y u r g e d t h e H o u s e s t o  continue  t h e i r happy c o o p e r a t i o n i n r e f o r m i n g t h e C h u r c h and On 11 F e b r u a r y ,  t h e y r o d e i n t o L o n d o n as  t h e n e x t d a y , met a t foote,  a fixed place,  a n d " t h e n c e w e n t on  consideration, The 25 J a n u a r y , Lords.  said  accepted by b o t h  T h e y w e n t home i n a h a p p y f r a m e o f m i n d , assured that t h e i r request  Houses.  s i n c e t h e y had been  w o u l d be t a k e n i n t o  and t h e i r d e s i r e s  State.  a b o d y , a n d on  two i n a r a n k e t o W e s t m i n s t e r , w h e r e t h e  P e t i t i o n s w e r e most t h a n k f u l l y  had  speedy  fulfilled.  e n b l o c t e c h n i q u e was c l e v e r l y u s e d b y Pym o n 1 6 4 2 , when he a s k e d  f o r a conference w i t h  The o c c a s i o n was t h e r e c e i p t o f t h e p e t i t i o n s  the from  t h e C i t y o f L o n d o n , f r o m M i d d l e s e x , H e r t f o r d and E s s e x , all  expressing  fear  t h a t the bishops House.  of the I r i s h r e b e l l i o n ,  and d e m a n d i n g  and p o p i s h l o r d s be c a s t f r o m t h e U p p e r  Pym d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e s e p e t i t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d  v o i c e and c r y o f a l l E n g l a n d . were n o t s p e e d i l y t a k e n . ease these t e n s i o n s ,  e v i l s would endure.  P a r l i a m e n t h a d done i t s  b u t as  t o o b s t r u c t good b i l l s  R i o t s c o u l d ensue i f  l o n g as  the bishops  o b s t r u c t i o n s would produce,  "we may h a v e o u r p a r t o f t h e M i s e r i e ,  part  i n the g u i l t of dishonour."2-'-  c o u l d h e l p by h e a r i n g t h e i r  cry.  to  bishops' from  we c a n h a v e no  The w i l l  demanded t h e e x p u l s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s ;  best  freedom,  t h e Commons w e r e f r e e  it?  action  continued  t h u s d a m a g i n g a n y hope o f  Whatsoever m i s c h i e f the  the  of the  only the  people  Lords  Apprentices, mariners  and  124 s e a m e n , L o n d o n women, A l d e r m e n and C o m m o n - C o u n c i l m e n , cities  and c o u n t i e s ,  expulsion of national  a l l called  f o r t h e same t h i n g ,  the bishops from the L o r d s .  I t was  the'  a  outcry. The w a r o f t h e p r e s s e s c o n t i n u e d .  s p e e c h e s w e r e p r i n t e d , and D e r i n g was  Anti-prelatical  impeached  i n g h i s own s p e e c h e s w i t h o u t t h e p e r m i s s i o n  of  for  publish-  Parliament.  The p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t t h e t w e l v e b i s h o p s i m p e a c h e d  in  22 December w e r e p u b l i s h e d . circulation, prelatical  P r y n n e 1 s books were  and M i l t o n was p u b l i s h i n g h i s  tract,  The R e a s o n  against' P r e l a t y . 2 3  fourth  anti-  o f C h u r c h Government  urg'd  Many anonymous w o r k s a g a i n s t  Bishops  were p o u r i n g o f f  Bishops  i n The T o w e r , J a n u a r y , 1642;  the p r e s s e s : 1642;  Bishops,  January,  Bishops'  L a s t Good N i g h t , F e b r u a r y ,  important p e t i t i o n s  Bishops'  Apprentices Advice to  Last Vote, February, 1642.24  of Dering's  12  1642;  The m o s t  The  pro-episcopal  publication,  o f t h e L o n d o n e r s w e r e on t h e  t h o s e who w e r e b e n t o n t h e d e s t r u c t i o n  their party.  to r i d e unmolested  o n t h e i r way t o p r e s e n t p e t i t i o n s . episcopalian King over'his  delegations  and  allowed  through the  streets  The o p t i m i s m o f  t r i u m p h a l e n t r y i n t o t h e c i t y was a by h i s  and  T h e r e w e r e no p r o -  from London.  He e n r a g e d t h e p o p u l a c e  side  of bishops  They r i o t e d a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s ,  men f r o m t h e c o u n t i e s  one.  12  silent. The s y m p a t h i e s  of  the  Conspiracy of  a l s o were i n p r i n t .  p r e s s e s , w i t h the exception were  in  the  false  attempts to a r r e s t  the  125 f i v e members. Pym h a d , as  T h u s he was h e l p l e s s  in fact,  become  t o defend the  a k i n g i n h i s own f a s h i o n  S i r Edward D e r i n g w r o t e t o h i s w i f e ,  Pym, w i t h h o n e s t y ,  support  t h e a l a c r i t y e v i d e n c e d by t h e a t t a c k  1641,  times  Charles."  i n the c i t y  and,  up t h e m a j o r  issue,  in its  expression.  but could  Bramston  on t h e  the  28 a n d 2 9  p o i n t i n g t o t h e momentum o f a  r e v o l u t i o n , when he w r o t e t h a t t h e a t t a c k  25  given  on t h e p e r s o n s o f  t h e movement was n o t o n l y p o p u l a r ,  spontaneous  for,  I c o u l d be  who t r i e d t o go t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t on 2 7 ,  December, be a t  "If  I h a d r a t h e r be Pym t h a n K i n g  The p e t i t i o n s h a d w i d e s p r e a d  bishops  bishops.  summed  popular bishops'  persons was made knowne t o t h e L o r d s a n d Commons b y s e v e r a l members, a n d by t h e K i n g t o o ; b u t noe c o u r s e t a k e n t o s u p p r e s s o r p u n i s h any o f t h e m , soe t h a t t h e K i n g m i g h t j u s t l y f e a r e d a i n g e r t o h i s p e r s o n i f he s t a y e d l o n g e r , as d i d t h e B i s h o p s , w h o e , h a v e i n g made knowne t o t h e L o r d s t h e d a i n g e r t h e y runn i n comeinge t o t h e House, a n d y e t c o u l d n o t o b t a i n e any r e m e d i e , f o r b e a r e t o come. . . . 2 6 U l t i m a t e l y t h e K i n g was u n a b l e t o i g n o r e t h e p o p u l a r t o send the b i s h o p s  down f r o m t h e L o r d s s i n c e h i s own  p o s i t i o n and f r e e d o m w o u l d h a v e b e e n e n d a n g e r e d s i g n e d the second E x c l u s i o n The g e n i u s  the populace,  h a d he  not  Bill.  of the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l f a c t i o n i n  Commons l a y i n t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e of  demand  whose h a t r e d o f b i s h o p s  i n t h e i r own c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t e p i s c o p a c y .  the  aspirations  was so h e l p f u l The p r o -  e p i s c o p a l i a n members o f t h e Commons w e r e e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y stopped  a n d s u r r o u n d e d by t h e mob, as was S i r  John  •f  12 6 Strangeways,  or v e r b a l l y abused,  as w e r e E d w a r d H y d e ,  Lord  27  Falkland, fight  and S i r J o h n C u l p e p p e r .  a n d , as  '  has b e e n s e e n b e f o r e ,  B u t t h i s was t h e Pym f e l t  people's  i t an o b l i g a t i o n  o f t h e House n o t t o d i s h e a r t e n t h e p o p u l a c e , who w e r e obtaining their the arguments  just desires  i n t h e i r own m a n n e r .  Thus  assumed t h a t t h e b i s h o p s w e r e i n t e n t on  d e s t r o y i n g t h e good r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e K i n g and h i s people.  D e n z i l H o l l i s warned t h a t i f the t w e l v e  bishops  i m p e a c h e d f o r t h e i r December P r o t e s t a t i o n w e r e n o t p u n i s h e d , a d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n t h e K i n g and h i s p e o p l e w o u l d be result,  causing great uproars  about Westminster of those Such a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s  the  and t u m u l t s i n t h e C i t y  and  c i t i z e n s who so h a t e d t h e  was a g a i n s t the i n t e r e s t s  bishops.  of  peace  i n t h e c o u n t r y and w o u l d h i n d e r t h e r e f o r m i n g w o r k o f  the  Parliament.  but,  rather,  I t was n o t t h e p e o p l e who w e r e a t  the bishops  and t h e i r  a r b i t r a r y government.  Simonds D'Ewes argued t h a t i f t h e b u s i n e s s bishops  fault,  of the  °  impeached  d i d n o t p r o c e e d i m m e d i a t e l y , u t t e r r u i n and  t i o n could envelop the S t a t e , incendiaries,  because the bishops  destruc-  were  and t h e London c i t i z e n s and i n d e e d a l l  t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e K i n g d o m w a n t e d them b r o u g h t t o To D ' E w e s , t h e t u m u l t s w e r e r e a l l y t h e w o r k o f t h e b u t h i s message was c l e a r e n o u g h ; u n l e s s q u e s t i o n were s e t t l e d destroy  people justice.  bishops,  episcopal  t u m u l t s and u p r o a r s  the P a r l i a m e n t , f o r the e p i s c o p a l p a r t y  responsible King.29  soon,  the  Sir  might was  f o r t h e i m p e a c h m e n t o f t h e f i v e members b y t h e  John White l i k e n e d the times  Wars o f t h e R o s e s .  t o the days o f  the  The b i s h o p s w e r e i m p o s i n g t y r a n n y o n  127 the s a i n t s  o f God f o r t h e y w e r e r e a d y t o s t r i k e c i t i e s  towns w i t h powder p l o t s . prelates  White f u r t h e r claimed t h a t  had always been enemies The K i n g ' s a t t e m p t  Haselrigge  to arrest  a n d . Stroud*, c on 4 J a n u a r y , 1  the a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n ' s popular cause. 1642,  o f b o t h K i n g and Pyimy. H o l l i s , 1642,  Whitehall,  K i n g and h i s c a v a l i e r s  t h e c i t y o n 10  John,  the  January,  admidst  .  .  "What has become o f  . where i s  he g o n e ? " 3 1  t h a t he h a d " c a s t a s p e r s i o n s to alienate  To t h e  the In  some o f t h e members g a v e s t r o n g  i n t h e House u p h o l d i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n s .  Government,  St.  A s t h e f i v e a c c u s e d members p a s s e d b y  the crowds c r i e d out  t h e i r own d e f e n c e ,  people.30  strenghtened  t h e f i v e came o u t o f h i d i n g t h e n e x t d a y  cheering crowds.  the  identification with  When t h e K i n g l e f t  and  speeches  charge  upon h i s M a j e s t y and h i s  the A f f e c t i o n s of h i s people,  and  o p  t o make h i s M a j e s t y o d i o u s u n t o t h e m " , if  by p u b l i s h i n g a Remonstrance  Pym a n s w e r e d  identifying  that  t h o s e who w e r e  l a b o u r i n g t o d i s a f f e c t the K i n g from P a r l i a m e n t , namely t h o s e i l l - a f f e c t e d B i s h o p s t h a t have i n n o v a t e d o u r R e l i g i o n ; o p p r e s s e d p a i n f u l l e a r n e d , and g o d l y M i n i s t e r s , w i t h v e x a t i o u s S u i t s and M o l e s t a t i o n s i n t h e i r u n j u s t C o u r t s ; by c r u e l S e n t e n c e s o f P i l l o r y and c u t t i n g o f f t h e i r E a r s , b y g r e a t F i n e s , B a n i s h m e n t s , and p o p e t i c a l I m p r i s o n m e n t ; i f t h i s . . . be t h e c a s t A s p e r s i o n s upon h i s M a j e s t y and h i s G o v e r n m e n t , and t o a l i e n a t e t h e H e a r t s o f h i s l o y a l S u b j e c t s , good P r o t e s t a n t s a n d w e l l a f f e c t e d i n R e l i g i o n , f r o m t h e i r due O b e d i e n c e t o h i s R o y a l M a j e s t y ; T h e n I am g u i l t y o f t h i s article.33  128:  H a s e l r i g g e d e c l a r e d t h a t he ed  tumults  ed t h e s e this  and  riots  illegal  had  never  a b o u t t h e House, b u t  and  had  voted  for their  point, S i r Arthur completely  show t h a t , i n h i s m i n d a t l e a s t , expressions of popular legitimate He  said  agreed  right  Petitions  and  Haselrigge, humbly, by  petition,  Griefs  relieved."35  laws,  the  and  one  known t o a P a r l i a m e n t ,  and  appeasing;  according  f o r they  o f the  Parliament.  concerning  g r e a t e s t , t o make by  them t o  members s q u a r e l y on He  members t o be  be  indeed  p l a c e d t h e blame f o r t h e  December.  to  grievances  t h e y o f f e r e d no A s s a u l t , b u t b e i n g a s s a u l t e d , p r e s e r v e d t h e m s e l v e s and d e p a r t e d . . . t h e m a t t e r o f t h e i r C l a m o u r was n o t a g a i n s t t h e K i n g , n o r any o f h i s C o u n c i l , i t was n o t a g a i n s t t h e L o r d s , n o r t h e House o f Commons; i t was o n l y a g a i n s t D e l i n q u e n t s , a g a i n s t s u c h as had b e e n t h e g r e a t e s t O p p r e s s o r s o f them. Strode  their  came unarmed,  asking f o r redress of t h e i r  Privilege,  to  spontaneous  for their  These p e o p l e ,  4  At  them l a y a  to p e t i t i o n  i n a l l Things,  d i d n o t b r e a k any  " w h i c h i s one their  Requests.""*  were  behind  to a l l Orders  the Parliament,  always c o n s i d e r -  suppression.  tumults  of the populace  had  countenanc-  reversed direction  h a t r e d , and  " I have a s s e n t e d with  encouraged or  impeachment o f t h e  t h e heads o f t h e b i s h o p s  argued accused  that these of  five  impeached i n  bishops wished the  treason,  o n l y t o p r o c u r e our Absence from t h i s H o n o u r a b l e House, t h a t we may n o t h a v e our f r e e Votes i n the T r i a l of the twelve B i s h o p s a c c u s e d ; by whom I v e r i l y b e l i e v e , t h e s e A r t i c l e s were drawn, and o n l y by t h e i r A d v i c e , and s u c h as f a v o u r t h e i r C a u s e , exhibited. 3 7  6  five  12 9 One t h i n g a l l o f t h e s e s p e a k e r s d e n i e d was t h e  King's  s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e y w e r e f o m e n t i n g a r e v o l u t i o n by t u r n i n g h i s people  away f r o m h i m , t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h  government.  They a l l a f f i r m e d t h a t  the fundamental enslave the  t h e y were  l a n d a g a i n s t t h o s e who w o u l d  concern f o r the popular  w h e r e t h e r e was no f e a r  A c c o r d i n g t o C l a r e n d o n , t h i s was  p l a n n e d so  "that  and o p p r e s s i o n , for them."38  It  t o be s u r e , men a r r i v e d ,  that  of t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s  for  took the K i n g l i t t l e By 7 J a n u a r y ,  their  t h e y r e l i e d on against  concernment  time to r e a l i z e  f i v e thousand  strong,  the  to offer  t h e f r e e d o m o f P a r l i a m e n t o n t h e day t h e  he  ministers  to inflame the neighbour c o u n t i e s " , that  that  violence  "their seditious  i t was no h a p p y • a c c i d e n t  into  deliberately  and so m i g h t p u t on an e a r l y  the c i t y .  were d e s p a t c h e d  for  t h e ' c i t y m i g h t see  for a sanctuary  dramatized  s e n t i m e n t when t h e y w e n t  security.  had l o s t  preserving  leaders of the o p p o s i t i o n r e a l l y  h i d i n g i n the c i t y ,  place  arbitrary  nation.  The f i v e their  laws of the  an  ^  and  Buckinghamshire  their five  lives members  40 came o u t o f h i d i n g . neighbouring counties bishops  The p o p u l a c e was t h e i r s ,  o f t h e c i t y and  the  and work a g a i n s t  the  the beginning of  December  could begin i n earnest. The e p i s c o p a l  seemed s e c u r e e n o u g h .  p o s i t i o n at The " p l e a  and d e m u r r e r "  i n A u g u s t w o u l d d e l a y any  tactic  the bishops  impeached  proceedings  a g a i n s t them f o r some t i m e , a n d t h e L o r d s  of  legal were  130 i n no mood t o c o o p e r a t e  w i t h t h e Commons on t h i s  Where l e n g t h y l e g a l h a r a n g u e s The p h y s i c a l a t t a c k s then resident  tion  had f a i l e d , t e r r o r would  a g a i n s t the persons  of the  1641,  not.  bishops  i n L o n d o n s h o c k e d them o u t o f t h e i r  The i m p e a c h m e n t p r o c e e d i n g s 30 D e c e m b e r ,  matter.  wits.  c o m p l e t e l y unnerved them.  t h e t w e l v e who h a d s i g n e d t h e  On  Protesta-  f a s h i o n e d by t h e A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k were c a l l e d t o  Bar.41  Williams refused  t o answer a t  that time.  the  Morton  o f Durham c o n s i d e r e d t h e i m p e a c h m e n t t h e g r e a t e s t m i s e r y t h a t had e v e r b e f a l l e n h i m . house  He-'had gone t o  two d a y s p r e v i o u s l y a n d h a d s e e n  already  s i g n e d b y many b i s h o p s .  the  Williams' Protestation  He h a d r e a d i t o v e r  he was a s k e d t o s i g n i t , and t o o k some e x c e p t i o n s " b u t was d r a w n i n b y I n d u c e m e n t s , and1' t h a t he d i d s u b s c r i b e  or rather  i t only to preserve  to  since it,  Seducements, his r i g h t of  42 voting i n Parliament.  