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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Natural resource capability and user characteristics as an integrated basis for outdoor recreation planning… Foster , Lawrence Victor 1971

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NATURAL RESOURCE C A P A B I L I T Y AND USER CHARACTERISTICS AS A INTEGRATED B A S I S FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION PLANNING: A CASE STUDY OF GALIANO ISLAND *y L a w r e n c e V i c t o r P o s t e r B.L.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f G u e l p h , 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n t h e S c h o o l o f • Community a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1971 In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Community and Regional Planning The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 30, 1971 ABSTRACT I n t h e f i e l d o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , t h e p r o b l e m o f i n c r e a s i n g u s e r demand f o r t h e u s e o f a l i m i t e d s u p p l y o f a v a i l a b l e a n d a p p r o p r i a t e r e s o u r c e s i s b e c o m i n g o f g r o w i n g c o n c e r n . F u r t h e r m o r e , n umerous s t u d i e s h a v e i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t e x c e s s i v e u s e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s c a n c a u s e d e g r a d a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e b a s e a n d r e s u l t i n d e c r e a s e d u s e r e n j o y m e n t o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e . T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h e n e e d f o r e f f e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n a n d a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e s u p p l y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . T h i s w i l l p r o v i d e f o r a s u s t a i n e d o p t i m a l f l o w o f r e c r e a t i o n b e n e f i t s , a n d m i n i m -i z a t i o n o f " d e g r a d a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e q u a l i t y . T he m a j o r p r e m i s e o f t h e t h e s i s s u b m i t s t h a t f o r p u r p o s e s o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g f o r G a l i a n o I s l a n d a n i n t e g r a t e d a p p r o a c h t o n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e e v a l u a t i o n , b a s e d o n a n e c o l o g i c a l f r a m e w o r k a n d i n c o r p o r a t i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t y a n d u s e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , c a n be u t i l i z e d t o o p t i m i z e r e s o u r c e u t i l i t y a n d d e r i v e d u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . T he m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e s t u d y i n c l u d e f o u r p h a s e s ; s y n t h e s i s o f p r e s e n t t e c h n i q u e s o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e e v a l u a t i o n , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p h y s i o g r a p h i c c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h e r e s o u r c e b a s e w h i c h i n f l u e n c e r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e , a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e a c t i v i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d p r e f e r e n c e s o f s e l e c t e d r e f e r e n t r e c r e a t i o n i s t g r o u p s , a n d i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s i n t o a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h t o o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a n a l y s i s . The n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e b a s e o f G a l i a n o I s l a n d , i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a G u l f I s l a n d s , a n d t h e r e c r e a -t i o n i s t s u t i l i z i n g t h e i s l a n d f o r c o t t a g i n g , c a m p i n g a n d i v b o a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r e s e l e c t e d f o r t h e c a s e s t u d y . T h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s o u r c e b a s e i n d i c a t e s t h a t s p a t i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o n t h e i s l a n d , o n t h e b a s i s o f p h y s i o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p r o v i d e s a g o o d means b y w h i c h t o a l l o c a t e t h e s e l e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s . The d a t a p r o v i d e d b y t h e u s e r g r o u p s s e r v e s t o i n d i c a t e t h e n a t u r e a n d s c o p e o f a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h p r o v i d e f o r o p t i m a l e n j o y m e n t o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r -i e n c e . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e f i n d i n g s , a s u g g e s t e d d e v e l o p m e n t scheme f o r G a l i a n o I s l a n d i s p r e p a r e d . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y i l l u s t r a t e t h a t a n i n t e g r a t e d a p p r o a c h t o o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , i n c o r p o r a t i n g r e s o u r c e , a c t i v i t y a n d u s e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , c a n p r o v i d e a means b y w h i c h t o e n h a n c e a n d p r o t e c t o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n v a l u e s o f t h e r e s o u r c e b a s e a n d t h e r e c r e a t i o n i s t s a l i k e . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h a n k s a r e e x t e n d e d t o P r o f e s s o r s W.E. R e e s a n d P.O, R o e r f o r t h e i r comments a n d s u g g e s t i o n s made d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s . The o p p o r t u n i t y p r o v i d e d b y D r . H.P, O b e r l a n d e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e G u l f I s l a n d s R e c r e a t i o n S t u d y , a n d t o u t i l i z e d a t a p r o v i d e d b y t h e p r o j e c t i s g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . The f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e a f f o r d e d b y t h e C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e a n d H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , a n d b y t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s S e r v i c e o f C a n a d a h a v e made t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s p o s s i b l e . S i n c e r e t h a n k s a r e e x t e n d e d t o e a c h o f t h e s e a g e n c i e s • F o r t h e p a t i e n c e a n d m o r a l s u p p o r t g i v e n b y my w i f e , M a r i l y n , d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s , I e x t e n d my d e e p e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n . TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. OUTDOOR RECREATION: THE RESOURCE PROBLEM 1 Demand Requirements v s . Supply C a p a b i l i t y . . . . 1 Scope and O b j e c t i v e s o f the Study. . . . . . . . 5 The Resource: G a l i a n o I s l a n d , 6 Assumptions o f the Study 9 Study Methodology. 12 The Major Study Premise and Hypotheses 13 2. ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES OF RESOURCE ANALYSIS 15 P r i n c i p l e s o f E c o l o g y as F a c t o r s f o r Resource E v a l u a t i o n • 15 Techniques o f N a t u r a l Resource A n a l y s i s . . . • • 20 The Canada Land I n v e n t o r y Program . . . . . . . 27 3. PHYSIOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF GALIANO ISLAND: AN EVALUATION OF CAPABILITY FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION 30 G a l i a n o I s l a n d » . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 P h y s i o g r a p h i c Land U n i t s • • 49 E v a l u a t i o n o f P h y s i o g r a p h i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , . and S i t e C l a s s C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n • • • • 51 S i t e Type Use S u i t a b i l i t y . 60 S i t e Type Use F e a s i b i l i t y . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Summary . . . . . . . . . . 62 v i i C h a p t e r 4 . THE GALIANO ISLAND RECREATIONIST 6 4 The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e • • • • • • • • • • • • » • 64 The C o t t a g e r 65 The Camper . . . . . . . . . . 72 The B o a t e r . . . . . . e . . . . . . o * • « • 79 Summary o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e A n a l y s i s • • • © 84 5. RESOURCE, A C T I V I T Y AND USER INTEGRATION: A SUGGESTED PLAN FOR GALIANO ISLAND 86 The S t u d y P r e m i s e a n d H y p o t h e s e s . . . . . . . 86 A S u g g e s t e d P l a n f o r G a l i a n o I s l a n d • • • • 0 87 C o n c l u s i o n s a n d R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . . . . . . . 92 BIBLIOGRAPHY . o » . . . . . . . « « . . « « » « 94 APPENDIX 100 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES gure Page 1. Canadian weekly work hours and leisure time hours from 1870 - 1970; projections to 2001 . . . . . . . 3 2. B r i t i s h Columbia parks attendance, 1958 - 1970. . . 10 3* Growth of boat ownership i n B r i t i s h Columbia to 1966; projections to 1985 11 4. Number of foreign pleasure boats entering Gulf Islands area, I960 - 1970 . . . . . . . c . . . . . 11 5» The energy cycle • • • • ••••<> 18 6. Monthly mean temperature and precipitation characteristics at Naniamo, as representative of the Coastal Douglas-fir Zone 33 7. Percentage of annual wind direction - Galiano Island area • • • 33 8. Typical B.C. government campsite - Galiano Island . 57 9. Act i v i t y participation rates of cottagers • . • • • 67 10. Cottage lot features. . • 69 11. Beach features 69 12. Cottage development changes 71 13. Activity participation rates of campers . . . . . . 74 14. Campground features 76 15. Beach features - campers . . . o « . . o . . . . . 76 16. Campground development changes . . • o 78 17. Activity participation rates of boaters . . . . . . 81 18. Beach features - boaters . . . . . » . . . . • • . 81 19. Major Galiano Island features of a l l v i s i t o r groups • • • • • • . « . . . o . 8 3 ix LIST OP TABLES Table Page 1. Gulf Island subdivision a c t i v i t y , for lots of two-acres or less, 1959 - 1968 . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2. Scoring and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the capability of physiographic components to support cottaging i n the designated site types 53 3. Scoring and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the capability of physiographic components to support camping i n the designated site types 58 4e Scoring and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the capability of physiographic components to support boating in the designated site types „ • 61 X LIST OP MAPS Map Page 1. G a l i a n o I s l a n d - L o c a t i o n Map 32 2. G a l i a n o I s l a n d - Topography • • • • • • • » • • • • 36 3. G a l i a n o I s l a n d - Slop e A n a l y s i s • • • • • • • • • • 37 4. G a l a i n o I s l a n d - S o i l s and Hydr o l o g y • • • • • • • 39 5» P l a n t h a r d i n e s s zones • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 42 6. G a l i a n o I s l a n d - Land Ownership • • • • • • • • • • 45 7. G a l i a n o I s l a n d - P r e s e n t Land Use • • • • • • • • • 47 8. G a l i a n o I s l a n d - P h y s i o g r a p h i c S i t e C l a s s e s and S i t e Types • • • • • 50 9. G a l i a n o I s l a n d - C a p a b i l i t y f o r S e l e c t e d R e c r e a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s • • < > • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 55 10. G a l i a n o I s l a n d - A Suggested Land-Use P l a n . • • • 89 CHAPTER 1 - OUTDOOR RECREATION: THE RESOURCE PROBLEM DEMAND REQUIREMENTS VS. SUPPLY CAPABILITY Whatever the objective or method of a n a l y s i s , v i r t u a l l y a l l recent research i n the f i e l d of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s permeated with one common concern; ever-increasing user demand f o r a l i m i t e d supply of a v a i l a b l e and appropriate outdoor r e c r e a t i o n resources. Outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n the sense intended here includes those leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s which occur predominantly i n non-urban undeveloped areas, and are l a r g e l y dependent on the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the resource base as determinants of the a c t i v i t y types which can occur. Outdoor r e c r e a t i o n resources, as defined by the U.S. Congress (1958), include: land and water areas and associated resources, which provide or may i n the future provide, opportunities f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , i r r e s p e c t i v e of ownership .. .. and s h a l l not mean nor include r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l -i t i e s , programs, and opportunities u s u a l l y associated with urban development. V/ith regard to the growing demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n resources, Brooks (1961) suggests that i n Canada: f a c t o r s i n d i c a t e a demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n space, i n the immediate future, which staggers the imagination. In nearly a l l cases t h i s demand involves a v a i l a b i l i t y of s p e c i a l land and water areas i n quantity and v a r i e t y . There i s a foreseeable l i m i t to t h i s land. There i s no l i m i t to the presently burgeoning demand. Cahn (1968) has described the n a t i o n a l parks dilemna, which would appear to be becoming common to the e n t i r e out.-2 d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f u n c t i o n , s t a t i n g t h a t " e v e r y i n c r e a s e i n v i s i t o r c a p a c i t y i s o u t m a t c h e d b y i n c r e a s e i n u s e . I t ' s a c a s e o f a c c e s s v s . e x c e s s . " O u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a n a l y s t s h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t a s a g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n moves i n t o t h e "age o f l e i s u r e " w i t h s h o r t e r w o r k i n g d a y s , i n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y , r i s i n g s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g a n d i m p r o v e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , demand f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n w i l l i n c r e a s e i n e x p o n e n t i a l f a s h i o n ( M i l l e r a n d R o b i n s o n , 1963). T h e c h a n g i n g l e i s u r e - t i m e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C a n a d i a n s t o t h e p r e s e n t a n d p r o j e c t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e r e f l e c t c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h , a s shown i n P i g . 1. A w a r e n e s s o f t h e phenomena o f g r o w i n g demand i s c r i t i c a l t o a n y r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o p l a n n i n g f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . Demand, h o w e v e r , i s o n l y one s i d e o f t h e t o t a l o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f u n c t i o n , a n d i s i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d t o t h e many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s u p p l y ; i . e . t h e q u a n t i t y a n d q u a l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s t o f a c i l i t a t e demand. As w i t h a n y o t h e r r e s o u r c e -o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t y ( s u c h a s f o r e s t p r o d u c t i o n o r c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g ) w h i c h i s r e l i a n t o n a s u s t a i n e d s o u r c e o f s u p p l y i n o r d e r t o s u r v i v e , s o must o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n m a i n t a i n a s u p p l y o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s s u i t e d t o a r a n g e o f a c t i v i t i e s w i t h d i v e r s e p h y s i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h r e e i n i t i a l p r o b l e m s a r i s e i n t h i s c o n t e x t : t h e s t o c k o f s u i t a b l e n a t u r a l r e s o u c e s i s a t b e s t f i x e d i n p h y s i c a l t e r m s , a n d a t w o r s t i s d i m i n -i s h i n g a s o t h e r u s e s c o mpete f o r t h e same r e s o u r c e ( B r o c k m a n , 1959). F u r t h e r , t h e i n h e r e n t l a n d - e x t e n s i v e n a t u r e o f many o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e s t h a t l a r g e a r e a s o f l a n d a n d w a t e r be p r o v i d e d t o a c c o m o d a t e a r e l a t i v e l y l o w u s e r p o p u l a t i o n p e r u n i t o f a r e a . F i n a l l y , r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e r e s o u r c e s a r e b e c o m i n g s u b j e c t t o i n c r e a s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t p r e s s u r e s i n t h o s e a r e a s where demand i s t h e g r e a t e s t ( B r o o k s , 1961)c I t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f ' p l a c e 1 i s c e n t r a l t o t h e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f u n c t i o n , a n d t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l 100 o I 1 I 1 < I I I J870 1900 1930 1940 1950 1970 1981 2000 YEAR Fig.1 Canadian weekly work hours and leisure time hours from 1870-1970; projections to 2001 Sources Brooks, I96I Vancouver - Fraser Parks District. I966 4 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the 'place' to a large degree d i c t a t e the nature and scope of i t s r e c r e a t i o n a l u t i l i t y . H i l l s (1961) has described the physiographic composition and e c o l o g i c a l processes of a resource complex as prime f a c t o r s i n assessing the c a p a b i l i t y of a resource f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , and has developed a technique by which these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are u t i l -i z e d as a basis f o r land-use planning. The concept of c a p a b i l -i t y of the resource base i s discussed i n Chapter 2. I n t e r a c t i n g v/ith the c a p a b i l i t y of the p h y s i c a l environ ment ,to support outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s i t s a b i l i t y to provide s a t i s f a c t i o n to the r e c r e a t i o n i s t population. Wagar (1964) has suggested that consideration of e i t h e r the n a t u r a l resource or the resource user i n i s o l a t i o n can only provide a p a r t i a l assessment of resource p o t e n t i a l , and an incomplete basis on which to form outdoor r e c r e a t i o n management p o l i c i e s . The concept suggests a user-resource feedback i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y ; as the r e c r e a t i o n i s t has an impact on the resource base, so also does the resource a f f e c t the r e c r e a t i o n i s t . A compounding e f f e c t occurs as the user creates an impact on the p h y s i c a l environment, and the a l t e r e d environment i n turn creates a new impression on the r e c r e a t i o n i s t . The impact of r e c r e a t i o n a l use on the q u a l i t y of the ph y s i c a l environment has been the subject of a growing number of studies, a l l i n d i c a t i n g a negative impact through the degradation or depletion of the resource base (Wagar, 1964; LaPage, 1962; M a g i l l and Nord, 1963; F r i s s e l and Duncan, 1965)o These studies are concerned p r i m a r i l y with the e f f e c t s of r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s on such s o i l and vegetative charact-e r i s t i c s as s o i l compaction, water run-off, root c o n s t r i c t i o n and l o s s of vegetative ground cover. Resource modifications as a by-product of use are i n e v i t a b l e , the nature and i n t e n s i t y of change being the c r i t i c a l elements to which resource management research must be d i r e c t e d . I t has been proposed that i n the process of 5 planning and a l l o c a t i n g resources f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n : three l i n e s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n are required f o r an e f f e c t i v e evaluation,of supply prospects: a) a present r e c r e a t i o n a l land use inventory, b) basic research i n t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s of n a t u r a l environment to r e c r e a t i o n , c) a r e c r e a t i o n land use c a p a b i l i t y inventory. The ultimate objective of t h i s research i s the determination of optimal and l i m i t i n g conditions f o r various r e c r e a t i o n uses that w i l l serve as c r i -t e r i a f o r evaluation of the resource base f o r r e c r e a t i o n (Baker, 1 9 6 1 ) . The National Academy of Sciences (1969) suggests that due to the wide range of environmental and s o c i a l s e t t i n g s involved i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , research must mainly be done at the l o c a l l e v e l . Within the foregoing framework of research needs i n the assessment of resources f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , i t appears e s s e n t i a l that the three elements - resource, a c t i v i t y , user -be recognized as simultaneously i n t e r a c t i n g . However, i t i s the resource i t s e l f which "hosts" both user and h i s a c t i v i t i e s , and therefore must form the a n a l y t i c a l foundation on which the other f a c t o r s are considered. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES OP THE STUDY The p o t e n t i a l value of an integrated approach to n a t u r a l resource planning f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , i n c o r p o r a t i n g the p h y s i c a l aspects of the resource base, the nature of the a c t i v i t i e s to be accommodated and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the user groups provide the theme f o r t h i s study. The approach i s l a r g e l y exploratory; an examination and a p p l i c a t i o n of c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e techniques of r e c r e a t i o n resource a n a l y s i s . As such, the study i s an expression of the "present state of the a r t . " Within the context of a selected case study, the major 6 o b j e c t i v e s of the study are three: a) to examine the r a t i o n a l e and operative procedures of the present techniques of n a t u r a l resource evaluation, b) to determine the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of, and the i n t e r a c t i o n s among the resource base, selected r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y types, and the resource user groups, c) to demonstrate the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of an integrated approach to outdoor r e c r e a t i o n resource planning as a f u n c t i o n of the resource c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the requirements of the a c t i v i t y types and the user c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The scheme should provide f o r a sustained optimal flow of u t i l i t y and user s a t i s f a c t i o n to an optimal population of r e c r e a t i o n i s t s , while minimizing degradation of resource q u a l i t y created by user impact. Galiano Island, an outdoor r e c r e a t i o n resource complex c u r r e n t l y experiencing increased use and pressures f o r development, has been selected as the case study area f o r purposes of the study. THE RESOURCE: GALIANO ISLAND Galiano Island i s one of the chain of Gulf Islands s i t u a t e d o f f the coast of B r i t i s h Columbia, between the main-land and the southern p o r t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d . As i s the case with several other of the Gulf Islands, Galiano has experienced considerable increase i n r e c r e a t i o n a l use during the 1960 fs and has been subjected to growing pressures f o r development of p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s ( C a p i t a l Regional D i s t r i c t Planning Department, 1970). The Gulf Island chain, i n c l u d i n g Galiano Island, represents a r e c r e a t i o n environment of considerable r e g i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Moreover, the area i s of i n t e r e s t to p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s . For example, a recent proposal advo-cated the c r e a t i o n of a n a t i o n a l park encompassing a l l the Gulf Islands; intending to ensure environmental p r o t e c t i o n by v i r t u e of f e d e r a l government c o n t r o l (Vancouver Sun, 1970). 7 The government of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, also concerned with the prospect of degradation of the Gulf Islands natural environment, enacted interim protective l e g i s -l a t i o n i n 1969. The l e g i s l a t i o n , which included Galiano Island within i t s authority, was intended primarily to prohibit new cottage lot subdivisions u n t i l a long-range development plan for the islands was prepared. A minimum lot size of 10 acres for any new subdivision proposal was enforced at that time, and at present i s s t i l l i n effect (Capital Regional D i s t r i c t Plan-ning Department, 1970). The Capital Regional D i s t r i c t Planning Department (1970) has recommended that the development plan to be prepared for the islands must provide for management of the Gulf Islands on a long-term, "sustained y i e l d " basis, ensuring protection of the resource as a balanced ecological system. The plan must be based on: establishing principles and objectives, formulating a management concept, determining the supply of land and sea in relation to i t s s u i t a b i l i t y for various purposes, str i k i n g a balance between competing uses and needs, and ensuring the provision of a satisfactory level of services. Cottaging Much of the concern which has been generated with regard to the Gulf Islands has occurred due to growing devel-opment of summer cottages, now generally i n i t i a t e d by land developers on a subdivision basis (Ibid). The increasing number of subdivision lots i n the Gulf Islands area, including Galiano Island, i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 1. As shown, while several of the other islands have accommodated a larger number of l o t s , the number of development areas on Galiano Island i s second only to that which has occurred on Saltspring Island. Islands No. 1959 of Lots Subdivided I960 1961 1962 1963 3964 1365 1966 1967 1963 Total B59-68 No. Bavelopment Areas Saltspring 122 144 103 15 57 197 74 118 129 168 1107 19 Outer Gulf Islands Saturn?. 84 64 6 - 6 , 5 1 17 52 21 256 4 Mayne 29 146 63 67 198 23 55 32 38 11 662 S Galiano 30 29 23 10 30 28 25 51 46 48 320 11 N . Pender 2 28 16 6 61 169 67 10 145 229 733 9 S. Pender 1 37 4 - 4 - 11 - 5 4 66 2 Total 268 448 215 98 356 402 233 228 415 481 3144 53 Table 1 Gulf Island subdivision activity, for lots of two acres or less, 1959-1968 Source: Capital Regional Distr ict, I970 9 C a m p i n g G r o w t h i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r g a n i z e d c a m p i n g h a s i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n r e c e n t y e a r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; a f o u r - f o l d i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f camper n i g h t s s p e n t i n p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t c a m p g r o u n d s b e t w e e n 1958 a n d 1970 d o c u m e n t i n g t h e t r e n d ( P i g . 2). A v a i l a b l e d a t a o f v i s i t o r u s e o f g o v e r n m e n t c a m p i n g f a c i l i t i e s o n G a l i a n o I s l a n d i n d i c a t e a 15.0% i n c r e a s e i n camper n i g h t s b e t w e e n 1969 a n d 1970 summer s e a s o n s ( D e p a r t m e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n a n d C o n s e r v a t i o n , 1970). M a c d o n a l d (1970) h a s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t c a m p i n g r e p r e s e n t s one o f t h e m a j o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d o u t o n G a l i a n o I s l a n d . B o a t i n g P l e a s u r e b o a t i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y d u r i n g t h e l a s t two d e c a d e s ( P i g . 3), n o t o n l y i n t e r m s o f t h e a b s o l u t e number o f b o a t s b u t a l s o p r o p o r t i o n a l l y t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e . S p e c i f i c t o t h e G u l f I s l a n d s a r e a , t h e number o f f o r e i g n p l e a s u r e c r a f t c r u i s i n g i n t h e a r e a h a s s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d s i n c e I960 ( P i g . 4). D a t a p r o v i d e d b y C a n a d a Customs o f f i c i a l s i n t h e G u l f I s l a n d s a r e a i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e f o r e i g n c r a f t a r e owned b y v i s i t o r s f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( D e p a r t m e n t o f N a t i o n a l R e v e n u e , 1970). ASSUMPTIONS OP THE STUDY F o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r k i n g a s s u m p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g G a l i a n o I s l a n d a r e made. a ) G a l i a n o I s l a n d i s p r i m a r i l y a n o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e , a n d o t h e r l a n d u s e a c t i v i t i e s a r e o f s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e t o t h a t f u n c t i o n . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s b a s e d o n t h e d e v e l -opment t r e n d s r e c e n t l y o c c u r r i n g o n t h e i s l a n d , a n d o n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e c r e a t i o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s g i v e n b y r e g i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l a n d f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s . b ) U s e r demand f o r e a c h o f t h e s e l e c t e d r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y 8.0 7.5 7.0 6-5 6 0 5-5 50 4-5 4 0 35 - 3 0 25 2 0 1 51 1-01 CAMPER NIGHTS DAY VISITS •^^8B if 8 ' 8 1958 1959 1960 1961 196? 1963 196* 196i 1966 1967 1968 1969 19i'0 Y E A R 2 British Columbia parks annual attendance, 1958-1970 Dep't of Recreation & Conservation I969 & I970 OS DQ in o x 12 z 20 60 Q. o o o LO < O CO 20 B O A T S / 1 0 0 0 POP.j POPULATION] DISPOSABLE INCOME] I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I 8 fi z 2 2 5 O IO 0> o to o C0 o oo 0> m co 8- £ UJ a —i z CD < < (/> 6 to ^ - o o O. x a. 2 ° U J UJ o CL O z 0 Fig. 3 Growth of boat ownership in British Columbia to 1966; projections to 1985 source Lea 1966 10-T 1960/61 61/62 62/63 63/64 64/65 65/66 66/67 67/68 68/69 1969/70 YEAR Fig. 4 Number of foreign pleasure boats entering Gulf Islands area, 1960-70 source Dep t of National Revenue. 1970 t y p e s - c o t t a g i n g , c a m p i n g , b o a t i n g - w i l l c o n t i n u e t o i n c r e a s e i n t h e f u t u r e . I n c r e a s i n g a r e a p o p u l a t i o n a n d a f i x e d s u p p l y o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s i n d i c a t e t h a t f u t u r e p r e s s u r e s f o r s p a c e o n t h e i s l a n d w i l l become g r e a t e r . c ) Summer c o t t a g i n g , o r g a n i z e d c a m p i n g a n d p l e a s u r e b o a t i n g ' w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be d o m i n a n t r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s o n t h e i s l a n d . T r e n d s i n d i c a t e t h e s u b s t a n t i a l g r o w t h o f e a c h a c t i v i t y w i l l c o n t i n u e . d ) B o t h p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be accommodated o n t h e i s l a n d . A n y p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n t o a c q u i r e t h e e n t i r e i s l a n d f o r p u b l i c p a r k p u r p o s e s d o e s not a p p e a r l i k e l y a t t h e p r e s e n t , a n d s u c h a d e c i s i o n w o u l d be b e y o n d t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y . e ) P r e s e n t l a n d o w n e r s h i p c o n d i t i o n s a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o n t h e i s l a n d a r e n o t c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e a n a l y t i c p r o c e d u r e . The e m p h a s i s o f t h e s t u d y i s b a s e d more o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e r e s o u r c e b a s e r a t h e r t h a n t h e e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n o f l a n d h o l d i n g s . f ) T he r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n g o v e r n i n g d e v e l o p m e n t o n t h e i s l a n d w i l l be r e p l a c e d b y m o d i f i e d l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t s c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e f o r t h c o m i n g l o n g - r a n g e p l a n b e i n g p r e p a r e d b y r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s . g) R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s h a v e e n f o r c e m e n t p o w e r s t o c o n t r o l b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e a n d q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f d e v e l o p m e n t o n t h e i s l a n d ; z o n i n g , u t i l i t i e s i n s t a l l a t i o n , b u i l d i n g s t a n d a r d s . h ) The m a j o r mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o t h e i s l a n d w i l l c o n -t i n u e t o be p r o v i d e d b y t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f e r r y s e r v i c e . STUDY METHODOLOGY The a n a l y t i c a l f r a m e w o r k f o r t h i s s t u d y p r o c e e d s t h r o u g h f o u r p h a s e s , d e s c r i b e d a s f o l l o w s . R e v i e w o f R e s o u r c e E v a l u a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s The r e v i e w p h a s e o f t h e s t u d y e x a m i n e s some o f t h e 13 m a j o r t e c h n i q u e s p r e s e n t l y e m p l o y e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . I t p r o v i d e s a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f e a c h t e c h n i q u e , t h e c o m p o n e n t s c o n s i d e r e d i n e a c h , a n d t h e means o f r a n k i n g o r s c o r i n g t h e a s s e s s e d r e s o u r c e v a l u e s . The means b y w h i c h t h e q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f l a n d s c a p e c h a r -a c t e r a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o e a c h t e c h n i q u e i s a l s o e x a m i n e d . The s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f e a c h t e c h n i q u e a r e e x t r a c t e d t o f o r m t h e b a s i s f o r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e G a l i a n o I s l a n d r e s o u r c e . A n a l y s i s o f t h e P h y s i c a l R e s o u r c e An a n a l y s i s o f t h e p h y s i c a l a n d b i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f G a l i a n o I s l a n d i s u n d e r t a k e n , t o a s s e s s t h e p h y s i c a l p o t e n t i a l o f t h e l a n d b a s e t o s u p p o r t s e l e c t e d r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , o n a s u s t a i n e d b a s i s a n d w i t h r e g a r d t o a d o p t e d d e v e l o p m e n t c r i t e r i a . A n a l y s i s o f t h e V i s i t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e A n a l y s i s o f a v i s i t o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d t o c o t t a g e r s , c a m p e r s a n d p l e a s u r e b o a t e r s o n G a l i a n o I s l a n d c o n s t i t u t e s t h e p h a s e o f t h e s t u d y w h i c h a s s e s s e s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e e x a m i n e s t h e r e a c t i o n s o f v i s i t o r s t o t h e i s l a n d i n t e r m s o f t h e i r a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s d u r i n g t h e v i s i t , t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , a n d t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e most a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h e r e s o u r c e . I n t e g r a t i o n o f R e s o u r c e , A c t i v i t y a n d U s e r Components The f i n a l p h a s e o f t h e s t u d y i n t e g r a t e s t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e f o r e g o i n g r e s o u r c e a n d u s e r a n a l y s e s , a n d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e f i n d i n g s a n a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e a p p r o a c h p r o v i d e s a s u g g e s t e d d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n . THE MAJOR STUDY PREMISE AND HYPOTHESES S i n c e t h e o v e r a l l g o a l o f t h e s t u d y i s t o e x a m i n e a n d 14 i n t e g r a t e f a c t o r s o f t h r e e d i s t i n c t elements - r e s o u r c e , a c t i v i t y , u s e r - which are a s s e s s e d by d i f f e r e n t means, i t i s u s e f u l t o s t a t e e x p l i c i t l y the c e n t r a l premise t h a t : f o r purposes o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g on G a l i a n o I s l a n d , an i n t e g r a t e d approach t o n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e e v a l -u a t i o n based on an e c o l o g i c a l framework and i n c o r p o r a t i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the a c t i v i t y and u s e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , can o p t i m i z e s u s t a i n e d r e s o u r c e u t i l i t y and d e r i v e d u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . W i t h i n t h i s comprehensive framework, t h r e e working hypotheses are i d e n t i f i e d . •a) V a r i a t i o n s i n the p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f G a l i a n o I s l a n d a r e o f s u f f i c i e n t type and degree as t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s on which d i s t r i b u t i o n o f outdoor r e c r e a -t i o n a c t i v i t y can be d e s i g n a t e d , to o p t i m i z e r e s o u r c e u t i l i t y and minimize adverse impact on the r e s o u r c e b a s e . b) I n e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r o p i n i o n s o f the most important f e a t u r e s o f G a l i a n o I s l a n d , the r e s p o n s e s o f a l l t h r e e groups o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t s - c o t t a g e r s , campers, b o a t e r s -are s i m i l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d among n a t u r a l , man-made and s o c i a l f e a t u r e s . c) P r e f e r e n c e s o f the r e f e r e n t groups - c o t t a g e r s , campers, b o a t e r s - u t i l i z i n g G a l i a n o I s l a n d i n d i c a t e a d e s i r a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e i n a n e a r - n a t u r a l c o n d i -t i o n , w i t h development o f f a c i l i t i e s , u t i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s m a i n t a i n e d a t minimal l e v e l s . CHAPTER 2 - ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES.  OF RESOURCE ANALYSIS PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGY AS FACTORS FOR RESOURCE EVALUATION Much current l i t e r a t u r e on resource a n a l y s i s and management p r a c t i c e s emphasizes the importance of resource u t i l i z a t i o n based on e c o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . S i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s , however, has been written on the means of applying these p r i n c i p l e s . E c o l o g i c a l concepts are meaningful to planning f o r resource use only i n s o f a r as they can be adapted and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d . Thus i t i s c r i t i c a l to recognize not only relevant p r i n c i p l e s of ecology, but also t h e i r i m plications i n resource u t i l i z a t i o n as manifest i n the environment. Ecosystem Odum (1959) describes an e c o l o g i c a l system or eco-system as: any area of nature that includes l i v i n g organisms and n o n l i v i n g substances i n t e r a c t i n g to produce an exchange of materials between the l i v i n g and n o n l i v i n g p a r t s . Any ecosystem embodies four e s s e n t i a l and i n t e r a c t i n g c o n s t i -tuents. The a b i o t i c substances are those inorganic and organic chemical compounds found i n the s o i l , water and a i r , plus the p h y s i c a l components which provide the resource s e t t i n g . Producers are those plants which are able to manu-facture food from simple inorganic substances. Consumers i n the ecosystem are those heterotrophic organisms which feed upon other organic and inorganic matter. Decomposers break down the protoplasmic compounds of dead organisms i n t o simple substances usable by producers (Odum, 1959). Odum (Ibid) stresses the importance of the r e c o g n i t i o n of the "ob l i g a t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , interdependence and causal r e l a t i o n s h i p s " between the ecosystem components, i n d i c a t i n g that major a l t e r a t i o n of the conditions necessary to any one of the groups w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y a l t e r the conditions of the other constituents as w e l l . Therefore, u t i l i z a t i o n of any n a t u r a l resource requires an understanding of the composition and processes of each of the basic constituents i n order to ensure that a balance within the t o t a l ecosystem i s maintained. The Concepts of Habitat, Niche, Community and Succession Several other e c o l o g i c a l concepts of consequence to resource evaluation processes include those of h a b i t a t , niche, community and succession (Bugslag, 1968). The habitat of an organism i s the composite of the a b i o t i c and b i o t i c character-i s t i c s of the environment or •place 1 i n which the' organism i s found,(Odum, 1959). The concept of niche suggests that w i t h i n any ha b i t a t , each organism.plays a s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n a l r o l e i n the o v e r a l l e c o l o g i c a l processes, and i s part of the s e r i e s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g between components of the ecosystem. The d i s t i n c t i o n between habitat and. niche i s i n d i c a t e d by Odum (1959) who states that " i t may s a i d that the h a b i t a t i s the organism's 'address 1, and the niche i s i t s p r o f e s s i o n ' , b i o l o g i c a l l y speaking." A l l of the organisms found within a habitat c o l l e c t -i v e l y c o n s t i t u t e the b i o t i c community. Odum (1959) states that the community i s the " l i v i n g part of the ecosystem" and i s composed of "any assemblage of populations l i v i n g i n a presc r i b e d area." The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and composition of the b i o t i c community at any point i n time are the r e s u l t s of the na t u r a l processes of e c o l o g i c a l succession o c c u r r i n g within 17 the micro-habitat• T y p i c a l l y i n an ecosystem, community development begins with pioneer stages which are replaced by a s e r i e s of more mature communities, u n t i l a r e l a t i v e l y stable community i s evolved which i s i n e q u i l i b r i u m with l o c a l p h y s i -c a l conditions ( I b i d ) . The concept suggests that n a t u r a l succession i s strongly u n i - d i r e c t i o n a l toward a climax s t a t e , making p r e d i c t i o n of future b i o t i c composition p o s s i b l e . Population Ecology, Community Energetics and Community Organ- i z a t i o n Watt (1968) has described three major f i e l d s of study - population ecology, community energetics, community organization and s t a b i l i t y - as s i g n i f i c a n t to resource a n a l -y s i s . He suggests that the e s s e n t i a l considerations of the population f a c t o r are i n recognizing that the b i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y of any resource can remain constant at some o p t i -mal l e v e l only i f the "cropping" of that population does not exceed i t s regenerative capacity. As defined by H i l l s (1961), b i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y i s the a b i l i t y of land to produce a crop of l i v i n g organisms.... The b i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y of an area i s dependent not only upon the p o t e n t i a l of the land supply matter and energy to the b i o t i c community which i t supports, but also upon the a b i l i t y of the crop organisms to u t i l i z e t h i s energy. In e f f e c t , the a b i l i t y of a resource to provide a sustained y i e l d of some species or crop i s dependent on maintenance of some minimum supply. In terms of resource use f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n purposes, the population f a c t o r i s important i n s o f a r as i t can a s s i s t i n determining the extent to which resource modification of b i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y can be made without adversely a f f e c t i n g the o v e r a l l system. Community energetics i s the study of the flows of energy through an ecosystem from one constituent, or trophic l e v e l to another, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n P i g . 