J o s e p h H a l l o f N o r w i c h was  c a l l e d i n , a n d s a i d t h a t t h e c h a r g e was t h e  next  heaviest  affliction  e v e r g i v e n h i m s i n c e he w o u l d n o t h a v e c o m m i t t e d  an o f f e n c e  o f so g r e a t a n a t u r e .  cautioned the r e s t a little  of the bishops  longer before  He m e n t i o n e d t h a t he h a d t o d w e l l on t h e . p e t i t i o n  i t was p r e s e n t e d .  o f C o v e n t r y and L i t c h f i e l d p r o f e s s e d t o commit t r e a s o n . , ,. 43 fashion.  The o t h e r b i s h o p s  Walter C u r l l ,  Robert Wright  t h a t he h a d n o t i n t e n d e d answered i n s i m i l a r  B i s h o p o f W i n c h e s t e r , who h a d n o t  s i g n e d t h e P r o t e s t a t i o n , was a s k e d h a d he a l s o b e e n of W i l l i a m s '  proceedings.  He u t t e r l y d i s c l a i m e d  the  part  130. Protestation,  and was a l l o w e d t o s i t  i n the L o r d s .  44  With the f a t a l blunder of the Archbishop of the l a s t  battle  against episcopal votes  s t r e n g t h i n t h e L o r d s was d e v a s t a t e d . felt  they should l i s t e n before  effect,  Their  The f i v e new b i s h o p s  t h e y began  t h e i r v o t e s were a l r e a d y  who c o u l d s i t ,  began.  York,  lost.  to speak,  Of t h o s e  so,  bishops  o n l y John Warner o f R o c h e s t e r went t o  House w i t h any f r e q u e n c y ,  in  the  a n d i t was he who g a v e t h e  "last  45 groan"  for his order i n February,  1642.  The K i n g ' s  n a i v e hope t h a t p o p u l a r d i v i n e s as b i s h o p s w o u l d Parliamentary feelings shattered  towards  on 30 D e c e m b e r ,  soothe  t h e e p i s c o p a l b e n c h was  1641.  On t h a t d a t e J o h n Rous  r e m i n d e d t h e House t h a t t o a c c e d e t o t h e m a k i n g o f new b i s h o p s w o u l d be t o d e f y t h e w i l l  o f t h e good  people  who w e r e s e n d i n g i n p e t i t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e e p i s c o p a t e , t h a t the l a t t e r ,  besides t h e i r exactions  outside  of  showing Parlia-  ment, were t r y i n g t o d e s t r o y  t h e good w o r k o f P a r l i a m e n t b y  t h e i r votes  In January,  i n the Lords.46  speeches c o n t i n u e d . and on t h e 1 7 t h  anti-episcopal  D ' E w e s g a v e s u c h a s p e e c h on t h e  ( t h e day t h e t w e l v e b i s h o p s w e r e t o  t h e i r p l e a t o t h e December i m p e a c h m e n t s ) , Commons w e r e r e m i n d e d o f t h e b i s h o p s ' g i v e n b y Thomas B a g s h a w , all  The i m p e a c h e d b i s h o p s of the treason bail  be s e t  be  enter  t h e members o f  the  crimes i n speeches  J o h n W h i t e and O l i v e r S t .  o f whom demanded t h a t j u s t i c e  11th,  John,  done.  d e n i e d t h a t t h e y were g u i l t y  c h a r g e d i n t h e impeachment, and a s k e d  f o r them a n d a s p e e d y  trial  be h a d .  Both  that  132 r e q u e s t s were d e n i e d . a n d a c l u e as  47  F e e l i n g a g a i n s t them was v e r y  t o why t h e i r  r e q u e s t s were d e n i e d i s  an anonymous p a m p h l e t p u b l i s h e d t h a t d a y .  high,  found i n  The p a m p h l e t  c l a i m e d t h a t b o t h Houses had found t h e t w e l v e " v e h e m e n t l y peccant  and i n t o l l e r a b l y d e l i n q u e n t . " 4 8  the u s u a l :  d i s r e g a r d i n g the p r i v i l e g e s of the P a r l i a m e n t ,  denying the l i b e r t y of the subject endeavouring to a l i e n a t e interesting thing is  punish the  t h a t the pamphlet r e j o i c e s  i n the  resolve  was d e l a y e d a n d n o t h e l d u n t i l  the K i n g had s i g n e d the b i l l  of  in their  The  to  delinquents.49  The t r i a l  from the L o r d s .  the t r i a l  and, worst of a l l ,  the K i n g from P a r l i a m e n t .  n e w - f o u n d harmony o f t h e two H o u s e s  bishops  The r e a s o n s w e r e  after  f o r the e x c l u s i o n of  all  No d o u b t b a i l was r e f u s e d  and  delayed to insure that Williams or H a l l ,  the o t h e r s ,  would not get  near the King to  o r any  influence  him w h i l e b o t h Houses were w o r k i n g f o r t h e e x c l u s i o n . Besides,  i t w o u l d be w i s e n o t t o r u s h p r o c e e d i n g s  point,  for,  i f the sentence  harsh,  t h e K i n g m i g h t be a n g e r e d  anti-episcopal  a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s was  legislation.  and moved t o s t a y  activities.  February.  As i t was,  the t r i a l  T h a t W i l l i a m s and t h e o t h e r s  present  testimonies  too all were  countenance  b e g a n on 17 had p r e s e n t e d  humble p e t i t i o n and p r o t e s t a t i o n o f a l l t h e B i s h o p s Prelates  that  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f i t  t o o l e n i e n t , he m i g h t t h i n k i t s a f e t o f u r t h e r their  at  a r o u n d L o n d o n " was b l a s t e d  and  to shreds  o f B r i a n Duppa o f D u r h a m , W a l t e r C u r l l  "an  of  by t h e  133 Winchester,  and W i l l i a m J u x o n o f L o n d o n .  Duppa  said  t h a t he was a b s e n t f r o m t h e L o r d s , n o t b e c a u s e o f riots,  b u t b e c a u s e he was i n a t t e n d a n c e  Charles,  of Prince  and t h a t he knew n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e  and n e v e r c o n s e n t e d t o i t .  Curll  the  Protestation  admitted t h a t the  tumults  h a d k e p t h i m away one d a y , b u t on 29 D e c e m b e r , when he h a d landed near the Parliament s t a i r s ,  the E a r l  of Newport t o l d  h i m t h a t none o f t h e b i s h o p s w e r e i n t h e House t h a t so he w e n t home.  He h a d s e e n a d r a f t  but d i d not s i g n i t .  of the  Protestation  Juxon simply s a i d the f r o s t  k e p t h i m o u t o f L o n d o n , a n d t h a t he h a d n o t s e e n Protestation t i l l of t h e i r  fear,  after  i t h a d 'been d e l i v e r e d .  i t was n o t e d t h a t Goodman o f  a n d P i e r c e o f B a t h and W e T l s managed t o g e t  day,  had the  For a l l  Gloucester to the Parliament  i n t h e h e a t o f t h e t u m u l t s , s o t h e p e t i t i o n was f a r  from  en  telling  the t r u t h of the matter. F a r more s e r i o u s , h o w e v e r ,  then accused  u  were the o f f e n c e s  the d e l i n q u e n t bishops  On t h e d a y s t h e b i s h o p s w e r e a b s e n t ,  Glynn  of having committed. those  days on w h i c h  t h e y s a i d no f r e e P a r l i a m e n t h a d t a k e n p l a c e , t h e r e was a g r e a t R e b e l l i o n i n I r e l a n d ; and t h e Remedy t o subdue t h a t K i n g d o m t o O b e d i e n c e was A i d s and S u p p l i e s , as t h e Wisdom a n d P o w e r o f P a r l i a m e n t s h o u l d p r o v i d e , w h i c h was w e l l known t o t h e B i s h o p s ; t h e r e f o r e t h e i r P e t i t i o n and P r o t e s t a t i o n was a d i r e c t A c t t o endeavour the Loss o f t h a t K i n g d o m . 5 1 Thus,  f o r p o p u l a r c o n s u m p t i o n , t h e b i s h o p s were i n l e a g u e w i t h  134 the enemies  of the P r o t e s t a n t  religion,  and t h e t r i a l  c o n f i r m e d the g r e a t wisdom o f the K i n g ' s a s s e n t s t o e x c l u s i o n o f the e p i s c o p a t e from the The L o r d s '  it  s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t a t  the bishops.  the beginning of a whole set  be e f f e c t e d .  the e a r l y w i n t e r .  and d e m u r r e r "  of high treason  On 6 D e c e m b e r ,  w i t h them.  necessary  h a d d r a g g e d on i n t o  t h a t the  and t h a t t h e  c a r e t o see  and a d e m u r r e r " ,  "plea bishops  Lords  that a matter of  s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d  by  The L o r d s r e p l i e d on 13 December t h a t t h e  and d e m u r r e r " s t i l l  report  t h e Commons, t h a t t h e L o w e r House  should take  not a "plea  to  against  and r e s o l v e d t h a t a  s h o u l d be c a l l e d i n on t h e c a s e ,  act  to uphold  J o h n G l y n n gave a  s h o u l d n o t be a c c e p t e d ,  should appear before  a  i f a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l change was  on t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e c a s e ,  bishops.  resolve  The A u g u s t i m p e a c h m e n t p r o c e e d i n g s  the t h i r t e e n accused  expulsion  produced  i t was h o p e d , w o u l d i n s u r e t h e  cooperation essential  themselves  a g a i n s t the  of the m a j o r i t y ' s  this  December  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t to deliberate  Riot pressure,  matters  Tb',-demonstrate  H o w e v e r , t h e December r i o t s  d r a m a t i c abandonment the bishops'  Lords.  was p r e d i c t a b l e . :  t h e House o f L o r d s was as of  the  c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e Commons on  concerning episcopacy  only  stood,  since  t h e i m p e a c h m e n t was  o f t h e C o m m i t t e e and n o t o f t h e H o u s e .  Glynn  fact, the "plea an  replied  52  to the Lords t h a t  i t was a v o t e o f t h e H o u s e .  i t was c l e a r  t h e U p p e r House h a d no m i n d t o  that  w i t h t h e Commons on t h i s p r o j e c t ,  since  the  By t h e n cooperate  opposition  136 in  t h e L o r d s was t o o f o r m i d a b l e .  Clarendon noted that  the  a n t i - e p i s c o p a l o p p o s i t i o n i n t h e Commons w e r e t o t h e i r w i t s ' e n d , so t h a t , b e i n g w i t h o u t any o t h e r h o p e , t h e y r e s o r t e d t o t h e i r l a s t remedy, w h i c h had once b e f o r e s e r v e d t h e i r t u r n i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of the E a r l of Stafford. A n d t h e r a b b l e o f p r e n t i c e s and i n f e r i o r people of the c i t y f l o c k e d i n great m u l t i t u d e s a b o u t t h e House o f P e e r s c r y i n g o u t e v e n a t t h e d o o r s o f t h e House t h a t t h e y w o u l d h a v e no b i s h o p s . . . A n d t h o s e w i t h whom t h e y w e r e d i s p l e a s e d , . w h e n t h e y c o u l d s e v e r them f r o m t h e r e s t , t h e y c r o w d e d , a n d p r e s s e d , and t r o d u p o n . . . . 5 3 Besides the c r i e s  of  "Noe b i s h o p s ,  many p e e r s w e r e now g r e e t e d hearted l o r d s . " 5 4  as  noe p o p i s h  "false,  Things f i n a l l y  evil,  lords," and r o t t e n -  r e a c h e d t h e s t a g e where  " n o man c o u l d p a s s b u t whom t h e r a b b l e g a v e l e a v e crying  ' A good L o r d , '  Notwithstanding, be f r e e  to  o r " A good m a n — l e t h i m p a s s ' . " 5 5  the Lords c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r proceedings  to  i n t h e h e i g h t o f t h e t u m u l t s , o n 28 D e c e m b e r ,  a l b e i t by a m a j o r i t y o f  four.56  But t h e y had s u f f e r e d  much o v e r t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n t h a t when t h e  bishops'  P r o t e s t a t i o n came on 30 D e c e m b e r ,  they suddenly l o s t  p a t i e n c e w i t h the m a t t e r ,  long l a s t ,  willingness consented,  to cooperate  and, at  w i t h t h e Commons.  so  showed  all their  They even  on 31 D e c e m b e r , t o c o n s i d e r t h e s e c o n d E x c l u s i o n 57  Bill  "at  some c o n v e n i e n t t i m e . " To be s u r e ,  were f a v o u r a b l e  t h e r e were s t i l l  to the bishops'  place  among them t h e M a r q u i s o f H e r t f o r d , hampton, the E a r l  of B r i s t o l ,  many i n t h e L o r d s who i n the Upper House,  the E a r l  the E a r l  of  South-  o f B a t h and L o r d  136  Digby.  Bristol  t r i e d t o do t h e b i s h o p s  r e m i n d i n g , t h e House t h a t o n c e a b i l l out,  a service  had been once  i t c o u l d n o t be b r o u g h t i n a g a i n d u r i n g t h e  session.  Since the p r e v i o u s • v o t e  i t was  t h e new s i t u a t i o n b y c a l l i n g  L o r d s on 31 D e c e m b e r ,  1641.  report that the present  same  clearly  t o t r y and r e i n t r o d u c e  B u t t h e t i m e o f s u c h n i c e t i e s was o v e r . of  cast  a g a i n s t e x c l u s i o n had  b e e n c a r r i e d b y so many d e c i s i v e v o t e s , against parliamentary rules  by  Pym t o o k  it. advantage  for a conference with  L o r d D i g b y had g i v e n out  P a r l i a m e n t had been a f o r c e d  a n d any a c t s o r l a w s p a s s e d w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f bishops'  v o t e s were n u l l  and v o i d .  c l e a r breach of Parliament, since  loyal  the bishops  a one,  the  T h i s r e p o r t was  a  i t was a p r i v i l e g e o f  Parliament to redress the grievances B u t so l o n g as  the  of the n a t i o n .  remained unpunished, the K i n g ' s  s u b j e c t s w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o be o p p r e s s e d ,  since  i f no Laws c a n be b i n d i n g t o t h e S u b j e c t / b u t s u c h as a r e v o t e d and a s s e n t e d t o b y t h e B i s h o p s , t h e n none c a n be e x p e c t e d b u t s u c h as a r e d e s t r u c t i v e t o t h e S t a t e ; t h e i r A f f e c t i o n s b e i n g a l t o g e t h e r a v e r t e d from f r e e P a r l i a m e n t a r y P r o c e e d i n g s , and t h e i r Designs only a g i t a t e d f o r the opposing the G o v e r n m e n t t h e r e o f ; a n d we c a n n o t b u t d a i l y f e a r t h e u t t e r C o n f u s i o n o f t h e same t h e r e b y . • I n h i s c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t h e L o r d s on 25 J a n u a r y , the f a c t of  that a l l the people  the bishops.  Kingdom,  o f E n g l a n d demanded t h e r e m o v a l  The p r o p o s i t i o n was one o f s a v i n g  a n d Pym a s k e d t h a t t h e y a c t  consciences.60  Pym s t r e s s e d  according to  P e t i t i o n s were s t r e s s i n g  c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two H o u s e s ,  as  the their  the need o f  c o u l d be s e e n  in a  137 petition  from S u r r e y which besought  them t o c o n t i n u e  u n i t y w i t h t h e Commons b y e x p e l l i n g t h e b i s h o p s  their  "who a r e  61 o b s t r u c t i n g good b i l l s . "  But,  f a r more t o t h e p o i n t ,  t h e Londoners were r e a l l y a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s , t h e i r p e t i t i o n s t o t h e Commons, p l e d g e d t h e i r w i t h them i n t h e w o r k a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s .  of  and p r e s e n t e d  solidarity  One s u c h  p e t i t i o n was t h a t o f t h e M a r i n e r s a n d Seamen, t o " b y many t h o u s a n d s  and i n  subscribed  t o the Committee  t h e H o n o u r a b l e House o f Commons a t G r o c e r s - H a l l , 8 fi o  January,  1641-1642."  f o r t h e slump i n t r a d e  The p e t i t i o n e r s p u t t h e  blame  and g e n e r a l unemployment o f  t i m e on t h e p o p i s h l o r d s a n d b i s h o p s ,  whom t h e y  the  considered  t o be f o s t e r i n g t h e C a t h o l i c p«Lots t o o v e r t h r o w t h e m e n t a l laws o f t h e l a n d by r e a s o n o f t h e i r v o t e s Parliament. if  They r e a l l y f e a r e d  t h e p o p i s h p a r t y and b i s h o p s  funda-  in  a plot against their remained unchecked,  lives so  t h e y a s k e d t h a t t h e Commons be a means t o t h e K i n g ' s M a j e s t y a n d t h e House o f P e e r s , t h a t l i f e m i g h t be g i v e n t o y o u r good e n d e a v o u r s by t h e i r c o n c u r r e n c e w i t h you i n t h e p u n i s h m e n t o f d e l i n q u e n t s and r e d r e s s i n g t h e p r e s s u r e s and g r i e v a n c e s i n t h e C h u r c h and Commonwealth: And f o r t h e b e t t e r e f f e c t i n g t h e r e o f , t h a t the Popish L o r d s a n d B i s h o p s , may be r e m o v e d o u t o f h i s House o f P e e r s . 6 3 The Women's P e t i t i o n o f the hard times, commence a g a i n .  a n d i t was e v i d e n t e n o u g h t h a t r i o t s Given a l l these pressures,  5 February f i n a l l y Bill;  4 February a l s o complained of could  t h e L o r d s on  passed the second B i s h o p s ' E x c l u s i o n  The o n l y d i s s e n t i n g v o t e s w e r e c a s t b y t h e  Bishops  138 of  Winchester, Rochester  jubilant, to the  and W o r c e s t e r .  The Commons was  a n d S i r R o b e r t H a r l e y on 7 F e b r u a r y  declared  Lords  t h a t t h e House o f Commons d i d much r e j o i c e i n t h a t c l e a r C o n c u r r e n c e and C o r r e s p o n d e n c y between b o t h Houses; t h a t t h e y d e s i r e d t h e i r L o r d s h i p s w o u l d s e n d some L o r d s t o t h e K i n g h u m b l y t o r e q u e s t , T h a t he w o u l d be p l e a s e d t o crown t h i s B i l l w i t h h i s R o y a l l A s s e n t , as one o f t h e c h i e f e s t Means o f G i v i n g S a t i s f a c t i o n t o M e n ' s M i n d s , and e x c e e d i n g l y c o n d u c t i n g towards s e t t l i n g the D i s t r a c t i o n s of t h e K i n g d o m ; w h i c h was t h e r a t h e r d e s i r e d , b e c a u s e t h e B i l l was t o commence, and be o f F o r c e , on t h e 15th of t h i s I n s t a n t F e b r u a r y . 6 4 Concerning the pressures exerted Charles,  i t is  virtually  from the g r e a t p e r s o n a l  impossible danger  December, January,  1641, 1642.  till  r e s o l v e d around h i s personal abandoned  the bishops,  actions  h i m s e l f and  his  i n London from 7  t h e t i m e he l e f t  His attempted  King  to divorce his  he f e l t  f a m i l y t o be i n f r o m t h e d i s o r d e r s  against  t h e c i t y on  a r r e s t of the f i v e crisis.  11 members  When t h e L o r d s  C h a r l e s had p a n i c k e d and h i s  had rash  b e h a v i o u r i n e n t e r i n g t h e Commons h a d made h i m more unpopular than ever. itself  However, t h i s essay i s  to the e p i s c o p a l  efforts  t o save the e p i s c o p a l  l i n k e d h i s own p e r s o n a l in  question  and t h e K i n g ' s  office.  fortune  that  one r e a s o n  to the bishops'  fate  and  But Clarendon  why t h e s e c o n d E x c l u s i o n  p a s s e d t h e Commons i n O c t o b e r was t h e of  last-ditch  He d e f i n i t e l y  s a v i n g t h e m was h o p i n g t o s a v e h i m s e l f .  insisted  limiting  "fatal  t h o s e who c o u l d n e v e r be i n d u c e d t o a t t e n d  Bill  negligence the  service  139 w h i c h t h e i r c o u n t r y had t r u s t e d them, and t o w h i c h ,  in  all  the  t r u t h a l l the calamaties  that afterwards  befell  fi c Kingdom are to be.the  t o be i m p u t e d .  case,.for  .  .  The K i n g f e l t  on 12 D e c e m b e r ,  1 6 4 1 , he i s s u e d  p r o c l a m a t i o n o r d e r i n g t h e numjierous members themselves  this a  absenting  f r o m t h e Commons t o r e t u r n t o t h e  House. 6 fi  H o w e v e r , as  Clarendon noted,  i t was t o no a v a i l .  The s t r e n g t h o f t h e K i n g ' s p o s i t i o n on t h e e p i s c o p a l q u e s t i o n l a y i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l aspects the i s s u e .  H i s answer t o t h e Grand Remonstrance  of  proved  this.  F u r i o u s t h a t t h e Commons s h o u l d h a v e p u b l i s h e d  it  before  he h a d s e n t  the  an a n s w e r ,  Commons f o r t h e i r d i s r e s p e c t , to give a l l h i s people p a r l i a m e n t a r y way.  the K i n g , said  after  chiding  i t was h i s  satisfaction  intention  for their desires  He s a i d t h a t he was n o t aware o f  in a any  w i c k e d and m a l i g n a n t p a r t y i n h i s Government, i n t h e Privy Council,  or associated  with his children;  h a d b e e n t h e c a s e , he w o u l d h a v e d i s m i s s e d felt  if  them.  such Charles  t h a t he was d o i n g a l l he c o u l d t o s a v e t h e K i n g d o m  f r o m t h e p o p i s h p a r t y , b u t as  f a r as  were c o n c e r n e d , " t h e i r r i g h t i s  the bishops'  votes  g r o u n d e d upon t h e  F u n d a m e n t a l Law o f t h e K i n g d o m and C o n s t i t u t i o n s o f Parliament."67  He showed h i s c o n t e m p t f o r t h e P a r l i a m e n t  by d e c l a r i n g t h a t he w o u l d c a l l whom he w i l l e d t o council table,  his  and h i s c o n t e m p t f o r t h e c i t y b y s a y i n g  w o u l d d e f e n d so l o n g as not only against popery,  he l i v e d t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d , "but also  from the  irreverence  he  of  t h o s e many S c h i s m a t i c k s  late  and S e p a r a t i s t s w h e r e w i t h o f  t h i s K i n g d o m and t h i s C i t y  abounds  to the  great  d i s h o n o u r and h a z a r d o f b o t h C h u r c h and S t a t e , " t h e hope t h a t P a r l i a m e n t w o u l d j o i n h i m i n  expressing  suppressing  them.68 S u c h was n o t t h e w i l l  of Parliament.  w e r e u s e d t o u n n e r v e t h e K i n g as w e l l members o f t h e e p i s c o p a t e . was unmoved, f o r he i s s u e d  As o f  as  The t u m u l t s  the friends  10 D e c e m b e r ,  "A P r o c l a m a t i o n f o r  t o t h e Lawes o r d a i n e d f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g i n t h i s Kingdom o f E n g l a n d . " 6 9  the  King  Obedience  of the true R e l i g i o n  The p u b l i s h i n g o f  R e m o n s t r a n c e was u s e d t o c o u n t e r t h i s ,  and  the Grand  showing i n d e t a i l  how t h e K i n g ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h was great fashion helping to destroy was e x p e c t e d . "to a l l his that Charles  episcopal  loving subjects."70  By now i t was  f e l t he h a d b e e n p u s h e d  he was a d m i t t i n g t h a t t h e  its  He h a d t a k e n c a r e o f c i v i l  1641.  s t a n d by a n d  the  liberties,  l e g i s l a t i o n he h a d  He was w i l l i n g  Parliament i n a l t e r i n g ceremonies.  In going  anti-episcopal  base a broad p o p u l a r r e j e c t i o n o f  office.  in July,  evident  f a r enough.  as was e v i d e n t i n t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l signed  His response  N o t q u i t e e x p e c t e d was h i s own a p o l o g i a  to the people, d r i v e h a d as  the S t a t e .  in  to j o i n with  the  B u t he c o u l d n o t  countenance  t h e b o l d L i c e n c e o f some men i n P r i n t i n g o f P a m p h l e t s , i n P r e a c h i n g and P r i n t i n g o f Sermons, f u l l o f b i t t e r n e s s and m a l i c e a g a i n s t the p r e s e n t Government, a g a i n s t t h e Lawes e s t a b l i s h e d , so f u l l o f s e d i t i o n a g a i n s t o u r - S e l f e and t h e p e a c e o f t h e K i n g d o m .  141 He a s k e d t h e p e o p l e  to  j o i n w i t h h i m and h i s m i n i s t e r s  p u n i s h t h o s e l i b e l l i n g h i m and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t words,  the P a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n .  the Grand Remonstrance, unjust  ceremonies  Charles  or,  to  in  As i n h i s r e p l y  declared  other  to  he w o u l d d e a l  with  b u t he w o u l d u p h o l d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f  episcopacy. The d e f e c t i o n o f t h e L o r d s , h i s w i f e and f a m i l y , and h i s  the K i n g ' s fears  l o s s o f p o p u l a r i t y i n London  b e c a u s e o f h i s e n t r y i n t o t h e House o f Commons, unbearable  p r e s s u r e on t h e K i n g a f t e r  The s i § n s w e r e e v e r y w h e r e e v i d e n t ; bishops  wishes  of the people  lose his  wanted  Even though i t  Church.  as  To c o n s e n t  of his conscience.  No one e x p e c t e d fully  Charles  the  against  S i r John Culpepper  concerning  to sign e i t h e r ,  u r g e d t h a t he do t h i s b e c a u s e t h e M i l i t i a more d a n g e r o u s t h a n t h e f o r m e r b i l l ,  urged  Exclusion B i l l ,  aware o f t h e K i n g ' s d e f l a t e d  to the E x c l u s i o n B i l l  his  to the e x p u l s i o n of  sent to the King along, w i t h the B i l l  Culpepper,  the  c o r o n a t i o n to uphold the  the K i n g t o s i g n the second B i s h o p s '  Militia.  was  e x p r e s s e d i n P a r l i a m e n t , he m i g h t  f r o m t h e House o f L o r d s w o u l d be t o a c t  the d i c t a t e s  the  i f C h a r l e s would not accede t o  He h a d s w o r n a t h i s  Established  was  London.  c r o w n , t h e K i n g was r e l u c t a n t t o c h a n g e  position.  bishops  put  he h a d l e f t  the people  o u t o f t h e House o f L o r d s .  becoming e v i d e n t t h a t  for  the  but  popularity  Bill  and h i s  which  was  far  acquiescence  w o u l d show h i s good w i l l  to a l l .  The K i n g w o u l d n o t g i v e i n , a n d when he h e a r d t h a t  Hyde  142. agreed w i t h h i s r e s o l v e ,  he became e v e n more  obdurate. 72  In  desperation,  Culpepper turned to the  Queen.  C u l p e p p e r t e r r i f i e d t h e Queen b y t e l l i n g h e r if  that  her husband d i d not g i v e i n , her j o u r n e y t o France might  be s t o p p e d .  The K i n g w a n t e d h e r o u t o f t h e C o u n t r y , m a i n l y  so t h a t she c o u l d be o u t o f t h e r e a c h o f h i s e n e m i e s who wanted t o impeach h e r . of  a religion  The Queen,  no l o v e r o f t h e h i e r a r c h y  she c o n s i d e r e d t o be h e r e t i c a l , r e f u s e d  to  board the s h i p a t Dover u n t i ' M C h a r l e s had s i g n e d the 73 a g a i n s t the bishops. this all  C u l p e p p e r had a s s u r e d h e r  a c t i o n would redound t o her advantage. t h i s pressure  h a d on t h e K i n g ' s s c r u p l e s  C o r o n a t i o n O a t h no one k n o w s . King signed the b i l l people  What  [sic]  that effect  concerning his  Bramston a s s e r t e d t h a t  b e c a u s e he was  and t o p r e u e n t  bill  the  " w i l l i n g e to please  i f possible  any o c c a s s i o n  his of  74 breach.  . . . "  H o w e v e r , b y m i d - F e b r u a r y , one c a n be  s u r e t h a t C h a r l e s was w o r n down b y t h e n e v e r - e n d i n g prelatical Fearful  pressure  w h i c h was c l e a r l y now a p o p u l a r movement.  f o r the safety  o f t h e one he l o v e d a n d  more t h a n a n y o n e on e a r t h ,  trusted  and b e l i e v i n g C u l p e p p e r ' s  a s s u r a n c e s t h a t t h e Commons and L o r d s w o u l d n e v e r send him a b i l l  o f so u n p l e a s a n t  a nature,  i n Holy Orders to exercise stating that  finally Persons  t h e i r Temporal J u r i s d i c t i o n or  i t was h i s w i l l  more t h a n t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n  again  the K i n g  s i g n e d o n 13 F e b r u a r y " A n A c t f o r d i s e n a b i l i n g a l l  Authority,"  anti-  to desire  of his Kingdom.75  nothing  When t h e news  143 reached  London, Hacket s a d l y o b s e r v e d  to  Bells  He  had  from  and  heard  the a f f a i r s  of  a few  people.  the  The  the p o p u l a r w i l l  changed,  o f Government.  The  l e s s o n s l e a r n e d were i m p o r t a n t  to  the K i n g ,  nation.  bishops  c a s t i n t o d i s g r a c e because of the e x e r t i o n s  because o f t h e i r  and  had  institution  Those who, God  thoughts  of the e x c l u s i o n of the  in English history  o r d e r was  in their  o f t h e E n g l i s h Government were v a s t .  a s u b s t a n t i a l way,  entire  not  that  end."  implications  Never b e f o r e in  to  "fell  p r o p h a n e d t h e Name o f God,  them, whose G l o r y was  beginning The  from  B o n f i r e s , and  t h a t the people  found  office,  seemed a n s w e r a b l e  themselves  Through c a r e f u l m a n i p u l a t i o n  answerable to by  the  management  t h e House, p o p u l a r  to  remove t h e o b s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s e , t h e most m i s e r a b l e  criticism bishops  supporters. could f a l l  c o u l d be  brought  the  only  of  the King's  sentiment  ones.  enough  Without h i s bishops,  on no  one  other than  removed, so c o u l d t h e i r  t h e E n g l i s h R e v o l u t i o n had  a l r e a d y begun.  pressure of  popular  the K i n g . head.  In  If truth,  NOTES CHAPTER I S. R. G a r d i n e r , H i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d f r o m . t h e A c c e s s i o n o f James I t o t h e O u t b r e a k o f t h e C i v i l War 1 6 0 3 - 1 6 4 2 , (10 v o l s . ; London: L o n g m a n s , G r e e n , and C o . , 1 8 8 4 ) , I X , 2 1 5 . ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as G a r d i n e r , H i s t o r y , I X ) . 1  V . P e a r l , L o n d o n and t h e O u t b r e a k o f t h e P u r i t a n R e v o l u t i o n , (Oxford: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961) , p . 1 6 6 ; ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as P e a r l , L o n d o n ) . H . R. T r e v o r - R o p e r , " T h e F a s t Day Sermons o f t h e L o n g P a r l i a m e n t , " i n E s s a y s for B r i t i s h History, e d . by H . R. T r e v o r - R o p e r , (London: M a c m i l l a n & C o . , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 89. 2  3  Pearl,  London, p.  163.  C. H i l l , Economic Problems of the Church from A r c h b i s h o p W h i t g i f t . to the Long P a r l i a m e n t , ( O x f o r d : The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1956) p . 2 8 2 , c i t i n g P . H e y l i n , C y p r i a n u s A n g I l e u s (1668) p p . 2 8 4 - 5 ; 3 0 4 . ( H e r e a f t e r H i l l ' s book c i t e d as E c o n o m i c P r o b l e m s ) . 4  5  Pearl,  L o n d o n , pp.- 1 6 5 ;  232.  6 j . Hacket, S c r i n i a Reserata: A Memorial O f f e r ' d the G r e a t D e s e r v i n g s o f John W i l l i a m s , D. P . , (London: E d w a r d J o n e s , 1693) p . 1 3 2 : 1 3 9 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Hacket, S c r i n i a . R e s e r a t a ) . 7  Pearl,  London, pp.  R  Pearl,  London, p.  to  171-173. 193.  9 w. N o t e s t e i n ( e d . ) , The J o u r n a l s o f S i r S i m o n d s D'Ewes from the B e g i n n i n g o f the Long P a r l i a m e n t to the Opening of the T r i a l o f the" E a r l o f S t r a f f o r d , (New H a v e n , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1922), p. 31. ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as N o t e s t e i n , D'Ewes)• 1° F o r an a c c o u n t o f t h e b i s h o p s ' p e r s e c u t i o n o f P r y n n e , B a s t w i c k , and B u r t o n , see W. M . L a m o n t , M a r g i n a l P r y n n e , (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1964), pp. 28-48. H E d w a r d H y d e , E a r l o f C l a r e n d o n , The H i s t o r y o f t h e R e b e l l i o n and C i v i l Wars i n . E n g l a n d , e d . W. Dunn M a c r a y , (16 v o l s . O x f o r d : The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s ) , I , 2 7 0 . (hereafter c i t e d as C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I ) . 12  Clarendon,  History,  I,  269.  1 3  Clarendon,  History,  I,  265,  n.l.  14  Clarendon,  History,  I,  265,  n.l.  145 1 5  Clarendon, History, I,  1 6  Notestein,  D'Ewes,  p.  269. 140  J . H a l l , " H i s H a r d M e a s u r e , " C o n t e m p l a t i o n s upon t h e H i s t o r i c a l P a s s a g e s o f t h e O l d and New T e s t a m e n t s w i t h Some A c c o u n t , o f h i s L i f e . a n d S u f f e r i n g s , M o s t l y W r i t t e n by H i m s e l f , (New E d i t i o n , O x f o r d : D . A . T a l b o y s , 1887) , V o l . I , x l v . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as " H a r d M e a s u r e " , C o n t e m p l a t i o n s , I ) . 1 7  * G. I . Soden, 1583-1656, (London: Knowledge, 1963), p. l o  1 9  Hall,  2 0  Loc.  G o d f r e y Goodman B i s h o p o f . G l o u c e s t e r S o c i e t y f o r the Promotion'of C h r i s t i a n 330. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as S o d e n , Goodman).  "Hard Measure",  Contemplations,  I,  xlv.  cit.  21  G r e a t B r i t a i n , P . R. 0 . , J o u r n a l s o f t h e House o f L o r d s , (London), V o l . I V , 165. (Hereafter c i t e d L . " J . I V ) . 22 P e a r l , L o n d o n , p . 2 3 2 , c i t i n g P e r s e c u t i o U n d e c i m a , The Churches E l e v e n t h P e r s e c u t i o n . . . , 1 6 4 8 , p . 262. (Hereafter c i t e d P e r s e c u t i o Undecima). 23 P e a r l , London, p . 232, q u o t i n g P e r s e c u t i o Undecima, p.  57. 2 4  P e a r l , London, pp.  176-184.  Hacket, S c r i n i a . R e s e r a t a , p. 140:149. 6 P e n n i n g t o n was a f r i e n d w i t h seamen h a v i n g b e e n s e c r e t a r y to h i s u n c l e , C a p t a i n John P e n n i n g t o n . See P e a r l , L o n d o n , p . 178. 2  2 7  Clarendon, History, I.  337.  