5« Source - N i e r i n g , 1966 19 Odum ( 1959 ) s t a t e s t h a t : T h e e s s e n c e o f l i f e i s t h e p r o g r e s s i o n o f s u c h c h a n g e s a s g r o w t h , s e l f - d u p l i c a t i o n , a n d s y n t h e s i s o f c o m p l e x r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f m a t t e r . W i t h o u t energy-t r a n s f e r s , w h i c h accompany a l l s u c h c h a n g e s , t h e r e c o u l d be no l i f e a n d no e c o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s •••• W i t h i n t h e f l o w s o f e n e r g y b e t w e e n c o n s t i t u e n t s o f a n e c o s y s t e m , t h e o p t i m a l o r most e f f i c i e n t e n e r g y u t i l i t y i s p r o v i d e d b y t h a t c o m b i n a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s w h i c h o c c u r n a t u r -a l l y ( W a t t , 1 9 6 8 )« M o d i f i c a t i o n o f a r e s o u r c e t o c o n d i t i o n s o t h e r t h a n p r e v a i l n a t u r a l l y w i l l r e s u l t i n a d e c r e a s e o f e n e r g y u t i l i t y , a n d r e q u i r e a n i n p u t o f a d d i t i o n a l e n e r g i e s f r o m e x t e r n a l f o r c e s t o m a i n t a i n a n o p t i m a l l e v e l . T h e community e n e r g e t i c s p r i n c i p l e t h u s i n d i c a t e s t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f m a i n t a i n i n g a n y n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e c o m p l e x i n a s t a t e c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t i n g n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s , i f s u s t a i n i n g n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e s o u r c e i s a p u r s u e d o b j e c t i v e . W a t t ( I b i d ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o m m unity o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l f u r t h e r be m a i n t a i n e d , a n d s t a b i l i t y e n h a n c e d b y r e t e n t -i o n o f a l l e l e m e n t s n o r m a l l y f o u n d w i t h i n t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n -ment o f t h e r e s o u r c e . Odum ( 1959 ) h a s s t a t e d t h a t : a n y n a t u r a l e n c l o s e d s y s t e m w i t h e n e r g y f l o w i n g t h r o u g h i t ... t e n d s t o c h a n g e u n t i l a s t a b l e a d j u s t m e n t , w i t h s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g m e c h a n i s m s i s d e v e l o p e d . S e l f - r e g u l a t i n g m e c h a n i s m s a r e m e c h a n i s m s w h i c h b r i n g a b o u t a r e t u r n t o c o n s t a n c y i f a s y s t e m i s c a u s e d t o c h a n g e f r o m a s t a b l e s t a t e b y a momentary o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e . T h u s t h e c o n c e p t s u g g e s t s t h a t e l i m i n a t i o n o f s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s o f one o r more c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , a s a r e s u l t o f r e s o u r c e u s e , l e a d s t o d e c r e a s e d s t a b i l i t y o f t h e ecosystem.. E c o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e s i n t h e N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e A n a l y s i s C o n t e x t The f o r e g o i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f e c o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s 20 suggests a number of fundamental factors to be recognized i n the context of natural resource analysis. These are p a r t i c -ularly significant to outdoor recreation i f one assumes that retention of the natural characteristics of the resource i s a prime objective. Three basic procedural considerations embody most of the foregoing principles. a) The relationships between components of the ecosystem ' must be determined i n order to u t i l i z e the resource i n such a manner as w i l l not disrupt those relationships. b) No change i n a natural system i s an isolated change, but rather has repercussions on a l l other constituents i n the system. Therefore, i t i s imperative to recognize the factors which influence any specific system, and to main-i tain those factors above some minimum level and below some maximum level beyond which system s t a b i l i t y i s adversely affected. c) The natural state of any renewable resource complex at any point i n time represents the optimal combination of b i o t i c and abiotic constituents, providing the optimal allocation of energy within the system and minimizing the system . i n s t a b i l i t y . TECHNIQUES OP NATURAL RESOURCE ANALYSIS Numerous approaches to evaluation of natural resource complexes have been developed, the major techniques currently used varying substantially i n terms of ecological considerations incorporated i n the evaluation and the depth of s c i e n t i f i c analysis. While not a l l techniques have evolved s p e c i f i c a l l y i n response to outdoor recreation resource evaluation, a l l are adaptable to incorporate the outdoor recreation function at some level of analysis. Steinitz (1970) noted that a l l landscape resource analysis techniques may be c l a s s i f i e d within five major categories. In increasing scope and complexity of analysis, the five include: 21 a ) i n v e n t o r y o f r e s o u r c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , b ) i n v e n t o r y f o r p u r p o s e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f s p e c i f i c u s e f u n c t i o n s , c ) r e s o u r c e a n a l y s i s l i n k e d w i t h demand s t u d i e s , d) s i n g l e s e c t o r m o d e l s w h i c h p r e d i c t t h e e f f e c t o f c h a n g e ; c o n s e q u e n c e s o f v a r i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c i e s , e ) s i m u l a t i o n m o d e l s w h i c h c a n i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r m o d e l s " i n a g e n e r a l s y s t e m f o r p l a n n i n g . S i n c e t h e i n t e n t o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o c o n s i d e r G a l i a n o I s l a n d a s a s p e c i f i c o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e c o m p l e x , a n d ass u m e s c o n t i n u e d h i g h demand f o r a l l s e l e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s , t h e a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e s b o t h *a« a n d 'b* a b o v e . S t e i n i t z ( 1 9 7 0 ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e c h n i q u e s a p p l i c a b l e t o b o t h t h e s e t y p e s o f a n a l y s e s a r e e m b o d i e d i n t h e a p p r o a c h e s d e v e l o p e d b y P h i l i p L e w i s , I a n M c H a r g a n d Angus H i l l s . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a p p r o a c h o f P h i l i p L e w i s i s t h e l e a s t s c i e n t i f i c , p r o v i d i n g f o r a r a p i d s u r v e y o f p a t t e r n s o f f e a t u r e s i n t h e l a n d s c a p e . The t e c h n i q u e d o e s n o t i n c l u d e t h e e c o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e a s m a j o r d e t e r m i n a n t s i n e v a l u a t i o n , b u t r a t h e r i s o r i e n t e d more t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f man-made f e a t u r e s i n d e v e l o p e d a r e a s . The e v a l u a t i o n t e c h n i q u e d e v e l o p e d b y M c H a r g i s s i m i -l a r l y most u s e f u l i n d e v e l o p e d a r e a s , a n d i n c o r p o r a t e s man-made a n d " c u l t u r a l " a s p e c t s i n t h e l a n d s c a p e a s i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n t h e a n a l y s i s . M c H a r g * s a p p r o a c h i s b o t h more s c i e n t i f i c a n d more d e t a i l e d t h a n t h a t o f L e w i s , a n d e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e r e s o u r c e b a s e a r e i n c l u d e d t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s . The t e c h n i q u e p r o p o s e d b y H i l l s r e q u i r e s a more s c i e n -t i f i c a n a l y s i s t h a n e i t h e r o f t h e f o r e g o i n g , a n d i s c a r r i e d o u t i n c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r d e t a i l . The a p p r o a c h i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y b a s e d o n a n a l y s i s o f t h e p h y s i o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e 22 n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e base, and i s most a p p l i c a b l e t o undeveloped a r e a s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f man-made f e a t u r e s i n the la n d s c a p e are i n c l u d e d i n the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s , but are o f secondary importance t o the p h y s i o g r a p h i c d e t e r m i n a n t s o f the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e . A l l t h r e e o f the t e c h n i q u e s d e s c r i b e d above appear t o c o n t a i n elements which are a p p r o p r i a t e t o the o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y , and as such are s u b s e q u e n t l y examined i n d e t a i l i n the t h e s i s , P h i l i p Lewis The o b j e c t i v e o f the approach t o r e s o u r c e a n a l y s i s d e v e l o p e d by P h i l i p Lewis i s " t o i d e n t i f y , p r e s e r v e , p r o t e c t and enhance the most o u t s t a n d i n g i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s and see t h a t i n t r o -duced man-made v a l u e s a re developed i n harmony w i t h t h e s e q u a l i t y r e s o u r c e s " (Landscape A r c h i t e c t u r e R e s e a r c h O f f i c e , 1967), An exa m i n a t i o n o f h i s approach i n d i c a t e s t h a t : Lewis has d i v i d e d r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e p a t t e r n s i n t o those p o s s e s s i n g i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s ( p e r c e p t u a l q u a l i t i e s o f the n a t u r a l environment) and those p o s s e s s i n g . e x t r i n s i c v a l u e s ( r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s c r e a t e d by man-made changes, a d a p t i o n s , and a d d i t i o n s t o b a s i c n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ) ( I b i d ) , The t e c h n i q u e was developed p r i m a r i l y f o r an outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e e v a l u a t i o n i n the S t a t e o f W i s c o n s i n , and i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n t e n d e d as an approach f o r l a r g e - s c a l e a r e a a n a l y s i s . While d e t a i l e d i n v e n t o r y o f the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e f e a t u r e s i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the t e c h n i q u e , the o b j e c t i v e i s u l t i m a t e l y to regr o u p these elements i n t o broad o v e r a l l p a t t e r n s as the y o c c u r i n the lan d s c a p e ( B u g s l a g , 1968), The essence o f Lew i s ' t e c h -n i q u e i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f broad r e c r e a t i o n " c o r r i d o r s " which are r e v e a l e d i n the n a t u r a l and man-made la n d s c a p e (Lewis, 1964). The a n a l y t i c a l p r o c e s s proposed by Lewis, as 23 s u m m a r i z e d b y t h e L a n d s c a p e A r c h i t e c t u r e R e s e a r c h O f f i c e (1967), i n c l u d e s s e v e r a l s e q u e n t i a l s t e p s i n r e s o u r c e e v a l u a t i o n . F i r s t , t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e s t o be accommodated, and t h e p h y s i c a l c r i t e r i a f o r t h o s e u s e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . N e x t , t h e n a t u r a l a n d man-made r e s o u r c e s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a a r e i n v e n t o r i e d , a n d t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s e i n v e n t o r i e s c o m b i n e d t o i n d i c a t e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s o f f e a -t u r e s i n t h e l a n d s c a p e . N u m e r i c a l v a l u e s a r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e r e s o u r c e f e a t u r e s o n t h e b a s i s o f a s s e s s e d r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f e a c h , w i t h t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e s b e i n g a s c r i b e d t o t h e most s i g n i f -i c a n t f e a t u r e s . Summation o f t h e v a l u e s p r o v i d e s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f s p a t i a l p r i o r i t y a r e a s . I n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e n u m e r i c a l e v a l u a -t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e f e a t u r e s a n d t h e demand f a c t o r f o r t h e v a r i o u s s e l e c t e d a c t i v i t y t y p e s p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r a s s i g n i n g l a n d u s e s . I a n M c H a r g The c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e t e c h n i q u e o f r e s o u r c e a n a l y s i s d e v e l o p e d by M c H a r g r e c o g n i z e s t h a t " p h y s i o g r a p h i c d e t e r m i n i s m " i s t h e b a s i c f a c t o r f r o m w h i c h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e u s e must e v o l v e ( M c H a r g an d W a l l a c e , 1965). M c H a r g s t r e s s e s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g " n a t u r e a s p r o -c e s s " , a n d s u b m i t s t h a t r e c o g n i z i n g t h e n a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s w h i c h c r e a t e d t h e r e s o u r c e i s e s s e n t i a l t o d e t e r m i n i n g how t o o p t i m a l l y u t i l i z e i t ( M c H a r g , 1969). The t e c h n i q u e p r o p o s e d b y M c H a r g was n o t d e v e l o p e d e x p r e s s l y f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n p u r p o s e s , b u t t h e r e c r e a t i o n f u n c t i o n h a s b e e n a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f some s t u d i e s w h i c h h a v e u t i l i z e d t h e a p p r o a c h . The s c o p e o f t h e t e c h n i q u e i s more e x t e n s i v e t h a n t h a t o f L e w i s , i n c o r p o r a t i n g a b r o a d e r r a n g e o f f a c t o r s a s p a r t o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n ; p h y s i o g r a p h i c , c u l t u r a l , e c o n o m i c , v i s u a l a n d j u r i s d i c t i o n a l . G i v e n a t o t a l s t u d y a r e a , M c H a r g p r o p o s e s t h a t a n e c o l o g i c a l i n v e n t o r y be c a r r i e d o u t as t h e i n i t i a l p h a s e o f t h e a n a l y s i s ( M c H a r g , 1967). As d e s c r i b e d by t h e L a n d s c a p e A r c h i -t e c t u r e R e s e a r c h O f f i c e (1967), d a t a i s c o l l e c t e d s e q u e n t i a l l y 24 on c l i m a t e , h i s t o r i c geology, p h y s i o g r a p h y , h y d r o l o g y , s o i l s , p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s and animal l i f e . The o r d e r o f d a t a c o l l e c -t i o n r e f l e c t s McHarg's c o n c e r n f o r r e c o g n i z i n g p r o g r e s s i v e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the n a t u r a l e v o l u t i o n o f the d e v e l o p i n g r e s o u r c e . I n a d d i t i o n to the e c o l o g i c a l i n v e n t o r y , p r e s e n t l a n d uses i n the s t u d y a r e a are a l s o d e t e r m i n e d . The p o s i t i v e , n e u t r a l o r n e g a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the elements o f the i n v e n t o r y are c o n s i d e r e d f o r a range o f p o t e n -t i a l a c t i v i t y t y p es which c o u l d o c c u r i n the s t u d y a r e a , and a v a l u e a s c r i b e d on maps f o r each p r o s p e c t i v e l a n d u s e . By examining a s e r i e s o f t r a n s p a r e n t map o v e r l a y s , i n d i c a t i n g a l l the a s s e s s e d v a l u e s f o r a l l p o t e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s , a combined s u i t a b i l i t y map showing those a r e a s most s u i t a b l e f o r each a c t i v i t y i s p r e p a r e d . C o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f economic c o n d i t i o n s , v i s u a l c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s , d e s i g n c r i t e r i a and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l f a c t o r s are examined w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the f i n d i n g s o f the s u i t a b i l i t y map. Economic d a t a u t i l i z e d i n c l u d e s p r o p e r t y v a l u e s and t h e i r l o c a t i o n s w i t h r e f e r e n c e to " s p a t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f demand" (Landscape A r c h i t e c t u r e R e s e a r c h O f f i c e , 1 9 6 7 ) . V i s u a l c o n s i d -e r a t i o n s i n c l u d e view c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as p r o v i d e d f o r the v i e w e r , and the v i s u a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f any p a r t i c u l a r l a n d use type l o c a t e d i n the l a n d s c a p e . Design c r i t e r i a are e v o l v e d as g u i d e l i n e s which o p t i m a l l y i n t e g r a t e the form o f the l a n d use t y pes i n t o the l a n d s c a p e . F i n a l l y , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l powers r e q u i r e d to implement the f i n d i n g s o f the a n a l y s i s , and the r e s u l t i n g p l a n , p r o v i d e an e s s e n t i a l phase o f the o v e r a l l a n a l y t i c a l .process ( I b i d ) . Angus H i l l s S i m i l a r t o the fundamental " d e t e r m i n i s t i c " concept o f McHarg, the r e s o u r c e a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e developed by H i l l s i s based on the premise t h a t o p t i m a l l a n d use p l a n n i n g o c c u r s as a f u n c t i o n o f the p h y s i o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the n a t u r a l 25 resource base. The prime obje c t i v e of H i l l s 1 approach i s to provide those "responsible f o r the management of renewable resources with a basis f o r most land-use planning" ( H i l l s , 1961). The technique was not developed f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n resource a n a l y s i s e x c l u s i v e l y , but f o r any resource-oriented form of land use i n c l u d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l production, f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e , r e c r e a t i o n and f r e s h water f i s h i n g . H i l l s (Ibid) has suggested that e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of the technique requires that f i v e phases of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n be incorporated within the evaluation processes: a) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of land based on natural resource character-i s t i c s ; surface r e l i e f , geologic materials, climate and s o i l s , b) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of present land use types, c) u s e - c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; areas rated according to c a p a b i l i t y of the physiographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the n a t u r a l resource to support various functions, d) recommended-use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; use selected f o r a s p e c i f i c area, chosen from various p o t e n t i a l uses, e) use-programming c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; an i n d i c a t i o n of scheduling of land use plans, based on economic and s o c i o l o g i c f a c t o r s . The sequential processes by which the f i v e phases are c a r r i e d out are described by the Landscape Architecture Research O f f i c e (1967)» The " t o t a l s i t e " i s p r o g r e s s i v e l y subdivided in t o smaller land areas on the basis of physiographic d i f f e r -e n t i a t i o n ; c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s , landform, geologic composition, s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and water content. The defined land areas include s i t e regions, land types, s i t e c l a s s e s , s i t e types and s i t e phases i n decreasing order of s i z e and i n c r e a s i n g order of a n a l y t i c d e t a i l . A s i t e region includes any area of broad c l i m a t i c s i m i l a r i t y , normally encompassing from 1000 to 4000 square m i l e s . Landtypes are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d within s i t e regions on the b a s i s o f c o m p o s i t i o n and depth o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l f o r s o i l s i n l a r g e - s c a l e l a n d f e a t u r e s , A p h y s i o g r a p h i c s i t e c l a s s i s a s u b d i v i s i o n o f a l a n d t y p e , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the b a s i s o f l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s i n c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . The s i t e type i s the major l a n d a r e a c a t e g o r y used i n d e t a i l e d r e s o u r c e a n a l y s i s . One s m a l l e r l a n d a r e a s u b d i v i s i o n , the s i t e phase, i s d i f f e r -e n t i a t e d w i t h i n the s i t e type i f g r e a t e r d e t a i l , such as v a r y i n g beach c o n d i t i o n s a l o n g a s t r e t c h o f s h o r e l i n e , i s n e c e s s a r y ( I b i d ) . I n terms o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p r e s e n t l a n d use t y p e s , H i l l s (1961) s t a t e s t h a t " s i n c e l a n d use i s dynamic, a s e r i e s o f p r e s e n t uses may be r e c o r d e d over a p e r i o d o f t i m e . T h i s s e r i e s , r e c o r d i n g the a c t u a l uses o f s p e c i f i c p h y s i o g r a p h i c t y p e s , p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the u s e - c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e s e t y p e s " . I n the u s e - c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n phase o f the r e s o u r c e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s , and i n the absence o f any s p e c i f i e d l a n d use which i s t o o c c u r on the r e s o u r c e base, a range o f p o t e n t i a l g e n e r a l l a n d uses i s s e l e c t e d , and c r i t e r i a d e t e r -mined f o r each. At the b r o a d e s t l e v e l , the g e n e r a l i z e d l a n d uses i n c l u d e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , f o r e s t r y , r e c r e a t i o n and w i l d l i f e . The use p o t e n t i a l o f the s i t e t y p es i s ranked A to G o r 1 to 7 ( h i g h e s t to lowest c a p a b i l i t y ) , based on the p h y s i o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the r e s o u r c e and the adopted c r i t e r i a . The r a n k i n g i s c a r r i e d out at b o t h the " l o c a l " and "community" l e v e l s . The e v a l u a t i o n at the l o c a l l e v e l p r o v i d e s an assessment o f the i n d i v i d u a l s i t e t y p e s without r e f e r e n c e to the l a r g e r r e s o u r c e c o n t e x t i n which each o c c u r s . The community l e v e l r a n k i n g p r o v i d e s a g r o u p i n g o f s i t e t y p e s and s i t e phases w i t h s i m i l a r p h y s i o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r p u r p o s e s ' o f comparative e v a l u a t i o n f o r p o t e n t i a l u s e s . H i l l s proposes t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o assessment o f a n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e on the b a s i s o f p h y s i o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out o f the use s u i t a b i l i t y and 27 use f e a s i b i l i t y f o r any p a r t i c u l a r land uses. Use s u i t a b i l i t y i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the "degrees of management e f f o r t " required to b r i n g the.present condition of the resource i n t o a usable form f o r a p a r t i c u l a r land use type. Use f e a s i b i l i t y represents "the present l i k e l i h o o d or p o t e n t i a l of a unit f o r development under s p e c i f i e d socio-economic c o n d i t i o n s " (Landscape A r c h i t e c -ture Research O f f i c e , 1967). On the basis of resource c a p a b i l i t y , s u i t a b i l i t y and f e a s i b i l i t y rankings, a s p e c i f i c land use or combination of multiple uses f o r the land areas i s designated. THE CANADA LAND INVENTORY. PROGRAM The "Resources f o r Tomorrow" conference held i n Montreal i n 1961 recognized a need "to complete a country-wide assessment of resource supplies which may be set against long-term assessment of resource needs" (Department of Regional Economic Expansion, 1970)• This assessment was to include systematic studies of "problems of resource management and development i n a l l f i e l d s ; and economic p o t e n t i a l s and s o c i a l needs i n a l l regions" ( I b i d ) . The A g r i c u l t u r a l and Rural Development Act 1963, passed by the Government of Canada, approved establishment of the Canada Land Inventory program 0 The program was to provide "a comprehensive survey of land c a p a b i l i t y and use s p e c i f i c a l l y designed as a basis f o r land-use and resource planning f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , r e c r e a t i o n and w i l d l i f e " (Department of Regional Economic Expansion, 1970-a) 0 In terms of the r e c r e a t i o n a l element of the Canada Land Inventory, the major objective has been stated as: to provide an estimate of the quantity, q u a l i t y and l o c a t i o n of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l lands i n the s e t t l e d portions of Canada ...