28 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 338. " A R e m o n s t r a n c e o f t h e S t a t e o f t h e K i n g d o m , 15 December, 1 6 4 1 , " i n An E x a c t C o l l e c t i o n o f A l l Remonstrances, Declarations, Votes, Orders, Ordinances, ProclamationsT P e t i t i o n s , M e s s a g e s , A n s w e r s , and o t h e r R e m a r k a b l e P a s s a g e s b e t w e e n e t h e K i n g ' s M o s t E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y , and h i s H i g h C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t b e g i n n i n g at h i s M a j e s t i e s r e t u r n from S c o t l a n d , b e i n g i n D e c e m b e r , 1 6 4 1 , and c o n t i n u e d u n t i l l . March 21, 1643, (London: E . H u s b a n d s , I . W a r r e n , R. B e s t , 1643), p. 20. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as " R e m o n s t r a n c e , " A n E xact.-.C o 11 e c t i on) . A l l w o r k s f r o m t h e m a j o r w o r k w i l l be c i t e d by t h e t i t l e o f t h e d o c u m e n t , f o l l o w e d by A n E x a c t Collection). 2 9  14!6 30  Clarendon,  History, I,  455.  3 1 W. H . C o a t e s ( e d . ) , The J o u r n a l o f S i r Simonds D ' E w e s from the F i r s t Recess o f , t h e . Long P a r l i a m e n t t o the W i t h d r a w a l o f K i n g C h a r l e s from London, (New H a v e n : Yale University P r e s s , 1942), p . 215, n . 7 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as C o a t e s , D'Ewes). See a l s o J o h n B r u c e ( e d . ) , V e r n e y P a p e r s - N o t e s o f P r o c e e d i n g s . i n t h e Long..Parliament7 ( L o n d o n : Camden S o c i e t y , 1st S e r i e s N o . X X X I , 1 8 4 5 ) , p . 128. Hereafter c i t e d B r u c e , V e r n e y P a p e r s ) , . V e r n e y n o t e d on T u e s d a y , 30 N o v e m b e r , 1641 "One s a i d hee was n e w l y come f r o m W e s t m i n s t e r armed and t h a t 1 , 0 0 0 more w e r e r e a d y t h e r e . He s a i d t h e P a r l i a m e n t men s e n t f o r t h e m . "  32 Clarendon, History, I,  453.  3 3  Clarendon, History, I .  453.  3 4  Clarendon,: H i s t o r y , I ,  453-454.  3 5  Clarendon, History, I,  449.  3 6  Bruce, Verney Papers,  3 7  Coates, D'Ewes, p.  p.  131.  213,  n.6.  38  C h a r l e s I , K i n g , H i s M a j e s t i e s s p e c i a l ! Command t o t h e L o r d M a i o r of. London f o r the Sending o f p r e c e p t s i n t o t h e . c i t y to suppress the tumultuous assemblies. With a r e l a t i o n of the u p r o a r s made b y . B r o w n i s t s , a n d S e p a r a t i s t s w i t h i n t h e C i t y o f L o n d o n a n d . W e s t m i n s t e r , ("London: J o h n Thomas, December 9 , 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 3 .39 ( C Hlearreeanf dt eorn , c H i t iesdt o Sr yp eocfi a tlhl e Command). R e b e l l i o n , I , 464 n , 40 41  S p e c i a l l Command, p .  4.  Coates, D'Ewes, p.  225.  42  Coates, D'Ewes, p.  226.  43  S p e c i a l l Command, p .  2. .  44 C h a r l e s I , K i n g , H i s M a j e s t i e s A n s w e r To t h e P e t i t i o n w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e House o f Commons: P r e s e n t e d t o Him a t Hampton C o u r t , t h e f i r s t o f D e c e m b e r , 1 6 4 1 , (London: R o b e r t B a r k e r and t h e A s s i g n e s o f J o h n B i l e , 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 7 , 4 5  Clarendon, History, I ,  464n.  147 46 T > F u l l e r , The C h u r c h H i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n , (3 v o l s . , London: Thomas T e g g a n d S o n , 1 8 3 7 ) , I I I , 4 3 2 . (Hereafter c i t e d as F u l l e r , C h u r c h H i s t o r y , I I I ) . F u l l e r , Church H i s t o r y , I I I ,  433.  4 8  Hacket,  165:174.  4 9  Soden,  4  ?  Scrinia Reserata, Goodman, p .  p.  359.  The P a r l i a m e n t a r y o r C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d ; from the E a r l i e s t Times t o the R e s t o r a t i o n o f K i n g C h a r l e s , . I I , Volume X , (second e d i t i o n , L o n d o n : W i l l i a m Sandby, 1 7 6 2 ) , p. 301. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y , X ) . 5 0  5 1  Hall,  "Hard Measure,"  5 2  Coates, D'Ewes, p.  Contemplations,  356,  I,  xlv-xlvi.  n.4.  Hacket, S c r i n i a Reserata, p. 167:178. The A r c h b i s h o p and h i s s e r v a n t s r e p e l l e d t h e r i o t e r s wi-ffi3drawn s w o r d s , d r i v i n g them away " l i k e f e a r f u l H a r e s . " L o c . c i t . 5 3  5 4  Coates, D'Ewes, p .  356.  P e a r l , London, p . 232, q u o t i n g P e r s e c u t i o Undecima, p. 62. C l a r e n d o n w r o t e t h a t B u r g e s s and Stephen M a r s h a l l h a d more i n f l u e n c e on b o t h H o u s e s o f P a r l i a m e n t t h a n L a u d e v e r h a d on t h e C o u r t . See C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 4 0 1 . 5 5  5 6  L. J . , . I V ,  495.  W. P r y n n e , The F i r s t P a r t o f t h e A n t i p a t h i e o f t h e E n g l i s h L o r d l y P r e l a c i e , (London: 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 334. Clarendon was h a r d l y any more c h a r i t a b l e a b o u t t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e Archbishop. See C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 4 6 4 - 4 7 0 . 5 7  58 5 9  Clarendon, Hall,  ' • History, I,  "Hard Measure,"  467. Contemplations,  I,  xlvi.  60 L o c . cit-.H a l l s a i d t h a t the Kind d i d not read the P r o t e s t a t i o n . H a l l , "Hard Measure," Contemplations, I , x l v i . 6 1  See  6 2  Hall,  "Hard Measure,"  6 3  Clarendon, History, I,  Contemplations,  I,  xlvi-xlvii.  475.  64 S i r John Bramston, A u t o b i o g r a p h y , S o c i e t y , 1st S e r i e s , No. XXXII, 1845), p. c i t e d as B r a m s t o n , A u t o b i o g r a p h y ) .  (London: Camden 82. (Hereafter  148  6 5  Clarendon, H i s t o r y , I , 476.  66  c l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 476.  67  Hacket, S c r i n i a Reserata, p. 140:148.  68  Hacket, S c r i n i a  Reserata, p. 140:148.  NOTES CHAPTER  II  John Pym, A D e c l a r a t i o n P r e s e n t e d t o the H o n o u r a b l e House o f Commons. W i t h a Speech d e l i v e r e d a t a c o n f e r e n c e w i t h the L o r d s , January 25, 1641/42. By o c c a s i o n o f t h e P e t i t i o n f r o m t h e C i t y o f L o n d o n , and t h e C o u n t i e s o f M i d d l e s e x , E s s e x , and H a r t f o r d . . . P u b l i s h e d by O r d e r o f t h e House o f , C o m m o n s , ( L o n d o n : f o r R i c h a r d L o w n e s , 1641), p. 32. 2  J . 0. H a l l i w e l l , ed. The A u t o b i o g r a p h y a n d C o r r e s p o n d e n c e of Sir.Simonds D'Ewes, 2 v o l s . , London: R i c h a r d B e n t l e y , 1845), I I , 255. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as H a l l i w e l l , D ' E w e s ' Autobiography, I I ) . I n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e f i r s t few y e a r s o f t h e L o n g P a r l i a m e n t , J . W. Gough t h o u g h t f u n d a m e n t a l l a w t o a p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n m i g h t mean " t h e c l a i m o f t h e p a r l i a m e n t t o g o v e r n , o r a t any r a t e t o c h e c k m i s g o v e r n m e n t , b e c a u s e i t r e p r e s e n t e d t h e n a t i o n . . . . C o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h i s demand, w h i c h h o w e v e r p h r a s e d , was i m p l i c i t l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y , t h e r o y a l i s t s c o u l d j u s t l y s a y t h a t i t was t h e y who s t o o d f o r a r b i t r a r y p o w e r , " J . W. G o u g h , F u n d a m e n t a l Law I n E n g l i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y , (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1955), p . 78. S e e a l s o S. E . P r a l l , The A g i t a t i o n f o r Law R e f o r m d u r i n g t h e P u r i t a n R e v o l u t i o n 1 6 4 0 - 1 6 6 0 , (The H a g u e : Martinus N i j h o f f , 1966), pp. 15-17. 3  E . C a l a m y ( t h e Y o u n g e r ) , A n H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t o f My Own L i f e w i t h some R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e T i m e s I h a v e L i v e d ( 1 6 7 1 - 1 7 3 1 . ) , e d . J . T . R u t t , (2 v o l s . , L o n d o n : H e n r y C o l b u r n a n d R i c h a r d B e n t l e y , 2nd E d i t i o n , 1 8 3 0 ) , I , 5 4 . I n t h e t h i r d f o o t n o t e on p . 5 4 , t h e e d i t o r n o t e d t h a t t h e R e m o n s t r a n c e was " t h e L o n d o n P e t i t i o n a g a i n s t b i s h o p s , p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Commons, D e c . 1 1 , 1 6 4 0 . " T h i s n o t e was c i t e d by A . , H . D r y s d a l e , H i s t o r y , o f t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n s i n . E n g l a n d , (London: P u b l i c a t i o n Committee o f the P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d , 1 8 8 9 ) , p . 2 6 6 , n . 1. 4  R. B a i l l i e , The L e t t e r s a n d J o u r n a l s o f R o b e r t . B a i l l i e , (3 v o l s . , E d i n b u r g h : B a n n a t y n e C l u b , 1 8 4 1 ) , I , 2 7 5 . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s a n d J o u r n a l s , I). U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e n o t e d , a l l l e t t e r s o f B a i l l i e were s e n t t o t h e P r e s b y t e r y o f I r v i n e f r o m L o n d o n . The d a t e s o f a l l l e t t e r s when n e c e s s a r y w i l l be p l a c e d a f t e r t h e c i t a t i o n . The l e t t e r i n t h i s c i t a t i o n was s e n t on 2 D e c , 1 6 4 0 . 6  Ibid., I,  311.  150 " T o t h e R i g h t H o n o u r a b l e t h e Commons House o f P a r l i a m e n t . The Humble P e t i t i o n o f many o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s s u b j e c t s i n and a b o u t t h e C i t y o f L o n d o n , and s e v e r a l C o u n t i e s o f t h e K i n g d o m , " J . Rushworth, H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s . . . C o n t a i n i n g the P r i n c i p a l M a t t e r s W h i c h Happened F r o m . . . N o v . 3 , 1640 t o R i c h a r d C h i s w e l l and Thomas C o k e r w i l l , 1 6 4 2 ) , V o l . I V , p . 9 3 . (Hereafter t h e L o n d o n P e t i t i o n w i l l be c i t e d " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n w i t h p a g i n a t i o n from Rushworth's work. R u s h w o r t h ' s work w i l l be c i t e d as R u s h w o r t h , H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s I V ) . p "Root  and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n , p .  93.  I b i d . , pp. 93-94. 1° I b i d . , p . 19. F o r an a c c o u n t o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e C o n v o c a t i o n h e l d f r o m 14 A p r i l , 1640 t o 29 M a y , 1640 see F u l l e r , C h u r c h H i s t o r y , I I I , 4 0 5 - 4 0 9 . Gardiner, History, IX, 142-148. 9  " R o o t and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n , p . 9 6 . T h e r e w e r e two m a i n d i v i s i o n s of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l C o u r t s , the Courts of High C o m m i s s i o n and t h e o r d i n a r y d i o c e s a n c o u r t s . F o r an a c c o u n t o f t h e C o u r t s o f H i g h C o m m i s s i o n see R. G . U s h e r , " T h e R i s e and F a l l o f t h e H i g h C o m m i s i o n , ( O x f o r d : The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) t R. E . H e a d , R o y a l S u p r e m a c y and t h e T r i a l s o f B i s h o p s 1558-1725, (London: S o c i e t y f o r the Promotion of 0 \ r i s t i a n Knowledge, 1962), p. 12, n . 2. Some b i s h o p s a l s o , s a t as j u d g e s i n t h e S t a r Chamber w h i c h was s e p a r a t e f r o m the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o u r t s . See J . P . K e n y o n ( e d . ) , The S t u a r t C o n s t i t u t i o n 1603-1688, (Cambridge: The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966), pp. 118-119. Thereafter c i t e d as K e n y o n , Stuart Constitution). 1 1  " R o o t and : B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n , p . 9 6 . The ex o f f i c i o o a t h was a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e C o u r t o f H i g h C o m m i s s i o n t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d e f e n d a n t on h i s r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s . The s n a g was t h a t t h e d e f e n d a n t was o b l i g e d t o a n s w e r any q u e s t i o n p u t t o h i m w i t h o u t p r i o r warning. See K e n y o n , S t u a r t C o n s t i t u t i o n , p . 1 7 7 . 1 2  1 3  "Root  and B r a n c h " P e t i t i o n , p .  .14  Ibid  pp.  94-95.  15.  Ibid.,  pp.  94-96.  16  I b i d . , p.  i 7  18 19  Loc.  94-95.  93.  cit.  Baillie,  L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s ,  Notestein,  D'Ewes,  p.  313.  I,  286.  151 ^ u S m e c t y m n u s , A n A n s w e r To a Book E n t i t l e d A n Humble. Remonstrance,' (London: f o r I . R o t h w e l l , 1641), p. 32. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as S m e c t y m n u s , An A n s w e r ) . pi  B r u c e , Verney P a p e r s , p . 4. (Wherever a p p l i c a b l e , t h e page number and a r t i c l e s o f t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n a n d R e m o n s t r a n c e as c i t e d by Bar u c e ' s e d i t i o n o f V e r n e y P a p e r s w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by p . •) •  ' _  22  Ibid.,  23  I b i d . , pp.  24  Ibid.,  25  I b i d . , pp.  26  p.  11,  p.  12, 11,  . I b i d . , p.  12 , 12,  a. 6. a.  9; 14,  aa.  14,  15.  9; 13,  aa.  12,  11.  a. 5. a.  a . 10  27  I b i d . , p . 14, a. 18. V e r n e y ' s n o t e s g a v e a schema o f t h e b i s h o p 1 s c r i m e s . . He t h e n a d d e d t h e c h a r g e s i n f u l l and t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i v e n them by C o r n e l i u s B u r g e s s who s e r v e d as a p e r i t u s t o t h e C o m m i t t e e o f T h i r t y when i t was r e v i e w i n g the p e t i t i o n i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p o s i t i v e a n t i episcopal legislation. 28  Rushworth, H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s I V , p.  29  Notestein,  30  Bruce, Verney Papers,  31  Coates, D'Ewes/ p.  32  II,  33  Baillie,  34,  Loc.  35  was  C. J .  D'Ewes,  p.  171.  314. p.  12  53  101. Letters  and J o u r n a l s ,  I,  308.  (15  March,1641).  cit.  HalliwellVoD''Ew:es Autobiography, s e n t o n 14 D e c , 1640.  II,  254.  This  letter  " A d d r e s s t o S i r Edward D e r i n g from t h e I n h a b i t a n t s of the Weald, w i t h the Kent p e t i t i o n a g a i n s t Episcopacy, sent to him through Mr. R i c h a r d Robson, of Cranbrook, 1 D e c , 16'41," P r o c e e d i n g s , P r i n c i p a l l y i n t h e County of K e n t , i n Connection w i t h the P a r l i a m e n t s . C a l l e d i n 1640 and E s p e c i a l l y w i t h t h e C o m m i t t e e o f R e l i g i o n A p p o i n t e d i n t h a t Year^ L . B. L a r k i n g , e d i t o r , (Westminster: Camden S o c i e t y , 1st S e r i e s , No. LXXX, 1862), p . 25. (Hereafter c i t e d as L a r k i n g , P r o c e e d i n g s i n K e n t ) . 3 6  152 37  S i r E d w a r d D e r i n g , A C o l l e c t i o n o f S p e e c h e s Made b y S i r Edward D e r i n g , i n M a t t e r s o f R e l i g i o n . Some f o r m e r l y P r i n t e d , a n d d i v e r s more now A d d e d ; A l l o f them R e v i v e d , f o r t h e V i n d i c a t i o n o f h i s Name, f r o m Weake a n d W i l f u l C a l u m n i e , (London: E . G . J . F . E g l e s f i e d a n d J . S t a f f o r d , 1642), p . 18. (13 J a n . , 1640). ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as D e r i n g , A C o l l e c t i o n of Speeches). j  8  3 9  Notestein,  D'Ewes,  p p . 282-283.  I b i d . , p . 283.  40  I n my r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s s t u d y b o t h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and a t t h e L i b r a r y o f Union T h e o l o g i c a l S e m i n a r y ( M c A l p i n C o l l e c t i o n ) , New Y o r k , N . Y . , I c o u l d f i n d n o c o p i e s o f t h e c o u n t y p e t i t i o n s o f J a n u a r y , 1641. A s a r e s u l t , my e v i d e n c e i s n o t a s s t r o n g a s I w o u l d h a v e w i s h e d , a n d I am r e l y i n g o n D ' E w e s f o r my m a j o r s o u r c e . S i n c e he d i d m e t i c u l o u s l y r e c o r d t h e m a j o r c o n t e n t o f t h e p e t i t i o n s he s a w , i n c l u d i n g t h e L o n d o n P e t i t i o n , I f e e l t h a t h i s B r i e f m e n t i o n o f t h e c o u n t y p e t i t i o n as b e i n g "Root and B r a n c h " i n n a t u r e c a n l e a d o n e t o assume t h a t t h e c o u n t y p e t i t i o n s w e r e v e r y s i m i l a r i f n o t t h e same. On 13 J a n u a r y , 1641, he wrote t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c e r n i n g t h e Kent P e t i t i o n : " T h e n was a p e t i t i o n p r e f e r r e d b y S i r E d w a r d D e e r i n g i n t h e name o f t h e C o u n t i e o f K e n t f o r t h e i r e a s e a n d d e l i v e r e n c e f r o m t h e t y r a n n i c a l l power o f t h e B i s h o p p s a n d t h e a b o l i s h i n g o f t h e v e r i e H i e r a r c h i e i t s e l f e , " N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 249. 41  Notestein,  D'Ewes,  42  Ibid.,  pp.  200-201.  43  Ibid.,  p. 97.  44  Ibid.,  p. 351.  45  Ibid..,  p. 356.  46  Ibid.,  p. 375.  47  p . 19.  A P e t i t i o n Presented of Nottingham. . . . , p . 15. Petition). 48 49  Notestein,  D'Ewes,  To The (Hereafter  c i t e d as N o t t i n g h a m  p .143.  The humble P e t i t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t e r s o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d d e s i r i n g R e f o r m a t i o n o f C e r t a i n e Ceremonies and abuses o f t h e , C h u r c h . . . . , p . 2 ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s September Ministers.' P e t i t i o n . T h i s p e t i t i o n was p u b l i s h e d i n S e p t e m b e r , 1641. No d a t e ' a p p e a r s o n i t s t i t l e p a g e ) . 50 N o t e s t e i n , D'Ewes, p . 2 2 1 . 51 N o t t i n g h a m P e t i t i o n , p . 4,.  153 5 2  Notestein,  D'Ewes, p.  5 3  September" M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n , p .  54  Notestein,  D'Ewes, p .  55  Ibid.,  200-201.  56  Gardiner,  pp.  288. 3.  414.  H i s t o r y , I X , 2 85; S o d e n ,  Goodman, p .  330,  A t l e a s t e i g h t e e n p r o - E p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s were r e c e i v e d by t h e House f r o m 3 N o v . , 1640 t o 15 F e b . , 1642 ( s i x o f t h e m f r o m W a l e s ) . S i h c e ^ t h e s t u d y was t h e a n t i - e p i s c o p a l d r i v e , no m a j o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n was made c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e p e t i t i o n s . H o w e v e r , t h e p r o - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s n e v e r h a d much p u b l i c i t y f o r , as S i r J o h n C o k e , J r . w r o t e t o h i s f a t h e r " a l l a r t i s used t o keepe p e t i t i o n s f o r e p i s c o p a c y from b e i n g p r e s e n t e d t o t h e H o u s e , s u c h b e i n g p r e p a r e d i n many p l a c e s . " See C o a t e s , D ' E w e s , p p . 290-291, n . 3 f o r q u o t e c i t e d a n d f u r t h e r explanation of pro-episcopal p e t i t i o n problems. A factor f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between p r o and a n t i episcopal petitions. The f o r m e r t e n d e d t o be d e f e n s i v e , a n d often too l a v i s h i n t h e i r p r a i s e of the e x c e l l e n c y of episcopacy. They g e n e r a l l y m i s s e d t h e p o i n t o f the whole c o n t r o v e r s y , t h a t i s , t h e p e o p l e no l o n g e r w o u l d l o o k t o t h e m a r t y r e d b i s h o p s o f M a r y ' s r e i g n as e x a m p l e s o f t h e e x c e l l e n t men who w e r e b i s h o p s . I n s t e a d t h e y were c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e L a u d i a n b i s h o p s who w e r e w i c k e d men. A l s o , some p r o p r e l a t i c a l p e t i t i o n s were v e r y l i t e r a r y , whereas p e t i t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s w e r e " g u t " by c o m p a r i s o n . F o r examples o f p r o - e p i s c o p a l p e t i t i o n s , s e e . S o d e n , Goodman, p . 355, a n d S i r Thomas A s t o n , A R e m o n s t r a n c e A g a i n s t P r e s b y t e r y , 1641 passim. 5 7  58 , C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 271. 59 P e a r l , L o n d o n , p p . 233-234, 60 I, p.  270. 138. 6 1  C l a r e n d o n g a v e t h e number as 20,000, C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , D ' E w e s t h o u g h t i t t o be 15,000, N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , Clarendon, History,  I,.272.  62 N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 313. 3 w. I . , P e t i t i o n s a g a i n s t B i s h o p s a n d t h e i r V o t e s i n P a r l i a m e n t s u b s c r i b e d unto a f t e r a C l a n d e s t i n e , d e l i v e r ' d a f t e r a t u m u l t u o u s m a n n e r , a n d f a l s l y g o i n g u n d e r t h e name o f a w h o l e C o u n t i e o r T o w n e , p r o v e d t o be b o t h c o n t r a r y t o our l a t e taken p r o t e s t a t i o n , a s . a l s o u t t e r l y unlawful/by many o t h e r c l e e r e a n d e v i d e n t R e a s o n s , ( L o n d o n : A . N . f o r R i c h a r d L o w n d s , 1642) , p . 2 6  154 6  4  fi5  ., Ibid.,  p.  _ 3.  Loc. c i t .  66 Of s i x t e e n s e l e c t c o m m i t t e e s , proceedings of the f o l l o w i n g Bishops:  three d e a l t with the L a u d , P i e r c e and Wren.  NOTES CHAPTER  III  s. v . D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l B i o g r a p h y . (Hereafter c i t e d as D . N . B . ) . See a l s o P . . M a s s o n , The L i f e o f J o h n M i l t o n ' , and H i s t o r y o f H i s T i m e , (7 v o l s . , L o n d o n and New York: M a c m i l l a n and C o . , 1 8 7 1 ) , I I , 2 1 4 . (Hereafter c i t e d as M a s s o n , M i l t o n , I I ) . 2  J . H a l l , " A n Humble R e m o n s t r a n c e t o t h e H i g h C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t by a P u t i f u l Son o f t h e C h u r c h , " The Works o f t h e R t . R e v . . J o s e p h H a l l , D . P., A New E d i t i o n R e v i s e d a n d C o r r e c t e d w i t h Some A d d i t i o n s , e d . by P . W y n t e r , D . D . , (10 v o l s . , Oxford: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1863), I X , 282. (Hereafter c i t e d as H a l l , " A n Humble R e m o n s t r a n c e " ) . I b i d . , p.  284.  4  I b i d . , p.  290.  5  I b i d . , p.  292.  3  *  C r a n m e r , L a t i m e r , R i d l e y and H o o p e r . 7  H a l l (?), A Survay of t h a t s e d i t i o u s L i b e l l , P r o t e s t a t i o n P r o t e s t e d , (London: 1641), p . 12. 8  I b i d . , p.  the  41.  q  W. H a l l e r , The R i s e o f P u r i t a n i s m , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957), p . 335.  (New Y o r k :  Columbia  s. v . D. N . B. T h i s w o r k was an a n s w e r t o A l e x a n d e r H e n d e r s o n ' s b o o k , The U n l a w f u l n e s s a n d D a n g e r o f L i m i t e d P r e l a c i e , G. M o r l e y , A Modest A d v e r t i s e m e n t C o n c e r n i n g the P r e s e n t C o n t r o v e r s i e . a b o u t Church Government; Wherein the Maine Grounds o f t h a t Booke I n t i t l e d t h e U n l a w f u l n e s s and Danger o f L i m i t e d Episcopacy are Calmly_Examined, (London: Robert Bostock, 1641), p. 12. 1 1  12  I b i d . , p . 19. M o r l e y a l s o t a l k e d a b o u t t h r e a t s made t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t i f t h e b i s h o p s w e r e n o t p u t dow.n', b l o o d w o u l d be s h e d . He s t a t e d t h a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n u s e d t h r e a t s , not proofs to r e a l i z e t h e i r designs "worthy of a T u r k i s h Dervise." Loc. c i t . 1 3  Masson, M i l t o n ,  1 4  Ibid., II,  198.  II,  248.  156  1 c  R e i g n o l d s , an E l i z a b e t h a n d i v i n e , w r o t e a w o r k c o m m e n t i n g on a sermon g i v e n b y B a n c r o f t on 9 F e b r u a r y ,  1588.  16 E . R e y n o l d s , The J u d g m e n t o f D o c t o r R e i g n o l d s C o n c e r n ing Episcopacy. I n . a L e t t e r t o S i r F r a n c i s Kriowles, e d . by J . Usher, (London: Thomas P a i n e , 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 8 . 1 7 George, L o r d D i g b y , "Speech of 8 F e b r u a r y , 1 6 4 1 , " J . Rushworth, ' H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s , I V , pp. 170-173. L u c i u s C a r y , L o r d F a l k l a n d , A S p e e c h made t o t h e House o f Commons C o n c e r n i n g E p i s c o p a c y , ( L o n d o n : f o r Thomas W a l k e l y , 1 6 4 1 ) , p p . 1 1 - 1 2 ; W. P l y d e l l , The S p e e c h o f M a s t e r P l y d e l l Esquire: C o n c e r n i n g the C h u r c h , Feb. 8, 1641, (London: 1641) , p . 4 . . ^~  18  of  W. M . L a m o n t , M a r g i n a l P r y n n e ,  Toronto Press,  1963),  Masson, M i l t o n , 29 J a n u a r y , 1 6 4 1 . 1 9  20  Loc.  pp.  II,  52-54.  218.  (Toronto:  Henderson's  University  b o o k a p p e a r e d on  cit.  ?1 R. B a i l l i e , The U n l a w f u l n e s s a n d D a n g e r o f L i m i t e d P r e l a c i e o r P e r p e t u a l P r e c i d e n c i e I n The C h u r c h B r i e f l y D i s c o v e r e d , (London: . 1 6 4 1 ) , p . A 2. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as B a i l l i e , The U n l a w f u l n e s s ) . 2 2  I b i d . , p.  2  Ibid.,  3  pp.  8. 10-15.  2 4  I b i d . , p.  19.  2 5  L a m o n t , M a r g i n a l P r y n n e , pp..  49-84.  The f u l l t i t l e s o f t h e book g i v e an a d e q u a t e s a m p l i n g of t h e i r contents: The f i r s t was e n t i t l e d A C a t a l o g u e o f S u c h T e s t i m o n i e s I n A l l A g e s as P l a i n l y E v i d e n c e B i s h o p s and P r e s b y t e r s To Be O n e , E q u a l and t h e Same J u r i s d i c t i o n , O f f i c e , D i g n i t y , O r d e r and d e g r e e , by d i v i n e Law a n d i n s t i t u t i o n , a n d t h e i r d i s p a r i t y t o be a mere humane o r d i n a n c e l o n g a f t e r t h e A p o s t l e s t i m e s ; A n d t h a t t h e name o f a B i s h o p i s o n l y a T i t l e of M i n i s t r a t i o n , not Domination of Labour not. of Honour, of H u m i l i t y , not of P r e l a c y , of p a i n f u l l n e s s e not of L o r d l i r i e s s e , w i t h a B r i e f e Answer t o the O b j e c t i o n s out o f A n t i q u i t y , t h a t seeme t o t h e c o n t r a r y , ( L o n d o n : 1 6 4 1 ) . The s e c o n d w o r k was e n t i t l e d A New D i s c o v e r y o f t h e P r e l a t e s Tyranny In t h e i r , l a t e prosecutions of Mr. W i l l i a m Prynne, an e m i n e n t L a w y e r , D r . J o h n B a s t w i c k , a l e a r n e d P h y s i t i a n , and M r . Henry B u r t o n , a r e v e r e n d . D i v i n e . W h e r e i n t h e s e p a r a t e a n d j p y n t . p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t them i n t h e H i g h 2 6  157 Commission and S t a r Chamber; t h e i r P e t i t i o n s , S p e e c h e s , C a r i a g e " a t t h e h e a r i n g and e x e c u t i o n o f t h e i r l a s t s e n t e n c e , a n d O r d e r s , L e t t e r s f o r and manner o f t h e i r removes t o , . a n d c l o s e imprisonments i n the C a s t l e s of Lanceston, L a n c a s t e r , C a r n a r v a n , ; a n d I s l e s of" S y l l y , G a r n s e y , a n d J e r s e y . The p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t t h e C h e s t e r m e n , and o t h e r s b e f o r e t h e L o r d s and H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r s : a t Y o r k e f o r v i s i t i n g M r . P r y n n e ; The B i s h o p s o f . C h e s t e r s o r d e r , f o r . M i n i s t e r s t o p r e a c h a g a i n s t M r . P r y n n e , and t h e Y o r k e C o m m i s s i o n e r s d e c r e e t o d e f a c e and b u r n e h i s p c i t u r e s a t C h e s t e r h i g h C r o s s e , e t c . e t c . , (London: 1641). H i s t h i r d and most i m p o r t a n t " w o r k was i n two p a r t s t h e f i r s t p a r t w r i t t e n i n t h e Summer o f 1 6 4 1 , t h e s e c o n d i n t h e W i n t e r o f 1641^42 was e n t i t l e d The F i r s t and S e c o n d P a r t o f A n t i p a t h y of the E n g l i s h L o r d l y P r e l a c i e B o t h t o R e g a l l M o n a r c h y and C i v i l U n i t y : Or An H i s t o r i c a l ! c o l l e c t i o n of the s e v e r a l l execrable Treasons, Conspiracies, Rebellions, Seditions, State-schisms, Contumacies, o p p r e s s i o n s and A n t i - m o n a r c h i c a l l . p r a c t i c e s o f o u r E n g l i s h , Brittish,.French,.Scotish and.Irish Lordly Prelates, a g a i n s t o u r K i n g s , . K i n g d o m s , L a w s , L i b e r t i e s ; and, o f t h e s e v e r a l l W a r r e s , a n d C i v i l ! D i s s e n t i o n s o c c a s i o n e d by them i n o r a g a i n s t o u r Realms i n f o r m e r o r l a t t e r a g e s , e t c . , e t c . , (London: 1641). T h e s e w o r k s w i l l be c i t e d as P r y n n e , A C a t a l o g u e , A . N e w D i s c o v e r y , a n d The A n t i p a t h y , I o r I I , respectively. 27 p r y n n e , A C a t a l o g u e , p a s s i m . The s a i n t s w e r e : V i n c e n t F e r r e r , 0 . P . , Thomas A q u i n a s , 0 . P . ( b o t h o f whom r e f u s e d b i s h o p r i c k s ) and A n t o n i n u s , 0 . P . P r y n n e r e c o u n t s how S t . A n t o n i n u s r e f u s e d t h e a r c h i e p i s c o p a l See o f F l o r e n c e e v e n t h o u g h a b u l l o f Pope Eugene I V commanded h i m to accept the o f f i c e . Having consulted the Dominicans at t h e P r i o r y o f San M a r c o (where he was P r i o r ) a n d t h e M a g i s t r a t e s o f F l o r e n c e ( a l l o f whom u r g e d h i m t o a c c e p t ) he r e l u c t a n t l y a c c e p t e d . H o w e v e r , he k e p t no g r e a t h o u s e h o l d , l i v e d i n a s t a t e o f e v a n g e l i c a l p o v e r t y , had S c r i p t u r e r e a d t o h i m d a i l y a t t a b l e , and s a i d t h e g r e a t e s t f a v o u r a n y o n e c o u l d do f o r h i m w o u l d be t o f r e e h i m o f t h a t o f f i c e . What E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t b i s h o p c o u l d s a y t h e same? p p . i v ; 2 2 . 28  p r y n n e , The A n t i p a t h y I ,  29  Ibid.,  I,  .304.  30  Ibid.,  I,  300.  31  Ibid.,  II,  vi.  32  Hacket,  33  Masson, M i l t o n ,  S c r i n i a Reserata, II,  238.  240.  p.  154:168.  158 J . M i l t o n , Of - R e f o r m a t i o n T o u c h i n g C h u r c h D i s c i p l i n e i n E n g l a n d : And t h e Causes t h a t H i t h e r t o have H i n d e r e d i t , (London: Thomas U n d e r h i l l , 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 1 2 . 35 I b i d . , p . 65 6 j . M i l t o n , " A n i m a d v e r s i o n s upon t h e R e m o n s t r a n t s Defence, a g a i n s t Smectymnus," Works, e d . H . M . A y r e s , (New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, V o l . I l l , P a r t I , 1931), p . 170. 3  3 7  3 8  tracts  Loc.  cit.  F o r an e x c e l l e n t a n a l y s i s o f M i l t o n ' s a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l see M a s s o n , M i 1 t o n , I I , 2 3 7 - 2 6 2 ; 356-409.  Masson, M i l t o n , I I , 391. C h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , the give and t a k e o f S m e c t y m n u s , M i l t o n a n d H a l l , was as f o l l o w s : J a n . , 1 6 4 1 , H a l l , Humble R e m o n s t r a n c e . M a r c h , 1640, Smectymnus, Answer t o t h e . H u m b l e Remonstrance. A p r i l , 1 6 4 1 , H a l l , : D e f e n c e o f t h e Humble R e m o n s t r a n c e A g a i n s t Smectymnus. J u n e , 1641, Smectymnus, A V i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e Answer t o Humble R e m o n s t r a n c e . J u l y , 16 4 1 , M i l t o n , A n i m a d v e r s i o n s u p o n t h e R e m o n s t r a n c e , J u l y - A u g u s t , 1641, H a l l , A S h o r t Answer t o the Tedious V i n d i c a t i o n o f Smectymnus. J a n . - F e b . , 1642, H a l l , A Modest C o n f u t a t i o n o f a S l a n d e r o u s and S c u r r i l o u s L i b e l l i n t i t l e d Animadversions upon.the Remonstrants Defence a g a i n s t Smectymnus. I b i d . . , I I , 391-394. 40  HaMer,ffi.ThevRise o f P u r i t a n i s m , p p .  335-336.  ^1 R o b e r t , G r e v i l l e , L o r d B r o o k e , " A D i s c o u r s e O p e n i n g the Nature o f t h a t E p i s c o p a c y Which Is E x e r c i s e d i n E n g l a n d , " T r a c t s on L i b e r t y i n t h e P u r i t a n R e v o l u t i o n 1638%1647, e d . by W. H a l l e r , R e c o r d s o f C i v i l i z a t i o n - S o u r c e s a n d S t u d i e s , e d . by W. T . H . J a c k s o n , (New Y o r k : Octagon Books, I n c . , 1965 [ 1 9 3 4 ] , p . 