<> The basis of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the quantity of r e c r e a t i o n a l use-that a land unit 28 can attract and withstand without undue deterioration of the resource base (Department of Regional Economic Expansion, 1970). Land units of the natural resource base are ranked between Class one, indicating very high capability for recrea-tion, and Class seven, which indicates very low capability for recreation purposes (Ibid). Subclass designations indicate those specific recreation a c t i v i t i e s most suited to the particular qualities of the land unit, in decreasing order of importance. The recreation c l a s s i f i c a t i o n includes 25 d i f f -erent a c t i v i t i e s and landscape features with recreational appeal, indicated as being "popular" (Department of Forestry and Rural Development, 1967-a). The cottaging, camping and boating a c t i v i t i e s are a l l included i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme of the recreation sector of the Canada Land Inventory; categorized as lodging, organized camping, and deep water tripping. The capability rating for the cottaging a c t i v i t y includes numerous factors; topography, drainage, s o i l charac-t e r i s t i c s , wind protection, a i r and water pollution, aspect, vegetative cover, water a v a i l a b i l i t y , views, shore access and beach conditions i n shoreland areas, and vehicle access capa-b i l i t y (Ibid). The assessed rating for organized camping areas i s influenced by factors including surface material, gradient, water a v a i l a b i l i t y , vegetative cover for wind and sun protec-tion, vehicle and /or boat access capability (Ibid). Capability for deep water boat tripping i s assessed by analysis of the potential of shoreland characteristics to accommodate moorage, docking and launching requirements. Desirable shoreland characteristics include protection from winds, wave action, currents and icing conditions. Bays, harbours and areas on the leeside of headlands frequently 29 s a t i s f y t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , h i g h - r a n k i n g d e e p w a t e r b o a t i n g a r e a s w i l l p r o v i d e h a z a r d - f r e e c o n d i t i o n s a m e n a b l e t o o t h e r w a t e r - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s swimming, f i s h i n g , v i e w i n g , c o t t a g i n g , a n d s h o r e l a n d s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s ( D e p a r t m e n t o f F o r e s t r y a n d R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , 1967-a). T h u s , a m a j o r p r o g r a m o f r e s o u r c e s u p p l y a s s e s s m e n t i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n i n C a n a d a . The C a n a d a L a n d I n v e n t o r y e m b o d i e s many o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o r e -g o i n g e x a m i n a t i o n o f e v a l u a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e o f A ngus H i l l s . A n a l y s i s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s p r o g r a m i s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n o r d e r t o a s s i s t i n d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n a p p r o a c h f o r e x a m i n a t i o n of G a l i a n o I s l a n d . CHAPTER 3 - PHYSIOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF GALIANO ISLAND;  AN EVALUATION OF CAPABILITY FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION A synthesis of the e c o l o g i c a l concepts important i n renewable resource evaluation and of the evaluation techniques discussed i n Chapter 2 provides the a n a l y t i c a l framework within which the Galiano Island r e c r e a t i o n resource i s examined. E l e -ments of the resource evaluation techniques of H i l l s , McHarg and Lewis are incorporated i n t o the method of a n a l y s i s , and the d e t a i l s of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system as ou t l i n e d by the r e c r e a -t i o n sector of the Canada Land Inventory program were adopted f o r purposes of r a t i n g the land u n i t s . Analysis of the physiographic features of Galiano Island follows the sequence below, a f t e r McHarg (1969). Climate Geological Development Topography Hydrology S o i l s Vegetation W i l d l i f e A d d i t i o n a l l y , an inventory of Galiano Island land use, past and present, i s c a r r i e d out. The s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e s u l t i n g patterns of nat u r a l and man-made r e c r e a t i o n features on the i s l a n d are i d e n t i f i e d as proposed i n the technique developed by Lewis. The c a p a b i l i t y of the physiographic components of the i s l a n d to support the selected r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i s assessed a f t e r H i l l s (1961), and i n the manner adopted by the Canada Land Inventory (Department of Regional Economic Expansion, 1970). 31 GALIANO ISLAND L o c a t i o n a n d D i m e n s i o n G a l i a n o I s l a n d i s l o c a t e d i n t h e S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 m i l e s o f f t h e c o a s t o f m a i n l a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d 8 m i l e s e a s t o f t h e s h o r e s o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d (48055* n o r t h l a t i t u d e a n d 123°30» w e s t l o n g i t u d e ) , a s shown o n Map 1, N a v i g a b l e w a t e r s s e p a r a t e t h e i s l a n d f r o m o t h e r s i n t h e G u l f I s l a n d c h a i n o n a l l s i d e s . The i s l a n d h a s a n o r t h w e s t t o s o u t h e a s t o r i e n t a t i o n , common t o s e v e r a l o f t h e i s l a n d s i n t h e G u l f I s l a n d s c h a i n . G a l i a n o i s a n e l o n g a t e d l a n d f o r m m e a s u r i n g 16 m i l e s f r o m t h e n o r t h end t o t h e s o u t h e r n - m o s t p o i n t . I t h a s a n a v e r a g e w i d t h o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y li m i l e s , t h o u g h t h e s o u t h e r n e n d o f t h e i s l a n d m e a s u r e s 3 m i l e s a t t h e w i d e s t p o i n t . W i t h 41.5 m i l e s o f s h o r e l i n e , t h e i s l a n d e n c o m p a s s e s 22,5 s q u a r e m i l e s , o r 14,400 a c r e s ( C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1970). C l i m a t e I n t e r m s o f K r a j i n a ' s (1965) b i o g e o c l i m a t i c z o n a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , G a l i a n o I s l a n d i s s i t u a t e d i n t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t a l m e s o t h e r m a l f o r e s t r e g i o n , w i t h i n t h e d r i e r s u b z o n e o f t h e C o a s t a l D o u g l a s - f i r b i o g e o c l i m a t i c z o n e . The c l i m a t e c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e d e s i g n a t i o n b y K o p p e n a s a m e d i t e r r a n e a n s u b h u m i d t o h u m i d c l i m a t e ( I b i d ) . The G u l f I s l a n d s a r e a h a s a mean a n n u a l t e m p e r a t u r e o f 49°-51° P. The J u l y mean t e m p e r a t u r e i s 60°-66° P. The a r e a e x p e r i e n c e s a v e r a g e t e m p e r a t u r e s o f g r e a t e r t h a n 50° P f o r 5 t o 7 months a n n u a l l y . C l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s a t Nanimo, a p p r o x -i m a t e l y 20 m i l e s n o r t h w e s t o f G a l i a n o I s l a n d , a r e shown i n P i g © 6. The c o n d i t i o n s a s i n d i c a t e d a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r 1 vuts, IT' J9 Al *6 54 S9 (.4 t.4 Z. C O A S T A L D O U C L A S - F Id /.OWE NANAIMO I A S T V I N C O U V U ISLAND ALT *< ft I ICOAD I ( 4 f SS >15 t » T 4 9 * Off" X LOHC lZ>* SS ' «V F ig .6 Monthly mean temperatu re and p r e c i p i t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at Naniamo, as r ep re sen ta t i ve of the C o a s t a l D o u g l a s - f i r zone S o u r c e : K r a j i n a 1959 N E S F ' 9 - 7 'o of annual wind d i r e c t i on - Ga l iano Island area s o u r c e T h o m a s 1953 34 much of the Coastal Douglas-fir zone. Annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n on Galiano Island i s 26"-40" as compared with 27"-50 M common throughout the r e s t of the Coastal Douglas-fir zone. Monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n rates range i n extremes from .6" during the d r i e s t month, to 10.4" i n the wettest month, J u l y and December r e s p e c t i v e l y . The t y p i c a l annual d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the Coastal D o u g l a s - f i r zone i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n P i g . 6, r e f l e c t i n g the dry summer and wet winter condition pattern common throughout the area. Only 5-10% of the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n occurs during the summer months (Kr a j i n a , 1959). The area receives approximately 1800 annual bright sunshine hours, as compared with 1600 hours i n Vancouver and 1400 hours on the west coast of Vancouver Isl a n d . Galiano Island receives 300 sunshine hours during the month of July, as high a r a t i n g as any area i n Canada (Thomas, 1953). Wind speed i n the Galiano Island area averages 10 m.p.h. during the year. The dominant winds are e a s t e r l y and southeasterly as shown i n P i g 0 7» a unique set of conditions i n Canada where p r e v a i l i n g westerly winds occur ( I b i d ) . Geological Development The Gulf Islands are located within the Georgia Depression, part of a l a r g e l y submerged trough between the coa s t a l mountains of the B r i t i s h Columbia mainland and the mountain range along the eastern shoreline of Vancouver Island (Forest S o i l s Committee of the Douglas F i r Region, 1957). ' Underlying the Gulf Islands "sediments of upper Cretaceous age have been subdivided into ten formations of a l t e r n a t i n g conglomerates, sandstones and shale, with an e s t i -mated thickness of 10,000 f e e t " (Williams and P i l l s b u r y , 1958). Where the isla n d s r i s e above water l e v e l , "ridges and peaks 35 a r e c a p p e d w i t h h a r d c o n g l o m e r a t e s a n d s a n d s t o n e " ( W i l l i a m s a n d P i l l s b u r y , 1 9 5 8 ) . W i l l i a m s a n d P i l l s b u r y ( 1 9 5 8 ) s t a t e t h a t t h e G u l f I s l a n d s a l l h a v e u n d e r g o n e g l a c i a l a c t i v i t y w i t h r e s u l t a n t d e p o s i t s o f m o r a i n e s , b o u l d e r s , o u t w a s h g r a v e l a n d s a n d . G l a -c i a l s c o u r i n g a c t i o n o c c u r r e d i n a g e n e r a l n o r t h w e s t t o s o u t h -e a s t d i r e c t i o n , a s e v i d e n c e d o n G a l i a n o I s l a n d b y many o f t h e l i n e a r l a n d f o r m e l e m e n t s s u c h a s t h e r i d g e s , b l u f f s a n d d e p r e s s -i o n s w h i c h a r e d i r e c t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d i n t h a t m a n n e r . T o p o g r a p h y The l a n d a r e a e l e v a t i o n s o f G a l i a n o I s l a n d r i s e t o n e a r l y 1000 f e e t a b o v e s e a l e v e l a t t h e h i g h e s t p o i n t n e a r t h e s o u t h e a s t e r l y l i m i t o f t h e i s l a n d , a s shown o n Map 2. The h i g h e r a r e a s o f t h e i s l a n d g e n e r a l l y f o r m a n o r t h - s o u t h s p i n e down t h e c e n t r e o f t h e i s l a n d , TWO m a j o r e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s p a t t e r n o c c u r a t t h e e x t r e m e n o r t h a n d s o u t h l i m i t s o f t h e i s l a n d where f l a t t e r e x p a n s e s o f l a n d a r e f o u n d . I s o l a t e d l o w a r e a s a l s o o c c u r a t b r e a k s i n t h e r i d g e p a t t e r n i n t h e c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f t h e i s l a n d . S l o p e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a s i l l u s t r a t e d o n Map 3, a r e s u c h t h a t v i r t u a l l y a l l p o r t i o n s o f t h e i s l a n d h a v e i n e x c e s s o f 5% s l o p e , e x c e p t f o r t h e two f l a t t e r a r e a s a t e a c h e n d o f t h e i s l a n d . A r e a s i n e x c e s s o f 2 0 % s l o p e o c c u r l a r g e l y i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e i s l a n d , a n d i n t h e e x t r e m e s o u t h e a s t a r e a . A d d i t i o n a l l y , e x t e n s i v e s t r e t c h e s o f t h e i s l a n d s h o r e l i n e h a v e s l o p e s o f g r e a t e r t h a n 2 0 % . O f t h e t o t a l i s l a n d s h o r e l i n e o f 4 l £ m i l e s , 2 0 ^ m i l e s h a v e " b a c k l a n d " s l o p e s i n e x c e s s o f 2 0 % ( C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1 9 7 0 ) . H y d r o l o g y A v a i l a b l e f r e s h w a t e r s u p p l i e s b o t h f o r human consump-t i o n a n d v e g e t a t i v e g r o w t h on G a l i a n o I s l a n d a r e l i m i t e d . As 38 previously noted,•Galiano Island receives less precipitation than i s typical for the Coastal Douglas-fir zone. Moreover, this precipitation occurs largely in the winter months, so that meagre summer r a i n f a l l can result i n insufficient water for vegetative growth (Forest Soils Committee of the Douglas F i r Region, 1957). There are no standing bodies of potable water on Galiano Island. A l l supplies for domestic consumption come from underground wells and a limited number of stream sources, as shown on Map 4. Engineering specialists have indicated that groundwater supplies are of good quality, but possibly vulner-able to salt water intrusion (Capital Regional D i s t r i c t Planning Department, 1970). There are presently approximately 110 underground wells on the island and 2 5 surface water stream sources. In 5 locations on the island groups of property owners have grouped together to create joint waterworks u t i l i t i e s . There are no public watermains existing on the island (Ibid). Soils The upper Cretaceous materials previously described provided the major parent material for s o i l s developed on Galiano Island - a product of the interaction of climate, topographic and hydrologic characteristics, organisms and time (Forest Soils Committee of the Douglas F i r Region, 1957). The s o i l s are c l a s s i f i e d within the Concretionary Brown Podzolic group, characterized by a medium to strongly acidic reaction and a thin raw humus A Q surface layer (Krajina, 1965). The s o i l type covering the major portions of the island i s described as "rough stony land" - thinly mantled bare rock, gently to very steeply sloping and with variable drainage Sources^ Capital Regiort. I97Q-. \ . Day et al. (959 LEGEND: WATER : WATER WELLS • PUBLIC WATER WORKS UTILITY <D SURFACE WATER LICENCE • SOILS 1 ROUGH STONY LAND 2 ERODED LAND 3 COWICHAN 4 HASLAM 5 PARKSVILLE 6 QUALICUM N 2 mi G A L I A N O I S L A N D SOILS AND HYDROLOGY 1971 MAP 4 40 c o n d i t i o n s (Day et a l , 1959). The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s o i l t y p e s on G a l i a n o I s l a n d i s shown on Map 4. I n a d d i t i o n to the rough s t o n y l a n d , i s o l a t e d areas o f f i v e o t h e r s o i l types o c c u r on the i s l a n d . "Eroded l a n d " o c c u r s i n v e r y s t e e p l y s l o p i n g a r e a s , m a i n l y s h o r e l i n e areas around the p e r i m e t e r o f the i s l a n d . Cowichan c l a y loam and P a r k s v i l l e sandy loam are p o o r l y d r a i n e d s o i l s found i n l e v e l t o d e p r e s s e d a r e a s . Haslam s o i l i s w e l l d r a i n e d , and o c c u r s on g e n t l y t o s t e e p l y s l o p i n g l a n d . Qualicum s o i l i s a g r a v e l l y loamy sand w i t h r a p i d d r a i n a g e on l e v e l t o g e n t l y s l o p i n g areas ( I b i d ) . K r a j i n a (1971) has s t a t e d t h a t s o i l depth i n excess o f 3 f e e t i s r a r e l y found on G a l i a n o I s l a n d . A t y p i c a l p r o f i l e f o r s o i l s i n the C o a s t a l D o u g l a s - f i r zone, as shown i n P i g . 6, i n d i c a t e s a s i m i l a r s o i l d e p th. S t u d i e s i n the C o a s t a l Douglas-f i r zone i l l u s t r a t e t h a t s o i l development and depth d i m i n i s h s u b s t a n t i a l l y toward the upper p o r t i o n s o f s l o p e d areas and i n d e p r e s s e d areas where the water t a b l e i s near the s u r f a c e (McMinn., I960). V e g e t a t i o n The i n f l u e n c e s o f the f o r e g o i n g f a c t o r s - c l i m a t e , geology, topography, h y d r o l o g y , s o i l s - have g i v e n r i s e t o a l a r g e l y u n i f o r m v e g e t a t i v e c o m p o s i t i o n on G a l i a n o I s l a n d , domi-n a t e d by D o u g l a s - f i r (Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i ) . Other t r e e s p e c i e s i n c l u d e Grand F i r ( A b i e s g r a n d i s ) , Arbutus (Arbutus  m e n z i e s i i ) , Shore P i n e ( P i n u s c o n t o r t a ) , Western Red Cedar ( T h u j a p l i c a t a ) , and Western Hemlock (Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a ) t as d e s c r i b e d by K r a j i n a (1965). Dominant shrub growth on the i s l a n d i n c l u d e s s p e c i e s such as B e a r b e r r y ( A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i ) , S a l a l ( G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n ) , Oregon Grape (Mahonia n e r v o s a ) , Mock Orange ( P h i l a -delphus gordonianus) and Winter C u r r e n t (Ribes sanguineum)• In the d r i e r subzone o f the C o a s t a l D o u g l a s - f i r zone 41 i n which Galiano Island occurs, Garry Oak (Quercus garryana) i s more abundant than i n other areas. S p i l l s b u r y has stated that "the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r e s t cover consists of Garry Oak and Douglas-fir, with Arbutus occupying the more exposed c o a s t a l f r i n g e and shallow rocky s o i l s " (Day et a l , 1959). The climax plant a s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Galiano Island d r i e r subzone consists of Douglas-fir and Oregon Grape (Kr a j i n a , 1965). The Douglas-fir develops a strong, f i b r o u s and wide-spreading root system g i v i n g the tree excellent support (Department of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, 1956). The tree requires a minimum of 2 feet of s o i l i n order to main-t a i n good growth and wind firmness (Forest S o i l s Committee of the Douglas F i r Region, 1957). The plant climax shrub, Oregon Grape, t h r i v e s under shade conditions created by the overhead canopy of the Douglas-fir, and t o l e r a t e s a c i d i c s o i l s . The evergreen shrub does not normally exceed 2 feet i n height (Wyman, 1961). In studies c a r r i e d out i n the Douglas-fir zone i t has been determined that i n secondary succession of many logged and burned areas the spe cie s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the undisturbed associations have become r e - e s t a b l i s h e d . In other areas of the zone, semi-shade to l e r a n t species i n c l u d i n g Red Alder (Alnus  rubra) and Broadleaf Maple (Acer macrophyllum) have spread i n t o the exposed areas (Krajina, 1965). The plant community of Galiano Island and the r e s t of the Gulf Islands area i s unique i n species composition, not found elsewhere i n Canada; the environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r o v i d i n g the most favourable habitat conditions p o s s i b l e i n the n a t i o n . On a plant hardiness zone scale of 1 to 10, with 1 equal to the coldest conditions and 10 equal to the mildest conditions, Galiano Island i s ranked 9A, as shown on Map 5. There are no areas ranked 10 i n Canada (Ouellet and Sherk, 1967). Map 5 Plant hardiness zones l e gend , I - co ldest hardiness zone 1 0 - mildest hardiness zone source OueI let and Sherk 1967 43 W i l d l i f e . In a d e s c r i p t i o n of a l l the major Gulf Islands, Williams and P i l l s b u r y (1958) have stated that: l a r g e r mammals are gone, except the coast deer. The w a p i t i , black bear, cougar and wolf cannot remain on small i s l a n d s where c i v i l i z e d man has s e t t l e d . At present the p r i c i p a l mammals are coast deer, north-west raccoons, mink and s q u i r r e l s . Sea b i r d s are abundant, s i g n i f i c a n t l y g u l l 3 , cormorants and guillemots. Crows, ravens and eagles nest throughout the i s l a n d s • The shoreline of the i s l a n d provides a habitat f o r a r i c h v a r i e t y of marine animal l i f e ; s t a r f i s h , sea urchins, clams, oysters, crabs, e t c . Plant l i f e includes several species of marine algae. During the summer months the d i f f -erence between high and low t i d e s i s as much as 15 f e e t , thus at low t i d e the natural abundance i s exposed, prov i d i n g i n t e r e s t and enjoyment f o r viewers ( I b i d ) , Studies have i n d i c a t e d that the marine l i f e composition v a r i e s depending on water temperature around the i s l a n d s . Water in-coming from the S t r a i t of Juan de Puca at a temper-ature of 58°P during the summer i s as much as 12°P colder than those waters i n the S t r a i t of Georgia warmed by the run-off of the Praser River (Williams and P i l l s b u r y , 1958). The temperature d i f f e r e n c e would i n d i c a t e that waters on the eastern shore of Galiano are considerably warmer than those on the west s i d e . Land Use. - Past and Present Galiano Island was "discovered" i n 1792 by Spanish Naval captain D i o n i s i o A l c a l a Galiano. At that time the i s l a n d was inhabited by Coastal S a l i s h Indians of the Cowichan d i a l e c t (Williams and P i l l s b u r y , 1958), White s e t t l e r s , mainly former 44 prospectors who had been a t t r a c t e d to the gold rush on the west coast, began occupying the i s l a n d i n 1859. In the 1880's, r e t i r e d B r i t i s h Service O f f i c e r s moved into the area, p l a n t i n g crops and gardens, and r a i s i n g c a t t l e and horses. Many of the descendents of these "gentlemen farmers" chose to r e t u r n to England, and during the 1930's many lands were purchased by p r a i r i e farmers forced to r e l o c a t e by the droughts. During the 1940's several timber areas of Galiano Island were cut to a l l e v i a t e f u e l shortages created by the Second World War. V i r t u a l l y no r e f o r e s t a t i o n p r a c t i c e s were c a r r i e d out at that time (McCrimmon, 1971). A g r i c u l t u r a l production i s no longer c a r r i e d on as a major land use on the i s l a n d . Macdonald (1970) has stated that only three farms are presently operated on the i s l a n d . Present land use on Galiano has now become l a r g e l y devoted to timber production purposes. The MacMillan Bloedel company own i n fee simple some 80% of the t o t a l land area of the i s l a n d (Macdonald, 1970). The company operates the holding on a c e r t i f i e d tree farm l i c e n c e basis which provides f o r p r o v i n c i a l tax abatements i f . t h e lands are cropped on a sustained y i e l d basis (McCrimmon, 1970) . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the tree farm holdings on the i s l a n d are i n d i c a t e d on Map 6. An authority of the timber company stated that only minimal c u t t i n g i s being c a r r i e d out at present on Galiano Island; the company's e f f o r t s are d i r e c t e d rather at develop-i n g the area f o r future cropping. Douglas-fir i s the dominant tree species u t i l i z e d i n tree p l a n t i n g programs (McCrimmon, 1971) . Macdonald (1970) has stated that development of a mature merchantable f o r e s t crop on the i s l a n d w i l l require 40-50 years. The MacMillan Bloedel company recognizes the importance of the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y on a n a t u r a l resource such as; Galiano Island, and study i s being undertaken to examine the possible r e a l l o c a t i o n of marginal timber lands f o r r e c r e a t i o n « LEGEND: PRIVATE OWNERSHIP I I PRIVATE CERTIFIED TREE FARM ES3 PUBLIC LAND FFFFFR INDIAN RESERVE SSSSrt 46 p u r p o s e s . M a r g i n a l t i m b e r l a n d s o n G a l i a n o I s l a n d a r e p r e -d o m i n a n t l y t h o s e a r e a s a r o u n d t h e s h o r e l i n e p e r i p h e r y (McCrimmon, 1 9 7 1 ) . The q u a l i t y o f l a n d o n G a l i a n o I s l a n d f o r t i m b e r p u r p o s e s i s r a t e d o v e r a l l a s 100 on a s c a l e f r o m 0 t o 140 a s p r e p a r e d b y t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( I b i d ) . T h i s v a l u e r e p r e s e n t s l a n d q u a l i t y o f medium t o p o o r q u a l i t y f o r t i m b e r p r o d u c t i o n ( D e p a r t m e n t o f l a n d s , F o r e s t s a n d W a t e r R e s o u r c e s , 1 9 6 7 ) . P u b l i c l a n d s o n G a l i a n o c o n s t i t u t e 1010 a c r e s , d i s t r i -b u t e d i n numerous p a r c e l s o f l a n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e i s l a n d a s shown o n Map 6 . The t o t a l p u b l i c a c r e a g e i s h e l d b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t , d e s i g n a t e d a s d e d i c a t e d p a r k l a n d , r e s e r v e l a n d a n d o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l l a n d ; 221 a c r e s , 237 a c r e s a n d 552 a c r e s r e s p e c -t i v e l y ( C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1 9 7 0 ) . The p u b l i c h o l d i n g s a c c o u n t f o r 7.0% o f t h e t o t a l G a l i a n o i s l a n d a r e a . O f t h e 4 l £ m i l e s o f s h o r e l i n e a r o u n d t h e i s l a n d , 2 1/8 a r e i n p u b l i c o w n e r s h i p . The p u b l i c s h o r e l i n e h o l d i n g s p r o v i d e 7/8 m i l e o f s a n d y b e a c h , 3/4 m i l e o f r o c k b e a c h a n d 1/2 m i l e o f s h o r e l i n e where no b e a c h o c c u r s due t o t h e e x c e s s i v e l a n d s l o p e a t t h e w a t e r edge ( I b i d ) . T he r e m a i n d e r o f t h e i s l a n d i s owned i n s m a l l a c r e a g e p a r c e l s b y p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s ; p e r m a n e n t r e s i d e n c e s , summer c o t t a g e s , c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s . The p a t t e r n o f p r e s e n t d e v e l o p m e n t i s c o n f i n e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e s h o r e l i n e a r e a s , e x c e p t f o r i s o l a t e d i n t e r i o r d e v e l o p m e n t a t t h e s o u t h e n d o f t h e i s l a n d , a s i l l u s t r a t e d o n Map 7. The m a j o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s s i t u a t e d a r o u n d S t u r d i e s B a y , t h e s i t e o f t h e m a j o r f e r r y t e r m i n a l , v / i t h s m a l l e r d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s o c c u r r i n g m a i n l y a l o n g t h e w e s t e r n s h o r e l i n e . A t N o r t h G a l i a n o t h e r e i s a s m a l l c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d c o m m e r c i a l f a c i l i t i e s . A c o m m e r c i a l c a m p i n g a r e a i s l o c a t e d n e a r N o r t h G a l i a n o . As i n d i c a t e d o n Map 7, t h e r e i s no d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n y k i n d a l o n g most o f t h e e a s t e r n s h o r e l i n e o f t h e i s l a n d . LEGEND : DEVELOPED AREAS PUBLIC PARKS LICENCED TREE FARM UNDEVELOPED AREAS BOATING FACILITIES: ROADWAYS PAVED GRAVEL FERRY TERMINAL MOORAGE ANCHORAGE LAUNCHING FUELING o © 8 N 2mi G A L I A N O I S L A N D PRESENT LAND USE 1971 MAP 7 48 The two major public park areas on Galiano Island are the p r o v i n c i a l Marine Park at Montague Harbour and B l u f f Park west of Sturdies Bay. The Montague Harbour park occupies 214 acres and i s l a r g e l y undeveloped except f o r the organized camping area. The campground f a c i l i t i e s provide 31 tent s i t e s f o r v i s i t o r s a r r i v i n g by automobile and/or boat. B l u f f Park i s a l a r g e l y undeveloped area of 320 acres, provided with a scenic roadway around a por t i o n of the periphery ( B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l A s sociation, 1969). Boat-oriented land use f a c i l i t i e s have been developed at numerous points on the i s l a n d , as shown on Map 7. The f a c i l -i t i e s provided i n Sturdies Bay, Montague Harbour, Retreat Cove, North Galiano and Whaler Bay have been described by Clark (1968). The range of f a c i l i t i e s includes moorage, dockage, launching ramps and f u e l depots. Dominant Physiographic and Man-made Recreation Features The two dominant physiographic features on Galiano Island are the shoreline of the i s l a n d and the major upland areas, r e f l e c t e d by the topographic conditions previously shown on Map 2. The vegetative features of the i s l a n d are considered homogeneous throughout i t s e n t i r e t y . : The t o t a l shoreline of the i s l a n d provides 4 1/4 miles of sandy beach, and an a d d i t i o n a l 8 3/4 miles of rock beach. The remaining 28 1/4 miles of shoreline has no beach; areas where c l i f f s drop v e r t i c a l l y to water l e v e l , or vegetation grows to the immediate shore ( C a p i t a l Regional D i s t r i c t Planning Department, 1970). The major upland areas, v/ith elevations up to 1000 fee t above sea l e v e l , are prominent features possessing a t t r a c -t i v e v i s u a l q u a l i t i e s and providing d e s i r a b l e look-out areas. S i g n i f i c a n t man-made r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s on the i s l a n d 49 are few. The l i m i t e d boat-oriented f a c i l i t i e s presently e x i s t i n g on the i s l a n d have been d e t a i l e d , as shown on Map 7 . Commercial food and lodging are provided at Sturdies Bay. A g o l f course i s located i n the area to the northwest of Whaler Bay. In summary, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of na t u r a l and man-made re c r e a t i o n occurs l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of the l i n e a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the i s l a n d , with nodal concentrations of man-made f a c i l i t i e s o c curring at both ends of the i s l a n d . The lack of dominant features on the eastern shoreline i s evident, except f o r expanses of sand and rock beach, and i s accentuated by the absence of any r e c r e a t i o n a l development or transportation f a c i l i t i e s . PHYSIOGRAPHIC LAND UNITS . Based on the foregoing a n a l y s i s of the physiographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the nat u r a l resource base, s i t e classes and s i t e types, a f t e r H i l l s ( 1 9 6 1 ) , are delineated f o r Galiano Island as shown on Map 8. In keeping with the d e f i n i t i o n s of land u n i t s as out-l i n e d by H i l l s ( I b i d ) , a l l of Galiano Island occurs within one s i t e region and one landtype. There are no major macro-climatic, landform or vegetation v a r i a t i o n s on the i s l a n d . S i m i l a r l y , no lar g e - s c a l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o i l depth and composition occur. For purposes of the study, the author has divided the i s l a n d into two physiographic s i t e c l a s s e s , based on v a r i a t i o n s i n l o c a l c l i m a t i c conditions. In the absence of d e t a i l e d c l i m a t o l o g i c a l data f o r various sections of.the i s l a n d , a v a i l -able information of wind and sun c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s has been u t i l i z e d . The p r e v a i l i n g east to southeast wind d i r e c t i o n , and the dif f e r e n c e of sun exposure between the northeasterly and southwesterly slopes provides the means of d e l i n e a t i o n of the two s i t e c l a s s e s . Within each of the two designated s i t e c l a s s e s , three SOLAR ARC PREVAILING WIND LEGEND: SITE CLASS BOUNDARY SITE TYPE BOUNDARY SITE TYPE NUMBER (e.g.) 6b SHORELINE SITE PHASES hflmmO BEACH BACKLAND SLOPE >20°'O r I NO BEACH — | ROCK BEACH SAND BFACH N 2mi G A L I A N O I S L A N D PHYSIOGRAPHIC SITE CLASSES & SITE TYPES 1971 MAP 8 51 s i t e types are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , based on v a r i a t i o n s i n s o i l depth and moisture content, as shown on Map 8. Each of the s i t e types occurs i n several l o c a t i o n s within each s i t e c l a s s , comprising a t o t a l of 22 d i f f e r e n t i a t e d areas on the i s l a n d . The a v a i l a b l e s o i l s data provided by Day et a l (1959), K r a j i n a (1965) and the Forest S o i l s Committee of the Douglas F i r Region (1957) form the basis f o r d e l i n e a t i o n of the s i t e types. As previously discussed, the studies i n d i c a t e decreasing s o i l depth and decreasing s o i l moisture with increased degree of slope of the landform. Demarkation of the s i t e types there-fore occurs l a r g e l y as a function of the slope s e v e r i t y through-out the i s l a n d . Three major slope categories are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , 0-10%, 10-20% and +20%, as corresponding r e s p e c t i v e l y to s i t e types 1 and 4, 2 and 5, 3 and 6, as i n d i c a t e d on Map 8. Within each coa s t a l s i t e type land area, a shoreline s i t e phase i s i d e n t i f i e d as indicated on Map 8. The s i t e phase i d e n t i f i e s the shoreline c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s within each s i t e type; sand beach, rock beach or no beach, and the areas where beach backland slopes are i n excess of 20%. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS, AND SITE CLASS CAPABILITY CLASSIFICATION Cottaging Ten physiographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are i d e n t i f i e d as important i n evaluation of land areas f o r cottaging purposes, a l l of which may be assessed i n terms of the foregoing a n a l y s i s of the Galiano Island natural resource base; s o i l m aterial f o r foundation construction, drainage f o r sewage d i s p o s a l , slope, f r e s h water a v a i l a b i l i t y , c a p a b i l i t y f o r vegetative growth, s h e l t e r from winds, c a p a b i l i t y f o r v e h i c l e access, aspect, outward view and proximity to a water feature (Department of Forestry and Rural Development, 1967-a). 52 S l o p e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a m a j o r d e t e r m i n a n t i n e v a l u a t i n g l a n d a r e a s f o r c o t t a g i n g p u r p o s e s . A r e a s o f m o d e r a t e s l o p e s , up t o 15%, p r o v i d e c o n d i t i o n s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n i n most a r e a s ( D e p a r t m e n t o f F o r e s t r y a n d R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 6 7 -a) I n t e r m s o f r o a d w a y a c c e s s L y n c h ( 1 9 6 2 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t g r a d e s up t o 7% p r o v i d e no d i f f i c u l t y f o r e a s y a u t o m o b i l e movement. F o r p u r p o s e s o f t h e s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , t h e t h r e e s l o p e c a t e g o r i e s p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d ( 0 - 1 0 % , 10-20%, +20%) may be a d o p t e d , r e p r e s e n t i n g g o o d , m a r g i n a l and p o o r c o n d i t i o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r c o t t a g i n g . As d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 2, o n m o d e r a t e s l o p e s , 0-10%, t h e c o n d i t i o n s a r e o p t i m a l f o r s o i l d e p t h a n d s t a b i l i t y , d r a i n a g e , f r e s h w a t e r s u p p l y a n d c a p a b i l i t y f o r v e g e t a t i o n g r o w t h . E a c h o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s becomes l e s s f a v o u r a b l e o n s t e e p e r s l o p e s . I n t e r m s o f a s p e c t , a r e a s f a c i n g a g e n e r a l s o u t h , s o u t h w e s t o r w e s t d i r e c t i o n a r e most f a v o u r a b l e f o r r e c e i v i n g s u n l i g h t . E a s t , n o r t h e a s t a n d n o r t h f a c i n g s l o p e s a r e l e a s t f a v o u r a b l e ( L y n c h , 19.62). W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p r o x i m i t y o f t h e s h o r e l i n e t o t h e d e s i g n a t e d s i t e t y p e , t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s a r e i n c l u d e d ; a r e a s w h i c h a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y s h o r e l i n e o r i e n t e d , a r e a s w i t h some s h o r e -l i n e , a n d a r e a s w i t h no s h o r e l i n e . The e v a l u a t i o n s c o r i n g f o r e a c h o f t h e p h y s i o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r c o t t a g i n g p u r p o s e s i n t h e d e s i g n a t e d s i t e t y p e s i s p r o v i d e d o n a 1 t o 3 ( b e s t t o w o r s t ) b a s i s , a s shown i n T a b l e 2. As p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s l o p e , s o i l d e p t h a n d d r a i n a g e p e r m i t g r o u p i n g o f t h e s e f a c t o r s a s a u n i t . 'The s e v e n c a t e g o r i e s shown i n T a b l e 2 p r o v i d e f o r a minimum s c o r e o f 7 a n d a maximum s c o r e o f 21, i n d i c a t i n g t h e h i g h e s t t o l o w e s t p h y s i o g r a p h i c component c a p a b i l i t y t o s u s t a i n c o t t a g i n g a c t i v i t y . S i t e Type l a l b l c Id l e 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 4a 4b 5a 5b 6a 6b 6c Physiographic Component Slope S o i l 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 1 1 3 2 3 3 3 Drainage Presh Water 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 1 1 3 2 3 3 3 C a p a b i l i t y f o r Vegetation Growth 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 1 1 3 2 3 3 3 Wind Prot e c t i o n 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Aspect 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Outward View 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 Proximity of Shoreline 1 1 3 2 3 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 T o t a l Score 11 11 13 12 14 14 14 16 14 14 21 17 17 18 17 7 9 13 10 14 15 16 C a p a b i l i t y Class 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 3 5 4 4 4 4 1 1 3 2 3 3 4 Table 2 Scoring and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the c a p a b i l i t y of physiographic components to support cottaging i n the designated s i t e types 54 Since the c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g f o r any cottaging areas can range from Class 1 to Class 5, as s t i p u l a t e d i n the Canada Land Inventory evaluation system, a s i m i l a r r a t i n g system i s adopted f o r t h i s study (Department of Forestry and Rural Devel-opment, 196?-a). In order to assign a c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s number to each of the s i t e types, the range of values (7 to 21) i s d i s t r i b u t e d among the Classes (1 to 5) as i n d i c a t e d below. Range of Values C a p a b i l i t y Class f o r Cottaging 7-9 1 - Good 10-12 2 13-15 3 - Marginal 16-18 4 19-21 5 - Poor On t h i s b a s i s , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the r e s u l t i n g c a p a b i l i t y c lasses f o r cottaging within the s i t e types i s i n d i c a t e d i n Table 2 and on Map 9. Camping C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d as important f o r evaluation of campground areas include "stable but unconsolidated surface materials, extensive areas of low gradients or frequent l e v e l t e r r a c e s , proximity to potable water, tree cover to provide wind and sun s h e l t e r , and c a p a b i l i t y f o r v e h i c l e access" (Department of Forestry and Rural Development, 1967-a). A l l of the above have been considered i n the range of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s analyzed on Galiano I s l a n d . The Parks Branch of the Department of Recreation and Conservation state that : campsites should not be b u i l t on areas with other key r e c r e a t i o n a l uses such as p i c n i c k i n g and swimming. Instead, the campsites should occupy the uplands with t r a i l s leading to the beach area. This provides both the camper with added privacy by e l i m i n a t i n g day users from the camping area, and, where space i s l i m i t e d , PREVAILING WIND LEGEND: SITE CLASS BOUNDARY SITE TYPE BOUNDARY SITE TYPE NUMBER (e.g.) Se CAPABILITY CLASSES M to 5) co - COTTAGING CAMPING BOATING ca b N 2mi GALIANO ISLAND CAPABILITY FOR SELECTED RECREATION ACTIVITIES 1 9 7 1 MAP 9 56 provides the day user with a l a r g e r area f o r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . P r o v i s i o n of camping f a c i l i t i e s i n marine parks such as Montague Harbour i s an exception to t h i s p o l i c y . In the marine parks, camping provisions are i d e a l l y s i t u a t e d adjacent to mooring or docking f a c i l i t i e s " i n the semi-seclusion of woodland s e t t i n g s i m i l a r to those i n p r o v i n c i a l parks a c c e s s i b l e by road" (Department of Recreation and Conservation). A t y p i c a l tent s i t e provided i n the Montague Harbour campground i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n P i g . 8. Evaluation and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the physiographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s i t e types f o r camping purposes i n c o r -porates considerations s i m i l a r to those included f o r cottaging, with the c a p a b i l i t y f o r boating access and boating f a c i l i t i e s added. The range of p o s s i b l e t o t a l values of the physiographic components i s between 8 and 24 (best to worst), and i s d i s t r i -buted among the c a p a b i l i t y classes (1 to 5) on the basis i n d i c a t e d below. Range of Values C a p a b i l i t y Class f o r Camping 8-10 1 - Good 11-13 2 14-16 3 - Marginal 17-19 4 20-24 5 - Poor The r e s u l t s of the evaluation of the physiographic components and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the s i t e types, by capa-b i l i t y c l a s s f o r camping, i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 3 and on Map 9. TYPICAL CAMPSITE LAYOUT NOTE: Shape of campsite pad to be dictated by terrain and cover but is approx. 1250 sq. ft. in area or equal to a circle 40' in diameter. CAMPGROUND ROAD SCALE IN FEET 20 0 20 40 CAMPSITES SET BETWEEN 15'&25* FROM THE ROAD AND A MINIMUM OF 100' APART, CONNECTED TO THE ROAD BY A SPUR WITH A MINIMUM LENGTH OF 40' AND AT THE ANGLE WHICH BEST SUITS THE TERRAIN Fig. 8 Typical B.C. government campsite - Galiano Island Source B.C. Oept .o f Recreation and Conservation Plan PS -5 -A S i t e T y p e l a l b l c I d l e 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 3a 3b 3c 3d 3© 4a 4b 5a 5b 6a 6b 6c P h y s i o g r a p h i c Component S l o p e S o i l D r a i n a g e 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 1 1 3 2 3 3 3 F r e s h W a t e r 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 1 1 3 2 3 3 3 C a p a b i l i t y f o r V e g e t a t i o n Growth 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 1 1 3 2 3 3 3 Wind P r o t e c t i o n 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A s p e c t 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 O u t w a r d V i e w 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 P r o x i m i t y o f S h o r e l i n e 1 1 3 2 3 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 C a p a b i l i t y f o r B o a t A c c e s s 1 1 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 1 3 3 2 2 3 3 T o t a l S c o r e 12 12 16 14 17 17 16 19 16 16 24 19 20 21 19 8 12 16 12 16 18 C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s 2 2 3 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 5 4 5 5 4 1 2 3 2 3 4 4 T a b l e 3 S c o r i n g a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f p h y s i o g r a p h i c c o m ponents t o s u p p o r t c a m p i n g i n t h e d e s i g n a t e d s i t e t y p e s 59 Boating The physiographic c r i t e r i a f o r a l l o c a t i o n of boating f a c i l i t i e s are of two d i f f e r e n t types; water features and land f e a t u r e s . Water c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s important i n determining poten-t i a l f o r boating include depth, wave a c t i o n and current condi-t i o n s . A v a i l a b l e data f o r Galiano Island i n d i c a t e s that water depth immediately adjacent to the shoreline i s adequate f o r a l l types of pleasure boating c r a f t , varying to some extent with t i d a l a c t i o n (Department of Lands and Forests, 1969). The heavy usage of the e n t i r e Gulf Islands area by pleasure boaters evidences that wave and current conditions are s a t i s f a c t o r y except under adverse weather conditions. The land-based physiographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s important to p r o v i s i o n of boating f a c i l i t i e s include p r o t e c t i o n from winds, s u i t a b l e shoreland a v a i l a b l e f o r development of ser v i c e f a c i l i t i e s , s i t e s f o r docks and launching ramps, c a p a b i l i t y f o r road access and f r e s h water supply (Department of Forestry and Rural Development, 1967-a). Since shoreland construction and c a p a b i l i t y f o r v e h i c l e access are both important consider-a t i o n s , evaluation based on slope c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r to those used f o r cottaging are adopted (0-10%, 10-20%, +20%). Clark has in d i c a t e d the space requirements f o r a range of land-based boating f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g launching ramps, docks, gasoline and o i l s e r v i c e s , and g r o c e r i e s . Each of the above i s estimated to require only one acre or l e s s of land (1969). The assessment of the p o t e n t i a l areas f o r boating purposes i s confined to considerations of the shoreline site:phase c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s within each s i t e type. Those s i t e types which contain no shorelands are designated as Class 5 f o r boating purposes. Each s i t e phase includes enough backland area, as described by Clark (Ibid) to accommodate any required f a c i l i t i e s . 