3 . 42  Ibid.,  pp.  43  Ibid.,  p.  60.  4 4  Ibid.,  p.  95  45  Loc.  46  Bailie,  The' U n l a w f u l n e s s , p .  47  Fuller,  Church,  3-4,  bit.  III,  428.  43.  159  48 4 9  Trinkets '50 51 5 2  Ibid.,  I l l , 429  L a m b e t h . F a i r e , W h e r e i n y o u have a l l t h e s e t , t o S a l e , (London: 1641), p . 3. Loc.  Bishops  cit.  Lambeth F a i r e ,  p.  Lambeth F a i r e , p .  41. 8.  M . A . E . Green ( e d . ) , D i a r y o f John Rous, (London: Camden S o c i e t y , 1 s t S e r i e s , N o . L X V I , 1 8 5 6 ) , p p . 1 1 5 - 1 1 6 . ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as G r e e n , R o u s ) . 5 3  J . T a y l o r , " A Swarm o f S e c t a r i e s , and S c h i s m a t i q u e s , " Works,. ( F i r s t C o l l e c t i o n , Manchester: The S p e n c e r S o c i e t y , 1970), passim. 5 4  55  Ibid.,  p.  24,  56 T a y l o r ' s own " a c c o u n t o f t h e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i n E n g l a n d i n 1 6 4 1 " i s c o n t a i n e d i n h i s p a m p h l e t , The L i a r . R e c o u n t i n g t h e t a l e s o f a l i a r ( w h i c h he l a t e r a s s e r t s a r e t r u e ) a r e t h e s e i n t e r e s t i n g , "man i n t h e s t r e e t " o b s e r v a t i o n s : . . . The B i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y was l i t t l e b e t t e r t h a n a p a p i s t , and t h a t he was c o m m i t t e d f o r t h a t o c c a s i o n t o t h e T o w e r , a n d t h a t he was n o t l i k e t o be f r e e d f r o m t h e n c e t i l l he came w i t h h i s h e e l s f o r w a r d . •• . . . . . . T h e r e a r e a g r e a t many P u r i t a n s i n E n g l a n d , and t h a t t h e y d i d now so d i s t u r b t h e q u i e t n e s s e o f t h e Commonwealth t h a t i t was now a l m o s t T o p s i e - t u r v e y . A l l t h e women i n E n g l a n d a r e g r o w n p r e c i s e and t u r n e d Preachers. I t I s as common a t h i n g f o r S o w - g i l d e r s , T i n k e r s , F e l t - M a k e r s , B u t t o n m a k e r s . , W e a v e r s , and C o b l e r s , t o p r e a c h i n a t u b , a j o y n ' d s t o o l e ' , o r s u c h l i k e t h i n g , as f o r a man t o d r i n k e when he i s t h i r s t y . " I b i d . , p p . 4-6'. Thomason d a t e s t h e p a m p h l e t ( o r r e a l l y t h e b o o k , 104 p a g e s ) as h a v i n g b e e m p r i n t e d i n F e b r u a r y , 1 6 4 1 . Masson h o w e v e r , n o t e d t h a t t h e b o o k was r e g i s t e r e d a t S t a t i o n e r s ' H a l l as t h e p r o p e r t y o f M r . R o t h w e l l J r . ( t h e s o n o f ' t h e p u b l i s h e r ) a n d was l i c e n s e d " b y S i r E d w a r d D e r i n g i n t h e name o f a C o m m i t t e e o f t h e Commons f o r l i c e n s i n g b o o k s . " This w o u l d s e t t h e d a t e a r o u n d 20 M a r c h . C f . Masson, M i l t o n , II,.219 n. 5 7  5R B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 366. See a l s o Smectymnus, A h A n s w e r , p p . 4 5 - 5 1 . H o w e v e r , many o f t h e h e a d i n g s towards t h e end o f " A n A n s w e r . . . are s i m i l a r t o t h e a r t i c l e s i n t h e M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n and Remonstrance: An A n s w e r , S e c t i o n X I I : S t a t e Employments  are  160 repugnant t o the o f f i c e o f B i s h o p (p. 4 5 ) ; S e c t i o n X I I I : B i s h o p s and p r e s b y t e r s w o r k e d i n a c e r t a i n a r e a o f G o d ' s p e o p l e , not i n a f i x e d p l a c e (p. 5 1 ) ; M i n i s t e r s ' P e t i t i o n and Remonstrance, A r t . 4: B i s h o p s d i o c e s e a r e l a r g e and a r e i n c o n v e n i e n t t o the B i s h o p , A r t . 6: Bishops are incumbered w i t h t e m p o r a l power a n d s t a t e a f f a i r s , c f . B r u c e , V e r n e y Papers, p. 11. ( N o t e s t a k e n 17 F e b . , 1 6 4 0 / 4 1 ) . 59  Smectymnus,  60  Ibid.,  p.  22  Ibid.,  p.  77-104.  Ibid.,  p.  103.  Ibid.,  p.  32.  61 62 63 64  Clarendon,  An,Answer, pp.  History, IV,  21-22.  194.  65  C . B u r g e s s , The F i r s t Sermon P r e a c h e d t o t h e House o f Commons now A s s e m b l e d i n P a r l i a m e n t , ( L o n d o n : f o r B. Stephens and F . M e r e d i t h , 1 6 4 1 ) , p . 4 3 . 66 (London:  H. Burton, England's 1641), p. 23.  6 7  I b i d - / PP-  6 8  s.  Bondage and Hope o f  Deliverance,  19-32.  v . D. N . B.  69  Thomas C a s e , Two Sermons L a t e l y P r e a c h e d a t W e s t m i n s t e r , ( F i r s t Sermon, London: I . R o t h w e l l f o r Luke Fawne, 1 6 4 1 ) , p . v . 70 S. M a r s h a l l , R e f o r m a t i o n a n d D e s o l a t i o n , o r a Sermon T e n d i n g t o / t h e D i s c o v e r y o f t h e Symptomes o f a P e o p l e t o whom G o d , w i l l by no Means be R e c o n c i l e d , ( L o n d o n : for Samuel G i l l i b r a n d , 1 6 4 2 ) , p p . 1-38; 45-47. 71  See H . R . T r e v o r - R o p e r , " T h e F a s t Sermons o f t h e L o n g P a r l i a m e n t , " E s s a y s i n B r i t i s h H i s t o r y , e d . H . R. T r e v o r - R o p e r , (London: M a c m i l l a n and C o . L t d . , 1 9 6 4 ) , p p . 8 9 - 9 7 , 72 C. J . , I I , 387-411. For a f u l l account of D e r i n g ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s , see L a r k i n g , P r o c e e d i n g s i n K e n t , p p . x l v - x l v i . See a l s o N o t e s t e i n , D ' E w e s , p . 4 1 3 r n . f o r a r e f e r e n c e on t h e C o m m i t t e e on A b u s e s o f P r i n t i n g B o o k s . Even John T a y l o r had d i f f i c u l t y p r i n t i n g h i s p a m p h l e t , A Swarm o f S e c t a r i e s and S c h i s m a t i q u e s : ; : h i s b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n on t h e t i t l e p a g e speaks e l o q u e n t l y enough: " P r i n t e d l u c k i l y , a n d may be r e a d u n h a p p i l y b e t w i x t hawke and b u z z a r d . "  NOTES CHAPTER: I V 1  L. J . , IV,  269.  2  E d w a r d H y d e , . E a r l o f . C l a r e n d o n , The L i f e o f E d w a r d E a r l .of C l a r e n d o n . . W r i t t e n by H i m s e l f , (3 v o l s . O x f o r d : Clarendon P r i n t i n g - H o u s e ; , 1759), I , 387-388. (Hereafter c i t e d as C l a r e n d o n , L i f e , I ) . L. 4  J.,  298-299.  II,  235.  5  Ibid., II,  291.  6  Clarendon, History, I ,  7  Dec, 8 9  C. J . ,  I V , 296:  Baillie, 1640).  Letters  291.  and J o u r n a l s ,  I,  286-287.  (28  _ ....... Loc. c i t . .  N a t h a n i e l F i e n n e s , A Speech and t h e C i t y o f London P e t i t i o n . . p. 5. N o t e s t e i n , D'Ewes, p . 339. C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 222.  . . . Concerning Bishops . 9 February, 1640/41,  C o r n e l i u s B u r g e s s , The F i r s t Sermon P r e a c h e d t o t h e House Commons N o w . A s s e m b l e d i n P a r l i a m e n t , 17 N o v e m b e r , 1 6 4 1 , (London: f o r P . S t e p h e n s a n d F . M e r e d i t h , 1 6 4 1 ) , passim"! 1 1  12  S i r H e n r y V a n e , H i s S p e e c h I n t h e House o f Commons A t a Committee f o r , t h e . B i l l A g a i n s t E p i s c o p a l l Government, ( L o n d o n , F r a n c i s C o n s t a b l e , 1641)..., p . 9 7 . J  Smectymnus,  An Answer, p .  93.  14  The S u b s t a n c e o f a C o n f e r e n c e a t a C o m m i t t e e o f B o t h H o u s e s i n t h e P a i n t e d C h a m b e r , O c t o b e r 2 7 , 1 6 4 1 , Managed by J o h n Pirn . . . a n d O l i v e r S a i n t J o h n . . . C o n c e r n i n g t h e E x c l u d i n g The T h i r t e e r i e B i s h o p s I m p e a c h e d by t h e Commons, (London: 1641), passim. B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s . a n d J o u r n a l s , I , pp. 282; 286; 303. (12 D e c , 28 D e c , 28 F e b . r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . F u l l e r , Church History, III.,411-412. D . N e a l , The H i s t o r y o f t h e P u r i t a n s , (5 v o l s . , L o n d o n : W i l l i a m B a y n e s and S o n , 1 8 2 2 ) , I I , 3 2 1 - 3 2 3 ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as N e a l , H i s t o r y , I I ) . See M a s s o n , M i l t o n , I I , 1 5 0 - 1 5 1 on t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e e p i s c o p a t e i t s e l f . In M a y , 1 6 4 1 , o n l y 18 o f a p o s s i b l e 26 b i s h o p s w e r e s i t t i n g i n Parliament.  162 1 6  Green, Rous, p .  98.  1 7  Baillie,  1 8  Ibid., I,  1 9  Clarendon, History, I ,  Letters 304;  and J o u r n a l s ,  305.  (28 F e b . ,  I,  275.  1641;  (2 D e c ,  15 M a r c h ,  1640) 1641).  309.  ^ I b i d . , I , 241-244. C l a r e n d o n g i v e s an a c c o u n t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c o l l a b o r a t i o n s between t h e s e L o r d s and Pym, Hampden, S t . J o h n , N a t h a n i e l F i e n n e s , S i r H e n r y V a n e , J r . , and D e n z i l H o l l i s , I b i d . , 1 , 2 4 1 - 2 4 8 . See a l s o I b i d . , I , 309 f o r i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e i n t e n s i t y o f f e e l i n g a g a i n s t t h e e p i s c o p a l g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e C h u r c h on t h e p a r t s o f L o r d S a y e and S e l e a n d L o r d B r o o k e . 2  2 1  Ibid., I,  309.  J o h n P y m , " A S p e e c h , 7 N o v e m b e r , 1 6 4 1 , " The P a r l i a m e n t a r y o r C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d from' t h e E a r l i e s t Times t o the R e s t o r a t i o n o f K i n g C h a r l e s I I , (London: f o r J . and T . T b n s o n , A . M i l l a r , 1 7 6 3 ) , V o l . I X , . pp. 102-108. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y I X ) S i r B e n j a m i n R u d y e r d s a i d on 7 N o v e m b e r , 1 6 4 1 : "His Majesty h a t h c l e v e r l y and f r e e l y p u t h i m s e l f i n t o t h e hands o f t h i s P a r l i a m e n t and I p r e s u m e t h e r e i s n o t a man i n t h i s House but f e e l s h i m s e l f advanced i n t h i s h i g h T r u s t : B u t i f he p r o s p e r no b e t t e r i n o u r Hands t h a n he h a t h done i n t h e i r s who h a v e h i t h e r t o h a d t h e h a n d l i n g o f h i s A f f a i r s , we s h a l l , f o r e v e r , make o u r s e l v e s u n w o r t h y o f so g r a c i o u s a c o n f i d e n c e . " C o n t a i n e d i n S i r Benjamin R u d y e r d , F i v e Speeches i n the H i g h and H o n o u r a b l e C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t , (London: H . D u d l e y and H. S e i l e , 1641), pp. 110-111. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as R u d y e r d , Five Speeches). 2 2  23  Baillie,  24  Clarendon, H i s t o r y , I ,  25 26  Baillie,  Letters  Letters  and J o u r n a l s ,  I,  275.  (@ D e c ,  I,  280.  (12 D e c ,  1640)  244.  and J o u r n a l s ,  1640)!.  "To t h e H o n o u r a b l e t h e K n i g h t s , C i t i z e n s , and B u r g e s s e s o f t h e House o f Commons a s s e m b l e d i n P a r l i a m e n t , The Humble P e t i t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a m b r i d g e , " P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y I X , p . 321. " T o t h e H i g h and H o n o u r a b l e C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t , The Humble P e t i t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f O x f o r d , " P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y : i X , pp. 318-321. P l a n s f o r t a k i n g away t h e l a n d s o f t h e C h u r c h w e r e u n d e r w a y as e a r l y as t h e f i r s t week o f F e b r u a r y , f o r as B a i l l i e w r o t e t o h i s w i f e on 6 F e b . , 1641 " t h e d e a n s and p r e b e n d s , a n d o t h e r n o t - p r e a c h i n g m i n i s t e r s r e n t s , w i l l be t a k e n a w a y ; f o r o t h e r w i s e t h e c o u n t r y z  16 3 w i l l n e v e r be a b l e t o s u p p l i e t h e K i n g ' s n e c e s s i t y , a n d bear t h e i r other burdens; bot these s u p e r s t i t i o u s rents w i l l doe a l l a b u n d a n t l i e . . . T h i s d a y M r . H e n d e r s o n e h a d a v e r i e sweet c o n f e r e n c e w i t h the K i n g t h e i r a l o n e , f o r the h e l p i n g o f our U n i v e r s i t i e s from the Bishops r e n t s . I hope i t s h a l l be o b t a i n e d . " B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 299. 28  Parliamentary History.IX,  29  Clarendon, History,  30  Baillie,  31  Notestein,  32  Larking,  33  Rushworth, H i s t o r i c a l  34 3 5  3 6  37  Letters  I,  p.  324.  358.  and J o u r n a l s ,  D'Ewes, p.  I,  303.  (28 F e b . ,  1641).  140.  Proceedings i n Kent,, pp.  27-28.  Collections IV, p.  171.  Loc..cit. N o t e s t e i n , D'Ewes, p. Clarendon, History, T ... ' Loc. ext.  I,  314. 311.  S i r Edward D e r i n g , A C o l l e c t i o n o f Speeches. (Where n e c e s s a r y , t h e d a t e o f s p e e c h e s w i l l f o l l o w t h e c i t a t i o n ) 39 I b i d . , p . 106. 4 0 W. P l y d e l l , The "Speech o f M a s t e r P l y d e l l , E s q u i r e : C o n c e r n i n g the C h u r c h , F e b . 8, 1641, (London: 1641), p . 2. 3 8  41 42 43  B.  Rudyerd, F i v e Speeches,  Clarendon, History,  I,  Rushworth, H i s t o r i c a l  44  Loc.  45  Baillie,  46  Clarendon,; History,  47  Coates,  p.  5.  358 n . Collections IV, p.  173.  cit. Letters  p.  52.  and J o u r n a l s , I,  363-364.  I,  302.  (28 F e b . ,  1641)  164 48  C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 288. " T h i s B i s h o p who h a d b e e n by s e v e r a l c e n s u r e s i n t h e S t a r C h a m b e r , i m p r i s o n e d i n t h e Tower ( J u l y 1 1 , 1 6 3 9 ) , w h e r e he r e m a i n e d t i l l a f t e r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s P a r l i a m e n t , a n d was t h e n s e t a t l i b e r t y u p o n t h e d e s i r e o f t h e L o r d s , who knew h i m t o be a m o r t a l a n d i r r e c o n c i l a b l e enemy t o t h e A r c h b i s h o p of C a n t e r b u r y , a n d i n d e e d h a d a l w a y s b e e n a p u r i t a n so f a r as t o l o v e none o f t h e b i s h o p s and t o have used a l l l e a r n e d Churchmen w i t h g r e a t c o n t e m p t and i n s o l e n c e . " L o c . c i t . H a c k e t ' s judgment o f W i l l i a m s i s r e a l l y an a p o l o g i a f o r W i l l i a m s . In,,Scrinia R e s e r a t a we f i n d a d e v o t e d C h u r c h m a n who t r i e d t o p l a y p o l i t i c s w i t h the aim o f s a v i n g the Church from r u i n , but who c o u l d n o t manage t o do so a g a i n s t s u c h p o w e r f u l o d d s . See H a c k e t , S c r i n i a R e s e r a t a , p p . 1 3 3 : 1 4 1 ; 1 3 7 : 1 4 4 ; 137: 145; 156: 164; 156: 165. 49  O l i v e r S t . J o h n , H i s S p e e c h i n P a r l i a m e n t on Monday the 1 7 t h C o n c e r n i n g t h e , C h a r g e , o f T r e a s o n Then E x h i b i t e d t o the B i s h o p s , " (London: F o r R. B . , 1 6 4 2 ) , p . 3 7 . 50 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 288. The B i s h o p s o f L i n c o l n was v e r y c a u t i o u s i n t h i s b u s i n e s s •. • He s a i d t h a t n e i t h e r he n o r t h e o t h e r b i s h o p s d e s e r t e d t h e i r c l a i m t o s i t at S t r a f f o r d ' s t r i a l . He knew w h a t h i s w i t o f summons's to Parliament enjoined him to do, "but h i s Lordshippe s a i d , t h a t by h i s m a j e s t i e s g r a c i o u s f a v o u r e and the f a v o u r e o f t h e i r L o r d s h i p p e s , he w o u l d f o r b e a r t o v o t e o r s p e a k a n y t h i n g e t o t h e M e r i t o f t h i s C a u s e w h i c h was now p r o s e q u t e d a g a i n s t t h e E a r l o f S t r a f f o r d , a n d he c o n c e i v e d , h i s B r e t h r e n t h e B i s h o p p s , w e r e a l s o e n c l i n e d soe t o d o , w h i c h was t a k e n b y t h e H o u s e , t o be a m o d e s t e x p r e s s i o n t h e r e u p o n noe f u r t h e r p r o s e q u t e d , s h o u l d put i n h i s Answer i n w r i t i n g e , yea o r n o e , b o t h t h e s a i d e B i s h o p p and t h e r e s t o f t h e b i s h o p p s , d i d f o r b e a r e t o v o t e a t a l l . " M a u r i c e Bond ( e d . ) , The M a n u s c r i p t s : o f t h e House o f L o r d s , V o l . X I , A d d e n d a 1 5 1 4 - 1 7 1 4 , (London: H . M. S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1962), pp. 255-256. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as B o n d , M a n u s c r i p t s X I ) . 51 B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 3 0 8 - 3 0 9 . (15 M a r c h , 1 6 4 1 ) . 5 2 F u l l e r , Church H i s t o r y , I I I , 415. 53 Ibid.,  p.  426.  5 4  Parliamentary H i s t o r y I X , pp.  5 5  I b i d . , p.  5 6  I b i d . , pp.  57  clarendon, History, I,  5 8  59  283-284.  285. 334-354.  (24 M a y ,  1641).  313.  I b i d . ,- I , 312-313. Parliamentary History IX, p.  334,  165 60  K i n g C h a r l e s h i s R e s o l u t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e Govenrment of the Church of England being c o n t r a r y to t h a t of S c o t l a n d . W i t h a Speech spoken by the L o r d Car i n the P a r l i a m e n t o f S c o t l a n d , (London: 1641) , p . T~. I b i d . , p.  6 1  6 2  Dec,  2.  B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s a n d J o u r n a l s , . I , 286; 1640, 29 J a n . , 1641, respectively) .  63  Ibid.,  64  Notestein,  65  Baillie,  Letters  66  Ibid.- I ,  296.  67  Parliamentary History IX, p. e, M e m o r i a l s , P• 43.  I,  Baillie,  70 letter 7 1  Ibid.,  I,  302.  (28  D'Ewes,  Letters 294.  Feb., p.  294.  (28  1641).  339.  and J o u r n a l s , (29 J a n . ,  I,  (28 F e b . ,  1641).  1641). 287,  and J o u r n a l s , . , ! , (29 J a n . ,  302.  c i t i n g B.  286.  (28  Dec.  1641).  I b i d . , I , 299. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was s e n t from London on 6 F e b . , 1641. I b i d . , I , 292. (29 J a n . , 1 6 4 1 ) .  contained  in a  72 73 74 Dering's • 75  Clarendon, History, I ,  314-315.  Parliamentary History IX, p.  288.  L a r k i n g , P r o c e e d i n g s i n K e n t , p . 47 c i t i n g S i r l e t t e r t o L a d y D e r i n g , 20 M a y , 1 6 4 1 .  76  D I be ir di n. ,g , p A . C 78o .l l e c t i o n o f  77  Clarendon, History, I ,  78  Ibid.,  79  Baillie,  80  Loc.  I,  Speeches, p.  Edward  163.  362-363.  350. Letters  and J o u r n a l s ,  I,  291.  (29  Jan.,1641).  cit.  81  W i l l i a m F i e n n e s , L o r d S a y e and S e l e , Two S p e e c h e s o f t h e R i g h t , H o n o u r a b l e .. . . (London: T . U n d e r h i l l , 1641) , p .  1.  166 Loc.  cit.  83  S i r H e n r y V a n e , H i s S p e e c h I n t h e House o f Commons, a t a Committee f o r the B i l l a g a i n s t E p i s c o p a l l Government, : (London: F r a n c e s C o n s t a b l e , 16 4 1 ) , p . 8 . " 84  Clarendon, H i s t o r y , I,  85  Ibid.,  86  I,  363.  309-310.  Bruce, Verney.Papers,  p.  12 3 .  87  D e r i n g , A C o l l e c t i o n of Speeches, p.  88  Loc.  63.  (21 M a y ,  1641).  cit.  89  C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 310; B a i l l i e , L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s , I , 287; 305-306. (18 D e c , 1640 a n d 15 M a r c h , 1641 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . 90 C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 310. y ±  Baillie,  L e t t e r s , and J o u r n a l s ,  9 2  Clarendon, History, I ,  I,  306.  (15  March,1641).  401-402.  93 94 95 96  Coates, Ibid.,  D'Ewes, p . p.  57.  177.  Bruce, Verney .Papers,  pp.  121-123.  C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 420. C o a t e s , D ' E w e s , p p . 186-187. 97 " T h e P e t i t i o n o f t h e House o f Commons, w h i c h accompanied the D e c l a r a t i o n o f the S t a t e o f the Kingdom when i t was p r e s e n t e d t o H i s M a j e s t y a t Hampton C o u r t , " An E x a c t C o l l e c t i o n , ( L o n d o n : f o r Edward Husband, T. W a r r e n , R. B e s t , 1642 [ s i c . ] ) , p . 2 . 98  B o n d , M a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e House o f L o r d s X I , p p . 2 8 9 - 2 9 1  NOTES CHAPTER V ^ J o h n T a y l o r , " E n g l a n d s C o n f o r t and L o n d o n ' s Works, (Fourth C o l l e c t i o n , Manchester: The S p e n c e r 1877), p. 5. 2  Clarendon, History, I ,  Joy," Society,  435.  3  To t h e House o f Commons, t h e P e t i t i o n o f A l d e r m e n , ( e t c . ) . . . . o f London. P r a y i n g t h a t measures s h o u l d b e . t a k e n a g a i n s t t h e R e b e l s i n I r e l a n d a n d t h a t Roman C a t h o l i c P e e r s a n d , t h e B i s h o p s s h o u l d be e x p e l l e d f r o m t h e House o f L o r d s . "  (London:  11 D e c e m b e r , 1641) , passimT  4  "A Remonstrance,"  An E x a c t C o l l e c t i o n , p .  5  "A Remonstrance,".  "An Exact C o l l e c t i o n , p.  6  Loc.  cit.  7  Loc.  cit.  8  Bramston, Autobiography, p.  17. 17,  81.  C o a t e s , D'Ewes, p . 270. See a l s o S a m u e l G a r d i n e r , H i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d f r o m t h e A c c e s s i o n o f James I t o t h e O u t b r e a k o f t h e C i v i l W a r . 1 6 0 3 - 1 6 4 2 , (10 v o l s . > L o n d o n : Longmans, G r e e n l a n d C o . , 1 8 8 4 ) , X , 9 8 - 9 9 . (Hereafter c i t e d as G a r d i n e r , H i s t o r y , X ) . Some f o u r h u n d r e d w e l l - t o - d o m e r c h a n t s and tradesmen were borne i n c o a c h e s t o W e s t m i n s t e r t o p r e s e n t t o t h e Commons a p e t i t i o n i n s u p p o r t o f P y m ' s p o l i c y i n which they asked f o r the removal of the bishops and C a t h o l i c L o r d s from P a r l i a m e n t . They a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e p e t i t i o n was s i g n e d by 2 0 , 0 0 0 a n d t h a t many more s i g n a t u r e s c o u l d have been p r o c u r e d . B r u c e , Verney Papers, pp. 133-134. Verney dates G u r n e y a n d G a r d i n e r t e s t i m o n y as h a v i n g b e e n g i v e n on M o n d a y , 13 D e c e m b e r , 1 6 4 1 . 11 12 13  Coates, Loc.  D'Ewes, p .  271.  cit.  "To t h e H o n o u r a b l e K n i g h t s , C i t i z e n s , and B u r g e s s e s o f t h e House o f Commons a s s e m b l e d i n P a r l i a m e n t , The Humble P e t i t i o n o f t h e G e n t l e w o m a n , T r a d e s m e n ' s W i v e s , and many o t h e r s o f t h e F e m a l e S e x , a l l I n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e C i t y o f L o n d o n , and t h e Suburbs t h e r e o f , " P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y , X , p . 268.  168 1 4  Parliamentary History,X,  p.  1 5  Parliamentary History X, p.  268;  271-272.  272-273.  "*"6 C h a r l e s I , K i n g , A P r o c l a m a t i o n f o r O b e d i e n c e t o t h e Lawes o r d a i n e d f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g o f t h e t r u e R e l i g i o n i n t h i s " K i n g d o m o f E n g l a n d , December 1 0 , 1 6 4 1 , p a s s i m . 17 X,  101. 1  Coates, D'Ewes, p .  325.  See  also Gardiner, History,  p  ° The Two P e t i t i o n s o f t h e C o u n t y o f B u c k i n g h a m as a l s o t h e . H u m b l e P e t i t i o n o f t h e M a r i n e r s and Sea-men, Inhabitants i n and a b o u t t h e P a r t s o f L o n d o n , a n d t h e R i v e r T h a m e s , (London: f o r F . C o l e s and T . B a n k s , 1 6 4 1 / 4 2 ) , p a s s i m , ( H e r e a f t e r , t h e C o u n t y ' s p e t i t i o n w i l l be c i t e d as Buckingham P e t i t i o n and t h e o t h e r M a r i n e r s and Sea-men's Petition). See a l s o L a r k i n g , P r o c e e d i n g s i n K e n t , p . 6 8 ; P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y X , pp. 195-196; G a r d i n e r , H i s t o r y , X , 154; C . J . I I , 369; L . J . I V , 504. 19 B u c k i n g h a m P e t i t i o n , p . 1. 20 The Two P e t i t i o n s o f t h e C o u n t y o f W a r w i c k a n d . C o v e n t r y as t h e y w e r e p r e s e n t e d t o b o t h H o u s e s b y K n i g h t s , E s q u i r e s , G e n t l e m e n , and F r e e h o l d e r s , i n t h e b e h a l f o f t h e m s l e v e s , a n d many o t h e r s o f t h e s a i d C o u n t y , b e i n g t h e t r u e c o p y as i t was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e House o f P a r l i a m e n t , (London: 1 6 4 1 / 4 2 ) , p.. 6 . 21 J o h n Pym, A D e c l a r a t i o n . P r e s e n t e d t o the H o n o u r a b l e House o f Commons W i t h . a . S p e e c h d e l i v e r e d a t c o n f e r e n c e w i t h the L o r d s , J a n u a r y , 2 5 , 1641. By o c c a s i o n o f t h e P e t i t i o n s f r o m t h e C i t y o f L o n d o n and t h e C o u n t i e s o f M i d d l e s e x , E s s e x , a n d H a r t f o r d . . . P u b l i s h e d by O r d e r o f t h e House o f Commons . . . , ( L o n d o n : f o r R i c h a r d Lownes, 1 6 4 1 / 4 2 ) , p . 35. ( H e r e a f t e r as P y m , S p e e c h 25 J a n . , 1 6 4 2 ) . 2 2 The . T w e l v e B i s h o p s C a l l e d t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t , To answere the m a n i f o l d A r t i c l e s whereof t h e y were Impeached, January 17, 1641/42. W i t h t h e v o t e s o f B o t h Houses t h a t P a s s e d upon a c o n f e r e n c e c o n c e r n i n g t h e a c c u s e d B i s h o p s . (London: f o r J o h n Hammond, 1 6 4 2 ) .  23 24  Masson, M i l t o n ,  II,  361.  Thomason T r a c t s , B r i t i s h Museum, c o n t a i n e d i n S o d e n , Goodman B i b l i o g r a p h y , p . 4 8 9 . These works were n o t a v a i l a b l e a t U n i o n T h e o l o g i c a l S e m i n a r y , New Y o r k , N . Y . 25 L a r k i n g , Proceedings i n K e n t , p. 68.  169 0  Bramston, Autobiography, p.  82.  27  F o r S i r J o h n S t r a n g e w a y ' s s u f f e r i n g s , see H i s M a j e s t i e s s p e c i a l l Command t o t h e L o r d M a j o r o f L o n d o n f o r t h e s e n d i n g Of p r e c e p t s i n t o t h e c i t y . t o s u p p r e s s t h e tumultuous a s s e m b l i e s , (London: 1641), p . 37. The o t h e r members w e r e m e n t i o n e d by C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 464. 28  D e n z i l H o l l i s , H i s w o r t h y and L e a r n e d Speech i n P a r l i a m e n t . U p o n the R e a d i n g o f t h e P e t i t i o n and P r o t e s t a t i o n of the Twelve B i s h o p s , (London: f o r J o h n Thomas a n d Thomas B a n k s , 1641), p p . 4-6. 29 S i r Simonds D ' E w e s , A S p e e c h Made i n P a r l i a m e n t , 11 J a n u a r y , 1642, ( L o n d o n : f o r F . C o l e s a n d T . B a n k s , 1 6 4 2 ) , p p . 1-5, 30 J o h n W h i t e , S p e e c h i n P a r l i a m e n t , 17 J a n u a r y , 1641/42, (London: f o r F . C o l e s and T . B a n k s , 1642), p p . 1-4. 31 L a r k i n g , Proceedings i n Kent, p. 6 4 n. 32 33  Parliamentary History X, p. Ibid.,  p.  171.  Ibid.,  p.  175. ,  Ibid.,  pp.  36  Ibid.,  p.  176.  37  Ibid.,  p.  179.  34 35  38  Clarendon,  175-176.  History., I,  39  Ibid.,  I,  496.  40  Ibid.,  I,  510.  41,  169.  485.  C l a r e n d o n s e t s t h e number a t  6,000  Concerning the authorship of the Bishops'. P r o t e s t a t i o n , Gardiner wrote: " T h e i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e p l a n may, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , be t r a c e d t o D i g b y , t h e m o s t i n d i s c r e e t o f C h a r l e s ' s p a r t i s a n s , " G a r d i n e r , H i s t o r y , X , 123. I f t h i s be t h e c a s e , i t seems odd t h a t n e i t h e r C l a r e n d o n n o r W i l l i a m s ' a p o l o g i s t John Hacket mentioned i t . Clarendon puts the b l a m e s q u a r e l y on W i l l i a m s ' h e a d . Indeed, such a b l u n d e r as t h e A r c h b i s h o p c o m m i t t e d w o u l d n o t h a v e seemed so d a m a g i n g i f W i l l i a m s c o u l d have c o u n t e r e d t h a t he h a d r e c e i v e d b a d a d v i c e b u t t h i s he d i d n o t d o , e i t h e r t o H a c k e t o r when he was o n t r i a l . In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , W i l l i a m s heard of Digby's m o t i o n t o d e c l a r e t h e p a r l i a m e n t n o t f r e e on 28 D e c e m b e r ,  170 and i n h i s v e r y d i s t r a c t e d s t a t e , d e c i d e d t o g i v e t h e m o t i o n more f o r c e by p e r s u a d i n g t h o s e b i s h o p s who h a d a b s e n t e d t h e m s e l v e s f r o m t h e P a r l i a m e n t t o make a f o r m a l p r o t e s t a t i o n . H i s a c t i o n was f u l l o f a r r o g a n c e w h i c h was e n t i r e l y i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e man. See C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 4 6 2 - 4 7 6 ; H a c k e t , S c r i n i a R e s e r a t a , p p . 167: 178-179: 180; Parliamentary H i s t o r y X , pp. 142:299. 42 43  P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y , X., - p . Ibid.,  pp.  142,  142-145.  44  I b i d . , p . 145. The r e a s o n s o n l y t w e l v e w e r e i n t h e c i t y t o s i g n t h e P r o t e s t a t i o n were t h e s e : W i l l i a m Laud of C a n t e r b u r y was i n t h e Tower;, W i l l i a m J u x o n o f L o n d o n was k e e p i n g C h r i s t m a s a t F u l h a m ; W a l t e r C u r l l o f W i n c h e s t e r was k e e p i n g C h r i s t m a s a t W i n c h e s t e r House a n d i t was c o n s i d e r e d u n s a f e t o c r o s s t h e Thames t o f e t c h h i m ; J o h n W a r n e r o f R o c h e s t e r was e n t e r t a i n i n g f r i e n d s i n t h e c o u n t r y f o r C h r i s t m a s ; : J o h n Bridgeman o f C h e s t e r and W i l l i a m R o b e r t s o f Bangor were i n t h e i r s e e s ; Roger Manwaring o f S t . D a v i d ' s h a d b e e n p r e v i o u s l y c e n s u r e d by t h e H o u s e , and c o u l d n o t s i t i n t h e L o r d s ; B r i a n Duppa o f S a l i s b u r y was w i t h h i s c h a r g e , P r i n c e C h a r l e s ; J o h n P r i d e a u x had n o t been c o n s e c r a t e d B i s h o p o f W o r c e s t e r ; Thomas W i n n i f e h a d n o t b e e n c o n s e c r a t e d B i s h o p o f L i n c o l n ; R a l p h B r o w n r i g g e was y e t t o be c o n s e c r a t e d B i s h o p o f E x e t e r ; Henry K i n g had n o t been c o n s e c r a t e d B i s h o p o f C h i c h e s t e r ; J o h n W e s t f i e l d was y e t t o be c o n s e c r a t e d B i s h o p o f B r i s t o l ; C a r l i s l e was h e l d i n commendam b y James Usher o f Armagh, c f . F u l l e r , Church H i s t o r y , I I I , 431-432. See a l s o C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 4 0 1 . According to Macray, P r i d e a u x was c o n s e c r a t e d on 19 D e c , 1 6 4 1 . He h a d n o t t a k e n h i s p l a c e i n P a r l i a m e n t as o f y e t . A c c o r d i n g to- F u l l e r , some o f t h e b i s h o p s h a d b e e n w a r n e d by w e l l - w i s h e r s t o q u i t t h e c i t y " i n t h i s l i c e n t i o u s t i m e o f C h r i s t m a s , though t h e y had n o t t h e h a p p i n e s s t o make u s e o f t h e a d v i c e . The o t h e r t w e l v e b i s h o p s , b e i n g not y e t f u l l y r e c o v e r e d from t h e i r f o r m e r f e a r , g r i e f a n d a n g e r ( w h i c h a r e c o n f e s s e d t o be h a d c o u n s e l l o r s i n c a s e s o f i m p o r t a n c e ) , drew up i n h a s t e a n d d i s t u r b a n c e . . . a P r o t e s t a t i o n . . . >" F u l l e r , C h u r c h H i s t o r y , I I I , 432. 45 46  Fuller,  Church H i s t o r y , I I I ,  441-442.  P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y X , pp. 146-149. For the K i n g ' s h o p e on t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e new b i s h o p s , see C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 401-402. 4 7 P a r l i a m e n t a r y . H i s t o r y X> p p . 2 1 5 - 2 1 6 . ' 48 The T w e l v e B i s h o p s ' C a l l e d f o r t h e P a r l i a m e n t , To Answere t h e m a n i f o l d A r t i c l e s w h e r e o f t h e y were Impeached, ( L o n d o n : " J o h n Hammond, 17 J a n u a r y , 16 4 2 ) , p . 5~7  171 4 9  5 0  Loc. c i t . L. J . IV, 598; P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y X , p p .  299-302.  51  L . J . IV, 598-599. Parliamentary History X , p.303. See a l s o Coates, D'Ewes f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n o f Glynne's a c c u s a t i o n , Dec. 27, 28 and 29, 1641, p p . 349-364. 5 2  C. J . I I , 314; 319; 329;  5 3  Clarendon, H i s t o r y , I , 463n-464n.  54 55  Ibid.,1,  454.  Bramston,  Autobiography,  p.  56  L.  57  Parliamentary History X, p.  5 8  J.  82.  I V , 495.  F u l l e r , Church H i s t o r y , I I I ,  149. 440-442.  59  P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y X , p . 154. D i g b y was a c c u s e d o f H i g h T r e a s o n by b o t h H o u s e s f o r g a t h e r i n g an army a t K i n g s t o n - o n - T h a m e s t o wage w a r a g a i n s t t h e P a r l i a m e n t ] ; ; , and was o r d e r e d a r r e s t e d by b o t h H o u s e s on 13 J a n u a r y , 1642. He was c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e m o s t o d i o u s man i n t h e K i n g d o m . See C l a r e n d o n , H i s t o r y , I , 519-520. 