6 0 The evaluation of the physiographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n of the s i t e phases, within each s i t e type, i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 4 and on Map 9. The assessment of the s i t e phases provides f o r a possible range of Values between 4 and 1 2 , d i s t r i b u t e d between the c a p a b i l i t y classes ( 1 to 5) as shown below. Range of Values C a p a b i l i t y Class f o r Boating 4 - 6 1 - Good 2 7-9 3 - Marginal 4 1 0 - 1 2 5 - Poor The assigned c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g of each of the areas f o r boating i s i l l u s t r a t e d on Map 9, along with c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s f o r both cottaging and camping, thus providing a basis f o r compar-ativ e examination. SITE TYPE USE SUITABILITY The foregoing c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s i t e type c a p a b i l i t y f o r the selected r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i s based s o l e l y on the physiographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Galiano Isla n d . On t h i s b a s i s , as noted by the Landscape Architecture Research O f f i c e (1968): two u n i t s may have equal c a p a b i l i t y , but because one i s already improved (e.g. access roads) or i s suscept-i b l e to a d i f f e r e n t form of management •.. they may require d i f f e r e n t degrees of e f f o r t to r e a l i z e the same p o t e n t i a l . As has been i l l u s t r a t e d , v i r t u a l l y a l l improvements and development presently found on Galiano Island are located at the north and south ends of the i s l a n d , and along the westerly s h o r e l i n e . The "degrees of e f f o r t " which would be required to f a c i l i t a t e s i m i l a r development on the eastern shoreline of the i s l a n d would n e c e s s a r i l y be greater than would Site Phase of Site Type l a lb l c Id le 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 4a 4b 5a 5b 6a 6b 6c Physiographic Component Slope So i l 1 1 - 3 - 3 3 3 2 3 - 3 - 3 3 2 1 - 2 2 3 3 Drainage Fresh Water 1 1 - 3 - 3 2 3 3 2 - 2 - 3 2 2 - 3 2 2 3 3 Wind Protection Capability for Vegetation Growth 2 2 - 3 - 3 2 3 3 2 - 2 - 3 3 2 - 3 2 2 3 3 Exposure 3 3 - 3 - 2 3 3 3 3 - 3 - 3 3 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 Total Score 7 7 - 12 - 11 10 12 11 10 - 10 - 12 10 6 - 10 7 7 10 10 Capability Class 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 5 5 3 3 5 5 Table 4 Scoring and cl a s s i f i c a t i o n of the capability of physiographic components to support boating f a c i l i t i e s i n the site phases of the site types 62 be n e e d e d t o accommodate e x p a n s i o n i n t h e a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d a r e a s . F u t u r e c o t t a g e d e v e l o p m e n t i n p r e s e n t l y u n d e v e l o p e d a r e a s i n a c c e s s i b l e b y a u t o m o b i l e , w o u l d r e q u i r e p r o v i s i o n o f new r o a d w a y s a n d h y d r o u t i l i t y l i n e s . Any l a r g e - s c a l e c o t t a g e d e v e l o p m e n t may r e q u i r e t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a d o m e s t i c w a t e r s u p p l y i n a r e a s where g r o u n d w a t e r d e f i c i e n c i e s o c c u r . S i m i l a r l y , sewage d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s a r e l i k e l y t o be r e q u i r e d i n n e w l y d e v e l o p e d a r e a s . The C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t ( 1 9 7 0 ) h a s s t a t e d t h a t w i t h l a r g e s u b d i v i s i o n s " i t w o u l d a p p e a r a d v i s a b l e t o r e q u i r e d e v e l o p e r s t o p r o v i d e c o m p r e -h e n s i v e sewage d i s p o s a l s y s t e m s , p a r t i c u l a r l y where t h e t e r r a i n i s r o c k y a n d n o n - p e r m e a b l e . " To a l e s s e r d e g r e e , d e v e l o p m e n t o f new c a m p i n g an d b o a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s o n p r e s e n t l y u n d e v e l o p e d a r e a s o f t h e i s l a n d w o u l d r e q u i r e p r o v i s i o n o f b a s i c u t i l i t i e s . S I T E TYPE USE F E A S I B I L I T Y Us e f e a s i b i l i t y i s t h e " r e l a t i v e a d v a n t a g e o f m a n a g i n g o r i m p r o v i n g a u n i t , c o n s i d e r i n g i t s c a p a b i l i t y a n d s u i t a b i l i t y ... u n d e r t h e e x i s t i n g o r p r o j e c t e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l i m a t e " , as d e f i n e d b y t h e L a n d s c a p e A r c h i t e c t u r e R e s e a r c h O f f i c e ( 1 9 6 8 ) . The u s e f e a s i b i l i t y o f e q u a l l y c a p a b l e a n d s u i t a b l e s i t e t y p e s o n G a l i a n o I s l a n d i s p r e s e n t l y h i g h e r i n t h o s e a r e a s where s e r v i c e s a n d u t i l i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d ( e . g . r o a d s , e l e c t r i c p o w e r ) , b u t due t o assumed i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e -a t i o n s p a c e and t h e i s l a n d p r o x i m i t y t o m a j o r u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n s , a l l o f t h e i s l a n d may be c o n s i d e r e d a s e q u a l l y " f e a s i b l e " f o r f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t p u r p o s e s . SUMMARY As d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 1, a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e b a s e c a n p r o v i d e a m a j o r , b u t s t i l l o n l y p a r t i a l 63 means toward optimizing natural resource benefits for outdoor recreation purposes. While analysis based solely on physical and biotic considerations provides a valuable perspective and framework to assist i n recreation planning, i t does not include Wagar's concept of "carrying capacity" as discussed i n the f i r s t Chapter, Nor does i t ask the questions 'What do recreationists want from the natural resource, and are they getting what they want? Galiano Island recreationists engaged i n the three recreation a c t i v i t i e s examined i n this Chapter - cottaging, camping, boating - were asked questions of this nature i n order to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the interactions among the resource characteristics, the users and their activ-i t i e s on the island. Chapter 4 details these considerations and the recreationists' views of the Galiano Island natural resource; what i t i s , and what i t should be in the future. CHAPTER 4 ~ THE GALIANO ISLAND RECREATIONIST THE QUESTIONNAIRE During the summer of 1970 the author was employed by • the School of Community and Regional Planning, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the Gulf Islands Recreation Study i n i t i a t e d i n 1969. The project has been c a r r i e d out under the d i r e c t i o n of Dr. H.P. Oberlander, and through the sponsor-ship of the Donner Canadian Foundation. A s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of the study e n t a i l e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of questionnaires to v i s i t o r s on t h e i r r e t u r n t r i p from the major Gulf Island r e c r e a t i o n areas; Galiano, Mayne, S a l t s p r i n g , North Pender, South Pender and Saturna Islands. In four d i s t r i b u t i o n periods during the summer, questionnaires were d i s t r i b u t e d to v i s i t o r s r e t u r n i n g to the Tsawwassen and Schwartz Bay terminals of the B r i t i s h Columbia government f e r r y system. The questionnaires were d i s t r i b u t e d as v i s i t o r s boarded the f e r r i e s , and c o l l e c t i o n was completed before respondents disem-barked. A r e t u r n of completed questionnaires averaging 8 5 % was obtained during the d i s t r i b u t i o n . The questionnaire was devised to c o l l e c t user data within four broad categories; socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y patterns, preferences of the type and scale of development i n the Gulf Islands, and impressions of major features of a t t r a c t i o n . The questionnaire was predominantly d i r e c t e d to p a r t i c i p a n t s engaged i n the cottaging and camping a c t i v i t i e s , known to c o n s t i t u t e major groups, as previously described (Appendix). 65 The portions of the questionnaire which provided data on the a c t i v i t y patterns, development preferences and major features of a t t r a c t i o n to the respondents have been u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study. The questionnaire was designed to assess responses of i n d i v i d u a l r e c r e a t i o n i s t s , so that i n d i v i d u a l s t r a v e l l i n g i n groups each provided responses, except f o r family u n i t s . In the case of family groups, the head of the household provided i n f o r -mation on behalf of the other members• In a d d i t i o n to the questionnaire d i s t r i b u t e d on the f e r r i e s , another questionnaire (appendix) was developed s p e c i f i c a l l y to obtain data on the r e c r e a t i o n i s t s v i s i t i n g the i s l a n d s by privat e boat. These questionnaires were d i s t r i b -uted to v i s i t o r s at mooring and docking f a c i l i t i e s on both Galiano and S a l t s p r i n g Islands. This study i s confined to Galiano Island, and as such only those questionnaire responses obtained from v i s i t o r s to that i s l a n d are included f o r an a l y s i s purposes. Of a t o t a l 1444 completed questionnaires, the Galiano responses numbered 216, or 14.9% of the t o t a l r e t u r n . The Galiano Island cottagers, campers and boaters accounted f o r 173 (80.1%) of the t o t a l 216 responses. The questionnaires returned from Galiano Island v i s i t o r s included 122 cottager responses, 37 camper responses and 14 boater responses. The remaining 43 (19.9%) completed questionnaires were provided by v i s i t o r s who u t i l i z e d h o t e l , lodge, or 'other' f a c i l i t i e s on the i s l a n d . THE COTTAGER The sample of cottage v i s i t o r s was composed of 56 (49.1%) cottage owners and 42 (36.8%) non-owner v i s i t o r s . The remainder of the responses were provided by 9 (7.9%) v i s i t o r s who had borrowed a cottage, 5 (4.4%) who had rented a cottage and 2 (1.8%) who used other cottage f a c i l i t i e s . Inspection of 66 the data provided by these groups i n d i c a t e d no s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f -erences among responses. Therefore the t o t a l sample of cottagers i s treated as a unit f o r purposes of a n a l y s i s . O r i g i n The s i g n i f i c a n t a t t r a c t i o n of Galiano Island to Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island residents i s r e f l e c t e d by the questionnaire sampling of cottaging r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . Of the t o t a l cottager sample, 107 (87.5%) responses were provided by v i s i t o r s who o r i g i n a t e d from those two areas; 90 (73.4%) from Vancouver and the Lower Mainland, and 17 (14.1%) from V i c t o r i a and Vancou-ver I sland. The remainder of the v i s i t o r s o r i g i n a t e d i n other provinces of Canada and United States, accounting f o r 3 (2.3%) and 12 (10.2%) r e s p e c t i v e l y of the respondents. There were no responses from r e c r e a t i o n i s t s o r i g i n a t i n g i n other parts of B r i t i s h Columbia. A c t i v i t y P a r t i c i p a t i o n Ranked on a considerable-some-none scale of p a r t i c i -pation, 71.3% of the respondents in d i c a t e d that considerable time during the v i s i t was occupied i n a c t i v i t i e s around the cottage i t s e l f , as shown i n P i g . 9. Only 18.5% had spent con-siderable time d r i v i n g f o r pleasure during the v i s i t . Other a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g beachcombing, walking/hiking and swimming/ sunbathing received considerable p a r t i c i p a t i o n by 32.7%, 47.9% and 38.6% of the respondents r e s p e c t i v e l y . A d d i t i o n a l l y , nearly h a l f of the v i s i t o r s spent some time p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n those a c t i v i t i e s (48.5%, 48.7% and 45.6%). The cottage respondents generally i n d i c a t e d a tendency to remain at the cottage s i t e during a s u b s t a n t i a l portion of the v i s i t . A c t i v i t i e s undertaken away from the cottage were predominantly shore-oriented functions which require no man-made f a c i l i t i e s to enhance the q u a l i t y of the a c t i v i t y . Automobile use f o r pleasure purposes i s not an important a c t i v i t y to the group. IOO - f -cot(age l egend: ac t i v i t i e s around —1( wa lk ing/ h ik ing beachcomb ing s w i m m i n q / sunbatn ing p leasure dr iv ing A C T I V I T Y F ig . 9 A c t i v i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a te s of c o t t a g e r s 68 Cottage Lot Features As shown i n F i g . 10, a " d e s i r a b i l i t y " r a t i n g ( d e s i r -able, i n d i f f e r e n t , not desirable) f o r numerous features of a cottage l o t i n d i c a t e d that the cottagers assess large l o t s i z e (81.9%), good view (92.2%), waterfront property (86.3%), privacy (87.9%), quietness (91.1%) and road access (74o8%) a l l as d e s i r -able q u a l i t i e s . The large l o t category was not defined i n terms of s p e c i f i c dimensions. H o l l i n g (1971) has determined that cottagers i n the Gulf Islands are aware of dimensions of l o t s l e s s than two acres i n area, but do not d i f f e r e n t i a t e dimensions on l o t s i n excess of that area. I t i s assumed that the respon-dents i n d i c a t i n g the d e s i r a b i l i t y of a large l o t are i n d i c a t i n g an area of greater than two acres. Fewer cottage respondents i n d i c a t e d that e l e c t r i c power and wind p r o t e c t i o n were des i r a b l e ; 66.3% and 48.4% r e s p e c t i v e l y . Municipal water supply, sanitary sewer f a c i l i t i e s and nearness to stores, were rated as desirable by only 35.7%, 41.2% and 19.4% of the respondents. Moreover, approximately 44.0% of the respondents were i n d i f f e r e n t to pr o v i s i o n of munici-p a l water supply and sanitary sewer f a c i l i t i e s , and 60.0% i n d i f f e r e n t to having stores and services nearby. Beach Area Features Figure 11 shows that 81.2% and 91.0% r e s p e c t i v e l y of the respondents rated the abundance of marine l i f e and quietness and s o l i t u d e as desirable beach features. Good swimming condi-t i o n s were considered as desirable to 66.4% of the respondents. Easy automobile access to beach areas and pr o v i s i o n of nearby stores and services were rated as desirable by only 38.4% and 25.3% r e s p e c t i v e l y . Approximately h a l f the respondents (51.5%) f e e l that p r o v i s i o n of walking t r a i l s would be a desirable beach feature. I O O -t-05 DC i l l O < »-o o o o 8 0 6 0 - -4 0 2 0 -easy road a c c e s s I arge lot wind p roperty protect ion on water e l e c t r i c power tunc water supply COTTAGE LOT FEATURES Fig. 10 Cottage lot features pr i vacy n e a r n e s s of stores q u i e t n e s s 100 8 0 CO cc LU O < 60 r-H o o £ 4 0 2 0 - -boat i ng faci Ii t tes m legend: not des i rab le ind if terent d e s 11 a b I e quietness walking good trails swimming easy auto marine nearness access life of stores BEACH FEATURES Fig. II Beach' features 70 Preferences Toward Changes i n Development As i l l u s t r a t e d i n P i g . 12, only 17.0% of the respon-dents favour p r o v i s i o n of more roads on the i s l a n d , and only 24.7% f e e l more stores and services should be provided, on a yes-no -response b a s i s . 43.6% favoured p r o v i s i o n of more pu b l i c beaches. Development of cottages on a r e n t a l basis and p r o v i s i o n of more p u b l i c boating f a c i l i t i e s were considered as favourable by only 32.9% and 32.0% r e s p e c t i v e l y . A majority of cottagers favoured r e s t r i c t i o n s on the amount of new cottage development permitted (61.1%), and also favoured the establishment of a minimum distance requirement between cottages (84.7%). S i m i l a r l y , cottagers favoured r e s t r i c t i o n of cottages to large l o t s only (79.2%). R a i s i n g of b u i l d i n g standards was considered as favour-able by 40.9% of the respondents. Major Features of Galiano Island Responses to an unstructured question, asking respon-dents to i n d i c a t e the most s i g n i f i c a n t features of Galiano Island, were grouped i n t o three major categories - n a t u r a l , man-made, s o c i a l - as i l l u s t r a t e d i n P i g . 19. Natural features include . those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the ph y s i c a l and b i o t i c environment which provide an a t t r a c t i o n f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . Natural features recorded by the cottager group included scenic beauty, favourable c l i m a t i c conditions and a p o l l u t i o n - f r e e environment. Man-made f a c i l i t i e s include any support s e r v i c e s , u t i l i t i e s or f a c i l i t i e s developed to enhance the comfort and enjoyment of the user popu-l a t i o n . S o c i a l features l a r g e l y included q u a l i t a t i v e character-i s t i c s expressed by the respondents; f r i e n d l y r e s i d e n t s , unhurried pace of l i f e and sense of s e c l u s i o n . The cottage owners ranked the nat u r a l features of the i s l a n d as most important (58.8%). S o c i a l f a c t o r s accounted f o r 35.0% of the responses, the remainder (6.2%) ranking man-made features on the i s l a n d as most important. I O O - T mire public moe min t ittage restrict roads beach stores spat ng . cottage p'ublicdocks large lots raibe bldg " rental numbers & launching only standards cottages COTTAGE DEVELOPMENT CHANGES Fig. 12 Cottage development changes 72 C o n c l u s i o n s F r o m t h e A n a l y s i s o f C o t t a g e r R e s p o n s e s The f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o t t a g e - o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n i s t s o n G a l i a n o I s l a n d v a l u e t h e r e s o u r c e l a r g e l y b e c a u s e o f i t s r e l a t i v e l y u n d e v e l o p e d c o n d i t i o n a n d t h e s e n s e o f b e i n g "away f r o m i t a l l " s t i l l a v a i l a b l e a t p r e s e n t . A c t i v -i t y p a t t e r n s a n d l a c k o f d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r i n c r e a s e d s e r v i c e s a n d u t i l i t i e s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d e s i r e o f t h i s g r o u p t o h a v e G a l i a n o I s l a n d r e t a i n e d f o r " s i m p l e " f o r m s o f r e c r e a t i o n s u c h a s b e a c h -c o m b i n g a n d w a l k i n g o r h i k i n g . P e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n h a s c o n -f i r m e d t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f v i s i t o r s e n j o y i n g a s t r o l l a l o n g t h e s h o r e , a n a f t e r n o o n s u n n i n g o n t h e b e a c h o r a d i g f o r c l a m s and o y s t e r s . P r e f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e t h a t d e s i r a b l e c o t t a g i n g on t h e i s l a n d i s i n h e r e n t l y a s h o r e l i n e - o r i e n t e d f u n c t i o n ; t h e l a n d -w a t e r i n t e r f a c e b e i n g a f u n d a m e n t a l e l e m e n t o f t h e w h o l e c o t t a g i n g e x p e r i e n c e . W a t e r f r o n t p r o p e r t y p r e s e n t s t h e i d e a l c o t t a g i n g e n v i r o n m e n t ; h a v i n g a g o o d w a t e r - o r i e n t e d v i e w b e i n g t h e s e c o n d b e s t a l t e r n a t i v e . F r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h i s g r o u p , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u g g e s t t h a t e x t e n s i v e f u t u r e c o t t a g e d e v e l -opment o n t h e i s l a n d w o u l d d e t r a c t s u b s t a n t i a l l y f r o m t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n d e r i v e d b y t h e p r e s e n t u s e r p o p u l a t i o n . THE CAMPER O r i g i n The p e r m a n e n t r e s i d e n c e s o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t s c a m p i n g on G a l i a n o I s l a n d were p r e d o m i n a n t l y l o c a t e d i n t h e V a n c o u v e r - L o w e r M a i n l a n d and V i c t o r i a - V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d a r e a s . O f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e o f 37 c a m p e r s , 30 ( 8 1 . 1 % ) o r i g i n a t e d f r o m t h e s e two a r e a s , 22 ( 5 9 . 5 % ) an d 8 ( 2 1 . 6 % ) r e s p e c t i v e l y . O n l y 3 ( 8 . 1 % ) o f t h e c a m p e r s o r i g i n a t e d i n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , a n d 4 ( 1 0 . 8 % ) i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . No r e s p o n s e s were r e c o r d e d f r o m v i s i t o r s c o m i n g 73 from other parts of B r i t i s h Columbia. Campers included i n the sample were reasonably exper-ienced, 89.2% having camped on a t . l e a s t f i v e previous occasions, 21.6% having camped f i v e or more times previously i n the Gulf Islands area. For 56.8% of the respondents the t r i p to Galiano Island was a f i r s t v i s i t . The Montague Harbour P r o v i n c i a l Campground on Galiano Island was the camping s i t e f o r the majority (78.6%) of the respondents. Only 2.4% of the campers u t i l i z e d commercial camping areas, and 19.0% camped i n "other" l o c a t i o n s such as undeveloped properties and beach areas. A c t i v i t y P a r t i c i p a t i o n The camping respondents were asked to i n d i c a t e t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a range of a c t i v i t e s , ranked on a considerable-some -none basis, as ...shown i n F i g . 13. Relaxing, around the campsite was 'the major a c t i v i t y of the sample; 71.4% having spent "considerable" time during the v i s i t at or i n the near v i c i n i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l tent s i t e . Beachcombing and walking/ h i k i n g were also prevalent a c t i v i t i e s , with 40.5% and 45.2% r e s p e c t i v e l y of the respondents recording considerable p a r t i c -i p a t i o n . An a d d i t i o n a l 47.6% and 52.4% r e s p e c t i v e l y spent some time beachcombing and walking/hiking. 38.8% of the respondents spent considerable time swimming and sunbathing, while an a d d i t i o n a l 45.6% spent some time p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the a c t i v i t i e s . While much of the camper's a c t i v i t i e s were in d i c a t e d to have taken place i n or near the campground, 39.5% of the sample spent considerable time pleasure d r i v i n g , and another 23.7% spent some time during the v i s i t d r i v i n g f o r pleasure. The above patterns i n d i c a t e the importance of the campground and i t s immediate environs to the camper group. Sim-i l a r to the cottagers, the camper's major a c t i v i t i e s require minimal man-made development, rather being s a t i s f i e d by the 100-cc LU a 5 < o u. o LU o «s h-z LU O CC LU a 8 0 - -6 0 - -40-20-legend: none considerable walking/ hiking activity around campsite . . , beachcombing swimming/ sunbathing driving for pleasure ACTIVITY Fig. 13 Activity participation rates of campers 75 natural c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p h y s i c a l environment. Most a c t i v i t i e s i n which the campers p a r t i c i p a t e d occur at short distance from the campsites, except f o r pleasure d r i v i n g on the i s l a n d . Campground Features The d e s i r a b i l i t y of a range of campground features, provided on a d e s i r a b l e - i n d i f f e r e n t - n o t desirable ranking s c a l e , i n d i c a t e s that quietness (87.5%), p r o t e c t i o n from wind (87.2%) and presence of trees and shrubs adjacent to the tent s i t e (82.5%) are most desirable to the camper group, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . 14. Nearness to the d r i n k i n g water supply and t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s are of somewhat l e s s e r importance, with 71.8% and 64.1% of respondents r e s p e c t i v e l y i n d i c a t i n g the d e s i r a b i l i t y of nearby u t i l i t i e s . Within the i n d i v i d u a l tent s i t e , the presence of grass growth on the ground surface, an outward view and ease of v e h i c l e parking were considered as being of some-what l e s s concern to the respondents; 48.7%, 45.0% and 37.8% r e s p e c t i v e l y i n d i c a t i n g these conditions as being d e s i r a b l e . Beach Area Features The most desirable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a beach area, as i n d i c a t e d by the Galiano Island campers were quietness and s o l i t u d e , and an abundance of marine l i f e , r e g i s t e r e d by 87.8% and 82.0% of the group r e s p e c t i v e l y . Although only 28.2% of the respondents had p a r t i c i p a t e d considerably i n swimming and sunbathing during the v i s i t , 77.5% i n d i c a t e d that good swimming conditions were a desirable feature of any beach area. Boating f a c i l i t i e s , such as launching areas and dockage were considered as desirable by 51.3% of the group. Good h i k i n g t r a i l s along beaches were rated as desirable by 63.1% of the respondents. Less than h a l f of the respondents i n d i c a t e d that easy automobile access and the p r o v i s i o n of stores and concessions were desirable beach features, r e g i s t e r e d by 45.7% and 28.2%. 100 80 - -CO CC UJ °£ 60 < o u_ O 40 N o 20- -view wind quietness protection shade close close trees* grass easy to to toilets watersupply shrubs on parking CAMPGROUND FEATURES Fig. 14 Campground features ground 100 80 CO OC LU OL s < o LU O o N, o 60- -40-20-i 1 legend: Ll not desirable indifferent des i rable boating easy auto quiet walking nearness good facilities access marine life trails of swimming stores BEACH FEATURES Fig,15 Beach features 77 Preferences Toward Changes i n Campground Development P r o v i s i o n of a d d i t i o n a l campgrounds on Galiano Island was considered favourable by 60.0% of the camper respondents, as shown i n P i g . 16. Within e x i s t i n g camping f a c i l i t i e s , improvement of u t i l i t i e s was i n d i c a t e d as favourable by 67*6% of the sample, and l e s s than h a l f the group (44.8%) i n d i c a t e d that spacing the tent s i t e s at distances greater than the stan-dard 100 feet was needed. P l a n t i n g of a d d i t i o n a l trees and shrubs around tent s i t e s was in d i c a t e d as favourable by only 35.5% of the campers. In the foregoing s e c t i o n , assessing d e s i r a b i l i t y of campground features, 82.5% of the respondents expressed the d e s i r a b i l i t y of trees and shrubs around the tent s i t e ; i n d i c a t i n g that the vegetation c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s presently found i n the camping areas are adequate i n the opinion of most campers• P o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n to the p r o v i s i o n of e l e c t r i c i t y i n the campground was in d i c a t e d by only 12*9% of the respondents. S i m i l a r l y , p r o v i s i o n of paving around heavy f o o t - t r a f f i c areas at the tent s i t e s and construction of wooden decking f o r use under tents were considered favourable by only 9.4% and 10.3% of the campers r e s p e c t i v e l y . Major Features of Galiano Island The dominant features of Galiano i s l a n d as expressed by the camper group combined i n the same manner as was done f o r the cottager sample; na t u r a l features, man-made features, s o c i a l f e a t u r e s . Natural features i n c l u d i n g scenic beauty, climate and p o l l u t i o n - f r e e environment were considered most important on Galiano Island f o r 63.1% of the sample group. S o c i a l features i n c l u d i n g sense of secl u s i o n , freedom and f r i e n d l y residents accounted f o r the remaining 36.9% of the group. With-i n the camper sample, no respondents i n d i c a t e d that man-made elements on Galiano Island were the most important features. The "features" data provided by the group i s summarized i n F i g . 19. too-80-60 - -40 - -20 - -more campgrounds electricity t rees & tents shrubs p ave campsite improve far ther improve wooden uti l i t ies apart cooking facility tent pads CAMPGROUND CHANGES Fig. 16 Campground development changes 79 Conclusions From the Analysis of Camper Responses The responses of the camper group c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e the . importance of the n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i s l a n d , as well as the d e s i r a b i l i t y of a secluded r e c r e a t i o n experience. A l a r g e l y undeveloped environment i s important to enjoyment of the camping area i t s e l f , and to the a c t i v i t i e s i n which t h i s group of r e c r e a t i o n i s t s p a r t i c i p a t e . S i m i l a r to the responses of the cottager group, the campers place emphasis on the impor-tance of quietness, s o l i t i d e and privacy as e s s e n t i a l to enjoy-ment of the v i s i t . A n c i l l a r y f a c i l i t i e s which are desired i d e a l l y serve only to enhance a "natur a l " experience i n camping, and do not to any extent change the character of the experience i t s e l f . Only minimal improvements to e x i s t i n g conditions i n the organ-i z e d camping areas are desired, the major proposed change being f o r the p r o v i s i o n of more camping areas. In terms of f a c i l i t i e s to accommodate the a c t i v i t i e s of the camper group, e s s e n t i a l l y nothing i s required or desired; r e t e n t i o n of e x i s t i n g n a tural values being the important con-s i d e r a t i o n . In essence, the n a t u r a l environment i n i t s l a r g e l y undisturbed form i s the most e s s e n t i a l " f a c i l i t y " of any. Other than the a c t i v i t i e s around the campsite i t s e l f , shore-oriented a c t i v i t i e s are the dominant a t t r a c t i o n s f o r the camper group. The importance of campground l o c a t i o n i n close proximity to the water feature i s evident. THE BOATER O r i g i n The l o c a t i o n of permanent residences i n d i c a t e d by the boaters i s markedly d i f f e r e n t than that of e i t h e r the cottager or camper group. Of the boater respondents, 7 (50.0%) of the respondents were from the United States, and 5 (35.7%) from the 80 V i c t o r i a - V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d a r e a . V a n c o u v e r an d t h e L o w e r M a i n -l a n d v i s i t o r s a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y 2 ( 1 4 . 3 % ) o f t h e s a m p l e . The t o t a l b o a t e r s a m p l e p r o v i d e d b y t h e G u l f I s l a n d s R e c r e a t i o n S t u d y w h i c h i n c l u d e d v i s i t o r s t o S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d as w e l l a s G a l i a n o I s l a n d i n d i c a t e d a s i m i l a r l y h i g h ( 7 2 . 5 % ) p r o p o r t i o n o f U n i t e d S t a t e s v i s i t o r s . The b o a t e r r e s p o n d e n t s i n c l u d e d 7 0 . 0 % who u t i l i z e d t h e b o a t f o r s l e e p i n g q u a r t e r s d u r i n g t h e i r v i s i t t o G a l i a n o I s l a n d , w i t h t h e r e m a i n i n g 3 0 . 0 % h a v i n g camped i n t h a t p o r t i o n o f t h e M o n t a g u e H a r b o u r c a m p i n g a r e a s e t a s i d e f o r t h e u s e o f t h e b o a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . None o f t h e b o a t e r r e s p o n d e n t s owned p r o p e r t y o n G a l i a n o I s l a n d . A c t i v i t y P a r t i c i p a t i o n B e a c h c o m b i n g a n d w a l k i n g / h i k i n g a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e most a c t i v i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n o n G a l i a n o I s l a n d b y t h e b o a t e r r e s p o n d e n t s , as shown o n F i g . 1 7 , w i t h 5 0 . 0 % a n d 4 4 . 0 % r e s p e c -t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount i n e a c h . I n e a c h c a s e , a l l t h e r e m a i n i n g r e s p o n d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d some i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . O n l y 1 0 . 0 % o f t h e b o a t e r s d i d c o n s i d e r a b l e swimming/ s u n b a t h i n g d u r i n g t h e v i s i t , w i t h a n a d d i t i o n a l 7 0 . 0 % p a r t i c i -p a t i n g "some". C o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f i s h i n g was p u r s u e d b y 2 2 . 2 % o f t h e g r o u p , w i t h a n o t h e r 2 7 . 8 % u n d e r t a k i n g some p a r t i c i p a t i o n . B e a c h A r e a F e a t u r e s Q u i e t n e s s a n d s o l i t u d e , a n d a n a b u n d a n c e o f m a r i n e l i f e w ere r a t e d a s d e s i r a b l e b y 1 0 0 % o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . P r o v i s i o n o f m a r i n a f a c i l i t i e s was. c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e b y 9 0 . 0 % o f t h e g r o u p . O n l y s l i g h t l y l e s s e m p h a s i s was g i v e n t o b e a c h w a l k i n g t r a i l s , p u b l i c moorage f a c i l i t i e s a n d g o od swimming c o n d i t i o n s , e a c h r a t e d a s d e s i r a b l e b y 8 0 .0%, a s shown i n F i g , 1 8 . 100-*-80 • -CO 60 CC LU < 2 40 LL O 6- 20 - -T'eaclicombTn g s w i mmi ng/sunbath walking/hiking fishing legend: c o n s i d e r a b l e ACTIVITY Fig. 17 Activity participation rates of boaters 100 80 - -to cc LU L _ 60 < o CQ o 40 - -lO - -Public commecia l launching dockage public marina mooring facil it ies I boater camping L J easy auto acces s BEACH FEATURES Fig. 18 Beach features quietness walking :t raiIs marine good l i fe swimming Legend: not desirable [_J indifferent desirable I^H 82 The boater group was l a r g e l y i n d i f f e r e n t (70.0%) to the p r o v i s i o n of boat launching f a c i l i t i e s . Personal observation by the author of the type of large c r a f t used by most respondents showed that normal ramp-type launching f a c i l -i t i e s could not be used i n any event. None of the respondents favoured the p r o v i s i o n of commercial docking f a c i l i t i e s i n beach areas. S i m i l a r l y , no responses i n d i c a t e d that easy automobile access was d e s i r a b l e . Major Features of Galiano Island The natural features of the i s l a n d , as described i n the foregoing cottager and camper sections of the study, provided the major a t t r a c t i o n s f o r 57.1% of the boater respon-dents. S o c i a l f a c t o r s were recorded as the major features f o r 28.5% of the group. A d d i t i o n a l l y , 14.3% rated man-made features as most important, s p e c i f i c a l l y the p r o v i s i o n of good boating services and f a c i l i t i e s , as shown on F i g . 19. Conclusions From the Analysis of Boater Responses The sample of boaters who made Galiano Island t h e i r major stop-over point during the t r i p was too small to provide d e f i n i t i v e conclusions about the boater population as a whole. However, the sample does provide a general i n d i c a t i o n of a c t i v i t y patterns, i s l a n d development preferences and major features of a t t r a c t i o n . The responses of the group l a r g e l y r e f l e c t the s e l f -i n t e r e s t s of the boat-oriented r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . To the group, the i s l a n d i s considered predominantly as only one stop among many during the boating t r i p , rather than as a f i n a l d e s t i n a t i o n as i s the case with most cottagers and campers. The a c t i v i t i e s i n which the boaters p a r t i c i p a t e are l a r g e l y shore-oriented such as beachcombing and walking/hiking Fig. 19 Major Galiano Island features of all visitor groups 84 which require no man-made f a c i l i t i e s . Service and moorage provisions f o r the boat i t s e l f are important requirements however, and the responses i n d i c a t e the d e s i r a b i l i t y of these features as basic to the enjoyment of the boating t r i p . SUMMARY OP THE QUESTIONNAIRE ANALYSIS The o v e r a l l r e s u l t s of the questionnaire i n d i c a t e an expressed desire by a l l groups to have Galiano Island retained as a l a r g e l y undeveloped natural resource, maintaining the user population at low l e v e l s and providing only basic required services and u t i l i t i e s . In terms of the major features of a t t r a c -t i o n on the i s l a n d , the responses of a l l three groups were s i m i l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d among the n a t u r a l , man-made and s o c i a l elements (Chi-square; 1% l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e ) . A major element of the r e c r e a t i o n i s t s ' enjoyment of the resource i s "getting away from i t a l l " , l e a v i n g behind temporarily the urban environment from which most o r i g i n a t e d . The r e s u l t s suggest that s u b s t a n t i a l increase i n the numbers of r e c r e a t i o n i s t s using the i s l a n d or major changes i n the nature and scope of development w i l l detract from the i d e a l r e c r e a t i o n environment f o r the present referent groups. The s h o r e l i n e - o r i e n t a t i o n of a l l r e c r e a t i o n i s t groups and v i r t u a l l y a l l of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n d i c a t e s that dominance of the land-water i n t e r f a c e as the major p h y s i c a l element of the resource. The i n t e r i o r and upland areas of t h e , i s l a n d presently f u n c t i o n to a large degree only as a back-drop or s e t t i n g f o r the shoreline f e a t u r e . This a t t r a c t i o n to the shoreline expressed by a l l groups s i g n i f i c a n t l y suggests that any p o t e n t i a l prob-lems of over-crowding and use c o n f l i c t s w i l l predominantly occur around the perimeter of the i s l a n d . The s a t i s f a c t i o n of the desires of any one group of r e c r e a t i o n i s t s may inherently embody p o t e n t i a l d i s - 3 a t i s f a c t i o n of another. While many of the pre-ferences and impressions are s i m i l a r among the three groups -cottagers, campers, boaters - the s p e c i f i c needs of each vary. 85 I f i t i s accepted that i n t e r e s t s of a l l r e c r e a t i o n i s t groups presently u t i l i z i n g the i s l a n d are to be continued i n the future, then minimization of p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s must be ensured, and optimal i n t e g r a t i o n of common land use functions must be pro-vided f o r . ' CHAPTER 5 - RESOURCE, ACTIVITY AND USER INTEGRATION; A SUGGESTED PLAN FOR GALIANO ISLAND THE STUDY PREMISE AND HYPOTHESES The foregoing a n a l y s i s of the natural resource compo-nents, a c t i v i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and user preferences on Galiano Island has l a r g e l y substantiated the o v e r a l l premise of t h i s t h e s i s . Consideration of the physiographic and b i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n conjunction with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e c r e a t i o n i s t s as they i n t e r a c t with the resource base, can provide f o r a more comprehensive understanding by which optimal u t i l i t y and minimal degradation of the resource can be achieved. The r e s u l t s of the resource a n a l y s i s phase of the study i l l u s t r a t e that there are d e f i n i t i v e l i m i t a t i o n s to the poten-t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y types on Galiano Island, based on natural resource c a p a b i l i t y to support use on a sus-tained b a s i s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , consideration of the referent r e c r e a t i o n i s t groups i l l u s t r a t e s that optimal "user c a r r y i n g capacity" of the resource i s very dependent on r e t e n t i o n of c e r t a i n i s l a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In e f f e c t , resource c a p a b i l i t y and resource capacity are not n e c e s s a r i l y synonomous on Galiano I s l a n d . R e a l i z a t i o n of maximum c a p a b i l i t y of the i s l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n purposes w i l l r e s u l t i n s u b s t a n t i a l decrease i n user s a t i s f a c t i o n unless s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and design c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of development r e f l e c t concern f o r both resource q u a l i t y and r e c r e a t i o n i s t s a t i s f a c t i o n . The study hypothesis suggesting that user impressions of major features of Galiano Island are s i m i l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d among the three referent groups has been substantiated. The 87 f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that while r e t e n t i o n of natural values on the i s l a n d i s of major importance to v i s i t o r s , the man-made and s o c i a l elements also play a r o l e i n enhancing the q u a l i t y of the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . Planning f o r outdoor r e c r e -a t i o n should incorporate considerations of a l l three aspects i n order to optimize conditions f o r the r e c r e a t i o n experience. Analysis of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the three referent groups substantiates the second hypothesis as described i n Chapter 1. A l l groups l a r g e l y favour r e t e n t i o n of "natural values" i n a l a r g e l y undeveloped landscpe, and desire only the minimal l e v e l of services and u t i l i t i e s necessary to make the v i s i t comfortable. The t h i r d hypothesis which suggests that v a r i a t i o n s i n the physiographic and b i o l o g i c a l components of Galiano Island are of s u f f i c i e n t type and degree as to provide a basis on which outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n can be a l l o c a t e d has also l a r g e l y been substantiated. The analysis i n Chapter 3 i l l u s t r a t e s that "physiographic determinism" i n the u t i l i z a -t i o n of the Galiano Island natural resource does provide a basis on which optimazation of resource u t i l i t y and minimization of resource degradation can be ensured. Any pattern of use and development oh Galiano Island based on considerations which do not include the natural resource c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would appear to increase the prospect of resource degradation and user d i s - s a t i s f a c t i o n . A SUGGESTED PLAIT FOR GALIANO ISLAND In the l i g h t of the an a l y s i s provided i n the study, i n t e g r a t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the three elements of re c r e a t i o n on Galiano Island - resource, a c t i v i t y , user - can provide f o r a comprehensive r e c r e a t i o n resource evaluation on which to base planning d e c i s i o n s . The land use c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n developed i n 88 Chapter 3 provides a basis for spatial allocation of the natural resource base for selected a c t i v i t i e s on Galiano Island. The technique incorporates considerations of potential physical impacts of recreational use on the environment, but does not e x p l i c i t l y embody the preferences recreationists may have about the nature of development which can occur. The analysis of questionnaire responses from the three referent groups has endeavoured to provide this element through an assessment of user characteristics, their a c t i v i t i e s , preferences and impress-ions of the natural resource. A suggested integrated land use plan, based on the analyses of the resource base and the referent user groups i s i l l u s t r a t e d on Map 10. Cottaging Cottage development i s recommended to occur predominantly at the north and south ends of the island, with smaller areas designated i n the central portion of the island on both sides of the central spine. Designated areas are generally confined to those areas which possess moderate slope characteristics, as well as adequate s o i l and water conditions. In these areas hazards of s o i l i n s t a b i l i t y and inadequate drainage for septic sewage disposal are minimized. Capability for vegetation growth i s optimal i n these areas, and i s unlikely to be adversely affected as a result of development (e.g. s o i l compaction, drainage impedement). Furthermore, i n keeping with sentiments expressed by the cottage v i s i t o r s , proposed cottage areas are separated spatially throughout the island with extensive areas of park lands and managed forests. Most designated cottage areas are shoreline-oriented, or located such that a waterfront view may be obtained. The proximity of the shoreline w i l l permit continued participation by the cottaging group in the water-oriented a c t i v i t i e s expressed as important i n the questionnaire analysis. L D ) MS STURDIES BAY LEGEND: mm® C O T T A G I N G PUBLIC PARK & SHORE ACCESS.] CAMPING AREA MANAGED TREE FARM ErEv1? BOATING : LAUNCH RAMP L DOCK D MOORAGE M SERVICES (GAS.OIL) S ROADWAYS SITE TYPE >. BOUNDARY GALIANO ISLAND A SUGGESTED LAND-USE PLAN 1971 MAP 10 90 Within each area designated for cottaging purposes, i t i s suggested that a minimum lot size of 2 acres be estab-lished. The adaption of this c r i t e r i o n would not only provide the privacy and sense of freedom expressed as important by respondents, but i n respect to minimizing required u t i l i t i e s would also provide an adequate area for f i e l d drainage of septic sewage (Douglass, 1969). Furthermore, a minimum lot size of 2 acres would permit retention of most vegetation on any property, thus complementing the expressed desire of maintaining natural values of the resource. It i s noted that the areas designated for cottage development, based on the physical capability analysis, include v i r t u a l l y a l l those areas presently devoted to this function (e.g. site type numbers l a , 3b, 2b, 5b, 6a, 6b). The si m i l a r i t y between the cottaging areas suggested by the analysis, and existing development areas indicates that cottaging has occurred largely as a function of the physiographic factors described in this study. Furthermore, a map produced i n a recent computer-based study of the Gulf Islands, unpublished at present, indicates cottaging s u i t a b i l i t y on Galiano Island as closely corresponding to the areas designated by this study (Holling, 1971), Camping The suggested allocation of public camping f a c i l i t i e s provides for two areas on the island, as shown on Map 10. The existing Montague Harbour camping area, rated as Class 1 for camping i n the Chapter 3 capability analysis, i s maintained. Development i s suggested of an additional camping area in the central portion of the island, located as shown on Map 10. Portions of this designated area are public lands presently held by the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. It i s suggested that public lands i n which the camping areas are designated be expanded to include the land areas between-the northeast and southwest shorelines, thus linking 91 the opposite sides of the i s l a n d f o r walking and h i k i n g a c t i v -i t y , expressed as important to the camping r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . P r o v i s i o n of the linkage across the i s l a n d would also provide ease of access to a l l major bays and harbours which occur i n the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of the i s l a n d . Further, i n order to enhance the natural camping exper-ience f o r t h i s group of r e c r e a t i o n i s t s , i t i s suggested that an adequate buff e r zone of vegetation be maintained between the camping areas and those areas within the p r i v a t e tree farm holdings. The dimensions of the b u f f e r zone would be subject to a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of vegetation density and i t s a b i l i t y to screen sound and sight nuisance f a c t o r s i n the a d j o i n i n g lands. V. Within the designated camping areas, i t i s suggested that tent s i t e spacing be c a r r i e d out at not l e s s than the present 100 feet standard, considered acceptable to the majority of camper v i s i t o r s i n the questionnaire sample. A d d i t i o n a l l y , maximum vegetation r e t e n t i o n should be exercised. These measures w i l l serve to s a t i s f y the desire f o r quietness, abun-dance of tree and shrub growth and wind p r o t e c t i o n expressed by most campers. Boating The c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g of physiographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s amenable f o r boating f a c i l i t i e s on Galiano Island i n d i c a t e s few s u i t a b l e s i t e s f o r development. It i s suggested that e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s be maintained, and that minimal provisions f o r boat launching and short-term docking and mooring be provided i n those areas designated as p u b l i c park lands, thus permitting boating v i s i t o r s to u t i l i z e the areas. I t i s suggested that over-night moorage and docking f a c i l i t i e s be confined to the protected waters on the southwestern shore of the i s l a n d where wind conditions are more favourable. 