60 Pym, S p e e c h , 25 J a n . , 1642, p . 3. 61  "To the R i g h t Honourable the L o r d s , assembled i n t h e House o f P e e r s , The Humble P e t i t i o n o f t h e C o u n t y o f S u r r e y , 4 F e b . , 1642," L . J . I v , 563-564. 62 The humble P e t i t i o n o f t h e M a r i n e r s and S e a - m e n , I n h a b i t a n t s i n and' a b o u t t h e p o r t s o f L o n d o n and t h e R i v e r Thames', ( L o n d o n : F . C o l e s and T . B a n k s , 1641/42) , p . 6. 6 3  Loc.  cit.  6 4 P a r l i a m e n t a r y H i s t o r y . X , p p . 273-274. That the o p p o s i t i o n a c h i e v e d more t h a n t h e y h a d e x p e c t e d c a n be seen i n the l e t t e r o f B r i l l i a h a , Lady H a r l e y t o her husband, S i r R o b e r t H a r l e y , 11 F e b . , 1642: " I t h a n k God y o u w e r e e m p l o y e d i n t h a t good w o r k t o c a r r y up t h e b i l l a g a i n s t b i s h o p s , and I b l e s s God t h a t t h e b i l l d i d p a s s t h e L o r d s House. I t r u s t t h e L o r d w i l l f i n i s h h i s own w o r k w h i c h he h a s c a r r i e d on so b e y o n d o u r e x p e c t a t i o n s . . . . , " contained i n W a r d , R i c h a r d ( e d . ) , M a n u s c r i p t s o f H i s G r a c e The Duke of P o r t l a n d , V o l . I l l , (Great B r i t a i n , H i s t o r i c a l Manuscripts Commission, Fourteenth Report, Appendix, P a r t I I , London: H . M . S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1894), p . 84.  172 65  Clarendon, History,  I,  463n.  66  67  Gardiner,  H i s t o r y , X , 99;  Clarendon,  History,  I,  463n.  C h a r l e s I , K i n g , H i s M a j e s t i e s Answer t o t h e P e t i t i o n w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e House o f Commons; P r e s e n t e d t o Him a t Hampton C o u r t , t h e f i r s t o f D e c e m b e r , 1641. (London: Robert Barker, 1641), p. 5. (Actually, t h i s was t h e a n s w e r t o t h e G r a n d R e m o n s t r a n c e . See C o a t e s , D'Ewes, p . 335, n . 7 ) . 6 8 I b i d . , pp. 7-8. 69  Charles I , K i n g , A P r o c l a m a t i o n f o r Obience to the Lawes o r d a i n e d f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g o f t h e t r u e R e l i g i o n i n t h i s Kingdom o f E n g l a n d , p a s s i m . 70 Charles I , King, His Majesties Declaration to a l l His loving Subjects. P u b l i s h e d w i t h the advice of h i s Privie Councell. T h i s was p r o b a b l y p r i n t e d a r o u n d 20 D e c , 1641. 71 I b i d . , p . 2. 72 73 74 75 ( L o nidoi don: 76  Clarendon, L i f e ,  I,  90-100.  Hacket> S c r i n i a R e s e r a t a , p . Bramston,  Autobiography,  p.  170:80. 82.  C h a r l e s I , K i n g , B i l l s f o r t a k i n g Away B i s h o p s f o r John W r i g h t , 1641/42), pp. 1-2Hacket,  Scrinia Reserata,  pp.  170:181.  Votes  BIBLIOGRAPHY Unless otherwise i n d i c a t e d a l l items i n the B i b l i o g r a p h y a r e a v a i l a b l e i n The U n i v e r s i t y o f . 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The Way t o w a r d t h e F i n d i n g o f a D e c i s i o n o f C h i e f e C o n t r o v e r s i e now D e b a t e d C o n c e r n i n g C h u r c h Government. London: 1641.  the  Hall,  Joseph. " A n Humble R e m o n s t r a n c e t o t h e H i g h C o u r t o f Parliament, January 1641." The Works o f t h e R i g h t Reverend Joseph H a l l , P h i l i p Wynter, E d i t o r . 10 V o l s . Oxford: The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s 1 8 6 3 , v o l . I X , p p . 2 8 2 - 2 9 6 .  Hall,  Joseph. A L e t t e r s e n t t o an H o n o u r a b l e G e n t l e m a n , i n Way, o f S a t i s f a c t i o n , C o n c e r n i n g some S l a n d e r o u s . . . R e p o r t s l a t e l y r a i s e d a g a i n s t t h e B i s h o p s , and t h e R e s t o f the C l e r g i e Of . t h i s Kingdom.  Hall,  J o s e p h (?) A Survey of t h a t F o o l i s h , S e d i t i o u s the P r o t e s t a t i o n P r o t e s t e d . London: 1641.  Libell,  Hackett, John. S c r i n i a Reserata, A Memorial O f f e r ' d to t h e G r e a t D e s e r v i n g s ..of J o h n W i l l i a m s , P . P . . . . London: Edward J o n e s , 1692. H o l l i s , P e n z l l , E s q . ., . . H i s Worthy and L e a r n e d Speech i n P a r l i a m e n t upon t h e R e a d i n g o f t h e P e t i t i o n and P r o t e s t a t i o n of the Twelve Bishoppes. London: For J o h n Thomas and Thomas B a n k s , 1 6 4 1 . The H u m b l e . P e t i t i o n o f t h e . M i n i s t e r s o f t h e " C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d P e s i r i n g R e f o r m a t i o n o f C e r t a i n C e r e m o n i e s and A b u s e s o f t h e C h u r c h w i t h t h e A n s w e r o f . . . The Heads o f Houses,, i n the U n i v e r s i t y of O x f o r d . London: 1641. I.,  W. P e t i t i o n s a g a i n s t B i s h o p s and T h e i r V o t e s i n P a r l i a m e n t . . . . London: A . N . f o r Richardl3>Eownds,  1642.  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T h e - M a n n e r o f t h e Impeachment o f t h e T w e l v e B i s h o p s o f H i g h . T r e a s o n , _ f o r P r e f e r r i n g a P e t i t i o n , and M a k i n g a P r o t e s t a t i o n , t o . t h e S u b v e r t i n g t h e F u n d a m e n t a l ! Laws and B e i n g o f P a r l i a m e n t . London: For Joseph Hunscott, 1642. M a r s h a l l , Stephen. R e f o r m a t i o n a n d D e s o l a t i o n . , or" a Sermon T e n d i n g t o . t h e D i s c o v e r y o f t h e Symptomes o f a P e o p l e t o whom God w i l l b y no Meanes be R e c o n c i l e d . London: F o r Samuel G i l l i b r a n d , 1642. M i l t o n , John. Of R e f o r m a t i o n T o u c h i n g C h u r c h D i s c i p l i n e i n E n g l a n d : . . A n d the Causes, t h a t H i t h e r t o have H l n d e r e d . i t . L o n d o n : .Thomas U n d e r h i l l , 1 6 4 1 . M o r l e y , George. A Modest A d v e r t i s e m e n t C o n c e r n i n g the P r e s e n t C o n t r o v e r s i e about Church Government; W h e r e i n " t h e M a i n e Grounds o f , t h a t Booke I n t i t l e d t h e U n l a w f u l n e s s , and Danger o f L i m i t e d P r e l a c i e are C a l m l y E x a m i n e d . London: Robert B o s t o c k , 1641. M o u l i n , L o u i s Du. M o t i o n s , t o t h i s Present P a r l i a m e n t Reforming the Church of England. 1641.  for  P a r k e r , Henry,. The Q u e s t i o n " C o n c e r n i n g t h e D i v i n e R i g h t , o f Episcopacie Truly.Stated. London: Robert Bostock,1642. P a r k e r , H e n r y . , The T r u e G r o u n d s o f E c c l e s i a s t i c a l R e g i m e n t Set F o r t h i n a B r i e f D i s s e r t a t i o n . M a i n t a i n i n g the Kings S p i r i t u a l l Supremacie a g a i n s t the Pretended Independence o f the P r e l a t e s , e t c . "London: For Robert Bostock, 1641. Parkin, Sir Willianu . . . S p e e c h t o t h e House o f Commons. i n P a r l i a m e n t , Concerning the Present Establishment of Church Government, J u l y 5, 1541. London: 1641.  181 P e r c y , Thomas. . . . H i s S p e e c h Upon t h a t C l a u s e o f t h e B i l l a g a i n s t E p i s c o p a c y , i n w h i c h Concerns Deanes, and. Chapters. . . . London: 1641. The P e t i t i o n f o r t h e P r e l a t e s  briefly  Examined.  The P e t i t i o n o f t h e House o f Commons w h i c h A c c o m p a n i e d t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e S t a t e o f t h e .Kingdom when i t was p r e s e n t e d t o H i s M a j e s t y a t Hampton C o u r t . London: 1641. A P e t i t i o n ..Presented t o the P a r l i a m e n t from the C o u n t i e of Nottingham Complaining o f . G r i e v a n c e s under the E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l G o v e r n m e n t by A r c h b i s h o p s , B i s h o p s , etc. Plydell, William. TherSpeech of Master P l y d e l l , E s q u i r e : C o n c e r n i n g t h e C h u r c h , F e b . 8, 1641. L o n d o n : 1641. Prynne, W i l l i a m . : . T h e A n t i p a t h y of the E n g l i s h L o r d l y P r e l a c i e b o t h ! t o R e g a l 1 M o n a r c h y , and C i v i l l U n i t y . London: 1641. Prynne, William." A. C a t a l o g u e o f s u c h T e s t i m o n i e s i n a l l A g e s as P l a i n l y E v i d e n c e B i s h o p s and P r e s b y t e r s t o be B o t h O n e / . E q u a l l and t h e Same. . . . London: 16 41. Prynne, W i l l i a m . A New D i s c o v e r y o f t h e P r e l a t e s . T y r a n n y , i n T h e i r Late . . P r o s e c u t i o n s o f M r . W i l l i a m P r y n . London: 1641. Prynne, W i l l i a m . The S e c o n d P a r t o f t h e A n t i p a t h y o f t h e E n g l i s h L o r d l y P r e l a c i e B o t h . t o R e g a l l M o n a r c h , and C i v i l l Unity. London: 1641. Pury,  Thomas. M r , Thomas P u r y , A l d e r m a n o f G l o u c e s t e r , H i s " S p e e c h Upon t h a t C l a u s e o f t h e B i l l a g a i n s t E p i s c o p a c y . -. . . 16 41.  Pym,  John (?). A D e c l a r a t i o n of the Grievances of Kingdom D e l i v e r e d i n P a r l i a m e n t . . " . London:  Pym,  John. A D e c l a r a t i o n Presented to the Honourable House o f Commons. London: F o r R i c h a r d L o w n e s , 1641.  the 1641.  Pym,:John. A D e c l a r a t i o n t o t h e House o f Commons w i t h a Speech D e l i v e r e d a t . C o n f e r e n c e w i t h the L o r d s . By. O c c a s i o n o f t h e P e t i t i o n s f r o m t h e C i t y o f L o n d o n and t h e C o u n t i e s o f M i d d l e s e x , E s s e x , and H a r t f o r d . . . By O r d e r " o f t h e House . o f .Commons London: F o r R i c h a r d L o w n e s , 1641. Pym,  John. H i s S p e e c h on T u e s d a y t h e 8th o f F e b r u a r y t o the L o r d s , a t . a Conference of Both Houses. London: J o h n Hammond, 1641.  182 Pym, J o h n . M a s t e r Pym, H i s Speech t o the. L o r d s , a t a Conference of Both Houses, Concerning the P e t i t i o n of. t h e K n i g h t s and ..Gents o f t h e C o u n t y o f K e n t . London: F o r J o h n Hammond, 1 6 4 2 . The R e c a n t a t i o n . o f t h e P r e l a t e o f C a n t e r b u r y b e i n g H i s L a s t Advice to His Brethren the Bishops of England. London: 1641. A Remonstrance  o f t h e S t a t e o f t h e K i n g d o m , 15 D e c e m b e r ,  1641.  Reynolds,-Edward. The J u d g m e n t o f D o c t o r R e i g n o l d s . C o n c e r n i n g Episcopacy,; I n a L e t t e r - t o S i r F r a n c i s Knowles . " London: Thomas P a i n e , 1 6 4 1 . Rous,  Francis.  M r . Rouse,  H i s Speech,  1641.  R u d y e r d , S i r B e n j a m i n . . F i v e - S p e e c h e s i n t h e H i g h and" H o n o u r a b l e C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t by B e n j a m i n : R u d y e r d K n i g h t , S u r v e i g h o u r o f H i s M a j e s t i e s C o u r t o f Wards and L i v e r i e s . London: H . " D u d l e y and H . S e i l e , 1 6 4 1 . Rudyerd, S i r Benjamin. . . . D e a n e s , . . and C h a p t e r s . . St.  .  Speech C o n c e r n i n g  Bishops,  John O l i v e r . H i s S p e e c h i n P a r l i a m e n t on Monday t h e 17th o f J a n u a r y C o n c e r n i n g the Charge o f Treason t h e n E x h i b i t e d to the Bishops. London: F o r R. B . , 1642.  A S h o r t T r e a t i s e o f A r c h b i s h o p s and B i s h o p s , L o r d s S p i r i t u a l ! . W h e t h e r t h e y be i n L e s s F u l l n e s s L o r d s t h a n t h e Temporal: With B r i e f e Notes Pro E t C o n t r a , taken F o r t h o f t h e S t a t u t e s , Y e a r e - B o o k s , R e p o r t s and A p p r o v e d Authorities. London: 1641. Smectymnus. A n A n s w e r t o a Book E n t i t l e d A n Humble Remonstrance. London: I . R o t h w e l l , 1641. Smith, P h i l i p . 1641.  Mr. Smith's  Speech i n P a r l i a m e n t .  London:  A S p e e c h when M a s t e r Hyde was i n t h e C h a y r e upon t h e Concerning Episcopacy. London: 1641. The S u b s t a n c e " o f  a Conference  at  Bill  a Committee o f B o t h Houses  J o h n . P i r n . - . . and O l i v e r S a i n t J o h n . . i C o n c e r n i n g t h e E x c l u d i n g t h e . T h i r t e e n e B i s h o p s Impeached by t h e Commons. London: 1641. Taylor, John. London:  Rare P h y s i c k f o r the Church S i c k of A n . A g u e . 1642.  183 Thomas, W i l l i a m © A S p e e c h . . . I n P a r l i a m e n t i n May 1641. B e i n g a S h o r t View and E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e A c t i o n s o f . B i s h o p s i n P a r l i a m e n t , f r o m Anno Dom. 1116 t o t h e P r e s e n t . o f 1641 . . . A p p e a r t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n m o s t O b n o x i o u s . t o P r i n c e and P e o p l e . . . . London: Thomas H a r p e r , 1 6 4 1 . Thomas, W i l l i a m . A S p e e c h o f W i l l i a m Thomas E'sq. C o n c e r n i n g , t h e R i g h t o f B i s h o p s S i t t i n g and V o t i n g i n P a r l i a m e n t . London: Thomas H o o p e r , 1 6 4 2 . T o - t h e H i g h a n d H o n o u r a b l e C o u r t o f P a r l i a m e n t , The Humble " P e t i t i o n o f the U n i v e r s i t y of O x f o r d , i n B e h a l f of E p i s c o p a c y and C a t h e d r a l l s . Oxford: Leonard L i c h f i e l d , .1641. ' To t h e H o n o u r a b l e t h e K n i g h t s , C i t i z e n s , a n d B u r g e s s e s o f t h e House o f Commons a s s e m b l e d i n P a r l i a m e n t , t h e Humble P e t i t i o n o f K n i g h t s , G e n t s , F r e e h o l d e r s , and O t h e r s , I n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e C o u n t y o f H e r t f o r d . L o n d o n : • 1642.  —  To t h e House o f Commons, t h e , P e t i t i o n o f A l d e r m e n , ( e t c . ) . . . o f L o n d o n . . P r a y i n g t h a t m e a s u r e s s h o u l d be t a k e n a g a i n s t t h e R e b e l s i n I r e l a n d , a n d t h a t Roman C a t h o l i c P e e r s a n d t h e B i s h o p s s h o u l d be e x p e l l e d f r o m t h e House o f Lords. L o n d o n : 1641. To t h e R i g h t - H o n o u r a b l e t h e House o f P e e r s , now a s s e m b l e d in Parliament. The Humble P i t i t i o n o f K n i g h t s , . G e n t l e m e n , F r e e h o l d e r s , and o t h e r I n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e County of H e r t f o r d . London: Edward G r i f f i n f o r John R o t h w e l l , 1641. The T r u e C h a r a c t e r o f an U n t r u e B i s h o p . With a Recipe at E n d , how t o R e c o v e r a B i s h o p i f Hee w e r e Losfe. London: 1641.  the  The T w e l v e B i s h o p s c a l l e d t o ; t h e P a r l i a m e n t , t o A n s w e r e t h e M a n i f o l d A r t i c l e s whereof t h e y were Impeached, January 17, 1641/42. W i t h t h e V o t e s o f B o t h Houses t h a t P a s s e d upon a C o n f e r e n c e C o n c e r n i n g t h e A c c u s e d B i s h o p s . London: F o r J o h n Hammond, 1 6 4 2 . Two A c t s , o f t h e K n i g h t s , G e n t s . , F r e e h o l d e r s , a n d S u b s i d y Men o f t h e B e s t Ranke a n d Q u a l i t y , i n t h e C o u n t y o f Oxford. London: John W r i g h t , 1642. The Two P e t i t i o n s o f t h e C o u n t y o f B u c k i n g h a m . . A s also t h e Humble P e t i t i o n o f t h e M a r i n e r s and S e a - M e n , I n h a b i t a n t s i n a n d a b o u t t h e P o r t s o f L o n d o n , and t h e R i v e r Thames. London: f o r F . . C o l e s , and T . B a n k s , 1641/42.  184 T h e . T w o - P e t i t i o n s .of t h e C o u n t i e s o f W a r w i c k and C o v e n t r y , as t h e y w e r e P r e s e n t e d t o B o t h H o u s e s . London: 1642. Two P e t i t i o n s " o f t h e . K n i g h t s , F r e e h o l d e r s , and S u b s i d y Men o f t h e ..Best Ranke and Q u a l i t y , i n t h e C o u n t y o f O x f o r d . London: For John W r i g h t , 1641. Usher, James. D i r e c t i o n s P r o p o u n d e d and Humbly to the High Court of P a r l i a m e n t . Oxford: Vane,  Presented 1642.  S i r Henry. S i r H e n r y V a n e , H i s S p e e c h i n t h e House o f . Commons a t a C o m m i t t e e f o r t h e B i l l a g a i n s t E p i s c d p a l l Government, M r . Hide S i t t i n g i n the C h a i r . 1641.  W a l l e r , Edmund. A n H o n o u r a b l e . , and L e a r n e d S p e e c h . . . A g a i n s t t h e P r e l a t e s I n n o v a t i o n s , F a l s e D o c t r i n , and Discipline. . . . London: For R i c h a r d S m i t h e r s , 1641. 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