92 Shoreline Use The importance of the shoreline to a l l considerations of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n on Galiano Island i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d by the study. I t i s the shoreline areas of the i s l a n d which have been shown to provide the dominant feature of a t t r a c t i o n on the resource base, and the l o c a t i o n of v i r t u a l l y a l l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . It i s proposed therefore that p u b l i c possession of several stretches of the i s l a n d shoreline be provided, as in d i c a t e d on Map 10. In t h i s manner, i n ad d i t i o n to p u b l i c access being provided along the shoreline between the high and low t i d e l e v e l s , p u b l i c access can be assured i n those areas where no beach occurs, and provide f o r uninterrupted access around much of the i s l a n d perimeter. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The study has l a r g e l y confirmed that n a t u r a l resource planning f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n on Galiano Island which embodies an integrated approach u t i l i z i n g resource, a c t i v i t y and user c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s snould provide a means to plan f o r the optimal conditions f o r enjoyment of the experience, and simultaneously ensure that natural resource q u a l i t y i s maintained. I t i s concluded that t h i s approach could be u t i l i z e d f o r s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s purposes on any natural resource complex f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n purposes. U t i l i z a t i o n of a composite technique embodying elements proposed by H i l l s , Lewis, McHarg and the Canada Land Inventory program provides a comprehensive basis on which to superimpose the user and a c t i v i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t i s concluded that r e c r e a t i o n resource analysis as provided by a synthesis of these techniques can provide f o r an optimazation of natural resource c a r r y i n g capacity, incorporating the r e c r e a t i o n i s t s ' points of view and ensuring optimal user s a t i s f a c t i o n . It i s recommended that any pursual of the evaluation 93 of the Galiano Island resource, or s i m i l a r resources elsewhere, should he done on the basis of more d e t a i l e d physiographic data than i s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e ; s o i l s , hydrologic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and patterns of vegetation d i s t r i b u t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y . Further-more, study of the environmental impact caused by the various r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s on the resource base would provide a valuable a d d i t i o n to planning considerations. The a d d i t i o n of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the user element to the r e c r e a t i o n resource a n a l y s i s provides a valuable i n s i g h t . I t i s concluded from the r e s u l t s obtained from the v i s i t o r sample, that a questionnaire d i s t r i b u t i o n s i m i l a r to that included as part of t h i s study provides a s a t i s f a c t o r y p a r t i a l assessment of the user element, but a l a r g e r sample of a l l r e c r e a t i o n i s t groups would make conslusions about each more substantive. F i n a l l y , while i n t e g r a t i o n of the resource, a c t i v i t y and user f a c t o r s i n the a n a l y s i s of a p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r a l resource can serve to optimize conditions f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , so also should the resource be considered as an i n t e g r a l part of the l a r g e r p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and economic whole i n which i t occurs. This t h e s i s examined Galiano Island i n i s o l a t i o n from the others i n the Gulf Islands chain i n order to examine and apply a methodology within a confined case study area. 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Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resources Review Commission. 1 9 6 2 . M u l t i p l e Use o f Land and Water A r e a s . O.R.R.R.C. Study Report No, 1 7 f Washington, D.C. . 1 9 6 2 . S h o r e l i n e R e c r e a t i o n Resources o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s . O.R.R.R.C. Study Report No. 4 f Washington, D.C. P a r k e r , Merwin W. 1 9 6 6 , P r o j e c t Open Space. Summary Reprt f o r the Puget Sound Government Conference and the Puget Sound R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l , S e a t t l e , Wash. 99 P l o t n i k o f f , James Peter. 1970. Cottaging and Related Support  Services . Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , School o f Community and Regional Planning, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver• School of Community and Regional Planning. 1970. Planning  f o r the Squamish-Lillooet Region. A student p r o j e c t . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. S t e i n t z , C a r l . 1970. "Landscape Resource A n a l y s i s . " Land-scape Ar c h i t e c t u r e , January: 101-105, 1970. Thomas, Morley K. 1953. C l i m a t o l o g i c a l A t l a s of Canada. Department of Transport, Meteorological D i v i s i o n . Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, Canada. T i l s e , Prances E. ed. 1968. Urbanization and the Natural  Environment i n the Coastal Region o f the State of Wash-ington and the Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia^ Report of a conference held at The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. (Mimeographed). U.S. Congress. 1958. Enabling L e g i s l a t i o n f o r Outdoor Recrea-t i o n . Resources Review Commission, June 28, 1958. Vancouver Sun, December 19, 1970. "Expropriate the Gulf Islands - Don't You Dare." Wagar, J . A l l a n . 1964. "The Carrying Capacity of Wild Lands f o r Recreation." Forest Science Monograph 7, Society of American Foresters, Washington, D.C. Watt, Kenneth E. 1968. Ecology and Resource Management. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, N.Y. [ ; Williams, Merton Yarwood and Richard W. P i l l s b u r y . 1958. "The Gulf Islands of B r i t i s h Columbia." Canadian Geo-graphical Journal, LVI(6): 184-201, June 1958. Wolfe, Roy I. 1951. "Summer Cottages i n Ontario." Economic  Geography, 27(1): 1951. . 1965. "About Cottages and C o t t a g e r s c " Landscape, J 3 U ) : 6-8, Autumn 1965. Wyman, Donald. 1961 Shrubs and Vines f o r American Gardens, 6th ed. The MacMillan C o . , New Y o r k , H.Y". APPENDIX Gulf Islands Recreation Study V i s i t o r Questionnaire Gulf Islands Recreation Study Boater Questionnaire UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA S c h o o l o f C o m m m i l t i ' a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g VISITOR QUESTIONNAIRE The School of Community and Regional Planning, U.B.C, asks your participation la • recreation study of the Culf Islands. Tour visit has shown you that the erea Is unique In many aspects. It Is felt that this attractive setting v l l l become Increasingly popular as a vacation and recreation area. In order to best plan for the future, it Is important to know something of the people who are using the Islands, and how they are using them. Tour completion of the attached questionnaire will provide this Information and assist in the future planning of this Important recreational resource. Please return the questionnaire to ue before leaving the ferry. All Information will be kept confidential and used by the University for research purposes only. Thank you. Where Is your permanent residence? City/Town Province/State 10 What was the main purpose of your t r i p ? To go to the cottage To go camping To v i s i t f r i e n d s or f u l l y For business or employment To consider purchasing property Other ( s p e c i f y ) 12 I f 7 0 u stayed one or more n i g h t s on the I s l a n d , what type of accommodation d i d you have? H o t e l , Lodge, H o t e l » Campground b Cottage, P r i v a t e Hone c Other ( s p e c i f y ) d 15 Please I n d i c a t e the appropriate age category f o r y o u r s e l f and any others In your group who are not p e r s o n a l l y completing a qu e s t i o n n a i r e . Age Croup 0-1 2-5 6-10 11-15 16-25 26-50 51-65 65+ Y o u r s c l f Others In C r o u p M f M Please c i r c l e the appropriate answer or place a t i c k or w r i t e the 0 answer In the space provided. IF YOU HAVE COMPLETED ONE OF THESE QUESTIONNAIRES ON A PREVIOUS TRIP, PLEASE.INDICATE BY MARKING AN 'X' I t would be u s e f u l to the researchers I f you would k i n d l y f i l l out the questi o n n a i r e again, as some items have changed s i n c e your l a s t v i s i t . • How many days d i d you stay on the Islands? 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 week week + 3 How many people are i n your group? 1 2 3 4 5 5+ 8 How many times have you v i s i t e d the Islands? 1 2 3 4 5 5+ H How d i d you t r a v e l to the Islands? B.C. F e r r i e s P r i v a t e boat Other ( s p e c i f y ) 11 Do you own a cottage or home on the Islands? Yes No Other ( s p e c i f y ) 0 I f yes, on which Island? Galiano « North Pender C S a l t B p r i n g • Mayne b South Pender d Saturna f 14 Rank each of the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s , according to YOUR p a r t i c i p a t i o n In I t during your v i a i t to the C u l f I s l a n d * . 1 c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n 2 socio p a r t i c i p a t i o n 3 no p a r t i c i p a t i o n Beachcombing Walking/hiking Swimming Sunbathing Shore f i s h i n g Boat f i s h i n g Boating P i c n i c k i n g Other ( s p e c i f y ) 15 Rank In order of d e s i r a b i l i t y each of the f o l l o w i n g features which make a beach area enjoyable to YOU. 1 d e s i r a b l e 2 I n d i f f e r e n t 3 not d e s i r a b l e 1 2 3 Boating f a c i l i t i e s (launch area, dock) Easy automobile access Quietness and s o l i t u d e Abundance of marine l i f e Walking t r a i l s provided Nearness of s t o r e s / concessions Good swimming c o n d i t i o n s Other ( s p e c i f y ) -jy Please c i r c l e the appropriate category to i n d i c a t e your occupation type. Managerial, P r o f e s s i o n a l . P r i v a t e Businessman a Sales personnel. C l e r i c a l b C o n s t r u c t i o n , Labor, Manufacturing C F i s h i n g , Lumbering, Mining, Farming d Housewife Student Other ( s p e c i f y ) 5 Where did.you board t h i s f e r r y ? F u l f o r d Harbour a Long Harbour b Montague Harbour c Otter Bay d Saturna • Stu r d i e s Bay f V i l l a g e Bay Q 6 What was your prime means of t r a v e l on the Islands? Automobile Motor b i k e B i c y c l e Walking Other ( s p e c i f y ) 7 Did you take an automobile to the Islands w i t h you? Yes No 9 Do you intend to v i s i t the Islands again? Yes No 13 Did you and your group p a r t i c i p a t e i n any of the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s ? I f B O , where? Please name i B l a n d and the area of the I s l a n d used. Beachcombing ( i n c l u d i n g c o l l e c t i o n of marine specimens, ro c k s , etc.) Walking/Hiking Swimming/Sunbathing B o a t i n g / F i s h i n g Camping .P i c n i c k i n g D r i v i n g f o r pleasure •Golf A c t i v i t i e s around the home (gardening, r e p a i r s , e tc.) Other ( s p e c i f y ) Y o u r s e l f Rest of Group Is l a n d Area of I s l a n d •J8 Please i n d i c a t e YOUR t o t a l income (before taxes) per annum ($ Canadian). 0 -2,501 -5,001 -7,501 -10,001 -12,501 2,500 5,000 7,500 10,000 12,500 15,000 15,000 + b c d e f 0 NB q u e s t i o n s so f a r ? Persona who CAMPED during t h e i r v i s i t to the Gulf I s l a n d s please answer S e c t i o n 19. I f you d i d not camp, please proceed to S e c t i o n 20. 19. CAMPERS Indicate vhlch Islam? you camped °°* Callano Saltsprlng Hayne North Pender South Pender Saturna Other (specify) C What camping facilities did you use? Tent • Tent Trailer c Truck Camper b Trailer d Other (specify) • D Have you ever gone camping anywhere before? Yea No If Yea, how often have ypu camped? 1 2 3 4 5 5+ £ How many camping trips have you made to the Culf Islands? 1 2 3 - 4 5 5+ B Where did you camp on that Island? Provincial Government Campground Coomercial Campground (state name) Other (specify) Rank each of the following activities according to your participation In it during your visit to the Culf Islands. considerable participation some participation •o participation Relaxing around campsite 1 2 3 Beachcombing 1 2 3 Walking/hiking 1 2 3 Svlxcalng/sunbathing 1 2 3 Driving for pleasure 1 2 3 Other (specify) 1 2 3 Rank in order of desirability each of th« following features you conaidervhen selecting a 'tent space'. 1 Desirable 2 Indifferent 3 Not Desirable Viev from tent space 1 2 3 Protection from wind 1 2 3 Quietness 1 2 3 Shade from sun 1 2 3 Nearness to toilet facilities i 2 3 Nearness to water supply i 2 3 Presence of trees & shrubs i 2 3 Grass growth on ground i 2 3 Ease of parking vehicle i 2 3 Other (specify) i 2 3 H Please Indicate your opinion toward the following changes which could make your CAMPING stay ln the Gulf Islands more enjoyable. Provide more campgrounds Improve utilities (toilets, water supply) Provide electric power Build tent spaces farther apart Plant additional trees & shrubs in camping areas Improve fireplace cooking facilities Provide paving around table & fireplace Provide wooden decks (pads) for tent* Other (specify) Yes Ho Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Tes If you stayed ln a COTTAGE during your visit, complete THIS section 20. COTTAGERS A Please indicate which Island you cottaged on. Galiano * Saltsprlng b Mayne C North Pender d South Pender • Saturna f Other (specify) 0 3 Please indlcste the appropriate category below. Own cottage borrowed cottage Visited with owners of cottage Rented cottage Other (specify) C How many times have you 'cottaged' in the Gulf Islands? 1 2 3 4 5 5+ £ Rank each of the following activities according to your participation in it during your visit to the Gulf Islands, 1 Considerable Participation 2 Some Participation 3 No Participation Around cottage (gardening, repairs, relaxing, etc.) 12 3 Beachcombing 12 3 Walking/hiking 12 3 Swimming/sunbathing 12 3 Driving for pleasure 12 3 Other (specify) 12 3 'Rank in order of desirability each of the following features you consider when selecting a lot for a cottage. 1 Desirable 2 Indifferent 3 Not Desirable Road access to property 1 2 3 A large lot 1 2 3 Wind protection 1 2 3 View from lot 1 2 3 Property on waterfront 1 2 3 Electric powen 1 2 3 Municipal water supply 1 2 i Sewer facilities 1 2 3 Privacy from neighbours 1 2 3 Quietness 1 2 3 Nearness to stores and services 1 2 3 Other (specify) 1 2 3 p Indicate your opinion toward the following changes which could make cottaging ln the Gulf Islands more enjoyable. Provide more roads on Island Yes No Provide more public docks and boat launching areas Yes No Provide more public beaches Yes No Permit cottages on-large lots only Yas No Provide more Btores and services Yes No Raise building standards Yea No Establish a minimum distance between cottage. Yea No More cottages for rent Yea No Restrict number of new cottages Yea No Other (specify) Tea EVERYBODY PLEASE TURN TO BACK PACE Vhat do you consider to be the outstanding featore(e) of the Gulf IslandaT Please add consents on any aspect of the Gulf Islands vhlch you feel may be of value to the study. THANK TOU FOR YOUR CO-OPERATION. PLEASE KETURN THE COMPLETED QUESTIONNAIRE TO ONE OF THE RESEARCH TEAM, IDENTIFIABLE BY THE "GULP ISLANDS RECREATION STUDY' BADGE. EITHER ON OR BEFORE YOU LEAVE THE FERRY. UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA School of Community and Regional Planning G U L F I S L A N D S R E C R E A T I O N S T U D Y Boaters' Questionnaire The School of Community and Regional PI -inning , UBC, asks your participation in a recreation study of the Gulf Islands. Since you are using your boat as the base for your a c t i v i t i e s , you are l i k e l y to have a different perspec-tive of the Islands from that of the land-based v i s i t o r . Your trip has shown you that this area is unique in many aspects and trends indicate that i t w i l l become increasingly popular. In order s therefore, to best plan for the future, i t is important to know something of the people who are using the Islands and how they are using them. Information about yourself and your impressions of the Islands w i l l thus provide valuable data. Please return the questionnaire to one of the research team, i .antifiable by the "Gulf Islands Recreation Study" badge, as soon as possible after you have completed i t ; OR, please return i t to us by mail: fold and seal the question-naire appropriately, so that the address on the back page is vis i b l e . If mailed in Canada, no stamp is necessary -postage w i l l be guaranteed by us. A l l information w i l l be kept confidential and used by the University for research purposes only. Thank you for your co-operation. GULF ISLANDS.RECREATION. STUDY' Boaters' Questionnaire Date: PLEASE CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE ANSWER , PLACE A TICK OR WRITE THE ANSWER IN THE SPACE PROVIDED. 1. Where is your permanent residence? (City/Town?State/Province) 2. How long i s your v i s i t to the Islands'? 1 day.. 2 days, 3 days., 4 days.' 5 days, & days, week, week + 3. How many people are in your group? 1 2 3 4 5 5+ 4. '•'•Which island is your major stopover point? Galiano a Saltspring e Mayne b Saturna f North Pender c .Other, (specify) g South Pender d ....... ........... If possible, please specify the area of the island Does your v i s i t include stops at more than one island? Yes No If yes, which island/islands? Galiano a Saltspring e Mayne b Saturna f North Pender c Other (specify) g South Pender d ................... How many times have you visited the Islands? 1 2 3 4 5 5+ Do you intend to v i s i t the Islands again? Yes No What is the main purpose of your trip? Sightseeing cruise a To go fishing b To go to the cottage c To v i s i t friends and/or: family d To purchase property , |: e Other' (specify) ......................... f -2-9. Do you own property on the Islands? Yes No If yes s on which island? Galiano a • Saltspring e Mayne b Saturna f North Pender c Other (specify) g South Pender d .................... 10. What type of accommodation did you have during your v i s i t ? Stayed on your own boat a Motel,, hotel;, lodge b Campground c Cottages private home d Other (specify) ................. e 11. Rank each of the following a c t i v i t i e s according to your participa-t i o n i n i t during your,.visit to the Gulf Islands, .1 - considerable p a r t i c i p a t i o n 2 -- some pa r t i c i p a t i o n 3 - no pa r t i c i p a t i o n Beachcombing (including digging of 1 2 3 clams, etc.; c o l l e c t i n g driftwood-rocks , etc.) Swimming 1 2 3 Sunbathing 1 2 3 Shore f i s h i n g 1 2 3 Boat f i s h i n g . 1 2 3 Picnicking 1 2 3 Walking/hiking 1 2 3 Camping 1 2 3 Other (specify) ....................... 1 2 3 12. Rank i n order of desirability.each of the following features which make a beach area enjoyable to you. 1 - desirable 2 - indifferent 3 - not desirable it launching ares Public mooring f a c i l i t i e s Commercial dockage areas Marina f a c i l i t i e s (Groceries, gas, etc.) Public camping for boaters Easy automobile access Quietness and solitude Abundance of marine l i f e Walking t r a i l s provided Good swimming conditions Other (specify) ........................ I 2 0 1 2 3 1 n *"» 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 n 3 -3-13. Please indicate the appropriate age category for yourself and any others in your group who are not personally f i l l i n g out a question-naire. Yourself Others in Group M. F. 0-1 years 2-5 ,: 6-10 16-25 26-50 51-65 65+ M. F. 14. 15. 16. Please c i r c l e the appropriate category to indicate your occupation type. Managerial, professional, private businessman a Sales personnel, c l e r i c a l b Construction, labor, manufacturing c Fishing, lumbering, mining, farming d Housewife e . Student f Other (specify) g Please indicate your total income (before taxes) per annum. $ 0 - 2,500 a • 2,501 - 5,000 b 5,001 - 7,500 c 7,501 - 10,000 d 10,001 - 12,500 e 12,501 - 15,000 f 15,001+ g What do you consider to be the outstanding feature(s) of the Gulf Islands? 17. Please comment on any aspect of the Gulf Islands which you feel may be of value to the study. THANK YOU! SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, VANCOUVER 8 , B.C. f Islands Recreation Study 

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